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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Catholicism and crisis : l'Ecole Sociale Populaire and the depression in Quebec Frigon, F.J. 1972

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•0  CATHOLICISM AND  CRISIS:  L *ECOLE SOCIALE POPULAIRE AND  DEPRESSION  IN QUEBEC,  by  F. J . F r i g o n B.A.,  University  of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  A Thesis submitted i n p a r t i a l the requirements  1967.  fulfilment of  f o r the degree o f  MASTER OF ARTS in  t h e Department of HISTORY  We  accept t h i s  required  thesis  as c o n f o r m i n g  to the  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA October,  1972.  THE  In presenting  this thesis in p a r t i a l  fulfilment of the  requirements for  an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference  and  study.  I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may by his representatives.  be granted by the Head of my  Department or  It is understood that copying or publication  of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written  permission.  Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  Date November 3,  1972.  - i Abstract The  purpose  of this  thesis  i s to determine  socially-concerned French-speaking Catholics l'Ecole  grouped  Their  importance  l a y i n the f a c t  that  charged w i t h the t a s k o f a d a p t i n g the Church's t e a c h i n g s t o Quebec's c h a n g i n g t h e y had  organizations  d e v e l o p e d by  and  f u n d o f i d e a s and was  a group  socio-economic 1930  relationships  e x p e r i e n c e s which  t h e y were  structure.  pamphlets.  elite  interlocking  i n Europe.  groups  r e g i o n s , one  t h e members o f t h e E.S.P. were p u t t o t h e  The  insecurity  economic system  stimulated  The  by  thereby  largely  chief victims,  engendered  a  T h u s , when t h e d e p r e s s i o n  s t r u c k and made M o n t r e a l , o f Canada's u r b a n  m i s e r y and  and  As  t h e E.S.P. a c c u m u l a t e d  d i s s e m i n a t e d amongst F r e n c h C a n a d i a n  t h r o u g h t h e medium o f m o n t h l y  to the  organization  a network o f  i n Quebec and  of  around  S o c i a l e P o p u l a i r e o r E.S.P. o f M o n t r e a l r e a c t e d  depression.  result,  how  the c o l l a p s e of  a demand f o r v i a b l e  of i t s test. the  solutions  and f o r  action. An  examination o f the pamphlets  between 1930  t o 1940  indicates  effects  t h e E.S.P.  i t s members were s l o w i n  perceiving  the causes  E.S.P. was  q u i c k t o mount a c a m p a i g n t o s t o p t h e g r o w t h ,  in  and  that  p u b l i s h e d by  Quebec, o f Communism and,  Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n . reveal  of the d e p r e s s i o n .  the especially  f o r a time, of the Cooperative  N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e E.S.P.'s  t h a t as t i m e went on  Yet  an i n c r e a s i n g l y  amongst i t s members p r i m a r i l y  serious  pamphlets split  over the a t t i t u d e C a t h o l i c s  developed should  - i i adopt towards the The  the  an  other,  the  t h e r e was  depression.  an  the  range s o l u t i o n .  ism  and  e f f e c t i v e l y with  and  Later,  was  the  activities  success.  the  E.S.P. was  their  the  by  E.S.P. self-  t o embrace b u t as  the  E.S.P.'s  not  with  longresponse  i t s members t o c o n s i d e r a l l  p r i m a r i l y i n terms o f combatting  Commun-  accomplishments,  the  t h a t t h e y had  They a p p e a r e d  campaign.  A personal  commitment t o  some members o f  enjoyed  l e s s than  t o have b e e n most d i s a p p o i n t e d most s a t i s f i e d w i t h  assessment of  social  justice  the  and  the  unattractive  aspect  part of  t e n a n c e and  expansion of  activities  d i d not  created  the  t o e x p l a i n why give  due  depression  The  the  finds the  most  the  a l l values  C h u r c h ' s i n f l u e n c e and  the  anti-Communist  E.S.P.'s p u b l i c a t i o n s was  the  with  to p l u r a l i s m within  i t s authors to subordinate  tendency helps  by  of the  complete  E.S.P.'s e f f o r t s  C h u r c h t o h a v e b e e n i t s most a t t r a c t i v e f e a t u r e s .  This  on  state  a return to  corporatism  tendency of  c o l o n i z a t i o n programme and  the  hand,  Socialism.  E.S.P. came t o r e a l i z e  on  one  problems c r e a t e d  Another f a c t o r which shaped the  In e v a l u a t i n g  its  the  the  i m p o r t a n t , many members o f  C a t h o l i c concept of  depression  proposals  On  a g r i c u l t u r e t h r o u g h a programme o f c o l o n i z a t i o n r a t h e r  fervour  to the  acknowledgement t h a t o n l y  Equally  t h a n immediate ones. equal  state.  l o n g - t e r m s t r u c t u r a l r e f o r m s s u c h as  sufficient  depression  a f e a r o f t o o much s t a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n and,  d e a l q u i c k l y and  favoured  the  ambiguous a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s t h e  seemed t o be  could  system.  E.S.P.'s programme f o r d e a l i n g w i t h  manifested there  e x i s t i n g socio-economic  tendency  to the  main-  organization.  E.S.P.'s p r o p o s a l s  and  c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o t h e mass m i s e r y  and  to the  power w i e l d e d  by  the  economic  - i i i -  elite. did  In t u r n ,  c o n c l u s i o n h e l p s t o e x p l a i n why  n o t have a g r e a t e r impact  depression role  o f the Church  the  at this  seems t o have g i v e n b i r t h  were t o b r i n g of  this  Church.  about  and  time. t o new  o f i t s members.  a drastic  alteration  the  E.S.P.  Nevertheless  the  conceptions of  With time  t h e s e new  i n the  and  form  the ideas  substance  -iv-  TABLE OF CONTENTS.  I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX.  The C h u r c h i n F r e n c h C a n a d a . . . The r i s e  XI. XII.  of Social Catholicism  The d e p r e s s i o n  12  i n Quebec  32  The E.S.P. and C a p i t a l i s m  41  The E.S.P. and Communism  52  The r o o t s  of the Catholic  The r o l e o f t h e s t a t e The C a t h o l i c  programme  i n the C h r i s t i a n society  alternatives  t o monopoly c a p i t a l i s m  the i d e a l  81 91 105  126  The s u c c e s s a n d t h e f a i l u r e  of Social Catholicism....  Bibliography Appendices A. Key N a t i o n a l i s t and S o c i a l C a t h o l i c and p e r s o n a l i t i e s  C. The p o l i t i c a l Footnotes  136 148  B. The aims o f t h e E.S.P  XIII.  ...  The r o l e o f t h e E.S.P. and o f C a t h o l i c s i n realizing  X.  1  programmes  organizations 158 172  o f t h e E.S.P  174 186  -1-  Chapter I The The  Church  purpose o f t h i s  i n F r e n c h Canada  investigation  group o f s o c i a l l y - c o n c e r n e d  Catholics  reacted  Through  to the depression.  i s t o d e t e r m i n e how a i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f Quebec  t h e i r e y e s i t s h o u l d be  possible  t o come t o some u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e Roman  Church's  reaction  to this  socio-economic c r i s i s .  however, i m m e d i a t e l y come t o m i n d . C h u r c h a s he w o u l d spirit  as w e l l  of the writings of this  not consider the s u p e r n a t u r a l dimension?  that  the only r a t i o n a l  c o n s i d e r e d t o be . t h e i r p o s i t i o n  asserted  i f he  appear  i n society. French-Canada?  t h e end o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e C a t h o l i c  hierarchy,  group  I t would  become t h e u n c h a l l e n g e d l e a d e r s o f F r e n c h C a n a d i a n The  t r e a t the  p r o c e d u r e he c a n a d o p t i s t o s e e what t h e  What was t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e C h u r c h w i t h i n By  questions,  Can he u n d e r s t a n d t h e  does  clergy  Two  Can t h e h i s t o r i a n  any o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n ?  as t h e l e t t e r  Catholic  i n a collective  letter  c l e r g y had society."'"  i s s u e d on September 22, 1875,  that,  "La f i n de l ' E g l i s e e s t l e b o n h e u r e t e r n e l d e s antes, f i n supreme e t d e r n i e r e de l'homme; l a s o c i e t y c i v i l e a pour f i n l e bonheur temporel des p e u p l e s . P a r l a n a t u r e meme d e s c h o s e s , l a s o c i g t g c i v i l e s e t r o u v e i n d i r e c t e m e n t , ( s i c ) mais v§ritablement s u r b o r d o n n S e ; c a r , non s e u l e m e n t e l l e d o i t s ' a b s t e n i r de t o u t c e q u i p e u t m e t t r e o b s t a c l e a l a f i n d e r n i e r e e t supreme de l'homme, m a i s e n c o r e , e l l e d o i t a i d e r l ' E g l i s e dans s a m i s s i o n d i v i n e , e t au b e s o i n l a p r o t e g e r e t l a d§fendre."^ Thus,  t h e Church, as t h e c h i e f  demanded t h a t  i n s t r u m e n t o f God o n e a r t h ,  i t be a c c o r d e d a p r e - e m i n e n t p o s i t i o n  i n a Catholic  -2society.  I t followed  from t h i s  assertion that  p o s i t i o n was one o f l e a d e r s h i p . a  leading  Thomist  the hierarchy's  I n t h e words o f M s g r . P a q u e t ,  theologian,  "...pour c o n s e r v e r e t c o n s o l i d e r c e t t e u n i t e morale ( s i c ) d o n t 1 ' a b s e n c e s t e r i l e r a i t t o u s nos e f f o r t s , r i e n n'est plus e s s e n t i e l qu une soumission f i l i a l e aux e n s e i g n e m e n t s de l ' E g l i s e e t une d o c i l i t e p a r f a i t e envers l e s chefs a u t o r i s i s q u i representent p a r m i nous s o n p o u v o i r . " 1  3  From s t a t e m e n t s  such as t h e s e and from i t s a c t i v i t i e s ,  which w i l l  be d i s c u s s e d  clear  i t was c o n c e r n e d w i t h power o v e r men's m i n d s a n d  that  actions. made  i n this  many o f  s t u d y , t h e C h u r c h made i t q u i t e  A s s u c h , i t must be s t u d i e d  and e v a l u a t e d  a s a man-  organization. The  s e c r e t o f t h e Church's success  i n asserting i t s  dominance o v e r French-Canada l a y i n t h e f l e x i b i l i t y organization. these  of i t s  A s o c i o l o g i s t , H. G u i n d o n , h a s d e s c r i b e d  i t in  terms: " I t had a c e n t r a l i z e d b u r e a u c r a t i c s t r u c t u r e o r g a n i z e d on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s i n t o d i o c e s e s w i t h t h e b e s t communications system o f a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s and a d i s c i p l i n e and s t a f f a p p r o x i m a t i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the m i l i t a r y . " 4  The  basic  fulfilled  u n i t was t h e p a r i s h . not only  In a r u r a l  setting, the parish  s p i r i t u a l but also s o c i a l ,  cultural,  political  5 and, the  even, economic f u n c t i o n s .  urbanization,  p a r i s h d e m o n s t r a t e d i t s a d a p t a b i l i t y by r e t a i n i n g  central of  With i n c r e a s i n g  p o s i t i o n i n the l i v e s  the pressures The  of c i t y  this  o f the French Canadians i n s p i t e  life.  C h u r c h ' s most r e l i a b l e extended  ally  i n c a r r y i n g o u t i t s work  was  the p a t r i a r c h i c a l ,  family  the  n e c e s s a r y element f o r growth - c h i l d r e n - and  the  teachings  o f t h e C h u r c h t o them.  system.  Within  I t provided transmitted  the parish, a  -3family's religious  status  and d i d v a r y  according  t o the degree o f  c o n v i c t i o n i tdemonstrated i n i t s conduct.  summit o f t h i s all  could  social  pyramid stood  - supervising, guiding  the priest  At the  - the father of  and i n s t r u c t i n g h i s p a r i s h i o n e r s .  Furthermore, t h e Church c o n t r o l l e d t h e e d u c a t i o n a l W h i l e most o f t h e f a r m e r s  1  s o n s and d a u g h t e r s n e v e r  more t h a n an e l e m e n t a r y e d u c a t i o n , "colleges  classiques".  the e l i t e  acquired  attended  the  Developed p r i m a r i l y t o provide  C h r i s t i a n humanist foundation  t o candidates  these secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s ,  i n effect,  system.  a  f o r the priesthood,  c o n t r o l l e d t h e avenues 7  of  s o c i a l m o b i l i t y and i n t e l l e c t u a l  often picked  The c l e r i c s  often  financed  them,  them t h r o u g h t h e t y p e o f e d u c a t i o n  provided  a n d , when t h e  students the  the candidates,  development.  proved  training  professions  t o be u n s u i t e d  required  f o r the priesthood,  f o r the other  - l a w and m e d i c i n e .  the c r e a t i o n of the clergy.  t h e power o f t h e c l e r g y i n  F r e n c h - C a n a d a was t h e p r e s t i g e i t e n j o y e d .  the  spheres  p o s i t i o n where he c o u l d English-speaking g  own c u l t u r e . the  best  elites  French-  i n t h e e c o n o m i c and  i n Quebec and i n C a n a d a .  ranks o f the c l e r g y could  the  No o t h e r  a s p i r e t o a comparable s t a t u s because o f  dominance o f E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g  political  provided  Consequently, the e l i t e o f  f a c t o r which maintained  speaking group c o u l d  often  two most p r e s t i g i o u s  F r e n c h C a n a d a was i n many ways l i t e r a l l y Another  socialized  Only through the  a French-speaking Canadian reach  e x e r c i s e power on an e q u a l  elite  while  footing  a with  remaining t o t a l l y w i t h i n h i s  Such p r e s t i g e must have a c t e d  t a l e n t s t h a t F r e n c h Canada c o u l d  a s a magnet f o r  produce.  -4With it  such  spiritual,  was o n l y n a t u r a l  elaborating  that  material, theclergy  and a r t i c u l a t i n g  and i n t e l l e c t u a l  resources,  should take t h e lead i n  thedeepest values o f French  g Canadian  life.  One o f i t s l e a d i n g t h e o r i s t s was abbe L o u i s -  F r a n c o i s L a f l e c h e , who l a t e r His  became b i s h o p o f T r o i s  Rividres.  i d e a s had a g r e a t i n f l u e n c e on s u c c e e d i n g g e n e r a t i o n s -  especially  on the c l e r g y .  peuple q u i p a r l e  A nationality,  f o r him,  l a meme l a n g u e , q u i a l a meme f o i , e t d o n t l e s  moeurs, l e s coutumes, l e s usages  et les lois  sont  A p a t r i o t was someone who l o v e d , " . . . s a p a t r i e q u ' e l l e e s t pour  f o r , a s he e x c l a i m e d :  uniformes."  terrestre,  l u i un a v a n t g o u t de l a p a t r i e  I t was u n t h i n k a b l e t h a t p a t r i o t i s m separated  was: "...un  and r e l i g i o n  "que s e r a i t ,  cileste..." s h o u l d e v e r be  en e f f e t , un  ]&atriotisme sans  religion,  une  He a s s e r t e d t h a t t h e m i s s i o n o f t h e  absurdity?"  Canadian  n a t i o n was,  parce  s i n o n une f u r e u r a v e u g l e , u n n o n - s e n s , French-  "...essentiellement religieuse."  It  consisted of, " . . . l a c o n v e r s i o n e t l a c i v i l i s a t i o n d e s s a u v a g e s de c e p a y s , ( s i c ) e t l e b u t que l e u r a a s s i g n e l a P r o v i d e n c e n ' e s t r i e n m o i n s que 1 ' g t a b l i s s e m e n t ( s i c ) d'un p e u p l e profond^ment c a t h o l i q u e ( s i c ) dans c e t t e t e r r e q u ' e l l e l e u r a donnee e n h e r i t a g e , (sic)" Given  their position,  clerics  should blend r e l i g i o n  This  fusion of religion  the p o l i c y 1  As t h e y n e v e r  thec l e r i c s  Canadian  rights  t h a t L a f l e c h e and o t h e r  and p a t r i o t i s m  tired  clergy  since  o f reminding  had never wavered i n t h e i r nor t i r e d  i n t h i s way.  and n a t i o n a l i s m r e f l e c t e d  o f theFrench-speaking  o f Canada. "^ men,  i t was i n e v i t a b l e  i ntheir  efforts  i n part  theB r i t i s h their  conquest  country-  defense o f French to f u l f i l l  what  they  -5believed this  t o be t h e needs and a s p i r a t i o n s  alliance  of culture  and r e l i g i o n  o f the group.  reflected  the  In p a r t ,  personal 12  link  binding  important  the Church  to every French Canadian  t h a n t h e s e , however, was  bound F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s l a n g u e , g a r d i e n n e de  the f a c t  to the Church.  la foi",  that  stood the Church,  s u c h an  b e h i n d s l o g a n s s u c h as  forever  More alliance  Behind the aphorism, " l a  autonomy" and b e h i n d t h e s u c c e s s i v e b a t t l e s rights  family.  "provincial  f o r French Canadian  the guardian of " l a survivance"  o f F r e n c h C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e y e s , b u t , more i m p o r t a n t - o f t h e i n Anglo-Protestant North  the group's  variety  of o f f i c i a l  clerics  could  members as w e l l their was  the f a i t h ,  s o c i a l mores.  the c l e r g y  Controlling  s a n c t i o n s and r e w a r d s ,  as t h e t y p e o f i n f l u e n c e s 13  consciousness.  Even  the p o l i t i c a l  controls.  more d i s c r e e t  i n asserting  individual  process at a l l levels  W h i l e t h e c l e r g y was and e x e r c i s i n g  the  allowed to penetrate  d e p e n d i n g on t h e i s s u e  ual , to their  supervised  a wide  to a high degree the conduct of  s u b j e c t more o r l e s s ,  was,  and  and u n o f f i c i a l  regulate  faith  America.  To p r e s e r v e t h e l a n g u a g e and r e g u l a t e d  -  and  forced  the  individ-  t o become  t h e i r power, t h e  fact  as A n d r e S i e g f r i e d n o t e d , t h a t t h e C h u r c h " . . . l i v e s o u t s i d e t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e c i v i l power; above ( s i c ) i t , t h e e c c l e s i a s t i c s sometime m a i n t a i n and a l w a y s f e e l . The law n o t m e r e l y p l a c e s no o b s t a c l e s i n t h e i r way, b u t on t h e c o n t r a r y , i t s u p p o r t s them." 1 4  As a r e s u l t ,  S i e f g r i e d wrote,  does n o t y e t e x i s t  result  appears i n the laws, but  i n t h e customs o f t h e p e o p l e . "  Whatever t h e e f f e c t total  "Liberty  of this  on t h e a v e r a g e F r e n c h C a n a d i a n ,  s i t u a t i o n was  highly  beneficial  the  to the  Church.  -6Interacting  upon one  intensified  the  another, these  level  of  faith  and  factors generalized  and  submissiveness to the  clergy  15 t o make F r e n c h Canada one o f t h e most C a t h o l i c o f n a t i o n s . I n c o n c r e t e t e r m s , t h i s meant a s t e a d y i n c r e a s e i n t h e r a t e o f religious  vocations  until  i t stabilized  a t a l e v e l matched  by  16 few  other  nations.  T h i s development, i n t u r n , served  reinforce  the  personnel  required to maintain  But in The  the  i t s own  very  one  little,  were t o be  of the h i g h e s t  to support  the  Gasp§ p e n i n s u l a  was  a great  them.  land.  But  the  Church c o u l d  cash  t o buy  cash,  compelled  to switch  the  became v u l n e r a b l e cities.  The  Eastern  resources  about the  Wherever such Townships, the Laurentians  To  m a t e r i a l and  growth o f  ing d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with  " l e luxe  rural  migration.  lands Lac-St. the  clergy  than  devotcouples  there  "habitant" obtain  of  might  the  i n i n c r e a s i n g numbers, were  to commercial a g r i c u l t u r e .  to the  lack  i n e n c o u r a g i n g young  a farm f o r h i s son.  "habitants",  There  and  the  a v a i l a b l e , the  As  non-material  effren§" i n the  c o n s t a n t l y denounced from the  d e v e l o p m e n t s was  do  region of A b i t i b i ,  l a n d was  The 17  r a t e s i n the world.  t h e r e were a l w a y s more c o u p l e s  E v e n when t h e  necessary  a process  later,  Canada  seriousness.  large families.  such f a m i l i e s .  d e a l o f e n e r g y and 18  not have the  the  birth  increasing  of  the  i t s influence.  Church i n molding French  i s o l a t e d v a l l e y s of the or,  providing i t with  extend  formation  found, whether i n the  Jean r e g i o n ,  to s e t t l e  and  a problem of  however, t h a t t h e  lands  C h u r c h by  of the  Church encouraged the  suitable  ed  success  image c r e a t e d  r e s u l t was was  dominance o f the  to  society.  pulpit, The  end  a result,  they  i n f l u e n c e s of countryside,  l e d t o an result  of  increasboth  -7T h e r e was T h e r e was  a m i g r a t i o n to the  a m i g r a t i o n t o O n t a r i o and  was  an  But  the main stream, u n t i l  winter.  t o Western Canada.  There  i n c r e a s i n g m i g r a t i o n to the urban c e n t e r s of the  intensive left,  lumber camps e v e r y  textile mills  W o r l d War  o f New  I, flowed  England.  vowed t o r e t u r n when a s t a k e had  province.  towards the  E a c h f a m i l y , as  labour-  they  b e e n made b u t most  never  did. While t h i s e x t e n t by  flow served  purging  Canada.  Apart  a t h r e a t to the from the  As  birth-control, To  the  c l e r g y c o u l d not  another  the  s o l u t i o n had  clergy relied  elite  to provide  elite  took  employment.  t o be  this  on  found.  Canadians to the  Based i n the  city  strategic  of the N a t i o n a l P o l i c y  expansion  i t s teaching  upon t h e A n g l o - P r o t e s t a n t  advantage o f Montreal's  t o Canada and  and  very  non-French-Catholic  reverse  stop t h i s migration of French  States,  survival  l o s s o f manpower,  m i g r a t i o n made Quebec more o p e n t o t h e influences.  t h e C h u r c h t o some  Quebec o f i t s d i s c o n t e n t e d e l e m e n t s , t h e  s i z e o f t h e m i g r a t i o n was 19 of French  to strengthen  United  economic  of Montreal,  position  this  i n respect  t o i n c r e a s e i t s economic  20 power.  Having access  facilities,  this  t o e x c e l l e n t sea  group developed  and  consumer-oriented  to supply  t h e g r o w i n g p o p u l a t i o n o f Canada.  tribution  of French  skilled  an  The  industries chief  con-  e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g pool of  " h a b i t a n t s " t o work i n t h e s e  industries. of the  Canada was  land transportation  un-  low-wage, l a b o u r - i n t e n s i v e  T h i s economy, however, c o u l d n o t  absorb  the  bulk  landless "habitants".  I t was  o n l y when A m e r i c a n c a p i t a l  i n s i d e French  Canada i n o r d e r  began t o p e n e t r a t e  to e x p l o i t  the m i n e r a l ,  deep  forest  and  -8water resources  of the Precambrian  Shield  t h a t the  migration  21 to the U n i t e d throughout  i t s domination  attendant  same t i m e ,  international  Montreal,  up  as  the  corporations,  o f Quebec's economy.  b e n e f i t s and  Because these  Industrialization, with  d a n g e r s , grew a t an e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g  I.  capitalists  provided  l a n d l e s s French  Canadians  employment w i t h i n Quebec, most o f t h e c l e r g y l o o k e d  them as b e n e f a c t o r s socio-economic equated with supporters matters.  and  d i d much t o e n s u r e t h a t a 22  climate prevailed.  of The  "laissez-faire"  i d e a l was  the  the s t a t e f i t t e d inclination  i t provided  Of  i t s position  a docile  staunch  labour  social  i f the Thus,  state  the  a means o f  of the  of  elite's  This concept  the requirements  was  Such a c o n c e p t i o n  the p o l i t i c a l  h o l d i n g more as 23  of p u b l i c service.  them w i t h  were  i n e c o n o m i c and  f a m i l y system.  i n p e r f e c t l y with  o f c o u r s e , more t h a n met  favourable  a l l e g i a n c e of the people.  to view o f f i c e  enrichment than  complaisant  policies  Church c o u l d not maintain  self-reliant  upon  F e a r i n g s t a t i s m , which  s e c u l a r i s m , the m a j o r i t y of c l e r i c s  b e g a n t o compete f o r t h e  for  the  Company towns s p r a n g  E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g economic domination,  p a c e a f t e r W o r l d War  with  At  o f n a t i o n a l and  u r b a n i z a t i o n and their  halted.  the p r o v i n c e .  headquarters increased  S t a t e s was  personal  of the  state,  capitalists  f o r c e and  a  government.  t h e many t h r e a t s w h i c h i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n  C h u r c h , t h e m a i n one number o f w o r k e r s .  came f r o m a s m a l l b u t To  deal with  posed f o r  the  steadily increasing  t h e p r o b l e m s o f low  poor working c o n d i t i o n s , these workers turned  wages  especially  to  and  -9I n t e r n a t i o n a l unions  f o r a s s i s t a n c e and  c o m i n g o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s was Canadian largely  workers.  F o r one  thing,  t o c r a f t u n i o n i s m and,  special  insensitive  problems  of t h e i r  they d i d i n c r e a s e matters On May  through 7,  "...toute des  1883  they r e s t r i c t e d  hence,  could  g r e v e s " on  force.  another,  features  F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g members.  C a r d i n a l Taschereau dont  f o r French  themselves  For  to the d i s t i n c t i v e  their greater willingness  the grounds  that  and  Nevertheless,  i n socio-economic  to resort  o f Quebec c i t y  l e s reglements  The  n o t t a k e i n more  the i n f l u e n c e of the workers  society  24  a mixed b l e s s i n g  than a s m a l l percentage of the working t h e y were o f t e n  leadership.  renferment  to  strikes.  condemned le principe  s t r i k e s were v i o l e n t  manifes-  25 tations of class warfare. him, it  Although  p r e s s u r e from the American  t o suspend  clergy  this  condemnation  f o r o r d e r and  t o improve  The  inspiration  from the B r i t i s h  f o r a wide range  o f e d u c a t i o n and economic m a t t e r s .  and  Party.  was  the  conflicts  and  "Parti  I t s programme secularization i n socio-  Such demands were, o f c o u r s e , a resulting  attempted  t h e p a r t y drew i t s  g r e a t e r government i n t e r v e n t i o n  The  to preach  will.  of reforms, notably the  challenge to the c l e r g y . internal  Labour  forced  French-Canadian  the i n t e r n a t i o n a l unions  C r e a t e d i n 1904,  supported  hierarchies  the p o s i t i o n o f the workers 26  O u v r i e r de M o n t r e a l " .  its  i n 1887.  s u b m i s s i o n t o God's  A n o t h e r weapon w h i c h  called  British  c o n t i n u e d t o denounce t h e use o f s t r i k e s  t h e need  t o use  and  Rome, a t f i r s t ,  hostility,  direct added t o .  poor o r g a n i z a t i o n , p r e v e n t e d the p a r t y  f r o m e n j o y i n g more t h a n i s o l a t e d  s u c c e s s e s and,  i n time,  brought  -10about  i t s disappearance.  i n t o b e i n g and Catholicism  had  advanced  rialization.  and To  the very f a c t  clerics  class  i t s ideologies  i t had  out of t h e i r  began t o s t u d y t h e s o c i a l  They were n o t s l o w  was  that  come  s u c h demands i n t h e f o r t r e s s  shook t h e more a l e r t  These c l e r i c s  by-product  But,  effects  to grasp that  of  complacency. of  indust-  i t s most  dangerous  c o n f l i c t w i t h i t s demands f o r r a d i c a l  s e e k i n g t o win  t h e p e o p l e away f r o m  a p p r e c i a t e the d e v a s t a t i n g e f f e c t  of class  reforms  the  conflict  Church.  upon  the  27 Church,  t h e y had  carriers  of t h i s  " n e u t r a l " unions unions.  only to look at s e c u l a r i z e d France.  The  infection  the  and,  or s o c i a l i s t s ,  main s u p p o r t o f t h e studies,  the unions 28  Ouvrier".  concluded that  leadership  them t o t h e C h u r c h  by  for  were  the b a s i s of  these union  the workers t o t h e i r  revolutionary this  interests  M s g r . P.E.  clerics  their  workers f o r  or  linking  "neutral"  Roy  o f Quebec C i t y ,  exclaimed:  be  While i t that  the f a c t  i n opposition  recreating  e x p r e s s i n g the f e e l i n g s  when he  ends.  unions, the m a t e r i a l  o f t h e w o r k e r s were p u t  an a u d i e n c e , was  the  l e a d e r s were  o r i e n t a t i o n and  affiliation,  e v e n i n t h e more n a t i o n a l i s t i c  concerned  On  an i n d i f f e r e n t  some were o p p o s e d t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l  religious  themselves  anti-  Once t h e s e bonds were c u t , t h e y w o u l d  t r u e t h a t n o t a l l u n i o n s had  other.  international  i n o r d e r t o l o o s e n t h e bonds  encouraging  to r e l i g i o n .  t o win  that,  the m i l i t a n t  the l e g i t i m a t e d e s i r e o f French Canadian  o r g a n i z a t i o n and  attitude  and  "Parti  the c l e r i c s  exploiting  was  in particular,  Many o f t h e u n i o n l e a d e r s were known F r e e m a s o n s ,  clericals  free  i n Quebec, t h e y a g r e e d , were  remained and to  each  the  situation  of these  socially-  -11"En p l e i n c h e z - n o u s , des m a i n s e t r a n g e r e s a v a i e n t S t a b l i c e t t e b a r r i ^ r e de mensonge e n t r e l ' o u v r i e r et l ' E g l i s e . Sournoisement, h a b i l e m e n t , patiemment, e l l e s avaient accompli cette separation n i f a s t e ; p u i s , ce b u t a t t e i n t , e l l e s a v a i e n t p o u s s e l a f o u l e dans des s e n t i e r s m a u v a i s ou l ' o n n e n t r e d ' o r d i n a i r e que g o u r c o u r i r a une r u i n e c e r t a i n e , l o i n de l ' E g l i s e e t l o i n de D i e u . " 1  To was  socially-conscious  clerics,  l i k e M s g r . Roy,  the  clear': " . . . n o t r e v i e s o c i a l e v a - t - e l l e r e s t e r marquee de l ' e m p r e i n t e du c h r i s t i a n i s m e q u ' e l l e S t o u j o u r s eue? Ou b i e n v a - t - e l l e b i f f e r c e t t e marque de n o b l e o r i g i n e , p o u r l a i s s e r a p p o s e r s u r e l l e l e s s c e l l ^ e s d i f f a m a n t e s du socialisme e t r a n g e r ou c o s m o p o l i t e ? "  How  to deal with  such a  threat?  issue  -12-  CHAPTER I I THE RISE OF SOCIAL Nothing i n the experience had  prepared  trade  them t o d e a l w i t h  unions,  particularly  t h e i r dominant p o s i t i o n . an  instrument  found.  CATHOLICISM  o f the French-speaking  t h e t h r e a t which t h e growth o f  from t h e U n i t e d  numbers  of clerics  a n c e a n d , more s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  i t , other turned  Catholic  conception  elements should  to define  of the i n d u s t r i a l  be e x a m i n e d .  autonomy o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l  property."''" an  novarum  i n Rerum novarum t h e society, i t s principal  He d e c l a r e d  that t o preserve the "our f i r s t  be t h e i n v i o l a b i l i t y  F u r t h e r m o r e , he a s s e r t e d  egalitarian  Rerum  1891.  and o f t h e f a m i l y ,  fundamental p r i n c i p l e . . . m u s t  means h a d t o be  t o Rome f o r g u i d -  to the e n c y c l i c a l  w h i c h Pope L e o X I I I h a d i s s u e d o n May 15, As Pope L e o a t t e m p t e d  S t a t e s , posed t o  As o u t r i g h t c o n d e m n a t i o n was t o o b l u n t  t o use i n d e a l i n g with  Increasing  clergy  a n d most  of private  that the s o c i a l i s t  goal of  s o c i e t y was a dream, f o r " . . . u n e q u a l f o r t u n e  i sa  2 necessary  result  Turning  of inequality i n condition."  t o t h e s t a t e , Pope L e o m a i n t a i n e d  r o l e was, f i r s t l y , teachings  on s o c i a l  t o enable the f a i t h f u l questions  that i t s proper  t o p r a c t i c e t h e Church's  and, secondly,  t o p r o t e c t and  advance t h e i n t e r e s t s ,  a s d e f i n e d by t h e C h u r c h , o f i t s c i t i z e n s 3 and, e s p e c i a l l y , o f t h e p o o r . As i t s f i r s t d u t y was t o p r o t e c t p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y , t h e s t a t e h a d t o a c t t o remove, " . . . t h e c a u s e s which l e a d t o c o n f l i c t s between m a s t e r s and t h o s e The s t a t e , i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  whom t h e y  employ."  had t o ensure t h e observance o f h o l y  -13day s o f of  rest.  I t had  f e m a l e s and  factories.  of  to regulate  c h i l d r e n , and  Above a l l , i t had  m u n e r a t i o n must be  the  the  h o u r s o f work, t h e  sanitary conditions  t o make s u r e t h a t  "...the  labour in re-  enough t o s u p p o r t t h e w a g e - e a r n e r i n  reason-  5  able  and  f r u g a l comfort."  t h e s e r e f o r m s , Pope Leo p e o p l e as  the  laws  effectiveness "... i n d u c e as  of many  p o s s i b l e t o become o w n e r s . " best  employees through t h e i r  according  guarantee the  asked t h a t  These reforms c o u l d and  To  to the  be  c a r r i e d out  associations.  by  the  Such  employers  associations,  e n c y c l i c a l , were more t h a n e v e r n e c e s s a r y  for  7 the  o r d e r l y development of  not  i n t e r f e r e with their  As  many o f  with  those of  their and  the  own  Hence, t h e  activities  unless  state  absolutely  the  C h u r c h , Leo  XIII  urged  secondly,  consideration  as w e l l  as  those of  grievances,  necessary.  the  of  the  " u n a n i m i t y and  goodwill",  the  duties  r i g h t s and  e m p l o y e e s and,  regular  supply  of  in  that Catholics  a s s o c i a t i o n s which would promote, f i r s t l y ,  morality",  should  e x i s t i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s were i n c o m p a t i b l e  careful  of  society.  finally,  labour  and  of  aim  form  "piety  thirdly, the  the  employers  resolution  insurance  against  g sickness, he and of  o l d age  believed, material the  w o u l d be  misfortune. not  i n t e r e s t of  only  the  The  r e s u l t of  advancement o f  those i n v o l v e d  but  d e - C h r i s t i a n i z e d p r o l e t a r i a t to the  Considering had  and  come c l o s e  Revolution  the  fact  these the  a l s o the  issued  spiritual conversion  Church.  t h a t h i s p r e d e c e s s o r , Pope P i u s  t o condemning a l l developments s i n c e  when he  activities,  the  Syllabus  of E r r o r s , i n  the  IX,  French  1864,  -14Leo  XIII's e n c y c l i c a l  represented  a fundamental change i n t h e  9 Church's o u t l o o k . than  the r e - C h r i s t i a n i z a t i o n  a great risk. two  B e c a u s e t h e s t a k e s were h i g h , n o t h i n g  groups:  of the p r o l e t a r i a t ,  F o r many y e a r s , t h e C h u r c h had t h o s e who  and  t h o s e who  concessions this  and  division  Lacordaire The  call  o f Leo  with his policy of the  still  o f De  full  the democratic  alternative  i n France  developed  to  to the l i b e r a l - d e m o c r a t i c  - the  XIII for Catholic  Nowhere  0  spiritual  liberties  any  was  home o f  I t s aim was  the  coupled  instruments  to e x p l o i t  necessary  socialism.  political  action,  a multitude of associations,  Although  the  never  t o make  t h e masses t o t h e  the to  - w h i c h C a t h o l i c k i n g s had  t o win  and  action,  s t i m u l a t e d the growth o f  the techniques  i n order  in direct  social  C a t h o l i c s t o use  movement.  to l i b e r a l i s m  engaging  into  Maistre. ^  t h e C h u r c h - and  freedoms e f f e c t i v e  been d i v i d e d  i t s d i v i n e nature.'''  liberal-democratic state, 12  granted  from  retain  of encouraging  C h r i s t i a n Democratic  took  b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e C h u r c h c o u l d n o t make  deeper than  and  t h e Pope  b e l i e v e d t h a t the Church should adapt  contemporary developments, p a r t i c u l a r l y state,  less  these  Catholic  forbidden  the C h r i s t i a n  n e w s p a p e r s and  Democrats  Catholic  13 schools. forces  The  main problem they  f a c e d was  i n t h e most e f f e c t i v e manner.  What was  agency which would s t i m u l a t e r e s e a r c h i n t o society  and  would adapt  a l s o propagate taken. 1'Action  To  fill  these this  Catholic  findings gap,  P o p u l a i r e i n 1903  and  how  t o use  these  n e e d e d was  an  t h e w o r k i n g s o f modern  t e a c h i n g to i t s needs. c o o r d i n a t e any  a group of J e s u i t s a t Rheims, F r a n c e .  and 14  action  I t would under-  laymen c r e a t e d So w e l l d i d  this  -15agency c a r r y out  i t s functions  that  i t s o o n assumed t h e  s h i p o f t h e movement t h r o u g h o u t t h e France a l s o provided Leo  XIII*s  policies.  "l*Action Frangaise"  An  the  world.  leadership  f o r the  a t h e i s t , Charles  provided  the  leader-  opposition  M a u r r a s , and  his  ideological leadership  to group,  to  the  15 Catholic  I n t e g r i s t e s as  believed  t h a t the  troyed  the  Only the  two  liberal  organic  the  the  s t a t e and  use  o f any  traditional  made F r a n c e  v i r t u e s of France.  ional values,  t h e Army and  contamination. the  the  Specifically,  great.  -  to  could  I n t h e meantime,  l e s s r e t a i n e d these  C h u r c h , must be the  des-  they hoped  means, i n c l u d i n g v i o l e n c e  more o r  They  i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n had  r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h had  i n s t i t u t i o n s w h i c h had  ing of  t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s were c a l l e d .  c o l l a p s e o f modern s o c i e t y - a p r o c e s s  h a s t e n by restore  the  tradit-  preserved  from  I n t e g r i s t e s o p p o s e d any  Church's h i e r a r c h i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  the  favoured  weaken-  a  greater  e m p h a s i s on as was  the  s p i r i t u a l m a t t e r s and w i s h e d t o r e s t o r e C a t h o l i c i s m 16 official religion. T h e i r p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the Church  s t r e n g t h e n e d when a s y m p a t h i z e r ,  Pius  X,  s u c c e e d e d Leo  XIII  17 in and  1903.  W h i l e he  could  not  C h r i s t i a n Democracy, P i u s  o f t h e movement and  emphasized  repudiate  Leo  X gradually the  XIII's  restricted  spiritual  teachings the  activities  development of  the  faithful. In F r a n c e , the Integristes,  dispute  s u p p o r t e d by  became i n c r e a s i n g l y b i t t e r  the bulk  the  c l e r g y and  attempted  of  C h u r c h w h i c h C h r i s t i a n D e m o c r a t s were t r y i n g t o  The  climax  came i n t h e  dispute  Social Catholicism,  the  class, the  to d i s c r e d i t  of  over the  nature of  that  the  as  the middle  conception 18 develop... associations  -16recommended i n Rerum novarum. for  a world-wide audience,  t o be  as w e l l  answered.  hierarchy? Should  Should  speaking,  of s o c i a l i s t  interpretations.  designed  Should  t h e y be  i n c l u d e employers  independent  t h e good w i l l  admitted?  of  the  of the  employer?  Under what c o n d i t i o n s ?  the A c t i o n P o p u l a i r e , f a c e d with the and  syndicalist  a s s o c i a t i o n s w h i c h w o u l d be  and  Many q u e s t i o n s  these a s s o c i a t i o n s  t h e y depend on  n o n - C a t h o l i c s be  Generally ition  Should  as e m p l o y e e s ?  XIII's guidelines,  were o f n e c e s s i t y v e r y g e n e r a l ,  t h e r e f o r e , open t o d i f f e r i n g had  Leo  unions,  concerned  tended  to  compet-  favour  mainly with the  workers  1  19 professional  interests.  t o the Int§gristee* 20  charges  that  i t was  The  Int^gristes,  industrial  and,  little new  at worst,  they  secure w i t h i n the  were f e l t  first  As  impulses  I t was  Social  this  which  dispute  but  death  Church.  toward  i n the l e s s  r e a s o n , more r e l i g i o u s  only with the  1914  Catholicism could begin  Social  C a t h o l i c i s m i n Quebec  n o t i n t h e more c o s m o p o l i t a n  of Montreal  disputes  h e i g h t s , the A c t i o n P o p u l a i r e i n the w i n t e r of  that  that  employees i n a g i v e n  more t h a n p r o m o t e p i e t y .  o f P i u s X i n A u g u s t , 1914,  The  materialistic  favoured associations 21  came v e r y c l o s e t o b e i n g condemned.  to f e e l  a  s e c t o r i n o r d e r t o r e s o l v e p r o b l e m s and  harmoniously,  reached  fostering  process,  at best, favoured corporatism,  t h e o r g a n i c u n i o n o f e m p l o y e r s and  w o u l d do  i n the  -  outlook. is  I t exposed i t s e l f  city  and  sophisticated o f Quebec.  Desjardins put i n t o o p e r a t i o n the  first  industrialized and  perhaps,  I n 1900 credit  for this  Alphonse union  in  city  -17North to  America at L e v i s .  see  his conception  22  of these  the western hemisphere. Archbishop ing  With the h e l p of the church,  At  o f Quebec C i t y ,  the process  Peoples'  the  Banks s p r e a d  same t i m e ,  as a r e s u l t  Msgr.  he  was  throughout  Bggin,  of a s t r i k e ,  was  begin-  o f a r b i t r a t i o n which would l e a d t o the  restruct-  23 uring  of the union  involved according to C a t h o l i c p r i n c i p l e s .  T h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t s , however, l a c k e d c o o r d i n a t i o n and It  was  and in  o n l y i n 1907  that 1'Action  p l a c e d under the d i r e c t i o n order  to deal with  Even then, daily  this  S o c i a l e C a t h o l i q u e was  matters  concerned  newspaper, 1 ' A c t i o n  created  o f t h e a b b e , l a t e r M s g r . P.  socio-economic  g r o u p was  planning.  mainly  Sociale later  on  E.  a full-time  with  Roy  basis  publishing a  t o become  1'Action  Catholique. The  first  concrete manifestation of S o c i a l Catholicism i n  the a r c h d i o c e s e . o f Montreal Catholique  de  was  the  formation  of  l a Jeunesse Canadienne-frangaise  1'Association  or the  "A.C.J.C."  25 in  1904  under the  students sities  a t t e n d i n g the  social  of the J e s u i t s .  classical  the A.C.J.C. ranked  importance: the  auspices  the r e l i g i o u s question with  Composed  c o l l e g e s and  i t s interests  of  Catholic univer-  in this  order  of  q u e s t i o n , the n a t i o n a l q u e s t i o n  e m p h a s i s on  education,  and  agriculture,  26 colonization activities  and  labour unions.  related  group o f d e d i c a t e d  By  promoting d i s c u s s i o n s  t o t h e s e problems, the A.C.J.C. formed laymen who  were t o s e c o n d t h e c l e r i c s  a in  establishing  S o c i a l C a t h o l i c i s m i n Quebec.  However? it  only  t h a t some o f t h e s e  laymen b e g a n t o  their  i n 1908 full  clerics  a t t e n t i o n to socio-economic  and  f  problems.  and  was give  -18Concluding  Rerum novarum, Leo  X I I I had  urged  the c l e r g y  to  27 provide the  l e a d e r s h i p r e q u i r e d t o i m p l e m e n t h i s programme.  M o r e o v e r , e v e r y C a t h o l i c was t h e Pope.  obliged  E v e n t h o u g h , as S i e g f r i e d  C h u r c h i n Canada i s i n t r u t h to the Holy was  See",  i t cannot  introduced i n t o French  to f o l l o w the teachings of observed,  "the  i n a c o n d i t i o n o f deep be d e n i e d  Catholic submission  that Social Catholicism  C a n a d a s l o w l y and  in a  piece-meal  28 fashion. So e x a s p e r a t i n g was t h i s f o r some, t h a t a J e s u i t p r i e s t denounced the M o n t r e a l e p i s c o p a c y t o the P a p a l d e l e g a t e 29 for be  i g n o r i n g Rerum hovarum. explained, i n part,  c o n f u s i o n and In f a c t ,  by  Why  the delay?  the d i v i s i o n ,  the i n s e c u r i t y  there i s evidence  probably  the b i t t e r n e s s ,  the  associated with Social Catholicism.  to suggest  Msgr. B r u c h S s i , t h e A r c h b i s h o p c r e a t i o n o f an a g e n c y s u c h  I t can  as  t h a t p r e s s u r e was  put  of Montreal, not to allow  on  the  1'Action Populaire i n h i s  30 jurisdiction. important  Given  t h e autonomy t h e b i s h o p s  r e a s o n p r o b a b l y was  problems which i n c r e a s i n g French  the unprecedented  industrialization  Canadian h i e r a r c h y .  enjoyed,  : nature of  outlook that  h i e r a r c h y , was  held i n Montreal  the  c r e a t e d f o r the  I t i s q u i t e probable  traditionalist  a more  i n view o f  their  t h e c l e r i c s s i m p l y were a t a l o s s as 31 t o how t o d e a l w i t h t h e s e p r o b l e m s . I t was t o s t u d y t h e c o n d i t i o n o f l a b o u r i n t h e p r o v i n c e t h a t an i n t e r d i o c e s a n r e u n i o n o f p r i e s t s , r e p r e s e n t i n g Quebec's 32  m e e t i n g , i t seems, was Arthur Saint-Pierre, des  L i g u e s du  i n 1908.  One  t h e c r e a t i o n by L ^ o n i d a s  result  of  this  Hudon, s . j . , and  a member o f t h e A . C . J . C . , o f a F e d e r a t i o n  Sacre Coeur t o c o o r d i n a t e the f i g h t  a g a i n s t blasphemy  -19and  i n t e m p e r a n c e among t h e  the  m e e t i n g was  constant  address to the  progress of  "neutral" plenary  an  labour  working c l a s s .  socialist  unions.  On  t o November 1,  basis  1909,  warning of  Masonic i n f l u e n c e s  c o u n c i l of Canadian bishops,  S e p t e m b e r 19  Another r e s u l t of  hierarchy  and  the  33  of  the inside  t h i s warning, the  first  m e e t i n g i n Quebec C i t y  condemned t h e  the  from  p r i n c i p l e of  34 "neutrality" members o f  i n labour  the  organizations.  hierarchy  The  never a p p l i e d  English-speaking  i t in their  p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e C a t h o l i c s were i n a m i n o r i t y o f Quebec. to the  For  Quebec, however, t h i s  i n t r o d u c t i o n of C a t h o l i c  Realizing of organizing  that  the  dioceses,  everywhere  c o n d e m n a t i o n was  outside  the  prelud  unions.  " f e d e r a t i o n " was  C a t h o l i c unions,  Father  inadequate f o r the  Hudon s e t on  foot a  task "Cercl  35 sacerdotal  d'Etudes s o c i a l e s " .  cadres of p r i e s t s well-versed and  i n the  techniques required  p r i e s t s b e g a n t o meet e v e r y aspects of  the  succeed, the  of  Federation parallel the  one  izations  and  Church's s o c i a l  to apply  i t .  f o r t n i g h t to  to  L i g u e s du  course. on  A  The  see  Sacre^Coeur proceed  Out  25 of  t o 26,  lines  1911  to  follow  that  1'Action the a  these congresses to study  the  i t s d e l i b e r a t i o n s came  to  a perm-  of  annual congresses of  most i m p o r t a n t o f  January  i n Quebec.  s e r i e s of  thirty  various  A f t e r a t i m e , t h e y came t o  the  form  doctrine  Approximately  study the  propaganda agency a l o n g  Rheims.  des  held  i n the  h o p e d , i n t h i s way,  M o n t r e a l S o c i a l C a t h o l i c movement r e q u i r e d  anent research Populaire  question.  He  was  labour four  r e s o l u t i o n s t h a t mark t h e t u r n i n g p o i n t o f t h e movement. The f i r s t o f t h e s e r e s o l u t i o n s a s s e r t e d t h a t , " i l e s t  organ-  -20-  nicessaire  et possible d'unir  nos  ouvriers  dans l e s  syndicats  37 professionnels the le  second r e s o l u t i o n f o l l o w e d : terrain bien  syndicats." tout de  nettement c a t h o l i q u e . "  faire  The  be  b o r n i n May,  maintenant  est l i b r e ,  that,  "il  executive  of  the  avant  classes birth  federation,  From t h i s  l'Ecole Sociale Populaire  r e f e r r e d to hereafter,  faut  autres  the  et  ces  t h e s e r e s o l u t i o n s gave  projet d'organisation."  1911,  assertion,  fonder  c l e r g e e t des  Combined t o g e t h e r ,  un  l a place  resolution declared  f o u r t h which charged the  "...de p r e p a r e r was  third  oG  p e u t des  1 ' E d u c a t i o n s o c i a l e du  la soci^te."  to the  p r e p a r e , on  "IS  From t h i s  or,  resolution as  i t will  to  be  E.S.P.  I t s programme made i t c l e a r t h a t  the  E.S.P. was  38 c o n c e r n e d w i t h more t h a n t h e This  task,  E.S.P. was being  expected  itself  forced,  to the  to coordinate  probably  archdiocese  familarize  the  the  provinces.  included  of Catholic  a propaganda campaign aims and  To  do  Populaire  In  a d d i t i o n to m a t e r i a l s ,  others,  Father  months t o u r e d  P l a n t i e r , one Quebec and  From B e l g i u m came F a t h e r of  the  Confederation  of  the  the  of Catholic unions. for help.  this,  reasons, to  E.S.P. c a l l e d  confine  the  techniques upon  for  work o f h i s  Rutten, organizer  and  of C h r i s t i a n Trade-Unions.  unions.  to  i t sent,  i t s f o u n d e r s , who  l e c t u r e d on  the  Here, i t s e t about making  formation  interested public with  the  activities  In p r a c t i c e ,  for administrative  f o r the  unions.  in fact,  organizational 39  of Montreal.  necessary preparations These p r e p a r a t i o n s  of Catholic  i t s i m m e d i a t e c o n c e r n and,  undertaken throughout the  E.S.P. was  the  however, was  organization  1'Action among  seven organization.  Secretary-General The  E.S.P's  -21secretary, European to  A.  Saint-Pierre,  Social Catholics,  following s e t up  t h e example o f  study c i r c l e s  the c r e a t i o n of f u l l - f l e d g e d unions.  peak o f o v e r So  2,000 m a l e and  successful  female  that  Catholic  as a  Membership r e a c h e d  d i d t h e work o f t h e E.S.P. a p p e a r 1914  approved  Msgr. B r u c h e s i c o n s e q u e n t l y  to s u p e r v i s e the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l The  were r e a d y argued  i s s u e was  s e t up  that  work.  t h e y were r e a d y w h i l e S a i n t - P i e r r e needed.  organizational  and  laymen who  Jesuit On  t h e two  function  founded  i n 1915.  t h e E.S.P. was  t h e E.S.P. saw  World  one  man  eager His  who  was  elite,  been i n v a i n .  prepared  to learn  to r e - e s t a b l i s h C a t h o l i c  name was he had  that  more  Joseph-Papin  t h e E.S.P. o f  group  dissolved  and  evidence of  clerics  the  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o ri t . i t s organizational  circles  collapsed  efforts  under  the  that  the  War.  I t w o u l d be wrong t o c o n c l u d e E.S.P.'s e f f o r t s had  unions  t h e r e i s no  year the o r i g i n a l  w a s t e d as most o f i t s u n i o n - s t u d y p r e s s u r e s o f the F i r s t  soon  Abbe" M a u r i c e  felt  to s t r i p  While  o r d e r r e q u e s t e d t o assume s o l e  top o f these blows,  committee  Apparently t h i s controversy reached  events, i n that had  a  A conflict  activities.  s u c h p r o p o r t i o n s t h a t M s g r . B r u c h i s i had  linking  that  an abbe"  whether o r not t h e s e embryonic  t o embark upon p r o f e s s i o n a l  p r e p a r a t i o n was  its  t o be  the archbishop appoint a f u l l - t i m e d i r e c t o r of 41  unions.  erupted.  a  F a t h e r Hudon's  composed o f h i s a u x i l i a r y b i s h o p , M s g r . G a u t h i e r and Maurice  preliminary  workers.  a convocation of p r i e s t s i n January, motion  the  from  t h i s account  F o r t h e r e was, from  i t s mistakes  syndicalism  Archambault.  at l e a s t , and who  on a more s o l i d ^  was basis.  A son o f the t r a d i t i o n a l 43 e n t e r e d t h e J e s u i t o r d e r i n 1897. He was  -22educated  and  later  taught  a t the C o l l e g e Sainte^Marie.  While  t h e r e , A r c h a m b a u l t became i n v o l v e d i n t h e A . C . J . C . movement. It  was  for this  g r o u p t h a t he  i n t r o d u c e d i n Canada i n 1909  Jesuit  order's  system of c l o s e d r e t r e a t s .  in  initial  steps  the  and  was  the  first  A r c h a m b a u l t was Social  l e a d i n g to the  for i t .  t o Europe to study,  C a t h o l i c movement.  In the process,  he  i t s outstanding personalities.  1914  to take  a leading role  to  retain until  E.S.P.  Ordained  in  hand,  the  He  returned i n branch.  given charge of h i s  From t h i s b a s e , he  1912,  established personal  Saint-Martin, i n Montreal,  1921.  participant  i n the Montreal  Upon h i s r e t u r n , A r c h a m b a u l t was r e t r e a t house, V i l l a  a  at f i r s t  contacts with prepared  was  foundation o f the  t o w r i t e a pamphlet  sent  He  the  order's  a p o s i t i o n he  was  p r o c e e d e d t o become  the  44 "Eminence n o i r " o f S o c i a l C a t h o l i c i s m . A r c h a m b a u l t was of  quick  then  t o form  c o n s i s t e d of encouraging  occupation  "corps  The  demonstrate the relevance of the  everyday  situation  activities.  to  come a m u l t i t u d e  or  initiatives,  Out  and  exhort  social  of Social  their  contacts with  a l l segments o f s o c i e t y ,  of  t h e movement was  His  tech-  doctrine of  of the  i t to  the their  retreats  were  C a t h o l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s , campaigns  M o r e o v e r , he was  Catholics.  This  i n charge would  them t o a p p l y  Archambault.  Social  technique  same p r o f e s s i o n o r  priest  of the experience  many o f w h i c h had  of  d'elites".  members o f t h e  t o h o l d group r e t r e a t s .  