UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Yenan principles in Chinese education Muszynski, Alice Catherine 1973-12-31

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C/' YENAN  PRINCIPLES  IN  CHINESE  EDUCATION  by  ALICE  MUSZYNSKI  B . A . , M c G i l l University,  1971  A THESIS S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T O F THE R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R THE D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O F ARTS  i n the D e p a r t m e n t of A n t h r o p o l o g y and  Sociology  W e a c c e p t this thesis as c o n f o r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d  T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A July,  1973  In presenting an  this  thesis i n partial  advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y  the  Library  s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y .  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r extensive for  that  copying of this  thesis  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may b e g r a n t e d b y t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r  by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  I t i s understood that  of t h i s  thesis f o rfinancial  written  permission.  gain  D e p a r t m e n t o f Pv\vSTV\^ 0VOL.OG--/ The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a  Date  ^  s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  V  Columbia  ^  o < ^  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  % Q a O L o C r /  ABSTRACT  The e d u c a t i o n a l system i n C h i n a t o d a y has its roots i n the Y e n a n p e r i o d (1937-1945).  This thesis surveys t h a t p e r i o d w i t h the purpose of d i s c o v e r i n g h o w the  p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r l y i n g e d u c a t i o n c a m e to be f o r m e d . those p r i n c i p l e s w e r e i m p l e m e n t e d i n the 1 9 4 0 ' s .  It t h e n goes o n to d e s c r i b e how  The c h i e f c o n c e p t a r o u n d w h i c h the  e d u c a t i o n a l system c a m e to be based was the 'mass l i n e . 1  D u r i n g t h e 1950's a n d e a r l y 1 9 6 0 ' s , e d u c a t i o n as e n v i s a g e d i n the Y e n a n y e a r s h a d to c o m p e t e w i t h a n o t h e r system - one m o d e l l e d u p o n t h a t of the S o v i e t U n i o n . The thesis e x p l o r e s this s t r u g g l e b e t w e e n w h a t was e s s e n t i a l l y ' t w o l i n e s ' i n e d u c a t i o n . The G r e a t P r o l e t a r i a n C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n , w h i c h e r u p t e d f u l l - s c a l e i n 1 9 6 6 , w a s , as f a r as the e d u c a t i o n a l sphere was c o n c e r n e d , a r e a f f i r m a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e s d e v e l o p e d i n the Y e n a n e r a .  The thesis c o n c l u d e s w i t h this m o v e m e n t , d e s c r i b i n g the more i m p o r t -  a n t of the e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s a n d how t h e y w e r e to be i m p l e m e n t e d .  Although specific  p o l i c i e s a n d t h e i r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n m i g h t d i f f e r from those of the Y e n a n y e a r s , the p r i n c i p l e s a r e s t i l l the s a m e , e s p e c i a l l y t h a t of the 'mass l i n e ' .  It is suggested that the m o d e l of e d u c a t i o n d e v e l o p e d i n C h i n a s i n c e the Y e n a n e r a is o n e t h a t is r e l e v a n t f o r o t h e r c o u n t r i e s of the T h i r d W o r l d , a l t h o u g h  implementation  m a y be i m p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n .  This thesis is b a s e d o n r e s e a r c h i n the l i b r a r y , a n d was l i m i t e d to E n g l i s h language translations and secondary sources.  ii  TABLE O F C O N T E N T S Page ABSTRACT  i  CHAPTER  O N E - Introduction  CHAPTER  T W O - Social and Educational Revolution i n the Y e n a n Era  C H A P T E R THREE - E d u c a t i o n i n the L i b e r a t e d A r e a s  1  5 34  C H A P T E R F O U R - E d u c a t i o n From t h e F i f t i e s to the  CHAPTER FIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY  G r e a t Proletarian Cultural R e v o l u t i o n . .  61  Conclusion  91 94  1  CHAPTER  ONE  Introduction  The f o c u s of this thesis is e d u c a t i o n .  This a r e a was c h o s e n i n the b e l i e f t h a t  the e d u c a t i o n a l system of a s o c i e t y mirrors its g o a l s a n d , to a lesser d e g r e e , its n a t u r e . U n t i l the C h i n e s e e x p e r i e n c e , e d u c a t i o n i n most c o u n t r i e s h a s , i n r e c e n t y e a r s , c l o s e l y the l e a d of the g r e a t c a p i t a l i s t n a t i o n s - the W e s t e r n m o d e l .  followed  E v e n the S o v i e t  U n i o n has a system of e d u c a t i o n w h i c h c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l s that of the W e s t .  In p a r t , this  r e f l e c t s its c o n c e r n w i t h i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n a n d m o d e r n i z a t i o n , t h a t i s , w i t h e c o n o m i c development.  M o s t T h i r d - W o r l d c o u n t r i e s a r e c a u g h t u p in this o r i e n t a t i o n .  o n e n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n - the ' M a o i s t ' m o d e l .  There is  The term ' M a o i s t ' is here used to d i s t i n -  g u i s h the model of e d u c a t i o n e n v i s a g e d by M a o at Y e n a n f r o m the e d u c a t i o n a l system as it e x i s t e d i n C h i n a prior to C o m m u n i s t t a k e - o v e r , a n d from the ' L i u i s t l i n e  1  followed  in  the 1950's a n d e a r l y 1 9 6 0 ' s , w h i c h was c l o s e l y p a t t e r n e d o n the e d u c a t i o n a l system of the S o v i e t U n i o n .  T h e r e is a stress o n Y e n a n i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s .  It was at Y e n a n t h a t M a o  f i r s t d e v e l o p e d the c o n c e p t s w h i c h w o u l d p r o v e c r u c i a l i n s h a p i n g e d u c a t i o n i n the c o m munist base a r e a s , a n d in a l l of C h i n a i n the y e a r s f o l l o w i n g L i b e r a t i o n .  Mao's principle  c o n t r i b u t i o n i n the e d u c a t i o n a l sphere was his c o n c e p t of the 'mass l i n e . 1  r a i s e d some f u n d a m e n t a l questions as far as e d u c a t i o n was c o n c e r n e d : c a t i o n serve a n d f o r w h a t p u r p o s e s ? line':  This n o t i o n  whom should e d u -  The answers are p r o v i d e d i n the ideas b e h i n d 'mass  e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be f o r the masses a n d i t s h o u l d serve t h e i r n e e d s .  Political edu-  c a t i o n is i m p o r t a n t , b e c a u s e it e x p l a i n s the p o l i c i e s a n d p r i n c i p l e s of g o v e r n m e n t to the  1  masses a n d tries to show them how t h e i r l o c a l needs are t i e d i n w i t h those of the l a r g e r society.  P e o p l e s ' n e e d s , other t h a n such b a s i c ones as f o o d a n d s h e l t e r , a r e r e l a t i v e  to the s o c i e t y i n w h i c h t h e y l i v e . it is put i n t o p r a c t i c e e v e r y d a y . that i d e o l o g y  In C h i n a , t h e y are r e l a t i v e to c o m m u n i s t i d e o l o g y as It is not w i t h i n the s c o p e of this thesis to d e a l w i t h  a n d how it shapes a n d f u l f i l l s n e e d s .  The m a i n a r g u m e n t here is t h a t  C h i n e s e c o m m u n i s t e d u c a t i o n , b e c a u s e i t does not use e d u c a t i o n i n the W e s t e r n w o r l d as its m o d e l , has h a d a u n i q u e d e v e l o p m e n t , one i n k e e p i n g w i t h c o m m u n i s t i d e o l o g y .  This  d e v e l o p m e n t has made e d u c a t i o n i n C h i n a t o d a y v e r y d i f f e r e n t from t h a t i n most other c o u n t r i e s of the w o r l d .  A s s u c h , i t c h a l l e n g e s the n o t i o n t h a t the W e s t e r n e d u c a t i o n a l  system is the o n l y system p o s s i b l e for a poor c o u n t r y w h i c h hopes to i n d u s t r i a l i z e .  The  term 'mass' is used t h r o u g h o u t i n p r e f e r e n c e to the term ' p e o p l e ' .  'People',  jen m i n i n C h i n e s e , i n c l u d e s not o n l y w o r k e r s a n d p e a s a n t s , but a l s o other sectors of the p o p u l a t i o n , such as the b o u r g e o i s i e . p r i m a r i l y to workers a n d p e a s a n t s .  'Mass',  k u a n c h u n g , is n a r r o w e r i n s c o p e , r e f e r r i n g  M a s s e d u c a t i o n is thus e d u c a t i o n p r i m a r i l y f o r the b e n e -  f i t of w o r k e r s a n d p e a s a n t s , w h i c h groups c o n s t i t u t e the m a j o r i t y of the C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n . These w e r e the groups w h i c h w e r e e x c l u d e d from the e d u c a t i o n a l system i n i m p e r i a l a n d Kuomintang C h i n a .  O n l y the groups w h o h a d p o w e r a n d w e a l t h - the e l i t e s ( w h o i n t r a -  d i t i o n a l C h i n a i n c l u d e d the l a n d l o r d s , the s c h o l a r o f f i c i a l s , a n d r u l e r s , s u c h as the M a n c h u s a n d the w a r l o r d s , d e p e n d i n g o n the era) - c o u l d h o p e to r e c e i v e e d u c a t i o n .  Pea-  sants a n d workers w e r e not b a r r e d from the e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m , but i n p r a c t i c e , f e w m e m bers of these classes e v e r a c t u a l l y r e c e i v e d o n e .  W i t h the C o m m u n i s t t a k e o v e r , the t r a d i t i o n a l e l i t e d i d not d i s a p p e a r o v e r n i g h t . A s C h i n a b e g a n to i n d u s t r i a l i z e , a b o u r g e o i s i e h a d a l s o b e g u n to f o r m , a c q u i r i n g w e a l t h  3  a n d power a n d , t h u s , e l i t e s t a t u s .  The C o m m u n i s t s h a d to be c o n s t a n t l y o n g u a r d lest  these groups r e g a i n the p o w e r a n d w e a l t h t h e y w e r e so a c c u s t o m e d to h a v i n g .  Because  these groups h e l d a u t h o r i t y (or i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d power) i n the e y e s of m a n y w o r k e r s a n d p e a s a n t s , the p o s s i b i l i t y of t h e i r r e g a i n i n g t h e i r lost p o s i t i o n s was i m m e n s e .  In the  c o u n t r y s i d e , w h e r e g e n t r y r u l e ( w h i c h was r u l e b y a c o m b i n a t i o n of l a n d l o r d s a n d s c h o l a r o f f i c i a l s ) h a d b e e n p r e v a l e n t f o r so m a n y c e n t u r i e s , t h e r e w e r e enormous d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d i n h a v i n g e d u c a t i o n p e n e t r a t e v i l l a g e l e v e l s a n d r e a c h the p e a s a n t r y .  W h e n the C o m m u n i s t s c a m e to p o w e r , a d a n g e r that two n e w e l i t e s c o u l d a r i s e a n d subvert r e v o l u t i o n a r y g o a l s d e v e l o p e d .  The c a d r e s a r e , a b o v e a l l , l e a d e r s .  not h a v e to be Party m e m b e r s , a l t h o u g h m a n y of them a r e . t  T h e y do  They take on leadership roles  a t a l l l e v e l s - from the v i l l a g e a l l the w a y u p to Party a n d g o v e r n m e n t h e a d q u a r t e r s . are a heterogeneous group: trained i n t e l l e c t u a l .  They  a c a d r e c a n be a n y o n e f r o m a n i l l i t e r a t e peasant to a h i g h l y -  The m a i n d a n g e r as f a r as c a d r e s are c o n c e r n e d is t h a t t h e y b e c o m e  d i v o r c e d f r o m the p o p u l a t i o n .  This is p o s s i b l e w h e n a h i g h d e g r e e of b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n  sets i n - w h e n jobs b e c o m e h i g h l y r o u t i n i z e d a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f l o w s u p w a r d to the c o m m a n d c e n t r e s , w h i l e commands f l o w d o w n w a r d .  In s u c h a s i t u a t i o n , c a d r e s b e c o m e  o r i e n t e d more towards t h e i r superiors t h a n to the p e o p l e t h e y a r e s e r v i n g . m u c h stress i n C h i n a on k e e p i n g b u r e a u c r a t i c trends at a m i n i m u m . much a t t e n t i o n .  Therei has b e e n  Cadres are also given  O n e part of the e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m , the c a d r e s c h o o l s , is d e v o t e d to  t r a i n i n g them f o r t h e i r l e a d e r s h i p r o l e s .  The s e c o n d g r o u p , the i n t e l l e c t u a l s , has p r o v e d more p r o b l e m a t i c .  These a r e  the p e o p l e w h o h a v e more e d u c a t i o n a n d s k i l l s than the a v e r a g e C h i n e s e peasant or w o r k e r .  4  M a n y , a l t h o u g h not a l l , are c a d r e s . B e c a u s e t h e y possess s o m e t h i n g w h i c h is i n d e m a n d , e s p e c i a l l y t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s , a n d w h i c h is s c a r c e , t h e r e is a d a n g e r t h a t t h e y w i l l set t h e m s e l v e s a b o v e the p e o p l e a n d form a ' r u l i n g c l a s s ' . v e n t this from h a p p e n i n g .  There h a v e b e e n many efforts to p r e -  The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s d e s c r i b e the more i m p o r t a n t o n e s , such  as r e c t i f i c a t i o n a n d h s i a f a n g .  Efforts h a v e b e e n made to i n t e g r a g e c a d r e s w i t h i n t e l l e c -  t u a l s , m e l d i n g the c o n c e p t s of ' r e d ' a n d ' e x p e r t ' .  Efforts h a v e a l s o b e e n m a d e to i n t e g r a t e  those t w o groups w i t h the workers a n d p e a s a n t s , thus ' p r o l e t a r i a n i z i n g the i n t e l l e c t u a l s ' w h i l e ' i n t e l l e c t u a l i z i n g the p r o l e t a r i a t ' ,  to the b e n e f i t of a l l c o n c e r n e d .  C h a p t e r two d e a l s w i t h w h y the p r i n c i p l e s b e h i n d mass e d u c a t i o n w e r e d e v e l o p e d . The t h i r d c h a p t e r is c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e i r i m p e l e m e n t a t i o n i n the Y e n a n p e r i o d , w h i l e the last c h a p t e r is c o n c e r n e d w i t h the problems of t h e i r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n the 1950's a n d 1960's - u n t i l t h e G r e a t P r o l e t a r i a n C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n r e a f f i r m e d the p r i m a c y a n d i m p o r t a n c e of the 'mass l i n e ' .  5  CHAPTER  TWO  S o c i a l a n d E d u c a t i o n a l R e v o l u t i o n i n the Y e n a n Era  The b a s i c premise of this thesis is that the G r e a t P r o l e t a r i a n C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n was a r e a f f i r m a t i o n of p r i n c i p l e s f i r s t d e v e l o p e d d u r i n g the Y e n a n e r a .  It is the task  of this c h a p t e r to set f o r t h the c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h l e d the C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t l e a d e r s h i p to d e v e l o p a n d a d o p t these p r i n c i p l e s a n d to e x a m i n e the w a y e d u c a t i o n was to f i t i n t o the r e v o l u t i o n a r y t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of rural s o c i e t y .  By the t i m e the L o n g M a r c h was c o m p l e t e d , a n d Y e n a n e s t a b l i s h e d as the C a p i t o l of the C h i n e s e S o v i e t G o v e r n m e n t , a number of i m p o r t a n t e v e n t s h a d o c c u r r e d . T s e - t u n g was now the l e a d e r of the C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t m o v e m e n t a n d , i n the f u t u r e , his v i e w s a n d p o l i c i e s w o u l d p r e v a i l .  Mao  immediate  For a number of years he had c o n c e n t r a t e d  o n the peasantry as the m a i n p o t e n t i a l f o r c e for u n l e a s h i n g s o c i a l a n d p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n . ^ H o w e v e r , the f a i l u r e of the K i a n g s i S o v i e t h a d t a u g h t the C o m m u n i s t s that e c o n o m i c r e v o l u t i o n must p r o c e e d more c a u t i o u s l y f o r at least the t i m e b e i n g .  A b o v e a l l , i t must not  turn the m i d d l e peasants a g a i n s t the poor p e a s a n t s , c a u s i n g the former to r e j e c t a n d f i g h t o n the s i d e of l a n d l o r d  revolution  and r i c h - p e a s a n t interests.  In " t h e Shensi base i t was not n a t i o n a l i s t i c r h e t o r i c but a g r a r i a n  revolution,  i m p l e m e n t e d w i d e l y i n 1935 a n d d e v e l o p e d a l o n g more m o d e r a t e l i n e s d u r i n g 1 9 3 6 , that  ^  Stuart S c h r a m dates this d i s c o v e r y of the p e a s a n t r y ' s p o t e n t i a l for r e v o l u t i o n a t 1925  w i t h the g r o w t h of the H u n a n e s e peasant m o v e m e n t .  W h e n M a o was f o r c e d to l e a v e H u n a n ,  he b e c a m e h e a d of the Peasant M o v e m e n t T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t e , u n d e r K u o m i n t a n g c o n t r o l i n g the p e r i o d of the First U n i t e d Front w i t h the C o m m u n i s t s . i n c r e a s i n g l y b e c a m e i n v o l v e d i n o r g a n i z i n g the p e a s a n t r y . (Penguin Books, G r e a t B r i t a i n , 1970), p p . 8 1 - 1 0 3 .  dur-  From t h a t t i m e o n w a r d , M a o  S e e Stuart S c h r a m , M a o T s e - T u n g  6  i n i t i a l l y w o n w i d e - s p r e a d support a n d p a v e d t h e w a y f o r the i n c r e a s i n g l y e f f e c t i v e a n d p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n . " ^  military  L a n d r e v o l u t i o n , rather t h a n w i p i n g  out class d i s t i n c t i o n s , e l i m i n a t e d the grossest forms of i n e q u a l i t y a n d e x p l o i t a t i o n .  Rather  t h a n a s m a l l l a n d l o r d - c o m m e r c i a l e l i t e o n the one h a n d , a n d a mass of t e n a n t s , h i r e d l a b o r e r s , a n d poor peasants on the o t h e r , t h e r e was a shift o n b o t h sides towards the m i d d l e . "If the most important former class d i s t i n c t i o n h a d d i f f e r e n t i a t e d the e c o n o m i c e l i t e from the p o o r , after l a n d r e v o l u t i o n i n 1939 the most i m p o r t a n t d i s t i n c t i o n was b e t w e e n poor a n d m i d d l e p e a s a n t s , b o t h s t r i v i n g to s e c u r e a m e a g r e l i v e l i h o o d " ( i b i d , p. 8 3 ) .  The c o n d i t i o n of the poor peasants a n d h i r e d laborers was d u e more to methods of p r o d u c t i o n a n d the n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t t h a n to d e b t , t a x a t i o n , or l a c k of g o o d l a n d . Peasant p a r t i c i p a t i o n had b e e n s e c u r e d t h r o u g h l a n d r e v o l u t i o n , but c h a n g e s i n p r o d u c t i o n w e r e n e e d e d to r a i s e l i v i n g s t a n d a r d s .  These c h a n g e s h a d to w a i t t h r o u g h the U n i t e d F r o n t  p e r i o d u n t i l the 1943 p r o d u c t i o n m o v e m e n t a n d the c a m p a i g n to r e d u c e r e n t a n d i n t e r e s t w e r e l a u n c h e d i n the w a k e of the r e c t i f i c a t i o n m o v e m e n t i n 1 9 4 2 - 4 4 .  Agrarian revolution  w o u l d o n c e a g a i n be pursued i n earnest o n l y i n 1 9 4 7 , w i t h the p r o m u l g a t i o n of the D r a f t A g r a r i a n L a w , w h e n t h e C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t Party ( C C P ) took the o f f e n s i v e a g a i n s t the Kuomintang ( K M T ) .  The s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t the g e n t r y p r o v e d e a s i e r than the task of u n i t i n g t h e p e a s a n t r y , of e d u c a t i n g them to see t h a t a n y d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n t h e i r ranks w e r e m i n o r to c l a s s d i v i s i o n s a n d t h a t , t h e r e f o r e , poor a n d m i d d l e peasants s h o u l d l e a r n to c o o p e r a t e w i t h  M a r k S e l d e n , The Y e n a n W a y i n R e v o l u t i o n a r y C h i n a , H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y Press, C a m b r i d g e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , 1 9 7 1 , p. 7 9 .  7  each other.  T h e i r m a i n w e a p o n was t h e i r numbers a n d , t h e r e f o r e , u n i t y was c r u c i a l .  They h a d to be t a u g h t that e x t r e m e e g a l i t a r i a n i s m , or e x t r e m e d e m o c r a c y , was w r o n g .  A f t e r 1 9 2 7 , K u o m i n t a n g strength h a d made it n e c e s s a r y for the C o m m u n i s t s to start r e v o l u t i o n i n p l a c e s least a c c e s s i b l e to N a t i o n a l i s t f o r c e s . s e v e r a l p r o v i n c e s t e n d e d to o f f e r s e c u r i t y .  Regions bordering on  In the N o r t h - W e s t , such a border a r e a h a d  b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d u n d e r the l e a d e r s h i p of L i u C h i h - t a n a n d K a o K a n g .  The W e i v a l l e y ,  the most f e r t i l e a r e a i n the r e g i o n , was c a p t u r e d b y the K u o m i n t a n g , l e a v i n g the p a r t i sans w i t h a v e r y poor a n d p r i m i t i v e a r e a i n northern Shensi p r o v i n c e , i s o l a t e d f r o m the rest of C h i n a a n d from the w o r l d at l a r g e .  But the partisans h a d d e v e l o p e d a communist  base a r e a there a l o n g l i n e s v e r y s i m i l a r t o those d e v e l o p e d b y M a o i n K i a n g s i .  The t w o  m a i n themes w e r e r e l i a n c e o n the peasantry a n d the i m p o r t a n c e of g u e r r i l l a t a c t i c s i n fighting warlord and N a t i o n a l i s t armies.  Both M a o a n d L i u C h i h - t a n h a d c o m e u n d e r  r e p e a t e d f i r e from t o p Party l e a d e r s h i p o n b o t h these l i n e s .  The 'Russian R e t u r n e d S t u d e n t s ' ,  a c l i q u e w h i c h d o m i n a t e d the C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t Party u n t i l the Tsunyi C o n f e r e n c e , f o l l o w i n g the C o m i n t e r n l i n e , b e l i e v e d i n c o n c e n t r a t i n g on the u r b a n p r o l e t a r i a t , o n the c a p t u r e of c i t i e s , a n d o n more c o n v e n t i o n a l methods of w a r f a r e ( i b i d , p. 6 0 ) .  This is  w h y M a o ' s a s c e n d a n c y to p o w e r was v e r y i m p o r t a n t , not o n l y f o r the o u t c o m e of the r e v o l u t i o n , but a l s o for the n a t u r e a n d c o u r s e t h a t it w o u l d d e v e l o p .  M a o a n d L i u C h i h - t a n d i f f e r e d f r o m the C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e on a number of p o i n t s . For e x a m p l e , b o t h r e c r u i t e d a n d used s e c r e t s o c i e t y members, b a n d i t s , a n d other e l e m e n t s " ( i b i d . , p. 26) a g a i n s t the orders of the C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e .  "floating  Both M a o a n d L i u  r e c o g n i z e d the r e v o l u t i o n a r y p o t e n t i a l of these g r o u p s , u n l i k e the C o m m u n i s t l e a d e r s h i p  8  w h i c h h a d l i t t l e k n o w l e d g e o f , or e x p e r i e n c e w i t h , these groups o r , for t h a t m a t t e r ,  with  l i f e i n the rural a r e a s .  " T h e K u o m i n t a n g ' s c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o u p of 1927 s h i f t e d the f o c u s of r e v o l u t i o n from the c i t y to the c o u n t r y s i d e a n d , i n rural C h i n a , t o r e m o t e a n d i n a c c e s s i b l e backwaters.  D r i v e n u n d e r g r o u n d , the peasant m o v e m e n t c o u l d d e v e l o p s u b s e q u e n t l y o n l y  as a m o v e m e n t of a r m e d p a r t i s a n s . f i n e d " ( i b i d . , p. 36).  In t h e p r o c e s s , a n e w g e o g r a p h y of r e v o l u t i o n was d e -  It was this d i f f e r e n c e w h i c h made it c r u c i a l that the r e v o l u t i o n  c h a n g e from one based on the u b r a n p r o l e t a r i a t to a r e v o l u t i o n b a s e d i n the c o u n t r y s i d e . Peasant m o b i l i z a t i o n a n d p a r t i c i p a t i o n w e r e c r u c i a l i n order t h a t such a r e v o l u t i o n be v i c torious.  It was M a o w h o r e c o g n i z e d this shift i n r e v o l u t i o n a r y p o l i t i c s .  The C e n t r a l C o m -  m i t t e e , based i n S h a n g h a i u n t i l 1 9 3 2 , r e m a i n e d c o m m i t t e d to r e v o l u t i o n a l o n g t r a d i t i o n a l Soviet lines.  O n e f i n a l f a c t h a d e m e r g e d a n d c a m e to d o m i n a t e a l l others b y the e n d of 1 9 3 6 , the y e a r Y e n a n was t a k e n a n d e s t a b l i s h e d as the c a p i t a l of the s o v i e t g o v e r n m e n t .  This  was the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of war w i t h J a p a n a n d the n e c e s s i t y of a u n i t e d f r o n t a m o n g a l l sectors of the C h i n e s e p e o p l e i n order to f i g h t the w a r s u c c e s s f u l l y .  F o l l o w i n g the S i a n I n c i d e n t a n d the e n d of c i v i l w a r , a p o l i c y c a l l e d N e w D e m o c r a c y was p r o c l a i m e d , a n d S h e n s i - K a n s u - N i n g h s i a was d e c l a r e d a model a r e a .  This  border r e g i o n was the o n l y o n e immune t o h e a v y f i g h t i n g f o r a f e w y e a r s , a n d so p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c programs c o u l d b e a t t e m p t e d there w i t h m i n i m u m d i s l o c a t i o n s d u e t o w a r ( I b i d . , p. 1 2 2 ) .  From 1937 to 1941 the m a i n task of the p o l i c y c a l l e d N e w D e m o c r a c y  was a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a b i l i t y .  This was l a r g e l y t a k e n c a r e of b y the g o v e r n m e n t b u r e a u c r a c y .  9  B e c a u s e of the U n i t e d F r o n t , the n e c e s s i t y of g o i n g s l o w w i t h l a n d r e v o l u t i o n was t r a n s l a t e d i n t o Party p o l i c y .  N o t o n l y the m i d d l e p e a s a n t s , but a l l p a t r i o t i c r i c h  peasants a n d l a n d l o r d s had to b e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a u n i t e d f r o n t .  This posed a d i l e m m a .  It had b e e n f o u n d that the o n l y w a y of w i n n i n g the p e a s a n t r y to the c o m m u n i s t c a u s e was through l a n d r e v o l u t i o n .  O n c e peasants h a d p e r s o n a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n this e v e n t , t h e y  w e r e c o m m i t t e d to r e v o l u t i o n .  T h e y o f t e n had no c h o i c e .  O n c e the l a n d l o r d s w e r e k i l l e d  or f o r c e d to f l e e a n d the o l d system of g o v e r n m e n t o v e r t h r o w n , t h e y h a d to b a n d t o g e t h e r a n d c o o p e r a t e w i t h t h e c o m m u n i s t l e a d e r s h i p i n order to p r e v e n t a r e t u r n of the e x p l o i t i n g classes.  L a n d r e d i s t r i b u t i o n t e n d e d t o l e a d to the a l i e n a t i o n of the m i d d l e p e a s a n t s .  They  w e r e o f t e n b r a n d e d as part of the e x p l o i t i n g c l a s s , a n d t h e i r l a n d was t a k e n from t h e m .  As  t h e y c o n s t i t u t e d a s i z a b l e p r o p o r t i o n of the p e a s a n t r y i n t h e n o r t h , a n d as t h e y w e r e c l o s e r to the poor peasants i n t h e i r w a y of l i f e t h a n to the r i c h peasants a n d l a n d l o r d s , it was i m portant that the C o m m u n i s t s g a i n t h e i r a l l e g i a n c e .  This was o f t e n made d i f f i c u l t b y the  f a c t t h a t these a r e a s w e r e v e r y poor a n d , t h u s , there was not e n o u g h l a n d a n d m a t e r i a l r e sources to r a i s e the l i v i n g s t a n d a r d of a l l the poor a n d l a n d l e s s peasants to that a p p r o a c h i n g m i d d l e - p e a s a n t status.  The peasants w e r e n o w a s k e d to c o o p e r a t e w i t h t h e i r c l a s s e n e m i e s i n order to f i g h t a war i n w h i c h m a n y of them w e r e not d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d .  This was e s p e c i a l l y true of  t h e S h e n s i - K a n s u - N i n g h s i a Border R e g i o n , of w h i c h Y e n a n was the c a p i t a l , a n d w h i c h was not d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n the f i g h t i n g u n t i l 1 9 4 1 .  In those areas w h e r e l a n d r e v o l u t i o n h a d  b e e n s u c c e s s f u l , the p e a s a n t r y t e n d e d to resent U n i t e d Front p o l i c y , a n d f e a r the return of the l a n d l o r d s a n d r i c h p e a s a n t s .  It p r o v e d , i n f a c t , d i f f i c u l t to c u r b the p o w e r of the  W i l l i a m H i n t o n , Fanshen A D o c u m e n t a r y of R e v o l u t i o n i n a C h i n e s e V i l l a g e , V i n t a g e Books, N e w Y o r k , 1966, pp. 4 0 0 - 4 1 0 .  returned landlords and r i c h peasants.  The n e c e s s i t y of e x p l a i n i n g s u c h c o n c e p t s as u n i t e d f r o n t w h i l e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y preparing a l a r g e l y i l l i t e r a t e and p o l i t i c a l l y u n i n v o l v e d peasantry for s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n p l a c e d a n enormous task on the C o m m u n i s t P a r t y .  The 1937 e l e c t i o n c a m p a i g n was one  method used to spread a n d e x p l a i n Party p o l i c y w h i l e e l i c i t i n g peasant p a r t i c i p a t i o n . " T h e 1937 e l e c t i o n m o v e m e n t i l l u s t r a t e s a c e n t r a l d i l e m m a f a c i n g c o m m u n i s t l e a d e r s h i p not o n l y i n Y e n a n but i n the other w a r t i m e base areas a n d after 1949 as w e l l .  This was  the t e n s i o n b e t w e e n the d e s i r e to u t i l i z e the s k i l l s a n d i n f l u e n c e of p r i v i l e g e d e l e m e n t s , n o t a b l e l a n d l o r d s a n d r i c h p e a s a n t s , a n d the d e s i r e to c u r b t h e i r power i n o r d e r t o b a r the t h r e a t that such groups m i g h t subvert the r e v o l u t i o n "  ( S e l d e n , p. 1 3 1 ) .  F r o n f ^ c a u s e d the C o m m u n i s t s to seek two d i v e r g i n g g o a l s .  The S e c o n d U n i t e d  O n the o n e h a n d , t h e y sought  to i n c l u d e the t r a d i t i o n a l e l i t e a n d to r e a l i z e m i l d s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a n d p o l i t i c a l r e f o r m s . O n the o t h e r h a n d , t h e y w e r e t r y i n g to strengthen t h e i r h o l d o v e r the w h o l e r e g i o n , a n d to b u i l d u p o n a poor peasant b a s e .  It was o n l y out of the c r i s i s t h a t had d e v e l o p e d b y 1941  t h a t a c l e a r - c u t w a y was f o u n d to d e a l w i t h this s i t u a t i o n :  to e d u c a t e t h e peasantry to p a r t -  i c i p a t e i n r e v o l u t i o n a n d to h e l p i t p e r c e i v e a n d u n d e r s t a n d b o t h the s h o r t - t e r m a n d l o n g r a n g e g o a l s of the C o m m u n i s t P a r t y , w h i l e c u r b i n g the power of e l i t e s a n d w o u l d - b e e l i t e s . (I)n 1 9 3 6 , the Party a d o p t e d a program i n w h i c h the i d e a of a u n i t e d f r o n t was the basis for l i m i t e d e c o n o m i c reform a n d political mobilization.  In the y e a r s 1937 to 1940 that p o l i c y  was s p e c t a c u l a r l y s u c c e s s f u l n a t i o n a l l y .  Starting from a  tenuous a n d i s o l a t e d p o s i t i o n i n remote n o r t h e r n S h e n s i , b y 1940 the C o m m u n i s t s d o m i n a t e d i m p o r t a n t a r e a s t h r o u g h o u t N o r t h C h i n a a n d posed the d o m i n a n t t h r e a t to J a p a n e s e aspirations for conquest. gram u n d e r m i n e d its basis:  ^  But the v e r y success of t h a t p r o rapid expansion precipitated  The First U n i t e d Front was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1923 ( S e l d e n , p. 2 2 ) .  11  sharp c l a s h e s w i t h the J a p a n e s e a n d the K u o m i n t a n g . In 1 9 4 1 , f o l l o w i n g the C o m m u n i s t s ' s u c c e s s f u l H u n d r e d R e g i ments o f f e n s i v e i n N o r t h C h i n a , the brunt of the J a p a n e s e a t t a c k s h i f t e d to the C o m m u n i s t s . U n d e r this a s s a u l t , t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n C o m m u n i s t areas shrank b y a l m o s t h a l f . . . The b r e a k d o w n w i t h the K M T was f e l t a c u t e l y i n S h e n - K a n N i n g . The K M T b l o c k a d e of the border r e g i o n , i n i t i a t e d i n 1 9 3 9 , was t i g h t e n e d i n 1941 f o l l o w i n g the c l a s h of C o m m u nist a n d K M T f o r c e s i n the n e w F o u r t h A r m y i n c i d e n t . M o r e o v e r , just as the C o m m u n i s t s w e r e f e e l i n g the p i n c h of b l o c k a d e a n d m i l i t a r y d e f e a t , the c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t c u t off the s u b s i d y p r o v i d e d s i n c e 1937 for the E i g h t h Route A r m y a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the border r e g i o n . The reverses of 1941 a n d 1942 r e v e a l e d the w e a k n e s s e s a n d l i m i t a t i o n s of the m o v e m e n t to t h a t t i m e . W i t h o u t o u t side f i n a n c i a l support from the c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t , i n 1941 the C o m m u n i s t s w e r e f o r c e d to impose a c r u s h i n g b u r d e n of t a x a t i o n a n d m i l i t a r y c o n s c r i p t i o n o n the p e o p l e i n S h e n K a n - N i n g . A s b l o c k a d e c o n t r i b u t e d to e c o n o m i c s t r a n g u l a t i o n a n d rampant i n f l a t i o n , the r e g u l a r g o v e r n m e n t a n n o u n c e d a n a l l - t i m e h i g h t a x l e v y . . . m o r e than d o u b l i n g the p r e v i o u s y e a r ' s t o t a l a n d c o m p o u n d i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r the b e l e a g u e r e d p e a s a n t , i n c l u d i n g the poor a n d the n e w m i d d l e peasants w h o w e r e the b u l w a r k of C o m m u n i s t s u p p o r t . The c r i s e s of these y e a r s i n t e n s i f i e d the tensions a n d c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n C o m m u n i s t p o l i c y i n g o v e r n i n g the border region.^ E x a m i n a t i o n of mass e d u c a t i o n . . . i s p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l u a b l e for the l i g h t it sheds o n the e v o l u t i o n of the w h o l e ' Y e n a n l i f e s t y l e ' f o r , a c c o r d i n g to its o w n assessment, the Party made more m i s t a k e s i n mass e d u c a t i o n than i n a n y o t h e r endeavor.  In the process of l e a r n i n g from a n d c o r r e c t i n g  these m i s t a k e s , it g a i n e d v a l u a b l e e x p e r i e n c e i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of a c a r d i n a l p r i n c i p l e of the C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t Party ( C C P ) M o v e m e n t - a r e v o l u t i o n f o r the p e o p l e must be c a r r i e d out b y the p e o p l e .  0  In l a t e 1937 a s e c o n d u n i t e d f r o n t a g r e e m e n t was c o n c l u d e d b e t w e e n the K M T a n d the C C P . A l t h o u g h it e n a b l e d the C C P to o p e r a t e as a l e g a l party a n d a l l o w e d it to  M a r k S e l d e n , " T h e Y e n a n L e g a c y : The M a s s L i n e " i n C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t P o l i t i c s i n A c t i o n , e d i t e d b y A . D o a k B a r n e t t , U n i v e r s i t y of W a s h i n g t o n Press, S e a t t l e & L o n d o n , 1969, pp. 101-102. °  Peter J . S e y b o l t , " T h e Y e n a n R e v o l u t i o n i n M a s s E d u c a t i o n " , i n The C h i n a Q u a r t e r l y ,  4 8 , O c t o b e r / D e c e m b e r 1 9 7 1 , p. 6 4 1 .  c o n s o l i d a t e a n d e x p a n d its a r e a of o p e r a t i o n b e h i n d J a p a n e s e l i n e s , it a l s o l e d to a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b u r e a u c r a c y a n d to a p e r i o d of ' s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n ' .  By 1942 a p e a k i n  b u r e a u c r a t i c r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n h a d b e e n r e a c h e d . ^ W h e r e a s c a d r e e d u c a t i o n was t o b e n e f i t by m a n y of the c h a n g e s made i n this p e r i o d , i n that e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s w e r e f o r m a l i z e d a n d u n i f i e d u n d e r a s p e c i f i c set of g o a l s and s t a n d a r d s , mass e d u c a t i o n was s e r iously hampered.  