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Catholicism and crisis : l'Ecole Sociale Populaire and the depression in Quebec Frigon, F.J. 1972

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• 0 CATHOLICISM AND CRISIS: L *ECOLE SOCIALE POPULAIRE AND THE DEPRESSION IN QUEBEC, by F. J . F r i g o n B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967. A T h e s i s submitted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r the degree of MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of HISTORY We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1972. In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date November 3, 1972. - i -A b s t r a c t The purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s i s to determine how a group of s o c i a l l y - c o n c e r n e d French-speaking C a t h o l i c s grouped around l ' E c o l e S o c i a l e P o p u l a i r e or E.S.P. o f Montreal r e a c t e d t o the d e p r e s s i o n . T h e i r importance l a y i n the f a c t t h a t they were charged w i t h the task of adapting the Church's o r g a n i z a t i o n and t e a c h i n g s t o Quebec's changing socio-economic s t r u c t u r e . As a r e s u l t , they had developed by 1930 a network of i n t e r l o c k i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n Quebec and i n Europe. The fund of i d e a s and experiences which the E.S.P. accumulated thereby was disseminated amongst French Canadian e l i t e groups l a r g e l y through the medium of monthly pamphlets. Thus, when the d e p r e s s i o n s t r u c k and made Montreal, of Canada's urban r e g i o n s , one of i t s c h i e f v i c t i m s , the members of the E.S.P. were put to the t e s t . The misery and i n s e c u r i t y engendered by the c o l l a p s e of the economic system s t i m u l a t e d a demand f o r v i a b l e s o l u t i o n s and f o r a c t i o n . An examination of the pamphlets p u b l i s h e d by the E.S.P. between 1930 to 1940 i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t s members were slow i n p e r c e i v i n g the causes and e f f e c t s of the d e p r e s s i o n . Yet the E.S.P. was q u i c k to mount a campaign to stop the growth, e s p e c i a l l y i n Quebec, of Communism and, f o r a time, o f the C o o p e r a t i v e Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the E.S.P.'s pamphlets r e v e a l t h a t as time went on an i n c r e a s i n g l y s e r i o u s s p l i t developed amongst i t s members p r i m a r i l y over the a t t i t u d e C a t h o l i c s should - i i -adopt towards the e x i s t i n g socio-economic system. The E.S.P.'s programme f o r d e a l i n g w i t h the d e p r e s s i o n manifested an ambiguous a t t i t u d e towards the s t a t e . On one hand, the r e seemed to be a f e a r of too much s t a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n and, on the o t h e r , there was an acknowledgement t h a t o n l y the s t a t e c o u l d d e a l q u i c k l y and e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h the problems c r e a t e d by the d e p r e s s i o n . E q u a l l y important, many members of the E.S.P. favoured long-term s t r u c t u r a l reforms such as a r e t u r n t o s e l f -s u f f i c i e n t a g r i c u l t u r e through a programme of c o l o n i z a t i o n r a t h e r than immediate ones. L a t e r , the E.S.P. was to embrace but not w i t h equal f e r v o u r the C a t h o l i c concept of c o r p o r a t i s m as the l o n g -range s o l u t i o n . Another f a c t o r which shaped the E.S.P.'s response to the d e p r e s s i o n was the tendency o f i t s members to c o n s i d e r a l l p r o p o s a l s and a c t i v i t i e s p r i m a r i l y i n terms o f combatting Commun-ism and S o c i a l i s m . In e v a l u a t i n g t h e i r accomplishments, some members of the E.S.P. came to r e a l i z e t h a t they had enjoyed l e s s than complete success. They appeared to have been most d i s a p p o i n t e d w i t h the c o l o n i z a t i o n programme and most s a t i s f i e d w i t h the anti-Communist campaign. A p e r s o n a l assessment of the E.S.P.'s e f f o r t s f i n d s i t s commitment to s o c i a l j u s t i c e and to p l u r a l i s m w i t h i n the Church t o have been i t s most a t t r a c t i v e f e a t u r e s . The most u n a t t r a c t i v e aspect of the E.S.P.'s p u b l i c a t i o n s was the tendency on the p a r t of i t s authors to subordinate a l l v a l u e s to the main-tenance and expansion of the Church's i n f l u e n c e and o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h i s tendency h e l p s to e x p l a i n why the E.S.P.'s p r o p o s a l s and a c t i v i t i e s d i d not g i v e due c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o the mass misery c r e a t e d by the d e p r e s s i o n and to the power wiel d e d by the economic - i i i -e l i t e . In t u r n , t h i s c o n c l u s i o n h e l p s to e x p l a i n why the E.S.P. d i d not have a g r e a t e r impact a t t h i s time. N e v e r t h e l e s s the d e p r e s s i o n seems to have g i v e n b i r t h t o new conceptions of the r o l e of the Church and of i t s members. With time these new ideas were to b r i n g about a d r a s t i c a l t e r a t i o n i n the form and substance o f the Church. - i v -TABLE OF CONTENTS. I. The Church i n French Canada... 1 I I . The r i s e o f S o c i a l C a t h o l i c i s m 12 I I I . The d e p r e s s i o n i n Quebec 32 IV. The E.S.P. and C a p i t a l i s m 41 V. The E.S.P. and Communism 52 VI. The r o o t s o f the C a t h o l i c programme ... 81 V I I . The r o l e of the s t a t e i n the C h r i s t i a n s o c i e t y 91 V I I I . The C a t h o l i c a l t e r n a t i v e s t o monopoly c a p i t a l i s m 105 IX. The r o l e o f the E.S.P. and of C a t h o l i c s i n r e a l i z i n g the i d e a l 126 X. The success and the f a i l u r e o f S o c i a l C a t h o l i c i s m . . . . 136 XI. B i b l i o g r a p h y 148 XI I . Appendices A. Key N a t i o n a l i s t and S o c i a l C a t h o l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s and p e r s o n a l i t i e s 158 B. The aims of the E.S.P 172 C. The p o l i t i c a l programmes of the E.S.P 174 X I I I . Footnotes 186 -1-Chapter I The Church i n French Canada The purpose o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s t o determine how a group o f s o c i a l l y - c o n c e r n e d C a t h o l i c s i n the p r o v i n c e o f Quebec r e a c t e d t o the d e p r e s s i o n . Through t h e i r eyes i t should be p o s s i b l e t o come to some understanding of the Roman C a t h o l i c Church's r e a c t i o n t o t h i s socio-economic c r i s i s . Two q u e s t i o n s , however, immediately come to mind. Can the h i s t o r i a n t r e a t the Church as he would any ot h e r i n s t i t u t i o n ? Can he understand the s p i r i t as w e l l as the l e t t e r o f the w r i t i n g s o f t h i s group i f he does not c o n s i d e r the s u p e r n a t u r a l dimension? I t would appear t h a t the o n l y r a t i o n a l procedure he can adopt i s to see what the c l e r g y c o n s i d e r e d t o be . t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n s o c i e t y . What was the p o s i t i o n o f the Church w i t h i n French-Canada? By the end o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , the C a t h o l i c c l e r g y had become the unchallenged l e a d e r s o f French Canadian society."'" The h i e r a r c h y , i n a c o l l e c t i v e l e t t e r i s s u e d on September 22, 1875, a s s e r t e d t h a t , "La f i n de l ' E g l i s e e s t l e bonheur e t e r n e l des antes, f i n supreme e t d e r n i e r e de l'homme; l a s o c i e t y c i v i l e a pour f i n l e bonheur temporel des peuples. Par l a nature meme des choses, l a s o c i g t g c i v i l e se trouve i n d i r e c t e m e n t , ( s i c ) mais v§ritablement surbordonnSe; c a r , non seulement e l l e d o i t s ' a b s t e n i r de t o u t ce q u i peut mettre o b s t a c l e a l a f i n d e r n i e r e e t supreme de l'homme, mais encore, e l l e d o i t a i d e r l ' E g l i s e dans sa m i s s i o n d i v i n e , e t au b e s o i n l a pr o t e g e r e t l a d§fendre."^ Thus, the Church, as the c h i e f instrument of God on e a r t h , demanded t h a t i t be accorded a pre-eminent p o s i t i o n i n a C a t h o l i c -2-s o c i e t y . I t f o l l o w e d from t h i s a s s e r t i o n t h a t the h i e r a r c h y ' s p o s i t i o n was one of l e a d e r s h i p . In the words of Msgr. Paquet, a l e a d i n g Thomist t h e o l o g i a n , "...pour conserver e t c o n s o l i d e r c e t t e u n i t e morale ( s i c ) dont 1'absence s t e r i l e r a i t tous nos e f f o r t s , r i e n n'est p l u s e s s e n t i e l qu 1une soumission f i l i a l e aux enseignements de l ' E g l i s e e t une d o c i l i t e p a r f a i t e envers l e s chefs a u t o r i s i s q u i r e p r e s e n t e n t parmi nous son p o u v o i r . " 3 From statements such as these and from i t s a c t i v i t i e s , many of which w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s study, the Church made i t q u i t e c l e a r t h a t i t was concerned with power over men's minds and a c t i o n s . As such, i t must be s t u d i e d and ev a l u a t e d as a man-made o r g a n i z a t i o n . The s e c r e t o f the Church's success i n a s s e r t i n g i t s dominance over French-Canada l a y i n the f l e x i b i l i t y o f i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n . A s o c i o l o g i s t , H. Guindon, has d e s c r i b e d i t i n these terms: " I t had a c e n t r a l i z e d b u r e a u c r a t i c s t r u c t u r e o r g a n i z e d on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s i n t o d i o c e s e s w i t h the b e s t communications system of a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s and a d i s -c i p l i n e and s t a f f approximating the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the m i l i t a r y . " 4 The b a s i c u n i t was the p a r i s h . In a r u r a l s e t t i n g , the p a r i s h f u l f i l l e d not o n l y s p i r i t u a l but a l s o s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l , p o l i t i c a l 5 and, even, economic f u n c t i o n s . With i n c r e a s i n g u r b a n i z a t i o n , the p a r i s h demonstrated i t s a d a p t a b i l i t y by r e t a i n i n g t h i s c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n i n the l i v e s o f the French Canadians i n s p i t e of the pr e s s u r e s of c i t y l i f e . The Church's most r e l i a b l e a l l y i n c a r r y i n g out i t s work was the p a t r i a r c h i c a l , extended f a m i l y system. I t p r o v i d e d the necessary element f o r growth - c h i l d r e n - and t r a n s m i t t e d the t e a c h i n g s o f the Church t o them. W i t h i n the p a r i s h , a -3-f a m i l y ' s s t a t u s c o u l d and d i d vary a c c o r d i n g t o the degree of r e l i g i o u s c o n v i c t i o n i t demonstrated i n i t s conduct. At the summit of t h i s s o c i a l pyramid stood the p r i e s t - the f a t h e r o f a l l - s u p e r v i s i n g , g u i d i n g and i n s t r u c t i n g h i s p a r i s h i o n e r s . Furthermore, the Church c o n t r o l l e d the e d u c a t i o n a l system. While most of the farmers 1 sons and daughters never a c q u i r e d more than an elementary e d u c a t i o n , the e l i t e attended the " c o l l e g e s c l a s s i q u e s " . Developed p r i m a r i l y t o p r o v i d e a C h r i s t i a n humanist f o u n d a t i o n t o candidates f o r the p r i e s t h o o d , these secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s , i n e f f e c t , c o n t r o l l e d the avenues 7 of s o c i a l m o b i l i t y and i n t e l l e c t u a l development. The c l e r i c s o f t e n p i c k e d the c a n d i d a t e s , o f t e n f i n a n c e d them, s o c i a l i z e d them through the type o f e d u c a t i o n p r o v i d e d and, when the students proved to be u n s u i t e d f o r the p r i e s t h o o d , o f t e n p r o v i d e d the t r a i n i n g r e q u i r e d f o r the other two most p r e s t i g i o u s p r o f e s s i o n s - law and medicine. Consequently, the e l i t e o f French Canada was i n many ways l i t e r a l l y the c r e a t i o n o f the c l e r g y . Another f a c t o r which maintained the power of the c l e r g y i n French-Canada was the p r e s t i g e i t enjoyed. No oth e r French-speaking group c o u l d a s p i r e to a comparable s t a t u s because of the dominance of E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g e l i t e s i n the economic and p o l i t i c a l spheres i n Quebec and i n Canada. Only through the ranks o f the c l e r g y c o u l d a French-speaking Canadian reach a p o s i t i o n where he c o u l d e x e r c i s e power on an equal f o o t i n g w i t h the E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g e l i t e w h i l e remaining t o t a l l y w i t h i n h i s g own c u l t u r e . Such p r e s t i g e must have acted as a magnet f o r the b e s t t a l e n t s t h a t French Canada c o u l d produce. -4-With such s p i r i t u a l , m a t e r i a l , and i n t e l l e c t u a l r e s o u r c e s , i t was o n l y n a t u r a l t h a t the c l e r g y should take the l e a d i n e l a b o r a t i n g and a r t i c u l a t i n g the deepest v a l u e s o f French g Canadian l i f e . One of i t s l e a d i n g t h e o r i s t s was abbe L o u i s -F r a n c o i s L a f l e c h e , who l a t e r became bishop o f T r o i s R i v i d r e s . H i s i d e a s had a g r e a t i n f l u e n c e on succeeding g e n e r a t i o n s -e s p e c i a l l y on the c l e r g y . A n a t i o n a l i t y , f o r him, was: "...un peuple q u i p a r l e l a meme langue, q u i a l a meme f o i , e t dont l e s moeurs, l e s coutumes, l e s usages e t l e s l o i s sont uniformes." A p a t r i o t was someone who l o v e d , " . . . s a p a t r i e t e r r e s t r e , parce q u ' e l l e e s t pour l u i un avant gout de l a p a t r i e c i l e s t e . . . " I t was un t h i n k a b l e t h a t p a t r i o t i s m and r e l i g i o n should ever be separated f o r , as he exclaimed: "que s e r a i t , en e f f e t , un ]&atriotisme sans r e l i g i o n , s i n o n une f u r e u r aveugle, un non-sens, une a b s u r d i t y ? " He a s s e r t e d t h a t the m i s s i o n o f the French-Canadian n a t i o n was, " . . . e s s e n t i e l l e m e n t r e l i g i e u s e . " I t c o n s i s t e d o f , " . . . l a c o n v e r s i o n e t l a c i v i l i s a t i o n des sauvages de ce pays, ( s i c ) e t l e but que l e u r a as s i g n e l a Providence n'est r i e n moins que 1'gtablissement ( s i c ) d'un peuple profond^ment c a t h o l i q u e ( s i c ) dans c e t t e t e r r e q u ' e l l e  l e u r a donnee en h e r i t a g e , ( s i c ) " Given t h e i r p o s i t i o n , i t was i n e v i t a b l e t h a t L a f l e c h e and other c l e r i c s should b l e n d r e l i g i o n and p a t r i o t i s m i n t h i s way. T h i s f u s i o n o f r e l i g i o n and n a t i o n a l i s m r e f l e c t e d i n p a r t the p o l i c y o f the French-speaking c l e r g y s i n c e the B r i t i s h conquest of Canada. 1"^ As they never t i r e d o f reminding t h e i r c o u n t r y -men, the c l e r i c s had never wavered i n t h e i r defense o f French Canadian r i g h t s nor t i r e d i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o f u l f i l l what they -5-b e l i e v e d t o be the needs and a s p i r a t i o n s of the group. In p a r t , t h i s a l l i a n c e of c u l t u r e and r e l i g i o n r e f l e c t e d the p e r s o n a l 12 l i n k b i n d i n g the Church to every French Canadian f a m i l y . More important than these, however, was the f a c t t h a t such an a l l i a n c e bound French Canadians to the Church. Behind the aphorism, " l a langue, gardienne de l a f o i " , behind slogans such as " p r o v i n c i a l autonomy" and behind the s u c c e s s i v e b a t t l e s f o r French Canadian r i g h t s stood the Church, f o r e v e r the guardian of " l a s u r v i v a n c e " -of French Canadian c u l t u r e yes, but, more important - of the f a i t h i n A n g l o - P r o t e s t a n t North America. To p r e s e r v e the language and the f a i t h , the c l e r g y s u p e r v i s e d and r e g u l a t e d the group's s o c i a l mores. C o n t r o l l i n g a wide v a r i e t y of o f f i c i a l and u n o f f i c i a l s a n c t i o n s and rewards, the c l e r i c s c o u l d r e g u l a t e t o a h i g h degree the conduct of i n d i v i d u a l members as w e l l as the type of i n f l u e n c e s allowed to p e n e t r a t e 13 t h e i r c o n s c i o u s n e s s . Even the p o l i t i c a l process a t a l l l e v e l s was s u b j e c t more or l e s s , depending on the i s s u e and the i n d i v i d -u a l , to t h e i r c o n t r o l s . While the c l e r g y was f o r c e d t o become more d i s c r e e t i n a s s e r t i n g and e x e r c i s i n g t h e i r power, the f a c t was, as Andre S i e g f r i e d noted, t h a t the Church " . . . l i v e s o u t s i d e the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the c i v i l power; above ( s i c ) i t , the e c c l e s i a s t i c s sometime m a i n t a i n and always f e e l . The law not merely p l a c e s no o b s t a c l e s i n t h e i r way, but on the c o n t r a r y , i t supports them." 1 4 As a r e s u l t , S i e f g r i e d wrote, " L i b e r t y appears i n the laws, but does not y e t e x i s t i n the customs o f the people." Whatever the e f f e c t on the average French Canadian, the t o t a l r e s u l t of t h i s s i t u a t i o n was h i g h l y b e n e f i c i a l to the Church. -6-I n t e r a c t i n g upon one another, these f a c t o r s g e n e r a l i z e d and i n t e n s i f i e d the l e v e l of f a i t h and submissiveness to the c l e r g y 15 to make French Canada one o f the most C a t h o l i c o f n a t i o n s . In c o n c r e t e terms, t h i s meant a steady i n c r e a s e i n the r a t e o f r e l i g i o u s v o c a t i o n s u n t i l i t s t a b i l i z e d a t a l e v e l matched by 16 few o t h e r n a t i o n s . T h i s development, i n t u r n , served to r e i n f o r c e the dominance of the Church by p r o v i d i n g i t w i t h the p e r s o n n e l r e q u i r e d to m a i n t a i n and extend i t s i n f l u e n c e . But the very success of the Church i n molding French Canada i n i t s own image c r e a t e d a problem of i n c r e a s i n g s e r i o u s n e s s . The Church encouraged the formation of l a r g e f a m i l i e s . The 17 r e s u l t was one of the h i g h e s t b i r t h r a t e s i n the world. There was l i t t l e , however, t h a t the Church c o u l d do about the l a c k of s u i t a b l e lands to support such f a m i l i e s . Wherever such lands were to be found, whether i n the E a s t e r n Townships, the Lac-St. Jean r e g i o n , the i s o l a t e d v a l l e y s of the L a u r e n t i a n s and the Gasp§ p e n i n s u l a o r , l a t e r , the r e g i o n of A b i t i b i , the c l e r g y devot-ed a g r e a t d e a l o f energy and r e s o u r c e s i n encouraging young couples 18 to s e t t l e them. But t h e r e were always more couples than there was l a n d . Even when the l a n d was a v a i l a b l e , the " h a b i t a n t " might not have the cash to buy a farm f o r h i s son. To o b t a i n the necessary cash, the " h a b i t a n t s " , i n i n c r e a s i n g numbers, were compelled to switch to commercial a g r i c u l t u r e . As a r e s u l t , they became v u l n e r a b l e to the m a t e r i a l and non-material i n f l u e n c e s of the c i t i e s . The growth o f " l e luxe effren§" i n the c o u n t r y s i d e , a process c o n s t a n t l y denounced from the p u l p i t , l e d to an i n c r e a s -i n g d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with r u r a l s o c i e t y . The end r e s u l t of both developments was m i g r a t i o n . -7-There was a m i g r a t i o n to the lumber camps every w i n t e r . There was a m i g r a t i o n to O n t a r i o and to Western Canada. There was an i n c r e a s i n g m i g r a t i o n to the urban c e n t e r s of the p r o v i n c e . But the main stream, u n t i l World War I, flowed towards the l a b o u r -i n t e n s i v e t e x t i l e m i l l s of New England. Each f a m i l y , as they l e f t , vowed t o r e t u r n when a stake had been made but most never d i d . While t h i s flow served to s t r e n g t h e n the Church to some exten t by p u r g i n g Quebec of i t s d i s c o n t e n t e d elements, the very s i z e of the m i g r a t i o n was a t h r e a t to the s u r v i v a l and expansion 19 of French Canada. Apart from the l o s s of manpower, t h i s m i g r a t i o n made Quebec more open to the non-French-Catholic i n f l u e n c e s . As the c l e r g y c o u l d not r e v e r s e i t s t e a c h i n g on b i r t h - c o n t r o l , another s o l u t i o n had to be found. To stop t h i s m i g r a t i o n of French Canadians to the United S t a t e s , the c l e r g y r e l i e d upon the A n g l o - P r o t e s t a n t economic e l i t e to p r o v i d e employment. Based i n the c i t y of Montreal, t h i s e l i t e took advantage o f Montreal's s t r a t e g i c p o s i t i o n i n r e s p e c t to Canada and of the N a t i o n a l P o l i c y t o i n c r e a s e i t s economic 20 power. Having access to e x c e l l e n t sea and l a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , t h i s group developed consumer-oriented i n d u s t r i e s t o supply the growing p o p u l a t i o n o f Canada. The c h i e f con-t r i b u t i o n o f French Canada was an e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g p o o l of un-s k i l l e d " h a b i t a n t s " to work i n these low-wage, l a b o u r - i n t e n s i v e i n d u s t r i e s . T h i s economy, however, c o u l d not absorb the bulk of the l a n d l e s s " h a b i t a n t s " . I t was o n l y when American c a p i t a l began to p e n e t r a t e deep i n s i d e French Canada i n order to e x p l o i t the m i n e r a l , f o r e s t and -8-water r e s o u r c e s of the Precambrian S h i e l d t h a t the m i g r a t i o n 21 to the U n i t e d S t a t e s was h a l t e d . Company towns sprang up throughout the p r o v i n c e . At the same time, Montreal, as the headquarters of n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s , i n c r e a s e d i t s domination of Quebec's economy. I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , u r b a n i z a t i o n and E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g economic domination, w i t h t h e i r attendant b e n e f i t s and dangers, grew a t an e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g pace a f t e r World War I. Because these c a p i t a l i s t s p r o v i d e d l a n d l e s s French Canadians w i t h employment w i t h i n Quebec, most of the c l e r g y looked upon them as b e n e f a c t o r s and d i d much to ensure t h a t a f a v o u r a b l e 22 socio-economic c l i m a t e p r e v a i l e d . F e a r i n g s t a t i s m , which was equated w i t h s e c u l a r i s m , the m a j o r i t y of c l e r i c s were staunch supporters of " l a i s s e z - f a i r e " p o l i c i e s i n economic and s o c i a l m a tters. The Church c o u l d not m a i n t a i n i t s p o s i t i o n i f the s t a t e began to compete f o r the a l l e g i a n c e of the people. Thus, the i d e a l was the s e l f - r e l i a n t f a m i l y system. Such a c o n c e p t i o n of the s t a t e f i t t e d i n p e r f e c t l y w i t h the p o l i t i c a l e l i t e ' s i n c l i n a t i o n t o view o f f i c e h o l d i n g more as a means of p e r s o n a l 23 enrichment than of p u b l i c s e r v i c e . T h i s concept of the s t a t e , of course, more than met the requirements o f the c a p i t a l i s t s f o r i t p r o v i d e d them w i t h a d o c i l e labour f o r c e and a complaisant government. Of the many t h r e a t s which i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n posed f o r the Church, the main one came from a s m a l l but s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s i n g number o f workers. To d e a l w i t h the problems of low wages and poor working c o n d i t i o n s , these workers turned e s p e c i a l l y t o -9-24 I n t e r n a t i o n a l unions f o r a s s i s t a n c e and l e a d e r s h i p . The coming o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l unions was a mixed b l e s s i n g f o r French Canadian workers. For one t h i n g , they r e s t r i c t e d themselves l a r g e l y to c r a f t unionism and, hence, c o u l d not take i n more than a s m a l l percentage of the working f o r c e . For another, they were o f t e n i n s e n s i t i v e t o the d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s and s p e c i a l problems of t h e i r French-speaking members. N e v e r t h e l e s s , they d i d i n c r e a s e the i n f l u e n c e of the workers i n socio-economic matters through t h e i r g r e a t e r w i l l i n g n e s s t o r e s o r t to s t r i k e s . On May 7, 1883 C a r d i n a l Taschereau of Quebec c i t y condemned "...to u t e s o c i e t y dont l e s reglements renferment l e p r i n c i p e des greves" on the grounds t h a t s t r i k e s were v i o l e n t manifes-25 t a t i o n s of c l a s s warfare. Although Rome, a t f i r s t , supported him, p r e s s u r e from the American and B r i t i s h h i e r a r c h i e s f o r c e d i t to suspend t h i s condemnation i n 1887. The French-Canadian c l e r g y c ontinued to denounce the use of s t r i k e s and to preach the need f o r order and submission to God's w i l l . Another weapon which the i n t e r n a t i o n a l unions attempted to use to improve the p o s i t i o n of the workers was the " P a r t i 2 6 O u v r i e r de Montreal". Created i n 1904, the p a r t y drew i t s i n s p i r a t i o n from the B r i t i s h Labour P a r t y . I t s programme c a l l e d f o r a wide range of reforms, n o t a b l y the s e c u l a r i z a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n and g r e a t e r government i n t e r v e n t i o n i n s o c i o -economic matters. Such demands were, o f course, a d i r e c t c h a l l e n g e to the c l e r g y . The r e s u l t i n g h o s t i l i t y , added to . i t s i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t s and poor o r g a n i z a t i o n , p r e v e n t e d the p a r t y from e n j o y i n g more than i s o l a t e d successes and, i n time, brought -10-about i t s disappearance. But, the very f a c t t h a t i t had come i n t o b e i n g and had advanced such demands i n the f o r t r e s s of C a t h o l i c i s m shook the more a l e r t c l e r i c s out of t h e i r complacency. These c l e r i c s began to study the s o c i a l e f f e c t s of i n d u s t -r i a l i z a t i o n . They were not slow to grasp t h a t i t s most dangerous by-product was c l a s s c o n f l i c t w i t h i t s demands f o r r a d i c a l reforms and i t s i d e o l o g i e s seeking to win the people away from the Church. To a p p r e c i a t e the d e v a s t a t i n g e f f e c t of c l a s s c o n f l i c t upon the 27 Church, they had o n l y to look a t s e c u l a r i z e d France. The c a r r i e r s of t h i s i n f e c t i o n i n Quebec, they agreed, were the " n e u t r a l " unions and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , the m i l i t a n t i n t e r n a t i o n a l unions. Many o f the union l e a d e r s were known Freemasons, a n t i -c l e r i c a l s or s o c i a l i s t s , and the unions themselves were the 2 8 main support o f the " P a r t i O u v r i e r " . On the b a s i s of t h e i r s t u d i e s , the c l e r i c s concluded t h a t these union l e a d e r s were e x p l o i t i n g the l e g i t i m a t e d e s i r e o f French Canadian workers f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n and l e a d e r s h i p i n order to l o o s e n the bonds l i n k i n g them to the Church by encouraging an i n d i f f e r e n t or " n e u t r a l " a t t i t u d e t o r e l i g i o n . Once these bonds were c u t , they would be f r e e t o win the workers to t h e i r r e v o l u t i o n a r y ends. While i t was t r u e t h a t not a l l unions had t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n and t h a t some were opposed to i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n , the f a c t remained t h a t , even i n the more n a t i o n a l i s t i c unions, the m a t e r i a l and r e l i g i o u s i n t e r e s t s of the workers were put i n o p p o s i t i o n to each o t h e r . Msgr. P.E. Roy of Quebec C i t y , r e c r e a t i n g the s i t u a t i o n f o r an audience, was e x p r e s s i n g the f e e l i n g s of these s o c i a l l y -concerned c l e r i c s when he exclaimed: -11-"En p l e i n chez-nous, des mains etrangeres a v a i e n t S t a b l i c e t t e b a r r i ^ r e de mensonge e n t r e l ' o u v r i e r e t l ' E g l i s e . Sournoisement, habilement, patiemment, e l l e s a v a i e n t accompli c e t t e s e p a r a t i o n n i f a s t e ; p u i s , ce but a t t e i n t , e l l e s a v a i e n t pousse l a f o u l e dans des s e n t i e r s mauvais ou l ' o n n 1 e n t r e d ' o r d i n a i r e que gour c o u r i r a une r u i n e c e r t a i n e , l o i n de l ' E g l i s e e t l o i n de Dieu." To s o c i a l l y - c o n s c i o u s c l e r i c s , l i k e Msgr. Roy, the i s s u e was clear': "...notre v i e s o c i a l e v a - t - e l l e r e s t e r marquee de l'empreinte du c h r i s t i a n i s m e q u ' e l l e S t o u j o u r s eue? Ou b i e n v a - t - e l l e b i f f e r c e t t e marque de noble o r i g i n e , pour l a i s s e r apposer sur e l l e l e s s c e l l ^ e s d i f f a m a n t e s du s o c i a l i s m e e t r a n g e r ou c osmopolite?" How to d e a l w i t h such a t h r e a t ? -12-CHAPTER I I THE RISE OF SOCIAL CATHOLICISM Nothing i n the experience o f the French-speaking c l e r g y had prepared them t o d e a l w i t h the t h r e a t which the growth of tr a d e unions, p a r t i c u l a r l y from the U n i t e d S t a t e s , posed t o t h e i r dominant p o s i t i o n . As o u t r i g h t condemnation was too b l u n t an instrument to use i n d e a l i n g w i t h i t , other means had to be found. I n c r e a s i n g numbers of c l e r i c s turned t o Rome f o r g u i d -ance and, more s p e c i f i c a l l y , t o the e n c y c l i c a l Rerum novarum which Pope Leo XIII had i s s u e d on May 15, 1891. As Pope Leo attempted to d e f i n e i n Rerum novarum the C a t h o l i c c o n c e p t i o n of the i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y , i t s p r i n c i p a l elements should be examined. He d e c l a r e d t h a t t o preserve the autonomy of the i n d i v i d u a l and of the f a m i l y , "our f i r s t and most fundamental p r i n c i p l e . . . m u s t be the i n v i o l a b i l i t y o f p r i v a t e property."''" Furthermore, he a s s e r t e d t h a t the s o c i a l i s t g o a l of an e g a l i t a r i a n s o c i e t y was a dream, f o r "...unequal f o r t u n e i s a 2 necessary r e s u l t o f i n e q u a l i t y i n c o n d i t i o n . " T u r n i n g to the s t a t e , Pope Leo maintained t h a t i t s proper r o l e was, f i r s t l y , t o enable the f a i t h f u l t o p r a c t i c e the Church's tea c h i n g s on s o c i a l q u e s t i o n s and, secondly, t o p r o t e c t and advance the i n t e r e s t s , as d e f i n e d by the Church, o f i t s c i t i z e n s 3 and, e s p e c i a l l y , o f the poor. As i t s f i r s t duty was to p r o t e c t p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y , the s t a t e had to a c t to remove, "...the causes which l e a d t o c o n f l i c t s between masters and those whom they employ." The s t a t e , i n p a r t i c u l a r , had to ensure the observance o f h o l y -13-day s of r e s t . I t had to r e g u l a t e the hours of work, the labour o f females and of c h i l d r e n , and the s a n i t a r y c o n d i t i o n s i n f a c t o r i e s . Above a l l , i t had to make sure t h a t "...the r e -muneration must be enough to support the wage-earner i n reason-5 a b l e and f r u g a l comfort." To guarantee the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f these reforms, Pope Leo asked t h a t the laws "... induce as many people as p o s s i b l e to become owners." These reforms c o u l d b e s t be c a r r i e d out by the employers and employees through t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n s . Such a s s o c i a t i o n s , a c c o r d i n g to the e n c y c l i c a l , were more than ever necessary f o r 7 the o r d e r l y development of s o c i e t y . Hence, the s t a t e should not i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s u n l e s s a b s o l u t e l y necessary. As many of the e x i s t i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s were i n c o m p a t i b l e i n aim w i t h those o f the Church, Leo X I I I urged t h a t C a t h o l i c s form t h e i r own a s s o c i a t i o n s which would promote, f i r s t l y , " p i e t y and m o r a l i t y " , secondly, "unanimity and g o o d w i l l " , t h i r d l y , c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the r i g h t s and d u t i e s of the employers as w e l l as those of the employees and, f i n a l l y , the r e s o l u t i o n of g r i e v a n c e s , the r e g u l a r supply of labour and i n s u r a n c e a g a i n s t g s i c k n e s s , o l d age and m i s f o r t u n e . The r e s u l t of these a c t i v i t i e s , he b e l i e v e d , would be not o n l y the advancement of the s p i r i t u a l and m a t e r i a l i n t e r e s t o f those i n v o l v e d but a l s o the c o n v e r s i o n o f the d e - C h r i s t i a n i z e d p r o l e t a r i a t to the Church. C o n s i d e r i n g the f a c t t h a t h i s p r e decessor, Pope Pi u s IX, had come c l o s e to condemning a l l developments s i n c e the French R e v o l u t i o n when he i s s u e d the S y l l a b u s of E r r o r s , i n 1864, -14-Leo X I I I ' s e n c y c l i c a l r e p r e s e n t e d a fundamental change i n the 9 Church's o u t l o o k . Because the stakes were h i g h , n o t h i n g l e s s than the r e - C h r i s t i a n i z a t i o n of the p r o l e t a r i a t , the Pope took a g r e a t r i s k . For many y e a r s , the Church had been d i v i d e d i n t o two groups: those who b e l i e v e d t h a t the Church should adapt to contemporary developments, p a r t i c u l a r l y to the l i b e r a l - d e m o c r a t i c s t a t e , and those who b e l i e v e d t h a t the Church c o u l d not make any c o n c e s s i o n s and s t i l l r e t a i n i t s d i v i n e nature.''' 0 Nowhere was t h i s d i v i s i o n deeper than i n France - the s p i r i t u a l home of L a c o r d a i r e and of De M a i s t r e . ^ The c a l l o f Leo X I I I f o r C a t h o l i c s o c i a l a c t i o n , coupled w i t h h i s p o l i c y of encouraging C a t h o l i c s to use the instruments of the l i b e r a l - d e m o c r a t i c s t a t e , s t i m u l a t e d the growth of the 12 C h r i s t i a n Democratic movement. I t s aim was to e x p l o i t t o the f u l l the democratic l i b e r t i e s - which C a t h o l i c k i n g s had never granted the Church - and the techniques necessary to make these freedoms e f f e c t i v e i n o r d e r to win the masses to the C a t h o l i c a l t e r n a t i v e t o l i b e r a l i s m and s o c i a l i s m . Although f o r b i d d e n from engaging i n d i r e c t p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n , the C h r i s t i a n Democrats developed a m u l t i t u d e of a s s o c i a t i o n s , newspapers and C a t h o l i c 13 s c h o o l s . The main problem they f a c e d was how to use these f o r c e s i n the most e f f e c t i v e manner. What was needed was an agency which would s t i m u l a t e r e s e a r c h i n t o the workings of modern s o c i e t y and would adapt C a t h o l i c t e a c h i n g to i t s needs. I t would a l s o propagate these f i n d i n g s and c o o r d i n a t e any a c t i o n under-taken. To f i l l t h i s gap, a group of J e s u i t s and laymen c r e a t e d 14 1'Action P o p u l a i r e i n 1903 a t Rheims, France. So w e l l d i d t h i s -15-agency c a r r y out i t s f u n c t i o n s t h a t i t soon assumed the l e a d e r -s h i p of the movement throughout the world. France a l s o p r o v i d e d the l e a d e r s h i p f o r the o p p o s i t i o n to Leo X I I I * s p o l i c i e s . An a t h e i s t , C h a r l e s Maurras, and h i s group, " l * A c t i o n F r a n g a i s e " p r o v i d e d the i d e o l o g i c a l l e a d e r s h i p to the 15 C a t h o l i c I n t e g r i s t e s as the t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s were c a l l e d . They b e l i e v e d t h a t the l i b e r a l s t a t e and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n had des-t r o y e d the o r g a n i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s which had made France g r e a t . Only the c o l l a p s e of modern s o c i e t y - a process they hoped t o hasten by the use o f any means, i n c l u d i n g v i o l e n c e - c o u l d r e s t o r e the t r a d i t i o n a l v i r t u e s of France. In the meantime, the two i n s t i t u t i o n s which had more or l e s s r e t a i n e d these t r a d i t -i o n a l v a l u e s , the Army and the Church, must be p r e s e r v e d from contamination. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the I n t e g r i s t e s opposed any weaken-i n g of the Church's h i e r a r c h i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , favoured a g r e a t e r emphasis on s p i r i t u a l matters and wished t o r e s t o r e C a t h o l i c i s m 16 as the o f f i c i a l r e l i g i o n . T h e i r p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the Church was strengthened when a sympathizer, Pius X, succeeded Leo X I I I 17 i n 1903. While he c o u l d not r e p u d i a t e Leo X I I I ' s teachings and C h r i s t i a n Democracy, Pi u s X g r a d u a l l y r e s t r i c t e d the a c t i v i t i e s of the movement and emphasized the s p i r i t u a l development of the f a i t h f u l . In France, the d i s p u t e became i n c r e a s i n g l y b i t t e r as the I n t e g r i s t e s , supported by the bulk of the c l e r g y and the middle c l a s s , attempted to d i s c r e d i t S o c i a l C a t h o l i c i s m , t h a t c o n c e p t i o n 18 of the Church which C h r i s t i a n Democrats were t r y i n g to develop... The climax came i n the d i s p u t e over the nature of the a s s o c i a t i o n s -16-recommended i n Rerum novarum. Leo X I I I ' s g u i d e l i n e s , designed f o r a world-wide audience, were o f n e c e s s i t y very g e n e r a l , and t h e r e f o r e , open to d i f f e r i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . Many q u e s t i o n s had to be answered. Should these a s s o c i a t i o n s i n c l u d e employers as w e l l as employees? Should they be independent o f the h i e r a r c h y ? Should they depend on the good w i l l o f the employer? Should n o n - C a t h o l i c s be admitted? Under what c o n d i t i o n s ? G e n e r a l l y speaking, the A c t i o n P o p u l a i r e , f a c e d with the compet-i t i o n o f s o c i a l i s t and s y n d i c a l i s t unions, tended to favour a s s o c i a t i o n s which would be concerned mainly w i t h the workers 1 19 p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r e s t s . I t exposed i t s e l f i n the p r o c e s s , to the Int§gristee* charges t h a t i t was f o s t e r i n g a m a t e r i a l i s t i c 20 -o u t l o o k . The I n t ^ g r i s t e s , a t b e s t , favoured c o r p o r a t i s m , t h a t i s the o r g a n i c union o f employers and employees i n a g i v e n i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r i n o rder to r e s o l v e problems and d i s p u t e s harmoniously, and, a t worst, they favoured a s s o c i a t i o n s which 21 would do l i t t l e more than promote p i e t y . As t h i s d i s p u t e reached new h e i g h t s , the A c t i o n P o p u l a i r e i n the w i n t e r of 1914 came very c l o s e t o being condemned. I t was o n l y with the death of Pius X i n August, 1914, t h a t S o c i a l C a t h o l i c i s m c o u l d begin to f e e l secure w i t h i n the Church. The f i r s t impulses toward S o c i a l C a t h o l i c i s m i n Quebec were f e l t not i n the more cosmopolitan and i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c i t y o f Montreal but i n the l e s s s o p h i s t i c a t e d and perhaps, f o r t h i s reason, more r e l i g i o u s c i t y o f Quebec. In 1900 Alphonse D e s j a r d i n s put i n t o o p e r a t i o n the f i r s t c r e d i t union i n -17-22 North America a t L e v i s . With the h e l p of the church, he was to see h i s c o n c e p t i o n of these Peoples' Banks spread throughout the western hemisphere. At the same time, Msgr. Bggin, Archbishop of Quebec C i t y , as a r e s u l t of a s t r i k e , was b e g i n -i n g the process of a r b i t r a t i o n which would l e a d to the r e s t r u c t -23 u r i n g of the union i n v o l v e d a c c o r d i n g to C a t h o l i c p r i n c i p l e s . These developments, however, l a c k e d c o o r d i n a t i o n and p l a n n i n g . I t was o n l y i n 1907 t h a t 1'Action S o c i a l e C a t h o l i q u e was c r e a t e d and p l a c e d under the d i r e c t i o n of the abbe, l a t e r Msgr. P. E. Roy i n order to d e a l w i t h socio-economic matters on a f u l l - t i m e b a s i s Even then, t h i s group was concerned mainly w i t h p u b l i s h i n g a d a i l y newspaper, 1'Action S o c i a l e l a t e r to become 1'Action  C a t h o l i q u e . The f i r s t c o n c r e t e m a n i f e s t a t i o n of S o c i a l C a t h o l i c i s m i n the a r c h d i o c e s e . o f Montreal was the formation of 1 ' A s s o c i a t i o n C a t h o l i q u e de l a Jeunesse Canadienne-frangaise o r the "A.C.J.C." 25 i n 1904 under the auspices of the J e s u i t s . Composed of students a t t e n d i n g the c l a s s i c a l c o l l e g e s and C a t h o l i c u n i v e r -s i t i e s the A.C.J.C. ranked i t s i n t e r e s t s i n t h i s o r d e r of importance: the r e l i g i o u s q u e s t i o n , the n a t i o n a l q u e s t i o n and the s o c i a l q u e s t i o n w i t h emphasis on e d u c a t i o n , a g r i c u l t u r e , 26 c o l o n i z a t i o n and labour unions. By promoting d i s c u s s i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d t o these problems, the A.C.J.C. formed a group o f d e d i c a t e d laymen who were to second the c l e r i c s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g S o c i a l C a t h o l i c i s m i n Quebec. Ho w e v e r ? f i t was o n l y i n 1908 t h a t some of these c l e r i c s and laymen began to g i v e t h e i r f u l l a t t e n t i o n to socio-economic problems. -18-Concluding Rerum novarum, Leo X I I I had urged the c l e r g y to 27 p r o v i d e the l e a d e r s h i p r e q u i r e d to implement h i s programme. Moreover, every C a t h o l i c was o b l i g e d t o f o l l o w the t e a c h i n g s of the Pope. Even though, as S i e g f r i e d observed, "the C a t h o l i c Church i n Canada i s i n t r u t h i n a c o n d i t i o n of deep submission to the Holy See", i t cannot be denied t h a t S o c i a l C a t h o l i c i s m was i n t r o d u c e d i n t o French Canada s l o w l y and i n a piece-meal 28 f a s h i o n . So e x a s p e r a t i n g was t h i s f o r some, t h a t a J e s u i t p r i e s t denounced the Montreal episcopacy to the Papal d e l e g a t e 29 f o r i g n o r i n g Rerum hovarum. Why the delay? I t can probably be e x p l a i n e d , i n p a r t , by the d i v i s i o n , the b i t t e r n e s s , the c o n f u s i o n and the i n s e c u r i t y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h S o c i a l C a t h o l i c i s m . In f a c t , t h e r e i s evidence to suggest t h a t p r e s s u r e was put on Msgr. B r u c h S s i , the Archbishop of M o n t r e a l , not to a l l o w the c r e a t i o n of an agency such as 1'Action P o p u l a i r e i n h i s 30 j u r i s d i c t i o n . Given the autonomy the bishops enjoyed, a more important reason probably was the unprecedented : nature of the problems which i n c r e a s i n g i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n c r e a t e d f o r the French Canadian h i e r a r c h y . I t i s q u i t e probable i n view of t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l i s t o u tlook t h a t the c l e r i c s simply were a t a l o s s as 31 to how to d e a l w i t h these problems. I t was to study the c o n d i t i o n of labour i n the p r o v i n c e t h a t an i n t e r d i o c e s a n r e u n i o n of p r i e s t s , r e p r e s e n t i n g Quebec's 32 h i e r a r c h y , was h e l d i n Montreal i n 1908. One r e s u l t of t h i s meeting, i t seems, was the c r e a t i o n by L^onidas Hudon, s . j . , and A r t h u r S a i n t - P i e r r e , a member of the A.C.J.C., of a F e d e r a t i o n des Ligues du Sacre Coeur to c o o r d i n a t e the f i g h t a g a i n s t blasphemy -19-33 and intemperance among the working c l a s s . Another r e s u l t o f the meeting was an address to the h i e r a r c h y warning of the c o n s t a n t progress o f s o c i a l i s t and Masonic i n f l u e n c e s i n s i d e the " n e u t r a l " labour unions. On the b a s i s o f t h i s warning, the f i r s t p l e n a r y c o u n c i l o f Canadian b i s h o p s , meeting i n Quebec C i t y from September 19 to November 1, 1909, condemned the p r i n c i p l e of 34 " n e u t r a l i t y " i n labour o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g members of the h i e r a r c h y never a p p l i e d i t i n t h e i r d i o c e s e s , p robably because C a t h o l i c s were i n a m i n o r i t y everywhere o u t s i d e o f Quebec. For Quebec, however, t h i s condemnation was the p r e l u d to the i n t r o d u c t i o n of C a t h o l i c unions. R e a l i z i n g t h a t the " f e d e r a t i o n " was inadequate f o r the task of o r g a n i z i n g C a t h o l i c unions, Father Hudon s e t on f o o t a " C e r c l 35 s a c e r d o t a l d'Etudes s o c i a l e s " . He hoped, i n t h i s way, to form cadres o f p r i e s t s w e l l - v e r s e d i n the Church's s o c i a l d o c t r i n e and i n the techniques r e q u i r e d to apply i t . Approximately t h i r t y p r i e s t s began to meet every f o r t n i g h t to study the v a r i o u s aspects of the q u e s t i o n . A f t e r a time, they came to see t h a t to succeed, the Montreal S o c i a l C a t h o l i c movement r e q u i r e d a perm-anent r e s e a r c h and propaganda agency along the l i n e s of 1'Action P o p u l a i r e of Rheims. A s e r i e s of annual congresses of the F e d e r a t i o n des Ligues du Sacre^Coeur proceed to f o l l o w a p a r a l l e l c o urse. The most important of these congresses was the one h e l d on January 25 to 26, 1911 to study the l a b o u r organ-i z a t i o n s i n Quebec. Out of i t s d e l i b e r a t i o n s came f o u r r e s o l u t i o n s t h a t mark the t u r n i n g p o i n t of the movement. The f i r s t o f these r e s o l u t i o n s a s s e r t e d t h a t , " i l e s t - 2 0 -n i c e s s a i r e e t p o s s i b l e d ' u n i r nos o u v r i e r s dans l e s s y n d i c a t s 37 p r o f e s s i o n n e l s nettement c a t h o l i q u e . " From t h i s a s s e r t i o n , the second r e s o l u t i o n f o l l o w e d : "IS oG l a p l a c e e s t l i b r e , e t l e t e r r a i n b i e n prepare, on peut des maintenant fonder ces s y n d i c a t s . " The t h i r d r e s o l u t i o n d e c l a r e d t h a t , " i l f a u t avant t o u t f a i r e 1'Education s o c i a l e du c l e r g e e t des a u t r e s c l a s s e s de l a s o c i ^ t e . " Combined t o g e t h e r , these r e s o l u t i o n s gave b i r t h t o the f o u r t h which charged the e x e c u t i v e o f the f e d e r a t i o n , "...de p r e p a r e r un p r o j e t d ' o r g a n i s a t i o n . " From t h i s r e s o l u t i o n was born i n May, 1911, l ' E c o l e S o c i a l e P o p u l a i r e o r , as i t w i l l be r e f e r r e d to h e r e a f t e r , the E.S.P. I t s programme made i t c l e a r t h a t the E.S.P. was to be 38 concerned w i t h more than the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f C a t h o l i c unions. T h i s task, however, was i t s immediate concern and, i n f a c t , the E.S.P. was expected to c o o r d i n a t e the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s 39 b e i n g undertaken throughout the p r o v i n c e s . In p r a c t i c e , the E.S.P. was f o r c e d , probably f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e reasons, to c o n f i n e i t s e l f t o the a r c h d i o c e s e o f M o n t r e a l . Here, i t s e t about making the necessary p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r the formation o f C a t h o l i c unions. These p r e p a r a t i o n s i n c l u d e d a propaganda campaign to f a m i l a r i z e the i n t e r e s t e d p u b l i c with the aims and techniques o f C a t h o l i c unions. To do t h i s , the E.S.P. c a l l e d upon 1'Action P o p u l a i r e f o r h e l p . In a d d i t i o n to m a t e r i a l s , i t sent, among o t h e r s , F a t h e r P l a n t i e r , one o f i t s founders, who f o r seven months toured Quebec and l e c t u r e d on the work o f h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n . From Belgium came Fa t h e r Rutten, o r g a n i z e r and S e c r e t a r y - G e n e r a l of the C o n f e d e r a t i o n o f C h r i s t i a n Trade-Unions. The E.S.P's -21-s e c r e t a r y , A. S a i n t - P i e r r e , f o l l o w i n g the example o f the European S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s , s e t up study c i r c l e s as a p r e l i m i n a r y t o the c r e a t i o n of f u l l - f l e d g e d unions. Membership reached a peak o f over 2,000 male and female workers. So s u c c e s s f u l d i d the work of the E.S.P. appear to be t h a t a c o n v o c a t i o n of p r i e s t s i n January, 1914 approved F a t h e r Hudon's motion t h a t the archbishop appoint a f u l l - t i m e d i r e c t o r o f 41 C a t h o l i c unions. Msgr. B r u c h e s i consequently s e t up a committee composed o f h i s a u x i l i a r y bishop, Msgr. Gauthier and an abbe" Maurice to s u p e r v i s e the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l work. A c o n f l i c t soon erupted. The i s s u e was whether or not these embryonic unions were ready t o embark upon p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . Abbe" Maurice argued t h a t they were ready while S a i n t - P i e r r e f e l t t h a t more p r e p a r a t i o n was needed. Apparently t h i s c o n t r o v e r s y reached such p r o p o r t i o n s t h a t Msgr. B r u c h i s i had to s t r i p the E.S.P. of i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n i n 1915. While t h e r e i s no evidence l i n k i n g the two events, i n t h a t year the o r i g i n a l group of c l e r i c s and laymen who had founded the E.S.P. was d i s s o l v e d and the J e s u i t o r d e r requested to assume s o l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t . On top o f these blows, the E.S.P. saw i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e f f o r t s wasted as most of i t s union-study c i r c l e s c o l l a p s e d under the p r e s s u r e s o f the F i r s t World War. I t would be wrong to conclude from t h i s account t h a t the E.S.P.'s e f f o r t s had been i n v a i n . For t h e r e was, a t l e a s t , one man who was prepared to l e a r n from i t s mistakes and who was eager to r e - e s t a b l i s h C a t h o l i c s y n d i c a l i s m on a more s o l i d ^ b a s i s . His name was Joseph-Papin Archambault. A son of the t r a d i t i o n a l 43 e l i t e , he had entered the J e s u i t o r d e r i n 1897. He was -22-educated and l a t e r taught a t the C o l l e g e S a i n t e ^ M a r i e . While t h e r e , Archambault became i n v o l v e d i n the A.C.J.C. movement. I t was f o r t h i s group t h a t he i n t r o d u c e d i n Canada i n 1909 the J e s u i t o r d e r ' s system of c l o s e d r e t r e a t s . He was a p a r t i c i p a n t i n the i n i t i a l steps l e a d i n g to the f o u n d a t i o n o f the E.S.P. and was the f i r s t to w r i t e a pamphlet f o r i t . Ordained i n 1912, Archambault was sent to Europe to study, a t f i r s t hand, the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c movement. In the process, he e s t a b l i s h e d p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s w i t h i t s o u t s t a n d i n g p e r s o n a l i t i e s . He r e t u r n e d i n 1914 prepared to take a l e a d i n g r o l e i n the Montreal branch. Upon h i s r e t u r n , Archambault was g i v e n charge of h i s o r d e r ' s r e t r e a t house, V i l l a S a i n t - M a r t i n , i n Montreal, a p o s i t i o n he was to r e t a i n u n t i l 1921. From t h i s base, he proceeded to become the 44 "Eminence n o i r " o f S o c i a l C a t h o l i c i s m . An a b l e o r g a n i z e r , Archambault was quick to adopt the European movement's technique of u s i n g c l o s e d r e t r e a t s t o form "corps d ' e l i t e s " . T h i s t e c h -nique c o n s i s t e d of encouraging members of the same p r o f e s s i o n or o c c u p a t i o n to h o l d group r e t r e a t s . The p r i e s t i n charge would then demonstrate the r e l e v a n c e of the s o c i a l d o c t r i n e of the Church to t h e i r s i t u a t i o n and exhort them to apply i t t o t h e i r everyday a c t i v i t i e s . Out of the experience of the r e t r e a t s were to come a m u l t i t u d e o f S o c i a l C a t h o l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s , campaigns or i n i t i a t i v e s , many of which had t h e i r source i n Father Archambault. Moreover, he was i n a p o s i t i o n , through h i s d a i l y c o n t a c t s w i t h a l l segments of s o c i e t y , to c o o r d i n a t e the e f f o r t s of S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s . His i n f l u e n c e , however, upon the development of the movement was g r e a t e r than t h i s . -23-The pre-war o r g a n i z a t i o n a l work of the E.S.P. had c o l l a p s e d so e a s i l y p r i m a r i l y because i t had f a i l e d t o prepare the workers adequately. A l f r e d C h a r p e n t i e r , "converted" by Archambault to the concept of C a t h o l i c unions and, l a t e r , t o become one of i t s l e a d e r s , d e s c r i b e d the E.S.P's i n i t i a l e f f o r t s as, " . . . l a f o l l e b r u s q u e r i e des o r g a n i s a t e u r s de l ' E c o l e S o c i a l e P o p u l a i r e d 1 a v o i r v o u l u a r r a c h e r l e s o u v r i e r s aux unions neutres sans se douter q u ' i l s y e t a i e n t a t t a c h e s par un sentiment de c o n s e r v a t i o n . 