Church to t h e i r  able organizer,  t o a d o p t t h e E u r o p e a n movement's  using closed retreats  nique  An  source  in a position,  i n Father through  to c o o r d i n a t e the  i n f l u e n c e , however, upon t h e  g r e a t e r than  this.  his  daily efforts  development  -23The  p r e - w a r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l work o f t h e  so e a s i l y  p r i m a r i l y b e c a u s e i t had  adequately. the  Alfred  concept  leaders,  Charpentier,  failed  to prepare  "converted"  o f C a t h o l i c u n i o n s and,  d e s c r i b e d the  E.S.P. had  later,  E.S.P's i n i t i a l  collapsed  the  workers  by A r c h a m b a u l t  t o become one  efforts  to  of i t s  as,  " . . . l a f o l l e b r u s q u e r i e des o r g a n i s a t e u r s de l ' E c o l e Sociale Populaire d a v o i r voulu arracher les ouvriers aux u n i o n s n e u t r e s s a n s se d o u t e r q u ' i l s y e t a i e n t a t t a c h e s p a r un s e n t i m e n t de c o n s e r v a t i o n . 1  1 , 4 5  46 Archambault agreed He  insisted  with  this  analysis, i f only  upon a m e t h o d i c a l  implicitly.  programme o f e d u c a t i o n , t e c h n i c a l 47  and  spiritual,  before  In a s y s t e m a t i c Catholics, reservoir  planned  to u t i l i z e  o f competent u n i o n  w o r k e r s who  considered  the  study  His  particularly  Archambault,  like  leaders of the  vulnerable to  the French  circles  organization  u n i o n i s t s and,  "conversion".  diocesan  reunion  reunion,  w h i c h was  1918,  preferably, Social Catholics,  t o win  an  over  Thus,  the  Archambault's  preparation with existing  and  "...le  w o r k e r s be b e r c e a u du  be  convinced  the  base.  A r c h a m b a u l t p r o p o s e d t h a t an  of p r i e s t s t o be,  those  H a v i n g become  expected  o f C a t h o l i c u n i o n s on of  a  " n e u t r a l " n a t i o n a l unions to  a period of c a r e f u l  In the w i n t e r  to create  t h e Quebec C i t y  u n i o n i s t s , t h e y w o u l d be  combined  Social  the c l o s e d r e t r e a t s  membership o f t h e i r u n i o n s t o t h i s p r i n c i p l e . strategy  proceed.  i m m e d i a t e t a r g e t were  a l r e a d y were c o n v i n c e d  the  like  l e a d e r s and  reliability.  leaders.  Catholic  a c t u a l o r g a n i z i n g work c o u l d  f a s h i o n , Archambault,  to ensure t h e i r  union  the  held.  Such  inter-  a  syndicalisme  c a t h o l i q u e d a n s l a p r o v i n c e . . . " , was h e l d on A p r i l 28, 1918 48 at the V i l l a S a i n t - M a r t i n . Two r e s o l u t i o n s were a d o p t e d .  -24The  first  proposed  throughout  Quebec.  recommended t h a t of  that Catholic The  second,  s y n d i c a l i s m be i n t r o d u c e d inspired  by  each b i s h o p a p p o i n t a p r i e s t  union organization within h i s diocese.  another  r e u n i o n was  requirements  Archambault,  each  held.  The  assembled  On group  to take  charge  J u n e 2,  1918,  d e f i n e d the  C a t h o l i c u n i o n w o u l d h a v e t o meet.  There  were f o u r o f them, n a m e l y , "1° 2° 3  A p p r o b a t i o n des s t a t u t s p a r 1'eVeque. P r e s e n c e d'un a u m o n i e r nomine" p a r l ' a u t o r i t e " r e l i g i e u s e . Groupement e x c l u s i f de c a t h o l i q u e s a t i t r e de membres a c t i f s . A d m i s s i o n p r o v i s o i r e des n o n - c a t h o l i q u e s a t i t r e de membres-adjoints."  4°  4  At  t h e same t i m e ,  the r e s u l t  that,  the meeting on J u n e 13,  9  adopted 1918,  Archambault's  the f i r s t  study  strategy  with  circle,  50 C e r c l e L e o n X I I I , was the f i r s t to  permanent C a t h o l i c  group  were t o come  i n Montreal.  The  attempt  c r o w n e d i n 1921  Travailleurs The  w i t h the b i r t h  C a t h o l i q u e s du  Church's  Catholic  influence  unions  activities  series  of  annual  of the g r e a t e s t s i n g l e  unions achieve-  i n F r e n c h Canada, La C o n f e d e r a t i o n des Canada. on  t h e C.T.C.C., a s t h i s  came t o be known, c o u l d be  of i t s branches.  needed i n i t i a l l y  A  also  t o g e t h e r the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f these  ment o f S o c i a l C a t h o l i c i s m  day  unions  t o be more o r l e s s o f a s u c c e s s .  conventions bringing  of  From t h i s  o r g a n i z e C a t h o l i c u n i o n s i n t h e m a i n c e n t e r s o f Quebec  proved  was  formed.  seen  central  i n the  body  every-  Much o f t h e f u n d s w h i c h were  t o l a u n c h and m a i n t a i n them came f r o m  the  51 hierarchy. employers  Priests and  often carried  a s w e l l as l a y o r g a n i z e r s a t t e m p t e d  employees t o t h e i d e a .  The  c h a p l a i n of the  o u t many o f i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  functions.  to  win  union Many o f  -25the  arguments used t o c o n v i n c e C a t h o l i c workers t h a t  they  should  52 j o i n were a l s o p r o v i d e d u n i o n s on  principle,  P a p a l demands t h a t If  the  the  some d o u b t e d t h e  the  faithful  to protect  with Pius  interests.  their  When t h e  from c o o p e r a t i n g  as  common i n t e r e s t . other  types,  stability  unions  s e t out  only  in their  involved  as  such  unions  were C a t h o l i c s their  nothing  made  against  prevented  u n i o n s on  which f o r c e d  also  the"neutral"  the The  members o f  them  matters  lose their  point  elite  was  important  f o r two  reason  advantages of  such  of view.  Nevertheless,  the  never  combining n a t i o n a l i s m  b e e n n o t e d , was  s u p p o r t them.  reasons.  In the  Of  convinced  and  their  religion,  S o c i a l C a t h o l i c movement. a f t e r 1915  of C a t h o l i c unions. the  of  moderate  i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s t o change  organization  t o a c c e p t and  by  C a t h o l i c members.  n a t i o n a l u n i o n s had  much c o n c e r n e d w i t h p r e p a r i n g  the  but  the  economic  the  a mass b a s e f o r t h e has  of  argue t h a t , u n l i k e  " n e u t r a l " unions to  stressed  C.T.C.C., by  E.S.P., as i n the  or  in  material  " d i v i s i v e n e s s " was  everyday a c t i v i t i e s  activities  to provide  The  religious beliefs,  population as w e l l  repeated  associations.  injunction that  replied that  from a n a t i o n a l i s t i c  bulk of  the  opposed  to the  form such  a group w i t h other  these organizers  allegiance.  very  of  X*s  charge of  existence  p a t r i o t i s m of the  point  Furthermore, they c o u l d  t h e i r demands and course,  t h o s e who  C a t h o l i c u n i o n s p r o m o t e d c l a s s harmony and  not  t h e i r very  could  should  spiritual  them, C a t h o l i c u n i o n i s t s  To  o f u n i o n s b a s e d on  f o r m e d where a m a j o r i t y  order  Church.  organizer  value  t h e y were c o n f r o n t e d be  by  no  I t was,  p u b l i c and, An  place,  however,  especially,  educational  first  longer  as  programme a  former  -26chaplain  recollected:  a quelques exceptions  " L a c l a s s e d i r i g e a n t e e t meme l e c l e r g £ prds,  voyaient  rouge d§s q u ' i l  §tait  53 question  d union ouvriere, 1  meme c a t h o l i q u e . "  more i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n  was,  A second and a  as a c l o s e a s s o c i a t e  o f Msgr.  Roy  stressed, the fact that, "Les p r e t r e s e n e f f e t ne s e r o n t v o l o n t i e r s admis p a r l e s o u v r i e r s dans l e u r s y n d i c a t s que l e j o u r o u i l s p o u r r o n t p r o u v e r que r i e n de c e q u i i n t i r e s s e l a c l a s s e o u v r i e r e , meme au p o i n t de v u e m a t e r i e l ne l e u r est Stranger."54  For  t h e s e r e a s o n s , t h e E.S.P., up t o t h e  the  l a r g e s t number o f i t s p a m p h l e t s In a d d i t i o n t o i t s e d u c a t i o n a l  depression,  to Catholic efforts,  and w i t h access t o l e a d i n g  the  dedicated  unionism. E.S.P.,  through  its  research  the  C a t h o l i c u n i o n s t h e d o c t r i n a l g u i d a n c e needed t o contend 55  those problems which a l l unions f a c e . the  E.S.P. h a d t o answer q u e s t i o n s  light  of Catholic doctrines.  permitted  ?  Is a closed  C.T.C.C. s u p p o r t ? without, t a k i n g of competing help  o f the  Like  What i s a f a i r  T h e E.S.P. c o u l d local  "neutral" unions.  the A c t i o n  such as t h e f o l l o w i n g  shop d e s i r a b l e ?  i n t o account  theologians,provided  with  Populaire, i n the  Are strikes  What r e f o r m s s h o u l d t h e  not apply  conditions  By 1930,  wage?  to  the  these  doctrines  such as the  presence  C.T.C.C. w i t h t h e  E.S.P. h a d moved f r o m a p o s i t i o n where i t e m p h a s i z e d  the  o p e n shop a n d e m p l o y e r s ' r i g h t s t o o n e where i t demanded  the  n a t i o n a l and r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s  grant  preference t o  c o m p a n i e s whose w o r k e r s b e l o n g e d t o C a t h o l i c u n i o n s , t h a t t h e closed and  shop be a d o p t e d , t h a t  that  implement  the  Sunday o b s e r v a n c e laws b e t i g h t e n e d ,  p r o v i n c i a l rather  family  t h i s manner, t h e  t h a n t h e f e d e r a l government 56  a l l o w a n c e s a n d unemployment C.T.C.C. a t t e m p t e d  insurance.  In  t o promote t h e s p i r i t u a l ,  -27the  national The  and t h e m a t e r i a l  E.S.P.'s r e s e a r c h  restricted  to Catholic  educate C a t h o l i c s  i n t e r e s t s o f i t s members.  and p r o p a g a n d a f u n c t i o n s  unions  were n o t  f o r i t had been c r e a t e d  to  a s t o t h e i r s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . To  a c h i e v e t h i s a i m , i t h a d t o combat i n t h e words o f i t s f o r m e r secretary,  A.  Saint-Pierre,  " . . . 1 i n d i f f e r e n c e e t , p a r s u i t e , l e manque p r e s q u e a b s o l u de c o n n a i s s a n c e s de n o t r e c l a s s e i n s t r u i t e e t de n o t r e c l a s s e p a t r o n a l e a l ' e g a r d du p l u s f o r m i d a b l e des problemes a c t u e l s : l e probleme social".57 1  O v e r t h e y e a r s t h e E.S.P.'s m o n t h l y p a m p h l e t s  socio-economic problems and Institutions it  stimulated  s c r u t i n i z e d most  i n Quebec.  As a r e s u l t ,  t h e s t u d y o f e c o n o m i c s and s o c i o l o g y .  M o n t p e t i t , one o f t h e f i r s t  Edouard  French Canadians t o study  economics,  58 was f o r a t i m e a r e s e a r c h e r a t t h e E.S.P..  Later,  he h e l p e d  to  f o r m t h e D e p a r t m e n t "of S o c i a l S c i e n c e s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t e  de  Montreal.  with  E.S.P. g e n e r a l l y  some t r a i n i n g i n t h e f i e l d  institution. and  The  juvenile delinquency,  economic i s s u e s  participation  part,  infant  i n s t i t u t i o n s such as t h e  were w e i g h e d .  mortality  educational  s u c h a s p u l p and p a p e r a n d t o u r i s m ,  such as t h e d e g r e e o f F r e n c h  i n industry  and laymen  t o examine a p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m o r  and t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y  were a n a l y z e d c a r e f u l l y a n d p o s s i b l e involved  on c l e r i c s  S o c i a l problems such as h o u s i n g ,  system, economic a c t i v i t i e s and  relied  solutions  T h u s , t h e E.S.P., l i k e  made room f o r d i v e r g i n g 59 questions l i b r e s . "  Canadian  of colonization t o t h e problems i t s French  counter-  i n t e r e s t s and o p i n i o n s on " l e s  -28Having defined industrialized  the  socio-economic problems faced  s o c i e t i e s s u c h as  Canada, the  many o f  i t s pamphlets to p u b l i c i z i n g the  ties  Social Catholics  of  ranged in  from those concerned w i t h the  s e t t i n g up  Social Catholic  to explain  the  constantly  emphasized  and  action,  day  life.  general  the By  the  their solution,the  consciousness of  the  the  w i t h the ments. aims  those  movement. the  unity  involved  attempting The  of  E.S.P.  thought  complexity could  increased  everyof  contribute  the  social  elite.  the  p r o j e c t i o n of  complexity of  an  increasingly-  E.S.P's p a m p h l e t s r e t a i n e d  t h e i r i m p a c t upon t h e  i t s own  Specifically,  to  i t s readers w i t h the  Church's teachings, by  the  E.S.P. u n d o u b t e d l y  society,  e v e r y w h e r e , and  pamphlets  t e c h n i c a l problems  v a r i e t y o f ways C a t h o l i c s  coherence which increased by  Its  activi-  o f p r a c t i s i n g one's b e l i e f s i n  While they r e f l e c t e d the industrialized  abroad.  i n these pamphlets  confronting  E.S.P. d e v o t e d  t e a c h i n g s and  organizations  p r i n c i p l e s of  necessity  t h e s e p r o b l e m s and to  a t home and  by-  by  the  experience of  programme, t h e  these doctrines i n the  on  a  readers. Social  E.S.P. was  Guided Catholics  concerned  contemporary  develop-  words o f F a t h e r A r c h a m b a u l t , i t s  included, " s o u t e n i r l e s j u s t e s r e v e n d i c a t i o n s des diverses c l a s s e s s o c i a l e s . . . i n d i q u e r d ' u t i l e s remedes a l e u r s maux, s u s c i t e r de s a i n e s i n s t i t u t i o n s . . . , e n c o u r a g e l ' e x e r c i c e r a i s o n n a b l e de 1 a s s o c i a t i o n sous ses formes d i v e r s e s . . . , p r o t e g e r e t f a v o r i s e r . l a f a m i l l e . . . , dgfendre l'ordre et l a paix s o c i a l e . " 1  6  In  t h i s way,  the  E.S.P. was  to provide tangible  proof  that,  " . . , 1 ' E g l i s e c a t h o l i q u e e t s e s e n f a n t s ne s o n t S t r a n g e r s il r i e n d e c e q u i i n t § r e s s e dans l'humaine c i v i l i s a t i o n l a c c e s s i o n des corps au l e g i t i m e b i e n - e t r e t e r r e s t r e e t c e l l e d e s ames a ' l a v e r t u e t au c i e l . " 1  T h u s , t h e E.S.P's c o n t r i b u t o r s , i n many ways, were members o f a s c h o o l o f thought.  A r c h a m b a u l t d e f i n e d t h e E.S.P. a s ,  une  s o c i e t e de p r o p a g a n d i s t e s  sociaux  (sic),  liis  par  l a meme p e n s e e a p o s t o l i q u e e t p a r l a d h e s i o n §. un meme  "...  e n t r e eux  1  61 Programme b i e n d e f i n i . . . ! '  As a r e s u l t  together with  o r g a n i z a t i o n s , became t h e i n t e l l e c t -  its affiliated  o f i t s work, t h e E.S.P.,  62 ual  fount o f S o c i a l It  i s probable  surpassed Led  Far  t h a t t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e E.S.P. was  o n l y b y one o t h e r M o n t r e a l  b y abbe" L i o n e l  Francaise  C a t h o l i c i s m i n Quebec.  i norder  from b e i n g  Groulx,  this  t o deal with  group, l A c t i o n 1  Frangaise.  group p u b l i s h e d 1 ' A c t i o n cultural  and p o l i t i c a l  issues.  r i v a l s , t h e d o c t r i n e s a n d membership o f t h e s e 63  movements o v e r l a p p e d .  I n any c a s e ,  the Papal  condemnation o f  M a u r r a s ' A c t i o n F r a n c a i s e i n 1926 s h a t t e r e d t h e r e m n a n t s o f the C a t h o l i c I n t e g r i s t e s and l e d t o the disappearance o f i t s 64 French Canadian c o u n t e r p a r t as w e l l . S i m i l a r l y , most o f t h e N a t i o n a l and S o c i a l C a t h o l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t e r l o c k e d with t h e 65 E.S.P. i n d o c t r i n e a n d membership. language d a i l y Catholique  newspapers, L e D e v o i r  o f Quebec C i t y  network o f f o r m a l  the  support  the o t h e r s  o f Montreal,  So c l o s e l y  French-  L'Action  a n d L e D r o i t were a l s o l i n k e d  and i n f o r m a l t i e s .  groups t h a t an i n i t i a t i v e  Some o f t h e m a i n  to this  t i e d were  b y o n e component w o u l d g e n e r a l l y  these attract  o f t h e o t h e r s o r a n a t t a c k o n one p a r t w o u l d b r i n g t o i t s defense.  P. E . T r u d e a u h a s a r g u e d t h a t  this  -30close  r e l a t i o n s h i p o f i d e a s and  social-nationalist life  institutions  created a monolithic  i d e o l o g y which dominated the  intellectual  o f Quebec f o r many y e a r s . Beyond t h i s  of Jesus.  network o f c l e r i c s  This quasi-military  and  laymen was  religious  o r d e r was  the  Company  dedicated  t o h a r n e s s i n g w o r l d l y developments t o the u l t i m a t e b e n e f i t  of  66 the Church. tions and  assured  H o m i e r " , he  f l o w o f young  t h a n J . P.  o r g a n i z e d i n 1913 time  gave b i r t h  La  Archambault.  ligue  des  to Groulx's  important  C a t h o l i c i s m , Archambault  S e m a i n e s S o c i a l e s du  elite  of French  Quebec and theme.  Canada.  F o r one  t o papers  by  t h e E.S.P., and  r e a d by  infiniment  hesitate  carrying  out  duty  1920  accorded  peers  in  on  to these  tool  the  a  given  gatherings, involved,  i n developing, i n pens^e e t of  d'expression Social  s h r i n k f r o m m a n i p u l a t i n g men  t o p u t p r e s s u r e on  their  their  Devoted to the p r i n c i p l e s  C a t h o l i c i s m , Archambault d i d not d i d he  in  week e a c h y e a r ,  "...une h o m o g € n e i t e de 68  pr^cieuse."  More  the i n f l u e n c e o f the people  t h e S e m a i n e s S o c i a l e s were a p o w e r f u l Archambault's words,  launched  at a given location  Because o f the wide p u b l i c i t y  especially  francais  to p l a y a prominent r o l e .  Canada w o u l d g a t h e r  would l i s t e n  "Pierre  Action Francaise, a 67  continued  for Social  As  d r o i t s du  movement i n w h i c h he  Les  recruits  none d i d more t o b r i n g a b o u t a c o o r d i n a t i o n  of a c t i v i t e s  w h i c h i n due  institu-  of doctrine.  the J e s u i t s  i d e a s and  i n educational  S o c i a l C a t h o l i c i s m a steady  a coherence Of  of  T h e i r dominant p o s i t i o n  t h o s e whom he f e l t were n o t 69 - even b i s h o p s . Nor was he one t o  nor  -31i g n o r e an o p p o r t u n i t y  to increase  ment; t h u s , he  instituted  radio.  I t was  only natural,  in  t o become d i r e c t o r  1929  the a d d i t i o n a l izations  t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e move-  t h e C a t h o l i c h o u r programme on therefore,  o f t h e E.S.P. and  task of coordinating  coming  under  t h a t he  the  s h o u l d be  i n 1932  the a c t i v i t i e s  asked  to take  on  of a l l organ-  the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the Archbishop o f  70 Montreal.  As one  of the three Canadian delegates to the  Union i n t e r n a t i o n a l e dlEtudes  s o c i a l e s w h i c h met  a t M a l i n e s , B e l g i u m , he a l s o had international activities ment i n t o By  S o c i a l C a t h o l i c movement.  d i d much t o k n i t  1930,  S o c i a l C a t h o l i c i s m was The  f o r t h made i t c l e a r  that  from i t .  exploit train.  the various  i n coordinating Thus,  the  Archambault s 1  segments o f t h e move-  a coherent group.  p r o v i n c e o f Quebec.  far  a hand  each y e a r  I t was  z e a l and  firmly  entrenched i n the  the enthusiasm i t c a l l e d  t h e C h u r c h was  not i n a s t a t e o f decay  more t h a n r e a d y t o meet t h e d a n g e r s  the o p p o r t u n i t i e s which  and  the depression brought i n i t s  to  -  -32-  Chapter The The as  Nature of the Depression  agony e x p e r i e n c e d  a result  III  of the  by  countless  c o l l a p s e of  the  individuals  considered  a general  o u t l i n e of the d i s a s t e r which b e f e l l  extent  o f Canada.  For  E.S.P. was  to  Since  the  Montreal was  on  t h i s was  t o be  102,112 o f t h e i n 1935  lived  entrepot  trade  occurred.  W h i l e Quebec as  depression evidence  suffered  general  less  than  to suggest  the  t h a t of the  w i t h i n which  of  rest the  Montreal,  i t would  c o n d i t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r e , the depression. "  was  c o l l a p s e of i n t e r n a t i o n a l a w h o l e a p p e a r s t o have s u c h as  that  D e p e n d e n t as i t  1  provinces  most  trade  which  experienced  Saskatchewan,  t h a t , of the u r b a n i z e d  appear,  areas,  there  Montreal  most.  In i n v e s t i g a t i n g depression,  the context  provide  Quebec, and  f o r i t s p r o s p e r i t y , Montreal  to the  is  resembled  i n Greater  most a f f e c t e d by  vulnerable  the  done i s t o  188,907 Quebec w o r k e r s e m p l o y e d i n  already depressed was  be  1930's  develop.  manufacturing given  A l l t h a t can  to which i t s experience  i n Quebec  economic system i n the  c a n n o t be  the  here.  i n Quebec  the  the  causes of p r i c e  Stevens committee  found  spreads  t h e most  early in  the  shocking 2  examples o f t h e It  found  labourers  e x p l o i t a t i o n of  labour  t h a t some e m p l o y e r s u s e d i n order  t o pay  i n the Montreal  region.  females t o r e p l a c e male  l o w e r wages and  t o g a i n a more  docile  3 labour  force.  t h e r e was  The  Stevens committee d i s c o v e r e d  a minimum wage law  f o r female labour,  that  because  " i n three  -33factories, 2 1/2  many  cents  'boys', aged 14  to 6 cents  t o 20 y e a r s , were e m p l o y e d  per hour.  In f a c t ,  a b l e t e n d e n c y f o r m a l e w o r k e r s t o be  t h e r e was  paid less  than  at  a noticefemale  and  4 p e r h a p s t o d i s p l a c e them." tended  not only  to ignore the  p r o v i s i o n s of the accomplices  labour  of the  legislation As  t h a t , "By  B o a r d o f Quebec, d a t e d t o was  s i t u a t i o n by  employers.  Stevens r e p o r t noted  referred  Government a g e n c i e s ,  two  1933,  H o s i e r y Co.  exceptions,  to enforce  an example o f t h i s ,  Ltd.)  the p r i n c e l y  the  the the  o f t h e Minimum Wage  this  c l a s s i f y most o f i t s f e m a l e e m p l o y e e s as them w i t h  failing  a c t u a l l y were  permission  A u g u s t 11,  Butterfly  but  i t reported,  company was  ( t h e company  enabled  inexperienced  sum  of  $3  and  to and  $4  pay  per  5 week."  Of  one  f a c t o r y , the committee wrote:  " I t may  a decent  r e s p e c t f o r t h e o p i n i o n o f m a n k i n d on  have been  the p a r t of  these  e m p l o y e r s t h a t made them c o m p e l t h e i r w o r k e r s t o s i g n t h e i r receipts  i n blank."  of those Montrealers  The who  Stevens r e p o r t i n d i c a t e d  t h a t f o r many  were " l u c k y " enough t o r e m a i n  t h e d e p r e s s i o n meant p r o g r e s s i v e p a u p e r i z a t i o n and So  bad  were c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e c l o t h i n g  c o m m i t t e e , d o m i n a t e d by  "They s h o u l d n o t be t o l e r a t e d 7 itself  i n any  Sirois  this  declared:  state that claims  to  call  civilized."  These w o r k e r s , a t l e a s t , had Their  employed  dehumanization.  industry that  conservative p o l i t i c i a n s ,  wage  agony was  eclipsed  Commission a t the  by  a r e g u l a r source  of  t h a t o f the unemployed.  end  of the d e p r e s s i o n  to immigration  by  income. The  concluded  the  i m p o s i t i o n of b a r r i e r s  the U n i t e d  the  c o l l a p s e o f one-company towns i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f  Rowellthat States,  Quebec,  -34and  the c o n t i n u i n g i n f l u x  of surplus r u r a l  p o p u l a t i o n had  produced  a huge p o o l o f u n e m p l o y e d and m a i n l y u n s k i l l e d g i n Montreal. As a r e s u l t , t h e c o m m i s s i o n w r o t e :  labour  " I t e a r l y became e v i d e n t t h a t u n l e s s p r o g r e s s a l o n g t h e t r a d i t i o n a l l i n e s o f C a n a d i a n e x p a n s i o n was r a p i d l y resumed M o n t r e a l unemployment w o u l d become c h r o n i c and t h e h a r d c o r e o f t h e C a n a d i a n p r o b l e m . ... Unemployment i n M o n t r e a l and t h e s a t e l l i t e i n d u s t r i a l towns o f t h e a r e a became one o f t h e o u t s t a n d i n g e c o n o m i c and human p r o b l e m s o f t h e time..." What were t h e d i m e n s i o n s ing  t o one  study,  of t h i s  191,778 p e o p l e  human p r o b l e m ?  o r 19.5%  Accord-  of Montreal's  population  9 in  1934  such  were on d i r e c t  relief.  In c e r t a i n  p a r t s of the  as t h e town o f S t . M i c h e l t h e p e r c e n t a g e  As  a f a m i l y o f f i v e was  to  t h e $39.48 i t r e c e i v e d i n d i r e c t  large  allowed to earn  segment o f M o n t r e a l s 1  a bare  $12  relief,  p o p u l a t i o n was  s u b s i s t e n c e l e v e l u n t i l such  time  was  this  much h i g h e r .  p e r month i n a d d i t i o n t h i s meant t h a t  a  condemned t o l i v e a t  as t h e economy  Hand i n hand w i t h p o v e r t y came i s o l a t i o n and obtain  city  recovered.  apathy.  To  some i d e a o f what t h e u n e m p l o y e d must h a v e e x p e r i e n c e d  time,  some o b s e r v a t i o n s o f a few  ive.  A French  that  t h e r e was  Canadian  economist,  "...an e x c e s s  o t h e r hand, t h e r e e x i s t s  commentators a r e  Esdras M i n v i l l e ,  suggest-  reported  o f h o u s e s i n a c i t y where, on  an a c u t e h o u s i n g  shortage.  "Quebecer" d e s c r i b e d i n t h e s e terms the s i t u a t i o n  at  1 , 1 1  of the  the  A un-  employed i n M o n t r e a l : " . . . l i v i n g i n m i s e r y , t o o p o o r t o pay f o r t h e l i g h t and gas w h i c h a r e l a i d on t o t h e i r c r o w d e d homes, h a v i n g t o c o o k w i t h c o a l - o i l b o u g h t a t a p r i c e p e g g e d by t h e o i l i n t e r e s t s , b u r n i n g c a n d l e s f o r l i g h t , and b e i n g s e n t t o g a o l i n b a t c h e s by M o n t r e a l L i g h t , H e a t and Power Company b e c a u s e some o f them h a v e enough i n i t i a t i v e t o jump t h e m e t e r by t a p p i n g t h e w i r e s and t h e m a i n s . . . " 1 2  Nowhere e l s e i n C a n a d a , a c c o r d i n g C o m m i s s i o n , were t h e  extremes i n the  to the  Rowell-Sirois  distribution  of  wealth  13 greater fact  t h a n i n Quebec.  that,  e v e n as  The  i t was  Stevens r e p o r t  lowering  the  t h e M a c d o n a l d T o b a c c o Company p a i d 14 $260,000 p e r  year.  Reconstruction M o n t r e a l was  able  1930  revealed had  to  the  eyes t o  1933. true  the  family  profits  The nature of  the  as  "...to  was  follow  economic p o l i c i e s . Liberal  weakened by  with  the  the 16  i n excess of the  the  by  Any  difficulty  be  the  the  depression  the  the  prosperity  of  i t had  entirely  Rowell-Sirois  who  land  and  from  The  toward  i n the  and  To  provide  Montreal area, chiefly of  had  agreement  the  Conservative  for  action,  some a i d  to  the  provin-  of d i r e c t  relief,  a campaign t o 18  self-sufficiency.  of  action  have  pressures  a  Commission  i n c o m i n g t o an  ignored.  p u b l i c works p r o j e c t s  to the  forthcoming  inclination  g o v e r n m e n t ' s programme c o n s i s t e d  a return  facade of  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a t O t t a w a and 17  not  sporadic  importation  $1,300,000 i n  P r e m i e r T a s c h e r e a u may  however, c o u l d  of  of  economic system f o r t h o s e  mayor o f M o n t r e a l , C a m i l l i e n Houde.  cial  Social  let-well-enough-alone school  1 1  regime of  Conservative  victims  League f o r  Senator Webster  f o r t h e s e p r o b l e m s were n o t  government d e s c r i b e d  which the  of  c o l l a p s e of  provincial  social  the  executive  see.  Solutions  tending  i t s chief  the  i t s employees,  t h r o u g h t h e i r monopoly o v e r the  o f Welsh c o a l t o r e a l i z e 15 years  wages o f  A n o t h e r s t u d y by  showed how  underlined  According  encourage to  R o w e l l - S i r o i s r e p o r t , "The a g g r e g a t e c o s t o f t h e s e e f f o r t s p r o v e d s t a g g e r i n g , y e t t h e y d i d l i t t l e more t h a n t i d e t h e  the  s i t u a t i o n o v e r , and problems." of  As  made o n l y  a result,  Quebec, l o n g  a l i m i t e d impression  i t noted t h a t ,  considered  the  fiscal  "The  on  the  financial  G i b r a l t a r of  basic  position  the  Canadian 19  provinces  deteriorated  I t went on  alarmingly  to argue t h a t  the  to e s t a b l i s h progressive the  failure  taxation  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w e a l t h , and  from taxes,  had  forced  effort  the  consequences of  The  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of  resources  and  the  the  day  the  t o day  depression  their  fell  actions  available.  and  50  while Toronto's 20  35  to  39.5  direct  relief  relief  was  that  cent."  M o n t r e a l had  the  in property  on  to provide 1933.  thereby  In  financial  financial  terms,  "...Montreal's  this basis  f o r the  varies  between  go  that,  beyond according  280,096 p e o p l e  Although the  o f p e o p l e who  w e r e . . . I t has  criteria  on  under which  been s t a t e d  t o pay  the  barely that  f a r e of  "...drew t o t h e  earned t h e i r  living  metropolis where  M o n t r e a l was  the  obviously  i n e l i m i n a t i n g the  they  c e r t a i n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s found i t d e s t i t u t e who  were  leaving  21  leadership  with  a l l o c a t e d were f a r f r o m g e n e r o u s , M i n v i l l e c o m p l a i n e d  a multitude  town."  as  the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  s h a r e does n o t  system of p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e ,  profitable  on  unemployment r e l i e f  I t was  in April  gap  fields,  d e p e n d e d upon t h e  48  t o him,  great  responsibility for dealing  total  per  the  system.  words o f M i n v i l l e , t h a t ,  cent,  p r o v i n c i a l government  s a l e s tax  tax  c o n t r i b u t i o n to the per  depression..."  exemption of Church  income and  leadership  t h i s meant, i n t h e  the  to bridge  to reform the  In p r a c t i c e , the  of  the  some h a r d - p r e s s e d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s s u c h  M o n t r e a l t o expand i n t o t h e h a m p e r i n g any  during  i n no  causes of  p o s i t i o n to the  provide  depression.  This  s e a r c h f o r l e a d e r s h i p t o end t h e d e p r e s s i o n l e d t o a  22 proliferation  o f i d e o l o g i e s and movements  b u l k o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n had f a l l e n  into  i n Quebec.  a position  d e p e n d e n c y , t h e y were n o t a l l r e s i g n e d t o t h e i r t h e s e movements  adopted  were more l i b e r a l  I f the  of greater  fate.  Some o f  a conservative orientation, while  others  i n tone.  F o r E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g C a n a d i a n s t h e most f r i g h t e n i n g o f t h e s e g r o u p s were t h o s e movements w h i c h a d o p t e d models. that  While  t h e y a t t r a c t e d much p u b l i c i t y ,  t h e y were n e v e r  More i m p o r t a n t  Nazlism  was  or Fascism  i t would  appear  a b l e t o a t t r a c t much F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g  the r e v i v a l  as  support  o f t h e n a t i o n a l i s t movement w i t h  24 t h e c r e a t i o n o f p e r i o d i c a l , 1 ' A c t i o n N a t i o n a l e i n 1933. For t h e n a t i o n a l i s t s , t h e d e p r e s s i o n was, " . . . 1 ' e x p r e s s i o n de n o t r e  25 faillite, Together  faillite  m o r a l e , gconomique e t i n t e l l e c t u e l l e . "  w i t h v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s such  chez-nous, l'Ordre Jacques C a r t i e r , the A c t i o n N a t i o n a l e c a r r i e d French  Canadians t h e i r  political  spheres.  movements,  A n o t h e r r e v i v a l w h i c h was of  the p r o v i n c i a l  1  and L e s J e u n e s - C a n a d a ,  position  i n t h e e c o n o m i c and  not linked with  the n a t i o n a l i s t s  d Achats  on a campaign t o r e c o n q u e r f o r  rightful  While  as La L i g u e  tended  to lead  the F a s c i s t  or Nazi  towards a n t i - s e m i t i s m . t o more d i r e c t  a c t i o n was  that  C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y under t h e dynamic l e a d e r -  26 s h i p o f C a m i l l i e n Houde. Maurice  Although  f o r c e d t o make way f o r  D u p l e s s i s i n 1933, he u n d o u b t e d l y  p a r t y a more r e f o r m i s t o r i e n t a t i o n previously.  T h e s e movements  than  gave t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e  i t had  were more o r l e s s  possessed of the r i g h t .  -38On t h e l e f t  c o u l d be f o u n d a s i m i l a r  g r o u p s and i d e o l o g i e s . for  p r o l i f e r a t i o n of  The most t h r e a t e n i n g  the French Canadian e l i t e s  o f these  groups  were t h e C.C.F. w h i c h was t o  remain a mainly English-speaking Communist p a r t y w h i c h , a s w i l l  o r g a n i z a t i o n , and t h e  be s e e n , o b t a i n e d  most o f i t s 27  support more  from t h e immigrant p o p u l a t i o n  s i g n i f i c a n t on t h e l o n g - r u n  liberal the  was  of Montreal.  Much  the i n f l u e n c e of French  C a t h o l i c s s u c h a s J a c q u e s M a r i t a i n who,  i n reaction to  I n t e g r i s t e s , developed a p e r s o n a l i s t philosophy  attempt t o r e c o n c i l e the claims  i n an  of the i n d i v i d u a l with  those  of  28 society.  H i s i n f l u e n c e was  group which p u b l i s h e d was  felt  particularly  i n Quebec by a  L a R e l e v e and by A n d r e L a u r e n d e a u ,  who  t o r e p l a c e h i s f a t h e r i n 1937 as d i r e c t o r o f L ' A c t i o n  Nationale.  T h e s e men  tried  and  outlook.  Of more i m m e d i a t e s i g n i f i c a n c e ,  liberal  be s e e n , was inspired  the r e v o l t  t o g i v e n a t i o n a l i s m a more  the L i b e r a l  a f t e r dreary  itself.  Politically  of the L i b e r a l  What c o u l d except  attempted  year  o f d i s c o n t e n t which  of depression  i t was  p a s s e d by  to " r e -  increased  manifested  t o l e a d t o the overwhelming  r e g i m e by a c o a l i t i o n w h i c h c a l l e d  Union N a t i o n a l e . movements  Deal,  party.  I n t h i s manner, t h e f e e l i n g as y e a r  as w i l l  o f a g r o u p o f y o u n g L i b e r a l s who,  am p a r t by t h e A m e r i c a n New 29  liberalize"  humanist  But, i n each case,  defeat  itself  i t i s apparent that  were l e d by a r t i c u l a t e members o f t h e m i d d l e  the these  class.  t h e i n a r t i c u l a t e members o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s do -  follow?  -39They c o u l d o r g a n i z e b e t t e r d e a l and, a f t e r Spontaneously o r with  t h e m s e l v e s i n u n i o n s and s t r i k e  1935, i n g r o w i n g numbers t h e y the help  u n i o n s s p r a n g up i n Quebec.  o f a more m i l i t a n t  for a  did.  leadership,  W i t h t h e c o m i n g o f t h e C.I.O.,  e v e n t h e C.T.C.C. h a d t o b r o a d e n i t s o u t l o o k ,  a n d change i t s 30  tactics the it  i n order  process  t o r e t a i n a n d expand i t s membership.  i t came i n t o c o n f l i c t w i t h  had helped  to elect  i n 1936.  government soon d i s a p p o i n t e d It  not only  refused  t o take  In  t h e government which  The new U n i o n  Nationale  t h e hopes which i t had a r o u s e d . s t e r n measures a g a i n s t  monopolistic  a b u s e s b u t s e t o u t t o weaken t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e u n i o n s . Duplessis  g o v e r n m e n t i n 1937 p a s s e d m e a s u r e s , w h i c h i n e f f e c t  made c o l l e c t i v e principle  bargaining  o f the union  went o n s t r i k e a collective the  against  u n n e c e s s a r y a n d condemned t h e 31  shop.  t h e Dominion T e x t i l e supported  Co. i n 1937 t o o b t a i n t h e company.  Only  i n t e r v e n t i o n o f C a r d i n a l V i l l e n e u v e ended t h e s t r i k e .  a union  o f t h e C.T.C.C. a t t e m p t e d  shop i n t h e s h i p y a r d s  to violence.  more m i l i t a n t  to establish  o f Sorel, the intransigence of  owners, t h e Simard b r o t h e r s ,  government and, i n d i r e c t l y , led  When 10,000 members o f t h e C.T.C.C.  agreement, D u p l e s s i s  When a n o t h e r a f f i l i a t e  the  The  supported  by t h e p r o v i n c i a l  by t h e f e d e r a l L i b e r a l  government  Thus t h e C.T.C.C. was f o r c e d t o a d o p t a much  stance  i n order  government and t h e c o m p e t i t i o n  to survive the h o s t i l i t y of American-inspired  ofthe  unions.  T h e s e were some o f t h e m a i n i s s u e s and movements t o w h i c h the d e p r e s s i o n E.S.P. f o l l o w ?  gave b i r t h  i n Quebec.  To what e x t e n t  could  What c o u r s e i t provide  would t h e  some o f t h a t  leadership  w h i c h an i n c r e a s i n g l y r e s t l e s s p o p u l a t i o n  What o r i e n t a t i o n w o u l d i t a d o p t ? E.S.P. m e r e l y r e a c t and o p p o r t u n i t i e s  to events?  To what e x t e n t  demanded?  would the  T h e s e were some o f t h e  which the depression  provided  challenges  t h e E.S.P. „  C h a p t e r IV The The the  E.S.P. and C a p i t a l i s m  depression  years,  E.S.P. p r o b a b l y r e a c h e d  was w e l l  1929 t o 1940, were t h e y e a r s when t h e peak o f i t s i n f l u e n c e .  p r e p a r e d , a s h a s b e e n n o t e d , t o meet t h i s  Archambault,  therefore,  could  write  It  challenge.  i n the midst of t h i s  period  "Malgre ses i n s u f f i s a n c e s , c e t t e t r o i s i e m e p^riode r e j o i n t done c e l l e d e s d e b u t s , s i a c t i v e , ... e t r e p l a c e l E . S . P . p a r m i nos p r i n c i p a u x o r g a n i s m e s de b a s e , s u r l e s q u e l s p e u t s ' a p p u y e r 1  1*Action catholique T h e r e was much t h a t  the S o c i a l Catholics  t o answer s u c h q u e s t i o n s Church's teachings. the  au C a n a d a . " !  as t h e f o l l o w i n g  s h o u l d be t h e a t t i t u d e o f C a t h o l i c s of society  What r e f o r m s s h o u l d t h e s t a t e Catholics  implement?  bring  and a t h o u s a n d  social  for? should  What  What should  Thus, t h e d e p r e s s i o n  t h e s e i d e a s had  was t o t a x t h e m a t e r i a l  resources of Social Catholics  t o the l i m i t .  e a r l y c o n c e r n o f t h e E.S.P. was t o e x p l a i n why t h e  economic system had c o l l a p s e d . hierarchy  who, i n a c o l l e c t i v e  I t was t h e F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g letter,  Not  r e l a t e d o n e s t o be  t o be d e v e l o p e d .  An  What  t h e s e changes about?  t h e methods o f i m p l e m e n t i n g  spiritual  I f not,  about?  of agriculture?  answered b u t a l s o  and  strive  What r e f o r m s  - as i n d i v i d u a l s o r g r o u p s - h e l p  had these q u e s t i o n s  Were  towards t h e e x i s t i n g  t h e r o l e o f t h e E.S.P. i n b r i n g i n g  only  of the  t o w a r d s them?  should C a t h o l i c s  s h o u l d be done a b o u t t h e c o n d i t i o n be  i n the l i g h t  and Communists a c c e p t a b l e ?  what s h o u l d b e t h e a t t i t u d e o f C a t h o l i c s  What k i n d  They h a d  What were t h e c a u s e s o f t h e c r i s i s ?  arguments o f S o c i a l i s t s  system?  h a d t o do.  attempted  to discuss  -42Le M a l a i s e  e c o n o m i q u e d e s temps  presents.  d e p r e s s i o n was d u e t o two m a i n c a u s e s . excessive c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f wealth In t h i s ,  t h e y made i t c l e a r  Pius XI's e n c y c l i c a l  social  They f e l t  The f i r s t  that the  c a u s e was t h e  i n t h e hands o f a v e r y f e w .  t h e y were o n l y a g r e e i n g w i t h  Pope  Q u a d r a g e s i m o anno p u b l i s h e d o n May 15,  1931 t o commemorate t h e f o r t i e t h They f u l l y  2  supported  a n n i v e r s a r y o f Rerum  novarum.  t h e Pope's c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e w e a l t h y h a d  responsibilities.  The o t h e r main cause o f t h e d e p r e s s i o n ,  a c c o r d i n g t o t h e h i e r a r c h y , was, " . . . l e  l u x e e f f r ^ n e q u i , en  meme temps,  l e s c l a s s e s , meme l e s  s ' e s t d e v e l o p p e dans t o u t e s 3  moins f o r t u n e e s . " problem through themselves:  The d e p r e s s i o n had o n l y e x a c e r b a t e d  thegeneralization o f d i r e c t  "Ne s e r a i t - c e  socialisme,  favoriser  la  e t aggraver  paresse,  relief.  pas donner pratiquement  l e malaise  They  asked  dans l e  chez p l u s i e u r s 1'insouciance, encore  this  l'ggoisme,  qui gtreint l a  4 society?" way  I t was c l e a r  t o them t h a t t h e d e p r e s s i o n was God's  o f p u n i s h i n g men f o r t h e i r  e v i l ways i n o r d e r  t o r e t u r n t o a more v i r t u o u s way o f l i f e . away f r o m t h e i r p r e o c c u p a t i o n likely  with  t o f o r c e them  Unless  people  the m a t e r i a l world,  t h a t H i s wrath would m a n i f e s t  itself  i n a more  turned  i t was terrible  manner. While the h i e r a r c h y had agreed capitalism,  they  Pius XI's a n a l y s i s o f  had n o t d i s c u s s e d i t i n any d e t a i l .  p r o m i n e n t S o c i a l C a t h o l i c , Abbe discuss notonly this contained  with  aspect  i nL'Encyclique  Philippe Perrier  undertook t o  o f t h e Pope's t h o u g h t  " Q u a d r a g e s i m o anno".  A  but everything  According t o  -43Perrier, in  t h e Pope d i s c u s s e d i n h i s e n c y c l i c a l  the c a p i t a l i s t  depression.  t h e developments  s y s t e m s i n c e Rerum no v a r urf> w h i c h h a d c a u s e d t h e  Since  1891 t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n  e v e n more u n e q u a l .  o f wealth  h a d become  The c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h i s was t o c o n c e n t r a t e  t h e e c o n o m i c power i n t h e hands o f a few, p a r t i c u l a r l y control of financial power t h r o u g h  serve  T h e s e men h a d a c q u i r e d  u n b r i d l e d competition which favoured  the unscrupulous. state  institutions.  their  Having acquired i t , economic i n t e r e s t s  they  11  a l s o a p p l i e d t o Quebec.  Perrier  c o u l d t h e n make t h e  p l a c e S une  emphasized  this  t h e s t r o n g and  a t home a n d a b r o a d .  t h e Pope p u t i t , " l ' a p p g t i t d u g a i n f a i t e f f r £ n £ e de d o m i n e r .  those i n  As  ambition  that this analysis  F o r , he s t a t e d , " d e p u i s  p r e s d'un  s i § c l e nous p r a t i q u o n s ' l a l i b r e c o n c u r r e n c e ' m i s e en h o n n e u r 7 par 1'Angleterre." He p o i n t e d o u t t h a t H e n r i B o u r a s s a h a d concluded  after  a study  o f Quebec's f i n a n c i a l  institutions  that:  " . . . l a p l o u t o c r a t i e r e g n e - t - e l l e en m a i t r e s s e dans l a p r o v i n c e . d e Quebec p l u s que dans l e r e s t e du p a y s , au C a n a d a , comme aux E t a t s - U n i s , p l u s qu'en A n g l e t e r r e e t en F r a n c e . " ^ Because t h i s  economic e l i t e  h a d u s e d i t s power  irresponsibly,  the d e p r e s s i o n had o c c u r r e d . The  first  e x t e n s i v e a n a l y s i s o f c a p i t a l i s m w h i c h t h e E.S.P.  p r o d u c e d was w r i t t e n by E s d r a s  Minville  a s an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o g  t h e E.S.P.'s programme o f s o c i a l t h a t he a g r e e d bad.  growth,  this  i t was o r g a n i z e d  on t h e b a s i s o f  s y s t e m was t h e b e s t means o f e n s u r i n g  "...support  sociale."^  M i n v i l l e made i t c l e a r  P i u s X I t h a t c a p i t a l i s m was n o t i n t r i n s i c a l l y  On t h e c o n t r a r y , p r o v i d e d  justice,  vie  with  reform.  0  de l a v i e i n t e l l e c t u e l l e  I t had been d i s t o r t e d ,  economic  e t m o r a l e e t de l a  however, by i t s a b u s e s .  -44Specifically, capital  the  root of  the  p r o b l e m was  capitalist  l i b e r a l i s m e economique... I ^ interests  had  become t h e  system The  1  they should  that  travailleur  le capital  conserverait  that c a p i t a l i s t s  had  should run  tendency au  personal  dominant motive o f economic  their  "...advenant i n s u c c e s ,  This  s a t i s f a c t i o n of  investors  i n v e s t m e n t s and  of  "...s'est infeode  While M i r i v i l l e agreed t h a t  was  tendency  t o dominate a l l a s p e c t s of economic l i f e .  e x i s t e d because the  le  the  activity.  have a r e t u r n the  industries for,  s e r a i t perdu, cependant  s a f o r c e de  travail",  become c o n c e r n e d  on  the  que  problem  solely with  profit  12 making. paid  They t r e a t e d  f o r a t the  labour  of c l a s s  hands o f  the  had  various  life.  r e s u l t was  s t a t e of misery w i t h the  capitalist  to  drive  consequent  system, a c c o r d i n g  increasing concentration  through monopolistic  By  the  a decreasing  t h e s e men  The  be  conflict.  A n o t h e r abuse o f M i n v i l l e , was  a n o t h e r commodity t o  lowest p o s s i b l e p r i c e .  the workers i n t o a profound rise  as  number o f p e o p l e . p r a c t i c e s and  to  of wealth i n  the  With t h e i r wealth  and  interlocking directorships,  gained c o n t r o l over the  means, t h e y were a l s o a b l e  economic l i f e  of  Quebec.  t o dominate i t s p o l i t i c a l  Some o f t h e s e methods i n c l u d e d , " . . . 1 E l e c t i o n des c h e f s p o l i t i q u e s aux c o n s e i l s d ' a d m i n i s t r a t i o n des g r a n d e s e n t r e p r i s e s . . . l e s s o u s c r i p t i o n s aux c a i s s e s e i e c t o r a l e s . . . 1 ' a s s e r v i s s e m e n t de l a p r e s s e . . . " 1 3 1  As  a r e s u l t , these c a p i t a l i s t s  c o n t r o l over p o l i t i c a l existence  of high  exercised  developments.  tariffs  on  a direct andiindirect  P r o o f o f t h i s was  imports which f o r c e d  the  the consumers  -45t o pay h i g h p r i c e s  f o r p r o d u c t s s u c h as c o t t o n g o o d s ,  p r e v a l e n c e o f economic  and  political  imperialism  and  the  as i n t h e  case  14 o f the American  p e n e t r a t i o n o f C e n t r a l and  South  S e c u r e i n t h e knowledge t h a t t h e y c o n t r o l l e d opinion,  t h e s e men  to the f u l l .  were f r e e t o e x p l o i t  Thus,  America.  politics  their  captive  they enjoyed e x c e s s i v e p r o f i t s  numerous e n t e r p r i s e s ,  p r o f i t s which  and  markets  from  t h e y were c a r e f u l  t e c h n i q u e s s u c h as  overcapitalization  the watering of  These  abuses, M i n v i l l e  main r e s u l t s .  The  first  was  and  believed,  an u n l i m i t e d  as i n t h e c a s e o f t h e p u l p and p a p e r i n c r e a s e or m a i n t a i n the p r o f i t tive  position.  The  result?  du m a r c h e , l a c r i s e de 15 famines d'antan." intensified  "On  t h e s e h o p e s t o t h e i r own  repeated this  that  i t was  had  as t h e  competi-  c'est l'icrasement  had  generalized  and  among t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c i n c o n t r o l over various  f o r the f i n a n c i e r s  segments  to manipulate  advantage.  I n t h i s manner M i n v i l l e dictators"  i n production  p l u s d o u l o u r e u s e que l e s  S e c o n d l y , t h e s e abuses  speculative practices  two  i n order to  as w e l l  l e connait,  surabondance,  t h e economy made i t e a s y  "economic  increase  the  stocks.  brought about  industry  margin  t h e hope o f q u i c k r e t u r n s b u t t h e i r of  had  their  to hide  from t h e consumers t h r o u g h f i n a n c i a l of industries  public  attempted  increased  the abuses  t o show how  these  t h e i r w e a l t h and power.  o f c a p i t a l i s m which  had  He  created  situation. W h i l e M i n v i l l e more o r l e s s  Pius XI's c r i t i q u e o f c a p i t a l i s m , E.S.P. a t t e m p t e d  to probe  f o l l o w e d what he  thought  other contributors  was  to the  t h e i n t r i c a t e mechanism o f t h e  economic  -46system i n o r d e r t o b e t t e r a p p r e c i a t e the Pope's t e a c h i n g s .  A  J e s u i t p r i e s t had attempted b e f o r e M i n v i l l e ' s study was publ i s h e d t o examine the o p e r a t i o n o f stock exchange i n the l i g h t of C h r i s t i a n m o r a l i t y . " ^  A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s c o n t r i b u t o r , the  Pope had not d e a l t d i r e c t l y with t h i s q u e s t i o n i n h i s e n c y c l i c a l but he had s t a t e d t h a t those who used t h e i r wealth  t o develop  i n d u s t r i e s , t o c r e a t e employment and t o produce u s e f u l products 17  were p r a c t i s i n g " . . . l a v e r t u de magnificence."  In so f a r as  the stock exchange helped t o b r i n g the i n v e s t o r s and the i n d u s t r i a l i s t s t o g e t h e r , i t served a s o c i a l purpose.  Abuses o c c u r r e d ,  however, i n the c a r r y i n g out o f these t r a n s a c t i o n s .  To a s c e r t a i n  the m o r a l i t y o f these t r a n s a c t i o n s , each had t o be examined c l o s e l y and the r i g h t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f those  concerned  weighed i n the l i g h t o f C h r i s t i a n j u s t i c e and c h a r i t y . Having d i s c u s s e d the main abuses t h a t c o u l d occur i n a stock exchange, the author concluded  t h a t i n the l i g h t o f the  i n d i v i d u a l aspect o f p r o p e r t y , s p e c u l a t i o n i n stocks was a c c e p t a b l e p r o v i d e d t h a t the s p e c u l a t o r d i d not gamble sums needed t o d i s c h a r g e h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , t h a t he used h i s own money and, most important,  "que l ' o n n'emploie pas des moyens  i n j u s t e s pour gagner, c ' e s t - S - d i r e pour f a i r e pencher l a balance 18  du hasard en sa f a v e u r . " In the l i g h t o f the s o c i a l aspect o f p r o p e r t y , however, the author d e c l a r e d t h a t , " c e t t e r i c h e s s e 19  q u i s ' a c q u i e r t sans t r a v a i l e s t l e scandale de l a s o c i e t y . " He asked:  " Q u ' e s t - c e done au f o n d que c e t t e s p e c u l a t i o n ? Une m a l a d i e , une g r o s s e f i e v r e , f i e v r e d u l u c r e e t de l a r i c h e s s e , q u i e n g e n d r e l a f i e v r e d e s p l a i s i r s , du v r a i j e u , d e s d^penses f o l l e s . . . . " Once begun, t h e r e exchange c o u l d socially  useful  was no l i m i t  curb t h i s  to i t .  He f e l t  tendency t o s p e c u l a t e ,  that  i f the stock  i t w o u l d be a  institution.  Another c o n t r i b u t o r study o f the f i n a n c i a l  t o t h e E.S.P. c a r r i e d o u t a n i n t e n s i v e  a b u s e s o f c a p i t a l i s m w h i c h he l i s t e d a s  " . . . m o u i l l a g e du c a p i t a l ,  surproduction,  speculation  effrenee,  20 gonflement du c r e d i t . . . of watering ing  stocks  Of t h e s e he f e l t  that the practice  was t h e most d a n g e r o u s .  o u t t h i s study was t h r e e - f o l d :  H i s purpose i n c a r r y -  t o ensure t h a t C h r i s t i a n  p r i n c i p l e s kept " . . . c o n t a c t a v e c l e r e e l , e c l a i r e r un p o i n t d e t e r m i n e des a f f a i r e s , e t t r a v a i l l e r a l e m e t t r e e n a c c o r d a v e c l e s e x i g e n c e s de l a m o r a l e c h r e t i e n n e . " 2 1 Hence, he a t t e m p t e d  to unite  an o b j e c t i v e  s t u d y o f an economic  phenomenon w i t h a c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n  of the relevance  Christian  W h i l e r e f u s i n g t o name  principles to the situation.  individuals, financiers  of  he s e t o u t t o e x p o s e t h e u n s c r u p u l o u s p r a c t i c e s o f  i n order  t h a t t h e y w o u l d become more r e s p o n s i b l e .  22 felt  that,  " l a finance  d u monde e n t i e r s ' e s t  Methods w h i c h i n t h e p a s t  paganisee."  h a d b e e n u s e d e x c l u s i v e l y by J e w i s h  f i n a n c i e r s h a d now b e e n a d o p t e d by e v e r y o n e i n c l u d i n g and  French-Canadian businessmen t o o b t a i n ,  d i s c r e t i o n n a i r e que l e u r a u r a i e n t l'antiquite."  He t r i e d  envie  Catholic  "...un p o u v o i r  l e s d e s p o t e s de  t o demonstrate t h a t  M o n t r e a l L i g h t , H e a t a n d Power C o n s o l i d a t e d  i n Quebec t h e and t h e p u l p and  He  -48p a p e r i n d u s t r y had  l e d the others  in exploiting  consumers  and  23 i n v e s t o r s by w a t e r i n g W.  L. M a c k e n z i e K i n g  denounced t h i s  stocks. t o H.  Most p u b l i c f i g u r e s  H.  Stevens to Henri  from  Bourassa  had  practice. 24  that  What were t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e s e  abuses?  the p r a c t i c e  a main cause o f  depression.  