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Moss flora of Taiwan (exclusive of Pleurocarpi) Chuang, Ching-Chang 1971

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MOSS FLORA OF TAIWAN ( E x c l u s i v e o f P l e u r o c a r p i ) by CHING CHANG CHUANG B. Sc., Taiwan Normal U n i v e r s i t y , 1958 M. Sc., N a t i o n a l Taiwan U n i v e r s i t y , 1963 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n the department of Botany We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1971 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f /ffivt Jc?***} The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8 , Canada Date ytZpxy i ABSTRACT A f l o r i s t i c study i s presented of the moss f l o r a of Taiwan; such taxonomic r e s e a r c h i s the f o u n d a t i o n f o r b o t a n i c a l s c i e n c e . The knowledge of the bryophytes of Taiwan has r e p r e s e n t e d a s e r i o u s gap i n the knowledge o f e a s t e r n A s i a . In the p r e s e n t treatment are i n c l u d e d 276 s p e c i e s i n c l u d i n g v a r i e t i e s and s u b s p e c i e s b e l o n g i n g to e i g h t y - n i n e genera and twenty-three f a m i l i e s . The i n c l u d e d mosses belong to the s u b c l a s s e s Sphagnidae, Andreaeidae, Tetraphidae, P o l y t r i c h i d a e , Buxbaumiidae and the m a j o r i t y of the acrocarpous B r y i d a e . The p l e u r o c a r p o u s Bryidae have been excluded. E x t e n s i v e f i e l d work throughout the i s l a n d of Formosa was made d u r i n g the two summers o f 19&7 a n ^ 1968. Approximately 5»000 specimens were c o l l e c t e d and s t u d i e d . A l l s p e c i e s c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s f l o r a t h a t were d e r i v e d from r e c o r d s from the l i t e r a t u r e have been checked and reviewed. Type specimens and voucher specimens from the v a r i o u s h e r b a r i a p l u s my own e x t e n s i v e c o l l e c t i o n s have been c a r e f u l l y examined m i c r o s c o p i c a l l y both m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y and a n a t o m i c a l l y . D u r i n g the course o f t h i s study, one new s p e c i e s : Andreaea  hohuanensis has been d i s c o v e r e d and d e s c r i b e d . Two new combinations: O l i g o t r i c h u m s u z u k i i and Mastopoma undul a t a have been made. Four genera: W i l s o n i e l l a , E p i p t e r y g i u m , Leptobryum and M i e l i c h h o f e r i a and twenty-eight s p e c i e s are noted as taxa new to the moss f l o r a o f Taiwan. Twenty s p e c i e s and f o u r v a r i e t i e s p l u s two forms are reduced to synonymy, based on s u p e r f l u o u s names o r m i s i d e n t i f i c a t -i o n s . Keys are p r e s e n t e d e s s e n t i a l l y f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f mosses and are p r o v i d e d f o r a l l f a m i l i e s i n each s u b c l a s s , and to the genera under each f a m i l y . Keys are a l s o g i v e n to the s p e c i e s and v a r i e t i e s i n each genus. T h i r t y - t h r e e s p e c i e s and v a r i e t i e s have been excluded from the moss f l o r a of Taiwan, because they r e p r e s e n t nomina nuda, l a c k p r e c i s e c i t a t i o n , or are d o u b t f u l . D e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n has been made co n c e r n i n g each taxon where p a r t i c u l a r taxonomic problems arose. E c o l o g i c a l and d i s t r i b u t i o n a l data are g i v e n "for each taxon. The v e g e t a t i o n as w e l l as composition of the f l o r a have been d i s c u s s e d and i t i s concluded t h a t the bulk o f the moss f l o r a o f Taiwan c o n s i d e r e d here i s d e r i v e d from t h a t of the A s i a n mainland. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS page ABSTRACT . i TABLE OF CONTENTS i i i LIST OF MAPS i v LIST OF FIGURES v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i INTRODUCTION 1 GEOGRAPHIC SETTING 5 TOPOGRAPHY 8 GEOLOGY 11 SOIL 14 CLIMATE 19 VEGETATION 20 HISTORY OF BRYOLOGICAL COLLECTION AND STUDY 29 PHYTOGEOGRAPHY 35 CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE PRESENT STUDY TO THE BRYOLOGY OF SOUTHEAST ASIA 42 O u t l i n e of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n 42 Taxa new to the country 43 R e v i s i o n o f nomenclature 46 Keys to ta x a 47 Excluded s p e c i e s 48 TAXONOMIC TREATMENT 53 BIBLIOGRAPHY 235 LIST OF MAPS i v Map Page I. R e g i o n a l l o c a t i o n of Taiwan 4 I I . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i s t r i c t s of Taiwan 6 I I I . P h y s i o g r a p h i c r e g i o n s of Taiwan 7 IV. Geology of Taiwan 10 V. S o i l s o f Taiwan 13 VI. Average annual r a i n f a l l and temperature 18 V I I . Map showing d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t r o p i c a l s p e c i e s 38 V I I I . Map showing d i s t r i b u t i o n o f A s i a n endemic s p e c i e s . 38 IX. Map showing d i s t r i b u t i o n of temperate E u r a s i a n s p e c i e s 39 X. Map showing d i s t r i b u t i o n o f pan b o r e a l s p e c i e s ... 39 XI. Map showing d i s j u n c t i v e d i s t r i b u t i o n 40 XII . Map showing d i s t r i b u t i o n o f Himalayan s p e c i e s .... 40 X I I I . Map showing l o c a l i t i e s where the author made c o l l e c t i o n s 41 LIST OF FIGURES AND PLATE v F i g u r e Page 1. S u b t r o p i c a l r a i n f o r e s t 23 2. S u b t r o p i c a l r a i n f o r e s t 23 3. E v e r g r e e n broad l e a f e d f o r e s t 24 4 . E v e r g r e e n broad l e a f e d f o r e s t 24 5. Mixed f o r e s t of broad l e a f e d t r e e s and c o n i f e r s ... 25 6. F o r e s t o f predominant s p e c i e s : Chamaecyparis obtusa v a r . formosana 25 7. Tsuga f o r e s t at Mt. Ta-wu-shan 26 8 . C e n t r a l range of Taiwan h i g h mountains 26 9. Abies kawakamii f o r e s t and a l p i n e g r a s s l a n d 27 10. Mt. S y l v i a range 27 11. A s l o p e of Mt. M o r r i s o n range 28 12. Pure sta n d of J u n i p e r u s squamata var. m o r r i s o n i c o l a 28 P l a t e 1. Andreaea hohuanensis sp. nov 64 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i I am deeply i n d e b t e d to Dr. W. B. S c h o f i e l d under whose s u p e r v i s i o n t h i s study was conducted, h i s guidance, f i n a n c i a l a i d , encouragement, and r e a d i n g of the manuscript throughout the course o f t h i s study. I express my s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n t o Dr. Sinske H a t t o r i o f the H a t t o r i B o t a n i c a l L a b o r a t o r y , N i c h i n a n , Japan, who o f f e r e d me space to study the herbarium specimens and l i t e r a t u r e , and to Dr. and Mrs. Zennoske Iwatsuki who gave me c o n s i d e r a b l e a s s i s t a n c e d u r i n g my v i s i t to the H a t t o r i L a b o r a t o r y i n A p r i l 1968 and from May to June 1969. I wish t o express my g r a t e f u l thanks to the c u r a t o r s o f h e r b a r i a f o r sending me specimens t o study, and a l s o to Drs. A. J . Sharp, A. Noguchi, N. T a k a k i , H. Ando, H. Suzuki, H. Ochi, S. N a k a n i s h i , U. Mizushima, T. Shin , H. Inoue, N. Kitagawa, C. K. Wang, B. Y. Yang, C. G. G. J . van S t e e n i s a l l o f whom k i n d l y send me l i t e r a t u r e s and specimens. Great thanks to Dr. T. Koponen who send me h i s r e c e n t u n p u b l i s h e d paper c o n c e r n i n g the Mniaceae of Taiwan. Acknowledgement i s made of the f i n a n c i a l support from the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n the form o f Graduate F e l l o w -s h i p s d u r i n g 1967-70 and summer grant f o r 1971. Support was a l s o g i v e n through grants to Dr. W. B. S c h o f i e l d from the N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l , Canada. -1-INTRODUCTION Fo r many ye a r s , d u r i n g my s t u d i e s of v a s c u l a r p l a n t s i n Taiwan, I have noted the a s t o n i s h i n g d i v e r s i t y and mysterious beauty of the mosses of the i s l a n d . The knowledge of the bryophytes remains i n a c h a o t i c s t a t e i n t h i s p a r t o f the world. Although some modern branches of botany have been growing r a p i d l y , i t i s v e r y c l e a r t h a t the study of these modern f i e l d s i s fundamen-t a l l y based on p r e c i s e i d e n t i t y of the p l a n t i n v o l v e d . The name of the p l a n t i s o f b a s i c import to b o t a n i c a l s c i e n c e . Thus, taxonomic r e s e a r c h o f t h i s f l o r a i s e s s e n t i a l . The p r e s e n t study makes an e f f o r t t o s o l v e the d i f f i c u l t c r i t i c a l problems of the moss f l o r a o f Taiwan. I t i s based on my e x t e n s i v e c o l l e c t i o n s as w e l l as the m a t e r i a l d e p o s i t e d i n v a r i o u s h e r b a r i a . In t h i s treatment are i n c l u d e d 276 s p e c i e s i n c l u d i n g v a r i e t i e s and s u b s p e c i e s b e l o n g i n g to e i g h t y - n i n e genera and twenty-three f a m i l i e s . T h i s c o n s t i t u t e s a l l of the known mosses b e l o n g i n g to the s u b c l a s s e s Sphagnidae, Andreaeidae, T e t r a p h i d a e , P o l y t r i c h i d a e , Buxbaumiidae and the m a j o r i t y of the acrocarpous B r y i d a e . The p l e u r o c a r p o u s B r y i d a e are excluded, a l t h o u g h the author has s t u d i e d these i n a p r e l i m i n a r y way. E x t e n s i v e f i e l d work throughout the i s l a n d was made d u r i n g the summer of 1967 and 1968 (Map X I I I . P. 41). Dr. W. B. S c h o f i e l d a l s o v i s i t e d Taiwan to a s s i s t my f i e l d work i n May 7 to May 29, 1968. Approximately 5,000 specimens, w i t h complete e c o l o g i c a l data, have been c o l l e c t e d f o r t h i s study and are -2-d e p o s i t e d i n the herbarium of the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. A l l s p e c i e s based on r e c o r d s from the l i t e r a t u r e have been checked and reviewed. Each s p e c i e s has been c a r e f u l l y examined m i c r o s c o p i c a l l y both m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y and a n a t o m i c a l l y v e r i f i e d , e v a l u a t e d and c i t e d . When t h i s was i m p o s s i b l e , t h i s has been i n d i c a t e d . Of s p e c i a l importance was the study and comparison o f many type specimens as w e l l as voucher specimens, which are p r e s e r v e d i n the f o l l o w i n g h e r b a r i a : H B o t a n i c a l Museum, U n i v e r s i t y o f H e l s i n k i , F i n l a n d . HIRO H i r o s h i m a U n i v e r s i t y , Hiroshima, Japan. JE Herbarium Haussknecht, F r i e d r i c h - S c h i l l e r U n i v e r s i t a t , Germany. KU Kobe U n i v e r s i t y , Kobe, Japan. KYO Kyoto U n i v e r s i t y , Kyoto, Japan. MAK Makino Herbarium, Tokyo M e t r o p o l i t a n U n i v e r s i t y , Tokyo, Japan. NICH H a t t o r i B o t a n i c a l L a b o r a t o r y , Ni c h i n a n , Japan. NOG Kumamoto U n i v e r s i t y , Kumamoto, Japan. NY New York B o t a n i c a l Garden, New York, USA. TAI N a t i o n a l Taiwan U n i v e r s i t y , T a i p e i , Taiwan. TI Tokyo U n i v e r s i t y , Tokyo, Japan. THU Tunghai U n i v e r s i t y , Taichung, Taiwan. TNS The N a t i o n a l S c i ence Museum, Tokyo, Japan. UBC U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. A b b r e v i a t i o n s f o r h e r b a r i a are e s s e n t i a l l y those used by Lanjouw & S t a f l e u ( 1 9 6 4 ) ; h e r b a r i a not t r e a t e d by these authors are g i v e n the f o l l o w i n g a b b r e v i a t i o n s : KU, MAX, NOG, THU and UBC. Keys are p r o v i d e d f o r a l l f a m i l i e s i n each s u b c l a s s , and to the genera under each f a m i l y ; keys are a l s o g i v e n to the s p e c i e s and v a r i e t i e s under each genus to a s s i s t i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f mosses of Taiwan. C r i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n i s g i v e n when the m a t e r i a l has p e r m i t t e d c a r e f u l study. The f a m i l i e s are arranged a c c o r d i n g to Brotherus* system i n the second e d i t i o n of E n g l e r and P r a n t l ' s Die N a t u r l i c h e n P f l a n z e n f a m i l i e n ( 1924 ) w i t h some m o d i f i c a t i o n s based on more re c e n t treatments. The genera and s p e c i e s are d e a l t w i t h i n a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r . E c o l o g i c a l data and d i s t r i b u t i o n are g i v e n and phytogeographic notes are i n c l u d e d w i t h each taxon. F o r each taxon the b a s i s f o r i t s i n c l u s i o n i s i n d i c a t e d under the d e s i g n a t i o n " C i t e d specimen". T h i s notes an a c t u a l specimen examined, the l i t e r a t u r e r e c o r d of those not examined and when p o s s i b l e , the l o c a t i o n of the specimen. _ 4 -Map, I. Regional l o c a t i o n of Taiwan -5-GEOGRAPHIC SETTING Ta iwan i s composed o f t h e ma in i s l a n d o f Formosa p l u s s e v e r a l s m a l l s a t e l l i t e i s l a n d s o r i s l a n d g r o u p s : Pescadores I s l a n d , i n v o l v i n g o v e r 60 s m a l l i s l a n d s w i t h a t o t a l a r e a o f o n l y 79 s q . km. s i t u a t e d i n t h e Ta iwan S t r a i t , and i n t h e P a c i f i c Ocean o f f t h e e a s t c o a s t o f Ta iwan a re l o c a t e d t h e s m a l l i s l a n d s - - K u e i - s h a n I s l a n d t o t h e n o r t h and B o t e l Tobago and Green I s l a n d t o t h e s o u t h e a s t (Map I I p. . 6 ) . Ta iwan i s l o c a t e d be tween 2 1 ° 5 3 ' and 2 5 ° 1 8 ' n o r t h l a t i t u d e , 120°3' and 1 2 1 ° 5 8 ' e a s t l o n g i t u d e . P o s i t i o n e d on wes t m a r g i n o f P a c i f i c Ocean, i t i s bounded by t h e E a s t C h i n a Sea t o t h e s o u t h -w e s t . N o r t h w a r d some 900 km, i t r e a c h e s t o s o u t h e r n Japan and s o u t h w a r d a b o u t 160 km t o Luzon o f t h e P h i l i p p i n e s s e p a r a t e d by t h e B a s h i C h a n n e l . I t i s s e p a r a t e d f r o m F u k i e n , on m a i n l a n d C h i n a by t h e S t r a i t o f T a i w a n , 130 km w ide a t i t s n a r r o w e s t p a r t (Map I , p. 4 ) . W i t h t h e l e n g t h a b o u t 448 km f r o m n o r t h t o s o u t h and t h e maximum w i d t h 144 km f r o m e a s t t o wes t a t t h e w i d e s t p a r t , t h e t o t a l a r e a i s a b o u t 36,000 s q . km. - 6 -Map, I I . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i s t r i c t s of Taiwan -7-Map I I I . P h y s i o g r a p h i c r e g i o n s of Taiwan - 8 -TOPOGRAPHY T o p o g r a p h i c a l l y , Taiwan can be d i v i d e d i n t o mountains and p l a i n s (Map I I I . P. 7 ) . The mountain system forms the main body of the i s l a n d w i t h many h i g h peaks r a n g i n g f o r n e a r l y the e n t i r e l e n g t h from n o r t h to south. The h i g h e s t summits o f the c e n t r a l range r i s e to 3300-3800 m above sea l e v e l ; 48 o f the mountains are h i g h e r than 3000 m ( F i g . 8, P. 2 6 ) . The f o l l o w i n g peaks are some of the h i g h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s : Nan-hu-ta-shan 3789 m Ho-huan-shan 3393 m Chung-yang-chien-shan 3715 m C h i - l a i - s h a n 3605 m Neng-kao-shan 3255 m Kuan-shan 3715 m Shiu-ku-luan-shan 3365 m Ta-wu-shan 3642 m S y l v i a (Hsueh-shan) range i s p a r a l l e l to the c e n t r a l range and c o n t a i n s the second h i g h e s t peaks o f the i s l a n d ( F i g . 1 0 , P.27) --Mt. S y l v i a 3931 m and Ta-hsueh-shan 3600 m. The M o r r i s o n range c o n t a i n s Mt. M o r r i s o n (3997 m), the h i g h e s t peak i n a l l e a s t e r n A s i a ( F i g . 11, P. 28). The A - l i - s h a n range i s c o n s i d e r a b l y lower at the western s i d e of M o r r i s o n range. The E a s t Coast range i s much lower f a u l t b l o c k and i s s e p a r a t e d from the c e n t r a l range by the n o t a b l e east c o a s t v a l l e y . The Ta-tun range i s a prominent group o f v o l c a n i c peaks at the n o r t h e r n p a r t o f the i s l a n d . -9-R i v e r s i n Taiwan are s h o r t w i t h steep g r a d i e n t s and s m a l l drainage b a s i n s t h e r e f o r e they are u n r u l y and u n s t a b l e . Nineteen r i v e r s are regarded as major streams; about 30 secondary streams and 100 minor streams have been enumerated. The d i s c h a r g e of the streams i s ve r y low d u r i n g the dry w i n t e r and s p r i n g , i t "wit h h o l d s " water s u p p l y from much o f the southwestern p l a i n . The h i g h l y r e s t r i c t e d drainage areas of r i v e r s , combined wi t h t r o p i c a l r a i n s t o r m s i n summer, cause sudden stream flows w i t h i n s h o r t p e r i o d s . The low, well-w a t e r e d a l l u v i a l p l a i n s west of the mountain ranges form the l a r g e s t l e v e l a r e a o f l a n d i n Taiwan. These are the s i t e s o f h i g h e s t crop p r o d u c t i o n and human a c t i v i t y . Four i n l a n d p l a i n s are of s p e c i a l importance. 1. The T a i p e i b a s i n , l a r g e l y o f urban p o p u l a t i o n , i s i n d u s t r i a l l y developed and y i e l d s r i c e and v e g e t a b l e s throughout the year. •2. The Taichung b a s i n i s a f e r t i l e v a l l e y i n west c e n t r a l Taiwan. 3. The P u l i b a s i n , southeast o f Taichung i s a ve r y r i c h a l l u v i a l p l a i n . 4. The E a s t c o a s t v a l l e y i s s u i t a b l e f o r r i c e c u l t i v a t i o n and forms a l o n g narrow r i f t between the c e n t r a l range and the east c o a s t range. -10-Map IV. Geology of Taiwan -11-GEOLOGY Taiwan c o n s i s t s predominantly of sedimentary rocks r a t h e r than complex igneous o r metamorphic rocks (Map IV. P. 1 0 ) . The roc k s which make up much of Taiwan range i n age from p r e - T e r t i a r y t o r e c e n t . The g e o l o g i c u n i t s form p a r a l l e l bands a l i g n e d w i t h the l o n g i t u d i n a l a x i s o f the i s l a n d . The rocks decrease i n age from east t o west a c r o s s the i s l a n d . The c e n t r a l range i n c l u d e s the o l d e s t rocks o f Taiwan. A b e l t o f mesozoic and p a l e o z o i c metamorphic r o c k s , predominantly s c i s t , w i t h b e l t s o f c r y s t a l l i n e l i m e s t o n e . The zone i s about 30 km wide at the n o r t h near Su-ao and narrows toward the south. The metamorphic rocks make up the east f r o n t o f the c e n t r a l range through t h e i r l e n g t h . West of the c r y s t a l l i n e b e l t the remainder of the c e n t r a l range i s made up o f p a r t l y metamorphosed Eocene and Oligocene s l a t e s and q u a r t z i t e s . P h y l l i t i c s l a t e o f Eocene age composes the h i g h e s t p a r t s of the c e n t r a l range. Hsueh-shan range, which l i e s p a r a l l e l to and west o f the c e n t r a l range, i s composed of Eocene and Oligocene s l a t e s and q u a r t z i t e s and f a r t h e r west, lower r i d g e s o f Miocene sandstone and s h a l e . The A l i - s h a n range i s o r i e n t e d s i m i l a r l y to Hsueh-shan range. I t i s younger, formed mostly o f P l i o c e n e sandstone and s h a l e s , a l t h o u g h p a r t o f the west f l a n k o f the range i n c l u d e s p a r t o f the Miocene s e r i e s . - 1 2 -T a i t u n mountains are a prominent group of v o l c a n i c peaks composed l a r g e l y o f l a t e P l i o c e n e o r P l e i s t o c e n e a n d e s i t e and a n d e s i t i c rocks probably formed c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h the igneous i n t r u s i o n of the east c o a s t range. The east coast range c o n s i s t of c h i e f l y o f Miocene and P l i o c e n e sandstones and s h a l e s , r a t h e r w i d e l y i n t r u d e d by P l i o c e n e or younger igneous masses, c h i e f l y a n d e s i t e s . The western f o o t h i l l s c o n s i s t o f d i s c o n t i n u o u s r i d g e s and low h i l l s o f P l i o c e n e sandstone, s h a l e and conglomerate. The n o r t h e r n f o o t h i l l s c o n s i s t of o l d e r r o c k s , c h i e f l y p o o r l y metamorphosed Oligocene s l a t e to Miocene s h a l e s and sandstones. T h i s a r e a i n c l u d e d most of the c o a l d e p o s i t s o f Taiwan. The southwestern p l a i n i s made up of a d i v e r s i t y o f Quaternary sands, g r a v e l s and c l a y d e p o s i t e d as r i v e r and d e l t a a l l u v i u m and marine sediments. - 1 4 -SOIL A c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between s o i l s and n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n , s i n c e each element a f f e c t s the development and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the o t h e r and both s t r o n g l y r e f l e c t the i n f l u e n c e o f c l i m a t e . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o i l s i n Taiwan can be d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e groups (Map V. P. 13) : A l l u v i a l s o i l s cover about 8600 sq. km. o r almost o n e - f o u r t h o f the whole i s l a n d . The broad f l o o d p l a i n i s i n the southwest, and s m a l l a l l u v i a l fans are w i d e l y s c a t t e r e d throughout the low p a r t of the i s l a n d i n c o a s t a l and r i v e r p l a i n s a l o n g major stream v a l l e y s . The major c a t e g o r i e s of a l l u v i a l s o i l s are as f o l l o w s : 1. Paddy s o i l s c o n s t i t u t e the p r i n c i p a l groups o f a l l u v i a l s o i l s and are r e g u l a r l y p l a n t e d to two r i c e crops each year. They occupy lowland i n many p a r t s of the i s l a n d , except Chia-nan p l a i n which i s l i m i t e d by w i n t e r water d e f i c i e n c y to a s i n g l e r i c e crop each year. They are submerged f o r nine to t e n months o f the year s u r f a c e s o i l s are s t r u c t u r e l e s s by l o n g - c o n t i n u e d c u l t i v a t i o n . 2 . S l a t e a l l u v i a l s o i l s are b l u i s h - g r a y to dark gray, f i n e sandy o r c l a y loams, low i n o r g a n i c content and moderately a c i d to weakly a l k a l i n e i n r e a c t i o n . The a l l u v i a l p l a i n o f Cho-suei and I l a n Cho-suei r i v e r s , the Pingtung p l a i n and p a r t s o f the eas t c o a s t v a l l e y belong to t h i s type. 3. S c h i s t a l l u v i a l s o i l s developed on the stony a l l u v i a l fans and e a s t c o a s t v a l l e y . They c o n s i s t of dry g r i t t y or g r a v e l l y s u r f a c e s o i l s moderately a c i d i n r e a c t i o n . -15-4 . Sandstone-shale a l l u v i a l s o i l s are y e l l o w i s h - b r o w n i s h gray i n c o l o r w i t h a sandy loam t e x t u r e and are weakly a c i d to n e u t r a l , whereas the r i v e r s d e l i v e r mountain s l a t e sediments to the p l a i n , t h e i r d e p o s i t s form the parent m a t e r i a l o f sandstone-s h a l e a l l u v i u m . 5. A l o n g the c o a s t s , t h e r e are areas o f s a l i n e s o i l s , making hi g h c u l t i v a t i o n d i f f i c u l t or i m p o s s i b l e . Yellow f o o t h i l l s o i l s are r e c o g n i z e d w i t h two s i g n i f i c a n t ranges o f g r e a t s o i l groups. 1. Red-yellow p o d z o l i c s o i l s are the f o r e s t s o i l s and occupy the lower s l o p e s of the mountains. They have developed under b r o a d l e a f or mixed f o r e s t s i t e s on s t e e p s l o p e s . They are s t r o n g l y a c i d i n r e a c t i o n and w i t h low o r g a n i c f e r t i l i t y , t h e r e f o r e they are q u i t e unpromising as a g r i c u l t u a l s o i l s . 2. Yellowish-brown l a t e r i t i c s o i l s are the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f o o t h i l l s o i l s of Taiwan. The s o i l s are r e d d i s h or y e l l o w i s h brown loams and c l a y loams d e r i v e d mainly from sandstone and s h a l e . They cover an a r e a o f about 3500 sq. km. and are u n i f o r m l y a c i d i n r e a c t i o n . They are w i d e l y c u l t i v a t e d f o r n o n - i r r i g a t e d c r o p s , c h i e f l y sweet p o t a t o s , t e a and c i t r u s f r u i t s . These s o i l s a l s o support e x t e n s i v e stands o f bamboo or v a r i o u s broad l e a f e d shrub and woodland. Reddish brown l a t e r i t i c s o i l s - - T h e b r i g h t r e d s o i l s of the P l e i s t o c e n e t a b l e l a n d s show the most s t r i k i n g appearence of any o f the s o i l s o f Taiwan. These, the most mature s o i l s of the i s l a n d , cover 2400 sq. km. The process of t h i s s o i l f o r m a t i o n , -16-c a r r i e d on a l o n g p e r i o d of time has produced deeply weathered parent m a t e r i a l or a m a t r i x f o r s o i l s which are predominantly l a y i n t e x t u r e , s t r o n g l y l e a c h e d and consequently h i g h l y a c i d , and low i n o r g a n i c content, such areas are the lower g r a v e l fans of Tao-yuan and Hsin-chu county. The s m a l l areas o f r e d e a r t h s formed on bed rock parent m a t e r i a l occur i n t h r e e w i d e l y s e p a r a t e d l o c a l i t i e s : Tai-tum mountains, n o r t h of T a i p e i , w i t h f a i r l y deep, leached, s t r o n g l y a c i d r e d s o i l s d e r i v e d from a n d e s i t e s ; Pescardores I s l a n d s , which under the i n f l u e n c e o f d r y i n g winds the b a s a l t has weathered i n t o a t h i n , r e d d i s h , s l i g h t l y a l k a l i n e sandy loam; and i n s o u t h e r n Taiwan, the c a l c a r e o u s m a t e r i a l of e l e v a t e d c o r a l r e e f s which have formed l i g h t y e l l o w i s h r e d n e u t r a l s o i l s . Mountain f o r e s t s o i l s - - G r a y brown p o d z o l i c s o i l s occupy lower s i t e s than l i t h o s o l s . The mountain f o r e s t s o i l s are products o f the b r o a d l e a f e d and mixed b r o a d l e a f - c o n i f e r o u s f o r e s t a r e a between about 1000 and 3000 m above sea l e v e l . These s o i l s are deeper, more mature, b e t t e r t e x t u r e and are l e s s a c i d i n r e a c t i o n than those of mountain stony s o i l s . C o v e r i n g an a r e a of about 8500 sq. km., they are d i s t r i b u t e d at the n o r t h e r n end of the c e n t r a l range, Hsueh-shan range; A - l i shan and Mt. M o r r i s o n range and h i g h e l e v a t i o n s a l o n g the southern p a r t of the c e n t r a l range. They are of g r e a t importance and are b e s t s t u d i e d f o r growth o f n a t i v e c o n i f e r s . L i t h o s o l s cover the l a r g e s t p a r t o f the h i g h mountain d i s t r i c t . They c o n s i s t e n t i r e l y of masses o f rock fragments with v e r y s l i g h t evidence of s o i l f o r m a t i o n . I n c l u d i n g p o d z o l i c s o i l s and mountain g r a s s l a n d s o i l s , l i t h o s o l s cover more than 20,000 sq. km. or almost t w o - t h i r d s of the t o t a l i s l a n d and occupy s i t e s from about 1 ,200-1 ,500 m upward to the mountain c r e s t 3,500 m and h i g h e r on the Hsueh-shan range and c e n t r a l range. Under the i n f l u e n c e of h i g h p r e c i p i t a t i o n the f i n e r p roducts of rock weathering are q u i c k l y washed away down the s l o p e l e a v i n g t h i n , stony, a c i d , p o d z o i l i z e d s o i l s or merely an accumulation o f rock fragments. These s o i l s may be developed under v a r i o u s types o f n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n , from f o r e s t and shrub to a l p i n e g r a s s l a n d . D e s p i t e t h e i r unpromising nature, the l i t h o s o l s are s i g n i f i c a n t not o n l y because of t h e i r wide occurrence, but a l s o because of the timber l a n d v a l u e s w i t h which they are a s s o c i a t e d . Map V I . Average annual r a i n f a l l and temperature -19-CLIMATE Durin g the summer the lowlands of Taiwan have a very hot mesothermal c l i m a t e (Caf of Trewartha), approaching a t r o p i c a l c l i m a t e . The p r o x i m i t y of the v a s t landmass of A s i a i s the main reason t h a t the w i n t e r temperature does not exceed 15.3 C. Thus, i n Taiwan south of the T r o p i c of Cancer the c l i m a t e i s s u b t r o p i c a l r a t h e r than t r o p i c a l . In the mountains the c l i m a t e i s c o o l e r and i n c l u d e s mesothermal and microthermal c l i m a t e s (Cbf, Cbs, Das and Dbs of Trewartha). Only the h i g h e s t e l e v a t i o n s where the mountains exceed 3500 m does the c l i m a t e approach ET of Trewartha where there are f r e q u e n t f r o s t s and s n o w f a l l i n w i n t e r . In most of Taiwan temperature and humidity are v e r y high throughout the y e a r (Map VI, P. 18). Summer i s l o n g ; temperature averages above 22° C d u r i n g 6-7 months of the year i n the n o r t h e r n p a r t and. temperature averages above 22° C i n 9-10 months o f the year i n the southern p a r t . Taiwan i s l o c a t e d j u s t w i t h i n the monsoon r e g i o n of e a s t e r n A s i a , thus r a i n f a l l i s abundant. Average annual r a i n f a l l ranges from 1000 to 6000 mm, depending on the d i f f e r e n t l o c a l i t i e s . The h i g h e s t r e c o r d i n e a s t e r n A s i a i s found at H o - s a o - l i a o , 16 km south of Keelung, a l o c a l i t y on the mountain s l o p e f a c i n g the s o u t h e a s t e r n sea with an annual average 1,095 cm. In the n o r t h e r n p a r t there i s c o n s i d e r a b l e r a i n i n w i n t e r and the whole i s l a n d i s a f f e c t e d i n summer. Typhoons occur i r r e g u l a r l y and i n f r e q u e n t l y from June to November, these b r i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e r a i n and wind c a u s i n g s e r i o u s damage. - 2 0 -VEGETATION The f a v o r a b l e c l i m a t e and p l e n t i f u l moisture have l e d to the e x c e e d i n g l y l u x u r i a n t and complex v e g e t a t i o n o f Taiwan. The v e r t i c a l p r o f i l e o f the v e g e t a t i o n o f t h i s i s l a n d be g i v e n b r i e f l y : S u b t r o p i c a l r a i n f o r e s t i s c o n f i n e d to e l e v a t i o n s below 500 m above sea l e v e l ( F i g . 1-2, p. 2 3 ) . T h i s r e g i o n i s c h a r a c t e r -i z e d by woody r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the f a m i l i e s Lauraceae, Moraceae, Euphorbiaceae and t r e e f e r n s . Up to the lower p a r t s o f the warm temperate zone,, bamboo f o r e s t s form a prominant f e a t u r e . Mosses i n the lower l a n d of Taiwan are s p a r s e l y d i s t r i b u t e d and o n l y v e r y few s p e c i e s are found. They are: F i s s i d e n s i n c r a s s a t u s , H y o p h i l a  i n v o l u t a , H y o p h i l a p r o p a g u l i f e r a , Semibarbula o r i e n t a l i s , Physcomitrium eurystomum, Physcomitrium japonicum • ; some s p e c i e s l i k e F i s s i d e n s m i t t e n i i , F u n a r i a hygrometrica, Trematodon l o n g i c o l l i s and Bryum argenteum are v e r y common s p e c i e s , and have a r a t h e r wide d i s t r i b u t i o n and are found from low to h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s . Most o f these s p e c i e s are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a g r i c u l t u r e or h a b i t a t i o n , and grow i n the hard packed s o i l s near d w e l l i n g s or a r a b l e land. E v e r g r e e n b r o a d - l e a f e d f o r e s t composed mostly o f b r o a d - l e a f e d evergreen f a m i l i e s , are l o c a t e d between 500 and 1800 m above sea l e v e l ( F i g . 3-4, p. 24). Predominant are the f a m i l i e s Fagaceae and Lauraceae. A number of mosses are found i n open areas and mostly on s o i l s , such as Pogonatum .junghuhnianum, Ceratodon purpureus, Campylopodium euphorocladum, Campylopus japonicus, Campylopus  r i c h a r d i i , D i c r a n e l l a c o a r c t a t a and Leucobryum b o w r i n g i i , Leucobryum  n e i l g h e r r e n s e ; these o f t e n form b e a u t i f u l c a r p e t s i n the f o r e s t . -21-Some s p e c i e s l i k e Leucoloma molle, Syrrhopodon j a p o n i c u s , Syrrhopodon t o s a e n s i s , Syrrhopodon gardneri. , are s p e c i e s on t r e e t r u n k s . Bryum truncorum and Rhodobryum giganteum are found on humus i n the f o r e s t and P h i l o n o t i s r e v o l u t a , P h i l o n o t i s  s o c i a and F l e i s c h e r o b r y u m l o n g i c o l l e are found on moist o r wet s o i l and r o c k s . The c o o l temperate zone occurs from 1800 to 3000 m above sea l e v e l . T h i s r e g i o n can be d i v i d e d i n t o two d i s t i n c t b e l t s . The lower b e l t i n c l u d e s the zone from 1800 to 2400 m above sea l e v e l , and i s mainly o f mixed f o r e s t of b r o a d - l e a f e d t r e e s and c o n i f e r s ( F i g . 5, p. 25 ), i n c l u d i n g C y c l o b a l a n o p s i s , Ulmus, I l l i c i u m , S c h e f f l e r a mixed with the predominant c o n i f e r o u s s p e c i e s Chamaecyparis obtusa v a r . formosana ( F i g . 6, p. 2 5 ),Chamaecyparis  fo r m o s e n s i s , Cunninghamia k o n i s h i i '. The mosses o c c u r abundantly i n t h i s a r e a i n open p l a c e s , edges o f the f o r e s t and i n the f o r e s t , and most' e p i p h y t i c mosses are pl e u r o c a r p o u s . The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t o f common s p e c i e s which c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h i s a r ea: Pogonatum  c i r r a t u m , Pogonatum s p u r i o - c i r r a t u m , P o l y t r i c h u m formosum v a r . d e n s i f o l i u m , F i s s i d e n s a r e o l a t u s , D i t r i c h u m d i f f i c i l e , D i t r i c h u m  p a l l i d u m , S c o p e l o p h i l a c a t a r a c t a e , Plagiomnium integrum, Plagiomnium  m a x i m o v i c z i i , Plagiomnium rhyncophorum, B a r t r a m i a h a l l e r i a n a and Rhizogonium s p i n i f o r m e . Up to 2400 m above sea l e v e l , the mixed f o r e s t g r a d u a l l y d i s a p p e a r s and i s r e p l a c e d by pure stands of the c o n i f e r s , which are r e p r e s e n t e d mainly by Tsuga c h i n e n s i s var. formosana ( F i g . 7, p. 26 ), P i c e a m o r r i s o n i c o l a and J u n i p e r u s formosana. The f l o o r o f -22-t h i s f o r e s t i s s u i t a b l e f o r growth and development o f mosses. Much as i n the v a s c u l a r f l o r a , most s p e c i e s o f mosses are r e p l a c e d by b o r e a l and temperate s p e c i e s and t r o p i c a l s p e c i e s have co m p l e t e l y disappeared. T e t r a p h i s p e l l u c i d a , B r o t h e r a l e a n a and Dicranodontium denudatum are f r e q u e n t on decayed wood; Pogonatum urnigerum, Pogonatum alpinum, Rhacomitrium anomodontoides, A n a c o l i a l a e v i s p h e r a and B a r t r a m i d u l a grow on open p l a c e s and Dicranum japonicum, Dicranum majus and Oncophorus w a h l e n b e r g i i form l o c a l t h i c k dense t u r f s on the f o r e s t f l o o r . The s u b a l p i n e and a l p i n e zones, between 3 ,000 to 3,700 m above sea l e v e l i s covered by pure stands o f Abies kawakamii ( F i g . 9 , P. 27 ) i n s t e a d o f Tsuga c h i n e n s i s , dwarf shrubs and a l p i n e herbaceous p l a n t s , i n c l u d i n g J u n i p e r u s ( F i g . 12, P. 28), Rhododendron and B e r b e r i s cover l a r g e areas on the tops o f the h i g h e s t mountains. I n t h i s r e g i o n , on open rocks and s o i l s , are the f o l l o w i n g s p e c i e s o f mosses i Andreaea r u p e s t r i s v a r . f a u r i e i , Andreaea m o r r i s o n e n s i s , Grimmia elongata, Grimmia o v a l i s , Rhacomitrium canescens, Rhacomitrium lanuginosum, Bryum c a e s p i t i c i u m , P o h l i a c r u d o i d e s v a r . r e v o l v e n s , P o h l i a elongata, P o h l i a l o n g i c o l l a and P o h l i a nutans. F i g . 1. S u b t r o p i c a l r a i n f o r e s t a t Y a n g - r a i n g - s h a n n e a r T a i p e i . F o r e s t d o m i n a t e d b y M a l l o t u s s p p . , G l o c h i d i o n s p p . , i v i a c a r a n g a s p p . , M a c h i l u s s p p . , F i c u s s p p . , B r o u s s o n e t i a s p p . , L i q u i d a m b a r f o r m o s a n a . F i g . 2. S u b t r o p i c a l r a i n f o r e s t : A l s o p h i l a p u s t u l o s a i s a c o m m o n t r e e f e r n i n t h e l o w l a n d o f T a i w a n . - 2 4 -F i g . 3 ' E v e r g r e e n b r o a d - l e a f e d f o r e s t a t C h i - t o u , N a n t o u C o u n t y . The p r e d o m i n a n t s p e c i e s are C a s t a r f p s i s , C y c l o -b a l a n o p s i s , C i n n a m o m u m , A c t i n o d a p h n e , M a c h i l u s . F i g . 4 . E v e r g r e e n b r o a d - l e a f e d f o r e s t a t 500-1800 m a b o v e s e a l e v e l . -25-F i g . 5 M i x e d f o r e s t o f b r o a d -l e a f e d t r e e s a n d c o n i f e r s a t C h i - t o u , N a n t o u C o u n t y C h a m a e c y p a r i s o b t u s a v a r . f o r m o s a n a i s a n i m p o r t a n t s o f t w o o d s p e c i e s i n t h i s a r e a ( l e f t ) . F i g . 6 P u r e f o r e s t o f C h a m a e c y p a r i s o b t u s a v a r . f o r m o s a n a a t a n a l t i t u d e o f 2 0 0 0 m . ( r i g h t ) . F i g . 8 C e n t r a l r a n g e o f T a i w a n h i g h m o u n t a i n s , a l t i t u d e a b o u t 3000 m . F i g . 9 Abies kawakaraii f o r e s t and a l p i n e g r a s s l a n d , a l t . 3 0 0 0 m, near Mt. Nan-hu-ta-shan. F i g . 10 Mt. S y l v i a range. Mt. Ta-pa-chien-shan, a l t . 3 6 0 0 ra i s i n the background. - 2 8 -i - 2 9 -HISTORY OF BRYOLOGICAL COLLECTION AND STUDY B r y o l o g i c a l e x p l o r a t i o n i n Taiwan can be d i v i d e d c o n v e n i e n t l y i n t o three p e r i o d s . (1) P e r i o d I (1900-1932) The f i r s t r e c o r d c o n c e r n i n g a moss c o l l e c t i o n from Taiwan was made by E. S. Salmon and V. F. Brotherus i n 1900. Salmon l i s t e d f i v e s p e c i e s o f mosses from the i s l a n d i n h i s paper "On some mosses from China and Japan", based on the f o l l o w i n g specimens which are d e p o s i t e d i n Kew: Macromitrium .japonicum and P h i l o n o t i s p a l u s t r i s c o l l e c t e d by R i c h a r d Oldham from Tamsui and Keelung i n 1864, Trichostomum o r i e n t a l e c o l l e c t e d by George P l a y f a i r from Kaohsiung and Tainan i n 1888-1889» and Homalia g l o s s o p h y l l a and Porotrichum makinoi c o l l e c t e d by A u g u s t i n Henry from Ape's H i l l (Pingtung) i n 1893-1894. Brotherus r e p o r t e d three s p e c i e s of mosses: Meteorium  r e c l i n a t u m , Thuidium cymbifolium and Thuidium c a p i l l a t u m from Kuanania ( P r e s e n t l o c a l name unknown), based on I. 0. Warburg's c o l l e c t i o n of 1899. F i v e years l a t e r , t here appeared the f i r s t e x t e n s i v e and important study o f mosses, t h a t o f J . Cardot ( 1905) . He r e p o r t e d 125 s p e c i e s , twelve v a r i e t i e s and one form of which t h i r t y - n i n e s p e c i e s , e i g h t v a r i e t i e s , and the form were new to s c i e n c e . A l l specimens i n c l u d e d i n h i s study were c o l l e c t e d by F a u r i e i n 1903 from May to June around Keelung, Tamsui, P e i t o u , Mt. Tatun, Yuan-shan and C h i u - c h i , a l l areas: i n the n o r t h e r n p a r t of Taiwan. P. U. F a u r i e , a French m i s s i o n a r y , an e n e r g i c c o l l e c t o r of Japanese p l a n t s i n the 19th century, twice r e s i d e d i n Taiwan, - 3 0 -f i r s t from 1901 to 1903. and again from 1913 u n t i l h i s death at T a i p e i i n 1915* He c o l l e c t e d numerous specimens, not o n l y of v a s c u l a r p l a n t s , but a l s o a l a r g e number of bryophytes and l i c h e n s . Most bryophytes were sent to Cardot and Stephani f o r study and became the b a s i s o f the moss f l o r a o f Taiwan. A l l of F a u r i e ' s c o l l e c t i o n s are d e p o s i t e d i n the herbarium of the Museum i n P a r i s ? d u p l i c a t e s e t s are d e p o s i t e d at KYO, Kyoto U n i v e r s i t y , Japan. K. Sawada (1914) wrote a b r i e f i n t r o d u c t i o n to mosses of Taiwan i n Japanese and w i t h L a t i n names. He i n c l u d e d a l l s p e c i e s r e p o r t e d by Cardot without any change. A f t e r h i s death, h i s c o l l e c t i o n s from Taiwan were sent to TNS and NICH, Japan. S. Okamura (1916) i n h i s study of Japanese mosses, r e p o r t e d f o r t y - n i n e s p e c i e s of mosses from Taiwan; t e n were d e s c r i b e d as new. H i s study was based mainly on c o l l e c t i o n s of H. Sasaoka, Y. Shimada,' B. Hayata and J . S h i r a g a made d u r i n g 1911-1914, mostly from T a i p e i and v i c i n i t y and some from Chu-nan and a few o t h e r p l a c e s . ' A l l c o l l e c t i o n s of Okamura were d e p o s i t e d i n TI, but are now mainly i n NICH, Japan. From 1919 to 1929, Brotherus d e s c r i b e d from Taiwan t h i r t y -s i x s p e c i e s and t h r e e v a r i e t i e s as new to s c i e n c e . Most m a t e r i a l was sent to him by H. Sasaoka, i n c l u d i n g h i s own c o l l e c t i o n s and those of h i s c o l l e a g u e s Y. Shimada, S. Suzuki, J . Matsumura, E. Matsuda, A. Yasuda and K. Kumato. The m a t e r i a l s came from v a r i o u s mountains of Taiwan. A l l specimens, i n c l u d i n g h o l o t y p e s , are de-p o s i t e d i n the B o t a n i c a l Herbarium, U n i v e r s i t y of H e l s i n k i , F i n l a n d . - 3 1 -From 1918 to 1928, H. Sasaoka r e p o r t e d a number o f s p e c i e s as a d d i t i o n s to the moss f l o r a o f Taiwan. Most s p e c i e s were determined by Brotherus and Okamura. In 1928, he p u b l i s h e d a l i s t o f Taiwan mosses and i n c l u d e d 277 s p e c i e s and v a r i e t i e s . Some of h i s d u p l i c a t e specimens were d e p o s i t e d i n TNS, but most of them can not be l o c a t e d . 1929 and 1931, E. I h s i b a , a s c h o o l t e a c h e r , p u b l i s h e d two papers c o n c e r n i n g Japanese mosses. Many s p e c i e s were i n d i c a t e d by him as o c c u r r i n g a l s o i n Taiwan, based mainly on Sasaoka's l i s t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , most o f I h s i b a * s c o l l e c t i o n s were d e s t r o y e d by the g r e a t f i r e at Sendai C i t y , n o r t h e r n Japan i n 1918. Only a few d u p l i c a t e s remain i n TNS, Japan. (2) P e r i o d I I (1932-1960) In 1932 S a k u r a i i n i t i a t e d h i s "Beobachtungen Uber Japanische M o s s f l o r a " . H i s p u b l i c a t i o n s extended c o n t i n u o u s l y to 194-1. He r e p o r t e d about s i x t y - t w o s p e c i e s i n c l u d i n g some v a r i e t i e s of Taiwan mosses. Duri n g h i s e a r l i e r s t u d i e s , Taiwan r e p o r t s are based mainly on c o l l e c t i o n s of H. Sasaoka, S. Suzuki and Y. Shimada wh i l e l a t e r based mostly, on c o l l e c t i o n s of A. Noguchi, M. Sato, T. Nakamura and o t h e r s . A. Noguchi twice v i s i t e d Taiwan. The f i r s t time, i n 1928 he c o l l e c t e d at T a i p e i , Wu-lai and Mt. A l i . The second time, i n 1932, he c o l l e c t e d e x t e n s i v e l y at H s i n - t i e n to V^u-lai and Rahau, Suei-she to Sun moon l a k e , Mt. A l i to Mt. M o r r i s o n and Mt. T a i -ping-shan. From 1934 to i 9 6 0 , he has p u b l i s h e d h i s s t u d i e s . - 3 2 -He not o n l y d i s c o v e r e d s e v e r a l new s p e c i e s and s i g n i f i c a n t range e x t e n s i o n s , but a l s o made numerous v a l u a b l e c r i t i c a l s t u d i e s o f e a r l i e r r e p o r t s . H i s work i s an extremely important c o n t r i b u t i o n to the moss f l o r a o f Taiwan. About the same time, Y. Horikawa v i s i t e d the i s l a n d three times:, Mt. A l i to Mt. M o r r i s o n , Mt. T a i - p i n g - s h a n , Mt. Chi-pen-shan i n 1932, G h i n g - s u e i - y i n g i n 1933 and Mt. T a - s h u - l i n g - s h a n to Mt. Toranzan i n 1935» He c o l l e c t e d a l a r g e number of mosses and l i v e r w o r t s from Taiwan. He r e p o r t e d t h i r t y - f o u r s p e c i e s of mosses, of which e i g h t s p e c i e s are d e s c r i b e d as new s p e c i e s i n h i s papers " Symbolae F l o r a e Bryophytae O r i e t a l i - A s i a e " and " C o n t r i b u t i o n to the b r y o l o g i c a l F l o r a of E a s t e r n A s i a " . A l l of h i s c o l l e c t i o n s were d e p o s i t e d i n HIRO, Hiroshima U n i v e r s i t y , but u n f o r t u n a t e l y , most of these were d e s t r o y e d by the atomic bomb at the end of World War I I . I n 1935 I h s i b a p u b l i s h e d h i s Index Muscorum Formosarum. T h i s check l i s t i n c l u d e d 2?5 s p e c i e s , seventeen v a r i e t i e s and t h r e e forms, but n o t h i n g was a d d i t i o n a l to Sasaoka's l i s t ( 1928) . I n 1955 Noguchi cooperated w i t h V. T. Herzog i n the study the c o l l e c t i o n s of G. H. Schwabe who had been c o l l e c t i n g from Taiwan, B o t e l Tobago and Green I s l a n d d u r i n g the years 1946 to 194?. They r e p o r t e d 119 s p e c i e s , e i g h t v a r i e t i e s and one form of mosses, of which nine s p e c i e s and t h r e e v a r i e t i e s were new to s c i e n c e . During t h i s second p e r i o d , S a k u r a i , Noguchi and Horikawa made t h e i r g r e a t c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the moss f l o r a of Taiwan and - 3 3 -the number of known s p e c i e s i n c r e a s e d g r e a t l y . Meanwhile, o t h e r B r y o l o g i s t s , i n c l u d i n g Toyama ( 1935-38) , K a b i e r s c h ( 1936-37) , Chen (1941) and Dixon (1942-43) p u b l i s h e d t h e i r s t u d i e s i n c l u d i n g , i n c i d e n t a l l y , some s p e c i e s o f Taiwan mosses. (3) P e r i o d I I I (1960-the present) I n 1945 Taiwan was r e s t o r e d to the R e p u b l i c o f China. U n t i l i 9 6 0 C. K. Wang was the f i r s t Chinese t o work a c t i v e l y i n bryo l o g y i n Taiwan a f t e r World War I I . He enumerated a l l s p e c i e s o f acrocarpous mosses and added I s o b r y a l e s and Hypnobryales to h i s check l i s t i n 1961 and 1963. He compiled a l l h i s knowledge on the study o f phytogeographic d i s t r i b u t i o n o f mosses of Taiwan and p u b l i s h e d t h i s i n 1970. He has c o l l e c t e d around at Mt. Ta-hsueh-shan, Mt. Hsiao-hsueh-shan, Mt. An-ma-shan, Mt. Lu-chan-ta -shan and Mt. Nan-feng-shan d u r i n g 1958-60. Although 43 s p e c i e s were r e p o r t e d by him as s p e c i e s new to the l o c a l i t y i n 1967, many s p e c i e s were m i s i d e n t i f i e d and r e v i s e d by Iwatsuki ( 1969) . B. Y. Yang, p r o f e s s o r o f N a t i o n a l Taiwan U n i v e r s i t y , T a i p e i , r e p o r t e d some mosses of Taiwan i n 1962 and 1964, because o f a l a c k of l i t e r a t u r e i n Taiwan as w e l l as a u t h e n t i c specimens f o r study, her r e c e n t work has been l i m i t e d to the study o f c u l t u r e and spore g e r m i n a t i o n o f bryophytes. S. N a k a n i s h i v i s i t e d Taiwan on March 1963, he c o l l e c t e d i n Mt. M o r r i s o n , Ho-she, Tung-pu and Pa-tung-kuan. Most of the s p e c i e s were i d e n t i f i e d by some s p e c i a l i s t s i n Japan, such as: Dicranaceae by Ta k a k i , Bryaceae and Bartramiaceae by Ochi, Hypnaceae -34-and Sematophyllaceae by Ando. He r e p o r t e d Bryoxiphium norvegicum v a r . japonicum from Taiwan. Z. Iwatsuki and A. J . Sharp made a b r y o l o g i c a l e x c u r s i o n to Taiwan i n March I965 . They c o l l e c t e d bryphytes i n Yang-ming -shan, Bamboo l a k e , Mt. An-ma-shan, Mt. Ta-hsueh-shan, Mt. A - l i , Tung-pu and T a i - l u - k o gorge and T i e n - h s i a n , Taiwan. H. Inoue, H e p a t i c o l o g i s t o f N a t i o n a l Science Museum, Tokyo, Japan, came to Taiwan on A p r i l I966, October I966 and March I96?. He c o l l e c t e d at Wu-lai, Pei.