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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Discussion of five Canadian painters : Ronald Bloore, Brian Fisher, Yves Gaucher, Roy Kiyooka, Arthur… Kirby, William James Gordon 1973

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A DISCUSSION OF FIVE CANADIAN PAINTERS - RONALD BLOORE • BRIAN FISHER • YVES GAUCHER • ROY KIYOOKA • ARTHUR McKAY -IN THE CONTEXT OF THE ARTISTIC AND CRITICAL SENSIBILITY OF THE 1960'S by WILLIAM JAMES GORDON KIRBY B.A. , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Co lumbia , 1965 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of FINE ARTS We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the requ i red s tanda rd THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y , 1 9 7 3 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t he U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l no t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f F i n e A r t s The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8 , Canada Da t e J u l y , 1973 ABSTRACT C r e a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n does no t e x i s t a l o n e f o r the a r t i s t i n moments o f i n s p i r a t i o n b u t , r a t h e r , e x i s t s a l s o f o r t h o s e who p a r t i c i p a t e i n what the a r t i s t has c r e a t e d . G e n u i n e a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n , i n o t h e r w o r d s , j o i n s t o g e t h e r b o t h t h e a r t i s t and t h e v i e w e r i n an u n i q u e fo rm o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f such a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p became v e r y e v i d e n t i n t he 1 9 6 0 ' s when the s o - c a l l e d m i n i m a l and r e d u c t i v e t r e n d s i n a r t began to emerge as a r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t t he e x c e s s e s o f New Yo rk A b s t r a c t E x p r e s s i o n i s m . T h i s s i g n i f i c a n c e i n c r e a s e d even f u r t h e r w i t h s u b s e q u e n t e x p e r i m e n t s i n monochrome and m o n o t o n a l p a i n t i n g . w h i c h had been i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e 1 9 5 0 ' s by B a r n e t t Newman, Mark Ro thko and Ad R e i n h a r d t , who a r e g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d to be p r i n c i p a l i n n o v a t o r s o f t h i s t r e n d . The ma in c h a n n e l i n t o Canada f o r t h e s e new a p p r o a c h e s came t h r o u g h the Emma Lake Workshops i n S a s k a t c h e w a n , w i t h t h e Newman w o r k s h o p i n 1959 h a v i n g the most i m p a c t . T h i s p a p e r w i l l f o c u s on the work o f f i v e C a n a d i a n a r t i s t s : R o n a l d B l o o r e , B r i a n F i s h e r , Yves / / / ' G a u c h e r , Roy K i y o o k a and A r t h u r McKay , who, a t one t i m e o r a n o t h e r , have been c o n c e r n e d w i t h such monochrome e x p e r i -m e n t s , and who a r e among t h o s e who have b r o u g h t a t t e n t i o n to b e a r on the n a t u r e o f t h e v i s u a l o b j e c t . T h r o u g h t h e i r p a i n t i n g , t h e y have t u r n e d p e r c e p t i o n i n t o an a c t o f " c o m m u n i o n " o r " p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h , " r a t h e r t h a n " r e a c t i o n t o , " a w o r k . In o r d e r to p l a c e t h e i r work f r o m t h e l a t e 1 9 5 0 ' s i n a b r o a d e r and more a c c u r a t e c o n t e x t , a c h r o n o l o g i c a l d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e b a c k g r o u n d and s t a g e s i n t he d e v e l o p m e n t and a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e new t r e n d s i n a r t , i s u n d e r t a k e n i n C h a p t e r 1. T h i s s u r v e y f o c u s e s on the p r i n c i p l e s and d i r e c t i o n s i n a r t , w h i c h were i n t r o d u c e d f o l l o w i n g A b s t r a c t E x p r e s s i o n i s m , and p r e s e n t s a c h r o n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s o f c r i t i c a l comment and p u b l i c r e c o g n i t i o n t h r o u g h e x h i b i t i o n s d u r i n g t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s . The a r t i s t s and t h e i r work a r e i n t r o -d u c e d i n C h a p t e r 2, and t h i s i s f o l l o w e d , i n C h a p t e r 3, by a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e i r method o f w o r k i n g and t h e i r a p p r o a c h to the a c t o f p a i n t i n g w h i c h i s r e l e v a n t to t he v i e w i n g o f t h e i r w o r k . As i s t h e c a s e w i t h most i n n o v a t i v e t r e n d s , t he c r i t i c s and t h e p u b l i c had some d i f f i c u l t y i n naming o r d e f i n i n g the new a r t , as i t was n o t e a s i l y r e l a t e d to a n y -t h i n g t h a t had e x i s t e d p r e v i o u s l y . The p r o b l e m w i t h o v e r a l l t e rms and d e f i n i t i o n s , as a l w a y s , was a g e n e r a l l e v e l l i n g i i i p r o c e s s w h i c h m i s s e d i n d i v i d u a l a p p r o a c h e s and p o i n t s o f v i e w . The a r t i s t s g e n e r a l l y f e e l t h a t s t r i c t f o r m a l a n a l y s i s and d e s c r i p t i o n i s t he b e s t and most s e c u r e b a s i s to work f r o m , and t h a t o n l y t h r o u g h s u c h a d i r e c t t r a n s l a -t i o n o f t he i n f o r m a t i o n a c t u a l l y on t he c a n v a s , s h o u l d an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n be a t t e m p t e d . The i s s u e o f the two p r i n c i p a l v i ews o f c o n t e m p o r a r y a r t c r i t i c i s m , w h i c h p r o p o s e e i t h e r a f o r m a l o r a s u b j e c t i v e a p p r o a c h , i s pu t f o r t h i n C h a p t e r 4 t h r o u g h t h e e x p r e s s e d v i ews o f m a j o r a r t c r i t i c s f r o m 1955 to t h e end o f t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s . When p e o p l e a r e c o n f r o n t e d by an image o r a p p r o a c h t h a t t h e y have n e v e r seen b e f o r e , t h e y have no r a n g e o f r e f e r e n c e w i t h wh i ch to compare i t , and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e y o f t e n m i s i n t e r p r e t i t , o r do no t see i t a t a l l . A d i s c u s s i o n o f t he q u e s t i o n o f i n t e r p r e t i n g o r a t t a c h i n g o u t s i d e r e f e r -ences to t h e i m a g e r y emp loyed by t h e f i v e a r t i s t s i s a l s o p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r 4 w i t h s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e to t h e i r w o r k . I t i s g e n e r a l l y ' a c c e p t e d t h a t , a l o n g w i t h an i n -c r e a s i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l a c c e p t a n c e o f t he a p p a r e n t e x t r e m e a r t i s t i c s o l u t i o n s b e i n g p r o p o s e d i n t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s , an i n -c r e a s i n g o p t i c a l a c c e p t a n c e was a l s o t a k i n g p l a c e . Work t h a t i n t he l a t e 1 9 5 0 ' s l o o k e d r a d i c a l l y s i m p l i f i e d , un-c o l o u r e d and v i r t u a l l y i n v i s i b l e , now a p p e a r s much more i v V v a r i e d and ' a v a i l a b l e ' to a s e n s i t i v e , p e r c e p t i v e v i e w e r . Chap te r 5 i n c l u d e s a su r ve y o f t h i s change i n a t t i t u d e i n wh ich the p u b l i c became more accustomed to g i v e a g r e a t e r e f f o r t to v i e w i n g such w o r k s . In the p r o c e s s of expand ing the b o u n d a r i e s o f p e r c e p t i o n , the a r t i s t s i n t h i s paper have , to v a r i o u s d e g r e e s , i n t r o d u c e d unusua l v i s u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t o t h e i r work . S u b t l e i n t e r a c t i o n s , i l l u s i o n s and ambiguous s i t u a -t i o n s r e q u i r e t ime to s o r t o u t , and the ve ry a c t o f v i s u a l -i z i n g t hese works and o f g i v i n g them the a t t e n t i o n t h a t they demand, d e f i n e s the q u a l i t y o f the e x p e r i e n c e t h a t they d e l i v e r . The na tu r e o f p e r c e p t i o n , and of the v i s u a l e x p e r i e n c e as a whole i s a l s o d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 5 w i t h r e f e r e n c e to the use o f c o l o u r , i l l u s i o n and a m b i g u i t y i n the work o f the a r t i s t s . In o r d e r to f u l l y d e s c r i b e any v i s u a l e x p e r i e n c e , t h e n , i t i s n e c e s s a r y not o n l y to be conce rned w i t h what i s on the canvas i n measurab le t e r m s , but a l s o w i t h what i s " a c t u a l l y " seen and d i r e c t l y sensed i n the v i e w i n g p r o c e s s . T h i s i n t e r a c t i o n between the v i e w e r and the work of a r t i s a n a l y z e d i n the C o n c l u s i o n , C h a p t e r 6. As A r t McKay has o b s e r v e d : Art w i l l not y i e l d i t s f u l l meaning if approached in terms of any abstraction taken from l i f e like thought or language. It must be sensed, r e f l e c t e d upon and then talked about.1 v VI The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n i s an a t t e m p t to l o o k a t t he f a c t o r s t h a t have i n f l u e n c e d the way we l o o k a t " d i f f i c u l t " mono -chrome p a i n t i n g t o d a y and to d i s c u s s the f u l l e r commitment n e c e s s a r y f o r v i e w e r s t o a c h i e v e a more c o m p l e t e r e s p o n s e f r o m the work o f a r t . What i s i m p o r t a n t now i s " t o r e c o v e r o u r s e n s e s -- we must l e a r n to see m o r e , to h e a r m o r e , 2 to f e e l m o r e . " FOOTNOTES: 1. Arthur McKay, W e s t e r n Canada A r t C i r c u i t E x h i b i t i o n , 1 9 6 1 , 4 . 2. Susan S o n t a g , Against Interpretation, New Y o r k : F a r r a r , S t r a u s and G i r o u x , 1 9 6 5 , 1.4. v i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i L I ST OF FIGURES i x C h a p t e r 1 DEFINING THE NEW SENS IB I L ITY 1 R e a c t i o n A g a i n s t A b s t r a c t E x p r e s s i o n i sm 1 E x h i b i t i o n s and P u b l i c R e c o g n i t i o n 7 F o o t n o t e s : C h a p t e r 1 13 2 THE ARTISTS 16 R o n a l d B l o o r e 16 B r i a n F i s h e r 20 Yves G a u c h e r 25 Roy K i y o o k a 32 A r t h u r McKay 36 F o o t n o t e s : C h a p t e r 2 40 3 THE CREATIVE PROCESS 42 The A p p r o a c h t o P a i n t i n g 42 S e r i a l and S y s t e m i c Methods 48 v i i C h a p t e r Page The A r t i s t ' s P e r s o n a l I n v o l v e m e n t 51 F o o t n o t e s : C h a p t e r 3 55 4 CONTEMPORARY ART CR IT IC ISM AND THE ISSUE OF INTERPRETATION • . 58 Fo rma l and S u b j e c t i v e C r i t i c i s m . . . . . . 58 Imagery - I c o n o g r a p h i c and A r c h e t y p a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s 65 The A r t i s t ' s R e a c t i o n t o t h e Wor ld -A s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h N a t u r e 73 F o o t n o t e s : C h a p t e r 4 80 5 THE EDUCATION OF THE EYE . . . 86 The D e v e l o p m e n t and A c c e p t a n c e o f Monochrome P a i n t i n g 87 The N a t u r e o f t he V i s u a l E x p e r i e n c e . . . . 94 C o l o u r , I l l u s i o n and the E l e m e n t o f A m b i g u i t y 98 F o o t n o t e s : C h a p t e r 5 114 6 CONCLUSION - THE RELATIONSHIP TO THE VIEWER. . . 118 F o o t n o t e s : C h a p t e r 6 129 FIGURES 132 BIBLIOGRAPHY 156 v i i i f* LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e Page 1. R o n a l d B l o o r e ; Le F o r e t me~chanique, 1 9 5 8 . Enamel on m a s o n i t e ( 4 5 i " . •x585 i " ) • . . . . . . 1 3 2 2. R o n a l d B l o o r e . P a i n t i n g , J u n e , 1 9 6 0 . O i l on m a s o n i t e ( 4 8 " x 4 8 " ) . 132 3. R o n a l d B l o o r e . P a i n t i n g , 1 9 6 1 . O i l on m a s o n i t e ( 48 " x 4 8 " ) 133 4 . R o n a l d B l o o r e . S m a l l Wh i t e C r o s s , 1 9 6 2 . O i l on m a s o n i t e ( 1 8 " x 4 8 " ) 133 5. R o n a l d B l o o r e . P a i n t i n g No . 6 , 1 9 6 4 - 6 5 . O i l on m a s o n i t e ( 4 8 " x 4 8 " ) 134 6 . R o n a l d B l o o r e . Whi t e M u r a l , 1967 . O i l on m a s o n i t e ( 1 4 2 - 3 / 4 " x 1 4 6 - 1 / 2 " ) . . . 134 7. R o n a l d B l o o r e . U n t i t l e d , A u g u s t - N o v e m b e r , 1 9 6 8 . O i l on m a s o n i t e ( 4 8 " x 7 2 " ) 135 8. R o n a l d B l o o r e . P a i n t i n g , 1 9 7 1 . O i l on m a s o n i t e ( 9 6 " x 4 3 " ) 135 9. 71 B r i a n F i s h e r . F e b r u a r y No . 3 , 1 9 6 4 . O i l on m a s o n i t e ( 1 8 i " x 2 5 i " ) 136 1 0 . B r i a n F i s h e r . P a c i f i c , 1 9 6 5 . A c r y l i c on c a n v a s ( 5 4 " x 6 8 " ) 136 1 1 . B r i a n F i s h e r . C h i n o o k , 1 9 6 6 . A c r y l i c on c a n v a s ( 6 6 " x 4 4 " ) 137 i x K F i g u r e Page 1 2 . B r i a n F i s h e r . A n g s t , 1 9 6 6 . A c r y l i c on c a n v a s ( 44 " x 5 6 " ) 137 1 3 . B r i a n F i s h e r . E n i g m a , 1 9 6 6 . A c r y l i c on c a n v a s ( 68 " x 1 1 3 " ) 138 14 . B r i a n F i s h e r . Wo rk i ng D r a w i n g , 1 9 6 6 - 6 8 . P e n c i l ( 1 4 - 3 / 4 " x 1 4 - 3 / 4 * ) 138 1 5 . B r i a n F i s h e r . I n d i r e c t i o n s - A q u a r i a n D r e a m , 1 9 6 8 . A c r y l i c on c a n v a s ( 4 4 " x 4 4 " ) 139 1 6 . B r i a n F i s h e r . I n d u c t i o n No. 2, 1 9 6 8 . A c r y l i c on c a n v a s ( 3 2 " x 5 6 " ) . . . . . . . 139 1 7 . B r i a n F i s h e r . Memoriurn ( E a r t h ) , 1 9 6 9 . A c r y l i c on c a n v a s ( 6 8 " x 8 2 " ) 140 1 8 . B r i a n F i s h e r . S t e p p e I I , No. 3 , 1 9 7 0 . P o l y m e r a c r y l i c on c a n v a s ( 6 6 " x 1 3 2 " ) 140 1 9 . Yves G a u c h e r . A s a g a o , 1 9 6 1 . I n t a g l i o p r i n t 141 2 0 . ' • Y v e s A G a u c h e r . A . A j i ^9ili963. E m b o s s i n g and e t c h i n g 141 2 1 . Yves G a u c h e r . En Homage a W e b e r n , 1 9 6 3 . I m p r e s s i o n i n r e l i e f on l a m i n a t e d p a p e r ( 22 " x 3 0 " ) 142 2 2 . Yves G a u c h e r . Danse Carre"e Un b l e u me l ' a d i t , 1 9 6 5 . A c r y l i c on c a n v a s ( 3 0 " x 3 0 " ) . . . . 142 2 3 . Yves G a u c h e r . G r e y S i l e n c e s f o r G r e e n , J u n e , 1 9 6 6 . A c r y l i c on c a n v a s ( 5 0 " x 1 0 0 " ) 143 2 4 . Yves G a u c h e r . C a r d i n a l R a g a , 1 9 6 7 . A c r y l i c on c a n v a s (72 r ' x 7 2 " ) 143 x Xi F i g u r e Page 2 5 . Yves G a u c h e r . The a r t i s t w i t h some o f G r e y on G rey s e r i e s o f 1 9 6 7 - 6 9 . A c r y l i c on c a n v a s ( v a r i o u s s i z e s ) 144 2 6 . Yves G a u c h e r . B l e u , V e r t , B l e u , 1 9 7 1 . A c r y l i c on c a n v a s ( 8 0 " x 9 2 " ) 144 2 7 . Roy K i y o o k a . R e l i e f P a i n t i n g w i t h I n c i s e d C i r c l e s , 1961 145 2 8 . Roy K i y o o k a . B l u e Z o n e , 1 9 6 3 . O i l and l u c i t e on c a n v a s (68±" x 6 8 i " ) . . . . . . . 145 2 9 . Roy K i y o o k a . B a r o m e t e r #2, 1 9 6 4 . P o l y m e r ( a q u a t e x ) on c a n v a s ( 9 7 " x 6 9 " ) 146 3 0 . Roy K i y o o k a . A l e p h #2, 1 9 6 4 . P o l y m e r ( a q u a t e x ) on c a n v a s ( 6 8 i " x 9 3 - 3 / 4 " ) 146 3 1 . Roy K i y o o k a . The B r i d g e , 1 9 6 5 . A c r y l i c on c a n v a s ( 6 0 " x 6 0 " ) 147 3 2 . Roy K i y o o k a . Homage to D e b u s s y , 1 9 6 6 . A c r y l i c on c a n v a s ( 4 0 " x 1 2 0 " ) 147 3 3 . Roy K i y o o k a . P I a e i d e s , 1 9 6 7 . A c r y l i c on c a n v a s ( 72 " x 1 8 0 " ) 148 3 4 . Roy K i y o o k a . D a n e b , 1 9 6 8 . A c r y l i c on c a n v a s ( 9 6 " x 9 6 " ) . 1 4 8 3 5 . A r t h u r McKay . G r a s s i n W i n t e r , 1 9 5 6 . O i l on c a n v a s ( 2 1 " x 3 2 " ) 149 3 6 . A r t h u r McKay . U n t i t l e d , 1 9 5 9 . F l a t b l a c k on p a p e r ( 2 0 " x 2 6 " ) 149 3 7 . A r t h u r McKay . E f f u l g e n t Image, 1 9 6 1 . Enamel on c o m p o s i t i o n b o a r d ( 4 8 - 3 / 4 " x 4 8 - 3 / 4 " ) 150 x i xii F i g u r e Page 3 8 . A r t h u r McKay . T e n s i o n , 1 9 6 2 . Enamel on c o m p o s i t i o n b o a r d ( 4 8 " x 7 2 " ) 150 3 9 . A r t h u r McKay . Image o f A n t i q u i t y , 1 9 6 2 . Enamel on c o m p o s i t i o n b o a r d ( 4 8 " x 8 4 " ) 151 4 0 . A r t h u r McKay . E n i g m a , 1 9 6 3 . Enamel on c o m p o s i t i o n b o a r d ( 4 8 " x 7 2 " ) 151 4 1 . A r t h u r McKay . M a n d a l a No. 1, 1 9 6 7 . Enamel on c o m p o s i t i o n b o a r d ( 4 8 " x 4 8 " ) 152 4 2 . A r t h u r McKay . U n t i t l e d , 1 9 7 1 . Enamel on c o m p o s i t i o n b o a r d ( 4 8 " x 7 2 " ) 152 4 3 . B a r n e t t Newman. A b r a h a m , 1 9 4 9 . O i l on c a n v a s ( 8 3 " x 3 4 " ) 153 4 4 . Mark R o t h k o . Red and O r a n g e , 1 9 5 5 . O i l on c a n v a s ( 6 9 " x 5 1 " ) . . , 153 4 5 . Ad R e i n h a r d t . No. 2 4 , 1 9 5 4 , 1 9 5 4 . O i l on c a n v a s ( 2 0 " x 5 0 " ) . . . 154 4 6 . F r a n k S t e l l a . T o m l i n s o n C o u r t P a r k , 1 9 5 9 . Enamel on c a n v a s ( 84 " x 1 0 8 " ) . . . . 154 4 7 . J a s p e r J o h n s . G r e e n T a r g e t , 1 9 5 5 . E n c a u s t i c and n e w s p r i n t on c a n v a s ( 60 " x 6 0 " ) 155 4 8 . Pau l B r a c h . Ga te No. 2, 1 9 6 3 . O i l on c a n v a s ( 4 5 " x 4 1 " ) 155 x i i C h a p t e r 1 DEFINING THE NEW SENSIBILITY S i n c e 1 9 6 0 , t h e r e has been an i n c r e a s i n g amount o f p u b l i s h e d d i s c u s s i o n c o n c e r n i n g t he s t a g e s o f m o d e r n i s t a r t d u r i n g the l a s t two d e c a d e s . S e v e r a l a n a l y s e s o f t h e p r o c e s s by w h i c h p a i n t i n g became p a i n t i n g a l o n e and r e j e c t e d u n n e c e s s a r y a t t r i b u t e s have been a t t e m p t e d . The a r t o f t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s , w h i c h has been c o n c e r n e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h t h e s p e c i f i c i t y o f t he a e s t h e t i c o b j e c t and o f a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e i t s e l f , has been d e s c r i b e d by many t e r m s : " r e d u c t i v i s t , " " r e j e c t i v e , " " p r i m a r y , " " c o o l , " "ABC a r t " and " m i n i m a l , " t o name a f e w . I t s s o u r c e s have been v a r -i o u s l y t r a c e d back t o the a e s t h e t i c i s m o f M a l e v i c h , t h e g e o m e t r y o f M o n d r i a n and t h e Dada o f Duchamp. R e a c t i o n A g a i n s t A b s t r a c t E x p r e s s i o n i s m A s h i f t t o w a r d s a new s e n s i b i l i t y began i n t h e 1 9 5 0 ' s , w h i c h was d e s c r i b e d by B a r b a r a Rose as a " t i m e o f 1 2 c o n v u l s i v e t r a n s i t i o n no t o n l y f o r t he a r t w o r l d b u t f o r s o c i e t y a t l a r g e . D u r i n g t h e s e y e a r s many young p a i n t e r s were g e n e r a l l y d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h the a b s t r a c t e x p r e s s i o n i s t s t y l e p r e d o m i n a n t i n New Y o r k . They r e j e c t e d no t o n l y t he p r e m i s e s , bu t t h e e m o t i o n a l c o n t e n t o f A b s t r a c t E x p r e s s i o n i s m . W i t h i n t h i s g r o u p were some " o l d e r " g e n e r a t i o n a r t i s t s who t u r n e d away f r o m g e s t u r a l a r t o r n e v e r a c t u a l l y e n t e r e d i t . B a r n e t t Newman, Mark Ro thko and Ad R e i n h a r d t s t o o d o u t s i d e t h e a c t i o n p a i n t i n g m i l i e u c e n t r e d by d e K o o n i n g . P o l l o c k , as A l l o w a y o b s e r v e d , has been " d e - g e s t u r i z e d " by t i m e and h i s l a r g e d r i p p a i n t i n g s o f 1949-50 can be s een as r e l a t e d to t h e " a l l - o v e r d i s t r i b u t i o n o f e m p h a s i s and the c o n s e q u e n t p u l v e r i z i n g o f h i e r a r c h i c f o r m " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c 2 o f t h e work o f Newman, Ro thko and l a t e r o f R e i n h a r d t . H . H . A r n a s o n , i n 1 9 6 1 , p r o p o s e d t h e te rm " A b s t r a c t I m a g i s t " f o r t h e s e n o n - e x p r e s s i o n i s t a r t i s t s , and i t was t h e s e " I m a g i s t " p a i n t e r s to whom t h e y o u n g e r p a i n t e r s t u r n e d 3 t h e i r a t t e n t i o n . Newman, Ro thko and R e i n h a r d t have more s p e c i f i -c a l l y been i d e n t i f i e d as m a j o r i n n o v a t o r s o f c u r r e n t mono -c h r o m a t i c and m o n o t o n a l t r e n d s i n a r t , w h i c h w i l l be d i s -c u s s e d f u r t h e r i n C h a p t e r 6 . T h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t s i n c e a r o u n d 1950-51 has s t r e s s e d t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e p a i n t i n g as a who l e w i t h a d e n i a l o f c o m p o s i t i o n a l b a l a n c i n g , c a l l i g r a p h y and s u r f a c e i n c i d e n t s ( F i g s . 4 3 , 4 4 , 4 5 ) . 3 R e i n h a r d t 1 s t h e o r i e s a b o u t t h e n o n c o m m e r c i a l and n o n u t i l i -t a r i a n r o l e o f a r t were a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s i n h e l p i n g to change t h e a r t i s t i c c l i m a t e d u r i n g t he l a t e 1 9 5 0 ' s . Many y o u n g e r a r t i s t s were drawn s t r o n g l y t o t h e i n t e n t o f R e i n h a r d t ' s s t a t e m e n t s . By t he l a t e 1 9 5 0 ' s , w h i l e d e K o o n i n g was s t i l l a p o w e r f u l i n f l u e n c e on the a r t s c e n e and o n l y t he above few a l t e r n a t i v e s t o A b s t r a c t E x p r e s s i o n i s m were b e i n g p r o p o s e d , t h e s h i f t i n s e n s i b i l i t y began to g a t h e r momentum. A l l o w a y d e s c r i b e d the move away f rom g e s t u r a l a c t i o n p a i n t i n g as a : mounting interest in symmetrical as opposed to amorphous formats, clear colour as opposed to dirty3 hard edges as opposed to dragged ones. P r i n c i p l e among t h e new a p p r o a c h e s b e i n g i n t r o -d u c e d were t h e t a r g e t and f l a g p a i n t i n g s o f J a s p e r J o h n s , b e g i n n i n g i n 1 9 5 5 , and Kenne th N o l a n d ' s c i r c l e works f r o m l a t e 1 9 5 8 . F r a n k S t e l l a p r o d u c e d a s e r i e s o f s y m m e t r i c a l b l a c k p a i n t i n g s d u r i n g 1958-59 ( F i g . 4 6 ) , w h i c h were e x h i b i t e d f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e a t t h e Museum o f Modern A r t ' s 16 A m e r i c a n s E x h i b i t i o n i n t h e w i n t e r o f 1 9 5 9 - 6 0 . In t he e x h i b i t i o n c a t a l o g u e , C a r l A n d r e w r o t e o f S t e l l a ' s b l a c k s t r i p e d w o r k s : 4 Art excludes the unnecessary. Frank Stella has found it necessary to paint stripes. There is nothing else in his paintings. Frank Stella is not interested in expression or sensitivity. Ee is interested in the necessities of painting. . .His stripes are paths of the brush on canvas. These paths lead only to painting. 5 T h e s e comments r e i n f o r c e t he c o n c e p t o f a r t f o r a r t ' s s ake c h a m p i o n e d by R e i n h a r d t ' s s o l i d b l a c k p a i n t i n g s and Newman's s i n g l e s t r i p e w o r k s , as w e l l as e m p h a s i z i n g t h e i r f i d e l i t y t o t h e medium and t h e i r e x c l u s i o n o f u n n e c e s s a r y d e t a i l s . One f u r t h e r a r t i s t who s h o u l d be m e n t i o n e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e c h a n g i n g a r t s c e n e i s E l l s w o r t h K e l l y who as e a r l y as 1 9 5 2 - 5 3 , w h i l e i n P a r i s , had p a i n t e d a s e r i e s o f p a n e l p a i n t i n g s i n wh i ch each p a n e l c a r r i e d a s i n g l e s o l i d c o l o u r w i t h o u t v i s u a l v a r i a t i o n o r c o n t r a s t . K e l l y , a l o n g w i t h R e i n h a r d t , e x h i b i t e d a t t h e B e t t y P a r s o n s G a l l e r y , and he r a d j u n c t S e c t i o n E l e v e n , f r o m 1 9 5 8 - 6 1 . Works such as K e l l y ' s and t h o s e by o t h e r a r t i s t s o f t h i s f i r s t phase o f n o n - e x p r e s s i o n i s t i c New Y o r k p a i n t i n g were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e t e rm " h a r d - e d g e " w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g to G e o r g e R i c k e y , was " i n v e n t e d " i n 1 9 5 9 : The phrase 'hard-edge ' is an invention of the critic, Jules Langsner, who suggested it at a gathering in Claremont in 1959 as a title for an exhibition of four non-figurative California painters.^ 5 T h i s e x h i b i t i o n , h e l d a t t h e Los A n g e l e s C o u n t y Museum o f A r t i n J u l y o f t h a t y e a r , was a c t u a l l y e n t i t l e d F o u r A b s t r a c t  C l a s s i c i s t s . P e r h a p s t he most i m p o r t a n t e x h i b i t i o n to t a k e p l a c e a t t h i s t i m e was B a r n e t t Newman's one-man e x h i b i t i o n a t B e n n i n g t o n C o l l e g e , Ve rmont i n 1958 - f o l l o w e d i n 1959 w i t h a s i m i l a r s e l e c t i o n o f 1946-52 works a t F r e n c h and Company , New Y o r k . The e x h i b i t i o n was a e r e v e l a t i o n to many a r t i s t s and c r i t i c s and i t s i n f l u e n c e was w i d e s p r e a d , as t he g e n e r a l t e n d e n c y i n t he l a t e 1 9 5 0 ' s t owa rd l a r g e r , more s i m p l e f o rms and t owa rd a q u i e t e r , more o b j e c t i v e s u r f a c e s u d d e n l y was c o n f i r m e d and i n a s e n s e d e f i n e d by Newman p a i n t i n g s t h a t were n e a r l y t e n y e a r s o l d . The f l a t , c l e a n o b j e c t i v e l o o k o f t he 1 9 6 0 ' s was e s t a b l i s h e d even b e f o r e t h e d e c a d e o p e n e d . ^ E . C . G o o s s e n , t h e n head o f the a r t s p r o g r a m a t B e n n i n g t o n C o l l e g e , w r o t e an a r t i c l e b a s e d on Newman's o works i n A r t News and i t was a p p a r e n t l y t h i s a r t i c l e t h a t p r o m p t e d Roy K i y o o k a , Ron B l o o r e and o t h e r s o f t he R e g i n a g r o u p , to ask Newman to l e a d t h e Emma Lake wo rkshop i n 1 9 5 9 . A g a i n , Newman had a g r e a t i m p a c t . W h i l e he d i d n ' t b r i n g any o f h i s p a i n t i n g s w i t h him and d i d n ' t do any p a i n t i n g w h i l e t h e r e , h i s p e r s o n a l i t y and i d e a s were i n s p i -r a t i o n a l . A r t McKay who was much i m p r e s s e d , commented on t h e Newman w o r k s h o p : 6 . . . the year 1959 with Barnett Newman' was a breakthrough. Members of the so-called Regina Group and others present, freely admit that Newman's workshop marked a turning point in their artistic development. 9 As R i c h a r d S immins r e l a t e d i n 1 9 6 1 , t he examp le s e t by Newman i n s p i r e d many a r t i s t s t o a more s i g n i f i c a n t e x p e r i -m e n t a t i o n : American painters like Ferren, Barnett, and Newman. . .have stimulated, stirred up, undoubtedly shaken these artists. But what has resulted was not a local imitation of abstract expressionism, but an intellectual upheaval resulting in great experimentation and an artistic milieu favourable to the production of important works of art.^® The g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n i n p a i n t i n g a t t h i s t i m e , t h e n , a p p e a r e d to be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a move away f r o m h e a v i l y a r t i c u l a t e d s u r f a c e s w i t h h i g h t e x t u r a l v a r i a t i o n s , t o w a r d e v e n l y a p p l i e d , l a r g e a r e a s o f pu re c o l o u r . In a d d i t i o n , t h e a t t i t u d e o f t he a r t i s t t o w a r d s h i s work a l s o c h a n g e d , f r o m one o f i n t e n s e i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h t h e p r o c e s s o f p a i n t i n g t o one o f c o o l c o n t e m p l a t i o n and c o n t r o l . W r i t i n g a few y e a r s l a t e r , i n 1 9 6 6 , D a v i d S i l c o x n o t e d a "New Y o r k i n f l u e n c e " on C a n a d i a n a r t t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d i t s t r a n s i t i o n f r o m the l a t e 1 9 5 0 ' s t o t h e m i d - 1 9 6 0 ' s . He d e s c r i b e d t h e change a s : 7 leading from density towards spacious-ness, from the tumultuous towards the neat, from the bountiful to the economical, from the personal to the impersonal, from the emotional blot to the intellectual diagram.11 T h i s same s h i f t i n d i r e c t i o n had t a k e n p l a c e i n New Y o r k a t t h e t u r n o f t h e d e c a d e a n d , as a r e s u l t , t h e new s e n s i b i l i t y t o o k on an i n c r e a s e d momentum and d i v e r s i t y . E x h i b i t i o n s and P u b l i c R e c o g n i t i o n P u b l i c r e c o g n i t i o n oifi t h e c h a n g i n g s e n s i b i l i t y was made p o s s i b l e by a number o f e x h i b i t i o n s d u r i n g t he 1 9 6 0 ' s w h i c h p r o v i d e d a f o c u s f o r c r i t i c s t o d i s c u s s and a t t e m p t t o d e f i n e t he l i m i t s o f t h e new a r t . The f i r s t e x h i b i t i o n o f m a j o r i m p o r t a n c e was Toward a New A b s t r a c t i o n h e l d a t t he J e w i s h Museum d u r i n g t h e summer o f 1 9 6 3 . Ben H e l l e r , i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n , s u g g e s t e d t h a t : The still widespread interest in deKooning 's ideas has been more of a hindrance than a help to the younger artists. . . [ w h o ] seem to stem most particularly from the revolutionary development of Pollock, Newman, Rothko and Still.12 In s p i t e o f d e K o o n i n g ' s c o n t i n u e d i n f l u e n c e , h o w e v e r , H e l l e r a l l u d e d t o t h e new a r t i s t i c c l i m a t e by r e f e r r i n g t o t h e 8 d e v e l o p i n g " p o s t - d e K o o n i n g w o r l d . " He p l a c e d t h e new p a i n t i n g w i t h i n t he c l a s s i c t r a d i t i o n and o b s e r v e d t h a t a c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e a r t i s t s i n t h e e x h i b i t i o n was t h e i r c o n c e p t u a l a p p r o a c h to p a i n t i n g r a t h e r t h a n t h e i r p h y s i c a l engagement w i t h a med ium. They were d e v o t e d to " a ' p u r e r ' h i e r a t i c c o n c e p t i o n o f t he a c t and mean ing o f p a i n t i n g . " ^ In h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n to t h e e x h i b i t i o n T h r e e New  A m e r i c a n P a i n t e r s h e l d a t t h e Norman M a c k e n z i e A r t G a l l e r y i n J a n u a r y 1 9 6 3 , C l e m e n t G r e e n b e r g r e f e r r e d to t h e " d i f f i c u l t " n a t u r e o f t h i s new work and to the r e a c t i o n o f t he a r t w o r l d a t t h a t t i m e : . . . the greatest part of the institutional or official art world in New York still feels too much challenged by this kind of art3 as indeed most artists and critics in New York still do. Indifference towards it may have changed to nervousness, but it is the nervous-ness felt in the face of a threat to estab-lished tastes. ' ^  In t h e s p r i n g o f t he f o l l o w i n g y e a r , G r e e n b e r g ' s P o s t - P a i n t e r l y A b s t r a c t i o n e x h i b i t i o n was d i s p l a y e d a t t h e Los A n g e l e s C o u n t y Museum. He w r o t e t h a t t he " H a r d -E d g e " a r t i s t s i n t h e e x h i b i t i o n " a r e i n c l u d e d b e c a u s e t h e y have won t h e i r ' h a r d n e s s ' f r om the s o f t n e s s o f P a i n t e r l y A b s t r a c t i o n . " T h e i r work r e v e a l s a "move t owa rd a p h y s i c a l o p e n n e s s o f d e s i g n , o r t owa rd l i n e a r c l a r i t y , o r t owa rd 9 b o t h . " G r e e n b e r g p r o p o s e d t h a t Ha rd-Edge a r t i s t s d e v e l o p f r o m g e s t u r a l o n e s : " a good p a r t o f t h e r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t A b s t r a c t - E x p r e s s i o n i s m i s . . . a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f i t . " He r e l a t e d t h i s s i t u a t i o n back to W o l f f l i n ' s c y c l i c t h e o r y o f a l t e r n a t i n g p a i n t e r l y and l i n e a r s y t l e s w h i c h o c c u r r e d t h r o u g h o u t h i s t o r y . A b s t r a c t E x p r e s s i o n i s m , i n o t h e r w o r d s , was c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a " p a i n t e r l y " s t y l e w h i c h had " d e g e n e r a t e d i n t o m a n n e r i s m " w h i l e t he r e c e n t d e v e l o p m e n t s i n a r t were e q u a t e d w i t h t h e " l i n e a r " q u a l i t y . ^ In p u r s u i n g t h i s a p p r o a c h , G r e e n b e r g r a t h e r e m p h a t i c a l l y d i s a l l o w e d any renewed i n t e r e s t o r c o n t a c t be tween the p r e s e n t a r t i s t s and e a r l i e r g e o m e t r i c a b s t r a c t a r t : " t h e y have n o t i n -h e r i t e d i t [ t h e h a r d e d g e ] f r o m M o n d r i a n , the B a u h a u s , I o S u p r e m a t i s m o r a n y t h i n g e l s e . " Among t h e a r t i s t s i n c l u d e d i n t he e x h i b i t i o n were t h r e e C a n a d i a n s : A r t h u r McKay , Kenne th L o c h h e a d , and J a c k B u s h . B a r b a r a Rose i n he r a r t i c l e " T h e P r i m a c y o f C o l o r , " w r i t t e n i n A p r i l , 1 9 6 4 , d i s c u s s e d some common c h a r -a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e r e c e n t t r e n d s i n a r t : Order, l o g i c , coherence, system, repeti-t i o n , internal necessity and perhaps what one might term a C a l v i n i s t i c sense of conceptual predestination are common to the new abstract painting. ^ The ma in t h i n g , she a d d e d , i s t h a t t h e " r e l a t i v i t y o f r e l a -20 t i o n a l p a i n t i n g be a v o i d e d . " 10 In O c t o b e r o f t h e same y e a r " a s i g n i f i c a n t , 21 t h o u g h a t t h e t i m e l i t t l e - n o t i c e d , e x h i b i t i o n , " 8 Young  A r t i s t s was pu t on by t he Hudson R i v e r Museum i n Y o n k e r s , New Y o r k . In t h e c a t a l o g u e i n t r o d u c t i o n , E . C . G o o s s e n d e s c r i b e d the g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the a r t i s t s r e p r e s e n t e d : None of them employs i l l u s i o n , realism, or anything that could possibly be described as symbolism. . . [ b u t show a ] concern with conceptual order. 