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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Hardy's novels : a study of changing vision Egan, Susanna 1973

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HARDYtS NOVELS: A STUDY OF CHANGING VISION by SUSANNA EGAN B.A. Cantab., 1965 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department o f ENGLISH We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1973 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission fo r extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date ABSTRACT Hardy's n o v e l s draw on h i s knowledge of r u r a l l i f e i n the n i n e t e e n t h century; the e f f e c t s o f the a g r i c u l t u r a l d e p r e s s i o n form p a r t of h i s m a t e r i a l . S i m i l a r l y , D a r w i n i a n thought a f f e c t s h i s response t o man and n a t u r e . N e i t h e r the s u b j e c t - m a t t e r nor the p h i l o s o p h y , however, accounts f o r Hardy's changing a t t i t u d e t o h i s heroes and h e r o i n e s who f a c e c o n s i s t e n t l y s i m i l a r predicaments. T h i s t h e s i s accounts f o r such change i n terms o f Hardy's r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t the o l d - w o r l d v a l u e s o f community l i f e were inadequate f o r modern needs. A c c o r d i n g l y , he taught h i m s e l f t o accept the i n d i v i d u a l , even when he f i n d s h i m s e l f o u t s i d e the e s t a b l i s h e d o r d e r , as the spearhead o f moral improvement. Hardy d e r i v e d a sense of s e c u r i t y from the r u r a l way o f l i f e p o r t r a y e d i n h i s e a r l y n o v e l s . A n c i e n t customs are perpetuated i n c l o s e l y - k n i t communities. Work d e f i n e s purpose. True l o v e i s rewarded. L i f e i s p e a c e f u l and harmonious. Hardy acknowledges a p o s s i b l e source of danger i n p a s s i v i t y of temperament and i n the s o c i a l p r e t e n s i o n s of h i s women, but these are o n l y p o s s i b l e dangers and the i d y l l triumphs. In h i s middle n o v e l s , Hardy pays more a t t e n t i o n t o the changes t h a t were t a k i n g p l a c e around him,and he r e e v a l u a t e s the s t r e n g t h and worth of the o l d - w o r l d v a l u e s i n the l i g h t o f more modern a l t e r n a t i v e s . These n o v e l s are d e s c r i b e d as e x p e r i m e n t a l because Hardy*s a t t i t u d e t o the new s o c i a l o r d e r s and t h e i r v a l u e s i s ambivalent. Here, however, and i n t h r e e major l a t e n o v e l s , Hardy d e s c r i b e s the r u r a l way o f l i f e as b e n i g h t e d and inadequate, unable t o s u r v i v e i n the f a c e o f change. C o n s i s t e n t l y now a r e a l i s t i c e n d i n g b r i n g s d e f e a t t o the r u s t i c hero and h e r o i n e . But i n c o n t r a s t t o h i s admission o f d e f e a t f o r the o l d communities, Hardy l e a r n s t o value the worth o f the i n d i v i d u a l who f l o u t s c o n v e n t i o n and community t i e s and e v o l v e s h i s own purposes i n l i f e . I n e a r l y n o v e l s t h e s e men are the a n t i - h e r o e s . I n h i s l a s t n o v e l s , Hardy s t u d i e s them more c l o s e l y . H i s a n t i p a t h y g i v e s way t o a d m i r a t i o n , and the a n t i - h e r o o f h i s f i r s t n o v e l s , who stands o u t s i d e the s e t t l e d community, becomes the hero o f h i s l a s t . i v CONTENTS L i s t o f A b b r e v i a t i o n s v i I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Chapter One: The Importance of P a s t o r a l 10 Chapter Two: The Persuasion o f Progress 36 Chapter Three: The Death of P a s t o r a l 63 Chapter Four: The Modern Man 90 Footnotes 112 B i b l i o g r a p h y 115 V L i s t o f A b b r e v i a t i o n s References t o the nov e l s are made i n the t e x t and the f o l l o w i n g a b b r e v i a t i o n s are used f o r the t i t l e s : PR Desperate Remedies FMC Far from the Madding Crowd HE The Hand o f E t h e l b e r t a JO Jude the Obscure L A Laodicean MC The Mayor of C a s t e r b r i d g e PBE A P a i r o f Blue Eyes RN The Return o f the Native TP Tess o f the d * U r b e r v i l l e s TM The Trumpet-Major TT Two on a Tower UGT Under the Greenwood Tree ¥ The Woodlanders WB The We l l - B e l o v e d Chapter numbers appear i n roman numerals. Page numbers are g i v e n i n a r a b l e numerals and r e f e r t o the Wessex e d i t i o n . Whenever a novel i s a l s o d i v i d e d i n t o p a r t s , the numbers f o r these appear b e f o r e the chapter number. v i 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n L i k e T r o l l o p e * s B a r s e t s h i r e or George Eliot»s Loamshire, Hardy's Wessex p r o v i d e s a d i s t i n c t i v e context and c h a r a c t e r f o r a l l h i s n o v e l s . And j u s t as T r o l l o p e i s most at home among the c l e r g y and George E l i o t among the small-town middle c l a s s e s , so Hardy d e a l s with the yeoman, the v i l l a g e craftsman, and the s m a l l farmer. He w r i t e s , moreover, of h i s own century, from The Trumpet-Major, i n which the a c t i o n i s p a r t of the Napoleonic wars, t o The Well-Beloved, which ends i n the 1890*3. D a t i n g the a c t i o n of each n o v e l from i n t e r n a l evidence, however, M i l l g a t e and Weber agree t h a t Hardy con c e n t r a t e d on the middle of the n i n e t e e n t h century. He was w r i t i n g , i n p a r t i c u l a r , o f the " s t i r r i n g t imes" i n which he h i m s e l f l i v e d , and o f the one p l a c e i n England t h a t probably endured more changes, s o c i a l l y , p o l i t i c a l l y , and e c o n o m i c a l l y i n h i s l i f e t i m e than at any other time 1 s i n c e the Norman Conquest. Contemporary c r i t i c s accused Hardy of i d e a l i z i n g the r u r a l way o f l i f e , of w r i t i n g i r r e s p o n s i b l y i n a 2 time of h a r d s h i p and d i s r u p t i o n . S o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s were a p p a l l i n g enough i n Dorset t o j u s t i f y t h e i r outrage, but Hardy*s w r i t i n g does not suggest t h a t he was i n d i f f e r e n t t o what was going on. H i s a r t i c l e , 3 "The D o r s e t s h i r e Labourer," and h i s well-known l e t t e r 4 t o R i d e r Haggard i l l u s t r a t e both the extent of h i s o b s e r v a t i o n and h i s c o n s i d e r a b l e concern. i n the 2 nov e l s too, Hardy d i s c u s s e s the a g r i c u l t u r a l scene 5 as i t was s p e c i f i c a l l y b e f o r e the r e p e a l o f the Corn Laws. He d e s c r i b e s machinery as a t h r e a t t o the a g r i c u l t u r a l 6 l a b o u r e r whom i t e i t h e r d i s p l a c e s or c o n t r o l s . Even i n h i s e a r l i e s t work, Hardy dramatizes the e f f e c t s of the system whereby " l i v i e r s " h e l d houses on l y f o r 7 a c e r t a i n number of l i v e s . I n s e c u r i t y o f tenure f o r c e d workfolk t o le a v e the l a n d or, almost worse, t o move t o a new job by the season or the year, and these r e s u l t s , too, form an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f many o f 8 Hardy*s n o v e l s . Although he does not ex p l o r e the immediate l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f h i s r u s t i c s , and t h e r e f o r e does not give us the graphic d e t a i l s t o be found i n j o u r n a l i s t s * 9 r e p o r t s or i n the f i n d i n g s o f the two Royal Commissions 10 t o Dorset, he does d e a l r e p e a t e d l y w i t h i s s u e s o f more l a s t i n g consequence. By 1902, i n h i s l e t t e r t o Haggard, Hardy f e l t t h a t the l i f e o f the l a b o u r e r who remained on the l a n d was "almost without e x c e p t i o n one 11 o f comfort, i f the most o r d i n a r y t h r i f t be observed." But while l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s improved, Hardy was concerned about the ge n e r a l d e r a c i n a t i o n and l o s s o f r e g i o n a l i n d i v i d u a l i t y . R i d e r Haggard f e l t the i n e v i t a b l e r e s u l t would be a d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f the i s l a n d r a c e . 3 And T r e v e l y a n , w r i t i n g d u r i n g the second World War, echoed t h i s sentiment: "The men o f .theory f a i l e d t o p e r c e i v e t h a t a g r i c u l t u r e i s not merely one i n d u s t r y among many, but i s a way o f l i f e , unique and i r r e p l a c e a b l e 12 i n i t s human and s p i r i t u a l v a l u e s . " I t was wit h these v a l u e s t h a t Hardy was mostly concerned. He saw even e d u c a t i o n ( e n f o r c e d by l e g i s l a t i o n i n 1870 and 1873) as a t h r e a t t o the o l d order, t e n d i n g , as i t d i d , t o e l i m i n a t e the o l d d i a l e c t , t o d i s s o l v e the o l d communities, and t o f o s t e r a uniform m e d i o c r i t y t h a t made country-and towns-people almost i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from each ot h e r . In the fa c e o f t h i s k i n d o f d i s i n t e g r a t i o n , Hardy claimed t h a t he was a c h r o n i c l e r not o f the s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t were d i s t u r b i n g h i s contemporaries, but of the o l d or d e r : At the dates r e p r e s e n t e d i n the v a r i o u s n a r r a t i o n s t h i n g s were l i k e t h a t i n Wessex: the i n h a b i t a n t s l i v e d i n c e r t a i n ways, engaged i n c e r t a i n occupations, kept a l i v e c e r t a i n customs, j u s t as they are shown doi n g i n these pages. . . . I have i n s t i t u t e d i n q u i r i e s t o c o r r e c t t r i c k s o f memory, and s t r i v e n a g a i n s t temptations t o exaggerate, i n order t o preserve f o r my own s a t i s f a c t i o n a f a i r l y t r u e r e c o r d o f a v a n i s h i n g life.-*-3 H i s r e c o r d , however, i s not merely f a c t u a l but c a r r i e s the emotional weight of h i s own sense o f l o s s . He asso-4 c i a t e s h i s r u r a l communities wi t h an unchangeable past so t h a t the M e l l s t o c k c h o i r , f o r i n s t a n c e , does not o n l y i l l u s t r a t e o l d customs but c a r r i e s c o n n o t a t i o n s o f an a n c i e n t , immutable i d y l l . I n Far from the Madding Crowd, i n which the a g r i c u l t u r a l f e s t i v a l s are r e d o l e n t with j o y , t h i s sense o f t i m e l e s s n e s s i s made e x p l i c i t : I n comparison wi t h c i t i e s , Weatherbury was immutable. The citizen»s Then i s the r u s t i c ' s Now. In London, twenty or t h i r t y y e a rs ago are o l d times; i n P a r i s t e n years or f i v e ; i n Weatherbury t h r e e or f o u r s c o r e y e a r s were i n c l u d e d i n the mere present, and n o t h i n g l e s s than a century s e t a mark on i t s f a c e or tone. F i v e decades h a r d l y m o d i f i e d the cut of a g a i t e r , the embroidery o f a smock-frock, by the breadth of a h a i r . Ten g e n e r a t i o n s f a i l e d t o a l t e r the t u r n of a s i n g l e phrase. I n these Wessex nooks the busy o u t s i d e r ' s a n c i e n t times are o n l y o l d j h i s o l d times are s t i l l new; h i s present i s f u t u r i t y . 1 4 The a g r i c u l t u r a l d e p r e s s i o n , however, t h a t c r i p p l e d Dorset i n the second h a l f of the n i n e t e e n t h century, f o r c e d l a b o u r i n g communities t o move i n t o t h a t f u t u r i t y o f the i n d u s t r i a l p r e s e n t . Hardy r e g r e t t e d the n e c e s s i t y f o r such change. He f e l t t h a t among the o l d communities happiness would " f i n d her l a s t refuge on e a r t h , s i n c e i t i s among them t h a t a p e r f e c t i n s i g h t i n t o the 15 c o n d i t i o n s of e x i s t e n c e w i l l be l o n g e s t postponed." 5 Only w i t h doubt and d i s t r u s t does he t u r n h i s a t t e n t i o n t o these p r e s e n t " c o n d i t i o n s o f e x i s t e n c e , " and he d e a l s then not wit h s o c i a l o r economic c o n d i t i o n s i n country or town, but wit h the ad a p t a t i o n s men and women make t o new s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . These e n t a i l new modes of l i f e and thought, and anyone who does not adapt does not s u r v i v e . Hardy was among the f i r s t t o accept Darwin's theory o f e v o l u t i o n and he based h i s own unde r s t a n d i n g o f "the c o n d i t i o n s o f e x i s t e n c e " almost e n t i r e l y on i t . He adapted Darwin's harsh s t r u g g l e t o s u i t h i s own emotional needs and a r r i v e d at h i s own e v o l u t i o n a r y t h e o r y o f " m e l i o r i s m , " which informs a l l those n o v e l s i n which he t r i e s t o come t o terms with the new order. He came t o b e l i e v e t h a t the s i g n i f i c a n t e v o l u t i o n was of consciousness, and t h a t i n c r e a s e d consciousness would improve the s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s of man's l i f e . I t i s i n l a r g e p a r t a c c o r d i n g t o these t h e o r i e s t h a t he p l a c e s h i s r u s t i c heroes i n the new surroundings e n f o r c e d by the changes of the times and s o r t s out the s u r v i v o r s from those who cannot s u r v i v e . I n t h i s p r o c e s s , Hardy l e a r n s t o accept the f a c t t h a t the o l d communities are i n h e r e n t l y weak. He becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y conscious o f moral worth i n the i n d i v i d u a l ' s s t r u g g l e t o cope wi t h l i f e on h i s own. H i s own a t t i t u d e changes, i n other words, because he d i s c a r d s p r e j u d i c e s t h a t favour the o l d world and adopts new powers of 6 a d m i r a t i o n f o r the new. But acceptance o f the new d i d not come e a s i l y . I n n o v e l a f t e r n o v e l , Hardy reworks very s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s as i f t o f i n d out how he h i m s e l f f e e l s about them. He r e f u s e s at every stage t o dispense w i t h those values t h a t he most t r e a s u r e s from the o l d w o r l d — i n t e g r i t y , kindness, the importance o f w o r k — b u t r e c o g n i z e s and r e j e c t s the ignorance and p a s s i v i t y of temper a l s o found t h e r e . Jude becomes the most n a t u r a l r e s u l t o f t h i s examination, embodying as he does the b e s t v a l u e s from the o l d world and the new. Jude*s death marks the end o f H a r dy fs n o v e l - w r i t i n g c a r e e r , but does not negate h i s m e l i o r i s t i c t h e o r i e s . Rather, i t i l l u s t r a t e s , not f o r the f i r s t time, t h a t i n f i n i t e l y g r e a t e r c a p a c i t y f o r p a i n t h a t i n c r e a s e d and conscious i n t e l l i g e n c e b r i n g s i n i t s wake. Hardy*s most a t t r a c t i v e heroes and h e r o i n e s evoke sympathy because they s u f f e r . E i t h e r t hey l a c k " p e r f e c t i n s i g h t i n t o the c o n d i t i o n s of e x i s t e n c e , " l i k e G i l e s Winterborne, or they possess i t a l l too c l e a r l y f o r any power they have i n t h e i r s o c i e t y t o implement the most important changes t h a t p e r c i p i e n c e demands. Whichever way he t u r n e d , i n f a c t , Hardy was oppressed by "the g e n e r a l drama of p a i n . " A s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n i s reached i n t u r n i n g from the t h e o r e t i c a l bases o f Hardy*s thought t o the p r a c t i c a l working o f h i s c r a f t as a s t o r y - t e l l e r . 7 J u s t as e v o l u t i o n a r y m e l i o r i s m l e a d s t o a s t a t e o f heightened s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n which the i n d i v i d u a l s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o u t s t r i p s t h a t o f h i s s o c i e t y , Hardy's dramatic p r e s e n t a t i o n , which takes e s s e n t i a l l y the form o f s o c i a l c o n f l i c t , i s g r a d u a l l y r e f i n e d u n t i l t he o n l y r e a l c o n f l i c t i s w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l , no lon g e r between r e a l a l t e r n a t i v e s o f f e r e d by the s t o r y . I n the e a r l y n o v e l s , f o r in s t a n c e , the r u r a l community e s t a b l i s h e s Hardy's norm, and any c o n f l i c t t h a t a r i s e s can be blamed on i n t r u d e r s . These tend t o be connected wi t h the community i n some way, but t h r e a t e n i t s s a f e t y n o n e t h e l e s s . Fancy Day and Sergeant Troy are seen as dangerous, d e s p i t e t h e i r undeniable a t t r a c t i o n s . But Hardy does not r e s t t h e r e , and Clym Yeobright demands sympathy p r e c i s e l y because o f h i s f a i l u r e t o e f f e c t any changes i n h i s community. His f a i l u r e on Egdon foreshadows the c l a u s t r o p h o b i a t h a t F i t z p i e r s and even Grace f e e l i n L i t t l e Hintock. T h i s repeated p a t t e r n o f n a t i v e s who t r y t o break away from t h e i r community, and n a t i v e s who have broken away and who t r y t o r e t u r n , may f i n d i t s source i n Hardy's own l i f e . He may be h i s own f i n e s t n a t i v e r e t u r n e d . Maybe he saw h i m s e l f i n J o c e l y n P i e r s t o n , the hero o f The Well-Beloved, h i s c h a r a c t e r formed by h i s environment, 16 "-a n a t i v e o f n a t i v e s - . " Yet t h e r e i s n o t h i n g for* Jude i n Marygreen, which i s not even the place>of h i s . b i r t h . 8 Much l i k e the p e r i p a t e t i c Tess, Jude moves from town t o town l i v i n g i n l o d g i n g s . As with Tess, t h e r e i s a c h o i c e of l o v e r s but no l o n g e r any c l e a r c h o ice t h a t can be made between d i f f e r e n t ways of l i f e . The r u r a l world i s unable to adapt t o the f o r c e s o f change, so t h a t men and women have t o t u r n away from the country r a t h e r than back t o i t w i t h renewed v i g o u r . I n f a c t , the o l d f o l k and the o l d way o f l i f e l i e i n M e l l s t o c k churchyard and Jude, the new man, exposed t o e d u c a t i o n , i n s p i r e d by ambition, mobile both s o c i a l l y and p h y s i c a l l y , i s able t o t u r n o n l y t o h i m s e l f f o r the standards and v a l u e s on which t o base h i s l i f e . There i s no other community or source o f f a i t h . By 1890, again,the r e a l c o n f l i c t l i e s not between the a t t r a c t i o n s of country and town, but w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l who has t o f i n d h i s own way i n b oth a l i e n landscape and h o s t i l e c i t y . Hardy's n o v e l s do not, however, u n f o l d w i t h an i n c r e a s i n g gloom t h a t i s u n r e l a t e d t o the times i n which he l i v e d . They d e a l , r a t h e r , w i t h the most profound e f f e c t s of those changes t h a t h i s contemporaries were p r e s e n t i n g i n s o c i o l o g i c a l and graphic d e t a i l . His acute understanding of what was t a k i n g p l a c e i n r u r a l Dorset d i d not l e a d him t o r e p o r t on f a c t s but to dramatize problems through the dilemmas faced by h i s p r o t a g o n i s t s , and through h i s own r e l e n t l e s s p r o g r e s s i o n from an i d e a l p a s t t o any angry and p a s s i o n a t e p r e s e n t . 9 For Hardy h i m s e l f the dilemma, through t o the l a s t o f the Wessex n o v e l s , l i e s between r e j e c t i o n or acceptance of the emerging s o c i e t y and v a l u e s . So much i s c l e a r from the circumstances o f each p l o t . R i v a l s throw each other i n t o r e l i e f even though the c o n t r a s t s are muted between the impul s i v e Dick Dewy, f o r i n s t a n c e , and the c a r e f u l Mr. Maybold, the warm-hearted Stephen Smith and the d i d a c t i c Henry Knight. But Hardy's support f o r the simple over the s o p h i s t i c a t e d ends w i t h Far from the Madding Crowd. The balance t i p s i n favour of F a r f r a e over Henchard and, once t i p p e d , i t continues t o f a l l . The r e a l wins over the i d e a l i n The Woodlanders, and from t h e r e on Hardy's concern i s t o f i n d i n F i t z p i e r s or h i s " h e i r s " an accept a b l e approach t o l i f e , a moral c o u n t e r p a r t t o s t a b i l i t y , t r a d i t i o n , and c l o s e l y -k n i t communities. E s s e n t i a l l y , he l e a r n s t o admire the courage e x e r t e d by the i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l , and t o re c o g n i z e t h a t the man who cuts h i m s e l f o f f from h i s community may be motivated by h i g h i d e a l s r a t h e r than by s e l f i s h n e s s . H i s endorsement o f Jude a f t e r h i s r e b u t t a l of e a r l i e r o u t c a s t s r e p r e s e n t s a s i g n i f i c a n t a d a p t a t i o n of Hardy's own a t t i t u d e s . The purpose here w i l l be t o t r a c e t h a t development i n Hardy's t h i n k i n g whereby Jude, " b r o t h e r " to Dick Dewy i n M e l l s t o c k , earns f u l l a u t h o r i a l support f o r a new manner of l i f e i n an order t h a t i s d r a m a t i c a l l y changed. 