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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Yenan principles in Chinese education 1973

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C/' Y E N A N P R I N C I P L E S I N C H I N E S E E D U C A T I O N by A L I C E M U S Z Y N S K I B . A . , M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1971 A THESIS S U B M I T T E D I N PARTIAL F U L F I L M E N T O F THE R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R THE D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O F ARTS in the Depar tment of A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y W e a c c e p t this thesis as con fo rming to the requ i red standard THE U N I V E R S I T Y O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A J u l y , 1973 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Pv\vSTV\^ 0VOL.OG--/ V % Q a O L o C r / The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date ^ o < ^ ^ A B S T R A C T The educa t i ona l system in C h i n a today has its roots in the Y e n a n pe r iod ( 1 9 3 7 - 1 9 4 5 ) . This thesis surveys that per iod w i th the purpose of d i s c o v e r i n g how the p r i nc ip les unde r l y i ng educa t i on came to be fo rmed . It then goes on to desc r ibe how those p r i nc i p l es were imp lemented in the 1940 's . The c h i e f c o n c e p t around w h i c h the e d uca t i ona l system came to be based was the 'mass l i n e 1 . D u r i n g the 1950's and e a r l y 1960 's , e d u c a t i o n as env i saged i n the Y e n a n years had to compete w i t h another system - one m o d e l l e d upon that of the Sov ie t U n i o n . The thesis exp lo res this st ruggle be tween what was essen t i a l l y ' two l i nes ' in e d u c a t i o n . The G r e a t Pro le ta r ian C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n , w h i c h erupted f u l l - s c a l e in 1966 , was , as far as the educa t i ona l sphere was c o n c e r n e d , a rea f f i rmat ion of the p r i nc ip les d e v e l o p e d in the Y e n a n e r a . The thesis c o n c l u d e s w i t h this movement , desc r i b i ng the more impor t - ant of the educa t i ona l p o l i c i e s and how they were to be i m p l e m e n t e d . A l t h o u g h s p e c i f i c p o l i c i e s and the i r imp lementa t ion might d i f fe r from those of the Y e n a n y e a r s , the p r i n - c i p l e s are s t i l l the same, e s p e c i a l l y that of the 'mass l i n e ' . It is suggested that the model of e d u c a t i o n d e v e l o p e d i n C h i n a s i nce the Y e n a n era is one that is r e l evan t for other count r ies of the Th i rd W o r l d , a l though imp lementa t ion may be imposs ib le w i thou t soc ia l r e v o l u t i o n . This thesis is based on research in the l i b r a r y , and was l i m i t e d to E n g l i s h - language t rans lat ions and secondary sources . i i T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S Page A B S T R A C T i C H A P T E R O N E - In t roduct ion 1 C H A P T E R T W O - S o c i a l and Educa t iona l R e v o l u t i o n in the Y e n a n Era 5 C H A P T E R THREE - Educa t i on in the L ibe ra ted A r e a s 34 C H A P T E R F O U R - Educa t i on From the F i f t i es to the G r e a t P ro le ta r ian C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n . . 61 C H A P T E R F IVE - C o n c l u s i o n 91 B I B L I O G R A P H Y 94 1 C H A P T E R O N E In t roduct ion The focus of this thesis is e d u c a t i o n . This a rea was chosen in the b e l i e f that the educa t i ona l system of a soc ie ty mirrors its goa ls a n d , to a lesser d e g r e e , its na tu re . U n t i l the C h i n e s e e x p e r i e n c e , educa t i on in most count r ies has , in recen t y e a r s , f o l l o w e d c l o s e l y the l ead of the great c a p i t a l i s t nat ions - the Western m o d e l . Even the Sov ie t U n i o n has a system of e d u c a t i o n w h i c h c l o s e l y pa ra l l e l s that of the W e s t . In par t , th is re f lec ts its c o n c e r n w i t h i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and m o d e r n i z a t i o n , that i s , w i th e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . M o s t Th i rd -Wor ld count r ies are caught up in this o r i e n t a t i o n . There is one no tab le e x c e p t i o n - the ' M a o i s t ' m o d e l . The term ' M a o i s t ' is here used to d i s t i n - gu ish the model of educa t i on env i saged by M a o at Y e n a n from the e d u c a t i o n a l system as i t ex is ted in C h i n a pr ior to Communis t t a k e - o v e r , and from the ' L i u i s t l i n e 1 f o l l o w e d in the 1950's and ea r l y 1960 's , w h i c h was c l o s e l y pat terned on the educa t i ona l system of the Sov ie t U n i o n . There is a stress on Y e n a n in the f o l l o w i n g chap te rs . It was at Y e n a n that M a o f i rst d e v e l o p e d the concep ts w h i c h w o u l d prove c r u c i a l i n shap ing e d u c a t i o n i n the c o m - munist base a reas , and in a l l of C h i n a in the years f o l l o w i n g L ibe ra t i on . M a o ' s p r i n c i p l e con t r i bu t i on in the educa t i ona l sphere was his c o n c e p t of the 'mass l i n e 1 . This no t ion ra ised some fundamenta l quest ions as far as educa t i on was c o n c e r n e d : whom should e d u - ca t i on serve and for what purposes? The answers are p rov ided in the ideas beh ind 'mass l i n e ' : e d u c a t i o n should be for the masses and i t shou ld serve the i r needs . P o l i t i c a l e d u - c a t i o n is impor tan t , because it exp la ins the p o l i c i e s and p r i nc i p l es of government to the 1 masses and tr ies to show them how the i r l o c a l needs are t i ed in w i t h those of the larger s o c i e t y . Peop les ' needs , other than such bas ic ones as food and she l t e r , are r e l a t i v e to the soc ie t y in w h i c h they l i v e . In C h i n a , they are r e l a t i v e to communist i d e o l o g y as i t is put in to p r a c t i c e every d a y . It is not w i t h i n the scope of this thesis to dea l w i t h that i d e o l o g y and how i t shapes and f u l f i l l s needs . The main argument here is that C h i n e s e communist e d u c a t i o n , because i t does not use e d u c a t i o n in the Western wo r l d as its m o d e l , has had a un ique deve lopmen t , one in k e e p i n g w i t h communist i d e o l o g y . This deve lopmen t has made e d u c a t i o n in C h i n a today ve ry d i f fe ren t f rom that in most other count r ies of the w o r l d . A s s u c h , i t c h a l l e n g e s the no t ion that the Western educa t i ona l system is the on l y system possib le for a poor count ry w h i c h hopes to i n d u s t r i a l i z e . The term 'mass' is used throughout in p re ference to the term ' p e o p l e ' . ' P e o p l e ' , jen min i n C h i n e s e , i nc ludes not on l y workers and peasants , but a lso other sectors of the p o p u l a t i o n , such as the b o u r g e o i s i e . ' M a s s ' , kuan c h u n g , is narrower in s c o p e , re fe r r ing p r imar i l y to workers and peasants. Mass e d u c a t i o n is thus e d u c a t i o n p r imar i l y for the b e n e - f i t of workers and peasants, w h i c h groups const i tu te the ma jo r i t y of the C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n . These were the groups w h i c h were e x c l u d e d from the educa t i ona l system in imper ia l and Kuomin tang C h i n a . O n l y the groups who had power and w e a l t h - the e l i t es (who in t r a - d i t i ona l C h i n a i n c l u d e d the l and lo rds , the scho la r o f f i c i a l s , and ru le rs , such as the M a n c h u s and the war lo rds , depend ing on the era) - c o u l d hope to r e c e i v e e d u c a t i o n . P e a - sants and workers were not barred from the educa t i ona l sys tem, but i n p r a c t i c e , f ew mem- bers of these classes ever a c t u a l l y r e c e i v e d o n e . W i t h the Communis t t akeove r , the t rad i t i ona l e l i t e d i d not d isappear o v e r n i g h t . A s C h i n a began to i n d u s t r i a l i z e , a bourgeo is ie had a lso begun to f o rm , a c q u i r i n g w e a l t h 3 and power a n d , thus, e l i t e status. The Communists had to be cons tan t l y on guard lest these groups rega in the power and wea l t h they were so accus tomed to h a v i n g . Because these groups he ld au thor i t y (or i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d power) i n the eyes of many workers and peasants, the poss ib i l i t y of the i r r e g a i n i n g the i r lost posi t ions was immense. In the coun t r ys ide , where gent ry ru le (wh i ch was ru le by a comb ina t i on of land lords and s c h o - lar o f f i c i a l s ) had been p reva len t for so many cen tu r i es , there were enormous d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d in h a v i n g e d u c a t i o n penetra te v i l l a g e l eve l s and reach the peasant ry . W h e n the Communis ts came to power , a danger that two new e l i t es c o u l d ar ise and subvert r evo lu t i ona ry goa ls d e v e l o p e d . The cadres a r e , above a l l , l eade rs . They do not have to be t Party members, a l though many of them a r e . They take on leadersh ip ro les a t a l l l eve l s - from the v i l l a g e a l l the way up to Party and government headquar te rs . They are a heterogeneous group: a cad re c a n be anyone from an i l l i t e r a t e peasant to a h i g h l y - t ra ined i n t e l l e c t u a l . The main danger as far as cadres are c o n c e r n e d is that they become d i v o r c e d from the p o p u l a t i o n . This is possib le when a h igh degree of b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n sets in - when jobs become h i g h l y r o u t i n i z e d and respons ib i l i t y f lows upward to the c o m - mand cen t res , w h i l e commands f l o w d o w n w a r d . In such a s i t u a t i o n , cadres become o r ien ted more towards the i r superiors than to the peop le they are s e r v i n g . Therei has been much stress in C h i n a on k e e p i n g bu reauc ra t i c trends at a m i n i m u m . Cadres are a lso g i ven much a t t e n t i o n . O n e part of the e d u c a t i o n a l system, the cad re schoo l s , is devo ted to t r a i n i ng them for the i r l eadersh ip r o l e s . The second g roup , the i n t e l l e c t u a l s , has proved more p r o b l e m a t i c . These are the peop le who have more e d u c a t i o n and sk i l l s than the ave rage C h i n e s e peasant or wo rke r . 4 M a n y , a l though not a l l , are cad res . Because they possess someth ing w h i c h is in d e m a n d , e s p e c i a l l y t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s , and w h i c h is s c a r c e , there is a danger that they w i l l set t hem- se lves above the peop le and form a ' r u l i ng c l a s s ' . There have been many efforts to p re - ven t this from h a p p e n i n g . The f o l l o w i n g chapters descr ibe the more important ones , such as r e c t i f i c a t i o n and hs ia f a n g . Efforts have been made to in tegrage cadres w i th i n t e l l e c - tua l s , me ld i ng the concepts of ' r e d ' and ' e x p e r t ' . Efforts have a lso been made to in tegra te those two groups w i t h the workers and peasants, thus ' p r o l e t a r i a n i z i n g the i n t e l l e c t u a l s ' w h i l e ' i n t e l l e c t u a l i z i n g the p r o l e t a r i a t ' , to the bene f i t of a l l c o n c e r n e d . C h a p t e r two dea ls w i th why the p r i nc i p l es beh ind mass e d u c a t i o n were d e v e l o p e d . The th i rd chapte r is c o n c e r n e d w i t h the i r impe lemen ta t i on in the Y e n a n p e r i o d , w h i l e the last chapter is c o n c e r n e d w i th the problems of the i r imp lemen ta t i on in the 1950's and 1960's - un t i l the G r e a t Pro le ta r ian C u l t u r a l Revo lu t i on rea f f i rmed the p r imacy and i m - por tance of the 'mass l i n e ' . 5 C H A P T E R T W O S o c i a l and Educa t iona l R e v o l u t i o n i n the Y e n a n Era The bas ic premise of th is thesis is that the G r e a t P ro le ta r ian C u l t u r a l R e v o l u - t i on was a rea f f i rma t ion of p r i nc i p l es f i rst d e v e l o p e d dur ing the Y e n a n e r a . It is the task of this chapte r to set for th the cond i t i ons w h i c h l ed the C h i n e s e Communis t leadersh ip to d e v e l o p and adopt these p r i nc ip les and to examine the way e d u c a t i o n was to f i t in to the revo lu t i ona ry t ransformat ion of rural s o c i e t y . By the t ime the Long M a r c h was c o m p l e t e d , and Y e n a n es tab l i shed as the C a p i - to l of the C h i n e s e Sov ie t G o v e r n m e n t , a number of important events had o c c u r r e d . M a o Tse- tung was now the leader of the C h i n e s e Communis t movement a n d , i n the immed ia te fu tu re , his v iews and p o l i c i e s w o u l d p r e v a i l . For a number of years he had concen t ra ted on the peasantry as the main po ten t ia l f o rce for un leash ing s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n . ^ H o w e v e r , the f a i l u r e of the K i a n g s i S o v i e t had taught the Communists that e c o n o m i c r e v o - lu t ion must p roceed more cau t i ous l y for at least the t ime b e i n g . A b o v e a l l , i t must not turn the m idd le peasants against the poor peasants , caus ing the former to r e j ec t r e v o l u t i o n and f igh t on the s ide of l and lo rd and r i c h - p e a s a n t in terests . In " the Shensi base i t was not n a t i o n a l i s t i c rhe to r i c but ag ra r ian r e v o l u t i o n , imp lemented w i d e l y in 1935 and d e v e l o p e d a l o n g more moderate l ines dur ing 1936 , that ^ Stuart Schram dates this d i scove ry of the peasant ry 's po ten t ia l for r e v o l u t i o n a t 1925 w i t h the growth of the Hunanese peasant movement . When M a o was f o r ced to l eave H u n a n , he became head of the Peasant M o v e m e n t T ra in ing Inst i tu te , under Kuom in tang cont ro l du r - i ng the pe r iod of the First U n i t e d Front w i th the Communis ts . From that t ime o n w a r d , M a o i nc reas i ng l y became i n v o l v e d in o r g a n i z i n g the peasant ry . See Stuart S c h r a m , M a o Tse-Tung (Pengu in Books, G r e a t B r i t a i n , 1970) , p p . 8 1 - 1 0 3 . 6 i n i t i a l l y won w i d e - s p r e a d support and paved the way for the i n c r e a s i n g l y e f f e c t i v e m i l i t a r y and p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the rural p o p u l a t i o n . " ^ Land r e v o l u t i o n , rather than w i p i n g out c lass d i s t i nc t i ons , e l i m i n a t e d the grossest forms of i n e q u a l i t y and e x p l o i t a t i o n . Rather than a smal l l a n d l o r d - c o m m e r c i a l e l i t e on the one h a n d , and a mass of tenants , h i red laborers , and poor peasants on the o ther , there was a shi f t on both sides towards the m i d d l e . "If the most important former c lass d i s t i n c t i on had d i f f e ren t i a ted the e c o n o m i c e l i t e from the poor , af ter land revo lu t i on in 1939 the most important d i s t i n c t i on was be tween poor and m idd le peasants, both s t r i v ing to secure a meagre l i v e l i h o o d " ( i b i d , p. 8 3 ) . The c o n d i t i o n of the poor peasants and h i red laborers was due more to methods of p roduc t ion and the natura l env i ronment than to deb t , t a x a t i o n , or l a c k of good l a n d . Peasant p a r t i c i p a t i o n had been secured through l and r e v o l u t i o n , but changes in p roduc t ion were needed to ra ise l i v i n g standards. These changes had to wa i t through the U n i t e d Front per iod un t i l the 1943 p roduc t ion movement and the campa ign to reduce rent and interest were l aunched in the wake of the r e c t i f i c a t i o n movement in 1 9 4 2 - 4 4 . A g r a r i a n r evo lu t i on wou ld once a g a i n be pursued in earnest on l y in 1947, w i th the promulgat ion of the Draf t A g r a r i a n L a w , when the C h i n e s e Communis t Party ( C C P ) took the o f fens ive against the Kuomin tang ( K M T ) . The struggle against the gentry proved eas ier than the task of un i t i ng the peas- a n t r y , of e d u c a t i n g them to see that any d iv i s ions w i t h i n the i r ranks were minor to c lass d i v i s ions and tha t , the re fo re , poor and m idd le peasants should learn to coopera te w i th M a r k S e l d e n , The Y e n a n W a y in Revo lu t i ona ry C h i n a , Harva rd U n i v e r s i t y Press, C a m b r i d g e , Massachuse t ts , 1971 , p. 7 9 . 7 e a c h o the r . Thei r ma in weapon was the i r numbers a n d , the re fo re , un i t y was c r u c i a l . They had to be taught that ext reme e g a l i t a r i a n i s m , or ext reme d e m o c r a c y , was w r o n g . A f t e r 1927, Kuomin tang strength had made it necessary for the Communis ts to start r evo lu t i on in p laces least a c c e s s i b l e to N a t i o n a l i s t f o r ces . Regions border ing on severa l p rov inces tended to of fer s e c u r i t y . In the N o r t h - W e s t , such a border a rea had been es tab l ished under the leadersh ip of L iu C h i h - t a n and K a o K a n g . The W e i v a l l e y , the most f e r t i l e a rea in the r e g i o n , was cap tu red by the K u o m i n t a n g , l e a v i n g the p a r t i - sans w i th a very poor and p r im i t i ve a rea in northern Shensi p r o v i n c e , i so la ted from the rest of C h i n a and from the wo r l d at l a r g e . But the part isans had d e v e l o p e d a communist base a rea there a l o n g l ines ve ry s im i la r to those d e v e l o p e d by M a o in K i a n g s i . The two main themes were r e l i a n c e on the peasantry and the impor tance of g u e r r i l l a t ac t i c s i n f i gh t i ng war lo rd and N a t i o n a l i s t a rm ies . Both M a o and L iu C h i h - t a n had come under repeated f i r e from top Party leadersh ip on both these l i n e s . The 'Russian Returned S tuden ts ' , a c l i q u e w h i c h dominated the C h i n e s e Communis t Party un t i l the Tsunyi C o n f e r e n c e , f o l - l ow ing the Comintern l i n e , b e l i e v e d in concen t ra t i ng on the urban p ro l e ta r i a t , on the capture of c i t i e s , and on more conven t i ona l methods of war fare ( i b i d , p. 6 0 ) . This is why M a o ' s ascendancy to power was ve ry impor tan t , not o n l y for the outcome of the r e v o - l u t i o n , but a lso for the nature and course that it w o u l d d e v e l o p . M a o and L iu C h i h - t a n d i f f e red from the C e n t r a l Commi t t ee on a number of po in ts . For e x a m p l e , both rec ru i t ed and used secret soc ie t y members, band i t s , and other " f l o a t i n g e lemen ts " ( i b i d . , p. 26) aga ins t the orders of the C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e . Both M a o and L iu r e c o g n i z e d the revo lu t i ona ry po ten t ia l of these groups, u n l i k e the Communis t l eadersh ip 8 w h i c h had l i t t l e know ledge of , or e x p e r i e n c e w i t h , these groups o r , for that mat ter , w i th l i f e in the rural a reas . "The Kuomin tang 's c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o u p of 1927 sh i f ted the focus of r evo lu t i on from the c i t y to the count rys ide a n d , in rural C h i n a , to remote and i n a c c e s s i b l e b a c k w a t e r s . D r i v e n underground, the peasant movement c o u l d d e v e l o p subsequent ly o n l y as a movement of armed par t isans. In the process, a new geography of r evo lu t i on was d e - f i n e d " ( i b i d . , p . 3 6 ) . It was this d i f f e rence w h i c h made it c r u c i a l that the r evo lu t i on change from one based on the ubran p ro le ta r ia t to a r evo lu t i on based in the c o u n t r y s i d e . Peasant m o b i l i z a t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n were c r u c i a l i n order that such a r evo lu t i on be v i c - to r ious . It was M a o who r e c o g n i z e d this shi f t in r evo lu t i ona ry p o l i t i c s . The C e n t r a l C o m - m i t t e e , based in Shangha i un t i l 1932, rema ined commi t ted to revo lu t i on a l o n g t rad i t i ona l Sov ie t l i n e s . O n e f i n a l f ac t had emerged and came to dominate a l l others by the end of 1936 , the year Y e n a n was taken and es tab l i shed as the c a p i t a l of the sov ie t government . This was the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of war w i th J a p a n and the necess i ty of a un i ted front among a l l sectors of the C h i n e s e peop le in order to f igh t the war s u c c e s s f u l l y . F o l l o w i n g the S ian Inc ident and the end of c i v i l w a r , a p o l i c y c a l l e d N e w D e m o c r a c y was p r o c l a i m e d , and S h e n s i - K a n s u - N i n g h s i a was d e c l a r e d a model a r e a . This border reg ion was the on l y one immune to heavy f i gh t i ng for a f ew y e a r s , and so p o l i t i c a l and economic programs c o u l d be at tempted there w i t h min imum d i s l oca t i ons due to war ( I b i d . , p. 122) . From 1937 to 1941 the ma in task of the p o l i c y c a l l e d N e w D e m o c r a c y was admin is t ra t i ve s t a b i l i t y . This was l a r g e l y taken ca re of by the government b u r e a u c r a c y . 9 Because of the U n i t e d F ron t , the necess i ty of go ing s low w i t h land revo lu t i on was t rans la ted in to Party p o l i c y . N o t on l y the m idd le peasants, but a l l pa t r i o t i c r i c h peasants and landlords had to be inco rpora ted in to a un i ted f ron t . This posed a d i l e m m a . It had been found that the o n l y way of w i n n i n g the peasantry to the communist cause was through land r e v o l u t i o n . O n c e peasants had persona l l y pa r t i c i pa ted in this e v e n t , they were commi t ted to r e v o l u t i o n . They of ten had no c h o i c e . O n c e the land lords were k i l l e d or f o r ced to f l e e and the o l d system of government ove r th rown , they had to band together and coopera te w i th the communist l eadersh ip in order to prevent a return of the e x p l o i t i n g c lasses . L a n d red is t r ibu t ion tended to l e a d to the a l i e n a t i o n of the m idd le peasants . They were of ten branded as part of the e x p l o i t i n g c l a s s , and the i r l and was taken from them. A s they cons t i tu ted a s i z a b l e propor t ion of the peasantry in the no r th , and as they were c loser to the poor peasants i n the i r w a y of l i f e than to the r i ch peasants and land lo rds , i t was i m - portant that the Communists g a i n the i r a l l e g i a n c e . This was of ten made d i f f i c u l t by the f a c t that these areas were very poor a n d , thus, there was not enough land and mater ia l r e - sources to ra ise the l i v i n g standard of a l l the poor and landless peasants to that a p p r o a c h i n g m idd le -peasan t status. The peasants were now asked to coopera te w i t h the i r c lass enemies in order to f i gh t a war i n w h i c h many of them were not d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d . This was e s p e c i a l l y true of the S h e n s i - K a n s u - N i n g h s i a Border R e g i o n , of w h i c h Y e n a n was the c a p i t a l , and w h i c h was not d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d in the f i gh t i ng un t i l 1941 . In those areas where land revo lu t i on had been success fu l , the peasantry tended to resent U n i t e d Front p o l i c y , and fear the return of the land lords and r i c h peasants. It p roved , in f a c t , d i f f i c u l t to curb the power of the W i l l i a m H i n t o n , Fanshen A Documentary of Revo lu t i on in a C h i n e s e V i l l a g e , V i n t a g e Books, N e w Y o r k , 1966, p p . 4 0 0 - 4 1 0 . returned land lords and r i c h peasants. The necess i ty of e x p l a i n i n g such concepts as un i ted f ront w h i l e s imu l taneous ly prepar ing a l a rge l y i l l i t e r a t e and p o l i t i c a l l y u n i n v o l v e d peasantry for soc ia l r e v o l u t i o n p l a c e d an enormous task on the Communis t Par ty . The 1937 e l e c t i o n campa ign was one method used to spread and e x p l a i n Party p o l i c y w h i l e e l i c i t i n g peasant p a r t i c i p a t i o n . "The 1937 e l e c t i o n movement i l lus t ra tes a cen t ra l d i l emma f a c i n g communist l eadersh ip not on l y i n Y e n a n but in the other war t ime base areas and af ter 1949 as w e l l . This was the tens ion be tween the des i re to u t i l i z e the sk i l l s and i n f l u e n c e of p r i v i l e g e d e lements , no tab le land lords and r i c h peasants, and the desi re to curb the i r power in order to bar the threat that such groups might subvert the r e v o l u t i o n " ( S e l d e n , p. 131) . The Second U n i t e d Fronf^ caused the Communists to seek two d i v e r g i n g g o a l s . O n the one h a n d , they sought to i n c l u d e the t rad i t i ona l e l i t e and to r e a l i z e m i l d s o c i o - e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l reforms. O n the other h a n d , they were t r y ing to strengthen the i r ho ld over the w h o l e r e g i o n , and to b u i l d upon a poor peasant base . It was o n l y out of the c r is is that had d e v e l o p e d by 1941 that a c l e a r - c u t way was found to dea l w i t h this s i t ua t i on : to educa te the peasantry to par t - i c i p a t e in r evo lu t i on and to h e l p i t p e r c e i v e and understand both the shor t - term and l o n g - range goals of the Communis t Pa r t y , w h i l e cu rb ing the power of e l i t es and w o u l d - b e e l i t e s . (I)n 1936, the Party adop ted a program in w h i c h the i dea of a un i ted f ront was the basis for l im i t ed e c o n o m i c reform and p o l i t i c a l m o b i l i z a t i o n . In the years 1937 to 1940 that p o l i c y was s p e c t a c u l a r l y successful n a t i o n a l l y . S tar t ing from a tenuous and i so la ted pos i t ion in remote northern S h e n s i , by 1940 the Communists domina ted important areas throughout N o r t h C h i n a and posed the dominant threat to Japanese aspi rat ions for conques t . But the ve ry success of that p r o - gram undermined its basis: rap id expans ion p rec ip i t a ted ^ The First U n i t e d Front was es tab l i shed in 1923 ( S e l d e n , p. 2 2 ) . 11 sharp c lashes w i t h the Japanese and the K u o m i n t a n g . In 1941 , f o l l o w i n g the Communis ts ' successfu l Hundred R e g i - ments o f fens ive in N o r t h C h i n a , the brunt of the Japanese a t tack sh i f ted to the Communis ts . Under this assau l t , the popu la t i on in Communis t areas shrank by a lmost h a l f . . . The b reakdown w i th the K M T was f e l t a c u t e l y in S h e n - K a n - N i n g . The K M T b l o c k a d e of the border r e g i o n , i n i t i a t e d in 1939, was t i gh tened in 1941 f o l l o w i n g the c l a s h of C o m m u - nist and K M T forces in the new Fourth A r m y i n c i d e n t . M o r e o v e r , just as the Communists were f e e l i n g the p i n c h of b l o c k a d e and m i l i t a r y d e f e a t , the cen t ra l government cut off the subsidy p rov ided s ince 1937 for the Eighth Route A r m y and admin is t ra t ion of the border r e g i o n . The reverses of 1941 and 1942 r e v e a l e d the weaknesses and l im i ta t ions of the movement to that t i m e . W i thou t ou t - side f i n a n c i a l support from the cen t ra l government , i n 1941 the Communists were f o r c e d to impose a c rush ing burden of t axa t i on and m i l i t a r y consc r i p t i on on the peop le in S h e n - K a n - N i n g . A s b l o c k a d e con t r i bu ted to e c o n o m i c s t rangu- la t i on and rampant i n f l a t i o n , the regu la r government a n - nounced an a l l - t i m e h igh tax l e v y . . .more than d o u b l i n g the previous yea r ' s to ta l and compound ing d i f f i c u l t i e s for the be league red peasant , i n c l u d i n g the poor and the new midd le peasants who were the bu lwark of Communis t sup - por t . The cr ises of these years i n tens i f i ed the tensions and con t rad i c t i ons in Communis t p o l i c y in gove rn ing the border r e g i o n . ^ Examina t ion of mass e d u c a t i o n . . . i s p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l u a b l e for the l igh t i t sheds on the e v o l u t i o n of the w h o l e ' Y e n a n l i f e s t y l e ' f o r , a c c o r d i n g to its own assessment, the Party made more mistakes in mass educa t i on than in any other endeavo r . In the process of lea rn ing from and co r rec t i ng these mis takes , i t g a i n e d v a l u a b l e e x p e r i e n c e in the a p p l i - c a t i o n of a c a r d i n a l p r i n c i p l e of the C h i n e s e Communis t Party ( C C P ) M o v e m e n t - a r evo lu t i on for the peop le must be c a r r i e d out by the p e o p l e . 