1 , 4 5 46 Archambault agreed w i t h t h i s a n a l y s i s , i f o n l y i m p l i c i t l y . He i n s i s t e d upon a methodical programme of e d u c a t i o n , t e c h n i c a l 47 and s p i r i t u a l , b e f o r e the a c t u a l o r g a n i z i n g work c o u l d proceed. In a s y s t e m a t i c f a s h i o n , Archambault, l i k e the French S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s , planned to u t i l i z e the study c i r c l e s t o c r e a t e a r e s e r v o i r of competent union l e a d e r s and the c l o s e d r e t r e a t s to ensure t h e i r r e l i a b i l i t y . His immediate t a r g e t were those workers who a l r e a d y were convinced u n i o n i s t s and, p r e f e r a b l y , union l e a d e r s . Archambault, l i k e the Quebec C i t y S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s , c o n s i d e r e d the l e a d e r s of the " n e u t r a l " n a t i o n a l unions to be p a r t i c u l a r l y v u l n e r a b l e to " c o n v e r s i o n " . Having become convinced C a t h o l i c u n i o n i s t s , they would be expected to win over the membership of t h e i r unions to t h i s p r i n c i p l e . Thus, Archambault's s t r a t e g y combined a p e r i o d of c a r e f u l p r e p a r a t i o n w i t h the o r g a n i z a t i o n of C a t h o l i c unions on an e x i s t i n g base. In the w i n t e r of 1918, Archambault proposed t h a t an i n t e r -d i o c e s a n r e u n i o n of p r i e s t s and workers be h e l d . Such a r e u n i o n , which was to be, " . . . l e berceau du s y n d i c a l i s m e c a t h o l i q u e dans l a p r o v i n c e . . . " , was h e l d on A p r i l 28, 1918 48 a t the V i l l a S a i n t - M a r t i n . Two r e s o l u t i o n s were adopted. -24-The f i r s t proposed t h a t C a t h o l i c s y n d i c a l i s m be i n t r o d u c e d throughout Quebec. The second, i n s p i r e d by Archambault, recommended t h a t each bishop appoint a p r i e s t t o take charge of union o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n h i s d i o c e s e . On June 2, 1918, another r e u n i o n was h e l d . The assembled group d e f i n e d the requirements each C a t h o l i c union would have to meet. There were f o u r o f them, namely, "1° Approbation des s t a t u t s par 1'eVeque. 2° Presence d'un aumonier nomine" par l ' a u t o r i t e " r e l i g i e u s e . 3 Groupement e x c l u s i f de c a t h o l i q u e s a t i t r e de membres a c t i f s . 4° Admission p r o v i s o i r e des n o n - c a t h o l i q u e s a t i t r e de membres-adjoints." 4 9 At the same time, the meeting adopted Archambault's s t r a t e g y with the r e s u l t t h a t , on June 13, 1918, the f i r s t study c i r c l e , 50 C e r c l e Leon X I I I , was formed. From t h i s group were to come the f i r s t permanent C a t h o l i c unions i n Montreal. The attempt to o r g a n i z e C a t h o l i c unions i n the main c e n t e r s o f Quebec a l s o proved to be more or l e s s o f a success. A s e r i e s of annual conventions b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f these unions was crowned i n 1921 w i t h the b i r t h of the g r e a t e s t s i n g l e a c h i e v e -ment o f S o c i a l C a t h o l i c i s m i n French Canada, La C o n f e d e r a t i o n des T r a v a i l l e u r s C a t h o l i q u e s du Canada. The Church's i n f l u e n c e on the C.T.C.C., as t h i s c e n t r a l body o f C a t h o l i c unions came to be known, c o u l d be seen i n the every-day a c t i v i t i e s of i t s branches. Much of the funds which were needed i n i t i a l l y t o launch and m a i n t a i n them came from the 51 h i e r a r c h y . P r i e s t s as w e l l as l a y o r g a n i z e r s attempted to win employers and employees t o the i d e a . The c h a p l a i n o f the union o f t e n c a r r i e d out many of i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s . Many o f -25-the arguments used to convince C a t h o l i c workers t h a t they should 52 j o i n were a l s o p r o v i d e d by the Church. To those who opposed unions on p r i n c i p l e , the o r g a n i z e r c o u l d p o i n t to the repeated Papal demands t h a t the f a i t h f u l should form such a s s o c i a t i o n s . I f some doubted the v a l u e of unions based on r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s , they were c o n f r o n t e d w i t h Pius X*s i n j u n c t i o n t h a t such unions be formed where a m a j o r i t y of the p o p u l a t i o n were C a t h o l i c s i n o r d e r to p r o t e c t t h e i r s p i r i t u a l as w e l l as t h e i r m a t e r i a l i n t e r e s t s . When the charge of " d i v i s i v e n e s s " was made a g a i n s t them, C a t h o l i c u n i o n i s t s r e p l i e d t h a t n o t h i n g prevented them from c o o p e r a t i n g as a group w i t h o t h e r unions on matters of common i n t e r e s t . Furthermore, they c o u l d argue t h a t , u n l i k e the o t h e r types, C a t h o l i c unions promoted c l a s s harmony and economic s t a b i l i t y not o n l y i n t h e i r everyday a c t i v i t i e s but by reason of t h e i r very e x i s t e n c e which f o r c e d " n e u t r a l " unions to moderate t h e i r demands and a c t i v i t i e s or l o s e t h e i r C a t h o l i c members. Of course, these o r g a n i z e r s a l s o s t r e s s e d the advantages of such unions from a n a t i o n a l i s t i c p o i n t of view. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the p a t r i o t i s m of t h e " n e u t r a l " n a t i o n a l unions had never convinced the bulk o f the members of i n t e r n a t i o n a l unions to change t h e i r a l l e g i a n c e . The C.T.C.C., by combining n a t i o n a l i s m and r e l i g i o n , s e t out to p r o v i d e a mass base f o r the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c movement. The E.S.P., as has been noted, was a f t e r 1915 no longer i n v o l v e d i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of C a t h o l i c unions. I t was, however, very much concerned w i t h p r e p a r i n g the p u b l i c and, e s p e c i a l l y , the e l i t e t o accept and support them. An e d u c a t i o n a l programme was important f o r two reasons. In the f i r s t p l a c e , as a former -26-c h a p l a i n r e c o l l e c t e d : "La c l a s s e d i r i g e a n t e e t meme l e clerg£ a quelques ex c e p t i o n s prds, v o y a i e n t rouge d§s q u ' i l §tait 53 q u e s t i o n d 1 u n i o n o u v r i e r e , meme c a t h o l i q u e . " A second and a more important c o n s i d e r a t i o n was, as a c l o s e a s s o c i a t e o f Msgr. Roy s t r e s s e d , the f a c t t h a t , "Les p r e t r e s en e f f e t ne se r o n t v o l o n t i e r s admis par l e s o u v r i e r s dans l e u r s y n d i c a t s que l e j o u r ou i l s pourront prouver que r i e n de ce q u i i n t i r e s s e l a c l a s s e o u v r i e r e , meme au p o i n t de vue m a t e r i e l ne l e u r e s t Stranger."54 For these reasons, the E.S.P., up to the d e p r e s s i o n , d e d i c a t e d the l a r g e s t number of i t s pamphlets t o C a t h o l i c unionism. In a d d i t i o n t o i t s e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t s , the E.S.P., through i t s r e s e a r c h and with access to l e a d i n g t h e o l o g i a n s , p r o v i d e d t o the C a t h o l i c unions the d o c t r i n a l guidance needed t o contend w i t h 55 those problems which a l l unions f a c e . L i k e the A c t i o n P o p u l a i r e , the E.S.P. had to answer q u e s t i o n s such as the f o l l o w i n g i n the l i g h t o f C a t h o l i c d o c t r i n e s . What i s a f a i r wage? Are s t r i k e s p e r m i t t e d ? Is a c l o s e d shop d e s i r a b l e ? What reforms should the C.T.C.C. support? The E.S.P. c o u l d not apply these d o c t r i n e s without, t a k i n g i n t o account l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s such as the presence o f competing " n e u t r a l " unions. By 1930, the C.T.C.C. wit h the he l p o f the E.S.P. had moved from a p o s i t i o n where i t emphasized the open shop and employers' r i g h t s t o one where i t demanded the n a t i o n a l and r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s g r ant p r e f e r e n c e t o companies whose workers belonged t o C a t h o l i c unions, t h a t the c l o s e d shop be adopted, t h a t Sunday observance laws be t i g h t e n e d , and t h a t the p r o v i n c i a l r a t h e r than the f e d e r a l government 5 6 implement f a m i l y allowances and unemployment i n s u r a n c e . In t h i s manner, the C.T.C.C. attempted to promote the s p i r i t u a l , -27-the n a t i o n a l and the m a t e r i a l i n t e r e s t s o f i t s members. The E.S.P.'s r e s e a r c h and propaganda f u n c t i o n s were not r e s t r i c t e d t o C a t h o l i c unions f o r i t had been c r e a t e d t o educate C a t h o l i c s as t o t h e i r s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . To achieve t h i s aim, i t had to combat i n the words o f i t s former s e c r e t a r y , A. S a i n t - P i e r r e , "...1 1 i n d i f f e r e n c e e t , par s u i t e , l e manque presque abs o l u de connaissances de not r e c l a s s e i n s t r u i t e e t de not r e c l a s s e p a t r o n a l e a l ' e g a r d du p l u s formidable des problemes a c t u e l s : l e probleme s o c i a l " . 5 7 Over the years the E.S.P.'s monthly pamphlets s c r u t i n i z e d most socio-economic problems and Institutions i n Quebec. As a r e s u l t , i t s t i m u l a t e d the study o f economics and s o c i o l o g y . Edouard M o n t p e t i t , one of the f i r s t French Canadians t o study economics, 5 8 was f o r a time a r e s e a r c h e r a t the E.S.P.. L a t e r , he helped to form the Department "of S o c i a l Sciences a t the U n i v e r s i t e de M o ntreal. The E.S.P. g e n e r a l l y r e l i e d on c l e r i c s and laymen w i t h some t r a i n i n g i n the f i e l d t o examine a p a r t i c u l a r problem or i n s t i t u t i o n . S o c i a l problems such as housing, i n f a n t m o r t a l i t y and j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y , i n s t i t u t i o n s such as the e d u c a t i o n a l system, economic a c t i v i t i e s such as pulp and paper and tourism, and economic i s s u e s such as the degree o f French Canadian p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i n d u s t r y and the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f c o l o n i z a t i o n were analyzed c a r e f u l l y and p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s t o the problems i n v o l v e d were weighed. Thus, the E.S.P., l i k e i t s French counter-p a r t , made room f o r d i v e r g i n g i n t e r e s t s and o p i n i o n s on " l e s 59 q u e s t i o n s l i b r e s . " -28-Having d e f i n e d the socio-economic problems f a c e d by-i n d u s t r i a l i z e d s o c i e t i e s such as Canada, the E.S.P. devoted many of i t s pamphlets to p u b l i c i z i n g the t e a c h i n g s and a c t i v i -t i e s of S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s a t home and abroad. I t s pamphlets ranged from those concerned w i t h the t e c h n i c a l problems i n v o l v e d i n s e t t i n g up S o c i a l C a t h o l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s to those attempting to e x p l a i n the g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s of the movement. The E.S.P. c o n s t a n t l y emphasized i n these pamphlets the u n i t y of thought and a c t i o n , the n e c e s s i t y of p r a c t i s i n g one's b e l i e f s i n every-day l i f e . By c o n f r o n t i n g i t s readers w i t h the complexity of these problems and the v a r i e t y of ways C a t h o l i c s c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e to t h e i r s o l u t i o n , t h e E.S.P. undoubtedly i n c r e a s e d the s o c i a l c onsciousness of the e l i t e . While they r e f l e c t e d the complexity o f an i n c r e a s i n g l y -i n d u s t r i a l i z e d s o c i e t y , the E.S.P's pamphlets r e t a i n e d a coherence which i n c r e a s e d t h e i r impact upon the r e a d e r s . Guided by the Church's t e a c h i n g s , by the experience of S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s everywhere, and by i t s own programme, the E.S.P. was concerned w i t h the p r o j e c t i o n of these d o c t r i n e s on contemporary develop-ments. S p e c i f i c a l l y , i n the words of F ather Archambault, i t s aims i n c l u d e d , " s o u t e n i r l e s j u s t e s r e v e n d i c a t i o n s des d i v e r s e s c l a s s e s s o c i a l e s . . . i n d i q u e r d ' u t i l e s remedes a l e u r s maux, s u s c i t e r de s a i n e s i n s t i t u t i o n s . . . , encourage l ' e x e r c i c e r a i s o n n a b l e de 1 1 a s s o c i a t i o n sous ses formes d i v e r s e s . . . , p r o t e g e r e t f a v o r i s e r . l a f a m i l l e . . . , dgfendre l ' o r d r e e t l a p a i x s o c i a l e . " 6 In t h i s way, the E.S.P. was to p r o v i d e t a n g i b l e proof t h a t , " . . , 1 ' E g l i s e c a t h o l i q u e e t ses enfants ne sont Strangers il r i e n de ce q u i int§resse dans l'humaine c i v i l i s a t i o n l 1 a c c e s s i o n des corps au l e g i t i m e b i e n - e t r e t e r r e s t r e e t c e l l e des ames a ' l a v e r t u e t au c i e l . " Thus, the E.S.P's c o n t r i b u t o r s , i n many ways, were members o f a s c h o o l o f thought. Archambault d e f i n e d the E.S.P. as, "... une s o c i e t e de propagandistes s o c i a u x ( s i c ) , l i i s e n t r e eux par l a meme pensee a p o s t o l i q u e e t par l 1 a d h e s i o n §. un meme 61 Programme b i e n d e f i n i . . . ! ' As a r e s u l t o f i t s work, the E.S.P., tog e t h e r w i t h i t s a f f i l i a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s , became the i n t e l l e c t -6 2 u a l fount o f S o c i a l C a t h o l i c i s m i n Quebec. I t i s probable t h a t the i n f l u e n c e o f the E.S.P. was surpassed o n l y by one othe r Montreal group, l 1 A c t i o n F r a n g a i s e . Led by abbe" L i o n e l Groulx, t h i s group p u b l i s h e d 1 'A c t i o n F r a n c a i s e i n order t o d e a l w i t h c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s . Far from being r i v a l s , the d o c t r i n e s and membership o f these 6 3 movements overlapped. In any case, the Papal condemnation o f Maurras' A c t i o n F r a n c a i s e i n 1926 s h a t t e r e d the remnants o f the C a t h o l i c I n t e g r i s t e s and l e d to the disappearance o f i t s 64 French Canadian c o u n t e r p a r t as w e l l . S i m i l a r l y , most o f the N a t i o n a l and S o c i a l C a t h o l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t e r l o c k e d with the 6 5 E.S.P. i n d o c t r i n e and membership. Some of the main French-language d a i l y newspapers, Le Devoir of Montreal, L ' A c t i o n  C a t h o l i q u e o f Quebec C i t y and Le D r o i t were a l s o l i n k e d t o t h i s network o f formal and i n f o r m a l t i e s . So c l o s e l y t i e d were these groups t h a t an i n i t i a t i v e by one component would g e n e r a l l y a t t r a c t the support o f the ot h e r s or an a t t a c k on one p a r t would b r i n g the o t h e r s t o i t s defense. P. E. Trudeau has argued t h a t t h i s -30-c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p of i d e a s and i n s t i t u t i o n s c r e a t e d a m o n o l i t h i c s o c i a l - n a t i o n a l i s t i d e o l o g y which dominated the i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e o f Quebec f o r many y e a r s . Beyond t h i s network of c l e r i c s and laymen was the Company of Jesus. T h i s q u a s i - m i l i t a r y r e l i g i o u s order was d e d i c a t e d t o h a r n e s s i n g w o r l d l y developments to the u l t i m a t e b e n e f i t of 6 6 the Church. T h e i r dominant p o s i t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u -t i o n s assured S o c i a l C a t h o l i c i s m a steady flow of young r e c r u i t s and a coherence o f d o c t r i n e . Of the J e s u i t s none d i d more to b r i n g about a c o o r d i n a t i o n of i d e a s and of a c t i v i t e s than J . P. Archambault. As " P i e r r e Homier", he o r g a n i z e d i n 1913 La l i g u e des d r o i t s du f r a n c a i s which i n due time gave b i r t h t o Groulx's A c t i o n F r a n c a i s e , a 67 movement i n which he continued to p l a y a prominent r o l e . More important f o r S o c i a l C a t h o l i c i s m , Archambault launched i n 1920 Les Semaines S o c i a l e s du Canada. For one week each yea r , the e l i t e o f French Canada would gather a t a g i v e n l o c a t i o n i n Quebec and would l i s t e n t o papers read by t h e i r peers on a g i v e n theme. Because o f the wide p u b l i c i t y accorded to these g a t h e r i n g s , e s p e c i a l l y by the E.S.P., and the i n f l u e n c e o f the people i n v o l v e d , the Semaines S o c i a l e s were a powerful t o o l i n d e v e l o p i n g , i n Archambault's words, "...une homog€neite de pens^e e t d'expression 6 8 i n f i n i m e n t p r ^ c i e u s e . " Devoted to the p r i n c i p l e s of S o c i a l C a t h o l i c i s m , Archambault d i d not s h r i n k from m a n i p u l a t i n g men nor d i d he h e s i t a t e t o put p r e s s u r e on those whom he f e l t were not 69 c a r r y i n g out t h e i r duty - even b i s h o p s . Nor was he one to -31-ig n o r e an o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n c r e a s e the i n f l u e n c e of the move-ment; thus, he i n s t i t u t e d the C a t h o l i c hour programme on the r a d i o . I t was o n l y n a t u r a l , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t he should be asked i n 1929 to become d i r e c t o r of the E.S.P. and i n 1932 to take on the a d d i t i o n a l task of c o o r d i n a t i n g the a c t i v i t i e s o f a l l organ-i z a t i o n s coming under the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the Archbishop o f 70 M o n t r e a l . As one of the t h r e e Canadian d e l e g a t e s to the Union i n t e r n a t i o n a l e dlEtudes s o c i a l e s which met each year a t M a l i n e s , Belgium, he a l s o had a hand i n c o o r d i n a t i n g the i n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i a l C a t h o l i c movement. Thus, Archambault 1s a c t i v i t i e s d i d much to k n i t the v a r i o u s segments of the move-ment i n t o a coherent group. By 1930, S o c i a l C a t h o l i c i s m was f i r m l y entrenched i n the p r o v i n c e of Quebec. The z e a l and the enthusiasm i t c a l l e d f o r t h made i t c l e a r t h a t the Church was not i n a s t a t e of decay -f a r from i t . I t was more than ready to meet the dangers and to e x p l o i t the o p p o r t u n i t i e s which the d e p r e s s i o n brought i n i t s t r a i n . -32-Chapter I I I The Nature of the Depression i n Quebec The agony experienced by c o u n t l e s s i n d i v i d u a l s i n Quebec as a r e s u l t of the c o l l a p s e of the economic system i n the 1930's cannot be c o n s i d e r e d here. A l l t h a t can be done i s to p r o v i d e a g e n e r a l o u t l i n e of the d i s a s t e r which b e f e l l Quebec, and of the e x t e n t to which i t s experience resembled t h a t of the r e s t of Canada. For t h i s was to be the c o n t e x t w i t h i n which the E.S.P. was t o develop. Since 102,112 of the 188,907 Quebec workers employed i n manufacturing i n 1935 l i v e d i n G r eater Montreal, i t would appear, g i v e n the a l r e a d y depressed c o n d i t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r e , t h a t Montreal was most a f f e c t e d by the depression. 1" Dependent as i t was on e n t r e p o t trade f o r i t s p r o s p e r i t y , Montreal was most v u l n e r a b l e to the g e n e r a l c o l l a p s e of i n t e r n a t i o n a l trade which o c c u r r e d . While Quebec as a whole appears t o have experienced the d e p r e s s i o n l e s s than p r o v i n c e s such as Saskatchewan, there i s evidence to suggest t h a t , of the u r b a n i z e d areas, Montreal s u f f e r e d the most. In i n v e s t i g a t i n g the causes of p r i c e spreads e a r l y i n the d e p r e s s i o n , the Stevens committee found the most shocking 2 examples o f the e x p l o i t a t i o n of labour i n the Montreal r e g i o n . I t found t h a t some employers used females to r e p l a c e male l a b o u r e r s i n order to pay lower wages and to g a i n a more d o c i l e 3 l a b o u r f o r c e . The Stevens committee d i s c o v e r e d t h a t because th e r e was a minimum wage law f o r female la b o u r , " i n t h r e e -33-f a c t o r i e s , many 'boys', aged 14 to 20 y e a r s , were employed a t 2 1/2 cents to 6 cents per hour. In f a c t , t here was a n o t i c e -a b l e tendency f o r male workers to be p a i d l e s s than female and 4 perhaps to d i s p l a c e them." Government agencies, i t r e p o r t e d , tended not o n l y to i g n o r e the s i t u a t i o n by f a i l i n g t o e n f o r c e the p r o v i s i o n s of the labour l e g i s l a t i o n but a c t u a l l y were the accomplices of the employers. As an example of t h i s , the Stevens r e p o r t noted t h a t , "By p e r m i s s i o n o f the Minimum Wage Board o f Quebec, dated August 11, 1933, t h i s company (the company r e f e r r e d t o was B u t t e r f l y H o s i e r y Co. Ltd.) was enabled to c l a s s i f y most o f i t s female employees as i n e x p e r i e n c e d and pay them with two e x c e p t i o n s , the p r i n c e l y sum of $3 and $4 per 5 week." Of one f a c t o r y , the committee wrote: " I t may have been a decent r e s p e c t f o r the o p i n i o n o f mankind on the p a r t of these employers t h a t made them compel t h e i r workers to s i g n t h e i r wage r e c e i p t s i n blank." The Stevens r e p o r t i n d i c a t e d t h a t f o r many of those M o n t r e a l e r s who were " l u c k y " enough to remain employed the d e p r e s s i o n meant p r o g r e s s i v e p a u p e r i z a t i o n and dehumanization. So bad were c o n d i t i o n s i n the c l o t h i n g i n d u s t r y t h a t t h i s committee, dominated by c o n s e r v a t i v e p o l i t i c i a n s , d e c l a r e d : "They should not be t o l e r a t e d i n any s t a t e t h a t c l a i m s to c a l l 7 i t s e l f c i v i l i z e d . " These workers, a t l e a s t , had a r e g u l a r source of income. T h e i r agony was e c l i p s e d by t h a t of the unemployed. The Rowell-S i r o i s Commission a t the end of the d e p r e s s i o n concluded t h a t the i m p o s i t i o n of b a r r i e r s to immigration by the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the c o l l a p s e of one-company towns i n v a r i o u s p a r t s of Quebec, -34-and the c o n t i n u i n g i n f l u x of s u r p l u s r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n had produced a huge p o o l of unemployed and mainly u n s k i l l e d labour g i n M o n t r e a l . As a r e s u l t , the commission wrote: " I t e a r l y became e v i d e n t t h a t u n l e s s progress along the t r a d i t i o n a l l i n e s of Canadian expansion was r a p i d l y resumed Montreal unemployment would become c h r o n i c and the hard core of the Canadian problem. ... Unemployment i n Montreal and the s a t e l l i t e i n d u s t r i a l towns of the area became one of the o u t s t a n d i n g economic and human problems of the time..." What were the dimensions of t h i s human problem? Accord-i n g t o one study, 191,778 people or 19.5% o f Montreal's p o p u l a t i o n 9 i n 1934 were on d i r e c t r e l i e f . In c e r t a i n p a r t s of the c i t y such as the town of S t . M i c h e l the percentage was much h i g h e r . As a f a m i l y of f i v e was allowed to earn $12 per month i n a d d i t i o n to the $39.48 i t r e c e i v e d i n d i r e c t r e l i e f , t h i s meant t h a t a l a r g e segment o f M o n t r e a l 1 s p o p u l a t i o n was condemned to l i v e a t a bare s u b s i s t e n c e l e v e l u n t i l such time as the economy rec o v e r e d . Hand i n hand wi t h poverty came i s o l a t i o n and apathy. To o b t a i n some i d e a o f what the unemployed must have experienced a t t h i s time, some o b s e r v a t i o n s of a few commentators are suggest-i v e . A French Canadian economist, Esdras M i n v i l l e , r e p o r t e d t h a t there was "...an excess of houses i n a c i t y where, on the o t h e r hand, there e x i s t s an acute housing s h o r t a g e . 1 , 1 1 A "Quebecer" d e s c r i b e d i n these terms the s i t u a t i o n o f the un-employed i n Montreal: " . . . l i v i n g i n misery, too poor to pay f o r the l i g h t and gas which are l a i d on t o t h e i r crowded homes, having to cook w i t h c o a l - o i l bought a t a p r i c e pegged by the o i l i n t e r e s t s , b urning candles f o r l i g h t , and b e i n g sent to g a o l i n batches by Montreal L i g h t , Heat and Power Company because some o f them have enough i n i t i a t i v e t o jump the meter by t a p p i n g the wires and the mains..."12 Nowhere e l s e i n Canada, a c c o r d i n g to the R o w e l l - S i r o i s Commission, were the extremes i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of wealth 13 g r e a t e r than i n Quebec. The Stevens r e p o r t u n d e r l i n e d the f a c t t h a t , even as i t was lowering the wages of i t s employees, the Macdonald Tobacco Company p a i d i t s c h i e f e x e c u t i v e 14 $260,000 per y e a r . Another study by the League f o r S o c i a l R e c o n s t r u c t i o n showed how the f a m i l y of Senator Webster of Montreal was a b l e through t h e i r monopoly over the i m p o r t a t i o n o f Welsh c o a l to r e a l i z e p r o f i t s i n excess o f $1,300,000 i n the 15 y e ars 1930 to 1933. The c o l l a p s e of the facade o f p r o s p e r i t y r e v e a l e d the t r u e nature of the economic system f o r those who had eyes to see. S o l u t i o n s f o r these problems were not forthcoming from a p r o v i n c i a l government d e s c r i b e d by the R o w e l l - S i r o i s Commission as t e n d i n g " . . . t o f o l l o w the l e t - w e l l - e n o u g h - a l o n e s c h o o l of 16 s o c i a l economic p o l i c i e s . 1 1 Any i n c l i n a t i o n toward a c t i o n which the L i b e r a l regime of Premier Taschereau may have had was weakened by the d i f f i c u l t y i t had i n coming to an agreement w i t h the C o n s e r v a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a t Ottawa and the C o n s e r v a t i v e 17 mayor of Montreal, C a m i l l i e n Houde. The p r e s s u r e s f o r a c t i o n , however, c o u l d not be e n t i r e l y i g n o r e d . To p r o v i d e some a i d to the v i c t i m s of the d e p r e s s i o n i n the Montreal area, the p r o v i n -c i a l government's programme c o n s i s t e d c h i e f l y of d i r e c t r e l i e f , o f s p o r a d i c p u b l i c works p r o j e c t s and of a campaign to encourage 18 a r e t u r n to the l a n d and s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y . A c c o r d i n g t o the R o w e l l - S i r o i s r e p o r t , "The aggregate c o s t of these e f f o r t s proved s t a g g e r i n g , y e t they d i d l i t t l e more than t i d e the s i t u a t i o n over, and made only a l i m i t e d impression on the b a s i c problems." As a r e s u l t , i t noted t h a t , "The f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n of Quebec, long c o n s i d e r e d the f i s c a l G i b r a l t a r of the Canadian 19 p r o v i n c e s d e t e r i o r a t e d a l a r m i n g l y d u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n . . . " I t went on to argue t h a t the f a i l u r e of the p r o v i n c i a l government to e s t a b l i s h p r o g r e s s i v e t a x a t i o n to b r i d g e the g r e a t gap i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of wealth, and the exemption of Church p r o p e r t y from taxes, had f o r c e d some hard-pressed m u n i c i p a l i t i e s such as Montreal to expand i n t o the income and s a l e s tax f i e l d s , thereby hampering any e f f o r t to reform the tax system. In p r a c t i c e , the day to day r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e a l i n g w i t h the consequences of the d e p r e s s i o n f e l l on the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e i r a c t i o n s depended upon the f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s and the l e a d e r s h i p a v a i l a b l e . In f i n a n c i a l terms, t h i s meant, i n the words o f M i n v i l l e , t h a t , "...Montreal's c o n t r i b u t i o n to the t o t a l unemployment r e l i e f v a r i e s between 48 and 50 per cent, w h i l e Toronto's share does not go beyond 20 35 t o 39.5 per c e n t . " I t was on t h i s b a s i s t h a t , a c c o r d i n g to him, Montreal had to p r o v i d e f o r the 280,096 people on d i r e c t r e l i e f i n A p r i l 1933. Although the c r i t e r i a under which r e l i e f was a l l o c a t e d were f a r from generous, M i n v i l l e complained t h a t the system of p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e , "...drew to the m e t r o p o l i s a m u l t i t u d e of people who b a r e l y earned t h e i r l i v i n g where they were...It has been s t a t e d t h a t c e r t a i n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s found i t p r o f i t a b l e t o pay the f a r e of the d e s t i t u t e who were l e a v i n g 21 town." Montreal was o b v i o u s l y i n no p o s i t i o n to p r o v i d e l e a d e r s h i p i n e l i m i n a t i n g the causes of the d e p r e s s i o n . T h i s search f o r l e a d e r s h i p t o end the d e p r e s s i o n l e d to a 22 p r o l i f e r a t i o n of i d e o l o g i e s and movements i n Quebec. I f the bulk of the p o p u l a t i o n had f a l l e n i n t o a p o s i t i o n of g r e a t e r dependency, they were not a l l r e s i g n e d t o t h e i r f a t e . Some of these movements adopted a c o n s e r v a t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n , w h i l e others were more l i b e r a l i n tone. For E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g Canadians the most f r i g h t e n i n g o f these groups were those movements which adopted Nazlism or Fascism as models. While they a t t r a c t e d much p u b l i c i t y , i t would appear t h a t they were never a b l e t o a t t r a c t much French-speaking support More important was the r e v i v a l o f the n a t i o n a l i s t movement w i t h 24 the c r e a t i o n o f p e r i o d i c a l , 1'Action N a t i o n a l e i n 1933. For the n a t i o n a l i s t s , the d e p r e s s i o n was, "...1'expression de no t r e 25 f a i l l i t e , f a i l l i t e morale, gconomique e t i n t e l l e c t u e l l e . " Together w i t h v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as La Ligue d 1 A c h a t s chez-nous, l ' O r d r e Jacques C a r t i e r , and Les Jeunes-Canada, the A c t i o n N a t i o n a l e c a r r i e d on a campaign t o reconquer f o r French Canadians t h e i r r i g h t f u l p o s i t i o n i n the economic and p o l i t i c a l spheres. While not l i n k e d w i t h the F a s c i s t or Nazi movements, the n a t i o n a l i s t s tended towards a n t i - s e m i t i s m . Another r e v i v a l which was to l e a d t o more d i r e c t a c t i o n was t h a t of the p r o v i n c i a l C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y under the dynamic l e a d e r -26 s h i p of C a m i l l i e n Houde. Although f o r c e d t o make way f o r Maurice D u p l e s s i s i n 1933, he undoubtedly gave the C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y a more r e f o r m i s t o r i e n t a t i o n than i t had possessed p r e v i o u s l y . These movements were more or l e s s o f the r i g h t . -38-On the l e f t c o u l d be found a s i m i l a r p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f groups and i d e o l o g i e s . The most t h r e a t e n i n g o f these groups f o r the French Canadian e l i t e s were the C.C.F. which was to remain a mainly E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n , and the Communist p a r t y which, as w i l l be seen, o b t a i n e d most of i t s 27 support from the immigrant p o p u l a t i o n o f Mo n t r e a l . Much more s i g n i f i c a n t on the long-run was the i n f l u e n c e o f French l i b e r a l C a t h o l i c s such as Jacques M a r i t a i n who, i n r e a c t i o n t o the I n t e g r i s t e s , developed a p e r s o n a l i s t p h i l o s o p h y i n an attempt t o r e c o n c i l e the c l a i m s o f the i n d i v i d u a l w i t h those o f 28 s o c i e t y . His i n f l u e n c e was f e l t p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Quebec by a group which p u b l i s h e d La Releve and by Andre Laurendeau, who was to r e p l a c e h i s f a t h e r i n 1937 as d i r e c t o r o f L ' A c t i o n N a t i o n a l e . These men t r i e d to g i v e n a t i o n a l i s m a more humanist and l i b e r a l o u t l o o k . Of more immediate s i g n i f i c a n c e , as w i l l be seen, was the r e v o l t o f a group of young L i b e r a l s who, i n s p i r e d am p a r t by the American New Deal, attempted to " r e -29 l i b e r a l i z e " the L i b e r a l p a r t y . In t h i s manner, the f e e l i n g o f d i s c o n t e n t which i n c r e a s e d as year a f t e r d r e a r y year o f d e p r e s s i o n passed by manifested i t s e l f . P o l i t i c a l l y i t was to l e a d t o the overwhelming d e f e a t of the L i b e r a l regime by a c o a l i t i o n which c a l l e d i t s e l f the Union N a t i o n a l e . But, i n each case, i t i s apparent t h a t these movements were l e d by a r t i c u l a t e members of the middle c l a s s . What c o u l d the i n a r t i c u l a t e members of the working c l a s s do -except f o l l o w ? -39-They c o u l d o r g a n i z e themselves i n unions and s t r i k e f o r a b e t t e r d e a l and, a f t e r 1935, i n growing numbers they d i d . Spontaneously o r wit h the h e l p o f a more m i l i t a n t l e a d e r s h i p , unions sprang up i n Quebec. With the coming of the C.I.O., even the C.T.C.C. had to broaden i t s o u t l o o k , and change i t s 30 t a c t i c s i n order t o r e t a i n and expand i t s membership. In the process i t came i n t o c o n f l i c t w i t h the government which i t had helped t o e l e c t i n 1936. The new Union N a t i o n a l e government soon d i s a p p o i n t e d the hopes which i t had aroused. I t not o n l y r e f u s e d to take s t e r n measures a g a i n s t m o n o p o l i s t i c abuses but s e t out to weaken the p o s i t i o n o f the unions. The D u p l e s s i s government i n 1937 passed measures, which i n e f f e c t made c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g unnecessary and condemned the 31 p r i n c i p l e o f the union shop. When 10,000 members o f the C.T.C.C. went on s t r i k e a g a i n s t the Dominion T e x t i l e Co. i n 1937 to o b t a i n a c o l l e c t i v e agreement, D u p l e s s i s supported the company. Only the i n t e r v e n t i o n o f C a r d i n a l V i l l e n e u v e ended the s t r i k e . When another a f f i l i a t e o f the C.T.C.C. attempted t o e s t a b l i s h a union shop i n the shi p y a r d s o f S o r e l , the i n t r a n s i g e n c e o f the owners, the Simard b r o t h e r s , supported by the p r o v i n c i a l government and, i n d i r e c t l y , by the f e d e r a l L i b e r a l government l e d t o v i o l e n c e . Thus the C.T.C.C. was f o r c e d t o adopt a much more m i l i t a n t stance i n order t o s u r v i v e the h o s t i l i t y o f the government and the co m p e t i t i o n of A m e r i c a n - i n s p i r e d unions. These were some of the main i s s u e s and movements t o which the d e p r e s s i o n gave b i r t h i n Quebec. What course would the E.S.P. f o l l o w ? To what ext e n t c o u l d i t p r o v i d e some of t h a t l e a d e r s h i p which an i n c r e a s i n g l y r e s t l e s s p o p u l a t i o n demanded? What o r i e n t a t i o n would i t adopt? To what ext e n t would the E.S.P. merely r e a c t t o events? These were some of the c h a l l e n g e s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s which the d e p r e s s i o n p r o v i d e d the E.S.P. „ Chapter IV The E.S.P. and C a p i t a l i s m The d e p r e s s i o n y e a r s , 1929 to 1940, were the years when the E.S.P. probably reached the peak of i t s i n f l u e n c e . I t was w e l l prepared, as has been noted, t o meet t h i s c h a l l e n g e . Archambault, t h e r e f o r e , c o u l d w r i t e i n the midst of t h i s p e r i o d "Malgre ses i n s u f f i s a n c e s , c e t t e t r o i s i e m e p ^ r i o d e r e j o i n t done c e l l e des debuts, s i a c t i v e , ... e t r e p l a c e l 1 E . S . P . parmi nos p r i n c i p a u x organismes de base, sur l e s q u e l s peut s'appuyer 1*Action c a t h o l i q u e au Canada."! There was much t h a t the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s had to do. They had to answer such qu e s t i o n s as the f o l l o w i n g i n the l i g h t o f the Church's t e a c h i n g s . What were the causes of the c r i s i s ? Were the arguments of S o c i a l i s t s and Communists acceptable? I f not, what should be the a t t i t u d e of C a t h o l i c s towards them? What should be the a t t i t u d e of C a t h o l i c s towards the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l system? What k i n d of s o c i e t y should C a t h o l i c s s t r i v e f o r ? What reforms should the s t a t e implement? What reforms should C a t h o l i c s - as i n d i v i d u a l s or groups - h e l p b r i n g about? What should be done about the c o n d i t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r e ? What should be the r o l e o f the E.S.P. i n b r i n g i n g these changes about? Not o n l y had these q u e s t i o n s and a thousand r e l a t e d ones t o be answered but a l s o the methods o f implementing these ideas had to be developed. Thus, the d e p r e s s i o n was to tax the m a t e r i a l and s p i r i t u a l r e s o u r c e s o f S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s t o the l i m i t . An e a r l y concern of the E.S.P. was to e x p l a i n why the economic system had c o l l a p s e d . I t was the French-speaking h i e r a r c h y who, i n a c o l l e c t i v e l e t t e r , attempted t o d i s c u s s -42-2 Le M a l a i s e economique des temps p r e s e n t s . They f e l t t h a t the de p r e s s i o n was due to two main causes. The f i r s t cause was the ex c e s s i v e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f wealth i n the hands of a very few. In t h i s , they made i t c l e a r they were o n l y a g r e e i n g w i t h Pope Pi u s XI's e n c y c l i c a l Quadragesimo anno p u b l i s h e d on May 15, 1931 t o commemorate the f o r t i e t h a n n i v e r s a r y of Rerum novarum. They f u l l y supported the Pope's c o n t e n t i o n t h a t the wealthy had s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The other main cause o f the d e p r e s s i o n , a c c o r d i n g t o the h i e r a r c h y , was, " . . . l e luxe e f f r ^ n e q u i , en meme temps, s ' e s t developpe dans toutes l e s c l a s s e s , meme l e s 3 moins f o r t u n e e s . " The d e p r e s s i o n had only exacerbated t h i s problem through the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f d i r e c t r e l i e f . They asked themselves: "Ne s e r a i t - c e pas donner pratiquement dans l e s o c i a l i s m e , f a v o r i s e r chez p l u s i e u r s 1'insouciance, l'ggoisme, l a p aresse, e t aggraver encore l e mal a i s e q u i g t r e i n t l a 4 s o c i e t y ? " I t was c l e a r t o them t h a t the d e p r e s s i o n was God's way of p u n i s h i n g men f o r t h e i r e v i l ways i n order t o f o r c e them to r e t u r n t o a more v i r t u o u s way of l i f e . Unless people turned away from t h e i r p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h the m a t e r i a l world, i t was l i k e l y t h a t His wrath would m a n i f e s t i t s e l f i n a more t e r r i b l e manner. While the h i e r a r c h y had agreed w i t h P i u s XI's a n a l y s i s o f c a p i t a l i s m , they had not d i s c u s s e d i t i n any d e t a i l . A prominent S o c i a l C a t h o l i c , Abbe P h i l i p p e P e r r i e r undertook t o d i s c u s s not only t h i s a spect o f the Pope's thought but e v e r y t h i n g c o n t a i n e d i n L ' E n c y c l i q u e "Quadragesimo anno". A c c o r d i n g t o -43-P e r r i e r , the Pope d i s c u s s e d i n h i s e n c y c l i c a l the developments i n the c a p i t a l i s t system s i n c e Rerum no var urf> which had caused the d e p r e s s i o n . Since 1891 the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f wealth had become even more unequal. The consequence o f t h i s was to co n c e n t r a t e the economic power i n the hands of a few, p a r t i c u l a r l y those i n c o n t r o l o f f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . These men had a c q u i r e d t h i s power through u n b r i d l e d c o m p e t i t i o n which favoured the s t r o n g and the unscrupulous. Having a c q u i r e d i t , they c o u l d then make the s t a t e serve t h e i r economic i n t e r e s t s a t home and abroad. As the Pope put i t , " l ' a p p g t i t du g a i n f a i t p l a c e S une ambition effr£n£e de dominer. 1 1 P e r r i e r emphasized t h a t t h i s a n a l y s i s a l s o a p p l i e d t o Quebec. For, he s t a t e d , "depuis pres d'un si§cle nous p r a t i q u o n s ' l a l i b r e concurrence' mise en honneur 7 par 1 ' A n g l e t e r r e . " He p o i n t e d out t h a t H e n r i Bourassa had concluded a f t e r a study o f Quebec's f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t : " . . . l a p l o u t o c r a t i e r e g n e - t - e l l e en m a i t r e s s e dans l a province.de Quebec p l u s que dans l e r e s t e du pays, au Canada, comme aux E t a t s - U n i s , p l u s qu'en A n g l e t e r r e e t en France."^ Because t h i s economic e l i t e had used i t s power i r r e s p o n s i b l y , the d e p r e s s i o n had o c c u r r e d . The f i r s t e x t e n s i v e a n a l y s i s o f c a p i t a l i s m which the E.S.P. produced was w r i t t e n by Esdras M i n v i l l e as an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o g the E.S.P.'s programme of s o c i a l reform. M i n v i l l e made i t c l e a r t h a t he agreed w i t h P i u s XI t h a t c a p i t a l i s m was not i n t r i n s i c a l l y bad. On the c o n t r a r y , p r o v i d e d i t was o r g a n i z e d on the b a s i s o f j u s t i c e , t h i s system was the b e s t means of e n s u r i n g economic growth, "...support de l a v i e i n t e l l e c t u e l l e e t morale e t de l a v i e s o c i a l e . " ^ 0 I t had been d i s t o r t e d , however, by i t s abuses. -44-S p e c i f i c a l l y , the r o o t of the problem was the tendency of c a p i t a l t o dominate a l l aspects of economic l i f e . T h i s tendency e x i s t e d because the c a p i t a l i s t system " . . . s ' e s t i n f e o d e au l i b e r a l i s m e economique... I 1 ^ The s a t i s f a c t i o n of p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s had become the dominant motive of economic a c t i v i t y . While M i r i v i l l e agreed t h a t i n v e s t o r s should have a r e t u r n on t h e i r investments and t h a t they should run the i n d u s t r i e s f o r , "...advenant i n s u c c e s , l e c a p i t a l s e r a i t perdu, cependant que l e t r a v a i l l e u r c o n s e r v e r a i t sa f o r c e de t r a v a i l " , the problem was t h a t c a p i t a l i s t s had become concerned s o l e l y w i t h p r o f i t 12 making. They t r e a t e d labour as another commodity to be p a i d f o r a t the lowest p o s s i b l e p r i c e . The r e s u l t was to d r i v e the workers i n t o a profound s t a t e of misery w i t h the consequent r i s e of c l a s s c o n f l i c t . Another abuse of the c a p i t a l i s t system, a c c o r d i n g t o M i n v i l l e , was the i n c r e a s i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n of wealth i n the hands of a d e c r e a s i n g number of people. With t h e i r wealth and through m o n o p o l i s t i c p r a c t i c e s and i n t e r l o c k i n g d i r e c t o r s h i p s , these men had gained c o n t r o l over the economic l i f e o f Quebec. By v a r i o u s means, they were a l s o a b l e to dominate i t s p o l i t i c a l l i f e . Some o f these methods i n c l u d e d , "...1 1 E l e c t i o n des c h e f s p o l i t i q u e s aux c o n s e i l s d ' a d m i n i s t r a t i o n des grandes e n t r e p r i s e s . . . l e s s o u s c r i p t i o n s aux c a i s s e s e i e c t o r a l e s . . . 1'asservissement de l a presse..."13 As a r e s u l t , these c a p i t a l i s t s e x e r c i s e d a d i r e c t a n d i i n d i r e c t c o n t r o l over p o l i t i c a l developments. Proof of t h i s was the e x i s t e n c e of h i g h t a r i f f s on imports which f o r c e d the consumers -45-to pay h i g h p r i c e s f o r products such as c o t t o n goods, and the p r e v a l e n c e of economic and p o l i t i c a l i m p e r i a l i s m as i n the case 14 o f the American p e n e t r a t i o n of C e n t r a l and South America. Secure i n the knowledge t h a t they c o n t r o l l e d p o l i t i c s and p u b l i c o p i n i o n , these men were f r e e t o e x p l o i t t h e i r c a p t i v e markets to the f u l l . Thus, they enjoyed e x c e s s i v e p r o f i t s from t h e i r numerous e n t e r p r i s e s , p r o f i t s which they were c a r e f u l t o hide from the consumers through f i n a n c i a l techniques such as the o v e r c a p i t a l i z a t i o n of i n d u s t r i e s and the watering of s t o c k s . These abuses, M i n v i l l e b e l i e v e d , had brought about two main r e s u l t s . The f i r s t was an u n l i m i t e d i n c r e a s e i n p r o d u c t i o n as i n the case of the pulp and paper i n d u s t r y i n o r d e r to i n c r e a s e or m a i n t a i n the p r o f i t margin as w e l l as the competi-t i v e p o s i t i o n . The r e s u l t ? "On l e c o n n a i t , c ' e s t l ' i c r a s e m e n t du marche, l a c r i s e de surabondance, p l u s douloureuse que l e s 15 famines d'antan." Secondly, these abuses had g e n e r a l i z e d and i n t e n s i f i e d s p e c u l a t i v e p r a c t i c e s among the g e n e r a l p u b l i c i n the hope of q u i c k r e t u r n s but t h e i r c o n t r o l over v a r i o u s segments of the economy made i t easy f o r the f i n a n c i e r s to manipulate these hopes to t h e i r own advantage. In t h i s manner M i n v i l l e attempted to show how these "economic d i c t a t o r s " had i n c r e a s e d t h e i r wealth and power. He repeated t h a t i t was the abuses of c a p i t a l i s m which had c r e a t e d t h i s s i t u a t i o n . While M i n v i l l e more or l e s s f o l l o w e d what he thought was Pius XI's c r i t i q u e o f c a p i t a l i s m , other c o n t r i b u t o r s t o the E.S.P. attempted to probe the i n t r i c a t e mechanism of the economic -46-system i n order to better appreciate the Pope's teachings. A Je s u i t p r i e s t had attempted before M i n v i l l e ' s study was pub-li s h e d to examine the operation of stock exchange i n the l i g h t of C h r i s t i a n morality."^ According to t h i s contributor, the Pope had not dealt d i r e c t l y with t h i s question i n his e n c y c l i c a l but he had stated that those who used t h e i r wealth to develop indu s t r i e s , to create employment and to produce useful products 17 were p r a c t i s i n g " . . . l a vertu de magnificence." In so far as the stock exchange helped to bring the investors and the indus-t r i a l i s t s together, i t served a s o c i a l purpose. Abuses occurred, however, i n the carrying out of these transactions. To ascertain the morality of these transactions, each had to be examined cl o s e l y and the rights and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of those concerned weighed i n the l i g h t of Ch r i s t i a n j u s t i c e and charity. Having discussed the main abuses that could occur i n a stock exchange, the author concluded that i n the l i g h t of the in d i v i d u a l aspect of property, speculation i n stocks was acceptable provided that the speculator d i d not gamble sums needed to discharge his r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , that he used his own money and, most important, "que l'on n'emploie pas des moyens injustes pour gagner, c'est-S-dire pour f a i r e pencher l a balance 18 du hasard en sa faveur." In the l i g h t of the s o c i a l aspect of property, however, the author declared that, "cette richesse 19 qui s'acquiert sans t r a v a i l est l e scandale de l a society." He asked: "Qu'est-ce done au fond que c e t t e s p e c u l a t i o n ? Une maladie, une grosse f i e v r e , f i e v r e du l u c r e e t de l a r i c h e s s e , q u i engendre l a f i e v r e des p l a i s i r s , du v r a i j e u , des d^penses f o l l e s . . . . " Once begun, th e r e was no l i m i t t o i t . He f e l t t h a t i f the stock exchange c o u l d curb t h i s tendency to s p e c u l a t e , i t would be a s o c i a l l y u s e f u l i n s t i t u t i o n . Another c o n t r i b u t o r to the E.S.P. c a r r i e d out an i n t e n s i v e study o f the f i n a n c i a l abuses of c a p i t a l i s m which he l i s t e d as "...mouillage du c a p i t a l , s u r p r o d u c t i o n , s p e c u l a t i o n e f f r e n e e , 20 gonflement du c r e d i t . . . Of these he f e l t t h a t the p r a c t i c e of w atering sto c k s was the most dangerous. His purpose i n c a r r y -i n g out t h i s study was t h r e e - f o l d : t o ensure t h a t C h r i s t i a n p r i n c i p l e s kept " . . . c o n t a c t avec l e r e e l , e c l a i r e r un p o i n t determine des a f f a i r e s , e t t r a v a i l l e r a l e mettre en accor d avec l e s exigences de l a morale chretienne."21 Hence, he attempted t o u n i t e an o b j e c t i v e study of an economic phenomenon wit h a c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the re l e v a n c e o f C h r i s t i a n p r i n c i p l e s t o the s i t u a t i o n . While r e f u s i n g t o name i n d i v i d u a l s , he s e t out to expose the unscrupulous p r a c t i c e s of f i n a n c i e r s i n order t h a t they would become more r e s p o n s i b l e . He 22 f e l t t h a t , " l a f i n a n c e du monde e n t i e r s ' e s t paganisee." Methods which i n the past had been used e x c l u s i v e l y by Jewish f i n a n c i e r s had now been adopted by everyone i n c l u d i n g C a t h o l i c and French-Canadian businessmen t o o b t a i n , "...un p o u v o i r d i s c r e t i o n n a i r e que l e u r a u r a i e n t envie l e s despotes de l ' a n t i q u i t e . " He t r i e d t o demonstrate t h a t i n Quebec the Montreal L i g h t , Heat and Power C o n s o l i d a t e d and the pulp and -48-paper i n d u s t r y had l e d the others i n e x p l o i t i n g consumers and 23 i n v e s t o r s by watering s t o c k s . Most p u b l i c f i g u r e s from W. L. Mackenzie King to H. H. Stevens to Henri Bourassa had denounced t h i s p r a c t i c e . 