10 Chapter One: The Importance o f P a s t o r a l Hardy's e a r l y n o v e l s i l l u s t r a t e a v a r i e t y of i n t e r e s t s , but p o r t r a y a l o f r u s t i c l i f e remains a constant element throughout h i s c a r e e r . I n s o f a r as norms e s t a b l i s h e d i n f i c t i o n i n d i c a t e an author's p e r s o n a l v a l u e s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o say t h a t Hardy e s t a b l i s h e s h i s own p o s i t i o n i n terms o f h i s r u s t i c world. He measures a l t e r n a t i v e l i f e - s t y l e s a c c o r d i n g t o the moral standards s e t by h i s r u s t i c heroes and h e r o i n e s , and c l i n g s t o the b e s t o f these v a l u e s even when the r u r a l way of l i f e proves unable to s u r v i v e . The r u s t i c element appears almost i n c i d e n t a l l y i n the e a r l i e s t Wessex n o v e l s and was p o s s i b l y developed f o r the simple reason t h a t i t was h i g h l y p r a i s e d . Macmillan, f o r i n s t a n c e , r e j e c t e d The Poor Man and the Lady (1868), but he p r a i s e d Hardy's treatment o f country people. I t i s not, t h e r e f o r e , s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d Farmer Springrove and h i s henchmen making c i d e r amidst the s e n s a t i o n a l events o f Desperate Remedies (1871). Looking forward, too, t o the t i t l e o f Under the Greenwood Tree (1872) Cytherea i s s i c k e n e d by the " v u l g a r d e t a i l s of s e r v i t u d e " and "almost longed to pursue some f r e e , o ut-of-doors employment, s l e e p under t r e e s or a hut, and know no 11 enemy but wi n t e r and c o l d weather, l i k e shepherds and cowkeepers, and b i r d s and a n i m a l s — a y , l i k e the sheep she saw t h e r e under her window" (PR,V,ii, 7 2 ) . Hardy knew p e r f e c t l y w e l l t h a t shepherds and cowkeepers, l i k e b i r d s and animals, have much more t o f e a r than w i n t e r and c o l d weather. T i t l e s l i k e Under the Greenwood Tree and Far from the Madding Crowd (1874) are, i n p a r t , i r o n i c . The wedding dance under the " a n c i e n t t r e e " i n Yalbury Wood l a c k s the harmony so apparent at the t r a n t e r ' s Christmas p a r t y . The c h a r a c t e r s i n Far from the Madding Crowd are not f r e e from " i g n o b l e s t r i f e , " and the t e n o r of t h e i r way cannot be c a l l e d n o i s e l e s s . Of the e a r l y n o v e l s t h i s l a s t i n p a r t i c u l a r p r e s e n t s the drama o f human emotions and a h i g h l y c o l o u r e d sequence o f d i s a s t e r s s u f f e r e d or narrowly a v e r t e d i n Hardy's r u s t i c world. I n a d d i t i o n t o some i r o n y , t h e r e are elements here of t h a t f a r c i c a l or f l i p p a n t treatment t o which Hardy r e f e r s i n h i s 1912 Preface t o Under the Greenwood Tree. T r a n t e r Reuben i s an e n t i r e l y comic f i g u r e as he pursues h i s d i s c u s s i o n w i t h the v i c a r from beneath a c h a i r . The P i c k e n s i a n c a r i c a t u r e i n d e s c r i p t i o n found i n some p a r t s o f Under the Greenwood Tree i s resumed at the opening o f Far from the Madding Crowd as Farmer Oak's smile spreads "the co r n e r s o f h i s mouth . . . t i l l 12 they were w i t h i n an unimportant d i s t a n c e o f h i s e a r s " (FMC,i,1), and h i s c a r e f u l d r e s s t o go c o u r t i n g b r i n g s him c l o s e t o the buff o o n . Yet these aspects o f Hardy's treatment pay merely p a s s i n g t r i b u t e t o p a s t o r a l conventions and are u l t i m a t e l y l e s s p e r s u a s i v e than the b a s i c s e r i o u s n e s s with which he r c o n s i d e r s the r u s t i c community. Indeed, the f a c t of o r i g i n a l l y b e l o n g i n g t o i t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o endow c e r t a i n ambiguous c h a r a c t e r s w i t h a worth t h a t Hardy assumes without d i s t i n c t l y p o r t r a y i n g . So Egbert Mayne i s t o r n between l o y a l t y t o h i s grandfather and l o v e f o r G e r a l d i n e A l l a n v i l l e , but i t i s the former r a t h e r than the l a t t e r t h a t d e f i n e s h i s worth, and he does not attempt t o marry G e r a l d i n e while h i s g r a n d f a t h e r l i v e s . For Cytherea, S p r i n g r o v e ' s p r o x i m i t y i s re p r e s e n t e d by h i s f a t h e r ' s sheep, and h i s moral worth, r a t h e r dubious on the b a s i s o f some of h i s own a c t i o n s , a c q u i r e s value i n h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s f a t h e r and i n the l i g h t o f h i s f a t h e r ' s g e n t l e and d i g n i f i e d c h a r a c t e r . The importance o f the community, o n l y suggested i n these two cases, i s more c l e a r l y seen i n terms of the a s p i r i n g r u s t i c . Stephen Smith's grandparents p l a n t e d t r e e s t o g e t h e r l i k e Marty and G i l e s , y e t h i s parents are r i c h e r than the Swancourts, and h i s mother, s t a n d i n g on her d i g n i t y , i n s i s t s t h a t he c o u l d look h i g h e r than a bankrupt parson's daughter i f he wanted. His f a t h e r s e t s 13 up h i s own b u s i n e s s by the end o f the s t o r y , and Stephen's remarkable success i s mentioned i n the Every-Man-His-Own-Maker c l u b . Stephen c e r t a i n l y e q u a l i z e s the s o c i a l s t a t u s between h i m s e l f and E l f r i d e even though he went t o a dame s c h o o l and a N a t i o n a l s c h o o l and not t o Dr. Somebody's academy. I t i s worthy o f Stephen t o push on i n the world, and y e t i t i s from the country t h a t both he and E l f r i d e d e r i v e t h e i r most a t t r a c t i v e q u a l i t i e s . Stephen's r e t u r n from I n d i a i s greeted w i t h a p i g - k i l l i n g t h a t r e c a l l s the f a t t e d c a l f k i l l e d f o r the P r o d i g a l Son. D i g n i t y and p r i d e e s t a b l i s h the p a r e n t s ' worth so t h a t Stephen's h e s i t a t i o n about t h e i r f r i e n d s , though p e r f e c t l y understandable i n the circumstances, i s l e s s than k i n d . S i m i l a r l y , Stephen blames Elfride»s f i c k l e n e s s on her exposure t o London s o c i e t y and he i s q u i t e r i g h t . The f i n i s h i n g touches t o her e d u c a t i o n t h a t her stepmother p r o v i d e s , i n Rotten Row f o r i n s t a n c e , broaden Elfride»s understanding o f what l i f e can h o l d f o r her. The churchyards at E a s t and West Endlestow pr o v i d e a metaphor f o r t h i s development. She l i v e s at f i r s t amid"nothing but l o n g , w i l d , u n t u t o r e d g r a s s " where the shape o f the l a n d i s "nowhere excluded by d i s g u i s i n g a r t " ( P B E , i v , 2 6 ) , but she i s b u r i e d amid c a r e f u l l y tended lawns, mathematically p r e c i s e gravestones, and " t r i m neatness," w i t h no d i s t i n c t boundary between God's acre and Lord L u x e l l i a n ' s (PBE,xxv,2 7 8 ) . 14 While the theme o f s o c i a l c o n f l i c t i n t h i s book r e s u r r e c t s The Poor Man and the Lady, here too i d e n t i f i -c a t i o n of the country w i t h what i s good (as opposed t o the a f f e c t a t i o n s of the s o p h i s t i c a t e d world) i s c l e a r . Under the Greenwood Tree and Far from the Madding Crowd, however, p r o v i d e the c l e a r e s t e x p l o r a t i o n and approval of the r u r a l way of l i f e as w e l l as t h a t " s o l i d i t y o f s o c i a l context"^on which Hardy based h i s be s t work. M i l l g a t e has p o i n t e d out t h a t Hardy f i r s t used Wessex as a name i n Far from the Madding Crowd i n 1874. L a t e r he r e v i s e d a l l h i s e a r l i e r novels t o b r i n g the p l a c e names i n t o agreement with the map t h a t had developed i n h i s mind. Yet h i s sense of p l a c e must have been s t r o n g from the b e g i n n i n g or such simple r e v i s i o n s c o u l d never have worked. M e l l s t o c k and Weatherbury are as c l o s e as S t i n s f o r d and Puddletown. Joseph Poorgrass b r i n g s Fanny's c o f f i n home through Yalbury Wood and Keeper Day's metheglin i s mentioned. Mr. Maybold's mother l i v e s i n the same Budmouth t h a t Troy sees i n the d i s t a n c e as he i s swept out t o sea. The C a s t e r b r i d g e where Fancy may have bought her p r e t t y boots h o l d s the Corn Market of which Bathsheba becomes queen. But even more i m p o r t a n t l y , the sense of p l a c e i s e s t a b l i s h e d by c l o s e communities where men "' £kj nowed jeach o t h e r 1 sj g r a n d f a t h e r f o r years and y e a r s ' " ( F M C , v i i i , 6 0 ) . The " p l a c i d emotion of f r i e n d s h i p " (UGT,I,i,4) binds f a m i l i e s f o r g e n e r a t i o n s so t h a t human l i f e assumes 15 the p r e d i c t a b i l i t y and the t i m e l e s s q u a l i t y o f the seasons. Notably, these form the design of Under the  Greenwood Tree o n l y t o be d i s p l a c e d i n Far from the  Madding Crowd by the f e s t i v a l s o f the a g r i c u l t u r a l year. I t i s worth n o t i n g , too, t h a t Hardy's heroes are both very o r d i n a r y men. Dick Dewy, indeed, tends t o l o s e h i s i n d i v i d u a l i t y i n the g e n e r a l f e a t u r e s o f a country youth. He i s f i r s t v i s i b l e i n p r o f i l e , as a p o r t r a i t which "assumed the form of a low-crowned hat, an ordinary-shaped nose, an o r d i n a r y c h i n , an o r d i n a r y neck, and o r d i n a r y s h o u l d e r s " (Ibid.,pp.4-5)• Oak, f i g h t i n g a g a i n s t the s t e r e o t y p e i n which Hardy t h r e a t e n s to c a s t him, t e l l s Bathsheba: "'though I am o n l y an every-day s o r t o f man I have got on a l i t t l e s i n c e I was a boy'" (FMC,iv,31). He i s b o a s t i n g here, though q u i e t l y , but e a r l i e r l e a v e s her aunt's house because he f e e l s h i s s o l e hope of success l i e s i n b e i n g the f i r s t comer. These q u a l i t i e s s h o u l d be remembered i n both these l o v e r s i n d i s c u s s i o n of t h e i r r i v a l s . Dick and G a b r i e l , w i t h no o v e r t glamour t o recommend them, are f i r s t on the scene as w e l l as l a s t . These s o l i d communities and every-day men i n f a c t , r e p r e s e n t c e r t a i n v a l u e s which become c l e a r l y r e c o g n i z a b l e . 16 Music, for instance, provides a c r i t e r i o n f o r moral worth i n Under the Greenwood Tree. William Dewy may appear to have "had no character i n p a r t i c u l a r " to his neighbours (UGT,I,iii,15) because they react to him according to t h e i r own circumstances and his i n d i v i d u a l i t y i s submerged i n h i s contribution to the l i f e of the community, yet the character that Hardy unfolds comes to represent what i n that community i s most valuable. " D i r e c t l y music was the theme old William ever and i n s t i n c t i v e l y came to the front" (UGT,I,iv,23)• His bass represents his p o s i t i o n i n both family and choir. His authority stems from the fact that he i s "' a* old aged man, as a l l s h a l l be'" (UGT,II,v,92). He i s patriarch i n a community where age represents wisdom. So i t i s not su r p r i s i n g to f i n d that " r e l i g i o u s questions were mostly disposed of by the old man" (UGT,I,vii,47)• Everyone, has his place, for Reuben (tenor) and Ann w i l l care for domestic arrangements, and Dick's sole function, playing t r e b l e , i s to f a l l i n love and marry. Grandfather William, as moral guide, i n s i s t s , despite Shiner's fury, that the carol be fi n i s h e d by " ' a l l who be friends of harmony'" (UGT,I,v,31), yet he accepts the choir's demise most charitably. Even the apt cynicisms of grandfather James meet a charitable rejoinder from t h i s eminently tolerant man. When James 17 wonders at the wedding whether Fancy t h i n k s more about Dick or her d r e s s , W i l l i a m a c c e p t i n g l y r e p l i e s : " ' W e l l , ' t i s t h e i r nature. . . . Remember the words of the prophet Jeremiah: "Can a maid f o r g e t her ornaments, or a b r i d e her a t t i r e ? " ' " (UGT,V,i,2 0 4 ). His r e l i g i o u s f a i t h does not b l i n d him t o human i m p e r f e c t i o n ; r a t h e r i t p r o v i d e s a method f o r e x p l a i n i n g i t . So W i l l i a m has n o t h i n g to l e a r n from James, i s able t o e s t a b l i s h h i s p o s i t i o n a g a i n s t S h i n e r on a matter of p r i n c i p l e , and accepts the i n e v i t a b l e w i t h grace. J u s t as m u s i c a l l e a d e r s h i p e s t a b l i s h e s the moral n o b i l i t y of W i l l i a m Dewy, a t t i t u d e s t o music d e f i n e s e v e r a l other c h a r a c t e r s i n the book. S h i n e r , who o b j e c t s t o the c a r o l - s i n g i n g , i s a c t i v e i n the matter of the organ. Fancy i s redeemed to some exte n t by the f a c t t h a t she i s m u s i c a l and t h e r e f o r e a " f r i e n d " t o the c h o i r . But f o r e i g n instruments are a t h r e a t to the p e r f e c t harmony t h a t the c h o i r r e p r e s e n t s w i t h i t s t r a d i t i o n of community involvement. "With a m u s i c a l e x e c u t i v e l i m i t e d . . . t o the parson's wif e or daughter and the s c h o o l - c h i l d r e n , or t o the s c h o o l - t e a c h e r and the c h i l d r e n , " Hardy w r i t e s i n h i s I896 Preface, "an important u n i o n of i n t e r e s t s has d i s a p p e a r e d . " I t i s t h i s union of i n t e r e s t s t h a t o l d W i l l i a m r e p r e s e n t s , which i s one reason why he i s p o r t r a y e d as such a s t e r l i n g c h a r a c t e r . The same q u a l i t i e s appear l a t e r i n G a b r i e l Oak. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , 18 h i s A r c a d i a n pipe g i v e s way t o a bass p a r t i n the Weatherbury c h o i r as he becomes an i n t e g r a l member of the community. Leaf belongs, whatever h i s shortcomings, because he can at l e a s t s i n g h i s t r e b l e . As p l a c e i n the community i s d e f i n e d by music, purpose i s d e f i n e d by work. Here Hardy 1s sense of m o r a l i t y i s q u i t e e x p l i c i t . " F i t n e s s b e i n g the b a s i s of beauty," he w r i t e s , a s s e r t i n g an a e s t h e t i c t h a t brooks no o b j e c t i o n , "nobody co u l d have denied t h a t G a b r i e l ' s steady swings and t u r n s i n and about the f l o c k had elements of grace" ( F M C , i i , 5 ) • A g r i c u l t u r a l l a b o u r i s d i g n i f i e d by the p e r s i s t e n c e of i t s n e c e s s i t y over other more t r a n s i e n t forms of l i f e . "The defence and s a l v a t i o n o f the body by d a i l y bread i s s t i l l a study, a r e l i g i o n , and a d e s i r e " (FMC,xxii,165)• Robert Penny, "whose t r a d e came s o l e l y by c o n n e c t i o n based on p e r s o n a l r e s p e c t " (UGT,II,ii,69)» r e p r e s e n t s the worth o f the l a b o u r e r w i t h i n the community. People serve each other with p r i d e and s k i l l . Dick c a r r i e s h i v e s t o Budmouth f o r Maybold's mother; he a l s o f e t c h e s Fancy from Yalbury and j o i n s the f a m i l y f o r d i n n e r . Work breeds a s i l e n t sympathy between master and man, as between G e o f f r e y Day and Enoch: " T h e i r l o n g acquaintance w i t h each o t h e r ' s ways and the nature o f t h e i r l a b o u r s , rendered words between them almost s u p e r f l u o u s as v e h i c l e s of thought" (UGT,II,vi,99). Poor L e a f ' s l a c k of widom i s d e s c r i b e d i n terms o f work: " ' I be mortal a f e a r d , Leaf, t h a t 19 y o u ' l l never be able to t e l l how many cuts d'take t o sharpen a s p a r , ' s a i d M a i l " ( U G T , I I , i i i , 7 6 ) . E q u a l l y , Cainy B a l l ' s g r a n d f a t h e r was a very c l e v e r man. In other words he knew how t o g r a f t apple t r e e s and so "' 'a were a c l e v e r man i n the sense of the term'" (FM C . x x x i i i , 2 5 2 ) . Being d e f i n e d by t h e i r j o b s , people do not l e a v e them behind. Grandfather James, b e i n g "by t r a d e a mason . . . wore a l o n g l i n e n apron r e a c h i n g almost t o h i s t o e s " ( U G T , I , i i i , 1 6 ) when he j o i n s the c h o i r on Christmas Eve. Reuben i s f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d t o as the t r a n t e r , j u s t as Day i s Keeper Day. In Far from  the Madding Crowd, Farmer Oak becomes Shepherd Oak and then, w i t h the r e t u r n of good f o r t u n e , Farmer Oak again. These jobs are a l s o passed on from f a t h e r t o son. Oak l e a r n s about sheep from h i s f a t h e r . Dick i s proud o f the card, t h a t he shows t o Maybold "DEWY AND SON, TRANTERS AND HAULIERS" (UGT,IV,vii,187) because h i s p o s i t i o n i n the community i s now e x a l t e d above t h a t of r u s t i c l o v e r . He w i l l be " t h e r e g u l a r manager of a branch o' f a t h e r ' s b u s i n e s s ' " ( i b d d . ) , not merely the y o u t h f u l t r e b l e . P r i d e and s k i l l are the h a l l m a r k s of the r e s p o n s i b l e workman; r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i t s e l f s e p a r a t e s the worthy man from the p o t e n t i a l o u t c a s t . He, at t h i s e a r l y date, i s feeble-minded l i k e Leaf, a d r i n k e r l i k e Enoch, a t h i e f l i k e Pennyways, or a c h a r l a t a n l i k e Troy, but he w i l l be t o l e r a t e d 20 and p r o t e c t e d even though he has n o t h i n g good t o c o n t r i b u t e t o community l i f e and must t h e r e f o r e remain powerless. The p r a c t i c a l e n t e r p r i s e , on the other hand, i n d i c a t e d i n the Dewys* card ( b o l d l y d e c l a r i n g t h a t they w i l l move goods "to any d i s t a n c e on the s h o r t e s t n o t i c e " ) i s matched by Di c k ' s s t o p p i n g to shake a swarm o f bees i n t o the h i v e even though he may then be l a t e f o r h i s wedding. "'A genuine wise man,* s a i d G e o f f r e y " (UGT,V,i,198). Oak r e v e a l s t h i s q u a l i t y i n more dramatic terms as he saves Bathsheba*s r i c k s f i r s t from f i r e and then from storm. He performs a l l the d u t i e s o f a b a i l i f f p a r t l y because he l o v e s h i s m i s t r e s s , but a l s o because these d u t i e s must be done. He t h i n k s , f o r i n s t a n c e , o f the exposed r i c k s both i n terms of t h e i r b e l o n g i n g t o Bathsheba and i n terms o f t h e i r monetary va l u e : Seven hundred and f i f t y pounds i n the d i v i n e s t form t h a t money can wear--that of necessary food f o r man and b e a s t : s h o u l d the r i s k be run o f d e t e r i o r a t i n g t h i s bulk of corn t o l e s s than h a l f i t s v a l u e , because of the i n s t a b i l i t y o f a woman? 'Never, i f I can prevent i t ! * s a i d Gabriel.(FMC,xxxvi,279) Oak*s concern i s s h a r p l y c o n t r a s t e d with Troy*s c a r e l e s s n e s s (he cannot be d i s t u r b e d f o r "such f i d g e t s " ) and Boldwood»s o v e r s i g h t . The word " c a r e l e s s " i s f r e q u e n t l y used o f Troy. He i s c a r e l e s s with h i s 21 a f f e c t i o n s , w i t h money, wit h other men's d i g n i t y . H i s c a r e l e s s n e s s becomes most c l e a r l y a k i n d o f moral d e p r a v i t y on the n i g h t o f the storm as he d i s m i s s e s the women, c o r r u p t s the men, and allows t h i s p a l p a b l e wealth t o r o t . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the argument f o r Boldwood's l a c k o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on the n i g h t o f the murder i n c l u d e s the evidence o f h i s n e g l e c t e d c o r n : I t was a s t o n i s h i n g , now t h a t a presumption of i n s a n i t y was r a i s e d , how many c o l l a t e r a l circumstances were remembered t o which a c o n d i t i o n o f mental d i s e a s e seemed t o a f f o r d the o n l y e x p l a n a t i o n — a m o n g o t h e r s , the unprecedented n e g l e c t o f h i s corn s t a c k s i n the p r e v i o u s summer. (FMC,lv,443) I t i s t h i s n e g l e c t which prompts Boldwood t o h i r e G a b r i e l , who g r a d u a l l y t a k e s over both farms as by i n a l i e n a b l e r i g h t . Worthy c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the community, a f t e r a l l , i s the o n l y c e r t i f i c a t e f o r l e a d e r s h i p , and those whose c o n t r i b u t i o n i s damaging must be made harmless or e j e c t e d . Hardy's support f o r these r u r a l communities i s f u r t h e r endorsed by h i s s t y l e . There i s l i t t l e t r a c e o f the i r o n i s t i n the p a s t o r a l scenes o f these e a r l i e s t n o v e l s . The tone i s not merely happy but "happy, happy" l i k e Keats's v i s i o n of f r o z e n f i g u r e s on the Gr e c i a n urn. T h i s v i s i o n i s q u i t e e x p l i c i t i n the f i r s t appearance of the c h o i r who, emerging from the shade, 22 suggest "some p r o c e s s i o n a l d e s i g n on Greek or E t r u s c a n p o t t e r y " (UGT, 1,3,5). Hardy's r e f e r e n c e s t o p a i n t e r s and p a i n t i n g are fr e q u e n t but, more i m p o r t a n t l y , he c o n s t a n t l y a r r e s t s some p e r f e c t moment as i f w i t h a p a i n t e r ' s eye. Grandfather James "formed a w e l l -i l l u m i n a t e d p i c t u r e as he passed towards the f i r e - p l a c e " ( U G T , I , i i i , 1 6 ) . Fancy Day p r e s e n t s a v i s i o n such as Leaf "'never, never s e e l ' " (UGT,I,v,30). Mr. Penny i s framed i n h i s shop window "with a boot on h i s knees and the awl i n h i s hand" (U G T , I I , i i , 6 8 ) . S i m i l a r l y , the sheep washing, the s h e a r i n g , and the s h e a r i n g supper p r o v i d e f o c a l p o i n t s f o r the mind's eye i n Far from the Madding Crowd. Hardy e l a b o r a t e s each scene almost f o r i t s own sake. At the washing, f o r i n s t a n c e , i t i s s p r i n g t h a t he i s c a p t u r i n g , a p e r e n n i a l s p r i n g . "The grass about the margin" he begins, i n d e s c r i b i n g the f i e l d where the p o o l i s l i k e a C y c l o p s ' eye ". . . was a s i g h t t o remember l o n g — i n a minor s o r t o f way." What a strange effacement, and y e t how t y p i c a l . T h i s i s a minor s o r t of scene, none of the h i g h drama so abundant i n t h i s book, and y e t the q u a l i t i e s e s t a b l i s h e d here h e l p t o e s t a b l i s h Hardy's v a l u e s . There i s j u s t a h i n t o f t h a t f l i p p a n t tone which brought Oak's s m i l e w i t h i n an "unimportant d i s t a n c e " from h i s e a r s . The o u t s k i r t s of t h i s l e v e l water-meadow were d i v e r s i f i e d by rounded and hollow p a s t u r e s , where j u s t now every f l o w e r t h a t was not a b u t t e r c u p was a d a i s y . (FMC,xix,142) But Hardy i s t r u l y t a l k i n g about a scene he l o v e s : The r i v e r s l i d along n o i s e l e s s l y as a shade, the s w e l l i n g reeds and sedge forming a f l e x i b l e p a l i s a d e upon i t s moist b r i n k . ( I b i d . ) He has e s t a b l i s h e d h i s s e r i o u s n e s s and h i s d e l i g h t , and c o n t i n u e s : To the n o r t h o f the mead were t r e e s , the l e a v e s of which were new, s o f t , and moist, not yet having s t i f f e n e d and darkened under summer sun and drought, t h e i r c o l o u r b e i n g yellow beside a green--green b e s i d e a 3'ellow. From the r e c e s s e s o f t h i s knot o f f o l i a g e the l o u d notes of t h r e e cuckoos were resounding through the s t i l l a i r . ( I b i d . ) The c u r i o u s t r a n s i t i o n s i n tone achieve n o t h i n g so s e c u r e l y as p l e a s u r e i n a scene which he then f i x e s i n t o "landscape" with the f l a g o n s of c i d e r " r o l l i n g about upon the green" ( I b i d . ) The sense of r e a l wealth conveyed i n " t h i s teeming time" (FMC,xxii,I64) can a l s o be found i n Under the Greenwood Tree. G e o f f r e y Day's storehouse at the back of h i s d w e l l i n g was hung with bunches of d r i e d horehound, mint, and sage; brown-paper bags of thyme and lavender; and l o n g ropes of c l e a n onions. On s h e l v e s were spread l a r g e red and yellow apples, and choice s e l e c t i o n s of e a r l y potatoes f o r seed next y e a r ; - - v u l g a r 24 crowds o f commoner k i n d l y i n g beneath i n heaps. A few empty beehives were c l u s t e r e d around a n a i l i n one corner, under which stood two or t h r e e b a r r e l s o f new c i d e r o f the f i r s t crop, each b u b b l i n g and s q u i r t i n g f o r t h from the y e t open bunghole. (UGT,IV,ii,158) T h i s c l e a n , wholesome s e t t i n g , w i t h i t s s u g g e s t i o n o f p l e n t y and o f each t h i n g good o f i t s k i n d g i v e s the same sense of p l e a s u r e as t h a t l i k e n e s s e a r l i e r o f o l d W i l l i a m t o "the sunny s i d e o f a r i p e r i b s t o n e -p i p p i n " ( U G T , I , i i i , 1 5 ) , and stands i n weighted c o n t r a s t as a show of wealth to S h i n e r ' s conspicuous watch-chain, studs, and r i n g which he"'might have worn . . . a hundred times without showing . . . h a l f so much'"(UGT,III, i , 1 2 3 ) . I t i s the wealth a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a s t o r a l . Hardy uses t h i s word with some frequency i n Far from the Madding  Crowd. Under the Greenwood Tree p r o v i d e s such Corydon and T h y r s i s scenes as the Christmas dance where "[Fancy's] b r e a t h c u r l £ed) round h i s neck l i k e a summer zephyr t h a t had s t r a y e d from i t s proper date" ( U G T , I , v i i i , 5 3 ) • Yet the p l e a s u r e i s a l s o i n a r e a l world t h a t r e i n f o r c e s the i d e a l and i s c o n s t a n t l y c o n t r a s t e d with the s o p h i s t i c a t e d . The new-shorn sheep, r i s i n g " l i k e A phrodite . . . from the foam," g i v e s way t o a d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s wool's s u p e r i o r i t y over manufactured t e x t i l e s , which i n t u r n i s l i k e cream compared to mi l k and water ( F M C , x x i i , l 6 8 ) . 