of watering  s t o c k s was  T h i s p r a c t i c e had  administrative  c o s t s and  c r e a t e d a debt  interest  I t a c c e l e r a t e d the  practice prices  higher  tariffs  and  l e d t o an e x c e s s  the  competition  political  of goods.  At  the  c o n s u m e r s had  concluded,  had  l e d to the c o l l a p s e of the  from the consequences.  T h e r e was  now  The  a handful  of  and  felt  would s u f f e r because o f the  and  inflation,  tolerated they  easy  he  these  s u f f e r e d more  power o f c o n s u m e r s had  had  the  pushing  W o r k e r s were u n e m p l o y e d , s m a l l  Class divisions  this  economy.  a l a r g e number o f u n e m p l o y e d who  men.  By  i t forced  than  thereby  Canada h a d  c o u n t r i e s , he  purchasing  public assistance.  generations  S t a t e s and  other  power.  T h r o u g h ads  Speculation, overproduction  p r a c t i c e s more t h a n  were b a n k r u p t .  farmers.  b e e n e n c o u r a g e d t o buy  Because the U n i t e d  a  same t i m e ,  o f m a n u f a c t u r e d goods t o r i s e more r a p i d l y  p r i c e s upwards.  on  and  industries  greater productive capacity,  r e v e n u e s o f s m a l l b u s i n e s s m e n and credit,  the  structure of  growth o f monopolies w i t h  c o n s e q u e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f e c o n o m i c and fostering  argued  payments w h i c h many  c o u l d n o t c a r r y when s a l e s were d e p r e s s e d keener.  He  businesses dropped.  were d e p e n d e n t  worsened.  irresponsible  In  fact,  actions of  With the point,  same i n t e n s i t y b u t w i t h  a B e l g i a n c o n t r i b u t o r , A.  d e m o n s t r a t e by of  the  e c o n o m i c s y s t e m why  economic system, a c c o r d i n g  three p i l l a r s :  materialism,  Because o f the to  Muller,  a r i g o r o u s a n a l y s i s of the  existing  The  first  were s e e n e i t h e r  Profits  had  enough w e a l t h  had  to the  full  and  ization.  While admitting noted  profits,  had  capitalists  For  this  accept  " s c i e n c e des reason,  seeing  assujetties arts  w o u l d be  consequently, production.  that, i n their  c r e a t e d an  commercialises,  degree of to  their civil-  this  unbridled search  products.  Thus,  w o u l d no  for  capacity,  l e d to widespread  forces s p i r i t u e l l e s l'int^ret,  t h a t once  excessive^productive  r i c h e s s e s " had  §. l a l o i de  arguing  some t r u t h  M u l l e r b e l i e v e d that people  "...les  Many  able to develop  a higher  a m a s s i n g a huge s u r p l u s o f u n s o l d  so-called  r e s t e d upon  Economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  t h a t t h e r e was  argument, t h e a u t h o r  aboul^  v a l u e s were /.-relegated  t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t by  hence a t t a i n  come  liberalism.  o f a c t i o n and,  b e e n c r e a t e d men  potential  thereby  author,  as means o r as o u t l e t s o f  to j u s t i f y  foundations  had  become t h e g o a l o f e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t i e s .  economists t r i e d  to  ideological  to t h i s  spiritual  become t h e m a i n d e t e r m i n a n t s  people  s . j . , set out  i n d i v i d u a l i s m and  of these,  starting  the d e p r e s s i o n  a n a r r o w s p h e r e o f human a c t i v i t y .  had  a different  the  poverty.  longer  impitoyablernent  l a science  stipendiee, les  l e s i n f l u e n c e s p o l i t i q u e s mises a  l'encan, 26  les  consciences The  this  memes d e v e n u e s 1 ' o b j e t  second p i l l a r  c o n t r i b u t o r , was  of the  d'un  ignoble  trafic".  economic system, a c c o r d i n g  individualism.  This p a r t i c u l a r  to  conception  -50of  the  ized in  i n d i v i d u a l had  b e g u n as  social organization  emphasizing the  but,  a natural i n the  autonomy o f  reaction to a  process,  individuals.  had  fossil-  gone t o o  In the  far  economic  s p h e r e , i t assumed t h a t . t r a n s a c t i o n s were c a r r i e d on  between  individuals, " . . . p o u r v u s de d r o i t s i d e n t i q u e s , d ^ g a g i s de t o u t l i e n de s o l i d a r i t e s o c i a l e e t r e g l a n t en t o u t e l i b e r t y l e u r s a c t e s s u r l e s c o n s e i l s de l e u r i n t e r e t p a r t i c u l i e r . " 2 7 Profit value  and and  e f f i c i e n c y were t h e the  considered.  social  only  Given; t h e  rather  the  revealed  individual As ism,  the  t o be  f o r the  an  Quadragesimo  were  not  was  the  belief  poverty.  i n the  The  people,  extent  autonomy o f  of  the  illusion.  third  logical  social  i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r - d e p e n d e n c e between  brought about g e n e r a l  had  The  than cooperation  s u c h a t t i t u d e s had depression  used.  e f f e c t s of business transactions  Ruthless competition  encouraged.  criteria  pillar  of  consequence o f  the  capitalist  system,  i n d i v i d u a l i s m Pius  XI  liberalstated  in  anno,  "La c o n c u r r e n c e . . . s ' e s t d ^ t r u i t e elle-meme; a l a l i b e r t i du marche a succede" une d i c t a t u r e economique. L ' a p p ^ t i t du g a i n a f a i t p l a c e S une a m b i t i o n e f f r 6 n § e de dominer. By  bringing  ideology  of  on  the  depression,  c a p i t a l i s m had  Although that  the  few  the  author concluded that  discredited  itself.  i n number, i t i s c l e a r f r o m t h e s e  Social Catholics  gradually  summaries  came t o u n d e r s t a n d  s u b t l e ways i n w h i c h m o n o p o l y c a p i t a l i s m p o s e d a t h r e a t only  to  the w e l l - b e i n g  of  s o c i e t y but  the  also of  the  the not  Church.  The  increasing  sophistication  development. that  of these analyses i s proof of t h i s  What i s more i m p o r t a n t , however, i s t h e f a c t  a l l of these studies  took  e n c y c l i c a l Q u a d r a g e s i m p anno. impulse  as a p o i n t  of departure the  I t would appear  that  f o r t h e E.S.P*s r e - e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t  came - n o t f r o m a c o n c e r n w i t h t h e mass s u f f e r i n g from  the chief  i t s collapse  theless,  resulting  - b u t f r o m t h e u r g i n g s o f t h e Pope.  many members o f t h e E.S.P. g r o u p ,  system  Never-  i t appears, had  g a i n e d b y 1936 a g r e a t e r a w a r e n e s s o f how t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c system  worked.  -52Chapter The Even b e f o r e depression,  the  E.S.P. and  E.S.P. was the  The  as w i l l of  the  be  this  seen, i s not  depression,  closely.  a simple  Its  Why  d i d the  The  one.  Aux  that  myst^rieux  victimes  during  this  tracts  to i t .  this  i t s programme, t h e  period consecrated The  become  very  question,  beginning  conclusions  revanche de  the  actuelle  To  to o f f e r  E.S.P.'s  "le  contre  la crise  royaume d ' i g a l i t § . " ^  C a t h o l i c s u n d e r s t o o d what Communism had  p r o p o s e d t o implement  includ-  c l e a r to S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s that,  capitalisme prive.  e n t r e v o i r un  E.S.P  From t h e  les  fait  analyzed  answer t o t h i s  I l p r o m e t une  il  doctrines  carefully  r e v e communiste e s t s e d u i s a n t . abus du  crisis  number o f c o u n t r i e s  phenomenon?  i t was  economic  Communism.  i n a great  the  a phenomenon w h i c h  R u s s i a n e x p e r i m e n t was  Communist a c t i v i t i e s  fascinated with  causes o f  s u f f e r i n g which the  i n g Canada were f o l l o w e d so  concerned with  T h i s phenomenon was  were d i s s e c t e d . and  Communism  i t began i t s study o f the  seemed t o t h r i v e on engendered.  V  ensure  and  how  i t  contributors  l a r g e s t number o f p a m p h l e t s  they reached w i l l  be  the  theme  and of  chapter. The  of the  two  main c o n c e r n s o f the  E.S.P. d u r i n g  p e r i o d u n d e r s t u d y were t o examine t h e  Communism and doctrine.  For  i t s a p p l i c a t i o n i n Russia this  task,  the  Canadian c o n t r i b u t o r s , r e l i e d Swiss o r g a n i z a t i o n s , Internationale contre  first  ideology light  half  of  of  Catholic  E.S.P., i n a d d i t i o n t o i t s F r e n c h h e a v i l y upon F r e n c h , B e l g i a n  particularly la Hie  i n the  the  one  group c a l l e d  1'Entente  I n t e r n a t i o n a l e based at  Many o f t h e s e - s t u d i e s t e n d e d t o a p p r o a c h t h e i r  and  Geneva.  topic in a  2  -53s c h o l a r l y manner by by  using  fact  footnotes  suggests  and  by  Communist s o u r c e s e x t e n s i v e l y ,  providing a bibliography.  t h a t the main t a r g e t o f t h e s e  t h e unemployed but Early  quoting  the  This  p a m p h l e t s were  not  intellectuals.  i n the d e p r e s s i o n ,  t h e E.S.P's c o n t r i b u t o r s d i s s e c t e d 3  t h e Communist d o c t r i n e and They n o t e d  subjected  i t to t h e i r  t h a t t h e r e were many f o r m s o f c o l l e c t i v i s m .  f o r m , however, condemned t h e e x i s i t i n g same r e a s o n s . these  criticism.  The  collectivists  economic system f o r the  S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s admitted had  t o say  Each  t h a t much o f what  a b o u t c a p i t a l i s m was  true but  as  P i u s XI s t a t e d i n Q u a d r a g e s i m o anno: " L e u r s r e c l a m a t i o n s , dans ce q u * e l l e s o n t de j u s t e , t r o u v e n t un a p p u i b i e n p l u s f o r t dans l e s p r i n c i p e s de l a f o i c h r e t i e n n e . . .'. Where t h e s e  collectivist  right  g r o u p s d i v e r g e d was  to  the  o f owning p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y  be  used i n a c h i e v i n g t h e i r  aims.  The  and  on on  their attitudes t h e methods  most e x t r e m e o f  to  these  g r o u p s , t h e Communists, w i s h e d t o a b o l i s h p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y completely, ing class  s e t up  and  a dictatorship  achieve  t h a t w o u l d b e n e f i t t h e work-  t h e i r g o a l s by  the use  o f a l l means,  including violence. The the  right  S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s argued t h a t , i n seeking t o own  unjust nature.  p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y , Communism r e v e a l e d i t s I t w o u l d deny t h e  dispose of his possessions, ing his talents ends.  i n h i s own  individual  thereby  and  p a r t i c u l a r way  f u t u r e needs.  t h e m o r a l power t o  p r e v e n t i n g him  I n s t e a d Communism w o u l d make him  for his present  to a b o l i s h  from  f o r h i s own  develop-  particular  a dependent o f the  T h e r e were some who  state  pointed  -54t o t h e e a r l y C h r i s t i a n s o r t o t h e m o n a s t e r i e s as e x a m p l e s o f Communism.  The S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s  r e p l i e d that  i n these  c o l l e c t i v i s m h a d b e e n p r a c t i s e d on a v o l u n t a r y the  a i d of Divine  that  Providence.  t h e r i g h t t o own p r o p e r t y  skilled  i t was o n l y  just that  who  l e d t o i t s abuse,  particularly  The C a t h o l i c  the d i l i g e n t ,  a n d t h e t a l e n t e d be r e w a r d e d .  recognize  and w i t h  T h e r e were o t h e r s  t o an u n e q u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w e a l t h . was t h a t  basis  cases  objected  answer  the t h r i f t y , the  Not o n l y  d i d human l a w  this but,  "...ces i n e g a l i t ^ s i n e v i t a b l e s (sic) sont justifies p a r .. l a P r o v i d e n c e ( s i c ) d i v i n e , q u i a b i e n l e d r o i t de f a v o r i s e r l e s uns p l u s que l e s a u t r e s e t p r e s i d e a l a d i s t r i b u t i o n d e s b i e n s de l a t e r r e , e n vue de l a f i n supreme q u i e s t l e s q l u t d e s hommes."5 As  f o r t h e a b u s e s o f c a p i t a l i s m , i t was a l w a y s p o s s i b l e t o  check these.  I n any c a s e , S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s  would l e a d t o g r e a t e r The not  only  threat  saw Communism a s b e i n g  of the i n d i v i d u a l but also of society.  to the basic u n i t of society, the family. these authors  felt  mine t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e f a t h e r . sole provider  W h i l e i t was t r u e  By a b o l i s h i n g under-  be t h e  t o guide the develop-  t h a t many were now  still  hope t h e Communists w o u l d deny them.  doctrine by  some w e a l t h i n t h e f u t u r e  destructive  I t posed a  He w o u l d no l o n g e r  unemployed, t h e s e S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s b e l i e v e d acquiring  Communism  t h a t Communism w o u l d  and w o u l d l o s e h i s a b i l i t y  ment o f h i s f a m i l y .  that  abuses than had c a p i t a l i s m .  E.S.P's c o n t r i b u t o r s  private property,  This  felt  that  t h e hope o f  kept the family Moreover,  together.  Communist  favoured t h e attainment o f t h e e q u a l i t y o f t h e sexes  legalizing birth  c o n t r o l and d i v o r c e .  I t would a l s o  usurp  -55parental  responsibilities  t h e E.S.P.*s  contributors  hierarchical  family  As  i n the upbringing of children. concluded  t h a t Communism a t t a c k e d t h e  system d i r e c t l y  as w e l l  as i n d i r e c t l y .  f a r a s t h e s t a t e was c o n c e r n e d , t h e S o c i a l  a r g u e d t h a t , e v e n t h o u g h Communism w o u l d in  Hence,  Catholics  lead to a vast  increase  i t s b u r e a u c r a c y , i n t h e l o n g r u n t h e s t a t e w o u l d be u n d e r -  mined.  Economically,  t h e absence o f a s t i m u l u s  and c r a f t s m a n s h i p w o u l d b r i n g a b o u t a d r a s t i c  to production  decline  i nthe  n a t i o n ' s w e a l t h and t h e growth o f t h e b u r e a u c r a c y would a g r e a t e r degree o f u n i f o r m i t y These f a c t o r s ,  and r e s i s t a n c e  added t o t h e i n c r e a s e  would  inevitably  Socially,  lead  and c o n f l i c t s  s h o u l d be a p p o r t i o n e d . participation of t h i s  c h o o s e between ing  their  it,  rights, find  situation,  goals  citizen  In the face  rebellion  Fundamental  o r abandon-  liberties  t o c h o o s e an o c c u p a t i o n and where t o p r a c t i s e  soon be s u p p r e s s e d .  more t y r a n n i c a l ,  goods  increase while  and r i s k  as p a r e n t a l  C e r t a i n c l a s s e s o r groups would  themselves w i t h even fewer r i g h t s .  means.  individual  o f c o n s c i e n c e and o f e x p r e s s i o n , as w e l l  would  t o save,  t h e Communists w o u l d h a v e t o  g o a l s and m a i n t a i n i n g power.  liberty  intensify  a f f a i r s would d e c l i n e .  pursuing t h e i r  such as t h e r i g h t  a l lincentives  a s t o how m a t e r i a l  C o r r u p t i o n would  i n community  deteriorating  responsibilities  t o the impoverishment o f the n a t i o n .  t h e a b o l i t i o n o f p r o p e r t y would  and g r o u p j e a l o u s i e s  to innovations.  i n financial  w h i c h Communism e n t a i l e d w h i l e d e s t r o y i n g  encourage  As t h e r e g i m e became  i t would attempt t o p e r p e t u a t e i t s e l f  b y any  -56-  According  t o t h e E.S.P's p a m p h l e t s , t h e end  Communist d o c t r i n e w o u l d be achievements of g e n e r a t i o n s : and  internal  peace.  oligarchy with  And  the  disappearance  progress,  f o r what?  a Communist one?  To  To  result  of the  culture, replace a  hard-won  p u b l i c order Capitalist  create a gigantic  apparatus  i n t h e hope t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be more w e a l t h  for  all?  To  physical  and  To  proclaim social spiritual  c r e a t e a New  Man  e q u a l i t y by  pretending  n e e d s o f human b e i n g s  - d e s c r i b e d by  state available  that  would  a Communist  of  the  disappear?  as:  "...Le j e u n e b a r b a r e p l e i n de f o r c e que n'a pas corrompu l a c i v i l i s a t i o n c a p i t a l i s t e , q u i n ' e s t pas p e r v e r t i p a r l e c o n f o r t e t l e b i e n - e t r e . . . , q u i ne s ' e s t pas e n c o r e l a i s s e " p l i e r au j o u g de l a l e g a l i t y e t de l ' o r d r e b o u r g e o i s ? " 6  The  authors  dream was The should  worth the other  a s p e c t o f Communist d o c t r i n e w h i c h C a t h o l i c s was  t h e way  i t hoped t o  gain  r e v o l u t i o n s , t h e Communist r e v o l u t i o n  of s c i e n t i f i c  stated, " . . . l a  legitime,  Communist  risk.  Unlike previous  a product  author  pamphlets doubted whether the  c o n s i d e r , t h e E.S.P. f e l t ,  power. was  of these  planning.  F o r Communists,  one  r e v o l u t i o n d e v i e n t un moyen r e c o n n u  etudie" & f r o i d  e t p e r f e c t i o n n e comme une  machine  de  7  guerre."  By  exploiting  the  suffering  m a s s e s , t h e Communist p a r t y a t t e m p t e d to accept  i t s programme.  Once t h e s e  of the  impoverished  to convince individuals  individuals had  members, t h e p a r t y w o u l d i n d o c t r i n a t e them i n o r d e r Q  become to  ensure  "...une o b ^ i s s a n c e  p a s s i v e e t complete...."  I t demanded  complete obedience  not o n l y to the  a l s o to the  of i t s orders.  I n t h i s way,  i t had  letter  but  spirit  forged a revolutionary e l i t e  -57grouped  in cells.  p e r i o d i c purges to b r i n g about  Discipline  t h e Communist  a grand  socio-economic  system  to c r e a t e chaos.  While  c o u l d o n l y be  i n g t o one affairs  "bataillons Catholics,  a g a i n s t the  revolution  existing  t o win  and  t h e more r u t h l e s s  the  t h e Communists m i g h t a temporary total  be  t o m a i n t a i n power. t h e y w o u l d be  forced  expedient f o r t h e i r control  - "...mais s u r t o u t une  to  sans  of  in  their  compromise,  goal,  - not only over  juridiction  and  Communists  a l l o b s t a c l e s to the implementation  a u t h o r , was  the  social divisions  When c o n d i t i o n s were r i p e ,  order to eliminate  it  they a g i t a t e d  stronger the o p p o s i t i o n  programme.  these  over or to n e u t r a l i z e v a r i o u s  i n order to e x p l o i t  would u n l e a s h a v i o l e n t The  ends,  Through c o n s t a n t propaganda,  t o win  A t t h e same t i m e ,  by  the i n c e s s a n t s t r u g g l e  a c c o r d i n g to the S o c i a l  strategy.  Communists a t t e m p t e d  by  maintained  revolution.  revolutionary  d ' a c i e r du p r o l e t a r i a t " ,  groups.  z e a l was  o f t h e membership and  In p u r s u i n g t h e i r  followed  and  accord-  temporal  limite  sur  9 les  ames  elles-memes...."  Catholics, themselves doctrines.  t h e E.S.P. a r g u e d ,  w i t h vague s t a t e m e n t s There  the S o v i e t Union.  already existed As  d i d n o t have t o c o n t e n t  as t o t h e e f f e c t s o f  Communist  a model o f t h e Communist  Communist p r o p a g a n d i s t s a l w a y s  state:  referred  t o R u s s i a as t h e embodiment o f t h e i r programme, t h e E.S.P. s e t o u t t o show what t h i s W o r k e r s ' s t a t e had reason, i t devoted pamphlets  the l a r g e s t  to the S o v i e t  Union.  achieved."*"^  number o f i t s  For  this  anti-Communist  -58-  R e f l e c t i n g upon t h e h i s t o r i c a l Communism, an E.S.P. c o n t r i b u t o r t o be had  learned  from i t .  d i s p l a y e d were,  felt  that  of Russian  t h e r e were l e s s o n s  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which  the  "...une a d r e s s e consommee e t un  fanatique...They by  Two  development  seemed t o a c h i e v e t h e i r  Communists  devouement  greatest  successes  appealing to, "...des m e c o n t e n t s , d e s r a t ^ s , des f l a n e u r s ... toujours prets ..aux aventures p i r i l l e u s e s , a i g u i l l o n e s p a r l e m i r a g e d'une f o r t u n e promptement a c q u i s e . " 1 2  It  appeared  t o one  B o s h e v i k s was,  author that  "...cette  t o l e r a n c e meme aux  the g r e a t e s t a l l y  caricature  intol^rants"  de  liberte  of  the  q u i accorde l a  - a m i s t a k e , he  stressed,  which  13 L e n i n dxd  n o t make.  a s m a l l group Turning  As  o f men  a r e s u l t o f t h e s e and o t h e r  had become a t h r e a t  t o human  t o t h e Communist a c h i e v e m e n t s ,  examined t h e impact had b e e n c a r r i e d particularly  of the massive  out.  While  civilization.  the S o c i a l  Catholics  socio-economic changes  not i g n o r i n g  concerned w i t h the f i r s t  p r o c e s s o f b e i n g implemented.  factors,  Plan i n the  s t u d i e s of i t s workings,  they concluded that  i t was  miscalculations  t o the l a c k o f competent p e r s o n n e l .  brought and  about  and  a drastic  consumer g o o d s .  the workers  Millions  had  depressed.  due  o f p e a s a n t s had  the c o l l e c t i v e  been reduced  order to maintain production. the standard of l i v i n g  failure  to gross  decrease i n the production of  t h e i r p r o p e r t y a b s o r b e d by cities  a massive  t h e p a s t , t h e y were  F i v e Year  From t h e i r  had  To  which  I t had  foodstuffs  been u p r o o t e d  and  farms, w h i l e i n the  to the s t a t u s o f s e r f s i n  finance this  been reduced  gigantic  and w o r k i n g  F a m i n e and m i s e r y were t h e l o t o f many.  effort,  conditions I t was  clear  -59to  Social  Catholics,  like Minville,  that the continuation of 14  L e n i n ' s N.E.P. w o u l d h a v e a c h i e v e d b e t t e r r e s u l t s . had  b e e n a c h i e v e d was "...1 * g g a l i t e dans l a m i s e r e . " Communism's a t t e m p t  t o c r e a t e t h e new S o v i e t Man h a d a l s o  t u r n e d , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e E.S.P., i n t o Communists h a d s u c c e e d e d in  o r d e r , so they  position  i n society.  their  The  t o a c c o r d t h e young a p r i v i l e g e d  The r e a l i t y  was o t h e r w i s e .  studying  A l l t h e v i c e s were on t h e i n c r e a s e among t h e y o u n g .  t h e r e was a l a r g e - s c a l e bands o f young p e o p l e  child  t h e p r o b l e m t o t h e p o i n t where  abandonment.  due t o n e g l e c t .  t h e Communists w o u l d h a v e t o a d m i t t h e i r c o u l d n o t do.  "paradis  V i c i o u s and  were r o a m i n g t h e c o u n t r y .  f a m i n e and o t h e r c a u s e s  depraved  Many were  dying  To stem t h e t i d e ,  responsibility  Such was t h e new Adam i n t h e i r  and t h i s  godless  terreste".  I f Communism was s u c h i t maintain  was o b v i o u s : over  After  p r a c t i c e s was t h e g r o w t h o f j u v e n i l e  F i v e Year P l a n had aggravated  did  family unit  one a u t h o r warned t h a t i f t h e Communists h a d  o f such  delinquency.  they  The  way, " . . . i l s empois^sonneront l'ame e n f a n t i n e de v i c e s , de p r o p a g a n d e h a i n e u s e c o n t r e l e s p a r e n t s 'arri£rgs'; i l s e n s e i g n e r o n t aux e n f a n t s l a h a i n e de l a r e l i g i o n , l e m § p r i s d u b i e n , i l s p o u s s e r o n t des v o l o n t e s f a i b l e s e t i n e x p e r i m e n t i e s a 1'accomplissement d'infamies...."15  result  The  a nightmare.  i n destroying the Russian  claimed,  t h e methods u s e d ,  of  A l l that  i t s power?  through  sheer  a failure,  how, some p e o p l e  To t h e S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s , force.  asked,  t h e answer  Because o f i t s t o t a l  t h e m a t e r i a l and human r e s o u r c e s o f t h e c o u n t r y , t h e  control  - 6 0 -  S o v i e t regime c o u l d weather massive socio-economic Any  failures.  s i g n o f o p p o s i t i o n was q u i c k l y e l i m i n a t e d b y t h e r e f i n e d  system o f t e r r o r which had been developed.  In addition to  t h e s e c r e t p o l i c e , t h e r e g i m e r e l i e d upon geography, l e g a l p e n a l t i e s , a n d t h e Red Army. intellectual It  severe  A l l activities including  and c u l t u r a l had t o serve  Communism o r be  repressed.  a p p e a r e d t o M i n v i l l e t h a t t h e a i m was t o t r a n s f o r m t h e  individual into  "une b e t e de somme d o n t o n d i s p o s e  e t qu'on  rationne S volonti. N o w h e r e , t h e E.S.P. f e l t , was t h e i n h u m a n n a t u r e Communist r e g i m e so c l e a r l y  revealed  eradicate a l l signs of r e l i g i o n . ance o f t h e p e o p l e ,  as i n i t s campaign t o  To o v e r c o m e t h e s t r o n g  i t had developed a s y s t e m a t i c  a t t r a c t i n d i v i d u a l s t o m i l i t a n t atheism. were t u r n i n g o u t z e a l o u s  of the  propagandists.  resist-  programme t o  S p e c i a l i z e d schools E v e r y f o r m o f commun-  i c a t i o n i n c l u d i n g t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m was b e i n g made t o s e r v e t h i s end.  A n t i - r e l i g i o u s campaigns were r e i n f o r c e d by t h e  government's r e s o u r c e s  and a c t i v i t i e s .  religious manifestations  As a r e s u l t ,  e s p e c i a l l y by young p e o p l e were rewarded  w h i l e r e l i g i o u s ones were p u n i s h e d s e v e r e l y . o f a l l f a i t h s had been d e p r i v e d  By 1 9 3 5 , c l e r g y m e n  o f t h e i r c i v i c r i g h t s and were  s u b j e c t t o p e r s e c u t i o n a n d , i n many c a s e s , m u r d e r . estimated  that f i f t y  anti-  percent  One  author  o f a l l c l e r i c s had been l i q u i d a t e d  17 b e t w e e n 1917 a n d 1 9 3 4 .  T h e s e f i n d i n g s seemed t o g i v e  strength t o Pius XI's denunciation  added  o f Communism a s a s y s t e m ,  -61" . . . q u i ne r e c u l e d e v a n t r i e n , ne r e s p e c t e r i e n , e t q u i , p a r t o u t oft i l . a r r i v e a u p o u v o i r , a g i t a v e c une d u r e t i , une i n h u m a n i t e i n c r o y a b l e e t indescriptible."18 I t made more u r g e n t h i s a p p e a l  i n 1930 t o a l l C a t h o l i c s  t o pray  19 for  the conversion  of Russia.  Events since  that  a u t h o r l a m e n t e d , seemed t o i n d i c a t e t h a t p r a y e r s the  Communists t o commit g r e a t e r In  s p i t e o f Communist a t r o c i t i e s ,  o b s e r v e d t h a t many c o u n t r i e s the  crimes against  Soviet  Union i n order  depression.  to alleviate  religion. Catholics  closer r e l a t i o n s with  They s e t o u t t o p r o v e , t h e r e f o r e ,  that e s t a b l i s h -  would o n l y  aggravate  s o c i o - e c o n o m i c p r o b l e m s o f non-Communist c o u n t r i e s .  stressed  that  t h e Communists a d m i t t e d  pas  un E t a t comme l e s E t a t s  les  infinies  ressources  that,  e s t l a force et  d'un g r a n d E t a t a u s e r v i c e de l a 20 They attempted  t o t h o s e who p e r s i s t e d i n b e l i e v i n g t h a t  t o demonstrate  the Soviet  government  and  t h e K o m i n t e r n were i n d e p e n d e n t o f e a c h o t h e r  but  t h e i n s t r u m e n t s o f t h e P o l i t b u r o o f t h e Communist  Thus, w h i l e t h e S o v i e t impression  that  government attempted  i tstood  non-aggression pacts  prestige  could  party.  by s i g n i n g  and by j o i n i n g t h e League o f N a t i o n s , i t s  activities.  r e l a t i o n s with  t h a t b o t h were  to create the  f o r peace and s t a b i l i t y  c o m p l e m e n t a r y arm, t h e K o m i n t e r n e x p l o i t e d subversive  They  "L'U.R.S.S. n ' e s t  capitalistes...II  revolution mondiale..."(sic).  and  goaded  the e f f e c t s of the  i n g any t y p e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h R u s s i a the  only  the Social  were s e e k i n g  t i m e , one  t h e s e o p e n i n g s by  I n t h e E.S.P.*s v i e w ,  the Soviet  Union could  only  o f t h e Communists i n t e r n a l l y  diplomatic  increase  t h e power  and e x t e r n a l l y ; i t  n o t advance t h e cause o f peace and p r o s p e r i t y .  The  most p o w e r f u l weapon, a c c o r d i n g  p o s s e s s e d by Communist its in  the  Soviet  r e g i m e t o open h o s t i l e  i n f l u e n c e was  the  concomitant, increased fact  the  what was its  reverse  was  promise of  the  case.  As  absolute  human r e s o u r c e s , and  the  the  t r a d e was  trade  to  with  t o show  regime bought  to  c o n t r o l over the  E.S.P.  countries  They t r i e d  a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y t o make R u s s i a  B e c a u s e i t had  Social Catholics,  increased  employment.  r e a l purpose i n developing  could  to the  that  only  self-sufficient, foster revolution.  country s  natural  1  and  s c o n t r i b u t o r s argued t h a t i t  1  d i d dump v a s t q u a n t i t i e s o f p r i m a r y p r o d u c t s on  the  21 world markets.  This  p r a c t i c e only  ment s i t u a t i o n i n s i d e t h e discontent  and  regime c o u l d  with  importing  greater  then i n t e n s i f y  trade with  socio-economic  the  Soviet  the  had  subversive  Agents of  movements and  the m i l i t a n c y of  the  t a c t i c w h i c h came t o t h e  as  Union only  had  t o win  t o the  the  the  Soviet of i t s  concluded  l e d to a worsening of  support  of the  Soviet  E.S.P., f r o m s e r i o u s  K o m i n t e r n were a b l e  to i n f i l t r a t e  the  unions.  to create  to To  greater  lure, internal  organize increase socio-  Communists e n c o u r a g e d s t r i k e s . a t t e n t i o n of the  c h a m p i o n s o f p e a c e and the  greater  activities  swallowed the  c r e a t i o n o f L e a g u e s a g a i n s t War the  resources,  subversive  t h e w o r k e r s and  economic i n s t a b i l i t y ,  the  With  unemploy-  crisis.  suffered, according  difficulties.  the  Hence, t h e s e a u t h o r s  Wherever a t r a d i n g n a t i o n it  country.  financial  agents i n s i d e t h a t country. that  aggravated  and  E.S.P. a f t e r 1935 22  Fascism.  demoncracy, the  intellectuals  Another  and  of  By  posing  Communists the  was  young.  hoped They  had  met  w i t h some s u c c e s s , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e E.S.P.'s  especially  i n F r a n c e where o u t s t a n d i n g p e r s o n a l i t i e s  Andre Gide, selves  Henri Barbusse  and  Romain R o l l a n d had  a t t h e s e r v i c e o f t h i s w o r l d movement.  nominal  l e a d e r s h i p was  c o n t r o l remained  put  i n t h e hands o f s u c h p e r s o n s ,  the  In m o b i l i z i n g  to bolster  support  the morale of  the p r e s t i g e of the S o v i e t  t h e r e b y making the h o s t c o u n t r y , i n the minds o f S o c i a l t o Communist  As was in  actual  t h e Communists h o p e d t o weaken  s t r e n g t h o f t h e g r e a t powers - p a r t i c u l a r l y  susceptible  as  themthe  o f groups,  armed f o r c e s - and  such  While  w i t h t h e Communists.  a greater variety  sources,  from the  their Union,  Catholics,  revolution.  the case i n s i d e  R u s s i a , t h e Communists  t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e E.S.P., p a i d p a r t i c u l a r  elsewhere,  attention  to  their  23 anti-religious  campaign.  c o n t r o l over the Proletarienne,  and  from  the S o c i a l i s t s to r e l i g i o n .  to a n t i - r e l i g i o u s  recruits.  The  it  was  the C a t h o l i c The  had  Church  by  transformed  i n Russia, they  gained  i t into  looked  to  as t h e F r e e Masons f o r  the e x i s t i n g and  divisions Fascism  between  seemed, t o  having considerable success i n Once i n c o n t a c t w i t h  f o r t h e Communists t o e x p l o i t linking  these  elements,  their hostility  to  i t t o p o v e r t y and i m p e r i a l i s m .  Communists, a c o n t r i b u t o r r e p o r t e d a t t h e end  were e v e n e x p l o i t i n g by  t o be 24  Protestants.  easy  As  L e a g u e s a g a i n s t War  the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s , attracting  and  groups such  They a l s o e x p l o i t e d  the Churches.  t h e Communists had  l e f t wing a s s o c i a t i o n o f a t h e i s t s , I n t e r n a t i o n a l e  a formidable threat youth  S i n c e 1930,  of this period,  the d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n the C a t h o l i c  a p p e a l i n g t o t h o s e C a t h o l i c s who  d i d not  fully  Church  understand  that  n a t u r e o f Communism o r who h a d m i s g u i d e d  social  consciences 25  o r who were d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h some C h u r c h l e a d e r s o r d o c t r i n e s . I n 1936, P i u s XI d e n o u n c e d t h i s Communist t a c t i c , " . . . c h e r c h e n t a c r i e r q u e l q u e s p o s s i b i l i t i s de r a p p r o c h e m e n t e t de c o l l a b o r a t i o n de l a p a r t des c a t h o l i q u e s , e n d i s t i n g u a n t e n t r e i d i o l o g i e et pratique, entre i d i e e t a c t i o n , entre ordre iconomique e t ordre moral." The  following year,  the  Pope  i n his encyclical, Divini  Redemptoris,  declared:  "Le communisme e s t i n t r i n s i q u e m e n t p e r v e r s , e t l ' o n ne p e u t a d m e t t r e s u r a u c u n t e r r a i n l a c o l l a b o r a t i o n a v e c l u i de l a p a r t de q u i c o n q u e v e u t s a u v e r l a c i v i l i s a t i o n chretienne."27 The  c o m i n g t o power o f t h e P o p u l a r F r o n t  ensuing c i v i l of for  i n S p a i n and t h e  war was f o r t h e S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s h o r r i b l e  t h e t h r e a t w h i c h Communism p o s e d t o t h e C h u r c h .  proof  S p a i n was  them, " . . l e g r a n d s o i r de l a dgbauche a n t i c h r e t i e n n e , l a 28  grande o r g i e tales  sacrilege."  As t h e a t r o c i t y s t o r i e s p o u r e d i n -  o f m a s s a c r e s o f p r i e s t s and n u n s , o f w h o l e s a l e c o n f i s c a t i o n  and  d e s t r u c t i o n o f Church property  i n c l u d i n g p r i c e l e s s works o f  art  - t h e S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s came t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n  that the  C h u r c h was t h e c h i e f t a r g e t o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s .  With a  m o u n t i n g s e n s e o f h o r r o r and i n d i g n a t i o n , P i u s XI d e c l a r e d : "On d i r a i t . . . q u ' u n e s a t a n i q u e p r e p a r a t i o n a a l l u m e , e t p l u s v i v e e n c o r e , dans l ' E s p a g n e c e t t e flamme de h a i n e e t de p e r s e c u t i o n p l u s f e r o c e , r e s e r v e e , de l ' a v e u meme de s e s e n n e m i s , a l ' E g l i s e e t 5 l a religion catholique..."29 "How h a d t h i s h a p p e n e d ? "  Social Catholics  asked  themselves.  How c o u l d  C a t h o l i c S p a i n w h i c h , by t h e sword and by t h e word,  had  stood  a s t h e v a n g u a r d o f t h e C h u r c h now be a t t h e mercy o f  its  worst enemies?  A report  from t h e V a t i c a n  provided  an  -65explanation.  The c h i e f  cause o f t h i s  catastrophe l a y noti n  t h e C h u r c h a s some w o u l d h a v e i t , b u t i n t h e p r o g r e s s i v e 30 s e c u l a r i z a t i o n of the country. Catholics  c o u l d h a v e done more t o a d a p t  rialization it  While  o f Spain  not denying  that  to the increasing  i n order to maintain  t h e Church's  contributor Popular  tried  Front t a c t i c  to gam  improve t h e i r p o s i t i o n ening t h e i r  popular  a f o o t h o l d i n t h e government.  t h e Communists h a d a t t e m p t e d  a t t h e expense o f t h e i r  support.  f o l l o w e d soon a f t e r w i t h  I n t h i s way, t h e a u t h o r  a Soviet-type.  to  p a r t n e r s by  t h e y were p r e p a r i n g t h e way f o r a K e r e n s k y - t y p e  clear  Another  t o show t h a t t h e Communists h a d e x p l o i t e d t h e 31  Through c o n s t a n t a g i t a t i o n  of  influence,  was t h e g r o w t h o f M a s o n i c i n f l u e n c e s i n a l l s p h e r e s o f  a c t i v i t y w h i c h h a d o p e n e d t h e way f o r t h e Communists.  be  indust-  broad-  argued,  o f government t o  S p a i n made i t q u i t e  t o t h e E.S.P.'s c o n t r i b u t o r s t h a t e v e n t h e most  Catholic  n a t i o n s was n o t immune t o Communism. Although,  as has been n o t e d ,  w i t h Communism t h r o u g h o u t that  t h e E.S.P. was  t h e d e p r e s s i o n , i t was n o t u n t i l  t h e E.S.P. b e g a n t o a s k i t s e l f  threatened. systematic  While  brief  1935  w h e t h e r o r n o t Canada was  d i s c u s s i o n s h a d b e e n p u b l i s h e d , no  s t u d y was made u n t i l A r c h a m b a u l t w r o t e L a Menace 32  communiste a u C a n a d a . indicated  preoccupied  hisbelief  The t i t l e  of this  pamphlet  clearly  t h a t i t was a t h r e a t and he s e t o u t t o p r o v e  it.  He t r a c e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e C a n a d i a n Communist  from  i t s creation  i n 1922.  party  I n 1931, i t h a d b e e n f o r c e d b y t h e  a p p l i c a t i o n o f S e c t i o n 98 o f t h e C r i m i n a l Code t o t r a n s f o r m itself  into  t h e Canadian Labour Defense League.  According to  -66Archambault,  i t r e c e i v e d most o f i t s s u p p o r t  M e m b e r s h i p i n 1932-33 had  i n c r e a s e d from  from  immigrants.  13,000 t o 17,000  t h e number o f a f f i l i a t e d  members had  these a f f i l i a t e d  t h e W o r k e r s ' U n i t y L e a g u e , was  groups,  reached  cerned with the o r g a n i z a t i o n of i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f a more m i l i t a n t Another  a c h i e v e m e n t was  attitude  fact  that  unions  to a p a r t i c u l a r  t h e y were a b l e t o s u r v i v e w i t h  supported  From t h i s  Archambault had  the Komintern.  a c l o s e w a t c h on  the  workers.  the Canadian  or  no  that they  time onwards, t h e  Communists.  group.  were  E.S.P.  I n 1936,  as  p o i n t e d o u t , e v e n t h o u g h t h e Communist l e a d e r s h i p  been i m p r i s o n e d  i n 1931  f o r t h e i r p r o p a g a n d a work, upon .  r e l e a s e they had During  con-  ethnic  little  proof to the author  kept  of  and w i t h  amongst t h e  v i s i b l e means o f s u p p o r t was by  One  t h e e x i s t e n c e o f numerous s m a l l  n e w s p a p e r s , many o f w h i c h a p p e a l e d The  120,000.  and  continued t h e i r  the f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n  Communists had  subversive  o f 1935,  contested ridings  and  noted  that s i x  r e c e i v e d 30,000 v o t e s .  A t t h e o t h e r l e v e l s o f g o v e r n m e n t , t h e r e was M.L.A. i n M a n i t o b a  33  activities.  Archambault had  . .  one  and many m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l l o r s  Communist throughout  Canada. Other  Catholic  groups o r agencies  joined  Le D e v o i r , f o r example, p u b l i s h e d an a r t i c l e , reprinted,  describing  throughout  the world  the and,  s u c c e s s o f Communist of p a r t i c u l a r  i n the watch. which the  E.S.P.  propaganda  interest,  the success  Book C l u b i n r e a c h i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l s t h r o u g h o u t t h e 34 B r i t i s h Empire. Even t h e V a t i c a n ' s d a i l y newspaper, 1 ' O s s e r v a t o r e Romano c o n t r i b u t e d a most i n t e r e s t i n g a n a l y s i s  of  the L e f t  of  -67. . Communist a c t i v i t e s  . 35 i n Canada.  House o f Commons was Y o u t h C o n g r e s s had  debating  organized  a p p e a l e d t o the young not if  war  came.  committees the  country.  claimed led  shift  Spanish  and  Civil  of t h e i r  Canadian and  had  to r e s i s t c o n s c r i p t i o n War  activities  2,000 C a n a d i a n s had  same t i m e , t h e  of the  this  party  i t wrote  that  throughout  the V a t i c a n  gone t o S p a i n .  line  as  to the  source  Such  Communists were  the  concerned with  correct tactics  from o r g a n i z i n g the  immigrants to i n f i l t r a t i n g organize  E.S.P. was  p e r i o d , c o n t r i b u t o r s t o the  i t s emphasis  E.S.P. saw  reports  very  a continuous  C a t h o l i c s h e a r d Tim  against poverty,  unions.  recruitment  war  and  o f new  Union, the  of Nations  party the  reported  L e a g u e f o r P e a c e and  S o c i e t y o f Canada and  the  to  to e s t a b l i s h  members.  The  f o r a common f r o n t  Communists i n w i n n i n g o v e r s u c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s Liberties  follow.  Y o u t h work,  stressed i n order  Buck * s a p p e a l  f a s c i s m and  to  twists  i n t e r n a t i o n a l unions attempting  also being  programme f o r t h e  the  the  unemployed and  Canadian workers i n t o i n d u s t r i a l  A r c h a m b a u l t w r o t e , was  Social  a c a m p a i g n a g a i n s t war  C a t h o l i c s to b e l i e v e t h a t the  the  turns  During  defense budget, the  the  i n Canada. At  and  t h a t when  L o y a l i s t s were i n e x i s t e n c e  a result  that over  Social  active  As  the  to volunteer  Regarding the  to a i d the  It reported  success as  the  by  the  Civil  Democracy, t h e  League  Canadian Youth Congress  to  36 mention only the they  a few.  More t h r e a t e n i n g was  the  Communists o f g r o w i n g C a n a d i a n n a t i o n a l i s m . had  attempted  to place  themselves i n the  Mackenzie-Papineau r e b e l l i o n s but,  by  1938,  e x p l o i t a t i o n by For  sometime,  tradition  according  to  of  1'Osservatore  Romano, t h e y were e x p l o i t i n g  a strong central barriers  government i n o r d e r  t o the implementation  come t o power.  was t h a t w h e r e v e r t h e R o w e l l  t o remove  of their  The p r o o f o f t h i s ,  the sentiment f o r provincial  programme s h o u l d  according to this  article,  Commission s a t , "...tous l e s  B o a r d s o f T r a d e o u l e s U n i o n s du T r a v a i l ,  influences par l e s  c o m m u n i s t e s , o n t r e c l a m e un g o u v e r n e m e n t c e n t r a l legislation  unique du t r a v a i l . "  fort  i n this  explained  In f a c t ,  a g a i n s t the Padlock  the previous  of this  law.  a discussion  I t appeared t o t h e  S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s t h a t Communism was i n d e e d  a growing t h r e a t  the country.  The  E.S.P.'s c o l l a b o r a t o r s a l s o a s k e d  o r n o t Quebec was t h r e a t e n e d it  law o u t s i d e  autumn h a d s e e n many P r o t e s t a n t  r e p l a c e t h e r e g u l a r Sunday s e r v i c e w i t h  of the u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y  within  Their  a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e p o r t from t h e V a t i c a n ,  the intense agitation  o f Quebec. ministers  regard,  e t une  The Communists h a d n o t i g n o r e d  the a n t i p a t h y o f P r o t e s t a n t s f o r C a t h o l i c i s m e i t h e r . success  they  themselves whether  by Communism t o some e x t e n t .  When  came t o t h e i r home g r o u n d t h e S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s l e d b y  M s g r . G. G a u t h i e r  , sounded t h e a l a r m  tained  watch throughout  a t an e a r l y  date  and m a i n -  37 a tireless  Gauthier  was p a r t i c u l a r l y  t h e Communists. 1935  the depression.  Msgr.  alarmed by t h e propaganda a c t i v i t i e s o f  Nevertheless,  i t was A r c h a m b a u l t ' s  w h i c h d e a l t most t h o r o u g h l y  with  this  aspect o f the problem.  I n 1933, t h e r e were, a c c o r d i n g t o h i s s o u r c e s ,  10,000 a f f i l i a t e d members i n t h e M o n t r e a l the C a n a d i a n Labour Defense League c l a i m e d  study i n  area. 200  1,200 a c t i v e a n d 38 At that  time,  French-speaking  members. at  To  a t t r a c t more F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s ,  i t had  resolved  i t s c o n v e n t i o n t o de-emphasize i t s a n t i - r e l i g i o u s  propaganda, t o promote b i l i n g u a l i s m p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h i n of i t s a f f i l i a t e s  such  as t h e u n i o n t r y i n g  some  to organize with  some s u c c e s s t h e l o g g e r s o f t h e Rouyn-Noranda a r e a , and make more u s e  of French  i n i t s propaganda a c t i v i t i e s .  documents w h i c h A r c h a m b a u l t it  appeared  that  - with a Catholic  anti-war sentiment  f o l l o w i n g year Archambault contested  the  n  o f y o u n g F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g w o r k e r s and made t o e x p l o i t  From  p l a c e d i n a p p e n d i x to h i s study,  a Communist y o u t h o r g a n i z a t i o n was  albeit unsuccessfully  to  noted  three Montreal r i d i n g s  one  that  competing  f o r the  attempts  allegiance were b e i n g  i n F r e n c h Canada.  that and  The  t h e Communists had  -  circulated  had a  French  39 language  v e r s i o n o f t h e i r programme.  concluded, d i d not j u s t i f y Social their  Catholics  These f a c t s ,  a complacent  c o u l d not a f f o r d  s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t Communism.  Archambault  attitude. t o be  complacent  F o r , i t was  clear  in  t o them,  as M s g r . G a u t h i e r p u t i t , t h a t : "La r e l i g i o n e s t une p u i s s a n c e d ' o r d r e . . . e l l e c u l t i v e des e s p g r a n c e s s u r n a t u r e l l e s q u i ne s o n t pas i n u t i l e s p o u r f a i r e a c c e p t e r l e s m i s e r e s e t p a r f o i s l e s d u r e t e s de l a v i e . . . S u p p r i m e z D i e u .. e t l e p r e m i e r p r o b l e m e q u i se pose devant 1 ' e s p r i t , c ' e s t l e ,redoutable p r o b l e m e de l ' i n i g a l i t e " des c o n d i t i o n s humaines....' H e n c e , t h e Communists c o u l d n e v e r goals u n t i l  t h e y had  other Social  achieve t h e i r  d e s t r o y e d the Church.  C a t h o l i c s were a l e r t  t o any  revolutionary  Archambault  anti-religious  and mani-  41 testations. Spanish C i v i l  I t appears, War  and  however, t h a t  i t was  t h e a n t i - P a d l o c k Law  d u r i n g the  agitation  that  the  Social be  Catholics  f e l t most t h r e a t e n e d .  s e e n , huge d e m o n s t r a t i o n s  propagandists  i n Montreal.  English-speaking middle attitudes  lead  i tinto  Social Catholics,  a g a i n s t the presence  of Loyalist  M s g r . G a u t h i e r p u b l i c l y warned t h e  class  against letting  i t s anti-Catholic  a n a l l i a n c e w i t h t h e Communists.  i n c a l m e r moments, a g r e e d w i t h  t h a t the devotion o f French-Canadians strong.  There were, as w i l l  N e v e r t h e l e s s , they a l s o  The  Archambault  t o t h e Church  was  still  feared that the a c t i v i t i e s of  t h e Communists were h a v i n g some e f f e c t upon t h e a v e r a g e French-speaking  Catholic.  Archambault  declared that  t h e r e were  some who c l a i m e d t o b e , " . . . a l a f o i s communistes e t c a t h o l i q u e s . On a meme e n t e n d u un o u v r i e r f a i r e c e t a v e u n a i f : 'Je p r i e t o u s l e s s o i r s p o u r que l e communisme arrive!'"43 I t was e a s y t o choose  t o f o r e s e e t h e day, Archambault  between t h e Church  w a r n e d , when  forced  and Communism,  "„ M a i c o n s e i l l e s p a r l a m i s e r e , p a r l e s abus s c a n d a l e u x d'un c a p i t a l i s m e o p p r e s s e u r , p a r l e u r i g n o r a n c e de l a d o c t r i n e s o c i a l e de l ' E g l i s e , p a r une p r o p a g a n d e de p l u s en p l u s h a b i l e e t t e n a c e , c e s t r a v a i l l e u r s abandonnent l e u r r e l i g i o n pour 1 ' e V a n g i l e soviitique." If  i t was t r u e ,  a s was g e n e r a l l y  speaking p o p u l a t i o n remained  loyal  i n Quebec s u s t a i n e d Communism? w r i t i n g s o f such Rolland  that  t o the Church,  the French-  what  forces  Msgr. G a u t h i e r s u g g e s t e d  l e f t - w i n g French authors  and M a l r a u x  intellectuals  admitted,  had had an impact  as G i d e ,  Barbusse,  upon some F r e n c h  - a f a c t which Archambault  that the  Canadian  d e s c r i b e d as s u r p r i s i n g  44 and most d a n g e r o u s . felt  t o be s y m p a t h e t i c .  some w o r k e r s ,  as has been noted,  B u t t h e most f e r t i l e  soil  were  f o r Communism,  a c c o r d i n g t o A r c h a m b a u l t , was  the immigrant  g r o u p s , an  increas45  i n g l y more i m p o r t a n t segment o f M o n t r e a l ' s p o p u l a t i o n . P o v e r t y - s t r i c k e n b e f o r e coming  t o Canada, t h e y had been  e v e n more m i s e r a b l e by t h e d e p r e s s i o n . standing of the t r a d i t i o n s were f u l l y  exposed  and  very d i f f i c u l t ,  them e f f e c t i v e l y . t o be  indifferent  o t h e r h a n d , had  The  scattered  therefore,  Catholic  to their  Catholics  f o r the Church  suffering.  established  The  newspapers,  t h a t t h e y were i n c r e a s i n g l y to their  the l a r g e s t  cause.  under-  of the country,they amongst  As  It  to provide for  F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g C a t h o l i c s , by and  immigrants  immigrants,  little  throughout the c i t y .  large,  Communists, on  some s c h o o l s  clubs designed t o appeal to such groups. Archambault  t h e y had  institutions  to the d e p r e s s i o n .  them were f o r t h e most p a r t was  As  rendered  and  I t appeared successful  seemed  the social  to  i n winning  f o r the non-Catholic  g r o u p among them by  f a r was  Jewish.  This  group, Archambault s t a t e d , "...dans t o u s l e s p a y s 1'armee r e V o l u t i o n n a i r e p e u t c o m p t e r , s u r t o u t s i e l l e s ' a t t a q u e §. d e s i n s t i t u t i o n s c h r e t i e n n e s , sur l e s sympathies e t meme l ' a i d e e f f e c t i v e de c e g r o u p e n a t u r e l * l e m e n t e n c l i n . p a r s e s a t a v i s m e s , aux id£es subversives. He  added  members.  i t had a l r e a d y p r o v i d e d The  s t r o n g base  t h e Communists w i t h many  Communists a p p e a r e d ,  from which  to  t o t h e E.S.P., t o h a v e a  expand.  Whenever t h e S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s midst of t h i s  anti-Communist  paused,  campaign  "Vos  avertissements  i n c e n d i e s que  vous  auriez  n'ont-ils le plaisir  therefore,  i n the  t o ask each o t h e r ,  C a r d i n a l V i l l e n e u v e d i d of Archambault not,  active  i n 1935,  et§ que  whether  as or  pour a l l u m e r des  d'iteindre  ensuite  aussi  -72aisement", they his  could only  own q u e s t i o n ,  e s t urgent  that  answer, as t h e C a r d i n a l answered  " l e f e u en e s t a l l u m € p a r m i n o u s ,  de l e c i r c o n s c r i r e ,  p u i s q u ' o n ne p e u t e s p ^ r e r  i l d'ici  47 longtemps l ' e t e i n d r e . " Only a f o o l  could  ignore  were f o r t y Communist  centers  them F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g ,  while  reported a fool  i n Montreal,  ignore  was t h e r e  seemed i l l o g i c a l i n Quebec. that u n t i l  the experience  Msgr. G a u t h i e r the world  admittedly  should  of police 48  o f other  deux f o i s  Only  countries.  A t another  activities  h a d come t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n  became c o m p l e t e l y  q u i exigent  christianized,  l'une  The  level, i t  be no Communist  w o u l d a l w a y s b e , "...une o p p o s i t i o n i r r e d u c t i b l e croyances,  none o f  802 m e e t i n g s .  f o r anyone t o s e e .  that there  i n 1934, t h e r e  i n 1936, t h e c h i e f  t h a t t h e Communists h a d h e l d  could  evidence  the figures:  entre  earlier there deux  e t l ' a u t r e l e don t o t a l  49 de  l'homme".  faced  F o r h i s p a r t , Archambault agreed  a formidable  challenge.  s t a k e was " . . . p e u t - e t r e , ce  t h a t the Church  He b e l i e v e d t h a t what was a t  l ' a v e n i r meme d u c a t h o l i c i s m e s u r t o u t  continent." I t was i n t h i s  p s y c h o l o g i c a l atmosphere t h a t t h e C o - o p e r a t i v e  Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n the  Social  had  already  Catholics.  thrust i t s e l f As i n t h e c a s e  s e t the tone.  upon t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s  o f Communism, Pope P i u s XI  He d e c l a r e d  t h a t much o f what t h e S o c i a l i s t s  i n Q u a d r a g e s i m o anno  s a i d was t r u e and t h a t t h e y h a d  become v e r y m o d e r a t e i n a i m and method. for cooperation  of  Y e t , t h e r e was no b a s i s  b e t w e e n S o c i a l i s m and C a t h o l i c i s m f o r t h e f o r m e r  " . . . r e p o s e s u r une t h i o r i e de l a s o c i e t e q u i l u i e s t p r o p r e e t q u i e s t i n c o n c i l i a b l e avec le christianisme authentique. Socialisme r e l i g i e u x , s o c i a l i s m e c h r i t i e n s o n t des contradictions: p e r s o n n e ne p e u t e t r e en meme temps bon c a t h o l i q u e e t v r a i s o c i a l i s t e . " When, t h e r e f o r e , a C a n a d i a n p o l i t i c a l claiming  socialist principles,  E.S.P. c a l l e d upon a p r o m i s i n g  p a r t y , t h e C.C.F.,  pro-  b e g a n t o emerge i n 1932-1933, young Dominican p r i e s t ,  the  Georges  . . . . 