2'2 R i c h a r d W o l l h e i m w r i t i n g i n A r t s M a g a z i n e i n J a n u a r y , 1965 was p e r h a p s t h e f i r s t p e r s o n to use t h e te rm " m i n i m a l " i n r e f e r r i n g to t h e new a r t . He s u g g e s t e d t h a t a p r i n c i p a l r e a s o n f o r t h e p u b l i c r e s i s t a n c e to t h e c l a i m s o f t h i s a r t can be r e l a t e d to i t s v i ew o f work o r " m a n i f e s t 23 e f f o r t " as i t o c c u r r e d i n " t h e mak ing o f a p i c t u r e . " He c o n t e n d e d t h a t t h e r e i s an i n t e n t i o n a l l y low o r " m i n i m a l a r t - c o n t e n t " i n s u c h works as R e i n h a r d t ' s " n e a r l y i n v i s i b l e b l a c k p a i n t i n g s " wh i ch a r e " t o an e x t r e m e d e g r e e u n d i f f e r -e n t i a t e d i n t h e m s e l v e s " and as a r e s u l t " p o s s e s s v e r y low 24 c o n t e n t o f any k i n d . " R e s i s t a n c e to t h i s k i n d o f a r t , he s u g g e s t e d , comes f r o m t h e s p e c t a t o r ' s s e n s e t h a t t he a r t i s t has no t worked h a r d enough o r pu t enough e f f o r t 25 i n t o h i s a r t . 11 T h i s i d e a o f " m a n i f e s t e f f o r t " was e x p r e s s e d more as a c o n c e r n by I r v i n g S n a d l e r i n t h e c a t a l o g u e i n t r o d u c -t i o n to t h e e x h i b i t i o n C o n c r e t e E x p r e s s i o n i s m , a t New Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y i n A p r i l o f t h a t y e a r . He a d o p t e d t h e te rm " c o o l a r t " f o r works c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c a l c u l a t i o n , i m p e r s o n a l i t y and b o r e d o m . He used F r a n k S t e l l a as an e x a m p l e : "An a r t as n e g a t i v e as S t e l l a ' s c a n n o t b u t c o n v e y u t t e r f u t i l i t y and b o r e d o m . " He s p o k e o u t a g a i n s t c o n -c e p t u a l o r " o n e - s h o t a r t " as b e i n g m e r e l y " m e c h a n i s t i c " o r " h o l l o w and e a s y " and a v o i d i n g what he r e q u i r e s o f a 27 good a r t i s t - t h a t he s h o u l d " s t r u g g l e " o r " g r o p e . " Evan T u r n e r , i n 1 9 6 6 , a l s o q u e s t i o n e d the commi tment o f some a r t i s t s whose work was c o n c e r n e d w i t h s u b t l e r e l a -t i o n s h i p s : . . . in the work of a number of artists in recent years, the contrast of tones, more often of values alone, is so very subtle that at any distance, there is virtually no feeling of commitment on the artist 's part. After a certain 23 point, subtlety can become regression. L u c y L i p p a r d p r e f e r r e d t h e word " r e j e c t i v e " t o c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e new a r t as she f o u n d t h e words " r e d u c t i v e " and " m i n i m a l " to be somewhat " i n s u l t i n g i n t h e i r i m p l i c a -t i o n o f a f i n a l r e s u l t t h a t i s l e s s i n q u a l i t y t h a n some 29 e a r l i e r o r i g i n a l . " W h i l e " r e j e c t i v e " does i m p l y a p r o c e s s o f e l i m i n a t i o n , i t a l s o s u g g e s t s a s t r e n g t h e n i n g p r o c e s s 12 by w h i c h e x c e s s and r e d u n d a n c y a r e shed and e s s e n c e r e t a i n e d . I t does n o t , i n o t h e r w o r d s , s e t t l e f o r l e s s " b e c a u s e i t ' s 30 c h e a p e r a e s t h e t i c a l l y o r p r a c t i c a l l y . " She o b s e r v e d the f o l l o w i n g y e a r t h a t an i n t e g r a l e l e m e n t o f r e c e n t A m e r i c a n p a i n t i n g i s " a " d i s a f f e c t i o n w i t h ' e a s y a r t ' , " a c o n c e p t t h a t u n i t e s most o f t he a r t i s t s w o r k i n g i n v a r i o u s 31 s t y l e s t h a t have a c h i e v e d p r o m i n e n c e s i n c e 1 9 4 6 . She s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e " o f t e n and p e j o r a t i v e l y r e m a r k e d c u l t 32 o f t h e new i s a c t u a l l y a c u l t o f t h e d i f f i c u l t . " L i p p a r d a s s o c i a t e d t h e p r o g r e s s i v e and r a p i d r e p l a c e m e n t o f a r t s t y l e s w i t h : the Oedival r i t u a l of action and reaction inherited from art history: the r u l i n g genre, the most seen and thus most imitable s t y l e , becomes 'easy' and must be re-nounced for a more 'advanced' art. 33 I t i s e v i d e n t f r o m the e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e i m -p o r t a n t e x h i b i t i o n s t o 1 9 6 7 , and the r e l a t e d comments by c r i t i c s , t h a t b o t h c r i t i c a l and p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s had l e f t A b s t r a c t E x p r e s s i o n i s m f a r b e h i n d , and was now c o n c e n t r a t i n g on the t r e n d t o w a r d s i m p l i c i t y and i n t e l l e c t u a l l o g i c . T h i s a n a l y s i s w i l l p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n w h i c h c o v e r s t h e a r t i s t i c d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e a r t i s t s who f o r m the f o c u s o f t h i s p a p e r . 13 FOOTNOTES: CHAPTER 1 1. B a r b a r a R o s e , "ABC A r t , " i n B a t t o c k , G r e g o r y , e d . Minimal Art: A Critical Anthology, New Y o r k : E . P . D u t t o n & C o . , I n c . , 1 9 6 8 , 2 8 1 . 2. L a w r e n c e A l l o w a y , i n t r o . Systemic Painting, New Y o r k , The So lomon R. Guggenhe im Museum, 1 9 6 6 . 3. H . H . A r n a s o n , i n t r o . American Abstract Expressionists and Imagists, New Y o r k : The So lomon R. Guggenhe im Museum, O c t o b e r - D e c e m b e r , 1 9 6 1 . 4 . Ibid. 5. Q u o t e d i n L u c y R. L i p p a r d , Changing: Essays in Art Criticism, New Y o r k : E . P . D u t t o n & C o . , I n c . , 1 9 7 1 , 2 0 7 . 6 . G e o r g e R i c k e y . " T h e New T e n d e n c y , " The Art Journal, V o l . X X I I I , No . 4 (Summer 1 9 6 4 ) , 2 7 4 . 7. A l l o w a y , loc. cit. 8. E . C . G o o s s e n . " The P h i l o s o p h i c L i n e o f B a r n e t t Newman," Art News, V o i . 5 7 , No. 4 (Summer, 1 9 5 8 ) , 3 0 - 3 1 . 9 . A r t h u r McKay . "Emma Lake A r t i s t s ' W o r k s h o p : An A p p r e c i a t i o n , " Canadian Art, V o l . X X I , No . 5 ( S e p t e m b e r / O c t o b e r , 1 9 6 4 ) , 2 8 0 . 1 0 . R i c h a r d S i m m i n s , i n t r o . Five Painters from Regina, O t t a w a : The N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y o f C a n a d a , 1 9 6 1 . 1 1 . D a v i d S i l c o x . " C a n a d i a n A r t i n the S i x t i e s , " Canadian Art, V o l . X X I I I , No. 1 ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 6 6 ) , 5 5 . 14 1 2 . Ben H e l l e r , i n t r o . Toward a New Abstraction, New Y o r k : The J e w i s h Museum, M a y - S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 6 3 . 1 3 . Ibid. 14 . Ibid. 1 5 . C l e m e n t G r e e n b e r g , i n t r o . Three New American Painters, R e g i n a : The Norman M a c k e n z i e A r t G a l l e r y , J a n u a r y -F e b r u a r y , 1 9 6 3 . 1 6 . C l e m e n t G r e e n b e r g , i n t r o . Post-Painterly Abstraction, Los A n g e l e s : Los A n g e l e s C o u n t y Museum o f A r t , A p r i l -J u n e , 1 9 6 4 . 1 7 . Ibid. 1 8 . Ibid., 1 9 . B a r b a r a R o s e . ' " T h e P r i m a c y o f C o l o r , " Art International, V o l . V I I I , No . 4 ( A p r i l , 1 9 6 4 ) , 2 3 . 2 0 . Ibid., 2 5 . 2 1 . A l l o w a y , loc. cit. 2 2 . Q u o t e d i n Ibid. 2 3 . R i c h a r d W o l l h e i m . " M i n i m a l A r t , " Artsmagazine, V o l . 3 9 , No. 4 ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 6 5 ) , 3 0 . 2 4 . Ibid., 2 6 . 2 5 . Ibid., 3 0 . 2 6 . I r v i n g S a n d l e r , i n t r o . Concrete Expressionism, New Y o r k : Loeb S t u d e n t C e n t e r , New Yo rk U n i v e r s i t y , A p r i l , 1 9 6 5 . 2 7 . Ibid. 15 2 8 . Evan H. T u r n e r . " D e s t r u c t i o n : A F a c t o r i n C o n t e m p o r a r y A r t , " Canadian Art, V o l . X X I I I , No . 1 ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 6 6 ) , 41 . 2 9 . L u c y R. L i p p a r d . "New Yo rk L e t t e r : R e j e c t i v e A r t , " i n Changing: Essays in Art C r i t i c i s m , New Y o r k : E .P . D u t t o n & C o . , I n c . , 1 9 7 1 , 1 4 1 . 3 0 . Ibid. 3 1 . L u c y R. L i p p a r d . " C u l t o f t he D i r e c t and the D i f f i c u l t , " i n Changing: Essays in Art C r i t i c i s m , New Y o r k : E .P . D u t t o n & C o . , I n c . , 1 9 7 1 , 1 1 2 . 3 2 . Ibid., 1 1 3 . 3 3 . Ibid., 1 1 2 . C h a p t e r 2 THE ARTISTS R o n a l d Bloc-re Ron B l o o r e , who had been a p p o i n t e d D i r e c t o r o f t h e Norman M a c k e n z i e A r t G a l l e r y and l e c t u r e r i n a r t a t R e g i n a C o l l e g e a t t he S c h o o l o f A r t , U n i v e r s i t y o f S a s k a t c h e w a n i n 1 9 6 6 , s e t an i m p o r t a n t examp le as b o t h an a r t i s t and a t e a c h e r i n t he d e v e l o p m e n t o f a r t i s t i c e x p r e s -s i o n i n R e g i n a . H i s own work i n t he l a t e 1 9 5 0 ' s was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s o m b r e , d e n s e l y - w o r k e d , a l l - o v e r s u r f a c e s c r e a t e d w i t h t h e use o f a p a l e t t e k n i f e . La F o r e t me 'chan ique ( F i g . 1 ) , o f 1 9 5 8 , f o r e x a m p l e , r e v e a l s a comp l ex and m o s a i c - l i k e t r e a t m e n t o f t he s u r f a c e . By t h i s t i m e B l o o r e had a l r e a d y i n t r o d u c e d h i s u n i q u e use o f enamel on m a s o n i t e o r compo -s i t i o n - b o a r d , wh i ch was l a t e r to be a d o p t e d f o r use by A r t McKay . In 1 9 6 2 , C l e m e n t G r e e n b e r g c r e d i t e d B l o o r e w i t h i n t r o d u c i n g the " B o r d u a s d i r e c t i o n " t o R e g i n a , t hus " w a r d i n g o f f " t he New Yo rk a b s t r a c t p a i n t i n g o f t he 1 9 5 0 ' s w i t h i t s " m a n n e r e d b r u s h s w i p e s , and i t s d e c e p t i v e l y 16 17 h a c k n e y e d s c a f f o l d i n g o f l i g h t and d a r k . " I t was B o r d u a s " G a l l i c i z i n g " o f t h e New Yo rk a p p r o a c h o f P o l l o c k , r a t h e r t h a n de K o o n i n g , and h i s own b a s i c " i n t e g r i t y " t h a t G r e e n b e r g s u g g e s t e d had the g r e a t e s t e f f e c t i n R e g i n a a t t h a t t i m e . As m e n t i o n e d i n C h a p t e r 1, t he Emma Lake Workshops - p a r t i c u l a r l y t he Newman one o f 1959 - had an e q u a l i f n o t g r e a t e r e f f e c t o n , no t o n l y B l o o r e ' s a p p r o a c h , b u t on t h e R e g i n a g r o u p i n g e n e r a l . By 1960 B l o o r e was e x e c u t i n g p a i n t i n g s i n w h i c h he i n c i s e d l o n g , s p o k e - l i k e l i n e s i n t o t h i c k , w h i t e p a i n t r e s u l t i n g i n t he f o r m a t i o n o f r o u g h l y c i r c u l a r c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . T h e s e a p p e a r e d e i t h e r i n g r o u p s o f two o r t h r e e images on a t h i n v e r t i c a l f o r m a t , o r s i n g l y on a s q u a r e f o r m a t , such as P a i n t i n g ( F i g . 2 ) , o f 1 9 6 0 . In t he f i r s t c a s e t he f i g u r e i s s e t o f f f r om the g r o u n d by a v a r i a t i o n i n t he t o n e o f w h i t e , w h i l e i n t he s e c o n d examp le i t i s " o u t l i n e d " by a t h i c k , g e s t u r a l h a l o s h a p e . B l o o r e has a l s o u s e d c o l o u r , e i t h e r s i n g l y o r i n a l i m i t e d r a n g e , to e x t e n d h i s b a s i c t h e m e . In P a i n t i n g ( F i g ; 3 ) , o f 1 9 6 1 , f o r e x a m p l e , a w h i t e e r o u g h l y c i r c u l a r , c r o s s s i g n i s d e f i n e d " n e g a t i v e l y " on an o r a n g e b a c k g r o u n d . S i m i l a r l y , i n Ye l1ow- G r e e n P a i n t i n g o f t h e same y e a r , c r o s s o r s t a r - l i k e f o r m s w i t h i n s q u a r e and r e c t a n g u l a r s h a p e s a r e d e f i n e d by a r o u g h l y t e x t u r e d b a c k g r o u n d b e i n g p a i n t e d " o v e r " t h e m . W h i l e , i n 1 9 6 1 , B l o o r e i d e n t i f i e d two main i n t e r e s t s i n 18 h i s work - "on t he who l e my i n t e r e s t s h i f t s f r o m works w i t h an a l l - o v e r a c t i v a t e d s u r f a c e t o o t h e r s w i t h s i m p l e , 3 s i n g l e o r d o u b l e , s y m b o l - l i k e e l e m e n t s " - b o t h t h e s e a s p e c t s a p p e a r t o a g r e a t e r o r l e s s e x t e n t i n a l l h i s p a i n t i n g s . He has a c h i e v e d a w ide v a r i e t y w i t h i n h i s c h o s e n theme by v a r y i n g t he t e x t u r e and s u r f a c e d e s i g n . W h i l e some w o r k s , l i k e t h o s e m e n t i o n e d above , a r e h i g h l y t e x t u r e d o r a r e c a r v e d and i n c i s e d so t h a t t h e y r e s e m b l e r e l i e f s , o t h e r s , s u c h as S m a l l Wh i t e G r o s s ( F i g . 4 ) , o f 1 9 6 2 , have much s m o o t h e r s u r f a c e s w i t h a much s i m p l e r i m a g e . B l o o r e s t o p p e d p a i n t i n g on c a n v a s a f t e r a v i s i t t o G r e e c e i n 1 9 6 2 - 6 3 , on a Canada C o u n c i l g r a n t . He was o b v i o u s l y a f f e c t e d by the l i g h t and t h e b r i l l i a n t w h i t e w a l l s u r f a c e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t he a r e a a s , upon h i s r e t u r n to R e g i n a , he d e s t r o y e d a l l t he p a i n t i n g s i n h i s s t u d i o a n d , s i n c e t h a t t i m e , has worked e x c l u s i v e l y i n t o n e s o f w h i t e on m a s o n i t e p a n e l s . In 1964 he i n t r o d u c e d a s q u a r e c r o s s o r s t a r image w h i c h was d i v i d e d i n t o a g r i d a n d , f u r t h e r , i n t o g e o m e t r i c c e l l - l i k e f o r m s . T h i s c e n t r a l image was p l a c e d i n t he c e n t r e o f a 4 by 8 f o o t p a n e l and f l a n k e d on e i t h e r s i d e by s e r i e s o f h o r i z o n t a l l i n e s w h i c h were c o n t i n u o u s on a l t e r n a t e e n d s . As t h i s " s e r i e s " p r o g r e s s e d , t h e s q u a r e g r i d image was s i m p l i f i e d and f i l l e d t h e who l e f o r m a t , 19 now a l s o i n t he shape o f a s q u a r e . In P a i n t i n g No . 3, t h e g r i d i s q u i t e r i g i d and r e l a t e s d i r e c t l y to t he shape ' o f t h e s u p p o r t . By P a i n t i n g No. 6 ( F i g . 5 ) , o f 1 9 6 4 - 6 5 , h o w e v e r , t h i s g r i d has opened up and now r e s e m b l e s a p i e c e o f mesh f e n c i n g . In a l l t h e s e w o r k s , " f l a w s , " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f B l o o r e ' s method o f w o r k i n g , p l a y an a c t i v e p a r t i n the c o m p o s i t i o n . A n o t h e r v a r i a t i o n on the theme i s s een i n U n t i t l e d , o f 1 9 6 5 - 6 6 , wheKe B l o o r e has p l a c e d c i r c l e s w i t h i n s q u a r e s i n a g r o u p o f f o u r , f l a n k e d on e i t h e r s i d e by a s e r i e s o f h o r i z o n t a l l i n e s a t r i g h t a n g l e s t o each o t h e r . E c h o e s o f t h e s e l i n e s a r e f o u n d i n s u c h 1967 works as t he Wh i t e Mu ra l ( F i g . 6 ) , c r e a t e d f o r t he C o n f e d e r a t i o n A r t G a l l e r y and Museum. B a l a n c i n g t h e s e l i n e s a r e o r g a n i c c l u s t e r s o f t r i a n g u l a r s h a p e s some o f w h i c h f a d e i n t o t h e g r o u n d and c r e a t e an amb iguous r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween t h e m . As i n most o f h i s w o r k s , t h e images a r e u s u a l l y d e r i v e d f r o m t h e shape o f t he s u p p o r t . A f t e r a demand ing c o m m i s s i o n to e x e c u t e a 12 by 24 f o o t D o r v a l A i r p o r t M u r a l i n M o n t r e a l , w h i c h was c o m -p l e t e d i n 1 9 6 8 , B l o o r e began to v a r y h i s f o r m a t s f r o m t h e u s u a l 1 by 1 and 1 by 2 p r o p o r t i o n s and a l s o hung s e v e r a l p a i n t i n g s on t h e d i a g o n a l . A s i m i l a r c o m b i n a t i o n o f rows o f r a y c l u s t e r s and h o r i z o n t a l s h i n g l e s c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e s e 1968 and e a r l y 1969 w o r k s . In t he m i d s t o f t h i s s e r i e s , h o w e v e r , B l o o r e p a i n t e d an e x t r e m e l y s i m p l i f i e d 20 w o r k , U n t i t l e d , A u g u s t - N o v e m b e r 1968 ( F i g . 7 ) , i n w h i c h f o u r a d j a c e n t s e t s o f o v e r l a p p i n g c l a p b o a r d - l i k e p a n e l s a r e the o n l y e l e m e n t s . T h i s p a i n t i n g seems to be a p r e -c u r s o r f o r an even more r a d i c a l l y s i m p l i f i e d s e r i e s begun i n l a t e 1 9 6 9 . Each o f t h e s e " l i n e p a i n t i n g s , " as B l o o r e c a l l s t h e m , c o n s i s t s o f t w e n t y - f i v e h o r i z o n t a l r a i s e d l i n e s , more o r l e s s p a r a l l e l and c o n t i n u o u s a c r o s s t h e w i d t h o f t he 43 by 96 i n c h p a n e l , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f a few i n c h e s a t e i t h e r s i d e . The l i n e s a r e o n l y s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by t h e i r d i v e r g e n c e f r o m t r u e p a r a l l e l s and by t h e s l i g h t g a p s , f l a w s and i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f B l o o r e ' s a p p r o a c h . In more r e c e n t p a i n t i n g s , B l o o r e has r e i n t r o d u c e d a wheel o r " f l o w e r " f o r m as a p r i n c i p a l m o t i f . In some w o r k s , t h e s e f o rms a r e d i s t r i b u t e d o v e r t h e e n t i r e s u r f a c e o f t he p a i n t i n g , w h i l e i n o t h e r s , s u c h as P a i n t i n g ( F i g . 8 ) , o f 1 9 7 1 , t he f o rms a r e c o m b i n e d w i t h r a i s e d l i n e s r e t a i n e d f r o m t h e e a r l i e r s e r i e s . T h i s work g i v e s e v i d e n c e o f t h e s e n s i t i v i t y o f B l o o r e ' s i m m a c u l a t e s u r f a c e s t o n a t u r a l l i g h t . B r i a n F i s h e r B r i a n F i s h e r a t t e n d e d R e g i n a C o l l e g e a t t h e S c h o o l o f A r t , U n i v e r s i t y o f S a s k a t c h e w a n f r o m 1 9 5 7 - 5 9 , s t u d y i n g u n d e r K i y o o k a , M c K a y , B l o o r e and Ken L o c h h e a d . A f t e r 21 g r a d u a t i n g f r o m the V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l o f A r t i n 1960 he s p e n t two y e a r s i n Rome - t he f i r s t y e a r on an I t a l i a n Gove rnmen t S c h o l a r s h i p and the s e c o n d on a Canada C o u n c i l g r a n t . H i s b a s i c i m a g e r y e v o l v e d f r o m a s e r i e s o f p l a n t o r b i o l o g i c a l d r a w i n g s done p r i o r to 1 9 6 4 . W h i l e t h e s e d r a w i n g s and h i s s u b s e q u e n t e a r l y p a i n t i n g s became p r o -g r e s s i v e l y more a b s t r a c t , t h e y s t i l l r e t a i n a s s o c i a t i o n s to t h e i r o r g a n i c o r i g i n , as i n F e b r u a r y #3 ( F i g . 9 ) , o f 1 9 6 4 . F i s h e r s t a t e s t h a t he f i r s t began s t r a i g h t e n i n g t h e l i n e s up by hand bu t soon d e c i d e d t h a t he m i g h t as w e l l 4 use a s t r a i g h t e d g e . As a r e s u l t t h e f r e e - h a n d c i r c u l a r m o t i f s d e v e l o p e d i n t o p r e c i s e s t r u c t u r e s o f m a t h e m a t i c a l p r e c i s i o n , w h i c h were p r i m a r i l y c l o s e d and c e n t r a l i z e d l o z e n g e o r e l l i p s e s h a p e s . Some e a r l y p a i n t i n g s o f t h i s new s e r i e s were m o n o c h r o m a t i c , and b a s e d on t h e e l l i p s e -f o r e x a m p l e , P a c i f i c ( F i g . 1 0 ) , done i n 1 9 6 5 . In works s u c h as The B r i n k o f t h e same y e a r , he i n t r o d u c e d b r i l l i a n t c o l o u r s t h a t added an i n t e n s e v i b r a n c y to t he b a s i c i m a g e . A g r e a t e r c o m p l e x i t y began to a p p e a r i n t he image o f s u c h works as M ind M u s i c and C h i n o o k ( F i g . 1 1 ) , a l s o o f 1 9 6 5 , and B l u e Echo and L y r a o f e a r l y 1 9 6 6 . Here F i s h e r u sed l i n e s i n a g r i d c o n f i g u r a t i o n w h i c h r e l a t e d to t h e f o r m a t , and w h i c h a t t he same t i m e d e s c r i b e d a s e r i e s o f a r c s w i t h s e p a r a t e f o c a l p o i n t s w i t h i n t he c a n v a s . In g e n e r a l , t h e s e works a r e b a s e d on c e n t r a l i z e d p i l l a r o r c r o s s f o r m s 22 and on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between e x p a n d i n g and c o n t r a c t i n g a p e r t u r e s . In A n g s t ( F i g . 1 2 ) , and E a s e , b o t h o f 1 9 6 6 , F i s h e r r e t u r n e d to t he e l l i p s e and added a f u r t h e r c o m p l e x i t y to t h e image by i n t r o d u c i n g two c o n f l i c t i n g g r i d s y s t e m s -one r a d i a t i n g f r o m the f o c a l p o i n t s o f t h e e l l i p s e and t h e o t h e r p a r a l l e l to t he f r a m i n g e d g e . The i n t e r p l a y o f t h e s e two s y s t e m s c r e a t e d an i 1 1 u s i o n i s t i c m o i r e p a t t e r n w h i c h , c o m b i n e d w i t h s t r o n g o p a q u e l y p a i n t e d s h a p e s a t t he c e n t r e , c o n t r i b u t e d to a s e n s e o f amb iguous s p a c e . T h e s e two works were c r e a t e d as o p p o s i t e s - b o t h a r e e l l i p s e s and b o t h have a c e n t r e s p l i t . In A n g s t , the o u t s i d e e l l i p -t i c a l shape i s much more s t r o n g l y c i r c u m s c r i b e d and the c o l o u r s c o l d e r and more h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d . E a s e , on t he o t h e r h a n d , i s much more o p e n , b o t h a r o u n d the o u t s i d e , where t he e l l i p s e i s c l o s e i n t o n e to t he g r o u n d ; and a t t he c e n t r e , where t h e r e i s much l e s s t e n s i o n t h a n i n A n g s t . As the t i t l e s i n d i c a t e , the two works have o p p o s i t e c o n n o -t a t i o n s t h a t a r e c l e a r l y e v i d e n t i n t h e c o m p a r i s o n . Up to t h i s t i m e , F i s h e r had been w o r k i n g m a i n l y w i t h s i n g l e e l l i p s e s , s y m m e t r i c a l d o u b l e e l l i p s e s , o r i n some c a s e s w i t h two s m a l l e r e l l i p s e s w i t h i n a l a r g e r o n e , and was c o n c e r n e d w i t h s e e k i n g d i f f e r e n t ways o f s o l v i n g t h e c e n t r e o f t h i s c h a l l e n g i n g f o r m . W i th En igma ( F i g . 1 3 ) , i n 1 9 6 6 , he worked i n t o a t r i p l e e l l i p s e i n w h i c h t h e s p a c e i s even more i n c o n g r u o u s and d i f f i c u l t t o l o c a t e 23 v i s u a l l y . The i n t e r c o n n e c t i n g e l l i p s e s can be r e a d i n d i f f e r e n t ways d e p e n d i n g upon what c o m b i n a t i o n s o f l i n e s and s h a p e s a r e f o l l o w e d . T h e s e c o m b i n a t i o n s became more comp l ex i n t he D o r v a l A i r p o r t Mu ra l c o m p l e t e d i n 1 9 6 7 , i n w h i c h the e l l i p s e m o t i f was r e p e a t e d s e v e n t i m e s t h e r e b y c o m p o u n d i n g t h e m u l t i p l e p l a n e s , opaque r e c t a n g u l a r s h a p e s , and amb iguous s p a c e s o f t he s i m p l e r w o r k s . The f o l l o w i n g y e a r F i s h e r c u t t h e e l l i p s e i n h a l f - r e v e r s i n g t h e h a l v e s on the c a n v a s t o g e t a s t r a i g h t l i n e a l o n g t h e t o p and b o t t o m . In t h i s I n d i r e c t i o n s s e r i e s ( F i g . 1 5 ) , he opened up t h e f o r m e r l y e n c l o s e d s p a c e o f t h e e l l i p s e s w h i c h l e d him to p r o g r e s s i v e l y e l i m i n a t e t h a t shape a l t o g e t h e r . In a s e r i e s c a l l e d I n d u c t i o n ( F i g . 1 6 ) , o f 1 9 6 8 , h i s c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c l i n e s now r a d i a t e d o u t f r o m what can be c o n s i d e r e d an " i m a g i n a r y " h i g h h o r i z o n l i n e w h i c h i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e u n i f o r m l e v e l a t w h i c h t h e l i n e s a r e c u t o f f . The images a r e now b a s e d on s q u a r e and r e c t a n g u l a r c o m b i n a t i o n s w h i c h a r e d e f i n e d e x c l u s i v e l y by p a r a l l e l v e r t i c a l l i n e s . M o i r e p a t t e r n s a g a i n emerge when the two c o m p e t i n g " s t r u c t u r e s " o v e r l a p . A c c o m p a n y i n g h i s e l i m i n a t i o n o f t h e e l l i p s e , F i s h e r began to r e d u c e t he t o n a l c o n t r a s t s be tween the l i n e s and the g r o u n d i n o r d e r to e m p h a s i z e t he t r e a t m e n t o f s p a c e . The f o r m s , as a r e s u l t , t e n d to f l o a t upwards f r o m the b o t t o m o f t h e c a n v a s a n d , l e s s o b v i o u s l y , 24 t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l l y i n s p a c e . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y c l e a r i n t he O d y s s e y s e r i e s o f 1 9 6 8 , and t h e I n d i c a n t s e r i e s o f 1 9 6 9 . In O d y s s e y t h e r e p e a t e d b u t s e p a r a t e b l o c k s r e l a t e to each o t h e r t h u s r e i n f o r c i n g t h e s e n s e o f d e p t h t h a t i s g i v e n by t h e i r p r o g r e s s i v e d i m i n i s h m e n t i n s i z e . In t h e s e works F i s h e r b e g i n s t o d e c e n t r a l i z e h i s f o r m s and i n t r o -d u c e s a h e i g h t e n e d a m b i g u i t y . As a r e s u l t o f e x p e r i m e n t s w i t h B i l l B o n n i e m a n , an a c c o m p l i s h e d p r i n t m a k e r - f r i e n d , F i s h e r p r o d u c e d a r e l a t e d g r o u p o f t e n s i l k - s c r e e n p r i n t s i n t h e O d y s s e y s e r i e s i n w h i c h he emp loys a w i d e r r a n g e o f c o l o u r b u t keeps t h e l i n e c o l o u r and g r o u n d c o l o u r v e r y c l o s e i n t o n e . The r e s u l t t e n d s to make t h e f l o a t i n g l i n e a r s t r u c t u r e s even l e s s - a p p a r e n t t h a n i n t h e r e l a t e d p a i n t i n g s . In a n o t h e r p a i r o f p a i n t i n g s , Memorium ( E a r t h ) ( F i g . 1 7 ) , and Memorium (Sky ) o f 1 9 6 9 , F i s h e r e x p e r i m e n t s f u r t h e r w i t h t e s t i n g t h e i l l u s i o n o f p e r s p e c t i v e by s p l i t t i n g t h e m o n o l i t h i c f o r m i n t he c e n t r e and i n t r o d u c i n g a c o n -t r a d i c t o r y s p a c e wh i ch p u s h e s f o r w a r d a g a i n s t t h e i l l u s i o n o f r e c e s s i o n . T h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n , wh i ch i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f most o f F i s h e r ' s r e c e n t p a i n t i n g , a p p e a r s a g a i n i n h i s S t e p p e s e r i e s o f 1970-71 ( F i g . 1 8 ) , where c o n v e r g i n g l i n e s r e c e d i n g i n t o d e p t h , and e v e n l y s p a c e d l i n e s , w h i c h a c t as a g r i d p a r a l l e l i n g t he p i c t u r e p l a n e , c o n f l i c t w i t h each o t h e r . 25 In 1972 F i s h e r ' s work unde rwen t a n o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e . H i s f o r m a t s were r e d u c e d to 45 by 45 i n c h e s a n d , i n most c a s e s , were hung on t h e d i a g o n a l . The i n t e r i o r images were e l i m i n a t e d and t h e e n t i r e s u r f a c e was now o r g a n i z e d by a s e r i e s o f p a r a l l e l v e r t i c a l l i n e s . H i s ma in c o n c e r n now was d e f i n i n g s p a c e by c o l o u r r a t h e r t han by l i n e . The f o r m a t , as a r e s u l t , a r o s e o u t o f t h i s c o l o u r w h i c h a p p e a r e d to emanate f r o m p o i n t s a t t he e x t r e m e h o r i -z o n t a l c o r n e r s and w h i c h f u n c t i o n e d s i m i l a r l y t o t he f o c a l p o i n t o f h i s e a r l i e r w o r k s . Yves G a u c h e r As e a r l y as 1 9 6 0 , G a u c h e r was b e g i n n i n g t o a c h i e v e an i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e p u t a t i o n as an i n n o v a t i v e p r i n t m a k e r . B e g i n n i n g i n 1 9 5 9 , when he a c q u i r e d an o l d p r o o f p r e s s , he began t o d e v e l o p a new and u n c o n v e n t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e . He b a s i c a l l y e x p e r i m e n t e d w i t h e x t e n d i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l e t c h i n g t e c h n i q u e by d e v e l o p i n g a g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f r e l i e f o f t h e i m p r e s s i o n and by u s i n g c o l o u r to a c h i e v e a r a n g e o f p a i n t e r l y e f f e c t s . In 1961-62 G a u c h e r c r e a t e d a s e r i e s o f c o p p e r -e t c h i n g s i i i deep r e l i e f t h a t i n v o l v e d f r e e a r r a n g e m e n t s o f r o u g h l y - t e x t u r e d s t o n e - l i k e f o r m s i n warm e a r t h c o l o u r s . T h e s e s h a p e s were p l a c e d i n v e r y t i g h t c l u s t e r p a t t e r n s i n 26 e a r l y works s u c h as L i g n e , S u r f a c e , Vo lume 2 and A s a g a o ( F i g . 1 9 ) , o f 1 9 6 1 . T h i s p a t t e r n g r a d u a l l y opened up i n s u c h works as Sqana where a g r e a t e r t e n s i o n i s c r e a t e d between the 1 e s s - t e x t u r e d s h a p e s . G a u c h e r o f t e n u sed a c o m b i n a t i o n o f v a r i e d t e c h -n i q u e s s u c h as r e l i e f - and i n t a g l i o - e n g r a v i n g s , e m b o s s i n g a n d , " m a r t e l l a g e " o r o v e r l a y i n g w i t h a c r y l i c p a s t e , i n a s i n g l e p r i n t . ^ A f t e r t h e e a r l i e r r e s t r a i n e d e x p e r i m e n t s w i t h few s h a p e s , he d e v e l o p e d a s e r i e s i n v o l v i n g much more f l a m b o y a n t p a t t e r n s i n v i b r a n t b u t s u b t l e y c o m b i n e d c o l o u r s . Two o f t h e s e l a r g e m u l t i c o l o u r e d p r i n t s , Sa^ and A j i ( F i g . 