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Changing spatial patterns in the lode-metal mining industry of British Columbia: 1887-1945. Nicol, Douglas James 1972

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) CHANGING SPATIAL PATTERNS IN THE LODE-METAL MINING INDUSTRY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA: 1887-1945 by DOUGLAS JAMES NICOL B.A., Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y , 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Geography We accept t h i s t hesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November, 1972 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Bri t ish Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of GEOGRAPHY  The University of Bri t ish Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada ABSTRACT The economic geographic evolution of the lode-mining industry of B r i t i s h Columbia between the middle of the nineteenth century and the end of World War II i s examined, with the p a r t i c u l a r aim of explaining changes i n the s p a t i a l pattern of producing mines. An a n a l y s i s of s p a t i a l change i s c a r r i e d out w i t h i n a framework of s i x time periods delimited by rapid s h i f t s i n the l e v e l of metal production or by major changes i n ownership patterns. For each period, the economic performance of the industry and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of producing mines are described, and the f a c t o r s which account for economic and geographic changes are explored. The B r i t i s h Columbia lode-mining industry between 1887 and 1945 greatly increased i t s output and the number of metals produced, and expanded geographically within the province. The performance of the industry was c r i t i c a l l y affected by the a v a i l a b i l i t y and strength of external markets, and by the a v a i l a b i l i t y of transport linkages between those markets and the province i t s e l f . At no time was l o c a l demand s u f f i c i e n t l y high to warrant the large-scale development which occurred. Furthermore, despite the scale of response to external demands, the lode-metal resources of the province seem never to have been s u f f i c i e n t l y a t t r a c t i v e to stimulate major transport construction by themselves, so that large-scale mining occurred mainly near tidewater or e x i s t i n g railways. This handicap i s r e f l e c t e d i n the r e l a t i v e l y l i m i t e d geographical expansion which took place between 1887 and 1945. Accentuating the problem of distance from markets was the fact that the industry became in c r e a s i n g l y dependent on lower grade deposits, i v which required sizeable a p p l i c a t i o n s of c a p i t a l and advances i n technology f o r successful e x p l o i t a t i o n . These conditions led to an early domination of the industry by major mining corporations, whose f i n a n c i a l strength and technical expertise were c r u c i a l i n the subsequent course of development. Examination of t h e i r influence leads to the major concluding thesis of t h i s study, namely that further empirical study of mining geography and any restatement of l o c a t i o n theory for mining a c t i v i t i e s should take the corporate organization of the industry as a s t a r t i n g point. The evolution of the lode-mining industry i s compared to that of other export-oriented resource i n d u s t r i e s i n the province, and i s shown to conform to the major periods which have been i d e n t i f i e d i n other studies as c h a r a c t e r i z i n g the evolution of the p r o v i n c i a l economy as a whole. F i n a l l y , some suggestions f o r further research are made, the most important being a c l o s e r examination of the r o l e played by major mining corporations i n the development of the industry. V TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. INTRODUCTION 1 Previous Studies 2 Methodology 5 I I . GEOLOGICAL AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 13 Geological Background . 13 \ The Periods Used i n the Thesis 21 I I I . EARLY ATTEMPTS AT LODE MINING: 1851 - 1886 28 IV. THE FIRST MINING BOOM: 1887 - 1905 47 The Kootenays before 1887 47 Mining i n the Kootenays: 1887 - 1892 50 The S p a t i a l Pattern of Production: 1887 - 1892 . . 52 Mining i n the Kootenays: 1893 - 1905 56 Expansion into the Boundary Country 60 Mining on the South Coast: 1893 - 1905 62 The S p a t i a l Pattern of Production: 1905 . . . . . 63 Conclusions 66 V. CORPORATE CONSOLIDATIONS AND THE IMPACT OF EXTERNAL CONDITIONS: 1906 - 1921 74 The Pre-War Years: 1906 to 1913 77 World War I 84 The Post-War Years: 1919 to 1921 91 Major Changes within the Industry: 1906 - 1921 . . 95 The S p a t i a l Pattern of Production: 1921 96 Conclusions 101 v i CHAPTER PAGE VI. THE SECOND MINING BOOM: 1922 - 1929 108 Lead and Zinc 109 Copper I l l S i l v e r 114 Gold 117 Other Metals 121 Conclusions: S p a t i a l Changes and the Reasons f or Them 122 VII. THE DEPRESSION AND THE GOLD MINING BOOM 132 The Immediate E f f e c t s of the Depression 132 The Gold Mining Industry i n the Depression . . . . 139 The Recovery of the Base Metal Industry 146 The Production of Other Metals i n the Depression . 151 The S p a t i a l Pattern of Production: 1939 152 Conclusions 156 VIII. THE SECOND WORLD WAR: 1940 - 1945 164 Production during the War: An Overview 164 World War I I : The Major Metals 166 World War I I : The Strategic Metals 173 The S p a t i a l Pattern of Production: 1945 179 Conclusions 183 IX. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 190 External Markets and a Comparison with Other Resource Industries 195 Suggestions for Further Research 200 v i i CHAPTER P A G E BIBLIOGRAPHY 205 APPENDIXES 214 A. Glossary of Terms 215 B. Mining D i v i s i o n Maps: 1905, 1914, 1921, 1931, 1939 . . . . . 217 v i i i LIST OF MAPS MAP PAGE 1 B r i t i s h Columbia: Major Physiographic D i v i s i o n s 14 2 B r i t i s h Columbia: D i s t r i b u t i o n of G r a n i t i c Plutons . . . . 17 3 B r i t i s h Columbia: Mines Shipping P r i o r to 1887 42 4 Southeastern B r i t i s h Columbia: Mines Shipping P r i o r to 1887 43 5 B r i t i s h Columbia: Mines Shipping 1887 - 1892 . . . . . . . 53 6 Southeastern B r i t i s h Columbia: Mines Shipping 1887 - 1892 . 54 7 B r i t i s h Columbia: Mines Shipping 1905 64 8 Southeastern B r i t i s h Columbia: Mines Shipping 1905 . . . . 65 9 B r i t i s h Columbia: Mines Shipping 1921 97 10 Southeastern B r i t i s h Columbia: Mines Shipping. 1921 . . . . 98 11 B r i t i s h Columbia: Mines Shipping 1929 124 12 Southeastern B r i t i s h Columbia: Mines Shipping 1929 . •. . . 125 13 B r i t i s h Columbia: Mines Shipping 1931 136 14 Southeastern B r i t i s h Columbia: Mines Shipping 1931 . . . . 137 15 B r i t i s h Columbia: Mines Shipping 1939 153 16 Southeastern B r i t i s h Columbia: Mines Shipping 1939 . . . . 154 17 B r i t i s h Columbia: Mines Shipping 1945 180 18 Southeastern B r i t i s h Columbia: Mines Shipping 1945 . . . . 181 19 B r i t i s h Columbia: Mining D i v i s i o n s 1905 Appendix B 20 B r i t i s h Columbia: Mining D i v i s i o n s 1914 Appendix B 21 B r i t i s h Columbia: Mining D i v i s i o n s 1921 Appendix B 22 B r i t i s h Columbia: Mining D i v i s i o n s 1931 Appendix B 0 23 B r i t i s h Columbia: Mining D i v i s i o n s 1939 Appendix B i x LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1 Placer Gold Production 1858 - 1893 32 2 Composition of Lode-Metal Production: B r i t i s h Columbia 1905 67 3 Composition of Lode-Metal Production: B r i t i s h Columbia 1921 102 4 Composition of Lode-Metal Production: B r i t i s h Columbia 1929 123 5 Composition of Lode-Metal Production: B r i t i s h Columbia 1939 158 6 Composition of Lode-Metal Production: B r i t i s h Columbia 1945 184 LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1 Major Copper Mines: Percentage of Total Output 1922 - 1929 . 113 2 D i s t r i b u t i o n of S i l v e r Production 1929 116 3 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Lode-Gold Production 1929 120 4 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Lode-Gold Production 1939 146 5 Antimony, Bismuth and Cadmium Production 1938 - 1945 . . . . 174 6 T i n Production i n B r i t i s h Columbia 1941 - 1945 175 X ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author i s very much indebted to a number of i n d i v i d u a l s who have aided i n the preparation of t h i s t h e s i s . I would l i k e to thank my adviser, Dr. R. N. North, f o r h i s guidance, h i s thorough c r i t i c i s m of preliminary d r a f t s , and h i s valuable suggestions f o r t h e i r improvement. E s s e n t i a l assistance was also provided by Dr. W. G. Hardwick. A number of people i n the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources were very h e l p f u l as w e l l . Thanks are due p a r t i c u l a r l y to Dr. S. S. Holland f o r making unpublished production s t a t i s t i c s a v a i l a b l e to me, and to Mr. E. Jackson who aided i n the use of t h i s m a t e r i a l . I would also l i k e to thank Mr. L. Nelson and Mr. R. Meyer for t h e i r help i n the preparation of the maps, and Mrs. P. Waldron f or typing the f i n a l d r a f t . F i n a l l y , s p e c i a l thanks are due to my wife, Grethe, whose assistance and understanding have greatly f a c i l i t a t e d the w r i t i n g of t h i s t h e s i s . CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The development of the lode-mining industry i n B r i t i s h Columbia from i t s beginnings i n the middle of the nineteenth century to the end of the Second World War has been characterized by a g r e a t l y increased output, by a d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n i n the number of metals produced, and by a geographic expansion i n t o many areas of the province. This t h e s i s i s concerned s p e c i f i c a l l y with changes that have taken place i n the s p a t i a l pattern of producing lode-metal mines during t h i s period, and with the major f a c t o r s that account f o r these changes. By focusing on the l o c a t i o n s and changing patterns of producing mines, t h i s thesis follows a c e n t r a l theme of mineral production geography. Moreover, by focusing on a wide range of m e t a l l i c minerals, the t h e s i s goes beyond the small number of minerals whose production has dominated much past research. Given the broad a r e a l and temporal scales with which the t h e s i s i s concerned, the l e v e l of analysis i s n e c e s s a r i l y broader than that suggested r e c e n t l y by Wilson as being d e s i r a b l e f o r research i n the f i e l d of mineral production geography.^ Nevertheless, given the almost t o t a l absence of geographical research on the mining industry i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the thesis attempts to provide a needed geographical reconnaissance survey of m e t a l l i c mineral production i n the province and - 2 -w i l l , h o pefully, stimulate further research. Previous Studies The empirical l i t e r a t u r e dealing with the geography of minerals i s considerable. For the most part, however, the empirical studies can be grouped i n t o a number of general types. F i r s t l y , there are a number of studies focusing on the r e g i o n a l impact of the mining industry. The majority of these studies deal with the economic impact of the industry, as i n Deasy and Griess's work on 2 anthracite coal i n Pennsylvania, or Goodridge's examination of the once 3 important t i n mining industry i n southwest England. A few impact s t u -d i e s , such as Doerr's work i n Oklahoma, focus on the e f f e c t s of mining on the p h y s i c a l environment, and on the c u l t u r a l changes associated with 4 the r i s e and f a l l of mining a c t i v i t y . There are, secondly, a considerable number of studies which con-cern themselves with the d e l i m i t a t i o n of mineral producing regions and with changes i n the r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s of these regions over time. M i l l e r ' s study on the mineral economy of the United States between 1939 and 1954,"* the e a r l y work by Tryon and McKenny,^ and l a t e r work by Roepke on region-a l s h i f t s i n coal production,^ are of t h i s type. Zimmermann's influence on the concept of r e s o u r c e s — f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d as "Resources are not, they become"—can be seen as providing a g t h i r d major focus for several studies on minerals. Studies such as that - 3 -9 10 by H e f f o r d and Smith, Lloyd's work on i r o n ore mining i n Norway, and Kohn and Specht's examination of t a c o n i t e mining i n the Lake Superior r e g i o n , " ^ a l l i l l u s t r a t e an attempt t o t r a c e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between m i n e r a l e x p l o i t a t i o n and changes i n human needs, o b j e c t i v e s , and te chnolo gy. The f o u r t h major type of study, and the one to which t h i s t h e s i s belongs, i s that which focuses on a p a r t i c u l a r m i n e r a l commodity and attempts to t r a c e i t s development over time and space. The temporal and s p a t i a l s c a l e s of these s t u d i e s v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y . While the m a j o r i t y d e a l w i t h the mining of a p a r t i c u l a r m i n e r a l from i t s beginning 12 to the p r e s e n t , a number focus on t h i s a c t i v i t y over a segment of past time, and there are s e v e r a l s t u d i e s concerned w i t h "recent changes" i n the 13 s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of the m i n e r a l examined. In t h e i r s p a t i a l s c a l e s , s t u d i e s of t h i s type e x h i b i t a s i m i l a r v a r i a b i l i t y , ranging from the 14 world s c a l e to the very l o c a l area. A l l of the above types of s t u d i e s , as w e l l as some o t h e r s , could be p l a c e d i n the f i e l d of m i n e r a l p r o d u c t i o n geography, as that f i e l d was de f i n e d by Murphy i n 1954."''"' Recognizing that m i n e r a l p r o d u c t i o n i s of i n t e r e s t to workers i n s e v e r a l d i s c i p l i n e s , Murphy noted that the geo-grapher i n the f i e l d "focuses on the s p a t i a l p a t t e r n s and a s s o c i a t i o n s of m i n e r a l p r o d u c t i o n . He i s r e s p o n s i b l e . . . f o r the examination of mining as a p a r t of the t o t a l geographic complex of p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n s . " " ^ - 4 -In assessing the nature of research done i n the f i e l d of mineral production geography since the p u b l i c a t i o n of Murphy's paper, Wilson makes several important points."^ He notes, f o r example, that because the geography of mineral production has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been regarded as a branch of economic geography, We might therefore expect to f i n d concern with l o c a t i o n and production somewhere near i t s core. Furthermore, i n view of recent developments i n geography generally, we might also a n t i c i p a t e some progress i n the develop-ment of concepts and p r i n c i p l e s or the formulation of theory. By comparison with a g r i c u l t u r a l , manufacturing, transportation or marketing geography, however, mineral geography i s conceptually underdeveloped, l o c a t i o n i s too frequently treated i n a naive and jejune fashion, and the study of mineral production per se i s meager i n the extreme. 18 Wilson also comes to the conclusion that studies of mineral production and of mineral producing regions have advanced l i t t l e , i f at a l l , beyond the stages of observation and d e s c r i p t i o n . "Rarely has there been any penetrating analysis of mineral production i n i t s various aspects or of changes i n production patterns which must l i e close to the centre of mineral geography."''"^ In a d d i t i o n to Wilson's c a l l f o r a greater emphasis on mineral production, f o r a greater concern with l o c a t i o n , and f o r a generally deeper l e v e l of analysis i n studies of mineral geography, there i s a need also for a broader scope with regard to the s p e c i f i c minerals to be examined. In the empirical studies noted e a r l i e r , geographers have exhibited a wide range of i n t e r e s t s i n terms of a r e a l and temporal f o c i . - 5 -Their concern for p a r t i c u l a r minerals, however, has been much narrower. The empirical l i t e r a t u r e on mineral geography i s dominated by studies 20 on i r o n , c o a l , and more r e c e n t l y , petroleum. Given the r e l a t i v e im-portance of these three minerals i n the process of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , t h i s emphasis i s perhaps understandable. I t does mean, however, that geographical research on other minerals has been scarce, except i n texts dealing with the geography of economic a c t i v i t y i n general, or i n r e -giona l texts where the study of minerals often does not go beyond the l e v e l of inventory. Empirical work on the geography of mineral production of B r i t i s h Columbia i s v i r t u a l l y non-existent. A few studies, such as those by 21 22 White and McKechnie make passing references to major geographical s h i f t s that have accompanied the development of the industry, but the emphasis i n these studies i s not geographical. A number of sources present 23 maps of producing mines at given points i n time, but to the author's knowledge, there are no studies concerned with the documentation and analysis of producing mine l o c a t i o n s or with changes i n these l o c a t i o n s over time. Methodology Many economic geographers who have dealt with the h i s t o r i c a l -geographic development of a p a r t i c u l a r industry have di v i d e d the period of time over which such development occurred i n t o a number of segments. Many have used what can be c a l l e d a " p e r i o d i z a t i o n " technique to a r r i v e at a set of time periods w i t h i n which i n d u s t r i a l and l o c a t i o n a l change - 6 -can be examined. These p e r i o d s , as Lukermann p o i n t s out, should be seen as phases i n the development of an i n d u s t r y w i t h i n a l a r g e r economy, 24 s p e c i f i e d as to time and p l a c e . Frequently t h i s p e r i o d i z a t i o n technique i n v o l v e s the segmenta-t i o n of a study p e r i o d on the b a s i s of measures which i n d i c a t e the per-formance of the i n d u s t r y . A v a r i e t y of measures can be used, such as the volume of p r o d u c t i o n , the number of producing u n i t s , and employment l e v e l s . On the b a s i s of such measures, periods of major change or p e r i o d s of s t a b i l i t y may be i s o l a t e d and the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of the indus-t r y examined at the beginning or end of the p e r i o d s , or at some p o i n t w i t h i n them. I n s e v e r a l s t u d i e s , the use of s i n g l e or m u l t i p l e mea-sures of i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y has y i e l d e d a set of p e r i o d s which provide a meaningful framework f o r the d e s c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s i s of i n d u s t r i a l and geographic change.^ In a d d i t i o n to or i n p l a c e of the above measures, a number of other f a c t o r s have been used f o r the s e l e c t i o n of time p e r i o d s . Major t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes i n an i n d u s t r y , f o r example, may l e a d to s i g n i f i -cant changes i n the performance of the i n d u s t r y and can, t h e r e f o r e , serve as p e r i o d breaks. This focus on t e c h n o l o g i c a l change i s used by Lewis 26 i n a study of the paper-making i n d u s t r y i n the Maidstone area. Here, the development of the i n d u s t r y i s d i v i d e d i n t o three t e c h n i c a l phases on the b a s i s of changes i n the paper-making process and i n the type of - 7 -raw material used. Phases i n the development of an industry may also be selected on the b a s i s of s h i f t s that have occurred i n the dominant.good produced by the p a r t i c u l a r industry. In h i s study of the mining industry of the Norte Chico, C h i l e , Pederson discusses mining development i n four phases, the boundaries of which have been selected on the basis of the 27 metals which dominated production from the industry. Organization or i n s t i t u t i o n a l changes may also be used to de-l i m i t periods i n the development of an industry. In Waller's study of the North American aluminum-smelting industry, for example, the termina-t i o n of monopoly conditions i n the 1940's provides a meaningful s t a r t i n g 28 point f o r an examination of l a t e r developments i n the industry. In short, a number of measures of, or major changes i n , the development of a p a r t i c u l a r industry have served as a b a s i s f o r p e r i o d i -z a t i o n . Time-series graphs of production f i g u r e s are, i n many cases, s u f f i c i e n t to y i e l d a number of development periods. In some cases, however, other measures can be used i n conjunction with production data i n order to support the choice of periods, to a l t e r s l i g h t l y the period boundaries, or to y i e l d periods not revealed by the production f i g u r e s alone but which were important i n the development of the industry. One of the major problems involved i n using t h i s p e r i o d i z a t i o n technique has been s u c c i n c t l y stated by Pounds i n h i s study of the French i r o n and s t e e l industry. Pounds noted that - 8 -I t i s d i f f i c u l t to d i v i d e the span of h i s t o r y i n t o p e r i o d s , each w i t h i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c g e ographical p a t t e r n of d i s t r i b u t i o n , because i n each p e r i o d there s u r v i v e d some elements of e a r l i e r patterns.^9 A s i m i l a r problem i s expressed by Rodgers i n terms of the Soviet pulp and paper i n d u s t r y . Here, he p o i n t s out that post-war l o c a t i o n a l changes i n the p a t t e r n of paper p r o d u c t i o n were l a r g e l y the r e s u l t of the war and i t s aftermath, but th a t these changes " r e f l e c t l o c a t i o n a l 30 trends t h a t were already i n evidence i n the l a t e t h i r t i e s . " One must r e a l i z e , i n other words, that boundaries i n time can be perio d s of 31 t r a n s i t i o n , j u s t as boundaries i n space can be zones of t r a n s i t i o n . Despite t h i s d i f f i c u l t y , the p e r i o d i z a t i o n technique can be j u s t i f i e d as a means of o r d e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f o r examination. Moreover, as Lukermann suggests, the purpose of t h i s procedure i s "to i s o l a t e 'phases' and 'gradients' of the developmental process i n order to b e t t e r i d e n t i f y and segregate causal f a c t o r s and c o n d i t i o n s u l t i m a t e l y i n f l u -32 encing the l o c a t i o n p a t t e r n of the i n d u s t r y . " In order to examine the h i s t o r i c a l development of the B r i t i s h Columbia lode-mining i n d u s t r y and the l o c a t i o n a l changes that have accompanied that development, the p e r i o d of time encompassed by t h i s t h e s i s has been d i v i d e d i n t o s i x segments, each of which forms a separate chapter. Most of the periods covered i n t h i s t h e s i s were s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of changes which took place i n the production l e v e l s of the major metals. Most of the chapters, i n f a c t , cover p e r i o d s of time - 9 -bounded by years i n which major changes occurred i n the volume output l e v e l s of l e a d , z i n c , s i l v e r , copper, or g o l d . These p r o d u c t i o n p e r i o d s were then examined i n the l i g h t of major changes i n the i n d u s t r y , such as t e c h n o l o g i c a l advances, corporate o r g a n i z a t i o n , and a v a i l a b i l i t y of markets. With one e x c e p t i o n , s h i f t s i n the volume of p r o d u c t i o n pro-vided meaningful periods i n which to ejamine the development of the i n -dustry. I n one case, where pr o d u c t i o n l e v e l s of the major metals changed g r a d u a l l y , the formation of a major c o r p o r a t i o n was used as a chapter break. The periods used i n the t h e s i s are discussed i n Chapter I I i n the context of a b r i e f h i s t o r i c a l summary of the i n d u s t r y . - 10 -FOOTNOTES 1. M.G.A. Wilson, "Towards a More A n a l y t i c a l Geography of Mineral Production," P r o f e s s i o n a l Geographer. V o l . 19, No. 4 (July, 1967), pp. 175-178. 2. George F. Deasy and P h y l l i s R. Gr i e s s , " E f f e c t s of a D e c l i n i n g Mining Economy on the Pennsylvania Anthracite Region," Annals of the  Assoc i a t i o n of American Geographers, V o l . 55 (1965), pp. 239-259. 3. J.C. Goodridge, "The Tin-Mining Industry: A Growth Point f or Cornwall," Transactions of the I n s t i t u t e of B r i t i s h Geographers, No. 38 (1966), pp. 95-104. 4. Arthur H. Doerr, "Coal Mining and Changing Land Patterns i n Oklahoma," Land Economics, V o l . 38, No. 1 (February, 1962), pp. 51-56. 5. W i l l a r d E. M i l l e r , "Changing Patterns i n the Mineral Economy of the United States, 1939-1954," P r o f e s s i o n a l Geographer, V o l . 13, No. 3 (May, 1961), pp. 1-6. 6. F.G. Tryon and W.F. McKenny, "Geographical S h i f t s i n C o a l ' Production," Coal Age, V o l . 19, No. 3 (January 20, 1921), pp. 106-109. 7. Howard G. Roepke, "Changing Patterns of Coal Production i n the Eastern I n t e r i o r F i e l d , " Economic Geography, V o l . 31, No. 3 (July, 1955), pp. 234-247. 8. E.W. Zimmerman, World Resources and Industries, New York, Harper 1951, p. 15. 9. R.K. Hefford and Derek L. Smith, "The Leigh Creek C o a l - f i e l d , South A u s t r a l i a : Resource Development i n a D i f f i c u l t Environment," Annals of the A s s o c i a t i o n of American Geographers, V o l . 57, No. 3 (September, 1967), pp. 503-518. 10. T. Lloyd, "Iron Ore Production at Kirkenes, Norway," Economic  Geography, V o l . 31 (1955), pp. 211-233. 11. C.F. Kohn and R.S. Specht, "The Mining of Taconite, Lake Superior Iron Mining D i s t r i c t , " Geographical Review, Vol. 48 (1958), pp. 528-539. - 11 -12. See, f o r example, G. Joan F u l l e r , "Lead-Mining i n Derbyshire i n the Mid-19th Century," East Midland Geographer, V o l . 3, No. 7 (1965), pp. 373-393; S.H. Beaver, "The Development of the Northamp-tonshire Iron Industry, 1851-1930," i n London Essays i n Geography, (ed.), L.D. Stamp and S.W. Wooldridge, Rowell Jones Memorial Volume, London, Longmans, Green, 1951, pp. 33-58. 13. See, f o r example, J.R. Rogge, "Mining i n Manitoba: A Decade of Expansion," Proceedings of the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n of Geographers, 1970, pp. 303-311; M.G.A. Wilson, "Recent Trends i n the Coal Indus-t r y of N.S.W.," A u s t r a l i a n Geographer, V o l . 8, No. 4 (March, 1962), pp. 173-182; P.P. Courtenay, "Changing Patterns i n the T i n Mining and Smelting Industry of South-east A s i a , " Journal of T r o p i c a l  Geography, Vol. 25 (December, 1967), pp. 8-17. 14. The examples are numerous. At the continental scale i s Peter Waller, "Die Standortverlagerungen der Nordamerikanischen Aluminium-Huttenindustrie," Geographische Rundschau, Vol. 19, No. 2 (1967), pp. 56-60; at the n a t i o n a l scale i s Norman J.G. Pounds, " H i s t o r i c a l Geography of the Iron and St e e l Industry of France," Annals of the  Ass o c i a t i o n of American Geographers, V o l . 47, No. 1 (March, 1957), pp. 3-14; and at the l o c a l scale i s Ralph E. Birchard, "Copper i n the Katanga Region of the Belgian Congo," Economic Geography, V o l . 16 (1940), pp. 429-436. 15. Raymond E. Murphy, "The Geography of Mineral Production," i n American Geography: Inventory and Prospect, (ed.,) P.E. James and D.F. Jones, Syracuse, Syracuse U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1954, pp. 279-290. 16. I b i d . , p. 279. 17. M.G.A. Wilson, op. c i t . 18. I b i d . , p. 175. 19. I b i d . , p. 176. 20. Some of the recent work by Odell on petroleum i s worth noting. His study of the p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s involved i n r e l a t i o n s between the major o i l companies and the producing nations i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n -t e r e s t i n g . See Peter R. O d e l l , O i l and World Power: A Geographical  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n , Penguin, Harmondsworth, England, 1970. 21. William H. White, " H i s t o r i c a l Outline of B.C. Mining," Western  Miner and O i l Review, Vol. 34, No. 6 (June, 1961), pp. 20-26. 22. N.D. McKechnie, "The Mineral Industry i n B r i t i s h Columbia," Canadian Geographical Journal, V o l . 78, No. 3 (March, 1969), pp. 76-89. 23. For example, J.C. Dawson, The Mining Industry of B r i t i s h Colum- b i a and the Yukon, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia Hydro and Power Authority, 1968, T h i r d E d i t i o n (Revised). 24. F. Lukermann, "The Changing Pattern of Cement M i l l Location i n North America," Przeglad Geograficzny, V o l . 32, No. 4 (1960), p. 537. 25. See Walter G. Hardwick, Geography of the Forest Industry of  Coastal B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, Tantalus Research, 1963, pp. 9-24; and A l l a n Rodgers, "Changing L o c a t i o n a l Patterns i n the Soviet Pulp and Paper Industry," Annals of the A s s o c i a t i o n of American  Geographers, V o l . 45, No. 1 (March, 1955), pp. 85-104. 26. P.W. Lewis, "Changing Factors of Location i n the Paper-making Industry as I l l u s t r a t e d by the Maidstone Area," Geography. V o l . 52 (1967), pp. 280-293. 27. Leland R. Pederson, The Mining Industry of the Norte Chico C h i l e , Evanston, Department of Geography, Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y , 1966. 28. Peter Waller, OD_. c i t . 29. Norman J.G. Pounds, op. c i t . 30. A l l a n Rodgers, op. c i t . 31. Leland R. Pederson, op. c i t . , p. 4. 32. F. Lukermann, op. c i t . , p. 549. - 13 -CHAPTER I I GEOLOGICAL AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND I t i s the purpose of t h i s chapter to provide some g e o l o g i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l background to the study of the lode-mining industry which follows i n Chapters I I I through VIII. The f i r s t s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter i n d i c a t e s those areas where the p o t e n t i a l f o r discovering d i f -ferent types of m e t a l l i f e r o u s deposits may be considered good, and where the bulk of productive mining may be expected to take place. The second s e c t i o n of the chapter presents a b r i e f h i s t o r y of the lode-mining industry of B r i t i s h Columbia i n order to i n d i c a t e the periods w i t h i n which the d i s c u s s i o n of changes i n the industry w i l l be framed. Geological Background Lode-metal mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia has been r e s t r i c t e d to that large part of the province l y i n g w i t h i n the Canadian C o r d i l l e r a . This region, made up of many physiographic u n i t s , has three major sub-d i v i s i o n s , the Western, the I n t e r i o r , and the Eastern Systems. (Map 1). These three systems are themselves broadly d i f f e r e n t i n g e o l o g i c a l structure and i n topographical character. The Eastern system, formed almost e n t i r e l y of sedimentary s t r a t a , comprises the Rocky Mountains and the Rocky Mountain F o o t h i l l s . The I n t e r i o r system, made up of a mixture of v o l c a n i c , sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks, invaded by - 14 -MAP 1 BRITISH COLUMBIA MAJOR PHYSIOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS Source: C. H. Stockwell, (ed.), Geology and Economic Minerals of Canada, 1957, p. 284. - 15 -numerous Intrusive bodies, i s a region of plateaus, low basins, high-lands, and rugged mountains. The Western system, "though e x h i b i t i n g a broad s i m i l a r i t y to that of the i n t e r i o r areas, i s dominated by great bodies of i n t r u s i v e rocks l y i n g mainly along i t s eastern flank. This system includes the mountain ranges that extend along the e n t i r e coast of B r i t i s h Columbia, as w e l l as the mountain ranges of Vancouver 2 Island and the Queen Charlotte Islands. Together, the Western and I n t e r i o r systems comprise the Western C o r d i l l e r a n Region, while the 3 Eastern system forms the Eastern C o r d i l l e r a n Region. On the whole, the Eastern C o r d i l l e r a n Region, w i t h i n which the Rocky Mountains are the dominant physiographic feature, has not been a s i g n i f i c a n t area of m e t a l l i c mineral discovery. The o r i g i n of many mineral deposits i s traceable to igneous a c t i v i t y , and such deposits are u s u a l l y found i n mountainous areas or i n the eroded bases of geolo-g i c a l l y ancient mountains j i n the v i c i n i t y of igneous rocks; and com-monly i n older sedimentary or igneous rocks that have been metamorphosed 4 and deformed. The Rocky Mountains, composed almost e n t i r e l y of folded and f a u l t e d sedimentary rocks, are g e o l o g i c a l l y the youngest i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Thus, while igneous rocks may e x i s t f a r below the surface of these mountains, the s c a r c i t y of such rocks at the surface i n d i c a t e s "that at the present stage i n e r o s i o n a l h i s t o r y the Rocky Mountains are as a whole not favourable f o r the discovery of many mineral deposits.""' - 16 -Only near F i e l d , where one of the few surface exposures of i n t r u s i v e igneous rock occurs, has there been any s i g n i f i c a n t lode-mining a c t i v i t y . With the exception of t h i s area near F i e l d , " e s s e n t i a l l y a l l known met a l l i f e r o u s occurrences are i n the western C o r d i l l e r a n region."^ Mineral deposits are widespread, but metal mines and prospects have been p a r t i c u l a r l y numerous i n the areas that s k i r t the large body of granodiorite and r e l a t e d quartz-bearing p l u t o n i c rocks known as the g Coast Range b a t h o l i t h . (Map 2). They have also been numerous i n areas close to the two eastvard p r o j e c t i o n s of the Coast Range b a t h o l i t h . One of these projections includes the many stocks and smaller b a t h o l i t h s that extend along the Skeena and Bulkley V a l l e y s towards P i n c h i Lake: the other includes the major i n t r u s i o n s that extend from the Lower Fraser 9 River through Nelson nearly to the Rocky Mountains. (Map 2). Most of the productive mines discussed i n t h i s thesis are located i n the above areas. I t should be noted, however, that a few prospects and productive mines have occurred throughout much of the remainder of the Western C o r d i l l e r a n region. The northeastern corner of B r i t i s h Columbia, l y i n g east of the Rocky Mountain f o o t h i l l s , i s p h y s i o g r a p h i c a l l y a part of the I n t e r i o r P l a i n s Region. This segment of the province, comprising about 10 per cent of the p r o v i n c i a l area, i s underlain by sedimentary rocks very l a r g e l y of Cretaceous age."^ Although t h i s region has r e c e n t l y become important f o r o i l and gas,"^ i t has never been important for lode metals. - 17 -MAP 2 BRITISH COLUMBIA DISTRIBUTION OF GRANITIC PLUTONS CASSIAR BATHOLITH SO 10 RANGE O C f A N \0 : BATHOLITH 0 o NELSONJ . ^BATHOUTH/O O GRANITIC PLUTON Source: R. J. W. Douglas, (ed.), Geology and Economic Minerals of Canada, 1970, p. 422. - 18 -This broad general p i c t u r e can be f i l l e d i n by i n d i c a t i n g the areas i n B r i t i s h Columbia which are e s p e c i a l l y favourable f o r the d i s -covery of p a r t i c u l a r metals. Discussion w i l l be l i m i t e d l a r g e l y to the major metals such as copper, lead, z i n c , s i l v e r , and gold, since the bulk of t h i s thesis centres on those metals. A l l of the known important copper deposits i n B r i t i s h Columbia are i n the central and western segments of the Western C o r d i l l e r a n region, p a r t i c u l a r l y along the c o a s t a l mainland and i s l a n d s and i n the 12 southern i n t e r i o r west of Nelson. On the whole, these deposits, which 13 are the most numerous of a l l m e t a l l i c deposits i n the province, l i e close to large i n t r u s i v e bodies such as the Coast Range and Nelson b a t h o l i t h s . ^ Gold i s the most valuable associated metal i n these copper de-p o s i t s , and a considerable amount of the gold produced i n B r i t i s h Columbia has been from replacement lodes and i r r e g u l a r bodies commonly associated with copper. The most t y p i c a l gold ore-bodies, however, are q i i a r t z - f i l l e d f i s s u r e veins. Such lode-gold deposits occur throughout the Western C o r d i l l e r a , although only a few minor occurrences are known 15 east of the Kootenay and Upper Arrow Lakes. Most of the s i l v e r - l e a d - z i n c deposits i n B r i t i s h Columbia " l i e w i t h i n a northwesterly trending eastern b e l t , near and beyond the eastern margin of the main zone of large i n t r u s i o n s such as the Nelson batho-li t h . " ' ' ' ^ North of the Big Bend of the Columbia River, however, lead-- 19 -zinc deposits are sparse. The bulk are found i n a l e a d - z i n c m i n e r a l i z a -t i o n zone i n southeastern B r i t i s h Columbia. East of Kootenay Lake, most lead-zinc deposits are of a concordant replacement type, of which the S u l l i v a n orebody near Kimberley has been the most important. S i l v e r and s i l v e r - l e a d - z i n c v e i n deposits, on the other hand, are l o c a l i z e d i n the 17 Slocan area west of Kootenay Lake. These l a t t e r deposits u s u a l l y 18 carry a higher content of s i l v e r than the concordant type. In addition to the above major metals, the Western C o r d i l l e r a contains a number of other m e t a l l i f e r o u s deposits, the d i s t r i b u t i o n of which can be indicated b r i e f l y . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of molybdenum deposits i s s i m i l a r to that of copper deposits. Indeed, the two are commonly associated. Molybdenum deposits are s p a t i a l l y and g e n e t i c a l l y r e l a t e d to the Nelson b a t h o l i t h , and to other i n t r u s i o n s i n c e n t r a l B r i t i s h 19 Columbia. Many i r o n ore occurrences, i n the form of contact metamorphic magnetite deposits, are known along the coast and i s l a n d s and i n southern B r i t i s h Columbia. Bog i r o n ore, or limonite, deposits are known i n several l o c a l i t i e s , hit p a r t i c u l a r l y along the eastern flan k of the Coast Mountains.^ Mercury deposits, on the other hand, occur l a r g e l y i n two areas, one extending southwestwards from the Kamloops Lake area to the Bridge River d i s t r i c t , and the other along the P i n c h i f a u l t i n c e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia. N i c k e l deposits i n B r i t i s h Columbia are h i g h l y l o c a l i z e d - 20 -along the Fraser V a l l e y . The only production of t h i s metal has come 21 from a deposit near Hope. A number of minor metals have also been produced i n the Western C o r d i l l e r a , many of which are constituents of the ores of the major metals. Bismuth, cadmium, and t i n , f o r example, are a l l produced as by-products from the treatment of lead-zinc ores, notably from the S u l l i v a n mine. Antimony, though l a r g e l y from the same source, i s also 22 obtained from s t i b n i t e - b e a r i n g veins. This section has i n d i c a t e d , l a r g e l y on the basis of known miner-a l deposits, those areas of B r i t i s h Columbia which are g e o l o g i c a l l y favorable f o r the occurrence of m e t a l l i f e r o u s deposits i n general and those areas i n which the major metals of the province are most l i k e l y to be found. However, as Rostovtsev c o r r e c t l y points out, " f o r a given d i s t r i b u t i o n of n a t u r a l sources, there may be t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n patterns of e x t r a c t i v e industry depending on economic condi-23 t i o n s . " The framework w i t h i n which options can be exercised having now been set, the chapters dealing with the development of the mining industry w i l l attempt to o u t l i n e which options were i n f a c t exercised and whether the choices made can be explained i n terms of economic con-d i t i o n s . I t should be noted, however, that the g e o l o g i c a l information presented above has been drawn from a number of current sources and, hence, represents recent knowledge of these g e o l o g i c a l conditions. - 21 -While the geology of B r i t i s h Columbia has not changed over the p e r i o d w i t h which t h i s t h e s i s i s concerned, the knowledge of th a t geology has a l t e r e d c o n s i d e r a b l y . In other words, the opti o n s a v a i l a b l e to e n t r e -preneurs i n the l a t e 1800's were c o n s i d e r a b l y fewer than those which e x i s t e d i n 1945. Major extensions of g e o l o g i c a l knowledge w i l l be pointed out where app r o p r i a t e i n the f o l l o w i n g chapters. The P e r i o d s Used i n the Thesis The f o l l o w i n g p e r i o d s have been used i n t h i s t h e s i s as a frame-work w i t h i n which to d i s c u s s changes i n the development of the l o d e -mining i n d u s t r y . 