-tou, Yang-ming-shan, Ghi - t o u , Mt. A - l i , Mt. T a i - p i n g - s h a n and Mt. Ta-yuan-shan. Most h i s c o l l e c t i o n c o n s i s t s o f l i v e r w o r t s , but i n c l u d e s a number of mosses. H. Ando made a s c i e n t i f i c e x p e d i t i o n to Taiwan on J u l y 14th to August 10th, I968. He c o l l e c t e d at Mt. A - l i - s h a n and C h i - t o u and c o n c e n t r a t e d h i s a t t e n t i o n on Hypnaceae and Sematophyllaceae. U. Mizushima, who has been working on the Entodontaceae of Japan, c o l l e c t e d numerous specimens o f bryophytes from v a r i o u s p a r t s o f Taiwan d u r i n g the time while her husband was t e a c h i n g at F o r e s t department, N a t i o n a l Taiwan U n i v e r s i t y , T a i p e i , d u r i n g the s p r i n g o f 19&9• In 1970 T. Koponen c o l l e c t e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f specimens from C h i - t o u , M"t. A - l i - s h a n , Mt. Ho-huan-shan. A l l s p e c i e s of the Mniaceae o f Taiwan have been d i s c u s s e d i n h i s un p u b l i s h e d paper. Duri n g t h i s p e r i o d some Japanese b r y o l o g i s t s such as Takaki, S h i n and Ochi p u b l i s h e d t h e i r monographic works c o n c e r n i n g Japanese mosses; some s p e c i e s of mosses from Taiwan have been i n c l u d e d i n t h e i r papers.-. - 3 5 -PHYTOGEOGRAPHY At the s p e c i e s l e v e l , the moss f l o r a o f Taiwan, e x c l u d i n g p l e u r o c a r p o u s mosses, can be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o seven c a t e g o r i e s , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r g e o g r a p h i c a l a f f i n i t i e s . 1. Endemic s p e c i e s : 9 .8 % No endemic genus, except Pseudopleuropus a ple u r o c a r p o u s moss, i s found i n Taiwan. Twenty-two s p e c i e s and f i v e endemic v a r i e t i e s o f acrocarpous mosses are presen t i n Taiwan and most t a x a are d i s t r i b u t e d i n the t e r r a i n about 2000-3000 m above sea l e v e l . The number o f endemic t a x a has been somewhat reduced by synonymy d u r i n g my study. 2. Cosmopolitan s p e c i e s : 11.9 % T h i s element i s w i d e l y d i s t r i b u t e d i n both hemispheres. . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h i s element p r e s e n t s few g e o g r a p h i c a l problems. 3. T r o p i c a l s p e c i e s : 21.6 % T r o p i c a l s p e c i e s are r e s t r i c t e d to t r o p i c a l and sub-t r o p i c a l e a s t e r n A s i a and A f r i c a i n c l u d i n g Madagascar, I n d i a , Burma, T h a i n l a n d , Indonesia, Malaya, Java, Sumatra to Borneo, and a l s o e x t e n d i n g to Taiwan. Most s p e c i e s are dominant i n the b r o a d - l e a f e d f o r e s t and pro b a b l y t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n i s at i t s n o r t h e r n l i m i t . Examples are: Pogonatum c i r r a t u m , Pogonatum microstomum, Pogonatum  s p u r i o - c i r r a t u m , F i s s i d e n s a r e o l a t u s ( Map VII P. 3 8 ) , F i s s i d e n s m i t t e n i i , F i s s i d e n s n o b i l i s , Campylopus aureus, D i c r a n e l l a c o a r c t a t a , Leucoloma m o l l e , Rhodobryum giganteum, B r e u t e l i a a r u n d i f o l i a , S p i r i d e n s r e i n w a r d t i i . - 3 6 -4. A s i a n endemic: 30 .3 % A s i a n endemics are r e s t r i c t e d to E a s t A s i a , i n c l u d i n g E a s t S i b e r i a , S a k h a l i n , Japan, Korea, Manchuria, Ryukyu, Bonin I s l a n d , Taiwan, mainland China, the P h i l i p p i n e s and the Himalayas (Map V I I I , P. 3 8 ) . The percentage of s p e c i e s b e l o n g i n g to t h i s c a t e g o r y i n t h i s f l o r a i s e x c e e d i n g l y h i g h . They can be d i v i d e d i n t o S i n o -Japanese, P h i l i p p i n e s - T a i w a n , Japan-Taiwan, Ryukyu-Taiwan and Himalayan elements, Himalayan s p e c i e s i n the moss f l o r a of Taiwan are numerous (Map XI. P. 4 0 ) . Many s p e c i e s t h a t are g e n e r a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d and otherwise r e s t r i c t e d i n the Himalayas occur a l s o i n the a l p i n e a r e a of Taiwan. 5. Temperate E u r a s i a n s p e c i e s : 1.9 % T h i s element i s d i s t r i b u t e d i n Europe and A s i a , but not i n North America. They i n c l u d e T o r t u l a m u r a l i s v a r . obcordata, Grimmia e l o n g a t a , Physcomitrium eurystomum (Map IX. P. 3 9 ) , Physcomitrium sphaericum, Bryum a t r o v i r e n s . T h i s element i n Taiwan i s r a t h e r s m a l l and Taiwan may be the s o u t h e r n l i m i t of t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n . Most of these s p e c i e s are r e s t r i c t e d to h i g h a l p i n e a r e a s . 6. Pan b o r e a l s p e c i e s : 11.6 % These s p e c i e s are w i d e l y d i s t r i b u t e d i n b o r e a l r e g i o n s of A s i a , Europe and North America. I t i s assumed t h a t d u r i n g the g l a c i a l age they migrated southwards and p e r s i s t i n Taiwan. Most s p e c i e s are d i s t r i b u t e d o n l y i n the v e r y high a l p i n e a r e a s . They are r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e ' f o l l o w i n g s p e c i e s : Sphagnum g i r g e n s o h n i i , T e t r a p h i s p e l l u c i d a , Pogonatum urnigerum (Map X. P. 3 9 ) . F i s s i d e n s  b r y o i d e s , F i s s i d e n s c r i s t a t u s , D i t r i c h u m heteromallum, Dicranodon- tium denudatum, Dicranum ma,jus, E n c a l y p t a c i l i a t a , B a r b u l a f a l l a x , - 3 7 -B a r b u l a u n g u i c u l a t a , P o h l i a e l o n g a t a , Rhodobryum roseum and P h i l o n o t i s f o n t a n a 7 . D i s j u n c t i o n s : 1 2 . 9 % a. A s i a n - N o r t h America These s p e c i e s are d i s t r i b u t e d i n E a s t A s i a and E a s t North America and are completely m i s s i n g from western North America and Europe. They are: Aongstroemia o r i e n t a l i s , B r o t h e r a  l e a n a , Campylopus r i c h a r d i i , Symblepharis v a g i n a t a , F i s s i d e n s  h y a l i n u s , F i s s i d e n s g a r b e r i , Buxbaumia minakatae (Map XI. P. 40). Garckea comosa, Octoblepharum albidum, S c o p e l o p h i l a c a t a r a c t a e and P o h l i a f l e x u o s a . :b. "Taiwan-Java The Javanese s p e c i e s are d i s t r i b u t e d through Borneo, the P h i l i p p i n e s , Taiwan and a l s o t o Ryukyu and Japan. T h i s group i n c l u d e s : F i s s i d e n s g e m i n i f l o r u s v a r . nagasakinus, F i s s i d e n s  g e p p i i , F i s s i d e n s h o l l i a n u s , F i s s i d e n s wichurae, E x o d i c t y o n  b l u m i i , Hymenostomum malayense, Gymnostomiella l o n g i n e r v i s , Bryum salakense and Rhizogonium badakense. c. South P a c i f i c Oceanic The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h i s element extends from south P a c i f i c i s l a n d s , New Zealand, A u s t r a l i a , New Guinea and P o l y n e s i a to Taiwan. In Taiwan most of these s p e c i e s are d i s c o v e r e d o n l y at B o t e l Tobago. They are: Leucophanes octoblepharum, Calymperes  l o n g i f o l i u m , Calymperes t a h i t e n s e and Calymperes tenerum. -38-Map V I I . Map showing d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t r o p i c a l s p e c i e s Map V I I I . Map showing d i s t r i b u t i o n o f A s i a n endemic s p e c i e s -42-CONTRIBUTION OF THE PRESENT STUDY TO THE BRYOLOGY OF SOUTHEAST ASIA 1. O u t l i n e of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n S u b c l a s s F a m i l y Genus Spe c i e s Subspecies V a r i e t y Sphagnidae Sphagnaceae 1 4 1 Andreaeidae Andreaeaceae 1 2 ( 2 ) * 1 T e t r a p h i d a e Tetraphidaeeae 1 1 P o l y t r i c h i d a e P o l y t r i c h a c e a e 5 19(7) 2 Buxbaumiidae Buxbaumiaceae 1 1 D i p h y s c i a c e a e 1 2 B r y i d a e F i s s i d e n t a c e a e l 31(2) 2 D i t r i c h a c e a e 6 10(1) K D B r y o x i p h i a c e a e 1 1 Dicranaceae 14 36(3) 3(3) Leucobryaceae 4 9 E n c a l y p t a c e a e 1 1 Calymperaceae 2 10 1 P o t t i a c e a e 19 34(5) 5 (D Grimmiaceae 3 11 3 Funariaceae 3 7 Splachnaceae 2 3(1) Bryaceae 9 31 1 5 Mniaceae 5 15 Rhizogoniaceae 1 3 Hypnodendraceae 1 1 Bartramiaceae 6 17(1) 1 S p i r i d e n t a c e a e 1 1 89 249(22) 3 24(5) * The number i n the b r a c k e t s i n d i c a t e s the number of endemic s p e c i e s . - 4 3 -2, Taxa new to the country During the course of t h i s study, one new s p e c i e s has been found and d e s c r i b e d , two new combinations have been made, f o u r genera and twenty-eight s p e c i e s i n c l u d i n g some v a r i e t i e s are r e p o r t e d as new to the moss f l o r a of Taiwan, of which f o u r s p e c i e s belong to the pleu r o c a r p o u s mosses. The names are as f o l l o w s t S p e c i e s Page Andreaea hohuanensis sp. nov. 62 O l i g o t r i c h u m s u z u k i i ( Broth.) comb. nov. ?0 Buxbaumia minakatae 82 F i s s i d e n s h e t e r o - l i m b a t u s 95 F i s s i d e n s p l a g i o c h i l o i d e s 100 W i l s o n i e l l a d e c i p i e n s (Genus new to Taiwan I) 112 Campylopus caudatus 119 Campylopus g r a c i l i s 121 Campylopus l a x i t e x t u s 122 Dicranodontium asperulum 126 Dicranum hamulosum 131 Calymperes dozyanum 148 Calymperes j o h a n n i s - w i n k l e r i v a r . hasegawae 148 Syrrhopodon l a r m i n a t i i 152 Anoectangium thompsonii 155 Anoectangium stracheyanura v a r . gymnostomoides 156 B a r b u l a c o n v o l u t a 156 B r y o e r y t h r o p h y l l u m r e c u r v i r o s t r u m 157 Pseudosymblepharis p a p i l l o s u l a 168 - 4 4 -Grimmia apocarpa v a r . g r a c i l i s 176 Grimmia d e c a l v a t a 176 Grimmia o v a l i s 177 E p i p t e r y g i u m t o z e r i (Genus new to Taiwan l) 203 Leptobryum p y r i f o r m e (Genus new to Taiwan I) 204 M i e l i c h h o f e r i a m i e l i c h h o f e r i v a r . j a p o n i c a (Genus new to Taiwan I) 204 P h i l o n o t i s m o l l i s 230 Pleurocarpous mosses: F o r r s t r o e m i a t r i c h o m i t r i a ( Hedw.) Lindb., Oefv. K. V e t . Ak. Foerh. 19* 605, I 8 6 3 . C i t e d specimen: Hwalien Co. T i e n - h s i a n g , T a i - l u - k o Gorge, t r a i l a c r o s s b r i d g e over T a i - l u - k o r i v e r , Z. Iwatsuki, A. J . & E. Sharp 1624 (NICH). H a b i t a t : On t r e e trunk i n limestone area. D i s t r i b u t i o n : E a s t e r n North America, Japan and Taiwan. H o n d a e l l a b r a c h y t h e c i e l l a ( B r o t h . & Par.) Ando, H i k o b i a 2(1) 53, I 9 6 0 . C i t e d specimen: Nantou Co. C h i - t o u , Chuang 6166 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On trunk o f L i t h o c a r p u s kawakamii. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Japan, Korea and Taiwan. Glossadelphus g l o s s o i d e s ( Besch. & Lac.) F l . , F l . Buitenaorg.. 4: 1358, 1923. C i t e d specimen: Nantou Co. Chi-Tou to C h i - t i , Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 270 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On t r e e trunk. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Java. New to Taiwan 1 - 4 5 -Mastopoma u n d u l a t a ( B o r t h . & Yas.) comb. nov. Mastopoma p e r u n d u l a t a ( Dix.) Horikawa & Ando, Nature & L i f e i n Southeast A s i a 3s 3 4 , f . 7 , 1 9 6 4 ; Wang ( I 9 6 7 , 1970). T r i s m e g i t i a p e r u n d u l a t a Dix., Ann. B r y o l . 9 : 6 9 , 1 9 3 6 . T r i s m e g i t i a u n d u l a t a B r o t h . & Yas., Rev. B r y o l . 5 3 : 4 , 1 9 2 6 ; C i t e d specimen: Mt. Dai-bu, E. Matsuda ( H ) — H o l o t y p e o f T. u n d u l a t a ; Pingtung Co. Kwai-ku, a way to Mt. Ta-wu-shan Chuang 1 4 8 0 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On t r e e trunk. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Laos, T h a i l a n d and Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s has been r e p o r t e d by Horikawa and Ando from T h a i l a n d . I s t u d i e d the type o f T. u n d u l a t a and my c o l l e c t i o n from type l o c a l i t y and found t h a t they are the same s p e c i e s , thus the above combination i s necessary. Leucodon e s q u i r o l i i Ther., Monde P l . s e r . 2 , 9 ( 4 5 ) : 2 2 , I 9 0 7 . C i t e d specimen: Nantou Co. Lu-shan, Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 7 5 1 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On open dry b o u l d e r s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : C hina ( Kwei-chow, Yunnan). New to Taiwan I -46-3. R e v i s i o n o f nomenclature About twenty s p e c i e s and f o u r v a r i e t i e s and two forms are reduced to synonymy d u r i n g t h i s study. These s u p e r f l u o u s names and m i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s are r e j e c t e d based on the r u l e s o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Code of B o t a n i c a l Nomenclature. The d e t a i l s are d i s c u s s e d under each s p e c i e s i n the t e x t . These s p e c i e s are l i s t e d below; Synonyms Pogonatum submacrophyllum Pogonatum a r i s a n e n s i s Diphyscium formosicum F i s s i d e n s j a p o n i c u s D i t r i c h u m f l e x i f o l i u m D i t r i c h u m formosicum Trematodon p a u c i f o l i u s Microcampylopus l o n g i f o l i u s Microcampylopus l o n g i f o l i u s forma d e n s i f o l i u s Campylopus g r a c i l e n t u s v a r . b r e v i f o l i u s Campylopus nakamurae C o r r e c t name Pogonatum c i r r a t u m Pogonatum c i r r a t u m Diphyscium involutum F i s s i d e n s n o b i l i s D i t r i c h u m d i f f i c i l e D i t r i c h u m d i f f i c i l e Trematodon l o n g i c o l l i s Campylopodium euphorocladum Campylopodium euphorocladum 116 Campylopus g r a c i l e n t u s Campylopus jap o n i c u s D i c r a n e l l a f l e x i f o l i u m non Hamp. D i c r a n e l l a h e t e r o m a l l a sensu Herz. Sc Noguchi Dicranum hamulosum non M i t t , sensu Wang Leucobryum b o w r i n g i i forma b r e v i f o l i u m Leucobryum n e i l g h e r r e n s e v a r . minus Dicranum m a y r i i Leucobryum b o w r i n g i i Leucobryum n e i l g h e r r e n s e Page 73 73 83 98 107 108 111 116 120 121 126 133 141 142 -47-Leucobryum c o n f i n e Leucobryum n e i l g h e r r e n s e v a r . galeatum Anoectangium f a u r i e i Amphidium mougeotii v a r . formosicum Hymenostylium p e l l u c i d u m Rhacomitrium formosicum B r e u t e l i a chrysocoma sensu Yang & Lee P h i l o n o t i s m o l l i s sensu Herzog & Noguchi B a r t r a m i a pomiformis sensu Wang Leucobryum n e i l g h e r r e n s e Leucobryum n e i l g h e r r e n s e P h i l o n o t i s t u r n e r i a n a B a r t r a m i a h a l l e r i a n a 143 143 Anoectangium thompsonii 155 Hymenostylium r e c u r v i r o s t r e 162 Hymenostylium r e c u r v i r o s t r e 162 Rhacomitrium anomodontoides 180 Fl e i s c h e r o b r y u m l o n g i c o l l e 226 232 223 Mnium marginatum Mnium l y c o p o d i o i d e s 212 4. Keys to t a x a Keys are e s s e n t i a l l y o u t l i n e s adopted f o r use i n de t e r m i n i n g the i d e n t i t y of p l a n t s . A l l keys c o n s i s t of a s e r i e s o f p a i r s o f c o n t r a s t i n g statements which employ e a s i l y - s e e n , s t r i c t l y dichotomous and r e l i a b l e c h a r a c t e r s o f gametophytes as w e l l as those of sporophytes. A range of measurements i n s t e a d o f use o f comparative terms i s more d e f i n i t e and meaningful and i s a p p l i e d i n these keys. -48-5. E x c l u d e d s p e c i e s T h i r t y - t h r e e names of s p e c i e s and v a r i e t i e s are pr e s e n t i n the l i s t s of Sasaoka, I h s i b a , Wang and ot h e r s , but are without c i t a t i o n o r v a l i d p u b l i c a t i o n . These s p e c i e s and v a r i e t i e s s hould excluded from moss f l o r a o f Taiwan, because they are d o u b t f u l , o r misdetermined, and sh o u l d be r e j e c t e d . ( l i ) Sphagnum junghuhnianum Doz. & Molk. forma compacta Warnst. T h i s name l i s t e d i n I h s i b a (1935) without c i t a t i o n . (2. ) Sphagnum septatum Warnst. v a r . macrophyllum P a u l . T h i s name was used by Sasaoka (1928) without c i t a t i o n . ( 3 '•) Pogonatum a l o i d e s ( Hedw.) P. Beauv. In h i s study of Japanese P o l y t r i c h a c e a e , Osada (I966) excluded t h i s s p e c i e s from the moss f l o r a of Japan. The Taiwan s p e c i e s was l i s t e d by Sasaoka (1928) from Yang-ming-shan, based on h i s c o l l e c t i o n no. 2696. I have not examined Sasaoka*s specimen, but I made many c o l l e c t i o n s from the same area and found no specimens t h a t c o u l d be r e f e r r e d to t h i s s p e c i e s . (4.) Pogonatum w a l l i s i i ( C. M u e l l . ) Jaeg., Yang & Lee (1964); Wang (1967, 1970). Bartram (1939) suggested t h a t P. w a l l i s i i might be a well-marked form of P. urnigerum. He p o i n t e d out t h a t the onl y c h a r a c t e r t h a t c o u l d separate the two t a x a i s the more i n c l i n e d c a p s u l e s o f P. w a l l i s i i . The s p e c i e s was r e p o r t e d from Taiwan by Yang & Lee from C h i - t o u , Nantou County. The l a m e l l a e , which c o n s i s t o n l y 2-3 c e l l s h i g h , have been noted by them and are e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t f e a t u r e s thanjl.. w a l l i s i i possesses. I have not examined the c i t e d specimens, but I would suggest that P. w a l l i s i i p r obably _ 4 9 -does not occur i n Taiwan. (5.) Pogonatum contortum ( Schwaegr.) S u l l . Wang ( 1968) r e p o r t e d t h i s s p e c i e s from Kuei-shan, Hsinchu county. I f the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s c o r r e c t , t h i s s p e c i e s would be a s p e c i e s new to Taiwan. I have not examined t h i s specimen. ( 6 * ) F i s s i d e n s minutulus S u l l . Wang ( 1970) gave t h i s name i n h i s p r o v i s i o n a l l i s t of Formosan mosses. No c i t a t i o n was g i v e n . (?,) D i t r i c h u m f l e x i c a u l e ( Schwaegr.) Hamp. T h i s s p e c i e s was r e p o r t e d by Noguchi (1964) and Wang ( I 9 6 8 , 1 9 7 0 ) , but no c i t a t i o n was g i v e n . ( 8 . ) Campylopus l e p t o n e u r o n Broth., ex I h s i b a J . Soc. Trop. Agr. 7: 198, 1935. I h s i b a (1935) gave t h i s nomen nudum i n h i s check l i s t and c i t e d no specimen. ( 9 . ) D i c r a n e l l a l a c i r e t i s B r o t h . , ex I h s i b a J . Soc. Trop. Agr. 7s 198, 1935. I h s i b a (1935) gave t h i s nomen nudum i n h i s l i s t without c i t a t i o n . (10. ) Dicranolbma b r a u n i i ( C. M u e l l . ) Par. forma mindanense F l . T h i s name of an i n v a l i d form was l i s t e d by Sasaoka ( 1 9 2 0 , 1928) based on a specimen c o l l e c t e d by E. Matsuda from A l i k o (no specimen i n TNS), s i n c e then f o l l o w e d by I h s i b a ( 1 9 2 9 , 1935) and Wang ( i 9 6 0 ) . Although Wang ( 1970) synonymized t h i s form with the s p e c i e s , he gave no c i t a t i o n or d i s c u s s i o n . The s p e c i e s ' occurrence i n Taiwan i s d o u b t f u l . - 5 0 -( 1 1 .) Dicranum caesium M i t t . I h s i b a (1935) and Wang (1970) l i s t e d t h i s s p e c i e s from Taiwan, they gave no c i t a t i o n . No specimen i n TNS. (12 . ) Dicranum l o r i f o l i u m M i t t . I h s i b a (1935) a l s o l i s t e d t h i s s p e c i e s from Taiwan. No c i t a t i o n has been g i v e n . No specimen i n TNS. I t s presence i n Taiwan would be d o u b t f u l . (13 . ) Dicranum shimadae Broth., ex Sasaoka Trans. Nat. H i s t . Soc. Formos. 17: 241, 1927; Sasaoka ( 1928); I h s i b a (1935); Wang (1970). T h i s name i s an i l l e g i t i m a t e nomen nudum. (14.) Dicranum f l a g e l l a r e Hedw. Wang (1970) l i s t e d t h i s s p e c i e s from Taiwan without any c i t a t i o n . (15 . ) Oncophorus c r i s p i f o l i u s ( M i t t . ) L i n d b . Wang (1970) l i s t e d t h i s s p e c i e s from Taiwan without any c i t a t i o n . (16 . ) Holomitrium g r i f f i t h i a n u m and i t s v a r i e t y pseudautoicum. T h i s s p e c i e s was l i s t e d by Brotherus ( 1924) , I h s i b a (1935) and Wang (1970) from Taiwan without any c i t a t i o n . The name may have been borrowed from Cardot ( I 9 0 5 ). Cardot r e p o r t e d the v a r i e t y pseuautoicum from Taiwan based on F a u r i e * s c o l l e c t i o n , but the c i t e d specimen showed no l o c a l i t y . I am not sure t h a t the presen t s p e c i e s o r i t s v a r i e t y o c c u r i n Taiwan. (17.) Dichodontium asperrimum Broth., ex Sasaoka Trans. Nat. H i s t . Formos. 18: 183, 1928. T h i s name i s an i l l e g i t i m a t e nomen nudum. - 5 1 -(18.) Leucobryum galeatum forma l o n g i f o l i u m B r o t h . , ex Sasaoka Trans. Nat. H i s t . Soc. Formos. 18: 132, 186, 1928. Sasaoka gave t h i s name which was not v a l i d l y p u b l i s h e d . ( 1 9 . ) leucobryum j a p o n i c urn ( Besch.) Card. I h s i b a (1935) l i s t e d t h i s s p e c i e s without c i t a t i o n . ( 2 0 . ) Leucobryum n a k a i i Horikawa Wang (1970) gave t h i s name i n h i s l i s t from Taiwan without c i t a t i o n . ( 2 1 „ ) Anoectangium s u z u k i i B r o t h . , ex Sasaoka Trans. Nat. H i s t . Soc. Formos. 18: 131, 1928; I h s i b a ( 1935) . T h i s name i s a nomen nudum. ( 2 2 . ) B a r b u l a s u b i n f l e x a B r o t h . , ex Sasaoka Trans. Nat. H i s t . Soc. Formos. 18: 188, 1928; I h s i b a ( 1935) . T h i s name i s a nomen nudum. ( 2 3 . ) Didymodon formosicus Broth., ex Sasaoka Trans. Nat. H i s t . Formos. 18: 188, 1928. T h i s name i s a nomen nudum. (24.) H y o p h i l a s u z u k i i Dix. & Sasaoka, I h s i b a J . Soc. Trop. Agr. 7: 201, 1935. T h i s name i s a nomen nudum. ( 2 5 . ) Trichostomum c y l i n d r i c u m ( B r i d . ) C. M u e l l . T h i s name i s i n the l i s t o f Sasaoka (1928) and I h s i b a (1935) , without any c i t a t i o n . No specimen i n TNS. ( 2 6 . ) Trichostomum c y l i n d r i c u m v a r . b r o t h e r i I h s i b a J . Soc. Trop. Agr. 7: 204, 1935. T h i s name i s a nomen nudum. No specimen i n TNS. ( 2 7 . ) Trichostomum t e n u i r o s t r e ( Hook. & T a y l . ) L i n d b . Wang (1970) l i s t e d t h i s s p e c i e s without c i t a t i o n . - 5 2 -(28.) P o t t i a t r u n c a t a ( Hedw.) Fuern. Wang (1970) l i s t e d t h i s s p e c i e s without c i t a t i o n . ( 2 9 . ) Mnium orthorrhynchum B r i d . I h s i b a (1929) l i s t e d t h i s s p e c i e s from Taiwan without any c i t a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g two s p e c i e s have not been confirmed by Koponen ( i n p r e s s ) . The s p e c i e s ' occurrence i n Taiwan would be d o u b t f u l and the voucher specimens need reexamination. (30.) Plagiomnium r o s t r a t u m ( Schrad.) Kop. Mnium r o s t r a t u m Schrad., Bot. Z e i t . Regensburg. 1: 79. 1802; Noguchi ( 1952) . Mnium l o n g i r o s t r e B r i d . , Mus. Rec. 2 ( 3 ) : 106, 1803; Wang (1968, 1970). ( 3 1 .) Plagiomnium vesicatum ( Besch.) Kop. Mnium vesicatum Besch., Ann. Sc. Nat. Bot. s e r . 7. 17: 345, 1893; Horikawa ( 1 9 3*0; I h s i b a (1935); Wang ( 1970) . Mnium vesicatum v a r . euvesicatum Kab., Hedwigia 76: 48, 1936. ( 3 2 . ) Hypnodendron r e i n w a r d t i i ( Hornsch.) L i n d b . T h i s s p e c i e s was mentioned by Chen (I963) from Taiwan without c i t a t i o n . ( 3 3 . ) Pseudoleskea l u t e s c e n s Card. Wang (1963) l i s t e d s p e c i e s as o c c u r r i n g Kao-hsiung, Taiwan. T h i s seems to be based on a m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the name of l o c a l i t y , Takeo, Hizen, Japan from S a k u r a i ' s M u s c o l o g i a J a p o n i c a (1954) and H a t t o r i and Noguchi's Index Speciminum Typicorum ( i 9 6 0 ) , i n s t e a d o f Takao (Japanese name of Kao-hsiung, Taiwan). T h e r e f o r e t h i s s p e c i e s s h o u l d be excluded from the moss f l o r a o f Taiwan. - 5 3 -Taxonomic Treatment Key to s u b c l a s s e s and f a m i l i e s of moss f l o r a of Taiwan 1. P l a n t s w i t h f a s c i c l e s of d i v e r g e n t and pendent branches; l e a v e s u n i s t r a t o s e , e c o s t a t e , made up of l a r g e h y a l i n e c e l l s w ith s p i r a l t h i c k e n i n g s and pores, and surrounded by a network of elongate c h l o r o p h y l l o s e c e l l s Sphagnidae—Sphagnaceae 1. P l a n t s without f a s c i c u l a t e branches; l e a f c e l l s never forming a network of c h l o r o p h y l l o s e and h y a l i n e c e l l s 2 2. Capsules'on pseudopodium, dehiscence by f o u r l o n g i t u d i n a l l i n e s , operculum none, peristome t e e t h none Andreaeidae--Andreaeaceae 2. Capsules s e s s i l e or on s e t a , t r a n s v e r s e l y d e h i s c e n t by operculum; peristome t e e t h u s u a l l y p r e s e n t . 3 3. Gametophytes rudimentary; protonema permanent 4 4. P e r i c h a e t i a l l e a v e s c o s t a t e ; c a l y p t r a d e n s e l y h a i r y , c a p s u l e s symmetrical, epiphragm p r e s e n t P o l y t r i c h i d a e — P o l y t r i c h a c e a e 4. P e r i c h a e t i a l l e a v e s not c o s t a t e ; c a l y p t r a smooth; cap s u l e s o b l i q u e , epiphragm absent Buxbaumiidae--Buxbaumiaceae 3. Gametophytes w e l l developed; protonema ephemeral 5 5. Leaves l a m e l l a t e ; c a l y p t r a densely h a i r y ; peristome t e e t h 32-64, epiphragm prese n t P o l y t r i c h i d a e - - P o l y t r i c h a c e a e 5. Leaves not l a m e l l a t e ; c a l y p t r a smooth o r s c a r c e l y h a i r y ; peristome t e e t h 4 or 16, sometimes none, epiphragm absent 6 -54-Inner peristome h y a l i n e and p l e a t e d ; capsules o b l i q u e , s e s s i l e Buxbaumiidae--Diphysciaceae Inner peristome not h y a l i n e and not p l e a t e d ; c a p s u l e s symmetrical, mostly l o n g e x s e r t e d 7 7. Peristome t e e t h 4, s o l i d , not t r a n s v e r s e l y b a r r e d . . ; T e t r a p h i d a e — T e t r a p h i d a c e a e 7. Peristome t e e t h absent or 16, t h i n , t r a n s v e r s e l y b a r r e d and a r t i c u l a t e B r y i d a e - - 8 8, Leaves d i s t i n c t l y d i s t i c h o u s 9 9. Leaves w i t h v a g i n a n t lamina, not k e e l e d ; c o s t a not l o n g e x c u r r e n t F i s s i d e n t a c e a e 9. Leaves without vaginant lamina, s t r o n g l y k e e l e d ; c o s t a l o n g e x c u r r e n t B r y o x i p h i a c e a e 8. Leaves t h r e e ranked o r more... . . . . 1 0 10. Leaves wi t h c a n c e l l i n a e , b a s a l c e l l s l a r g e and h y a l i n e , and s h a r p l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from the s m a l l c h l o r o p h y l l o s e c e l l s . Calymperaceae 10. Leaves l a c k i n g c a n c e l l i n a e , b a s a l c e l l s and c h l o r o p h y l l o s e c e l l s not forming a d i s t i n c t border .11 11. Lamina c o n s i s t i n g of c h l o r o c y s t s i n the middle and l e u c o c y s t s i n the out e r l a y er...Leucobryaceae 11. Lamina c o n s i s t i n g o n l y o f c h l o r o p h y l l o s e c e l l s , l e u c o c y s t s never p r e s e n t 12 12. Leaves wi t h h y a l i n e h a i r p o i n t s , o r wit h e x c u r r e n t c o s t a 13 - 5 5 -13. C a l y p t r a campanulate, l o n g e r than the capsule and completely c o v e r i n g c a p s u l e ; peristome o c c a s i o n a l l y double E n c a l y p t a c e a e 13. C a l y p t r a c u c u l l a t e or m i t r a t e , but not l o n g e r than the c a p s u l e ; peristome s i n g l e o r absent 14 14. Leaves u s u a l l y w i t h h y a l i n e h a i r p o i n t s , l e a f c e l l s s t r o n g l y sinuous or at l e a s t s l i g h t l y sinuous; peristome d i c r a n o i d Grimmiaceae 14. Leaves without h y a l i n e h a i r p o i n t s ; l e a f c e l l s not sinuous; peristome not d i c r a n o i d P o t t i a c e a e 12. Leaves without h y a l i n e p o i n t s or e x c u r r e n t c o s t a 15 15. Peristome p r e s e n t 16 16. Peristome s i n g l e 1? l ? . L e a f c e l l s hexagonal; peristome t e e t h u n i t e d i n p a i r s Splachnaceae 17. L e a f c e l l s not hexagonal; peristome t e e t h not u n i t e d 13 18. Peristome d i c r a n o i d , t e e t h broad at base, e n t i r e o r c l e f t above, w i t h l o n g i t u d i n a l s c u l p t u r i n g or p a p i l l o s e ; a l a r c e l l s o f t e n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d Dicranaceae 18. Peristome not d i c r a n o i d , t e e t h deeply d i v i d e d n e a r l y to base; a l a r c e l l s never s t r o n g l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from o t h e r l e a f c e l l s 19 19.. Upper l e a f c e l l s smooth, elongate or quadrate D i t r i c h a c e a e 56 19. Upper l e a f c e l l s p a p i l l o s e , rounded P o t t i a c e a e Peristome double 20 20. L e a f margins t h i c k e n e d 21 21. P l a n t s up to 10 cm t a l l , growing on s o i l , humus o r at base of decayed l o g s ; capsules on elongate s e t a , 22. Leaves oblong, l e a f c e l l s hexagonal or i s o -d i a m e t r i c , t h i n - w a l l e d ; sporophytes t e r m i n a l Mniaceae 22. Leaves l i n e a r - l a n c e o l a t e , l e a f c e l l s rounded, i n c r a s s a t e ; sporophytes a r i s i n g from near base of gametophyte .Rhizogoniaceae 21. P l a n t s up t o 40-50 cm t a l l , pendent on t r e e trunk; c a p s u l e s on s h o r t s e t a , always e r e c t . . S p i r i d e n t a c e a e 20. L e a f margins never t h i c k e n e d 23 23. P l a n t s d e n d r o i d or branched at the upper stems....24 24. L e a f c e l l s smooth, hexagonal or round Mnium immarginatum 24. L e a f c e l l s p a p i l l o s e by p r o j e c t i n g end at the u s u a l l y nodding 22 a p i c a l angles, r e c t a n g u l a r Hypnodendraceae 23. P l a n t s not dendroid 25 25. L e a f c e l l s p a p i l l o s e , p a p i l l a e at the upper angles; c a p s u l e s subglobose Bartramiaceae 25. Leaf c e l l s smooth; capsules p y r i f o r m , elongate or o b l o n g - o v o i d 26 -57-26. Capsules g e n e r a l l y symmetrical and nodding o r h o r i z o n t a l 27 27. Leaves o f t e n b r o a d l y ovate to obovate; l e a f margins bordered w i t h h y a l i n e or c o l o r e d , e l ongate c e l l s ; l e a f c e l l hexagonal and i s o d i a m e t r i c Mniaceae 27. Leaves u s u a l l y narrowly ovate or l a n c e o l a t e ; l e a f margins u s u a l l y not bordered, but l e a f c e l l s elongate to narrowly hexagonal, r a r e l y i s o d i a m e t r i c . . B r y a c e a e 26. Capsules e r e c t , i n c l i n e d , asymmetric Funariaceae Peristome absent 28 28. L e a f c e l l s smooth Fu n a r i a c e a e (Entosthodon, Physcomitrium) 28. L e a f c e l l s p a p i l l o s e or v a r r u c o s e 29 2 9 . Leaves g e n e r a l l y ovate; l e a f c e l l s d i s t i n c t l y l a x . . . Splachnaceae (Gymnostomiella ) 29. Leaves l a n c e o l a t e to s u b u l a t e ; l e a f c e l l s not l a x . . . - 5 8 -S u b c l a s s : Sphagnidae One f a m i l y i n t h i s s u b c l a s s i n Taiwan. Family: Sphagnaceae One genus i n t h i s f a m i l y i n Taiwan. Sphagnum L i n n . , Sp. P l . 1106, 1753. Four s p e c i e s and one subsp e c i e s i n Taiwan. Key to the s p e c i e s o f Sphagnum 1. C o r t i c a l stem c e l l s f i b r i l l o s e , branch l e a v e s obtuse to almost rounded a t the apex S. p a l u s t r e 1. C o r t i c a l stem c e l l s never f i b r i l l o s e , branch l e a v e s acuminate at the apex 2 2. H y a l i n e l e a f c e l l s never f i b r i l l o s e S. sericeum 2. H y a l i n e l e a f c e l l s f i b r i l l o s e 3 3. Stem l e a f apex round-truncate, f i m b r i a t e . S . g i r g e n s o h n i i 3. Stem l e a f apex acute, never f i m b r i a t e 4 4. Stem l e a f c e l l s not p a r t i t i o n e d , f i b r i l s w e l l -developed S. junghuhnianum 4. Stem l e a f c e l l s p a r t i t i o n e d , f i b r i l s undeveloped S. junghuhnianum v a r . pseudomolle 1. Sphagnum g i r g e n s o h n i i Russ., Arch. Naturk. L i v l . E h s t l . s e r . 2, 7; 124, 1865; Suzuki ( 1966); Noguchi (1966); Gangulee ( 1969) . C i t e d specimen: Suzuki (1966) mentioned t h a t t h i s s p e c i e s was c o l l e c t e d by N a k a n i s h i (I963) from Taiwan, but he gave no c i t a t i o n . H a b i t a t : On s o i l o f mountain s l o p e . - 5 9 -D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe, S i b e r i a , Kamchatka, S a g h a l i n e , North America, Greenland, China, Korea, Japan, Himalaya, Caucasus, J a v a and Taiwan. The s p e c i e s can be r e c o g n i z e d r e a d i l y by the f i m b r i a t e , rounded t r u n c a t e apex o f the stem l e a f . 2. Sphagnum junghuhnianum Doz. & Molk., Nat. Verh. K. Ak. Wet. Amsterdam 2: 8, 1. f . 3, 1854; Cardot (1905); Warnstorf (1911); P a u l ( 1924); I h s i b a ( 1935); Bartram ( 1939); Chen & Lee (1956); Gangulee ( 1969) . C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i Co. Taitum F a u r i e 216, 217 (KYO). H a b i t a t : On s o i l of shady s l o p e . D i s t r i b u t i o n : China, Taiwan, P h i l i p p i n e s , North Borneo, Malaya, Indonesia, Canada (Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s ) . 3. Sphagnum .junghuhnianum Doz. & Molk. subsp. pseudomolle (Warnst.) Suzuki Jap. J . Bot. 15: 194, 1956, Suzuki (1966) Sphagnum junghuhnianum Doz. & Molk. v a r . pseudomolle (Warnst.) A r n s t . P f l a n z e n r e i c h 511 117, 1911; I h s i b a (1935); Chen & Lee ( 1956) . Sphagnum pseudomolle Warnst1 B e i h . Bot. C e n t r a l b l . 16: 247, 1904; Cardot ( 1905) . C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i Co. Taitum, F a u r i e 48 (I s o t y p e of S. pseudo-m o l l e ) , 40, 215, 218, 219, 221 (KYO); Mt. Chi - h s i a n - s h a n , Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 208, 223, 228 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On s o i l o f shady s l o p e . Based on the c h a r a c t e r s o f p e r f o r a t i o n i n both s u r f a c e s of the stem l e a v e s , Suzuki (1956) c r e a t e d two su b s p e c i e s : S. junghuhnianum subsp. junghuhnianum i n the south and subsp. pseudomolle o f more n o r t h e r n d i s t r i b u t i o n . - 6 0 -I n the same year, Chen & Lee d i v i d e d these two forms i n t o two v a r i e t i e s , based on the shape, p a r t i t i o n and f i b e r s o f the stem l e a v e s . I have s t u d i e d the F a u r i e specimen i n KYO and have found t h a t the c h a r a c t e r s used by Chen & Lee ( 1 9 5 6 ) are more d i s t i n c t i v e t h a n those of p e r f o r a t i o n t h a t are used by Suzuk i . I c o n s i d e r F a u r i e ' s no. 2 l 6 , 2 1 7 to be S. junghuhnianum. Suzuki's f i g u r e s and t a b l e 3 ( 1 9 5 6 ) i n d i c a t e t h a t these two specimens are d i f f e r e n t from the ot h e r s and the c h a r a c t e r s a l s o c l o s e l y match the i l l u s t r a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n o f Dozy & Molkenborer i n B r y o l o g i a  J a v a n i c a . 4 . Sphagnum p a l u s t r e L i n n . , Sp. P l . 1 1 0 6 , 1 7 5 3 ? Sasaoka ( 1 9 2 8 ) ; Noguchi ( 1 9 6 6 ) 5 Gangulee ( 1 9 6 9 ) . Sphagnum c y m b i l i f o l i u m ( Ehrh.) Hedw., Fund. Muse. 2 : 8 6 1 7 8 2 ; Cardot ( 1 9 0 5 ) ; Warnstorf ( 1 9 1 1 ) ; I h s i b a ( 1 9 3 5 ) ; Chen & Lee ( 1 9 5 6 . ) Sphagnum pseudocymbifolium C. M u e l l . , L i n n a e a 3 8 s 5 ^ 7 , 1 8 7 4 ; Cardot ( 1 9 0 5 ) ; Warnstorf ( 1 9 1 1 ) ; P a u l ( 1 9 2 4 ) ; Sasaoka ( 1 9 2 8 ) ; Chen & Lee ( 1 9 5 6 ) ; Gangulee ( 1 9 6 9 ) . C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i Co. Taitum, F a u r i e 2 1 3 (KYO); P e i t o u , F a u r i e 2 0 9 (KYO); Mt. C h i - h s i n - s h a n , Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 2 1 7 , 2 2 1 , 2 2 7 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On s o i l a l o n g shady s l o p e . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Widespread throughout the world. Chen & Lee ( 1 9 5 6 ) and Gangulee ( 1 9 6 9 ) , used the c h a r a c t e r of the broad, t r i a n g u l a r c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f the c h l o r o p h y l l o s e c e l l s of the branch l e a f to separate S. pseudocymbifolium from S. p a l u s t r e . - 6 l -Andrews (195D and Suzuki (1956) r e c o g n i z e d t h i s c h a r a c t e r as uns t a b l e and i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r a d i s t i n c t s p e c i e s . T h i s i s supported by o b s e r v a t i o n s made i n the presen t study. 5. Sphagnum sericeum C. M u e l l . , Bot. Z e i t . 5« 481, 484, 1847; Chen & Lee (1956). C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i Co. Mt. La-La-shan, a l t . 2000 m, S. Suzuki 666 ( T A I ) . - - n o t seen. H a b i t a t : On moist ground i n f o r e s t . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Malaya, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, New Guinea, P h i l i p p i n e s and Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s i s e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d by i t s h y a l i n e l e a f c e l l s t h a t l a c k f i b r i l l s on both stem and branch l e a v e s . S u b c l a s s : Andreaeidae One f a m i l y i n Taiwan. Family: Andreaeaceae One genus i n t h i s f a m i l y . Andreaea Hedw., Sp. Mus. 47, 1801. Two s p e c i e s and one v a r i e t i e s i n Taiwan. Key to the s p e c i e s of Andreaea 1. Leaves ovate-oblong, apex obtuse o r b l u n t . A. r u p e s t r i s v a r . f a u r i e i 1. Leaves s u b u l a t e - l a n c e o l a t e , apex narrowly acuminate 2 2. Capsules 0 .43-0 .65 mm long, l o n g i t u d i n a l l y s p l i t from the top to the base; s e t a 1 mm l o n g A. hohuanensis 2. Capsules 0 .95 mm lon g , l o n g i t u d i n a l s p l i t c o n f i n e d to the upper h a l f of the ca p s u l e ; s e t a 2 . 3 mm long...A. m o r r i s o n e n s i s - 6 2 -1. Andreaea hohuanensis sp. nov. ( P l . 1 , p. 64) P l a n t a g r a c i l i s , a t r o - r u f e s c e n s , dense c a e s p i t o s a . C a u l i s e r e c t u s v e l adscendens, ramosus v e l simplex, 1 - 1 . 5 cm longus. F o l i a c a u l i n a s i c c a v a l d e adpressa e t i m b r i c a t a , madida e r e c t o -p a t e n t i a , 0 . 5 - 0 . 7 2 mm l o n g a et 0 . 1 - 0 . 1 6 mm l a t a , l a n c e o l a t a , sensim longe acuminata, marginibus i n t e g e r r i m i s , p r a e c i p a e parte c e n t r a l i i n c u r v i s i n s t r u c t a , e c o s t a t a . C e l l u l a e f o l i o r u m s u p e r i o r e s (N) quadratae v e l rotundatae, mediae ( 0 ) 4 . 5 - 1 0 y U longae, c e n t r a l e s (Q) s i n u a t a e , i n f e r i o r e s (P) r e c t a n g u l a r e s v e l p a u l a t i m s i n u a t a e , omnes p a r i e t i b u s c r a s s i s e t multae p a p i l l a una g r o s s a i n s t r u c t a e . Bracteae p e r i c h a e t i i o b l o n g o - l i n g u l a t a e , acuminatae, ad 1 mm longae. Pseudopodia e r e c t a , t e r e t i a , ca. 1 mm longa. Theca oblongo-ovata, r u f e s c e n s , ca. 0 . 4 3 - 0 . 6 5 mm longa, v a l v i s 4 b a s i n v e r s u s d e h i s c e n t i b u s . Holotypus: Regio Nantou, summo ap i c e montis Ho-huan-shan rupibus post p l u v i a s c i t o s i c c a n t i b u s , a l t i t u d i n e 3 2 0 0 m, l e g i t Chuang 5 9 1 4 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On open dry r o c k s . T h i s s p e c i e s d i s t i n c t l y belongs to the r u p e s t r i s group of Andreaea by the l e a v e s without c o s t a , but the shape of the narrowly acuminate l e a v e s with l o n g p o i n t e d apex, s m a l l s i z e of l e a v e s and c a p s u l e s , r e d d i s h i n c o l o r s , are d i f f e r e n t from A. r u p e s t r i s v a r . f a u r i e i . From A. m o r r i s o n e n s i s i t d i f f e r s i n i t s c a p s u l e s where the l o n g i t u d i n a l s p l i t s extend to the base wh i l e i n A. m o r r i s o n e n s i s the capsules s p l i t o n l y i n the upper h a l f of the c a p s u l e s and a l s o the shape and s i z e of l e a v e s are q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . - 6 3 -PLATE 1 Andreaea hohuanensis sp. nov. A. H a b i t X 4 B. -G. Leaves from upper p a r t of stem X 63 H.-I. Leaves from lower p a r t of stem X 63 J . A c r o s s s e c t i o n of l e a f (from upper p a r t of a l e a f ) X 343 K. A c r o s s s e c t i o n of l e a f (from near base of l e a f ) X 34-3 L.-M. P e r i c h a e t i a l l e a v e s X 63 N. L e a f apex X 3^3 0. M a r g i n a l to median l e a f c e l l s X 343 P. B a s a l l e a f c e l l s X 343 Q. L e a f c e l l s from middle of l e a f X 343 R. Capsules X 16 - 6 5 -2. Andreaea m o r r i s o n e n s i s Nog., Trans. Nat. H i s t . Soc. Formos. 26: 139, 1936; Wang (i960, 1970). C i t e d specimen: C h i a y i Co. Mt. M o r r i s o n , Chuang, Aug. 15, 1 9 6 6 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On exposed rocks on summit of mountain. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Endemic to Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s was r e p o r t e d by Noguchi (1936) from the lower p a r t s o f Mt. M o r r i s o n . My m a t e r i a l r e p r e s e n t s the second c o l l e c t i o n from Taiwan and the f i r s t c o l l e c t i o n from the top of Mt. M o r r i s o n (3970 m). T h i s s p e c i e s can be r e c o g n i z e d r e a d i l y by i t s b l a c k i s h brown patches, acuminate, p o i n t e d l e a v e s and the dehiscence o f the c a p s u l e s . 3. Andreaea r u p e s t r i s Hedw. v a r . f a u r i e i ( Besch.) T a k a k i , J . H a t t o r i Bot Lab. 11: 90, 1954; Wang (1970). Andreaea f a u r i e i Besch., Ann. S c i . Nat. s e r . 7, Bot. 1 7 s 392, 1893; Horikawa (1934); I h s i b a (1935); Chen & Wang (1958). Andreaea p e t r o p h i l a Ehrh. v a r . f a u r i e i T a k a k i , J . H a t t o r i Bot. Lab. 10: 32, 1953; Wang (i960). C i t e d specimen: Pingtung Co. Kwai-ku to Mt. Pei-ta-wu-shan, Chuang 1523a (UBC). H a b i t a t : On open rocks o f mountain. D i s t r i b u t i o n : S a k h a l i n , K u r i l I s l a n d s , Korea, Japan, China and Taiwan. -66-T h i s genus was f i r s t r e c o r d e d by Horikawa (1934) with A* f a u r i e i Besch. T a k a k i (1953. 1954) a f t e r a study of the type specimen i n Japan, c r e a t e d the namet A. p e t r o p h i l a v a r . f a u r i e i , and l a t e r t r a n s f e r r e d t h i s to A. r u p e s t r i s var. f a u r i e i . He based t h i s o p i n i o n on the l e a f shape and s e x u a l i t y , which are d i f f e r e n t from the s p e c i e s . Chen & Wang (1958) compared the A s i a n m a t e r i a l s with European specimens, found the shape of the le a v e s and l e a f c e l l s t o be d i f f e r e n t from the s p e c i e s ; thus they suggested t h a t they were d i f f e r e n t t a x a . S u b c l a s s : T e t r a p h i d a e One f a m i l y i n t h i s s u b c l a s s i n Taiwan. Famil y : T e t r a p h i d a c e a e One genus i n Taiwan. T e t r a p h i s Hedw., Sp. Mus. 43, 1801. Only one s p e c i e s known i n Taiwan. T e t r a p h i s p e l l u c i d a Hedw., Fund. Muse. 2: 88, t . 7, f . 32, 1782; Wang (1970). G e o r g i a p e l l u c i d a (Hedw.) Rabenh., D e u t s c h l . K r y p t . F l . 2: 231, p l . 3, 1848; Noguchi (1934); Wang (i960). C i t e d specimen: Hwalien Co. T a - y u - l i n g , Chuang 5784a (UBC), H a b i t a t : On decayed l o g s i n c o n i f e r o u s f o r e s t . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe, eastward to the J e n e s e i and Ob R i v e r s b a s i n s , Lake B a i k a l , i n the S i k h o t e - A l i n Mountain c h a i n , S a k h a l i n , Kamchatka, North America, Japan, Korea and Taiwan. - 6 7 -T h i s s p e c i e s can be r e c o g n i z e d by i t s capsules with f o u r peristome t e e t h , e r e c t smooth s e t a and s t a l k e d gemmae. Since T. g e n i c u l a t a G i r g . i s a l s o p r e s e n t i n the same east A s i a n areas as T. p e l l u c i d a , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s s p e c i e s i s a l s o p r e s e n t i n Taiwan; the two s p e c i e s are i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e i n the v e g e t a t i v e c o n d i t i o n . S u b c l a s s : P o l y t r i c h i d a e One f a m i l y p r e s e n t i n Taiwan. Famil y : P o l y t r i c h a c e a e F i v e genera and n i n e t e e n s p e c i e s p l u s two v a r i e t i e s from Taiwan. Key to the genera o f P o l y t r i c h a c e a e 1. Leaves without l a m e l l a e ; s e t a p a p i l l o s e Racelopodopsis 1. Leaves with l a m e l l a e ; s e t a smooth .2 2. L e a f margins bordered by narrow t h i c k - w a l l e d c e l l s ? t e e t h o f m a r g i n - p a i r e d ; lamina d i s t i n c t l y undulate and with s p i n e -l i k e t e e t h on the back.... Atrichum 2. L e a f margins not bordered; t e e t h of margin s i n g l e or n e a r l y e n t i r e ; lamina not undulate, without t e e t h on the back 3 3. Lamellae on both s u r f a c e s of lamina; c a l y p t r a n e a r l y smooth O l i g o t r i c h u m 3. Lamellae o n l y on v e n t r a l s u r f a c e of lamina; c a l y p t r a covered by dense, long, t h i c k h a i r s 4 4. Capsules angled with 4-6 d i s t i n c t r i d g e s ; apophysis and stomata p r e s e n t at the base of c a p s u l e s ; peristome t e e t h 64 P o l y t r i c h u m 4. Capsules not angled; apophysis and stomata absent; peristome t e e t h 32, r a r e l y 64..... Pogonatum Atrichum P. Beauv., Mag. E n c y c l . 5: 329, 1804. Three s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. Key to the s p e c i e s o f Atrichum 1. Lamellae l a c k i n g A. speciosum 1. Lamellae p r e s e n t . . . 2 2. P l a n t s l a r g e (about 6-8 cm h i g h ) , d i o i c o u s ; l a m e l l a e 2-3 c e l l s h i g h A. spinulosum 2. P l a n t s medium s i z e (about 3-5 cm h i g h ) , a u t o i c o u s or p a r o i c o u s ; l a m e l l a e 4-6(8) c e l l s high A. undulatum 1. Atrichum speciosum ( H o r i k . ) Wijk. & Margd., Taxon 8: 106, 1959. C a t h a r i n a e a s p e c i o s a Horik., J . Jap. Bot. 12: 6 ? 0 . , f . 22, 1936. C i t e d specimen: T a i t u n g Co. Mt. Chipon, Horikawa, Dec. 31» 1932--Holotype (HIRO)--specimen p o s s i b l y destroyed; not seen. H a b i t a t : On humus i n the f o r e s t . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Endemic to Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s can be r e a d i l y s e p a r a t e d from o t h e r Atrichum s p e c i e s by i t s n o n - l a m e l l a t e l e a v e s . The i l l u s t r a t i o n and des-c r i p t i o n o f Horikawa (1936) show a c l o s e resemblance to Mnium i n the c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f c o s t a , l a c k o f l a m e l l a e and absence of u n d u l a t i o n s o f the lamina. T h i s o p i n i o n i s supported by r e c e n t v e r b a l communication from Koponen. He suggested t h i s s p e c i e s may be Mnium l y c o p o d i o i d e s . The name, Atrichum speciosum ( H o r i k . ) Nog. i n Noguchi (1959) i s i l l e g i t i m a t e , because o f the name i s not v a l i d l y p u b l i s h e d . - 6 9 -2. Atrichum spinulosum ( Card.) Miz., J . Jap. Bot. 31t 119, 1956. Noguchi ( i 9 6 0 ) ; Wang ( 1970) . C a t h a r i n a e a s p i n u l o s a Card., B u l l . Soc. Bot. Geneve s e r . 2, 1(3) : 130, 1909. C a t h a r i n a e a g i g a n t e a H o r i k . , Bot. Mag. Tokyo 50: 559, 37, I936. C i t e d specimen: Hwalien Co. Mt. L i - s h a n , Wang I869 (NICH); Mt. T a i - p i n g - s h a n , Chuang 204-3 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On sandy s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Japan, Korea and Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from A. undulatum by i t s l a r g e , l a n c e o l a t e - l i n g u l a t e l e a v e s (about 10 X 1.6 mm i n s i z e ) , and l a m e l l a e 2-3 c e l l s h i g h . 3. Atrichum undulatum ( Hedw.) P. Beauv., Prodr. 421, 1805; Wang (1970). C a t h a r i n a e a u n d u l a t a ( Hedw.) Web. & Mohr., Ind. P l . 2, 1803; Horikawa ( 1936); Wang ( I 9 6 8 ) . C i t e d specimen: Taoyuan Co. Wu-lai, Wang 855 (NICH); Hsinchu Co. Mt. Kuei-shan, Wang 1645 (NICH); Taichung Co. Mt. Chung-hsueh, Wang 1222, 1221 (NICH); Mt. Hou-shih, Wang 1339 (NICH); Hwalien Co. Mt. L i - s h a n , Wang 1908 (NICH); C h i a y i Co. Mt. A l i , Wang 1479 (NICH). H a b i t a t : On moist s o i l i n the f o r e s t . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe, North America, A s i a and North A f r i c a . T h i s s p e c i e s i s widespread i n the a l p i n e areas o f Taiwan. The l a m e l l a e are d i s t i n c t i v e by b e i n g 4-6(8) c e l l s h i g h . - 7 0 -Oligotrichum Lam. & Card., F l . F r a n c , ed. 3, 2: 491, 1805. This genus has one species i n Taiwan. Oligotrichum s u z u k i i ( Broth.) comb. nov. Pogonatum su z u k i i Broth., Ann. Bryol. 1: 26, 1928; Sasaoka (1928, 1928a); Ihsiba ( 1935) . Oligotrichum formosanum Nog., Trans. Nat. H i s t . Soc. Formos. 24: 294, 1934; Wang ( i 9 6 0 ) . Oligotrichum aligerum non M i t t . , sensu Horikawa ( 1950); Osada ( 1966); Wang (1967, 1970). Cited specimen: Taichung Co. Mt. Higashinoko, S. Suzuki, Aug. 6, 1926 (H 2660)—Holotype of P. s u z u k i i ; Chiayi Co. Mt. A l i , Noguchi 5944 (NOG)—Holotype of 0 . formosanum; Nantou Co. Chi-tou to w a t e r f a l l , Chuang & Schofield 595 (UBC); I l a n Co. Mt. Tai-ping-shan, Chuang I966, 2025 (UBC). Habitat: On s o i l i n alpine area. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Taiwan, Japan (?) and Philippines ( ? ) . Horikawa (1950) combined Pogonatum suzukii and Oligotrichum  formosanum under the name of Oligotrichum aligerum, a species widespread i n western North America. After studying the type specimens of Pogonatum suz u k i i and Oligotrichum formosanum and my own c o l l e c t i o n s , I made a comparison with Oligotrichum aligerum of western North America i n UBC, and discovered that they are completely d i f f e r e n t taxa, and I made the above combination. The following key separates 0 . s u z u k i i and 0. aligerum. -71-1. L e a f apex acuminate or c u s p i d a t e ; margins n e a r l y e n t i r e ; l a m e l l a e on d o r s a l l e a f s u r f a c e absent or 1-2 c e l l s h i g h ; c a p s u l e s s h o r t c y l i n d r i c ( 3 mm long) 0. s u z u k i i 1. L e a f apex acute; margins d i s t i n c t l y s e r r u l a t e toward the apex; cap s u l e s s u b c y l i n d r i c , s l i g h t l y narrowed below the mouth, v e n t r i c o s e at the base, 4 - 5 mm l o n g 0. aligerum I have not examined 0. a l i g e r u m from Japan and the P h i l i p p i n e s . Pogonatum P. Beauv., Mag. Enc. 5 t 3 2 9 , 1804. F o u r t e e n s p e c i e s occur i n Taiwan. Key to the s p e c i e s of Pogonatum 1. T e r m i n a l c e l l s o f l a m e l l a e d i s t i n c t l y p a p i l l o s e 2 2. T e r m i n a l c e l l s of l a m e l l a e t r i a n g u l a r i n c r o s s s e c t i o n , covered by e l l i p t i c a l p a p i l l a e i n the s u r f a c e view..P. alpinum 2. T e r m i n a l c e l l s o f l a m e l l a e rounded, ovate to e l l i p t i c a l , covered by rounded p a p i l l a e i n the s u r f a c e view..P. urnigerum 1. T e r m i n a l c e l l s of l a m e l l a e smooth , 3 3 . Lamellae r e s t r i c t e d to c o s t a , never c o v e r i n g the lamina..4 4. Lamina wi t h d i s t i n c t s p i n e s at the upper p a r t of l e a v e s ; p l a n t s 12 mm h i g h , l e a v e s U n g u l a t e , 4 ram l o n g P. o l i g o t r i c h o i d e s 4. Lamina without s p i n e s ; p l a n t s l a r g e r than 2 cm h i g h . . . 5 5 . P l a n t s 2 - 3 cm high, l a m e l l a e 3 - 6 c e l l s h i g h , t e r m i n a l c e l l s t h i c k - w a l l e d P. nudiusculum 5 . P l a n t s 5-10 cm h i g h , l a m e l l a e 1-2 c e l l s h i g h o r absent, t e r m i n a l c e l l s t h i n - w a l l e d 6 - 7 2 -6. L a m e l l a e 1-2 c e l l s h i g h 7. P l a n t s a b o u t 8 cm h i g h , l e a v e s 6 mm l o n g , 7 b r o a d l y l a n c e o l a t e P. t a k a o - m o n t a n a 7. P l a n t s r o b u s t , g e n e r a l l y t a l l e r t h a n 10 cm, l e a v e s l i n e a r - l a n c e o l a t e t o l a n c e o l a t e 8 8,' S t e m s s i m p l e , t e r m i n a l c e l l s o f l a m e l l a e r o u n d e d i n c r o s s s e c t i o n . . . . P . g y m n o p h y l l u m 8. S t e m s b r a n c h e d , f a s t i g i a t e ; t e r m i n a l c e l l s o f l a m e l l a e e l o n g a t e d i n c r o s s s e c t i o n . . . . P. f a s t i g i a t u m 6. L a m e l l a e 3 c e l l s h i g h P. h e t e r o - p r o l i f e r u m L a m e l l a e w e l l - d e v e l o p e d a n d a l m o s t c o v e r i n g t h e l a m i n a . . . 9 9 . T e r m i n a l c e l l s o f l a m e l l a e f l a t , n o t c h e d o r d i v i d e d ; l e a f m a r g i n s u n i s t r a t o s e 10 10. T e r m i n a l p a r t o f l a m e l l a e d i s t i n c t l y f o r k e d ....P. m i c r o s t o m u m 10. T e r m i n a l p a r t o f l a m e l l a e n o t f o r k e d , b u t f l a t o r 11. L a m e l l a e 2-3 c e l l s h i g h , t e r m i n a l c e l l s r o u n d e d P. f o r m o s a n u m 11. L a m e l l a e 4-6 c e l l s h i g h , t e r m i n a l c e l l s n o t c h e d n o t c h e d 11 o r f l a t 12 12. T e r m i n a l c e l l s o f l a m e l l a e r o u n d e d i n s u r f a c e v i e w P. j u n g h u h n i a n u m 12. T e r m i n a l c e l l s o f l a m e l l a e e l l i p t i c a l i n s u r f a c e v i e w P. i n f l e x u m - 7 3 -9. T e r m i n a l c e l l s of l a m e l l a e rounded, l e a f margins b i s t r a t o s e 13 13. Margins o f l e a f - s h e a t h e n t i r e , l e a v e s 5-10 mm l o n g P. s p u r i o - c i r r a t u m 13. Margins o f l e a f - s h e a t h s e r r a t e , l e a v e s 14-17 mm l o n g P. c i r r a t u m 1. Pogonatum alpinum (Hedw.) Roehl. , Ann. Wetterau Ges. 3 ( 2 ) : 226, 1914; Osada ( 1965); Wang ( 1970) . P o l y t r i c h u m alpinum Hedw., Spec. Mus. 92, 19 f . 2, b. 1801. C i t e d specimen: Hwalien Co. T a - y u - l i n g to Mt. Ho-huan-shan, Chuang 5895 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On s o i l o r humus of a l p i n e area. D i s t r i b u t i o n : A n t a r c t i c a , Oceania, Europe, North America, n o r t h e r n to c e n t r a l A s i a , S a k h a l i n , Japan and Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from P. urnigerum by i t s c y l i n d r i c a l smooth c a p s u l e s , 44-55 peristome t e e t h and with stomata on apophysis; these c h a r a c t e r s p a r t l y belong to Pogonatum, p a r t l y to P o l y t r i c h u m ; I p r e f e r to p l a c e t h i s s p e c i e s i n Pogonatum because o f i t s smooth rounded c a p s u l e s . 2. Pogonatum c i r r a t u m ( Sw.) B r i d . , B r y o l . Univ. 2: 110, 1827; Iwatsuki ( 1969); Wang ( 1970) . Pogonatum .japonicum S u l l . Lesq. sensu Wang (1967, 1970). Pogonatum submacrophyllum Broth., Ann. B r y o l . L : 2 7 , 1928; Sasaoka ( 1928); I h s i b a (1935); Wang ( 1970) . Pogonatum a r i s a n e n s i s Okam., J . C o l l . Sc. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 3 8 ( 4 ) : 21, 9 , 1916; Sasaoka ( 1928); I h s i b a (1929, 1935); S a k u r a i ( 1935); Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1970). _ 7 4 -C i t e d specimen: Taichung Co. Mt. Noko, S. Suzuki, Aug. 6, 1926 --Holotype o f P. submacrophyllum ( H ); Mt. An-ma-shan, C. K. Wang 688 (NICH); C h i a y i Co. Mt. A l i - s h a n , B. Hayata, Apr. 6, 1914 (NICH)--Holotype o f P. a r i s a n e n s i s , Mt. A - l i - s h a n , Chuang 6399 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On s o i l i n f o r e s t . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Himalaya, T h a i l a n d , mainland China, Loas, Malaya, Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Celebes, New Guinea, South A f r i c a . T h i s i s a v e r y r o b u s t Pogonatum and i s v e r y c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to P. s p u r i o - c i r r a t u m , but i t i s d i f f e r e n t from the l a t t e r by i t s s e r r a t e l e a f - s h e a t h , the l a m e l l a e 1-2 c e l l s h i g h and the b i s t r a t o s e margins. I have examined the type specimens o f P. submacrophyllum and P. a r i s a n e n s i s and found both to be i d e n t i c a l to P. c i r r a t u m . I have not examined the specimen r e p o r t e d by S a k u r a i (1935) based on Noguchi's c o l l e c t i o n from Mt. A l i - s h a n , Taiwan. 3. Pogonatum f a s t i g i a t u m M i t t . , J . L i n n . Soc. Bot. Suppl. 1: 154, 1859; Sasaoka (192?, 1928); I h s i b a (1935); Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1970); Noguchi (I966); Gangulee ( I 9 6 9 ) . C i t e d specimen: Taichung Co. Mt. S y l v i a , Y. Shimada 283 (TNS)--not seen. H a b i t a t : On s o i l i n f o r e s t . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Himalaya, n o r t h e r n Burma and Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s was f i r s t r e p o r t e d by Sasaoka (1927, 1928) based on B r o t h e r u s ' i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f Y. Shimada's c o l l e c t i o n no. 283 from Mt. S y l v i a , Taichung County. The name was f o l l o w e d by I h s i b a , Wang, Noguchi and Gangulee who have i n d i c a t e d i t s occurrence i n Taiwan; no o t h e r c o l l e c t i o n has been made from Taiwan. - 7 5 -T h i s s p e c i e s i s r e c o g n i z e d by i t s robust s i z e (up to 10 .5 cm h i g h ) , f a s t i g i a t e l y branched stem and l a m e l l a e 1-2 c e l l s h i g h and r e s t r i c t e d to the c o s t a . 4. Pogoantum formosanum Horikawa Bot. Mag. Tokyo 49: 59, 6, 1935; Wang (1968, 1970). C i t e d specimen: C h i a y i Co. Mt. A l i . Horikawa Aug. 17, 1 9 3 2—Holo-type o f P. formosanum (HIRO)--not seen. H a b i t a t : On s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Endemic to Taiwan. T h i s endemic s p e c i e s was d e s c r i b e d by Horikawa (1935) from Mt. A l i - s h a n , C h i a y i County. No oth e r c o l l e c t i o n has been made s i n c e then. The shape o f l e a v e s , numerous l a m e l l a e and p a p i l l a t e c a p s u l e s , a l s o o n l y the 1 cm h i g h p l a n t d i s t i n c t l y s e p a r a t e t h i s s p e c i e s from o t h e r s p e c i e s o f Pogonatum i n Taiwan. 5. Pogonatum gymnophyllum M i t t . , J . L i n n . Soc. Bot. Suppl. 1: 153, 1859;" Sasaoaka (1920, 1928); Brotherus (1925); I h s i b a (1929, 1935); Bartram ( 1939) ; Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1970). C i t e d specimen: Pingtung Co. Kwai-ku to Mt. Pei-ta-wu-shan, Chuang 1591 (UBC); T a i t u n g Co. Ta-pu-shan, Chuang 5064 (UBC); I l a n Co. C h i - l a n , Chuang 6048 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On s o i l i n f o r e s t . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Himalaya, mainland China, T h a i l a n d , Vietnam, P h i l i p p i n e s , Burma, Celebes and Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s i s v e r y c l o s e to P . f a s t i g i a t u m , but the p l a n t s are not branched, l e a v e s are l i n e a r - l a n c e o l a t e w i t h l a m e l l a e 1-2 c e l l s high and r e s t r i c t e d t o the c o s t a . -76-6. Pogonatum h e t e r o - p r o l i f e r u m H o r i k . , Bot. Mag. Tokyo 48: 461, 4, 1934; I h s i b a (1935); Horikawa ( 1939); Wang ( 1970) . C i t e d specimen: I l a n Co. Mt. Ta i - p i n g - s h a n , Horikawa Aug. 23, 1932 --Holotype o f P. h e t e r o - p r o l i f e r u m (HIRO)-- not seen. H a b i t a t : On s o i l o f f o r e s t . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Endemic to Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s l a m e l l a e t h a t are three c e l l s h i g h . 7. Pogonatum i n f l e x u m ( Lindb.) L a c , Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. 4: 308, 1869; Cardot ( 1905); Brotherus (1925); Sasaoka ( 1928); Okamura (1916); I h s i b a (1929, 1935); Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1970); Osada ( I 9 6 5 ) . C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i Co. Mt. C h i - h s i n - s h a n , Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 188 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On s o i l o f s l o p e . D i s t r i b u t i o n : M ainland China, Korea, Japan and Taiwan. I t s presence from the Caucasus, Laos, Tonkin, Burma should be re-examined (Osada I 9 6 5 ) . T h i s s p e c i e s i s s i m i l a r t o P. junghuhnianum i n appearence, but the t e r m i n a l c e l l s o f the l a m e l l a e are e l l i p t i c a l i n s u r f a c e view, 8. Pogonatum junghuhnianum ( Doz. & Molk.) Doz. & Molk., B r y o l . Jav. 1: 41, 31, 1856; Wang ( I 9 6 7 , 1970); Iwatsuki ( I 9 6 9 ) ; Gangulee (1969) . Pogonatum a k i t e n s e non Besch., sensu Wang (1967. 1970). C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i Co. Wu-lai, Chuang 5532 (UBC), Kan-kou, Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 46 (UBC); Nantou Co. C h i - t o u , Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 251 (UBC); Kaohsiung Co. L i u - k u e i , Chuang 969 (UBC); Shan-ping to -77-Nan-feng-shan, Chuang 9 7 6 (UBC); I l a n Co. Mt. Ta i - P i n g - s h a n , Chuang 1 9 6 5 (UBC), C h i - l a n , Chuang 6 0 4 7 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : West Himalaya, south I n d i a , Ceylon, Burma, T h a i l a n d , Tonkin, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Celebes, New Guinea, P h i l i p p i n e s and Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s i s commoner than P. infl e x u m and widespread i n Taiwan. As Iwatsuki (I969) p o i n t e d out, both s p e c i e s are e a s i l y confused, so t h a t many specimens t h a t have been r e p o r t e d as P. in f l e x u m may be P. junghuhnianum. 9. Pogonatum microstomum ( Schwaegr.) B r i d . , B r y o l . Univ. 2 : 74-5, 1 8 2 7 ; Noguchi ( 1 9 5 8 ) ; Wang ( I 9 6 7 , 1 9 7 0 ) ; Gangulee ( I 9 6 9 ) . Pogaonatum m i r a b i l e Horikawa Bot. Mag. Tokyo 4-9: 6 7 1 , 26, 1 9 3 5 * C i t e d specimen: C h i a y i Co. Mt. M o r r i s o n , Y. Horikawa, Aug. 1 9 3 2 - -Holotype of P. m i r a b i l e (HIRO)--not seen. H a b i t a t : On s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : West Himalaya, mainland China, south I n d i a , Ceylon, Tonkin, P h i l i p p i n e s , Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s i s e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d by i t s t e r m i n a l c e l l s of l a m e l l a e t h a t are d i v i d e d i n t o 2 - 3 prongs. 1 0 . Pogonatum nudiusculum M i t t . , J . L i n n . Soc. Bot. Suppl. 1: 153, 1 8 5 9 ; Yang & Lee ( 1 9 6 2 ) ; Wang ( 1 9 6 7 , 1 9 7 0 ) . C i t e d specimen: Nantou Co. C h i - t o u , M. T. Kao, 45, 50 ( T A I ) — not seen. H a b i t a t : On damp rocks i n r a v i n e s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Himalaya, Ceylon, P h i l i p p i n e s , mainland C h i n a and Taiwan. - 7 8 -T h i s s p e c i e s i s r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i e d by the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c l a m e l l a e which cover o n l y about h a l f the width of the lamina, and t h e i r v e r y t h i c k - w a l l e d t e r m i n a l c e l l s . 11. Pogonatum o l i g o t r i c h o i d e s H o r i k . , J . Jap. Bot. 11: 416, 2, 1935; Wang ( 1970) . C i t e d specimen: Nantou Co. C h i - t o u to C h i - t i , Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 255 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Endemic t o Taiwan. T h i s s m a l l Pogonatum i s o n l y 12 mm high, the l e a v e s are 4 mm l o n g and U n g u l a t e , l a m e l l a e are 1-2 c e l l s h i g h and r e s t r i c t e d to the c o s t a and possess a d i s t i n c t spine on the upper p a r t of lamina. 12. Pogonatum s p u r i o - c i r r a t u m B r s t h . , P h i l i p p . , J . Sc. C, 5: 150, 1910; Sasaoka ( 1920); I h s i b a (1929, 1935); Horikawa (1935); Wang ( I 9 6 0 , 1970); Osada (1965); Iwatsuki ( 1969) . Pogonatum c i r r a t u m non ( Sw.) B r i d . , sensu Wang ( I 9 6 7 ) . Pogonatum hetero-contortum Horikawa, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 49s 593, 1935; Horikawa ( 1936); Wang(1970). C i t e d specimen: Nantou Co. C h i - t o u to Mt. A l i , Chuang 6207 (UBC); Pingtung Co. Kwai-ku, Chuang 1323 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On sandy s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : M a l a s i a , Celebes, P h i l i p p i n e s , mainland China, Japan, Ryukyu and Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s i s v e r y common i n the broad l e a v e d evergreen f o r e s t . Pogonatum hetero-contortum was r e p o r t e d by Horikawa (1935. 1936) from Yakushima I s l a n d and Taiwan. From i t s d e s c r i p t i o n and i l l u s t r a t i o n , i t seems to be i d e n t i c a l with P. s p u r i o - c i r r a t u m - 7 9 -emphasized e s p e c i a l l y by the l e a f shape, c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f the le a v e s and the l a m e l l a e . The holotype o f P. hetero-contortum needs reexamination. 13. Pogonatum takao-montanum H o r i k . , J . Jap. Bot. 11: 505, 7, 1935} Wang ( 1970) . C i t e d specimen: Pingtung Co. Mt. D a i j u r i n , Horikawa, Jan. 4, 1935--Holotype o f P. takao-montanum (HIRO)--not seen. H a b i t a t : on s o i l i n shady f o r e s t . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Endemic to Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to P. h e t e r o - p r o l i f e r u m as has been d i s c u s s e d by Horikawa (1935) . The u n i c e l l u l a r l a m e l l a e and broad l a n c e o l a t e l e a v e s are d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r s o f t h i s s p e c i e s 14. Pogonatum urnigerum ( Hedw.) P. Beauv., Prodr. 84, 1805; Sasaoka (1928, 1928a); Osada (1965); Iwatsuki ( I 9 6 9 ) ; Wang (1968, 1970). P o l y t r i c h u m urnigerum L i n n , ex Hedw., Sp. Muse. 100,22 f . 5-7, 1801; Yang (1962) . Pogonatum alpinum non ( Hedw.) Roehl., sensu Wang ( I 9 6 7 ) . C i t e d specimen: Hwalien Co. Luan-shan working s t a t i o n near Mt. Chi-chiao-chuan-shan, Chuang 5568 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe, S i b e r i a , Kamchatka, North America, West I n d i e s , C a n a r i e s , Caucasus, P e r s i a , west Himalaya, I n d i a , mainland China, Japan and Taiwan. The s p e c i e s i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from P. alpinum by i t s d i s t i n c t mammillose c y l i n d r i c a l c a p s u l e s with 32 peristome t e e t h and no stomata a l s o t e r m i n a l c e l l s of l a m e l l a e rounded, ovate to e l l i p t i c a l and covered; by ro u n d i s h p a p i l l a e i n s u r f a c e view. -80-P o l y t r i c h u m Hedw., Sp. Mus. 88, 1801. T h i s genus c o s i s t s o f two s p e c i e s , each r e p r e s e n t e d by one v a r i e t y i n Taiwan. Key t o the P o l y t r i c h u m of Taiwan 1. A l l t e r m i n a l c e l l s of l a m e l l a e rounded i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n .. .* P. formosum var. d e n s i f o l i u m 1. T e r m i n a l c e l l s of l a m e l l a e r e t u s e , t r u n c a t e , obovate o r obcordate a t the c o s t a l area; o b l i q u e l y ovate or rounded toward the m a r g i n a l a r e a P. commune v a r . s w a r t z i i 1. P o l y t r i c h u m commune Hedw. v a r . s w a r t z i i ( Hartm.) Moenk., i n Rabenh. K r y p t . F l . ed. 2, 4: 914, 1927; Osada ( 1966); Wang ( I 9 6 7 , 1970). C i t e d specimen: T a i t u n g Co. Pa-yu-lake, Chuang 5079 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe, North America, Greenland, n o r t h e r n A s i a and Taiwan. Horikawa (1934) r e p o r t e d P o l y t r i c h u m commune from Mt. T a i -Ping-shan and Osada ( I966) r e p o r t e d P o l y t r i c h u m commune var. s w a r t z i i from the same l o c a l i t y . The specimen r e p o r t e d by Horikawa i s the same one as s t u d i e d by Osada. Yang (1962) r e p o r t e d P. commune from Mt. C h i - h s i n - s h a n , n o r t h e r n Taiwan, the l o c a l i t y o f the c o l l e c t i o n seems d o u b t f u l . I have f o l l o w e d Osada's treatment and have not i n c l u d e d the s p e c i e s commune from Taiwan. T h i s v a r i e t y i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from var. commune by the polymorphic t e r m i n a l c e l l s of the l a m e l l a e and by the narrower l e a v e s w i t h l e s s developed s t e r e i d bands. I t i s t r e a t e d as an independent s p e c i e s i n many manuals. -81-2 . P o l y t r i c h u m formosum Hedw. v a r . d e n s i f o l i u m ( M i t t . ) Osada, Osada & Yano, J . Jap. Bot. 41: 8 0 , 1966; Osada ( I 9 6 6 ) ; Wang ( 1 9 6 6 , 1 9 7 0 ) . P o l y t r i c h u m attenuatum Mez. ex B r i d . Horikawa ( 1 9 3 4 ) ; I h s i b a ( 1 9 3 5 ) . C i t e d specimen: Nantou Co. C h i - t o u to Mt. A l i , Chuang 6356 (UBC); T a i t u n g Co. Mt. Ta-pu-shan, Chuang 5062 (UBC); Hwalien Co. Mt. T a i - l u - k o - t a - s h a n , Chuang 5640 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On s o i l o f a l p i n e areas. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Himalaya, Taiwan and Japan. The Taiwan v a r i e t y of P. formosum has been s t u d i e d by Osada & Yano ( 1 9 6 6 ) , Osada ( I 9 6 6 ) s t a t e d t h a t the v a r i e t y c o u l d be r e c o g n i z e d by i t s male heads and c a p s u l e s . A l l of the specimens which were examined by Osada & Yano from Mt. T a i h e i z a n , Mt. A l i and N a i t a r o k o belong to the chromosome race n= l 4 and were r e f e r r e d to P. formosum v a r . d e n s i f o l i u m . Horikawa ( 1934) r e p o r t e d P. attenuatum from Mt. T a i h e i z a n , Mt. A r i s a n and Mt. M o r r i s o n . T h i s a l s o appears to be P. formosum v a r . d e n s i f o l i u m , s i n c e t h i s i s a v e r y common P o l y t r i c h u m i n the a l p i n e a r e a of Taiwan. The v a r i e t y can be i d e n t i f i e d by i t s monoicous s e x u a l i t y and the c r e n u l a t e to weakly toothed margins of the l a m e l l a e . Racelopodopsis Ther., Monde P l . s e r . 2 , 9 : 2 2 , 1 9 0 7 . One s p e c i e s found i n Taiwan. Racelopodopsis camusi Ther., Monde P l . s e r . 2 , 9 : 2 2 , 1 9 0 7 ; Noguchi ( 1 9 3 4 ) ; I h s i b a ( 1 9 3 5 ) ; Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1 9 7 0 ) . C i t e d specimen: Nantou Co. Sun moon l a k e , Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 667, 686 (UBC); Pingtung Co. Nan-jen-shan, Chuang 92 5 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On s o i l o r moist rocks at 3 0 0 - 6 0 0 m e l v a t i o n s . -82-D i s t r i b u t i o n : Ryukyu and Taiwan. The s p e c i e s can be r e c o g n i z e d by i t s broad, ovate l e a v e s without l a m e l l a e , and i t s p a p i l l o s e s e t a . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h i s s p e c i e s i s r e s t r i c t e d to Ryukyu and Taiwan. Noguchi ( 193*0 f i r s t r e p o r t e d t h i s s p e c i e s from wu-l a i , n o r t h e r n Taiwan. Now i t can be extended southward to the c e n t r a l a r e a and to the south end of the i s l a n d as shown by my c o l l e c t i o n s . S u b c l a s s : Buxbaumiidae Two f a m i l i e s i n t h i s s u b c l a s s . F a m i l y : Buxbaumiaceae One genus and one s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. Buxbaumia Hedw., Sp. Mus. 166, 1801. One s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. Buxbaumia minakatae Okamura, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 25: 30, f . 1, 1911; Chuang et Iwatsuki ( 1970) . C i t e d specimen: I l a n Co. C h i - l i - t i e n to Mt. Nan-hu-ta-shan, Chuang 1731 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On r o t t e n l o g . D i s t r i b u t i o n : S i b e r i a , Japan, E a s t e r n Canada, E a s t e r n USA, Taiwan. The m a t e r i a l with f i v e c a p s u l e s , was c o l l e c t e d from a h i g h e l e v a t i o n o f n o r t h e r n Taiwan. The c h a r a c t e r s o f the sporophyte: s e t a 4-5 mm l o n g with dense p a p i l l a e , spores 10-13 ju i n diameter agree with Japanese specimens. Family: D i p h y s c i a c e a e One genus with two s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. -83-Diphyscium Mohr, Obs. Bot. 34, 1803 & Mohr, Ind. Mus. P l . Cr y p t . 3 . 1803. Two s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. Key to the s p e c i e s o f Diphyscium 1. L e a f c e l l s mammillose, margins m i n u t e l y c r e n u l a t e . . . D . f u l v i f o l i u m 1. L e a f c e l l s smooth, margins e n t i r e . . D. involutum 1. Diphyscium f u l v i f o l i u m M i t t . , Trans. L i n n . Soc. London Bot. s e r . 2, 3: 193, 1891; Horikawa (1935); T a k a k i ( 1950); Wang ( 1970) . Diphyscium perminutum T a k a k i , sensu Wang, B i o l . B u l l . Tunghai Univ. 2: 4, i 9 6 0 . C i t e d specimen: Taichung Co. Mt. An-ma-shan, C. K. Wang 4 2 — d e t . as D. perminutum (THU); I l a n Co. Mt. Ta i - p i n g - s h a n , Chuang 1981 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Japan, Yakushima I s l a n d , Korea, Taiwan, mainland China and P h i l i p p i n e s . T h i s s p e c i e s i s r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i e d by i t s mammillose l e a f c e l l s and c r e n u l a t e l e a f margins. Wang ( i 9 6 0 ) repoted D. perminutum from Taiwan, t h a t was based on m i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f D. f u l v i f o l i u m . 2. Diphyscium involutum M i t t . , J . L i n n . Soc. Bot. Suppl. 1: 149, 1859; Wang (1967, 1970). Diphyscium formosicum H o r i k . , Bot. Mag. Tokyo 49: 677, t . 31, 1935; T a k a k i ( 1950) . C i t e d specimen: Pingtung Co. Mt. D a i j u r i n , Y. Horikawa, Jan. 4, 1935 (HIRO)--Holotype of D. formo s i c u m — n o t seen. H a b i t a t : On s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Japan, Ryukyu, Taiwan, P h i l i p p i n e s , Ceylon, K h a s i a and south I n d i a . -84-Horikawa (1935) r e p o r t e d D. formosicum from Taiwan. Based on the d e s c r i p t i o n and i l l u s t r a t i o n o f D. formosicum, i t might be the same as D. involutum, I have not s t u d i e d the type specimen which i s d e p o s i t e d i n HIRO, but the l e a f - s h a p e , smooth l e a f - c e l l s and a r i s t a t e p e r i c h a e t i a l l e a v e s are i d e n t i c a l with those of t h i s s p e c i e s . S u b c l a s s : B r y i d a e ( E x c l u s i v e o f P l e u r o c a r p i ) Seventeen f a m i l i e s i n t h i s s u b c l a s s i n Taiwan. Fami l y : F i s s i d e n t a c e a e One genus i n t h i s f a m i l y i n Taiwan. F i s s i d e n s Hedw., Spec. Muse. 152, 1801. T h i r t y one s p e c i e s and two v a r i e t i e s i n Taiwan. Key to the s p e c i e s of F i s s i d e n s 1. Leaves without c o s t a F. h y a l i n u s 1. Leaves with c o s t a 2 2. Leaves bordered . . . . . 3 3 . M a r g i n a l bordered c e l l s narrow, e l o n g a t e - l i n e a r i n 5. Leaves bordered w i t h 4-6 l a y e r s o f narrow, c o l o r e d c e l l s . P. g e P P i i 5. Leaves bordered with 1-3 l a y e r s o f narrow, elongate, s u r f a c e view 4. Leaves bordered a l l around the l e a f - m a r g i n s 5 c o l o r l e s s c e l l s 6 6. C o s t a d i s t i n c t l y ending below the apex; l e a f c e l l s l a x , ovate-rhomboidal, 30 M F . , s p l a c h n o b r y o i d e s 6. C o s t a r e a c h i n g the apex? l e a f c e l l s i r r e g u l a r l y hexagonal 8-12, M. 7 - 8 5 -7. P l a n t s l a r g e r up to 11 mm l o n g ; l e a v e s broader than 0 . 4 mm, up to 0 . 5 mm; l e a f apex rounded, a p i c u l a t e . . . F . h e t e r o - l i m b a t u s 7. P l a n t s s m a l l u s u a l l y 2-5 mm l o n g ; l e a v e s l e s s than 0 . 4 mm wide; l e a f apex obtuse or acuminate or acute 8 8. Leaves l i n e a r - l i n g u l a t e , apex obtuse or subacute F. b r y o i d e s 8. Leaves narrowly l a n c e o l a t e , l e a f apex l o n g narrowly acuminate F. s a x a t i l i s 4. Leaves bordered o n l y at v a g i n a n t lamina.. 9 9. L e a f c e l l s smooth F. ryukyuensis 9. L e a f c e l l s p a p i l l o s e 10 10. L e a f c e l l s u n i p a p i l l a t e , .11 11. P l a n t s s m a l l e r than 2 . 5 mm high; l e a f margins undulate; c a p s u l e s t h i n - w a l l e d F. c a p i t u l a t u s 11. P l a n t s 5-15 mm h i g h ; l e a f margins s t r a i g h t ; c a p s u l e s t h i c k - w a l l e d . . . . . . . . 1 2 12. Leaves l i n e a r - l i n g u l a t e , acute, 0 . 3 mm broad; d o r s a l blade g r a d u a l l y narrowed, ending a b r u p t l y i n the l e a f base; l e a f c e l l s 9-12 j u ...F. schwabei 12. Leaves narrowly o b l o n g - l a n c e o l a t e , acuminate, 0 . 4 - 0 . 6 mm broad; d o r s a l blade ending i n a round lobe a t the base; l e a f c e l l s 5-6JA F. e l m e r i 10. L e a f c e l l s p l u r i p a p i l l a t e .13 13- L e a f apex obtuse, c o s t a ending below the apex F. g a r b e r i 13. L e a f apex acute or acuminate, c o s t a r e a c h i n g the - 8 6 -14. Leaves l i n e a r - l a n c e o l a t e , extremely narrow (17-18.5 ju) border c e l l s v e r y d i s t i n c t , c o v e r i n g a l l margins of d u p l i c a t e lamina F. wichurae 14. Leaves o b l o n g - l a n c e o l a t e o r oblong, broader (20 - 2 7.2JU i n width) j border c e l l s v e r y weak 15 15. P l a n t s 2-3 mm high; l e a v e s i n 4-6 p a i r s . . F . m i c r o - s e r r a t u s 15. P l a n t s 4 - 5 mm high; l e a v e s i n 10-15 p a i r s 16 16. P l a n t s on s o i l s or roc k s ; l e a v e s l a n c e o l a t e - o v a t e , c u s p i d a t e , margins undulate; d o r s a l lamina g r a d u a l l y ending at the i n s e r t i o n F. c e y l o n e n s i s 16. P l a n t s on bark of t r e e s ; l e a v e s oblong, s h o r t acuminate, margins not undulate; d o r s a l lamina rounded at the i n s e r t i o n F. h o l l i a n u s 3. M a r g i n a l border c e l l s rounded or quadrate, not e l o n g a t e -l i n e a r i n s u r f a c e view 17 17. Border c e l l s u n i s t r a t o s e ; l e a f c e l l s mammillose..F. c r i s t a t u s 17. Border c e l l s b i s t r a t o s e ; l e a f c e l l s smooth 18 18. P l a n t s 4-8 cm high; l e a v e s U n g u l a t e o r l a n c e o l a t e , acute F. n o b i l i s 18. P l a n t s 1-2 cm high; leaves l i n e a r - l a n c e o l a t e , acuminate F. .lavanicus 2. Leaves not bordered.... ...19 19. Leaves b i s t r a t o s e , l e a f margin e n t i r e 20 20. Vaginant lamina more than one c e l l s l a y e r near c o s t a , apex obtuse F. g r a n d i f r o n s var. p l a n i c a u l i s 20. Vaginant lamina u n i s t r a t o s e throughout; apex always acute F. perdecurrens -87-19. Leaves u n i s t r a t o s e throughout; margin c r e n u l a t e or crenate...21 21. P l a n t s t a l l e r than 1 cm; l e a f c e l l s p a p i l l o s e o r mammillose 22 22. L e a f c e l l s d i s t i n c t l y p a p i l l o s e ; margin s t r o n g l y crenate F. p a p i l l o s u s 22. L e a f c e l l s mammillose; margin c r e n u l a t e 23 23. Leaves s t r o n g l y r o l l e d and crumpled when dry; s e t a t e r m i n a l 24 24. C o s t a f l e x u o s e , ending j u s t below or f a r below the apex, l e a f apex obtuse o r rounded 25 25. P l a n t s 5 mm high; l e a v e s l i n e a r , obtuse F. formosanus 25. P l a n t s 10-15 mm high; l e a v e s U n g u l a t e , rounded, a p i c u l a t e F. gymnogynus 24. C o s t a not f l e x u o s e ; r e a c h i n g the apex, l e a f - a p e x acuminate.... 26 26. Leaves narrowly l i n e a r , acute o r narrowly U n g u l a t e , b r o a d l y acute o r obtuse ( 2 8 . 6 - 3 5 . 8 J U wide), base of d o r s a l lamina narrower and not r e a c h i n g base F. i n c r a s s a t u s 26. Leaves narrowly l a n c e o l a t e , acuminate (21. 5-25. 7 J U wide); d o r s a l lamina wider and rounded at the base..F. s y l v a t i c u s 23. l e a v e s not r o l l e d , but s l i g h t l y crumpled when dry; s e t a l a t e r a l except F. gymnogynus 27 27. P l a n t s l a r g e , u s u a l l y 3-5 cm high, at l e a s t t a l l e r than 2 cm hig h 28 28. D o r s a l lamina l o n g d e c u r r e n t . . . F . g e m i n i f l o r u s v a r . nagasakinu 28. D o r s a l lamina s l i g h t l y t a p e r i n g below and at l e a f -88-29. Leaves l a n c e o l a t e , acuminate ( 0 . 9 - 1 . 2 5 mm), margin m i n u t e l y s e r r u l a t e with p r o j e c t i n g c e l l angles....}?, p l a g i o c h i l o i d e s 29. Leaves o b l o n g - l i n g u l a t e , b r o a d l y rounded obtuse and s h o r t l y a p i c u l a t e (1-1 .1 mm), margin m i n u t e l y c r e n u l a t e a l l around... F. a r e o l a t u s 27. P l a n t s u s u a l l y 1-2 cm h i g h 30 30. Leaves b r o a d l y U n g u l a t e ; s e t a t e r m i n a l . . . F . gymnogynus 30. Leaves o b l o n g - c u l t r i f o r m , o b l o n g - l a n c e o l a t e ; s e t a l a t e r a l 31 31. C o s t a s h o r t l y e x c u r r e n t ; s u r f a c e of l e a f - c e l l s somewhat rounded i n c r o s s s e c t i o n . . . F . t a x i f o l i u s 31. C o s t a p e r c u r r e n t , s u r f a c e w a l l s v e r y t h i c k and r a t h e r f l a t , w i t h r a t h e r deep d e p r e s s i o n s between c e l l s i n c r o s s s e c t i o n of l e a v e s F. adelphinus 21. P l a n t s l e s s than 1 cm h i g h ; l e a f c e l l s smooth.. 32 32. Protonema p e r s i s t e n t ; l e a v e s i n 2-3 p a i r s . . F . . protonemaecola 32. Protonema not p e r s i s t e n t ; l e a v e s i n 4-10 p a i r s 33 33. Leaves broad o b l o n g - l a n c e o l a t e , 1 mm l o n g ; d o r s a l lamina r a t h e r broad, rounded at the l e a f base.. F. m i t t e n i 33. Leaves l i n e a r - l a n c e o l a t e , 1.5 -2 mm l o n g ; d o r s a l lamina ending a b r u p t l y at near the l e a f base • F. yamamotoi - 8 9 -1. F i s s i d e n s a delphinu s Besch., Ann. S c i . Nat. Bot. s e r . 7, 17: 354, 1893; Iwatsuki & Sharp ( 1970) . C i t e d specimen: Hwalien Co. T a i - l u - k o Gorge, near T i e n - h s i a n g , Z. Iwatsuki & A. J . Sharp 1599 (NICH). Habitat:On s o i l or b o u l d e r s of limestone area. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Japan, Korea, Ryukyu and Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s i s very c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to F. t a x i f o l i u s . The key c h a r a c t e r t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e s them i s the c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f l e a v e s . The former has v e r y t h i c k w a l l s and the s u r f a c e i s r a t h e r f l a t w i t h r a t h e r deep d e p r e s s i o n s between c e l l s , the l a t t e r has a rounded s u r f a c e i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n . The c o s t a i s always p e r c u r r e n t i n t h i s s p e c i e s , but s h o r t l y e x c u r r e n t or p e r c u r r e n t i n F. t a x i f o l i u s . Iwatsuki (1969) s t a t e d t h a t the c e l l s o f d u p l i c a t e laminae of t h i s s p e c i e s have 3-4 s m a l l p a p i l l a e near the c o r n e r s on t h e i r o u t e r s u r f a c e , but I made many c r o s s -s e c t i o n of l e a v e s , and found no such c h a r a c t e r , o n l y a r a t h e r rough s u r f a c e . I c o u l d not c o n f i r m t h a t the p a p i l l a e on o l d e r l e a v e s d i s a p p e a r . 2. F i s s i d e n s a r e o l a t u s G r i f f . , C a l c u t t a J . Nat. H i s t . 2: 506 1842; Noguchi ( 1952); S h i n ( 1964); Wang (1970). C i t e d specimen: C h i a y i Co. Mt. A - l i and Tong-pu, Z. Iwatsuki, A. J . & E. Sharp 2513c (NICH), Mt. A - l i , near Guest house, Z. Iwatsuki, A. J . & E. Sharp 190, 191, 2195 (NICH). H a b i t a t : On wet s o i l o r rocky shaded s l o p e s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Himalaya, Assam, Burma, Sumatra, Malaya, T h a i l a n d , P h i l i p p i n e s , Taiwan, Ryukyu and Japan. -90-A r a t h e r robust s p e c i e s among F i s s i d e n s , t h i s can be up to 5 cm h i g h . The d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s of t h i s s p e c i e s are: l e a v e s o b l o n g - l i n g u l a t e , b r o a d l y rounded obtuse and s h o r t l y a p i c u l a t e . The shape of l e a v e s i s r a t h e r v a r i a b l e , from the same stem are l e a v e s t h a t show l e a f a p i c e s acute o r rounded obtuse. 3. F i s s i d e n s b r y o i d e s Hedw., Spec. Muse. 153, 1801; S h i n (1964); Wang (1967, 1970). F i s s i d e n s t a i w a n e n s i s Herz. & Noguchi J . H a t t o r i Bot. Lab. 14: 57, 18, 1955. C i t e d specimen: Gebirgesged im w e s t l i c h e n m i t t e l t a i w a n , G. H. Schwabe, no. 5 p.p.--Holotype of F. t a i w a n e n s i s (NICH). H a b i t a t : On moist s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe, North America, Caucasus, Himalaya, S i b e r i a , South eas t T i b e t , Ryukyu, Japan and Taiwan. Herzog & Noguchi (1955) d e s c r i b e d F. t a i w a n e n s i s from Taiwan. S h i n s t u d i e d the type specimen and reduced t h i s s p e c i e s under F. b r y o i d e s , although he c o n s i d e r e d some c h a r a c t e r s to be d i f f e r e n t such as the stems are l a x l y f o l i a t e , the l e a v e s are more l i n e a r , and the l e a f c e l l s are s m a l l e r (6-10ju). 4. F i s s i d e n s c a p i t u l a t u s Noguchi J . Jap. Bot. 24: 146, 2, 1949; Noguchi (1952); Wang (1970). C i t e d specimen: C h i a y i Co. C h i a - y i , Noguchi 6 7 9 5—Holotype (NOG) --not seen. H a b i t a t : On moist muddy s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Endemic to Taiwan. - 9 1 -T h i s t i n y F i s s i d e n s i s onl y 2 . 5 mm hig h with oblong or ovate-oblong, acute l e a v e s , undulate margins and leptodermous ca p s u l e s with l a r g e spores ( 20-32^u). 5. F i s s i d e n s c e y l o n e n s i s Doz. & Molk., Ann. Sc. Nat. Bot. s e r . 3, 2: 304, 1844; Iwatsuki & Sharp ( 1970) . C i t e d specimen: Pingtung Co. San-ti-men C. K. Wang 466 (NICH). H a b i t a t : On rocks near the r o a d s i d e . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Himalaya, Sikkim, I n d i a , Ceylon, Borneo, Burma, T h a i l a n d , Indonesia, Sumatra, Java, Singapore, P h i l i p p i n e s and Taiwan. ' The d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r s of t h i s s p e c i e s are: P l a n t s 3-5 mm hig h , l e a v e s o v a t e - l a n c e o l a t e , c u s p i d a t e , c o s t a e x c u r r e n t , margins undulate, l e a f c e l l s p l u r i p a p i l l o s e and s e t a smooth, t e r m i n a l . 6. F i s s i d e n s c r i s t a t u s W i l s . ex M i t t . , J . L i n n . Soc. Bot. Suppl. 1: 137, 1859; Noguchi (1952); S h i n (1964); Wang ( 1970) . C i t e d specimen: Nantou Co. Kuan-kao, a l t . 2500 m, A. Nog. 6984 (NOG)--not seen. H a b i t a t : M o i s t shady rocks o r s o i l s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe, Caucasus, Kh a s i a , S a g h a l i e n , A f r i c a , Java, Himalaya, I n d i a , New Guinea, P h i l i p p i n e s , mainland China, Japan, Taiwan, Mexico, Honduras, H a i t i , A l e u t i a n I s l a n d s , e a s t e r n North America. T h i s s p e c i e s i s r e c o g n i z e d by i t s d i s t i n c t m a r g i n a l 3-4 rows of l i g h t e r c o l o r e d c e l l s and o b l o n g - l i n g u l a t e t o oblong-l a n c e o l a t e l e a v e s w i t h i r r e g u l a r l y c r e n u l a t e - s e r r a t e acute apex. - 9 2 -7. F i s s i d e n s e l m e r i Broth., L e a f l . P h i l i p p . Bot. 2 : 652, 1909; Herz. & Noguchi (1955); Wang ( 1970) . C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i , G. H.' Schwabe no. ? (JE ) — n o t seen. H a b i t a t : not g i v e n . D i s t r i b u t i o n : P h i l i p p i n e s and Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s can be i d e n t i f i e d by i t s narrowly oblong-l a n c e o l a t e , acuminate l e a v e s and d o r s a l lamina ending i n a rounded lobe at the base. Stems up to 5 mm h i g h . 8. F i s s i d e n s formosanus Noguchi J . H a t t o r i Bot. Lab. 7: 63 , 5, 1 9 5 2 ; S h i n ( 1 9 6 4 ) ; Wang ( 1 9 7 0 ) . C i t e d specimen: I l a n Co. Ten-son-pi, A. Noguchi 5965--Holotype (NICH). H a b i t a t : On branches of shrubes. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Japan and Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s can be s e p a r a t e d from o t h e r F i s s i d e n s by i t s unbordered margins and the f l e x u o s e c o s t a ending f a r below the obtuse apex. 9. F i s s i d e n s g a r b e r i Lesq. & Jam., Proc. Am. Ac. A r t s . Sc. 14 : 137 , 1879 ; Iwatsuki & Sharp ( 1 9 7 0 ) . C i t e d specimen: Hwalien Co. T a i - l u - k o Gorge, Z. Iwats., 3442 (NICH). H a b i t a t : On rocks i n the limestone area. D i s t r i b u t i o n : North America ( F l o r i d a to L o u i s i a n a ), West I n d i e s , Berumuda, Mexico to Northern South America, Cocos I s l a n d , Puerto Ri c o , Japan, Ryukyu, Taiwan and P h i l i p p i n e s . - 9 3 -T h i s s p e c i e s i s r e s t r i c t e d to the limestone area. The d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r s are: oblong obtuse l e a v e s , c o s t a ending below the apex and 5-7 M. p l u r i p a p i l l o s e l e a f c e l l s . 10. F i s s i d e n s g e m i n i f l o r u s Doz. & Molk. v a r . nagasakinus (Besch.) Iwatsuki J . H a t t o r i Bot. Lab. 32: 272, 1969. F i s s i d e n s nagasakinus Besch., J . de Bot. 12: 292, 1898; Cardot ( 1905) ; Okamura (1916); Sasaoka ( 1928); I h s i b a ( 1 9 2 9 , 193,5); Noguchi (1952); S h i n ( 1964); Wang ( 1970) . F i s s i d e n s i r r o r a t u s Card., B e i h . Bot. C e n t r a l b l . 19: 99, 5, 1905; Brotherus ( 1924); Sasaoka (1928); I h s i b a (1929, 1935). C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i Co. Kan-kou, Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 13, 18 (UBC), Chuang 5333 (UBC); Keelung, F a u r i e 174 (KYO), C h u i - c h i h F a u r i e 124 (KYO)--Isotype of F. i r r o r a t u s . H a b i t a t : On wet r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Japan, Ryukyu, mainland China, Taiwan, P h i l i p p i n e s and Borneo. Iwatsuki (1969) compared F. nagasakinus w i t h type specimen of F. g e m i n i f l o r u s , he found t h a t the o n l y c h a r a c t e r t h a t separates these s p e c i e s i s the l e n g t h o f d u p l i c a t e laminae which reach l / 2 -2/3 of the former and 2/5-1/2 of l e a f l e n g t h i n the l a t t e r . T h e r e f o r e he reduced F. nagasakinus to a v a r i e t y of F. g e m i n i f l o r u s . 11. F i s s i d e n s g e p p i i F l e i s c h . , Mus. F l . B u i t . 1: 26, 1904; Iwatsuki & Sharp ( 1970) . C i t e d specimen: M i a o l i Co. near Chung-hsueh-shan, Z. Iwatsuki, A. J . & E. Sharp 2798 (NICH); Taichung Co. Mt. An-ma-shan, Z. Iwatsuki, A. J . & E. Sharp 3167 (NICH). -QL-H a b i t a t : On rocks i n r a v i n e s i n hardwood f o r e s t . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Java, Japan and Taiwan. The d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r s of t h i s s p e c i e s : l e a v e s bordered w i t h s e v e r a l l a y e r s of s t r o n g l y c o l o r e d , narrow l i n e a r c e l l s . 12. F i s s i d e n s g r a n d i f r o n s B r i d . v a r . p l a n i c a u l i s (Besch.) Noguchi J . H a t t o r i Bot. Lab. 7: 68, 8, 1952. F i s s i d e n s p l a n i c a u l i s Besch., Ann. Sc. Nat. s e r . 7, 17: 335, 1893; Sasaoka (1920, 1928); I h s i b a ( 1929); Noguchi ( 1934) . F i s s i d e n s g r a n d i f r o n s B r i d . , sensu Yang ( 1962); S h i n ( 1964); Wang (1967, 1970). C i t e d specimen: T a i t u n g Co. Kwai-ku, Chuang 1571 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On.wet r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Japan and Taiwan. Noguchi (1952) made a c a r e f u l study o f F. p l a n i c a u l i s and F. g r a n d i f r o n s and reduced the former s p e c i e s to a v a r i e t y o f F. g r a n d i f r o n s . Although S h i n (1964) combined t h i s v a r i e t y i n F. g r a n d i f r o n s again, h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n i n f i g . 34, p. 129 c l e a r l y shows a d i f f e r e n c e i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f the d o r s a l l a m i n a between F. g r a n d i f r o n s from North America and F. g r a n d i f r o n s v a r . p l a n i c a u l i s from Japan and Taiwan. I agree with Noguchi's o p i n i o n . F. g r a n d i f r o n s has been r e p o r t e d by Yang (1962) from Taiwan. The c r o s s s e c t i o n of l e a v e s i n her p l a t e I I , f i g . 3 c l e a r l y show t h a t t h i s i s v a r i e t y p l a n i c a u l i s i n i t s p o s s e s s i o n of an obtuse apex and 4-6 l a y e r s of t h i c k - w a l l e d c e l l s i n the d o r s a l lamina. 13. F i s s i d e n s gymnogynus Besch., J . de Bot. 12: 292, 1898; S h i n (1963); Wang (1967, 1970)5 Iwatsuki (1970). C i t e d specimen: Nantou Co. Tung-pu to L o - l o , N a k a n i s h i 12611 (KU); L o - l o to Tui-kwan, S. Na k a n i s h i 12706 (KU); Hwalien Co. T a i - l u - k o Gorge Z. Iwatsuki, A. J . & E. Sharp 17^2 (NICH), T i e n -h s i a n Chuang 57^5 (UBC). H a b i t a t s On the rocks and on the t r e e trunk. D i s t r i b u t i o n s Japan, Korea and Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s broad, l i n g u l a t e and rounded a p i c u l a t e l e a v e s , i t s d o r s a l lamina w i t h a round base, and t e r m i n a l s e t a . 