The c a d r e s w e r e the ' v a n g u a r d of the r e v o l u t i o n ' a n d , as s u c h , h a d  to be u n i f i e d under a s i n g l e a u t h o r i t y a n d h a d to r e c e i v e s y s t e m a t i c t r a i n i n g o f a n e v e n quality.  The e d u c a t i o n of the p e o p l e , h o w e v e r , was a n e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t m a t t e r ,  al-  t h o u g h i n these years the d i s t i n c t i o n was not made i n p r a c t i c e . ^  The e a r l y p e r i o d w i t n e s s e d a s u b s t a n t i a l rate of g r o w t h i n the number of e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , a l t h o u g h there was l i t t l e progress i n the q u a l i t y of t h e i r e d u c a tion.  D i f f i c u l t i e s i n a c q u i r i n g the n e c e s s a r y m a t e r i a l s a n d a shortage of t e a c h i n g staff  d i d l i t t l e to i m p r o v e . t h e q u a l i t y of e d u c a t i o n .  " T h e l a c k of p o p u l a r enthusiasm f o r  e d u c a t i o n was p r o b a b l y d u e i n part to the c o n s e r v a t i s m of p e o p l e u n a c c u s t o m e d to f o r mal e d u c a t i o n ; but r e s i s t a n c e to c h a n g i n g o l d h a b i t s a n d a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l s was r e i n f o r c e d b y the f a c t that the Border R e g i o n p o p u l a c e f o u n d the c o n t e n t of e d u c a t i o n i r r e l e v a n t to t h e i r m a i n c o n c e r n s " ( S e y b o l t . , p. 6 4 9 ) .  M a n y complaints were r e c e i v e d that e d u c a t i o n  was too m u c h c o n c e r n e d w i t h p o l i t i c s a n d war r a t h e r t h a n w i t h the p e a s a n t r y ' s i m m e d i a t e needs a n d i n t e r e s t s .  7 M a r k S e l d e n , The Y e n a n W a y i n R e v o l u t i o n a r y C h i n a , <• o p . c i t . , p . 6 4 8 . r e f e r e n c e s to S e l d e n i n this c h a p t e r w i l l be i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h this w o r k . 8  Further  In C h a p t e r T h r e e , the l i n k s b e t w e e n c a d r e e d u c a t i o n a n d mass e d u c a t i o n w i l l be  d e s c r i b e d , a n d the d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n the t w o d r a w n .  13  This s i t u a t i o n l e d to c h a n g e s i n the form a n d c o n t e n t of e d u c a t i o n .  The p e r i o d  9 of g r o w t h b e c a m e one of ' s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n ' .  These c h a n g e s f i r s t a f f e c t e d the e d u c a t i o n  of c a d r e s , a n d c u l m i n a t e d i n the c h e n g - f e n g c a m p a i g n , (see f o o t n o t e 1 4 ) , w h i c h l e d to the r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d r e - e d u c a t i o n of c a d r e s , m a k i n g them at o n c e more r e s p o n s i v e b o t h to the Party a n d to the p e o p l e i n t h e i r c h a r g e .  W h a t w o r k e d w e l l for c a d r e e d u -  c a t i o n , h o w e v e r , p r o v e d disastrous w h e n a p p l i e d to p e o p l e ' s e d u c a t i o n . (T)hose s t a f f i n g the g o v e r n m e n t e d u c a t i o n b u r e a u c r a c y w e r e mostly i n t e l l e c t u a l s w h o had c o m e to the Border R e g i o n from the c i t i e s of East C h i n a . . . T h e y t r i e d to m a k e s c h o o l s i n rural N o r t h - W e s t C h i n a c o n f o r m to the standards of those i n S h a n g h a i w h i c h , i n t u r n , w e r e c o p i e s of s c h o o l s i n i n d u s t r i a l i z e d western c o u n t r i e s ( S e y b o l t , p. 6 5 0 ) . The c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the e d u c a t i o n a l system s u i t a b l e f o r c o u n tries w i t h h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d e c o n o m i c systems is not s u i t a b l e for present d a y C h i n a , appears to be f a i r l y o b v i o u s o n c e it has b e e n s t a t e d .  But t h a t is just the p o i n t .  In p r a c t i c e p e o p l e  h a v e t r i e d to d e v e l o p e d u c a t i o n i n e c o n o m i c a l l y b a c k w a r d c o m m u n i t i e s by c o p y i n g the e d u c a t i o n a l systems of e c o n o m i c a l l y advanced communities.  The results h a v e u s u a l l y hot  b e e n v e r y s a t i s f a c t o r y a n d the f u n d a m e n t a l M a r x i a n v i e w t h a t s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s are a l l i n t e r r e l a t e d a n d b a s i c a l l y i n f l u e n c e d b y e c o n o m i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s g a v e the c l u e to t h i n k i n g out just w h y the results h a v e b e e n u n s a t i s f a c t o r y .  ^  A t this t i m e , t h e r e was an a t t e m p t to m a k e a l l s c h o o l s c o n f o r m to a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n , e v e n t h o u g h t h e y w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d under d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s .  Ezra V o g e l describes a similar period f o l l o w i n g L i b e r a t i o n in 1949.  This a i m was to  H e , like Seybolt  for these y e a r s d u r i n g the Y e n a n p e r i o d , l a b e l s the e a r l y 1950's as a p e r i o d of ' s t a n d a r d ization'.  This suggests t h a t m a n y of the problems a n d issues d e a l t w i t h d u r i n g the Y e n a n  y e a r s w e r e to r e - a p p e a r i n m a g n i f i e d form after 1 9 4 9 . P r o l e t a r i a n C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n was a ' g o i n g b a c k  1  Thus, the a r g u m e n t t h a t the G r e a t  to the p r i n c i p l e s e v o l v e d i n Y e n a n t o  meet these problems a n d issues is f u r t h e r r e i n f o r c e d .  S e e The C h i n a Q u a r t e r l y , 2 9 ,  J a n u a r y - M a r c h , 1967, p p . 3 6 - 6 0 , for Ezra V o g e l ' s a r t i c l e : Bureaucrat: ^  "From Revolutionary  to  Semi-  The ' R e g u l a r i z a t i o n ' of C a d r e s " .  M i c h a e l L i n d s a y , N o t e s on E d u c a t i o n a l Problems i n C o m m u n i s t C h i n a , 1 9 4 1 - 4 7 , I n t e r -  n a t i o n a l S e c r e t a r i a t , Institute of P a c i f i c R e l a t i o n s , N e w Y o r k , 1 9 5 0 , p.  i.  be a c c o m p l i s h e d by "strengthening the administrative b u r e a u c r a c y and i n c r e a s i n g control from a b o v e " ( S e y b o l t , p. 6 5 0 ) .  The P a r t y , g o v e r n m e n t a n d p o p u l a t i o n h a d l i t t l e c o n t r o l  o v e r the e d u c a t i o n a l b u r e a u c r a c y .  This l a c k of c o n t r o l made the b u r e a u c r a c y u n r e s p o n -  s i v e to o v e r - a l l p l a n n i n g or to l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s a n d d e s i r e s .  The most a d v a n c e d s c h o o l s b e c a m e models for t h e r e s t . w e r e to s p e n d most of t h e i r t i m e i n the c l a s s r o o m .  T e a c h e r s a n d students  The standards for a d m i t t i n g students  " b e c a m e more e l i t i s t a n d o r i e n t e d towards f u l f i l l i n g f u t u r e a s p i r a t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n present n e e d s " ( i b i d . , p. 6 5 1 ) .  Students f r o m w e l l - t o - d o f a m i l i e s w h o had l i t t l e w o r k e x p e r i e n c e  t e n d e d to be g i v e n p r e f e r e n c e u n d e r such a s y s t e m .  In 1942 orders w e r e issued to a m a l g a m a t e ' u n h e a l t h y ' w i t h ' h e a l t h y ' s c h o o l s . The largest a n d best s c h o o l s b e c a m e ' c e n t r a l e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s ' a n d w e r e to be g i v e n the best m a t e r i a l s a n d t e a c h i n g p e r s o n n e l .  M o s t of the s c h o o l s t h a t w e r e e l i m i n a t e d w e r e  s i t u a t e d i n the c o u n t r y s i d e , w h i l e the m o d e l s c h o o l s t e n d e d to b e l o c a t e d i n the largest towns.  A l t h o u g h efforts w e r e made to g e t peasants to send t h e i r c h i l d r e n to s c h o o l , these  were largely unsuccessful. The Party a n d G o v e r n m e n t w e r e not s u f f i c i e n t l y a w a r e of mass needs a n d desires a n d t h e y g a v e t h e p e o p l e t o o l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y to s p e a k a n d a c t f o r t h e m s e l v e s .  W h e n this  f i n a l l y became apparent, a methodology for c o m p l e t e l y r e s t r u c t u r i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n the l e a d e r s h i p a n d the p e o p l e was d e v i s e d .  This was the mass l i n e , d e s i g n e d  to s t i m u l a t e mass i n i t i a t i v e a n d r e l e a s e mass e n e r g i e s i n pursuit of mass l i b e r a t i o n ( i b i d . , p. 6 5 5 ) . The U n i f e d ; Front p e r i o d was n e v e r a s t a b l e o n e .  Breaches were continuously  made on b o t h s i d e s , a n d o p e n f i g h t i n g b e t w e e n the two parties b r o k e out i n 1 9 4 1 , just w h e n the J a p a n e s e b e g a n e s c a l a t i n g t h e i r a t t a c k s a g a i n s t the C o m m u n i s t s , e m p l o y i n g the  15  e s p e c i a l l y b r u t a l p o l i c y of ' k i l l a l l , burn a l l , l o o t a l l ' i n t h e i r a t t e m p t to b r e a k g u e r rilla resistance.^  N o t o n l y d i d the K u o m i n t a n g w i t h d r a w a l l f i n a n c i a l support from the  C C P , it i m p o s e d a v e r y harsh e c o n o m i c b l o c k a d e a r o u n d the border r e g i o n s . g e t h e r w i t h the e s c a l a t e d J a p a n e s e a t t a c k s , l e d to a c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n .  The border r e g i o n s  w e r e n o w f o r c e d to be t o t a l l y s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , m i l i t a r i l y a n d e c o n o m i c a l l y . ' p e o p l e ' s w a r ' was a p p l i e d to the e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l s p h e r e s .  This, to-  The term  O u t of this c r i s i s was  born the c o n c e p t of the 'mass l i n e ' a n d the s l o g a n 'from the p e o p l e , to the p e o p l e ' .  The a p p r o a c h to the c r i s i s had t w o f a c e t s .  The r e c t i f i c a t i o n m o v e m e n t of 19.42-  1944 s p e l l e d out a number of p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h w e r e a d o p t e d i n a series of c a m p a i g n s . The r e c t i f i c a t i o n m o v e m e n t was a i m e d at the r e - e d u c a t i o n of c a d r e s a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l s .  M a n y of t h e c a d r e s h a d b e c o m e d i v o r c e d from the p e o p l e a n d from the m o v e ment t h e y w e r e supposed to be s e r v i n g .  M a n y w e r e b e c o m i n g b u r e a u c r a t s whose c h i e f task  was h a n d i n g d o w n d i r e c t i v e s from h i g h e r to l o w e r l e v e l s w i t h i n s p e c i f i c d e p a r t m e n t s .  Many  c a d r e s w e r e i n s e n s i t i v e to the problems e x p e r i e n c e d at t o w n s h i p a n d v i l l a g e l e v e l s a n d d i d not see the n e e d of c o o r d i n a t i n g t h e i r w o r k w i t h the tasks of o t h e r d e p a r t m e n t s .  Thus, the  C o m m u n i s t Party a n d g o v e r n m e n t , h e a d q u a r t e r e d i n Y e n a n , w e r e not r e a c h i n g the p e a sants.  The s o l u t i o n to this p r o b l e m l a y i n the c o n c e p t of t h e 'mass l i n e ' .  ^ C h a l m e r s A . J o h n s o n , Peasant N a t i o n a l i s m a n d C o m m u n i s t P o w e r , S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y Press, C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 6 2 , p p . 5 5 - 6 0 . 12 In a d d i t i o n to the r e c t i f i c a t i o n m o v e m e n t , there w e r e : (a)  the c a m p a i g n for c r a c k troops a n d s i m p l e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( 1 9 4 1 - 4 3 )  (b)  the ' t o - t h e - v i l l a g e ' c a m p a i g n ( 1 9 4 1 - 4 2 )  (c)  the c a m p a i g n for the r e d u c t i o n of rent a n d i n t e r e s t ( 1 9 4 2 - 4 4 )  (d)  the c o o p e r a t i v e m o v e m e n t ( 1 9 4 2 - 4 4 )  (e)  the p r o d u c t i o n m o v e m e n t of 1943  (f)  the e d u c a t i o n m o v e m e n t of 1 9 4 4 .  16  A c e n t r a l i z i n g f o r c e w h i c h c o u l d u n i t e , not o n l y the p o p u l a t i o n l i v i n g i n o n e base a r e a , but that l i v i n g i n a l l t h e o t h e r base areas as w e l l was n e c e s s a r y . W i t h success i n w a r , c o m m u n i s t areas w e r e e x p a n d i n g a n d n e w base a r e a s w e r e b e i n g c r e a t e d .  It was  necessary to i n c o r p o r a t e the p o p u l a t i o n of these areas u n d e r a c e n t r a l i z e d g o v e r n m e n t . T h u s , t h e r e was a n e c e s s i t y for b r o a d p o l i c y d i r e c t i v e s .  A t the same t i m e , i t was u r g e n t  t h a t these p o l i c i e s be i n t e r p r e t e d c o r r e c t l y a n d c a r r i e d out i n a f l e x i b l e m a n n e r . m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s c a u s e d a d i f f e r i n g s i t u a t i o n from o n e a r e a to t h e n e x t .  War and  Cadres at  t o w n s h i p a n d v i l l a g e l e v e l s w e r e the c r u c i a l l i n k s , s i n c e t h e y w e r e t h e p e o p l e r e s p o n s i b l e for passing o n C o m m u n i s t p o l i c i e s to the p o p u l a t i o n s a n d f o r c a r r y i n g out r e v o l u t i o n under specific local conditions.  M a n y c a d r e s had b e c o m e i n e f f e c t i v e l i n k s , a n d it was n e c e s s a r y  t h a t t h e y r e - t h i n k the nature a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of t h e i r p o s i t i o n s .  M a n y w e r e sent to  s c h o o l i n Y e n a n , a n d numerous m e e t i n g s w e r e c a l l e d to c o n d u c t c r i t i c i s m a n d s e l f - c r i t i c i s m . Truth a n d r e a s o n , M a o b e l i e v e d , w o u l d u l t i m a t e l y  triumph,  but w h e n the a c c e p t a n c e of reason r e q u i r e d the i n d i v i d u a l to r e l i n q u i s h d e e p l y h e l d a t t i t u d e s , to r e m a k e i n e f f e c t his v i s i o n of the w o r l d , a sharp stimulus was r e q u i r e d .  Such a  s h o c k had o c c u r r e d a m o n g m a n y w h o p a r t i c i p a t e d i n v i o l e n t l a n d r e v o l u t i o n or r i s k e d t h e i r l i v e s i n t h e m i l i t a r y s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t J a p a n i n t h e c o u r s e of w h i c h n e w i d e a l s a n d r e v o lutionary commitment were forged.  The 1942 r e c t i f i c a t i o n  m o v e m e n t , l i k e the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n a q u a r t e r of a c e n t u r y l a t e r , s i m u l a t e d an e n v i r o n m e n t of s t r u g g l e i n w h i c h f u n d a m e n t a l v a l u e s a n d p e r c e p t i o n s c o u l d be r e - e x a m i n e d a n d c h a l l e n g e d by r e v o l u t i o n a r y i d e a l s .  This was  particularly essential in S h e n - K a n - N i n g w h i c h remained remote from the sharp s t r u g g l e b e i n g w a g e d a g a i n s t J a p a n i n r e a r - a r e a bases ( S e l d e n , p p . 1 9 4 - 1 9 5 ) . O r g a n i z a t i o n was d e e m e d b y M a o to b e an e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t c o m p o n e n t of successful r e v o l u t i o n .  H o w e v e r , it was not o n l y the t o p e c h e l o n s of P a r t y , g o v e r n m e n t  a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w h i c h h a d to be o r g a n i z e d .  The c a d r e s at a l l l e v e l s a l s o h a d t o be  i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a c o h e r e n t system a n d , u n d e r t h e m , the l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n .  In order for  such a system to w o r k , e s p e c i a l l y i n times of c r i s i s a n d i n v i e w of the f a c t t h a t this s y s tem was a n e w o n e , e a c h i n d i v i d u a l had to m a k e a serious c o m m i t m e n t to the o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d , b e y o n d i t , to the r e v o l u t i o n .  The r e c t i f i c a t i o n m o v e m e n t , l i k e the C u l t u r a l  R e v o l u t i o n , c r e a t e d a n a t m o s p h e r e of c r i s i s i n w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s w e r e tested a n d t h e i r c o m m i t m e n t to a s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y was f o r g e d .  This v i e w was r o o t e d i n a v o l u n t a r i s t a n d p o p u l i s t s t r a i n i n M a o ' s t h i n k i n g . These two e l e m e n t s c o l o r e d his i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of M a r x i s m .  Individuals c o u l d be judged  not o n l y a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r c l a s s b a c k g r o u n d , but a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r w a y o f t h o u g h t a n d action.  T h u s , e d u c a t i o n , as w e l l as a c l a s s r e v o l u t i o n , c o u l d ' r e m o u l d ' p e o p l e , e s -  p e c i a l l y i n t e l l e c t u a l s a n d i n d i v i d u a l s t e n d i n g towards a n e l i t i s t v i e w p o i n t .  This g a v e  m u c h more s c o p e to w h a t a r e v o l u t i o n c o u l d a c c o m p l i s h , a n d a l s o a l l o w e d f o r the c o n c e of a ' p e r m a n e n t r e v o l u t i o n ' .  1 3  A f u n d a m e n t a l p o s t u l a t e of M a o T s e - t u n g ' s r e v o l u t i o n a r y w o r l d v i e w was t h a t men c o u l d t r a n s c e n d the l i m i t a t i o n s of c l a s s .  In the process of m a k i n g r e v o l u -  t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l s of a l l classes c o u l d b e c o m e r e v o l u tionaries.  The u n i t e d f r o n t p o l i c i e s of the Y e n a n  p e r i o d p r o v i d e d a r i g o r o u s test f o r this v i e w b y i n c o r p o r a t i n g l a r g e numbers of students a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l s in the party.  C h e n g - f e n g j n i t i a t e d t h e most a m b i t i -  ous e f f o r t a t t e m p t e d thus f a r to c r e a t e a n i n s t i t u t i o n a l context for i n d i v i d u a l education and transformation. A s the pressures f r o m a t t a c k i n g f o r c e s i n the base areas i n c r e a s e d t e n d e n c i e s to w a v e r a n d c a p i t u l a t e , c h e n g f e n g p r o v i d e d a means to strengthen c o m m i t m e n t to t h e party a n d r e v o l u t i o n .  M o r e o v e r , the c a m p a i g n sought  to b r o a d e n the c o m m i t m e n t of c a d r e s b e y o n d a n t i J a p a n e s e f e r v o r to the r e v o l u t i o n a r y t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f  l v i  S e e D o n a l d M u n r o , " T h e M a l l e a b i l i t y of M a n i n C h i n e s e M a r x i s m " i n T h e C h i n a  Quarterly, 4 8 , October/December 1971, pp. 615-617.  18  Chinese society.  This was e s s e n t i a l if c a d r e u n i t y was  to be p r e s e r v e d as the p a r t y , i n the y e a r s a f t e r 1 9 4 2 , set a b o u t i n i t i a t i n g r a d i c a l c h a n g e s i n r u r a l l i f e .  The  success of the c h e n g - f e r i g m o v e m e n t is a t t e s t e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t , i n s h i f t i n g its c o u r s e to the i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of r u r a l r e v o l u t i o n , the p a r t y r e t a i n e d the support of l a r g e numbers of c a d r e s from e l i t e b a c k g r o u n d s w h o had i n i t i a l l y r a l l i e d to a f f i r m its a n t i - J a p a n e s e s t a n c e . ( S e l d e n , p.  196).  1 4  N o t o n l y w e r e m a n y c a d r e s b e i n g r e - e d u c a t e d , t h e y w e r e b e i n g 'sent d o w n ' as w e l l .  The v i l l a g e a n d the t o w n s h i p w e r e to b e c o m e the c r u c i a l u n i t s , a n d the m a g i s -  t r a t e the c r u c i a l f i g u r e .  The a u t o n o m y of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e departments was b r o k e n .  They  w e r e c o o r d i n a t e d w i t h e a c h o t h e r a n d made r e s p o n s i b l e to the m a g i s t r a t e a t the v i l l a g e level.  B e c a u s e of the a c q u i r e d i m p o r t a n c e of the v i l l a g e s a n d m a g i s t r a t e s , many v i l l a g e  c a d r e s w e r e sent t o s c h o o l a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l s a n d c a d r e s at h i g h e r l e v e l s sent t o t a k e t h e i r place.  Local cadres and leaders were often i l l i t e r a t e .  T h u s , it was d e c i d e d to send at  l e a s t o n e i n t e l l e c t u a l or student to a i d e a c h m a g i s t r a t e i n his w o r k ( i b i d . , p. 2 1 3 ) .  There was a n o t h e r a s p e c t to this s i t u a t i o n . c o m e to Y e n a n from a l l parts of C h i n a . families.  M a n y i n t e l l e c t u a l s a n d students had  M o s t w e r e c i t y - b r e d a n d d e s c e n d e d from e l i t e  B e c a u s e the border r e g i o n was p o p u l a t e d m a i n l y b y i l l i t e r a t e p e a s a n t s , t h e i r  s k i l l s w e r e r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r to a d m i n i s t e r a n d g o v e r n the a r e a a n d t e a c h the p e a s a n t r y . H o w e v e r , t h e i r i n e x p e r i e n c e i n w o r k i n g i n r u r a l areas a n d t h e i r a t t i t u d e of s u p e r i o r i t y towards the p e a s a n t r y o f t e n made t h e i r w o r k u s e l e s s . tential danger.  1 4  In a d d i t i o n , t h e y r e p r e s e n t e d a p o -  There was a c h a n c e t h a t t h e y c o u l d subvert the r e v o l u t i o n .  ' C h e n g f e n g ' ( t r a n s l a t e d i n t o the E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e as ' r e c t i f i c a t i o n ' ) is short for ' c h e n g  tun f e n g t s o ' - 'to c h a n g e w o r k s t y l e ' .  In t r a d i t i o n a l C h i n a , the s c h o l a r g e n t r y was a d o m i n a n t c l a s s , r e s p e c t e d b y the peasantry a n d e n t i t l e d to c e r t a i n p r i v i l e g e s .  A l t h o u g h the r o l e of this class as a n  i n t e r m e d i a r y b e t w e e n the peasantry a n d the r u l i n g f o r c e s of C h i n a h a d a l l but d i s a p p e a r e d at the turn of the c e n t u r y , the peasantry c o n t i n u e d to r e s p e c t the e d u c a t e d . p e n e t r a t i o n of W e s t e r n i n f l u e n c e s a d d e d a n o t h e r d i m e n s i o n to e d u c a t i o n .  The  W h i l e the i m -  p e r i a l e x a m i n a t i o n system was a b o l i s h e d , e d u c a t i o n a l o n g W e s t e r n l i n e s c o n t i n u e d the t r a d i t i o n of c r e a t i n g a n i n t e l l e c t u a l e l i t e .  E d u c a t i o n a l o n g these l i n e s was s t i l l a c c e s -  s i b l e o n l y to the f e w a n d g a v e them a n i m p o r t a n t r o l e to p l a y - t h a t of ' m o d e r n i z i n g ' C h i n a a l o n g W e s t e r n l i n e s a n d thus a l l o w i n g C h i n a to c o m p e t e o n a n e q u a l f o o t i n g w i t h the i m p e r i a l i s t n a t i o n s .  N a t i o n a l i s m was a n i m p o r t a n t c o m p o n e n t i n this v i e w a n d was a  major reason w h y i n t e l l e c t u a l s a n d students l e f t the c o a s t a l c i t i e s f o r Y e n a n .  M a n y of  them v i e w e d the C o m m u n i s t s as the most p a t r i o t i c g r o u p a n d w e n t to j o i n them f o r this r e a s o n , r a t h e r t h a n b e c a u s e of sympathy for c o m m u n i s m .  O n c e in Y e n a n , they were  r e a d y to f i g h t the J a p a n e s e , but not the f o r c e s of i l l i t e r a c y a n d i g n o r a n c e - the task the Communists had in mind for them.  T h u s , r e - e d u c a t i n g these i n t e l l e c t u a l s b e c a m e v e r y  important.  The C o m m u n i s t s c o u l d not a f f o r d to h a v e a n e l i t e e s t a b l i s h i t s e l f i n the b o r d e r areas:  the r e g i o n was too poor to support s u c h a n e l i t e , a n d t h e r e was a d e s p e r a t e n e e d  for s k i l l e d m a n p o w e r i n the c o u n t r y s i d e .  A t that t i m e , t h e r e was no m a j o r c i t y under  C o m m u n i s t r u l e , w h e r e the i n t e l l e c t u a l s c o u l d e n t r e n c h t h e m s e l v e s .  H o w e v e r , by 1941,  t h e y had a l r e a d y d o n e m u c h harm i n s p l i t t i n g r e g i o n s a n d p o p u l a t i o n s . w o r k , they t e n d e d to ' b u i l d o n the b e s t " . ^ ^  W h e n sent to  T h e y set up s c h o o l s i n p l a c e s w h e r e the  John G u r l e y , " C a p i t a l i s t and M a o i s t E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t " , in A m e r i c a ' s A s i a :  D i s s e n t i n g Essays o n A s i a n - A m e r i c a n R e l a t i o n s , e d i t e d b y E d w a r d F r i e d m a n a n d M a r k S e l d e n , p. 3 3 1 .  p o p u l a t i o n was r e a d i l y e n t h u s i a s t i c .  This t e n d e d to be i n l a r g e t o w n s .  A l t h o u g h there  h a d b e e n r e p e a t e d d i r e c t i v e s to b u i l d s c h o o l s i n the c o u n t r y s i d e a m o n g the p e a s a n t r y , there were few such schools in 1941. equipped and staffed.  W h e r e e x i s t e n t , t h e y t e n d e d t o b e the most p o o r l y  The p e a s a n t s , i n m a n y c a s e s , r e f u s e d to send t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o  t h e m , r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t t h e y w e r e of poor q u a l i t y a n d not s e e i n g the n e e d of e d u c a t i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n unless t h e y h a d a c h a n c e of b e c o m i n g part of the e l i t e . h a d d e v e l o p e d b e t w e e n a n e l i t e a n d the ' m a s s e s ' . a t i o n of o n e s i d e f r o m the o t h e r . cadres and i n t e l l e c t u a l s .  1  o  A dichotomy  I m p l i c i t i n this s i t u a t i o n was the a l i e n -  R e c t i f i c a t i o n was a i m e d at r e - e d u c a t i n g the e l i t e - b o t h  P a r t y c a d r e s w e r e v i e w e d as a l r e a d y b e i n g p o l i t i c a l l y  committed,  a l t h o u g h the g r e a t e x p a n s i o n of C o m m u n i s t Party m e m b e r s ^ was b o u n d to i n c l u d e the p o l i t i c a l l y ' i m p u r e ' - i n d i v i d u a l s w h o j o i n e d for personal a d v a n c e m e n t or to subvert the Party.  1 8  R e - e d u c a t i n g Party c a d r e s was a matter of t e a c h i n g them t h a t t h e i r interests w e r e not to be s e p a r a t e d from those of the Party a n d g o v e r n m e n t , on the o n e h a n d , a n d  M i c h a e l L i n d s a y has t r a n s l a t e d some of the d i r e c t i v e s a f f e c t i n g e d u c a t i o n i n the b o r der regions.  T h e y i l l u s t r a t e , i n p r a c t i c a l f o r m , many of these p r o b l e m s , i s s u i n g w a y s i n  w h i c h to d e a l w i t h t h e m .  See o p . c i t .  for r e f e r e n c e to his w o r k .  Chinese Education,  A J o u r n a l of T r a n s l a t i o n s , a l s o presents t r a n s l a t i o n s of e d u c a t i o n d i r e c t i v e s , a l t h o u g h i t tends to c o n c e n t r a t e o n the S h e n s i - K a n s u - N i n g h s i a Border R e g i o n .  See e s p e c i a l l y V o l u m e  i v , N u m b e r s 3 a n d 4 , f o r i n f o r m a t i o n on the Y e n a n p e r i o d . ^  In 1937 M a o T s e - t u n g e s t i m a t e d t h a t there w e r e 4 0 , 0 0 0 Party m e m b e r s .  g i v e s a f i g u r e of 2 0 0 , 0 0 0 for 1 9 3 8 . w e r e 8 0 0 , 0 0 0 Party m e m b e r s . 1945.  N y m Wales  By 1 9 4 3 , C h o u E n - l a i was q u o t e d as s a y i n g that t h e r e  A c c o r d i n g to M a o , this f i g u r e h a d r i s e n to 1 , 2 0 0 , 0 0 0 b y  See Boyd C o m p t o n , M a o ' s C h i n a :  Party Reform D o c u m e n t s , 1 9 4 2 - 4 4 , U n i v e r s i t y  of W a s h i n g t o n Press, S e a t t l e , 1 9 6 6 , p. x x v i i i . S e e , for e x a m p l e , Liu S h a o - c h ' i ' s a r t i c l e ,  " T r a i n i n g of the C o m m u n i s t Party M e m b e r , "  f o r the d i f f e r e n t m o t i v e s Party members h a d i n j o i n i n g the C o m m u n i s t Party d u r i n g these years.  S e e i b i d , p p . 1 0 8 - 1 5 5 , f o r the t e x t .  the peasantry o n t h e o t h e r .  The i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n c a d r e ranks posed a more d i f f i c u l t p r o b -  l e m i n t h a t m a n y w e r e not p o l i t i c a l l y c o m m i t t e d , a l t h o u g h o f t e n more s k i l l e d . n e c e s s a r y to m a k e them ' r e d ' as w e l l as ' e x p e r t ' .  It was  This p r o b l e m w o u l d r e c u r t i m e a n d  a g a i n d u r i n g the 1 9 5 0 ' s a n d 1 9 6 0 ' s , to t h e p o i n t that b y the t i m e of the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n , the s l o g a n ' r e d a n d e x p e r t ' was v e r y p o p u l a r (see C h a p t e r o n this t h e m e ) .  Four for an e l a b o r a t i o n  W h i l e peasants a n d v i l l a g e c a d r e s w e r e sent to s c h o o l , m a n y of these  i n t e l l e c t u a l s w e r e sent ' d o w n ' from the towns to the v i l l a g e s .  They needed informal,  r a t h e r than f o r m a l , s c h o o l i n g , a n d t h e i r t e a c h e r s w e r e to be the peasant ' m a s s e s ' .  The  o n l y w a y to b r e a k the e l i t e / m a s s d i c h o t o m y was for the e l i t e to b e c o m e o n e w i t h the 'masses' - t h e p e a s a n t r y .  The i n t e l l e c t u a l s h a d to be p r o l e t a r i a n i z e d .  The ' t o - t h e - v i l l a g e ' m o v e m e n t (or ' h s i a - h s i a n g ' ) , w h i c h b e g a n i n 1 9 4 1 , had o t h e r aspects to i t as w e l l .  O u t of a n e e d f o r n o n - p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r i n p r o d u c t i v e w o r k ,  thus r e s u l t i n g i n the s e n d i n g of c a d r e s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n farm w o r k , g r e w t h e c o n c e p t i o n of the i m p o r t a n c e of strong bonds b e t w e e n l e a d e r s a n d the p e o p l e a n d b e t w e e n o u t s i d e leaders and l o c a l leaders.  The i m p o r t a n c e of e d u c a t i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l s a n d students i n -  f o r m a l l y , a f t e r a p e r i o d o f f o r m a l b r i e f i n g a n d s t u d y , was part of the m o v e m e n t . The a i m was to o v e r c o m e the m u t u a l i g n o r a n c e of i n t e l l e c t u a l s a n d peasants t h r o u g h s h a r i n g a c o m m o n e x p e r i e n c e , to b r i d g e the g a p b e t w e e n t o w n a n d b a c k c o u n t r y , a n d to o v e r c o m e b a r r i e r s s e p a r a t i n g m e n t a l a n d manual labor.  Intellectuals participating in physical  labor under primitive v i l l a g e conditions w o u l d e x p e r i e n c e at f i r s t h a n d the h a r d s h i p a n d problems but a l s o the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of peasant l i f e .  They also w o u l d bring new skills  a n d i d e a s to v i l l a g e s c u t off f r o m the o u t s i d e w o r l d .  The  ' t o - t h e - v i l l a g e ' m o v e m e n t was one f a c e t of the response to the c r i t i c a l problems t h a t a l l d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s f a c e : h o w to c r e a t e a n e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h the most t a l e n t e d a n d s k i l l e d youths w i l l be w i l l i n g to c o m m i t t h e i r t a l e n t s  22  a n d t h e i r l i v e s to the d e v e l o p m e n t of b a c k w a r d r u r a l areas?  A n d , how to e f f e c t i v e l y u t i l i z e those t a l e n t s  outside of the a d v a n c e d urban areas i n w h i c h t h e y were nutured?  ( S e l d e n , p. 226)  O n the o t h e r s i d e of the c o i n , the p r o l e t a r i a t h a d to be i n t e l l e c t u a l i z e d . The peasant c a d r e s r e c e i v e d s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n d u r i n g r e c t i f i c a t i o n .  In c a d r e s c h o o l s ,  t h e y w e r e not o n l y g i v e n p o l i t i c a l a n d b a s i c l i t e r a c y t r a i n i n g , but shown how to c o n d u c t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t h e i r r e g i o n s as w e l l .  It was not e n o u g h t h a t t h e y l e a r n to i m p l e m e n t  orders from a b o v e u n d e r l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s .  It was a l s o n e c e s s a r y that the g o v e r n m e n t a n d  Party i n Y e n a n k n o w the c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a l e n t i n v a r i o u s r e g i o n s , so t h a t s u i t a b l e d i r e c t i v e s c o u l d be i s s u e d .  The s l o g a n 'from the masses, to the masses' s u m m a r i z e d this a p p r o a c h .  The c a d r e s w e r e to l e a r n from the peasants t h e i r needs a n d the means n e c e s s a r y to s a t i s fy them.  T h e y w e r e to pass this i n f o r m a t i o n on to h i g h e r l e v e l s , w h e r e it w o u l d be d e -  c i d e d how to d e a l w i t h this s i t u a t i o n , a n d orders a n d d i r e c t i v e s w o u l d then be issued d o w n wards.  The c a d r e s at the v i l l a g e l e v e l w e r e to t a k e these d i r e c t i v e s , e x p l a i n them to the  p e o p l e , a n d try to i m p e l e m e n t t h e m . a new situation would a r i s e .  In the process of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , d i f f i c u l t i e s a n d  A f t e r d i s c u s s i n g these w i t h the p e a s a n t s , it was the d u t y  of the c a d r e s to a g a i n s u m m a r i z e the i n f o r m a t i o n a n d pass it u p to h i g h e r l e v e l s .  Thus,  f the process b e c a m e s e l f - g e n e r a t i n g a n d , if d o n e p r o p e r l y ,  l e d to progress as o l d d i f f i c u l 20  ties w e r e o v e r c o m e a n d n e w ones w e r e d e f i n e d a n d t a c k l e d .  This was 'mass l i n e '  19 S e y b o l t goes i n t o d e t a i l on v a r i o u s o f these c a d r e s c h o o l s , e s p e c i a l l y K ' a n g t a , a n d shows t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on the r e c t i f i c a t i o n m o v e m e n t a n d the c a m p a i g n s t h a t w e r e l a t e r l a u n c h e d o n its b a c k , i n his P h . D . t h e s i s , " Y e n a n E d u c a t i o n a n d the C h i n e s e R e v o l u t i o n , 1 9 3 7 - 1 9 4 5 " , Harvard University, Massachusetts, 1969. 20 ' . For the t h e o r e t i c a l a n d p h i l o s o p h i c a l r e a s o n i n g b e h i n d this c o n c e p t , see M a o T s e - t u n g ' s t w o essays, " O h P r a c t i c e " a n d " O n C o n t r a d i c t i o n " i n V o l u m e 1 of S e l e c t e d W o r k s o f M a o T s e - t u n g , F o r e i g n L a n g u a g e s Press, P e k i n g , 1 9 6 7 , p p . 2 9 5 - 3 0 9 a n d p p . 3 1 1 - 3 4 7 .  in a c t i o n . It was i m p o r t a n t t h a t c a d r e s a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l s be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a f r a m e w o r k that l i n k e d g o v e r n m e n t w i t h the p e o p l e a n d t h a t t h e y be made its c r u c i a l l i n k s , but this was not e n o u g h .  R e v o l u t i o n a n d , more i m m e d i a t e l y , the o u t c o m e of the a n t i - J a p a n e s e  w a r , d e p e n d e d on the a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the p e a s a n t r y , w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e d the b u l k of the p o p u l a t i o n .  The m i l i t a r y s i t u a t i o n was j u d g e d v e r y i m p o r t a n t ,  c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t to m a k e the P L A a m o d e l a r m y . 