1. E a r l y Attempts at Lode M i n i n g : 1851-1886 2. The F i r s t Mining Boom: 1887-1905 3. Corporate C o n s o l i d a t i o n and the Impact of E x t e r n a l C o n d i t i o n s : 1906-1921 4. The Second Mining Boom: 1922-1929 5. The Depression and the Growth of Gold Mi n i n g : 1930-1939 6. The Second World War: 1940-1945 The f i r s t mining of lode metals i n what i s now B r i t i s h Columbia dates from about the middle of the nin e t e e n t h century when sm a l l q u a n t i -t i e s of l e a d were taken from an outcropping o f galena i n the West Kootenay and a s m a l l amount of lod e - g o l d was e x t r a c t e d from a gold-quartz v e i n i n the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s . A f t e r 1858, i n t e r e s t i n lode-mining - 22 -was supplanted by the discovery and winning of placer gold. Through-out the 1860's and much of the following decade, placer miners invaded almost every area of the province. In t h e i r search f o r the r i c h a l l u v i a l gold deposits, the miners frequently reported ledges of gold quartz and surface exposures of other metals. As the y i e l d from placer mining began to d e c l i n e , attempts were made i n several areas of B r i t i s h Columbia to work the lode deposits of t h i s and other metals. For the most part, as Chapter I I I i n d i c a t e s , these e a r l y attempts at lode mining were unsuccessful. By the l a t e 1880's, at l e a s t p a r t i a l s o l u t i o n s to some of the major problems that had impeded the e a r l i e r development of the lode-mining industry were achieved, p a r t i c u l a r l y In the areas of southeastern B r i t i s h Columbia that were close to the newly-completed Canadian P a c i f i c Railway and to the booming mining region of the northwestern United States. The year 1887 has been selected as the beginning of the t r u l y productive lode mining industry i n B r i t i s h Columbia. In that year, the f i r s t s i z e a b l e q u a n t i t i e s of lead and s i l v e r were produced i n the pro-vince . During the better part of the next two decades, 1887 to 1905, the lode-mining industry experienced a tremendous boom. This period i s covered i n Chapter IV. The production of lead and s i l v e r rose r a p i d l y , 24 and the mining of gold, copper, and zinc was begun. Following White, the year 1905 has been taken as the end of t h i s great lode-mining boom, - 23 -p a r t i a l l y because the output of the industry i n general had begun to l e v e l o f f , but more importantly because a corporate c o n s o l i d a t i o n that was of far-reaching s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the subsequent h i s t o r y of the i n -dustry took place i n the following year. The year 1906 saw the forma-t i o n of the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada, a company whose role i n the mining industry of B r i t i s h Columbia was of considerable importance. The years between 1906 and 1921 are dealt with i n Chapter V. This was a period i n which considerable technological advance took place i n the lode-mining industry, but a period i n which production of the major metals f l u c t u a t e d considerably i n contrast to the r e l a t i v e l y steady growth which characterized the industry i n the previous period. I t was a period, i n f a c t , which saw the impact that world events such as the F i r s t World War and the post-war depression could have on the mining industry. The chapter ends i n 1921 when the lode-metal producers i n B r i t i s h Columbia s t i l l faced uncertain world markets overstocked with supplies of the major metals. In 1922, the lode-mining industry i n B r i t i s h Columbia began a recovery which p a r a l l e l e d the return to more normal conditions i n world metal markets. Chapter VI covers the 1920's, a decade i n which the industry experienced another boom. I t was also a period i n which t e c h n i c a l ad-vance continued, l e d by the expansion and extension of treatment f a c i l i -t i e s at the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company's T r a i l smelter. - 24 -The decade of the 1930's, covered i n Chapter VII, might w e l l be c a l l e d the golden decade f o r the lode-mining industry. Throughout the 1930's, the lode-gold mining segment of the industry increased i t s output s u b s t a n t i a l l y under the impact of depressed p r i c e s f o r labour and supplies and a r i s i n g p r i c e for gold. P r i c e s f o r base metals, on the other hand, were low f o r much of t h i s period, and the base metal mines of the province "languished i n the depressed markets of the '30's". The years during the Second World War are dealt with i n Chapter VIII. The outbreak of war i n l a t e 1939 saw a g r e a t l y increased demand fo r a number of metals. In B r i t i s h Columbia, the production of lead and z i n c rose to record l e v e l s i n the e a r l y 1940's, and a number of metals such as mercury, tungsten, and t i n were produced i n s i z e a b l e q u a n t i t i e s f o r the f i r s t time. Throughout the war, however, the mining industry i n B r i t i s h Columbia was adversely a f f e c t e d by a shortage of labour that was, at times, c r i t i c a l . Production of gold, s i l v e r , and copper declined s t e a d i l y over the war years as, a f t e r 1942, d i d the output of lead and z i n c . The war years were characterized also by a considerable decline i n the number of producing mines, e s p e c i a l l y i n the "non-essential" gold mining industry. Mine closures were, however, general throughout the industry i n t h i s period, and i n 1945 there were only 36 shipping mines i n the province, the lowest number since before the turn of the century. - 25 -The end cf the Second World War i s a meaningful point at which to conclude t h i s examination of the lode-mining industry. In terms of production, the termination of the war marked the end of a long period i n which the output of major metals such as lead, z i n c , and s i l v e r ex-h i b i t e d considerable f l u c t u a t i o n . In the post-war period, the output of these metals was considerably more stable than i t had been i n pre-vious periods. Following the war, moreover, increases i n demand l e d to the l a r g e - s c a l e mining of metals such as i r o n , molybdenum, and n i c k e l which had been produced only i n t e r m i t t e n t l y and i n small quanti-t i e s p r i o r to the war. In the post-war period as w e l l , two new trends i n the progress of the industry emerged; namely, the reassessment of known mineral b e l t s and mining camps with past records of production, and primary 26 prospecting i n l e s s a ccessible areas of the province. The performance of the lode-mining industry i n the years a f t e r the Second World War was, i n short, considerably d i f f e r e n t from what i t had been i n e a r l i e r periods. The span of years between 1945 and the present may, i n f a c t , be considered the modern period of lode-mining development i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I t i s a period to which t h i s t hesis w i l l provide some background for a l a r g e r and more d e t a i l e d study. - 26 -FOOTNOTES 1. H.S. Bostock, Physiography of the Canadian C o r d i l l e r a , with  Special Reference to the Area North of the F i f t y - F i f t h P a r a l l e l , Canada, Department of Mines and Resources, Mines and Geology Branch, Bureau of Geology and Topography, Geological Survey Memoir 247, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1948, p. 4. 2. Stuart S. Holland, Landforms of B r i t i s h Columbia: A Physiographic  Outline, B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources, B u l l e t i n No. 48, V i c t o r i a , Queen's P r i n t e r , 1964, p. 27. 3. G.H. Stockwell, (ed.), Geology and Economic Minerals of Canada. Canada, Department of Mines and Technical Surveys, Geological Survey of Canada, Economic Geology Series No. 1, Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1957, p. 284. 4. O f f i c e r s of the Department of Mines, An Introduction to Metal  Mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia, B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Mines, Bul-l e t i n No. 17, V i c t o r i a , King's P r i n t e r , 1943, p. 10. 5. I b i d . , p. 13. 6. I b i d . 7. Stockwell, op. c i t . , p. 349. 8. See James G i l l u l y , A.C. Waters, and A.O. Woodford, P r i n c i p l e s of  Geology, San Francisco, W.H. Freeman, 1959, p. 373. 9. Stockwell, OJD. c i t . , p. 349. 10. Holland, op_. c i t . , p. 94. 11. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of I n d u s t r i a l Development, Trade and Commerce, Economics and S t a t i s t i c s Branch, B r i t i s h Columbia Manual of  Resources and Development, V i c t o r i a , May, 1971, p. 14. 12. O f f i c e r s of the Department of Mines, op_. c i t . , pp. 11-16. 13. B r i t i s h Columbia Manual of Resources and Development, 1971, p. 14. 14. Stockwell, op. c i t . , p. 364; See also J.D. Galloway, "Copper i n B r i t i s h Columbia," B r i t i s h Columbia Miner. V o l . 2, No. 4 ( A p r i l , 1929), pp. 13-16. 15. Stockwell, op. c i t . , p. 355. 16. I b i d . , p. 368. - 27 -17. B r i t i s h Columbia Manual of Resources and Development, 1971, p. 14. 18. R.J.W. Douglas, (ed.), Geology and Economic Minerals of Canada, Canada, Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, Geological Survey of Canada, Economic Geology Report No. 1, Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1970, p. 504. 19. I b i d . , p. 514. 20. Stockwell, op. c i t . , p. 374. 21. See H.C. Horwood, Geology and Mineral Deposits at the Mine of  B.C. N i c k e l Mines, Limited, Yale D i s t r i c t , B.C. Canada, Department of Mines, Bureau of Economic Geology, Geological Survey, Memoir 190, Ottawa King's P r i n t e r , 1936. 22. Douglas, op. c i t . , p. 516. 23. M.I. Rostovtsev, "Geographical Approaches to the Study of Extrac-t i v e I n d u s t r i e s , " Soviet Geography, V o l . 11, No. 8 (October, 1970), p. 616. 24. William H. White, " H i s t o r i c a l Outline of B.C. Mining," Western  Miner and O i l Review," V o l . 34, No. 6 (June, 1961), pp. 20-26. 25. I b i d . , p. 25. 26. I b i d . - 28 -CHAPTER I I I EARLY ATTEMPTS AT LODE MINING: 1851-1886 The period between 1851 and 1886 saw several attempts to e s t a -b l i s h a lode-mining industry i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Hampered by a lack of c a p i t a l and transportation f a c i l i t i e s , and possessing only l i m i t e d knowledge and crude equipment, the e a r l y miners were l a r g e l y unsuccess-f u l . This chapter examines some of these e a r l y attempts to mine lode metals and d e t a i l s the major f a c t o r s behind t h e i r f a i l u r e . P r i o r to the discovery of coarse gold at the mouth of the Nicoamen River i n 1857, l i t t l e a c t i v i t y i n m e t a l l i c mining had occurred i n what i s now B r i t i s h Columbia. The Hudson's Bay Company had taken some gold i n trade from the Indians, but expressed l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n i t s source. In f a c t , as Ormsby notes, u n t i l 1856 "the amount the Com-pany procured was small, and i t was only then that most of i t s o f f i c e r s learned to recognize gold i n i t s n a t u r a l state.""'" The Company was also aware of a r i c h galena v e i n on Kootenay Lake, probably discovered by 2 Archibald McDonald, Chief Factor at Fort C o l v i l l e . Although t h i s de-p o s i t would l a t e r become the famous Blue B e l l Mine, the Hudson's Bay Company, " r e a l i z i n g f u l l w e l l the e f f e c t that any mining development would have on i t s f u r trade," made no attempt to develop the ore-body, and f o r several years the vein would serve only as a source of lead f o r 3 b u l l e t s used by Indians and fur-trappers. - 29 -The f i r s t authenticated discovery of lode-gold i n B r i t i s h 4 Columbia, according to Dawson, occurred i n 1851 on the Queen Charlotte Islands. A gold nugget found on the southwest shore on M i t c h e l l Harbour was brought to the a t t e n t i o n of the o f f i c e r i n charge of Fort Simpson, and was subsequently sent to the Hudson's Bay Company head-quarters i n V i c t o r i a . The Company sent an expedition to the i s l a n d and succeeded i n f i n d i n g a quartz v e i n seven inches wide, "reported to contain 25 per cent gold i n some places.""* The mining of the deposit over the next few months y i e l d e d a quantity of ore which has been v a r i o u s l y estimated at between $20,000 and $75,000 i n value. Yet, while the discovery created considerable i n t e r e s t at the time, the quartz v e i n wis quickly exhausted, no f u r t h e r gold was found, and by the end of 1852, the rush to the Queen Charlotte Islands was over.** The more famous rush to the Fraser, however, was yet to begin. News of the placer finds on the Thompson River above Lytton soon reached C a l i f o r n i a where the labour-intensive workings of the l a t e 1840's and e a r l y 1850's had y i e l d e d to operations r e q u i r i n g s u b s t a n t i a l c a p i t a l investment. The i n f l u x of miners to B r i t i s h Columbia began i n the spring of 1858, and by the end of that year, nearly 25,000 men had started up the Fraser River.^ A f t e r working the bars of the lower Fraser, some of which yi e l d e d high returns, the miners pushed up the r i v e r i n search of the r i c h e r deposits which they f e l t l a y nearer the headwaters. In 1860, the f i r s t important finds i n the Cariboo were made at Quesnel - 30 -Forks, K e i t h l e y and A n t l e r Creeks. In the following year, s t r i k e s on Williams and Lightning Creeks were made, and s t i l l f u r t h e r north, on the Parsnip River. In other areas of the province as w e l l , the miners moved north i n search of the easily-worked p l a c e r s . Gold was discovered on the K e t t l e River at Rock Creek i n 1860, at Wild Horse Creek i n the East Kootenay i n 1863, and on the Big Bend of the Columbia River i n 1865. On the coast, placer gold had been found on the S t i k i n e i n 1861 and on 9 the Leech River on southern Vancouver Island i n 1864. The peak of placer-gold production was attained i n 1863 when 203,209 ounces valued at $3,913,563 were produced, much of t h i s output coming from the celebrated creeks i n the C a r i b o o . ^ The r i c h "sack of f l o u r " c l a i m s , ^ however, were soon worked out, and the movement of many miners from creek to creek was a response to the r a p i d exhaustion of surface and shallow diggings i n one area, and to the reported d i s -covery, whether accurate or not, of s i m i l a r f i n d s i n other areas. Indeed, as Flucke points out, most of the creeks i n the province were not the 12 poor miner's dream for very long. Moreover, the bonanza f i e l d s that would support a large number of i n d i v i d u a l miners were also short-l i v e d . Hence, r e l a t i v e l y e a r l y i n the gold rush, partnerships and small corporate ventures were formed to gain the c a p i t a l and cooperative e f f o r t required to work the deeper diggings and dry bench p l a c e r s . This was - 31 -p a r t i c u l a r l y true In the Cariboo, where the auriferous gravels were 13 deeply buried and expensive to work. For the three decades a f t e r 1863, the production of placer gold declined f a i r l y s t e a d i l y . The downward trend was broken only by d i s -coveries i n Omineca i n 1869, i n Cassiar i n the mid-1870's, and at Granite Creek near Princeton i n the mid-1880's. (Figure 1). In 1893, placer production reached i t s lowest point since 1858 with only 20,950 ounces valued at $356,131 being produced. As noted e a r l i e r , the f i r s t discovery and mining of lode-gold i n B r i t i s h Columbia predated the gold rush. In the e a r l i e r years of the placer period, however, l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n was paid to lode deposits of gold, the energy of the miners being consumed by the a l l u v i a l depo-s i t s of the metal. O f f i c i a l l y , the production of lode gold did not begin u n t i l 1893 with the s u c c e s s f u l m i l l i n g of gold ore i n the southern 14 part of the province. In many areas of B r i t i s h Columbia, however, the existence of quartz veins was known long before t h i s date, and with the d e c l i n e of the placer deposits, several attempts were made to work these veins. The most concerted e a r l y attempt to develop the mining of lode-gold took place i n the Cariboo where, since the e a r l y 1860's, consider-able funds had been expended i n the search f o r gold quartz i n paying q u a n t i t i e s . Although quartz ledges were "found i n abundance throughout the D i s t r i c t , " many of which had exhibited good paying prospects, no Source: S.S.Holland, P l a c e r Gold Production i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1950, p.9. - 33 -success r e s u l t e d from the attempts to work them."''"' The f a i l u r e to develop these veins was, i n part, "occasioned by not possessing proper appliances f o r working the same."''"*' The Government Agent suggested further that the chief drawbacks towards the development of lode mining i n the Cariboo were "the d i f f i c u l t i e s of access, owing to i t s remote-ness from navigation or railways, and the absence of m i l l s f o r crushing ..17 purposes. In 1876, steps were taken to overcome the l a t t e r of these pro-18 blems. A 4-stamp m i l l was erected at R i c h f i e l d , and the P r o v i n c i a l Government offered a bonus to the f i r s t company which would b u i l d a 10-stamp m i l l i n the d i s t r i c t . In a d d i t i o n , the government h i r e d R.B. Harper, a quartz expert from San Francisco, to examine the quartz 19 occurrences i n the province. Harper's reports on the Cariboo i n 1877 were h i g h l y o p t i m i s t i c and l e d to the recording of 36 quartz claims by October and an a d d i t i o n a l 82 by the end of the year. Nevertheless, despite the excitement and a c t i v i t y i n the Cariboo i n 1877-78, by 1880 20 the only mine s t i l l a c tive was the E n t e r p r i s e . George M. Dawson of the Geological Survey of Canada noted that t h i s quartz excitement was "premature", being based on "exaggerated ideas'of the richness of c e r t a i n known lodes, and on erroneous views as to the f a c i l i t y with which gold 21 might be extracted from the pyritous ores which these afforded." Another major reason for the f a i l u r e of the lode mining of gold at t h i s - 34 -time was stated by the M i n i s t e r of Mines to be simply that "the people of the Province f a i l e d to understand that the development of quartz 22 mines involved the expenditure of a vast amount of c a p i t a l . " The problems f a c i n g the e a r l y gold-quartz miners i n the Cariboo were faced, i n varying degrees, by miners i n other areas as w e l l . In 1872, for example, F.W. Foster located the Big S l i d e mine on the Fraser River north of L i l l o o e t , and set up a p r i m i t i v e grinding 23 m i l l (arrastra) for the reduction of the quartz. Although considerable d i f f i c u l t y and expense was involved i n opening the mine, the greatest problem was the e x t r a c t i o n of the f i n e gold from the sulphuret ore. As the Gold Commissioner f o r the L i l l o o e t d i s t r i c t reported i n 1882: Science i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case i s s t i l l behind the requirements of the age. The precious metal i s , without a shadow of a doubt, i n the ore, but the question, how i s i t to be p r o f i t a b l y extrac-ted, s t i l l remains unsolved.24 Expectations that t h i s problem had been solved were expressed i n 1886, but by the following year further d i f f i c u l t i e s i n applying a separation 25 process to the ore forced the closure of the mine. In the Cassiar d i s t r i c t , J.W. McKay erected an a r r a s t r a near Glenora i n 1877 to test rock samples from the area. His attempt to develop a lode-gold mining industry at t h i s time was also unsuccessful, owing "to the great expense attending such an undertaking and to the 26 l i t t l e i n t e r e s t bestowed on i t by others." - 35 -In addition to the e f f o r t s the e a r l y miners made to develop the lode-gold industry, they also expressed more than a passing i n t e r e s t i n s i l v e r . This metal had been known to e x i s t i n B r i t i s h Columbia since the e a r l y years of the gold rush when pieces of v i r g i n s i l v e r were f r e -27 quently found i n the pans and s l u i c e s of the placer miners. S i l v e r ore was f i r s t discovered on the banks of the Fraser River near Hope at the beginning of the placer period, and soon a f t e r at Cherry Creek i n the Okanagan. In the l a t t e r area, the Cherry Creek S i l v e r Mining Com-pany had spent some $20,000 i n t r a c i n g a v e i n of ore, samples of which 28 assayed as high as $2000 to the ton. A f t e r two years of prospecting, however, the company had l o s t the v e i n and abandoned t h e i r work. The most s i g n i f i c a n t e a r l y discovery of s i l v e r took place i n the S i l v e r Mountain area near Hope i n the l a t e 1860's. Two mines, the Eureka and the Van Bremer, worked r i c h outcroppings of s i l v e r ore u n t i l 1874, and shipped an unknown quantity of t h i s ore to San Francisco. Despite f u r t h e r a c t i v i t y centering on the s i l v e r leads between Hope and Yale, however, no further production r e s u l t e d , In 1877, i t was reported that the s i l v e r mines i n these l o c a l i t i e s were " l y i n g dormant and i n t a c t , 29 for the want of c a p i t a l or enterprise to work them..." Given the r e l a t i v e l y poor tran s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s which existed i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g to f i n d that the majority of the e a r l y lode-mining a c t i v i t i e s were centered on the high u n i t value precious metals. Yet while gold and s i l v e r - b e a r i n g ores were the most - 36 -i n t e n s i v e l y sought, other metals had not been t o t a l l y ignored. Copper ores were known to occur i n many places and were among 30 the f i r s t to a t t r a c t a t t e n t i o n at several l o c a t i o n s on the coast. As e a r l y as 1859, copper had been discovered i n the Queen Charlotte Islands. The Queen Charlotte Mining Company of V i c t o r i a had financed some development work, but labour problems and an outbreak of smallpox had l e d to the abandonment of the claim while s t i l l i n the pre-produc-31 t i o n stage. E f f o r t s were also made to develop copper f i n d s near Sooke i n 1864,but the lack of a defined lead had precluded t h i s opera-t i o n . In the following year, a well-defined lead of copper p y r i t e s , containing some 30 per cent copper to the ton , was discovered at the entrance to Howe Sound. Although t h i s lead was "worked f o r some time, with excellent prospects of success," the operation was suspended 32 through lack of c a p i t a l , and no production took place. A furth e r d i s -covery of copper on the coast was made on a branch of J e r v i s I n l e t about 1874, and three years l a t e r , the Government Mining Engineer reported that the ores of the Howe Sound Copper and S i l v e r Mine were the r i c h e s t 33 he had ever seen" on t h i s Coast or i n England." Again, however, the f a i l u r e to a t t r a c t development c a p i t a l had kept the mines dormant. Iron ore had also been found from time to time i n various areas of the province. In 1871, large deposits were found on Texada Island, which, i n 1875, were acquired by the Puget Sound Iron Company. - 37 -Beginning i n 1883, t h i s company d i d considerable development work on t h e i r Prescott orebody at Texada, and began shipping ore to a b l a s t furnace at Irondale, Washington i n 1885. Small shipments of ore were recorded f o r the following four years, but i n 1890 work on the deposits 35 was discontinued and shipments ceased. Iron mining on Texada was not to begin again u n t i l the turn of the century. As the above e a r l y attempts at lode-mining suggest, the t r a n s i -t i o n from placer to lode-mining was not e a s i l y made. Although the lack of success i n any one p a r t i c u l a r operation was due to a combination of f a c t o r s , some of which may have been l o c a l i z e d , the above examples serve to i n d i c a t e some general problems faced by the industry as a whole. In the f i r s t place, there was a considerable lack of knowledge with respect to the geology of lode or v e i n deposits. The e a r l y mining attempts centered l a r g e l y on outcrops from which assays of the ore were usu a l l y made. In many cases, small samples taken from the outcrops were not representative of the e n t i r e deposit, leading on the one hand to the mining of an uneconomic v e i n , or, on the other hand, to the termina-t i o n of work on a vein which may have been r i c h e r at greater depths. In other instances, shafts had been sunk i n t o the outcrop, but the dip 36 of the v e i n was miscalculated, and the v e i n l o s t . - 38 -Solutions to these and s i m i l a r problems were aided by the e f f o r t s of the P r o v i n c i a l Government i n the h i r i n g of experts experienced i n lode-mining and i n the b u i l d i n g of f a c i l i t i e s f o r t e s t i n g the ores. The reconnaissance work of the Geological Survey of Canada, begun i n the e a r l y 1870's, was also of a i d i n t h i s regard. Thus, by the end of the period i n question, considerably more was known about the occurrences and geology of lode-metal deposits than at the beginning. In many cases, the e a r l y attempts at lode-mining were ahead of the m e t a l l u r g i c a l technology required to extract the valuable minerals from the gangue. R e l a t i v e l y simple and high-grade gold and s i l v e r - b e a r -ing ores could be treated i n p r i m i t i v e grinding m i l l s , i n stamp-mills, and by the amalgamation process. On the other hand, r e f r a c t o r y ores, those which r e s i s t e d the a c t i o n of chemical reagents, needed m i l l i n g processes which simply had not yet been invented. Another major problem which retarded the e a r l y growth of the lode-mining industry was the lack of development c a p i t a l . The f i n d i n g of outcrops and the t e s t i n g of rock samples for metals were not p a r t i -c u l a r l y expensive operations; but, i n most cases, the subsequent working of these veins was. The e a r l y Annual Reports of the M i n i s t e r of Mines contain frequent references to mining operations which were terminated due to the exhaustion of c a p i t a l , or to others where mining would occur should c a p i t a l be obtained. - 39 -Furthermore, not only were l o c a l i n d i v i d u a l s and small compan-ies undercapitalized themselves, but they had considerable d i f f i c u l t y i n a t t r a c t i n g c a p i t a l from areas outside of B r i t i s h Columbia. In p a r t , t h i s d i f f i c u l t y was a c i r c u l a r one, f o r outside c a p i t a l would l i k e l y be invested only a f t e r s u f f i c i e n t development had been c a r r i e d out to prove the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of the property. As G.A. Koch noted i n 1886, "Owners of properties must not s i t i d l e and wait for c a p i t a l to come and buy a 37 quartz boulder or a ten-foot hole i n the ground." One s o l u t i o n to t h i s problem was, of course, the amalgamation of companies and the subsequent concentration of combined resources on the more valuable deposits. For the most p a r t , however, such consolida-t i o n did not occur i n t h i s e a r l y period, and the working of separate claims by several small companies was more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of lode-mining a c t i v i t y i n most areas of the province. I t should also be noted that another major reason f o r the d i f f i -c u l t y i n a t t r a c t i n g c a p i t a l was the general lack of knowledge, i n areas outside of B r i t i s h Columbia, of the lode mining p o s s i b i l i t i e s w i t h i n the province. This was c e r t a i n l y not a f a c t o r i n southeastern B r i t i s h Columbia by the l a t e 1880's where American c a p i t a l spear-headed the de-velopment of the i n d u s t r y ; but throughout t h i s e a r l y period, the mineral resources i n much of B r i t i s h Columbia were poorly known i n world c a p i t a l markets. - 40 -Another s e r i e s of factors which impeded the progress of the lode-mining industry i n these e a r l y years was the lack of transporta-t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , the often high costs of transport where such f a c i l i t i e s d i d e x i s t , and the distances from the lode-mining regions i n B r i t i s h Columbia to smelters i n the United States. The placer miners had covered much of B r i t i s h Columbia and, i n response, the P r o v i n c i a l Govern-ment had b u i l t roads and t r a i l s to the major placer camps. The success-f u l t r a n s i t i o n from placer to lode-mining, however, required more than pack t r a i l s and wagon roads. Hence, i n 1874, the " d i f f i c u l t y of commu-n i c a t i o n " was seen by the M i n i s t e r of Mines to stand f i r s t i n a l i s t 38 of f a c t o r s r e s t r i c t i n g the progress of lode-mining. This problem applied p a r t i c u l a r l y to the northern areas of B r i t i s h Columbia, where access was d i f f i c u l t to achieve, and the f r i c t i o n of distance c l e a r l y greater. Indeed, one of the major causes f o r the f a i l u r e of the Cariboo quartz mining boom i n the l a t e 1870's had been 39 the high cost involved i n transporting machinery to t h i s d i s t r i c t . The problem of transport was, on the other hand, l e s s severe i n southern B r i t i s h Columbia. On the south coast, f o r example, the Prescott i r o n mine had reached the production stage i n the 1880's due l a r g e l y to the a v a i l a b i l i t y of marine transport close to the deposit, and the r e l a t i v e -l y short distance from the mine to the b l a s t furnace i n Washington. P r i o r to 1887, then, l i t t l e success had been achieved i n the lode-mining industry of B r i t i s h Columbia. Aside from t e s t shipments, - 41 -production i n lode metals had been l i m i t e d to some 4600 tons of i r o n ore from the Prescott mine on Texada Island, and an unrecorded amount of s i l v e r from the Eureka and Van Bremer mines south of Hope. (Maps 3 and 4). Up u n t i l 1887, the t o t a l value of metal production was $52,808,750, of which $52,798,364 was from placer g o l d . 4 0 Production from lode-mining, therefore, accounted f o r l e s s than one per cent of the t o t a l value of metal production. None of the d i f f i c u l t i e s which had retarded the development of the lode-mining industry was eliminated by the end of the period. Nevertheless, by the l a t e 1880's, the d i f f i c u l t i e s associated with transport, c a p i t a l , and inexperience had been considerably reduced i n the southeastern part of B r i t i s h Columbia. I t was, i n f a c t , i n the Kootenays that the lode-mining industry f i r s t emerged from a period 41 which White has so a p t l y described as the "years of f r u s t r a t i o n . " - 42 -MAP 3 BRITISH COLUMBIA MINES SHIPPING PRIOR TO 1887 (THOUSANDS OF TONS) - > 1,000 — A—200-1,000 PACIFIC 0 C M N For oreo in inset see Mop 4 . Source: Annual Reports of the Minister of Mines, 1874 • 1886. - 43 -MAP 4 S O U T H E A S T E R N B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A X) 20 MILES For explanation of symbols, see main map legend iRock Creek - 44 -FOOTNOTES 1. Margaret A. Ormsby, B r i t i s h Columbia: A H i s t o r y , Toronto, Macmillan, 1958, p. 138. 2. Considerable controversy e x i s t s over the date and discovery of t h i s deposit. See the appendix to E l s i e T u r n b u l l , "Old Mines i n the West Kootenay." B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly, V o l . 20 (1956) pp. 147-163. 3. T u r n b u l l , op. c i t . , p. 149. 4. George M. Dawson, "The Mineral Wealth of B r i t i s h Columbia," Geological and Natural H i s t o r y Survey of Canada, Annual Report, (New S e r i e s ) , V o l . 3, Part 2, Report R, 1887-88, p. 17R. 5. H. Mortimer Lamb, "Mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia Before 1900," The Miner, V o l . 9, No. 10 (October, 1936), p. 38. 6. Kathleen E. D a l z e l l , The Queen Charlotte Islands 1774-1966. Terrace, CM. Adam, 1968, pp. 59-62. 7. Ormsby, o£. c i t . , p. 140. 8. H i l l s Bar near Yale y i e l d e d an estimated $500,000 before the end of 1858. See H.T. James, "Gold and Gold Mining, I t s National and I n t e r -n a t i o n a l S i g n i f i c a n c e , " Transactions of the F i f t h B r i t i s h Columbia  Natural Resources Conference, V i c t o r i a , 1952, p. 187. 9. For a more complete l i s t of the various d i s c o v e r i e s and dates, see B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources, Notes  on Placer-Mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia, B u l l e t i n No. 21, V i c t o r i a , 1963, pp. 16-24. 10. Lamb, op_. c i t . , p. 38. 11. In the terminology of the early placer miners, the phrase "sack of f l o u r " indicated a deposit or claim that needed no labour or money to work. See B r i t i s h Columbia, Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1880, p. 427, (These annual reports w i l l be c i t e d hereafter as Annual  Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines.) 12. A.F. Flucke, "A History of Mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia," Transac- tions of the Eighth B r i t i s h Columbia Natural Resources Conference, V i c t o r i a , 1955, p. 9. 13. William H. White, " H i s t o r i c a l Outline of B.C. Mining," Western  Miner and O i l Review, V o l . 34, No. 6 (June, 1961), p. 21. - 45 -14. Annual Report of the Mi n i s t e r of Mines and Petroleum Resources, 1970, p. A19. 15. Annual Report of the Mi n i s t e r of Mines, 1875, p. 12. 16. I b i d . 17. I b i d . 18. John D. Galloway, Lode-Gold Deposits of B r i t i s h Columbia, B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Mines, B u l l e t i n No. 1, V i c t o r i a , 1932, p. 6. 19. Annual Report of the Mi n i s t e r of Mines, 1877, p. 394. 20. Galloway, op. c i t . , p. 6; See also Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r  of Mines, 1880, p. 245. 21. G.M. Dawson, op. c i t . , p. 56R. 22. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1878, P- 372. 23. For a d e f i n i t i o n of t h i s , and other mining terms , see Appendix A. 24. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1882, P- 361. 25. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1887, P. 273. 26. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1877, ,P. 400. 27. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1874, P- 15. 28. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1877, P. 405. 29. I b i d . , p. 407. 30. Dawson, op. c i t . , , p. 101R. 31. D a l z e l l , op_. c i t . , pp. 70-72. 32. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1874, P- 36. 33. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1877, P- •413. 34. Texada Centennial Committee, Texada, Texada Island, Texada Centennial Committee, 1960, p. 2. - 46 -35. G.A. Young and W.L. Uglow, The Iron Ores of Canada, Volume I, B r i t i s h Columbia and the Yukon, Canada, Department of Mines, Economic Geology Series No. 3 Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1926, p. 86. 36. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1877, p. 394. 37. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines 38. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines 39. Jack Hughes, A His t o r y of Mining i n the East Kootenay D i s t r i c t  of B r i t i s h Columbia, Unpublished M.A. Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , Edmonton, 1944, p. 63. 40. T o t a l metal production value from Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r  of Mines and Petroleum Resources, 1970, Table 1, p. A28; pl a c e r produc-t i o n f i g u r e s from Stuarts. Holland, Placer Gold Production of B r i t i s h  Columbia, B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Mines, B u l l e t i n No. 28, V i c t o r i a , 1950, Table 1, p. 9. 