0 In la te 1937 a second un i ted f ront agreement was c o n c l u d e d be tween the K M T and the C C P . A l t h o u g h it e n a b l e d the C C P to opera te as a lega l party and a l l o w e d i t to M a r k S e l d e n , "The Y e n a n Legacy : The Mass L i n e " in C h i n e s e Communis t P o l i t i c s in A c t i o n , e d i t e d by A . Doak Barnet t , U n i v e r s i t y of Wash ing ton Press, Sea t t l e & L o n d o n , 1969 , pp . 1 0 1 - 1 0 2 . ° Peter J . S e y b o l t , "The Y e n a n Revo lu t i on in Mass E d u c a t i o n " , in The C h i n a Q u a r t e r l y , 4 8 , O c t o b e r / D e c e m b e r 1971 , p. 6 4 1 . conso l i da te and expand its a rea of opera t ion beh ind Japanese l i n e s , i t a lso l e d to admin is t ra t i ve bu reauc racy and to a per iod of ' s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n ' . By 1942 a peak in bu reauc ra t i c r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n had been r e a c h e d . ^ Whereas cadre e d u c a t i o n was to b e n e - f i t by many of the changes made in this p e r i o d , in that educa t i ona l ins t i tu t ions were f o r - m a l i z e d and u n i f i e d under a s p e c i f i c set of goals and standards, mass e d u c a t i o n was se r - ious ly hampered . The cadres were the ' vanguard of the r e v o l u t i o n ' a n d , as s u c h , had to be u n i f i e d under a s ing le au thor i ty and had to r e c e i v e systemat ic t r a i n i ng of an even q u a l i t y . The educa t i on of the p e o p l e , h o w e v e r , was an en t i r e l y d i f fe rent mat ter , a l - though in these years the d i s t i n c t i on was not made in p r a c t i c e . ^ The ea r l y per iod wi tnessed a substant ia l rate of growth in the number of e d - uca t i ona l ins t i tu t ions , a l though there was l i t t l e progress in the q u a l i t y of the i r e d u c a - t i o n . D i f f i c u l t i e s in a c q u i r i n g the necessary mater ia ls and a shortage of t e a c h i n g staff d i d l i t t l e to improve. the q u a l i t y of e d u c a t i o n . "The l a c k of popu lar enthusiasm for educa t i on was p robab ly due in part to the conservat ism of peop le unaccus tomed to f o r - mal e d u c a t i o n ; but res is tance to c h a n g i n g o l d habi ts and a t tend ing schools was re i n fo r ced by the f a c t that the Border Reg ion popu lace found the conten t of e d u c a t i o n i r re levan t to the i r ma in c o n c e r n s " (Seybo l t . , p. 6 4 9 ) . M a n y comp la in ts were r e c e i v e d that e d u c a t i o n was too much c o n c e r n e d w i t h po l i t i c s and war rather than w i th the peasantry 's immedia te needs and in teres ts . 7 M a r k S e l d e n , The Y e n a n W a y in Revo lu t i ona ry C h i n a , <• o p . c i t . , p . 6 4 8 . Further re ferences to S e l d e n in this chapter w i l l be in c o n n e c t i o n w i th this w o r k . 8 In Chap te r Three , the l inks be tween cadre educa t i on and mass educa t i on w i l l be d e s c r i b e d , and the d i f fe rences be tween the two d r a w n . 13 This s i tua t ion led to changes in the form and conten t of e d u c a t i o n . The pe r iod 9 of growth became one of ' s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n ' . These changes f i rst a f f ec ted the educa t i on of cad res , and c u l m i n a t e d in the cheng- feng c a m p a i g n , (see footnote 14) ,wh ich l e d to the r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n and r e - e d u c a t i o n of cad res , mak ing them at once more responsive both to the Party and to the peop le i n the i r c h a r g e . W h a t worked w e l l for cad re e d u - c a t i o n , h o w e v e r , proved disastrous when a p p l i e d to peop le ' s e d u c a t i o n . (T)hose s ta f f ing the government e d u c a t i o n bu reauc racy were most ly i n t e l l e c t u a l s who had come to the Border Reg ion from the c i t i e s of East C h i n a . . . T h e y t r ied to make schools in rural N o r t h - W e s t C h i n a conform to the standards of those in S h a n g - hai w h i c h , in tu rn , were cop ies of schools i n i n d u s t r i a l i z e d western count r ies ( S e y b o l t , p. 6 5 0 ) . The c o n c l u s i o n that the educa t i ona l system su i t ab le for c o u n - tr ies w i th h i gh l y d e v e l o p e d e c o n o m i c systems is not su i tab le for present day C h i n a , appears to be f a i r l y obv ious once i t has been s ta ted . But that is just the po in t . In p r a c t i c e peop le have t r i ed to d e v e l o p e d u c a t i o n in e c o n o m i c a l l y b a c k w a r d communi t ies by c o p y i n g the educa t i ona l systems of e c o n o m i - c a l l y a d v a n c e d commun i t i es . The results have usua l l y hot been ve ry sa t is fac tory and the fundamenta l M a r x i a n v i e w that soc ia l inst i tu t ions are a l l i n te r re la ted and b a s i c a l l y i n f l u e n c e d by economic o rgan i za t i ons gave the c l u e to t h i nk i ng out just why the results have been unsa t i s fac to ry . ^ A t this t i m e , there was an at tempt to make a l l schools conform to a s im i la r pa t te rn , even though they were es tab l i shed under d i f fe ren t c o n d i t i o n s . This a im was to Ezra V o g e l descr ibes a s im i la r per iod f o l l o w i n g L i be ra t i on in 1949 . H e , l i k e Seybo l t for these years du r ing the Y e n a n p e r i o d , labe ls the ea r l y 1950's as a per iod of ' s tandard - i z a t i o n ' . This suggests that many of the problems and issues d e a l t w i t h dur ing the Y e n a n years were to r e - a p p e a r in magn i f i ed form after 1949 . Thus, the argument that the G r e a t Pro le ta r ian C u l t u r a l Revo lu t i on was a ' go ing b a c k 1 to the p r i nc ip les e v o l v e d in Y e n a n to meet these problems and issues is fur ther r e i n f o r c e d . See The C h i n a Q u a r t e r l y , 2 9 , J a n u a r y - M a r c h , 1967 , p p . 3 6 - 6 0 , for Ez ra V o g e l ' s a r t i c l e : "From Revo lu t i ona ry to S e m i - Bureaucrat : The ' R e g u l a r i z a t i o n ' of C a d r e s " . ^ M i c h a e l L i n d s a y , N o t e s on Educa t iona l Problems in Communis t C h i n a , 1 9 4 1 - 4 7 , In ter - na t iona l S e c r e t a r i a t , Insti tute of P a c i f i c R e l a t i o n s , N e w Y o r k , 1950 , p. i . be a c c o m p l i s h e d by "s t rengthen ing the admin is t ra t i ve bu reauc racy and i nc reas ing cont ro l from a b o v e " ( S e y b o l t , p. 6 5 0 ) . The Par ty , government and popu la t i on had l i t t l e cont ro l over the educa t i ona l b u r e a u c r a c y . This l a c k of con t ro l made the bu reauc racy un respon- s ive to o v e r - a l l p l ann ing or to l o c a l cond i t i ons and des i res . The most a d v a n c e d schools became models for the res t . Teachers and students were to spend most of the i r t ime in the c lass room. The standards for admi t t ing students "became more e l i t i s t and o r ien ted towards f u l f i l l i n g future asp i ra t ions rather than present needs " ( i b i d . , p. 6 5 1 ) . Students f rom w e l l - t o - d o f a m i l i e s who had l i t t l e work e x p e r i e n c e tended to be g i v e n pre ference under such a sys tem. In 1942 orders were issued to amalgamate ' unhea l t hy ' w i th ' h e a l t h y ' schoo l s . The largest and best schools became ' cen t ra l e lementa ry schoo ls ' and were to be g i v e n the best mater ia ls and t e a c h i n g pe rsonne l . M o s t of the schools that were e l i m i n a t e d were s i tua ted in the coun t r ys i de , w h i l e the model schools tended to be l o c a t e d i n the largest towns. A l t h o u g h efforts were made to get peasants to send the i r c h i l d r e n to s c h o o l , these were l a rge l y unsuccess fu l . The Party and G o v e r n m e n t were not s u f f i c i e n t l y aware of mass needs and desires and they gave the peop le too l i t t l e oppor tun i ty to speak and ac t fo r themse lves . W h e n this f i n a l l y became apparen t , a methodo logy for c o m p l e t e l y rest ructur ing the re l a t i onsh ip be tween the leadersh ip and the peop le was d e v i s e d . This was the mass l i n e , des igned to s t imu la te mass i n i t i a t i v e and re lease mass energ ies in pursuit of mass l i b e r a t i o n ( i b i d . , p. 6 5 5 ) . The U n i f e d ; Front per iod was never a s tab le o n e . Breaches were con t i nuous ly made on both s ides , and open f i g h t i n g be tween the two part ies broke out in 1941 , just when the Japanese began e s c a l a t i n g the i r a t tacks aga ins t the Communis ts , emp loy i ng the 15 e s p e c i a l l y brutal p o l i c y of ' k i l l a l l , burn a l l , loot a l l ' i n the i r at tempt to break g u e r - r i l l a r e s i s t a n c e . ^ N o t on l y d i d the Kuomin tang w i thdraw a l l f i n a n c i a l support f rom the C C P , i t imposed a ve ry harsh e c o n o m i c b l o c k a d e around the border reg ions . Th is , t o - gether w i th the esca la ted Japanese a t t a c k s , l ed to a c r is is s i t u a t i o n . The border reg ions were now f o r ced to be t o ta l l y s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , m i l i t a r i l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y . The term ' peop le ' s wa r ' was a p p l i e d to the e c o n o m i c and soc ia l spheres. O u t of this cr is is was born the c o n c e p t of the 'mass l i n e ' and the s logan ' from the p e o p l e , to the p e o p l e ' . The app roach to the cr is is had two f a c e t s . The r e c t i f i c a t i o n movement of 19.42- 1944 spe l l ed out a number of p r i nc ip les w h i c h were adop ted in a ser ies of c a m p a i g n s . The r e c t i f i c a t i o n movement was a imed at the r e - e d u c a t i o n of cadres and i n t e l l e c t u a l s . M a n y of the cadres had become d i v o r c e d from the peop le and from the m o v e - ment they were supposed to be s e r v i n g . M a n y were becom ing bureaucrats whose c h i e f task was hand ing down d i r e c t i v e s from h igher to lower l eve l s w i t h i n s p e c i f i c depar tments . M a n y cadres were insens i t i ve to the problems e x p e r i e n c e d at townsh ip and v i l l a g e l eve l s and d i d not see the need of coo rd i na t i ng the i r work w i t h the tasks of other depar tments . Thus, the Communis t Party and government , headquar tered in Y e n a n , were not r e a c h i n g the p e a - sants . The so lu t ion to this problem l a y in the c o n c e p t of the 'mass l i n e ' . ^ Cha lmers A . J o h n s o n , Peasant N a t i o n a l i s m and Communis t Power , Stanford U n i v e r s i t y Press, C a l i f o r n i a , 1962, pp . 5 5 - 6 0 . 12 In a d d i t i o n to the r e c t i f i c a t i o n movement , there were : (a) the c a m p a i g n for c rack troops and s imple admin is t ra t ion (1941 -43 ) (b) the ' t o - t h e - v i l l a g e ' campa ign (1941-42 ) (c) the c a m p a i g n for the reduc t ion of rent and interest (1942 -44 ) (d) the c o o p e r a t i v e movement (1942-44 ) (e) the p roduc t ion movement of 1943 (f) the e d u c a t i o n movement of 1944. 16 A c e n t r a l i z i n g fo rce w h i c h c o u l d u n i t e , not o n l y the popu la t i on l i v i n g in one base a r e a , but that l i v i n g in a l l the other base areas as w e l l was necessary . W i t h success in w a r , communist areas were e x p a n d i n g and new base areas were be i ng c r e a t e d . It was necessary to incorpora te the popu la t i on of these areas under a c e n t r a l i z e d government . Thus, there was a necess i ty for broad p o l i c y d i r e c t i v e s . A t the same t i m e , i t was urgent that these p o l i c i e s be in terpreted c o r r e c t l y and c a r r i e d out in a f l e x i b l e manner . W a r and mater ia l cond i t i ons caused a d i f f e r i ng s i tua t ion from one a rea to the n e x t . Cadres a t townsh ip and v i l l a g e l eve l s were the c r u c i a l l i n k s , s i nce they were the peop le respons ib le for passing on Communis t p o l i c i e s to the popu la t ions and for ca r r y i ng out r evo lu t i on under s p e c i f i c l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s . M a n y cadres had become i n e f f e c t i v e l i n k s , and i t was necessary that they r e - t h i n k the nature and respons ib i l i t i es of the i r pos i t i ons . M a n y were sent to schoo l in Y e n a n , and numerous meet ings were c a l l e d to conduc t c r i t i c i s m and s e l f - c r i t i c i s m . Truth and reason , M a o b e l i e v e d , w o u l d u l t i m a t e l y t r i umph, but when the a c c e p t a n c e of reason requ i red the i n d i v i d u a l to re l i nqu i sh d e e p l y h e l d a t t i t udes , to remake in e f fec t his v i s i on of the w o r l d , a sharp st imulus was r e q u i r e d . Such a shock had occu r red among many who pa r t i c i pa ted in v i o l e n t l and r e v o l u t i o n or r i sked the i r l i ves i n the m i l i t a r y st ruggle aga ins t J a p a n in the course of w h i c h new idea l s and r e v o - lu t ionary commitment were f o r g e d . The 1942 r e c t i f i c a t i o n movement , l i k e the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n a quar ter of a cen tu ry l a t e r , s imu la ted an env i ronment of s t ruggle i n w h i c h fundamenta l va lues and percept ions c o u l d be r e - e x a - mined and c h a l l e n g e d by revo lu t i ona ry i d e a l s . This was pa r t i cu l a r l y essent ia l in S h e n - K a n - N i n g w h i c h rema ined remote from the sharp st ruggle be i ng waged aga ins t J a p a n in r e a r - a r e a bases ( S e l d e n , p p . 1 9 4 - 1 9 5 ) . O r g a n i z a t i o n was deemed by M a o to be an ex t reme ly important component of successful r e v o l u t i o n . H o w e v e r , i t was not on l y the top eche lons of Par ty , government and admin is t ra t ion w h i c h had to be o r g a n i z e d . The cadres at a l l l e ve l s a lso had to be i n tegra ted in to a coheren t system a n d , under t hem, the l oca l p o p u l a t i o n . In order for such a system to wo rk , e s p e c i a l l y in t imes of c r is is and in v i e w of the f a c t that this sys- tem was a new o n e , e a c h i n d i v i d u a l had to make a ser ious commi tment to the o r g a n i z a - t ion a n d , beyond i t , to the r e v o l u t i o n . The r e c t i f i c a t i o n movement , l i k e the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n , c rea ted an atmosphere of c r is is in w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s were tested and the i r commitment to a soc ia l i s t soc ie t y was f o r g e d . This v i e w was rooted in a vo lun ta r i s t and popul is t s t ra in in M a o ' s t h i n k i n g . These two e lements c o l o r e d his in te rp re ta t ion of M a r x i s m . Ind iv idua ls c o u l d be judged not on l y a c c o r d i n g to the i r c lass b a c k g r o u n d , but a c c o r d i n g to the i r way of thought and a c t i o n . Thus, e d u c a t i o n , as w e l l as a c lass r e v o l u t i o n , c o u l d ' r e m o u l d ' p e o p l e , e s - p e c i a l l y i n t e l l e c t u a l s and i n d i v i d u a l s tend ing towards an e l i t i s t v i e w p o i n t . This gave much more scope to what a r e v o l u t i o n c o u l d a c c o m p l i s h , and a lso a l l o w e d for the c o n c e of a 'permanent r e v o l u t i o n ' . 1 3 A fundamenta l postu late of M a o Tse- tung 's r e v o l u - t ionary wor ld v i e w was that men c o u l d t ranscend the l im i ta t ions of c l a s s . In the process of mak ing r e v o l u - t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l s of a l l c lasses c o u l d become r e v o l u - t i ona r i es . The un i ted f ront p o l i c i e s of the Y e n a n per iod p rov ided a r igorous test for this v i e w by i n c o r - pora t ing la rge numbers of students and i n t e l l e c t u a l s in the par ty . C h e n g - f e n g j n i t i a ted the most a m b i t i - ous effort a t tempted thus far to c rea te an ins t i tu t iona l con tex t for i n d i v i d u a l educa t i on and t rans fo rmat ion . A s the pressures from a t t a c k i n g forces in the base areas inc reased tendenc ies to waver and c a p i t u l a t e , c h e n g - feng p rov ided a means to strengthen commitment to the party and r e v o l u t i o n . M o r e o v e r , the campa ign sought to broaden the commitment of cadres beyond a n t i - Japanese fervor to the revo lu t i ona ry t ransformat ion of l v i See D o n a l d M u n r o , "The M a l l e a b i l i t y of M a n in C h i n e s e M a r x i s m " in The C h i n a Q u a r t e r l y , 4 8 , O c t o b e r / D e c e m b e r 1971 , p p . 6 1 5 - 6 1 7 . 18 C h i n e s e s o c i e t y . This was essent ia l i f cadre un i t y was to be preserved as the par ty , in the years af ter 1942, set about i n i t i a t i n g r a d i c a l changes in rural l i f e . The success of the cheng - fe r i g movement is at tested by the f ac t tha t , in sh i f t ing its course to the i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of rural r e v o l u t i o n , the party re ta ined the support of large numbers of cadres from e l i t e backgrounds who had i n i t i a l l y r a l l i e d to af f i rm its a n t i - J a p a n e s e s t a n c e . ( S e l d e n , p. 1 9 6 ) . 1 4 N o t on l y were many cadres be i ng r e - e d u c a t e d , they were be i ng 'sent d o w n ' as w e l l . The v i l l a g e and the townsh ip were to become the c r u c i a l un i t s , and the m a g i s - t rate the c r u c i a l f i g u r e . The autonomy of admin is t ra t i ve departments was b r o k e n . They were coo rd ina ted w i t h e a c h other and made respons ib le to the magist rate a t the v i l l a g e l e v e l . Because of the a c q u i r e d impor tance of the v i l l a g e s and magis t ra tes , many v i l l a g e cadres were sent to school and i n t e l l e c t u a l s and cadres at h igher l eve ls sent to take the i r p l a c e . L o c a l cadres and leaders were of ten i l l i t e r a t e . Thus, i t was d e c i d e d to send at least one i n t e l l e c t u a l or student to a i d e a c h magistrate in his work ( i b i d . , p. 2 1 3 ) . There was another aspect to this s i t u a t i o n . M a n y i n t e l l e c t u a l s and students had come to Y e n a n from a l l parts of C h i n a . Mos t were c i t y - b r e d and descended from e l i t e f a m i l i e s . Because the border reg ion was popu la ted ma in l y by i l l i t e r a t e peasants, the i r s k i l l s were requ i red in order to admin is ter and govern the a rea and t each the peasant ry . H o w e v e r , the i r i n e x p e r i e n c e in wo rk i ng in rural areas and the i r a t t i tude of super io r i ty towards the peasantry of ten made the i r work use less. In a d d i t i o n , they represented a p o - ten t ia l dange r . There was a c h a n c e that they c o u l d subvert the r e v o l u t i o n . 1 4 ' C h e n g f e n g ' ( t rans la ted in to the Engl ish language as ' r e c t i f i c a t i o n ' ) is short for ' cheng tun feng tso ' - ' to change work s t y l e ' . In t rad i t i ona l C h i n a , the scho la r gent ry was a dominant c l a s s , respec ted by the peasantry and e n t i t l e d to c e r t a i n p r i v i l e g e s . A l t h o u g h the ro le of this c lass as an in te rmed ia ry be tween the peasantry and the ru l i ng forces of C h i n a had a l l but d i s a p - peared at the turn of the cen tu r y , the peasantry con t i nued to respect the e d u c a t e d . The penet ra t ion of Western in f l uences added another d imens ion to e d u c a t i o n . W h i l e the i m - per ia l exam ina t i on system was a b o l i s h e d , e d u c a t i o n a l o n g Western l ines c o n t i n u e d the t rad i t i on of c r e a t i n g an i n t e l l e c t u a l e l i t e . Educa t ion a l o n g these l ines was s t i l l a c c e s - s i b l e on l y to the few and gave them an important ro le to p lay - that of ' m o d e r n i z i n g ' C h i n a a l ong Western l ines and thus a l l o w i n g C h i n a to compete on an equal f oo t i ng w i t h the imper ia l i s t na t i ons . N a t i o n a l i s m was an important component in this v i e w and was a major reason why i n t e l l e c t u a l s and students lef t the coas ta l c i t i e s for Y e n a n . M a n y of them v i e w e d the Communists as the most pa t r i o t i c group and went to j o in them for this r eason , rather than because of sympathy for communism. O n c e in Y e n a n , they were ready to f i gh t the J a p a n e s e , but not the forces of i l l i t e r a c y and igno rance - the task the Communists had in mind for t hem. Thus, r e - e d u c a t i n g these i n t e l l e c t u a l s became ve ry impor tan t . The Communists c o u l d not a f ford to have an e l i t e estab l ish i tse l f in the border areas: the reg ion was too poor to support such an e l i t e , and there was a desperate need for s k i l l e d manpower i n the coun t r ys i de . A t that t ime , there was no major c i t y under Communis t r u l e , where the i n t e l l e c t u a l s c o u l d en t rench themse lves . H o w e v e r , by 1941 , they had a l r eady done much harm in sp l i t t i ng regions and popu la t i ons . When sent to wo rk , they tended to ' b u i l d on the best " . ^ They set up schools in p laces where the ^ J o h n G u r l e y , " C a p i t a l i s t and M a o i s t E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t " , in A m e r i c a ' s A s i a : D issent ing Essays on A s i a n - A m e r i c a n R e l a t i o n s , ed i t ed by Edward Fr iedman and M a r k S e l d e n , p. 3 3 1 . popu la t i on was r e a d i l y en thus ias t i c . This tended to be in la rge towns. A l t h o u g h there had been repeated d i r ec t i ves to b u i l d schools in the count rys ide among the peasant ry , there were few such schools in 1941 . Whe re ex i s ten t , they tended to be the most poor ly equ ipped and s ta f fed . The peasants, in many cases , refused to send the i r c h i l d r e n to t hem, r e c o g n i z i n g that they were of poor q u a l i t y and not see ing the need of e d u c a t i n g the i r c h i l d r e n unless they had a c h a n c e of becom ing part of the e l i t e . 1 o A d i cho tomy had d e v e l o p e d be tween an e l i t e and the 'masses ' . Imp l i c i t in this s i tua t ion was the a l i e n - a t i on of one s ide from the o the r . R e c t i f i c a t i o n was a imed at r e - e d u c a t i n g the e l i t e - both cadres and i n t e l l e c t u a l s . Party cadres were v i e w e d as a l r e a d y be i ng p o l i t i c a l l y commi t t ed , a l though the great expans ion of Communis t Party m e m b e r s ^ was bound to i n c l u d e the p o - l i t i c a l l y ' impure ' - i n d i v i d u a l s who jo ined for personal advancemen t or to subvert the P a r t y . 1 8 R e - e d u c a t i n g Party cadres was a matter of t e a c h i n g them that the i r interests were not to be separated from those of the Party and government , on the one h a n d , and M i c h a e l L indsay has t rans la ted some of the d i r e c t i v e s a f f e c t i n g e d u c a t i o n in the b o r - der reg ions . They i l l u s t r a t e , i n p r a c t i c a l f o rm , many of these prob lems, issuing ways in w h i c h to dea l w i t h t hem. See o p . c i t . for re fe rence to his wo rk . C h i n e s e E d u c a t i o n , A Journa l of T rans la t ions , a lso presents t rans lat ions of e d u c a t i o n d i r e c t i v e s , a l though i t tends to concen t ra te on the S h e n s i - K a n s u - N i n g h s i a Border R e g i o n . See e s p e c i a l l y V o l u m e i v , Numbers 3 and 4 , for in fo rmat ion on the Y e n a n p e r i o d . ^ In 1937 M a o Tse- tung est imated that there were 4 0 , 0 0 0 Party members. N y m W a l e s g i ves a f igure of 2 0 0 , 0 0 0 for 1938 . By 1943 , C h o u E n - l a i was quo ted as say ing that there were 8 0 0 , 0 0 0 Party members. A c c o r d i n g to M a o , this f i gu re had r isen to 1 , 2 0 0 , 0 0 0 by 1945 . See Boyd C o m p t o n , M a o ' s C h i n a : Party Reform Documents , 1 9 4 2 - 4 4 , U n i v e r s i t y of Wash ing ton Press, S e a t t l e , 1966, p. x x v i i i . S e e , for e x a m p l e , L iu S h a o - c h ' i ' s a r t i c l e , " T r a i n i n g of the Communis t Party M e m b e r , " for the d i f fe ren t mot ives Party members had in j o i n i ng the Communis t Party dur ing these y e a r s . See i b i d , p p . 1 0 8 - 1 5 5 , for the t ex t . the peasantry on the o ther . The i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n cadre ranks posed a more d i f f i c u l t p rob - lem in that many were not p o l i t i c a l l y commi t t ed , a l though o f ten more s k i l l e d . It was necessary to make them ' r e d ' as w e l l as ' e x p e r t ' . This prob lem w o u l d recur t ime and a g a i n dur ing the 1950's and 1960 's , to the point that by the t ime of the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u - t i o n , the s logan ' red and exper t ' was ve ry popular (see C h a p t e r Four for an e l abo ra t i on on this theme) . W h i l e peasants and v i l l a g e cadres were sent to s c h o o l , many of these i n t e l l e c t u a l s were sent ' d o w n ' from the towns to the v i l l a g e s . They needed i n f o r m a l , rather than f o r m a l , s c h o o l i n g , and the i r teachers were to be the peasant 'masses ' . The o n l y way to break the e l i t e /mass d i cho tomy was for the e l i t e to become one w i th the 'masses' - the peasant ry . The i n t e l l e c t u a l s had to be p r o l e t a r i a n i z e d . The ' t o - t h e - v i l l a g e ' movement (or ' h s i a - h s i a n g ' ) , w h i c h began in 1941 , had other aspects to i t as w e l l . O u t of a need for n o n - p r o d u c t i v e labor in p roduc t i ve w o r k , thus resu l t ing in the send ing of cadres to pa r t i c i pa te in farm wo rk , grew the c o n c e p t i o n of the impor tance of strong bonds be tween leaders and the peop le and be tween outs ide leaders and l o c a l l eade rs . The impor tance of educa t i ng i n t e l l e c t u a l s and students i n - f o r m a l l y , a f ter a per iod of formal b r i e f i ng and s tudy , was part of the movement . The a im was to ove rcome the mutual i gno rance of i n - t e l l e c t u a l s and peasants through shar ing a common e x - p e r i e n c e , to b r idge the gap be tween town and back coun t r y , and to ove rcome barr iers separa t ing menta l and manual l abo r . In te l l ec tua ls pa r t i c i pa t i ng in phys ica l labor under p r im i t i ve v i l l a g e cond i t i ons w o u l d e x p e r i e n c e at f i rst hand the hardsh ip and problems but a lso the poss i - b i l i t i e s of peasant l i f e . They a lso w o u l d b r ing new sk i l l s and ideas to v i l l a g e s cu t off f rom the outs ide w o r l d . The ' t o - t h e - v i l l a g e ' movement was one f a c e t of the response to the c r i t i c a l problems that a l l d e v e l o p i n g nat ions f a c e : how to c rea te an env i ronment in w h i c h the most t a len ted and s k i l l e d youths w i l l be w i l l i n g to commi t the i r ta lents 22 and the i r l i ves to the deve lopment of b a c k w a r d rura l a r e a s ? A n d , how to e f f e c t i v e l y u t i l i z e those ta lents outs ide of the a d v a n c e d urban areas in w h i c h they were nu tu red? ( S e l d e n , p. 226) O n the other s ide of the c o i n , the p ro le ta r ia t had to be i n t e l l e c t u a l i z e d . The peasant cadres r e c e i v e d spec ia l a t ten t ion dur ing r e c t i f i c a t i o n . In cadre schoo l s , they were not on l y g i v e n p o l i t i c a l and bas ic l i t e r a c y t r a i n i n g , but shown how to conduc t inves t iga t ions in the i r regions as w e l l . It was not enough that they lea rn to implement orders from above under l oca l c o n d i t i o n s . It was a lso necessary that the government and Party i n Y e n a n know the cond i t i ons p reva len t in var ious reg ions , so that su i tab le d i r e c t i v e s c o u l d be i ssued . The s logan ' f rom the masses, to the masses' summar ized this a p p r o a c h . The cadres were to lea rn from the peasants the i r needs and the means necessary to sa t i s - f y t hem. They were to pass this in fo rmat ion on to h igher l e v e l s , where i t w o u l d be d e - c i d e d how to dea l w i th this s i t u a t i o n , and orders and d i r e c t i v e s w o u l d then be issued d o w n - wards . The cadres at the v i l l a g e l e v e l were to take these d i r e c t i v e s , e x p l a i n them to the p e o p l e , and try to impe lement t hem. In the process of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , d i f f i c u l t i e s and a new s i tua t ion wou ld a r i s e . A f t e r d iscuss ing these w i th the peasants, i t was the duty of the cadres to a g a i n summar ize the in fo rmat ion and pass i t up to h igher l e v e l s . Thus, f the process became s e l f - g e n e r a t i n g a n d , i f done p rope r l y , led to progress as o l d d i f f i c u l - 20 t ies were ove rcome and new ones were de f i ned and t a c k l e d . This was 'mass l i n e ' 19 Seybo l t goes in to de ta i l on var ious of these cadre schoo l s , e s p e c i a l l y K ' a n g t a , and shows the i r i n f l u e n c e on the r e c t i f i c a t i o n movement and the campa igns that were la ter l aunched on its b a c k , in his P h . D . thes is , " Y e n a n Educa t ion and the C h i n e s e R e v o l u t i o n , 1 9 3 7 - 1 9 4 5 " , Ha rva rd U n i v e r s i t y , Massachuse t ts , 1969. 