21  o1  a n d t h e r e was a  This was c r u c i a l i n order t o g a i n the  The f o l l o w i n g l i n e s of the song " T h e Three M a i n Rules of D i s c i p l i n e a n d the E i g h t  Points for A t t e n t i o n " , t a k e n from a p a m p h l e t i n C h i n a P i c t o r i a l ( 1 9 7 2 , 8 ) , w r i t t e n a n d p o p u l a r i z e d i n the Y e n a n p e r i o d , show i n w h i c h w a y the P e o p l e ' s L i b e r a t i o n A r m y was to be a ' m o d e l a r m y ' : " R e v o l u t i o n a r y army men must k n o w , D i s c i p l i n e ' s Three R u l e s , Eight Points f o r A t t e n t i o n : F i r s t , o b e y orders i n a l l of our a c t i o n s , M a r c h i n s t e p , to w i n  victory;  S e c o n d , d o n ' t t a k e a s i n g l e n e e d l e or t h r e a d , P e o p l e w i l l support a n d w e l c o m e us; T h i r d l y , turn In e v ' r y t h i n g w e c a p t u r e , S t r i v e to l i g h t e n p e o p l e ' s b u r d e n s . D i s ' p l i n e ' s Three Rules w e must c a r r y t h r u , Eight Points for A t t e n t i o n w e must b e a r i n m i n d : F i r s t , w e must be p o l i t e w h e n w e ' r e s p e a k i n g t o the masses, R e s p e c t the p e o p l e , d o n ' t be a r r o g a n t ; Buy f a i r , s e l l f a i r , a n d be r e a s ' n a b l e ; T h i r d l y , don't forget to person'ly return, Ev'ry single thing that we borrow; F o u r t h l y , if we d a m a g e a n y t h i n g , Pay the f u l l p r i c e , not a h a l f c e n t less; F i f t h , d o n ' t h i t p e o p l e or swear at t h e m , Tot My o v e r c o m e w a r l o r d i s m ; S i x t h , take c a r e , don't damage people's crops, E i t h e r o n m a r c h or i n b a t t l e ; S e v e n t h , do not t a k e l i b e r t i e s w i t h w o m e n , G e t r i d of a l l h a b i t s d e c a d e n t ; E i g h t h , d o n ' t i l l - t r e a t prisoners of w a r , D o n ' t h i t , s w e a r at or s e a r c h t h e m ; E v ' r y b o d y must c o n s c i o u s l y o b s e r v e the d i s ' p l i n e , M u t u ' l l y s u p e r v i s e , a n d not v i o l a t e  it.  Know rev'lution'ry dis'pline's ev'ry  point,  P e o p l e ' s f i g h t e r s l o v e the p e o p l e e ' e r , D e f e n d the mother l a n d a n d f o r e v e r m a r c h a h e a d , P e o p l e o ' e r the l a n d support a n d w e l c o m e u s . "  24  c o o p e r a t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n , upon w h i c h g u e r r i l l a w a r f a r e was t o t a l l y d e p e n d e n t .  The  P L A was not o n l y to be a model t h a t the p e o p l e w o u l d r e s p e c t , but a l s o o n e t h e y w o u l d seek to e m u l a t e .  T h u s , the p r o d u c t i o n c a m p a i g n , l a u n c h e d i n 1 9 4 3 , b e g a n i n the a r m y .  M a n y army units b e c a m e e c o n o m i c a l l y s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , r e m o v i n g the b u r d e n of support from the peasantry w h i l e s h o w i n g it t h a t a g r i c u l t u r a l a n d i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i o n c o u l d be improved.  M o d e l units w e r e c h o s e n a n d t h e i r a c h i e v e m e n t s p u b l i c i z e d .  A s the c a m p a i g n  for c r a c k troops a n d s i m p l e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was s u p p l e m e n t e d b y the c a m p a i g n to i n c r e a s e p r o d u c t i o n , the c h o o s i n g of l a b o r heroes as models was i n i t i a t e d i n the c o u n t r y s i d e ( S e l d e n , p. 2 1 1 ) .  This was o n e a s p e c t of mass e d u c a t i o n , an i n f o r m a l but h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e w a y of  b r o a d c a s t i n g n e w t e c h n i q u e s a n d m o d e l s (at this t i m e , t h e r e was a c a m p a i g n t o promote c o o p e r a t i v e methods o f f a r m i n g ) to the p e a s a n t r y , s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t the b o r d e r a r e a s , and bringing it together,  i n order to r a i s e a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n a n d a c h i e v e e c o n o m i c  self-sufficiency.  The a i m was to g e t i - e v e r y b o d y i n the e n t i r e r e g i o n a c t i v e l y a n d p r o d u c -  tively involved.  This p r o m u l g a t i o n o f c a m p a i g n s was the s e c o n d f a c e t (the  rectification  movement b e i n g t h e first) i n a p p r o a c h i n g a n d s o l v i n g the c r i s i s that h a d a r i s e n b y 1 9 4 1 .  T h e r e was a n e x t r e m e l y c l o s e l i n k b e t w e e n this t y p e of i n f o r m a l  education,  of l e a r n i n g b y i m i t a t i n g a n d d o i n g , a n d f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n as it c a m e to be d e f i n e d w i t h the a d o p t i o n of the "mass l i n e " .  S c h o o l s w e r e put i n the hands of the p e o p l e w i t h the  c r e a t i o n of m i n - p a n s c h o o l s - s c h o o l s that w e r e o p e r a t e d b y the p e o p l e w i t h g o v e r n m e n t f i n a n c i a l support.  S c h o o l s b e c a m e part of the p r o d u c t i o n d r i v e .  T e a c h e r s a n d students  h e l p e d , not o n l y b y l o o k i n g a f t e r t h e i r needs a n d thus r e d u c i n g the p e a s a n t r y ' s f i n a n c i a l  00 b u r d e n , but t h e y h e l p e d the peasants i n t h e i r w o r k . 22  S c h o o l was h e l d i n the  L i n d s a y p r o v i d e s m a n y s p e c i f i c e x a m p l e s i n his t r a n s l a t i o n s .  See o p .  cit.  winter,  25  w h e n t h e r e was l i t t l e w o r k to b e d o n e , a n d suspended d u r i n g s p r i n g s o w i n g a n d autumn h a r v e s t i n g , so t h a t a d u l t s c o u l d r e c e i v e e d u c a t i o n w i t h m i n i m a l d i s r u p t i o n i n t h e i r d a i l y lives.  S c h o o l i n g was to be i n the s e r v i c e of the p e o p l e , not a means of s i p h o n i n g the  most t a l e n t e d to t h e c i t i e s , d e p r i v i n g r u r a l a r e a s of t h e i r s k i l l s a n d c r e a t i n g r u r a l / u r b a n dichotomies.  T a l e n t was to be spread t h i n k a n d m a d e a v a i l a b l e to as m a n y p e o p l e as  p o s s i b l e , r a t h e r than b e i n g c o n c e n t r a t e d a n d c h a n n e l l e d f o r s p e c i f i c t a s k s .  This a p p r o a c h  has b e e n l a b e l l e d ' b u i l d i n g o n the w o r s t ' a n d is t i e d i n t o the M a o i s t v i s i o n of m a n .  nq  W e s t e r n e c o n o m i c t h e o r y h o l d s t h a t d e v e l o p m e n t s h o u l d p r o c e e d from a c o n c e n t r a t i o n a n d d e v e l o p m e n t of the best resources ( w h e t h e r human or m a t e r i a l ) to the p o i n t w h e r e the e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n b e n e f i t s a n d the s o c i e t y as a w h o l e ' d e v e l o p s ' .  Thus, e d u c a -  t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n t o those best q u a l i f e d a n d g r a d u a l l y e x t e n d e d u n t i l a l l r e c e i v e its benefits.  The p r o b l e m w i t h this process is t h a t it has a ' t r i c k l e - d o w n ' e f f e c t :  although  e v e r y o n e i n a p o p u l a t i o n m i g h t e v e n t u a l l y b e n e f i t , there is g r e a t u n e v e n n e s s i n v o l v e d . P e o p l e i n t h e c o u n t r y s i d e d o not r e c e i v e as g o o d a n e d u c a t i o n as p e o p l e i n the c i t i e s ; the w o r k i n g c l a s s does not r e c e i v e as many m a t e r i a l b e n e f i t s as the e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l c l a s s ; small firms d o not m a k e as m u c h p r o f i t as d o c o r p o r a t i o n s ; the T h i r d W o r l d does not ' d e v e l o p ' as fast as does the W e s t . not o n l y r e m a i n but t h e y g r o w .  G a p s b e t w e e n r i c h a n d poor w i t h i n a n d b e t w e e n c o u n t r i e s It is b e c o m i n g a p p a r e n t that the ' d e v e l o p m e n t ' of some  is based on the c o n t i n u i n g ' u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t ' of o t h e r s .  The i n d u s t r i a l i z e d W e s t needs  the resources of the T h i r d W o r l d to c o n t i n u e its o w n process of g r o w t h .  By t a k i n g these  from the T h i r d W o r l d , it d e p r i v e s the l a t t e r from i n d u s t r i a l i z i n g i n its turn a n d ' c a t c h i n g up'.  oq John G . G u r l e y , op. c i t . article.  pp. 3 3 8 - 9 .  The f o l l o w i n g a r g u m e n t is b a s e d o n this  The M a o i s t v i s i o n of man a p p r o a c h e s the w h o l e c o n c e p t o f d e v e l o p m e n t f r o m the other e n d .  Rather than ' b u i l d i n g on the b e s t ' , it sees d e v e l o p m e n t as p r o c e e d i n g  f r o m a ' b u i l d i n g on the w o r s t ' . ( i b i d , p. 3 3 2 ) .  N o b o d y rises or prospers unless a l l a r e a b l e to do so  Progress is not measured s o l e l y i n e c o n o m i c terms.  a n d b e n e f i t s of d e v e l o p m e n t r e c e i v e as m u c h , if not m o r e ,  The s o c i a l costs  attention.  B e c a u s e e v e r y s o c i e t y has a h i s t o r i c a l l e g a c y o n w h i c h it is b a s e d , the v i s i o n s a n d g o a l s of its p e o p l e a r e c i r c u m s c r i b e d by h i s t o r i c a l f a c t .  In C h i n a , the f a c t of w a r  a n d the means n e c e s s a r y to f i g h t a n d w i n it l e d the C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s to d e v e l o p the t h e o r y of the 'mass l i n e ' .  B e y o n d the i m m e d i a t e w a r t i m e s i t u a t i o n , h o w e v e r , there was  a n o t h e r v i s i o n - t h a t of c r e a t i n g a c o m m u n i s t s o c i e t y . m o v e m e n t , h e l p e d f a s h i o n that v i s i o n .  M a o T s e - t u n g , as l e a d e r of the  Basic i n his v i s i o n of c o m m u n i s t man was the  p o p u l i s t a n d v o l u n t a r i s t s t r a i n i n his b a c k g r o u n d a n d t h i n k i n g .  It has a l r e a d y b e e n s t a t e d t h a t the o r i g i n a l base a r e a i n the N o r t h , l e d b y the p a r t i s a n s , was g o v e r n e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h p r i n c i p l e s v e r y s i m i l a r to those t h a t M a o was developing in K i a n g s i .  The partisans t h e m s e l v e s shared s i m i l a r l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s to M a o ' s .  " I n d e e d , v i r t u a l l y the e n t i r e l e a d e r s h i p n u c l e u s of the p a r t i s a n m o v e m e n t i n  northern  Shensi was d r a w n from student a c t i v i s t s a t t e n d i n g m i d d l e s c h o o l i n the e x h i l i r a t i n g mosphere w h i c h f o l l o w e d the . ' ' ' M a y 4 t h M o v e m e n t " ( S e l d e n , p. 2 0 ) .  at-  "It was a m o n g  e l i t e y o u t h e x p o s e d to d i v e r s e i d e o l o g i c a l currents i n the a r e a ' s m i d d l e s c h o o l s t h a t the tensions b e t w e e n t w o worlds a n d t h e i n s e c u r i t y b r e d by the b a n k r u p t c y of  traditional  values and institutions were sharply f o c u s e d .  These y o u n g men f r e q u e n t l y assumed l e a d e r -  s h i p of p a r t i s a n m o v e m e n t s " ( i b i d . ,  The f o r e i g n i m p a c t , w h e n a d d e d to a l l the  p. 4 3 ) .  s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c i l l s of t h e s o c i e t y , was p r o b a b l y the d e c i d i n g f a c t o r i n p r e v e n t i n g the partisans from f o l l o w i n g the r o a d of t r a d i t i o n a l r e b e l h e r o e s .  That t h i n g s  f o r e i g n h a d such a n i m p a c t is p r o b a b l y due to the e d u c a t i o n of these y o u t h s , w h e r e t r a d i t i o n a l i d e a s a n d w a y s of d o i n g things c a m e i n c o n f l i c t w i t h W e s t e r n modes of thought i n a s e t t i n g w h e r e n a t i o n a l i s m was b e c o m i n g a v e r y i m p o r t a n t t r e n d .  This e d u c a t i o n a l  b a c k g r o u n d , t o g e t h e r w i t h a c t u a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , was p r o b a b l y r e s p o n s i b l e for p u s h i n g these i n t e l l e c t u a l s to j o i n the p a r t i s a n s , w h e r e t h e y b e c a m e c h i e f l y r e s p o n s i b l e for d i r e c t i n g the m o v e m e n t towards r u r a l a n d s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n .  M a o T s e - t u n g f i t s i n t o this p a t t e r n .  B e f o r e M a o l e f t h o m e , his f a m i l y h a d a c q u i r e d m i d d l e - p e a s a n t status ( S c h r a m , p. 1 9 ) .  H e l e f t home to f u r t h e r his e d u c a t i o n .  W h e n r e v o l u t i o n b r o k e out i n his o w n  p r o v i n c e of H u n a n i n 1 9 1 1 , M a o j o i n e d the a r m y .  H e was not e n g a g e d i n a n y f i g h t i n g  a n d r e t u r n e d a f t e r s i x months to resume his s t u d i e s , t h e ' r e v o l u t i o n ' h a v i n g b e e n a b o r t e d . W h i l e i n the a r m y , M a o showed t h a t " h e h a d so f a r a b s o r b e d the student m e n t a l i t y t h a t he spent a s i g n i f i c a n t part o f his m o n t h l y w a g e s of s e v e n d o l l a r s i n b u y i n g w a t e r from the water carriers.  The s o l d i e r s w e r e e x p e c t e d to b r i n g i t t h e m s e l v e s f r o m o u t s i d e t h e c i t y ,  but M a o c o n s i d e r e d it b e n e a t h his d i g n i t y as a n i n t e l l e c t u a l to c a r r y a n y t h i n g " ( i b i d . , p. 3 4 ) . It w o u l d be h a r d to o v e r e s t i m a t e the i m p o r t a n c e of these f i v e y e a r s ( 1 9 1 3 - 1 8 ) i n M a o ' s l i f e .  They w e r e ,  f i r s t of a l l , the y e a r s d u r i n g w h i c h he a c q u i r e d a g r e a t part of his e d u c a t i o n , b o t h c l a s s i c a l a n d m o d e r n , Chinese and W e s t e r n .  But t h e y w e r e more t h a n t h a t .  They l a u n c h e d M a o o n a b r i e f c a r e e r i n t e a c h i n g w h i c h s e r v e d as a s t e p p i n g - s t o n e to a w i d e r r o l e . M o r e i m p o r t a n t s t i l I , p e r h a p s , the i n t e l l e c t u a l l y a l e r t a n d p o l i t i c a l l y c o n s c i o u s student b o d y of the First N o r m a l S c h o o l , a n d of o t h e r b o y s ' a n d g i r l s ' schools in C h a n g s h a , provided M a o w i t h an ideal  28  t r a i n i n g g r o u n d for his a p p r e n t i c e s h i p as a p o l i t i c a l worker.  There he d e v e l o p e d i d e a s a n d t e c h n i q u e s  w h i c h he was to a p p l y l a t e r ; there he a c q u i r e d f r i e n d s a n d c o m r a d e s , some of whom w e r e to f o l l o w his l e a d e r s h i p u n t i l the f i n a l v i c t o r y i n 1949 ( i b i d . , p. 3 6 ) . H o w e v e r , e v e n as he was e d u c a t i n g h i m s e l f a n d b e c o m i n g p o l i t i c a l l y a c t i v e , " M a o T s e - t u n g r e m a i n e d p r o f o u n d l y i m b u e d w i t h the peasant e n v i r o n m e n t of his c h i l d hood"  ( i b i d . , p. 4 3 ) .  " E d g a r S n o w , the f i r s t f o r e i g n j o u r n a l i s t to i n t e r v i e w h i m , d e s -  c r i b e d M a o j u s t l y as c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a c o m b i n a t i o n of i n t e l l e c t u a l d e p t h a n d peasant shrewdness"  ( i b i d . , p. 2 0 9 ) .  From his student days o n , M a o was v e r y c o n c e r n e d w i t h  the p r e s e r v a t i o n of the C h i n e s e ' n a t i o n ' a g a i n s t f o r e i g n a g g r e s s i o n .  This c o n c e r n b e c a m e  part of his v i s i o n of s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l a n d c u l t u r a l r e v o l u t i o n a m o n g the C h i n e s e p e a s a n t r y , a n d the e c o n o m i c t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of t h e r u r a l w a y of l i f e .  M a o ' s three decades of p o l i t i c a l  e x p e r i e n c e b e f o r e f i n a l v i c t o r y i n 1949 h a d t a u g h t h i m " t h e i m p o r t a n c e of mass s u p p o r t , a n d the means f o r m o b i l i z i n g  it.  H a v i n g h i m s e l f issued from the C h i n e s e p e a s a n t r y , he u n d e r s t o o d t h e needs a n d the i n t e l l e c t u a l  world  of t h e m a s s e s . . . M a o ' s l e a d e r s h i p s t y l e , s t r o n g l y m a r k e d b y the c o n v e n t i o n s of p o p u l a r  literature,  brought him c l o s e r to the p e a s a n t r y , but m i g h t e a s i l y a p p e a r u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d to t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l s a n d the bourgeoisie.  C o n v e r s e l y , his a i m of W e s t e r n i z i n g  and modernizing C h i n a (though in M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t terms) met w i t h the a p p r o v a l of a l a r g e part of the u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n , but was v a g u e l y d i s t u r b i n g to the peasants"  ( i b i d . , p. 2 5 3 ) .  From this b a c k g r o u n d c a m e M a o ' s c o m m i t m e n t to the p o p u l a r w i l l a n d his d e v e l o p m e n t of 'mass l i n e ' t h e o r i e s a n d c o n c e p t s .  M a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s a n d his o w n e x p e r i -  e n c e s showed h i m t h a t r e v o l u t i o n a n d v i c t o r y w e r e i m p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t the a c t i v e c o o p e r a t i o n a n d p a r t i c i p a t i o n of e v e r y member of s o c i e t y .  A p a r t from this p o p u l i s t s t r a i n ,  was a ' v o l u n t a r i s t ' b e l i e f i n the n a t u r a l goodness of man a n d the c a p a b i l i t y of the human w i l l to o v e r c o m e a l l o b s t a c l e s .  " T h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a d i t i o n e m p h a s i z e s that human w i l l ,  29  when properly o r g a n i z e d , can overcome all obstacles and a c h i e v e all g o a l s . " sists of a n " i n f i n i t e f a i t h i n the p e o p l e .  It c o n -  OA  ( M a o ' s ) f a i t h in the a b i l i t y of s e l f - c o n s c i o u s men to mold objective social reality in accordance with their ideas a n d i d e a l s . . . i m p l i e d , a m o n g o t h e r t h i n g s , t h a t r e v o l u t i o n i n C h i n a n e e d not be d e p e n d e n t o n a n y p r e d e t e r m i n e d l e v e l s of s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t a n d that i m m e d i a t e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r r e v o l u t i o n a r y a c t i o n n e e d not be r e s t r i c t e d by o r t h o d o x M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t f o r m u l a s . It a l s o i m p l i e d a s p e c i a l c o n c e r n for d e v e l o p i n g and maintaining 'correct' ideological consciousness, the u l t i m a t e l y d e c i s i v e f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g r e v o l u t i o n a r y success or f a i l u r e . C o r r e c t t h o u g h t , i n the M a o i s t v i e w , is the f i r s t a n d e s s e n t i a l p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r correct revolutionary a c t i o n . . .The C h e n g Feng C a m p a i g n o f 1 9 4 2 - 4 4 for the r e c t i f i c a t i o n of ' u n d e s i r a b l e ' ideas a n d i d e o l o g i c a l t e n d e n c i e s was the most i n t e n s i v e a p p l i c a t i o n of a g e n e r a l C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t pol i c y . 2 5  To understand the reasons for the C h i n e s e success i n the Y e n a n p e r i o d , i t is of s p e c i a l i m p o r t a n c e to t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t M a o ' s g e n u i n e l y p o p u l i s t f a i t h i n the peasant masses as p o t e n t i a l bearers of s o c i a l i s t consciousness.  revolutionary  For it is this f a i t h t h a t p e r m i t t e d - a n d  i n d e e d d i c t a t e d - the m u c h c e l e b r a t e d M a o i s t n o t i o n of 'the mass l i n e ' , the v a r i o u s p r i n c i p l e s a n d r u l e s by w h i c h Communist cadres became intimately a n d i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the peasant masses.  involved  The M a o i s t  m a x i m that i n t e l l e c t u a l s a n d party c a d r e s must b e c o m e the p u p i l s of the masses b e f o r e t h e y c a n b e c o m e t h e i r t e a c h e r s was i n f a c t w i d e l y p r a c t i c e d i n the Y e n a n d a y s . H a d it b e e n o t h e r w i s e , the C o m m u n i s t s c o u l d n e v e r h a v e a c q u i r e d the mass support a n d c o o p e r a t i o n a m o n g the peasantry t h a t was so e s s e n t i a l to the s u c c e s s f u l e m p l o y ment of the s t r a t e g y of ' p e o p l e ' s w a r ' ( i b i d . , p.  286-7).  See " C o m m e n t s by M i c h e l O k s e n b e r g " i n C h i n a i n C r i s i s , e d i t e d by P i n g - t i H o a n d T d n g j J s o u , the U n i v e r s i t y of C h i c a g o Press, C h i c a g o , 1 9 6 8 , p. 4 8 9 i n V o l u m e O n e , Book T w o . 25  M a u r i c e M e i s n e r , " Y e n a n C o m m u n i s m a n d the Rise of the C h i n e s e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c "  i n M o d e r n East A s i a , U.S.A.,  e d i t e d by J a m e s B. C r o w l e y , H a r c o u r t , B r a c e a n d W o r l d ,  1970, pp. 2 8 3 - 2 8 4 .  Inc.,  If the p r e c e d i n g is i n f a c t the c a s e , t h e n the p r i m a c y a n d c o m p l e x i t y of the ' p r o b l e m of the i n t e l l e c t u a l s ' as it arose w i t h the b e g i n n i n g s of the r e v o l u t i o n a r y m o v e m e n t s , a n d as it has c r o p p e d u p a g a i n a n d a g a i n s i n c e t h e n ( t h r o u g h the Y e n a n p e r i o d , t h r o u g h L i b e r a t i o n , t h r o u g h the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n a n d b e y o n d ) b e c o m e s c l e a r .  A  l a r g e number of r e v o l u t i o n a r y l e a d e r s , i n c l u d i n g M a o T s e - t u n g a n d L i u C h i h - t a n , h a d a b a c k g r o u n d of i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t y as a n e l e m e n t i n t h e i r f o r m a t i o n as r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s . O n c e r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s , h o w e v e r , t h e i r m a i n c o n c e r n g r a d u a l l y b e c a m e the p e a s a n t r y .  A s this thesis p r o c e e d s through a n e x a m i n a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y mass e d u c a t i o n , a f u n d a m e n t a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n s h o u l d c o m e to l i g h t - t h a t b e t w e e n the i n t e l l e c t u a l s a n d the p e a s a n t r y .  This c o n t r a d i c t i o n is present i n the person o f M a o .  I b e g a n l i f e as a student a n d at s c h o o l a c q u i r e d the w a y s of a s t u d e n t ; I t h e n used to f e e l it u n d i g n i f i e d to d o e v e n a l i t t l e m a n u a l l a b o u r , s u c h as c a r r y i n g my o w n l u g g a g e i n the p r e s e n c e of my f e l l o w s t u d e n t s , w h o w e r e i n c a p a b l e of c a r r y i n g a n y t h i n g , e i t h e r o n t h e i r shoulders or i n t h e i r h a n d s .  A t that time I f e l t  t h a t i n t e l l e c t u a l s w e r e t h e o n l y c l e a n p e o p l e i n the w o r l d , w h i l e i n c o m p a r i s o n workers a n d peasants w e r e dirty.  I d i d not m i n d w e a r i n g the c l o t h e s of o t h e r i n -  t e l l e c t u a l s , b e l i e v i n g them c l e a n , but I w o u l d not put on c l o t h e s b e l o n g i n g to a w o r k e r or p e a s a n t , b e l i e v i n g them d i r t y .  But a f t e r I b e c a m e a r e v o l u t i o n a r y a n d  l i v e d w i t h w o r k e r s a n d peasants a n d w i t h s o l d i e r s of the r e v o l u t i o n a r y a r m y , I g r a d u a l l y c a m e to k n o w them w e l l , a n d t h e y g r a d u a l l y c a m e to k n o w me w e l l t o o . It was t h e n , a n d o n l y t h e n , t h a t I f u n d a m e n t a l l y c h a n g e d the bourgeois and petty-bourgeois f e e l i n g s i m p l a n t e d i n me i n the b o u r g e o i s s c h o o l s .  I c a m e to  f e e l t h a t c o m p a r e d w i t h the workers a n d peasants the unremoulded  i n t e l l e c t u a l s w e r e not c l e a n a n d t h a t ,  i n t h e last a n a l y s i s , the workers a n d peasants w e r e the c l e a n e s t p e o p l e a n d , e v e n though t h e i r hands  w e r e s o i l e d a n d t h e i r f e e t smeared w i t h c o w - d u n g , t h e y w e r e r e a l l y c l e a n e r t h a n the b o u r g e o i s a n d petty-bourgeois intellectuals. In c o m i n g to v i e w the p e a s a n t r y as the m o t i v e f o r c e i n rural r e v o l u t i o n , M a o d i d not d i s c a r d the r o l e of the i n t e l l e c t u a l , as b e c o m e s e v i d e n t i n the p r e c e d i n g q u o t e . H e sought to a c c o m m o d a t e the t w o , p r o v i d i n g the i n t e l l e c t u a l was w i l l i n g to i n t e g r a t e h i m s e l f i n the p e a s a n t ' s w a y of l i f e . f a v o u r of the o t h e r o n c e  Even w i t h i n h i m s e l f , M a o d i d not r e j e c t o n e s e l f i n  he b e c a m e a r e v o l u t i o n a r y .  Both t y p e s , the peasant a n d t h e  i n t e l l e c t u a l , h a d c r u c i a l q u a l i t i e s n e c e s s a r y to form the i d e a l - the ' c o m m u n i s t m a n ' . The peasant was c l o s e to the e a r t h - he l i v e d w i t h i t , on i t a n d t h r o u g h c h a n g i n g i t i n sured his o w n s u r v i v a l .  But he had b a s i c f a u l t s as w e l l .  H e was u n e d u c a t e d , narrow i n  o u t l o o k a n d , b e c a u s e of l o n g y e a r s of o p p r e s s i o n , h a d b e c o m e h i g h l y i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c a n d w i l l i n g to f i g h t o n l y f o r i m m e d i a t e i n t e r e s t s , a b a n d o n i n g t h e s t r u g g l e o n c e these w e r e satisfied.  2 7  H ere the i n t e l l e c t u a l possessed the q u a l i t i e s t h e peasant l a c k e d .  H e was  i d e a l i s t i c - he saw his l i f e a n d i m m e d i a t e s i t u a t i o n as f i t t i n g i n t o a l a r g e r p a t t e r n t h a t c o u l d be c h a n g e d to a c e r t a i n e x t e n t ; a n d he h a d a c q u i r e d c e r t a i n s k i l l s ( i n t e l l e c t u a l a n d p h y s i c a l ) t h a t e n a b l e d h i m to b e t t e r his o w n s i t u a t i o n . peasant.  But he l a c k e d the q u a l i t i e s of t h e '  H e was d i v o r c e d from m a t e r i a l p r o d u c t i o n a n d t e n d e d to c o n s i d e r h i m s e l f a b o v e  or b e t t e r t h a n those w h o w o r k e d w i t h t h e i r h a n d s .  The . e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i m e n t d u r i n g the Y e n a n y e a r s was a n a t t e m p t to d r a w the two types t o g e t h e r .  E d u c a t i o n was of utmost i m p o r t a n c e , not o n l y b e c a u s e it c o u l d g i v e  26 M a o Tse-tung, op. c i t . ,  V o l u m e III,  p. , 7 3 .  The emphasis is m i n e .  97  W i l l i a m H i n t o n i n F a n s h e n , a n d E r i c W o l f i n Peasant W a r s of the T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y ( H a r p e r & R o w , P u b l i s h e r s , N e w Y o r k , 1 9 6 9 , p p . 1 0 3 - 1 5 5 ) , d o c u m e n t these n e g a t i v e q u a l i t i e s of the p e a s a n t r y . them i n L o n g Bow V i l l a g e .  H i n t o n d e s c r i b e s i n v i v i d terms the means sought t o o v e r c o m e  the peasants a n d t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , the c a d r e s , c e r t a i n i n t e l l e c t u a l tools a n d t r a i n i n g , but b e c a u s e it c o u l d be a means to b r e a k the b a r r i e r t h a t the i n t e l l e c t u a l s h a d set up b e t w e e n t h e m s e l v e s a n d the ' m a s s e s ' .  W h i l e the peasants w e r e to l e a r n f r o m the c a d r e s a n d  i n t e l l e c t u a l s , the i n t e l l e c t u a l s w e r e to l e a r n f r o m the p e o p l e .  Conditions, however,  w e r e f a r f r o m i d e a l f o r the pursuit of this t w o - w a y t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . e v e n s u c h b a s i c t o o l s as l i t e r a c y .  The peasants l a c k e d  M a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s made it e x t r e m e l y hard f o r b a s i c  p h y s i c a l s u r v i v a l , n e v e r m i n d personal t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . f o r the i m p r o v e m e n t of m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s .  Y e t the l a t t e r was s e e n as c r u c i a l  A g r i c u l t u r e h a d to be c h a n g e d f r o m a system  b a s e d on a n i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c peasant e c o n o m y to a c o o p e r a t i v e form of f a r m i n g i n order t h a t l a r g e r y i e l d s be o b t a i n e d . and work w i t h others.  This i n v o l v e d l e a r n i n g t e c h n i q u e s , a n d l e a r n i n g to c o o p e r a t e  E d u c a t i o n , i n o t h e r w o r d s , was not a p r i v i l e g e t h a t c o u l d be p u r -  sued o n c e e v e r y o n e h a d e n o u g h to e a t a n d l e i s u r e t i m e to s p a r e . n e e d e d to i m p r o v e m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s a n d r a i s e l i v i n g s t a n d a r d s .  It was a c r u c i a l i n p u t , A s it was the w h o l e  p o p u l a t i o n , a n d not o n l y a c h o s e n f e w , w h o w e r e to b e c o m e b e t t e r o f f , p a r t i c i p a t e i n the e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s .  everyone had to  B e c a u s e not e v e r y o n e s h a r e d the same l i f e e x p e r i -  e n c e , e d u c a t i o n t o o k o n a d i f f e r e n t m e a n i n g f o r the v a r i o u s segments of the p o p u l a t i o n . It was the task of the C C P to c o o r d i n a t e this process a n d see t h a t it was f u n c t i o n a l .  Historical conditions, however, again intervened. and c i v i l war f o l l o w e d .  The J a p a n e s e w e r e d e f e a t e d  L i b e r a t i o n was f i n a l l y a c h i e v e d i n 1 9 4 9 .  The m a i n task of the  C o m m u n i s t s now was to u n i f y the c o u n t r y a n d l e a r n how to g o v e r n a n d a d m i n i s t e r The e d u c a t i o n e x p e r i m e n t , i n the m e a n t i m e , h a d passed i n t o the b a c k g r o u n d . w e r e j u d g e d p r i m a r y a n d e d u c a t i o n made to serve t h e m .  it.  O t h e r needs  The last c h a p t e r w i l l e x a m i n e this  s i t u a t i o n a n d t r a c e the c o u r s e e d u c a t i o n f o l l o w e d d u r i n g the 1950's a n d 1 9 6 0 ' s .  It was not  t h a t the e x p e r i m e n t was r e j e c t e d .  From t i m e to t i m e , attempts w e r e m a d e to i m p l e m e n t  i t , a n d these attempts w i l l b e d e s c r i b e d .  H o w e v e r , the e x p e r i m e n t was part o f a l a r g e r  v i s i o n , t h a t of the 'mass l i n e ' , a n d the 'mass l i n e ' i n the f i f t i e s was not so m u c h a b a n d o n e d as put to one s i d e as stress was p l a c e d on i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n a n d the b u i l d i n g of a socialist economy.  The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r w i l l e x a m i n e i n more d e t a i l the n a t u r e of e d u c a t i o n i n the Y e n a n e r a .  T h e last c h a p t e r w i l l then t r a c e e d u c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t s t h r o u g h the  1950's a n d 1 9 6 0 ' s , u p to the t i m e of the G r e a t P r o l e t a r i a n C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n .  CHAPTER  THREE  E d u c a t i o n i n the L i b e r a t e d A r e a s  In the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , a n a t t e m p t was made to show w h y s u c h p r i n c i p l e s as the 'mass l i n e , ' d e m o c r a t i c c e n t r a l i s m ' , a n d 'from the p e o p l e , to the p e o p l e ' , w e r e 1  developed and judged c r u c i a l for revolutionary success.  This c h a p t e r w i l l a t t e m p t t o  show how these p r i n c i p l e s w e r e t r a n s l a t e d i n t o e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y a n d w h a t this meant for e d u c a t i o n i n the l i b e r a t e d z o n e s d u r i n g the Y e n a n e r a .  By the e n d of 1 9 3 8 , the C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s h e l d the f o l l o w i n g a r e a s :  the  S h e n - K a n - N i n g Border R e g i o n , the c a p i t o l of w h i c h ( P a o - a n ) was m o v e d t o Y e n a n a f t e r the S i a n i n c i d e n t ; N o r t h w e s t S h a n s i , S h a n s i - C h a h a r - H o p e i , w h i c h h a d t w o base a r e a s ; S o u t h e a s t S h a n s i w h e r e the C o m m u n i s t army was h e a d q u a r t e r e d ; S h a n t u n g , whose a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was s t i l l i n the hands of the K M T ; a n d v a r i o u s parts b e t w e e n S h a n g h a i a n d N a n k i n g , w h e r e the N e w F o u r t h A r m y was f i g h t i n g ( L i n d s a y , p. 9 ) .  U n t i l the a u t u m n of 1 9 3 8 , the J a p a n e s e w e r e s a t i s f i e d w i t h c a p t u r i n g a n d h o l d i n g r a i l w a y l i n e s , m a k i n g l i t t l e e f f o r t to p e n e t r a t e i n t o t e r r i t o r y a w a y from t h e m .  This  g a v e the C o m m u n i s t s t i m e to b u i l d u p a n d o r g a n i z e g u e r r i l l a z o n e s b e h i n d J a p a n e s e l i n e s of o p e r a t i o n .  H o w e v e r , b y l a t e a u t u m n i n 1938 u n t i l 1 9 4 2 , J a p a n e s e o f f e n s i v e s g r e w  a n d b e c a m e d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t l o c a l peasant p o p u l a t i o n s .  T h e y s t a r t e d to e m p l o y a system  o f c l o s e l y - s p a c e d forts c o n n e c t e d by d i t c h e s , w h i c h made p e n e t r a t i o n of J a p a n e s e l i n e s m u c h more d i f f i c u l t ( i b i d . , p.  12).  35  By the e n d of 1 9 4 3 , C o m m u n i s t areas h a d e x p a n d e d to i n c l u d e S h a n s i - S u i y a n , S h a n s i - H o p e i - H o n a n - S h a n t u n g , a C o m m u n i s t - l e d Shantung provincial government,  North  K i a n g s u a n d the K i a n g s u - A n h u i - C h e k i a n g B o r d e r , a n a r e a b e t w e e n H o n g k o n g a n d C a n t o n , a n d H a i n a n Island ( i b i d . , p.  11).  L i b e r a t e d a r e a s w e r e of t w o t y p e s w h i c h o f t e n s h a d e d off i n t o e a c h o t h e r ; s t a b l e base a r e a s a n d g u e r r i l l a a r e a s .  " E a c h m a i n C o m m u n i s t R e g i o n h a d o n e or more  s t a b l e base a r e a s w h i c h w e r e f r e e from the e n e m y f o r most of the y e a r a n d u s u a l l y got at l e a s t s e v e r a l d a y s ' w a r n i n g of e n e m y a t t a c k . functioning administration.  H e r e it was p o s s i b l e to h a v e r e g u l a r o p e n l y  In e d u c a t i o n a l w o r k it was p o s s i b l e to h a v e a r e g u l a r s c h o o l  s y s t e m , to h o l d c o n f e r e n c e s , t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s , e t c . "  In the g u e r r i l l a a r e a s , " ( e d u c a t i o n -  a l work h a d to be a r r a n g e d w i t h the s c h o o l s so t h e y c o u l d be d i s p e r s e d at v e r y short n o t i c e i n c a s e of e n e m y a t t a c k or e l s e o p e r a t e under some sort of c o v e r , s u c h as r e g i s t e r i n g as a s c h o o l i n the e n e m y e d u c a t i o n a l system but t e a c h i n g from C o m m u n i s t a r e a t e x t books w h e n the e n e m y was not t h e r e " ( i b i d . , p .  12).  The C o m m u n i s t a r e a s c o u l d v a r y i n terms of t w o d i f f e r e n t v a r i a b l e s , the a r e a t h e y c o v e r e d a n d the d i v i s i o n of this a r e a b e t w e e n s t a b l e base a n d g u e r r i l l a a r e a .  Between  1940 a n d 1943 the t o t a l a r e a was e x p a n d i n g but the p o p u l a t i o n under C o m m u n i s t c o n t r o l was f a l l i n g b e c a u s e the J a p a n e s e w e r e r e d u c i n g more a n d more of the s t a b l e base areas to g u e r r i l l a a r e a s .  B e t w e e n 1943 a n d 1945 the  b o u n d a r i e s of the C o m m u n i s t areas d i d not e x p a n d v e r y g r e a t l y but t h e r e was a r a p i d rise i n p o p u l a t i o n under C o m m u n i s t c o n t r o l b e c a u s e the J a p a n e s e f o r t - a n d - b l o c k a d e - l i n e system was b e i n g pushed b a c k towards the r a i l w a y s a n d m a i n c i t i e s ( i b i d . , p.  13).  T h u s , the l i b e r a t e d a r e a s w e r e s e p a r a t e d from o n e a n o t h e r by strips of e n e m y occupied territory.  This r e q u i r e d that e a c h R e g i o n be a b l e to g o v e r n a n d a d m i n i s t e r its  a r e a i n a f a i r l y autonomous m a n n e r . government.  In these y e a r s , t h e r e w a s , i n f a c t , no f o r m a l c e n t r a l  R a t h e r , the C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e of the C C P w o u l d issue g e n e r a l p o l i c y d i r e c -  t i v e s to the d i f f e r e n t R e g i o n s , w h i c h w o u l d t h e n use them as a basis for d r a w i n g u p l a w s and regulations.  This was to be d o n e i n the l i g h t of l o c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s a n d c o n d i t i o n s .  