41. William H. White, op_. c i t . , p. 4. - 47 -CHAPTER IV THE FIRST MINING BOOM: 1887-1905 The period between 1887 and 1905 encompasses a mining boom that i s w e l l known i n the h i s t o r y of the B r i t i s h Columbia mining industry. The discovery of high-grade lode-metal occurrences i n the West Kootenays i n the 1880's, together with a s e r i e s of developments which made the mining of these occurrences f e a s i b l e at that time, created a rush to the West Kootenay that was not u n l i k e the early p l a c e r rushes i n i t s magnitude. From t h i s o r i g i n a l centre, mining a c t i v i t y spread f i r s t throughout much of the Kootenays and then westward along the southern part of the province to e s t a b l i s h the Kootenay-Boundary area as the major focus of mining a c t i v i t y . Later i n t h i s p eriod, s u c c e s s f u l lode-mining began i n the south coastal region. This chapter w i l l describe these developments i n some d e t a i l and w i l l attempt to o u t l i n e the major f a c t o r s which account f o r the general spread of mining a c t i v i t y and the patterns of production that emerged. The Kootenays Before 1887 Placer gold had been discovered i n the Kootenays i n the ea r l y 1860's and, by 1865, the banner year f o r the placer mines, there were - 48 -some 1500 to 2000 men i n the district.''' With the exhaustion of the known placer deposits i n the mid-1870's and the f a i l u r e , despite government a i d , to f i n d a d d i t i o n a l deposits, the region had been v i r -2 t u a l l y deserted. Prospecting p a r t i e s sponsored by the p r o v i n c i a l government had reported the country to be l i t e r a l l y f u l l of quartz 3 ledges, but assays on these veins had proved so poor that no i n t e r e s t i n them had been generated. In 1878, the Gold Commissioner reported that 4 the quartz ledges i n the d i s t r i c t were i n "perfect q u i e t . " In the next decade, however, the l e v e l of mining a c t i v i t y i n the Kootenays would increase considerably, due l a r g e l y to improvements made i n the transport network serving the region, to the discovery of r i c h mineral deposits i n the area, and to the i n t e r e s t , c a p i t a l and ex-p e r t i s e which flowed north across the border from adjacent American t e r r i t o r y . In 1880, the Kootenays were served only by several pack t r a i l s and riverboat routes, the majority of which ran north-south across the i n t e r n a t i o n a l border i n t o the American areas of Montana, Idaho, and Washington. ~* Transport costs along these routes were high, and the consequent p r i c e of goods del i v e r e d to the Kootenay region had been a 6 major f a c t o r i n the slow development of the d i s t r i c t . The completion of two trans-continental railways by the mid-1880's g r e a t l y increased a c c e s s i b i l i t y to the Kootenays, although the Northern P a c i f i c did not enter the region and the Canadian P a c i f i c only crossed i t s northern - 49 -l i m i t s . These main l i n e s , however, were s u f f i c i e n t l y close to provide, i n conjunction with the r i v e r , lake and p a c k - t r a i l routes, the begin-nings of an integrated network to serve the region,^ and more important, improved connections with eastern and western markets. Furthermore, as Meyer notes, "water transport i n the area was d e f i n i t e l y stimulated by g the completion of the transcontinental railways." The increased a c c e s s i b i l i t y to and with i n the Kootenays aided i n s t i m u lating exploration and development of the lode-mining prospects i n the region, p a r t i c u l a r l y along the major water routes. In 1883, the year i n which the Northern P a c i f i c Railway was completed, nineteen mineral claims were staked i n the Kootenay Lake area, and i n the fol l o w -9 ing year t h i s f i g u r e increased to 49. To the north, i n close proximity to the main l i n e of the C.P.R., 135 mineral claims were staked i n 1884 i n the Kicking Horse region. For the most part, however, exploration and claim staking out-stri p p e d development i n the 1880's, the work c a r r i e d out on many claims r a r e l y exceeding that required to hold the claims under the pro v i s i o n s of the newly-established Mineral Act."''0 Nevertheless, the d i s c o v e r i e s made i n the early part of t h i s decade served to draw considerable a t t e n -t i o n to the Kootenays. Unlike the Cariboo i n the l a t e 1870's, however, the Kootenays i n the l a t e 1880's were bordered on the south by a region where much was known of the geology, technology, and economics of lode-mining. Indeed, i n the American Northwest, lode-mining had begun i n the 1860's, ore from the Owyhee d i s t r i c t s i l v e r veins being shipped to eastern United States markets as early as 1865. The p r o f i t a b l e t r e a t -ment of s i l v e r ores i n the Butte d i s t r i c t began i n 1876, and two years l a t e r almost $900,000 worth of b u l l i o n was produced. Gold quartz i n the Coeur d'Alene was f i r s t s u c c e s s f u l l y worked i n 1879. In the same year, the Colorado and Montana Smelting Company erected a smelter at Butte, thereby e s t a b l i s h i n g a l o c a l market f o r both the s i l v e r and copper ores 12 of the d i s t r i c t . By the e a r l y 1880's, then, lode mining i n the adja-cent American areas was w e l l established. Thus, once i t was known that the mineral b e l t s of the Kootenays were d i r e c t extensions of those i n the booming d i s t r i c t s of Montana and Idaho, the region began to a t t r a c t not only prospectors, but also experienced American mining men armed with 13 abundant r i s k c a p i t a l and seeking new investment o p p o r t u n i t i e s . In short, i t was the combination of r i c h mineral deposits, im-proved transport, a geographical proximity to an established mining area, and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of development c a p i t a l that provided the b a s i c s t i -mulus f o r the beginnings of productive lode-mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia. That t h i s favourable combination of factors was f i r s t achieved i n the Kootenays l a r g e l y accounts for that region's e a r l y prominence i n the h i s t o r y of the industry. Mining i n the Kootenays: 1887-1892 The year 1887 has been selected as the beginning of the lode-mining era i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I t was i n t h i s year that s i l v e r and - 51 -14 lead were f i r s t produced from the lode-mines of the province. I t was i n 1887 also that W.A. Hendryx began development on the low grade s i l v e r -lead-zinc ores at Kootenay Lake, l a t e r to become the famous Blue B e l l mine;"'""' and that the H a l l Brothers began ac t i v e work on t h e i r claims at Toad Mountain near Nelson, the f i r s t of several important lode metal camps to be worked i n the province. In addition to the above d i s c o v e r i e s , two other major mineralized areas were located i n the l a t e 1880's and e a r l y 1890's. In 1889, gold-copper ores were found on Red Mountain near Rossland, and i n the f o l l o w -ing year, a number of important mines were established i n the d i s t r i c t , i n c l u d i n g the Le Roi, War Eagle, and Center Star. In the autumn of 1891, the high-grade s i l v e r - l e a d ores of the Slocan were discovered, leading to the staking of 140 claims around Slocan Lake by the beginning of 1892. 1 6 Although the pace of exploration and discovery was rapid i n these early years, the l e v e l of production was r e l a t i v e l y low. Between 1887 and 1892, the production of the lode mines of the Kootenays was only $363,678, comprised of s i l v e r ($285,087) and lead ($78,591). The major reason for the low l e v e l of output was the high transport costs between the mines and American smelters, costs which tended to r e s t r i c t shipments to those from high-grade mines which were r e l a t i v e l y close e i t h e r to e x i s t i n g water routes, or, i n the northern section of the d i s t r i c t , to - 52 -the main l i n e of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway. Another s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r r e s t r i c t i n g development i n these e a r l y years was the imposi-t i o n i n 1891 of an import t a r i f f of $30 a ton on the lead content of ores imported into the United S t a t e s . ^ This t a r i f f , when added to the cost and d i f f i c u l t y of tr a n s p o r t a t i o n , p r o h i b i t e d shipments of s i l v e r - l e a d ore from the West Kootenay i n 1891, although a considerable 18 quantity of ore was mined and a v a i l a b l e f o r treatment. The S p a t i a l Pattern of Production: 1887-1892 The mines shipping i n the years between 1887 and 1892 are i n -dicated on Maps 5 and 6. The tonnages shown represent the t o t a l quantity of ore shipped over the s i x year period. None of the mines shipped i n every year.however, and the bulk sent ore to smelters i n only one year. The main centre of production i n these e a r l y years was i n the southern portion of the West Kootenay, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Hot Springs Camp (Ainsworth) where a number of mines produced s i l v e r and lead ore f o r shipment to smelters i n Montana. Another major area of a c t i v i t y was i n the v i c i n i t y of Toad Mountain south of Nelson, where the S i l v e r King, one of the celebrated H a l l mines, began shipments of s i l v e r - r i c h ore to Helena, Montana, i n 1889. The Poorman mine, i n the same general area, crushed a sizeable amount of gold-quartz i n 1890 and 1892, and produced 19 about 1000 ounces of gold. - 53 -MAP 5 BRITISH COLUMBIA MINES SHIPPING 1887-1892 (THOUSANDS OF TONS) •> 1,000 " 2 0 0 - 1,000 PACtftC O C E A N Vi/j./ X ,k Vancouver; > 4 For areo in inset see Mop 6. Source: Annual Reports of the Minister of Mines, 1887 - 1892. - 54 -MAP 6 S O U T H E A S T E R N B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A o 10 20 MILES For explanation of symbols, e s — E = I see main map legend - 55 -The a v a i l a b i l i t y of r a i l transport i n the form of the C.P.R. stimulated mining a c t i v i t y i n the northern part of the East Kootenay. The most important operation was the Monarch mine at F i e l d which pro-duced a considerable quantity of s i l v e r and lead i n 1888 and 1890. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of mines shown on Map 5 i n d i c a t e s also that very l i t t l e productive mining took place beyond the Kootenays between 1887 and 1892. The Prescott mine on Texada Island continued to ship small amounts of i r o n ore to Irondale, Washington u n t i l 1890 when one of the main ore masses had been almost completely removed. Iron ore was also produced at the Glen Iron mine s i t u a t e d close to the main l i n e of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway west of Kamloops. Most of the tonnage from t h i s mine went to Washington and Oregon, but a small amount was 20 shipped to the Revelstoke smelter f o r f l u x i n g operations. The smelters on Maps 5 and 6 r e f l e c t l a r g e l y a response to the high transport costs c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s period. As Hughes has noted, only the ores highest i n s i l v e r , lead and gold values could with-stand the high f r e i g h t charges involved i n shipping to American smel-21 t e r s . At t h i s point i n the h i s t o r y of the B r i t i s h Columbia mining industry, i t was generally held, by both p r i v a t e investors and govern-ment o f f i c i a l s , that the establishment of a l o c a l smelting industry was e s s e n t i a l for the f u r t h e r development of the many prospects being 22 uncovered i n the Kootenays. The P r o v i n c i a l Government, urged on by - 56 -the reports of i t s l o c a l representatives, aided i n the construction of these smelters by passing, i n 1886, an "Act to encourage the 23 e r e c t i o n of Smelting Works." Further assistance was given by the Federal Government i n the form of land grants to the companies i n -volved. Smelters were blown i n at Vancouver (1889), Woodbury (1889), Revelstoke (1891), and Golden (1891). The plant at Vancouver, oper-ated by the B r i t i s h Columbia Smelting Company, was unable to t r e a t s u c c e s s f u l l y the sulphurous ore from the company's Monarch mine near F i e l d , the only ore a v a i l a b l e to i t , and was closed two weeks a f t e r i t began. The plant at Woodbury ran f o r one day, but "cracked under the 24 heat and died a quiet death." A lack of s u f f i c i e n t ore to j u s t i f y operation of the Revelstoke smelter l e d to i t s abandonment i n 1892. A s i m i l a r fate terminated operations at the Golden smelter, where only 25 one "lonesome car-load of ore" ever reached the plant. The period between 1887 and 1892, then, saw considerable i n -crease i n mining a c t i v i t y , mainly i n the West Kootenay, but only l i m i -ted production. The construction of smelters, seen by many as a pre-r e q u i s i t e to mining development was, i n most cases, premature, given the small amount of ore a v a i l a b l e at the time. Mining i n the Kootenays: 1893-1905 The r e a l boom i n lode-mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia may be s a i d to have begun i n 1893 i n which year the t o t a l value of metals produced - 57 -was more than 80 per cent of that produced i n the preceding six-year period. Lode-gold appeared i n the o f f i c i a l records f o r the f i r s t time i n 1893, and copper a year l a t e r . Despite the world-wide depression of 1893 and the subsequent f a l l i n the p r i c e of s i l v e r , the value of that metal produced i n B r i t i s h Columbia doubled every year between 1893 and 1896. Values of gold, lead and copper experienced s i m i l a r r i s e s . The rapid r i s e of lode-metal production was accompanied by an 26 equally spectacular r i s e i n r a i l transport. Indeed, investments i n 27 mining and railways were to a large extent mutually dependent. With-out railways, the only means by which large tonnages could be shipped p r o f i t a b l y , mining development was r e s t r i c t e d to the stage of shipping high grade ores that could absorb the high costs of rawhiding, pack-t r a i l s and other p r i m i t i v e means of haulage. These l a t t e r modes of transport were, furthermore, h i g h l y unsuitable f o r the importation of heavy machinery to the mines. On the other hand, adequate tonnages to j u s t i f y l o c a l r a i l r o a d construction i n the high-cost, n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l 28 areas of the C o r d i l l e r a could come only from the mines. The l a t e r years of the nineteenth century also saw the continued construction of l o c a l smelters, the operations of which were, on the whole, more successful than those which had been attempted e a r l i e r . In 1896, smelters at Nelson and T r a i l were blown i n , the former to t r e a t the ores from the S i l v e r King mine on Toad Mountain, and the l a t t e r to handle the gold-copper ores of the Rossland Camp. These two operations, - 58 -o r i g i n a l l y successful because of large tonnage contracts with major producing mines, were able subsequently to expand operations as custom smelters, thus b e n e f i t t i n g not only t h e i r owners but also the general progress of mining i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t s . A lead furnace added to the Nelson smelter i n 1897, for example, provided a r e l a t i v e l y low cost market f o r many of the s i l v e r - l e a d mines of the Slocan which previously had faced the high transport and treatment charges associated with 29 shipping t h e i r crude sulphide ores to smelters i n Montana. Much has been w r i t t e n on the h i s t o r y and development of the smelter at T r a i l since i t and the S u l l i v a n mine formed the major p i l l a r s on which the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company was l a t e r b u i l t . In the e a r l y years the T r a i l copper smelter drew i t s ores from the Rossland area, but i n 1900 a lead b l a s t furnace was added to the plant enabling i t to treat a portion of the Kootenay s i l v e r - l e a d ores. In 1902, r e f i n e d lead was produced by the smelter, t h i s being the f i r s t a p p l i c a t i o n i n the world of an e l e c t r o l y t i c method f o r r e f i n i n g that metal. The only unsuccessful smelter b u i l t during t h i s period was the plant at P i l o t Bay on the east shore of Kootenay Lake. B u i l t i n 1891, the plant began operations i n 1895, but was closed by 1896. A lack of dry ore, high costs of f u e l , and d i f f i c u l t y i n obtaining fluxes a l l 31 contributed to the f a i l u r e of the smelter. - 59 -The f i n a l major developments which furthered lode mining i n the Kootenays took place i n 1898, with the opening of the Crow's Nest Pass coal mines, the completion of the Crow's Nest Pass Railway to the southern end of Kootenay Lake, and the extension of the railway from Robson to T r a i l . Forthwith, a cheap supply of coke f o r the smelters at Nelson and T r a i l was made a v a i l a b l e , and by 1899, the Kootenays received almost a l l the required coke from the Crow's Nest Pass mines. The p r i c e of coke at Nelson was now over 36 per cent lower than coke supplied from the Comox mines on Vancouver Island, the 32 major source of supply p r i o r to 1899. In terms of the lode mining industry, the ea r l y years of pro-duction c l e a r l y belonged to the mines of the Kootenays. By 1900, of the metals produced i n B r i t i s h Columbia the Kootenay mines had accounted for 87 per cent of the f i n e gold, 95 per cent of the copper, 99 per cent 33 of the s i l v e r , and 100 per cent of the lead. Much of t h i s production had come only from West Kootenay. The East Kootenay had, however, made i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y from the area along the C.P.R. mainline and from the region around Fort Steele. The discovery of argentiferous galena ores i n th i s southern p o r t i o n of the d i s t r i c t had l e d to the development of the North Star, S u l l i v a n , and St. Eugene mines, the last-named being the l a r g e s t lead producer i n 34 B r i t i s h Columbia by 1900. The emergence of a s i l v e r - l e a d producing centre i n t h i s area had been stimulated by the expansion of r a i l - 60 -35 f a c i l i t i e s i n t o the region. However, the aid of a Federal bounty on lead production was of major importance i n the successful working of low grade ores at t h i s time. In f a c t , as the Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines f o r 1905 i n d i c a t e s , "these mines could sc a r c e l y be 36 operated without i t s a i d . " Expansion Into the Boundary Country Productive lode-mining i n the southern i n t e r i o r west of the Kootenays was i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n the l a t e r years of the nineteenth cen-tury. The only major exception was the output from the Cariboo-Amelia mine at Camp McKinney i n the Osoyoos D i s t r i c t . F r e e - m i l l i n g gold had been produced here since 1894, the output of the mines largely'account-ing f o r the lode-gold not a t t r i b u t a b l e to the Kootenays. Yet while productive mining was l i m i t e d l a r g e l y to the Kootenays, prospecting f o r and development work on lode deposits i n other areas was going on, par-t i c u l a r l y i n southern B r i t i s h Columbia and at various places along the coast. Around the turn of the century, production from these areas began to appear i n the records. The r e a l impetus to productive lode-mining i n southern B r i t i s h Columbia west of the Kootenays was provided i n 1898-99 by the extension of the Columbia and Western Railway from West Robson through Grand Forks to Midway, and the construction, i n 1900, of two spur l i n e s to 37 Deadwood and Phoenix. This extension of r a i l services to and w i t h i n the Boundary d i s t r i c t , together with the i n t r o d u c t i o n of l a r g e - s c a l e - 61 -machinery, made f e a s i b l e the mining of extensive low-grade copper ore bodies, on which claims had been staked i n 1891. In r a p i d succession, smelters were b u i l t at Grand Forks (1900) by the Granby Mining and Smelting Company, at Greenwood (1901) by the B r i t i s h Columbia Copper Company, and at Boundary F a l l s (1902) by the Montreal and Boston Copper Company. Unlike the e a r l i e r low-capacity smelters at Nelson and T r a i l which produced a low-grade copper matte that required f u r t h e r t r e a t -ment, the smelters i n the Boundary country were of l a r g e r capacity and produced a r e l a t i v e l y pure b l i s t e r copper from the s e l f - f l u x i n g ores of 38 the d i s t r i c t . The impact of the Boundary mines on copper production i n B r i t i s h Columbia was immediate. In 1900, the output from the mines 39 represented over 50% of the p r o v i n c i a l t o t a l , and by 1905, t h i s f i -gure had r i s e n to over 73%. 4 0 In other d i s t r i c t s of the southern i n t e r i o r , exploratory work was c a r r i e d out i n the 1890's, but poor transportation f a c i l i t i e s s t i l l l i m i t e d development. In the Hedley area of Similkameen, f o r example, the f i r s t mineral claim was recorded i n 1894, and considerably more i n the l a t e 1890's. At t h i s time, however, the only connection with other 41 areas was by horseback, the nearest railway being at Penticton. With the construction of a p r i v a t e and government wagon road i n t o the area, and the proving-up of the ore at the major claim, the N i c k e l P l a t e , a - 62 -40-stamp m i l l and cyanide plant were b u i l t . The production stage at the N i c k e l Plate mine was f i n a l l y reached i n 1904, a f t e r an expendi-ture of almost one m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . Mining on the South Coast: 1893-1905 On the coast, prospecting and development work of the 1890's also l e d to productive mining around the turn of the century. On the coast too, i t was copper mining, made a t t r a c t i v e by high-grade ore finds and r e l a t i v e l y high p r i c e l e v e l s f o r that metal, that led pro-42 duction. On Texada Island the Marble Bay mine, discovered i n 1898, 43 began to produce i t s copper-gold-silver ores i n the following year. On Vancouver Island, the high-grade copper ores on Mt. Sicker near Duncan were discovered i n 1895, the two most succ e s s f u l operations being the Tyee and Lenora Mines. By ea r l y 1900, the l a t t e r mine was i n f u l l production and ranked as the fourth l a r g e s t shipping mine i n B r i t i s h 44 Columbia. In 1898, copper ores were also located i n Howe Sound north of Vancouver, ores that would provide the basis for the B r i t a n n i a Mine which began production i n 1905. Copper properties on the A l b e r n i Canal were also producing around the turn of the century. These developments on the coast l e d to the construction of l o c a l smelters. The f i r s t was b u i l t at Van Anda on Texada Island i n 1899, and treated l o c a l ores i n c l u d i n g those of the Lenora. By 1901, however, most of the ores from both the Lenora and Tyee Mines were shipped to the Tacoma smelter of the American Smelting and Refining Company. This trade pattern was a l t e r e d i n 1902 when l o c a l smelters at Osborne Bay (Crofton) and Ladysmith were blown i n . Further r e f i n i n g of the copper matte was, however, s t i l l c a r r i e d out at Tacoma. Lower copper p r i c e s and a drop i n the grades of ore of both major mines terminated opera-tions at the mines and i n the smelters. The Crofton operation would, however, be rejuvenated l a t e r once i t was purchased by the B r i t a n n i a i n t e r e s t s . The lower copper p r i c e s also adversely a f f e c t e d the mines on the A l b e r n i Canal. These p r o p e r t i e s , unlike those i n the i n t e r i o r of the province, worked ores with l i t t l e gold and s i l v e r , and so were 45 more s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d by the f l u c t u a t i o n s of the copper market. The S p a t i a l Pattern of Production: 1905 The major changes i n the pattern of metal production between 1893 and 1905 - the i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n and expansion of a c t i v i t y i n the Kootenays, the expansion of mining i n t o the Boundary country, and the emergence of copper mining on the south c o a s t — a r e c l e a r l y revealed i n Maps 7 and 8. Each of the major centres of a c t i v i t y i n 1905—the Ains-worth-Slocan area west of Kootenay Lake, the southern part of the East Kootenay, the Toad Mountain area south of Nelson, the Rossland camp west of T r a i l , the Boundary region near Greenwood and Grand Forks, and the southern c o a s t — r e p r e s e n t s an area where a favourable combination of geology, transport, and smelting f a c i l i t i e s was achieved, and to - 64 -MAP 7 BRITISH Source: Annual Report of the Minister of Mines, 1905; Unpublished production records, Department of Mines, Victoria. - 65 -MAP 8 S O U T H E A S T E R N BRITISH C O L U M B I A o 10 20 MILES For explanation of symbols, t — - s = a see main map legend - 66 -which considerable c a p i t a l had been a t t r a c t e d . The mines i n the south-ern part of the East Kootenay were also aided, as noted e a r l i e r , by the Federal bounty on lead production. Elsewhere i n B r i t i s h Columbia, l i t t l e productive mining was taking place. A few mines i n close proximity to the mainline of the Canadian P a c i f i c had reached the shipping stage, as indeed other opera-tions i n t h i s general area had done as e a r l y as 1887. On the whole, however, lode mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia was r e s t r i c t e d to the southern i n t e r i o r of the province and to the south coast. Conclusions By 1905, the lode-mining industry of B r i t i s h Columbia had ad-vanced considerably since i t s beginning i n 1887. In t h i s period, $102,328,735 worth of metals had been produced, some 72 per cent of 46 t h i s t o t a l coming i n the years between 1900 and 1905. In the l a t t e r year, s i l v e r , lead, gold, copper and zinc had been produced. Zinc, i n f a c t , appeared i n the o f f i c i a l records of the Department of Mines f o r the f i r s t time i n 1905, although the f i r s t shipments a c t u a l l y took place i n 1899 from the Slocan. In the e a r l i e r years, zinc was passed over i n the mines whenever p o s s i b l e since there was no market f o r zinc ore i n the United States and, as a constituent of s i l v e r - l e a d ores, i t was 47 a detriment to t h e i r value. The c o n t r i b u t i o n made by the above metals to t o t a l production for 1905 i s ind i c a t e d i n Figure 2. - 67 -FIGURE 2 COMPOSITION OF LODE-METAL PRODUCTION BRITISH COLUMBIA 1905 Total Value of Production - $15,319,365.00 Average Prices 1905 Copper 15.59 cents/pound Lead 4.24 cents/pound Zinc 1.80 cents/pound S i l v e r 51.33 cents/ounce Gold $20.67/ounce Source: Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1905. - 68 -The t o t a l lode-metal production i n 1905 came from 167 mines, 48 a s u b s t a n t i a l increase over the eleven mines which shipped i n 1892. This growth had been brought about by a number of i n t e r r e l a t e d f a c t o r s . Of major importance was the continued improvement i n the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network i n the southern part of the province. Improved trans p o r t a t i o n not only opened up new areas for exploration and discovery, but also made f e a s i b l e the mining of deposits h i t h e r t o uneconomical because of high haulage costs. The P r o v i n c i a l Government had aided i n these transport developments i n providing a i d f o r , or constructing access road to mines, and i n granting charters to railways. The expansion of the r a i l network westward from the Kootenays, and the increased density 49 of the network i n the Kootenays themselves, aided the development of small mines; but, more important, allowed the development of l a r g e -scale mines whose tonnages were f a r i n excess of that which wagons and steamboats were capable of handling. Quite simply, as Innis points out, "Large-scale operations necessitate railways.""' 0 Another major f a c t o r accounting f o r the growth of the industry between 1887 and 1905 was the r e l a t i v e abundance of c a p i t a l . Unlike p l a c e r mining, lode-mining was, on the whole, h i g h l y c a p i t a l i n t e n s i v e . This was l e s s true f o r very small operations where high-grade, e a s i l y -worked deposits could be made to produce annually a few tons of r i c h ore with returns high enough to support an i n d i v i d u a l or small group of miners. For intermediate to l a r g e - s c a l e mines, however, an abundance - 69 -of c a p i t a l was as necessary as railway f a c i l i t i e s . In the l a t e 1880's and e a r l y 1890's, much of t h i s c a p i t a l had come from the United States,"'"'' but as the fame of such mining centres as Rossland and the Slocan spread, 52 c a p i t a l was also a t t r a c t e d from Eastern Canada and Europe. By 1905, the lack of c a p i t a l which had plagued the industry i n e a r l i e r years was not a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i n lode mine development, at l e a s t i n those areas where a c c e s s i b i l i t y had been improved by the railways, or where marine transport was a v a i l a b l e . The t h i r d major fa c t o r accounting f o r the growth of the lode-mining industry i n t h i s period was the ere c t i o n of l o c a l smelters, and the subsequent expansion of f a c i l i t i e s at some of these operations. Some of the e a r l y smelters had- been unsuccessful f o r reasons noted e a r l i e r . The major operations, however, were a d e f i n i t e stimulus to the industry i n c e r t a i n parts of the province. They not only f a c i l i t a t e d the l a r g e -scale development of the mines with which they were f i r s t associated, but also provided a l o c a l market f o r many mines which had not been brought to the production stage, or which had shipped to more d i s t a n t American smelters. - 70 -FOOTNOTES 1. W.J. Trimble, The Mining Advance into the Inland Empire, Madison, U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin, B u l l e t i n No. 638, 1914, p. 57. 2. Harold A. Innis, "Settlement and the Mining F r o n t i e r , " Canadian  F r o n t i e r s of Settlement, ed. W.A. Mackintosh and W.L. Joerg, Toronto, Macmillan, 1936, V o l . IX, Part I I , p. 270. 3. B r i t i s h Columbia, Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1874, p. 14. Hereafter c i t e d as Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines. 4. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1878, p. 378. 5. Ronald H. Meyer, The Evo l u t i o n of Railways i n the Kootenays, Van-couver, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Unpublished M.A. Thesis, 1970, p. 9. 6. B r i t i s h Columbia, Sessional Papers, V i c t o r i a , 1894, c i t e d i n Innis, op. cit.> p. 272. 7. Meyer, op_. c i t . , p. 11. 8. I b i d . 9. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1884, p. 424. 10. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1885, p. 498. 11. T.A. Rickard, A His t o r y of American Mining, New York, McGraw-Hill, 1932, p. 314. 12. I b i d . , p. 350. 13. See E.S. Moore, American Influence i n Canadian Mining, Toronto, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1941, pp. 71-83. 14. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines and Petroleum Resources, 1970, pp. A21, A23. 15. E l s i e Turnbull, "Old Mines i n the West Kootenay," B r i t i s h Columbia  H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly, V o l . 20 (1956), p. 151. - 71 -16. A.F. Flucke, "A Hi s t o r y of Mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia," Trans-actions of the Eighth B r i t i s h Columbia Natural Resources Conference, V i c t o r i a , 1955, p. 13. 17. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1891, p. 555. The lead import t a r i f f was one part of the hi g h l y p r o t e c t i v e McKinley T a r i f f Act which i n general did serious damage to the sale of Canadian products to the United States. See W.L. Morton, The Kingdom of Canada, Toronto, McClelland and Stewart, 1963, p. 385. 18. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1891, p. 559. 19. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources, Production Records for Nelson Mining D i v i s i o n , V i c t o r i a , n.d. This pro-duction of lode-gold i s not noted i n the published records of gold pro-duction for B r i t i s h Columbia which date the f i r s t gold production to 1893. 20. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1891, p. 574. 21. Jack Hughes, A History of Mining i n the East Kootenay D i s t r i c t  of B r i t i s h Columbia, Edmonton, U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , Unpublished M.A. Thesis, 1944, p. 78. 22. See, for example, the report of G.M. Sproat, the Gold Commission-er f o r the northern d i v i s i o n of the Kootenay d i s t r i c t i n Annual Report  of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1886, p. 204. 23. The government also f e l t that ores other than those which r e -quired smelting might be found. Hence, i n 1887, the L e g i s l a t u r e passed "An Act to aid the Development of Quartz Mines." See S.S. Fowler, "Early Smelters i n B r i t i s h Columbia," B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i a l Quar- t e r l y , V o l . 3, No. 3 (July, 1939), p. 186. 24. I b i d . , p. 200. 25. I b i d . , p. 198. 26. For a d e t a i l e d examination of railway development i n the Kootenays, see Ronald H. Meyer, op_. c i t . 27. Flucke, op_. c i t . , p. 11. - 72 -28. I b i d . ; and Inni s , op. c i t . , p. 270. 29. William H. White, " H i s t o r i c a l Outline of B.C. Mining," Western  Miner arid O i l Review, V o l . 34, No. 6 (June, 1961), p. 22. 30. J.V. Rogers, "Power, the Pathway to Progress," Transactions of  the Eighth B r i t i s h Columbia Natural Resources Conference, V i c t o r i a , 1955, p. 262. The power required by the Lead r e f i n e r y was supplied by the West Kootenay Power and L i g h t Company's plant b u i l t on the Kootenay River i n 1897. See I b i d . , p. 261 and T.W. Bingay, "A B r i e f H i s t o r y of the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Co.," The Miner, V o l . 9, No. 10 (October, 1936), p. 49. 31. Innis, op. c i t . , p. 273n. 32. I b i d . , Table XII, p. 283. 33. Calculated from Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines and Petro- leum Resources, 1965, Table VI, p. A28, and from Innis, op. c i t . , Table XXI, p. 319. 34. Flucke, op. c i t . , p. 15. 35. Meyer, op. c i t . , p. 19. 36. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1905, p. J22. 37. Meyer, op. c i t . , p. 20. 38. White, op_. c i t . , p. 22. 39. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1900, p. 719. 40. The output from the Kootenays ( i . .e. T r a i l and Nelson D i s t r i c t s ) i n 1905 amounted to 15.5 per cent of the p r o v i n c i a l copper production. 41. Gomer P. Jones, "History of the Hedley D i s t r i c t , " The Miner, V o l . 9, No. 10 (October, 1936), p. 54. 42. Texada Centennial Committee, Texada, Texada Island, Texada Centennial Committee, 1960, p. 2. 43. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Mines, Index No. 3 to P u b l i c a - tions of the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Mines, V i c t o r i a , Queen's P r i n t e r , 1955, Table I., p. 205. - 73 -44. Elwood White and David W i l k i e , Shays on the Switchbacks: A Hist o r y of the Narrow Gauge Lenora Mt. Sicker Railway, B r i t i s h Columbia Railway H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1968, V i c t o r i a , p. 6. 45. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1901, p. 934. 46. Calculated from i n d i v i d u a l metal t o t a l s i n Annual Report of the  M i n i s t e r of Mines and Petroleum Resources, 1968, Table 6, pp. A32-A33. 47. Canada, Department of the I n t e r i o r , Mines Branch, Report of the  Commission Appointed to Investigate the Zinc Resources of B r i t i s h  Columbia and the Conditions A f f e c t i n g Their E x p l o i t a t i o n , Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1906, p. 6. 48. The Annual Report of the Minis t e r of Mines, 1905, states that there were only 146 mines shipping during the year. The t o t a l of 167 was a r r i v e d at from the 1905 reports of the Gold Commissioners, Mining Recorders, and other government o f f i c i a l s contained i n the Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1905, together with a l i s t of a d d i t i o n a l ship-ping mines compiled from the unpublished production records held by the Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources, V i c t o r i a . 49. For a discussion and maps of the expanding r a i l network i n the Kootenays, see Meyer, op. c i t . 50. Inni s , op_. c i t . , p. 316. 51. See E.S. Moore, op. c i t . , pp. 71-83. 52. White, op_. c i t . , p. 22. - 74 -CHAPTER V CORPORATE CONSOLIDATIONS AND THE IMPACT OF EXTERNAL CONDITIONS: 1906-1921 The period with which t h i s chapter i s concerned i s between 1906 and 1921. The year 1906 has been selected as the beginning of t h i s period not because i t represents a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the production l e v e l s of the lode-mining industry, but rather because i t marks the beginning of a corporate organization that would have a long-term e f f e c t on the mining industry of B r i t i s h Columbia. In 1906, the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway ef-fected a conso l i d a t i o n of i t s Canadian Smelting Works at T r a i l with a number of mining companies i n the Kootenays, i n c l u d i n g the War Eagle and Center Star mines at Rossland, and the St. Eugene mine at Moyle."'' Th i s new organization, o r i g i n a l l y known as the Canadian Consolidated Mines Limited, but l a t e r named the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada, represented a conso l i d a t i o n i n the mining industry that p a r a l l e l e d consolidations i n the other major i n d u s t r i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n the 2 pre-war period. The formation of Consolidated Mining and Smelting was 3 h a i l e d by the press at the time, and i t s increasing importance i n the non-ferrous sector of the industry from 1906 to the end of World War Two i s a theme that w i l l recur throughout t h i s t h e s i s . - 75 -The year 1921 i s representative of the post-war period i n which lode-metal producers faced uncertain world markets s t i l l overstocked with supplies of the major metals. In 1921, the production of lead and copper was below that of the immediate pre-war period, while the output of s i l v e r was the second lowest since the turn of the century, and that of gold, only s l i g h t l y above i t s second lowest output recorded i n 1920. In 1922 and 1923, a l l the lode-metals produced i n B r i t i s h Columbia would experienced r a p i d expansion, i n concert with the renewed p r o s p e r i t y i n 4 North America i n the e a r l y 1920's. In the years between 1906 and 1921, the production of some major metals continued to increase, although at a rate considerably lower than i n the boom years of the 1890's. The production of some other metals, on the other hand, declined over the period. Moreover, the output of most metals exhibited a degree of i n s t a b i l i t y that was i n marked contrast to the steady growth which occurred throughout much of the previous period. Two factors which had retarded the e a r l y growth of the lode-mining i n d u s t r y — a low l e v e l of technology and a lack of tra n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i -t i e s — w e r e not, on the whole, of major importance i n explaining the lessen-ing r a t e of growth for some metals and the d e c l i n i n g output of others a f t e r the turn of the century. In f a c t , considerable advances were made i n mining and m i l l i n g technology between 1906 and 1921. With regards to transp o r t a t i o n , the railway boom which accompanied the e a r l y growth of the - 76 -industry continued, two more Canadian transcontinental l i n e s crossed the province, the railway network i n the south was extended and made more dense, and the P r o v i n c i a l Government continued to a i d i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of roads and t r a i l s to serve the mines. For an explanation of the trends i n lode-metal output between 1906 and 1921, two factors were of major importance. In the f i r s t place, the easy period of mine f i n d i n g was nearing an end, and the c a p i -t a l requirements for l o c a t i n g and developing new mines were s u b s t a n t i a l l y greater than they had been e a r l i e r . As Innis notes, "the 'velvet' was beginning to wear o f f and mines were no longer able to prosper on the basis of e x p l o i t i n g r i c h ore at the 'grass roots'."'' Secondly,'a number of the mines which had contributed s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the r a p i d production growth i n the 1890's were exhausted during the years between 1906 and 1921. For an explanation of the f l u c t u a t i o n s i n output which charac-t e r i z e d t h i s period, one must turn l a r g e l y to conditions external to the industry. I t was i n t h i s period that the lode-mining industry revealed i t s high degree of dependence on external markets and i t s s e n s i t i v i t y to changes i n world economic conditions. In order to examine the performance of the industry between 1906 and 1921, to account for factors a f f e c t i n g that performance, and to out-l i n e the changes which occurred, t h i s chapter w i l l deal with the period i n three sections: the pre-war years, World War I, and the post-war years. The Pre-War Years: 1906 to 1913 The performance of the lode-mining industry i n the pre-war period was considerably d i f f e r e n t from what i t had been i n the boom years. In the 1890's, almost every year had seen an i n c r e a s i n g l y higher ouput f o r most metals, a steady r i s e i n the number of producing mines had occurred, and a geographical expansion of mining a c t i v i t y had taken place. In the pre-war period, on the other hand, the output of some metals rose, but at a lower r a t e , while the output of others declined. Between 1906 and 1913 the number of shipping mines declined from 154 to 110, and i n the f o u r -year period from 1909 to 1912, an average of only 84 mines shipped ore to the smelters. F i n a l l y , i n the pre-war years, the old-established d i s -t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia continued to dominate both the tonnage mined and the production of p a r t i c u l a r metals. Lode-gold production remained remarkably constant during the pre-war period, averaging about 240,000 ounces a year. In every year, the l a r g e s t proportion of lode-gold came from the smelting of gold-copper ores, l a r g e l y from the Rossland and Boundary d i s t r i c t s . The only s i g n i f i c a n t production of gold from stamp-milling came from the N i c k e l Plate mine near Hedley, a mine which i n 1911 was said to be the l a r g e s t gold producer i n Canada.