2 0 ) , o f 1 9 6 3 , r e v e a l t he use o f l a m i n a t e d p a p e r s o f v a r i o u s w e i g h t s and c o l o u r s as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the c o m p o s i t i o n . A t t h i s p o i n t G a u c h e r e l i m i n a t e d the use o f a r b i t r a r y s h a p e s and began to work e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h s t r a i g h t l i n e s and r e c t a n g l e s . D a v i d S i l c o x s t a t e s t h a t " t h e s h a p e s w e r e -d i s t r a c t i n g f r o m h i s c h i e f p u r p o s e w h i c h was t o e m p h a s i z e t h e a c t i v i t i e s be tween the d i f f e r e n t e l e m e n t s r a t h e r t h a n t h e i r a p p e a r a n c e . " ^ In t h e summer o f 1962 G a u c h e r a t t e n d e d a c o n c e r t o f c o n t e m p o r a r y m u s i c i n P a r i s w h e r e , f o r the f i r s t t i m e , he h e a r d t he work o f V a r e s e , B o u l e z and A n t o n Webern p e r -f o r m e d . He was p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p r e s s e d by Webern and s p o k e o f h i s r e a c t i o n : 27 When I walked out of that concert, I knew t h i s guy had done something i r r e p a r a b l e to me. I f e l t throughout my whole body that he had challenged every s i n g l e idea I had about sound, about art, about expression, about the dimensions a l l these things could have. 9 S i n c e t he e a r l y 1 9 5 0 ' s he has l i s t e n e d to and s t u d i e d r e -c o r d i n g s o f I n d i a n r a g a s p l a y e d by A l i A k b a r Khan and t h e m u s i c o f S t o c k h a u s e n , L u i g i Nono as w e l l as V e r e s e , B o u l e z and W e b e r n , b u t t h i s c o n c e r t was h i s f i r s t r e a l c o n f r o n t a -t i o n w i t h t w e l v e - t o n e m u s i c . G a u c h e r l i k e d W e b e r n ' s t e c h -n i q u e - w h i c h was to send " l i t t l e d a r t s o f s o u n d ou t i n t o s p a c e where t h e y expand and t a k e on a c o m p l e t e l y new q u a l i t y o f t h e i r own" - as i t t r i g g e r e d i n h i s mind what he was a f t e r v i s u a l l y . 1 ^ 1 As a r e s u l t o f t h i s " a p o c a l y p t i c e x -p e r i e n c e " ^ he p r o d u c e d a s e t o f t h r e e p r i n t s , w h i c h he c a l l e d En Homage a Webern ( F i g . 2 1 ) . T h e s e p r i n t s i n v o l v e a c o m p l e x t e c h n i q u e o f p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e r e l i e f on w h i t e l a m i n a t e d p a p e r . G e o m e t r i c c o n f i g u r a t i o n s o f g r e y s q u a r e s and s h o r t t h i n l i n e s , w h i c h a r e r a i s e d b u t no t c o l o u r e d , make up a s y m m e t r i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n s . G a u c h e r c o m p l e t e d t h r e e more r e l a t e d p r i n t s i n t h e same t e c h n i q u e , b u t i n c o l o u r , o v e r t he n e x t two y e a r s - Fugue J aune 1 9 6 3 , P l i S e l o n P l i 1964 and P o i n t C o n t r e p o i n t 1 9 6 5 . T h e s e p r i n t s l e d G a u c h e r i n t o p a i n t i n g . In 1965 he began h i s Danse C a r r i e s e r i e s ( F i g . 2 2 ) , w h i c h were s q u a r e 28 p a i n t i n g s hung on the d i a g o n a l . In t h e s e w o r k s , he t o o k t h e s q u a r e and l i n e e l e m e n t s f r o m t h e p r e c e d i n g p r i n t s and a r r a n g e d them i n s y m m e t r i c a l p a t t e r n s w h i c h were r e l a t e d to t h e edge o f t he c a n v a s . T h e s e e l e m e n t s were now i n b r i l l i a n t c o l o u r and were p l a c e d on an e q u a l l y v i b r a n t b a c k g r o u n d t h e r e b y c r e a t i n g i n t e n s e i n t e r a c t i o n s and i l l u -s i o n i s t i c a f t e r - i m a g e s wh i ch G a u c h e r c a l l e d " c h r o m a t i c 1 2 a n t a g o n i s m s " o r " e n e r g e t i c e v e n t s . " The c o l o u r s a r e u n i f o r m i n v a l u e and c r e a t e d ynam i c and e v e r - c h a n g i n g p u l s a t i n g rhy thms f o r t he v i e w e r . The f o l l o w i n g y e a r G a u c h e r began a new s e r i e s i n w h i c h he r e d u c e d t h e c o m p o s i t i o n a l e l e m e n t s t o t h i n h o r i -z o n t a l l i n e s , w h i c h he c a l l e d " s i g n a l s , " and r e t u r n e d to t h e r e c t a n g u l a r f o r m a t . As w i t h t he p r e v i o u s s e r i e s , a p r i n t was t he l e a d - i n , i n t h i s c a s e P o i n t C o n t r e p o i n t . The p a i n t i n g s c o n s i s t o f a s i n g l e - h u e d f i e l d a c t i v a t e d by b r i l l i a n t l i n e a r u n i t s a r r a n g e d i n s y m m e t r i c a l i n t e r v a l s and b a s e d on a m o d u l a r s y s t e m . The i n t e r n a l a c t i v i t y i s a c c e n t u a t e d by a p a i r o f c o l o u r s t r i p s p l a c e d a t t h e h o r i z o n t a l o r v e r t i c a l p e r i m e t e r s o f t he c a n v a s w h i c h c r e a t e c o m p r e s s i o n between them and e x p a n s i o n t h r o u g h the o p p o s i t e e d g e s . Works i n t h e s e r i e s r a n g e f r o m t h e s u b d u e d g r e y f i e l d o f Homage % A l i A k b a r Khan and the g r e y s i g n a l s o f G r e y S i l e n c e s f o r G reen ( F i g . 2 3 ) , t h r o u g h t h e more a c t i v e S i g n a l s - 8 Inch P r o g r e s s i o n s , w i t h p i n k and b l u e v e r t i c a l 29 l i n e s on a y e l l o w g r o u n d , and S o f t S i g n a l s a t Dawn, w i t h d o u b l e l i n e s o f b l u e and g r e e n on a g r e y g r o u n d , t o s u c h i n t e n s e works as Happy B i r t h d a y Raga and C a r d i n a l Raga ( F i g . 2 4 ) , o f 1 9 6 7 , w i t h v i b r a n t s i g n a l s on a b r i l l i a n t r e d g r o u n d . G a u c h e r e x p l o r e d the who l e r a n g e o f i n t e r -a c t i o n s be tween v a r i o u s c o l o u r s p l a c e d a d j a c e n t l y a n d , as D a v i d S i l c o x o b s e r v e d , he wou ld somet ime " m a r r y t he a c t u a l c o l o u r w i t h t he s e e m i n g c o l o u r t o c r e a t e a d o u b l e i l l u s i o n . " L a t e i n 1966 G a u c h e r had begun work on a n o t h e r s e r i e s o f p r i n t s w h i c h were b a s e d on a l a r g e number o f e x p l o r a t o r y d r a w i n g s . T r a n s i t i o n s c o n s i s t s o f e i g h t p r i n t s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h i n h o r i z o n t a l l i n e s i n a r a n g e o f s e v e n t o n a l i t i e s o f g r e y . The c o m p o s i t i o n d e v e l o p s by p r o g r e s s i o n o v e r the s e r i e s . The f i r s t p r i n t i s c o m p l e t e l y s y m m e t r i c a l a r o u n d b o t h axes w h i l e the n e x t t h r e e p r i n t s emp loy v a r i a -t i o n s o f a m i r r o r i n g s y s t e m , w h i c h was r e l a t e d i n d e t a i l by C h a n d l e r to s i m i l a r s y s t e m s i n m u s i c - b o t h s e r i a l com-14 p o s i t i o n and B a r o q u e . The c o m p o s i t i o n s a r e s t i l l b a s e d on symmetry b u t d i f f e r a c c o r d i n g to r e v e r s a l s and i n v e r -s i o n s o f t he b a s i c s e t o f e l e m e n t s . Asymmet ry i s i n t r o d u c e d i n t he r e m a i n i n g p r i n t s and r a n g e s f r o m the a l m o s t i m p e r -c e p t i b l e d e v i a t i o n i n t h e f i f t h p r i n t t o t he c o m p l e t e l y a r b i t r a r i l y composed e i g h t h p r i n t i n t h e s e r i e s . W h i l e t h i s f i n a l p r i n t i s c o m p l e t e l y w i t h o u t a x i s o r f o c a l p o i n t , 30 i t r e t a i n s a s e n s e o f s t r u c t u r e and b a l a n c e w h i c h i s c h a r -a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e a r t i s t ' s d i s c i p l i n e d i n t u i t i o n , and w h i c h a l s o u n d e r l i e s t he d e v e l o p m e n t o f h i s G r e y on G rey s e r i e s o f p a i n t i n g s begun l a t e i n 1967 ( F i g . 2 5 ) . G a u c h e r had been s t u d y i n g the b e h a v i o u r o f g r e y a g a i n s t o t h e r c o l o u r s a l l t h r o u g h the S i g n a l s s e r i e s - mos t f r e q u e n t l y i n t he 1966 works - by u s i n g g r e y f o r t h e l i n e s a n d , i n a few c a s e s , f o r t h e f i e l d i t s e l f . In t h e G r e y on  G rey s e r i e s he c o n c e n t r a t e d on the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f g r e y i n a w ide r a n g e o f s u b t l e t o n a l v a r i a t i o n s . Each work i s a u n i f o r m f i e l d o f a t o n e o f g r e y c a r r y i n g a s e t o f n a r r o w , h o r i z o n t a l l i n e s o f unmixed g r e y s w h i c h v a r y i n s i z e , number and p a t t e r n w i t h each p a i n t i n g . W h i l e one o r two o f t h e f i r s t g r e y p a i n t i n g s r e v e a l t r a c e s o f b i l a t e r a l symmetry t a k e n f r o m the e a r l y T r a n s i t i o n p r i n t s , t h e y a r e g e n e r a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the open and dynam i c s p a t i a l r h y t h m a c h i e v e d i n the f i n a l p r i n t s o f t he T r a n s i t i on s e r i e s . The p a i n t i n g s , w h i c h r a n g e i n s i z e f r o m 30 by 30 i n c h e s to 9 by 15 f e e t and l a r g e r , a r e i d e n t i f i e d by a f o r m u l a such as F-M-68B-1 i n w h i c h t h e m o n t h , y e a r and c o l o u r m i x a r e i n d i c a t e d . O r i g i n a l l y , h o w e v e r , G a u c h e r had made a n o t h e r r e f e r e n c e to m u s i c by t i t l i n g t he works M a p , a f t e r " t h e i n i t i a l , t e n t a t i v e s e c t i o n o f an I n d i a n r a g a b e f o r e t he heavy rhy thm b e i n g s . 1 , 1 5 3 1 G a u c h e r has d e s c r i b e d the p e r i o d between J a n u a r y 1970 and May 1972 as a t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d i n w h i c h he was 1 g f i n d i n g a new a p p r o a c h . He f e l t he had e x h a u s t e d the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t he ' G r e y ' p a i n t i n g s a n d , as a r e s u l t , d e c i d e d to "go back to symmetry and b e g i n a g a i n . " In D e c e m b e r , 1 9 6 9 , he e x e c u t e d a d r a m a t i c r e d p a i n t i n g w h i c h a c t e d as a " s h o r t c i r c u i t " and f r o m w h i c h he t o o k "two y e a r s t o r e c o v e r . " E v e r y t h i n g i n t h e work was d i f f e r e n t t h a n h i s norma l p r o c e d u r e - i n t h a t i t was s p r a y e d and e n t i r e l y p r e c o n c e i v e d . In t he works o f t h i s t w o - y e a r p e r i o d s u c h as B l e u , V e r t , B l e u ( F i g . 2 6 ) , o f 1 9 7 1 , he moved f r o m g r e y monochrome f i e l d s , w i t h s u p e r i m p o s e d p a t t e r n s o f l i n e s , to w ide h o r i z o n t a l monochrome bands d i v i d e d , i n some c a s e s , by g r e y l i n e s r u n n i n g f r o m one edge o f t he p a i n t i n g to t h e o t h e r . G a u c h e r s t a t e d t h a t t h e p a i n t i n g s were b e c o m i n g "more and more s i l e n t " and t h a t i t was " o n l y a m a t t e r o f t i m e " b e f o r e t he h o r i z o n t a l l i n e " s t r e t c h e d r i g h t a c r o s s t h e c a n v a s . " ^ The s p a t i a l r hy thm o f t h e s e new works r e -s u l t e d f r o m the s p a c i n g and v a r i a t i o n o f t o n a l v a l u e s o f t he bands r a t h e r t h a n f rom the s u p e r i m p o s e d " s i g n a l s " o f t he e a r l i e r s e r i e s . G a u c h e r has commented t h a t he was a t t e m p t i n g to pu t i n t o each o f t h e s e works " t h e e n t i r e e f f e c t " o f the g r o u p o f G rey on G rey p a i n t i n g s t h a t were e x h i b i t e d i n V a n c o u v e r , Edmonton and London i n 1 9 6 9 . 32 Roy K i y o o k a Roy K i y o o k a s t u d i e d a t the I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o l o g y and A r t , C a l g a r y f r om 1946-49 a n d , i n 1 9 5 5 , was awarded a s c h o l a r s h i p to a t t e n d the I n s t i t u t o A l l e n d e i n San M i g u e l de A l l e n d e i n M e x i c o . S i n c e 1 9 5 2 , he has t a u g h t i n a number o f c i t i e s and has been a s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e on t h e c r e a t i v e l i f e and the d e v e l o p m e n t o f an u p - t o - d a t e a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n w h e r e v e r h i s c o n t a c t has been f e l t . D u r i n g t h e 1 9 5 0 ' s K i y o o k a was w o r k i n g i n a g e s t u r a l s t y l e w h i c h i n v o l v e d an o r g a n i c i m a g e r y and h e a v i l y t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e s r e f l e c t i n g the a c t u a l c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s . H i s a t t e n d a n c e a t t he Emma Lake Workshops f r o m 1955 to 1960 i n t r o d u c e d him to A m e r i c a n " b i g - a t t a c k " p a i n t i n g and 1 8 b r o u g h t a b o u t a "more o b j e c t i v e s t r u c t u r e " i n h i s w o r k . D u r i n g t h e s e y e a r s he moved be tween a g e o m e t r i c a p p r o a c h , as e v i d e n c e d i n a s e r i e s o f s y m m e t r i c a l s q u a r e p a i n t i n g s w i t h g e o m e t r i c p a t t e r n i n g s , and a more o r g a n i c , v i s c e r a l a p p r o a c h i n such works as R e l i e f P a i n t i n g w i t h F i v e P a n e l s o f 1 9 6 1 . In t h i s w o r k , h o w e v e r , an o v e r a l l p a t t e r n o f r e c t a n g l e s and c o u n t e r - b a l a n c i n g c i r c u l a r s h a p e s t e n d s to o r d e r t h e l y r i c a l f o rms u n d e r n e a t h . T h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c b a l a n c i n g o f o r g a n i c f o r m and movement w i t h g e o m e t r i c e l e m e n t s i s more c l e a r l y e v i d e n c e d i n R e l i e f P a i n t i n g w i t h  I n c i s e d C i r c l e s ( F i g . 2 7 ) , a l s o o f 1 9 6 1 . 33 V a r i a t i o n s on the c o m b i n a t i o n o f o p e n , and s t r u c -t u r e d f o rms c h a r a c t e r i z e s a s e r i e s o f p a i n t i n g s , w a t e r -c o l o u r s and c o l l a g e s done i n 1 9 6 2 . C o l l a g e No . 4 r e v e a l s a g r e a t e r f r e e d o m than t h a t w h i c h e x i s t e d i n t he p r e v i o u s w o r k s . K i y o o k a d e v e l o p e d a t e c h n i q u e o f b u i l d i n g up l a y e r s o f p a p e r o f v a r i o u s t h i c k n e s s e s , f r om s e m i - t r a n s p a r e n t t o c a r d b o a r d , t h e r e b y c r e a t i n g a woven ne two rk o f g e s t u r a l bands w h i c h a l s o v a r i e d i n s i z e and i n t e r v a l s . B r i g h t c o l o u r s were used i n t he w a t e r c o l o u r s and p a i n t i n g s w h i l e t he c o l l a g e s were m o s t l y i n b l a c k and w h i t e w i t h s e v e r a l i n t e r m e d i a t e t o n e s o f g r e y . By 1963 t h e s e g e s t u r a l e l e m e n t s were b e i n g c o n -t a i n e d w i t h i n h a r d - e d g e f r a m e w o r k s , as i n B l u e Zone ( F i g . 2 8 ) . T h e s e became p r o g r e s s i v e l y more i m p o r t a n t and by t he f o l l o w i n g y e a r h a r d - e d g e f o rms d o m i n a t e d h i s p a i n t i n g s e x c l u s i v e l y . In works such as Mi rak and B a r o m e t e r #2 ( F i g . 2 9 ) , o f 1 9 6 4 , K i y o o k a r e t a i n s the f l u i d , o r g a n i c q u a l i t y w h i c h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a l l h i s works by com-b i n i n g r e c t i l i n e a r and c u r v i l i n e a r e l e m e n t s i n a b r o a d r a n g e o f c o l o u r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I t was a l s o i n 1964 t h a t K i y o o k a i n t r o d u c e d t h e o v a l o r e l l i p s e m o t i f i n t o h i s w o r k . He began a l o n g s e r i e s o f p a i n t i n g s b a s e d on the e l l i p s e e i t h e r s i n g l e y , as i n A l e p h #2 ( F i g . 3 0 ) , o r as a c o n n e c t e d p a i r , as i n t he B r i d g e s e r i e s ( F i g . 3 1 ) , o f 1 9 6 5 . T h e s e s h a p e s e n c l o s e 34 b a c k g r o u n d s w h i c h a r e r e c t i l i n e a r , s t r i p e d o r o t h e r w i s e p a t t e r n e d i n o p p o s i t i o n to t h e f o rms by w h i c h t h e y a r e c o n -t a i n e d . The d o u b l e e l l i p s e s a r e e i t h e r v e r t i c a l l y o r h o r i z o n t a l l y c o n n e c t e d . The e l l i p s e , wh i ch o c c u p i e d K i y o o k a ' s a t t e n t i o n f o r a number o f y e a r s , r e p r e s e n t e d a v e r y v e r s a t i l e f o rm f o r h i m : At the time I got into e l l i p s e s 3 I saw e l l i p s e s in every thing in the c i t y . . . there were ' m i l l i o n s ' of them around and they in t h e i r turn showed the di-v e r s i t y of p o s s i b i l i t e s . 1 9 A g a i n , t h e c o l o u r s c o v e r a w ide r a n g e . In some c a s e s , how-e v e r , t h e y a r e i n r a t h e r subdued r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h s h i f t s o f h u e , r a t h e r t h a n i n i n t e n s e l y c o n t r a s t i n g c o m b i n a t i o n s . In 1 9 6 6 , a f t e r h a v i n g moved to M o n t r e a l , K i y o o k a ' s e l l i p s e s became more d e l i c a t e and l y r i c a l - " a g e n t l e s o r t 20 o f manda l a i n p e r s p e c t i v e . " They a p p e a r e d i n a s e r i e s o f l a r g e p a i n t i n g s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s u b t l e t o n a l r e l a t i o n -s h i p s o f an a t m o s p h e r i c b l u e c o l o u r . In Homage to D e b u s s y ( F i g . 3 2 ) , s e v e r a l o v a l s h a p e s f l o a t i n a p r e c i s e b u t d e l i c a t e b a l a n c e i n r e l a t i o n b o t h to each o t h e r and to t he b a c k g r o u n d . The g r o u n d i s d i v i d e d v e r t i c a l l y i n t o f o u r p a n e l s , and h o r i z o n t a l l y by two t o n e s o f b l u e i n c l o s e c o n t r a s t t o t h e s u p e r i m p o s e d o v a l s . The o v a l s a r e p l a c e d h o r i z o n t a l l y w i t h i n t he v e r t i c a l d i v i s i o n s and a t t i m e s b l e e d o f f t he edges o f the c a n v a s , s u g g e s t i n g an e x t e n s i o n 35 i n t o t h e s u r r o u n d i n g s p a c e . A s i m i l a r s e n s e o f o r i e n t a l s p a c e i s s u g g e s t e d i n P I a i e d e s ( F i g . 3 3 ) , a l a r g e r work o f 1 9 6 7 . T h i s p a i n t i n g i s d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e v e r t i c a l u n i t s , e a ch 3 by 6 f e e t , w i t h i n wh i ch the o v a l s a r e a l l o w e d to f l o a t f r e e l y . A g a i n , some o f the o v a l s f l o a t o f f the c a n v a s i n t o e x t e r i o r s p a c e w h i l e a l s o a d v a n c i n g and r e c e d -i n g i n and o u t o f t he p i c t u r e s p a c e i t s e l f . In b o t h c a s e s t he na r row f r amework d i v i d i n g t h e l o n g p a i n t i n g s i n t o p a n e l s becomes p a r t o f t he c o m p o s i t i o n and t e n d s to a p p l y a f u r t h e r s u b t l e rhy thm o v e r t he w o r k s . A n o t h e r d e l i c a t e p a i n t i n g w i t h t h e e l l i p s e as t h e p r e s i d i n g m o t i f i s Daneb ( F i g . 3 4 ) , p a i n t e d i n 1 9 6 8 . In t h i s work two p a i r s o f o v a l s i n p a s t e l s h a d e s a r e o u t l i n e d by t h i n o r a n g e l i n e s i n c o n t r a s t to the c l o u d y b l u e b a c k -g r o u n d . Here t he o v a l s a r e p l a c e d v e r t i c a l l y on a b a c k g r o u n d w h i c h i s d i v i d e d h o r i z o n t a l l y i n t o two p a n e l s b u t t i e d t o g e t h e r by a s i m i l a r t h i n o r a n g e l i n e r u n n i n g a r o u n d the p e r i m e t e r o f t he c a n v a s . An amb iguous s p a t i a l t e n s i o n i s c r e a t e d by t h e s u b t l e c o n t r a s t o f c o l o u r s and t h e p r e c a r i o u s p l a c e m e n t o f t he f o rms w h i c h h o v e r above each o t h e r . L a t e r i n 1968 K i y o o k a s t o p p e d p a i n t i n g " b e c a u s e i t was no l o n g e r 21 k n o c k i n g my h e a d , " b u t a d a p t e d h i s now f a m i l i a r o v a l m o t i f to a s e r i e s o f p r i n t s and a number o f l a m i n a t e d c e d a r s c u l p t u r e s w h i c h he c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y t o o k to a g r e a t 36 v a r i e t y o f s o l u t i o n s . Mos t r e c e n t l y he has worked i n t h e s h a p i n g o f f i b r e g l a s s s c u l p t u r e s whose g r a c e f u l l y f l o w i n g l i n e s and s u b t l e c o l o u r s r e l a t e back to h i s e a r l i e r p a i n t i n g s . A r t h u r McKay A r t McKay a l s o s t u d i e d a t t h e P r o v i n c i a l I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o l o g y and A r t i n C a l g a r y . A f t e r t h r e e y e a r s t h e r e , f r o m 1945 to 1 9 4 8 , he l e f t to s t u d y i n P a r i s a n d , i n 1 9 5 2 , was a p p o i n t e d s p e c i a l l e c t u r e r i n a r t a t t h e S c h o o l o f A r t , R e g i n a Campus o f t he U n i v e r s i t y o f S a s k a t c h e w a n . In t he l a t e 1 9 5 0 ' s McKay was p a i n t i n g what he d e s c r i b e d as " an a b s t r a c t v e r s i o n o f E n g l i s h l a n d s c a p e 22 p a i n t i n g " ( F i g . 3 5 ) . He came i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h t h e work o f J a c k s o n P o l l o c k w h i l e i n New Yo rk i n 1 9 5 6 - 5 7 , h o w e v e r , and by 1959 h i s l a n d s c a p e a b s t r a c t i o n s gave way to P o l l o c k -o r i e n t e d , g e s t u r a l works c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an a l l - o v e r d i s t r i b u t i o n o f e v o c a t i v e l i g h t - d a r k p a s s a g e s . T e r r y F e n t o n s t a t e s t h a t t h i s change i n a p p r o a c h was d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to M c K a y ' s c o n t a c t w i t h B a r n e t t Newman a t Emma Lake i n 1 9 5 9 . McKay has commented t h a t Newman, J . W . G . M a c D o n a l d and D r . D. S u z u k i , i n p a r t i c u l a r , were g r e a t i n f l u e n c e s on h i m : " C o n t a c t w i t h t h e s e p e o p l e made i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r me 23 to a v o i d t h i n k i n g . " As a r e s u l t o f h i s c o n t a c t w i t h 37 Newman he d e c i d e d to s t o p mak ing o i l p a i n t i n g s and i n s t e a d 24 r e s o l v e d to "make m a r k s , " to " l e t t h i n g s h a p p e n . " To a c h i e v e t h i s he began to s c r a p e l i q u i d f l a t f l a c k p a i n t o n t o p a p e r s h e e t s , 2 0 " by 2 6 " , u s i n g a p a l e t t e k n i f e ( F i g . 3 6 ) . L a t e i n 1959 he was l o o k i n g f o r a way o f t r a n s l a t i n g t h e s e p a i n t i n g s on p a p e r i n t o a l a r g e r f o r m a t and a l s o f o r a f i r m s u r f a c e t h a t wou ld a l l o w him to c o n t i n u e w o r k i n g w i t h t h e p a l e t t e k n i f e . The s o l u t i o n came f r o m Ron B l o o r e who s u g g e s t e d the use o f t e m p e r e d m a s o n i t e s h e e t s , w h i c h he had been u s i n g s i n c e 1 9 5 8 . In 1960 McKay began to d e v e l o p h i s now c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t e c h n i q u e o f s c r a p i n g d a r k enamel t h i n l y o v e r w h i t e u n d e r p a i n t i n g and t h e r e b y c r e a t i n g t he i l l u s i o n o f heavy i m p a s t o on a v i r t u a l l y f l a t s u r f a c e . The c i r c l e m o t i f began to a p p e a r i n M c K a y ' s work as a d a r k r i n g shape i n D a r k n e s s o f 1961 a n d , l a t e r t h a t y e a r , was expanded i n t o > a l a r g e r d i s c m o t i f i n Image o f T i m e . I t was d e v e l o p e d i n t o t h e f i n a l f o r m , w i t h w h i c h he has e x p e r i m e n t e d on and o f f s i n c e , i n The V o i d and E f f u l g e n t  Image ( F i g . 3 7 ) , e x e c u t e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n 1 9 6 1 . In E f f u l g e n t Image the b a c k g r o u n d i s p a i n t e d w i t h a b l a c k enamel w h i c h e m p h a s i z e s the s u r f a c e i l l u s i o n . I t was i n t h e s e f o u r works t h a t McKay p r o g r e s s i v e l y r e s o l v e d h i s c i r e l e - i n - t h e - s q u a r e i m a g e , and o v e r t he n e x t f o u r y e a r s t he f o r m a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s image were e x t e n d e d to a v a r i e t y o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s . 38 In 1962 McKay augmented t h e s e " c i r c l e p a i n t i n g s " by i n t r o d u c i n g an e l l i p t i c a l w o r k , T e n s i o n ( F i g . 3 8 ) , i n w h i c h a d a r k m o t t l e d c e n t r e image i s s u p e r i m p o s e d on a b r i l l i a n t r e d g r o u n d . He a l s o began a new s e r i e s i n wh i ch he i n t r o d u c e d a t a b l e t - l i k e s q u a r e image w i t h r o u n d e d c o r n e r s and w h i c h was t r e a t e d i n a v a r i e t y o f w a y s . In some works t he s u r f a c e o f t he t a b l e t was v e r t i c a l l y s t r i a t e d , w h i l e i n o t h e r s , s u c h as M a n d a l a , c o n c e n t r i c t e x t u r e d bands i n t he t a b l e t shape a r e r e p e a t e d i n w a r d to t h e c e n t r e . A n o t h e r work f rom 1 9 6 2 , Image o f A n t i q u i t y ( F i g . 3 9 ) , i n c l u d e s two t a b l e t - l i k e s h a p e s w h i c h a r e s e p a r a t e d by a s t r i a t e d c e n t r e p a n e l . In s t i l l a n o t h e r v a r i a t i o n , The  E n c l o s u r e o f 1 9 6 3 , McKay r e d u c e d the t a b l e t shape to a w ide band w h i c h r e s e m b l e d a f r a m e and w h i c h e n c l o s e d a u n i f o r m l y t e x t u r e d f i e l d w i t h a p r e d o m i n a n t v e r t i c a l e m p h a s i s . T h i s f o r m a t was e x t e n d e d i n t o 4 by 6 f o o t p a n e l s s u c h as S t a t e m e n t o f P a r a d o x , a n d En igma ( F i g . 4 0 ) , b o t h o f 1 9 6 3 . A l l o f t h e s e c e n t r a l i z e d c i r c l e , r e c t a n g l e and m a n d a l a themes have been t a k e n t h r o u g h many v a r i a t i o n s up to t h e p r e s e n t . In a l l t h e works t o 1 9 6 7 , McKay used a l i m i t e d , b u t v e r y s t r i k i n g r a n g e o f c o l o u r - u s u a l l y subdued o r g a n i c t o n e s , s u c h as i n M a n d a l a No. 1 ( F i g . 4 1 ) , o r l u m i n o u s b l u e s o r g r e e n s w h i c h a r e h e i g h t e n e d by the m o t t l e d t e x t u r a l 39 a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e s u r f a c e . S i n c e t h e n , h o w e v e r , he has added a g r e a t e r r a n g e o f b r i l l i a n t c o l o u r w h i c h seems to r e l a t e back to T e n s i o n o f 1 9 6 2 . In U n t i t l e d ( F i g . 4 2 ) , o f 1 9 7 1 , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e d a r k t a b l e t f o r m i s s u r r o u n d e d by a v i b r a n t a c i d g r e e n . S i n c e 1961 McKay has been e x c l u s i v e l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h s o l v i n g a s y m m e t r i c a l , c e n t r e -f o c u s s i n g image i n s p a t i a l t e r m s . 40 FOOTNOTES: CHAPTER 2 1. C l e m e n t G r e e n b e r g , " C I e m e n t G r e e n b e r g 1 s V iew o f A r t on the P r a i r i e s , " Canadian Art, V o l . XX , No . 2 ( M a r c h / A p r i l , 1 9 6 3 ) , 91 . 2. Ibid. 3. Q u o t e d i n R i c h a r d S i m m i n s , i n t r o . , Five Painters from Regina, O t t a w a : The N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y o f C a n a d a , 1961 . 4 . In c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h the a r t i s t , F e b r u a r y , 1 9 7 3 . 5. Ibid. 6. Ibid. 7. Ruth A u e r s b e r g , " Y ves G a u c h e r , " Canadian Art, V o l . XX , No . 6 ( N o v e m b e r / D e c e m b e r , 1 9 6 3 ) , 3 1 9 . 8. D a v i d S i l c o x , " Y v e s G a u c h e r , " Studio International, V o l . 177 ( F e b r u a r y , 1 9 6 9 ) , 7 6 . 9 . Q u o t e d i n J o an L o w n d e s , " G a u c h e r - m e t a p h o r f o r c o n -t e m p o r a r y m u s i c , " V a n c o u v e r : The Province, May 2, 1 9 6 9 . 1 0 . In c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h the a r t i s t , S e p t e m b e r 1 9 7 2 . 1 1 . D o r i s S h a d b o l t , i n t r o . , Yves Gaucher, V a n c o u v e r : The V a n c o u v e r A r t G a l l e r y , A p r i l - M a y , 1 9 6 9 . 1 2 . Yves Gaucher, New Y o r k : The M a r t h a J a c k s o n G a l l e r y , S e p t e m b e r - O c t o b e r , 1 9 6 6 . 41 1 3 . S i l c o x , loo..cit. 1 4 . J ohn Noe l C h a n d l e r , " D i a l o g u e a t an E x h i b i t i o n o f Yves G a u c h e r ' s G r e y P a i n t i n g s , " artscanada, V o l . X X V I , No . 5 ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 6 9 ) , 6 . 1 5 . S i l c o x , loc. cit. 1 6 . In c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h t he a r t i s t , S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 7 2 . 1 7 . Ibid. 1 8 . D a v i d T h o m p s o n , "A C a n a d i a n S c e n e , " Studio International, V o l . 176 ( D e c e m b e r , 1 9 6 8 ) , 2 4 3 . 1 9 . In c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h the a r t i s t , F e b r u a r y , 1 9 7 3 . 2 0 . D a v i d S i l c o x , " F i r s t Hand F a m i l i a r i t y w i t h C a n a d i a n A r t , " Connoisseur, V o l . 1 6 8 , No. 678 ( A u g u s t , 1 9 6 8 ) , 2 7 7 . 2 1 . In c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h t h e a r t i s t , F e b r u a r y , 1 9 7 3 . 2 2 . T e r r y F e n t o n , i n t r o . , A.F. Mo Kay: Paintings and Drawings 1959-1967, R e g i n a : The Norman M a c k e n z i e A r t G a l l e r y , O c t o b e r - N o v e m b e r , 1 9 6 8 . 2 3 . 2 4 . Q u o t e d i n S i m m i n s , Five Painters from Regina, loo c i t . Quo ted i n F e n t o n , loc. cit. C h a p t e r 3 THE CREATIVE PROCESS The A p p r o a c h to P a i n t i n g As was e v i d e n t f r o m the d i s c u s s i o n i n C h a p t e r 1, a ma jo r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f many a r t i s t s w o r k i n g i n t he 1 9 6 0 ' s was t h e i r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the a c t o f p a i n t i n g as a p r e -c o n c e i v e d t r a n s a c t i o n . The a r t i s t s c o n s i d e r e d p a i n t i n g to be a t h i n g o f t he mind and s o u g h t t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i r p a i n t i n g s d e f i n i t i v e l y b e f o r e t h e y were p a i n t e d . In o t h e r w o r d s , t he i d e a e x i s t e d b e f o r e t he a c t u a l p a i n t i n g , w i t h t he e m p h a s i s p l a c e d o n . f i n i s h e d w o r k : The •painting appears as a preconceived idea and whatever the labours to achieve it, however useful the accident may have been, whatever growth occurs in the process, the stress is on the finished work. . .The painting is no longer the record of an act; it is a result, a completion not a process.1 As e a r l y as 1961 Ron B l o o r e ' s s t a t e m e n t r e g a r d i n g h i s a p p r o a c h to p a i n t i n g seemed to c o i n c i d e w i t h t h i s g e n e r a l t r e n d : 42 43 . . . J am not aware of any i n t e n t i o n while painting with the exception of making a preconceived image function formally as a painting. By this I mean that the appearance of each work has been consciously determined in my mind before executing it, and the general concept is not s i g n i f i c a n t l y altered by the requirements of material limitations.