51 L e v e s q u e t o examine i t c r i t i c a l l y . Father  L e v e s q u e began h i s s t u d y  o f t h e C.C.F. by  asking:  52 " m g r i t e - t - i l notre  attention?"  "...sont  des  decides,  qui priparent leur  the  f r o m B. the  C.  establish  of  Social  Levesque noted  country  Reconstruction  was  guidance but  intellectuals.  At  obtained  labour  groups  s o c i e t y , i t had  f o r growth.  according  to the  same t i m e ,  also strengthening  The  author,  adopted a  les 1932,  programme  the League f o r  n o t o n l y p r o v i d i n g t h e C.C.F.  LeVesque c o n c l u d e d  potential  the  trying  I t had  t h a t i n December,  C h u r c h m i n i s t e r s had  t o t h a t o f t h e C.C.F.  theoretical  The  " . . . c e r t a i n s g r o u p e s qu'on p o u r r a i t a p p e l e r  assembly o f U n i t e d  similar  bien  annies."  o f a g r a r i a n and  Among a l l segments o f  g r o u p e s de m e c o n t e n t s . " an  des  an o r g a n i z a t i o n .  o f f o u r t e e n M.P.'s and to Montreal.  support  campagne d e p u i s  c o m m i t t e e s i n most p a r t s o f t h e  r e c r u i t members and support  declared,  hommes t r d s i n t e l l i g e n t s , tr§s a c t i f s e t  C.C.F. a l r e a d y had to  I t s l e a d e r s , he  i t s appeal  t h a t t h e C.C.F. had  c o n d i t i o n s a p p e a r e d t o be  with to a  great  ripe,  for  -74"  I l p r e s e n t e a une f o u l e q u i s o u f f r e d e p u i s l o n g t e m p s l e s p l u s d u r e s p r i v a t i o n s , q u i commence 1 s i m p a t i e n t e r e t a d £ s e s p £ r e r des v i e u x p a r t i s j u s q u ' i c i i m p u i s s a n t s S l a s o u l a g e r , un programme q u i a t o u t l ' a t t r a i t de l a n o u v e a u t g , q u i s e resume en q u e l q u e s f o r m u l e s s i m p l i s t e s e t c l a i r e s , q u i p r o m e t a b r e v e £ c h e a n c e remede S t o u s l e s maux e t q u i du r e s t e c o n t i e n t b e a u c o u p de bonnes choses." 1  I t was  important,  should  adopt towards i t .  stated  that  CCF.  was  the  therefore,  Church, or  the  Church.  to the  to the  Does t h e  class  CCF.  to  achieving S.  British  i t , he  an  a true  absolute  i t s goals.  To  CCF.  was  an "  Socialist  article  support t h i s had  the  p a r t i e s , condemned  by  of  three  party? r e l i a n c e upon v i o l e n t  the  CCF.  d i d not  He  feared,  faith.  claim,  stated  ever prevented  t h r o u g h c o n s t i t u t i o n a l means. like  not  by  The  i f i t e v e r became t h e  Woodsworth, i t s l e a d e r ,  come i f t h e  LeVesque  tolerated  t o a c h i e v e i t s ends.  claimed,  Catholics  , LeVesque asked, p o s s e s s the  Levesque admitted t h a t  not  whether o r  Labour P a r t y ,  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , the  class conflict  t h i s was  resort  J.  first  conflict,  violent that  to the  to consider  European S o c i a l i s t  main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f As  In making such a d e c i s i o n ,  C a t h o l i c s had  more a k i n  the  t o d e c i d e what a t t i t u d e  advocate  however,  party  might  s o l e method  he  alleged  that violence  from a c h i e v i n g  of  that might  i t s aims  Such a s t a t e m e n t , t o LeVesque,  ultimatum,  c ' e s t comme s ' i l d i s a i t : Nous v o u s a p p o r t o n s un remede, i l f a u t a b s o l u m e n t que v o u s 1 * a c c e p t i e z . . . J e s a i s b i e n que p o u r t e n t e r d ' e v i t e r 1 ' a c c u s a t i o n d ' e t r e r e V o l u t i o n n a i r e , M. Woodsworth a f a i t r e m a r q u e r e n s u i t e que l a v i o l e n c e i n e v i t a b l e s u r l a q u e l l e p o r t a i t s a menace ne s e r a i t pas l e f a i t de lui-meme n i de son g r o u p e , m a i s l ' o e u v r e de f o r c e s r e V o l u t i o n n a i r e s ^ t r a n g e r e s a eux. Echappatoire, nous s e m b l e - t - i l ; comment s o u t e n i r s e r i e u s e m e n t q u ' e n d e h o r s de l a C C F . , l e peuple c a n a d i e n s o i t s i mur p o u r l a r e v o l u t i o n ? " 3 5  was  -75Drawing e x t e n s i v e l y of  upon s t a t e m e n t s made by  Parliament, Livesque pointed  edly  gave t o the  revolutionary  to the  Conservative  members  s u p p o r t Woodsworth  O.B.U. i n 1919  and  to  the  allegapparent 54  M a r x i s m o f Angus M a c l n n i s t o e x p o s e t h e  true  F u r t h e r m o r e , he  argued, even i f t h i s p a r t y  denunciation  c a p i t a l i s m and  of  nature of  was  i t s constant  not  the  C.C.F..  violent, i t s  demand f o r  socio-  e c o n o m i c change m i g h t b r i n g  about a s i t u a t i o n which i t c o u l d  control.  a l l the  lacked  This,  t o him,  a firm foundation  Secondly, the property all-out go  so  right  was  was,  spiritual  a t t i t u d e of  But  t o own  he  believed  that  private property stated  property  was  required  i t and  where i t was  appeared  t o him  that  Hence, he  to p r i v a t e Finally,  a  fact.  He  t o promote the u e u s e des  could la  only  party  the  to the the  C.C.F.  principles. private  was  split  majority  between  which d i d  C.C.F. w o u l d so m o d i f y  way  not  that  that to  the  the  serve  prepared  not the  eliminate i t .  expropriation  extent  only  concluded  the  of  private  common good i t .  It  to accept  C.C.F. o p p o s e d  such the  property.  conception  social",  that of  i f the  et  i t had  not  de  coramunaute humaine n'a  presented  that  i t had  the  de  one  about  a programme  designed  "...la 55  vert-  publique."  c h o s e s e t non  conclude from t h i s  have  C.C.F. h o p e d t o b r i n g  i s t o promote  l a prosperity  "...riformes  C.C.F. d i d n o t  society in principle,  common g o o d , t h a t  citoyens  o f f e r e d was  The  the  argued t h a t w h i l e the  "nouvel ordre  moral  to p r a c t i c a l l y  C.C.F. was  LeVesque f e l t  a materialistic in  the  as  as  C.C.F. t o w a r d s  the  that  legitimate only  limitations.  and  l i k e M a c l n n i s and  Rerum novarum c l e a r l y  right  the  to LeVesque, u n c l e a r .  socializers  far.  of  more l i k e l y  not  vie  A l l that i t  personnes."  C.C.F. assumed,  ete" c o n s t i t u t e q u ' e n vue  du  He  "...que seul  -76bien-etre"  - a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , according  t o Pius  XI, of true  56 Socialism.  To o b j e c t i o n s  that  t h e C.C.F. was c o n c e r n e d  w i t h s o c i o - e c o n o m i c r e f o r m , he a n s w e r e d t h a t could of  n o t be c a r r i e d o u t w i t h o u t a l t e r i n g  society.  these  only  changes  the moral  foundation  Hence, t h e C.C.F. h a d a d u t y t o c l a r i f y i t s  programme on t h i s  point.  As t h e d e p r e s s i o n  ing  t o t h e Pope, by t h e d e c l i n e o f m o r a l i t y ,  pay  some a t t e n t i o n t o m o r a l r e f o r m .  t h e s e two p o i n t s  was f u r t h e r p r o o f  was c a u s e d ,  accord-  t h e C.C.F. h a d t o  O t h e r w i s e , i t s s i l e n c e on t o LeVesque o f i t s m a t e r i a l -  ism. On t h e b a s i s  of this  critique,  L e v e s q u e was a b l e t o  c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e C.C.F.: " . . . e n t r e dans c e t t e c a t e g o r i e de s o c i a l i s m e 'attenue" e t m o i n s i n t r a n s i g e a n t ' , d o n t p a r l e Q u a d r a g e s i m o anno, m a i s q u i r e s t e e n c o r e a s s e z v r a i s o c i a l i s m e p o u r ne p a s m i r i t e r ' 1 ' a d h e s i o n des catholiques."57 He added t h a t clearly there ing  i f t h e C.C.F. abandoned t h i s p o s i t i o n o r , i f i t  demonstrated t h a t  t h i s was n o t i t s t r u e p o s i t i o n ,  w o u l d be no r e a s o n t o r e s t r a i n C a t h o l i c s  in i t .  from p a r t i c i p a t -  T h e r e was much i n t h e C.C.F. programme, he  t h a t C a t h o l i c s would f i n d  attractive.  felt,  The f i r s t o f t h e s e was,  " l e p r i m a t de l'homme dans l ' e c o n o m i e , c ' e s t S - d i r e l a s u b o r d i n a t i o n e f f e c t i v e e t complete des b i e n s , de l e u r p r o d u c t i o n e t de l e u r d i s t r i b u t i o n aux b e s o i n s h u m a i n s . I c i l e s Co-ops sont l o i n d'etre m a t e r i a l i s t e s , i l s l e sont m o i n s que n o s c a p i t a l i s t e s d e v e r g o n d e s . " 5 8 Other aspects  included  t h e C.C.F.'s i n s i s t e n c e o n a p l a n n e d  economy, i t s e m p h a s i s on t h e common good o v e r p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s and  i t s desire  t o broaden t h e scope o f s o c i a l  legislation.  -77While Levesque i n s i s t e d conclusions,  Msgr. G a u t h i e r  a stronger  on  the  felt  tentativeness  justified  taking  on  L e v e s q u e ' s c r i t i q u e w i t h o u t a c k n o w l e d g i n g i t and,  written, how  this  issue.  Drawing  i n t o account developments s i n c e  Msgr. G a u t h i e r u n d e r t o o k t o  they should view the  his  following  in  same t i m e , t a k i n g  p o s i t i o n on  the  of  "direct" his  year  heavily at  the  i t had  been  f l o c k as  C.C.F. i n a sermon w h i c h t h e  to  E.S.P.  59 published.  A l t h o u g h Msgr. G a u t h i e r  painted  word p i c t u r e s  he  vivid  the  sermon  t h r e a t w h i c h Communism  posed,  declared that, " . . . c e n ' e s t pas s o u s s a forme a b s o l u e e t b r u t a l e que l e communisme e s t et c r a i n d r e en ce p a y s ... l e s o c i a l i s m e - c e communisme a l o n g u e t c h e a n c e e s t au c o n t r a i r e a r e d o u t e r . . . . " 6 0  His of  p u r p o s e , he the  explained,  Canadian h i e r a r c h y  The  declaration,  and  Socialism  a  of  in delivering his  specific  included, as his  the  according  was  h i s d u t y as  o p p o s e d i t by  went on stronger  t o him,  had  repeatedly  in political  A r c h b i s h o p and that  pointing  to  i t was the  only  party.  to r e i t e r a t e  d e c l a r a t i o n had  terms.  he  points  diocese.  s a i d , which used that  matters but as  not  citizen.  the  this  i t was  simply He  not to  rejected  Quebec h i e r a r c h y  directed against of  named  a l l f o r m s were  stressed  From t h i s p o i n t the  declaration  needs o f h i s  c r i t i c i s m which the  P r a i r i e M e s s e n g e r , had 61 the  joint  condemned Communism  Because the  He  intervene  C.C.F. c o m p l a i n t  branch of  specific  oneorganization,  approval.  purpose to  p a p e r , The  to the  i n general.  there  out  to apply the  g r o u p i n o r d e r t o make s u r e t h a t  a sign of  carry  was  Catholic the  departure,  w h i c h L e V e s q u e had  which news-  Saskatchewan Gauthier  made b u t  in  -78Gauthier  d i d e l a b o r a t e , however, on  o f t h e C.C.F. w h i c h L e V e s q u e had manifest  a f t e r h i s s t u d y had  Gauthier c r i t i c i z e d On  one  on  the r i g h t  the  hand, he  fact  t o own  aspects  i g n o r e d o r w h i c h had  been p u b l i s h e d .  t h e C.C.F.'s s t a n d on  felt  certain  t h a t the Regina  In  become  particular,  individual  Manifesto's  rights.  declaration  p r o p e r t y among o t h e r t h i n g s went a g a i n s t  t h a t , " . . . l e s pays q u i r e s i s t e n t  p r o p a g a n d e communiste  s o n t c e u x 5u  l e mieux a l a  l a petite propriete est l e  62 p l u s repandue."  On  t h e o t h e r h a n d , he  accused  t h e C.C.F. o f  being too t o l e r a n t . S p e c i f i c a l l y , he q u e s t i o n e d : " . . . l e s s y m p a t h i e s t r o p b r u y a n t e s de l a C.C.F. p o u r 1 ' e x p e r i e n c e des S o v i e t s ? Les commentaires des Co-Ops a u t o u r de 1 ' a r t i c l e 98 ne s o n t pas moins s u g g e s t i f s . E t p o u r q u o i c e s p r o t e c t e u r s de 1 ' o r d r e n a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e n n e n t - i l s en f a v e u r des communistes? E t p o u r q u o i 1 ' a r t i c l e 12 du programme de R e g i n a r g c l a m e - t - i l l a l i b e r t y de p a r o l e e t d ' a s s e m b l e e p o u r t o u s , s a n s e x c e p t i o n s evidemment p o u r l e s communistes r e v o l u t i o n n a i r e s ? " A n o t h e r a s p e c t on w h i c h G a u t h i e r d i v e r g e d was  t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e C.C.F.'s a t t i t u d e  t h e C h u r c h and with  of French  i t s attitude  Canadians.  to education.  t h e C.C.F.'s programme was simply  upon r a c i a l  smacked o f t h e  Socialist  especially  Article  or m i n o r i t y r i g h t s " . infamous E r f u r t  P a r t y w h i c h had  concerned  To  9,  he  of  concerned  felt  that  pointed  out,  without Gauthier,  programme o f t h e  declared, "religion,  Whereas t h e o t h e r p o l i t i c a l overly  was  L i k e L e V e s q u e , he  too vague.  Levesque  towards the r i g h t s  s t a t e d " t h e amendment o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n  infringing article  He  from  this  German  affaire privee".  parties,  he  admitted,  with m o r a l i t y , they  at  least,  might not  be  -79" . . . s a d a p t e n t aux i n s t i t u t i o n s e t a b l i e s , e t p a r l e u r s chefs, maintes f o i s , a notre connaissance, i l s o n t f a i t du m o i n s p r o f e s s i o n de s p i r i t u a l i s m e e t de christianisme".63 1  He  feared  that  legislative what t h e  the  CCF.  councils  and  would a b o l i s h  the clear  F r e n c h Canada w o u l d t h e n be  s a n s d e f e n s e dans l e g r a n d t o u t that  Senate,  p r o v i n c i a l r i g h t s w i t h o u t making  a l t e r n a t i v e s were.  discover  the  these reformers  c a n a d i e n . . . " and  "... f o n t  bon  might  marche" de  "...  soon  nos 64  institutions,  de  nos  d r o i t s e t de  Msgr. G a u t h i e r , u n l i k e from r e a c h i n g  l e p r e c u r s e u r de the  notion  that  more l i k e l y , line  had  he  the  Socialism  alter  said, that  t h e y w o u l d be  the  way  no  a t t i t u d e of  are  sera  to the to  ranged  from the  C.C.F..  toujours  fate of  que  t o beware  bring  the  He  of  It  To  was  under-  Russian  about p o l i t i c a l  change  Bolsheviks.  noticeable.  t o w a r d s Communism  there  the the  similarities  E.S.P. drew upon a g r e a t e r  than to c a p i t a l i s m .  c a l c u l a t e d attempt  the  There e x i s t e d  threat  of  and  capitalism,  In b o t h c a s e s ,  followed.  i n considering  to t h i s threat  the  i t s victims.  Pope o u t -  i n both ended.  Communism  v a r i e t y of  Consequently i t s pamphlets r e c o r d e d a g r e a t e r actions  shrink  b e c o m i n g members.  t h e i r a t t i t u d e towards  i n emphasis but  the  i t by  Social Catholics  d i r e c t i o n s t o be  doubt t h a t ,  Socialism,  f o r the  i s compared t o  differences is  pointed  ne  warned C a t h o l i c s  they could  some s i m i l a r i t i e s lined  t o the n a t u r e o f  "le socialisme  which i n attempting  opened the If  as  communisme" and  t h i s a s s e r t i o n , he  bourgeoisie  F a t h e r Levesque, d i d not  firm conclusions  expressed h i s b e l i e f that,  la Constitution fgdirale."  There and  sources.  v a r i e t y of  These  cases  re-  reactions  to d i s c r e d i t the  CCF.  to  -80th e near-hysteria  of  the  Spanish c i v i l  noticeable  d i f f e r e n c e was  campaign.  I t had  as  p r o v i n c i a l developments.  well  as  been a g r e a t e r priest  the  scope of  war  period.  Another  the  anti-Communist  t o t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t i n t e r n a t i o n a l and  degree of  national  There appears a l s o to  a g r e e m e n t on  this issue.  As  have  a Jesuit  wrote:  " l a r e s t a u r a t i o n de l ' o r d r e s o c i a l s e r a i t i m p o s s i b l e s i on l a i s s a i t p e n ^ t r e r dans l e s c l a s s e s p o p u l a i r e s l e v e n i n de l a d o c t r i n e boleheviste."65 Thus, i t d i d not trying  to maintain the  triumph of  the  collectivist As  matter i f the status  E v e n as  and  quo  or  were  conservatives  reformers hoping to  see  S o c i a l C a t h o l i c programme; t h e y a g r e e d t h a t  doctrines  were t h e  a r e s u l t , they tended to  within  contributors  between the  greatest  ignore  the  Communist and  enemies o f  differences  Socialist  they adopted a s c h o l a r l y approach, the  never questioned  the  hope made them b l i n d .  r e l i a b i l i t y of  the  the  these  Church.  existing  movements. Social  t h e i r sources.  Catholics  Fear  and  -81-  Chapter The  Roots  of the C a t h o l i c  I f most S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s collectivism was  i n i t s various  t o be t h e i r  system?  This  the S o c i a l  attitude  question  Catholics  they attempted c r e a t e d by  in bits  f o r m s was  towards  their  and p i e c e s .  for  i t was  its  orientation  its  actions.  C a t h o l i c s was  solutions  social  to the  their basic  fundamental views  c a n o n l y be  accumulated  But the t a s k i s n e v e r t h e l e s s n e c e s s a r y that  problem t h a t  gave t h e E.S.P.'s  controlled  c o n f r o n t e d most o f t h e  problem or to d i m i n i s h  i t s importance.  One  felt  that  the c a p i t a l i s t  evidence of the b e n e f i c i a l t o c o n v i n c e him.  effects  the  the  contained  of capitalism  t o World victim  t o o much f o r these  I f t h e r e were a b u s e s , t h e y were more  than i n North America.  These  the  author, f o r instance,  s y s t e m was  North America  that  to dismiss  t h e d e p r e s s i o n t o many c a u s e s , e s p e c i a l l y  o f B o l s h e v i k propaganda.  i n Europe  tried  of  Social  they should deal with the obvious f a c t  Some o f t h e e a r l y p a m p h l e t s  He  thought  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s  depression.  I."*"  too  assumptions  s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s y s t e m had b r o u g h t a b o u t  War  doctrines,  problems  the e x i s t i n g  attributed  what  socio-economic  t h e y were u s u a l l y  task to discuss  and u l t i m a t e l y ,  how  that  the main t h r e a t ,  the e x i s t i n g  Because  these assumptions  first  t o agree  f o c u s s e s a t t e n t i o n on t h e m o t i v e s o f  the depression.  The  appeared  to develop Catholic  length,  Programme  a s , g u i d e d by t h e C h u r c h ' s  preoccupied with this a t any  VI  abuses,  lies  noticeable  i n any c a s e ,  would  -82n o t be c u r e d b y Communism.  In f a c t ,  he c l a i m e d t h a t  i t was  the f a i l u r e  o f t h e S o v i e t U n i o n t o r e p a y huge l o a n s t o German  and B r i t i s h  banks which  While  caused a g e n e r a l economic  few were s o e x p l i c i t  linked  anti-capitalism  about  it,  Catholics  t o pro-communism.  O t h e r commentators a d o p t e d Perrier  some S o c i a l  collapse.  summarized t h i s  a variation of this  theme.  position best i n discussing L'Encyclique  2 " Q u a d r a g e s i m o anno".  While admitting  that the c a p i t a l i s t  s y s t e m h a d "...une g r a n d e  r e s p o n s a b i l i t e dans l a t r i s t e  p r e s e n t e . . . . " , he s t a t e d  that  i t was u n j u s t t o s e e i t a s t h e  s o l e c a u s e , a s many were wont t o d o . "le  travail  ne p e u t p a s p l u s  this  situation.  Leo X I I I ' s d i c t u m  s e p a s s e r du c a p i t a l ,  c a p i t a l p e u t s e p a s s e r du t r a v a i l " , in  situation  He c o n t e n d e d  que l e  i n h i s opinion, held  that  a v e u g l e " a g a i n s t c a p i t a l i s m would  that  "une l u t t e  produce  true  etroite et  g r e a t e r m i s e r y and  unemployment. A few w a n t e d t o r e s t r a i n moral  reasons.  anti-capitalistic  Quebec's b i s h o p s , i n a n a l y z i n g  t h e d e p r e s s i o n , j u d g e d i t t o be " p i r i l l e u x attack  indiscriminately  while ignoring  the causes o f  et injuste" to  a l l who h a d a c c u m u l a t e d  t h e many s e r v i c e s  emotions f o r  some w e a l t h  these people performed f o r  society. Another was a r e f u s a l individual  a t t i t u d e , which  some o f t h e E.S.P. g r o u p  t o r e a c h any h a r d c o n c l u s i o n s ,  o r t h e group  s h o u l d do.  Minville,  adopted,  as t o what t h e f o r example,  after  d e m o n s t r a t i n g i n a most l o g i c a l manner t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f capitalism  f o r the depression concluded with t h i s  statement:  -83"Le c a p i t a l i s m e n a r i e n en s o i q u i c o n t r e d i . s e l a m o r a l e . . . L e c a p i t a l i s t e a m i e u x §. f a i r e que d ' e n t a s s e r des r i c h e s s e s . I I a un r o l e s o c i a l S jouer. S i un j o u r , i l l e comprend, l a . p r o s p e r i t i e t l a p a i x r g g n e r o n t dans l e monde." 1  With a d i f f e r e n t contributor  emphasis  claimed  i n f l u e n c e because  but with  t h a t t h e economic  " l a crise  A l l groups, whether  communists,  were s e e k i n g  As  to subordinate  the only  the  a  liberating  liberals,  s o c i a l i s t s or  t o a l t e r the dominant v a l u e  personal  had t o o f f e r ,  attract  present  was  interests  t o t h e common  system which i n t e g r a t e d the best which  philosophies would  crisis  a European  r e v i l e au monde l a v o i e q u i y  mene  order  t h e same r e s u l t ,  system i n good.  these  C a t h o l i c s o c i a l d o c t r i n e , he was  i n c r e a s i n g l y a l l t h o s e who  were s e e k i n g  sure,  changes i n  situation.  Much l e s s  c o m p l a c e n t was  another group o f  contributors  5  t o t h e E.S.P. .  One  member o f t h i s  financial  abuses which had  concluded  that the best  financiers.  upon p e o p l e was  the  o f t h e Communists were t h e  t h a t one e f f e c t  o f monopoly  capitalism  t o make them more s u s c e p t i b l e t o Communist  propaganda.  The b e s t  L e V e s q u e who  argued t h a t a l l measures  legal  analyzing  l e d t o t h e c o l l a p s e o f t h e economy,  allies  Another f e l t  group, a f t e r  expression  of this  r e p r e s s i o n w o u l d be u s e l e s s  r o o t c a u s e s o f mass s u f f e r i n g c a u s e s , he a s k e d , e x i s t  feeling  from propaganda  against  And  to  Communism u n l e s s  were e l i m i n a t e d .  i n Quebec?  came f r o m  answered:  Did these  the  -84"Pour s'en c o n v a i n c r e , i l s u f f i t d a v o i r l u l e s r e v e l a t i o n s h o n t e u s e s que nous o n t apportees c e r t a i n s r a p p o r t s de 1'enq.ue.te S t e v e n s ; d a v o i r v i s i t s , a u t o u r de nos g r a n d s m a g a s i n s r e g o r g e a n t de m a r c h a n d i s e s , c e r t a i n s t a u d i s ou t a n t de nos bonnes f a m i l i e s s o u f f r e n t l e s p l u s d u r e s p r i v a t i o n s ; d a v o i r v u , aux p o r t e s de nos u s i n e s . . . , c e s l o n g u e s f i l e s de chomeurs...; d ' a v o i r r e n c o n t r t , s u r des t e r r e s p o u r t a n t v a s t e s e t r i c h e s , des cultivateurs qui, malgri leur t r a v a i l et leur bonne v o l o n t e , ne p o u v a i e n t p a r v e n i r S y subsister." 1  1  1  T h e s e men  became i n c r e a s i n g l y b i t t e r  capitalism  f o r p r o v i d i n g the breeding  Where d i d A r c h a m b a u l t 1933  in their  that u n t i l  the  stand  on  denunciation  ground of  this  of  Communism.  issue?  He  wrote i n  a p p e a r a n c e o f Q u a d r a g e s i m o anno t h e a t t i t u d e  o f C a t h o l i c s towards the  e x i s t i n g order  "...sans e t r e  louable  7 pouvait  i.l a rigueur s'explique".  were o b s c u r e and f e a r t h a t an Since on  the  s o l u t i o n s were n o t  anti-capitalist  P i u s XI  had  The  obvious.  There  a t t i t u d e would worsen the  s p o k e n t h e r e c o u l d no  the p a r t of C a t h o l i c s .  causes of the d i s a s t e r  I t was  l o n g e r be  any  t h e Pope h i m s e l f ,  was situation.  hesitation  Archambault  e m p h a s i z e d , who had w r i t t e n : " I I y a v i o l a t i o n de 1 ' o r d r e . . . q u a n d l e c a p i t a l n'engage l e s o u v r i e r s . . . q u ' e n vue d ' e x p l o i t e r H son gre e t 5 p r o f i t p e r s o n n e l l ' i n d u s t r i e e t l e regime economique t o u t e n t i e r , . . . . " Still,  P i u s XI had  s t r e s s e d , but with  him  on  i t s great  abuses.  system i t s e l f ,  strongest a n t i - c a p i t a l i s t  C6te, c h i e f  abuses which b r e d  sentiment  aspects  agreed social  of c a p i t a l i s m .  came f r o m  j u d g e d i t s o p e r a t i o n on m o r a l spiritual  Archambault  Other S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s  d e s t r o y i n g the b e n e f i c i a l  S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s who Abbe" G.  condemned t h e  t h e n e e d t o combat t h e s e  i n j u s t i c e without The  not  those  grounds.  a d v i s o r o f t h e C . T . C . C , made  the  -85most e x t e n s i v e attempt also  of  t h e s e a s s e s s m e n t s i n 1937.  to a n a l y z e the  the  reasoning of  Cote" s e t o u t of  the  three  morality  of  t h o s e C a t h o l i c s who  arguments o f  Not  only  did  contemporary c a p i t a l i s m  Catholic  he but  defended i t .  to demonstrate, f i r s t of  basic  o  a l l , the  falseness  conservatives.  The  9 first  of  t h e s e was  admitted  that  s h o u l d be must be that  valid  respected.  equitable  the  invalid  the  state, and  necessity  contracts  to observe c o n t r a c t s .  which promoted s o c i a l  These c o n t r a c t s ,  f o r a l l concerned.  f o r e x a m p l e , had  illicit  s u c h as  he  Cote  harmony  i n s i s t e d , t o be  I n many c a s e s , he  signed  contracts  valid felt  w h i c h were  those connected w i t h the  exploit-  a t i o n o f Quebec's n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . He a s k e d : "Que d i r e de c e s m a r c h e s e f f e c t u e , p a r abus de pouvoir...pour a l i m e n t e r l a c a i s s e §lectorale;... que d i r e de c e s m a r c h e s d o n t l e s ' o b l i g a t i o n s ' f u r e n t constamment v i o l i e s , e t d o n t l a p l e i n e e x e c u t i o n a v a i t p o u r e f f e t s l e p i l l a g e d'un p a t r i m o i n e , une e n t r a v e i . l a c o l o n i s a t i o n . . . 1 ' e x p l o i t a t i o n de l a m a i n - d ' o e u v r e , du consommateur e t des e p a r g n a n t s . . . . " A  second defense of  wholly  t r u e , was  misery. given The  Thos who  the  c a p i t a l i s m , w h i c h t o him,  call  for resignation  a r g u e d t h i s way  s e v e r a l decades p r e v i o u s l y  Pope, C 6 t € a r g u e d , was  irreductibles  et u t i l e s :  relied  insisted  upon t h e  employees. s h i p be  inutiles  qu'il  face  upon P i u s  established  of  X's  mass  advice Catholics.  r e f e r r i n g "...aux i n e g a l i t ^ s c e l l e s de  faut  l a n a t u r e , . . . " and  faut  supprimer et  XIII  r e s t r e i n d r e . P i u s  between the  had two  demanded t h a t groups.  not  to  des X  o b l i g a t i o n s w h i c h e m p l o y e r s owed t o  S i m i l a r l y Leo  not  to a group of v i s i t i n g  "...des i n £ g a l i t £ s i n j u s t e s q u ' i l inigalit^s  i n the  was  had their  a just relation-  False  interpretations  -86of  Papal  thought,  exercise  Cote admitted,  i f the present  many were n o t i n c l i n e d pontificales, des  distinguish  semantic  was n o t s o g r a v e  and, i f so  "...S c o n s i d e r e r l e s e n c y c l i q u e s  non comme d e s documents a r e a l i s e r , m a i s comme  p l a n s de d i s c o u r s a Thirdly,  situation  w o u l d be a mere  paraphraser.  C o t e d e c r i e d t h e f a i l u r e o f many C a t h o l i c s t o  between c a p i t a l i s m p e r s e a n d t h e e x i s t i n g  s y s t e m w h i c h he c a l l e d  economic  " l e neo ou 1 ' h y p e r c a p i t a l i s m e " .  The  f o r m e r was n o t condemned by t h e Pope n o r c o u l d i t be condemned, as  i t was b u t a f o r m o f t h e r i g h t  restrictions  d i d not apply  t o own p r o p e r t y .  t o t h e l a t t e r w h i c h he d e f i n e d  the h e l p o f P i u s XI a s , " . . . l e m a l - e t r e , l a misdre,  'une p o i g n t e  T h e same  l a surabondance  de r i c h e s e t une m u l t i t u d e  with encadrant  d'indigents'  12 ...'.' felt but  I f looked  a t i n the light  of this  definition,  Cote"  t h a t n e o - c a p i t a l i s m would be seen n o t o n l y as immoral a s a m o r a l a n d , h e n c e , h a d t o be b r o u g h t u n d e r To  support  this  control.  c o n t e n t i o n , Cote p o i n t e d t o t h e f a c t  t h e d o m i n a n t e c o n o m i c d o c t r i n e s were a t h e i s t i c .  that  They s t i m u l a t e d  the worship o f wealth  a n d w o u l d r e c o g n i z e no l i m i t  acquisition  N e o - c a p i t a l i s m h a d , i n t h e words o f  Leo  and u s e .  X I I I , imposed a " . . . j o u g presque s e r v i l e 13  multitude  des prol§taires."  was c l e a r  t o Cote" t h a t b o t h  the e x i s t i n g  l'infinie  situation, i t  L e o X I I I a n d P i u s X I h a d condemned The t y p e  w o u l d meet t h e C h u r c h ' s r e q u i r e m e n t s  author  (sic) S  In denouncing t h i s  economic system.  Another reason  to i t s  o f economic system which  was s t i l l  b u t an a b s t r a c t i o n .  f o r c o n d e m n i n g monopoly c a p i t a l i s m ,  d e c l a r e d , was t h e f a c t  t h a t i t was a c t i v e l y  the  anti-religious.  In t h e i r  everyday  Christian  concept  transactions, capitalists that the i n d i v i d u a l  human a c t i v i t i e s . ing  Instead  to Pius XI, into  matigre  inerte  sort  they  attacked the  person  i s t h e end o f a l l  had transformed  "...une i n s t r u m e n t  labour,  accord-  de d e p r a v a t i o n ; l a  e n n o b l i e de l a t e l i e r , 1  t a n d i s que l e s  14 hommes s ' y c o r r o m p e n t e t s ' y d e g r a d e n t . " A third  reason  f o r condemning t h e e x i s t i n g  C 6 t e a r g u e d , was i t s m a t e r i a l i s t i c  outlook.  economic  Capitalists  system, had f o r  a l o n g time c l a i m e d t h a t , " . . . l e s e x i g e n c e s de l a m o r a l e s o n t i n c o m p a t i b l e s a v e c 1 i d e e d u p r o g r e s e t l a s e V e r i t e d'un b i l a n ; que l a q u e s t i o n du p r i x de r e v i e n t ne r e s s o r t i t a aucune £ t h i q u e , e t que c e u x q u i s ' e n t e t e n t § v o u l o i r m e t t r e un p e u de j u s t i c e dans l a p a g a i e economique s o n t des i d S a l i s t e s , des gens' pas p r a t i q u e s ' , q u i ne c o n n a i s s e n t p a s l a ' j o i e ' d ' e t r e employeurs."15 1  This ing  a t t i t u d e was a s r e s p o n s i b l e a s Communist a g i t a t i o n  f o r convinc-  t h e w o r k e r s t h a t f o r c e was t h e o n l y means o f i m p r o v i n g  their  lot. On  the b a s i s o f these  facts,  C6te c o u l d n o t a c c e p t t h e  a r g u m e n t s o f t h o s e who c o u n s e l l e d c a u t i o n i n e x p o s i n g o f monopoly c a p i t a l i s m .  Had n o t P i u s X I d e n o u n c e d t h e p r o g r e s s i v e  d e - C h r i s t i a n i z a t i o n o f t h e masses a s a s c a n d a l ? c a p i t a l i s m destroying the family unit a l a rue, it  "...puisque les  Was n o t  "...en j e t a n t  l a femme a l ' u s i n e e t l'homme  not this  the nature  l e s enfants  au f o y e r . . . ? "  1 6  Was  s y s t e m w h i c h was s t i m u l a t i n g t h e g r o w t h o f s t a t i s m , 1'Assistance  publique  p a s s e s o n temps a r a m a s s e r  r u i n e s cyniquement accumul^es p a r l u i ,  au nom d u p r o f i t  illimit£.... " a s w e l l a s t h e o t h e r e v i l s w h i c h he h a d e n u m e r a t e d ? Such a s y s t e m h a d t o be l o u d l y condemned.  Failure  t o do s o  -88r i s k e d c r e a t i n g the partie  liee  avec l e c a p i t a l i s m e  of proclaiming of  dangerous impression  acquiring  the  any  moderne...."  r i g h t s of property  w o u l d be  happened i n Europe.  Coti believed  that  clear  to everyone t h a t  system.  To  necessary  the  The  consequence  t o t h o s e who  avoid  a  had  no  repeating  hope  the  this  not  bound t o any  economic  position, Cardinal Villeneuve,  expressed h i s b e l i e f  error,  t o make i t u n m i s t a k e a b l y  C h u r c h was  In s u p p o r t o f t h i s  year l a t e r ,  "...l'Eglise  to a l i e n a t e these people from  C h u r c h as had  i t was  that  that  t h o s e who  wished  Church t o remain s i l e n t wanted e i t h e r t o p r o t e c t  the  a  the  status  quo  17 or  t o promote t h e i r  own  M o s t members o f call  f o r change i n the  l i n e s were o f n e c e s s i t y questions  as:  What s t r a t e g y  should  implemented?  up  to the  A type of in did  E.S.P. g r o u p s u p p o r t e d t h e  be  this  Pope's  e x i s t i n g socio-economic order. very  general.  adopted?  the  They d i d n o t  should  How  What n e e d s s h o u l d  E.S.P. t o m o b i l i z e  be  fast met  be  His  answer  should  these  changes It  was  a v a i l a b l e i n order  s o c i e t y which should this  the  replace  complex q u e s t i o n ,  mean l e v e l l i n g  of class  S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s was  to  the  the  e x i s t i n g one.  wrote t h a t  d i f f e r e n c e s but  social rather  Perrier, reform the 18  e n c o u r a g e m e n t o f more w i d e s p r e a d o w n e r s h i p o f p r o p e r t y . a n o t h e r commentator, i t seemed t h a t c a p i t a l must be to the  such  established?  immediately?  resources  guide-  task.  fundamental concern of  discussing not  the  what l o n g - t e r m g o a l s  be  c a r r y out  ends.  needs o f  the  w o r k e r s and,  i n turn,  "...le  1'esprit d o i t primer l e t r a v a i l m a t e r i e l , q u ' i l  To  subordinated  travail doit le  de diriger,  -89l'orienter, the  l e c o n d u i r e dans l a v o i e du  same l i n e ,  French S o c i a l  progres...."  Along  a contributor c i t e d with approval a resolution C a t h o l i c s who  proposed to  strive  of  for,  "...une s o r t e d ' a u t o r i t e " p a t e r n e l l e , ( s i c ) q u i d'une p a r t r e c o n n a i t r a i t aux t r a v a i l l e u r s t o u s l e s d r o i t s q u ' e x i g e l e u r c o l l a b o r a t i o n e t de 1 * a u t r e c r e e r a i t a i i t o u r du groupement p r o f e s s i o n n e l une atmosphere vraiment f a m i l i a l e . . . . " For  this  g r o u p , c h a n g e t e n d e d t o mean t h e  well-ordered  to  the  E.S.P. had  as  t o where s o c i a l change s h o u l d  to  articulate to,  service  this  lead.  v i s i o n when he  "...human!ser de  of  a  a different  view  stable,  society.  Other c o n t r i b u t o r s  aim  restoration  l a personne  (sic)  L e v e s q u e was  declared  that  the  a l l r e f o r m s must  notre Sconomie...la mettre  ( s i c ) humaine, m a i s de  first  toute  au  la  (sic) 19  p e r s o n n e humaine e t  de  toutes  les  (sic)  personnes  humames."  To  him  t h i s meant t h a t a l l e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d be  by  the  principle  that and  of  social utility  corrupt practices that a grossly  r e p l a c e d by social  s u c h as  rather  system would seek t o  one.  In  improve the  l e s malades, l e s m§res n e c e s s i t e u s e s , chomeurs...."  Another S o c i a l  profit-making,  Sunday work s h o u l d be  unbalanced d i s t r i b u t i o n  a more e g a l i t a r i a n  than  Catholic  particular,  les  eliminated  of wealth  l o t of  guided  should the  "...les  vieillards,  described  the  be  new pauvres,  leSjeunes ideal  s o c i e t y as one i n w h i c h t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n , " . . . l a d i s p o s i t i o n q u ' i l f a i t de s e s b i e n s , l e s c o n t r a t s qu:'il passe, l e s p r o f i t s q u ' i l r e a l i s e , s o n t j u s t i c i a b l e s d'un d o u b l e c r i t e r e ; c e l u i de l ' u t i l i t e i h d i v i d u e l l e e t c e l u i de l ' i n t i r e t general. E t c ' e s t t o u j o u r s s e l o n ce d e r n i e r que se d o i t p r o n o n c e r 1 ' a r r e t d e c i s i f . " 2 °  -90Cote, f o r h i s part, workers to o b t a i n , la  j o i e de  he  asserted  meant, he way  that  devoir  called  "...avec l e p a i n ,  vivre...." that  the  explained,  meme f a i t facilitate  it.  that  "...qui  For  growth o f  "une  s o c i e t y had  l e s r e g i e s de  Regardless of Social  Church wanted  ecrases....." the  l a s e c u r i t e du  Cardinal Villeneuve  those persons  et selon  f o r a s o c i e t y t h a t would e n a b l e  t o be  essaient  de  organized s'ajuster  group, s o c i a l  when This  i n such a  a  leur  s o i e n t pas  r e f o r m had  their  a i m s , t h o s e who a s e n s e of  commented on urgency i n  Some S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s were s e t i n m o t i o n by i f t h i s was  n ' a r r i v e r a pas  et  du  to  the i n d i v i d u a l .  C a t h o l i c programme f e l t  warning t h a t ,  best  organised".  l e u r c o n s c i e n c e ne  this  lendemain  summed i t up  justice  the  not  the  done w i t h o u t d e l a y ,  3. d e f e n d r e e f f i c a c e m e n t  the  realizing Pope's  "...on  l'ordre public  ...  contre  the  motivat-  21 l ' a s s a u t des ing in  f o r c e was  forces the  revolutionnaires."  challenge  Levesque's words,  a s o c i e t y b a s e d on  For  others,  to b u i l d a s o c i e t y which  "ni capitalisme  viciS  n i marxisme v i c i e u x " ,  C h r i s t i a n humanist p r i n c i p l e s .  A r c h a m b a u l t , were moved by  both of  contained  Some^like  these impulses a t the  same  time. Oscillating ing  hatred  for  the  of  between t h e  c a p i t a l i s m , the  Christian society.  wavered between the development. on  At  the  f e a r o f Communism and  an  increas-  E.S.P. g r o u p embarked upon a  In  formulating  requirements of  i t s o u t l i n e , they  s o c i a l order  and  of  personal  e x t r e m e s , t h e y came i n t o c o n f l i c t .  t h e s e shaky f o u n d a t i o n s t h a t  quest  they proceeded to e r e c t  C a t h o l i c programme a d a p t e d t o Quebec's n e e d s and  It a  resources.  was  -91-  Chapter V I I The  Role o f the State  i n the C h r i s t i a n  Society  G i v e n t h e u r g e n c y o f t h e p r o b l e m and t h e m a g n i t u d e o f t h e task,  t h e S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s had t o t u r n  to the state  In d o i n g s o , they asked themselves q u e s t i o n s extent  should  such a s :  t o what  t h e s t a t e be t r u s t e d t o c a r r y o u t c h a n g e s ?  types o f reforms should could  f o r help.  i t be r e q u i r e d  answer t h e s e q u e s t i o n s  t o execute?  What  Before  they  a d e q u a t e l y , however, t h e y h a d t o  d e c i d e what t h e r o l e o f t h e s t a t e w o u l d be i n t h e i r  reconstructed  society. A man who was t o become a l e a d i n g logian, role  L . Chagnon, s . j . , was t h e f i r s t  o f t h e state.'''  French Canadian to discuss  argued, had a double t a s k :  the in  subject.  activities  The s t a t e ,  on one hand, i t h a d t o p r o t e c t  r i g h t s o f i n d i v i d u a l s and o f a s s o c i a t i o n s their  the proper  From Q u a d r a g e s i m o anno, Chagnon d e d u c e d  s e v e r a l p r i n c i p l e s t o g u i d e t h i n k i n g on t h i s he  theo-  and on t h e o t h e r  as w e l l  a s a i d them  hand, i t h a d t o t a k e  charge  when and where p r i v a t e g r o u p s were u n a b l e t o c o p e w i t h t h e situation. care as  In a d d i t i o n , i t had a s p e c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o  f o r t h e weak and t h e p o o r .  possible,  by g r a n t i n g  surveiller,  circonstances The  stimuler,  ou l ' e x i g e  to carry out  them t h e n e c e s s a r y a u t h o r i t y and  The s t a t e w o u l d t h e n be f r e e , i n P i u s  "...diriger, les  i d e a l l y , was, a s much  t o e n c o u r a g e autonomous a s s o c i a t i o n s  these functions funds.  Its role,  contenir,  X I ' s words, t o selon  l e comportent  l a necessite...."  c r u x o f t h e p r o b l e m , w a s , a s Chagnon a s k e d  himself,  "Pour e v i t e r  le socialisme, f a u t - i l  condamner t o u t e  national-  2 isatxon?  Dans q u e l l e mesure p e u t - o n 1 a d m e t t r e ? "  The  1  stated  that i n certain  should  take  cases  responsibility  i t was  f o r the  reasonable  t h a t the  turned in  F o r more s p e c i f i c to the  1928.  directions  the code s e t l i m i t s were t h a t j u s t  c o m p e n s a t i o n be  specific  and  cases  situation.  on  t h i s matter,  legitimacy of  t o i t s use.  t h a t the  This brief  state  in private  "Code S o c i a l e de M a l i n e s " w h i c h had  While r e c o g n i z i n g the  had  f u n c t i o n i n g o f an e n t e r p r i s e  b e c a u s e o f t h e d a n g e r f o r t h e common good i f l e f t hands.  Pope  The  b e e n drawn  p a i d , t h a t i t be  d i s c u s s i o n was  not  up  nationalization,  most i m p o r t a n t  form adopted vary  Chagnon  of  these  used o n l y i n  according to  taken  up  again  the  until 3  1938  when a n o t h e r  Yet,  he  except  had  little  t o add  t o what Chagnon had  h i s marked p r e f e r r e n c e f o r j o i n t  private the  t h e o l o g i a n g a v e i t a more e x t e n s i v e  capital  and  s t a t e from the  passions  e t de  role  toutes  t o be  of  "...docile  l e s ambitions  found,  Whatever m i s g i v i n g s state,  drew up the  the  i n 1933  fact  instrument  by  fallen.  As  the  aspect  t h e y may  of the  to general p r i n c i p l e s ,  As  to  free  toutes into  les  which, only  this  problem. about the r o l e a group o f wishing  to  programme  of  theologians reform was  a g r o u p o f laymen d e v e l o p e d 6  s e c o n d programme i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l .  and  a r e l u c t a n c e among  h a v e had  i n Canada.~*  state  t h e s e were t h e  r e m a i n s t h a t Chagnon and  order  de  de l ' i n t e r e t " , 4  a s e t of g u i d e l i n e s f o r those  socio-economic  restricted  ventures  t h e r e seemed t o be  other w r i t e r s to consider t h i s  the  already written  f o r autonomous r e g u l a t o r y a g e n c i e s  a c c o r d i n g t o t h e Pope, i t had discussions  treatment.  Added t o s e v e r a l o t h e r  a  -93p a m p h l e t s on  specific  topics,  t h e s e p r o p o s a l s made up  C a t h o l i c programme t o be  carried  programme c a n be d i v i d e d  into  of concern: and  social  finally,  financial  and  legislation,  Communism and  comments on e a c h  o u t by  the s t a t e .  approximately  agriculture civil  and  By  concept The  of the r o l e  of the  and,  areas  legal,wages  examining  possible  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e E.S.P.'s p r i o r i t i e s its  and  colonization,  liberties.  a s p e c t , i t s h o u l d be  This  f i v e main  corporate, p o l i t i c a l  the  and, their  t o g a i n some more  important,  state.  l e a d i n g exponent o f f i n a n c i a l  and  corporate reform i n  7  Quebec was on  Dr.  P.  the p r a c t i c e s  Hamel.  D r a w i n g upon h i s e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h  o f monopoly c a p i t a l i s m , he  o f reforms which would break particularly  regulate o f one  T h i s approach  dominating  the o t h e r .  that  flagrant  in violating  Corporation  he  the p u b l i c  had been attempted  f a r as t h o s e  structure  danger he  most  s u c h as t h e  Beauharnois  Power C o r p o r a t i o n .  t h a t would p e r m i t admitted  g o v e r n m e n t s had  heavy p r e s s u r e o f the f i n a n c i a l  were c o n c e r n e d ,  interest  that  simply  those monopolies  o v e r b u t he  the l o c a l  preferred  inadequate,  t h e M o n t r e a l L i g h t , H e a t and  to take these e n t e r p r i s e s  series  c l a i m e d would a v o i d the  the s t a t e n a t i o n a l i z e  and  t h i s he  Where t h i s was  favoured enabling l e g i s l a t i o n  As  To do  a  "trusts",  competition r a t h e r than  them.  proposed  He  t h e power o f t h e  that of e l e c t r i c i t y .  the s t a t e e n t e r i n t o d i r e c t g  advocated  municipalities  t h a t where  had  to r e s i s t  this the  interests.  " t r u s t s " w h i c h were n o t t o be  Hamel i n t e n d e d t o r a t i o n a l i z e  so as t o make f i n a n c i e r s  directly  their  nationalized internal  responsible to  the  -94-  small  investors  and  t o curb the growing  power o f h o l d i n g  companies.  T h r o u g h t h e s e r e f o r m s , he h o p e d t o make p r i v a t e  enterprise  work f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e c o n s u m e r s and  investors.  Wealth,  honest  and  as a r e s u l t ,  w o u l d be  r e s p o n s i b l e manner and,  d i s c o n t e n t w o u l d be  eliminated.  a c q u i r e d i n a more  consequently, the  rising  F o r Hamel, o n l y t h e s t a t e  s t r o n g enough t o a c h i e v e t h e s e g o a l s and most S o c i a l seemed t o a g r e e w i t h h i m  except  small  f o r one  who  felt  was  Catholics  t h a t he  had  9  n o t gone f a r enough. r e s p o n s i v e , he  urged  representatives He  supported  that  the board o f d i r e c t o r s  a l l groups  government a c t i o n  loss of t h e i r plus  from  To make e c o n o m i c i n s t i t u t i o n s  savings because  facilement anarchique  a l s o demanded t h a t t h o s e  groups  had  financiers  experienced.  and  "une  include  including  investors  the  from a  le proletariat...." had  i n the drop  total  Yet,  not s u f f e r e d  he such  o f income w h i c h  I n t h i s manner, some S o c i a l to break  workers.  bourgeoisie ruinSe devient  i n v e s t o r s who  share p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y  the s t a t e  t o save  que  losses  hoped t o use  concerned,  more  Catholics  t h e e c o n o m i c power o f  t o r e n d e r economic a c t i v i t i e s  other  the  more r e s p o n s i v e t o  human n e e d s . Closely  related  t o e c o n o m i c r e f o r m was  The  commentator on  was  i t s most c o n t r o v e r s i a l  narrow i n s c o p e . ^ domination  this  reform.  p a r t o f t h e programme c l a i m e d t h a t a s p e c t y e t i t was  also  more h o n e s t  i s t r a t i o n more c o m p e t e n t .  over the p o l i t i c a l  and  To do  r e s p o n s i b l e and  this,  they c a l l e d  this  t h e most  T h e s e p r o p o s a l s were d e s i g n e d t o b r e a k  o f the economic e l i t e  to render p o l i t i c s  political  process  the and  i t s adminf o r the  end  of  the  p r a c t i c e of  of  directors.  appointing  They a l s o p r o p o s e d , among o t h e r  newspapers d e c l a r e asked to present be  leading p o l i t i c i a n s to  who  their  identity  t o be  and  to provide  created  to ensure the  the  These p o l i t i c a l  the  research  facilities  the  More i m p o r t a n t , c o n s i d e r i n g and  o f w a g e - c u t t i n g , were t h e  other  s o c i a l measures.  question during Pius  was  this  XI,  Here, the  period.  should  be  had  done so  that  e l s e w h e r e f o r more p r e c i s e  the  stated  that  as  i n c l u d i n g the  surance against the  Code de  accidents, not  this  diligently.  decisions of  the  respect.  was  a key  Pope f o r  unemployment t o wages  this  contributors  guidance.  that  everyting  workers would o b t a i n that  and  deciding  issue,  many E.S.P.  stated  t h e y m i g h t be  "...  able to  problem e a r l y i n the  o f a man  sickness, t r e a t e d as  Having obtained  a l l parties respect  dutires  be  administration  i n regard  Malines defined  subsistance  worker c o u l d  t o t h i s wage. that  the  council  C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e y had  1 1  family  to look  guidelines.  Msgr. G a u t h i e r e x p l o r e d He  by  to the  s u f f i s a n t e abondance" i n o r d e r  s u p p o r t a f a m i l y more e a s i l y .  the  prevalence of  simply  a  contributor  R e c o g n i z e d as  A l l looked  be  economic  stumbling block  extensively  in his writings,  possible une  discussed  any  proposals  e x a c t l y what i s a j u s t wage.  An  in this the  electors  needed i n making  f a r as  depression  that  father of  competence o f  r e f o r m s were as  E.S.P. went d u r i n g  As  that  a c c o r d e d more v o t e s t h a n a s i n g l e man.  was  things,  owners were, t h a t  c a r d s and  boards  their  and  "le salaire his family  o l d - a g e and  o b l i g a t i o n s and  In h i s d i s c u s s i o n of  vital"  and  in-  unemployment.  a commodity he  a j u s t wage, t h e  depression  was  entitled  C h u r c h demanded c a r r y out  t h i s problem,  their Changnon  -96argued t h a t , riparer  " l esalaire  ses forces  d o i t p e r m e t t r e au t r a v a i l l e u r  de  e t de v i v r e une v i e p l e i n e m e n t humaine,  c'est-  13 1-dire  familiale....  To t h o s e who s c o f f e d a t t h i s  "le  salaire  the  p r i n c i p l e of "I t r a v a i l  eliminated any  familiale",  he p o i n t e d  some e x t e n t  i t d i d n o t mean  i n earning  t h e young worker would  t h e f a m i l y would h e l p  enough t o meet t h e i r  i n a d d i t i o n t o these  o f h i s own.  needs.  He warned  factors, the state of the p a r t i c u l a r  question  agreed t h a t  must be enough t o f o s t e r a happy f a m i l y t h e y were c o n c e r n e d t h a t  save  the father to  and o f t h e economy h a d t o be c o n s i d e r e d .  C a t h o l i c s who w r o t e on t h i s  that  e g a l " w o u l d be  f o r t h e t i m e when he w o u l d h a v e a f a m i l y  I t was a l s o assumed t h a t  industry  salaire  f o r i t was assumed t h a t  surplus  that,  tlgal,  out that  concept o f  life.  A l l Social t h e wage  level  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  i t be enough t o e n c o u r a g e t h e m o t h e r t o  14 stay  a t home.  constituted To other of  F a i l u r e t o pay s u c h a wage, i n C o t e ' s 15  robbery.  s u p p l e m e n t t h i s wage, most S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s  m e a s u r e s were n e e d e d .  family  eyes,  allowances.  agreed  F o r e m o s t among t h e s e was a s y s t e m  Such a s y s t e m w o u l d s e r v e  as  "...la  r e t r i b u t i o n du s e r v i c e s o c i a l e r e n d u p a r l e s f a m i l i e s nombreuses." The  Pope h a d a l s o e n c o u r a g e d a t t e m p t s t o d e v e l o p a c o m p r e h e n s i v e  scheme o f s o c i a l the  as w e l l  as worker p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  c o n t r o l and b e n e f i t s o f i n d u s t r y  encyclical, insurance Altogether the  insurance  Divini  against  Redemptoris,  b u t i t was o n l y  t h a t he recommended a s y s t e m o f 17  o l d age, s i c k n e s s  and unemployment.  these p r i n c i p l e s comprised  Catholic proposals  i n this  i n his last  area.  the t h e o r e t i c a l basis f o r  The upon by  a c t u a l programme o f A.  Charpentier,  the  Social Catholics,  President  of  the  commented  Montreal Council  of  the  18 C.T.C.C, tended to be  follow  used i n r e a l i z i n g  these g u i d e l i n e s .  these goals  The  were a l i s t  c o m b i n e d w i t h , as w i l l  be  seen, extensive  N o t e w o r t h y amongst t h e  l a t t e r was  the  of  methods  social  a given  in  a  his  sector.  In  sum,  the  measures  s t r u c t u r a l reform.  proposal  that  the  ment e x t e n d c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t s t o a c h i e v e minimum in  to  govern-  standards  C.T.C.C, Charpentier  declared  l a t e r d i s c u s s i o n of these proposals, supported, "...une l e g i s l a t i o n f a m i l i a l e . . . , q u i p e r m e t t e a l ' o u v r i e r de s a l a i r e moyen ... de f a i r e , en e i e v a n t s a f a m i l l e , q u e l q u e s e c o n o m i e s e t de s ' e d i f i e r l e n t e m e n t une m a i s o n n e t t e ; c a r ^ l ' o u v r i e r p r o p r i e t a i r e e s t un p i l i e r de 1 ' o r d r e s o c i a l . " I n d i s c u s s i n g t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e p r o p o s a l s a d v a n c e d by group, C h a r p e n t i e r  warned:  " I I f a u t e v i t e r de f a v o r i s e r l e s s e u l s o u v r i e r s , ce qui a c c e n t u e r a i t l'exode r u r a l vers l e s centres „n u r b a i n s e t s e r a i t i n j u s t e pour l e s a g r i c u l t e u r s . " The  main c o n c e r n b e h i n d  President  of  that,  terre doit etre  "La  the  t h e i r a g r i c u l t u r a l r e f o r m s , as  Catholic  p r e o c c u p a t i o n s des  the  Farmers' Union, l ' U . C . C , wrote, remise a l a premiere place  dirigeants.  