14. F i s s i d e n s h e t e r o - l i m b a t u s Sak,, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 47: 736, 1933. C i t e d specimens T a i p e i Co. Kan-kou Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 29 (UBC). H a b i t a t s On wet rocks and wet s o i l s . D i s t r i b u t i o n s Japan. New to Taiwan I The d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r s f o r t h i s s p e c i e s a re: b r o a d l y oblong l e a v e s w i t h r o u n d i s h a p i c u l a t e apex and 0.4-3-0.5 mm wide. 15. F i s s i d e n s h o l l i a n u s Doz. & Molk., B r y o l . Java. 1: 4, 1855; Iwatsuki & Sharp ( 1970) . C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i Co. Wu-lai, Z. Iwatsuki 3647b (NICH). H a b i t a t : On l i a n a s o r c l i m b e r s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Java, P h i l i p p i n e s , Sumatra and Taiwan. T h i s s m a l l F i s s i d e n s i s o n l y 3-5 mm high. T h i s s p e c i e s can be i d e n t i f i e d by i t s oblong, s h o r t acuminate l e a v e s , p e r c u r r e n t c o s t a and rough s e t a . Only the upper l e a v e s have bordered margins. 16. F i s s i d e n s h y a l i n u s Hook. & W i l s . , i n Hook., J . Bot. 3? 89, 1840; Iwatsuki & Sharp ( 1970) . C i t e d specimen: Taichung Co. Mt. An-ma-shan, Z. Iwatsuki, A. J . & E. Sharp 3187 (NICH). H a b i t a t : On moist rock s u r f a c e s . . . -96-D i s t r i b u t i o n s E a s t e r n North America, Japan, Taiwan, Bonins. T h i s i n t e r e s t i n g s p e c i e s which occurs i n North America, Japan and Taiwan, can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from o t h e r l o c a l F i s s i d e n s by i t s e c o s t a t e l e a v e s . 17. F i s s i d e n s i n c r a s s a t u s S u l l . & Lesq., Proc. Am. Ac. A r t s . Sc. 4: 276, 1859; Iwatsuki (1966)1 Wang ( 1970) . F i s s i d e n s sakourae Par. & Broth., B u l l . Herb. B o i s s . s e r . 2, 2 S 921, 1902: Cardot (1905); Brotherus ( 1924); Sasaoka (1928); I h s i b a (1929, 1935); Noguchi (1952, 1955); S h i n (1955, 1964). C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i Co. Yuan-shan, F a u r i e 18 ( K Y O ) — d e t . as F. sakourae; Kan-kou Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 3, 33 (UBC), Yang-ming-shan Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 156 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Japn, Ryukyu, Taiwan and mainland China. T h i s s p e c i e s i s v e r y c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to F. s y l v a t i c u s , but can be d i s t i n g u i s h from i t by the base of the d o r s a l lamina which i s narrower and o f t e n does not reach the base. The formosan specimens possess a wider l e a f type which has been d i s c u s s e d by Noguchi (1952) , he noted t h a t most c o l l e c t i o n s r e p r e s e n t an i n t e r g r a d a t i o n between the two s p e c i e s . 18. F i s s i d e n s .ja^anicus Doz. & Molk. , B r y o l . Jav. 1: 11, 1855; Iwatsuki ( 1970) . C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i Co. Wu-lai Z. Iwats. 3671 (NICH). H a b i t a t : On moist s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Ryukyu, Taiwan and Java. - 9 7 -Th i s s p e c i e s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s l i n e a r - l a n c e o l a t e , acuminate l e a v e s , 2 . 4 x 0 . 2 7 mm i n s i z e , and the d i s t i n c t b i s t r a t o s e m a r g i n a l border. Stems about 1 - 2 cm h i g h . 1 9 . F i s s i d e n s m i c r o - s e r r a t u s S a k u r a i , Bot. Mag. Tokyo 4 7 : 7 3 8 , 1 9 3 3 ; Iwatsuki & Sharp ( 1 9 7 0 ) . Gited'specimen: T a i p e i Co. Wu-lai, Z. Iwats., 3 6 9 7 (NICH), Kan-kou, Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 3 0 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On c l a y e y s o i l s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Japan, Ryukyu and Taiwan. T h i s F i s s i d e n s i s o n l y 2 - 3 mm h i g h . I t can be s e p a r a t e d from o t h e r s by i t s o b l o n g - l a n c e o l a t e , narrowly acute l e a v e s and the weakly bordered d u p l i c a t e laminae of p e r i c h a e t i a l l e a v e s . 2 0 . F i s s i d e n s m i t t e n i i Par., Ind. B r y o l . 4 7 7 , I 8 9 6 ; Noguchi ( 1 9 5 1 , 1 9 5 2 ) ; Iwatsuki ( 1 9 6 7 , 1 9 7 0 ) ; S h i n ( 1 9 6 4 ) ; Wang ( 1 9 7 0 ) . C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i Co. Yang-ming-shan, Z. Iwats., A. J . & E. Sharp 1 9 , 2 0 3 0 , 2 0 5 2 (NICH), NTU campus Z. Iwats. & A. J . Sharp 6 (NICH); M i a o l i Co. Hsueh-shan-shan-mo, Z. Iwats.,.A. J . & E. Sharp 2 7 3 6 , 3 1 9 1 (NICH); Nantou Co. Sun-moon l a k e Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 6 7 7 (UBC); Kaohsiung Co. Mt. Nan-feng-shan C. K. Wang 1 0 3 0 (NICH). H a b i t a t : On moist muddy s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Japan, Ryukyu, Taiwan, P h i l i p p i n e s , Java, Sumatra, Ceylon, Singapore and T h a i l a n d . T h i s t r o p i c a l F i s s i d e n s i s o n l y 6 - 9 mm h i g h . I t can be i d e n t i f i e d by i t s o b l o n g - l a n c e o l a t e , s h o r t acuminate l e a v e s and i t s d o r s a l lamina r a t h e r broad rounded at the i n s e r t i o n . - 9 8 -21. F i s s i d e n s n o b i l i s G r i f f . , C a l c u t t a J , Nat. H i s t . 2t 505, 1842; Herz. & Noguchi ( 1 9 5 5 ) ; Wang ( I 9 6 9 ) . F i s s i d e n s f i l i c i n u s Doz. & Molk., Ann. Sc. Nat. Bot. s e r . 3, 2: 3 0 4 , 1844; Dixon ( 1 9^3); Wang ( I 9 6 7 , 1 9 7 0 ) . F i s s i d e n s j a p o n i c u s Doz. & Molk., P l . Jungh. 313 , 1854; Okamura ( 1 9 1 6 ) ; I h s i b a ( 1 9 3 5 ) ; Noguchi ( 1 9 5 2 ) ; S h i n ( 1 9 6 4 ) . C i t e d specimen; Nantou Co. C h i - t o u , Chuang 6176 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On s o i l s or rocks among f o r e s t . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Himalaya, I n d i a , Burma, T h a i l a n d , Indonesia, west China, P h i l i p p i n e s , Taiwan, Rhykyu and Japan. Dixon ( 1 9 4 3 ) , Noguchi ( 1952) and S h i n ( 1 9 6 4 ) s t u d i e d the v e r y d i f f i c u l t t a x a F. japo n i c u s and F. n o b i l i s . They a l l agreed both are so s i m i l a r t h a t t h e r e i s no c l e a r - c u t l i n e between them. Dixon merged both s p e c i e s based on h i s o b s e r v a t i o n o f l e a f c h a r a c t e r s . Noguchi found some d i f f e r e n c e s between them, and c o n s i d e r e d both s p e c i e s to be separate, based on the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s : 1. Leaf, - c e l l s 1 0 - 1 5 J U i n F. n o b i l i s and 8-11 ju i n F. j a p o n i c u s . 2. M a r g i n a l borders o f l e a f s t r o n g l y c l u s t e r e d with elongate c e l l s d i s t i n c t from the lamina c e l l s i n F. n o b i l i s , but i n F. j a p o n i c u s , the margin does not show a band of s t r o n g l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c e l l s . S h i n reduced F. n o b i l i s a g a i n under F. j a p o n i c u s , he gave a simple note on them, but no d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n . I s t u d i e d F. n o b i l i s based on specimens i n UBC from J a v a ( 1 ) , New Guinea ( 1 ) , Borneo (1) and P h i l i p p i n e s (4 ), and s e v e r a l packets of Japanese and Formosan m a t e r i a l s which were named as F. j a p o n i c u s . - 9 9 -I made the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n ; 1. The s i z e o f l e a f - c e l l s i n both s p e c i e s i s about the same, from 8 to 11ju, but r a r e l y 15ju. 2. The m a r g i n a l border l e a f - c e l l s o f both s p e c i e s are the same. E l o n g a t e c e l l s d i s t i n c t l y r e s t r i c t e d only t o v a g i n a n t lamina i n both, but not present on d o r s a l lamina. 3 . The c h a r a c t e r s of l e a f c r o s s - s e c t i o n showed l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n both s p e c i e s . The mammillae on d o r s a l lamina and o u t e r s u r f a c e s o f d u p l i c a t e lamina on both s p e c i e s are are u n s t a b l e ; i n some they are l a r g e , d i s t i n c t and dense, but i n ot h e r s they are not. 4. The l e g i t i m a t e name f o r t h i s s p e c i e s i s F. n o b i l i s . 22. F i s s i d e n s p a p i l l o s u s L a c , Natuurk. Verh. K. Ak. Wet. Ansterdam 13: 1, 1871; Iwatsuki & Sharp ( 1970) . C i t e d specimen: C h i a y i Co. Tong-pu Gap, Z. Iwats., A. J . Sharp 294 (NICH). H a b i t a t : Bases of t r e e t r u n k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Japan, Taiwan, P h i l i p p i n e s , North Borneo and Java. T h i s F i s s i d e n s , o n l y 0 . 6 - 1 . 3 mm high, w i t h a l a r g e p a p i l l a over each c e l l lumen and wit h s t r o n g l y crenate l e a f margins i s d i s t i n c t from o t h e r s p e c i e s . 23. F i s s i d e n s perdecurrens Besch., J . de Bot. 12: 293, I898; I h s i b a (1929, 1935); Wang ( i 9 6 0 ) ; Iwatsuki (1967, 1970). C i t e d specimen: C h i a y i Co. Between Mt. A - l i and Tong-pu, Iwats., A. J . & E. Sharp 490 (NICH); Taichung Co. Chung-hsueh-shan, Z. Iwats., A. J . & E. Sharp 756, 2648, 2652, 2790a, 2791 (NICH). H a b i t a t : On wet ro c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Japan and Taiwan. -100-T h i s s p e c i e s i s v e r y c l o s e to F. g r a n d i f r o n s v a r . p l a n i c a u l i s , but can be r e a d i l y s e p a r a t e d by i t s acute l e a f apex and u n i -s t r a t o s e v a g i n a n t lamina. F i s s i d e n s p l a g i o c h i l o i d e s Besch., J . de Bot. 12 : 293, 1898 ; Chuang & Iwatsuki ( 1 9 7 0 ) . C i t e d "specimen: C h i a y i Co. Between Tong-pu and Mt. A - l i , Z. Iwats. A. J . & E. Sharp 536, 540, 560a, 2502a, 2523, 2528 (NICH); Taichung Co. Chung-hsueh-shan, Z. Iwats., A. J . & E. Sharp 916 , 2647a (NICH) Hwalien Co. Lu-chan-ta shan, Chuang 5644 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Japan, mainland China, Taiwan. T h i s robust F i s s i d e n s can be up to 8 cm high. The s p e c i e s i s always s t e r i l e , but can be i d e n t i f i e d by i t s l a n c e o l a t e - o v a t e , acuminate l e a v e s , f l e x u o s e c o s t a and, the broader d o r s a l laminae ending rounded at the base. 25. F i s s i d e n s protonemaecola S a k u r a i , Bot. Mag. Tokyo 47 : 7 4 1 , 4 , 1933; Mizushima ( 1 9 5 7 ) ; S h i n ( 1 9 6 4 ) ; Wang (1967, 1 9 7 0 ) . F i s s i d e n s gemmaeeus Herz. & P. Vard., J . H a t t o r i Bot. Lab. 14 : 55, 1955. C i t e d specimen: JKarobetsu, G. H. Schwabe 17 p. p. ( J E ) . H a b i t a t : On s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Japan and Taiwan. T h i s t i n y F i s s i d e n s i s o n l y 0 . 1 - 0 . 2 mm h i g h . The 2 -3 p a i r s of smooth l e a v e s without bordered margins, and the p e r s i s t e n t protonema are the d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r s f o r t h i s s p e c i e s . -101-26. F i s s i d e n s r y u k y u e n s i s Bartram, B r y o l o g i s t 50s 160, 194?; I w a t s u k i & Sharp ( 1970) . C i t e d specimen: T a i t u n g Co. Pei-yuan-tsun, C. K. Wang 909 (NICH). H a b i t a t s On rocks i n creek. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Japan, Ryukyu and Taiwan. Only one l o c a l i t y has been r e p o r t e d from Taiwan. The l a n c e o l a t e , acuminate and m i n u t e l y d e n t i c u l a t e l e a v e s with m a r g i n a l border on l y on the d u p l i c a t e lamina, and smooth l e a f -c e l l s are the d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r s o f t h i s s p e c i e s . 27. F i s s i d e n s s a x a t i l i s Tuzibe & Noguchi, J . Jap. Bot. 24: 145, 19^9; Iwatsuki & Sharp ( 1970) . C i t e d specimen: Taichung Co. Chung-hsueh-shan, Z. Iwats., A. J . & E . Sharp 2767 (NICH), SW of Ta-hsueh-shan, Z. Iwats., A. J . & E . Sharp 1159c (NICH), Mt. An-ma-shan, Z. Iwats., A. J . & E . Sharp 3162, 3198 (NICH). H a b i t a t : On shaded s o i l and rocks of moist r a v i n e . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Japan and Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s i s c l o s e to F. b r y o i d e s , but can be se p a r a t e d by i t s l a n c e o l a t e l e a v e s w i t h a narrowly acute apex and broad v a g i n a n t lamina widest at the middle p a r t . 28. F i s s i d e n s schwabei Noguchi, J . H a t t o r i Bot. Lab. 14: 58, 19, 1955; Wang ( 1970) . C i t e d specimen: Karobetsu, G. H. Schwabe 6 6--Holotype (NICH); Nantou Co. C h i - t i to water f a l l , Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 600-23 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On shady c l i f f a l o n g t r a i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Endemic to Taiwan. - 1 0 2 -T h i s s p e c i e s resembles F. c e y l o n e n s i s i n i t s a r e o l a t i o n , but possesses s h o r t capsules and narrower l e a v e s w i t h d o r s a l lamina g r a d u a l l y ending down at the l e a f base. T h i s s p e c i e s a l s o resembles F. i n c r a s s a t u s i n l e a f shape, but the a r e o l a t i o n i s d i f f e r e n t . 2 9 . F i s s i d e n s s p l a c h n o b r y o i d e s Broth., Schum. & L a u t e r b . , F l . Deutsch. Schutzgeb. Stidsee 8 1 , 1 9 0 0 ; Herzorg ( 1 9 5 5 ) ; Chen ( 1 9 6 3 ) . C i t e d specimens B o t e l Tobago, G. H. Schwabe 8 0 p. p. ( J E ) . H a b i t a t s On moist s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n s Java, New Guinea, Western Ghats, I n d i a , P h i l i p p i n e s , Ryukyu, Hainan I s l a n d , B o t e l Tobago. T h i s s p e c i e s was r e p o r t e d by Herzog ( 1 9 5 5 ) , based on G. H. Schwabe*s c o l l e c t i o n with o n l y one shoot among Heteroscyphus  saccogynoides from B o t e l Tobago. The name was g i v e n as. a new formas subbrachneuron (Ther. &. P. d. Vard.) Herz. without any d i s c u s s i o n . T h i s s p e c i e s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s l a x , l a r g e , ovate-rhomboidal l e a f - c e l l s and the c o s t a ending f a r below the l e a f apex. I checked the above c i t e d specimen and found t h a t the l e a f apex i s r a t h e r narrowly acuminate. 3 0 . F i s s i d e n s s y l v a t i c u s G r i f f . , C a l c u t t a J . Nat. H i s t , 2s 5 0 ? , 1842} Dixon ( 1 9 2 2 ) ; Wang ( 1 9 7 0 ) . F i s s i d e n s z i p p e l i a n u s Doz. & Molk., i n Z o l l . , S y s t . Ver-z e i c h n . 2 9 , 1 8 5 4 : Okamura ( 1 9 1 6 ) 5 Sasaoka ( 1 9 2 8 ) ; I h s i b a ( 1 9 2 9 , 1 9 3 5 ) . C i t e d specimen: Pingtung Co. Ssu-chung-chi, the 1 3 t h f o r e s t - 1 0 3 -compartment, Chuang 909, 910 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On s o i l of low h i l l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Ceylon, New Guinea, T h a i l a n d , Hongkong, P h i l i p p i n e s and Taiwan. The s p e c i e s i s very c l o s e to F. i n c r a s s a t u s , but i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from i t by the shape and width of the l e a v e s which are n arrowly acuminate (21,4 5 - 2 5 .74ju). 31. F i s s i d e n s t a x i f o l i u s Hedw., Spec. Muse. 155, 39, f . 1 - 5 , 1801; N a k a n i s h i ( 1963); Wang (1967, 1970); Iwatsuki & Sharp (1970) . C i t e d specimen: Taichung Co. Hsueh-shan-shan-mo, Z. Iwats., A. J . & E. Sharp 1058, l l 6 4 a (NICH); Hsinohu Co. Lu-chang-to-shan, C. K. Wang 1681 (NICH). H a b i t a t : On moist s o i l , r ocks o r r o t t e n l o g s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe, Caucasus, P e r s i a , Canary I s l a n d , Madeira, N. V/. I n d i a , Nepal, Sikkim, Himalaya, Japan, Ryukyu, Taiwan, Korea, S a g h a l i e n , North America. T h i s s p e c i e s i s v e r y c l o s e to F. ad e l p h i n u s . Both s p e c i e s have been d i s c u s s e d under F. ad e l p h i n u s . 32. F i s s i d e n s wichurae Broth. & F l e i s c h . , Hedwigia 38: 127, 1899; Iwatsuki & Sharp ( 1970) . C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i Co. Wu-lai, Z. Iwats., 3651 (NICH). H a b i t a t : On s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : J a v a and Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s has extremely narrow, l i n e a r - l a n c e o l a t e l e a v e s ; the b order c e l l s are v e r y d i s t i n c t , c o v e r i n g a l l margins o f -104-d u p l i c a t e laminae; these f e a t u r e s r e a d i l y separate t h i s s p e c i e s from o t h e r s . 33 • F i s s i d e n s yamamotoi S a k u r a i , Bot, Mag. Tokyo 56i 218, 1952; Iwatsuki & Sharp ( 1970) . C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i Co. Yang-ming-shan, Z. Iwats., A. J . Sharp 2060 (NICH). H a b i t a t : On r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Japan and Taiwan. T h i s t i n y F i s s i d e n s has l i n e a r - l a n c e o l a t e l e a v e s , about 1.5-2 mm long , d o r s a l lamina ends a b r u p t l y near the l e a f - b a s e and s t e r i l e and f e r t i l e shoots, are markly d i f f e r e n t . These f e a t u r e s r e a d i l y s e p a r a t e t h i s s p e c i e s from o t h e r s p e c i e s o f F i s s i d e n s . F a m i l y : D i t r i c h a c e a e S i x genera i n Taiwan. Key to the genera of D i t r i c h a c e a e 1. Capsules immersed among the p e r i c h a e t i a l l e a v e s 2 2. C o s t a p e r c u r r e n t ; c a p s u l e s i r r e g u l a r l y d e h i s c e n t , peristome absent P l e u r i d i u m 2. C o s t a s t r o n g l y e x c u r r e n t ; capsules r e g u l a r l y d e h i s c e n t , peristome pres e n t . Garckea 1. Capsules l o n g - e x e r t e d 3 3. Capsules without d i s t i n c t neck 4 4. Upper l e a f c e l l s l i n e a r ; c a p s u l e s smooth....Ditrichum 4. Upper l e a f c e l l s subquadrate; capsules s t r o n g l y furrowed when dry Ceratodon -105-3. Capsules with d i s t i n c t neck and urn 5 5. Leaves narrowly l i n g u l a t e - l a n c e o l a t e ; c a p s u l e s with s h o r t urn, peristome t e e t h s p i r a l l y s t r i a t e . . . . W i l s o n i e l l a 5. Leaves with s h o r t ovate base, narrowed to a l i n e a r p o i n t ; c a p s u l e s w i t h l o n g urn, peristome t e e t h c o a r s e l y v e r t i c a l l y s t r i o l a t e . . . Trematodon Ceratodon B r i d . , B r y o l . Univ. Is 480, 1826. Two s p e c i e s and one v a r i e t y i n Taiwan. Key to s p e c i e s o f Ceratodon 1. Leaves l a n c e o l a t e o r o v a t e - l a n c e o l a t e , acute o r acuminate at apex 2 2. Capsules i n c l i n e d to h o r i z o n t a l , s e t a red....C. purpureus 2. Capsules e r e c t , y e l l o w i s h , s e t a p a l e brown or y e l l o w C. stenocarpus 1. Leaves t r i a n g u l a r l a n c e o l a t e , l o n g acuminate to s u b u l a t e . . . . ,C. purpureus v a r . formosicus 1. Ceratodon purpureus (Hedw.) B r i d . , B r y o l . Univ. 1: 480, 1826; Horikawa (1939). C i t e d specimens T a i p e i Co. Mt. C h i - h s i n - s h a n , Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 207 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On open s o i l a l o n g the h i l l s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Cosmopolitan. T h i s common world-wide s p e c i e s has been n e g l e c t e d by many b r y o l o g i s t s i n Taiwan. Although Horikawa (1939) noted i t from Taiwan, he c i t e d no specimen. -106-2. Ceratodon purpureus v a r . formosicus Card., B e i h . Bot. C e n t r a l b l . 19: 100, 1905; Sasaoka (1928); I h s i b a (1929); Wang (i960, 1970). C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i Co. Tamsui, U. F a u r i e 85, 172--Isotype of C. purpureus v a r . formosicus (KYO); Hwalien Co. Sakabesha, S. Suzuki 72 p. p. (TNS). H a b i t a t : On s o i l s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Endemic t o Taiwan. T h i s v a r i e t y c o l l e c t e d by F a u r i e (1903) from Tamsui, a s m a l l n o r t h e r n p o r t v i l l a g e i s d i s t i n c t l y s e p a r a t e d from the s p e c i e s by i t s p e c u l i a r l e a f - s h a p e which i s l a n c e o l a t e , w i t h a t r i a n g u l a r base and s u b u l a t e apex. 3. Ceratodon stenocarpus Bruch. & Schimp., ex C. M u e l l . , Syn. It 647, 1849; Noguchi (195D; Wang (i960, 1970). C i t e d specimen: Nantou Co. C h i - t o u to water f a l l , Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 566 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe, North America, Mexico, South America, A f r i c a , A u s t r a l i a , Himalaya, mainland China, P h i l i p p i n e s and Taiwan. The v e g e t a t i v e c h a r a c t e r s o f t h i s s p e c i e s s c a r c e l y d i s t i n g u i s h i t from C. purpureus: o n l y the c o l o r of capsules and s e t a c o u l d d i s t i n g u i s h them. D i t r i c h u m Hampe, F l o r a 50: 181, I867. Four s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. Key to s p e c i e s o f D i t r i c h u m 1. Leaves a b r u p t l y narrowing to a l o n g f l e x u o s e f i l i f o r m awn, aut o i c o u s D. d i f f i c i l e -107-1. Leaves g r a d u a l l y narrow to s u b u l a t e , p a r o i c o u s o r d i o i c o u s . . . 2 2. P l a n t s s m a l l , 10-15 mm high, p a r o i c o u s ; l e a v e s 5-7 mm l o n g , awn s e r r u l a t e ; c a p s u l e s oblong-ovoid, curved, i n c l i n e d , 3 mm long, s e t a y e l l o w D. p a l l i d u m 2. P l a n t s l a r g e r , about 30 mm h i g h , d i o i c o u s ; l e a v e s 1-3 mm "long; c a p s u l e s c y l i n d r i c a l s t r a i g h t , e r e c t 2 mm l o n g , s e t a brown to r e d 3 3. Leaves 1-2 mm long, lower l e a f - c e l l s s h o r t and broad; c a p s u l e s asymmetrical, s e t a brown or y e l l o w i s h brown... D. brevidens 3. Leaves 2-3 l o n g , lower l e a f - c e l l s l o n g and narrow; c a p s u l e s symmetrical, s e t a dark red D. heteromallum 1. D i t r i c h u m b r e v i d e n s Noguchi, J . Jap. Bot. 20: 255, 27, 1944; Wang ( 1970) . C i t e d specimen: C h i a y i Co. Mt. Kodama, A. Noguchi, 6352--Holotype of D. b r e v i d e n s (NOG); Pingtung Co. Wu-tan, Chuang 1157 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Endemic to Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s i s v e r y s i m i l a r to D. heteromallum, but can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from i t by the s h o r t e r l e a v e s , wider and s h o r t b a s a l l e a f c e l l s , and asymmetrical c a p s u l e s , as noted by Noguchi ( 1944) . 2. D i t r i c h u m d i f f i c i l e ( Dub.) F l e i s c h . , Muse. F l . B u i t e n z o r g 1: 300, 50, 1904. D i t r i c h u m f l e x i f o l i u m Hampe, F l o r a 50: 182, 1867; Yang & Lee (1964) D i t r i c h u m formosicum Noguohi, J . Jap. Bot. 14: 397, 6, 1938; Wang ( 1970) . - 1 0 8 -C i t e d specimen: I l a n Co. Mt. Ta i - p i n g - s h a n , A. Noguchi 6 6 4 7 — Holotype of D. formosicum (NOG). H a b i t a t : On s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : South A f r i c a , Madagascar, I n d i a , M a l a y s i a , Java, Boreno, P h i l i p p i n e s , New C a l e d o n i a , New Zealand, Tasmania, A u s t r a l i a , South America, C h i l e , P a t a g o n i a and Taiwan. The s t a t u s o f D. f l e x i f o l i u m has been d i s c u s s e d by Dixon (1913) , but the basionym: Dicranum f l e x i f o l i u m Hook, was an i l l e g i t i m a t e homonym, thus D i t r i c h u m d i f f i c i l e ( Dub.) F l e i s c h . became the proper name f o r the s p e c i e s . D i t r i c h u m formosicum was d e s c r i b e d by Noguchi ( 1938 ) from Taiwan. I compared the type w i t h Javanese specimens o f D. d i f f i c i l e and found them to be i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h i s s p e c i e s , except f o r the r a t h e r l a r g e r s i z e o f D. formosicum which was a l r e a d y p o i n t e d out by Noguchi. Herzog & Noguchi r e p o r t e d D. f l e x i f o l i u m from Taiwan; I have checked the c i t e d specimen and found i t to be D i c r a n e l l a  h e t e r o m a l l a . The c h a r a c t e r s o f lea v e s a b r u p t l y narrowing to a l o n g f l e x u o s e f i l i f o r m awn and o f s e x u a l i t y can be used to d i s t i n g u i s h e d t h i s s p e c i e s from o t h e r D i t r i c h u m . 3. D i t r i c h u m heteromallum ( Hedw.) B r i t t . , N. Am. F l . 15: 64 , 1913; Yang & Lee ( 1 9 6 4 ) ; Wang ( 1 9 7 0 ) . C i t e d specimen: Nantou Co. C h i - t o u , M. T. Kao & C. S. Feung 273 ( T A l ) - - n o t seen; L i - s h a n , Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 861 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On s o i l a l o n g the s l o p e . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe, Western North America (from A l a s k a to C a l i f o r n i a ) , Nova S c o t i a . -109-Th i s s p e c i e s can be r e c o g n i z e d by i t s l e a f shape which has an ovate or b r o a d l y l a n c e o l a t e base, and g r a d u a l l y narrows to a l o n g f i l i f o r m awn, 2-3 mm l o n g and i t s l e a f - c e l l s n arrowly r e c t a n g u l a r to l i n e a r the margins. 4. D i t r i c h u m p a l l i d u m ( Hedw.) Harap., F l o r a 50: 182, 1867; I h s i b a (1935) ; Horikawa ( 1935); Takaki (1957); Wang (1968, 1970). C i t e d specimen: I l a n Co. Mt. T a i - p i n g - s h a n , Chuang I967 (UBC). H a b i t a t : Open sunny s o i l s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe, E a s t e r n North America, Caucasus, mainland China, Japan, Ryukyu and Taiwan. The p r e s e n t s p e c i e s can be e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d by i t s l e a v e s w i t h toothed awns, y e l l o w i s h to y e l l o w i s h brown s e t a and oblong o v o i d c a p s u l e s t h a t are s u l c a t e when dry. Garckea C. M u e l l . , Bot. Z e i t . 3: 865, 1845. Only one s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. Garckea comosa ( Doz. & Molk.) Wijk. & Marg., Taxon 9: 190, i 9 6 0 . Garckea phascoides ( Hook.) C. M u e l l . , Bot. Z e i t . 3s 865, 1845; I h s i b a (1931, 1935); Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1970). C i t e d specimen: Nantou Co. Sun moon l a k e , A. Noguchi 6478 (NICH); Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 664 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On open dry s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : M a l a y s i a , T h a i l a n d , Tonkin, Java, Sumatra, P h i l i p p i n e s , Taiwan and Japan. The upper l e a v e s crowded at the apex of the stem, l a n c e o l a t e , e n t i r e , e x c u r r e n t c o s t a , and the immersed capsules among the -110-p e r i c h a e t i a l l e a v e s seem to be the d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r s o f the s p e c i e s . P l e u r i d i u m B r i d . , Mant. Muse. 10, 1819. Only one s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. P l e u r i d i u m julaceum Besch., J . Bot. 12: 294, I898; I h s i b a (1929, 1935)"; Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1970). C i t e d specimen: T h i s s p e c i e s was r e p o r t e d by I h s i b a (1929, 1935) from T a i p e i , Taiwan. T h i s c i t e d specimen may be p r e s e n t i n TNS. I t needs reexamination i n o r d e r to c o n f i r m i t s presence i n Taiwan. H a b i t a t : On s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Japan and Taiwan. T h i s i s a t i n y moss wit h v e r y s h o r t stems ( o n l y 4 mm l o n g ) , l a n c e o l a t e - o v a t e l e a v e s w i t h s e r r u l a t e apex, and s m a l l oblong-o v o i d c a p s u l e s . Trematodon Michx., F l . Bor. Am. 2: 289, I8O3. Only one s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. The s y s t e m a t i c p o s i t i o n o f t h i s genus has been d i s c u s s e d by Tak a k i ( 1962) . He c o n s i d e r e d Trematodon t o belong to the D i t r i c h -aceae, based on the f o l l o w i n g : 1. The c h a r a c t e r s o f peristome t e e t h i n Trematodon are i n t e r m e d i a t e i n form between D i t r i c h a c e a e and Dicranaceae. 2. That c a p s u l e s possesses the l o n g neck and are a l l i e d to B r u c h i a and W i l s o n i e l l a . Trematodon l o n g i c o l l i s Michx., F l . Bor. Am. 2: 289, 1803; Okamura (1916); Sasaoka ( 1928); I h s i b a (1929, 1935); Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1970); T a k a k i (1962) . -111-Trematodon d r e p a n e l l u s Besch., J . Bot. 12: 283, 1898; Cardot ( 1905); Okamura (1916); Sasaoka (1928); Brotherus (1924); I h s i b a (1929, 1935)5 Horikawa (1936); Herz. & Noguchi ( 1955); Wang ( I 9 6 0 ) . Trematodon f l a c c i d i s e t u s Card., B e i h . Bot. C e n t r a l b l . 17: 5, 4, 1904; I h s i b a (1929, 1935); Herz. & Noguchi (1955); Wang (I960). Trematodon p a u c i f o l i u s C. M u e l l . , Syn. 1: 495, 1848; Herz. & Noguchi (1955); Wang ( i 9 6 0 ) . C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i Co. Mt. Chi - h s i n - s h a n , Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 206 (UBC); Nantou Co. C h i - t o u to C h i - t i , Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 249 (UBC); T a i t u n g Co. Ta-pu-shan, Chuang 5040 (UBC). B o t e l Tobago G. H. Schwabe 12,--det. as T. p a u c i f o l i u s (NICH. 298105). H a b i t a t : On s o i l , f r e q u e n t l y sandy. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe, E a s t e r n USA, West I n d i e s , Mexico, South America, Hawaii, Ceylon, New Guinea, P h i l i p p i n e s , Bonins, Korea, Japan, Ryukyu, Taiwan and Java. T h i s s p e c i e s , can be e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d by i t s v e r y l o n g necked c a p s u l e s . Bartram (1939) d i s c u s s e d T. p a u c i f o l i u s and T. l o n g i c o l l i s and reduced T. p a u c i f o l i u s to the l a t t e r without s t u d y i n g the type. Taiwan m a t e r i a l of T. p a u c i f o l i u s was r e p o r t e d by Herzog & Noguchi (1955) from B o t e l Tobago, i t seems to be i d e n t i c a l with T. l o n g i c o l l i s . W i l s o n i e l l a C. M u e l l . , Bot. C e n t r a l b l . 7» 345, 1881. One s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. -112-W i l s o n i e l l a d e c i p i e n s ( M i t t . ) A l s t o n i n Dix. , J . Bot. 68: 2, 1930. C i t e d specimen: Pingtung Co. Nu-jeng-shan, a l t . 600-800 m, Chuang 888, 904, 905, 912, 920 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On c l a y e y s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Ceylon, Java, P h i l i p p i n e s . Genus new to Taiwan! The p e c u l i a r s t r u c t u r e of t h i s s p e c i e s i s q u i t e i n t e r e s t -i n g . The l e a f - c e l l s are elongate or narrowly rhomboidal with t h i c k e n i n g s at a p i c a l a n g l e s ; and peristome t e e t h are d i v i d e d i n t o two l o n g f i l i f o r m s p i r a l l y s t r i o l a t e f o r k s . These c h a r a c t e r s are never seen i n D i t r i c h a c e a e and Dicranaceae. I suggest t h a t these c h a r a c t e r s to be o f s u f f i c i e n t d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s to p l a c e t h i s genus i n i t s own f a m i l y , but i n t h i s study, I p l a c e i t i n D i t r i c h a c e a e , based on i t s f i l i f o r m c h a r a c t e r of peristome t e e t h s p l i t i n two to the base. Family: B r y o x i p h i a c e a e One genus i n Taiwan. Bryoxiphium M i t t . , J . L i n n . Soc. Bot. 12: 580, I 8 6 9 . Only one s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. Bryoxiphium norvegicum subsp. japonicum (Berggr.) LOve & LOve, B r y o l o g i s t 56: 197, 1953; N a k a n i s h i (1964); Wang (1967, 1970). C i t e d specimen: Nantou Co. Pa-tun-kuan, upper p a r t s of Lo-nung-c h i S. N a k a n i s h i , 13444 (NICH), C h i - t o u to C h i - t i , near water f a l l Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 593 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On s h a l e c l i f f s near water courses of water f a l l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Kamchatka, S a k h a l i n , southern S i k h o t e - A l i n , Japan (from Hokkaido to Kyushu), mainland China, Korea, Taiwan, P h i l i p p i n e s , Lombok I s l a n d . -113-T h i s v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g moss was d i s c o v e r e d by N a k a n i s h i (1964) who f i r s t r e p o r t e d i t from Taiwan. A l l specimens from Taiwan are s t e r i l e , but i t can be r e c o g n i z e d by i t s d i s t i c h o u s , k e e l e d l e a v e s and long , e x c u r r e n t c o s t a . Family: Dicranaceae 14 genera, 36 s p e c i e s and 3 v a r i e t i e s i n Taiwan. Key to the genera of Dicranaceae 1. C o s t a broad, occupying more than 1/3 of the l e a f base 2 2. A l a r c e l l s s t r o n g l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d 3 3. Leaves more o r l e s s f a l c a t e - s e c u n d , upper l e a f - c e l l s u s u a l l y narrowly l i n e a r , b a s a l c e l l s r e c t a n g u l a r , c o n s p i c o u s l y l a r g e r and broader near c o s t a ; c o s t a i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n w i t h a median row of guide c e l l s between two s t e r e i d bands Dicranodontium 3. Leaves never f a l c a t e - s e c u n d , upper l e a f - c e l l s u s u a l l y quadrate or rhomboidal, b a s a l b e l l s not l a r g e r and broader near c o s t a ; c o s t a i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n w i t h l a r g e h y a l i n e t h i n - w a l l e d c e l l s on the upper s u r f a c e , s l i g h t l y s m a l l e r guide c e l l s i n the middle and wit h o r without s t e r e i d bands both above and below, or below o n l y . . . . Campylopus 2. A l a r c e l l s not, or o n l y s l i g h t l y , d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . . . . . 4 4. P l a n t s l a r g e , about 3-4 cm high or more; t e r m i n a l l e a v e s without gemmae, i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n c h l o r o p h y l l o s e c e l l s i n the middle of c o s t a ; c a l y p t r a e n t i r e at the base... P a r a l eucobryum 4. P l a n t s s m a l l , l e s s than 1 cm high; t e r m i n a l l e a v e s o f t e n - 1 1 4 -with c l u s t e r o f gemmae, i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n c h l o r o p h y l l o s e c e l l s on both s i d e of c o s t a ; c a l y p t r a f r i n g e d at the base B r o t h e r a 1. C o s t a narrow, occupying l e s s than 1/3 of l e a f base 5 5. A l a r c e l l s s t r o n g l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d 6 - 6 . Leaves bordered w i t h a band of l i n e a r h y a l i n e c e l l s ; l e a f c e l l s d e n s e l y p a p i l l o s e Leucoloma 6. Leaves not bordered; l e a f - c e l l s smooth 7 7. Leaves from a c l a s p i n g base; upper l e a f c e l l s quadrate; c a p s u l e s curved, d i s t i n c t l y strumose Oncophorus 7. Leaves not„clasping, f a l c a t e - s e c u n d ; upper l e a f c e l l s r e c t a n g u l a r ; c a p s u l e s e r e c t o r i n c l i n e d , not strumose 8 8. B a s a l c e l l s o f l e a v e s not sinuose between a l a r c e l l s and c o s t a ; peristome t e e t h d i v i d e d mostly about half-way down, p a p i l l o s e above....Dicranum 8. B a s a l c e l l s o f l e a v e s s t r o n g l y s i n u o s e , numerous narrowly elongate i n c r a s s a t e c e l l s between a l a r c e l l s and c o s t a ; peristome t e e t h s h o r t , smooth above and d i v i d e d to below the middle i n t o two r a t h e r wide and obtuse f o r k s Dicranoloma 5. A l a r c e l l s not d i f f e r e n t i a t e d or s c a r c e l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . . ^ 9. L e a f c e l l s with h i g h p o i n t e d s i n g l e mammillae..Oreoweisia 9. L e a f c e l l s smooth 10 10. Stems j u l a c e o u s ; l e a v e s c l o s e l y appressed..Aongstroemia 10. Stems not j u l a c e o u s ; l e a v e s s p r e a d i n g 11 11. P l a n t s l a r g e , about 3-8 cm high; l e a v e s s t r o n g l y c r i s p e d o r c o n t o r t e d when dry 12 -115-12. Leaves l a n c e o l a t e , without s h e a t h i n g base, i r r e g u l a r l y -d e n t i c u l a t e , rounded obtuse; capsules with 8 deep grooves Rhabdoweisia 12. Leaves elongate s u b u l a t e , d i s t i n c t l y s h e a t h i n g by a c l a s p -i n g base; c a p s u l e s not grooved Symblepharis 11. P l a n t s s m a l l , u s u a l l y l e s s , than 1 cm high; l e a v e s e r e c t s p r e a d i n g or f a l c a t e - s e c u n d when dry 13 13. Leaves w i t h d i s t i n c t c l a s p i n g base; upper l e a f - c e l l s s h o r t quadrate or l o n g rhomboidal; s e t a cygneous...Campylopodium 13. Leaves without d i s t i n c t c l a s p i n g base; upper l e a f - c e l l s l o n g r e c t a n g u l a r ; s e t a s t r a i g h t . . . D i c r a n e l l a Aongstroemia B. S. G., B r y o l . Eur. 1: 1?1, 1846. Only one s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. Aongstroemia o r i e n t a l i s M i t t . , Trans. L i n n . Soc. s e r . 2, 3 ' 154, 1891; Noguchi (1944); Iwatsuki ( 1967); Wang (1970). C i t e d specimens C h i a y i Co. Between Tong-pu & P a i - m u - l i n , Z. Iwats., A. J . & E. Sharp 2270, 2413, 24l6 (NICH). H a b i t a t s On dry s o i l o r r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n s Mexico, Guatemala, Himalaya, I n d i a , Bhutan, Sikkim, Yunnan, China, Burma, North Borneo, P h i l i p p i n e s , Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s i s v e r y e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d by i t s simple j u l a c e o u s stems and appressed, b r o a d l y ovate l e a v e s . B r o t h e r a C. M u e l l . , Gen. Muse. F r . 258, 1900. Only one s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. B r o t h e r a l e a n a ( S u l l . ) C. M u e l l . , Gen. Muse. 259, 1901; Nakanishi (1963) ; Wang (1967, 1970); Iwatsuki (1970). -116-C i t e d specimen: Nantou Co. Tui-kuan to L o - l o , S. Nak a n i s h i 542 (UK). H a b i t a t : On r o t t e n l o g s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : North America ( V i r g i n i a , Wisconsin, P e n s y l v a n i a , Ohio, Tennessee and M i n e s o t a ) , Mexico, Guatemala, S i b e r i a , Amur, Manchuria, Korea, P h i l i p p i n e s , Burma, P a k i s t a n , Japan and Taiwan. T a k a k i (1968) s t u d i e d B r o t h e r a and found the s t r u c t u r e of. c o s t a to v e r y d i s t i n c t i v e , so he proposed a new s u b f a m i l y b r o t h e r o - ideae f o r B r o t h e r a t o separate i t from Paraleucobryum of Para- l e u c o b r y o i d e a e which was e s t a b l i s h e d by Brotherus (1924). The c r o s s s e c t i o n of the c o s t a shows a group of much s m a l l e r , t h i c k - w a l l e d c e l l s i n the middle and l a r g e t h i n - w a l l e d c e l l s , some of which are c h l o r o p h y l l o s e , on both s i d e s o f the c o s t a . Campylopodium (C. M u e l l . ) Besch., Ann. Sc. Nat. Bot. s e r . 5, 18: One s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. Campylopodium euphorocladum (C. M u e l l . ) Besch., Ann. S c i . Nat. Bot. s e r . 5, 18: 189, 1873; Cardot ( 1905) ; Sasaoka ( 1928); I h s i b a (1929, 1935): Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1970). Microcampylopus l o n g i f o l i u s Noguchi, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 65: 87, 1952; Wang ( 1970) . Microcampylopus l o n g i f o l i u m from, d e n s i f o l i u s Noguchi Bot. Mag. Tokyo 65: 88, 1952; Wang ( 1970) . C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i Co. Mt. C h i - h s i n - s h a n , Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 199, 203, 204 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On s o i l o f open h i l l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Japan, Taiwan, P h i l i p p i n e s , Java, M a l a y s i a , P a c i f i c I s l a n d , Hawaii I s l a n d , I n d i a n A r c h i p e l a g o , New Zealand, E a s t A f r i c a , -117-T a h i t i . Noguchi (1952) s t u d i e d Campylopodium euphorocladum from Japan, Taiwan, P h i l i p p i n e s and Java. He found Taiwan and P h i l i p p i n e m a t e r i a l s to be d i f f e r e n t from those o f Japan and J ava i n the absence of stomata i n the capsules and the l a r g e p a p i l l a e on the spores. He t h e r e f o r e proposed: Microcampylopus  l o n g i f o l i u m f o r the Taiwan and P h i l i p p i n e specimens. R e c e n t l y I s t u d i e d the Taiwan m a t e r i a l and d i s c o v e r e d stomata to be p r e s e n t at the base of c a p s u l e s , and the spores are m i n u t e l y p a p i l l o s e . T h e r e f o r e I concluded t h a t Microcampylopus i s not p r e s e n t i n Taiwan; the type specimen of Microcampylopus  l o n g i f o l i u m s h o u l d be reexamined. Campylopus B r i d . , Mant. Muse. 71, 1819. Ten s p e c i e s o f Campylopus i n Taiwan. Key to the s p e c i e s o f Campylopus 1. C o s t a without s t e r e i d s i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f l e a v e s . . . C . s c h w a r z i i 1. C o s t a with s t e r e i d s i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n of l e a v e s . . . . . 2 2. S t e r e i d s on both s i d e s of the c o s t a ,.C. r i c h a r d i i 2. S t e r e i d s o n l y on d o r s a l s i d e o f c o s t a ,. 3 3. V e g e t a t i v e p r o p a g a t i o n by numerous s m a l l deciduous l e a f l e t s . . 4 4. Leaves without h y a l i n e p o i n t ; empty p e l l u c i d c e l l s l a r g e r than the middle guide c e l l s and s t e r e i d s few i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n C. f r a g i l i s 4. Leaves w i t h h y a l i n e p o i n t ; empty p e l l u c i d c e l l s as same s i z e as guide c e l l s and s t e r e i d s numerous i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n C. l a x i t e x l u s - 1 1 8 -3 . P l a n t s w i t h o u t d e c i d u o u s l e a f l e t s 5 5. Leaves w i t h h y a l i n e t i p s 6 6. Leaves n a r r o w l y l a n c e o l a t e - s u b u l a t e , g r a d u a l l y l o n g a c u m i n a t e C. au reus 6. Leaves o b i o n g , a b r u p t l y a r i s t a t e . . . C . t a i w a n e n s i s 5. Leaves w i t h o u t h y a l i n e t i p s 7 7. P l a n t s s m a l l , l e s s t h a n 2 cm l o n g 8 8 . P l a n t s 5-6 mm l o n g ; l e a v e s w i t h o v a t e base and v e r y l o n g s l e n d e r s u b u l a C. g r a c i d e n t u s 8 . P l a n t s 4 mm l o n g ; l e a v e s w i t h o b l o n g base and w i t h o u t l o n g s l e n d e r s u b u l a C. g r a c i l i s 7 . P l a n t s more t h a n 3 cm l o n g 9 9 . C e l l s o f u p p e r p a r t o f l e a f q u a d r a t e o r r e c -t a n g u l a r , c o s t a 2 / 3 o f t h e w i d t h o f l e a f , empty c e l l s t h e same s i z e as g u i d e c e l l s i n c r o s s -s e c t i o n C. c a u d a t u s 9 . C e l l s o f u p p e r p a r t o f l e a f o b l i q u e l y r h o m b o i d a l , c o s t a 1 / 3 - 1 / 2 o f t h e w i d t h o f l e a f , l a r g e empty c e l l s t w i c e as l a r g e as g u i d e c e l l s C. . japon icus 1 . Campylopus aureus Besch . & L a c , B r y o l . J a v . 1 : 80 , t . 67, 1854 ; C a r d o t ( 1 9 0 5 ) ; Sasaoka ( 1 9 2 8 ) ; I h s i b a ( 1 9 2 9 , 1 9 3 5 ) ; Wang ( I 9 6 0 , 1 9 7 0 ) . C i t e d specimens T a i p e i Co. T a i t u m U. F a u r i e 28 (KYO); H s i n c h u Co. K a n - k o u , Y. Sh imada, A p r . 1 5 , 1928 (NICH 2 9 8 0 8 4 a ) . H a b i t a t s On s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : C e y l o n , N i k o b a r , J a v a , C e l e b e s , New G u i n e a , T a i w a n . -119-Taiwan may be at the n o r t h e r n l i m i t of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h i s t r o p i c a l s p e c i e s . The l e a f c h a r a c t e r s d i s t i n g u i s h t h i s s p e c i e s from o t h e r Campylopus, b e i n g l a n c e o l a t e - s u b u l a t e with a h y a l i n e t i p , and the l e a f - c e l l s i n the b a s a l lamina are h y a l i n e , r e c t a n g u l a r and i n median and upper p a r t s v e r m i c u l a r . 2. Campylopus caudatus (C. M u e l l . ) Mont, i n Doz. & Molk., B r y o l . Jav. 1: 78, 65, 1858. C i t e d specimens I l a n Co. Mt. T a i - p i n g - s h a n , Chuang 1974 (UBC); T a i t u n g Co. Kwai-ku, Chuang 1474 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Himalaya, Ceylon, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Moluccas, P h i l i p p i n e s . New to Taiwan I I n c r o s s - s e c t i o n of l e a v e s , t h i s s p e c i e s shows the l a r g e empty c e l l s and median guide c e l l s to be s i m i l a r i n s i z e . The l e a f c e l l s are r e c t a n g u l a r and with y e l l o w i s h , p e l l u c i d w a l l s i n the b a s a l lamina and show s m a l l , quadrate or r e c t a n g u l a r c e l l s i n v e r t i c a l rows. The c a l y p t r a i s e n t i r e at the base. 3. Campylopus f r a g i l i s ( B r i d . ) B. S. G., B r y o l . Eur. 1: 164, 1847; Iwatsuki & Sharp (1970). C i t e d specimen: C h i a y i Co. Mt. A l i and Tung-pu, Z. Iwatsuki, A. J . & E. Sharp 510, 512 (NICH). H a b i t a t : On r o t t e n l o g and stumps. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe, Azores, M a d e r i r a , Canary I s l a n d s , North America ( F l o r i d a ) , Japan, Taiwan, A f r i c a , Guatemala, Cuba, Jamaica. -120-The c o l o r and shape of t h i s s p e c i e s are v e r y c l o s e to B r o t h e r a leana, but the s t r u c t u r e o f c o s t a i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . 4. Campylopus g r a c i l e n t u s Card., Bei h . Bot. C e n t r a l b l . 19: 94, f . 3, 1905; Brotherus ( 1924); Sasaoka (1928); I h s i b a (1929, 1935); Wang ( I 9 6 0 , 1970). Campylopus g r a c i l e n t u s v a r . b r e v i f o l i u s Card., B e i h , Bot. C e n t r a l b l . 19: 95, 1905; I h s i b a (1929, 1935); Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1970). C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i Co. Taitum U. F a u r i e 25, 3 5--Isotype o f C. g r a c i l e n t u s (KYO); Mt. C h i - - s h i n - s h a n Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 201 (UBC); Pingtung Co. Kwai-ku Chuang 1393b (UBC). H a b i t a t : On s o i l s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Endemic to Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s l e a v e s w i t h ovate or s h o r t oblong base and s u b u l a t e elongate to c a n a l i c u l a r t i p . Cardot (1905) noted t h a t the c r o s s - s e c t i o n of leaves l a c k e d s t e r e i d s and Brotherus (1924) p l a c e d t h i s s p e c i e s under subgenus Pseudocampylopus, I found t h i s not to be c o r r e c t : the c r o s s - s e c t i o n of l e a v e s shows d i s t i n c t s t e r e i d s on the d o r s a l s i d e . The v a r i e t y b r e v i f o l i u s was r e p o r t e d by Cardot (1905) from the type l o c a l i t y of the s p e c i e s . From h i s d e s c r i p t i o n , i t does not r e p r e s e n t a s u f f i c i e n t l y d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r f o r a v a r i e t y : l e a v e s are s h o r t e r and broader (2.75~3 x 0 . 4 - 0 . 5 mm) and s u b e n t i r e i n t h i s v a r i e t y , w h ile 3 . 5 - 4 x 0 . 3 5 - 0 . 4 mm and m i n u t e l y d e n t i c u l a t e i n the s p e c i e s . In my O p i n i o n the v a r i e t y may be a young s t e r i l e form of the s p e c i e s . I p l a c e t h i s v a r i e t y as a synonym of the s p e c i e s . - 1 2 1 -The t y p e o f t h i s v a r i e t y a re n o t i n KYO. S a k u r a i (1932) r e p o r t e d t h i s s p e c i e s f r o m I s l . S a k u r a -s h i m a , J a p a n , b u t T a k a k i (1967) e x c l u d e d i t f r o m J a p a n , t h u s t h e s p e c i e s i s endemic t o T a i w a n . 5. Campylopus g r a c i l i s ( M i t t . ) J a e g . , B e r . S. G a l l . N a t u r w . Ges. 1 8 ? 