W i t h i n e a c h R e g i o n , there was a system of b u r e a u c r a t i c d i v i s i o n s .  There was  a f o r m a l p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n S h a n s i - H o p e i - H o n a n - S h a n t u n g , S h a n t u n g , the N o r t h east ( M a n c h u r i a ) , Central C h i n a .  S h a n s i - C h a h a r - H o p e i , S h a n s i - S u i y u a n , S h e n s i - K a n s u - N i n g h s i a , and  E a c h of these R e g i o n s was d i v i d e d i n t o s u b - R e g i o n s .  Each sub-Region  was t h e n d i v i d e d i n t o c h u a n c h u ( w h i c h a p p r o x i m a t e d the c h o u of the o l d i m p e r i a l s t r u c ture a n d the s u p e r v i s o r y d i s t r i c t s of the K M T system).  The c h u a n c h u w e r e d i v i d e d i n t o  h s i e n (or c o u n t i e s ) w h i c h w e r e t h e m s e l v e s d i v i d e d i n t o c h u . w e r e the v i l l a g e , or h s i a n g , g o v e r n m e n t s ( i b i d . , p.  The last l i n k s i n the c h a i n  15).  W i t h i n e a c h R e g i o n , b u r e a u c r a c y h a d a t e n d e n c y to d e v e l o p a n d f l o u r i s h u n t i l a p e a k was r e a c h e d by the e n d of 1 9 4 1 . The b a s i c g o v e r n m e n t a l organs i n w h i c h b u r e a u c r a t i c p r a c t i c e f l o u r i s h e d w e r e the s e c r e t a r i a t , a n d the d e partments of c i v i l a f f a i r s , f i n a n c e , e d u c a t i o n , a n d r e construction.  Each maintained b r a n c h . . .or v e r t i c a l  o r g a n i z a t i o n s l i n k i n g the r e g i o n , s u b r e g i o n , a n d d i s t r i c t offices.  L o w e r e c h e l o n s w e r e d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e to  t h e i r superiors w i t h i n these d e p a r t m e n t s .  Bureaucratic  a p p o i n t m e n t s w e r e made at the r e g i o n a l l e v e l b y the c i v i l affairs department in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h personnel o f f i c i a l s i n the i n d i v i d u a l d e p a r t m e n t s .  The result was  a c e n t r a l i z e d a n d autonomous b u r e a u c r a t i c system p e n e t r a t i n g to the d i s t r i c t l e v e l .  It was r e l a t i v e l y  immune  from c o n t r o l b y the party or e l e c t e d g o v e r n m e n t  officials  s u c h as the d i s t r i c t m a g i s t r a t e . ^  M a r k S e l d e n , The Y e n a n W a y i n R e v o l u t i o n a r y C h i n a ,  op. cit.,  p.  152.  37  This meant that p r i o r to 1942 these departments h a d a n e a r m o n o p o l y o n e x p e r i e n c e d c a d r e s , w h o p e r f o r m e d s p e c i a l i z e d tasks f o r t h e m .  A l l e g i e n c e was d i r e c t e d  towards o n e ' s s u p e r i o r i n the d e p a r t m e n t , versus the P a r t y , the p e o p l e at t h e v i l l a g e l e v e l , o r , for that m a t t e r , t h e r e v o l u t i o n .  This system of v e r t i c a l r u l e " e s t a b l i s h e d a c l e a r - c u t  c h a i n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a n d c o m m a n d w i t h i n e a c h d e p a r t m e n t a n d c o n c e n t r a t e d power i n Y e n a n " ( i b i d . , p. 2 1 7 ) . This c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of a u t h o r i t y at the r e g i o n a l l e v e l made it e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t to c o o r d i n a t e the w o r k of d e p a r t m e n t s at the d i s t r i c t a n d l o w e r l e v e l s or to r e s pond c r e a t i v e l y to l o c a l v a r i a t i o n s a n d e m e r g e n c i e s . The p r i c e of u n i f o r m a n d s t a b l e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was a t e n d e n c y t o w a r d b u r e a u c r a t i c r i g i d i t y w h i c h was the v e r y a n t i t h e s i s of the e g a l i t a r i a n a n d p a r t i c i p a t o r y thrust of m o b i l i z a t i o n p o l i t i c s . The tasks of g o v e r n ment w e r e to be l e f t to the e x p e r t s . . . O n e s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r o l l a r y of this system was the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of state resources such as s c h o o l s a n d industry i n b u r e a u c r a t i c centers, the regional and district c a p i t a l s where a d ministrative e f f i c i e n c y and controls were m a x i m i z e d . A s a r e s u l t , most townships a n d v i l l a g e s r e m a i n e d w i t h o u t a n d remote from s c h o o l s a n d p u b l i c l y f i n a n c e d industry w h i c h generated new ideas and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a n g e i n the border a r e a ( i b i d . , p p . 2 1 7 - 8 ) . The w a r t i m e a n d f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n that h a d d e v e l o p e d b y 1941 r e q u i r e d t h a t the C C P b e more i n t o u c h w i t h , a n d r e s p o n s i v e t o , the p e a s a n t r y . a number of c a m p a i g n s to be i n i t i a t e d .  This s i t u a t i o n c a u s e d  O n e of the p r i m a r y aims was to b r e a k b u r e a u c r a t i c  r i g i d i t y i n o r d e r t h a t g o v e r n m e n t b e more r e s p o n s i v e to l o c a l needs a n d more a b l e to d r a w u p a n d i m p l e m e n t p o l i c i e s that w e r e r e l e v a n t i n l o c a l s i t u a t i o n s .  V e r t i c a l r u l e was to be  r e p l a c e d b y d u a l r u l e i n the c a m p a i g n f o r c r a c k troops a n d s i m p l e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I n c r e a s i n g l y , i m p o r t a n t d e c i s i o n s w e r e made o n the spot in bureaucratic sections and interdepartmental at t h e c o u n t y l e v e l .  meetings  B u r e a u c r a t i c s e c t i o n s thus w o n  g r e a t e r a u t o n o m y v i s - a - v i s d e p a r t m e n t a l supervisors but w e r e s u b j e c t to more i n t e g r a t i o n a n d c o n t r o l by the  county magistrate and c o o r d i n a t i n g c o m m i t t e e s . . . (T)he o f f i c i a l w o r k i n g i n a c o u n t y s e c t i o n of the b u r e a u c r a c y . . . w a s r e q u i r e d to m o d i f y a n d a d a p t p o l i c y . . . T h e c a d r e w i t h a b r o a d grasp of l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s a n d the a b i l i t y to c o o r d i n a t e a n d u n i f y d i v e r s e p o l i c i e s was at a p r e m i u m .  These q u a l i -  ties w e r e c r i t i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t f o r the e f f e c t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g of the m a g i s t r a t e . ^ " D u a l r u l e s h i f t e d the l o c u s of p o w e r f r o m r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s w h i c h f r a m e d b r o a d o  p o l i c y l i n e s to l o w e r l e v e l s w h i c h i m p l e m e n t e d t h e m . "  This e n a b l e d g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y  i n r e l a t i o n to l o c a l demands a n d n e e d s .  A s l o n g as b u r e a u c r a t i c e f f i c i e n c y was stressed, the f o c u s as f a r as c a d r e s w e r e c o n c e r n e d was o n the t r a i n e d e x p e r t . changed.  W i t h the c h a n g e s i n i t i a t e d a f t e r 1 9 4 1 , the f o c u s  Local cadres were now g i v e n priority and i m p o r t a n c e .  g r e a t l y from the ' e x p e r t s ' .  In m a n y c a s e s , t h e y w e r e s i m p l y the most a c t i v e a n d h i g h l y  c o m m i t t e d peasants i n t h e i r v i l l a g e s . intellectual elite.  These c a d r e s d i f f e r e d  T h e y w e r e more a part of the p e a s a n t r y t h a n o f a n  A t the same t i m e , t h e y had more of a p o t e n t i a l i n l e a d i n g the p e a s a n -  try a n d e x p r e s s i n g w h a t i t was the p e a s a n t r y w a n t e d a n d n e e d e d t h a n those c a d r e s w i t h formal training stationed in regional c a p i t a l s .  H o w e v e r , because they were peasants, they  l a c k e d certain requirements c r u c i a l for governing and administering. ments was b a s i c l i t e r a c y .  O n e of these r e q u i r e -  E d u c a t i o n , i n the y e a r s after 1 9 4 1 , f o c u s e d o n g i v i n g these  c a d r e s such b a s i c t o o l s as l i t e r a c y , a c c o u n t i n g , k n o w l e d g e a b o u t s a n i t a t i o n a n d h y g i e n e , and rudimentary p o l i t i c a l training.  This ' n e w l i n e  1  i n e d u c a t i o n was a i m e d b e y o n d l o c a l  2  M a r k Selden, "The Y e n a n Legacy:  The M a s s L i n e " , o p . c i t . ,  pp. 119-20.  ^  M a r k S e l d e n , The Y e n a n W a y i n R e v o l u t i o n a r y C h i n a , o p . c i t . ,  p. 2 2 1 .  39  c a d r e s at the g e n e r a l peasant p o p u l a t i o n .  H o w e v e r , due to shortages i n t e a c h e r s a n d  m a t e r i a l s , a n d b e c a u s e of w a r t i m e n e c e s s i t i e s , l o c a l c a d r e s w e r e g i v e n p r i o r i t y .  This  p r i o r i t y in i t s e l f was a i m e d at the peasantry insofar a s , o n c e l o c a l c a d r e s r e c e i v e d some e d u c a t i o n , t h e y w e r e e x p e c t e d to ' t e a c h ' the peasants i n t h e i r v i l l a g e s t h e i r n e w s k i l l s . N o s o c i a l a g g r e g a t i o n c o u l d a d v a n c e as a b l o c k , Its i n d i v i d u a l members possessed v a r y i n g d e g r e e s of a w a r e ness a n d v a r y i n g c a p a c i t i e s for l e a r n i n g a n d g r o w t h . In r e a l l i f e one h a d to d e p e n d on the more a d v a n c e d to l e a d the less a d v a n c e d a n d on the less a d v a n c e d to l e a d the b a c k w a r d . . . T h e b a c k w a r d soon r e a c h e d the l e v e l of t h e i r t e a c h e r s , a n d so u n d e r s t a n d i n g s p i r a l l e d u n t i l the w h o l e c o n c e p t of w h a t was a d v a n c e d a n d w h a t was b a c k w a r d h a d to be r e v i s e d . W h e n such a process was c o n s c i o u s l y and s y s t e m a t i c a l l y unfolded year after y e a r , d e c a d e after d e c a d e , in a c o u n t r y s i d e c o n t a i n i n g m i l l i o n s of p e o p l e , the t o t a l e f f e c t was a s t o n i s h i n g . The w h o l e people became p o l i t i c i z e d , became conscious, became a c t i v e , a n d f i n a l l y d i d i n d e e d b e c o m e c a p a b l e of t r a n s f o r m i n g t h e i r w o r l d , a n d , i n t h a t p r o c e s s , of s t i l l f u r t h e r transforming t h e m s e l v e s ( H i n t o n , p. 6 1 0 ) . Before s u c h a process c o u l d be set i n m o t i o n , a c o n c e p t i o n of w h a t c o n s t i t u t e d ' a d v a n c e d ' had to be f o r m u l a t e d .  This was d o n e by M a o in his a m a l g a m a t i o n of v o l u n -  tarist and p o p u l i s t c o n c e p t s w i t h the M a r x i s t n o t i o n of ' c o m m u n i s t m a n ' . of this i d e a t o o k s e v e r a l y e a r s .  The d e v e l o p m e n t  In the m e a n t i m e , the W e s t e r n c o n c e p t of ' a d v a n c e d ' h a d  b e e n a d o p t e d a n d p r o v e d u n f e a s i b l e i n a peasant e n v i r o n m e n t g e a r e d to w a r .  Bureaucracy  was n e c e s s a r y i n order to e s t a b l i s h a n d r u l e g e o g r a p h i c a l areas s u b j e c t to m i l i t a r y a s s a u l t . H o w e v e r , there was a p o i n t at w h i c h b u r e a u c r a c y b e g a n to h a v e more n e g a t i v e t h a n p o s i tive repercussions.  This p o i n t was r e a c h e d i n 1 9 4 1 .  From t h a t y e a r t h r o u g h the  o n e s , a n e w d e c e n t r a l i z e d system was put i n t o o p e r a t i o n . p r i n c i p l e of 'mass l i n e ' .  following  The basis of this system was the  S u c h a system r e q u i r e d a d i f f e r e n t t y p e of c a d r e than h a d b e e n  receiving attention and training  previously.  40  Two types of c a d r e s , d i s t i n c t e l i t e s , b e g a n to form w i t h i n the g o v e r n m e n t at this t i m e .  The b u r e a u -  c r a c y , c e n t e r e d at the r e g i o n a l l e v e l i n Y e n a n , m a i n t a i n e d r e g u l a r c h a n n e l s to t h e d i s t r i c t as i n C h ' i n g a n d Nationalist China.  It was s t a f f e d b y e d u c a t i o n o f f i -  c i a l s c a p a b l e of h a n d l i n g the h e a v y f l o w of paper w o r k and reports.  O n the other h a n d , popularly e l e c t e d  governments and l o c a l o f f i c i a l s , i n c l u d i n g party a n d m i l i t a r y c a d r e s at the d i s t r i c t l e v e l a n d b e l o w , w e r e o v e r w h e l m i n g l y c o m p r i s e d of l o c a l a c t i v i s t s w h o rose i n the c o u r s e of the l a n d r e v o l u t i o n or i n subsequent m o b i l i z a t i o n c a m p a i g n s . A 1943 g o v e r n m e n t r e s o l u t i o n a n a l y z e d the c o m p o s i t i o n of the b u r e a u c r a c y as f o l l o w s : ' N i n e t y per c e n t of the s u b d i s t r i c t a n d t o w n s h i p c a d r e s are products of the r e v o l u t i o n a r y peasant s t r u g g l e a n d a r e p o s i t i v e e l e m e n t s c l o s e l y l i n k e d to the masses.  But  g e n e r a l l y they are d e f i c i e n t in cultural and i n t e l l e c t u a l d e v e l o p m e n t , thus l i m i t i n g t h e i r a b i l i t y for i n d e p e n d e n t work.  M o r e o v e r , t h e i r progress is g r e a t l y l i m i t e d b y  c o n c e p t s of v i l l a g e a n d f a m i l y . ' D i s t r i c t - l e v e l c a d r e s l i k e w i s e a r e of w o r k e r a n d peasant b a c k g r o u n d ( e s p e c i a l l y peasant) i n a m a j o r i t y of c a s e s .  F o r t y per c e n t r e c e i v e d p r i m a r y a n d m i d d l e  s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n , e i g h t y per c e n t h a d e x t e n s i v e e x p e r i e n c e i n the r e v o l u t i o n a r y s t r u g g l e t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e y b e c a m e c a d r e s of the border r e g i o n g o v e r n m e n t ; but t h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l l e v e l is l o w a n d c u l t u r e i n s u f f i cient.  They cannot a v o i d being n a r r o w - m i n d e d , and  are o f t e n u n a b l e to c o p e w i t h the n e w a n d c o m p l e x circumstances. ' A t the r e g i o n a l l e v e l more than s e v e n t y per c e n t of the c a d r e s h a v e p a r t i c i p a t e d s i n c e the w a r i n the p r o gram for y o u t h f u l i n t e l l e c t u a l s .  They have spirit and  the d e s i r e to l e a r n but a r e d e f i c i e n t i n a c t u a l l e a r n i n g , work, and practical e x p e r i e n c e ' ( S e l d e n , pp.  146-7).  A c a d r e t r a i n i n g a n d r e c t i f i c a t i o n ( c h e n g - f e n g ) c a m p a i g n was l a u n c h e d i n the s p r i n g of 1 9 4 2 .  It was h e r e that a s p e c i f i c " r e c t i f i c a t i o n m e t h o d o l o g y of i n t e n s i v e e d u c a -  t i o n , small-group study, c r i t i c i s m and s e l f - c r i t i c i s m , and thought r e f o r m . , .was d e v e l o p e d a n d i m p l e m e n t e d o n a s w e e p i n g s c a l e " ( i b i d . , p. 1 9 1 ) .  C h e n g - f e n g was b a s e d on a study  41  movement begun in Y e n a n in 1939, i n v o l v i n g 4000 cadres and students.  'Rectification  m e t h o d o l o g y ' was d e v e l o p e d a n d a p p l i e d at K ' a n g t a , ('Resist J a p a n U n i v e r s i t y ' ) , t h e i n g c a d r e - t r a i n i n g ins t i t u t e , based i n Y e n a n .  lead-  " I n t e n s e c r i t i c i s m a n d s e l f - c r i t i c i s m was  an extraordinarily e f f e c t i v e method for breaking down traditional  leadership conceptions,  for o v e r c o m i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n v a l u e s b e t w e e n o u t s i d e a n d l o c a l , e d u c a t e d a n d u n e d u c a t e d c a d r e s " ( i b i d . , p.  198). C h e n g - f e n g was d i r e c t e d t o w a r d b u i l d i n g a u n i f i e d Party w i t h common i d e a s , i d e o l o g y , a n d g o a l s . . . T o w a r d this e n d the Party l a u n c h e d a c a d r e e d u c a t i o n c a m p a i g n of u n p r e c e d e n t e d p r o p o r t i o n s . In the 1942 c h e n g - f e n g m o v e m e n t , M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m a n d e x a m p l e s of its a p p l i c a t i o n i n C h i n a p r o v i d e d the tools, and a basic r e c t i f i c a t i o n methodology - consisti n g of i n t e n s i v e e d u c a t i o n , s m a l l g r o u p s t u d y , c r i t i c i s m a n d s e l f - c r i t i c i s m , a n d t h o u g h t reform - was d e v e l o p e d t o w a r d a f u l l a n a l y s i s of the past a n d p r e sent problems c o n f r o n t i n g the Party a n d its i n d i v i d u a l cadres. 4  W h e r e a s c h e n g f e n g was c o n c e r n e d m a i n l y w i t h c a d r e s , o t h e r c a m p a i g n s , w i d e r i n s c o p e , d e v e l o p e d a l o n g s i d e or i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h r e c t i f i c a t i o n .  The c a m p a i g n for c r a c k troops a n d s i m p l e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was l a u n c h e d f r o m 1941 to 1 9 4 3 .  In order to r e d u c e c o s t s , the f o c u s of g o v e r n m e n t w o r k was s h i f t e d d o w n w a r d s to  the d i s t r i c t a n d v i l l a g e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s . bureaucracy.  This was a l s o a n a t t e m p t to c u r b the power of the  C a d r e s from h i g h e r b u r e a u c r a t i c l e v e l s w e r e sent ' d o w n ' to the d i s t r i c t s a n d  v i l l a g e s as part of the ' t o - t h e - v i l l a g e ' c a m p a i g n ( h s i a - h s i a n g , l a t e r more w i d e l y k n o w n as h s i a - f a n g ) of 1941 a n d 1942 ( i b i d . , p. 1 1 0 ) .  This c a m p a i g n s e r v e d to p r o v i d e i s o l a t e d  v i l l a g e s w i t h n e w l e a d e r s , m a n y of w h o m h a d a g r a s p of M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t p r i n c i p l e s :  4  M a r k S e l d e n , " T h e Y e n a n L e g a c y : The M a s s L i n e ,  1 1  op. c i t . ,  p.  104.  a n d c a m e from Y e n a n a w a r e of Party p o l i c y .  These c a d r e s , i n r u m , b e g a n to t a k e part  i n p r o d u c t i o n , o f t e n for the f i r s t t i m e i n t h e i r l i v e s .  H o w e v e r , "(t)he pragmatic and  s h o r t - r u n g o a l s of u s i n g ' n o n - p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r ' to o v e r c o m e t e m p o r a r y l a b o r shortages g a v e w a y to a n e w c o n c e p t i o n of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n l e a d e r s a n d t h e p e o p l e t h a t g r e w out of t h e i n t e r a c t i o n of o u t s i d e c a d r e s a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l s w i t h peasants a n d l o c a l cadres. Students a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l s s t u d i e d i n Y e n a n , p r e p a r a t o r y to b e i n g sent d o w n to the v i l l a g e s . The s e q u e n c e was s i g n i f i c a n t , for it was b e l i e v e d t h a t w i t h o u t prior assism i l a t i o n of n e w g o a l s a n d a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d the p e o p l e , i n t e l l e c t u a l s w e r e l i k e l y to r e m a i n a l i e n a t e d from the peasant masses, r e g a r d l e s s of e x t e n s i v e c o n t a c t w i t h v i l l a g e l i f e . . . I n the m a j o r i t y of c a s e s , i n t e l l e c t u a l s sent to the v i l l a g e s e r v e d as t e a c h e r s or as c a d r e s a s s i s t i n g i n the tasks of the l o c a l Party a n d g o v e r n m e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The c a m p a i g n was d e s i g n e d to o v e r c o m e the mutual i g n o r a n c e a n d p r e j u d i c e of i n t e l l e c t u a l s a n d peasants t h r o u g h s h a r i n g a n d o b s e r v i n g a c o m m o n e x p e r i e n c e a n d to o v e r c o m e p s y c h o l o g i c a l b a r r i e r s s e p a r a t i n g mental and manual l a b o r . ^ In a d d i t i o n , from 1942 u n t i l 1 9 4 4 , t h e r e was a c a m p a i g n to r e d u c e r e n t a n d interest, and a cooperative movement.  The p r o d u c t i o n m o v e m e n t of 1943 i n t r o d u c e d l a b o r h e r o c a m p a i g n s as a means of s t i m u l a t i n g a n d e n c o u r a g i n g the peasant e c o n o m y . In c o n t r a s t to m o d e r n i z i n g e l i t e s t h r o u g h o u t the T h i r d W o r l d , the p a r t y , i n its 1943 p r o d u c t i o n w a r , d r e w its p r i m a r y i n s p i r a t i o n a n d m o d e l s not from the i n d u s t r i a l i z e d W e s t but from the most c r e a t i v e e l e m e n t s of the Chinese peasantry.  A l t h o u g h outsiders m i g h t  initiate  and encourage c h a n g e , ultimate transformation required  M a r k S e l d e n , The Y e n a n W a y i n R e v o l u t i o n a r y C h i n a , o p . c i t . , M a r k S e l d e n , " T h e Y e n a n L e g a c y : The M a s s L i n e , "  op. cit.,  p. 2 2 6 . pp. 122-3.  43  l e a d e r s h i p t h a t was r o o t e d i n the c o m m u n i t y a n d c o m m i t t e d to b u i l d i n g a n e w e c o n o m y a n d a n e w s o c i e t y . ^ F i n a l l y , there was the e d u c a t i o n m o v e m e n t , l a u n c h e d i n 1 9 4 4 . The c r i t i q u e of e d u c a t i o n d e v e l o p e d d u r i n g the c h e n g f e n g movement p a r a l l e l l e d c r i t i c i s m s of b u r e a u c r a t i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . By 1 9 4 2 , the e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m , d e s p i t e f i v e y e a r s of r a p i d d e v e l o p m e n t , h a d b a r e l y s c r a t c h e d the s u r f a c e of the o v e r w h e l m i n g i l l i t e r a c y of the border r e g i o n . The party had a c t i v e l y e n c o u r a g e d peasant a t t e n d a n c e i n the e x p a n d i n g s c h o o l s y s t e m . But e d u c a t i o n r e m a i n e d e l i t e e d u c a t i o n i n that it was c e n t e r e d i n d i s t r i c t c a p i t a l s , c a t e r e d l a r g e l y to f a m i l i e s w h o c o u l d a f f o r d to send c h i l d r e n t h e r e for s t u d y , a n d l e f t most v i l l ages w i t h o u t s c h o o l s or c o n v e n i e n t a c c e s s to them ( i b i d . , p. 2 6 9 ) . O u t of a s c h o o l - a g e p o p u l a t i o n of 1 6 5 , 0 0 0 , i n 1937 t h e r e w e r e o n l y 5 6 0 0 primary-school students.  This number h a d o n l y r i s e n to 2 2 , 0 0 0 b y l a t e 1939 a n d 2 9 , 5 0 0  b y e a r l y 1944 ( i b i d . , p. 2 6 9 ) .  There w e r e many reasons f o r these l o w f i g u r e s .  r i c u l u m , d e s p i t e some c h a n g e s , r e m a i n e d i r r e l e v a n t to peasant needs or d e s i r e s .  The c u r Students  t e n d e d to a c q u i r e d i s d a i n for p h y s i c a l l a b o r , e v e n if t h e y w e r e o n l y i n the e l e m e n t a r y schools.  T h e i r parents t e n d e d to v i e w e d u c a t i o n as a means u p a n d out of v i l l a g e l i f e ,  a n d m a n y of the t e a c h e r s h e l d s i m i l a r v i e w s . From 1 9 4 3 , as a t t e n t i o n f o c u s e d on p r o d u c t i o n and o t h e r v i l l a g e p r o b l e m s , the results of the e d u c a t i o n a l system posed d i l e m m a s of t h e f i r s t m a g n i t u d e .  If e d u -  c a t i o n was to r e i n f o r c e Y e n a n - s t y l e e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p ment a n d c o m m u n i t y r e f o r m , it h a d to be p h y s i c a l l y a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l l y integrated with rural l i f e , that i s , l o c a t e d w i t h i n the v i l l a g e s a n d r e s p o n s i v e to l o c a l p r o b l e m s . . . These issues of mass versus e l i t e e d u c a t i o n , of c o m m u n i t y versus professional c o n t r o l of the s c h o o l s , a n d of the p o l i t i c a l and t e c h n i c a l c o n t e x t of e d u c a t i o n i n a  M a r k S e n d e n , The Y e n a n W a y i n R e v o l u t i o n a r y C h i n a , o p . c i t . ,  p. 2 6 3 .  44  c h a n g i n g s o c i e t y l a y at the heart of the e d u c a t i o n a l d e b a t e of 1944 ( i b i d . , p. 2 7 0 ) . The n e w p o p u l a r e d u c a t i o n m o v e m e n t stressed the a c q u i s i t i o n of l i t e r a c y a n d practical economic skills. was b a s e d on this c o n c e p t .  The 1941 s l o g a n , ' d e v e l o p p r o d u c t i o n , e x p a n d the s c h o o l s ' , A s the n e t w o r k of s c h o o l s was e x p a n d e d to r e a c h v i l l a g e  l e v e l s , t e a c h e r s w e r e o f t e n r e c r u i t e d w h o h a d l i t t l e or no f o r m a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s or e x perience.  P a r t - t i m e s c h o o l s , s u c h as n i g h t s c h o o l s , h a l f - d a y s c h o o l s , w i n t e r s c h o o l s a n d  l i t e r a c y g r o u p s , w e r e o p e n e d f o r workers a n d p e a s a n t s .  The o p e r a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e for  these s c h o o l s was ' m a n a g e m e n t b y the p e o p l e w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of g o v e r n m e n t min-pan concept).  1  (the  W h i l e o v e r - a l l p o l i c y a n d g e n e r a l problems r e m a i n e d i n the hands  of the g o v e r n m e n t , most of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for d e v e l o p i n g a n d r u n n i n g p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l s rested w i t h the v i l l a g e r s .  L a b o r heroes or l o c a l c a d r e s o f t e n b e c a m e p r i n c i p a l s or t e a c h e r s .  A l t h o u g h often i l l i t e r a t e , they communicated new ideas about e d u c a t i o n and p r o d u c t i o n . C a d r e s a n d students w e r e sent to t h e v i l l a g e s to h e l p them e l i m i n a t e i l l i t e r a c y ,  train  l o c a l l e a d e r s , a n d c r e a t e " a f o u n d a t i o n for the e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l c h a n g e s a l r e a d y r e v o l u t i o n i z i n g rural l i f e "  ( i b i d . , p. 2 7 1 ) . These t e a c h e r s f r e q u e n t l y r o t a t e d a m o n g s e v e r a l  v i l l a g e s , p l a c i n g ' l i t t l e t e a c h e r s ' ( u s u a l l y a p r o m i n e n t student) i n t h e i r s t e a d .  " J u s t as the party h a d a t t e m p t e d to b r i d g e the g a p b e t w e e n a c a d r e e l i t e a n d the p e o p l e i n the c h e n g - f e n g a n d ' t o - t h e - v i l l a g e ' m o v e m e n t s , i n the p o p u l a r e d u c a t i o n m o v e m e n t it sought to r e d e f i n e the r o l e of t e a c h e r .  The a l l - k n o w i n g , u n q u e s t i o n i n g  a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e was to y i e l d to a n i n s t r u c t o r whose success rested on his responsiveness to g e n u i n e p o p u l a r n e e d s ; f r e q u e n t l y he was a peer of h i s students a n d i n d e e d o f t e n a student h i m s e l f " ( i b i d . , p. 2 7 1 ) .  Students l i v e d at home a n d b o t h they a n d t h e i r t e a c h e r s w e r e e x p e c t e d to w o r k regularly in production.  L e a r n i n g was l i n k e d to d o i n g , e v e n i n s c h o o l s i n the t o w n s , a n d  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a n d i n e d u c a t i o n was d i v i d e d a m o n g the s t u d e n t s , t e a c h e r s a n d the c o m munity.  " T h e c u r r i c u l u m o u t l i n e d for the n e w m i d d l e s c h o o l s , f o r i n s t a n c e , was 'to b e -  g i n w i t h the c o n c e p t of how to serve the p e o p l e of the border r e g i o n ( p r i n c i p l e s of r e c o n s t r u c t i o n ) a n d e n d w i t h the s k i l l s to serve ( p r o d u c t i o n a n d m e d i c a l k n o w l e d g e ) . ' " E d u c a t i o n e m p h a s i z e d p r a c t i c a l k n o w l e d g e , a n a l y s i s of c o n t e m p o r a r y a n d h i s t o r i c a l conditions, and above a l l s e r v i c e "  ( i b i d . , p. 2 7 2 ) .  In 1944 e d u c a t i o n i n the border r e g i o n assumed many of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of o t h e r mass movements of t h a t period:  transfer of a u t h o r i t y from p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a -  tors at the d i s t r i c t a n d h i g h e r l e v e l s to c a d r e s a n d l a b o r heroes w o r k i n g a n d l i v i n g i n the v i l l a g e s ; d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n ; stress on mass r a t h e r than e l i t e e d u c a t i o n ; i n t e g r a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n w i t h the s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c l i f e of the v i l l a g e .  T h e Party d i d not e n t i r e l y  a b a n d o n r e g u l a r forms or d e l i b e r a t e l y s a c r i f i c e q u a l i t y , t h o u g h e d u c a t i o n a l resources w e r e s t r a i n e d to the l i m i t , p r i o r i t i e s w e r e r e o r d e r e d , a n d the t e a c h i n g i n some of the most a d v a n c e d c e n t e r s was d i l u t e d .  The 1944 e d u -  cational goals were sweeping in scope; every m a n , w o m a n a n d c h i l d was i n v o l v e d i n forms of e d u c a t i o n r a n g i n g from f o r m a l s c h o o l i n g to s p a r e - t i m e study or r e a d i n g groups a m o n g the members of m u t u a l - a i d t e a m s , e v e r y w h e r e l i n k e d to c o n c r e t e problems of p r o d u c t i o n and social r e v o l u t i o n .  J u s t as the a m b i t i o u s aims of the  p r o d u c t i o n m o v e m e n t h a d h e i g h t e n e d the a w a r e n e s s of a l a b o r s h o r t a g e , i n 1944 the number of t e a c h e r s was f o u n d i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r the t a s k .  A n d a g a i n the s o l u t i o n rested on  dual development, combining advanced and rudimentary techniques.  T e a c h e r s w e r e d r a w n not o n l y from the e d u -  c a t e d e l i t e , i n c l u d i n g former t e a c h e r s a n d students,  but  a l s o from a m o n g n a t u r a l v i l l a g e l e a d e r s , many of them l a b o r heroes or m u t u a l - a i d t e a m l e a d e r s w h o c o u l d s c a r c e l y sign their names.  If m u c h of the n e w t e a c h i n g  was p r i m i t i v e a n d i r r e g u l a r , a n d if some of the n e w e x periments u n d o u b t e d l y p r o v e d s h o r t - l i v e d , the f i r s t g l i m merings of e d u c a t i o n w e r e brought to hundreds of i s o l a t e d  46  v i l l a g e s at a t i m e w h e n n e w s k i l l s a n d i d e a s c o u l d be e f f e c t i v e l y u t i l i z e d i n c a r r y i n g f o r w a r d the m o d e r n i z ation process.  8  The d i r e c t i v e s issued d u r i n g these y e a r s e m p h a s i z e d the t w o - w a y between 'democratic education' and 'democratic politics,'.' a c h i e v e w i t h o u t the o t h e r .  relationship  E i t h e r was i m p o s s i b l e to  O n e of these uses the f o l l o w i n g q u o t e from L e n i n :  " O n l y he  w h o at e v e r y s t e p of the w a y uses his r e s e a r c h , t r a i n i n g , a n d e d u c a t i o n to j o i n w i t h the p r o l e t a r i a t a n d l a b o r i n g masses to c a r r y out c o n t i n u a l struggle a g a i n s t the o l d  exploitative  society can learn communism."^ N e w D e m o c r a t i c e d u c a t i o n is a p r o d u c t of N e w D e m o c r a t i c p o l i t i c s , it is one a s p e c t of N e w D e m o c r a t i c p o litics.  That is t o s a y , w i t h o u t the f o u n d a t i o n a n d g u a r a n -  tee of the a n t i - J a p a n e s e d e m o c r a t i c p o l i t i c a l p o w e r under the l e a d e r s h i p of the C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t P a r t y , N e w D e m o c r a t i c e d u c a t i o n is i m p o s s i b l e .  In a s o c i e t y or n a t i o n  w h e r e the r e a c t i o n a r y classes m a i n t a i n t h e i r p o l i t i c a l e d u c a t i o n c a n n o t b e l o n g to the b r o a d masses.  power,  Under f e u -  d a l p o l i t i c a l r u l e , e d u c a t i o n is a p r i v i l e g e of the a r i s t o c r a c y ; under the p o l i t i c a l r u l e of o l d - s t y l e d e m o c r a c y , e d u c a t i o n b e l o n g s to the b o u r g e o i s i e ; i n u n o c c u p i e d C h i n a under the r u l e of C h i n e s e f a s c i s m , e d u c a t i o n is i n e v i t a b l y d r a w n i n t o the s e c r e t - p o l i c e system; under the r u l e o f the e n e m y a n d c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s t s , e d u c a t i o n c a n be s l a v e e d u cation.  E d u c a t i o n is s u b j e c t to a d e f i n i t e c o n t r o l a n d l i m i -  t a t i o n by p o l i t i c s a n d serves a d e f i n i t e c l a s s . . . A n y o n e w h o t h i n k s that the e d u c a t i o n a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the past years has b e e n due s o l e l y to the efforts of the c o m r a d e s e n g a g e d i n e d u c a t i o n a l w o r k , w h o t h i n k s t h a t e d u c a t i o n b e l o n g s to a system c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t from p o l i t i c s , is c o m p l e t e l y wrong. O n the o t h e r s i d e , the d e v e l o p m e n t of N e w D e m o c r a t i c e d u c a t i o n c a n a l s o push f o r w a r d a n d assist a l l o t h e r forms of N e w Democratic r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . . . Educational work can liberate them/workers,  peasants a n d l a b o r e r s / f r o m f e u d a l  °  M a r k S e l d e n , " T h e Y e n a n L e g a c y : The M a s s L i n e , "  °  This q u o t e is t a k e n from " S m a s h The O l d F o r m s " , 1 9 4 1 , f o u n d i n C h i n e s e E d u c a t i o n ,  op. cit.,  p.  188.  op. cit.,  p.  148.  s u p e r s t i t i o n a n d from the prison of ' s t u p i d i t y a n d i g n o r ance'.  To r a i s e t h e i r p o l i t i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s a n d c u l -  tural l e v e l , to i m p r o v e t h e i r thought a n d i d e a s , to r a i s e t h e i r enthusiasm a n d i n v e n t i v e n e s s , to l e a d a n d h e l p them to c a r r y on e v e r y k i n d of p r a c t i c a l s t r u g g l e , to u n i t e e v e r y k i n d of a c t i v i t y - this is t o f u l f i l l e v e r y k i n d of p o l i t i c a l task a n d to s t r i v e for a f o r c e w h i c h can guarantee v i c t o r y .  To despise or u n d e r r a t e this  k i n d of d i f f i c u l t e d u c a t i o n a l w o r k is i n c o r r e c t .  ^  O n a more c o n c r e t e p l a n e , e d u c a t i o n was to be t i e d i n v e r y c l o s e l y to p r o d u c tion.  N o t o n l y was l e a r n i n g to be g e a r e d to (skills useful a n d n e c e s s a r y to p r o d u c t i o n  n e e d s , it was not to t a k e p e o p l e a n d time a w a y from p r o d u c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s . s i d e , p r o d u c t i o n was t o b e g e a r e d to the l e a r n i n g of n e w t e c h n i q u e s .  O n the o t h e r  This was part of  a n effort not o n l y to b r e a k n a r r o w t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s i n f a v o r of more e f f i c i e n t means of p r o d u c t i o n , i t was a l s o g e a r e d to show peasants that t h e i r v i l l a g e a n d t h e i r l i v e s f o r m e d a s m a l l part of a l a r g e r w h o l e w h i c h t h e y c o u l d i n f l u e n c e a n d s h a p e . education.  This was the task of  M o d e l p r o d u c t i v e u n i t s a n d v i l l a g e s s h o w e d the peasants t h a t i n t h e i r spare  t i m e t h e y s h o u l d form study groups i n order to l e a r n a b o u t these t h i n g s . (O)ur elementary schools and middle s c h o o l s . . . c a n t r a i n o n l y four types of p e o p l e .  O n e t y p e is the p e r -  son w h o returns home to w o r k a f t e r g r a d u a t i o n . . . ( A ) t p r e s e n t , e d u c a t i o n trains p e o p l e to a d v a n c e to a h i g h e r educational l e v e l .  T h e r e f o r e , it one returns h o m e , i t  is not w o r t h the t r o u b l e to h a v e g r a d u a t e d from e l e m e n tary s c h o o l , a n d w o r t h e v e n less to h a v e g r a d u a t e d from middle school.  W h e n he returns home he is d i s s a t i s f i e d  and cannot be a model w o r k e r .  It is e v e n worse t h a n  not h a v i n g g o n e to s c h o o l . A n o t h e r t y p e a r e ' p u b l i c persons' w h o d o v a r i o u s k i n d s of w o r k for P a r t y , g o v e r n m e n t , a r m y , a n d p o p u lar o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  But e d u c a t i o n at present is not for  this p u r p o s e ; study is d i v o r c e d from a p p l i c a t i o n . m o r e , this n e e d has its l i m i t s .  