24 What were the consequences of these abuses? He argued t h a t the p r a c t i c e of watering s t o c k s was a main cause of the d e p r e s s i o n . T h i s p r a c t i c e had c r e a t e d a debt s t r u c t u r e o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o s t s and i n t e r e s t payments which many i n d u s t r i e s c o u l d not c a r r y when s a l e s were depressed and the c o m p e t i t i o n keener. I t a c c e l e r a t e d the growth of monopolies w i t h a consequent c o n c e n t r a t i o n of economic and p o l i t i c a l power. By f o s t e r i n g h i g h e r t a r i f f s and g r e a t e r p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y , t h i s p r a c t i c e l e d to an excess of goods. At the same time, i t f o r c e d p r i c e s of manufactured goods to r i s e more r a p i d l y than the revenues o f s m a l l businessmen and farmers. Through ads and easy c r e d i t , consumers had been encouraged to buy thereby pushing p r i c e s upwards. S p e c u l a t i o n , o v e r p r o d u c t i o n and i n f l a t i o n , he concluded, had l e d to the c o l l a p s e of the economy. Because the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada had t o l e r a t e d these p r a c t i c e s more than other c o u n t r i e s , he f e l t they s u f f e r e d more from the consequences. Workers were unemployed, s m a l l b u s i n e s s e s were bankrupt. The p u r c h a s i n g power of consumers had dropped. There was now a l a r g e number of unemployed who were dependent on p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e . C l a s s d i v i s i o n s had worsened. In f a c t , g e n e r a t i o n s would s u f f e r because of the i r r e s p o n s i b l e a c t i o n s o f a h a n d f u l of men. With the same i n t e n s i t y but w i t h a d i f f e r e n t s t a r t i n g p o i n t , a B e l g i a n c o n t r i b u t o r , A. M u l l e r , s . j . , s e t out t o demonstrate by a r i g o r o u s a n a l y s i s of the i d e o l o g i c a l foundations of the e x i s t i n g economic system why the d e p r e s s i o n had come aboul^ The economic system, a c c o r d i n g to t h i s author, r e s t e d upon thr e e p i l l a r s : m a t e r i a l i s m , i n d i v i d u a l i s m and l i b e r a l i s m . Because o f the f i r s t o f these, s p i r i t u a l v a l u e s were /.-relegated to a narrow sphere of human a c t i v i t y . Economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s had become the main determinants of a c t i o n and, consequently, people were seen e i t h e r as means or as o u t l e t s of p r o d u c t i o n . P r o f i t s had become the g o a l of economic a c t i v i t i e s . Many economists t r i e d t o j u s t i f y t h i s development by arguing t h a t once enough wealth had been c r e a t e d men would be a b l e to develop t h e i r p o t e n t i a l t o the f u l l and hence a t t a i n a h i g h e r degree of c i v i l -i z a t i o n . While a d m i t t i n g t h a t t h e r e was some t r u t h t o t h i s argument, the author noted t h a t , i n t h e i r u n b r i d l e d search f o r p r o f i t s , c a p i t a l i s t s had c r e a t e d an e x c e s s i v e ^ p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y , thereby amassing a huge s u r p l u s of u n s o l d p r o d u c t s . Thus, the s o - c a l l e d " s c i e n c e des r i c h e s s e s " had l e d to widespread p o v e r t y . For t h i s reason, M u l l e r b e l i e v e d t h a t people would no longer accept s e e i n g " . . . l e s f o r c e s s p i r i t u e l l e s impitoyablernent a s s u j e t t i e s §. l a l o i de l ' i n t ^ r e t , l a s c i e n c e s t i p e n d i e e , l e s a r t s commercialises, l e s i n f l u e n c e s p o l i t i q u e s mises a l'encan, 26 l e s c o n s c i e n c e s memes devenues 1'objet d'un i g n o b l e t r a f i c " . The second p i l l a r o f the economic system, a c c o r d i n g to t h i s c o n t r i b u t o r , was i n d i v i d u a l i s m . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e p t i o n -50-of the i n d i v i d u a l had begun as a n a t u r a l r e a c t i o n t o a f o s s i l -i z e d s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n but, i n the p r o c e s s , had gone too f a r i n emphasizing the autonomy of i n d i v i d u a l s . In the economic sphere, i t assumed t h a t .transactions were c a r r i e d on between i n d i v i d u a l s , "...pourvus de d r o i t s i d e n t i q u e s , d^gagis de t o u t l i e n de s o l i d a r i t e s o c i a l e e t r e g l a n t en t o u t e l i b e r t y l e u r s actes sur l e s c o n s e i l s de l e u r i n t e r e t p a r t i c u l i e r . " 2 7 P r o f i t and e f f i c i e n c y were the o n l y c r i t e r i a used. The s o c i a l v a l u e and the s o c i a l e f f e c t s of b u s i n e s s t r a n s a c t i o n s were not c o n s i d e r e d . Ruthless c o m p e t i t i o n r a t h e r than c o o p e r a t i o n was encouraged. Given; the i n c r e a s i n g inter-dependence between people, such a t t i t u d e s had brought about g e n e r a l p o v e r t y . The e x t e n t of the d e p r e s s i o n had r e v e a l e d the b e l i e f i n the autonomy of the i n d i v i d u a l t o be an i l l u s i o n . As f o r the t h i r d p i l l a r o f the c a p i t a l i s t system, l i b e r a l -ism, the l o g i c a l consequence o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m P i u s XI s t a t e d i n Quadragesimo anno, "La c o n c u r r e n c e . . . s ' e s t d ^ t r u i t e elle-meme; a l a l i b e r t i du marche a succede" une d i c t a t u r e economique. L ' a p p ^ t i t du g a i n a f a i t p l a c e S une ambition effr6n§e de dominer. By b r i n g i n g on the d e p r e s s i o n , the author concluded t h a t the i d e o l o g y of c a p i t a l i s m had d i s c r e d i t e d i t s e l f . Although few i n number, i t i s c l e a r from these summaries t h a t the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s g r a d u a l l y came to understand the s u b t l e ways i n which monopoly c a p i t a l i s m posed a t h r e a t not o n l y to the w e l l - b e i n g o f s o c i e t y but a l s o o f the Church. The i n c r e a s i n g s o p h i s t i c a t i o n o f these analyses i s proof o f t h i s development. What i s more important, however, i s the f a c t t h a t a l l o f these s t u d i e s took as a p o i n t o f departure the e n c y c l i c a l Quadragesimp anno. I t would appear t h a t the c h i e f impulse f o r the E.S.P*s re-examination o f the c a p i t a l i s t system came - not from a concern w i t h the mass s u f f e r i n g r e s u l t i n g from i t s c o l l a p s e - but from the urgings o f the Pope. Never-t h e l e s s , many members of the E.S.P. group, i t appears, had gained by 1936 a g r e a t e r awareness of how the socio-economic system worked. -52-Chapter V The E.S.P. and Communism Even b e f o r e i t began i t s study o f the causes o f the d e p r e s s i o n , the E.S.P. was concerned wi t h a phenomenon which seemed to t h r i v e on the s u f f e r i n g which the economic c r i s i s engendered. T h i s phenomenon was Communism. I t s d o c t r i n e s were d i s s e c t e d . The Russian experiment was c a r e f u l l y a n alyzed and Communist a c t i v i t i e s i n a g r e a t number of c o u n t r i e s i n c l u d -i n g Canada were f o l l o w e d c l o s e l y . Why d i d the E.S.P become so f a s c i n a t e d w i t h t h i s phenomenon? The answer to t h i s q u e s t i o n , as w i l l be seen, i s not a simple one. From the very b e g i n n i n g of the d e p r e s s i o n , i t was c l e a r to S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s t h a t , " l e reve communiste e s t s e d u i s a n t . I l promet une revanche c o n t r e l e s abus du c a p i t a l i s m e p r i v e . Aux v i c t i m e s de l a c r i s e a c t u e l l e i l f a i t e n t r e v o i r un myst^rieux royaume d'igalit§."^ To ensure t h a t C a t h o l i c s understood what Communism had to o f f e r and how i t proposed to implement i t s programme, the E.S.P.'s c o n t r i b u t o r s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d c o n s e c r a t e d the l a r g e s t number of pamphlets and t r a c t s t o i t . The c o n c l u s i o n s they reached w i l l be the theme o f t h i s c h a p t e r . The two main concerns of the E.S.P. d u r i n g the f i r s t h a l f o f the p e r i o d under study were to examine the i d e o l o g y of Communism and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n i n R u s s i a i n the l i g h t of C a t h o l i c d o c t r i n e . For t h i s t a s k , the E.S.P., i n a d d i t i o n to i t s French-Canadian c o n t r i b u t o r s , r e l i e d h e a v i l y upon French, B e l g i a n and Swiss o r g a n i z a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y one group c a l l e d 1'Entente 2 I n t e r n a t i o n a l e c o n t r e l a H i e I n t e r n a t i o n a l e based at Geneva. Many of these -studies tended to approach t h e i r t o p i c i n a -53-s c h o l a r l y manner by q u o t i n g Communist sources e x t e n s i v e l y , by u s i n g f o o t n o t e s and by p r o v i d i n g a b i b l i o g r a p h y . T h i s f a c t suggests t h a t the main t a r g e t of these pamphlets were not the unemployed but the i n t e l l e c t u a l s . E a r l y i n the d e p r e s s i o n , the E.S.P's c o n t r i b u t o r s d i s s e c t e d 3 the Communist d o c t r i n e and s u b j e c t e d i t to t h e i r c r i t i c i s m . They noted t h a t there were many forms of c o l l e c t i v i s m . Each form, however, condemned the e x i s i t i n g economic system f o r the same reasons. The S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s admitted t h a t much of what these c o l l e c t i v i s t s had to say about c a p i t a l i s m was t r u e but as P i u s XI s t a t e d i n Quadragesimo anno: "Leurs r e c l a m a t i o n s , dans ce q u * e l l e s ont de j u s t e , t r o u v e n t un appui b i e n p l u s f o r t dans l e s p r i n c i p e s de l a f o i c h r e t i e n n e . . .'. Where these c o l l e c t i v i s t groups d i v e r g e d was on t h e i r a t t i t u d e s to the r i g h t of owning p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y and on the methods to be used i n a c h i e v i n g t h e i r aims. The most extreme o f these groups, the Communists, wished to a b o l i s h p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y completely, s e t up a d i c t a t o r s h i p t h a t would b e n e f i t the work-i n g c l a s s and achieve t h e i r g o als by the use of a l l means, i n c l u d i n g v i o l e n c e . The S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s argued t h a t , i n seeking to a b o l i s h the r i g h t t o own p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y , Communism r e v e a l e d i t s u n j u s t nature. I t would deny the i n d i v i d u a l the moral power t o d i s p o s e o f h i s p o s s e s s i o n s , thereby p r e v e n t i n g him from develop-i n g h i s t a l e n t s i n h i s own p a r t i c u l a r way f o r h i s own p a r t i c u l a r ends. Instead Communism would make him a dependent of the s t a t e f o r h i s p r e s e n t and f u t u r e needs. There were some who p o i n t e d -54-to the e a r l y C h r i s t i a n s or t o the monasteries as examples of Communism. The S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s r e p l i e d t h a t i n these cases c o l l e c t i v i s m had been p r a c t i s e d on a v o l u n t a r y b a s i s and w i t h the a i d of D i v i n e Providence. There were others who o b j e c t e d t h a t the r i g h t t o own p r o p e r t y l e d to i t s abuse, p a r t i c u l a r l y t o an unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n o f wealth. The C a t h o l i c answer was t h a t i t was onl y j u s t t h a t the d i l i g e n t , the t h r i f t y , the s k i l l e d and the t a l e n t e d be rewarded. Not onl y d i d human law re c o g n i z e t h i s but, "...ces i n e g a l i t ^ s i n e v i t a b l e s ( s i c ) sont j u s t i f i e s par .. l a Providence ( s i c ) d i v i n e , q u i a b i e n l e d r o i t de f a v o r i s e r l e s uns p l u s que l e s autres e t p r e s i d e a l a d i s t r i b u t i o n des biens de l a t e r r e , en vue de l a f i n supreme q u i e s t l e s q l u t des hommes."5 As f o r the abuses of c a p i t a l i s m , i t was always p o s s i b l e t o check these. In any case, S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s f e l t t h a t Communism would l e a d t o g r e a t e r abuses than had c a p i t a l i s m . The E.S.P's c o n t r i b u t o r s saw Communism as being d e s t r u c t i v e not o n l y o f the i n d i v i d u a l but a l s o o f s o c i e t y . I t posed a t h r e a t to the b a s i c u n i t o f s o c i e t y , the f a m i l y . By a b o l i s h i n g p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y , these authors f e l t t h a t Communism would under-mine the a u t h o r i t y o f the f a t h e r . He would no lo n g e r be the s o l e p r o v i d e r and would l o s e h i s a b i l i t y to guide the develop-ment of h i s f a m i l y . While i t was t r u e t h a t many were now unemployed, these S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s b e l i e v e d t h a t the hope of a c q u i r i n g some wealth i n the f u t u r e s t i l l kept the f a m i l y t o g e t h e r . T h i s hope the Communists would deny them. Moreover, Communist d o c t r i n e favoured the attainment of the e q u a l i t y o f the sexes by l e g a l i z i n g b i r t h c o n t r o l and d i v o r c e . I t would a l s o usurp -55-p a r e n t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n the u p b r i n g i n g o f c h i l d r e n . Hence, the E.S.P.*s c o n t r i b u t o r s concluded t h a t Communism a t t a c k e d the h i e r a r c h i c a l f a m i l y system d i r e c t l y as w e l l as i n d i r e c t l y . As f a r as the s t a t e was concerned, the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s argued t h a t , even though Communism would l e a d t o a v a s t i n c r e a s e i n i t s bureaucracy, i n the long run the s t a t e would be under-mined. E c o n o m i c a l l y , the absence of a st i m u l u s to p r o d u c t i o n and c r a f t s m a n s h i p would b r i n g about a d r a s t i c d e c l i n e i n the n a t i o n ' s wealth and the growth of the bureaucracy would encourage a g r e a t e r degree of u n i f o r m i t y and r e s i s t a n c e t o i n n o v a t i o n s . These f a c t o r s , added t o the i n c r e a s e i n f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s which Communism e n t a i l e d w h i l e d e s t r o y i n g a l l i n c e n t i v e s t o save, would i n e v i t a b l y l e a d t o the impoverishment of the n a t i o n . S o c i a l l y , the a b o l i t i o n o f p r o p e r t y would i n t e n s i f y i n d i v i d u a l and group j e a l o u s i e s and c o n f l i c t s as to how m a t e r i a l goods should be app o r t i o n e d . C o r r u p t i o n would i n c r e a s e w h i l e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community a f f a i r s would d e c l i n e . In the face o f t h i s d e t e r i o r a t i n g s i t u a t i o n , the Communists would have to choose between p u r s u i n g t h e i r goals and r i s k r e b e l l i o n or abandon-i n g t h e i r g o a l s and m a i n t a i n i n g power. Fundamental l i b e r t i e s such as the r i g h t t o choose an o c c u p a t i o n and where t o p r a c t i s e i t , l i b e r t y o f conscience and of e x p r e s s i o n , as w e l l as p a r e n t a l r i g h t s , would soon be suppressed. C e r t a i n c l a s s e s o r groups would f i n d themselves w i t h even fewer r i g h t s . As the regime became more t y r a n n i c a l , i t would attempt t o perpetuate i t s e l f by any means. - 5 6 -A c c o r d i n g to the E.S.P's pamphlets, the end r e s u l t o f Communist d o c t r i n e would be the disappearance of the hard-won achievements of g e n e r a t i o n s : p r o g r e s s , c u l t u r e , p u b l i c o r d er and i n t e r n a l peace. And f o r what? To r e p l a c e a C a p i t a l i s t o l i g a r c h y w i t h a Communist one? To c r e a t e a g i g a n t i c s t a t e apparatus i n the hope t h a t there would be more wealth a v a i l a b l e f o r a l l ? To p r o c l a i m s o c i a l e q u a l i t y by p r e t e n d i n g t h a t the p h y s i c a l and s p i r i t u a l needs o f human beings would disappear? To c r e a t e a New Man - d e s c r i b e d by a Communist as: "...Le jeune barbare p l e i n de f o r c e que n'a pas corrompu l a c i v i l i s a t i o n c a p i t a l i s t e , q u i n'est pas p e r v e r t i par l e c o n f o r t e t l e b i e n - e t r e . . . , q u i ne s ' e s t pas encore laisse" p l i e r au joug de l a l e g a l i t y e t de l ' o r d r e b o u r g e o i s ? " 6 The authors of these pamphlets doubted whether the Communist dream was worth the r i s k . The o t h e r aspect of Communist d o c t r i n e which C a t h o l i c s should c o n s i d e r , the E.S.P. f e l t , was the way i t hoped to g a i n power. U n l i k e p r e v i o u s r e v o l u t i o n s , the Communist r e v o l u t i o n was a product o f s c i e n t i f i c p l a n n i n g . For Communists, one author s t a t e d , " . . . l a r e v o l u t i o n d e v i e n t un moyen reconnu l e g i t i m e , etudie" & f r o i d e t p e r f e c t i o n n e comme une machine de 7 guerre." By e x p l o i t i n g the s u f f e r i n g of the impoverished masses, the Communist p a r t y attempted to convince i n d i v i d u a l s t o accept i t s programme. Once these i n d i v i d u a l s had become members, the p a r t y would i n d o c t r i n a t e them i n o r d e r to ensure Q "...une ob^is s a n c e p a s s i v e e t complete...." I t demanded complete obedience not o n l y to the l e t t e r but a l s o to the s p i r i t o f i t s o r d e r s . In t h i s way, i t had forged a r e v o l u t i o n a r y e l i t e -57-grouped i n c e l l s . D i s c i p l i n e and z e a l was maintained by p e r i o d i c purges o f the membership and by the i n c e s s a n t s t r u g g l e to b r i n g about the Communist r e v o l u t i o n . In p u r s u i n g t h e i r r e v o l u t i o n a r y ends, these " b a t a i l l o n s d ' a c i e r du p r o l e t a r i a t " , a c c o r d i n g to the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s , f o l l o w e d a grand s t r a t e g y . Through constant propaganda, the Communists attempted to win over or to n e u t r a l i z e v a r i o u s groups. A t the same time, they a g i t a t e d a g a i n s t the e x i s t i n g socio-economic system i n order to e x p l o i t s o c i a l d i v i s i o n s and to c r e a t e chaos. When c o n d i t i o n s were r i p e , the Communists would unleash a v i o l e n t r e v o l u t i o n t o win and to m a i n t a i n power. The s t r o n g e r the o p p o s i t i o n the more r u t h l e s s they would be i n order to e l i m i n a t e a l l o b s t a c l e s to the implementation of t h e i r programme. While the Communists might be f o r c e d t o compromise, i t c o u l d o n l y be a temporary expedient f o r t h e i r g o a l , a c c o r d -i n g t o one author, was t o t a l c o n t r o l - not o n l y over temporal a f f a i r s - "...mais s u r t o u t une j u r i d i c t i o n sans l i m i t e sur 9 l e s ames elles-memes...." C a t h o l i c s , the E.S.P. argued, d i d not have to content themselves w i t h vague statements as to the e f f e c t s o f Communist d o c t r i n e s . There a l r e a d y e x i s t e d a model of the Communist s t a t e : the S o v i e t Union. As Communist propagandists always r e f e r r e d to R u s s i a as the embodiment of t h e i r programme, the E.S.P. s e t out to show what t h i s Workers' s t a t e had achieved."*"^ For t h i s reason, i t devoted the l a r g e s t number of i t s anti-Communist pamphlets to the S o v i e t Union. - 5 8 -R e f l e c t i n g upon the h i s t o r i c a l development o f Russian Communism, an E.S.P. c o n t r i b u t o r f e l t t h a t there were l e s s o n s t o be l e a r n e d from i t . Two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which the Communists had d i s p l a y e d were, "...une adresse consommee e t un devouement f a n a t i q u e . . . T h e y seemed to achieve t h e i r g r e a t e s t successes by a p p e a l i n g t o , "...des mecontents, des r a t ^ s , des f l a n e u r s ... t o u j o u r s p r e t s . . a u x aventures p i r i l l e u s e s , a i g u i l l o n e s par l e mirage d'une f o r t u n e promptement acquise."12 I t appeared to one author t h a t the g r e a t e s t a l l y o f the Bosheviks was, " . . . c e t t e c a r i c a t u r e de l i b e r t e q u i accorde l a t o l e r a n c e meme aux i n t o l ^ r a n t s " - a mistake, he s t r e s s e d , which 13 L e n i n dxd not make. As a r e s u l t o f these and o t h e r f a c t o r s , a s m a l l group of men had become a t h r e a t t o human c i v i l i z a t i o n . T u r n i n g to the Communist achievements, the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s examined the impact of the massive socio-economic changes which had been c a r r i e d out. While not i g n o r i n g the p a s t , they were p a r t i c u l a r l y concerned w i t h the f i r s t F i v e Year P l a n i n the process of being implemented. From t h e i r s t u d i e s of i t s workings, they concluded t h a t i t was a massive f a i l u r e due to gross m i s c a l c u l a t i o n s and to the l a c k o f competent p e r s o n n e l . I t had brought about a d r a s t i c decrease i n the p r o d u c t i o n of f o o d s t u f f s and consumer goods. M i l l i o n s of peasants had been uprooted and t h e i r p r o p e r t y absorbed by the c o l l e c t i v e farms, w h i l e i n the c i t i e s the workers had been reduced to the s t a t u s o f s e r f s i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n p r o d u c t i o n . To f i n a n c e t h i s g i g a n t i c e f f o r t , the standard of l i v i n g had been reduced and working c o n d i t i o n s depressed. Famine and misery were the l o t of many. I t was c l e a r -59-t o S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s , l i k e M i n v i l l e , t h a t the c o n t i n u a t i o n o f 14 Lenin's N.E.P. would have achieved b e t t e r r e s u l t s . A l l t h a t had been achieved was "...1 * g g a l i t e dans l a misere." Communism's attempt to c r e a t e the new S o v i e t Man had a l s o turned, a c c o r d i n g t o the E.S.P., i n t o a nightmare. The Communists had succeeded i n d e s t r o y i n g the Russian f a m i l y u n i t i n o r d e r , so they claimed, t o acco r d the young a p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n i n s o c i e t y . The r e a l i t y was otherwise. A f t e r s t u d y i n g the methods used, one author warned t h a t i f the Communists had t h e i r way, " . . . i l s empois^sonneront l'ame e n f a n t i n e de v i c e s , de propagande haineuse c o n t r e l e s parents 'arri£rgs'; i l s enseigneront aux enfants l a haine de l a r e l i g i o n , l e m§pris du b i e n , i l s pousseront des v o l o n t e s f a i b l e s e t i n e x p e r i m e n t i e s a 1'accomplissement d'infamies...."15 The r e s u l t o f such p r a c t i c e s was the growth of j u v e n i l e d e linquency. A l l the v i c e s were on the i n c r e a s e among the young. The F i v e Year P l a n had aggravated the problem t o the p o i n t where there was a l a r g e - s c a l e c h i l d abandonment. V i c i o u s and depraved bands o f young people were roaming the country. Many were dying of famine and oth e r causes due to n e g l e c t . To stem the t i d e , the Communists would have t o admit t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and t h i s they c o u l d not do. Such was the new Adam i n t h e i r godless " p a r a d i s t e r r e s t e " . I f Communism was such a f a i l u r e , how, some people asked, d i d i t ma i n t a i n i t s power? To the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s , the answer was obvious: through sheer f o r c e . Because o f i t s t o t a l c o n t r o l over the m a t e r i a l and human reso u r c e s of the country, the - 6 0 -S o v i e t regime c o u l d weather massive s o c i o - e c o n o m i c f a i l u r e s . Any s i g n o f o p p o s i t i o n was q u i c k l y e l i m i n a t e d by t h e r e f i n e d system o f t e r r o r w h i c h had been d e v e l o p e d . I n a d d i t i o n t o th e s e c r e t p o l i c e , t h e regime r e l i e d upon geography, s e v e r e l e g a l p e n a l t i e s , and t h e Red Army. A l l a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l and c u l t u r a l had t o s e r v e Communism o r be r e p r e s s e d . I t appeared t o M i n v i l l e t h a t t h e aim was t o t r a n s f o r m t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n t o "une b e t e de somme dont on d i s p o s e e t qu'on r a t i o n n e S v o l o n t i . Nowhere, t h e E.S.P. f e l t , was t h e inhuman n a t u r e o f t h e Communist regime so c l e a r l y r e v e a l e d as i n i t s campaign t o e r a d i c a t e a l l s i g n s o f r e l i g i o n . To overcome t h e s t r o n g r e s i s t -ance o f t h e p e o p l e , i t had d e v e l o p e d a s y s t e m a t i c programme t o a t t r a c t i n d i v i d u a l s t o m i l i t a n t a t h e i s m . S p e c i a l i z e d s c h o o l s were t u r n i n g o u t z e a l o u s p r o p a g a n d i s t s . E v e r y form o f commun-i c a t i o n i n c l u d i n g t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m was b e i n g made t o s e r v e t h i s end. A n t i - r e l i g i o u s campaigns were r e i n f o r c e d by t h e government's r e s o u r c e s and a c t i v i t i e s . As a r e s u l t , a n t i -r e l i g i o u s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s e s p e c i a l l y by young p e o p l e were rewarded w h i l e r e l i g i o u s ones were p u n i s h e d s e v e r e l y . By 1935, clergymen o f a l l f a i t h s had been d e p r i v e d o f t h e i r c i v i c r i g h t s and were s u b j e c t t o p e r s e c u t i o n and, i n many c a s e s , murder. One a u t h o r e s t i m a t e d t h a t f i f t y p e r c e n t o f a l l c l e r i c s had been l i q u i d a t e d 17 between 1917 and 1934. These f i n d i n g s seemed t o g i v e added s t r e n g t h t o P i u s X I ' s d e n u n c i a t i o n o f Communism as a system, -61-" . . . q u i ne r e c u l e devant r i e n , ne r e s p e c t e r i e n , e t q u i , p a r t o u t oft i l . a r r i v e au po u v o i r , a g i t avec une d u r e t i , une inhumanite i n c r o y a b l e e t i n d e s c r i p t i b l e . " 1 8 I t made more urgent h i s appeal i n 1930 to a l l C a t h o l i c s t o pray 19 f o r the c o n v e r s i o n o f R u s s i a . Events s i n c e t h a t time, one author lamented, seemed t o i n d i c a t e t h a t p r a y e r s o n l y goaded the Communists t o commit g r e a t e r crimes a g a i n s t r e l i g i o n . In s p i t e o f Communist a t r o c i t i e s , the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s observed t h a t many c o u n t r i e s were seeking c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s w i t h the S o v i e t Union i n or d e r t o a l l e v i a t e the e f f e c t s o f the d e p r e s s i o n . They s e t out to prove, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t e s t a b l i s h -i n g any type o f r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h R u s s i a would o n l y aggravate the socio-economic problems of non-Communist c o u n t r i e s . They s t r e s s e d t h a t the Communists admitted t h a t , "L'U.R.S.S. n'est pas un E t a t comme l e s E t a t s c a p i t a l i s t e s . . . I I e s t l a f o r c e e t l e s i n f i n i e s r e s s o u r c e s d'un grand E t a t au s e r v i c e de l a 20 r e v o l u t i o n m o n d i a l e . . . " ( s i c ) . They attempted t o demonstrate to those who p e r s i s t e d i n b e l i e v i n g t h a t the S o v i e t government and the Komintern were independent o f each ot h e r t h a t both were but the instruments o f the P o l i t b u r o o f the Communist p a r t y . Thus, w h i l e the S o v i e t government attempted t o c r e a t e the imp r e s s i o n t h a t i t stood f o r peace and s t a b i l i t y by s i g n i n g non-aggression pacts and by j o i n i n g the League o f Na t i o n s , i t s complementary arm, the Komintern e x p l o i t e d these openings by su b v e r s i v e a c t i v i t i e s . In the E.S.P.*s view, d i p l o m a t i c r e l a t i o n s w i t h the S o v i e t Union c o u l d o n l y i n c r e a s e the power and p r e s t i g e o f the Communists i n t e r n a l l y and e x t e r n a l l y ; i t c o u l d not advance the cause o f peace and p r o s p e r i t y . The most powerful weapon, a c c o r d i n g to the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s , possessed by the S o v i e t regime to open h o s t i l e c o u n t r i e s to Communist i n f l u e n c e was the promise of i n c r e a s e d t r a d e w i t h i t s concomitant, i n c r e a s e d employment. They t r i e d t o show t h a t i n f a c t the r e v e r s e was the case. As the regime bought on l y what was a b s o l u t e l y necessary to make Russ i a s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , i t s r e a l purpose i n d e v e l o p i n g t r a d e was to f o s t e r r e v o l u t i o n . Because i t had a b s o l u t e c o n t r o l over the c o u n t r y 1 s n a t u r a l and human r e s o u r c e s , the E.S.P. 1 s c o n t r i b u t o r s argued t h a t i t c o u l d and d i d dump v a s t q u a n t i t i e s of primary products on the 21 world markets. T h i s p r a c t i c e o n l y aggravated the unemploy-ment s i t u a t i o n i n s i d e the i m p o r t i n g country. With g r e a t e r d i s c o n t e n t and w i t h g r e a t e r f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s , the S o v i e t regime c o u l d then i n t e n s i f y the s u b v e r s i v e a c t i v i t i e s of i t s agents i n s i d e t h a t country. Hence, these authors concluded t h a t t r a d e w i t h the S o v i e t Union o n l y l e d to a worsening of the socio-economic c r i s i s . Wherever a t r a d i n g n a t i o n had swallowed the S o v i e t l u r e , i t had s u f f e r e d , a c c o r d i n g t o the E.S.P., from s e r i o u s i n t e r n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . Agents of the Komintern were ab l e to o r g a n i z e s u b v e r s i v e movements and to i n f i l t r a t e unions. To i n c r e a s e the m i l i t a n c y of the workers and to c r e a t e g r e a t e r s o c i o -economic i n s t a b i l i t y , the Communists encouraged s t r i k e s . Another t a c t i c which came to the a t t e n t i o n of the E.S.P. a f t e r 1935 was 22 the c r e a t i o n of Leagues a g a i n s t War and Fascism. By posing as the champions of peace and demoncracy, the Communists hoped to win the support of the i n t e l l e c t u a l s and of the young. They had met w i t h some success, a c c o r d i n g to the E.S.P.'s sources, e s p e c i a l l y i n France where o u t s t a n d i n g p e r s o n a l i t i e s such as Andre Gide, Henri Barbusse and Romain R o l l a n d had put them-s e l v e s a t the s e r v i c e of t h i s world movement. While the nominal l e a d e r s h i p was i n the hands of such persons, the a c t u a l c o n t r o l remained w i t h the Communists. In m o b i l i z i n g support from a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y o f groups, the Communists hoped to weaken the s t r e n g t h of the g r e a t powers - p a r t i c u l a r l y the morale of t h e i r armed f o r c e s - and to b o l s t e r the p r e s t i g e of the S o v i e t Union, thereby making the host country, i n the minds of S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s , s u s c e p t i b l e t o Communist r e v o l u t i o n . As was the case i n s i d e R u s s i a , the Communists elsewhere, i n the o p i n i o n of the E.S.P., p a i d p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n to t h e i r 23 a n t i - r e l i g i o u s campaign. Since 1930, the Communists had gained c o n t r o l over the l e f t wing a s s o c i a t i o n of a t h e i s t s , I n t e r n a t i o n a l e P r o l e t a r i e n n e , from the S o c i a l i s t s and had transformed i t i n t o a f o r m i d a b l e t h r e a t t o r e l i g i o n . As i n R u s s i a , they looked t o youth and to a n t i - r e l i g i o u s groups such as the Free Masons f o r r e c r u i t s . They a l s o e x p l o i t e d the e x i s t i n g d i v i s i o n s between the Churches. The Leagues a g a i n s t War and Fascism seemed, to the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s , t o be having c o n s i d e r a b l e success i n 24 a t t r a c t i n g P r o t e s t a n t s . Once i n c o n t a c t w i t h these elements, i t was easy f o r the Communists to e x p l o i t t h e i r h o s t i l i t y t o the C a t h o l i c Church by l i n k i n g i t to poverty and i m p e r i a l i s m . The Communists, a c o n t r i b u t o r r e p o r t e d a t the end of t h i s p e r i o d , were even e x p l o i t i n g the d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n the C a t h o l i c Church by a p p e a l i n g to those C a t h o l i c s who d i d not f u l l y understand t h a t nature o f Communism or who had misguided s o c i a l c o n s c i e n c e s 25 or who were d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h some Church l e a d e r s o r d o c t r i n e s . In 1936, P i u s XI denounced t h i s Communist t a c t i c , "...cherchent a c r i e r quelques p o s s i b i l i t i s de rapprochement e t de c o l l a b o r a t i o n de l a p a r t des c a t h o l i q u e s , en d i s t i n g u a n t e n t r e i d i o l o g i e e t p r a t i q u e , e n t r e i d i e e t a c t i o n , e n t r e ordre iconomique e t ordre moral." The f o l l o w i n g year, i n h i s e n c y c l i c a l , D i v i n i Redemptoris, the Pope d e c l a r e d : "Le communisme e s t i n t r i n s i q u e m e n t p e r v e r s , e t l ' o n ne peut admettre sur aucun t e r r a i n l a c o l l a b o r a t i o n avec l u i de l a p a r t de quiconque veut sauver l a c i v i l i s a t i o n chretienne."27 The coming t o power of the Popular F r o n t i n Spain and the ensuing c i v i l war was f o r the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s h o r r i b l e proof o f the t h r e a t which Communism posed t o the Church. Spain was f o r them, " . . l e grand s o i r de l a dgbauche a n t i c h r e t i e n n e , l a 28 grande o r g i e s a c r i l e g e . " As the a t r o c i t y s t o r i e s poured i n -t a l e s o f massacres of p r i e s t s and nuns, of wholesale c o n f i s c a t i o n and d e s t r u c t i o n o f Church p r o p e r t y i n c l u d i n g p r i c e l e s s works o f a r t - the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s came to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the Church was the c h i e f t a r g e t o f the r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s . With a mounting sense of h o r r o r and i n d i g n a t i o n , Pius XI d e c l a r e d : "On d i r a i t . . . q u ' u n e satanique p r e p a r a t i o n a allume, e t p l u s v i v e encore, dans l'Espagne c e t t e flamme de haine e t de p e r s e c u t i o n p l u s f e r o c e , r e s e r v e e , de l'aveu meme de ses ennemis, a l ' E g l i s e e t 5 l a r e l i g i o n c a t h o l i q u e . . . " 2 9 "How had t h i s happened?" S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s asked themselves. How c o u l d C a t h o l i c Spain which, by the sword and by the word, had stood as the vanguard o f the Church now be a t the mercy o f i t s worst enemies? A r e p o r t from the V a t i c a n p r o v i d e d an -65-e x p l a n a t i o n . The c h i e f cause o f t h i s c a t a s t r o p h e l a y not i n the Church as some would have i t , but i n the p r o g r e s s i v e 30 s e c u l a r i z a t i o n o f the country. While not denying t h a t C a t h o l i c s c o u l d have done more to adapt to the i n c r e a s i n g i n d u s t -r i a l i z a t i o n o f Spain i n order t o m a i n t a i n the Church's i n f l u e n c e , i t was the growth o f Masonic i n f l u e n c e s i n a l l spheres o f a c t i v i t y which had opened the way f o r the Communists. Another c o n t r i b u t o r t r i e d t o show t h a t the Communists had e x p l o i t e d the 31 Popular F r o n t t a c t i c t o g a m a f o o t h o l d i n the government. Through co n s t a n t a g i t a t i o n the Communists had attempted t o improve t h e i r p o s i t i o n a t the expense of t h e i r p a r t n e r s by broad-ening t h e i r popular support. In t h i s way, the author argued, they were p r e p a r i n g the way f o r a Kerensky-type o f government t o be f o l l o w e d soon a f t e r w i t h a S o v i e t - t y p e . Spain made i t q u i t e c l e a r t o the E.S.P.'s c o n t r i b u t o r s t h a t even the most C a t h o l i c of n a t i o n s was not immune t o Communism. Although, as has been noted, the E.S.P. was pre o c c u p i e d w i t h Communism throughout the d e p r e s s i o n , i t was not u n t i l 1935 t h a t the E.S.P. began t o ask i t s e l f whether or not Canada was threatened. While b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n s had been p u b l i s h e d , no sy s t e m a t i c study was made u n t i l Archambault wrote La Menace 32 communiste au Canada. The t i t l e o f t h i s pamphlet c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d h i s b e l i e f t h a t i t was a t h r e a t and he s e t out to prove i t . He t r a c e d the development o f the Canadian Communist p a r t y from i t s c r e a t i o n i n 1922. In 1931, i t had been f o r c e d by the a p p l i c a t i o n o f S e c t i o n 98 of the C r i m i n a l Code t o tr a n s f o r m i t s e l f i n t o the Canadian Labour Defense League. A c c o r d i n g t o -66-Archambault, i t r e c e i v e d most of i t s support from immigrants. Membership i n 1932-33 had i n c r e a s e d from 13,000 to 17,000 and the number o f a f f i l i a t e d members had reached 120,000. One o f these a f f i l i a t e d groups, the Workers' U n i t y League, was con-cerned w i t h the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l unions and w i t h the development of a more m i l i t a n t a t t i t u d e amongst the workers. Another achievement was the e x i s t e n c e of numerous s m a l l newspapers, many of which appealed to a p a r t i c u l a r e t h n i c group. The f a c t t h a t they were a b l e to s u r v i v e w i t h l i t t l e o r no v i s i b l e means o f support was proof to the author t h a t they were supported by the Komintern. From t h i s time onwards, the E.S.P. kept a c l o s e watch on the Canadian Communists. In 1936, as Archambault p o i n t e d out, even though the Communist l e a d e r s h i p had been imprisoned i n 1931 f o r t h e i r propaganda work, upon . . . 33 r e l e a s e they had continued t h e i r s u b v e r s i v e a c t i v i t i e s . During the f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n of 1935, Archambault noted t h a t s i x Communists had c o n t e s t e d r i d i n g s and had r e c e i v e d 30,000 v o t e s . At the o t h e r l e v e l s o f government, t h e r e was one Communist M.L.A. i n Manitoba and many m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l l o r s throughout Canada. Other C a t h o l i c groups o r agencies j o i n e d i n the watch. Le D e v o i r , f o r example, p u b l i s h e d an a r t i c l e , which the E.S.P. r e p r i n t e d , d e s c r i b i n g the success of Communist propaganda throughout the world and, of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t , the success o f the L e f t Book Club i n r e a c h i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l s throughout the 34 B r i t i s h Empire. Even the V a t i c a n ' s d a i l y newspaper, 1'Osservatore Romano c o n t r i b u t e d a most i n t e r e s t i n g a n a l y s i s of -67-. . . 35 Communist a c t i v i t e s i n Canada. I t r e p o r t e d t h a t when the House of Commons was d e b a t i n g the defense budget, the Canadian Youth Congress had o r g a n i z e d a campaign a g a i n s t war and had appealed to the young not to v o l u n t e e r and to r e s i s t c o n s c r i p t i o n i f war came. Regarding the Spanish C i v i l War i t wrote t h a t committees to a i d the L o y a l i s t s were i n e x i s t e n c e throughout the country. As a r e s u l t of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s the V a t i c a n source claimed t h a t over 2,000 Canadians had gone to Spain. Such r e p o r t s l e d S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s to b e l i e v e t h a t the Communists were very a c t i v e i n Canada. At the same time, the E.S.P. was concerned w i t h the t w i s t s and turns of the p a r t y l i n e as to the c o r r e c t t a c t i c s to f o l l o w . During t h i s p e r i o d , c o n t r i b u t o r s to the E.S.P. saw the p a r t y s h i f t i t s emphasis from o r g a n i z i n g the unemployed and the immigrants to i n f i l t r a t i n g the i n t e r n a t i o n a l unions attempting to o r g a n i z e Canadian workers i n t o i n d u s t r i a l unions. Youth work, Archambault wrote, was a l s o being s t r e s s e d i n order to e s t a b l i s h a continuous programme f o r the r e c r u i t m e n t of new members. The S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s heard Tim Buck * s appeal f o r a common f r o n t a g a i n s t p o v e r t y , f a s c i s m and war and r e p o r t e d success by the Communists i n winning over such o r g a n i z a t i o n s as the C i v i l L i b e r t i e s Union, the League f o r Peace and Democracy, the League of Nations S o c i e t y of Canada and the Canadian Youth Congress to 36 mention o n l y a few. More t h r e a t e n i n g was the e x p l o i t a t i o n by the Communists of growing Canadian n a t i o n a l i s m . For sometime, they had attempted to p l a c e themselves i n the t r a d i t i o n of Mackenzie-Papineau r e b e l l i o n s but, by 1938, a c c o r d i n g t o 1'Osservatore Romano, they were e x p l o i t i n g the sentiment f o r a s t r o n g c e n t r a l government i n order t o remove p r o v i n c i a l b a r r i e r s t o the implementation o f t h e i r programme should they come to power. The proof o f t h i s , a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s a r t i c l e , was t h a t wherever the Rowell Commission s a t , "...tous l e s Boards o f Trade ou l e s Unions du T r a v a i l , i n f l u e n c e s par l e s communistes, ont reclame un gouvernement c e n t r a l f o r t e t une l e g i s l a t i o n unique du t r a v a i l . " The Communists had not ig n o r e d the a n t i p a t h y o f P r o t e s t a n t s f o r C a t h o l i c i s m e i t h e r . T h e i r success i n t h i s r e g a r d , a c c o r d i n g t o the r e p o r t from the V a t i c a n , e x p l a i n e d the i n t e n s e a g i t a t i o n a g a i n s t the Padlock law o u t s i d e of Quebec. In f a c t , the p r e v i o u s autumn had seen many P r o t e s t a n t m i n i s t e r s r e p l a c e the r e g u l a r Sunday s e r v i c e w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n of the u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y o f t h i s law. I t appeared t o the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s t h a t Communism was indeed a growing t h r e a t w i t h i n the country. The E.S.P.'s c o l l a b o r a t o r s a l s o asked themselves whether or not Quebec was threatened by Communism to some ext e n t . When i t came to t h e i r home ground the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s l e d by Msgr. G. Gauthier , sounded the alarm a t an e a r l y date and main-37 t a i n e d a t i r e l e s s watch throughout the d e p r e s s i o n . Msgr. Gau t h i e r was p a r t i c u l a r l y alarmed by the propaganda a c t i v i t i e s o f the Communists. N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t was Archambault's study i n 1935 which d e a l t most thoroughly w i t h t h i s aspect of the problem. In 1933, there were, a c c o r d i n g t o h i s sources, 1,200 a c t i v e and 38 10,000 a f f i l i a t e d members i n the Montreal area. At t h a t time, the Canadian Labour Defense League claim e d 200 French-speaking members. To a t t r a c t more French Canadians, i t had r e s o l v e d a t i t s convention to de-emphasize i t s a n t i - r e l i g i o u s propaganda, to promote b i l i n g u a l i s m p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h i n some of i t s a f f i l i a t e s such as the union t r y i n g t o o r g a n i z e w i t h some success the loggers of the Rouyn-Noranda a r e a , and to make more use of French i n i t s propaganda a c t i v i t i e s . From the documents which Archambault p l a c e d i n n a p p e n d i x to h i s study, i t appeared t h a t a Communist youth o r g a n i z a t i o n was competing -a l b e i t u n s u c c e s s f u l l y - w i t h a C a t h o l i c one f o r the a l l e g i a n c e of young French-speaking workers and t h a t attempts were b e i n g made to e x p l o i t anti-war sentiment i n French Canada. The f o l l o w i n g year Archambault noted t h a t the Communists had c o n t e s t e d t h r e e Montreal r i d i n g s and had c i r c u l a t e d a French 39 language v e r s i o n of t h e i r programme. These f a c t s , Archambault concluded, d i d not j u s t i f y a complacent a t t i t u d e . S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s c o u l d not a f f o r d t o be complacent i n t h e i r s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t Communism. For, i t was c l e a r t o them, as Msgr. Gauthier put i t , t h a t : "La r e l i g i o n e s t une puissance d ' o r d r e . . . e l l e c u l t i v e des espgrances s u r n a t u r e l l e s q u i ne sont pas i n u t i l e s pour f a i r e a c c e p t e r l e s miseres e t p a r f o i s l e s duretes de l a v i e . . . Supprimez Dieu .. e t l e premier probleme q u i se pose devant 1 ' e s p r i t , c ' e s t l e ,redoutable probleme de l ' i n i g a l i t e " des c o n d i t i o n s humaines....' Hence, the Communists c o u l d never achieve t h e i r r e v o l u t i o n a r y g o a l s u n t i l they had d e s t r o y e d the Church. Archambault and o t h e r S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s were a l e r t t o any a n t i - r e l i g i o u s mani-41 t e s t a t i o n s . I t appears, however, t h a t i t was d u r i n g the Spanish C i v i l War and the a n t i - P a d l o c k Law a g i t a t i o n t h a t the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s f e l t most threatened. There were, as w i l l be seen, huge demonstrations a g a i n s t the presence o f L o y a l i s t p ropagandists i n Montreal. Msgr. Gauthier p u b l i c l y warned the E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g middle c l a s s a g a i n s t l e t t i n g i t s a n t i - C a t h o l i c a t t i t u d e s l e a d i t i n t o an a l l i a n c e w i t h the Communists. The S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s , i n calmer moments, agreed w i t h Archambault t h a t the d e v o t i o n of French-Canadians t o the Church was s t i l l s t r o n g . N e v e r t h e l e s s , they a l s o f e a r e d t h a t the a c t i v i t i e s o f the Communists were having some e f f e c t upon the average French-speaking C a t h o l i c . Archambault d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e r e were some who claimed to be, "...a l a f o i s communistes e t c a t h o l i q u e s . On a meme entendu un o u v r i e r f a i r e c e t aveu n a i f : 'Je p r i e tous l e s s o i r s pour que l e communisme a r r i v e ! ' " 4 3 I t was easy to f o r e s e e the day, Archambault warned, when f o r c e d t o choose between the Church and Communism, "„ Mai c o n s e i l l e s par l a misere, par l e s abus scandaleux d'un c a p i t a l i s m e oppresseur, par l e u r ignorance de l a d o c t r i n e s o c i a l e de l ' E g l i s e , par une propagande de p l u s en p l u s h a b i l e e t tenace, ces t r a v a i l l e u r s abandonnent l e u r r e l i g i o n pour 1'eVangile s o v i i t i q u e . " I f i t was t r u e , as was g e n e r a l l y admitted, t h a t the French-speaking p o p u l a t i o n remained l o y a l t o the Church, what f o r c e s i n Quebec s u s t a i n e d Communism? Msgr. Gauthier suggested t h a t the w r i t i n g s o f such l e f t - w i n g French authors as Gide, Barbusse, R o l l a n d and Malraux had had an impact upon some French Canadian i n t e l l e c t u a l s - a f a c t which Archambault d e s c r i b e d as s u r p r i s i n g 44 and most dangerous. some workers, as has been noted, were f e l t t o be sympathetic. But the most f e r t i l e s o i l f o r Communism, a c c o r d i n g t o Archambault, was the immigrant groups, an i n c r e a s -45 i n g l y more important segment of Montreal's p o p u l a t i o n . P o v e r t y - s t r i c k e n b e f o r e coming to Canada, they had been rendered even more m i s e r a b l e by the d e p r e s s i o n . As they had l i t t l e under-s t a n d i n g of the t r a d i t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s o f the country,they were f u l l y exposed to the d e p r e s s i o n . The C a t h o l i c s amongst them were f o r the most p a r t s c a t t e r e d throughout the c i t y . I t was very d i f f i c u l t , t h e r e f o r e , f o r the Church to p r o v i d e f o r them e f f e c t i v e l y . French-speaking C a t h o l i c s , by and l a r g e , seemed t o be i n d i f f e r e n t t o t h e i r s u f f e r i n g . The Communists, on the other hand, had e s t a b l i s h e d newspapers, some schools and s o c i a l c l u b s designed to appeal to such groups. I t appeared to Archambault t h a t they were i n c r e a s i n g l y s u c c e s s f u l i n winning C a t h o l i c immigrants to t h e i r cause. As f o r the n o n - C a t h o l i c immigrants, the l a r g e s t group among them by f a r was Jewish. T h i s group, Archambault s t a t e d , "...dans tous l e s pays 1'armee r e V o l u t i o n n a i r e peut compter, s u r t o u t s i e l l e s'attaque §. des i n s t i t u t i o n s c h r e t i e n n e s , sur l e s sympathies e t meme l ' a i d e e f f e c t i v e de ce groupe n a t u r e l * lement e n c l i n . par ses atavismes, aux id£es s u b v e r s i v e s . He added i t had a l r e a d y p r o v i d e d the Communists wi t h many a c t i v e members. The Communists appeared, to the E.S.P., to have a s t r o n g base from which to expand. Whenever the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s paused, t h e r e f o r e , i n the midst o f t h i s anti-Communist campaign to ask each o t h e r , as C a r d i n a l V i l l e n e u v e d i d of Archambault i n 1935, whether or not, "Vos avertissements n ' o n t - i l s et§ que pour allumer des i n c e n d i e s que vous a u r i e z l e p l a i s i r d ' i t e i n d r e e n s u i t e a u s s i -72-aisement", they c o u l d o n l y answer, as the C a r d i n a l answered h i s own q u e s t i o n , t h a t " l e feu en e s t allum€ parmi nous, i l e s t urgent de l e c i r c o n s c r i r e , puisqu'on ne peut e s p ^ r e r d ' i c i 47 longtemps l ' e t e i n d r e . " Only a f o o l c o u l d i g n o r e the f i g u r e s : i n 1934, th e r e were f o r t y Communist c e n t e r s i n Mont r e a l , a d m i t t e d l y none of them French-speaking, w h i l e i n 1936, the c h i e f o f p o l i c e 48 r e p o r t e d t h a t the Communists had h e l d 802 meetings. Only a f o o l c o u l d ignore the experience o f oth e r c o u n t r i e s . The evidence was there f o r anyone t o see. At another l e v e l , i t seemed i l l o g i c a l t h a t t h e r e should be no Communist a c t i v i t i e s i n Quebec. Msgr. Gauthier had come to the c o n c l u s i o n e a r l i e r t h a t u n t i l the world became completely c h r i s t i a n i z e d , there would always be, "...une o p p o s i t i o n i r r e d u c t i b l e e n t r e deux croyances, deux f o i s q u i e x i g e n t l'une e t l'autre l e don t o t a l 49 de l'homme". For h i s p a r t , Archambault agreed t h a t the Church fa c e d a formidable c h a l l e n g e . He b e l i e v e d t h a t what was a t stake was " . . . p e u t - e t r e , l ' a v e n i r meme du c a t h o l i c i s m e sur t o u t ce c o n t i n e n t . " I t was i n t h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l atmosphere t h a t the Co-ope r a t i v e Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n t h r u s t i t s e l f upon the consciousness o f the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s . As i n the case of Communism, Pope Pius XI had a l r e a d y s e t the tone. He d e c l a r e d i n Quadragesimo anno t h a t much of what the S o c i a l i s t s s a i d was t r u e and t h a t they had become very moderate i n aim and method. Yet, there was no b a s i s f o r c o o p e r a t i o n between S o c i a l i s m and C a t h o l i c i s m f o r the former "...repose sur une t h i o r i e de l a s o c i e t e q u i l u i e s t propre e t q u i e s t i n c o n c i l i a b l e avec l e c h r i s t i a n i s m e authentique. S o c i a l i s m e r e l i g i e u x , s o c i a l i s m e c h r i t i e n sont des c o n t r a d i c t i o n s : personne ne peut e t r e en meme temps bon c a t h o l i q u e e t v r a i s o c i a l i s t e . " When, t h e r e f o r e , a Canadian p o l i t i c a l p a r t y , the C.C.F., p r o -c l a i m i n g s o c i a l i s t p r i n c i p l e s , began to emerge i n 1932-1933, the E.S.P. c a l l e d upon a promising young Dominican p r i e s t , Georges . . . . 