0 - 7 1 J 427 , 1872. C i t e d specimens Nantou Co. Sun moon l a k e , Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 666 (UBC). H a b i t a t s On s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n s H i m a l a y a , S i k k i m and new t o Ta iwan I 6. Campylopus j a p o n i c u s B r o t h . , H e d w i g i a 38s 207. 1899? C a r d o t (1905) ; B r o t h e r u s ( 1 9 2 4 ) ; Sasaoka ( 1 9 2 8 ) ; I h s i b a ( 1 9 2 9 . 1 9 3 5 ) ; Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1 9 7 0 ) ; T a k a k i (1967) . Campylopus nakamurae S a k u r a i B o t . Mag. Tokyo 55* 212 , f . 13, 1 9 4 1 ; Wang ( 1 9 7 0 ) . C i t e d specimens T a i p e i Co. T a i t u m , U. F a u r i e 29, 31 (KYO) ; M t . C h i - h s i n - s h a n , Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 162 (UBC); C h u - c h i - h u ( T i k u s i k o ) T. Nakamura, A p r . 20 , 1 9 4 - 0 — H o l o t y p e o f C. nakamurae i n H e r b . S a k u r a i 14202 (MAK); Nantou Co. Sun moon l a k e , Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 685 (UBC). H a b i t a t s On humus o r r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : J a p a n , K o r e a and T a i w a n . T h i s s p e c i e s i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o C. c a u d a t u s , b u t i t can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d by t h e o b l i q u e l y r h o m b o i d a l u p p e r l e a f - c e l l s and l a r g e empty c e l l s t w i c e as l a r g e as g u i d e c e l l s , w h i l e t h e upper l e a f - c e l l s o f C. c a u d a t u s are q u a d r a t e o r s h o r t r e c t a n g u l a r and - 1 2 2 -empty c e l l s the same s i z e as guide c e l l s . The c r o s s s e c t i o n o f the l e a f , l e a f - s h a p e , and l e a f - c e l l s o f C. nakamurae match w e l l those of t h i s s p e c i e s . I t i s b e t t e r synonymized with t h i s s p e c i e s . An i l l u s t r a t i o n o f c a p s u l e s made by S a k u r a i are those of D i c r a n e l l a c o a r c t a t a . 7 . Campylopus l a x i t e x l u s L a c , Natuurk. Verh. K. Ak. Wetensch. Amsterdam 1 3 s 1 0 , 7 a , 1 8 7 2 . C i t e d specimens Kaohsiung Co. Shan-ping to Mt. Nan-feng-shan Chuang 1 0 0 7 (UBC). H a b i t a t s On decaying l o g . D i s t r i b u t i o n s J ava. New to Taiwan I The above c i t e d specimen was compared with Javanese m a t e r i a l s c o l l e c t e d by Z i p p e l i u s i n UBC and found t o agree w e l l w i t h the s p e c i e s . 8 . Campylopus r i c h a r d i i B r i d . , Mant. Muse 7 3 , 1 8 1 9 ; T a k a k i ( 1 9 6 7 ) 1 Wang ( 1 9 7 0 ) . Thysanomitrium r i c h a r d i i ( B r i d . ) Schwaegr., Sp. M use su p p l . 2 ( 1 ) s 6 1 , 1 1 8 , 1 8 2 3 ; I h s i b a ( 1 9 2 9 , 1 9 3 5 ) . Campylopus blumei (Doz. & Molk.) Besch. & L a c , B r y o l . Jav. 1$ 81, t . 6 8 , 1 8 5 8 ; Cardot ( 1 9 0 5 ) . Thysanomitrium blumei (Doz. & Molk.) Cardot, Ann. Cons. J a r d . Bot. Geneve 1 5 - l 6 i l 6 l , 1 9 1 2 ; Brotherus ( 1 9 2 4 ) ; Sasaoka ( 1 9 2 8 ) . C i t e d specimens T a i p e i Co. Yang-ming-shan, Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 1 5 9 (UBC); Kaohsiung Co. Shan-ping to Mt. Nan-feng-shan, Chuang 1 0 5 4 (UBC); Pingtung Co. F i r s t water resource to Kwai-ku, Chuang 1 3 0 3 -123-(UBC), Kwai-ku Chuang 1383 (UBC); Hsin-wu-tan to f i r s t water re s o u r c e , Chuang 1168 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On s o i l o r on rocks i n sunny open p l a c e s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Himalaya, Sikkim, K h a s i H i l l s , Ceylon, I n d i a , Burma, Malaya, Sumatra, Java, Celebes, Borneo, south China, Japan, Taiwan, P h i l i p p i n e s , T a h i t i , P o l y n e s i a , Mexico, South America, West I n d i e s . The c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f the l e a v e s i n t h i s s p e c i e s show s t e r e i d s on both s i d e s o f the c o s t a , d i s t i n c t l a r g e guide c e l l s i n the middle; and the d o r s a l s i d e o f the c o s t a i s deeply furrowed. The pre s e n t s p e c i e s u s u a l l y possesses 3 - 4 aggregate cygneous setae near the apex of stems. 9« Campylopus s c h w a r z i i Schimp., Muse. Eur. Nov. B r y o l . Eur. s u p p l . f a s c . 1 - 2 , 1 : 1 , 1864; T a k a k i ( 1 9 6 7 ) ; Wang ( 1 9 6 8 , 1 9 7 0 ) . C i t e d specimen: T h i s s p e c i e s was r e p o r t e d by Takaki and Wang, voucher specimen s h o u l d be reexamined. H a b i t a t : On s o i l and moist humus. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe, A l p s . S c a n d i n a v i a , Bukovina, North America, Nepla, Korea, Japan, Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from o t h e r s p e c i e s of Campylopus by the c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f l e a v e s l a c k i n g s t e r e i d s . 10 . Campylopus t a i w a n e n s i s S a k u r a i Bot. Mag. Tokyo 55s 206, f . 4 1 9 4 1 ; Wang ( 1 9 7 0 ) . C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i Co. P e i - t o u (Hokuto), Leg. ?, Nov. 1 9 2 5 — Holotyoe o f C. ta i w a n e n s i s i n Herb. S a k u r a i (MAK). H a b i t a t : not g i v e n . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Endemic to Taiwan. - 1 2 4 -T h i s s p e c i e s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s l e a v e s w i t h a l a n c e o l a t e base, and the a b r u p t l y a r i s t a t e apex wi t h a h y a l i n e t i p and furrows on the d o r s a l upper p a r t o f the c o s t a . The c r o s s - s e c t i o n of l e a v e s shows l a r g e , empty, h y a l i n e , t h i n - w a l l e d c e l l s on the v e n t r a l s u r f a c e , guide c e l l s as l a r g e as the empty c e l l s i n the middle and s m a l l t h i c k - w a l l e d c e l l s on the margins o f the c o s t a with groups o f s t e r e i d s . A c c o r d i n g to S a k u r a i ( 1 9 4 1 ) , the c o s t a o f l e a v e s are l a m e l l a t e and the l a m e l l a e are s h a r p l y s e r r a t e on the d o r s a l s i d e . My o b s e r v a t i o n s do not c o n f i r m t h i s : I found the l a m e l l a e to be deeply furrowed on the back o f c o s t a o n l y i n the upper p a r t . D i c r a n e l l a (C. M u e l l . ) Schimp., C o r o l l . 13, 1856. Two s p e c i e s and one v a r i e t y i n Taiwan. Key to the s p e c i e s o f D i c r a n e l l a 1. C o s t a of le a v e s s l e n d e r , occupying l e s s than 1/3 of the width of l e a f at the base 2 2. Leaves l a n c e o l a t e o r narrowly l a n c e o l a t e , g r a d u a l l y s u b u l a t e , margins d i s t i n c t l y s e r r u l a t e on the upper h a l f . . D . h e t e r o m a l l a 2. Leaves s l i g h t l y ovate at base, a b r u p t l y narrowed to f i l i f o r m apex, margins e n t i r e o r d e n t i c u l a t e o n l y on the t i p D. c o a r c t a t a 1. C o s t a of l e a v e s s t r o n g , occupying l / 3 of the width o f l e a f at the base D. c o a r c t a t a v a r . t o r r e n t i u m 1. D i c r a n e l l a c o a r c t a t a (C. Mu e l l . ) Bosch. & L a c , B r y o l . Jav. 1: 84 , t . 70, 1858; Cardot (1905)5 Brotherus ( 1924); Sasaoka (1928); I h s i b a (1929, 1935)5 Herz. & Noguchi (1955); Wang ( I 9 6 0 , 1970). -125-C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i Co. Rahau, A. Noguchi 6 2 6 l (NICH 298110); Mt. C h i - h s i n - s h a n Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 600-4 (UBC); I l a n Co. Mt. T a i - p i n g - s h a n A. Noguchi 6893 (NICH 297671); Nantou Co. sun moon l a k e , A. Noguchi 6334 (NICH 297675); C h i - t o u Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 200 (UBC); Hsinchu Co. Kan-kou, Y. Shimada, Apr. 15, 1928 (NICH 298084); Kaohsiung Co. Shan-ping Chuang 975 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Ceylon, Pegu, Java, P h i l i p p i n e s , Hongkong, Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s , endemic i n A s i a , i s ve r y common at lower e l e v a t i o n s . The abruptly-narrowed to f i l i f o r m l e a f - a p e x i s a d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r f o r the pr e s e n t s p e c i e s . The p r e s e n t s p e c i e s c l o s e l y resembles D i t r i c h u m p a l l i d u m i n g e n e r a l appearence, but i t can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d by i t s r e c t a n g u l a r l e a f - c e l l s at the base, while these are oblong hexagonal i n D i t r i c h u m p a l l i d u m . 2. D i c r a n e l l a c o a r c t a t a v a r . t o r r e n t i u m Card., B e i h , Bot. C e n t r a l b l . 19: 92, 1905; Sasaoka ( 1928); I h s i b a (1929): Wang ( I 9 6 0 , 1970). C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i Co. Mt. Ta-tun-shan (Taitum) U. F a u r i e 43 — H o l o t y p e o f D. c o a r c t a t a v a r . t o r r e n t i u m (KYO). H a b i t a t : On bou l d e r . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Endemic to Taiwan. Cardot (1905) d e s c r i b e d t h i s v a r i e t y from Taitum, based on F a u r i e ' s s t e r i l e m a t e r i a l s . The shape o f l e a v e s , l e a f - c e l l s , and s t r o n g , broad c o s t a which occupies 1/3 of the width o f l e a f at the base suggest t h a t t h i s does not belong to D i c r a n e l l a . I t may be some s p e c i e s o f the D i t r i c h a c e a e . -126-3. D i c r a n e l l a h e t e r o m a l l a (hedw.) Schimp., C o r o l l . 13, 1855; Okamura (1916); Sasaoka ( 1928); I h s i b a (1935); Wang (1968, 1970). D i t r i c h u m f l e x i f o l i u m non Hamp., sensu Herz. & Noguchi H a t t o r i Bot. Lab. 14: 58, 1955; Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1970). C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i Co. T a i p e i G. H. Schwabe l l - - d e t . as D i t r i c h u m f l e x i f o l i u m (NICH). H a b i t a t : On s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Cosmopolitan. The d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r s f o r the s p e c i e s are the l e a f - m a r g i n s d i s t i n c t l y s e r r u l a t e on the upper h a l f , and the mouth of c a p s u l e s o b l i q u e when dry. Dicranodontium B. S. G., B r y o l . Eur. 1: 159, 1847. Three s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. Key to the s p e c i e s of Dicranodontium 1. Leaves d i s t i n c t l y a u r i c u l a t e at the base 2 2. C o s t a below i n d i s t i n c t D. denudatum 2. C o s t a below c l e a r l y d e l i m i t e d D. uncinatum 1. Leaves not a u r i c u l a t e at the base D. asperulum 1. Dicranodontium asperulum ( M i t t . ) Broth., Nat. P f l . 1(3)* 336, 1901. C i t e d specimen: Pingtung Co. Kwai-ku Chuang 1536, 1535 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On c l i f f o r humus. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe, Himalaya, Sikkim, North America. New to Taiwan ! The c h a r a c t e r s of the above c i t e d specimens are match q u i t e w e l l those of the type specimen from NY. - 1 2 7 -2 . Dicranodontium denudatum ( B r i d . ) B r i t t . , i n W i l l i a m s , N. Am. F l . 1 5 s 1 5 1 , 1 9 1 3 ; Sasaoka ( 1 9 2 8 ) ; I h s i b a ( 1 9 2 9 ) ; Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1 9 7 0 ) . Dicranodontium l o n g i r o s t r e (Web. & Mohr.) B. S. G., B r y o l . Eur. 1 : 1 5 8 , 8 8 , 1 8 4 7 ; Sasaoka ( 1 9 2 0 ) . C i t e d specimen: Taichung Co. Onoe, S. Suzuki 3 1 3 (TNS); C h i a y i Co. Mt. A - l i , T. S. Wang 1473. 1475 (THU), S. Matsuyama 48 (NICH 2 9 7 9 5 ) . P i n g t u n g Co. Kwai-ku to Mt. Pei-ta-wu-shan, Chuang 1 5 5 3 , 1 5 5 8 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On r o t t e n l o g s o r ro c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe, North America, Ala s k a , Mexico, Guatemala, C o s t a R i c a , South America, S i b e r i a , mainland China, Korea, Japan, Caucasus, Himalaya, I n d i a . The s p e c i e s , as mentioned by Noguchi ( 1 9 6 6 ) i s v a r i a b l e i n g e n e r a l h a b i t and i n the i n d i s t i n c t c o s t a i n the l e a f base. D i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r s f o r the s p e c i e s : stems denuded when l e a v e s f a l l e n o f f , l e a v e s f a l c a t e - s e c u n d from a o v a t e - l a n c e o l a t e base and r a t h e r g r a d u a l l y narrowed to a setaceous p o i n t , margins s e r r u l a t e on the upper p a r t . 3 . Dicranodontium uncinatum (Harv.) Jaeg., Ber. S. G a l l . Nat. Ges. 1 8 7 7 - 7 8 : 3 8 0 , 1 8 8 0 : Noguchi ( i 9 6 0 ) ; T a k a k i ( 1 9 6 6 ) ; Wang ( 1 9 6 7 , 1 9 7 0 ) . Dicranoloma euryloma S a k u r a i Bot. Mag. Tokyo 55$ 2 0 5 , 1 9 4 1 . Dicranoloma l a t i l i m b a t u m S a k u r a i Bot. Mag. Tokyo 6 5 : 2 5 5 , 1 9 5 2 ; Wang ( 1 9 7 0 ) . C i t e d specimen: I l a n Co. Mt. Ta i - p i n g - s h a n , A. Tamoto, 3 4 9 7 - -Holotype of Dicranoloma euryloma (MAK), Chuang 1 9 5 6 (UBC). -128-C h i a y i Co. Mt. A - l i Z. Iwatsuki, A. J . & E. Sharp 136a (NICH); Pingtung Co. The f i r s t water resource to Kwai-ku, Chuang 1312 (UBC); Kwai-ku to Pei-ta-wu-shan Chuang 1956 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On stumps. D i s t r i b u t i o n : C e n t r a l Europe, B r i t a i n , A l a s k a , Canada ( n o r t h e r n c o a s t a l i s l a n d s of B r i t i s h Columbia), Nepal, Sikkim, Vietnam, Laos, Malay P e n i s u l a , Himalaya, Ceylon, Java, M o l l u c c a s , Japan, Taiwan, P h i l i p p i n e s , I n d i a , T h a i l a n d , Burma, South China. Dicranoloma (Ren.) Ren., Rev. B r y l . 28: 85, 1901. Three s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. Key to the s p e c i e s of Dicranoloma 1. L e a f margins s e r r u l a t e i n the upper h a l f , t e e t h s h o r t ; l e a f c e l l s between the c o s t a and margins not d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , b a s a l c e l l s s t r o n g l y sinuous 2 2. Leaves 8-12 mm l o n g , 1.5-2 mm wide, with oblong base; c a p s u l e s a r c u a t e , s e t a 3-4 P_« a s s i m i l e 2. Leaves 7 mm lo n g , 1 mm wide, with broad ovate base; s e t a s o l i t a r y D. c y l i n d r o t h e c i u m 1. Leaf-margins c o a r s e l y and s h a r p l y s e r r a t e i n the upper h a l f , t e e t h long; l e a f - c e l l s a l o n g the c o s t a s h o r t r e c t a n g u l a r f o r m i n g a 3-4 d i s t i n c t rows; b a s a l c e l l s not sinuous .. . D. f ormosanum 1. Dicranoloma a s s i m i l e (Hamp.) Par., Ind. B r y o l . ed. 2, 2: 24, 1904; Sasaoka ( 1928); I h s i b a (1929)? S a k u r a i (1941); Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1970). C i t e d specimen: T a i t u n g Co. Mt. Ta-wu-shan (Daibu) S. Ohashi 320 (TNS 3385) . -129-H a b i t a t : On t r e e trunk. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Java, Sumatra, Celebes, Borneo, P h i l i p p i n e s and Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s can be s e p a r a t e d from D. c y l i n d r o t h e c i u m by i t s l a r g e r and broader l e a v e s ( 8 - 1 2 x 1 . 5 - 2 mm) and 3 - 4 , a r c u a t e c a p s u l e s w i t h 1 - 1 . 5 cm s e t a e . 2 . Dicranoloma c y l i n d r o t h e c i u m ( M i t t . ) S a k u r a i Bot. Mag. Tokyo 65 : 256 , 1952; Takaki ( 1966); Wang ( 1 9 7 0 ) . Dicranoloma s u b c y l i n d r o t h e c i u m Broth., Ann. B r y o l . 1 : 17 , 1928; Sasaoka ( 1 9 2 8 ) ; I h s i b a ( 1 9 3 5 ) . C i t e d specimen: I l a n Co. Mt. T a i - p i n g - s h a n , S. Suzuki, Aug. 16, 1 9 2 5--Holotype o f Dicranoloma s u b c y l i n d r o t h e c i u m (H). H a b i t a t : On t r e e trunks o r decayed wood. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Hainan. The s i n g l e , e r e c t c a p s u l e s with l o n g e r setae about 1 . 5 - 2 cm l o n g are the d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r s f o r t h i s s p e c i e s . 3. Dicranoloma formosanum B r o t h . , Ann. B r y o l . 1 : 1 7 , 1928 ; S a k u r a i ( 1 9 4 1 ) ; I h s i b a ( 1 9 3 5 ) ; Wang ( 1 9 7 0 ) . C i t e d specimen: Taichung Co. Mt. Tankitake, Y. Shimada, Oct. 9 , 1 9 2 5--Holotype of D. formosanum (H, TNS); Pa-hsien-shan (Mt. Hassen), S. Sasaoka Nov. 24 , 1922 ex Herb. Sasaoka 2412 (H). H a b i t a t : On t r e e trunk. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Endemic to Taiwan. Brotherus ( 1928 ) has compared t h i s s p e c i e s with D. dicarpum (Nees.) Par., which i s found i n A u s t r a l i a , but I c o n s i d e r t h a t t h i s s p e c i e s to be v e r y c l o s e to D. perarmatum Broth, of the P h i l i p p i n e s . I t may prove to be the same s p e c i e s . -130-T h i s s p e c i e s can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the others by i t s 3-4 rows of s h o r t r e c t a n g u l a r l e a f - c e l l s forming a d i s t i n c t area a l o n g the c o s t a . Dicranum Hedw., Spec. Muse. 126, 1801. E i g h t s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. Key to the s p e c i e s o f Dicranum 1. A l a r c e l l s of l e a f m o s tly u n i s t r a t o s e ; capsules e r e c t and s t r a i g h t 2 2. Leaves c r i s p a t e and curved when dry; f l a g e l l i f o r m b r a n c h l e t s p r e s e n t ' D. m a y r i i 2. Leaves not c r i s p a t e , f a l c a t e and appressed to the stems; f l a g e l l i f o r m b r a n c h l e t s absent D. hamulosum 1. A l a r c e l l s mostly b i - o r m u l t i s t r a t o s e ; capsules curved o r i n c l i n e d 3 3. Leaves f r a g i l e , t i p s o f the l e a v e s broken o f f D. f r a g i l i f o l i u m 3. Leaves not f r a g i l e , t i p s o f the lea v e s not broken o f f . . 4 4. Each stem b e a r i n g 2 - s e v e r a l sporophytes 5 5. P l a n t s not g l o s s y , l e a v e s c r i s p e d when dry, 8-9 mm l o n g l e a f - c e l l s s t r o n g l y mammillose i n some c e l l s . D. muehlenbecki 5. P l a n t s g l o s s y , l e a v e s not c r i s p e d when dry, up to 12 mm long; l e a f - c e l l s smooth, D. majus 4. Each stem b e a r i n g a s i n g l e sporophyte 6 6. Leaves b r o a d l y l a n c e o l a t e w i t h an obtuse o r s h o r t l y acute apex; t e e t h on the upper p a r t o f the c o s t a -131-not u n i t e d to form a l a m e l l a D. nipponense 6. Leaves l a n c e o l a t e with a lon g , setaceous apex; t e e t h o f c o s t a u n i t e d to form a l a m e l l a 7 7. Leaves l o o s e , s p r e a d i n g , not f a l c a t e when dry...D. japonicum 7. Leaves crowded, r e g u l a r l y f a l c a t e - s e c u n d when dry D. scoparium 1. Dicranum f r a g i l i f o l i u m Lindb., Bot. Not. 1857s 147, 1857; N a k a n i s h i ( 1963); Wang ( I 9 6 7 , 1970). C i t e d specimens Nantou Co. Pa-tung-kuan to Mt. M o r r i s o n , S. N a k a n i s h i 326, 327, 328 (KU). H a b i t a t : On decayed l o g s and stumps. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe, S c o t l a n d , S i b e r i a , Northern North America, Japan and Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s f r a g i l e and v e r y l o n g s u b u l a t e l e a v e s . 2. Dicranum hamulosum M i t t . , Trans. L i n n . Soc. Bot. s e r . 2 , 3s 156, 1 8 9 1 ; Chuang & Iwatsuki ( 1 9 7 0 ) . C i t e d specimen: C h i a y i Co. Mt. A l i , near guest house, Z. Iwatsuki, A. J . & E. Sharp 123 (NICH); between Mt. A - l i and Tong-pu, Z. Iwatsuki, A. J . Sharp 675 (NICH); Pingtung Co. Kwai-ku, Chuang 1479 (UBC). H a b i t a t : 0 n t r e e trunks o r bases. D i s t r i b u t i o n : S a g h a l i n , Japan and Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from D. m a y r i i by i t s l e a v e s which are not c r i s p a t e when dry. - 1 3 2 -3 . Dicranum japonicum M i t t . , Trans. L i n n . Soc. Bot. 3 t 1 5 5 , 1891; N a k a n i s h i . ( I 9 6 3 ) ; Wang ( 1 9 6 3 , 1 9 7 0 ) . C i t e d specimen: Nantou Co. Tui-kuan to Kuan-kao, S. N a k a n i s h i 2 0 2 (KU); Pingtung Co. The f i r s t water resource to Kwai-ku, Chuang 1 3 2 2 , 1 3 3 7 (UBC); I l a n Co. Mt. T a i - p i n g - s h a n , Chuang 2080 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On humus, r i c h s o i l s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : S a g h a l i e n , Manchuria, Korea, mainland China, Japan and Taiwan. The c h a r a c t e r s which d i s t i n g u i s h the p r e s e n t s p e c i e s are: stems l o o s e l y f o l i a t e , d ensely covered by numerous r h i z o i d s , l e a v e s s p r e a d i n g , not f a l c a t e when dry and t e e t h s t r o n g e r than those of D. scoparium, the upper l e a f - c e l l s more elongate with s t r o n g l y sinuous w a l l s . 4. Dicranum ma,jus Turn., Muse. Hib. 5 9 , 1804; N a k a n i s h i ( I 9 6 3 ) ; Wang (1967, 1970). C i t e d specimen: Nantou Co. Mt. M o r r i s o n , Pa-tung-kuan to Mt. M o r r i s o n , 5. N a k a n i s h i 2 9 3 (UK); I l a n Co. C h i - l i - t i e n to Mt. Nan-hu-ta-shan Chuang 1 8 1 6 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On humus, r i c h s o i l s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe, North America, S a g h a l i e n , S i b e r i a , Caucasus, Korea, mainland China, Yunnan, Japan and Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s i s v e r y g l o s s y , l e a v e s are not c r i p s p e d when dry, l e a f - c e l l s are elongate and smooth, and each stem bears 1 - s e v e r a l s e t a e . - 1 3 3 -5 . Dicranum m a y r i i B r o t h . , Hedwigia 3 8 s 2 0 7 , 1 8 9 9 ; Takaki ( 1 9 6 4 ) ; Wang ( 1 9 6 7 , 1 9 7 0 ) ; Iwatsuki ( I 9 6 9 ) . Dicranum formosicum Broth., Rev. B r y o l . n. s e r . 2s 1, 1 9 2 9 ; Dicranum hamulosum sensu Wang B i o l . B u l l . Tunghai Univ. 3 1 : 3 , 19675 Wang (1970). C i t e d specimens Hsinchu Co. Mt. Lu-chang-ta-shan, Kuei-shan to N a o - l i a o , C. K. Wang 1 6 6 8 (NICH); C h i a y i Co. Mt. A - l i , C. K. Wang 1 4 7 6 (NICH). H a b i t a t s On decayed wood. D i s t r i b u t i o n s S a g h a l i e n , Korea, Japan and Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s can be s e p a r a t e d from D. hamulosum by i t s c r i s p a t e l e a v e s and f l a g e l l i f o r m branches. 6 . Dicranum muehlenbeckii B. S. G., B r y o l . Eur. Is 142, 1847; Na k a n i s h i 3 6 0 (KU). H a b i t a t s On humus. D i s t r i b u t i o n s Europe, S i b e r i a , Caucasus, North America, Japan, Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s d i f f e r s from D. majus by i t s l e a v e s t h a t are c r i s p e d when dry and the l e a f - c e l l s quadrate or r e c t a n g u l a r , some s t r o n g l y mammillose. 7 . Dicranum nipponense Besch,, Ann. Sc. Nat. Bot. s e r . 7 , 1 7 : 3 3 2 , 1893; Na k a n i s h i ( I 9 6 3 ) ; Takaki (1964); Wang (1967. 1970). C i t e d specimens I l a n Co. Mt. Ta i - p i n g - s h a n , Chuang 1924 (UBC); Hsinchu Co. Mt. Lu-chang-ta-shan, Kuei-shan to N a o - l i a o , C. K. Wang 1668a (NICH); Nantou Co. Tui-kuan to Kuan-kao, S. N a k a n i s h i 202 (KU). -134-H a b i t a t : On s o i l s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Japan, Korea and Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from D. .japonicus and D. scoparium by i t s b r o a d l y l a n c e o l a t e leaves with a broad apex and the s t r o n g l y sinuous l i n e a r - r e c t a n g u l a r c e l l s at the upper p a r t of the l e a f . 8. Dicranum scoparium Hedw., Spec. Muse. 126, 1801; Sasaoka (1928); N a k a n i s h i ( 1963); Wang (1967, 1970). C i t e d specimen: Nantou Co. Tui-kuan to Kuan-kao, S. N a k a n i s h i 204 (KU); Pingtung Co. Kwai-ku to Mt. Pei-ta-wu-shan, Chuang 1515 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On humus r i c h s o i l s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe, Azores, Madeira, C a n a r i e s , S i b e r i a , Yunnan, A l a s k a , North America, Mexico, New Zealnad, Korea, Japan and Taiwan. T h i s i s a h i g h l y v a r i a b l e s p e c i e s o f Dicranum. The l e a v e s are crowded, r e g u l a r l y f a l c a t e - s e c u n d , and t e e t h on the margins are n o t " s t r o n g and s h o r t as those o f D. j a p o n i c u s . • Leucoloma B r i d . , B r y o l . Univ. 2: 218, 1827. Only one s p e c i e s p r e s e n t i n Taiwan. Leucoloma molle ( C. M u e l l . ) M i t t . , J . L i n n . Soc. Bot. Suppl. 1: 13, 1859; Sasaoka (1920, 1928); I h s i b a (1929, 1935); Brotherus (1924); Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1970). C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i Co. Mt. Ch i - h s i n - s h a n , Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 240 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On t r e e t r u n k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Hong kong, P h i l i p p i n e s , Japan, Ryukyu, mainland China, -135-New Guinea, M a l a y s i a , Hawaiian I s l a n d s , P a c i f i c I s l a n d s . The p r e s e n t s p e c i e s i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from o t h e r s p e c i e s of Dicranaceae by having a margin formed by bands of l i n e a r , smooth, h y a l i n e c e l l s and the l e a f - c e l l s s m a l l oblong o r e l l i p t i c a l , d e n sely p a p i l l o s e i n a broad median band. Oncohporus ( B r i d . ) B r i d . , B r y o l . Univ. Is 389, 1826. One s p e c i e s and two v a r i e t i e s i n Taiwan. Key to the t a x a o f Oncophorus 1. Stems 4 - 5 cm hi g h ; l e a v e s 7-8 mm lo n g ; s e t a 2-3 cm l o n g 0. w a h l e n b e r g i i v a r . l o n g i s e t u s 1. Stems 1-2.5 cm high; l e a v e s 2-5 mm long; s e t a 1-1.5 cm long...2 2. Stems 1-2 cm h i g h , l e a v e s 2-5 mm l o n g 0 . w a h l e n b e r g i i 2. Stems 2 - 2 . 5 cm h i g h , l e a v e s 5-6 mm l o n g . . 0 . w a h l e n b e r g i i v a r . .japonicus 1. Oncophorus w a h l e n b e r g i i B r i d . , B r y o l . Univ. 1: 400, 1826; Sasaoka (1920, 1928); I h s i b a ( 1935); Wang ( I 9 6 8 , 1970). C i t e d specimens See d i s c u s s i o n below. H a b i t a t s On r o t t e n wood. D i s t r i b u t i o n s Europe, S i b e r i a , Japan, China, C e n t r a l A s i a , A l a s k a , North America. Sasaoka (1920, 1928), I h s i b a (1935) and Wang ( I 9 6 8 , 1970) l i s t e d t h i s s p e c i e s from Taiwan. I have not examined the above c i t e d specimen. These specimens need to be reexamined. 2. Oncophorus w a h l e n b e r g i i v a r . japonicus Noguchi J . Jap. Bot. 15$ 756, f . 13, 1939; Wang. ( 1970). -136-C i t e d specimen: C h i a y i Co. Mt. M o r r i s o n , A. Noguchi 6 3 4 5 — Holotype (NOG)—not seen. H a b i t a t : On r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Endemic to Taiwan. Noguchi (1939) noted t h i s v a r i e t y to be d i f f e r e n t from the s p e c i e s by i t s p o s s e s s i o n o f l e a v e s l o n g e r and wider i n the upper r e g i o n , and i t s l a r g e r s i z e . I have not s t u d i e d the type o f t h i s v a r i e t y , but because the s p e c i e s i s v e r y v a r i a b l e , i t may be the same taxon. 3. Oncophorus w a h l e n b e r g i i v a r . l o n g i s e t u s Noguchi, J . Jap. Bot. 15: 756, f . 13, 1939; Wang ( 1970) . C i t e d specimen: Pingtung Co. Kwai-ku to Mt. Pei-ta-wu-shan, Chuang 1578 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Endemic t o Taiwan. Noguchi s t a t e d t h a t t h i s v a r i e t y i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the s p e c i e s by the much t a l l e r and l a r g e r p l a n t (stems about 4-5 cm h i g h ) , and the loo s e l e a v e s , and the much l o n g e r setae ( 2 - 3 cm Ion O r e o w e i s i a ( B. S. G.) De Not., E p i l . 1: 489, I 8 6 9 . Only one s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. O r e o w e i s i a l a x i f o l i a ( Hook.f.) Kindb., Enum. B r y i n . Exot. 69, 1888; Noguchi ( 1 9 5 D ; Iwatsuki ( 1969); Wang ( 1970) . O r e o w e i s i a s e r r u l a t a sensu Wang B i o l . B u l l . Tunghai Univ. 31: 2, I967; Wang ( 1970) . C i t e d specimen: Taichung Co. Hsiao-hsueh-shan, C. K. Wang 1025 --det. as 0 . s e r r u l a t a (NICH). - 1 3 7 -H a b i t a t : On r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n s Himalaya, Yunnan, Kashmir, Nepal, Sikkim, Assam, South I n d i a , mainland China, Japan and Taiwan. T h i s Himalayan element i s v e r y s i m i l a r to 0 . s e r r u l a t a which i s w i d e l y s c a t t e r e d i n b o r e a l r e g i o n s o f Europe, but the high , p o i n t e d mammillose c e l l s o f the l e a f are d i f f e r e n t from those o f 0 . s e r r u l a t a . Paraleucobryum ( Limpr.) Loesk., A l l g . Bot. Z e i t s c h r . 1 3 s I 6 7 , 1 9 0 7 . One s p e c i e s i n T aiwan. Paraleucobryum enerve ( Thed.) Loesk., Hedwigia 4 7 t 1 7 1 , I 9 0 8 ; Noguchi ( 1 9 3 9 ) ; Wang ( 1 9 7 0 ) . Paraleucobryum enerve form, f a l c a t u m Noguchi J . Jap. Bot. 1 5 : 7 5 6 , 1 9 3 9 ; Wang ( 1 9 7 0 ) . C i t e d specimens I l a n Co. Mt. Nan-hu-ta-shan, Chuang 1 7 9 2 (UBC)! Pingtung Co. Kwai-ku to'Mt. Pei-ta-wu-shan, Chuang 1 5 1 5 b (UBC). H a b i t a t s On r o c k s o f a l p i n e r e g i o n s . D i s t r i b u t i o n s Europe, Caucasus, Sikkim, Yunnan, North America, Mexico and Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s c o s t a which i s composed o f 3 - 4 l a y e r s o f c e l l s , the c h l o r o p h y l l o s e c e l l s i n the middle of c o s t a and surrounded on both s i d e s by a l a y e r o f h y a l i n e c e l l s . Noguchi ( 1 9 3 9 ) r e c o g n i z e d a form o f the s p e c i e s w i t h s t r o n g l y f a l c a t e - s e c u n d l e a v e s . I do not r e c o g n i z e t h i s taxon. P. formosanum B r o t h . Sasaoka ( 1 9 2 8 ) , I h s i b a ( 1 9 3 5 ) based on Y. Shimada 2 9 1 from Mt. S y l v i a , Noguchi ( 1 9 3 9 ) suggested t h a t t h i s undescibed s p e c i e s may be the same as P. enerve. - 1 3 8 -Rhabdoweisia B. S. G. , B r y o l . Eur. 1: 9 7 , 1846. One s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. Rhabdoweisia c r e n u l a t a ( M i t t . ) Jameson, Rev. B r y o l . 1 7 : 6 , 1 8 9 0 ; Lawton ( 1 9 6 1 ) ; Wang ( 1 9 7 0 ) . Rhabdoweisia d e n t i c u l a t a non; B. S. G . , s e n s u Noguchi ( 1 9 5 0 ) . C i t e d specimen: C h i a y i Co. Mt. Kodama, A. Noguchi 7 1 9 3 (NOG)--not seen. H a b i t a t : On s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Sikkim, B r i t i s h I s l e s , Germany, Belgium, France, mainland China, Taiwan, North America. T h i s s p e c i e s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s rounded obtuse o r b r o a d l y acute, l a n c e o l a t e l e a v e s w i t h d e n t i c u l a t e margins, and ca p s u l e s with e i g h t deep grooves. Symblepharis Mont., Ann. Sc. Nat. Bot. s e r . 2 , 8 : 2 5 2 , I 8 3 7 . Two s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. Key to the s p e c i e s o f Symblepharis 1. P l a n t s s m a l l , 2 - 3 cm high; l e a v e s obovate, g r a d u a l l y narrowed to a grooved, s p r e a d i n g p o i n t ; c a p s u l e s c y l i n d r i c a l , 3 mm lo n g S. v a g i n a t a 1. P l a n t s l a r g e , 5 - 8 cm high; l e a v e s from a c l a s p i n g base, l a n c e o l a t e - s u b u l a t e , 7 - 8 mm l o n g , up to 14 mm l o n g ; capsules o v o i d , 2 mm l o n g . . S. r e i n w a r d t i i 1. Symblepharis r e i n w a r d t i i ( Doz. & Molk.) M i t t . , Trans. R. Soc. Edinburgh 31s 3 3 1 , 1888; Sasaoka ( 1 9 2 0 , 1 9 2 8 ) ; I h s i b a ( 1 9 3 5 ) ; Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1 9 6 9 , 1 9 7 0 ) ; Noguchi ( I 9 6 6 ) . C i t e d specimen: I l a n Co. Mt. K i l a i s h u z a n , Y. Shimada (TNS)--not seen. -139-H a b i t a t : not g i v e n . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Nepal, Sikkim, Assam, Bengal, Naga H i l l s , Burma, Java, Borneo, P h i l i p p i n e s , Taiwan. 2. Symblepharis v a g i n a t a ( Hook.) Wijk. & :Marg., Taxon 8: 75, 1959. Symblepharis h e l i c o p h y l l a Mont., Ann. Sc. Nat. Bot. s e r . 2, 8: 252, 1837; Sasaoka (1927, 1928); I h s i b a . (1929, 1935); Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1970). C i t e d specimen: Mt. S y l v i a , Y. Shimada 292 ( T N S ) — n o t seen. H a b i t a t : On d e c a y i n g wood. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Himalaya, Nepal, Sikkim, Assam, Bengal, Yunnan, mainland China, Mexico, Panama, Guatemala, C o s t a r i c o , North America ( s o u t h e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s ) , Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s which i s d i s t r i b u t e d i n A s i a and C e n t r a l America d i s j u n c t i v e l y , and can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from S. r e i n w a r d t i i by the l e a v e s b e i n g 4-5 mm l o n g , and the c y l i n d r i c a l c a p s u l e s 3 mm l o n g . I have not examined the Taiwan specimen. F a m i l y : Leucobryaceae Four genera i n Taiwan. Key to the genera of Leucobryaceae 1. C o s t a w i t h s t e r e i d c e l l s Leucophanes 1. C o s t a without s t e r e i d c e l l s 2 2. Leaves w i t h h y a l i n e s h e a t h i n g base; c h l o r o c y s t s i n at l e a s t 3 l a y e r s E x o d i c t y o n 2. Leaves without h y a l i n e s h e a t h i n g base; c h l o r o c y s t s one l a y e r on the middle of l e a f 3 -140-3. Leaves long-ovate or l a n c e o l a t e , p o i n t e d ; c h l o r o c y s t s quadrangular; capsules ovoid, i n c l i n e d ; peristome t e e t h 16 i Leucobryum 3. Leaves U n g u l a t e , obtuse; c h l o r o c y s t s t r i a n g u l a r ; c a p s u l e s e r e c t , c y l i n d r i c a l ; peristome t e e t h 8 Octoblepharum E x o d i c t y o n Card., Rev. B r y o l . 6, 1899. One s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. E x o d i c t y o n b l u m i i ( Hamp.) F l e i s c h . , Musci Arch. I n d i c i n. 58, 1899; Horikawa (1935, 1935a); Herz. & Noguchi ( 1955); S h i n (1965); Wang ( I 9 6 0 , 1970). C i t e d specimen: Pingtung Co. Nan-jen-shan, Chuang 929 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On t r e e t r u n k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Ryukyu, Taiwan, P h i l i p p i n e s , Borneo, Malaya, Java. The p r e s e n t s p e c i e s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s three l a y e r s o f c h l o r o c y s t s i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n s o f the l e a v e s . The stems are g e n e r a l l y up to 2 cm o r l o n g e r w i t h l e a v e s l i n e a r from an e r e c t c l a s p i n g base, with an obtuse apex, s e r r u l a t e , about 4 mm l o n g . Leucobryum Hamp., F l o r a 20: 282, 1837. F i v e s p e c i e s from Taiwan. Key to the s p e c i e s o f Leucobryum 1. Leaves s t r o n g l y scabrous on back near the t i p 2 2. P l a n t s robust, 3-10 cm high; l e a v e s with ovate to l a n c e o l a t e base, 8-15 mm l o n g 3 3. Leaves d i s t i n c t l y f a l c a t e - s e c u n d , upper margins never i n c u r v e d , 12-14 x 2 mm long, l e u c o c y s t s i n 5-6 l a y e r s at l e a f - b a s e L. javense - 1 4 1 -3. Leaves e r e c t - a s c e n d i n g , upper margins i n c u r v e d , 8 x 1.7 mm long , l e u c o c y s t s u s u a l l y i n 2-3 l a y e r s at l e a f - b a s e . L. scabrum 2. P l a n t s s m a l l , about 1 cm high? l e a v e s w i t h narrow l o n g -l a n c e o l a t e base, 4-5 mm l o n g L. scaberulum 1. Leaves smooth on the back 4 4. Leaves f l e x u o s e , l e u c o c y s t s i n 2-3 l a y e r s at the l e a f base L. b o w r i n g i i 4. Leaves e r e c t - s p r e a d i n g , l e u c o c y s t s i n 4-6 l a y e r s at l e a f base L. n e i l g h e r r e n s e 1. Leucobryum b o w r i n g i i M i t t . , J . L i n n . Soc. Suppl. Is 26, 1859; Cardot ( 1905) ; Sasaoka ( 1928); Horikawa ( 1920); I h s i b a (1929, 1935); Bartram ( 1939); Herz. & Noguchi (1955); Johnson (1964); S h i n ( 1965); Wang (1968, 1969, 1970). Leucobryum b o w r i n g i i M i t t . form, b r e v i f o l i u m , C a r d o t , B e i h . Bot. C e n t r a l b l . 19: 98, 1905; Horikawa ( 1920); Sasaoka (1928); I h s i b a (1935); Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1970). C i t e d specimens Nantou Co. Sun moon l a k e , Chuang & S c h o f i e l d , 672 (UBC). H a b i t a t s On base o f t r e e trunk o r r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n s Japan, Ryukyu, Taiwan, mainland China, P h i l i p p i n e s , Celebes, Sumatra, Java, Malaya and Ceylon. T h i s s p e c i e s i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from o t h e r s p e c i e s o f Leucobryum by having l e a v e s w i t h a l o n g , f l e x u o s e apex and l e u c o c y s t s i n 2 l a y e r s at the l e a f - b a s e . -142-Cardot (1905) r e c o g n i z e d a s h o r t e r l e a f form of t h i s s p e c i e s from Taiwan without any d i s c u s s i o n . I t might be b e t t e r c o n s i d e r e d an e c o l o g i c a l v a r i a t i o n and i s here combined w i t h the s p e c i e s . 2. Leucobryum javense ( B r i d . ) M i t t . , J . L i n n . Soc. Bot. Suppl. 1: 25, 1859; Wang ( 1970) . C i t e d specimens Kaohsiung Co. Shan-ping to Nan-feng-shan, Chuang 991 (UBC). H a b i t a t s On t r e e r o o t s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Southern I n d i a , Ceylon, Malaya, New Guinea, China (Yunnan), Hongkong, P h i l i p p i n e s , Borneo, Java, Sumatra, Laos, Ce l e b e s . New to Taiwan! Wang (1970) l i s t e d t h i s s p e c i e s from Taiwan without any c i t a t i o n . 3. Leucobryum n e i l g h e r r e n s e C. M u e l l . , Bot. Z e i t . 12: 556, 1854; Cardot (1905)5 Sasaoka ( 1928); I h s i b a (1929, 1935); Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1970). Leucobryum n e i l g h e r r e n s e v a r . minus Cardot., B e i h . Bot. C e n t r a l b l . 19: 97, 1905j Horikawa (1920); Sasaoka (1928); I h s i b a (1929, 1935); Wang (1970). Leucobryum c o n f i n e Card., B e i h . Bot. C e n t r a l b l . 19s 97, 1905; Horikawa ( 1 9 2 0);.Brotherus ( 1924); Sasaoka ( 1928); I h s i b a (1929, 1935); Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1970). Leucobryum n e i l g h e r r e n s e v a r . galeatum (Besch.) Dix., Hong Kong N a t u r a l s u p p l . 2: 7, 1933. Leucobryum galeatum Besch., J . Bot. 12: 286, I 8 9 8 ; Cardot (1905); Sasaoka ( 1928); Horikawa (1920); I h s i b a (1929, 1935); - 1 4 3 -Wang (I960, 1970). C i t e d specimen; T a i p e i Co. Taitum, U. F a u r i e 50 (KYO)--Isotype o f L. n e i l g h e r r e n s e v a r . minus; Kushaku, U. F a u r i e 111 ( K Y O ) — Isotype of L. c o n f i n e ; Taitum U. F a u r i e 45 ( K Y O ) — d e t . as L. galeatum; Kaohsiung Co. Mt. Nan-feng-shan to Shan-ping, Chuang 1109 (UBC): I l a n Co. Mt. T a i - p i n g - s h a n , Chuang 2031 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On base o f t r e e trunk, rocks and s o i l s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Java, Sumatra, Ceylon, Celebes, Borneo, Tonkin, I n d i a , mainland China, Japan, P h i l i p p i n e s and Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s i s v e r y v a r i a b l e . Because of the s m a l l e r s i z e of t h i s p l a n t w i t h s m a l l , narrow l e a v e s , Cardot (1905) d e s c r i b e d i t as the v a r i e t y minus based on F a u r i e ' s specimen no. 50. I made c r o s s - s e c t i o n s of l e a v e s of the i s o t y p e of the v a r i e t y from KYO, which do not g r e a t l y d i f f e r from t y p i c a l L. n e i l g h e r r e n s e on l e u c o c y s t s p r e s e n t 4-6 l a y e r s i n t h i c k p a r t s of l e a v e s . I c o n s i d e r t h a t t h i s v a r i e t y might be based on j u v e n i l e specimens of t h i s s p e c i e s . U s i n g the e x t e r n a l c h a r a c t e r s and c r o s s s e c t i o n of the l e a v e s of L. c o n f i n e and L. galeatum c i t e d above, I concluded t h a t both s p e c i e s p r o b a b l y belong to L. n e i l g h e r r e n s e , although some specimens showed l e a v e s t e n d i n g to be much s m a l l e r and narrower and more s l e n d e r at the apex of the stem; some m a t e r i a l s showed branched stems. As Dixon (1933) commented on v a r . galeatum, "In i t s extreme forms t h i s i s v e r y d i s t i n c t , but i t passes i n -p e r c e p t i b l y i n t o o r d i n a r y L. n e i l g h e r r e n s e " . I conclude t h a t v a r . minus, v a r . galeatum and L. c o n f i n e are the same taxon. - 1 4 4 -4 . Leucobryum scaberulum Card., i n Ren. et Card., B u l l . Soc. R. Bot. B e l g . 4 1 ( 1 ) ; 2 6 , 1 9 0 5 ; Cardot ( 1 9 0 5 ) i Horikawa ( 1 9 2 0 ) ; Sasaoka ( 1 9 2 8 ) ; I h s i b a ( 1 9 3 5 ) ; Wang ( 1 9 7 0 ) . C i t e d specimens T a i p e i Co. Yuan-shan, U. F a u r i e 1 , 3 (KYO). H a b i t a t s On rocks and s o i l s . D i s t r i b u t i o n s Hong Kong and Taiwan. 5. Leucobryum scabrum Lac., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. 2s 2 9 2 , 1 8 6 6 ; Cardot ( 1 9 0 5 ) ; Horikawa ( 1 9 2 0 ) ; Brotherus ( 1 9 2 4 ) ; Sasaoka ( 1 9 2 8 ) ; I h s i b a ( 1 9 2 9 , 1 9 3 5 ) ; Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1 9 7 0 ) ; Johson ( 1 9 6 4 ) . C i t e d specimens T a i p e i Co. Taitum, U. F a u r i e 41 (KYO). H a b i t a t s On humus, rocks and s o i l s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Hong Kong, mainland China, Taiwan, T h a i l a n d , Malaya, Japan, Ryukyu. Leucophanes Hamp., F l o r a 2 8 2 , I 8 3 7 . Two s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. Key t o the s p e c i e s o f Leucophanes 1 . Robust g l o s s y p l a n t s , up to 6 cm hi g h ; l e a v e s s t r o n g l y k e e l e d above, o v a t e - l a n c e o l a t e , s h o r t a p i c u l a t e . . . L. candidum 1 . S l e n d e r , d u l l s m a l l p l a n t s , 2 - 3 mm high; l e a v e s n e a r l y f l a t above, l i n e a r - l a n c e o l a t e , acute L. o c t o b l e p h a r i o i d e s 1 . Leucophanes candidum ( Schwaegr.) Lindb., Oefv. K. Vet. Ak. Foerh. 2 1 : 6 0 2 , 1 8 6 5 ; Wang ( 1 9 6 9 , 1 9 7 0 ) . C i t e d specimen: B o t e l Tobago, T i e n - c h i n , BT. no. 4 6 , 4 7 , 4 8 , 4 9 (THU)--not seen. H a b i t a t : not g i v e n . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Ceylon, M a l a y s i a , New Guinea, F i j i and Samoa. - 1 4 5 -Wang (1969) i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s s p e c i e s a l s o o c c u r r e d from Taiwan by Chen (1963)1 but t h i s seems to be on m i s c i t a t i o n . 2. Leucophanes o c t o b l e p h a r i o i d e s B r i d . , B r y o l . Univ. 1: 763, 1826; Noguchi ( 1935); Herz. & Noguchi (1955); S h i n (1965)5 Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1969, 1970). C i t e d specimen: B o t e l Tobago, T. Kano, 14281 ( H I R O ) — n o t seen. H a b i t a t : On t r e e bark. D i s t r i b u t i o n : I n d i a , Nepal, Ceylon, T h a i l a n d , Taiwan, P h i l i p p i n e s , Celebes, Borneo, Sarawak, Sumatra, Malaya, south P a c i f i c I s l a n d s . Noguchi (1935) r e p o r t e d t h i s specimen from B o t e l Tobago, but gave no s p e c i e s name. The m a t e r i a l s from Noguchi*s d e s c r i p -t i o n showed the s i z e of l e a v e s l a r g e r than those from the P h i l i p p i n e and M a l a y s i a . A c r o s s - s e c t i o n of l e a v e s showed two l a y e r s of l e u c o c y s t s p r e s e n t i n t h i s s p e c i e s . Octoblepharum Hedw., Spec. Muse. 50, 1801. One s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. Octoblepharum albidum Hedw., Spec. Muse. 50, 1801; Noguchi (193*0; I h s i b a ( 1935); Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1970). C i t e d specimen: Nantou Co. Sun-moon l a k e , Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 662 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On t r e e t r u n k . D i s t r i b u t i o n : North America (south F l o r i d a , Texas), West I n d i e s , Java, M a l a y s i a , I n d i a , P h i l i p p i n e s , Himalaya, Assam, Burma, T h a i l a n d , Vietnam, mainland China, Indonesia, A f r i c a , south America, Mexico, Queensland and P a c i f i c I s l a n d s . T h i s p a n t r o p i c a l s p e c i e s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the s m a l l , -146-t r i a n g u l a r c h l o r o c y s t i n the middle and l e u c o c y s t s on e i t h e r s i d e i n a c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f the l e a f . F amily: E n c a l y p t a c e a e One genus i n Taiwan. E n c a l y p t a Schreb. Hedw., Spec. Muse. 60, 1801. One s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. E n c a l y p t a c i l i a t a Hedw., Spec. Muse. 6 l , 1801i Noguchi (1934); Wang ( I 9 6 0 , 1970). E n c a l y p t a l a c i n i a t a (Hedw.) Lindb., A c t . Soc. Sc. Fenn. 10: 18, 1872; Chen ( 1963) . C i t e d specimen: C h i a y i Co. Mt. M o r r i s o n , A. Noguchi 6365, 6927 (NOG)--not seen. H a b i t a t : On r o c k s i n the a l p i n e area. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe, A l g i e r s , A b y s s i n i a , Caucasus, Kashimir, Himalaya, C e n t r a l A s i a , S i b e r i a , Amur, North America, Mexico, Japan, Korea, Hawaii, A u s t r a l i a . T h i s s p e c i e s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by having l e a v e s oblong round a p i c u l a t e , U n g u l a t e to s p a t h u l a t e ; a c o s t a ending below the apex; c a l y p t r a l a r g e r than the cap s u l e s , f r i n g e d , t u b u l a r and e r e c t c y l i n d r i c a l . F a m i l y : Calymperaceae Two genera i n c l u d i n g t e n s p e c i e s and one v a r i e t i e s i n Taiwan. Key t o the genera o f Calymperaceae 1. Leaves bordered; peristome t e e t h p resent; c a l y p t r a m i t r i f o r m Syrrhopodon -147-1. L e a f margins not bordered; peristome absent; c a l y p t r a campanulate Calymperes Calymperes Sw. , i n Web., Tab. Exh. C a l y p t r . Operc. Gen. 1813. S i x s p e c i e s and one v a r i e t y i n Taiwan. Key to the s p e c i e s of Calymperes 1. Small p l a n t s l e s s than 1 cm high, u s u a l l y 0 . 5 cm 2 2. Leaves without t e n i o l a e or a t h i c k e n e d border 3 3. Leaves l o n g - l i n e a r , about 2 cm l o n g C. l o n g i f o l i u m 3. Leaves U n g u l a t e or ovate, about 2-3 mm l o n g 4 4. Leaves U n g u l a t e , 3 mm l o n g , l e a f - b a s e broader than the blade C. dozyanum 4. Leaves ovate, 2 mm lo n g , l e a f - b a s e narrower than the b l a d e . . . ....C. tenerum 2. Leaves w i t h t e n i o l a e or a t h i c k e n e d border... 5 5. Leaves 1.5-2 mm lo n g , l i n e a r - l a n c e o l a t e , c o s t a densely t u b e r c u l a t e C. s t r i c t i f o l i u m 5. Leaves 5-7 mm l o n g , l i n e a r , c o s t a smooth....C. serratum 1. Robust p l a n t s , h i g h e r than 2 cm t a l l 6 6. L e a f apex rounded; l e a f margins d e n t i c u l a t e w i t h t e n i o l a e ; l e a f - c e l l s p a p i l l o s e C. t a h i t e n s e 6. L e a f apex acute or acuminate; l e a f margins s e r r a t e , without t e n i o l a e , l e a f - c e l l s smooth...C. j o h a n n i s - w i n k l e r i  v a r . hasegawae 1. C a l y p e r e s dozyanum M i t t . , J . L i n n . Soc. Bot. s u p p l . 1: 42, 1859. C i t e d specimen: B o t e l Tobago, M. T. Kao, Aug. 27-31, 1969 ( T A I ) . -148-H a b i t a t : On t r e e trunk;. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Ceylon, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, P h i l i p p i n e s . New to Taiwan I T h i s s p e c i e s can be r e c o g n i z e d by i t s l i n g u l a t e broad based l e a v e s , 3 mm lon g , w i t h a rounded apex and an absence of t e n i o l a e . 