^-W h i l e t h e c o n c e p t u a l a p p r o a c h to p a i n t i n g g e n e r a l l y i n v o l v e s a " n o n - t a c t i 1 e a a r i d n o n - p a i n t e r l y t e c h n i q u e , " h o w e v e r , B l o o r e ' s work r e v e a l s an a d m i r a t i o n f o r a c t i o n o r g e s t u r e p a i n t i n g . Even t h o u g h he does make h i s " p r e c o n c e i v e d images f u n c t i o n f o r m a l l y as p a i n t i n g s , " h i s work i s n o t p u r e l y m e c h a n i c a l . B a r r y L o r d has o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l and t e c h n i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s t h e m s e l v e s have been a n t i c i p a t e d a t l e a s t as much as t he f o r m a l i m a g e . He has a l s o s u g -g e s t e d t h a t i n s p i t e o f B l o o r e ' s " f o r m a l i s t " s t a t e m e n t s , t he v i s u a l e v i d e n c e o f h i s p a i n t i n g s c o u l d l e a d one to 3 d e s c r i b e him as a " d e l a y e d - a c t i o n p a i n t e r . " The f i n i s h e d p a i n t i n g s r e c o r d t he d e c i s i o n s t a k e n i n t he a c t o f p a i n t i n g wh i ch a r e " e v i d e n t , i m p l i c i t i n , and n e c e s s a r y t o the 4 a p p e a r a n c e o f t he f i n a l work i t s e l f . " T h e s e works a r e q u i t e p r o n o u n c e d and c o n t r o l l e d , b u i l t up by the m a n i p u l a -t i o n o f l a y e r s o f p a i n t t o a c h i e v e a h i g h l y e x p r e s s i v e s u r f a c e . B l o o r e works on m a s o n i t e p a n e l s w i t h a b r o a d p u t t y k n i f e u s i n g l a y e r s o f u n t h i n n e d o i l p a i n t d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e t u b e . He t h e n s c r a p e s and m a n i p u l a t e s each l a y e r 44 i n t o p l a n e s and r i d g e s c r e a t i n g " w e l t - l i k e " images and m o t i f s r a i s e d f r o m t h e g r o u n d . More r e c e n t l y , he has a p p l i e d a t h i n n e d t o p c o a t o f w h i t e p a i n t w i t h a s p r a y g u n , and a f i n a l m o d u l a t i o n i s a c h i e v e d by c a r e f u l l y r e m o v i n g t h i s l a y e r o v e r t he r a i s e d l i n e s w i t h s a n d p a p e r . The v a r i o u s i r r e g u l a r i t i e s o r f l a w s e v i d e n t i n t he images i n B l o o r e ' s p a i n t i n g s - c a u s e d e i t h e r by d i f f e r e n t t h i c k n e s s e s o f i m p a s t o o r by i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n t h e s c r a p e d p a i n t , a t t e s t t o t he p r o l o n g e d a c t o f p a i n t i n g by w h i c h t h e works were c r e a t e d . M c K a y ' s works a l s o g i v e t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f b e i n g ^ r e v e a l e d " r a t h e r t h a n " m a d e . " T h i s i s i n h e r e n t i n h i s method o f p a i n t i n g i n w h i c h he s c r a p e s d a r k enamel t h i n l y o v e r w h i t e u n d e r p a i n t i n g . T h i s t e c h n i q u e e m p h a s i z e s i r -r e g u l a r i t i e s on t h e s u r f a c e as the d a r k p a i n t f i l l s i n h o l l o w s i n the u n d e r c o a t and l e a v e s t he r i d g e s and f l a t a r e a s a l i g h t b r o w n . The d a r k enamel a c t s somewhat as a t r a n s p a r e n t g l a z e . In l a t e r w o r k s , he m a n i p u l a t e s t h e w h i t e u n d e r c o a t and c a u s e s t he g l a z e d l a y e r t o g i v e t h e i l l u s i o n o f heavy i m p a s t o on the t h i n l y p a i n t e d and v i r t u a l l y f l a t s u r f a c e . As C l e m e n t G r e e n b e r g o b s e r v e d i n 1 9 6 3 : McKay converted the Bloore-Borduas knif'e-handling into something altogether his own3 and did with i t some of the best as well as most ambitious paintings I have seen anywhere in Canada. . . .5 45 McKay ' s t e c h n i q u e t h e n , i n v o l v e s the s t r i p p i n g away o f p a i n t f rom a s u r f a c e i n o r d e r to " d i s c o v e r " an image . B r i a n F i s h e r ' s p a i n t i n g s , on the o t h e r hand , a re p r e c i s e l y l a i d out and m a t h e m a t i c a l l y c a l c u l a t e d . They a re based on a s e r i e s o f i n t r i c a t e w o r k i n g d raw ings which have been d e s c r i b e d as " t a c t i l e " and somewhat v o l u m e t r i c ( F i g . 1 4 ) . R i c h a r d Simmins commented on the impo r t ance o f d raw ing to F i s h e r : drawing forms the base of his art -•premeditated?, planned, highly complex drawing - with a p r e c i s i o n and control which is second to none in the country.7 T h i s p e r f e c t i o n i s t t e c h n i q u e demons t r a t e s F i s h e r ' s comple te mas te ry and c o n t r o l ove r t h i s i d i o m wh ich C h a n d l e r terms o " c o o l r a t h e r than e m o t i o n . " These p r e l i m i n a r y d raw ings a re based e x c l u s i v e l y on the s t r a i g h t l i n e as a re a l l o f h i s p a i n t i n g s and p r i n t s . More r e c e n t l y he has done f i n i s h e d d raw ings f o r works i n c l u d i n g and f o l l o w i n g the I nd i r e c t i o n s , and I n d i c a n t s e r i e s . Wh i l e he works c a r e f u l l y f rom a p r e -c o n c e i v e d i d e a a l r e a d y worked out i n d r a w i n g s , he l e a v e s the p r o c e s s open to make m o d i f i c a t i o n s as they sugges t t h e m s e l v e s . F i s h e r once spoke o f h i s goa l i n t h e s e t e r m s : Any d i s c i p l i n e which you pursue to its very extreme w i l l lead to an area which is something more than the sum t o t a l of the steps you had to take to get there. 9 46 S i n c e he began h i s s e r i e s o f g r e y p a i n t i n g s i n December 1 9 6 7 , G a u c h e r has f o l l o w e d h i s d i s c i p l i n e d i n t u i -t i o n r a t h e r t han any p r e c o n c e i v e d p l a n i n h i s w o r k . A n e u t r a l g r e y g r o u n d , w h i c h i s c o n t i n u e d o n t o t h e u n f r a m e d edge o f the p a i n t i n g i s e v e n l y a p p l i e d w i t h a r o l l e r . G a u c h e r t h e n i n v o l v e s h i m s e l f t o t a l l y w i t h t he s u r f a c e and l e t s h i s " e x p e r i e n c e d " i n t u i t i o n t a k e o v e r . He has com-mented t h a t he s p e n d s as many as t h r e e weeks o r a month l o o k i n g a t and c o m m u n i c a t i n g w i t h t h e c a n v a s , w h i c h he s a y s i s " c h a r g e d w i t h e n e r g y . " Once he has e s t a b l i s h e d a u n i o n w i t h t h e c a n v a s , t he s t r u c t u r e becomes " i n e v i t a b l e " and he knows i n t u i t i v e l y where to p l a c e h i s " l i n e s . I t has been s u g g e s t e d t h a t G a u c h e r i s l i k e t h e Zen a r c h e r who " c a n h i t t h e t a r g e t even when b l i n d f o l d e d . " In G u a c h e r ' s w o r d s : you have to mentally establish t h i s unity with the target before you can afford to l e t the arrow go. I s t i l l sometimes miss the target.11 T h u s , w h i l e t he a p p l i c a t i o n o f h i s " s i g n a l s , " w h i c h v a r y i n l e n g t h and w i d t h as w e l l as i n number and p a t t e r n w i t h each p a i n t i n g , i s i n t u i t i v e , t he o v e r a l l p r o b l e m o f t he s e r i e s i s d e t e r m i n e d i n h i s mind b e f o r e h a n d . T r i a l and e r r o r , i n o t h e r w o r d s , o c c u r o f f t he c a n v a s , i n s t e a d o f b e i n g i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t he p a i n t i n g i t s e l f . W h i l e t he 47 c h a n g e s e v i d e n t f r om one s e r i e s to a n o t h e r may a p p e a r " r a d i c a l , " G a u c h e r e x p l a i n s : that's just because nobody sees what went on between them. They weren't changes, they were developments. For the three or four prints I would put out a year, there would be another twenty-five I would destroy, plus thousands and thousands of drawings. The p r i n t s a r e t h u s an e s s e n t i a l " p h a s e " i n G a u c h e r ' s d i s -t i l l a t i o n p r o c e s s and a c t as a " d i s c i p l i n e d and r e s i s t a n t 1 3 med ium" t h r o u g h w h i c h he can t e s t h i s i d e a s . L i k e G a u c h e r , K i y o o k a ' s o v a l images g i v e t he i m p r e s s i o n o f " d e l i c a t e p l a c e m e n t " w h i c h F e r n a n d e S a i n t -1 4 M a r t i n has d e s c r i b e d as an " i n t u i t i v e e q u i l i b r i u m . " G a u c h e r has d e s c r i b e d h i s a c t o f p a i n t i n g i n Zen t e r m s , as "know n o t h i n g s p o n t a n e i t y " a n d , a c c o r d i n g to Abraham R o g a t n i c k , K i y o o k a has a l s o a d m i t t e d to b e i n g drawn to t h e " p a r a d o x i c a l " Zen s t a t e w h i c h "we l comes i n t e l l e c t u a l j o y as l o n g as i t can be e x p e r i e n c e d w i t h o u t i n t e l l e c t u a l 1 5 i n t e r f e r e n c e . " He has s a i d o f h i s p a i n t i n g s and c o l l a g e s t h a t t h e y a r e a b o u t t h i n g s " w a i t i n g to r e v e a l t h e m s e l v e s " 1 g and a b o u t t he a r t i s t " w a n t i n g to c o n c e a l h i m s e l f . " A r t , f o r h i m , i s an " a r t i s t ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s g i v e n f o r m " ; he has r e m a r k e d t h a t an a r t i s t must be w i l l i n g t o l i v e i n the l i f e 1 7 o f t h e i m a g i n a t i o n and to g i v e i t some s h a p e . H i s s i m p l e 48 m o t i v e s f o r p a i n t i n g a r e to "make a r t f o r t he p l e a s u r e 1 8 and a n g u i s h o f i t , to g i v e i t away f o r t h e same r e a s o n s . " Each p a i n t i n g f o r K i y o o k a i s a u n i q u e e x p e r i e n c e . S e r i a l and S y s t e m i c Me thods A r e l a t e d d e v e l o p m e n t c e n t r a l to a r t i n t he 1 9 6 0 ' s i s t he p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f s e r i a l p a i n t i n g s . An i n t e r e s t i n s y s t e m s and s e r i a l methods has l e d many a r t i s t s t o work i n r u n s , g r o u p s , o r p e r i o d s , as do t he f i v e a r t i s t s c o n -s i d e r e d i n t h i s p a p e r . A number o f a u t h o r s have a t t e m p t e d to d e f i n e t h i s t r e n d i n r e c e n t y e a r s . P r i n c i p a l among them i s J ohn C o p l a n s who, i n t he i n t r o d u c t i o n to h i s S e r i a l Imagery e x h i b i t i o n i n 1 9 6 8 , t r a c e d s e r i a l i s m back t o t he D e d e k i n d - C a n t o r t h e o r y o f v a r i a b l e s . He p o i n t e d o u t t h a t w i t h S e r i a l a r t : The masterpiece concept is abandoned. Consequently each work within the series is of equal value; i t is part of a whole; i t s qualities are significantly more emphatic when seen in context than when seen i n i i s o l a t i o n . 19 A r t i s t Mel B o c h n e r o f f e r e d an e s s e n t i a l l y s i m i l a r p o i n t o f v i ew i n d e f i n i n g " s e r i a l " as a p r o c e d u r e : Individual parts of a system are not in themselves important but are relevant only in how they are used in the enclosed logic of the whole. 2^ 49 Yves G a u c h e r ' s G r e y on G rey s e r i e s most c l e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e s t h i s homogeneous q u a l i t y where " t h e s i n g l e p a i n t i n g i s a m p l i f i e d i n mean ing by b e i n g seen i n t he c o n t e x t o f t he g r o u p . 1 , 2 1 C o p l a n s p r e s e n t e d M o n e t , w i t h h i s c a t h e d r a l and haystack s e r i e s , as t h e f o r e r u n n e r o f s e r i a l i z a t i o n , and A l b e r s , w i t h h i s Homage to t h e S q u a r e s e r i e s , as t h e f a t h e r o f modern s e r i a l i z a t i o n . He d i s c u s s e d R o t h k o , G o t t l i e b , Newman and R e i n h a r d t as h a v i n g , a t one t i m e o r a n o t h e r , worked a t a s e r i e s o f p a i n t i n g s , b u t d i s c o u n t e d Newman's s e r i e s o f t he S t a t i o n s o f t he C r o s s , 1 9 5 8 - 6 6 , as d e a l i n g w i t h a n a r r a t i v e r a t h e r t h a n a s e r i a l a p p r o a c h . More r e c e n t a d v o c a t e s m e n t i o n e d i n c l u d e M o r r i s L o u i s , Kenne th N o l a n d , E l l s w o r t h K e l l y , F r a n k S t e l l a and the s c u l p t o r L a r r y B e l l . R a t h e r t han d e a l i n g w i t h v a r i a t i o n s on a s i n g l e theme l i k e Monet o r A l b e r s , t h e s e y o u n g e r a r t i s t s -i n c l u d i n g B l o o r e , McKay , F i s h e r , G a u c h e r "and K i y o o k a -seem to c o n c e r n t h e m s l e v e s more w i t h a s e t o f l i n k e d f o r m a l p r o b l e m s and s o l u t i o n s , w h i c h C o p l a n s r e l a t e d to 22 M o n d r i a n ' s " p l u s and m i n u s " s e r i e s . Ron B l o o r e , i n 1 9 6 1 , e x p r e s s e d such a v i ew i n r e f e r r i n g to h i s method o f w o r k i n g : . . . the paintings f a l l i n t o < : d i s t i n c t series which are usually composed of four or f i v e large works which were pre-ceded by smaller ones in which some formal or technical problems have been examined. . . .23 50 T h i s s e r i a l i m a g e r y d i f f e r s f r o m an e v o l u t i o n a r y s e r i e s , w h i c h has a b e g i n n i n g and end i n v i e w , and i s t r e a t e d r a t h e r as a c o n t i n u u m h a v i n g n e i t h e r a f i r s t no r a l a s t e l e m e n t . C o p l a n s s u g g e s t e d t h a t i t i s t o be comprehended as a m a c r o s t r u c t u r e w i t h v a r i a b l e s , s u c h as r h y t h m i c v a r i a -t i o n s o f s h a p e s and i n t e r v a l s , c o m b i n a t i o n s o f v e r t i c a l s w i t h h o r i z o n t a l s and d i a g o n a l v a r i a t i o n s , o v e r the run o f 24 the s e r i e s . The m u l t i p l e e l l i p s e s e r i e s o f K i y o o k a and F i s h e r , d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , d e m o n s t r a t e s u c h a l o g i c a l c o n n e c t i o n be tween r e l a t e d works i n w h i c h an i d e a i s e x p l o r e d t h r o u g h v a r i a t i o n s on a theme u n t i l t h e a r t i s t ' s i n t e r e s t i n t he i d e a i s e x h a u s t e d . Evan T u r n e r , w r i t i n g i n 1 9 6 6 , h o w e v e r , c o n s i d e r e d t h i s s e r i a l a p p r o a c h to be a d e s t r u c t i v e f a c t o r and made a s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e to t h e work o f A r t McKay : The artist who deliberately, almost com-pulsively, limits his work for a con-siderable period of time to a modicum of factors, repeatedly explored in different juxtapositions may be attempting, like Arthur McKay, to achieve f u l l comprehension of his chosen motif; but at the same time, in imposing such rigid limitations, he is, one feels, withdrawing and inevitably denying himself many other areas of exploration. 25 Susan S o n t a g s u g g e s t e d , on t he o t h e r h a n d , t h a t i t i s t h e " p e r c e p t i o n o f r e p e t i t i o n s " t h a t makes a work o f a r t " i n t e l l i g i b l e " and u n t i l one has " g r a s p e d , no t t h e ' c o n t e n t , ' 51 but the pr inc ip les of (and balance between) var iety and redundancy. . .these works are bound to appear boring or p c ugly or confusing, or a l l three. ' Lawrence Alloway, in his Systemic Painting a r t i c l e , proposed that a possible term for th is "repeated use of a conf igura t ion" might be "One-Image ar t " in which we look for this "var iety ; within a conspicuous un i t y . " He seemed to lean more towards the evolutionary concept of se r i a l pa int ings : the artist who uses a given form begins each painting further along, deeper into the process, than an expressionist3 who ••. is, in theory at least, tost in each beginning; all the One-Image artist has to have done is to have painted his earlier work.27 He adds, however, that while the end-state is known pr io r to the completion of such systemic works, i t does not "exclude empirical modif icat ions of a work in progress, 28 but i t does focus them within a system." The A r t i s t ' s Personal Involvement Mel Bochner has stated that "systemic thinking has general ly been considered the ant i thes is of a r t i s t i c th ink ing . " He adds that systems are "methodica l " ; they 52 a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by " r e g u l a r i t y , t h o r o u g h n e s s , r e p e t i t i o n " 29 and a " c o n t i n u i t y o f a p p l i c a t i o n . " B a r b a r a Rose has o b s e r v e d t h a t , l i k e t he m y s t i c , many c o n t e m p o r a r y a r t i s t s deny " t h e ego and t h e i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y " i n t h e i r 30 w o r k ; and i t has been f u r t h e r s u g g e s t e d by L u c y L i p p a r d t h a t " t h e Zen aim o f a non-ego ' t a b u l a r a s a , " an e q u i l i b r i u m o f i n t e l l e c t and e x p r e s s i o n , i s no t i r r e l e v a n t t o t h e a r t s 31 o f t h e s i x t i e s . " L aw rence A l l o w a y has p r o p o s e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h i s a p p r o a c h to p a i n t i n g i s n o t , as o f t e n c l a i m e d , i m p e r s o n a l : The personal i s not expunged by using a neat technique; anonymity i s not a consequence of highly f i n i s h i n g a paint-ing. The a r t i s t ' s conceptual order i s just as personal as autobiographical tracks.32 He f u r t h e r m a i n t a i n e d t h a t : a system i s not a n t i t h e t i c a l to the values suggested by such art world word-clusters as humanist3 organic and process. . .on the contrary, while the a r t i s t i s engaged with i t , a system i s a process. . . . 3 3 T e r r y F e n t o n a l l u d e d to t he " i m p e r s o n a l " q u a l i t y o f B r i a n F i s h e r ' s work i n 1 9 6 6 : Fisher i s above a l l concerned with creating an impersonal image that means d i f f e r e n t things to d i f f e r e n t 53 people. There i s no gesturing3 no evidence of the painter's hand in his work. 34 F i s h e r has m a i n t a i n e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t he i s s t i l l v e r y emo-t i o n a l l y t i e d to t h e p a i n t i n g i n t h e s e n s e t h a t he has to d e a l w i t h i t " on a m a t e r i a l b a s i s . " He e x p l a i n e d t h a t what i s v i s i b l e i s no t n e c e s s a r i l y what t h e p a i n t e r ' s i n v o l v e m e n t i s , and s u g g e s t e d : the q u a l i t y of an unbroken and dry coat of paint i s much d i f f e r e n t than the a c t u a l i t y of putting i t on and indeed great pains have to be gone to in order to take a l l i n d i v i d u a l character out of i t — i t ' s a l o t harder to paint without leaving any brushstrokes than to leave them. 35 Roy K i y o o k a has a l s o s p o k e n to t h e i s s u e o f t he human p r e s e n c e : the painting i t s e l f gives the human presence. . .you can see the process in a painting however much suppressed i t i s . . .you can see the duration in which the thing could have happened. 36 G a u c h e r t o o , d i s a g r e e s w i t h t he c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t he human e l e m e n t i s m i s s i n g f rom c u r r e n t p u r i s t a r t , and p a r t i c u l a r l y f r o m h i s own w o r k : I think t h i s painting i s extremely human, i t deals with the e s s e n t i a l s of existence; with rhythm, the central fact of l i f e . 3 7 54 T h e r e i s a more o b v i o u s human c o n t e n t i n t h e works o f Ron B l o o r e and A r t McKay as e v i d e n c e d i n t h e i r a c t u a l t e c h n i q u e o f p a i n t i n g , d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r . The e l e m e n t o f t h e f l a w o r i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n t h e i r worked s u r f a c e s i m p l i e s a d e c i d e d l y human v i ew o f t h e u n i v e r s e . J ohn C h a n d l e r has s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e i s a l s o "an i m p e r s o n a l q u a l i t y " a b o u t B l o o r e ' s works - as t h o u g h t h e y were "made 38 by ' M a n ' r a t h e r t h a n by ' t h i s ' p a r t i c u l a r man" - a q u a l i t y t h a t i s a l s o c l e a r l y e v i d e n t i n the works o f A r t McKay . C h a n d l e r a d d s , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h i s " i m p e r s o n a l i t y " s p e a k s 39 more o f a " u n i v e r s a l h u m a n i t y . " T h i s c o n c e p t can be r e l a t e d to a l l t h e a r t i s t s u n d e r d i s c u s s i o n h e r e and w i l l be p u r s u e d f u r t h e r i n t he n e x t c h a p t e r . FOOTNOTES: CHAPTER 3 1. Ben H e l l e r , i n t r o . , Toward a New Abstraction, New Y o r k : The J e w i s h Museum, M a y - S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 6 3 . 2. Q u o t e d i n R i c h a r d S i m m i n s , i n t r o . , Five Painters from Regina, O t t a w a , The N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y o f C a n a d a , 1961 . 3. B a r r y L o r d , " R o n a l d B l o o r e and c o n t e m p o r a r y a r t c r i t i c i s m , " Canadian Art, V o l . X X I I I , No . 4 ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 6 6 ) , 2 3 . 4 . Ibid., 2 4 . 5. C l e m e n t G r e e n b e r g , " C l e m e n t G r e e n b e r g ' s V iew o f A r t on t he P r a i r i e s , " Canadian Art, V o l . XX , No. 2 ( M a r c h / A p r i l , 1962) , 9 2 . 6 . J ohn Noe l C h a n d l e r , " D r a w i n g R e c o n s i d e r e d , " arts-oanada, V o l . X X V I I , No. 5 ( O c t o b e r / N o v e m b e r , 1 9 7 0 ) , 2 3 . 7. R i c h a r d S i m m i n s , i n t r o . , Brian Fisher, M o n t r e a l : G a l e r i e Goda rd L e f o r t , M a r c h , 1 9 7 0 . 8 . C h a n d l e r , loo. cit. 9 . Q u o t e d i n Thomas G a r v e r , i n t r o . , The New Art of Vancouver, B a l b o a , C a l i f o r n i a : The Newpor t H a r b o u r A r t Museum, O c t o b e r - N o v e m b e r , 1 9 6 9 . 1 0 . In c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h t h e a r t i s t , S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 7 2 . 55 56 1 1 . Q u o t e d i n J o an L o w n d e s , "Man who p a i n t s t he sound o f s i l e n c e , " V a n c o u v e r , The Province, A p r i l 1 8 , 1 9 6 9 . 1 2 . Q u o t e d i n May E b b i t C u t l e r , " A r t i s t i n P e r s p e c t i v e : Yves G a u c h e r , " Canadian Art, V o l . X X I I , No. 4 ( S e p t e m b e r / O c t o b e r , 1 9 6 5 ) , 2 7 . 1 3 . D o r i s S h a d b o l t , i n t r o . , Yves Gaucher, V a n c o u v e r : The V a n c o u v e r A r t G a l l e r y , A p r i l - M a y , 1 9 6 9 . 1 4 . F e r n a n d e S a i n t - M a r t i n , " l e dynamisme des p l a s t i c i e n s de M o n t r e a l , " Vie des Arts, No. 44 (Au tumn , 1 9 6 6 ) , 4 7 . 1 5 . Abraham R o g a t n i c k , "Roy K i y o o k a , " Canadian Art, V o l . X I X , No. 2 ( M a r c h / A p r i l , 1 9 6 2 ) , 1 3 2 . 1 6 . Q u o t e d i n M i c h a e l O n d a a t j e , "Roy K i y o o k a , " artscanada, V o l . XXV, No. 4 ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 6 8 ) , 4 5 . 1 7 . In c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h t he a r t i s t , F e b r u a r y , 1 9 7 3 . 1 8 . Q u o t e d i n O n d a a t j e , loc. cit. 1 9 . J ohn C o p l a n s , i n t r o . , Serial Imagery, P a s a d e n a : The P a s a d e n a A r t Museum, 1 9 6 8 , 1 1 . 2 0 . Mel B o c h n e r , " S e r i a l A r t , S y s t e m s , S o l i p s i s m , " i n B a t t o c k , G r e g o r y , e d . , Minimal Art: A Critical Anthology, New Y o r k : E . P . D u t t o n & C o . , I n c . , 1 9 6 8 , 9 5 . 2 1 . S h a d b o l t , loc. cit. 2 2 . C o p l a n s , loc. cit. 2 3 . Q u o t e d i n S i m m i n s , loc. cit. 2 4 . C o p l a n s , loc. cit. 57 2 5 . Evan H. T u r n e r , " D e s t r u c t i o n : A F a c t o r i n C o n t e m -p o r a r y A r t , " Canadian Art, V o l . X X I I I , No. 1 ( J a n u a r y , 1966) , 4 1 . 2 6 . Susan S o n t a g , Against Interpretation, New Y o r k : F a r r a r , S t r a u s and G i r o u x , 1 9 6 5 , 3 5 . 2 7 . L a w r e n c e A l l o w a y , i n t r o . , Systemic Painting, New Y o r k : The So lomon R. Guggenhe im Museum, 1 9 6 6 . 2 8 . Ibid. 2 9 . B o c h n e r , op. cit., 9 4 . 3 0 . B a r b a r a R o s e , "ABC A r t , " i n B a t t o c k , G r e g o r y , e d . , Minimal Art: A Critical Anthology, New Y o r k : E . P . D u t t o n & C o . , I n c . , 1 9 6 8 , 2 9 6 . 3 1 . L u c y L i p p a r d , " C u l t o f t he D i r e c t and the D i f f i c u l t , " i n Changing: Essays in Art Criticism, New Y o r k : E . P . D u t t o n , 1971 , 1 1 8 . 3 2 . A l l o w a y , loc. cit. 3 3 . Ibid. 3 4 . T e r r y F e n t o n , i n t r o . , Contrasts: Brian Fisher/Claude Breeze, R e g i n a : The Norman M a c k e n z i e A r t G a l l e r y , F e b r u a r y - M a r c h , 1 9 6 6 . 3 5 . In c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h t h e a r t i s t , F e b r u a r y , 1 9 7 3 . 3 6 . In c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h t h e a r t i s t , F e b r u a r y 1 9 7 3 . 3 7 . In c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h t h e a r t i s t , S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 7 2 . 3 8 . J ohn Noe l C h a n d l e r , " T h e C o l o r s o f M o n o c h r o m e , " artscanada, V o l . X X V I I I , No . 5 ( O c t o b e r / N o v e m b e r , 1 9 7 1 ) , 3 0 . 3 9 . Ibid. C h a p t e r 4 CONTEMPORARY ART CRITICISM AND THE ISSUE OF INTERPRETATION Fo rma l and S u b j e c t i v e C r i t i c i s m D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d u n d e r d i s c u s s i o n , two d i s t i n c t a p p r o a c h e s to a r t c r i t i c i s m have been p o s t u l a t e d - a s u b -j e c t i v e o r i n t e r p r e t i v e a p p r o a c h , o f w h i c h H a r o l d R o s e n b e r g and Thomas Hess a r e p r i m e e x p o n e n t s , and a f o r m a l a p p r o a c h r e l a t e d m a i n l y t o C l e m e n t G r e e n b e r g , M i c h a e l F r i e d and t h e i r f o l l o w e r s . The f i r s t a p p r o a c h emerged w i t h A b s t r a c t -E x p r e s s i o n i s m i n t h e m i d - 1 9 4 0 ' s and h e l d t h e f o r e f r o n t u n t i l t he l a t e 1 9 5 0 ' s . They c h a r a c t e r i z e d a c t i o n p a i n t i n g as a new a n t i - a c a d e m i c way o f a p p r o a c h i n g t h e c a n v a s w h i c h was t he p r o d u c t o f t h e a r t i s t ' s a c t i o n s and wh i ch was i n t e r p r e t e d i n r e l a t i o n to a c r i s i s o f p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y and p a i n t e r l y d e c i s i o n . The f o r m a l i s t s c h o o l w h i c h g a i n e d p r o m i n e n c e i n t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s , i d e n t i f i e d t he a r t i s t as t h e d i s c o v e r e r o f s o l u t i o n s to f o r m a l p r o b l e m s i n h e r e n t i n t h e a r t o f t h e i m m e d i a t e p a s t . They p r o p o s e d t h a t t he 58 59 a c h i e v e m e n t o f t he A b s t r a c t - E x p r e s s i o n i s t s l a y i n t h e i r s o l u t i o n s to c e r t a i n f o r m a l p r o b l e m s i n p a i n t i n g i t s e l f r a t h e r t h a n i n any f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h to t h e a c t o f p a i n t i n g . Mel B o c h n e r has t a k e n an a r t i s t ' s s t a n c e i n r e l a t i o n to t h e v a r i o u s a p p r o a c h e s to a r t c r i t i c i s m and i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e more o r l e s s i n t e r p r e t i v e a p p r o a c h e s : impressionistic ' criticism, which has concerned i t s e l f with the effects of the work of art on the observer -individual responses; 'historical ' criticism, which has dealt with an a 'posteriori' evolution of forms and techniques - what is between works; and 'metaphorical ' criticism which has contrived numerous analogies -most recently to scientism.^ L i k e most a r t i s t s w o r k i n g i n " r e d u c t i v e " i d i o m s , he s u g g e s t s t h a t what has g e n e r a l l y been n e g l e c t e d i s " a c o n c e r n w i t h t h e o b j e c t o f a r t i n t e rms o f i t s own m a t e r i a l i n d i v i d u -a l i t y - t h e t h i n g i t s e l f . " G r e e n b e r g and F r i e d c o n s i d e r t he r e d u c t i v i s t t e n d e n c i e s i n c o n t e m p o r a r y a r t i n s u c h f o r m a l t e rms as c o l o u r , c o m p o s i t i o n , s c a l e , f o r m a t and e x e c u t i o n . They a l s o r e q u i r e t h a t t he a r t i s t i s c r i t i c and no t o n l y o f h i s own work b u t o f a r t i n g e n e r a l , e s p e c i a l l y a r t o f t h e i m m e d i a t e p a s t - i n t h i s c a s e A b s t r a c t - E x p r e s s i o n i s m . The b a s i c t e x t i n t h i s G r e e n b e r g - i n f 1 u e n c e d c r i t i c i s m i s 60 i s t h e a r t i c l e M o d e r n i s t P a i n t i n g , p u b l i s h e d i n A r t s  Y e a r b o o k 4 , 1 9 6 1 , i n wh i ch G r e e n b e r g a r g u e d f o r t h i s s e l f -c r i t i c i s m w i t h i n each a r t , " t h r o u g h the p r o c e d u r e s them-3 s e l v e s o f t h a t w h i c h i s b e i n g c r i t i c i z e d . " " F l a t n e s s " and " t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l i t y " was t he " o n l y c o n d i t i o n s h a r e d w i t h no o t h e r a r t , and so m o d e r n i s t p a i n t i n g o r i e n t e d 4 i t s e l f to f l a t n e s s as i t d i d t o n o t h i n g e l s e . " The same c o n c e p t was e l a b o r a t e d by M i c h a e l F r i e d as a c o n c e n t r a t i o n 5 on " p r o b l e m s i n t r i n s i c to p a i n t i n g i t s e l f . " S e v e r a l o t h e r c r i t i c s have made r e f e r e n c e to t h e new a r t as b e i n g " n o n - i n t e r p r e t i v e . " In 1965 B a r b a r a Rose c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e s e new t r e n d s as " u n i n g r a t i a t i n g , u n -s e n t i m e n t a l , u n b i o g r a p h i c a l and no t open t o i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n , " and added t h a t the young a r t i s t s " e s c h e w image o r s y m b o l i c a l a l l u s i o n f o r p u r e , n o n - g e s t u r a l c h r o m a t i c a b s t r a c t i o n . " Do re A s h t o n r e m a r k e d i n 1967 t h a t t h i s young g e n e r a t i o n o f a r t i s t s s t o o d : f l a t l y against the metaphorical or analogical interpretation of the world. . .their 'objects ' stand for nothing3 interpret nothing; they are, merely, esthetically conceived objects, dealing with spatial experiences and certain kinds of visual information.7 N i c o l a s C a l a s a d d r e s s e d h i m s e l f t o t h i s q u e s t i o n i n r e f e r r i n g to t h e work o f R e i n h a r d t , S t e l l a , R o b e r t M o r r i s and t h e i r f o l 1 o w e r s : 61 Mystic - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s [ o f t h e i r wo rk ] . . .are a e s t h e t i c a l l y meaningless3 as were e a r l i e r attempts (often encouraged by some of the a r t i s t s themselves) at explaining the work of Kandinsky} Malevich, Mondrian, and Arp in a s i m i l a r frame of reference. What is contrary to an evolutionary view of history is the endeavor to revive in our time the anti-quated f a i t h in universalis of occidental and oriental mystics.8 Most o f t h e y o u n g e r a r t i s t s a r e e m p h a t i c a l l y a g a i n s t i n t e r -p r e t a t i v e r e a d i n g s o f t h e i r work and a r e g e n e r a l l y no t g i v e n to p o l e m i c s e x c e p t when , as Dore A s h t o n s u g g e s t e d , i t i s " t o d i v e s t p a i n t i n g o f p r e v i o u s a s s o c i a t i o n s and q p l a c e i t i n t h e c o n t e x t o f c o n t e m p o r a r y t h o u g h t . " Susan S o n t a g , i n he r a r t i c l e A g a i n s t I n t e r p r e t a t i o n commented t h a t , i n most modern c a s e s , " i n t e r p r e t a t i o n amounts to t he p h i l i s t i n e r e f u s a l to l e a v e t h e work o f a r t a l o n e . S h e s u g g e s t e d t h a t " r e a l a r t " has t he c a p a c i t y to "make us n e r v o u s " and t h a t by " r e d u c i n g the work o f a r t to i t s c o n t e n t and t h e n i n t e r p r e t i n g 1 t h a t , 1 one tames the work o f a r t . . .makes a r t m a n a g e a b l e , c o n -f o r m a b l e . " 1 ^ I n t e r p r e t a t i o n , w h i c h i s b a s e d on t h e " h i g h l y d u b i o u s t h e o r y t h a t a work o f a r t i s composed o f i t e m s o f c o n t e n t , v i o l a t e s a r t , " she o b s e r v e d , as i t makes a r t i n t o an " a r t i c l e o f u s e , f o r a r r a n g e m e n t i n t o a m e n t a l scheme 1 p o f c a t e g o r i e s . " F i n a l l y , L u c y L i p p a r d s u g g e s t e d t h a t a p a i n t i n g t h a t i s a s k e d to be " b o t h a p a i n t i n g and a 62 p i c t u r e o f s o m e t h i n g e l s e t h a t has n o t h i n g to do w i t h p a i n t i n g p e r s e " i s l i k e l y to s u f f e r f r om i t s c o n t r a d i c t o r y r o l e s : " V i s u a l a r t i s v i s u a l . . . A b s t r a c t a r t o b j e c t s a r e made to be s e e n and no t h e a r d , t o u c h e d , r e a d , e n t e r e d , 1 3 i n t e r p r e t e d . " The f o r m a l i s t a p p r o a c h , t h e n , seems to assume t h a t t he p a i n t e r i s t o t a l l y i s o l a t e d f r o m h i s s u r r o u n d i n g s and t h a t h i s e x p r e s s i o n comes f r o m h i s s o l u t i o n , t o f o r m a l p r o b l e m s w i t h i n a r t and a r t h i s t o r y r a t h e r t h a n f r o m any s o c i a l o r p e r s o n a l s o u r c e . The d i f f i c u l t y i n such an a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t t h e eye s i m p l y does no t o p e r a t e i n a vacuum o f i s o l a t e d c o n d i t i o n s and t h a t w h a t e v e r t h e eye s e e s , w i l l be i n t e r p r e t e d and r e s p o n d e d to by t he mind o f t he v i e w e r . Dore A s h t o n has w r i t t e n t h a t : to assume. . .that the v i s i b l e data on the canvas surface - the colors or s t r u c t u r a l evidence - is a l l t h e i r i s , and works only in terms of sensory per-ception, is to impoverish the recep-tion of works of art unduly.I1* In o u t l i n i n g h i s " I n t e n t i o n a l i s t M e t h o d , " Max K o z l o f f , p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e i m p o r t a n t r e l a t i o n i n a work o f a r t i s no t be tween two o r more f o r m s on a s u r f a c e , bu t be tween i t s e l f as a c o m p l e x e v e n t , and t h e s p e c t a t o r , " and f u r t h e r s t a t e d t h a t : 63 the variables in the aesthetic experience, therefore, are the work, the spectator ' s physiological and emotional response, and whatever appropriate information he can bring to bear - a l l of which w i l l affect the mutual shaping of object and subject.15 L a w r e n c e A l l o w a y has s u g g e s t e d t h a t what i s m i s s i n g f rom t h e f o r m a l i s t a p p r o a c h to p a i n t i n g i s " a s e r i o u s d e s i r ' e to s t u d y m e a n i n g s beyond the p u r e l y v i s u a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s and ha:s a s s e r t e d t he need f o r c r i t i c s t o r e i n t r o d u c e " o t h e r e x p e r i e n c e " i n t o t h e i r a p p r a i s a l s o f t h e new a r t : The pressing problem of art c r i t i c i s m now is to reestablish abstract art's connections with other experience with-out, of course, abandoning the now general sense of art's autonomy.16 He a s k e d us to c o n s i d e r a number o f f o r m a l i s t - b a s e d o p i n i o n s w h i c h " a c k n o w l e d g e o r s u p p o s e t h e e x i s t e n c e o f m e a n i n g s / f e e l i n g " i n t h e i r r e f e r e n c e to t h e work o f Kenne th N o l a n d . 