51 Levesque to examine i t c r i t i c a l l y . F a t h e r Levesque began h i s study of the C.C.F. by a s k i n g : 52 " m g r i t e - t - i l n o t r e a t t e n t i o n ? " I t s l e a d e r s , he d e c l a r e d , "...sont des hommes t r d s i n t e l l i g e n t s , tr§s a c t i f s e t b i e n d e c i d e s , q u i p r i p a r e n t l e u r campagne depuis des a n n i e s . " The C.C.F. a l r e a d y had committees i n most p a r t s of the country t r y i n g to r e c r u i t members and e s t a b l i s h an o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t had o b t a i n e d the support o f f o u r t e e n M.P.'s and of a g r a r i a n and l a b o u r groups from B. C. to Montreal. Among a l l segments of s o c i e t y , i t had the support o f " . . . c e r t a i n s groupes qu'on p o u r r a i t a p p e l e r l e s groupes de mecontents." Levesque noted t h a t i n December, 1932, an assembly o f U n i t e d Church m i n i s t e r s had adopted a programme s i m i l a r t o t h a t of the C.C.F. At the same time, the League f o r S o c i a l R e c o n s t r u c t i o n was not o n l y p r o v i d i n g the C.C.F. wit h t h e o r e t i c a l guidance but a l s o s t r e n g t h e n i n g i t s appeal to i n t e l l e c t u a l s . LeVesque concluded t h a t the C.C.F. had a g r e a t p o t e n t i a l f o r growth. The c o n d i t i o n s appeared to be r i p e , f o r a c c o r d i n g to the author, -74-" I l presente a une f o u l e q u i s o u f f r e depuis longtemps l e s p l u s dures p r i v a t i o n s , q u i commence 1 s 1 i m p a t i e n t e r e t a d£sesp£rer des v i e u x p a r t i s j u s q u ' i c i impuissants S l a s o u l a g e r , un programme q u i a t o u t l ' a t t r a i t de l a nouveautg, q u i se resume en quelques formules s i m p l i s t e s e t c l a i r e s , q u i promet a breve £cheance remede S tous l e s maux e t q u i du r e s t e c o n t i e n t beaucoup de bonnes choses." I t was important, t h e r e f o r e , to d e c i d e what a t t i t u d e C a t h o l i c s should adopt towards i t . In making such a d e c i s i o n , LeVesque s t a t e d t h a t the C a t h o l i c s had to c o n s i d e r whether or not the C C F . was more a k i n to the B r i t i s h Labour P a r t y , t o l e r a t e d by the Church, or to the European S o c i a l i s t p a r t i e s , condemned by the Church. Does the C C F . , LeVesque asked, possess the t h r e e main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a t r u e S o c i a l i s t p a r t y ? As to the f i r s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , the r e l i a n c e upon v i o l e n t c l a s s c o n f l i c t , Levesque admitted t h a t the C C F . d i d not advocate v i o l e n t c l a s s c o n f l i c t t o achieve i t s ends. He f e a r e d , however, t h a t t h i s was not an a b s o l u t e a r t i c l e o f f a i t h . The p a r t y might r e s o r t to i t , he claimed, i f i t ever became the s o l e method of a c h i e v i n g i t s g o a l s . To support t h i s c l a i m , he a l l e g e d t h a t J . S. Woodsworth, i t s l e a d e r , had s t a t e d t h a t v i o l e n c e might come i f the C C F . was ever prevented from a c h i e v i n g i t s aims through c o n s t i t u t i o n a l means. Such a statement, to LeVesque, was l i k e an ultimatum, " c ' e s t comme s ' i l d i s a i t : Nous vous apportons un remede, i l f a u t absolument que vous 1 * a c c e p t i e z . . . Je s a i s b i e n que pour t e n t e r d ' e v i t e r 1 ' a c c u s a t i o n d ' e t r e r e V o l u t i o n n a i r e , M. Woodsworth a f a i t remarquer e n s u i t e que l a v i o l e n c e i n e v i t a b l e sur l a q u e l l e p o r t a i t sa menace ne s e r a i t pas l e f a i t de lui-meme n i de son groupe, mais l'oeuvre de f o r c e s r e V o l u t i o n n a i r e s ^ t r a n g e r e s a eux. E c h a p p a t o i r e , nous s e m b l e - t - i l ; comment s o u t e n i r serieusement qu'en dehors de l a C C F . , l e peuple canadien s o i t s i mur pour l a r e v o l u t i o n ? " 5 3 -75-Drawing e x t e n s i v e l y upon statements made by C o n s e r v a t i v e members o f P a r l i a m e n t , Livesque p o i n t e d to the support Woodsworth a l l e g -e d l y gave to the r e v o l u t i o n a r y O.B.U. i n 1919 and t o the apparent 54 Marxism o f Angus Maclnnis to expose the t r u e nature of the C.C.F.. Furthermore, he argued, even i f t h i s p a r t y was not v i o l e n t , i t s d e n u n c i a t i o n of c a p i t a l i s m and i t s constant demand f o r s o c i o -economic change might b r i n g about a s i t u a t i o n which i t c o u l d not c o n t r o l . T h i s , to him, was a l l the more l i k e l y as the C.C.F. la c k e d a f i r m f o u n d a t i o n of s p i r i t u a l and moral p r i n c i p l e s . Secondly, the a t t i t u d e of the C.C.F. towards p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y was, to LeVesque, u n c l e a r . The p a r t y was s p l i t between a l l - o u t s o c i a l i z e r s l i k e Maclnnis and the m a j o r i t y which d i d not go so f a r . But he b e l i e v e d t h a t the C.C.F. would so modify the r i g h t t o own p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y as to p r a c t i c a l l y e l i m i n a t e i t . Rerum novarum c l e a r l y s t a t e d t h a t the e x p r o p r i a t i o n o f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y was l e g i t i m a t e o n l y to the e x t e n t t h a t the common good r e q u i r e d i t and where i t was the o n l y way to serve i t . I t appeared to him t h a t the C.C.F. was not prepared to accept such l i m i t a t i o n s . Hence, he concluded t h a t the C.C.F. opposed the r i g h t t o p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . F i n a l l y , LeVesque f e l t t h a t i f the C.C.F. d i d not have a m a t e r i a l i s t i c c o n c e p t i o n of s o c i e t y i n p r i n c i p l e , i t had one i n f a c t . He argued t h a t w h i l e the C.C.F. hoped to b r i n g about a "nouvel o r d r e s o c i a l " , i t had not presented a programme designed to promote the common good, t h a t i s to promote " . . . l a v i e v e r t -55 ueuse des c i t o y e n s e t l a p r o s p e r i t y p u b l i q u e . " A l l t h a t i t o f f e r e d was " . . . r i f o r m e s de choses e t non de personnes." He c o u l d o n l y conclude from t h i s t h a t the C.C.F. assumed, "...que l a coramunaute humaine n'a ete" c o n s t i t u t e qu'en vue du s e u l -76-b i e n - e t r e " - a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , a c c o r d i n g t o Pius XI, o f t r u e 56 S o c i a l i s m . To o b j e c t i o n s t h a t the C.C.F. was concerned o n l y w i t h socio-economic reform, he answered t h a t these changes c o u l d not be c a r r i e d out without a l t e r i n g the moral f o u n d a t i o n of s o c i e t y . Hence, the C.C.F. had a duty t o c l a r i f y i t s programme on t h i s p o i n t . As the d e p r e s s i o n was caused, a c c o r d -i n g t o the Pope, by the d e c l i n e o f m o r a l i t y , the C.C.F. had t o pay some a t t e n t i o n to moral reform. Otherwise, i t s s i l e n c e on these two p o i n t s was f u r t h e r proof t o LeVesque of i t s m a t e r i a l -ism. On the b a s i s of t h i s c r i t i q u e , Levesque was abl e t o conclude t h a t the C.C.F.: "...entre dans c e t t e c a t e g o r i e de s o c i a l i s m e 'attenue" e t moins i n t r a n s i g e a n t ' , dont p a r l e Quadragesimo anno, mais q u i r e s t e encore assez v r a i s o c i a l i s m e pour ne pas m i r i t e r ' 1'adhesion des c a t h o l i q u e s . " 5 7 He added t h a t i f the C.C.F. abandoned t h i s p o s i t i o n o r , i f i t c l e a r l y demonstrated t h a t t h i s was not i t s t r u e p o s i t i o n , t h e r e would be no reason t o r e s t r a i n C a t h o l i c s from p a r t i c i p a t -i n g i n i t . There was much i n the C.C.F. programme, he f e l t , t h a t C a t h o l i c s would f i n d a t t r a c t i v e . The f i r s t o f these was, " l e primat de l'homme dans l'economie, c ' e s t -S - d i r e l a s u b o r d i n a t i o n e f f e c t i v e e t complete des b i e n s , de l e u r p r o d u c t i o n e t de l e u r d i s t r i -b u t i o n aux besoins humains. I c i l e s Co-ops sont l o i n d ' e t r e m a t e r i a l i s t e s , i l s l e sont moins que nos c a p i t a l i s t e s devergondes."58 Other aspects i n c l u d e d the C.C.F.'s i n s i s t e n c e on a planned economy, i t s emphasis on the common good over p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s and i t s d e s i r e to broaden the scope o f s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n . -77-While Levesque i n s i s t e d on the t e n t a t i v e n e s s of h i s c o n c l u s i o n s , Msgr. Gauthier f e l t j u s t i f i e d the f o l l o w i n g year i n t a k i n g a s t r o n g e r p o s i t i o n on t h i s i s s u e . Drawing h e a v i l y on Levesque's c r i t i q u e without acknowledging i t and, a t the same time, t a k i n g i n t o account developments s i n c e i t had been w r i t t e n , Msgr. G a u t h i e r undertook to " d i r e c t " h i s f l o c k as t o how they should view the C.C.F. i n a sermon which the E.S.P. 59 p u b l i s h e d . Although Msgr. Gauthier i n d e l i v e r i n g h i s sermon p a i n t e d v i v i d word p i c t u r e s of the t h r e a t which Communism posed, he d e c l a r e d t h a t , "...ce n'est pas sous sa forme absolue e t b r u t a l e que l e communisme e s t et c r a i n d r e en ce pays ... l e s o c i a l i s m e - ce communisme a longue tcheance -e s t au c o n t r a i r e a redouter...."60 His purpose, he e x p l a i n e d , was to apply the j o i n t d e c l a r a t i o n of the Canadian h i e r a r c h y to the s p e c i f i c needs o f h i s d i o c e s e . The d e c l a r a t i o n , a c c o r d i n g to him, had condemned Communism and S o c i a l i s m i n g e n e r a l . Because the d e c l a r a t i o n had not named a s p e c i f i c group i n o r d e r t o make sure t h a t a l l forms were i n c l u d e d , t h e r e was o n e o r g a n i z a t i o n , he s a i d , which used t h i s as a s i g n o f a p p r o v a l . He r e p e a t e d l y s t r e s s e d t h a t i t was not h i s purpose to i n t e r v e n e i n p o l i t i c a l matters but simply to c a r r y out h i s duty as Archbishop and as c i t i z e n . He r e j e c t e d the C.C.F. complaint t h a t i t was o n l y the Quebec h i e r a r c h y which opposed i t by p o i n t i n g to the c r i t i c i s m which the C a t h o l i c news-paper, The P r a i r i e Messenger, had d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t the Saskatchewan 61 branch o f the p a r t y . From t h i s p o i n t of d e p a r t u r e , G a u t h i e r went on to r e i t e r a t e the p o i n t s which LeVesque had made but i n s t r o n g e r terms. -78-Gauthier d i d e l a b o r a t e , however, on c e r t a i n a spects of the C.C.F. which LeVesque had i g n o r e d or which had become ma n i f e s t a f t e r h i s study had been p u b l i s h e d . In p a r t i c u l a r , G a u t h i e r c r i t i c i z e d the C.C.F.'s stand on i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s . On one hand, he f e l t t h a t the Regina M a n i f e s t o ' s d e c l a r a t i o n on the r i g h t t o own p r o p e r t y among other t h i n g s went a g a i n s t the f a c t t h a t , " . . . l e s pays q u i r e s i s t e n t l e mieux a l a propagande communiste sont ceux 5u l a p e t i t e p r o p r i e t e e s t l e 6 2 p l u s repandue." On the o t h e r hand, he accused the C.C.F. of b e i n g too t o l e r a n t . S p e c i f i c a l l y , he q u e s t i o n e d : " . . . l e s sympathies t r o p bruyantes de l a C.C.F. pour 1'experience des S o v i e t s ? Les commentaires des Co-Ops autour de 1 ' a r t i c l e 98 ne sont pas moins s u g g e s t i f s . E t pourquoi ces p r o t e c t e u r s de 1'ordre n a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e n n e n t - i l s en faveur des communistes? E t pourquoi 1 ' a r t i c l e 12 du programme de Regina r g c l a m e - t - i l l a l i b e r t y de p a r o l e e t d'assemblee pour tous, sans exceptions evidemment pour l e s communistes r e v o l u t i o n n a i r e s ? " Another aspect on which Gauthier d i v e r g e d from Levesque was the q u e s t i o n of the C.C.F.'s a t t i t u d e towards the r i g h t s of the Church and of French Canadians. He was e s p e c i a l l y concerned w i t h i t s a t t i t u d e to e d u c a t i o n . L i k e LeVesque, he f e l t t h a t the C.C.F.'s programme was too vague. A r t i c l e 9, he p o i n t e d out, simply s t a t e d "the amendment of the C o n s t i t u t i o n without i n f r i n g i n g upon r a c i a l or m i n o r i t y r i g h t s " . To G a u t h i e r , t h i s a r t i c l e smacked of the infamous E r f u r t programme of the German S o c i a l i s t P a r t y which had d e c l a r e d , " r e l i g i o n , a f f a i r e p r i v e e " . Whereas the o t h e r p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , he admitted, might not be o v e r l y concerned w i t h m o r a l i t y , they a t l e a s t , -79-" . . . s 1 a d a p t e n t aux i n s t i t u t i o n s e t a b l i e s , e t par l e u r s c h e f s , maintes f o i s , a n o t r e connaissance, i l s ont f a i t du moins p r o f e s s i o n de s p i r i t u a l i s m e e t de c h r i s t i a n i s m e " . 6 3 He f e a r e d t h a t the C C F . would a b o l i s h the Senate, the l e g i s l a t i v e c o u n c i l s and p r o v i n c i a l r i g h t s without making c l e a r what the a l t e r n a t i v e s were. French Canada would then be "... sans defense dans l e grand t o u t canadien..." and might soon d i s c o v e r t h a t these reformers "... f o n t bon marche" de nos 64 i n s t i t u t i o n s , de nos d r o i t s e t de l a C o n s t i t u t i o n f g d i r a l e . " Msgr. Gauthier, u n l i k e F a ther Levesque, d i d not s h r i n k from r e a c h i n g f i r m c o n c l u s i o n s as to the nature of the C.C.F.. He expressed h i s b e l i e f t h a t , " l e s o c i a l i s m e ne s e r a t o u j o u r s que l e p r e c u r s e u r de communisme" and warned C a t h o l i c s to beware of the n o t i o n t h a t they c o u l d a l t e r i t by becoming members. I t was more l i k e l y , he s a i d , t h a t they would be i t s v i c t i m s . To under-l i n e t h i s a s s e r t i o n , he p o i n t e d to the f a t e of the Russian b o u r g e o i s i e which i n attempting to b r i n g about p o l i t i c a l change had opened the way f o r the B o l s h e v i k s . I f the a t t i t u d e of S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s towards Communism and S o c i a l i s m i s compared to t h e i r a t t i t u d e towards c a p i t a l i s m , some s i m i l a r i t i e s are n o t i c e a b l e . In both cases, the Pope out-l i n e d the d i r e c t i o n s to be f o l l o w e d . There e x i s t e d i n both cases d i f f e r e n c e s i n emphasis but there the s i m i l a r i t i e s ended. There i s no doubt t h a t , i n c o n s i d e r i n g the t h r e a t of Communism and S o c i a l i s m , the E.S.P. drew upon a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y of sources. Consequently i t s pamphlets recorded a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y of r e -a c t i o n s to t h i s t h r e a t than to c a p i t a l i s m . These r e a c t i o n s ranged from the c a l c u l a t e d attempt to d i s c r e d i t the C C F . to -80-t h e n e a r - h y s t e r i a of the Spanish c i v i l war p e r i o d . Another n o t i c e a b l e d i f f e r e n c e was the scope of the anti-Communist campaign. I t had to take i n t o account i n t e r n a t i o n a l and n a t i o n a l as w e l l as p r o v i n c i a l developments. There appears a l s o to have been a g r e a t e r degree of agreement on t h i s i s s u e . As a J e s u i t p r i e s t wrote: " l a r e s t a u r a t i o n de l ' o r d r e s o c i a l s e r a i t i m p o s s i b l e s i on l a i s s a i t p e n ^ t r e r dans l e s c l a s s e s p o p u l a i r e s l e v e n i n de l a d o c t r i n e b o l e h e v i s t e . " 6 5 Thus, i t d i d not matter i f the c o n t r i b u t o r s were c o n s e r v a t i v e s t r y i n g t o m a i n t a i n the s t a t u s quo or reformers hoping to see the triumph o f the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c programme; they agreed t h a t these c o l l e c t i v i s t d o c t r i n e s were the g r e a t e s t enemies of the Church. As a r e s u l t , they tended t o i g n o r e the d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t i n g w i t h i n and between the Communist and S o c i a l i s t movements. Even as they adopted a s c h o l a r l y approach, the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s never q u e s t i o n e d the r e l i a b i l i t y of t h e i r sources. Fear and hope made them b l i n d . -81-Chapter VI The Roots of the C a t h o l i c Programme I f most S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s appeared to agree t h a t c o l l e c t i v i s m i n i t s v a r i o u s forms was the main t h r e a t , what was to be t h e i r a t t i t u d e towards the e x i s t i n g socio-economic system? T h i s q u e s t i o n focusses a t t e n t i o n on the motives of the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s as, guided by the Church's s o c i a l d o c t r i n e s , they attempted to develop C a t h o l i c s o l u t i o n s t o the problems c r e a t e d by the d e p r e s s i o n . Because they were u s u a l l y too p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h t h i s task t o d i s c u s s t h e i r b a s i c assumptions at any l e n g t h , t h e i r fundamental views can o n l y be accumulated i n b i t s and p i e c e s . But the task i s n e v e r t h e l e s s necessary f o r i t was these assumptions t h a t gave the E.S.P.'s thought i t s o r i e n t a t i o n and u l t i m a t e l y , c o n t r o l l e d the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of i t s a c t i o n s . The f i r s t problem t h a t c o n f r o n t e d most o f the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s was how they should d e a l w i t h the obvious f a c t t h a t the e x i s t i n g socio-economic system had brought about the d e p r e s s i o n . Some of the e a r l y pamphlets t r i e d t o d i s m i s s the problem or to d i m i n i s h i t s importance. One author, f o r i n s t a n c e , a t t r i b u t e d the d e p r e s s i o n t o many causes, e s p e c i a l l y to World War I."*" He f e l t t h a t the c a p i t a l i s t system was the v i c t i m o f B o l s h e v i k propaganda. North America c o n t a i n e d too much evidence of the b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s of c a p i t a l i s m f o r these l i e s t o convince him. I f t h e r e were abuses, they were more n o t i c e a b l e i n Europe than i n North America. These abuses, i n any case, would -82-not be cured by Communism. In f a c t , he claimed t h a t i t was the f a i l u r e o f the S o v i e t Union t o repay huge loans t o German and B r i t i s h banks which caused a g e n e r a l economic c o l l a p s e . While few were so e x p l i c i t about i t , some S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s l i n k e d a n t i - c a p i t a l i s m t o pro-communism. Other commentators adopted a v a r i a t i o n o f t h i s theme. P e r r i e r summarized t h i s p o s i t i o n b e s t i n d i s c u s s i n g L ' E n c y c l i q u e 2 "Quadragesimo anno". While a d m i t t i n g t h a t the c a p i t a l i s t system had "...une grande r e s p o n s a b i l i t e dans l a t r i s t e s i t u a t i o n p r e s e n t e . . . . " , he s t a t e d t h a t i t was u n j u s t t o see i t as the s o l e cause, as many were wont t o do. Leo X I I I ' s dictum t h a t " l e t r a v a i l ne peut pas p l u s se passer du c a p i t a l , que l e c a p i t a l peut se passer du t r a v a i l " , i n h i s o p i n i o n , h e l d t r u e i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n . He contended t h a t "une l u t t e e t r o i t e e t aveugle" a g a i n s t c a p i t a l i s m would produce g r e a t e r misery and unemployment. A few wanted t o r e s t r a i n a n t i - c a p i t a l i s t i c emotions f o r moral reasons. Quebec's b i s h o p s , i n a n a l y z i n g the causes of the d e p r e s s i o n , judged i t to be " p i r i l l e u x e t i n j u s t e " to a t t a c k i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y a l l who had accumulated some wealth w h i l e i g n o r i n g the many s e r v i c e s these people performed f o r s o c i e t y . Another a t t i t u d e , which some of the E.S.P. group adopted, was a r e f u s a l t o reach any hard c o n c l u s i o n s , as t o what the i n d i v i d u a l or the group should do. M i n v i l l e , f o r example, a f t e r demonstrating i n a most l o g i c a l manner the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f c a p i t a l i s m f o r the d e p r e s s i o n concluded w i t h t h i s statement: -83-"Le c a p i t a l i s m e n 1 a r i e n en s o i q u i contredi.se l a morale...Le c a p i t a l i s t e a mieux §. f a i r e que d'entasser des r i c h e s s e s . I I a un r o l e s o c i a l S j o u e r . S i un j o u r , i l l e comprend, l a . p r o s p e r i t i e t l a p a i x rggneront dans l e monde." With a d i f f e r e n t emphasis but wi t h the same r e s u l t , a European c o n t r i b u t o r claimed t h a t the economic c r i s i s was a l i b e r a t i n g i n f l u e n c e because " l a c r i s e r e v i l e au monde l a v o i e q u i y mene A l l groups, whether l i b e r a l s , s o c i a l i s t s or communists, were seeking t o a l t e r the dominant v a l u e system i n or d e r t o subordinate p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s t o the common good. As the o n l y system which i n t e g r a t e d the b e s t which these p h i l o s o p h i e s had to o f f e r , C a t h o l i c s o c i a l d o c t r i n e , he was sure, would a t t r a c t i n c r e a s i n g l y a l l those who were seeking changes i n the p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n . Much l e s s complacent was another group of c o n t r i b u t o r s 5 to the E.S.P. . One member o f t h i s group, a f t e r a n a l y z i n g the f i n a n c i a l abuses which had l e d t o the c o l l a p s e of the economy, concluded t h a t the b e s t a l l i e s o f the Communists were the f i n a n c i e r s . Another f e l t t h a t one e f f e c t o f monopoly c a p i t a l i s m upon people was to make them more s u s c e p t i b l e t o Communist propaganda. The b e s t e x p r e s s i o n of t h i s f e e l i n g came from LeVesque who argued t h a t a l l measures from propaganda to l e g a l r e p r e s s i o n would be u s e l e s s a g a i n s t Communism un l e s s the r o o t causes of mass s u f f e r i n g were e l i m i n a t e d . Did these causes, he asked, e x i s t i n Quebec? And answered: -84-"Pour s'en c o n v a i n c r e , i l s u f f i t d 1 a v o i r l u l e s r e v e l a t i o n s honteuses que nous ont apportees c e r t a i n s r a p p o r t s de 1'enq.ue.te Stevens; d 1 a v o i r v i s i t s , autour de nos grands magasins regorgeant de marchandises, c e r t a i n s t a u d i s ou t a n t de nos bonnes f a m i l i e s s o u f f r e n t l e s p l u s dures p r i v a t i o n s ; d 1 a v o i r vu, aux p o r t e s de nos u s i n e s . . . , ces longues f i l e s de chomeurs...; d ' a v o i r r e n c o n t r t , sur des t e r r e s p o u r t a n t v a s t e s e t r i c h e s , des c u l t i v a t e u r s q u i , m a l g r i l e u r t r a v a i l e t l e u r bonne v o l o n t e , ne pouvaient p a r v e n i r S y s u b s i s t e r . " These men became i n c r e a s i n g l y b i t t e r i n t h e i r d e n u n c i a t i o n of c a p i t a l i s m f o r p r o v i d i n g the b r e e d i n g ground of Communism. Where d i d Archambault stand on t h i s i s s u e ? He wrote i n 1933 t h a t u n t i l the appearance of Quadragesimo anno the a t t i t u d e of C a t h o l i c s towards the e x i s t i n g o r d e r "...sans e t r e l o u a b l e 7 p o u v a i t i . l a r i g u e u r s ' e x p l i q u e " . The causes of the d i s a s t e r were obscure and the s o l u t i o n s were not obvious. There was f e a r t h a t an a n t i - c a p i t a l i s t a t t i t u d e would worsen the s i t u a t i o n . S ince Pius XI had spoken t h e r e c o u l d no l o n g e r be any h e s i t a t i o n on the p a r t of C a t h o l i c s . I t was the Pope h i m s e l f , Archambault emphasized, who had w r i t t e n : " I I y a v i o l a t i o n de 1'ordre...quand l e c a p i t a l n'engage l e s o u v r i e r s . . . q u ' e n vue d ' e x p l o i t e r H son gre e t 5 p r o f i t p e r s onnel l ' i n d u s t r i e e t l e regime economique t o u t e n t i e r , . . . . " S t i l l , P i u s XI had not condemned the system i t s e l f , Archambault s t r e s s e d , but i t s g r e a t abuses. Other S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s agreed w i t h him on the need to combat these abuses which bred s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e without d e s t r o y i n g the b e n e f i c i a l aspects of c a p i t a l i s m . The s t r o n g e s t a n t i - c a p i t a l i s t sentiment came from those S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s who judged i t s o p e r a t i o n on moral grounds. Abbe" G. C6te, c h i e f s p i r i t u a l a d v i s o r of the C.T.C.C, made the -85-o most e x t e n s i v e o f these assessments i n 1937. Not o n l y d i d he attempt to analyze the m o r a l i t y of contemporary c a p i t a l i s m but a l s o the r e a s o n i n g of those C a t h o l i c s who defended i t . Cote" s e t out to demonstrate, f i r s t o f a l l , the f a l s e n e s s o f the t h r e e b a s i c arguments of C a t h o l i c c o n s e r v a t i v e s . The 9 f i r s t o f these was the n e c e s s i t y to observe c o n t r a c t s . Cote admitted t h a t v a l i d c o n t r a c t s which promoted s o c i a l harmony should be r e s p e c t e d . These c o n t r a c t s , he i n s i s t e d , to be v a l i d must be e q u i t a b l e f o r a l l concerned. In many cases, he f e l t t h a t the s t a t e , f o r example, had s i g n e d c o n t r a c t s which were i n v a l i d and i l l i c i t such as those connected w i t h the e x p l o i t -a t i o n o f Quebec's n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . He asked: "Que d i r e de ces marches e f f e c t u e , par abus de pouvoir...pour a l i m e n t e r l a c a i s s e §lectorale;... que d i r e de ces marches dont l e s ' o b l i g a t i o n s ' f u r e n t constamment v i o l i e s , e t dont l a p l e i n e e x e c u t i o n a v a i t pour e f f e t s l e p i l l a g e d'un p a t r i m o i n e , une entrave i . l a c o l o n i s a t i o n . . . 1 ' e x p l o i t a t i o n de l a main-d'oeuvre, du consommateur e t des epargnants...." A second defense of c a p i t a l i s m , which to him, was not w h olly t r u e , was the c a l l f o r r e s i g n a t i o n i n the f a c e o f mass misery. Thos who argued t h i s way r e l i e d upon Pi u s X's a d v i c e g i v e n s e v e r a l decades p r e v i o u s l y to a group of v i s i t i n g C a t h o l i c s . The Pope, C6t€ argued, was r e f e r r i n g "...aux i n e g a l i t ^ s i r r e d u c t i b l e s e t u t i l e s : c e l l e s de l a n a t u r e , . . . " and not to "...des in£galit£s i n j u s t e s q u ' i l f a u t supprimer e t des i n i g a l i t ^ s i n u t i l e s q u ' i l f a u t r e s t r e i n d r e . P i u s X had i n s i s t e d upon the o b l i g a t i o n s which employers owed to t h e i r employees. S i m i l a r l y Leo XIII had demanded t h a t a j u s t r e l a t i o n -s h i p be e s t a b l i s h e d between the two groups. F a l s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s -86-of Papal thought, Cote admitted, would be a mere semantic e x e r c i s e i f the present s i t u a t i o n was not so grave and, i f so many were not i n c l i n e d "...S c o n s i d e r e r l e s e n c y c l i q u e s p o n t i f i c a l e s , non comme des documents a r e a l i s e r , mais comme des plans de d i s c o u r s a paraphraser. T h i r d l y , Cote d e c r i e d the f a i l u r e o f many C a t h o l i c s t o d i s t i n g u i s h between c a p i t a l i s m per se and the e x i s t i n g economic system which he c a l l e d " l e neo ou 1' h y p e r c a p i t a l i s m e " . The former was not condemned by the Pope nor c o u l d i t be condemned, as i t was but a form o f the r i g h t to own p r o p e r t y . The same r e s t r i c t i o n s d i d not apply t o the l a t t e r which he d e f i n e d w i t h the h e l p o f Pius XI as, " . . . l e m a l-etre, l a surabondance encadrant l a misdre, 'une poignte de r i c h e s e t une m u l t i t u d e d ' i n d i g e n t s ' 12 ...'.' I f looked a t i n the l i g h t of t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , Cote" f e l t t h a t n e o - c a p i t a l i s m would be seen not o n l y as immoral but as amoral and, hence, had to be brought under c o n t r o l . To support t h i s c o n t e n t i o n , Cote p o i n t e d t o the f a c t t h a t the dominant economic d o c t r i n e s were a t h e i s t i c . They s t i m u l a t e d the worship o f wealth and would r e c o g n i z e no l i m i t to i t s a c q u i s i t i o n and use. N e o - c a p i t a l i s m had, i n the words o f Leo X I I I , imposed a "...joug presque s e r v i l e ( s i c ) S l ' i n f i n i e 13 m u l t i t u d e des prol§taires." In denouncing t h i s s i t u a t i o n , i t was c l e a r t o Cote" t h a t both Leo XI I I and Pius XI had condemned the e x i s t i n g economic system. The type o f economic system which would meet the Church's requirements was s t i l l but an a b s t r a c t i o n . Another reason f o r condemning monopoly c a p i t a l i s m , the author d e c l a r e d , was the f a c t t h a t i t was a c t i v e l y a n t i - r e l i g i o u s . In t h e i r everyday t r a n s a c t i o n s , c a p i t a l i s t s a t t a c k e d the C h r i s t i a n concept t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l person i s the end o f a l l human a c t i v i t i e s . Instead they had transformed l a b o u r , a c c o r d -i n g t o Pi u s XI, i n t o "...une instrument de de p r a v a t i o n ; l a matigre i n e r t e s o r t e n n o b l i e de l 1 a t e l i e r , t a n d i s que l e s 14 hommes s'y corrompent e t s'y degradent." A t h i r d reason f o r condemning the e x i s t i n g economic system, C6te argued, was i t s m a t e r i a l i s t i c o u t l o o k . C a p i t a l i s t s had f o r a long time claimed t h a t , " . . . l e s exigences de l a morale sont i n c o m p a t i b l e s avec 1 1 idee du progres e t l a s e V e r i t e d'un b i l a n ; que l a q u e s t i o n du p r i x de r e v i e n t ne r e s s o r t i t a aucune £thique, e t que ceux q u i s' e n t e t e n t § v o u l o i r mettre un peu de j u s t i c e dans l a pagaie economique sont des i d S a l i s t e s , des gens' pas p r a t i q u e s ' , q u i ne co n n a i s s e n t pas l a ' j o i e ' d ' e t r e employeurs."15 T h i s a t t i t u d e was as r e s p o n s i b l e as Communist a g i t a t i o n f o r c o n v i n c -i n g the workers t h a t f o r c e was the o n l y means o f improving t h e i r l o t . On the b a s i s o f these f a c t s , C6te c o u l d not accept the arguments of those who c o u n s e l l e d c a u t i o n i n exposing the nature o f monopoly c a p i t a l i s m . Had not Pius XI denounced the p r o g r e s s i v e d e - C h r i s t i a n i z a t i o n o f the masses as a scandal? Was not c a p i t a l i s m d e s t r o y i n g the f a m i l y u n i t "...en j e t a n t l e s enfants a l a rue, l a femme a l ' u s i n e e t l'homme au f o y e r . . . ? " 1 6 Was i t not t h i s system which was s t i m u l a t i n g the growth of s t a t i s m , "...puisque 1'Assistance p u b l i q u e passe son temps a ramasser l e s r u i n e s cyniquement accumul^es par l u i , au nom du p r o f i t illimit£.... " as w e l l as the oth e r e v i l s which he had enumerated? Such a system had to be l o u d l y condemned. F a i l u r e t o do so -88-r i s k e d c r e a t i n g the dangerous impression t h a t " . . . l ' E g l i s e a p a r t i e l i e e avec l e c a p i t a l i s m e moderne...." The consequence of p r o c l a i m i n g the r i g h t s of p r o p e r t y to those who had no hope of a c q u i r i n g any would be to a l i e n a t e these people from the Church as had happened i n Europe. To a v o i d r e p e a t i n g t h i s e r r o r , C o t i b e l i e v e d t h a t i t was necessary to make i t unmistakeably c l e a r t o everyone t h a t the Church was not bound to any economic system. In support of t h i s p o s i t i o n , C a r d i n a l V i l l e n e u v e , a year l a t e r , expressed h i s b e l i e f t h a t those who wished the Church to remain s i l e n t wanted e i t h e r to p r o t e c t the s t a t u s quo 17 or t o promote t h e i r own ends. Most members of the E.S.P. group supported the Pope's c a l l f o r change i n the e x i s t i n g socio-economic o r d e r . His guide-l i n e s were of n e c e s s i t y very g e n e r a l . They d i d not answer such qu e s t i o n s as: what long-term goals should be e s t a b l i s h e d ? What s t r a t e g y should be adopted? How f a s t should these changes be implemented? What needs should be met immediately? I t was up to the E.S.P. to m o b i l i z e the r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e i n o r d e r to c a r r y out t h i s t a s k . A fundamental concern of the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s was the type of s o c i e t y which should r e p l a c e the e x i s t i n g one. P e r r i e r , i n d i s c u s s i n g t h i s complex q u e s t i o n , wrote t h a t s o c i a l reform d i d not mean l e v e l l i n g o f c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s but r a t h e r the 18 encouragement of more widespread ownership of p r o p e r t y . To another commentator, i t seemed t h a t c a p i t a l must be subordinated to the needs o f the workers and, i n t u r n , " . . . l e t r a v a i l de 1 ' e s p r i t d o i t primer l e t r a v a i l m a t e r i e l , q u ' i l d o i t l e d i r i g e r , -89-l ' o r i e n t e r , l e c onduire dans l a v o i e du p r o g r e s . . . . " Along the same l i n e , a c o n t r i b u t o r c i t e d w i t h a p p r o v a l a r e s o l u t i o n of French S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s who proposed to s t r i v e f o r , "...une s o r t e d'autorite" p a t e r n e l l e , ( s i c ) q u i d'une p a r t r e c o n n a i t r a i t aux t r a v a i l l e u r s tous l e s d r o i t s qu'exige l e u r c o l l a b o r a t i o n e t de 1*autre c r e e r a i t aiitour du groupement p r o f e s s i o n n e l une atmosphere vraiment f a m i l i a l e . . . . " For t h i s group, change tended to mean the r e s t o r a t i o n of a s t a b l e , w e l l - o r d e r e d s o c i e t y . Other c o n t r i b u t o r s to the E.S.P. had a d i f f e r e n t view as to where s o c i a l change should l e a d . Levesque was the f i r s t t o a r t i c u l a t e t h i s v i s i o n when he d e c l a r e d t h a t a l l reforms must aim t o , "...human!ser ( s i c ) n o t r e Sconomie...la mettre au s e r v i c e de l a personne ( s i c ) humaine, mais de toute l a ( s i c ) 19 personne humaine e t de t o u t e s l e s ( s i c ) personnes humames." To him t h i s meant t h a t a l l economic a c t i v i t i e s should be guided by the p r i n c i p l e o f s o c i a l u t i l i t y r a t h e r than p r o f i t - m a k i n g , t h a t c o r r u p t p r a c t i c e s such as Sunday work should be e l i m i n a t e d and t h a t a g r o s s l y unbalanced d i s t r i b u t i o n o f wealth should be r e p l a c e d by a more e g a l i t a r i a n one. In p a r t i c u l a r , the new s o c i a l system would seek to improve the l o t of " . . . l e s pauvres, l e s malades, l e s m§res n e c e s s i t e u s e s , l e s v i e i l l a r d s , l eSjeunes chomeurs...." Another S o c i a l C a t h o l i c d e s c r i b e d the i d e a l s o c i e t y as one i n which the a c t i o n s of the i n d i v i d u a l person, " . . . l a d i s p o s i t i o n q u ' i l f a i t de ses b i e n s , l e s c o n t r a t s qu:'il passe, l e s p r o f i t s q u ' i l r e a l i s e , sont j u s t i c i a b l e s d'un double c r i t e r e ; c e l u i de l ' u t i l i t e i h d i v i d u e l l e e t c e l u i de l ' i n t i r e t g e n e r a l . E t c ' e s t t o u j o u r s s e l o n ce d e r n i e r que se d o i t prononcer 1 ' a r r e t decisif."2° -90-Cote, f o r h i s p a r t , c a l l e d f o r a s o c i e t y t h a t would enable the workers to o b t a i n , "...avec l e p a i n , l a s e c u r i t e du lendemain e t l a j o i e de v i v r e . . . . " C a r d i n a l V i l l e n e u v e summed i t up b e s t when he a s s e r t e d t h a t the Church wanted "une j u s t i c e o r g a n i s e d " . T h i s meant, he e x p l a i n e d , t h a t s o c i e t y had to be o r g a n i z e d i n such a way t h a t those persons " . . . q u i e s s a i e n t de s ' a j u s t e r a l e u r d e v o i r e t s e l o n l e s regies de l e u r c onscience ne s o i e n t pas du meme f a i t ecrases....." For t h i s group, s o c i a l reform had to f a c i l i t a t e the growth o f the i n d i v i d u a l . Regardless of t h e i r aims, those who commented on the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c programme f e l t a sense of urgency i n r e a l i z i n g i t . Some S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s were s e t i n motion by the Pope's warning t h a t , i f t h i s was not done without d e l a y , "...on n ' a r r i v e r a pas 3. defendre e f f i c a c e m e n t l ' o r d r e p u b l i c ... contre 21 l ' a s s a u t des f o r c e s r e v o l u t i o n n a i r e s . " For o t h e r s , the m o t i v a t -i n g f o r c e was the c h a l l e n g e to b u i l d a s o c i e t y which c o n t a i n e d i n Levesque's words, " n i c a p i t a l i s m e v i c i S n i marxisme v i c i e u x " , a s o c i e t y based on C h r i s t i a n humanist p r i n c i p l e s . Some^like Archambault, were moved by both of these impulses a t the same time. O s c i l l a t i n g between the f e a r of Communism and an i n c r e a s -i n g h a t r e d of c a p i t a l i s m , the E.S.P. group embarked upon a quest f o r the C h r i s t i a n s o c i e t y . In f o r m u l a t i n g i t s o u t l i n e , they wavered between the requirements of s o c i a l o r d e r and of p e r s o n a l development. At the extremes, they came i n t o c o n f l i c t . I t was on these shaky foundations t h a t they proceeded to e r e c t a C a t h o l i c programme adapted to Quebec's needs and r e s o u r c e s . -91-Chapter VII The Role of the S t a t e i n the C h r i s t i a n S o c i e t y Given the urgency of the problem and the magnitude o f the tas k , the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s had t o t u r n t o the s t a t e f o r h e l p . In doing so, they asked themselves q u e s t i o n s such as: to what ex t e n t should the s t a t e be t r u s t e d t o c a r r y out changes? What types o f reforms should i t be r e q u i r e d to execute? Before they c o u l d answer these q u e s t i o n s adequately, however, they had to decid e what the r o l e o f the s t a t e would be i n t h e i r r e c o n s t r u c t e d s o c i e t y . A man who was to become a l e a d i n g French Canadian theo-l o g i a n , L. Chagnon, s . j . , was the f i r s t to d i s c u s s the proper r o l e o f the state.''' From Quadragesimo anno, Chagnon deduced s e v e r a l p r i n c i p l e s t o guide t h i n k i n g on t h i s s u b j e c t . The s t a t e , he argued, had a double task : on one hand, i t had to p r o t e c t the r i g h t s o f i n d i v i d u a l s and of a s s o c i a t i o n s as w e l l as a i d them i n t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s and on the oth e r hand, i t had to take charge when and where p r i v a t e groups were unable to cope wi t h the s i t u a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , i t had a s p e c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to care f o r the weak and the poor. I t s r o l e , i d e a l l y , was, as much as p o s s i b l e , t o encourage autonomous a s s o c i a t i o n s to c a r r y out these f u n c t i o n s by g r a n t i n g them the necessary a u t h o r i t y and funds. The s t a t e would then be f r e e , i n Pius XI's words, to " . . . d i r i g e r , s u r v e i l l e r , s t i m u l e r , c o n t e n i r , s e l o n l e comportent l e s c i r c o n s t a n c e s ou l ' e x i g e l a n e c e s s i t e . . . . " The crux o f the problem,was, as Chagnon asked h i m s e l f , "Pour e v i t e r l e s o c i a l i s m e , f a u t - i l condamner tou t e n a t i o n a l -2 i s a t x o n ? Dans q u e l l e mesure peut-on 1 1admettre?" The Pope had s t a t e d t h a t i n c e r t a i n cases i t was reasonable t h a t the s t a t e should take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the f u n c t i o n i n g of an e n t e r p r i s e because o f the danger f o r the common good i f l e f t i n p r i v a t e hands. For more s p e c i f i c d i r e c t i o n s on t h i s matter, Chagnon turned to the "Code S o c i a l e de M a l i n e s " which had been drawn up i n 1928. While r e c o g n i z i n g the l e g i t i m a c y o f n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n , the code s e t l i m i t s t o i t s use. The most important of these were t h a t j u s t compensation be p a i d , t h a t i t be used o n l y i n s p e c i f i c cases and t h a t the form adopted vary a c c o r d i n g to the s i t u a t i o n . T h i s b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n was not taken up again u n t i l 3 1938 when another t h e o l o g i a n gave i t a more e x t e n s i v e treatment. Yet, he had l i t t l e t o add to what Chagnon had a l r e a d y w r i t t e n except h i s marked p r e f e r r e n c e f o r j o i n t ventures by the s t a t e and p r i v a t e c a p i t a l and f o r autonomous r e g u l a t o r y agencies to f r e e the s t a t e from the r o l e of " . . . d o c i l e instrument de toutes l e s p a s s i o n s e t de toutes l e s ambitions de l ' i n t e r e t " , i n t o which, 4 a c c o r d i n g t o the Pope, i t had f a l l e n . As these were the o n l y d i s c u s s i o n s t o be found, t h e r e seemed to be a r e l u c t a n c e among othe r w r i t e r s to c o n s i d e r t h i s a spect of the problem. Whatever m i s g i v i n g s they may have had about the r o l e of the s t a t e , the f a c t remains t h a t Chagnon and a group of t h e o l o g i a n s drew up i n 1933 a s e t of g u i d e l i n e s f o r those w i s h i n g to reform the socio-economic o r d e r i n Canada.~* As t h i s programme was r e s t r i c t e d to g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s , a group of laymen developed a 6 second programme i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l . Added to s e v e r a l o t h e r -93-pamphlets on s p e c i f i c t o p i c s , these p r o p o s a l s made up the C a t h o l i c programme to be c a r r i e d out by the s t a t e . T h i s programme can be d i v i d e d i n t o approximately f i v e main areas of concern: f i n a n c i a l and c o r p o r a t e , p o l i t i c a l and legal,wages and s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n , a g r i c u l t u r e and c o l o n i z a t i o n , and, f i n a l l y , Communism and c i v i l l i b e r t i e s . By examining t h e i r comments on each aspect, i t should be p o s s i b l e t o g a i n some understanding o f the E.S.P.'s p r i o r i t i e s and, more important, i t s concept of the r o l e of the s t a t e . The l e a d i n g exponent of f i n a n c i a l and c o r p o r a t e reform i n 7 Quebec was Dr. P. Hamel. Drawing upon h i s e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h on the p r a c t i c e s of monopoly c a p i t a l i s m , he advocated a s e r i e s of reforms which would break the power of the " t r u s t s " , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h a t of e l e c t r i c i t y . To do t h i s he p r e f e r r e d t h a t the s t a t e e n t e r i n t o d i r e c t c o m p e t i t i o n r a t h e r than simply g r e g u l a t e them. T h i s approach he claimed would a v o i d the danger of one dominating the o t h e r . Where t h i s was inadequate, he proposed t h a t the s t a t e n a t i o n a l i z e those monopolies most f l a g r a n t i n v i o l a t i n g the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t such as the Beauharnois C o r p o r a t i o n and the Montreal L i g h t , Heat and Power C o r p o r a t i o n . He favoured e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t would permit m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o take these e n t e r p r i s e s over but he admitted t h a t where t h i s had been attempted the l o c a l governments had had to r e s i s t the heavy p r e s s u r e of the f i n a n c i a l i n t e r e s t s . As f a r as those " t r u s t s " which were not to be n a t i o n a l i z e d were concerned, Hamel intended to r a t i o n a l i z e t h e i r i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e so as to make f i n a n c i e r s d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e t o the - 9 4 -s m a l l i n v e s t o r s and to curb the growing power of h o l d i n g companies. Through these reforms, he hoped to make p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e work f o r the b e n e f i t of the consumers and s m a l l i n v e s t o r s . Wealth, as a r e s u l t , would be a c q u i r e d i n a more honest and r e s p o n s i b l e manner and, consequently, the r i s i n g d i s c o n t e n t would be e l i m i n a t e d . For Hamel, o n l y the s t a t e was s t r o n g enough to achieve these goals and most S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s seemed to agree w i t h him except f o r one who f e l t t h a t he had 9 not gone f a r enough. To make economic i n s t i t u t i o n s more r e s p o n s i v e , he urged t h a t the board o f d i r e c t o r s i n c l u d e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from a l l groups concerned, i n c l u d i n g the workers. He supported government a c t i o n to save i n v e s t o r s from a t o t a l l o s s of t h e i r savings because "une b o u r g e o i s i e r u i n S e d e v i e n t p l u s f a c i l e m e n t anarchique que l e p r o l e t a r i a t . . . . " Yet, he a l s o demanded t h a t those i n v e s t o r s who had not s u f f e r e d such l o s s e s share p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y i n the drop of income which o t h e r groups had experienced. In t h i s manner, some S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s hoped to use the s t a t e to break the economic power o f the f i n a n c i e r s and to render economic a c t i v i t i e s more r e s p o n s i v e to human needs. C l o s e l y r e l a t e d to economic reform was p o l i t i c a l reform. The commentator on t h i s p a r t of the programme claimed t h a t t h i s was i t s most c o n t r o v e r s i a l aspect y e t i t was a l s o the most narrow i n s c o p e . ^ These p r o p o s a l s were designed to break the domination o f the economic e l i t e over the p o l i t i c a l process and to render p o l i t i c s more honest and r e s p o n s i b l e and i t s admin-i s t r a t i o n more competent. To do t h i s , they c a l l e d f o r the end o f the p r a c t i c e of a p p o i n t i n g l e a d i n g p o l i t i c i a n s t o boards of d i r e c t o r s . They a l s o proposed, among o t h e r t h i n g s , t h a t newspapers d e c l a r e who t h e i r owners were, t h a t e l e c t o r s be asked to p r e s e n t i d e n t i t y cards and t h a t the f a t h e r of a f a m i l y be accorded more votes than a s i n g l e man. An economic c o u n c i l was to be c r e a t e d to ensure the competence of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and to p r o v i d e the r e s e a r c h f a c i l i t i e s needed i n making d e c i s i o n s These p o l i t i c a l reforms were as f a r as any c o n t r i b u t o r of the E.S.P. went d u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n i n t h i s r e s p e c t . More important, c o n s i d e r i n g the p r e v a l e n c e of unemployment and o f wage-cutting, were the p r o p o s a l s i n r e g a r d t o wages and o t h e r s o c i a l measures. Here, the stumbling b l o c k was d e c i d i n g e x a c t l y what i s a j u s t wage. Recognized as a key i s s u e , t h i s q u e s t i o n was d i s c u s s e d e x t e n s i v e l y by many E.S.P. c o n t r i b u t o r s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . A l l looked to the Pope f o r guidance. Pius XI, i n h i s w r i t i n g s , had simply s t a t e d t h a t e v e r y t i n g p o s s i b l e should be done so t h a t the workers would o b t a i n "... une s u f f i s a n t e abondance" i n order t h a t they might be a b l e to support a f a m i l y more e a s i l y . 