25 A s i m i l a r c o n t r a s t , too, i s found i n the con-s c i o u s n e s s of time. Weatherbury i s t i m e l e s s . Men l i k e G a b r i e l r e l y on the s t a r s more e a s i l y than on t h e i r watches. In G e o f f r e y Day's house, however, th e r e are two c l o c k s . E z e k i e l Saunders* make i s l e s s r e l i a b l e than Thomas Wood's. Fancy keeps " ' i n the middle between them'" when she prepares d i n n e r f o r her f a t h e r , but he says she should"fetick to Thomas. . . . He i s as t r u e as the town time'" (UGT,II,vi,99). I t i s t h i s c l o c k t h a t goes t o Fancy's new home. The need t o t e l l the time so a c c u r a t e l y becomes a s i g n of change i n a world whose essence i s t i m e l e s s n e s s . The c a r o l t h a t i s sung at the schoolhouse i s "an a n c i e n t and time-worn hymn . . . o r a l l y t r a n s m i t t e d from f a t h e r t o son through s e v e r a l g e n e r a t i o n s down t o the present c h a r a c t e r s " (UGT,I,iv,27). I t i s l i k e the joke t h a t passed from f a t h e r t o son i n Robert Lickpan's f a m i l y : My f a t h e r used t h a t joke r e g u l a r at p i g -k i l l i n g s f o r more than f i v e and f o r t y y e a r s - - t h e time he f o l l o w e d the c a l l i n g . And *a t o l d me t h a t 'a had i t from h i s f a t h e r when he was q u i t e a c h i e l , who made use o't j u s t the same at every k i l l i n g more or l e s s ; and p i g - k i l l i n g s were p i g -k i l l i n g s i n those days. (PBE,xxiii,262) The "memory of man" i s a l t e r e d by " i n t r u s i v e feminine v o i c e s " i n church or by the f a i l u r e t o c a s t o f f i n a dance. 26 T h i s i n terms o f time means the same as t h a t " r u r a l p a i n t i n g of the Dutch S c h o o l " i n terms of v i s i o n . They p r o v i d e an e t e r n a l p r e s e n t which i s p e r f e c t i n i t s s t a s i s . In the r u r a l community, custom i s law and even Fancy y i e l d s t o t h i s , a l l o w i n g the wedding p a r t y t o show themselves to the p a r i s h , every woman walk i n g w i t h her man, because her mother d i d . The community and i t s customs p r o v i d e the bass note i n these e a r l y n o v e l s . D i c k ' s c o u r t s h i p and the demise o f the c h o i r form the n a r r a t i v e t h r e a d s of Under the Greenwood Tree, but the bulk of the book c o n s i s t s of g a t h e r i n g s among the workfolk, of song and dance and s t o r y - t e l l i n g . Mrs. Penny's v i s i o n o f a s m a l l man l o n g ago on a Midsummer's Eve, Mr. Penny's s t o r y o f r e c o g n i z i n g a drowned man by h i s f o o t , the t r a n t e r ' s c o u r t s h i p o f h i s w i f e — t h e s e form a constant context, a frame of r e f e r e n c e f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g the p r e s e n t a c t i o n . In Far from the Madding Crowd, the r u s t i c "chorus" e s t a b l i s h e s the norm from which the adventures of the drama d e v i a t e , and t h i s p a t t e r n of r e f e r e n c e does not stumble on the inadequacies of a Poorgrass or the s i l l y ambitions of a Henery Fray. The r e f e r e n c e i s d i s t i n c t l y p a s t o r a l . Communities l i v e i n c l o s e harmony, l a b o u r at worthwhile o c c u p a t i o n s , 27 and speak pure p o e t r y . "'What have you been doing?*" Bathsheba asks Temperance and Soberness M i l l e r : "'Tending thrashing-machine, and wimbling haybonds, and s a y i n g VHoosh!" t o the cocks and hens when they go upon your seeds, and p l a n t i n g E a r l y F l o u r b a l l s and Thompson's Wonderfuls w i t h a d i b b l e ' " (FMC,x,89). W r i t i n g t o F r e d e r i c H a r r i s o n about Far from the Madding Crowd i n 1901, Hardy f e l t t h a t i t had "a growing tendency t o appear as the work o f a youngish hand, though perhaps t h e r e i s something i n i t which I c o u l d not have 2 put t h e r e i f I had been o l d e r . " Yet t h e r e are s i g n s , even t h i s e a r l y , o f Hardy's sharp, unsentimental v i s i o n . He moves from Day's abundant storehouse t o D i c k ' s a s k i n g f o r Fancy's hand: "and the s t i l l n e s s was d i s t u r b e d o n l y by some s m a l l b i r d t h a t was b e i n g k i l l e d by an owl i n the a d j o i n i n g wood, whose c r y passed i n t o the s i l e n c e without m i n g l i n g w i t h i t " (UGT,IV,ii,162). I f Hardy i s eager t o share Cytherea's view o f a c a r e f r e e country l i f e , he i s a l s o c a r e f u l t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t l i f e i n i t s more enduring aspects as a means of measuring a l t e r n a t i v e s . The b i r d ' s c r y i n Y a l b u r y Wood l i n k s nature and man and i s the o n l y c l u e at t h i s stage t h a t the i d y l l c o n t a i n s i t s own d i s c o r d . In l a t e r books Hardy works more f u l l y and c o n s c i o u s l y w i t h what i s here a mere s u g g e s t i o n . I t i s by no means a "youngish hand" i n 1886 t h a t wrote: 28 And so the i n f a t u a t e d surgeon went al o n g through the gorgeous autumn landscape . . . surrounded by orchards l u s t r o u s w i t h the reds of apple-crops, b e r r i e s , and f o l i a g e , the whole i n t e n s i f i e d by the g i l d i n g of the d e c l i n i n g sun. The e a r t h t h i s year had been p r o d i g a l l y b o u n t i f u l , and now was the supreme moment of her bounty. In the poorest spots the hedges were bowed with haws and b l a c k b e r r i e s ; acorns cracked underfoot, and the b u r s t husks o f chestnuts l a y exposing t h e i r auburn contents as i f arranged by anxious s e l l e r s i n a f r u i t - m a r k e t . In a l l t h i s proud show some k e r n e l s were unsound as her own s i t u a t i o n , and she wondered i f t h e r e were one world i n the u n i v e r s e where the f r u i t had no worm, and marriage no sorrow. (W,xxviii,245) The s i m i l a r i t i e s between man and nature are q u i t e e x p l i c i t . B u c o l i c wealth i s now c a l l e d a "proud show. " Rot and decay are r e c o g n i z e d amidst the abundance of good, though they are not apparent i n Day's storehouse. In December 1885, Hardy wrote: "The H y p o c r i s y of t h i n g s . Nature i s 3 an arch-dissembler. . . . n o t h i n g i s as i t appears." The e a r l y novels c e r t a i n l y b e t r a y a y o u t h f u l v i s i o n when read i n the l i g h t of such a statement and y e t , as i n h i s choice of t i t l e s , Hardy's i r o n i c p e r c e p t i o n i s a l r e a d y at work; the p a s t o r a l world c o n t a i n s the worm i n the f r u i t , the means f o r c o r r u p t i o n at i t s core. In l i n k i n g man with the animal and vegetable worlds, Hardy continues t o use metaphors t h a t i d e n t i f y the r u s t i c s with the s m a l l hunted b i r d and with t r e e s t h a t can be f e l l e d at whim or oppressed by p a r a s i t e s . The s i g n i f i c a n t c o r o l l a r y , of course, i s t h a t they need t o be the owl, not the s m a l l b i r d , the i v y or fungus, not the t r e e , i n order t o s u r v i v e . Darwinian t h e o r y a l s o l i e s behind p o r t r a y a l of 29 c h a r a c t e r ; even i n these e a r l y n o v e l s , Hardy suggests t h a t an extreme p a s s i v i t y i n the r u s t i c temperament may a i d the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f the r u s t i c world, d i s a b l i n g i t from adap-t a t i o n o r r e s i s t a n c e ito'change. P u t t i n g up the merest s c u f f l e f o r s u r v i v a l , f o r i n s t a n c e , the M e l l s t o c k c h o i r y i e l d s completely t o the v i c a r because "•mortal men mustn't expect t h e i r own way e n t i r e l y ' " (UGT,II, i v , 8 9 ) . T h e i r p a s s i v i t y i s m i t i g a t e d both by the f a r c i c a l nature of the scene and, more i m p o r t a n t l y , by o l d W i l l i a m ' s e a r l i e r acceptance o f the s i t u a t i o n . He may be "'ready t o d i e f o r the q u i r e , ' . . . • £b] ut f o r a l l t h a t ' t i s n ' t i n me t o c a l l the man a bad man, because I t r u l y and s i n c e r e l y b e l i e v e en t o be a good young f e l l e r ' " (UGT,II,ii,72-73)• L a t e r , however, Dick i s overpowered by G e o f f r e y Day: "Modest Di c k ' s r e p l y had f a l t e r e d upon h i s tongue, and he tu r n e d away wondering at h i s presumption i n a s k i n g f o r a woman whom he had seen from the b e g i n n i n g t o be so s u p e r i o r t o him"(UGT,IV, i i , l 6 4 ) . I t i s Fancy's w i l e s and the common sense o f the "Witch o f Endor" t h a t achieve the r e s u l t s t h a t Dick so . e a r n e s t l y wants. Under the Greenwood Tree, however, c o n t a i n s l e s s evidence of weakness i n the p a s t o r a l world than the other n o v e l s o f t h i s p e r i o d . E l f r i d e , d e s p i t e a l i v e l y and ambitious intellect,-i s completely p a s s i v e at c r u c i a l p o i n t s i n her s t o r y . She allows the horse t o decide on her elopement wi t h Stephen (PBE, xi,121-22). She i s q u i t e unable t o a s s e r t h e r s e l f with Knight, 30 and Hardy comments: . . . had she been a s t r o n g e r c h a r a c t e r — m o r e p r a c t i c a l and l e s s i m a g i n a t i v e — s h e would have made more use of her p o s i t i o n i n h i s heart t o i n f l u e n c e him. But the c o n f i d i n g tenderness which had won him i s ever accompanied by a s o r t o f s e l f - c o m m i t a l t o the stream o f events, l e a d i n g every such woman t o t r u s t more t o the kindness of f a t e f o r good r e s u l t s than t o any argument o f her own. (PBE,xxxii,364) I f t h i s t o t a l p a s s i v i t y l o o k s ahead t o Tess, i t a l s o l o o k s back t o Desperate Remedies: The s t i l l n e s s oppressed and reduced her to mere p a s s i v i t y . The onl y wish the humidity of the p l a c e l e f t i n her was t o stand m o t i o n l e s s . The h e l p l e s s f l a t n e s s o f the landscape gave her, as i t g i v e s a l l such temperaments, a sense of bare e q u a l i t y with, and no s u p e r i o r i t y t o , a s i n g l e e n t i t y under the sky. (DR,XII,vi,254) Passive acceptance i s a s s o c i a t e d i n these cases w i t h s e n s i t i v e women i n d i f f i c u l t circumstances. Yet Hardy suggests w i t h h i s Weatherbury r u s t i c s t h a t "such temperaments" are the product of a sequestered country l i f e . The able-bodied men who should h e l p Oak t o cover the r i c k s "were not g r e a t l y to blame" f o r t h e i r debauch because even "those who wished t o r e f u s e h a r d l y l i k e d t o be so unmannerly under the circumstances" (FMC,xxxvi, 281). Troy i s the a c t i v e agent o f d i s a s t e r , but t h e i r com-p l i a n c e i s p a t h e t i c b e s i d e G a b r i e l ' s a b i l i t y t o r e s i s t . When Poorgrass stops at the Buck's Head, he i s a l l too e a s i l y per-suaded t o s t a y . "'Upon my s o u l , I'm ashamed of youj ' t i s d i s g r a c e f u l , Joseph, d i s g r a c e f u l ! ' s a i d G a b r i e l i n d i g n a n t l y , " and then t o Coggan, Troy's s u b s t i t u t e i n t h i s case, "» . . . you c a l l y o u r s e l f a man, and don't know b e t t e r than t h i s ' " ( F M C , x l i i , 3 2 9 ) . Here the r u s t i c compliance i s not a matter of 31 manners but, f a r more b a s i c a l l y , o f h e l p l e s s n e s s i n the f a c e of death. E t i n A r c a d i a ego breeds not the energy t o r e s i s t but i t s very o p p o s i t e i n a t o t a l submission t o circumstance. In p r a c t i c a l terms of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to work i n v o l v i n g f o r e s i g h t and p e r s o n a l commitment, these men are s a d l y l a c k -i n g . In these e a r l y n o v e l s , however, they face no s e r i o u s t h r e a t s . T h e i r l i f e i s p r o t e c t e d by G a b r i e l and only m i l d l y t h r e a t e n e d by Troy whose s i n s c o n v e n i e n t l y c a t c h up w i t h him. The community then c l o s e s around G a b r i e l at the end l i k e sheep around a goat and danger i s averted as i n the f i r e and the storm because one man at l e a s t i s capable of d e c i s i v e and r e s p o n s i b l e a c t i o n . Rather more apparent at t h i s e a r l y stage than any t h r e a t i n h e r e n t i n g e n e r i c temperament i s the t h r e a t t h a t the women-f o l k of the community w i l l a l t e r a time-honoured way of l i f e and be the v e s s e l s of change. The houseproud wife and mother i s p r o v e r b i a l l y concerned w i t h m a i n t a i n i n g a respectable appear- -ance. Mrs. Dewy f i n d s M i c h a e l ' s t u n e f u l s t o r i e s " 'quite coarse t o a person o» decent t a s t e ' " which i s a l l the evidence t h a t Reuben needs t h a t "'a s t o r y . . . be t r u e ' " ( U G T , I , v i i i , 5 8 ) . T h i s l e a d s t o her p u b l i c avowal: "'Such a man as Dewy i s ! Nobody do know the t r o u b l e I have t o keep t h a t man b a r e l y r e s p e c t a b l e . . . t a l k i n g about " t a t i e s " w i t h M i c h a e l i n such a workfolk way'" ( I b i d . , pp. 5 8 - 5 9 ) . The d i s t i n c t i o n between workfolk and r e s p e c t a b l e people may o n l y mean a s u b s t i t u t i o n of " t a t e r s " or " p e r t a t o e s " but the important t h i n g f o r Mrs. 32 Dewy to e s t a b l i s h i s t h a t " ' t h e r e was no f a m i l y i n the p a r i s h t h a t kept themselves up more than we'" (Ibid.,p.59). Mrs. Smith t r i e s t o r e a s s u r e Stephen i n the same terms: "See how c a r e f u l I am t o keep myself up. I'm sure I never stop f o r more than a minute t o -gether t o t a l k t o any journeymen people; and -I never i n v i t e anybody t o our p a r t y o' C h r i s t -masses who are not i n b u s i n e s s f o r themselves." (PBE,x,98) With Fancy's stepmother Hardy then c a r r i e s t h i s theme to comic l e n g t h s : The t a b l e had been spread f o r the mixed midday meal of d i n n e r and t e a which was common among f r u g a l c o u n t r y f o l k . " The p a r i s h i o n e r s about here," continued Mrs. Day . . . "are the l a z i e s t , g o s s i p e s t , poachest, j a i l e s t s e t of any ever I came among. And t h e y ' l l t a l k about my t e a p o t and t e a - t h i n g s next, I suppose!" She vanished with the teapot, cups, and saucers, and reappeared with a t e a - s e r v i c e i n white c h i n a , and a packet wrapped i n brown paper. This was removed, t o g e t h e r w i t h f o l d s of t i s s u e paper underneath; and a b r i l l i a n t s i l v e r t e a p o t appeared. (UGT,II,vi,105) I f she i s a good woman at bottom, she i s " t e r r i b l e deep, then," c a r r y i n g her concern t o the extreme of "'£c]leaning out a l l the u p s t a i r s drawers and cupboards, and d u s t i n g the second-best chainey™ on Fancy's wedding day. Mrs. Day's behaviour i s e x c e p t i o n a l , however, o n l y because i t i s a n t i - s o c i a l . More i n s i d i o u s and more t e l l i n g are the ways i n which Fancy i d e n t i f i e s r e s p e c t a b i l i t y w i t h a town-bred m i d d l e - c l a s s way of l i f e ; " ' Q ? Jespectable people don't'" i s her response t o t h i n g s the r u s t i c s do. A l -though she y i e l d s on the p o i n t o f marching around the p a r i s h , she i n s i s t s on o t h e r s . The t r a n t e r wears "enormous gloves 33 . . . which . . . s a t r a t h e r awkwardly upon h i s brown hands; t h i s hall-mark o f r e s p e c t a b i l i t y h a v i n g been s e t upon h i m s e l f to-day (by Fancy's s p e c i a l request) f o r the f i r s t time i n h i s l i f e " (UGT,V,i,203). Dick has a l r e a d y l e a r n e d b e t t e r than t o shed h i s coat a f t e r g e t t i n g hot at a dance. Fancy i s educated above her e v e n t u a l s t a t i o n i n l i f e , but her e d u c a t i o n i s mainly e v i d e n t i n her a b i l i t y t o out-do her stepmother and Mrs. Dewy i n matters of r e s p e c t a b i l i t y . She h e r s e l f puts i t w e l l i n her l e t t e r t o Mr. Maybold: " ' I t i s my n a t u r e — p e r h a p s a l l women's—to l o v e refinement of mind and manners; but even more than t h i s , t o be ever f a s c i n a t e d with the i d e a of surroundings more el e g a n t and p l e a s i n g than those which have been customary'"(UGT,IV,vii, I89). Boldwood i s s e n s i t i v e t o the f o r c e of argument a s u p e r i o r s t a t i o n p r e s e n t s : "'The d a i r y superintendence s h a l l be done by a man—I can a f f o r d i t w e l l — y o u s h a l l never have so much as t o l o o k out o f doors at haymaking time, or t o t h i n k o f weather i n the h a r v e s t ' " (FMC,xix,146). Both Fancy and Bathsheba i n these e a r l y n o v e l s are able t o r e s i s t the temptation and opt f o r the humbler swain, but Bathsheba, l o o k i n g calmly at Boldwood's o f f e r , i s f o r c e d t o admit i t "was one which many women of her own s t a t i o n i n the neighbourhood, and not a few of h i g h e r rank, would have been w i l d t o accept and proud t o p u b l i s h " (FMC,xx,148). Contrary t o Mrs. Smith's o p i n i o n s , these n o v e l s a s s e r t the 34 upward m o b i l i t y o f women and even suggest t h a t t h i s t r e n d i s i n h e r e n t i n t h e i r n a t u r e s because of the common pre -occupations o f t h e i r l i v e s . I t i s a s m a l l s t e p from Mrs. Dewy's o b j e c t i o n t o " t a t i e s " to Fancy's e l i m i n a t i o n o f "thee" and "thou," but each s t e p s i g n i f i e s change and an e r a s i n g o f o l d community customs. Though Hardy i n c r e a s i n g l y b r i n g s these i s s u e s of s u r v i v a l and change t o the f o r e and r e c o g n i z e s t h a t h i s r u r a l world cannot p o s s i b l y s u r v i v e , e n c r o a c h i n g dangers, both e x t e r n a l and i n h e r e n t , are muted i n the e a r l y n o v e l s . The dominant tone, e s t a b l i s h e d by the s t y l e and supported by the s t o r y - l i n e , i s t h a t o f the i d y l l triumphant. Success f o r Dick Dewy and G a b r i e l Oak means triumph f o r the p a s t o r a l world because Hardy has so imbued them wi t h the q u a l i t i e s t h a t r e p r e s e n t t h a t world at i t s f i n e s t . Hardy's v i s i o n of country l i f e , v e ry l i t t l e i n f e c t e d at t h i s stage with c y n i c i s m or i r o n y , throws the weight o f h i s moral support behind these c h a r a c t e r s . They are honest and t r u s t w o r t h y and i n d u s t r i o u s . T h e i r a f f e c t i o n s are s t a b l e and s t r o n g . They are k i n d , t o l e r a n t men, worthy o f a d i g n i f i e d p l a c e i n the community whose best customs they perpetuate. A b o o r i s h S h i n e r may d i s t r a c t , a Maybold a l l u r e , or a Troy e x c i t e , but i t i s the everyday heroes who win the much-coveted p r i z e and convince us i n the process of t h e i r r i g h t t o i t . I n s u b s t a n t i a l terms o f s e t t i n g and p l o t , Hardy supports the p a s t o r a l assumptions o f p l e n t y and harmony 35 and j o y i n r u r a l l i f e . In terms o f n a r r a t i v e d e t a i l , he even r e s t s h i s Everdene g r a t e f u l l y on h i s Oak and, u n i t i n g Dewy and Day, suggests at an almost s u b l i m i n a l l e v e l t h a t so f a r God's i n h i s heaven and a l l ' s rfeht with the world. 36 Chapter Two: The Persuasion of Progress T i t l e s that cordon o f f sections of an author's career impose an arbi t r a r y order that s i m p l i f i e s the truth. They describe the thesis better than i t s subject. Hopefully, however, the s i m p l i f i c a t i o n needed here w i l l not be of the kind to d i s t o r t , since the purpose i s to explore Hardy's preoccupations rather than to evaluate his work. Some of h i s weakest novels, i n fact, provide the clearest indications that he was adapting his own thinking to the new s o c i a l conditions. His concern was not that of the subliminal mind which throws up rare clues, l i k e the t i p s of icebergs, to which the eager c r i t i c c l i n g s ; i t was so self-conscious as to be almost academic at times. Whereas his e a r l i e s t novels i l l u s -t r a t e Hardy's support of the pastoral world, the next f i v e represent a c l e a r l y experimental period. Except for The  Return of the Native, these are a l l minor novels; the experimentation i s not of a r t i s t i c technique but of possible opinions. The same themes and patterns recur here as i n the e a r l i e r novels, but Hardy's own p o s i t i o n i s no longer clear. He begins to question the strength and value of the pastoral world more seriously than before, and to consider some of the alternatives with more care. In The Hand of Ethelberta ( I 8 7 6 ) , the-form depends on the conventions of the comedy of manners but inverts the mockery and forecasts the w r i t i n g of Shaw and Wells. 