2 0 ' . For the t heo re t i ca l and ph i l osoph i ca l reason ing beh ind this c o n c e p t , see M a o Tse- tung 's two essays, " O h P r a c t i c e " and " O n C o n t r a d i c t i o n " in V o l u m e 1 of S e l e c t e d Works of M a o T s e - t u n g , Fo re ign Languages Press, P e k i n g , 1967, pp . 2 9 5 - 3 0 9 and pp . 3 1 1 - 3 4 7 . i n a c t i o n . It was important that cadres and i n t e l l e c t u a l s be in tegra ted in to a f ramework that l i n k e d government w i t h the peop le and that they be made its c r u c i a l l i n k s , but this was not e n o u g h . R e v o l u t i o n a n d , more i m m e d i a t e l y , the outcome of the a n t i - J a p a n e s e w a r , depended on the a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the peasant ry , w h i c h cons t i tu ted the bu lk of the p o p u l a t i o n . The m i l i t a r y s i tua t ion was judged ve ry impor tan t , and there was a o 1 c o n c e r t e d ef for t to make the P L A a model a rmy . This was c r u c i a l in order to g a i n the 21 The f o l l o w i n g l ines of the song "The Three M a i n Rules of D i s c i p l i n e and the Eight Points for A t t e n t i o n " , taken from a pamphle t i n C h i n a P i c t o r i a l ( 1 9 7 2 , 8 ) , wr i t ten and popu la r i zed in the Y e n a n p e r i o d , show in w h i c h w a y the Peop le ' s L i be ra t i on A r m y was to be a 'model a rmy ' : " R e v o l u t i o n a r y army men must k n o w , D i s c i p l i n e ' s Three R u l e s , Eight Points for A t t e n t i o n : F i rs t , obey orders in a l l of our a c t i o n s , M a r c h in s tep , to w i n v i c t o r y ; S e c o n d , don ' t take a s ing le need le or t h read , Peop le w i l l support and w e l c o m e us; T h i r d l y , turn In e v ' r y t h i n g we c a p t u r e , S t r i ve to l i gh ten peop le ' s burdens. D i s ' p l i n e ' s Three Rules we must car ry th ru , Eight Points for A t t e n t i o n we must bear i n m ind : F i rs t , we must be po l i t e when w e ' r e speak ing to the masses, Respect the p e o p l e , don ' t be ar rogant ; Buy f a i r , se l l f a i r , and be r e a s ' n a b l e ; T h i r d l y , don ' t fo rget to pe rson ' l y re tu rn , Ev ' r y s ing le th ing that we bor row; Fou r th l y , i f we damage a n y t h i n g , Pay the f u l l p r i c e , not a ha l f cen t less; F i f t h , don ' t h i t peop le or swear at t hem, Tot My overcome war lo rd i sm; S i x t h , take c a r e , don ' t damage peop le ' s c rops , E i ther on march or in ba t t l e ; S e v e n t h , do not take l i be r t ies w i th w o m e n , G e t r i d of a l l habi ts d e c a d e n t ; E i g h t h , don ' t i l l - t r e a t prisoners of w a r , Don ' t h i t , swear at or search them; Ev ' r ybody must consc ious l y observe the d i s ' p l i n e , M u t u ' l l y superv i se , and not v i o l a t e i t . K n o w r e v ' l u t i o n ' r y d i s ' p l i n e ' s e v ' r y po in t , Peop le ' s f igh ters love the peop le e ' e r , De fend the mother land and fo rever march a h e a d , People o 'e r the land support and w e l c o m e u s . " 24 coope ra t i on of the p o p u l a t i o n , upon w h i c h g u e r r i l l a war fa re was t o t a l l y dependen t . The P L A was not o n l y to be a model that the peop le w o u l d respec t , but a lso one they wou ld seek to e m u l a t e . Thus, the p roduc t ion c a m p a i g n , l aunched in 1943 , began in the a rmy . M a n y army uni ts became e c o n o m i c a l l y s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , remov ing the burden of support from the peasantry w h i l e showing i t that ag r i cu l t u ra l and indust r ia l p roduc t ion c o u l d be imp roved . M o d e l units were chosen and the i r ach ievements p u b l i c i z e d . A s the campa ign for c r a c k troops and s imple admin is t ra t ion was supp lemented by the c a m p a i g n to inc rease p r o d u c t i o n , the choos ing of labor heroes as models was i n i t i a t e d in the count rys ide ( S e l d e n , p. 211 ) . This was one aspect of mass e d u c a t i o n , an in formal but h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e w a y of b roadcas t ing new techn iques and models (at this t i m e , there was a c a m p a i g n to promote c o o p e r a t i v e methods of farming) to the peasant ry , scat te red throughout the border a reas , and b r i ng ing i t toge ther , i n order to ra ise ag r i cu l t u ra l p roduc t ion and a c h i e v e e c o n o m i c s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y . The a im was to get i -everybody in the ent i re reg ion a c t i v e l y and p r o d u c - t i v e l y i n v o l v e d . This p romulga t ion of campa igns was the second f a c e t (the r e c t i f i c a t i o n movement be ing the f i rst) i n app roach ing and s o l v i n g the c r i s is that had ar isen by 1 9 4 1 . There was an ex t reme ly c lose l i nk be tween this type of in formal e d u c a t i o n , of l ea rn ing by im i t a t i ng and d o i n g , and formal e d u c a t i o n as it came to be d e f i n e d w i t h the adop t ion of the "mass l i n e " . Schoo ls were put in the hands of the peop le w i t h the c rea t i on of m i n - p a n schools - schools that were opera ted by the peop le w i t h government f i n a n c i a l suppor t . Schoo ls became part of the p roduc t ion d r i v e . Teachers and students h e l p e d , not o n l y by l ook i ng af ter the i r needs and thus reduc ing the peasant ry 's f i n a n c i a l 00 b u r d e n , but they he lped the peasants in the i r w o r k . Schoo l was he ld in the w i n t e r , 22 L indsay prov ides many s p e c i f i c examples in his t rans la t ions . See o p . c i t . 25 when there was l i t t l e work to be d o n e , and suspended dur ing spr ing sow ing and autumn ha rves t i ng , so that adul ts c o u l d r e c e i v e e d u c a t i o n w i t h m in ima l d is rupt ion in the i r d a i l y l i v e s . S c h o o l i n g was to be in the se rv i ce of the p e o p l e , not a means of s iphon ing the most t a l en ted to the c i t i e s , d e p r i v i n g rural areas of the i r s k i l l s and c r e a t i n g r u r a l / u r b a n d i cho tom ies . Ta len t was to be spread th ink and made a v a i l a b l e to as many peop le as poss ib le , rather than be i ng concen t ra ted and c h a n n e l l e d for s p e c i f i c tasks. This app roach nq has been l a b e l l e d ' b u i l d i n g on the worst ' and is t i ed in to the M a o i s t v i s i on of m a n . Western e c o n o m i c theory holds that deve lopment should p roceed from a c o n - cen t ra t i on and deve lopment of the best resources (whether human or mater ia l ) to the point where the en t i re popu la t i on benef i ts and the soc ie t y as a w h o l e ' d e v e l o p s ' . Thus, e d u c a - t ion should be g i v e n to those best q u a l i f e d and g r a d u a l l y ex tended un t i l a l l r e c e i v e its bene f i t s . The problem w i th this process is that i t has a ' t r i c k l e - d o w n ' e f fec t : a l though everyone in a popu la t i on might e v e n t u a l l y b e n e f i t , there is great unevenness i n v o l v e d . Peop le in the coun t rys ide do not r e c e i v e as good an e d u c a t i o n as peop le i n the c i t i e s ; the work ing c lass does not r e c e i v e as many mater ia l benef i ts as the en t repreneur ia l c l ass ; smal l f irms do not make as much prof i t as do corpora t ions ; the Th i rd W o r l d does not ' d e v e - l o p ' as fast as does the W e s t . G a p s be tween r i c h and poor w i t h i n and be tween count r ies not on l y remain but they g row . It is becoming apparent that the ' deve lopmen t ' of some is based on the c o n t i n u i n g ' underdeve lopment ' of o thers . The i n d u s t r i a l i z e d West needs the resources of the Thi rd W o r l d to con t i nue its own process of g r o w t h . By t ak i ng these from the Thi rd W o r l d , i t depr ives the la t ter from i n d u s t r i a l i z i n g in its turn and ' c a t c h i n g u p ' . oq John G . G u r l e y , o p . c i t . pp . 3 3 8 - 9 . The f o l l o w i n g argument is based on this a r t i c l e . The M a o i s t v i s i on of man approaches the who le c o n c e p t of deve lopmen t f rom the other e n d . Rather than ' b u i l d i n g on the bes t ' , i t sees deve lopment as p roceed ing from a ' b u i l d i n g on the wors t ' . N o b o d y rises or prospers unless a l l are a b l e to do so ( i b i d , p. 332 ) . Progress is not measured s o l e l y i n economic terms. The soc ia l costs and benef i ts of deve lopment r e c e i v e as m u c h , i f not more , a t t e n t i o n . Because every soc ie t y has a h i s to r i ca l l e g a c y on w h i c h i t is based , the v is ions and goals of its peop le are c i r cumsc r i bed by h i s to r i ca l f a c t . In C h i n a , the f a c t of war and the means necessary to f i gh t and w in it led the C h i n e s e Communis ts to d e v e l o p the theory of the 'mass l i n e ' . Beyond the immed ia te war t ime s i t u a t i o n , h o w e v e r , there was another v i s i o n - that of c r e a t i n g a communist s o c i e t y . M a o T s e - t u n g , as leader of the movement , he lped fash ion that v i s i o n . Basic i n his v i s i o n of communist man was the popul is t and vo lun ta r is t s t ra in i n his background and t h i n k i n g . It has a l r eady been stated that the o r i g i na l base a rea in the N o r t h , l e d by the par t isans, was governed in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h p r i nc i p l es ve ry s im i la r to those that M a o was d e v e l o p i n g in K i a n g s i . The part isans themselves shared s im i la r l i f e expe r i ences to M a o ' s . " I n d e e d , v i r t u a l l y the ent i re l eadersh ip nuc leus of the part isan movement i n nor thern Shensi was drawn from student ac t i v i s t s a t tend ing m idd le school in the e x h i l i r a t i n g a t - mosphere w h i c h f o l l o w e d the . ' ' 'May 4 th M o v e m e n t " ( S e l d e n , p. 2 0 ) . "It was among e l i t e youth exposed to d iverse i d e o l o g i c a l currents in the a rea ' s m idd le schools that the tensions be tween two wor lds and the insecur i t y bred by the bank rup tcy of t rad i t i ona l va lues and inst i tu t ions were sharp ly f o c u s e d . These young men f requen t l y assumed l e a d e r - sh ip of part isan movements" ( i b i d . , p. 4 3 ) . The fo re ign i m p a c t , when added to a l l the s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic i l l s of the s o c i e t y , was probab ly the d e c i d i n g fac to r in p reven t ing the part isans from f o l l o w i n g the road of t rad i t i ona l rebe l heroes. That th ings fo re ign had such an impact is p robab ly due to the educa t i on of these you ths , where t r a - d i t i ona l ideas and ways of d o i n g things came in c o n f l i c t w i t h Western modes of thought in a set t ing where na t iona l i sm was becom ing a ve ry important t r end . This educa t i ona l b a c k g r o u n d , together w i th ac tua l c i r cums tances , was probab ly respons ib le for pushing these i n t e l l e c t u a l s to jo in the par t isans, where they became c h i e f l y respons ib le for d i r e c t - ing the movement towards rura l and soc ia l r e v o l u t i o n . M a o Tse- tung f i ts in to this pa t te rn . Before M a o lef t home, his f a m i l y had a c q u i r e d m i d d l e - p e a s a n t status (Sch ram, p. 19) . He lef t home to fur ther his e d u c a t i o n . W h e n revo lu t i on broke out in his own p rov ince of Hunan in 1911 , M a o jo ined the a rmy . He was not engaged in any f i gh t i ng and returned af ter s ix months to resume his s tud ies , the ' r e v o l u t i o n ' h a v i n g been a b o r t e d . W h i l e in the a rmy , M a o showed that "he had so far absorbed the student men ta l i t y that he spent a s i g n i f i c a n t part o f his month ly wages of seven do l l a rs i n buy ing water from the water ca r r i e r s . The so ld iers were e x p e c t e d to br ing i t themselves f rom outs ide the c i t y , but M a o cons ide red i t beneath his d i g n i t y as an i n t e l l e c t u a l to ca r ry a n y t h i n g " ( i b i d . , p. 34 ) . It wou ld be hard to overest imate the impor tance of these f i v e years (1913-18 ) in M a o ' s l i f e . They w e r e , f i rst of a l l , the years dur ing w h i c h he a c q u i r e d a great part of his e d u c a t i o n , both c l a s s i c a l and modern , C h i n e s e and W e s t e r n . But they were more than tha t . They l aunched M a o on a br ie f ca reer in t e a c h i n g w h i c h served as a s tepp ing-s tone to a w ide r r o l e . M o r e impor tant s t i l I , perhaps, the i n t e l l e c t u a l l y a le r t and p o l i t i c a l l y consc ious student body of the First N o r m a l S c h o o l , and of other boys ' and g i r l s ' schools in C h a n g s h a , p rov ided M a o w i t h an idea l 28 t ra i n i ng ground for his app ren t i cesh ip as a p o l i t i c a l wo rke r . There he d e v e l o p e d ideas and techn iques w h i c h he was to a p p l y la te r ; there he a c q u i r e d f r iends and comrades , some of whom were to f o l l o w his l e a d e r - sh ip un t i l the f i n a l v i c t o r y in 1949 ( i b i d . , p. 3 6 ) . H o w e v e r , even as he was e d u c a t i n g h imsel f and becom ing p o l i t i c a l l y a c t i v e , " M a o Tse- tung remained pro foundly imbued w i th the peasant env i ronment of his c h i l d - h o o d " ( i b i d . , p. 4 3 ) . "Edgar Snow , the f i rst f o re ign journa l is t to i n t e r v i ew h i m , d e s - c r i b e d M a o just ly as c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a comb ina t i on of i n t e l l e c t u a l depth and peasant shrewdness" ( i b i d . , p. 2 0 9 ) . From his student days o n , M a o was ve ry c o n c e r n e d w i th the preservat ion of the C h i n e s e ' n a t i o n ' aga inst f o re ign aggress ion . This c o n c e r n became part of his v i s i o n of s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and cu l tu ra l r evo lu t i on among the C h i n e s e peasant ry , and the e c o n o m i c t ransformat ion of the rural way of l i f e . M a o ' s three decades of p o l i t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e before f i n a l v i c t o r y in 1949 had taught h im " the impor tance of mass suppor t , and the means for m o b i l i z i n g i t . H a v i n g h imsel f issued from the C h i n e s e peasant ry , he understood the needs and the i n t e l l e c t u a l wo r l d of the masses . . . M a o ' s leadersh ip s t y l e , s t rong ly marked by the conven t ions of popular l i t e ra tu re , brought him c loser to the peasant ry , but might e a s i l y appear unsoph is t i ca ted to the i n t e l l e c t u a l s and the bou rgeo i s i e . C o n v e r s e l y , his a im of W e s t e r n i z i n g and mode rn i z i ng C h i n a ( though in M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t terms) met w i th the approva l of a la rge part of the urban p o p u l a t i o n , but was v a g u e l y d is tu rb ing to the peasants" ( i b i d . , p. 2 5 3 ) . From this background came M a o ' s commitment to the popular w i l l and his d e - ve lopment of 'mass l i n e ' theor ies and c o n c e p t s . M a t e r i a l cond i t i ons and his own e x p e r i - ences showed h im that r evo lu t i on and v i c t o r y were imposs ib le w i thou t the a c t i v e c o - opera t ion and p a r t i c i p a t i o n of eve ry member of s o c i e t y . A p a r t from this popu l is t s t r a i n , was a ' vo lun ta r i s t ' b e l i e f in the natura l goodness of man and the c a p a b i l i t y of the human w i l l to ove rcome a l l obs tac les . "This i n t e l l e c t u a l t rad i t i on emphas izes that human w i l l , 29 when proper ly o r g a n i z e d , c a n ove rcome a l l obs tac les and a c h i e v e a l l g o a l s . " It c o n - OA sists of an " i n f i n i t e f a i t h in the p e o p l e . ( M a o ' s ) f a i t h in the a b i l i t y of s e l f - c o n s c i o u s men to mo ld o b j e c t i v e soc ia l r e a l i t y in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the i r ideas and i d e a l s . . . i m p l i e d , among other th ings , that revo lu t i on in C h i n a need not be dependent on any p r e - de te rmined l eve l s of s o c i a l and economic deve lopmen t and that immedia te oppor tun i t ies for r evo lu t i ona ry a c t i o n need not be res t r ic ted by or thodox M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t f o r - mu las . It a lso i m p l i e d a s p e c i a l c o n c e r n for d e v e l o p i n g and ma in ta i n i ng ' c o r r e c t ' i d e o l o g i c a l consc iousness , the u l t ima te l y d e c i s i v e fac to r in de te rm in ing r e v o l u - t ionary success or f a i l u r e . C o r r e c t thought , in the M a o i s t v i e w , is the f i rst and essent ia l p rerequ is i te for co r rec t r evo lu t i ona ry a c t i o n . . .The C h e n g Feng C a m p - a ign of 1942-44 for the r e c t i f i c a t i o n of ' undes i r ab l e ' ideas and i d e o l o g i c a l tendenc ies was the most i n t e n - s ive a p p l i c a t i o n of a genera l C h i n e s e Communis t pol i c y . 2 5 To understand the reasons for the C h i n e s e success in the Y e n a n p e r i o d , i t is of spec ia l impor tance to take in to a c c o u n t M a o ' s g e n u i n e l y popul is t f a i t h i n the peasant masses as po ten t ia l bearers of soc i a l i s t r evo lu t i ona ry consc iousness . For i t is this f a i t h that permi t ted - a n d i ndeed d i c t a t e d - the much c e l e b r a t e d M a o i s t no t ion of ' the mass l i n e ' , the var ious p r i nc ip les and ru les by w h i c h Communis t cadres became i n t ima te l y i n v o l v e d and i d e n t i f i e d w i th the peasant masses. The M a o i s t max im that i n t e l l e c t u a l s and party cadres must become the pupi ls of the masses before they c a n become the i r teachers was in f ac t w i d e l y p r a c t i c e d in the Y e n a n d a y s . Had i t been o the rw i se , the Communists c o u l d never have a c q u i r e d the mass support and coope ra t i on among the peasantry that was so essent ia l to the successfu l e m p l o y - ment of the st rategy of ' p e o p l e ' s war ' ( i b i d . , p. 2 8 6 - 7 ) . See "Comments by M i c h e l O k s e n b e r g " in C h i n a in C r i s i s , ed i t ed by P i n g - t i Ho and Tdng jJsou , the U n i v e r s i t y of C h i c a g o Press, C h i c a g o , 1968, p. 489 in V o l u m e O n e , Book Two . 25 M a u r i c e M e i s n e r , " Y e n a n Communism and the Rise of the C h i n e s e Peop le ' s R e p u b l i c " in M o d e r n East A s i a , ed i t ed by James B. C r o w l e y , H a r c o u r t , Brace and W o r l d , I n c . , U . S . A . , 1970, p p . 2 8 3 - 2 8 4 . If the p reced ing is in f ac t the c a s e , then the p r imacy and c o m p l e x i t y of the 'p rob lem of the i n t e l l e c t u a l s ' as i t arose w i th the beg inn ings of the revo lu t i ona ry m o v e - ments, and as i t has c ropped up a g a i n and a g a i n s ince then ( through the Y e n a n p e r i o d , through L i b e r a t i o n , through the C u l t u r a l Revo lu t i on and beyond) becomes c l e a r . A large number of revo lu t i ona ry l eaders , i n c l u d i n g M a o Tse- tung and L iu C h i h - t a n , had a background of i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t y as an e lement i n the i r fo rmat ion as r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s . O n c e r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s , h o w e v e r , the i r ma in conce rn g r a d u a l l y became the peasant ry . A s this thesis proceeds through an exam ina t i on of e d u c a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y mass e d u c a t i o n , a fundamenta l c o n t r a d i c t i o n should come to l igh t - that be tween the i n t e l l e c - tuals and the peasant ry . This c o n t r a d i c t i o n is present in the person of M a o . I began l i f e as a student and at schoo l a c q u i r e d the ways of a student; I then used to f ee l i t u n d i g n i f i e d to do even a l i t t l e manual l abou r , such as c a r r y i n g my own luggage in the presence of my f e l l o w students, who were i n c a p a b l e of ca r r y i ng a n y t h i n g , e i the r on the i r shoulders or i n the i r hands. A t that t ime I f e l t that i n t e l l e c t u a l s were the o n l y c l e a n peop le i n the w o r l d , w h i l e in compar ison workers and peasants were d i r t y . I d i d not mind wea r i ng the c lo thes of o ther i n - t e l l e c t u a l s , b e l i e v i n g them c l e a n , but I wou ld not put on c lo thes b e l o n g i n g to a worker or peasant , b e l i e v i n g them d i r t y . But af ter I became a r evo lu t i ona ry and l i v e d w i th workers and peasants and w i t h so ld iers of the revo lu t i ona ry a rmy , I g r a d u a l l y came to know them w e l l , and they g r a d u a l l y came to know me w e l l t o o . It was t h e n , and on l y t h e n , tha t I f undamen ta l l y changed the bourgeois and pe t t y -bourgeo is f ee l i ngs imp lan ted in me in the bourgeois schoo l s . I came to f e e l that compared w i t h the workers and peasants the unremou lded i n t e l l e c t u a l s were not c l e a n and tha t , in the last a n a l y s i s , the workers and peasants were the c leanes t peop le a n d , even though the i r hands were so i l ed and the i r fee t smeared w i th c o w - d u n g , they were r e a l l y c l e a n e r than the bourgeois and pe t t y -bourgeo is i n t e l l e c t u a l s . In c o m i n g to v i e w the peasantry as the mot ive fo rce in rural r e v o l u t i o n , M a o d i d not d i sca rd the ro le of the i n t e l l e c t u a l , as becomes ev iden t in the p reced ing q u o t e . He sought to accommoda te the t w o , p rov id ing the i n t e l l e c t u a l was w i l l i n g to in tegra te h imsel f in the peasant 's way of l i f e . Even w i t h i n h imse l f , M a o d i d not re jec t one se l f in favour of the other o n c e he became a r e v o l u t i o n a r y . Both t ypes , the peasant and the i n t e l l e c t u a l , had c r u c i a l qua l i t i e s necessary to form the i dea l - the 'communist m a n ' . The peasant was c lose to the ear th - he l i v e d w i th i t , on i t and through c h a n g i n g i t i n - sured his own s u r v i v a l . But he had bas ic fau l ts as w e l l . He was u n e d u c a t e d , narrow in ou t look a n d , because of long years of oppress ion , had become h i g h l y i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c and w i l l i n g to f igh t o n l y for immedia te in terests , abandon ing the st ruggle o n c e these were s a t i s f i e d . 2 7 H ere the i n t e l l e c t u a l possessed the q u a l i t i e s the peasant l a c k e d . He was i d e a l i s t i c - he saw his l i f e and immed ia te s i tua t ion as f i t t i ng in to a larger pat tern that c o u l d be c h a n g e d to a c e r t a i n ex ten t ; and he had a c q u i r e d c e r t a i n sk i l l s ( i n t e l l e c t u a l and phys ica l ) that e n a b l e d h im to bet ter his own s i t u a t i o n . But he l a c k e d the q u a l i t i e s of t he ' peasant . He was d i v o r c e d from mater ia l p roduc t ion and tended to cons ider h imsel f above or bet ter than those who worked w i th the i r hands. The .educa t iona l exper iment dur ing the Y e n a n years was an at tempt to draw the two types toge ther . Educa t ion was of utmost impo r tance , not o n l y because i t c o u l d g i v e 26 M a o T s e - t u n g , o p . c i t . , V o l u m e III, p. ,73 . The emphasis is m i n e . 97 W i l l i a m H in ton in Fanshen , and Er ic W o l f in Peasant Wars of the Twent ie th C e n t u r y (Harper & R o w , Pub l ishers , N e w Y o r k , 1969 , pp . 1 0 3 - 1 5 5 ) , document these nega t i ve qua l i t i e s of the peasant ry . H in ton descr ibes in v i v i d terms the means sought to ove rcome them in Long Bow V i l l a g e . the peasants and the i r representa t i ves , the cad res , c e r t a i n i n t e l l e c t u a l tools and t r a i n i n g , but because i t c o u l d be a means to break the bar r ier that the i n t e l l e c t u a l s had set up b e t - ween themselves and the 'masses ' . W h i l e the peasants were to lea rn from the cadres and i n t e l l e c t u a l s , the i n t e l l e c t u a l s were to lea rn from the p e o p l e . C o n d i t i o n s , h o w e v e r , were far f rom i dea l for the pursuit of this t w o - w a y t rans fo rmat ion . The peasants l a c k e d even such bas ic tools as l i t e r a c y . M a t e r i a l cond i t i ons made i t ex t reme ly hard for bas ic phys ica l s u r v i v a l , never mind personal t rans fo rmat ion . Y e t the la t ter was seen as c r u c i a l for the improvement of mater ia l c o n d i t i o n s . A g r i c u l t u r e had to be changed from a system based on an i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c peasant economy to a c o o p e r a t i v e form of fa rming in order that larger y i e l d s be o b t a i n e d . This i n v o l v e d l ea rn ing t echn iques , and l ea rn i ng to coopera te and work w i t h o thers . E d u c a t i o n , in other words , was not a p r i v i l e g e that c o u l d be pur - sued o n c e everyone had enough to eat and le isure t ime to spa re . It was a c r u c i a l i npu t , needed to improve mater ia l cond i t i ons and ra ise l i v i n g s tandards. A s i t was the w h o l e p o p u l a t i o n , and not on l y a chosen f e w , who were to become bet ter o f f , eve ryone had to pa r t i c i pa te in the e d u c a t i o n a l process. Because not everyone shared the same l i f e e x p e r i - e n c e , educa t i on took on a d i f fe ren t mean ing for the var ious segments of the p o p u l a t i o n . It was the task of the C C P to coo rd ina te this process and see that i t was f u n c t i o n a l . H i s t o r i c a l c o n d i t i o n s , h o w e v e r , a g a i n i n t e r v e n e d . The Japanese were de fea ted and c i v i l war f o l l o w e d . L ibe ra t i on was f i n a l l y a c h i e v e d in 1949. The ma in task of the Communists now was to un i f y the count ry and learn how to govern and admin is ter i t . The e d u c a t i o n expe r imen t , i n the mean t ime , had passed in to the b a c k g r o u n d . O t h e r needs were judged pr imary and educa t i on made to serve them. The last chap te r w i l l exam ine this s i tua t ion and t race the course e d u c a t i o n f o l l o w e d dur ing the 1950's and 1960 's . It was not that the exper iment was r e j e c t e d . From t ime to t i m e , attempts were made to imp lement i t , and these attempts w i l l be d e s c r i b e d . H o w e v e r , the exper imen t was part o f a la rger v i s i o n , that of the 'mass l i n e ' , and the 'mass l i n e ' in the f i f t i es was not so much a b a n - doned as put to one s ide as stress was p l a c e d on i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and the b u i l d i n g of a soc i a l i s t e c o n o m y . The f o l l o w i n g chapte r w i l l exam ine in more d e t a i l the nature of e d u c a t i o n in the Y e n a n e r a . The last chap te r w i l l then t race e d u c a t i o n a l deve lopments through the 1950's and 1960 's , up to the t ime of the G r e a t P ro le ta r ian C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n . C H A P T E R THREE Educa t ion in the L ibe ra ted A reas In the prev ious c h a p t e r , an at tempt was made to show why such p r i nc i p l es as the 'mass l i n e 1 , ' democ ra t i c c e n t r a l i s m ' , and ' from the p e o p l e , to the p e o p l e ' , were d e v e l o p e d and judged c r u c i a l fo r r evo lu t i ona ry success . This chap te r w i l l a t tempt to show how these p r i nc i p l es were t rans la ted in to educa t i ona l p o l i c y and what this meant for e d u c a t i o n in the l i be ra ted zones dur ing the Y e n a n e r a . By the end of 1938, the C h i n e s e Communists he ld the f o l l o w i n g areas: the S h e n - K a n - N i n g Border R e g i o n , the c a p i t o l of w h i c h (Pao -an ) was moved to Y e n a n af ter the S i a n i n c i d e n t ; No r t hwes t S h a n s i , S h a n s i - C h a h a r - H o p e i , w h i c h had two base areas ; Southeast Shansi where the Communis t army was headquar te red ; S h a n t u n g , whose a d m i - n is t ra t ion was s t i l l in the hands of the K M T ; and var ious parts be tween Shangha i and N a n k i n g , where the N e w Four th A r m y was f i gh t i ng ( L i n d s a y , p. 9 ) . U n t i l the autumn of 1938, the Japanese were sa t i s f ied w i th cap tu r i ng and h o l d - ing r a i l w a y l i n e s , mak ing l i t t l e ef fort to penetrate in to ter r i to ry a w a y from them. This gave the Communists t ime to b u i l d up and o r g a n i z e g u e r r i l l a zones beh ind Japanese l ines of o p e r a t i o n . H o w e v e r , by la te autumn in 1938 un t i l 1942 , Japanese o f fens ives grew and became d i r e c t e d aga ins t l o c a l peasant popu la t i ons . They star ted to emp loy a system of c l o s e l y - s p a c e d forts c o n n e c t e d by d i t c h e s , w h i c h made penet ra t ion of Japanese l ines much more d i f f i c u l t ( i b i d . , p. 12) . 