1 1 Consequently, they had to look elsewhere f o r more p r e c i s e g u i d e l i n e s . Msgr. G a u t h i e r e x p l o r e d t h i s problem e a r l y i n the d e p r e s s i o n He s t a t e d t h a t the Code de Malines d e f i n e d " l e s a l a i r e v i t a l " as i n c l u d i n g the s u b s i s t a n c e o f a man and h i s f a m i l y and i n -surance a g a i n s t a c c i d e n t s , s i c k n e s s , old-age and unemployment. As the worker c o u l d not be t r e a t e d as a commodity he was e n t i t l e d t o t h i s wage. Having o b t a i n e d a j u s t wage, the Church demanded t h a t a l l p a r t i e s r e s p e c t t h e i r o b l i g a t i o n s and c a r r y out t h e i r d u t i r e s d i l i g e n t l y . In h i s d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s problem, Changnon -96-argued t h a t , " l e s a l a i r e d o i t permettre au t r a v a i l l e u r de r i p a r e r ses f o r c e s e t de v i v r e une v i e pleinement humaine, c ' e s t -13 1 - d i r e f a m i l i a l e . . . . To those who s c o f f e d a t t h i s concept of " l e s a l a i r e f a m i l i a l e " , he p o i n t e d out t h a t i t d i d not mean t h a t the p r i n c i p l e of "I t r a v a i l t l g a l , s a l a i r e e g a l " would be e l i m i n a t e d f o r i t was assumed t h a t the young worker would save any s u r p l u s f o r the time when he would have a f a m i l y o f h i s own. I t was a l s o assumed t h a t the f a m i l y would h e l p the f a t h e r t o some exte n t i n e a r n i n g enough t o meet t h e i r needs. He warned t h a t , i n a d d i t i o n t o these f a c t o r s , the s t a t e o f the p a r t i c u l a r i n d u s t r y and of the economy had to be c o n s i d e r e d . A l l S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s who wrote on t h i s q u e s t i o n agreed t h a t the wage l e v e l must be enough to f o s t e r a happy f a m i l y l i f e . In p a r t i c u l a r , they were concerned t h a t i t be enough t o encourage the mother t o 14 sta y a t home. F a i l u r e t o pay such a wage, i n Cote's eyes, 15 c o n s t i t u t e d robbery. To supplement t h i s wage, most S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s agreed o t h e r measures were needed. Foremost among these was a system of f a m i l y allowances. Such a system would serve as " . . . l a r e t r i b u t i o n du s e r v i c e s o c i a l e rendu par l e s f a m i l i e s nombreuses." The Pope had a l s o encouraged attempts t o develop a comprehensive scheme of s o c i a l i n surance as w e l l as worker p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the c o n t r o l and b e n e f i t s o f i n d u s t r y but i t was o n l y i n h i s l a s t e n c y c l i c a l , D i v i n i Redemptoris, t h a t he recommended a system o f 17 i n s u r a n c e a g a i n s t o l d age, s i c k n e s s and unemployment. A l t o g e t h e r these p r i n c i p l e s comprised the t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r the C a t h o l i c p r o p o s a l s i n t h i s a r ea. The a c t u a l programme of the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s , commented upon by A. C h a r p e n t i e r , P r e s i d e n t of the Montreal C o u n c i l of the 18 C.T.C.C, tended to f o l l o w these g u i d e l i n e s . The methods to be used i n r e a l i z i n g these goals were a l i s t o f s o c i a l measures combined w i t h , as w i l l be seen, e x t e n s i v e s t r u c t u r a l reform. Noteworthy amongst the l a t t e r was the p r o p o s a l t h a t the govern-ment extend c o l l e c t i v e agreements to achieve minimum standards i n a g i v e n s e c t o r . In sum, the C.T.C.C, C h a r p e n t i e r d e c l a r e d i n a l a t e r d i s c u s s i o n of these p r o p o s a l s , supported, "...une l e g i s l a t i o n f a m i l i a l e . . . , q u i permette a l ' o u v r i e r de s a l a i r e moyen ... de f a i r e , en e i e v a n t sa f a m i l l e , quelques economies e t de s ' e d i f i e r lentement une maisonnette; c a r ^ l ' o u v r i e r p r o p r i e t a i r e e s t un p i l i e r de 1'ordre s o c i a l . " In d i s c u s s i n g the reasons f o r the p r o p o s a l s advanced by h i s group, C h a r p e n t i e r warned: " I I f a u t e v i t e r de f a v o r i s e r l e s s e u l s o u v r i e r s , ce q u i a c c e n t u e r a i t l'exode r u r a l v e r s l e s c e n t r e s „n u r b a i n s e t s e r a i t i n j u s t e pour l e s a g r i c u l t e u r s . " The main concern behind t h e i r a g r i c u l t u r a l reforms, as the P r e s i d e n t of the C a t h o l i c Farmers' Union, l ' U . C . C , wrote, was t h a t , "La t e r r e d o i t e t r e remise a l a premiere p l a c e dans l e s p r e occupations des d i r i g e a n t s . Toute r e n o v a t i o n s o c i a l e d o i t 21 commencer par 1 ' a g r i c u l t u r e , base economique d'une n a t i o n . " Apart from p r o v i d i n g r e s e a r c h and e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , the r o l e o f the s t a t e i n b r i n g i n g t h i s about c o n s i s t e d , f o r the most p a r t , of a i d i n g the farmers' e f f o r t s . The S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s b e l i e v e d t h a t , by a s s o c i a t i n g w i t h each o t h e r , the farmers c o u l d s o l v e most o f t h e i r problems. When i t came to c o l o n i z a t i o n however, t h e i r a t t i t u d e changed somewhat. -98-What e x a c t l y should the s t a t e do to promote c o l o n i z a t i o n ? Those authors who d i s c u s s e d t h i s q u e s t i o n agreed w i t h M i n v i l l e 22 t h a t the s t a t e had a major r o l e t o p l a y . I t had to c r e a t e a s i t u a t i o n whereby the c o l o n i s t would no lo n g e r appear, "... s e l o n 1'angle sous l e q u e l on se p l a c e , ou comme un p a r i a ou comme un heros..." and, i n t h i s way, make i t as a t t r a c t i v e a way of l i f e as t h a t o f the urban worker. At the same time, i t had to a v o i d f o s t e r i n g " . . . l e c u l t e de l ' E t a t e Providence...." Any a i d t h a t i t pr o v i d e d should never be i n the form o f a d i r e c t g r a n t , "instrument au s u r p l u s de f a v o r i t i s m e e t meme de c o r r u p t i o n . . . . " but as a reward f o r e f f o r t , even i f t h i s e f f o r t b e n e f i t t e d the c o l o n i s t h i m s e l f . I t should c r e a t e , t h e r e f o r e , a system o f grants which would encourage the s e t t l e r to develop h i s l a n d and to ma i n t a i n i t no matter how d i f f i c u l t the economic s i t u a t i o n became. The s t a t e should a l s o ensure t h a t the s e t t l e r s always had a market a t a f a i r p r i c e f o r pulpwood. As f o r the oth e r types o f a i d , they should be granted i n a form t h a t would b e n e f i t the community such as the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f roads, s c h o o l s , churches, e t c . . I f the c o l o n i s t needed s p e c i a l h e l p , M i n v i l l e i n s i s t e d t h a t i t be p r o v i d e d through c o l o n i z a t i o n s o c i e t i e s . At the summit, he hoped t h a t the government would s e t up a commission to r e s e a r c h and to develop a c o l o n i z a t i o n p l a n , thereby e l i m i n -a t i n g p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e as a f a c t o r . Because, i n h i s o p i n i o n , c o l o n i z a t i o n was i t s most urgent and important t a s k , M i n v i l l e demanded t h a t the government, above a l l , a s s i g n i t a highe r p r i o r i t y when drawing up the p r o v i n c i a l budget. D i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y , the s t a t e , i n the minds o f the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s , was v i t a l to the success o f c o l o n i z a t i o n . -99-The f i f t h aspect of the C a t h o l i c s o c i a l programme which the E.S.P.'s c o l l a b o r a t o r s developed d i f f e r e d from the o t h e r f o u r i n i t s n e g a t i v e c h a r a c t e r . I t was the p a r t most commented on and i t changed i n emphasis w i t h new developments. T h i s aspect of the programme was concerned w i t h the Communist t h r e a t . What, the E.S.P. group asked, should the s t a t e do to e l i m i n -ate the Communist menace? Tur n i n g to Quadragesimo anno, they read the passage d e p l o r i n g , "...1 1 i n s o u c i a n c e de ceux q u i , n t g l i g e a n t l e p e r i l q u i nous menace de ce c6t§...la l i g e r e t i q u i . . . l a i s s e s u b s i s t e r un e t a t de choses q u i f o u r n i t l e t e r r a i n f a v o r a b l e au mtcontentement l e g i t i m e , e t q u i pepare a i n s i l e s v o i e s § une r e v o l u t i o n mondiale."23 In the e a r l y p a r t o f the d e p r e s s i o n , most of the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s who wrote on t h i s problem tended to c o n c e n t r a t e on the need to break o f f a l l r e l a t i o n s - and e s p e c i a l l y t r a d e - w i t h the S o v i e t 24 Union. But they came to see w i t h P e r r i e r t h a t the r o o t s of Communism would not be e r a d i c a t e d by, "...de v a i n e s d e n o n c i a t i o n s des crimes p e r p e t r i s H Moscou, ...en i n t e r d i s a n t 1'entree au Canada du charbon r u s s e (au p r o f i t des c a p i t a l i s t e s q u i monopolisent l a p r o d u c t i o n e t 1'importation des charbons g a l l o i s e t a m g r i c a i n s ) , q u i t t e §. f r a t e r n i s e r avec l e s ' m e u r t r i e r s ' de Leningrad pour r i g u l a r i s e r l e cours du b l e . " G r a d u a l l y the emphasis of the anti-Communist campaign s h i f t e d i n l i n e w i t h the Pope's t h i n k i n g to the e l i m i n a t i o n of those f a c t o r s on which Communism t h r i v e d . I f s o c i a l reform was a powerful weapon a g a i n s t Communism, r e p r e s s i v e measures, to the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s , were not to be i g n o r e d . P i u s XI had denounced those who " . . . l a i s s e n t se propager de t o u t e s p a r t s des d o c t r i n e s q u i , par l a v i o l e n c e e t l e meurtre, -100-25 vont a l a d e s t r u c t i o n de l a S o c i e t y t o u t e n t i ^ r e . " Archambault took the l e a d i n demanding s t r o n g e r measures a g a i n s t a n t i -r e l i g i o u s propaganda and s t r i c t e r enforcement o f e x i s t i n g laws, 26 p a r t i c u l a r l y of S e c t i o n 98 of the C r i m i n a l code. Repeatedly, E.S.P. c o n t r i b u t o r s r a n g i n g from laymen t o C a r d i n a l V i l l e n e u v e demanded tougher measures a g a i n s t Communist a c t i v i t i e s . The climax o f t h i s campaign appears to have been reached i n the years 1936-1937. At demonstrations o r g a n i z e d to p r o t e s t the presence i n Quebec of supporters o f the Spanish Republican f o r c e s , r e s o l u t i o n s were passed c a l l i n g f o r immediate a c t i o n on the p a r t of the government i n r e s p e c t t o Communist a c t i v i t i e s and to 27 s o c i a l reform. E q u a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t was the presence of the r e c e n t l y - e l e c t e d Premier, Maurice D u p l e s s i s , a t the Quebec 28 demonstration. There, i n an impromptu speech, he asked the f e d e r a l government to h a l t the use of the m a i l s f o r propaganda purposes and c o n g r a t u l a t e d the students of the U n i v e r s i t e de Montreal who had d i s r u p t e d a p r o - L o y a l i s t g a t h e r i n g . T u r n i n g to C a r d i n a l V i l l e n e u v e , he o f f e r e d him, " . . . l a p l u s s i n c S r e c o l l a b o r a t i o n de mon gouvernement dans toutes l e s i n i t i a t i v e s que vous voulez b i e n prendre." In May, 1937, " l a l o i protegeant l a p r o v i n c e c o n t r e l a propagande communiste", b e t t e r known as the Padlock law, was adopted. The c o n t r o v e r s y over the nature of c i v i l l i b e r t i e s which the Padlock law aroused l e d the E.S.P. to p u b l i s h a t r a c t 29 e n t i t l e d Doit-on t o l i r e r l a propagande communiste? T h i s t r a c t condensed the t h i n k i n g o f S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s on t h i s matter. -101-The author based h i s defense o f the Padlock law on thr e e main p r o p o s i t i o n s . The f i r s t concerned the nature o f l i b e r t y . A l l t h a t was necessary t o possess l i b e r t y , a c c o r d i n g t o him, 3 0 was t h a t a man "...peut 5 son gre a g i r ou ne pas a g i r . " He d i d not need the a b i l i t y t o choose between good and e v i l . C a r d i n a l V i l l e n e u v e had made t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n q u i t e c l e a r when he spoke a g a i n s t those c l a i m i n g " l i b e r t y t g a l e accordee a 1*enfant comme §. l ' a d u l t e , a l'homme s a i n e t au d i t r a q u e , au c i t o y e n digne e t au bagnard, H c e l u i q u i defend l ' E t a t e t a 31 1'autre q u i l e t r a h i t . . . . " Each i n d i v i d u a l , i n the C a r d i n a l ' s o p i n i o n , had t o be accorded l i b e r t y i n p r o p o r t i o n t o h i s s t a t e ; p h y s i c a l and mental, t o be e x e r c i s e d w i t h i n the l i m i t s o f the common good as d e f i n e d by n a t u r a l law, by d i v i n e law and by wise human laws. The second p o i n t the author made concerned freedom o f e x p r e s s i o n . Was i t abs o l u t e ? To say yes meant t h a t good and e v i l were put on an equal f o o t i n g . Leo XI I I had condemned such l i b e r t y . The author contended t h a t , " . . . l e d r o i t ( s i c ) e s t une f a c u l t y morale de f a i r e ou d' e x i g e r quelque chose. E t comme l ' o n ne peut f a i r e que l e b i e n e t non l e mai, i l ne peut y a v o i r aucun d r o i t a f a i r e l e mai."32 He added t h a t , g i v e n the n a t u r a l tendency o f man towards e v i l and giv e n the i n a b i l i t y o f most men t o undertake the r e s e a r c h necessary t o r e f u t e f a l s e r e a s o n i n g , i t was more than l i k e l y t h a t such freedom would c o r r u p t most people. As the s t a t e ' s f i r s t duty was to p r o t e c t the r i g h t s o f i t s members amongst which were, " . . . c e l u i de c o n n a i t r e l a v e r i t e , e t d ' e v i t e r que ne s o i e n t mis -102-en p e r i l l e s p r i n c i p e s premiers q u i sont a l a base de l ' o r d r e s o c i a l . . . " , i t c o u l d not t o l e r a t e a b s o l u t e freedom o f e x p r e s s i o n 33 without d e s t r o y i n g i t s e l f . Leo X I I I , w h i l e making i t q u i t e c l e a r t h a t the Church c o u l d not accept t h a t the freedom o f thought, o f e x p r e s s i o n , and of conscience were n a t u r a l r i g h t s , had s t a t e d t h a t , i t c o u l d accept under c e r t a i n circumstances t h a t they be t o l e r a t e d "...pourvu qu'un j u s t e temperament l e s 34 empeche de d§ggn§rer j u s q u 1 a l a l i c e n c e e t au d€sordre." In any case, the common good must s e t the l i m i t s . I t f o l l o w e d , t h e r e -f o r e , t h a t r e v o l u t i o n a r y , a t h e i s t i c i d e o l o g i e s which a t t a c k e d the r o o t s o f s o c i a l o r d e r should never be allowed t o develop. On the b a s i s o f these p r i n c i p l e s , i t was c l e a r t o the author why Communism c o u l d never be t o l e r a t e d and why the Pope had r e p e a t e d l y denounced i t as the g r e a t e s t t h r e a t t o c i v i l i z a t i o n . Because of i t s d e s t r u c t i v e nature, the author d e c l a r e d t h a t , to prevent Communism from winning, " . . . l ' o n p o u r r a , s i l e s autres c o n d i t i o n s n ^ c e s s a i r e s S c e t t e f i n sont r ^ u n i e s , a l l e r jusqu' 35 au r e c o u r s aux armes i n c l u s i v e m e n t . " The government, t h e r e -f o r e , was f u l l y j u s t i f i e d i n t a k i n g those measures which would prevent Communism from becoming a t h r e a t . C r i t i c s who claimed t h a t such measures were in c o m p a t i b l e w i t h , " . . . l e s l i b e r t e s s i §tendues dont se vantent l e s grandes dSmocraties'", i g n o r e d the f a c t t h a t many democratic regimes had been r e p l a c e d by non-democratic ones, "...parce que l ' o n n'a trouve que dans un regime fortement concentre l e remede adequat a l a menace tr§s 36 r € e l l e . " Many democratic c o u n t r i e s such as the Scandinavian ones had not made t h i s e r r o r . He concluded by l a u d i n g the -103-f e d e r a l c a b i n e t which, "malgrt l a p r e s s i o n formidable exercee sur eux par nos grands pourfendeurs des E t a t s t o t a l i t a i r e s e t du fascisme...ont eu l e courage e t l e me r i t e de r e f u s e r de dtsavouer l a l o i du cadenas...." In t h i s manner, the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s i n v a r y i n g degrees hoped t o e r e c t a C h r i s t i a n s o c i e t y w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e o f the s t a t e . There developed, however, two major o b s t a c l e s t o the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the s t a t e 1 s r o l e . One o f these, as a c l o s e a s s o c i a t e o f Dr. Hamel noted i n a speech d e l i v e r e d to the a n t i -Communist assembly a t which D u p l e s s i s was t o speak, was t h a t , "Les gouvernants, meme ceux-IS qu 1une formule democratique semble mettre p a r t i c u l i e r e m e n t au s e r v i c e du peuple s o u f f r a n t , sont beaucoup t r o p ^7 l e n t s a imposer l a p o l i t i q u e s o c i a l e c h r e t i e n n e . . . . " The o t h e r o b s t a c l e which was to grow i n importance wi t h time, was the q u e s t i o n o f j u r i s d i c t i o n . Most o f these reforms r e q u i r e d c l o s e f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l c o o p e r a t i o n . I f , as one S o c i a l C a t h o l i c was l a t e r to remark, the f e d e r a l government assumed c o n t r o l over s o c i a l l e g i l s l a t i o n , " E l l e d e v i e n d r a i t necessairement d ' i n s p i r a t i o n a n g l a i s e e t p r o t e s t a n t e , c a r on v o i t d i f f i c i l e m e n t , meme avec beaucoup d* i m a g i n a t i o n , l e gouvernement f e d e r a l mettre en p r a t i q u e e t r g a l i s e r au pays 2 l e s recommendations que l e Pape donne aux c a t h o l i q u e s . . . . " Having no obvious means of overcoming these o b s t a c l e s and, i n many ways, a c t u a l l y c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e i r growth, the E.S.P. group was to see i t s reform programme l o s e i t s i n i t i a l f o r c e as many p r o p o s a l s were d i s c a r d e d o r m o d i f i e d . The presence o f such o b s t a c l e s c o u l d not streng t h e n what was f o r many an a l r e a d y weak f a i t h i n the e f f i c a c y o f the s t a t e as an instrument f o r reform and must have r e i n f o r c e d the b i a s o f many S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s -104-f o r s t r u c t u r a l reforms. I t i s t h i s important aspect of t h e i r programme which must now be examined. -105-Chapter V I I I The C a t h o l i c A l t e r n a t i v e s t o Monopoly C a p i t a l i s m Many members of the E.S.P. group looked upon p o l i t i c a l reforms as r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t term measures. What was needed, i n the long run, were s t r u c t u r a l changes which would ensure t h a t the d e p r e s s i o n would never r e c u r and t h a t the C h r i s t i a n c o n c e p t i o n of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s would triumph. During the p e r i o d under study, the French Canadian S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s tended to envisage the means of accomplishing these goals i n two ways. The f i r s t was the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r e w i t h i t s concomitant, c o l o n -i z a t i o n , and the second was the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the e x i s t i n g system of economic r e l a t i o n s by the c r e a t i o n of c o r p o r a t i o n s . The E.S.P.'s c o n t r i b u t o r s tended to c o n c e n t r a t e on the former a t the b e g i n n i n g and the l a t t e r a t the end of t h i s p e r i o d but both were c o n s t a n t l y on t h e i r minds. What they hoped to accomp-l i s h through these reforms and how they hoped to do i t w i l l be the concern o f t h i s chapter. At a conference on c o l o n i z a t i o n h e l d i n 1932, Archambault observed t h a t the d e p r e s s i o n had exacerbated French Canada's p o p u l a t i o n problem. 1 Yet, i t had a l s o renewed i n t e r e s t i n c o l o n i z i n g u n s e t t l e d areas of the p r o v i n c e . He proposed, t h e r e -f o r e , t h a t the group e x p l o i t t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y to make c o l o n i z a t i o n the most important task of French Canadians, more important, "...que l e developpement de l ' i n d u s t r i e , l a c o n f e c t i o n de ponts, de canaux, e t de routes M 1'usage des t o u r i s t e s , e t meme l e progres des a r t s e t des l e t t r e s . " -106-J . E. L a f o r c e , who was to become the M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e under D u p l e s s i s , remarked, at the same conference, t h a t i f Canada had 1500 more a g r i c u l t u r a l p a r i s h e s , such a market would be c r e a t e d f o r i n d u s t r y as to e l i m i n a t e the d e p r e s s i o n . He a l s o b e l i e v e d t h a t many who had l e f t the farm now r e a l i z e d t h a t i t p r o v i d e d an o c c u p a t i o n , " . . . c i l a longue p l u s assures que ceux procures par l e t r a v a i l § des u s i n e s souvent im-p r o d u c t i v e s ou l e p e l l e t a g e de l a neige pour l e s c o r p o r a t i o n s 2 m u n i c i p a l e s . " A few months l a t e r , the h i e r a r c h y d e c l a r e d t h a t , "Le r e t o u r a l a t e r r e e t l e s o u c i de chaque f o y e r de p r o d u i r e par lui-meme ce q u i l u i e s t n t c e s s a i r e , c o n s t i t u e , avec l a p r a t i q u e de l'economie, l a p l u s profonde s o l u t i o n humaine du probleme a c t u e l . . . . " 3 The most comp e l l i n g argument i n favour o f c o l o n i z a t i o n a t t h i s time, as one author put i t , was t h a t " l a c l a s s e a g r i c o l e , t o u t en r e s s e n t a n t l e s rudes coups de l a d e p r e s s i o n , n'a pas manqu§s 4 de p a i n . " The nature of a g r i c u l t u r e , he f e l t , f o r c e d even the most f o o l i s h t o e x e r c i s e some f o r e s i g h t f o r he was, a t once, the employer and the employee. No matter how low the p r i c e s dropped, the farmer would always be a b l e to s u b s i s t . The d e p r e s s i o n , i n e f f e c t , c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n f o r many S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s the t r e n d towards the g r e a t e r i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and u r b a n i z a t i o n o f Quebec. To one author, the d e p r e s s i o n was an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t French Canadians c o u l d not hope to g a i n c o n t r o l 5 o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . T h e i r " a s p i r a t i o n s r e l i g i e u s e e t n a t i o n a l e " were used as excuses to o s t r a c i z e them. Proof of t h i s was, -107-" . . . l e s r a i s o n f u t i l e s invoqu^es pour nous marchander ou nous, r e f u s e r ce q u i nous r e v i e n t de 1 1 admin'stration de l a chose pub l i q u e e t de l a d i s t r i b u t i o n des emplois dans l e s compagnies de chemins de f e r e t d 1 u t i l i t y p u b l i q u e . . . . " The i n f l u e n c e French Canadians d i d have came from t h e i r c o n t r o l over a g r i c u l t u r e . I f they were to escape becoming a n a t i o n "de s e r v i t e u r s e t de s a l a r i e s " they had to c l i n g t o the s o i l . Chagnon, i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f the C a t h o l i c programme, condemned "1 1 a g r i c u l t u r e s p e c u l a t i v e " f o r s t i m u l a t i n g the " d e s e r t i o n " o f the l a n d and o v e r - p r o d u c t i o n of f o o d s t u f f s . For another commentator, i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n was a c c e p t a b l e o n l y i f i t comple-7 mented a g r i c u l t u r e . The h i e r a r c h y , i n 1937, condemned the b e l i e f f o s t e r e d by u r b a n i z a t i o n t h a t , " . . . l a c o n d i t i o n de c u l t i v a t e u r en e s t une a l a q u e l l e on ne d o i t se rSsoudre que de g mauvais gr e . . . . " I t was c l e a r to many of the E.S.P.'s c o n t r i -b u t o r s t h a t the urban way o f l i f e had f a i l e d and, t h e r e f o r e , a r e t u r n to a more s a t i s f y i n g mode was needed. A r e t u r n to a g r i c u l t u r e would s a t i s f y , a c c o r d i n g t o them, not o n l y the i n d i v i d u a l 1 s economic and s o c i a l needs but a l s o h i s c u l t u r a l and r e l i g i o u s a s p i r a t i o n s . M i n v i l l e , f o r one, s e t out to demonstrate the b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s a c o l o n i z a t i o n programme 9 would have f o r French Canadians. He contended t h a t French Canada was caught i n a p a r a d o x i c a l s i t u a t i o n . As an e c o n o m i c a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y weak s o c i e t y , i t depended on a h i g h b i r t h r a t e to s u r v i v e . Yet, as the c i t i e s f i l l e d w i t h the unemployed t e s t i f i e d , i t c o u l d not meet the needs of i t s members. Ob v i o u s l y , what French Canada needed was a socio-economic system t h a t would -108-g i v e these people a chance to develop t h e i r t a l e n t s . But, to M i n v i l l e , i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n was not the answer because French Canadians l a c k e d the c a p i t a l , the s k i l l s , the s p i r i t and, above a l l , the numbers. Furthermore, pa s t experience had made i t p l a i n t h a t such a p o l i c y , even i f implemented by French Canadians, would render them v u l n e r a b l e to o t h e r economic c r i s e s , t o the continued u p r o o t i n g of t h e i r farmers and to a f a l l i n g b i r t h r a t e . The o n l y s o l i d economic base was the l a n d . Hence, a c o l o n i z a t i o n programme was r e q u i r e d . I t would r e d r e s s the economic i l l s o f which the d e p r e s s i o n was a symptom; i t would p r o v i d e openings young people needed, " . . . t a n t que dans l e s l i m i t e s de l a p r o v i n c e de Quebec d'abord, de l a Confederation cai^dienne e n s u i t e , i l r e s t e r a une acre de t e r r e c u l t i v a b l e ^ " and i t would assure "... 1'accroissement normal en nombre e t en q u a l i t e . . . " of the p o p u l a t i o n . 1 0 Haste was e s s e n t i a l as e n f o r c e d i d l e n e s s and p u b l i c r e l i e f were d e s t r o y i n g French Canada's human r e s o u r c e s . I f h i s p l a n was c a r r i e d out, he was c o n f i d e n t t h a t , "Cent ans ... d'un e f f o r t methodique, e t t o u t e s l e s t e r r e s c u l t i v a b l e s de l ' e s t du Canada, sauf p e u t - e t r e l a p i n i n s u l e o n t a r i e n n e , a p p a r t i e n d r o n t aux gens de n o t r e sang. Les c r i s e s a l o r s pourront v e n i r , a u s s i dures qu'on p u i s s e l e s imaginer. La France d'Amerique...sera assuree de son a v e n i r . " i l As v a r i o u s E.S.P. commentators s t r e s s e d r e p e a t e d l y , c o l o n i z a t i o n would a l s o safeguard French Canada's r e l i g i o u s v a l u e s . I t would take c h i l d r e n away, i n L a f o r o e ' s words, from "...des ta v e r n e s , des s a l e s Schoppes ou l a j u i v e r i e vend a temperament, de l a deformation que l a v i l l e donne t r o p souvent 12 aux d e r a c i n e s q u ' e l l e f i n i t par t u e r lentement." The b e n e f i t s -109-of a g r i c u l t u r e , i n the o p i n i o n o f another S o c i a l C a t h o l i c , w e r e even g r e a t e r than t h i s f o r , " . . . l a r e l i g i o n n'a jamais eu chez nous de m e i l l e u r e sauvengarde n a t u r e l l e que 1 ' a c t i o n c o l o n i s a t r i c e e t l a v i e des champs...Les r e l a t i o n s y sont p l u s c o r d i a l e s , l e s j o i e s p l u s pures, l a n a t a l i t y p l u s e i e v e e , parce que l a morale co n j u g a l e e t f a m i l i a l e y e s t p l u s honor^e. De 1§. des moeurs d'un c h r i s t i a n i s m e sans d e f a i l l a n c e ou se preparent l e s grands C h r e t i e n s , oil germent l e s nombreuses v o c a t i o n s s a c e r d o t a l e s e t r e l i g i e u s e s q u i di b o r d e n t sur toutes l e s plages de l ' u n i v e r s , au b e n e f i c e des mi s s i o n s etrangeres."13 I f t h i s was to co n t i n u e , he was convinced t h a t French Canadians had t o remain an a g r i c u l t u r a l people. In t h i s a ppeal, he was j o i n e d i n 1937 by the h i e r a r c h y who admitted, "...que tou t e l a t r a d i t i o n e c c l ^ s i a s t i q u e montre une estime s i n g u l i ^ r e pour 1 ' a g r i c u l t u r e . . . . Archambault claimed t h a t as f a r back as Msgr. Bourget's f i r s t l e t t e r on the s u b j e c t i n 1848, the c l e r g y had l e d the c o l o n i z a t i o n movement i n French Canada. Others claimed t h a t i t was Msgr. L a v a l who had f i r s t committed the Church to c o l o n i z a t i o n . In any case, a group of p r i e s t s d e d i c a t e d t o the promotion of c o l o n i z a t i o n , " l e s m i s s i o n n a i r e s c o l o n i s a t e u r s " , had long been i n e x i s t e n c e . Now as i n the p a s t , t h e i r task and t h e i r motives remained the same: the maintenace of the a l l i a n c e between the l a n d , the language and the f a i t h . Although t h e r e was l i t t l e t h a t the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s o f Quebec c o u l d f i n d i n Papal pronouncements t o support t h e i r c l a i m s on b e h a l f o f a g r i c u l t u r e , the f a c t was t h a t f o r many, e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g the f i r s t h a l f o f the d e p r e s s i o n , i t was the most a t t r a c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e to the dominant system. Impercept-i b l y , however, the emphasis changed as the Pope's w r i t i n g s came -110-to be b e t t e r understood. From a g r i c u l t u r e , the a t t e n t i o n o f the E.S.P. s h i f t e d to c o r p o r a t i s m . Aided by European S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s , the Quebec branch proceeded t o study and to develop the most e l a b o r a t e aspect o f t h e i r programme. No oth e r a s p e c t , except Communism, was to r e c e i v e so much a t t e n t i o n and support. No oth e r aspect was to be so misunderstood. To what purpose d i d these men support corporatism? Quadragesimo anno suggested t o C a r d i n a l V i l l e n e u v e t h a t " . . . l a s o c i e t y e s t mai b a t i e . " 1 ^ S o c i e t y had to be r e o r g a n i z e d by s u b s t i t u t i n g , a c c o r d i n g t o Pius XI, "...des organes b i e n c o n s t i t u t s , des ord r e s ou des p r o f e s s i o n s q u i groupent l e s hommes, non d'apres l a p o s i t i o n q u ' i l s occupent sur l e marche du t r a v a i l , mais d'apres l e s d i f f i r e n t e s branches de l ' a c t i v i t e s o c i a l e a u x q u e l l e s i l s se r a t t a c h e n t . " l ^ T h i s would e l i m i n a t e , C a r d i n a l V i l l e n e u v e b e l i e v e d , s i t u a t i o n s where gains on b e h a l f o f the workers would be made a t the expense of the farmers or where wage i n c r e a s e s l e d to the c o l l a p s e o f an i n d u s t r y o r t o a weakening of i t s c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n . I t would a l s o h a l t the t r e n d towards g r e a t e r s t a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n i n socio-economic matters. Such a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the economy would f o s t e r , i n P e r r i e r ' s words, "...d'une p a r t , 17 c e t t e j u s t e soumission a l'empechera d ' e t r e e x c e s s i v e Through t h i s reform the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s hoped t o r e d r e s s the imbalances which they d e t e c t e d i n the e x i s t i n g s o c i e t y . More important, on the lo n g run, such a r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n of the economy would l e a d t o a change i n p e r s o n a l v a l u e s . By u n i t i n g s c i e n c e , c a p i t a l and labour w i t h i n one l e g a l framework, c o r p o r a t i s m would b r i n g about a b e t t e r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the - I l l -worth o f la b o u r , o f the needs of a p a r t i c u l a r i n d u s t r y and of the 18 requirements o f the common good. I t would remind a l l concerned, E. D u t h o i t , P r e s i d e n t o f the French Semaines S o c i a l e s wrote, t h a t "Tous o n t . . . 1 1 o b l i g a t i o n morale - sans p a r I e r de 1 ' i n t S r e t b i e n compris - de cooperer au b i e n commun de l e u r m i l i e u 19 p r o f e s s i o n n e l . " Corporatism would compel them t o a c t i n t h i s manner, M u l l e r claimed, without v i o l a t i n g t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l freedom. In the pr o c e s s , i t would f u l f i l l man's need t o l i v e and develop through c l o s e and co n s t a n t c o n t a c t w i t h h i s peers and would i n c r e a s e h i s awareness of the bonds which l i n k e d him to the community. What, the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s asked themselves, do these goals r e q u i r e ? By u n i t i n g those most concerned i n a giv e n e n t e r -p r i s e , c o r p o r a t i s m would enable them t o study and to r e s o l v e 20 t h e i r common problems. They would n e g o t i a t e , a c c o r d i n g t o M u l l e r , the c o l l e c t i v e agreements a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e i r s e c t o r of the economy and e s t a b l i s h the r u l e s and p e n a l t i e s t o ensure i t s o p e r a t i o n . Each group w i t h i n the c o r p o r a t i o n , however, would r e t a i n i t s autonomy and by advancing i t s p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r -e s t s counter-balance the power of the o t h e r s . As one comment-a t o r ptit i t , "Le b i e n commun ne forme pas une masse compacte e t homogene dont l a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n p u i s s e e t r e avantageusement c o n f i e e a un organisme  unique; ( s i c ) i l y a des p a l i r s e t des etages  dans l e b i e n commun ( s i c ) e t a chaque p a l i e r e t , a chaque etage, i l c o n v i e n t q u ' i l a i t sa r e p r e s e n t a t i o n propre...."21 The S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s hoped, i n t h i s manner, t o s t r u c t u r e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n the economic system so as to promote a -112-r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of d i v e r g i n g i n t e r e s t s . D u t h o i t f e l t t h a t t h e r e was another and, c o n s i d e r i n g the c h a o t i c economic s i t u a t i o n , more important dimension to c o r p -22 o r a t i s m . I t would c r e a t e "l'iconomie ordonner", thereby a v o i d -i n g the e v i l s o f l a i s s e r f a i r e and of s t a t i s m . U n l i k e the former, i t would s t a b l i z e p r o d u c t i o n and u n l i k e the l a t t e r , i t would p r e s e r v e i n d i v i d u a l i n i t i a t i v e . Most w r i t e r s on t h i s t o p i c , however, emphasized i t s r o l e i n promoting s o c i a l harmony. The most d i f f i c u l t and most c o n t r o v e r s i a l q u e s t i o n which c o r p o r a t i s m r a i s e d concerned i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the s t a t e . Pius XI c a l l e d upon the s t a t e to l e a v e to these i n t e r m e d i a t e b o d i e s , " . . . l e s o i n des a f f a i r e s de moindre importance ou se d i s p e r s e r a i t a l ' e x c e s son e f f o r t ; e l l e pourra des l o r s a s s u r e r p l u s l i b r e m e n t , p l u s puissamment, p l u s e f f i c a c e m e n t l e s f o n c t i o n s q u i n'appartiennent qu'a e l l e parce q u ' e l l e s e u l e peut l e s remplir...."23 For D u t h o i t as f o r most S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s , t h i s meant t h a t the c o r p o r a t i o n would r e l i e v e the s t a t e " . . . d e t o u t ce q u i peut e t r e r e g i t avantageusement su s e i n meme de l a p r o f e s s i o n . T h e s t a t e ' s r o l e would be l i m i t e d to s a n c t i o n n i n g the d e c i s i o n s of the c o r p o r a t i o n s . M u l l e r t r i e d to a l l a y the m i s g i v i n g s which had a r i s e n on t h i s q u e s t i o n . To those who argued t h a t i t c o u l d not come i n t o b e i n g without the f o r c e and d i s c i p l i n e of a d i c t a t o r i a l regime behind i t , he r e p l i e d t h a t , on the c o n t r a r y , t r u e c o r p o r a t i s m "...ne peut s ' i p a n o u i r e t p r o s p t r e r que sous un regime de l a r g e l i b e r t y , compatible nianmoins avec un p o u v o i r f o r t e t r e s p e c t ^ , s t r i c t e m e n t cantonne dans l ' e x e r c i c e de ses f o n c t i o n s n a t u r e l l e s . " 2 5 -113-T o t a l i t a r i a n regimes, such as those found i n I t a l y and Germany, by t h e i r very nature c o u l d not r e s p e c t the autonomy of any group. Furthermore, t o succeed c o r p o r a t i o n s had to develop "...en tenant compte du temperament n a t i o n a l , de ses t r a d i t i o n s , de sa s i t u a t i o n economique." Hence th e r e were many types of co r p o r a t i s m . To those who complained t h a t i t would s e v e r e l y weaken the power of the s t a t e , M u l l e r answered t h a t , w h i l e i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h a d i c t a t o r s h i p , c o r p o r a t i s m d i d r e q u i r e a s t r o n g government to e s t a b l i s h the p r e - c o n d i t i o n s f o r i t s s u c c e s s f u l implementation. Others claimed t h a t once e s t a b l i s h e d c o r p o r a t i s m 2 6 would st r e n g t h e n the s t a t e i n many ways. By d e c e n t r a l i z i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , i t would enable the s t a t e to concern i t s e l f w i t h the main i s s u e s ; by o r g a n i z i n g economic a c t i v i t i e s i n a h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e , i t would make economic and s o c i a l develop-ment more o r d e r l y and by mobilizing the e x p e r t i s e t o be found i n each s e c t o r , i t would enable the government t o make wis e r d e c i s i o n s i n socio-economic matters. Some t r a d e - u n i o n i s t s b e l i e v e d t h a t , by de m o c r a t i z i n g the decision-making process w i t h i n i n d u s t r y , c o r p o r a t i s m would a l s o r e i n f o r c e p o l i t i c a l democracy. E q u a l l y d i f f i c u l t t o r e s o l v e was the problem of how c o r p o r a t i s m should be implemented i f the s t a t e was to have a r e s t r i c t e d r o l e . M u l l e r had to admit t h a t , " . . . n u l l e p a r t encore on n*a decouvert l a formule d e f i n i t i v e , dresse" l e p l a n 27 standard sur quoi r e o r g a n i s e r uniformement tou t e v i e s o c i a l e . " T h i s was not r e a l l y a problem f o r , as M u l l e r noted, "chaque branche de l ' a c t i v i t e economique reclame une d i s c i p l i n e adaptee -114-a sa s t r u c t u r e e t §. ses b e s o i n s . " Each s e c t o r , t h e r e f o r e , had to develop i t s c o r p o r a t i o n on the b a s i s of experience r a t h e r than a p r i o r i . A more formidable problem, to him, was t h a t the groups who were b e i n g asked to c r e a t e t h i s u n i f y i n g organism l a c k e d the s p i r i t of c o o p e r a t i o n . And t h i s s p i r i t c o u l d not be c r e a t e d by decree. In a d d i t i o n , c o r p o r a t i s m r e q u i r e d s k i l l e d l e a d e r s h i p i f i t was to succeed. These q u a l i t i e s c o u l d o n l y be developed through p a t i e n t and g r a d u a l e d u c a t i o n a l work. Consequently those who c o n s i d e r e d t h i s technique to be too slow to end the d e p r e s s i o n were t u r n i n g to more r a d i c a l s o l u t i o n s . M u l l e r q u e s t i o n e d t h e i r assumption t h a t t h i s work would be a slow p r o c e s s . They o n l y had to look around them t o see, " . . . l e nombre imposant d ' i n s t i t u t i o n s p r i c o r p o r a t i v e s d i j a e x i s t a n t e s -s y n d i c a t s . . . e n t e n t e s , accords, c o n t r a t s c o l l e c t i f s , e t c . - q u i : c o n s t i t u e n t pour l'oeuvre a e d i f i e r de p r e c i e u s e s amorces dont 1'experience a d i j a r e v i l e l a p u i s s a n t e e f f i c a c i t i . " 2 8 What e l s e had to be done? These elements had to be c o o r d i n a t e d and developed w i t h the c o l l a b o r a t i o n of men o f g o o d w i l l u n t i l the c o r p o r a t i o n s had the o r g a n i z a t i o n , the s k i l l and the a u t h o r i t y to take over from the s t a t e . The c h i e f o b s t a c l e to i t s implementation, M u l l e r f e l t , was the d i s t r u s t of t r a d e - u n i o n i s t s who saw c o r p o r a t i s m o n l y as an 29 attempt to d i v i d e them. I t was t r u e t h a t some supporters of the concept had a l s o seen i t i n t h i s l i g h t and had i n t e r p r e t e d P i u s XI's demand t h a t "...§. ces c l a s s e s opposies on s u b s t i t u e ( s i c ) des organes b i e n c o n s t i t u e s . . . " a c c o r d i n g l y . M u l l e r argued t h a t i n t h i s case the Pope was r e f e r r i n g t o the s o c i a l o r d e r and not -115-t o unions. Where unions had been i n f e c t e d by r e v o l u t i o n a r y i d e o l o g i e s , they undoubtedly c o u l d not be i n t e g r a t e d i n the new s t r u c t u r e u n t i l these elements had been purged. Otherwise the formula to be f o l l o w e d was " l e s y n d i c a t l i b r e dans l a p r o f e s s i o n o r g a n i s e e . " The a l t e r n a t i v e was to f o r c e C h r i s t i a n s to j o i n unions "...dont l e s p r i n c i p e s e t l e s programmes s e r a i e n t en c o n t r a d i c t i o n avec l e s l e g i t i m e s exigences de l e u r s c o n s c i e n c e s . 1 1 W i t h i n the c o r p o r a t i o n , the union would have the r i g h t t o be c o n s u l t e d and to share i n i t s c o n t r o l . T h i s r i g h t was to be e x e r c i s e d o n l y a t t h a t l e v e l and not a t the p l a n t l e v e l , f o r a r a t i o n a l d i v i s i o n of power based on competence had to be main-t a i n e d . With each group o r g a n i z e d and i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h i n the c o r p o r a t i v e framework, M u l l e r was convinced t h a t t h i s would soon l e a d them t o r e s o l v e t h e i r d i s p u t e s on the b a s i s of e q u i t y r a t h e r than of s t r e n g t h . C h r i s t i a n unions had much to do to develop w i t h i n t h e i r members t h a t sense of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and t h a t s p i r i t o f c o o p e r a t i o n necessary to make c o r p o r a t i s m a r e a l i t y . F i n a l l y , M u l l e r had to c o n s i d e r the ways i n which the s t a t e c o u l d f a c i l i t a t e t h i s p r o c e s s . What were they? He attempted to answer t h i s q u e s t i o n by examining the v a r i o u s attempts t h a t had been made to i n t r o d u c e c o r p o r a t i s m . The Dutch experiment, he suggested, had f a i l e d because of i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l economic c o m p e t i t i o n and because of the r e l u c t a n c e of the government t o grant these c o r p o r a t i o n s more than c o n s u l t a t i v e powers. T h i s r a i s e d the q u e s t i o n of when the government should i n t e r v e n e to make the c o r p o r a t i o n s v i a b l e . He concluded t h a t much depended -116-on the government f o r , " s ' i l s a i t l i b e r a l e m e n t p a r t a g e r avec eux ses r e s p o n s a b i l i t e s en matiere s o c i a l e e t yconomique, l e u r a s s i g n e r un p o u v o i r r§glementaire e t e x e c u t i f Stendu, l e s C o n s e i l s p r o f e s s i o n n e l s ne t a r d e r o n t pas 3. prendre profonderaent r a c i n e dans l a v i e gconomigue...."31 Looking a t the F a s c i s t v e r s i o n , he c o u l d not h e l p approving the r a d i c a l change i n a t t i t u d e which M u s s o l i n i had brought about. A c c o r d i n g to M u l l e r , " . . . l e denouement a l a chose publique a etS remis en honneur dans tous l e s m i l i e u x . . . . " While he c o u l d excuse the way c o r p o r a t i s m had been imposed, he c o u l d not accept the f a c t t h a t the s t a t e r e t a i n e d a g r e a t d e a l of c o n t r o l over i t s o p e r a t i o n . He had to agree wi t h the Pope t h a t the F a s c i s t corp-o r a t i o n s had "...un c a r a c t ^ r e exagereinent b u r e a u c r a t i q u e e t p o l i t i q u e . . . . " T h i s was t r u e not o n l y of the F a s c i s t c o r p o r a t i o n s but of the unions as w e l l . The same c o u l d be s a i d of the Nazi v e r s i o n . Two other experiments, however, met the requirements l a i d down i n Quadragesimo anno. One was i n the county of F r i b o u r g , S w i t z e r l a n d and had not been i n o p e r a t i o n long enough to show i f 32 i t would be a success and the o t h e r was P o r t u g a l . The most la u d a b l e aspect of the Portuguese experiment was t h a t i t granted the r i g h t w i t h i n c e r t a i n l i m i t s t o those concerned to develop the type of c o r p o r a t i o n t h a t would b e s t meet t h e i r needs. The s t r o n g -e s t c r i t i c i s m t h a t c o u l d be made of i t was t h a t the s t a t e had c r e a t e d the employers* a s s o c i a t i o n and had decreed which union each group was to j o i n . T h i s decree, of course, appeared to v i o l a t e a fundamental p r i n c i p l e of C a t h o l i c c o r p o r a t i s m . But, -117-asked M u l l e r , i s t h i s freedom of c h o i c e a b s o l u t e ? Wherever unions were too weak or the workers unable to o r g a n i z e themselves or were a l l C a t h o l i c s , the s t a t e was j u s t i f i e d , i n the w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n , i n c r e a t i n g s i n g l e unions f o r each economic s e c t o r p r o-v i d e d they were not animated with a s p i r i t c o n t r a r y t o the Church's t e a c h i n g s . Thus M u l l e r c l e a r e d the way f o r S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s to c i t e P o r t u g a l as proof t h a t t h e i r concept o f c o r p o r a t i s m was v i a b l e . C orporatism as a s o l u t i o n f o r Quebec's i l l s r e c e i v e d a g r e a t d e a l o f support from the E.S.P.*s c o n t r i b u t o r s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . Yet o n l y two of them produced a d e t a i l e d p l a n f o r i t s a p p l i c a t i o n . As these two programmes d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n aim and method, they should t o be examined i n some d e t a i l . 33 The e a r l i e s t o f these was w r i t t e n by M i n v i l l e . His aim was to c o r r e c t the weaknesses t h a t had l e d to the d e p r e s s i o n . He proposed to do t h i s by u s i n g c o r p o r a t i s m to r e c o n s t r u c t French Canadian s o c i e t y , "...sur une base n o u v e l l e , a d a p t i e desormais a n o t r e temperament e t aux exigences de n o t r e s i t u a t i o n . . . . " Many wanted to break the power of monopolies f i r s t but he reminded them t h a t t h i s problem was merely a symptom o f an o l d e r problem: the absence of a n a t i o n a l purpose. An a n t i - t r u s t campaign might improve the standard of l i v i n g of the working c l a s s but, M i n v i l l e wondered, f o r how l o n g . He asked: "...depuis quand l e progres d'un peuple s 1 a p p r e c i e - t - i l b\ l a q u a l i t e du menu q u o t i d i e n de ses masses o u v r i e r e s ou a u t r e s ? Probleme de c u l t u r e avant t o u t , q u i concerne done l e coeur e t 1 ' e s p r i t au moins autant que l ' a p p a r e i l d i g e s t i f . . . . " 3 4 -118-The mass exodus from the farms, the p r o l e t a r i a n i z a t i o n of s m a l l p r o p e r t y owners and the i d l e n e s s of the young were j e o p a r d i z i n g the s u r v i v a l of French Canada. Corporatism, i n h i s judgment, was the o n l y way to remedy these i l l s . M i n v i l l e ' s main concern was overcoming the o b s t a c l e s to the implementation of c o r p o r a t i s m . Because of the problems r a i s e d by geography and law, he concluded t h a t i t should o n l y be a p p l i e d i n Quebec. There, the most formidable o b s t a c l e was the heterogenrous nature of the p o p u l a t i o n . Not o n l y was t h i s so but the economic power was a l s o h e l d by the E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g m i n o r i t y . How c o u l d they be expected to adopt c o r p o r a t i s m when " . . . l e u r r i c h e s s e e t l e u r p u i s s a n c e , i l s l e s d o i v e n t , du moins c r o i e n t l e s d e v o i r . . . ! l a formule d ' o r g a n i s a t i o n s o c i a l e que nous voulons 35 changer." Any scheme t h a t they c o u l d not accept " . . . e s t aussit6t t a x i de r a d i c a l i s m e , v o i r e de communisme, e t d i s c r e d i t s mithodiquement par eux." The o n l y way t h i s b a r r i e r c o u l d be surmounted was, he b e l i e v e d , by the a p p l i c a t i o n of c o r p o r a t i s m o n l y to s e c t o r s c o n t r o l l e d by French Canadians. There was much to recommend t h i s approach to M i n v i l l e . For one t h i n g , French Canadians were a very homogeneous group -c u l t u r a l l y and s p i r i t u a l l y . For another, as the p r o v i n c e s had the j u r i s d i c t i o n over t h i s area, t h e r e would be no c o n s t i t u t i o n a l problem. In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e e x i s t e d between the two major c u l -t u r a l groups, "...une d i f f e r e n c e d ' a p t i t u d e , de g i n i e ethnique q u i voue 1'un e t 1'autre groupe a une c a r r i d r e iconomique, s i n o n e s s e n t i e l l e m e n t , du moins sensiblement d i f f i r e n t e . " 3 6 -119-Th i s f a c t was manifested i n the tendency o f French Canadians t o succeed i n s m a l l and medium-scale e n t e r p r i s e s w h i l e the E n g l i s h -Canadians c o n t r o l l e d the huge c o r p o r a t i o n s . For these reasons, M i n v i l l e recommended t h a t French Canadians proceed t o r e o r g a n i z e the economic s e c t o r s under t h e i r c o n t r o l a c c o r d i n g t o c o r p o r a t i v e d o c t r i n e s and, thereby improve t h e i r economic p o s i t i o n . He d i d not dwell on the t e c h n i c a l aspects o f c a r r y i n g out t h i s p o l i c y . He f e l t c o n f i d e n t , however, t h a t , once c o r p o r a t i s m was i n o p e r a t i o n , the q u e s t i o n would soon a r i s e as t o the r o l e o f the E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g m i n o r i t y o f Quebec. When t h i s happened, he hoped t h a t each group would have formed p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s on the b a s i s o f r e l i g i o n . Once these groups were brought t o g e t h e r i n a c o r p o r -a t i o n , the process o f m a j o r i t y r u l e would e l i m i n a t e the power of the "economic d i c t a t o r s " . Quite d i f f e r e n t was the a t t i t u d e o f the man who was to become the l e a d i n g t h e o r e t i c i a n o f c o r p o r a t i s m i n Quebec, 37 M a x i m i l i e n Caron, p r o f e s s o r o f law a t the U n i v e r s i t e de Montreal. He c i t e d A French S o c i a l C a t h o l i c who had warned h i s c o l l e a g u e s to remember t h a t the purpose of corpoatism was not to absorb " . . . l a personne humaine dans un v a s t e organisme, mais a l ' e n c a d r e r dans un or d r e humain 5u chacun, se sente a l a f o i s p l u s responsable de sa d e s t i n e e e t p l u s capable de f a i r e l e ch o i x n i c e s s a i r e q u i d o i t l e mener un j o u r a l a v i s i o n de Dieu." Caron saw i n t h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f c o r p o r a t i s m the means of e l i m i n a t -i n g t h a t o f t e n f a t a l weakness o f democracy, the f a c t t h a t , "... tous se r i c l a m a i e n t de l a democratie, mais ne l a v i v a i e n t pas. 38 > Aucun s o u c i de l ' u t i l i t e commune ne l e s a n i m a i t . " By p r o v i d i n g i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h a framework w i t h i n which they c o u l d e f f e c t i v e l y p r o t e c t t h e i r r i g h t s and c o u l d c l e a r l y understand t h e i r o b l i g a t i o n s , -120-Caron hoped t h a t c o r p o r a t i s m would develop a sense of community. F o l l o w i n g the g u i d e l i n e s c o n s t r u c t e d by the European S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s , Caron d i s c u s s e d the p r a c t i c a l aspects of the implement-a t i o n of c o r p o r a t i s m i n g r e a t d e t a i l . There i s no need t o analyze h i s programme except i n a g e n e r a l way. To a t t a i n an o r d e r l y and j u s t economy, he, l i k e most c o r p o r a t i s t s , d i v i d e d the power and the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s between l o c a l , r e g i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l c o r p o r a t i o n s . These b o d i e s , i f they were to overcome the o b s t a c l e s i n t h e i r path, had to be e r e c t e d step by step and had to adapt themselves t o the p a r t i c u l a r needs of the area and of the economic s e c t o r served. By c l e a r l y demonstrating i t s b e n e f i c i a l i n f l u e n c e i n t h i s way, he was convinced, c o r p o r a t i s m would win support. At the same time, he urged t h a t a campaign should be undertaken to prepare the way by m o b i l i z i n g p u b l i c o p i n i o n and by f u r t h e r i n g economic d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n through c o o p e r a t i v e s . As a r e s u l t of these and o t h e r a c t i o n s , Caron envisaged the emergence o f a more humane s o c i e t y . I t was w i t h i n t h i s c ontext of i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i n c o r p o r a t i s m as a long-term s o l u t i o n t o the d e p r e s s i o n t h a t the E.S.P.'s c o n t r i b u t o r s turned t h e i r a t t e n t i o n i n the l a t t e r p a r t o f t h i s p e r i o d t o the r o l e o f C a t h o l i c unions. What they con-c e i v e d t h a t r o l e t o be m e r i t s some study. Archambault was quick to see i n C a t h o l i c unions, "...une des digues l e s p l u s p u i s s a n t e s que n o t r e pays p u i s s e d r e s s e r 39 c o n t r e l e communxsme...." He enumerated t h e i r b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s as f o l l o w s : -121-"Non seulement on y combat directement l e s t h e o r i e s b o l c h e v i s t e s , on y enseigne au t r a v a i l l e u r l a d o c t r i n e c h r i t i e n n e , on f o r t i f i e son attachement a l ' E g l i s e e t a l ' o r d r e s o c i a l , mais, en o u t r e , par l e u r s oeuvres i c o n o m i q u e s . . . i l s rendent son e x i s t e n c e moins dures, p l u s humaine, e t c o n t r i b u e n t par 15 H f a i r e d i s p a r a i t r e ce ferment d ' a n a r c h i e . . . . " C a r d i n a l V i l l e n e u v e , w h i l e echoing t h i s p r a i s e , took p a r t i c u l a r s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the f a c t t h a t , " l e u r s rdglements e t 1 ' a c t i o n de l e u r s aumoniers c o n s t i t u e n t une di g u e . . . c o n t r e t o u t e i d e e 40 s u b v e r s i v e e s s a i e r a i t de l e s e n v a h i r . " A r e l a t e d task which the P r e s i d e n t o f the C.T.C.C. was pl e a s e d t o d e s c r i b e a t an a n t i -Communist demonstration was to r i d Quebec of the h u m i l i a t i n g f a c t t h a t , "...depuis pr§s d'un demi-si§cle, une grande p a r t i e du t r a v a i l organise" s ' e s t d e v e l o p p i e sous l e s o u f f l e m a t e r i a l i s a n t de 1 ' e s p r i t a m i r i c a i n avec l a connivence de chefs canadiens mai i c l a i r i s . Thus, the C a t h o l i c unions were performing, as they had i n the pa s t , an important i d e o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , as Archambault had noted, the C.T.C.C. continued to p r e s e n t the C a t h o l i c a l t e r n a t i v e t o the workers. One l e a d e r of the C.T.C.C. a s s e r t e d t h a t two b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s guided C a t h o l i c unions. The f i r s t was t h a t a l l men"...ne d o i v e n t pas 42 e t r e c o n s i d i r i s comme des o u t i l s e t comme des ins t r u m e n t s . . . . " The second was t h a t , "...tous l e s hommes ... sont foncierement igaux (je d i s foncierement e t non pas absolument)." I t was because o f these p r i n c i p l e s t h a t the C.T.C.C. attempted to sh o r t e n the work week so t h a t the worker would have the l e i s u r e to belong "...a' une E g l i s e e t pour p r a t i q u e r sa r e l i g i o n . . . . " , t o shor t e n -122-the working day so t h a t the worker c o u l d develop "... son i n -t e l l i g e n c e , j o u i r de son f o y e r e t p o u r v o i r H l ' e d u c a t i o n de ses e n f a n t s . . . " and to c l a i m a reasonable wage so t h a t he would not have t o l i v e l i k e "...une bete sans r a i s o n e t sans i n t e l l i g e n c e . " For these reasons, he a l s o supported the c l o s e d shop. Another l e a d e r o f the C.T.C.C. s t r e s s e d the d e s i r e o f C a t h o l i c unions t o e s t a b l i s h , "...des r e l a t i o n s c o r d i a l e s e t harmonieuses e n t r e 43 patrons e t ouvriers...." He emphasized the need t o c o n s i d e r the employers 1 p o i n t o f view and the need t o r e s p e c t t h e i r mutual o b l i g a t i o n s . As c o n f l i c t s , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , c o u l d not be avoided, he s t a t e d t h a t s t r i k e s should o n l y be the l a s t r e s o r t and, then, undertaken o n l y i f c e r t a i n r e s t r i c t i o n s were observed. In d i s c u s s i n g the reforms which the C.T.C.C. advocated, C h a r p e n t i e r a l s o gave f i r s t p r i o r i t y t o the maintenance of harmonious r e l a t i o n s . Both o f these t a s k s - combating i d e o l o g i c a l enemies and promoting the C a t h o l i c programme - were merely a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the o r i g i n a l r o l e o f the C.T.C.C.