Toute renovation  dans  was les  sociale doit 21  commencer p a r Apart  from p r o v i d i n g  role of  the  most p a r t , believed solve  1'agriculture,  state of  that,  most o f  i n bringing  aiding by  research  the  b a s e e c o n o m i q u e d'une and  educational  facilities,  t h i s about c o n s i s t e d ,  farmers' e f f o r t s .  The  a s s o c i a t i n g w i t h each other,  t h e i r problems.  however, t h e i r a t t i t u d e c h a n g e d  When i t came t o somewhat.  nation."  for  Social the  the  the Catholics  farmers  colonization  could  -98What e x a c t l y  should  t h e s t a t e do t o p r o m o t e  T h o s e a u t h o r s who d i s c u s s e d  this question  colonization?  agreed with M i n v i l l e  22 that  t h e s t a t e had a major r o l e t o p l a y .  I t had t o c r e a t e  s i t u a t i o n whereby t h e c o l o n i s t w o u l d no l o n g e r selon  1'angle sous l e q u e l on s e p l a c e ,  a  a p p e a r , "...  o u comme un p a r i a o u  comme u n h e r o s . . . " a n d , i n t h i s way, make i t a s a t t r a c t i v e a way o f l i f e  as t h a t o f t h e urban worker.  had  to avoid  fostering "...le  Any  a i d that  i t provided  grant,  corruption...." benefitted  land  The s t a t e  t h e community  churches, e t c . .  the  create,  p r i c e f o r pulpwood.  that  to research  be g r a n t e d  vital  As f o r t h e  o f roads,  would schools,  At  t h e g o v e r n m e n t w o u l d s e t up a c o m m i s s i o n  i n f l u e n c e as a f a c t o r .  thereby  elimin-  Because, i n h i s o p i n i o n ,  t h e government, above a l l , a s s i g n  when d r a w i n g up t h e p r o v i n c i a l b u d g e t .  indirectly,  the settlers  through c o l o n i z a t i o n s o c i e t i e s .  c o l o n i z a t i o n was i t s most u r g e n t a n d i m p o r t a n t  priority  t h e economic  i n a form t h a t  and t o d e v e l o p a c o l o n i z a t i o n p l a n ,  demanded t h a t  t o develop  I f t h e c o l o n i s t needed s p e c i a l h e l p , M i n v i l l e  i t be p r o v i d e d  political  effort  therefore,  a l s o ensure t h a t  such as t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n  summit, he h o p e d t h a t  ating  should  types o f a i d , they should  insisted  even i f t h i s  which would encourage t h e s e t t l e r  always had a market a t a f a i r  benefit  I t should  e t meme de  a n d t o m a i n t a i n i t no m a t t e r how d i f f i c u l t  s i t u a t i o n became.  other  de f a v o r i t i s m e  the colonist himself.  Providence...."  n e v e r be i n t h e f o r m o f a d i r e c t  b u t as a reward f o r e f f o r t ,  a system o f grants his  c u l t e de l ' E t a t e  should  " i n s t r u m e n t au s u r p l u s  A t t h e same t i m e , i t  task, i ta  Minville higher  Directly or  t h e s t a t e , i n t h e m i n d s o f t h e S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s , was  t o the success o f c o l o n i z a t i o n .  -99The  fifth  aspect  of the C a t h o l i c s o c i a l  E.S.P.'s c o l l a b o r a t o r s d e v e l o p e d its  negative  character.  I t was  changed i n emphasis w i t h programme was  concerned  new  differed  read  the  four i n  t h e p a r t most commented on  and i t  This aspect of  the  t h e Communist t h r e a t .  What, t h e E.S.P. g r o u p a s k e d , s h o u l d a t e t h e Communist menace?  from the o t h e r  developments.  with  programme w h i c h  Turning  the  s t a t e do  to  t o Q u a d r a g e s i m o anno,  eliminthey  the passage d e p l o r i n g , " . . . 1 i n s o u c i a n c e de c e u x q u i , n t g l i g e a n t l e p e r i l q u i nous menace de c e c 6 t § . . . l a l i g e r e t i q u i . . . l a i s s e s u b s i s t e r un e t a t de c h o s e s q u i f o u r n i t l e t e r r a i n f a v o r a b l e au m t c o n t e n t e m e n t l e g i t i m e , e t q u i p e p a r e a i n s i l e s v o i e s § une r e v o l u t i o n mondiale."23 1  I n t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h e d e p r e s s i o n , most o f t h e who  w r o t e on  this  problem tended  break o f f a l l r e l a t i o n s  - and  to concentrate  especially  trade  Social Catholics on  t h e need  - with  the  to  Soviet  24 Union.  But  they  came t o s e e w i t h  Communism w o u l d n o t be  eradicated  Perrier  t h a t the r o o t s  of  by,  "...de v a i n e s d e n o n c i a t i o n s des c r i m e s p e r p e t r i s H Moscou, ...en i n t e r d i s a n t 1 ' e n t r e e au Canada du c h a r b o n r u s s e (au p r o f i t des c a p i t a l i s t e s q u i m o n o p o l i s e n t l a p r o d u c t i o n e t 1 ' i m p o r t a t i o n des c h a r b o n s g a l l o i s e t a m g r i c a i n s ) , q u i t t e §. f r a t e r n i s e r a v e c l e s ' m e u r t r i e r s ' de L e n i n g r a d p o u r r i g u l a r i s e r l e c o u r s du b l e . " Gradually  the emphasis o f t h e  l i n e with  t h e Pope's t h i n k i n g  on w h i c h Communism If  social  de  r e f o r m was  P i u s XI had  t o u t e s p a r t s des  to the e l i m i n a t i o n of those  in  factors  thrived. a powerful  r e p r e s s i v e measures, t o the ignored.  anti-Communist campaign s h i f t e d  weapon a g a i n s t Communism,  S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s , were n o t  d e n o u n c e d t h o s e who  d o c t r i n e s q u i , par  "...laissent  to  be  se  propager  l a v i o l e n c e et l e meurtre,  -100v o n t a l a d e s t r u c t i o n de took the l e a d religious  l a Society  tout enti^re."  25  i n demanding s t r o n g e r m e a s u r e s a g a i n s t  propaganda  and  stricter  enforcement  Archambault anti-  of existing  laws,  26 particularly  of Section  98 o f t h e C r i m i n a l c o d e .  Repeatedly,  E.S.P. c o n t r i b u t o r s r a n g i n g f r o m laymen t o C a r d i n a l  Villeneuve  demanded t o u g h e r m e a s u r e s a g a i n s t Communist a c t i v i t i e s . climax of t h i s 1936-1937.  campaign appears  At demonstrations  t o have been r e a c h e d i n t h e y e a r s  organized to protest  i n Quebec o f s u p p o r t e r s o f t h e S p a n i s h R e p u b l i c a n r e s o l u t i o n s were p a s s e d c a l l i n g  The  f o r immediate  the  presence  forces,  a c t i o n on t h e  o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t i n r e s p e c t t o Communist a c t i v i t i e s  and  part  to  27 social  reform.  Equally  recently-elected  s i g n i f i c a n t was  the presence of  Premier, Maurice Duplessis,  the  a t t h e Quebec  28 demonstration.  There,  i n an impromptu s p e e c h , he a s k e d  f e d e r a l government t o h a l t purposes  and  M o n t r e a l who  the use o f the m a i l s f o r  disrupted  a pro-Loyalist  C a r d i n a l V i l l e n e u v e , he o f f e r e d him, c o l l a b o r a t i o n de mon que la  propaganda  c o n g r a t u l a t e d the students of the U n i v e r s i t e had  gathering.  "...la  plus  the  de  Turning to  sincSre  g o u v e r n e m e n t dans t o u t e s l e s i n i t i a t i v e s  vous v o u l e z b i e n p r e n d r e . "  I n May,  1937,  " l a l o i protegeant  p r o v i n c e c o n t r e l a p r o p a g a n d e communiste", b e t t e r known as  the Padlock The  condensed  adopted.  controversy over the nature of c i v i l  the Padlock entitled  law, was  liberties  which  law a r o u s e d l e d t h e E.S.P. t o p u b l i s h a t r a c t 29  Doit-on t o l i r e r  l a p r o p a g a n d e communiste?  the t h i n k i n g of S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s  on t h i s  This matter.  tract  -101The  author based  main p r o p o s i t i o n s . All  h i s defense o f the Padlock  The f i r s t  concerned  l a w on t h r e e  the nature o f l i b e r t y .  t h a t was n e c e s s a r y t o p o s s e s s l i b e r t y ,  according  t o him, 30  was  that  a man " . . . p e u t  did  n o t need  the a b i l i t y  Cardinal Villeneuve he  spoke  1*enfant  5 s o n g r e a g i r o u ne p a s a g i r . "  against  t o choose  between good a n d e v i l .  h a d made t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n q u i t e  those claiming  He  "liberty  c l e a r when  t g a l e accordee a  comme §. l ' a d u l t e , a l'homme s a i n e t a u d i t r a q u e , a u  c i t o y e n d i g n e e t au bagnard, H c e l u i 31 1'autre q u i l e t r a h i t . . . . "  Each  h a d t o be a c c o r d e d l i b e r t y  physical  and mental,  t o be e x e r c i s e d by n a t u r a l  l'Etat  et a  i n d i v i d u a l , i n the Cardinal's  opinion,  common good a s d e f i n e d  q u i defend  i n proportion within  to h i s state;  the l i m i t s  of the  l a w , by d i v i n e l a w a n d by  w i s e human l a w s . The  second  expression.  point  t h e a u t h o r made c o n c e r n e d  Was i t a b s o l u t e ?  freedom o f  To s a y y e s meant t h a t good and  e v i l were p u t o n a n e q u a l f o o t i n g .  Leo XIII  h a d condemned  such  liberty. The a u t h o r contended t h a t , " . . . l e d r o i t ( s i c ) e s t une f a c u l t y m o r a l e de f a i r e o u d ' e x i g e r q u e l q u e c h o s e . E t comme l ' o n ne p e u t f a i r e que l e b i e n e t non l e m a i , i l ne p e u t y a v o i r a u c u n d r o i t a f a i r e l e mai."32 He a d d e d t h a t , given  given  the i n a b i l i t y  necessary t o refute such  freedom  tendency  o f man t o w a r d s  o f most men t o u n d e r t a k e false  would c o r r u p t  d u t y was t o p r o t e c t "...celui  the natural  reasoning,  e v i l and  the research  i t was more t h a n l i k e l y  most p e o p l e .  As t h e s t a t e ' s  first  t h e r i g h t s o f i t s members amongst w h i c h  de c o n n a i t r e  l averite,  that  were,  e t d ' e v i t e r que ne s o i e n t m i s  -102en p e r i l  l e sprincipes  social...",  premiers  q u i s o n t a l a b a s e de l ' o r d r e  i tcould not tolerate  a b s o l u t e freedom o f e x p r e s s i o n  33 without clear  destroying i t s e l f .  t h a t t h e Church c o u l d n o t accept  thought, had  Leo X I I I , w h i l e making i t q u i t e t h a t t h e freedom o f  o f e x p r e s s i o n , a n d o f c o n s c i e n c e were n a t u r a l r i g h t s ,  s t a t e d t h a t , i t c o u l d accept under c e r t a i n  t h a t t h e y be t o l e r a t e d  " . . . p o u r v u qu'un j u s t e  empeche de d § g g n § r e r j u s q u any  case,  fore,  t h e common  1  a l a licence  temperament l e s 34  e t au d € s o r d r e . "  good must s e t t h e l i m i t s .  that revolutionary, atheistic  the r o o t s o f s o c i a l  circumstances  order  On t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s , why Communism c o u l d n e v e r  I t followed, there-  i d e o l o g i e s which  should never  be t o l e r a t e d  In  be a l l o w e d  attacked  t o develop.  i t was c l e a r  t o the author  a n d why t h e Pope h a d  r e p e a t e d l y denounced i t as t h e g r e a t e s t t h r e a t t o c i v i l i z a t i o n . Because o f i t s d e s t r u c t i v e n a t u r e , prevent  Communism f r o m w i n n i n g ,  conditions au  the author  "...l'on pourra,  f o r e , was f u l l y  that  justified  Communism f r o m  i n t a k i n g t h o s e measures which would  becoming a t h r e a t .  se vantent  C r i t i c s who "...les  l e s grandes dSmocraties'",  t h a t many d e m o c r a t i c  democratic  jusqu'  The g o v e r n m e n t , t h e r e -  s u c h m e a s u r e s were i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h ,  §tendues dont fact  s i l e s autres  n ^ c e s s a i r e s S c e t t e f i n sont r ^ u n i e s , a l l e r 35  r e c o u r s aux armes i n c l u s i v e m e n t . "  prevent  declared that, to  claimed  libertes s i ignored the  r e g i m e s h a d b e e n r e p l a c e d by n o n -  ones,  "...parce  que l ' o n n'a t r o u v e que dans un  regime fortement  concentre  l e remede a d e q u a t a l a menace t r § s  36 r€elle."  Many d e m o c r a t i c  o n e s h a d n o t made t h i s  c o u n t r i e s such  error.  He c o n c l u d e d  as t h e S c a n d i n a v i a n by l a u d i n g t h e  -103federal cabinet  which,  " m a l g r t l a p r e s s i o n f o r m i d a b l e e x e r c e e s u r eux p a r nos g r a n d s p o u r f e n d e u r s d e s E t a t s t o t a l i t a i r e s e t du f a s c i s m e . . . o n t e u l e c o u r a g e e t l e m e r i t e de r e f u s e r de d t s a v o u e r l a l o i d u c a d e n a s . . . . " I n t h i s manner, t h e S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s i n v a r y i n g hoped t o e r e c t a C h r i s t i a n s o c i e t y w i t h state.  theassistance o f the  T h e r e d e v e l o p e d , however, two m a j o r o b s t a c l e s  effectiveness  of thestate  1  s role.  degrees  One o f t h e s e ,  to the  as a c l o s e  a s s o c i a t e o f D r . Hamel n o t e d i n a s p e e c h d e l i v e r e d t o t h e a n t i Communist a s s e m b l y a t w h i c h D u p l e s s i s  was t o s p e a k , was t h a t ,  "Les g o u v e r n a n t s , meme c e u x - I S q u u n e f o r m u l e d e m o c r a t i q u e semble m e t t r e p a r t i c u l i e r e m e n t a u s e r v i c e du p e u p l e s o u f f r a n t , s o n t beaucoup t r o p ^7 l e n t s a imposer l a p o l i t i q u e s o c i a l e c h r e t i e n n e . . . . " 1  The  other  o b s t a c l e w h i c h was t o grow i n i m p o r t a n c e w i t h  was t h e q u e s t i o n close  of jurisdiction.  Most o f t h e s e r e f o r m s  f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l cooperation.  was l a t e r social  time, required  I f , a s one S o c i a l C a t h o l i c  t o r e m a r k , t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t assumed c o n t r o l o v e r  legilslation,  " E l l e d e v i e n d r a i t necessairement d ' i n s p i r a t i o n a n g l a i s e e t p r o t e s t a n t e , c a r on v o i t d i f f i c i l e m e n t , meme a v e c b e a u c o u p d* i m a g i n a t i o n , l e g o u v e r n e m e n t f e d e r a l m e t t r e en p r a t i q u e e t r g a l i s e r au pays 2 l e s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s que l e Pape donne aux c a t h o l i q u e s . . . . " H a v i n g no o b v i o u s means o f o v e r c o m i n g t h e s e o b s t a c l e s many ways, a c t u a l l y c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e i r g r o u p was t o s e e i t s r e f o r m as many p r o p o s a l s such o b s t a c l e s weak f a i t h reform  could  o r modified.  not strengthen  i n the e f f i c a c y  i n  g r o w t h , t h e E.S.P.  programme l o s e i t s i n i t i a l  were d i s c a r d e d  and,  force  The presence o f  what was f o r many a n a l r e a d y  o f t h e s t a t e as an instrument f o r  a n d must h a v e r e i n f o r c e d t h e b i a s o f many S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s  -104for  structural  reforms.  programme w h i c h must now  It i s this be  important  examined.  aspect of  their  -105Chapter The  VIII  Catholic Alternatives  t o Monopoly  Many members o f t h e E.S.P. g r o u p reforms  as r e l a t i v e l y  d e p r e s s i o n would never social  r e c u r and  Social  ization, system The  and  t h e s e c o n d was  a t t h e b e g i n n i n g and  tended  b o t h were c o n s t a n t l y on  tended  t o c o n c e n t r a t e on a t t h e end  and how  was  colon-  existing  the  of t h i s  former  period  t h e y h o p e d t o do  1  Y e t , i t had  i n 1932,  but accomp-  i t will  be  Canada's  a l s o renewed i n t e r e s t  unsettled  areas of the p r o v i n c e .  fore,  the group  exploit  this  Archambault  exacerbated French  colonizing that  first  chapter.  t h e d e p r e s s i o n had  population problem.  the  What t h e y h o p e d t o  A t a c o n f e r e n c e on c o l o n i z a t i o n h e l d that  The  study,  the c r e a t i o n of c o r p o r a t i o n s .  t h e i r minds.  these reforms  the concern of t h i s  observed  to envisage  ways.  the  conception of  the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the  the l a t t e r  that  During the p e r i o d under  Catholics  o f e c o n o m i c r e l a t i o n s by  through  needed, i n  of a g r i c u l t u r e with i t s concomitant,  E.S.P.'s c o n t r i b u t o r s  lish  What was  t h a t the C h r i s t i a n  means o f a c c o m p l i s h i n g t h e s e g o a l s i n two the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  political  changes which would ensure  r e l a t i o n s would triumph.  the French Canadian  l o o k e d upon  s h o r t term measures.  t h e l o n g r u n , were s t r u c t u r a l  Capitalism  He  proposed,  o p p o r t u n i t y t o make  t h e most i m p o r t a n t t a s k o f F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s ,  in  more  "...que l e d e v e l o p p e m e n t de l ' i n d u s t r i e , l a c o n f e c t i o n de p o n t s , de c a n a u x , e t de r o u t e s M 1'usage des t o u r i s t e s , e t meme l e p r o g r e s d e s a r t s e t des l e t t r e s . "  there-  colonization  important,  -106J.  E.  Laforce,  who  under D u p l e s s i s , C a n a d a had w o u l d be He  t o become t h e M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e  remarked, a t the  1500  more a g r i c u l t u r a l  created  f o r i n d u s t r y as  a l s o b e l i e v e d t h a t many who  that que  was  i t provided  an  ceux p r o c u r e s  productives  ou  parishes,  left  the  that i f  such a market  to eliminate  had  occupation,  par  same c o n f e r e n c e ,  the  depression.  f a r m now  realized  " . . . c i l a longue plus  le travail  l e p e l l e t a g e de  § des  usines  assures  souvent  l a neige pour l e s  im-  corporations  2 municipales."  A  few  months l a t e r ,  the  hierarchy  declared  that,  "Le r e t o u r a l a t e r r e e t l e s o u c i de c h a q u e f o y e r de p r o d u i r e p a r lui-meme ce q u i l u i e s t n t c e s s a i r e , c o n s t i t u e , avec l a p r a t i q u e de l ' e c o n o m i e , l a p l u s p r o f o n d e s o l u t i o n humaine du p r o b l e m e a c t u e l . . . . " 3 The  most c o m p e l l i n g  t i m e , as en  one  argument i n f a v o u r  author put  ressentant  i t , was  that  l e s r u d e s c o u p s de  of c o l o n i z a t i o n at  this  " l a classe a g r i c o l e , tout  l a depression,  n'a  pas  manqu§s  4 de  pain."  The  most f o o l i s h the  The Social and  to exercise  e m p l o y e r and  dropped, the  nature of  the  a g r i c u l t u r e , he  some f o r e s i g h t f o r he  employee.  No  f a r m e r w o u l d a l w a y s be  depression,  C a t h o l i c s the  urbanization  in effect, trend  m a t t e r how able  called  towards the  o f Quebec.  To  one  was, low  at the  industrialization.  once, prices  not  f o r many  industrialization  author, the  of  depression  hope t o g a i n  "aspirations r e l i g i e u s e et  e x c u s e s t o o s t r a c i z e them.  the  to s u b s i s t .  greater  i n d i c a t i o n t h a t French Canadians could 5 Their  f o r c e d even  into question  an  were u s e d as  felt,  Proof  of  this  was control  nationale" was,  -107" . . . l e s r a i s o n f u t i l e s i n v o q u ^ e s p o u r nous m a r c h a n d e r ou nous, r e f u s e r ce q u i nous r e v i e n t de 1 a d m i n ' s t r a t i o n de l a c h o s e p u b l i q u e e t de l a d i s t r i b u t i o n des e m p l o i s dans l e s c o m p a g n i e s de c h e m i n s de f e r e t d u t i l i t y publique...." 1  1  The  i n f l u e n c e F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s d i d h a v e came f r o m t h e i r  over a g r i c u l t u r e . "de  I f t h e y were t o e s c a p e b e c o m i n g a  s e r v i t e u r s e t de  salaries"  Chagnon, i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f "1 a g r i c u l t u r e s p e c u l a t i v e " 1  the  land  and  t h e y had the  to c l i n g  over-production  of  nation  to the  C a t h o l i c programme,  for stimulating  the  foodstuffs.  commentator, i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n was  soil.  condemned  "desertion"  For  acceptable  control  of  another  only  i f i t comple-  7 mented a g r i c u l t u r e . belief  f o s t e r e d by  cultivateur  en  return A not  the  hierarchy,  urbanization  e s t une g  mauvais g r e . . . . " butors that  The  that,  a l a q u e l l e on  I t was u r b a n way  "...la ne  of  life  had  condition  the  failed  only  the  i n d i v i d u a l s e c o n o m i c and  cultural  and  religious aspirations.  1  social  to  M i n v i l l e , f o r one,  contria  them, also set  his out  b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s a c o l o n i z a t i o n programme 9  situation.  caught i n a p a r a d o x i c a l  contended t h a t  p o l i t i c a l l y weak s o c i e t y , i t d e p e n d e d on  testified,  de  therefore,  needs b u t  C a n a d a was  Yet,  E.S.P.'s  according  He  to survive.  de  r S s o u d r e que  and,  would have f o r F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s .  and  the  needed.  t o a g r i c u l t u r e would s a t i s f y ,  to demonstrate the  condemned  d o i t se  c l e a r t o many o f  t o a more s a t i s f y i n g mode was return  i n 1937,  as  i t could  the not  cities meet t h e  what F r e n c h C a n a d a n e e d e d was  filled  an  a high  w i t h the  needs o f  As  French economically birth  unemployed  i t s members.  a socio-economic  rate  Obviously,  system t h a t  would  -108give these Minville,  people  a chance t o develop  i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n was  Canadians lacked the c a p i t a l , all,  t h e numbers.  that  such  render  only  solid  young p e o p l e  required.  needed,  a c r e de  1'accroissement population.  the  spirit had  French  relief  above  made i t p l a i n  Canadians, to  Hence, a  dans l e s l i m i t e s  would  the birth  rate.  colonization  a symptom; i t w o u l d p r o v i d e  of  openings  de  l a province  l a Confederation cai^dienne e n s u i t e , i l  terre  cultivable^"  and  i t would a s s u r e  n o r m a l en nombre e t en q u a l i t e . . . " essential  as  were d e s t r o y i n g F r e n c h  I f h i s p l a n was  French  and,  to a f a l l i n g  land.  to  I t would r e d r e s s the economic i l l s  H a s t e was  1 0  and  the  " . . . t a n t que  Quebec d ' a b o r d , de  r e s t e r a une  farmers  e c o n o m i c b a s e was  w h i c h t h e d e p r e s s i o n was  public  skills,  e v e n i f i m p l e m e n t e d by  uprooting of t h e i r  But,  t h e answer b e c a u s e  Furthermore, past experience  a policy,  programme was  de  the  talents.  them v u l n e r a b l e t o o t h e r e c o n o m i c c r i s e s ,  continued The  not  their  carried  o u t , he  was  enforced  of  the  idleness  Canada's human  "...  and  resources.  confident that,  " C e n t ans ... d'un e f f o r t m e t h o d i q u e , e t t o u t e s l e s t e r r e s c u l t i v a b l e s de l ' e s t du Canada, s a u f p e u t - e t r e l a p i n i n s u l e o n t a r i e n n e , a p p a r t i e n d r o n t aux gens de n o t r e sang. Les c r i s e s a l o r s p o u r r o n t v e n i r , a u s s i d u r e s qu'on p u i s s e l e s i m a g i n e r . L a F r a n c e d ' A m e r i q u e . . . s e r a a s s u r e e de s o n avenir."il As  v a r i o u s E.S.P. commentators s t r e s s e d r e p e a t e d l y ,  c o l o n i z a t i o n would a l s o s a f e g u a r d values.  I t would take  "...des t a v e r n e s , temperament, de  des  children  French  religious  away, i n L a f o r o e ' s w o r d s ,  s a l e s S c h o p p e s ou  l a deformation  Canada's  que  la juiverie  la ville  vend  donne t r o p  from a  souvent  12 aux  deracines qu'elle f i n i t  par  t u e r lentement."  The  benefits  -109of  agriculture,  i n the o p i n i o n o f another  even g r e a t e r than  Social  Catholic,were  this f o r ,  " . . . l a r e l i g i o n n'a j a m a i s e u c h e z nous de m e i l l e u r e s a u v e n g a r d e n a t u r e l l e que 1 ' a c t i o n c o l o n i s a t r i c e e t l a v i e d e s champs...Les r e l a t i o n s y s o n t p l u s c o r d i a l e s , les j o i e s plus pures, l a n a t a l i t y p l u s e i e v e e , parce que l a m o r a l e c o n j u g a l e e t f a m i l i a l e y e s t p l u s h o n o r ^ e . De 1§. d e s moeurs d'un c h r i s t i a n i s m e s a n s d e f a i l l a n c e ou s e p r e p a r e n t l e s g r a n d s C h r e t i e n s , oil g e r m e n t l e s nombreuses v o c a t i o n s s a c e r d o t a l e s e t r e l i g i e u s e s q u i d i b o r d e n t s u r t o u t e s l e s p l a g e s d e l ' u n i v e r s , au b e n e f i c e des m i s s i o n s etrangeres."13 If had  t h i s was t o c o n t i n u e ,  t o remain an a g r i c u l t u r a l p e o p l e .  joined la  he was c o n v i n c e d  that French  In t h i s  i n 1937 by t h e h i e r a r c h y who a d m i t t e d ,  tradition  e c c l ^ s i a s t i q u e m o n t r e une e s t i m e  Canadians  appeal, "...que  he was toute  singuli^re  pour  1'agriculture.... Archambault claimed first  letter  t h a t as f a r back as Msgr.  o n t h e s u b j e c t i n 1848, t h e c l e r g y h a d l e d t h e  c o l o n i z a t i o n movement i n F r e n c h was M s g r . L a v a l who h a d f i r s t I n any c a s e , colonization, in  committed  "les missionnaires  Others claimed  that i t  the Church t o c o l o n i z a t i o n . t o the promotion o f  c o l o n i s a t e u r s " , had l o n g  Now a s i n t h e p a s t ,  r e m a i n e d t h e same:  their  task  and t h e i r  the maintenace o f the a l l i a n c e  been  motives  between t h e  t h e l a n g u a g e and t h e f a i t h . Although  Quebec c o u l d claims  t h e r e was l i t t l e t h a t t h e S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s o f find  i n Papal  pronouncements t o support  on b e h a l f o f a g r i c u l t u r e ,  especially  during  most a t t r a c t i v e ibly,  Canada.  a group o f p r i e s t s d e d i c a t e d  existence.  land,  Bourget's  their  t h e f a c t was t h a t f o r many,  the f i r s t  h a l f o f the depression,  alternative  t o t h e dominant system.  i t was t h e Impercept-  however, t h e e m p h a s i s c h a n g e d a s t h e Pope's w r i t i n g s came  -110t o be b e t t e r u n d e r s t o o d . the  E.S.P. s h i f t e d  Catholics,  From a g r i c u l t u r e , t h e a t t e n t i o n o f  to corporatism.  aspect  of their  e x c e p t Communism, was t o r e c e i v e  To  by E u r o p e a n S o c i a l  t h e Quebec b r a n c h p r o c e e d e d t o s t u d y and t o d e v e l o p  t h e most e l a b o r a t e  No o t h e r  Aided  aspect  programme.  No o t h e r  aspect,  s o much a t t e n t i o n and  support.  was t o be so m i s u n d e r s t o o d .  what p u r p o s e d i d t h e s e men s u p p o r t  corporatism?  Q u a d r a g e s i m o anno s u g g e s t e d t o C a r d i n a l V i l l e n e u v e society  e s t mai b a t i e . " ^ 1  substituting,  according  that  "...la  S o c i e t y h a d t o be r e o r g a n i z e d  by  t o Pius XI,  "...des o r g a n e s b i e n c o n s t i t u t s , d e s o r d r e s ou des p r o f e s s i o n s q u i g r o u p e n t l e s hommes, non d'apres l a p o s i t i o n q u ' i l s occupent s u r l e marche d u t r a v a i l , m a i s d ' a p r e s l e s d i f f i r e n t e s b r a n c h e s de l ' a c t i v i t e s o c i a l e a u x q u e l l e s i l s se r a t t a c h e n t . " l ^ T h i s would e l i m i n a t e , C a r d i n a l V i l l e n e u v e where g a i n s  on b e h a l f  believed, situations  o f t h e w o r k e r s w o u l d be made a t t h e  e x p e n s e o f t h e f a r m e r s o r where wage i n c r e a s e s  l e d to the  c o l l a p s e o f an i n d u s t r y o r t o a w e a k e n i n g o f i t s position.  I t would a l s o h a l t t h e t r e n d  intervention of  i n socio-economic matters.  competitive  towards g r e a t e r  state  Such a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n  t h e economy w o u l d f o s t e r , i n P e r r i e r ' s w o r d s , "...d'une  part, 17  cette  j u s t e s o u m i s s i o n a l'empechera d ' e t r e  Through t h i s  reform  t h e S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s hoped t o r e d r e s s t h e  imbalances which they d e t e c t e d More i m p o r t a n t , of  excessive  i n the e x i s t i n g society.  on t h e l o n g  run,  such a r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n  t h e economy w o u l d l e a d t o a c h a n g e i n p e r s o n a l  uniting  science,  corporatism  capital  and l a b o u r  values.  w i t h i n one l e g a l  would b r i n g about a b e t t e r  By  framework,  appreciation of the  -Illworth o f labour,  o f t h e needs o f a p a r t i c u l a r  i n d u s t r y and o f t h e  18 r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e common g o o d . E.  Duthoit,  that  President  I t would remind a l l concerned,  o f t h e F r e n c h Semaines S o c i a l e s w r o t e ,  "Tous o n t . . . 1 o b l i g a t i o n m o r a l e - s a n s p a r I e r de 1 ' i n t S r e t 1  b i e n compris  - de c o o p e r e r 19  professionnel." manner, M u l l e r freedom.  a u b i e n commun de l e u r m i l i e u  Corporatism claimed,  w o u l d c o m p e l them t o a c t i n t h i s  without  In the process,  violating  i t would f u l f i l l  d e v e l o p t h r o u g h c l o s e and c o n s t a n t  their  individual  man's need t o l i v e a n d  contact with  h i s peers and  w o u l d i n c r e a s e h i s a w a r e n e s s o f t h e bonds w h i c h l i n k e d h i m t o the  community. What, t h e S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s a s k e d t h e m s e l v e s , do  goals  require?  prise, their  By u n i t i n g t h o s e  corporatism  w o u l d e n a b l e them t o s t u d y 20  common p r o b l e m s .  Muller,  most c o n c e r n e d  the c o l l e c t i v e  these  i n a given  enter-  and t o r e s o l v e  They w o u l d n e g o t i a t e ,  according to  agreements a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e i r  sector  o f t h e economy a n d e s t a b l i s h t h e r u l e s a n d p e n a l t i e s t o e n s u r e its  operation.  would r e t a i n ests  Each group w i t h i n t h e c o r p o r a t i o n ,  however,  i t s autonomy and b y a d v a n c i n g i t s p a r t i c u l a r  counter-balance  t h e power o f t h e o t h e r s .  inter-  As one comment-  a t o r ptit i t , "Le b i e n commun ne forme p a s une masse compacte e t homogene d o n t l a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n p u i s s e e t r e a v a n t a g e u s e m e n t c o n f i e e a un o r g a n i s m e unique; ( s i c ) i l y a des p a l i r s e t des etages dans l e b i e n commun ( s i c ) e t a c h a q u e p a l i e r e t , a chaque e t a g e , i l c o n v i e n t q u ' i l a i t sa r e p r e s e n t a t i o n propre...."21 The S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s h o p e d , i n t h i s manner, t o s t r u c t u r e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n t h e economic system so as t o promote a  -112reconciliation Duthoit chaotic  of diverging  felt  interests.  t h a t t h e r e was  another  and,  e c o n o m i c s i t u a t i o n , more i m p o r t a n t  considering  dimension to  the  corp-  22 oratism. i n g the it  I t would c r e a t e evils  of l a i s s e r  would s t a b l i z e  preserve  individual  XI  raised  and  and  initiative. i t s role  most d i f f i c u l t  corporatism  faire  production  however, e m p h a s i z e d The  "l'iconomie  and  of  ordonner", thereby  statism.  u n l i k e the  U n l i k e the  latter,  M o s t w r i t e r s on  i n promoting s o c i a l  i t s relationship  this  topic,  harmony.  to the  Duthoit  as  f o r most S o c i a l  c o r p o r a t i o n would r e l i e v e regit  avantageusement su  s t a t e ' s r o l e w o u l d be the  the  state"...de la  Pius  bodies,  C a t h o l i c s , t h i s meant t h a t  s e i n meme de  limited  which  state.  c a l l e d upon t h e s t a t e t o l e a v e t o t h e s e i n t e r m e d i a t e " . . . l e s o i n des a f f a i r e s de m o i n d r e i m p o r t a n c e ou se d i s p e r s e r a i t a l ' e x c e s s o n e f f o r t ; e l l e p o u r r a des l o r s a s s u r e r p l u s l i b r e m e n t , p l u s puissamment, p l u s e f f i c a c e m e n t l e s f o n c t i o n s q u i n ' a p p a r t i e n n e n t qu'a e l l e p a r c e q u ' e l l e s e u l e peut l e s remplir...."23  For  former,  i t would  most c o n t r o v e r s i a l q u e s t i o n  concerned  avoid-  t o u t ce q u i peut  the etre  p r o f e s s i o n . T h e  to sanctionning  the d e c i s i o n s of  corporations. Muller tried  this being  question. without  To the  to a l l a y those  the m i s g i v i n g s  who  f o r c e and  w h i c h had  arisen  argued t h a t i t c o u l d not discipline  come  of a d i c t a t o r i a l  on into  regime  b e h i n d i t , he r e p l i e d t h a t , on t h e c o n t r a r y , t r u e c o r p o r a t i s m "...ne p e u t s ' i p a n o u i r e t p r o s p t r e r que s o u s un r e g i m e de l a r g e l i b e r t y , c o m p a t i b l e n i a n m o i n s a v e c un p o u v o i r f o r t e t r e s p e c t ^ , s t r i c t e m e n t c a n t o n n e dans l ' e x e r c i c e de s e s f o n c t i o n s n a t u r e l l e s . " 2 5  -113Totalitarian by  r e g i m e s , s u c h as t h o s e f o u n d i n I t a l y  t h e i r very  nature could  not respect  Furthermore, t o succeed corporations  a n d Germany,  t h e autonomy o f any g r o u p .  had t o develop  "...en  t e n a n t compte du temperament n a t i o n a l , de s e s t r a d i t i o n s , de sa  situation  corporatism.  economique."  Hence t h e r e  To t h o s e who c o m p l a i n e d  weaken t h e power o f t h e s t a t e , M u l l e r incompatible  were many t y p e s o f that  i t would  answered t h a t ,  with a d i c t a t o r s h i p , corporatism  government t o e s t a b l i s h t h e p r e - c o n d i t i o n s implementation.  Others claimed  that  severely while  d i d require  a  strong  f o r i t s successful  once e s t a b l i s h e d  corporatism  26  would s t r e n g t h e n  t h e s t a t e i n many ways.  responsibilities,  i t would e n a b l e t h e s t a t e t o c o n c e r n  w i t h t h e main i s s u e s ; by o r g a n i z i n g hierarchical  decisions believed within  itself  economic a c t i v i t i e s  ina  s t r u c t u r e , i t w o u l d make e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l  ment more o r d e r l y each s e c t o r ,  By d e c e n t r a l i z i n g  and by m o b i l i z i n g t h e e x p e r t i s e  develop-  t o be f o u n d i n  i t w o u l d e n a b l e t h e g o v e r n m e n t t o make w i s e r  i n socio-economic matters. t h a t , by d e m o c r a t i z i n g  industry,  corporatism  Some  trade-unionists  the decision-making  would a l s o r e i n f o r c e  process  political  democracy. Equally corporatism restricted  difficult should  role.  t o r e s o l v e was t h e p r o b l e m o f how  be i m p l e m e n t e d Muller  i f t h e s t a t e was t o h a v e a  had t o admit t h a t ,  "...nulle part  e n c o r e on n*a d e c o u v e r t l a f o r m u l e d e f i n i t i v e , dresse" l e p l a n 27 standard s u r quoi r e o r g a n i s e r uniformement t o u t e v i e s o c i a l e . " T h i s was n o t r e a l l y  a p r o b l e m f o r , as M u l l e r  b r a n c h e de l ' a c t i v i t e  noted,  "chaque  e c o n o m i q u e r e c l a m e une d i s c i p l i n e  adaptee  -114a s a s t r u c t u r e e t §. s e s b e s o i n s . " t o d e v e l o p i t s c o r p o r a t i o n on a priori. who  were b e i n g  spirit  this  this  to succeed.  t h r o u g h p a t i e n t and who  considered  this  were t u r n i n g t o more r a d i c a l  questioned  their  process.  to look  groups  too  the by  leadership developed  Consequently s l o w t o end  solutions.  a r o u n d them t o  the  Muller  a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h i s work w o u l d be  They o n l y had  than  created  c o u l d o n l y be  t o be  depression  be  skilled  e d u c a t i o n a l work.  technique  rather  t h a t the  c o u l d not  required  These q u a l i t i e s  gradual  was  had  u n i f y i n g organism lacked  spirit  In a d d i t i o n , c o r p o r a t i s m  i t was  those  And  basis of experience  p r o b l e m , t o him,  asked to c r e a t e  of cooperation.  decree. if  A more f o r m i d a b l e  the  Each s e c t o r , t h e r e f o r e ,  a  slow  see,  " . . . l e nombre i m p o s a n t d ' i n s t i t u t i o n s pricorporatives dija existantes syndicats...ententes, accords, contrats c o l l e c t i f s , e t c . - q u i : c o n s t i t u e n t pour l ' o e u v r e a e d i f i e r de p r e c i e u s e s amorces dont 1'experience a d i j a r e v i l e l a puissante e f f i c a c i t i . " 2 8 What e l s e had  t o be  and  developed with  the  corporations  to take  the  had  over from the  The the  done?  c o l l a b o r a t i o n o f men  the  o r g a n i z a t i o n , the  t o be  coordinated  of goodwill skill  and  the  until authority  state.  chief obstacle  distrust  T h e s e e l e m e n t s had  to i t s implementation, Muller  o f t r a d e - u n i o n i s t s who  saw  corporatism  felt,  only  was  as  an  t r u e t h a t some s u p p o r t e r s  of  29 attempt the  c o n c e p t had  Pius des in  t o d i v i d e them.  XI's  I t was  a l s o seen i t i n t h i s  demand t h a t  "...§. c e s  light  and  c l a s s e s opposies  organes b i e n c o n s t i t u e s . . . " a c c o r d i n g l y . this  case the  Pope was  had  referring  to the  interpreted  on  Muller  social  substitue argued  order  and  (sic)  that not  -115to unions.  Where u n i o n s had  ideologies,  they  structure until formula  t o be  organisee." unions  undoubtedly could these  The  the  consulted  i n t e g r a t e d i n the  been purged.  "le syndicat l i b r e  a l t e r n a t i v e was  Otherwise  corporation, and  to share  union  and  not  framework, M u l l e r was  them t o r e s o l v e t h e i r  than of strength.  This  on  C h r i s t i a n u n i o n s had  of cooperation  to  be  r i g h t was  to  be  necessary  t o be  mainthe  t h a t t h i s would  much t o do  to  1 1  for  the b a s i s of e q u i t y  t h e i r members t h a t s e n s e o f s o c i a l  spirit  right  interacting within  convinced  disputes  en  consciences.  competence had  and  the  join  a t the p l a n t l e v e l ,  o f power b a s e d on  With each group o r g a n i z e d  corporative  leurs  w o u l d have t h e  in i t s control.  at that l e v e l  a rational division tained.  the  new  dans l a p r o f e s s i o n  to f o r c e C h r i s t i a n s to  a v e c l e s l e g i t i m e s e x i g e n c e s de  exercised only  that  be  revolutionary  " . . . d o n t l e s p r i n c i p e s e t l e s programmes s e r a i e n t  Within  within  not  e l e m e n t s had  f o l l o w e d was  contradiction  lead  b e e n i n f e c t e d by  soon rather  develop  responsibility  t o make c o r p o r a t i s m  and a  reality. Finally, could  M u l l e r had  facilitate  answer t h i s  this process.  question  by  b e e n made t o i n t r o d u c e s u g g e s t e d , had  failed  corporations  make t h e  because of the  question  He  attempts t h a t  Dutch experiment, and  external  r e l u c t a n c e of the  viable.  government s h o u l d He  concluded  state  attempted  to  had he  economic  government  more t h a n c o n s u l t a t i v e p o w e r s .  o f when t h e  corporations  The  because of i n t e r n a l  grant  the  What were t h e y ?  corporatism.  and  raised  t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e  examining the v a r i o u s  competition these  to consider  to  This  intervene  to  t h a t much d e p e n d e d  -116on  the  government f o r , " s ' i l s a i t l i b e r a l e m e n t p a r t a g e r a v e c eux r e s p o n s a b i l i t e s en m a t i e r e s o c i a l e e t y c o n o m i q u e , l e u r a s s i g n e r un p o u v o i r r§glementaire e t e x e c u t i f Stendu, l e s C o n s e i l s p r o f e s s i o n n e l s ne t a r d e r o n t pas p r e n d r e p r o f o n d e r a e n t r a c i n e dans l a v i e gconomigue...."31  Looking  a t the  radical  c h a n g e i n a t t i t u d e w h i c h M u s s o l i n i had  According etS  Fascist  to Muller,  v e r s i o n , he  "...le  the  fact  corporatism  t h a t the  operation.  He  o r a t i o n s had  but  of the  had  the  about.  c o u l d not  the  t r u e not  u n i o n s as w e l l .  brought  b e e n i m p o s e d , he  to agree with  T h i s was  approving  W h i l e he  The  a could accept  deal of c o n t r o l over i t s  Pope t h a t t h e F a s c i s t  "...un c a r a c t ^ r e exagereinent  politique...."  help  les milieux...."  state retained a great  had  3.  denouement a l a c h o s e p u b l i q u e  r e m i s en h o n n e u r dans t o u s  e x c u s e t h e way  c o u l d not  ses  bureaucratique  only of the  same c o u l d be  Fascist said  corp-  et  corporations  of the  Nazi  version. Two  other  e x p e r i m e n t s , however, met  down i n Q u a d r a g e s i m o anno. One Switzerland  and  had  not  was  the  i n the  requirements  county of  been i n o p e r a t i o n  laid  Fribourg,  l o n g enough t o show i f 32  it  w o u l d be  laudable the type  a success  aspect  and  of the  the  o t h e r was  Portugal.  P o r t u g u e s e e x p e r i m e n t was  right within certain limits  to those  created  the  employers*  e a c h g r o u p was violate  t h a t c o u l d be  to j o i n .  made o f  i t was  a s s o c i a t i o n and This decree,  a fundamental p r i n c i p l e  most  that i t granted  concerned to develop  o f c o r p o r a t i o n t h a t w o u l d b e s t meet t h e i r  est criticism  The  had  needs.  t h a t the decreed  of course,  The  state which  appeared  of C a t h o l i c corporatism.  the  stronghad union to But,  -117asked M u l l e r ,  is this  were t o o weak o r  freedom of  vided  s t a t e was  justified,  Wherever  themselves  i n the  unions or  writer's  i n c r e a t i n g s i n g l e u n i o n s f o r each economic s e c t o r  t h e y were n o t  teachings. cite  absolute?  the workers unable to organize  were a l l C a t h o l i c s , t h e opinion,  choice  animated with  Thus M u l l e r  Portugal  as  proof  cleared that  a spirit  t h e way  their  contrary  t o the  proChurch's  for Social Catholics  concept of  corporatism  to  was  viable. C o r p o r a t i s m as great  deal  period.  of  Yet  support only  application. aim  and  a s o l u t i o n f o r Quebec's i l l s  As  two  from the of  received  E.S.P.*s c o n t r i b u t o r s  during  them p r o d u c e d a d e t a i l e d p l a n  t h e s e two  a this  for i t s  programmes d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y  method, t h e y s h o u l d  t o be  e x a m i n e d i n some  in  detail. 33  The was He  earliest  of  t h e s e was  written  t o c o r r e c t t h e w e a k n e s s e s t h a t had p r o p o s e d t o do  t h i s by  using  Canadian s o c i e t y ,  "...sur  une  notre  temperament e t aux  wanted t o b r e a k the  e x i g e n c e s de  notre  a n a t i o n a l purpose. of  living  of  an  a  Many  reminded  older  problem:  a n t i - t r u s t campaign  the working c l a s s but,  w o n d e r e d , f o r how l o n g . He a s k e d : " . . . d e p u i s quand l e p r o g r e s d'un p e u p l e s a p p r e c i e - t - i l b\ l a q u a l i t e du menu q u o t i d i e n de s e s masses o u v r i e r e s ou autres? P r o b l e m e de c u l t u r e a v a n t t o u t , q u i c o n c e r n e done l e c o e u r e t 1 ' e s p r i t au m o i n s a u t a n t que l ' a p p a r e i l d i g e s t i f . . . . " 3 4 1  he  French  desormais  situation...." but  aim  depression.  adaptie  m e r e l y a symptom o f An  His  to reconstruct  power o f m o n o p o l i e s f i r s t  the  standard  l e d to the  base n o u v e l l e ,  p r o b l e m was  improve the  Minville.  corporatism  them t h a t t h i s absence of  by  might  Minville  -118The  mass e x o d u s f r o m t h e  property  owners and  the  farms, the  survival  o f F r e n c h Canada.  the  o n l y way  t o remedy t h e s e  Corporatism,  overcoming the  implementation of corporatism. g e o g r a p h y and  a p p l i e d i n Quebec.  of the  the  e c o n o m i c power was  How  could  be  law,  he  concluded  population.  a l s o h e l d by  was  the  Not  d e v o i r . . . ! l a formule d ' o r g a n i s a t i o n  only  o b s t a c l e was  o n l y was  be  the  this  English-speaking  i l s les doivent,  to  problems  that i t should  expected to adopt c o r p o r a t i s m  richesse et leur puissance,  obstacles  Because o f the  T h e r e , t h e most f o r m i d a b l e  heterogenrous nature  they  i n h i s judgment,  ills.  M i n v i l l e ' s m a i n c o n c e r n was  r a i s e d by  small  i d l e n e s s o f t h e y o u n g were j e o p a r d i z i n g  the  the  p r o l e t a r i a n i z a t i o nof  so  but  minority.  when " . . . l e u r  du m o i n s c r o i e n t l e s  s o c i a l e que  nous  voulons  35 changer." aussit6t  Any taxi  de  scheme t h a t t h e y  r a d i c a l i s m e , v o i r e de  mithodiquement par  eux."  s u r m o u n t e d was,  b e l i e v e d , by  only  he  one  o n l y way the  French  and  jurisdiction  problem. tural  over t h i s  For area,  In a d d i t i o n , there  accept  "...est  communisme, e t  a p p l i c a t i o n of  discredits  could  be  corporatism  Canadians.  much t o recommend t h i s  spiritually.  not  this barrier  t h i n g , F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s were a v e r y  culturally the  The  t o s e c t o r s c o n t r o l l e d by T h e r e was  could  approach  to M i n v i l l e .  homogeneous g r o u p  a n o t h e r , as  the provinces  t h e r e w o u l d be  e x i s t e d between t h e  For  had  no c o n s t i t u t i o n a l two  major  groups, "...une d i f f e r e n c e d ' a p t i t u d e , de g i n i e e t h n i q u e q u i v o u e 1'un e t 1 ' a u t r e g r o u p e a une c a r r i d r e i c o n o m i q u e , s i n o n e s s e n t i e l l e m e n t , du moins sensiblement d i f f i r e n t e . " 3 6  cul-  -119Th i s  f a c t was m a n i f e s t e d  succeed  i n t h e tendency o f French  i n s m a l l and medium-scale e n t e r p r i s e s w h i l e  Canadians c o n t r o l l e d Minville  t h e huge c o r p o r a t i o n s .  recommended t h a t F r e n c h  the economic s e c t o r s under t h e i r doctrines  and, thereby  not  on t h e t e c h n i c a l  He  Canadians t o  dwell felt  F o r these  Canadians proceed control  improve t h e i r aspects  the Englishreasons,  to reorganize  according to corporative  economic p o s i t i o n .  of carrying out this  He d i d policy.  c o n f i d e n t , however, t h a t , o n c e c o r p o r a t i s m was i n o p e r a t i o n ,  the q u e s t i o n would minority  soon a r i s e as t o t h e r o l e  o f Quebec.  When t h i s  of the English-speaking  h a p p e n e d , he h o p e d t h a t e a c h  group  w o u l d have f o r m e d p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s o n t h e b a s i s o f religion. ation, the  Once t h e s e  the process  "economic  g r o u p s were b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r  i n a corpor-  o f m a j o r i t y r u l e w o u l d e l i m i n a t e t h e power o f  dictators".  Q u i t e d i f f e r e n t was t h e a t t i t u d e o f t h e man who was t o become t h e l e a d i n g t h e o r e t i c i a n o f c o r p o r a t i s m  i n Quebec, 37  Maximilien  C a r o n , p r o f e s s o r o f l a w a t t h e U n i v e r s i t e de M o n t r e a l .  He  cited  A French  to  remember t h a t t h e p u r p o s e o f c o r p o a t i s m was n o t t o a b s o r b " . . . l a p e r s o n n e humaine dans un v a s t e o r g a n i s m e , m a i s a l ' e n c a d r e r dans un o r d r e h u m a i n 5u c h a c u n , se s e n t e a l a f o i s p l u s r e s p o n s a b l e de s a d e s t i n e e e t p l u s c a p a b l e de f a i r e l e c h o i x n i c e s s a i r e q u i d o i t l e mener un j o u r a l a v i s i o n de D i e u . "  C a r o n saw i n t h i s ing tous  S o c i a l C a t h o l i c who h a d warned h i s  conception  colleagues  o f c o r p o r a t i s m t h e means o f e l i m i n a t -  t h a t o f t e n f a t a l weakness o f d e m o c r a c y , t h e f a c t s e r i c l a m a i e n t de l a d e m o c r a t i e ,  t h a t , "...  m a i s ne l a v i v a i e n t p a s . 38 >  Aucun s o u c i de l ' u t i l i t e individuals with protect  their  commune ne l e s a n i m a i t . "  a framework w i t h i n w h i c h t h e y  rights  and c o u l d c l e a r l y  By p r o v i d i n g  could  understand  effectively  their  obligations,  -120C a r o n hoped t h a t c o r p o r a t i s m would d e v e l o p  a sense of  F o l l o w i n g t h e g u i d e l i n e s c o n s t r u c t e d by Catholics,  Caron d i s c u s s e d the p r a c t i c a l  a t i o n of corporatism  i n great d e t a i l .  his  i n a g e n e r a l way.  programme e x c e p t  j u s t economy, he, the  between l o c a l ,  corporations.  These b o d i e s ,  in  had  t h e i r path,  t o be  in the  served.  t h i s way,  he  t h e way  and  humane  demonstrating  had  and  and  to  obstacles adapt  of the  economic  i t s beneficial influence  cooperatives.  a c t i o n s , Caron envisaged  within this  c o r p o r a t i s m as  context  a long-term  support.  undertaken  At to  by  furthering  As  a result  of  t h e emergence o f a more  of i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t  solution  E.S.P.'s c o n t r i b u t o r s t u r n e d  their  to the d e p r e s s i o n a t t e n t i o n i n the  t h i s p e r i o d t o the r o l e of C a t h o l i c unions.  ceived that role  t o be m e r i t s  A r c h a m b a u l t was des  area  and  society. I t was  of  s t e p and  by m o b i l i z i n g p u b l i c o p i n i o n and  other  an o r d e r l y  c o r p o r a t i s m would win  through  analyze  provincial  t h a t a c a m p a i g n s h o u l d be  economic d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n these  needs o f the  convinced,  urged  need t o  d i v i d e d t h e power  r e g i o n a l and  e r e c t e d s t e p by  clearly  he was  same t i m e ,  prepare  By  attain  Social  implement-  i f t h e y were t o overcome t h e  themselves t o the p a r t i c u l a r sector  of the  T h e r e i s no  l i k e most c o r p o r a t i s t s ,  responsibilities  the European  aspects  To  community.  digues  quick  some  t o see  l e s p l u s p u i s s a n t e s que  in  that  the  latter  What t h e y  part con-  study. i n C a t h o l i c unions, n o t r e pays p u i s s e  "...une  dresser  39 contre effects  l e communxsme...." as f o l l o w s :  He  enumerated t h e i r  beneficial  -121"Non s e u l e m e n t o n y combat d i r e c t e m e n t l e s t h e o r i e s b o l c h e v i s t e s , on y e n s e i g n e au t r a v a i l l e u r l a d o c t r i n e c h r i t i e n n e , on f o r t i f i e son attachement a l ' E g l i s e e t a l ' o r d r e s o c i a l , mais, en o u t r e , p a r l e u r s oeuvres i c o n o m i q u e s . . . i l s rendent son e x i s t e n c e moins d u r e s , p l u s humaine, e t c o n t r i b u e n t p a r 15 H f a i r e d i s p a r a i t r e c e ferment d'anarchie...." Cardinal V i l l e n e u v e , while echoing t h i s satisfaction leurs  i n the fact  that,  "leurs  praise,  took  rdglements  particular  e t 1 ' a c t i o n de  a u m o n i e r s c o n s t i t u e n t une d i g u e . . . c o n t r e t o u t e  idee  40 s u b v e r s i v e e s s a i e r a i t de l e s e n v a h i r . "  A related  task which  t h e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e C.T.C.C. was p l e a s e d t o d e s c r i b e a t a n a n t i Communist d e m o n s t r a t i o n  was t o r i d Quebec o f t h e h u m i l i a t i n g  fact  that, " . . . d e p u i s p r § s d'un d e m i - s i § c l e , une g r a n d e p a r t i e du t r a v a i l organise" s ' e s t d e v e l o p p i e sous l e s o u f f l e m a t e r i a l i s a n t de 1 ' e s p r i t a m i r i c a i n a v e c l a c o n n i v e n c e de c h e f s c a n a d i e n s m a i iclairis. Thus, t h e C a t h o l i c unions p a s t , an important Similarly,  were p e r f o r m i n g ,  ideological  as they had i n t h e  function.  as Archambault  had noted,  to  present the Catholic  of  t h e C.T.C.C. a s s e r t e d t h a t two b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s  Catholic unions.  alternative  t h e C.T.C.C. c o n t i n u e d  The f i r s t  was t h a t  t o the workers.  One l e a d e r guided  a l l men"...ne d o i v e n t p a s 42  etre The  considiris second  igaux  comme d e s o u t i l s  was t h a t ,  "...tous  (je d i s foncierement  because o f these p r i n c i p l e s t h e work week s o t h a t "...a' une E g l i s e  e t comme d e s i n s t r u m e n t s . . . . "  l e s hommes ... s o n t  foncierement  e t non p a s a b s o l u m e n t ) . " that  I t was  t h e C.T.C.C. a t t e m p t e d  t h e worker would have t h e l e i s u r e  e t pour p r a t i q u e r s a r e l i g i o n . . . . " ,  to shorten to belong  t o shorten  -122the w o r k i n g day so t h a t t h e worker c o u l d d e v e l o p telligence,  jouir  enfants..."  and t o c l a i m a r e a s o n a b l e  have t o l i v e For  these  like  de s o n f o y e r e t p o u r v o i r  "... s o n i n -  H l ' e d u c a t i o n de s e s  wage s o t h a t he w o u l d n o t  "...une b e t e s a n s r a i s o n e t s a n s  reasons,  he a l s o s u p p o r t e d  intelligence."  t h e c l o s e d shop.  