2. Calymperes j o h a n n i s - w i n k l e r i Broth, v a r . hasegawae ( T a k a k i & Iwatsuki) Iwats., J . Jap. Bot. 43: 476, 1968. Syrrhopodon hasegawae Takaki & Iwatsuki, J . H a t t o r i Bot. Lab. 21: 240, 1959. C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i Co. Rahau, A. Noguchi, Aug. 13, 1932--det. as C. moluccense (NICH no. 298213). H a b i t a t : On t r e e bark .. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Japan, Hong Kong, P h i l i p p i n e s , T h a i l a n d , New to Taiwan! T h i s s p e c i e s i s v e r y c l o s e to C. t a h i t e n s e . However, i t can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from C. t a h i t e n s e by l e a f - c h a r a c t e r s . I t has l e a v e s with s e r r a t e margins, smooth c e l l s , no t e n i o l a e and an acute o r acuminate l e a f - a p e x , while. C. t a h i t e n s e has a d e n t i c u l a t e l e a f - m a r g i n , p a p i l l o s e l e a d - c e l l s , d i s t i n c t t e n i o l a e i n the s h o u l d e r of l e a v e s , and a round apex. 3. Calymperes l o n g i f o l i u m M i t t . , J . L i n n . Soc. Bot. 10: 173, 1868. Calymperes c r i s t a t u m Hamp., Nuov. G i o r n . Bot. I t a l . 4: 278, Noguchi ( 1939) . C i t e d specimen: B o t e l Tobago, T. Kano, May 1936 (NICH 298220). H a b i t a t : Not g i v e n . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Ryukyu, Taiwan, Borneo, Java, M i c r o n e s i a . -149-T h i s s p e c i e s can be i d e n t i f i e d by i t s l o n g , s l e n d e r , narrowly l i n e a r l e a v e s ( about 2 cm l o n g ) without t e n i o l a e . 4. Calymperes serratum A. Brown, ex C. M u e l l . , Sun. It 527, 1849; Herz. & Noguchi (1955); Wang (i960, 1970). C i t e d specimens B o t e l Tobago, G. H. Schwabe, no. 126 p. p. H a b i t a t : On t r e e bark . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Java, M a l a y s i a n A r c h i p e l a g o , Hong Kong, P h i l i p p i n e s , Samoa, Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s i s v e r y c l o s e to C. l o n g i f o l i u m i n a g e n e r a l appearance, but C. serratum can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from C. l o n g i f o l i u m by i t s l e a v e s 1 cm l o n g and t e n i o l a e p r e s e n t . 5. Calymperes s t r i c t i f o l i u m ( M i t t . ) Roth., Hedwigia 51: 127, 1911; Wang (1970). Calymperes tuberculosum (Th6r. & Dix.) B r o t h . , Nat. P f l . fam. ed. 2, 10: 240, 1924; Herz. & Noguchi (1955); Wang ( I 9 6 0 ) . C i t e d specimen: B o t e l Tobago, G. H. Schwabe, 126 (NICH 298225). H a b i t a t : On t r e e bark. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Borneo, F i j i , Samoa, P h i l i p p i n e s , Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s i s v e r y e a s i l y r e c o g n i z e d by the conspicuous t u b e r c u l a e on the l e a f - b o r d e r and c o s t a . 6. Calymperes t a h i t e n s e ( S u l l . ) M i t t . , J . L i n n . Soc. Bot. 10: 172, 1868; Herz. & Noguchi (1955); Wang (i960). C i t e d specimen: B o t e l Tobago, G. H. Schwabe, 80 (NICH 298226). Pingtung Co. Nan-jen-shan, Chuang 927 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On t r e e t r u n k . -150-D i s t r i b u t i o n : Samoa, Java, Borneo, F i j i , T a h i t i , P h i l i p p i n e s . T h i s s p e c i e s i s v e r y s i m i l a r to C. j o h a n n i s - w i n k l e r i v a r . hasegawae. The key c h a r a c t e r to d i s t i n g u i s h these two s p e c i e s i s d i s c u s s e d under C. j o h a n n i s - w i n k l e r i v a r . hasegawae. 7. Calymperes tenerum C. M u e l l . , L i n n a e a 37 J 174, 1872; Herz. & Noguchi ( 1955) ; Wang ( I 9 6 0 ) . C i t e d specimen: B o t e l Tobago, G. H. Schwabe 95 (NICH 298224); Kaohsiung Co. Nan-feng-shan to Shan-ping, Chuang 1147 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On t r e e trunks a l o n g r o a d s i d e . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Bengal, Malacca, Java, New C a l e d o n i a , I n d i a , Malaya, P a c i f i c I s l a n d s , Hawaiian I s l a n d s , Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s h o r t stems (up to 1 cm l o n g ) , ovate rounded l e a v e s , e n t i r e margins, s h o r t r e c t a n g u l a r c a n c e l l i n a e , and without t e n i o l a e . Syrrhopodon Schwaegr., Spec. Muse, s u p p l . 2 ( 1 ) : 110, 1824. Four s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. Key to the s p e c i e s of Syrrhopodon 1. L e a f margins s h a r p l y s e r r a t e ; not bordered w i t h elongate l i n e a r c e l l s 2 2. P l a n t s about 1 cm high, l e a f - c e l l s ovate or rounded, 8 ^ , s t r o n g l y s t e l l a t e - p a p i l l o s e S. g a r d n e r i 2. P l a n t s about 5 cm h i g h ; l e a f c e l l s r e c t a n g u l a r o r quadrate, 9 - 1 5ju; p a p i l l o s e at the upper end of the c e l l s S. j a p o n i c u s 1. L e a f margins e n t i r e ; bordered with elongate l i n e a r c e l l s . . . . 3 3. Leaves narrowly l a n c e o l a t e or l i n e a r ; l e a f s h o u l d e r not -151-c i l i a t e . . .S. t o s a e n s i s 3. Leaves b r o a d l y U n g u l a t e ; l e a f s h o u l d e r w i t h 4-8 l o n g s p i n e - l i k e c i l i a S. l a r m i n a t i i 1. Syrrhopodon g a r d n e r i ( Hook.) Schwaeg., Spec. Muse. Suppl. 2(1) .• 110, 131, 1824; Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1970). C i t e d specimens Nantou Co. Sun moon l a k e , A. Noguchi--det. as Calymperes c r i s t a t u m (NICH 298219); Kaohsiung Co. Mt. Nan-feng-shan, C. K. Wang IO69 (NICH 229551), C. K. Wang 1089 (NICH 229552); Chuang 1006 (UBC). H a b i t a t s On decaying wood. D i s t r i b u t i o n s P h i l i p p i n e s , Borneo, Java, Ceylon, Himalaya, T h a i l a n d , Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to S. j a p o n i c u s , but d i f f e r s from the l a t t e r s p e c i e s by ha v i n g s t r o n g l y s t e l l a t e - p a p i l l o s e , ovate o r rounded l e a f - c e l l s , while S. japonicus has quadrate o r r e c t a n g u l a r l e a f c e l l s w i t h obtuse p a p i l l a e at the upper ends of the c e l l s . 2. Syrrhopodon j a p o n i c u s ( Besch.) Broth., Nat. P f l . fam. ed. 2, 10s 233, 1924; Wang ( I 9 6 7 , 1970); Iwatsuki ( I 9 6 8 ) . C i t e d specimens Nantou Co. L i - s h a n , C. K. Wang 1846 (NICH 232012), C h i - t o u to C h i - t i , Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 489 (UBC); Hsinchu Co. Mt. Kuei-shan, C. K. Wang 1604 (NICH 2317IO), 1609 (NICH 231709). H a b i t a t s On t r e e bark; D i s t r i b u t i o n s Japan, Taiwan, P h i l i p p i n e s , Boreno, Java, Sumatra, Malaya and North Vietnam. T h i s s p e c i e s has been d i s c u s s e d by Iwatsuki ( I968) i n h i s - 1 5 2 -" Notes on A s i a t i c Calymperaceae". In Taiwan, t h i s s p e c i e s seems to occur around 1800 - 2 5 0 0 m a l t i t u d e i n a l p i n e c o n i f e r o u s f o r e s t s . 3 . Syrrhopodon t o s a e n s i s Card., B u l l . Herb. B o i s s . 7 : 7 1 6 , 1 9 0 7 ; Noguchi ( 1 9 4 8 ) ; Iwatsuki ( 1 9 5 6 ) ; Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1 9 7 0 ) . C i t e d specimens Nantou Co. Sun moon l a k e , A. Noguchi, Aug. 14, 1 9 3 2 (NICH 2 9 8 2 2 7 ) . H a b i t a t s On decayed t r e e t r u n k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n s Japan and Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s l i n e a r , obtuse l e a v e s w i t h a d i s t i n c t border, and l o n g s p i n e s on the c o s t a near apex. 4 . Syrrhopodon l a r m i n a t i i Par. & Broth., Rev. B r y o l . 28s 1 2 5 , 1 9 0 1 . Syrrhopodon tsushimae Card., B u l l . Herb. B o i s s . s e r . 2 , 7s 7 1 6 , 1 9 0 7 ; Wang ( 1 9 7 0 ) . C i t e d specimens Nantou Co. C h i - t o u , Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 243 (UBC). H a b i t a t s On bark o f Cry p t o m e r i a j a p o n i c a . D i s t r i b u t i o n s I n d i a , Assam, P h i l i p p i n e s , Hong Kong, Japan, North Vietnam. New to Taiwan! Wang ( 1 9 7 0 ) l i s t e d t h i s s p e c i e s from Taiwan without c i t a t i o n . T h i s s p e c i e s can be s e p a r a t e d from o t h e r Syrrhopodon by i t s l e a f s h o u l d e r w i t h 4 - 8 l o n g s p i n e - l i k e c i l i a . F a m i l y : P o t t i a c e a e E i g h t e e n genera i n Taiwan. Key to the genera o f P o t t i a c e a e 1. Leaves g e n e r a l l y broad; c o s t a i n c r o s s s e c t i o n w i t h o n l y a d o r s a l band 2 -153-2. Small p l a n t s ( l e s s than 1 cm h i g h ) ; l e a f c e l l s t h i n - w a l l e d margins e n t i r e 3 3. Leaves narrowly U n g u l a t e , b a s a l l e a f c e l l s s h o r t r e c t a n g u l a r ; c o s t a ending below the apex or p e r c u r r e n t , peristome absent S c o p e l o p h i l a 3. Leaves U n g u l a t e to s p a t h u l a t e , b a s a l l e a f - c e l l s broad and e l o n g a t e ; c o s t a s t r o n g l y e x c u r r e n t i n t o a l o n g h y a l i n e h a i r p o i n t ; peristome of l o n g c o r k s c r e w - t w i s t e d t e e t h T o r t u l a 2. L a r g e r p l a n t s ( t a l l e r than 2 cm h i g h ) ; l e a f c e l l s t h i c k -w a l l e d , margin with l a r g e sharp t e e t h Leptodontium 1. Leaves g e n e r a l l y narrow; c o s t a i n c r o s s s e c t i o n with two s t e r e i d bands 4 4. L e a f margin r e c u r v e d . 5 5. L e a f - c e l l s mostly p e l l u c i d ; l eaves l a n c e o l a t e or U n g u l a t e , l o o s e l y p a p i l l o s e or n e a r l y smooth, i n n e r p e r i c h a e t i a l l e a v e s s m a l l Hydrogonium 5. L e a f - c e l l s obscure, densely p a p i l l o s e ; l e a v e s l a n c e o l a t e with broad base; i n n e r p e r i c h a e t i a l l e a v e s l a r g e . . 6 6. Leaf-apex round, back of c o s t a scabrous....Semibarbula 6. Leaf-apex acute, a p i c u l a t e , back of c o s t a smooth or p a p i l l o s e ? 7. B a s a l c e l l s of l e a f enlarged, h y a l i n e , l e a f - c e l l s w i t h prominent c-shape p a p i l l a e . . . . B r y o e r y t h r o p h y l l u m 7. B a s a l c e l l s of l e a f not d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , l e a f - c e l l s w i t h few o-shaped p a p i l l a e B a r b u l a -154-L e a f margin plane o r i n c u r v e d 8 8. Leaves broad, U n g u l a t e o r s p a t h u l a t e 9 9 . L e a f - c e l l s w i t h o-shaped p a p i l l a e ; c a p s u l e s t h i c k - w a l l e d smooth when dry H y o p h i l a 9 . L e a f - c e l l s w i t h c-shaped p a p i l l a e ; c a p s u l e s t h i n - w a l l e d w i t h s e v e r a l l o n g i t u d i n a l furrows when d r y . . w e i s s i o p s i s 8. Leaves narrow, l i n e a r , l a n c e o l a t e o r narrowly l a n c e o l a t e . . 1 0 10. Leaves b i s t r a t o s e , v e n t r a l c e l l s mammillose....Timmiella 10. Leaves u n i s t r a t o s e ; l e a f - c e l l s p a p i l l o s e 11 11. Margin s t r o n g l y i n v o l u t e ...12 12. Capsules immersed, d e h i s c i n g i r r e g u l a r l y ; peristome absent Astomum 12. Capsules l o n g e x s e r t e d , o p e r c u l a t e ; peristome p r e s e n t o r absent 13 13. Peristome t e e t h p r e s e n t W e i s s i a 13. Peristome t e e t h absent Hymenostomum 11. Margin plane 14 14. Sporophytes l a t e r a l 15 15. Leaves margin e n t i r e . . . . . . 16 16. Leaves elongate l i n e a r Molendoa 16. Leaves l a n c e o l a t e . . ' Anoectangium 15. Leaves margin s e r r a t e P l e u r o c h a e t e 14. Sporophytes t e r m i n a l . . . 17 17. Leaves d i s t i n c t l y t h r e e - r a n k e d . . . . R e i m e r s i a 17. Leaves more than three ranks 18 -155-18. P l a n t s s m a l l , s l e n d e r , 2-3 cm high; l e a v e s obtuse, c o s t a ending below the apex Hymenostylium 18. P l a n t s r a t h e r robust, 4-6 cm high; l e a v e s acuminate, c o s t a e x c u r r e n t Pseudosymblepharis Anoectangium Schwaegr., Spec. Muse, s u p p l . 1 ( 1 ) : 33, 1811. One s p e c i e s and one v a r i e t y i n Taiwan. Key to the s p e c i e s and v a r i e t y o f Anoectangium 1. P l a n t s y e l l o w i s h green; l e a v e s l a n c e o l a t e broadest p a r t at above middle; c o s t a e x c u r r e n t i n a s h o r t p o i n t . . . A . thomsonii 1. P l a n t s dark green; l e a v e s narrowly l i n e a r - l a n c e o l a t e , b r o a d e s t p a r t at l e a f base apex elongate-acuminate A. stracheyanum v a r . gymnostomoides 1. Anoectangium thomsonii M i t t . , J . L i n n . Soc. Bot. s u p p l . 1: 31, 1859. Anoectangium f a u r i e i Card., B e i h . Bot. C e n t r a l b l . 19: 90 , 1905. B r o t h e r u s (1924); Sasaoka (1928); I h s i b a (1929, 1935); Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1970). C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i Co. Kushaku, U. F a u r i e 1 2 9--Isotype o f A. f a u r i e i (KYO); Nantou Co. C h i - t o u to C h i - t i , Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 406, 537 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On c l i f f s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : North Himalaya, Sikkim, South I h d i a , Kumaon, China, Japan. New to TaiwanJ The c h a r a c t e r s o f l e a f - s h a p e and l e a f - c e l l s o f the endemic s p e c i e s , A. f a u r i e i , match w e l l those of A. thomsonii i n which the l e a v e s are narrowly l a n c e o l a t e , broadest p a r t at the above middle o f the l e a f , i s somewhat s p a t h u l a t e and r e f l e x e d at l e a f base. -156-2. Anoectangium stracheyanum v a r . gymnostomoides ( B o r t h . & Yas.) wijk. & Marg., Taxon 7: 288, 1958. C i t e d specimen: Nantou Co. C h i - t o u to C h i - t i f Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 405 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On c l i f f . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Japan, Korea. New to Taiwanl Astomum Hamp., F l o r a 20: 285, 1837. One s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. Astomum crispum (Hedw.) Hamp., F l o r a 20: 285, 1837; Iwatsuki & Sharp (1970). C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i Co. Kan-kou, Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 72 (UBC); Pingtung Co. Shuang-liu, Chuang 882 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On s o i l and i n c r e v i c e s o f ro c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe, A l g e r i a , Egypt, Amur, China, Japan, Tonkin, North America. B a r b u l a Hedw., Spec. Muse. 115, 1801. Three s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. Key to the s p e c i e s o f B a r b u l a 1. C o s t a ending below l e a f apex B. c o n v o l u t a 1. C o s t a p e r c u r r e n t o r e x c u r r e n t . . . 2 2. Leaves o b l o n g - l a n c e o l a t e to U n g u l a t e , mucronate .B. u n g u i c u l a t a 2. Leaves l a n c e o l a t e - o v a t e , acuminate .B. f a l l a x 1. B a r b u l a c o n v o l u t a Hedw.,. Spec. Muse. 120, 1801. C i t e d specimen: I l a n Co. C h i - l i - t i e n g to Mt. Nan-hu-ta-shan, Chuang 1732a (UBC). H a b i t a t : Sunny open r o c k s . -157-D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe, Azores, C a n a r i e s , A l g e r i a , T u n i s , Caucasus, A f r i c a , North America, A u s t r a l i a , S i b e r i a , China, Japan. New to Taiwan! The above c i t e d specimen grew among Grimmia o v a l i s . I t can be r e c o g n i z e d e a s i l y by oblong l e a v e s w i t h a p i c u l a t e apex and quadrate l e a f - c e l l s w i t h c-shape p a p i l l a e . -2. B a r b u l a f a l l a x Hedw., Spec. Muse. 120, 1801; Sasaoka (1928). C i t e d specimen: Nantou Co. Mt. Neng-kao (Mt. No-ko), S. Suzuki 70 (TNS 1685). H a b i t a t : On s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe, Madeira, A l g e r i a , T u n i s , Morocco, A s i a , Japan, China, Taiwan, North America and Greenland. 3. B a r b u l a u n g u i c u l a t a Hedw., Spec. Muse. 118, 1801; Sasaoka . (1928); Wang ( 1970) . C i t e d specimen: Taichung Co. Mt. E a s t Neng-kao, S. Suzuki 90 (TNS 1745); Hwalien Co. Sakabe-sha, S. Suzuki 72 (TNS 1746). H a b i t a t : Sunny open ground and stone w a l l s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe, S i b e r i a , China, Japan, Azores, North America, North A f r i c a and Taiwan. Br y o e r y t h r o p h y l l u m Chen, Hedwigia 80: 4, 250, 1 9 4 l . One s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. Br y o e r y t h r o p h y l l u m r e c u r v i r o s t r u m (Hedw.) Chen, Hedwigia 80: 255, 52 f . 1-2, 1941. Didymodon r e c u r v i r o s t r i s (Hedw.) Jenn. Man. Moss. W. Pensylv. 96, 1913; Wang ( 1969) . C i t e d specimen: Taichung Co. Mt. E a s t Neng-kao, S. Suzuki 63--det. as B a r b u l a u n g u i c u l a t a (TNS 1744). - 1 5 8 -H a b i t a t : On r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : North Himalaya, T i b e t , China, Japan, E a s t S i b e r i a , Manchuria, Europe, North America, A b y s s i n i a , New Guinea, Greenland, New Zealand, Tasmania, Mexico, Guatemala, New to Taiwan! The above c i t e d s p e c i e s can be r e c o g n i z e d by the f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r s ; l e a v e s l i n e a r - l a n c e o l a t e , acute, l e a f - c e l l s and c o s t a p r o m i n e n t l y covered by v e r y d i s t i n c t c-shaped p a p i l l a e ; margin narrowly recurved; c o s t a ending i n or j u s t below apex. I have not examined the specimen r e p o r t e d as Didymodon  r e c u r v i r o s t r i s from B o t e l Tobago by Wang ( 1 9 6 9 ) . Hydrogonium ( C. M u e l l . ) Jaeg., Ber. S. G a l l . Naturw. Ges. 1 8 7 7 - 7 8 : 405, 1880. F i v e s p e c i e s and one v a r i e t y i n Taiwan. Key to the s p e c i e s o f Hydrogonium 1 . L e a f c e l l s smooth .H. arcuatum 1 . L e a f c e l l s p a p i l l o s e or mammillose 2 2. Leaf-apex round-obtuse 3 3. Leaves l a n c e o l a t e , l e a f c e l l s densely p a p i l l o s e , upper p a r t obscure H. subeomosum 3. Leaves oblong, l e a f c e l l s s c a r c e l y p a p i l l o s e , upper p a r t p e l l u c i d H. p s e u d o - e h r e n b e r g i i 2. Leaf-apex acute o r acuminate 4 4. P l a n t s s m a l l , 1-2 cm high H. consanguineum 4. P l a n t s more than 4 cm high 5 5. Leaves oblong or l a n c e o l a t e with ovate base, acuminate, margin not h y a l i n e bordered H. anceps 5. Leaves l a n c e o l a t e , acute, margin w i t h h y a l i n e border :. H. subpellucidum v a r . hyaloloma -159-Hydrogonium anceps ( Card.) Herzog & Noguchi, J . H a t t o r i Bot. Lab. 14: 60, 1955; Wang ( i 9 6 0 ) . B a r b u l a anceps Card., Be i h . Bot. C e n t r a l b l . 1 9 : 1 0 2 , 1 9 0 5 ; Sasaoka ( 1 9 2 8 ) 5 I h s i b a ( 1 9 2 9 , 1 9 3 5 ) ; Wang ( 1 9 7 0 ) . C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i Co. Kushaku, U. F a u r i e I 3 0--Isotype o f Ba r b u l a anceps (KYO); l o c o i n c e r t o , G. H. Schwabe 119 (NICH 2 7 9 8 2 ) . H a b i t a t : not g i v e n . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Endemic to Taiwan. 2 . Hydrogonium arcuatum ( G r i f f . ) Wijk. & Marg., Taxon 7» 2 8 9 , 1 9 5 8 . B a r b u l a comosa Doz. & Molk., Ann. Sc. Nat. B o t . s e r . 3, 2 : 2 9 9 , 1844; Sasaoka ( 1 9 2 8 ) ; I h s i b a ( 1 9 2 9 ) ; Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1 9 7 0 ) . B a r b u l a s u b u l a t a Broth., P h i l i p p . J . S c i . 31 (3) : 282 , I 9 2 6 5 Wang ( I 9 6 9 ) • C i t e d specimen: B o t e l Tobago, S. S. L i n , BT-0034d (THU)--not seen. H a b i t a t : not g i v e n . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Himalaya, Assam, mainland China, P h i l i p p i n e s , Java, Amboina, New Guinea. 3. Hydrogonium consanguineum ( Thw. & M i t t . ) H i l p . , B e i h . Bot. C e n t r a l b l . 5 0 ( 2 ) : 626, 1933. B a r b u l a consanguinea ( Thw. & M i t t . ) Jaeg., Ber. S. G a l l . Naturw. Ges. 1 8 7 7 - 7 8 : 4 0 9 , 1 8 8 0 ? Herzog & Noguchi (1955); Wang ( I 9 6 0 , I 9 6 9 , 1 9 7 0 ) . C i t e d specimen: Taoyuan Co. S y o r i , H. Sasaoka 348 (TNS 1 7 4 3 ) ; B o t e l Tobago, G. H. Schwabe 149 (NICH 2 1 3 7 7 9 ) . H a b i t a t : On s o i l . -160-D i s t r i b u t i o n : Ceylon, Vietnam, Burma, Singapore, P h i l i p p i n e s , Taiwan, Java, New Guinea. 4. Hydrogonium p s e u d o - e h r e n b e r g i i ( F l . ) Chen, Hedwigia 80: 242, 47, f . 2-5 , 1941 5 Herzog & Noguchi (1955); Wang ( i 9 6 0 ) . B a r b u l a p s e u d o - e h r e n b e r g i i F l . , Musci F l . B u i t e n z o r g 1: 356, 1904; Wang (1970) . C i t e d specimen: T a i t u n g Co. Shinko, G. H. Schwabe 67, 94 (NICH 279.5D. H a b i t a t : not g i v e n . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Nepal, Java, P h i l i p p i n e s , China, Taiwan, Japan. 5. Hydrogonium subcomosum ( Broth.) Chen, Hedwigia 80: 236, 1941; Herzog & Noguchi ( 1955); Wang ( i 9 6 0 ) . B a r b u l a subcomosa Broth., Hedwigia 38: 211, 1899; Cardot (1905)5 I h s i b a (1929, 1935); Wang (1970). C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i Co. Kushaku, U. F a u r i e 192 (KYO)--det. as B. subcomosa; Keelung, U. F a u r i e 186 (KYO); B o t e l Tobago, G. H. Schwabe 86 (NICH 28019). H a b i t a t : not g i v e n . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Japan, Ryukyu and Taiwan. 6. Hyrdogonium subpellucidum ( M i t t . ) H i l p . v a r . hyaloloma Herzog, J . H a t t o r i Bot. Lab. 14: 60, f . 20, 1955; Wang ( i 9 6 0 ) . C i t e d specimen: western c e n t r a l Taiwan, G. H. Schwabe, no. ? — H o l o t y p e of H. subpellucidum v a r . hyaloloma ( J E ) — n o t seen. H a b i t a t : Stone w a l l near w a t e r f a l l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Endemic to Taiwan. -161-Wang (1970) changed t h i s v a r i e t y i n t o B a r b u l a subpellucidum v a r . hyaloloma without making a v a l i d combination. Hymenostomum R. Brown, Trans. L i n n . Soc. London 12(2) ; 572, 1819. Three s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. Key to the s p e c i e s o f Hymenostomum 1. C o s t a smooth on d o r s a l s u r f a c e 2 2. Leaf-apex rounded obtuse; l e a v e s oblong H. l a x i f o l i u m 2. Leaf-apex acute; l e a v e s l i n e a r - l a n c e o l a t e H. edentulum 1. C o s t a densely p a p i l l o s e on d o r s a l s u r f a c e H. malayense 1. Hymenostomum edentulum ( M i t t . ) Besch., B u l l . Soc. Bot. France 34: 95 , 1887; Herzog & Noguchi (1955); Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1970). W e i s s i a e d e n t u l a M i t t . , J . L i n n . Soc. Bot. s u p p l . Is 27, 1895; Chen (1941) . C i t e d specimens T a i t u n g Co. Shinko, G. H. Schwabe 53, 54 ( J E ) ; B o t e l Tobago, G. H. Schwabe 89 ( J E ) . H a b i t a t s On s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : I n d i a , Tonkin, China, Taiwan, P h i l i p p i n e s , Ceylon, Java, New C a l e d o n i a . H i s t o r i c a l c o l l e c t i o n o f t h i s s p e c i e s was dated on 3rd IV. 1861, made by Wichura from Taiwan. On v e g e t a t i v e c h a r a c t e r s , t h i s s p e c i e s i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t to d i s t i n g u i s h from W e i s s i a c o n t r o v e r s a . 2. Hymenostomum l a t i f o l i u m Noguchi Biogeogr. 2: 24, 1937; Noguchi (1955) ; Wang ( I 9 6 0 , 1970). C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i Co. Dai t o n , G. H. Schwabe 40 (NICH 27989), 32 ( J E ) ; B o t e l Tobago, G. H. Schwabe 158 (NICH 28036), 59 p.p. ( J E ) . ' - 1 6 2 -H a b i t a t : On s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n s Japan and Taiwan. 3 . Hymenostornum malayense F l e i s c h . , Muse. F l . B u i t . I s 3 1 5 , 5 4 a-f, 1 9 0 4 ; Cardot ( 1 9 0 5 ) ; Brotherus ( 1 9 2 4 ) t Sasaoka ( 1 9 2 8 ) ; I h s i b a ( 1 9 2 9 ) 5 Herzog & Noguchi ( 1 9 5 5 ) ; Wang ( i 9 6 0 , I 9 7 0 ) . C i t e d specimens T a i p e i Co. Tamsui, U. F a u r i e 8 3 (KYO). H a b i t a t s On s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n s Singapore, J a v a and Taiwan. U s i n g the c h a r a c t e r s o f l e a v e s , l e a f - c e l l s , p a p i l l a e , c r o s s s e c t i o n o f c o s t a , densely p a p i l l o s e c o s t a , I am unable t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h i s s p e c i e s from Semibarbula o r i e n t a l e , but a peristome and round s t a l k e d gemmae are absent i n t h i s s p e c i e s and pr e s e n t i n the l a t t e r s p e c i e s ; a l s o the l e a v e s o f t h i s s p e c i e s are narrower than i n the l a t t e r s p e c i e s . Noguchi ( 1 9 5 3 ) r e p o r t e d t h i s s p e c i e s from Japan; h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n s t r o n g l y resembles Semibarbula o r i e n t a l e . Hymenostylium B r i d . , B r y o l . Univ. 2 : 81, s u p p l . 3 , 1827. Only one s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. Hymenostylium r e c u r v i r o s t r e ( Hedw.) Dix., Rev. B r y o l . L i c h . 6s 9 6 , 1 9 3 4 . Gymnostomum r e c u r v i r o s t r e Hedw., Spec. Muse. 3 3 , 1801; Noguchi ( 1 9 5 3 ) . Gymnostomum c u r v i r o s t r u m ( Ehrh.) B r i d . , Spec. Muse. I s 3 9 , 1 8 0 6 ; Wang ( 1 9 7 0 ) . Hymenostylium c u r v i r o s t r e M i t t . , J . L i n n . Soc. Bot. s u p p l . Is 3 2 , 1 8 5 9 ; Sasaoka ( 1 9 2 8 ) . -163-Hymenostylium p e l l u c i d u m Broth. & Yas., Rev. B r y o l . 53: 1. 1926; Sasaoka ( 1928); I h s i b a (1929, 1935); Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1970). Amphidium mougeotii v a r . formosicum Cardot, B e i h . Bot. C e n t r a l b l . 19: 104, 1905; Sasaoka (1928); I h s i b a ( 1929); Wang (1961, 1970). C i t e d specimens T a i p e i Co. Kushaku, U. F a u r i e I 3 0--Isotype of Amphidium mougeotii v a r . formosicum (KYO); Nantou Co. Mt. Noko, A. Yasuda 6 3 9--Holotype of Hymenostylium p e l l u c i d u m (H). H a b i t a t s On wet r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n s Europe, A s i a , North America, Guatemala, Mexico, New Zealand. T h i s s p e c i e s has been d i s c u s s e d by many b r y o l o g i s t s , i n c l u d i n g Dixon (1927) , Andrews (194-3), Chen (1941) and Noguchi ( 1953) . The s p e c i e s grows on limestone and i s v a r i a b l e i n s t r u c t u r e ; t a x o n o m i c a l l y i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g but p u z z l i n g . I made a study on the type specimen of Amphidium mougeotii v a r . formosicum, which proved to be Hymenostylium r e c u r v i r o s t r e . The c r o s s s e c t i o n of the l e a f c l e a r l y shows s c a t t e r e d p a p i l l a e l a r g e r than those of Amphidium mougeotii which i n European m a t e r i a l s are dense and crowded on l e a f c e l l w a l l s ; c o s t a s t r u c t u r e i s c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t . Shape o f l e a v e s of Amphidium mougeotii v a r . formosicum are l i n e a r acuminate, curved at back, l e a f - c e l l s are collenchymatous which might belong to the aurantiacum type of t h i s s p e c i e s . Based on the r e c u r v e d margin at l e a f - b a s e and l e a f - c e l l s t w i ce as l a r g e , Brotherus (1926) named H. p e l l u c i d u m . I have -164-examined the type specimen and conclude t h a t i t belongs to the r e c u r v i r o s t r e type, which has a r a t h e r broader base. As Noguchi (1953) p o i n t e d out, these two types present d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s c h a r a c t e r s , but they show i n t e r m e d i a t e forms between them. I have adopted Dixon and Noguchi's treatment and combine them i n t o a s i n g l e s p e c i e s , but f u r t h e r study should be made when more m a t e r i a l s are a v a i l a b l e . H y o p h i l a B r i d . , B r y o l . Univ. 1: 760, 1827. Three s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. Key to the s p e c i e s of H y o p h i l a 1. Leaves d i s t i n c t l y s e r r a t e on margin o f upper h a l f . . . H . i n v o l u t a 1. Leaves e n t i r e 2 2. S t a l k e d gemmae pr e s e n t i n l e a f a x i l s ; l e a f c e l l s mammillose. H. p r o p a g u l i f e r a 2. Gemmae absent; l e a f c e l l s d ensely p a p i l l o s e H. s t e n o p h y l l a 1. H y o p h i l a i n v o l u t a ( Hook.) Jaeg., Ber; S. G a l l . Naturw. Ges. 1871-72: 354, 1873; Chen (1941); Herzog & Noguchi ( 1955); Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1970). H y o p h i l a m i c h o l i t z i i Broth., Oefv. F i n s k . Vet. Soc. Foerh. 35: 39, 1893; Cardot ( 1905); Sasaoka ( 1928); I h s i b a (1931, 1935); Wang ( i 9 6 0 ) . C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i Co. Tamsui, U. F a u r i e 106 p. p.--det. as H. m i c h o l i t z i i (KYO). H a b i t a t : On s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Himalaya, Nepal, Sikkim, Assam, Burma, I n d i a , Java, -165-Sumatra, Celebes, New Guinea, Ceylon, China, Manchuria, Japan and Taiwan. 2. H y o p h i l a p r o p a g u l i f e r a Broth., Hedwigia 39: 212, 1900; Iwatsuki (I969). H y o p h i l a r o s e a sensu Wang, B i o l . B u l l . Tunghai Univ. 21: 4, 1967; Wang ( 1970) . C i t e d specimen: Pingtung Co. H s i a n g - t s i a o bay, on c o r a l limestone i n v i r g i n c o a s t a l f o r e s t , C. K. Wang 475 (NICH 2156I3) . H a b i t a t : On s t o n e w a l l or r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Japan and Taiwan. 3. H y o p h i l a s t e n o p h y l l a ( Card.) Card., B u l l . Herb. B o i s s . s e r . 2, 332, 1908s Brotherus ( 1924); Sasaoka (1928); I h s i b a (1929, 1935); Chen (1941); Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1970); Iwatsuki ( I 9 6 9 ) . H y o p h i l a a n g u s t i f o l i a Card., B e i h . Bot. C e n t r a l b l . 19: 101, 1905; Sasaoka ( 1928) . H y o p h i l a r o s e a W i l l i a m s , sensu Wang B i o l . B u l l . Tunghai Univ. 31 : 4, 1967, Wang ( 1970) . C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i Co. Kushaku, U. F a u r i e 148--Isotype of H. a n g u s t i f o l i a (KYO); Taoyuan Co. T a i - t i , C. K. Wang 837--det. as H. r o s e a (NICH 215612). H a b i t a t : On s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Endemic to Taiwan. Leptodontium ( C. M u e l l . ) Hamp. ex Lindb., Oefv. K. Vet. Ak. Foerh. 21: 227, 1864. Two s p e c i e s and one v a r i e t y i n Taiwan. -166-Key to the s p e c i e s o f Leptodontium 1. P l a n t s 1 .5-3 cm high, s m a l l , s l e n d e r ; leaves narrowly U n g u l a t e , acute, e n t i r e o r s p a r s e l y d e n t i c u l a t e at the l e a f apex L. g r a c i l l i m u m 1. P l a n t s 3-6 cm hig h , r o b u s t o r medium s i z e , s t o u t ; l e a v e s e l l i p t i c a l or l a n c e o l a t e , acute or acuminate, margin s h a r p l y dentate or s e r r u l a t e . . . . . 2 2. Leaves s t r o n g l y curved, apex acute, base narrowed.... L. taiwanense 2. Leaves s p r e a d i n g , not curved, apex narrowly acuminate, l e a f - b a s e broadened..... L. v i t i c u l o s o i d e s v a r . subdenticulatum 1. Leptodontium g r a c i l l i m u m Noguchi J . Jap. Bot. 20: 142, f . 22, 1944; Wang (1970). C i t e d specimen: C h i a y i Co. Tataka (A way to Mt. M o r r i s o n ) A. Nog. 6 0 9 5--Holotype o f L. g r a c i l l i m u m (NOG); Pingtung Co. Kwai-ku to Mt. Pei-ta-wu-shan, Chuang 1529 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On c l i f f . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Japan and Taiwan. 2. Leptodontium taiwanense Noguchi J . Jap. Bot. 20: 145, f . 23, 1944; Wang ( 1970) . C i t e d specimen: C h i a y i Co. Mt. A - l i to Tataka, A. Noguchi 8 4 8 9 — Holotype o f L. taiwanense (NOG); Taichung Co. Mt. Hsiao-hsueh-shan, C. K. Wang 698a (UBC); Pingtung Co. Kwai-ku, Chuang 1393 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Endemic to Taiwan. -167-3. Leptodontium v i t i c u l o s o i d e s ( P. Beauv.) Wijk. & Marg. v a r . subdenticulatum (C. Mu e l l . ) Wijk. & Marg., Taxon 1 1 : 2 2 1 , 1962. Leptodontium subdenticulatum (G. Mu e l l . ) L i d b . , Oefv. K. Vet. Ak. Foerh. 2 1 : 227, 1864 ; Noguchi ( 1 9 3 9 ) ; Wang ( 1970) . C i t e d specimen: C h i a y i Co. Mt. Kodama, A. N o g u c h i — n o t seen. H a b i t a t : On t r e e trunk. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Java, Taiwan and Lombok. Molendoa L i n d b . , U t k a s t Nat. Grupp. Eur. Bladmoss. 29, 1878. One s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. Molendoa s e n d t n e r i a n a (B. S. G.) Limpr., Laubm. D e u t s c h l . 1 : 250, 1886; Chen ( 1 9 ^ 1 ) ; Iwatsuki ( 1 9 7 0 ) . Hymenostylium formosicum B r o t h . & Yas., Rev. B r y o l . 53: 1 , 1926 ; Sasaoka ( 1 9 2 8 ) ; I h s i b a (1935); Herz. & Noguchi ( 1 9 5 5 ) ; Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1 9 7 0 ) . C i t e d specimen: Hwalien Co. T a i - l u - k o Gorge, t r a i l a c r o s s b r i d g e over T a i - l u - k o r i v e r a t T i e n - h s i a n g , Z. Iwatsuki & A. J . & E. Sharp 3522, 3545. 3374, 1486 (NICH); Pingtung Co. Mt. Daibu, A. Yasuda 6 0 7--Holotype o f H. formosicum (H)? T a i t u n g Co. T a i t u n g , A. Yasuda 638 (H). H a b i t a t : On c l i f f . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe, Caucasus, E a s t S i b e r i a , China, Japan, Taiwan, North America. P l e u r o c h a e t e Lindb., Oefv. K. Vet. Ak. Foerh. 2 1 : 253, 1864. One s p e c i e s and one v a r i e t y i n Taiwan. -168-Key t o the ta x a o f Pleu r o c h a e t e 1. Leaves l i n e a r , a t t e n u a t e , 8 mm l o n g ; c o s t a l o n g e x c u r r e n t . . P. s q u a r r o s a v a r . c r i s p i f o l i u s 1. Leaves l a n c e o l a t e 2-4 mm long; c o s t a more or l e s s e x c u r r e n t P. s q u a r r o s a 1. P l e u r o c h a e t e s q u a r r o s a ( B r i d . ) Lindb., Oefv. K. Vet. Ak. Foerh. 21: 253, 1864; Wang (1968, 1970). C i t e d specimen: Taichung Co. Chung-hsueh-shan, C. K. Wang 784 (THU)--not seen. H a b i t a t : On ro c k s i n c o n i f e r f o r e s t s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Himalaya, P a k i s t a n , I r a n , Caucasus, North America, Mexico, Canary I s l a n d s , Europe, China, Japan and Taiwan. 2. P l e u r o c h a e t e s q u a r r o s a ( B r i d . ) L i n d b . v a r . c r i s p i f o l i u s J . Jap. Bot 27: 287, f . 5L, 1952. Trichostomum c r i s p i f o l i u m Noguchi J . Jap. Bot. 2?: 287, 1952. nom. nud. C i t e d specimen: Nantou Co. Rakuraku, A. Noguchi (NOG)—not seen. H a b i t a t : On r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Japan and Taiwan. Pseudosymblepharis B r o t h . , Nat. P f l . ed. 2, 10: 2 6 l , 1924. One s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. Pseudosymblepharis p a p i l l o s u l a (Card. & Ther.) Broth., Nat. P f l . ed. 2, 10: 2 6 l , 1924. T o r t e l l a t o r t u o s a sensu Wang B i o l . B u l l . Tunghai Univ. 31: 3, 1963; Wang (1970). C i t e d specimen: Nantou Co. C h i - t o u to C h i - t i , Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 404, 424 (UBC); Kaohsiung Co. Mt. Nan-feng-shan C. K. Wang 1084 -169---det. as T o r t e l l a t o r t u o s a (NICH 229572). H a b i t a t : On c l i f f . D i s t r i b u t i o n : China, Vietnam, Japan and Taiwan. , T h i s s p e c i e s was determined by Iwatsuki as s p e c i e s new to Taiwan. R e i m e r s i a Chen Hedwigia 80: 62, 1941. One s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. R e i m e r s i a i n c o n s p i c u a ( G r i f f . ) Chen, Hedwigia 80: 6 2 , 9, 1941; Wang (1970). Gymnostomum inconspicuum G r i f f . , C a l c u t t a J . Nat. H i s t . 2: 480, 1842; Noguchi ( I 9 6 0 ) . Rhacopilum formosicum Horikawa Bot. Mag. Tokyo 48: 458, 1934. C i t e d specimen: T a i t u n g Co. Mt. Chipon, Y. Horikawa, Dec. 29, 1932 (HIRO)--not seen. H a b i t a t : not g i v e n . D i s t r i b u t i o n : North west Himalaya, Kha s i a , China, Yunnan, Taiwan, P h i l i p p i n e s . S c o p e l o p h i l a ( M i t t . ) Lindb., A c t a Soc. S c i . Fenn. 10: 269, 1872. Merceya Schimp., Syn. ed. 2: 852, 1876. W e i s s i a s e c t . S c o p e l o p h i l a M i t t . , J . L i n n . Soc. 12: 135, 1869. Two s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. Key to the s p e c i e s o f S c o p i l o p h i l a 1. Leaves l i n e a r or l i n e a r - s p a t h u l a t e , acute S. c a t a r a c t a e 1. Leaves U n g u l a t e , obtuse to round-obtuse S. l i g u l a t a -170-1. S c o p e l o p h i l a c a t a r a c t a e ( M i t t . ) Broth., Nat. P f l . 1(3): 476, 1902. Merceya gedeana (Lac.) Noguchi, Kumamoto J . S c i . B. 2, 2: Merceyopsis f o r m o s i c a Broth, ex S a k u r a i Bot. Mag. Tokyo 48: 386, 1934; Sasaoka ( 1928); I h s i b a ( 1935) . C i t e d specimen: Nantou Co. P u - l i , S. Suzuki 57--Holotype o f M. f o r m o s i c a (H), H. Sasaoka 1 7 0 9—det. as M. f o r m o s i c a (MAK); Lu-shan, Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 775 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On c l i f f ( s h a l e ) . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Himalaya, I n d i a , Java, P h i l i p p i n e s , Korea, Taiwan, Japan and South America. 2. S c o p e l o p h i l a l i g u l a t a (Spruce) Spruce, J . Bot. n. s e r . 10: 14, 1881. Merceya l i g u l a t a (Spruce) Schimp., Syn. ed. 2: 852, I876; Noguchi (1956, 1956a); Wang ( 1970) . C i t e d specimen: Taichung Co. Rakuraku, A. Noguchi, (NOG)—not seen. H a b i t a t : On s o i l c o n t a i n i n g copper, i r o n , s i l v e r o r s u l p h u r . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe, Caucasus, A s i a minor, Himalaya, Java, Azores, China, Japan, Taiwan, North America, Mexico, Guatemala, C o s t a R i c a , Eucador. Semibarbula Herz. ex H i l p . , B e i h . Bot. C e n t r a l b l . 5 0 ( 2 ) : 626, 1933. One s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. Semibarbula o r i e n t a l i s (Web.) Wijk. & Marg., Taxon 8: 75, 1959. Trichostomum o r i e n t a l e W i l l d . , ex C. M u e l l . , Sys. Muse, f r o n d 1: 568, 1849; Salmon ( 1900); Cardot ( 1905) . B a r b u l a o r i e n t a l i s (Web.) Broth., Nat. P f l . 1(3): 409, 1902; Okamura (1916); Wang ( i 9 6 0 ) . - 1 7 1 -B a r b u l a i n d i c a (Hook.) Spreng, i n Stend. Nomencl. Bot. 2: 72, 1824 ; Brotherus (1924); Sasaoka ( 1 9 2 8 ) ; I h s i b a ( 1 9 3 5 ) ; Toyama ( 1 9 3 7 ) ; Herz. & Noguchi ( 1 9 5 5 ) ; Wang ( I 9 6 0 , 1969, 1 9 7 0 ) . Semibarbula i n d i c a (Hook.) Herz. ex H i l p . , B e i h . Bot. C e n t r a l b l . 5 0 ( 2 ) s 626, 1933 ; Chen ( 1 9 4 1 ) . C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i Co. Tamsui, U. F a u r i e 106 (KYO). H a b i t a t : On s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Nepal, Ceylon, P h i l i p p i n e s , Borneo, Java, New Guinea, China, Hongkong, Taiwan, West South A f r i c a . T i m m i e l l a (De Not.) Limpr., Laubm. D e u t s c h l . 1 : 590, 1888. Only one s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. T i m m i e l l a anomala (B.S.G.) Limpr., Laubm. D e u t s c h l . 1 : 592, 173, 1888; Noguchi ( 1 9 3 8 ) ; Chen ( 1 9 4 1 ) ; Wang ( 1 9 7 0 ) . C i t e d specimen: Nantou Co. C h i - t o u to w a t e r f a l l , Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 598 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Himalaya, North America ( F l o r i d a , C a l i f o r n i a ) , Mexico, Guatemala, Japan, Taiwan and Europe. T o r t u l a Hesw., Spec. Muse. 122 , 1 8 0 1 . Two s p e c i e s and one v a r i e t y i n Taiwan. Key t o the s p e c i e s of T o r t u l a 1. L e a f apex obcordate below h a i r p o i n t . . . T . m u r a l i s v a r . obcordata 1 . L e a f apex obtuse below h a i r p o i n t 2 2 . Leaves elongate U n g u l a t e , round-obtuse with l o n g h y a l i n e h a i r p o i n t T. m u r a l i s - 1 7 2 -2. Leaves oblong, obtuse with a s h o r t h a i r p o i n t T. nankomontana 1 . T o r t u l a m u r a l i s Hedw., Spec. Muse. 123, 1 8 0 1 ; I h s i b a ( 1 9 2 9 , 1 9 3 5 ) ; Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1 9 7 0 ) . C i t e d specimen: T h i s s p e c i e s was r e p o r t e d by I h s i b a and Wang. Voucher specimen need reexamination. H a b i t a t : On c a l c i c o l e . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Cosmopolitan. 2 . T o r t u l a m u r a l i s v a r . o b c o r d a t a Schimp., Syn. ed. 2 : 2 0 2 , I876; Chen ( 1 9 4 1 ) ; Wang ( 1 9 7 0 ) . T o r t u l a emarginata (Doz. & Molk.) M i t t . , Trans. L i n n . Soc. Bot. s e r . 2 , 3: 160, 1 8 9 1 ; Cardot (1905); Okamura ( 1 9 1 6 ) ; Sasaoka ( 1 9 2 8 ) ; I h s i b a ( 1 9 2 9 , 1935); Wang ( i 9 6 0 ) . C i t e d specimen: Hsinchu Co. Chu-nan (Tikunan), H. Sasaoka 14945 (TNS 9 8 8 9 ) . H a b i t a t : On s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe, South A f r i c a , Japan and Taiwan. 3* T o r t u l a nankomontana Noguchi, J . Jap. Bot. 20 : 257, 1944 ; Wang ( 1 9 7 0 ) . C i t e d specimen: I l a n Co. Mt. Nan-hu-ta-shan, Nakamura, 15834 (NOG) --Holotype o f T. nankomontana--not seen. H a b i t a t : Not g i v e n . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Endemic to Taiwan. W e i s s i a Hedw., Spec. Muse. 6 4 , 1 8 0 1 . Three s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. Key to the s p e c i e s o f W e i s s i a 1 . Leaves l i g u l a t e , obtuse; margin plane throughout,.W. p l a n i f o l i a -173-1. Leaves ovate-oblong, elongate l a n c e o l a t e , acute o r acuminate; l e a f - m a r g i n s t r o n g l y curved at the upper p a r t 2 2. Leaves l a n c e o l a t e - o v a t e , 1-1.5 mm; c o s t a p e r c u r r e n t ; s e t a 6 mm lo n g ; c a p s u l e s ovoid, y e l l o w W. s e m i p a l l i d a 2. Leaves narrowly l a n c e o l a t e , 3 mm long; c o s t a e x c u r r e n t ; s e t a 10 mm lo n g ; c a p s u l e s e l l i p t i c a l o r ovate, y e l l o w i s h brown, s l i g h t l y furrowed when dry W. c o n t r o v e r s a 1. W e i s s i a c o n t r o v e r s a Hedw., Spec. Muse. 67, 1801; Wang (1970). W e i s s i a l o n g i d e n s Card., B u l l . Herb. B o i s s . s e r . 2, 7: 712, 1907; Chen (1941, 1963)1 Wang (1968, 1970). W e i s s i a v i r i d u l a Hedw., ex B r i d . , Mant. Muse. 38, 1819; Okamura (1916); Sasaoka ( 1928); I h s i b a ( 1929); Wang ( i 9 6 0 ) . W e i s s i a l o n g i s e t a sensu Cardot, B e i h . Bot. C e n t r a l b l . 19: 91, 1905; Brotherus ( 1924); Sasaoka (1928); I h s i b a (1929, 1935); Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1970). C i t e d specimen: Nantou Co. Lu-shan Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 702 (UBC); Kaohsiung Co. Shan-ping to Nan-feng-shan Chuang 1075 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On s o i l o f c l i f f s h e l v e s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe, North America, A f r i c a , Himalaya, China, Japan, Taiwan, P h i l i p p i n e s , Java, New Zealand. 2. W e i s s i a p l a n i f o l i a Dix., Rev. B r y o l . n. s e r . 1: 179, 1, 1928. W e i s s i a p l a t y p h y l l a B r o t h . , Hedwigia 38: 205, 1899; Sasaoka (1928); Herz. & Noguchi (1955); Wang ( I 9 6 0 , 1970). C i t e d specimen: T a i t u n g Co. Hsin-kan (Sinko) G. H. Schwabe no. (JENA)--not seen. H a b i t a t : On s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : China, Japan, Manchuria, Taiwan. - 1 7 4 -3 . W e i s s i a s e m i p a l l i d a C. M u e l l . , Nuov. G i o r n . Bot. I t a l . n. s e r . 5s 1 8 5 , 1 8 9 8 ; Chen ( 1 9 4 1 ) . W e i s s i a p l a t y p h y l l o i d e s Card., B e i h . Bot. C e n t r a l b l . 1 9 s 9 0 , 1 9 0 5 ; Brotherus ( 1 9 2 4 ) ; Sasaoka ( 1 9 2 8 ) ; I h s i b a ( 1 9 2 9 , 1 9 3 5 ) ; Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1 9 7 0 ) . C i t e d specimens T a i p e i Co. Tamsui, U. F a u r i e 8 6 — I s o t y p e o f W. p l a t y p h y l l o i d e s ( K Y O ) — n o t seen. H a b i t a t s not g i v e n . D i s t r i b u t i o n s China, Korea and Taiwan. W e i s i o p s i s B r o t h . , Oefv. F i n k . Vet. Soc. Foerh. 6 2 A ( 9 ) s 7 , 1 9 2 1 . One s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. W e i s i o p s i s h y o p h i l o i d e s Dixon & Th£r., Rev. B r y o l . et L i c h . 1 3 s 1 1 , 1 9 4 2 ; Noguchi ( 1 9 5 4 ) . C i t e d specimens Hsinchu Co. Nihonmatsu, Y. Shimada, ex Herb. Sasaoka 3 8 5 3 ( T N S ) — H o l o t y p e of W. h y o p h i l o i d e s - - n o t seen. H a b i t a t s not g i v e n . D i s t r i b u t i o n s Endemic to Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s was r e p o r t e d by Dixon and T h e r i o t ( 1 9 4 2 ) , based on Shimada's specimen from Taiwan. Noguchi ( 1 9 5 4 ) reviewed t h i s s p e c i e s and concluded t h a t t h i s s p e c i e s might be belong to T o r t u l a or Trichostomum f o r the f o l l o w i n g reasons s 1 . Capsules t h i n - w a l l e d w i t h s e v e r a l l o n g i t u d i n a l furrows. 2 . L e a f - c e l l s mammillose and w i t h c-shaped p a p i l l a e . I have not examined the c i t e d specimen, but p r o v i s i o n a l l y I p l a c e t h i s s p e c i e s here u n t i l the problem i s c l a r i f i e d . -175-Family: Grimmiaceae Three genera prese n t i n Taiwan. Key to the genera o f Grimmiaceae 1. L e a f - c e l l s l i n e a r , c e l l - w a l l u n e q u a l l y i n c r a s s a t e , v e r y sinuous, lumen l o n g and narrow Rhacomitrium 1. L e a f - c e l l s s h o r t quadrate or oblong, c e l l - w a l l e q u a l l y i n c r a s s a t e o r somewhat u n e q u a l l y i n c r a s s a t e , not or o n l y s l i g h t l y sinuous, lumen broad 2 2. Leaf-margins s e r r a t e , upper p a r t o f l e a f b i s t r a t o s e ; capsules l o n g e x s e r t e d Ptychomitrium 2. Leaf-margins e n t i r e , upper p a r t o f l e a f u n i - b i s t r a t o s e ; c a p s u l e s immersed or s h o r t l y e x s e r t e d Grimmia Grimmia Ehrh., ex Hedw., Spec. Muse. 75, 1801. F i v e s p e c i e s and one v a r i e t y i n Taiwan. Key to the s p e c i e s o f Grimmia 1. Capsules immersed. 2 2. C o s t a and lamina i n upper p a r t at back d i s t i n c t l y p a p i l l o s e G. apocarpa v a r . g r a c i l i s 2. C o s t a and lamina not p a p i l l o s e G. apocarpa 1. Capsules l o n g e x s e r t e d . . 3 3. Capsules on e r e c t s e t a . . . . . 4 4. Leaves without h y a l i n e p o i n t G. d e c a l v a t a 4. Leaves with h y a l i n e p o i n t at l e a s t i n the upper p a r t . . 5. Leaves 2 . 5 - 3 mm long, with long h a i r p o i n t s ; c o s t a i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n f l a t ; l e a f - m a r g i n s b i s t r a t o s e i n upper p a r t G. o v a l i s - 1 7 6 -5. Leaves 1-1.8 mm l o n g with s h o r t h a i r p o i n t s o r muticous at lower p a r t o f stem; c o s t a i n c r o s s s e c t i o n t e r e t e ; l e a f margins u n i s t r a t o s e i n upper p a r t G. e l o n g a t a 3. Capsules on s h o r t , arcuate s e t a Grimmia sp. 1. Grimmia apocarpa Hedw., Spec. Muse. 76, 1801; Wang ( I 9 6 7 , 1970). C i t e d specimen: Taichung Co. Mt. Ta-hsueh-shan, C. K. Wang 1282 (THU)--not seen. H a b i t a t : On open c l i f f . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Cosmopolitan. 2. Grimmia apocarpa v a r . g r a c i l i s Roehl., Deutsch. F l . K r y p t . ed. 2, 3: i+7, I 8 I 3 . C i t e d specimen: I l a n Co. Mt. Nan-hu-ta-shan, Chuang 1773b (UBC). H a b i t a t : On open r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : S w i t z e r l a n d , Canada, USA, Mexico, Guatemala. New to Taiwan! A c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f l e a f shows u n i s t r a t o s e margins throughout the l e a f . C o s t a and lamina o f l e a v e s d o r s a l l y s t r o n g l y p a p i l l o s e . 3. Grimmia d e c a l v a t a Card., B u l l . Herb. B o i s s . s e r . 