1 ^ Ben H e l l e r , f o r i n s t a n c e , w r o t e t h a t N o l a n d " h a s c r e a t e d I o n o t o n l y an o p t i c a l b u t an e x p r e s s i v e a r t , " w h i l e M i c h a e l F r i e d c a l l e d N o l a n d ' s p a i n t i n g s " p o w e r f u l , e m o t i o n a l s t a t e -1 9 m e n t s . " A l a n So lomon has d e s c r i b e d some o f N o l a n d ' s " t a r g e t s " as " b u o y a n t and c h e e r f u l , " and o t h e r s as s o m b r e , 20 b r o o d i n g , t e n s e , i n t r o s p e c t i v e . " Such d e s c r i p t i o n s a r e u n c e r t a i n and r a t h e r vague and t e n d to c o i n c i d e w i t h B a r r y 64 L o r d ' s o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t " t h e f o r m a l i s t e r r o r i s . . . t h e i r f a i l u r e to a r t i c u l a t e t he p r e c i s e r e l a t i o n between f o r m and f e e l i n g . " 2 1 The a p p r o a c h o f f o r m a l i s t c r i t i c s , t h e n , s p l i t s t h e work o f a r t i n t o s e p a r a t e e l e m e n t s a t t he e x p e n s e o f a l l o t h e r p r o p e r t i e s . T h i s k i n d o f a n a l y s i s , w h i c h A l l o w a y c a l l s " f o r m a l i s t p o s i t i v i s m , " needs t he " i c o n o g r a p h i c a l and e x p e r i e n t i a l a s p e c t s " as w e l l , and t h e s e , he s u g g e s t s , can "no l o n g e r be d i s m i s s e d as ' l i t e r a r y 1 e x c e p t on t h e 22 b a s i s o f an a r c h a i c a e s t h e t i c i s m . " N i c o l a s C a l a s o b s e r v e d t h a t : . . . as -images of order and disorder may induce pleasant or unpleasant effects, i t is as arbitrary to declare that a work of art can be appraised without taking into consideration emotional reactions, as i t is to claim that the work of art is a self-referent object. 2^ In The Shape o f T ime Geo rge K u b l e r w r o t e t h a t t he " e x i s -t e n t i a l v a l u e o f a work o f a r t , as a d e c l a r a t i o n a b o u t b e i n g , " c a n n o t be e x t r a c t e d f r o m " a d h e r e n t s i g n a l s " -composed o f i n t r i c a t e messages i n t he s y m b o l i c o r d e r -a l o n e , n o r f r o m " s e l f - s i g n a l s " - the mute e x i s t e n t i a l 24 d e c l a r a t i o n o f t h i n g s - a l o n e . He o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e s e l f - s i g n a l s t a k e n a l o n e p r o v e o n l y e x i s t e n c e w h i l e a d h e r e n t s i g n a l s t a k e n i n i s o l a t i o n p r o v e o n l y t he p r e s e n c e o f m e a n i n g , and s u g g e s t e d t h a t e x i s t e n c e w i t h o u t mean ing 65 seems " t e r r i b l e " i n the same d e g r e e as mean ing w i t h o u t e x i s t e n c e seems " t r i v i a l " : We are discovering little by little all over again that what a thing means is not more important than what it is; that expression and form are equivalent challenges to the historian; and that to neglect either meaning or being, either essence or existence, deforms our comprehension of both. 25 Susan S o n t a g has s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e a im o f a l l commentary on a r t now s h o u l d be " t o make works o f a r t -a n d , by a n a l o g y , o u r own e x p e r i e n c e - m o r e , r a t h e r t h a n l e s s , r e a l to u s j a n d t h a t " t h e f u n c t i o n o f c r i t i c i s m s h o u l d be to show 'how i t i s what i t i s , ' even ' t h a t i t i s what p c i t i s , ' r a t h e r t h a n t o show ' what i t m e a n s . ' " Imagery - I c o n o g r a p h i c and A r c h e t y p a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s The q u e s t i o n o f c o n t e n t and t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f c u r r e n t " m i n i m a l " p a i n t i n g t r e n d s , t h e r e f o r e , has been a h o t l y c o n t e s t e d i s s u e i n t he 1 9 6 0 ' s . As d i s c u s s e d a b o v e , many c o n t e m p o r a r y a r t i s t s a s s e r t t h a t o n l y what i s a c t u a l l y t h e r e i s i m p o r t a n t - i n F r a n k S t e l l a ' s w o r d s : "What you 27 see i s what you s e e . " They d e s c r i b e t h e i r works m a t t e r -o f - f a c t l y , and any s t a t e m e n t s o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o c o n t e n t , m e a n i n g , o r i n t e n t i o n a r e p r o m i n e n t by t h e i r 66 o m m i s s i o n . B a r b a r a Rose has o b s e r v e d t h a t , i f t h e work i s t o be t a k e n a t f a c e v a l u e , t h e c o n t e n t " : should be nothing more than the total of the assertions that i t is this or that shape and i t takes up so much space and is painted such a color and made of such material.28 The a p p a r e n t s i m p l i c i t y o f t he works o f t he a r t i s t s b e i n g d i s c u s s e d h e r e was a r r i v e d a t t h r o u g h a s e r i e s o f c o m p l i -c a t e d , h i g h l y i n f o r m e d d e c i s i o n s , each i n v o l v i n g t h e e l i m i n a -t i o n o f w h a t e v e r was f e l t to be n o n e s s e n t i a l . B r i a n F i s h e r r e f e r s to t h i s p r o c e s s : i t follows. . . i f you're working in a formal sense, i t very often happens that you get on a sequence of reduction -you start taking away - you recognize more and more what is not essential and what is essential. . . . 29 T h i s r e d u c t i o n o f means i n v o l v e s h i g h l y f o r m a l s t a t e m e n t s a n d , as a r e s u l t , t h e s e a r t i s t s t e n d t o work w i t h a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p to g e o m e t r i c f o r m s . S ymmet r y , a r e l a t e d c o n c e p t t h a t has been e m p l o y e d by t h e s e a r t i s t s , n e u t r a l i z e s c o m p o s i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and a l l o w s f o r c o n c e n t r a t i o n on t he who le r a t h e r t h a n on p a r t s . Even when such symmetry i s no t u s e d , as i n some works by G a u c h e r , B l o o r e and K i y o o k a , i t i s more a c c u r a t e to s p e a k o f t he " p o s i t i o n i n g " o f t he image r a t h e r t h a n o f " c o m p o s i t i o n " i n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l s e n s e o f t he w o r d . The 67 n e u t r a l g e o m e t r i c m o t i f s and images u sed i n t h e i r works p r o v i d e d f o r an a b s o l u t e , r i g i d l y d i s c i p l i n e d scheme o r d e v i c e w h i c h t e n d e d to m i n i m i z e , bu t no t e l i m i n a t e , t he i n t r u s i o n o f f i g u r a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . T h e r e a r e s t r o n g f o r m a l l i n k s be tween t h e works o f t h e s e f i v e a r t i s t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e r e c u r r e n c e o f c i r c l e , e l l i p s e , s q u a r e and r e c t a n g l e m o t i f s . In a d d i t i o n t o b e i n g i d e a l d e v i c e s f o r the e x p l o r a t i o n o f v a r i o u s f o r m a l p r o b l e m s , h o w e v e r , t h e s e g e o m e t r i c images can a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d i n i c o n o g r a p h i c a l t e r m s . L awrence A l l o w a y commented on N o l a n d ' s c i r c l e s , f o r i n s t a n c e , i n t h e s e w o r d s : Whatever he may have intended,, [ h i s c i r c l e s ] , never effaced our knowledge, built-in and natural by now, of circular systems of various types. Circles have an iconography; images become motives with histories. The presence of covert or spontaneous iconographic images is basic to abstract art, rather than the purity and pictorial autonomy so often ascribed to i t . 30 The c i r c l e o r m a n d a l a i m a g e , and the s q u a r e and e l l i p s e , have e x i s t e d as " s i g n i f i c a n t f o r m s " i n many d i f -f e r e n t c u l t u r e s f o r t h o u s a n d s o f y e a r s . Such m a n d a l a s , e i t h e r a " m a g i c " c i r c l e o r s q u a r e , o r a s q u a r e w i t h i n a c i r c l e , a r e e v i d e n c e o f t he " o r i e n t a l a n t e c e d e n t s o f t he t h e o r y t h a t a b s t r a c t p a t t e r n s a r e c h a r g e d w i t h e n e r g y o r 31 s p i r i t u a l f o r c e s . " T h e s e m a n d a l a s , o r a b s t r a c t p a t t e r n s * were used as an a i d to m e d i t a t i o n i n d u c i n g what wou ld now 68 be c a l l e d a " h y p n o t i c t r a n c e . " The d e v o t e e , monk, o r y o g i n m e d i t a t e s upon t h e p a t t e r n , t h e c e n t r e o f w h i c h i s b e l i e v e d to be t h e s e a t o f the d e i t y . D u r i n g m e d i t a t i o n t h e m a n d a l a becomes c h a r g e d w i t h immense power and the d e i t y a p p e a r s 32 b e f o r e t he m e n t a l eye o f t he d e v o t e e . In a d d i t i o n to t he more g e n e r a l f u n c t i o n o f t he s y m b o l , by w h i c h t h e r e e x i s t s a c o n n e c t i o n be tween i t s e l f and t h e o b j e c t to w h i c h i t o c c u r s ; and t h e f u n c t i o n o f r e f e r e n c e , where t he v i e w e r ' s i n t e r e s t i s d i r e c t e d to s o m e t h i n g a p a r t f r o m t h e s y m b o l , Susanne L a n g e r i d e n t i f i e d a t h i r d f u n c t i o n o f s y m b o l s , w h i c h i s : their power of formulating experience, and presenting i t obj ectively for con-templation, logical intuition, recogni-tion, understanding. . . i t formulates the appearance of feeling, of subjective experience, the character of so-called 'inner l i f e , ' which discourse - the normal use of words - is peculiarly unable to articulate. . . . 3 3 T h i s use o f s y m b o l s t h r o u g h w h i c h man i s a i d e d i n c o n t e m -p l a t i n g t he i n n e r w o r k i n g s o f h i s own mind i s " somewhat a l i e n t o o u r e x t r o v e r t e d , n a t u r e - c o n q u e r i n g w e s t e r n c u l t u r e " and i s ? s as A r t h u r McKay s u g g e s t e d : of a highly personal nature and meaningful only to people who are interested in intro-version and speculation of what we would call a mystical nature.3** 69 Much o f t h e c e n t r a l g e o m e t r i c s y m b o l i s m e v i d e n t i n t he work o f t h e s e a r t i s t s can be d i s c u s s e d i n a r c h e t y p a l t e r m s a n d , t h e r e f o r e , can be c o n s i d e r e d as p a r t o f each p e r s o n ' s e x p e r i e n c e o f l i f e . The u n i v e r s a l i t y and t i i f ie-l e s s n e s s o f t h e s e " s i g n s " i s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n t h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n . A r n h e i m has r e l a t e d t h a t the human mind " r e c e i v e s , s h a p e s , and i n t e r p r e t s " i t s image o f t he o u t e r w o r l d w i t h a l l i t s " c o n s c i o u s and u n c o n s c i o u s p o w e r s , " and he s u g g e s t e d t h a t " t h e r e a l m o f the u n c o n s c i o u s " c o u l d n e v e r e n t e r o u r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h o u t " t h e r e f l e c t i o n o f p e r -35 c e i v a b l e t h i n g s . " Geo rge K u b l e r has o b s e r v e d t h a t c o n -t i n u i t y t h r o u g h r e p e t i t i o n i s t he means by wh i ch a symbol e x i s t s and t h a t i t s i d e n t i t y depends upon the a b i l i t y o f i t s u s e r s to a t t a c h t h e same mean ing to a g i v e n f o r m : the person using the symbol does so in the expectation that others w i l l enlarge the association as he does, and that the resemblances between people 's i n t e r p r e -tations of symbols w i l l outweigh the differences. ^6 The " p r e c o n c e i v e d i m a g e s " o f Ron B l o o r e have been d e s c r i b e d by J ohn C h a n d l e r as " d o o d l e s - t he r e p e a t e d and o f t e n m o d u l a r images made by p e o p l e o f l i k e t empe ramen t 37 q u i t e s u b c o n s c i o u s l y . . . . " He has a l s o drawn a r e l a -t i o n s h i p be tween B l o o r e ' s images and t h o s e o f B a r n e t t Newman wh i ch were d e s c r i b e d by Newman as " s i g n i f i c a n t 70 i d e o g r a p h s and h i e r o g l y p h s , " " p r i m o r d i a l m e s s e n g e r s o f 38 u n k n o w a b l e s . " Thomas H e s s , i n h i s r e m a r k a b l e monograph on Newman, w r o t e t h a t , to Newman t h e c i r c l e m o t i f s u g g e s t e d " an image o f t he v o i d , t h e p r e g n e t i c moment" w i t h a n a l o g i e s t o s u c h " o v e r t s e x u a l and m y t h o l o g i c a l o v e r t o n e s " as t he egg and t h e s u n . L u c y L i p p a r d c o n t r a s t e d t h e c i r c l e , " an a c t i v e , o r g a n i c shape w i t h c o n n o t a t i o n s o f r o l l i n g , s p i n n i n g , t h e s u n , the moon , and o t h e r n a t u r a l and s y m b o l i c i m p e d i m e n t a , " t o t he s q u a r e wh i ch i s " p a t e n t l y s t a t i c , man-made, l i f e l e s s , 40 i n e r t and i n a c t i v e . " McKay has s t a t e d t h a t t h i s c i r c l e m o t i f , u sed by N o l a n d as w e l l as J a s p e r J o h n s , Ron B l o o r e and o t h e r s , was " i n t he a i r as w e l l as the a r e a " ( R e g i n a ) 41 d u r i n g the e a r l y 1 9 6 0 ' s . L i k e Newman and o t h e r p a i n t e r s o f t h e 1 9 4 0 ' s and 1 9 5 0 ' s , s u c h as A d o l p h e G o t t l i e b , Mark Ro thko and R o b e r t M o t h e r w e l l , B l o o r e i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e " c o n t e n t " o f h i s p a i n t i n g s and a l s o l i k e t h e m , he has e x p r e s s e d a s t r o n g i n t e r e s t i n p r i m i t i v e and a r c h a i c a r t . In 1 9 4 3 , G o t t l i e b and Ro thko had made a j o i n t s t a t e m e n t " a b o u t c c o n t e n t : There is no such thing as a good painting about nothing. We assert that the sub-ject is crucial and only that subject -matter is valid which is tragic and time-less. That is why we profess spiritual kinship with primitive and archaic art.42 71 In t h i s c o n t e x t , B l o o r e ' s " t i m e l e s s " m o t i f s and i m m o b i l e p a t t e r n s have been l i k e n e d to S u m e r i a n t a b l e t s , " t a t o o s c a u s e d by i n c i s i n g t he s k i n o f p r i m i t i v e p e o p l e s , t h e r a i s e d r e l i e f s o f f a r c h a i c C h i n e s e b r o n z e v a s e s , and t h e 43 w a l l s o f E g y p t i a n t o m b s . . . . " Roy K i y o o k a had an e a r l y a f f i n i t y f o r t h e works o f G o t t l i e b . H i s d o u b l e and m u l t i p l e o v a l i m a g e r y has been d i s c u s s e d i n t h e s e same a r c h e t y p a l t e r m s . F e r n a n d e S a i n t -M a r t i n has d e s c r i b e d K i y o o k a ' s work as b a s i c a l l y t h e " e l a b o r a t i o n o f p r i m o r d i a l f o r m , c a r r y i n g t i m e l e s s mean-44 i n g s , w h i c h can s e r v e as a b a s i s f o r a modern m y t h o l o g y . " In t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , K i y o o k a has s t a t e d t h a t : In this secular age that has followed the death of God, a r t i s t s must try to find for themselves a path to the most profound r e a l i t i e s . For myself, I want to create ritual objects, magic objects from which will rise occult meanings. 45 B r i a n F i s h e r has e x p r e s s e d a s i m i l a r i n t e r e s t i n t he o c c u l t a n d , as a r e s u l t , h i s work f r o m 1 9 6 5 , w h i c h a l s o c o n t a i n s a comp l ex o v a l i m a g e r y , can c l e a r l y be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s same c o n t e x t . S i m i l a r l y , A r t M c K a y ' s images come f r o m t h e d e p t h s o f h i s i m a g i n a t i o n and a r e c o n c e i v e d i n " s y m b o l i c " t e r m s : My paintings for some years have been almost exclusively concerned with a strong hypnotic centre focussing image, or with a texture diffused evenly over a square or rectangular symbo1.46 72 T h e s e p a i n t i n g s can c l e a r l y be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c e n t r e -f o c u s s i n g manda l a images d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r . The works o f Yves G a u c h e r a r e i n d e p e n d e n t o f any s u c h p o s s i b l e a s s o c i a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n s . They can be r e l a t e d to t he c o n t e x t o f an o b s e r v a t i o n made by P e t e r F i n g e s t e n who s t a t e d t h a t n o n - o b j e c t i v e a r t has " b r o k e n t h r o u g h t h e p r o c e s s o f s y m b o l i z a t i o n i t s e l f . " He s u g g e s t e d t h a t i t s " f o r m a l r e f e r e n t s " a r e no t s y m b o l s i n t he t r a d i t i o n a l s e n s e , e v o k i n g s o m e t h i n g o u t s i d e o f t h e m s e l v e s , b u t " s i m p l y a r e 47 w i t h o u t d e n o t a t i v e c o n t e n t a l t o g e t h e r . " G a u c h e r has commented t h a t he has c h o s e n t h o s e e l e m e n t s i n p i c t o r i a l l a n g u a g e t h a t b e s t e x p r e s s h i s c o n t e n t and s u g g e s t s t h a t i f we w i s h to e x p r e s s e s s e n s e , we must g e t r i d o f a l l 48 s u p e r f i c i a l p i c t o r i a l e l e m e n t s . M u s i c , wh i ch i s an " a s s i m i l a t e d c o n t e n t " i n G a u c h e r ' s w o r k , a p p e a r s m e t a p h o r i -c a l l y as an " a n a l o g i c a l a b s t r a c t s t r u c t u r e " i n the p a i n t i n g s , r a t h e r t han as t he a c t u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a v a n t - g a r d e m u s i c s c o r e s w h i c h i s o f t e n s u g g e s t e d by c r i t i c s . I t i s i n f i n d i n g o u t t h e u n i f y i n g f a c t o r s i n t he w o r l d , and no t t h e i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n s w h i c h a r e d i s -c o u n t e d as b e i n g " t r a n s i t o r y , " t h a t Ron B l o o r e , t o o , a r g u e s f o r " a r t as a n o n - i m i t a t i v e k i n d o f i m a g e r y , one t h a t ' s 49 c o m p l e t e l y n o n f i g u r a t i v e . " B l o o r e ' s images a r e no t f o r m s w h i c h s i g n i f y a mean ing bu t a r e r a t h e r " s i g n s w h i c h 73 50 m e r e l y s i g n i f y . " By t h e i r c o n c e r n w i t h such " m e t a p h y s i c a l e s s e n c e s , " t he work o f n o t o n l y G a u c h e r and B l o o r e , b u t o f F i s h e r , McKay and K i y o o k a as w e l l , can be r e l a t e d t o t h e " p u r e a r t " o f M o n d r i a n , M a l e v i c h and the S y m b o l i s t s . M e r l e a u - P o n t y s t a t e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t no e s s e n c e can be d i s -c o v e r e d i f c o n s i d e r e d i n " i d e a l i s t i c t e r m s " as g i v e n to a " p u r e s p e c t a t o r " : When we speak of essences we are trying to express how we open onto the same world as others. Essences have value, therefore, only insofar as they connect my experience with the experience of others. They can never be regarded as giving us a thing in all i t s purity, because we never perceive anything in that way.51 The A r t i s t ' s R e a c t i o n to t h e W o r l d : A s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h N a t u r e Many o f t he d e c i s i o n s made by t h e s e a r t i s t s c o n -c e r n i n g t h e i r c h o i c e o f i m a g e r y can be r e l a t e d to t h e i r r e a c t i o n t o t he w o r l d o f r e a l i t y . The a r t i s t , McKay o b -s e r v e s , c an r e a c t to h i s w o r l d i n two ways : The artist can catalogue the horror of the human situation or he can withdraw and conceive of images that are formed in worlds other than this one. Per-sonally, I am drawn toward the latter. 52 In h i s p a i n t i n g s , McKay c r e a t e s a m y s t e r i o u s u n i v e r s e o r " o t h e r w o r l d " t h a t i s i n a c o n s t a n t s t a t e o f f l u x : 74 The sort of world which I find absorbing is not the static objective world of things, definitions, logic, and appear-ances, although we live mainly in that world. It is the continuum of sensed qualities: moving, flowing, and con-stantly in focus and flux.53 Ron B l o o r e a l s o t h i n k s i t n e c e s s a r y t o " g e t away f r o m t h e h e r e and now" b u t , i n c o n t r a s t t o McKay , he i s c o n c e r n e d more w i t h " g e t t i n g be low the f l u x o f d a i l y l i f e and t r y i n g to p e n e t r a t e and f i n d o u t what a r e the common 54 bonds t h a t u n i t e m a n k i n d . " To B l o o r e , c o n t i n u i t y i s " a m e a n s , a f o r m o f k n o w l e d g e . " He s t a t e s t h a t h i s who l e e x i s t e n c e i s b a s e d on what p e o p l e have t r a n s m i t t e d to h i m , and f e e l s t h a t : a society which creates 'permanent' things is positive, optimistic and secure and can come to grips with time, and create forms, and the forms in turn will be transmitted to a multitude of people. 55 T h i s s e a r c h f o r an e s s e n t i a l o r d e r i n n a t u r e , o r a t l e a s t f o r an u n d e r l y i n g p a t t e r n , has a l s o o c c u p i e d the work o f B r i a n F i s h e r and Roy K i y o o k a . I t i s i n e v i t a b l e , F i s h e r s u g g e s t s , t h a t t h e a r e a s o f an a r t i s t ' s e x p e r i e n c e t h a t a r e most m e a n i n g f u l to him s h o u l d be " t h r o w n i n t o r e l i e f " by h i s i m a g e r y , an i m a g e r y f o r m e d by h i s " i n t u i t i v e a p p r e -h e n s i o n o f the p a t t e r n s u n d e r l y i n g t h e b e w i l d e r i n g com-56 p l e x i t y o f t h i s w o r l d . " Roy K i y o o k a c o n f i r m s t h a t " e a c h 75 p a i n t i n g must r e f l e c t , as much as p o s s i b l e , my s e n s e o f t he o r d e r b e n e a t h t he s u r f a c e o f o b j e c t s - f o r me, a p a i n t -5 7 i n g i s above a l l a c e l e b r a t i o n o f t h a t o r d e r . " The m a t h e m a t i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l p r e c i s i o n o f A n t o n W e b e r n ' s o r d e r e d w o r l d was s y m p a t h e t i c t o Yves G a u c h e r ' s a p p r o a c h to p a i n t i n g and t h u s h e , t o o , i s p a r t o f t h i s g e n e r a l t r e n d . G y o r g y K e p e s , i n The New L a n d s c a p e , s p e a k s o f t h i s p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r o r d e r i n t e rms o f b a s i c c o m p r e -h e n s i o n where t he " e s s e n t i a l v i s i o n o f r e a l i t y p r e s e n t s us no t w i t h f u g i t i v e a p p e a r a n c e s bu t w i t h f e l t p a t t e r n s o f o r d e r w h i c h have c o h e r e n c e and mean ing f o r t he eye and f o r t h e m i n d . " He draws a p a r a l l e l be tween a r t and s c i e n c e , w h i c h can h e r e "meet on common g r o u n d " : Symmetry3 balance and rhythmic sequence express essential characteristics of natural phenomena: the connectedness of nature - the order, the logic, the l i v i n g process. 5 8 F i s h e r , h o w e v e r , has s u g g e s t e d t h a t a change has come a b o u t i n man ' s b a s i c p r e f e r e n c e : " T h e human p r e f e r e n c e f o r symmetry and o r d e r has g i v e n way to the r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t o r d e r and d i s o r d e r e x i s t s i d e by s i d e and must be a c c e p t e d 5 9 on an e q u a l b a s i s . L a n c e l o t Law Why te , a l s o i n The New L a n d s c a p e , made a s i m i l a r o b s e r v a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to t he s c i e n c e s : In his long pursuit of order in Nature, the scientist has turned a corner. Ee 76 i s now after order and disorder with-out prejudice 3 having discovered that complexity usually involves both.60 In t he same b o o k , A r t h u r L. Loeb r e f e r r e d to t h e f a c t t h a t t h i s d i s c o v e r y o f o r d e r and t h e " s t r u c t u r e o f m a t t e r " as we know i t , i s p a r t l y o f o u r own mak ing and i s t h u s q u i t e s u b j e c t i v e : "we t e n d to s t r u c t u r e o u r p e r -c e p t i o n s and to c r e a t e f r a m e s o f r e f e r e n c e s u i t a b l e f o r fi l r e l a t i n g v a r i o u s o b s e r v a t i o n s to each o t h e r . " I t i s t h i s t e n d e n c y t h a t l e a d s t he v i e w e r to r e s p o n d to t h e b a s i c o r d e r and n a t u r e c o n n o t a t i o n s e v i d e n t i n t h e p a i n t -i n g s o f t h e s e a r t i s t s . W h i l e F i s h e r has d e v e l o p e d a more a b s t r a c t image f r o m h i s e a r l y n a t u r e - o r i e n t e d d r a w i n g s -w h i c h he f o u n d to be t oo r e a d i l y a s s o c i a t i v e w i t h o u t -s i d e mean ings - an o r g a n i c and f l u i d q u a l i t y i s r e t a i n e d even i n h i s most f o r m a l , h a r d - e d g e w o r k s . L i k e t he works o f a l l o f t h e s e a r t i s t s , t h e y a r e a n a l o g o u s t o , y e t d i s t i n c t f r om fo rms p e r c e i v a b l e i n t he n a t u r a l w o r l d . The s e n s e o f immense , open s p a c e wh i ch must i n f l u e n c e m o s t , i f no t a l l , a r t i s t s who have l i v e d on the p r a i r i e s i s a l s o p r e s e n t a t l e a s t m e t a p h o r i c a l l y i n some o f t h e i r w o r k s . T h e i r e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h i s c o n c e p t o f deep s p a c e e x e r t s a s t r o n g e m o t i o n a l f o r c e on t h e v i e w e r . In 1962 B a r n e t t Newman s t a t e d t h a t , s i n c e h i s c h i l d h o o d , he had a l w a y s been aware o f s p a c e as a " s p a c e - d o m e " and he r e m e m b e r e d : 77 shocking my friends by saying I would •prefer going to Churchill, Canada, to walk the tundra than go to Paris. For me space is where I can feel all four horizons3 not just the horizon in front of me and in back of me because then the experience of space exists only as volume. 6 2 Roy K i y o o k a has r e f e r r e d to t he l a s t i n g i m p r e s s i o n s t h a t t h e p r a i r i e l a n d s c a p e had made on him i n h i s y o u t h : " T h e b r e a d t h o f s k y t h e r e t h a t s h e l t e r e d n o t h i n g b u t t h e 6 3 naked eye has s o m e t h i n g to do w i t h my p a i n t i n g s . " In 1 9 5 9 , K i y o o k a r e f e r r e d to t he ' t e n u o u s ' b u t ' i n e v i t a b l e ' r e l a -t i o n s h i p to n a t u r e - a r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t has r e m a i n e d i n h i s wo rk : " The p a i n t e r i s a p a r t o f n a t u r e and n a t u r e i s 64 a l l a r o u n d h i m . " G e r r y G i l b e r t made an a p p r o p r i a t e a n a l o g y to K i y o o k a ' s e l l i p s e s when he d e s c r i b e d them as " c o m i n g o u t o f t he s k y " - " two l o c i s u r r o u n d e d by a sky 6 5 o f d i s t a n c e s a d d i n g up to t h e same t h i n g . " H i s work i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by what D a v i d Thompson has r e f e r r e d to as " an i n s t i n c t i v e r e s p o n s e to rhy thms and f o r m s t h a t l i n k t h e p a i n t e r ' s own a c t i v i t y w i t h what used to be c a l l e d fi fi ' t h e w o r l d o f n a t u r e . ' " The same o r g a n i c and f l u i d q u a l i t y f o u n d i n K i y o o k a ' s w o r k , i s a l s o e v i d e n t i n the p a i n t i n g s o f B r i a n F i s h e r - e s p e c i a l l y i n h i s u se o f t h e e l l i p s e . In a d d i t i o n , t h e d e l i c a t e m o i r e p a t t e r n s f u r t h e r t h e s e n s e o f o r g a n i c f o r m and a c t as a c o u n t e r p o i n t to h i s p r e c i s e g e o m e t r y . F i s h e r a l s o has been moved by t h e e x p a n s i v e p r a i r i e s p a c e w h i c h " e x t e n d s 3 6 0 - d e g r e e s i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s . " He r e l a t e d t h a t i n o r d e r f o r p e o p l e to r e s p o n d to s u c h open s p a c e i t i s n e c e s s a r y to l e a r n to l o o k a t s p a c e i n a p o s i t i v e way , as t h e y do w i t h t he f u l l l a n d s c a p e s o f t r e e s and m o u n t a i n s i n w h i c h t h e y can d i f f e r e n t i a t e be tween t h i n g s . ^ Ron B l o o r e f i n d s t h a t h i s s t u d i o n e a r Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y g i v e s him t h e same s e n s a t i o n o f open s p a c e t h a t he knew on t h e P r a i r i e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n t he w i n t e r . He fi ft s a y s " i t ' s l i k e w o r k i n g on the r o o f o f t h e w o r l d . " B a r r y L o r d compares i t t o t he w i d e - o p e n e x p a n s e s o f s k y and snow on t h e f a r m l a n d s a r o u n d Edmonton w h i c h i s " b i g g e r , h i g h e r , e m p t i e r t han S a s k a t c h e w a n , more a b s t r a c t - i t h u r t s to 69 l o o k a t . " B l o o r e ' s images a l s o b e a r some r e l a t i o n s h i p to n a t u r a l f o r m s , and a p p e a r to have grown l i k e t r e e s o r c r y s t a l s . The o r g a n i c a r e a s o f r a y c l u s t e r s , e s p e c i a l l y , i n h i s 1968 works r e i n f o r c e t h i s i m p r e s s i o n o f g e n e r a t i o n and g row th wh i ch f u r t h e r s e p a r a t e s h i m , as w e l l as t he o t h e r f o u r a r t i s t s , f rom most " M i n i m a l " t r e n d s . The p a i n t i n g s o f A r t McKay t o o , c o n t a i n rhy thms a n a l o g o u s to t h e moods o f n a t u r e . W h i l e t h e y a r e no t r e f e r e n c e s t a k e n f r o m n a t u r e , t h e y g i v e t he i m p r e s s i o n o f l i f e . McKay commented on t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f h i s p a i n t i n g : 79 A sense of life and rhythm and colour in specific evocative order can exist with-out reference and is valuable in itself. It stimulates the sense of awareness by which we live insofar as we are able to respond to itJ^ T h i s same s e n s e o f an u n d e r l y i n g r h y t h m , w h i c h p e r m e a t e s l i f e , m u s i c and n a t u r e , s u r f a c e s i n G a u c h e r ' s p a i n t i n g . rhythm - love • rhythm • life - rhythm^^ G a u c h e r , as m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y , became e x t r e m e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the a c t i v a t e d s p a c e c r e a t e d by t he " s o u n d " o f t h e c e l l s t r u c t u r e o f W e b e r n ' s m u s i c - " t h e c e l l i s p l a c e d i n s p a c e , 7 2 a l l o w e d to expand o r g r o w , and t h e n d i e . " Sound i s t h u s l o o k e d upon as " c l u s t e r s o f p a r t i c l e s " r a t h e r t han as a l i n e a r s y s t e m a n d , as a r e s u l t , p a t t e r n s a r e no t d i s c e r n e d as t h e y o c c u r o v e r a p e r i o d o f t i m e . J ohn C h a n d l e r f e e l s t h a t t h i s i s what G a u c h e r means when he r e f e r s to " m o d i f i n g o u r n o t i o n o f n a t u r a l e l e m e n t s by s e e i n g them as " e n e r g e t i c 73 e v e n t s , ' o c c u r r i n g i n t i m e . " The d i s c u s s i o n o f p e r c e p -t i o n and the a c t o f s e e i n g , w h i c h f o l l o w s i n C h a p t e r 5, w i l l make t h i s p r o c e s s c l e a r e r . FOOTNOTES: CHAPTER 4 1. Mel B o c h n e r , " S e r i a l A r t , S y s t e m s , S o l i p s i s m , " i n B a t t o c k , G r e g o r y , e d . Minimal Art: A Critical Anthology, New Y o r k : E . P . D u t t o n & C o . , I n c . , 1 9 6 8 , 9 3 . 