^ What was new, or a t l e a s t g i v e n more emphasis a t t h i s time, was the concept embodied i n the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c p r o p o s a l which became i n 1934 " l a l o i r e l a t i v e 3. 44 1'extension des conventions c o l l e c t i v e s de t r a v a i l . " T h i s law gave the p r o v i n c i a l c a b i n e t the power to extend the terms of a c o l l e c t i v e agreement n e g o t i a t e d between one company and one union to a l l o t h e r s i n the same tr a d e o r i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r . To c a r r y out and e n f o r c e i t s p r o v i s i o n s t h i s law a u t h o r i z e d the c r e a t i o n o f a "comity c o n j o i n t " composed of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f a l l groups d i r e c t l y concerned. Why d i d the C.T.C.C. support t h i s step? C h a r p e n t i e r b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s law would, -123-"...mettre f i n a 1 1 e n t r e - t u e r i e p a t r o n a l e e t aux s a l a i r e s de famines; l o i q u i s t i m u l e , r e n f o r c i t e t i t e n d 1 1 o r g a n i s a t i o n p r o f e s s i o n n e l l e dans l e s m i l i e u x od e l l e e t a i t inconnue, q u i i l a r g i t son h o r i z o n s o c i a l e t l ' o r i e n t e dans _ l e sens de ses r e s p o n s a b i l ^ t i s n a t i o n a l e s . . . . " In making t h i s l a s t p o i n t , he was e x p r e s s i n g the hope, i n which he was to be d i s a p p o i n t e d , t h a t o n l y i n c o r p o r a t e d unions, t h a t i s C a t h o l i c ones, would be granted the r i g h t t o have t h e i r c o n t r a c t s extended, thereby g i v i n g them a g r e a t advantage over the no n - C a t h o l i c unions. Other immediate b e n e f i t s t o be d e r i v e d from i t , a c c o r d i n g t o him, i n c l u d e d the c l o s e d shop, t i g h t e r c o n t r o l over a p p r e n t i c e s h i p s , and the e l i m i n a t i o n o f " w i l d c a t " s t r i k e s . I t s g r e a t e s t m e r i t , however, f o r many S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s i n c l u d i n g C h a r p e n t i e r was t h a t "...ce ne s e r a encore qu'un p a l i e r v e r s une a u t r e rgforme p l u s complete, p l u s comprehensive: 1* 46 o r g a n i s a t i o n c o r p o r a t i v e de l a p r o f e s s i o n . " In the minds of many c o n t r i b u t o r s t o the E.S.P. the same 47 p r i n c i p l e s a p p l i e d t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t t o the farmers. By a s s o c i a t i n g i n v a r i o u s ways, they claimed t h a t the farmers would improve t h e i r economic s i t u a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , t o ensure the success o f c o l o n i z a t i o n , most S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s c a l l e d f o r the c r e a t i o n o f p a r o c h i a l o r di o c e s a n s o c i e t i e s t o promote i t . Yet another form of a s s o c i a t i o n , which gained i n importance a t the end of t h i s 48 p e r i o d , was c o o p e r a t i o n i n i t s v a r i o u s forms. Because i t bred a sense of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b l i t y and d e c e n t r a l i z e d economic power, c o o p e r a t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d by many as p r e p a r i n g the way f o r c o r p o r a t i s m and even as comprising an element w i t h i n the c o r p o r a t i s t system. -124-C o l o n i z a t i o n and c o r p o r a t i s m were the two main p r o p o s a l s advanced by the E.S.P. to r e p l a c e the e x i s t i n g socio-economic system. I t was c h i e f l y t o b r i n g these changes i n t o b e i n g t h a t c o o p e r a t i v e s and unions were encouraged. When the D u p l e s s i s government came i n t o o f f i c e , i t was c o l o n i z a t i o n t h a t was g i v e n 49 a h i g h e r p r i o r i t y . When t h i s government attempted }as has been noted, to weaken the b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n of the unions i n 1937, i t was l a r g e l y because they saw C a t h o l i c unions as a p r e r e q u i s i t e of c o r p o r a t i s m t h a t C a r d i n a l V i l l e n e u v e p u b l i c l y c r i t i c i z e d the government and Msgr. Desranleau, a u x i l i a r y Bishop of Sherbrooke, 50 denounced " . . . c e t t e blague de l a l i b e r t y de t r a v a i l . " Desranleau was to support the C.T.C.C. i n i t s attempt t h a t year to e s t a b l i s h a union shop i n the Simard s h i p y a r d s o f S o r e l . In c o l o n i z a t i o n and c o r p o r a t i s m c o u l d b e s t be d i s c e r n e d the c o n f l i c t o f l o y a l t i e s from which many French Canadian S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s s u f f e r e d . Simply s t a t e d , they were t o r n between r e j e c t i n g completely the i n d u s t r i a l o r d e r and r e t u r n i n g to the t r a d i t i o n a l way of l i f e and a c c e p t i n g the Pope's c h a l l e n g e to t r a n s f o r m the e x i s t i n g s o c i e t y a c c o r d i n g to C a t h o l i c c o n c e p t i o n s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t t h e : o n l y E.S.P. c o n t r i b u t o r s t o d i s c u s s a g r i c u l t u r e and c o l o n i z a t i o n were French Canadians, w h i l e Europeans p r o v i d e d most of the t h e o r e t i c a l framework o f c o r p o r a t i s m . W i t h i n t h i s c o n t e x t the same divergences i n a t t i t u d e s , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and approaches n o t i c e a b l e i n o t h e r p a r t s of the C a t h o l i c programme were a l s o p r e s e n t . Few o t h e r C a t h o l i c p r o -p o s a l s however, demonstrated the c o n t r a s t i n aims and approaches -125-found i n the c o r p o r a t i s m of M i n v i l l e , Caron and M u l l e r . On no o t h e r t o p i c d i d an author perform the i n t e l l e c t u a l a c r o b a t i c s which M i n v i l l e e x h i b i t e d . In w r i t i n g a pamphlet on c o r p o r a t i s m t h r e e years a f t e r promoting c o l o n i z a t i o n as the s o l u t i o n to the d e p r e s s i o n , M i n v i l l e appeared to have r e v e r s e d h i s stand and embraced the i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n of Quebec. The most c u r i o u s a s p e c t of h i s w r i t i n g s was h i s b e l i e f t h a t the E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g "economic d i c t a t o r s " c o u l d be i n t e g r a t e d g r a d u a l l y and p e a c e f u l l y i n t o the French-speaking c o r p o r a t i o n s even though he had demonstrated a few years p r e v i o u s l y the t e n a c i t y and the r u t h l e s s n e s s w i t h which the c a p i t a l i s t s maintained and e x e r c i s e d t h e i r power. In s p i t e of t h i s w i s h f u l t h i n k i n g , the s h i f t from c o l o n -i z a t i o n t o c o r p o r a t i s m d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d i n d i c a t e d t h a t the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s r e a l i z e d , w i t h the Pope's a s s i s t a n c e , the need to f a c e the f a c t t h a t Quebec was no longer a r u r a l s o c i e t y . The i m p r e s s i o n remains, however, t h a t w h i l e t h e i r minds turned to c o r p o r a t i s m , t h e i r h e a r t s remained w i t h a g r i c u l t u r e . Was P i e r r e Trudeau r i g h t , t h e r e f o r e , i n w r i t i n g : "...n'etant guere d i s p o s e s 3 comprendre, l e phinomdne i n d u s t r i e l e t l a p r o l i t a r i s a t i o n des masses... nos t h e o r i c i e n s ne d^gagerent de 1'enseignement s o c i a l des papes que l e s formules q u i pouvaient e n n o b l i r d'un p r e s t i g e 51 d'emprunt nos p r i j u g e s de groupe?" To answer t h i s q u e s t i o n adequately, i t i s necessary to f i r s t examine the E.S.P.'s con-c e p t i o n o f i t s r o l e and assessment of i t s e f f o r t s . -126-Chapter IX The Role o f the E.S.P. and o f I n d i v i d u a l C a t h o l i c s As they formulated t h e i r programme to d e a l w i t h the q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d by the d e p r e s s i o n , the members of the E.S.P. had t o c o n s i d e r what t h e i r r o l e was as C a t h o l i c s , both c o l l e c t i v e l y and i n d i v i d -u a l l y , i n i t s implementation. I t i s necessary t o study t h i s aspect i n o r d e r t o grasp i n i t s e n t i r e t y t h e i r v i s i o n o f the world and of themselves. One o f the e a r l i e s t undertakings connected w i t h the E.S.P., was the c o n v o c a t i o n of a -conference on c o l o n i z a t i o n i n February, 1932. 1 Delegates from every p a r t o f Canada, r e p r e s e n t i n g over 300,000 people, attended t h i s two-day conference p r e s i d e d over by Archambault. T u r n i n g t o another f i e l d , one o f i t s campaigns t r i e d t o focus a t t e n t i o n on C a t h o l i c unionism when a "Semaine S y n d i c a l e " 2 was staged i n November, 1937. More long l a s t i n g were the E.S.P.'s e f f o r t s on b e h a l f of c o r p o r a t i s m . Using the res o u r c e s of the E.S.P., Archambault launched i n 1936, a bi-monthly review, L'Ordre Nouveau t o d i f f u s e the l a t e s t developments i n C a t h o l i c and, 3 e s p e c i a l l y c o r p o r a t i s t thought. Apart from the pamphlets d e d i c -ated t o these t o p i c s from time t o time, no ot h e r important i n i t i a t i v e s were r e p o r t e d . Much more e l a b o r a t e was the E.S.P.'s i n c u r s i o n i n t o the p o l i t i c a l sphere. On March 9, 1933, the E.S.P. i n v i t e d a group of 4 t h e o l o g i a n s t o meet i n Montreal. Archambault d e s c r i b e d i t s purpose thus: -127-"Chacun reconnut 1*importance d ' o f f r i r aux c i t o y e n s de ce pays, d e s i r e u x de s*employer S une r e s t a u r a t i o n b a s i e sur l ' e n c y c l i q u e Quadragesimo anno, en p a r t i c u l i e r aux hommes p u b l i c s , un programme ferme e t p r e c i s . " A f t e r f u r t h e r c o n s u l t a t i o n s , the programme was submitted f o r the a p p r o v a l o f "... de hautes p e r s o n n a l i t i s e c c l e s i a s t i q u e s e t l a i q u e s . " Archambault claimed t h a t i t had r e c e i v e d a warm r e c e p t i o n from a l l s e c t o r s o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n i n Quebec. As the group had been concerned o n l y w i t h g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s , t h i s f i r s t attempt l a c k e d the concreteness which a p o l i t i c a l programme r e q u i r e d . By September 30, 1933, a group of laymen had c a r r i e d out t h i s f u r t h e r t a s k . While d i s c l a i m i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t , Archambault admitted t h a t the second programme accorded very w e l l w i t h the f i r s t . Look-i n g a t o t h e r C a t h o l i c c o u n t r i e s , he noted, t h a t " L ' i n e r g i q u e c h a n c e l i e r d ' A u t r i c h e , D o l l f u s s , d i s a i t derni§rement q u r i l v o u l a i t r e c o n s t r u i r e son pays sur l e s bases de l ' e n c y c l i q u e 5 Quadragesimo anno." He urged French Canadians as devoted C a t h o l i c s to t r y t o do the same. I t was p o s s i b l e i f they f o l l o w e d P i u s X I 1 s g u i d e l i n e s and i f "...devant l e b i e n commun l e s i n t i r e t s de p a r t i s * e f f a c e n t . . . . " That t h i s was no i d l e fancy was demonstrated i n the summer of 1934 when a group d e d i c a t e d to " r e - l i b e r a l i z i n g " the governing L i b e r a l p a r t y emerged. 6 Paul Gouin, son of a former Premier and l e a d e r of the A c t i o n L i b i r a l e N a t i o n a l e , acknowledged t h a t they had taken, "...comme base d'etude e t de d i s c u s s i o n , pour p r e p a r e r n o t r e m a h ifeste, l e programme de R e s t a u r a t i o n s o c i a l e p u b l i e sous l e s _ auspices de l ' E c o l e s o c i a l e p o p u l a i r e . " The t i e s between the two were much s t r o n g e r than t h i s statement -128-suggests f o r t h e r e i s evidence t o i n d i c a t e t h a t many of those who d r a f t e d the second programme were a l s o i n s t r u m e n t a l i n w r i t i n g the g A.L.N, manife s t o . Other p a r t i e s , i n c l u d i n g the r u l i n g L i b e r a l p a r t y , adopted p a r t s o f the second programme. I t was on the b a s i s o f the A.L.N, manifesto t h a t an a l l i a n c e was forged between Gouin 9 and D u p l e s s i s , the l e a d e r o f the Co n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y . In the 1935 p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s , the A.L.N., running on t h i s p l a t f o r m , won twice as many seats as i t s p a r t n e r . While many oth e r f a c t o r s shaped the Union N a t i o n a l e , there i s no doubt t h a t the E.S.P. c o n t r i b u t e d t o i t . The f o r c e s t h a t t h r u s t the E.S.P. i n t o the p o l i t i c a l sphere were not e n t i r e l y p o s i t i v e i n nature. D e s c r i b i n g the con t e x t w i t h i n which the E.S.P. had a c t e d , Archambault wrote: "A c e t t e ipoque s u r t o u t 5u l e groupe Woodsworth se mo n t r a i t tre" a c t i f t a n t au Parlement que dans l e s assemblies p u b l i q u e s , l a s a i n e o p i n i o n s ' i n q u i i t a i t e t demandait une d i r e c t i v e . . . I I s'accompagnait presque t o u j o u r s d'une remarque: S i l e programme de ce nouveau p a r t i va t r o p l o i n , ne p o u r r a i t - o n pas-puisque des r i f o r m e s s 1imposent-en i t a b l i r un q u i c o n v i e n d r a i t aux c a t h o l i q u e s , q u i l e u r i n d i q u e r a i t jusqu'oil i l s peuvent a l l e r dans l e u r s r e v e n d i c a t i o n s sociales?"l° The meeting t h a t r e s u l t e d l e d , as has been noted, not o n l y to the for m a t i o n o f a p o l i t i c a l group, the A.L.N., but a l s o to Msgr. Ga u t h i e r ' s "warning" about the C.C.F.. In t u r n , t h i s was endorsed by C a r d i n a l V i l l e n e u v e and by the bishops o f Saskatchewan where the C.C.F. was most a c t i v e . H The importance o f f e a r i n determining the E.S.P.'s r o l e m a n i f e s t e d i t s e l f most c l e a r l y i n the anti-Communist campaign which took p l a c e i n Quebec. One o f the c h i e f tasks the E.S.P. ass i g n e d i t s e l f i n t h i s r e g a r d was to " e c l a i r e r l e s i n t e l l i g e n c e s . " -129-F o r , Archambault argued, "C'est en camouflant sa v r a i e nature, ses v i s e e s a n t i - r e l i g i e u s e s , ses r e s u l t a t s economiques, que l e communisme peut f a i r e des conquetes dans n o t r e c l a s s e o u v r i d r e , encore croyante e t a t t a c h i e S nos i n s t i t u t i o n s . " ! 2 I t was of g r e a t importance, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the E.S.P. expose the nature of Communism and i t s r e s u l t s . I t was e q u a l l y important t o make the workers understand the Church's s o c i a l doc t r i ne, namely, " . . . 1 ' i n e g a l i t i des c o n d i t i o n s , l a n e c e s s i t y de l a s o u f f r a n e e , l e r 6 l e v e r i t a b l e de l a r i c h e s s e , l a dignite" de l'homme, sa haute d e s t i n i e , son d r o i t a une s a l a i r e f a m i l i a l e ; p u i s t o u t ce que l ' E g l i s e a f a i t pour l e t r a v a i l l e u r . . . " 1 3 S p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n had to be p a i d t o the C a t h o l i c immigrants i n Quebec. The Church, Archambault admitted, had a l r e a d y l o s t the m a j o r i t y of them and was i n danger of l o s i n g the r e s t i f some-t h i n g was not done. The cause of t h i s d e p l o r a b l e s i t u a t i o n , Archambault s t a t e d , was the a t t i t u d e of French-speaking C a t h o l i c s . He asked, ".. . songe-t-on a" p r i e r a u s s i pour l a c o n v e r s i o n des q u a r a n t e - h u i t m i l l e j u i f s q u i etendent sur Montreal l e u r emprise g r a n d i s s a n t e ? . . . q u e l l e a i d e p e c u n i a i r e l e u r apportons nous? ...ces m i s s i o n s q u i n'attendent que des o u v r i e r s pour donner des beaux f r u i t s , combien des n6tres y consacrent l e u r z e l e ? " French Canadians would have to become more knowledgeable and more committed i f the Communist t h r e a t was to be e l i m i n a t e d . To accomplish t h i s t a s k , the E.S.P. u t i l i z e d , a p a r t from those a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d , every medium o f communication. Noteworthy among these were anti-Communist p l a y s composed by J e s u i t s and made a v a i l a b l e t o C a t h o l i c groups. Regular d i s p a t c h e s on Communist -130-a c t i v i t i e s were sent t o French language newspapers; s p e c i a l days, weeks or oth e r events were staged to focus a t t e n t i o n on t h i s q u e s t i o n . A t r a v e l l i n g e x h i b i t i o n o f Communist documents attempted to b r i n g home the r e a l i t y o f the t h r e a t and, p e r i o d i c a l l y , a campaign was undertaken t o accomplish a s p e c i f i c g o a l such as the 14 one a g a i n s t t r a d i n g w i t h the S o v i e t Union. In doing so, the E.S.P. always attempted t o achieve the maximum impact o f t e n by c a l l i n g upon i n f l u e n t i a l persons to support i t s p o s i t i o n . In t h i s r e s p e c t the climax appears t o have been reached i n October, 1936 when more than a hundred thousand people gathered s i m u l t a n -e o u s l y i n Montreal and Quebec C i t y to applaud a g l i t t e r i n g a r r a y of p e r s o n a l i t i e s and t o hear Msgr. G a u t h i e r ' s d e c l a r a t i o n t h a t , i n the face o f Communist attempts t o d e s t r o y the Church i n Quebec and 15 i n Spain, " . . . v o t r e premier d e v o i r e s t de l a d i f e n d r e . . . . " Meanwhile, i n Quebec C i t y , C a r d i n a l V i l l e n e u v e proclaimed i n f r o n t o f Premier D u p l e s s i s t h a t , "...notre p r o v i n c e e s t devenue l ' o b j e t des c o n v o i t i s e s enflammees des r e v o l u t i o n n a i r e s e t des sans-Dieu..." and denounced the presence i n Montreal o f "... d e l e g a t i o n s mensongdres, flanquees de p r e t r e s a p o s t a t s ou de r e l i g i e u x d i f r o q u e s . . . . " The E.S.P., i n the words of one of i t s members, appears t o have adopted the s t r a t e g y o f combatting 16 communism "...par l e s memes armes dont c e l u i - c i se s e r v a i t . " Most of these p r o p o s a l s and a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r e d a c o l l e c t i v e e f f o r t on the p a r t o f C a t h o l i c s . Another aspect which the E.S.P. had t o c o n s i d e r was the r o l e t h a t the f a i t h f u l c o u l d f u l f i l l i n d i v i d u a l l y . -131-C h i e f among these i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s was c h a r i t y . S t a r t i n g w i t h the Pope who i n s i s t e d t h a t C a t h o l i c s demonstrate to the S o c i a l i s t s , "...que l e u r s r e c l a m a t i o n s , dans ce q u ' e l l e s ont de j u s t e , trouvent...une f o r c e de r e a l i s a t i o n b i e n p l u s e f f i c a c e dans l a c h a r i t e c h r e t i e n n e . . . " , many S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s saw c h a r i t y as a remedy f o r the m a l d i s t r i -17 b u t i o n o f wealth which e x i s t e d . Some f e l t as Quebec's h i e r a r c h y d i d t h a t c h a r i t a b l e works would safeguard, "...avec 1'ordre s o c i a l l e r e s p e c t de l a p r o p r i e t e . . . . " Others, w h i l e g r a n t i n g t h a t c h a r i t y was d e s i r a b l e , agreed w i t h the outspoken Msgr. Desranleau t h a t , " . . . l a c h a r i t e , pour e t r e v r a i e e t e f f i c a c e , d o i t t e n i r compte de l a j u s t i c e . Que l'aumone, l e s dons ou l e s g r a t i f i c a t i o n s de f i n d'annee ne r e p a r e n t pas l e s i n j u s t i c e s e t l e s v o l s commis par c e l u i q u i ne p a i e pas l e j u s t e s a l a i r e f a m i l i a l ou r e t i e n t guelque chose sur l e p r i x du t r a v a i l o u v r i e r . n ™ In an attempt t o r e c o n c i l e these t e n d e n c i e s , C a r d i n a l V i l l e n e u v e s t a t e d t h a t c h a r i t y would work b e s t where C h r i s t i a n v i r t u e s were not thoroughly accepted. I t would h e l p ease the l o t o f those, " . . . q u i s o u f f r e n t d i j a d'ecrasement e t de r u i n e . " An e q u a l l y important f u n c t i o n o f c h a r i t y f o r many S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s was i t s a b i l i t y t o improve the r e l a t i o n s h i p between groups. Workers, one member wrote, should e x e r c i s e t h i s v i r t u e p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s w i t h employers f o r , "ses reven-d i c a t i o n s y gagneront surement en procedes loyaux e t p a c i f i q u e s . . . The most urgent task f o r a C h r i s t i a n , a c c o r d i n g t o Msgr. Ga u t h i e r , was, -132-"...de j e t e r dans tous l e s m i l i e u x q u ' i l frequent© de l'optimisme e t de l a bonne humeur, de l a r e s i g n a t i o n e t de l a j o i e c h r i t i e n n e . Par l'exemple e t par l a p a r o l e , i l d o i t o u v r i r I ceux que l a gene rend maussades e t exigeants l e s p e r s p e c t i v e s c o n s o l a n t e s de l ' E v a n g i l e . " Looking a t t h i s q u e s t i o n a t the end o f the d e p r e s s i o n , C a r d i n a l V i l l e n e u v e concluded t h a t without a s u f f i c i e n t degree of j u s t i c e , " l e s i n d i v i d u s auront beau c o n s o l e r l e s peines e t pardonner l e s i n j u r e s . . . l e s c l a s s e s d'en bas s e r o n t i c r a s i e s . . . e t . . . c e l l e s d'en haut s e r o n t a u s s i ? 0 e n t r a i n e e s dans l e meme ic r o u l e m e n t . " How c o u l d S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s ensure t h a t each one of the f a i t h f u l understood h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and acted a c c o r d i n g l y ? That many d i d not comprehend the Church's s o c i a l d o c t r i n e was obvious. P i u s XI de p l o r e d the f a c t t h a t many C a t h o l i c s were e x p l o i t i n g t h e i r employees and even worse, " . . . i l en e s t q u i abusent de l a r e l i g i o n e l l e -meme, cherchant a c o u v r i r de son nom l e u r s i n j u s t e e x a c t i o n s , pour ^ c a r t e r l e s re c l a m a t i o n s pleinement j u s t i f i i e s de l e u r s o u v r i e r s . " 2 1 Or, i n the more c a u s t i c language o f Msgr. Desranleau: "En entendant p a r l e r patrons e t o u v r i e r s , en l i s a n t journaux e t revues; en ecoutant l e s d i s c o u r s e t l e s programmes p o l i t i q u e s , en examinant l e s reglements municipaux dont l ' a f f i c h e paienne: 'Defense de mendier', dishonore 1'entree de nos v i l l a g e s canadiens en i t u d i a n t l e s l o i s des gouvernements, l e s p u b l i c a t i o n s de grandes f i r m s economiques, nous sommes b i e n f o r c e s d'avouer que ces hommes, q u i ont m i s s i o n de penser e t d ' i c l a i r e r l e peuple, n'ont pas l u , ou n'ont pas compris, ou n'ont pas vo u l u a c c e p t e r l e s c o n s e i l s e t l e s o r d r e s <iu Pape. C'est par en haut que l a s o c i e t y paganise l e peuple." I t was c l e a r to many S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s t h a t u n l e s s a l l men were guided by j u s t i c e and c h a r i t y i n s t e a d o f by greed and egoism no -133-programme of reform c o u l d succeed. What was needed was an e l i t e , who, by word and by example, would a c t as the vanguard i n r e a l i z -i n g t h i s i d e a l . How to c r e a t e such an e l i t e ? In Quadragesimo  anno, Pi u s XI suggested t h a t the Church seek t h i s e l i t e amongst those groups who had abandoned r e l i g i o n . By doing so, the Church would g a i n men, " . . . q u i comprennent l e u r m e n t a l i t y , l e u r s a s p i r a t i o n s , q u i sachent p a r l e r a l e u r s coeurs dans un e s p r i t de f r a t e r n e l l e c h a r i t e . . . l e s apotres immediats des o u v r i e r s s e r o n t des o u v r i e r s , l e s apotres du monde i n d u s t r i e l e t commergant se r o n t des i n d u s t r i e l s e t des commergants."22 Archambault was quick to adopt t h i s technique but, i t appears, t h a t h i s p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t i v e i n doing so was to counter 23 Communist in r o a d s among the working c l a s s . In 1933, he i n -s p i r e d the c r e a t i o n of a t r a i n i n g s c h o o l where f o r s e v e r a l weeks each summer, a c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d group of men - mostly union l e a d e r s - underwent a p e r i o d of i n t e n s e study and of s p i r i t u a l e x ^ e r c i s e s . T h e i r task was to counter Communist propaganda and a c t i v i t i e s through speeches, d i s c u s s i o n groups and s o c i a l c l u b s . I t was o n l y i n the l a t t e r p a r t of the d e p r e s s i o n t h a t the E.S.P.'s c o n t r i b u t o r s broadened t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Pope's thought. A c t u a l l y some e f f o r t s had been made e a r l i e r , under the d i r e c t i o n of Archambault, to sow the seeds of what was to become 1'Action C a t h o l i q u e movement. But these e f f o r t s had found a weak echo i n the E.S.P.'s pamphlets. A f t e r 1937, however, l ' A c t i o n C a t h o l i q u e became a major theme and i t grew to become a most 24 complex o r g a n i z a t i o n . M o b i l i z i n g C a t h o l i c s on the b a s i s of age, sex and o c c u p a t i o n , i t superseded or swallowed up o l d S o c i a l -134-C a t h o l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as the A.C.J.C.. A n c i l l a r y s e r v i c e s were e s t a b l i s h e d such as t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s and u n i v e r s i t y c o u r s e s . C o o r d i n a t i n g bodies emerged. A new type of s p e c i a l i s t appeared i n the ranks of the c l e r i c s . To what ends was t h i s z e a l channelled? One of i t s goals was to t r a n s f o r m the m i l i e u i n such a way t h a t , " . . . l e c h r i s t i a n i s m e n ' a f f e c t e pas seulement not r e mani^re d ' e t r e o u v r i e r , i t u d i a n t , ... mais e t r e o u v r i e r , e t r e e t u d i a n t . . . d e v i e n n e n t autant de manieres d ' e t r e chr£tien...."25 Another of i t s goals was to encourage l a y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Church's d i v i n e m i s s i o n so t h a t a l l would remember, "...que l ' E g l i s e ce n'est pas seulement l a h i i r a r c h i e mais e t l e s c l e r c s e t l e s l a i q u e s . " At the p a r i s h l e v e l , Archambault envisaged the f o r m a t i o n of a committee of laymen t o c o o r d i n a t e a c t i v i t i e s and t o promote C a t h o l i c v i r t u e s by combatting or c u l t i v a t i n g , among o t h e r s , " . . . l e s f o y e r s d ' i m m o r a l i t i ; ...1'intemperance; . . . s u r v e i l l e r s p i c i a l e m e n t l e s b u v e t t e s , l e s p l a g e s , l e s cinemas; t r a v a i l l e r . . . 1 l a d i f f u s i o n de l a bonne pr e s s e ; . . . l a f a m i l l e . . . . " 2 6 T h i s committee, he s t r e s s e d , c o u l d o n l y a c t i n an a d v i s o r y c a p a c i t y . The o n l y time i t should a c t on i t s own was when i t s a c t i v i t i e s , " . . . p o u r r a i e n t i n d i s p o s e r c o n t r e l ' a u t o r i t i , l a p r e s e r v a n t a i n s i , en cas d'echec, c o n t r e t o u t e d i m i n u t i o n de p r e s t i g e . " While the o r g a n i z a t i o n and tasks of the A c t i o n C a t h o l i q u e were more exten-s i v e than has been i n d i c a t e d so f a r , i t i s obvious from what has been s a i d t h a t i t was much more than an anti-Communist campaign. I t was an attempt to demonstrate t h a t the Church was concerned not o n l y w i t h l e g a l , p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l or economic reform but a l s o w i t h -135-the whole man. His needs, h i s concerns and h i s manner of communicating became the c e n t e r o f the Church's a t t e n t i o n . The c o n t e x t w i t h i n which he l i v e d became the p r e o c c u p a t i o n of c l e r i c s 27 such as Levesque. In the p r o c e s s , the Church bypassed those e l i t e groups who i n the p a s t had acted as mediators. By group-i n g C a t h o l i c s on the b a s i s of o c c u p a t i o n , age and sex, the A c t i o n C a t h o l i q u e weakened those o r g a n i z a t i o n s which had always attempted to u n i t e r e l i g i o n and n a t i o n a l i s m . Thus, Groulx condemned, " c e t t e formule i d i o t e d ' a c t i o n c a t h o l i q u e . . . e l l e l e s 2 8 f o r g a i t §. c h o i s i r e n t r e l e u r f o i e t l e u r n a t i o n a l i t y . " The E.S.P. n e v e r t h e l e s s continued to promote i t . The A c t i o n C a t h o l i q u e , a c c o r d i n g to one of i t s French Canadian t h e o r e t i c i a n s , was testimony to the f a c t t h a t the f a i t h was, " . . . ' t o t a l i t a i r e ' , en ce sens q u ' e l l e exige l e t o u t de l'homme e t ne veut r i e n l a i s s e r 29 hors de ses a t t e m t e s . " To c o n s t r u c t t h i s C a t h o l i c u n i v e r s e , p h y s i c a l and s p i r i t u a l , and to e l i m i n a t e or b l o c k competing i d e a l s , the E.S.P., i t seems, m u l t i p l i e d i t s a c t i v i t i e s and i n f l u e n c e d u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n . O p e r a t i n g i n a f a v o u r a b l e environment, f o r the most p a r t , d i r e c t e d by an i n d e f a t i g a b l e man and supported by a m u l t i t u d e of d e d i c a t e d laymen, the E.S.P. was i n a good p o s i t i o n t o shape, d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y , the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c r e a c t i o n to developments i n Quebec. The degree of success i t o b t a i n e d and the worth of i t s programme and e f f o r t s are q u e s t i o n s t h a t must be c o n s i d e r e d s e p a r a t e l y . -136-Chapter X The Success and the F a i l u r e o f S o c i a l C a t h o l i c i s m How s u c c e s s f u l d i d the members of the E.S.P. t h i n k they had been? Commemorating the t e n t h a n n i v e r s a r y o f Quadragesimo anno i n 1941, C a r d i n a l V i l l e n e u v e d i s c u s s e d the accomplishments of the French Canadian S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s d u r i n g the pr e v i o u s decade. 1 S u c c e s s i v e p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l governments, he found, had implemented many o f t h e i r p r o p o s a l s i n socio-economic matters. The most important o f these i n c l u d e d the C o l l e c t i v e Agreements E x t e n s i o n A c t , minimum wage l e g i s l a t i o n , a i d to needy mothers and unemployment i n s u r a n c e . In g e n e r a l , he f e l t , t h a t as a r e s u l t , " L ' o u v r i e r e s t maintenant p l u s c o n s i d i r e . I I e s t geniralement mieux t r a i t e . L ' E t a t l e l a i s s e au moins s ' o r g a n i s e r . Les patrons consentent §. n i g o c i e r avec ses r e p r e s e n t a n t s . " On the same o c c a s i o n , he j o i n e d o t h e r members of the h i e r a r c h y of Quebec i n i s s u i n g a c o l l e c t i v e l e t t e r . They agreed t h a t much had been accomplished but t h a t i t was not enough. I f , they wrote, f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n was examined and i f the r e p o r t s from r e c e n t e n q u i r i e s i n t o working c o n d i t i o n s were t r u e , i t had t o be admitted t h a t , " l e c a p i t a l i s m e dans no t r e pays e x p l o i t e l ' o u v r i e r , que protege insuffisamment n o t r e l e g i s l a t i o n . " What the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s c o n s i d e r e d t o be the r e s u l t s o f t h e i r e f f o r t s t o improve the s t a t u s o f a g r i c u l t u r e w h i l e not as c l e a r i s n e v e r t h e l e s s s u g g e s t i v e . In t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e l e t t e r on a g r i c u l t u r e i n 1938, the h i e r a r c h y d e p l o r e d t h a t f a c t t h a t , -137-" . . . i l a d v i e n t t r o p souvent que l e courant i n d u s t r i e l e t l e s exigences des patrons ou des o u v r i e r s l'emportent de beaucoup, dans l e s preoccupations des hommes d' E t a t e t des chefs sociaux, comme dans l e remous de l 1 o p i n i o n p u b l i q u e , sur l e s i n t i r e t s de l a c l a s s e a g r i c o l e . . . . " 3 I t appeared t o them t h a t , " l e s grandes firmes i n d u s t r i e l l e s semblent payees par l e s s p e c u l a t e u r s pour a r r a c h e r a l e u r s t e r r e s e t rassembler en des m i l i e u x i n d u s t r i e l s de p l u s nombreux t r a v a i l l e u r s . I I y a des l o i s q u i r e d u i s e n t l e s heures e t l a semaine de t r a v a i l e t haussent l e s s a l a i r e s des employes; i l n'en e s t presque pas q u i f a v o r i s e n t 1 ' a g r i c u l t e u r . " The programme o f c o l o n i z a t i o n a l s o seems t o have f a l l e n s h o r t o f e x p e c t a t i o n . Elsewhere, C a r d i n a l V i l l e n e u v e i s quoted as w r i t i n g i n 1946, i n con n e c t i o n w i t h c o l o n i z a t i o n , t h a t , "on a vo u l u f a i r e oeuvre u t i l e mais en de t r o p nombreux cas l e s r e a l i s a t i o n s ont 4 dimenti l e s esperances." The evidence appears t o c o n f i r m t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . A s i m i l a r f a t e a p p a r e n t l y b e f e l l c o r p o r a t i s m . In s p i t e o f the i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f the E.S.P.'s e f f o r t s d u r i n g and a f t e r World War I I , i t s p r o s p e c t s appeared by 1955 to have become dimmer.'^ A reason f o r t h i s development, a c c o r d i n g t o one E.S.P. c o n t r i b u t o r , was t h a t , on one hand, unions, even those a f f i l i a t e d w i t h the C.T.C.C., " P l u t o t que de n u i r e 3 l e u r cause, i l s p r e f d r e n t s a c r i f i e r l a convention avec e x t e n s i o n e t gagner du t e r r a i n dans 1 ' o r g a n i s a t i o n s y n d i c a l e , 3 l a faveur des c o n t r a t s p a r t i c u l i e r s 3 d r e s s e r . " On the oth e r hand, the employers, w h i l e not opposed t o the est a b l i s h m e n t o f channels o f communication wi t h t h e i r employees, -138-" . . . c r a i g n e n t une c o l l a b o r a t i o n a" l ' u s i n e q u i s ' i t a b l i r a i t e n t r e eux e t l'organisme s y n d i c a l e comme t e l ; i l s ont peur des d i c t a t s iconomiques que l e u r imposeraient l e s s y n d i c a t s par l e u r i n f l u e n c e sur l a main - d'oeuvre." Thus, i t seems t h a t whatever gains had been made had been wiped out. The aspect o f t h e i r programme which o s t e n s i b l y was the g r e a t e s t source o f s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s was t h e i r campaign a g a i n s t c o l l e c t i v i s t d o c t r i n e s . As e a r l y as 1936, the E.S.P. was c o n g r a t u l a t e d on the f a c t t h a t " . . l e s i d i e s de M. Woodsworth n'ont pas eu chez nous l e succes q u ' i l e s p i r a i t . " Reviewing the anti-Communist a c t i v i t i e s of the E.S.P. i n 1938, Archambault d e c l a r e d : " S i l e communisme a peu entami n o t r e c l a s s e o u v r i e r e , s ' i l n'a pu s u r t o u t y t r o u v e r des d i r i g e a n t s , - c a r ce sont des hommes Strangers ci n o t r e n a t i o n a l i t y . . . q u i d i r i g e n t l e P a r t i communiste dans l a p r o v i n c e de Quebec, - nous l e devons en grande p a r t i e aux chefs du sy n d i c a l i s m e c a t h o l i q u e , formes dans l e s c e r c l e s d 1 e t u d e s ou a l ' g c o l e de V a u d r e u i l . . . . " I t can be i n f e r r e d from these statements t h a t , i f the E.S.P. had not succeeded i n e l i m i n a t i n g the t h r e a t , I t had i s o l a t e d i t w i t h the h e l p o f the Padlock law. A b r i e f a n a l y s i s o f i t s p o s t -d e p r e s s i o n pamphlets i n d i c a t e s t h a t anti-Communism became a minor theme, perhaps, f o r t h i s reason. On the b a s i s o f these fragments and oth e r sources, i t would appear t h a t the E.S.P. enjoyed l e s s than complete success i n implementing i t s programme. T h i s c o n c l u s i o n does not d i m i n i s h an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the energy and de v o t i o n t h a t went i n t o i t . Nor does i t make any l e s s necessary a p e r s o n a l assessment of the worth -139-of i t s programme. To be v a l i d , such an a p p r a i s a l must focus on the values which permeated the E.S.P.'s thought and a c t i o n s . One of the v a l u e s to be found i n most of the E.S.P.'s work was the d e s i r e f o r s o c i a l j u s t i c e . I t was p a r t l y due to t h i s impulse t h a t the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s c o n s t r u c t e d a programme o f reform which w i t h i n i t s s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l c o ntext c o u l d be 7 c o n s i d e r e d very l i b e r a l . In the p r o c e s s , the E.S.P. ran the g r i s k o f b eing c r i t i c i z e d f o r i n t e r v e n i n g i n p a r t i s a n p o l i t i c s . N e i t h e r d i d the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s h e s i t a t e i n s u p p o r t i n g the p r i n c i p l e of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n the f a c e of the h o s t i l i t y of employers and even o f the government which they had helped e l e c t , nor d i d they s h r i n k from s u p p o r t i n g the " a n t i - t r u s t " campaign at a time when i t s advocates were being branded as S o c i a l i s t s . T h e i r t h i r s t f o r s o c i a l j u s t i c e undoubtedly helped to make many S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s such as LeVesque, C o t i and Desranleau more open to new concepts, more outspoken i n t h e i r d e n u n c i a t i o n o f the e v i l s of c a p i t a l i s m , more uncompromising i n t h e i r i d e a l s and y e t , more w i l l i n g t o l e a r n from the workers themselves or through the medium of the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s of the problems which they had to c o n f r o n t . T h i s openness to r e a l i t y l e d some of them to conclude w i t h Cote t h a t the g r e a t e s t problem which had t o be s o l v e d was the f a c t t h a t the workers, "...sont v i c t i m e s du d i s o r d r e d'un t r a v a i l mai paye, d'une p r o d u c t i o n l i v r i e 5 1 ' i n d i v i d u a l i s m e , d'un<h6mage endemique 9 e t d'un appauvrissement p r o g r e s s i f . " These men came to r e a l i z e t h a t o n l y a m i l i t a n t l a b o u r movement c o u l d s o l v e t h i s problem. And through the medium of the E.S.P. they t r i e d t o make o t h e r s c o n s c i o u s o f t h i s f a c t . -140-Another dominant v a l u e i n the E.S.P.'s work was a commitment t o p l u r a l i s m . With a g r e a t e r understanding o f Papal thought and o f the socio-economic r e a l i t y , t h e r e developed an i n c r e a s i n g divergence amongst i t s c o n t r i b u t o r s as t o aims and methods,sometimes to the p o i n t o f c o n f l i c t . The E.S.P. neverthe-l e s s made i t s f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e t o these contending s c h o o l s o f thought. To a c e r t a i n e x t e n t i t a l s o was open t o the l a t e s t developments i n European S o c i a l C a t h o l i c t h o u g h t . 1 ^ The r e s u l t of t h i s commitment c o u l d o n l y have been t o l e g i t i m i z e d i s s e n t w i t h i n the Church and to s t i m u l a t e i n some of i t s readers a r e -examination o f the meaning o f r e l i g i o n . Does t h i s c o n c l u s i o n mean, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t P i e r r e Trudeau was wrong, a t l e a s t as f a r as the E.S.P. was concerned, i n des-c r i b i n g French Canada's s o c i a l thought as "monolithic"? 1''" To the extent t h a t t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n i g n o r e s the i n c r e a s i n g l y p l u r a l i s t i c nature o f S o c i a l C a t h o l i c i s m , i t i s i n a c c u r a t e . To the ext e n t t h a t the term i n d i c a t e s the u n d e r l y i n g u n i t y o f d o c t r i n e , i t i s a c c u r a t e . I t must be remembered t h a t the E.S.P.'s t o l e r a n c e d i d not extend beyond " l e s q u e s t i o n s l i b r e s " . There was, i t i s t r u e , a degree o f s e l f - c r i t i c i s m on such q u e s t i o n s as the a t t i t u d e t o take towards c a p i t a l i s m and the reason f o r the l o s s o f C a t h o l i c immigrants but t h i s never amounted t o q u e s t i o n n i n g the Church's p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n i n Quebec. Furthermore, the degree of depend-ence upon Papal d i r e c t i v e s manifested by a l l c o n t r i b u t o r s t o the E.S.P. r e s t r i c t e d t h e i r f i e l d o f e n q u i r y . Even when they appeared to d i g r e s s from Papal thought on such matters as c o l o n i z a t i o n and the A c t i o n C a t h o l i q u e , they s t i l l t r i e d t o j u s t i f y i t i n terms -141-of the Church's i n t e r e s t s . I t c o u l d be argued t h a t the r e a l purpose o f the E.S.P. was not to f o s t e r the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f many paths to C a t h o l i c i s m but to ensure t h a t the v a r i o u s f a c t i o n s w i t h i n the Church remained connected i n thought and a c t i o n t o the main r o u t e . T h i s tendency c o u l d l e a d some S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s , as i n t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n o f c a p i t a l i s m , t o g l o s s over the i s s u e s r a i s e d by the Pope's w r i t i n g s . Or i t c o u l d m a n i f e s t i t s e l f i n the f a c t t h a t most of the E.S.P.'s p r o p o s a l s such as those con-c e r n i n g c o l o n i z a t i o n were j u s t i f i e d i n terms of the b e n e f i t s they would b r i n g t o v a r i o u s groups w i t h i n the Church such as the farmers, c l e r g y , unions, e t c . . The E.S.P., t h e r e f o r e , d i d not r e a l l y s t r a y from i t s founding i d e a l s . I t was merely demonstrat-i n g the Church's a b i l i t y t o adapt t o new s i t u a t i o n s without d e s t r o y i n g i t s e s s e n t i a l u n i t y . For t h i s reason, Trudeau was 12 wrong i n a c c u s i n g the E.S.P. o f d i s t o r t i n g Papal thought. I t i s on the q u e s t i o n o f who u l t i m a t e l y benefitted from the E.S.P.'s e f f o r t s t h a t Trudeau was most i n a c c u r a t e . His main theme was t h a t " l e n a t i o n a l i s m e a §t€...l'axe p r i n c i p a l e autour duquel a g r a v i t e presque to u t e l a pensee s o c i a l e des Canadiens 13 f r a n g a i s . " In so f a r as the E.S.P. i s concerned - and:it has been noted t h a t the E.S.P. was a l e a d i n g , i f not the main source o f S o c i a l C a t h o l i c thought - t h i s c l a i m i s untenable. T h i s study has t r i e d t o show - w i t h some success - t h a t the m o t i v a t i o n behind such d i s p a r a t e p r o p o s a l s and a c t i v i t i e s as the s h o r t e r work week, co r p o r a t i s m , o r the anti-Communist campaign was not so much t o p r o t e c t French Canadian c u l t u r e , although, as M i n v i l l e ' s w r i t i n g s t e s t i f y , t h i s was an important g o a l , as t o advance the i n t e r e s t s -142-o f the Church. The a x i s around which the E.S.P. r e v o l v e d was not, as Trudeau claimed, n a t i o n a l i s m but C a t h o l i c i s m . In f a c t , when n a t i o n a l i s m no l o n g e r served the i n t e r e s t s of the Church as i n the case o f 1'Action f r a n g a i s e and the A c t i o n C a t h o l i q u e , the c l e r g y d i d not h e s i t a t e to abandon i t . E q u a l l y i n c o r r e c t are those who d i s m i s s c o l o n i z a t i o n as the fancy of some i s o l a t e d 14 academic or l i t t e r a t e u r . Such people may very w e l l have advocated c o l o n i z a t i o n but i t s importance came from the f a c t , as has been shown, t h a t i t served and had always served the i n t e r e s t s of the Church. I f f u r t h e r p r o o f i s needed as to the orthodoxy of the E.S.P.'s thought, a simple glance a t the l i s t o f i t s c o l l a b o r a t o r s w i l l r e v e a l t h a t they were the dominant elements of the Church. Another misconception o f S o c i a l C a t h o l i c thought p r e v a l e n t d u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n was the tendency to see i t as the h a r b i n g e r 15 o f Fascism i n Quebec. The f e a r of Communism, the i n s i s t e n c e on c o r p o r a t i s m , the u t t e r a n c e s of l e a d i n g c l e r i c s and the d e s i r e t o c r e a t e a C h r i s t i a n s o c i e t y , on the s u r f a c e , ran counter t o many of the assumptions o f the l i b e r a l - d e m o c r a t i c s t a t e and resembled developments i n I t a l y , Spain and P o r t u g a l . The S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s were w e l l aware of these f e a r s and, i n v a r i o u s ways, attempted to 16 a l l a y them. I f a t times S o c i a l C a t h o l i c thought s k i r t e d the edges o f Fascism, i t i s w e l l to remember t h a t i t tended to s t a y f a r away from s t a t i s m . Experience i n Germany and I t a l y tended to c o n f i r m the a s s e r t i o n of one author t h a t , "toute p r e t e n t i o n t o t a l i t a i r e en dehors de c e l l e de l a r e l i g i o n de l ' E v a n g i l e se 17 heurte done pour un C h r e t i e n 3 une i m p o s s i b i l i t e . . . . " The E.S.P. -143-made i t q u i t e c l e a r t h a t the o n l y reason i t supported the p r o v i n c i a l government's Padlock law was because i t supplemented the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c programme. The purpose o f the E.S.P., i n accordance w i t h the Pope's t e a c h i n g , was not to c r e a t e a n a t i o n a l i s t or f a s c i s t s o c i e t y but to f o s t e r a " t o t a l l y " C a t h o l i c environment. As the Pope's guide-l i n e s had to be adapted to Quebec's socio-economic c o n d i t i o n s i n order to be e f f e c t i v e , the E.S.P. had to decide which of those g u i d e l i n e s should be emphasized and which should be m o d i f i e d or a p p l i e d a t a l a t e r date. T h i s r o l e r e q u i r e d men who were e i t h e r t r a i n e d i n the S o c i a l Sciences or were attuned to b a s i c needs o f the day. Most of the members to the E.S.P. f a i l e d t o d i s p l a y such q u a l i t i e s u n t i l the end of the d e p r e s s i o n . Even then, i t can be argued t h a t they d i d so o n l y a f t e r the Pope had r e p e a t e d l y s t r e s s e d the need to develop such q u a l i t i e s . T h i s tendency to ignore r e a l i t y , which manifested i t s e l f i n many of the pamphlets of the E.S.P., h e l p s to e x p l a i n why the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c programme d i d not meet wi t h g r e a t e r success i n Quebec. To be f a i r , i t should be noted t h a t the Pope's g u i d e l i n e s were open i n most cases to c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . Most f a c t i o n s w i t h i n the Church c o u l d f i n d i n Pius XI's pronoucements a g r e a t d e a l of j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e i r p o s i t i o n . Thus, those who f e l t long term c o n s i d e r a t i o n s should have p r i o r i t y over immediate needs, those who b e l i e v e d t h a t Communism was a g r e a t e r problem than mass unemployment and those who argued t h a t i n d u s t r i a l peace was more important than h i g h e r wages c o u l d a l l c i t e some passage or o t h e r from the Pope's w r i t i n g s . Conversely many of those S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s such as Archambault, V i l l e n e u v e , G a u t h i e r and M i n v i l l e who expressed -144-concern f o r the d e t e r i o r a t i n g socio-economic s i t u a t i o n d i d so mainly because of the Pope's appeals. Another f a c t o r which b l u n t e d the message of the E.S.P. was the f a c t t h a t most o f i t s French Canadian c o n t r i b u t o r s s t i l l c o n s i d e r e d the t r a d i t i o n a l r u r a l s o c i e t y as a v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e to the i n c r e a s i n g urban-i z a t i o n of Quebec. Combined t o g e t h e r , these f a c t o r s helped to produce a detachment from the mass misery of the d e p r e s s i o n t h a t rendered much o f the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c programme i n e f f e c t i v e . Where a g r e a t d e a l of success was achieved as i n the case o f the e l e c t i o n of the Union N a t i o n a l e or the i s o l a t i o n of Communism, i t was l a r g e l y due to the a b i l i t y of the E.S.P. to o b t a i n g e n e r a l agree-ment by e x p l o i t i n g the f e a r s and hopes of each f a c t i o n . A more fundamental c r i t i c i s m o f the E.S.P. i s t h a t , i n s p i t e of i t s p r o f e s s e d aim o f b u i l d i n g a more humane s o c i e t y , i t s r e a l purpose was to m a i n t a i n the dominance of the Church. T h i s motive goes a long way i n e x p l a i n i n g the apparent i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n the w r i t i n g s of many of i t s members and between t h e i r thought and t h e i r a c t i o n s . Examples of these abound: f o r i n s t a n c e , they admitted the need f o r the s t a t e t o implement socio-economic reforms, y e t many, o f t e n the same w r i t e r s , expressed m i s g i v i n g s about s t a t i s m or about the wisdom o f depending upon the f e d e r a l government. Many S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s l i k e Archambault and V i l l e n e u v e agreed t h a t r e p r e s s i v e measures were inadequate to combat Communism but they a l s o i n s i s t e d t h a t the government, e i t h e r f e d e r a l or p r o v i n c i a l , implement them. Most members of the E.S.P. supported the Pope's c o n t e n t i o n t h a t the c a p i t a l i s t s were r u t h l e s s and domineering y e t , l i k e the Pope they f e a r e d the s t a t e -145-or m i l i t a n t unions more. They p l a c e d t h e i r f a i t h i n the w i l l i n g -ness o f these c a p i t a l i s t s t o v o l u n t a r i l y surrender t h e i r p r i v i l e g e s i n o r d e r t o b r i n g c o r p o r a t i s m i n t o b e i n g. S i m i l a r l y , many S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s saw the need f o r urgent a c t i o n t o remedy the s i t u a t i o n but they r e f u s e d t o seek the a s s i s t a n c e o f n o n - C a t h o l i c groups such as the C.C.F. or the P r o t e s t a n t Churches. The t r u t h was t h a t , f o r most S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s from the Pope down to C h a r p e n t i e r , the c h i e f c o n s i d e r a t i o n was whether or not a c e r t a i n i d e a or a g i v e n a c t would promote the i n t e r e s t s o f the Church as an i n s t i t u t i o n . The main ro u t e o f S o c i a l C a t h o l i c thought, u l t i m a t e l y , l e d to a shrunken u n i v e r s e o f d i s c o u r s e . In t h i s world, the i n d i v i d u a l C a t h o l i c was urged by Msgr. Gauthier "...de se d e f i e r des nouveautes, de ne pas c r o i r e q u ' e l l e s vont f a i r e d i s p a r a i t r e 18 d'un coup l e s abus e t l e s i n j u s t i c e s . " He was p l a c e d i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n - whether the f a m i l y u n i t o r the A c t i o n C a t h o l i q u e , t o l d what t o t h i n k and what t o do and how to do i t . And a l l o f t h i s was supposedly t o c u l t i v a t e the growth o f h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l and moral f a c u l t i e s . Could t h i s f a c t e x p l a i n the xenophobic s t r e a k which runs through many of the E.S.P.'s pamphlets? Even those who were genuinely committed t o a more humane s o c i e t y such as Livesque o r C o t i c o u l d see o n l y the seeds of Communism i n the C.C.F. or j u s t i f y a s t r o n g a n t i - c a p i t a l i s t stand i n terms of the Church's i n t e r e s t s . The r e a l f a i l u r e o f S o c i a l C a t h o l i c i s m d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d was t h i s i n a b i l i t y or u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o make the needs and concerns o f the i n d i v i d u a l person, r a t h e r than o f the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d Church, the be g i n n i n g and the end o f i t s thought and a c t i o n s . -146-I t would be wrong to d i s m i s s S o c i a l C a t h o l i c i s m completely f o r , as has been shown, new s t r a i n s of thought appeared w i t h i n i t which c o n t a i n e d the promise of a very d i f f e r e n t Church. With time, many c l e r i c s , l e d by Levesque, r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the i n s i s t -ence on a " t o t a l l y " C a t h o l i c environment was not o n l y b r e e d i n g resentment on the p a r t o f those who f e l t themselves to be "... dans l e u r propre domaine.. .encercle's, en t u t u e l l e , c o n d u i t s comme des mineurs," but was a l s o b l o c k i n g C a t h o l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s "...du avec l e u r s c o n c i t o y e n s non-Catholiques, i l s p o u r r a i e n t c o n c o u r i r au b i e n commun de l a soci€t€..... 