37 The Return o f the Native f o l l o w s i n 1878. Kegan Paul i s not the o n l y one f o r whom t h i s n o v e l i s a f a v o u r i t e , but i t p r e s e n t s some ^ i n s o l u b l e problems, not the l e a s t b e i n g Hardy's unease as he blends the i d y l l w i t h h i s a r c h e t y p a l and symbolic treatment o f the main theme. The Trumpet- Major (1880), u s i n g the h i s t o r i c framework of the Napoleon-i c e r a , p r o v i d e s the l i g h t e r elements o f stock comedy but a l s o the more p a i n f u l aspects o f the f a m i l i a r Hardyan t r i a n g l e . W r i t t e n d u r i n g a l o n g i l l n e s s i n 1881, A Laodicean s t r e s s e s the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f change by e x p l i c i t c o n t r a s t between the o l d and the new i n r e l i g i o n , a r c h i t e c t u r e , and s o c i a l v a l u e s . Two on a Tower (1882) s e t s the "emotional h i s t o r y o f two i n f i n i t e s i m a l l i v e s a g a i n s t the stupendous 1 background o f the s t e l l a r u n i v e r s e " and i s , perhaps, the s l i g h t e s t n o v e l o f t h i s group. D e s p i t e the v a r i e d s e t t i n g s and the mixed q u a l i t y , however, two concerns are common to a l l f i v e books. The f i r s t i s a c o n t i n u i n g i n t e r e s t i n the problems attached t o s o c i a l m o b i l i t y ; the second i s a r e e v a l u a t i o n o f the p a s t o r a l world i n terms both o f s u r -v i v a l and change. The f i r s t forms the e x p l i c i t concern o f s e v e r a l o f the l i g h t e r h o v e l s and i s worth c o n s i d e r i n g on i t s own. The second appears i n Two on a Tower and becomes one o f the more ponderous and i n s c r u t a b l e elements of The Return. In the p a s t o r a l n o v e l s Hardy suggests t h a t women w i l l be the a r b i t e r s o f change, and t h i s i d e a i s now developed 38 i n The Hand of E t h e l b e r t a . "'Modern developments, 1" Mountclere t e l l s her, "'have shaken up the c l a s s e s l i k e peas i n a h o p p e r ' " ( H E , x x x v i i i , 335) , and her handiwork i n t he d i s p o s a l o f her hand c e r t a i n l y suggests the s i g -n i f i c a n c e o f a woman's ch o i c e i n the e v o l u t i o n o f the mod-ern world. F r e s h from the v a l u e s o f the p a s t o r a l world, however, Hardy's a t t i t u d e i s ambivalent. For the f i r s t time, c h o i c e may be governed e n t i r e l y by s o c i a l p r o s p e c t s and not at a l l by a f f e c t i o n : " ' j u s t when you are suspended between t h i n k i n g and f e e l i n g ' " E t h e l b e r t a t e l l s P i c o t e e , u t — t h e r e i s a h a i r ' s - b r e a d t h o f time at which the q u e s t i o n . . . i s a matter o f w i l l — q u i t e a t h i n g o f c h o i c e ' " (HE, vi,52). E t h e l b e r t a " C h i c k e r e l " aims t o f l y h i g h . She "wins her f e a t h e r s " with her f i r s t marriage t o Petherwin, and then, d e s p i t e a number of a l t e r n a t i v e s , i n c l u d i n g the worthy a f f e c t i o n o f C h r i s t o p h e r J u l i a n , accepts o n l y Mountclere. " ' S i n c e you so k i n d l y o f f e r , ' " she t e l l s him at Rouen cathed-r a l , "'we w i l l go t o the very top of the s p i r e — u p through the f o g and i n t o the sunshine'" (HE,xxxiv,294)• Hardy q u e s t i o n s whether her moral i n c l i n e i s up or down. She i s s a c r i f i c i n g h e r s e l f f o r her f a m i l y j u s t as Tess does, and when the Japanese p u b l i s h e d o n l y the f i r s t h a l f o f t h a t book, i t was p a r t l y because they f e l t the n o b i l i t y o f her d e c i s i o n 2 and f a i l e d t o see why tragedy should ensue. Cytherea, t o o, accepts Manston i n order t o he l p her b r o t h e r . E t h e l b e r t a , however, does have honourable a l t e r n a t i v e s and i t i s e s s e n t i a l , i f she i s t o r e t a i n our sympathy, t h a t she r e j e c t s C h r i s t o p h e r 39 J u l i a n f o r her s i s t e r ' s sake r a t h e r than because he i s poor. E t h e l b e r t a ' s s a c r i f i c e , a l s o , r a t h e r more than t h a t o f Cytherea or Tess, does achieve good f o r her f a m i l y . She p r o v i d e s f o r her b r o t h e r s and moves her parents t o F i r t o p V i l l a i n Sandbourne, "a house, which, l i k e many o t h e r s . . . had sprung up l i k e mushrooms"(HE, Sequel,455). The C h i c k e r e l s move up j u s t as, i n M y r t l e V i l l a , the de Stancys move down, and both come t o i n h a b i t a middle c l a s s everyman's l a n d which i s prosperous and expanding but has v i r t u a l l y no r o o t s i n the o l d world. Angel C l a r e l a t e r sees t h i s same Sandbourne as a " g l i t t e r -i n g n o v e l t y " i n sharp c o n t r a s t t o the a n t i q u i t y of Egdon around i t , and wonders what p l a c e a country g i r l c o u l d f i n d i n such a town. But Hardy's a t t i t u d e i s ambiguous. Hi s l i n e from "The Ruined Maid," "'Some p o l i s h i s gained 3 w i t h one's r u i n , ' s a i d she," a p p l i e s t o the C h i c k e r e l s q u i t e as w e l l as to Tess. Not even at the top does Hardy c r e a t e a s o l i d s t r u c t u r e which c o u l d r e p r e s e n t a c l e a r a t t i t u d e t o E t h e l b e r t a ' s c h o i c e . Enckworth Court, l i k e Neigh's e s t a t e at F a r n f i e l d , i s d e s c r i b e d as impressive r a t h e r than s u b s t a n t i a l . Where Neigh's f a l s e f r o n t , the d r i v e , the l a k e , the sweep up to the house, seen through a fog, terminate a b r u p t l y i n kennels and a company of d y i n g horses, Enckworth i s s o l i d enough but hidden beneath a veneer of glamour. "But who remembered t h i s save the b u i l d e r and h i s crew? and as l o n g as nobody knew the t r u t h , pretence looked j u s t as w e l l " 40 (HE,xxxviii,330). He g i v e s , i n other words, no assurance t h a t E t h e l b e r t a ' s e f f o r t s are worthwhile; they r e p r e s e n t an i n s t i n c t f o r s u r v i v a l r a t h e r than the achievement o f new good. E t h e l b e r t a advocates the wisdom of the serpent t o her d o v e - l i k e s i s t e r and whereas P i c o t e e , an a l t e r ego f o r E t h e l b e r t a , i s moved o n l y by l o v e , E t h e l b e r t a h e r s e l f , l i k e the duck whose adventures she f o l l o w s on the heath, knows b e t t e r than t o r a i s e her head twice i n the same p l a c e . Managing both Mountclere and h i s e s t a t e s at the end, she i s l i k e Becky Sharp who c o u l d have been a good woman wi t h f i v e thousand pounds a year. L i k e the duck, E t h e l b e r t a i s able to s u r v i v e . L i k e Becky, she s u r v i v e s at the expense of the worthwhile a t t r i b u t e s of l i f e . Hardy's ambivalence stems from h i s b e l i e f t h a t human e v o l u t i o n should d i f f e r from the animal by i n c l u d i n g a consciousness of e t h i c -a l c h o i c e . C h r i s t o p h e r J u l i a n , F a i t h , and P i c o t e e p r o v i d e p a r t of the moral centre o f t h i s book. C e r t a i n l y they form a t r i o where music and a f f e c t i o n are more important than am-b i t i o u s p u r s u i t s . They are dreamers, however, r a t h e r than doers; they are u s e f u l to the p l o t r a t h e r than a c t i v e as a moral f o r c e . E t h e l b e r t a ' s working b r o t h e r s r e p r e s e n t the o l d - w o r l d v a l u e s more c l e a r l y than the J u l i a n s or P i c o t e e . T h e i r independence from E t h e l b e r t a , t h e i r s o c i a l i s t i c con-tempt f o r the h e i g h t s t o which she climbs, t h e i r sense of the moral i n d i g n i t y i n v o l v e d i n her marriage, t h e i r t o l e r a n c e , i n d u s t r y , and l o y a l t y t o k i n a l l mark them as Hardy's heroes 41 a c c o r d i n g to the o l d order. L i k e the country l a b o u r e r s of the e a r l i e r books, S o l i s "branded w i t h work!? so t h a t i f he "were found drowned or b u r i e d , dressed or undressed, i n f u s t i a n or i n b r o a d c l o t h , f o l k would look at (his) hand and say 'That man's a c a r p e n t e r * " (HE,xlvi,424). E t h e l b e r t a j o i n s the c l a s s her b r o t h e r mocks, and h i s mockery i s shown t o be j u s t i f i e d . Yet E t h e l b e r t a does r e t a i n Hardy*s sympathy. A woman of her i n t e l l i g e n c e and energy, a f t e r a l l , can h a r d l y be allowed t o " s l i p back i n t o the mire" ( H E , x x v i i i , 2 2 6 ) . L i k e the audiences who come to hear her s t o r i e s , Hardy i s f o r c e d t o admire the courage t h a t enables her to s u r v i v e and even t o c a l l the r e s u l t a success. Mountclere admits t h a t her b r o t h e r s may soon be able t o buy him upj t h e i r s i s t e r , w i t h the m o b i l i t y open to women through marriage, i s merely • mpyiag.on ahead. E t h e l b e r t a breaks down s o c i a l b a r r i e r s by marrying a l o r d , but a l s o , and i n the l o n g run more s i g n i f i c a n t l y , by making her own way i n a man's world. She i s the f i r s t o f Hardy*s new women who are motivated l e s s by s o c i a l p r e t e n -s i o n s than by a sense of t h e i r own i d e n t i t y . She knows, how-ever, t h a t she a t t r a c t s her audiences mainly because she i s a c u r i o s i t y , and t h a t her h o l d on them i s t h e r e f o r e p r e c a r -i o u s . So, while her courage i s made n o t a b l y a t t r a c t i v e r a t h e r than brazen, and s o c i e t y i s shown t o be l i m i t e d and r a t h e r s t u p i d , E t h e l b e r t a * s o n l y secure success has t o be gained i n the o l d - f a s h i o n e d way, by marriage. Hardy o n l y 42 h i n t s i n t h i s novel at the p e r s o n a l problems t h a t attend such circumstances. His emphasis here i s on the s o c i a l a l t e r n a t i v e s , and the n o v e l t h e r e f o r e remains a comedy with Hardy m a i n t a i n i n g an ambivalent a t t i t u d e throughout. D i f f e r e n t worlds are presented i n The Hand of E t h e l - b e r t a o n l y through d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r s whose p o s i t i o n s i n the s o c i a l s c a l e are c l e a r l y d e f i n e d . There i s , how-ever, no complete r u r a l s o c i e t y t o measure a g a i n s t t h a t of Mrs. Doncastle and her s e t . In The Trumpet-Major, on the other hand, where th e r e i s a harmonious v i l l a g e l i f e , Hardy r e v i s e d h i s manuscript i n order to h i g h l i g h t the 4 c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n s . Anne's f a t h e r was o r i g i n a l l y a schoolmaster and the m i l l e r was a farmer, so t h a t i t was q u i t e p o s s i b l e f o r the two f a m i l i e s t o be s o c i a l l y e q u a l . With the r e v i s i o n , however, Widow Garland and her daughter move down i n the world. Mrs. Garland, "as a r e s p e c t a b l e widow, occupied a t w i l i g h t rank between the benighted v i l -l a g e r s and the w e l l - i n f o r m e d gentry" (TM,vi,42). Anne can be courted by the s c i o n o f the h a l l but she has a l s o p i c k e d up d i a l e c t words from the m i l l e r . D espite moments of con-s c i o u s s o c i a l ambition, however, both mother and daughter f o r g e t "the l i t t l e p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f speech and manner" i n the Lovedays and are " t h a n k f u l f o r t h e i r l o v e and p r o t e c t -i o n " (TM,xxv,219)• They make the c h o i c e , i n f a c t , t h a t E t h e l b e r t a r e j e c t s ; they marry f o r a f f e c t i o n r a t h e r than s o c i a l s t a t u s . The names Loveday and Garland suggest a r e t u r n to the e a r l y i d y l l . The s e t t i n g and scene c o n f i r m i t : 43 a f i n e summer morning, when the l e a v e s were warm under the sun, and the more i n d u s t r i o u s bees abroad, d i v i n g i n t o every red and blue cup t h a t c o u l d p o s s i b l y be c o n s i d e r e d a fl o w e r . . . . The heaviness of noon pervaded the scene, and under i t s i n f l u e n c e the sheep had ceased to feed. . . . The bees s t i l l worked on, and the b u t t e r f l i e s d i d not r e s t from r o v i n g . . . . Otherwise a l l was s t i l l . (TM,i , 4 ) The i n t r u s i o n o f the c a v a l r y on t h i s scene i s he r a l d e d by "the sudden r i s i n g and running away of the sheep squatted on the down." Even though the camp on the downs a l t e r s the l i f e o f the t r a n q u i l v i l l a g e , the s o l d i e r s are admitted t o the i d y l l which gains i n poignancy because of them. So, when they s p l a s h through the m i l l - p o n d c a t c h i n g c h e r r i e s i n t h e i r forage caps, i t " w a s a c h e e r f u l , careless, unpremeditated h a l f - h o u r , which r e t u r n e d l i k e the scent of a fl o w e r t o the memories of some of those who enjoyed i t , even at a d i s t a n c e o f many years a f t e r , when they l a y wounded and weak i n f o r e i g n l a n d s " ( T M , i i i , 3 1 ) . That sense of b u c o l i c p l e n t y found i n Under the Greenwood Tree and Far from the Madding Crowd r e t u r n s w i t h the p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r Bob's wedding, though h i s b r i d e , dressed a l l i n green l i k e a c a t e r p i l l a r , f a i n t s at the moo of a cow and 33 unable t o comment on Nature because i t had not y e t been in v e n t e d . Both the Loveday b r o t h e r s d e r i v e from the p a s t o r a l s e t t i n g , and i t i s Bob who e v e n t u a l l y r e t u r n s t o the m i l l . Yet John i s not o n l y the t i t u l a r hero; d e s p i t e h i s wearing the r e d coat t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e s Sergeant Troy as an outsider he p r o v i d e s the moral centr e found i n G a b r i e l Oak and es-t a b l i s h e s a s i m i l a r c l a i m f o r the ol d - w o r l d v a l u e s . John i s the one who r e c o g n i z e s M a t i l d a f o r what she i s . He alone 44 can c o n t r o l Festus Derriman. His f i d e l i t y , which, l i k e Oak's, o u t l a s t s a s u c c e s s i o n of r i v a l s u i t o r s , i s even h i g h l i g h t e d i r o n i c a l l y by the assumption j u s t i f i e d by Troy t h a t a " ' s o l d i e r ' s h eart i s not worth a week's purchase'" ( T M , x l i , £374)) • Yet, from the f i r s t , Hardy shows t h a t the weathervane i s f i c k l e and r e p r e s e n t s not a s o l d i e r i n red but a s a i l o r i n b l u e . L i k e the a n t i -heroes o f the e a r l i e r n o v e l s , i t teaches d i s t r u s t of the s e x u a l l y a g g r e s s i v e male and here, n o t a b l y , Anne f e e l s i n s t a n t l y at home with John while i t i s Bob who breaks through her bedroom w a l l . Anne i s deeply impressed by John's " s t e a d f a s t n e s s t o h i s l o d e s t a r " (TM,xxxvii,335). The s e l f l e s s n e s s o f h i s l o v e i s manifest i n h i s p r o t e c t i o n of Anne's hands from b o i l i n g water. H i s A e o l i a n harp r e v e a l s depths of p o e t r y i n h i s c h a r a c t e r . H i s "musical p u r s u i t s , " i n f a c t , "had r e f i n e d him, educated him, and made him q u i t e p o e t i c a l " (TM,xiii,113). Even though t h e r e i s n o t h i n g t o choose between the b r o t h e r s i n terms o f background or p r o f e s s i o n , Hardy makes i t c l e a r t h a t John i s the w o r t h i e r man, and i t does not seem f a r - f e t c h e d t o see h i s l o y a l t y , h i s music, and the moral c l a r i t y o f h i s p e r c e p t i o n l i n k i n g him w i t h e a r l i e r r u s t i c heroes. U n l i k e S o l C h i c k e r e l , however, John i s a contender f o r the h e r o i n e ' s hand, and her choice t h e r e f o r e becomes an unambiguous moral f o r c e i n the n o v e l . I f Anne f a i l s t o f o l l o w E t h e l b e r t a ' s example and marry f o r prestige, she does a l l the same r e j e c t the w o r t h i e r l o v e r . LikeBath-r sheba, she f a l l s i n l o v e w i t h the s e x u a l l y a g g r e s s i v e man; 45 u n l i k e Bathsheba, she cannot c o r r e c t her c h o i c e . Although the h i s t o r i c a l s e t t i n g and the p a s t o r a l framework persuade the reader t o expect a happy ending, Hardy's d e c i s i o n goes i n f a c t a g a i n s t the hero whose c h a r a c t e r i d e n t i f i e s him most c l o s e l y w i t h the o l d p a s t o r a l world. John's death i n the end on "the bloody b a t t l e - f i e l d s o f Spain" seems not l i k e g r a t u i t o u s shock but l i k e an absolute d e f e a t o f the o l d o r d e r . The Trumpet-Major, however, blends such a medley of themes t h a t t h i s statement needs t o be read as e x p l o r a t o r y r a t h e r than c o n f i d e n t . A Laodicean, on the other hand, makes a f a r more e x p l i c i t statement o f Hardy's own p o s i t i o n . The t i t l e alone i s s u g g e s t i v e . A l l the m a t e r i a l s i n t h i s n o v e l are exposed c l e a r l y t o view. There i s no i v y on Hardy's s t r u c t u r e , no d i s t r a c t i n g d e c o r a t i o n . Yet, apart from the European t r a v e l o g u e i n the second h a l f , t h e r e i s no t h i n g t h a t c o u l d not have been developed i n t o a major n o v e l . The book l a c k s complexity and emotional commitment, and i t i s e x a c t l y t h i s l a c k t h a t c l a r i f i e s the a x i a l theme.. Paula Power's name evokes both the P u r i t a n aspects o f the r e l a t i v e l y new and e s s e n t i a l l y lower c l a s s non-confor-m i s t mo.vement, as w e l l as the energy and success o f the new age o f s c i e n c e and technology. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , her f a t h e r was a r a i l w a y tycoon, h i s work c r e a t i n g t h a t p h y s i c -a l m o b i l i t y t h a t destroyed d i s t a n c e s and exposed i s o l a t e d areas t o change. In c o n t r a s t t o the modernity of the Power f a m i l y , W i l l i a m de Stancy t r a c e s h i s name and l i n e a g e back t o the Norman Conquest. Moderating between the rival c l a ims ^ 46 o f the o l d and new, George Somerset evokes not on l y o l d England but a l s o an area of Wessex. I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g , t h e r e f o r e , t o f i n d t h a t he i s Hardy's hero; h i s name does f o r him what the r u r a l s o c i e t y , so c o n s p i c u o u s l y l a c k i n g i n t h i s book, would otherwise have to achieve and Hardy supports him by approving h i s p l a n f o r the c a s t l e . S i g -n i f i c a n t l y , Somerset i s adding a new wing i n s t e a d of r e s t o r i n g the o l d but he i s u s i n g master craftsmen i n the o l d - f a s h i o n e d way, so the endorsement i s d e f i n i t e l y o f a moderate e c l e c t i c i s m . Somerset i s a l s o a g i f t e d and r e s p o n s i b l e workman, and h i s work forms h i s s e r v i c e to h i s l o v e as i t does f o r Dick Dewy and G a b r i e l Oak. The o l d q u a l i t i e s are evoked under new c o n d i t i o n s and, i n the s e a r c h f o r a common ground between the o l d and the new, Somerset p r o v i d e s a s a t i s f a c t o r y f u s i o n . When Paula has t o choose between the extremes re p r e s e n t e d by the Powers and the de Stancys, Somerset becomes the obvious c h o i c e . J u s t as the contrasts between the o l d and new f a m i l i e s are s h a r p l y d e f i n e d , the c o n t r a s t s between o l d and new i n o t h e r terms become almost metaphors t o d e s c r i b e Paula's predicament. The B a p t i s t chapel i s u g l y , but Somerset was a r r e s t e d by the i n t e n s e and busy energy which must needs belong t o an assembly t h a t r e q u i r e d such a g l a r e of l i g h t to do i t s r e l i g i o n by. . . . The chapel and i t s shabby p l o t o f ground, from which the herbage was a l l trodden away by busy f e e t , had a l i v i n g human i n t e r e s t t h a t the numerous minsters and churches knee-deep i n f r e s h green grass , v i s i t e d by him d u r i n g the f o r e g o i n g week had o f t e n l a c k e d . ( L , I , i i , 1 3 ) S i m i l a r l y , Hardy s t r e s s e s the i n c o n g r u i t y o f the t e l e g r a p h wire l o s i n g i t s e l f i n an a r r o w - s l i t i n the c a s t l e . The 47 monument t o hard s o c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n s i s thus exposed t o communication, and y e t t h i s i s not t o t a l l y a cceptable because "the modern f e v e r and f r e t which consumes people b e f o r e they can grow o l d was a l s o s i g n i f i e d by the wire; and t h i s aspect o f to-day d i d not c o n t r a s t w e l l w i t h the f a i r e r s i d e o f f e u d a l i s m " ( L , I , i i , 2 2 ) . Hardy's use of these symbols suggests h i s own Laodicean a t t i t u d e , but h i s n a r r a t i v e f o r c e s a d e c i s i o n on him as much as on h i s h e r o i n e . He does not f o r g e t t h a t Paula i s a modern woman and t h a t over-indulgence i n romanticism i s a symptom o f r e g r e s s i o n . The a u t h o r i a l r e s t r a i n t t h a t manages t o make t h i s p o i n t without i m p l y i n g any judgment i s a l s o apparent from the be g i n n i n g . Paula has brought a new c l o c k t o the c a s t l e , f o r i n s t a n c e , though i t s t i l l s t r i k e s on the o l d b e l l . " ' I t t e l l s the seconds,'" C h a r l o t t e de Stancy i n -forms Somerset, "'but the o l d one, which my very great grandfather e r e c t e d i n the e i g h t e e n t h century, o n l y t o l d the hours'" ( L , I , i v , 3 7 ) . Such d i f f e r e n c e s i n the value o f time are onl y h i n t e d at i n Under the Greenwood Tree. Here they are q u i t e e x p l i c i t . "'Paula says t h a t time, b e i n g so much more v a l u a b l e now, must of course be cut up i n t o s m a l l e r p i e c e s ' " ( I b i d . ) . Paula Power i n s t a l l e d at Stancy C a s t l e p a r a l l e l s E t h e l b e r t a at Enckworth Court. Here, t o o , the o l d a r i s -t o c r a c y i s seen as degenerate. Old S i r W i l l i a m l o s t h i s c a s t l e on the t u r n o f a ca r d . H i s f a i l u r e i n t r u s t e e s h i p i s evidenced by the o l d c a s t l e keys as incongruous orna-ments at M y r t l e V i l l a . The brother and sister ate l i k e a b l e 48 enough, but she does not care and he i s unable t o r e g a i n a l o f t y p o s i t i o n . A l l a c t i v e attempts t o r e v i v e an o l d l i n e f a l l t o the b a s t a r d , Dare, who has merely made a s c i e n c e o f h i s gr a n d f a t h e r ' s gambling p r o p e n s i t i e s , and l o s e s again. In f a c t , the wickedness of both Dare and Abner Power i s apparent mainly through t h e i r misguided r e s p e c t f o r a wo r t h l e s s a r i s t o c r a c y . They both s e t too much s t o r e by the importance o f the de Stancys. They re p r e s e n t exaggerations of Paula's romantic i n t e r e s t s , and i t i s important, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t they are on the s i d e o f the d e v i l s . The c l o c k cannot be tu r n e d back; even the p o r t r a i t s i n the Long G a l l e r y "nod with s a t i s f a c t i o n and tri u m p h a n t l y s i g n i f y . . . t h a t [the f i n a l c o n f l a g r a t i o n ) was a meet and g l o r i o u s end" (L,VI,v,476). Whereas E t h e l b e r t a ' s move t o Enckworth p r o v i d e s an inadequate s o l u t i o n t o the s o c i a l dilemma o f f e r e d by her s t o r y , Paula's p o s i t i o n as Mrs. Somerset i n a modern house b u i l t by her husband conveys a sense t h a t t h i s i s how t h i n g s s h o u l d be. I t i s important, too, t h a t she marries Somerset f o r l o v e and not p r e s t i g e . She i s not happy wi t h the c h o i c e o f de Stancy and j u s t i f i e s her c l a i m t h a t she i s not "'so c a l c u l a t i n g as t o r i s k happiness i n order t o round o f f a s o c i a l i d e a ' " ( L , V , v i i i , 3 8 1 ) . Somerset per-suades her, d e s p i t e her romanticism, t o r e s p e c t "'the new a r i s t o c r a c y o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l i t y * " as h i g h l y as, or more than "'the o l d a r i s t o c r a c y o f e x c l u s i v e n e s s ' " (L,VI, v,478). His e c l e c t i c i s m extends t o making an o p p o r t u n i t y 49 o f m i s f o r t u n e . The o l d r u i n s w i l l be b e a u t i f u l covered w i t h i v y and t h a t i s where romanticism belongs. T h i s , however, i s "A S t o r y o f To-Day." The c a s t l e c l o c k s u r -v i v e s the f i r e u n t i l i t s t r i k e s one, and then c o l l a p s e s . A l l the a c c i d e n t s of her c a r e e r p o i n t Paula i n e x o r a b l y past t h a t mid-point of i n d e c i s i o n , and Hardy's sympathies, a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h Somerset, applaud her f i n a l c h o i c e . The modern f l o w e r i s t r a n s p l a n t e d from her chink o f medievalism i n t o the a p p a r e n t l y h e a l t h y s o i l of the modern world. A f t e r the c l a r i t y o f A Laodicean, Two on a Tower again suggests u n r e s o l v e d a m b i g u i t i e s . I t i s , perhaps, the o n l y n o v e l t h a t Hardy wrote t h a t i n v o l v e s no r e a l t r i a n g l e , no r e a l c o m p l e x i t i e s of c h o i c e , and t h i s may be one reason why i t s moral i s s u e s are l e s s than c l e a r . V i v i e t t e ' s d e c i s i o n t o l e t S w i t h i n go r e p r e s e n t s the o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t moral c h o i c e , but i t i s immediately complic-ated by her pregnancy and i t s moral n o b i l i t y i s b l u r r e d by her desperate marriage to the bishop. This f u z z i n e s s i n Hardy's own judgment i s r e v e a l e d i n h i s treatment o f other themes and, though t h e r e can be no r e a l c o n c l u s i o n s where t h e r e have been no r e a l d e c i s i o n s , t h i s