2. Ibid. 3. C l e m e n t G r e e n b e r g , " M o d e r n i s t P a i n t i n g " i n B a t t o c k , G r e g o r y , e d . The New Art, New Y o r k : E . P . D u t t o n & C o . , I n c . , 1 9 6 . 4 . Ibid., 1 0 3 . 5. M i c h a e l F r i e d , , i n t r o . , Three American Painters, C a m b r i d g e , M a s s . : Fogg A r t Museum, H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y , A p r i l - M a y , 1 9 6 5 . 6. B a r b a r a R o s e , " The P r i m a c y o f C o l o r , " Art International, V o l . V I I I , No. 4 ( A p r i l , 1 9 6 4 ) , 2 3 . 7. Dore A s h t o n , " C e r t a i n t y and S o l u t i o n s : P u r i s m i n the F i f t i e s and S i x t i e s , " i n A Reading of Modern Art, New Y o r k : H a r p e r & Row, 1 9 6 9 , 1 5 9 - 6 0 . 8. N i c o l a s C a l a s and E l e n a C a l a s , Icons and Images of the Sixties, New Y o r k : E . P . D u t t o n & C o . , I n c . , 1 9 7 1 , 2 5 6 . 9 . A s h t o n , op. cit., 1 5 8 . 1 0 . Susan S o n t a g , Against Interpretation, New Y o r k : F a r r a r , S t r a u s & G i r o u x , 1 9 6 5 , 8 . 1 1 . Ibid. 80 81 1 2 . Ibid., 1 0 . 1 3 . L u c y R. L i p p a r d , " A f t e r a F a s h i o n - The Group Show , " i n Changing: Essays in Art Criticism, New Y o r k : E . P . D u t t o n & C o . , I n c . , 1 9 7 1 , 2 0 5 . 14 . Dore A s h t o n , " In P r a i s e o f I l l u s i o n , " i n B a t t o c k , G r e g o r y , e d . The New Art, New Y o r k : E . P . D u t t o n & C o . , I n c . , 1 9 6 6 , 1 1 5 . 1 5 . Max K o z l o f f , " C r i t i c a l S c h i z o p h r e n i a and the I n t e n -t i o n a l i s t M e t h o d , " i n B a t t o c k , G r e g o r y , e d . The New Art, New Y o r k : E .P . D u t t o n & C o . , I n c . , 1 9 6 6 , 1 2 8 - 3 0 . 1 6 . L a w r e n c e A l l o w a y , i n t r o . , Systemic Painting, New Y o r k : The So lomon R. Guggenhe im Museum, 1 9 6 6 . 1 7 . Ibid. 1 8 . Ben H e l l e r , i n t r o . , Toward a New Abstraction, New Y o r k : The J e w i s h Museum, M a y - S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 6 3 . 1 9 . F r i e d , loc. cit. 2 0 . Q u o t e d i n A l l o w a y , loc. cit. 2 1 . B a r r y L o r d , " R o n a l d B l o o r e and c o n t e m p o r a r y a r t c r i t i c i s m , " Canadian Art, V o l . X X I I I , No. 4 ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 6 6 ) , 2 4 . 2 2 . A l l o w a y , loc. cit. 2 3 . C a l a s , op. cit., 2 4 9 . 2 4 . G e o r g e K u b l e r , The Shape of Time, New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 , 2 4 - 5 . 2 5 . Ibid., 2 5 . 2 6 . S o n t a g , op. cit., 1 4 . 82 2 7 . B r u c e G l a s e r , " Q u e s t i o n s to S t e l l a and J u d d , " i n B a t t o c k , e d . , Minimal Art: A Critical Anthology, New Y o r k : E . P . D u t t o n & G o ; , I n c . , 1 9 6 8 , 5 8 . 2 8 . B a r b a r a R o s e , "ABC A r t , " i n B a t t o c k , G r e g o r y , e d . , Minimal Art: A Critical Anthology, New Y o r k : E . P . D u t t o n & C o . , I n c . , 1 9 6 8 , 2 8 1 . 2 9 . In c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h t he a r t i s t , F e b r u a r y , 1 9 7 3 . 3 0 . A l l o w a y , loc. cit. 3 1 . P e t e r F i n g e s t e n , " S p i r i t u a l i t y , M y s t i c i s m and Non-O b j e c t i v e A r t , " The Art Journal, V o l . XXI ( F a l l , 1 9 6 1 ) , 4 . 3 2 . Ibid. 3 3 . Susanne K. L a n g e r , " T h e A r t Symbol and t h e Symbol i n A r t , " i n Problems of Art, New Y o r k : C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s S o n s . , 1 9 5 7 , 1 3 3 . 3 4 . In Statements : 18 Canadian Artists, R e g i n a : The Norman M a c k e n z i e A r t G a l l e r y , N o v e m b e r - D e c e m b e r , 1 9 6 7 , 6 8 . 3 5 . R u d o l f A r n h e i m , Art and Visual Perception, B e r k e l e y and Los A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 6 7 , 4 4 2 . 3 6 . K u b l e r , op. cit., 2 7 . 3 7 . J ohn Noe l C h a n d l e r , " T h e C o l o r s o f M o n o c h r o m e , " artscanada, V o l . X X V I I I , No . 5 ( O c t o b e r - N o v e m b e r , 1 9 7 1 ) , 3 0 . 3 8 . Q u o t e d i n H e r s c h e l B. C h i p p , e d . , Theories of Modern Art, B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 7 0 , 5 5 0 - 3 . 3 9 . Thomas B. H e s s , Barnett Newman, New Y o r k : The Museum o f Modern A r t , 1 971 , 4 8 . 83 4 0 . L u c y R. L i p p a r d , i n t r o . , Ad Reinhardt, New Y o r k : The J e w i s h Museum, November 1966 - J a n u a r y 1 9 6 7 , 1 1 . 4 1 . T e r r y F e n t o n , " C a n a d a ' s A r t h u r McKay : A R e t r o -s p e c t i v e i n S a s k a t c h e w a n , " Artforum, V o l . V I I , No. 4 ( D e c e m b e r , 1968) , 41 . 4 2 . Q u o t e d i n C h i p p , op. cit.3 5 4 5 . 4 3 . C h a n d l e r , loo. oit. 4 4 . F e r n a n d e S a i n t - M a r t i n , " l e dynamisme des p l a s t i c i e n s de M o n t r e a l , " Vie des Arts, No . 44 ( A u t u m n , 1 9 6 6 ) , 4 7 . 4 5 . Q u o t e d i n Ibid. 4 6 . In Statements, op. oit., 6 8 . 4 7 . F i n g e s t e n , op. oit., 5. 4 8 . In c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h the a r t i s t , S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 7 2 . 4 9 . R o n a l d B l o o r e , " R o n a l d B l o o r e on P e r m a n e n c e , " artsoanada, V o l . XXV, No. 3 ( A p r i l 1 9 6 8 ) , 3 1 . 5 0 . D a v i d S i l c o x , " R o n a l d B l o o r e a t Here and Now G a l l e r y , T o r o n t o , " Canadian Art, V o l . X I X , No . 3 ( M a y / J u n e , 1 9 6 2 ) , 1 7 6 . 5 1 . M a u r i c e M e r l e a u - P o n t y , Phenomenology of Perception, L o n d o n : R o u t l e d g e & K. P a u l , 1 9 6 2 , 1 1 2 . 5 2 . Statements, loc. cit. 5 3 . Q u o t e d i n R i c h a r d S i m m i n s , i n t r o . , Five Painters from Regina, R e g i n a : The Norman M a c K e n z i e A r t G a l l e r y , 1961 . 5 4 . B l o o r e , loc. cit. 5 5 . Ibid. 84 5 6 . In Statements, op. cit., 4 9 . 5 7 . Q u o t e d i n S a i n t - M a r t i n , loo. cit. 5 8 . G y o r g y K e p e s , The New Landscape, C h i c a g o : Pau l T h e o b o l d and C o . , 1 9 5 6 , 2 4 . 5 9 . In Statements, loc. cit. 6 0 . Q u o t e d i n J ohn C h a n d l e r and L u c y R. L i p p a r d , " V i s u a l A r t and the I n v i s i b l e W o r l d , " Art International, Vo l . XI (May , 1 9 6 7 ) , 2 7 . 61 . Q u o t e d i n Ibid. 6 2 . Quo ted i n D o r o t h y S e c k l e r , " F r o n t i e r s o f S p a c e , " Art in America, V o l . 5 0 , No. 2 (Summer, 1 9 6 2 ) , 8 6 . 6 3 . Q u o t e d i n G e o r g e B o w e r i n g , " K i y o o k a ' s S c u l p t u r e , " artscanada, V o l . XXV, No . 5 ( D e c e m b e r , 1 9 6 8 ) , 7 6 . 6 4 . Kiyooka, R e g i n a : The Norman M a c k e n z i e . A r t G a l l e r y , O c t o b e r - N o v e m b e r , 1 9 5 9 . 6 5 . G e r r y G i l b e r t , "Roy K e n z i e K i y o o k a , " artscanada, V o l . X X V I I I , No. 4 ( A u g u s t / S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 7 1 ) , 6 0 . 6 6 . D a v i d T h o m p s o n , "A C a n a d i a n S c e n e , " Studio Inter-national, V o l . 176 ( D e c e m b e r , 1 9 6 8 ) , 2 4 3 . 6 7 . In c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h the a r t i s t , F e b r u a r y , 1 9 7 3 . 6 8 . Q u o t e d i n B a r r y L o r d , "WHITE/LIGHT a v i s i t to R o n a l d B l o o r e and h i s new p a i n t i n g s , " artscanada, V o l . X X V I I , No. 1 ( F e b r u a r y , 1 9 7 0 ) , 1 5 . 6 9 . Ibid. 7 0 . Arthur McKay, W e s t e r n Canada A r t C i r c u i t E x h i b i t i o n , 1961 , 1 0 . 85 7 1 . Ives Gaucher, New Y o r k : The M a r t h a J a c k s o n G a l l e r y , S e p t e m b e r - O c t o b e r , 1 9 6 6 . 7 2 . In c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h the a r t i s t , S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 7 2 . 7 3 . J ohn Noe l C h a n d l e r , " D i a l o g u e a t an E x h i b i t i o n o f Yves G a u c h e r ' s G r e y P a i n t i n g s , " artscanada, V o l . X X V I , No. 5 ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 6 9 ) , 6 . C h a p t e r 5 THE EDUCATION OF THE EYE The a t t e m p t o f o b s e r v e r s to e i t h e r r e a d mean ing i n t o s y m b o l s o r to impose s y m b o l s upon a n o n s y m b o l i c t r e a t -ment o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r has been d i s c u s s e d by P e t e r F i n g e s t e n : No verbal gymnastics will make i t s mysteries more comprehensible pre-cisely because one symbolism cannot be substituted for another.1 The p r o b l e m i s t h a t t h e s y n t a x o f t he s p o k e n o r w r i t t e n word c a n n o t a p p r o x i m a t e t he s u b t l e t y and a m b i g u i t y o f t he i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f e l e m e n t s i n t h e t y p e o f p a i n t i n g b e i n g d i s c u s s e d h e r e . B r i a n F i s h e r has o b s e r v e d t h a t t he p e o p l e who a r e " i n v o l v e d i n t he mak ing o f v i s u a l a r t , as d i s t i n c t f r o m i t s e x a m i n a t i o n , " do no t g e n e r a l l y depend v e r y much on l a n g u a g e as a " v e h i c l e f o r f o r m i n g , c l a r i f y -i n g and c o m m u n i c a t i n g t h e i r f e e l i n g s a b o u t t h e i r d i s c i p l i n e much l e s s do t h e y t r u s t l a n g u a g e to p r o p e r l y ' e x p l a i n ' a r t i t s e l f . " The r e a l r e a s o n f o r t h i s he s u g g e s t e d i s t h a t : 86 87 the fundamental meaning of any particular painting is not accessible through words. The organization of visual stimulae to evoke a particular range of responses in those perceiving i t 'depends for i t s coherence on conventions which have l i t t l e to do with language conventions.2 The b a s i s f o r s u c h " o t h e r " c o n v e n t i o n s w i l l be exam ined i n the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n . The D e v e l o p m e n t and A c c e p t a n c e o f Monochrome P a i n t i n g I t i s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d t h a t n o n - o b j e c t i v e monochrome p a i n t i n g has two ma in s o u r c e s : a e s t h e t i c i s m and Dada - " a r t - f o r - a r t ' s s a k e " and " a n t i - a r t . " The two p r i n c i p l e e v e n t s w h i c h s e t the p r e c e d e n t s f o r t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t o c c u r r e d w i t h i n a y e a r o f each o t h e r , and f o r e a r l y f i f t y y e a r s 3 "marked the l i m i t s o f v i s u a l a r t . " In t he f i r s t o f t h e s e K a s i m i r M a l e v i c h p a i n t e d a b l a c k s q u a r e on a w h i t e b a c k -g r o u n d i n 1913 w h i c h he f o l l o w e d i n 1918 w i t h h i s " s u p r e -m a t i s t " Wh i t e on Wh i t e s e r i e s . T h a t same y e a r , A l e x a n d e r Rodchenko e x e c u t e d a b l a c k - o n - b l a c k c a n v a s , a p p a r e n t l y i n r e p l y to M a l e v i c h ' s Wh i t e on Wh i t e work - b o t h were 4 s e n t to M o s c o w ' s T e n t h S t a t e E x h i b i t i o n o f 1 9 1 8 . The t h e o r i e s o f a e s t h e t i c i s m were p u t f o r t h i n M a l e v i c h ' s The N o n - O b j e c t i v e W o r l d . P r i n c i p a l l y , a p a i n t i n g was c o n s i d e r e d as an i n d e p e n d e n t o b j e c t : 88 Art no longer oares to serve the state and r e l i g i o n , i t no longer wishes to • i l l u s t r a t e the history of manners3 i t wants nothing further to do with the object, as such, and believes that i t can e x i s t , in and for i t s e l f , without 'things '. . . .5 The s e c o n d m a j o r e v e n t o c c u r r e d i n 1914 when M a r c e l Duchamp e x h i b i t e d a " r e a d y - m a d e " m e t a l b o t t l e - r a c k as an o r i g i n a l work o f a r t . In o p p o s i t i o n to a e s t h e t i c i s m , he a d v o c a t e d t h a t a r t be f r e e d f rom any p r e t e n s i o n to some " h i g h e r " p u r e l y a e s t h e t i c v a l u e and p r o p o s e d t h a t t he mak ing o f a r t be a u t o m a t i c r a t h e r t han p r e c o n c e i v e d and c o m p o s e d . In o t h e r w o r d s , he a d v o c a t e d t h e au tonomy o f t h e a r t i s t o v e r t he autonomy o f t h e work o f a r t . W h i l e on t he one hand t h e s e two a p p r o a c h e s a p p e a r to o p p o s e one a n o t h e r - M a l e v i c h ' s a e s t h e t i c i s m r e p r e s e n t i n g a s e a r c h f o r t he t r a n s c e n d e n t , u n i v e r s a l , a b s o l u t e , and Duchamp ' s " a n t i - a r t " t h e g e n e r a l d e n i a l o f t he e x i s t e n c e o f u n i v e r s a l v a l u e s - t h e y a l s o have a common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , t h a t o f " r e n u n c i a t i o n . " Duchamp r e n o u n c e s the u n i q u e n e s s o f t he a r t o b j e c t and i t s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n f r o m common o b j e c t s w h i l e M a l e v i c h r e j e c t s the n o t i o n t h a t a r t must be c o m p l e x . As a r e s u l t , t h i s l e d b o t h men u l t i m a t e l y to r e j e c t and e x c l u d e f r o m t h e i r work "many o f t h e most c h e r i s h e d p r e m i s e s o f W e s t e r n a r t " i n f a v o u r o f an a r t " s t r i p p e d to i t s b a r e , i r r e d u c i b l e m i n i m u m . " The new g e n e r a t i o n o f a r t i s t s b e g i n n i n g i n t h e 1 9 5 0 ' s , whose work i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s i m i l a r r e d u c e d s i m p l i c i t y , a p p e a r to be e x a m i n i n g i n a new c o n t e x t t he i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s e somewhat r a d i c a l d e c i s i o n s . As B a r b a r a Rose o b s e r v e d , t h e r e s u l t s a r e o f t e n " a c u r i o u s s y n t h e s i s " o f t h e s e two t e n d e n c i e s and "mus t be t a k e n as some s o r t o f v a l i d a t i o n o f M a l e v i c h ' s and D u c h a m p ' s p r o p h e t i c r e a c t i o n s . " ^ Monochrome p a i n t i n g had i t s " r e b i r t h " i n t h e e a r l y 1 9 5 0 ' s m a i n l y t h r o u g h the e x p e r i m e n t s o f B a r n e t t Newman, Mark Ro thko and Ad R e i n h a r d t , whose works a r e g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d to be the m a j o r p r e c e d e n t s f o r t he c u r r e n t monochrome t r e n d s . A l l o f t h e m , i n d i f f e r e n t w a y s , have s t r e s s e d t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t he p a i n t i n g above a l l s u r f a c e i n c i d e n t s and comb ine f o r m a l i n n o v a t i o n s w i t h an e v o c a t i v e v i e w i n g e x p e r i e n c e . L u c y L i p p a r d has i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e t y p e s o f c u r r e n t monotone o r monochrome p a i n t i n g : " t h e e v o c a t i v e , r o m a n t i c o r m y s t i c a l ; the f o r m a l l y r e j e c t i v e and w h o l l y n o n - a s s o c i a t i v e ; and the g e s t u r e o f o d e f i a n c e , a b s o l u t i o n o r c o m m e n t . " T h e s e t y p e s a r e f o u n d , to v a r i o u s d e g r e e s , i n t he work o f t h e t h r e e a r t i s t s . S e v e r a l works by B a r n e t t Newman f r o m 1950 a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by o n l y s l i g h t l y m o d u l a t e d , s i n g l e - c o l o u r s and s i n g l e s u r f a c e s ( F i g . 4 3 ) . H i s p l a c e as t he a r t i s t i c f a t h e r o f most s u b s e q u e n t monochrome p a i n t i n g was e s t a b -l i s h e d a t h i s f i r s t e x h i b i t i o n o f c o m p l e t e l y n o n - o b j e c t i v e 90 monochrome w o r k s , w i t h h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c v e r t i c a l s t r i p e s , a t t h e B e t t y P a r s o n s G a l l e r y i n 1 9 5 2 . Due to a g e n e r a l l a c k o f p u b l i c and c r i t i c a l r e s p o n s e to h i s w o r k , h o w e v e r , Newman t e m p o r a r i l y w i t h d r e w f r o m the a r t s c e n e and d i d no t e x h i b i t a g a i n u n t i l 1 9 5 8 . Newman l i t e r a l l y i n u n d a t e d t h e v i e w e r i n c o l o u r and h i s w a l l - s i z e c a n v a s e s p r o v o k e d an i m m e d i a t e , t o t a l r e s p o n s e . To i n t e n s i f y t he o p t i c a l i m p a c t o f t he monoch rome , Newman s u p p r e s s e d a t m o s p h e r i c and t a c t i l e d e t a i l s . H i s monochrome theme c o n t i n u e d i n a l o n g s e r i e s o f f o u r t e e n S t a t i o n s o f t he C r o s s f r o m 1 9 5 8 - 6 6 , w h i c h c o n c l u d e d w i t h a p r e c i s e , w h i t e - o n - w h i t e w o r k . Newman r e l a t e d h i s work to t he s e n s a t i o n o f t h e s u b l i m e , d e s c r i b i n g them as " r e v e l a t i o n s o f t he p r i m i t i v e a r t i m p u l s e " to e x p r e s s t h e "awesome f e e l i n g s " f e l t b e f o r e t he " t e r r o r g o f t he u n k n o w a b l e . " In 1950 Mark R o t h k o , a l s o began to s i m p l i f y h i s work and r e d u c e d the number o f e l e m e n t s t o two o r t h r e e r e c t a n g u l a r f o r m s a r r a n g e d s y m m e t r i c a l l y one above t he o t h e r . The l o o s e b r u s h w o r k and c l o s e l y r e l a t e d p a l e t t e g i v e s an a t m o s p h e r i c s e n s e to h i s p a i n t i n g s . As w i t h Newman's w o r k , t he l a r g e s c a l e o f R o t h k o ' s c o l o u r f i e l d s , a l t e r e d o n l y by s l i g h t c h a n g e s , g i v e r i s e to an o v e r w h e l m i n g c o l o u r s e n s a t i o n . T h e s e s u b t l y s t a i n e d a r e a s o f c o l o u r t e n d to " d e m a t e r i a l i z e " t he s u r f a c e c a u s i n g the f o r m s to h o v e r o u t w a r d and e n v e l o p the v i e w e r . H i s d a r k p a i n t i n g s 91 s i n c e t he l a t e 1 9 5 0 ' s ( F i g . 4 4 ) , a p p r o a c h monotone by r e j e c t i n g d r a w i n g , d e t a i l and i m p a s t o f o r what m i g h t be c a l l e d " c o l o u r - l i g h t . " T h i s e m p h a s i s on a d i f f u s e d and d i f f e r e n t i a t e d l i g h t , r a t h e r t han a s t e a d y , f l a t l i g h t , r e l a t e t h e s e works to t he " e v o c a t i v e " b r a n c h o f c u r r e n t monochrome p a i n t i n g . A l s o a t t h i s t i m e , Ad R e i n h a r d t began a s e r i e s o f a l l - r e d o r a l l - b l u e p a i n t i n g s t h a t were s t r i c t l y s y m m e t r i c a l and c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a c l o s e - v a l u e d c o l o u r s a t u r a t e d i n t o t he c a n v a s . A 1952 e x h i b i t i o n o f t h e s e works a t B e t t y P a r s o n ' s G a l l e r y a p p a r e n t l y made l i t t l e p u b l i c i m p r e s s i o n o f any k i n d . 1 ( ^ Over t he n e x t few y e a r s he p r o g r e s s i v e l y e l i m i n a t e d c o l o u r u n t i l , i n 1 9 5 8 , he a r r i v e d a t the p r e d o m i n a n t l y b l a c k s q u a r e monochrome works t h a t o c c u p i e d h i s a t t e n t i o n u n t i l h i s d e a t h i n 1 9 7 0 . He w r o t e : There is something wrong, irresponsible and mindless about colour, something impossible to control. Control and rationality are part of any morality.^ R e i n h a r d t ' s s t a t e m e n t s were e x t r e m e l y f o r m a l i s t - and a e s t h e t i c i s t - o r i e n t e d as i s e v i d e n t i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t he u l t i m a t e p a i n t i n g s : The one work for a fine artist now, the one thing in painting to do, is to repeat the one-size canvas -- the single-scheme, 92 one-color monochrome, one linear-division in each direction, one sym-metry, one texture, one formal device, one free-hand-brushing, one rhythm. . . •painting everything into one overall uniformity and non-regularity.^^-In t h i s s e n s e R e i n h a r d t c l e a r l y f i t s i n t o t h e " f o r m a l l y r e j e c t i v e " c a t e g o r y o f monochrome p r o p o s e d by L i p p a r d . As C h a n d l e r s u g g e s t e d , h o w e v e r , t h e r e i s a t r e m e n d o u s g u l f 1 3 be tween R e i n h a r d t ' s p a i n t i n g s and h i s p u b l i s h e d s t a t e m e n t s , and t h e i n t e n s i t y o f s e n s a t i o n g i v e n o f f by t he p a i n t i n g s must r e l a t e him a l s o to Newman, R o t h k o , and t h e " e v o c a t i v e and m y s t i c a l " c a t e g o r y . A number o f o t h e r a r t i s t s were e x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h a monochrome t y p e o f p a i n t i n g d u r i n g t he 1 9 5 0 ' s and a few m a j o r e x a m p l e s s h o u l d be m e n t i o n e d . F o l l o w i n g Newman's 1952 e x h i b i t i o n , R o b e r t R a u s h e n b e r g 1 s Wh i t e P a i n t i n g , g p a i n t e d i n 1 9 5 1 , was e x h i b i t e d f o r t he f i r s t t i m e a t t h e S t a b l e G a l l e r y i n 1 9 5 3 . T h i s work c o n s i s t e d o f s e v e n v e r t i c a l p a n e l s hung h o r i z o n t a l l y f o r m i n g a 6 by 1Oi f o o t r e c t a n g l e . He a l s o c r e a t e d s e v e r a l o t h e r w h i t e p a i n t i n g s i n 1951 w h i c h were b a s e d on m o d u l a r u n i t s hung i n v a r i o u s c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . In c o n t r a s t t o t h e s u r r e a l i s t - i n s p i r e d b a c k g r o u n d o f Newman's e v o c a t i v e a p p r o a c h , R a u s c h e n b e r g 1 s work i s l i n k e d more t o Dada o r t o L i p p a r d ' s " g e s t u r e o f d e f i a n c e o r comment" i n i t s q u e s t i o n i n g o f t he n a t u r e o f w h i t e and o f a r t as a w h o l e . In a d d i t i o n t o h i s t a r g e t and f l a g s e r i e s , J a s p e r 93 J ohns a l s o c r e a t e d a g roup o f h i g h l y t e x t u r e d monochrome works ( F i g . 4 7 ) , F r a n k S t e l l a ' s s y m m e t r i c a l b l a c k p a i n t i n g s o f 1958-59 ( F i g . 46) and Pau l B r a c h ' s a l l - b l u e and a l l -g r e y works w i t h f a i n t l y s u p e r i m p o s e d c i r c u l a r images ( F i g . 4 8 ) , a r e a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f the c u r r e n t t r e n d s . The i m p o r t a n c e o f the 1958-59 Newman e x h i b i t i o n o f monochrome works a t B e n n i n g t o n C o l l e g e and New Y o r k , and the e x h i b i t i o n o f S t e l l a ' s s y m m e t r i c a l b l a c k p a i n t i n g s i n 1959-60 was r e f e r r e d to i n C h a p t e r 1. W h i l e t h e s e and o t h e r e a r l y e x h i b i t i o n s were n o t i c e d by the a r t i s t s , i t seems e v i d e n t t h a t m o s t , i f no t a l l , o f t he e x p e r i m e n t s w i t h monochrome o r nea r-monochrome p a i n t i n g met w i t h r e l a -t i v e l y l i t t l e p u b l i c s u c c e s s u n t i l w e l l i n t o t he 1 9 6 0 ' s . L u c y L i p p a r d has r e c o r d e d t h a t a " r e t r o s p e c t i v e " e x h i b i t i o n o f R e i n h a r d t ' s work a t B e t t y P a r s o n s ' S e c t i o n 11 i n 1 9 6 0 , "went r e l a t i v e l y u n n o t i c e d " and t h a t i t was n o t u n t i l t h e " m o d e s t s u c c e s s " o f t he 1965 t h r e e - g a l l e r y show a t t h e G raham, S t a b l e and P a r s o n s g a l l e r i e s , w h i c h c o v e r e d p a i n t -i n g s f r o m 1951-53 and the l a t e s t b l a c k w o r k s , t h a t h i s 14 work became more w i d e l y r e c o g n i z e d . S u b s e q u e n t l a r g e R e i n h a r d t e x h i b i t i o n s a t t he J e w i s h Museum i n 1966-67 and a t t he M a r l b o r o u g h G a l l e r y i n 1 9 7 0 , a l o n g w i t h Newman's S t a t i o n s o f t he C r o s s e x h i b i t i o n a t the Guggenhe im Museum i n 1966 and h i s r e t r o s p e c t i v e a t K n o e d l e r & C o . , i n 1 9 6 9 , 94 a n d , i n C a n a d a , t h e e x h i b i t i o n o f Yves G a u c h e r ' s G r e y on  G r e y p a i n t i n g s a t t h e V a n c o u v e r and Edmonton A r t G a l l e r i e s i n 1 9 6 9 , have c o n t r i b u t e d to t he g e n e r a l a c c e p t a n c e o f monochrome p a i n t i n g . A m o n o t o n a l o r m o n o c h r o m a t i c c a n v a s , t h e r e f o r e , a p p e a r e d b l a n k o r " e m p t y " to most p e o p l e u n t i l w e l l i n t o t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s when the e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e s e e x h i b i t i o n s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , a p p e a r s t o have h e i g h t e n e d the p e r c e p t u a l f a c u l t i e s o f t he p u b l i c and has made such works "more v i s i b l e . " Even i n t h e l a t e 1 9 6 0 ' s , h o w e v e r , s u c h works u n -d o u b t e d l y l o o k e d more e x t r e m e t h a n t h e y do t o d a y . A l o n g w i t h i n c r e a s e d i n t e l l e c t u a l a c c e p t a n c e , t h e n , monochrome p a i n t i n g has a l s o p r o v o k e d i n c r e a s e d p e r c e p t u a l a c c e p t a n c e . In d i s c u s s i n g the work o f monochrome p a i n t e r s t o d a y i t i s n e c e s s a r y to t a k e the e d u c a t i o n o f the s p e c t a t o r ' s eye i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . As L u c y L i p p a r d commented : the art of esthetic sensation, no matter how r e j e c t i v e , how impersonally i t i s handled, evokes a psychic state, the p o s i t i v e and t o t a l experience of seeing. . . . ^ The N a t u r e o f t h e V i s u a l E x p e r i e n c e The f i v e a r t i s t s b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s p a p e r a r e p a r t o f a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l g roup who a r e a d d i n g a d i m e n s i o n 95 to t h e way we l o o k a t a r t . F o r t h e m , p a i n t i n g i s l a r g e l y a b o u t s e e i n g . They e x p l o r e t he a r e a o f v i s u a l e x p e r i e n c e by c r e a t i n g p a i n t i n g s o f s u b t l e a m b i g u i t i e s and p e r c e p t u a l n u a n c e s as a means to e x t e n d the r ange o f v i s u a l a r t . J ohn C h a n d l e r has e x p r e s s e d t h a t t he most i m p o r t a n t a r t i s t s a r e t h o s e who manage to h e l p us " t o e x t e n d o u r v i s i o n -1 fi t o make us see what we have o v e r l o o k e d b e f o r e . " V i s u a l e x p e r i e n c e s a r e b a s e d on two d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s - t he p a t t e r n s o f t he l i g h t waves t h e m s e l v e s and what we a c t u a l l y s e e . R u d o l f A r n h e i m o b s e r v e d t h a t e v e r y v i s u a l p a t t e r n i s " d y n a m i c " and t h a t t h e " e s s e n c e o f a v i s u a l e x p e r i e n c e " c a n n o t be e x p r e s s e d m e r e l y by " i n c h e s o f s i z e and d i s t a n c e , d e g r e e s o f a n g l e o r w a v e l e n g t h s o f h u e " : These static measurements define only the 'stimulus ' that i s , the message sent^to the eye by the physical world. But the l i f e of a percept - i t s expres-sion and meaning - derives entirely from 'perceptual forces'. . .seeing is the perception of action.17 T h e s e dynam i c a s p e c t s b e l o n g to any v i s u a l e x p e r i e n c e as i n t i m a t e l y as the s t a t i c q u a l i t i e s o f c o n s t a n t s s u c h as s h a p e , s i z e , t e x t u r e and c o l o u r . In o t h e r w o r d s , w h i l e what we see i s c o n n e c t e d to what i s t h e r e , i t i s n o t n e c e s -s a r i l y d e t e r m i n e d by i t . I t i s d e t e r m i n e d , r a t h e r , by what we have seen i n t he p a s t and what we e x p e c t t o s e e . 96 As A r n h e i m o b s e r v e d , shape i s d e t e r m i n e d by more t h a n what s t r i k e s t he eye a t t h e t i m e o f o b s e r v a t i o n : The experience of the present moment is never isolated. It is the most recent among an i n f i n i t e number of sensory experiences that have occurred throughout the person's past l i f e . Thus the new image gets into contact with the memory traces of shapes that have been perceived in the past.18 The most r e c e n t i m a g e , t h e r e f o r e , i s an i n d i v i s i b l e p a r t o f t he l a r g e s t o c k o f images s t o r e d i n o u r memory . B r i a n F i s h e r , i n d i s c u s s i n g p e r c e p t i o n , r e m a r k e d t h a t i n t r y i n g to d e t e r m i n e " t h e a c t u a l p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y o f an o b j e c t - i n o t h e r words i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s c o n s t a n t f o r e v e r y b o d y - i t was f o u n d to be s o m e t h i n g l e s s t han 1 9 50 p e r c e n t and t h a t e v e r y t h i n g e l s e was a l l l e a r n e d . " Roy K i y o o k a adds t h a t " n o t h i n g i n t he w o r l d i s h i d d e n " b u t i s t h e r e f o r e v e r y o n e . In o t h e r w o r d s , e v e r y o n e can see t he same t h i n g s s c i e n t i f i c a l l y - i t ' s j u s t a " m a t t e r 20 o f r e c o g n i t i o n , " o f b e c o m i n g aware o f t h e m . What we see t h e n i s no t n e c e s s a r i l y what i s t h e r e - we have l e a r n e d to see i n a p a r t i c u l a r way. M a u r i c e M e r l e a u - P o n t y has s t a t e d t h a t : There is no vision without thought. But i t is not enough to think in order to see. Vision is a conditioned thought;. . . the thinking that belongs to vision func-tions according to a program and a law that i t has not given i t s e l f . It does 97 not possess i t s own premises; i t is not a thought altogether present and actual; there is in i t s oenter a mystery and a passivity. 21 Myrna and I r w i n G o p n i k have r e p o r t e d t h a t " s t u d e n t s o f s e e i n g - t h o s e t r y i n g to d e t e r m i n e t he a n t e c e d e n t s and c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e p r o c e s s i n g o f v i s u a l i n f o r m a t i o n " -g e n e r a l l y b r e a k t he p r o c e s s up i n t o a s e q u e n c e o f t h r e e i n t e r a c t i v e b u t r e l a t i v e l y d i s t i n c t e l e m e n t s : " 1 . s e n s a -t i o n ; 2. p e r c e p t ; 3. c o n c e p t " w h i c h r e f e r , i n o r d e r , t o : 1. the contact of the receptor organs with the emitted physical signal; 2. the conversion of this signal into the form of information appropriate to the particular organism; 3. the higher cognitive processing involving memory, insight, attitudes, e t c . 2 2 In J ohn C h a n d l e r ' s words p e r c e p t i o n " i s b a s e d on s e n s a t i o n s t h a t c a r r y i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e o b j e c t p e r -c e i v e d , " w h i l e s e n s a t i o n " i s b a s e d on s e n s o r y s t i m u l i t h a t c a r r y o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n . . . p a r t i c u l a r l y a b o u t t h e r e l a t i o n o f t h e v i e w e r t o t he o b j e c t and a b o u t t h e s e n s a t i o n i t s e l f . " P e r c e p t i o n , wh i ch i s c l i n i c a l and o b j e c t i v e , he c h a r a c -t e r i z e s as " o t h e r - c o n s c i o u s " ; w h i l e s e n s a t i o n w h i c h i s f l u i d , v o l a t i l e and s u b j e c t i v e , i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as " s e l f -23 c o n s c i o u s . " A c c o r d i n g to A r n h e i m , r e c e n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h i n k i n g e n c o u r a g e s us t o c a l l v i s i o n a " c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y o f t he m i n d " : 9 8 Perceiving achieves3 at the sensory l e v e l , what in the realm of reasoning i s known as understanding. . .eyesight i s i n s i g h t . 24 He adds t h a t t h e human mind s e a r c h e s f o r t h e s o l u t i o n o f a v i s u a l p r o b l e m by means o f a l l i t s f a c u l t i e s , " t h e i n t u i t i v e power o f p e r c e p t i o n and t h e r e a s o n i n g power o f t he i n t e l l e c t . 