Further-  If t h e r e are more than a  c e r t a i n number of p u b l i c persons i t r e d u c e s the n e c e s s a r y  l  u  This e x e r p t is t a k e n from a s p e e c h d e l i v e r e d b y E d u c a t i o n M i n i s t e r L i u i n 1 9 4 4 , a n d  c a n be f o u n d i n L i n d s a y , o p . c i t . ,  pp. 121-2.  48  l a b o r f o r c e a n d i n c r e a s e s the u n n e c e s s a r y f i n a n c i a l burden. The t h i r d t y p e are those w h o a d v a n c e to the n e x t e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l ; but v e r y f e w a d v a n c e from e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l to m i d d l e s c h o o l . E v e n if a l l a d v a n c e d a n d g r a d u a t e d from m i d d l e s c h o o l , w h e r e w o u l d t h e y a d v a n c e from t h e r e ? It is u n n e c e s s a r y a n d i m p o s s i b l e for t h e base areas t o run o l d - s t y l e u n i v e r s i t i e s ; a n d the h i g h - l e v e l c a d r e s c h o o l s t o d a y h a v e no c o n n e c t i o n w i t h m i d d l e s c h o o l s . , v l . T h e o n l y other w a y is to b e c o m e v a g r a n t s a n d l o a f e r s . This is not a j o k e but a f a c t . 1 1  These p o l i c y d i r e c t i v e s stressed o v e r a n d o v e r a g a i n t h a t C h i n a was a t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y b a c k w a r d c o u n t r y , a n d thus d i d not n e e d a h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d e d u c a t i o n a l system. ment.  A n e d u c a t i o n a l system s h o u l d serve a n d r e f l e c t s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p S i n c e C h i n a was at a r u d i m e n t a r y l e v e l , e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d l i k e w i s e be s i m p l e ,  imparting rudimentary knowledge and s k i l l s .  E d u c a t i o n a l o n e c o u l d not p r o d u c e i n d u s t -  19  rialization.  It h a d to be part of the s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l , p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c systems,  i n f l u e n c i n g them a n d , i n t u r n , b e i n g i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e i r stage of d e v e l o p m e n t . C a d r e e d u c a t i o n was to r e c e i v e p r i o r i t y o v e r mass e d u c a t i o n . c a d r e s w e r e to r e c e i v e p r i o r i t y o v e r the t r a i n i n g of n e w o n e s .  In-service  A c t i v e c a d r e s w e r e to be  a d m i t t e d at a l l e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s , r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , i n o r der t h a t students a n d t e a c h e r s h a v e c o n t a c t w i t h p e o p l e w h o h a d p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e i n w h a t was b e i n g t a u g h t .  In mass e d u c a t i o n , a d u l t e d u c a t i o n was to t a k e p r e c e d e n c e o v e r  the e d u c a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n ( i b i d . , p. 1 9 8 ) .  P r o d u c t i o n a n d w a r t i m e needs w e r e i m m e d i a t e .  Thus, e d u c a t i o n h a d t o c o n c e n t r a t e o n i m p a r t i n g s k i l l s to those i n a p o s i t i o n c a p a b l e of  This q u o t e is t a k e n f r o m a p o l i c y statement issued i n 1944 a n d e n t i t l e d " T h e P r o b l e m of Transforming G e n e r a l E d u c a t i o n i n the Base A r e a s . " tion, op. c i t . , 1  2  pp.  It is r e p r i n t e d i n C h i n e s e E d u c a -  191-2.  S e e , for e x a m p l e , " O n R e g u l a t i o n s a n d C u r r i c u l u m i n G e n e r a l E d u c a t i o n , " 1 9 4 4 ,  i n i b i d . , p.  197.  49  u t i l i z i n g them as w e l l a s , a n d i n the shortest t i m e , p o s s i b l e .  This is w h y i n - s e r v i c e  cadres and adults were g i v e n preference.  There was to b e a t h r e e - l e v e l system of e d u c a t i o n . serve a d u l t s a n d c h i l d r e n i n the v i l l a g e s , towns a n d c i t i e s .  M a s s e d u c a t i o n was to  Primary-level cadre e d u c a -  t i o n was for the i m p r o v e m e n t a n d c u l t i v a t i o n of d i s t r i c t personnel a n d s u b - d i s t r i c t a n d t o w n s h i p c a d r e s at d i s t r i c t or s u b r e g i o n a l s c h o o l s . M i d d l e - l e v e l c a d r e e d u c a t i o n was for the b e n e f i t of border r e g i o n personnel a n d d i s t r i c t a n d s u b d i s t r i c t c a d r e s , a n d c a d r e s w o r k i n g i n a g r i c u l t u r e , i n d u s t r y , c o m m e r c e , m e d i c i n e , art a n d c u l t u r e , a n d was to be c o n d u c t e d i n m i l i t a r y or b o r d e r - r e g i o n l e v e l s c h o o l s ( i b i d . , p. 2 0 0 ) . (I)f our s c h o o l s are c a p a b l e of n o t h i n g more t h a n t a k i n g a g r o u p ' o f s i x - y e a r - o l d s a n d s h u t t i n g them u p i n the same c l a s s u n t i l t h e y are t w e n t y or s o , c u t t i n g them off from a n y c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h the v a r i o u s p e o p l e a r o u n d them b e c a u s e of t h e i r ' u n e q u a l d e g r e e of l e a r n i n g ' ( t h e r e are t w o sides to this s o - c a l l e d ' u n e q u a l d e g r e e of l e a r n i n g : a l t h o u g h c h i l d r e n i n s c h o o l m a y h a v e a h i g h e r d e g r e e of g e n e r a l c u l t u r a l k n o w l e d g e t h a n the p e o p l e , t h e i r k n o w l e d g e of t h e w a r a n d of p r o d u c t i o n is c o n s i d e r a b l y l o w e r ) - if this is w h a t w e c a l l b e i n g e d u c a t e d , t h e n it w o u l d be more t o the p o i n t to say t h e y are b e i n g w a s t e d t h a n to say t h e y a r e b e i n g e d u c a t e d ; to b e ' e d u c a t e d ' i n s u c h a w a y is to b e c o m e a waste p r o d u c t of the times ( i b i d , p. 2 0 1 ) . In mass e d u c a t i o n , t h r e e s e p a r a t e programs w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1 9 3 7 ; e l e m e n tary, secondary and social e d u c a t i o n .  A f t e r a n i n i t i a l l a r g e - s c a l e g r o w t h of s c h o o l s  w i t h l i t t l e i n the w a y of q u a l i t y , s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n was e n f o r c e d . e d u c a t i o n , this p r o v e d e x c e l l e n t a n d l e d to the c h e n g - f e n g m o v e m e n t . t i o n , h o w e v e r , it p r o v e d d i s a s t r o u s . ^  In c a d r e  In mass e d u c a -  T r a i n i n g c a d r e s for p o s i t i o n s of h i g h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  r e q u i r e d a f a i r l y t i g h t a n d standard m e t h o d of e d u c a t i o n .  In o r d e r to r e a c h e v e r y p e a s a n t ,  S e y b o l t , " Y e n a n E d u c a t i o n a n d the C h i n e s e R e v o l u t i o n , 1 9 3 7 - 1 9 4 5 " , o p . c i t . pp. 213-215.  h o w e v e r , i n n o v a t i o n a n d f l e x i b i l i t y w e r e the best e d u c a t i o n a l methods p o s s i b l e .  The  e d u c a t i o n a l m e t h o d o l o g y d e v e l o p e d at K ' a n g t a (for e x a m p l e , c r i t i c i s m a n d s e l f - c r i t i c i s m sessions, i n d i v i d u a l and s m a l l - g r o u p study) was to p r o v e e x t r e m e l y e f f e c t i v e a n d was to be e m p l o y e d o n a w i d e s c a l e i n c h e n g * f e n g (as S e y b o l t shows i n his t h e s i s ) . This m e t h o d o l o g y h a d a p p l i c a t i o n a n d r e l e v a n c e i n mass e d u c a t i o n as w e l l , i n the form of t e a c h i n g m e t h o d s .  H o w e v e r , this d i d not mean t h a t c a d r e e d u c a t i o n was to be g e n -  e r a l i z e d f o r the peasantry as a w h o l e . tion' period. ments:  This was the error made d u r i n g the ' s t a n d a r d i z a -  Part of the error was d u e t o the t y p e of p e o p l e s t a f f i n g e d u c a t i o n d e p a r t -  i n t e l l e c t u a l s r a i s e d i n c i t i e s , w i t h more e x p e r i e n c e i n types of e d u c a t i o n s u i t e d  to the t r a i n i n g of c a d r e s .  Part of the error was a l s o d u e t o the t h i n k i n g t h a t w e n t i n t o  the f o r m a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s .  E d u c a t i o n c o u l d be ' f o r c e d ' on p e o p l e w i l l i n g  a n d d e d i c a t e d to a c a u s e , b e c a u s e t h e y c o u l d a p p r e c i a t e its n e c e s s i t y . not b e ' f o r c e d ' o n p e o p l e w h o h a d no i d e a of w h a t it was a l l a b o u t .  Education could  Even in cadre e d u -  c a t i o n , it was seen t h a t m u c h of the c u r r i c u l u m was too r i g i d a n d too m u c h .  Even w i t h  c a d r e s , it was b e t t e r to ' p e r s u a d e ' t h a n to ' f o r c e ' .  A f t e r 1 9 4 4 , the t r a i n i n g of ' p r o f e s s i o n a l ' c a d r e s was a b a n d o n e d i n f a v o u r of e d u c a t i n g a c t i v i s t peasant c a d r e s .  The t y p e of e d u c a t i o n d e v e l o p e d here was 'mass'  i n nature s i n c e the p e o p l e i n v o l v e d , a l t h o u g h c a l l e d ' c a d r e s ' , w e r e t h e m s e l v e s part of the masses.  It was i n this phase t h a t ' c a d r e ' a n d 'mass' e d u c a t i o n c a m e c l o s e r t o g e t h e r  a n d h a d a p o t e n t i a l for b l e n d i n g i n t o e a c h o t h e r .  It is i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t it was i n these  y e a r s t h a t the t h i n k i n g b e h i n d the c o n c e p t of ' i n t e l l e c t u a l i z i n g the p r o l e t a r i a t ' ' p r o l e t a r i a n i z i n g the i n t e l l e c t u a l s ' was d e v e l o p e d .  while  51  It was o n l y after 1944 t h a t e d u c a t i o n was g i v e n more of a p r i o r i t y .  Previously,  t e a c h e r s w e r e not e v e n c o n s i d e r e d c a d r e s , a n d w e r e o f t e n e x p e c t e d to subsist on v e r y little.  T h e y h a d to c o n t e n d not o n l y w i t h l o w status i n the b u r e a u c r a c y , but w i t h t h e  a n i m o s i t y of the v i l l a g e r s , w h o o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d them o u t s i d e r s a n d t r e a t e d them as s u c h . N o t m a n y p e o p l e w a n t e d to b e c o m e t e a c h e r s . fession ( S e y b o l t , p . 2 5 4 ) .  M a n y w e r e f o r c i b l y ' d r a f t e d ' i n t o the p r o -  M o r e o v e r , those w h o e n j o y e d a n d w e r e g o o d at t h e i r work  w e r e o f t e n g i v e n o t h e r jobs as w e l l (such as h e l p i n g the m a g i s t r a t e d o his a c c o u n t i n g chores) or w e r e t a k e n out of t e a c h i n g a n d p l a c e d i n o t h e r types of w o r k ( L i n d s a y , p. 3 6 ) .  W i t h c h e n g - f e n g , most c a d r e s h a d to e n t e r s c h o o l or e n g a g e i n c r i t i c i s m a n d s e l f - c r i t i c i s m sessions i n order to r e v i e w t h e i r w o r k a n d a t t i t u d e towards the p e o p l e .  It  was at this t i m e t h a t t h e C C P sought to i m p r o v e the t r e a t m e n t g i v e n t e a c h e r s , as w e l l as a t t e m p t i n g to r a i s e the q u a l i t y of t e a c h i n g .  Teachers were now designated cadres.  Many  d i r e c t i v e s w e r e i s s u e d , e x h o r t i n g b o t h c a d r e s a n d the p e a s a n t r y to r e s p e c t a n d t r e a t teachers w e l l .  J u n e 6 t h was d e c l a r e d ' T e a c h e r s ' D a y ' not o n l y as a means to r a i s e t h e  status of t e a c h e r s , but to p i c k m o d e l t e a c h e r s a n d h a v e t e a c h e r s i n g e n e r a l g e t t o g e t h e r to study a n d c r i t i c i z e t h e i r w o r k a n d methods of t e a c h i n g .  ^  In a n e f f o r t to r a i s e the number of t e a c h e r s a n d i m p r o v e t h e q u a l i t y of t e a c h i n g , e s p e c i a l l y i n v i e w of the efforts b e i n g made t o e n g a g e the p e a s a n t r y i n e d u c a t i o n , i n t e l l e c t u a l s a n d t r a i n e d c a d r e s w e r e 'sent d o w n ' to t h e v i l l a g e s as part of the  'to-the-  v i l l a g e ' m o v e m e n t , o f t e n i n order to t a k e o n t e a c h i n g r o l e s , a n d v i l l a g e - l e v e l c a d r e s w e r e e n c o u r a g e d to h e l p i n t e a c h i n g .  This not o n l y e x p a n d e d the t e a c h i n g s t a f f ,  it  ^ S e e , for e x a m p l e , the s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d " M e t h o d s of C e l e b r a t i n g J u n e 6 t h , T e a c h e r s ' D a y " in Lindsay, o p . c i t . , pp. ,,93-95.  a l s o h e l p e d u n d e r m i n e t h e e l i t i s t v i e w m a n y t e a c h e r s a n d the p e a s a n t p o p u l a t i o n t e n d e d to h a v e of t e a c h e r s .  I l l i t e r a t e peasant c a d r e s w e r e to h e l p v i l l a g e t e a c h e r s b y s h a r i n g  t h e i r k n o w l e d g e of p r a c t i c a l p r o d u c t i o n s k i l l s . C a d r e s whose c a r e e r i n the party h a d b e e n passed e n t i r e l y i n h e a d q u a r t e r s o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i n t h e most s t a b l e base a r e a s or i n u n d e r g r o u n d work i n e n e m y a r e a s , w e r e v e r y o f t e n s i m i l a r to the t y p i c a l c a d r e s of o t h e r C o m m u n ist p a r t i e s . . . C a d r e s whose c a r e e r s i n the party h a d b e e n m a i n l y i n the f r o n t - l i n e a r e a s a n d e s p e c i a l l y i n the g u e r r i l l a areas w e r e a n o t i c e a b l e c o n t r a s t to t h i s . . . S o m e o n e w h o r e f u s e d t o c o n s i d e r the r e a l i n d i v i d u a l C h i n e s e p e a s a n t as he a c t u a l l y w a s , w h o r e f u s e d to t a k e a c c o u n t of d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h the i d e a l C h i n e s e peasant as he c h o u l d h a v e b e e n a c c o r d i n g to C o m m u n i s t t h e o r y , was u n l i k e l y to s u r v i v e . W o r k i n t h e g u e r r i l l a areas w a s , t h e r e f o r e , a v e r y e f f e c t i v e e d u c a t i o n i n m o d i f y i n g C o m m u n i s t t h e o r y to f i t the f a c t s , w i t h a h i g h p r o b a b i l i t y of sudden d e a t h for those w h o f a i l e d to b e n e f i t from this e d u c a t i o n ( i b i d . , p. 2 5 ) . D u e to such f a c t o r s as the l o w l i t e r a c y r a t e i n t h e l i b e r a t e d a r e a s , there w e r e f e w s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s i n the Y e n a n p e r i o d ( o n l y s e v e n e v e r e x i s t e d at the same t i m e ) . M o s t of these w e r e g e a r e d to t r a i n i n g t e a c h e r s , a l t h o u g h two w e r e g e a r e d to ' r a i s i n g a n e w g e n e r a t i o n of r e v o l u t i o n a r y i n t e l l e c t u a l s ' ( S e y b o l t , p. 2 7 7 ) .  The students a n d  t e a c h e r s i n a l l s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s w e r e m a d e to pass through the r e c t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s , a f t e r w h i c h t h e s c h o o l s b e c a m e ends i n t h e m s e l v e s . students to go o n to u n i v e r s i t y . ing in s p e c i f i c vocations.  That i s , t h e y no l o n g e r p r e p a r e d  R a t h e r , t h e y w e r e to t r a i n t e a c h e r s or g i v e c a d r e s t r a i n -  T h u s , a d i r e c t i v e issued for M a n c h u r i a i n 1946 c a l l e d for g i v -  i n g teacher; training first p r i o r i t y , v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n s e c o n d , f o l l o w e d by ordinary education. ^ 1  M i d d l e schools were g i v e n increased importance over primary schools b e -  c a u s e of t h e n e e d f o r m i d d l e a n d l o w e r - l e v e l c a d r e s i n e c o n o m i c w o r k , a n d for t e a c h e r s  S e e " F r o m T u n g P e i J i h Pao ( H a r b i n ) " i n L i n d s a y , o p . c i t . ,  pp. 6 3 - 6 7 .  d u e to t h e i n c r e a s e d emphasis o n e d u c a t i o n .  "In order t o s e c u r e the c l o s e s t c o n n e c t i o n  b e t w e e n e d u c a t i o n a n d p r a c t i c e , i t is best t h a t v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s s h o u l d b e m a n a g e d b y the l o c a l productive o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  The r a i l w a y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s h o u l d run a r a i l w a y  s c h o o l " (this is but o n e e x a m p l e i n i b i d . , p. 6 4 ) .  In p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n , " t h e o l d t i m e methods must b e d e s t r o y e d a n d r e p l a c e d b y m o r n i n g s c h o o l , noon s c h o o l , n i g h t s c h o o l , h a l f - d a y c o u r s e s , o n e - d a y c o u r s e s , e t c . , e t c . , of a l l k i n d s a n d f o r m s .  This is of a d v a n t a g e to t h e b r o a d mass of the c h i l d r e n from  poor f a m i l i e s " ( i b i d . , p. 6 5 ) .  The u n i v e r s i t i e s w e r e not a b o l i s h e d , but t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m a n d t e a c h i n g m e t h o dology changed drastically.  M a r i o n M e n z i e s a n d W i l l i a m Paget v i s i t e d t w o u n i v e r s i t i e s  that later became N o r t h C h i n a U n i v e r s i t y (in 1948). ^ °  A t t h a t t i m e , as a r e s u l t of the  p r o m u l g a t i o n of the ' B a s i c P r o g r a m ' or a g r a r i a n r e f o r m , s p e c i a l courses w e r e b e i n g set u p t o study a g r a r i a n r e f o r m .  U n i v e r s i t i e s w e r e t o be t i e d i n m u c h more t i g h t l y to the p e a s a n t  e c o n o m y a n d w a y of l i f e .  A s a matter of f a c t , t h r e e c o l l e g e s of L i e n Ta w e r e c l o s e d for  s e v e r a l months i n o r d e r that the students a n d staff c a r r y out l a n d reform i n n e i g h b o r i n g h s i e n ( i b i d . , p.  150).  W i t h i n the u n i v e r s i t y , students w e r e g i v e n a l a r g e say i n the w o r k i n g of t h e i n s t i t u t i o n t h r o u g h s u c h means as the S t u d e n t A s s o c i a t i o n , w h i c h was " r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n , s t u d y , m a n u a l w o r k a n d g r o u p l i f e of the w h o l e student b o d y " ( i b i d . , p .  153).  F o o d , c l o t h i n g a n d l i v i n g a c c o m m o d a t i o n s w e r e p r o v i d e d b y the u n i v e r s i t y o n terms t h a t w e r e to be c l o s e to those of t h e l o c a l peasant p o p u l a t i o n .  ^°  See Lindsay, o p . c i t . ,  pp. 147-170.  Two hours w e r e set  54  a s i d e e v e r y d a y for p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r .  T e a c h e r s w e r e to l i v e w i t h a n d a m o n g t h e i r s t u d e n t s ,  s h a r i n g i n p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r a n d h e l p i n g them w i t h t h e i r s t u d i e s .  "(T)he students e x a m i n e  a n d g r a d e the t e a c h e r s w e e k l y a n d m o n t h l y on the basis of t h e i r t e a c h i n g m e t h o d s , s p i r i t , h o n e s t y , o u t s i d e w o r k , a n d - as m a n y students from the o u t s i d e h a v e c o n s i d e r a b l e s p e c i a l k n o w l e d g e - on c o u r s e c o n t e n t " ( i b i d . , p. 1 5 7 ) .  M a n y s t u d e n t s , a n d t e a c h e r s , had  ' s p e c i a l ' k n o w l e d g e b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e peasants a n d w o r k e r s w i t h e x p e r i e n c e i n v a r i o u s t e c h n i c a l f i e l d s , although w i t h l i t t l e in formal e d u c a t i o n .  This e n a b l e d a g r e a t e r e x -  c h a n g e a n d s h a r i n g of k n o w l e d g e b e t w e e n students a n d t e a c h e r s w i t h f o r m a l k n o w l e d g e a n d those w i t h p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e . M a n y of the students a t Pei T a , a n d a l m o s t a l l at L i e n T a , c o m e from w e a l t h y f a m i l i e s a n d t h e y n a t u r a l l y b r i n g w i t h them the a t t i t u d e s a n d i d e a s of t h e o l d s o c i e t y , the o l d c o n c e p t of l e a r n i n g , a n d a n a l most t o t a l i g n o r a n c e of t h e peasants a n d t h e i r w a y of life.  To c o r r e c t these f a i l i n g s , students must l i v e  a n d w o r k w i t h the p e o p l e ; students a n d peasants a t t e n d t h e same m e e t i n g s ; students h e l p the p e o p l e w i t h t h e i r g o v e r n m e n t a n d business a f f a i r s , w i t h t h e i r e v e r y d a y c h o r e s , s u c h as g a t h e r i n g grass for f u e l a n d c a r r y ing water, and with planting and harvesting.  It is  f e l t that i n this w a y t h e students g a i n a n i n t i m a t e k n o w l e d g e o f , a n d s y m p a t h y w i t h , the p e a s a n t s , a n d t h a t the g o o d f e e l i n g e n g e n d e r e d b y c l o s e c o o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n students a n d peasants h e l p s to b r i d g e the g u l f b e t w e e n t h e ' i n t e l l e c t u a l s ' a n d the ' m a s s e s ' .  Further-  m o r e , the students must w o r k f o r t h e m s e l v e s . . . ( a n d ) d o m a n y . . . k i n d s of hard w o r k d u r i n g the d a i l y ' p r o duction work' period.  The peasants a l s o b e n e f i t from  the n e w order of t h i n g s ; t h e y h a v e o v e r c o m e t h e i r l o n g - t e r m distrust o f the ' i n t e l l e c t u a l , w h o m t h e y 1  have ever associated w i t h landlordism and oppression ( i b i d . , pp. 164-5). The i d e a of h a v i n g students a n d t e a c h e r s e n g a g e i n p r o d u c t i v e w o r k was not o n l y a means of ' p r o l e t a r i a n i z i n g ' t h e m , i t a l s o took a c o n s i d e r a b l e f i n a n c i a l b u r d e n from  55  the peasants' b a c k s .  The methods f i r s t d e v e l o p e d at K ' a n g t a a n d l a t e r e m p l o y e d i n c h e n g f e n g , w e r e used here as w e l l .  " T h e students a n a l y s e t h e m s e l v e s a n d discuss a n d c r i t i c i z e o n e a n o t h e r  to s u c h a n e x t e n t that it m i g h t be s a i d t h a t the student b o d y i t s e l f forms part of the c u r r i c u l u m " ( i b i d . , p.  165).  R i g i d e x a m i n a t i o n . s y s t e m s w e r e a b o l i s h e d i n f a v o r of i n d i v i d u a l progression o n the basis of his or her b a c k g r o u n d a n d a b i l i t i e s .  U n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n , h o w e v e r , was a m i n o r a s p e c t of the o v e r - a l l e d u c a t i o n a l efforts d u r i n g these y e a r s .  A s more a n d more c a d r e s w e r e r e c r u i t e d to s e r v e the e v e r -  e x p a n d i n g base a r e a s , t h e y had to be t r a i n e d .  A n d , b e y o n d t h e m , was a l a r g e l y i l l i t e r a t e  peasant p o p u l a t i o n t h a t h a d to be m o b i l i z e d a n d g i v e n p o l i t i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s .  O n e c r u c i a l a s p e c t of p e o p l e ' s e d u c a t i o n was the m i a - p a n c o n c e p t . The g e n e r a l p r o c e d u r e seems to h a v e b e e n that the e d u c a t i o n a u t h o r i t i e s w o u l d get i n t o u c h w i t h l o c a l l e a d e r s i n some v i l l a g e , the v i l l a g e ' l a b o r h e r o ' or someone s p e c i a l l y r e s p e c t e d , a n d w o u l d suggest to them that the v i l l a g e s h o u l d run its o w n s c h o o l .  It  was e x p l a i n e d t h a t the g o v e r n m e n t w o u l d h e l p i n f i n d i n g a t e a c h e r a n d i n m e e t i n g part of the expenses but t h a t the v i l l a g e c o m m u n i t y i t s e l f c o u l d d e t e r m i n e w h a t s h o u l d be t a u g h t e x a c t l y as it w a n t e d ( i b i d . , p p . 3 7 - 3 8 ) The p e o p l e a n d g o v e r n m e n t w e r e to i n t e r a c t a n d h e l p e a c h o t h e r . b o u n d to a r i s e .  Problems w e r e  F o r e x a m p l e , w h a t h a p p e n e d if the p e o p l e w a n t e d s u b j e c t s t a u g h t t h a t the  g o v e r n m e n t was i d e o l o g i c a l l y o p p o s e d t o , s u c h as C o n f u c i a n m o r a l i t y ?  Whereas before  c h e n g f e n g such w i s h e s w o u l d b e v i o l e n t l y a b o r t e d b y c a d r e s , a f t e r c h e n g f e n g these w i s h e s  w e r e o f t e n r e s p e c t e d a n d h o n o r e d , a n d a n a t t e m p t w o u l d be made to show the p e a s a n t s , as t h e y w e r e s t u d y i n g these s u b j e c t s , w h a t was w r o n g w i t h t h e m .  M o r e d i f f i c u l t were  such problems as peasants b e i n g u n w i l l i n g to a d m i t the c h i l d r e n of peasants t o o poor to share i n the s c h o o l e x p e n s e s . These c h i l d r e n w o u l d o f t e n b e s u p p o r t e d b y t h e g o v e r n m e n t , a n d it was h o p e d t h a t w i t h r e v o l u t i o n p e n e t r a t i n g the v i l l a g e s , such a t t i t u d e s would disappear.  T h e r e w e r e no g e n e r a l or d e f i n i t e r u l e s f o r m i n - p a n s c h o o l s .  Schools were  1 ft  started i n a l l sorts of w a y s .  " T h e r e w e r e no r e g u l a r t i m e t a b l e s b e c a u s e the t e a c h i n g  i n e v e r y v i l l a g e was a r r a n g e d i n t h e w a y w h i c h was most c o n v e n i e n t to the parents a n d i n v o l v e d the l e a s t i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h the c h i l d r e n a s s i s t i n g t h e i r parents i n p r o d u c t i o n " ( L i n d s a y , p. 3 8 ) .  The courses most f r e q u e n t l y i n d e m a n d w e r e s i m p l e l i t e r a c y ,  t i c a n d a number of p r a c t i c a l s u b j e c t s .  arithme-  N o g e n e r a l r u l e s or standards w e r e to a p p l y .  The slogans w e r e ' o p p o s e the o l d s t y l e u n i f o r m i t y " a n d ' o p p o s e r e g u l a r i t y i n e d u c a t i o n ' ( i b i d . , p. 3 8 ) . The amount of o r d i n a r y s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n w h i c h was of e c o n o m i c v a l u e to the o r d i n a r y peasant f a r m e r was v e r y small.  E x c e p t f o r a l i m i t e d number i n g o v e r n m e n t s e r -  v i c e , s o c i e t y h a d c o m p a r a t i v e l y l i t t l e use f o r the g r a d u ates of the o r d i n a r y m i d d l e s c h o o l or u n i v e r s i t y .  The  e c o n o m y was so poor t h a t t h e w i t h d r a w a l of c h i l d r e n from p r o d u c t i v e w o r k i n t o w h o l e - t i m e e d u c a t i o n was a h e a v y b u r d e n , a n d the p r o b l e m of a d u l t i l l i t e r a c y was so serious t h a t it was not r e a s o n a b l e to c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e e d u c a t i o n of c h i l d r e n w h i c h c o u l d p r o d u c e a l i t e r a t e p o p u l a t i o n o n l y after a t i m e l a g of d e c a d e s . . . .The 'people manage, public h e l p ' v i l l a g e schools w i t h v a r i o u s a r r a n g e m e n t s of h a l f - d a y a n d a l t e r n a t e - d a y s c h o o l met this r e q u i r e m e n t p r e t t y w e l l .  See Seybolt's P h . D . thesis, o p . c i t . , types possible.  A b o v e this l e v e l  p p . 2 5 8 - 2 6 2 , f o r a d e s c r i p t i o n of the v a r i o u s  a r e g u l a r s c h o o l system was u n d e s i r a b l e ; . . T h e d e v e l o p ment of C h i n a n e e d e d l a r g e numbers of personnel w i t h v a r i o u s v o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s , a n d the e d u c a t i o n a l system s h o u l d c o n c e n t r a t e on t u r n i n g out p e o p l e w i t h the p a r t i c u l a r forms of t r a i n i n g most u r g e n t l y n e e d e d , w h i c h was s o m e t h i n g that v a r i e d i n d i f f e r e n t areas a n d at d i f f e r e n t times.  E v e n more i m p o r t a n t t h a n t r a i n i n g c h i l d r e n was  g i v i n g f u r t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n to p e o p l e w h o w e r e a l r e a d y w o r k i n g but n e e d e d more e d u c a t i o n to d o t h e i r w o r k better.  The s c h o o l system must, t h e r e f o r e , be c a p a b l e  of t a k i n g i n , at e v e r y stage a b o v e the e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l l e v e l , p e o p l e w i t h p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e w h o n e e d e d more theoretical education.  Even i n g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n the  p r o b l e m of e d u c a t i n g a d u l t s was at l e a s t as i m p o r t a n t as the e d u c a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n , a n d a d u l t e d u c a t i o n y i e l d e d m u c h more r a p i d s o c i a l returns ( i b i d . , p. 4 0 ) .  The most p o p u l a r form of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n was the w i n t e r s c h o o l .  A p a r t from  this t y p e , there w e r e " n e w s p a p e r r e a d i n g g r o u p s , g e t t i n g s c h o o l c h i l d r e n to t e a c h t h e a d u l t s i n t h e i r f a m i l i e s , n i g h t s c h o o l s , c o m b i n a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n w i t h w o m e n ' s s p i n n i n g g r o u p s , a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r c o o p e r a t i v e groups to l e a r n c h a r a c t e r s d u r i n g rest p e r i o d s a n d m e a l t i m e s , e t c . , e t c . " ( i b i d . , p. 4 3 ) .  This was s o c i a l e d u c a t i o n - e d u c a t i o n o u t s i d e  of a f o r m a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t , g e a r e d to t e a c h a l l m a n n e r of t h i n g s :  politics,  l i t e r a c y , news of w h a t was h a p p e n i n g i n o t h e r parts of C h i n a a n d i n the w o r l d , a c c o u n t i n g , to name just a f e w .  There w e r e t w o b a s i c w r o n g t e n d e n c i e s b e f o r e r e c t i f i c a t i o n -  t h e f o r c i n g o f p p e a s a n t s to a t t e n d s u c h g r o u p s , a n d t e a c h i n g them p o l i t i c s p r i m a r i l y .  It  was f o u n d t h a t p e a s a n t needs a n d desires must f i r s t be l e a r n e d b e f o r e a n y e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t c o u l d be i m p l e m e n t e d .  Peasants h a d to w a n t to l e a r n , a n d , o n c e that was a c c o m -  p l i s h e d , t h e y must be t a u g h t subjects t h e y f e l t to b e r e l e v a n t . s e r v i n g p r o d u c t i o n needs and t e a c h i n g l i t e r a c y was i n i t i a t e d .  Thus, a r e - o r i e n t a t i o n to  (In w i n t e r schools) the g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s h o u l d be u n i fied leadership and scattered study.  U n d e r the u n i f i e d  l e a d e r s h i p of the W i n t e r S c h o o l C o m m i t t e e s or the P e o p l e ' s S c h o o l C o m m i t t e e s there s h o u l d be f r e e o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d a s s o c i a t i o n a c c o r d i n g to the wishes o f the masses, using a l l k i n d s a n d types of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f o r m , s u c h as l i t e r a c y c l a s s , w o m a n ' s l i t e r a c y c l a s s ,  literacy  group, publicity lecture class, newspaper-reading group, abacus group, medical research group, night s c h o o l , noon s c h o o l , l i t e r a c y placards, b l a c k b o a r d newspapers, e d u c a t i o n on the k ' a n g , small groups f o r home e d u c a t i o n , the f a t h e r t e a c h i n g the son a n d the son the f a t h e r ,  the  s m a l l - t e a c h e r system a n d a l l k i n d s of o r g a n i z a t i o n  joined  o n to p r o d u c t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s . . . In the m i d d l e a n d s m a l l  1  t o w n s : o r c f a i r l y l a r g e m a r k e t v i l l a g e s , the w o r k i n g l i f e of the w o r k e r s , s h o p assistants a n d o t h e r c i t i z e n s is not m a r k e d l y seasonal a n d the g r o u p to be t a u g h t is c o m p l i cated.  H e r e e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be d i v i d e d a n d the p r o -  d u c t i o n uni't s h o u l d be i n t r o d u c e d as the e d u c a t i o n a l u n i t ;  to m a k e the form of o r g a n i z a t i o n for the s t r u g g l e of the masses the form of o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r mass e d u c a t i o n J * In order to e n c o u r a g e parents to send t h e i r c h i l d r e n to s c h o o l , A p r i l 4 t h was designated ' P u p i l s ' D a y ' in 1 9 4 5 .  This was a n o p p o r t u n i t y for parents to see w h a t t h e  c h i l d r e n c o u l d l e a r n a n d d o , a n d f o r p a r e n t s ' v i e w s to be a i r e d a n d d i s c u s s e d .  Great  emphasis was p l a c e d o n c h i l d r e n h e l p i n g t h e i r parents i n p r o d u c t i o n , s i n c e this was one of the p a r e n t s ' m a i n g r i e v a n c e s .  P r e v i o u s l y , c h i l d r e n h a d b e e n o r g a n i z e d for p r o d u c t i o n ,  but this was r a r e l y for t h e i r o w n f a m i l i e s ' b e n e f i t .  A t this time a n a t t e m p t was made to  c o o r d i n a t e s u c h a c t i v i t i e s as f a r m i n g the s c h o o l ' s p l o t of l a n d , a i d i n g the f a m i l i e s o f s o l d i e r s , a n d , at the same t i m e , s e e i n g t h a t c h i l d r e n h e l p e d t h e i r o w n f a m i l i e s .  S u c h slogans as ' W h e n the days are c o l d a n d the g r o u n d ' s f r o z e n , i t is t i m e to study.  W h e n the f l o w e r s b l o o m a n d t h e w a t e r ' s w a r m , it is t i m e to serve the p e a s a n t s '  S e e " D i r e c t i v e on the D e v e l o p m e n t of the W i n t e r - S c h o o l M o v e m e n t " ( 1 9 4 4 ) , L i n d s a y , o p . c i t . , p p . 7 9 - 8 0 . The emphasis is my o w n .  in  a n d ' e v e r y t o w n s h i p run o n e w i n t e r s c h o o l w e r e used to h e l p s p r e a d t h e w i n t e r - s c h o o l 1  70 movement.  w  W i n t e r s c h o o l s w e r e to be d e c e n t r a l i z e d ( w h i c h m e a n t t h e y d i d n ' t n e e d a f i x e d number of students i n order to g e t e s t a b l i s h e d ) a n d l i n k e d to o t h e r m o v e m e n t s , such as the s a n i t a t i o n m o v e m e n t , a n d g r o u p s , such as l o c a l l y s t a t i o n e d s o l d i e r s , s c h o o l s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a ( i b i d . , p. 2 2 7 ) . The m e t h o d of i n s t r u c t i o n i n w i n t e r s c h o o l s h o u l d be f l e x i b l e a n d a d a p t e d to the s u b j e c t of i n s t r u c t i o n , to the t y p e of e d u c a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , a n d to the t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s . . . 'the p e o p l e t e a c h i n g the p e o p l e ' , ' l i t t l e t e a c h e r s ' , i n d i v i d u a l instruction in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h c o l l e c t i v e instruction and other a p p r o a c h e s , ' t e a c h i n g f i r s t those w h o c o m e f i r s t " , ' w h e n the f a m i l y is r e a l l y b u s y , l e t the students g o h o m e ' , ' r o t a t i o n t e a c h i n g , ' t e a c h i n g at h o m e ' , ' t e a c h i n g from d o o r to d o o r ' ; these or a n y o t h e r a p p r o a c h e s m a y be a d o p t e d , p r o v i d e d t h e y are s u i t e d to the needs of the p e o p l e . ^ 1 1  The v w i n t e r - s c h o o l m o v e m e n t was part of the l i t e r a c y m o v e m e n t .  A l t h o u g h the  a i m s of the l i t e r a c y m o v e m e n t w e r e h i g h , (to a c h i e v e u n i v e r s a l l i t e r a c y i n a matter of y e a r s ) , t h e y w e r e not a c h i e v e d .  This was t y p i c a l of mass e d u c a t i o n i n these y e a r s .  methods a n d forms w e r e n e w , a n d o f t e n met w i t h some d e g r e e of s u c c e s s .  The  However, war-  t i m e c o n d i t i o n s a n d m a t e r i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s w e r e serious i m p e d i m e n t s , a n d s o , r e s o u n d i n g successes w e r e not r e c o r d e d o v e r - a l l , a l t h o u g h t h e y w e r e a t t a i n e d i n m a n y s p e c i f i c c a s e s . The v e r y nature of the a t t e m p t p r e c l u d e d i m m e d i a t e s u c c e s s , b e c a u s e t h e t y p e of e d u c a t i o n e n v i s a g e d was a l o n g - t e r m a f f a i r .  A n d , i n these y e a r s , the C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s h a d  S e e " B o r d e r R e g i o n G o v e r n m e n t D i r e c t i v e o n W i n t e r S t u d y This Y e a r " ( 1 9 4 4 ) ,  in  Chinese Education, op. c i t . , pp. 2 2 5 - 6 . 