2, 8 ( 5 ) : 332, 1908. C i t e d specimen: Pingtung Co. Kwai-ku to Mt. Pei-ta-wu-shan, Chuang 1523 (UBC). H a b i t a t : Open dry r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Japan. New to Taiwan' -177-T h i s s p e c i e s i s without a h y a l i n e , h a i r y - p o i n t e d l e a v e s and has l e a f - m a r g i n s s t r o n g l y r e c u r v e d on one s i d e . I t i s u n i s t r a t o s e i n the lower p a r t of l e a v e s , and b i s t r a t o s e o n l y near extreme l e a f apex. 4. Grimmia e l o n g a t a K a u l f . i n Sturm., Deutsch. F l . 2 ( 1 5 ) ; 14, 1816; Noguchi ( 1936); Nyholm (1956); Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1970). C i t e d specimen: C h i a y i Co. Mt. M o r r i s o n , Chuang Aug. 15, I966 ( T A I ) . H a b i t a t : Open r o c k s of mountain. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe, Greenland, U r a l s , Caucasus, S c o t l a n d , E a s t S i b e r i a , Himalaya, Japan and Taiwan. 5. Grimmia o v a l i s ( Hedw.) Lindb., A c t . Soc. Sc. Fenn. 10: 75, 1871. C i t e d specimen: I l a n Co. Mt. Nan-hu-ta-shan, Chuang 1773a (UBC), 1742 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On open r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe, Morocco, C e n t r a l A f r i c a , Caucasus, Himalaya, Ceylon, North & C e n t r a l A s i a , North and C e n t r a l America, Andes, Greenland, Borneo. New to Taiwan! Leaves e l o n g a t e - l a n c e o l a t e , w i t h ovate base and with h y a l i n e p o i n t s about 2 . 5 - 3 mm l o n g are the d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r s f o r t h i s s p e c i e s . A c r o s s s e c t i o n o f l e a f shows the c o s t a f l a t and broad, l e a f margins u n i s t r a t o s e at the base o f l e a f , but b i s t r a t o s e (9 rows) i n the upper p a r t s of l e a v e s . 6. Grimmia sp. C i t e d specimen: I l a n Co. Mt. Nan-hu-ta-shan, Chuang 1801 (UBC). -178-H a b i t a t : On open rocks of mountain. T h i s s p e c i e s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s s h o r t a r c u a t e s e t a , l a n c e o l a t e , acuminate l e a v e s with h y a l i n e h a i r p o i n t s . A c r o s s s e c t i o n of l e a v e s shows u n i s t r a t o s e margin and c o s t a s h a r p l y k e e l e d . These c h a r a c t e r s are v e r y d i f f e r e n t from G. t r i c h o p h y l l a , which i t resembles i n g e n e r a l appearence. Ptychomitrium Fuernr., F l o r a 12(2) E r g . 19. 1829. Only one s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. Ptychomitrium formosicum Broth. & Yas., Ann. B r y o l . 1: 19, 1928; Sakurad ( 1939); Noguchi ( 1954); Wang (1970). Ptychomitrium l o n g i p e s Broth., ex Sasaoka Trans. Nat. H i s t . Soc. Formos. 18: 133 & 249, 1928. C i t e d specimen: Pingtung Co. Mt. Dai-bu, A. Yasuda, Nov. 20, 1918 --Holotype o f P. formosicum ( H ); Taichung Co. Onoe, S. Suzuki 2901, 2907 ( H ); I l a n Co. Mt. T a i - p i n g - s h a n , Chuang 2208 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Japan and Taiwan. The s y s t e m a t i c p o s i t i o n of t h i s genus has been d i s c u s s e d by Noguchi ( 1954) . The c h a r a c t e r s of peristome and c a l y p t r a are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to Rhacomitrium. A l s o the f e a t u r e s o f l e a v e s such as o u t l i n e , g e n e r a l s t r u c t u r e and a r e o l a t i o n of lamina are l i k e t h a t of Grimmia and Rhacomitrium. Although Brotherus (I925) i n c l u d e d t h i s genus i n i t s own f a m i l y P t y c h o m i t r i a c e a e , I have f o l l o w e d Noguchi*s o p i n i o n . The above s p e c i e s and genus are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by l a c k i n g sinuous t h i c k e n i n g s of w a l l of l e a f c e l l s and p a p i l l a e on the l e a f - c e l l s . - 1 7 9 -Rhacomitrium B r i d . , Mant. Muse. 78 , 1819. T h i s genus has s i x s p e c i e s and two v a r i e t i e s i n Taiwan. Key to the s p e c i e s of Rhacomitrium Leaves with a h y a l i n e p o i n t at l e a s t near the apex o f stems...2 2. L e a f - c e l l s narrowly elongate throughout l e a f ; h a i r - p o i n t s s t r o n g l y p a p i l l o s e or smooth 3 3 . H a i r - p o i n t s s t r o n g l y p a p i l l o s e . . 4 4. L e a f - c e l l s p a p i l l o s e throughout R. canescens v a r . e r i c o i d e s 4. L e a f - c e l l s p a p i l l o s e on h a i r - p o i n t o n l y R. lanuginosum 3. H a i r - p o i n t smooth .....R. c r i s p u l u m 2. L e a f c e l l s quadrate to s h o r t r e c t a n g u l a r i n upper p a r t ; h a i r p o i n t smooth R. het e r o s t i c h u m Leaves without a h y a l i n e p o i n t throughout the whole stem....5 5. L e a f - c e l l s at the middle p a r t o f l e a f quadrate to r e c t a n g u l a r ; l e a f apex b l u n t R. carinatum 5. L e a f - c e l l s at the middle p a r t of l e a f narrowly r e c t a n g u l a r or l i n e a r 6 6. Leaves with an ovate base, p l i c a t e , l e a f - a p e x b l u n t w i t h 2-3 c r i s t a e ; stems wi t h l o n g branches and no s h o r t branches R. anomodontoides 6. Leaves with ovate-oblong base, l o n g a t t e n u a t e , smooth at l e a f apex; stems pi n n a t e , with many s h o r t branches.. R. f a s c i c u l a r e and i t s v a r i e t y -180-1. Rhacomitrium anomodontoides Card., B u l l . Herb. B o i s s . s e r . 2, 8: 335, 1908; Wang (1967, 1970). Rhacomitrium formosicum Sak., Bot. Mag. Tokyo 51: 134, 9, 1937. C i t e d specimen: I l a n Co. Mt. T a i - p i n g - s h a n , Chuang 2207, 2219 (UBC); Taichung Co. Mt. Neng-kao-shan (Mt. Noko) S. Suzuki Aug. 5, 1 9 2 6—Holotype of R. formosicum (MAK); Pingtung Co. Kwai-ku to Mt. Pei-ta-wu-shan, Chuang 1520 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On rocks of a l p i n e area. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Mainland China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan. The p r e s e n t s p e c i e s i s extremely v a r i a b l e . As Noguchi (1958) p o i n t e d out, t h i s s p e c i e s i s v e r y c l o s e to R. f a s c i c u l a r e , but he noted t h a t f o r the time being, i t i s b e t t e r r e t a i n e d as an independent s p e c i e s o r as a v a r i e t y o r subs p e c i e s of R. f a s c i c u l a r e . Rhacomitrium formosicum was r e p o r t e d by S a k u r a i ( 1937) , based on S. Suzuki's c o l l e c t i o n from Mt. Neng-kao-shan, Nantou County. Noguchi (1958) reduced i t i n R. f a s c i c u l a r e and Wang (1970) r e c e n t l y reduced i t under R. f a s c i c u l a r e v a r . o r i e n t a l e without any d i s c u s s i o n . A c c o r d i n g to my o b s e r v a t i o n of the holotype o f R. formosicum from Makino herbarium, Tokyo, Japan, I found t h a t t h i s s p e c i e s i s R. anomodontoides by i t s p o s s e s s i o n o f a l e a f apex w i t h 2-3 c r i s t a e and l a n c e o l a t e l e a v e s with a broad l e a f - b a s e . 2. Rhacomitrium canescens (Hedw.) B r i d . v a r . e r i c o i d e s (Hedw.) Hamp., F l o r a 20: 281, 1837; Sasaoka (1928); N a k a n i s h i ( 1963); Wang (1967, 1970). -181-C i t e d specimen: I l a n Co. C h i - l i - t i e n g to Mt. Nan-hu-ta-shan, Chuang 1773 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe, Caucasus, S i b e r i a , Japan and North America. 3. Rhacomitrium carinatum Cardot B u l l . Herb. B o i s s . s e r . 2, 8: 335, 1908 i W ang ( 1 9 6 7 , 1970). C i t e d specimen: Taichung Co. Mt. Ta-hsueh-shan, Mt. Tonying-shan C. K. Wang 1294 (THU). H a b i t a t : On r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Japan, Korea and Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s i s v e r y c l o s e l y resembles R. anomodontoides and R. f a s c i c u l a r e , but i t i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the l a t t e r by p l a n t s h a v ing b l a c k green c o l o r , narrow l e a v e s and obtuse l e a f apex. L e a f - c e l l s are d i s t i n c t l y quadrate i n the middle p a r t of the l e a f . S a k u r a i (1937) reduced R. carinatum to a Synonym of R. brevisetum, but he used both names as v a l i d s p e c i e s i n h i s Mu s c o l o g i a J a p o n i c a ( 1954) . 4. Rhacomitrium c r i s p u l u m (Hook. f . & W i l s . ) Hook, f . & W i l s . F l . Nov. Z e l . 2: 75, 1854; Wang ( 1970) . Rhacomitrium javanicum Doz. & Molk. i n Z o l l . , S y s t . V e r z . 32, 1855; Cardot ( 1905); Sasaoka (1900, 1928); I h s i b a (1929, 1935); S a k u r a i (1937); W ang ( i 9 6 0 , 1970). C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i Co. Taitum, U. F a u r i e 51 ( K Y O ) — n o t seen. H a b i t a t : On exposed r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Himalaya, Java, Sumatra, Borneo, New Guinea, -182-E a s t A u s t r a l i a , New Zealand, Andes, C o s t a R i c a , Guatemala, Mexico, Hawaii, A f r i c a . 5. Rhacomitrium f a s c i c u l a r e (Hedw.) B r i d . , Mant. Muse. 80, 1819. C i t e d specimens I l a n Co. Mt. T a i - p i n g - s h a n , Chuang 2207 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe, I c e l a n d , Madeira, Greenland, S i b e r i a , Japan, China, Yunnan, North America, A l a s k a . T h i s s p e c i e s has been r e p o r t e d by Noguchi ( 1958) , based on R. formosicum Sak., but R. formosicum i s here t r e a t e d as a synonym of R. anomodontoides. The specimen i s not i d e n t i c a l to European or North American m a t e r i a l . 6. Rhacomitrium f a s c i c u l a r e v a r . o r i e n t a l e Card., B u l l . Herb. B o i s s . s e r . 2, 8: 334, 1908; Sasaoka (1920, 1928); I h s i b a (1929, 1935); Wang ( 1970) . C i t e d specimen: Pingtung Co. Mt. Ta-wu-shan, E. Matsuda (TNS) --not seen. H a b i t a t : On r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Japan, Korea and Taiwan. S a k u r a i (1937) t r e a t e d t h i s v a r i e t y as a s p e c i e s : R. o r i e n t a l e . Based on h i s d e s c r i p t i o n , t h i s s p e c i e s c o u l d be R. anomodontoides by p o s s e s s i n g l e a v e s w i t h 2-3 c r i s t a e on l e a f apex and i t s stems having numerous l a t e r a l branches. The above specimen need reexamination. 7. Rhacomitrium h e t e r o s t i c h u m (Hedw.) B r i d . , Mant. Muse. 79, 1819; I h s i b a ( 1929); Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1967. 1970). C i t e d specimen: I l a n Co. C h i - l i - t i e n g to Mt. Nan-hu-ta-shan, Chuang - 1 8 3 -1 8 6 2 (UBC); Pingtung Co. Kwai-ku to Pei-ta-wu-shan, Chuang 1 5 1 1 (UBC). H a b i t a t ; On r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n s Europe, I c e l a n d , Greenland, China, Japan, North America, Tasmania, New Zealand. T h i s s p e c i e s has not been c a r e f u l l y e v a l u a t e d i n E a s t A s i a . The d i s t i n c t i o n s between R. c r i s p u l u m and A s i a n R. het e r o s t i c h u m i s not c l e a r . 8. Rhacomitrium lanuginosum (Hedw.) B r i d . , Mant. Muse. 7 9 , 1819 ; Wang ( 1 9 7 0 ) . Rhacomitrium hypnoides L i n d b . , Oefv. K. Vet. Ak. Foerh. 2 3 s 5 5 2 , 1866; Sasaoka ( 1 9 2 0 , 1 9 2 8 ) ; Horikawa ( 1 9 5 D ; Wang ( 1 9 7 0 ) . C i t e d specimen; C h i a y i Co. Mt. M o r r i s o n , Y. Horikawa 1 3 6 1 8 (HIRO) --not seen. H a b i t a t ; On r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n s Cosmopolitan. Family: F u n a r i a c e a e Three genera i n Taiwan. Key to the genera of Funariaceae 1 . Capsules globose o r s h o r t p y r i f o r m Physcomitrium 1 . Capsules elongate p y r i f o r m 2 2 . Capsules n e a r l y symmetric, w i t h h o r i z o n t a l mouth and s i n g l e or no peristome; l e a f - a p e x t a p e r i n g i n t o a long , c a p i l l a r y p o i n t , margins u s u a l l y bordered Entosthodon 2 . Capsules s t r o n g l y asymmetric, w i t h o b l i q u e mouth and - 1 8 4 -d o u b l e p e r i s t o m e ; l e a f - a p e x n o t t a p e r i n g i n t o a l o n g c a p i l l a r y p o i n t , m a r g i n s n o t b o r d e r e d F u n a r i a B n t o s t h o d o n S c h w a e g r . , Spec. Muse, s u p p l . 2 ( 1 ) j 4 4 , 1 8 2 3 . Two s p e c i e s i n T a i w a n . Key t o t h e s p e c i e s o f E n t o s t h o d o n 1 . L e a f m a r g i n s n e a r l y e n t i r e above , t h e b o r d e r w e a k l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d ; p e r i s t o m e p r e s e n t E. p h y s c o m i t r i o i d e s 1 . L e a f m a r g i n s c l e a r l y s e r r a t e above , t h e b o r d e r w e l l -d i f f e r e n t i a t e d ; p e r i s t o m e v e r y r u d i m e n t a r y o r l a c k i n g E. buseanus 1 . E n t o s t h o d o n buseanus Doz. & M o l k . , B r y o l . J a v . 1 : 3 1 , 2 2 , f . 1 - 2 3 , 1 8 5 5 ; C a r d o t ( 1 9 0 5 ) ; Noguch i ( 1 9 4 4 ) ; Och i ( 1 9 6 8 ) ; Wang ( 1 9 7 0 ) . F u n a r i a buseana (Doz . & M o l k . ) B r o t h . , N a t . P f l . 1 ( 3 ) : 5 2 4 , 1 9 0 3 ; Sasaoka (1928); I h s i b a (193D; Toyama ( 1 9 3 7 ) ; Wang ( i 9 6 0 ) . C i t e d s p e c i m e n : T a i p e i Co. T a m s u i , U. F a u r i e 82 ( K Y O ) - - n o t s e e n . H a b i t a t : On s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : H i m a l a y a , I n d i a , C e y l o n , J a v a , m a i n l a n d C h i n a , P h i l i p p i n e s , T a i w a n . 2 . E n t o s t h o d o n P h y s c o m i t r i o i d e s ( M o n t . ) M i t t . , J . L i n n . Soc. B o t . s u p p l . 1 : 5 5 , 1859; Och i ( 1 9 6 8 ) ; Wang ( 1 9 ? 0 ) . E n t o s t h o d o n . j avan icus Doz. & M o l k . , P l . J u n g h . 3s 3 2 1 , 1854; Noguch i ( 1 9 4 4 ) . C i t e d s p e c i m e n : C h i a y i Co. M t . Kodama, A. Noguch i 6435 ( N O G ) — n o t s e e n . H a b i t a t : On s o i l . - 1 8 5 -D i s t r i b u t i o n : I n d i a , Java, Vietnam, Taiwan, New C a l e d o n i a . F u n a r i a Hedw., Spec. Muse. 172, 1801. Two s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. Key to the s p e c i e s of F u n a r i a 1. Leaves s e r r a t e above, c o s t a ending below the. l e a f ,apex; border c e l l s t h i c k - w a l l e d ; c a p s u l e s not s t r i a t e F. japonicus 1. Leaves e n t i r e , c o s t a n e a r l y p e r c u r r e n t ; border c e l l s s l i g h t l y t h i c k - w a l l e d ; c a p s u l e s s t r o n g l y s u l c a t e F. hy g r o m e t r i c a 1. F u n a r i a h y g r o m e t r i c a Hedw., Spec. Muse. 172, 1801; Okamura ( 1 9 1 6 ) ; I h s i b a ( 1 9 2 9 , 1 9 3 5 ) ; Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1 9 7 0 ) ; Ochi ( I 9 6 8 ) . F u n a r i a c a l v e s c e n s Schwaegr., Sp. Mus. s u p p l . 1 ( 2 ) ! 7 7 , 6 5 , 1816; I h s i b a ( 1 9 2 9 ) ; Wang ( i 9 6 0 ) . C i t e d specimens Nantou Co. C h i - t o u to C h i - t i , Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 248 (UBC). H a b i t a t s On s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n s Cosmopolitan. 2 . F u n a r i a j a p o n i c a Broth., Hedwigia 38s 216 , 1899; Ochi (1968)1 Wang ( 1 9 7 0 ) . F u n a r i a mutica B r o t h . , Rev. B r y o l . n. ser.. 2s 4 , 1924; I h s i b a ( 1 9 3 5 ) . C i t e d specimens I l a n Co. Mt. T a i - p i n g - s h a n , Chuang 1975 (UBC); C h i a y i Co. Mt. A - l i to Tung-pu, Chuang 3599 (UBC); Nantou Co. C h i - t i to water f a l l , Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 567 (UBC). H a b i t a t s On s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n s Japan and Taiwan. -186-Physcomitrium ( B r i d . ) Fuern., F l o r a 1 3 : 9 . 5 9 , 1829. Three s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. Key t o the s p e c i e s o f Physcomitrium 1. Leaves not bordered; margins o b t u s e l y d e n t i c u l a t e towards the apex; c a p s u l e s n e a r l y s p h e r i c a l P. sphaericum 1. Leaves d i s t i n c t l y bordered with 1 - 3 rows of elongate c e l l s ; c a p s u l e s s h o r t p y r i f o r m 2 2 . Margins bordered w i t h one row o f elongate, t h i c k - w a l l e d c e l l s . .....P. eurystomum 2 . Margins bordered with 2 - 3 rows of elongate, l i n e a r -v e r m i c u l a r c e l l s . . P. japonicum 1. Physcomitrium eurystomum Sendtn., Denkschr. Bayer. Bot. Ges. Regensburg 3 : 142, 1841; Okamura ( 1 9 l 6 ) j Sasaoka ( 1 9 2 8 ) ; I h s i b a ( 1 9 2 9 , 1 9 3 5 ) ; Ochi ( 1 9 6 8 ) ; Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1 9 7 0 ) . C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i Co. NTU campus, Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 1 (UBC), Kan-kou, Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 6 9 (UBC); Nantou Co. C h i - t o u , Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 6 5 9 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On s o i l , c l a y e y s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe, I n d i a , Vietnam, mainland China, Taiwan, Bonin I s l a n d , Ryukyu and Japan. 2 . Physcomitrium japonicum ( Hedw.) M i t t . , Trans. L i n n . Soc. Bot. s e r . 2 , 3s 1 6 4 , I89I ; Ochi ( 1 9 6 8 ) 5 Wang ( 1 9 7 0 ) . Physcomitrium subeurystomum Card., Beih. Bot. C e n t r a l b l . 19s 1 0 6 , 1 0 , 1 9 0 5 ; Okamura ( 1 9 1 6 ) ; Brotherus ( 1 9 2 4 ) ; Sasaoka ( 1 9 2 8 ) ; I h s i b a ( 1 9 2 9 , 1 9 3 5 ) 5 Wang ( i 9 6 0 ) . Physcomitrium l o n g i f o l i u m Sak., Bot. Mag. Tokyo 46: 7 3 8 , -187-1932; I h s i b a ( 1935) . Physcomitrium formosicum Broth., ex Sasaoka Trans. Nat. H i s t . Soc. Formos. 18: 132, 1928. Physcomitrium a n g u s t i f o l i u m Broth, ex I h s i b a J . Soc. Trop. Agr. 7: 202, 1935. C i t e d specimen: Nantou Co. C h i - t o u to C h i - t i , Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 248 (UBC); T a i p e i Co. Yuan-shan U. F a u r i e 19 (KYO)--Isotype of P. subeurystomum. H a b i t a t : On s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : I n d i a , China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, Ryukyu. 3. Physcomitrium sphaericum (Ludw.) B r i d . , B r y o l . Univ. 2: 817, 1827; I h s i b a (1929, 1935); Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1970); Ochi (1968). C i t e d specimen: no d e t a i l e d l o c a l i t y . W. Lee 172 (TAI ? ) - -not seen. H a b i t a t : On s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe. S i b e r i a , C e n t r a l to South E a s t A s i a , Korea, Japan, Taiwan. F a m i l y : Splachnaceae Two genera i n Taiwan. Key to the genera o f Splachnaceae 1. C e l l s smooth throughout the l e a v e s ; peristome p r e s e n t T a y l o r i a 1. C e l l s v e r r u c o s e on upper p a r t o f the l e a v e s ; peristome absent Gymnostomiella Gymnostomiella F l e i s c h . , Muse. F l . B u i t e n z o r g 1: 3°9, 1904. Only one s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. -188-Gymnostomie11a l o n g i n e r v i s B r o t h . , P h i l i p p . J . Sc. C. 13: 205, 1918; Noguchi (1944); Herz. & Noguchi ( 1 9 5 5 ) ; Wang (I960, 1970). C i t e d specimens Hwalien Co. Tong-meng, T. Nakamura, Aug. 1940 (NOG)--not seen. H a b i t a t : On lim e s t o n e . D i s t r i b u t i o n : P h i l i p p i n e s , Taiwan, Ryukyu and Japan. T h i s s p e c i e s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s s m a l l s i z e , oblong-obovate, rounded l e a v e s ; c o s t a ending below the apex, and upper l e a f c e l l s p a p i l l o s e . T a y l o r i a Hook., J . Sc. A r t s 2(3): 144, 3, I 3 l 6 . Two s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. Key to the s p e c i e s o f T a y l o r i a 1. Leaves e n t i r e , apex obtuse; c o s t a ending below the l e a f apex. T. r e c u r v i - m a r g i n a t a 1. Leaves toothed towards the apex; l e a f - a p e x with c o s t a e x t e n d i n g as an awn T. kwangiensis T a y l o r i a kwangiensis Reimers, Hedwigia 71: 45, 1931; Horikawa (1935); Iwatsuki ( 1 9 5 9 ) ; Wang (i960, 1970). C i t e d specimen: Taichung Co. Mt. Chung-hsueh-shan, Z. Iwatsuki, A. J . & E. Sharp 2764 (NICH); F o r e s t below Mt. An-ma-shan l o g g i n g camp, Z. Iwatsuki, A. J . & E. Sharp 3066, 3067, 3068 (NICH). H a b i t a t : On decayed wood. D i s t r i b u t i o n : South China, Taiwan and Japan. 2. T a y l o r i a r e c u r v i - m a r g i n a t a Noguchi, J . Jap. Bot. 20: 145, 1944; Wang (1970). C i t e d specimen: C h i a y i Co. Mt. M o r r i s o n , A. Noguchi, 6348b (NOG)--not seen. -189-H a b i t a t : On open rock s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Endemic to Taiwan. Family: Bryaceae Nine genera i n Taiwan. Key to the genera o f Bryaceae 1 . I n f l o r e s c e n c e d i s t i n c t l y l a t e r a l M i e l i c h h o f e r i a 1 . I n f l o r e s c e n c e d i s t i n c t l y t e r m i n a l 2 2 . Stems s t o l o n i f e r o u s ; capsules aggregate; p l a n t s robust, more than 2 . 5 cm t a l l .Rhodobryum 2 . Stems never s t o l o n i f e r o u s ; c a p s u l e s s i n g l e ; p l a n t s s m a l l , l e s s than 2 cm t a l l 3 3 - Stems s l e n d e r , j u l a c e o u s ; l e a f - c e l l s v e r m i c u l a r to l i n e a r -rhomboidal Anomobryum 3 . Stems not j u l a c e o u s , o r i f j u l a c e o u s , l e a f c e l l s never v e r m i c u l a r or l i n e a r - r h o m b o i d a l 4 . Leaves narrowly l i n e a r , l i n e a r - l a n c e o l a t e , l e a f - c e l l s l i n e a r 5 5 . Leaves 4 - 5 mm long, with s l e n d e r c o s t a ; capsules mostly e r e c t , b a s a l membrane o f i n n e r peristome absent Orthodontium 5 . Leaves 1 - 3 mm long, with broad s t r o n g c o s t a ; c a p s u l e s h o r i z o n t a l to pendulous, b a s a l membrane of i n n e r peristome h y a l i n e and h i g h t • • • Leptobryum 4 . Leaves l a n c e o l a t e to ovate; l e a f - c e l l s l i n e a r to rhomboidal 6 -190-6. P l a n t s d o r s i v e n t r a l , l e a v e s dimorphic; c o s t a ending f a r below the apex . .Epipterygium 6. P l a n t s not d o r s i v e n t r a l ; leaves not dimorphic; c o s t a p e r c u r r e n t o r e x c u r r e n t 7 7. Leaves l a n c e o l a t e ; l e a f - c e l l s narrow and e l o n g a t e , ( 4 : 1 or longer) P o h l i a 7. Leaves ovate o r o v a t e - l a n c e o l a t e ; l e a f - c e l l s i n upper p a r t o f l e a f mostly elongate-hexagonal or rhomboidal ( l e s s than 4:1) 8 8. Capsules e r e c t o r i n c l i n e d ; i n n e r peristome t e e t h without c i l i a Brachymenium 8. Capsules pendent o r h o r i z o n t a l ; i n n e r peristome t e e t h with c i l i a Bryum Anomobryum Schimp., Syn. 382, i 8 6 0 . T h i s genus has two s p e c i e s and one v a r i e t y i n Taiwan. Key to the s p e c i e s o f Anomobryum 1. P l a n t s up to 4 cm hig h , with b u l b i f o r m a x i l l a r y gemmae; l e a f c e l l s l i n e a r - r h o m b o i d a l i n upper p a r t o f l e a f , submerged i n water A. yasudae 1. P l a n t s l e s s than 3 cm high, without gemmae; l e a f c e l l s l i n e a r -v e r m i c u l a r i n upper p a r t o f l e a f ; growing on s o i l 2 2. Leaves b r o a d l y ovate, obtuse; c o s t a ending below apex; b u l b i l s absent A. f i l i f o r m e 2. Leaves ovate, acute; c o s t a p e r c u r r e n t ; b u l b i l s p r e s e n t . . . A. f i l i f o r m e v a r . concinnatum -191-1. Anomobryum f i l i f o r m e ( D i c k s . ) Solms i n Rabenh., Bryoth. Eur. 25: 331, 1873. Bryum f i l i f o r m e D i c k s . , P l . C r y p t . B r i t . f a s c . 4: 16, 1801: Ochi ( 1968); Wang ( 1970) . Bryum julaceum Smith., F l . B r i t . 3: 1357, 1804; Ochi (1959); Wang (1967, 1970). C i t e d specimen: Nantou Co. C h i - t o u to C h i - t i , Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 529 (UBC); Pingtung Co. Kwai-ku, Chuang 1387 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On rocks or s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Widespread i n both hemispheres. 2. Anomobryum f i l i f o r m e ( D i c k s . ) Solms var. concinnatum (Sprue.) Amann Rev. B r y o l . 20: 43, 1893. Bryum f i l i f o r m e D i c k s , v a r . concinnatum (Spr.) Boul., Muscin. France 294, 1884; Ochi (1964, 1968); Wang (1970). Bryum julaceum v a r . concinnatum (Spr.) W i l s . , B r y o l . B r i t . 246, 1855; Ochi (1959, 1962); Wang (1967). Anomobryum n i t i d u m ( M i t t . ) Jaeg., Ber. S. G a l l . Naturw. Ges. 1873-74: 142, 1875; Cardot (1905); Sasaoka (1928); I h s i b a ( 1929); Wang ( i 9 6 0 ) . C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i Co. Kushaku, U. F a u r i e 121 (KYO)--det as A. nitid u m; Hwalien Co. L i - s h a n , C. K. Wang 1906 (NICH). H a b i t a t : On rocks and s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Widely d i s t r i b u t e d i n warmer areas of the n o r t h e r n hemisphere. I have examined a specimen which had been determined as A. n i t i d u m and c i t e d i n Cardot (1905) from KYO. Compared to the -192-s p e c i e s , the l e a v e s are l e s s i m b r i c a t e , the apex acute and with a p e r c u r r e n t c o s t a . I agree with Ochi (1959) and p l a c e t h i s specimen under the v a r i e t y . 3. Anomobryum yasudae Broth., Oefv. F i n s k . Vet. Soc. Foerh. 62A ( 9 ) : 16, 1921; Noguchi (1940). Bryum yasudae ( Broth.) Ochi, Rev. Bryac. Jap. 97. 1959; Ochi (1962, I 9 6 8 ) ; Wang (1970). C i t e d specimens Nantou Co. C h i - t o u to C h i - t i , Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 525 (UBC); I l a n Co. Mt. T a i - p i n g - s h a n , Chuang 2197 (UBC). Ha b i t a t s On wet rock s . Brachymenium Schwaegr., Spec. Muse, s u p p l . 2 ( 1 ) 5 131, 1824. - Three s p e c i e s and one v a r i e t y i n Taiwan. Key to the s p e c i e s and v a r i e t y o f Brachymenium 1. Small p l a n t s , up to 6 mm high; l e a v e s ovate, margins not bordered B. e x i l e 1. L a r g e r p l a n t s , 1-1 .5 cm high; l e a v e s o b l o n g - l i n g u l a t e o r narrowly s p a t h u l a t e , bordered 2 2. P l a n t s y e l l o w i s h , s t r o n g l y l u s t r o u s ; l e a v e s s t r o n g l y c o n t o r t e d and apressed to stem when dry; c a p s u l e s narrowly c y l i n d r i c a l , 6 .4 mm l o n g . . . . . . B. contortum 2. P l a n t s y e l l o w i s h green to green, s l i g h t l y o r not l u s t r o u s ; c a p s u l e s p y r i f o r m o r c l a v a t e , 2 -5 mm long; l e a v e s c l o s e l y i m b r i c a t e and t w i s t e d around the stem when dry 3 3. Leaf-margins bordered with 2-4 rows o f l o n g t h i c k - w a l l e d c e l l s ; c a p s u l e s 4 - 5 . 5 mm l o n g B. nepalense -193-3. Leaf-margins bordered with 1-2 rows of l o n g t h i c k - w a l l e d c e l l s ; c a p s u l e s 2 mm l o n g B. nepalense v a r . clavulum 1. Brachymenium contortum Hamp., ex Ochi, J . Jap. Bot. 4-3(4): 109, 1, 1968; Ochi (1971) . C i t e d specimen: Nantou Co. Upstream a r e a o f Shih-pa-chang r i v e r , C. K. Wang 10818 (THU)--not seen. H a b i t a t : On bark o f stump. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Nepal, Sikkim and Taiwan. 2. Brachymenium e x i l e ( Doz. & Molk.) Bosch. & L a c , B r y o l . Jav. 1: 139, I860; Cardot (1905); Sasaoka (1928, 1929); Herzog & Noguchi (1955); Ochi (1959, 1968); Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1970). C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i Co. Yang-ming-shan to Tsu-tzu-hu, Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 146 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On rocks and s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : I n d i a , Ceylon, Sumatra, P h i l i p p i n e s , Java, Korea, Japan, Hawaii, Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s i s ve r y e a s i l y confused with Bryum argenteum i n g e n e r a l appearance, except f o r i t s e r e c t c a p s u l e s and l a c k o f s i l v e r y white l e a v e s . 3. Brachymenium nepalense Hook., i n Schwaegr., Spec. M use s u p p l . 2 ( 1 ) : 131, 135, 1824; Ochi (1959); Wang (1967, 1970). C i t e d specimen: Pingtung Co. The f i r s t water resource to Kwai-ku Chuang 1262 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On t r e e trunk. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Himalaya, I n d i a , Burma, T h a i l a n d , Vietnam, mainland China, Indonesia, P h i l i p p i n e s , New Guinea, Taiwan, Korea, Japan. -194-4. Brachymenium nepalense Hook. v a r . clavulum ( M i t t . ) Ochi, Rev. Bry. Japan 50, 1959; Ochi (1964); Wang (196?, 1970). C i t e d specimens Nantou Co. Tung-pu to Mt. M o r r i s o n , S. N a k a n i s h i 12586, 12605, 12739, 12998 (KU). H a b i t a t s On t r e e bark; D i s t r i b u t i o n s Himalaya, Korea, Japan, Taiwan, V l a d i v o s t o k . Bryum Hedw., Spec. Muse. 178, 1801. S i x t e e n s p e c i e s , one subspecies and one v a r i e t y i n Taiwan. Key to the s p e c i e s of Bryum 1. Leaves d i s t i n c t l y bordered 2 2. P l a n t s t w i s t e d when dry; l e a v e s b r o a d l y obovate, oblong, s p a t h u l a t e , s e r r a t e toward apex 3 3. Leaves 3-4 mm l o n g , c o a r s e l y toothed B. truncorum 3. Leaves 2-3 mm l o n g , m i n u t e l y toothed 4 4. Leaves bordered with 1-2 rows of c e l l s . . B. c a p i l l a r e 2. P l a n t s not t w i s t e d when dry; l e a v e s ovate, l a n c e o l a t e or 4. Leaves bordered with 3-4 rows of narrow and t h i c k w a l l e d c e l l s B. salakense e l o n g a t e - t r i a n g u l a r , not s e r r a t e toward apex 5 5. Autoicuous, l e a f - a p e x n e a r l y e n t i r e B. p a l l e s c e n s 5. D i o i c o u s , l e a f - a p e x d e n t i c u l a t e 6 6. P l a n t s with red, globose, m u l t i c e l l a r gemmae B. a t r o v i r e n s 6. P l a n t s without gemmae 7 7. Stems s l e n d e r , 1-2 cm h i g h ; l e a f - b a s e not decurrent; median l e a f c e l l s 7 0 w i d e B. l e e t o c a u l o n -195-7. Stems robust, elongate, up .to 4 cm high; l e a f - b a s e l o n g d e c u r r e n t , median l e a f - c e l l s 16-20jx wide.... 8 8. L e a f apex d i s t i n c t l y acute; c o s t a s h o r t e x c u r r e n t , l e a f bordered with s e v e r a l rows o f narrow, elongate c e l l s B. pseudotriquetrum 8. Leaf-apex acuminate; c o s t a l o n g e x c u r r e n t ; l e a f bordered w i t h 1-2 rows o f narrow elongate c e l l s . . B. pseudotriquetrum v a r . g r a c i l e n s 1. Leaves not bordered 9 9. C o s t a ending below the apex o r p e r c u r r e n t 10 10. P l a n t s r o b u s t , up to 5 cm t a l l ; l e a v e s broad, oblong or l i n g u l a t e B. blandum subsp. h a n d e l i i 10. P l a n t s s m a l l , up to 1 cm t a l l ; l e a v e s ovate 11 11. P l a n t s s i l v e r y white when dry; l e a v e s w i t h acuminate or c u s p i d a t e apex; l e a f - c e l l s 10-12jx l o n g . . . . . B. argenteum 11. P l a n t s brownish-yellow to reddish-brown; l e a v e s with obtuse apex; l e a f - c e l l s l a x 15-20jx l o n g B. c e l l u l a r e 9 . C o s t a more or l e s s e x c u r r e n t .12 12. Capsules a b r u p t l y rounded at base 13 13. Neck of c a p s u l e s g r a d i n g i n t o urn, s h r i n k i n g l i t t l e ; l e a v e s ovate or b r o a d - l a n c e o l a t e , acute... B. b i c o l o r 13. Neck o f c a p s u l e s t h i c k e r than urn, i r r e g u l a r l y s h r i n k i n g ; l e a v e s narrowly l a n c e o l a t e , acuminate.... B. coronatum -196-12. Capsules more or l e s s t a p e r i n g toward base 14 14. Leaves b r o a d l y ovate B. recurvulum 14. Leaves narrowly o b l o n g - l a n c e o l a t e or l a n c e o l a t e 15 15. C o s t a v e r y l o n g - e x c u r r e n t B. c a e s p i t i c i u m 15. C o s t a p e r c u r r e n t or s h o r t - e x c u r r e n t . . . . . 16 16. Capsules o f t e n long-necked, with v e r y l a r g e mouth, ou t e r peristome t e e t h orange... B. plumosum l 6 . Capsules short-necked, the mouth s m a l l , o u t e r peristome t e e t h y e l l o w 17 17. Leaves o b l o n g - l a n c e o l a t e o r t r i a n g u l a r -l a n c e o l a t e , s h o r t to l o n g acuminate; l e a f c e l l s 60 X 12JA\ capsules h o r i z o n t a l to nodding B. paradoxum 17. Leaves oblong, s h o r t acuminate o r acute; l e a f c e l l s 120-150 X 1 5 - 1 8ju; c a p s u l e s e r e c t or suberect B. p e t e l o t i i 1. Bryum argenteum Hedw., Spec. Muse. 181, 1801; Cardot ( 1905); Sasaoka (1928, 1928a); Okamura (1916); I h s i b a ( 1929); Ochi (1959, 1968); Wang ( I 9 6 0 , 1970). ' Bryum argenteum v a r . lanatum (P. Beauv.) Hamp., Li n n a e a 13: 44, 1839; Sasaoka (1928, 1928a); Ochi (1959, 1964)5 Wang (1967) . Bryum fujiyamae C. M u e l l . ex Sasaoka, Trans. Nat. H i s t . Soc. Formos. 18: 192, 1928. C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i Co. Yang-ming-shan to Tsu-tzu-hu, Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 147 (UBC). -197-H a b i t a t : On s o i l and r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n s Cosmopolitan, R e c e n t l y Ochi (I968) p l a c e d v a r i e t y lanatum i n t o synonym of t h i s s p e c i e s . He s t a t e s t h a t there are many i n t e r g r a t i o n s between t h i s s p e c i e s and i t s v a r i e t y and i t i s very d i f f i c u l t to d i s t i n g u i s h them. 2 . Bryum a t r o v i r e n s V i l l . ex B r i d . , Muse. R e c 2(3)s 48, 1 8 0 3 ; Ochi ( I 9 6 8 ) ; Wang (1970). Bryum erythrocarpum Schwaegr., Spec. Muse, s u p p l . 1 ( 2 ) 1 100, 1816; Ochi (1959); Wang.(1967). Bryum c a p i l l a r e sensu Sasaoka, Trans. Nat. H i s t . Soc. Formos. 18s 191, 1928. C i t e d specimens Nantou Co. Onoe, S. Suzuki 2938 (TNS 2 5 6 0 ) — det. as B. c a p i l l a r e . H a b i t a t s On s o i l o f bank o r r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n s Europe, A f r i c a , Japan and Taiwan. The a b o v e - c i t e d specimen has been annotated by Ochi as B. erythrocarpum i n 1959, and I a l s o checked t h a t specimen and came to the same c o n c l u s i o n . 3. Bryum b i c o l o r D i c k s . , P l . Cr y p t . B r i t . f a s c . 4s 16, 1801; Ochi (1959, 1 9 6 8 ) ; Wang ( I 9 6 7 , 1 9 7 0 ) . Bryum sasaokae Broth., ex Sasaoka, Trans. Nat. H i s t . Soc. Formos. 8s 135. 1918; Sasaoka (1921, 1 9 2 8 ) . C i t e d specimens Hisnchu Co. Mt. R i t o z a n , H. Sasaoka, 41492 (TNS) --det. as B. Sasaokae. H a b i t a t s On moist s o i l . - 1 9 8 -D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe, C a n a r i e s , Madeira, Morocco, A s i a Minor, Caucasus, China, Japan, North America and Taiwan. 4. Bryum blandum Hook. f. & W i l s . , subsp. h a n d e l i i ( Broth.) Ochi, J . Jap. Bot. 43s 484, 1968. Bryum h a n d e l i i Broth., Symb. S i n . 4s 5 8 , 1929; Ochi ( 1 9 6 2 , 1968)5 Wang ( 1 9 7 0 ) . Bryum p u l c h r o - a l a r e B r o t h . , Rev. B r y o l . n. s e r . 2s 5 , 1929; Ochi ( 1 9 5 9 , 1 9 6 2 ) ; Wang ( I 9 6 7 ) . C i t e d specimens Pingtung Co. Kwai-ku to Mt. Pei-ta-wu-shan, Chuang 1568 (UBC). H a b i t a t s On wet rocks i n stream. D i s t r i b u t i o n s C h i n a ( Yunnan), Japan and Taiwan. 5. Bryum c a e s p i t i c i u m L i n n . ex Hedw., Spec. Muse. 1 8 0 1 , 1801; Ochi ( 1 9 5 9 , 1 9 6 8 ) ; Wang ( I 9 6 7 , 1 9 7 0 ) . C i t e d specimens C h i a y i Co. Mt. M o r r i s o n , A. Noguchi 6159 (NOG) --not seen. T h i s s p e c i e s i s e a s i l y r e c o g n i z e d by i t s o v a t e - l a n c e o l a t e , acuminate l e a v e s w i t h a l o n g e x c u r r e n t costae, broad base, and margins unbordered and r e c u r v e d . 6 . Bryum c a p i l l a r e L i n n , ex Hedw., Spec. Muse. 182, 1801; Ochi (1964, 1 9 6 8 ) ; Wang ( 1 9 7 0 ) . Bryum c a p i l l a r e L i n n , ex Hedw. v a r . rubrolimbatum ( Broth.) Bartram., P h i l i p p . J . S c i . 6 8 : 142, 1939; Ochi ( 1 9 5 9 ) : Wang ( 1 9 6 7 ) . Bryum taitumense Card., Beih. Bot. C e n t r a l b l . 19: 110, 1905; Sasaoka ( 1 9 2 8 ) ; I h s i b a ( 1 9 2 9 ) ; Wang ( i 9 6 0 ) . -199-C i t e d specimens I l a n Co. Mt. Tai - p i n g - s h a n , Chuang 2217, 2221 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On ro c k s , t r e e bark and r o t t e n l o g . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Cosmopolitan. 7. Bryum c e l l u l a r e Hook, i n Schwaegr., Spec. Muse, s u p p l . 3 ( 1 ) : 214 a, 1827; Herzog & Noguchi (1955); Ochi (1959, 1964, 1968); Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1970); Iwatsuki ( I 9 6 9 ) . Bryum c e l l u l a r e v a r . e p i p t e r y g i o i d e s ( Ochi) Ochi, Rev. Bryac. Jap. 63, 1959. Bryum formosanum B r o t h . , Oefv. F i n s k . Vet. Soc. Foerh. 62A ( 9 ) : 17, 1921; Sasaoka (1920, 1928); I h s i b a ( 1929); Brotherus (1924); Chen (1963)1 wang ( i 9 6 0 ) . Bryum .japonense ( Besch.) Broth., Nat. P f l . 1 ( 3 ) : 576, 1903; Cardot ( I 9 0 5 ) ; Sasaoka ( 1 9 2 8 ) ; I h s i b a ( I 9 2 9 ) ; Herzog & Noguchi ( 1 9 5 5 ) ; Wang ( I 9 6 0 ) . Bryum t o z e r i sensu Wang, B i o l . B u l l . Tunghai Univ. 31: 5, 1967; Wang ( 1 9 7 0 ) . C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i Co. Kan-kou, Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 14 (UBC); Toseikak, E. Matsuda 27 (H)--Holotype o f B . formosanum. H a b i t a t : On moist r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Himalaya, Nepal, Assam, I n d i a , Java, Tonkin, Sumatra, China, P h i l i p p i n e s , Japan, Ryukyu and Taiwan. 8 . Bryum coronatum Schwaegr., Spec. Muse, s u p p l . 1 ( 2 ) : 1 0 2 , 71, 1816; Sasaoka ( 1 9 2 8 ) ; I h s i b a ( 1 9 2 9 ) ; Ochi ( 1 9 5 9 , 1 9 6 8 ) ; Wang ( I 9 6 0 , 1 9 7 0 ) . Bryum coronatum Schwaegr. v a r . rnacrostomum Herzog, J . H a t t o r i - 2 0 0 -Bot. Lab. 14s 61, 1955; Wang ( i 9 6 0 ) . C i t e d specimens Nantou Co. Lu-shan, Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 755 (UBC). H a b i t a t s On s o i l and r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n s A s i a , A f r i c a , North America, A u s t r a l i a , Oceanic i s l a n d s . 9* Bryum l e p t o c a u l o n Card., B e i h . Bot. C e n t r a l b l . 1 9 ( 1 ) * H I , 1 2 , 1 9 0 5 ; Sasaoka ( 1 9 2 8 ) ; I h s i b a ( 1 9 2 9 ) ; Ochi ( 1 9 5 9 , 1 9 6 8 ) ; Wang ( I 9 6 0 , 1 9 7 0 ) . C i t e d specimens T a i p e i Co. Keelung, U. F a u r i e 90 ( K Y O ) — H o l o t y p e o f B. l e p t o c a u l o n - - n o t seen. Habitats On s o i l o r c o a s t a l sand dunes. D s i t r i b u t i o n s Japan, Ryukyu and Taiwan. 1 0 . Bryum p a l l e s c e n s S c h l e i c h . ex Schwaegr., Spec. Muse, s u p p l . 1 ( 2 ) : 1 0 7 , 75, 1 8 1 6 ; Ochi ( 1 9 6 4 , 1 9 6 8 ) ; Wang ( 1 9 6 7 , 1 9 7 0 ) . C i t e d specimen: C h i a y i Co. Mt. M o r r i s o n , S. N a k a n i s h i (KU 1 3 ^ 6 4 ) . H a b i t a t : On s o i l and r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : C i r c u m b o r e a l . The Taiwan r e p o r t o f t h i s s p e c i e s was made by Ochi ( 1 9 6 4 ) based on Nakanishi's specimen, but he d i d q u e s t i o n the d t e r m i n a t i o n . T h i s s p e c i e s need re-examination. 1 1 . Bryum paradoxum Schwaegr., Spec. Muse, s u p p l . 3 ( 1 ) s 224 a, 1 8 2 7 ; Ochi ( 1 9 6 8 ) ; Wang ( 1 9 7 0 ) . Bryum pseudo-alpinum Ren. & Card., B u l l . Herb. B o i s s . 3 4 ( 2 ) : 6 2 , I 8 9 6 ; Ochi ( 1969); Wang ( I 9 6 7 ) . Bryum t e r e t i u s c u l u m Hook., Ico. P l . Is t . 2 0 , f . 1 , I 8 3 6 ; Noguchi ( I 9 6 6 ) . - 2 0 1 -C i t e d specimens Nantou Co. C h i - t o u to C h i - t i , Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 535 (UBC); Pingtung Co. Kwai-ku to Pei-ta-wu-shan, Chuang 1506 (UBC). H a b i t a t s On rocks and s o i l banks. D i s t r i b u t i o n s Himalaya, Sikkim, Nepal, I n d i a , China, Ceylon, Korea, Japan and Taiwan. 12. Bryum p e t e l o t i i Ther. & Henery, Rev. B r y o l . n. s e r . 1: 4 3 , 1 9 2 8 ; Ochi (1968)5 Wang ( 1970) . I n t e r g e n e r i c hybrids Bryum argenteum v a r . lanatum X Brachymenium e x i l e ( Doz. & Molk.) Bosch. & L a c , Ochi, J . Jap. Bot. 29s 4 9 , f . 1, 1954? S h i n ( 1 9 6 4 ) ; Wang ( 1 9 6 7 ) . C i t e d specimens C h i a y i Co. Mt. Mo r r i s o n , T. S h i n 8 7 4 , 8 9 1 . T h i s c i t e d specimen i s taken from S h i n ( 1 9 6 4 )—not seen. Habi t a t s On s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n s Vietnam, Japan and Taiwan. 13. Bryum plumosum Doz. & Molk., M u s e Frond. Ined. A r c h i p . Ind. 3, 1844; Ochi ( I 9 6 8 , 1 9 6 9 ) ; Wang ( I 9 6 8 , 1 9 7 0 ) . Bryum ambiguum Dub., i n M o r i t z i , S y s t . V e r z . Z o l l i n g . P f l . 132, 1846; Sasaoka ( 1 9 2 8 , 1 9 2 8 a ) . Bryum porhyroneuron C. M u e l l . , Bot. Z e i t . l i s 2 2 , 1853? Sasaoka (1928, 1 9 2 8 a ) ; Ochi ( 1 9 5 9 ) ; Wang ( I 9 6 7 ) . C i t e d specimen: C h i a y i Co. T a - s h i h - n i a o , C. K. Wang 433 (THU). H a b i t a t : On t r e e bark or ro c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Nepal, I n d i a , Ceylon, Indonesia, Vietnam, Java, China ( Yunnan), P h i l i p p i n e s , Sumatra, New C a l e d o n i a and A u s t r a l i a . 14. Bryum pseudotriquetrum ( Hedw.) Schwaegr., S p e c Suppl. 1 ( 2 ) : 110, 1816; Ochi ( 1 9 5 9 , 1964, 1968); Wang ( I 9 6 7 , 1 9 7 0 ) . - 2 0 2 -Bryum s u z u k i i B o r t h . ex Sasaoka, Trans. Nat. H i s t . Soc. Formos. 18: 192, 1928. C i t e d specimen: I l a n Co. Mt. T a i - p i n g - s h a n , S. Su z u k i , 2446 (TNS) --det. as B. s u z u k i i - - n o t seen. H a b i t a t : On wet rocks and s o i l , sometime submerged i n water. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe, North America, Greenland, North and C e n t r a l A s i a . 15. Bryum pseudotriquetrum v a r . g r a c i l e n s ( Card.) Ochi, Rev. Bryac. Jap. 8 1 , 25, 1959; S h i n ( 1964); Ochi (1964, 1969); Wang ( I 9 6 7 , 1970). C i t e d specimen: C h i a y i Co. Mt. M o r r i s o n , T. S h i n , 894, 890 (Herb. S h i n ) - - n o t seen. H a b i t a t : On moist rocks and s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : China, Himalaya, Japan and Taiwan. 16. Bryum recurvulum M i t t . , J . L i n n . Soc. Bot. Suppl. 1: 74, 1859; Noguchi (1966); Ochi ( I 9 6 8 ) ; Wang ( 1970) . Bryum n o g u c h i i Ochi, J . Jap. Bot. 31: 364, f . 5, 1956; Ochi ( 1962); Wang ( 1 9 6 ? ) . C i t e d specimen: Pingtung to T a i t u n g border, S. Okamoto (KYO ?) --not seen. H a b i t a t : On rocks or i n c r e v i c e s o f li m e s t o n e . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Nepal, I n d i a , China, Japan and Taiwan. 17. Bryum salakense Card., Annuair. Cons. J a r d . Bot. Geneve 15-16: 166, 1912; Ochi (1968, 1969); Wang (1970). C i t e d specimen: Taichung Co. Mt. An-ma-shan, C. K. Wang 1219 (THU) --not seen. H a b i t a t : On humus s o i l i n evergreen f o r e s t . - 2 0 3 -D i s t r i b u t i o n : J ava and Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to B. c a p i l l a r e , but i t i s d i f f e r e n t from the l a t t e r i n i t s l a r g e r l e a v e s with a border c o n s i s t i n g o f 3-4 rows of narrow and t h i c k e r - w a l l e d c e l l s . 18. Bryum truncorum ( B r i d . ) B r i d . , Mant. Muse. 119, 1819; Ochi (1959, 1964); wang ( 1970) . Bryum ramosum ( Hook.) M i t t . , J . L i n n . Soc. Bot. Suppl. Is 75, 1859; Cardot (1905); Sasaoka (1928); I h s i b a (1929); Herzog & Noguchi (1955); Wang ( i 9 6 0 ) . Bryum michurae B r o t h . , Hedwigia 38s 219, 1899? Sasaoka (1928); I h s i b a (1929)5 Wang ( i 9 6 0 ) . Rhodobryum wichurae ( Broth.) Par., Ind. B r y o l . Suppl. 301, 1900; Okamura '(1916). C i t e d specimens Kaohsiung Co. Shan-ping to Nan-feng-shan, Chuang 1056 (UBC); Pingtung Co. Kwai-ku to Hsin-ma-chia, Chuang I 6 I 3 (UBC). H a b i t a t s On humus. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Nepal, N i l g h i r i , Ceylon, Java, Taiwan, Japan, Ryukyu. E p i p t e r y g i u m Lindb., Oefv. Kungl. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Foreh. 19$ 603, I 8 6 3 . One s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. E p i p t e r y g i u m t o z e r i ( Grev.) Lindb., Oefv. Svensk. Vet. Akad. Foerh. 21: 576, I865. C i t e d specimen: Nantou Co. C h i - t o u to C h i - t i , Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 252 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On s o i l or moist r o c k s . -204-D i s t r i b u t i o n s England, Wales, France, I t a l y , P o r t u g a l , T a n g i e r s , Madeira, Canary I s l a n d s , Himalaya, Java, Japan, Canada ( B r i t i s h Columbia), USA (Washington, Oregon, C a l i f o r n i a ) , Azores, Caucasus. T h i s s p e c i e s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the d o r s i v e n t r a l p l a n t s , dimorphic l e a v e s , and l a r g e l e a f - c e l l s t h a t are narrow toward the margin forming a border. The a b o v e - c i t e d specimen w i t h capsules r e p r e s e n t s a genus new to Taiwan. Leptobryum (B. S. G.) W i l s . , B r y o l . B r i t . 219, 1855. One s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. Leptobryum p y r i f o r m e (Hedw.) W i l s . , B r y o l . B r i t . 219, 1855. C i t e d specimen: Nantou Co. C h i - t i to w a t e r f a l l , Chuang & S c h o f i e l d , 5^5 (UBC). H a b i t a t : Wet f i e l d and v a l l e y s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Cosmopolitan. T h i s s p e c i e s and genus are here f i r s t r e p o r t e d as new to Taiwan. The narrowly l a n c e o l a t e l e a v e s , t h a t are acuminate and s l i g h t l y d e n t i c u l a t e at the apex and w i t h a broad c o s t a g i v e d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r s t o t h i s s p e c i e s . M i e l i c h h o f e r i a Nees & Hornsch., B r y o l . Germ. 2: 179, 1831. One s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. M i e l i c h h o f e r i a m i e l i c h h o f e r i (Hook.) Wijk. & Marg., v a r . j a p o n i c a (Besch.) Wijk. & Marg., Taxon 14: 197, 1965. C i t e d specimen: Nantou Co. Lu-shan, Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 787 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On red s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Japan. Genus new to Taiwan 1 The c h a r a c t e r s of the l e a v e s are s i m i l a r to Japanese s p e c i e s , - 2 0 5 -but the Japanese specimen grow i n dense t u f t s whereas Taiwan m a t e r i a l s grow l o o s e l y . Orthodontium Schwaegr., Spec. Muse. Suppl. 2(2) s 123, 1826. One s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. Orthodontium i n f r a c t u m Doz. et Molk., Ann. Sc. Nat. Bot. s e r . 3» 2: 33, 1844; Iwatsuki & Sharp ( 1970) . C i t e d specimens Taichung Co. Hsueh-shan-shan-mo, near Chung-hsueh-shan, Z. Iwatsuki, A. J . & E. Sharp 940 (NICH). H a b i t a t : On r o t t e n stumps. D i s t r i b u t i o n s Java, Borneo, C e y l o n and Taiwan. P o h l i a Hedw., Spec. Muse. 171, 1801. F i v e s p e c i e s and one v a r i e t y i n Taiwan. Key to the s p e c i e s and v a r i e t y of P o h l i a 1. L e a f c e l l s broad, 1 3 - 1 7ju wide; c a p s u l e s as wide as l o n g when dry P. w a h l e n b e r g i i 1. L e a f c e l l s narrow, 3 - 7ju wide; c a p s u l e s elongate-ovate, c y l i n d r i c a l when dry 2 2. C o s t a ending below the apex . . 3 3. Leaves ovate, l e a f - c e l l s r e c t a n g u l a r o r rhomboidal; c a p s u l e s pendulous P. nutans 3. Leaves l a n c e o l a t e , l e a f - c e l l s v e r m i c u l a r ; c a p s u l e s i n c l i n e d P. l o n g i c o l l a 2. C o s t a p e r c u r r e n t or s h o r t e x c u r r e n t 4. Leaves w i t h d i s t i n c t m e t a l l i c l u s t r e ; l e a f - m a r g i n s t r o n g l y r e v o l u t e P. crudoides v a r . r e v o l v e n s 4. Leaves without m e t a l l i c l u s t r e ; l e a f - m a r g i n not r e v o l u t e 5 - 2 0 6 -5. P l a n t s o f t e n w i t h gemmae 5 c o s t a r e d d i s h ; c a p s u l e s with s h o r t neck, 3 mm l o n g P. f l e x u o s a 5. P l a n t s without gemmae; c o s t a g r e e n i s h ; c a p s u l e s with l o n g neck, 5-6 mm l o n g P. e l o n g a t a 1. P o h l i a c r u d o i d e s ( S u l l . & Lesq.) Broth, v a r . r e v o l v e n s (Card.) Ochi, Rev. Bryac. Japan 13. 