Another  l e a d e r o f t h e C.T.C.C. s t r e s s e d t h e d e s i r e o f C a t h o l i c u n i o n s t o establish,  "...des r e l a t i o n s c o r d i a l e s e t h a r m o n i e u s e s  entre  43 patrons  e t ouvriers...."  employers  1  p o i n t o f v i e w and t h e n e e d t o r e s p e c t  obligations. he  As c o n f l i c t s ,  stated that strikes  undertaken only discussing  He e m p h a s i z e d t h e n e e d t o c o n s i d e r t h e  unfortunately,  should  only  c o u l d n o t be  be t h e l a s t  i f c e r t a i n r e s t r i c t i o n s were o b s e r v e d .  priority  Both o f these  tasks  - combating  r o l e o f t h e C.T.C.C.^  g i v e n more e m p h a s i s a t t h i s Social  Catholic proposal  1'extension  ideological  collective  out  cabinet  collectives  relations.  e n e m i e s and  a continuation of  i n the  " l a l o i r e l a t i v e 3. 44  de t r a v a i l . "  T h i s law  t h e power t o e x t e n d t h e t e r m s o f a  i n t h e same t r a d e  and e n f o r c e  Charpentier  t i m e , was t h e c o n c e p t embodied  agreement n e g o t i a t e d  to a l l others  In  What was new, o r a t l e a s t  w h i c h became i n 1934  des conventions  gave t h e p r o v i n c i a l  avoided,  t o t h e maintenance o f harmonious  p r o m o t i n g t h e C a t h o l i c programme - were m e r e l y original  mutual  r e s o r t and, then,  t h e r e f o r m s w h i c h t h e C.T.C.C. a d v o c a t e d ,  a l s o gave f i r s t  the  their  between one company and one or industrial  i t s provisions this  sector.  law a u t h o r i z e d  union  To c a r r y  the c r e a t i o n  o f a " c o m i t y c o n j o i n t " composed o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f a l l g r o u p s directly  concerned.  Charpentier  Why  d i d t h e C.T.C.C. s u p p o r t  believed that this  law would,  this  step?  -123"...mettre f i n a 1 e n t r e - t u e r i e patronale e t aux s a l a i r e s de f a m i n e s ; l o i q u i s t i m u l e , renforcit et itend 1 organisation professionnelle dans l e s m i l i e u x o d e l l e e t a i t i n c o n n u e , q u i i l a r g i t s o n h o r i z o n s o c i a l e t l ' o r i e n t e dans _ l e s e n s de s e s r e s p o n s a b i l ^ t i s n a t i o n a l e s . . . . " 1  1  In making t h i s  last  point,  he was e x p r e s s i n g  he  was t o be d i s a p p o i n t e d ,  is  C a t h o l i c o n e s , w o u l d be g r a n t e d t h e r i g h t t o h a v e  contracts  that only  t h e hope, i n w h i c h  incorporated  e x t e n d e d , t h e r e b y g i v i n g them a g r e a t  non-Catholic  unions.  from i t , a c c o r d i n g  Other immediate b e n e f i t s  t o him, i n c l u d e d  unions, their  advantage over t h e t o be  the closed  that  derived  shop, t i g h t e r  c o n t r o l over apprenticeships,  and t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f " w i l d c a t "  strikes.  I t s greatest  however, f o r many S o c i a l  including  Charpentier  vers  une a u t r e  merit, was t h a t  rgforme p l u s  " . . . c e ne s e r a  complete, plus  Catholics  e n c o r e qu'un  palier  comprehensive:  1*  46 organisation  corporative  de l a p r o f e s s i o n . "  I n t h e m i n d s o f many c o n t r i b u t o r s  t o t h e E.S.P. t h e same 47  principles associating  applied  t o a c e r t a i n extent  i n various  improve t h e i r  ways, t h e y c l a i m e d  economic s i t u a t i o n .  of  a  was c o o p e r a t i o n  sense o f s o c i a l  called  f o r the creation of Y e t another  form  i n importance a t t h e end o f t h i s 48  i n i t s various  forms.  Because i t b r e d  r e s p o n s i b l i t y and d e c e n t r a l i z e d  cooperation  was c o n s i d e r e d  corporatism  and e v e n a s c o m p r i s i n g  system.  t h e farmers would  s o c i e t i e s t o promote i t .  a s s o c i a t i o n , which gained  period,  that  By  S i m i l a r l y , t o ensure the success  o f c o l o n i z a t i o n , most S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s parochial or diocesan  t o the farmers.  by many a s p r e p a r i n g  e c o n o m i c power,  t h e way f o r  an e l e m e n t w i t h i n  the c o r p o r a t i s t  -124Colonization a d v a n c e d by system.  and  c o r p o r a t i s m were t h e  two  main  t h e E.S.P. t o r e p l a c e t h e e x i s t i n g  I t was  chiefly  c o o p e r a t i v e s and  to b r i n g these  unions  i t was  socio-economic  changes i n t o b e i n g  were e n c o u r a g e d .  g o v e r n m e n t came i n t o o f f i c e ,  proposals  When t h e  colonization  that  Duplessis  t h a t was  given  49 a higher p r i o r i t y .  When t h i s  g o v e r n m e n t a t t e m p t e d a s has  noted,  t o weaken t h e b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n o f t h e u n i o n s  it  l a r g e l y because they  was  saw  C a t h o l i c unions  as  of corporatism  that Cardinal Villeneuve publicly  g o v e r n m e n t and  Msgr. D e s r a n l e a u ,  denounced  " . . . c e t t e blague  Desranleau  was  to e s t a b l i s h  to support  a union  suffered.  rejecting  completely  t r a d i t i o n a l way transform It  la liberty  de  the e x i s t i n g  and  interpretations  year  Sorel. discerned  Canadian  the  Social  o r d e r and  returning to  a c c e p t i n g t h e Pope's c h a l l e n g e  the to  society according to C a t h o l i c conceptions. that the:only  E.S.P. c o n t r i b u t o r s t o  c o l o n i z a t i o n were F r e n c h  context  and  Sherbrooke, 50  s t a t e d , t h e y were t o r n b e t w e e n  E u r o p e a n s p r o v i d e d most o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l this  the  travail."  c o r p o r a t i s m c o u l d b e s t be  industrial  to note  a g r i c u l t u r e and  Within  of  t h e C.T.C.C. i n i t s a t t e m p t t h a t  Simply the  1937,  criticized  Bishop  f r o m w h i c h many F r e n c h  of l i f e  is interesting  discuss  and  of l o y a l t i e s  Catholics  auxiliary  in  a prerequisite  shop i n t h e S i m a r d s h i p y a r d s o f  In c o l o n i z a t i o n conflict  de  been  }  the  Canadians,  framework o f  same d i v e r g e n c e s  in  corporatism.  attitudes,  approaches n o t i c e a b l e i n other p a r t s of  C a t h o l i c programme were a l s o p r e s e n t .  Few  while  the  other C a t h o l i c pro-  p o s a l s however, d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e c o n t r a s t i n aims and  approaches  -125found  i n the  corporatism  other  t o p i c d i d an  o f M i n v i l l e , C a r o n and  author perform the  which M i n v i l l e e x h i b i t e d . three  intellectual  M i n v i l l e appeared t o have r e v e r s e d  embraced t h e  industrialization  o f Quebec.  o f h i s w r i t i n g s was  his belief  that  dictators"  integrated  gradually  could  be  French-speaking corporations few  years previously  the  capitalists In  ization Social to face  the  the  fact  e v e n t h o u g h he the  thinking,  the  realized,with  period  the  t h a t Quebec was  "economic into  with  shift  from  t h e i r hearts  Trudeau r i g h t , t h e r e f o r e ,  a rural  comprendre,  l e phinomdne i n d u s t r i e l  the  d ^ g a g e r e n t de  which  the need  t h e o r i c i e n s ne  1'enseignement  des  l e s formules qui pouvaient e n n o b l i r  d'un  The to  Pierre disposes  la prolitarisation  m a s s e s . . . nos p a p e s que  Was  "...n'etant guere et  a  society.  remained w i t h a g r i c u l t u r e . in writing:  the  colon-  indicated that  longer  aspect  power.  Pope's a s s i s t a n c e ,  no  and  demonstrated  ruthlessness  this wishful  the  most c u r i o u s  had  their  this  h i s stand  peacefully  exercised  during  s o l u t i o n to  English-speaking and  no  corporatism  r e m a i n s , however, t h a t w h i l e t h e i r m i n d s t u r n e d  corporatism,  3  The  and  to corporatism Catholics  the  t e n a c i t y and  maintained  s p i t e of  impression  the  On  acrobatics  I n w r i t i n g a p a m p h l e t on  y e a r s a f t e r p r o m o t i n g c o l o n i z a t i o n as  depression,  Muller.  des  social  prestige  51 d'emprunt nos  prijuges  de  groupe?"  adequately, i t i s necessary to f i r s t ception  of  i t s r o l e and  assessment of  To  answer t h i s  examine t h e  question  E.S.P.'s  i t s efforts.  con-  -126-  Chapter  IX  The R o l e o f t h e E.S.P. and o f I n d i v i d u a l As t h e y raised  f o r m u l a t e d t h e i r programme  ually,  r o l e was  as C a t h o l i c s ,  i n i t s implementation.  both  collectively  of  the convocation of a Delegates  1  300,000  undertakings connected  this  of the world  w i t h t h e E.S.P.,  - c o n f e r e n c e on c o l o n i z a t i o n  i n February,  f r o m e v e r y p a r t o f Canada, r e p r e s e n t i n g o v e r  people, attended t h i s  Archambault. to  their vision  individ-  themselves. One o f t h e e a r l i e s t  1932.  and  I t i s necessary t o study  aspect i n order to grasp i n i t s e n t i r e t y  was  to deal with the questions  by t h e d e p r e s s i o n , t h e members o f t h e E.S.P. h a d t o c o n s i d e r  what t h e i r  and  Catholics  two-day c o n f e r e n c e p r e s i d e d o v e r by  Turning t o another  focus a t t e n t i o n  on C a t h o l i c  field,  one o f i t s c a m p a i g n s  tried  u n i o n i s m when a "Semaine S y n d i c a l e "  2 was  s t a g e d i n November,  efforts  More l o n g l a s t i n g were t h e E.S.P.'s  on b e h a l f o f c o r p o r a t i s m .  E.S.P., A r c h a m b a u l t Nouveau t o d i f f u s e especially ated  1937.  launched the l a t e s t  corporatist  to these t o p i c s  initiatives  i n 1936, a b i - m o n t h l y  from time  Apart  L'Ordre  and,  from t h e pamphlets d e d i c -  t o t i m e , no o t h e r  important  were r e p o r t e d .  sphere.  t h e E.S.P.'s i n c u r s i o n  thus:  i n t o the  On M a r c h 9, 1933, t h e E.S.P. i n v i t e d 4  t h e o l o g i a n s t o meet i n M o n t r e a l . purpose  review,  developments i n C a t h o l i c 3  thought.  Much more e l a b o r a t e was political  Using the resources of the  a group o f  Archambault d e s c r i b e d i t s  -127"Chacun r e c o n n u t 1 * i m p o r t a n c e d ' o f f r i r aux c i t o y e n s de ce p a y s , d e s i r e u x de s * e m p l o y e r S une r e s t a u r a t i o n b a s i e s u r l ' e n c y c l i q u e Q u a d r a g e s i m o anno, en p a r t i c u l i e r aux hommes p u b l i c s , un programme ferme e t p r e c i s . " After  further consultations,  approval  of  "...  de  the  task.  ing  i t had  received  i n Quebec.  with general  30,  submitted  for  1933,  a warm r e c e p t i o n  As  the  principles, this  concreteness which a p o l i t i c a l  September  that  that  of public opinion  concerned only  programme was  hautes p e r s o n n a l i t i s e c c l e s i a s t i q u e s e t  Archambault claimed sectors  the  a group of  g r o u p had first  laiques."  from a l l  been  attempt  programme r e q u i r e d .  laymen had  c a r r i e d out  lacked  By this  further  While d i s c l a i m i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t , Archambault the  s e c o n d programme a c c o r d e d v e r y  at other  Catholic countries,  chancelier d'Autriche, voulait  he  Dollfuss, disait  r e c o n s t r u i r e son  pays sur  w e l l w i t h the  noted, that  admitted  first.  Look-  "L'inergique  derni§rement  l e s b a s e s de  the  qu il r  l'encyclique  5 Q u a d r a g e s i m o anno." t o t r y t o do guidelines  the  and  He  same.  u r g e d F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s as I t was  possible  i f "...devant l e b i e n  s*effacent...."  T h a t t h i s was  the  summer o f  1934  the  governing L i b e r a l party  f o r m e r P r e m i e r and  no  i f they  fancy  when a g r o u p d e d i c a t e d  leader  of  the  followed  commun l e s i n t i r e t s  idle  emerged.  devoted  6  Action  to  Paul  was  Catholics Pius de  XI s 1  parti  demonstrated  in  "re-liberalizing" G o u i n , son  Libirale  of  a  Nationale,  a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t t h e y had t a k e n , "...comme b a s e d ' e t u d e e t de d i s c u s s i o n , p o u r p r e p a r e r n o t r e m a h i f e s t e , l e programme de R e s t a u r a t i o n s o c i a l e p u b l i e sous l e s _ a u s p i c e s de l ' E c o l e s o c i a l e p o p u l a i r e . " The  ties  between the  two  were much s t r o n g e r  than t h i s  statement  -128suggests drafted  f o r there  i s evidence  t h e s e c o n d programme were a l s o i n s t r u m e n t a l g  A.L.N, m a n i f e s t o . party,  a d o p t e d p a r t s o f t h e s e c o n d programme.  Duplessis,  provincial twice  e l e c t i o n s , t h e A.L.N., r u n n i n g  as many s e a t s  as i t s p a r t n e r .  shaped t h e Union N a t i o n a l e , contributed The  there  Liberal  I t was on t h e b a s i s  t h a t an a l l i a n c e was f o r g e d  the leader o f the Conservative  who  i n w r i t i n g the  Other p a r t i e s , i n c l u d i n g the r u l i n g  o f t h e A.L.N, m a n i f e s t o and  t o i n d i c a t e t h a t many o f t h o s e  between 9  party.  on t h i s  Gouin  I n t h e 1935  platform,  W h i l e many o t h e r  won  factors  i s no d o u b t t h a t t h e E.S.P.  toi t .  f o r c e s t h a t t h r u s t t h e E.S.P. i n t o t h e p o l i t i c a l  were n o t e n t i r e l y  p o s i t i v e i n nature.  Describing  sphere  the context  w i t h i n w h i c h t h e E.S.P. h a d a c t e d , A r c h a m b a u l t w r o t e : "A c e t t e i p o q u e s u r t o u t 5 u l e g r o u p e Woodsworth s e m o n t r a i t tre" a c t i f t a n t au P a r l e m e n t que dans l e s assemblies publiques, l a saine o p i n i o n s ' i n q u i i t a i t e t d e m a n d a i t une d i r e c t i v e . . . I I s ' a c c o m p a g n a i t p r e s q u e t o u j o u r s d'une r e m a r q u e : S i l e programme de c e n o u v e a u p a r t i v a t r o p l o i n , ne p o u r r a i t - o n p a s - p u i s q u e d e s r i f o r m e s s i m p o s e n t - e n i t a b l i r un q u i c o n v i e n d r a i t aux c a t h o l i q u e s , q u i l e u r i n d i q u e r a i t j u s q u ' o i l i l s peuvent a l l e r dans l e u r s r e v e n d i c a t i o n s sociales?"l° 1  The  m e e t i n g t h a t r e s u l t e d l e d , as has been n o t e d , n o t o n l y  formation  of a political  Gauthier's by the  g r o u p , t h e A.L.N., b u t a l s o t o M s g r .  " w a r n i n g " a b o u t t h e C.C.F..  I n t u r n , t h i s was e n d o r s e d  C a r d i n a l V i l l e n e u v e and by t h e b i s h o p s C.C.F. was most The  itself  which took p l a c e assigned  itself  o f S a s k a t c h e w a n where  active.H  importance o f f e a r i n determining  manifested  to the  most c l e a r l y i n Quebec.  i n this  t h e E.S.P.'s  i n t h e anti-Communist  One o f t h e c h i e f t a s k s  regard  was t o " e c l a i r e r  role  campaign t h e E.S.P.  les intelligences."  -129For, Archambault  argued,  " C ' e s t en c a m o u f l a n t s a v r a i e n a t u r e , ses v i s e e s a n t i - r e l i g i e u s e s , ses r e s u l t a t s e c o n o m i q u e s , que l e communisme p e u t f a i r e d e s c o n q u e t e s dans n o t r e c l a s s e o u v r i d r e , e n c o r e c r o y a n t e e t a t t a c h i e S nos i n s t i t u t i o n s . " ! I t was  of great importance, t h e r e f o r e ,  t h e n a t u r e o f Communism and  that  i t s results.  2  t h e E.S.P.  I t was  expose  equally  important  t o make t h e w o r k e r s u n d e r s t a n d t h e C h u r c h ' s  doc t r i ne,  namely,  social  " . . . 1 ' i n e g a l i t i des c o n d i t i o n s , l a n e c e s s i t y de l a s o u f f r a n e e , l e r 6 l e v e r i t a b l e de l a r i c h e s s e , l a d i g n i t e " de l'homme, s a h a u t e d e s t i n i e , s o n d r o i t a une s a l a i r e f a m i l i a l e ; p u i s t o u t c e que l ' E g l i s e a f a i t p o u r l e travailleur..."13 S p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n had  t o be p a i d  Quebec.  The C h u r c h , A r c h a m b a u l t  majority  o f them and was  t h i n g was  n o t done.  Archambault He  The  s t a t e d , was  to the C a t h o l i c a d m i t t e d , had  i n danger o f l o s i n g cause o f t h i s the a t t i t u d e  immigrants i n  already  the r e s t  deplorable  lost  the  i f some-  situation,  of French-speaking Catholics.  asked, ".. . s o n g e - t - o n a" p r i e r a u s s i p o u r l a c o n v e r s i o n des q u a r a n t e - h u i t m i l l e j u i f s q u i e t e n d e n t s u r Montreal l e u r emprise grandissante? . . . q u e l l e a i d e p e c u n i a i r e l e u r a p p o r t o n s nous? ...ces m i s s i o n s q u i n ' a t t e n d e n t que d e s o u v r i e r s p o u r d o n n e r d e s beaux f r u i t s , c o m b i e n des n 6 t r e s y consacrent leur zele?"  F r e n c h Canadians would committed  have  t o become more k n o w l e d g e a b l e  i f t h e Communist t h r e a t was  To a c c o m p l i s h t h i s  task,  those already discussed,  to Catholic  eliminated.  t h e E.S.P. u t i l i z e d ,  apart  from  e v e r y medium o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n .  among t h e s e were a n t i - C o m m u n i s t available  t o be  and more  groups.  p l a y s composed by J e s u i t s R e g u l a r d i s p a t c h e s on  Noteworthy and made  Communist  -130a c t i v i t i e s were s e n t t o F r e n c h  language  newspapers;  special  weeks o r o t h e r e v e n t s were s t a g e d t o f o c u s a t t e n t i o n question.  A travelling  c a m p a i g n was u n d e r t a k e n  on t h i s  e x h i b i t i o n o f Communist documents  t o b r i n g home t h e r e a l i t y  o f t h e t h r e a t and, p e r i o d i c a l l y ,  t o accomplish a s p e c i f i c  days,  attempted a  g o a l such as t h e  14 one  a g a i n s t t r a d i n g with t h e S o v i e t Union.  E.S.P. a l w a y s calling  attempted  t o a c h i e v e t h e maximum i m p a c t  upon i n f l u e n t i a l  persons  this  r e s p e c t t h e climax appears  1936  when more t h a n a h u n d r e d  eously  t o have been r e a c h e d  thousand  Spain,  people  t o applaud  In  i n October,  gathered simultana glittering  array  and t o h e a r Msgr. G a u t h i e r ' s d e c l a r a t i o n t h a t , i n  t h e f a c e o f Communist a t t e m p t s in  o f t e n by  to support i t s p o s i t i o n .  i n M o n t r e a l a n d Quebec C i t y  of p e r s o n a l i t i e s  In doing so, the  t o d e s t r o y t h e Church  i n Quebec a n d 15  " . . . v o t r e p r e m i e r d e v o i r e s t de l a d i f e n d r e . . . . "  M e a n w h i l e , i n Quebec C i t y , f r o n t o f Premier  Duplessis that,  l ' o b j e t des c o n v o i t i s e s sans-Dieu..."  Cardinal Villeneuve proclaimed i n " . . . n o t r e p r o v i n c e e s t devenue  enflammees d e s r e v o l u t i o n n a i r e s  and denounced t h e p r e s e n c e  i n M o n t r e a l o f "...  d e l e g a t i o n s m e n s o n g d r e s , f l a n q u e e s de p r e t r e s religieux difroques...." members, a p p e a r s  e t des  a p o s t a t s ou de  T h e E.S.P., i n t h e words o f one o f i t s  t o have adopted  the s t r a t e g y o f combatting 16  communism  "...par  l e s memes armes d o n t  celui-ci  Most o f t h e s e p r o p o s a l s and a c t i v i t i e s effort had  on t h e p a r t o f C a t h o l i c s .  t o c o n s i d e r was t h e r o l e  individually.  that  Another  se s e r v a i t . "  required  a collective  a s p e c t w h i c h t h e E.S.P.  the f a i t h f u l  could  fulfill  -131Chief  among t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s was c h a r i t y .  S t a r t i n g w i t h t h e Pope who i n s i s t e d t h a t to  Catholics  demonstrate  the S o c i a l i s t s , "...que l e u r s r e c l a m a t i o n s , dans c e q u ' e l l e s o n t de j u s t e , t r o u v e n t . . . u n e f o r c e de r e a l i s a t i o n b i e n p l u s e f f i c a c e dans l a charite chretienne...",  many S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s  saw c h a r i t y a s a remedy f o r t h e m a l d i s t r i 17  bution did  that  social that  o f wealth which e x i s t e d .  Some f e l t  c h a r i t a b l e works w o u l d s a f e g u a r d ,  l e respect  de l a p r o p r i e t e . . . . "  c h a r i t y was d e s i r a b l e ,  a s Quebec's  "...avec  hierarchy  1'ordre  Others, while  granting  a g r e e d w i t h t h e outspoken Msgr.  Desranleau that, " . . . l a c h a r i t e , pour e t r e v r a i e e t e f f i c a c e , d o i t t e n i r compte de l a j u s t i c e . Que l'aumone, l e s dons o u l e s g r a t i f i c a t i o n s de f i n d'annee ne r e p a r e n t p a s l e s i n j u s t i c e s e t l e s v o l s commis p a r c e l u i q u i ne p a i e p a s l e j u s t e s a l a i r e f a m i l i a l ou r e t i e n t g u e l q u e chose s u r l e p r i x du t r a v a i l o u v r i e r . ™ n  In an attempt t o r e c o n c i l e t h e s e t e n d e n c i e s , C a r d i n a l stated  that  c h a r i t y w o u l d work b e s t  were n o t t h o r o u g h l y a c c e p t e d . "...qui  souffrent  dija  An  equally  important  function  Catholics groups.  was i t s a b i l i t y  where C h r i s t i a n v i r t u e s  I t would h e l p  those,  ease t h e l o t o f  d ' e c r a s e m e n t e t de r u i n e . " o f c h a r i t y f o r many S o c i a l  t o improve t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  W o r k e r s , one member w r o t e , s h o u l d e x e r c i s e  particularly  Villeneuve  i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s w i t h employers  this virtue  f o r , "ses reven-  d i c a t i o n s y g a g n e r o n t s u r e m e n t en procedes l o y a u x e t p a c i f i q u e s . . . The was,  most u r g e n t t a s k  f o r a C h r i s t i a n , according  t o Msgr.  Gauthier,  -132"...de j e t e r dans t o u s l e s m i l i e u x q u ' i l f r e q u e n t © de l ' o p t i m i s m e e t d e l a bonne humeur, d e l a r e s i g n a t i o n e t d e l a j o i e chritienne. P a r l'exemple e t p a r l a p a r o l e , i l d o i t o u v r i r I c e u x que l a gene r e n d maussades e t e x i g e a n t s l e s p e r s p e c t i v e s c o n s o l a n t e s de l ' E v a n g i l e . " Looking a t t h i s q u e s t i o n a t t h e end o f t h e d e p r e s s i o n , C a r d i n a l V i l l e n e u v e concluded  that without  a sufficient  degree  of justice,  " l e s i n d i v i d u s a u r o n t beau c o n s o l e r l e s peines e t pardonner l e s i n j u r e s . . . l e s c l a s s e s d'en bas s e r o n t i c r a s i e s . . . e t . . . c e l l e s d'en haut s e r o n t a u s s i e n t r a i n e e s dans l e meme i c r o u l e m e n t . " ?  How c o u l d S o c i a l faithful  understood  Catholics  ensure  t h a t each  his responsibilities  exploiting  P i u s XI d e p l o r e d t h e f a c t their  one o f t h e  and a c t e d a c c o r d i n g l y ?  T h a t many d i d n o t comprehend t h e C h u r c h ' s obvious.  0  s o c i a l d o c t r i n e was  t h a t many C a t h o l i c s  were  employees and even worse,  " . . . i l e n e s t q u i a b u s e n t de l a r e l i g i o n e l l e meme, c h e r c h a n t a c o u v r i r de s o n nom l e u r s i n j u s t e e x a c t i o n s , pour ^ c a r t e r l e s r e c l a m a t i o n s p l e i n e m e n t j u s t i f i i e s de leurs ouvriers."21 Or,  i n t h e more c a u s t i c  language  o f Msgr.  Desranleau:  "En e n t e n d a n t p a r l e r p a t r o n s e t o u v r i e r s , en l i s a n t j o u r n a u x e t r e v u e s ; e n e c o u t a n t l e s d i s c o u r s e t l e s programmes p o l i t i q u e s , en e x a m i n a n t l e s r e g l e m e n t s municipaux dont l ' a f f i c h e paienne: 'Defense de m e n d i e r ' , d i s h o n o r e 1 ' e n t r e e de n o s v i l l a g e s c a n a d i e n s en i t u d i a n t l e s l o i s d e s g o u v e r n e m e n t s , l e s p u b l i c a t i o n s de g r a n d e s f i r m s e c o n o m i q u e s , nous sommes b i e n f o r c e s d ' a v o u e r que c e s hommes, q u i o n t m i s s i o n de p e n s e r e t d ' i c l a i r e r l e p e u p l e , n'ont pas l u , ou n'ont pas compris, ou n ' o n t p a s v o u l u a c c e p t e r l e s c o n s e i l s e t l e s o r d r e s <iu Pape. C ' e s t p a r e n h a u t que l a s o c i e t y p a g a n i s e l e p e u p l e . " I t was c l e a r  t o many S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s  g u i d e d by j u s t i c e  and c h a r i t y  t h a t u n l e s s a l l men were  i n s t e a d o f by greed  a n d e g o i s m no  -133programme o f r e f o r m c o u l d who,  by  word and  by  ideal.  How  ing this  anno, P i u s  XI  What was  example, w o u l d a c t to create  suggested that  t h o s e g r o u p s who would g a i n  succeed.  had  as  s u c h an  the  n e e d e d was  the  vanguard i n  elite?  In  By  elite, realiz-  Quadragesimo  Church seek t h i s  abandoned r e l i g i o n .  an  elite  d o i n g so,  amongst the  Church  men,  " . . . q u i comprennent l e u r m e n t a l i t y , l e u r s a s p i r a t i o n s , qui sachent p a r l e r a l e u r s c o e u r s dans un e s p r i t de f r a t e r n e l l e c h a r i t e . . . l e s a p o t r e s i m m e d i a t s des o u v r i e r s s e r o n t des o u v r i e r s , l e s a p o t r e s du monde i n d u s t r i e l e t commergant s e r o n t des i n d u s t r i e l s e t des commergants."22 A r c h a m b a u l t was  quick  to adopt t h i s  appears, that h i s p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t i v e  technique but,  i n doing  so was  i t  to  counter  23 Communist i n r o a d s spired  the  among t h e  c r e a t i o n of  working c l a s s .  a t r a i n i n g school  In  - underwent a p e r i o d  ex^ercises. activities I t was  Their  was  i n the  contributors  latter  1'Action Catholique echo i n the  part  of  s t u d y and  the  depression  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  some e f f o r t s had  of Archambault,  of  b e e n made e a r l i e r ,  t o sow  movement.  E.S.P.'s p a m p h l e t s .  the  But  and  clubs.  the  E.S.P.'s  Pope's  thought.  under  t h e s e e f f o r t s had  the  t o become  f o u n d a weak  however, l ' A c t i o n  i t grew t o become a most  M o b i l i z i n g C a t h o l i c s on  age,  i t superseded or  occupation,  social  s e e d s o f what was  A f t e r 1937,  became a m a j o r theme and 24  and  union  spiritual  that  the  complex o r g a n i z a t i o n . sex  in-  t o c o u n t e r Communist p r o p a g a n d a  broadened t h e i r  Actually  Catholique  intense  - mostly  t h r o u g h s p e e c h e s , d i s c u s s i o n g r o u p s and  only  direction  task  of  he  where f o r s e v e r a l weeks  e a c h summer, a c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d g r o u p o f men leaders  1933,  the  basis  s w a l l o w e d up  of  old Social  -134Catholic  o r g a n i z a t i o n s such  were e s t a b l i s h e d s u c h courses. appeared  training  Coordinating bodies i n the  ranks  To what ends was was  as  as t h e A . C . J . C . .  to transform  of the this  facilities  emerged.  A new  Ancillary and  services  university  type  of  specialist  clerics.  zeal channelled?  the m i l i e u i n such  a way  One  of i t s goals  that,  " . . . l e c h r i s t i a n i s m e n ' a f f e c t e pas s e u l e m e n t n o t r e m a n i ^ r e d ' e t r e o u v r i e r , i t u d i a n t , ... mais e t r e o u v r i e r , e t r e e t u d i a n t . . . d e v i e n n e n t a u t a n t de m a n i e r e s d ' e t r e c h r £ t i e n . . . . " 2 5 A n o t h e r o f i t s g o a l s was Church's d i v i n e m i s s i o n l'Eglise et  c e n ' e s t pas  les laiques."  At  to encourage l a y p a r t i c i p a t i o n s o t h a t a l l w o u l d remember,  i n the  "...que  seulement l a h i i r a r c h i e mais e t l e s the p a r i s h l e v e l ,  clercs  Archambault envisaged  f o r m a t i o n o f a c o m m i t t e e o f laymen t o c o o r d i n a t e a c t i v i t i e s t o p r o m o t e C a t h o l i c v i r t u e s by  combatting  or c u l t i v a t i n g ,  the and  among  others, " . . . l e s f o y e r s d ' i m m o r a l i t i ; ...1'intemperance; . . . s u r v e i l l e r spicialement les buvettes, les p l a g e s , l e s cinemas; t r a v a i l l e r . . . 1 l a d i f f u s i o n de l a bonne p r e s s e ; . . . l a f a m i l l e . . . . " 2 6 This The  c o m m i t t e e , he o n l y time  "...pourraient en  cas  i t should  i t s own  was  been s a i d  only with  t h a t i t was  legal,  l a preservant  prestige."  so  f a r , i t i s obvious  much more t h a n  an  anti-Communist  social  o r economic r e f o r m  the  exten-  f r o m what  t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t t h e C h u r c h was political,  ainsi,  While  t a s k s o f t h e A c t i o n C a t h o l i q u e were more  been i n d i c a t e d  an a t t e m p t  advisory capacity.  when i t s a c t i v i t i e s ,  l'autoriti,  d ' e c h e c , c o n t r e t o u t e d i m i n u t i o n de  t h a n has  I t was  a c t on  indisposer contre  o r g a n i z a t i o n and sive  s t r e s s e d , c o u l d o n l y a c t i n an  has  campaign.  concerned but  also  not with  -135the whole  man.  H i s needs, h i s concerns  c o m m u n i c a t i n g became t h e c o n t e x t w i t h i n w h i c h he  and  h i s manner o f  center o f the Church's a t t e n t i o n . lived  became t h e p r e o c c u p a t i o n  of  The clerics  27 such  as L e v e s q u e .  elite  g r o u p s who  In the p r o c e s s , i n t h e p a s t had  i n g C a t h o l i c s on  a c t e d as m e d i a t o r s .  the b a s i s of occupation,  A c t i o n C a t h o l i q u e weakened t h o s e attempted  to unite r e l i g i o n  condemned, " c e t t e f o r m u l e forgait  the Church bypassed  §. c h o i s i r  and  and  By  sex,  nationalism.  Thus,  d'action catholique...elle 28  t o promote i t .  The  Canadian t h e o r e t i c i a n s ,  testimony  fact  f a i t h was,  and  l e t o u t de 29  veut  c o n s t r u c t t h i s C a t h o l i c u n i v e r s e , p h y s i c a l and  its activities  competing i d e a l s , and  i n d e f a t i g a b l e man  l a y m e n , t h e E.S.P. was indirectly,  the  and  supported  laisser  spiritual,  depression.  f o r t h e most p a r t , by  i n a good p o s i t i o n  en  t h e E.S.P., i t seems,  i n f l u e n c e d u r i n g the  i n a favourable environment,  was  rien  To  Operating an  l'homme e t ne  ses a t t e m t e s . "  to eliminate or block  Catholique,  "...'totalitaire',  de  multiplied  by  t h a t the  les  The  Action  of i t s French  hors  always  Groulx  a c c o r d i n g t o one  ce sens q u ' e l l e e x i g e  the  f o i et leur nationality."  E.S.P. n e v e r t h e l e s s c o n t i n u e d  to the  group-  o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i c h had  idiote  entre leur  age  those  a multitude  of  directed  dedicated  t o shape, d i r e c t l y  or  S o c i a l C a t h o l i c r e a c t i o n t o d e v e l o p m e n t s i n Quebec.  The  degree of success  and  efforts  i t obtained  are questions  and  t h a t must be  t h e w o r t h o f i t s programme considered  separately.  -136-  Chapter X The  S u c c e s s and t h e F a i l u r e o f S o c i a l  Catholicism  How s u c c e s s f u l d i d t h e members o f t h e E.S.P. t h i n k had  been?  Commemorating t h e t e n t h  anniversary  anno i n 1941, C a r d i n a l V i l l e n e u v e d i s c u s s e d  1  Successive  provincial  T h e most i m p o r t a n t  Agreements E x t e n s i o n  Act,  o f these  proposals  i n socio-economic  included the C o l l e c t i v e  minimum wage l e g i s l a t i o n ,  mothers a n d unemployment i n s u r a n c e . as  the previous  and f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t s , he  f o u n d , h a d i m p l e m e n t e d many o f t h e i r matters.  o f Quadragesimo  the accomplishments  of the French Canadian S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s during decade.  they  In general,  a i d t o needy  he f e l t ,  that  a result, " L ' o u v r i e r e s t maintenant plus c o n s i d i r e . I I e s t g e n i r a l e m e n t mieux t r a i t e . L'Etat l e l a i s s e au moins s ' o r g a n i s e r . Les patrons c o n s e n t e n t §. n i g o c i e r a v e c s e s r e p r e s e n t a n t s . "  On t h e same o c c a s i o n ,  he j o i n e d o t h e r  o f Quebec i n i s s u i n g a c o l l e c t i v e  members o f t h e h i e r a r c h y  letter.  They a g r e e d  that  much h a d b e e n a c c o m p l i s h e d b u t t h a t i t was n o t e n o u g h . wrote, the it  f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l  reports  from r e c e n t  h a d t o be a d m i t t e d  l'ouvrier,  their  efforts  clear  i s nevertheless  agriculture  l e g i s l a t i o n was e x a m i n e d and i f  e n q u i r i e s i n t o w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s were  that,  " l e c a p i t a l i s m e dans n o t r e  que p r o t e g e i n s u f f i s a m m e n t  What t h e S o c i a l  I f , they  notre  Catholics considered  pays e x p l o i t e  legislation."  t o be t h e r e s u l t s o f  t o improve t h e s t a t u s o f a g r i c u l t u r e w h i l e suggestive.  true,  In t h e i r  i n 1938, t h e h i e r a r c h y d e p l o r e d  collective that fact  n o t as  l e t t e r on that,  -137" . . . i l a d v i e n t t r o p s o u v e n t que l e c o u r a n t i n d u s t r i e l e t l e s e x i g e n c e s des p a t r o n s ou des o u v r i e r s l ' e m p o r t e n t de b e a u c o u p , dans l e s p r e o c c u p a t i o n s d e s hommes d ' E t a t e t d e s c h e f s s o c i a u x , comme dans l e remous de l o p i n i o n p u b l i q u e , s u r l e s i n t i r e t s de l a c l a s s e a g r i c o l e . . . . " 3 1  It  a p p e a r e d t o them t h a t , " l e s grandes f i r m e s i n d u s t r i e l l e s semblent payees p a r l e s s p e c u l a t e u r s p o u r a r r a c h e r a l e u r s t e r r e s e t rassembler en des m i l i e u x i n d u s t r i e l s de p l u s nombreux t r a v a i l l e u r s . I I y a des l o i s q u i r e d u i s e n t l e s heures e t l a s e m a i n e de t r a v a i l e t h a u s s e n t l e s s a l a i r e s d e s e m p l o y e s ; i l n'en e s t p r e s q u e pas q u i f a v o r i s e n t 1 ' a g r i c u l t e u r . "  The  programme o f c o l o n i z a t i o n  expectation. in  Elsewhere,  a l s o seems t o h a v e f a l l e n  short of  C a r d i n a l V i l l e n e u v e i s quoted as w r i t i n g  1946, i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h  colonization,  t h a t , "on a v o u l u  faire  o e u v r e u t i l e m a i s e n de t r o p nombreux c a s l e s r e a l i s a t i o n s o n t 4 dimenti  l e s esperances."  The e v i d e n c e  appears t o c o n f i r m  this  interpretation. A similar the  fate  intensification  apparently b e f e l l  corporatism.  o f t h e E.S.P.'s e f f o r t s  In s p i t e o f  d u r i n g and a f t e r  W o r l d War I I , i t s p r o s p e c t s  a p p e a r e d by 1955 t o h a v e become  dimmer.'^  d e v e l o p m e n t , a c c o r d i n g t o one E.S.P.  A reason  for this  c o n t r i b u t o r , was t h a t , o n one h a n d , u n i o n s , with  On  even those  affiliated  t h e C.T.C.C., " P l u t o t que de n u i r e 3 l e u r c a u s e , i l s p r e f d r e n t s a c r i f i e r l a c o n v e n t i o n avec e x t e n s i o n e t g a g n e r du t e r r a i n dans 1'organisation s y n d i c a l e , 3 l a faveur des c o n t r a t s p a r t i c u l i e r s 3 d r e s s e r . "  t h e o t h e r hand, t h e e m p l o y e r s , w h i l e  establishment  o f channels  n o t opposed t o t h e  o f communication w i t h  their  employees,  -138" . . . c r a i g n e n t une c o l l a b o r a t i o n a" l ' u s i n e q u i s ' i t a b l i r a i t e n t r e eux e t l ' o r g a n i s m e s y n d i c a l e comme t e l ; i l s o n t p e u r d e s d i c t a t s i c o n o m i q u e s que l e u r i m p o s e r a i e n t l e s s y n d i c a t s p a r l e u r i n f l u e n c e s u r l a main - d'oeuvre." T h u s , i t seems t h a t w h a t e v e r g a i n s  h a d b e e n made h a d b e e n w i p e d  out. The  aspect  o f t h e i r programme w h i c h o s t e n s i b l y was t h e  g r e a t e s t source  of satisfaction  campaign a g a i n s t c o l l e c t i v i s t the  E.S.P. was c o n g r a t u l a t e d  forSocial  doctrines. on t h e f a c t  C a t h o l i c s was  As e a r l y a s 1936, that  "..les  M. Woodsworth n ' o n t p a s e u c h e z nous l e s u c c e s q u ' i l Reviewing t h e anti-Communist a c t i v i t i e s Archambault  their  i d i e s de espirait."  o f t h e E.S.P. i n 1938,  declared:  " S i l e communisme a p e u e n t a m i n o t r e c l a s s e o u v r i e r e , s ' i l n'a p u s u r t o u t y t r o u v e r d e s d i r i g e a n t s , - c a r c e s o n t d e s hommes S t r a n g e r s ci n o t r e n a t i o n a l i t y . . . q u i d i r i g e n t l e P a r t i communiste dans l a p r o v i n c e de Quebec, - nous l e d e v o n s en g r a n d e p a r t i e aux c h e f s du s y n d i c a l i s m e c a t h o l i q u e , f o r m e s dans l e s c e r c l e s d e t u d e s o u a l ' g c o l e de V a u d r e u i l . . . . " 1  It  c a n be i n f e r r e d  from these  s t a t e m e n t s t h a t , i f t h e E.S.P. h a d  not  succeeded i n e l i m i n a t i n g t h e t h r e a t , I t had i s o l a t e d  the  help  o f the Padlock  depression  pamphlets  law.  reason.  the b a s i s o f these  fragments and o t h e r  a p p e a r t h a t t h e E.S.P. e n j o y e d implementing  analysis of i t s post-  i n d i c a t e s t h a t anti-Communism became a m i n o r  theme, p e r h a p s , f o r t h i s On  A brief  i t s programme.  less  sources,  i t would  than complete success i n  T h i s c o n c l u s i o n d o e s n o t d i m i n i s h an  a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e energy and d e v o t i o n d o e s i t make any l e s s  i t with  necessary  t h a t went i n t o i t . N o r  a personal  assessment o f the worth  -139of  i t s programme.  on  the values One  was  To  be  valid,  reform  a p p r a i s a l must  focus  w h i c h p e r m e a t e d t h e E.S.P.'s t h o u g h t and  of the values  t o be  the d e s i r e f o r s o c i a l  impulse  s u c h an  t h a t the  Social  found  actions.  i n most o f t h e E.S.P.'s work  justice.  I t was  partly  Catholics constructed  w h i c h w i t h i n i t s s o c i a l and  political  due  to  this  a programme context  of  could  be  7  considered  very  liberal.  In the process,  t h e E.S.P. r a n  the g  risk  of being Neither  principle of  d i d the  Social  Catholics hesitate i n supporting  of c o l l e c t i v e bargaining  employers  nor  c r i t i c i z e d for intervening i n partisan p o l i t i c s .  d i d they  and  even o f the  i n the  the  a t i m e when i t s a d v o c a t e s were b e i n g Their t h i r s t for social  f a c e of the h o s t i l i t y  government which they  s h r i n k from s u p p o r t i n g  justice  b r a n d e d as  C a t h o l i c s s u c h as L e V e s q u e , C o t i  to  new  concepts,  of  c a p i t a l i s m , more u n c o m p r o m i s i n g i n t h e i r  of  the  and  the  Desranleau  denunciation ideals  s c i e n c e s of the problems which they  g r e a t e s t p r o b l e m w h i c h had  the workers,  "...sont  d'une p r o d u c t i o n et  d'un  v i c t i m e s du  livrie  t o be  o f the  had  of t h i s  y e t , more  to  with the  medium  confront. Cote  fact  t r a v a i l mai  T h e s e men  came t o  l a b o u r movement c o u l d s o l v e t h i s  fact.  evils  that  paye,  5 1 ' i n d i v i d u a l i s m e , d'un<h6mage endemique 9  t h r o u g h t h e medium o f t h e E.S.P. t h e y  conscious  at  more open  and  s o l v e d was  d i s o r d r e d'un  appauvrissement p r o g r e s s i f . "  that only a m i l i t a n t And  campaign  t o l e a r n from the workers themselves o r through the social  elect,  t o make many  T h i s o p e n n e s s t o r e a l i t y l e d some o f them t o c o n c l u d e that  helped  Socialists.  undoubtedly helped  Social  willing  had  "anti-trust"  more o u t s p o k e n i n t h e i r  the  realize  problem.  t r i e d t o make  others  -140Another  d o m i n a n t v a l u e i n t h e E.S.P.'s work was a  commitment t o p l u r a l i s m . thought  With a g r e a t e r understanding  and o f t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  increasing divergence  reality,  there developed  l e s s made i t s f a c i l i t i e s To a c e r t a i n  available  this  within  t h e Church  The r e s u l t  1  dissent  c o n c l u s i o n mean, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t P i e r r e  French  this description  t h e term  Trudeau  a s f a r a s t h e E.S.P. was c o n c e r n e d ,  Canada's s o c i a l  nature o f S o c i a l that  thought. ^  a n d t o s t i m u l a t e i n some o f i t s r e a d e r s a r e -  was wrong, a t l e a s t  that  schools of  o f t h e meaning o f r e l i g i o n .  Does t h i s  cribing  neverthe-  e x t e n t i t a l s o was open t o t h e l a t e s t  commitment c o u l d o n l y h a v e b e e n t o l e g i t i m i z e  examination  extent  The E.S.P.  t o these contending  developments i n European S o c i a l C a t h o l i c of  an  amongst i t s c o n t r i b u t o r s a s t o aims a n d  methods,sometimes t o t h e p o i n t o f c o n f l i c t .  thought.  o f Papal  thought  as "monolithic"? ''" 1  ignores the i n c r e a s i n g l y  Catholicism, i ti s inaccurate.  indicates  i n des-  the underlying unity  To t h e  pluralistic  To t h e e x t e n t  of doctrine,  i t is  accurate.  I t must be remembered t h a t t h e E.S.P.'s t o l e r a n c e d i d  not extend  beyond  a degree  "les questions l i b r e s " .  of self-criticism  take towards c a p i t a l i s m  and t h e r e a s o n  but this  never  privileged  position  i n Quebec.  to  d i g r e s s from  f o r the loss of Catholic  amounted t o q u e s t i o n n i n g t h e C h u r c h ' s Furthermore,  e n c e upon P a p a l d i r e c t i v e s m a n i f e s t e d their  was, i t i s t r u e ,  on such q u e s t i o n s as t h e a t t i t u d e t o  immigrants  E.S.P. r e s t r i c t e d  There  field  Papal thought  the A c t i o n C a t h o l i q u e , they  o f depend-  by a l l c o n t r i b u t o r s t o t h e  of enquiry.  E v e n when t h e y  on s u c h m a t t e r s  still  t h e degree  tried  appeared  a s c o l o n i z a t i o n and  to justify  i t i n terms  -141of  the Church's i n t e r e s t s .  I t could  be a r g u e d t h a t  the r e a l  p u r p o s e o f t h e E.S.P. was n o t t o f o s t e r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n paths to C a t h o l i c i s m within the as  the various  factions  t h e C h u r c h r e m a i n e d c o n n e c t e d i n t h o u g h t and a c t i o n t o  main r o u t e .  This  tendency c o u l d  lead  some S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s ,  i n their discussion of capitalism, to gloss  raised the  but t o ensure t h a t  o f many  by t h e Pope's w r i t i n g s .  fact  cerning  Or i t c o u l d m a n i f e s t i t s e l f i n  t h a t most o f t h e E.S.P.'s p r o p o s a l s c o l o n i z a t i o n were j u s t i f i e d  they would b r i n g  to various  over the issues  such as t h o s e  con-  i n terms o f t h e b e n e f i t s  groups w i t h i n  t h e Church such as t h e  farmers, c l e r g y , unions, etc..  The E.S.P., t h e r e f o r e ,  d i d not  really  ideals.  demonstrat-  stray  from i t s founding  i n g t h e Church's a b i l i t y destroying  I t was m e r e l y  t o a d a p t t o new s i t u a t i o n s w i t h o u t  i t s essential unity.  For this  r e a s o n , T r u d e a u was 12  wrong i n a c c u s i n g It  t h e E.S.P. o f d i s t o r t i n g P a p a l  i s on t h e q u e s t i o n  thought.  o f who u l t i m a t e l y b e n e f i t t e d f r o m t h e  E.S.P.'s e f f o r t s t h a t T r u d e a u was most i n a c c u r a t e . theme was t h a t  " l e nationalisme  duquel a g r a v i t e presque toute  H i s main  a §t€...l'axe p r i n c i p a l e autour l a pensee s o c i a l e des Canadiens  13 frangais."  I n s o f a r a s t h e E.S.P. i s c o n c e r n e d - a n d : i t h a s  been noted t h a t of has  t h e E.S.P. was a l e a d i n g ,  S o c i a l C a t h o l i c thought - t h i s tried  corporatism,  testify,  i s untenable.  t o show - w i t h some s u c c e s s - t h a t  such d i s p a r a t e  protect  claim  i f n o t t h e main  proposals  and a c t i v i t i e s  source  This  the motivation  study behind  a s t h e s h o r t e r work week,  o r t h e a n t i - C o m m u n i s t c a m p a i g n was n o t s o much t o  F r e n c h Canadian c u l t u r e , a l t h o u g h , as M i n v i l l e ' s w r i t i n g s t h i s was an i m p o r t a n t g o a l ,  as t o advance t h e i n t e r e s t s  -142of the not,  Church.  as  The  around which the  Trudeau claimed,  when n a t i o n a l i s m as  axis  i n the  no  case of  nationalism  longer  served  1'Action  the  c l e r g y d i d not  are  t h o s e who  but  the  frangaise  E.S.P. r e v o l v e d Catholicism.  i n t e r e s t s of and  h e s i t a t e t o abandon i t .  dismiss  c o l o n i z a t i o n as  the  Equally  fancy  In  the  the A c t i o n  of  was fact,  Church  Catholique, incorrect some i s o l a t e d  14 academic or  litterateur.  Such p e o p l e may  advocated c o l o n i z a t i o n but as  has  b e e n shown, t h a t  interests  the  Church.  orthodoxy of  the  E.S.P.'s  of  elements of  the  the  was 15  o f F a s c i s m i n Quebec.  reveal  the  the  the  i s n e e d e d as  that  t h e y were t h e  The  utterances  t e n d e n c y t o see  of  of  assumptions of  developments i n I t a l y , aware o f  the  i t as  f e a r o f Communism, t h e  a C h r i s t i a n s o c i e t y , on  were w e l l  always served  to  the list  dominant  S o c i a l C a t h o l i c thought  create the  had  fact,  Church.  depression  corporatism,  have  thought, a simple glance a t the  Another misconception of during  and  I f further proof  i t s collaborators w i l l  well  i t s i m p o r t a n c e came f r o m t h e  i t served  of  very  leading the  clerics  surface,  ran  liberal-democratic  S p a i n and  Portugal.  t h e s e f e a r s and,  and  prevalent  the  insistence the  desire  on to  c o u n t e r t o many  s t a t e and The  i n various  harbinger  Social  resembled Catholics  ways, a t t e m p t e d  to  16 allay  them.  I f at times S o c i a l C a t h o l i c thought s k i r t e d  edges o f F a s c i s m , i t i s w e l l far  away f r o m s t a t i s m .  to confirm totalitaire  the en  h e u r t e done p o u r un  i t tended to  E x p e r i e n c e i n Germany and  a s s e r t i o n of d e h o r s de  t o remember t h a t  one  celle  Chretien  author that, de  3 une  la religion  Italy  "toute de  the stay  tended  pretention  l ' E v a n g i l e se 17 impossibilite...." The E.S.P.  -143made i t q u i t e c l e a r provincial the  purpose  t e a c h i n g , was foster  the only reason  government's Padlock  Social Catholic The  to  that  a  lines  had  order  t o be  programme.  o f t h e E.S.P., i n a c c o r d a n c e  "totally"  Catholic  adapted  effective, s h o u l d be  with the  or f a s c i s t  environment.  As  t h e E.S.P. had  emphasized  at a l a t e r date.  trained  i n the S o c i a l  This role  r e q u i r e d men  until  of the d e p r e s s i o n .  t h e y d i d so o n l y a f t e r  itself  E.S.P., h e l p s t o e x p l a i n why  be  noted  their  interpretations.  i n Pius XI's position.  Catholic  i n Quebec.  To  be  stressed  ignore  over  programme d i d fair,  Archambault,  felt  i t should to  a g r e a t e r problem  that  industrial  more i m p o r t a n t  some p a s s a g e o r o t h e r f r o m Social  V i l l e n e u v e , G a u t h i e r and  for  believed  t h a n mass unemployment  p e a c e was  C o n v e r s e l y many o f t h o s e  could  l o n g term c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  i m m e d i a t e n e e d s , t h o s e who  h i g h e r wages c o u l d a l l c i t e writings.  the  Most f a c t i o n s w i t h i n the Church  T h u s , t h o s e who  t h a t Communism was argued  be  pronoucements a g r e a t d e a l o f j u s t i f i c a t i o n  s h o u l d have p r i o r i t y  t h o s e who  to  such  i t can  t h a t t h e Pope's g u i d e l i n e s were o p e n i n most c a s e s  conflicting find  needs o f  i n many o f t h e p a m p h l e t s o f  the S o c i a l  n o t meet w i t h g r e a t e r s u c c e s s  either  repeatedly  T h i s tendency  or  to display  Even t h e n ,  t h e Pope had  such q u a l i t i e s .  which manifested  those  were  to basic  qualities  reality,  guide-  conditions i n  who  M o s t o f t h e members t o t h e E.S.P. f a i l e d  t h e need t o d e v e l o p  but  and w h i c h s h o u l d be m o d i f i e d  t h e day.  that  society  to decide which of  S c i e n c e s o r were a t t u n e d  t h e end  Pope's  t h e Pope's  t o Quebec's s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  applied  argued  the  because i t supplemented  not to c r e a t e a n a t i o n a l i s t  t o be  guidelines  law was  i t supported  Catholics  M i n v i l l e who  the  such  and  than Pope's as  expressed  -144concern  f o r the  d e t e r i o r a t i n g socio-economic  mainly because of blunted  the  the  Pope's a p p e a l s .  message o f  the  rural  society  as  still  of  the  deal  of  the  ment by  to  s u c c e s s was  the  or  achieved  the  ability  e x p l o i t i n g the  i t s professed  aim  of  fears  to m a i n t a i n the  goes a l o n g  way  their  actions.  admitted  the  the  as  r e f o r m s , y e t many, o f t e n  government. agreed that  the  the  and  depression  that  case of  the  the  repressive they a l s o  general  E.S.P. i s t h a t ,  the  Church.  t o implement  same w r i t e r s ,  its real  This  motive  expressed  l i k e Archambault  Pope's c o n t e n t i o n the  the  the  and they  misgivings  and  Pope t h e y  Villeneuve  either  Most members o f the  federal  combat  government,  that  in  socio-economic  d e p e n d i n g upon t h e  i n s i s t e d that  like  agree-  in spite  for instance,  m e a s u r e s were i n a d e q u a t e t o  domineering yet,  was  between t h e i r t h o u g h t  wisdom o f  Where  election  apparent i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s  f e d e r a l o r p r o v i n c i a l , i m p l e m e n t them.  ruthless  to  each f a c t i o n .  t h e s e abound:  state  about the  E.S.P. s u p p o r t e d t h e  urban-  o f Communism, i t  hopes o f  Many S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s  Communism b u t  the  i n the  dominance o f  Examples o f  or  increasing  E.S.P. t o o b t a i n  i t s members and  need f o r the  about s t a t i s m  traditional  these f a c t o r s helped  isolation  and  in explaining  o f many o f  the  o f b u i l d i n g a more humane s o c i e t y ,  p u r p o s e was  writings  the  mass m i s e r y o f  A more f u n d a m e n t a l c r i t i c i s m o f of  f a c t o r which  S o c i a l C a t h o l i c programme i n e f f e c t i v e .  Union N a t i o n a l e  l a r g e l y due  so  f a c t t h a t most o f i t s  considered  Combined t o g e t h e r ,  produce a detachment from the  a great  the  a v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e to  i z a t i o n o f Quebec.  r e n d e r e d much o f  Another  E.S.P. was  French Canadian c o n t r i b u t o r s  situation did  the  capitalists feared  the  were state  -145or  m i l i t a n t u n i o n s more.  They p l a c e d  their  ness o f these c a p i t a l i s t s t o v o l u n t a r i l y i n order Catholics but  to bring  they r e f u s e d  t o seek t h e a s s i s t a n c e  chief  consideration  a  t o remedy t h e s i t u a t i o n of non-Catholic  groups  The t r u t h  was w h e t h e r o r n o t a c e r t a i n  was  that,  main r o u t e o f S o c i a l  idea  or a given  o f t h e C h u r c h a s an i n s t i t u t i o n .  Catholic  shrunken u n i v e r s e o f d i s c o u r s e .  Catholic  Social  f r o m t h e Pope down t o C h a r p e n t i e r , t h e  a c t would promote t h e i n t e r e s t s The  privileges  S i m i l a r l y , many  s u c h a s t h e C.C.F. o r t h e P r o t e s t a n t C h u r c h e s . f o r most S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s  i n the w i l l i n g -  surrender t h e i r  corporatism into being.  saw t h e n e e d f o r u r g e n t a c t i o n  faith  thought, u l t i m a t e l y ,  l e d to  In t h i s world, the i n d i v i d u a l  was u r g e d b y M s g r . G a u t h i e r  "...de s e d e f i e r d e s  n o u v e a u t e s , de ne p a s c r o i r e q u ' e l l e s  vont  faire  disparaitre  18 d'un  c o u p l e s abus e t l e s i n j u s t i c e s . "  organization  - whether t h e f a m i l y  unit  He was p l a c e d or the Action  t o l d what t o t h i n k and what t o do and how t o do i t .  i n an  Catholique, And a l l o f  t h i s was s u p p o s e d l y t o c u l t i v a t e  t h e growth o f h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l  and  fact explain  moral f a c u l t i e s .  Could t h i s  the xenophobic  s t r e a k w h i c h r u n s t h r o u g h many o f t h e E.S.P.'s p a m p h l e t s ?  Even  t h o s e who were g e n u i n e l y c o m m i t t e d  t o a more humane s o c i e t y  as  t h e s e e d s o f Communism i n t h e  Livesque or C o t i  C.C.F. o r j u s t i f y  a strong  Church's i n t e r e s t s . this and  period  see only  a n t i - c a p i t a l i s t stand  The r e a l  was t h i s i n a b i l i t y  failure of Social  actions.  