35 By the end of 1943, Communis t areas had expanded to i n c l u d e S h a n s i - S u i y a n , S h a n s i - H o p e i - H o n a n - S h a n t u n g , a C o m m u n i s t - l e d Shantung p r o v i n c i a l government , N o r t h K iangsu and the K i a n g s u - A n h u i - C h e k i a n g Border , an a rea be tween Hongkong and C a n t o n , and Ha inan Island ( i b i d . , p. 11) . L i be ra ted areas were of two types w h i c h of ten shaded off in to e a c h other ; s tab le base areas and g u e r r i l l a a reas . " E a c h ma in Communis t Reg ion had one or more s tab le base areas w h i c h were f ree from the enemy for most of the yea r and usua l l y got at least severa l days ' warn ing of enemy a t t a c k . Here i t was possib le to have regu la r o p e n l y f u n c t i o n i n g adm in i s t r a t i on . In educa t i ona l work i t was poss ib le to have a regu la r schoo l sys tem, to ho ld c o n f e r e n c e s , t r a i n i ng courses, e t c . " In the g u e r r i l l a a reas , " ( e d u c a t i o n - a l work had to be ar ranged w i th the schoo ls so they c o u l d be d ispersed at ve r y short n o t i c e i n case of enemy a t t ack or e lse opera te under some sort of c o v e r , such as reg is te r ing as a school in the enemy educa t i ona l system but t e a c h i n g from Communis t a rea text books when the enemy was not t he re " ( i b i d . , p . 12) . The Communis t areas c o u l d va r y i n terms of two d i f fe ren t v a r i a b l e s , the a rea they c o v e r e d and the d i v i s i o n of this a rea be tween s tab le base and g u e r r i l l a a r e a . Between 1940 and 1943 the total a rea was e x p a n d i n g but the p o p u - l a t i on under Communis t con t ro l was f a l l i n g because the Japanese were r educ ing more and more of the s tab le base areas to g u e r r i l l a a reas . Between 1943 and 1945 the boundar ies of the Communis t areas d i d not expand ve ry g rea t l y but there was a rap id r ise in popu la t i on under Communis t con t ro l because the Japanese f o r t - a n d - b l o c k - a d e - l i n e system was be ing pushed back towards the r a i l - ways and main c i t i e s ( i b i d . , p. 13) . Thus, the l i be ra ted areas were separated from one another by strips of e n e m y - o c c u p i e d te r r i t o ry . This requ i red that e a c h Reg ion be ab le to govern and admin is ter its area in a f a i r l y autonomous manner . In these y e a r s , there was , in f a c t , no formal cen t ra l government . Ra ther , the C e n t r a l Commi t t ee of the C C P w o u l d issue genera l p o l i c y d i r e c - t ives to the d i f fe ren t Reg ions , w h i c h wou ld then use them as a basis for d raw ing up laws and regu la t i ons . This was to be done in the l i gh t of l o c a l c i r cumstances and c o n d i t i o n s . W i t h i n e a c h R e g i o n , there was a system of bu reauc ra t i c d i v i s i o n s . There was a formal p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n in S h a n s i - H o p e i - H o n a n - S h a n t u n g , Shan tung , the N o r t h - east ( M a n c h u r i a ) , S h a n s i - C h a h a r - H o p e i , S h a n s i - S u i y u a n , S h e n s i - K a n s u - N i n g h s i a , and C e n t r a l C h i n a . Each of these Regions was d i v i d e d in to sub -Reg ions . Each s u b - R e g i o n was then d i v i d e d in to chuan chu ( w h i c h approx ima ted the chou of the o l d imper ia l s t ruc - ture and the superv isory d is t r ic ts of the K M T system). The chuan chu were d i v i d e d in to hs ien (or count ies) w h i c h were themselves d i v i d e d in to c h u . The last l inks in the c h a i n were the v i l l a g e , or h s i a n g , governments ( i b i d . , p. 15) . W i t h i n e a c h R e g i o n , bu reauc racy had a tendency to d e v e l o p and f lou r i sh un t i l a peak was reached by the end of 1941 . The bas ic governmenta l organs in w h i c h bu reauc ra t i c p r a c t i c e f l ou r i shed were the sec re ta r i a t , and the d e - partments of c i v i l a f f a i r s , f i n a n c e , e d u c a t i o n , and r e - c o n s t r u c t i o n . Each ma in ta i ned b r a n c h . . . o r v e r t i c a l o rgan i za t i ons l i n k i n g the r e g i o n , sub reg ion , and d is t r i c t o f f i c e s . Lower eche lons were d i r e c t l y respons ib le to the i r superiors w i t h i n these depar tments . Bu reauc ra t i c appointments were made at the reg iona l l e ve l by the c i v i l a f fa i rs department i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i th personnel o f f i c i a l s i n the i n d i v i d u a l depar tments . The resul t was a c e n t r a l i z e d and autonomous bu reauc ra t i c system p e n e - t ra t ing to the d is t r i c t l e v e l . It was r e l a t i v e l y immune from cont ro l by the party or e l e c t e d government o f f i c i a l s such as the d is t r i c t mag is t ra te . ^ M a r k S e l d e n , The Y e n a n W a y i n Revo lu t i ona ry C h i n a , o p . c i t . , p. 152 . 37 This meant that pr ior to 1942 these departments had a near monopo ly on e x - pe r i enced cad res , who performed s p e c i a l i z e d tasks for t hem. A l l e g i e n c e was d i r e c t e d towards one 's super ior i n the depar tment , versus the Par ty , the peop le at the v i l l a g e l e v e l , o r , for that mat ter , the r e v o l u t i o n . This system of v e r t i c a l r u l e "es tab l i shed a c l e a r - c u t c h a i n of respons ib i l i t y and command w i t h i n each department and concen t ra ted power in Y e n a n " ( i b i d . , p. 2 1 7 ) . This c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of au thor i t y at the reg iona l l e ve l made i t ex t reme ly d i f f i c u l t to coo rd ina te the work of depar tments at the d is t r i c t and lower leve ls or to res - pond c r e a t i v e l y to l o c a l va r i a t i ons and emergenc ies . The p r i ce of un i form and stable admin is t ra t ion was a tendency toward bu reauc ra t i c r i g i d i t y w h i c h was the ve ry ant i thes is of the e g a l i t a r i a n and pa r t i c i pa to ry thrust of m o b i l i z a t i o n p o l i t i c s . The tasks of g o v e r n - ment were to be le f t to the e x p e r t s . . . O n e s i g n i f i c a n t co r ro l l a r y of th is system was the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of state resources such as schools and industry i n bu reauc ra t i c cen te rs , the reg iona l and d is t r i c t c a p i t a l s where a d - min is t ra t i ve e f f i c i e n c y and cont ro ls were m a x i m i z e d . A s a resu l t , most townships and v i l l a g e s rema ined w i thou t and remote from schools and p u b l i c l y f i n a n c e d industry w h i c h genera ted new ideas and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c change in the border a rea ( i b i d . , pp . 2 1 7 - 8 ) . The war t ime and f i n a n c i a l s i tua t ion that had d e v e l o p e d by 1941 requ i red that the C C P be more in touch w i t h , and responsive t o , the peasant ry . This s i tua t ion caused a number of campa igns to be i n i t i a t e d . O n e of the pr imary aims was to break bu reauc ra t i c r i g i d i t y i n order that government be more responsive to l o c a l needs and more a b l e to draw up and imp lement p o l i c i e s that were re l evan t in l o c a l s i tua t ions . V e r t i c a l ru le was to be r e p l a c e d by dua l ru le in the campa ign for c rack troops and s imple adm in i s t r a t i on . I nc reas ing l y , important dec is ions were made on the spot in bu reauc ra t i c sect ions and in terdepar tmenta l meet ings at the coun ty l e v e l . Bureaucra t i c sect ions thus won greater autonomy v i s - a - v i s depar tmenta l supervisors but were sub jec t to more in teg ra t ion and cont ro l by the coun ty magistrate and coo rd i na t i ng c o m m i t t e e s . . . (T)he o f f i c i a l wo rk i ng in a coun ty sec t i on of the b u r e a u c r a c y . . .was requ i red to modi fy and adapt p o l i c y . . . The cadre w i th a broad grasp of l o c a l cond i t i ons and the a b i l i t y to coo rd ina te and un i f y d iverse p o l i c i e s was at a p remium. These q u a l i - t ies were c r i t i c a l l y important for the e f f e c t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g of the m a g i s t r a t e . ^ " D u a l ru le sh i f ted the locus of power from reg iona l o f f i ces w h i c h f ramed broad o p o l i c y l ines to lower l eve l s w h i c h imp lemented t h e m . " This e n a b l e d greater f l e x i b i l i t y i n r e l a t i o n to l o c a l demands and needs . A s long as bu reauc ra t i c e f f i c i e n c y was stressed, the focus as far as cadres were c o n c e r n e d was on the t ra ined expe r t . W i t h the changes i n i t i a t e d af ter 1941 , the focus c h a n g e d . Loca l cadres were now g i v e n p r io r i t y and i m p o r t a n c e . These cadres d i f f e red g rea t l y from the ' e x p e r t s ' . In many cases , they were s imp ly the most a c t i v e and h i g h l y commi t ted peasants in the i r v i l l a g e s . They were more a part of the peasantry than of an i n t e l l e c t u a l e l i t e . A t the same t i m e , they had more of a po ten t ia l in l e a d i n g the p e a s a n - try and express ing what i t was the peasantry wan ted and needed than those cadres w i t h formal t ra in ing s ta t ioned in reg iona l c a p i t a l s . H o w e v e r , because they were peasants , they l a c k e d ce r t a i n requi rements c r u c i a l for gove rn ing and adm in i s t e r i ng . O n e of these r e q u i r e - ments was bas ic l i t e r a c y . E d u c a t i o n , in the years af ter 1941 , focused on g i v i n g these cadres such bas ic tools as l i t e r a c y , a c c o u n t i n g , know ledge about san i ta t i on and h y g i e n e , and rud imentary p o l i t i c a l t r a i n i n g . This ' new l i n e 1 in e d u c a t i o n was a imed beyond l o c a l 2 M a r k S e l d e n , "The Y e n a n L e g a c y : The Mass L i n e " , o p . c i t . , p p . 1 1 9 - 2 0 . ^ M a r k S e l d e n , The Y e n a n W a y in Revo lu t i ona ry C h i n a , o p . c i t . , p. 2 2 1 . 39 cadres at the genera l peasant p o p u l a t i o n . H o w e v e r , due to shortages in teachers and ma te r i a l s , and because of war t ime necess i t i es , l o ca l cadres were g i v e n p r i o r i t y . This p r io r i ty in i tse l f was a imed at the peasantry insofar as , once l o c a l cadres r e c e i v e d some e d u c a t i o n , they were expec ted to ' t e a c h ' the peasants in the i r v i l l a g e s the i r new s k i l l s . N o soc ia l aggrega t ion c o u l d a d v a n c e as a b l o c k , Its i n d i v i d u a l members possessed v a r y i n g degrees of a w a r e - ness and v a r y i n g c a p a c i t i e s for l ea rn ing and g r o w t h . In rea l l i f e one had to depend on the more a d v a n c e d to l ead the less a d v a n c e d and on the less a d v a n c e d to l ead the b a c k w a r d . . .The b a c k w a r d soon reached the l e v e l of the i r t eachers , and so unders tanding s p i r a l l e d un t i l the w h o l e concep t of what was a d v a n c e d and what was b a c k - ward had to be r e v i s e d . W h e n such a process was c o n s - c i o u s l y and sys tema t i ca l l y un fo lded yea r af ter y e a r , d e - c a d e af ter d e c a d e , in a count rys ide c o n t a i n i n g m i l l i o n s of p e o p l e , the tota l e f fec t was as ton i sh ing . The w h o l e peop le became p o l i t i c i z e d , became c o n s c i o u s , became a c t i v e , and f i n a l l y d i d i ndeed become c a p a b l e of t rans- fo rming the i r w o r l d , a n d , in that process, of s t i l l fur ther t ransforming themselves ( H i n t o n , p. 6 1 0 ) . Before such a process c o u l d be set in m o t i o n , a c o n c e p t i o n of what cons t i tu ted ' a d v a n c e d ' had to be f o r m u l a t e d . This was done by M a o in his ama lgamat ion of v o l u n - tar ist and popul is t concep ts w i th the M a r x i s t no t ion of 'communist m a n ' . The deve lopment of this i d e a took severa l yea rs . In the mean t ime , the Western c o n c e p t of ' a d v a n c e d ' had been adopted and proved un feas ib le in a peasant env i ronment geared to w a r . Bu reauc racy was necessary in order to estab l ish and ru le geog raph i ca l areas sub jec t to m i l i t a r y assau l t . H o w e v e r , there was a point at w h i c h bu reauc racy began to have more nega t i ve than p o s i - t i ve repercuss ions . This point was reached in 1941 . From that year through the f o l l o w i n g ones , a new d e c e n t r a l i z e d system was put in to o p e r a t i o n . The basis of this system was the p r i n c i p l e of 'mass l i n e ' . Such a system requ i red a d i f fe ren t type of cadre than had been r e c e i v i n g a t ten t ion and t ra in ing p r e v i o u s l y . 4 0 Two types of cad res , d i s t i nc t e l i t e s , began to form w i t h i n the government at th is t i m e . The b u r e a u - c r a c y , cen te red at the reg iona l l e v e l in Y e n a n , m a i n - ta i ned regu la r channe l s to the d is t r i c t as in C h ' i n g and N a t i o n a l i s t C h i n a . It was staf fed by e d u c a t i o n o f f i - c i a l s c a p a b l e of h a n d l i n g the heavy f l o w of paper work and repor ts . O n the other h a n d , popu la r l y e l e c t e d governments and l o c a l o f f i c i a l s , i n c l u d i n g party and m i l i t a r y cadres at the d is t r i c t l e ve l and b e l o w , were o v e r w h e l m i n g l y compr ised of l o c a l ac t i v i s t s who rose in the course of the land revo lu t i on or in subsequent m o b i l i z a t i o n c a m p a i g n s . A 1943 government reso lu t ion a n a l y z e d the compos i t i on of the bu reauc racy as f o l l ows : ' N i n e t y per cen t of the subdis t r ic t and townsh ip cadres are products of the r evo lu t i ona ry peasant s t ruggle and are pos i t i ve e lements c l o s e l y l i n k e d to the masses. But g e n e r a l l y they are d e f i c i e n t in cu l t u ra l and i n t e l l e c t u a l deve lopmen t , thus l i m i t i n g the i r a b i l i t y for independent wo rk . M o r e o v e r , the i r progress is g rea t l y l i m i t e d by concep ts of v i l l a g e and f a m i l y . ' D i s t r i c t - l e v e l cadres l i k e w i s e are of worker and peasant background ( e s p e c i a l l y peasant) in a ma jor i t y of cases . Forty per cen t r e c e i v e d pr imary and m idd le school e d u c a t i o n , e igh ty per cen t had ex tens ive e x - pe r ience in the r evo lu t i ona ry st ruggle through w h i c h they became cadres of the border reg ion government ; but the i r t heo re t i ca l l e ve l is low and cu l tu re i n s u f f i - c i e n t . They canno t a v o i d b e i n g n a r r o w - m i n d e d , and are of ten unab le to cope w i th the new and c o m p l e x c i r cums tances . ' A t the reg iona l l e v e l more than seventy per cen t of the cadres have pa r t i c i pa ted s ince the war i n the p ro - gram for you th fu l i n t e l l e c t u a l s . They have sp i r i t and the des i re to learn but are d e f i c i e n t in ac tua l l e a r n i n g , wo rk , and p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e ' ( S e l d e n , pp . 1 4 6 - 7 ) . A cadre t ra in ing and r e c t i f i c a t i o n ( cheng - feng ) c a m p a i g n was l a u n c h e d i n the spr ing of 1942 . It was here that a s p e c i f i c " r e c t i f i c a t i o n methodo logy of in tens ive e d u c a - t i o n , s m a l l - g r o u p s tudy , c r i t i c i s m and s e l f - c r i t i c i s m , and thought r e f o r m . , .was d e v e l o p e d and imp lemented on a sweep ing s c a l e " ( i b i d . , p. 191) . C h e n g - f e n g was based on a study 41 movement begun in Y e n a n in 1939, i n v o l v i n g 4000 cadres and students. ' R e c t i f i c a t i o n me thodo logy ' was d e v e l o p e d and a p p l i e d at K ' a n g t a , ( 'Resist J a p a n U n i v e r s i t y ' ) , t h e l e a d - ing c a d r e - t r a i n i n g ins t i t u te , based in Y e n a n . " Intense c r i t i c i s m and s e l f - c r i t i c i s m was an ex t rao rd ina r i l y e f f ec t i ve method for b reak ing down t rad i t i ona l l eadersh ip c o n c e p t i o n s , for ove rcoming d i f fe rences in va lues be tween outs ide and l o c a l , educa ted and uneduca ted c a d r e s " ( i b i d . , p. 198) . C h e n g - f e n g was d i r e c t e d toward b u i l d i n g a u n i f i e d Party w i t h common i deas , i d e o l o g y , and g o a l s . . . Toward this end the Party l aunched a cadre e d u c a - t ion campa ign of unp receden ted propor t ions . In the 1942 c h e n g - f e n g movement , M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m and examples of its a p p l i c a t i o n in C h i n a p rov ided the too ls , and a bas ic r e c t i f i c a t i o n methodo logy - cons i s t - ing of in tens ive e d u c a t i o n , smal l g roup s tudy , c r i t i - c ism and s e l f - c r i t i c i s m , and thought reform - was d e v e l o p e d toward a f u l l ana lys is of the past and p r e - sent problems con f ron t ing the Party and its i n d i v i d u a l c a d r e s . 4 Whereas cheng feng was c o n c e r n e d m a i n l y w i t h cad res , other campa igns , w ide r i n s c o p e , d e v e l o p e d a longs ide or i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h r e c t i f i c a t i o n . The c a m p a i g n for c r a c k troops and s imple admin is t ra t ion was l aunched from 1941 to 1943 . In order to reduce costs , the focus of government work was sh i f ted downwards to the d is t r i c t and v i l l a g e admin is t ra t ions . This was a lso an at tempt to curb the power of the b u r e a u c r a c y . Cadres from h igher bu reauc ra t i c l eve l s were sent ' d o w n ' to the d is t r ic ts and v i l l a g e s as part of the ' t o - t h e - v i l l a g e ' c a m p a i g n ( h s i a - h s i a n g , la ter more w i d e l y known as hs ia - fang) of 1941 and 1942 ( i b i d . , p. 110) . This c a m p a i g n served to prov ide i so la ted v i l l a g e s w i t h new leaders , many of whom had a grasp of M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t p r i nc ip les : 4 M a r k S e l d e n , "The Y e n a n L e g a c y : The Mass L i n e , 1 1 o p . c i t . , p. 104. and came from Y e n a n aware of Party p o l i c y . These cad res , in r u m , began to take part in p r o d u c t i o n , o f ten for the f i rst t ime in the i r l i v e s . H o w e v e r , "( t )he pragmat ic and shor t - run goals of us ing ' n o n - p r o d u c t i v e labor ' to overcome temporary labor shortages gave way to a new c o n c e p t i o n of the re la t i onsh ip be tween leaders and the peop le that grew out of the i n te rac t i on of outs ide cadres and i n t e l l e c t u a l s w i th peasants and l o c a l c a d r e s . Students and i n t e l l e c t u a l s s tud ied in Y e n a n , preparatory to be i ng sent down to the v i l l a g e s . The sequence was s i g n i f i c a n t , for i t was b e l i e v e d that w i thout pr ior assis- m i l a t i o n of new goals and at t i tudes toward the p e o p l e , i n t e l l e c t u a l s were l i k e l y to remain a l i e n a t e d from the peasant masses, regardless of ex tens ive con tac t w i t h v i l l a g e l i f e . . . I n the ma jor i t y of cases , i n t e l l e c t u a l s sent to the v i l l a g e served as teachers or as cadres a s - s ist ing in the tasks of the l o c a l Party and government o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The campa ign was des igned to ove rcome the mutual i gno rance and p re jud i ce of i n t e l l e c t u a l s and peasants through shar ing and observ ing a common e x p e r i - e n c e and to overcome p s y c h o l o g i c a l barr iers separa t ing mental and manual l a b o r . ^ In a d d i t i o n , f rom 1942 unt i l 1944, there was a campa ign to reduce rent and in teres t , and a coope ra t i ve movement . The p roduc t ion movement of 1943 in t roduced labor hero campa igns as a means of s t imu la t ing and encou rag ing the peasant e c o n o m y . In contrast to mode rn i z i ng e l i t es throughout the Th i rd W o r l d , the par ty , in its 1943 p roduc t ion w a r , drew its pr imary insp i ra t ion and models not from the i n d u s t r i a l - i z e d West but from the most c r e a t i v e e lements of the C h i n e s e peasant ry . A l t h o u g h outsiders might i n i t i a t e and encourage c h a n g e , u l t imate t ransformat ion requ i red M a r k S e l d e n , The Y e n a n W a y in Revo lu t i ona ry C h i n a , o p . c i t . , p. 2 2 6 . M a r k S e l d e n , "The Y e n a n L e g a c y : The Mass L i n e , " o p . c i t . , p p . 1 2 2 - 3 . 43 leadersh ip that was rooted in the communi ty and c o m - mi t ted to b u i l d i n g a new economy and a new s o c i e t y . ^ F i n a l l y , there was the e d u c a t i o n movement , l aunched in 1944. The c r i t i que of educa t i on d e v e l o p e d dur ing the c h e n g - feng movement p a r a l l e l l e d c r i t i c i sms of bu reauc ra t i c adm in i s t r a t i on . By 1942, the e d u c a t i o n system, desp i te f i v e years of rap id d e v e l o p m e n t , had ba re l y sc ra tched the sur face of the ove rwhe lm ing i l l i t e r a c y of the border r e g i o n . The party had a c t i v e l y encouraged peasant a t - tendance in the e x p a n d i n g school sys tem. But educa t i on rema ined e l i t e e d u c a t i o n in that i t was cen te red in d i s t - r i c t c a p i t a l s , ca te red l a rge l y to f a m i l i e s who c o u l d a f - fo rd to send c h i l d r e n there for s tudy , and lef t most v i l l - ages w i thout schools or c o n v e n i e n t access to them ( i b i d . , p. 2 6 9 ) . O u t of a s c h o o l - a g e popu la t i on of 1 6 5 , 0 0 0 , in 1937 there were on l y 5600 pr imary-school s tudents. This number had on l y r isen to 2 2 , 0 0 0 by la te 1939 and 2 9 , 5 0 0 by ea r l y 1944 ( i b i d . , p. 2 6 9 ) . There were many reasons for these low f i g u r e s . The c u r - r i c u l u m , desp i te some c h a n g e s , rema ined i r re levan t to peasant needs or des i res . Students tended to a c q u i r e d i sda in for phys ica l l a b o r , even if they were on l y in the e lementa ry schoo l s . The i r parents tended to v i e w e d u c a t i o n as a means up and out of v i l l a g e l i f e , and many of the teachers he ld s im i l a r v i e w s . From 1943 , as a t ten t ion focused on p roduc t ion and other v i l l a g e prob lems, the results of the educa t i ona l system posed d i lemmas of the f i rst magn i t ude . If e d u - c a t i o n was to re in fo rce Y e n a n - s t y l e e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p - ment and communi ty re fo rm, it had to be p h y s i c a l l y and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y in tegra ted w i th rural l i f e , that i s , l o c a t e d w i t h i n the v i l l a g e s and responsive to l o c a l p r o b l e m s . . . These issues of mass versus e l i t e e d u c a t i o n , of communi ty versus professional con t ro l of the schoo l s , and of the p o l i t i c a l and t e c h n i c a l con tex t of e d u c a t i o n in a M a r k S e n d e n , The Y e n a n W a y in Revo lu t i ona ry C h i n a , o p . c i t . , p. 2 6 3 . 44 chang ing soc ie t y l ay at the heart of the educa t i ona l debate of 1944 ( i b i d . , p. 2 7 0 ) . The new popular educa t i on movement stressed the a c q u i s i t i o n of l i t e r a c y and p r a c t i c a l economic s k i l l s . The 1941 s l o g a n , ' d e v e l o p p r o d u c t i o n , expand the s c h o o l s ' , was based on this c o n c e p t . A s the network of schools was expanded to r each v i l l a g e l e v e l s , teachers were of ten rec ru i ted who had l i t t l e or no formal q u a l i f i c a t i o n s or e x - p e r i e n c e . Par t - t ime schoo l s , such as n ight schoo l s , h a l f - d a y schoo l s , w in te r schools a n d l i t e r a c y groups, were opened for workers and peasants . The ope ra t i ona l p r i n c i p l e for these schools was 'management by the peop le w i th the ass is tance of government 1 ( the m i n - p a n c o n c e p t ) . W h i l e o v e r - a l l p o l i c y and genera l problems rema ined in the hands of the government , most of the respons ib i l i t y for d e v e l o p i n g and runn ing pa r t i cu la r schools rested w i th the v i l l a g e r s . Labor heroes or l o c a l cadres of ten became p r i nc ipa l s or t eache rs . A l t h o u g h of ten i l l i t e r a t e , they commun ica ted new ideas about e d u c a t i o n and p r o d u c t i o n . Cad res and students were sent to the v i l l a g e s to h e l p them e l i m i n a t e i l l i t e r a c y , t ra in l o c a l l eade rs , and c rea te " a f ounda t i on for the e c o n o m i c and soc ia l changes a l r eady r e - v o l u t i o n i z i n g rural l i f e " ( i b i d . , p. 271). These teachers f requen t l y ro ta ted among severa l v i l l a g e s , p l a c i n g ' l i t t l e teachers ' (usua l l y a prominent student) in the i r s t ead . "Jus t as the party had at tempted to b r idge the gap be tween a cadre e l i t e and the peop le in the c h e n g - f e n g and ' t o - t h e - v i l l a g e ' movements, i n the popu la r educa t i on movement i t sought to rede f ine the ro le of t e a c h e r . The a l l - k n o w i n g , unques t ion ing au thor i ty f igure was to y i e l d to an instructor whose success rested on his responsiveness to genu ine popular needs; f requen t l y he was a peer of h is students and indeed of ten a student h imse l f " ( i b i d . , p. 2 7 1 ) . Students l i v e d at home and both they and the i r teachers were e x p e c t e d to work r e g u l a r l y in p r o d u c t i o n . Learn ing was l i n k e d to d o i n g , even in schools in the towns, and respons ib i l i t y for and in e d u c a t i o n was d i v i d e d among the students, teachers and the c o m - m u n i t y . "The cu r r i cu l um ou t l i ned for the new midd le schoo l s , fo r i n s t a n c e , was ' to b e - g i n w i t h the c o n c e p t of how to serve the peop le of the border reg ion (p r i nc ip les of r e - const ruc t ion) and end w i th the sk i l l s to serve (p roduc t ion and m e d i c a l k n o w l e d g e ) . ' " E d u c a t i o n emphas ized p r a c t i c a l k n o w l e d g e , ana lys is of contemporary and h i s to r i ca l c o n d i t i o n s , and above a l l s e r v i c e " ( i b i d . , p. 2 7 2 ) . In 1944 e d u c a t i o n in the border reg ion assumed many of the cha rac te r i s t i cs of other mass movements of that pe r i od : transfer of au thor i t y from professional e d u c a - tors at the d is t r i c t and h igher l eve l s to cadres and labor heroes wo rk i ng and l i v i n g in the v i l l a g e s ; d e - c e n t r a l i z a t i o n ; stress on mass rather than e l i t e e d u c a - t i o n ; i n teg ra t ion of e d u c a t i o n w i t h the soc ia l and e c o - nomic l i f e of the v i l l a g e . The Party d i d not en t i r e l y abandon regu la r forms or d e l i b e r a t e l y s a c r i f i c e q u a l i t y , though educa t i ona l resources were s t ra ined to the l i m i t , p r io r i t ies were reo rde red , and the t e a c h i n g in some of the most a d v a n c e d centers was d i l u t e d . The 1944 e d u - c a t i o n a l goa ls were sweep ing in scope ; eve ry m a n , woman and c h i l d was i n v o l v e d in forms of e d u c a t i o n rang ing from formal s c h o o l i n g to spa re - t ime study or r ead ing groups among the members of m u t u a l - a i d teams, everywhere l i n k e d to conc re te problems of p roduc t ion and soc ia l r e v o l u t i o n . Just as the ambi t ious aims of the p roduc t ion movement had he igh tened the awareness of a labor shor tage, in 1944 the number of teachers was found insu f f i c ien t for the task . A n d a g a i n the so lu t i on rested on dua l deve lopmen t , c o m b i n i n g a d v a n c e d and rud imentary t echn iques . Teachers were drawn not o n l y from the e d u - c a t e d e l i t e , i n c l u d i n g former teachers and students, but a lso from among natura l v i l l a g e leaders , many of them labor heroes or m u t u a l - a i d team leaders who c o u l d s c a r c e l y s ign the i r names. If much of the new t e a c h i n g was p r im i t i ve and i r r egu la r , and if some of the new e x - periments undoubted ly proved s h o r t - l i v e d , the f i rs t g l i m - merings of e d u c a t i o n were brought to hundreds of i so la ted 46 v i l l a g e s at a t ime when new sk i l l s and ideas c o u l d be e f f e c t i v e l y u t i l i z e d in ca r r y i ng forward the m o d e r n i z - a t i on p r o c e s s . 