** - 78 -S i l v e r production i n the pre-war period continued a de c l i n e which had begun before the turn of the century, and i n 1911 i t reached i t s low-est output since 1895. S i l v e r was produced l a r g e l y as a by-product from the argentiferous galena ores of the Slocan and Fort Steele d i v i s i o n s . Hence, while the depressed world market f o r s i l v e r was an important c o n s i -deration i n the decline of s i l v e r output, the state of lead production was a contri b u t i n g f a c t o r . In several years, drops i n the output of lead were p a r a l l e l e d by declines i n the output of s i l v e r . In a d d i t i o n , the geographical concentration of s i l v e r producers i n two major areas, the Slocan and Fort Steele, meant that any i n t e r r u p t i o n i n the mining a c t i v i t y of these areas would s u b s t a n t i a l l y a f f e c t the s i l v e r production f o r the province as a whole. The low p r o v i n c i a l output f o r s i l v e r i n 1911, f o r example, was almost s o l e l y the r e s u l t of the l o s s of the ore-shoot at the St. Eugene mine at Moyie, the i n t e r r u p t i o n of se r v i c e on the Kaslo and Slocan Railway caused by f o r e s t f i r e s i n 1910, and the l o s s of the plants at some of the major mines i n the d i s t r i c t , due to the same f i r e s . S t r i k e s at the c o l l i e r i e s which shut o f f the supply of coke to the smelters were a contr i b u t i n g f a c t o r , though the closure of the smelters a f f e c t e d the industry as a whole, and not j u s t s i l v e r producers. By 1913, s i l v e r pro-duction reached i t s highest output since 1902, a recovery due l a r g e l y to the general r e v i v a l of s i l v e r - l e a d mining i n the Slocan d i s t r i c t . ^ - 79 -Between 1906 and 1913, the production of lead was centered i n the Kootenays. In most years, the Slocan d i s t r i c t and the mining d i v i -sions of Fort Steele and Ainsworth accounted f o r at l e a s t 90 per cent of the t o t a l p r o v i n c i a l production. The lead Industry was aided some-what by the Lead Bounty which was proportionately t i e d to lead produc-g t i o n on the b a s i s of the London p r i c e of the metal. The conditions which m i l i t a t e d against s i l v e r producers, however, were f e l t even more by lead mines and, i n 1911, the output of lead reached i t s lowest point since 1903. Lead output also recovered by 1913, however, due to the i n -creased output of t h i s metal from the Slocan a f t e r 1911, and to the r e -opening of the S u l l i v a n mine i n 1912. Copper production continued to r i s e throughout the pre-war years, although i t too suffered a setback i n 1910-11 with the closures of the i n t e r i o r smelters due to the shortage of coke. The copper output was also h i g h l y concentrated, with the Boundary d i s t r i c t frequently account-ing f o r 60 to 70 per cent of the p r o v i n c i a l t o t a l . The coast and the Rossland areas were other major contributors which, together with the Boundary, often accounted for over 90 per cent of t o t a l production. The production of zinc p r i o r to 1905 had been small, f o r the reasons noted i n Chapter IV. The p o s s i b i l i t y of increased production was good i n 1905, however, since enriching plants had been erected to provide a 50 per cent zinc concentrate, a market f o r the metal existed i n the United States, and, being c l a s s i f i e d as a "crude mineral", the concentrates - 80 -could cross the border duty f r e e . In 1906, however, the United States Customs Department ruled that these concentrates were not "crude minerals" and were, therefore, subject to duty. The duty was s u f f i c i e n t l y high as to suspend zinc, mining f o r the year. Although t h i s d e c i s i o n was r e -versed i n 1907, continued uncertainty over the duty-free entry of zinc to the United States market, combined with the lack of success i n develop-ing a commercially f e a s i b l e treatment f o r zinc ores, kept zinc production low i n the pre-war years. By 1913, the United States t a r i f f on zin c concentrates and ores entering that country had been lowered and served 9 to stimulate the production of zinc i n the l a t t e r part of that year. Over 98 per cent of the production came from the Slocan as a by-product from the treatment of s i l v e r - l e a d - z i n c ores. In the pre-war years, l i t t l e i r o n ore was produced i n B r i t i s h Columbia. In 1907, some 1500 tons of bog i r o n ore were mined and shipped from Quatsino Sound on Vancouver Island. This deposit, however, was found unprofitable due to i t s shallowness, and was abandoned."^ In some years prospecting and development work was c a r r i e d out on known deposits, but no other shipments took place owing to the lack of a market f o r i r o n ore on the P a c i f i c Coast. This b r i e f review of metal production between 1906 and 1913 has indicated the f l u c t u a t i o n s which occurred i n the output of sev e r a l metals due l a r g e l y to the influence of external conditions, but i n 1911 - 81 -to the influence of l o c a l conditions. I t has indicated also the r e l a t i v e s t a b i l i t y which characterized the d i s t r i b u t i o n of m e t a l l i c mineral pro-duction during the period. The d i s c u s s i o n has not, however, revealed a major change which took place i n the extent to which major companies were involved i n the mining industry over t h i s period. Increasingly, the established mining d i s t r i c t s came to be domi-nated by the large companies, e s p e c i a l l y those with i n t e r e s t s i n both mining and smelting. In t h e i r e a r l y years, the smelters had r e l i e d to a large extent on the ores from a s i n g l e mine and, to a l e s s e r extent, on the ores from a number of custom mines. In 1905, for example, the S i l v e r King mine was the l a r g e s t s i n g l e source of ore for the Nelson smelter, but some 125 smaller mines were also shipping to the plant.''"''' As the major mines supplying the smelters began to show signs of exhaustion, the companies involved acquired other mines i n order to ensure a supply of ore. Both the B r i t i s h Columbia Copper Company and the Granby Company, organizations which dominated the industry i n the Boundary coun-t r y , acquired a number of mines i n t h i s period, and were thus able to maintain t h e i r respective smelting operations at Greenwood and Grand Forks. The Dominion Copper Company had also attempted such a consolida-t i o n , but had closed i t s smelter at Boundary F a l l s i n 1907, The smelter at T r a i l , as noted e a r l i e r , had also been involved i n t h i s type of con-s o l i d a t i o n , p a r t l y as a r e s u l t of the impending d e c l i n e of the Rossland - 82 -gold-copper ores. A f t e r 1907, when the H a l l smelter at Nelson closed due to the d e c l i n i n g output from the S i l v e r King mine and to a f i n a n c i a l depression which c u r t a i l e d the production from many of i t s custom mines, the T r a i l smelter dominated the mining industry of the Kootenays. In 1907, the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company added more mines to i t s holdings, and i n 1910 i t acquired the S u l l i v a n mine. Both the S u l l i -van mine at Kimberley and the smelter at M a r y s v i l l e had been closed since 1907, when the company which owned and operated them ran i n t o f i n a n -12 c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . In 1911, the Consolidated absorbed the Le Roi Mining Company, a large organization i n i t s own r i g h t , and i n 1912, the company acquired the S i l v e r King mine at Nelson. By 1914, the Consolidated Min-ing and Smelting Company had indeed become a gargantuan concern and was, as Church points out, "even then almost synonomous with mining i n the Kootenay."'^ This pattern of regional domination by large companies which emerged i n the southern i n t e r i o r i n the pre-war years was evident also on the coast, the only other area i n the province where s i g n i f i c a n t lode-metal production occurred i n the period. With copper remaining the major a t t r a c t i o n , several areas were prospected and a few small mines reached the shipping stage. On the whole, however, major development was concen-trated i n the south coastal area and i n the region of the Portland Canal. - 83 -In both areas, a major company dominated mining a c t i v i t y . In the south, the B r i t a n n i a mine, which began shipments i n December, 1905, shipped throughout the period, f i r s t to the Crofton smelter which the B r i t a n n i a i n t e r e s t s had acquired i n 1904, and then to Tacoma. The smelter at Crofton was closed i n 1907 because i t could recover only 14 55 per cent of the copper content of the B r i t a n n i a ores. A c t i v e de-velopment and continued expansion characterized the operations of the B r i t a n n i a company. In 1912, i t was reported that the company had adopted the f l o t a t i o n process f o r the separation of i t s copper ores,^""* a metallur-g i c a l development which would have major subsequent e f f e c t s on the mining industry i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n g e n e r a l . ^ By 1913, then, copper pro-duction i n the south coast was dominated by the B r i t a n n i a mine. This development had occurred l a r g e l y through the e f f o r t s of the B r i t a n n i a company, although the exhaustion, by 1913 tof the formerly important copper mines on Mt. Sicker near Duncan was a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r . On the northern coast the centre of a c t i v i t y was i n the Portland Canal area, where small shipments of copper ore had been sent from one 17 mine to an American smelter at Hadley, Alaska, as early as 1906. In subsequent years much development a c t i v i t y occurred. In 1910, the Granby Consolidated Mining, Smelting, and Power Company acquired the Hidden 18 Creek copper mines on Observatory I n l e t f o r a sum reported at $500,000. By 1912 a copper smelter was under construction i n the new company town - 84 -of Anyox, and by the following year the company had spent some $3,000,000 i n development. In March, 1914, the Granby smelter at Anyox was blown i n , an event h a i l e d by the Gold Commissioner as the most important i n the 19 mining h i s t o r y of northern B r i t i s h Columbia. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the Granby Company was now a c t i v e not only i n the Boundary and Port-land Canal areas, where i t owned and operated mines and smelters, but also i n Southern Alaska, where i t owned and operated a number of mines, 20 the ores from which would also be used to feed the new smelter at Anyox. World War I The f i r s t h a l f of 1914 gave promise of being an exceedingly f a -vourable one f o r mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia and " i t was even expected 21 that i t s mineral production would exceed that of any previous year." The outbreak of war i n Europe i n 1914, however, t o t a l l y upset world metal markets. Quotations f o r the major metals were unobtainable f o r several months, leaving no basis on which sales could be transacted or future metal values predicted. By the end of the year, with the temporary l o s s of markets, many of the mines were shut down and most of the major pro-ducers were r e s t r i c t i n g t h e i r output under a common agreement to do so. Both the Grand Forks and Greenwood smelters shut down i n l a t e 1914. The Granby Company d i d , however, keep i t s Anyox smelter i n operation, a f a c t o r which l a r g e l y o f f s e t the lower output of gold and copper from the Boundary 22 d i s t r i c t . - 85 -P r i c e s for most of the major metals remained much below normal f o r the e a r l y months of 1915. By May and June, however, the great demand fo r munitions had depleted metal stocks, and p r i c e s for copper, lead and 23 zinc rose r a p i d l y . Only s i l v e r p r i c e s remained low, with adverse ef-f e c t s on the mines of the Nelson, Slocan and Ainsworth d i v i s i o n s whose ores contained, on average, about twice the value In s i l v e r that they did i n lead. Gold p r i c e s were, of course, f i x e d . The r a p i d r i s e s i n p r i c e s f or the other metals brought about an increase i n output, an i n -crease which came l a r g e l y from those mines that were already at or near the production stage. Most mining men recognized that the high p r i c e l e v e l s were temporary and, e a r l y i n the war, with c a p i t a l i n demand f o r other purposes, the amount of new development was lower than normal. Nevertheless, by the end of 1915, some 132 mines were on the shipping l i s t , an increase of 35 per cent over the previous year. The m e t a l l i f e r -ous output f o r 1915 was the greatest i n the h i s t o r y of the province, des-p i t e the uncertain conditions which had characterized the f i r s t h a l f of the year. In the following year, another record lode output was a t t a i n e d , due to the increasing demand for war minerals and the continued high p r i c e l e v e l s . P r e d i c t i o n s that the p r i c e s would now remain high led to an increase i n new development, even though the higher costs of labour and supplies made the cost of such development high. In many areas, o l d - 86 -properties that had been abandoned or closed were re-examined, work was commenced, and i n many cases, ore shipments were made. Several new 24 concentrating m i l l s were added and the capacity of others increased. Along the coast, a number of copper properties which had l a i n i d l e f o r years were taken up under option and development begun. Copper production l e d the advance, accounting for over 55 per cent of t o t a l lode value i n 1916. The Granby Company, whose smelters at Anyox and Grand Forks operated throughout the year, alone produced about 60 per cent of the t o t a l copper output f o r the province. Moreover, the high p r i c e of copper allowed t h e i r Grand Forks plant to handle a large amount of h i g h l y s i l i c e o u s material with low values i n copper which 25 had not previously been classed as ore. The rapid and sizeable increase i n zinc production i n B r i t i s h Co-lumbia during the war was the r e s u l t of successful experiments on the complex s i l v e r - l e a d - z i n c ores of the S u l l i v a n mine, c a r r i e d out by the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company. By 1915, the company was able to put i n t o operation a commercial plant which separated the zinc out of the S u l l i v a n ore. The plant was economically f e a s i b l e at t h i s time, be-cause of the strong wartime demand f o r zinc and the attendant high p r i c e 26 of the metal. Thus, despite the shortage of smelter capacity for zi n c 27 i n North America, the output of t h i s metal i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1916 - 87 -showed an increase of 54 per cent over the quantity produced i n the pre-vious year. The high p r i c e of the metal also allowed lower grades of ore to be mined at a p r o f i t . Most of the zinc production came from the Kootenays, with the S u l l i v a n mine alone producing about 40 per cent of the t o t a l output. The production of lead and s i l v e r i n 1916 remained centered i n the Slocan, Ainsworth and Fort Steele mining d i v i s i o n s , the three areas together accounting for over 95 per cent of the t o t a l production i n lead, and f o r over 70 per cent of the s i l v e r . The output of both metals r e -mained e s s e n t i a l l y the same as i n 1915. The output of lode-gold i n 1916, and indeed throughout the war years, was considerably lower than i n the pre-war period. The high costs of labour and supplies, and the f i x e d p r i c e of gold were major f a c t o r s accounting f o r the reduced output, e s p e c i a l l y i n the case of mines that were operating p r i m a r i l y as gold producers. These adverse economic conditions f o r gold producers, together with i n d u s t r i a l troubles, a reduced demand for lead and z i n c for muni-t i o n purposes, and reduced metal p r i c e s l a t e i n the year, a l l l e d to a decreased lode-metals output for 1917. A protracted s t r i k e i n the Crows-nest coal mines forced the copper and lead smelters i n southern B r i t i s h Columbia to close for lack of f u e l , and stopped raining i n many productive areas of the province. Labour troubles also closed the mines at Rossland 28 and the smelter at T r a i l l a t e i n the year. - 88 -High prices for lead e a r l y i n 1917 so stimulated production that a surplus of the metal developed and p r i c e s f e l l . The subsequent cur-tailment of lead orders by the Imperial Munitions Board forced the T r a i l smelter to decrease i t s output of that metal. This reduced throughput at the T r a i l smelter also adversely a f f e c t e d the output of s i l v e r f o r the year since a great p o r t i o n of that metal s t i l l came from the argentiferous galenas of the Slocan and Fort Steele areas. Copper, which accounted f o r 60 per cent of a l l m e t a l l i c produc-t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1917, also experienced a decline In the year, due l a r g e l y to the curtailment of smelting a c t i v i t y i n the Boundary country that was not o f f s e t by increased production i n the major mines along the coast ( i . e . Anyox and B r i t a n n i a ) . In September, the War Indus-t r i e s Board of the United States f i x e d the p r i c e of copper at 23.5C a pound but, while t h i s was about 9 cents a pound lower than i n February of the year, i t was s u f f i c i e n t l y high not to a f f e c t production l e v e l s . , 29 s e r i o u s l y . Conditions for most of 1918 were e s s e n t i a l l y the same as i n the previous year, although the labour d i f f i c u l t i e s that had s e r i o u s l y a f f e c -ted production i n 1917 were l a r g e l y eliminated. With the exception of z i n c , which r e g i s t e r e d a f r a c t i o n a l d ecline i n 1918, a l l the major metals recorded s l i g h t advances i n output. With the signing of the armistice - 89 -i n November, 1918, however, conditions would change s i g n i f i c a n t l y . During the war, the lode-mining industry had, i n general, ex-perienced considerable expansion under the influence of i n f l a t e d p r i c e s and s i z e a b l e demand. Between 1915 and 1918, an average of 167 mines shipped every year. The peak i n the number of shipping mines (193) was reached i n 1917 when the United States entered the war, a t o t a l that would not be exceeded u n t i l the l a t e 1930's. Copper and zinc pro-duction reached new record l e v e l s . S i l v e r , under the stimulus of high p r i c e s caused l a r g e l y by increased demands f o r coinage, attained produc-t i o n l e v e l s not equalled since the turn of the century. Both gold and lead declined over the war years, for reasons noted e a r l i e r . The expansion during the war was, moreover, not l i m i t e d to the major metals discussed above. Indeed, since the beginning of the war, there had been a s t e a d i l y growing demand f o r a number of other "war met-30 a l s . Some of these metals, such as molybdenum, manganese, antimony and chromite were known to e x i s t i n B r i t i s h Columbia. From 1914 onwards, attempts were made to mine them, and some shipments were made. In 1914, molybdenum was discovered at Lost Creek near Salmo and, f o r two years, small shipments were sent to an American concentrating 31 company at Denver, Colorado. The market requirements were such that molybdenum ore had to be concentrated to about 85 per cent molybdenite - 90 -(M0S2) before i t could be s o l d , and none of the mines which produced the ore i n B r i t i s h Columbia had s u i t a b l e concentrating m i l l s . In 1916, small shipments were sent from mines at Lost Creek, A l i c e Arm, L i l l o o e t and Keremeos to a government m i l l i n Ottawa. In the following year, the Federal Government relaxed r e s t r i c t i o n s on the export of molybdenum ore to the United States, where the p r i c e of the metal was double that i n 32 Canada. The change, however, did l i t t l e to stimulate production. By the middle of 1918, the market had collapsed and molybdenum mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia would remain dormant u n t i l the 1960's. Small q u a n t i t i e s of antimony were shipped from the Alps-Alturas property on Carpenter Creek i n the Slocan mining d i v i s i o n i n 1915 and 1916, while p r i c e s were high. By the end of 1916, however, increased world production, e s p e c i a l l y from China, brought about a r a p i d drop i n p r i c e , and no further shipments were recorded i n B r i t i s h Columbia during 33 the war. A manganese deposit at the Curie Manganese property near Kaslo was developed i n 1917 and, with the r e l a x a t i o n of embargo r e s t r i c t i o n s on shipping the ore to the United States, some 15 car-loads of ore were shipped. Further small shipments were made from the Curie group and from H i l l 60 at Cowichan Lake, but by 1920, the b r i e f h i s t o r y of manganese min-34 ing i n B r i t i s h Columbia was over. A deposit of chromite near Cascade i n the Grand Forks mining d i v i s i o n was worked i n 1918, and about 800 tons of chromite ore were - 91 -35 shipped the following year. A deposit on S c o t t i e Creek near C l i n t o n was opened i n the same year, but the market f o r chromite disappeared 36 and no f u r t h e r production occurred. Aside from a few hundred tons of i r o n ore shipped from the south coast to a b l a s t furnace at Irondale, Washington, no i r o n ore was pro-37 duced i n B r i t i s h Columbia during the war years. The Post-War Years: 1919 to 1921 The impact of peace on the lode-mining industry of B r i t i s h Colum-b i a was s i g n i f i c a n t . For some time a f t e r the armistice was concluded, the market for copper, lead and zi n c v i r t u a l l y disappeared. As the Pro-v i n c i a l Minerologist noted, "the market f o r what are commonly c a l l e d 'war minerals' i s p r a c t i c a l l y non-existent, and quotations cannot be obtained 38 as the future demand f o r such materials i s unknown." Of the s o - c a l l e d "war metals", copper was p a r t i c u l a r l y hard h i t . The end of the war found a l l the A l l i e d nations with large inventories of copper and no further demand f o r war supplies. In 1919 i t was estima-ted that the stocks on hand were, i n f a c t , s u f f i c i e n t to supply the demands on a peace-time b a s i s for about two years without further production from 39 the mines. This s i t u a t i o n was accompanied i n B r i t i s h Columbia by the f a c t that a number of major copper mines, whose ore bodies were r a p i d l y con-sumed during the war, were nearing exhaustion. Furthermore, with the f a l l - 92 -i n copper p r i c e s from 26 cents a pound i n l a t e 1918 to l e s s than 15 cents a pound i n e a r l y 1919, and with no drop i n mining and treatment costs, a number of major closures took place. Towards the end of 1918, the Canadian Copper Corporation closed i t s smelter at Greenwood, the ores at the company's Mother Lode mine being exhausted. The Granby Company's mines at Phoenix were unable to keep the company's Grand Forks smelter operating at f u l l capacity i n 1918. In ad d i t i o n , l i t t l e margin of p r o f i t was possible from the low-grade Phoenix mines and, during 1918, the old Phoenix mine had been run 40 "more from p a t r i o t i s m than from hope of p r o f i t . " E a r l y i n 1919 the mine and smelter were closed, a f t e r having produced f o r almost two decades. The company kept i t s Anyox smelter i n operation, but at a s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower l e v e l of production. The copper market remained i n a "thoroughly demoralized co n d i t i o n " throughout 1919, due l a r g e l y to delays i n s e t t l i n g the peace terms and to the slowness with which the expected rejuvenation of the peace-time i n -41 dustries took place. By year end, t o t a l p r o v i n c i a l copper production had f a l l e n to some 42,000,000 pounds, a decrease of over 30 per cent from the 1918 output. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t to note, however, that some 88 per cent of t h i s output came from the coastal region. With the decreased out-put and subsequent closure of the Boundary copper mines, the coast had become, and would remain, the centre of the copper-mining industry i n B r i t i s h Columbia. - 93 -During 1920 and 1921 the demoralized condition of the copper market continued, p r i c e s for copper remained low, and the costs of min-ing and t r e a t i n g ores remained high. For 1921, the copper mines of B r i t i s h Columbia produced some 39,000,000 pounds of the metal, the low-est output since 1911. Immediately a f t e r the war, the world lead market was i n a de-pressed condition s i m i l a r to that for copper. Stocks of the metal were 42 high, and p r a c t i c a l l y no sales took place. In 1919, lead production f e l l to i t s second lowest output since 1903. In 1920, a number of mines 43 throughout the province were forced to c u r t a i l t h e i r output, although production increased by some 33 per cent over 1919, most of this* coming from the increased output of Consolidated's S u l l i v a n mine. Unlike the case of copper-mining, the war had not a l t e r e d the centre of lead pro-duction i n the province. In 1921, over 90 per cent of the metal was produced i n the Fort Steele mining d i v i s i o n of East Kootenay, much of t h i s coming from the S u l l i v a n mine. In general, the world market f o r zinc was not as much a f f e c t e d as the copper and lead markets by the t r a n s i t i o n from war to peace-time conditions. Production of the metal i n B r i t i s h Columbia had increased almost s t e a d i l y since 1911, reaching i t s highest output ever i n 1919. A minor setback, however, was recorded i n 1920 and 1921 when some uncer-t a i n t y as to the production of the metal was f e l t throughout North - 94 -America. A f t e r 1921, however, zinc production would again begin i t s r i s e i n B r i t i s h Columbia, due l a r g e l y to the S u l l i v a n mine at Kimberley which dominated the p r o v i n c i a l production. As f a r as the precious metals were concerned, both gold and s i l v e r production declined i n the post-war period. The high p r i c e f or s i l v e r which obtained during 1919 aided those mines i n which the ore contained a high value i n s i l v e r , notably i n the Slocan. However, the general de-c l i n e of other metals, from which most of the s i l v e r was produced as a by-product, l e d to a drop i n the quantity produced. In 1920, the p r i c e of the metal f e l l from a high of $1.32 an ounce i n January to only 65 45 cents i n December. The lower p r i c e of s i l v e r continued i n 1921, and s i l v e r production i n that year reached i t s lowest l e v e l since 1911. High costs and a f i x e d p r i c e adversely a f f e c t e d gold output i n B r i t i s h Columbia throughout the war and i n the post-war years. In 1919 the closure of the Granby mines and smelter i n the Boundary D i s t r i c t s e r i o u s l y affected gold production since, i n former years, the gold values of the copper ores had made s i g n i f i c a n t contributions to t o t a l gold pro-46 duction. This decrease was only p a r t l y o f f s e t by the new Premier mine i n the Portland Canal area and by the D o l l y Varden on A l i c e Arm. In 1920 the N i c k e l Plate mine at Hedley. the major stamp-milling producer i n B r i t i s h Columbia, was also closed. In the following year, lode-gold pro-duction was only 135,663 ounces, the second lowest output since 1898. - 95 -Major Changes Within the Industry: 1906-1921 Having examined the performance of the lode-mining industry i n a r e l a t i v e l y complex period of i t s development, i t i s necessary now to i d e n t i f y the major changes which occurred w i t h i n the industry during t h i s period. By i s o l a t i n g these changes, i t w i l l be possible to e x p l a i n the s p a t i a l s h i f t s which took place between 1905 and 1921, and to suggest why the industry was i n a h e a l t h i e r condition i n 1921 than i n d i c a t e d by the l e v e l s of output f o r that year. One of the major changes which occurred between 1905 and 1921 was the d e c l i n e or exhaustion of several ore-bodies whose output had contribu-ted s i g n i f i c a n t l y to lode-metal production i n the province. Mines such as the Tyee, the Phoenix, and the S i l v e r King were worked out i n t h i s period. A second major change was the emergence of large corporations i n the industry. In the f i r s t decade of the twentieth century, the impending decline of major ore-bodies which supported the southern i n t e r i o r smelters led to a number of business consolidations, of which the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada and the Granby Consolidated Mining, Smelting and Power Company were of major importance. Over the next de-cade, the Consolidated Company had acquired a number of mines, expanded operations at the T r a i l smelter, and transformed the S u l l i v a n mine from a small s i l v e r - l e a d mine i n t o the major s i l v e r - l e a d - z i n c producer i n the - 96 -province. A s i m i l a r program of expansion was followed by the Granby Company, which acquired several mines during the period and b u i l t an a d d i t i o n a l smelter. The period between 1905 and 1921 also saw a number of technologi c a l innovations i n mining and m e t a l l u r g i c a l p r a c t i c e . Several mines i n -troduced mechanical mucking machines which allowed a l a r g e - s c a l e extrac-t i o n of broken ore. The use of compressed-air d r i l l s f o r underground work and diamond d r i l l s f o r the blocking-out of ore-bodies became more prevalent during t h i s period. The major m e t a l l u r g i c a l advance during t h i s period was the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the f l o t a t i o n process f o r ore concen t r a t i o n . The adoption of t h i s process at the B r i t a n n i a mine i n the pre-war years ensured the continued operation of the mine despite the exhaus t i o n of high-grade copper ores. The adaptation of the f l o t a t i o n process to the complex S u l l i v a n ores during the war was the major reason behind the expansion of t h i s mine. The S p a t i a l Pattern of Production: 1921 The d i s t r i b u t i o n of shipping mines i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1929 (Maps 9 and 10), although representing a point i n time when metal market were h i g h l y depressed, i l l u s t r a t e s the major s p a t i a l s h i f t s which occurred between 1905 and 1921. The reasons f o r the s p a t i a l s h i f t s were on the whole, c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the major i n t e r n a l changes which charac t e r i z e d the industry over the period. - 97 -MAP 9 BRITISH COLUMBIA MINES SHIPPING 1921 (THOUSANDS OF TONS) •> 1,000 P A C I F I C O C f A N For area in inset see Map 10. Source: Annual Report of the Minister of Mines, 1921; Unpublished production records, Department of Mines, Victoria. - 98 -MAP 10 S O U T H E A S T E R N BRITISH C O L U M B I A 0 1 0 » MILES For explanation of symbols = H H B H a see main map legend - 99 -A new centre of copper mining and smelting had emerged on the north coast. The development of t h i s complex was due s o l e l y to the e f f o r t s of the Granby Company who, a f t e r acquiring the Hidden Creek copper deposits, vigorously developed these ore bodies and b u i l t a smel-ter on Observatory I n l e t . Another major change was the dec l i n e of the Boundary D i s t r i c t as a major copper-producing region, a de c l i n e hastened by the high l e v e l s of output maintained during the war. There was s t i l l copper i n the de-po s i t s of the Boundary area, as t h e i r rejuvenation at a l a t e r date would i n d i c a t e , but i n terms of the economic and technological conditions which prevaile d by 1919 and 1920, the mines were exhausted and production v i r -t u a l l y ceased. The o l d mining camps at Rossland and at Toad Mountain south of Nelson had also declined over t h i s period. Their low l e v e l s of production i n 1921 r e f l e c t e d not only poor market conditions, but also the exhaustion of the major mines which had been worked since the 1890's. Indeed, i n 1921, the Nelson area was i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n terms of output. The C o n s o l i -dated Mining and Smelting Company continued to operate some of i t s o r i g i -n a l mines i n the Rossland camp, such as the Center Star, but production was considerably lower than i t had been i n 1905. Elsewhere i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the southern part of the East Kootenay continued i t s domination of s i l v e r and lead production, and by - 1 0 0 -1921 i t had become the major zi n c producing region i n the province as w e l l . The Slocan-Ainsworth area continued to y i e l d considerable quan-t i t i e s of s i l v e r and lead, for the most part from a large number of small mines. The south c o a s t a l area remained an important copper produ-cer throughout the period, l a r g e l y because of the expanding output of the B r i t a n n i a mine on Howe Sound. The Belmont-Surf I n l e t mine on the coast south of Prince Rupert had become a s i z e a b l e producer by 1921, y i e l d i n g considerable q u a n t i t i e s of copper and s i l v e r , and about 27 per cent of the lode-gold produced i n the province during the year. A comparison of the maps f o r 1905 (Maps 7 and 8) and 1921 (Maps 9 and 10) also reveals the changes i n the s p a t i a l pattern of smelters. Some of the p l a n t s , such as those at Nelson and i n the Boundary d i s t r i c t , had closed with the exhaustion of t h e i r p r i n c i p a l supporting mines. The smelters on the lower coast closed f o r s i m i l a r reasons, although the construction of a l a r g e r and more e f f i c i e n t plant at Tacoma i n 1906 had hastened t h e i r demise. The smelter at M a r y s v i l l e closed, as noted ear-l i e r , when the ores from the S u l l i v a n mine were diverted to T r a i l . The only smelter b u i l t i n B r i t i s h Columbia during t h i s period was the plant at Anyox, blown i n i n 1914 to tr e a t the extensive copper deposits at the Granby Company's Hidden Creek mines. By 1921, therefore, only two smelters were operating i n B r i t i s h Columbia, a s i t u a t i o n that would per-s i s t u n t i l the 1930's. - 101 -Between 1905 and 1921, then, there had been a number of geogra-p h i c a l s h i f t s i n the mining and smelting of lode-metals i n B r i t i s h Columbia. With the important exception of the expansion of a c t i v i t y i n t o the north co a s t a l area, most of these s h i f t s were i n a r e l a t i v e l y narrow b e l t along the southern part of the province between the coast and the Rocky Mountains. Conclusions The period between 1905 and 1921 was one i n which the production of lode-metals was strongly influenced by a number of changes which occurred both w i t h i n and outside the industry. Production of most me-t a l s fluctuated under the influence of changes i n external markets, a f a c t o r evident p a r t i c u l a r l y during and a f t e r World War I. By 1921, the generally poor world economic conditions had forced the production of lode-metals i n B r i t i s h Columbia to a very low l e v e l . The t o t a l value of lode-metal output i n that year was only $12,925,448, a f i g u r e over $2,000,000 below that of 1905. (See Figures 2 and 3). Some metals had experienced growth over t h i s period, but at a rate lower than i n the previous one. Other metals had experienced a de c l i n e . Both trends were l a r g e l y due to the decline of a number of major mines, to an increasing d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g new mines, and to the greater c a p i t a l expenditure needed to bring such mines in t o production. - 102 -FIGURE 3 COMPOSITION OF LODE-METAL PRODUCTION BRITISH COLUMBIA 1921 Copper 37.7% Gold 21.7% Zinc 15.1% S i l v e r 12.37o -Iron Ore 0.1% Lead 13.1% Total Value of Production - $12,925,448.00 Average Prices 1921 Copper 12.50 cents/pound Lead 4.09 cents/pound Zinc 3.95 cents/pound S i l v e r 59.52 cents/ounce Gold $20.67/ounce Iron Ore $ 5.00/ton Source: Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1921. - 103 -While the industry was unable to exert c o n t r o l over the f l u c t u a -tions i n external markets, i t could, and d i d , respond to the new condi-tions of mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia which developed between 1905 and 1921. The response took the form of corporate c o n s o l i d a t i o n s , the impor-tance of which was considerable. These la r g e , well-managed, and w e l l -financed companies were better able to f i n d and develop new mines, as i n the case of Granby and the Hidden Creek complex. The new companies were able to expand production at e x i s t i n g mines through the a p p l i c a t i o n of new m e t a l l u r g i c a l techniques as, for example, at the B r i t a n n i a and S u l l i -van mines. F i n a l l y , the major companies were better able to withstand, at l e a s t over the short-term, the e f f e c t s of adverse market conditions. The l a t t e r point i s w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d by the a c t i v i t y of the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company i n 1921. In that year, the company produced a record output of lead and zinc at the T r a i l smelter, despite the poor market Conditions which p r e v a i l e d . This production was i n part the r e s u l t of the m e t a l l u r g i c a l advances mentioned e a r l i e r , but was also due to the a b i l i t y of the company to finance the c a r r y i n g of large accumula-47 ted metal stocks i n times of low market demand. In short, the lode-mining industry i n 1921, i n terms of output, was at a low point. S p a t i a l l y , the industry was s t i l l concentrated i n the southern part of the province and along the coast. That l i t t l e pro-duction occurred i n the i n t e r i o r of the province, and that the only major - 1 0 4 -geographical expansion was along the coast, suggests that the r o l e of transport costs continued to be of major importance. Nevertheless, the technological and organizational developments which occurred between 1905 and 1921 placed the lode-mining industry i n a strong p o s i t i o n f or more e f f i c i e n t and l a r g e - s c a l e operations i n times of steady or expanding de-mand f o r metals. - 105 -FOOTNOTES. 1. Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada Limited, The  Comiricd Story, T r a i l , 1953, p. 5. 2. J.S. Church, Mining Companies i n the West Kootenay D i s t r i c t of  B r i t i s h Columbia, 1890-1900, Vancouver, U.B.C, Unpublished M.A. Thesis, 1961, pp. v - v i . 3. Margaret A. Ormsby, British'Columbia: A H i s t o r y , Toronto, Macmillan, 1958, p. 341. 4. Paul A. Samuelson and Anthony Scott, Economics: An Introductory  A n a l y s i s , Toronto, McGraw-Hill, 1968, p. 783. 5. Harold A. Innis, "Settlement and the Mining F r o n t i e r , " Canadian  F r o n t i e r s of Settlement, ed. W.A. Mackintosh and W.L.G. Joerg, Toronto, Macmillan, 1936, V o l . IX, Part I I , p. 295. 6. John D. Galloway, Lode-Gold Deposits of B r i t i s h Columbia, B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Mines, B u l l e t i n No. 1, 1932, V i c t o r i a , King's P r i n t e r , 1932, p. 8. 7. B r i t i s h Columbia, Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines f o r 1913, V i c t o r i a , King's P r i n t e r , 1913, p. K23. Hereafter c i t e d as Annual Report  of the M i n i s t e r of Mines. 8. When the London market p r i c e f o r lead rose, the Dominion Government bounty on lead was proportionately reduced, and v i c e - v e r s a . See Annual 9. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1913, P- K25. 10. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1907, P- L22. 11. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1905, P- J165. 12. Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada Limited, The Story of the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada Limited, T r a i l , 1938, p. 3. 13 . J.S. Church, op_. c i t . , p. v i . - 106 -14. Mining and Engineering Record, V o l . 29, No. 2 (February, 1926), p. 23. 15. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1912, p. K201. 16. William H. White, " H i s t o r i c a l Outline of B.C. Mining," Western  Miner and O i l Review, V o l . 34, No. 6 (June, 1961), p. 23; N.D. McKechnie, "The Mineral Industry i n B r i t i s h Columbia," Canadian Geographical  Journ a l. V o l . 78, No. 3 (March, 1969), p. 78. 17. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1906, p. H26. 18. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1914, p. K145. 19. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1914, p. K143. 20. See I b i d . , p. K148, and A l v i n Kaufman, Southeastern Alaska's Mineral Industry, United States Department of the I n t e r i o r , Bureau of Mines, Information C i r c u l a r 7844, Washington, 1958. 21. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1914, p. K16. 22. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1915, p. K15. 23. C l e a r l y , wars were not won with s i l v e r b u l l e t s . Unlike other m e t a l s , s i l v e r declined i n p r i c e owing to the e f f e c t s of the war on the market. The chief demand for s i l v e r came from the Far East, and as there were some disturbances i n China, the demand was l e s s than normal. S i l v e r f o r use i n the arts was l e s s i n demand i n Europe than i n former years, as a r e s u l t of the war. On the other hand, there was a greater demand f o r s i l v e r f o r coinage purposes. See Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of  Mines, 1915, pp. K15 and K23. 24. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1916, p. K16. 25. I b i d . , p. K24. 26. A.F. Flucke, "A History of Mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia," Transac- tions of the Eighth B r i t i s h Columbia Natural Resources Conference, V i c -t o r i a , 1955, p. 21. 27. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1916, p. K25. 28. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1917, p. F15. - 107 -29. I b i d . , p. F24. 30. I b i d . , p. F26. 31. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1914, P- K27. 32. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1917, P' F26. 33. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1916, P- K26. 34. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1920, P- N24. 35. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1918, P- K25. 36. Wartime in t e r r u p t i o n s i n shipping forced f o r e i g n chromium ores o f f the North American market i n 1917. Because the mineral was e s s e n t i a l i n the production of munitions, demand became urgent, and i n the l a t t e r h a l f of 1917 and the f i r s t h a l f of 1918, a p r i c e of $1.20 a pound ruled f o r ores containing only 40 per cent chromic oxide (Cr„0^). By October, 1918, more 40 per cent ore was being offered than could Be absorbed by Eastern United States markets. The grade of the B r i t i s h Columbia deposit was only s l i g h t l y above 40 per cent. See Canada, Munition Resources Commis-sion, F i n a l Report, Toronto, I n d u s t r i a l and Technical Press, 1920, pp. 40-44. 37. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1918, P- K25. 38. I b i d . , p. K16. 39. I b i d . , p. K23. 40. I b i d . , p. K23. 41. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1919, P- N15. 42. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1918, PP . K22, K24. 43. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1920, P. N22. 44. I b i d . , p. N23. 45. I b i d . , p. N21. Labour d i f f i c u l t i e s with the i One Big Union also contributed to the decreased output. 46. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1919, P- N20. 47. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1921, P« G122. - 108 -CHAPTER VI THE SECOND MINING BOOM: 1922-1929 The period 1922 to 1929 saw a steady expansion of output f o r most metals i n B r i t i s h Columbia, r e f l e c t i n g the recovery of world markets from post-war dis o r g a n i z a t i o n . Expansion of output was not, however, p a r a l l e l e d by a geographic expansion of producing mines i n t o new areas of the province. On the whole, those d i s t r i c t s , and indeed the same mines, which were major contributors to lode-metal tonnages i n the e a r l y 1920's were s t i l l the major contributors at the end of the decade. Hence, the expansion i n the lode-metal mining industry i n t h i s period was very much an expansion of major producers, operated by well-financed and w e l l -managed companies such as B r i t a n n i a , Granby, and Consolidated. The year 1922 saw a general recovery of the mineral industry throughout the world from the d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n of markets i n the immediate post-war period.^ Although conditions i n Europe were s t i l l decidedly unsettled, the consumption of metals d i d increase s l i g h t l y . In North America, the greatly overstocked markets which accounted f o r the depressed metal p r i c e s i n 1921 were somewhat r e l i e v e d , and p r i c e s f o r most of the major metals increased s t e a d i l y throughout 1922. In B r i t i s h Columbia, with the costs of mining d e c l i n i n g over the year, a l l metals except copper registered s u b s t a n t i a l increases i n output. Copper production - 109 -would have increased, had i t not been f o r the fa c t that the B r i t a n n i a 2 mine, a major producer, was i n a c t i v e during the year. The expansion i n output during 1922 was, i n general, character-i s t i c of the period from 1922 to 1930. In almost every year the major metals recorded new record outputs, reaching by 1929 or 1930 t h e i r greatest outputs since the beginning of the industry. Only gold e x p e r i -enced a d e c l i n e , coming a f t e r 1924, f o r reasons noted l a t e r . The expansion of production which occurred between 1922 and 1929, the major f a c t o r s which accounted for t h i s expansion, and the geographi-c a l pattern which emerged, are best i l l u s t r a t e d by t r e a t i n g the second mining boom on the ba s i s of the i n d i v i d u a l metals produced over the period. Lead and Zinc During the period from 1922 to 1929, lead and zinc exhibited the greatest growth. Over 302,000,000 pounds of lead were produced i n 1929, an increase of almost 350 per cent over i t s 1922 l e v e l . In the same period, zinc output had r i s e n by 200 per cent to a production of over 172,000,000 pounds. This growth i n lead and zi n c was due almost s o l e l y to the e f f o r t s of the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company i n en-l a r g i n g i t s operations at the S u l l i v a n mine and at the T r a i l smelter. S i g n i f i c a n t production at the S u l l i v a n mine had been p o s s i b l e only a f t e r a s e r i e s of m e t a l l u r g i c a l experiments had provided the s o l u -t i o n to the complex s i l v e r - l e a d - z i n c ores of the mine. (See Chapter V). - 110 -P r i o r to 1915, the S u l l i v a n had been p r i m a r i l y a s i l v e r - l e a d producer with ores high i n these two metals and low i n zi n c being mined and 3 shipped to T r a i l . A f t e r the s u c c e s s f u l separation of the complex ores was achieved during the war, and the d i f f e r e n t i a l f l o t a t i o n process for 4 lead concentration was adopted i n 1920, the output of the S u l l i v a n i n -creased r a p i d l y and was p a r a l l e l e d by the expansion and improvement of m i l l i n g and smelting operations at the S u l l i v a n - T r a i l complex. In 1923, a new concentrator f o r the preliminary treatment of s i l v e r - l e a d - z i n c ores was put into operation at Kimberley,"' and two years l a t e r i t was enlarged to handle 4000 tons a day. At T r a i l the e l e c t r o l y t i c zinc p l a n t , f i r s t operated i n 1916, was expanded i n 1924, 1927, and again i n 1929. The lead plant also went through a s e r i e s of expansions, i n 1924, 1926, and 1927. In 1926, the concentrator at T r a i l was i t s e l f enlarged, and i n the following year a cadmium plant was i n s t a l l e d . A bismuth plant was added i n 1928, and a slag-fuming plant to recover zinc from the slag of the lead b l a s t furnace was completed i n 1930. These and other expansions and additions to the Consolidated operation had, as e a r l y as 1925, made the T r a i l plant the l a r g e s t non-ferrous smelter i n the world, and the S u l l i v a n mine at Kimberley, the world's l a r g e s t lead and zi n c mine.^ In 1929, the production of r e f i n e d lead and zinc at T r a i l was almost 50,000,000 pounds,^ the bulk of t h i s coming from the company's S u l l i v a n mine. The dominance of t h i s one large mine i s c l e a r l y r e f l e c t e d i n the output f o r lead and zinc f o r the Fort Steele Mining D i v i s i o n dur-ing t h i s period. In almost every year between 1922 and 1929, with produc-t i o n l e v e l s r i s i n g as noted e a r l i e r , the D i v i s i o n produced over 90 per cent of the t o t a l p r o v i n c i a l output of lead and zin c . In 1929, 95 per cent of both metals were credited to the Fort Steele D i v i s i o n and, there-g f o r e , almost s o l e l y to the S u l l i v a n mine. The remainder of the lead and zinc production i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n t h i s period came almost t o t a l l y from the Slocan and Ainsworth d i s -t r i c t s , whose mines were favourably a f f e c t e d by the improvement and ex-pansion of f a c i l i t i e s at the T r a i l smelter. The completion of a customs plant f o r zinc ores i n 1922 was of major importance since i t provided a l o c a l market f o r zinc ores and concentrates, many of which had e a r l i e r been shipped to American smelters.^ A further a i d to the s i l v e r - l e a d -mines was provided i n 1929, when the Consolidated abolished the zinc penalties on lead ores.''"0 From 1922 to 1929, the Slocan and Ainsworth d i v i s i o n s together accounted f o r an annual production of some 5 per cent of B r i t i s h Columbia's lead, and about 8 per cent of the z i n c . Copper Once the B r i t a n n i a mine on Howe Sound came back in t o production i n 1923, copper production i n B r i t i s h Columbia exhibited an expansion s i m i l a r to that of lead and zin c . In 1929 the copper output of the mines - 112 -was about 101,000,000 pounds, an Increase of about 200 per cent over the 1922 l e v e l , and the highest output ever recorded.''"''" The impetus to t h i s growth was provided by a recovery of markets i n Europe, an expansion of markets i n the United States, i n i t i a l l y spurred by an a d v e r t i s i n g cam-paign f o r the more extensive use of the metal, and by a r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e p r i c e l e v e l . As i n the case of the other base metals, the r i s e i n copper pro-duction was v i r t u a l l y synonomous with the expansion of major mines or, at l e a s t , of major companies. During the dismal period following the war, the large producers had been forced to make economies "they had not r e -cognized as p o s s i b l e , " and, as the market began to recover, such producers 12 were i n a strong p o s i t i o n to expand. Moreover, throughout the 1920's the large copper mines of the Province were brought up to a high state 13 of e f f i c i e n c y , with modern equipment r e s u l t i n g In lower costs. Between 1922 and 1929, copper production remained c e n t r a l i z e d i n the north and south c o a s t a l regions, although a f t e r the mid-1920's, the Copper Mountain mine near Princeton made an important c o n t r i b u t i o n to the t o t a l output. The gold-copper ores of the Rossland area, which had s i g -n i f i c a n t l y added to p r o v i n c i a l copper production i n e a r l i e r years, had by about 1925 temporarily passed i n t o h i s t o r y , despite heroic and unsuccess-f u l e f f o r t s by the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company to achieve an economic concentration of the large tonnages of low-grade ores s t i l l - 113 -remaining i n the company's mines. The dominance of a few major mines i n the production of copper i s shown i n Table 1. TABLE 1 MAJOR COPPER MINES PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL OUTPUT: 1922-1929 Mine 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 Hidden Creek 93.0 57.0 54.0 55.0 43.0 41.0 35.4 36.0 B r i t a n n i a - 38.0 37.0 38.0 35.0 38.0 42.0 41.4 Copper Mountain* - - - 5.0 20.0 20.0 21.8 22.2 T o t a l 93.0 95.0 91.0 98.0 98.0 99.0 99.2 99.6 *The Allenby Copper Company, operators of the Copper Mountain mine, was merged with the Granby Company on October 1, 1926. Hence, while the B r i t a n n i a mine was the larges t producer by 1929, the Granby i n t e r e s t s produced over 58 per cent of the t o t a l copper output i n the province. See Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1929, p. A219. The output of copper between 1922 and 1924 which d i d not come from the B r i t a n n i a or Hidden Creek mines was l a r g e l y the product of a few mines on the coast and i n the Rossland area. The Indian Chief mine on the west coast of Vancouver Island shared the balance of the copper production i n 1922 about equally with the Belmont-Surf I n l e t mine on Princess Royal Island with some producers i n the o l d Rossland camp."^ The same mines contributed about 5 per cent of the t o t a l output i n 1923, and about 9 per cent i n the following year. - 114 -In 1925, the Consolidated Company blew i n a copper furnace to handle the accumulated concentrates and ores from the comapny's Rossland properties and to t r e a t the concentrates from the Copper Mountain mine, for which the Consolidated had the smelting contract. A f t e r 1928, how-ever, when the Granby Company switched i t s Copper Mountain shipments from T r a i l to T a c o m a , a n d when the Rossland properties were c l e a r l y exhausted, the T r a i l smelter ceased to accept copper ores."^ S i l v e r Although s i l v e r production i n B r i t i s h Columbia between 1922 and 1929 decreased i n some years, the trend i n output was c l e a r l y upward. In 1929, some 9,900,000 ounces were produced by the mines of the province, an increase of about 40 per cent over 1922, and of 270 per cent over 1921. The o v e r a l l r i s i n g production of s i l v e r was due i n large part to the very great increases i n the output of base metals, with which s i l v e r was asso-c i a t e d . Although the p r i c e of s i l v e r f l u c t u a t e d considerably i n the early 1920's and trended s t e a d i l y downward i n the l a t e r years of the de-cade, such lower p r i c e s had only a l i m i t e d e f f e c t on s i l v e r production. In B r i t i s h Columbia, approximately 80 per cent of the s i l v e r came from mines i n which the s i l v e r value of the ores was of l e s s importance than 18 other metals such as gold, copper, lead and z i n c . Thus, lower s i l v e r p r i c e s l e d to decreased revenue f o r such mines, but they did not generally c u r t a i l production, at l e a s t while the p r i c e s of the co-produced metals - 115 -were high. Lower s i l v e r p r i c e s d i d , however, adversely a f f e c t those mines i n which s i l v e r values were high. In 1927, for example, the s i l v e r output from the Slocan mines was l e s s than h a l f that produced i n the previous year, a decline brought about l a r g e l y by the f a l l i n s i l v e r 19 p r i c e s during 1927. As might be expected given the by-product nature of s i l v e r min-ing, the geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n of s i l v e r production during t h i s period was considerably more dispersed than that exhibited by the base metals. The areas of major importance were the north coast (Portland Canal and Nass River Mining D i v i s i o n s ) , the Slocan (Slocan and Slocan C i t y Mining D i v i s i o n s ) , and the southern part of the East Kootenay (Fort Steele Min-ing D i v i s i o n ) . In the e a r l y years of the 1920's the Premier mine, a g o l d - s i l v e r producer near Stewart, was the l a r g e s t i n d i v i d u a l s i l v e r pro-ducer i n B r i t i s h Columbia, y i e l d i n g some 3,340,000 ounces annually be-tween 1922 and 1924. This represented about 46 per cent of the t o t a l pro-v i n c i a l output for the three-year period. Also i n the north c o a s t a l region, the Hidden Creek mine of the Granby Company, although p r i m a r i l y a copper producer, contributed between three and seven per cent of the p r o v i n c i a l s i l v e r output i n the years between 1922 and 1929. In the East Kootenay, the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Com-pany's S u l l i v a n mine, which had come to dominate lead and z i n c production over the period, had also become the l a r g e s t s i l v e r producer i n B r i t i s h Columbia by 1925. In the following year i t was the l a r g e s t s i l v e r pro-- 116 -20 ducer i n Canada. Between 1922 and 1929, t h i s mine s t e a d i l y increased i t s output of s i l v e r , and by 1929, i t accounted f o r over 50 per cent of the t o t a l p r o v i n c i a l output. The remainder of the s i l v e r produced i n B r i t i s h Columbia came from a large number of much smaller mines, many of which were located i n the Slocan. The Slocan mines produced an average of 11 per cent of the province's s i l v e r between 1922 and 1929, although i n some years when s i l v e r p r i c e s were low, t h e i r output was s u b s t a n t i a l l y reduced. In 1927, for example, they accounted for only 3.8 per cent of the s i l v e r output. S i l v e r was also produced i n varying amounts from se v e r a l other areas, among which the Greenwood, Omenica, and Vancouver Mining D i v i s i o n s were p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t . By 1929, the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s i l v e r pro-21 duction i n B r i t i s h Columbia was as shown i n Table 2 TABLE 2 DISTRIBUTION OF SILVER PRODUCTION: 1929 Mining D i v i s i o n Per Cent of B.C. T o t a l Fort Steele 51.0 Portland Canal 24.0 Slocan 9.7 Greenwood 4.5 Nass River 2.9 Omineca 2.6 Vancouver 2.0 S imilkameen 1.7 Ainsworth 0.9 Nelson 0.2 A l l others 0.5 As these figures i n d i c a t e , much of the production came from only three areas. In two of these three areas, output was l a r g e l y from a s i n g l e major mine. Gold Lode-gold production i n B r i t i s h Columbia, as elsewhere i n the world, had been adversely a f f e c t e d i n the immediate post-war period by r i s i n g costs of production and a standard p r i c e f o r the product. During 22 the 1920's, the p r i c e of f i n e gold remained f i x e d at $20.67 an ounce, and while production costs declined for mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n general, r e l a t i v e l y high costs were s t i l l frequently c i t e d as a major 23 handicap to the expansion of gold production. Between 1922 and 1924, lode-gold production rose to reach l e v e l s i t had c o n s i s t e n t l y maintained from the turn of the century u n t i l the F i r s t World War. For the remainder of the 1920's, however, output de-c l i n e d s t e a d i l y . By 1929, i t was only 20 per cent above i t s l e v e l at the beginning of the decade. The h i g h l y f l u c t u a t i n g and downward trend-ing gold output was the r e s u l t of three major f a c t o r s . F i r s t l y , a s i g -n i f i c a n t percentage of the gold produced was a by-product from base-metal mines and was, therefore, subject to y e a r l y f l u c t u a t i o n s according 24 to the grade of ore treated. Secondly, one of the major lode-gold producing areas of B r i t i s h Columbia, the Rossland gold-copper camp, de-c l i n e d throughout the 1920's and was v i r t u a l l y exhausted by the l a t e r - 118 -years of the decade. F i n a l l y , no new major gold mines came into produc-t i o n between 1922 and 1929, and some of the major mines closed down or reduced t h e i r output. As i n the case of s i l v e r , the d i s t r i b u t i o n of gold production i n B r i t i s h Columbia was more dispersed than that of the base metals. There was, however, one area which contributed the bulk of the province's lode-gold throughout the period. In 1922, the north c o a s t a l region, i n c l u d i n g the mining d i v i s i o n s of Portland Canal, Skeena, and Nass River, accounted f o r almost 85 per cent of the 197,856 ounces produced, some 62.5 per cent coming from the Portland Canal D i v i s i o n alone. In the remainder of the period, t h i s northern area never produced l e s s than 70 per cent of the t o t a l lode-gold output. The important output of the north coast was due not to a large number of small mines, but to a r e l a t i v e l y few major producers. In every year between 1922 and 1929, the Premier g o l d - s i l v e r mine near Stewart was by far the l a r g e s t s i n g l e contributor to gold output, both i n i t s own 25 d i s t r i c t and i n the Province as a whole. On the average f o r the period, the Premier produced over 60 per cent of B r i t i s h Columbia's lode-gold. Another major g o l d - s i l v e r mine i n the north coast was the Belmont-Surf I n l e t mine on Princess Royal Island. This mine annually contributed an average of 14 per cent to gold output before i t closed i n 1926, i t s ore 26 bodies being exhausted. In ad d i t i o n to these two g o l d - s i l v e r mines, - 119 -the Granby Company's Hidden Creek mine yi e l d e d a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of by-product gold between 1922. and 1929, Elsewhere i n British.Columbia, the major centres of gold produc-t i o n were i n the Boundary-Yale d i s t r i c t s and on the south coast. In the last-named area the B r i t a n n i a mine, once i t recommenced production i n 1923, s t e a d i l y increased i t s output of by-product gold. The expansion of gold production i n the south coast area over t h i s period was, i n f a c t , almost t o t a l l y due to the increased output of the B r i t a n n i a mine. In 1929, the mine y i e l d e d almost 10 per cent of B r i t i s h Columbia's lode-gold. The Boundary-Yale d i s t r i c t contributed about 8 per cent of the gold mined i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n the years between 1922 and 1929. As i n the other major producing areas, output was p r i m a r i l y from a few large mines. The Osoyoos Mining D i v i s i o n annually y i e l d e d about 15,300 ounces, much of that coming from the Hedley Gold Mining Company's N i c k e l P l a t e mine. Dec l i n i n g gold output at the N i c k e l P l a t e , e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r 1925, was one of the reasons f o r the general d e c l i n e of lode-gold produc-t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia during that period. With the re-opening of the Copper Mountain mine i n Similkameen i n the e a r l y 1920's, t h i s d i v i s i o n began to add to the gold ouput of the province. The d i v i s i o n accounted for about 2.7 per cent of the provin-c i a l gold between 1926 and 1929, with the by-product gold from the 120 Granby's Copper Mountain being responsible f o r the majority of the y i e l d . In the L i l l o o e t d i s t r i c t , the mines at Cadwallader Creek ( i . e . the Bridge River area), on which considerable development work had been done by the mid-1920's, began to contribute to the lode-gold output. Here, too, most of the metal came from one major mine, the Pioneer. In 1929, t h i s mine was responsible f o r about 3 per cent of the t o t a l p r o v i n c i a l output of lode-gold. Table 3 i l l u s t r a t e s the r e l a t i v e l y wide-spread d i s t r i b u t i o n of 27 gold production which had emerged i n B r i t i s h Columbia by 1929. TABLE 3 DISTRIBUTION OF GOLD PRODUCTION: 1929 Mining D i v i s i o n Portland Canal Vancouver Osoyoos Similkameen L i l l o o e t Nass River Nelson T r a i l Creek (Rossland) A l l others Percentage of B.C. T o t a l 66.5 9.8 9.8 4.1 3.5 3.2 1.7 0.1 1.3 Here, as i n the case of s i l v e r production, i t i s cl e a r that a s i z e a b l e proportion of the lode-gold produced came from three areas i n the province. In each of these, the output was l a r g e l y from a s i n g l e major mine. That - 121 -the s u c c e s s f u l gold mines such as the Premier, Pioneer, and the N i c k e l Plate were located on high-grade ore-bodies r e l a t i v e l y close to t i d e -water or r a i l connections supports the f a c t that "only the r i c h e r and more conveniently a c c e s s i b l e deposits can hope for p r o f i t a b l e operations 28 under e x i s t i n g conditions." Other Metals In addition to the major metals discussed above, the lode-mining industry during the 1920's produced a number of other m e t a l l i c minerals. The extension of smelting f a c i l i t i e s at Consolidated Mining and Smelting's T r a i l smelter, noted e a r l i e r , l e d to the production of small q u a n t i t i e s of cadmium and bismuth. Both metals were by-products from the treatment of concentrates from the S u l l i v a n mine. I t had been known for some time that the S u l l i v a n ores also contained a small amount of t i n . In 1925, the company succeeded i n recovering 124 tons of t i n concentrates, contain-ing about 13,000 pounds of t i n . The material was, however, of no commer-c i a l value u n t i l methods of reduction were perfected, and i t remained 29 stored at the smelter u n t i l such treatment was a v a i l a b l e . Between 1928 and 1930, some platinum and palladium were a l s o r e -covered as by-products from r e f i n i n g operations at the T r a i l plant. The source of these metals i s uncertain, but i t i s presumed to have been cop-30 per concentrates from the Copper Mountain mine. F i n a l l y , small quanti-t i e s of i r o n ore continued to be produced i n the 1920's, with small - 122 -shipments l a r g e l y coming from the Good Hope mine on Texada Island, and from the A l t a Lake region near Vancouver. Conclusions: S p a t i a l Changes and the Reasons f o r Them By the end of the 1920's, the lode-mining industry of B r i t i s h Columbia was i n a p a r t i c u l a r l y healthy.state. The production of a l l the major metals, except gold, was at record or near record l e v e l s . The to-t a l value of lode-metal output was over $52,000,000, an almost t h r e e - f o l d increase over the value obtained i n 1922 (Figure 4). This record produc-t i o n came from 105 shipping mines (Maps 11 and 12), but as noted e a r l i e r , only a small number of these mines contributed s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the t o t a l p r o v i n c i a l output. Both the tonnages shipped and the number of mines indi c a t e d i n Maps 11 and 12 reveal the tremendous growth of production which took place i n the lode-mining industry between 1921 and 1929. Moreover, the pattern of shipping mines c l e a r l y shows the l i m i t e d geographical expansion which accompanied t h i s growth i n output. A comparison of the maps for 1921 and 1929 shows that the bulk of the production growth occurred i n three major a r e a s — t h e north and south coast, and the East Kootenay. Furthermore, i n each of these areas, the growth was due l a r g e l y to the expansion of a single major mine and to the i n i t i a t i v e of i t s c o n t r o l l i n g company. The reasons for the expansion i n output at the two major copper mines—Hidden Creek and B r i t a n n i a — w e r e an increased demand f o r copper, - 123 -FIGURE 4 COMPOSITION OF LODE-METAL PRODUCTION BRITISH COLUMBIA 1929 Total Value of Production - $52,144,849.00 Average Prices 1929 Copper 18.11 cents/pound Lead 5.05 cents/pound Zinc 5.39 cents/pound S i l v e r 52.99 cents/ounce Gold $20.67/ounce Source: Annual Report of the Mi n i s t e r of Mines, 1929. - 124 -MAP 11 BRITISH Source: Annual Report of the Minister of Mines, 1929; Unpublished production records, Department of Mines, Victoria. - 125 -MAP 12 S O U T H E A S T E R N B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A o 10 20 MILES For explanation of symbols, e = a see main map legend - 1 2 6 -r i s i n g p r i c e s for the metal, continued development of the ore-bodies, and a high l e v e l of mining and treatment e f f i c i e n c y . Higher p r i c e s f o r lead and z i n c , and the expansion of treatment f a c i l i t i e s at the T r a i l smelter were the major factors accounting f o r the s i z e a b l e growth of the S u l l i v a n mine. The impact of the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company was, however, f e l t w e l l beyond the company's own large mine at Kimberley. Indeed, the expansion of f a c i l i t i e s at T r a i l and the acceptance of Slocan ores at the T r a i l plant since 1925 were the major reasons for the growth 31 of mining a c t i v i t y i n the Slocan-Ainsworth area. In 1926, the C o n s o l i -dated Company had erected a concentrator at the old St. Eugene mine near Moyie, and i n the l a t e r years of the 1920's had recovered and r e t r e a t e d 32 m i l l t a i l i n g s from Moyie Lake. In the Nelson area, the major producing mine i n 1929, the Hunter V, was a Consolidated operation. Nor were the a c t i v i t i e s of the company r e s t r i c t e d to the Kootenays. In 1929, f o r example, the company was conducting m e t a l l u r g i c a l experiments on chromium ores from the F l i n t mine at S c o t t i e Creek, was pursuing development i n copper properties near Port Hardy on Vancouver Island, and was f i n a n c i a l l y involved i n development work at the Big Missouri mine i n the Portland Canal area. In short, by 1929, the r e g i o n a l impact of the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company was both widespread and considerable. - 127 -A s i m i l a r influence on the mining industry was generated by the Granby Consolidated Mining, Smelting and Power Company. This company not only operated the only other smelter i n the province, but a l s o , at i t s Anyox complex, operated two copper mines-—the Hidden Creek and the Bonanza—as w e l l as two s i l v e r - g o l d mines-—the Golskeish and the Granby Point. The company also operated the i n c r e a s i n g l y important Copper Moun-t a i n mine south of Princeton. A comparison of the maps f o r 1921 and 1929 also i n d i c a t e s that, i n the l a t t e r year, there were s t i l l very few producing mines that were not located w i t h i n a few miles of railway l i n e s already operating i n 1921 or w i t h i n a few miles of tidewater. The a v a i l a b i l i t y of such trans-port i n the established areas has been noted e a r l i e r . Other centres of production i n 1929 also conform to the pattern. For example, the small mines south of Hazelton were on the Canadian National Railway mainline; the Bridge River mines west of L i l l o o e t were close to the P a c i f i c Great Eastern Railway: and the Copper Mountain mine and i t s m i l l at Allenby were both connected by the K e t t l e V a l l e y l i n e which ran from Midway i n the Boundary d i s t r i c t to Hope at the head of the Lower Fraser V a l l e y . Moreover, v i r t u a l l y none of the known m e t a l l i f e r o u s deposits located i n i n t e r i o r areas not served by r a i l s were brought to the shipping stage during t h i s period. I t would appear, therefore, that the r o l e of acces-s i b i l i t y , and p a r t i c u l a r l y the a v a i l a b i l i t y of low-cost r a i l or water - 128 -transport, remained a major f a c t o r i n the l o c a t i o n of shipping mines. However, while t h i s and several other economic, p h y s i c a l , and technologi-c a l conditions combined to determine the f e a s i b i l i t y of mining any par-t i c u l a r mineral deposit i n the province, i t i s a l s o c l e a r that the ac-t i v i t i e s of the major mining c o r p o r a t i o n s — C o n s o l i d a t e d , Granby, and B r i t a n n i a — g r e a t l y influenced the s p a t i a l pattern of producing mines i n B r i t i s h Columbia at t h i s time. - 129 -FOOTNOTES 1. Mining and Engineering Record, V o l . 27, No. 11 and 12 (March, 1923), p. 103. 2. The B r i t a n n i a m i l l was destroyed by f i r e i n l a t e 1920. Construction of a new m i l l was underway i n 1922 and was completed e a r l y i n 1923. The mine produced nothing i n 1922, See Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1922, p. N23. 3. Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada Limited, The  Story of the Consolidated Mining arid Smelting Company of Canada Limited, T r a i l , 1938, p. 3. 4. Harold A. Innis, "Settlement and the Mining F r o n t i e r , " Canadian  F r o n t i e r s of Settlement, ed. W.A. Mackintosh and W.L.G. Joerg, Toronto, Macmillan, 1936, Vol , Part I I , p. 303. 5. Mining and Engineering Record, V o l . 27, No. 9 and 10, (February, 1923), p. 101. 6. Margaret A. Ormsby, B r i t i s h Columbia: A H i s t o r y , Toronto, Macmillan, 1958, p. 427; Mining and Engineering Record, V o l . 28, No. 6 (August,. 1925), p. 108. In 1926, the S u l l i v a n mine was c r e d i t e d with a reserve of 88,000,000 tons of ore, carr y i n g a recoverable average of 9% lead, 5% z i n c , and three ounces of s i l v e r to the ton. Mining and I n d u s t r i a l  Record. V o l . 29, No. 12 (December, 1926), p. 191. 7. Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada Limited, op. cijt. , p. 6. 8. Annual Report of - the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1929, p. C28. 9. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1922, p. N181: Harold A. Innis, op. c i t . , p. 300: Mining and Engineering Record, V o l . 27, No. 11 and 12 (March 15, 1923), p. 130. 10. Mining and I n d u s t r i a l Record, V o l . 12, No. 1 (January, 1929), p. 10. The a c t i o n of-the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company was i n keeping with the general trend on the part of western United States smelters.to reduce or eliminate these p e n a l t i e s . See T.A. Rickard, A History of American Mining, New York, McGraw-Hill, 1932, p. 339. - 130 -11. The 1929 output of the 101,483,857 pounds was, i n f a c t , not ex-ceeded u n t i l 1962 when 108,979,144 pounds were produced. 12. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1922, p. N18. 13. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1928, p. C27. 14. Mining and Engineering Recbrd, V o l . 28, No. 1 (March 25, 1925), p. 20. 15. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1922, p. N23. The Conso-l i d a t e d Company closed i t s mines i n the Rossland area i n A p r i l , 1922, and did not re-open them u n t i l November, 1923. See Annual Report of the  Minist e r of Mines, 1923, p. A229. 16. Mining and I n d u s t r i a l Record, V o l . 32, No 2 (February, 1929), p. 26. 17. N.D. McKechnie, "The Mineral Industry i n B r i t i s h Columbia," 18. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1926, A10. 19. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1927, P. C26. 20. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1926, P- A28. 21. Table calculated from Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1929, p. C27. 22. C o r r e c t l y , the World standard p r i c e was $20.671834 per ounce. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1932, p. A13. 23. Mining and Engineering Record, V o l . 29, No. 2 (February, 1926), p. 18. 24. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1927, p. C25. 25. Although the Premier was f i r s t known as a high-grade s i l v e r mine, the value of gold production from the mine exceeded that of s i l v e r i n every year a f t e r 1922. See J.D. Galloway, "Lode-gold Mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia," B r i t i s h Columbia Miner, V o l . 4, No. 12 (December, 1931), p. 21. - 131 -26. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Minos, 1926, p. A68. 27. Calculated from Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1929, p. C26. 28. Mining and Engineering Record, V o l . 29, No. 2 (February, 1926), p. 18. 29. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of•Mines, 1925, p. A51. The shipment of t i n began i n 1941, the concentrates being sent to an American smelter for further treatment. See Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines and  Petroleum Resources, 1970, p. A24. 30. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines arid Petroleum Resources, 1970, p. A22-A23. 31. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Miries, 1929, p. C300. 32. The company also used the new m i l l to t r e a t a considerable tonnage of oxidized dump-ore from the S u l l i v a n mine. See Annual Report of the  M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1929, p. C259. - 132 -CHAPTER VII THE DEPRESSION AND THE GOLD MINING BOOM The performance of the lode-mining industry i n the years be-tween 1929 and 1939 was very much a f f e c t e d by world economic conditions. The stock market crash i n l a t e 1929 brought about a considerable drop i n the p r i c e l e v e l s f o r many metals. By 1931, several major base-metal mines had c u r t a i l e d t h e i r output and many small, marginal operations had ceased production. In one sector of the industry, however, that of gold mining, a sizeable expansion took place during the 1930's as a r e s u l t of upward changes i n the p r i c e of gold. The Immediate E f f e c t s of the Depression The 1929 production l e v e l s i n d i c a t e d i n the previous chapter would suggest that the stock market crash l a t e i n the year had l i t t l e immediate e f f e c t on the o v e r a l l production of the lode-mining industry of B r i t i s h Columbia. Furthermore, during 1930, when p r i c e s f o r s i l v e r , copper, lead and zinc declined, i n the aggregate, more than they had i n any previous year i n history,^" the production of lead, zinc and s i l v e r again rose to record volume l e v e l s . Copper output alone r e g i s t e r e d a s l i g h t d e c l i n e i n 1930. The high output l e v e l s of lead, zinc and s i l v e r throughout 1929 and the increases i n the production of these metals i n 1930 was l a r g e l y - 1 3 3 -a r e s u l t of the continued expansion of the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company's m e t a l l u r g i c a l plants at T r a i l and of increased 2 e f f i c i e n c y i n t r e a t i n g the ores from the company's S u l l i v a n mine. This highly integrated company c o n t r o l l e d the mining, m i l l i n g , smelting, r e f i n i n g and marketing of the ores from the S u l l i v a n . I t was, there-f o r e , able to r e t a i n almost a l l the p r o f i t s from the S u l l i v a n ores and, consequently, to withstand the impact of d e c l i n i n g p r i c e s f a r b e t t e r 3 than many other producers. Indeed, throughout the 1930's, the Con-s o l i d a t e d was able to maintain reasonably f u l l employment and production. The higher zi n c production i n 1930 was l a r g e l y the r e s u l t of the new slag-fuming plant put into operation that year at T r a i l . The plant recovered zinc formerly l o s t i n the s l a g from the lead furnaces, and, by l a t e 1930, i t was turning out zinc oxide equivalent to 50 tons of me-t a l l i c z i n c a day."