n o v e l con-t a i n s i n g r e d i e n t s t h a t Hardy t r e a t s w i t h more c u r i o s i t y or assurance i n o t h e r s . S w i t h i n , f o r i n s t a n c e , p r o v i d e s the p o i n t of poten-t i a l s o c i a l m o b i l i t y . H i s parentage r e v e r s e s Clym Yeo-bright"*s. Whereas Clym's mother i s the daughter of a curate and comes down i n the world t o marry a farmer, 50 S w i t h i n i s the son of a curate who was o s t r a c i z e d by h i s f a m i l y f o r marrying a farmer's daughter. S w i t h i n , c a r e f u l l y educated and o f independent though humble means, l i v e s i n a cottage with h i s grandmother but can a t t r a c t the a t t e n t i o n o f Lady Constantine. His choice of astronomy f o r a v o c a t i o n and o f the i s o l a t e d tower f o r h i s ob s e r v a t o r y s e p a r a t e s him from both worlds so t h a t he need b e l o n g t o n e i t h e r . D i s t u r b e d by her b r o t h e r , V i v i e t t e n o t i c e s "Swithin*s a g r i c u l t u r a l s i d e . . . . She, i n her hopefulness, had almost f o r g o t t e n , l a t t e r l y , t h a t the b u c o l i c element . . . ent e r e d i n t o h i s c o n d i t i o n at a l l ; t o her he had been thesson of h i s academic f a t h e r a lone" ( T T , x x v i i i , 2 1 0 ) . S w i t h i n i s l i k e Clym, too, i n t h a t i n t e l l e c t u a l s e l f - a b s o r p t i o n which makes him an i n s e n s i t i v e p a r t n e r f o r a p a s s i o n a t e woman. V i v i e t t e f e e l s t h a t astronomy i s a bad study f o r him because i t "*makes(him) f e e l human i n s i g n i f i c a n c e too p l a i n l y * " ( T T , i v , 3 2 ) . His i s o l a t i o n i n the middle o f a l a r g e , ploughed f i e l d through which t h e r e are no paths matches t h a t of Clym on the t r a c t s o f Egdon, and the l i v e s o f both men i l l u s t r a t e the t r a g i c i n s i g n i f i c a n c e of man i n a v a s t , u n c a r i n g u n i v e r s e . As Sw i t h i n puts i t , " ' n o t h i n g i s made f o r man*" ( I b i d . ) . In h i s approach t o the r u s t i c community, Hardy seems here t o have a l t e r e d h i s t h i n k i n g t o an-important e x t e n t . There i s no s i g g e s t i o n o f the e a r l i e r i d y l l , j u s t as Egdon o f f e r s a d i f f e r e n t l i f e from the green f i e l d s o f Weather-51 bury and M e l l s t o c k . Here, Nat Chapman, Sammy Blore,Hezzy B i l e s , and Haymoss Fry are a l l sympathetic c h a r a c t e r s i n t r o d u c e d i n v a r i a b l y t o good purpose. Whereas e a r l i e r r u s t i c s are i n tune with t h e i r environment, however, Hardy takes a much s t a r k e r look now at the r e a l i t i e s o f l i f e i n r u r a l Dorset. The sheep-keeping boy who d i e d of s t a r v a t i o n i n Hardy's you#h i s r e s u r r e c t e d i n Hezzy B i l e s ' h o l d i n g out " ' a g a i n s t the s p e c t r e o' s t a r v a t i o n these five-and-twenty y e a r ' " (TT,xxii,165)• Haymoss asks e a r l i e r , as the r u s t i c s s i t o u t s i d e the tower, whether the comet means "'some great tumult i s going t o happen, cor. t h a t we s h a l l d i e o f famine?'" ( T T , x i i i , 9 6 ) , but Nat Chapman does not b e l i e v e t h a t such a f i e r y l a n -t e r n would be l i g h t e d up f o r poor people. The conver-s a t i o n at grandmother M a r t i n ' s b e f o r e the c h o i r p r a c t i c e i s , i n f a c t , the f i r s t s u g g e s t i o n t h a t man's c o n t e n t i o n w i t h the elements may be more than he can handle. Hezzy B i l e s would give every l a b o u r i n g man two backbones, but Haymoss doubles the order t o f o u r . J u s t as S o l C h i c k e r e l i s branded by h i s l a b o u r s and takes p r i d e i n the f a c t t h a t they are a p a r t o f him, these men are c r i p p l e d and l i v e with the aches and p a i n s o f overwork and strenuous poverty. Hardy makes the p o i n t e x p l i c i t at the c o n f i r -mation. T h i s f e s t i v e o c c a s i o n f a l l s i n "mid-May time" b r i n g i n g with i t weather not, perhaps, q u i t e so blooming as t h a t assumed t o be n a t u r a l t o the month by the joyous poets o f t h r e e hund-r e d y e a r s ago; but a very t o l e r a b l e , w e l l -wearing May, t h a t the average r u s t i c would w i l l i n g l y have compounded f o r i n l i e u of Mays o c c a s i o n a l l y f a i r e r , but u s u a l l y more f o u l . (TT.xxiv.174) So i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d t h a t the men and boys assembled f o r c o n f i r m a t i o n are "heavy, angular, and massive, as indeed was r a t h e r necessary, c o n s i d e r i n g what they would have t o bear at the hands of wind and weather be f o r e they r e t u r n e d t o t h a t mouldy nave f o r the l a s t time"(lbid MpJ.75).'yHardy's emphasis, i n s h o r t , i s on endurance now r a t h e r than harmony. On the symbolic l e v e l the drama a l s o f a i l s t o r e -c o n c i l e human needs with happy s o l u t i o n s . Lady Constant-i n e ' s house and garden are n e g l e c t e d a f t e r her husband's death i s known. The flower-beds t h a t had used t o be so n e a t l y edged were now jagged and l e a f y ; b l a c k s t a r s appeared on the p a l e s u r f a c e o f the g r a v e l walks, d e n o t i n g t u f t s o f grass t h a t grew un-molested t h e r e . Lady Constantine*s e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s wore j u s t t h a t aspect which suggests t h a t new b l o o d may be advantageously i n t r o d -uced i n t o the l i n e . (TT,xxi,155) S i g n i f i c a n t l y , i t i s f o r the bishop and not f o r S w i t h i n t h a t the house and garden are put i n o r d e r . By marrying the bishop, V i v i e t t e proves t h a t she can move up or down i n the s o c i a l s c a l e j u s t as S w i t h i n can; she chooses to marry beneath her, but succeeds by misadventure i n marry-i n g above. T h i s n o v e l does not permit any d i s t u r b a n c e t o accepted s o c i a l procedures, and even S w i t h i n must be supposed t o f i n d h i s a p p r o p r i a t e mate i n T a b i t h a Lark. S w i t h i n r e c e i v e s the very b e s t of e v e r y t h i n g , but he does not r?each the s t a t u r e o f V i v i e t t e . H i s science obeSi 53 not o f f e r human s o l u t i o n s and, i n c o n t r a s t , the church teaches o n l y the t o t a l r e n u n c i a t i o n of s e l f achieved by V i v i e t t e . The f a i l u r e o f both p h i l o s o p h i e s t o meet human needs lo o k s back, i n p a r t , t o The Return, and ahead t o Jude. These n o v e l s , then, i n which m o b i l i t y and change have become e x p l i c i t themes, a l s o i n t r o d u c e s e r i o u s concern f o r human beings who have no moral anchorage, no harmony wi t h t h e i r environment, no c l e a r choice to make. Hardy never f o r g e t s Cytherea*s p l e a t o her b r o t h e r t h a t her l i f e , however p a t h e t i c , i s the o n l y chance she has to l i v e . She i s the f i r s t o f a l o n g l i n e o f c h a r a c t e r s to accept the need t o s a c r i f i c e t h a t l i f e i n order t o achieve some r e c o g n i z a b l e good. V i v i e t t e i s such another. Hardy applauds the s e l f l e s s n e s s of her c h o i c e , but she i s committed to i t as Cytherea i s not. As h i s c h a r a c t e r s become i n c r e a s i n g l y i s o l a t e d from the harmony of the o l d o r d e r , Hardy seems t o s t r e s s the d i g n i t y , the pathos, and the f u t i l i t y of t h e i r attempts to l e a d a good l i f e . J u s t as Two on a Tower echoes aspects of The Return, the l a t t e r imports a major theme from the Madding  Crowd and p l a y s i t i n a minor key. The adventures of Thomasin and Diggory are very l i k e those of Bathsheba and Oak. Wildeve p l a y s the p a r t of Troy, and Diggory i s staunch i n h i s m i s t r e s s * s e r v i c e u n t i l he can c l a i m her hand. T h e i r c h a r a c t e r s , too, exemplify those most ex-c e l l e n t q u a l i t i e s o f the p a s t o r a l world. Hardy t o l d the 54 i l l u s t r a t o r f o r The Return t h a t Thomasin was "the good h e r o i n e " and he p l a c e d the c h a r a c t e r s i n order of im-portance: 1) Clym, 2) E u s t a c i a , 3) Thomasin and the reddleman, 4) Wildeve, and 5) Mrs. Yeobright. A l i s t t h a t p l a c e s the powerful Mrs. Yeobright a t the end assures us at l e a s t of the importance t o Hardy of h i s s u b - p l o t . I f Wildeve i s the d i s r u p t i v e T r o y - f i g u r e , h i s movements b e i n g "the pantomimic e x p r e s s i o n of a l a d y -k i l l i n g c a r e e r " (RN,I,v,47)t Thomasin p l a y s a happier Fanny Robin t o E u s t a c i a ' s Bathsheba. She i s more f o r -tunate than Fanny Robin i n her e f f o r t s t o s u r v i v e , and i s able t o pursue her marriage with Wildeve even beyond a f f e c t i o n i n order t o p r o t e c t her honour and s t a n d i n g i n the r u r a l community. She i s a s s o c i a t e d d e l i b e r a t e l y with t h i s community at i t s most c h e e r f u l . Her f a t h e r , f o r i n s t a n c e , would " p l a y the c l a r i n e t . . . as i f he'd never touched a n y t h i n g but a c l a r i n e t a l l h i s l i f e . And then, when they got t o the church-door, he'd throw down the c l a r i n e t , mount the g a l l e r y , s natch up the b a s s - v i o l , and rozum away as i f he!d never p l a y e d anything but a b a s s - v i o l . n His a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h T r a n t e r Dewy's f a m i l y i s too c l e a r to need e l a b o r a t i o n . I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t he d i e d i n peace s i n c e he "'was l u c k y enough to be God A'mighty's own man'" ( I b i d . , p . 5 5 ) . Thomasin r e j e c t s Diggory's f i r s t p r o p o s a l because her aunt, who i s s o c i a l l y ambitious on Clym's account as 5 (Ibid.,p.53) w e l l , look a Httte higher than a small 55 d a i r y - f a r m e r , and marry a p r o f e s s i o n a l man'" (RN,I, i x , 9 2 ) . But her p o s i t i o n i n the p a s t o r a l world i s at no p o i n t j e o p a r d i z e d . Even i n her g r i e f and s e c l u s i o n she i s p o r t r a y e d i n a scene o f b u c o l i c p l e n t y : The sun shone i n a b r i g h t y e l l o w patch upon the f i g u r e o f the maiden as she k n e l t and plunged her naked arms i n t o the s o f t brown f e r n . . . . The pigeons were f l y i n g about her head with the g r e a t e s t unconcern. . . . . . . Thomasin turn e d and r o l l e d a s i d e the f e r n from another nook, where more mellow f r u i t g reeted her with i t s r i p e smell.(RN,II, ii,129-30) As i n the l o f t , a l l " s i m i l e s and a l l e g o r i e s c o n c e r n i n g her began and ended with b i r d s " (RN,III,vi,249). And, when she walks across the heath on her own f o r her wedding, she b r a i d s her h a i r " a c c o r d i n g t o a c a l e n d r i c system: the more important the day the more numerous the s t r a n d s i n the b r a i d . . . . She had b r a i d e d i t i n sevens to-day" ( R N , I I , v i i i , 1 8 6 ) . U n l i k e Wildeve and E u s t a c i a , Thomasin f i n d s the heath "•a n i c e w i l d p l a c e t o walk in»" (RN,V,vi,413)• F a m i l i a r i t y w i t h and a f f e c t i o n f o r her surroundings e x p l a i n her p a t i e n c e w i t h Wildeve. Her t a l e n t i s f o r harmony, not dissonance. As she plunges w i t h her baby q u i t e f e a r l e s s l y i n t o "the c o n f r o n t i n g p i l e o f firmamental darkness" ( R N , V , v i i i , 4 3 2 ) , she does not borrow E u s t a c i a ' s plumes as Queen of Night: To her t h e r e were not, as t o E u s t a c i a , demons i n the a i r , and malice i n every bush and bough. The drops which l a s h e d her f a c e were not s c o r -pions, but prosy r a i n ; Egdon i n the mass was no monster whatever, but impersonal open ground. -Her f e a r s of the p l a c e were r a t i o n a l , her d i s -l i k e s o f i t s worst moods reasonable. At t h i s 56 time i t was i n her view a windy, wet p l a c e , i n which a person might experience much di s c o m f o r t , l o s e the path without care, and p o s s i b l y c a t c h c o l d . ( I b i d . , p . 4 3 3 ) J u s t as Thomasin achieves t h i s e x c e l l e n t combination of p o e t r y and prose, so Diggory i s q u i t e worthy of her. He i s absorbed f a r more than Thomasin i n t o the mys t e r i e s o f the main p l o t . H i s d o d o - l i k e p o s i t i o n as a reddleman makes him loo k l i k e a " f i e r y mommet." He i s present f o r t u i t o u s l y at times when he i s most needed. He wins q u i t e u n c a n n i l y at the game of d i c e with Wildeve. Hardy was o b v i o u s l y tempted t o use him as a deus ex machina i n the p l o t and t o have him disappear when no lon g e r needed. Competing, however, wi t h the demands of t h i s superhuman r o l e , the p a s t o r a l hero a s s e r t s h i m s e l f . He i s Thomasin*s l o y a l l o v e r and helps her e f f e c t i v e l y i n a time o f t r o u b l e . He adopts the r e d d l e t r a d e i n a cyn-i c a l mood, but r e t u r n s t o the heath to be "near her, y e t unseen." S i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h i s was "the one ewe-lamb o f pl e a s u r e l e f t t o him" (RJJ, I , i x , 92) . Even though he i s at home on the heath, h i s l o v e i s d e s c r i b e d i n terms t h a t evoke a more co n g e n i a l p a s t o r a l world. "He had stood i n the shoes of T a n t a l u s " ( I b i d . , p . 9 4 ) , and h i s c a r e e r , l i k e G a b r i e l ' s , i s t o be f o l l o w e d w i t h a n x i e t y and suspense. F o l l o w i n g only t h e s u b - p l o t , i t i s tempting t o agree wi t h M i l l g a t e t h a t the s i x t h book p r o v i d e s an a p p r o p r i a t e ending which only the deprecatory f o o t n o t e d i s t u r b s . Here the pagan f e s t i v a l s culminate i n the May-revel, the most c h e e r f u l o f them a l l . Clym r e a s s e r t s Mrs. Yeobright's o b j e c t i o n s t o Venn, but Thomasin now makes her own ch o i c e 57 which goes a g a i n s t the p r o s p e c t s of a town l i f e and a p r o f e s s i o n a l husband and s e t t l e s f o r Egdon because she has "'got used t o i t , and . . . couldn't be happy any-where e l s e at a l l ' " ( R N , V I , i i i , 4 7 1 ) . Thomasin chooses, i n f a c t , l i k e Fancy and Bathsheba b e f o r e her. The i d y l l r e a s s e r t s i t s e l f i n f u l l s t r e n g t h w i t h the r u s t i c s making a goose-feather bed f o r the wedding. The c h e e r f u l n e s s t h a t r e t u r n s t o Bloom's End i s untouched by Clym's s e l f -absorbed misery. L i k e Henchard, Clym watches the wedding f e a s t but has no p a r t i n the s o l u t i o n t h a t i t r e p r e s e n t s . Although Hardy q u a l i f i e d the happiness achieved by Dick and Fancy, G a b r i e l and Bathsheba, i t i s an e n t i r e l y new note t h a t e n t e r s here. There i s no q u a l i f i c a t i o n , but the whole i d y l l i s subordinated t o a s t o r y of b l i n d p a s s i o n s t h a t d e s t r o y people i n a moral wasteland t h a t r e p r e s e n t s the whole world: The dead f l a t o f the scenery overpowered . . . There was something i n i t s o p p r e s s i v e h o r i z o n t a l i t y which too much reminded him of the arena o f l i f e ; i t gave him a sense of bare e q u a l i t y w i t h , and no s u p e r i o r i t y t o , a s i n g l e l i v i n g t h i n g under the sun. (RN,III,v,245) There i s a sense of hopelessness: here t h a t has o c c u r r e d o n l y s p o r a d i c a l l y b e f o r e ; i n t h i s n o v e l the c o n d i t i o n becomes g e n e r a l . E u s t a c i a i s trapped by s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t prevent her from l e a v i n g the heath or from e x e r t i n g her e n e r g i e s i n any s a t i s f y i n g way. I t i s p o s s i b l e t o imagine her happy i n Budmouth or P a r i s , though her r e f u s a l of Venn's o f f e r t o get her to Budmouth suggests t h a t glamour i s more important to her than p r a c t i c a l achievement. Yet 58 the c l a u s t r o p h o b i a t h a t d r i v e s her t o d e s p a i r i s s u r e l y a comment both on the s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t t r a p her on Egdon and on the s t i f l i n g l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by r u r a l l i f e . E u s t a c i a ' s J o b - l i k e wish t h a t she had never been born expresses a new hopelessness t h a t r e c u r s i n l a t e r n o v e l s , though here i t i s Thomasin from the o l d world r a t h e r than F a r f r a e from the new who might say t h a t she had never f e l t l i k e t h a t . For both Clym and E u s t a c i a , however, t h e r e i s no answer and t h e i r e n e r g i e s are consumed i n s e l f - d e s t r u c t i o n . These two, r a t h e r than the happy members of the s u b - p l o t , c l a i m Hardy's most s e r i o u s a t t e n t i o n . Clym's b l i n d n e s s r e p r e s e n t s h i s i n a b i l i t y t o cope e i t h e r with h i s mother and wif e or wi t h h i s reforms i n the community. L a c k i n g a l l purpose and guidance, E u s t a c i a longs f o r some absolute p a s s i o n . They are both t r a g i c f i g u r e s , p o t e n t i a l agents o f change, E u s t a c i a through her i n f -luence on both Wildeve and Clym i n her search f o r a " s u f f i c i e n t hero," and Clym through h i s t h e o r i e s f o r reform; but they do not stand a chance and are both c r e a t e d by and subsumed i n t o the heath t h a t has provoked t h e i r a c t i o n : Every n i g h t i t s T i t a n i c form seemed t o await something; but i t had waited thus, unmoved, d u r i n g so many c e n t u r i e s , through the c r i s e s o f so many t h i n g s , t h a t i t could o n l y be imagined t o await one l a s t c r i s i s - - t h e f i n a l overthrow. ( R N , I , i , 4 ) In terms o f the c h i e f p r o t a g o n i s t s , t h i s i s achieved. T h i s i s the b i r t h p l a c e o f modern man, and he proves t o 59 be b l i n d , misguided, and q u i t e p a t h e t i c a l l y h e l p l e s s . The e n d u r i n g q u a l i t i e s o f the heath g i v e " b a l l a s t t o a mind a d r i f t on change, and harassed by the i r r e p r e s s i b l e New" (RN,I,i,7), but they a l s o d i m i n i s h man t o the l e v e l o f the i n s e c t . Clym becomes a mere p a r a s i t e o f the heath, f r e t t i n g i t s s u r f a c e i n h i s d a i l y l a b o u r as a moth f r e t s a garment, e n t i r e l y engrossed with i t s -products, having no knowledge of anything i n the world but f e r n , f u r z e , heath, l i c h e n s , and moss. (RN,IV,v,328) So much f o r the "man from P a r i s " who comes home wit h such hopes and arouses such hopes i n the women he l o v e s b e s t . But Clym's r e t u r n i s r e a l l y more i n v o l v e d w i t h the p r i m e v a l p a s s i o n s o f man. U n l i k e h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l t h e o r i e s , h i s emotional l i f e belongs to the p r i m e v a l subconscious which Hardy a s s o c i a t e s w i t h the heath. J u s t as the heath i s a " v a s t abyss," a " t r a c k l e s s way," a " r a y l e s s t r a c t , " so Clym and E u s t a c i a and Mrs. Yeo-b r i g h t are caught i n the t o i l s o f p r i m i t i v e p a s s i o n s f o r which t h e i r world o f f e r s no paths or l i g h t or s o l i d ground. E u s t a c i a and Mrs. Yeobright both d i e i n d e s p a i r . Clym s u r v i v e s , but o n l y a f t e r r i s i n g from the dead l i k e Lazarus t o devote the r e s t of h i s l i f e t o remorse f o r h i s shortcomings. He l e a r n s t h a t . E u s t a c i a i s not the on l y one to blame f o r Mrs. Y e o b r i g h t * s death, but he does not come t o terms w i t h h i s own dependence on h i s mother or w i t h the more g e n e r a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t t h a t p r e a c h i n g t o the r u s t i c s w i l l not h e l p tham b r e a s t the 60 misery they are born t o . He f a c e s d e s p a i r both s o c i a l l y and p e r s o n a l l y , but i s not " p e r c i p i e n t " enough to h e l p h i m s e l f or o t h e r s . Clym's r e p l a c i n g E u s t a c i a on Rainbarrow at the end may loo k l i k e a triumph f o r C h r i s t i a n i t y over the f o r c e s of paganism, and Hardy o b v i o u s l y intended t h a t i t should by h i s use of the Sermon on the Mount and h i s numbering o f Clym's years as " l e s s than t h i r t y - t h r e e . " But i t i s a l s o c l e a r t h a t Clym i s no more e f f e c t i v e as a s p i r i t u a l l e a d e r than as a s o c i a l reformer. He i s k i n d l y r e c e i v e d , but o n l y because h i s s t o r y has become g e n e r a l l y known. The l i n k t h a t i s made between Clym and C h r i s t may even be i r o n i c , intended l e s s t o g l o r i f y Clym than t o suggest t h a t he i s as u s e l e s s t o h i s s o c i e t y as the C h r i s t i a n church. He achieves n o t h i n g at a l l beyond mere s u r v i v a l , and, j u s t as i n Two on a Tower, r e l i g i o n no more than ph i l o s o p h y can cope with the c o n d i t i o n s t h a t Clym wants to change. Hardy d e p l o r e s the u g l y q u a l i t i e s o f t h i s r e c e s s i v e l y pagan world where l e a r n i n g i s despised, where churches are r a r e l y attended, and where b e l i e f i n w i t c h -c r a f t , "one o f those sentiments which l u r k l i k e moles underneath the v i s i b l e s u r f a c e o f manners" ( R N , V , i i , 3 8 l ) , can l e a d t o p e r s e c u t i o n . S t o l i d i t y i n the r u s t i c worH i s marred by a p l a i n t i v e element not apparent be f o r e ; Granfer Cantle wishes they a l l c o u l d see how dashing he looked i n 'four. Any change t h a t Clym c o u l d b r i n g t o t h i s benighted world would, f o r the f i r s t time, win 61 Hardy's support. The p o s s i b i l i t y o f change cannot be t h r e a t e n i n g here but r a t h e r p r o v i d e s the only r e a l hope. As t h i s hope i s not r e a l i z e d , the emphatic statement o f man's h e l p l e s s n e s s i n the hands o f f o r c e s i n d i f f e r e n t t o h i s s u r v i v a l f a r outweighs the impact o f the f l o u r i s h i n g l i t t l e i d y l l o f the s u b - p l o t . Hardy's sympathies were so i n v o l v e d with Clym i n h i s f a i l u r e t h a t he d i d not want the i d y l l t o take over at the end. The main theme i n a l l i t s bleakness was to stand u n q u a l i f i e d . S u b o r d i n a t i n g the o l d theme, however, r a t h e r than e l i m i n a t i n g i t , does suggest e q u i v o c a t i o n . T h i s n ovel f a l l s i n an experimental p e r i o d o f t r a n s i t i o n , and Hardy seems almost t o have s u r p r i s e d h i m s e l f i n t o a tragedy t h a t conveys h i s concern at the grim dilemma f a c i n g modern man as w e l l as h i s r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the o l d g u i d i n g v a l u e s . L i f e here i s a s t r u g g l e with p r i m e v a l i n s t i n c t s and b l i n d ignorance. Enlightenment w i l l not come e a s i l y and one man's p a t h e t i c e f f o r t s are f o i l e d by the sheer immensity o f what he has t o under-take . Hardy o f f e r s a number of s i g n i f i c a n t s t r u c t u r e s as an environment f o r man. When they are examined i n sequence, they r e p r e s e n t the changes t a k i n g p l a c e i n h i s thought d u r i n g t h i s e xperimental p e r i o d . The s h e a r i n g barn, f o r i n s t a n c e , i n Far from the Madding  Crowd, has served the needs of men f o r ge n e r a t i o n s and i s s t i l l w e l l - s u i t e d t o i t s purpose. I t arouses i n Hardy, a c c o r d i n g l y , "a f e e l i n g almost o f g r a t i t u d e , and q u i t e o f p r i d e , at the permanence of the i d e a which had heaped i t up" (FMC,xxii,l65). In c o n t r a s t , Enckworth Court, Stancy C a s t l e , and the mushroom v i l l a s of Sandbourne a l l suggest d e r a c i n a t i o n . I t i s the heath, however, which g i v e s b i r t h t o modern man, i t s f a c e s u g g e s t i n g t r a g i c a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Here, as a g a i n s t the s t e l l a r spaces of Two on a Tower, Hardy f i r s t e x p l o r e s deep s u f f e r i n g and p r e s e n t s f a t e as i r r e v e r s i b l e . He l e a v e s behind h i s e a r l i e r v i s i o n o f harmony between man and h i s environment, but he a l s o overcomes h i s p r e j u d i c e s about t h a t harmony b e i n g the o n l y p o s s i b l e good. He p o r t r a y s the p a s t o r a l world as i n -adequate, so t h a t modern man must look elsewhere to f i n d purpose and scope i n l i f e . 