21 S e e " B o r d e r R e g i o n S u p p l e m e n t a r y D i r e c t i v e on W i n t e r S t u d y This Y e a r " ( 1 9 4 4 ) , i n i b i d . , p. 2 3 4 .  to t h i n k i n terms of d a y s , w e e k s a n d months r a t h e r than y e a r s . change d r a s t i c a l l y after 1949. r e l e g a t e d to the b a c k g r o u n d .  This s i t u a t i o n was to  It was so d r a s t i c that e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y was o n c e a g a The f i n a l c h a p t e r w i l l e x a m i n e w h a t h a p p e n e d i n the  f i f t i e s a n d e a r l y s i x t i e s , a n d w i l l s k e t c h the o u t l i n e s of e d u c a t i o n as e n v i s a g e d i n the G r e a t Proletarian Cultural Revolution.  A n a t t e m p t w i l l be made to show t h a t e d u c a -  t i o n a l p o l i c y i n 1966 was v e r y s i m i l a r to t h a t d e s c r i b e d f o r the Y e n a n p e r i o d .  61  CHAPTER.  FOUR  E d u c a t i o n From the F i f t i e s to the G r e a t P r o l e t a r i a n Cultural  Revolution  It is the p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r l y i n g the e d u c a t i o n a l system w h i c h form the m a i n l i n k b e t w e e n e d u c a t i o n i n the Y e n a n era a n d i n the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n .  In the p r e -  c e d i n g t w o c h a p t e r s , these p r i n c i p l e s a n d t h e i r e f f e c t o n e d u c a t i o n i n the Y e n a n p e r i o d have been described.  In the 1 9 5 0 ' s , the p r i n c i p l e s w e r e s t i l l i n e v i d e n c e .  there was a n o t h e r v i e w of e d u c a t i o n d u r i n g these y e a r s .  However,  It was b a s e d o n the S o v i e t  model a n d is n o w l i n k e d to L i u S h a o - c h ' i , w h o t o o k o v e r the p r e s i d e n c y of the People's R e p u b l i c from M a o in 1958.  It has b e e n l a b e l l e d ' r e v i s i o n i s t ' .  Educational principles  w e r e a l s o c a r r i e d o v e r from the Y e n a n e r a , a n d these a r e n o w l a b e l l e d ' M a o i s t ' , (see C h a p t e r O n e , p. 1, f o r the m e a n i n g of the term ' M a o i s t ' i n this t h e s i s ) .  In the 1950's  a n d in the e a r l y 1 9 6 0 ' s , these t w o M i n e s ' ( e d u c a t i o n was o n l y o n e s e c t o r of the s o c i e t y , p o l i t y , a n d e c o n o m y to be a f f e c t e d by them) w e r e i n c o m p e t i t i o n a n d in c o n f l i c t w i t h each other.  The G r e a t P r o l e t a r i a n C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n , w h i c h e r u p t e d f u l l - s c a l e in 1 9 6 6 ,  was a v i c t o r y f o r the ' M a o i s t ' l i n e .  In this c h a p t e r , a n a t t e m p t w i l l be made to s k e t c h the b a t t l e of the t w o l i n e s , ' r e v i s i o n i s t ' a n d ' M a o i s t ' , as these a f f e c t e d e d u c a t i o n .  A s the M a o i s t l i n e is d e s c r i b e d ,  the c o n t i n u i t y w i t h the e d u c a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s e v o l v e d i n the Y e n a n p e r i o d s h o u l d b e c o m e clear.  The forms  that these p r i n c i p l e s t o o k through the y e a r s d i f f e r e d , but the b a s i c i d e a s ,  e s p e c i a l l y that of the 'mass l i n e ' , r e m a i n e d the s a m e .  62  There w e r e two trends i n the years just b e f o r e L i b e r a t i o n i n 1949 w h i c h h e l p e x p l a i n w h y the p r i n c i p l e s d e v e l o p e d i n those y e a r s w e r e pushed a s i d e i n the 1 9 5 0 ' s . was a stress on l o c a l needs a n d the p r e s e n t .  The s e c o n d t r e n d c o n s i s t e d i n  One  differentiating  the c o m m u n i s t base a r e a s from other c a p i t a l i s t a n d s o c i a l i s t c o u n t r i e s , e v e n f r o m other parts of C h i n a .  This made the p r i n c i p l e s d e v e l o p e d i n the Y e n a n y e a r s a p p l i c a b l e o n l y  w i t h i n a restricted time and p l a c e . as h a v i n g w i d e r r a m i f i c a t i o n s .  In those y e a r s , the C C P d i d not r e g a r d these p r i n c i p l e s  The Party was v e r y p r a g m a t i c i n its p o l i c i e s , a n d , t h u s ,  d i d ! not f e e l the n e e d for j u s t i f y i n g the u n i v e r s a l i t y of the c o n c e p t s i t used to c a r r y t h r o u g h peasant r e v o l u t i o n . 'This k i n d of mass e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d h a v e its present a n d its f u t u r e .  It is its f u t u r e to e n a b l e e v e r y w o r k e r to u n d e r -  stand h i g h e r m a t h e m a t i c s , p h y s i c s , a n d c h e m i s t r y .  It is  itsvpresent to e n a b l e the masses to u n d e r s t a n d how to p a r t i c i p a t e i n g u e r r i l l a w a r f a r e , how to o r g a n i z e l a b o r p o w e r , how to g e t the most n e c e s s a r y c u l t u r a l k n o w l e d g e . must understand how to b e c o m e l e a d e r s .  Cadres  It is w r o n g to f o r -  s a k e the f u t u r e for the present; it is e s p e c i a l l y w r o n g to f o r s a k e the present for the f u t u r e .  B e t w e e n the present a n d  the d i s t a n t f u t u r e t h e r e a r e , of c o u r s e , s e v e r a l  intermediate  stages w h e n the q u e s t i o n of a d v a n c i n g to the n e x t e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l w i l l a r i s e , but under present c o n d i t i o n s i n the base a r e a s , this q u e s t i o n s h o u l d not a r i s e .  The system of  g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n i n the base a r e a s at present s h o u l d be c o m p l e t e l y r e n o v a t e d and r e o r g a n i z e d to a c c o r d w i t h the p a r t i c u l a r needs of mass e d u c a t i o n a n d c a d r e e d u c a t i o n . ^ The e x p e r i e n c e of the S o v i e t U n i o n was t h e r e f o r e r e j e c t e d i n 1 9 4 4 , not b e c a u s e it b e l i e d c e r t a i n C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t p r i n c i p l e s , but b e c a u s e C h i n a was not i n a p o s i t i o n to u t i l i z e the S o v i e t e x p e r i e n c e .  In the l a t e 1940's t h e r e was i n c r e a s i n g praise of the  a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s of the S o v i e t U n i o n in v a r i o u s d i r e c t i v e s issued b y the C C P . E s p e c i a l l y  '  " T h e P r o b l e m of Transforming G e n e r a l E d u c a t i o n i n the Base A r e a s " , a p o l i c y statement  issued i n 1944 w h i c h c a n be f o u n d i n C h i n e s e E d u c a t i o n , o p . c i t . , of mass e d u c a t i o n ' r e f e r r e d t o , see C h a p t e r T h r e e .  p. 1 9 3 .  For the  'kind  63  i n e d u c a t i o n , the e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t of C h i n a ' s base a r e a s w e r e at too p r i m i t i v e a stage to j u s t i f y c o p y i n g h i g h l y c o m p l i c a t e d e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m s .  The m a i n stress i n  2  e d u c a t i o n i n the m i d - 1 9 4 0 ' s was o n l i n k i n g p r o d u c t i o n a n d e d u c a t i o n .  This m e a n t t h a t  the t y p e of e d u c a t i o n g i v e n was d e p e n d e n t o n the state of p r o d u c t i o n .  A s the base areas  w e r e l a r g e l y c o m p o s e d of p e a s a n t s , this meant a g r a r i a n p r o d u c t i o n .  3  W i t h L i b e r a t i o n i n 1 9 4 9 , the w h o l e s i t u a t i o n c h a n g e d , f r o m o n e of peasant r e v o l u t i o n to t h a t of l e g a l g o v e r n m e n t .  W h a t made matters e v e n more c o m p l i c a t e d i n  e d u c a t i o n was the f a c t t h a t b e f o r e 1949 the C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s h a d not h e l d a n y l a r g e s i z e d c i t i e s or w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d u n i v e r s i t i e s .  T h u s , t h e y h a d no e x p e r i e n c e of t h e i r o w n  to g u i d e them i n g o v e r n i n g the c i t i e s a n d u n i v e r s i t i e s t h a t f e l l to t h e i r p o w e r a f t e r 1 9 4 9 . It is easy to see w h y t h e y t u r n e d to the S o v i e t U n i o n for h e l p .  This was the o n e c o u n t r y  w h i c h t h e y a d m i r e d a n d whose e x p e r i e n c e was i n m a n y w a y s a p p l i c a b l e , or so the C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s t h o u g h t at the t i m e .  The e x p e r i e n c e of the c a p i t a l i s t n a t i o n s was r e j e c t e d  outright on i d e o l o g i c a l grounds.  Fraser refers to the y e a r s b e t w e e n 1949 a n d 1952 as the ' c h e n g f e n g e r a ' .  4  A s the C C P c a m e t o p o w e r t h r o u g h o u t the c o u n t r y , it b e g a n to l a y stress o n r e c r u i t i n g w o r k e r s from the u r b a n c e n t e r s , i n k e e p i n g w i t h the M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t stress o n the u r b a n proletariat.  ' U n u s a b l e peasant e l e m e n t s ' w e r e d r o p p e d f r o m . p a r t y r a n k s i ^ - , • A t the o t h e r  2 S e e , for e x a m p l e , " O n Regulations and C u r r i c u l a in G e n e r a l E d u c a t i o n " , 1944, in Chinese Education, o p . c i t . , pp. 195-196. Peter J . S e y b o l t , " Y e n a n E d u c a t i o n a n d the C h i n e s e R e v o l u t i o n , 1 9 3 7 - 1 9 4 5 " , pp. 195-1984  op.cit.,  S t e w a r t F r a s e r , C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t E d u c a t i o n , V a n d e r b i l t U n i v e r s i t y Press, N a s h v i l l e , 1 9 6 5 , p. 2 2 . F r a n z S c h u r m a n n , I d e o l o g y a n d O r g a n i z a t i o n i n C o m m u n i s t C h i n a , U n i v e r s i t y of  C a l i f o r n i a Press, B e r k e l e y , 1 9 7 1 , p p . 1 6 8 - 1 6 9 .  e n d of the s c a l e , m a n y i n t e l l e c t u a l s of ' b o u r g e o i s ' o r i g i n w e r e made to pass t h r o u g h r e c t i f i c a t i o n i n 1951 a n d 1 9 5 2 .  O n e d i f f i c u l t y w i t h i n t e l l e c t u a l s was t h a t t h e y w e r e n e e d e d to staff the a d m i nistration and b u r e a u c r a c y , although their class background and p o l i t i c a l views were often not i n a c c o r d w i t h c o m m u n i s t d o c t r i n e .  " T h e c a d r e , w h o h a d b e e n a l e a d e r i n the  r e v o l u t i o n a r y c a u s e , was now a n o f f i c i a l i n a f o r m a l b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n . " p e r i o d a f t e r 1 9 4 9 , the a p p r o a c h was p r a g m a t i c .  " E x c e p t f o r Party a n d m i l i t a r y  In the  matters  q u a l i f i e d personnel w e r e i n short s u p p l y , a n d p e o p l e w e r e a s s i g n e d to jobs t h e y c o u l d p e r form.  E v e n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e m a c h i n e r y r e m a i n e d f l e x i b l e , a n d m u c h of the w o r k was  performed b y a d h o c task f o r c e s " ( V o g e l , p. 3 8 ) .  W i t h i n c a d r e r a n k s , this s i t u a t i o n l e d to tensions b e t w e e n o l d c a d r e s w i t h r e v o l u t i o n a r y e x p e r i e n c e a n d c o m m i t m e n t , a n d n e w ones w i t h f o r m a l t r a i n i n g , e s p e c i a l l y as the l a t t e r sometimes d i s p l a c e d or w e r e put i n c h a r g e of the f o r m e r . o f t e n put i n terms of the ' r e d s ' versus the ' e x p e r t s ' .  This c o n f l i c t was  It was a c o m m o n t h e m e  throughout  the f i f t i e s , w i t h o n e s i d e g a i n i n g a n d l o s i n g i n r e l a t i o n to the o t h e r , u n t i l the p r i n c i p l e of "red a n d e x p e r t ' b e g a n to g r a d u a l l y g a i n a s c e n d a n c y i n the l a t e f i f t i e s a n d i n thesixties.  By t h e n , a n a t t e m p t was b e i n g m a d e to r e s o l v e the c o n t r a d i c t i o n b e t w e e n b e i n g  p o l i t i c a l l y c o m m i t t e d and h a v i n g c e r t a i n t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s .  In the e a r l y 1 9 5 0 ' s , b e c a u s e t h e r e was such a g r e a t g a p i n e d u c a t i o n b e t w e e n the ' e x p e r t s ' a n d the ' r e d s ' , a n d b e c a u s e t h e r e was s u c h a g r e a t n e e d for the s e r v i c e s of the ' e x p e r t s ' , t h e y w e r e f a v o r e d o v e r the ' r e d s ' . a n d t r a i n i n g programs w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d .  To o v e r c o m e this s h o r t a g e ,  educational  A p a r t from r e g u l a r s c h o o l s , ' p e o p l e ' s r e v o l u t i o n a r y  u n i v e r s i t i e s ' w e r e set u p to t r a i n p o l i t i c a l c a d r e s . educational system.  This system p a r a l l e l l e d the r e g u l a r  M o s t of the students c a m e from w o r k e r a n d peasant b a c k g r o u n d s .  " T h e d i f f i c u l t y i n this e a r l y p e r i o d was that the P a r t y s c h o o l s h a d just r e c e n t l y b e e n set u p , w h e r e a s the o l d e r s c h o o l s h a d a s o l i d t r a d i t i o n " ( S c h u r m a n n , p.  169).  A n o t h e r s o l u t i o n to the p r o b l e m of shortages i n personnel was the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of short ' r o t a t i n g t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s ' for c a d r e s a l r e a d y a s s i g n e d to s p e c i f i c j o b s .  " O f the  2 , 7 5 0 , 0 0 0 c a d r e s i n C h i n a i n m i d - 1 9 5 2 , 6 6 , 0 0 0 h a d g r a d u a t e d from r e g u l a r u n i v e r s i t i e s , 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 had b e e n processed at ' p e o p l e ' s r e v o l u t i o n a r y u n i v e r s i t i e s ' , but o v e r h a d b e e n t r a i n e d i n r o t a t i n g t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s " ( V o g e l , p. 4 5 ) .  1,000,000  It was assumed that t h e y  w o u l d l e a r n the s k i l l s t h e y n e e d e d o n the j o b , a n d so these short courses c o n c e n t r a t e d o n g i v i n g cadres basic p o l i t i c a l t r a i n i n g .  This was i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e m a n y c a d r e s w e r e not  Party m e m b e r s , the p r o p o r t i o n o f n o n - P a r t y to Party members i n c a d r e ranks h a v i n g i n creased after 1949.  B e c a u s e r e g u l a r f u l l - t i m e s c h o o l s w e r e w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n many p l a c e s , more s o , at a n y r a t e , than c a d r e - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t e s , s c h o o l s g r a d u a l l y took o v e r the f u n c t i o n of s e l e c t i n g a n d e v a l u a t i n g c a d r e s . to l e v e l o f f ,  " B y 1955 w h e n the u r g e n t n e e d for n e w c a d r e s b e g a n  m a n y of the c a d r e s c h o o l s h a d b e e n c l o s e d d o w n " ( i b i d . , p p . 4 6 - 4 7 ) .  A l l c a d r e s w e r e r e q u i r e d to a t t e n d w e e k l y study sessions. b e c a u s e t h e i r c o n t e n t r e m a i n e d u n c h a n g e d , lost t h e i r f r e s h n e s s .  O v e r the years t h e s e ,  " W h a t b e g a n as a n e c e s -  s i t y to p r o v i d e m i n i m a l c o m m o n t r a i n i n g has now b e c o m e a r o u t i n i z e d system w i t h a b u r e a u s c r a t i c l i f e a l l its o w n " ( i b i d . , p. 4 8 ) .  E v e n i n this a r e a , c a d r e s w i t h i n t e l l e c t u a l  i n g h a d a n e a s i e r time t h a n the r e v o l u t i o n a r y c a d r e s .  train-  " C u r r i c u l a r reform a n d i n s t i t u t i o n a l reform h a d u n d o u b t e d l y l o n g b e e n c o n s i d e r e d b u t , a l t h o u g h some progress h a d b e e n made u p to 1 9 5 1 , the t o t a l p a t t e r n of h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n h a d not c h a n g e d d r a s t i c a l l y "  (Fraser, pp. 2 7 - 2 8 ) .  This was i n s p i t e  of s u c h c a m p a i g n s as the ' t h r e e a n t i s ' a n d the ' f i v e a n t i s ' , a i m e d at o v e r c o m i n g such t e n d e n c i e s as waste a n d b u r e a u c r a t i s m i n , a m o n g o t h e r p l a c e s , t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s .  The t o t a l number of u n i v e r s i t i e s was r e d u c e d .  H o w e v e r , in agriculture,  f o r e s t r y , e d u c a t i o n , m e d i c i n e , a n d e n g i n e e r i n g , the number of s c h o o l s was i n c r e a s e d , " r e f l e c t i n g the c h a n g e i n emphasis towards the f o u n d i n g of s p e c i a l i z e d a n d t e c h n i c a l i n stitutes"  ( i b i d . , pp. 28-29).  Five Y e a r Plan ( 1 9 5 3 - 1 9 5 7 ) . quantity,  These c h a n g e s c r y s t a l l i z e d d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d of the First A l o n g w i t h this o r i e n t a t i o n w e n t a stress on q u a l i t y o v e r  " i t was e d u c a t i o n for the i m m e d i a t e l y e d u c a b l e " ( i b i d . , p. 3 2 ) .  For those students t u r n e d d o w n as a r e s u l t of the c u t b a c k s i n e d u c a t i o n , i t was suggested t h a t " g l o r i o u s w o r k i n t h e f i e l d s a n d f a c t o r i e s s h o u l d b e the g o a l of the y o u n g " ( i b i d . , p. 3 2 ) .  A t this time (1953) the measure was v i e w e d as a t e m p o r a r y , a n d not a n  ideological, one.  The same a l t e r n a t i v e was d e v i s e d for those c a d r e s , many of them former  guerrillas, with low educational levels. b e as n o t i c e a b l e as i n the c i t i e s .  In r u r a l areas t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l l a c k s w o u l d not  "In the e a r l y y e a r s , b e c a u s e a l m o s t no w o r k e r s or  peasants c o u l d perform more c o m p l i c a t e d t a s k s , youths of b o u r g e o i s b a c k g r o u n d o f t e n rose more r a p i d l y .  But these f a s t - r i s i n g c a d r e s , b o t h b e c a u s e of t h e i r q u e s t i o n a b l e p o l i t i c a l  past a n d the resentment aroused from t h e i r c o - w o r k e r s w h o w e r e pushed a s i d e a n d s u b o r d i n a t e d to these y o u n g o f f i c i a l s , w e r e p a r t i c u l a r l y v u l n e r a b l e i n the p o l i t i c a l c a m p a i g n s " ( V o g e l , p. 5 7 ) .  In s h o r t , f o r a y o u t h w h o w a n t e d to b e c o m e a c a d r e i n the y e a r s a r o u n d 1 9 5 5 , e d u c a t i o n through the r e g u l a r s c h o o l system was a b o u t the o n l y m e t h o d o p e n to h i m or her. " W h e n the C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s t r i u m p h e d i n 1 9 4 9 , there no l o n g e r was a s o c i a l system to w h i c h t h e y c o u l d turn f o r s u p p o r t , e v e n i f t h e y h a d w a n t e d t o . There was n o g e n t r y l e f t , a n d t h e y distrusted the b o u r g e o i s i e . But there was a c h o i c e of d i r e c t i o n s . S h o u l d t h e y c o n s t r u c t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o n g the l i n e s t h e y h a d d e v e l o p e d d u r i n g the ten y e a r s of Y e n a n or s h o u l d t h e y e m u l a t e the o n e m o d e l t h e y r e s p e c t e d a b o v e a l l : the S o v i e t U n i o n ? T h e y c h o s e the l a t t e r c o u r s e , a n d thus f o r the f i r s t f i v e y e a r s of the 1 9 5 0 ' s , C h i n a b e g a n r a p i d l y t u r n i n g i n t o a s e c o n d S o v i e t U n i o n . The i m p o s i t i o n of b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n f r o m the t o p down p r o c e e d e d r a p i d l y , s y m b o l i z e d b y the e l a b o r a t i o n of a v a s t p l a n n i n g s t r u c t u r e . C h i n a a p p e a r e d to be f o l l o w i n g the r o a d to b u r e a u c r a t i c c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . If c e n t r a l i z a t i o n meant the e m e r g e n c e of a n e w professional e l i t e , the c h a n g e s i n C o m m u n i s t p a r t y r e c r u i t m e n t i n the e a r l y 1950's f o l l o w e d the m o d e l perfectly. L a r g e numbers of o l d a n d n e w i n t e l l e c t u a l s w e r e r e c r u i t e d i n t o the P a r t y . E x p e r t i s e b e c a m e a prime q u a l i f i c a t i o n for Party m e m b e r s h i p . U n t r a i n e d r u r a l c a d r e s w e r e d r o p p e d from Party r o l l s " ( S c h u r m a n n , p p . x l v i i i xlix). This r e l i a n c e o n the S o v i e t U n i o n h a d i m p o r t a n t c o n s e q u e n c e s i n e d u c a t i o n . T h e stress was o n the e c o n o m y .  This r e q u i r e d s k i l l e d t e c h n i c a l personnel a n d e d u c a t i o n  was made to serve these n e e d s .  A t a n e v e n more b a s i c l e v e l , the S o v i e t m o d e l of e d u -  c a t i o n was a d o p t e d a n d a p p l i e d w h o l e s a l e . W i t h the i n a u g u r a t i o n of the First F i v e Y e a r P l a n i n 1 9 5 3 , the C h i n e s e h i g h e r - e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m , i n a d e q u a t e to the needs of r a p i d i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , transformation.  underwent drastic  structural  The o l d K M T s y s t e m , w h i c h h a d b e e n m o d e l e d  l a r g e l y on A n g l o - A m e r i c a n i n s t i t u t i o n s , s h a p e d to S o v i e t p a t t e r n s .  n o w b e g a n to be r e -  Soviet teaching plans, c u r r i c u l a ,  a n d t e x t b o o k s w e r e t r a n s l a t e d w i t h o u t m o d i f i c a t i o n so t h a t C h i n a c o u l d d r a w o n the a d v a n c e d e x p e r i e n c e of the S o v i e t  U n i o n i n . . . t e a c h i n g methods a n d c u r r i c u l a . A l t h o u g h efforts w e r e made i n these years to r e c r u i t peasants i n t o the e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m , b e c a u s e e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t a n d the S o v i e t e d u c a t i o n a l m o d e l w e r e i n f o c u s , those students w h o c a m e f r o m u r b a n b o u r g e o i s b a c k g r o u n d s f o u n d it e a s i e r to progress through s u c h a s c h o o l s y s t e m .  M o v e o v e r , the best s c h o o l s w e r e i n the c i t i e s ,  w h i l e the state of e d u c a t i o n i n rural a r e a s w a s , i n g e n e r a l , a b y s m a l .  Improvements  in  rural e d u c a t i o n w e r e p r e c l u d e d b y the f a c t that the stress was p l a c e d on u n i f o r m i t y u n i f o r m i t y i n t e a c h i n g m e t h o d s , i n c u r r i c u l a , i n course c o n t e n t , i n e n t r a n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s , i n l e n g t h of s t u d y , a n d i n e x a m i n a t i o n s - a l l i n i m i t a t i o n of the S o v i e t U n i o n (Munro, pp. 622-623).  This n a t u r a l l y p l a c e d w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d s c h o o l s at a n a d v a n t a g e .  In a d d i t i o n , m a t e r i a l and f i n a n c i a l resources c o u l d not b e g i n to m e e t s u c h r i g i d s t a n d ards as f a r as s e t t i n g u p r u r a l s c h o o l s was c o n c e r n e d .  The f i r s t major signs of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h this c o u r s e of e v e n t s a p p e a r e d i n 1 9 5 5 , w h e n a mass r e c r u i t m e n t c a m p a i g n was o r g a n i z e d to promote c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n ( S c h u r m a n n , p. x l i x ) .  W i t h c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n , the f o c u s c h a n g e d f r o m u r b a n a r e a s a n d  h e a v y i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , to rural a r e a s a n d a g r i c u l t u r e .  The u n d e r p i n n i n g s of the First  F i v e Y e a r P l a n h a d to be c h a n g e d for a number of r e a s o n s . dustry a l o n e was i m p o s s i b l e .  It was f o u n d that h e a v y i n -  The s a v i n g s a n d g r o w t h g e n e r a t e d b y a g r i c u l t u r e a n d l i g h t  industry w e r e n e c e s s a r y to f i n a n c e a n d support h e a v y i n d u s t r y .  In f o c u s s i n g o n  the e d u -  c a t i o n of t e c h n o l o g i c a l p e r s o n n e l , a n e l i t e was f o r m i n g w h i c h was b e g i n n i n g to u n d e r m i n e communist i d e o l o g y .  °  In o r d e r to e n a b l e c o m m u n i z a t i o n , p e a s a n t s , a n d the c a d r e s  V i c t o r N e e , The C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n at P e k i n g U n i v e r s i t y , M o n t h l y R e v i e w Press,  N e w Y o r k , 1969, pp. 1 2 - 1 3 .  leading them, required certain general skills. specialist skills.  This n e g a t e d the emphasis o n n a r r o w ,  F i n a l l y , b u r e a u c r a c y was o n c e a g a i n , as in the e a r l y 1 9 4 0 ' s , b e g i n -  n i n g to s t r a n g l e g r o w t h .  It was m a k i n g i t d i f f i c u l t for the Party to be r e s p o n s i v e to the  needs of the rural p o p u l a t i o n ( i b i d . ,  pp. 97-101).  The ; s u f a n m o v e m e n t , a i m e d at  c o m b a t t i n g b u r e a u c r a t i s m , r e p r e s e n t e d a n i n i t i a l a t t e m p t to d e a l w i t h some of these problems.  O n c e a g a i n , the 'mass l i n e ' c a m e i n t o f o c u s .  The ' r e v i s i o n i s t s ' f o c u s s e d o n i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n a n d o n e m u l a t i o n of the S o v i e t Union.  They a r g u e d t h a t r a p i d e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t must  come first.  O n l y once  m o d e r n i z a t i o n was c o m p l e t e d c o u l d the s o c i e t y as a w h o l e b e c o m e b e t t e r off a n d f o l l o w the r o a d to s o c i a l i s m a n d c o m m u n i s m . w i t h this v i e w .  The ' M a o i s t s ' w e r e i n f u n d a m e n t a l  disagreement  T h e i r m a i n c o n c e r n s w e r e s o c i a l i n n a t u r e , a n d t h e i r p r i m a r y f o c u s was  the rural p o p u l a t i o n , i m p l e m e n t e d by s u c h means as the 'mass l i n e ' .  In the l a t e f i f t i e s  a n d e a r l y s i x t i e s , the d e b a t e s b e t w e e n the t w o sides b e c a m e v e r y h e a t e d .  In 1 9 5 6 , " t h e P a r t y ' s l e a d e r s h i p d e c i d e d to reassess its p o l i c y towards tuals a n d s t u d e n t s .  intellec-  A s h a d h a p p e n e d in the S o v i e t U n i o n , r a p i d i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n was d e -  m a n d i n g i n c r e a s e d r e l i a n c e on the t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e of the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a , a n d the d e mand for experts s t i l l g r e a t l y e x c e e d e d the a v a i l a b l e s u p p l y " ( N e e , p. 1 5 ) .  Because  many c a d r e s w e r e r e l u c t a n t to l o o s e n p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l , a c a m p a i g n was s i m u l t a n e o u s l y l a u n c h e d to f i g h t the ' t h r e e e v i l s ' of b u r e a u c r a t i s m , s e c t a r i a n i s m , a n d s u b j e c t i v i s m . " T h e o r i g i n a l c a m p a i g n l a u n c h e d i n M a y , 1 9 5 6 , was c o n c e r n e d w i t h the s o - c a l l e d ' r e c t i f i c a t i o n ' of c e r t a i n abuses w h i c h h a d d e v e l o p e d i n v a r i o u s Party o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  L i k e so  many of the other c a m p a i g n s o r i g i n a t i n g f r o m w i t h i n the party f o r the purpose of r e m o v i n g  d e a d w o o d f o r r e g e n e r a t i o n , it was a p p l i c a b l e f i r s t t o t h e c a d r e s w i t h i n the g o v e r n ment a n d t h e n l a t e r d i r e c t e d i n t o the b r o a d e r spheres of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n , state e n t e r p r i s e s , a n d so o n "  ( F r a s e r , p. 3 5 ) .  T h e n , i n e a r l y 1 9 5 7 , a s e c o n d m o v e m e n t b e g a n w h i l e the r e c t i f i c a t i o n p a i g n was s t i l l i n progress.  cam-  It was a m o v e m e n t of ' b l o o m i n g a n d c o n t e n d i n g ' , a n d it  p a r a l l e l l e d the r e c t i f i c a t i o n c a m p a i g n ( i b i d . , p p . 3 5 - 3 6 ) .  A l t h o u g h at f i r s t r e l u c t a n t , a g r o u p of students at P e k i n g U n i v e r s i t y ( P e i t a ) f i n a l l y e r e c t e d the f i r s t ' b i g c h a r a c t e r of i n t e l l e c t u a l s .  1  w a l l poster i n c r i t i c i s m o f the P a r t y ' s treatment  The ' H u n d r e d F l o w e r s ' movement was on its w a y , as hundreds o f students  from o t h e r m a j o r u n i v e r s i t i e s f o l l o w e d this l e a d .  The m a i n argument i n the c r i t i c i s m was  t h a t the Party was not l i v i n g u p to its professed i d e a l s , w h i l e " t h e m a i n thrust of the students' c r i t i c i s m was d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t the Party b u r e a u c r a c y , w h i c h m a n y f e l t h a d b e e n transformed from a r e v o l u t i o n a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t o a n e l i t e c l u b "  ( N e e , p.  In M a y , 1 9 5 7 , C h i n a e x p e r i e n c e d a student outburst m a n y w a y s s i m i l a r to the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n .  16).  in  In F e b -  r u a r y of t h a t y e a r , M a o T s e - t u n g made his l o n g s p e e c h ' O n the C o r r e c t H a n d l i n g of I n t e r n a l C o n t r a d i c t i o n s W i t h i n the P e o p l e ' . . . .(I)n A p r i l , a r e c t i f i c a t i o n m o v e m e n t was l a u n c h e d i n the c i t i e s .  P e o p l e w e r e u r g e d to c r i t i c i z e the  s h o r t c o m i n g s of c a d r e s .  A s has h a p p e n e d d u r i n g the C u l t u r -  a l R e v o l u t i o n , w a l l posters a p p e a r e d i n l a r g e n u m b e r s . . . (T)he i n i t i a l phase of the r e c t i f i c a t i o n , h o w e v e r , got out o f hand.  In M a y a n e w k i n d of w a l l poster a p p e a r e d , a t t a c k -  i n g the f u n d a m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e s o n w h i c h C o m m u n i s t r u l e was based.  T h e y f i r s t b e c a m e e v i d e n t i n the N a t i o n a l A v i a t i o n  U n i v e r s i t y ( d u r i n g the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n a k e y c e n t e r of the R e d G u a r d s ) , a n d t h e n s p r e a d to P e k i n g U n i v e r s i t y . . . For w e e k s , P a r t y c a d r e s w e r e the targets of b i t t e r a t t a c k . It was r e p o r t e d t h a t the P o l i t b u r o was i n a state of p a r a l y s i s . C l a s s e s w e r e s u s p e n d e d . Students e v e r y d a y m o u n t e d soap b o x e s a n d  71  harangued their f e l l o w students. . . . T h e Party p u l l e d i t s e l f t o g e t h e r a n d w e n t o n a counterattack,  l a u n c h i n g the a n t i - r i g h t i s t  movement.  By the w i n t e r of 1 9 5 7 / 5 8 , thousands of s t u d e n t s , p r o fessors, a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , t e c h n i c i a n s , a n d s c i e n t i s t s h a d b e e n . . . sent d o w n ( h s l a f a n g ) to the 'front l i n e s of production'  ' (Schurmann, pp. 583-584).  T a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the class c o m p o s i t i o n of most u n i v e r s i t y students a n d f a c u l t y a n d the t r a d i t i o n of s c h o l a r r u l e i n C h i n a , t h e reason f o r the campaign becomes understandable.  anti-rightist  For e x a m p l e , at P e i t a , e i g h t y per c e n t of u n i v e r -  s i t y students a n d n i n e t y - e i g h t per c e n t of the professors c a m e from b o u r g e o i s f a m i l i e s ( F r a s e r , p. 4 4 ) .  "In C h i n a , w h e r e i n t e l l e c t u a l s h i s t o r i c a l l y h a v e h a d a h i g h d e g r e e of  a c c e s s to p o l i t i c a l p o w e r , the student c r i t i c i s m of the Party c a n b e i n t e r p r e t e d as a b i d to wrest p o l i t i c a l p o w e r from the hands of p o o r l y e d u c a t e d Party c a d r e s , m a n y of w h o m h a d b e e n w o r k e r s a n d p e a s a n t s " ( N e e , p.  18).  Though most P e i t a students c r i t i c i z e d the Party from the s t a n d p o i n t of e g a l i t a r i a n i d e a l s , t h e y had not c o m e to terms w i t h t h e i r o w n i n t e l l e c t u a l e l i t i s m .  The v e r y  same students w h o h a d c r i t i c i z e d P a r t y e l i t i s m o p p o s e d the w o r k - s t u d y program w h i c h c a l l e d o n i n t e l l e c t u a l s to c o m b i n e m a n u a l l a b o r w i t h m e n t a l l a b o r . . . S o m e students a n d t e a c h e r s d e m a n d e d t h a t Party c o m m i t t e e s e i t h e r b e w i t h d r a w n from e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s or l i m i t e d i n p o w e r - i n o r d e r to ' l e t the professors run the u n i v e r s ities',  ( i b i d . , pp. 17-18).  The form t h a t this c r i t i c i s m t o o k was o n e of the f a c t o r s w h i c h l e d M a o to p r o c l a i m the G r e a t L e a p Forward.  It was a r e n u n c i a t i o n of the S o v i e t model f o r s o c i a l c h a n g e ,  a n d it i n s t i t u t e d a n e d u c a t i o n a l r e v o l u t i o n c o n c e r n e d w i t h e d u c a t i n g a " ' n e w s o c i a l i s t m a n , w h o h a d b o t h p o l i t i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s a n d c u l t u r e a n d w h o was c a p a b l e of b o t h 1  mental and physical l a b o r "  ( i b i d . , p. 2 0 ) .  W h e r e a s the a n t i - r i g h t i s t m o v e m e n t was c o n c e r n e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h i n t e l l e c t u a l s , from A u g u s t  1957 a n o t h e r m o v e m e n t c a m e i n t o b e i n g c o n c e r n e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h t h e  p e a s a n t r y - the ' s o c i a l i s t e d u c a t i o n ' m o v e m e n t .  W h i l e m a n y of the i n t e l l e c t u a l s w e r e  'sent d o w n ' to v i l l a g e s or f a c t o r i e s , peasants a n d w o r k e r s r e c e i v e d m u c h a t t e n t i o n . M a j o r efforts w e r e made to e n r o l them i n s c h o o l s of v a r i o u s sorts, a n d a n a t t e m p t was made to d e - m y s t i f y ' t e c h n o l o g y ' .  Peasants a n d workers w e r e t o l d t h a t t h e y , t o o , c o u l d  c o n t r i b u t e to the b u i l d i n g of t h e e c o n o m y .  O n S e p t e m b e r 1 9 , 1 9 5 8 , a n e w e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y was a n n o u n c e d . was to b e made ductive labor.  Education  u n i v e r s a l , s e r v i n g the needs of the p r o l e t a r i a t a n d c l o s e l y l i n k e d to p r o R e g u l a r s c h o o l s w e r e to set u p farms a n d f a c t o r i e s , w h i l e f a c t o r i e s a n d  c o o p e r a t i v e s w e r e to set up t h e i r o w n s c h o o l s . l a b o r , p a r t - t i m e study was i n t r o d u c e d .  In o r d e r t h a t study not be d i v o r c e d f r o m  This was the ' h a l f - w o r k h a l f - s t u d y ' s y s t e m . ^  Emphasis was t a k e n a w a y a l l o w i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l s to express t h e m s e l v e s a n d f o c u s s e d i n s t e a d o n the masses.  M a o b e l i e v e d that i t was the masses w h o possessed the  c r e a t i v i t y a n d i n i t i a t i v e to a l l o w the g o a l s of the Party to be a c h i e v e d ( S c h u r m a n n , p. 85) ' F r e e d o m ' was not t o t a l l y s u p r e s s e d . It was f e l t t h a t i n t e l l e c t u a l s w e r e a b u s i n g t h e i r p o s i t i o n s , a n d , t h u s , t h e i r interests h a d to b e s u b o r d i n a t e d to those of t h e masses.  In t u r n ,  the l a t t e r w e r e to b e g r a n t e d ' f r e e d o m . 1  E x p a n s i o n of e n r o l m e n t to i n c l u d e more students of w o r k e r a n d peasant o r i g i n s a f f e c t e d a l l l e v e l s of the e d u c a t i o n a l system - i n c l u d i n g the u n i v e r s i t i e s .  ^  The P r e s i d e n t  J o h n G a r d n e r , " E d u c a t e d Y o u t h a n d U r b a n - R u r a l I n e q u a l i t i e s " , i n The C i t y i n  Communist C h i n a , 1 9 7 1 , p. 2 4 3 .  e d i t e d b y J o h n W i l s o n L e w i s , S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y Press, S t a n f o r d ,  of T s i n g h u a U n i v e r s i t y is q u o t e d as s a y i n g :  " T h e e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n b e c o m e s not  just a s c h o o l , but at the same t i m e a r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t e , f a c t o r y , d e s i g n i n g i n s t i t u t e , and b u i l d i n g c o n c e r n .  