* A s i z e a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n to the 1930 z i n c output was also made by the Base Metals Mining Company's Monarch mine near F i e l d . The Monarch was unable, however, to withstand the low and d e c l i n i n g p r i c e s f or lead and zinc and was forced to suspend operations i n November 1930. S i l v e r production i n 1930 rose by almost 14 per cent over i t s previous record l e v e l set i n 1929. Some of the increase came from the S u l l i v a n mine, which i n 1930 accounted f o r 46 per cent of t o t a l s i l v e r output i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The increase was, however, due mainly to the output of about 1,500,000 ounces from the Premier Gold Mining Com-pany's Prosperity mine near Stewart. In a d d i t i o n , t h i s company's main - 134 -mine, the Premier, made a larger production as w e l l . The record production of lead, zinc and s i l v e r i n 1930 was, then, l a r g e l y the r e s u l t of increased production from major, l a r g e - s c a l e mines. The production of these three metals would have been even high-er had not the r a p i d f a l l i n metals p r i c e s brought about the closure of many small mines i n the province. The f i r s t mines to f e e l the e f f e c t of the depressed p r i c e s were the small s i l v e r - l e a d - z i n c producers i n the Slocan and Ainsworth areas. In 1930, a heavy decline i n s i l v e r , lead, and z i n c output was r e g i s t e r e d i n the Slocan d i s t r i c t where several f o r -mer shippers were i n a c t i v e on account of low metal p r i c e s . Unlike the output of other major metals, copper production de-c l i n e d i n 1930 to a l e v e l over 10 per cent lower than that of the pre-vious year. Although the B r i t a n n i a mine made a record output i n 1930, t h i s increase was more than o f f s e t by declines from the other two major copper mines i n the province. In 1930, the Granby Consolidated Mining, Smelting and Power Company c u r t a i l e d the output of i t s Hidden Creek mine. In November of the same year, i t was forced to c l o s e down i t s Copper Mountain operation, a mine which had accounted f o r some 22 per cent of p r o v i n c i a l copper production i n 1929. The combination of mine closures and the general curtailment programme p r a c t i s e d by most metal producers led to a considerable de-c l i n e i n the rate of metal production i n the l a t e r months of 1930. In the following year, metal p r i c e s continued to d e c l i n e , ^ more mines - 135 -closed, and tonnage dropped 18 per cent below the 1930 l e v e l . In 1931, only 44 mines were able to ship ores and concentrates. (See Maps 13 and 14). A comparison of the pattern of shipping mines f o r 1931 (See Maps 13 and 14) with that f o r two years e a r l i e r (See Maps 11 and 12, Chapter VI) i n d i c a t e s the immediate e f f e c t s of the depression. Although the l a r -gest mines i n the province did c u r t a i l output, they were s t i l l able to produce over 1,000,000 tons of ore i n 1931. Smaller mines were more s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d . In the Slocan-Ainsworth d i s t r i c t , only eight mines shipped i n 1931; a l l the mines along the Bulkley V a l l e y south of Hazelton and those i n the northern part of the Kootenays had closed down. S i g -n i f i c a n t l y , many of the gold mines i n the province, p a r t i c u l a r l y those on the north coast at Stewart, i n the Bridge River area west of L i l l o o e t , and i n the Sheep Creek region south of Nelson, were able to continue or expand production. The reasons f o r t h i s apparently anomolous s i t u a t i o n w i l l become cl e a r l a t e r . Mine output was not the only aspect of the industry that had declined. During the boom years of the l a t e 1920's, much m i l l construc-t i o n had taken place i n B r i t i s h Columbia. A f t e r 1929, there was f a r l e s s . Furthermore, during 1930 and 1931 many of the e x i s t i n g plants were i d l e , i n c l u d i n g not only those which had been prematurely erected as an adjunct to misguided stock promotions, but also others whose con-g s t r u c t i o n had been j u s t i f i e d i n the l a t e 1920's. MAP 13 BRITISH Source: Annual Report of the Minister of Mines, 1931; Unpublished production records, Department of Mines, Victoria. - 137 -MAP 14 S O U T H E A S T E R N B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A o w 20 MILES For explanation of symbols, s - - s = a see main map legend - 138 -In the early years of the depression, the rate of development, e s p e c i a l l y on properties c a r r y i n g values i n s i l v e r , lead and z i n c , de-creased considerably. This was p a r t i c u l a r l y true i n the case of those properties financed by public s u b s c r i p t i o n to small l o c a l stock com-panies. The larger companies, on the other hand, were able to carry out development work much as normal. By 1931, therefore, base metal and s i l v e r mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia were c l e a r l y i n a depressed s t a t e . In h i s summary of the lode mining industry i n 1930, the P r o v i n c i a l Mineralogist noted that: I t i s evident... that u n t i l there i s a r a d i c a l change i n the present c o n d i t i o n of the metal markets of the world, with l e s s excess stocks and improved p r i c e s , no expansion i n base-metal mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia can be expected. S i m i l a r l y , a decided improvement i n the p r i c e of s i l v e r w i l l be necessary to stimulate the mining of that metal.9 During the 1930's, however, there was no " r a d i c a l change" i n base-metal markets. P r i c e s f o r lead, z i n c , and copper declined again i n 1932 and along with s i l v e r p r i c e s , remained at low l e v e l s f o r the remainder of the decade. Having b r i e f l y examined the immediate e f f e c t s of the depression on the lode mining industry, i t i s necessary now to look at the p e r f o r -mance of the industry during the remainder of the 1930's and to d e t a i l the changes that took place i n the production of the major metals. - 139 -The Gold Mining Industry i n the Depression The depression, which c u r t a i l e d a c t i v i t y i n the base metals industry, a c t u a l l y stimulated the search for gold and, during the otherwise depressed years of the 1930's a considerable amount of gold mining took p l a c e . ^ Between 1931 and 1939, the l e v e l of gold produc-t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia rose over 300 per cent. In 1939 some 587,000 ounces of the metal were produced, the highest volume yet, and ever, produced i n the province. The reasons f o r t h i s r a pid r i s e i n gold output which, a f t e r 1931, saw new records set i n every succeeding year, were two-fold. In the f i r s t place, one inherent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of gold mining was that I t was a " f l o u r i s h i n g and expanding industry i n times of general depression. 1 With the standard p r i c e and unlimited market that existed f o r gold at the beginning of the 1930's, production of the metal was stimulated by 12 -the d e c l i n e i n production costs, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n supplies and wages. Secondly, i n the depression, a s e r i e s of world monetary changes brought about increases i n the p r i c e of gold. These increases have been pointed out by several authors as the major factors behind the expansion of gold 13 mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The reduction i n production costs r e l a t i v e to the f i x e d p r i c e of gold was, however, as James i n d i c a t e s , also a d e f i n i t e stimulus to gold mining i n the province e a r l y i n the 1930's."^ In 1930, lode-gold production rose by almost 11 per cent over the output for the preceding year. Much of t h i s increase came from the - 140 -expanding Pioneer mine i n the Bridge River area, from the Reno mine at Sheep Creek and from the Union mine i n the Grand Forks area. Both of the l a t t e r mines had tuned up t h e i r m i l l s In l a t e 1929 but were v i r t u -a l l y new producers i n 1 9 3 0 . T h e Premier mine at Stewart, the l a r g e s t gold mine i n B r i t i s h Columbia, accounted f o r 54 per cent of the t o t a l output i n 1930, although i t did produce l e s s gold than i n the previous year. The remainder of the gold came from the N i c k e l P l a t e at Hedley, a few small gold producers, and as a by-product from copper mining. The last-named source, however, accounted f o r only 15 per cent of the 16 gold produced i n the year. As important as the increase i n production, moreover, was the fac t that an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n gold properties had developed. In some areas, such as the region south of Nelson, a number of small properties were being developed and many o l d properties were being examined.^ In 1931, lode-gold output declined s l i g h t l y . The de c l i n e was due mainly to the closure of the N i c k e l P l a t e , a formerly large producer; to the lower output from the Premier, where gold reserves were d e c l i n i n g and lower-grade ore was being mined; and to the closure of Granby's Copper Mountain, a s i z e a b l e contributor to by-product gold output. The lower gold output i n the province i n 1931 d i d not, however, r e f l e c t the general condition of the gold-mining industry. In the Bridge River area, the Pioneer mine made a much l a r g e r output and was able, through continued development work, to prove up a d d i t i o n a l reserves - 141 -18 of good-grade gold ore. The success at the Pioneer a t t r a c t e d atten-t i o n to the L i l l o o e t Mining D i v i s i o n , and many prospects i n the area were optioned. A major development was the takeover of the Lome mine by the Bralorne Syndicate. At t h i s property, steady development was c a r r i e d out and the construction of a 100-ton m i l l commenced. E l s e -where i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the Union and Reno mines increased t h e i r gold output and many small gold properties were explored. In 1932, lode-gold output incrased.by almost 24 per cent over the l e v e l of the previous year. Much of the increase came from the mines i n the Bridge River area where the Bralorne brought i t s 100-ton m i l l i n t o operation. The Premier mine, s t i l l the leading gold producer i n the province, produced at nearly the same rate as i n 1931, and many small gold producers contributed to the t o t a l production. The increased output of lode-gold during the year was, moreover, only a s l i g h t i n d i c a -t i o n of the a c t i v i t y which took place i n searching f o r and developing 19 gold p r o p e r t i e s . Throughout the province, i n o l d and new camps, pros-pectors and scouting engineers were " e n e r g e t i c a l l y seeking f o r gold 20 p r o p e r t i e s . " Of the t h i r t y - t h r e e mining companies incorporated to work lode-deposits i n 1932, twenty-seven were formed to operate lode-21 gold p r o p e r t i e s . Customs-ore r e c e i p t s at the T r a i l smelter i n 1932 were nearly three times as large as i n 1931, due l a r g e l y to the e f f o r t s of l e a s e r s , small syndicates and small companies turning t h e i r a t t e n t i o n 22 to formerly dormant gold p r o p e r t i e s . - 142 -The construction of ore-treatment f a c i l i t i e s p a r a l l e l e d the a c t i v i t y i n prospecting and production. In 1932, the capacity of the Pioneer m i l l was increased from 100 to 300 tons a day. Reno Gold Mines, a f t e r acquiring the old Motherlode property, b u i l t a tramway and hydro-e l e c t r i c p l a n t , r e b u i l t the m i l l and began operation. In the c e n t r a l i n -t e r i o r of the province, the Cariboo Gold Quartz i n t e r e s t s erected a 60 ton a day cyanide plant at t h e i r mine near B a r k e r v i l l e . In the Nelson and Osoyoos areas, some small m i l l s on gold properties were reconditioned 23 during the year. The major stimulus to t h i s a c t i v i t y i n the e a r l y years of the depression was, as noted e a r l i e r , a widened gap between costs and p r i c e s i n gold mining. In 1932 t h i s gap was widened even f u r t h e r , due not to further decreases i n production costs, but to higher gold p r i c e s f o r B r i t i s h Columbia producers. The bulk of the gold produced i n B r i t i s h Columbia during 1932 was sold on the b a s i s of payment i n American funds, which at that time were at a premium with respect to the Canadian d o l l a r . The advantage to producers i n s e l l i n g gold on the basis of American funds averaged, i n 1932, approximately 13.6 per cent. In other words, the gold mines i n the province were able to s e l l t h e i r output at an average of $23.47 an ounce, a premium of $2.80 an ounce over the world p r i c e of gold. - 143 -In 1933, t h i s s o - c a l l e d premium was increased even further when, i n March of the year, the United States broke the d o l l a r ' s l i n k with gold. In the autumn, President Roosevelt began to r a i s e the p r i c e of gold s l i g h t l y i n an attempt to p u l l the United States out of the de-25 pression. The higher world gold p r i c e brought about by the devalua-t i o n of the United States d o l l a r meant that i n 1933 the Canadian gold producers received an average p r i c e of $28.60 an ounce f o r t h e i r gold i n terms of Canadian funds. The impact of t h i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y higher p r i c e f o r gold was strongly f e l t i n B r i t i s h Columbia. As the P r o v i n c i a l M i n e r a l o g i s t r e -ported i n 1933: The increase i n the world p r i c e of gold...with only a comparatively small increase, i f any, i n the pro-duction costs of the metal, enormously increased the p r o f i t chances i n t h i s form of mining, with the r e s u l t that many prospects, p r o p e r t i e s , and mines have been reopened, and the established producers have been enabled to m a t e r i a l l y expand t h e i r opera-tions by i n c l u d i n g i n t h e i r ore reserves much ton-nage which formerly could not be p r o f i t a b l y mined and m i l l e d . Added to t h i s established and expanding mining a c t i v i t y there has been extreme a c t i v i t y i n searching for and acquiring gold properties i n a l l parts of the Province by representatives of c a p i t a l , new companies, and small development syndicates. In 1933, lode-gold production set another record at 223,529 ounces, an increase of 23 per cent over the preceding year. The major mines, such as Bralorne and Pioneer, increased t h e i r output, c a r r i e d out considerable development work, and proceeded with further m i l l expansion. New m i l l s were b u i l t at various smaller mines; o l d m i l l s were r e b u i l t - 144 -and increased i n capacity. In the o l d Rossland camp, the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company reopened a number of i t s mines to leasers who, over the year, produced over 7000 ounces of gold from unworked . stopes and shaft p i l l a r s i n the o l d Le Roi, Centre Star, J o s i e , War 27 Eagle, and other mines. The p r i c e of gold continued to r i s e e a r l y i n 1934. By the end of the year, however, President Roosevelt recognized that h i s p o l i c y of upward gold p r i c e adjustment had f a i l e d to a l l e v i a t e the depression i n the United States, and he f i x e d the p r i c e of the metal at $35.00 an ounce. This new p r i c e was almost $15.00 higher than the formerly f i x e d p r i c e of $20.67, and was about $7.00 higher than the p r i c e Canadian producers had received i n 1933. This s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher p r i c e of gold, together with the f a c t that there was no sign to i n d i c a t e that i t would be reduced i n 28 the near future, stimulated even more gold mining a c t i v i t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Several of the established mines again increased t h e i r m i l l i n g 29 capacity, twelve new m i l l s commenced production, and a number of o l d and new properties were brought to the production stage. Throughout the remainder of the 1930's, with the p r i c e of gold f i x e d at $35.00 an ounce, gold output continued the r i s e that had begun early i n the decade. This increase came not only from the l a r g e r mines 30 of the province such as the Pioneer, Bralorne, and Silbak Premier, but also from a considerable number of intermediate and smaller s i z e mines. - 145 -Moreover, another trend established i n the early 1930's, that of a geographical spread of gold mining into both new and o l d areas, c o n t i n -ued throughout the decade. In 1934, r i c h gold-quartz veins were found at Zeballos on Vancouver Island, and i n the next few years the Zeballos 31 camp became an important producer. In the spring of 1935, f u l l oper-ations were resumed at the N i c k e l P l a t e near Hedley, an important gold 32 producer that had been closed since 1931. In the northwest part of the province, development work was undertaken at the Big Missouri mine, a mine operated by Buena V i s t a Mining Company but f i n a n c i a l l y c o n t r o l l e d by the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company. In 1938, a 750 ton a day underground m i l l was completed at the Big Missouri and production 33 from the property began. In the Cariboo, the area where the e a r l i e s t major attempts to develop lode-deposits had occurred (See Chapter I I I ) , there was much lode-gold a c t i v i t y by the l a t e r 1930's. As Fraser notes, modern machinery and improved m e t a l l u r g i c a l methods helped to b r i n g about the t r a n s i t i o n from placer to lode-mining i n the Cariboo d i s t r i c t , "but the determining f a c t o r was the re-valuation of gold." By 1939, the production of lode-gold had r i s e n to 587,180 ounces. I t was indeed i r o n i c that throughout the harsh years of the 1930's, the gold mining industry boomed as never before, urged on by the higher p r i c e 35 of gold. Geographically, the industry was considerably more wide-36 spread than i t had been a decade e a r l i e r as Table 4 i n d i c a t e s . - 146 -TABLE 4 DISTRIBUTION OF LODE-GOLD PRODUCTION: 1939 Mining D i v i s i o n % of B.C. T o t a l L i l l o o e t Nelson Cariboo Portland Canal Osoyoos Clayoquot Vancouver Skeena A t l i n Similkameen T r a i l Creek Greenwood C l i n t o n A l l Others 25.3 18.3 12.0 9.6 9.5 9.3 3.9 3.1 2.9 2.1 1.5 0.8 0.6 1.1 The Recovery of the Base Metal Industry As the foregoing discussion has suggested, the decade of the 1930's i n B r i t i s h Columbia c l e a r l y belonged to the gold mining segment of the mining industry. The base metal industry, on the other hand, did not remain f o r the e n t i r e decade at the depressed l e v e l s of output established i n the ea r l y 1930's. Average y e a r l y p r i c e s f o r lead, z i n c , and copper remained, on the whole, below those of the immediate pre-depression years. Yet by 1939 the outputs of lead and zinc had recovered to l e v e l s s l i g h t l y above those set i n 1930. Copper production i n 1939 (73,254,679 pounds) was s t i l l 28 per cent below i t s record output of 1929. Nevertheless, considering that copper output i n 1936 (21,671,711 pounds) was the lowest i n the province since 1900, i t i s c l e a r that t h i s - 147 -segment of the base metal industry had made a considerable recovery during the l a t e years of the 1930's. With regard to lead and z i n c , the slow recovery to pre-depres-sion output l e v e l s made between 1933 and 1939 was almost s o l e l y due to the a c t i v i t y of the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company. The Consolidated Company was able to maintain almost normal production and l a t e r to increase the output of lead and zinc i n the face of low metal p r i c e s f o r both metals l a r g e l y because of concerted and s u c c e s s f u l e f -f o r t s i n reducing production costs, p a r t i c u l a r l y the treatment costs of the S u l l i v a n ores. In some years, lower treatment costs were achieved at the expense of lower recovery r a t e s , but by the middle 1930's, the recovery of metals from the S u l l i v a n ores was v i r t u a l l y back to pre-depression l e v e l s . During the depths of the depression i n 1931 and 1932 when many of the other producers of lead and zinc were forced to c u r t a i l or sus-pend t h e i r production, the S u l l i v a n mine at Kimberley accounted for 99 per cent of the p r o v i n c i a l output of lead, and over 99 per cent of the zinc. Although a number of lead-zinc producers were able to reopen or increase t h e i r output a f t e r 1932, the S u l l i v a n mine, between 1933 and 1939 s t i l l produced about 96 per cent of the lead and 88 per cent of the zinc output i n B r i t i s h Columbia. While the S u l l i v a n mine v i r t u a l l y monopolized the production of lead, and c l e a r l y dominated the production of z i n c , a number of other - 148 -mines did contribute, i n some years at l e a s t , to the P r o v i n c i a l output of these metals. In 1933, lead and zinc p r i c e s f o r B r i t i s h Columbia producers increased s l i g h t l y over t h e i r low l e v e l s of 1932, due l a r g e l y to the favourable money market of Canada with respect to Great B r i t a i n , 37 the country to which much of the lead and zinc was sold. Although l e a d - z i n c - s i l v e r producers i n the Slocan and the northern areas of the 38 province remained, on the whole, i n a c t i v e , the higher p r i c e s allowed the Base Metals Mining Corporation to reopen t h e i r Monarch mine at F i e l d i n August, 1933. This mine produced for only s l i g h t l y over two years, but during t h i s time i t contributed about 3.5 per cent of B r i t i s h Columbia's lead and 5.8 per cent of the z i n c . The r i s e i n lead and zinc production between 1933 and 1934 was almost t o t a l l y the r e s u l t of great-39 er output at the Monarch and at the S u l l i v a n . Throughout the remainder of the 1930's, the S u l l i v a n was the only lead-zinc producer of any s i g -n i f i c a n c e . The lead and zinc not produced by the S u l l i v a n came l a r g e l y from the north coast, Boundary, and Nelson-Slocan areas where a consider-able number of small mines, the development of which could be undertaken cheaply or which had been c a r r i e d out p r i o r to the depression, were able 40 to come back into production. Elsewhere i n the base metals sector of the mining industry, copper production exhibited a ra p i d and s u b s t a n t i a l d e c l i n e between 1930 and 1936. The copper industry i n B r i t i s h Columbia was dominated, by the - 149 -l a t e 1920's, by three major mines. As noted e a r l i e r , one of these mines, the Hidden Creek, had c u r t a i l e d i t s output i n 1930. Another major mine, Copper Mountain, had closed i n November of that year. In 1931, i t was c l e a r that copper was i n the worst p o s i t i o n of a l l metals, with large stocks of r e f i n e d copper on hand and consumption of the metal 41 much below normal. Over the next two years, Granby's Hidden Creek mine had increased i t s output s l i g h t l y , but t h i s company's Copper Moun-t a i n operation remained closed. Furthermore, by 1933 the B r i t a n n i a 42 £• mine was operating at about 20 per cent of i t s normal capacity. A l -though the copper industry had by t h i s time developed extremely low: costs and remarkably e f f i c i e n t mining and m e t a l l u r g i c a l p r a c t i c e and was, consequently, i n a good p o s i t i o n to take advantage of even a s l i g h t increase i n the market p r i c e f o r copper, copper p r i c e s remained at below 8 cents a pound from 1932 to 1935. In 1934, copper production had dropped to 49,651,733 pounds, a t o t a l some 53,000,000 pounds below i t s record output of 1929. Then, i n August 1935, the copper industry of B r i t i s h Columbia received a serious setback when the Granby Consolidated Mining, 43 Smelting and Power Company closed i t s mine and smelter at Anyox. Production i n that year declined to 20,806,672 pounds, the lowest output of the industry since the post-World War I period. The closure of the Anyox complex was also s i g n i f i c a n t because a l l copper produced i n the province would thereafter be exported i n concentrate form for smelting - 150 -44 at Tacoma. While the copper industry i n B r i t i s h Columbia was i n a period of production de c l i n e , the beginning of 1936 found the world copper industry i n a better condition than at the beginning of the four pre-vious years. Late i n 1935, the world's copper stocks were reported as 45 only s l i g h t l y i n excess of normal requirements. Moreover, a steady growth i n the demand for copper, due to increased consumption i n Great B r i t a i n , Germany and Japan, made the outlook f o r 1936 "the b r i g h t e s t f o r 46 the copper industry since the depression." During the year, average copper p r i c e s were almost 9.5 cents a pound, a 22 per cent r i s e over p r i c e s i n 1935. Production i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1936 dropped to i t s lowest l e v e l since 1900, due almost e n t i r e l y to the l o s s o f the Anyox mines. The B r i t a n n i a mine, on the other hand, returned to capacity production and increased i t s output over 1935 by 38 per cent. This mine was, i n f a c t , the only major copper mine which operated for the e n t i r e year and i t accounted f o r 94 per cent of the province's t o t a l copper output. The higher average copper p r i c e s which obtained i n 1936 (13.078 cents a pound), together with the a v a i l a b i l i t y of Japanese markets, the construction of a steam-electric power p l a n t , and the opening of a company coal mine near Princeton, allowed the Granby's Copper Mountain 47 mine to reopen i n mid-1936. By l a t e summer, 1937, the Copper Mountain - 151 -mine attained f u l l p r o d u c t i o n a n d with the B r i t a n n i a mine i n a s i m i l a r state, copper production i n B r i t i s h Columbia more than t r i p l e d between 1936 and 1939. T o t a l copper production i n 1939 had not returned to the pre-depression l e v e l s , but, excepting the record output set i n the l a t e r 1920's, i t was the highest production i n the h i s t o r y of the indus-t r y . Of the 93,254,679 pounds of copper produced i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1939, the B r i t a n n i a mine contributed almost 51 per cent, and the Copper Mountain mine about 46 per cent. The remainder came from small producers i n various areas of the province, and from the smelting opera-tions at T r a i l . The Production of Other Metals i n the Depression Of the other lode-metals produced i n B r i t i s h Columbia during the 1930's, only s i l v e r was of any s i g n i f i c a n c e . Small amounts of bog i r o n , mercury and tungsten concentrates were shipped at d i f f e r e n t times, but no large developments occurred. The T r a i l complex produced bismuth and cadmium, and antimony i n some y e a r s . ^ S i l v e r production during the 1930's followed a pattern almost i d e n t i c a l to that of lead and z i n c , r e f l e c t i n g the l a r g e l y by-product nature of s i l v e r with respect to the other two metals. A f t e r reaching a record output i n 1930, s i l v e r production declined i n 1931 under the im-pact of low p r i c e s f o r lead, z i n c , and s i l v e r . Most of the smaller - 152 -s i l v e r - l e a d - z i n c mines of the.province remained closed, the P r o s p e r i t y mine closed e a r l y i n 1931, and the S u l l i v a n and Premier were forced to 49 c u r t a i l t h e i r output to some extent. Between 1932 and 1935, the p r i c e of s i l v e r more than doubled. In s i l v e r camps, such as that of the Slocan, where mining a c t i v i t y responded to r i s e s i n the p r i c e of s i l v e r , " * 0 production of the metal increased over t h i s period. Although s i l v e r p r i c e s declined by 30 per cent i n 1936, the higher p r i c e s of the mid-1930' s had stimulated a renewed i n t e r e s t i n the Beaverdell camp north of Greenwood. By 1939, the small but high-grade s i l v e r mines of t h i s area were producing about 9 per cent of the t o t a l s i l v e r output of the province. In most years the s i l v e r mines of the north coast made si z e a b l e outputs of s i l v e r , as d i d the smaller mines i n the Slocan a f t e r about 1935. The S p a t i a l Pattern of Production: 1939 The pattern of shipping mines on Maps 15 and 16 reveals the con-side r a b l e geographic expansion that accompanied the boom i n gold-mining between 1931 and 1939. On the south coast, there was a considerable i n -crease i n a c t i v i t y , notably at the Zeballos camp on the west coast of Vancouver Island. On the north coast, the S u r f - I n l e t mine on Princess Royal Island reopened and expanded i t s output. Near Stewart, the Big Missouri's tonnage was ten times greater than i n 1931. Moreover, gold mining had expanded even further north along the coast to Tulsequah - 153 -MAP 15 BRITISH COLUMBIA MINES SHIPPING 1939 (THOUSANDS OF TONS) L > 1,000 PACIFIC O C E A N For area in inset see Map 16. Source: Annual Report of the Minister of Mines, 1939; Unpublished production records, Department of Mines, Victoria. - 154 -MAP 16 S O U T H E A S T E R N B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A K> 20 MILES For explanation of symbols, see main map legend - 155 -where the Polaris-Taku mine produced a considerable quantity of the metal. The impact of r e l a t i v e l y s table production costs and r i s e s i n the p r i c e of gold brought about a considerable expansion of output i n the Bridge River area, where the Pioneer mine increased i t s output over the 1931 l e v e l and the Bralorne had commenced production. The high gold p r i c e was also l a r g e l y responsible f o r the successful establishment of several mines i n the c e n t r a l i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia, p a r t i c u l a r l y at Wells, i n the heart of the Cariboo gold country. Here, mines such as Cariboo Gold Quartz, Cariboo Hudson, and Island Mountain, a l l equipped with cyanide treatment f a c i l i t i e s , made sizeable outputs i n the l a t e 1930's. In 1939, these three mines produced 70, 418 ounces of gold, about 12 per cent of t o t a l p r o v i n c i a l output. Elsewhere i n the province, the gold mining boom had i n t e n s i f i e d a c t i v i t y i n several areas. The most notable region was the Sheep Creek area south of Nelson where mines such as Kootenay B e l l e , the Reno, and the Queen, a l l equipped with concentrating m i l l s , were producing c o n s i -derable q u a n t i t i e s of gold. Throughout the general area south of Nelson, i n the old Rossland and Boundary camps, and i n the area south of P e n t i c -ton, the new gold p r i c e s allowed a considerable number of small mines to ship ore. In most cases, i t was the value of the gold produced that j u s -t i f i e d t h e i r operation. - 156 -The pattern of mines on Maps 15 and 16 also shows a number of the changes that had occurred i n the base metal segment of the industry between 1931 and 1939. The most notable s h i f t s had been the v i r t u a l disappearance of copper mining i n the Anyox area, and the r e v i v a l of copper mining at Copper Mountain near Princeton. In 1931 the B r i t a n n i a mine and the Hidden Creek mine had together produced about 95 per cent of B r i t i s h Columbia's copper, and i n 1939 the B r i t a n n i a and the Copper Mountain produced about the same percentage. In lead and zinc production, the S u l l i v a n mine continued the domination i t had established i n the e a r l y 1920's. In 1939, the mine produced about 98 per cent of the province's lead and about 82 per cent of the zinc."'''" About 75 per cent of B r i t i s h Columbia's s i l v e r also came from t h i s mine, with most of the remainder coming from the gold mining operations around Stewart and from the extremely high-grade ores of the Highland B e l l mine at Beaverdell. Conclusions The tremendous expansion of gold mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia throughout the 1930's and the gradual recovery of base-metal and s i l v e r mining i n the l a t t e r h a l f of the decade, led the lode-mining industry to a near-record value output i n 1939. By value of production, lode-gold had become the most important metal i n the province, due both to a higher - 157 -output and to a higher u n i t p r i c e . (Figure 5). The expansion of gold mining and the recovery of other metal mining was, moreover, p a r a l l e l e d by an increase i n the number of mines. In 1939, some 222 mines shipped ores or concentrates from numerous areas i n B r i t i s h Columbia. This was 52 the l a r g e s t number of mines that had ever shipped i n one year. In general, then, the decade of the 1930's i n B r i t i s h Columbia belonged to the gold mining segment of the mining industry. Much of the productive and geographic expansion which had occurred was the d i r e c t r e s u l t of the 75 per cent increase i n the p r i c e of gold that had occurred over the period. In the mining of base metals, much l e s s ex-pansion had taken place. The production of copper, lead, and zinc was dominated by major mines as i t had been i n 1931, and over the decade no new large base metal mines came i n t o operation. As Lay noted with respect to the northeastern part of the province, corporate e f f o r t s did not f i n d much encouragement under the e x i s t i n g conditions of the base 53 metal markets. I t was a comment that could be generally applied to a l l of B r i t i s h Columbia during the 1930's. - 158 -FIGURE 5 COMPOSITION OF LODE-METAL PRODUCTION BRITISH COLUMBIA 1939 Total Value of Production - $54,710,584.00 Average Prices 1939 Copper 10.09 cents/pound Lead 3.17 cents/pound Zinc 3.07 cents/pound Cadmium 70.47 cents/pound S i l v e r 40.49 cents/ounce Gold $36.14/ounce Source: Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines. 1939. - 159 -FOOTNOTES 1. Decreases i n average p r i c e s between 1929 and 1930 f o r the major metals were: Lead 22.3%; zinc 33.2%; copper 28.3%; and s i l v e r 28%. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1930, p. A9. See also Footnote 7. 2. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1930. p. A7. 3. The Consolidated Company, however, di d cut wages f o r i t s employ-ees i n l a t e 1930. Margaret A. Ormsby, B r i t i s h Columbia: A H i s t o r y , Toronto, Macmillan, 1958, p. 443. 4. The Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada Limited, The Cominco Story, T r a i l , 1953, p. 7. 5. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1930, p. A28. In a d d i t i o n to the current slag production, there was a large quantity of slag from former operations stored at the T r a i l plant awaiting retreatment. 6. The Prosperity mine, however, could not survive the low s i l v e r p r i c e s that obtained i n 1931 and was closed, along with the company's Porter-Idaho mine, i n A p r i l , 1931. 7. The d e c l i n e i s shown i n the following table ( s i l v e r p r i c e s i n cents per. ounce, other metals i n cents.per potynd). 8. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1930, p. A9. 9. I b i d . , p. A8. 10. A.F. Flucke, "A History of Mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia," Transactions  of the Eighth B r i t i s h Columbia Natural Resources Conference, V i c t o r i a , 1955, p. 24. 11. H.T. James, "Gold and Gold Mining, I t s National and I n t e r n a t i o n a l S i g n i f i c a n c e , " Transactions of the F i f t h B r i t i s h Columbia Natural Re- sources Conference, V i c t o r i a , 1952, p. 188 . 1929 1930 1931 Lead 5.05 3.93 2.71 Zinc 5.39 3.60 2.55 Copper 18.11 12.98 8.12 S i l v e r 52.99 38.15 28.70 - 160 -12. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1931, p. A10. 13. A.F. Flucke, op. c i t . , p. 24; H.T. James, op_. c i t . , p. 188; William H. White, " H i s t o r i c a l Outline of B.C. Mining," Western Miner  and O i l Review, Vol. 34, No. 6 (June, 1961), p. 25. 14. H.T. James, op. c i t . , p. 188. 15. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1930, p. A26. 16. J.D. Galloway, "Lode-Gold Mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia," B r i t i s h  Columbia Miner, V o l . 4, No. 12 (December, 1931), p. 21. 17. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1930, p. A26. 18. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1931, p. A10. 19. The Extensive r e v i v a l i n gold mining was not l i m i t e d to lode-mining. Placer gold a c t i v i t y was equally a f f e c t e d . "Placer prospect-ing was stimulated by the issuance by the Department of Mines of p r o v i -s i o n a l free miners' c e r t i f i c a t e s f r e e of charge, which enabled the hold-ers thereof to locate and record placer claims without cost. By the end of 1932 about 10,000 of these c e r t i f i c a t e s were issued..." Annual  Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1932, p. A7. 20. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1932, p. A8. 21. I b i d . 22. I b i d . , p. A l l . 23. I b i d . , p. A10. 24. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1930, p. A7. 25. The p r i c e increases were a r r i v e d at by Roosevelt and two advisors who, evid e n t l y , began f i x i n g the p r i c e of gold each morning over break-f a s t . See Timothy Green, The World of Gold, New York, Simon and Schuster, 1968, p. 48. 26. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1933, p. A8. - 161 -27. I b i d . 28. Canada, Department of Mines, The Canadian Mineral Industry i n 1934, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1935, p. 18. 29. Ibi d . 30. This mine represented a con s o l i d a t i o n of the famour Premier mine at Stewart with two other properties i n the northwest coast a r e a — t h e B.C. S i l v e r and the Sebakwe—through the incorporation of Silbak-Premier Mines Limited. Annual Report of the Mi n i s t e r of Mines, 1936, p. B3. 31. See John S. Stevenson, Gold and Mineral Deposits of the Zeballos Mining Camp, B.C., B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Mines, B u l l e t i n No. 27, V i c t o r i a , King's P r i n t e r , 1950, p. 13; and George Nicholson, Vancouver  Island's West Coast, 1762-1962, V i c t o r i a , Published by the author, 1965, pp. 302-305. 32. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1935, p. DI. 33. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1938, p. B3. 34. Donald D. Fraser, "The Cariboo i n T r a n s i t i o n , " The Miner, V o l . 10, No. 6 (June, 1937), p. 48. 35. Timothy Green, op. c i t . , p. 49. 36. Calculated from Table IXa, Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1939, p. A18. The boundaries of several mining d i v i s i o n s changed between 1929 and 1939. Portland Canal (1939) included Portland Canal (1929) and Nass River (1929); the Vancouver Mining D i v i s i o n i n 1939 was considerably larger than i n 1929, having incorporated the mainland s e c t i o n of the 1929 Nanaimo Mining D i v i s i o n . The fi g u r e s given for 1929 and 1939 are, how-ever, e s s e n t i a l l y comparable. See B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Mines, Mining D i v i s i o n Maps, 1929 and 1939, Map Section, P r o v i n c i a l Archives, V i c t o r i a . 37. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1933, pp. A6-7. 38. I b i d . , p. A6. 39. The increase i n lead production i n 1934 over 1933 was 75,760,896 pounds, of which the S u l l i v a n produced 61,630,516 pounds, and the Monarch 11,789,400 pounds. For z i n c , the increase was 51,963,093 pounds, the Su l l i v a n contributing 31,833,361 pounds, and the Monarch, 19,546,504 pounds. - 162 -AO. Annual Report of the Minis t e r of Mines, 1938, p. E3. 41. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1931, p. A8. 42. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1933, p. A6. 43. The closure of the Anyox complex was forecast as e a r l y as 1932 (Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1933, p. 11) when, under e x i s t -ing conditions and at the usual rate of e x t r a c t i o n , the Hidden Creek mine was assessed as containing about two years of ore reserves. The Granby Company went into voluntary l i q u i d a t i o n . The mine and smelter were pur-chased by the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company who dismantled the operation to use the machinery at other pro p e r t i e s . See Canada, De-partment of Mines, The Canadian Mineral Industry i n 1935, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1936, p. 9. 44. H. Sargent, "Mining," Transactions of the Second Resources  Conference, V i c t o r i a , Department of Lands and Forests, 1949, pp. 158-190. The only exception was the copper-bearing dross from the T r a i l lead p l a n t . I t too, however, was exported to Tacoma. 45. Canada, Department of Mines, The Canadian Mineral Industry i n  1935, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1936, p. 12. 46. Ibi d . 47. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1936, p. A6. "The high cost of power had been an impediment to p r o f i t a b l e production at t h i s mine.'f See A.F. Flucke, op. c i t . , p. 23. The Granby Company had gone int o voluntary l i q u i d a t i o n i n August, 1935, but subsequently revived i t s business charter and began operations at Copper Mountain. See Annual  Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1941, note to Table XVII, p. 20. 48. Small amounts of bismuth and cadmium appeared i n the production records f o r several years of the 1930's. The antimony produced at T r a i l was a by-product of s i l v e r r e f i n i n g at the smelter, and was allowed to accumulate at the plant. Canada, Department of Mines, The Canadian Mineral  Industry of 1934, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1935, p. 3. 49. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1931, p. A6. 50. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1934, p. A8. - 163 -51. Most of the remainder of the zinc came from sl a g at the T r a i l smelter which cannot be credited to i n d i v i d u a l mines. Annual Report of  the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1939, Footnote to Table IXb. 52. Annual Report of the Mi n i s t e r of Mines, 1934, p. A8. The t o t a l i s compiled from the Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1939, and from the unpublished production records i n the Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources, V i c t o r i a . The t o t a l does not include a number of very small operations who shipped t e s t or t r i a l l o t s to the Government Sampling Plant at Prince Rupert. 