63 Chapter Three: The Death o f P a s t o r a l "In these experiments," Hardy w r i t e s o f S w i t h i n f s work i n e x i l e at the Cape, "important as they were t o human i n t e l l e c t , t h e r e was l i t t l e food f o r the sympathetic i n s t i n c t s which c r e a t e the changes i n a l i f e " (TT,xli,300). These words may be a p p l i e d t o Hardy h i m s e l f . His i n t e l l e c -t u a l experiments have c l a r i f i e d h i s thoughts. A c c e p t i n g the f a c t s o f change, r e e v a l u a t i n g the o l d order t o some extent t o overcome b a s i c p r e j u d i c e s , Hardy works now from the core o f h i s sympathetic i n s t i n c t s t o make the r e -e v a l u a t i o n complete. The r e s u l t i s the s u s t a i n e d dramatic achievement of The Mayor of C a s t e r b r i d g e (1886), The Wood-l a n d e r s (1887), and Tess o f the d t U r b e r v i l l e s (1891). The poignant f l a v o u r and absolute tragedy do not merely d e s c r i b e the death o f the p a s t o r a l world but p r o v i d e a l s o some measure of the meaning t h a t death had f o r Hardy. Such p a i n and d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t as are now c o n s t a n t l y apparent suggest t h a t a world t h a t r e a l l y matters i s f a l l i n g a p a r t . Each n o v e l p r e s e n t s the same tragedy i n a d i f f e r e n t way. I n The Mayor, Henchard's c h a r a c t e r i s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the o l d world which i s no l o n g e r v i a b l e , and he i s s p e c i f i c a l l y r e p l a c e d by the new. The Woodlanders p r o v i d e s an i d y l l i c s e t t i n g but a l l i t s weaknesses are emphasized; the n a r r a t i v e i n v e r t s , i n f a c t , t he p a s t o r a l success o f Far from the Madding Crowd. Then i n Tess Hardy uses a mythic s t r u c t u r e t o g e t h e r with h i s understanding o f s o c i a l , r e l i g i o u s , and e v o l u t i o n a r y p r e s s u r e s t o d e s t r o y the i d y l l beyond hope 6 4 o f r e v i v a l . There i s more s o c i a l r e a l i s m i n these novels than i n any so f a r ; but the " g e n e r a l drama of p a i n " i s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d i n e n t i r e l y dramatic terms because Hardy's c o n t r o l over the v a r i o u s elements he combines i s t i g h t e r than ever b e f o r e . In terms of Hardy's achievement, these are h i s f i n e s t n o v e l s . They r e p r e s e n t the emotional climax to the i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o c e s s of r e e v a l u a t i o n . Here the o l d , f a m i l i a r n a r r a t i v e p a t t e r n s pay a l a s t t r i b u t e t o a world t h a t cannot s u r v i v e , i n p a r t i c u l a r t o Henchard, and Winterborne, and Tess. Hardy's C a s t e r b r i d g e stands at the centre of h i s r u r a l world and i s "untouched" when The Mayor opens " 'by the f a i n t e s t s p r i n k l e o f modernism": The a g r i c u l t u r a l and p a s t o r a l c h a r a c t e r of the people upon whom the town depended f o r i t s e x i s t e n c e was shown by the c l a s s o f o b j e c t s d i s p l a y e d i n the shop windows. Scythes, reap-hooks, sheep-shears, b i l l -hooks, spades, mattocks, and hoes at the ironmonger's; bee-hives, b u t t e r - f i r k i n s , churns, m i l k i n g - s t o o l s and p a i l s , hay-rakes, f i e l d - f l a g o n s , and s e e d - l i p s at the cooper's; c a r t - r o p e s and plough harness at the s a d d l e r ' s ; c a r t s , wheel-barrows, and m i l l - g e a r at the wheel-wright's and m a c h i n i s t ' s ; horse-embrocations at the chemist's; at the g l o v e r ' s and l e a t h e r - c u t t e r ' s , hedging g l o v e s , t h a t c h e r s ' knee-caps, ploughmen's l e g g i n g s , v i l l a g e r s ' p a t tens and c l o g s . (MC,iv,32) T h i s l i s t evokes the f i n e p l e a s u r e s of the p a s t o r a l world and i s r e m i n i s c e n t of Keeper Day's store-room and the s h e a r i n g scene at Weatherbury. Frequent r e f e r e n c e s , furthermore, t o Weatherbury and M e l l s t o c k and the 65 presence o f Boldwood and Everdene and mention o f Shiner a s s o c i a t e the present scene w i t h the o l d i d y l l . " C a s t e r b r i d g e , " i n f a c t , "was the complement of the r u r a l l i f e around; not i t s urban o p p o s i t e " (MC,ix,65 ) . But as Egdon depends on pr i m e v a l f o r c e s f o r i t s endurance, C a s t e r b r i d g e evokes the p r o s p e r i t y and s t r e n g t h of anc i e n t Rome. I t s u r v i v e s because i t i s a busy commercial c e n t r e even though the country round about i s no l o n g e r the home o f the i d y l l . The p r e s e n t p i c t u r e o u t s i d e C a s t e r b r i d g e i s one of decay. I n immediate c o n t r a s t , f o r i n s t a n c e , w i t h a b i r d f s song " t h a t might d o u b t l e s s have been heard on the h i l l at the same hour, and with the self-same t r i l l s , quavers, and breves, at any sunset o f t h a t season f o r c e n t u r i e s u n t o l d , " Henchard l e a r n s t h a t " • [ p ] u l l i n g down i s more the n a t e r of Weydon. There were f i v e houses c l e a r e d away l a s t year, and t h r e e t h i s ; and the v o l k nowhere t o g o — n o , not so much as a th a t c h e d h u r d l e ; t h a t ' s the way o' Weydon-Priors 1" (MC,i,3-4)« Houseless d e s t i t u t i o n l o o k s forward t o the death o f G i l e s under a t h a t c h e d h u r d l e , and i s caused i n p a r t by modernization. When Susan r e t u r n s t o Weydon ni n e t e e n years l a t e r , she f i n d s c e r t a i n mechanical improvements; "£bj ut the r e a l b u s i n e s s o f the f a i r had c o n s i d e r a b l y dwindled. The new p e r i o d i c a l g reat markets o f ne i g h b o u r i n g towns were b e g i n n i n g to i n t e r f e r e s e r i o u s l y w i t h the t r a d e c a r r i e d on here f o r c e n t u r i e s " ( M C , i i i , 2 1 ) . There i s a c e r t a i n j u s t i c e 66 i n the f u r m i t y woman's b e t r a y a l o f Henchard s i n c e h i s bu s i n e s s has d i m i n i s h e d hers. Mixen Lane i s the p l a c e f o r such r u i n e d members o f the r u s t i c world, the name a p p r o p r i a t e l y i m p l y i n g a compost-heap or d u n g h i l l . Amid such decay i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g to f i n d the r u s t i c s l i v i n g almost e n t i r e l y i n the p a s t . Gathered o u t s i d e the church at Henchard's wedding, C h r i s t o p h e r Coney, Solomon Longways, and Mother Cuxsom t a l k o f the good o l d d a y s — a p a r t y at M e l l s t o c k g i v e n by Dame Ledlow, Farmer S h i n a r ' s aunt, Jack Griggs c a r r y i n g Joan Dummett through the mud; "'such doggery as t h e r e was i n them a n c i e n t days, t o be su r e ! Ah, the m i l e s I used t o walk then; and now I can h a r d l y s t e p over a furrow'" ( M C , x i i i , 9 7 ) . The present, as i n Two on a Tower, i s one o f h a r d s h i p . The r u s t i c s are amazed at F a r f r a e ' s f e e l i n g s f o r S c o t l a n d : "'Danged i f our country down here i s worth s i n g i n g about l i k e t h a t ' " says the g l a z i e r . He i s supported by C h r i s t o p h e r Coney: "'we be b r u c k l e f o l k h e r e — t h e b e s t o' us h a r d l y honest sometimes, what with hard w i n t e r s , and so many mouths t o f i l l , and God-a'mighty sending h i s l i t t l e t a t i e s so t e r r i b l e s m a l l t o f i l l 'em w i t h ' " ( M C , v i i i , 6 0 ) . 67 Henchard, d e s p i t e h i s p r o s p e r i t y as mayor, i s a s s o c i a t e d from the b e g i n n i n g with t h i s world. He appears f i r s t as a " s k i l l e d countryman" who has come on "an o b v i o u s l y l o n g journey" i n search of work. Susan i s dogged and a p a t h e t i c . T h e i r i n a b i l i t y to cope with h a r d s h i p r e s u l t s i n Henchard's angry assurance t h a t he c o u l d make good on h i s own, and i n Susan's p a s s i v e acceptance of the s a l e to Newson. T h e i r l a c k o f harmony and s t r e n g t h i s e x p l i c i t l y c o n t r a s t e d with the a f f e c t i o n found among horses who rub each others' necks as they wait p a t i e n t l y i n harness. Henchard's c h a r a c t e r i s thus e s t a b l i s h e d as stormy. S e l l i n g h i s w i f e i s the f i r s t o f h i s gambles with time and chance, j u s t as h i s t r y i n g t o keep E l i z a b e t h a f t e r Newson's r e t u r n i s the l a s t . With the p e r s i s t e n t r e c u r r e n c e o f the unforeseen, i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t anyone of h i s temper co u l d win; time holds the bank and the odds are a g a i n s t desperate men who do not adapt w e l l t o change. Hardy makes t h i s c l e a r not o n l y by i d e n t i f y i n g Henchard*s c h a r a c t e r w i t h the o l d order, but by a c c e p t i n g N o v a l i s ' d o c t r i n e t h a t c h a r a c t e r i s f a t e ( M C , x v i i , 1 3 l ) • Henchard l a c k s the l i g h t o f a man l i k e F a r f r a e t o "guide him on a b e t t e r w a y " ( I b i d . ) . T h i s S t o r y of a Man o f Character i s framed a p p r o p r i a t e l y by the two a c t s o f w i l l t h a t i l l u s t r a t e Henchard»s 68 s p o r a d i c c o n t r o l over h i s own d e s t i n y ; they i n d i c a t e h i s s t r e n g t h and provoke Hardy's admiration. The f i r s t i s the r e m o r s e f u l oath t o renounce d r i n k f o r twenty-one ye a r s ("'A powerful mind t o h o l d out so l o n g ! ' " says Solomon Longways, Mp_>v,39)* and the second i s h i s f i n a l r e n u n c i a t i o n of l i f e , memory, or any f e l l o w s h i p w i t h human k i n d . The s t r e n g t h t h a t enables t h i s v o l c a n i c man to forego d r i n k l e a d s a l s o t o h i s success. He r i s e s t o be mayor o f C a s t e r b r i d g e because of h i s "amazing energy," but he i s not an easy man f o r o t h e r s to work with, and remains an i s o l a t e d f i g u r e . H i s i s the p o s i t i o n of k i n g , and Hardy's use o f a r c h e t y p a l p a t t e r n s t o support t h i s r o l e i s n o t a b l y more s u c c e s s f u l here than i n The Return. They are suggested but not s t r e s s e d ; they serve merely t o e s t a b l i s h our e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t the k i n g must d i e . The c o n t r a s t between Henchard and F a r f r a e i s t h e r e f o r e p a r t o f t h i s p a t t e r n . As i n the r u r a l w o r l d , i t i s f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d i n terms of work. Henchard works by r u l e of thumb, depending on h i s memory f o r o r a l b a r g a i n s . F a r f r a e b r i n g s i n l e d g e r s , c i p h e r i n g , and mensuration. S k i l l r e p l a c e s guesswork as reason supersedes emotion. F a r f r a e , i n f a c t , cannot understand s t r o n g emotions. " ' I would understand why t h e r e should be a wee b i t envy,'" he says 69 of the o l d e r man, "'but I cannet see a reason f o r the whole i n t e n s i t y o f what he feels'"(MC,xxxiv,279). Farfrae»s success, based on s k i l l r a t h e r than on "amazing energy," ousts Henchard from h i s b u s i n e s s , h i s c i v i c p o s i t i o n , h i s p o t e n t i a l w i f e , and h i s supposed daughter. Henchard has the s t r e n g t h to b u i l d but not t o keep, and the town i s ready f o r new ways: "'We have had o l d e r men l o n g enough'"(MC,xxxiv,280). T h i s c o n t r a s t c r e a t e s the s t r u c t u r e o f the book, Henchard's r e v e r s a l b r i n g i n g him f i r s t t o work i n the barns he used t o own and then t o l e a v e C a s t e r b r i d g e , forming "much the same p i c t u r e as he had presented when e n t e r i n g i t f o r the f i r s t time n e a r l y a quarter o f a century b e f o r e " ( M C , x l i i i , 3 6 l ) . The k i n g has o u t l i v e d h i s ge n e r a t i o n and, a p p r o p r i a t e l y f o r h i s death, he "went s e c r e t l y and alone, not a s o u l o f the many who had known him b e i n g aware o f h i s de p a r t u r e " (Ibid.,p.360). Henchard's a f f e c t i o n f o r F a r f r a e i s complicated by h i s resentment o f a t r e a c h e r o u s u p s t a r t . F a r f r a e r e p r e s e n t s the new world which i s r e p l a c i n g the o l d . He i s r o o t l e s s , l o v i n g h i s homeland o n l y f o r the d u r a t i o n o f a song but not enough t o r e t u r n . He a c t s o n l y on a reasonable b a s i s . " ' I t ' s b e t t e r t o s t a y at home,'" he t e l l s L u c e t t a , "'. . . but a man must l i v e where h i s money i s made'" ( M C , x x i i i , 1 8 2 ) . As c o r n - f a c t o r , F a r f r a e 70 i n t r o d u c e s the sowing machine "where the venerable s e e d - l i p was s t i l l used f o r sowing as i n the days of the Heptarchy," h i s excuse, apart from the advantages o f such a "new-fashioned a g r i c u l t u r a l implement," b e i n g t h a t "'the machines are a l r e a d y very common i n the East and North o f England'" (MC,xxiv,191andl94). I t i s o n l y the romance o f the sower t h a t i s to be r e g r e t t e d . The machine i s not a " r e d t y r a n t " as i n Tess. I t causes c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t , but no concern. I t i s , however, p a r t o f a whole movement with which F a r f r a e i s a s s o c i a t e d and from which Henchard i s excluded. The r a i l w a y i s approaching C a s t e r b r i d g e , though i t has not y e t a r r i v e d and, when the Royal Personage comes, i t i s " t o inaugurate an immense e n g i n e e r i n g work out t h a t way" (MC,xxxvii,302). Henchard, n o t a b l y , i s an anomaly i n t h i s s e t t i n g and i s c a s t a s i d e . The c o n t r a s t between the two men i s so c l e a r l y e l a b o r a t e d i n terms of the o l d and the new t h a t when t h e i r two h a y c a r t s c o l l i d e , i t i s i n e v i t a b l y Henchard's man who i s i n the wrong, Henchard's c a r t t h a t i s overturned, and h i s hay t h a t l i e s i n the road because t h e r e i s no one around t o p i c k i t up. Henchard's s t r e n g t h i s c o n s i d e r a b l e , and i t i s conscience r a t h e r than i n a b i l i t y t h a t prevents him on a couple of o c c a s i o n s from damaging the younger man very b a d l y . But h i s c r e d i b i l i t y wanes so t h a t when 71 he wants t o do good, he cannot; F a r f r a e has l e a r n e d t o d i s t r u s t Henchard and does not b e l i e v e him when L u c e t t a i s i l l . There i s no a l t e r n a t i v e i n the end f o r a man so f r u s t r a t e d l y a l i g n e d with the o l d world but t o curse " h i m s e l f l i k e a l e s s scrupulous Job" (MC,xl,330) and d i e . Hardy makes a p o i n t here which he l a t e r e l a b o r a t e s i n Tess. Henchard i s onl y i n middle age: E x t e r n a l l y t h e r e was n o t h i n g t o h i n d e r h i s making another s t a r t on the upward s l o p e , and by h i s new l i g h t s a c h i e v i n g h i g h e r t h i n g s than h i s s o u l i n i t s h a l f - f o r m e d s t a t e had been able t o accomplish. But the i n g e n i o u s machinery c o n t r i v e d by t h e Gods f o r r e d u c i n g human p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f a m e l i o r a t i o n t o a minimum—which arranges t h a t wisdom t o do s h a l l come p a r i passu w i t h the departure o f z e s t f o r d o i n g — s t o o d i n the way o f a l l t h a t . He had no wish t o make an arena a second time of a world t h a t had become a mere p a i n t e d scene t o him.(MC,xliv,369) There i s no way t o account f o r so b i t t e r and comprehensive an e l i m i n a t i o n o f the mayor, except by r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t Hardy's sympathies are f a r c l o s e r t o Henchard than t o F a r f r a e . But Henchard, l i k e h i s caged b u l l -f i n c h , l a c k s the means t o s u s t a i n l i f e . N e i t h e r ambition nor l o v e can save him from the downward f a t e which Hardy c a s t s as i n e v i t a b l e . I n a poignant r e v e r s a l o f the p a s t o r a l world where the weak were p r o t e c t e d by the s t r o n g , W h i t t l e p r o t e c t s h i s master. His l o y a l t y i s based on the o l d - f a s h i o n e d f a m i l y code: 72 " l y e were k i n d - l i k e t o mother i f ye were rough to me, and I would f a i n be k i n d - l i k e t o you*"(MC,xlv,383), and stands i n sharp c o n t r a s t t o E l i z a b e t h ' s f a i l u r e o f l o v e and F a r f r a e ' s g e n t l e i n d i f f e r e n c e . E l i z a b e t h -Jane has chosen her l o t with "the c r y s t a l l i n e sphere of a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d mind"(MC,xxv,205), but Hardy has l e s s sympathy with the new order than w i t h the o l d . Even though the new i s based on s u f f e r i n g and experience, i t l a c k s the emotional weight o f the o l d . Henchard d i e s "every i n c h a k i n g " and Hardy s u r e l y suggests t h a t those who remain s h a l l never see so much nor l i v e so l o n g . T h i s s u g g e s t i o n i s repeated i n The Woodlanders, but e l a b o r a t e d l a r g e l y i n terms of e v o l u t i o n a r y t h e o r y . As e a r l y as 1875, Hardy had been i n f l u e n c e d " t o put a s i d e a woodland s t o r y . . . (which l a t e r took shape i n The Woodlanders), and make a plunge i n a new and u n t r i e d direction,"-*- and i t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o know i n what ways the woodland s t o r y changed i n those twelve y e a r s between co n c e p t i o n and p u b l i c a t i o n . I n November, 1885, Hardy w r i t e s : "In a f i t o f d e p r e s s i o n , as i f enveloped i n a leaden cloud . Have gone back t o my o r i g i n a l p l o t f o r The Woodlanders a f t e r a l l . " Whether t h i s o r i g i n a l p l o t was i n s p i r e d d i r e c t l y by Far from t h e  Madding Crowd i t i s hard t o say. C e r t a i n l y i t r e v e r s e s the happy outcome of the e a r l i e r s t o r y . I n both novels t h e r e i s an a t t r a c t i v e and i n t e l l i g e n t heroine who 73 can choose between the o l d - f a s h i o n e d yeoman and the d a s h i n g man o f the world, but whereas Bathsheba's f i n a l c h o i ce r e e s t a b l i s h e s the e q u i l i b r i u m of the p a s t o r a l world and has Hardy's complete a p p r o v a l , Grace Melbury's d e c i s i o n a g a i n s t the yeoman becomes not o n l y i r r e v e r s i b l e but, p o s s i b l y , even the r i g h t d e c i s i o n a f t e r a l l . G i l e s Winterborne i s u n q u e s t i o n a b l y a n o b l e r man than Edred F i t z p i e r s . He i s the f i n e s t workman o f the o l d s c h o o l i n which the q u a l i t y of a man's work d e f i n e s h i s moral worth. He i s , i n f a c t , a second G a b r i e l * but the f i e l d s o f Weatherbury are i d y l l i c and L i t t l e H i n t o c k , i n c o n t r a s t , i s l i k e the i n l a n d creek of an embayed sea. I t i s a backwater, cut o f f from the r e s t o f the world, l i k e Egdon heath, and i t i s j u s t as c l a u s t r o p h o b i c . I t was one o f those sequestered s p o t s o u t s i d e the gates o f the world where may u s u a l l y be found more m e d i t a t i o n than a c t i o n , and more l i s t l e s s n e s s than m e d i t a t i o n ; where r e a s o n i n g proceeds on narrow premisses, and r e s u l t s i n i n f e r e n c e s w i l d l y i m a g i n a t i v e ; y e t where, from time t o time, dramas o f a grandeur and u n i t y t r u l y Sophoclean are enacted i n the r e a l , by v i r t u e of the concentrated p a s s i o n s and c l o s e l y - k n i t interdependence o f the l i v e s t h e r e i n , (W,i , 4-5) C o r r e c t i n g p r o o f s f o r the Wessex E d i t i o n o f The Woodlanders i n 1912, Hardy d e c i d e d he l i k e d t h i s s t o r y b e s t of a l l : 74 "Perhaps t h a t i s owing to the l o c a l i t y and scenery o f 3 the a c t i o n , a p a r t I am very fond o f . " S i g n i f i c a n t l y , i t i s the Sophoclean elements and not those of the o l d i d y l l t h a t are endorsed by the s e t t i n g t h a t Hardy l i k e d so w e l l . I t i s common, f o r i n s t a n c e , t o f i n d t he u g l y aspects o f the n a t u r a l world h i g h l i g h t e d : "They h a l t e d beneath a half^-dead oak, hollow and d i s f i g u r e d with white t u m o u r s , i t s r o o t s s p r e a d i n g out l i k e claws g r a s p i n g the ground" (W,xxix,254)• The anthropomorphic d e s c r i p t i o n s do not merely accord i n romantic terms w i t h the moods o f men; they a l s o r e p r e s e n t the problems which man shares w i t h other forms of l i f e : From the o t h e r window a l l she c o u l d see were more t r e e s , i n j a c k e t s o f l i c h e n and s t o c k i n g s o f moss. . . .Next were more t r e e s c l o s e t o g e t h e r , w r e s t l i n g f o r e x i s t e n c e , t h e i r branches d i s f i g u r e d with wounds r e s u l t i n g from t h e i r mutual rubbings and blows. I t was the s t r u g g l e between these neighbours t h a t she had heard i n the n i g h t . Beneath them were the r o t t i n g stumps o f those of the group t h a t had been vanquished l o n g ago, r i s i n g from t h e i r mossy s e t t i n g l i k e b l a c k t e e t h i n green gums. (W,xlii,376) The world of nature i l l u s t r a t e s the s t r u g g l e f o r s u r v i v a l t h a t i s common i n the world o f men, and i t i s i n these terms t h a t Hardy d e s c r i b e s both the d e f e a t and the death o f G i l e s . The tragedy i s based on the f a c t t h a t he h o l d s our sympathies. G i l e s i s l i n k e d with the past through Robert Creedle who worked f o r h i s f a t h e r . 