A n e n d is put to the t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e p t of a s c h o o l as a c o n s u m e r  u n i t , a n i v o r y ' tower / f a r r e m o v e d / from s o c i a l l i f e .  O u r p o l i c y b r i d g e s the g a p b e t w e e n  educational and production units" ( N e e , pp. 2 1 - 2 2 ) .  O n e of the c a m p a i g n s l a u n c h e d d u r i n g the p e r i o d of the G r e a t L e a p F o r w a r d was the ' t h r e e u n i f i c a t i o n s ' m o v e m e n t , w h i c h was c o n c e r n e d w i t h u n i t i n g c a d r e s ( l e a d e r s ) , t e c h n i c i a n s ( i n t e l l e c t u a l s ) a n d w o r k e r s a n d peasants (masses) i n the form of w o r k t e a m s . This was a p r a c t i c a l a t t e m p t at r e s o l v i n g the i n t e r n a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n s a m o n g the p e o p l e t h r o u g h the u n i t y of o p p o s i t e s ; " e a c h was e x p e c t e d  i n e f f e c t to b e c o m e the o t h e r :  workers  becoming t e c h n i c i a n s , technicians becoming workers, and both sharing leadership w i t h the c a d r e s " ( S c h u r m a n n , p. 7 6 ) . of the h s i a f a n g m o v e m e n t .  This c o n c e p t h e l p s e x p l a i n the i d e o l o g i c a l  Besides h e l p i n g - , r e s o l v e these c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , if  importance properly  c a r r i e d out h s i a f a n g c o u l d a l s o h e l p r e s o l v e the d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n m e n t a l a n d m a n u a l l a b o r , a n d b e t w e e n c i t i e s a n d the c o u n t r y s i d e .  In the e a r l i e r y e a r s , a r o u n d 1 9 5 6 , h s i a f a n g was p r i m a r i l y a i m e d a t p a r i n g d o w n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f a t b y s e n d i n g personnel to the c o u n t r y s i d e .  T h e y w e r e not e x p e c t e d  to e n g a g e i n m a n u a l l a b o r , u n t i l the ' H u n d r e d F l o w e r s ' p e r i o d s h o w e d the s e v e r i t y o f the ' p r o b l e m of the i n t e l l e c t u a l s ' . m e n t ' to a permanent ' s y s t e m ' .  It was at this p o i n t that h s i a f a n g c h a n g e d f r o m a ' m o v e In S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 5 8 , the Party issued a d i r e c t i v e s t a t -  i n g that " w o r k e r s of a l l g o v e r n m e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t r o o p s , e n t e r p r i s e s a n d i n d u s t r i e s ,  8 R e n e s s e l a e r W . L e e III, "The Hsia Fang System: M a r x i s m and M o d e r n i z a t i o n " , i n The C h i n a Q u a r t e r l y , N o . 3 7 , J a n u a r y - M a r c h 1 9 6 9 , p. 4 7 .  e x c e p t those t o o o l d or t o o s i c k to t a k e part i n p h y s i c a l l a b o r , . . . s h a l l spend at l e a s t o n e month a y e a r i n p h y s i c a l l a b o r "  ( i b i d . , p. 4 7 ) .  The C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s see s e p a r a t i o n from l a b o u r as a h i n d r a n c e to d e v e l o p m e n t , p r i m a r i l y for the f o l l o w i n g reasons: f i r s t , b e c a u s e i t fosters a set of e l i t e v a l u e s that a r e a n t i t h e t i c a l to p r o d u c t i o n a n d c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n ; s e c o n d , b e c a u s e i t wastes human r e sources a n d burdens the state w i t h u n n e c e s s a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e x p e n s e s ; a n d , t h i r d , b e c a u s e i t g i v e s r i s e to a b u r e a u c r a t i c ' s t y l e ' of w o r k w h i c h is d i v o r c e d from the i m m e d i a t e p r o b l e m of p r o d u c t i o n a n d w h i c h l o w e r s the m o r a l e of p r o d u c e r s " ( i b i d . , p. 5 2 ) . E a r l i e r i n this c h a p t e r , it was s t a t e d that i n the e a r l y y e a r s of the P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c there was a s t r u g g l e b e t w e e n the ' r e d s ' a n d the ' e x p e r t s ' .  H s i a f a n g was o n e  method whereby cadres and i n t e l l e c t u a l s c o u l d become both 'red and e x p e r t , by p a r t i 1  c i p a t i n g i n the s t r u g g l e of p r o d u c t i o n , a n d thus b e i n g p o l i t i c a l l y r e m o u l d e d , a n d b y u t i l i z i n g t h e i r s k i l l s i n a p r a c t i c a l m a n n e r , thus a c q u i r i n g s t i l l more ' e x p e r t i s e ' .  A s a major  g o a l of the G r e a t L e a p F o r w a r d was c o m m u n i z a t i o n , it was v e r y i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e p e a santry u n i t e w i t h c a d r e s a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l s , r e c e i v i n g l e a d e r s h i p a n d e x p e r t g u i d a n c e w h i l e ' p r o l e t a r i a n i z i n g ' these t w o g r o u p s . ist C h i n a :  "Hsia fang  h e n c e s e r v e d a d u a l purpose i n C o m m u n -  b y t r a n s f e r r i n g personnel from w h e r e t h e y w e r e not n e e d e d to p l a c e s w h e r e  t h e y w e r e , it b o t h c u t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e expenses a n d f r e e d human resources for t h e d e v e l o p ment of p r o d u c t i o n "  ( i b i d . , p. 5 8 ) .  A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t system that t h e ' e d u c a t i o n a l r e v o l u t i o n ' brought to the f o r e was the h a l f - w o r k h a l f - s t u d y s c h o o l s .  W h i l e f a c t o r i e s a n d communes w e r e to set u p s c h o o l s ,  s c h o o l s i n t h e i r turn w e r e to set u p w o r k shops or a g r i c u l t u r a l p l o t s . c i a l i n g e t t i n g t h e workers a n d the p e a s a n t r y i n v o l v e d i n e d u c a t i o n .  This system was c r u By m i x i n g e d u c a t i o n  a n d p r o d u c t i o n , g o v e r n m e n t expenses w e r e c u t d o w n a n d peasants w e r e not d e p r i v e d of  the l a b o r p o w e r of t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  T h u s , some form o f e d u c a t i o n b e c a m e a v a i l a b l e f o r  a m u c h l a r g e r segment of the p o p u l a t i o n t h a n was p o s s i b l e u n d e r the r e g u l a r , school system.  full-time  H a l f - w o r k h a l f - s t u d y programs w e r e a l s o i m p o r t a n t i n those e d u c a t i o n a l  i n s t i t u t i o n s w h i c h h a d a t e n d e n c y to p r o d u c e t e c h n i c a l a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l e l i t e s .  And  h s i a f a n g brought p e o p l e to the v i l l a g e s w h o c o u l d t e a c h c u l t u r e a n d i m p a r t s k i l l s to the l o c a l p o p u l a c e , thus e n l a r g i n g the t e a c h i n g r a n k s .  W h e r e a s i n 1966 the a c h i e v e m e n t s of the G r e a t L e a p F o r w a r d w o u l d b e p r o c l a i m e d , i n 1959 a n a t t a c k was m o u n t e d a g a i n s t b o t h the m o v e m e n t a n d M a o .  "In this  n e w c l i m a t e , m u c h of C h i n a ' s E d u c a t i o n a l R e v o l u t i o n b e g a n to be s l o w l y u n d e r m i n e d . Reforms w e r e c r i t i c i z e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y by professors a n d u n i v e r s i t y p r e s i d e n t s , f o r the q u a l i t y of a c a d e m i c l i f e ' ; professional s t a n d a r d s .  'lowering  m a n y d e m a n d e d a c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t to r a i s e a c a d e m i c a n d  O n the w h o l e , this effort was s u p p o r t e d b y most h i g h Party o f f i -  c i a l s , a n d the Party a d o p t e d the s l o g a n ' a d v a n c i n g s c i e n c e ' i n the h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n s y s tem'  ( N e e , p. 2 7 ) .  The c h a n g e was r e f l e c t e d at P e i t a , for e x a m p l e , b y the a p p o i n t m e n t of a n e w p r e s i d e n t a n d s e c r e t a r y to the U n i v e r s i t y ' s Party C o m m i t t e e - Lu P ' i n g .  H e a d m i r e d the  process of S o v i e t i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , a n d r e c o g n i z e d the i m p o r t a n c e of a ' t e c h n i c a l a n d m a n a g e r i a l i n t e l l i g e n t s i a ' i n that p r o c e s s .  H e sought to m o d e l P e i t a o n M o s c o w U n i v e r -  s i t y , a n d h a d e d u c a t i o n a l efforts c o n c e n t r a t e d on t r a i n i n g h i g h l y s k i l l e d t e c h n o c r a t s . E v e n Party c a d r e s a s s i g n e d to w o r k at P e i t a w e r e j u d g e d a c c o r d i n g to ' p r o f e s s i o n a l ' s t a n d ards. dated.  Those c a d r e s f r o m peasant a n d w o r k i n g - c l a s s b a c k g r o u n d s c o n s e q u e n t l y f e l t i n t i m i The stress was o n ' c a r e e r s ' .  The same a p p l i e d to students a n d professors.  A great  number of students w h o h a d r e c e n t l y b e e n r e c r u i t e d f r o m the c o u n t r y s i d e w e r e e x p e l l e d .  A s i m i l a r process was g o i n g on at o t h e r u n i v e r s i t i e s ( i b i d . , p p . 2 8 - 3 3 ) .  B e t w e e n 1958 a n d 1966 there w e r e t w o d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h e s to e d u c a t i o n . O n e was M a o i s t , " r u r a l - o r i e n t e d a n d e g a l i t a r i a n , v i e w i n g e d u c a t i o n as the means b y w h i c h the ' t h r e e m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e s ' b e t w e e n town and c o u n t r y , w o r k e r s a n d p e a s a n t s , a n d m e n t a l a n d m a n u a l l a b o r c o u l d be r a p i d l y e l i m i n a t e d . "  " I n s t e a d of t r e a t i n g e d u c a t i o n as  a c o m p e t i t i v e process b y w h i c h the most a b l e w e r e s e l e c t e d a n d t r a i n e d as a n e l i t e ,  the  M a o i s t a p p r o a c h was i n t e n d e d to c u l t i v a t e a l l - a r o u n d a n d modest s k i l l s i n as m a n y p e o p l e as p o s s i b l e " ( G a r d n e r , p. 2 3 6 ) .  This a l l o w e d f l e x i b i l i t y ,  because people with diverse  s k i l l s c o u l d shift from post t o post to suit e c o n o m i c n e c e s s i t y . w e r e to be c l o s e l y i n t e g r a t e d .  Education and production  C o u r s e s w e r e to be short a n d pruned of s u p e r f l u o u s m a t e r i a l .  T h e o r y a n d p r a c t i c e w e r e to be u n i t e d .  H a l f - w o r k h a l f - s t u d y s c h o o l s w e r e a means to  this e n d . The n o t i o n t h a t the e d u c a t e d s h o u l d e n g a g e i n m a n u a l l a b o r - a n unusual i d e a i n a n y s o c i e t y - is p a r t i c u l a r l y n o v e l i n the C h i n e s e  content,  w h e r e the e d u c a t e d h a d  t r a d i t i o n a l l y t r e a t e d p h y s i c a l w o r k w i t h c o n t e m p t ; but from M a o ' s p o i n t o f v i e w it was a p r e r e q u i s i t e for the d e v e l o p m e n t of a n e w l e a d e r s h i p s t y l e .  By w o r k i n g i n  the f i e l d s a n d f a c t o r i e s , the e d u c a t e d w o u l d d e v e l o p a n a p p r e c i a t i o n of the problems f a c i n g the masses a n d w o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d t o use t h e i r s k i l l s to s o l v e t h e m .  Instead  of a c t i n g as remote ' e x p e r t s ' d i r e c t i n g the peasants to i m p l e m e n t i n n o v a t i o n s , a n d thus l i k e l y to c a u s e r e s e n t ment if not n o n - c o m p l i a n c e , t h e y w o u l d be a b l e t o Mead from w i t h i n ' b y e x a m p l e a n d p e r s u a s i o n .  While  t e a c h i n g t h e y w o u l d t h e m s e l v e s be t a u g h t ( i b i d . ,  p. 2 3 7 ) .  The s e c o n d a p p r o a c h has b e e n l a b e l l e d ' L i u i s t ' ( i b i d . , p. 2 3 8 ) . oriented and elitist.  It f o l l o w e d the S o v i e t p a t t e r n of e d u c a t i o n .  It. was u r b a n -  The arguments w e r e p r i -  m a r i l y e c o n o m i c , " t a k i n g the v i e w that s c a r c e resources s h o u l d be spent o n c r e a t i n g a n e d u cated  e l i t e of ' p r o f e s s i o n a l s ' . "  T h e y " a r g u e d f o r e d u c a t i n g the most t a l e n t e d to a h i g h  d e g r e e , a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y w e r e h a p p y to preserve a n d d e v e l o p the f u l l - t i m e s c h o o l s a n d universities.  A c c e s s to e d u c a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , was to b e d e t e r m i n e d  p r i m a r i l y b y a c a d e m i c a b i l i t y , a p o l i c y t h a t f a v o r e d u r b a n c h i l d r e n from m i d d l e - c l a s s families."  " A c c o r d i n g to this v i e w p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i s m was no substitute for p r o f e s s i o n a l  knowledge"  ( i b i d . , p. 2 3 8 ) .  F o l l o w i n g t h e ' ' e c o n o m i c d i f f i c u l t i e s subsequent to the  G r e a t L e a p F o r w a r d , the L i u i s t s g a i n e d the upper h a n d , e s p e c i a l l y i n the e a r l y 1 9 6 0 ' s .  N o t o n l y d i d the h a l f - w o r k h a l f - s t u d y s c h o o l s suffer as a r e s u l t of this shift i n o r i e n t a t i o n , , but m a n y e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s , c a m p a i g n s to e l i m i n a t e i l l i t e r a c y , a n d s p a r e time e d u c a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y in rural areas, were also h a l t e d .  The h a l f - w o r k  half-study  system was r e v i v e d i n 1 9 6 4 , w h e n M a o o n c e a g a i n was a b l e to g a i n p o l i t i c a l a s c e n d a n c y . But at t h a t t i m e these s c h o o l s w e r e set i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h the r e g u l a r , f u l l - t i m e s c h o o l s . E d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y d i d not t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t the M a o i s t i d e o l o g i c a l u n d e r p i n n i n g s of the half-work half-study schools.  This l e d to a ' t w o - t r a c k ' system of e d u c a t i o n ( i b i d . , p. 247)  The h a l f - w o r k h a l f - s t u d y system was seen b y m a n y not as a s u p e r i o r i n n o v a t i o n w i t h w h i c h to r e p l a c e e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s , or e v e n as ' s e p a r a t e but e q u a l ' .  In t h e  eyes of m a n y c a d r e s a n d ' t h e masses' t h e m s e l v e s , h a l f work half-study schools were inferior institutions designed to p r o v i d e a l i m i t e d e d u c a t i o n for the c h i l d r e n of peasants a n d w o r k e r s or to s e r v e as p r e p a r a t o r y e s t a b l i s h m e n t s to ' f e e d ' the f u l l - t i m e system ( i b i d . , p p . 2 4 7 - 2 4 8 ) . The c u r r i c u l u m i n these s c h o o l s was the same as t h a t i n t h e f u l l - t i m e i n s t i t u t i o n s . L e a r n i n g was b y rote a n d the subjects w e r e a b s t r a c t , not l i n k e d to p r a c t i c a l m a t t e r s .  In  o t h e r w o r d s , the h a l f - t i m e s c h o o l s w e r e set i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h f u l l - t i m e s c h o o l s , as if t h e r e s h o u l d be no d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n .  If c h i l d r e n from peasant f a m i l i e s c o n c e n t r a t e d o n t h e i r s t u d i e s , t h e i r parents lost t h e i r l a b o r .  If t h e y h e l p e d t h e i r f a m i l i e s i n p r o d u c t i o n , t h e y c o u l d not h o p e to  78  c o m p e r e a g a i n s t c h i l d r e n from r i c h e r b a c k g r o u n d s .  If t h e y met w i t h success at s c h o o l ,  t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s t e n d e d to r i s e , a n d t h e y b e c a m e d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r l o t i n l i f e . In a d d i t i o n , the ' b o o k k n o w l e d g e ' t h e y r e c e i v e d was of l i t t l e p r a c t i c a l v a l u e to the communes.  "Thus a s i t u a t i o n c o m m o n to m a n y u n d e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s d e v e l o p e d , i n  w h i c h the e d u c a t i o n system p r o d u c e d l a r g e numbers of youths w h o , t h o u g h c o n v i n c e d o f their own superiority, of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n "  possessed s k i l l s of l i m i t e d v a l u e a n d h e n c e w e r e c o n d e m n e d to l i v e s  ( i b i d . , p. 2 4 9 ) .  By 1961, not o n l y h a d the m o v e m e n t a g a i n s t the e d u c a t i o n a l r e v o l u t i o n r e j e c t e d the h a l f - w o r k h a l f - s t u d y c o n c e p t , it b e g a n to c a l l for a n emphasis o n q u a l i t y o v e r quantity.  There w e r e demands to g i v e the best of the f u l l - t i m e s c h o o l s better f a c i l i t i e s .  In 1 9 6 2 , a d i r e c t i v e was issued to a l l p r o v i n c e s a n d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s " o u t l i n i n g a program to ' e l e v a t e ' the q u a l i t y of e d u c a t i o n .  D i r e c t o r s of e d u c a t i o n at the p r o v i n c i a l a n d m u n i -  c i p a l l e v e l s w e r e c a l l e d o n to s e l e c t a number of ' k e y s c h o o l s ' from a m o n g the u n i v e r s i t i e s , secondary schools, and primary s c h o o l s .  In M a y 1963 d i r e c t o r s of e d u c a t i o n a l bureaus  at the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l met at a s p e c i a l c o n f e r e n c e i n w h i c h plans w e r e d r a w n u p to e s t a b l i s h a system of e l i t e s c h o o l s " ( N e e , p p . 3 7 - 3 8 ) . the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n as ' l i t t l e p a g o d a s ' .  These .schools c a m e to b e k n o w n d u r i n g  In o r d e r to g e t i n t o these s c h o o l s , students  h a d to pass r i g o r o u s e x a m i n a t i o n s , w h i c h i n c l u d e d such subjects as f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e s , thus d r a s t i c a l l y c u t t i n g d o w n the c h a n c e s of students from peasant or w o r k i n g - c l a s s b a c k g r o u n d s . W h a t e v e r their v i e w s on e d u c a t i o n in g e n e r a l , many members of the i n c r e a s i n g l y r o u t i n l z e d a n d u r b a n i z e d p a r t y b u r e a u c r a c y w e r e d e t e r m i n e d to promote a n e l i t ist system for the b e n e f i t of t h e i r o w n c h i l d r e n .  The  p r o v i s i o n of s c h o o l s e i t h e r e n t i r e l y or l a r g e l y f o r the c h i l d r e n of c a d r e s h a d b e g u n i n the border a r e a s b e f o r e  Liberation.  A f t e r 1949 t h e y h a d b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d i n  the major c i t i e s , w h e r e t h e y b e c a m e m o d e l s f o r t h e p o l i c y of ' c o m p l e t e S o v i e t i z a t i o n ' . . . S o m e l e a d e r s . . . had a r g u e d from the e a r l y 1950's t h a t s u c h s c h o o l s s h o u l d be a b s o r b e d i n t o the o r d i n a r y e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m , but t h e y h a d b e e n o p p o s e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y b y the party c o m m i t t e e of P e k i n g , i n w h i c h c i t y such s c h o o l s w e r e of c o u r s e most p r e v a l e n t .  In 1955 the s c h o o l s  had b e e n . c r i t i c i z e d b y ' r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o m r a d e s ; ™ ' ' t h e 1  p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n b u r e a u of the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , w h o h a d a r g u e d that t h e y w e r e e x t r e m e l y e x p e n s i v e and moreover produced graduates who regarded t h e m s e l v e s as ' n e w a r i s t o c r a t s ' .  The m u n i c i p a l p a r t y c o m -  mittee's Department of E d u c a t i o n , h o w e v e r , insisting t h a t P e k i n g , b e i n g the c a p i t a l , was a s p e c i a l c a s e , not o n l y r e t a i n e d t h e e x i s t i n g s c h o o l s but set u p n e w ones.  F u r t h e r m o r e , i n 1958 a n d t h e r e a f t e r as a r e s u l t  of S o v i e t i n f l u e n c e , K r u s c h e v ' s 1956 c a l l for b o a r d i n g s c h o o l s was a p p a r e n t l y t a k e n u p b y L i u S h a o - c h ' i , w h o announced that such schools were f u l l y in a c c o r d w i t h true C o m m u n i s m a n d thus s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d for c a d r e ' s children.  These s c h o o l s e x i s t e d not o n l y f o r the c i v i l i a n  b u r e a u c r a c y , but a l s o f o r t h e P L A u n t i l t h e y w e r e a b o l i s h e d b y L i n P i a o i n 1963 ( G a r d n e r , p. 2 5 6 ) . M o s t of these s c h o o l s b e c a m e ' l i t t l e p a g o d a s ' .  The dangers b e c a m e o b v i o u s .  N o t o n l y w e r e c a d r e ' s c h i l d r e n t e n d i n g to t h i n k of t h e m s e l v e s as the p o l i t i c a l heirs to the r e v o l u t i o n , h a v i n g b e e n ' b o r n r e d , t h e y w e r e b e i n g g i v e n , i n a d d i t i o n , s p e c i a l 1  s k i l l s i n these s c h o o l s w h i c h f u r t h e r e n a b l e d them to set t h e m s e l v e s a b o v e the g e n e r a l population.  The j d a n g e r of c r e a t i n g a n e w ' r u l i n g c l a s s ' , a n d thus s u b v e r t i n g the r e v o -  l u t i o n , was v e r y g r e a t .  It was s t r e n g t h e n e d i n the ' l i t t l e p a g o d a s ' a n d i n i n s t i t u t i o n s of  h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n as stress o n ' p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m ' a l l o w e d t e a c h i n g staff w i t h b o u r g e o i s b a c k grounds a n d o r i e n t a t i o n s to t a k e c o n t r o l .  A s f a r as q u a l i t y a n d a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t w e r e  c o n c e r n e d , m a n y of the results w e r e g o o d , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the f i e l d s of s c i e n c e a n d e n g i n eering.  But the s o c i a l c o n s e q u e n c e s w e r e n o t .  G r a d u a t e s w h o c o u l d impress u n i v e r s i t y c o m m i t t e e s w h i c h d e t e r m i n e d job a l l o c a t i o n s c o u l d pursue c a r e e r s as ' h i g h c a l i b e r c a d r e s ' or ' r e d e n g i n e e r s ' . i n g standards w o u l d be r e l a t i v e l y h i g h .  T h e y c o u l d r e m a i n i n the c i t i e s .  Their l i v -  Thus, their  c o n t a c t w i t h the rural p o p u l a t i o n was v i r t u a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t , s i n c e t h e y c o u l d g o from s c h o o l to w o r k w i t h o u t e v e r h a v i n g to w o r k i n t h e f i e l d s ( i b i d . , p p . 2 6 7 - 8 ) .  The L i u i s t l i n e was e s p e c i a l l y harmful to the w h o l e c o n c e p t of h s i a f a n g .  This system was g r e a t l y d i s t o r t e d i n the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . schools were exempted from t a k i n g part.  Students at the better  " F u r t h e r m o r e , i n some i n s t a n c e s , c a d r e s used  the c o u n t r y s i d e as a d u m p i n g g r o u n d f o r the p o l i t i c a l u n d e s i r a b l e s a m o n g t h e y o u n g " ( i b i d . , p. 2 6 9 ) .  H s i a f a n g was o f t e n r e g a r d e d as a punishment or as a t e m p o r a r y m e a -  sure to h e l p c e r t a i n youths progress u p the l a d d e r of success u p o n t h e i r r e t u r n to t h e c i t i e s and towns.  A s c a d r e s a n d t e a c h e r s w e r e r e q u i r e d to send a c e r t a i n q u o t a of students to the  v i l l a g e s , t h e y o f t e n used c o e r c i o n or p a i n t e d i d e a l i s t i c p i c t u r e s of r u r a l l i f e i n o r d e r to persuade students to g o .  M a n y of these youths u n d e r w e n t enormous s u f f e r i n g i n the v i l l a g e s .  N o t only  w e r e t h e y unused to r u r a l l i f e , t h e y o f t e n s u f f e r e d d i s c r i m i n a t i o n at the hands of peasants a n d v i l l a g e c a d r e s , w h o r e s e n t e d h a v i n g to f e e d them a n d o f t e n r e g a r d e d them as ' s o c i a l misfits'. C o n s e q u e n t l y , the e d u c a t e d y o u t h s c a m e to c o n s t i t u t e w h a t was p o s s i b l y the most e x p l o s i v e e l e m e n t i n C h i n e s e society.  Sharrrigc.with the peasant y o u t h s the g e n e r a l  l a c k of o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c a r e e r a d v a n c e m e n t v i s - a - v i s the ' i n t e l l e c t u a l a r i s t o c r a c y ' of t h e c i t i e s , t h e y s u f f e r e d from the a d d i t i o n a l d i s a d v a n t a g e s w e h a v e m e n t i o n e d . H a v i n g e x p e r i e n c e d c i t y l i f e , and having been ' r e j e c t e d '  b y the s y s t e m , t h e y , more t h a n most, w e r e a f r u s t r a t e d a n d d i s a p p o i n t e d g r o u p ( i b i d . , p. 2 7 6 ) . In 1 9 6 6 , m i l l i o n s of these y o u n g p e o p l e w e r e to r e t u r n to the towns a n d c i t i e s , o n the p r e t e x t of ' m a k i n g r e v o l u t i o n ' .  T h e i r g r i e v a n c e s w e r e m a n i f e s t e d b o t h i n the  v i o l e n c e of t h e i r a t t a c k s a n d i n t h e i r r e f u s a l to r e t u r n to the c o u n t r y s i d e at t h e request of the l e a d e r s of the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n .  in 1961-62, Liu S h a o - c h ' i initiated a 'relaxation' period.  A f t e r the p o l i c i e s  of the G r e a t L e a p F o r w a r d a n d the a n t i - r i g h t i s t m o v e m e n t w h e n i n t e l l e c t u a l s w e r e s u b j e c t e d to s e v e r e c r i t i c i s m , this p e r i o d r e p r e s e n t e d a l o o s e n i n g of c o n t r o l o v e r t h e m , w h i l e cadres underwent r e c t i f i c a t i o n .  " I n l a r g e p a r t , this shift was due to the c o m p l e t e  w i t h d r a w a l of S o v i e t s c i e n t i f i c a n d t e c h n i c a l experts o c c u r r i n g a t t h e same t i m e as t h e d i s r u p t i o n s of the G r e a t L e a p F o r w a r d h i t the p o p u l a t i o n most s e v e r e l y .  U n l i k e the  " H u n d r e d F l o w e r s ' p e r i o d , most i n t e l l e c t u a l s a n d students w e r e a f r a i d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n this m o v e m e n t .  M o s t of the c r i t i c i s m c a m e from h i g h - l e v e l Party o f f i c i a l s i n the P r o p a g a n d a  D e p a r t m e n t a n d i n the P e k i n g P a r t y C o m m i t t e e , w h o w e r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g the ' r e l a x a t i o n ' .  " ( W ) h e r e a s i n 1956 a n d the f i r s t h a l f of 1957 the more r a d i c a l c r i t i c s  d a r e d to c h a l l e n g e the o n e - p a r t y r u l e of the C C P , i n 1 0 6 1 - 6 2 these o f f i c i a l s d i d not h i t at the Party of w h i c h t h e y w e r e p a r t , but a i m e d d i r e c t l y at M a o h i m s e l f " ( i b i d . , p. 6 8 ) . A l o n g w i t h M a o , his p o l i c i e s i n the G r e a t L e a p F o r w a r d w e r e l i k e w i s e a t t a c k e d . The c r i s e s c r e a t e d b y the G r e a t L e a p F o r w a r d - t h e f o o d s h o r t a g e s , the p r e c a r i o u s e c o n o m y , a n d l o w m o r a l e m a d e i t d i f f i c u l t f o r M a o to l a u n c h a c o u n t e r a t t a c k as e a r l y as 1 9 6 1 - 6 2 .  M a o endured considerable criticism  i n this p e r i o d , but b y the f a l l o f 1 9 6 2 , as c o n d i t i o n s b e g a n to t a k e a n u p s w i n g , M a o u n d e r t o o k a c o u n t e r a t t a c k . . . B e g i n n i n g at t h e T e n t h P l e n u m i n the f a l l of 1962 he  M e r l e G o l d m a n , " T h e U n i q u e ' B l o o m i n g a n d C o n t e n d i n g ' of 1 9 6 1 - 6 2 , " i n The C h i n a Q u a r t e r l y , N o . 3 7 , J a n u a r y - M a r c h 1 9 6 9 , p. 5 9 .  i n i t i a t e d not a purge but a S o c i a l i s t E d u c a t i o n C a m p a i g n , w i t h a c o n t e n t a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l w i t h that of the G r e a t P r o l e t a r i a n C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n .  A n impor-  t a n t c o m p o n e n t of the series of c a m p a i g n s w h i c h b e gan i n the f a l l of 1962 w a s the a t t e m p t to r e h a b i l i t a t e the i m a g e of C h a i r m a n M a o . ''P  A s part of the S o c i a l i s t E d u c a t i o n C a m p a i g n , w h i c h was a r u r a l - o r i e n t e d o n e , M a o , i n 1 9 6 2 , sent students to the c o u n t r y s i d e i n t h e form of ' w o r k t e a m s ' .  They were  to h e l p poor a n d l o w e r - m i d d l e peasants o r g a n i z e t h e m s e l v e s i n order to c h e c k c a p i t a l i s t i c trends i n the v i l l a g e s a n d c r i t i c i z e c o r r u p t c a d r e s .  W o r k teams w e r e a l s o sent i n t o the  c i t i e s a n d u n i v e r s i t i e s , a l t h o u g h o n a more l i m i t e d s c a l e .  A w o r k team a r r i v e d a t F b i t a ,  but Lu P ' i n g , a p p a r e n t l y f e a r i n g c r i t i c i s m , o r d e r e d it to u n d e r g o r e c t i f i c a t i o n . its members r e f u s e d , he had it r e c a l l e d .  When  H e a l s o h a d a l l those Party members w h o h a d  b e g u n to c r i t i c i z e him sent to ' r e c t i f i c a t i o n sessions' ( N e e , p. 4 1 ) .  In i M a y , 1 9 6 6 , a C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e c i r c u l a r was i s s u e d , o r d e r i n g the l a u n c h i n g of a f u l l - s c a l e c r i t i c i s m of W u H a n , a p r o m i n e n t w r i t e r w h o h a d b e e n a t t a c k i n g M a o b y i m p l i c a t i o n i n his w r i t i n g s .  L u , as w e l l as the m a y o r of P e k i n g , P ' e n g C h e n ,  failed  to c o m p l y , a n d a b i g - c h a r a c t e r poster was e r e c t e d b y members of the p h i l o s o p h y d e p a r t ment c r i t i c i z i n g t h e m .  This was the start of the G r e a t P r o l e t a r i a n C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n .  Lu r e s p o n d e d b y m o b i l i z i n g the support of the C o m m u n i s t Y o u t h L e a g u e ( i b i d . , p. 5 7 ) . W i t h the support of C h a i r m a n M a o , mass m e e t i n g s w e r e c a l l e d a n d the b a t t l e s b e t w e e n the t w o ' l i n e s ' at P e i t a c a m e i n t o the o p e n .  A r o u n d J u n e 7 , a w o r k team a r r i v e d to r e - o r g a n i z e the l e a d e r s h i p of the c u l tural r e v o l u t i o n at P e i t a .  ^  By J u n e 1 2 , i t h a d l o c k e d the gates of the u n i v e r s i t y a n d a  Ezra F. V o g e l , " C o m m e n t s " , in C h i n a in C r i s i s , o p . c i t . ,  p. 5 6 7 .  p e r i o d l a t e r k n o w n as the ' 5 0 days of w h i t e t e r r o r e n s u e d . 1  The r e b e l students lost c o n t -  rol w h i l e the w o r k team took o v e r the p r e v i o u s s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . d i r e c t support of L i u S h a o - c h ' i ( i b i d . , p. 6 4 ) .  F i n a l l y , on J u l y  It e n j o y e d t h e  1 8 , M a o r e t u r n e d to  P e k i n g from S h a n g h a i , w h e r e he h a d b e e n s i n c e the p r e v i o u s N o v e m b e r . the c o n d u c t of the work t e a m s .  He c r i t i c i z e d  They were disbanded on J u l y 2 6 , f o l l o w i n g a visit by a  number of t o p M a o i s t o f f i c i a l s , i n c l u d i n g C h i a n g C h ' i n g , M a o ' s w i f e , to P e i t a ( i b i d . , Mass meetings f o l l o w e d .  p.  T h e y c r i t i c i z e d the o l d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s , a n d efforts w e r e m a d e  to b r i n g t h e u n i v e r s i t y more i n l i n e w i t h M a o i s t i d e a l s .  In this w a y the p o w e r s t r u g g l e b e t w e e n M a o T s e - t u n g a n d L i u S h a o - c h ' i was b r o u g h t i n t o the s c h o o l s .  Y o u t h r e p r e s e n t e d a c r u c i a l issue i n this s t r u g g l e , b e c a u s e at  this t i m e there was m u c h d e b a t e a b o u t the ' s u c c e s s o r g e n e r a t i o n  1  to the r e v o l u t i o n .  Most  t o p Party o f f i c i a l s w e r e a d v a n c e d i n a g e , a n d , t h u s , the q u e s t i o n of w h i c h s i d e c o u l d w i n o v e r the y o u t h of the c o u n t r y b e c a m e c r u c i a l .  The y o u t h o r g a n i z a t i o n a p p e n d e d to the C C P , the C o m m u n i s t Y o u t h L e a g u e , s u f f e r e d from t h e same e l i t i s t t e n d e n c i e s as d i d the s c h o o l s .  In f a c t , the two w e r e l i n k e d :  m e m b e r s h i p i n the C o m m u n i s t Y o u t h L e a g u e u s u a l l y c a m e a b o u t t h r o u g h the s c h o o l s y s t e m . For this reason a n o t h e r y o u t h g r o u p , the Red G u a r d s , c a m e i n t o e x i s t e n c e to c r i t i c i z e these g r o u p s .  T h e y c a m e c h i e f l y from t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s , a n d w i t h the start of the  C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n , t h e y l e f t i n order to b r i n g r e v o l u t i o n to o t h e r s c h o o l s . M a n y u n d e r w e n t ' l o n g m a r c h e s ' i n the c o u n t r y s i d e i n i m i t a t i o n of the o r i g i n a l ' L o n g M a r c h ' , w h i c h was seen as the m o d e l for t e m p e r i n g r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s .  M o s t classes w e r e s u s p e n d e d i n the  y e a r 1 9 6 6 - 6 7 , to a l l o w for these v a r i o u s p r o j e c t s ( S c h u r m a n n , p. 5 9 0 ) .  " T h e Red G u a r d s  a p p e a r to h a v e b e g u n as study groups i n the g r e a t u n i v e r s i t i e s of P e k i n g f o r m e d to d e n o u n c  parry c a d r e s of those u n i v e r s i t i e s w h o w e r e i n l e a g u e w i t h P ' e n g C h e n , h e a d of t h e P e k i n g C i t y party o r g a n i z a t i o n .  T h o u g h as many as a m i l l i o n student R e d G u a r d s e x i s t e d  b y A u g u s t , it was not u n t i l A u g u s t 1 8 , a f t e r the E l e v e n t h P l e n u m ( w h e r e o p p o s i t i o n to M a o was v o i c e d ) that a g r e a t d e m o n s t r a t i o n on T ' i e n - a n - m e n S q u a r e made them i n t o a national m o v e m e n t . " ^  It was on T ' i e n - a n - m e n S q u a r e that C h a i r m a n M a o s y m b o l i c a l l y  a l l o w e d a Red G u a r d to present h i m w i t h the arm b a n d of the y o u n g r e b e l s , thus b e c o m i n g a Red G u a r d h i m s e l f .  The Red G u a r d s w e r e b y no means a u n i f i e d g r o u p . w h i c h often engaged in pitched battles w i t h each other.  There w e r e m a n y f a c t i o n s ,  T h e i r c h i e f f u n c t i o n was c r i -  t i c i s m , a n d this t h e y d i d , a l l the w a y up to a n d i n c l u d i n g the C C P .  O n c e the a t t a c k o n  the Party was o v e r orders w e r e sent out f o r the Red G u a r d s to return to t h e i r o w n s c h o o l s a n d resume t h e i r s t u d i e s .  The p e r i o d of d e s t r u c t i o n , of t e a r i n g d o w n , was s e e n as n e c e s -  sary b e f o r e r e - c o n s t r u c t i o n c o u l d be i n i t i a t e d .  ^  (T)he words c h o s e n to d e s i g n a t e this vast p u r g e :  'Great  Proletarian Cultural Revolution' / a r e s i g n i f i c a n t / . ' G r e a t ' c o n j u r e s u p the G r e a t L e a p F o r w a r d - w h a t it s i g n i f i e s is a c a m p a i g n of n a t i o n w i d e p r o p o r t i o n s g o i n g i n t o the d e e p e s t f a b r i c of s o c i e t y .  'Proletarian' im-  p l i e s a n t i - b o u r g e o i s a n d so means that the targets are m a i n l y those of the c i t y a n d not of the c o u n t r y ( i n f a c t , the R e d G u a r d m o v e m e n t has b e e n a l m o s t e n t i r e l y a n urban phenomenon).  " C u l t u r e ' means i d e o l o g y a n d so  the b a s i c v a l u e s w h i c h g u i d e human b e h a v i o r .  'Revolu-  t i o n ' is the most awesome s o u n d i n g w o r d of a l l , for it c o n n o t e s a c h a n g e of s u c h m a g n i t u d e that w h a t f o l l o w s must b e r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t .  N o t s i n c e the l a n d reform  had the C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s used the w o r d ' r e v o l u t i o n ' to d e s i g n a t e a d o m e s t i c c a m p a i g n .  Franz Schurmann,  W h a t a p p e a r s to  " T h e A t t a c k of the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n on I d e o l o g y a n d  O r g a n i z a t i o n " , in C h i n a in Crisis, o p . b i t . ,  p. 5 2 5 .  