53. Douglas Lay, Summary report of the northeast d i s t r i c t i n Annual  Report of the Mi n i s t e r of Mines, 1937, p. C3. - 164 -CHAPTER VIII THE SECOND WORLD WAR: 1940-1945 The outbreak of war i n l a t e 1939 brought about a s u b s t a n t i a l r i s e i n the demand f o r several metals. The lode-mining industry r e -sponded to these new demands by increasing production of the major me-t a l s and by i n i t i a t i n g production of several " s t r a t e g i c " metals. This chapter deals with the performance of the industry i n the years of the Second World War and attempts to show why, a f t e r a period of strong de-mand and r e l a t i v e l y stable p r i c e s , the production of most metals and the number of producing mines were considerably lower i n 1945 than they had been i n 1939. Production During the War: An Overview B r i t i s h Columbia during the years of the Second World War was, argues Ormsby, a very d i f f e r e n t place from the B r i t i s h Columbia of the depression period.^ "For the province as a whole, the War ushered i n an 2 era of p r o s p e r i t y , marked by a great increase i n population. Moreover, she continues, i n every part of the province, the War stimulated produc-t i o n . In the mining industry the T r a i l plant manufactured [daily] 200 tons of ammonia and other chemicals f o r war s u p p l i e s , and by 1942 the smelter was turning out every day 700 tons of r e f i n e d lead and 470 tons of r e f i n e d zinc t - 165 -f o r war purposes. Prospectors searched the h i l l s f o r bismuth, cadmium, mercury and other rare and precious metals.... 3 The i m p l i c a t i o n that the mining industry as a whole prospered during World War I I i s by no means substantiated by the a c t u a l p e r f o r -mance of the lode-mining industry i n t h i s period. A f t e r e x h i b i t i n g a 10 per cent increase i n tonnage output between 1939 and 1940, and main-t a i n i n g that l e v e l i n 1941, the tonnage of the industry declined s t e a d i l y between 1941 and 1945 from 7,938,803 to 4,377,722 tons. Lode-gold pro-duction declined from a record high output of 587,180 ounces i n 1939 to 175,373 ounces i n 1945. The output of s i l v e r , from a record high of 12,327,944 ounces i n 1940, dropped to 6,157,307 ounces i n 1945, the 4 second lowest output of t h i s metal since 1921. In the base metals sector of the industry, copper output declined s t e a d i l y between 1940 and 1945, reaching i n the l a t t e r year i t s second lowest output since the e a r l y years of the twentieth century. Lead and zin c production did r i s e s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n the e a r l y years of the war and set record volumes i n 1942. "* During the remainder of the war, however, lead and zi n c output f e l l q uickly to l e v e l s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the mid-1930's. The general decline i n production f o r the major metals during the war was, moreover, p a r a l l e l e d by a decline i n the number of shipping mines. The record high of 222 such mines i n 1939 had, by 1945, dropped - 166 -to a twentieth century record low of 36. In a d d i t i o n , employment i n the lode-mining industry, despite the i n f l u x of working-men to the P a c i f i c Coast which began i n 1941, 6 declined from 6027 i n 1940 to 3683 i n 1945. This drop i n employment was, as w i l l be i n d i c a t e d l a t e r , a major reason f o r the general decline i n output which characterized the lode-mining industry during the Second World War. Despite the general decline i n production of the major metals there was a s u b s t a n t i a l , though generally s h o r t - l i v e d , increase i n the output of a number of " s t r a t e g i c " metals which had not been produced i n any quantity, i f at a l l , i n the province before. Indeed, i n many parts of the world, the demands of war and the i n t e r r u p t i o n of peace-time sources of supply stimulated a g r e a t l y increased production of such me-t a l s as mercury, cadmium, bismuth, tungsten and t i n . ^ In terms of these metals, B r i t i s h Columbia's c o n t r i b u t i o n to the war e f f o r t was considerable and was due, i n large part, to the e f f o r t s of the Consolidated Mining g and Smelting Company of Canada. World War I I : The Major Metals As noted e a r l i e r , the production of lead and zinc increased s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n the e a r l y years of the war, both metals reaching new record volume outputs. Much of the increase came from the S u l l i v a n mine which, together with the concentrator at Chapman Camp, was operated at an 9 unprecedented scale. Most of the company's production of lead and zinc - 167 -was under contract to the B r i t i s h Government, while the balance was p r a c t i c a l l y a l l required, d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y , f o r war purposes."'"0 The combined output of lead and zinc from t h i s mine increased by over 35 per cent between 1939 and 1942; the rate of increase being greater than that f o r the province as a whole. In 1942, the S u l l i v a n mine was producing over 97 per cent of B r i t i s h Columbia's lead and over 91 per cent of the z i n c . Much of the remainder came from the Monarch mine at F i e l d which had re-opened e a r l y i n 1940 with contracts i n the United States, and from a number of mines i n the Slocan-Nelson area. Output could have been even greater i n 1942 had not a shortage of labour pre-vented production from a number of i d l e p r o p e r t i e s . "^ In March, 1943, the tonnage from the S u l l i v a n mine was at a record high of 243,631 tons, but i t f e l l s t e a d i l y u n t i l October, when only 170,282 tons of ore were produced. The d e c l i n e i n production, due mainly to a shortage of labour, caused a s u b s t a n t i a l d e c l i n e i n the out-put of r e f i n e d lead and zinc from the T r a i l smelter. Moreover, the shortage of labour not only retarded the r a t e of ore e x t r a c t i o n at the mine, but also caused development work to l a g behind production. For the f i r s t time i n several years, development work at the S u l l i v a n was i n s u f f i c i e n t to maintain ore reserves, with 1,600,000 more tons being 12 mined than were a c t u a l l y developed during the year. - 168 -The drop i n production at the S u l l i v a n accounted f o r most of the decline i n lead and zinc output 'for the province i n 1943. (Lead dropped 12.5% and z i n c 15.5% over 1942 l e v e l s ) . The Base Metal Mining Corpora-tion's operations at F i e l d also showed a decline i n the year and a number of small mines and l e a s i n g operations stopped shipments. The d e c l i n e was only p a r t l y o f f s e t by a few mines which came in t o production with war contracts, such as the Kootenay Florence mine at Ainsworth 13 which was taken over i n 1943 by the Canadian Wartime Metals Corporation. During 1944 the decline of lead and zinc production i n B r i t i s h Columbia continued. During the year, only f i f t e e n s i l v e r - l e a d - z i n c mines made shipments to smelters, s e v e r a l of these mines operating under con-t r a c t s to the Metals Reserve Corporation of Washington, D.C. Some of these operations, however, such as the Highland B e l l near Ainsworth, operated at a reduced scale due to the d i f f i c u l t y i n obtaining s a t i s f a c -14 tory labour. The Kootenay Florence mine ceased operating e n t i r e l y i n May, 1944, when the contract for sales of lead and zinc concentrates to the United States Metals Reserve Corporation was cancelled. At the S u l l i v a n mine, which s t i l l produced 97 per cent of the province's lead and 88 per cent of the z i n c , output declined again. A shortage of labour was p a r t l y responsible, but the d e c l i n e at the mine was l a r g e l y due to the amount of preparation needed to work lower l e v e l s and to the curtailment of production necessitated by a b a c k - f i l l i n g programme.'*""' - 169 -In 1945, lead and zinc production i n B r i t i s h Columbia improved s l i g h t l y over 1944, with the S u l l i v a n mine accounting f o r almost a l l the increase. The Base Metal Mining's Monarch and Kicking Horse mines near F i e l d also increased t h e i r outputs i n 1945 with labour conditions s l i g h t -l y improved by the end of the year. Lead and zinc production i n the Nelson-Slocan-Ainsworth area declined considerably i n 1945, due to f u r -ther mine closures or reduced output brought on by the continued labour shortages, the s c a r c i t y of mechanical equipment, and the termination of - - 1 6 war-time contracts. Copper production i n B r i t i s h Columbia during the Second World War declined s t e a d i l y and q u i c k l y , the output f a l l i n g from 78,000,000 pounds i n 1940 to 26,000,000 i n 1945. The major reason for the d e c l i n e was the often acute labour shortages that forced curtailment at the two major copper mines, the B r i t a n n i a at B r i t a n n i a Beach and the Copper Mountain south of P r i n c e t o n . ^ Although the B r i t a n n i a and Copper Mountain operations were able to maintain production l e v e l s i n the f i r s t year of the war, the l o s s of labour due to enlistments and to the a v a i l a b i l i t y of more remunerative employment i n other war i n d u s t r i e s , was f e l t i n 1941. Employment at the B r i t a n n i a over 1941 declined from 1200 to 870, and at the Copper Moun-18 t a i n , from 643 to 400. Moreover, at the Copper Mountain mine, over - 170 -h a l f the underground crew of 300 men were reportedly inexperienced i n 19 mining. Production at Copper Mountain dropped by 3 per cent and at B r i t a n n i a by 26 per cent. In 1942, facing further labour shortages which had reduced pro-duction capacity and markedly c u r t a i l e d develoopment work, both the B r i -tannia and Copper Mountain operations sought a i d from the Canadian Govern-ment i n order to increase t h e i r production. Both companies arranged contracts with the Wartime Metals Corporation which, i n p a r t , guaranteed 20 production costs and allowed a small p r o f i t . Yet, i n s p i t e of t h i s aid and the attempt by the Federal Government to s h i f t employment from 21 the "non-essential" gold mines i n t o the base metal mines, labour short-ages continued i n the copper mines and production decreased f u r t h e r . In 1943, the B r i t a n n i a reported no improvement i n the acute labour short-age, and production, though continuous, was at 50 per cent of normal. The Granby operation also continued to s u f f e r from the lack of mine workers 22 and resorted to using women on surface work. These conditions continued throughout 1944 and much of 1945. Moreover, the contracts with the Wartime Metals Corporation were cancelled l a t e i n 1944 as an A l l i e d v i c t o r y i n Europe became more c e r t a i n . For the remainder of the war, labour remained i n short supply, development and exploratory work were markedly c u r t a i l e d , and production continued to de c l i n e . Although both the B r i t a n n i a and Copper Mountain operations - 171 -maintained t h e i r dominance of the copper industry i n B r i t i s h Columbia, t h e i r combined output i n 1945 was s u b s t a n t i a l l y l e s s than each mine had i t s e l f produced i n 1940. In the r e s t of the province, copper mining was at a v i r t u a l s t a n d s t i l l . Some 137,000 pounds were produced by the N i c k e l Plate and Hedley Mascot gold-mines i n the Osoyoos Mining D i v i s i o n , and 23 about 94,000 pounds by the Silbak Premier i n the Portland Canal. The decline i n production which characterized the base metal i n -dustry i n B r i t i s h Columbia during the war was even more pronounced i n the lode-gold mining industry. From the record high outputs of the l a t e 1930's, gold production declined by 70 per cent during the war. The 175,373 ounces produced i n 1945 represented the lowest output of lode-gold since the e a r l y years of the 1930's, when average p r i c e s f o r the 24 metal were 46 per cent below those which obtained i n 1945. I f the labour shortages which characterized the mining industry i n B r i t i s h Columbia during the war were f e l t strongly by many of the base metal producers, they were even more severely f e l t by the gold mines, es-p e c i a l l y a f t e r 1941. In the f i r s t two years of the war, production of gold declined s l i g h t l y , but a c t i v i t y i n the gold mines was normal, many 25 mines remained i n operation, and m i l l capacity was increased at others. By 1942, however, the demand f o r labour i n other types of mining and i n war-oriented secondary industry had s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d the gold mines. Moreover, i n June 1942, the Canadian Metals C o n t r o l l e r issued an order which r e s t r i c t e d the production, development, and new i n s t a l l a t i o n s i n - 172 -non-essential mines i n order to conserve labour and materials which were 26 urgently required f o r more e s s e n t i a l purposes. This order which, i n e f f e c t , r e s t r i c t e d the employment of underground men i n operating and new gold properties, together with the more a t t r a c t i v e b e n e f i t s a v a i l a b l e to mine workers to be found i n other war i n d u s t r i e s , was f e l t i n the gold mines throughout B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1942. On the north coast, operations at the Silbak Premier were handicapped by the shortage of labour, and the Big Missouri mine was shut down. In the Cariboo, operations at the Cariboo Gold and Island Mountain mines were severely c u r t a i l e d due to the los s of labour. In the Bridge River area, the shortage of men reduced the Pioneer's output to one-third of capacity. In the Zeballos camp on Vancouver Island, the shortage of men and materials forced f i v e of the 27 seven mines i n operation to close during the year. Throughout the pro-vince, many gold mines experienced a considerable drop i n the s i z e of 28 t h e i r labour force. In 1943, more gold mines were forced to c u r t a i l t h e i r output and more mines closed. By the end of the year, only eight gold mines r e -mained i n operation and, as the P r o v i n c i a l Minerologist reported, even 29 those were having a d i f f i c u l t time to keep operating. Gold production for 1943 had declined to 224,403 ounces, the lowest output f o r a decade. Throughout 1944 conditions remained poor and the output from a l -most every mining d i v i s i o n declined or, as i n the case at Zeballos, - 173 -v i r t u a l l y stopped. Furthermore, f o r the greater part of 1945, the man-power shortage, e s p e c i a l l y i n underground workers, was s t i l l c r i t i c a l . In 1945, the t o t a l lode-gold output from the province was only 175,373 ounces, a f i g u r e s u b s t a n t i a l l y l e s s than that produced by the Premier, 30 Pioneer and Bralorne mines alone i n 1939. As the above di s c u s s i o n i l l u s t r a t e s , the lode-mining industry during the war experienced a period of d e c l i n e , at l e a s t as f a r as the major metals were concerned. Yet at the same time, the output of a number of so - c a l l e d miscellaneous metals was g r e a t l y stimulated by the demands of war. World War I I : The S t r a t e g i c Metals In 1939, the production of antimony, bismuth, cadmium, mercury, and tungsten had accounted f o r s l i g h t l y more than 2 per cent of the t o t a l value of lode-metal production i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d and greatly increased demand for the above metals, f o r both munitions 31 and other war supplies, stimulated t h e i r production throughout the world. In the case of mercury and t i n , moreover, the A l l i e d countries found 32 themselves cut o f f from the major pre-war sources of supply. These f a c -tors l e d to the search f o r commercial deposits i n B r i t i s h Columbia and, indeed, throughout Canada. Antimony, cadmium, and bismuth had, f o r several years, been pro-duced i n small q u a n t i t i e s by the plants at the T r a i l smelter. They were, as noted before, produced as by-products from the s i l v e r - l e a d - z i n c ores - 174 -of the S u l l i v a n mine. During the war, the bulk of B r i t i s h Columbia's production i n these three metals continued to come from t h i s source. Some antimony had been shipped from small operations at Stuart Lake and 33 Bridge River, but t h e i r outputs were i n s i g n i f i c a n t . The demand f o r a l l three of these metals was strong during the war and, as Table 5 i n d i c a t e s , the T r a i l plants produced sizeable amounts of the metals. TABLE 5 PRODUCTION OF ANTIMONY, BISMUTH, AND CADMIUM (000's pounds) Year Antimony Bismuth Cadmium 1938 - - 510 1939 1,200 409 799 1940 2,550 45 779 1941 3,170 - 1,081 1942 3,041 346 972 1943 1,114 408 599 1944 1,938 124 386 1945 1,668 190 510 New t i n production i n Canada during the war a l l came from the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company's plant near Kimberley. The 64,744 pounds of the metal produced i n 1941 was the f i r s t commercially 35 produced m e t a l l i c t i n from domestic ores ever produced i n Canada. During the r e s t of the war, the Consolidated produced considerable quan-36 t i t i e s of t i n , as indicated i n Table 6. - 175 -TABLE 6 TIN PRODUCTION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA (000's pounds) 194-1 65 1942 1,238 1943 777 1944 517 1945 850 B r i t i s h Columbia's con t r i b u t i o n to the war e f f o r t i n antimony, bismuth, cadmium, and t i n was supplied, as i n d i c a t e d above, from the operations of the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company. There were, i n a d d i t i o n , a number of other metals produced i n the province during the war, mercury and tungsten being p a r t i c u l a r l y important. Again, the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company was prominent i n t h e i r produc-er 3 7 t i o n . Mercury production i n B r i t i s h Columbia began as e a r l y as 1895 when some 138 f l a s k s of the metal were produced from cinnabar occurrences 38 near Kamloops Lake. S i g n i f i c a n t q u a n t i t i e s of mercury were not pro-duced, however, u n t i l the Second World War. At that time, the demand for the metal became considerable and the normal peacetime trade i n mercury was interrupted. During the war, f i v e mines i n B r i t i s h Columbia produced mercury, three of which,the Empire Mercury, the Red Eagle and the Hardie 39 turned out only very small amounts. Some 132,088 pounds of mercury were produced by the Takla Mercury mines i n 1943-44, a property near Takla - 176 -Lake operated by Bralorne Mines Limited. This production too, however, was overshadowed by the output from the P i n c h i Lake mine on Stuart Lake, f i r s t discovered i n 1937 by a member of the Geological Survey of Canada, and optioned by the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company the follow-40 ing year. In l i g h t of the increased demand for mercury i n the e a r l y years of the war, the Consolidated Company qui c k l y developed the P i n c h i Lake property and erected a treatment plant. In 1940, the mine produced over 150,000 pounds of the metal. Further development and expansion of plant capacity l e d to a threefold increase i n output by 1941, and to a production of over 1,000,000 pounds i n the following year. The considerable production of mercury from the P i n c h i Lake operation, together with g r e a t l y increased output i n the United States and Mexico, quickly a l l e v i a t e d the shortage of the metal which had faced the A l l i e d countries i n the e a r l y war years. By 1943, Canada was capable of producing at l e a s t eight times the amount of mercury required to meet current needs, and surplus stocks were considerable. The United States was also s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t i n mercury production by 1943, and, i n that year, the United States Metals Reserve Company cancelled a l l contracts 41 with mercury producers. Canadian producers, i . e . P i n c h i Lake and Takla, were then dependent upon domestic s a l e s , orders from the B r i t i s h Govern-ment, and upon p r i v a t e sales to United States consumers. The combined demand of these sources was not s u f f i c i e n t to warrant further production - 177 -of mercury i n B r i t i s h Columbia and, i n the summer of 1944, the P i n c h i 42 Lake mine ceased production. I t was followed i n September by Bralorne's Takla mine. Thoughout the remainder of the war, a l l shipments of mer-43 cury were from the P i n c h i Lake s t o c k p i l e . Of the other metals produced i n B r i t i s h Columbia under the stim-ulus of war demands, tungsten was of some importance. Tungsten, the production of which was small and in t e r m i t t e n t p r i o r to 1939, was i n great demand through much of the war, and .a number of B r i t i s h Columbia mines produced the metal. For the most part, tungsten was produced i n 44 the form of s c h e e l i t e concentrates, but the r e l a t i v e l y high p r i c e of 45 the metal permitted hand-cobbed ore to be shipped d i r e c t . In 1939, the e n t i r e production of tungsten i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and i n a l l of Canada, was some 8800 pounds from Columbia Tungsten's 46 Hardscrabble mine near Wells i n the Cariboo. In the following year, the Hardscrabble c a r r i e d out only development work and B r i t i s h Columbia's tungsten output consisted of small in t e r m i t t e n t shipments from the P h i l l i p s Group i n the Bridge River area. During these e a r l y years of the war, however, the supply of tungsten i n Canada was c r i t i c a l l y short, and other sources of tungsten i n B r i t i s h Columbia were being developed, no-tably at the Regal S i l v e r property near Revelstoke, i n the A t l i n area, and at the Red Rose Group near Hazelton. The l a t t e r two areas were being - 178 -explored by the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company. In 1941, t h i s company optioned the P h i l l i p s group, shipping about 3 tons of high-grade ore to Chapman Camp, and commenced work on the Red Rose property. E l s e -where i n the province, the Hardscrabble mine was closed a f t e r the f a i l u r e of diamond-drill t e s t i n g , and the Regal S i l v e r owners continued t h e i r 47 attempt to produce a marketable s c h e e l i t e concentrate. In the following year, much a c t i v i t y on the s c h e e l i t e occurrences i n B r i t i s h Columbia was undertaken. The Consolidated Company was examin-ing or working some seven p r o p e r t i e s ; the Bralorne i n t e r e s t s held options on three mines; and eleven other tungsten properties were at various stages of development. Late i n the year, the Emerald mine near Salmo was taken over by the Canadian Wartime Metals Corporation to meet threatened 48 shortages of tungsten i n Canada and Great B r i t a i n . In 1943, B r i t i s h Columbia produced some 975,000 pounds of tungsten, the bulk coming from the Consolidated's Red Rose mine. The remainder came from the same com-pany's Tungsten Queen at Bridge River, from Bralorne's Tungsten King i n 49 the same area, from the Lucky Boy at Trout Lake, and from the government-operated Emerald mine near Salmo. By the end of 1943, the supply s i t u a t i o n of tungsten i n Canada, c r i t i c a l l y short to that point, had markedly improved. Consumption of tungsten was l a r g e l y dependent on the production of high speed a l l o y s t e e l s , a production which declined considerably due to the accumulation - 179 -of t h i s s p e c i a l s t e e l and to changes i n the m i l i t a r y requirements. As a r e s u l t of t h i s , and because there was a large surplus of ferro-tungsten, concentrates, and scrap on hand, the Metals C o n t r o l l e r l a t e i n 1943 i n -structed a l l producers to discontinue t h e i r operations and ship whatever material they had on hand."*0 He also gave notice that no new contracts to purchase tungsten would be made. This a c t i o n terminated the produc-t i o n of tungsten i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n l a t e 1943, and v i r t u a l l y stopped further development. This condition obtained f o r the remainder of the war and the tungsten shipped from B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1944, as i n the r e s t of Canada, came from stockpiles."*^ During the war, two other metals were mined i n B r i t i s h Columbia, but neither was produced i n s i g n i f i c a n t amounts. In 1941, the Consolida-ted Mining and Smelting Company extracted about 3000 tons of manganese from an outcrop i n the Cranbrook area and, i n 1943, the same company 52 mined a small quantity of molybdenum from i t s Molly mine near Salmo. The S p a t i a l Pattern of Production: 1945 The general labour shortage which characterized the mining indus-tr y during the war brought about a reduction i n output at many mines i n the province and, moreover, forced many mines to close. Both the cur-t a i l i n g of production and the c l o s i n g of operations are c l e a r l y r e f l e c t e d i n Maps 17 and 18. Major gold mines, such as the Silbak-Premier at - 180 -MAP 17 BRITISH Source: Annual Report of the Minister of Mines, 1945; Unpublished production records, Department of Mines, Victoria. . - 181 -MAP 18 S O U T H E A S T E R N B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A o 10 20 MILES For explanation of symbols, s = = a see main map legend - 182 -Stewart, the Cariboo Gold Quartz at Wells, and the Pioneer at Bridge River had s u b s t a n t i a l l y reduced t h e i r output. A number of other gold mines, such as the P r i v a t e e r at Zeballos, the Surf I n l e t on Princess Royal Island, and the Polaris-Taku at Tulsequah had closed. In a d d i t i o n , many of the small gold mines that had operated i n 1939 i n the southern parts of the province were no longer shipping. In terms of the base metals, sizeable tonnage reductions were evident at the two major copper mines, the B r i t a n n i a and the Copper Mountain. In lead and zinc production, the S u l l i v a n continued to domi-nate the industry, although as noted e a r l i e r , production at t h i s mine had f a l l e n o f f i n the l a t e r years of the war. E a r l y wartime demands f o r lead and zinc had allowed the reopening of some older mines i n the Slocan area, some of which were producing considerable amounts of these metals i n 1945. On the whole, however, the l e v e l of mining a c t i v i t y i n the Kootenay was s u b s t a n t i a l l y lower than i t had been i n 1939, as the small number of mines shipping from t h i s area would i n d i c a t e . V i r t u a l l y none of the mines i n B r i t i s h Columbia that had produced the minor metals such as mercury and tungsten were shipping i n 1945. The wartime demand f o r these metals had been strong, but i t was equally short-l i v e d . - 183 -Conclusions With the exception of the minor metals discussed i n the preced-ing paragraphs, the demand for m e t a l l i c minerals generated by the Second World War was not, on the whole, matched by increases i n production and the establishment of new mines. War demands f o r lead and zinc brought about an increase i n the production of these two metals e a r l y i n the war. Much of t h i s increase came from the S u l l i v a n mine, although a few o l d properties i n the Kootenay region were r e - a c t i v a t e d . However, the i n a -a b i l i t y of mines to keep development work at a l e v e l to maintain t h i s production and the shortage of labour foced the production of lead and zinc to d e c l i n e during the l a t e r years of the war. The wartime demand f o r these metals and the decline of lode-gold, however, made lead and zi n c the most important metals i n the industry. (See Figure 6). At the end of the Second World War, the lode-mining industry was i n a p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t p o s i t i o n . The t o t a l value of production was only $51,539,902, a f i g u r e some $3,000,000 below that produced i n 1939. Furthermore, while production had generally declined during the war, the emphasis i n the industry had been on production. As a r e s u l t , many mines i n the province ended the war f a c i n g a considerable r e b u i l d i n g program. It was t h i s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of operations and the development of reserves that would characterize the immediate post-war a c t i v i t y of the B r i t i s h Columbia lode-mining industry. - 184 -FIGURE 6 COMPOSITION OF LODE-METAL PRODUCTION BRITISH COLUMBIA 1945 Copper 6.3% Others 3.1% S i l v e r 5.6% Total Value of Production - $51,539,902.00 Average Prices 1945 Copper 12.55 cents/pound Lead 5.00 cents/pound Zinc 6.44 cents/pound S i l v e r 47.00 cents/ounce Gold $38.50/ounce Source: Annual Report of the Mi n i s t e r of Mines, 1945. - 185 -FOOTNOTES 1. Margaret A. Ormsby, B r i t i s h Columbia: A Hi s t o r y , Toronto, Macmillan, p. 481. 2. I b i d . 3. I b i d . , p. 482. 4. The lowest output since 1921 was set i n 1944. See Annual Report  of the Minist e r of Mines, 1945, Table VI, p. A24. 5. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines and Petroleum Resources, 1970, Table V. The figures i n the 1970 Annual Report f o r lead and zinc frequently d i f f e r from f i g u r e s given f o r these metals i n e a r l i e r Annual Reports. The diff e r e n c e s a r i s e because of r e v i s i o n s made to e a r l y f i -gures to account for the recovery of lead and zin c from s l a g at the T r a i l smelter. For further explanation, see Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of  Mines and Petroleum Resources, 1960, Table VI, Footnote 3. 6. Ormsby, op. c i t . , p. 481. 7. W.R. Jones, Minerals i n Industry, Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1963, p. 21. 8. See"The Story of the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada, Limited," In Canadian Mining Journal, V o l . 75, No. 5 (May, 1954), p. 135. 9. The rather complex operating problem presented by the necessary r e v e r s a l of the r e l a t i v e proportions of lead and zinc mined, which the demands of the n a t i o n a l war economy thrust on the management, was solved s u c c e s s f u l l y . In a d d i t i o n , "the handling of the enlarged output was by no means a l i g h t task." Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1941, p. A76. 10. Canada, Department of Trade and Commerce, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Mining, M e t a l l u r g i c a l and Chemical Branch, Annual Report on  the Mineral Production of Canada During the Calendar Year 1942, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1944, p. 208. This s e r i e s of reports w i l l hereafter be c i t e d as Canada, D.B.S., Mineral Production of Canada, 1942. - 186 -11. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1942, p. A10. 12. Canada, D.B.S., Mineral Production of Canada, 1943, p. 158. 13. The Wartime Metals Corporation, a wholly owned Crown Company operating under the Department of Munitions and Supply was incorporated without share c a p i t a l on March 27, 1942. The Corporation was created to assume the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of administering, d i r e c t i n g , operating and supervising such mining and m e t a l l u r g i c a l projects as the M i n i s t e r of Munitions and Supply found necessary i n order to meet serious shortages of c e r t a i n metals and minerals. . See Canada D.B.S., Minteral Production  of Canada, 1944, p. 20. 14. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1944, p. A68. 15. I b i d . , p. A73. 16. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1945, pp. A102-A-109. 17. Throughout the war these two mines accounted f o r approximately 99 per cent of B r i t i s h Columbia's copper. In 1945, they provided a l l but 232,031 pounds of the t o t a l 25,852,366 pounds produced. 18. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1940, p. A84 and Annual  Report of the Minis t e r of Mines, 1941, pp. A77, A78. 19. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1941, p. A77. 20. Canada, D.B.S., Mineral Production of Canada, 1942, p. 149. 21. In June, 1942, the Canadian Metals C o n t r o l l e r issued Order M.C. 19 which r e s t r i c t e d the production, development, and new i n s t a l l a t i o n s i n non-essential mines. The order, i n part, r e s t r i c t e d the employment of underground men i n the gold mines and i n new gold p r o p e r t i e s , thereby making a v a i l a b l e more men f o r e s s e n t i a l base metal mine production. See Canada, D.B.S., Mineral Production of Canada, 1944, p. 19. 22. Canada, D.B.S., Mineral Production of Canada, 1943, p. 83. In f a c t , the province's two large copper producers suffered labour losses comparable to the losses i n gold mines. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r  of Mines, 1943, p. A10. - 187 ~ 23. See Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1945, pp. A61, A92, A93, and Tables IXa and XXI. 24. See Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines and Petroleum Resources, 1970, p. A26. 25. See the "Progress Notes" on gold mines i n Annual Report of the  Mi n i s t e r of Mines, 1940, pp. A51-A74, and Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r  of Mines, 1941, pp. A53-A72. The B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Mines had attempted to stimulate gold mining through the Gold Mine Leasing Experiment. This project was designed to a s s i s t the owners of small i d l e gold p r o p e r t i e s , to improve such properties to make them more a t t r a c t i v e to c a p i t a l , and to a c t u a l l y produce gold and so create f o r e i g n exchange. Three mines i n the Nelson area were selected f o r the experiment, one of which (Chapleau) was abandoned i n 1941 when I t was found the ore mined was not covering expenses. The C a l i f o r n i a mine began shipments i n 1941, but was closed i n 1943. The t h i r d mine, the A r l i n g t o n , was abandoned by the government since i t was f e l t that the mine could not be improved. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h i s mine shipped throughout the war. None of the mines were, however, s i g n i f i c a n t producers. See Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1941, p. A45, and Shipping L i s t s i n Annual Report of the M i n i s - ter of Mines, 1941-1945. 26. Canada, D.B.S., Mineral Production of Canada, 1944, p. 19. 27. B. White, The Morphology of Settlement i n the Nootka Sound Region  of Vancouver Island, 1920-1970, Burnaby, Unpublished M.A. Thesis, Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y , 1971, p. 69. 28. See "Progress Notes' on gold mines i n Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r  of Mines, 1942, pp. A53-A67. 29. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1943, p. A10. 30. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1939, pp. A65, A72, and A73. They produced 193,405 ounces together i n 1939. 31. W.R. Jones presents a u s e f u l summary of the uses of these various metals, with comments on t h e i r s p e c i f i c war uses. See W.J. Jones, op. c i t . 32. P r i o r to the war, I t a l y and Spain produced 70 per cent of the world's mercury. The p o s i t i o n of the A l l i e d countries with respect to t i n was c r i t i c a l a f t e r the Japanese captured the t i n smelters i n the S t r a i t s Settlements and the important t i n mines of Malaya. Canada, D.B.S. Mineral Production of Canada, 1942, pp. 193, 198. - 188 -33. See "Progress Notes" on antimony deposits i n Annual Reports of  the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1939-1941. 34. Cadmium data from Canada, D.B.S., Mineral Production of Canada, 1945, Table 171, p. 122; Antimony from I b i d . , Table 165, p. 118; Bismuth from I b i d . , Table 168, p. 120 and Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of  Mines, 1943, Table XI. 35. Canada, D.B.S., Mineral Production of Canada, 1942, p. 198. The Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company had recovered t i n , however, since 1925. See Chapter VI. 36. Table from Canada, D.B.S., Mineral Production of Canada, 1945, p. 141. 37. In addition to the metals produced by the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company during the war, the company also produced a number of other products, such as f e r t i l i z e r , chemicals, and heavy water. For an i n t e r e s t i n g statement on the last-named product, see CD. Andrews, "Cominco and the Manhattan P r o j e c t , " B.C. Studies, No. 11 ( F a l l , 1971), pp. 51-62. 38. John S. Stevenson, Mercury Deposits of B r i t i s h Columbia, B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Mines, B u l l e t i n No. 5, V i c t o r i a , 1940, p. 37. Mercury i s sold i n strong wrought-iron f l a s k s which can be handled and shipped without c r a t i n g . The standard f l a s k contains about 76 l b s . of mercury and i s the market unit of quantity, 39. The Empire Mercury and the Red Eagle, both located i n the Bridge River area, produced 1196 and 512 pounds, r e s p e c t i v e l y . The Hardie mine near Kamloops Lake produced 199 pounds. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Mines, Index No. 3, V i c t o r i a , Queen's P r i n t e r , 1955, Table I, pp. 187-219. 40. John S. Stevenson, op_. c i t . , p. 18. 41. Canada, D.B.S., Mineral Production of Canada, 1943, p. 140. 42. Canada, D.B.S., Mineral Production of Canada, 1945, p. 135. The Pi n c h i Lake mine at the time of closure was the l a r g e s t s i n g l e producer of mercury i n the western hemisphere. 43. I b i d . , The P i n c h i Lake mine was reopened by Cominco, Ltd. i n 1968. See Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines and Petroleum Resources, 1970, p. A21. - 189 -44. I b i d . , p. A24. In Canada, s c h e e l i t e was the chief ore of tungsten. See Canada, D.B.S., Mineral Production of Canada, 1942, p. 201. 45. John S. Stevenson, Tungsten Deposits of B r i t i s h Columbia, B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Mines, B u l l e t i n No. 10, V i c t o r i a , 1941, p. 21. 46. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1939, p. A101 and Canada D.B.S., Mineral Production of Canada, 1945, p. 144. 47. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1941, pp. A80-A81. 48. The Canadian Government corporation continued development and started work with the object of putti n g the property on a producing b a s i s at the e a r l i e s t possible date. The m i l l at the Emerald mine was b u i l t by the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company. Annual Report of the Mi n i s t e r of Mines, 1942, p. A80. 49. The ore from t h i s small.mine was hand-cobbed from the dumps and shipped d i r e c t to Ottawa. Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, 1943, p. A79. 50. Canada, D.B.S., Mineral Production of Canada, 1943, p. 151. 51. Canada, D.B.S., Mineral Production of Canada, 1944, p. 5. 