8 The d i r e c t i v e s issued dur ing these years emphas ized the t w o - w a y re la t i onsh ip be tween ' democ ra t i c e d u c a t i o n ' and ' democ ra t i c po l i t i cs , ' . ' E i ther was impossib le to a c h i e v e w i thout the o the r . O n e of these uses the f o l l o w i n g quote from L e n i n : " O n l y he who at every step of the way uses his r esea rch , t r a i n i n g , and e d u c a t i o n to jo in w i t h the pro le ta r ia t and labor ing masses to car ry out con t i nua l struggle aga ins t the o l d e x p l o i t a t i v e soc ie ty c a n learn c o m m u n i s m . " ^ N e w Democ ra t i c e d u c a t i o n is a product of N e w D e m o - c r a t i c p o l i t i c s , it is one aspect of N e w D e m o c r a t i c p o - l i t i c s . That is to say , w i thout the founda t ion and g u a r a n - tee of the a n t i - J a p a n e s e democra t i c p o l i t i c a l power under the leadersh ip of the C h i n e s e Communis t Par ty , N e w D e - moc ra t i c educa t i on is imposs ib le . In a soc ie t y or na t ion where the reac t i ona ry c lasses ma in ta in the i r p o l i t i c a l power , e d u c a t i o n cannot be long to the broad masses. Under f e u - da l p o l i t i c a l r u l e , e d u c a t i o n is a p r i v i l e g e of the a r i s t o - c r a c y ; under the p o l i t i c a l ru le of o l d - s t y l e d e m o c r a c y , educa t i on be longs to the bou rgeo i s ie ; in u n o c c u p i e d C h i n a under the ru le of C h i n e s e f asc i sm , e d u c a t i o n is i n e v i t a b l y drawn in to the s e c r e t - p o l i c e system; under the ru le of the enemy and c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s t s , e d u c a t i o n can be s lave e d u - c a t i o n . Educa t ion is sub jec t to a d e f i n i t e con t ro l and l i m i - ta t ion by po l i t i c s and serves a de f i n i t e c l a s s . . . A n y o n e who th inks that the educa t i ona l recons t ruc t ion of the past years has been due s o l e l y to the efforts of the comrades engaged in educa t i ona l wo rk , who th inks that educa t i on belongs to a system c o m p l e t e l y d i f fe ren t from p o l i t i c s , is c o m p l e t e l y w r o n g . O n the other s i d e , the deve lopment of N e w Democ ra t i c educa t i on c a n a lso push forward and assist a l l o ther forms of N e w D e m o c r a t i c r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . . . Educa t i ona l work c a n l i be ra te t h e m / w o r k e r s , peasants and l abo re r s / f r om feuda l ° M a r k S e l d e n , "The Y e n a n L e g a c y : The Mass L i n e , " o p . c i t . , p. 148. ° This quote is taken from "Smash The O l d Fo rms" , 1941 , found in C h i n e s e E d u c a t i o n , o p . c i t . , p. 188 . superst i t ion and from the prison of ' s tup id i ty and i g n o r - a n c e ' . To ra ise the i r p o l i t i c a l consciousness and c u l - tural l e v e l , to improve the i r thought and i deas , to ra ise the i r enthusiasm and i nven t i veness , to l ead and h e l p them to car ry on every k i n d of p r a c t i c a l s t rugg le , to un i te eve ry k i n d of a c t i v i t y - this is to f u l f i l l eve ry k i n d of p o l i t i c a l task and to s t r ive for a fo rce w h i c h c a n guarantee v i c t o r y . To despise or underrate this k i n d of d i f f i c u l t educa t i ona l work is i n c o r r e c t . ^ O n a more conc re te p l a n e , e d u c a t i o n was to be t i ed in ve ry c l o s e l y to p roduc - t i o n . N o t on l y was l ea rn ing to be geared to (skil ls useful and necessary to p roduc t ion needs , i t was not to take peop le and t ime away from p roduc t i ve a c t i v i t i e s . O n the other s i d e , p roduc t ion was to be geared to the l ea rn ing of new t echn iques . This was part of an effort not o n l y to break narrow t rad i t i ona l p rac t i ces in favo r of more e f f i c i e n t means of p roduc t i on , i t was a lso geared to show peasants that the i r v i l l a g e and the i r l i ves formed a smal l part of a larger who le w h i c h they c o u l d i n f l u e n c e and shape . This was the task of e d u c a t i o n . M o d e l p roduc t i ve uni ts and v i l l a g e s showed the peasants that i n the i r spare t ime they should form study groups in order to learn about these th ings . (O )u r e lementary schools and m idd le s c h o o l s . . . c a n t ra in on l y four types of p e o p l e . O n e type is the p e r - son who returns home to work af ter g r a d u a t i o n . . . (A ) t present , e d u c a t i o n t ra ins peop le to a d v a n c e to a h igher educa t i ona l l e v e l . There fo re , it one returns home, i t is not worth the t roub le to have g raduated from e l e m e n - tary s c h o o l , and worth even less to have g raduated from midd le s c h o o l . When he returns home he is d issa t is f ied and cannot be a model wo rke r . It is even worse than not hav i ng gone to s c h o o l . A n o t h e r type are ' p u b l i c persons' who do var ious k inds of work for Par ty , government , a rmy , and p o p u - lar o r g a n i z a t i o n s . But e d u c a t i o n at present is not for this purpose; study is d i v o r c e d from a p p l i c a t i o n . Fu r the r - more , this need has its l im i t s . If there are more than a c e r t a i n number of p u b l i c persons i t reduces the necessary l u This exerpt is taken from a speech d e l i v e r e d by Educa t ion M i n i s t e r L iu in 1944, and c a n be found in L i ndsay , o p . c i t . , p p . 1 2 1 - 2 . 48 labor f o r ce and increases the unnecessary f i n a n c i a l b u r d e n . The th i rd type are those who a d v a n c e to the next educa t i ona l l e v e l ; but ve ry f ew a d v a n c e from e l e m e n - tary schoo l to m idd le s c h o o l . Even i f a l l a d v a n c e d and graduated from m idd le s c h o o l , where w o u l d they a d v a n c e from t h e r e ? It is unnecessary and imposs ib le for the base areas to run o l d - s t y l e un i ve rs i t i es ; and the h i g h - l e v e l cadre schools today have no c o n n e c t i o n w i th m idd le s c h o o l s . , v l . T h e o n l y other way is to become vagrants and l oa fe rs . This is not a joke but a f a c t . 1 1 These p o l i c y d i r ec t i ves stressed over and over a g a i n that C h i n a was a t e c h - n o l o g i c a l l y b a c k w a r d coun t r y , and thus d i d not need a h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d e d u c a t i o n a l sys tem. A n educa t i ona l system should serve and re f l ec t soc ia l and e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p - ment . S i n c e C h i n a was at a rud imentary l e v e l , e d u c a t i o n should l i k e w i s e be s i m p l e , impar t ing rud imentary know ledge and s k i l l s . Educa t ion a l o n e c o u l d not produce indus t - 19 r i a l i z a t i o n . It had to be part of the s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l , p o l i t i c a l and e c o n o m i c systems, i n f l u e n c i n g them a n d , in tu rn , be ing i n f l u e n c e d by the i r stage of d e v e l o p m e n t . C a d r e e d u c a t i o n was to r e c e i v e p r io r i t y over mass e d u c a t i o n . I n - se rv i ce cadres were to r e c e i v e pr io r i ty over the t ra in ing of new ones . A c t i v e cadres were to be admi t ted at a l l educa t i ona l l e v e l s , regardless of the i r e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , in o r - der that students and teachers have con tac t w i th peop le who had p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e in what was be ing taugh t . In mass e d u c a t i o n , adu l t educa t i on was to take p recedence over the educa t i on of c h i l d r e n ( i b i d . , p. 198) . Produc t ion and war t ime needs were i m m e d i a t e . Thus, educa t i on had to concen t ra te on impar t ing sk i l l s to those in a pos i t ion c a p a b l e of This quote is taken from a p o l i c y statement issued in 1944 and en t i t l ed "The Problem of Transforming G e n e r a l Educa t ion in the Base A r e a s . " It is repr in ted in C h i n e s e E d u c a - t i o n , o p . c i t . , p p . 1 9 1 - 2 . 1 2 S e e , for e x a m p l e , " O n Regu la t ions and C u r r i c u l u m in G e n e r a l E d u c a t i o n , " 1944, i n i b i d . , p. 197 . 49 u t i l i z i n g them as w e l l as , and in the shortest t i m e , poss ib le . This is why i n - s e r v i c e cadres and adul ts were g i v e n p re fe rence . There was to be a t h r e e - l e v e l system of e d u c a t i o n . Mass educa t i on was to serve adul ts and c h i l d r e n in the v i l l a g e s , towns and c i t i e s . P r i m a r y - l e v e l cad re e d u c a - t ion was for the improvement and c u l t i v a t i o n of d is t r i c t personnel and sub -d i s t r i c t and township cadres at d i s t r i c t or subreg iona l s choo l s . M i d d l e - l e v e l cad re e d u c a t i o n was for the bene f i t of border reg ion personnel and d is t r i c t and subdis t r ic t cad res , and cadres wo rk ing in a g r i c u l t u r e , indust ry , c o m m e r c e , m e d i c i n e , art and c u l t u r e , and was to be c o n d u c t e d in m i l i t a r y or bo rde r - reg ion l e v e l schools ( i b i d . , p. 2 0 0 ) . (I)f our schools are c a p a b l e of no th ing more than t a k - ing a group 'o f s i x - y e a r - o l d s and shut t ing them up in the same c lass un t i l they are twenty or so , cu t t i ng them off from any c l ose con tac t w i t h the var ious peop le around them because of the i r ' unequa l degree of l e a r n i n g ' ( there are two sides to this s o - c a l l e d 'unequa l degree of l ea rn ing : a l though c h i l d r e n in schoo l may have a h igher degree of genera l cu l tu ra l know ledge than the p e o p l e , the i r k n o w - ledge of the war and of p roduc t ion is cons ide rab l y lower) - i f th is is what we c a l l be i ng e d u c a t e d , then i t wou ld be more to the po in t to say they are be i ng wasted than to say they are be i ng e d u c a t e d ; to be ' e d u c a t e d ' i n such a w a y is to become a waste product of the t imes ( i b i d , p. 2 0 1 ) . In mass e d u c a t i o n , three separate programs were es tab l ished in 1937; e l e m e n - ta ry , secondary and s o c i a l e d u c a t i o n . A f t e r an i n i t i a l l a r g e - s c a l e growth of schools w i th l i t t l e in the w a y of q u a l i t y , s tanda rd i za t i on of e d u c a t i o n was e n f o r c e d . In cadre e d u c a t i o n , this proved e x c e l l e n t and led to the c h e n g - f e n g movement . In mass e d u c a - t i o n , howeve r , i t p roved d i s a s t r o u s . ^ T ra in ing cadres for posi t ions of h igh respons ib i l i t y requ i red a f a i r l y t ight and standard method of e d u c a t i o n . In order to reach every peasant , S e y b o l t , " Y e n a n Educat ion and the C h i n e s e R e v o l u t i o n , 1 9 3 7 - 1 9 4 5 " , o p . c i t . p p . 2 1 3 - 2 1 5 . h o w e v e r , i nnova t i on a n d f l e x i b i l i t y were the best educa t i ona l methods poss ib le . The e d u ca t i ona l methodo logy d e v e l o p e d at K ' a n g t a (for e x a m p l e , c r i t i c i s m and s e l f - c r i t i - c ism sessions, i n d i v i d u a l and s m a l l - g r o u p study) was to prove ex t reme ly e f f e c t i v e and was to be emp loyed on a w ide s c a l e i n cheng* f eng (as Seybo l t shows in his thes is ) . This methodo logy had a p p l i c a t i o n and r e l e v a n c e in mass e d u c a t i o n as w e l l , in the form of t each ing methods. H o w e v e r , this d i d not mean that cadre e d u c a t i o n was to be g e n - e r a l i z e d for the peasantry as a w h o l e . This was the error made dur ing the ' s t a n d a r d i z a - t i o n ' p e r i o d . Part of the error was due to the type of peop le s ta f f ing e d u c a t i o n depar t - ments: i n t e l l e c t u a l s ra ised in c i t i e s , w i t h more e x p e r i e n c e in types of educa t i on su i ted to the t r a i n i ng of c a d r e s . Part of the error was a lso due to the t h i nk i ng that went in to the fo rmat ion of educa t i ona l p o l i c i e s . Educa t ion c o u l d be ' f o r c e d ' on peop le w i l l i n g and d e d i c a t e d to a c a u s e , because they c o u l d app rec ia te its necess i t y . Educa t ion c o u l d not b e ' f o r c e d ' on peop le who had no i d e a of what i t was a l l abou t . Even in cadre e d u - c a t i o n , i t was seen that much of the cu r r i cu l um was too r i g i d and too m u c h . Even w i t h cad res , i t was bet ter to 'persuade ' than to ' f o r c e ' . A f t e r 1944, the t ra in ing of ' p ro fess iona l ' cadres was abandoned in favour of educa t i ng ac t i v i s t peasant c a d r e s . The type of e d u c a t i o n d e v e l o p e d here was 'mass' in nature s ince the peop le i n v o l v e d , a l though c a l l e d ' c a d r e s ' , were themselves part of the masses. It was in this phase that ' c a d r e ' and 'mass' e d u c a t i o n came c loser together and had a po ten t ia l for b l e n d i n g in to e a c h o the r . It is in te res t ing that it was in these years that the t h i nk i ng beh ind the c o n c e p t of ' i n t e l l e c t u a l i z i n g the p ro le ta r i a t ' w h i l e ' p r o l e t a r i a n i z i n g the i n t e l l e c t u a l s ' was d e v e l o p e d . 51 It was on l y af ter 1944 that e d u c a t i o n was g i v e n more of a p r i o r i t y . P rev i ous l y , teachers were not even cons ide red cad res , and were of ten e x p e c t e d to subsist on ve ry l i t t l e . They had to con tend not o n l y w i th low status i n the b u r e a u c r a c y , but w i t h the an imos i ty of the v i l l a g e r s , who of ten cons ide red them outs iders and t reated them as s u c h . N o t many peop le wanted to become teache rs . M a n y were f o r c i b l y ' d ra f ted ' in to the p ro - fession ( S e y b o l t , p . 2 5 4 ) . M o r e o v e r , those who en joyed and were good at the i r work were of ten g i v e n other jobs as w e l l (such as he l p i ng the magist rate do his a c c o u n t i n g chores) or were taken out of t e a c h i n g and p l a c e d in other types of work ( L i n d s a y , p. 3 6 ) . W i t h c h e n g - f e n g , most cadres had to enter schoo l or engage in c r i t i c i s m and s e l f - c r i t i c i s m sessions in order to r e v i e w the i r work and a t t i tude towards the p e o p l e . It was at th is t ime that the C C P sought to improve the t reatment g i v e n teachers , as w e l l as a t tempt ing to ra ise the q u a l i t y of t e a c h i n g . Teachers were now des igna ted cad res . M a n y d i r ec t i ves were i ssued , exhor t i ng both cadres and the peasantry to respect and t reat teachers w e l l . June 6th was d e c l a r e d 'Teache rs ' D a y ' not on l y as a means to ra ise the status of t eachers , but to p i ck model teachers and have teachers in genera l get together to study and c r i t i c i z e the i r work and methods of t e a c h i n g . ^ In an ef for t to ra ise the number of teachers and improve the q u a l i t y of t e a c h - i n g , e s p e c i a l l y in v i e w of the efforts be i ng made to engage the peasantry i n e d u c a t i o n , i n t e l l e c t u a l s and t r a i ned cadres were 'sent d o w n ' to the v i l l a g e s as part of the ' t o - t h e - v i l l a g e ' movement , o f ten in order to take on t e a c h i n g r o l es , and v i l l a g e - l e v e l cadres were encouraged to h e l p in t e a c h i n g . This not o n l y expanded the t each ing staf f , i t ^ S e e , for e x a m p l e , the sec t i on e n t i t l e d " M e t h o d s of C e l e b r a t i n g J u n e 6 t h , Teachers ' D a y " i n L i ndsay , o p . c i t . , pp . , , 93 -95 . a lso he lped undermine the e l i t i s t v i e w many teachers and the peasant popu la t i on tended to have of t eachers . I l l i t e ra te peasant cadres were to h e l p v i l l a g e teachers by shar ing the i r know ledge of p r a c t i c a l p roduc t ion s k i l l s . Cadres whose ca reer i n the party had been passed e n - t i r e l y in headquarters o r g a n i z a t i o n s , in the most s tab le base areas or in underground work in enemy a reas , were v e r y of ten s im i la r to the t y p i c a l cadres of o ther C o m m u n - ist p a r t i e s . . . C a d r e s whose careers i n the party had been ma in l y in the f r o n t - l i n e areas and e s p e c i a l l y in the g u e r r i l l a areas were a n o t i c e a b l e contrast to t h i s . . . S o m e o n e who r e - fused to cons ide r the rea l i n d i v i d u a l C h i n e s e peasant as he a c t u a l l y w a s , who refused to take a c c o u n t of d i f f e rences w i t h the i dea l C h i n e s e peasant as he c h o u l d have been a c - c o r d i n g to Communis t t heo ry , was u n l i k e l y to s u r v i v e . Work i n the g u e r r i l l a areas was , the re fo re , a ve r y e f f e c - t i ve educa t i on i n mod i f y ing Communis t theory to f i t the f a c t s , w i t h a h igh p robab i l i t y of sudden death for those who f a i l e d to bene f i t from this e d u c a t i o n ( i b i d . , p. 2 5 ) . Due to such fac tors as the low l i t e r a c y rate in the l i be ra ted a reas , there were few secondary schools in the Y e n a n per iod (on l y seven ever ex is ted at the same t ime ) . M o s t of these were geared to t ra in ing t eache rs , a l though two were geared to ' r a i s ing a new genera t i on of revo lu t i ona ry i n t e l l e c t u a l s ' ( S e y b o l t , p. 2 7 7 ) . The students and teachers i n a l l secondary schools were made to pass through the r e c t i f i c a t i o n process, af ter w h i c h the schoo ls became ends in themse lves . That i s , they no longer prepared students to go on to un i ve r s i t y . Rather , they were to t ra in teachers or g i v e cadres t r a i n - ing in s p e c i f i c v o c a t i o n s . Thus, a d i r e c t i v e issued for M a n c h u r i a in 1946 c a l l e d for g i v - i ng teacher ; t ra in ing f i rst p r i o r i t y , v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n s e c o n d , f o l l o w e d by o rd inary e d u c a t i o n . 1 ^ M i d d l e schools were g i v e n inc reased impor tance over pr imary schools b e - cause of the need for m idd le and l o w e r - l e v e l cadres in e c o n o m i c wo rk , and for teachers See "From Tung Pei J i h Pao ( H a r b i n ) " i n L i n d s a y , o p . c i t . , pp . 6 3 - 6 7 . due to the i nc reased emphasis on e d u c a t i o n . "In order to secure the c losest c o n n e c t i o n be tween e d u c a t i o n and p r a c t i c e , i t is best that v o c a t i o n a l schools should be managed by the l o c a l p roduc t i ve o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The r a i l w a y admin is t ra t ion shou ld run a r a i l w a y s c h o o l " ( this is but one examp le in i b i d . , p. 6 4 ) . In pr imary e d u c a t i o n , " the o l d t ime methods must be dest royed and r e p l a c e d by morn ing s c h o o l , noon s c h o o l , n ight s c h o o l , h a l f - d a y courses , o n e - d a y courses , e t c . , e t c . , of a l l k inds and forms. This is of advan tage to the broad mass of the c h i l d r e n from poor f a m i l i e s " ( i b i d . , p. 6 5 ) . The un ive rs i t i es were not a b o l i s h e d , but the i r c u r r i c u l u m and t e a c h i n g me tho - do logy changed d r a s t i c a l l y . M a r i o n M e n z i e s and W i l l i a m Paget v i s i t e d two un ive rs i t i es that la ter became N o r t h C h i n a U n i v e r s i t y ( i n 1948) . ^ ° A t that t i m e , as a resul t of the promulgat ion of the 'Bas ic Program' or ag ra r i an re fo rm, spec ia l courses were b e i n g set up to study ag ra r i an re fo rm. U n i v e r s i t i e s were to be t i ed in much more t i gh t l y to the peasant economy and way of l i f e . A s a matter of f a c t , three c o l l e g e s of L i e n Ta were c l o s e d for severa l months in order that the students and staff ca r ry out land reform in ne ighbor ing hs ien ( i b i d . , p. 150) . W i t h i n the un i ve r s i t y , students were g i v e n a large say in the wo rk ing of the ins t i tu t ion through such means as the Student A s s o c i a t i o n , w h i c h was " respons ib le for the p repa ra t i on , s tudy , manual work and group l i f e of the w h o l e student b o d y " ( i b i d . , p . 153) . F o o d , c l o t h i n g and l i v i n g accommodat ions were p rov ided by the un ive rs i t y on terms that were to be c lose to those of the l o c a l peasant p o p u l a t i o n . Two hours were set ^ ° See L i n d s a y , o p . c i t . , pp . 1 4 7 - 1 7 0 . 54 as ide eve ry day for p roduc t i ve l abo r . Teachers were to l i v e w i th and among the i r s tudents, shar ing in p roduc t i ve labor and h e l p i n g them w i t h the i r s tud ies . "(T)he students examine and grade the teachers w e e k l y and month ly on the basis of the i r t e a c h i n g methods, sp i r i t , honesty , outs ide wo rk , and - as many students from the outs ide have cons ide rab le s p e c i a l know ledge - on course con ten t " ( i b i d . , p. 157) . M a n y students, and teache rs , had ' s p e c i a l ' k n o w l e d g e because they were peasants and workers w i th e x p e r i e n c e in var ious t e c h n i c a l f i e l d s , a l t hough w i t h l i t t l e in formal e d u c a t i o n . This e n a b l e d a greater e x - change and shar ing of know ledge be tween students and teachers w i t h formal know ledge and those w i th p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e . M a n y of the students a t Pei T a , and almost a l l at L i e n T a , come from w e a l t h y f a m i l i e s and they n a t - u r a l l y b r ing w i th them the at t i tudes and ideas of the o l d s o c i e t y , the o l d concep t of l e a r n i n g , and an a l - most to ta l i gno rance of the peasants and the i r way of l i f e . To co r rec t these f a i l i n g s , students must l i v e and work w i t h the p e o p l e ; students and peasants a t - tend the same meet ings ; students h e l p the peop le w i th the i r government and business a f fa i r s , w i t h the i r e v e r y - day chores , such as ga ther ing grass for fue l and c a r r y - ing w a t e r , and w i t h p l an t i ng and h a r v e s t i n g . It is f e l t that i n this way the students ga in an in t imate k n o w - ledge o f , and sympathy w i t h , the peasants, and that the good f e e l i n g engendered by c lose coope ra t i on b e t - ween students and peasants helps to b r idge the gu l f be tween the ' i n t e l l e c t u a l s ' and the 'masses ' . Fu r the r - more , the students must work for t h e m s e l v e s . . . (and) do m a n y . . . k i nds of hard work dur ing the d a i l y ' p r o - d u c t i o n work ' p e r i o d . The peasants a lso bene f i t from the new order of th ings ; they have overcome the i r l ong - te rm distrust o f the ' i n t e l l e c t u a l 1 , whom they have ever assoc ia ted w i th land lord ism and oppression ( i b i d . , p p . 1 6 4 - 5 ) . The i d e a of hav i ng students and teachers engage in p roduc t i ve work was not on l y a means of ' p r o l e t a r i a n i z i n g ' t hem, i t a lso took a cons ide rab le f i n a n c i a l burden from 55 the peasants ' b a c k s . The methods f i rst d e v e l o p e d at K ' a n g t a and la ter emp loyed in c h e n g f e n g , were used here as w e l l . "The students ana lyse themselves and discuss and c r i t i c i z e one another to such an ex ten t that i t might be sa id that the student body i tse l f forms part of the c u r - r i c u l u m " ( i b i d . , p. 165) . R i g i d examinat ion.sys tems were abo l i shed in favor of i n d i v i d u a l progression on the basis of his or her background and a b i l i t i e s . U n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n , h o w e v e r , was a minor aspect of the o v e r - a l l educa t i ona l efforts du r ing these yea rs . A s more and more cadres were rec ru i t ed to serve the e v e r - expand ing base a reas , they had to be t r a i n e d . A n d , beyond them, was a l a r g e l y i l l i t e r a t e peasant popu la t i on that had to be m o b i l i z e d and g i v e n p o l i t i c a l consc iousness . O n e c r u c i a l aspect of peop le ' s e d u c a t i o n was the m ia -pan c o n c e p t . The genera l procedure seems to have been that the educa t i on author i t ies wou ld get in touch w i t h l o c a l leaders in some v i l l a g e , the v i l l a g e ' l abor he ro ' or someone s p e c i a l l y r espec ted , and wou ld suggest to them that the v i l l a g e should run its own s c h o o l . It was e x p l a i n e d that the government w o u l d h e l p in f i n d i n g a teacher and in meet ing part of the expenses but that the v i l l a g e communi ty i tse l f c o u l d de termine what should be taught e x a c t l y as i t wan ted ( i b i d . , p p . 37 -38 ) The peop le and government were to in te rac t and h e l p e a c h o the r . Problems were bound to a r i s e . For e x a m p l e , what happened if the peop le wan ted subjects taught that the government was i d e o l o g i c a l l y opposed t o , such as C o n f u c i a n m o r a l i t y ? Whereas before c h e n g feng such wishes w o u l d be v i o l e n t l y abor ted by cad res , a f ter cheng feng these wishes were of ten respected and honored , and an at tempt wou ld be made to show the peasants, as they were s tudy ing these sub jec ts , what was wrong w i t h t hem. M o r e d i f f i c u l t were such problems as peasants be ing u n w i l l i n g to admi t the c h i l d r e n of peasants too poor to share i n the school expenses . These c h i l d r e n w o u l d o f ten be supported by the g o v e r n - ment , and i t was hoped that w i th r e v o l u t i o n penet ra t ing the v i l l a g e s , such at t i tudes wou ld d i sappea r . There were no genera l or de f i n i t e ru les for min-pan schoo l s . Schoo ls were 1 ft started in a l l sorts of w a y s . "There were no regu la r t ime tab les because the t each ing in every v i l l a g e was ar ranged in the way w h i c h was most c o n v e n i e n t to the parents and i n v o l v e d the least in te r fe rence w i th the c h i l d r e n assist ing the i r parents in p r o d u c t i o n " ( L i n d s a y , p. 3 8 ) . The courses most f requen t l y in demand were s imple l i t e r a c y , a r i t h m e - t i c and a number of p r a c t i c a l sub jec ts . N o genera l ru les or standards were to a p p l y . The slogans were 'oppose the o l d s ty le un i fo rmi ty " and 'oppose regu la r i t y in e d u c a t i o n ' ( i b i d . , p. 3 8 ) . The amount of o rd ina ry schoo l e d u c a t i o n w h i c h was of e c o n o m i c v a l u e to the o rd inary peasant farmer was ve ry s m a l l . Except fo r a l im i t ed number in government ser - v i c e , soc ie t y had c o m p a r a t i v e l y l i t t l e use for the g r a d u - ates of the o rd ina ry m idd le schoo l or u n i v e r s i t y . The economy was so poor that the w i thd rawa l of c h i l d r e n from p roduc t i ve work in to w h o l e - t i m e e d u c a t i o n was a heavy bu rden , and the prob lem of adu l t i l l i t e r a c y was so serious that i t was not reasonab le to concen t ra te on the educa t i on of c h i l d r e n w h i c h c o u l d produce a l i t e ra te popu la t i on on l y af ter a t ime lag of d e c a d e s . . . .The ' peop le manage , pub l i c h e l p ' v i l l a g e schools w i t h var ious arrangements of h a l f - d a y and a l t e r n a t e - d a y school met this requ i rement pret ty w e l l . A b o v e this l eve l See Seybo l t ' s P h . D . thes is , o p . c i t . , p p . 