Peter J . S e y b o l t , R e v o l u t i o n a r y E d u c a t i o n i n C h i n a , I n t r o d u c t i o n , c o p y , 1973, pp. 1 0 - 1 1 .  Draft  85  emerge from this is a m o v e m e n t d e t e r m i n e d to t r a n s form the v e r y n a t u r e o f the C C P ( S c h u r m a n n , p. 5 4 2 ) .  L o u i s B a r c a t a i n t e r v i e w e d a number of p e o p l e i n C h i n a a b o u t t h e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n , w h i c h was g o i n g o n w h i l e he was v i s i t i n g .  The f o l l o w i n g q u o t e is g i v e n b y  a d o c t o r i n S h a n g h a i , a n d i t a p t l y s u m m a r i z e s w h a t , i n e s s e n c e , the m o v e m e n t was a l l about. "(In the G r e a t L e a p F o r w a r d ) , M a o h a d h a d the i n s p i r a t i o n s , but L i u h a d o b s t r u c t e d t h e i r r e a l i z a t i o n s . . . People abroad were c r i p p l e d with laughter when they saw h o w our house b o y s , a g r i c u l t u r a l w o r k e r s , bus conductors, and teachers were ' c o o k i n g s t e e l ' in their b a c k yards a n d p r o d u c i n g a p r o d u c t t h a t c o u l d not e v e n be u t i l i z e d . " A s y o u c a n i m a g i n e , these d e v e l o p m e n t s p r o v i d e d a m m u n i t i o n for serious c o n f l i c t . to L i u as ' C h i n a ' s K h r u s c h e v . 1  P e o p l e b e g a n to r e f e r W h a t d i d this m e a n ?  It meant that he was c o n s i d e r e d the a d v o c a t e of r e a s o n , of ' t h e p o s s i b l e . 1  But w h a t sort of c o n c e p t is this f o r  a c o u n t r y i n w h i c h , from a p r a c t i c a l p o i n t of v i e w , n o t h i n g was " p o s s i b l e , a m o n g a p e o p l e w h i c h d i d not 1  w a n t to b e l i e v e that t h e y c o u l d a c h i e v e the standards of a modern i n d u s t r i a l state w i t h i n o n l y a f e w g e n e r a tions? " W e w e r e c o m p e l l e d to a t t e m p t the i m p o s s i b l e , to tear d o w n the w a l l of r e a l i t y , to p e n e t r a t e t h e b a r r i e r s of r e a s o n .  W e w e r e f o r c e d to pursue a v i s i o n .  But L i u  d i d n ' t l i k e t h a t . . . L i u ' s house w o u l d be safe a n d p r o v i d e p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t a l l storms, but it w o u l d t a k e h i m a h u n d r e d y e a r s to b u i l d i t . "  1  3  In t h e s c h o o l s , the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n was i n i t i a l l y d i r e c t e d at b r e a k i n g d o w n the c o n t r o l the C C P h a d o v e r t h e m .  M o s t of the issues c e n t e r e d a r o u n d the f a c t t h a t ,  under the o l d s y s t e m , students of w o r k e r , p e a s a n t , or s o l d i e r b a c k g r o u n d h a d s u f f e r e d  Louis B a r c a t a , C h i n a i n the Throes of the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n , C o m p a n y , I n c . , N e w Y o r k C i t y , 1968, pp. 1 2 0 - 1 2 1 .  Hart Publishing  discrimination.  A l l e n r o l m e n t p r o c e d u r e s a n d e x a m i n a t i o n s w e r e suspended u n t i l the  s i t u a t i o n c o u l d be s t u d i e d a n d r e - o r g a n i z e d . '  4  Entrance examinations and age distinctions were a b o l i s h e d .  The r e v o l u t i o n a r y  c o m m i t t e e s of f a c t o r i e s , communes or other p l a c e s of w o r k b e c a m e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c h o o s i n g c a n d i d a t e s f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , a l t h o u g h the u n i v e r s i t y r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o u l d turn d o w n c l e a r l y u n q u a l i f i e d c a n d i d a t e s .  committees  It b e c a m e m a n d a t o r y f o r e v e r y u n i v e r -  s i t y student to h a v e h a d at l e a s t t w o y e a r s ' w o r k i n g e x p e r i e n c e a f t e r g r a d u a t i n g from s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l b e f o r e he or she was a c c e p t e d . w e r e to r e t u r n to t h e i r p l a c e of w o r k .  U p o n g r a d u a t i o n from u n i v e r s i t y ,  they  " T h e s t i p u l a t i o n t h a t o n e r e t u r n to the work u n i t  is d e s i g n e d to c i r c u m v e n t the p h e n o m e n o n , so c o m m o n i n l a r g e l y a g r a r i a n c o u n t r i e s , of h a v i n g the e d u c a t e d f e w c o n g r e g a t e i n the c i t i e s , o f t e n w i t h o u t jobs c o m m e n s u r a t e w i t h the k i n d of e d u c a t i o n t h e y h a v e r e c e i v e d , a n d c o n t r i b u t i n g l i t t l e to the w e l f a r e o f a n y o n e but t h e m s e l v e s " ( S e y b o l t , p.  18).  The emphasis o n u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n has b e e n h a l t e d .  " A s of O c t o b e r , 1 9 7 1 ,  o n l y o n e q u a r t e r of the u n i v e r s i t i e s o p e r a t i n g b e f o r e the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n w e r e a d mitting students.  O n the o t h e r h a n d , the number of b o t h s c h o o l s a n d students at the e l e -  m e n t a r y a n d s e c o n d a r y l e v e l s h a v e g r o w n e n o r m o u s l y s i n c e 1 9 6 8 " ( i b i d . , p. 1 8 ) .  This  r e f l e c t s a n e w f o c u s , a w a y from the a c q u i s i t i o n o f h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d s k i l l s b y a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n , to t h e a c q u i s i t i o n of r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e ones b y a m u c h broader segment.  This is i n l i n e w i t h the M a o i s t m a x i m that the e d u c a t i o n a l system of  a s o c i e t y a n d its e c o n o m i c base s h o u l d be a l i g n e d .  ^  Franz Schurmann, Ideology and O r g a n i z a t i o n in Communist C h i n a , o p .  pp. 582-583.  cit.,  A l l e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s are b e i n g d e c e n t r a l i z e d , r a t h e r than b e i n g c o n c e n t r a t e d at s p e c i f i c points ( w h i c h w e r e u s u a l l y i n towns a n d c i t i e s ) .  M a n y higher e d u -  c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s h a v e b r a n c h e s i n rural a r e a s , w h i l e o t h e r s , e s p e c i a l l y t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t e s , are h o o k e d up to f a c t o r i e s a n d c o m m u n e s .  The i d e a of  'popular-  m a n a g e m e n t , p u b l i c h e l p ' is c o m i n g i n t o its o w n a g a i n , w i t h t h e emphasis on s e l f - r e l i a n c e . " T h i s has r e s u l t e d i n the c r e a t i o n of a tremendous number of n e w s c h o o l s , e s p e c i a l l y i n the c o u n t r y s i d e .  O b v i o u s l y this e x p a n s i o n has b e e n p o s s i b l e o n l y b e c a u s e former c o n -  c e p t i o n s o f proper t e a c h i n g p e r s o n n e l , t e a c h i n g m e t h o d s , a n d c o u r s e c o n t e n t h a v e b e e n drastically altered"  ( i b i d . , p. 2 1 ) .  T e a c h i n g ranks h a v e b e e n e n l a r g e d b y the i n f l u x of m a n y w o r k e r s , peasants, o f f i c i a l s , and other people w i t h diverse talents.  The emphasis b e i n g on p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s ,  i n d u s t r i a l a n d a g r i c u l t u r a l workers h a v e m u c h to t e a c h , not o n l y i n s c h o o l s , but i n f a c tories a n d on the f a r m s .  This goes a l o n g w a y i n a l l e v i a t i n g the shortage of t e a c h e r s .  T h e r e is no u n i f o r m i t y as to t e a c h i n g m e t h o d s , other t h a n the p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r l y i n g t h e m , f i r s t d e v e l o p e d at K ' a n g t a ( i b i d . , p. 2 2 ) .  Small group discussions and c o -  o p e r a t i v e study h a v e r e p l a c e d the l e c t u r e s y s t e m .  E x a m i n a t i o n s a r e now used as a t e a c h -  i n g a i d , not a means f o r i n d i v i d u a l a d v a n c e m e n t .  C r i t i c i s m a n d s e l f - c r i t i c i s m sessions  are a normal part of l i f e for b o t h students a n d t e a c h e r s .  P o l i t i c a l study is o n c e more a n  i m p o r t a n t part of the c u r r i c u l u m .  The ' d u a l s c h o o l s y s t e m ' has b e e n a b o l i s h e d .  S c h o o l s h a v e set u p f a c t o r i e s a n d  f a r m s , w h i l e f a c t o r i e s a n d communes h a v e e s t a b l i s h e d s c h o o l s .  T h u s , the  half-work  h a l f - s t u d y c o n c e p t has b e e n g i v e n p r e d o m i n a n c e a n d g e n e r a l i z e d t h r o u g h o u t the e d u c a tional system.  C o u r s e c o n t e n t has b e e n p a r e d , the s l o g a n b e i n g ' f e w but e s s e n t i a l ' .  "Much  of the t e c h n i c a l c u r r i c u l u m f o l l o w s d i r e c t l y f r o m the a s s o c i a t i o n of s c h o o l s w i t h v a r i o u s work units.  In some h i g h e r l e v e l s c h o o l s , students b r i n g problems f r o m t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r  f a c t o r y or c o m m u n e w h i c h the c l a s s attempts to a n a l y s e a n d s o l v e . are l e a r n e d from the study of p a r t i c u l a r c a s e s " ( i b i d . , p. 3 0  General'principles  ).  ( C ) h u a n i n C h i n e s e does not m e a n ' e x p e r t ' or ' s k i l l e d ' as m u c h as ' s p e c i a l i z e d ' i n o n e s i n g l e f i e l d . D e d i c a t i o n to the study of a narrow t e c h n i q u e does not n e c e s s a r i l y i m p l y p r o f i c i e n c y i n its a p p l i c a t i o n . . . B e s i d e s , i n C h i n a as e l s e w h e r e , e m p l o y m e n t p l a n n i n g is d i f f i c u l t . If y o u n g p e o p l e c a n n o t , a n d a b o v e a l l w i l l n o t , d o jobs w h i c h do not f a l l e x a c t l y w i t h i n t h e i r s p e c i a l d o m a i n , the e c o n o m i c b a l a n c e a n d progress m i g h t be e n d a n g e r e d . . . (T)oo m a n y a c a d e m i c s c i e n t i s t s a n d t e c h n i c i a n s h a v e b e e n t r a i n e d i n r e c e n t y e a r s . . . ( T ) h e massive e f f o r t s t a r t e d i n 1958 t o e n r o l more students i n the s c i e n t i f i c departments had not b e e n c o m p l e t e l y d i s c o n t i n u e d , w h i l e the r a t e of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n l a u n c h e d b y the G r e a t L e a p F o r w a r d had b e e n m u c h s l o w e d , a n d the b a s i c o r i e n t a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n h a d m o v e d from p e o p l e ' s s c i e n c e to s p e c i a l i s t s ' s c i e n c e . The c o u n t r y s i d e was i n d e s p a r a t e n e e d of m o r e , a n d more p r o f e s s i o n a l m a n p o w e r , but n e w t r a i n e e s w e r e t o o l e a r n e d , a n d e q u a l l y too i g n o r a n t , to be of r e a l u s e . A t the same t i m e , the a l r e a d y o v e r - s t a f f e d u r b a n industry c o u l d not absorb them a l l . Y o u n g p e o p l e ' s a t t i t u d e s towards t h e m s e l v e s , t h e i r w o r k , a n d the p e o p l e are also b e i n g g i v e n much a t t e n t i o n . changed.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n c i t y a n d c o u n t r y s i d e has  N o w the c i t i e s seek to e m u l a t e the rural a r e a s i n the h a l f - w o r k  half-study  programs ( i b i d . , p. 3 1 ) .  M a r i a n n e B a s t i d , " E c o n o m i c N e c e s s i t y a n d P o l i t i c a l Ideals i n E d u c a t i o n a l . , R e f o r m D u i n g the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n " , i n The C h i n a Q u a r t e r l y , N o . 4 2 , A p r i l - J u n e 1 9 7 0 , p p . 2 5  Students a r e g i v e n more r e p r e s e n t a t i o n through such means as the s c h o o l ' s r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o m m i t t e e , but t h e y are not to t a k e c o n t r o l .  C o n t r o l o v e r s c h o o l s is t o  be g i v e n to those w h o w i l l m a k e use of the graduates - s u c h as c o m m u n e s , f a c t o r i e s a n d work brigades. It s h o u l d be p o i n t e d out that none of the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s of the c u r r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l is n e w .  revolution  A l m o s t a l l of them h a d b e e n f u l l y  con-  c e p t u a l i z e d b y the m i d - 1 9 4 0 ' s . . . W h a t is n e w t o d a y is the w a y i n w h i c h the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s a r e b e i n g e m p l o y e d a n d , i n some c a s e s , the f a c t that t h e y a r e b e i n g e m p l o y e d ( S e y b o l t , p.  11).  R a t h e r t h a n a i m i n g at e s t a b l i s h i n g a u n i f o r m s y s t e m , l o c a l s t r e n g t h s , a n d w e a k nesses, a r e e m p h a s i z e d .  D i v e r s i t y a n d e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n are the k e y n o t e s .  are made to p r e v e n t b u r e a u c r a t i c b u i l d - u p a n d w a s t e .  G r e a t efforts  " A n institution w h i c h came into  b e i n g d u r i n g the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n for d e a l i n g w i t h the b u r e a u c r a t i c s i t u a t i o n is the M a y 7 C a d r e S c h o o l s " ( i b i d . , p. 1 3 ) .  In these s c h o o l s , emphasis is p l a c e d o n c r i t i c i s m  a n d s e l f - c r i t i c i s m e s p e c i a l l y i n r e l a t i o n to the w o r k d o n e b y the c a d r e s , a n d o n the 'mass line'.  E v e n h e r e , study is i n t e g r a t e d w i t h w o r k .  In f a c t , many of the s c h o o l s a r e l o c a t e d  i n w a s t e l a n d a r e a s , w h e r e c a d r e s try to r e c l a i m the l a n d a n d m a k e it p r o d u c t i v e . a t t e n d a n c e b y most c a d r e s at these s c h o o l s is m a n d a t o r y .  Periodic  " T h e M a y 7 S c h o o l s represent  a u n i q u e l y C h i n e s e e f f o r t to c u r b the t e n d e n c y of o f f i c i a l d o m to b e c o m e a s p e c i a l interest g r o u p a n d , i n e f f e c t , a n e w r u l i n g class ( i b i d . , p.  13).  C e r t a i n l y , the M a o i s t s f o c u s o n the success s t o r i e s . f a i l u r e s a n d abuses of the n e w s y s t e m .  There a r e p r o b a b l y m a n y  But the i m p o r t a n t p o i n t is t h a t this is the o r i e n t a -  t i o n of e d u c a t i o n , one r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from those of the S o v i e t U n i o n a n d W e s t e r n countries.  It raises to the f o r e the q u e s t i o n of whom e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d b e n e f i t a n d f o r  w h a t purposes it s h o u l d be u n d e r t a k e n .  In a n s w e r i n g those q u e s t i o n s , the M a o i s t s h a v e  90  v i s u a l i z e d a n e w t y p e of e d u c a t i o n , o n e that starts 'from the masses' a n d goes 'to the masses'.  The d i f f e r e n c e s i n a p p r o a c h t h a t this n e w o r i e n t a t i o n b r i n g s a b o u t is o f t e n i l l u s -  trated in Chinese newspapers.  In c o n c l u s i o n , I w o u l d l i k e to q u o t e from one of these a r t i c l e s i n o r d e r to show the d i f f e r e n c e i n p e r s p e c t i v e .  The w r i t e r is a professor w h o h a d t a u g h t for f o r t y y e a r s i n  the c i v i l e n g i n e e r i n g d e p a r t m e n t a t T s i n g h u a U n i v e r s i t y . (I)n 1959 I h a d h e a d e d a g r o u p of students i n d o i n g r e s e a r c h o n t r e a t i n g i n d u s t r i a l wastes i n a c o k i n g p l a n t . B u t . . . t h e f a c t o r y put profits i n c o m m a n d a n d p a i d no a t t e n t i o n to s u c h m a t t e r s . I m y s e l f w a n t e d to boost my r e p u t a t i o n b y w r i t i n g a thesis or w o r k i n g out a t h e o r e t i c a l f o r m u l a d u r i n g the r e s e a r c h . But a f t e r w o r k i n g more t h a n s i x m o n t h s , I f a i l e d to s o l v e a n y p r o b l e m e x c e p t w r i t i n g a thesis w h i c h was of no p r a c t i c a l v a l u e . In 1 9 7 0 , s e v e r a l o t h e r t e a c h e r s a n d I w e n t to a p e t r o l - c h e m i c a l p l a n t to study h o w to h a n d l e w a s t e l i q u i d , a p r o b l e m i n u r g e n t n e e d of s o l v i n g . If the l a r g e q u a n t i t y of p o l l u t e d w a t e r d r a i n e d off d a i l y from the p l a n t w e r e not p r o p e r l y h a n d l e d , t h e y w o u l d a f f e c t the w e l l - b e i n g a n d h e a l t h of the hundreds of thousands of p e o p l e l i v i n g a l o n g the l o w e r r e a c h e s of a r i v e r . W o r k e r s a n d t e c h n i c i a n s got d o w n to s e t t l i n g the q u e s t i o n . W e were d e e p l y moved by their r e v o l u t i o n a r y e n t h u s i a s m . W e a l s o took part i n the j o b . T o g e t h e r w e s t u d i e d C h a i r m a n M a o ' s works a n d c a r r i e d out our e x p e r i m e n t s . Through v a r i o u s e x p e r i m e n t s , w e s e t t l e d i n t w o months an i m p o r t a n t t e c h n i c a l q u e s t i o n c o n c e r n i n g w a s t e l i q u i d treatment i n t h e i r p l a n t . °  " R e v o l u t i o n i n E d u c a t i o n : O u r E x p e r i e n c e " , In P e k i n g R e v i e w , N o . 3 8 , S e p t . 1 7 , 1 9 7 1 , p. 1 0 .  CHAPTER  FIVE  Conclusion  The s c o p e of this thesis is so w i d e t h a t many s u b j e c t s w h i c h d e s e r v e f a r more attention were merely touched upon.  A m a i n o n e is the ' p r o b l e m of the i n t e l l e c t u a l s ' i n  a s o c i e t y e v o l v i n g towards c o m m u n i s m . of e l i t e s .  It brings to the f o r e a n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t a r e a , t h a t  The problems of e l i t e f o r m a t i o n a r e e n d e m i c i n m a n y T h i r d - W o r l d c o u n t r i e s .  In C h i n a , w h i l e i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s are v a l u e d , a n enormous amount of e n e r g y is p o u r e d i n t o the p r e v e n t i o n of e l i t e f o r m a t i o n .  Inasmuch as the d o m i n a t i o n of e l i t e s i n these  s o c i e t i e s is v i e w e d n e g a t i v e l y , the e x p e r i e n c e of the C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s is r e l e v a n t as a n e x a m p l e of h o w o n e m i g h t h a n d l e the s i t u a t i o n .  A n o t h e r a r e a t h a t c o u l d do w i t h m u c h more a n a l y s i s is the e f f e c t s of b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n o n s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c progress.  The C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s t e n d to v i e w b u r e a u -  c r a c y as a n e c e s s a r y e v i l t h a t must be t o n e d d o w n as m u c h as p o s s i b l e .  H e r e , t o o , is a n  a r e a that o t h e r T h i r d - W o r l d c o u n t r i e s m i g h t l o o k i n t o a n d l e a r n a b o u t i n r e l a t i o n to the Chinese experience.  A m a j o r q u e s t i o n that m i g h t b e a s k e d is w h e t h e r ' q u a l i t y ' i n e d u c a t i o n is s a c r i f i c e d w h e n the 'mass l i n e ' is i m p l e m e n t e d .  First of a l l , the term ' q u a l i t y ' has to b e d e f i n e d  i n r e l a t i o n to the g o a l s of a s o c i a l s y s t e m .  W h e n a m o d e l of e d u c a t i o n t h a t p a r a l l e l l e d t h e  e x p e r i e n c e of the S o v i e t U n i o n was b e i n g p u r s u e d , m a n y s p e c i a l i z e d t e c h n i c i a n s w h o h e l p e d m o d e r n i z e the e c o n o m y w e r e g r a d u a t e d , a n d t h e i r s e r v i c e s w e r e put to g o o d u s e . Q u a l i t y i n e d u c a t i o n then was e v o l v i n g a l o n g a path s i m i l a r to w h a t w o u l d c o n s t i t u t e  92  q u a l i t y e d u c a t i o n in Western countries. takes o n a d i f f e r e n t m e a n i n g .  W h e n the 'mass l i n e ' is b e i n g f o l l o w e d ,  quality  Those p e o p l e w h o r e c e i v e a q u a l i t y e d u c a t i o n are those  w o r k e r s a n d peasants a b l e to l e a r n s k i l l s useful to t h e i r w o r k , a n d those i n t e l l e c t u a l s w h o are a b l e to put t h e i r k n o w l e d g e at the s e r v i c e not o n l y of the e c o n o m y , but a l s o of the society.  Q u a l i t y takes on s o c i a l , r a t h e r t h a n e c o n o m i c , c o n n o t a t i o n s .  my s u f f e r ? more  In the short r u n , perhaps it d o e s .  D o e s the e c o n o -  But the argument is t h a t i n t h e l o n g run  p e o p l e r e c e i v e more s k i l l s t h a n is p o s s i b l e u n d e r the W e s t e r n s y s t e m .  Individuals  r e c e i v e a b r o a d e r e d u c a t i o n , that i s , t h e y l e a r n a f a i r l y w i d e r a n g e of s k i l l s .  This is s e e n  as b e i n g i m p o r t a n t not o n l y w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of f o r m i n g a ' c o m m u n i s t m a n ' , but w i t h i n t h a t of t h e C h i n e s e e c o n o m y . country.  C h i n a is s t i l l a v e r y poor a n d e c o n o m i c a l l y b a c k w a r d  H e n c e , p e o p l e w h o c a n t a k e o n a v a r i e t y of tasks a n d r o l e s a r e j u d g e d , i n t h e  l o n g r u n , to be more v a l u a b l e t h a n those w i t h v e r y s p e c i f i c a n d n a r r o w s k i l l s .  The a r g u -  ment c e n t e r s a r o u n d t h e f a c t t h a t e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t does not h a v e to f o l l o w the Western r o a d .  J u d g i n g the e c o n o m i c p e r f o r m a n c e of most T h i r d - W o r l d c o u n t r i e s t o d a y ,  w h e t h e r a c o u n t r y the s i z e of C h i n a c a n m o d e r n i z e s u c c e s s f u l l y a l o n g W e s t e r n l i n e s is not a fait accompli.  There is a n i m p l i c a t i o n h e r e ; n a m e l y , that the C h i n e s e e x p e r i e n c e is r e l e v a n t t o o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , e s p e c i a l l y those c o n s t i t u t i n g w h a t is k n o w n as the T h i r d W o r l d .  I believe  that this e x p e r i e n c e , e s p e c i a l l y i n the e d u c a t i o n a l s p h e r e , is a n e x a m p l e w h i c h o t h e r c o u n t r i e s w o u l d do w e l l t o n o t e .  H o w e v e r , I am not sure to w h a t e x t e n t , if a n y , t h i s ' - e x -  p e r i e n c e c a n b e c o p i e d w i t h o u t r e c o u r s e to s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n ' , for the m o d e l of e d u c a t i o n I h a v e d e s c r i b e d h e r e was born i n , a n d b a s e d u p o n , rural r e v o l u t i o n .  G u e r r i l l a warfare,  a n d peasant m o b i l i z a t i o n a n d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e v o l u t i o n , w e r e i m p o r t a n t inputs t o e d u c a t i o n  as d e v e l o p e d i n the C o m m u n i s t base a r e a s i n the 1 9 4 0 ' s .  The s p i r i t of these inputs has  b e e n j u d g e d c r u c i a l , a n d efforts h a v e b e e n made to k e e p t h a t s p i r i t a l i v e .  The G r e a t  P r o l e t a r i a n C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n is the l a t e s t , a n d g r e a t e s t , a t t e m p t t o d o t h i s .  Without  t h a t s p i r i t , e d u c a t i o n has a t e n d e n c y to s l i d e i n t o t h e b a c k g r o u n d a n d s e r v e o t h e r i n t e r e s t s , such as e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t and t h e f o r m a t i o n of a n i n t e l l e c t u a l ' r u l i n g c l a s s ' .  Contra-  d i c t i o n s e x i s t w i t h i n the s o c i e t y , a n d b a t t l e s must be f o u g h t c o n s t a n t l y i n o r d e r to ensure that the w o r k e r s a n d peasants r e m a i n the d o m i n a n t s o c i a l c l a s s e s .  The t y p e of e d u c a t i o n  d e s c r i b e d here is i n the s e r v i c e of these c l a s s e s , a n d , t h u s , it b e c o m e s part of the s t r u g g l e . The c o n c e p t of the ' p e r m a n e n t r e v o l u t i o n ' is a c e n t r a l f a c t of C h i n e s e l i f e .  BIBLIOGRAPHY  A i r d , J o h n S . , " P o p u l a t i o n G r o w t h " i n E c o n o m i c Trends i n C o m m u n i s t C h i n a ,  edited  by A . Eckstein, W . G a l e n s o n and T . C . L i u , A l d i n e , U . S . A . , 1968. A r m b r u s t e r , Frank E . , et a l , e d i t o r s , C h i n a B r i e f i n g , The U n i v e r s i t y of C h i c a g o C e n t e r for P o l i c y S t u d y , C h i c a g o , 1 9 6 8 . A s i a R e s e a r c h C e n t e r , c o m p i l e r s a n d e d i t o r s , The G r e a t C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n i n C h i n a , Paul F l e s c h a n d C o m p a n y , M e l b o u r n e , 1 9 6 8 . B a r a n , Paul A . , The P o l i t i c a l E c o n o m y of G r o w t h , M o d e r n R e a d e r P a p e r b a c k s , N e w Y o r k , 1957. B a r c a t a , L o u i s , C h i n a i n the Throes of the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n , A n Eye W i t n e s s R e p o r t , Hart Publishing C o m p a n y , I n c . , N e w Y o r k C i t y , 1968. Bastid, M a r i a n n e ,  " E c o n o m i c N e c e s s i t y a n d P o l i t i c a l Ideals i n E d u c a t i o n a l Reform  D u r i n g the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n " i n The C h i n a Q u a r t e r l y , 1970, pp. 1 6 - 4 5 .  N o . 42, April-June,  B i a n c o , L u c i e n , O r i g i n s of the C h i n e s e R e v o l u t i o n 1 9 1 5 - 1 9 4 9 , S t a n f o r d Press, C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 7 1 .  University  B l a c k , C y r i l E . , a n d Thomas P. T h o r n t o n , e d i t o r s , C o m m u n i s m a n d ' R e v o l u t i o n , ton U n i v e r s i t y Press, N e w J e r s e y , 1 9 6 4 . Brinton, C r a n e , Bottomore,  The A n a t o m y of R e v o l u t i o n , V i n t a g e B o o k s , N e w Y o r k ,  Prince-  1965.  T . B . , editor and translator, K a r l M a r x S e l e c t e d Writings in S o c i o l o g y  a n d S o c i a l P h i l o s o p h y , M c G r a w - H i l l Book C o m p a n y , N e w Y o r k ,  1964.  B u c h a n a n , K e i t h , The Southeast A s i a n W o r l d , A n I n t r o d u c t o r y Essay, G . B e l l a n d Sons, L t d . , London, 1967. C h e n , J a c k , " T h e Path of P r o g r e s s " , in Far Eastern E c o n o m i c R e v i e w , S e p t e m b e r 1 8 , 1971, pp. 6 5 - 6 6 . C h i n a Pictorial, Peking 2 8 , C h i n a , N O . 8,  1972.  C o m p t o n , B o y d , t r a n s l a t o r , M a o ' s C h i n a Party Reform D o c u m e n t s , of W a s h i n g t o n Press, S e a t t l e a n d L o n d o n , 1952 ( 1 9 6 6 ) .  1942-44,  University  95  D e b r a y , R e g i s , R e v o l u t i o n i n the R e v o l u t i o n ? , F a n o n , F r a n z , Les d a m n l s d e l a t e r r e ,  G r o v e Press, I n c . ,  The C h i n e s e E c o n o m y , 1 9 1 2 - 1 9 4 9 ,  S t u d i e s , N o . 1,  1967.  Francois Maspero, Paris, 1970.  F e u e r w e r k e r , A l b e r t , The C h i n e s e E c o n o m y c a . 1 8 7 0 - 1 9 1 1 , Studies, N o . 5 , 1969. Feuerwerker, A l b e r t ,  New York,  M i c h i g a n Papers in C h i n e s e  M i c h i g a n Papers i n C h i n e s e  1968.  Frank, A n d r e G u n d e r , C a p i t a l i s m and Underdevelopment in Latin A m e r i c a , S t u d i e s of C h i l e a n d B r a z i l , M o d e r n R e a d e r P a p e r b a c k s , N e w Y o r k ,  Historical 1967.  F r a s e r , S t e w a r t , c o m p i l e r a n d e d i t o r , C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t E d u c a t i o n Records of the First D e c a d e , V a n d e r b i l t U n i v e r s i t y Press, N a s h v i l l e ,  1965.  F r e e d m a n , M a u r i c e , L i n e a g e O r g a n i z a t i o n in S o u t h e a s t e r n C h i n a , The A t h l o n e London, 1958.  Press,  G a r d n e r , J o h n , " E d u c a t e d Y o u t h a n d U r b a n - R u r a l I n e q u a l i t i e s , 1 9 5 8 - 6 6 , " i n The C i t y i n C o m m u n i s t C h i n a , e d i t e d b y J o h n W i l s o n L e w i s , S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y Press, Stanford, 1971, pp. 2 3 5 - 2 8 6 . Goldman, Merle,  "The Unique 'Blooming and C o n t e n d i n g  China Quarterly, Gurley, John,  1  of 1 9 6 1 - 6 2 " , i n The  N o . 3 7 , J a n u a r y - M a r c h 1969, pp. 5 4 - 8 3 .  " C a p i t a l i s t and M a o i s t Economic D e v e l o p m e n t " ,  in A m e r i c a ' s A s i a :  D i s s e n t i n g Essays o n A s i a n - A m e r i c a n R e l a t i o n s , e d i t e d by E d w a r d F r i e d m a n a n d M a r k S e l d e n , V i n t a g e Books, N e w Y o r k , Gurley, John,  1971.  " M a o i s t E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t - The N e w M a n i n the N e w C h i n a " ,  i n The C e n t e r M a g a z i n e , M a y ,  1970, pp. 2 5 - 3 3 .  H i n t o n , W i l l i a m , Fanshen A D o c u m e n t a r y of R e v o l u t i o n i n a C h i n e s e ' V M I d g e p A / i n t a g e Books, N e w Y o r k , 1966. Hinton, William,  " ' F a n s h e n ' R e - e x a m i n e d i n the L i g h t of the C u l t u r a l  Revolution",  i n PL ( v o l . 6 , N o . 6 ) , a r e p r i n t , N e w E n g l a n d F r e e Press, M a s s a c h u s e t t s . J a n o s , A n d r e w C , The S e i z u r e of Power A study of F o r c e a n d P o p u l a r C o n s e n t , C e n t e r of I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d i e s , P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 6 4 . Johnson, Chalmers,  Revolutionary C h a n g e ,  L i t t l e , Brown a n d C o m p a n y , B o s t o n , 1 9 6 6 .  J o h n s o n , C h a l m e r s A . , Peasant N a t i o n a l i s m a n d C o m m u n i s t Power  The E m e r g e n c e of  R e v o l u t i o n a r y C h i n a 1 9 3 7 - 1 9 4 5 , S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y Press, S t a n f o r d , C a l i f o r n i a ,  1962.  96  Johnson, Graham E . ,  " E d u c a t i o n , M a n p o w e r and Development:  Developmental  M a r x i s m a n d C h i n e s e P r a c t i c e " i n R e v o l u t i o n a n d Reform i n Test a n d S e a s o n , e d i t e d by K . P a d g o t t , i n press. Johnson, Graham Edwin, " M o b i l i z a t i o n , G r o w t h and Diversity: 1 9 5 8 - 1 9 6 3 " , a n M . A . Thesis, C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , Johnson, Graham E . , China:  The C h i n e s e C a s e  1966.  " T h e Y e n a n S p i r i t a n d the C o n t i n u i n g Peasant R e v o l u t i o n i n  The O r g a n i z a t i o n a l B a s e " , p a p e r , D e p a r t m e n t of A n t h r o p o l o g y  and  S o c i o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 7 2 . L e e , Rensselaer W . , "The H s i a Fang System: M a r x i s m and M o d e r n i z a t i o n " , The C h i n a Q u a r t e r l y , N o . 2 8 , O c t o b e r - D e c e m b e r 1 9 6 6 , p p . 4 0 - 6 2 . Lenin, V . I . , Imperialism N e w Y o r k , 1939.  in  The H i g h e s t S t a g e of C a p i t a l i s m , I n t e r n a t i o n a l P u b l i s h e r s ,  L i n d s a y , M i c h a e l , N o t e s o n E d u c a t i o n a l Problems i n C o m m u n i s t C h i n a , 1 9 4 1 - 4 7 W i t h S u p p l e m e n t s o n D e v e l o p m e n t s in 1948 a n d 1949 by M a r i o n M e n z i e s , W i l l i a m P a g e t , a n d S . B. T h o m a s , I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e c r e t a r i a t , Institute of Pacific Relations, N e w Y o r k , 1950. M a o Tse-tung,  The C h i n e s e R e v o l u t i o n a n d the C o m m u n i s t P a r t y , F o r e i g n L a n g u a g e s  Press, P e k i n g , 1 9 5 4 . M a o Tse-tung,  O p p o s e Book W o r s h i p  ( M a y 1 9 3 0 ) , F o r e i g n L a n g u a g e s Press, P e k i n g , 1 9 6 6 .  M a o T s e - t u n g , O n The C o r r e c t H a n d l i n g of C o n t r a d i c t i o n s A m o n g the P e o p l e , F o r e i g n L a n g u a g e s Press, P e k i n g , 1 9 6 6 . M a o Tse-tung,  S e l e c t e d W o r k s of M a o T s e - t u n g ,  Press, P e k i n g ,  Foreign Languages  1960(1967).  M a r x , K a r l , and Frederick Engels, New York,  Volumes 1-4,  The C o m m u n i s t M a n i f e s t o , I n t e r n a t i o n a l P u b l i s h e r s ,  1948.  M e i s n e r , M a u r i c e , " Y e n a n C o m m u n i s m a n d the Rise of the C h i n e s e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c " i n M o d e r n East A s i a  Essays in I n t e r p r e t a t i o n , e d i t e d by J a m e s B. C r o w l e y ,  Harcourt, Brace and W o r l d , I n c . , U . S . A . , 1970. M o o r e , Barrington, J r . ,  S o c i a l O r i g i n s of D i c t a t o r s h i p a n d D e m o c r a c y  Lord a n d Peasant  i n the M a k i n g of the M o d e r n W o r l d , B e a c o n Press, B o s t o n , 1 9 6 8 . Munro, Donald,  " T h e M a l l e a b i l i t y of M a n i n C h i n e s e M a r x i s m " , i n The C h i n a Q u a r t e r l y ,  N o . 4 8 , October/December 1971, pp. 5 4 - 8 3 . N e e , V i c t o r , with Don Layman, R e v i e w Press, N e w Y o r k ,  The C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n at P e k i n g U n i v e r s i t y , 1969.  Monthly  97  Oksenberg, M i c h e l ,  " C o m m e n t s by M i c h e l O k s e n b e r g " i n C h i n a i n C r i s i s , V o l .  1,  Book 2 , e d i t e d by P i n g - t i H o a n d T a n g T s o u , The U n i v e r s i t y of C h i c a g o Press, C h i c a g o , 1968, pp. 4 8 7 - 5 0 0 . P e k i n g R e v i e w , 1970 (issues 4 0 - 5 2 ) , Polanyi, Karl,  1971 (issues 1-53) a n d 1972 (issues 1-16).  The G r e a t T r a n s f o r m a t i o n ,  B e a c o n Press, B o s t o n , 1 9 6 8 .  Schram, Stuart, M a o Tse-tung, Penguin Books, England, Schurmann, Franz,  1966(1970).  Ideology and O r g a n i z a t i o n in Communist C h i n a , second e d i t i o n ,  e n l a r g e d , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, B e r k e l e y ,  1971.  S c h u r m a n n , F r a n z , " T h e A t t a c k of the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n o n I d e o l o g y a n d O r g a n i z a t i o n " , in C h i n a i n C r i s i s , o p . c i t . , p p . 5 2 5 - 5 7 8 . Selden, Mark,  "The Y e n a n Legacy:  The M a s s L i n e "  in C h i n e s e Communist Politics  i n A c t i o n , e d i t e d by A . D o a k B a r n e t t , U n i v e r s i t y of W a s h i n g t o n Press, C a m b r i d g e , Massachusetts, Selden, Mark,  1971.  The Y e n a n W a y i n R e v o l u t i o n a r y C h i n a ,  Harvard University  Press,  Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1971. S e y b o l t , Peter J . , e d i t o r , C h i n e s e E d u c a t i o n A r t s a n d S c i e n c e s Press, I n c . ,  A j o u r n a l of T r a n s l a t i o n s ,  International  N e w Y o r k , Fall 1 9 7 1 / V o l . i v , N o . 3 , and  W i n t e r 1 9 7 1 - 7 2 / V o l . iv', N o . 4 . S e y b o l t , Peter J . , R e v o l u t i o n a r y E d u c a t i o n i n C h i n a , I n t r o d u c t i o n , d r a f t c o p y , S e y b o l t , Peter J o r d a n ,  " Y e n a n E d u c a t i o n a n d the C h i n e s e R e v o l u t i o n ,  1973.  1937-1945",  P h . D . thesis, Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , C a m b r i d g e , Massachussetts, 1969. S e y b o l t , Peter J . , " T h e Y e n a n R e v o l u t i o n i n M a s s E d u c a t i o n " i n The C h i n a Q u a r t e r l y , 4 8 , O c t o b e r / D e c e m b e r 1971. Snow, Edgar,  Red Star O v e r C h i n a ,  G r o v e Press, I n c . ,  New York,  1938 ( 1 9 6 1 )  S u r v e y of C h i n a M a i n l a n d Press, A m e r i c a n C o n s u l a t e G e n e r a l , H o n g K o n g , N o . 1956 a n d J u n e 5 - 9 ,  1972.  T a w n e y , R . H I . , L a n d and L a b o r in C h i n a , B e a c o n Press:  B o s t o n , 1932 ( 1 9 6 6 ) .  T r a n s l a t i o n s O n P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c of C h i n a , J o i n t P u b l i c a t i o n s R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e , U . S . D e p a r t m e n t of C o m m e r c e , N a t i o n a l T e c h n i c a l I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e , Vermont, N o s . 152-180,  1971-72.  1201-1213,  V o g e l , Ezra F . ,  " F r o m R e v o l u t i o n a r y to S e m i - B u r e a u c r a t :  of C a d r e s " , i n pp.  The C h i n a Q u a r t e r l y ,  The ' R e g u l a r i z a t i o n '  N o . 2 9 , J a n u a r y - M a r c h 1967,  36-60  W o l f , Eric R . , Peasants, W o l f , Eric R . ,  Prentice-Hall, Inc.,  N e w Jersey,  Peasant W a r s of the T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y ,  N e w Y o r k , Evanston, and London,  1966.  Harper & Row, Publishers,  1969.  Y a n g , C . K . , "Cultural Revolution and Revisionism", pp. 5 0 1 - 5 2 4 .  in C h i n a in C r i s i s , o p .  cit.,  

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