i n terms o f t h e Catholicism  during  o r u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o make t h e n e e d s  concerns o f the i n d i v i d u a l person, rather  institutionalized and  could  such  than o f the  C h u r c h , t h e b e g i n n i n g and t h e e n d o f i t s t h o u g h t  -146I t w o u l d be wrong t o d i s m i s s for, it  as has  b e e n shown, new  which contained  Social Catholicism  strains  of thought appeared  the promise of a very  different  t i m e , many c l e r i c s ,  l e d by  e n c e on  C a t h o l i c e n v i r o n m e n t was  a  "totally"  r e s e n t m e n t on  the  dans l e u r p r o p r e comme des  mineurs," but  pourraient  who  felt  was  Church.  t h a t the  not  only  tutuelle,  With  insist-  breeding  "...du a v e c l e u r s c o n c i t o y e n s b i e n commun de  "...  conduits  also blocking Catholic  c o n c o u r i r au  within  t h e m s e l v e s t o be  d o m a i n e . . . e n c e r c l e ' s , en  in organizations ils  Levesque, recognized  p a r t of those  completely  participation  non-Catholiques,  l a soci€t€.....  and  1 1  19 broke openly the  with  conclusion  the  E.S.P. .  that i t ran  from s u p p o r t i n g of  the  the  CCF.  E.S.P., l i f t e d  commitment t o s o c i a l  The  a great and,  h i e r a r c h y had risk  justice  i n preventing  i n 1944,  Msgr. G a u t h i e r ' s  condemnation.  increased during  during see  supporting  the Asbestos s t r i k e .  t h a t Communism was  as D u p l e s s i s  the  of the  e v e n t s were s t e p s  C h u r c h as  the  only  i n 1950  wholeheartedly s y s t e m and  against  Eventually  a myth u s e d by  away f r o m t h e of  1940's t o  the  publicly  traditional But  t h a t the h i e r a r c h y f i n a l l y  came t o  And  such  Each  the of  conception  these  committed  o f the  risked  condemned 22  government.  stability.  transformation 23 abandoned c o l o n i z a t i o n .  the  government  some c l e r i c s  d e p e n d e n t upon p e r s o n a l i t i e s and  to the  Their  shrewd p o l i t i c i a n s  Union N a t i o n a l e  guardian  s l o w i n c o m i n g and was  C.T.C.C  opposition  t o Msgr. G a u t h i e r ,  t o m a n i p u l a t e C a t h o l i c s and  immoral t a c t i c s these  the 21  the  come t o  Catholics  i n s p i t e of the 20  p o i n t where M s g r . C h a r b o n n e a u , s u c c e s s o r h i s p o s i t i o n by  earlier  existing  of  c h a n g e s were events.  It  itself socio-economic  the m o t i v a t i o n  for  these  -147changes remained the w i t h Pope J o h n X I I I gain By  same: and  the  s u r v i v a l of  Vatican  I I d i d the  precedence f o r C a t h o l i c s over the  that  time the  exercised  E.S.P. had  i n Quebec and  had  lost  the  the  Church.  Only  i n d i v i d u a l conscience  organization  influence  been t r a n s f o r m e d  of  i t had  into a  the  Church.  once purely  24 research the it  agency.  decline of was  a  To  the  extent  that  the  E.S.P. c o n t r i b u t e d  that concept of Catholicism  i t had  found i n the  are  b a s e d on  the  p r i n c i p a l themes t o  E.S.P.'s p a m p h l e t s w r i t t e n  As  some o f  or  a f t e r that period,  t h e s e themes r e a c h e d t h e i r  between 1930  the  n e e d s t o be  specialization within  the  pretations  of Papal thought, the  sources of  elite  groups.  and  the  Many o f  c l e r g y and  impact of the  s t u d y u n d o u b t e d l y n e e d more s u p p o r t o r investigation,  therefore,  1940. before  done.  diverging  Other  inter-  the h u m a n i s t i c specific  confirmation.  i s a beginning rather  currents  proposals  a s s e r t i o n s made i n  u n d e r s t a n d i n g F r e n c h Canada's r e a c t i o n t o  be  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  increasing  Social Catholicism,  to  peak o f d e v e l o p m e n t  much more r e s e a r c h  a s p e c t s w h i c h n e e d more s t u d y i n c l u d e  upon o t h e r  represented,  success.  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Premier  E.  Vice-President  Deuxi^me  Vice-President  Troisi^me  Vice-President  Perrier.  Montpetit.  R.  P.  L.  Hudon, s . j .  A.  Fauteux.  Secretaire  A. S a i n t - P i e r r e .  Secretaires-Adjoints  abbes A.  Deschenes e t J .  C.  Lacroix. Tresorier  H.  Godin.  Rapporteurs  R.  P.  Valentin-Breton,  a b b e H. E.  Sociale Populaire,  #la,  p.s.s.,  Hurtubise,  abbe C.  L'Ecole  Gauthier,  J.  (1911) pp.  Beaudin.  19-20  o.f.m.,  ,  -160-  C o m i t e s Permanent Comite D'Etudes  de  e t des  1'E.S.P. Publications  President  R.  Secretaire  F. B o u r b o n n i e r e ,  Secretaire-adjoint  abbe E . Hubert.  C o m i t e de  P. G u i l l o t ,  c.s.s.r.,  Propagande  President  J.  B.  Saint-Pierre,  Secretaire  A. L a n g e v i n . Comite des F i n a n c e s  President  E. G o h i e r ,  Secretaire  E.  Lavergne.  Comite D ' A c t i o n O u v r i ^ r e President  R.  P. T o u r a n g e a u ,  Secretaire  C.  Tessier.  L'Ecole Sociale  Populaire,  #la,  (1911) p .  20.  o.m.i.,  -161-  Fondateurs  s  de L a L i g u e d e s d r o i t s d u f r a n c a i s (March 11, 1913)  ( I t became " L a L i g u e d ' A c t i o n F r a n c a i s e " i n 1921) P i e r r e H o m i e r , ( J . P. A r c h a m b a u l t , Dr. Joseph Gauvreau, Omer H e r o u x , Leon L o r r a i n , Anatole Vanier, A. G. C a s a u l t , H e n r i Auger.  s . j . , founder)  (later) R. P. G. C h a r l e b o i s , o.m.i. ( p r o v i n c i a l o f t h e O b l a t e s and l e a d e r o f t h e F r a n c o - O n t a r i a n r e s i s t a n c e t o R e g u l a t i o n 17) Abb§ P h i l i p p e P e r r i e r , Abb§ L i o n e l G r o u l x , ( d i r e c t o r o f " 1 ' A c t i o n F r a n c a i s e ) Louis Hurtubise, Napoleon L a f o r t u n e , Antonio P e r r a u l t , R. P. R o d r i g u e V i l l e n e u v e , o.m.i., ( n a t i o n a l i s t a n d future Cardinal) R. P. L o u i s L a l a n d e , s . j .  A n t o n i o P e r r a u l t , e t . a l , C o n s i g n e s de demain,, D o c t r i n e e t o r i g i n e s de 1 ' A c t i o n f r a n c a i s e , M o n t r e a l , L i b r a i r i e d ' A c t i o n C a n a d i e n n e - f r a n g a i s e L t e e , n . d . , p . 2-  -162-  Reunion  - Villa  (April  J.  Saint - Martin  28, 1918.)  P. A r c h a m b a u l t , s . j .  Mgr.  G. G a u t h i e r ,  abbe  Bois  (initiator)  ( a u x i l i a r y archbishop  presiding)  (secretary)  abbe Maxime F o r t i n  {initiator in  abbi  of Montreal,  Lacroix  of Catholic syndicalism  t h e Quebec  archdiocese) Montreal  abbi J . Tremblay  Chicoutimi  abbe P.  Saint-Hyacinthe  Mgr.  Desranleau  Rimouski  Ross  chanoine  Massicotte  Trois-Rividres  abbe J . Cote  Levis  R. P. S t a n i s l a s  Levis  abbe  Thetford-Mines  Petitgrew  abbe 0.  Archambault  Joliette  R. ,P. B e r n i e r  Hull  A.  Charpentier  (worker)  A.  Latreille  A.  Therien  A.  Daoust  M.  Gilinas  L Organisation 1  (industrialist)  o u v r i e r e c a t h o l i q u e au Canada,  #105,  (1921) p . 16.  -163-  Second  Reunion - V i l l a  - Saint - Martin  (June 2, 1918)  R. P. J . A r c h a m b a u l t s . j . R. P. B o u r a s s a abbS  Fortin  abbe H e b e r t F.  Roberge  A.  Latreille  A. C h a r p e n t i e r E.  o f C.T.C.C.)  Thirien  P. B e a u l E H.  Doucet  D.  Pilon  H. T. A.  (future President  (lrst  President  o f C.T.C.C.)  Lachapelle  Th€rien  L*Organisation  ouvridre  catholique  au Canada,  #105,  (1921)  p.  -164-  C o m m i s s i o n g e n e r a l e d e s Semaines S o c i a l e s d u C a n a d a . (1920) President  ( f o u n d e r ) R. P. J o s e p h  Papin Archambault, s . j .  s e c r e t a i r e Guy V a n i e r , Abbe L e o n i d a s Adam, R. P. A. F . A u c l a i r , o . m . i . , P i e r r e Beaule, Senateur B e l c o u r t , Noel B e r n i e r , Alfred Charpentier, Abbe" P h . S. D e s r a n l e a u , J u g e C. E . D o r i o n , Dr. J u l e s D o r i o n , J . E . A. Dubuc, Abbe" C y r i l l e Gagnon, Abbe" Maxime F o r t i n , L€on-Mercier Gouin, O s c a r Hamel, Abbe" Edmour H u b e r t , Omer H e r o u x , Mgr. Eugene L a p o i n t e , Abbe O l i v i e r M a u r a u l t , p . s . s . , Edouard M o n t p e t i t , Mgr. L . A. P a q u e t , Antonio Perrault, Abbe" P h i l i p p e P e r r i e r , Dr. F r e d A. R i c h a r d , Mgr. F. X. R o s s , R. P. R o d r i g u e V i l l e n e u v e , o.m.i..  Compte  r e n d u de l a Semaine S o c i a l e c a n a d i e n n e ,  v o l I , 1920,  -165-  La  f o n d a t i o n du C o n s e i l  c e n t r a l des  nationaux a  Syndicats  catholiques et  [ontreal. (February  President  A.  Charpentier  vice-president  E.  Provost  2e  M.  Levasseur  vice-prisident  secretaire-archiviste  A. C h a b o t  assistant-secretaire  J.  B.  Huot  secretaire-correspondant  J.  P.  Malo  secretaire-financier  A.  Bilodeau  assistant-secretaire  J . A.  Coderre  tresorier  L.  G.  Therien  commissaire-ordonnateur  E.  Pigeon  sergent  A. T r e m b l a y  d'armes  aumonier-gen€ral  abbe E . H e b e r t  assistants  les  L'Organisation pp. 21 & 31.  ouvriere catholique  1920)  abbes Gaudry e t Primeau  au C a n a d a ,  #105,  (1921)  -166-  Comite c e n t r a l  de  l a Ligue  du  Dimanche  (formed A p r i l  8,  1923)  President  M. l e j u g e E. F a b r e (Montreal)  Vice-president  M.  l e j u g e T.  Secretaire-tresorier  R.  Germain  Aumonier  R. P. J . P. (Montreal)  Directeurs  M. l e j u g e R. M i l l a r (Hull); M. l e j u g e T.A. F o n t a i n e (SainteH y a c i n t h e ) ; J . A. Rochefort ( C h i c o u t i m i ) ; J . C a r t i e r , C. R. ( S t . J e a n ) ; M. l e n o t a i r e E . F o r e s t ( J o l i e t t e ) ; Ch.-A Gascon (Montreal); A. V a n i e r , C. R. ( M o n t r e a l ) ; E. L a u r i n (Trois-Rivieres)  J . P. A r c h a m b a u l t , pp. 5 & 15.  s . j . ' P o u r un  Tremblay  Surveyer  (Quebec)  (Montreal) Archambault, s . j .  dimanche C h r e t i e n , T r a c t  #349,  -167-  D i r e c t e u r s de l a L i g u e d ' A c t i o n (January,  Nationale.  1933)  (Publishers of "1'Action Nationale", successor  to  "1'Action  Frangaise")  MM.  Esdras  Minville,  president,  Hermas B a s t i e n , P i e r r e Homier, l'abbe L i o n e l  secretaire, ( J . P. A r c h a m b a u l t , s . j . )  Groulx,  Eugdne L ' H e u r e u x , O l i v i e r Maurault, Anatole  p.s.s.,  Vanier,  l'abbe A l b e r t T e s s i e r , Harry  Bernard,  Arthur  (director)  Laurendeau,  Rene" C h a l o u l t , Wilfrid  Gu^rin,  Leopold  Richer,  Albert Dr.  Rioux,  P h i l i p p e Hamel.  L'Action Nationale, Montreal, vol I I .  Ligue  d'Action Nationale,  1933,  -168-  Le  9 mars 1933 s e r i u n i s s a i e n t d o n e , 3 1 ' I m m a c u l e e -  C o n c e p t i o n de M o n t r e a l ,  sous l a p r e i d e n c e  R. P. A r c h a m b a u l t , s . j . ,  S. E x c . Mgr. Y e l l e ,  M^gJT E u g § n e  Lapointe,  du  d i r e c t e u r de l ' E c o l e S o c i a l e P o p u l a i r e , c e u x d o n t l e s noms suivent: A r c h e v e q u e c o a d j u t e u r de S a i n t B o n i f a c e , a l o r s d i r e c t e u r du g r a n d s e m i n a i r e de M o n t r e a l , v i c a i r e g6n€ral Chicoutimi,  honoraire d Ottawa,  de  Mgr.  Charbonneau,  vicaire  Mgr.  Desranleau,  cure  Mgr.  Lebon,  du C o l l e g e de S a i n t e - A n n e - d e la-Pocatiere, professeur 3 L'Universite Laval,  le  R. P. F o r e s t , o.p.,  general  1  de S o r e l ,  Doyen de l a F a c u l t y de P h i l o s o p h i e de L ' U n i v e r s i t y de Montreal,  l'abbe P h i l i p p e P e r r i e r ,  Professeur Joliette  le  a u m 6 n i e r g e n e r a l de 1 ' U n i o n C a t h o l i q u e des C u l t i v a t e u r s du C a n a d a ,  R. P. L e o n L e b e l , s . j . ,  1'abbi Jean le  Bertrand,  R. P. G.-H.  L e v e s q u e , o.p.,  l e s RR.PP. Chagnon, s . j . , e t de L e r y , s . j . ,  a u s c o l a s t i c a t de  aumonier des s y n d i c a t s de Montreal, professeur Ottawa,  catholiques  au s c o l a s t i c a t d '  p r o f e s s e u r s au s c o l a s t i c a t de 1 ' I m m a c u l i e - C o n c e p t i o n .  L e s v i n g t - c i n q i a n s de l ' E c o l e S o c i a l e P o p u l a i r e , #269-70, (1936) p . 23,  1911-1936,  -169Les  s i g n a t a i r e s du  (Sept.  30,  Esdras  Minville  deuxieme programme de  restauration sociale.  1933) p r o f e s s e u r a l ' E c o l e des Etudes Commerciales, de  Dr.  P h i l i p p e Hamel  1'Action  president  Nationale,  professeur a 1'Universite Laval, p r e s i d e n t de du  V.-E.  Hautes  Beaupre  Canada,  1'Association dentaire  (leading anti-truster),  ingenieur c i v i l ,  professeur  l'Ecole Polytechnique, president e t de  g e n e r a l de  l a Society  a  ancien  1'A.C.J.C.  Saint-Jean-  Baptiste, Albert  Rioux  president del'Union des  Dr.  J.-B.  Prince  C u l t i v a t e u r s du  c h i r u r g i e n en c h e f de  Lachine,  des Anatole  Vanier  Amis du  avocat,  Canada, de  Programme de  In the personelles, de  ne  pas  deux ou  prendre rang  According  t o R.  XXIII,  212,  p.  trois  des  ancien president  (1934)  "Pour des  p.80.  raisons  collaborateurs crurent preferable  H i s t o i r e de  P a u l G o u i n and  de  1'A.C.J.C,  #239-40,  states:  p a r m i l e s s i g n a t a i r e s du  Rumilly's  Comite  "Devoir",  restauration sociale,  i n t r o d u c t i o n , Archambault  1'Hopitai  p r e s i d e n t du  1 * U n i o n r e g i o n a l e de  Le  catholique  programme."  l a Province  de  Quibec, v o l .  Eugene L ' H e u r e u x , e d i t o r o f  A c t i o n C a t h o l i q u e were t h e c o l l a b o r a t o r s who  d i d not  sign.  1'  -170Les  s i g n a t a i r e s contd.  Arthur  Laurendeau  maitre  de  chapelle a l a cathedrale  de M o n t r e a l ,  (Later e d i t o r  1'Action Nationale u n t i l by  Alfred  Charpentier  son  of  succeeded  Andre.)  p r e s i d e n t du  Counseil central  des  Syndicats ouvriers catholiques Montreal, of the  Wilfred  GuErin  N.P. des  de  ( f r o m 1936-46 P r e s i d e n t  C.T.C.C.)  secretaire  de  1'Union r e g i o n a l e  C a i s s e s P o p u l a i r e s de  d i r e c t e u r de  l a Ligue  Montreal,  d Action 1  nationale,  Rene" C h a l o u l t  avocat,  a n c i e n p r e s i d e n t de  S o c i e t e * des Quebec.  Etudes  (Prominent  anti-truster.)  la  j u r i d i q u e s de nationalist-  -171-  C o m i t e des  Oeuvres C a t h o l i q u e s  du  diocese  de  Montreal  directeur:  Le  Comite des  actuellement  (Avril,  Societe S a i n t - J e a n F i d £ r a t i o n des  Syndicats  1942)  du  Ligue des  des  V o y a g e u r s de  nationaux catholiques, Syndicat  Alliance  catholique central  catholique  l a jeunesse  du  canadienne,  Colomb, U n i o n c a t h o l i q u e des C u l t i v a t e u r s ,  chretienne,  de  group  Saint-Vincent-de-Paul,  S o c i e t e de  anciens  Saint-Frangois,  c a t h o l i q u e des  eleves  des  C o l o n i s a t i o n , Ligue  Dimanche, C h e m i n o t s c a t h o l i q u e s , E c o l e Tiers-Ordre  Archambault, s . j .  suivantes:  Commerce, C o n s e i l  R e t r a i t a n t s , A m i c a l e s des  Ecoles  Montreal  Sacr§-Coeur, A s s o c i a t i o n  Tramway, A s s o c i a t i o n c a t h o l i q u e de C h e v a l i e r s de  de  les societes  B a p t i s t e , Societe  Ligues  p r o f e s s i o n n e l l e des des  Oeuvres c a t h o l i q u e s  J . P.  Sociale  C h e v a l i e r s de  Professeurs,  Amis du  Freres du  Populaire,  Carillon, Devoir.  J . P. A r c h a m b a u l t , s . j . , Le C o u v r e - F e u , T r a c t #274, p. 13. M o s t o f t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s were i n e x i s t e n c e 1930.  (1942) before  A P P E N D I X  THE AIMS OF THE  B  E.S.P.  -172Le  progamme de  l'Ecole Sociale (May,  L'Ecole  Que  1911)  Sociale Populaire,  soumission a l ' a u t o r i t e l a question  dans un  religieuse,  c'est  esprit  de p a r f a i t e  declare:  s o c i a l e , etant  morale e t r e l i g i e u s e ,  Populaire.  a v a n t t o u t une  1 l'Eglise qu'il  en  question  faut  d'abord  demander l a s o l u t i o n ; Que  1'organisation  professionnelle, § personnalite  e t a b a s e c o n f e s s i o n n e l l e , e s t l e m e i l l e u r moyen de e t de  ritablir  travailleurs populations  s e p r o p o s e de  des  les cercles Qu'elle  travail de  des  travail;  dominical;  les Caisses  faveur  les points  femmes e t des  b i e n de  l'hygiene  suivants: enfants;  des  du  des  et tout  de  nos  rural; forces  la  particull e s patronages  legislation sociale,  l a riglementation la limitation  t r a v a i l de  usines,  des  nuit; le  fabriques,  etc  du heures  repos  ...  sous t o u t e s  o u v r i e r s canadiens contre  l a reconnaissance  et  ses  des formes;  l a main-d'oeuvre  l e g a l e d a n s l e s campagnes  famille insaisissable;  L'Ecole  ses  Populaires,  d'une s a i n e  1 * interdiction  p r o t e c t i o n des  etrangere;  l'exode  toutes  general  habitations ouvri^res; l a cooperation la  le sort  d'itudes;  e s t en  notamment s u r  f a v o r i s e r de  o e u v r e s s o c i a l e s en suivantes:  conserver  d'augmenter l e b i e n ^ e t r e  dans l e s campagnes e t d ' a r r e t e r  i e r e m e n t des et  s o c i a l e et d'ameliorer  dans l e s v i l l e s ,  Qu'elle fondation  l a paix  civile  l a speculation et  Sociale Populaire,  #1A,  ( 1 9 1 1 ) , p.  les  d'un  trusts.  17-18.  -173L'Ecole,  naturellement,  e s t o p p o s e e au  p r o t e s t e e n e r g i q u e m e n t , en p a r t i c u l i e r , e t t o u t p r o j e t de l'Etat, matiere  l'autorite  l o i tendant des  d'education.  peres  socialisme:  contre  toute  elle  mesure  3 r e s t r e i n d r e , au b e n e f i c e de  famille  ou  de  l'Eglise  en  de  /  A P P E N D I X  C  THE POLITICAL PROGRAMMES OF THE E.S.P.  -174Le  p r e m i e r programme de r e s t a u r a t i o n s o c i a l e . (March 9, 1933)  1. il  Le regime c a p i t a l i s t e  a €te v i c i i  p a r d e s abus t r e s g r a v e s .  p o s e n t e n v u e de m e t t r e d'assurer,  p a r une m e i l l e u r e  r e p a r t i t i o n des r i c h e s s e s , l e  populaires.  A l'§goisme d o m i n a t e u r e t c u p i d e i l f a u t  en  tout premier  le  veritable esprit  lieu  e t dans t o u t e s chritien,  r i t e " e t de m o d e r a t i o n , vation  Des r e f o r m e s s ' i m -  f i n a l a d i c t a t u r e iconomique e t  relevement des c l a s s e s 2.  n ' e s t pas mauvais en s o i , mais  (fidelity 3.  l e s c l a s s e s de l a s o c i e t e ,  i n s p i r a t e u r de j u s t i c e ,  l e respect  du d i m a n c h e , e t c . )  opposer,  d e s d r o i t s de D i e u  e t d e s d r o i t s du  prochain  C ' e s t de l a n a t u r e e t done d u C r i a t e u r que l e s de p r o p r i e t y  privee.  Ce d r o i t  comporte des o b l i g a t i o n s s o c i a l e s q u i en temperent l e s u b o r d o n n e n t aux e x i g e n c e s d u b i e n 4.  L'Etat  d o i t au p l u s  institutions  1'usage  commun.  t o t p a r des reformes  s o u m e t t r e a une r y g l e m e n t a t i o n  afin  (obser-  aux c o n t r a t s , e t c . )  hommes o n t r e g u l e d r o i t  et  de c h a -  severe e t plus  legislatives  efficace les  f i n a n c i e r e s e t l e s compagnies 3 fonds  social,  de s u p p r i m e r l a s u r c a p i t a l i s a t i o n , l e m o u i l l a g e d e s  valeurs, 5.  l e s abus d u c r e d i t e t de l a s p e c u l a t i o n . Certaines  categories  p u i s s a n c e yconomique t r o p laissee  entre  de b i e n s  considerable  conf^rent  pour q u ' e l l e  l e s m a i n s de p e r s o n n e s p r i v y e s .  Pour l e R e s t a u r a t i o n  p a r f o i s une  Des  s o c i a l e au C a n a d a , #232-3,  soit conside-  ( 1 9 3 3 ) , p p . 62-4-  -175rations d'interet general  peuvent imposer ou c o n s e i l l e r ,  dans d e s c a s p a r t i c u l i e r s , p r o v i n c i a l e ou 6.  l a gestion publique,  nationale,  municipale.  I I a p p a r t i e n t a l ' E t a t d ' i m p r i m e r une d i r e c t i o n  ensemble a l'Economie n a t i o n a l e e t , a c e t e f f e c t , un  C o n s e i l Economique n a t i o n a l , e x p r e s s i o n  c o r p o r a t i v e , q u i permettra liaison de  par  E t r o i t e avec l e s r e p r E s e n t a n t s  toutes 7.  aus p o u v o i r s  1'organisation  patronales,  commissions  syndicats ouvriers, associations  mixtes). s o c i a l e s impose q u i assure  un c r e d i t  E q u i t a b l e du d r o i t suffisante contre mauvaise  1  e t de chomage;  ou de s a i s i e ,  l e s accidents  a) aux  l e s risques d'acci-  agricole effectif,  de f a i l l i t e  b) aux  une  adaptation  une p r o t e c t i o n  ( i n c e n d i e , m a l a d i e s du b e -  recolte).  L'ouvrier  a droit  conditions presentes  a une s a l a i r e  familial.  de l a v i e i n d u s t r i e l l e  possible, l a justice  proc^de sans d e l a i  Si les  ne l e r e n d e n t p a s  s o c i a l e commande  que l ' o n  a des rEformes q u i g a r a n t i r o n t a  a d u l t e une r E t r i b u t i o n p r o p o r t i o n n E e mEnage.  q u a l i f i e s e t compEtents  une p r o t e c t i o n e f f i c a c e c o n t r e  agriculteurs:  toujours  p u h l i c s d ' a g i r en  complete e t l E g a l e des d i f f E r e n t e s p r o f e s s i o n s  Une l e g i s l a t i o n  9.  1'organisation  1  d e n t , de m a l a d i e , de v i e i l l e s s e  tail,  d'instituer  a 1 amEnagement d'un o r d r e c o r p o r a t i f  ( a i n s i dans l e monde d u t r a v a i l :  ouvriers:  1  l e s b r a n c h e s de l a p r o d u c t i o n .  II faut tendre  8.  de  d  1'ouvrier  aux c h a r g e s n o r m a l e s du  I I e s t d E s i r a b l e que l e s e m p l o y e s p u i s s e n t  etre  a p p e l E s a p a r t i c i p e r e n q u e l q u e m a n i e r e S l a p r o p r i E t E de  -1761'entreprise, On  devrait  et s a  aussi  gestion  venir  en  ou  aux  aide  profits qu'elle  aux  apporte.  f a m i l i e s nombreuses p a r  nte'sures s p i c i a l e s comme l e s a l l o c a t i o n s f a m i l i a l e s , d i m i n u t i o n ou 10. des  Le  exemption d'impots, chomage a c t u e l  pouvoirs publics.  f o u r n i r du  travail,  a l a s u b s i s t a n c e de 11. aux  Des  et,  en  tout  intervention  m e t t r e en  attendant, pourvoir  ceux q u i  s o n t dans l e  fortunies  les services  speciale  oeuvre  pour  iquitablement  besoin.  mesures s'imposent pour r e n d r e moins  f a m i l i e s peu  une  etc.  r e c l a m e une  II faut  des  onireux  medicaux e t  les  frais  d'hospitalisation. 12. doit  En  vue  de  r € t a b l i r l ' e q u i l i b r e de  favoriser 1'agriculture  industrialisee, cooperatives,  13. respecter des  f a m i l i a l e et restreindre  promouvoir 1'enseignement r u r a l e t  i n s p i r e r l'estime  a 1 * § t a b l i s s e m e n t des iquementlla  l a population,  fils  de  de  l a profession  la  on culture  l e s methodes  agricole,  aider  c u l t i v a t e u r , d e v e l o p p e r method-  colonisation.  Fidele  a l a constitution qui  l e s d r o i t s des  deux r a c e s q u i  II s'appliquera internationale  est  aussi et  provinces et  I l a b a s e de a une  nous r e g i t , l ' E t a t d o i t le principe d'igalite  l a Confederation  p o l i t i q u e de  canadienne.  collaboration  s ' e m p l o i e r a a l ' a v e n e m e n t de  la  paix.  economique  -177Le  d e u x i e m e programme de R e s t a u r a t i o n S o c i a l e . (September 30, 1933)  La  q u e nous t r a v e r s o n s  crise  volontes  Energique  un e f f o r t  exige  de t o u t e s  de r e d r e s s e m e n t .  l e s bonnes  L'Ecole  Sociale  P o p u l a i r e a p u b l i e e n m a i d e r n i e r un programme d o c t r i n a l de Nous y a d h E r o n s  haute i n s p i r a t i o n . Nous c r o y o n s , sont  nous a u s s i , que l e s c a u s e s p r i n c i p a l e s de  la  crise  le  r e t o u r ci l e s p r i t  d'ordre  m o r a l e t que nous l a g u i r i r o n s s u r t o u t p a r Chretien:  1  esprit  de m o d e r a t i o n , r e s p e c t d e s d r o i t s Nous c r o y o n s que l ' E t a t , droits  pleinement.  et les l i b e r t i s  de j u s t i c e ,  de D i e u  dont l e r o l e  de c h a r i t e ,  e t des d r o i t s  e s t de p r o t i g e r l e s  l e g i t i m e s , ceux s u r t o u t des f a i b l e s e t  des  i n d i g e n t s , e t de p r o m o u v o i r l e b i e n commun, d o i t  par  des mesures l e g i s l a t i v e s  capitaliste l'ont v i c i i .  au s o c i a l i s m e , i n t r i n s e q u e m e n t  n'est  pas condamnable en s o i .  Ce s o n t  eux q u ' i l  Nous c r o y o n s que l e s c o r p o s s'organiser important  solidement  auquel  i l s sont  nagement d'un o r d r e bon  afin  nombre de t a c h e s  intervenir  pour m e t t r e f i n a l a d i c t a t u r e  e c o n o m i q u e e t a s s u r e r une m e i l l e u r e r e p a r t i t i o n Contrairement  du p r o c h a i n .  faut faire  des r i c h e s s e s .  mauvais, l e regime  Ce s o n t  l e s abus q u i  disparaitre.  professionnels devraient  de j o u e r dans l a s o c i € t i  destines.  I l faut tendre  corporatif q u i dechargerait secondaires  l e role §. l'ame-  l ' E t a t d'un  dont on l ' a c c a b l e .  Nous c r o y o n s e n f i n que l e Canada e s t d ' a b o r d p o u r l e s C a n a d i e n s e t que t o u t e  Le  immigration  e n c e s temps de ch6mage  Programme de r e s t a u r a t i o n S o c i a l e , #239-40,  (1934)  serait  -178c o n t r a i r e aux  intirets  du  pays.  M a i s a l a b a s e de  politique  c a n a d i e n n e , nous m e t t o n s l e r e s p e c t  provinces  e t l e p r i n c i p e d e g a l i t e des  les  Elabore tenait  aux  details.  l e p a c t e de  par  des  moralistes,  precisions  les presenter pratiques.  une  que  Nous a v o n s du,  descendait  l E.S.P.  pas  de  nous a v o n s prepare l e s a f i n de  c o n d e n s e r en  formules breves. explications.  compatriotes a etudier  l e trouvent  raisonnable,  hommes p u b l i c s p o u r en  Restauration  de  et  lignes  Quelques  Nous comptons peu.  serieusement  ce  a s'en  les  faire  obtenir  une  familiale.  cultivateurs.  —Generalisation  par  des  existants:  —Association de  E x p a n s i o n du mouvement c o o p e r a t i f . 1'intermediaire  Rurale  1'agriculture  1'agriculture  production  faut  graduelle. Restauration  1.  II  quelques  Nous i n v i t o n s nos  application  les  articles  b r o c h u r e q u i p a r a i t r a sous  p r o m o t e u r s a u p r e s des  dans  techniciens.  f o u r n i e r dans une  s'ils  .  s'en  1  reformes concretes  pour l a p l u p a r t ,  t o u t e f o i s d e m a n d e r a i e n t des  programme e t ,  t e l s que  cependant sont n e c e s s a i r e s .  m a t i e r e a b o n d a n t e , a d o p t e r des  points les  I l ne  reinvent,  C ' e s t avec l e u r a i d e suivants.  l e programme de  au p u b l i c q u i e x i g e des  Elles  des  l a Confederation.  grandes l i g n e s . Ces  droits  deux r a c e s ,  1  reconnait  des  cette  c u l t u r a l e s convenant a notre  professionnelle  a des  1'instruction agricole. —Credit  caisses populaires.  1 * i n t r o d u c t i o n de  Retour  agricole  par  —Diversification  nouvelles  s o l et a notre  —  de  la  specialites climat et  ripondant  -179aux a)  b e s o i n s des de  marches l o c a u x .  l a consommation s u r  ement c e  qui  s'y  vend;  se  r e n d r e compte de  au  point  a  de  vue  climat  de  l a production  agricole, afin  q u i y manque;  c)  et  sol afin  determiner  a)  Part  de  exact-  du  territoire les  de  cultive  cultures  introduire. 2.  un  Colonisation:  plan  partout  ou  n e n t S l a c o u r o n n e , ou ou  en  reserves  reserves celles  de  qui  se  qu'elles  forestieres.  s o n t c o n c e d e e s en —Exiger  c o l o n s a v a n t de  —Conserver condition  elles  A  cette  des  faire  l e r e g i m e des  l a c r e a t i o n de  avec ces  societes;.  societes  diocesaines  plus  par  des  b)  domaine  terres appartienseigneuries les  agricole  f o r e s t i e r e s ou 1  l a coupe s u r  en  achdtent  le  bois  leurs propres l i m i t e s .  primes avec paiement r e g u l i e r , a —Etablir  e t par  de  b u d g e t de  travaux  colon-  l'heure.  colonisation et  l e s colons par des  un  b e s o i n s p r e s s a n t s de  societes  —Aider  (routes,  etc.)  d'ecoles,  Gordon pour l e r e t o u r  —  cooperer  1' i n t e r m e d i a i r e  gratifications individuelles.  largement l e plan  chomeurs  des  c o n c e d e e s en  subventions c o l l e c t i v e s (construction  p l u t 6 t que  1  qu'elles  compagnies q u e l l e s  q u ' i l y a i t residence.  Favoriser  d apres  f i n , delimiter  reserves  i s a t i o n m i e u x p r o p o r t i o n n e aux  des  trouvent, soient  Proceder  l'acces  c o l o n i s a t i o n e t r e i n t e g r e r au  seigneuries. des  de.l'Etat:  determine d'avance. — F a c i l i t e r  colonisables  de  f i n , inventaire:  l e s marches u r b a i n s pour s a v o i r  b)  ce  A cette  ou  des par  d'eglises)  —Appliquer  §. l a t e r r e  des  urbains. Part  du  public:  Societes  paroissiales et  c o l o n i s a t i o n p o u r l e r e c r u t e m e n t des  colons et  diocesaines 1'organisation  -180des p a r o i s s e s 3. A r t s  nouvelles. domestiques e t i n d u s t r i e s  diveloppement des a r t s  se f a i t ,  — P r o c e d e r & une e n q u e t e :  b) s u r c e q u i p o u r r a i t  decentralisation  economique;  se f a i r e .  & cette  complitera  1 agriculture 1  a) p o u r s e s p r o d u i t s ,  ouvri§res la  en l u i o f f r a n t  dans  Question tout  q u i o n t une p o r t i e  nationale  —Allocations  lois  ou i n t e r n a t i o n a l e , —Organisation —  comme  progreApplication  de l a l o i f e d i r a l e d e s aux meres  neeessiteuses.  p r o p o r t i o n n e a l a f a m i l l e moyenne.  t a t i o n prudente des a l l o c a t i o n s probleme  un d e b o u c h i  3 base c o n t r i b u t o i r e .  :  vital  au d i v e l o p p e -  ouvriere  comme m e s u r e « t r a n s i t o i r e ,  p e n s i o n s de v i e i l l e s s e . —Salaire  Favoriser l a  l e p a y s de c e r t a i n e s  des assurances s o c i a l e s  immediate,  a) s u r c e  locale e t regionale  r e g l e m e n t a t i o n d e s h e u r e s de t r a v a i l .  ssive  l e s revenus  b) p o u r s o n s u r c r o i t de m a i n - d ' o e u v r e .  La Uniformisation  —  f i n , aider  ment de l a p e t i t e e t fnoyenne i n d u s t r i e qui  Promouvoir l e  domestiques a f i n d ' a c c r o i t r e  de l a f a m i l l e a g r i c o l e . qui  locales:  —Experimen-  f a m i l i a l e s , e n t e n a n t compte d u  r u r a l . — P r i m a t du s a l a i r e s u r l e s d i v i d e n d e s .  —  S a l a i r e minimum aux ( j o u r n a l i e r s ) . — A p p r e n t i s s a g e  obligatoire.  —Conseil  supirieur  —Extension  juridique  du c o n t r a t  la  profession.  —  du t r a v a i l collectif.  ition  I 1*ouvrier  des t a u d i s .  —Organisation  R e t o u r de l a m § r e a u f o y e r .  o b s e r v a n c e du dimanche. faciliteront  e t code du t r a v a i l .  corporative  de  —Stricte  — I n i t i a t i v e s publiques e t p r i v i e s q u i l accession 1  —Surveillance  a l apropriety.  —  Dispar-  p l u s e f f i c a c e de 1 ' o b s e r v a t i o n  -181des  lois  travail a  ouvridres. q u a n t au  —Revision  choix  du  de  m e d e c i n e t au  1 indemnite. —Rgglementation 1  Lutte Combattre le  contre  lait  le trust  de  de  contre  les cartels  commerce du  l a l o i des  du  e t du  delai  —Lutter  qui  a m e n a g e r a i t , au  non  concedees.  m a i s non  exploiters. —  Corporation,  usines  et,  sur  e t en  ne  a  controle t o u s des  a la taux  de  versant  generation moderns.  q u i , apres  leur  d'eiectricite.  rurale sur  ice  progressive,  l a structure et  d'utilites  m a i n s de  u  n  s e l o n un  hydra-glectrique  l a M o n t r e a l L.  fonds r i e l l e .  par  Power &  —Imposer  les  remuneration au  afin  trust d'assurer  gouvernement  referendum, d e s i r e n t  P.  les  garantissant  et a l a d i s t r i b u t i o n  plan  H.  etatiser  a c t i o n n a i r e s qu'une  —Une  concedees  l a Beauharnois  l a B e a u h a r n o i s , en aux  chutes  c h u t e s d'eau  aux  municipaliser  politique d electrification 1  determine. —  et assainissement  de  leur  p o u r l e s c o m p a g n i e s e i e c t r i q u e s de  l'#Etat,  les  l e s methodes f i n a n c i e r e s des  publiques,  —Obligation  des  — P r o t e c t i o n du  municipalites serv  l a concurrence  p r e u v e d'abus s u f f i s a n t s ,  c o r r e s p o n d a n t a l e u r m i s e de un  l'Etat  surveiller  specialement  besoins  F a i r e enquete sur  hydro-eiectriques  obligations  § mesure des  l a B e a u h a r n o i s Company e t  Consolidated,  temperament.  tout  l a c r e a t i o n d'une c o m m i s s i o n p r o v i n c i a l e  par  droit  l a gazoline;  par  —Reprise  du  les trusts  1'electridte. —Organiser  fur et  donnant  l a vente a  c h a r b o n , de  pain.  accidents  Enquete  complete  compagnies capitalisation. creer entre  les  l e v e r s e m e n t a n n u e l d'une r e d e v a n c e p r i s e  -182sur de  l e s r e v e n u s , mais c a l c u l i e l a capitalisation,  une  d apres  un c e r t a i n  1  reserve  avec l a q u e l l e l e gouvernement  p o u r r a , au c a s d'abus p r o u v e s , r a c h e t e r la  valeur  m a t e r i e l l e de  de  l e Canada. — D e f e n s e  pour  l'obtention  sans nominal des  a-dire sur  des  des  structure  d'un  plus  garantie  des C o n s e i l s  une  de c e t t e v a l e u r ces t i t r e s  premiere  c'est-  hypotheque actions  d'administration.  d'une compagnie de  valeur  determined  en a c t i o n s  — possider,  d'obligations,  ordinaires.  —D§pot  dans une  compagnie de  f i d u c i e comme  d'honnete a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  —Obligation  pour  obligataires.  une  l i s t e complete  commissions,  fonctionnaires  s u p i r i e u r s e t aux  l a compagnie d'en  Interdiction  aux  de  leurs  les  jetons  de p r e s e n c e v e r s u s  administrateurs,  p u b l i e r chaque ann£e  administrateurs  de p r o f i t e r  des aux  avec o b l i g a t i o n  l e montant. de  soci6t£s  actionnaires  — L i m i t a t i o n , d&apres l e s b e n e f i c e s ,  appointements,  pour  actions  des o b l i g a t i o n s ,  p r i v i l e g i e e s e t des  les administrateurs  de p u b l i e r a n n u e l l e m e n t et  des  s o c i e t e s . — P a r t i c i p a t i o n des  la capitalisation,  o b l i g a t o i r e de  prete-noms  l a structure financi^re  g a g e s p a r une  actions  a 1'Election  l a moitie  de  dans  n o m i n a l d e t e r m i n e . — S i m p l i f i c a t i o n de l a  O b l i g a t i o n pour d'apres  de c r i a n c e  f i n a n c i e r e des  obligataires  r e c o u r s a des  l a i s s a n t s u b s i s t e r que  titres  S fonds s o c i a l  lettres-patentes. —Supression  immeubles, des  ordinaires  societes  d'avoir  et simplification  s o c i e t e s , ne  d'apr^s  financieres  l a l o i des  tout  de  les entreprises  l'actif.  Reformes Uniformisation  pourcentage  —  leur situation  -183p o u r e n c a i s s e r des au  detriment  des  I n t e r d i c t i o n des que  des  ou  e v i t e r des  bonis  p a y § s en  et dividendes d'actions  l e gage du  capital  b i l a n s . — F i x a t i o n des  commerce d ' a r t i c l e s  e t des  de  administrateurs  etats  administrateurs  dejS s o u s c r i t .  e t des  1.  interesses.  a b o l i t i o n des  soit  e n t r e p r i s e s oil l e s d i t s  — I n t e r d i c t i o n aux  cote  cinquante  pour cent  de  l a cote  de  l a vente a decouvert.  au  vendeur, sur  soit  s i le titre  —Imposition  des  en  sont courtiers  bourse.  titre  se  traite  "pools"  et  d'une t a x e p r o v i n c i a l e  t o u t e m u t a t i o n e f f e c t u e e m o i n s d'un cotee  et  indirecte-  n o m i n a l e du  — I n t e r d i c t i o n rigoureuse  d'une  preter:  1  l a valeur  des  —Reglementation  b a n q u e s d a v a n c e r aux  de  1'achat d ' a c t i o n  les  conjointe  administrateurs  pour c e n t  pair.  conjointe  signent  b a n q u e s de  directement  font  farine,  "Investment T r u s t s "  cinquante  en d e s s o u s du  lait,  qui  prospectus.  p l u s de ou  titres  —Uniformisation  etc. —Responsabilite  C o m p a n i e s " . — I n t e r d i c t i o n aux  I des  de  c o u r t i e r s q u i vendent l e s t i t r e s  a leurs administrateurs,  ment; 2.  ainsi  les societes qui  societes. —Responsabilite  e t , au b e s o i n ,  "Holding  par  premiere n e c e s s i t y :  compagnie q u a n t S l a v e r a c i t e du severe  actions  emissions  avec l e s v e r i f i c a t e u r s  f i n a n c i e r s des  —  pourcentages pour d e p r e c i a t i o n ,  p a i n , charbon, E l e c t r i c i t y , des  personnelles  obligataires.  amortissements, e t c . , principalement le  pertes  a c t i o n n a i r e s e t des  fractionnements  amoindrissant des  profits  an  aprds  -184Riformes Dans l a mesure du en  regie  prise  aux  e x e c u t i o n des  r e g i m e des  ministres  leurs  liste  pour l e s  piriode  leurs  hypothicaires  et  de  service  —  j o u r n a u x de  administrateurs,  ridacteurs  pension  diterminee.  de  autres corps publics  de  publier  actionnaires,  riguliers.  n ' a c c o r d e r de  —Imprimerie  contrats  q u * a p r e s demande de  soumissions. — I n t e r d i c t i o n  public  un  faire  de  f a i r e par  prete-nom ce  personnellement et  renvoi  a s s e m b l i e s d i l i b i r a n t e s de —Elections partis que  des  des  tout  que  montants s o u s c r i t s  la l o i lui interdit  cas  de  a leur  o b l i g a t o i r e par  caisse  electorale  conseil  directeur  et  (tiligraphes).  e c o n o m i q u e p r o v i n c i a l compose" d'un d ' a u t a n t de  i m p o r t a n t e s de siigeront  personne  r i g o u r e u s e de  des  les divers  la vie  sous-comites q u ' i l  iconomique et  sociale.  ; s p e c i a l i s t e s nommis p a r  A  ce  l ' E t a t , mais  groupements p r o f e s s i o n n e l s  et  et  piculat. les ainsi  dans  la loi —Creation  comite  y a de  de  qu'aux  c o n c u s s i o n e t de  sommes a f f e c t i e s a 1 ' o r g a n i s a t i o n g i n e r a l e  c o n t r e l e s s u p p o s i t i o n s de  par  l'homme  tribunaux plutot  chaque c i r c o n s c r i p t i o n . — A p p l i c a t i o n  d'un  S  pour  d'impression  aux  a date f i x e et d e c l a r a t i o n  entre-  comme c o m p e n s a t i o n ,  d ' E t a t pour l e gouvernement p r o v i n c i a l e t o b l i g a t i o n les  publics  entrepreneurs.  financiere;  societis iditrices  a s s e r m e n t i e de  creanciers  grands  a p p o i n t e m e n t s e t a s s u r a n c e d'une  c o n v e n a b l e , a p r e s une Obligation  travaux  d ' e t r e a d m i n i s t r a t e u r s d'une  i n d u s t r i e l l e , c o m m e r c i a l e ou  r e l e v e m e n t de  la  possible,  p o u r m e t t r e f i n au  —Interdiction  politiques  branches conseil disignes  sociaux.  Le  -185conseil et  aura  sociale  itudes  p o u r m i s s i o n d ' e l a b o r e r une p o l i t i q u e  e t d'apporter  aux g o u v e r n a n t s  e t de s a c o m p e t e n c e .  a l a nomination s u p e r i e u r s de  l e conseil  de s e s  collaborerait  l'Etat.  facile  ment compte.  l e concours  des s o u s - m i n i s t r e s e t des f o n c t i o n n a i r e s  Tous l e s a r t i c l e s lisation  En o u t r e ,  economique  de c e programme ne s o n t p a s de r e a -  n i immediate.  Nous nous en r e n d o n s  M a i s l e s reformes q u " i l s  preconisent  parfaite-  nous  paraissent  j u s t e s e t n e c e s s a i r e s , e t a u c u n e ne s a u r a i t  d obstacle  reellement  1  rencontrer  insurmontable.  Mus u n i q u e m e n t p a r 1'amour de n o t r e p a y s , d e s i r e u x d'y faire  regner  un o r d r e p l u s c o n f o r m e a l a j u s t i c e  de  l e preserver a i n s i  la  situation  actuelle,  c e programme.  sociale et  des b o u l e v e r s e m e n t s auxquels nous v o u l o n s  travailler  nous e x p o s e  au t r i o m p h e de  Tous c e u x q u i p e n s e n t comme n o u s , i n d i v i d u s o u  societes, s o n t i n v i t e s a nous a d r e s s e r l e u r adhesion. accepterons b i e n nous  aussi volontiers faire.  Nous  l e s o b s e r v a t i o n s qu'on v o u d r a i t  F O O T N O T E S  -186-  FOOTNOTES Chapter I 1. See J . C. F a l a r d e a u , " E v o l u t i o n d e s s t r u c t u r e s s o c i a l e s e t d e s e l i t e s a u Canada F r a n g a i s " , i n G. S y l v e s t r e e d . , S t r u c t u r e s S o c i a l e s du C a n a d a F r a n g a i s , E t u d e de l a S o c i i t e R o y a l e du C a n a d a , 1966, p p . 9-13 a n d his-' R©le e t i m p o r t a n c e de l ' E g l i s e a u C a n a d a F r a n g a i s " , E s p r i t , P a r i s , ( A u g - S e p t . 1952 i s s u e ) p p . 217-29. A l s o H. G u i n d o n , "The S o c i a l E v o l u t i o n o f Quebec R e c o n s i d e r e d " , i n M. R i o u x a n d Y. M a r t i n e d s . , F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n S o c i e t y , T o r o n t o , M c C l e l l a n d a n d S t e w a r t , 1964, v o l . I , pp. 137-53. (Carleton l i b r a r y , no. 1 8 ) . ,1  2. Mandements, L e t t r e s p a s t o r a l e s , c i r c u l a i r e s e t a u t r e documents p u b l i c s dans' l e D i o c e s e de M o n t r e a l , M o n t r e a l , J . H. P l i n c j u e t , 1887, 7ieme tome, p p . 204-6. 3. P a r t o f a s p e e c h g i v e n i n 1902 by M s g r . L.-A. P a q u e t a n d r e p r o d u c e d i n t h e B r e V i a i r e du P a t r i o t e C a n a d i e n - F r a n g a i s , Montreal B i b l i o t h e q u e de l A c t i o n F r a n g a i s e , 1925, p . 58. 1  4.  G u i n d o n , op_. c i t . , p . 153.  5. See G u i n d o n , I b i d . , p . 153-8; F a l a r d e a u , " R o l e e t i m p o r t a n c e de l ' E g l i s e a u Canada F r a n g a i s " , pp. 217-29. For a p r i e s t ' s v i e w , s e e t h e p p a m p h l e t b y A. D u g r e , s . j . , L a p a r o l s s e au Canada f r a n g a i s , M o n t r e a l , E c o l e S o c i a l e P o p u l a i r e , h e r e a f t e r c i t e d a s E.S.P., #183-184, ( 1 9 2 9 ) . 6. E . C. Hughes, F r e n c h - C a n a d a i n T r a n s i t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1943, p p . 9-10; H. M i n e r , S t . D e n i s A F r e n c h Canadian P a r i s h , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , (1939) p p . 94-104 & 251, a n d M. T r e m b l a y , " O r i e n t a t i o n s de l a p e n s e e s o c i a l e " , i n F a l a r d e a u e d . , E s s a i s s u r l e Quebec C o n t e m p o r a i n , Quebec, L e s P r e s s e s U n i v e r s i t a i r e s L a v a l , 1953, pp. 200-1. 7. T r e m b l a y , I b i d . , p p . 202-3; G u i n d o n , o p . c i t . , p . 152; F a l a r d e a u , " L e s C a n a d i e n s F r a n g a i s e t l e u r i d e o l o g i e " , i n M. Wade e d . , C a n a d i a n D u a l i s m , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1960, p p . 26-9; R. B o i l y , " L e s hommes p o l i t i q u e s d u Q u i b e c . 1867-1967", i n Revue d ' H i s t o i r e de l ' A m g r i q u e F r a n g a i s e , v o l . XXI 3 a , ( c e n t e n n i a l i s s u e ) 1967, p p . 609 & 621, a n d L . E . H a m e l i n , "Une e t u d e d e s v a r i a t i o n s r i g i o n a l e s d u nombre d e s v o c a t i o n s s a c e r d o t a l e s " , i n h i s R e c u e i l de t r a v a u x de S c i e n c e s Humaines, Quebec, L e s P r e s s e s U n i v e r s i t a i r e s L a v a l , 1962, p . 26. 8. B o i l y , 0 £ . c i t . , p . 621; T r e m b l a y , op_. c i t . , p p . 200-1, and J . P o r t e r , T h e V e r t i c a l M o s a i c , U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto Press, 1965, p p . 511-19.  -1879. F o r b a c k g r o u n d , s e e T r e m b l a y , I b i d . , pp. 203-8; F a l a r d e a u " R S l e e t i m p o r t a n c e de l ' E g l i s e au Canada F r a n g a i s " , pp. 222-3, as w e l l as h i s "Les C a n a d i e n s F r a n g a i s e t l e u r i d e o l o g i e " . A n o t h e r s o u r c e i s M. B r u n e t , " T r o i s d o m i n a n t e s de l a p e n s i e Canadienne-Frangaise", i n h i s La presence A n g l a i s e e t l e s Canadiens, M o n t r e a l , B e a u c h e m i n , 1964, pp. 112-66. 10. The f o l l o w i n g a r e t a k e n f r o m h i s Q u e l q u e s C o n s i d e r a t i o n s s u r l e s R a p p o r t s de l a S o c i e t e c i v i l e a v e c l a R e l i g i o n e t l a Famille^ M o n t r e a l , E u s e b e S e n e c a l , 1866, pp. 24, 29, 38-50. T h i s book was c o n d e n s e d i n t o a p a m p h l e t by t h e E.S.P. i n 1924 u n d e r t h e t i t l e Le P a t r i o t i s m e , #124. 11. See F a l a r d e a u , " R o l e e t i m p o r t a n c e de l ' E g l i s e au C a n a d a F r a n g a i s " , pp. 217-29 and h i s " E v o l u t i o n des s t r u c t u r e s s o c i a l e s e t d e s e l i t e s au Canada F r a n g a i s " , pp. 9-13. 12. F a l a r d e a u , " R o l e e t F r a n g a i s " , p. 227.  importance  de  l'Eglise  au  Canada  13. F a l a r d e a u , I b i d . , pp. 228-9; Andre S i e g f r i e d , The Race Q u e s t i o n i n Canada, E. Nash, t r a n s . , T o r o n t o , M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t L t d . , 1966, ( o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n P a r i s i n 1906) pp. 35-47 and M i n e r , op. c i t . , pp. 94-99 f o r t h i s and t h e following. 14.  These a r e taken from S i e g f r i e d ,  Ibid.,  pp.  22-3  15. S i e g f r i e d , I b i d . , p. 25 and F a l a r d e a u , "Les F r a n g a i s e t l e u r i d e o l o g i e " , p. 30.  &  42.  Canadiens  16. See H a m e l i n , " E v o l u t i o n Numerique s e c u l a i r e du c l e r g e C a t h o l i q u e dans l e Quebec", i n h i s R e c u e l l , p a r t i c u l a r l y pp. 225 & 233-5; F. Dumont, " R e f l e x i o n s s u r 1 ' h i s t o i r e r e l i g i e u s e du Canada F r a n g a i s " i n V. H a r v e y e t . a l , L ' E g l i s e e t l e Quebec, M o n t r e a l , L e s E d i t i o n s du J o u r , 1961, pp. 54-5; F a l a r d e a u ' s " R o l e e t i m p o r t a n c e de l ' E g l i s e au Canada F r a n g a i s " , p . 224, and P. E. T r u d e a u , "La P r o v i n c e de Quebec au moment de l a g r e v e " i n L a G r e y e de l ' A m i a n t e , M o n t r e a l , L e s e d i t i o n s C i t e - L i b r e , 1956, p. 58. On t h e b a s i s o f F a l a r d e a u ' s f i g u r e s , T r u d e a u c a l c u l a t e d t h a t t h e r e was one v o c a t i o n f o r e v e r y f o r t y C a t h o l i c s i n Quebec d u r i n g t h e 1940's. T h i s e x c l u d e d t h e many F r e n c h C a n a d i a n m i s s i o n a r i e s s t a t i o n e d o u t s i d e o f Quebec. As H a m e l i n shows t h e r a t e has r e m a i n e d f a i r l y s t e a d y s i n c e t h e end o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h century. 17. J . H e n r i p i n , "From a c c e p t a n c e t o c o n t r o l : t h e demography of the French Canadians s i n c e the seventeenth c e n t u r y " , i n M a r t i n and R i o u x , F r e n c h C a n a d i a n S o c i e t y , v o l . I , pp. 209-15.  -18818. I b i d . , pp. 209-10; Hughes, op_. c i t . , pp. 2 & 7; T r e m b l a y , op_. c i t . , pp. 192-202. See e s p e c i a l l y , M i n e r , op_. c i t . , pp. 63-75 & 239-41 as w e l l a s R. R e d f i e l d ' s i n t r o d u c t i o n . A n o t h e r u s e f u l s o u r c e i s W. F. Ryan, s . j . , The C l e r g y and E c o n o m i c Growth i n Quebec. 1896-1914, L e s P r e s s e s de 1 " U n i v e r s i t e " L a v a l , 1966, pp. 250-56. For a d i s c u s s i o n of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of c o l o n i z a t i o n , s e e pp 105-109 of this thesis. 19. See Hughes, I b i d . , 71-2.  pp. 216 and M i n e r , I b i d . ,  pp. 68 &  20. F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e e c o n o m i c e v o l u t i o n o f Quebec, s e e R. B l a n c h a r d , L e Canada F r a n g a i s , L i b r a i r i e Artheme F a y a r t (Canada) L t e e . , (1960) pp. 180-98 & 277, and A. F a u c h e r , and My. Lamontagne, " H i s t o r y o f I n d u s t r i a l D e v e l o p m e n t " , i n M a r t i n and Rioux, French Canadian S o c i e t y , pp. 257-71. 21. See F a u c h e r and Lamontagne, I b i d . , p . 264-65 a s w e l l as Lamontagne, "The A m e r i c a n E c o n o m i c Impact on Quebec", H. A i t k e n , e t a l . , The A m e r i c a n E c o n o m i c Impact on Canada^ Duke U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959, p. 92, and F a u c h e r and G. P a q u e t , " L e x p e r i e n c e e c o n o m i q u e du Quebec e t l a C o n f e d e r a t i o n " , J o u r n a l o f C a n a d i a n S t u d i e s , v o l . 1, no. 3, (Nov. 1 9 6 6 ) , pp. 24-25. 1  22. F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f F r e n c h C a n a d i a n r e a c t i o n t t o i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , s e e F a u c h e r and P a q u e t , I b i d . , p . 25, and B l a n c h a r d , op_. c i t . , p . 198. Ryan, op_. c i t . , pp. 23-25, 80 & 92, 254-61, 265-71, d i s c u s s e s t h i s q u e s t i o n e x t e n s i v e l y . 23. I n a d d i t i o n t o t h o s e s o u r c e s l i s t e d i n note#22, s e e B o i l y , op_. c i t . , p . 6 3 I - 2 ; P. E . T r u d e a u , "Some O b s t a c l e s t o Democracy i n Quebec", i n C a n a d i a n D u a l i s m , pp. 246-55; G u i n d o n , op. c i t . , p . 156 and J . C~ B o n e n f a n t , "La v i e p o l i t i q u e du Quebec de 1910 a 1935," i n S o c i i t e R o y a l e du Canada, Aux s o u r c e s du present, U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1960, pp. 31-33 f o r discussions of the various factors involved. 24. See G. P e l l e t i e r , "Le s y n d i c a l i s m * C a n a d i e n - f r a n g a i s , " i n C a n a d i a n D u a l i s m , p p . 280-83, 286-87 and a p a m p h l e t by A. C h a r p e n t i e r , De 1 ' I n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m e au N a t i o n a l i s m e , M o n t r e a l , E.S.P. #88-89, (1919) pp. 18-20. 25. P. S a v a r d , J u l e s - P a u l T a r d i v e l , l a F r a n c e e t l e s E t a t s U n i s . 1851-1905. L e s P r e s s e s de 1 ' U n i v e r s i t e L a v a l , 1967, ( L e s C a h i e r s de L ' I n s t i t u t d ' H i s t o i r e #8/} p . 212; T r u d e a u , op_. c i t . , pp. 62-3, and C a r d i n a l T a s c h e r e a u ' s "mandement" i n Mandements, l e t t r e s p a s t o r a l e s e t C i r c u l a i r e s d e s E v e q u e s de Quebec, Quebec, I m p r i m e r i e G i n e r a l e , 1890, v o l . I I , pp. 554-7.  -18926. I n a d d i t i o n t o P e l l e t i e r , op_. c i t . , pp. 283-87, s e e A. C h a r p e n t i e r , "Le mouvement p o l i t i q u e o u v r i e r de M o n t r e a l . 1883-1929", R e l a t i o n s I n d u s t r i e - L i e s , v o l . 10, no. 2., (Mar. 1955) pp. 74-93 and a p a m p h l e t , A. S a i n t - P i e r r e , L ' o r g a n i s a t i o n ouvriere dans l a P r o v i n c e de Quebec, M o n t r e a l , E.S.P. #2, (1913) pp. 23-31. For the r e a c t i o n s o f F r e n c h Canadian s o c i a l r e f o r m e r s to the p r o p o s a l s o f t h i s s h o r t - l i v e d L a b o u r movement, see J . L e v i t t , H e n r i B o u r a s s a and t h e G o l d e n C a l f , L e s E d i t i o n s de 1'Universite d ' O t t a w a , 1969, pp. 110-112 e s p e c i a l l y . 27 Ryan, QJJ. P a u l - E u g § n e Roy, 1941, p. 55. 28.  Saint  o i t . , pp. 263-64 and Quebec, L e s E d i t i o n s  P i e r r e , op_.  S r . M. A. W e l t o n , Mgr. de l A c t i o n C a t h o l i q u e , 1  c i t . , passim.  29. T h i s s p e e c h was g i v e n i n 1918 and was c i t e d by a n o t h e r l e a d i n g S o c i a l C a t h o l i c , M s g r . L a p o i n t e o f C h i c o u t i m i , Semaine S o c i a l e du C a n a d a , 2ieme s e s s i o n , (1921) p. 386, and by W e l t o n , op. c i t . , p. 165. 30.  W e l t o n , I b i d . , pp.  66-7.  -190FOOTNOTES Chapter I I 1. F i v e G r e a t E n c y c l i c a l s , 1955, (1939) p . 7. 2. I b i d . ,  p. 8  3. I b i d . ,  pp. 9-15  4. I b i d . ,  p. 19.  5. I b i d . ,  p . 22.  6. I b i d . ,  p. 22.  7. See I b i d . , 8. I b i d . ,  New  and 15-23  York, the P a u l i s t  f o r the  Press,  following.  pp. 23-29.  pp. 27-29.  9. L . S t u r z o , C h u r c h and S t a t e , U n i v e r s i t y o f N o t r e Dame P r e s s , v o l . 2, 1962, pp. 423 & 432-3. Sturzo l e d the I t a l i a n Popular P a r t y , a f t e r W o r l d War I , an a t t e m p t t o a d a p t t h e t e a c h i n g s o f Catholicism to p o l i t i c s . See pp. 478-80 o f t h e same book. 10. For studies o f t h i s c o n f l i c t see, i n a d d i t i o n t o Sturzo, I b i d . , A. R. V i d l e r , A C e n t u r y o f S o c i a l C a t h o l i c i s m . 1820-1920, L o n d o n , S.P.C.K., 1964, pp. 54-93 and P. D r o u l e r s , P o l i t l q u e " Social et Christianisme; Le Pere Desbuguois e t " 1 ' A c t i o n P o p u l a i r e " dSbutisy s y n d i c a l i s m e , e t l n t e g r i s t e s . 190 3-1918, P a r i s , L e s E d i t i o n s O u v r i e r s , 1969. 11. op.  S t u r z o , op_. c i t . , pp.  12. I b i d . , p . 439; V i d l e r , c i t . , pp. 306-11. 13.  Sturzo,  Ibid.,  pp.  458-61. op_. c i t . , pp. 129-30  and  Droulers  464-5.  14. D r o u l e r s , op. c i t . , pp. 40 & 146-51 and H. F o n t a n i l l e , S o c i a l e d ' A l b e r t de Mun, P a r i s , E d i t i o n s S p e s , 1926, p . 259.  L'Oeuvre  15. S t u r z o , op. c i t . , p p . 459-62; D r o u l e r s , I b i d . , pp. 255 & 92, and E . N o l t e , T h r e e F a c e s o f F a s c i s m , t r a n s . L . V e n n e w i t z , New Y o r k , The New A m e r i c a n L i b r a r y , (1963) pp. 101-2 & 137. 