75 An o l d man, as a l l s h a l l b e , Creedle remembers " ' [ V J n c i e n t days, when t h e r e was b a t t l e s , and famines, and h a n g - f a i r s , and o t h e r pomps'" (W,x,86) l i k e y e s t e r d a y . G i l e s i s a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Marty, who, i n her hopeless l o v e , both echoes h i s p l i g h t and s e r v e s as an adequate p r i e s t e s s at h i s s h r i n e . Together they r e p r e s e n t the o l d world where each t r a d e has i t s mysteries and where Man and Nature are i n tune: They had p l a n t e d t o g e t h e r , and t o g e t h e r they had f e l l e d ; t o g e t h e r they had, with the run o f the y e a r s , m e n t a l l y c o l l e c t e d those remoter s i g n s and symbols which seen i n few were of r u n i c o b s c u r i t y , but a l l t o g e t h e r made an alphabet. (W,xliv, 399) T h i s l y r i c a l tone l e a v e s no doubt as t o where Hardy's a l l e g i a n c e l i e s . S i m i l a r language i s used i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n of G i l e s as a r u r a l d e i t y : He rose upon her memory as the f r u i t - g o d and the wood-god i n a l t e r n a t i o n : sometimes l e a f y and smeared wi t h green l i c h e n , as she had seen him among the sappy boughs o f the p l a n t a t i o n s : sometimes c i d e r - s t a i n e d and s t a r r e d with a p p l e - p i p s , as she had met him on h i s r e t u r n from cider-making i n Blackmoor V a l e , w i t h h i s v a t s and p r e s s e s b e s i d e him. (W,xxxviii,335) 4 In c o n t r a s t , as De Laura has p o i n t e d out, Hardy i s s t r a n g e l y h o s t i l e t o F i t z p i e r s , l i n k i n g the i d e a l i s m of the dreamer ("He b e l i e v e d t h a t behind the imperfect l a y the perfect"W,xix,157) with a d e f e c t i v e m o r a l i t y . 76 He i s f o r e i g n t o Hintock, ambitious, and u n l i k e l y t o succeed i n such a backwater. He i s a l s o the a g g r e s s i v e male who has been i n i t i a l l y s u c c e s s f u l i n every n o v e l so f a r . He i s "the handsome, c o e r c i v e , i r r e s i s t i b l e F i t z p i e r s " ( W , x x i i i , 1 9 6 ) and a c t s on Grace " l i k e a dram." He hates the woodland j u s t as Wildeve hates the heath, and t h i s , i n terms o f the moral c e n t r e o f the book, stands a g a i n s t him. Mainly, however, Hardy l a c k s sympathy w i t h F i t z p i e r s because he can so c a r e l e s s l y take advantage o f people who are unprepared f o r s e l f - d e f e n c e . Melbury has l e d such a simple l i f e t h a t " i t had s c a r c e l y o c c u r r e d t o him t h a t a f t e r marriage a man might be f a i t h l e s s " ( W , x x i x , 2 5 7 ) . F i t z p i e r s takes Grace away from G i l e s and then l e a v e s her f o r another woman, y e t the "wrong, the s o c i a l s i n , of now t a k i n g advantage of the o f f e r of her l i p s had a magnitude [ f o r G i l e s ] . . . whose l i f e had been so p r i m i t i v e , so r u l e d by household laws . . . which can h a r d l y be e x p l a i n e d " (W,xxxix,350). G i l e s i s so honourable and good t h a t F i t z p i e r s s u f f e r s by comparison q u i t e apart from Hardy's impatience w i t h him. Yet f o r Grace the c h o i c e i s by no means so simple. She "combined modern nerves w i t h p r i m i t i v e f e e l i n g s , and was doomed by such c o - e x i s t e n c e t o be numbered among the d i s t r e s s e d , and t o take her s c o u r g i n g s t o t h e i r e x q u i s i t e e x t r e m i t y " (W,xl,358). She i s caught 77 between her b i r t h and her t r a i n i n g . She longs t o r e t u r n t o the woods, t o be as simple as Marty South, to l e a d a q u i e t l i f e without the complex r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of s o c i a l aggrandizement. She l e a r n s f o r c e f u l l y at G i l e s ' s death "how l i t t l e acquirements and c u l t u r e weigh b e s i d e s t e r l i n g p e r s o n a l character"(W,xlv,404). When F i t z p i e r s i s u n f a i t h f u l she exp e r i e n c e s "acute r e g r e t at the s i g h t o f . . . woodcutting scenes, because she had estranged h e r s e l f from them" (W,xxxiii,284). But when she r e t u r n s from her honeymoon and sees G i l e s i n Sherton, she knows she cou l d never have married him: " G i l e s and a l l h i s b e l o n g i n g s seemed s o r r y and common to her f o r the moment--moving i n a groove so f a r removed from her own o f l a t e t h a t she c o u l d s c a r c e l y b e l i e v e she had ever found c o n g r u i t y therein"(W,xxv,211). "No woman i s without a s p i r a t i o n s , " Hardy w r i t e s , "which may be innocent enough w i t h i n l i m i t s "(W,xxiii,196). He b e l i e v e s t h a t Grace's a s p i r a t i o n s are o f t h i s k i n d even though they m i l i t a t e a g a i n s t the r u s t i c hero. "Grace had been so t r a i n e d s o c i a l l y , and educated i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , as to see c l e a r l y enough a p l e a s u r e i n the p o s i t i o n o f wife t o such a man as F i t z p i e r s " ( I b i d . ) . I t i s , i n f a c t , "not h e r s e l f but the pressure o f events" t h a t g i v e s her to F i t z p i e r s and not G i l e s , thus d i s s i p a t i n g "the dreams of t h e i r e a r l y youth"(W,xxv,213). 7 8 U n l i k e G i l e s , F i t z p i e r s i s s t i l l s e a r c h i n g f o r a manner o f l i f e . H i s r e f o r m a t i o n , whereby he becomes " q u i t e a p r a c t i c a l man" at the expense of h i s books on p h i l o s o p h y , h i s o l d p l a y s , and French romances, foreshadows the adjustments t h a t Jude has c o n s t a n t l y t o make. Grace shows the same a d a p t a b i l i t y . Her r e t u r n to F i t z p i e r s may be a " f o r l o r n hope" but i t i s the o n l y a l t e r n a t i v e l e f t by the end o f the n o v e l . Marty i s the o n l y one who simply endures, and her elegy f o r G i l e s suggests b e t r a y a l on the p a r t o f Grace. Yet i t i s an e l e g y . G i l e s i s dead. The n a r r a t i v e has pursued o n l y what Matchett c a l l s "a r e a l i s t i c 5 i n t e n t i o n . " In a world where "the l i c h e n ate the v i g o u r of the s t a l k , and the i v y s l o w l y s t r a n g l e d t o death the p r o m i s i n g s a p l i n g " ( W , v i i , 5 9 ) , t h e r e can be no moral judgment, on l y a l i n g e r i n g f e a r t h a t the "lamentable change i s from the b e s t . " In Tess, Hardy confirms the absolute d e s t r u c t i o n o f h i s e a r l y i d y l l . As i n The Mayor, c h a r a c t e r i s shown t o be f a t e ; Tess i s destroyed because she belongs i r r e t r i e v a b l y t o the o l d world and cannot adapt to change. Here, as i n Two on a Tower, the r u s t i c world i s p o r t r a y e d with the k i n d o f r e a l i s m t h a t would have met the demands of Hardy's e a r l y c r i t i c s ; the scenes at M a r l o t t , T r a n t r i d g e , Chaseborough, and Flintcomb-Ash would s u r e l y have s a t i s f i e d the most r i g h t e o u s i n t e n t i o n s o f K i n g s l e y , J e f f e r i e s , Mrs. G a s k e l l , or Mrs. Humphry Ward. And, as i n The Woodlanders, e v o l u t i o n a r y t h e o r y informs Hardy's treatment and he p o r t r a y s the p a s t o r a l world as unable t o s u r v i v e . Here f o r the f i r s t time the r u s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s p o r t r a y e d as f e c k l e s s , l a c k i n g i n moral s t a b i l i t y , and even i n i n t e g r i t y at work. Once again t h a t p a s s i v e element, n o t i c e d e a r l i e r , i s an i n c i p i e n t t h r e a t t o the s u r v i v a l o f the p a s t o r a l world. Tess, f o r i n s t a n c e , though educated above her f a m i l y , shares t h e i r acceptance o f f a t e . L i k e P i c o t e e , she i s a dreamer when she most needs t o be a l e r t . She i s i n a r e v e r i e when the m a i l c a r t , "speeding along these l a n e s l i k e an arrow" p i e r c e s and k i l l s the D u r b e y f i e l d ' s horse. She i s spl a s h e d w i t h h i s blood, and f e e l s h e r s e l f s t a i n e d w i t h s i n , on t h i s f i r s t o f many o c c a s i o n s . She f a l l s i n t o a r e v e r i e again i n the Chase and i s A l e c ' s h e l p l e s s v i c t i m . She i s d e s c r i b i n g t h i s s t a t e i n which her s o u l l e a v e s her body at Talbothays, and Dairyman C r i c k h o l d s h i s k n i f e and f o r k i n the p r o l e p t i c form o f a gallows t r e e . The f a t a l i s m o f her people who would say " I t was t o be'" or even, " • T i s n a t e r , a f t e r a l l , and what do ple a s e God!'" i s shown t o be "the p i t y o f i t . " Tess shares " t h a t r e c k l e s s acquiescence i n chance" with the r e s t o f her f a m i l y . I t i s a t e r r i b l e r e v e r s a l o f Ruth's vow t o Naomi with tvhich she allows Angel C l a r e to le a v e her: 80 " I shan't ask you t o l e t me l i v e with you, Angel, because I have no r i g h t t o ! I s h a l l not w r i t e t o mother and s i s t e r s t o say we be married, as I s a i d I would do; and I shan't f i n i s h the g o o d - h u s s i f I cut out and meant t o make while we were i n l o d g i n g s . . . .1 shan't do anything, u n l e s s you order me t o ; and i f you go away from me I s h a l l not f o l l o w 'ee; and i f you never speak t o me any more I s h a l l not ask why, u n l e s s you t e l l me I may. . . . I w i l l obey you l i k e your wretched s l a v e , even i f i t i s to l i e down and die."(TP,V,xxxv,294) And at the end she can en t e r i n t o none of Angel's schemes f o r escape, because "'What must come w i l l come'"(TP,VII, l v i i i , 4 9 8 ) . In Tess t h i s f a t a l i s m i s p a i n f u l because Hardy ca r e s f o r her so very much. In her pare n t s , however, i t i s seen as p a r t o f a t o t a l incompetence: D u r b e y f i e l d was what was l o c a l l y c a l l e d a s l a c k - t w i s t e d f e l l o w ; he had good s t r e n g t h t o work at times; but the times c o u l d not be r e l i e d on t o c o i n c i d e with the hours o f requirement; and, ha v i n g been unaccustomed t o t he r e g u l a r t o i l o f the day-labourer, he was not p a r t i c u l a r l y p e r s i s t e n t when they d i d so coincide.(TD,I,v,39) The " b i a s i n h i s g a i t " i s a b i a s i n h i s nature b e s t i l l u s t r a t e d by h i s drunken ramble home at n i g h t . H i s wi f e shares h i s d r i n k i n g h a b i t s and h i s i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . She t r e a t s Tess f i r s t w i t h the s e l f i s h n e s s o f her ambition and then with c a s u a l n e g l e c t . Joan Durbey-f i e l d t akes each mishap "as she would have taken a wet h o l i d a y or f a i l u r e i n the potato crop; as a t h i n g which had come upon them i r r e s p e c t i v e o f d e s e r t or f o l l y ; a chance e x t e r n a l impingement to be borne with; not a l e s s o n " (TP,V.xxxviii,328). The f a c t t h a t 81 wet h o l i d a y s and f a i l e d potato crops weigh very d i f f e r e n t l y i n the s c a l e s a g a i n s t s u r v i v a l i s not taken i n t o account, and t h e r e i s no humour i n Hardy's p o r t r a y a l o f such f a i l u r e s t o d i s t i n g u i s h . People l i k e the D u r b e y f i e l d s have no p o s s i b l e means f o r s u r v i v i n g , and t h e i r i n e p t i t u d e i s extended t o the r u r a l world as a whole. M a r l o t t i s " e n g i r d l e d and secluded"by h i l l s , and i t s i s o l a t i o n a f f e c t s Tess j u s t as Melbury and G i l e s had been l i m i t e d by the i s o l a t e d nature of L i t t l e Hintock. To Tess the "Vale o f Blackmoor was . . . the world, and i t s i n h a b i t a n t s the r a c e s t h e r e o f , " her onl y experience of the o u t s i d e world b e i n g "dependent on the t e a c h i n g of the v i l l a g e school"(TD,I,v,40-41)• When she l e a v e s , t h e r e f o r e , i t i s to f i n d "an immense landscape s t r e t c h e d around . . . on every s i d e ; behind, the green v a l l e y of her b i r t h , b e f o r e , a gray country of which she knew n o t h i n g " ( T D , I , v i i , 6 2 ) . L i k e Melbury and G i l e s , she i s unable t o cope with an a l i e n e xperience, and her journey w i t h Alec away from the s e c l u s i o n o f M a r l o t t i s d e s c r i b e d i n terms of a moral f a l l : "Down, down, they sped. . . ." The women of Trantridge are as f a l l e n as Tess i s soon t o be. The p l a c e had a l s o a more a b i d i n g d e f e c t ; i t drank hard. The s t a p l e c o n v e r s a t i o n on 82 the farms around was on the u s e l e s s n e s s o f s a v i n g money; and smock-frocked a r i t h m e t i c i a n s , l e a n i n g on t h e i r ploughs or hoes, would e n t e r i n t o c a l c u l a t i o n s of great n i c e t y t o prove t h a t p a r i s h r e l i e f was a f u l l e r p r o v i s i o n f o r a man i n h i s o l d age than any which c o u l d r e s u l t from savings out of t h e i r wages d u r i n g a whole l i f e t i m e . (TD,I,x,75) They are, i n f a c t , w i l l i n g t o accept c o n d i t i o n s which the r u s t i c s of an e a r l i e r world s t r u g g l e d t o r e s i s t . The dance at the "decayed market-town" o f Chaseborough s u f f e r s by comparison w i t h the dances of Under the  Greenwood Tree. Here the fulsome h i l a r i t y i s d i s t i n c t l y s e x u a l i n c o n t r a s t to the community f e s t i v a l at M e l l s t o c k . Here " n e b u l o s i t y " i n v o l v e s the scene. S a t y r s and S i l e n i are " r u s h i n g c o u p l e s " who c o l l a p s e i n "a t w i t c h i n g entanglment o f arms and l e g s " (TD,I,x,77-79). Hardy's i m p l i c i t c o n t r a s t between the romantic and the r e a l i s supported by h i s e a r l y t i t l e , "Saturday Night i n Arcady," f o r the drunken walk home. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the workfolk i n t h i s n o v e l are r o o t l e s s . Dairyman C r i c k t e l l s the s t o r y of o l d W i l l i a m Dewy and the b u l l i n M e l l s t o c k , but he i s " a - l y i n g i n M e l l s t o c k Churchyard" now. By c o n t r a s t , today's workfolk are l i k e the migrant b i r d s "from behind the North Pole . . . gaunt s p e c t r a l c r e a t u r e s w i t h t r a g i c a l eyes. . . . with dumb i m p a s s i v i t y , they d i s m i s s e d experiences which they d i d not value f o r the immediate i n c i d e n t s of t h i s homely u p l a n d " ( T D , V , x l i i i , 3 6 7 ) . T h i s tendency t o 83 extend the r e a l i s t i c f a c t i n t o a metaphor f o r the whole o f e x i s t e n c e , c o n s t a n t l y l i n k i n g the human and n a t u r a l worlds, e s t a b l i s h e s the disharmony between the r e a l and the i d e a l . Man i s thus i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n time and space. On the n i g h t t h a t P r i n c e i s k i l l e d , f o r i n s t a n c e , "the s t a r s " were " c o l d p u l s e s . . . b e a t i n g amid the b l a c k hollows above, i n serene d i s s o c i a t i o n from th e s e two wisps o f human l i f e " (TD,I,iv,33). The s t a r s are worlds and t h a t on which human beings l i v e i s b l i g h t e d . Grace Melbury makes a s i m i l a r analogy, but here Hardy wonders "whether at the acme and summit o f human prog r e s s these anachronisms w i l l be c o r r e c t e d by a f i n e r i n t u i t i o n " (TD,I,v,49). But Tess, f o r a l l her s e n s i t i v i t y , cannot h e l p h e r s e l f . L i k e Nat Chapman or C h r i s t o p h e r Coney, she i s "'forbidden t o b e l i e v e t h a t the great Power who moves the world would a l t e r His plans from human i n t e r e s t s i s so damaging as t o be c r u e l . The milkmaids, f o r i n s t a n c e , are h e l p l e s s l y s u b j e c t t o the laws o f s e x u a l i t y , but the c r u e l t y i s extended t o i n v o l v e not merely the p o s s i b i l i t y o f happiness but the chance o f s u r v i v a l . Tess i s a s s o c i a t e d , f o r i n s t a n c e , with s m a l l and h e l p l e s s animals. I n Hintock, t r e e s and p l a n t s , f o l l o w i n g on account «"!(TD,VT,xlvi, 408) . Nature's d i s s o c i a t i o n 84 the laws o f nature, have t o accept the i n e v i t a b i l i t y o f t h e i r s t r u g g l e . Here, however, Hardy s t r e s s e s the unnecessary c r u e l t y i n v o l v e d . Small animals do not d e s t r o y each other i n order t o s u r v i v e but are hunted by humans, whom Hardy d e s c r i b e s as "so unmannerly and so u n c h i v a l r o u s . " S i m i l a r l y , Tess i s hunted by A l e c , by the machine, and by the desperate f o r c e o f circumstances. A t f i r s t s i g h t o f The Slopes, she i s " h a l f - a l a r m e d " l i k e a s t a r t l e d r a b b i t . A l e c e n t i c e s her i n t o h i s t r a p w i t h f r u i t and f l o w e r s . L a t e r , she k i l l s the pheasants so c a l l o u s l y wounded by shot and i d e n t i f i e s h e r s e l f w i t h these "weaker f e l l o w s i n Nature's teeming f a m i l y " (TD,V,xli,355). L i k e the s m a l l animals t h a t r e t r e a t to the centre o f the h a y f i e l d , Tess r e t r e a t s t o o . But when A l e c f i n d s her again "a f e a r overcame her, p a r a l y z i n g her movement so t h a t she n e i t h e r r e t r e a t e d nor advanced" (TD,VI,xlv,389). And her attempt to defy him i s "the hopeless d e f i a n c e of the sparrow's gaze b e f o r e i t s c a p t o r t w i s t s i t s n eck"(TD,VI,xlvii,423). Tess i s h e l p l e s s , however, not merelyi because she i s hunted by A l e c , but a l s o because o f t h a t p a s s i v e temperament, t h a t i n h e r e n t weakness o f the r u s t i c m e n t a l i t y , which i s l i n k e d here w i t h t h a t o f the weaker animals. The f i e l d animals at the r e a p i n g do not r e a l i z e t h a t t h e i r refuge i n the c e n t r e i s ephemeral. S i m i l a r l y , 85 Tess does not l e a v e her familiar world but i s , l i k e her f a t h e r , "content with immediate and s m a l l achievements"(TD,III,xvi,135)• Her d e f e a t , f i r s t by the laws o f nature, and then by the laws o f men, i s aid e d by her i n a b i l i t y t o make the s o r t o f d e c i s i o n by which Grace Melbury s u r v i v e s . Nature's d i s s o c i a t i o n from human needs i s matched by the s e p a r a t i o n of r e l i g i o u s t h e o r y from human v i r t u e . Tess i s condemned by dogma but redeemed by the i n t e g r i t y o f her s p i r i t . The s i g n - p a i n t e r i s the f i r s t t o f i l l h er with " a c c u s a t o r y h o r r o r " as h i s message s p e l l s out her f a l l and then p o i n t s t o her f i n a l s i n . H i s p a i n t i s s c a r l e t , but Hardy uses the image of s c a r l e t as ambiguously as Hawthorne so t h a t here i t r e p r e s e n t s the l e t t e r of the law r a t h e r than Tess's s i n . The b u r i a l o f the baby " i n t h a t shabby corner of God's all o t m e n t where He l e t s the n e t t l e s grow" (T D tII,xiv,122) suggests not onl y the a b s u r d i t y o f man's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the " c o n j e c t u r a l l y damned" but a l s o h i n t s at God's b e i n g a poor farmer t o allow such a moral w i l d e r n e s s . With i n c r e a s i n g c l a r i t y Tess i s a s s o c i a t e d with the r e a l meaning of the go s p e l s . By adhering t o the l e t t e r of t he meaning o f p u r i t y , Angel v i o l a t e s the sacrament of marriage d e s c r i b e d here i n terms o f the sacrament o f 86 communion. T h e i r wine i s un t a s t e d . The candles are put out. They remain o n l y t h r e e days t o g e t h e r d u r i n g which Tess contemplates s u i c i d e i n order t o save Angel from h i s misery, and Angel h i m s e l f imagines her dead. T h i s harrowing o f h e l l l i n k s Tess w i t h C h r i s t so t h a t Angel's f a t h e r , choosing the v i r t u e s o f a pure woman f o r h i s t e x t , c r e a t e s a f u r t h e r i r o n y than t h a t which i s e v i d e n t t o Angel. I z z Huett b r i n g s home to Angel the q u a l i t y of Tess's l o v e , but he b l i n d l y i n s i s t s t h a t "the f a c t s had not changed"(TD,V,xl,346). He has persuaded Tess t h a t God i s not l o v e , and she i s unable t o i l l u s t r a t e how the Godless l e t t e r k i l l s except by dy i n g . Even at her Gethsemane, ( " ' T e l l me now, Angel, do you t h i n k we s h a l l meet again a f t e r we are dead?'") Angel p l a y s the p a r t o f Judas and b e t r a y s her with a k i s s : He k i s s e d her t o av o i d a r e p l y at such a time. "0, A n g e l : — I f e a r t h a t means no!" s a i d she, wit h a suppressed sob. . . . 'hot even you and I, Angel, who l o v e each other so w e l l ? " (TP,VII, l v i i i , S 0 3 ) But she w i l l not l i v e t o be de s p i s e d and meets her cap t o r s w i t h a C h r i s t - l i k e r e s i g n a t i o n . J u s t as Hardy a s s o c i a t e s Tess w i t h the f r a i l t y o f animals and the p u r i t y o f C h r i s t t o convince us of the pathos and shame o f her d e s t r u c t i o n , he a l s o symbolizes the i n e v i t a b l e l o s s o f the p a s t o r a l world by l i n k i n g i t with Eden. As a mythic framework c r e a t e s c e r t a i n e x p e c t a t i o n s , the e v o c a t i o n o f Eden here d e s c r i b e s an 87 i n e v i t a b l e f a l l from grace. Hardy t r e a t s the myth very s e r i o u s l y : "they seemed t o themselves the f i r s t persons up o f a l l the world. . . . wit h a f e e l i n g o f i s o l a t i o n , as i f they were Adam and Eve" (TD,III,xx,167). A l e c , of course, i s the d e v i l , with h i s red l i p s and b l a c k moustache. I t i s while "£rjoaming up and down, round and round" (TD,I,xi,90) t h a t he f i n d s and seduces Tess, d e p r i v i n g her thereby o f her Edenic innocence: "she had l e a r n t t h a t the serpent h i s s e s where the sweet b i r d s s i n g " ( T D , I I , x i i , 9 6 ) . Tess has "eaten o f the t r e e o f knowledge" even b e f o r e she reaches the p h y s i c a l Eden o f Talbothays (TD,III,xvi,134). Use of the myth serves l i k e a p r o l e p t i c metaphor t o assure us t h a t b l i s s i n Eden can on l y be t r a n s i e n t . When Alec then c l a i m s her, h i s pronged f o r k s h i n i n g at the b o n f i r e i n M a r l o t t , t h e r e i s a F a u s t i a n j u s t i c e i n h i s c l a i m . S e d u c t i o n of a country g i r l by an u n p r i n c i p l e d man of the world i s a n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y c l i c h e suspended i n the background o f The Woodlanders and Far from the Madding Crowd, but here i t i s the whole s t o r y and i s redeemed from c l i c h e by these a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h the tempting o f Eve. Woman's y i e l d i n g t o temptation b r i n g s sorrow i n t o the world, and Eve then tempts Adam i n the form o f Angel C l a r e : 88 She was yawning, and he saw the red i n t e r i o r df her mouth as i f i t had been a snake's. She had s t r e t c h e d one arm so h i g h above her c o i l e d - u p c a b l e of h a i r t h a t he c o u l d see i t s s a t i n d e l i c a c y above the sunburn; her f a c e was f l u s h e d with s l e e p , and her e y e l i d s hung heavy over t h e i r p u p i l s . The brim-f u l n e s s o f her nature breathed from her. , . . . . . she regarded him as Eve at her second waking might have regarded Adam.