52. See John S. Stevenson, Molybdenum Deposits of B r i t i s h Columbia, B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Mines, B u l l e t i n No. 9, V i c t o r i a , 1940. - 190 -CHAPTER IX SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Several major changes took place i n the B r i t i s h Columbia lode-mining industry over the 60 year period of development between 1887 and 1945. F i r s t l y , there had been a geographical expansion of pro-ducing mines beyond the o r i g i n a l mining centre i n the Kootenays. In general, t h i s expansion had been through the southern i n t e r i o r and along the coast, although a few mines i n the c e n t r a l and northern i n t e r i o r of the province were brought into production as w e l l . Secondly, there had been an upward trend i n the number of mines annually shipping ores or concentrates. T h i r d l y , a considerable increase i n the average size of mines had occurred. In the early years of the industry, most mines annually shipped under 100 tons of ore, while i n 1945, the average shipment was some 122,000 tons. The increases i n the number and size of mines l e d , f o u r t h l y , to a greatly increased output for the industry as a whole between 1887 and 1945. In a d d i t i o n , there had been a decline i n the number of smelters operating within B r i t i s h Columbia during t h i s period. In 1887-1892 four smelters were b u i l t to handle ores from the Kootenays; i n 1945, a large lead-zinc plant at T r a i l was the only smelter i n the province. These changes are c l e a r l y summarized by a comparison of the s p a t i a l patterns e x i s t i n g i n 1887-1892 (Maps 5 and 6) and 1945 (Maps 17 and 18)'. A number of other changes i n the industry not revealed by the maps - 191 -also occurred over t h i s period. There had been a considerable increase i n the v a r i e t y of metals produced. Furthermore, the industry had s h i f t e d from a dependence on high-grade to a dependence on low-grade deposits. F i n a l l y , there had been a substantial increase i n the l e v e l of corporate involvement i n both the mining and smelting phases of the industry. An examination of the production l e v e l s associated with the various periods i n t h i s thesis shows that the development curve of output for the industry between 1887 and 1945 was not smooth. Although the industry exhibited an upward trending output over the period, i t s development was characterized by periods of rapid growth, r e l a t i v e s t a b i l i t y , or d e c l i n e . The o v e r a l l pattern of growth i n production between 1887 and 1945 re-f l e c t e d a r i s i n g demand for metals which accompanied the growth of world population and industry. Short term f l u c t u a t i o n s i n the economic and s p a t i a l behaviour of the industry were, on the other hand, reactions to sharp changes i n demand and hence p r i c e , r e s u l t i n g from wars, depressions, and booms i n i n d u s t r i a l investment. The adjustments made to these changes were affected by a number of factors which played major r o l e s i n the development of the industry; namely, the nature of markets, the l e v e l of corporate involvement, the a v a i l a b i l i t y of c a p i t a l , the l e v e l of tech-nology, and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of l o c a l transport f a c i l i t i e s . The f i r s t f a ctor i n f l u e n c i n g the course of lode-mining development was the nature of the markets a v a i l a b l e to the industry. Lode-mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia evolved i n a region that was peripheral to major con-t i n e n t a l centres of population and industry, and i n which the l e v e l of - 192 -l o c a l demand was never s u f f i c i e n t l y high to warrant extensive develop-ment. As a r e s u l t , the industry was always highly dependent on the a v a i l a b i l i t y and strength of external markets, and on the supply of metals to these markets from mining centres elsewhere. The impact of t h i s dependence on external markets was f e l t throughout the period between 1887 and 1945. Indeed, the commencement of lode-mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia was i n part a r e s u l t of increased demand for non-ferrous metals i n the United States and a depletion of competing ore deposits nearer to eastern United States markets. The impact of war i l l u s t r a t e s the ro l e played by external markets as w e l l . Increases i n demand i n war industry centres, together with an i n t e r r u p t i o n of peace-time supplies, led to an increased quantity and d i v e r s i t y of production within B r i t i s h Columbia. F i n a l l y i t should be noted that some metals, such as i r o n ore, the occurrence of which was known throughout the period, were not produced i n s i g n i f i c a n t q u a n t i t i e s l a r g e l y because of the lack of external markets. The lode-mining industry was also affected by decisions made at the corporate l e v e l i n the l i g h t of e x i s t i n g technological and world demand conditions. Such decisions influenced both the economic develop-ment and the s p a t i a l patterns of the industry. A f t e r the turn of the century, the importance of the large corporation i n the mining industry became considerable. Such companies had the a b i l i t y to search f o r new mines i n various areas of the province without the prospect of im-mediate return. In most years, the major companies held a large number of mineral claims which were then released, held, or brought to - 193 -production depending on current or forecast economic conditions. The large companies had the f i n a n c i a l strength to adopt, adapt, or develop new technological advances; to withstand the impact of short-term depressions i n world markets; and to respond r a p i d l y to upward s h i f t s i n demand for various metals. Moreover, the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company's smelter at T r a i l served to increase the func-t i o n a l connections of the industry by providing a l o c a l market f or many mines whose development might otherwise not have taken place. In short, the large companies greatly furthered the development of lode-mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and added to the s t a b i l i t y of the industry. The a v a i l a b i l i t y of exploration and development c a p i t a l was another major factor i n f l u e n c i n g the economic growth of the lode-mining industry. C a p i t a l shortages had retarded the emergence of lode-mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and the f i r s t successful mining was made poss i b l e , i n part, by i n j e c t i o n s of c a p i t a l from outside the province. Over time, the c a p i t a l requirements of the industry as a whole i n -creased. The s h i f t from high-grade to low-grade deposits, the search for and successful establishment of mines i n more remote areas of the province, the need to explore without prospect of immediate return, and the adoption or development of technological innovations, a l l required substantial c a p i t a l investment. C a p i t a l a t t r a c t i o n was not, in general, d i f f i c u l t a f t e r the richness and extensiveness of mineral resources i n the province became known and a f t e r large companies such as'Granby and Consolidated became involved i n the industry. - 1 9 4 -Technological advances also played a major r o l e i n the develop-ment of lode-mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia. In the early years, a low l e v e l of mining and m i l l i n g technology precluded the mining of many deposits and r e s t r i c t e d productive mining l a r g e l y to high-grade ore bodies whose ores were amenable to d i r e c t smelting, to hand sorting p r i o r to shipment, or to treatment i n simple and i n e f f i c i e n t p l ants. With improvements i n mining, m i l l i n g , and smelting p r a c t i c e , the most r a d i c a l of which took place i n the f i r s t three decades of the twentieth century l a r g e l y as a r e s u l t of the innovative a b i l i t y and f i n a n c i a l strength of major companies, both the nature and geography of metal production changed. The intr o d u c t i o n of improved grinding and con-centrating techniques led to the p r o f i t a b l e working of lower grade ores, to higher recovery rates, and to the production of two or. more concentrates from a single ore. The adoption of the f l o t a t i o n process alone was responsible f o r the growth of several major mines and the b i r t h of the zinc industry i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The adoption or develop-ment of new materials handling techniques made possible the increased scale of operations required at lower grade mines. M e t a l l u r g i c a l developments at the T r a i l smelter led to higher recovery rates and i n -creased the range of m e t a l l i c minerals which could be p r o f i t a b l y mined i n the province. In short, advances i n lode-mining technology allowed the industry to respond to a l e v e l of market demand which greatly ex-ceeded the supply of metals which high-grade mines could produce. More-over, these advances released the industry from a r e l a t i v e l y r e s t r i c t e d s p a t i a l pattern, and allowed a wider choice of possible l o c a t i o n s . - 195 -The nature and extent of transportation f a c i l i t i e s also had a major influence on the s p a t i a l patterns of producing mines i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . The patterns show that while mines did appear i n several areas at c e r t a i n periods, most s i g n i f i c a n t metal production was derived from mines located within a few miles of tidewater along the coast, or within a narrow area along the southern border of the province. This general pattern was established not by geology but by r e s t r i c t i o n s 1 i n transportation. The a v a i l a b i l i t y of high-capacity, low-cost trans-port, e i t h e r i n the form of railways or marine shipping, was an es-s e n t i a l p r e r e q u i s i t e to large-scale mining. In general, where such f a c i l i t i e s did not e x i s t , mining e i t h e r did not occur or was r e s t r i c t e d to high-grade deposits p a r t i c u l a r l y of the precious metals. In some cases, mining did lead to feeder l i n e construction and to short-haul road b u i l d i n g , but, on the whole, mining was not a t t r a c t i v e enough to stimulate long-distance, overland transportation i n the high construction cost areas of the province. Only i n the post-war period, with a greatly increased demand and with an expansion of the road network and im-provements i n transportation technology, were the geographical margins of mineral production pushed beyond the l i m i t s which obtained between 1887 and 1945. External Markets and a Comparison with Other Resource Industries Of the major factors which influenced the development of the lode-mining industry, the a v a i l a b i l i t y and strength of external markets was most c r u c i a l . For t h i s reason, the pattern of growth i n lode-mining can - 196 -be compared to that of other resource i n d u s t r i e s whose raw material supplies exceeded the l e v e l of demand generated within B r i t i s h Columbia. The development of the lode-mining industry, i n f a c t , followed c l o s e l y Robinson and Hardwick's d e s c r i p t i v e model of regional economic growth over t h i s period, a model which l i n k s the course of resource ex-p l o i t a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia to the changing geographical s i t u a t i o n of the province with respect to world centres of population and 2 commerce. Robinson and Hardwick i d e n t i f y three periods which f a l l i n t o the time perspective of t h i s t h e s i s : a period of early European s e t t l e -ment (1846-1886), a period of post-Confederation speculation (1886-1918), and a period of production expansion (1918-1946). Between the middle of the nineteenth century and the coming of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway i n l a t e 1885, the beginning of a resource economy based on f i s h , f o r e s t r y , and mining was established i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Except i n the case of placer gold, the e x p l o i t a t i o n of these resources came slowly, as l o c a l population was small and access to d i s -tant world markets was d i f f i c u l t . Ralston noted, for example, that the early development of the salmon industry i n B r i t i s h Columbia was t i e d 3 almost e x c l u s i v e l y to the l o c a l fresh market, and only with the i n -troduction of the canning process i n the l a t e 1860's and the a c q u i s i t i o n of markets i n i n d u s t r i a l Europe, did s u b s t a n t i a l growth take place. In the forest industry, sawmilling began as early as 1857, but the scale of timber e x p l o i t a t i o n over the next t h i r t y years was r e l a t i v e l y small. An intervening source of lumber i n Puget Sound closer to the market i n C a l i f o r n i a , and more d i f f i c u l t logging conditions i n coastal B r i t i s h - 197 -Columbia at current l e v e l s of technology, were the major impediments to the establishment of a large-scale sawmilling industry i n these 4 early years. In the lode-mining industry, even l e s s growth occurred p r i o r to 1886, although several attempts to e s t a b l i s h the industry were made i n various parts of the province. A low l e v e l of technology, d i s -tance from and d i f f i c u l t y of access to world markets, and intervening sources of metals c l o s e r to these markets were major f a c t o r s accounting for the v i r t u a l lack of development. Between 1886 and 1918, a span of years which Robinson and Hardwick 5 have c a l l e d the period of "post-Confederation speculation," considerable growth occurred i n the major resource i n d u s t r i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia. For the most part, t h i s growth was stimulated by an increased access to external markets. The r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia a l t e r e d considerably with the completion f i r s t of the Canadian P a c i f i c and l a t e r of the Grand Trunk and Canadian Northern Railways, with the expansion of the American r a i l network into the P a c i f i c Northwest and southeastern B r i t i s h Columbia, with improvements i n shipping technology, and with the opening of the Panama Canal. These improved l i n k s with external markets, together with the depletion of f o r e s t and mineral resources i n the United States and a growing demand for salmon i n Great B r i t a i n , stimulated further e x p l o i t a t i o n of these resources i n the province and, i n turn, encouraged an i n f l u x of speculative c a p i t a l . The pattern of development of the major resource i n d u s t r i e s under the new conditions of demand and a c c e s s i b i l i t y exhibited a number of s i m i l a r i t i e s . In each case, growth was highly speculative throughout - 198 -most of the period. In the 1890's and the early years of the twentieth century, substantial c a p i t a l was invested i n timber holdings, mineral claims, and salmon canneries. The number of sawmills, mines, smelters, and canneries increased, and a c t i v i t y spread into areas where a favourable combination of resources and transport f a c i l i t i e s was a v a i l a b l e . In the years before the F i r s t World War, however, growth i n the major i n d u s t r i e s became l e s s speculative. In the f o r e s t industry, speculation i n timber holdings declined, and t h e i r e x p l o i t a t i o n increased, spurred 6 on by boom conditions i n the Canadian P r a i r i e s . In the salmon f i s h e r y , an overproduction c r i s i s triggered a noticeable concentration of owner-7 ship. Production continued to grow i n the pre-war period, but i t s speculative character gradually declined as the extent of the resource became better known and more e f f i c i e n t canneries were required. Similar developments took place i n lode-mining, where the impending decline of major ore-bodies led to a number of business consolidations and where the emphasis s h i f t e d from the grass roots e x p l o i t a t i o n of high-grade ores to the more s e t t l e d business of mining higher tonnage and lower grade deposits. By the end of World War I, the economic base of B r i t i s h Columbia was firmly established i n the products of the f o r e s t s , the mines, and the f i s h e r i e s . The major s p a t i a l patterns of resource e x p l o i t a t i o n were f a i r l y well established, and the resource i n d u s t r i e s had passed beyond the speculative pioneer stage. S i g n i f i c a n t f o r e s t production was con-centrated on the coast with logging having spread northward on Vancouver 8 Island and along the mainland. Fis h i n g a c t i v i t i e s and canning, from - 199 -t h e i r o r i g i n a l centres at the Fraser and Skeena Rivers, had expanded 9 to include the larger coastal i s l a n d s . Lode-mining was centred i n the Kootenay-Boundary area and on the north and south coast. In the years between the end of the F i r s t and the end of the Second World War the major resource i n d u s t r i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia experienced considerable growth. The l i n k s with external markets were strengthed 10 during t h i s period of "production expansion," and new markets were obtained. In the coastal forest industry, for example, lar g e - s c a l e growth occurred i n lumber production with new markets, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the North A t l a n t i c region, made acc e s s i b l e by f u l l commercial use of 11 the Panama Canal a f t e r World War I. High growth rates were also c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the production of most metals, although severe f l u c t u a t i o n s were experienced as l e v e l s of demand changed i n the major markets of the United States and Western Europe. The f o r e s t industry expanded further up the coast under the stimulus of the new demands, and by World War II most of the coastal forest was being exploited or 12 was being held f or future expansion. Forest production had also ex-panded into the ce n t r a l i n t e r i o r i n the inter-war period; the number and size of sawmills s t e a d i l y increased and exhibited a l i n e a r pattern 13 along the Canadian National Railway route to the P r a i r i e market. Some expansion of producing lode mines also occurred, e s p e c i a l l y during the 1930's when the pr i c e of gold rose s u b s t a n t i a l l y above pre-depression l e v e l s . On the whole, however, r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e geographic expansion took place i n lode-mining during t h i s period of production expansion, as much of the increased demand was met by mines which were i n production - 200 -by, during, or immediately a f t e r World War I. Large-scale operations had come to dominate both f o r e s t r y and mining by the end of World War I I . Many of the coastal logging operations were as large as they had ever been, or ever would be. The size of mines making s i g n i f i c a n t contributions to t o t a l production had greatly increased. Moreover, i n both i n d u s t r i e s , considerable corporate i n t e g r a t i o n had occurred. A high degree of such i n t e g r a t i o n had emerged between sawmilling and 14 logging on the coast, as i t had between mining and smelting i n the southern i n t e r i o r . Other resource i n d u s t r i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia also expanded during t h i s interwar period as d e c l i n i n g distance-cost l i n k s to world markets made f e a s i b l e a production greater than that which l o c a l demand could absorb. Economic growth i n the province was rapid and was paced, f o r the most part, by the development of resource-based i n d u s t r i e s oriented to world markets. Suggestions f o r Further Research Much research remains to be done on the geographical aspects of lode-mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Several avenues f or further i n v e s t i g a t i o n can be suggested, some of which follow l i n e s already well established i n economic geography, and one of which has been pursued only r e c e n t l y . With regard to the l o c a t i o n a l aspects of producing mines, an a p p l i c a t i o n of the l i m i t e d body of l o c a t i o n theory dealing with ex-t r a c t i v e i n d u s t r i e s may provide f u l l e r explanations f o r the l o c a t i o n and changes i n l o c a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia's mines. The l o c a t i o n of producing units i n mining i n d u s t r i e s has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been considered - 201 -the simplest example of the l o c a t i o n problem. As McCarty and Lindberg point out: producers must select from among the known location s of mineral deposits those most suitable for s e l l i n g t h e i r products i n ex-i s t i n g or anticipated markets. In order to explain how t h i s s e l e c t i o n process i s c a r r i e d out, l o c a t i o n t h e o r i s t s have r e l i e d heavily on the l e a s t - c o s t p r i n c i p l e . Each pro-ducing mine can be seen as a point at which entrepreneurs have attempted to minimize production and transport costs. Despite the c r i t i c i s m to 1 6 which the l e a s t - c o s t hypothesis has been subjected, i t s a p p l i c a t i o n to the B r i t i s h Columbia industry may provide i n s i g h t s into the major va r i a b l e s i n f l u e n c i n g s p e c i f i c mine locatio n s and into the r e l a t i v e weights which those v a r i a b l e s may have had at d i f f e r e n t points i n time. Location theory i s , moreover, p a r t i c u l a r l y e x p l i c i t i n dealing with transport costs and may be e s p e c i a l l y useful i n explaining the l o c a t i o n of mines i n B r i t i s h Columbia during a period of time i n which transport costs appear to have been of considerable importance. A q u a n t i f i c a t i o n of some of the v a r i a b l e s which have been suggested, i n q u a l i t a t i v e terms, as a f f e c t i n g mine l o c a t i o n may be h e l p f u l i n better explaining such l o c a t i o n s . An examination of transport costs, for example, both i n terms of t h e i r v a r i a t i o n over time and space, and t h e i r r e l a t i v e importance i n the cost structure of producing mines, may serve to confirm the impact such costs appeared to have had. The impact of the large-scale corporation on the development of the lode-mining industry cannot be overemphasized. Because productive lode-mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia became in c r e a s i n g l y dominated by such - 202 -large companies, the most f r u i t f u l avenue for further research l i e s i n a more d e t a i l e d examination of the influences exerted by the major corporations. Research i n what may be c a l l e d a "corporate behavioural approach" to i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n and development i s i n i t s infancy, and 17 has been concerned l a r g e l y with manufacturing i n d u s t r i e s . Yet the trend toward the growth of giant corporations so obvious i n manufacturing, i n equally obvious i n the primary i n d u s t r i e s , and was evident i n the B r i t i s h Columbia mining industry as early as the F i r s t World War. Increasingly i t became the case that the more important l o c a t i o n de-c i s i o n s were made not by i n d i v i d u a l s or small companies operating one or two small mines, but rather by large, integrated, multi-mine corpor-ati o n s . To understand more f u l l y the response of the mining industry to changes i n external demand, i t i s necessary to examine c a r e f u l l y what Steed has c a l l e d " the complex patterns of corporate decisions and 18 corporate s p a t i a l behaviour." Further research along these and other l i n e s w i l l aid i n under-standing the development, l o c a t i o n , and l o c a t i o n a l changes of lode-mining a c t i v i t y . The industry i n B r i t i s h Columbia has received l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n from geographers, however, and a broad overview of the h i s t o r i c a l development of the industry, as provided by t h i s t h e s i s , was a necessary f i r s t step. - 203 -FOOTNOTES 1. Douglas D. Campbell, " B r i t i s h Columbia Metal Production - 1963," Inventory of the Natural Resources of B r i t i s h Columbia, n.p., B r i t i s h Columbia Natural Resources Conference, 1964, p. 381. 2. J . Lewis Robinson and W.G. Hardwick, "The Canadian C o r d i l l e r a , " Canada: A Geographical I n t e r p r e t a t i o n, (ed.), John Warkentin, Toronto, Methuen, 1968, pp. 438-472. 3. Keith Ralston, "Patterns of Trade and Investment on the P a c i f i c Coast, 1867-1892: The Case of the B r i t i s h Columbia Salmon Canning Industry," B.C. Studies, No. 1 (Winter, 1968-69), p. 38. 4. W. G. Hardwick, Geography of the Forest Industry of Coastal B r i t i s h  Columbia, Vancouver, Tantalus Research, 1963, p. 10. 5. Robinson and Hardwick, op. c i t . , p. 440. 6. Hardwick, op. c i t . , p. 14. 7. Peter Juhgst,"Die Westkanadische Lachswirtschaft," Geographische  Rundschau, V o l . 24, No. 7 (July, 1972), p. 304. 8. Walter G. Hardwick, "Changing Logging and Sawmilling S i t e s ' i n Coastal B r i t i s h Columbia," Readings i n Canadian Geography, (ed.), Robert M. I r v i n g , Toronto, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1968, p. 336. 9. Jttngst, op. c i t . , p. 304. 10. Robinson and Hardwick, op. c i t . , p. 450. 11. Denis E. Kerfoot, Port of B r i t i s h Columbia: Development and Trading  Patterns, Vancouver, Tantalus Research, 1966, p. 45. 12. Robinson and Hardwick, op. c i t . , pp. 450-451. 13. Doreen K. M u l l i n s , Changes i n Location and Structure i n the Forest  Industry of North Central B r i t i s h Columbia, 1909-1966, Vancouver, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Unpublished M.A. Thesis, 1967, pp. 26-28. 14. Walter G. Hardwick, "Changing Logging and Sawmilling Sites i n Coastal B r i t i s h Columbia," Readings i n Canadian Geography, (ed.), Robert M. I r v i n g , Toronto, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1968, pp. 337-339. 15. H.H. McCarty and J.B. Lindberg, A Preface to Economic Geography, Englewood C l i f f s , P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1965, p. 234. - 204 -16. See F. E. Ian Hamilton, "Models of I n d u s t r i a l L o c a t i o n , " Socio- Economic Models i n Geography, (ed.), R. J . Chorley and Peter Haggett, London, Methuen, 1967, p. 364. 17. See, f o r example, Robert B. McNee, "Towards a More Humanistic Economic Geography: The Geography of E n t e r p r i s e , " T i j d s c h r i f t voor  Economische en S o c i a l e Geografie, V o l . 51, No. 8 (August, 1960), pp. 201-206; and Guy P.F. Steed, "Corporate E n t e r p r i s e and the L o c a t i o n D e c i s i o n Process," The Geographer and S o c i e t y , ( e d s . ) , W. R. D e r r i c k Sewell and Harold D. F o s t e r , V i c t o r i a , U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a , pp. 160-171. 18. Steed, op. c i t . , p. 163. - 205 -BIBLIOGRAPHY - 206 -BIBLIOGRAPHY A. BOOKS Chisholm, Michael. Geography and Economics. London, G. B e l l and Sons, 1968. The Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada Limited. The  Cominco Story. T r a i l , B.C., 1953. The Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada Limited. The  Story of the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada  Limited. T r a i l , B.C., 1938. D a l z e l l , Kathleen E. The Queen Charlotte Islands, 1774-1966. 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"Power, the Pathway to Progress," Transactions of the  Eighth B r i t i s h Columbia Natural Resources Conference, V i c t o r i a , 1955, pp. 259-263. Rogge, J.R. "Mining i n Manitoba: A Decade of Expansion," Proceedings  of the Canadian Asso c i a t i o n of Geographers, 1970, pp. 303-311. Rostovtsev, M.I. "Geographical Approaches to the Study of E x t r a c t i v e I n d u s t r i e s , " Soviet Geography, v o l . 11, no. 8 (October, 1970), pp. 616-629. Sargent, H. "Mining," Transactions of the Second Resources Conference, V i c t o r i a , 1949, pp. 158-190. $ Steed, Guy P.F. "Corporate Enterprise and the Location Decision Proces's," The Geographer and .Society, (eds.). W.R. Derrick Sewell and Harold D. Foster, V i c t o r i a , Department of Geography, Uni v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a , 1970, pp. 160-171. "The Story of the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada," Canadian Mining Journal, v o l . 75, no. 5 (May, 1954), pp. 125-393. Tryon, F.G. and McKenny, W.F. "Geographical S h i f t s i n Coal Production," Coal Age, v o l . 19, no. 3 (January 20, 1921), pp. 106-109. Turnbull, E l s i e . "Old Mines i n the West Kootenay," B r i t i s h Columbia  H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly, v o l . 20 (1956), pp. 147-163. Waller, Peter. "Die Standortverlagerungen der Nordamerikanischen Aluminium-HUttenidnustrie," Geographische Rundschau, v o l . 19, no. 2 (1967), pp. 56-60. White, William H. " H i s t o r i c a l Outine of B.C. Mining," Western Miner  and O i l Review, v o l . 34, no. 6 (June, 1961), pp. 20-26. Wilson, M.G.A. "Recent Trends i n the Coal Industry of N.S.W.," Au s t r a l i a n Geographer, v o l . 8, no. 4 (March, 1962), pp. 173-182. Wilson, M.G.A. "Towards a More A n a l y t i c a l Geography of Mineral Production," Professional Geographer, v o l .9, no. 4 (July, 1967), pp. 175-178. C. GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS Bostock, H.S. Physiography of the Canadian C o r d i l l e r a , with Special  Reference to the Area North of the F i f t y - F i f t h P a r a l l e l . Canada. Department of Mines and Resources. Geological Survey of Canada. Memoir No. 247, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1948. B r i t i s h Columbia. Department of I n d u s t r i a l Development, Trade and Commerce. Bureau of Economics and S t a t i s t i c s . Manual of Resources and Development, V i c t o r i a , 1971. B r i t i s h Columbia. Department of Mines (and Petroleum Resources). Annual Report(s) of the M i n i s t e r of Mines (and Petroleum Resources), V i c t o r i a , 1874-1970. B r i t i s h Columbia. Department of Mines. Index No. 3 to Publi c a t i o n s of the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Mines, V i c t o r i a , Queen's P r i n t e r , 1955. B r i t i s h Columbia. Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources. Notes  on Placer-Mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia, B u l l e t i n No. 21, V i c t o r i a , Queen's P r i n t e r , 1963. Canada. Department of the I n t e r i o r . Mines Branch. Report of the Commission Appointed to Investigate the Zinc Resources of B r i t i s h  Columbia and the Conditions A f f e c t i n g Their E x p l o i t a t i o n , Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1906. Canada. Department of Mines. The Canadian Mineral Industry, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1934-1935. Canada. Department of Trade and Commerce. Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . Mining, M e t a l l u r g i c a l and Chemical Branch. Annual Report(s) on the  Mineral Production of Canada, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1942-1945. Canada. Munition Resources Commission. F i n a l Report, Toronto, I n d u s t r i a l and Technical Press, 1920. - 212 -Dawson, George M. "The Mineral Wealth of B r i t i s h Columbia," Annual  Report of the Geological and Natural History Survey of Canada, (New S e r i e s ) , v o l . 3, part 2, report R, Ottawa, 1887-1888, pp. 1R-163R. Dawson, J.C. The Mining Industry of B r i t i s h Columbia and the Yukon, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia Hydro and Power Authority, I n d u s t r i a l Development Department, 1968. Douglas, R.J.W. (ed.). Geology and Economic Minerals of Canada, Canada, Department of Energy, Mines, and Resources, Geological Survey of Canada, Economic Geology Report No. 1, Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1970. Galloway, John D. Lode-Gold Deposits of B r i t i s h Columbia, B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Mines, B u l l e t i n No. 1, 1932, V i c t o r i a , 1932. Holland, Stuart S. Landforms of B r i t i s h Columbia, A Physiographic  Outline, B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources, B u l l e t i n 48, V i c t o r i a , Queen's P r i n t e r , 1964. Holland, Stuart S. Placer Gold Production of B r i t i s h Columbia, B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Mines, B u l l e t i n 28, V i c t o r i a , King's P r i n t e r , 1950. Horwood, H.C. Geology and Mineral Deposits at the Mine of B.C. Ni c k e l  Mines, Limited, Yale D i s t r i c t , B.C., Canada, Department of Mines, Bureau of Economic Geology, Geological Survey of Canada, Memoir 190, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1936. Kaufman, A l v i n . Southeastern Alaska's Mineral Industry, United States Department of the I n t e r i o r , Bureau of Mines, Information C i r c u l a r 7844, Washington, 1958. O f f i c e r s of the Department of Mines. An Introduction to Metal Mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia, B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Mines, B u l l e t i n 17, V i c t o r i a , King's P r i n t e r , 1943. Stevenson, John S. Gold and Mineral Deposits of the Zeballos Mining  Camp, B.C., B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Mines, B u l l e t i n 27, V i c t o r i a , King's P r i n t e r , 1950. Stevenson, John S. Mercury Deposits of B r i t i s h Columbia, B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Mines, B u l l e t i n 5, V i c t o r i a , 1940. Stevenson, John S. Molybdenum Deposits of B r i t i s h Columbia, B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Mines, B u l l e t i n 9, V i c t o r i a , King's P r i n t e r , 1940. - 213 -Stevenson, John S. Tungsten Deposits of B r i t i s h Columbia, B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Mines, B u l l e t i n 10, V i c t o r i a , King's P r i n t e r , 1941. Stockwell, C.H. (ed.). Geology and Economic Minerals of Canada, Canada, Department of Mines and Technical Surveys, Geological Survey of Canada, Economic Geology Series No. 1, Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1957. Young, G.A. and Uglow, W.L. The Iron Ores of Canada, Volume I, B r i t i s h  Columbia and the Yukon, Canada, Department of Mines, Economic Geology Series No. 3, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1926. D. UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS B r i t i s h Columbia. Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources. Unpublished Production Records £"Blue Books"J , V i c t o r i a , n.d. Church, J.S. Mining Companies i n the West Kootenay D i s t r i c t of B r i t i s h  Columbia, 1890-1900, Vancouver, Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Unpublished M.A. Thesis, 1961. Hughes, Jack. A History of Mining i n the East Kootenay D i s t r i c t of  B r i t i s h Columbia, Edmonton, University of A l b e r t a , Unpublished M.A. Thesis, 1944. Meyer, Ronald H. The Evolution of Railways i n the Kootenays, Vancouver, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Unpublished M.A. Thesis, 1970. M u l l i n s , Doreen K. Changes i n Location and Structure i n the Forest Industry of North Central B r i t i s h Columbia: 1909-1966, Vancouver, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Unpublished M.A. Thesis, 1967. White, B. The Morphology of Settlement i n the Nootka Sound Region of Vancouver Island, 1920-1970, Burnaby, B.C., Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y , Unpublished M.A. Thesis, 1971. - 214 -APPENDIXES - 215 -APPENDIX A GLOSSARY OF TERMS Ar r a s t r a - A c i r c u l a r r o c k - l i n e d p i t : i n which broken ore i s pulv e r i z e d by stones attached to h o r i z o n t a l poles fastened i n a c e n t r a l p i l l a r and dragged around the p i t . B l i s t e r Copper - The product of the Bessemer convertor furnace used i n copper smelting. I t i s a crude form of copper, assaying about 99 per cent copper, and re q u i r i n g further r e f i n i n g before being used f o r i n -d u s t r i a l purposes. Bog Iron Ore - A s p e c i a l c l a s s of i r o n ore o r i g i n a t i n g as a p r e c i p i t a t e and deposited at the surface of the earth by waters which leach i r o n from rocks that may be of igneous or sedimentary o r i g i n . Development Work - Work done to open up ore bodies by shaft s i n k i n g , tunneling, or d r i f t i n g . F i s s u r e - An extensive crack, break, or f r a c t u r e i n rocks. Flux - A chemical substance used i n metallurgy to react with gangue ma-t e r i a l s to form slags which are l i q u i d at the furance temperatures concerned, and low enough i n density to f l o a t on the molten bath of metal or matte. Limestone and s i l i c a are examples. F r e e - M i l l i n g - Ores of gold or s i l v e r from which the precious metals can be recovered by concentrating methods without r e s o r t to r o a s t i n g or chemical treatment. Gangue - The worthless minerals associated with valuable minerals i n an ore deposit. Hand-cobbed Ore - Hand concentration i n which lumps of concentrate are detached from waste. Matte - The product of a smelter, being metal with some contained s u l -phur. I t must be further r e f i n e d to obtain the pure metal. - 216 -Ore-shoot - The portion, or length of the v e i n , or other ore s t r u c t u r e that c a r r i e s s u f f i c i e n t valuable mineral to be p r o f i t a b l e to mine. P i l l a r - A block of s o l i d ore or rock l e f t i n place f o r the purpose of supporting the walls or roof i n a mine. Rawhiding - A means of haulage by which ore i s s l i d over the ground on a p a l l e t made of skins, or skins and logs. Shaft - A v e r t i c a l or i n c l i n e d excavation used f o r the purpose of open-ing and s e r v i c i n g a mine. I t i s u s u a l l y equipped with a h o i s t at the top which lowers and r a i s e s a conveyance for handling men and m a t e r i a l . Spelter - The zinc of commerce,more or l e s s impure, cast from molten metal i n t o slabs or ingots. Stamp-mill - An apparatus (also the b u i l d i n g containing the apparatus) i n which rock i s crushed by descending pe s t l e s (stamps), operated by water power or steam power. S t i b n i t e - Common antimony ore found with p y r i t e , galena, and arsenic minerals. Stope - An excavation i n a mine from which ore i s being or has been extracted. Sulphuret ore - In miners' phrase, the undecomposed m e t a l l i c ores, us-u a l l y sulphides. C h i e f l y applied to auriferous p y r i t e s . An o l d synonym f o r sulphide. - 217 -APPENDIX B MAPS OF MINING DIVISIONS - 218 -MAP 19 B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A - 219 -MINING DIVISIONS - 1905 1. Ainsworth 2. A l b e r n i 3. Arrow Lake 4. Ashcroft 5. A t l i n 6. B e l l a Coola 7. Cariboo 8. Clamoquot .9. C l i n t o n 10. Fort Steele 11. Golden 12. Grand Forks 13. Greenwood 14. Kamloops 15. Lardeau 16. L i a r d 17. L i l l o o e t 18. Nanaimo 19. Nelson 20. New Westminster 21. N i c o l a 22. Omineca 23. Osoyoos 24. Quatsino 25. Quesnel 26. Revelstoke 27. Similkameen* 28. Skeena 29*. Slocan 30. Slocan C i t y 31. S t i k i n e 32. T r a i l Creek 33. Trout Lake 34. Vernon 35. V i c t o r i a 36. Windemere 37. Yale - 220 -MAP 20 B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A - 221 -MINING DIVISIONS-1914 1. Ainsworth 2. A l b e r n i 3. Arrow Lake 4. Ashcroft 5. A t l i n 6. B e l l a Coola 7. Cariboo 8. Clayoquot 9. C l i n t o n 10. Fort Steele 11. Golden 12. Grand Forks 13. Greenwood 14. Kamloops 15. Lardeau 16. L i a r d 17. L i l l o o e t 18. Nanaimo 19. Nelson 20. New Westminster 21. N i c o l a 22. Omineca 23. Osoyoos 24. Peace River 25. Portland Canal 26. Quatsino 27. Queen Charlotte 28. Quesnel 29. Revelstoke 30. Similkameen 31. Skeena 32. Slocan 33. Slocan C i t y 34. S t i k i n e 35. T r a i l Creek 36. Trout Lake 37. Vancouver 38. Vernon 39. V i c t o r i a 40. Windermere 41. Yale - 222 -MAP 21 B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A MINING DIVISIONS 1921 e to no I i 1 •mi P A C I F I C O C f A N k <$r For key to numbers, see following poqe. - 223 -MINING DIVISIONS - 1921 1. Ainsworth 2. A l b e r n i 3. Arrow Lake 4. Ashcroft 5. A t l i n 6. B e l l a Coola 7. Cariboo 8. Clayoquot 9. C l i n t o n 10. Fort Steele 11. Golden 12. Grand Forks 13. Greenwood 14. Kamloops 15. Lardeau 16. L i a r d 17. L i l l o o e t 18. Nanaimo 19. Nass River 20. Nelson 21. New Westminster 22. N i c o l a 23. Omineca 24. Osoyoos 25. Peace River 26. Portland Canal 27. Quatsino 28. Queen Charlotte 29. Quesnel 30. Revelstoke 31. Similkameen 32. Skeena 33. Slocan 34. Slocan C i t y 35. S t i k i n e 36. T r a i l Creek 37. Trout Lake 38. Vancouver 39. Vernon 40. V i c t o r i a 41. Windermere 42. Yale - 224 -MAP 22 BRITISH C O L U M B I A - 225 -MINING DIVISIONS - 1931 1. Ainsworth 2. A l b e r n i 3. Arrow Lake 4. Ashcroft 5. A t l i n 6. B e l l a Coola 7. Cariboo 8. Clayoquot 9. C l i n t o n 10. Fort Steele 11. Golden 12. Grand Forks 13. Greenwood 14. Kamloops 15. Lardeau 16. L i a r d 17. L i l l o o e t 18. Nanaimo 19. Nass River 20. Nelson 21. New Westminster 22. N i c o l a 23. Omineca 24. Osoyoos 25. Peace River 26. Portland Canal 27. Quatsino 28. Queen Charlotte 29. Quesnel 30. Revelstoke 31. Similkameen 32. Skeena 33. Slocan 34. Slocan C i t y 35. S t i k i n e 36. T r a i l Creek 37. Vancouver 38. Vernon 39. V i c t o r i a 40. Windermere 41. Yale - 226 -MAP 23 B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A - 227 -MINING DIVISIONS - 1939 1. Ainsworth 2. A l b e r n i 3. Arrow Lake 4. Ashcroft 5. A t l i n 6. B e l l a Coola 7. Cariboo 8. Clayoquot 9. C l i n t o n 10. Fort Steele 11. Golden 12. Grand Forks 13. Greenwood 14. Kamloops 15. Lardeau 16. L i l l o o e t 17. Nanaimo 18. Nelson 19. New Westminster 20. N i c o l a 21. Omineca 22. Osoyoos 23. Peace River 24. Portland Canal 25. Quatsino 26. Queen Charlotte 27. Quesnel 28. Revelstoke 29. Similkameen 30. Skeena 31. Slocan 32. Slocan C i t y 33. S t i k i n e 34. T r a i l Creek 35. Vancouver 36. Vernon 37. V i c t o r i a 38. Windermere 

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