2 5 8 - 2 6 2 , for a desc r ip t i on of the var ious types poss ib le . a regu la r school system was u n d e s i r a b l e ; . . The d e v e l o p - ment of C h i n a needed la rge numbers of personnel w i th var ious v o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s , and the educa t i ona l system should concen t ra te on tu rn ing out peop le w i t h the p a r t i - c u l a r forms of t r a i n i ng most u rgent ly n e e d e d , w h i c h was someth ing that v a r i e d in d i f fe rent areas and at d i f fe ren t t imes . Even more important than t ra in ing c h i l d r e n was g i v i n g fur ther ins t ruc t ion to peop le who were a l r e a d y wo rk i ng but needed more e d u c a t i o n to do the i r work be t te r . The schoo l system must, the re fo re , be c a p a b l e of t a k i n g i n , at every stage above the e lementa ry schoo l l e v e l , peop le w i t h p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e who needed more theo re t i ca l e d u c a t i o n . Even in genera l e d u c a t i o n the problem of e d u c a t i n g adul ts was at least as impor tant as the e d u c a t i o n of c h i l d r e n , and adu l t e d u c a t i o n y i e l d e d much more rap id s o c i a l returns ( i b i d . , p. 4 0 ) . The most popular form of adu l t e d u c a t i o n was the w in te r s c h o o l . A p a r t f rom this t y p e , there were "newspaper read ing groups, ge t t i ng schoo l c h i l d r e n to t e a c h the adul ts in the i r f a m i l i e s , n ight s choo l s , c o m b i n a t i o n of educa t i on w i t h women 's sp inn ing groups, arrangements for c o o p e r a t i v e groups to learn charac te rs du r ing rest per iods and meal t imes, e t c . , e t c . " ( i b i d . , p. 4 3 ) . This was soc ia l e d u c a t i o n - e d u c a t i o n outs ide of a formal ins t i tu t iona l env i ronmen t , geared to t e a c h a l l manner of th ings: p o l i t i c s , l i t e r a c y , news of what was happen ing in other parts of C h i n a and in the w o r l d , a c c o u n t - i n g , to name just a f e w . There were two bas ic wrong tendenc ies before r e c t i f i c a t i o n - the f o r c i n g ofppeasants to a t tend such groups, and t e a c h i n g them po l i t i c s p r i m a r i l y . It was found that peasant needs and desires must f i rst be l ea rned before any e d u c a t i o n a l ef for t c o u l d be i m p l e m e n t e d . Peasants had to want to l e a r n , a n d , o n c e that was a c c o m - p l i s h e d , they must be taught subjects they f e l t to be r e l e v a n t . Thus, a r e - o r i e n t a t i o n to serv ing p roduc t ion needs and t each ing l i t e r a c y was i n i t i a t e d . (In w in te r schools) the genera l p r i n c i p l e should be u n i - f i e d leadersh ip and sca t te red s tudy . Under the u n i f i e d leadersh ip of the W in te r Schoo l Commi t tees or the Peop le ' s Schoo l Commi t tees there shou ld be f ree o r g a - n i z a t i o n and assoc ia t i on a c c o r d i n g to the wishes of the masses, using a l l k inds and types of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f o rm , such as l i t e r a c y c l a s s , woman's l i t e r a c y c l a s s , l i t e r a c y g roup , p u b l i c i t y lec tu re c l a s s , newspape r - read ing g roup , abacus g roup , m e d i c a l research g roup , n ight s c h o o l , noon s c h o o l , l i t e r a c y p l aca rds , b l a c k b o a r d newspapers , e d u c a t i o n on the k ' a n g , smal l groups for home e d u c a t i o n , the fa ther t e a c h i n g the son and the son the fa the r , the s m a l l - t e a c h e r system and a l l k inds of o r g a n i z a t i o n j o i ned on to p roduc t ion o r g a n i z a t i o n s . . . In the m idd le and smal l 1 towns:orc fa i r ly la rge market v i l l a g e s , the wo rk i ng l i f e of the workers , shop assistants and other c i t i z e n s is not marked ly seasonal and the group to be taught is c o m p l i - c a t e d . Here e d u c a t i o n should be d i v i d e d and the p ro - duc t i on uni't ; shou ld be in t roduced as the educa t i ona l un i t to make the form of o r g a n i z a t i o n for the st ruggle of the masses the form of o r g a n i z a t i o n for mass e d u c a t i o n J * In order to encourage parents to send the i r c h i l d r e n to s c h o o l , A p r i l 4 th was des igna ted ' P u p i l s ' D a y ' in 1945 . This was an oppor tun i ty for parents to see what the c h i l d r e n c o u l d learn and d o , and for parents ' v i ews to be a i r e d and d iscussed . G r e a t emphasis was p l a c e d on c h i l d r e n h e l p i n g the i r parents in p r o d u c t i o n , s ince this was one of the parents ' ma in g r i e v a n c e s . P r e v i o u s l y , c h i l d r e n had been o r g a n i z e d for p r o d u c t i o n , but this was ra re l y for the i r own f a m i l i e s ' b e n e f i t . A t th is t ime an at tempt was made to coo rd ina te such a c t i v i t i e s as fa rming the schoo l ' s p lo t of l a n d , a i d i n g the f a m i l i e s of so ld ie rs , a n d , at the same t i m e , see ing that c h i l d r e n he lped the i r own f a m i l i e s . Such slogans as ' W h e n the days are c o l d and the ground's f r o z e n , i t is t ime to s tudy . When the f lowers b loom and the water 's wa rm, i t is t ime to serve the peasants ' See " D i r e c t i v e on the Deve lopmen t of the W i n t e r - S c h o o l M o v e m e n t " (1944) , in L i ndsay , o p . c i t . , p p . 7 9 - 8 0 . The emphasis is my o w n . and ' eve ry townsh ip run one w in te r s c h o o l 1 were used to h e l p spread the w i n t e r - s c h o o l 70 movement . w Win te r schools were to be d e c e n t r a l i z e d ( w h i c h meant they d i d n ' t need a f i x e d number of students in order to get estab l ished) and l i n k e d to other movements , such as the san i ta t ion movement , and groups, such as l o c a l l y s ta t ioned so ld ie rs , schoo l s , o rgan i za t i ons and the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a ( i b i d . , p. 2 2 7 ) . The method of ins t ruc t ion in w in te r school shou ld be f l e x i b l e and adap ted to the sub jec t of i ns t r uc t i on , to the type of educa t i ona l o r g a n i z a t i o n , and to the t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s . . . ' the peop le t e a c h i n g the p e o p l e ' , ' l i t t l e t e a c h e r s ' , i n d i v i d u a l ins t ruc t ion in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h c o l l e c t i v e ins t ruc t ion and other app roaches , ' t e a c h - ing f i rst those who come f i rs t " , 'when the f a m i l y is r e a l l y busy, le t the students go h o m e ' , ' ro ta t ion t e a c h i n g 1 , ' t e a c h i n g at h o m e ' , ' t e a c h i n g from door to doo r ' ; these or any other approaches may be a d o p t e d , p rov ided they are su i ted to the needs of the p e o p l e . ^ 1 The vw in te r -schoo l movement was part of the l i t e r a c y movement . A l t h o u g h the aims of the l i t e r a c y movement were h i g h , (to a c h i e v e un iversa l l i t e r a c y in a matter of years ) , they were not a c h i e v e d . This was t y p i c a l of mass e d u c a t i o n in these y e a r s . The methods and forms were n e w , and of ten met w i t h some degree of success . H o w e v e r , w a r - t ime cond i t i ons and mater ia l d i f f i c u l t i e s were serious imped iments , and s o , resound ing successes were not reco rded o v e r - a l l , a l though they were a t t a i ned in many s p e c i f i c cases . The ve ry nature of the at tempt p rec luded immedia te success , because the type of e d u c a - t ion env isaged was a l ong - te rm a f f a i r . A n d , in these yea rs , the C h i n e s e Communists had See "Border Reg ion G o v e r n m e n t D i r e c t i v e on W in te r Study This Y e a r " (1944) , i n C h i n e s e E d u c a t i o n , o p . c i t . , p p . 2 2 5 - 6 . 21 See "Border Reg ion Supp lementary D i r e c t i v e on W in te r Study This Y e a r " (1944) , i n i b i d . , p. 2 3 4 . to th ink in terms of days , weeks and months rather than yea rs . This s i tua t ion was to change d r a s t i c a l l y af ter 1949 . It was so drast ic that e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y was once aga re l ega ted to the b a c k g r o u n d . The f i na l chapter w i l l examine what happened in the f i f t i es and ea r l y s i x t i e s , and w i l l ske tch the ou t l i nes of educa t i on as env i saged in the G r e a t P ro le ta r ian C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n . A n at tempt w i l l be made to show that e d u c a - t iona l p o l i c y in 1966 was ve ry s im i la r to that desc r ibed for the Y e n a n p e r i o d . 61 CHAPTER. F O U R Educa t ion From the F i f t i es to the G r e a t P ro le ta r i an C u l t u r a l Revo lu t i on It is the p r i nc i p l es unde r l y i ng the educa t i ona l system w h i c h form the main l i nk be tween e d u c a t i o n in the Y e n a n era and in the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n . In the p r e - c e d i n g two chap te rs , these p r i nc ip les and the i r e f fec t on e d u c a t i o n in the Y e n a n per iod have been d e s c r i b e d . In the 1950 's , the p r i nc ip les were s t i l l in e v i d e n c e . H o w e v e r , there was another v i e w of educa t i on dur ing these yea rs . It was based on the Sov ie t model and is now l i n k e d to L iu S h a o - c h ' i , who took over the p res idency of the People's R e p u b l i c f rom M a o in 1958. It has been l a b e l l e d ' r e v i s i o n i s t ' . Educa t iona l p r i nc i p l es were a lso c a r r i e d over from the Y e n a n e r a , and these are now l a b e l l e d ' M a o i s t ' , (see C h a p t e r O n e , p. 1, for the mean ing of the term ' M a o i s t ' in this thes is ) . In the 1950's and in the e a r l y 1960 's , these two Mines ' ( educa t i on was o n l y one sector of the s o c i e t y , p o l i t y , and economy to be a f f ec ted by them) were in compe t i t i on and in c o n f l i c t w i t h e a c h o the r . The G r e a t Pro le ta r ian C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n , w h i c h erupted f u l l - s c a l e in 1966, was a v i c t o r y for the ' M a o i s t ' l i n e . In this c h a p t e r , an at tempt w i l l be made to sketch the ba t t l e of the two l i n e s , ' r ev i s ion i s t ' and ' M a o i s t ' , as these a f f ec ted e d u c a t i o n . A s the M a o i s t l i ne is d e s c r i b e d , the con t i nu i t y w i th the educa t i ona l p r i nc i p l es e v o l v e d in the Y e n a n per iod shou ld become c l e a r . The forms that these p r i nc ip les took through the years d i f f e r e d , but the bas ic i deas , e s p e c i a l l y that of the 'mass l i n e ' , rema ined the same. 62 There were two trends in the years just before L i be ra t i on in 1949 w h i c h h e l p e x p l a i n why the p r i nc ip les d e v e l o p e d in those years were pushed as ide in the 1950 's . O n e was a stress on l o c a l needs and the present . The second t rend cons is ted in d i f f e ren t i a t i ng the communist base areas from other c a p i t a l i s t and soc ia l i s t coun t r i es , even from other parts of C h i n a . This made the p r i nc ip les d e v e l o p e d in the Y e n a n years a p p l i c a b l e on l y w i t h i n a res t r i c ted t ime and p l a c e . In those yea rs , the C C P d i d not regard these p r i nc ip les as hav ing w ider r a m i f i c a t i o n s . The Party was ve ry pragmat ic in its p o l i c i e s , a n d , thus, d id ! not f ee l the need for jus t i f y ing the un i ve r sa l i t y of the concep ts i t used to car ry through peasant r e v o l u t i o n . 'This k i nd of mass e d u c a t i o n should have its present and its f u tu re . It is its fu ture to enab le eve ry worker to unde r - stand h igher ma themat i cs , phys i cs , and chemis t r y . It is itsvpresent to enab le the masses to understand how to pa r - t i c i p a t e in g u e r r i l l a wa r fa re , how to o r g a n i z e labor power , how to get the most necessary cu l t u ra l k n o w l e d g e . Cadres must understand how to become leade rs . It is wrong to f o r - sake the future for the present; it is e s p e c i a l l y wrong to f o r - sake the present for the fu tu re . Between the present and the d is tant future there a r e , of cou rse , severa l in te rmed ia te stages when the quest ion of a d v a n c i n g to the nex t e d u c a - t iona l l e ve l w i l l a r i s e , but under present cond i t i ons in the base a reas , this quest ion should not a r i s e . The system of genera l e d u c a t i o n in the base areas at present should be c o m p l e t e l y renova ted and reo rgan i zed to a c c o r d w i th the pa r t i cu la r needs of mass e d u c a t i o n and cadre e d u c a t i o n . ^ The e x p e r i e n c e of the Sov ie t U n i o n was therefore r e j ec ted in 1944, not because i t b e l i e d ce r t a i n C h i n e s e Communis t p r i n c i p l e s , but because C h i n a was not in a pos i t ion to u t i l i z e the S o v i e t e x p e r i e n c e . In the la te 1940's there was i nc reas ing praise of the accompl ishments of the Sov ie t U n i o n in var ious d i r e c t i v e s issued by the C C P . E s p e c i a l l y ' "The Problem of Transforming G e n e r a l Educa t ion in the Base A r e a s " , a p o l i c y statement issued in 1944 w h i c h can be found in C h i n e s e E d u c a t i o n , o p . c i t . , p. 193 . For the ' k i n d of mass e d u c a t i o n ' re fer red t o , see C h a p t e r Th ree . 63 in e d u c a t i o n , the e c o n o m i c deve lopment of C h i n a ' s base areas were at too p r im i t i ve a stage to just i fy c o p y i n g h i g h l y c o m p l i c a t e d educa t i ona l s y s t e m s . 2 The ma in stress in e d u c a t i o n in the m i d - 1 9 4 0 ' s was on l i n k i n g p roduc t ion and e d u c a t i o n . This meant that the type of e d u c a t i o n g i v e n was dependent on the state of p r o d u c t i o n . A s the base areas were l a rge l y composed of peasants, this meant ag ra r i an p r o d u c t i o n . 3 W i t h L ibe ra t i on in 1949, the who le s i tua t ion c h a n g e d , f rom one of peasant r evo lu t i on to that of l ega l government . Wha t made matters even more c o m p l i c a t e d in educa t i on was the f a c t that before 1949 the C h i n e s e Communis ts had not he l d any l a r g e - s i z e d c i t i e s or w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d un i ve rs i t i es . Thus, they had no e x p e r i e n c e of the i r own to gu ide them in gove rn ing the c i t i e s and un ive rs i t i es that f e l l to the i r power af ter 1949 . It is easy to see why they turned to the Sov ie t U n i o n for h e l p . This was the one coun t ry w h i c h they admi red and whose e x p e r i e n c e was in many ways a p p l i c a b l e , or so the C h i n e s e Communists thought at the t i m e . The e x p e r i e n c e of the c a p i t a l i s t nat ions was re j ec ted out r ight on i d e o l o g i c a l grounds. Fraser refers to the years be tween 1949 and 1952 as the ' c h e n g feng e r a ' . 4 A s the C C P came to power throughout the c o u n t r y , it began to l a y stress on r e c r u i t i n g workers from the urban cen te rs , in k e e p i n g w i th the M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t stress on the urban p ro le ta r i a t . 'Unusab le peasant e lements ' were dropped f rom. party r anks i ^ - , • A t the other 2 S e e , for e x a m p l e , " O n Regu la t ions and C u r r i c u l a in G e n e r a l E d u c a t i o n " , 1944, i n C h i n e s e E d u c a t i o n , o p . c i t . , pp . 1 9 5 - 1 9 6 . Peter J . S e y b o l t , " Y e n a n Educa t ion and the C h i n e s e R e v o l u t i o n , 1 9 3 7 - 1 9 4 5 " , o p . c i t . , p p . 1 9 5 - 1 9 8 - 4 Stewar t Fraser , C h i n e s e Communis t E d u c a t i o n , V a n d e r b i l t U n i v e r s i t y Press, N a s h v i l l e , 1965 , p. 2 2 . Franz Schu rmann , Ideo logy and O r g a n i z a t i o n in Communis t C h i n a , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, B e r k e l e y , 1971 , pp . 1 6 8 - 1 6 9 . end of the s c a l e , many i n t e l l e c t u a l s of ' bourgeo is ' o r i g i n were made to pass through r e c - t i f i c a t i o n in 1951 and 1952. O n e d i f f i c u l t y w i t h i n t e l l e c t u a l s was that they were needed to staff the a d m i - n is t ra t ion and b u r e a u c r a c y , a l though the i r c lass backg round and p o l i t i c a l v i ews were o f - ten not in a c c o r d w i t h communist d o c t r i n e . "The c a d r e , who had been a leader in the revo lu t i ona ry c a u s e , was now an o f f i c i a l in a formal bu reauc ra t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n . " In the per iod af ter 1949 , the app roach was p ragma t i c . " E x c e p t for Party and m i l i t a r y matters q u a l i f i e d personnel were in short supp l y , and peop le were ass igned to jobs they c o u l d pe r - f o rm . Even the admin is t ra t i ve mach ine ry rema ined f l e x i b l e , and much of the work was performed by ad hoc task f o r c e s " ( V o g e l , p. 3 8 ) . W i t h i n cadre ranks , this s i tua t ion l ed to tensions be tween o l d cadres w i t h r e - v o l u t i o n a r y e x p e r i e n c e and commi tment , and new ones w i th formal t r a i n i n g , e s p e c i a l l y as the la t ter sometimes d i s p l a c e d or were put i n charge of the fo rmer . This c o n f l i c t was o f ten put in terms of the ' reds ' versus the ' e x p e r t s ' . It was a common theme throughout the f i f t i e s , w i t h one s ide g a i n i n g and los ing in r e l a t i o n to the o ther , un t i l the p r i n c i p l e of "red and expe r t ' began to g r a d u a l l y g a i n ascendancy in the la te f i f t i es and in the- s i x t i e s . By t h e n , an at tempt was b e i n g made to reso lve the c o n t r a d i c t i o n be tween b e i n g p o l i t i c a l l y commi t ted and hav i ng c e r t a i n t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s . In the e a r l y 1950 's , because there was such a great gap in e d u c a t i o n be tween the 'exper ts ' and the ' r e d s ' , and because there was such a great need for the se rv i ces of the ' e x p e r t s ' , they were favo red over the ' r e d s ' . To ove rcome this shor tage, educa t i ona l and t ra i n i ng programs were es tab l i shed . A p a r t f rom regu la r schoo l s , ' peop le ' s r evo lu t i ona ry un i ve rs i t i es ' were set up to t ra in p o l i t i c a l cad res . This system p a r a l l e l l e d the regu la r e d uca t i ona l sys tem. M o s t of the students came from worker and peasant backg rounds . "The d i f f i c u l t y i n this e a r l y per iod was that the Party schools had just r e c e n t l y been set u p , whereas the o lde r schools had a s o l i d t r a d i t i o n " (Schu rmann , p. 169) . A n o t h e r so lu t ion to the problem of shortages in personnel was the establ ishment of short ' ro ta t ing t r a i n i ng courses ' for cadres a l r eady ass igned to s p e c i f i c jobs. " O f the 2 , 7 5 0 , 0 0 0 cadres in C h i n a in m i d - 1 9 5 2 , 6 6 , 0 0 0 had g raduated from regu la r un i ve rs i t i e s , 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 had been processed at ' peop le ' s r evo lu t i ona ry u n i v e r s i t i e s ' , but over 1 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 had been t ra ined in ro ta t ing t r a i n i ng courses" ( V o g e l , p. 4 5 ) . It was assumed that they wou ld learn the sk i l l s they needed on the j ob , and so these short courses concen t ra ted on g i v i n g cadres bas ic p o l i t i c a l t r a i n i n g . This was important because many cadres were not Party members, the propor t ion of n o n - P a r t y to Party members i n cad re ranks h a v i n g i n - c reased af ter 1949. Because regu la r f u l l - t i m e schools were w e l l es tab l i shed in many p l a c e s , more so , at any r a t e , than c a d r e - t r a i n i n g ins t i tu tes , schools g r a d u a l l y took ove r the f unc t i on of s e l e c t i n g and e v a l u a t i n g cad res . " B y 1955 when the urgent need for new cadres began to l eve l o f f , many of the cadre schools had been c l osed d o w n " ( i b i d . , pp . 4 6 - 4 7 ) . A l l cadres were requ i red to a t tend w e e k l y study sessions. O v e r the years these , because the i r con ten t rema ined u n c h a n g e d , lost the i r f reshness. " W h a t began as a n e c e s - s i ty to prov ide m in ima l common t ra i n i ng has now become a r o u t i n i z e d system w i t h a b u r e a u s c r a t i c l i f e a l l its o w n " ( i b i d . , p. 4 8 ) . Even in this a r e a , cadres w i t h i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a i n - ing had an eas ier t ime than the revo lu t i ona ry cad res . " C u r r i c u l a r reform and ins t i tu t iona l reform had undoub ted ly long been c o n - s idered bu t , a l though some progress had been made up to 1951 , the to ta l pat tern of h igher e d u c a t i o n had not changed d r a s t i c a l l y " (Fraser , p p . 2 7 - 2 8 ) . This was in sp i te of such campa igns as the ' three an t i s ' and the ' f i v e a n t i s ' , a imed at o v e r c o m i n g such tendenc ies as waste and bureaucra t ism i n , among other p l a c e s , the un i ve r s i t i e s . The to ta l number of un ive rs i t i es was r e d u c e d . H o w e v e r , in a g r i c u l t u r e , forest ry , e d u c a t i o n , m e d i c i n e , and e n g i n e e r i n g , the number of schools was i n c r e a s e d , " r e f l e c t i n g the change in emphasis towards the found ing of s p e c i a l i z e d and t e c h n i c a l i n - s t i tu tes" ( i b i d . , p p . 2 8 - 2 9 ) . These changes c r y s t a l l i z e d du r ing the per iod of the First F i v e Y e a r P lan ( 1 9 5 3 - 1 9 5 7 ) . A l o n g w i t h this o r i en ta t i on went a stress on q u a l i t y over q u a n t i t y , " i t was e d u c a t i o n for the immed ia te l y e d u c a b l e " ( i b i d . , p. 3 2 ) . For those students turned down as a resul t of the cu tbacks in e d u c a t i o n , i t was suggested that " g l o r i ous work in the f i e l ds and fac to r ies shou ld be the goa l of the y o u n g " ( i b i d . , p. 3 2 ) . A t this t ime (1953) the measure was v i e w e d as a temporary , and not an i d e o l o g i c a l , o n e . The same a l t e rna t i ve was dev i sed for those c a d r e s , many of them former g u e r r i l l a s , w i th low educa t i ona l l e v e l s . In rural areas the i r educa t i ona l l a cks w o u l d not be as n o t i c e a b l e as in the c i t i e s . "In the e a r l y yea rs , because almost no workers or peasants c o u l d perform more c o m p l i c a t e d tasks, youths of bourgeois backg round o f ten rose more r a p i d l y . But these fas t - r i s i ng cad res , both because of the i r ques t i onab le p o l i t i c a l past and the resentment aroused from the i r c o - w o r k e r s who were pushed as ide and s u b o r d i n - a ted to these young o f f i c i a l s , were p a r t i c u l a r l y v u l n e r a b l e i n the p o l i t i c a l campa igns " ( V o g e l , p . 5 7 ) . In short , for a youth who wan ted to become a cadre in the years around 1955 , e d u c a t i o n through the regu la r schoo l system was about the o n l y method open to h im or h e r . " W h e n the C h i n e s e Communists t r iumphed in 1949, there no longer was a soc ia l system to w h i c h they c o u l d turn for support , even i f they had wan ted t o . There was no gent ry l e f t , and they distrusted the b o u r g e o i s i e . But there was a c h o i c e of d i r e c t i o n s . Shou ld they const ruct o r g a n i z a t i o n a l ong the l ines they had d e v e l o p e d dur ing the ten years of Y e n a n or shou ld they emula te the one model they respec ted above a l l : the Sov ie t U n i o n ? They chose the la t ter cou rse , and thus for the f i rst f i v e years of the 1950 's , C h i n a began r a p i d l y tu rn ing in to a second S o v i e t U n i o n . The impos i t ion of bu reauc ra t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n from the top down p roceeded r a p i d l y , s y m - b o l i z e d by the e l abo ra t i on of a vast p l ann ing s t ruc ture . C h i n a appeared to be f o l l o w i n g the road to bu reauc ra t i c c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . If c e n t r a l i z a t i o n meant the emergence of a new professional e l i t e , the changes in Communis t par ty recru i tment i n the e a r l y 1950's f o l l o w e d the model p e r f e c t l y . Large numbers of o l d and new i n t e l l e c t u a l s were rec ru i t ed in to the Par t y . Exper t ise became a pr ime q u a l i f i c a t i o n for Party membersh ip . U n t r a i n e d rura l cadres were dropped from Party r o l l s " (Schurmann , pp . x l v i i i - x l i x ) . This r e l i a n c e on the Sov ie t U n i o n had important consequences in e d u c a t i o n . The stress was on the e c o n o m y . This requ i red s k i l l e d t e c h n i c a l personnel and e d u c a t i o n was made to serve these needs . A t an even more bas ic l e v e l , the S o v i e t model of e d u - c a t i o n was adopted and a p p l i e d w h o l e s a l e . W i t h the inaugura t ion of the First F i v e Y e a r P lan in 1953 , the C h i n e s e h i g h e r - e d u c a t i o n system, inadequa te to the needs of r a p i d i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , underwent drast ic s t ructura l t rans format ion . The o l d K M T system, w h i c h had been mode led l a r g e l y on A n g l o - A m e r i c a n ins t i tu t ions , now began to be r e - shaped to S o v i e t pat terns. Sov i e t t e a c h i n g p lans , c u r r i c u l a , and tex tbooks were t rans la ted w i thou t m o d i f i c a t i o n so that C h i n a c o u l d draw on the a d v a n c e d e x p e r i e n c e of the S o v i e t U n i o n in . . . t e a c h i n g methods and c u r r i c u l a . A l t h o u g h efforts were made in these years to rec ru i t peasants in to the e d u c a - t iona l sys tem, because e c o n o m i c deve lopmen t and the S o v i e t educa t i ona l model were in f o c u s , those students who came from urban bourgeois backgrounds found it eas ier to progress through such a school system. M o v e o v e r , the best schools were in the c i t i e s , w h i l e the state of e d u c a t i o n in rural areas was , in g e n e r a l , a b y s m a l . Improvements in rural educa t i on were p rec luded by the f a c t that the stress was p l a c e d on un i fo rm i ty - un i fo rmi ty i n t e a c h i n g methods, in c u r r i c u l a , in course con ten t , in en t rance r e q u i r e - ments, in length of s tudy , and in examina t ions - a l l i n im i ta t i on of the S o v i e t U n i o n ( M u n r o , pp . 6 2 2 - 6 2 3 ) . This na tu ra l l y p l a c e d w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d schoo ls at an a d v a n t a g e . In a d d i t i o n , mater ia l and f i n a n c i a l resources c o u l d not beg in to meet such r i g i d s t and - ards as far as set t ing up rura l schools was c o n c e r n e d . The f i rst major signs of d issa t i s fac t ion w i t h this course of events appeared in 1955 , when a mass recru i tment campa ign was o r g a n i z e d to promote c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n (Schurmann , p. x l i x ) . W i t h c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n , the focus changed from urban areas and heavy i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , to rural areas and a g r i c u l t u r e . The underp inn ings of the First F i v e Y e a r P lan had to be changed for a number of reasons. It was found that heavy i n - dustry a l one was imposs ib le . The savings and growth genera ted by ag r i cu l t u re and l i gh t industry were necessary to f i n a n c e and support heavy indus t ry . In focuss ing on the e d u - c a t i o n of t e c h n o l o g i c a l pe rsonne l , an e l i t e was fo rming w h i c h was beg inn i ng to unde r - mine communist i d e o l o g y . In order to enab le c o m m u n i z a t i o n , peasants, and the cadres ° V i c t o r N e e , The C u l t u r a l Revo lu t i on at Pek ing U n i v e r s i t y , M o n t h l y Rev iew Press, N e w Y o r k , 1969, pp . 1 2 - 1 3 . l ead ing them, requ i red c e r t a i n genera l s k i l l s . This negated the emphasis on na r row , spec ia l i s t s k i l l s . F i n a l l y , bu reauc racy was once a g a i n , as in the e a r l y 1940 's , b e g i n - n ing to s t rangle g row th . It was mak ing i t d i f f i c u l t for the Party to be responsive to the needs of the rural popu la t i on ( i b i d . , pp . 9 7 - 1 0 1 ) . The ;sufan movemen t , a imed at combat t i ng bu reauc ra t i sm, represented an i n i t i a l at tempt to dea l w i t h some of these prob lems. O n c e a g a i n , the 'mass l i n e ' came in to f o c u s . The ' rev is ion is ts ' focussed on i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and on emu la t i on of the Sov ie t U n i o n . They argued that rap id economic deve lopment must come f i r s t . O n l y once mode rn i za t i on was comp le ted c o u l d the soc ie t y as a who le become bet ter of f and f o l l o w the road to soc ia l i sm and communism. The ' M a o i s t s ' were in fundamenta l d isagreement w i t h this v i e w . Thei r ma in concerns were s o c i a l in na tu re , and the i r pr imary focus was the rural p o p u l a t i o n , imp lemented by such means as the 'mass l i n e ' . In the la te f i f t i es and ea r l y s i x t i e s , the debates be tween the two sides became ve ry h e a t e d . In 1956, " the Party 's l eade rsh ip d e c i d e d to reassess its p o l i c y towards i n t e l l e c - tuals and students. A s had happened in the Sov ie t U n i o n , r ap id i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n was d e - mand ing inc reased r e l i a n c e on the t e c h n i c a l exper t i se of the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a , and the d e - mand for experts s t i l l g rea t l y e x c e e d e d the a v a i l a b l e s u p p l y " ( N e e , p. 15) . Because many cadres were re luc tan t to loosen p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l , a campa ign was s imu l taneous ly l aunched to f igh t the ' three e v i l s ' of bu reauc ra t i sm, sec ta r i an i sm, and s u b j e c t i v i s m . "The o r i g i na l c a m p a i g n l aunched in M a y , 1956 , was c o n c e r n e d w i t h the s o - c a l l e d ' r e c t i - f i c a t i o n ' of ce r t a i n abuses w h i c h had d e v e l o p e d in var ious Party o r g a n i z a t i o n s . L i k e so many of the other campa igns o r i g i n a t i n g from w i t h i n the party for the purpose of remov ing dead wood for r e g e n e r a t i o n , i t was a p p l i c a b l e f i rst to the cadres w i t h i n the g o v e r n - ment and then la ter d i r e c t e d in to the broader spheres of adm in i s t r a t i on , e d u c a t i o n , state enterpr ises, and so o n " (Fraser , p. 35 ) . T h e n , i n e a r l y 1957, a second movement began w h i l e the r e c t i f i c a t i o n c a m - pa ign was s t i l l i n progress. It was a movement of ' b l ooming and c o n t e n d i n g ' , and i t p a r a l l e l l e d the r e c t i f i c a t i o n campa ign ( i b i d . , p p . 