3, 1959; Ochi (1964, 1968); Wang (1967, 1970). C i t e d specimen: C h i a y i Co. Mt. M o r r i s o n , S. Na k a n i s h i (UK 13600). H a b i t a t : On s o i l or r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Alaska-Yukon, Japan and Taiwan. 2. P o h l i a e l o n g a t a Hedw., Spec. Muse. 171, 1801; Ochi (1959, 1962, 1964); Wang (1968, 1970). Webera e l o n g a t a (Hedw.) Schwaegr., Spec. P l . ed. 4 , 5 ( 2 ) : 48, 1832; Sasaoka (1928, 1928a). C i t e d specimen: I l a n Co. C h i - l i - t i e n to Mt. Nan-hu-ta-shan, Chuang 1733 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On s o i l s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe, Macronesia, A f r i c a , Kerguelen I s l a n d s , A s i a , Japan, North America. 3. P o h l i a f l e x u o s a Hook., Icon. P l . Par. 1: 19, f . 5, I8365 Ochi (1959, 1962, 1964, 1968); W ang (1970). Webera s c a b r i d e n s ( M i t t . ) Jaeg., Ber. S. G a l l . Naturw. Ges. 1873-74: 130, 1875; Cardot ( 1905) ; Sasaoka ( 1928); Wang ( I 9 6 0 ) . P o h l i a s c a b r i d e n s ( M i t t . ) Broth., Nat. P f l . 1 ( 3 ) : 552, 1903; I h s i b a ( 1935) . - 2 0 7 -C i t e d specimens I l a n Co. Mt. Tai - p i n g - s h a n , Chuang 1978 (UBC); Nantou Co. C h i - t o u area, Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 658 (UBC); Pingtung Co. Shan-ping to Nan-feng-shan, Chuang 1978 (UBC). H a b i t a t s On s o i l or moist r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n s Malaya, China, Japan, P h i l i p p i n e s , Ryukyu, Taiwan, C e n t r a l America, Northern South America. 4. P o h l i a l o n g i c o l l a (Hedw.) Lindb., Muse. Scand. 18: 1879; Ochi (1959, 1968); Wang (1967, 1970). C i t e d specimen: C h i a y i Co. Mt. M o r r i s o n , A. Noguchi 6156, 6 l 8 8 (NOG)--not seen. H a b i t a t : On s o i l or r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe, A s i a , North America. 5. P o h l i a nutans (Hedw.) Lindb., Musci Scand. 18, 1879; Ochi (1964); Wang ( 1970) . C i t e d specimen: C h i a y i Co. Mt. M o r r i s o n , S. N a k a n i s h i (UK 13510). H a b i t a t : S o i l s , r o c k s , humus and decaying wood. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Widespread i n both hemispheres. 6. P o h l i a w a h l e n b e r g i i (Web. & Mohr.) Andrew, i n Grout, Moss F l . N. Am. 2: 203, 1935; Ochi (1959, 1968); Wang (1967. 1970). C i t e d specimen: C h i a y i Co. Mt. M o r r i s o n , K. Kumata ( T l ) - - d e t . as Mniobryum a l b i c a n s - - n o t seen. H a b i t a t : On s o i l and moist r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe, A l g e r i a , K e rguelen I s l a n d s , North and C e n t r a l A s i a , North and South America, Greenland. Rhodobryum (Schimp.) Hamp., Li n n a e a 38: 663, 1874. Two s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. Key t o the s p e c i e s o f Rhodobryum -208-1. M a r g i n a l t e e t h of l e a f i n one row; c o s t a w i t h a s t e r e i d j u s t below the ce n t r e i n c r o s s s e c t i o n ; spores l a r g e ( 2 0 - 2 5 j u ) . . . R. roseum 1. M a r g i n a l t e e t h o f l e a f i n p a i r s ; c o s t a without a s t e r e i d i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n ; spores s m a l l (about 1 5 > u ) R. giganteum 1. Rhodobryum giganteum (Schwaegr.) Par., Ind. B r y o l . 1116, 1898; Sasaoka (1920, 1928); Horikawa (1934); I h s i b a (1935); Wang ( I 9 6 0 ) . Bryum giganteum (Schwaegr.) A r n o t t . , Mem. Soc. L i n n . P a r i s 5: 279, 1827; Ochi (1964, 1968); Wang (1970). Rhodobryum roseum non Limpr., sensu Sasaoka Trans. Nat. H i s t . Soc. Formos. 18: 193, 1928. C i t e d specimen: Kaohsiung Co. Nan-feng-shan, Chuang 989, 990 (UBC); Nantou Co. C h i t o u to C h i - t i , Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 467 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On c l i f f and humus. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Himalaya, Sumatra, Java, Boreno, China, Japan, Taiwan, Hawaii, Madagascar. 2. Rhodobryum roseum (Hedw.) Limpr., Laubm. D e u t s c h l . 3? 444, 1892; I h s i b a (1929, 1935); Wang ( i 9 6 0 ) . Bryum roseum (Hedw.) Crom., Samml. Deutsch. Laubm. 47, 1803; S h i n ( 1964); Wang (1970). C i t e d specimen: C h i a y i Co. Mt. A - l i , T. S h i n 8 4 l (Herb. Shin) --not seen. H a b i t a t : On moist humus s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe, Caucasus, Himalaya, T i b e t , Nepal, China, Japan, North America. - 2 0 9 -Family: Mniaceae A c c o r d i n g to Koponen's paper on "The keys to the Mniaceae i n Taiwan" ( i n p r e s s ) , f i f t e e n s p e c i e s o f t h i s f a m i l y have been l i s t e d . S i x s p e c i e s are r e p o r t e d as new to Taiwan. The c i t a t i o n o f Mnium heterophyllum and Orthomnion l o h e r i are based on my c o l l e c t i o n s . I have f o l l o w e d some o f Koponen's treatment. F i v e genera p r e s e n t i n Taiwan. Key to the genera o f Mniaceae 1. L e a f margin toothed 2 2. P l a n t s branched at the upper p o r t i o n o f stems; margin not bordered .Mnium immarginatum 2. P l a n t s unbranched; l e a f margins w i t h d i f f e r e n t i a t e d border. 3 3. Leaf-margin w i t h s i n g l e t e e t h Plagiomnium 3. Leaf-margin w i t h double t e e t h Mnium 1. L e a f margin e n t i r e 4 k. P l a n t s w i t h u p r i g h t shoots; l e a f - b o r d e r b i - m u l t i s t r a t o s e ; r e d d i s h c o l o r p r e s e n t i n gametophyte Rhizomnium 4. P l a n t s w i t h c r e e p i n g shoots; l e a f border u n i s t r a t o s e ; r e d d i s h c o l o r absent i n gametophyte 5 5. L e a f border absent o r 1-2 c e l l s wide; c o s t a ending below the l e a f apex; capsules e r e c t 6 6. S e t a 0 . 5 cm l o n g at most; c a l y p t r a not h a i r y ; l e a f -c e l l s i s o d i a m e t r i c with d i s t i n c t l y p i t t e d w a l l s . . ,, Orthomniopsis 6. S e t a about 2 cm long; c a l y p t r a h a i r y ; l e a f - c e l l s -210-elongate, without d i s t i n c t l y p i t t e d walls...Orthomnion 5. L e a f border 2-5 c e l l s wide; c o s t a r e a c h i n g the l e a f apex; c a p s u l e s h o r i z o n t a l o r pendulous Plagiomnium Mnium Hedw., Spec. Muse. 188, 1801. Four s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. Key to the s p e c i e s o f Mnium 1. C o s t a ending below l e a f - a p e x 2 2. Stems branched at the upper p o r t i o n ; l e a f - m a r g i n not border Mnium immarginatum 2. Stems not branched; l e a f - m a r g i n bordered with elongate c e l l s M. heterophyllum 1. C o s t a r e a c h i n g l e a f - a p e x 3 3. C o s t a smooth; le a v e s oblong M. l a e v i n e r v e 3. C o s t a toothed; l e a v e s l a n c e o l a t e . . . . . . . . , M . l y c o p o d i o i d e s 1. Mnium heterophyllum (Hook.) Schwaegr., Spec. Muse. Suppl. 2 ( 2 ) s 22, 159, 1826. Mnium heterophyllum v a r . sapporense (Besch.) K a b i e r s c h , Hedwigia 76: 22, 1936; Wang ( 1970) . Mnium sapporense Besch., Ann. Sc. Nat. Bot. s e r . 7, 17' 3^5, 1893; Horikawa (193*0 i I h s i b a (1935) . C i t e d specimen: Taichung Co. L i - s h a n , Chuang 833 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On s o i l under f o r e s t . D i s t r i b u t i o n : E a s t Manchuria, Japan and Taiwan. 2. Mnium immarginatum Broth., A c t . Soc. Fenn. 19(12): 12, 1892; K a b i e r s c h ( 1936) ; Chen ( 1963); Wang (1970). Mnium arcuatum B r o t h . , Hedwigia 38: 221, 1899; Brotherus -211-(1924) ; Noguchi (1934); I h s i b a (1935); Horikawa (1934); S a k u r a i (1935); Wang ( i 9 6 0 ) . C i t e d specimens C h i a y i Co. Mt. M o r r i s o n , A. Noguchi 6274, 6320, 6655 (NOG)--not seen. H a b i t a t : On decayed l o g s o r humus i n s u b a l p i n e areas. D i s t r i b u t i o n : S i b e r i a , C e n t r a l A s i a ( A l t a i ) , Yunnan, mainland China, Manchuria, Korea, Japan and Taiwan. K a b i e r s c h (1936) and Koponen (1968) both have s t u d i e d t h i s i n t e r e s t i n g s p e c i e s , which possesses i n t e r m e d i a t e c h a r a c t e r s between L e u c o l e p i s , T r a c h y s t i s and Mnium. The p o s i t i o n o f t h i s s p e c i e s i s s t i l l u n c e r t a i n . K a b i e r s c h proposed a s e c t i o n Pseudo-l e u c o l e p i s f o r t h i s s p e c i e s and Koponen suggests t h a t t h i s may belo n g to L e u c o l e p i s . T h i s s p e c i e s can be r e c o g n i z e d by i t s u n i s t r a t o s e l e a f border, s i n g l e t e e t h and curved stems about 4 cm hig h , branched at the upper p o r t i o n . 3. Mnium l a e v i n e r v e Card., B u l l . Soc. Bot. Geneve s e r . 2, 1: 128, 1909; S a k u r a i ( 1935); Wang (1968, 1970). Mnium a r i s a n e n s e Sak., Bot. Mag. Tokyo 49: 682, 1935; Wang ( 1 9 7 0 ) . C i t e d specimen: I l a n Co. Mt. Ta i - p i n g - s h a n , A. Noguchi 4313 (MAK); C h i a y i Co. Mt. A - l i - s h a n , A. Noguchi V I I I , 1 9 3 2 —Holotype of M. a r i s a n e n s e (MAK 4335). H a b i t a t : On s o i l s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Himalaya, I n d i a , mainland China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan. -212-Koponen reduced M. a r i s a n e n s e to a synonym of M. l e a e v i n e r v e , but my examination o f the holotype of t h a t s p e c i e s shows the l e a f -margin s h a r p l y toothed with 3-4 rows of c e l l s forming the borders t h i s c h a r a c t e r does not p r e c i s e l y match M. l a e v i n e r v e . 4. Mnium l y c o p o d i o i d e s Schwaegr., Spec. Muse. Suppl. 2 ( 2 ) : 24, 160, 1826. Mnium marginatum (With.) P. Beauv., Prodr. 75, 1805; S a k u r a i ( 1935); Wang ( 1970) . C i t e d specimen: C h i a y i Co. Mt. M o r r i s o n , A. Noguchi 4322 (MAK)— det. as M. marginatum. H a b i t a t : On s o i l and humus. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Himalaya, Western China (Yunnan). New to Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s was d i s c o v e r e d by Koponen as new to Taiwan. I have checked a specimen named as M. marginatum i n Makino Herb. The c h a r a c t e r of l e a f c e l l s and m a r g i n a l t e e t h match w e l l those of M. l y c o p o d i o i d e s . Orthomnion W i l s . , i n M i t t e n , Kew J . Bot. 9« 368, 1857. One s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. Orthomnion l o h e r i B r o t h . Oefv. F i n s k . Vet. Soc. Foerh. 4 7(14): 6, 1905. C i t e d specimen: I l a n Co. Mt. T a i - p i n g - s h a n , Chuang 2101 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On t r e e trunk. D i s t r i b u t i o n : P h i l i p p i n e s and west I n d i e s . New to Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s was d i s c o v e r e d by Koponen as a s p e c i e s new to Taiwan (Koponen i n p r e s s ) . He p o i n t e d out t h a t the 2 cm lon g , e r e c t s e t a and l e a f - c h a r a c t e r s match w e l l those o f the genus, -213-but the l e a v e s on s t o l o n s have a long, acute apex which d i f f e r s from the type. Orthomniopsis Broth., Oefv. F i n s k . Vet. Soc. Foerh. 4-9(10): 1, 1907. One s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. Orthomniopsis d i l a t a t a ( M i t t . ) Nog., F l o r a E. Himalaya 563, 1966; Koponen (1968) . Orthomniopsis j a p o n i c a Broth., Oefv. F i n s k . Vet. Soc. Foerh. 49: 1, 190?; Wang (1967. 1970). Orthomnium curiossimum H o r i k . , Bot. Mag. Tokyo 50: 382, 34, 1936. C i t e d specimen: I l a n Co. Mt. T a i - p i n g - s h a n , Y. Horikawa Aug. 23, 1932--Holotype o f 0. curiossimum (HIRO)--not seen. H a b i t a t : On t r e e trunks or c l i f f w a l l s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Himalaya, West China (Szechuan, Yunnan), Japan, Taiwan, P h i l i p p i n e s , Indonesia, New Guinea. T h i s s p e c i e s i s e a s i l y r e c o g n i z e d by i t s p i t t e d c e l l - w a l l s o f l e a f - c e l l s . Koponen ( i n press) reduced Orthomnion curiossimum to t h i s s p e c i e s . From an examination o f i l l u s t r a t i o n o f Horikawa (1936), 1 I agree with t h i s d i s p o s i t i o n . Plagiomnium Kop., Ann. Bot. Fenn. S' l45» 1968. S i x s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. Key to the s p e c i e s of Plagiomnium--This key p a r t l y adapted from Koponen ( i n p r e s s ) . 1. Leaves obovate or e l l i p t i c , acute; o n l y the upper p a r t of the l e a f - m a r g i n t o othed P. trichomanes -214-1. Leaves oblong, e l l i p t i c , obtuse or emarginate; l e a f margin toothed down to the l e a f base 2 2. M a r g i n a l t e e t h s h o r t , formed by 1 (2-3) c e l l s , l e a v e s e l l i p t i c o r oblong; operculum r o s t r a t e 3 2. M a r g i n a l t e e t h c i l i a t e , formed by 1-4 c e l l s ; l e a v e s e l l i p t i c ; operculum not r o s t r a t e P. tezukae 3. Leaves oblong, undulate 4 4. Only a few c e l l s at c e n t e r o f lamina l o n g e r than 25>u, c e l l s i r r e g u l a r l y arranged, i n c r a s s a t e ; d i o e c i o u s . .P. m a x i m o v i c z i i 4. Numerous l a m i n a l c e l l s l o n g e r than 2 5ju lamina c e l l s mainly i n c l e a r rows o f s i m i l a r shape, with s m a l l c o r n e r t h i c k e n i n g ; c e l l - w a l l s s l i g h t l y i n c r a s s a t e ; synoecious P. rhynchophorum 3. Leaves narrowly e l l i p t i c to b r o a d l y e l l i p t i c , not undulate 5 5. L e a f margin bordered by 3-4 rows o f narrow l i n e a r i n c r a s s a t e c e l l s ; c o s t a g e n e r a l l y r e a c h i n g apex; l e a v e s w i t h d e c u r r e n t bases P. integrum 5- L e a f margin w i t h o n l y 1 (-2) rows o f l i n e a r c e l l s , t h i n - w a l l e d ; c o s t a r a r e l y r e a c h i n g apex; l e a v e s without d e c u r r e n t l e a f bases... P. succulentum 1. Plagiomnium integrum (Bosch. & Lac.) Kop. i n p r e s s . Mnium succulentum var. integrum Nog., J . Jap. Bot. 2?: 32, 1952; Herz. & Noguchi (1955); Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1968, 1969, 19?0) . C i t e d specimen: I l a n Co. Mt. Tai - p i n g - s h a n , Chuang 2182 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On wet ro c k s . - 2 1 5 -D i s t r i b u t i o n : T r o p i c a l and s u b t r o p i c a l e a s t e r n A s i a and new to Taiwan CKop. i n p r e s s ) . 2 . Plagiomnium m a x i m o v i c z i i (Lindb.) Kop., Ann. Bot. Fenn. 5 : 147, 1 9 6 8 . Mnium m a x i m o v i c z i i Lindb., Act. Soc. Sc. Fenn. 1 0 : 224, 1 8 7 2 ; Horikawa ( 1 9 3 * 0 ; I h s i b a ( 1 9 3 5 ) ; K a b i e r s c h ( 1 9 3 6 ) ; Herz. & Noguchi ( 1 9 5 5 ) ; Iwatsuki ( 1 9 5 9 ) ; S a k u r a i ( 1 9 3 5 ) ; Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1 9 7 0 ) . Mnium spathulatum M i t t . , Trans. L i n n . Soc. London Bot. s e r . 2 , 3 : 1 6 6 , 1 8 9 9 ; Horikawa ( 1 9 3 * + ) ; I h s i b a ( 1 9 3 5 ) ; Herz. & Noguchi ( 1 9 5 5 ) ; Wang ( i 9 6 0 ) . C i t e d specimen: Nantou Co. L i - s h a n , Chuang 828 (UBC); Pingtung Co. F i r s t water resource to Kwai-ku, Chuang 1 2 5 9 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On s o i l and ro c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : China, Korea, Japan and Taiwan. 3 . Plagiomnium rhyncophorum (Hook.) Kop. ( i n p r e s s ) . C i t e d specimen: I l a n Co. C h i - l i - t i e n , Chuang 1 9 0 3 (UBC); Nantou Co. C h i - t o u to C h i - t i , Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 2 9 5 (UBC); Pingtung Co. Kwai-ku, Chuang 1 3 6 5 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On decayed l o g . D i s t r i b u t i o n : T r o p i c a l and s u b t r o p i c a l e a s t e r n A s i a i n c l u d i n g Japan (from Kop., i n p r e s s ) . 4. Plagiomnium succulentum ( M i t t . ) Kop., Ann. Bot. Fenn. 5 : l**-7» 1 9 6 8 . Mnium succulentum M i t t . , J . L i n n . Soc. Bot. Suppl. 1 : 143, 1 8 5 9 ; S a k u r a i ( 1 9 3 5 ) ; Noguchi ( 1 9 5 2 ) ; Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1 9 7 0 ) . -216-Mnium formosicum Card., Bei h . Bot. C e n t r a l b l . 19: 112, 13, 1905; Brotherus ( 1924); Sasaoka (1928); Horikawa (1935); S a k u r a i (1935, 1941); I h s i b a (1929, 1935); Noguchi ( 1952) . C i t e d specimen: Pingtung Co. Hsin-wu-tan to f i r s t water resource Chuang 1215 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On wet rock f a c e . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Himalaya, Assam, Tonkin, Sumatra, South West China, Java, Japan, Ryukyu, Taiwan, P h i l i p p i n e s . 5. Plagiomnium tezukae ( Sak.) Kop. ( i n p r e s s ) . C i t e d specimen: Hwalien Co. Between T a - y u - l i n g and Mt. Ho-huan-shan K. 18081, 18083, 18200, 18229; Mt. Ho-huan-shan, K. 18161 — a l l c i t e d specimens from Koponen ( i n p r e s s ) . H a b i t a t : On s o i l and humus. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Japan, Korea. New to Taiwan 1 ( Koponen, i n p r e s s ) . 6. Plagiomnium trichomanes ( M i t t . ) Kop., Ann. Bot. Fenn. 5: 146, 1968. Mnium trichomanes M i t t . , Kew J . Bot. 8: 231, I856; Okamura (1916); Sasaoka ( 1928); I h s i b a (1929, 1935); Horikawa (1935); Wang ( 1970) . C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i Co. Hakkosho, Y. Shimada 20, VI, 1914 (NICH ? ) — n o t seen. H a b i t a t : On s o i l or r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : North West Himalaya, China, Manchuria, Kamutschaka, Korea, Japan, Ryukyu and Taiwan. Rhizomnium Koponen, Ann. Bot. Fenn. 5: 142, I968. Three s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. -217-Key to the s p e c i e s o f Rhizomnium, p a r t l y adapted from from Koponen ( i n p r e s s ) . 1. L e a f apex not a p i c u l a t e ; border o f a s i n g l e l a y e r , not r e d d i s h . R. p e r s s o n i i 1. L e a f apex a p i c u l a t e ; border o f 2-3 l a y e r s o f c e l l s , r e d d i s h . . . 2 2. P l a n t s l e s s than 3 cm high; l e a v e s narrowly e l l i p t i c o r obovate; c o s t a p e r c u r r e n t , l a m i n a l c e l l s 80JA. . R. s t r i a t u l u m 2. P l a n t s up to 5 cm high; l e a v e s b r o a d l y obovate; c o s t a ending b e f o r e the apex, l a m i n a l c e l l s 120ju R. horikawae 1. Rhizomnium horikawae ( Nog.) Kop., J . H a t t o r i Bot. Lab. 34: 380, 1971. Mnium horikawae Nog., Trans. Nat. H i s t . Soc. Formos. 24: 290, 1934; S a k u r a i (1935); Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1970). Mnium punctatum v a r . horikawae ( Nog.) Noguchi, F l . E a s t Himalaya 562, I966. Mnium punctatum v a r . punctatum sensu Wang, B i o l . B u l l . Tunghai Univ. 35: 5, 1968. C i t e d specimen: I l a n Co. Mt. Ta i - p i n g - s h a n , A. Noguchi 6 5 I O (NICH) --Holotype o f M. horikawae--not seen. H a b i t a t : On r o t t e n wood and humus. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Himalaya and Taiwan. 2. Rhizomnium p e r s s o n i i Kop., Memor. Soc. F. F l . Fenn. 44: 34, 1968. Mnium pseudopunctatum Bruch. & Schimp., London J . Bot. 2: 669, 1843; K a b i e r s c h (1936); Wang (1970). -218-Mnium subglobosum B. S. G., B r y o l . Eur. 4s 2 0 5 , 3 8 8 , 1846; Horikawa (1934, 1 9 5 0 ) ; I h s i b a ( 1 9 3 5 ) ; S a k u r a i ( 1 9 3 5 ) . C i t e d specimens C h i a y i Co. Mt. M o r r i s o n , A. Noguhci 6 3 6 I (NICH) --not seen. H a b i t a t s On moist s o i l i n open v a l l e y . D i s t r i b u t i o n ; Himalaya and Taiwan. A c c o r d i n g to Koponen ( i n p r e s s ) , Taiwanese R. pseudopunctatum i s p o s s i b l y based on the synoecious race of R. p e r s s o n i i . The s e x u a l i t y o f t h i s race i s s i m i l a r to R. pseudopunctatum, but the shape of c a p s u l e s and s t r u c t u r e o f o u t e r peristome are q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . The Taiwan r e c o r d o f R. pseudopunctatum o r i g i n a t e d from M. subglobosum B. S. G. which was r e p o r t e d by Horikawa ( 1 9 3 4 ) . I have not s t u d i e d the c i t e d specimen, but I f o l l o w Koponen and t r e a t t h a t name as a synonym o f R. p e r s s o n i i . 3. Rhizomnium s t r i a t u l u m ( M i t t . ) Kop., Ann. Bot. Fenn. 5s 143, 1 9 6 8 ; Koponen ( 1 9 7 1 ) . Mnium s t r i a t u l u m M i t t . , J . L i n n . Soc. Bot. s e r . 2 , 3: I 6 7 , 1891j N a k a n i s h i ( 1963 )1 Wang ( I 9 6 7 . 1 9 7 0 ) . C i t e d specimen: C h i a y i Co. Upper p a r t of Lao-nung r i v e r , near Pa-tung-kuan, S. Na k a n i s h i 386 (UK 1 3 4 5 4 ) . H a b i t a t : On the r o t t e n wood or r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Himalaya, Japan, Korea, I n d i a , Sikkim, Taiwan. F a m i l y : Rhizogoniaceae Only one genus p r e s e n t i n t h i s f a m i l y . Rhizogonium B r i d . , B r y o l . Univ. 2: 644, 1827. b - 2 1 9 -Three s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. Key to the s p e c i e s of Rhizogonium 1. Leaves about 1 cm l o n g ; f l o r a l buds and sporophyte a r i s i n g from the middle of stems.. R. dozyanum 1. Leaves about ( 3 ) 5 - 6 mm l o n g ; f l o r a l buds and sporophytes a r i s i n g at the base o f stems 2 2. D i o i c o u s ; l e a v e s broadest at the middle R. badakense 2. Monoicous ( S y n o i c o u s ) ; l e a v e s broadest at the base R. s p i n i f o r m e 1. Rhizogonium badakense F l . , Muse. F l . B u i t e n z o r g 2; 595, 1904; Horikawa ( 1 9 3 5 ) ; Iwatsuki ( 1968) . Rhizogonium l o n g i f l o r u m sensu Noguchi, M i s c . B r y o l . et L i c h . 4 ( 5 ) : 86, 1967. C i t e d specimens T a i p e i Co. Yang-ming-shan to Tsu-tzu-hu, Chuang & S b h o f i e l d 141 (UBC). H a b i t a t s On decayed l o g and humus. D i s t r i b u t i o n s Java, Taiwan, Ryukyu and Japan. Dixon (1935) reduced R. badakense as a synonym o f R« l o n g i f l o r u m . Noguchi (I967) mentioned the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f R. l o n g i f l o r u m i n v o l v i n g Taiwan, P h i l i p p i n e s , I n d o n e s i a and Japan, but I watsuki ( I 9 6 9 ) s t u d i e d the above two s p e c i e s and found them to be d i f f e r e n t taxa. R. l o n g i f l o r u m i s r e s t r i c t e d to North Borneo and t h e r e f o r e s h o u l d be excluded from moss f l o r a o f Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s l e a v e s not narrowed to the i n s e r t i o n , the f i l i f o r m p e r i c h a e t i a l l e a v e s , acuminate with a broader base, and the d i o i c o u s i n f l o r e s c e n c e . - 2 2 0 -2. Rhizogonium dozyanum L a c , Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. 2: 295, 9, 1866; Noguchi (1938, 196?); Wang (1968, 1970). C i t e d specimen: T h i s s p e c i e s was r e p o r t e d by Noguchi and Wang. Voucher specimen need reexamination. H a b i t a t : On humus. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Japan, C h i n a and Taiwan. 3. Rhzogonium s p i n i f o r m e ( Hedw.) Bruch i n Krauss, F l o r a 29: 134, 1846; Okamura (1916); Sasaoka (1928); I h s i b a (1929, 1935)5 Horikawa ( 1935); Herzog & Noguchi (1955); Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1970); S h i n (1965) . Rhizogonium armatum S a k u r a i , Bot. Mag. Tokyo 55: 207, 1941; S a k u r a i (1951); Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1970). C i t e d specimen: C h i a y i Co. Mt. A - l i - s h a n , M. Sato, Jan. 1936— Herb. Sak. 13922 (MAK). H a b i t a t : On decayed l o g s and s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Nepal, Sikkim, Assam, Malay Pen., Celebes, Boreno, Sumatra, Java, Sumbowa, Ceylon, P h i l i p p i n e s , Taiwan, Ryukyu, Japan, A f r i c a , Madagascar, C e n t r a l and south America, Hawaii, T a h i t i , New Guinea, New C a l e d o n i a , New Zealand, Tasmania, A u s t r a l i a . T h i s s p e c i e s i s s i m i l a r to R. badakense i n g e n e r a l appearence, but the shape o f l e a v e s , p e r i c h a e t i a l l e a v e s and monoicous i n f l o r e s c e n c e are d i f f e r e n t from the l a t t e r s p e c i e s . As S h i n (1965) has d i s c u s s e d , R. armatum i s b e t t e r reduced to a v a r i a t i o n o f R. s p i n i f o r m e . My c o l l e c t i o n s are s t r o n g l y dendroid, I am not sure t h i s form s h o u l d be se p a r a t e d as a d i f f e r e n t taxon. -221-Family: Hypnodendraceae One genus i n Taiwan. Hypnodendron ( C, M u e l l . ) Lindb., Oefv. K. Vet. Ak. Foerh. 18: 374, 1861. Only one s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. Hypnodendron v i t i e n s e M i t t . , i n Seem., F l . V i t . 401, 1873; Noguchi (1963); Wang ( I 9 6 7 , 1970); Zanten (1968). Hypnodendron formosicum Card., Bei h . Bot. C e n t r a l b l . 19: 147, 1905; Brotherus (1924); Sasaoka (1928); I h s i b a (1929, 1935); Horikawa ( 1936); Wang ( i 9 6 0 ) . C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i Co. Taitum, U. F a u r i e 55 (KYO)--Isotype of Hypnodendron formosicum. H a b i t a t : On humus. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Ryukyu, Taiwan, P h i l i p p i n e s , F i j i , Solomon I s l a n d , New Guinea, Bismarck A r c h i p e l a g o . T h i s s p e c i e s i s d i f f e r e n t from others o f the genus by i t s den d r o i d h a b i t , narrowly l i n e a r - l e a f - c e l l s , about 3-5 u wide and p a p i l l o s e on the back by p r o j e c t i n g ends. Family: Bartramiaceae S i x genera i n Taiwan. Key to the genera o f Bartramiaceae 1. Leaves p l i c a t e a t the base; b a s a l l e a f - c e l l s l i n e a r . . . . . . B r e u t e l i a 1. Leaves not p l i c a t e ; b a s a l l e a f - c e l l s r e c t a n g u l a r 2 2. Capsules o v o i d , w i t h a d i s t i n c t l y l o n g neck..Fleischerobryum 2. Capsules globose,. without neck.. 3 - 2 2 2 -3. Leaves narrowly l a n c e o l a t e or s u b u l a t e , w i t h a d i s t i n c t l y s h e a t h i n g base B a r t r a m i a 3. Leaves l a n c e o l a t e o r ovate, without a d i s t i n c t l y s h e a t h i n g base . 4 4. P l a n t s never branched i n whorls at the top of stem; leaves s t i f f , c l o s e l y appressed when dry A n a c o l i a 4. P l a n t s branched i n whorls at the top o f stem; l e a v e s s o f t , not appressed when dry , 5 5. Sporophytes 2-5 i n an aggregation; peristome s i n g l e or absent; l e a f - c e l l s smooth or wit h t h i c k i n g at the a p i c a l angle B a r t r a m i d u l a 5. Sporophytes s i n g l e ; peristome double; l e a f - c e l l s with d i s t i n c t p a p i l l a e at the end. P h i l o n o t i s A n a c o l i a Schimp., Syn. ed. 2: 513, 18?6, One s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. A n a c o l i a l a e v i s p h a e r a ( T a y l . ) Flow., i n Grout, Moss F l . North Am. 2s 155, 1935s Iwatsuki & Sharp ( 1970) . C i t e d specimens C h i a y i Co. near Mt. M o r r i s o n , between Tong-pu and Pai - m u - l i n g , Z. Iwatsuki, A. J . & E . Sharp, 2274 (NICH). H a b i t a t s On s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : I n d i a , North and South America, Juan Fernandez I s l a n d , A b y s s i n i a . T h i s s p e c i e s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the stems w i t h many r h i z o i d s , l e a v e s s h a r p l y s e r r a t e by double t e e t h and l e a f - c e l l s p a p i l l a e at both ends. - 2 2 3 -B a r t r a m i a Hedw., Spec. Muse. 164, 1801. Three s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. Key to the s p e c i e s o f B a r t r a m i a 1. P l a n t s s m a l l , about 1-3 cm high; l e a v e s with a h y a l i n e and sh e a t h i n g base, margins f i n e l y s e r r a t e ; upper p a r t o f lamina opaque, p a r t i a l l y b i s t r a t o s e B. i t h y p h y l l a 1. P l a n t s l a r g e , up to 10 cm high; l e a v e s without s h a r p l y s h e a t h i n g base, margins s t r o n g l y doubly s e r r a t e , upper p a r t of lamina u n i s t r a t o s e 2 2. Leaves l i n e a r - s u b u l a t e , a b r u p t l y narrowed from a broad subsheathing base; s e t a 2-3 aggregate, s h o r t , 3-5 (10) mm long, not l o n g e r than l e n g t h o f l e a v e s B. h a l l e r i a n a 2. Leaves with an ovate-base, narrowly e l o n g a t e - l a n c e o l a t e , not s h e a t h i n g , s u b u l a t e ; s e t a s o l i t a r y , l o n g e x s e r t e d 3 cm l o n g B. pomiformis 1. B a r t r a m i a h a l l e r i a n a Hedw., Sp. Mus. 164, 1801; Iwatsuki (1955); Noguchi ( I 9 6 0 ) ; Ochi ( 1964) . Wang (1967, 1970). B a r t r a m i a n o r v e g i c a Lindb., Oefv. Vet. Ak. Foerh. 20(7) 389, 1863; Horikawa (1939). B a r t r a m i a a l p i c o l a Noguchi, J . Jap. Bot. 14: 400, 1938. . B a r t r a m i a pomiformis Hedw. sensu Wang, B i o l . B u l l . Tunghai Univ. 31: 6, 1967; Wang ( 1970) . C i t e d specimen: Hsinchu Co. Kuei-shan, C. K. Wang 1583a, l 6 6 l a (THU)--det. as B. pomiformis. H a b i t a t : On s o i l and humus. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe, Caucasus, North America, A f e r i c a , mainland China, Japan, Taiwan. -224-The a b o v e - c i t e d specimen r e p o r t e d by Wang (1967, 1970) as B. pomiformis i s t h i s s p e c i e s . 2. B a r t r a m i a i t h y p h y l l a B r i d . , Muse. Rec. 2 ( 3 ) : 132, t . 1, f . 6. 1803; Ochi (1962, 1964); Wang (1967, 1970). B a r t r a m i a m o r r i s o n e n s i s Nog., J . Jap. Bot. 14: 402, 1938. C i t e d specimen: Pingtung Co. F i r s t water resource to Kwai-ku, Chuang 1314 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On rocks covered with s o i l s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe, Caucasus, Himalaya, mainland China, Hawaii, A l a s k a , A f r i c a , North America, Mexico, Japan, North and C e n t r a l A s i a , Greenland. 3. B a r t r a m i a pomiformis Hedw., Spec. Muse. 164, 1801. B a r t r a m i a c r i s p a t a Schimp. ex Besch., Ann. S c i . Nat. s e r . 7, 17: 348, 1893; Horikawa ( 1935) . C i t e d specimen: Mt. M o r r i s o n , Y. Horikawa, Aug. 19, 1932 ( H I R O ) — det. as B. c r i s p a t a — n o t seen. H a b i t a t : On s o i l ( r i c h humus) i n shady p l a c e s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe, North America, Greenland, A l g e r i a , Maderia, North and C e n t r a l A s i a , Japan. The p r e s e n t s p e c i e s was r e p o r t e d by Horikawa from Taiwan under name o f B. c r i s p a t a . A c c o r d i n g to Ochi (1962) the name sh o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a synonym of B. pomiformis. I have not examined the c i t e d specimen from HIRO. B a r t r a m i d u l a B. S. G., B r y o l . Eur. 4: 55. 1846. Three s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. Key to the s p e c i e s o f B a r t r a m i d u l a - 2 2 5 -1. Leaf-margins s t r o n g l y r e v o l u t e ; peristome p r e s e n t B. b a r t r a m i o i d e s 1. Leaf-margins s l i g h t l y r e c u r v e d ; peristome absent 2 2. Leaves l a n c e o l a t e ; c o s t a p e r c u r r e n t o r ending below the apex; s e t a curved B. cernua 2. Leaves s u b u l a t e - l i n e a r ; c o s t a l o n g e x c u r r e n t ; s e t a e r e c t . . . . . . . . B. r o y l e i 1. B a r t r a m i d u l a b a r t r a m i o i d e s ( G r i f f . ) Wijk. & Marg., Taxon 7: 289, 1958; Ochi ( 1963); V/ang ( 1970) . B a r t r a m i a g r i f f i t h i a n a K a b i e r s c h , Hedwigia 77s 92, 1937; S a k u r a i (1941) . P h i l o n o t i s g r i f f i t h i a n a M i t t . , J . L i n n . Soc. Bot. Suppl. Is 59, 1859s Sasaoka ( 1928); I h s i b a (1929, 1935); Wang ( I 9 6 0 ) . C i t e d specimens T a i p e i Co. Raku-raku, A. Noguchi i n Herb. Sak. 13047 (MAK)--not seen. H a b i t a t s On s o i l and r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n s Himalaya, Sikkim, Assam, I n d i a , P h i l i p p i n e s , Burma, J a v a and Taiwan. 2. B a r t r a m i d u l a r o y l e i (Hook, f.) B. S. G., B r y o l . Eur. 4s 55, 1846; Noguchi ( 1938); Ochi (1963); Wang (1970). C i t e d specimens Nantou Co. C h i - t o u to w a t e r f a l l , Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 569 (UBC); I l a n Co. Mt. T a i - p i n g - s h a n , Chuang 2004 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On s o i l and r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Himalaya, C h i n a (Yunnan), I n d i a , P h i l i p p i n e s , C e ylon, Taiwan. - 2 2 6 -3 . B a r t r a m i d u l a cernua ( W i l s . ) Lindb., Oefv. Svensk. Vet. Ak. Foerh. 20; 389, I 8 6 3 . B a r t r a m i d u l a w i l s o n i i B. S. G., B r y o l . Eur. 4$ 57, 327, 1846; Noguchi ( 1938); Ochi (1963)? Wang ( 1970) . C i t e d specimen: C h i a y i Co. Mt. M o r r i s o n , T. Shi n , i n Herb. Sak. 14023 (MAK)--not seen. H a b i t a t s On s o i l and r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n s Europe, China (Yunnan), Taiwan, North America, I c e l a n d , B r i t a i n I s l a n d s , Fernando Po. B r e u t e l i a (B. S. G.) Schimp., C o r o l l . 85, 1856. Only one s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. B r e u t e l i a a r u n d i n i f o l i a (Dub.). F l . , Musci F l . B u i t e n z o r g 2: 630, 120, 1904; Horikawa ( 1936); Ochi (1963, 1964); Zanten ( 1968); Wang ( 1970) . C i t e d specimens Pingtung Co. Kwai-ku, Chuang 1421 (UBC). H a b i t a t s On ground i n f o r e s t . D i s t r i b u t i o n s Japan, Taiwan, P h i l i p p i n e s , Boreno, Celebes, Sumatra, Java, New Guinea, Tasmania, Hawaii, Lombok, I n d i a . T h i s s p e c i e s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by having a stem densely covered w i t h r h i z o i d s (up to 10-20 cm high) and by the p l i c a t e l e a v e s with an obovate s h e a t h i n g base and l i n e a r l e a f - c e l l s w i t h p a p i l l a e on the end w a l l s . F l e i s c h e r o b r y u m Loesk., Stud. Morph. Sy s t . Laubm. 127, 1910. Only one s p e c i e s i n Taiwan. F l e i s c h e r o b r y u m l o n g i c b l l e (Hamp.) Loesk., Morph. S y s t . Stud. Laubm. 127, 1910; Ochi ( 1963); Wang (1968, 1970); Chuang & Iwatsuki ( 1970) . -227-B r e u t e l i a chrysocoma sensu Yang & Lee, Bot. B u l l . Acad. S i n i c a n. s e r . 5 ( 2 ) : 183, 1964; Wang (196?, 1970). P h i l o n o t i s l o n g i c o l l i s (Hamp.) M i t t . , J . L i n n . Soc. Bot. Suppl. 1: 64, 1859? Noguchi ( 1938) . C i t e d specimen: Nantou Co. C h i - t o u , M. T. Kao, 503 ( T A I ) — d e t . as B. chrysocoma; C h i - t o u to C h i - t i , Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 409 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On moist or wet r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Himalaya, Java, I n d i a , China (Yunnan), Japan and Taiwan. P h i l o n o t i s B r i d . , B r y o l . Univ. 2: 15, 1827. E i g h t s p e c i e s and one v a r i e t y i n Taiwan. Key to the s p e c i e s o f P h i l o n o t i s 1. C o s t a ending below the apex 2 2. Leaf-margin not r e c u r v e d ; l e a f - c e l l s of apex l i n e a r or narrow hexagonal; m a r g i n a l c e l l s d i s t i n c t l y mammillose... P. v i t r e a 2. Leaf-margin d i s t i n c t l y r e c u r v e d ; l e a f c e l l s o f apex quadrate; m a r g i n a l c e l l s not mammillose P. h a s t a t a 1. C o s t a e x c u r r e n t or p e r c u r r e n t 3 3. Leaves d i s t i n c t l y ovate; L e a f - c e l l s r e c t a n g u l a r 4 4. Leaves t r i a n g u l a r l y ovate, s t r o n g l y c a r i n a t e - c o n c a v e , margin plane, t e e t h s i n g l e , the upper ends of l e a f - c e l l s p a p i l l o s e 5 5. C o s t a e x c u r r e n t , apex l o n g acuminate....P. f a l c a t a 5. C o s t a n e a r l y p e r c u r r e n t , apex s h o r t acute... P. f a l c a t a v a r . c a r i n a t a 4. Leaves b r o a d l y ovate, not k e e l e d , margin r e v o l u t e , - 2 2 8 -t e e t h p a i r e d , the lower end or c e n t r a l p a r t of l e a f c e l l s mammillose P. f o n t a n a 3. Leaves d i s t i n c t l y narrow, l a n c e o l a t e to l i n e a r - l a n c e o l a t e , l e a f - c e l l s l i n e a r 6 6. B a s a l l e a f - c e l l s d i s t i n c t l y quadrangular P. s o c i a 6. B a s a l l e a f - c e l l s not quadrangular 7 7. P l a n t s s o f t , l e a v e s w i t h l o n g , f i l i f o r m h a i r -p o i n t , l e a f - c e l l s n e a r l y smooth, a r e o l a t i o n v e r y l a x P. m o l l i s 7. P l a n t s r i g i d , l e a v e s w i t h b r i s t l e - l i k e p o i n t , l e a f -c e l l s p a p i l l o s e , a r e o l a t i o n dense 8 8. Leaves t r i a n g u l a r - l i n e a r , margin plane; c o s t a p e r c u r r e n t P. t u r n e r i a n a 8. Leaves l a n c e o l a t e or l i n e a r - l a n c e o l a t e , margin s t r o n g l y r e v o l u t e ; c o s t a l o n g - e x c u r r e n t P. r e v o l u t a 1. P h i l o n o t i s f a l c a t a (Hook.) M i t t . , J . L i n n . Soc. Bot. Suppl. Is 62, 1859; Wang (1968, 1970). C i t e d specimens Nantou Co. C h i - t o u to C h i - t i , Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 526 (UBC); I l a n Co. Mt. T a i - p i n g - s h a n , Chuang 2197 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On wet or moist s o i l and r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n s Japan, Korea, P h i l i p p i n e s , C h i n a (Yunnan), Nepal, I n d i a , A f r i c a . A c c o r d i n g to Ochi ( 1962) , t h i s s p e c i e s has the f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r s : l e a v e s more t r i a n g u l a r , more s t r o n g l y c a r i n a t e , arranged i n r e g u l a r rows on stems, acuminate, c e l l s o f l e a f -- 2 2 9 -blade c o n s p i c u o u s l y broader toward base, which i s o n l y s l i g h t l y narrowed. In my o b s e r v a t i o n , the l e a v e s are long-acuminate, the c o s t a e x c u r r e n t . 2. P h i l o n o t i s f a l c a t a (Hook, f.) M i t t . v a r . c a r i n a t a ( M i t t . ) Ochi, Nov. Hedwigia 4: 100, 1962; Wang (1967, 1970). P h i l o n o t i s l a x i s s i m a non (C. M u e l l . ) Bosch. & Lac. sensu Cardot B e i h . Bot. C e n t r a l b l . 19: 108. 1905; Sasaoka (1928); I h s i b a (1929, 1935)5 S a k u r a i (1941); Wang ( i 9 6 0 ) . C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i Co. Kushaku, U. F a u r i e 123 (KYO). H a b i t a t s On moist or wet rocks and s o i l s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Japan, Korea, Ryukyu and Taiwan. T h i s v a r i e t y i s very s i m i l a r to the s p e c i e s , but the l e a v e s are l e s s c a r i n a t e , more l a n c e o l a t e than ovate or t r i a n g u l a r l e a f - b a s e , i r r e g u l a r l y s h r i n k i n g when dry, l e a f apex acute or obtuse; c o s t a s h o r t e r p e r c u r r e n t or j u s t ending below the apex and l e a f - c e l l s i n upper p a r t w i t h l a x a r e o l a t i o n . 3. P h i l o n o t i s f o n t a n a (Hedw.) B r i d . , B r y o l . Univ. 2: 18, 1827; Wang (1967, 1970). P h i l o n o t i s l u t e a M i t t . , J . L i n n . Soc. Bot. Suppl. 1: 63, 1859 5 S a k u r a i (1941) . C i t e d specimen: C h i a y i Co. Mt. M o r r i s o n , T. Shin, J u l y 1939 i n Herb. Sak. 13223 (MAK). --not seen. H a b i t a t : On wet s o i l . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Europe, North America, A l a s k a , Greenland, I n d i a Sikkim, Himalaya and Taiwan. Wang (1967) l i s t e d t h i s s p e c i e s , but without d e f i n i t e -230-l o c a l i t y . S a k u r a i c i t e d a specimen under name P. l u t e a . T h i s s p e c i e s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s broad ovate l e a v e s and l e a f - c e l l s mammillose at the lower end o r ce n t e r . 4. P h i l o n o t i s h a s t a t a (Dub.) Wijk. & Marg., Taxon 8: 74, 1959; Ochi (1962); Wang (1967, 1970). P h i l o n o t i s glomerata non M i t t . , sensu Herz. & Noguchi J . H a t t o r i 3ot. Lab. 14: 62, 1955; Wang ( i960) . C i t e d specimen: L o c a l i t y unknown. C i t a t i o n from Herzog & Noguchi (1955). H a b i t a t : On wet roc k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Japan, Taiwan, P h i l i p p i n e s , Madagacar, I n d i a , Sumatra, Java, Borneo. T h i s s p e c i e s was l i s t e d by Herzog & Noguchi (1955) from Taiwan under the name P. glomerata, but the l o c a l i t y o f the above c i t e d specimen i s unknown. T h i s s p e c i e s needs reassessment. 5. P h i l o n o t i s m o l l i s (Doz. & Molk.) M i t t . , J . L i n n . Soc. Bot. Suppl. 1: 60, 1859. C i t e d specimen: Pingtung Co. Shuang-liu, Chuang 873 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On wet s o i l by stream. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Madagascar, I n d i a , Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Celebes, P h i l i p p i n e s , Japan, Java, Hawaii ( ? ) . New to Taiwan 1 The a b o v e - c i t e d specimen has been compared with m a t e r i a l s i n UBC. The s o f t e r l e a v e s with the l o n g e r e x c u r r e n t c o s t a forming a h a i r - p o i n t , more l a x a r e o l a t i o n and l e a f - c e l l s along c o s t a on b a s a l l e a f 120-70 x 25-20ju are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . 6. P h i l o n o t i s r e v o l u t a Bosch. & L a c , B r y o l . Jav. 1: 158, 128, 1961; Ochi (1963, 1964); Wang (1967, 1970). -231-P h i l o n o t i s r a d i c a l i s non B r i d . , sensu Cardot B e i h . Bot. C e n t r a l b l . 19: 108, 1905; Sasaoka ( 1928); I h s i b a ( 1929); Wang ( I 9 6 0 , 1970). P h i l o n o t i s s e t c h u a n i c a (C. M u e l l . ) Par. v a r . f o r m o s i c a Cardot, B e i h . Bot. C e n t r a l b l . 19: 108, 1905; I h s i b a (1935) . C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i Co. Keelung, U. F a u r i e , 185 ( K Y O ) — d e t . as P. s e t c h u a n i c a v a r . f o r m o s i c a ; Nantou Co. C h i - t o u , Chuang & S c h o f i e l d 657 (UBC). H a b i t a t : On mi s t o r wet s o i l s and r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Japan, Korea, E a s t I n d i a , mainland China, Taiwan, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, P h i l i p p i n e s . T h i s s p e c i e s i s v e r y c l o s e to P. t u r n e r i a n a , but the l e a f -margin i s s t r o n g l y r e v o l u t e , c a r i n a t e and the c o s t a l o n g e x c u r r e n t w i t h a d e n t i c u l a t e a r i s t a . 7. P h i l o n o t i s s o c i a M i t t . , J . L i n n . Soc. Bot. 8: 151, 1864; Sasaoka ( 1928); I h s i b a (1929, 1935); Ochi (1963, 1964); Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1970). P h i l o n o t i s s e t c h u a n i c a (C. M u e l l . ) Par. v a r . f o r m o s i c a Card., B e i h . Bot. C e n t r a l b l . 19: 108, 1905; Sasaoka ( 1928); I h s i b a (1935). P h i l o n o t i s f a l c a t a (Hook) M i t t . v a r . f o r m o s i c a (Card.) Wijk. & Marg., Taxon 14: 197, 1965. C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i Co. Taitum, U. F a u r i e 168 ( K Y O ) — Isotype o f P. s e t c h u a n i c a v a r . f o r m o s i c a . H a b i t a t : On moist o r wet s o i l s and r o c k s . - 2 3 2 -D i s t r i b u t i o n : Japan, Korea and Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the o t h e r s p e c i e s o f P h i l o n o t i s by i t s d i s t i n c t l y quadrate b a s a l l e a f - c e l l s . K a b i e r s c h (1938) compared P. s e t c h u a n i c a v a r . f o r m o s i c a with P. f a l c a t a and concluded t h a t both are i d e n t i c a l . Wijk. & Margadent (1965) p l a c e d t h i s v a r i e t y under P. f a l c a t a without any d i s c u s s i o n . A c c o r d i n g to Ochi (1963) , P. s e t c h u a n i c a v a r . f o r m o s i c a i s a synonym o f P. s o c i a , he gave a c r i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n as f o l l o w s : The p l a n t s are s l i g h t l y more robust than t y p i c a l P. s o c i a but the l e a v e s are v e r y s i m i l a r i n both shape and a r e o l a t i o n ; the c e l l s i n the b a s a l m a r g i n a l p a r t are n e a r l y quadrangular and are v e r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . 8. P h i l o n o t i s t u r n e r i a n a (Schwaegr ) M i t t . , J . L i n n . Soc. Bot. Suppl. 1: 62, 1859; Sasaoka ( 1920); I h s i b a ( 1929); Herz. & Noguchi (1955); Ochi ( 1962) ; Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1970). P h i l o n o t i s p a l u s t r i s M i t t . , J . L i n n . Soc. Bot. 8: 150, 1864; Salmon ( 1900); Cardot ( 1905); Sasaoka ( 1928); Okamura (1916); I h s i b a (1929, 1935); Wang ( i 9 6 0 ) . P h i l o n o t i s r a d i c a l i s non B r i d . , sensu Cardot B e i h . Bot. C e n t r a l b l . 19: 108, 1905; I h s i b a (1935). P h i l o n o t i s m o l l i s non (Doz. & Molk.) M i t t , sensu Herz. & Noguchi J . H a t t o r i Bot. Lab. 14: 62, 1955; Wang ( i 9 6 0 ) . C i t e d specimen: T a i p e i Co. Tamsui, U. F a u r i e 82 ( K Y O ) — d e t . as P. r a d i c a l i s ; Greenland I s l a n d (Kwashyto) G. H. Schwabe 115 (NICH 28045); B o t e l Tobago G. H. Schwabe 86 (NICH 28018). - 2 3 3 -H a b i t a t : On wet o r moist s o i l s and rocks, c l i f f s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Japan, China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, P h i l i p p i n e s , Nepal, Himalaya, Burma, Java, Hawaii. T h i s s p e c i e s was r e p o r t e d by Salmon i n 1900; he examined a specimen of Oldham's c o l l e c t i o n from Taiwan, which was de-p o s i t e d i n Kew Herbarium and named P. p a l u s t r i s , but with s p e c i f i c l o c a l i t y unknown. I have s t u d i e d two specimens of P. m o l l i s from NICH which were c i t e d i n Herzog & Noguchi (1955) and found them to be P. t u r n e r i a n a . As Herzog & Noguchi i n d i c a t e d , t h i s s p e c i e s i s d o u b t f u l l y p l a c e d i n P. m o l l i s , because the l e a f apex i s s h o r t e r and the a r e o l a t i o n t h i c k e r . 9. P h i l o n o t i s v i t r e a Herz. & Noguchi, J . H a t t o r i Bot. Lab. 14: 62, 1955; Ochi ( 1963); Wang ( i 9 6 0 , 1970). C i t e d specimen: B o t e l Tobago, G. H. Schwabe l 6 l a (NICH 2 8 0 3 8 ) - -Holotype of P. v i t r e a . H a b i t a t : On wet r o c k s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Endemic to Taiwan. T h i s s p e c i e s i s v e r y s i m i l a r to P. h a s t a t a , however, the l e a f - c e l l s o f apex are l i n e a r or narrow hexagonal i n s t e a d of quadrate as i n P. h a s t a t a . The d i s t i n c t l y mammillose l e a f - m a r g i n i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . Family: S p i r i d e n t a c e a e One genus i n Taiwan. S p i r i d e n s Nees, Nov. A c t . Ac. Leop. Car. 11(1): 143, I 8 2 3 . - 2 3 4 -One species i n Taiwan. Spiridens r e i n w a r d t i i Nees, Nov. Act. Ac. Leop. Car. 11(1) : 143, 17a, 1823; Horikawa (1934, 1939); Wang (1970). Cited specimen: Taitung Co. Ching-suei-ying, M. Tagawa, 2942 (NICH) Habitat: On tree trunk. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Java, Celebes, New Guinea, Molucca, Timor, Borneo, Philippines and Taiwan. -235-BIBLIOGRAPHY Amakawa, T. & T. Osada, 1956. On the Bryophyte f l o r a o f the Tsu-shima I s l a n d s . J . H a t t o r i Bot. Lab. 1?« 45-51. Andrews, A. L. 19^3. Taxonomic Notes I I I . 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