1 , 2 3 In o r d e r to f u l l y d e s c r i b e any v i s u a l e x p e r i e n c e , t h e r e f o r e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y to be c o n c e r n e d no t o n l y w i t h d e s c r i b i n g what i s t h e r e i n m e a s u r a b l e t e rms b u t a l s o w i t h what we a c t u a l l y s e e . T h i s w i l l become more e v i d e n t i n a f u l l e r e x a m i n a t i o n o f t he monochrome p a i n t i n g s o f B l o o r e , F i s h e r , G a u c h e r , K i y o o k a and McKay . C o l o u r , I l l u s i o n and the E l e m e n t o f A m b i g u i t y R e l a t e d to the g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t i n e x p l o r i n g v i s u a l e x p e r i e n c e t h r o u g h s u b t l e t y and p e r c e p t u a l n u a n c e , t h e r e has been a r e d u c t i o n i n the use o f s t r o n g c o l o u r c o n t r a s t . C o l o u r i s u sed i n a more e v o c a t i v e o r n e u t r a l manner and p r e f e r e n c e i s shown f o r b l a c k s , w h i t e s , g r e y s , browns and p a l e a t m o s p h e r i c t o n e s . The a r t i s t s e x p e r i m e n t w i t h c l o s e v a l u e s o f n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l hues a n d , a t t i m e s , w i t h t h e v a r i a t i o n o f d e g r e e s between m a t t e and g l o s s s u r f a c e s . One o f t he most i n t e r e s t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f 99 monochrome p a i n t i n g i s t he w ide r a n g e o f e x p r e s s i o n p o s s i b l e w i t h i n i t s o s t e n s i b l e r e s t r i c t i o n s . E v e r y m i n u t e s u r f a c e v a r i a t i o n o r v a l u e change t a k e s on a h i g h l y c h a r g e d i m -p o r t a n c e i n t he c o n t e x t o f t h e w h o l e . The means i s r e d u c e d i n o r d e r to g i v e e m p h a s i s to what r e m a i n s . Some o f t he p a i n t i n g s b e i n g d i s c u s s e d h e r e have more t h a n one c o l o u r and a r e n o t t h e r e f o r e , s t r i c t l y m o n o c h r o m a t i c . T h e y c l e a r l y ' a p p e a r ' m o n o c h r o m a t i c , h o w e v e r , u n t i l t h e s e n s e s have been a d j u s t e d to a c c e p t t h e s u b t l e c o l o u r a t i o n s a n d , t h e r e -f o r e , t h e y w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s c o n t e x t . The s u b t l e and o f t e n amb iguous i n t e r p l a y between f i g u r e and g r o u n d i n some o f t h e s e works i s c a r r i e d c l o s e to t he t h r e s h o l d o f v i s i b i l i t y . Leo S t e i n b e r g , i n r e f e r e n c e to t he p a i n t i n g s o f Pau l B r a c h , i n 1 9 6 4 , i d e n t i f i e d f o u r d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f i n v i s i b i l i t y w h i c h a r e r e l e v a n t ! to t he p r e s e n t d i s c u s s i o n : I n v i s i b i l i t y by disappearance. An object absent, remote or indistinct leaves a leftover emptiness and straining to see . . . (such a) vacant geometry suggests depleted voids, voided containers. . . . Then, i n v i s i b i l i t y by extinction of light. . .Not actual darkness - which conveys a specific degree of absence of light - but a seif-consistency or opacity that can be neither brightened nor deepened. And i n v i s i b i l i t y due to dimmed vision; whether through blindness or the sightless-ness of inattention. . .unseeing indifference or disinterest. . . . 1 0 0 And. . .the i n v i s i b i l i t y of an encompass-ing undifferentiated homogeneity. Obviously, where all differentiation is lacking, nothing will show. Oneness too is invisible.26 W h i l e a p a i n t i n g w i t h a g r e a t d e a l o f v i s u a l i n -f o r m a t i o n can be v i s u a l l y e x c i t i n g , the same can a l s o be s a i d o f a work w i t h v e r y l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t can be p e r c e p t u a l l y a n a l y z e d i n a v a r i e t y o f w a y s . Fo rma l c o m -p l e x i t y i s no t n e c e s s a r i l y an i n d e x o f r i c h n e s s o f c o n t e n t . The p a i n t i n g s b e i n g d i s c u s s e d h e r e a r e v i s u a l l y s t i m u l a t i n g no t i n s p i t e o f t he s p a r e n e s s o f i n f o r m a t i o n , b u t b e c a u s e o f i t . As R o b e r t M o r r i s s t a t e d : " S i m p l i c i t y o f shape does no t n e c e s s a r i l y e q u a t e w i t h s i m p l i c i t y o f e x p e r i e n c e . " The r e d u c e d means e m p l o y e d by t h e s e a r t i s t s c r e a t e s an expanded r a n g e o f v i s i o n t h r o u g h the c o n c e n t r a t i o n upon e s s e n t i a l s and the f o r m a l e l e m e n t s become t h e c a r r i e r s o f a m b i g u i t i e s and c o n t r a d i c t i o n s w h i c h o r i g i n a t e i n t he eye o f t he s p e c t a t o r . As a r e s u l t , t he G e s t a l t t h e o r y t h a t we a l w a y s r e a c h f o r t he s i m p l e s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n does no t n e c e s s a r i l y h o l d . E . H . G o m b r i c h o b s e r v e d t h a t : . . .since art has begun to cut i t s e l f loose from anchorage in the visible world, the question of how to suggest one reading rather than another of any arrangement of forms has become of c r i t i c a l importance. . . Our i n a b i l i t y to see 'ambiguity often protects us from the knowledge that 'pure ' shapes allow of an i n f i n i t y of spatial readings.28 101 A m b i g u i t y , i n o t h e r w o r d s , c o n f u s e s the a r t i s t i c s t a t e m e n t and i n t e r f e r e s w i t h t h e o b s e r v e r ' s p e r c e p t u a l j u d g e m e n t , c a u s i n g him to s h i f t back and f o r t h be tween two o r more i n c o m p a t i b l e c o n c e p t i o n s . In s u c h amb iguous s i t u a t i o n s , t he v i s u a l p a t t e r n c e a s e s t o d e t e r m i n e what i s s e e n , and 29 s u b j e c t i v e f a c t o r s i n the o b s e r v e r become more e f f e c t i v e . Sam H u n t e r s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e e l e m e n t o f a m b i g u i t y " r e s i d e s i n t he r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f a d e t e r m i n a t e s y s t e m o f f o r m a l 30 o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h t he i n d e t e r m i n a t e human f a c t o r . " The same r i c h i n t e r a c t i o n s w h i c h a r e c r e a t e d w i t h the s u b t l e use o f c o l o u r by t h e s e f i v e a r t i s t s a r e a l s o e v i d e n t i n t h e s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e i r w o r k s . Many o f t h e i r p a i n t i n g s p r o v o k e i n t he v i e w e r a s i m u l t a n e o u s e x p e r i e n c e o f d e p t h and p l a n e . A f t e r the i n i t i a l moment o f c o n f r o n -t a t i o n , when the c o n t r a d i c t o r y p e r c e p t u a l e f f e c t s o p e r a t e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , a p e r i o d o f a d j u s t m e n t f o l l o w s . .Du r i ng t h i s t i m e the a m b i g u i t i e s a r e r e c o n c i l e d , o r a t l e a s t i d e n t i f i e d , w h i l e t h e eye and the mind a l t e r n a t e be tween t h e c o m p e t i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . L u c y L i p p a r d i d e n t i f i e d the p r i m e c r i t i c a l p r o b l e m i n v o l v e d i n e v a l u a t i n g s u c h works as t he d i s t i n c t i o n be tween the a b s u r d and t h e am-b i g u o u s . She q u o t e d f r o m S imone de B e a u v o i r ' s E t h i c s o f  A m b i g u i t y ( 1 9 4 8 ) : The notion of ambiguity must not be confused with that of absurdity. To declare that existence i s absurd i s 102 to deny that i t can ever be given a meaning; to say that i t i s ambiguous i s to assert that i t s meaning i s never fixed, that i t must be constantly won.3^ In o r d e r to deny t he i l l u s i o n o f d e p t h on a two-d i m e n s i o n a l p l a n e , t h e p i c t u r e i s e i t h e r made a b s o l u t e l y f r o n t a l by f l a t f o rms o r g e o m e t r i c s h a p e s on a r e g u l a r o r s y m m e t r i c a l s u p p o r t , o r i s made c o n t r a d i c t o r y by t h e use o f i l l u s i o n i s t i c d e v i c e s wh i ch d i s t o r t t h e v i s u a l f a c t s and f o r c e t h e eye back to t he p l a n e . The t e rm " i l l u s i o n , " a c c o r d i n g to A r n h e i m , r e l a t e s to " a d i f f e r e n c e a r i s i n g be tween the p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l w o r l d [ w h i c h ] makes 32 us commit a m i s t a k e i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h i n g s . " As M e r l e a u -P o n t y s t a t e d i t , " j u d g e m e n t , " w h i c h " s u p p l i e s what i s m i s s i n g i n s e n s a t i o n , " c a n n o t e x p l a i n i l l u s i o n o r " h a l l u c i -n a t i o n , " t h e d i f f e r e n c e between " s e e i n g and t h i n k i n g one 33 s e e s . " In d i s c u s s i n g t h e work o f t he f i v e a r t i s t s , t h i s amb iguous i n f o r m a t i o n , w h i c h can be i n t e r p r e t e d p e r c e p t u a l l y i n a v a r i e t y o f w a y s , w i l l be more e v i d e n t . The u l t i m a t e i n m o n o t o n e , monochrome p a i n t i n g i s , o f c o u r s e , t he b l a c k o r w h i t e c a n v a s . As the two e x t r e m e s , the s o - c a l l e d n o - c o l o u r s , w h i t e and b l a c k , a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p u r e and i m p u r e , open and c l o s e d . Wh i t e has been d e s c r i b e d as " o p e n , p e a c e f u l , p o t e n t i a l , h o p e f u l , a ' t a b u l a r a s a , ' and b l a c k as " r e s e r v e d , f i n a l , a b s o l u t e , 103 34 p a i n t e d o u t , d e s t r o y e d . " A r n h e i m o b s e r v e d a " p e c u l i a r , t w o f o l d q u a l i t y " i n the c o l o u r w h i t e : On the one hand, i t i s the supreme f u l -f i l l m e n t , the i n t e g r a t i o n of a l l the richness to which p a r t i c u l a r colours can add up. But on the other hand, i t i s also the absence of hue and therefore of l i f e . . .white i s completeness and nothingness. 35 Ron B l o o r e uses o n l y w h i t e s i n h i s p a i n t i n g s b u t , by e m p l o y i n g them i n s u b t l e c o m b i n a t i o n s , by u s i n g m a t t e and g l o s s , and by t a k i n g a d v a n t a g e o f t h e many p r o p e r t i e s o f l i g h t and shadow , he a c h i e v e s a m u l t i c o l o u r e d e x p r e s s i o n w i t h i n t h e w h i t e r a n g e . I t i s t h u s e a s y t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t when a s k e d why he d o e s n ' t p a i n t i n c o l o u r , he s i m p l y 3 6 a n s w e r s , "I d o . " He has used as many as t w e n t y - t h r e e d i f f e r e n t hues and t o n e s o f w h i t e i n works l i k e h i s D o r v a l A i r p o r t mura l o f 1967 and as few as two i n h i s r e c e n t works s i n c e 1 9 7 1 . B a r r y L o r d s u g g e s t s t h a t B l o o r e ' s s e l e c t i o n o f w h i t e s i s i n e v i t a b l e as s u b t l e r e l i e f i s v i s i b l e o n l y i n t e rms o f l i g h t and shadow and any c o l o u r o t h e r t h a n w h i t e wou ld o b s t r u c t the d i r e c t t r a n s l a t i o n o f l i g h t i n t he r e l i e f - " t h e d i r e c t t r a n s l a t i o n o f l i g h t i s 37 what B l o o r e ' s new p a i n t i n g s a r e a b o u t . " In t h e s e p a i n t i n g s he d e v e l o p s a h i g h l y e x p r e s s i v e s u r f a c e o f f l a t w h i t e and i v o r y , g l o s s and m a t t e , and s u b t l e r e l i e f t h a t i s s e n s i t i v e t o d i r e c t and r e f r a c t e d l i g h t , r e f l e c t e d and a b s o r b e d l i g h t , 104 and shadow. B l o o r e e n j o y s t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n be tween t h e i r " e x i s t e n c e as p h y s i c a l e n t i t i e s " and what he t e r m s " t h e i r 3 8 e t h e r e a l embod iment o f l i g h t . " He c r e a t e s h i s images w i t h a s e n s i t i v i t y to t he c o n d i t i o n s o f n a t u r a l l i g h t t h a t the e n v i r o n m e n t o f f e r s f o r p e r c e p t i o n . " I d e a l l y , " he s a y s , " t h e p a i n t i n g s wou ld be o u t s i d e and you w o u l d n ' t even 39 n o t i c e t h e m . " When seen i n n a t u r a l l i g h t f o r an e x t e n d e d p e r i o d o f t i m e , t h e s e works r e v e a l a f u l l r a n g e o f c o n s t a n t l y s h i f t i n g nuances o f c o l o u r . A r t McKay has used a w i d e r , b u t s t i l l l i m i t e d , r a n g e o f c o l o u r s i n h i s w o r k . In a d d i t i o n to o r g a n i c t o n e s o f r e d - b r o w n and b l u e - g r e y t o n e s , b l a c k has been t h e most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c o l o u r i n h i s p a l e t t e . The e x p r e s s i v e q u a l i t i e s o f b l a c k c o n t r i b u t e much to the e v o c a t i v e e x p e r i -ence g i v e n o f f by h i s p a i n t i n g s . B l a c k r e p r e s e n t s no t o n l y t he a b s e n c e o f c o l o u r - a s y m b o l i c v o i d w i t h m y s t e r i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s i n b o t h t h e Wes t e rn and E a s t e r n t r a d i t i o n s , b u t i t a l s o has c e r t a i n " i n e s c a p a b l e a l l u s i o n s to roman-40 t i c i s m . " McKay t h u s s e t s up a p o l a r i t y be tween h i s r e d u c e d image and f o r m a t and the r o m a n t i c a l l u s i v e n e s s o f h i s use o f c o l o u r . S i n c e 1967 G a u c h e r , a l s o , has been c o n c e r n e d more w i t h s u b t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t o n e s r a t h e r t han w i t h s t r o n g c o l o u r i n t e r a c t i o n . H i s G r e y on G r e y p a i n t i n g s o f 1967-69 a r e o f s u b t l e y d i f f e r e n t t o n e s o f g r e y w i t h p r o p o r t i o n s o f 105 b l u e , r o s e , g r e e n , y e l l o w , p u r p l e and o t h e r c o l o u r s a d d e d . The d i f f e r e n c e i s o f t e n n o t e v i d e n t e x c e p t by c o m p a r i s o n . F o r t h e l i n e s o r " s i g n a l s " o f u n t i n t e d g r e y w h i c h a r e s u p e r -imposed on the g r o u n d i n v a r i o u s c o n f i g u r a t i o n s , G a u c h e r u ses e i g h t o r t e n v a l u e s o f a b l a c k - w h i t e m i x t u r e w i t h t he e x c e p t i o n o f b l a c k and w h i t e t h e m s e l v e s . L i k e t he g r e y s o f t h e g r o u n d , t h e s e l i n e s a r e e x t r e m e l y c l o s e i n v a l u e and the v a r i a t i o n i s u s u a l l y o n l y d e t e r m i n e d i n t he c o n t e x t o f t h e p a i n t i n g as a w h o l e . They m o d u l a t e t he f i e l d o f t h e p a i n t i n g and a f f e c t t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t he c o l o u r f i e l d where t h e y o c c u r . In h i s p a i n t i n g s f r o m 1 9 7 0 - 7 1 ; the t o n a l m o d u l a -t i o n o f t he g r e y s i s a l s o e x t r e m e l y s u b t l e and a s e n s u o u s s p a t i a l r hy thm i s c r e a t e d f r o m the s p a c i n g and t o n a l v a l u e s o f t he a d j a c e n t b a n d s , some o f w h i c h a r e d i v i d e d by a g r e y l i n e e x t e n d i n g a c r o s s the c a n v a s f r o m edge to e d g e . To G a u c h e r , t he c o l o u r g r e y c o n t a i n s " a l l c o l o u r s and a l l 41 e m o t i o n a l s t a t e s . " As e a r l y as 1 9 6 5 , he had r e c o g n i z e d t h e r i c h n e s s o f g r e y and i t s s e n s i t i v i t y t o i t s s u r r o u n d -i n g s . H i s p a i n t i n g s s i n c e t h e n r e f l e c t h i s a c u t e a w a r e n e s s o f t h i s f a c t by e s t a b l i s h i n g " a c o n t e x t o f such f i n e l y -t u n e d s e n s i b i l i t y t h a t t he s l i g h t e s t hue becomes o p e r a t i v e . " G a u c h e r ' s p a i n t i n g s , l i k e t h o s e o f B l o o r e , a r e e x t r e m e l y s e n s i t i v e to c h a n g e s i n l i g h t w h i c h c r e a t e u n -e x p e c t e d s h i f t s i n c o l o u r and t o n e . He i s e q u a l l y a 106 p e r f e c t i o n i s t i n t h e h a n g i n g and l i g h t i n g o f h i s w o r k s , h o w e v e r , and s t a t e s t h a t a p a i n t i n g " h a s to be g i v e n a c h a n c e to behave i n t h e way i t wants to - i f t he c h a n c e i s d e n i e d , i t j u s t 43 s h u t s u p . " J ohn C h a n d l e r has drawn an a n a l o g y between t h e s u b t l e t y o f G a u c h e r ' s p a i n t i n g s and t h e m u s i c o f t he E a s t and c o n t e m p o r a r y e l e c t r o n i c m u s i c o f t h e Wes t . W e s t e r n m u s i c , wh i ch has f o r some t i m e been c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s t r o n g c o n t r a s t s , sounds jumpy to an E a s t e r n e r - " l i k e a b i r d h o p p i n g f r o m b r a n c h to b r a n c h " - w h i l e e l e c t r o n i c m u s i c has p e r m i t t e d a much g r e a t e r s u b t l e t y and i t i s t h i s " a r t o f f i n e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n " t h a t G a u c h e r has a p p l i e d to h i s 44 w o r k . G a u c h e r f e e l s t h a t h i s p a i n t i n g s c r e a t e t h e i r own k i n d 45 o f v i s u a l sound o r , a t l e a s t , " a v e r y d e l i c a t e s i l e n c e . " 46 W h i l e most p a i n t i n g s s h o u t , h i s w h i s p e r . Such an a n a l o g y i s e f f e c t i v e f o r the work o f a l l t he a r t i s t s b e i n g d i s c u s s e d h e r e . From 1966 to 1968 K i y o o k a ' s p a i n t i n g s , t o o , were c h a r -a c t e r i z e d by t o n a l m o d u l a t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n the s t r o n g c o n t r a s t s o f h i s e a r l i e r w o r k . T h e s e s u b t l e t o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s s o f t e n t he p r e c i s e g e o m e t r i c o v a l f o rms w h i c h t e n d to f l o a t a m b i g u o u s l y w i t h i n and be tween t h e i r v e r t i c a l l y d i v i d e d p a n e l s . In some c a s e s the o v a l s a r e no t i m m e d i a t e l y s e e n , b u t emerge and f a d e o n l y as the eye s h i f t s f r o m one p a r t o f t h e c a n v a s t o a n o t h e r . Here a g a i n , the s u b t l e s t change i n l i g h t i n g can c a u s e a r e v o l u t i o n i n a c a n v a s , as can i t s p o s i t i o n r e l a t i v e t o a n o t h e r w o r k . H i s use o f a t m o s p h e r i c b l u e t o n a l i t i e s and t h e a s y m m e t r i c a l p l a c e m e n t o f t he o v a l f o rms r e i n f o r c e the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c 107 o r g a n i c q u a l i t y o f h i s p a i n t i n g s . As D a v i d S i l c o x has o b s e r v e d : " h i s work i s b e s t when i t i s q u i e t and c o n t e m -p l a t i v e . . .he i s more t he m a s t e r o f s u b t l e t y t h a n o f f o r c e . " 4 7 F i s h e r has a l s o f a v o u r e d s e m i - a t m o s p h e r i c t o n a l -i t i e s i n h i s r e c e n t p a i n t i n g s . The s o f t s h a d e s c o n t r i b u t e a f l o a t i n g q u a l i t y t h a t seems q u i t e o u t o f phase w i t h h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p r e c i s e g e o m e t r y . In a d d i t i o n to c r e a t i n g amb iguous m o i r e p a t t e r n s w i t h s t r a i g h t l i n e s , t he h a r d edge i s now d e s t r o y e d by the s u b t l e i n t e r a c t i o n o f c o l o u r wh i ch c h a n g e s a c c o r d i n g to the i n d i v i d u a l v i e w e r . Forms t h a t a r e d e f i n e d on the v e r t i c a l a x i s g r a d u a l l y f a d e away t o w a r d s t he h o r i z o n t a l e d g e s . When a p r e c i s e l i n e s t r u c t u r e i s s u p e r i m p o s e d on a f i e l d o f a c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o n e o f t he same c o l o u r , an amb iguous f i g u r e - g r o u n d r e l a t i o n s h i p i s e s t a b l i s h e d . The f o r m s o r " p r e s e n c e s " seem to f l o a t f r e e o f t h e ba se s t r u c t u r e i n d u c i n g a " m y s t i c a l " movement i n s p a c e . A t t i m e s , t h e s e b a r e l y v i s i b l e f o r m s a l s o seem to p r o j e c t i n f r o n t o f t h e p i c t u r e s p a c e c o m p o u n d i n g t h e s p a t i a l i l l u s i o n e v i d e n t i n t he w o r k s . P r o p e r l i g h t i n g a g a i n i s c r i t i c a l f o r the o p e r a t i o n o f t h e v i s u a l e x p e r i e n c e to be e f f e c t i v e . The same i n v e s t i g a t i o n s u n d e r t a k e n i n t h e p a i n t i n g s have been p r o j e c t e d i n t o a r e m a r k a b l e s e r i e s o f t e n p r i n t s e n t i t l e d O d y s s e y . H e r e , as i n the p a i n t i n g s , F i s h e r c r e a t e s 108 a c h a l l e n g i n g v i s u a l e x p e r i e n c e i n a d i f f i c u l t medium u s i n g c l o s e - v a l u e d t o n e s o f c o l o u r , f r o m w h i t e on a b l u e -g r e y f i e l d , i n O d y s s e y No. 1, t h r o u g h s u b t l e b l u e s , r e d s and o t h e r c o l o u r s i n s u c c e e d i n g p r i n t s . The l i n e c o l o u r t e n d s to mix w i t h the g r o u n d c o l o u r to g i v e y e t a t h i r d o n e . Where t h e l i n e s a r e c l o s e t o g e t h e r , nea r the f o c a l p o i n t , the p u r e e x p r e s s i o n o f the l i n e c o l o u r d o m i n a t e s , w h i l e a t t he e d g e s , where the l i n e s a r e s p a c e d w ide a p a r t , t h e y a r e p r a c t i c a l l y i n v i s i b l e and the g r o u n d c o l o u r i s t he s t r o n g e s t . F i s h e r ' s p a i n t i n g s c o n t a i n s p a t i a l a m b i g u i t i e s d e r i v e d t h r o u g h e x p l o r a t i o n s i n t o t h e p e r c e p t u a l e f f e c t s o b t a i n e d when two c o n f l i c t i n g g e o m e t r i e s c o i n c i d e . By s u p e r i m p o s i n g a h o r i z o n t a l o r v e r t i c a l g r i d o v e r a d i a g o n a l o n e , i l l u s o r y moire - p a t t e r n s emerge and a p p e a r as r e a l as the l i n e s f r o m w h i c h t h e y were made . T h i s i l l u s i o n depends on F i s h e r ' s f l a w l e s s e x e c u t i o n i n o r d e r f o r the p a t t e r n s t o be r e g u l a r s i n c e any v a r i a t i o n s wou ld t e n d to d e s t r o y the o v e r - a l l r e a d i n g . W h i l e t h e v i e w e r a t t e m p t s t o r e s o l v e the amb iguous e f f e c t he can t a k e a c e r t a i n s a t i s f a c t i o n f rom the f a c t t h a t t he camera i s a l s o f o o l e d by t h e " h a l l u c i n a t i o n . " 4 8 In h i s more r e c e n t w o r k s , F i s h e r c r e a t e s a v a s t s p a c e t h r o u g h a s y s t e m o f l i n e s w h i c h b e g i n a t t he b o t t o m 109 o f the canvas and converge toward a d i s t a n t p o i n t o u t s i d e o f the c o n f i n e s of the f o r m a t . The v a n i s h i n g p o i n t i s t h e r e f o r e o n l y i m p l i e d as the l i n e s do not meet , as they do i n h i s e a r l i e r o va l s e r i e s . C o n c e r n i n g h i s S teppes s e r i e s , F i s h e r commented: The space where a l l these l i n e s are converging is what is known. The l i n e s are p o s i t i v e in the sense that they can be measured 3 graphed, and so on. The space on the other side of them is what is not known. . . .49 Super imposed on t h i s l i n e sys tem are r e c t i l i n e a r o r squa re forms wh ich combine to c r e a t e an i n f i n i t e number o f fo rm-space r e l a t i o n s h i p s . In some cases these forms a re a lmos t i m p e r c e p t i b l e due to the s u b t l e c o l o u r c o n t r a s t s and the l a c k o f any drawn c o n t o u r s . The edges o f the forms are i m p l i e d by end ing the v e r t i c a l o r d i a g o n a l l i n e s a t a u n i f o r m l e v e l . In o t h e r w o r k s , F i s h e r c r e a t e s ambiguous s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s by d i r e c t i n g a t t e n t i o n i n t o depth a l ong c o n v e r g i n g l i n e s and then r e d i r e c t i n g the eye back to the f r o n t a l p l ane by e i t h e r l e a v i n g a v o i d i n the c e n t r e or by an ambiguous o v e r l a p p i n g o f the g r i d . Lucy L i p p a r d c a l l e d such i n c o n g r u o u s i l l u s i o n i s m " p e r v e r s e p e r s p e c t i v e s " wh ich a re d e s c r i b e d a s : founded on disunity3 on a complex3 t i g h t l y structured denial of p i c t o r i a l l o g i c that. . .never wholly abandons the assertion of the picture plane. . . 110 but d i s t o r t s and reconstructs that plane outside of the conventions of depth simulation. 50 F i s h e r has s t a t e d t h a t w h i l e h i s work may a p p e a r to be p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h " o p t i c a l " e f f e c t s , he t r i e s to a v o i d t h e s t i g m a s a t t a c h e d to s o - c a l l e d " o p t i c a l a r t " by a v o i d i n g r e t i n a l f a t i g u e t h r o u g h h i s use o f more s u b t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . As p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d , the d i f f e r e n c e be tween f i g u r e and g r o u n d i n G a u c h e r ' s p a i n t i n g s i s a l s o v e r y s u b t l e . The l a c k o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n t r o d u c e s an amb iguous 52 r e a d i n g o f t h e s u r f a c e as " u n l o c a l i z e d s p a c e . " I t i s no t uncommon f o r v i e w e r s to g r e a t l y e x a g g e r a t e t he s i z e o f the s u p e r i m p o s e d l i n e s and to d e t e c t c o l o u r s and p a t t e r n s t h a t r e a l l y do no t e x i s t . Even the s i z e s o f the c a n v a s e s t h e m s e l v e s a r e o f t e n c o n f u s e d w i t h each o t h e r . From h i s e a r l i e r e x p e r i m e n t s w i t h l i n e i n t e r a c t i o n , where a c t i v e i l l u s i o n s o f s p a c e and movement o c c u r r e d , G a u c h e r m o v e d , i n 1 9 7 1 , to t he s u b t l e use o f t he f i e l d where the i l l u s i o n o f s p a c e i s much more s h a l l o w . In t h i s s e n s e G a u c h e r r e j e c t s the p h i l o s o p h y o f t he m i n i m a l i s t s as t h e y " t r y t o 53 d e s t r o y i l l u s i o n , bu t c a n ' t . " T h i s same s u b t l e s p a t i a l i l l u s i o n o c c u r s i n Roy K i y o o k a ' s r e c e n t w o r k , where f l a t o v a l s t e n d to a d v a n c e and r e c e d e f r o m the p i c t u r e p l a n e due to t he v a r i a t i o n s i n t o n e s o f b l u e . An amb iguous s i t u a t i o n o c c u r s when , l i k e I l l G a u c h e r ' s s i g n a l s , the o v a l f o rms a p p e a r i n a r e a s where t h e y a c t u a l l y do no t e x i s t . In some c a s e s , t he o v a l s h a p e s a l s o b l e e d o f f t he edges o f t he c a n v a s , s u g g e s t i n g an e x t e n s i o n i n t o t he s u r r o u n d i n g s p a c e . As d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 2, A r t M c K a y ' s amb iguous s u r f a c e s g i v e t h e i l l u s i o n o f b e i n g t h i c k i m p a s t o i n s p i t e o f a c t u a l l y b e i n g t h i n l y - p a i n t e d and s m o o t h . T e r r y F e n t o n o b s e r v e d the t e n d e n c y o f v i e w e r s to t o u c h the s u r f a c e s i n an a t t e m p t to r e s o l v e the c u r i o u s e x p e r i e n c e where t h e y a r e f o r c e d to " r e a s s e s s the p a i n t i n g i n t e rms o f e y e s i g h t 54 r a t h e r t h a n t o u c h . " An a d d i t i o n a l s p a t i a l a m b i g u i t y i s c r e a t e d t h r o u g h the s t r o n g i n w a r d p u l l i n h i s t a b l e t and c i r c l e p a i n t i n g s w h i c h i s d e n i e d by t h e e m p h a t i c s u r f a c e o f t h e i r c e n t r e s . T h i s t e n d e n c y r e l a t e s t h e s e works t o some o f F i s h e r ' s m u l t i p l e e l l i p s e p a i n t i n g s . McKay a l s o c r e a t e s a c u r i o u s t e n s i o n be tween t h e s e a p p a r e n t , h e a v i l y worked s u r f a c e s and the s i m p l e , c e n t r a l l y - p o s i t i o n e d images wh i ch c o n t a i n t hem. In h i s l a t e s t w o r k s , McKay has b r i g h t l y c o l o u r e d h i s b o r d e r s so t h a t the i n n e r p a r t o f the image i s h e l d i n a s t i l l g r e a t e r t e n s i o n . T h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c amb iguous i n t e r p l a y o f f i g u r e and g r o u n d i s a l s o e v i d e n t i n most o f B l o o r e ' s p a i n t i n g s . The s u b t l e v a r i a t i o n s and i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n the e x t r e m e l y s i m p l i f i e d " i m a g e " i n t he r e c e n t works most c l e a r l y i l l u -s t r a t e s t h i s e n i g m a t i c q u a l i t y . T h e s e r a i s e d w e l t - l i k e 112 images have c o n t r i b u t e d an e l e m e n t o f a m b i g u i t y to a l l o f B l o o r e ' s w o r k . In h i s 1967-68 w o r k s , f o r e x a m p l e , i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t . Here t he r a i s e d l i n e s somet imes d e l i m i t f o r m and d i s t i n g u i s h f i g u r e f r o m g r o u n d , w h i l e , a t o t h e r t i m e s , t h e y f u n c t i o n i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f image and g r o u n d i n t he s p a c e o f t he p a i n t i n g . The a m b i g u i t y o f t he common c o n t o u r be tween two c l o s e d i m a g e s , o r be tween a c l o s e d and an open o n e , i s r e i n f o r c e d by the f a c t t h a t , a l t h o u g h p h y s i c a l l y u n c h a n g e a b l e , the c o n t o u r a l m o s t a lways assumed a d i f f e r e n t s h a p e . T h i s depends on w h e t h e r i t i s s e e n as b e l o n g i n g to one o r t he o t h e r o f the two a d j o i n i n g s u r f a c e s . B a r r y L o r d has o b s e r v e d an " a m b i v a l e n t t e n s i o n " be tween t h e s e g e o m e t r i c e l e m e n t s and the demands o f t he r e c t i l i n e a r f o r m a t due p a r t l y t o t he " t e n u o u s " n a t u r e o f the w e l t s and b o r d e r s t h a t somet imes d i s a p p e a r i n t o t he 55 g r o u n d . A v e r y s u b t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s be tween the images and the s u r f a c e a r o u n d them and an amb iguous i l l u s i o n o f s u r f a c e and d e p t h r e s u l t s . W h i l e he r e s p e c t s t he i n t e g r i t y o f t h e t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l p i c t u r e s u r f a c e , i t i s o n l y i n i t s " t a u t s u s p e n s i o n w i t h the e x p r e s s i v e i n t e n s i t y and f o r m 56 d e c l a r i n g c l a r i t y o f h i s l o w - r e l i e f r a i s e d s u r f a c e s . " Such e l e m e n t s as s e n s a t i o n s a r e o b v i o u s l y d i f f i c u l t to d e s c r i b e . As has been d i s c u s s e d , a n a l o g i e s a r e o f t e n used and a r e g e n e r a l l y u s e f u l to e x p l a i n t h e s t r a n g e o r d i f f i c u l t by the more f a m i l i a r . The u n f o r t u n a t e p r o b l e m 1 1 3 i n t h i s r e g a r d i s t h a t a n a l o g y i s o f t e n c o n f u s e d w i t h i d e n t i t y . G a u c h e r d i s l i k e s any a t t e m p t s to g i v e a r t what he c a l l s a " l i t e r a r y c o n c e p t " and he s u g g e s t s t h a t " e a c h l a n g u a g e i n a r t s p e a k s i n an i d i o m t h a t c o n v e y s what 57 c a n n o t be s a i d i n any o t h e r m e d i u m . " T r u e a r t , a c c o r d i n g to G a u c h e r , s h o u l d be a p u r e l y v i s u a l l a n g u a g e , j u s t as m u s i c i s a p u r e l y a u d i t o r y l a n g u a g e : " a r t must speak o n l y 58 t o t he e y e s , and to n o t h i n g e l s e , t o r e a c h the s o u l . " FOOTNOTES: CHAPTER 5 P e t e r F i n g e s t e n , " S p i r i t u a l i t y , M y s t i c i s m and Non-O b j e c t i v e A r t , " The Art Journal, V o l . XXI ( F a l l , 1 9 6 1 ) , 5, 6 . In Statements: 18 Canadian A r t i s t s , R e g i n a : The Norman M a c k e n z i e A r t G a l l e r y , 1 9 6 7 , 4 4 . B a r b a r a R o s e , "ABC A r t , " i n B a t t o c k , G r e g o r y , e d . , Minimal Art: A C r i t i c a l Anthology, New Y o r k : E . P . D u t t o n & C o . , I n c . , 1 9 6 8 , 2 7 5 . L u c y R. L i p p a r d , "The S i l e n t A r t , " Art in America, V o l . 5 5 , No. 1 ( J a n u a r y - F e b r u a r y , 1 9 6 7 ) , 5 8 . Q u o t e d i n H e r s c h e l B. C h i p p , Theories of Modern Art, B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 7 0 , 3 4 3 . R o s e , op . cit., I l l . Ibid. L i p p a r d , loc. cit. B a r n e t t Newman, " The S u b l i m e i s Now, " The Tiger's Eye, V o l . 1, No. 6 (December 1 5 , 1 9 4 8 ) , 5 2 . L u c y L i p p a r d , i n t r o . , Ad Reinhardt, New Y o r k : The J e w i s h Museum, November 1966 - J a n u a r y 1 9 6 7 , 2 3 . Quo ted i n L i p p a r d , " T h e S i l e n t A r t , " op . cit., 6 2 . Quo ted i n Ibid. 114 115 1 3 . J ohn Noe l C h a n d l e r , " The C o l o r s o f M o n o c h r o m e , " artscanada, V o l . X X V I I I , No . 