3 5 - 3 6 ) . A l t h o u g h at f i rst r e l u c t a n t , a group of students at Pek ing U n i v e r s i t y (Pe i ta ) f i n a l l y e rec ted the f i rst ' b i g c h a r a c t e r 1 w a l l poster in c r i t i c i s m of the Par ty 's t reatment of i n t e l l e c t u a l s . The 'Hundred F lowers ' movement was on its w a y , as hundreds of students from other major un ive rs i t i es f o l l o w e d this l e a d . The main argument i n the c r i t i c i s m was that the Party was not l i v i n g up to its professed i d e a l s , w h i l e " the main thrust of the students ' c r i t i c i s m was d i r e c t e d against the Party b u r e a u c r a c y , w h i c h many f e l t had been transformed from a r evo lu t i ona ry o r g a n i z a t i o n in to an e l i t e c l u b " ( N e e , p . 16) . In M a y , 1957 , C h i n a e x p e r i e n c e d a student outburst in many ways s im i la r to the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n . In F e b - ruary of that y e a r , M a o Tse- tung made his long speech ' O n the C o r r e c t H a n d l i n g of Internal C o n t r a d i c t i o n s W i t h - in the P e o p l e ' . . . . ( I)n A p r i l , a r e c t i f i c a t i o n movement was l aunched in the c i t i e s . Peop le were urged to c r i t i c i z e the shortcomings of cad res . A s has happened dur ing the C u l t u r - a l R e v o l u t i o n , w a l l posters appeared in la rge n u m b e r s . . . (T)he i n i t i a l phase of the r e c t i f i c a t i o n , h o w e v e r , got out o f h a n d . In M a y a new k i n d of w a l l poster a p p e a r e d , a t t a c k - ing the fundamenta l p r i nc i p l es on w h i c h Communis t ru le was based . They f i rst became ev iden t in the N a t i o n a l A v i a t i o n U n i v e r s i t y (dur ing the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n a k e y cen te r of the Red G u a r d s ) , and then spread to Pek ing U n i v e r s i t y . . . For w e e k s , Party cadres were the targets of b i t te r a t t a c k . It was repor ted that the Po l i tbu ro was i n a state of pa ra l ys i s . C lasses were suspended. Students every day mounted soap boxes and 71 harangued the i r f e l l o w students. . . .The Party p u l l e d i tse l f together and went on a coun te ra t t ack , l a u n c h i n g the an t i - r i gh t i s t movement . By the w in te r of 1 9 5 7 / 5 8 , thousands of s tudents, p ro - fessors, admin is t ra tors , t e c h n i c i a n s , and sc ient is ts had been . . . sent down (hs lafang) to the ' front l ines of p roduc t i on ' ' (Schu rmann , p p . 5 8 3 - 5 8 4 ) . Tak ing in to cons ide ra t i on the c lass compos i t i on of most un ive rs i t y students and f a c u l t y and the t rad i t i on of scho la r ru le in C h i n a , the reason for the an t i - r i gh t i s t campa ign becomes unders tandab le . For e x a m p l e , at P e i t a , e i gh t y per cen t of u n i v e r - s i ty students and n i n e t y - e i g h t per cen t of the professors came from bourgeois f a m i l i e s (Fraser , p. 4 4 ) . "In C h i n a , where i n t e l l e c t u a l s h i s t o r i c a l l y have had a h igh degree of access to p o l i t i c a l power , the student c r i t i c i s m of the Party c a n be in te rpre ted as a b i d to wrest p o l i t i c a l power from the hands of poor ly educa ted Party c a d r e s , many of whom had been workers and peasants" ( N e e , p. 18) . Though most Pe i ta students c r i t i c i z e d the Party from the s tandpoint of e g a l i t a r i a n i d e a l s , they had not come to terms w i th the i r own i n t e l l e c t u a l e l i t i s m . The very same students who had c r i t i c i z e d Party e l i t i sm opposed the work -s tudy program w h i c h c a l l e d on i n t e l l e c t u a l s to comb ine manual labor w i t h mental l a b o r . . . S o m e students and teachers demanded that Party commit tees e i ther be w i thdrawn from educa t i ona l ins t i tu t ions or l im i t ed in power - i n order to ' l e t the professors run the u n i v e r s - i t i e s ' , ( i b i d . , pp . 1 7 - 1 8 ) . The form that this c r i t i c i s m took was one of the fac tors w h i c h l e d M a o to p ro - c l a i m the G r e a t Leap Fo rward . It was a r enunc ia t i on of the S o v i e t model for soc ia l c h a n g e , and it ins t i tu ted an educa t i ona l r e v o l u t i o n c o n c e r n e d w i th e d u c a t i n g a " ' new soc ia l i s t m a n 1 , who had both p o l i t i c a l consciousness and cu l tu re and who was c a p a b l e of both mental and phys ica l l a b o r " ( i b i d . , p. 2 0 ) . Whereas the an t i - r i gh t i s t movement was c o n c e r n e d p r imar i l y w i t h i n t e l l e c t - u a l s , from Augus t 1957 another movement came into be i ng c o n c e r n e d p r imar i l y w i t h the peasantry - the ' soc ia l i s t e d u c a t i o n ' movement . W h i l e many of the i n t e l l e c t u a l s were 'sent d o w n ' to v i l l a g e s or f a c t o r i e s , peasants and workers r e c e i v e d much a t t e n t i o n . M a j o r efforts were made to enrol them in schools of var ious sorts, and an at tempt was made to de -mys t i f y ' t e c h n o l o g y ' . Peasants and workers were to ld that t hey , t oo , c o u l d con t r ibu te to the b u i l d i n g of the e c o n o m y . O n September 19 , 1958 , a new educa t i ona l p o l i c y was a n n o u n c e d . Educa t ion was to be made u n i v e r s a l , serv ing the needs of the p ro le ta r ia t and c l o s e l y l i n k e d to p ro - d u c t i v e l a b o r . Regu la r schools were to set up farms and f a c t o r i e s , w h i l e f ac to r i es and coopera t i ves were to set up the i r own schoo l s . In order that study not be d i v o r c e d from labo r , pa r t - t ime study was i n t r o d u c e d . This was the ' h a l f - w o r k ha l f - s t udy ' s y s t e m . ^ Emphasis was taken away a l l o w i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l s to express themselves and focussed ins tead on the masses. M a o b e l i e v e d that i t was the masses who possessed the c r e a t i v i t y and i n i t i a t i v e to a l l o w the goa ls of the Party to be a c h i e v e d (Schu rmann , p. 85) ' F r e e d o m ' was not t o t a l l y supressed. It was f e l t that i n t e l l e c t u a l s were abus ing the i r p o s i - t i ons , a n d , thus, the i r interests had to be subord ina ted to those of the masses. In t u rn , the la t ter were to be granted ' f r e e d o m 1 . Expans ion of enro lment to i n c l u d e more students of worker and peasant or ig ins a f f ec ted a l l l eve l s of the educa t i ona l system - i n c l u d i n g the u n i v e r s i t i e s . The President ^ J o h n G a r d n e r , " E d u c a t e d Y o u t h and U r b a n - R u r a l I n e q u a l i t i e s " , in The C i t y i n Communis t C h i n a , ed i ted by J o h n W i l s o n L e w i s , Stanford U n i v e r s i t y Press, S tan fo rd , 1971 , p. 2 4 3 . of Ts inghua U n i v e r s i t y is quoted as say i ng : "The e d u c a t i o n a l ins t i tu t ion becomes not just a s c h o o l , but at the same t ime a research ins t i t u te , f a c t o r y , des ign ing ins t i t u te , and b u i l d i n g c o n c e r n . A n end is put to the t rad i t i ona l c o n c e p t of a schoo l as a consumer un i t , an i v o r y ' tower / far removed / f rom soc ia l l i f e . O u r p o l i c y br idges the g a p be tween educa t i ona l and p roduc t ion un i t s " ( N e e , p p . 2 1 - 2 2 ) . O n e of the campaigns l a u n c h e d dur ing the per iod of the G r e a t L e a p Forward was the ' three u n i f i c a t i o n s ' movement , w h i c h was c o n c e r n e d w i t h un i t i ng cadres ( l eaders ) , t e c h n i c i a n s ( i n t e l l ec tua l s ) and workers and peasants (masses) i n the form of work teams. This was a p r a c t i c a l at tempt at reso l v ing the in te rna l con t rad i c t i ons among the peop le through the un i t y of oppos i tes ; " e a c h was e x p e c t e d in e f fec t to become the o ther : workers becoming t e c h n i c i a n s , t e c h n i c i a n s becom ing workers , and both shar ing leadersh ip w i t h the c a d r e s " (Schu rmann , p. 7 6 ) . This c o n c e p t helps e x p l a i n the i d e o l o g i c a l impor tance of the hs ia fang movement . Besides he lp ing - , reso lve these c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , i f p roper ly c a r r i e d out hs ia f ang c o u l d a lso h e l p reso lve the d i f fe rences be tween menta l and manual l a b o r , and be tween c i t i e s and the coun t r ys ide . In the ea r l i e r yea rs , a round 1956 , hs ia fang was p r imar i l y a imed at pa r ing down admin is t ra t i ve fa t by send ing personnel to the coun t r ys i de . They were not e x p e c t e d to engage in manual l a b o r , un t i l the 'Hund red F lowers ' per iod showed the sever i t y of the 'p rob lem of the i n t e l l e c t u a l s ' . It was at this point that hs ia f ang changed f rom a ' m o v e - ment ' to a permanent ' s ys tem ' . In Sep tember , 1958, the Party issued a d i r e c t i v e s ta t - ing that "workers of a l l government o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t roops, enterpr ises and indus t r ies , 8 Renesselaer W . Lee III, "The Hs ia Fang System: M a r x i s m and M o d e r n i z a t i o n " , i n The C h i n a Q u a r t e r l y , N o . 3 7 , J a n u a r y - M a r c h 1969, p. 4 7 . e x c e p t those too o l d or too s i ck to take part in phys ica l l a b o r , . . . sha l l spend at least one month a year i n phys ica l l a b o r " ( i b i d . , p. 4 7 ) . The C h i n e s e Communists see separa t ion from labour as a h ind rance to d e v e l o p m e n t , p r imar i l y for the f o l - l ow ing reasons: f i r s t , because i t fosters a set of e l i t e va lues that are a n t i t h e t i c a l to p roduc t ion and c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n ; s e c o n d , because i t wastes human r e - sources and burdens the state w i t h unnecessary a d m i n i - s t ra t ive expenses; a n d , t h i r d , because i t g i ves r ise to a bu reauc ra t i c ' s t y l e ' of work w h i c h is d i v o r c e d from the immedia te prob lem of p roduc t ion and w h i c h lowers the mora le of p roducers " ( i b i d . , p. 5 2 ) . Ear l i e r i n this chap te r , it was stated that i n the e a r l y years of the Peop le ' s Repub l i c there was a s t ruggle be tween the ' reds ' and the ' e x p e r t s ' . Hs ia fang was one method whereby cadres and i n t e l l e c t u a l s c o u l d become both ' red and e x p e r t 1 , by p a r t i - c i p a t i n g in the st ruggle of p r o d u c t i o n , and thus be i ng p o l i t i c a l l y r e m o u l d e d , and by u t i - l i z i n g the i r s k i l l s i n a p r a c t i c a l manner , thus a c q u i r i n g s t i l l more ' e x p e r t i s e ' . A s a major goa l of the G r e a t L e a p Forward was c o m m u n i z a t i o n , i t was ve ry important that the p e a - santry un i te w i t h cadres and i n t e l l e c t u a l s , r e c e i v i n g leadersh ip and exper t g u i d a n c e w h i l e ' p r o l e t a r i a n i z i n g ' these two groups. " H s i a fang hence served a dua l purpose in C o m m u n - ist C h i n a : by t ransferr ing personnel from where they were not needed to p laces where they w e r e , i t both cut admin is t ra t i ve expenses and f reed human resources for the d e v e l o p - ment of p r o d u c t i o n " ( i b i d . , p. 5 8 ) . A n o t h e r important system that the ' e d u c a t i o n a l r e v o l u t i o n ' brought to the fore was the h a l f - w o r k ha l f - s tudy schoo l s . W h i l e fac to r ies and communes were to set up schoo l s , schools i n the i r turn were to set up work shops or ag r i cu l t u ra l p lo ts . This system was c r u - c i a l in ge t t i ng the workers and the peasantry i n v o l v e d in e d u c a t i o n . By m i x i n g e d u c a t i o n and p r o d u c t i o n , government expenses were cut down and peasants were not d e p r i v e d of the labor power of the i r c h i l d r e n . Thus, some form of e d u c a t i o n became a v a i l a b l e for a much la rger segment of the popu la t i on than was possib le under the r egu la r , f u l l - t i m e schoo l system. H a l f - w o r k ha l f - s tudy programs were a lso impor tant in those educa t i ona l ins t i tu t ions w h i c h had a tendency to produce t e c h n i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l e l i t e s . A n d hs ia fang brought peop le to the v i l l a g e s who c o u l d t e a c h cu l tu re and impart s k i l l s to the l o c a l p o p u l a c e , thus en la rg i ng the t e a c h i n g ranks . Whereas in 1966 the ach ievemen ts of the G r e a t Leap Forward w o u l d be p ro - c l a i m e d , in 1959 an a t tack was mounted against both the movement and M a o . "In this new c l i m a t e , much of C h i n a ' s Educa t i ona l R e v o l u t i o n began to be s l o w l y unde rm ined . Reforms were c r i t i c i z e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y by professors and un ive rs i t y pres idents , for ' l owe r i ng the q u a l i t y of a c a d e m i c l i f e ' ; many demanded a c o n c e r t e d ef for t to ra ise a c a d e m i c and professional s tandards. O n the w h o l e , this effort was supported by most h igh Party o f f i - c i a l s , and the Party adopted the s logan ' a d v a n c i n g s c i e n c e ' i n the h igher e d u c a t i o n sys - t em ' ( N e e , p. 2 7 ) . The change was r e f l e c t e d at P e i t a , for e x a m p l e , by the appo in tment of a new president and secre tary to the U n i v e r s i t y ' s Party Commi t tee - Lu P ' i n g . He admi red the process of Sov i e t i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , and r e c o g n i z e d the impor tance of a ' t e c h n i c a l and manager ia l i n t e l l i g e n t s i a ' in that p rocess . He sought to model Pe i ta on M o s c o w U n i v e r - s i t y , and had educa t i ona l efforts concen t ra ted on t ra in ing h i g h l y s k i l l e d t echnoc ra t s . Even Party cadres ass igned to work at Pe i ta were judged a c c o r d i n g to ' p ro fess iona l ' s t and - ards . Those cadres from peasant and w o r k i n g - c l a s s backgrounds consequen t l y f e l t i n t i m i - d a t e d . The stress was on ' c a r e e r s ' . The same a p p l i e d to students and professors. A great number of students who had r e c e n t l y been rec ru i t ed from the count rys ide were e x p e l l e d . A s im i la r process was go ing on at o ther un ive rs i t i es ( i b i d . , pp . 2 8 - 3 3 ) . Between 1958 and 1966 there were two d i f fe ren t approaches to e d u c a t i o n . O n e was M a o i s t , " r u r a l - o r i e n t e d and e g a l i t a r i a n , v i e w i n g e d u c a t i o n as the means by w h i c h the ' three major d i f f e rences ' be tween town and coun t r y , workers and peasants , and mental and manual labor c o u l d be r a p i d l y e l i m i n a t e d . " " Instead of t rea t ing e d u c a t i o n as a c o m p e t i t i v e process by w h i c h the most a b l e were s e l e c t e d and t ra ined as an e l i t e , the M a o i s t app roach was in tended to c u l t i v a t e a l l - a r o u n d and modest sk i l l s in as many peop le as poss ib l e " ( G a r d n e r , p. 2 3 6 ) . This a l l o w e d f l e x i b i l i t y , because peop le w i t h d iverse sk i l l s c o u l d shi f t f rom post to post to suit e c o n o m i c necess i t y . Educa t i on and p roduc t ion were to be c l o s e l y i n t eg ra ted . Courses were to be short and pruned of superf luous m a t e r i a l . Theory and p r a c t i c e were to be u n i t e d . H a l f - w o r k ha l f - s t udy schools were a means to this e n d . The no t ion that the educa ted should engage in manual labor - an unusual i d e a in any soc ie t y - is p a r t i c u l a r l y nove l in the C h i n e s e content, where the educa ted had t r a d i t i o n a l l y t rea ted phys ica l work w i t h con tempt ; but from M a o ' s po in t o f v i e w i t was a prerequis i te for the deve lopment of a new leadersh ip s t y l e . By wo rk i ng in the f i e l ds and f a c t o r i e s , the educa ted w o u l d d e v e l o p an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the problems f a c i n g the masses and w o u l d be encouraged to use the i r s k i l l s to so lve t h e m . Instead of a c t i n g as remote 'exper ts ' d i r e c t i n g the peasants to imp lement i nnova t i ons , and thus l i k e l y to cause resen t - ment i f not n o n - c o m p l i a n c e , they wou ld be a b l e to Mead from w i t h i n ' by examp le and persuas ion . W h i l e t e a c h i n g they w o u l d themselves be taught ( i b i d . , p. 2 3 7 ) . The second approach has been l a b e l l e d ' L i u i s t ' ( i b i d . , p. 2 3 8 ) . It. was u r b a n - o r i en ted and e l i t i s t . It f o l l o w e d the Sov ie t pat tern of e d u c a t i o n . The arguments were p r i - m a r i l y e c o n o m i c , " t a k i n g the v i e w that scarce resources shou ld be spent on c rea t i ng an e d u - ca ted e l i t e of ' p ro fess i ona l s ' . " They "a rgued for educa t i ng the most t a l en ted to a h igh d e g r e e , and consequen t l y were happy to preserve and d e v e l o p the f u l l - t i m e schoo ls and un i ve rs i t i es . A c c e s s to e d u c a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y h igher e d u c a t i o n , was to be de te rmined p r imar i l y by a c a d e m i c a b i l i t y , a p o l i c y that f avo red urban c h i l d r e n from m i d d l e - c l a s s f a m i l i e s . " " A c c o r d i n g to this v i e w p o l i t i c a l ac t i v i sm was no subst i tute for professional k n o w l e d g e " ( i b i d . , p. 2 3 8 ) . F o l l o w i n g the ' ' economic d i f f i c u l t i e s subsequent to the G r e a t L e a p Fo rwa rd , the Liu ists g a i n e d the upper h a n d , e s p e c i a l l y i n the e a r l y 1960 's . N o t o n l y d i d the h a l f - w o r k ha l f - s tudy schools suffer as a resul t of this shi f t in or ienta t ion, , but many e lementa ry schoo l s , campaigns to e l i m i n a t e i l l i t e r a c y , and s p a r e - t ime e d u c a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y in rural a reas , were a lso h a l t e d . The h a l f - w o r k ha l f - s t udy system was r e v i v e d in 1964, when M a o o n c e a g a i n was a b l e to g a i n p o l i t i c a l a s c e n d a n c y . But at that t ime these schools were set in compe t i t i on w i th the r egu la r , f u l l - t i m e schoo l s . Educa t iona l p o l i c y d i d not take in to a c c o u n t the M a o i s t i d e o l o g i c a l underp inn ings of the h a l f - w o r k ha l f - s t udy s c h o o l s . This l ed to a ' t w o - t r a c k ' system of e d u c a t i o n ( i b i d . , p. 247) The h a l f - w o r k ha l f - s t udy system was seen by many not as a super ior i nnova t i on w i t h w h i c h to r e p l a c e ex i s t i ng ins t i tu t ions , or even as 'separate but e q u a l ' . In the eyes of many cadres and ' the masses' themse lves , h a l f - work ha l f - s tudy schools were in fe r io r ins t i tu t ions des igned to p rov ide a l im i t ed e d u c a t i o n for the c h i l d r e n of peasants and workers or to serve as preparatory establ ishments to ' f e e d ' the f u l l - t i m e system ( i b i d . , p p . 2 4 7 - 2 4 8 ) . The cu r r i cu l um in these schools was the same as that in the f u l l - t i m e ins t i t u t i ons . Learn ing was by rote and the subjects were abs t rac t , not l i n k e d to p r a c t i c a l mat ters. In other words, the h a l f - t i m e schools were set in compe t i t i on w i th f u l l - t i m e s c h o o l s , as if there should be no d i f f e rence in the i r o r i e n t a t i o n . If c h i l d r e n from peasant f a m i l i e s concen t ra ted on the i r s tud ies , the i r parents lost the i r l abo r . If they he lped the i r f a m i l i e s i n p r o d u c t i o n , they c o u l d not hope to 78 compere against c h i l d r e n from r i che r backgrounds . If they met w i th success at s c h o o l , the i r expec ta t i ons tended to r i s e , and they became d issa t is f ied w i t h the i r lo t i n l i f e . In a d d i t i o n , the 'book k n o w l e d g e ' they r e c e i v e d was of l i t t l e p r a c t i c a l v a l u e to the communes. "Thus a s i tua t ion common to many unde rdeve loped count r ies d e v e l o p e d , in w h i c h the e d u c a t i o n system produced large numbers of youths w h o , though c o n v i n c e d of the i r own super io r i t y , possessed sk i l l s of l im i t ed v a l u e and hence were condemned to l i ves of d i s sa t i s f ac t i on " ( i b i d . , p. 2 4 9 ) . By 1961, not on l y had the movement aga ins t the educa t i ona l r evo lu t i on r e - jec ted the h a l f - w o r k ha l f - s tudy c o n c e p t , i t began to c a l l for an emphasis on q u a l i t y ove r q u a n t i t y . There were demands to g i v e the best of the f u l l - t i m e schools bet ter f a c i l i t i e s . In 1962 , a d i r e c t i v e was issued to a l l p rov inces and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s " o u t l i n i n g a program to ' e l e v a t e ' the q u a l i t y of e d u c a t i o n . D i rec to rs of e d u c a t i o n at the p r o v i n c i a l and m u n i - c i p a l l eve l s were c a l l e d on to se lec t a number of ' k e y schoo ls ' from among the un i ve r s i t i e s , secondary schoo l s , and pr imary s c h o o l s . In M a y 1963 d i rec to rs of e d u c a t i o n a l bureaus at the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l met at a s p e c i a l con fe rence in w h i c h plans were drawn up to es t - ab l i sh a system of e l i t e s c h o o l s " ( N e e , pp . 3 7 - 3 8 ) . These .schools came to be known dur ing the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n as ' l i t t l e p a g o d a s ' . In order to get in to these schoo l s , students had to pass r igorous exam ina t i ons , w h i c h i n c l u d e d such subjects as f o re i gn l anguages , thus d r a s t i c a l l y cu t t i ng down the chances of students from peasant or w o r k i n g - c l a s s backg rounds . Wha teve r the i r v i ews on e d u c a t i o n in g e n e r a l , many members of the i nc reas i ng l y r o u t i n l z e d and u r b a n i z e d party bu reauc racy were de te rmined to promote an e l i t - ist system for the bene f i t of the i r own c h i l d r e n . The p rov is ion of schools e i the r e n t i r e l y or l a r g e l y for the c h i l d r e n of cadres had begun in the border areas before L i b e r a t i o n . A f t e r 1949 they had been es tab l i shed in the major c i t i e s , where they became models for the p o l i c y of ' comp le te S o v i e t i z a t i o n ' . . .Some leaders . . . had a rgued from the e a r l y 1950's that such schools should be absorbed in to the o rd ina ry educa t i ona l sys - t e m , but they had been opposed , p a r t i c u l a r l y by the party commi t tee of P e k i n g , i n w h i c h c i t y such schools were of course most p r e v a l e n t . In 1955 the schools had been . c r i t i c i z e d by ' r evo lu t i ona ry comrades 1 ;™' ' the pr imary e d u c a t i o n bureau of the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , who had argued that they were ex t reme ly expens i ve and moreover p roduced graduates who regarded t h e m - selves as 'new a r i s t oc ra t s ' . The m u n i c i p a l par ty c o m - mi t tee 's Depar tment of E d u c a t i o n , h o w e v e r , ins is t ing that P e k i n g , be i ng the c a p i t a l , was a s p e c i a l c a s e , not on l y re ta ined the ex is t i ng schools but set up new ones . Fur thermore, in 1958 and thereaf ter as a resul t of S o v i e t i n f l u e n c e , K ruschev ' s 1956 c a l l for boa rd ing schoo ls was apparen t l y taken up by L iu S h a o - c h ' i , who announced that such schoo ls were f u l l y in a c c o r d w i t h true Communism and thus should be es tab l i shed for cad re ' s c h i l d r e n . These schools ex is ted not o n l y for the c i v i l i a n b u r e a u c r a c y , but a lso for the P L A unt i l they were a b o - l i shed by L in P iao in 1963 ( G a r d n e r , p. 2 5 6 ) . Mos t of these schools became ' l i t t l e pagodas ' . The dangers became o b v i o u s . N o t o n l y were cad re ' s c h i l d r e n tend ing to th ink of themselves as the p o l i t i c a l heirs to the r e v o l u t i o n , hav i ng been 'born r e d 1 , they were be ing g i v e n , i n a d d i t i o n , s p e c i a l sk i l l s i n these schools w h i c h fur ther e n a b l e d them to set themselves above the genera l p o p u l a t i o n . The jdanger of c rea t i ng a new ' r u l i ng c l a s s ' , and thus subver t ing the r e v o - l u t i o n , was ve ry g r e a t . It was st rengthened in the ' l i t t l e pagodas ' and in ins t i tu t ions of h igher e d u c a t i o n as stress on 'p ro fess iona l i sm ' a l l o w e d t e a c h i n g staff w i t h bourgeois b a c k - grounds and or ien ta t ions to take c o n t r o l . A s far as q u a l i t y and a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t were c o n c e r n e d , many of the results were g o o d , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the f i e l ds of s c i e n c e and e n g i n - e e r i n g . But the s o c i a l consequences were no t . G r a d u a t e s who c o u l d impress un ive rs i t y commit tees w h i c h de te rmined job a l l o c a t i o n s c o u l d pursue careers as ' h i gh c a l i b e r cad res ' or ' red e n g i n e e r s ' . The i r l i v - i ng standards wou ld be r e l a t i v e l y h i g h . They c o u l d remain i n the c i t i e s . Thus, the i r con tac t w i th the rural popu la t i on was v i r t u a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t , s i nce they c o u l d go from schoo l to work w i thou t ever hav ing to work in the f i e l ds ( i b i d . , p p . 2 6 7 - 8 ) . The L iu is t l i n e was e s p e c i a l l y harmful to the w h o l e c o n c e p t of hs ia f a n g . This system was g rea t l y d is tor ted in the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . Students at the better schools were exempted from t a k i n g par t . "Fu r the rmore , in some ins tances , cadres used the count rys ide as a dumping ground for the p o l i t i c a l undes i rab les among the y o u n g " ( i b i d . , p. 2 6 9 ) . Hs ia fang was of ten regarded as a punishment or as a temporary m e a - sure to h e l p ce r t a i n youths progress up the ladder of success upon the i r return to the c i t i e s and towns. A s cadres and teachers were requ i red to send a c e r t a i n quo ta of students to the v i l l a g e s , they o f ten used c o e r c i o n or pa in ted i d e a l i s t i c p ic tures of rural l i f e i n order to persuade students to g o . M a n y of these youths underwent enormous suf fer ing in the v i l l a g e s . N o t o n l y were they unused to rural l i f e , they o f ten suf fered d i s c r im ina t i on at the hands of peasants and v i l l a g e cad res , who resented hav i ng to f eed them and o f ten regarded them as ' soc ia l m i s f i t s ' . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the educa ted youths came to const i tu te what was possib ly the most e x p l o s i v e e lement in C h i n e s e s o c i e t y . Sharrrigc.with the peasant youths the genera l l a c k of oppor tun i ty for ca reer advancement v i s - a - v i s the ' i n t e l l e c t u a l a r i s t o c r a c y ' of the c i t i e s , they suf fered from the add i t i ona l d isadvantages we have m e n t i o n e d . H a v i n g e x p e r i e n c e d c i t y l i f e , and hav i ng been ' r e j e c t e d ' by the system, t h e y , more than most, were a f rus t - ra ted and d i sappo in ted group ( i b i d . , p. 2 7 6 ) . In 1966, m i l l i ons of these young peop le were to return to the towns and c i t i e s , on the pretext of 'mak ing r e v o l u t i o n ' . The i r g r i evances were man i fes ted both in the v i o l e n c e of the i r a t tacks and in the i r refusal to return to the count rys ide at the request of the leaders of the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n . i n 1 9 6 1 - 6 2 , L iu S h a o - c h ' i i n i t i a t e d a ' r e l a x a t i o n ' p e r i o d . A f t e r the p o l i c i e s of the G r e a t Leap Forward and the an t i - r i gh t i s t movement when i n t e l l e c t u a l s were sub - jec ted to severe c r i t i c i s m , this per iod represented a loosen ing of con t ro l over them, w h i l e cadres underwent r e c t i f i c a t i o n . " In la rge par t , this shi f t was due to the comp le te w i thd rawa l of S o v i e t s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n i c a l experts o c c u r r i n g a t the same t ime as the d isrupt ions of the G r e a t Leap Forward h i t the popu la t i on most s e v e r e l y . U n l i k e the "Hundred F lowers ' p e r i o d , most i n t e l l e c t u a l s and students were a f r a i d to pa r t i c i pa te in this movement . Mos t of the c r i t i c i s m came from h i g h - l e v e l Party o f f i c i a l s in the Propaganda Department and in the Pek ing Party C o m m i t t e e , who were respons ib le for imp lemen t ing the ' r e l a x a t i o n ' . " (W)hereas in 1956 and the f i rst ha l f of 1957 the more r a d i c a l c r i t i c s dared to c h a l l e n g e the o n e - p a r t y ru le of the C C P , i n 1061-62 these o f f i c i a l s d i d not h i t at the Party of w h i c h they were par t , but a imed d i r e c t l y at M a o h imse l f " ( i b i d . , p. 6 8 ) . A l o n g w i th M a o , his p o l i c i e s in the G r e a t Leap Forward were l i k e w i s e a t t a c k e d . The cr ises c rea ted by the G r e a t L e a p Forward - the food shor tages, the p recar ious e c o n o m y , and low mora le - made i t d i f f i c u l t for M a o to l aunch a coun te ra t tack as ea r l y as 1 9 6 1 - 6 2 . M a o endured cons ide rab le c r i t i c i s m in this p e r i o d , but by the f a l l o f 1962 , as cond i t i ons b e - gan to take an u p s w i n g , M a o undertook a coun te ra t tack . . . B e g i n n i n g at the Tenth Plenum in the f a l l of 1962 he M e r l e G o l d m a n , "The U n i q u e 'B l oom ing and C o n t e n d i n g ' of 1 9 6 1 - 6 2 , " i n The C h i n a Q u a r t e r l y , N o . 3 7 , J a n u a r y - M a r c h 1969 , p. 5 9 . i n i t i a t e d not a purge but a S o c i a l i s t Educa t i on C a m p - a i g n , w i th a conten t a lmost i d e n t i c a l w i t h that of the G r e a t Pro le ta r ian C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n . A n impor - tant component of the series of campa igns w h i c h b e - gan in the f a l l of 1962 was the at tempt to r e h a b i l i t a t e the image of C h a i r m a n M a o . ' 'P A s part of the S o c i a l i s t Educa t ion C a m p a i g n , w h i c h was a r u r a l - o r i e n t e d o n e , M a o , in 1962, sent students to the count rys ide in the form of 'work t eams ' . They were to h e l p poor and l o w e r - m i d d l e peasants o r g a n i z e themselves in order to c h e c k c a p i t a l i s t i c trends in the v i l l a g e s and c r i t i c i z e corrupt cad res . Work teams were a lso sent in to the c i t i e s and un i ve rs i t i e s , a l though on a more l im i t ed s c a l e . A work team a r r i ved at Fb i ta , but Lu P ' i n g , apparen t l y f e a r i n g c r i t i c i s m , ordered i t to undergo r e c t i f i c a t i o n . W h e n its members re fused , he had i t r e c a l l e d . He a lso had a l l those Party members who had begun to c r i t i c i z e him sent to ' r e c t i f i c a t i o n sessions' ( N e e , p. 4 1 ) . In i M a y , 1966 , a C e n t r a l Commi t t ee c i r c u l a r was i ssued , o rder ing the l a u n c h - ing of a f u l l - s c a l e c r i t i c i s m of W u H a n , a prominent wr i te r who had been a t t a c k i n g M a o by i m p l i c a t i o n in his w r i t i ngs . L u , as w e l l as the mayor of P e k i n g , P 'eng C h e n , f a i l e d to c o m p l y , and a b i g - c h a r a c t e r poster was e rec ted by members of the ph i losophy d e p a r t - ment c r i t i c i z i n g t hem. This was the start of the G r e a t P ro le ta r ian C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n . Lu responded by m o b i l i z i n g the support of the Communis t Y o u t h League ( i b i d . , p. 5 7 ) . W i t h the support of C h a i r m a n M a o , mass meet ings were c a l l e d and the bat t les be tween the two ' l i n e s ' at Pe i ta came in to the o p e n . A r o u n d J u n e 7 , a work team a r r i ved to r e - o r g a n i z e the leadersh ip of the c u l - tural r evo lu t i on at P e i t a . By June 12 , i t had l o c k e d the gates of the un ive rs i t y and a ^ Ezra F . V o g e l , " C o m m e n t s " , i n C h i n a in C r i s i s , o p . c i t . , p. 5 6 7 . per iod la ter known as the '50 days of wh i te terror 1 ensued . The rebe l students lost c o n t - rol w h i l e the work team took over the previous school adm in i s t r a t i on . It en joyed the d i r ec t support of L iu S h a o - c h ' i ( i b i d . , p. 6 4 ) . F i n a l l y , on J u l y 18 , M a o returned to Pek ing from S h a n g h a i , where he had been s ince the prev ious N o v e m b e r . He c r i t i c i z e d the conduc t of the work teams. They were d isbanded on J u l y 2 6 , f o l l o w i n g a v i s i t by a number of top M a o i s t o f f i c i a l s , i n c l u d i n g C h i a n g C h ' i n g , M a o ' s w i f e , to Pe i ta ( i b i d . , p. Mass meet ings f o l l o w e d . They c r i t i c i z e d the o l d admin is t ra t ions , and efforts were made to b r ing the un ive rs i t y more in l i ne w i th M a o i s t i d e a l s . In this way the power st ruggle be tween M a o Tse- tung and L i u S h a o - c h ' i was brought in to the schoo l s . Y o u t h represented a c r u c i a l issue in this s t rugg le , because at this t ime there was much debate about the 'successor g e n e r a t i o n 1 to the r e v o l u t i o n . M o s t top Party o f f i c i a l s were a d v a n c e d in a g e , a n d , thus, the quest ion of w h i c h s ide c o u l d w i n over the youth of the count ry became c r u c i a l . The youth o r g a n i z a t i o n appended to the C C P , the Communis t Y o u t h L e a g u e , suf fered from the same e l i t i s t tendenc ies as d i d the schoo l s . In f a c t , the two were l i n k e d : membership in the Communis t Y o u t h League usua l l y came about through the schoo l sys tem. For this reason another youth g roup , the Red G u a r d s , came in to ex i s tence to c r i t i c i z e these groups. They came c h i e f l y from the secondary schoo l s , and w i t h the start of the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n , they lef t i n order to br ing r evo lu t i on to o ther schoo l s . M a n y unde r - went ' l ong marches ' in the coun t rys ide in im i ta t i on of the o r i g i n a l ' Long M a r c h ' , w h i c h was seen as the model for temper ing r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s . M o s t c lasses were suspended in the year 1 9 6 6 - 6 7 , to a l l o w for these var ious projects (Schurmann , p. 5 9 0 ) . "The Red G u a r d s appear to have begun as study groups in the great un ive rs i t i es of Pek ing formed to denounc parry cadres of those un ivers i t ies who were in league w i t h P 'eng C h e n , head of the Pek ing C i t y party o r g a n i z a t i o n . Though as many as a m i l l i o n student Red G u a r d s ex i s ted by A u g u s t , it was not unt i l Augus t 18 , a f ter the E leven th Plenum (where oppos i t i on to M a o was v o i c e d ) that a great demonstrat ion on T ' i e n - a n - m e n Square made them into a na t iona l m o v e m e n t . " ^ It was on T ' i e n - a n - m e n Square that C h a i r m a n M a o s y m b o l i c a l l y a l l o w e d a Red G u a r d to present h im w i t h the arm band of the young rebe ls , thus b e c o m - ing a Red G u a r d h imse l f . The Red G u a r d s were by no means a u n i f i e d g roup . There were many f a c t i o n s , w h i c h of ten engaged in p i t ched bat t les w i t h each o ther . The i r c h i e f f unc t i on was c r i - t i c i s m , and this they d i d , a l l the way up to and i n c l u d i n g the C C P . O n c e the a t tack on the Party was over orders were sent out for the Red Gua rds to return to the i r own schools and resume the i r s tud ies . The per iod of des t ruc t i on , of tea r ing d o w n , was seen as n e c e s - sary before r e - cons t r uc t i on c o u l d be i n i t i a t e d . ^ (T)he words chosen to des ignate this vast purge: ' G r e a t Pro le ta r ian C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n ' / a r e s i g n i f i c a n t / . ' G r e a t ' con jures up the G r e a t Leap Forward - what i t s ign i f i es is a campa ign of na t i onw ide proport ions go ing in to the deepest f ab r i c of s o c i e t y . ' P r o l e t a r i a n ' i m - p l ies an t i - bou rgeo i s and so means that the targets are ma in l y those of the c i t y and not of the coun t ry ( in f a c t , the Red G u a r d movement has been almost e n t i r e l y an urban phenomenon) . " C u l t u r e ' means i d e o l o g y and so the bas ic va lues w h i c h gu ide human b e h a v i o r . ' R e v o l u - t i o n ' is the most awesome sounding word of a l l , for i t connotes a change of such magni tude that what f o l l ows must be r a d i c a l l y d i f f e ren t . N o t s i nce the land reform had the C h i n e s e Communists used the word ' r e v o l u t i o n ' to des ignate a domest ic c a m p a i g n . Wha t appears to Franz Schurmann , "The A t t a c k of the C u l t u r a l Revo lu t i on on Ideo logy and O r g a n i z a t i o n " , in C h i n a in C r i s i s , o p . b i t . , p. 5 2 5 . Peter J . S e y b o l t , Revo lu t i ona ry Educa t i on in C h i n a , In t roduc t ion , Draf t c o p y , 1973 , pp . 1 0 - 1 1 . 85 emerge from this is a movement de te rmined to t rans- form the ve ry nature of the C C P (Schu rmann , p. 5 4 2 ) . Louis Barca ta i n t e r v i ewed a number of peop le i n C h i n a about the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n , w h i c h was go ing on w h i l e he was v i s i t i n g . The f o l l o w i n g quote is g i ven by a doc to r i n S h a n g h a i , and i t a p t l y summarizes w h a t , in essence , the movement was a l l abou t . "(In the G r e a t Leap Forward ) , M a o had had the i n s p i r a - t ions , but L i u had obst ructed the i r r e a l i z a t i o n s . . . Peop le abroad were c r i p p l e d w i th laughter when they saw how our house boys , ag r i cu l t u ra l workers , bus conduc to rs , and teachers were ' c o o k i n g s t e e l ' in the i r back yards and p roduc ing a product that c o u l d not even be u t i l i z e d . " A s you c a n i m a g i n e , these deve lopments p rov ided ammuni t ion for ser ious c o n f l i c t . Peop le began to refer to L iu as ' C h i n a ' s K h r u s c h e v 1 . Wha t d i d this m e a n ? It meant that he was cons ide red the a d v o c a t e of r eason , of ' the p o s s i b l e 1 . But what sort of c o n c e p t is this for a count ry in w h i c h , f rom a p r a c t i c a l po in t of v i e w , no th ing was "poss ib l e 1 , among a peop le w h i c h d i d not want to b e l i e v e that they c o u l d a c h i e v e the standards of a modern indust r ia l state w i t h i n o n l y a f e w g e n e r a - t i o n s ? " W e were c o m p e l l e d to at tempt the imposs ib l e , to tear down the w a l l of r e a l i t y , to penetra te the barr iers of r eason . W e were f o r c e d to pursue a v i s i o n . But L iu d i dn ' t l i k e t h a t . . . L i u ' s house wou ld be safe and prov ide p ro tec t ion aga ins t a l l storms, but i t w o u l d take h im a hundred years to b u i l d i t . " 1 3 In the schoo l s , the C u l t u r a l Revo lu t i on was i n i t i a l l y d i r e c t e d at b reak ing down the c o n t r o l the C C P had over t hem. M o s t of the issues cen te red around the f a c t tha t , under the o l d sys tem, students of wo rke r , peasant , or so ld ie r backg round had suf fered Louis B a r c a t a , C h i n a in the Throes of the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n , Hart Pub l i sh ing C o m p a n y , I n c . , N e w Y o r k C i t y , 1968, p p . 1 2 0 - 1 2 1 . d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . A l l enro lment procedures and examina t ions were suspended un t i l the s i tua t ion c o u l d be s tud ied and r e - o r g a n i z e d . ' 4 Entrance examina t ions and age d is t i nc t ions were a b o l i s h e d . The revo lu t i ona ry commit tees of f a c t o r i e s , communes or other p laces of work became respons ib le for c h o o s - ing cand ida tes for h igher e d u c a t i o n , a l though the un ive rs i t y r evo lu t i ona ry commit tees c o u l d turn down c l e a r l y u n q u a l i f i e d c a n d i d a t e s . It became mandatory for eve ry u n i v e r - s i ty student to have had at least two yea rs ' wo rk i ng e x p e r i e n c e af ter g radua t ing from secondary schoo l before he or she was a c c e p t e d . U p o n g radua t ion from un i ve rs i t y , they were to return to the i r p l a c e of wo rk . "The s t i pu la t i on that one return to the work un i t is des igned to c i r cumven t the phenomenon , so common in l a rge l y ag ra r i an coun t r i es , of hav i ng the e d u c a t e d few congrega te in the c i t i e s , o f ten w i thou t jobs commensurate w i t h the k i n d of e d u c a t i o n they have r e c e i v e d , and con t r i bu t i ng l i t t l e to the we l f a re of anyone but t hemse lves " ( S e y b o l t , p. 18) . The emphasis on un ive rs i t y e d u c a t i o n has been h a l t e d . " A s of O c t o b e r , 1971 , on l y one quarter of the un ive rs i t i es opera t ing before the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n were a d - mi t t ing students. O n the other h a n d , the number of both schoo ls and students at the e l e - mentary and secondary l eve l s have grown enormously s ince 1968" ( i b i d . , p. 18) . This re f lec ts a new f o c u s , away from the a c q u i s i t i o n of h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d s k i l l s by a smal l propor t ion of the p o p u l a t i o n , to the a c q u i s i t i o n of r e l a t i v e l y s imple ones by a much broader segment . This is in l i n e w i t h the M a o i s t max im that the e d u c a t i o n a l system of a soc i e t y and its e c o n o m i c base shou ld be a l i g n e d . ^ F ranz Schu rmann , Ideo logy and O r g a n i z a t i o n in Communis t C h i n a , o p . c i t . , p p . 5 8 2 - 5 8 3 . A l l educa t i ona l ins t i tu t ions are be ing d e c e n t r a l i z e d , rather than be i ng c o n - cen t ra ted at s p e c i f i c points ( w h i c h were usua l l y in towns and c i t i e s ) . M a n y h igher e d u - c a t i o n a l ins t i tu t ions have branches in rural a reas , w h i l e o thers , e s p e c i a l l y t e c h n i c a l t ra in ing ins t i tu tes, are hooked up to fac to r ies and communes. The i dea of ' p o p u l a r - management , p u b l i c h e l p ' is coming in to its own a g a i n , w i t h the emphasis on s e l f - r e l i a n c e . "Th is has resu l ted in the c rea t i on of a tremendous number of new schoo l s , e s p e c i a l l y in the coun t r ys ide . O b v i o u s l y this expans ion has been possib le o n l y because former c o n - cept ions of proper t each ing pe rsonne l , t e a c h i n g methods, and course con ten t have been d r a s t i c a l l y a l t e r e d " ( i b i d . , p. 2 1 ) . T e a c h i n g ranks have been en la rged by the i n f l u x of many workers , peasants, o f f i c i a l s , and other peop le w i th d iverse ta len ts . The emphasis be ing on p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s , indust r ia l and ag r i cu l t u ra l workers have much to t e a c h , not o n l y in schoo l s , but in f a c - tor ies and on the fa rms. This goes a long w a y in a l l e v i a t i n g the shortage of t eache rs . There is no un i fo rmi ty as to t e a c h i n g methods, other than the p r i nc ip les unde r - l y i n g them, f i rst d e v e l o p e d at K ' a n g t a ( i b i d . , p. 2 2 ) . Smal l g roup discussions and c o - ope ra t i ve study have r e p l a c e d the lec tu re system. Examinat ions are now used as a t e a c h - i ng a i d , not a means for i n d i v i d u a l a d v a n c e m e n t . C r i t i c i s m and s e l f - c r i t i c i s m sessions are a normal part of l i f e for both students and teachers . P o l i t i c a l study is once more an important part of the c u r r i c u l u m . The 'dua l school system' has been a b o l i s h e d . Schoo ls have set up fac to r ies and farms, w h i l e fac to r ies and communes have es tab l i shed schoo l s . Thus, the h a l f - w o r k ha l f - s t udy c o n c e p t has been g i v e n p redominance and g e n e r a l i z e d throughout the e d u c a - t iona l sys tem. Course conten t has been p a r e d , the s logan be ing ' f ew but e s s e n t i a l ' . " M u c h of the t e c h n i c a l cu r r i cu lum fo l l ows d i r e c t l y f rom the assoc ia t i on of schools w i t h var ious work un i t s . In some h igher l eve l schoo l s , students br ing problems from the i r pa r t i cu la r fac to ry or commune w h i c h the c lass attempts to ana lyse and s o l v e . G e n e r a l ' p r i n c i p l e s are learned from the study of pa r t i cu la r c a s e s " ( i b i d . , p. 30 ). (C )huan in C h i n e s e does not mean ' expe r t ' or ' s k i l l e d ' as much as ' s p e c i a l i z e d ' in one s ing le f i e l d . D e d i c a - t ion to the study of a narrow techn ique does not n e c e s - sa r i l y imp ly p r o f i c i e n c y in its a p p l i c a t i o n . . . B e s i d e s , in C h i n a as e l s e w h e r e , employment p lann ing is d i f f i c u l t . If young peop le c a n n o t , and above a l l w i l l no t , do jobs w h i c h do not f a l l e x a c t l y w i t h i n the i r s p e c i a l d o m a i n , the e c o n o m i c b a l a n c e and progress might be e n d a n g e r e d . . . (T)oo many a c a d e m i c sc ient is ts and t e c h n i c i a n s have been t ra ined in recen t y e a r s . . . (T)he massive effort star ted in 1958 to enro l more students in the s c i e n t i f i c departments had not been c o m p l e t e l y d i s c o n t i n u e d , w h i l e the rate of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n l aunched by the G r e a t L e a p Forward had been much s l o w e d , and the bas ic o r i en ta t i on of e d u c a t i o n had moved from peop le ' s s c i e n c e to spec i a l i s t s ' s c i e n c e . The count rys ide was in desparate need of more , and more professional manpower , but new t ra inees were too l e a r n e d , and e q u a l l y too ignoran t , to be of rea l use . A t the same t i m e , the a l r eady ove r - s ta f f ed urban industry c o u l d not absorb them a l l . Y o u n g peop le ' s a t t i tudes towards themse lves , the i r wo rk , and the peop le are a lso be i ng g i v e n much a t t e n t i o n . The re l a t i onsh ip be tween c i t y and count rys ide has c h a n g e d . N o w the c i t i e s seek to emula te the rural areas in the h a l f - w o r k h a l f - s t u d y programs ( i b i d . , p. 3 1 ) . M a r i a n n e Bas t i d , " E c o n o m i c N e c e s s i t y and P o l i t i c a l Ideals in Educat ional . ,Reform Du ing the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n " , in The C h i n a Q u a r t e r l y , N o . 4 2 , A p r i l - J u n e 1970 , p p . 2 5 Students are g i v e n more representa t ion through such means as the schoo l ' s r evo lu t i ona ry c o m m i t t e e , but they are not to take c o n t r o l . Con t ro l over schools is to be g i v e n to those who w i l l make use of the graduates - such as communes, fac to r ies and work b r i gades . It shou ld be po in ted out that none of the bas ic p r i nc ip les of the current educa t i ona l r evo lu t i on is n e w . A lmos t a l l of them had been f u l l y c o n - c e p t u a l i z e d by the m i d - 1 9 4 0 ' s . . . W h a t is new t o - day is the way in w h i c h the bas ic p r i nc i p l es are be ing emp loyed a n d , in some cases , the f a c t that they are be i ng emp loyed ( S e y b o l t , p. 11) . Rather than a i m i n g at es tab l i sh ing a uni form system, l o c a l st rengths, and w e a k - nesses, are e m p h a s i z e d . D ive rs i t y and exper imen ta t i on are the keyno tes . G r e a t efforts are made to prevent bu reauc ra t i c b u i l d - u p and was te . " A n ins t i tu t ion w h i c h came into be i ng dur ing the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n for d e a l i n g w i t h the bu reauc ra t i c s i tua t ion is the M a y 7 C a d r e S c h o o l s " ( i b i d . , p. 13) . In these schoo l s , emphasis is p l a c e d on c r i t i c i s m and s e l f - c r i t i c i s m e s p e c i a l l y in r e l a t i on to the work done by the cad res , and on the 'mass l i n e ' . Even he re , study is in tegra ted w i th w o r k . In f a c t , many of the schools are l o c a t e d in was te land a reas , where cadres try to r e c l a i m the land and make i t p r o d u c t i v e . Pe r i od i c a t tendance by most cadres at these schools is manda to ry . "The M a y 7 Schoo ls represent a u n i q u e l y C h i n e s e effort to curb the tendency of o f f i c i a l d o m to become a spec ia l interest group a n d , in e f f e c t , a new ru l i ng c lass ( i b i d . , p. 13) . C e r t a i n l y , the Mao i s t s focus on the success s tor ies . There are p robab ly many fa i l u res and abuses of the new system. But the important po in t is that this is the o r i e n t a - t ion of e d u c a t i o n , one r a d i c a l l y d i f fe ren t from those of the S o v i e t U n i o n and Western coun t r i es . It raises to the fore the quest ion of whom e d u c a t i o n shou ld bene f i t and for what purposes i t shou ld be u n d e r t a k e n . In answer ing those ques t ions , the M a o i s t s have 9 0 v i s u a l i z e d a new type of e d u c a t i o n , one that starts ' f rom the masses' and goes ' to the masses ' . The d i f fe rences in approach that this new o r i en ta t i on br ings about is o f ten i l l u s - t rated in C h i n e s e newspapers . In c o n c l u s i o n , I w o u l d l i k e to quote from one of these a r t i c l es in order to show the d i f f e rence in p e r s p e c t i v e . The wr i te r is a professor who had taught for fo r ty years i n the c i v i l eng inee r i ng department at Ts inghua U n i v e r s i t y . (I)n 1959 I had headed a group of students in d o i n g r e - search on t reat ing indust r ia l wastes in a c o k i n g p l a n t . B u t . . . t he fac to ry put prof i ts in command and pa id no a t ten t ion to such mat ters. I mysel f wan ted to boost my reputa t ion by w r i t i ng a thesis or wo rk i ng out a t h e o r e t i - c a l fo rmu la dur ing the r esea rch . But af ter w o r k i n g more than s ix months, I f a i l e d to so lve any prob lem e x c e p t w r i t i ng a thesis w h i c h was of no p r a c t i c a l v a l u e . In 1970, severa l other teachers and I went to a p e t r o l - c h e m i c a l p lan t to study how to hand le waste l i q u i d , a problem in urgent need of s o l v i n g . If the large quan t i t y of po l l u t ed water d ra ined off d a i l y from the p lant were not p roper ly h a n d l e d , they w o u l d a f fec t the w e l l - b e i n g and hea l th of the hundreds of thousands of peop le l i v i n g a l o n g the lower reaches of a r i v e r . Workers and t e c h n i c i a n s got down to se t t l i ng the q u e s t i o n . W e were d e e p l y moved by the i r r evo lu t i ona ry enthus iasm. W e a lso took part in the j o b . Together we s tud ied C h a i r m a n M a o ' s works and c a r r i e d out our e x p e r i - ments. Through var ious exper iments , we se t t led in two months an important t e c h n i c a l quest ion c o n c e r n i n g w a s t e - l i q u i d t reatment in the i r p l an t . ° " R e v o l u t i o n in Educa t i on : O u r E x p e r i e n c e " , In Pek ing R e v i e w , N o . 3 8 , Sep t . 17 , 1971 , p. 10 . C H A P T E R F IVE C o n c l u s i o n The scope of this thesis is so w i d e that many subjects w h i c h deserve far more a t ten t ion were mere ly touched u p o n . A main one is the 'p rob lem of the i n t e l l e c t u a l s ' i n a soc ie t y e v o l v i n g towards communism. It br ings to the fo re another impor tant a r e a , that of e l i t e s . The problems of e l i t e fo rmat ion are endemic i n many T h i r d - W o r l d coun t r i es . In C h i n a , w h i l e i n t e l l e c t u a l sk i l l s are v a l u e d , an enormous amount of energy is poured in to the p reven t ion of e l i t e f o r m a t i o n . Inasmuch as the domina t i on of e l i t es i n these soc ie t ies is v i e w e d n e g a t i v e l y , the e x p e r i e n c e of the C h i n e s e Communists is r e l e v a n t as an examp le of how one might hand le the s i t u a t i o n . A n o t h e r a rea that c o u l d do w i t h much more ana lys is is the ef fects of b u r e a u c r a - t i z a t i o n on soc ia l and e c o n o m i c progress. The C h i n e s e Communis ts tend to v i e w b u r e a u - c r a c y as a necessary e v i l that must be toned down as much as poss ib le . H e r e , t oo , is an a rea that other T h i r d - W o r l d count r ies might look in to and learn about in r e l a t i o n to the C h i n e s e e x p e r i e n c e . A major quest ion that might be asked is whether ' q u a l i t y ' in e d u c a t i o n is s a c r i - f i c e d when the 'mass l i n e ' is imp lemen ted . First of a l l , the term ' q u a l i t y ' has to be de f i ned in re la t i on to the goa ls of a soc ia l sys tem. W h e n a model of e d u c a t i o n that p a r a l l e l l e d the e x p e r i e n c e of the Sov ie t U n i o n was be ing pursued, many s p e c i a l i z e d t e c h n i c i a n s who he lped modern i ze the economy were g r a d u a t e d , and the i r se rv ices were put to good use . Q u a l i t y in e d u c a t i o n then was e v o l v i n g a l o n g a path s im i l a r to what w o u l d cons t i tu te 92 q u a l i t y e d u c a t i o n in Western coun t r i es . When the 'mass l i n e ' is be i ng f o l l o w e d , q u a l i t y takes on a d i f fe ren t m e a n i n g . Those peop le who r e c e i v e a q u a l i t y educa t i on are those workers and peasants ab le to lea rn sk i l l s useful to the i r wo rk , and those i n t e l l e c t u a l s who are a b l e to put the i r know ledge at the se rv i ce not on l y of the e c o n o m y , but a lso of the s o c i e t y . Q u a l i t y takes on s o c i a l , rather than e c o n o m i c , conno ta t i ons . Does the e c o n o - my su f fe r? In the short r un , perhaps i t does . But the argument is that i n the long run more peop le r e c e i v e more sk i l l s than is possib le under the Western system. Ind iv idua ls r e c e i v e a broader e d u c a t i o n , that i s , they learn a f a i r l y w i d e range of s k i l l s . This is seen as be ing important not on l y w i t h i n the con tex t of fo rming a 'communis t m a n ' , but w i t h i n that of the C h i n e s e e c o n o m y . C h i n a is s t i l l a ve r y poor and e c o n o m i c a l l y b a c k w a r d coun t r y . H e n c e , peop le who c a n take on a v a r i e t y of tasks and ro les are j u d g e d , in the long r u n , to be more v a l u a b l e than those w i th very s p e c i f i c and narrow s k i l l s . The a r g u - ment centers a round the f a c t that e c o n o m i c deve lopment does not have to f o l l o w the Western r o a d . J u d g i n g the economic per formance of most T h i r d - W o r l d count r ies t oday , whether a coun t ry the s i ze of C h i n a c a n modern i ze success fu l l y a l o n g Western l ines is not a f a i t a c c o m p l i . There is an i m p l i c a t i o n here ; n a m e l y , that the C h i n e s e e x p e r i e n c e is r e l evan t to other coun t r i es , e s p e c i a l l y those cons t i t u t i ng what is known as the Th i rd W o r l d . I b e l i e v e that this e x p e r i e n c e , e s p e c i a l l y in the e d u c a t i o n a l sphere , is an examp le w h i c h other count r ies wou ld do w e l l to n o t e . H o w e v e r , I am not sure to what ex ten t , i f a n y , t h i s ' - e x - pe r i ence c a n be c o p i e d w i thout recourse to soc ia l revo lu t ion ' , for the model of e d u c a t i o n I have desc r ibed here was born i n , and based u p o n , rural r e v o l u t i o n . G u e r r i l l a w a r f a r e , and peasant m o b i l i z a t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n in r e v o l u t i o n , were important inputs to e d u c a t i o n as d e v e l o p e d in the Communis t base areas in the 1940 's . The sp i r i t of these inputs has been judged c r u c i a l , and efforts have been made to k e e p that sp i r i t a l i v e . The G r e a t Pro le ta r ian C u l t u r a l Revo lu t i on is the la tes t , and greates t , at tempt to do th is . W i thou t that sp i r i t , e d u c a t i o n has a tendency to s l i de in to the backg round and serve other in terests , such as e c o n o m i c deve lopment and the fo rmat ion of an i n t e l l e c t u a l ' r u l i n g c l a s s ' . C o n t r a - d i c t i ons ex is t w i t h i n the s o c i e t y , and bat t les must be fought cons tan t l y in order to ensure that the workers and peasants remain the dominant s o c i a l c lasses . 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