1 1 and 19 broke openly w i t h the E.S.P. . The h i e r a r c h y had e a r l i e r come to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t i t ran a g r e a t r i s k i n p r e v e n t i n g C a t h o l i c s from s u p p o r t i n g the C C F . and, i n 1944, i n s p i t e of the o p p o s i t i o n 20 o f the E.S.P., l i f t e d Msgr. G a u t h i e r ' s condemnation. T h e i r commitment to s o c i a l j u s t i c e i n c r e a s e d d u r i n g the 1940's to the p o i n t where Msgr. Charbonneau, s u c c e s s o r to Msgr. G a u t h i e r , r i s k e d h i s p o s i t i o n by s u p p o r t i n g the C.T.C.C a g a i n s t the government 21 d u r i n g the Asbestos s t r i k e . E v e n t u a l l y some c l e r i c s came to see t h a t Communism was a myth used by shrewd p o l i t i c i a n s such as D u p l e s s i s to manipulate C a t h o l i c s and p u b l i c l y condemned the 22 immoral t a c t i c s o f the Union N a t i o n a l e government. Each of these events were steps away from the t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e p t i o n o f the Church as the guardian of s t a b i l i t y . But these changes were slow i n coming and dependent upon p e r s o n a l i t i e s and events. I t was o n l y i n 1950 t h a t the h i e r a r c h y f i n a l l y committed i t s e l f w holeheartedly to the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f the e x i s t i n g socio-economic 23 system and abandoned c o l o n i z a t i o n . And the m o t i v a t i o n f o r these -147-changes remained the same: the s u r v i v a l of the Church. Only w i t h Pope John X I I I and V a t i c a n I I d i d the i n d i v i d u a l c o n s c i e n c e g a i n precedence f o r C a t h o l i c s over the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the Church. By t h a t time the E.S.P. had l o s t the i n f l u e n c e i t had once e x e r c i s e d i n Quebec and had been transformed i n t o a p u r e l y 24 r e s e a r c h agency. To the e x t e n t t h a t the E.S.P. c o n t r i b u t e d to the d e c l i n e o f t h a t concept of C a t h o l i c i s m i t had r e p r e s e n t e d , i t was a s u c c e s s . These c o n c l u s i o n s are based on the p r i n c i p a l themes to be found i n the E.S.P.'s pamphlets w r i t t e n between 1930 t o 1940. As some of these themes reached t h e i r peak of development b e f o r e or a f t e r t h a t p e r i o d , much more r e s e a r c h needs to be done. Other aspects which need more study i n c l u d e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n c r e a s i n g s p e c i a l i z a t i o n w i t h i n the c l e r g y and d i v e r g i n g i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n s o f Papal thought, the sources of the h umanistic c u r r e n t s w i t h i n S o c i a l C a t h o l i c i s m , and the impact of s p e c i f i c p r o p o s a l s upon oth e r e l i t e groups. Many of the a s s e r t i o n s made i n t h i s study undoubtedly need more support or c o n f i r m a t i o n . T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , i s a b e g i n n i n g r a t h e r than an end i n understanding French Canada's r e a c t i o n to i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . -148-BIBLIOGRAPHY I. Primary sources A. Pamphlets p u b l i s h e d by the E.S.P., Archambault, s . j . , J.P. L ' A c t i o n c a t h o l i q u e au Canada. #287, (1937). Le C l e r g g e t l e s Etudes s o c i a l e s . #24, (1913). Le C l e r g e e t l e s Oeuvres s o c i a l e s . #59, (1916). Le Comitg p a r o i s s i a l e , organe de 1'Action c a t h o l i q u e #301-2, (1939). La Menace communiste au Canada. #254-55, (1935). L ' O r g a n i z a t i o n o u v r i S r e c a t h o l i q u e en Hollande. #1, (1911). Le P l u s grand p e r i l . #352, (1943). La Question s o c i a l e e t nos d e v o i r s de c a t h o l i q u e s . #65-68, (1916-17). Le Syndicalisme c a t h o l i q u e au Canada. #267, (1936). Ares, s . j . , R. 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A P P E N D I X A KEY NATIONALIST AND SOCIAL CATHOLIC ORGANIZATIONS AND PERSONALITIES -158-Comite de 1 ' A s s o c i a t i o n C a t h o l i q u e de l a Jeunesse canadienne-f r a n c a i s e . 1905 (founded 1904) Antonio P e r r a u l t , p r e s i d e n t A d e l a r d Leduc, v i c e - p r e s i d e n t J o s . V e r s a i l l e s , v i c e - p r e s i d e n t , ( P r e s i d e n t i n 1904) Eugene Angers, s e c r e t a i r e Edmond Hu r t u b i s e , t r e s o r i e r L. Renaud Lavergne, secre.-correspondant Armand Dugas, seer.-correspondant R. P. C h a r l e s Chaput, s . j . , a u m o n i e r - d i r e c t e u r . Le Semeur, b u l l e t i n de I'A.C.J.C., Montreal, 1905. -159-O f f i c i e r s de l'E.S.P. (May, 1911) P r e s i d e n t d'Honneur: S. G. Mgr. P. B r u c h e s i . V i c e - P r e s i d e n t d'Honneur: Chanoine G. G a u t h i e r . Bureau de P r e s i d e n t Premier V i c e - P r e s i d e n t Deuxi^me V i c e - P r e s i d e n t T r o i s i ^ m e V i c e - P r e s i d e n t S e c r e t a i r e S e c r e t a i r e s - A d j o i n t s T r e s o r i e r Rapporteurs abbe P. P e r r i e r . E. M o n t p e t i t . R. P. L. Hudon, s . j . A. Fauteux. A. S a i n t - P i e r r e . abbes A. Deschenes e t J . C. L a c r o i x . H. Godin. R. P. V a l e n t i n - B r e t o n , o.f.m., abbe H. Gauthier, p . s . s . , E. H u r t u b i s e , abbe C. J . Beaudin. L ' E c o l e S o c i a l e P o p u l a i r e , #la, (1911) pp. 19-20 , -160-Comites Permanent de 1'E.S.P. Comite D'Etudes e t des P u b l i c a t i o n s P r e s i d e n t S e c r e t a i r e S e c r e t a i r e - a d j o i n t P r e s i d e n t S e c r e t a i r e P r e s i d e n t S e c r e t a i r e Comite de Propagande Comite des Finances R. P. G u i l l o t , c . s . s . r . , F. Bourbonniere, abbe E. Hubert. J . B. S a i n t - P i e r r e , A. Langevin. E. Gohier, E. Lavergne. P r e s i d e n t S e c r e t a i r e Comite D'Action O u v r i ^ r e R. P. Tourangeau, o.m.i., C. T e s s i e r . L ' E c o l e S o c i a l e P o p u l a i r e , #la, (1911) p. 20. -161- s Fondateurs de La Ligue des d r o i t s du f r a n c a i s (March 11, 1913) ( I t became "La Ligue d ' A c t i o n F r a n c a i s e " i n 1921) P i e r r e Homier, ( J . P. Archambault, s . j . , founder) Dr. Joseph Gauvreau, Omer Heroux, Leon L o r r a i n , A n a t o l e V a n i e r , A. G. C a s a u l t , H e n r i Auger. ( l a t e r ) R. P. G. C h a r l e b o i s , o.m.i. ( p r o v i n c i a l o f the Oblates and l e a d e r o f the Franco-Ontarian r e s i s t a n c e t o R e g u l a t i o n 17) Abb§ P h i l i p p e P e r r i e r , Abb§ L i o n e l Groulx, ( d i r e c t o r o f "1'Action F r a n c a i s e ) L o u i s H u r t u b i s e , Napoleon L a f o r t u n e , Antonio P e r r a u l t , R. P. Rodrigue V i l l e n e u v e , o.m.i., ( n a t i o n a l i s t and f u t u r e C a r d i n a l ) R. P. L o u i s Lalande, s . j . Antonio P e r r a u l t , e t . a l , Consignes de demain,, D o c t r i n e e t  o r i g i n e s de 1'Action f r a n c a i s e , Montreal, L i b r a i r i e d ' A c t i o n Canadienne-frangaise L t e e , n.d., p. 2--162-Reunion - V i l l a S a i n t - M a r t i n ( A p r i l 28, 1918.) J . P. Archambault, s . j . Mgr. G. G a u t h i e r , ( a u x i l i a r y abbe Boi s abbe Maxime F o r t i n a b b i L a c r o i x abbi J . Tremblay abbe P. Desranleau Mgr. Ross chanoine M a s s i c o t t e abbe J . Cote R. P. S t a n i s l a s abbe P e t i t g r e w abbe 0. Archambault R. ,P. B e r n i e r A. C h a r p e n t i e r A. L a t r e i l l e A. T h e r i e n A. Daoust M. G i l i n a s ( i n i t i a t o r ) a r chbishop o f Mo n t r e a l , p r e s i d i n g ) ( s e c r e t a r y ) { i n i t i a t o r o f C a t h o l i c s y n d i c a l i s m i n the Quebec archdiocese) Montreal C h i c o u t i m i S a i n t - H y a c i n t h e Rimouski T r o i s - R i v i d r e s L e v i s L e v i s Thetford-Mines J o l i e t t e H u l l (worker) ( i n d u s t r i a l i s t ) L 1 O r g a n i s a t i o n o u v r i e r e c a t h o l i q u e au Canada, #105, (1921) p. 16. -163-Second Reunion - V i l l a - S a i n t - M a r t i n (June 2, 1918) R. P. J . Archambault s . j . R. P. Bourassa abbS F o r t i n abbe Hebert F. Roberge A. L a t r e i l l e A. C h a r p e n t i e r ( f u t u r e P r e s i d e n t o f C.T.C.C.) E. T h i r i e n P. BeaulE ( l r s t P r e s i d e n t of C.T.C.C.) H. Doucet D. P i l o n H. T. L a c h a p e l l e A. T h € r i e n L * O r g a n i s a t i o n o u v r i d r e c a t h o l i q u e au Canada, #105, (1921) p. -164-Commission generale des Semaines S o c i a l e s du Canada. (1920) P r e s i d e n t (founder) R. P. Joseph Papin Archambault, s . j . s e c r e t a i r e Guy V a n i e r , Abbe Leonidas Adam, R. P. A. F. A u c l a i r , o.m.i., P i e r r e Beaule, Senateur B e l c o u r t , Noel B e r n i e r , A l f r e d C h a r p e n t i e r , Abbe" Ph. S. Desranleau, Juge C. E. Dorion, Dr. J u l e s Dorion, J . E. A. Dubuc, Abbe" C y r i l l e Gagnon, Abbe" Maxime F o r t i n , L€on-Mercier Gouin, Oscar Hamel, Abbe" Edmour Hubert, Omer Heroux, Mgr. Eugene L a p o i n t e , Abbe O l i v i e r Maurault, p . s . s . , Edouard M o n t p e t i t , Mgr. L. A. Paquet, Antonio P e r r a u l t , Abbe" P h i l i p p e P e r r i e r , Dr. F r e d A. Ri c h a r d , Mgr. F. X. Ross, R. P. Rodrigue V i l l e n e u v e , o.m.i.. Compte rendu de l a Semaine S o c i a l e canadienne, v o l I, 1920, -165-La f o n d a t i o n du C o n s e i l c e n t r a l nationaux a P r e s i d e n t v i c e - p r e s i d e n t 2e v i c e - p r i s i d e n t s e c r e t a i r e - a r c h i v i s t e a s s i s t a n t - s e c r e t a i r e s e c r e t a i r e - c o r r e s p o n d a n t s e c r e t a i r e - f i n a n c i e r a s s i s t a n t - s e c r e t a i r e t r e s o r i e r commissaire-ordonnateur sergent d'armes aumonier-gen€ral a s s i s t a n t s des S y n d i c a t s c a t h o l i q u e s e t [ont r e a l . (February 1920) A. C h a r p e n t i e r E. Provost M. Levasseur A. Chabot J . B. Huot J . P. Malo A. B i l o d e a u J . A. Coderre L. G. T h e r i e n E. Pigeon A. Tremblay abbe E. Hebert l e s abbes Gaudry e t Primeau L ' O r g a n i s a t i o n o u v r i e r e c a t h o l i q u e au Canada, #105, (1921) pp. 21 & 31. -166-Comite c e n t r a l de l a Ligue du Dimanche (formed A p r i l 8, 1923) P r e s i d e n t M. l e juge E. Fabre - Surveyer (Montreal) V i c e - p r e s i d e n t M. l e juge T. Tremblay (Quebec) S e c r e t a i r e - t r e s o r i e r Aumonier R. Germain (Montreal) R. P. J . P. Archambault, s . j . (Montreal) D i r e c t e u r s M. l e juge R. M i l l a r ( H u l l ) ; M. l e juge T.A. F o n t a i n e ( S a i n t e -H y a c i n t h e ) ; J . A. Rochefort ( C h i c o u t i m i ) ; J . C a r t i e r , C. R. (St. Jean); M. l e n o t a i r e E. F o r e s t ( J o l i e t t e ) ; Ch.-A Gascon (Montreal); A. V a n i e r , C. R. (Montreal); E. L a u r i n ( T r o i s - R i v i e r e s ) J . P. Archambault, s . j . ' Pour un dimanche C h r e t i e n , T r a c t #349, pp. 5 & 15. -167-D i r e c t e u r s de l a Ligue d ' A c t i o n N a t i o n a l e . (January, 1933) ( P u b l i s h e r s o f "1'Action N a t i o n a l e " , s u c c e s s o r t o "1'Action  Frangaise") MM. Esdras M i n v i l l e , p r e s i d e n t , Hermas B a s t i e n , s e c r e t a i r e , P i e r r e Homier, ( J . P. Archambault, s . j . ) l'abbe L i o n e l Groulx, Eugdne L'Heureux, O l i v i e r Maurault, p . s . s . , Anatole V a n i e r , l'abbe A l b e r t T e s s i e r , Harry Bernard, ( d i r e c t o r ) A r t h u r Laurendeau, Rene" C h a l o u l t , W i l f r i d G u ^ r i n , Leopold R i c h e r , A l b e r t Rioux, Dr. P h i l i p p e Hamel. L ' A c t i o n N a t i o n a l e , M o n t r e a l , Ligue d ' A c t i o n N a t i o n a l e , 1933, v o l I I . -168-Le 9 mars 1933 se r i u n i s s a i e n t Conception de Montreal, sous l a pre R. P. Archambault, s . j . , S. Exc. Mgr. Y e l l e , M^ gJT Eug§ne L a p o i n t e , Mgr. Charbonneau, Mgr. Desranleau, Mgr. Lebon, l e R. P. F o r e s t , o.p., l'abbe P h i l i p p e P e r r i e r , l e R. P. Leon L e b e l , s . j . , 1'abbi Jean B e r t r a n d , l e R. P. G.-H. Levesque, o.p., l e s RR.PP. Chagnon, s . j . , e t de L e r y , s . j . , done,31'Immaculee-idence du d i r e c t e u r de l ' E c o l e S o c i a l e P o p u l a i r e , ceux dont l e s noms s u i v e n t : Archeveque coadjuteur de S a i n t -B o n i f a c e , a l o r s d i r e c t e u r du grand seminaire de Mont r e a l , v i c a i r e g6n€ral h o n o r a i r e de C h i c o u t i m i , v i c a i r e g e n e r a l d 1Ottawa, cure de S o r e l , du C o l l e g e de Sainte-Anne-de-l a - P o c a t i e r e , p r o f e s s e u r 3 L ' U n i v e r s i t e L a v a l , Doyen de l a F a c u l t y de P h i l o s o p h i e de L ' U n i v e r s i t y de M o n t r e a l , P r o f e s s e u r au s c o l a s t i c a t de J o l i e t t e aum6nier g e n e r a l de 1'Union C a t h o l i q u e des C u l t i v a t e u r s du Canada, aumonier des s y n d i c a t s c a t h o l i q u e s de M o n t r e a l , p r o f e s s e u r au s c o l a s t i c a t d' Ottawa, p r o f e s s e u r s au s c o l a s t i c a t de 1'Immaculie-Conception. Les v i n g t - c i n q i ans de l ' E c o l e S o c i a l e P o p u l a i r e , 1911-1936, #269-70, (1936) p. 23, -169-Les s i g n a t a i r e s du deuxieme programme de r e s t a u r a t i o n s o c i a l e . (Sept. 30, 1933) Esdras M i n v i l l e p r o f e s s e u r a l ' E c o l e des Hautes Etudes Commerciales, p r e s i d e n t de 1'Action N a t i o n a l e , Dr. P h i l i p p e Hamel V.-E. Beaupre p r o f e s s e u r a 1 ' U n i v e r s i t e L a v a l , p r e s i d e n t de 1 ' A s s o c i a t i o n d e n t a i r e du Canada, ( l e a d i n g a n t i - t r u s t e r ) , i n g e n i e u r c i v i l , p r o f e s s e u r a l ' E c o l e P o l y t e c h n i q u e , a n c i e n p r e s i d e n t g e n e r a l de 1'A.C.J.C. e t de l a S o c i e t y S a i n t - J e a n -B a p t i s t e , A l b e r t Rioux p r e s i d e n t d e l ' U n i o n c a t h o l i q u e des C u l t i v a t e u r s du Canada, Dr. J.-B. P r i n c e c h i r u r g i e n en chef de 1 ' H o p i t a i de Lachine, p r e s i d e n t du Comite des Amis du "Devoir", A n a t o l e V a n i e r avocat, a n c i e n p r e s i d e n t de 1*Union r e g i o n a l e de 1'A.C.J.C, Le Programme de r e s t a u r a t i o n s o c i a l e , #239-40, (1934) p.80. In the i n t r o d u c t i o n , Archambault s t a t e s : "Pour des r a i s o n s p e r s o n e l l e s , deux ou t r o i s des c o l l a b o r a t e u r s c r u r e n t p r e f e r a b l e de ne pas prendre rang parmi l e s s i g n a t a i r e s du programme." A c c o r d i n g to R. R u m i l l y ' s H i s t o i r e de l a P r o v i n c e de Quibec, v o l . XXIII, p. 212, Paul Gouin and Eugene L'Heureux, e d i t o r of 1'  A c t i o n C a t h o l i q u e were the c o l l a b o r a t o r s who d i d not s i g n . Les s i g n a t a i r e s contd. -170-A r t h u r Laurendeau A l f r e d C h a r p e n t i e r W i l f r e d GuErin Rene" C h a l o u l t maitre de c h a p e l l e a l a c a t h e d r a l e de Montreal, ( L a t e r e d i t o r of 1'Action N a t i o n a l e u n t i l succeeded by son Andre.) p r e s i d e n t du C o u n s e i l c e n t r a l des S y n d i c a t s o u v r i e r s c a t h o l i q u e s de M o n t r e a l , (from 1936-46 P r e s i d e n t o f the C.T.C.C.) N.P. s e c r e t a i r e de 1'Union r e g i o n a l e des C a i s s e s P o p u l a i r e s de Montreal, d i r e c t e u r de l a Ligue d 1 A c t i o n n a t i o n a l e , avocat, a n c i e n p r e s i d e n t de l a Societe* des Etudes j u r i d i q u e s de Quebec. (Prominent n a t i o n a l i s t -a n t i - t r u s t e r . ) -171-Comite des Oeuvres C a t h o l i q u e s du d i o c e s e de Montreal d i r e c t e u r : J . P. Archambault, s . j . Le Comite des Oeuvres c a t h o l i q u e s de Montreal group act u e l l e m e n t ( A v r i l , 1942) l e s s o c i e t e s s u i v a n t e s : Societe S a i n t - J e a n B a p t i s t e , Societe S a i n t - V i n c e n t - d e - P a u l , Fid£ration des Ligues du Sacr§-Coeur, A s s o c i a t i o n c a t h o l i q u e p r o f e s s i o n n e l l e des Voyageurs de Commerce, C o n s e i l c e n t r a l des S y n d i c a t s nationaux c a t h o l i q u e s , S y n d i c a t c a t h o l i q u e du Tramway, A s s o c i a t i o n c a t h o l i q u e de l a jeunesse canadienne, C h e v a l i e r s de Colomb, Union c a t h o l i q u e des C u l t i v a t e u r s , Ligue des R e t r a i t a n t s , Amicales des anciens e l e v e s des F r e r e s des E c o l e s c h r e t i e n n e , Societe de C o l o n i s a t i o n , Ligue du Dimanche, Cheminots c a t h o l i q u e s , E c o l e Sociale P o p u l a i r e , T i e r s - O r d r e de S a i n t - F r a n g o i s , C h e v a l i e r s de C a r i l l o n , A l l i a n c e c a t h o l i q u e des P r o f e s s e u r s , Amis du De v o i r . J . P. Archambault, s . j . , Le Couvre - Feu, T r a c t #274, (1942) p. 13. Most o f these o r g a n i z a t i o n s were i n e x i s t e n c e b e f o r e 1930. A P P E N D I X B THE AIMS OF THE E.S.P. -172-Le progamme de l ' E c o l e S o c i a l e P o p u l a i r e . (May, 1911) L ' E c o l e S o c i a l e P o p u l a i r e , dans un e s p r i t de p a r f a i t e soumission a l ' a u t o r i t e r e l i g i e u s e , d e c l a r e : Que l a q u e s t i o n s o c i a l e , e t a n t avant t o u t une q u e s t i o n morale e t r e l i g i e u s e , c ' e s t 1 l ' E g l i s e q u ' i l en f a u t d'abord demander l a s o l u t i o n ; Que 1 ' o r g a n i s a t i o n p r o f e s s i o n n e l l e , § p e r s o n n a l i t e c i v i l e e t a base c o n f e s s i o n n e l l e , e s t l e m e i l l e u r moyen de conserver e t de r i t a b l i r l a p a i x s o c i a l e e t d ' a m e l i o r e r l e s o r t des t r a v a i l l e u r s dans l e s v i l l e s , d'augmenter l e b i e n ^ e t r e de nos p o p u l a t i o n s dans l e s campagnes e t d ' a r r e t e r l'exode r u r a l ; Q u ' e l l e se propose de f a v o r i s e r de toutes ses f o r c e s l a f o n d a t i o n des oeuvres s o c i a l e s en g e n e r a l e t t o u t p a r t i c u l -ierement des s u i v a n t e s : l e s C a i s s e s P o p u l a i r e s , l e s patronages e t l e s c e r c l e s d ' i t u d e s ; Q u ' e l l e e s t en faveur d'une s a i n e l e g i s l a t i o n s o c i a l e , notamment sur l e s p o i n t s s u i v a n t s : l a r i g l e m e n t a t i o n du t r a v a i l des femmes e t des e n f a n t s ; l a l i m i t a t i o n des heures de t r a v a i l ; 1 * i n t e r d i c t i o n du t r a v a i l de n u i t ; l e repos d o m i n i c a l ; l ' h y g i e n e des u s i n e s , f a b r i q u e s , e t c ... e t des h a b i t a t i o n s o u v r i ^ r e s ; l a c o o p e r a t i o n sous t o u t e s ses formes; l a p r o t e c t i o n des o u v r i e r s canadiens c o n t r e l a main-d'oeuvre etr a n g e r e ; l a reconnaissance l e g a l e dans l e s campagnes d'un b i e n de f a m i l l e i n s a i s i s s a b l e ; l a s p e c u l a t i o n e t l e s t r u s t s . L ' E c o l e S o c i a l e P o p u l a i r e , #1A, (1911), p. 17-18. -173-L ' E c o l e , n a t u r e l l e m e n t , e s t opposee au s o c i a l i s m e : e l l e p r o t e s t e energiquement, en p a r t i c u l i e r , c o n t r e t o u t e mesure e t t o u t p r o j e t de l o i tendant 3 r e s t r e i n d r e , au b e n e f i c e de l ' E t a t , l ' a u t o r i t e des peres de f a m i l l e ou de l ' E g l i s e en matiere d'education. / A P P E N D I X C THE POLITICAL PROGRAMMES OF THE E.S.P. -174-Le premier programme de r e s t a u r a t i o n s o c i a l e . (March 9, 1933) 1. Le regime c a p i t a l i s t e n'est pas mauvais en s o i , mais i l a €te v i c i i par des abus t r e s graves. Des reformes s'im-posent en vue de mettre f i n a l a d i c t a t u r e iconomique e t d'assur e r , par une m e i l l e u r e r e p a r t i t i o n des r i c h e s s e s , l e relevement des c l a s s e s p o p u l a i r e s . 2. A l'§goisme dominateur e t cupide i l f a u t opposer, en t o u t premier l i e u e t dans toutes l e s c l a s s e s de l a s o c i e t e , l e v e r i t a b l e e s p r i t c h r i t i e n , i n s p i r a t e u r de j u s t i c e , de cha-ri t e " e t de moderation, l e r e s p e c t des d r o i t s de Dieu (obser-v a t i o n du dimanche, etc.) e t des d r o i t s du p r o c h a i n ( f i d e l i t y aux c o n t r a t s , etc.) 3. C'est de l a nature e t done du C r i a t e u r que l e s hommes ont regu l e d r o i t de p r o p r i e t y p r i v e e . Ce d r o i t comporte des o b l i g a t i o n s s o c i a l e s q u i en temperent 1'usage e t l e subordonnent aux exigences du b i e n commun. 4. L ' E t a t d o i t au pl u s t o t par des reformes l e g i s l a t i v e s soumettre a une ry g l e m e n t a t i o n severe e t p l u s e f f i c a c e l e s i n s t i t u t i o n s f i n a n c i e r e s e t l e s compagnies 3 fonds s o c i a l , a f i n de supprimer l a s u r c a p i t a l i s a t i o n , l e mo u i l l a g e des v a l e u r s , l e s abus du c r e d i t e t de l a s p e c u l a t i o n . 5. C e r t a i n e s c a t e g o r i e s de bi e n s c o n f ^ r e n t p a r f o i s une puissance yconomique t r o p c o n s i d e r a b l e pour q u ' e l l e s o i t l a i s s e e e n t r e l e s mains de personnes p r i v y e s . Des c o n s i d e -Pour l e R e s t a u r a t i o n s o c i a l e au Canada, #232-3, (1933), pp. 62-4--175-r a t i o n s d ' i n t e r e t g e n e r a l peuvent imposer ou c o n s e i l l e r , dans des cas p a r t i c u l i e r s , l a g e s t i o n p u b l i q u e , n a t i o n a l e , p r o v i n c i a l e ou m u n i c i p a l e . 6. II a p p a r t i e n t a l ' E t a t d'imprimer une d i r e c t i o n d 1 ensemble a l'Economie n a t i o n a l e e t , a c e t e f f e c t , d ' i n s t i t u e r un C o n s e i l Economique n a t i o n a l , e x p r e s s i o n de 1 ' o r g a n i s a t i o n c o r p o r a t i v e , q u i permettra aus pouv o i r s p u h l i c s d ' a g i r en l i a i s o n E t r o i t e avec l e s r e p r E s e n t a n t s q u a l i f i e s e t compEtents de toutes l e s branches de l a p r o d u c t i o n . 7. II f a u t tendre a 1 1amEnagement d'un or d r e c o r p o r a t i f par 1 ' o r g a n i s a t i o n complete e t l E g a l e des d i f f E r e n t e s p r o f e s s i o n s ( a i n s i dans l e monde du t r a v a i l : s y n d i c a t s o u v r i e r s , a s s o c i a t i o n s p a t r o n a l e s , commissions m i x t e s ) . 8. Une l e g i s l a t i o n s o c i a l e s 1impose q u i assure a) aux o u v r i e r s : une p r o t e c t i o n e f f i c a c e c o n t r e l e s r i s q u e s d ' a c c i -dent, de maladie, de v i e i l l e s s e e t de chomage; b) aux a g r i c u l t e u r s : un c r e d i t a g r i c o l e e f f e c t i f , une a d a p t a t i o n E q u i t a b l e du d r o i t de f a i l l i t e ou de s a i s i e , une p r o t e c t i o n s u f f i s a n t e c o n t r e l e s a c c i d e n t s ( i n c e n d i e , maladies du be-t a i l , mauvaise r e c o l t e ) . 9. L ' o u v r i e r a d r o i t a une s a l a i r e f a m i l i a l . S i l e s c o n d i t i o n s presentes de l a v i e i n d u s t r i e l l e ne l e rendent pas t o u j o u r s p o s s i b l e , l a j u s t i c e s o c i a l e commande que l ' o n proc^de sans d e l a i a des rEformes q u i g a r a n t i r o n t a 1'ouvrier a d u l t e une r E t r i b u t i o n p roportionnEe aux charges normales du mEnage. II e s t d E s i r a b l e que l e s employes p u i s s e n t e t r e appelEs a p a r t i c i p e r en quelque maniere S l a p r o p r i E t E de -176-1 ' e n t r e p r i s e , et sa g e s t i o n ou aux p r o f i t s q u ' e l l e apporte. On d e v r a i t a u s s i v e n i r en aide aux f a m i l i e s nombreuses par des nte'sures s p i c i a l e s comme l e s a l l o c a t i o n s f a m i l i a l e s , une d i m i n u t i o n ou exemption d'impots, e t c . 10. Le chomage a c t u e l reclame une i n t e r v e n t i o n s p e c i a l e des p o u v o i r s p u b l i c s . I I f a u t t o u t mettre en oeuvre pour f o u r n i r du t r a v a i l , e t , en attendant, p o u r v o i r i q u i t a b l e m e n t a l a s u b s i s t a n c e de ceux q u i sont dans l e b e s o i n . 11. Des mesures s'imposent pour rendre moins o n i r e u x aux f a m i l i e s peu f o r t u n i e s l e s s e r v i c e s medicaux e t l e s f r a i s d ' h o s p i t a l i s a t i o n . 12. En vue de r € t a b l i r l ' e q u i l i b r e de l a p o p u l a t i o n , on d o i t f a v o r i s e r 1 ' a g r i c u l t u r e f a m i l i a l e e t r e s t r e i n d r e l a c u l t u r e i n d u s t r i a l i s e e , promouvoir 1'enseignement r u r a l e t l e s methodes c o o p e r a t i v e s , i n s p i r e r l ' e s t i m e de l a p r o f e s s i o n a g r i c o l e , a i d e r a 1 *§tablissement des f i l s de c u l t i v a t e u r , developper method-i q u e m e n t l l a c o l o n i s a t i o n . 13. F i d e l e a l a c o n s t i t u t i o n q u i nous r e g i t , l ' E t a t d o i t r e s p e c t e r l e s d r o i t s des p r o v i n c e s e t l e p r i n c i p e d ' i g a l i t e des deux races q u i e s t I l a base de l a C o n f e d e r a t i o n canadienne. I I s ' a p p l i q u e r a a u s s i a une p o l i t i q u e de c o l l a b o r a t i o n economique i n t e r n a t i o n a l e e t s'emploiera a l'avenement de l a p a i x . -177-Le deuxieme programme de R e s t a u r a t i o n S o c i a l e . (September 30, 1933) La c r i s e q u e nous t r a v e r s o n s exige de toutes l e s bonnes v o l o n t e s un e f f o r t E n e r g i q u e de redressement. L ' E c o l e S o c i a l e P o p u l a i r e a p u b l i e en mai d e r n i e r un programme d o c t r i n a l de haute i n s p i r a t i o n . Nous y a d h E r o n s pleinement. Nous croyons, nous a u s s i , que l e s causes p r i n c i p a l e s de l a c r i s e sont d'ordre moral e t que nous l a g u i r i r o n s s u r t o u t par l e r e t o u r ci l 1 e s p r i t C h r e t i e n : e s p r i t de j u s t i c e , de c h a r i t e , de moderation, r e s p e c t des d r o i t s de Dieu e t des d r o i t s du p r o c h a i n . Nous croyons que l ' E t a t , dont l e r o l e e s t de p r o t i g e r l e s d r o i t s e t l e s l i b e r t i s l e g i t i m e s , ceux s u r t o u t des f a i b l e s e t des i n d i g e n t s , e t de promouvoir l e b i e n commun, d o i t i n t e r v e n i r par des mesures l e g i s l a t i v e s pour mettre f i n a l a d i c t a t u r e economique e t a s s u r e r une m e i l l e u r e r e p a r t i t i o n des r i c h e s s e s . Contrairement au s o c i a l i s m e , intrinsequement mauvais, l e regime c a p i t a l i s t e n'est pas condamnable en s o i . Ce sont l e s abus q u i l ' o n t v i c i i . Ce sont eux q u ' i l f a u t f a i r e d i s p a r a i t r e . Nous croyons que l e s corpos p r o f e s s i o n n e l s d e v r a i e n t s ' o r g a n i s e r solidement a f i n de joue r dans l a s o c i € t i l e r o l e important auquel i l s sont d e s t i n e s . I l f a u t tendre §. l'ame-nagement d'un ordre c o r p o r a t i f q u i d e c h a r g e r a i t l ' E t a t d'un bon nombre de taches s e c o n d a i r e s dont on l ' a c c a b l e . Nous croyons e n f i n que l e Canada e s t d'abord pour l e s Canadiens e t que tout e immigration en ces temps de ch6mage s e r a i t Le Programme de r e s t a u r a t i o n S o c i a l e , #239-40, (1934) -178-c o n t r a i r e aux i n t i r e t s du pays. Mais a l a base de c e t t e p o l i t i q u e canadienne, nous mettons l e r e s p e c t des d r o i t s des p r o v i n c e s e t l e p r i n c i p e d 1 e g a l i t e des deux r a c e s , t e l s que . l e s r e c o n n a i t l e pacte de l a Confederation. E l a b o r e par des m o r a l i s t e s , l e programme de l 1 E . S . P . s'en t e n a i t aux grandes l i g n e s . I l ne d e s c e n d a i t pas dans l e s d e t a i l s . Ces p r e c i s i o n s cependant sont n e c e s s a i r e s . I I f a u t l e s p r e s e n t e r au p u b l i c q u i exige des reformes c o n c r e t e s e t p r a t i q u e s . E l l e s r e i n v e n t , pour l a p l u p a r t , de t e c h n i c i e n s . C'est avec l e u r a i d e que nous avons prepare l e s a r t i c l e s s u i v a n t s . Nous avons du, a f i n de condenser en quelques l i g n e s une matiere abondante, adopter des formules breves. Quelques p o i n t s t o u t e f o i s demanderaient des e x p l i c a t i o n s . Nous comptons l e s f o u r n i e r dans une brochure q u i p a r a i t r a sous peu. Nous i n v i t o n s nos compatriotes a e t u d i e r serieusement ce programme e t , s ' i l s l e t r o u v e n t r a i s o n n a b l e , a s'en f a i r e l e s promoteurs aupres des hommes p u b l i c s pour en o b t e n i r une a p p l i c a t i o n g r a d u e l l e . R e s t a u r a t i o n Rurale 1. R e s t a u r a t i o n de 1 ' a g r i c u l t u r e e x i s t a n t s : Retour a 1 ' a g r i c u l t u r e f a m i l i a l e . — A s s o c i a t i o n p r o f e s s i o n n e l l e des c u l t i v a t e u r s . — G e n e r a l i s a t i o n de 1 ' i n s t r u c t i o n a g r i c o l e . — Expansion du mouvement c o o p e r a t i f . — C r e d i t a g r i c o l e par 1 ' i n t e r m e d i a i r e des c a i s s e s p o p u l a i r e s . — D i v e r s i f i c a t i o n de l a p r o d u c t i o n par 1 * i n t r o d u c t i o n de n o u v e l l e s s p e c i a l i t e s c u l t u r a l e s convenant a n o t r e s o l e t a n o t r e c l i m a t e t r i p o n d a n t -179-aux besoins des marches locaux. A c e t t e f i n , i n v e n t a i r e : a) de l a consommation sur l e s marches u r b a i n s pour s a v o i r e x a c t -ement ce q u i s'y vend; b) de l a p r o d u c t i o n a g r i c o l e , a f i n de se rendre compte de ce q u i y manque; c) du t e r r i t o i r e c u l t i v e au p o i n t de vue c l i m a t e t s o l a f i n de determiner l e s c u l t u r e s a i n t r o d u i r e . 2. C o l o n i s a t i o n : a) P a r t d e . l ' E t a t : Proceder d 1 a p r e s un p l a n determine d'avance. — F a c i l i t e r l ' a c c e s des t e r r e s c o l o n i s a b l e s p a r t o u t ou e l l e s se t r o u v e n t , q u ' e l l e s a p p a r t i e n -nent S l a couronne, ou q u ' e l l e s s o i e n t concedees en s e i g n e u r i e s ou en r e s e r v e s f o r e s t i e r e s . A c e t t e f i n , d e l i m i t e r l e s r e s e r v e s de c o l o n i s a t i o n e t r e i n t e g r e r au domaine a g r i c o l e c e l l e s q u i sont concedees en r e s e r v e s f o r e s t i e r e s ou en s e i g n e u r i e s . — E x i g e r des compagnies q u 1 e l l e s achdtent l e b o i s des c olons avant de f a i r e l a coupe sur l e u r s propres l i m i t e s . — C o n s e r v e r l e regime des primes avec paiement r e g u l i e r , a c o n d i t i o n q u ' i l y a i t r e s i d e n c e . — E t a b l i r un budget de c o l o n -i s a t i o n mieux p r o p o r t i o n n e aux b e s o i n s p r e s s a n t s de l ' h e u r e . — F a v o r i s e r l a c r e a t i o n de s o c i e t e s de c o l o n i s a t i o n e t cooperer avec ces societes;. — A i d e r l e s c olons par 1' i n t e r m e d i a i r e des s o c i e t e s d i o c e s a i n e s e t par des travaux ( r o u t e s , etc.) ou par des subventions c o l l e c t i v e s ( c o n s t r u c t i o n d ' e c o l e s , d ' e g l i s e s ) p l u t 6 t que par des g r a t i f i c a t i o n s i n d i v i d u e l l e s . — A p p l i q u e r p l u s largement l e p l a n Gordon pour l e r e t o u r §. l a t e r r e des chomeurs u r b a i n s . b) P a r t du p u b l i c : S o c i e t e s p a r o i s s i a l e s e t d i o c e s a i n e s de c o l o n i s a t i o n pour l e recrutement des c o l o n s e t 1 ' o r g a n i s a t i o n -180-des p a r o i s s e s n o u v e l l e s . 3. A r t s domestiques e t i n d u s t r i e s l o c a l e s : Promouvoir l e diveloppement des a r t s domestiques a f i n d ' a c c r o i t r e l e s revenus de l a f a m i l l e a g r i c o l e . — P r o c e d e r & une enquete: a) sur ce q u i se f a i t , b) sur ce q u i p o u r r a i t se f a i r e . — F a v o r i s e r l a d e c e n t r a l i s a t i o n economique; & c e t t e f i n , a i d e r au d i v e l o p p e -ment de l a p e t i t e e t fnoyenne i n d u s t r i e l o c a l e e t r e g i o n a l e q u i c o m p l i t e r a 1 1 a g r i c u l t u r e en l u i o f f r a n t un debouchi a) pour ses p r o d u i t s , b) pour son s u r c r o i t de main-d'oeuvre. La Question o u v r i e r e U n i f o r m i s a t i o n dans t o u t l e pays de c e r t a i n e s l o i s ouvri§res q u i ont une p o r t i e n a t i o n a l e ou i n t e r n a t i o n a l e , comme l a r e g l e m e n t a t i o n des heures de t r a v a i l . — O r g a n i s a t i o n p r o g r e -s s i v e des assurances s o c i a l e s 3 base c o n t r i b u t o i r e . — A p p l i c a t i o n immediate, comme mesure« :transitoire, de l a l o i f e d i r a l e des pensions de v i e i l l e s s e . — A l l o c a t i o n s aux meres n e e e s s i t e u s e s . — S a l a i r e v i t a l p r o p o r t i o n n e a l a f a m i l l e moyenne. — E x p e r i m e n -t a t i o n prudente des a l l o c a t i o n s f a m i l i a l e s , en tenant compte du probleme r u r a l . — P r i m a t du s a l a i r e sur l e s d i v i d e n d e s . — S a l a i r e minimum aux ( j o u r n a l i e r s ) . — A p p r e n t i s s a g e o b l i g a t o i r e . — C o n s e i l s u p i r i e u r du t r a v a i l e t code du t r a v a i l . — E x t e n s i o n j u r i d i q u e du c o n t r a t c o l l e c t i f . — O r g a n i s a t i o n c o r p o r a t i v e de l a p r o f e s s i o n . — Retour de l a m§re au f o y e r . — S t r i c t e observance du dimanche. — I n i t i a t i v e s p u b l i q u e s e t p r i v i e s q u i f a c i l i t e r o n t I 1 * o u v r i e r l 1 a c c e s s i o n a l a p r o p r i e t y . — D i s p a r -i t i o n des t a u d i s . — S u r v e i l l a n c e p l u s e f f i c a c e de 1'observation -181-des l o i s o u v r i d r e s . — R e v i s i o n de l a l o i des a c c i d e n t s du t r a v a i l quant au c h o i x du medecin e t au d e l a i donnant d r o i t a 1 1indemnite. — R g g l e m e n t a t i o n de l a vente a temperament. L u t t e c o n t r e l e s t r u s t s Combattre l e s c a r t e l s du charbon, de l a g a z o l i n e ; s u r v e i l l e r l e commerce du l a i t e t du p a i n . — L u t t e r t o u t specialement c o n t r e l e t r u s t de 1 ' e l e c t r i d t e . — O r g a n i s e r l a concurrence par l a c r e a t i o n d'une commission p r o v i n c i a l e hydra-glectrique q u i amenagerait, au f u r e t § mesure des besoins l e s chutes non concedees. — R e p r i s e par l ' E t a t des chutes d'eau concedees mais non e x p l o i t e r s . — F a i r e enquete sur l a Beauharnois Power C o r p o r a t i o n , l a Beauharnois Company e t l a Montreal L. H. & P. C o n s o l i d a t e d , e t , sur preuve d'abus s u f f i s a n t s , e t a t i s e r l e s u s i n e s h y d r o - e i e c t r i q u e s de l a Beauharnois, en g a r a n t i s s a n t l e s o b l i g a t i o n s e t en ne v e r s a n t aux a c t i o n n a i r e s qu'une remuneration correspondant a l e u r mise de fonds r i e l l e . — I m p o s e r au t r u s t un c o n t r o l e a l a generation e t a l a d i s t r i b u t i o n a f i n d'assurer a tous des taux moderns. — P r o t e c t i o n du gouvernement aux m u n i c i p a l i t e s q u i , apres u n referendum, d e s i r e n t m u n i c i p a l i s e r l e u r s e r v i c e d ' e i e c t r i c i t e . — U n e p o l i t i q u e d 1 e l e c t r i f i c a t i o n r u r a l e p r o g r e s s i v e , s e l o n un p l a n determine. — Enquete complete sur l a s t r u c t u r e e t l e s methodes f i n a n c i e r e s des compagnies d ' u t i l i t e s p u b l i q u e s , e t a s s a i n i s s e m e n t de l e u r c a p i t a l i s a t i o n . — O b l i g a t i o n pour l e s compagnies e i e c t r i q u e s de c r e e r e n t r e l e s mains de l'#Etat, par l e versement annuel d'une redevance p r i s e -182-sur l e s revenus, mais c a l c u l i e d 1 a p r e s un c e r t a i n pourcentage de l a c a p i t a l i s a t i o n , une r e s e r v e avec l a q u e l l e l e gouvernement pourr a , au cas d'abus prouves, r a c h e t e r l e s e n t r e p r i s e s d'apr^s l a v a l e u r m a t e r i e l l e de l ' a c t i f . Reformes f i n a n c i e r e s U n i f o r m i s a t i o n de l a l o i des s o c i e t e s S fonds s o c i a l dans t o u t l e Canada. — D e f e n s e d ' a v o i r r e c o u r s a des prete-noms pour l ' o b t e n t i o n de l e t t r e s - p a t e n t e s . — S u p r e s s i o n des a c t i o n s sans nominal e t s i m p l i f i c a t i o n de l a s t r u c t u r e f i n a n c i ^ r e des s o c i e t e s , ne l a i s s a n t s u b s i s t e r que des o b l i g a t i o n s , c ' e s t -a - d i r e des t i t r e s de c r i a n c e gages par une premiere hypotheque sur des immeubles, des a c t i o n s p r i v i l e g i e e s e t des a c t i o n s o r d i n a i r e s d'un nominal determine. — S i m p l i f i c a t i o n de l a s t r u c t u r e f i n a n c i e r e des s o c i e t e s . — P a r t i c i p a t i o n des o b l i g a t a i r e s a 1 ' E l e c t i o n des C o n s e i l s d ' a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . — O b l i g a t i o n pour l e s a d m i n i s t r a t e u r s d'une compagnie de p o s s i d e r , d'apres l a c a p i t a l i s a t i o n , une v a l e u r determined d ' o b l i g a t i o n s , p l u s l a m o i t i e de c e t t e v a l e u r en a c t i o n s o r d i n a i r e s . — D § p o t o b l i g a t o i r e de ces t i t r e s dans une compagnie de f i d u c i e comme g a r a n t i e d'honnete a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . — O b l i g a t i o n pour l e s soci6t£s de p u b l i e r annuellement une l i s t e complete de l e u r s a c t i o n n a i r e s e t o b l i g a t a i r e s . — L i m i t a t i o n , d&apres l e s b e n e f i c e s , des appointements, commissions, j e t o n s de presence versus aux f o n c t i o n n a i r e s s u p i r i e u r s e t aux a d m i n i s t r a t e u r s , avec o b l i g a t i o n pour l a compagnie d'en p u b l i e r chaque ann£e l e montant. — I n t e r d i c t i o n aux a d m i n i s t r a t e u r s de p r o f i t e r de l e u r s i t u a t i o n -183-pour e n c a i s s e r des p r o f i t s ou e v i t e r des p e r t e s p e r s o n n e l l e s au detriment des a c t i o n n a i r e s e t des o b l i g a t a i r e s . — I n t e r d i c t i o n des bonis e t d i v i d e n d e s pay§s en a c t i o n s a i n s i que des fractionnements d ' a c t i o n s e t des emissions de t i t r e s a m oindrissant l e gage du c a p i t a l dejS s o u s c r i t . — U n i f o r m i s a t i o n des b i l a n s . — F i x a t i o n des pourcentages pour d e p r e c i a t i o n , amortissements, e t c . , p r i n c i p a l e m e n t par l e s s o c i e t e s q u i f o n t l e commerce d ' a r t i c l e s de premiere n e c e s s i t y : l a i t , f a r i n e , p a i n , charbon, E l e c t r i c i t y , e t c . — R e s p o n s a b i l i t e c o n j o i n t e des a d m i n i s t r a t e u r s avec l e s v e r i f i c a t e u r s q u i s i g n e n t l e s e t a t s f i n a n c i e r s des s o c i e t e s . — R e s p o n s a b i l i t e c o n j o i n t e des a d m i n i s t r a t e u r s e t des c o u r t i e r s q u i vendent l e s t i t r e s d'une compagnie quant S l a v e r a c i t e du p r o s p e c t u s . — R e g l e m e n t a t i o n severe e t , au b e s o i n , a b o l i t i o n des "Investment T r u s t s " e t "Holding Companies". — I n t e r d i c t i o n aux banques de p r e t e r : 1. a l e u r s a d m i n i s t r a t e u r s , s o i t directement s o i t i n d i r e c t e -ment; 2. I des e n t r e p r i s e s oil l e s d i t s a d m i n i s t r a t e u r s sont i n t e r e s s e s . — I n t e r d i c t i o n aux banques d 1 a v a n c e r aux c o u r t i e r s p l u s de cinquante pour cent de l a v a l e u r nominale du t i t r e c o t e ou cinquante pour cent de l a cote s i l e t i t r e se t r a i t e en dessous du p a i r . — I n t e r d i c t i o n r i g o u r e u s e des "pools" e t de l a vente a decouvert. — I m p o s i t i o n d'une taxe p r o v i n c i a l e au vendeur, sur t o u t e mutation e f f e c t u e e moins d'un an aprds 1'achat d ' a c t i o n cotee en bourse. -184-Riformes p o l i t i q u e s Dans l a mesure du p o s s i b l e , e x e c u t i o n des travaux p u b l i c s en r e g i e pour mettre f i n au regime des grands e n t r e p r e n e u r s . — I n t e r d i c t i o n aux m i n i s t r e s d ' e t r e a d m i n i s t r a t e u r s d'une e n t r e -p r i s e i n d u s t r i e l l e , commerciale ou f i n a n c i e r e ; comme compensation, relevement de l e u r s appointements e t assurance d'une pension convenable, apres une p i r i o d e de s e r v i c e d i t e r m i n e e . — O b l i g a t i o n pour l e s s o c i e t i s i d i t r i c e s de journaux de p u b l i e r l a l i s t e assermentie de l e u r s a d m i n i s t r a t e u r s , a c t i o n n a i r e s , c r e a n c i e r s h y p o t h i c a i r e s e t r i d a c t e u r s r i g u l i e r s . — I m p r i m e r i e d ' E t a t pour l e gouvernement p r o v i n c i a l e t o b l i g a t i o n pour l e s a u t r e s corps p u b l i c s de n'accorder de c o n t r a t s d'impression qu*apres demande de soumissions. — I n t e r d i c t i o n S l'homme p u b l i c de f a i r e par un prete-nom ce que l a l o i l u i i n t e r d i t de f a i r e personnellement e t r e n v o i aux t r i b u n a u x p l u t o t qu'aux assemblies d i l i b i r a n t e s de t o u t cas de c o n c u s s i o n e t de p i c u l a t . — E l e c t i o n s a date f i x e e t d e c l a r a t i o n o b l i g a t o i r e par l e s p a r t i s des montants s o u s c r i t s a l e u r c a i s s e e l e c t o r a l e a i n s i que des sommes a f f e c t i e s a 1 ' o r g a n i s a t i o n g i n e r a l e e t dans chaque c i r c o n s c r i p t i o n . — A p p l i c a t i o n r i g o u r e u s e de l a l o i c o n t r e l e s s u p p o s i t i o n s de personne ( t i l i g r a p h e s ) . — C r e a t i o n d'un c o n s e i l economique p r o v i n c i a l compose" d'un comite d i r e c t e u r e t d'autant de sous-comites q u ' i l y a de branches importantes de l a v i e iconomique e t s o c i a l e . A ce c o n s e i l s i i g e r o n t des ; s p e c i a l i s t e s nommis par l ' E t a t , mais d i s i g n e s par l e s d i v e r s groupements p r o f e s s i o n n e l s e t s o c i a u x . Le -185-c o n s e i l aura pour m i s s i o n d ' e l a b o r e r une p o l i t i q u e economique e t s o c i a l e e t d'apporter aux gouvernants l e concours de ses i t u d e s e t de sa competence. En o u t r e , l e c o n s e i l c o l l a b o r e r a i t a l a nomination des s o u s - m i n i s t r e s e t des f o n c t i o n n a i r e s s u p e r i e u r s de l ' E t a t . Tous l e s a r t i c l e s de ce programme ne sont pas de r e a -l i s a t i o n f a c i l e n i immediate. Nous nous en rendons p a r f a i t e -ment compte. Mais l e s reformes q u " i l s p r e c o n i s e n t nous p a r a i s s e n t j u s t e s e t n e c e s s a i r e s , e t aucune ne s a u r a i t r e n c o n t r e r d 1 o b s t a c l e r e e l l e m e n t insurmontable. Mus uniquement par 1'amour de not r e pays, d e s i r e u x d'y f a i r e regner un ordre p l u s conforme a l a j u s t i c e s o c i a l e e t de l e p r e s e r v e r a i n s i des bouleversements auxquels nous expose l a s i t u a t i o n a c t u e l l e , nous voulons t r a v a i l l e r au triomphe de ce programme. Tous ceux q u i pensent comme nous, i n d i v i d u s ou societes, sont i n v i t e s a nous a d r e s s e r l e u r adhesion. Nous accepterons a u s s i v o l o n t i e r s l e s o b s e r v a t i o n s qu'on v o u d r a i t b i e n nous f a i r e . F O O T N O T E S -186-FOOTNOTES Chapter I 1. See J . C. Fa l a r d e a u , " E v o l u t i o n des s t r u c t u r e s s o c i a l e s e t des e l i t e s au Canada F r a n g a i s " , i n G. S y l v e s t r e ed., S t r u c t u r e s  S o c i a l e s du Canada F r a n g a i s , Etude de l a S o c i i t e Royale du Canada, 1966, pp. 9-13 and his-',1R©le e t importance de l'Eglise au Canada F r a n g a i s " , E s p r i t , P a r i s , (Aug-Sept. 1952 iss u e ) pp. 217-29. A l s o H. Guindon, "The S o c i a l E v o l u t i o n o f Quebec Reconsidered", i n M. Rioux and Y. M a r t i n eds., French-Canadian S o c i e t y , Toronto, M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1964, v o l . I, pp. 137-53. ( C a r l e t o n l i b r a r y , no. 18). 2. Mandements, L e t t r e s p a s t o r a l e s , c i r c u l a i r e s e t autre  documents p u b l i c s dans' l e Diocese de Mont r e a l , Montreal, J . H. Plincjuet, 1887, 7ieme tome, pp. 204-6. 3. P a r t o f a speech g i v e n i n 1902 by Msgr. L.-A. Paquet and reproduced i n the B r e V i a i r e du P a t r i o t e Canadien-Frangais, Montreal B i b l i o t h e q u e de l 1 A c t i o n F r a n g a i s e , 1925, p. 58. 4. Guindon, op_. c i t . , p. 153. 5. See Guindon, I b i d . , p. 153-8; F a l a r d e a u , "Role e t importance de l ' E g l i s e au Canada F r a n g a i s " , pp. 217-29. For a p r i e s t ' s view, see theppamphlet by A. Dugre, s . j . , La p a r o l s s e  au Canada f r a n g a i s , Montreal, E c o l e S o c i a l e P o p u l a i r e , h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as E.S.P., #183-184, (1929). 6. E. C. Hughes, French-Canada i n T r a n s i t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1943, pp. 9-10; H. Miner, S t . Denis A French- Canadian P a r i s h , U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , (1939) pp. 94-104 & 251, and M. Tremblay, " O r i e n t a t i o n s de l a pensee s o c i a l e " , i n Fa l a r d e a u ed., E s s a i s sur l e Quebec Contemporain, Quebec, Les Presses U n i v e r s i t a i r e s L a v a l , 1953, pp. 200-1. 7. Tremblay, I b i d . , pp. 202-3; Guindon, op. c i t . , p. 152; Fal a r d e a u , "Les Canadiens F r a n g a i s e t l e u r i d e o l o g i e " , i n M. Wade ed., Canadian Dualism, U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1960, pp. 26-9; R. B o i l y , "Les hommes p o l i t i q u e s du Quibec. 1867-1967", i n Revue d ' H i s t o i r e de l'Amgrique F r a n g a i s e , v o l . XXI 3a, ( c e n t e n n i a l i s s u e ) 1967, pp. 609 & 621, and L. E. Hamelin, "Une etude des v a r i a t i o n s r i g i o n a l e s du nombre des v o c a t i o n s s a c e r d o t a l e s " , i n h i s R e c u e i l de travaux de Scie n c e s Humaines, Quebec, Les Presses U n i v e r s i t a i r e s L a v a l , 1962, p. 26. 8. B o i l y , 0 £ . c i t . , p. 621; Tremblay, op_. c i t . , pp. 200-1, and J . P o r t e r , The V e r t i c a l Mosaic, U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1965, pp. 511-19. -187-9. For background, see Tremblay, I b i d . , pp. 203-8; F a l a r d e a u "RSle e t importance de l ' E g l i s e au Canada F r a n g a i s " , pp. 222-3, as w e l l as h i s "Les Canadiens F r a n g a i s e t l e u r ideologie". Another source i s M. Brunet, " T r o i s dominantes de l a p e n s i e Canadienne-Frangaise", i n h i s La presence A n g l a i s e e t l e s  Canadiens, M o n t r e a l , Beauchemin, 1964, pp. 112-66. 10. The f o l l o w i n g are taken from h i s Quelques C o n s i d e r a t i o n s  sur l e s Rapports de l a S o c i e t e c i v i l e avec l a R e l i g i o n e t l a  F a m i l l e ^ Montreal, Eusebe Senecal, 1866, pp. 24, 29, 38-50. T h i s book was condensed i n t o a pamphlet by the E.S.P. i n 1924 under the t i t l e Le P a t r i o t i s m e , #124. 11. See F a l a r d e a u , "Role e t importance de l ' E g l i s e au Canada F r a n g a i s " , pp. 217-29 and h i s " E v o l u t i o n des s t r u c t u r e s s o c i a l e s e t des e l i t e s au Canada F r a n g a i s " , pp. 9-13. 12. F a l a r d e a u , "Role e t importance de l ' E g l i s e au Canada F r a n g a i s " , p. 227. 13. F a l a r d e a u , I b i d . , pp. 228-9; Andre S i e g f r i e d , The Race  Question i n Canada, E. Nash, t r a n s . , Toronto, M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart L t d . , 1966, ( o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n P a r i s i n 1906) pp. 35-47 and Miner, op. c i t . , pp. 94-99 f o r t h i s and the f o l l o w i n g . 14. These are taken from S i e g f r i e d , I b i d . , pp. 22-3 & 42. 15. S i e g f r i e d , I b i d . , p. 25 and F a l a r d e a u , "Les Canadiens F r a n g a i s e t l e u r i d e o l o g i e " , p. 30. 16. See Hamelin, " E v o l u t i o n Numerique s e c u l a i r e du c l e r g e C a t h o l i q u e dans l e Quebec", i n h i s R e c u e l l , p a r t i c u l a r l y pp. 225 & 233-5; F. Dumont, " R e f l e x i o n s sur 1 ' h i s t o i r e r e l i g i e u s e du Canada F r a n g a i s " i n V. Harvey e t . a l , L ' E g l i s e e t l e Quebec, Montreal, Les E d i t i o n s du Jour, 1961, pp. 54-5; Falardeau's "Role e t importance de l ' E g l i s e au Canada F r a n g a i s " , p. 224, and P. E. Trudeau, "La P r o v i n c e de Quebec au moment de l a greve" i n La Greye de l'Amiante, Montreal, Les editions C i t e - L i b r e , 1956, p. 58. On the b a s i s of Falardeau's f i g u r e s , Trudeau c a l c u l a t e d t h a t t h e r e was one v o c a t i o n f o r every f o r t y C a t h o l i c s i n Quebec d u r i n g the 1940's. T h i s excluded the many French Canadian m i s s i o n a r i e s s t a t i o n e d o u t s i d e of Quebec. As Hamelin shows the r a t e has remained f a i r l y steady s i n c e the end of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . 17. J . H e n r i p i n , "From acceptance to c o n t r o l : the demography of the French Canadians s i n c e the seventeenth c e n t u r y " , i n M a r t i n and Rioux, French Canadian S o c i e t y , v o l . I, pp. 209-15. -188-18. I b i d . , pp. 209-10; Hughes, op_. c i t . , pp. 2 & 7; Tremblay, op_. c i t . , pp. 192-202. See e s p e c i a l l y , Miner, op_. c i t . , pp. 63-75 & 239-41 as w e l l as R. R e d f i e l d ' s i n t r o d u c t i o n . Another u s e f u l source i s W. F. Ryan, s . j . , The C l e r g y and  Economic Growth i n Quebec. 1896-1914, Les Presses de 1"Universite" L a v a l , 1966, pp. 250-56. For a d i s c u s s i o n o f the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f c o l o n i z a t i o n , see pp 105-109 of t h i s t h e s i s . 