5 ( O c t o b e r / N o v e m b e r , 1 9 7 1 ) , 2 6 . 1 4 . L i p p a r d , Ad Reinhardt, op. cit., 2 5 . 1 5 . L i p p a r d , " T h e S i l e n t A r t , " op. cit., 5 9 . 1 6 . J ohn Noe l C h a n d l e r , " D i a l o g u e a t an E x h i b i t i o n o f Yves G a u c h e r ' s G r e y P a i n t i n g s , " artscanada, V o l . X X V I , No. 5 ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 6 9 ) , 4 . 1 7 . R u d o l f A r n h e i m , Art and Visual Perception, B e r k e l e y and Los A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 6 7 , 6. 1 8 . Ibid., 3 8 - 3 9 . 1 9 . In c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h t he a r t i s t , F e b r u a r y , 1 9 7 3 . 2 0 . In c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h t he a r t i s t , F e b r u a r y , 1 9 7 3 . 2 1 . M a u r i c e M e r l e a u - P o n t y , " E ye and M i n d , " i n The Primacy of Perception, E v a n s t o n , 1 1 1 . : N o r t h w e s t e r n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 , 1 7 5 . 2 2 . Myrna G o p n i k and I r w i n G o p n i k , " S e e i n g i s b e l i e v i n g : Yves G a u c h e r ' s new p a i n t i n g s , " artscanada, V o l . X X V I I I , No. 5 ( O c t o b e r / N o v e m b e r , 1 9 7 1 ) , 3 3 . 2 3 . C h a n d l e r , " D i a l o g u e a t an E x h i b i t i o n o f Yves G a u c h e r ' s G r e y P a i n t i n g s , " op. cit., 5. 24 . A r n h e i m , op. cit., 3 7 . 2 5 . Ibid., 111. 2 6 . Leo S t e i n b e r g , " P a u l B r a c h ' s P i c t u r e s , " i n B a t t o c k , G r e g o r y , e d . , The New Art, New Y o r k : E . P . D u t t o n & C o . , I n c . , 1 9 6 6 , 2 2 6 - 2 8 . 116 2 7 . R o b e r t M o r r i s , " N o t e s on S c u l p t u r e , " Artforum, V o l . IV , No. 6 ( F e b r u a r y , 1 9 6 6 ) , 4 4 . 2 8 . E . H . G o m b r i c h , Art and Illusion, New Y o r k : P a n t h e o n B o o k s , 1 9 6 0 , 2 6 3 . 2 9 . A r n h e i m , op. oit., 4 . 3 0 . L i p p a r d , Ad Reinhardt, op. oit., 9 . 3 1 . Q u o t e d i n L u c y L i p p a r d , " P e r v e r s e P e r s p e c t i v e s , " i n Changing: Essays in Art Criticism, New Y o r k : E . P . D u t t o n & C o . , I n c . , 1 9 7 1 , 1 7 3 . 3 2 . A r n h e i m , op. cit., 8 . 3 3 . M a u r i c e M e r l e a u - P o n t y , Phenomenology of Perception, L o n d o n : R o u t l e d g e & K. P a u l , 1 9 6 2 , 8 1 . 3 4 . L i p p a r d , Ad Reinhardt, op. cit., 2 0 . 3 5 . A r n h e i m , op. cit., 3 5 2 . 3 6 . Q u o t e d i n B a r r y L o r d , "WHITE/LIGHT a v i s i t t o R o n a l d B l o o r e and h i s new p a i n t i n g s , " artscanada, V o l . XXVI I No. 1 ( F e b r u a r y , 1 9 7 0 ) , 1 8 . 3 7 . Ibid., 1 8 - 1 9 . 3 8 . Q u o t e d i n Ibid., 2 0 . 3 9 . Q u o t e d i n Ibid., 1 8 . 4 0 . B a r b a r a R o s e , i n t r o . , Ad Reinhardt: Black Paintings 1951-1967, New Y o r k : M a r l b o r o u g h G a l l e r y I n c . , M a r c h , 1 9 7 0 , 2 1 . 4 1 . Q u o t e d i n D a v i d S i l c o x , " Y ves G a u c h e r , " Studio Inter-national, V o l . 177 ( F e b r u a r y , 1 9 6 9 ) , 7 7 . 4 2 . D o r i s S h a d b o l t , i n t r o . , Yves Gaucher, V a n c o u v e r : The V a n c o u v e r A r t G a l l e r y , A p r i l - M a y , 1 9 6 9 . 117 4 3 . Q u o t e d i n C h a r l o t t e T o w n s e n d , " A b o u t A r t . . . , " V a n c o u v e r : The Vancouver Sun, May 2, 1 9 6 9 . 4 4 . C h a n d l e r , " D i a l o g u e a t an E x h i b i t i o n o f Yves G a u c h e r ' s G r e y P a i n t i n g s , " loc. cit. 4 5 . In c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h t h e a r t i s t , S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 7 2 . 4 6 . C h a n d l e r , " D i a l o g u e a t an E x h i b i t i o n . . . , " loc cit. 4 7 . S i l c o x , loc. cit. 4 8 . L o r d , op. cit., 2 3 . 4 9 . In Statements: 18 Canadian A r t i s t s , op. c i t . , 4 9 . 5 0 . L i p p a r d , " P e r v e r s e P e r s p e c t i v e s , " op. cit., 1 6 8 - 9 . 5 1 . In c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h t h e a r t i s t , F e b r u a r y , 1 9 7 3 . 5 2 . D a v i d T h o m p s o n , "A C a n a d i a n S c e n e , " Studio Inter-national, V o l . 176 ( D e c e m b e r , 1 9 6 8 ) , 2 4 2 . 5 3 . In c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h t h e a r t i s t , S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 7 2 . 5 4 . T e r r y F e n t o n , " C a n a d a ' s A r t h u r McKay : A R e t r o s p e c t i v e i n S a s k a t c h e w a n , " Artforum, V o l . V I I , No. 4 ( D e c e m b e r , 1 9 6 8 ) , 3 9 . 5 5 . B a r r y L o r d , " R o n a l d B l o o r e , " artscanada, V o l . X X V I , No . 1 ( F e b r u a r y , 1 9 6 9 ) , 4 0 . 5 6 . Ibid., 3 9 . 5 7 . Yves Gaucher, T o r o n t o : G a l l e r y Moos L t d . , A p r i l , 1 9 6 6 . 5 8 . In c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h t h e a r t i s t , S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 7 2 . U8 C h a p t e r 6 CONCLUSION - THE RELATIONSHIP TO THE VIEWER I t i s known t h a t i n t e n s i t y o f e x p e r i e n c e v a r i e s w i t h t he i n d i v i d u a l v i e w e r : " e v e r y r e t i n a p r o d u c e s i t s p r i v a t e m i r a g e i n w h i c h c o l o u r , s p e e d and f r e q u e n c y o f t h e i l l u s i o n a r y movement become a s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e . " 1 As J ohn C h a n d l e r s u g g e s t s , i n s t e a d o f " r e a d i n g " a p a i n t i n g o n l y a l i t t l e a t a t i m e , the v i e w e r s h o u l d a t t e m p t to t a k e i n t h e who l e work a t once and " s e e i t s u b j e c t i v e l y " as wei 1 : You are working too hard. Paying too close attention. Reading rather than seeing. Simply let the painting con-front you. 2 A work o f a r t e n c o u n t e r e d as s u c h i s an e x p e r i e n c e , and i n t e l l e c t u a l and a e s t h e t i c p l e a s u r e can merge i n t h i s e x p e r -i e n c e when the work i s v i s u a l l y s t r o n g and c h a l l e n g i n g . As a r e s u l t , v i e w e r s b e g i n t o t h i n k a b o u t what t h e y see r a t h e r t h a n s i m p l y w e i g h i n g t h e f o r m a l o r e m o t i v e i m p a c t . The f a c t t h a t t he p a i n t i n g s d i s c u s s e d h e r e c o n t a i n an image and a r e no t s t r i c t l y monochrome i s an i m p o r t a n t 118 1 1 9 f a c t o r , f o r i n f o c u s i n g o r r e s o l v i n g t h e f i g u r e - g r o u n d r e l a t i o n s h i p t he v i e w e r a c t u a l l y becomes i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e p r o c e s s o f v i e w i n g t h e p a i n t i n g s . B e c a u s e o f t h i s p r o c e s s and t h e e m p h a s i s on t h e " a c t o f s e e i n g , " t h e p a i n t i n g s f u n c t i o n as t he means f o r h a v i n g a s p e c i a l k i n d o f e x p e r -i e n c e . The p a i n t i n g l o s e s i t s i m m u t a b i l i t y and becomes a means o f d i s c o v e r y w h i c h i s d i f f i c u l t t o a s s i m i l a t e to a n o t h e r known f a c t o r e x p e r i e n c e . I t has been s u g g e s t e d t h a t G a u c h e r was d e e p l y a f f e c t e d by t he a t t i t u d e e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h the l a t e p a i n t -i n g s o f Mark Ro thko - t h a t " a p a i n t i n g i s no t a p a i n t i n g " 3 bu t i s " m e d i u m i s t i c . . . a l l u s i v e and has i m p o r t . " As G a u c h e r r e m a r k e d : "my p a i n t i n g s a r e no t p a i n t i n g s anymore b u t e n v i r o n m e n t c o n d i t i o n e r s . " 4 When i l l u s i o n i s t i c s p a c e i n a p a i n t i n g i s c l o s e l y v i e w e d , t h e r e f o r e , i t t e n d s to r e a c h f o r w a r d and become p a r t o f t h e s p a c e between the v i e w e r and the w o r k . In the a r e a be tween t h e c a n v a s and t h e eye o f t he s p e c t a t o r , r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e d ynam i c and c o n t i n u a l l y c h a n g i n g . T h i s s p a c e was d e s c r i b e d by John C h a n d l e r , i n r e f e r r i n g t o G a u c h e r ' s g r e y p a i n t i n g s , as " a l i v e w i t h movement - l i k e d u s t i n a beam o f ^ l i g h t , o r 5 h e a t r i s i n g f r o m the p a v e m e n t . " The v i e w e r , t h e r e f o r e , i s no l o n g e r s i m p l y an o n l o o k e r b u t becomes a p a r t o f t he s p a c e c r e a t i o n i t s e l f . In M e r l e a u - P o n t y 1 s w o r d s , p e r -c e i v e d s p a c e i s " e x i s t e n t i a l s p a c e , " and i t : 1 20 . . . does not refer to physical space or to geometrical space, for perceived space does not belong only to the object or only to the subject; it belongs to both at once. . .Space is thus 'orientated1 in relation to the body-subject who preceives. 6 T h e s e a r t i s t s s u c c e e d i n r e d u c i n g the o v e r t " h u m a n i s t " c o n t e n t i n t h e i r work bu t no t t h e f a c t o f c o n -f r o n t a t i o n w i t h t he v i e w e r , who must e x p e r i e n c e t h e d i f f i -c u l t p a i n t i n g s as an i n d i v i d u a l and f o r c e h i s p e r c e p t i o n i n t o new a r e a s . Sam H u n t e r , i n r e f e r e n c e to t he p a i n t i n g s o f Ad R e i n h a r d t , made a r e l e v a n t comment : Reinhardt 's implacable icons involve the artist and observer in an 'action, ' no matter how distilled or recessive its visible evidence. That is, the order they create and uphold is no longer absolute in 'de Styl' terms, but human, momentary in its sources and histori-cally relative. . . .7 He c o n t i n u e d by s t r e s s i n g t h e " h u m a n i s t i c s t a n c e " t h a t R e i n h a r d t ' s a p p r o a c h r e p r e s e n t s : . . . one must understand that Reinhardt 's rejection of the frivolous and easily consumed, his insistence on the privacy and intimacy of the communication between artist and viewer, represents no nihilism but an identifiably humanistic stance.8 P a i n t i n g s , w i t h what a p p e a r to be i n a c c e s s i b l e o r d i f f i c u l t i m a g e s , t h e r e f o r e , i n v i t e a g r e a t d e a l o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n and c o n t e m p l a t i o n , and s u c h an e x p e r i e n c e r e i n f o r c e s t he 121 c o n c l u s i o n s p u t f o r t h i n C h a p t e r 3, t h a t such works a r e n o t , as i s o f t e n s u g g e s t e d , inhuman o r i m p e r s o n a l . I t i s e v i d e n t , h o w e v e r , t h a t monochrome p a i n t i n g demands t h a t t h e v i e w e r be e n t i r e l y i n v o l v e d i n t he work o f a r t . In l o o k i n g a t t he work o f the a r t i s t s i t has been c l e a r t h a t a g r e a t d e a l o f e f f o r t i s r e q u i r e d to " s e e " t h e m , b u t t h a t t h i s e f f o r t i s a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l to t he k i n d o f e x p e r i e n c e t h e y p r o v i d e . U n l e s s t h e v i e w e r i s c o m p l e t e l y c o m m i t t e d to e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e m , he can e x p e c t l i t t l e , i f a n y , e x p e r i e n c e a t a l l . As B r i a n F i s h e r s u g g e s t s : " t h e v i e w e r , i f he wants to s e e , s h o u l d s u s p e n d h i s own g e x p e c t a t i o n s and open up to what i s t h e r e . " The a r t i s t s g e n e r a l l y e x p e c t t he s p e c t a t o r to g i v e a commitment as t o t a l as t h a t w h i c h t h e y g i v e t h e m s e l v e s . Ron B l o o r e has a d m i t t e d t h a t f o r him " t h e mean ing o f any work o f a r t i s d e t e r m i n e d e n t i r e l y by t h e i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c i n g i t . " 1 0 A r t McKay a l s o has s t a t e d t h a t , i n the p r o c e s s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , the a r t i s t i s no t s e l f -s u f f i c i e n t b u t r e l i e s on t he e x i s t e n c e o f " r e s p o n s i v e i n d i v i d u a l s " who l o o k c l o s e l y a t t he a r t i s t ' s w o r k . 1 1 An o b j e c t o f a r t , t h e r e f o r e , o n l y c o m m u n i c a t e s when i t i s c o n f r o n t e d by someone who can " r e s p o n d to i t s s p e c i f i c o r d e r " and r e l a t e t h i s r e s p o n s e to i n c i d e n t s i n h i s e x p e r i e n c e : 122 Communication is a flow between two points, both of which must be open. A painting's communication is as de-pendent upon the r e c e p t i v i t y of the viewer as i t is on the presence of meaning in the workjviewed. Nothing happens unless the work has something to give and the viewer has the exper-ience, s e n s i t i v i t y and insight of the kind that can receive that 'something. '^ G e o r g e K u b l e r has d e s c r i b e d works o f a r t as " g a t e w a y s " w h e r e : the v i s i t o r can enter the space of the painter. . . to experience whatever r i c h domain the a r t i s t has fashioned. But the v i s i t o r must come prepared: If he brings a vacant mind or a d e f i c i e n t s e n s i b i l i t y , he w i l l see nothing. ^3 Works l i k e G a u c h e r ' s g r e y p a i n t i n g s t h e n , have c e a s e d to be o b j e c t s w i t h an i d e n t i f i a b l e o r d i s c e r n i b l e image and have become i n s t e a d " a k i n d o f mag i c w a l l " f r o m w h i c h t he v i e w e r 14 may e x t r a c t o n l y what he p u t s i n . Roy K i y o o k a f e e l s t h a t an a r t i s t a d v a n c e s a r t when he " e n l a r g e s t h e p a r a m e t e r s o f h i s p s y c h e , " and c o n -s e q u e n t l y , anybody who i s a n o n - a r t i s t , i n o r d e r f o r him to r e a l l y e x p e r i e n c e p a i n t i n g s , has to somehow "come to t h e p a r a m e t e r s o f h i s own p s y c h e , " j u s t as p a i n t e r s d o . H i s i n s i g h t s , t h e r e f o r e , w i l l o n l y be e q u i v a l e n t t o how f a r 1 5 he can go i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n . J e r r y G i l b e r t o b s e r v e d t h a t K i y o o k a has " h e l p e d a l o t o f p e o p l e to b e l i e v e what t h e y know - h i s work g e t s me to measu re up to my s e n s i b i l i t i e s . " 1 23 Susan S o n t a g has a l s o r e m a r k e d on the " p e c u l i a r d e p e n d e n c e " o f a work o f a r t upon the " c o o p e r a t i o n o f the p e r s o n h a v i n g 1 7 t he e x p e r i e n c e . " She added t h a t t h i s p e r s o n may see "what i s s a i d " b u t r e m a i n unmoved e i t h e r t h r o u g h " d u l l n e s s " o r " d i s t r a c t i o n , " and o f f e r s an i n t e r e s t i n g a n a l o g y : Art is seduction, not rape. A work of art proposes a type of experience designed to manifest the quality of imperiousness. But art cannot seduce without the complicity of the experienc-ing subject.18 The works b e i n g d e s c r i b e d h e r e c a n n o t be p a r t i a l l y e x p e r i -e n c e d b u t must a c t u a l l y be engaged w i t h to be seen a t a l l . A v e r y d i f f e r e n t s o r t o f e x p e r i e n c e i s c r e a t e d , t h e r e f o r e , an e x p e r i e n c e t h a t e x i s t s i n t i m e as w e l l as s p a c e . T h i s i s l a r g e l y due to t he amount o f e f f o r t t h a t t h e s e p a i n t i n g s demand o f t he v i e w e r - more t i m e and c o n -c e n t r a t i o n t h a n most v i e w e r s a r e a c c u s t o m e d t o , o r in most c a s e s , a r e w i l l i n g to g i v e . L u c y L i p p a r d has o f f e r e d a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t he p r o c e s s o f v i e w i n g m o n t o n a l p a i n t i n g s t h a t i s p e r t i n e n t h e r e : The first impression is one of the most general nature; the second is likely to be one of boredom with the general nature, and only then does the viewer penetrate 'beyond1 boredom to pure esthetic enjoy-ment of the particular object and its particular qualities. 19 124 T h i s t i m e e l e m e n t i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l . I t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r an i n t e l l e c t u a l l y o r i e n t e d v i e w e r to g i v e t he r e q u i r e d amount o f t i m e and c o n c e n t r a t i o n to v i e w i n g s u c h p a i n t i n g s w i t h o u t b r i n g i n g i n o u t s i d e l i t e r a r y , r e l i g i o u s o r s o c i o l o g i c a l r e f e r e n c e s w i t h w h i c h to r e s p o n d . I f t h e v i e w e r does t a k e the t i m e , he w i l l be " r e w a r d e d " by b e i n g a b l e " t o s t a n d i n a s e n s e o u t s i d e o f t i m e , f r e e d f r o m t h e e n d l e s s change and f l u x o f t he w o r l d o f e v e n t s and commodi-21 t i e s . " The v i e w e r who a l l o w s h i m s e l f t o be " t u n e d i n " to G a u c h e r ' s g r e y p a i n t i n g s , f o r i n s t a n c e , can e x p e r i e n c e them " i n t r a - s e n s o r i t y as sound and m o t i o n , " i n a d d i t i o n to s i g h t , and a l s o " e x t r a - s e n s o r i l y i n t h a t t h e y i n d u c e a s t a g e 22 o f c o n t e m p l a t i o n " r a t h e r t han s i m p l y a v i s u a l s e n s a t i o n . The works by t h e s e a r t i s t s , i n o t h e r w o r d s , a c t l i k e o b j e c t s o f c o n t e m p l a t i o n demand ing no t s i m p l y a d i f -f e r e n t o r d e r o f p e r c e p t i o n b u t i n d u c i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t s t a t e o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s f r om the n o r m a l . F i s h e r , f o r e x a m p l e , a ims a t f i n d i n g " v i s u a l e q u i v a l e n t s " f o r t h e " r e a l i t y o f t r a n q u i l i t y t h r o u g h i n t r o s p e c t i o n , c o n t e m p l a -23 t i o n and r e p o s e . " To become i n v o l v e d w i t h a work o f a r t e n t a i 1 s : the experience of detaching oneself from the world. But the work of art itself is also a vibrant3 magical exemplary object which returns us to the world in some way more open and enriched. ^" I 125 J ohn C h a n d l e r o b j e c t s to t h o s e who c o n s i d e r G a u c h e r ' s p a i n t i n g s as i n d u c i n g some k i n d o f c a l m o r t r a n q u i l i t y and s u g g e s t s r a t h e r , t h a t t h e y a r e s t i m u l a n t s , no t t r a n q u i l i -z e r s - " t h e end o f c o n t e m p l a t i o n i s no t t r a n q u i l i t y bu t ' e c s t a c y 1 . . . n o t p e r c e p t i o n o r c o n c e p t i o n b u t i n t e n s e 25 s e n s a t i o n . " Susan S o n t a g d e s c r i b e d t h i s p r o c e s s as " d y n a m i c c o n t e m p l a t i o n " and s t r e s s e d t h a t however much t h e s p e c t a t o r i s " a r o u s e d by a p r o v i s i o n a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n " o f what i s i n t h e work o f a r t w i t h r e a l l i f e , h i s u l t i m a t e r e a c t i o n as l o n g as he i s r e a c t i n g to t h e work as a work o f a r t must be " d e t a c h e d , r e s t f u l , c o n t e m p l a t i v e , e m o t i o n -a l l y f r e e , beyond i n d i g n a t i o n and a p p r o v a l . " In a n a l y z i n g o u r r e s p o n s e to t he p a i n t i n g s by t h e s e a r t i s t s - a w i t h d r a w a l f r om t h e e v e r y d a y w o r l d , an a l m o s t " d i s i n t e r e s t e d " c o n t e m p l a t i o n , a s e n s e o f d e t a c h m e n t f r om norma l s p a c e and t ime and a r e s u l t i n g i n c r e a s e d a w a r e -nes s o f o n e s e l f - i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t s u c h r e s p o n s e s c o n f o r m more c l o s e l y to E a s t e r n v a l u e s t han to t r a d i t i o n a l W e s t e r n t h o u g h t and a r e i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t t o much a r t o f t h e 1 9 6 0 1 s w h i c h s e e k s an i n s t a n t and i m m e d i a t e i m p a c t . R i c h a r d S immins s u g g e s t e d i n 1961 t h a t t h r o u g h M c K a y ' s i n t e r e s t i n c o n t r o l l e d LSD and m e s c a l i n e x p e r i m e n t s , the a r t i s t became more aware o f how " t i m e c o u l d become s t r a n g e l y 27 e l o n g a t e d and how s p a c e s u d d e n l y l o s t i t s d i m e n s i o n s . " McKay o b s e r v e s t h a t t he " p s y c h e d e l i c g e n e r a t i o n o f young 1 26 p e o p l e who ' t u r n o n , ' ' t u n e i n ' and ' d r o p o u t ' " wou ld p e r h a p s r e l a t e more to h i s p a i n t i n g s t h a n o t h e r s , due to t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n " p s y c h o l o g i c a l a c r o b a t i c s " : to " e x t r o v e r t e d , 28 a c t i o n - o b s e s s e d p e o p l e t he who l e e x e r c i s e i s m e a n i n g l e s s . " In 1 9 6 4 , he had s t r e s s e d t h i s i n t r o v e r t e d , c o n t e m p l a t i v e c h a r a c t e r o f h i s w o r k s : These paintings. . .are attempts to re-establish contact with and immersion in feeling and therefore are introverted, hypnotic and mostly a combination of concentric and excentric movement. . . they are contemplative.^ S i m i l a r l y , the works o f the o t h e r a r t i s t s b e i n g d i s c u s s e d a r e no t c o n c e r n e d w i t h v i s u a l i m p a c t o r w i t h c a u s i n g an i m m e d i a t e r e a c t i o n o r r e v e l a t i o n b u t r a t h e r , a r e i n t e n d e d to m a n i f e s t a s l ow i n t e n s e l i f e o f t h e i r own. The p r e v a l e n t " n o n r o m a n t i c concept o f s i m u l t a n e o u s d e t a c h m e n t and i n v o l v e m e n t " has been a t t r i b u t e d by M a r s h a l l McLuhan to a " g e n e r a l o r i e n t a l i z a t i o n o f o u r e l e c t r o n i c 30 a g e . " Such a s t a t e o f " s u s p e n d e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s " m i g h t p r o p e r l y be d e s c r i b e d as m y s t i c a l o r s p i r i t u a l e x p e r i e n c e . A l a n Wat ts r e l a t e s t h a t Zen m a s t e r s a t t a c h the h i g h e s t i m p o r t a n c e to s u c h " m e d i t a t i o n " o r " s i t t i n g Z e n " ( " z a - z e n " ) . T h i s " z a - z e n " r e l a t e s to t h e Zen q u a l i t y o f s e e i n g r e a i l t y 31 d i r e c t l y i n i t s " s u c h n e s s . " To see the w o r l d as i t i s " c o n c r e t e l y u n d i v i d e d by c a t e g o r i e s and a b s t r a c t i o n s , " one 127 must l o o k a t i t w i t h a mind w h i c h i s " n o t t h i n k i n g " o r i n o t h e r w o r d s , " f o r m i n g s y m b o l s a b o u t i t . " " Z a - z e n " i s n o t , t h e r e f o r e , : s i t t i n g with a blank mind whioh excludes a l l the impressions of the inner and outer senses. It is not 'concentration' in the usual sense of r e s t r i c t i n g the att'ention to a s i n g l e sense object, such as a point of l i g h t or the tip of one 's nose. It is simply a quiet awareness, without comment, of whatever happens to be here and now. 32 T h i s a w a r e n e s s , t h e n , i s a t t e n d e d by a " v i v i d s e n s a t i o n o f n o n d i f f e r e n c e between o n e s e l f and t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d " o r be tween t h e "m ind and i t s c o n t e n t s " - t h e v a r i o u s s o u n d s , s i g h t s , and o t h e r i m p r e s s i o n s o f t h e s u r r o u n d i n g e n v i r o n m e n t . N a t u r a l l y , s a y s W a t t s , t h i s s e n s a t i o n does n o t a r i s e by t r y i n g to a c q u i r e i t ; i t j u s t " comes by i t s e l f when one i s s i t t i n g and w a t c h i n g w i t h o u t any p u r p o s e i n 33 mind - even t h e p u r p o s e o f g e t t i n g r i d o f p u r p o s e . " Such Zen q u a l i t i e s a r e an a s s i m i l a t e d p a r t o f K i y o o k a ' s a r t w h i c h , as G e o r g e B o w e r i n g o b s e r v e d , b r i n g s " c o n t e m p l a t i v e c u r v e d b e a u t y o u t o f a s t y l e l e s s j u m b l e o f t h e f r a c t u r e d 34 and s o i l e d and r e c t a n g u l a r . " B o w e r i n g s e n s i t i v e l y d e s c r i b e d h i s r e s p o n s e s to t he i n t e n s e and q u i e t " J a p a n e s e q u a l i t y " o f K i y o o k a ' s p a i n t i n g s and s c u l p t u r e : "I f o u n d m y s e l f g a z i n g l o n g a t t h o s e p i e c e s as I s e l d o m do a t any-35 t h i n g , f e e l i n g t h e we lcome c o o l f i l l i n g my head and b o d y , " Such r e s p o n s e s a r e e v i d e n t l y t he r e s u l t o f K i y o o k a ' s i n t e n t : . . . not to make monuments but to lay beside a mountain, the fragility of a painting the fragrance of a l i f e lived. 129 FOOTNOTES: CHAPTER 6 1. M a u r i c e M e r l e a u - P o n t y , " E ye and M i n d , " i n The Primacy of Perception, E v a n s t o n , 1 1 1 . : N o r t h w e s t e r n U n i v e r -s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 , 1 5 1 . 2. J ohn Noe l C h a n d l e r , " D i a l o g u e a t an E x h i b i t i o n o f Yves G a u c h e r ' s G rey P a i n t i n g s , " artscanada, V o l . X X V I , No. 5 ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 6 9 ) , 4 - 5 . 3. D o r i s S h a d b o l t , i n t r o . , Yves Gaucher, V a n c o u v e r : The V a n c o u v e r A r t G a l l e r y , A p r i l - M a y , 1 9 6 9 . 4 . Quo ted i n J o an L o w n d e s , "Man who p a i n t s t he sound o f s i l e n c e , " V a n c o u v e r : The Province, A p r i l 1 8 , 1 9 6 9 . 5. C h a n d l e r , op. cit., 4 . 6. M a u r i c e M e r l e a u - P o n t y , Phenomenology of Perception, L o n d o n : R o u t l e d g e & K. P a u l , 1 9 6 2 , 2 6 7 . 7. In p r e f a c e to L u c y R. L i p p a r d , i n t r o . , Ad Reinhardt, New Y o r k : The J e w i s h Museum, November 1 9 6 6 - J a n u a r y , 1 9 6 7 , 9 . 8. In p r e f a c e to Ibid. 9. In c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h the a r t i s t , F e b r u a r y , 1 9 7 3 . 10 . Q u o t e d i n R i c h a r d S i m m i n s , i n t r o . , Five Painters from Regina, O t t a w a : The N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y o f C a n a d a , 1 9 6 1 . 1 1 . Arthur McKay, W e s t e r n Canada A r t C i r c u i t E x h i b i t i o n , 1961 , 3. 130 1 2 . Q u o t e d i n S i m m i n s , Five Painters from Regina, loe. c i t . 1 3 . G e o r g e K u b l e r , The Shape of Time, New Haven : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 , 2 6 . 1 4 . D a v i d S i l c o x , " Y ves G a u c h e r , " Studio International, V o l . 177 ( F e b r u a r y , 1 9 6 9 ) , 7 7 . 1 5 . In c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h t h e a r t i s t , F e b r u a r y , 1 9 7 3 . 1 6 . G e r r y G i l b e r t , "Roy K e n z i e K i y o o k a , " artscanada, V o l . X X V I I , No. 4 ( A u g u s t / S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 7 1 ) , 6 0 . 1 7 . Susan S b n t a g , Against I n t e r p r e t a t i o n , New Y o r k : F a r r a r , S t r a u s and G i r o u x , 1 9 6 5 , 2 2 . 1 8 . Ibid. 1 9 . L i p p a r d , Ad Reinhardt, op. c i t . , 1 4 . 2 0 . R u d o l f A r n h e i m , Art and Visual Perception, B e r k e l e y and Los A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 6 7 , 7 8 . 2 1 . L i p p a r d , Ad Reinhardt, op. c i t . , 1 2 . 2 2 . S h a d b o l t , loc. cit. 2 3 . In Statements: 18 Canadian A r t i s t s , R e g i n a : The Norman M a c k e n z i e A r t G a l l e r y , 1 9 6 7 , 4 8 . 2 4 . S o n t a g , op cit., 2 8 . 2 5 . C h a n d l e r , op cit., 6. 2 6 . S o n t a g , op cit';, 2 7 . 2 7 . R i c h a r d S i m m i n s , " M c K a y , " Canadian Art, V o l . X I X , No. 2 ( M a r c h / A p r i l , 1 9 6 2 ) , 1 4 2 . 2 8 . In Statements: 18 Canadian A r t i s t s , op. c i t . , 6 8 . 131 2 9 . Arthur Me Kay: Recent Paintings, V a n c o u v e r : The V a n c o u v e r A r t G a l l e r y , J a n u a r y - F e b r u a r y , 1 9 6 4 . 3 0 . L u c y R. L i p p a r d , " C u l t o f t he D i r e c t and the D i f f i c u l t , " i n Changing: Essays in Art C r i t i c i s m , New Y o r k : E .P . D u t t o n & C o . , I n c . , 1 9 7 1 , 1 1 9 . 3 1 . A l a n W. W a t t s , The Way of Zen, L o n d o n : Thames and H u d s o n , 1 9 5 7 , 1 5 4 - 5 . 3 2 . Ibid., 1 5 5 . 3 3 . Ibid., 3 4 . Geo rge B o w e r i n g , " K i y o o k a ' s S c u l p t u r e , " artscanada, V o l . XXV, No. 5 ( D e c e m b e r , 1 9 6 8 ) , 7 6 . 3 5 . Ibid. 3 6 . Q u o t e d i n Ibid. Figure 1. Ronald Bloore. Le Foret me~chanique, 1958. Enamel on masonite (45£" x 8 5 i " ) . F i g u r e 3. R o n a l d B l o o r e . P a i n t i ng , 1 9 6 1 . O i l on m a s o n i t e ( 48 " x 4 8 " ) . F i g u r e 4 . R o n a l d B l o o r e . Sma l l Wh i t e C r o s s , 1 9 6 2 . O i l on m a s o n i t e ( 18 " x 4 8 " ) . 1 34 F i g u r e 5. R o n a l d B l o o r e . P a i n t i n g No . 6 , 1964-65 O i l on m a s o n i t e ( 48 " x 4 8 " ) . F i g u r e 6. R o n a l d B l o o r e . Whi t e Mu ra l , 1 967 . O i l on m a s o n i t e ( 1 4 2 - 3 / 4 " x 1 4 6 - 1 / 2 " ) . F i g u r e 7. R o n a l d B l o o r e . U n t i t l e d , A u g u s t - N o v e m b e r , 1 9 6 8 . O i l on m a s o n i t e ( 48 " x 7 2 " ) . F i g u r e 8. R o n a l d B l o o r e . P a i n t i n g , 1 9 7 1 . O i l on m a s o n i t e ( 9 6 " x 4 3 " ) . F i g u r e 9. B r i a n F i s h e r . F e b r u a r y No . 3, 1964. O i l on m a s o n i t e (18i" x 25i"). F i g u r e 10. B r i a n F i s h e r . P a c i f i c , 1965. A c r y l i c on c a n v a s (54" x 68"). F i g u r e 1 1 . B r i a n F i s h e r . C h i n o o k , 1 9 6 6 . A c r y l i c on c a n v a s ( 66 " x 4 4 " ) . F i g u r e 1 2 . B r i a n F i s h e r . A n g s t , 1966 . A c r y l i c on c a n v a s ( 4 4 " x 5 6 " ) . F i g u r e 1 4 . B r i a n F i s h e r . Work ing D r a w i n g , 1 9 6 6 - 6 8 . P e n c i l ( 1 4 - 3 / 4 " x 1 4 - 3 / 4 " ) . 139 Figure 16. Brian F i s h e r . Induction No. 2, 1968. A c r y l i c on canvas (32" x 56"). 140 F i g u r e 1 7 . B r i a n F i s h e r . Memori urn ( E a r t h ) , 1969 A c r y l i c on c a n v a s (68 " x 8 2 " ) . F i g u r e 1 8 . B r i a n F i s h e r . S t e p p e I I , No . 3, 1 9 7 0 . P o l y m e r a c r y l i c on c a n v a s ( 66 " x 1 3 2 " ) . F i g u r e 2 0 . Yves G a u c h e r . A j i , 1 9 6 3 . E m b o s s i n g and e t c h i n g . 1 42 F i g u r e 2 1 . Yves G a u c h e r . En Homage a Webern, 1 9 6 3 . I m p r e s s i o n i n r e l i e f on l a m i n a t e d p a p e r ( 2 2 " x 3 0 " ) . F i g u r e 2 2 . Yves G a u c h e r . Danse Carre~e Un b l e u me I ' a d i t , 1 9 6 5 . A c r y l i c on c a n v a s ( 3 0 " x 3 0 " ) . F i g u r e 2 3 . Yves G a u c h e r . G rey S i l e n c e s f o r G r e e n , J u n e , 1 9 6 6 . A c r y l i c on c a n v a s ( 5 0 " x 1 0 0 " ) . F i g u r e 2 4 . Yves G a u c h e r . C a r d i na i A c r y l i c on c a n v a s ( 72 " R a g a , x 7 2 " ) 1967 144 F i g u r e 2 5 . Yves G a u c h e r . The a r t i s t w i t h some o f G rey on G rey s e r i e s o f 1 9 6 7 - 6 9 . A c r y l i c on c a n v a s ( v a r i o u s s i z e s ) . F i g u r e 2 6 . Yves G a u c h e r . B l e u , V e r t , B l e u , 1 9 7 1 . A c r y l i c on c a n v a s ( 8 0 " x 9 2 " ) . 145 F i g u r e 2 7 . Roy K i y o o k a . R e l i e f P a i n t i n g  w i t h I n c i s e d C i r c l e s , 1 9 6 1 . F i g u r e 2 8 . Roy K i y o o k a . B l u e Z o n e , 1 9 6 3 . O i l and l u c i t e on c a n v a s ( 6 8 i " x 6 8 i " ) . F i g u r e 2 9 . Roy K i y o o k a . B a r o m e t e r #2, 1 9 6 4 . P o l y m e r ( aquatex - ) on c a n v a s ( 9 7 " x 6 9 " ) . F i g u r e 3 0 . Roy K i y o o k a . A l e p h #2, 1 9 6 4 . P o l y m e r ( a q u a t e x ) on c anvas ( 6 8 - 1 / 4 " x 9 3 - 3 / 4 " ) . F i g u r e 3 1 . Roy K i y o o k a . The B r i d g e , 1 9 6 5 . A c r y l i c on c a n v a s ( 60 " x 6 0 " ) . F i g u r e 3 2 . Roy K i y o o k a . Homage to D e b u s s y , 1 9 6 6 . A c r y l i c on c a n v a s ( 4 0 " x 1 2 0 " ) . F i g u r e 3 3 . Roy K i y o o k a . P I a e i des , 1 9 6 7 . A c r y l i c on c a n v a s ( 72 " x 1 8 0 " ) F i g u r e 34 Roy K i y o o k a . A c r y l i c on c anvas D a n e b , 1 9 6 8 . r96" x 96") 149 F i g u r e 3 5 . A r t h u r McKay . G r a s s i n W i n t e r , 1 9 5 6 . O i l on c a n v a s ( 2 1 " x 3 2 " ) . F i g u r e 3 6 . A r t h u r McKay . U n t i t i e d , 1 9 5 9 . F l a t b l a c k on p a p e r ( 2 0 " x 2 6 " ) . F i g u r e 3 7 . A r t h u r McKay . E f f u l g e n t Image, 1 9 6 1 . Enamel on c o m p o s i t i o n b o a r d ( 4 8 - 3 / 4 " x 4 8 - 3 / 4 " ) . F i g u r e 3 8 . A r t h u r McKay . T e n s i o n . 1 9 6 2 . 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