16. N o l t e , I b i d . , pp. 185-6; S t u r z o , op_. c i t . D o u l e r s , I b i d . , p . 359.  and  17. N o l t e , Droulers,  p . 462 and  I b i d . , p . 103, n. 50; S t u r z o op_. c i t . , p p . 462-5, I b i d . , pp. 360 & 84.  -19118. D r o u l e r s / I b i d . , e s p e c i a l l y has a f u l l a c c o u n t o f t h e conflict. See h i s C h a p t . V, pp. 229-392. The b i t t e r n e s s o f t h e d i s p u t e c a n be gauged by t h e a c c o u n t s o f l e a d i n g c l e r i c s d e n o u n c i n g L e o X I I I i n p r i v a t e and o f t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e A.P. t o r e s i s t t h e I n t S g r i s t e s a n d , i f n e c e s s a r y , t h e Pope. See p. 41 a l s o . p.  For  19. D r o u l e r s , 248.  Ibid. ,  pp. 239-41  20. D r o u l e r s ,  I b i d . , p.  and F o n t a n i l l e , op_. c i t . ,  232.  21. I b i d . , pp. 32-41 & 354 and V i d l e r , op_. c i t . , p . t h e f o l l o w i n g , s e e D r o u l e r s , pp. 346-50 & 390-91.  126.  22. See h i s p a m p h l e t , L a C a i s s e p o p u l a i r e , 3ieme e d . , M o n t r e a l , E.S.P. #7 & 12, 1944 ( 1 9 1 2 ) , pp. 41-47. 23. See p a m p h l e t , L ' O r g a n i s a t i o n o u v r i e r e c a t h o l i q u e au C a n a d a , M o n t r e a l , E.S.P. #105, (1921) pp. 5-7 and J . H u l l i g e r , E ' E n s e i g n e m e n t s o c i a l d e s eVeques C a n a d i e n s de 1891 a 1950, M o n t r e a l , F i d e s , (1957) pp. 115-16. I w i l l hereafter cite t h e E.S.P. p a m p h l e t s by t h e i r number when r e f e r r e d t o a t infrequent i n t e r v a l s i n a chapter. 24. S r . M. A. W e l t o n , Mgr. P a u l - E u g § n e Roy, Quebec, L e s E d i t i o n s de 1 ' A c t i o n c a t h o l i q u e , 1941, pp. 66 & 96 and J . P. A r c h a m b a u l t , s . j . , L ' A c t i o n C a t h o l i q u e au C a n a d a , M o n t r e a l , E.S.P. #287, (1937) p. 9. 25. See G. L e m i e u x , " N o t e s s u r l e mouvement s o c i a l C a t h o l i q u e " C h r o n i q u e S o c i a l e de F r a n c e , ( S e p t . 15, 1957) p . 461; J . P. Archambault, s . j . , Le C l e r g e e t l e s Oeuvres s o c i a l e s , Montreal, #59, (1916) pp. 4-6 and A p p e n d i x A, p., 158. 26. L e m i e u x , p. 463 and S r . M.A. o f Rome G a u d r e a ^ The S o c i a l T h o u g h t o f F r e n c h Canada as R e f l e c t e d i n t h e Semaines S o c i a l e s , W a s h i n g t o n , D. C., The C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y o f A m e r i c a P r e s s , 1946, p. 2 . 27. F i v e G r e a t E n c y c l i c a l s , pp. 29-30 and L e s S o c i a l e s , M o n t r § a l , E.S.P. #424, (1949) pp. 7-8.  Encycliques  2 8 . S i e g f r i e d , The Race Q u e s t i o n i n C a n a d a , E . Nash, T o r o n t o , M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t L t d . , 1966 ( o r i g i n a l l y i n P a r i s i n 1 9 0 6 ) , p. 24.  trans., published  29. P. S a v a r d , J u l e s - P a u l T a r d i v e l , l a F r a n c e e t l e s E t a t s U n i s . 1851-1905, L e s P r e s s e s de 1 ' U n i v e r s i t y L a v a l , 1967, p. 262, n. 36.  -19230. D r o u l e r s , op_. c i t . , pp. 382-3, n. 467. He r e p o r t s t h a t C a r d i n a l B i l l o t , a c l o s e a d v i s o r t o t h e Pope, f e a r e d t h a t t h e J e s u i t s w o u l d g a i n c o n t r o l o v e r s u c h an o r g a n i z a t i o n . 31. W. F. Ryan, s . j . , a r g u e s t h i s way E c o n o m i c Growth i n Quebec. 1896-1914, L e s L a v a l , 1966, p. 206. 32. As t h e r e a r e I b i d . , p. 206; #105,  contradictory pp. 3-4 & 10,  i n h i s The P r e s s e s de  Clergy and 1'University  a c c o u n t s , I have r e l i e d and #287, p. 4.  on  •33. A g a i n t h e p i c t u r e i s c o n f u s e d . I h a v e r e l i e d on M. T e t u , "Les P r e m i e r s s y n d i c a t s c a t h o l i q u e c a n a d i e n . ( 1 9 0 0 - 1 9 2 1 ) " , U n i v e r s i t y L a v a l , t h e s e de d o c t o r a t , 1961, pp. 239 & 277. L. Hudon, s . j . , was e d i t o r and, l a t e r , d i r e c t o r o f t h e M e s s a g e r C a n a d i e n du S a c r e C o e u r , o r g a n o f t h e L i g u e s du S a c r e C o e u r . H i s was t o be t h e f o r c e b e h i n d t h e E.S.P., a t l e a s t , u n t i l 1915.) ; A. S a i n t - P i e r r e , "Le f o n d a t e u r " , L e s v i n g t - c i n q ans de l ' E c o l e S o c i a l e P o p u l a i r e , E.S.P. #269-70, (1936) pp. 3-5). A. S a i n t - P i e r r e was one o f t h e f i r s t l a y S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s . L a t e r he became a p r o f e s s o r o f s o c i o l o g y a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y de Montreal. ( G a u d r e a u , op. c i t . , pp. 49-50.) See A p p e n d i x A, p. 159. 34. I t was t h i s s t a t e m e n t , d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 1, w h i c h p o i n t e d out the dangers which i n t e r n a t i o n a l unions c r e a t e d for Catholics. See t h e p a m p h l e t , L ' E s p r i t c h r y t i e n dans l a f a m i l l e e t dans T a s o c i e t y , ( e x t r a i t de l a l e t t r e des P e r e s du p r e m i e r C o n c i l e P l e n i e r de Quebec) M o n t r e a l , E.S.P. #60, (1916) pp. 29-31. this  35. T e t u , 0 £ . C i t . , pp. and t h e f o l l o w i n g .  277  & 81  and  #105,  pp.  10-1  for  36. F o r t h e a c t u a l p a p e r s p r e s e n t e d t o t h i s c o n g r e s s see t h e E.S.P. p a m p h l e t s , J . P. A r c h a m b a u l t , s . j . , L ' O r g a n i s a t i o n ouvriere c a t h o l i q u e en H o l l a n d e , #1 and A. S a i n t - P i e r r e , L'Organisation" o u v r i e r e dans l a p r o v i n c e de Quybec, #2. As a l l o f t h e f o l l o w i n g p a m p h l e t s and t r a c t s were p u b l i s h e d by t h e E.S.P., I w i l l o m i t t h e p l a c e and p u b l i s h e r . pp. pp.  37. T h i s 539-42. 159-60.  and For  38.  See  my  39.  Tetu, 0£.  the the  following structure  A p p e n d i x B, c i t . , pp.  pp.  f r o m T e t u , ojo. c i t . , A p p e n d i x B, o f t h e E.S.P., see my A p p e n d i x A, 172-3.  281-2  and  #2,  pp.  33-35 f o r t h e  following.  40. See T e t u , op_. c i t . , pp. 286-9, #2, pp. 33-5 and #105 p. 15 and D r o u l e r s , op_. c i t . , pp. 333 & 336-7. Droulers notes t h a t w h i l e P l a n t i e r was i n M o n t r e a l , t h e I n t i g r i s t e s , t h r o u g h a s y m p a t h i z e r , abby D'Amours, d i r e c t o r o f Quebec C i t y ' s 1 ' A c t i o n C a t h o l i q u e , a t t e m p t e d t o d i s c r e d i t t h e A.P.. Saint-Pierre s 1  -193-  d e f e n s e i n Le D e v o i r o n l y p r o v i d e d them w i t h more a m m u n i p t i o n . F o r t h e A . P . s i n f l u e n c e , s e e #16, 2 0 - 2 1 , 3 1 , 32, 3 4 * 3 5 , 3 9 , and 4 8 - 4 9 as e x a m p l e s . 1  41. Tetu,  ££.  cit.,  pp.  290-1  and  #105,  pp.  14-15.  4 2 . A r c h a m b a u l t , "Les t r o i s p h a s e s de l ' E c o l e S o c i a l e P o p u l a i r e " , L e s v i n g t - c i n q ans de l ' E c o l e S o c i a l e P o p u l a i r e , #26'9jr70, ( 1 9 3 6 ) p. 4 3 . I t i s t o be w o n d e r e d i f t h i s c h a n g e was i n any way c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e d e a t h o f P i u s X. 43. T h i s b i o g r a p h i c a l s k e t c h has b e e n p i e c e d t o g e t h e r f r o m t h e f o l l o w i n g : J . C o u s i n e a u , s . j . , "Notes b i o g r a p h i q u e s " , R e l a t i o n s , (Nov. 1 9 6 6 ) v o l s . 2 5 - 6 , no. 3 1 0 , p. 2 9 6 ; G a u d r e a u , op. c i t . , pp. 3 1 - 2 ; R. R u m i l l y , H i s t o i r e de l a P r o v i n c e de Q u § b e c , M o n t r e a l , E d i t i o n s F i d e s , v o l s . XX, p. 1 7 3 , a n d - X X I I I , pp. 1 5 1 - 2 , and A r c h a m b a u l t , Le C l e r g g e t l e s E t u d e s s o c i a l e s , #24, ( 1 9 1 3 ) , pp.  14-19.  4 4 . F o r t h i s t i t l e , see P. G o u i n , S e r v i r , M o n t r e a l , L e s E d i t i o n s du Z o d i a q u e , ( 1 9 3 8 ) v o l . I , p. 2 2 5 . Other sources are: C o u s i n e a u , I b i d . , p. 2 9 8 ; G. J e a n , s . j . , L ' O e u y r e de 1 a V i i 1 a Saint-Martin. 1914-1924 O e u v r e des T r a c t s #57, ( 1 9 2 4 ) , pp. 3 - 1 2 , and F o n t a n i l l e , op. c i t . , p. 2 2 6 . T  4 5 . Ma C o n v e r s i o n au s y n d i c a l i s m e c a t h o l i q u e , F i d e s , 1 9 4 6 , p. 86 as w e l l as pp. 2 9 - 3 0 , 38 & 4 7 . A, p. 165.  Montreal, See A p p e n d i x  4 6 . E s p e c i a l l y i n h i s s e r i e s o f p a m p h l e t s on L a Q u e s t i o n s o c i a l e e t nos d e v o i r s de c a t h o l i q u e s , #65-8, (1916-17) . 4 7 . C h a r p e n t i e r , op_. c i t . , pp. 8 0 - 8 8 & 1 2 1 ; T e t u , OJD. c i t . , pp. 303 & 3 1 4 - 1 5 and A r c h a m b a u l t , L e S y n d i c a l i s m e c a t h o l i q u e au C a n a d a , #267, ( 1 9 3 6 ) pp. 1 3 - 1 4 f o r t h i s and t h e f o l l o w i n g . 48. C h a r p e n t i e r , " L ' E c o l e S o c i a l e P o p u l a i r e e t l e s y n d i c a l i s m e c a t h o l i q u e " , # 2 6 9 - 7 0 , p. 20 and T e t u , I b i d . , p. 302 and A p p e n d i x A, p . 1 6 2 .  p.  4 9 . C h a r p e n t i e r , Ma 188. See a l s o T e t u , 50.  #105,  pp.  17-27  c o n v e r s i o n au I b i d . , p. 303 for this  syndicalisme catholique, and A p p e n d i x A, p . 1 6 3 .  account.  5 1 . #105, pp. 2 2 - 2 6 . As t h i s p a m p h l e t i s an e x t r a c t f r o m t h e o f f i c i a l h i s t o r y p r e s e n t e d by t h e C.T.C.C.'s f i r s t s e c r e t a r y g e n e r a l , G. T r e m b l a y , i t s v a l u e i s g r e a t . A l s o T e t u , op_. c i t . , p. 466.  -19452. #105, p. 27. See C h a r p e n t i e r s d i s c u s s i o n o f h i s " c o n v e r s i o n " i n h i s De 1 ' I n t e r n a t i o n a l ! s m e au National!sme, #88-89, ( 1 9 2 0 ) , pp. 35-8. 1  53.  Abbe E. D e l i s l e ,  54.  Abbe L o r t i e ,  cited  cited  by  by W e l t o n , op. Tetu,  cit.,  op_. c i t . , p.  p.  143.  541.  55. The f o l l o w i n g p a m p h l e t s d e a l w i t h t o p i c s r e l a t e d t o the C.T.C.C: #92-3, 100, 120-21, 125, 144, 151, 159-60, 161, 165, 172-3, 175, 187, 199. One r e m a r k a b l e f a c t a b o u t t h e s e i s the prominence o f c l e r i c s i n d e f i n i n g union problems. #100 d e a l i n g w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n o f f a i r wages, #92-3 d e a l i n g w i t h t h e m o r a l i t y o f s t r i k e s and #199 - M s g r . G a u t h i e r ' s p l e a t h a t p r e f e r e n c e be a c c o r d e d t o C a t h o l i c u n i o n s - a r e e x a m p l e s o f t h i s tendency. 56. Semaines S o c i a l e s du C a n a d a , 1 i e r e session, Montreal, E.S.P., (1920) p. 135 and R. P. Bonhomme, o.m.i., L e s O e u v r e s dans l a C i t e , #189, (1929) pp. 30-33 f o r t h e r e s o l u t i o n s a d o p t e d by t h e C . T . C . C i n 1929. F o r a c r i t i q u e o f the C . T . C . C , see P. E. T r u d e a u , L a G r e v e de 1'Amiante, M o n t r e a l , Les e d i t i o n s C i t e - L i b r e , 1956, pp. 80-87. 57. C i t e d by L e m i e u x , op_. c i t . , p. s t a t e d t h i s i n 1920.  149.  He  apparently  58. #105, p . 12 and T r u d e a u , op_. c i t . , pp. 15 & 55 f o r a c r i t i c a l view. N o t e i n r e g a r d t o t h e f o l l o w i n g t h a t t h e E.S.P. p r o v i d e d a cumulative b i b l i o g r a p h y o f i t s pamphlets i n each i s s u e . its for  59. D r o u l e r s , op_. c i t . , pp. 85-86. On t h e i n s i d e c o v e r o f p a m p h l e t s , t h e E.S.P. g e n e r a l l y d i s a v o w e d any r e s p o n s i b i l i t y the o p i n i o n s of i t s c o n t r b u t o r s . 60.  was of  #269-70, pp.  60-61  for this  and  61. L ' E c o l e s o c i a l e P o p u l a i r e , # l a , i t s i n t r o d u c t o r y pamphlet. 62. See T r u d e a u , op_, c i t . , pp. 19-38 t h e E.S.P. and i t s c o n t r i b u t o r s .  the  following  (1911),  p.  & 41-44  quotes.  12. for a  This critique  63. See M. K. O l i v e r , "The S o c i a l and P o l i t i c a l I d e a s o f French Canadian N a t i o n a l i s t s . 1920-1945.", M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , Phd. d i s s e r t a t i o n , 1956, pp. 109-134; A. P e r r a u l t , e t . a l . , C o n s i g n e s de demain. D o c t r i n e e t o r i g i n e s d e 1 ' A c t i o n F r a n g a i s e , M o n t r e a l , L i b r a i r i e d ' A c t i o n C a n a d i e n n e F r a n g a i s e L t e e , n.d., pp. 5-10; L ' A c t i o n N a t i o n a l e ( s u c c e s s o r t o 1 ' A c t i o n F r a n g a i s e ) v o l . 52, no. 7-8, ( M a r . - A p r i l , 1963) p. 657 and v o l . 57, no. 10, ( J u n e , 1968) and R. A r § s , s . j . , " C a t h o l i c i s m e e t n a t i o n a l i s m e en une s y n t h a s e v i v a n t e " , pp. 936-47. See A p p e n d i x A, pp. 158-61 & 167.  -19564. O l i v e r , pp. 158-60; N o l t e , op. c i t . , pp. 101-111 E . S . P . s O e u v r e des T r a c t s #92, P i e X I , A c t e s p o n t i f i c a u x c o n c e r n a n t 1' " A c t i o n f r a n c a i s e " , (1927?7"I  and  1  65. See my A p p e n d i x A, pp. 158-71 f o r a s a m p l i n g o f t h e members h i p o f l e a d i n g N a t i o n a l and C a t h o l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Also Bonhomme, #189, a t t e m p t s t o l i s t some o f t h e S o c i a l C a t h o l i c a g e n c i e s t o be f o u n d i n v a r i o u s c i t i e s i n Quebec. T r u d e a u has a l s o d i s c u s s e d t h i s p r o b l e m e x t e n s i v e l y ; op_. c i t . , pp. 38-76. See h i s p. 60 f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g . 66. See Rene F u l o p - M i l l e r , The Power and S e c r e t o f t h e J e s u i t s , F. S. F l i n t and D. F. T a i t , t r a n s . , L o n d o n , G. P. Putnam's S o n s , D-930) p . 404 and v a r i o u s p a m p h l e t s and t r a c t s , e s p e c i a l l y one t r a c t e n t i t l e d J e s u i t e s , #266, (1941) pp. 5-6. For t h e i r r o l e i n v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s , s e e A p p e n d i x A., pp. 158-71. 67.  L'Action  Nationale,  v o l . 52,  no.  7-8,  pp.  644-65.  68. #260-70, p. 50. F o r d i f f e r i n g v i e w s , see Trudeau, 0£. c i t . , pp. 43-44 and G a u d r e a u , op. c i t . , pp. 10-21. See a l s o A p p e n d i x A, p . 164 as w e l l as E . S . P . s Le v i n g t - c i n q u i e m e a n n i v e r s a i f e des Semaines S o c i a l e s du CanadaT #381, (1945) pp. 9-11, 15-16, 25 & 27. T  69. As i n t h e c a s e o f t h e l o n g s t r u g g l e o f L a l i g u e de Dimanche (see A p p e n d i x A, p. 166) t o f o r c e t h e r e l i g i o u s and p o l i t i c a l e l i t e t o condemn v i o l a t o r s and t o e n f o r c e t h e laws r e l a t i n g t o Sunday o b s e r v a n c e . Of t h e v a r i o u s p a m p h l e t s and t r a c t s on t h i s s u b j e c t , s e e h i s P o u r un dimanche c h r g t i e n . V i n g t - c i n q ans de bon combat, O e u v r e des T r a c t s #349, (T948) p. 3. As t o h i s a b i l i t y t o m a n i p u l a t e men, a l l accounts agree. G a u d r e a u , I b i d . , p . 32 q u o t e s E r n e s t L a p o i n t e , t h e M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e , d e s c r i b i n g A r c h a m b a u l t as a b e n e v o l e n t d i c t a t o r . A n o t h e r a c q u a i n t a n c e d e s c r i b e d him i n t h e s e t e r m s : "Tous se s o n t a v o u e s h e u r e u s e s v i c t i m e s de c e t e n t r a i n e u r i n c o m p a r a b l e q u i v o u s e n s o r c e l l e de f a c o n i m p e r c e p t i b l e e t vous r e d u i t 5 1'impuissance de r e s i s t e r s a n s que v o u s s a c h i e z t r o p comment." L-P.  Roy  i n #381,  p.  30.  70. C o u s i n e a u , op_. c i t . , p. 299. A r c h a m b a u l t ' s Le C o m i t e p a r o i s s i a l e , o r g a n e de 1 ' A c t i o n c a t h o l i q u e , #301-2 ( 1 9 3 9 ) , p. 46, d i s c u s s e s how t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o o r d i n a t e d t h e i r work. For a l i s t , s e e A p p e n d i x A, p. 171. An A p p e n d i x t o A. M u l l e r , s . j . , L a C r i s e l i b e r a t r i c e , #266, (1936) p. 22, p o i n t s o u t t h a t A r c h a m b a u l t ' s f e l l o w d e l e g a t e s a t M a l i n e s were a S e n a t o r and a f e d e r a l c i v i l s e r v a n t , t h e r e b y , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h i s g r o u p was c o n s i d e r e d by t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t t o be an i m p o r t a n t one. On pp. 22-9, A r c h a m b a u l t d e s c r i b e s a programme o f s o c i a l r e f o r m he h e l p e d t o d e v e l o p w i t h A m e r i c a n and M e x i c a n S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s .  -196FOOTNOTES Chapter I I I  1. E . C. Hughes, F r e n c h - C a n a d a i n T r a n s i t i o n , University of C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1965, (1943) p . 25. F o r a more e x t e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e d e p r e s s i o n i n Quebec, s e e The R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l Commission on D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s , Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1939, Book I , p p . 124-150. 2. House o f Commons, R e p o r t o f t h e S p e c i a l Committee o n p r i c e s p r e a d s and mass b u y i n g , O t t a w a , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1934, p p . 110-115 especially.  p. for  3. I b i d . ,  P. 115.  4. I b i d . ,  P-  112.  5. I b i d . ,  P-  119.  6, I b i d . ,  P. 113.  7. I b i d . ,  P-  111.  8. The R e p o r t on D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s , 191 f o r t h i s and t h e f o l l o w i n g .  op. c i t . ,  9. The L e a g u e f o r S o c i a l R e c o n s t r u c t i o n , S o c i a l P l a n n i n g C a n a d a , T o r o n t o , Thomas N e l s o n and Sons L t d . , (1935) p . 13. 10.  Ibid.,  p. 14.  11. L a b o u r L e g i s l a t i o n and S o c i a l S e r v i c e s i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f Quebec. A s t u d y p r e p a r e d f o r t h e R o y a l Commission on DominionP r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s , 1939, p. 94. For a biographical sketch of M i n v i l l e , s e e p . 19 8 o f t h i s t h e s i s . 12. " F r e n c h C a n a d i a n N a t i o n a l i s m " , (May, 1936) p a r t 2, p . 12. 13.  p.  C a n a d i a n Forum,  vols,  15-16,  227  14. p . 115. 15.  Combines and t h e Consumer,  16.  p . 193.  L.S.R. p a m p h l e t #2, pp. 15-16.  17. J . C a s t e l l - H o p k i n s , C a n a d i a n A n n u a l R e v i e w , The C a n a d i a n R e v i e w Co., 1935-6, p . 280.  Toronto,  -197-  for  18. The R o w e l l - S i r o i s the f o l l o w i n g . 19.  Ibid.,  pp.  20.  M i n v i l l e , op_.  21.  Ibid.,  22.  Hughes, op_.  p.  report,  op.  227-9 f o r t h i s and c i t . , p.  83  and  c i t . , pp.  the p.  79  191-2  following f o r the  &  193  discussion. following.  82. c i t . , p.  216.  23. M. O l i v e r , "The S o c i a l and P o l i t i c a l i d e a s o f F r e n c h C a n a d i a n N a t i o n a l i s t s . 1920-1945.", Phd d i s s e r t a t i o n , M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1956, pp. 207, 215 & 221. 24. 25. 1936, p. 145-54.  See  A p p e n d i x A,  p  167.  V. B a r b e a u , M e s u r e de n o t r e T a i l l e , M o n t r e a l , D e v o i r , 2 & 28. F o r t h e f o l l o w i n g see O l i v e r , op_. c i t . , pp.  26. H. L a Roque, C a m i l l i e n l'Homme, (1961) pp. 24-83.  Houde, M o n t r e a l , L e s  Editions  de  27. Two a r t i c l e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , w h i c h a p p e a r e d i n t h e C a n a d i a n Forum d i s c u s s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e s e p a r t i e s i n Quebec. E. F o r s e y ' s " P o l i t i c s i n Quebec", v o l . 13, ( J u n e 1933), pp. 326-7 and J . E . K e i t h ' s "The F a s c i s t P r o v i n c e " , v o l . 1 4 , ( A p r i l 1934), pp. 251-2. 28. See O l i v e r , op_. c i t . , pp. d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s development. 29. See H. F. Q u i n n , The T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1963, p. 48. Les  158,  171  & 186  Union Nationale,  30. I b i d . , pp. 86-7 and t h e E d i t i o n s du J o u r , (1963) pp.  c o l l e c t i o n En 61-62.  f o r a very  University Greve,  good  of  Montreal,  31. J . R. C a r d i n , L ' i n f l u e n c e du s y n d i c a l i s m e national catholique sur l e s d r o i t s y n d i c a l Quebecois, L'Institut Social Populaire, ( f o r m e r l y t h e E.S.P.) 1957, no. 1 pp. 40, 89 & 95. 32. See L e f e b v r e and  t h e a c c o u n t s o f t h e s e s t r i k e s w r i t t e n by J . P. J . F r a n c o e u r i n En G r e v e , pp. 23-57 and 61-95.  -198FOOTNOTES Chapter  IV  1. A r c h a m b a u l t , "Les t r o i s p h a s e s de l ' E c o l e Sociale Populaire," L e s v i n g t - c i n q ans de 1 ' E c o l e S o c i a l e P o p u l a i r e , #269-70 ( 1 9 3 6 ) , p.45. 2. E.S.P.'s L ' O e u v r e des T r a c t s #159 ( 1 9 3 2 ) . As A r c h a m b a u l t e x p l a i n e d when d i s c u s s i n g "Les t r o i s p h a s e s de l ' E c o l e Sociale P o p u l a i r e " , t h i s s e r i e s o f t r a c t s had b e e n s t a r t e d i n 1919 i n o r d e r t o make room f o r a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y o f s u b j e c t s . The r e g u l a r E.S.P. p a m p h l e t s were r e s e r v e d f o r s o c i a l p r o b l e m s . See p. 46. 3. I b i d . ,  p.  4.  p.4-5.  Ibid.,  2.  5. #241, (1934) pp. 17-21. For P e r r i e r ' s r o l e i n the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c movement, s e e my A p p e n d i x A, pp. 159-161 &'i64 and t r a c t #335 M o n s e i g n e u r P h i l i p p e P e r r i e r . 6.  Ibid.,  p.  20.  7.  Ibid.,  p.  21.  8. L o c . c i t . . 9. "Le C a p i t a l i s i n e e t s e s a b u s " , P o u r l a r e s t a u r a t i o n sociale, #232-33, (1933) pp. 5-17. As M i n v i l l e was an i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t o r t o t h e E.S.P., a few words s h o u l d be s a i d a b o u t him. Born i n 1896, he was e d u c a t e d a t t h e C o l l e g e S t . L a u r e n t and r e c e i v e d h i s t r a i n i n g i n commerce a t l ' E c o l e des H a u t e s E t u d e s C o m m e r c i a l e s , an a f f i l i a t e o f l ' U n i v e r s i t e de M o n t r e a l . He s p e n t a b r i e f period working f o r various f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s before being a p p o i n t e d p r o f e s s o r a t t h e E.H.E.C., T h e r e he h e l p e d t o c r e a t e l ' A c t u a l i t e Economique w h i c h i s s t i l l b e i n g p u b l i s h e d . At v a r i o u s t i m e s , he was t o c a r r y o u t s t u d i e s f o r t h e p r o v i n c i a l government and f o r t h e R o w e l l - S i r o i s Commission. He eventually became t h e d i r e c t o r o f t h e E.H.E.C. and l a t e r dean o f t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s d e p a r t m e n t o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y de M o n t r e a l . As a member o f t h e S o c i a l C a t h o l i c movement, he p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e work o f t h e E.S.P. and i t s a f f i l i a t e s as w e l l as i n t h e n a t i o n a l i s t movements. See my A p p e n d i x A, p.167 & 169 ; S i s t e r G a u d r e a u ' s The S o c i a l T h o u g h t o f F r e n c h Canada as R e f l e c t e d i n t h e Semaines S o c i a l e s , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C., The C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y o f A m e r i c a ^ P r e s s , 1946, pp. 53-4, and H. E . D u r a n t , The N a t i o n a l R e f e r e n c e Book on C a n a d i a n men and women, 6 t h e d . , C a n a d i a n Newspaper S e r v i c e L t d . , 1940, p. 500.  -19910.  Ibid.,  p.  5.  11.  Ibid.,  p.  6.  12.  Loc.  13.  Ibid.,  p.  10.  14.  Ibid.,  p.  11.  15.  Ibid.,  p.  15.  cit..  16. R. P. B o u r n i v a l , m o r a l i t S , #226 ( 1 9 3 2 ) . 17.  Ibid.,  p.  2.  18.  Ibid.,  p.  17.  19.  Ibid.,  p.  20.  A.  21.  Ibid.,  p.  22.  Ibid.,  p.  22  s . j . , Les  f o r t h i s and  G r a t t o n , Le  O p e r a t i o n s de  the  M o u i l l a g e du  Bourse et  leur  following.  capital,  #243-45,  (1934)  p  8. 12  for  t h i s and  the  following.  23. Much o f h i s d o c u m e n t a t i o n came f r o m Dr. P h i l i p p e Hamel p r o b a b l y t h e most p r o m i n e n t S o c i a l C a t h o l i c o f t h a t t i m e b e c a u s e o f h i s campaign a g a i n s t m o n o p o l i s t i c p r a c t i c e s . See R. Chaloult Le D o c t e u r P h i l i p p e Hamel, t r a c t #407, (1954) pp. 2-5. 24.  Ibid.,  pp.  70-75.  25. L a C r i s e l i b g r a t r i c e . , #266, ( 1 9 3 6 ) . M u l l e r was a p r o f e s s o r a t l ' I n s t i t u t , s u p e r i e u r de commerce S a i n t - I g n a c e d'Anvers. 26.  Ibid.,  p.  7.  27.  Ibid.,  p.  9.  28.  Ibid.,  p.  14.  -200FOOTNOTES  Chapter V 1. E.S.P., C a h i e r a n t i c o m m u n i s t e , #217-18, (1932) p . 1. T h i s m a n u a l was p u t t o g e t h e r £>y a g r o u p o f F r e n c h C a n a d i a n J e s u i t s . 2. F o r e x a m p l e s o f t h e work o f t h i s g r o u p , #223-24, 262 & 265 and t r a c t s #143, 148 & 162.  see  pamphlets  3. The E.S.P. c o m p i l e d t h e s e c r i t i q u e s i n two p a m p h l e t s , #217-18 and M a n u e l a n t i - b o l c h e v i q u e , #207-8, ( 1 9 3 1 ) . See a l s o T. M. L a m a r c h e , o.p.j L e Reve communiste, #220, (1932) . 4. #217-18, p . 4. 5. I b i d ,  p . 16.  6. #207-8, p . 13. 7. #220, p . 25. 8. #207-8, 0 £ . c i t . ,  p . 5.  9. #217-18, p . 32. 10. I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s o u r c e s l i s t e d i n n. 3, s e e t h e f o l l o w i n g p a m p h l e t s , E n R u s s i e s o v i e t i q u e , #206, ( 1 9 3 1 ) , J o u r n i e s a n t i c o m m u n i s t e s , #251-52, ( 1 9 3 4 ) , C i l a a c , L e s E n f a n t s a b a n d o n n e s , #246;: ( 1 9 3 4 ) , and t r a c t s 1 ' E n t e n t e I n t e r n a t i o n a l e , L a R u s s i e e n 1930, #143 ( 1 9 3 1 ) , L e s S a n s ^ D i e u , #188 ( 1 9 3 5 ) . 11.  #217-18, p . 36.  12.  #220, p . 23.  13.  #217-18, 0 £ . c i t . , p . 40.  14. " L ' e x p e r i e n c e m a r x i s t e e n R u s s i e " , #251-52, p . 28. t h e f o l l o w i n g q u o t e , s e e #217-18, p . 54. 15.  #246, p . 30.  16.  #251-52, p . 28.  17.  Ibid.,  For  p . 31.  18. A b b i P. P e r r i e r , ( 1 9 3 4 ) , p . 24.  L ' E n c y c l i q u e "Quadragesimo anno", #241,  -20119. #206, p. 16. A t t h i s t i m e he a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d a r e s e a r c h c e n t e r t o m o n i t o r Communist a c t i v i t i e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d . A member o f t h i s g r o u p was a l s o a c o n t r i b u t o r t o t h e E.S.P., J. Ledit, s . j . . As s u c h and l a t e r as d i r e c t o r o f t h e " L e t t r e s de Rome", he k e p t C a t h o l i c a g e n c i e s s u c h as t h e E.S.P. i n f o r m e d o f Communist a c t i v i t i e s . See h i s p a m p h l e t s , L ' E s p a g n e au s o r t i r de l a g u e r r e , #309, ( 1 9 3 9 ) , R a d i c a l i s m e moderne, #318, (1940) a s w e l l as a r t i c l e s i n s e r t e d i n v a r i o u s o t h e r p a m p h l e t s and t r a c t s . F o r t h e f o l l o w i n g , s e e t r a c t # 1 8 8 ^ . 13. 20. L E n t e n t e I n t e r n a t i o n a l e , V e r s l a g u e r r e , t r a c t #162, (1932) p. 1 and i t s p a m p h l e t Le K o m i n t e r n . l e Gouvernement S o v i g t i q u e e t l e P a r t i Communiste de L U.R.S.S. , #262 (1935) f o r t h e following. 1  1  21. L ' O u v r i e r en R u s s i e , t r a c t  #141,  (1931) pp.  22. L e t t r e s de Rome, P a c i f i s m e r e V o l u t i o n n a i r e , (1935) pp. 8 & 15 e s p e c i a l l y . 23.  See  L ' A c t i o n i n t e r n a t i o n a l e des  15-16. tract  sans-Dieu, t r a c t  #197  #166,  (1933) . 24.  #197,  0£. c i t . ,  p.  9 and  tract  #188,  p.  25. See L e d i t , #318, pp. 10-14. 26. As q u o t e d by C a r d i n a l V i l l e n e u v e , P o u r c o n t r e l e communisme, #274-75, (1936) p. 37. 27. As q u o t e d by A r c h a m b a u l t i n a s p e e c h Le P l u s g r a n d p g r i l , #352, (1943) p. 17.  4 f o r the  following.  le Christ-Roi  given i n  et  1938,  28. #274-75, op_. c i t . , p. 26 and L e V e n d r e d i s a i n t de 1 ' E g l i s e d'Espagne, #283, (1937) p . 25". T h i s p a m p h l e t i s an e x c e r p t from a V a t i c a n r e p o r t . Its t i t l e i s significant.  p.  29.  #274-75, p. 37 q u o t e d by C a r d i n a l  30.  #283, pp.  2-3,  31. Quand l e F r o n t P o p u l a i r e e s t r o i , 14. 32.  #254-55,  Ibid.,  pp.  tract  #205,  (1936)  (1935).  33. P u b l i s h e d i n 1943, 34.  Villeneuve.  #352, pp.  1-14.  20-24.  35. F o u n d on pp. 27-32 o f M s g r . j:. T. M c N i c h o l a s ' communiste, #298, ( 1 9 3 8 ) .  Mentalitg  -20236. #254-55, p . 11 and #298, p . 30-31 f o r t h i s and t h e following discussion. 37. J . H u l l i g e r i n h i s L ' E n s e l g n e m e n t s o c i a l d e s e v e q u e s C a n a d i e n s de 1891 a 1950, M o n t r § a l , F i d e s , (1957) pp. 211-18 l i s t s t h e many i n s t a n c e s when M s g r . G a u t h i e r warned h i s f l o c k a b o u t t h e Communist t h r e a t . See h i s c i r c u l a r t o t h e c l e r g y , Le Communisme a u C a n a d a , t r a c t #140, ( 1 9 3 1 ) . 38.  #254-5, pp. 13-15.  39.  #352, p . 8.  40.  t r a c t #140, p . 3.  41.  In a d d i t i o n  t o #254-5  and t r a c t #140, s e e #251-52, p . 35.  42. #274-75 c o n t a i n s t h e s p e e c h e s g i v e n by M s g r . G a u t h i e r a n d C a r d i n a l V i l l e n e u v e a t anti-Communist d e m o n s t r a t i o n s . The t o n e o f t h e s e s p e e c h e s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e C a t h o l i c s f e l t t h e m s e l v e s t o be v e r y much on t h e d e f e n s i v e . 43.  #254-55, p . 16 f o r t h i s and t h e f o l l o w i n g .  44.  t r a c t #140 p . 3 and #251-52, p . 7.  45.  See Sous l a menace r o u g e , t r a c t #201,  46.  I b i d . , p . 4.  47.  #254-55, p . 1.  48.  #251-52, p . 7.  (1936).  49. See h i s p a s t o r a l l e t t e r p u b l i s h e d a s L a D o c t r i n e s o c i a l e de L ' E g l i s e e t l a C o o p e r a t i v e Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n , #242, (1934) p . 5 and #254-55, p . 17 f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g q u o t e . p.  50. 40.  Pour l a r e s t a u r a t i o n  s o c i a l e au C a n a d a , #232-33,  (1933)  51. " L a ' C o o p e r a t i v e Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n ' " , I b i d . , pp. 18-37. F o r L e v e s q u e ' s p o s i t i o n i n t h e S o c i a l C a t h o l i c movement a t t h a t t i m e , s e e A p p e n d i x A, p- 168. He e v e n t u a l l y became h e a d o f t h e d e p a r t m e n t o f t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s a t L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y and was l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m a k i n g i t one o f t h e b e s t i n Canada. He a l s o became a l e a d i n g t h e o r e t i c i a n o f t h e C o o p e r a t i v e movement and h e l p e d t o make i t a p o w e r f u l f o r c e i n Quebec. 52.  I b i d . , p . 19 f o r t h i s a n d t h e f o l l o w i n g .  53.  I b i d . , pp. 23-24.  -20354. I b i d . , p p . 24-25. N o t o n l y d o e s an e x a m i n a t i o n o f H a n s a r d f o r F e b . 1-2, 1933 r e v e a l t h a t L e V e s q u e a c c e p t e d t h e a r g u m e n t s o f t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e M.P.s w i t h o u t a t t r i b u t i n g t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s t o them b u t i t a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t he s y s t e m a t i c a l l y i g n o r e d Woodsworth's o b j e c t i o n s . 55. I b i d . , p . 33. 56. I b i d . , p .  34.  57. I b i d . , p . 36. 58. I b i d . , p . 37. 59.  #242.  60. I b i d . , p . 7. 61. What G a u t h i e r d i d n o t m e n t i o n was t h e f a c t t h a t u n t i l h i s r e c e n t a p p o i n t m e n t t o t h e a r c h b i s h o p r i c o f Quebec c i t y , C a r d i n a l V i l l e n e u v e had been b i s h o p o f t h e d i o c e s e o f G r a v e l b o u r g , Sask., 62. #242, 0 £ . c i t . , p . 63. I b i d . , p . 21. 64. I b i d . , p . 23. 65. #217-18, p . 1.  13 and p . 15 f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g .  -204FOOTNOTES Chapter VI  1. T. M. L a m a r c h e , p . p . , L e Reve communiste, pp. 5 & 29. 2. #241,  (1934) e s p e c i a l l y  #220,  (1932)  tract  #159,  p p . 19-20.  3. L e M a l a i s e i c o n o m i q u e d e s temps p r e s e n t s , (1932) p . 3.  4. "Le C a p i t a l i s m e e t s e s a b u s " , P o u r l a r e s t a u r a t i o n sociale au C a n a d a , #232-33, (1933) p . 17 a n d M u l l e r , L a C r i s e l i b e r a t r i c e , #266, (1936) p p . 18 & 21 f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g .  and  5. G r a t t o n , L e M o u i l l a g e du c a p i t a l , #243-45, (1934) p . 77 Journees anticommunistes, #251-52, (1934) p . 9 -  6. L a Menace communiste au Canada, #254-55, & 20 f o r t h i s q u o t a t i o n b y A r c h a m b a u l t . 7. #232-33 p . 1 & p . 43 f o r t h i s and t h e  9. I b i d . , p p . 7-9 f o r t h e  (1935) p p . 19  following.  following.  10. I b i d . , p p . 10-11. 11. I b i d . , p p . 12-13. 12. I b i d . , p . 14. 13. I b i d . , p . 16. 14. I b i d . , p . 18. 15. L o c .  cit. .  16. I b i d . ,  p . 20 f o r t h i s a n d t h e  following.  17. "Pour r e s t i t u e r a l ' i d i f i c e s o c i a l s o n S q u i l i b r e " , un o r d r e n o u v e a u , #297, (1938) p . 14.  Pour  18. L ' E n c y c l i q u e "Quadragesimo anno", #241, (1934) p p . 2, 11 & 19. F o r t h e f o l l o w i n g s e e #220, p . 12 and #232-33, p . 46. 19. #251-52 p . 43.  pp.  20. #266, p . 13. 16-17.  See pp. 44-47 f o r t h e  For the following,  following.  s e e #286, p . 6 and #297,  -205pp.  21. As q u o t e d by A r c h a m b a u l t , #232-3, p . 3. 42-43 & 47 f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g .  See #251-52,  -206FOOTNOTES Chapter VII 1. " D i r e c t i v e s s o c i a l e s c a t h o l i q u e s " , P o u r l a r e s t a u r a t i o n s o c i a l e au C a n a d a , #232-33, (1933) pp. 38-64. See p . 55 f o r t h e following. F o r h i s r o l e i n t h e S o c i a l C a t h o l i c movement, s e e A p p e n d i x A, p . 168 and f o r t h e g u i d e l i n e s w h i c h he d e v e l o p e d , see A p p e n d i x C, pp.174-6. 2. I b i d . , p. 41 and pp. 42-43 f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g . The was a p r o d u c t o f t h e g r o u p t o w h i c h A r c h a m b a u l t was one o f Canada's representatives.  "Code"  3. M s g r . W. L e b o n , L a N a t i o n a l i s a t i o n d e s e n t r e p r i s e s , #300. As t h i s p a m p h l e t i s o u t o f p r i n t , i t was f o u n d i n Semaines S o c i a l e s d u Canada XVI s e s s i o n , ( 1 9 3 8 ) , pp. 285-99 where i t was f i r s t delivered. 4.  uals  I b i d . , pp.  290  &  295.  5. #232-33, pp. 38-64. See A p p e n d i x A, p. 168 f o r t h e i n d i v i d i n v o l v e d and A p p e n d i x C, pp. 174-6 f o r t h e programme.  6. Le Programme de r e s t a u r a t i o n s o c i a l e , #239-40. A p p e n d i x A, pp. 169-70 f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d and C, pp. 177-85 f o r t h e programme i t s e l f .  no.  7. I b i d . , pp. 40-71 and A p p e n d i x C, pp. 181-4. See p. 199, 23 and A p p e n d i x A, pp. 167 & 169 f o r more i n f o r m a t i o n on Hamel. 8.  pp.  See Appendix  I b i d . , pp.  41 & 43.  9. G r a t t o n , L e M o u i l l a g e du c a p i t a l , 78, 80-81 f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g .  #243-45,  10. #239-40, pp. 73-78 and A p p e n d i x C, pp See e s p e c i a l l y p . 74. 11. As q u o t e d by Chagnon, #232-3, p . 12. L e Communisme au C a n a d a , 13.  #232-3, op. c i t . , p . 49  14. See  #239-40, p . 34 as an  (1934)  184-5.  39.  t r a c t #140,  (1931) p .  6.  f o r t h i s and t h e f o l l o w i n g  discussion.  example.  15. L a M a l f a i s a n c e du c a p i t a l i s m e  actuel,#286,  16. A c c o r d i n g t o Chagnon, #232-33, p .  (1937) p .  4.  50.  17. See #239-40, p. 31 and C a r d i n a l V i l l e n e u v e ' s commentary on D i v i n i R e d e m p t o r i s i n P o u r un o r d r e n o u v e a u , #297, (1938) p .  18.  -20718. #239-40, pp. 19-39. A p p e n d i x A, p . 170.  A p p e n d i x C, p p . 1 8 0 - 1  19. J o u r n e e s a n t i c o m m u n i s t e s , #253, 20. #230-40, op. c i t . ,  p.  (1934) p .  and  24.  23.  21. I b i d . , pp. 7-18 and A p p e n d i x C, pp. 178-80. See pp. 8-9 e s p e c i a l l y . 22. L ' O e u v r e de l a c o l o n i s a t i o n , #238, ( 1 9 3 3 ) . For the f o l l o w i n g , , s e e p. 21. For a d i s c u s s i o n o f the importance o f c o l o n i z a t i o n i n Quebec, s e e p p . 1 0 4 - 9 . 23. L ' E n c y c l i q u e  and see  p.  "Quadragesimo anno,"  #241,  (1934) p .  24.  24. F o r e x a m p l e s , s e e M a n u e l a n t i b o l c h § v i g u e , #207-8 (1931) L e Commerce a v e c l e s S o v i e t s , #231^ ( 1 9 3 3 ) . F o r the f o l l o w i n g , #241, I b i d . , p . 22. 25. L ' A c t i o n 16.  international  26. L a Menace communiste 27. P o u r l e C h r i s t - R o i (1936) pp. 28-29 & 59. 28. I b i d . ,  d e s s a n s - D i e u , t r a c t #166,  au C a n a d a ,  et contre  pp. 56-58 f o r t h e  29. A b b § C. P o i s s o n ,  #231,  #254-55,  (1935) p .  l e communisme,  (1933) 18.  #274-75,  following.  (1938),  2.  30. I b i d . 31. I b i d . ,  P. 4.  32. I b i d . ,  V'  33. I b i d . ,  P. 7  5.  34. I b i d . / P. 8. 35. I b i d . / P- 14. 36. I b i d .  '  P  *  15 and  37. #274-75, p. 38. J . F i l i o n ,  47. Jeunesse e t p o l i t i q u e ,  #292,  (1938) pp.  7-8.  -208FOOTNOTES  Chapter  VIII  1. P o u r l a c o l o n i s a t i o n , #219, (1932) p . 6, f o r t h i s a n d the f o l l o w i n g . T h i s pamphlet c o n s i s t s o f e x t r a c t s from speeches delivered a t the conference. 2. I b i d . , p . 13. 3. L e M a l a i s e e c o n o m i q u e d e s temps p r e s e n t s , (1932) p . 7. 4. A b b § G. B i l o d e a u , L a P r o f e s s i o n  agricole,  t r a c t #159,  #225,  (1932) p . 5.  5. #219, p . 25 f o r t h i s and t h e f o l l o w i n g . 6. P o u r l a r e s t a u r a t i o n  sociale,  #232-33,  7. Abbe" E . B e a u d o i n , L ' A g r i c u l t u r e n a t i o n , #237, (1933) p . 27.  (1933) p . 52.  b a s e Economique d'une  8. L e s P r o b l e m e r u r a l a u r e g a r d de l a d o c t r i n e 1'Eglise"; #288, (1938) p . 5. 9. L ' O e u v r e de l a c o l o n i s a t i o n ,  #238,  s o c i a l e de  (1933).  10. I b i d . , p . 9. 11. I b i d . , p . 32. 12. #219, p . 13-14. 13. I b i d . , p . 24.  p.  14. #288, p . 3 and #219, I b i d . ,  pp 9-10 f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g .  15. P o u r un o r d r e n o u v e a u , #297,  (1938) p . 29.  16. P e r r i e r , L ' E n c y c l i q u e " Q u a d r a g e s i m o anno", 28. See #297, pp. 29-30 f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g .  #241,  (1934)  17. P e r r i e r , I b i d . , p . 26. 18. I b i d . , p . 14. 19. L ' O r g a n i s a t i o n c o r p o r a t i v e , #256, (1935) p . 4 and A. M u l l e r , s i . j . , Essais d'organisation corporative, #247-49, (1934) p . 3 f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g .  -209and  20. G r a t t o n , L e M o u i l l a g e d u c a p i t a l , #247-49, p . 5 f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g .  #243-5,  21. C i t e d i n C a t e e h i s m e de I ' o r g a n i s a t i o n e d . , #289-90, 1946 (1938) p . 50, n . l . 22. #256, p p . 6, 10 & 19 f o r t h i s  (1934) p . 90  corporative,  2ieme  discussion.  23. #241, p . 27. 24. #256, p . 18 and #243-5, p . 90 f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g . 25. #247-49, p . 96 and p p . 98-99 f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g  discussion.  26. #243-45, p . 91. See D u t h o i t , " E t a t e t C o r p o r a t i o n " , L ' O r d r e c o r p o r a t i f , #268, (1936) p . 23 and A r c h a m b a u l t , L e S y n d i c a l i s m e c a t h o l i q u e a u C a n a d a , #267, (1936) p . 25 f o r t h e following. 27. #247-49, p . 94 and h i s " L ' O r d r e c o r p o r a t i f e t l e s s y n d i c a t s " , #268, p . 10-13 f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g . 28.  #268, p . 13.  29. I b i d . , p p . 14, 16 & 18 and #247-49, p . 7 f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g . 30. I b i d . , p . 17. 31.  #247-49, p . 21 and p p . 34 & 36 f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g .  32. I b i d . , p p . 51 -54, 97 & 101 and #268, p . 21 f o r t h e following discussion. 33. Comment E t a b l i r 1 ' o r g a n i s a t i o n c o r p o r a t i v e #272, ( 1 9 3 6 ) . See p p . 10-11 f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g .  au Canada,  34. I b i d . , p . 16. 35. I b i d . , p . 8 f o r t h i s  and t h e f o l l o w i n g .  36. I b i d . , p . 14. for  37. L a C o r p o r a t i o n the following.  professionnelle,  #306,  (1939).  See p . 25  38. I b i d . , p . 29. 39. L a Menace communiste a u C a n a d a , See p . 30 f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g .  #254-55,  (1935) p . 29.  40. C i t e d i n P e t i t c a t E c h i s m e d E d u c a t i o n s y n d i c a l e , e d . , #295, (1938) p . 30. 1  2i§me  -21041. his  J o u r n e e s a n t i commun i s t e s,  #253,  (1934) p p . 17-18.  42. I b i d . , p . 10-11 f o r t h i s and t h e f o l l o w i n g . d i s c u s s i o n i n #267, p . 27. 43. I b i d . ,  See a l s o  p . 14 and 15-16 f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g .  44. F o r a d e s c r i p t i o n  of i t s operation,  s e e #256, p p . 28-31.  45. See #253, p . 25, and h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f i t i n L e Programme de r e s t a u r a t i o n s o c i a l e , #239-40, (1934) p p . 24-25. 46. # 2 3 9 - 4 0 , I b i d . , p p . 25-26.  and  47. Among o t h e r s s e e #237, p . 31; #238, p . 26; #239-40, p . 10 #288, p . 7, 23-24. 48. See L a C o o p g r a t i o n e c o n o m i q u e ,  #284,  (1937) p p . 10 & 14.  49. J . C a s t e l l - H o p k i n s , C a n a d i a n A n n u a l Review, C a n a d i a n Review Co., 1935-6, p . 217.  Toronto,  The  50. #297, p p . 20 & 26. F o r D e s r a n l e a u ' s r o l e i n t h e S o c i a l C a t h o l i c movement, s e e A p p e n d i x A, pp ,162,'164 & 168 and f o r h i s r o l e i n t h e S o r e l s t r i k e , En Greve, M o n t r e a l , L e s E d i t i o n s du J o u r , (1963) p . 61. 51. L a G r e v e d e l ' A m i a n t e , 1956, p . 20.  Montreal, Les i d i t i o n s  Citg-Libre,  -211FOOTNOTES C h a p t e r IX 1. See P o u r l a c o l o n i s a t i o n ,  #219,  2. See L e S y n d i c a l i s m e n a t i o n a l  (1932) pp. 30-32.  catholique,  #285,  (1937) p . 2.  3. J . C o u s i n e a u , s . j . , "Notes b i o g r a p h i q u e s " , R e l a t i o n s , (Nov. 1966) v o l s . 25-6, no. 310, p . 296. I n 1940, L ' O r d r e Nouveau was r e p l a c e d by R e l a t i o n s . 4. F o r a c c o u n t s o f t h i s m e e t i n g , s e e P o u r l a r e s t a u r a t i o n s o c i a l e au Canada, #232-33, (1933) pp. 1-4 and L e Programme de restauration sociale, #239-40, (1934) pp. 1-4. For the authors o f t h e s e programmes, s e e A p p e n d i x A., pp. 168-70. The s o u r c e o f t h e f o l l o w i n g q u o t e i s #232-33, pp. 3-4. 5. #239-40, I b i d . , p . 4 f o r t h i s and t h e f o l l o w i n g . 6. F o r a c c o u n t s o f t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t , s e e H. F. Q u i n n , The U n i o n N a t i o n a l e , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1963, p . 48 and P. R e i d , " A c t i o n L i b i r a l e N a t i o n a l e . 1 9 3 4 - 3 9 . " , M. A. t h e s i s , Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , 1966, pp. 45-49. B  f  7. F o r t h e t e x t o f h i s s p e e c h , s e e Q u i n n , I b i d . , A p p e n d i x p . 217.  8. A c c o r d i n g t o R e i d , op_. c i t . , p . 67, n . 8. M s g r . L e b o n , "La j o u r n t e d e s t r e i z e , " L e s v i n g t - c i n q a n s de 1 ' E c o l e S o c i a l e P o p u l a i r e , #269-70, (1936) pp. 28-29 f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g . 9. Q u i n n , op_. c i t . , pp. 58, 73-4 f o r an a c c o u n t o f subsequent developments. 10.  #239-40, pp. 1-2.  11. See #269-70, p . 29 and S. M. Lipset',-. A g r a r i a n S o c i a l i s m , G a r d e n C i t y , N.Y., A n c h o r B o o k s , D o u b l e d a y a n d Co., I n c . , 1968 (1950) p . 171. pp.  12. L a Menace communiste a u C a n a d a , #254-55, (1935) 23-24 and J o u r n § e s a n t i - c o m m u n i s t e s , #251-52, (1934) p . 8.  #201,  •13. #254-55, I b i d . , p . 25 and Sous (1936) p . 11 f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g .  l a menace r o u g e , t r a c t  14. See #254-5, I b i d . , pp. 27-28 and #269-70, pp. 31-32. An example o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c a n be f o u n d #251-2, p . 1. 15. P o u r l e C h r i s t - R o i e t c o n t r e l e communisme, (1936) , p~ 7 and p . 35 f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g .  #274-75,  -21216. #269-70, p . 31. 17. Q u o t e d by Msgr. G a u t h i e r , L a D o c t r i n e s o c i a l e de l ' E g l i s e e t l a C o o p e r a t i v e Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n , #242, p. 24. "  (1934)  18. P o u r un O r d r e n o u v e a u , #297, (1938) p p . 8-9. The C a r d i n a l ' v i e w s on c h a r i t y c a n be f o u n d i n t h e same p a m p h l e t , p. 16. 19. L e Reve communiste, f o r Msgr. G a u t h i e r . 20. #297, ojp_ c i t . ,  (1932) p . 28.  #242, p . 25  p . 16.  21. #254-55, p . 35.  #297, o p . c i t . , p . 9 f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g .  22. C i t e d i n L ' A c t i o n p.  #220,  catholique  specialisge,  #279,  (1937)  3.  23. See #254-55 op_. c i t . , p . 27 and J . B. D e s r o s i e r s , " L ' E c o l e n o r m a l e de V a u d r e u T l " , #269-70, p p . 35-41. 24. See #279, op_. c i t . , au C a n a d a , #287, ( 1 9 3 7 ) . 25. #279, I b i d . ,  and A r c h a m b a u l t , L ' A c t i o n  p.s.s.,  catholique  p . 5 and p . 18 f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g .  26. #287, OJD c i t . ,  p . 18 and 16 f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g .  27. See h i s " L ' A c t i o n c a t h o l i q u e , a g e n t de r e s t a u r a t i o n s o c i a l e " , S e m a i n e s S o c i a l e s du C a n a d a , 16ieme s e s s i o n , ( 1 9 3 8 ) , pp. 403-12. 28. J . P. G a b o u r y , L e N a t i o n a l i s m e de L i o n e l E d i t i o n s de 1 * U n i v e r s i t y d ' O t t a w a , 1970, p . 25. 29. #279, Q £ . c i t . , p . 9.  Groulx,  -213FOOTNOTES Chapter X 1. C a u s e r l e s s u r l e s e n c y c l i q u e s "Rerum novarum" e t "Quadragesimo anno", #330, (1941) p . 23 and p . 30 f o r t h e following quotation. p.  2. L a R e s t a u r a t i o n 19. "  sociale,  2ieme e d . , #328,  (1943),  de  3. L e Prob1erne r u r a l au r e g a r d de l a d o c t r i n e s o c i a l e 1'EglTse^ #288, (1938) p . 6 f o r t h i s and t h e f o l l o w i n g .  4. H u l l i g e r , L ' E n s e i g n e m e n t s o c i a l d e s eVeques C a n a d i e n s de 1891 a 1950, M o n t r e a l , F i d e s , (1957) p . 86. See B l a n c h a r d , Le Canada F r a n g a i s , L i b r a i r i e A r t h e m e F a y a r t (Canada) L t i e . , (1960) p~i 103 f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f c o l o n i z a t i o n . 5. Examples o f t h i s c a m p a i g n w h i c h t e n d e d t o f o c u s on the Portuguese experiment a r e pamphlets r e p r o d u c i n g S a l a z a r ' s speeches and w r i t i n g s , L ' O r g a n i s a t i o n c o r p o r a t i v e p o r t u g a i s e , #355, (1943) a n d Mon t e m o i g n a g e e t mes p o s i t i o n s , #435, ( 1 9 5 0 ) . For the f o l l o w i n g , see E. Bouvier, s . j . , L ' O r g a n i s a t i o n c o r p o r a t i v e e s t - e l l e r e a l i s a b l e au Quebec? #478, (1955) pp. 1 & 28. 6. L e s v i n g t - c i n q a n s de l ' E c o l e S o c i a l e P o p u l a i r e , #269-70, (1936) p . 29. F o r t h e f o l l o w i n g , s e e h i s s p e e c h r e p r o d u c e d i n L e P l u s g r a n d p e r i l , #352, (1943) p . 19. 7. I n f a c t , an o b s e r v e r w r o t e t h a t t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y c o n s i d e r e d t h e a d o p t i o n o f some o f i t s p l a n k s as "...too r a d i c a l and t h e r e s u l t o f h a s t y a c t i o n . " H. C. G o l d e n b e r g , " P o l i t i c s i n Quebec", C a n a d i a n Forum, v o l . XIV, ( O c t . 1934) p . 8. p.  3.  8. L e Programme de r e s t a u r a t i o n s o c i a l e ,  #239-40,  (1934)  9. L a M a l f a i s a n c e du c a p i t a l i s m e a c t u e l , #286, (1937) pp. 6 & 7 f o r t h i s a n d t h e f o l l o w i n g a s w e l l a s P o u r un o r d r e n o u v e a u , #297, (1938) pp. 26 & 27. 10. F o r a more e x t e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i m p a c t o f E u r o p e a n S o c i a l C a t h o l i c t h o u g h t upon t h e F r e n c h C a n a d i a n i n t e l l i g e n t s i a , s e e O l i v e r , "The S o c i a l and P o l i t i c a l I d e a s o f F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n N a t i o n a l i s t s , 1920-1945." Phd d i s s e r t a t i o n , M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1956.  1956,  11. L a GreVe de l ' A m i a n t e , p . 35.  Montreal,  Les editions  Cite-Libre,  -21412.  I b i d . , p.  41  and  p.  125  of t h i s  thesis.  •13. I b i d . , p. 11. Even the s t a u n c h e s t o f F r e n c h Canadian N a t i o n a l i s t s grouped around 1'Action N a t i o n a l e tended to f o l l o w the Church's l e a d . See G. F o r t i n , "An a n a l y s i s o f t h e I d e o l o g y o f a F r e n c h C a n a d i a n N a t i o n a l i s t M a g a z i n e . 1917-1954.", P h d c d i s s e r t a t i o n , C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1956, pp. 48, 59 & 131. F o r P i u s XI's a t t i t u d e towards n a t i o n a l i s m , see N o l t e , Three Faces of Fascism, L. V e n n e w i t z , t r a n s . , New Y o r k , t h e New A m e r i c a n L i b r a r y , 1969, (1965) pp. 103-111. 14. I n p a r t i c u l a r W. Ryan, s . j . , The C l e r g y and E c o n o m i c Growth i n Quebec. 1896-1914, L e s P r e s s e s de 1 * U n i v e r s i t y L a v a l , 1966, pp. 248-56. 15. Of t h e many a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n i n t h e C a n a d i a n Forum i n s u p p o r t o f t h i s t h e s i s , see E. F o r s e y , " C l e r i c a l F a s c i s m Quebec", J u n e , 1937, pp. 90-92.  in  16. See C a r d i n a l V i l l e n e u v e ' s s p e e c h r e p r i n t e d i n #297, pp. 14-23 and s e v e r a l t r a c t s and p a m p h l e t s on t h e P a d l o c k law, on C o r p o r a t i s m , e t c . , s u c h as t h e r e p r i n t o f H. F. Q u i n n ' s a r t i c l e The Bogey o f F a s c i s m i n Quebec, t r a c t #234, ( 1 9 3 8 ) . 17. A. M a l o , o.fvm., L ' A c t i o n c a t h o l i q u e s p e c i a l i s e d , #279, (1937) p . 9. P i u s XI condemned M u s s o l i n i ' s a t t e m p t t o g a i n c o n t r o l o v e r C a t h o l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n 1931 and i n 1937 he f o r m a l l y condemned N a z i i s m . A. F r e e m a n t l e , e d . , The P a p a l E n c y c l i c a l s i n t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l context, New Y o r k , G. P. Putnam's S o n s , (1956) pp. 243 & 250. 18. L a D o c t r i n e s o c i a l e de l ' E g l i s e e t Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n ^ #242, (1934) p. et The pp.  19. P. M. G a u d r a u l t , o.p., l'Ecole Sociale Populaire,  l a Cooperative 23.  Neutrality, non-confessionnalitg L e s E d i t i o n s du L e v r i e r , 1946, p  20. M. G. B a l l a n t y n e , "The C a t h o l i c C h u r c h and t h e C.C.F.", Canadian C a t h o l i c H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n Report, 1963, 33-47. 21.  See  the  a c c o u n t i n T r u d e a u , op_.  cit. .  22. Abbes G. D i o n and L. O ' N e i l l , "A S o r d i d Boon", C. N i s h , Quebec i n t h e D u p l e s s i s e r a , 1935-1959; D i c t a t o r s h i p or Democracy? T o r o n t o , The Copp C l a r k P u b l i s h i n g Co., (1970) pp. 142-45. (The a r t i c l e i s a r e p r i n t f o u n d i n t h i s volume o f ' I s s u e s i n C a n a d i a n h i s t o r y s e r i e s ' ) and H. G u i n d o n , "The S o c i a l E v o l u t i o n o f Quebec R e c o n s i d e r e d " , i n M. Rioux and Y. M a r t i n eds French-Canadian Society, T o r o n t o , M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1964, v o l I , pp. 137-53 f o r an a n a l y s i s o f t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h d r o v e the Church t o oppose D u p l e s s i s .  -21523. J . C o u s i n e a u , s . j . , L ' E v o l u t i o n de l a m e n t a l i t e au Quebec d e p u i s 1931, #487, (1956) pp. 11-13.  sociale  24. See t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o J . R. C a r d i n ' s L ' I n f l u e n c e du s y n d i c a l i s m e n a t i o n a l c a t h o l i q u e s u r l e d r o i t s y n d i c a 1 Qu§bec"ois, L * I n s t i t u t S o c i a l P o p u l a i r e , ( J u n e , 1 9 5 7 ) , #1.  

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