19. See Hughes, I b i d . , pp. 216 and Miner, I b i d . , pp. 68 & 71-2. 20. For a d i s c u s s i o n o f the economic e v o l u t i o n o f Quebec, see R. Blanchard, Le Canada F r a n g a i s , L i b r a i r i e Artheme F a y a r t (Canada) L t e e . , (1960) pp. 180-98 & 277, and A. Faucher, and My. Lamontagne, " H i s t o r y o f I n d u s t r i a l Development", i n M a r t i n and Rioux, French Canadian S o c i e t y , pp. 257-71. 21. See Faucher and Lamontagne, I b i d . , p. 264-65 as w e l l as Lamontagne, "The American Economic Impact on Quebec", H. A i t k e n , e t a l . , The American Economic Impact on Canada^ Duke U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959, p. 92, and Faucher and G. Paquet, "L 1 experience economique du Quebec e t l a C o n f e d e r a t i o n " , J o u r n a l of Canadian S t u d i e s , v o l . 1, no. 3, (Nov. 1966), pp. 24-25. 22. For a d i s c u s s i o n o f French Canadian r e a c t i o n t t o i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , see Faucher and Paquet, I b i d . , p. 25, and Blanchard, op_. c i t . , p. 198. Ryan, op_. c i t . , pp. 23-25, 80 & 92, 254-61, 265-71, d i s c u s s e s t h i s q u e s t i o n e x t e n s i v e l y . 23. In a d d i t i o n t o those sources l i s t e d i n note#22, see B o i l y , op_. c i t . , p.63I-2; P. E. Trudeau, "Some O b s t a c l e s t o Democracy i n Quebec", i n Canadian Dualism, pp. 246-55; Guindon, op. c i t . , p. 156 and J . C~ Bonenfant, "La v i e p o l i t i q u e du Quebec de 1910 a 1935," i n S o c i i t e Royale du Canada, Aux sources du  pre s e n t , U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1960, pp. 31-33 f o r d i s c u s s i o n s o f the v a r i o u s f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d . 24. See G. P e l l e t i e r , "Le s y n d i c a l i s m * C a n a d i e n - f r a n g a i s , " i n Canadian Dualism, pp. 280-83, 286-87 and a pamphlet by A. C h a r p e n t i e r , De 1 ' I n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m e au N a t i o n a l i s m e , M o n t r e a l , E.S.P. #88-89, (1919) pp. 18-20. 25. P. Savard, J u l e s - P a u l T a r d i v e l , l a France e t l e s E t a t s - U n i s. 1851-1905. Les Presses de 1 ' U n i v e r s i t e L a v a l , 1967, (Les C a h i e r s de L ' I n s t i t u t d ' H i s t o i r e #8/} p. 212; Trudeau, op_. c i t . , pp. 62-3, and C a r d i n a l Taschereau's "mandement" i n Mandements, l e t t r e s p a s t o r a l e s e t C i r c u l a i r e s des Eveques de Quebec, Quebec, Imprimerie G i n e r a l e , 1890, v o l . I I , pp. 554-7. -189-26. In a d d i t i o n to P e l l e t i e r , op_. c i t . , pp. 283-87, see A. C h a r p e n t i e r , "Le mouvement p o l i t i q u e o u v r i e r de M o n t r e a l . 1883-1929", R e l a t i o n s I n d u s t r i e - L i e s , v o l . 10, no. 2., (Mar. 1955) pp. 74-93 and a pamphlet, A. S a i n t - P i e r r e , L ' o r g a n i s a t i o n o u v r i e r e  dans l a P r o v i n c e de Quebec, Montreal, E.S.P. #2, (1913) pp. 23-31. For the r e a c t i o n s o f French Canadian s o c i a l reformers to the p r o p o s a l s of t h i s s h o r t - l i v e d Labour movement, see J . L e v i t t , H enri Bourassa and the Golden C a l f , Les E d i t i o n s de 1 ' U n i v e r s i t e d'Ottawa, 1969, pp. 110-112 e s p e c i a l l y . 27 Ryan, QJJ. o i t . , pp. 263-64 and Sr. M. A. Welton, Mgr. Paul-Eug§ne Roy, Quebec, Les E d i t i o n s de l 1 A c t i o n C a t h o l i q u e , 1941, p. 55. 28. S a i n t P i e r r e , op_. c i t . , passim. 29. T h i s speech was g i v e n i n 1918 and was c i t e d by another l e a d i n g S o c i a l C a t h o l i c , Msgr. L a p o i n t e o f C h i c o u t i m i , Semaine  S o c i a l e du Canada, 2ieme s e s s i o n , (1921) p. 386, and by Welton, op. c i t . , p. 165. 30. Welton, I b i d . , pp. 66-7. -190-FOOTNOTES Chapter I I 1. F i v e Great E n c y c l i c a l s , New York, the P a u l i s t P r e s s , 1955, (1939) p. 7. 2. I b i d . , p. 8 3. I b i d . , pp. 9-15 and 15-23 f o r the f o l l o w i n g . 4. I b i d . , p. 19. 5. I b i d . , p. 22. 6. I b i d . , p. 22. 7. See I b i d . , pp. 23-29. 8. I b i d . , pp. 27-29. 9. L. S t u r z o , Church and S t a t e , U n i v e r s i t y o f Notre Dame Pre s s , v o l . 2, 1962, pp. 423 & 432-3. Sturzo l e d the I t a l i a n Popular Party, a f t e r World War I, an attempt t o adapt the teachings of C a t h o l i c i s m t o p o l i t i c s . See pp. 478-80 of the same book. 10. For s t u d i e s o f t h i s c o n f l i c t see, i n a d d i t i o n t o S t u r z o , I b i d . , A. R. V i d l e r , A Century o f S o c i a l C a t h o l i c i s m . 1820-1920, L o n d o n , S.P.C.K., 1964, pp. 54-93 and P. D r o u l e r s , P o l i t l q u e "  S o c i a l e t C h r i s t i a n i s m e ; Le Pere Desbuguois e t "1' A c t i o n  P o p u l a i r e " dSbutisy s y n d i c a l i s m e , e t l n t e g r i s t e s . 190 3-1918, P a r i s , Les E d i t i o n s O u v r i e r s , 1969. 11. S t u r z o , op_. c i t . , pp. 458-61. 12. I b i d . , p. 439; V i d l e r , op_. c i t . , pp. 129-30 and D r o u l e r s op. c i t . , pp. 306-11. 13. S t u r z o , I b i d . , pp. 464-5. 14. D r o u l e r s , op. c i t . , pp. 40 & 146-51 and H. F o n t a n i l l e , L'Oeuvre  S o c i a l e d ' A l b e r t de Mun, P a r i s , E d i t i o n s Spes, 1926, p. 259. 15. S t u r z o , op. c i t . , pp. 459-62; D r o u l e r s , I b i d . , pp. 255 & 92, and E. N o l t e , Three Faces of Fascism, t r a n s . L. Vennewitz, New York, The New American L i b r a r y , (1963) pp. 101-2 & 137. 16. N o l t e , I b i d . , pp. 185-6; S t u r z o , op_. c i t . p. 462 and Do u l e r s , I b i d . , p. 359. 17. N o l t e , I b i d . , p. 103, n. 50; Sturzo op_. c i t . , pp. 462-5, and D r o u l e r s , I b i d . , pp. 360 & 84. -191-18. D r o u l e r s / I b i d . , e s p e c i a l l y has a f u l l account of the c o n f l i c t . See h i s Chapt. V, pp. 229-392. The b i t t e r n e s s of the d i s p u t e can be gauged by the accounts of l e a d i n g c l e r i c s denouncing Leo X I I I i n p r i v a t e and o f the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the A.P. to r e s i s t the I n t S g r i s t e s and, i f necessary, the Pope. See p. 41 a l s o . 19. D r o u l e r s , I b i d . , pp. 239-41 and F o n t a n i l l e , op_. c i t . , p. 248. 20. D r o u l e r s , I b i d . , p. 232. 21. I b i d . , pp. 32-41 & 354 and V i d l e r , op_. c i t . , p. 126. For the f o l l o w i n g , see D r o u l e r s , pp. 346-50 & 390-91. 22. See h i s pamphlet, La C a i s s e p o p u l a i r e , 3ieme ed., Montreal, E.S.P. #7 & 12, 1944 (1912), pp. 41-47. 23. See pamphlet, L ' O r g a n i s a t i o n o u v r i e r e c a t h o l i q u e au  Canada, Mon t r e a l , E.S.P. #105, (1921) pp. 5-7 and J . H u l l i g e r , E'Enseignement s o c i a l des eVeques Canadiens de 1891 a 1950, Montreal, F i d e s , (1957) pp. 115-16. I w i l l h e r e a f t e r c i t e the E.S.P. pamphlets by t h e i r number when r e f e r r e d t o a t i n f r e q u e n t i n t e r v a l s i n a chapter. 24. Sr. M. A. Welton, Mgr. Paul-Eug§ne Roy, Quebec, Les E d i t i o n s de 1'Action c a t h o l i q u e , 1941, pp. 66 & 96 and J . P. Archambault, s . j . , L ' A c t i o n C a t h o l i q u e au Canada, Mon t r e a l , E.S.P. #287, (1937) p. 9. 25. See G. Lemieux, "Notes sur l e mouvement s o c i a l C a t h o l i q u e " Chronique S o c i a l e de France, (Sept. 15, 1957) p. 461; J . P. Archambault, s . j . , Le C l e r g e e t l e s Oeuvres s o c i a l e s , M o n t r e a l , #59, (1916) pp. 4-6 and Appendix A, p., 158. 26. Lemieux, p. 463 and Sr. M.A. of Rome Gaudrea^ The S o c i a l  Thought of French Canada as R e f l e c t e d i n the Semaines S o c i a l e s , Washington, D. C., The C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y of America P r e s s , 1946, p. 2 . 27. F i v e Great E n c y c l i c a l s , pp. 29-30 and Les E n c y c l i q u e s  S o c i a l e s , Montr§al, E.S.P. #424, (1949) pp. 7-8. 2 8 . S i e g f r i e d , The Race Question i n Canada, E. Nash, t r a n s . , Toronto, M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart L t d . , 1966 ( o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n P a r i s i n 1906), p. 24. 29. P. Savard, J u l e s - P a u l T a r d i v e l , l a France e t l e s E t a t s - Unis. 1851-1905, Les Presses de 1 ' U n i v e r s i t y L a v a l , 1967, p. 262, n. 36. -192-30. D r o u l e r s , op_. c i t . , pp. 382-3, n. 467. He r e p o r t s t h a t C a r d i n a l B i l l o t , a c l o s e a d v i s o r to the Pope, f e a r e d t h a t the J e s u i t s would g a i n c o n t r o l over such an o r g a n i z a t i o n . 31. W. F. Ryan, s . j . , argues t h i s way i n h i s The C l e r g y and  Economic Growth i n Quebec. 1896-1914, Les Presses de 1 ' U n i v e r s i t y L a v a l , 1966, p. 206. 32. As t h e r e are c o n t r a d i c t o r y accounts, I have r e l i e d on I b i d . , p. 206; #105, pp. 3-4 & 10, and #287, p. 4. •33. Again the p i c t u r e i s confused. I have r e l i e d on M. T e t u , "Les Premiers s y n d i c a t s c a t h o l i q u e canadien. (1900-1921)", U n i v e r s i t y L a v a l , these de d o c t o r a t , 1961, pp. 239 & 277. L. Hudon, s . j . , was e d i t o r and, l a t e r , d i r e c t o r of the Messager  Canadien du Sacre Coeur, organ of the L i g ues du Sacre Coeur. His was to be the f o r c e behind the E.S.P., a t l e a s t , u n t i l 1915.) ; A. S a i n t - P i e r r e , "Le fondateur", Les v i n g t - c i n q ans  de l ' E c o l e S o c i a l e P o p u l a i r e , E.S.P. #269-70, (1936) pp. 3-5). A. S a i n t - P i e r r e was one of the f i r s t l a y S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s . L a t e r he became a p r o f e s s o r of s o c i o l o g y a t the U n i v e r s i t y de M o n treal. (Gaudreau, op. c i t . , pp. 49-50.) See Appendix A, p. 159. 34. I t was t h i s statement, d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 1, which p o i n t e d out the dangers which i n t e r n a t i o n a l unions c r e a t e d f o r C a t h o l i c s . See the pamphlet, L ' E s p r i t c h r y t i e n dans l a f a m i l l e  e t dans Ta s o c i e t y , ( e x t r a i t de l a l e t t r e des Peres du premier C o n c i l e P l e n i e r de Quebec) Montreal, E.S.P. #60, (1916) pp. 29-31. 35. Tetu, 0 £ . C i t . , pp. 277 & 81 and #105, pp. 10-1 f o r t h i s and the f o l l o w i n g . 36. For the a c t u a l papers p r e s e n t e d t o t h i s congress see the E.S.P. pamphlets, J . P. Archambault, s . j . , L ' O r g a n i s a t i o n o u v r i e r e  c a t h o l i q u e en Hollande, #1 and A. S a i n t - P i e r r e , L'Organisation" o u v r i e r e dans l a p r o v i n c e de Quybec, #2. As a l l o f the f o l l o w i n g pamphlets and t r a c t s were p u b l i s h e d by the E.S.P., I w i l l omit the p l a c e and p u b l i s h e r . 37. T h i s and the f o l l o w i n g from Tetu, ojo. c i t . , Appendix B, pp. 539-42. For the s t r u c t u r e o f the E.S.P., see my Appendix A, pp. 159-60. 38. See my Appendix B, pp. 172-3. 39. Tetu, 0£. c i t . , pp. 281-2 and #2, pp. 33-35 f o r the f o l l o w i n g . 40. See Tetu, op_. c i t . , pp. 286-9, #2, pp. 33-5 and #105 p. 15 and D r o u l e r s , op_. c i t . , pp. 333 & 336-7. D r o u l e r s notes t h a t w h i l e P l a n t i e r was i n M o n t r e a l , the I n t i g r i s t e s , through a sympathizer, abby D'Amours, d i r e c t o r o f Quebec C i t y ' s 1'Action  C a t h o l i q u e , attempted t o d i s c r e d i t the A.P.. S a i n t - P i e r r e 1 s -193-defense i n Le Devoir o n l y p r o v i d e d them wi t h more ammuniption. For the A.P. 1s i n f l u e n c e , see #16, 20-21, 31, 32, 34*35, 39, and 48-49 as examples. 41. Tetu, ££. c i t . , pp. 290-1 and #105, pp. 14-15. 42. Archambault, "Les t r o i s phases de l ' E c o l e S o c i a l e P o p u l a i r e " , Les v i n g t - c i n q ans de l ' E c o l e S o c i a l e P o p u l a i r e , #26'9jr70, (1936) p. 43. I t i s to be wondered i f t h i s change was i n any way connected w i t h the death o f Pius X. 43. T h i s b i o g r a p h i c a l sketch has been p i e c e d t o g e t h e r from the f o l l o w i n g : J . Cousineau, s . j . , "Notes b i o g r a p h i q u e s " , R e l a t i o n s , (Nov. 1966) v o l s . 25-6, no. 310, p. 296; Gaudreau, op. c i t . , pp. 31-2; R. R u m i l l y , H i s t o i r e de l a P r o v i n c e de Qu§bec, Mon t r e a l , E d i t i o n s F i d e s , v o l s . XX, p. 173, and-XXIII, pp. 151-2, and Archambault, Le C l e r g g e t l e s Etudes s o c i a l e s , #24, ( 1 9 1 3 ) , pp. 14-19. 44. For t h i s t i t l e , see P. Gouin, S e r v i r , M o n t r e a l , Les E d i t i o n s du Zodiaque, (1938) v o l . I, p. 225. Other sources are: Cousineau, I b i d . , p. 298; G. Jean, s . j . , L'Oeuyre de 1a V i i 1 a  S a i n t - M a r t i n . 1914-1924 T Oeuvre des T r a c t s #57, ( 1 9 2 4 ) , pp. 3-12, and F o n t a n i l l e , op. c i t . , p. 226. 45. Ma Conversion au s y n d i c a l i s m e c a t h o l i q u e , M o n t r e a l , F i d e s , 1946, p. 86 as w e l l as pp. 29-30, 38 & 47. See Appendix A, p. 165. 46. E s p e c i a l l y i n h i s s e r i e s of pamphlets on La Question  s o c i a l e e t nos d e v o i r s de c a t h o l i q u e s , #65-8, (1916-17) . 47. C h a r p e n t i e r , op_. c i t . , pp. 80-88 & 121; Tetu, OJD. c i t . , pp. 303 & 314-15 and Archambault, Le S y n d i c a l i s m e c a t h o l i q u e au Canada, #267, (1936) pp. 13-14 f o r t h i s and the f o l l o w i n g . 48. C h a r p e n t i e r , "L'Ecole S o c i a l e P o p u l a i r e e t l e s y n d i c a l -isme c a t h o l i q u e " , #269-70, p. 20 and T e t u , I b i d . , p. 302 and Appendix A, p.162. 49. C h a r p e n t i e r , Ma c o n v e r s i o n au s y n d i c a l i s m e c a t h o l i q u e , p. 188. See a l s o T e t u , I b i d . , p. 303 and Appendix A, p.163. 50. #105, pp. 17-27 f o r t h i s account. 51. #105, pp. 22-26. As t h i s pamphlet i s an e x t r a c t from the o f f i c i a l h i s t o r y presented by the C.T.C.C.'s f i r s t s e c r e t a r y -g e n e r a l , G. Tremblay, i t s v a l u e i s g r e a t . A l s o T e t u , op_. c i t . , p. 466. -194-52. #105, p. 27. See C h a r p e n t i e r 1 s d i s c u s s i o n of h i s " c o n v e r s i o n " i n h i s De 1'International!sme au National!sme, #88-89, (1920), pp. 35-8. 53. Abbe E. D e l i s l e , c i t e d by Welton, op. c i t . , p. 143. 54. Abbe L o r t i e , c i t e d by Tetu, op_. c i t . , p. 541. 55. The f o l l o w i n g pamphlets d e a l w i t h t o p i c s r e l a t e d t o the C.T.C.C: #92-3, 100, 120-21, 125, 144, 151, 159-60, 161, 165, 172-3, 175, 187, 199. One remarkable f a c t about these i s the prominence o f c l e r i c s i n d e f i n i n g union problems. #100 d e a l i n g w i t h the q u e s t i o n of f a i r wages, #92-3 d e a l i n g w i t h the m o r a l i t y o f s t r i k e s and #199 - Msgr. Ga u t h i e r ' s p l e a t h a t p r e f e r e n c e be accorded to C a t h o l i c unions - are examples o f t h i s tendency. 56. Semaines S o c i a l e s du Canada, 1 i e r e s e s s i o n , Montreal, E.S.P., (1920) p. 135 and R. P. Bonhomme, o.m.i., Les Oeuvres  dans l a C i t e , #189, (1929) pp. 30-33 f o r the r e s o l u t i o n s adopted by the C.T.C.C i n 1929. For a c r i t i q u e of the C.T.C.C, see P. E. Trudeau, La Greve de 1'Amiante, Mon t r e a l , Les e d i t i o n s C i t e - L i b r e , 1956, pp. 80-87. 57. C i t e d by Lemieux, op_. c i t . , p. 149. He a p p a r e n t l y s t a t e d t h i s i n 1920. 58. #105, p. 12 and Trudeau, op_. c i t . , pp. 15 & 55 f o r a c r i t i c a l view. Note i n r e g a r d to the f o l l o w i n g t h a t the E.S.P. p r o v i d e d a cumulative b i b l i o g r a p h y of i t s pamphlets i n each i s s u e . 59. D r o u l e r s , op_. c i t . , pp. 85-86. On the i n s i d e cover of i t s pamphlets, the E.S.P. g e n e r a l l y disavowed any r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the o p i n i o n s of i t s c o n t r b u t o r s . 60. #269-70, pp. 60-61 f o r t h i s and the f o l l o w i n g quotes. 61. L ' E c o l e s o c i a l e P o p u l a i r e , #la, (1911), p. 12. T h i s was i t s i n t r o d u c t o r y pamphlet. 62. See Trudeau, op_, c i t . , pp. 19-38 & 41-44 f o r a c r i t i q u e o f the E.S.P. and i t s c o n t r i b u t o r s . 63. See M. K. O l i v e r , "The S o c i a l and P o l i t i c a l Ideas o f French Canadian N a t i o n a l i s t s . 1920-1945.", M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , Phd. d i s s e r t a t i o n , 1956, pp. 109-134; A. P e r r a u l t , e t . a l . , Consignes de demain. D o c t r i n e e t o r i g i n e s d e 1'Action F r a n g a i s e , Montreal, L i b r a i r i e d ' A c t i o n Canadienne F r a n g a i s e L t e e , n.d., pp. 5-10; L' A c t i o n N a t i o n a l e (successor to 1'Action Frangaise) v o l . 52, no. 7-8, ( M a r . - A p r i l , 1963) p. 657 and v o l . 57, no. 10, (June, 1968) and R. Ar§s, s . j . , " C a t h o l i c i s m e e t n a t i o n a l i s m e en une synthase v i v a n t e " , pp. 936-47. See Appendix A, pp. 158-61 & 167. -195-64. O l i v e r , pp. 158-60; N o l t e , op. c i t . , pp. 101-111 and E.S.P. 1s Oeuvre des T r a c t s #92, P i e XI, Actes p o n t i f i c a u x concernant 1' " A c t i o n f r a n c a i s e " , (1927?7"I 65. See my Appendix A, pp. 158-71 f o r a sampling of the member-s h i p o f l e a d i n g N a t i o n a l and C a t h o l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s . A l s o Bonhomme, #189, attempts to l i s t some of the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c agencies t o be found i n v a r i o u s c i t i e s i n Quebec. Trudeau has a l s o d i s c u s s e d t h i s problem e x t e n s i v e l y ; op_. c i t . , pp. 38-76. See h i s p. 60 f o r the f o l l o w i n g . 66. See Rene F u l o p - M i l l e r , The Power and S e c r e t o f the  J e s u i t s , F. S. F l i n t and D. F. T a i t , t r a n s . , London, G. P. Putnam's Sons, D-930) p. 404 and v a r i o u s pamphlets and t r a c t s , e s p e c i a l l y one t r a c t e n t i t l e d J e s u i t e s , #266, (1941) pp. 5-6. For t h e i r r o l e i n v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s , see Appendix A., pp. 158-71. 67. L ' A c t i o n N a t i o n a l e , v o l . 52, no. 7-8, pp. 644-65. 68. #260-70, p. 50. For d i f f e r i n g views, see Trudeau, 0£. c i t . , pp. 43-44 and Gaudreau, op. c i t . , pp. 10-21. See a l s o Appendix A, p. 164 as w e l l as E.S.P. Ts Le vingt-cinquieme a n n i v e r s a i f e des  Semaines S o c i a l e s du CanadaT #381, (1945) pp. 9-11, 15-16, 25 & 27. 69. As i n the case of the long s t r u g g l e of La l i g u e de Dimanche (see Appendix A, p. 166) to f o r c e the r e l i g i o u s and p o l i t i c a l e l i t e t o condemn v i o l a t o r s and to e n f o r c e the laws r e l a t i n g t o Sunday observance. Of the v a r i o u s pamphlets and t r a c t s on t h i s s u b j e c t , see h i s Pour un dimanche c h r g t i e n . V i n g t - c i n q ans de bon combat, Oeuvre des T r a c t s #349, (T948) p. 3. As to h i s a b i l i t y t o manipulate men, a l l accounts agree. Gaudreau, I b i d . , p . 32 quotes E r n e s t L a p o i n t e , the M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e , d e s c r i b i n g Archambault as a benevolent d i c t a t o r . Another acquaintance d e s c r i b e d him i n these terms: "Tous se sont avoues heureuses v i c t i m e s de c e t e n t r a i n e u r incomparable q u i vous e n s o r c e l l e de facon i m p e r c e p t i b l e e t vous r e d u i t 5 1'impuissance de r e s i s t e r sans que vous s a c h i e z t r o p comment." L-P. Roy i n #381, p. 30. 70. Cousineau, op_. c i t . , p. 299. Archambault's Le Comite  p a r o i s s i a l e , organe de 1'Action c a t h o l i q u e , #301-2 (1939), p. 46, d i s c u s s e s how these o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o o r d i n a t e d t h e i r work. For a l i s t , see Appendix A, p. 171. An Appendix to A. M u l l e r , s . j . , La C r i s e l i b e r a t r i c e , #266, (1936) p. 22, p o i n t s out t h a t Archambault's f e l l o w d e l e g a t e s a t Malines were a Senator and a f e d e r a l c i v i l s e r v a n t , thereby, s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h i s group was c o n s i d e r e d by the f e d e r a l government to be an important one. On pp. 22-9, Archambault d e s c r i b e s a programme of s o c i a l reform he helped to develop w i t h American and Mexican S o c i a l C a t h o l i c s . -196-FOOTNOTES Chapter I I I 1. E. C. Hughes, French-Canada i n T r a n s i t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1965, (1943) p. 25. For a more e x t e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n o f the e f f e c t s o f the d e p r e s s i o n i n Quebec, see The Report o f the  Royal Commission on D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s , Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1939, Book I, pp. 124-150. 2. House of Commons, Report o f the S p e c i a l Committee on p r i c e  spreads and mass buying, Ottawa,King's P r i n t e r , 1934, pp. 110-115 e s p e c i a l l y . 3. I b i d . , P. 115. 4. I b i d . , P- 112. 5. I b i d . , P- 119. 6, I b i d . , P. 113. 7. I b i d . , P- 111. 8. The Report on D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s , op. c i t . , p. 191 f o r t h i s and the f o l l o w i n g . 9. The League f o r S o c i a l R e c o n s t r u c t i o n , S o c i a l P l a n n i n g  f o r Canada, Toronto, Thomas Nelson and Sons L t d . , (1935) p. 13. 10. I b i d . , p. 14. 11. Labour L e g i s l a t i o n and S o c i a l S e r v i c e s i n the P r o v i n c e of Quebec. A study prepared f o r the Royal Commission on Dominion-P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s , 1939, p. 94. For a b i o g r a p h i c a l sketch of M i n v i l l e , see p. 19 8 of t h i s t h e s i s . 12. "French Canadian N a t i o n a l i s m " , Canadian Forum, v o l s , 15-16, (May, 1936) p a r t 2, p. 12. 13. p. 227 14. p. 115. 15. Combines and the Consumer, L.S.R. pamphlet #2, pp. 15-16. 16. p. 193. 17. J . C a s t e l l - H o p k i n s , Canadian Annual Review, Toronto, The Canadian Review Co., 1935-6, p. 280. -197-18. The R o w e l l - S i r o i s r e p o r t , op. c i t . , pp. 191-2 & 193 f o r the f o l l o w i n g . 19. I b i d . , pp. 227-9 f o r t h i s and the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n . 20. M i n v i l l e , op_. c i t . , p. 83 and p. 79 f o r the f o l l o w i n g . 21. I b i d . , p. 82. 22. Hughes, op_. c i t . , p. 216. 23. M. O l i v e r , "The S o c i a l and P o l i t i c a l i d e a s of French Canadian N a t i o n a l i s t s . 1920-1945.", Phd d i s s e r t a t i o n , M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1956, pp. 207, 215 & 221. 24. See Appendix A, p 167. 25. V. Barbeau, Mesure de n o t r e T a i l l e , M o n t r e a l , Devoir, 1936, p. 2 & 28. For the f o l l o w i n g see O l i v e r , op_. c i t . , pp. 145-54. 26. H. La Roque, C a m i l l i e n Houde, Montreal, Les E d i t i o n s de l'Homme, (1961) pp. 24-83. 27. Two a r t i c l e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , which appeared i n the Canadian Forum d i s c u s s the i n f l u e n c e o f these p a r t i e s i n Quebec. E. Forsey's " P o l i t i c s i n Quebec", v o l . 13, (June 1933), pp. 326-7 and J . E. K e i t h ' s "The F a s c i s t P r o v i n c e " , v o l . 1 4 , ( A p r i l 1934), pp. 251-2. 28. See O l i v e r , op_. c i t . , pp. 158, 171 & 186 f o r a very good d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s development. 29. See H. F. Quinn, The Union N a t i o n a l e , U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1963, p. 48. 30. I b i d . , pp. 86-7 and the c o l l e c t i o n En Greve, Montreal, Les E d i t i o n s du Jour, (1963) pp. 61-62. 31. J . R. C a r d i n , L ' i n f l u e n c e du s y n d i c a l i s m e n a t i o n a l  c a t h o l i q u e sur l e s d r o i t s y n d i c a l Quebecois, L ' I n s t i t u t S o c i a l P o p u l a i r e , (formerly the E.S.P.) 1957, no. 1 pp. 40, 89 & 95. 32. See the accounts of these s t r i k e s w r i t t e n by J . P. L e f e b v r e and J . Francoeur i n En Greve, pp. 23-57 and 61-95. -198-FOOTNOTES Chapter IV 1. Archambault, "Les t r o i s phases de l ' E c o l e S o c i a l e P o p u l a i r e , " Les v i n g t - c i n q ans de 1'Ecole S o c i a l e P o p u l a i r e , #269-70 (1936), p.45. 2. E.S.P.'s L'Oeuvre des T r a c t s #159 (1932). As Archambault e x p l a i n e d when d i s c u s s i n g "Les t r o i s phases de l ' E c o l e S o c i a l e P o p u l a i r e " , t h i s s e r i e s o f t r a c t s had been s t a r t e d i n 1919 i n order t o make room f o r a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y o f s u b j e c t s . The r e g u l a r E.S.P. pamphlets were r e s e r v e d f o r s o c i a l problems. See p. 46. 3. I b i d . , p. 2. 4. I b i d . , p.4-5. 5. #241, (1934) pp. 17-21. For P e r r i e r ' s r o l e i n the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c movement, see my Appendix A, pp. 159-161 &'i64 and t r a c t #335 Monseigneur P h i l i p p e P e r r i e r . 6. I b i d . , p. 20. 7. I b i d . , p. 21. 8. Loc. c i t . . 9. "Le C a p i t a l i s i n e e t ses abus", Pour l a r e s t a u r a t i o n s o c i a l e , #232-33, (1933) pp. 5-17. As M i n v i l l e was an important c o n t r i b u t o r to the E.S.P., a few words should be s a i d about him. Born i n 1896, he was educated a t the C o l l e g e S t . Laurent and r e c e i v e d h i s t r a i n i n g i n commerce a t l ' E c o l e des Hautes Etudes Commerciales, an a f f i l i a t e o f l ' U n i v e r s i t e de Montreal. He spent a b r i e f p e r i o d working f o r v a r i o u s f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s b e f o r e being appointed p r o f e s s o r a t the E.H.E.C., There he helped t o c r e a t e l ' A c t u a l i t e Economique which i s s t i l l b e i n g p u b l i s h e d . At v a r i o u s times, he was to c a r r y out s t u d i e s f o r the p r o v i n c i a l government and f o r the R o w e l l - S i r o i s Commission. He e v e n t u a l l y became the d i r e c t o r o f the E.H.E.C. and l a t e r dean of the S o c i a l S c iences department of the U n i v e r s i t y de Montreal. As a member of the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c movement, he p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the work of the E.S.P. and i t s a f f i l i a t e s as w e l l as i n the n a t i o n a l i s t movements. See my Appendix A, p.167 & 169 ; S i s t e r Gaudreau's The S o c i a l Thought o f French Canada as R e f l e c t e d i n the Semaines  S o c i a l e s , Washington, D.C., The C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y o f America^ P r e s s , 1946, pp. 53-4, and H. E. Durant, The N a t i o n a l Reference  Book on Canadian men and women, 6th ed., Canadian Newspaper S e r v i c e L t d . , 1940, p. 500. -199-10. I b i d . , p. 5. 11. I b i d . , p. 6. 12. Loc. c i t . . 13. I b i d . , p. 10. 14. I b i d . , p. 11. 15. I b i d . , p. 15. 16. R. P. B o u r n i v a l , s . j . , Les Operations de Bourse e t l e u r m o r a l i t S , #226 (1932). 17. I b i d . , p. 2. 18. I b i d . , p. 17. 19. I b i d . , p. 22 f o r t h i s and the f o l l o w i n g . 20. A. G r a t t o n , Le M o u i l l a g e du c a p i t a l , #243-45, (1934) p 21. I b i d . , p. 8. 22. I b i d . , p. 12 f o r t h i s and the f o l l o w i n g . 23. Much o f h i s documentation came from Dr. P h i l i p p e Hamel probably the most prominent S o c i a l C a t h o l i c o f t h a t time because of h i s campaign a g a i n s t m o n o p o l i s t i c p r a c t i c e s . See R. C h a l o u l t Le Docteur P h i l i p p e Hamel, t r a c t #407, (1954) pp. 2-5. 24. I b i d . , pp. 70-75. 25. La C r i s e l i b g r a t r i c e . , #266, (1936). M u l l e r was a p r o f e s s o r a t l ' I n s t i t u t , s u p e r i e u r de commerce Saint-Ignace d'Anvers. 26. I b i d . , p. 7. 27. I b i d . , p. 9. 28. I b i d . , p. 14. -200-FOOTNOTES Chapter V 1. E.S.P., Ca h i e r anticommuniste, #217-18, (1932) p. 1. T h i s manual was put to g e t h e r £>y a group o f French Canadian J e s u i t s . 2. For examples of the work of t h i s group, see pamphlets #223-24, 262 & 265 and t r a c t s #143, 148 & 162. 3. The E.S.P. compiled these c r i t i q u e s i n two pamphlets, #217-18 and Manuel a n t i - b o l c h e v i q u e , #207-8, (1931). See a l s o T. M. Lamarche, o.p.j Le Reve communiste, #220, (1932) . 4. #217-18, p. 4. 5. I b i d , p. 16. 6. #207-8, p. 13. 7. #220, p. 25. 8. #207-8, 0 £ . c i t . , p. 5. 9. #217-18, p. 32. 10. In a d d i t i o n t o the sources l i s t e d i n n. 3, see the f o l l o w i n g pamphlets, En Russie s o v i e t i q u e , #206, (1931), J o u r n i e s  anticommunistes, #251-52, (1934), C i l a a c , Les Enfants abandonnes, #246;: (1934), and t r a c t s 1'Entente I n t e r n a t i o n a l e , La Russie en  1930, #143 (1931), Les Sans^Dieu, #188 (1935). 11. #217-18, p. 36. 12. #220, p. 23. 13. #217-18, 0 £ . c i t . , p. 40. 14. "L'experience m a r x i s t e en Russie", #251-52, p. 28. For the f o l l o w i n g quote, see #217-18, p. 54. 15. #246, p. 30. 16. #251-52, p. 28. 17. I b i d . , p. 31. 18. Abbi P. P e r r i e r , L ' E n c y c l i q u e "Quadragesimo anno", #241, (1934), p. 24. -201-19. #206, p. 16. At t h i s time he a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d a r e s e a r c h c e n t e r t o monitor Communist a c t i v i t i e s throughout the world. A member o f t h i s group was a l s o a c o n t r i b u t o r to the E.S.P., J . L e d i t , s . j . . As such and l a t e r as d i r e c t o r of the " L e t t r e s de Rome", he kept C a t h o l i c agencies such as the E.S.P. informed o f Communist a c t i v i t i e s . See h i s pamphlets, L'Espagne au s o r t i r  de l a guerre, #309, (1939), Radicalisme moderne, #318, (1940) as w e l l as a r t i c l e s i n s e r t e d i n v a r i o u s o t h e r pamphlets and t r a c t s . For the f o l l o w i n g , see t r a c t #188^. 13. 20. L 1 E n t e n t e I n t e r n a t i o n a l e , Vers l a guerre, t r a c t #162, (1932) p. 1 and i t s pamphlet Le Komintern.le Gouvernement S o v i g t i q u e  e t l e P a r t i Communiste de L 1 U.R.S.S. , #262 (1935) f o r the f o l l o w i n g . 21. L ' O u v r i e r en R u s s i e , t r a c t #141, (1931) pp. 15-16. 22. L e t t r e s de Rome, P a c i f i s m e r e V o l u t i o n n a i r e , t r a c t #197 (1935) pp. 8 & 15 e s p e c i a l l y . 23. See L ' A c t i o n i n t e r n a t i o n a l e des sans-Dieu, t r a c t #166, (1933) . 24. #197, 0 £ . c i t . , p. 9 and t r a c t #188, p. 4 f o r the f o l l o w i n g . 25. See L e d i t , #318, pp. 10-14. 26. As quoted by C a r d i n a l V i l l e n e u v e , Pour l e C h r i s t - R o i e t c o n t r e l e communisme, #274-75, (1936) p. 37. 27. As quoted by Archambault i n a speech g i v e n i n 1938, Le P l u s grand p g r i l , #352, (1943) p. 17. 28. #274-75, op_. c i t . , p. 26 and Le Vendredi s a i n t de 1 ' E g l i s e d'Espagne, #283, (1937) p. 25". T h i s pamphlet i s an e x c e r p t from a V a t i c a n r e p o r t . I t s t i t l e i s s i g n i f i c a n t . 29. #274-75, p. 37 quoted by C a r d i n a l V i l l e n e u v e . 30. #283, pp. 2-3, 31. Quand l e F r o n t P o p u l a i r e e s t r o i , t r a c t #205, (1936) p. 14. 32. #254-55, (1935). 33. P u b l i s h e d i n 1943, #352, pp. 1-14. 34. I b i d . , pp. 20-24. 35. Found on pp. 27-32 of Msgr. j:. T. McNicholas' M e n t a l i t g  communiste, #298, (1938). -202-36. #254-55, p. 11 and #298, p. 30-31 f o r t h i s and the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n . 37. J . H u l l i g e r i n h i s L'Enselgnement s o c i a l des eveques  Canadiens de 1891 a 1950, Montr§al, F i d e s , (1957) pp. 211-18 l i s t s the many i n s t a n c e s when Msgr. Gauthier warned h i s f l o c k about the Communist t h r e a t . See h i s c i r c u l a r t o the c l e r g y , Le Communisme au Canada, t r a c t #140, (1931). 38. #254-5, pp. 13-15. 39. #352, p. 8. 40. t r a c t #140, p. 3. 41. In a d d i t i o n to #254-5 and t r a c t #140, see #251-52, p. 35. 42. #274-75 c o n t a i n s the speeches g i v e n by Msgr. G a u t h i e r and C a r d i n a l V i l l e n e u v e a t anti-Communist demonstrations. The tone of these speeches suggest t h a t the C a t h o l i c s f e l t themselves t o be very much on the d e f e n s i v e . 43. #254-55, p. 16 f o r t h i s and the f o l l o w i n g . 44. t r a c t #140 p. 3 and #251-52, p. 7. 45. See Sous l a menace rouge, t r a c t #201, (1936). 46. I b i d . , p. 4. 47. #254-55, p. 1. 48. #251-52, p. 7. 49. See h i s p a s t o r a l l e t t e r p u b l i s h e d as La D o c t r i n e s o c i a l e  de L ' E g l i s e e t l a Coopera t i v e Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n , #242, (1934) p. 5 and #254-55, p. 17 f o r the f o l l o w i n g quote. 50. Pour l a r e s t a u r a t i o n s o c i a l e au Canada, #232-33, (1933) p. 40. 51. "La 'Cooperative Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n ' " , I b i d . , pp. 18-37. For Levesque's p o s i t i o n i n the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c movement at t h a t time, see Appendix A, p- 168. He e v e n t u a l l y became head of the department o f the S o c i a l Sciences a t L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y and was l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r making i t one o f the b e s t i n Canada. He a l s o became a l e a d i n g t h e o r e t i c i a n o f the Coopera t i v e movement and helped t o make i t a powerful f o r c e i n Quebec. 52. I b i d . , p. 19 f o r t h i s and the f o l l o w i n g . 53. I b i d . , pp. 23-24. -203-54. I b i d . , pp. 24-25. Not o n l y does an examination of Hansard f o r Feb. 1-2, 1933 r e v e a l t h a t LeVesque accepted the arguments of the C o n s e r v a t i v e M.P.s without a t t r i b u t i n g these statements t o them but i t a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t he s y s t e m a t i c a l l y i g n o r e d Woodsworth's o b j e c t i o n s . 55. I b i d . , p. 33. 56. I b i d . , p . 34. 57. I b i d . , p. 36. 58. I b i d . , p. 37. 59. #242. 60. I b i d . , p. 7. 61. What Ga u t h i e r d i d not mention was the f a c t t h a t u n t i l h i s r e c e n t appointment t o the a r c h b i s h o p r i c o f Quebec c i t y , C a r d i n a l V i l l e n e u v e had been bishop o f the d i o c e s e o f Gravelbourg, Sask., 62. #242, 0 £ . c i t . , p . 13 and p. 15 f o r the f o l l o w i n g . 63. I b i d . , p. 21. 64. I b i d . , p. 23. 65. #217-18, p. 1. -204-FOOTNOTES Chapter VI 1. T. M. Lamarche, p.p., Le Reve communiste, #220, (1932) pp. 5 & 29. 2. #241, (1934) e s p e c i a l l y pp. 19-20. 3. Le M a l a i s e iconomique des temps p r e s e n t s , t r a c t #159, (1932) p. 3. 4. "Le C a p i t a l i s m e e t ses abus", Pour l a r e s t a u r a t i o n s o c i a l e  au Canada, #232-33, (1933) p. 17 and M u l l e r , La C r i s e l i b e r a t r i c e , #266, (1936) pp. 18 & 21 f o r the f o l l o w i n g . 5. G r a t t o n , Le M o u i l l a g e du c a p i t a l , #243-45, (1934) p. 77 and Journees anticommunistes, #251-52, (1934) p. 9 -6. La Menace communiste au Canada, #254-55, (1935) pp. 19 & 20 f o r t h i s q u o t a t i o n by Archambault. 7. #232-33 p. 1 & p. 43 f o r t h i s and the f o l l o w i n g . 9. I b i d . , pp. 7-9 f o r the f o l l o w i n g . 10. I b i d . , pp. 10-11. 11. I b i d . , pp. 12-13. 12. I b i d . , p. 14. 13. I b i d . , p. 16. 14. I b i d . , p. 18. 15. Loc. c i t . . 16. I b i d . , p. 20 f o r t h i s and the f o l l o w i n g . 17. "Pour r e s t i t u e r a l ' i d i f i c e s o c i a l son S q u i l i b r e " , Pour  un ordre nouveau, #297, (1938) p. 14. 18. L ' E n c y c l i q u e "Quadragesimo anno", #241, (1934) pp. 2, 11 & 19. For the f o l l o w i n g see #220, p. 12 and #232-33, p. 46. 19. #251-52 p. 43. See pp. 44-47 f o r the f o l l o w i n g . 20. #266, p. 13. For the f o l l o w i n g , see #286, p. 6 and #297, pp. 16-17. -205-21. As quoted by Archambault, #232-3, p. 3. See #251-52, pp. 42-43 & 47 f o r the f o l l o w i n g . -206-FOOTNOTES Chapter V I I 1. " D i r e c t i v e s s o c i a l e s c a t h o l i q u e s " , Pour l a r e s t a u r a t i o n  s o c i a l e au Canada, #232-33, (1933) pp. 38-64. See p. 55 f o r the f o l l o w i n g . For h i s r o l e i n the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c movement, see Appendix A, p. 168 and f o r the g u i d e l i n e s which he developed, see Appendix C, pp.174-6. 2. I b i d . , p. 41 and pp. 42-43 f o r the f o l l o w i n g . The "Code" was a product o f the group to which Archambault was one o f Canada's r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . 3. Msgr. W. Lebon, La N a t i o n a l i s a t i o n des e n t r e p r i s e s , #300. As t h i s pamphlet i s out o f p r i n t , i t was found i n Semaines  S o c i a l e s du Canada XVI s e s s i o n , (1938), pp. 285-99 where i t was f i r s t d e l i v e r e d . 4. I b i d . , pp. 290 & 295. 5. #232-33, pp. 38-64. See Appendix A, p. 168 f o r the i n d i v i d -u a l s i n v o l v e d and Appendix C, pp. 174-6 f o r the programme. 6. Le Programme de r e s t a u r a t i o n s o c i a l e , #239-40. See Appendix A, pp. 169-70 f o r the i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d and Appendix C, pp. 177-85 f o r the programme i t s e l f . 7. I b i d . , pp. 40-71 and Appendix C, pp. 181-4. See p. 199, no. 23 and Appendix A, pp. 167 & 169 f o r more i n f o r m a t i o n on Hamel. 8. I b i d . , pp. 41 & 43. 9. G r a t t o n , Le M o u i l l a g e du c a p i t a l , #243-45, (1934) pp. 78, 80-81 f o r the f o l l o w i n g . 10. #239-40, pp. 73-78 and Appendix C, pp 184-5. See e s p e c i a l l y p. 74. 11. As quoted by Chagnon, #232-3, p. 39. 12. Le Communisme au Canada, t r a c t #140, (1931) p. 6. 13. #232-3, op. c i t . , p. 49 f o r t h i s and the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n . 14. See #239-40, p. 34 as an example. 15. La M a l f a i s a n c e du c a p i t a l i s m e actuel,#286, (1937) p. 4. 16. A c c o r d i n g t o Chagnon, #232-33, p. 50. 17. See #239-40, p. 31 and C a r d i n a l V i l l e n e u v e ' s commentary on D i v i n i Redemptoris i n Pour un ordre nouveau, #297, (1938) p. 18. -207-18. #239-40, pp. 19-39. Appendix C, pp.180-1 and Appendix A, p. 170. 19. Journees anticommunistes, #253, (1934) p. 24. 20. #230-40, op. c i t . , p. 23. 21. I b i d . , pp. 7-18 and Appendix C, pp. 178-80. See pp. 8-9 e s p e c i a l l y . 22. L'Oeuvre de l a c o l o n i s a t i o n , #238, (1933). For the following,,see p. 21. For a d i s c u s s i o n o f the importance o f c o l o n i z a t i o n i n Quebec, see pp.104-9. 23. L ' E n c y c l i q u e "Quadragesimo anno," #241, (1934) p. 24. 24. For examples, see Manuel antibolch§vigue, #207-8 (1931) and Le Commerce avec l e s S o v i e t s , #231^ (1933). F o r the f o l l o w i n g , see #241, I b i d . , p. 22. 25. L ' A c t i o n i n t e r n a t i o n a l des sans-Dieu, t r a c t #166, (1933) p. 16. 26. La Menace communiste au Canada, #254-55, (1935) p. 18. 27. Pour l e C h r i s t - R o i e t c o n t r e l e communisme, #274-75, (1936) pp. 28-29 & 59. 28. I b i d . , pp. 56-58 f o r the f o l l o w i n g . 29. Abb§ C. P o i s s o n , #231, (1938), 30. I b i d . 2. 31. I b i d . , P. 4. 32. I b i d . , V' 5. 33. I b i d . , P. 7 34. I b i d . / P. 8. 35. I b i d . / P- 14. 36. I b i d . ' P * 15 and 37. #274-75, p. 47. 38. J . F i l i o n , Jeunesse e t p o l i t i q u e , #292, (1938) pp. 7-8. -208-FOOTNOTES Chapter V I I I 1. Pour l a c o l o n i s a t i o n , #219, (1932) p. 6, f o r t h i s and the f o l l o w i n g . T h i s pamphlet c o n s i s t s o f e x t r a c t s from speeches d e l i v e r e d a t the conference. 2. I b i d . , p. 13. 3. Le M a l a i s e economique des temps p r e s e n t s , t r a c t #159, (1932) p. 7. 4. Abb§ G. B i l o d e a u , La P r o f e s s i o n a g r i c o l e , #225, (1932) p. 5. 5. #219, p. 25 f o r t h i s and the f o l l o w i n g . 6. Pour l a r e s t a u r a t i o n s o c i a l e , #232-33, (1933) p. 52. 7. Abbe" E. Beaudoin, L ' A g r i c u l t u r e base Economique d'une  n a t i o n , #237, (1933) p. 27. 8. Les Probleme r u r a l au re g a r d de l a d o c t r i n e s o c i a l e de  1'Eglise"; #288, (1938) p. 5. 9. L'Oeuvre de l a c o l o n i s a t i o n , #238, (1933). 10. I b i d . , p. 9. 11. I b i d . , p. 32. 12. #219, p. 13-14. 13. I b i d . , p. 24. 14. #288, p. 3 and #219, I b i d . , pp 9-10 f o r the f o l l o w i n g . 15. Pour un o r d r e nouveau, #297, (1938) p. 29. 16. P e r r i e r , L ' E n c y c l i q u e "Quadragesimo anno", #241, (1934) p. 28. See #297, pp. 29-30 f o r the f o l l o w i n g . 17. P e r r i e r , I b i d . , p. 26. 18. I b i d . , p. 14. 19. L ' O r g a n i s a t i o n c o r p o r a t i v e , #256, (1935) p. 4 and A. M u l l e r , s i . j . , E s s a i s d ' o r g a n i s a t i o n c o r p o r a t i v e , #247-49, (1934) p. 3 f o r the f o l l o w i n g . -209-20. G r a t t o n , Le M o u i l l a g e du c a p i t a l , #243-5, (1934) p. 90 and #247-49, p. 5 f o r the f o l l o w i n g . 21. C i t e d i n Cateehisme de I ' o r g a n i s a t i o n c o r p o r a t i v e , 2ieme ed., #289-90, 1946 (1938) p. 50, n . l . 22. #256, pp. 6, 10 & 19 f o r t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . 23. #241, p. 27. 24. #256, p. 18 and #243-5, p. 90 f o r the f o l l o w i n g . 25. #247-49, p. 96 and pp. 98-99 f o r the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n . 26. #243-45, p. 91. See D u t h o i t , " E t a t e t C o r p o r a t i o n " , L'Ordre c o r p o r a t i f , #268, (1936) p. 23 and Archambault, Le Syndicalisme c a t h o l i q u e au Canada, #267, (1936) p. 25 f o r the f o l l o w i n g . 27. #247-49, p. 94 and h i s "L'Ordre c o r p o r a t i f e t l e s s y n d i c a t s " , #268, p. 10-13 f o r the f o l l o w i n g . 28. #268, p. 13. 29. I b i d . , pp. 14, 16 & 18 and #247-49, p. 7 f o r the f o l l o w i n g . 30. I b i d . , p. 17. 31. #247-49, p. 21 and pp. 34 & 36 f o r the f o l l o w i n g . 32. I b i d . , pp. 51 -54, 97 & 101 and #268, p. 21 f o r the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n . 33. Comment E t a b l i r 1 ' o r g a n i s a t i o n c o r p o r a t i v e au Canada, #272, (1936). See pp. 10-11 f o r the f o l l o w i n g . 34. I b i d . , p. 16. 35. I b i d . , p. 8 f o r t h i s and the f o l l o w i n g . 36. I b i d . , p. 14. 37. La C o r p o r a t i o n p r o f e s s i o n n e l l e , #306, (1939). See p. 25 f o r the f o l l o w i n g . 38. I b i d . , p. 29. 39. La Menace communiste au Canada, #254-55, (1935) p. 29. See p. 30 f o r the f o l l o w i n g . 40. C i t e d i n P e t i t catEchisme d 1 E d u c a t i o n s y n d i c a l e , 2i§me ed., #295, (1938) p. 30. -210-41. J ournee s a n t i commun i s te s, #253, (1934) pp. 17-18. 42. I b i d . , p. 10-11 f o r t h i s and the f o l l o w i n g . See a l s o h i s d i s c u s s i o n i n #267, p. 27. 43. I b i d . , p. 14 and 15-16 f o r the f o l l o w i n g . 44. For a d e s c r i p t i o n o f i t s o p e r a t i o n , see #256, pp. 28-31. 45. See #253, p. 25, and h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f i t i n Le Programme  de r e s t a u r a t i o n s o c i a l e , #239-40, (1934) pp. 24-25. 46. #239-40,Ibid., pp. 25-26. 47. Among o t h e r s see #237, p. 31; #238, p. 26; #239-40, p. 10 and #288, p. 7, 23-24. 48. See La Coopgration economique, #284, (1937) pp. 10 & 14. 49. J . C a s t e l l - H o p k i n s , Canadian Annual Review, Toronto, The Canadian Review Co., 1935-6, p. 217. 50. #297, pp. 20 & 26. For Desranleau's r o l e i n the S o c i a l C a t h o l i c movement, see Appendix A, pp ,162,'164 & 168 and f o r h i s r o l e i n the S o r e l s t r i k e , En Greve, M o n t r e a l , Les E d i t i o n s du Jour, (1963) p. 61. 51. La Greve de l'Amiante, M o n t r e a l , Les i d i t i o n s C i t g - L i b r e , 1956, p. 20. -211-FOOTNOTES Chapter IX 1. See Pour l a c o l o n i s a t i o n , #219, (1932) pp. 30-32. 2. See Le Syndicalisme n a t i o n a l c a t h o l i q u e , #285, (1937) p. 2. 3. J . Cousineau, s . j . , "Notes b i o g r a p h i q u e s " , R e l a t i o n s , (Nov. 1966) v o l s . 25-6, no. 310, p. 296. In 1940, L'Ordre  Nouveau was r e p l a c e d by R e l a t i o n s . 4. For accounts o f t h i s meeting, see Pour l a r e s t a u r a t i o n  s o c i a l e au Canada, #232-33, (1933) pp. 1-4 and Le Programme de  r e s t a u r a t i o n s o c i a l e , #239-40, (1934) pp. 1-4. For the authors of these programmes, see Appendix A., pp. 168-70. The source of the f o l l o w i n g quote i s #232-33, pp. 3-4. 5. #239-40, I b i d . , p. 4 f o r t h i s and the f o l l o w i n g . 6. For accounts of t h i s development, see H. F. Quinn, The Union N a t i o n a l e , U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1963, p. 48 and P. Reid, " A c t i o n L i b i r a l e Nationale.1934-39.", M. A. t h e s i s , Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , 1966, pp. 45-49. 7. For the t e x t o f h i s speech, see Quinn, Ibid.,Appendix B f p. 217. 8. A c c o r d i n g t o Reid, op_. c i t . , p. 67, n. 8. Msgr. Lebon, "La j o u r n t e des t r e i z e , " Les v i n g t - c i n q ans de 1'Ecole S o c i a l e  P o p u l a i r e , #269-70, (1936) pp. 28-29 f o r the f o l l o w i n g . 9. Quinn, op_. c i t . , pp. 58, 73-4 f o r an account of subsequent developments. 10. #239-40, pp. 1-2. 11. See #269-70, p. 29 and S. M. Lipset',-. A g r a r i a n S o c i a l i s m , Garden C i t y , N.Y., Anchor Books, Doubleday and Co., Inc., 1968 (1950) p. 171. 12. La Menace communiste au Canada, #254-55, (1935) pp. 23-24 and Journ§es anti-communistes, #251-52, (1934) p. 8. •13. #254-55, I b i d . , p. 25 and Sous l a menace rouge, t r a c t #201, (1936) p. 11 f o r the f o l l o w i n g . 14. See #254-5, I b i d . , pp. 27-28 and #269-70, pp. 31-32. An example o f the f o l l o w i n g can be found #251-2, p. 1. 15. Pour l e C h r i s t - R o i e t c o n t r e l e communisme, #274-75, (1936) , p~ 7 and p. 35 f o r the f o l l o w i n g . -212-16. #269-70, p. 31. 17. Quoted by Msgr. G a u t h i e r , La D o c t r i n e s o c i a l e de  l ' E g l i s e e t l a Coopera t i v e Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n , #242, (1934) p. 24. " 18. Pour un Ordre nouveau, #297, (1938) pp. 8-9. The C a r d i n a l ' views on c h a r i t y can be found i n the same pamphlet, p. 16. 19. Le Reve communiste, #220, (1932) p. 28. #242, p. 25 f o r Msgr. G a u t h i e r . 20. #297, ojp_ c i t . , p. 16. 21. #254-55, p. 35. #297, op. c i t . , p. 9 f o r the f o l l o w i n g . 22. C i t e d i n L ' A c t i o n c a t h o l i q u e s p e c i a l i s g e , #279, (1937) p. 3. 23. See #254-55 op_. c i t . , p. 27 and J . B. D e s r o s i e r s , p . s . s . , "L'Ecole normale de VaudreuTl", #269-70, pp. 35-41. 24. See #279, op_. c i t . , and Archambault, L ' A c t i o n c a t h o l i q u e  au Canada, #287, (1937). 25. #279, I b i d . , p. 5 and p. 18 f o r the f o l l o w i n g . 26. #287, OJD c i t . , p. 18 and 16 f o r the f o l l o w i n g . 27. See h i s " L ' A c t i o n c a t h o l i q u e , agent de r e s t a u r a t i o n s o c i a l e " , Semaines S o c i a l e s du Canada, 16ieme s e s s i o n , (1938), pp. 403-12. 28. J . P. Gaboury, Le Nationalisme de L i o n e l Groulx, E d i t i o n s de 1 * U n i v e r s i t y d'Ottawa, 1970, p. 25. 29. #279, Q £ . c i t . , p. 9. -213-FOOTNOTES Chapter X 1. C a u s e r l e s sur l e s e n c y c l i q u e s "Rerum novarum" e t  "Quadragesimo anno", #330, (1941) p. 23 and p. 30 f o r the f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n . 2. La R e s t a u r a t i o n s o c i a l e , 2ieme ed., #328, (1943), p. 19. " 3. Le Prob1erne r u r a l au regard de l a d o c t r i n e s o c i a l e  de 1'EglTse^ #288, (1938) p. 6 f o r t h i s and the f o l l o w i n g . 4. H u l l i g e r , L'Enseignement s o c i a l des eVeques Canadiens  de 1891 a 1950, Montreal, F i d e s , (1957) p. 86. See Blanchard, Le Canada F r a n g a i s , L i b r a i r i e Artheme F a y a r t (Canada) L t i e . , (1960) p~i 103 f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f c o l o n i z a t i o n . 5. Examples o f t h i s campaign which tended t o focus on the Portuguese experiment are pamphlets r e p r o d u c i n g S a l a z a r ' s speeches and w r i t i n g s , L ' O r g a n i s a t i o n c o r p o r a t i v e p o r t u g a i s e , #355, (1943) and Mon temoignage e t mes p o s i t i o n s , #435, (1950). For the f o l l o w i n g , see E. Bouvier, s . j . , L ' O r g a n i s a t i o n  c o r p o r a t i v e e s t - e l l e r e a l i s a b l e au Quebec? #478, (1955) pp. 1 & 28. 6. Les v i n g t - c i n q ans de l ' E c o l e S o c i a l e P o p u l a i r e , #269-70, (1936) p. 29. For the f o l l o w i n g , see h i s speech reproduced i n Le Pl u s grand p e r i l , #352, (1943) p. 19. 7. In f a c t , an observer wrote t h a t the l e a d e r s h i p o f the p r o v i n c i a l C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y c o n s i d e r e d the adoption o f some of i t s planks as "...too r a d i c a l and the r e s u l t o f hasty a c t i o n . " H. C. Goldenberg, " P o l i t i c s i n Quebec", Canadian Forum, v o l . XIV, (Oct. 1934) p. 8. 8. Le Programme de r e s t a u r a t i o n s o c i a l e , #239-40, (1934) p. 3. 9. La M a l f a i s a n c e du c a p i t a l i s m e a c t u e l , #286, (1937) pp. 6 & 7 f o r t h i s and the f o l l o w i n g as w e l l as Pour un or d r e  nouveau, #297, (1938) pp. 26 & 27. 10. For a more e x t e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n o f the impact o f European S o c i a l C a t h o l i c thought upon the French Canadian i n t e l l i g e n t s i a , see O l i v e r , "The S o c i a l and P o l i t i c a l Ideas o f French-Canadian N a t i o n a l i s t s , 1920-1945." Phd d i s s e r t a t i o n , M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1956. 11. La GreVe de l'Amiante, Montreal, Les editions C i t e - L i b r e , 1956, p. 35. -214-12. I b i d . , p. 41 and p. 125 of t h i s t h e s i s . •13. I b i d . , p. 11. Even the staunchest of French Canadian N a t i o n a l i s t s grouped around 1'Action N a t i o n a l e tended to f o l l o w the Church's l e a d . See G. F o r t i n , "An a n a l y s i s of the Ideology of a French Canadian N a t i o n a l i s t Magazine. 1917-1954.", P h d c d i s s e r t a t i o n , C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1956, pp. 48, 59 & 131. For Pius XI's a t t i t u d e towards n a t i o n a l i s m , see N o l t e , Three  Faces of Fascism, L. Vennewitz, t r a n s . , New York, the New American L i b r a r y , 1969, (1965) pp. 103-111. 14. In p a r t i c u l a r W. Ryan, s . j . , The C l e r g y and Economic  Growth i n Quebec. 1896-1914, Les Presses de 1 * U n i v e r s i t y L a v a l , 1966, pp. 248-56. 15. Of the many a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n i n the Canadian Forum i n support o f t h i s t h e s i s , see E. Forsey, " C l e r i c a l Fascism i n Quebec", June, 1937, pp. 90-92. 16. See C a r d i n a l V i l l e n e u v e ' s speech r e p r i n t e d i n #297, pp. 14-23 and s e v e r a l t r a c t s and pamphlets on the Padlock law, on Corporatism, e t c . , such as the r e p r i n t of H. F. Quinn's a r t i c l e The Bogey o f Fascism i n Quebec, t r a c t #234, (1938). 17. A. Malo, o.fvm., L ' A c t i o n c a t h o l i q u e s p e c i a l i s e d , #279, (1937) p. 9. Pius XI condemned M u s s o l i n i ' s attempt to g a i n c o n t r o l over C a t h o l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n 1931 and i n 1937 he f o r m a l l y condemned Naziism. A. Freemantle, ed., The Papal  E n c y c l i c a l s i n t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t , New York, G. P. Putnam's Sons, (1956) pp. 243 & 250. 18. La D o c t r i n e s o c i a l e de l ' E g l i s e e t l a C o o p e r a t i v e  Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n ^ #242, (1934) p. 23. 19. P. M. Gaudrault, o.p., N e u t r a l i t y , n o n - c o n f e s s i o n n a l i t g  e t l ' E c o l e S o c i a l e P o p u l a i r e , Les E d i t i o n s du L e v r i e r , 1946, p 20. M. G. B a l l a n t y n e , "The C a t h o l i c Church and the C.C.F.", The Canadian C a t h o l i c H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n Report, 1963, pp. 33-47. 21. See the account i n Trudeau, op_. c i t . . 22. Abbes G. Dion and L. O ' N e i l l , "A S o r d i d Boon", C. N i s h , Quebec i n the D u p l e s s i s e r a , 1935-1959; D i c t a t o r s h i p or  Democracy? Toronto, The Copp C l a r k P u b l i s h i n g Co., (1970) pp. 142-45. (The a r t i c l e i s a r e p r i n t found i n t h i s volume of 'Issues i n Canadian h i s t o r y s e r i e s ' ) and H. Guindon, "The S o c i a l E v o l u t i o n o f Quebec Reconsidered", i n M. Rioux and Y. M a r t i n eds French-Canadian S o c i e t y , Toronto, M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1964, v o l I, pp. 137-53 f o r an a n a l y s i s o f the f a c t o r s which drove the Church to oppose D u p l e s s i s . -215-23. J . Cousineau, s . j . , L ' E v o l u t i o n de l a m e n t a l i t e s o c i a l e au Quebec depuis 1931, #487, (1956) pp. 11-13. 24. See the i n t r o d u c t i o n to J . R. C a r d i n ' s L ' I n f l u e n c e du  s y n d i c a l i s m e n a t i o n a l c a t h o l i q u e sur l e d r o i t s y n d i c a 1 Qu§bec"ois, L * I n s t i t u t S o c i a l P o p u l a i r e , (June, 1957), #1. 

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