(TD,IV,xxvii, 217-18) Notably i t i s i n w i n t e r t h a t they l e a v e Talbothays, and Tess from then on s u f f e r s from the h a r d s h i p s of weather and work i n her o u t c a s t s t a t e . Tess, l i k e Cytherea and V i v i e t t e , f e e l s i n t e n s e l y the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f her one chance t o l i v e , "the s i n g l e o p p o r t u n i t y o f e x i s t e n c e ever vouchsafed t o Tess by an unsympathetic F i r s t Cause her a l l ; her every and o n l y chance"(TD,IV,xxv,199). Hardy e n t e r s i n t o the i n t e n s i t y of her e x i s t e n c e so t h a t the whole world t o Tess i s the whole world o f the n o v e l . H i s use o f a mythic framework, l i k e h i s c o n t r a s t between l i v e and t h e o r e t i c a l r e l i g i o n , or h i s v i s i o n o f the n a t u r a l world as both r u t h l e s s and i n d i f f e r e n t , h e l p s him t o d e s c r i b e Tess, j u s t as her consciousness i n t e n s i f i e s the wider i m p l i c a t i o n s of Hardy's v i s i o n o f her world. Tess i s "bowed by thought" as she journeys home from T r a n t r i d g e . Her l i f e and death, however, b r i n g no r e l i e f t o those around her. Hardy l i k e n s Angel and ' L i z a - L u t o G i o t t o ' s two a p o s t l e s , but no apotheosis i n 89 f a c t r e l e a s e s Tess from her human c a p a c i t y as f r a i l and d i s p e n s a b l e at the hands o f change. Her husband and s i s t e r , i n f a c t , are more l i k e Adam and Eve c a s t out y e t again: Though they were young they walked w i t h bowed heads, which g a i t of g r i e f the sun's r a y s s m i l e d on p i t i l e s s l y . . . . . . . As soon as they had s t r e n g t h they arose, j o i n e d hands again, and went on. ( T D , V I I , l i x , 506-[508]). Hardy's c o n t r o v e r s i a l i n c l u s i o n of ' L i z a - L u at the end does not suggest t h a t these two can be happy t o g e t h e r because Tess has s u f f e r e d and d i e d , but r a t h e r t h a t the o u t c a s t s t a t e i s a continuous one. There can be no r e t u r n t o Eden. 90 Chapter Four: The Modern Man The s o c i a l and economic f u n c t i o n s of community l i f e p r o v i d e a norm f o r men's r e l i g i o u s , moral, and i n t e l l e c -t u a l l i f e and the s e c u r i t i e s o f each seem intermeshedj as one d i s i n t e g r a t e s , the o t h e r s f o l l o w . Dick Dewy, f o r i n s t a n c e , i s not merely an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the community at M e l l s t o c k ; h i s l i f e i s shaped by the needs and b e l i e f s o f h i s f a m i l y and f r i e n d s . G a b r i e l Oak " f e l t h i m s e l f t o occupy m o r a l l y t h a t v a s t middle space o f Laodicean neut-r a l i t y which l a y between the Communion people o f the p a r i s h and the drunken s e c t i o n " ( F M C , i , l ) , but h i s r o l e at Weather-bury i s d e f i n e d nonetheless by h i s s i n g i n g bass i n the c h o i r . D i s a p p o i n t e d i n l o v e , G i l e s Winterborne i s "some-times seen on Sundays w i t h unblacked boots, l y i n g on h i s elbow under a t r e e , with a c y n i c a l gaze at s u r r o u n d i n g o b j e c t s " (W,xxiv,206). Even i n h i s g r i e f , however, he conjures up t h a t p a s t o r a l world where men can be found under t r e e s l i k e dropped acorns, and he has no profound doubts about h i s p l a c e i n t h a t world. His moral code, indeed, i s p a i n f u l l y r i g i d and c l e a r . T h i s c l a r i t y o f purpose, t h i s simple u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what i s p o s s i b l e , has i l l u m i n a t e d each of Hardy's heroes so t h a t readers have no d i f f i c u l t y i n r e c o g n i z i n g the moral c e n t r e o f each book. Clym, i n f a c t , i s the f i r s t who s e r i o u s l y q u e s t i o n s the e s t a b l i s h e d order w i t h t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t "'Mother, what i s d o i n g w e l l ? ' " ( R N , I I I , i i , 2 0 8 ) . 91 He i s the f i r s t important m i s s i o n a r y f o r the modern world, wanting t o "'buckle t o and t e a c h them how t o b r e a s t the misery they are born t o ' " ( i b i d . , p . 2 0 7 ) . Hardy's sympathies are with him, and y e t , when he r e t u r n s from the dead l i k e Lazarus, he cannot t e l l us a l l . He has been destroyed by b l i n d p a s s i o n s and desperate mistakes and i s r e s p e c t e d f o r the s t o r y of h i s l i f e r a t h e r than f o r any enlightenment he b r i n g s . For Clym, however, i t i s at l e a s t c l e a r t h a t Egdon i s home, t h a t the Wessex people among whom he has grown up are the men he i s t o t e a c h . When he l e a v e s alone "creeds and systems of p h i l o s o p h y , f i n d i n g enough and more than enough to occupy h i s tongue i n the o p i n i o n s and a c t i o n s the f a m i l i a r r o l e of the V i c t o r i a n s o c i a l worker and moral preacher, and h i s context a t a l l l e v e l s i s c l e a r , e s p e c i a l l y i n terms o f h i s s t o r y , f o r Hardy s t r e s s e s Clym's a b s o r p t i o n with h i s mother, and h i s t e a c h i n g i s i n p a r t penance f o r h i s own i r r e v e r s i b l e wrongdoing. For Clym's s u c c e s s o r s , on the other hand, n e i t h e r the emotional d r i v e , nor the s o c i a l c ontext, nor the i n t e g r i t y o f v i s i o n i s so c l e a r l y d e f i n e d . I t i s harder f o r them t o know where they belong, where t h e i r thoughts are l e a d i n g , or how t o i n t e g r a t e b e l i e f and l i f e i n t o a harmonious whole. They are the moderns whose " t y p i c a l countenance" Clym's dimly a n t i c i p a t e s . And w i t h them, again, Hardy o n l y s l o w l y and p a i n f u l l y a l i g n s h i s sympathies a g a i n s t the o l d world and i n favour o f the new. He s t i l l h o l d s G i l e s dearer than F i t z p i e r s , Tess common t o a l l good men i t he i s c a s t i n t h a n Angel C l a r e . But t h e r e i s a s t r u g g l e d i s c e r n i b l e i n h i s treatment o f these modern men. He c o n s i d e r s t h e i r problems with i n c r e a s i n g sympathy and care, so t h a t h i s f i n a l support o f Jude i s not o n l y o f the r u s t i c hero i n him but a l s o o f the new man. De Laura's p o i n t about Hardy's l a c k of sympathy with F i t z p i e r s has a l r e a d y been mentioned. The t r a n s c e n d e n t a l p h i l o s o p h e r who c o n s i d e r s marriage a c i v i l c o n t r a c t r a t h e r than a sacrament proves t o be i n t e l l e c t u a l l y suspect and m o r a l l y r e p r e h e n s i b l e . There i s a marked d i f f e r e n c e , how-ever, between the treatment o f F i t z p i e r s and t h a t o f Angel C l a r e , and i t i s De Laura again who suggests t h a t the p u b l i c a t i o n of Mrs. Humphry Ward's Robert Elsmere i n 1888 and the c o n t r o v e r s y around t h a t book helped t o c l a r i f y Hardy's treatment o f r e l i g i o u s doubt and human m o r a l i t y . Sue Bridehead i s C l a r e ' s female t w i n , the two of them r e -v e a l i n g a s i m i l a r s e p a r a t i o n of i n t e l l e c t and emotion, and i n Jude without doubt Hardy f i n d s h i s modern hero, the man who can evolve h i s own m o r a l i t y by a d a p t i n g to the most humane and generous understanding of r e a l s i t u a t i o n s . Looking at each o f these i n t u r n , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o see how Hardy d i s s o l v e s a l l " s o l i d i t y o f s o c i a l c ontext" to a f l u i d s t a t e where men and women, i n t h e i r thoughts as i n t h e i r s o c i a l l i f e , e v o lve i n t o a modern world. Nor i s i t i n c i d e n t a l t h a t the very emphasis and shape of the n o v e l seems t o change i n the p r o c e s s . The r u s t i c s of L i t t l e Hintock b e l i e v e t h a t F i t z p i e r s has come among them because he i s i n league with the d e v i l and Grammer O l i v e r i s so f r i g h t e n e d by h i s " p r o j i c k " o f buying her body when she i s dead t h a t she has t o send Grace t o redeem i t . L i t t l e Hintock i s as backward as Egdon, but, as Mrs. Yeobright p o i n t s out, good people are not thought of t h i s way even t h e r e . As on Egdon, Hardy's c r i t i c i s m o f the benighted r u s t i c s i s i m p l i c i t i n t h e i r r e a c t i o n t o an o u t s i d e r , yet Hardy j u s t i f i e s Mrs. Y e o b r i g h t ' s assumption as t o the f i r s t cause. When F i t z p i e r s i s seen i n h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l c a p a c i t y at John South's bedside, he i s not b e t t e r than he seems t o the ig n o r a n t r u s t i c s but, indeed, f a r worse. An e n t e r p r i s i n g man, he f e e l s no h e s i t a t i o n i n o r d e r i n g t h a t the elm t r e e be f e l l e d '"and hang Mrs. Charmond,*" but he i s able t o d i s m i s s o l d South's death very e a s i l y : "'Damned i f my remedy hasn't k i l l e d him!'" And immediately he asks G i l e s about " ' t h a t young l a d y ' " he had qu i z z e d over the hedge the other day(W,xiv,122). F i t z p i e r s , i n other words, i s c a r e l e s s . He i s t o t a l l y o ccupied w i t h h i m s e l f , t a l k i n g to both Grammer O l i v e r and G i l e s about h i s t r a n s c e n d e n t a l p h i l o s o p h y and h i s s o c i a l p r e t e n s i o n s . Even Hardy's attempts t o give him h i s due are s a r d o n i c : Though h i s aims were d e s u l t o r y F i t z p i e r s ' s mental c o n s t i t u t i o n was not without i t s c r e d i t a b l e s i d e ; a r e a l i n q u i r e r he h o n e s t l y was at times; even i f the midnight rays o f h i s lamp, v i s i b l e so f a r through the t r e e s o f Hin-tock, l i g h t e d rank l i t e r a t u r e s o f emotion and p a s s i o n as o f t e n as, or o f t e n e r than, the books and m a t e r i e l o f s c i e n c e . (W,xvii,145) Hardy i s s t i l l so committed t o h i s old - w o r l d v a l u e s t h a t 94 he cannot support a man who pursues d e s u l t o r y aims r a t h e r than worthwhile work i n the community. Only one page l a t e r he c a s t s F i t z p i e r s as a n t i - h e r o , capable o f p l a y i n g w i t h Grace as with a t o y because "he was t h a t k i n d o f man." The same e x p e c t a t i o n s are c r e a t e d as with Manston, Troy, and Wildeve; they are a l l able t o be generous and worthy, but they remain predominantly s e l f i s h and d e s t r u c t i v e . F i t z p i e r s ' s a t t r a c t i o n s are both sexual and s o p h i s t i c a t e d . Suke Damson, F e l i c e Charmond, and Grace Melbury a l l f e e l h i s power, and he i s e f f e c t i v e i n damaging each o f t h e i r l i v e s by h i s i r r e s p o n s i b l e p u r s u i t of changing whims. D w e l l i n g on the s o c i a l r e a l i s m o f the s i t u a t i o n , Hardy d i s p o s e s of G i l e s and F e l i c e and patches up the F i t z p i e r s marriage. I t i s p e r f e c t l y p o s s i b l e , a f t e r t h r e e hundred pages of damage t o h i m s e l f and o t h e r s , t h a t F i t z p i e r s should f i n d the " h i g h e s t d e s i r e of h i s soul j u s t now was f o r a r e s p e c t a b l e l i f e o f p a i n s t a k i n g " (W,xlii,383)• But h i s b u r n i n g of h i s books on philosophy and French romances l a c k s the s e r i o u s n e s s o f Jude's s i m i l a r r e n u n c i a t i o n , f o r i n s t a n c e , and r e p r e s e n t s the i n t e n t i o n r a t h e r than the deed. Grace i s r i g h t t o want " t o see jfhim^ put [ h i s r e f o r ^ i n p r a c t i c e f o r a l i t t l e while"(W,xlvi,417) b e f o r e she c o n s i d e r s r e t u r n i n g to him. In the end i t i s an a c c i d e n t t h a t r e u n i t e s them, Grace a c t i n g then as i r r e s p o n s i b l y as F i t z p i e r s i n alarming her f a t h e r u n n e c e s s a r i l y . Melbury»s words, coupled w i t h Marty's elegy f o r G i l e s , c r e a t e the proper context f o r t h e i r reunion: 95 "Well--he Ts her husband," Melbury s a i d t o h i m s e l f , "and l e t her take him back t o her bed i f she w i l l ! . . . But l e t her bear i n mind t h a t the woman walks and laughs somewhere at t h i s very moment whose neck he*11 be c o l i n g next year as he does hers t o n i g h t ; and as he d i d F e l i c e Charmond*s l a s t year; and Suke Damson's the year a f o r e ! . . . I t ' s a f o r l o r n hope f o r her; and God knows how i t w i l l e n d ! " ( W , x l v i i i , 439-40) Troy and Wildeve have the sense t o d i e and l e a v e the f i e l d t o t h e i r r u s t i c r i v a l s . Though F i t z p i e r s l i v e s t o l o v e another day, Hardy allows him o n l y the meagrest triumph. T h i s i s how i t would be, he persuades h i m s e l f , but he i s l e f t w i t h much t o r e g r e t . F i t z p i e r s d e r i v e s from a decayed a r i s t o c r a c y and ends up i n "some midland town." H o p e f u l l y he w i l l f i n d a more l u c r a t i v e p r a c t i c e t h e r e than i n L i t t l e H intock, but Hardy does not expect much o f him i n any other terms. His p h i l o s o p h y has not taught him how to l i v e and he l a c k s t h a t persistence, of i n q u i r y t h a t might make h i s t h i n k i n g i n any way s i g n i f i c a n t . He p r o v i d e s a l e s s than adequate example of the modern man; he i s predominantly a f a i l e d s o c i a l climber and a rake. With Angel C l a r e , however, Hardy engages the problems o f the modern man at a much more complex l e v e l , and De Laura's p o i n t e r t o Mrs. Humphry Ward i s h e l p f u l . Angel C l a r e f a c e s many o f the same problems as Robert Elsmere and i s t r e a t e d i v i t h a s i m i l a r s e r i o u s n e s s of concern. 96 Both Elsmere and C l a r e , f o r example, are giv e n a very c l e a r s o c i a l context which p r o v i d e s them wi t h t h e i r i n i t i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s o f l i f e . More a t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n t o Elsmere*s e d u c a t i o n and the human i n f l u e n c e s on h i s youth, but both men come from c l e r i c a l f a m i l i e s , are brought up as devout b e l i e v e r s , and then l o s e t h e i r f a i t h , C l a r e shocks h i s f a t h e r by o r d e r i n g books of ph i l o s o p h y and then admits t h a t while he l o v e s the church as a parent, he "cannot h o n e s t l y be ordained her m i n i s t e r . . . while she r e f u s e s t o l i b e r a t e her mind from an untenable redemptive t h e o l a t r y " ( T D , I I I , x v i i i , 1 4 9 ) . His p a r t i c u l a r problem i s the need t o underwrite A r t i c l e 4 " i n the l i t e r a l and grammatical sense": C h r i s t d i d t r u l y r i s e again from death, and took again h i s body, w i t h f l e s h , bones, and a l l t h i n g s a p p e r t a i n i n g t o the p e r f e c t i o n o f Man's nature; wherewith he ascended i n t o Heaven, and t h e r e s i t t e t h , u n t i l he r e t u r n to judge a l l Men at the l a s t day.-*-T h i s stumbling block, i n v o l v i n g d i s b e l i e f i n the d e i t y o f C h r i s t , deprives the man brought up i n a r i g i d f a i t h o f d i v i n e a u t h o r i t y f o r h i s moral code. Robert Elsmere avoids the i s s u e by t u r n i n g towards the U n i t a r i a n Church and p r e a c h i n g t o London workingmen, who are a l r e a d y s c e p t i c a l , the ph i l o s o p h y of the human Jesus of Nazareth who l i v e d i n the Middle E a s t at a c e r t a i n p e r i o d o f h i s t o r y 97 and whose t e a c h i n g a f f e c t e d the t h i n k i n g o f western men and p r o v i d e d a new m o r a l i t y o f humankindness. For C l a r e i t i s not so easy. He i s not allowed a u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n and has t r o u b l e f i n d i n g a v o c a t i o n i n l i f e once the Church i s gone. Both Elsmere and C l a r e f i t Mrs. Ward's d e s c r i p t i o n o f a mobile, i m p r e s s i o n a b l e , d e f e n c e l e s s nature at the mercy of experience and t r u t h . T h i s i s the nature, she b e l i e v e s , which r e p r e s e n t s the- growing p o i n t f o r rtenan advance. She d e s c r i b e s Elsmere's d i s s o c i a t i o n o f moral judgment from a s p e c i a l s e r i e s of r e l i g i o u s formulae as t y p i c a l o f modern thought and c r u c i a l i n d e s c r i p t i o n of the time. For Elsmere the e v o l u t i o n i s both e l a b o r a t e and c l e a r . Dramatic t e n s i o n r e s u l t s from the problems h i s r e l i g i o u s .doubts i n t r o d u c e i n t o h i s marriage. Catherine Leyburn's r i g i d fundamentalism i s i n t e n s i f i e d by her d e v o t i o n t o her f a t h e r ' s memory, and the c r i s i s f o r her i s the worst imaginable p o s s i b i l i t y whose magnitude has been s t r e s s e d from the b e g i n n i n g o f the book. Hardy works towards a d i f f e r e n t c r i s i s , but the context i n which i t occurs i s s i m i l a r . C a t h e r i n e Leyburn i s r e p l a c e d by C l a r e ' s p a r e n t s . They, too, are devout, l i v e t h e i r d e v o t i o n i n t h e i r p a r i s h work, and cannot imagine any other than a P a u l i n e view of humanity. Catherine i s important t o 98 Elsmere j u s t as C l a r e ' s parents are important to him. He s h i e l d s them from the worst o f h i s m i s f o r t u n e s and i s t o r n by t h e i r a n x i e t y and l o v e f o r him. L i k e C a t h e r i n e , they are not convenient people t o l i v e with, but they are deeply sympathetic and cannot be d i s m i s s e d from the emotional l i f e because o f i n t e l l e c t u a l change. I n t e l l e c t u a l change, of course, i n v o l v e s the emotional b e i n g and Hardy s t r e s s e s both i t s complexity and i t s wide r a m i f i c a t i o n s . C l a r e has l o s t h i s r e l i g i o u s f a i t h because o f the r i g i d t e a c h i n g of the Church, but he a p p l i e s t h a t very r i g i d i t y t o h i s understanding o f Tess, and Hardy suggests t h a t both c r i s e s i n h i s l i f e r e s u l t from the nature o f the man: W i t h i n the remote depths of h i s c o n s t i t u t i o n , so g e n t l e and a f f e c t i o n a t e as he was i n g e n e r a l , t h e r e l a y hidden a hard l o g i c a l d e p o s i t , l i k e a v e i n of metal i n a s o f t loam, which t u r n e d the edge o f e v e r y t h i n g t h a t attempted to t r a v e r s e i t . I t had b l o c k e d h i s acceptance of the Church; i t b l o c k e d h i s acceptance o f Tess. (TD,V,xxxvi,308) The s i m i l a r i t y o f the two s i t u a t i o n s i s s t r e s s e d again one paragraph l a t e r as Tess and h i s r e j e c t e d f a i t h are combined: The f i r m n e s s o f her d e v o t i o n to him was indeed almost p i t i f u l ; quick-tempered as;;she n a t u r a l l y was, n o t h i n g t h a t he c o u l d say made her unseemly; she sought not her own; was not provoked; thought no e v i l o f h i s treatment of her. She might j u s t now have been A p o s t o l i c C h a r i t y h e r s e l f r e t u r n e d t o a s e l f - s e e k i n g modern world. 99 I t seems as important t o say t h a t h i s l i m i t a t i o n s are i n t e g r a l t o h i s c h a r a c t e r as t o say with Hardy t h a t " t h i s advanced and well-meaning young man, a sample product o f the l a s t five-and-twenty y e a r s , was yet the s l a v e t o custom and c o n v e n t i o n a l i t y when s u r p r i s e d back i n t o h i s e a r l y t eachings"(TD,V,xxxix,3 3 8 ). He l a c k s the f a i t h o f h i s paren t s , but he a l s o l a c k s t h e i r c h a r i t y : " t h e i r C h r i s t i a n i t y was such t h a t , r e p r o b a t e s b e i n g t h e i r e s p e c i a l care, the tenderness towards Tess which her blood, her s i m p l i c i t y , even her poverty had not engendered, was i n s t a n t l y e x c i t e d by her s i n " ( T D , V I I , l i i i , 4 7 3 - 7 4 ) . Hardy's sympathy f o r Tess prevents him from a c c e p t i n g C l a r e ' s r e j e c t i o n of her as the r i g h t answer. But. through s u f f e r i n g C l a r e l e a r n s t o r e e v a l u a t e moral worth i n terms of aims and impulses r a t h e r than achievements: What a r r e s t e d him now as of value i n l i f e was l e s s i t s beauty than i t s pathos. Having l o n g d i s c r e d i t e d the o l d systems of mysticism, he now began t o d i s c r e d i t the o l d appraisements of m o r a l i t y . He thought they wanted r e a d j u s t i n g . Who was the moral man? S t i l l more p e r t i n e n t l y , who was the moral woman? (T D , V I , x l i x ,4 3 3 ) He l e a r n s t o r e c o g n i z e the fundamental danger of b e i n g " i n f l u e n c e d by ge n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s t o the d i s r e g a r d of the p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e . " But Hardy's grasp o f C l a r e ' s human f r a i l t y does not f a l t e r . Even when tenderness i s dominant i n C l a r e at l a s t , and he r e c e i v e s 100 Tess a f t e r she has committed a d u l t e r y and murder, he i s s t i l l unable t o bend f a r enough and assure her t h a t they w i l l meet again i n heaven. Hardy t r e a t s t h i s u l t i m a t e b e t r a y a l generously. " L i k e a g r e a t e r than h i m s e l f , t o the c r i t i c a l q u e s t i o n at the c r i t i c a l time he d i d not answer" ( T D , V I I , l v i i i , 5 0 4 ) . He i s simply not s t r o n g enough f o r the hardest t e s t o f l o y a l t y , and Tess i s a l l too probably r i g h t t h a t she would have l i v e d t o be de s p i s e d . T h i s s e n s i t i v e treatment o f C l a r e ' s constant dilemma keeps a l a r g e share o f Hardy's sympathy w i t h him even though he i s so inadequate f o r Tess. He l a c k s a c l e a r d i r e c t i o n . He f l o u n d e r s among the s u b t l e d i s t i n c t i o n s r e q u i r e d by the man who has f r e e d h i s t h i n k i n g from a r i g i d context. He cannot, f o r i n s t a n c e , r e a d i l y d i s t i n g u i s h between the p o l i t i c a l and the i m a g i n a t i v e value o f an ancient name. He has to l e a r n t o d i s t i n g u i s h the r e a l Tess from h i s pre -s u p p o s i t i o n s about her. C l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n s , c l e a r v i s i o n , the s e p a r a t i o n o f the r e a l from the i d e a l , the p a r t i c u l a r from the g e n e r a l , the a b i l i t y t o r e c o n c i l e t h e o r y w i t h p r a c t i c e , these do not emerge f u l l y armed from the head o f Zeus, T h e i r b i r t h i s slow and t h e i r development f l o u n d e r s forward w i t h r e g r e s s i o n s and f a i l u r e s i n the i n d i v i d u a l human l i f e . Through s u f f e r i n g and endeavour, C l a r e emerges on a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l e n t i r e l y from F i t z p i e r s . His l i m i t a t i o n s c e r t a i n l y cause i r r e p a r a b l e damage but Hardy d i s t i n g u i s h e s between i n t e n t i o n s and achievements and judges Angel, d e s p i t e h i s f a i l u r e s , by the new moral standards i m p l i c i t i n such a d i s t i n c t i o n . The problem i s t o make sense o f l i f e , t o f i n d an a c c e p t a b l e source o f order and a u t h o r i t y . For A r n o l d t h i s source l i e s i n H e l l e n i s m which, r i g h t l y vanquished by p r i m i t i v e C h r i s t i a n i t y , has then been w r o n g f u l l y subdued again by the P u r i t a n Reformation's a c h i e v i n g a wider i n f l u e n c e than the c i v i l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e s o f the Renaissance. The r e s u l t i s c u l t u r a l anarchy i n which men f a i l t o achieve t h e i r f u l l e s t p o t e n t i a l or t o r e c o g n i z e the value of t h e i r l i v e s . A r n o l d d e f i n e s H e l l e n i s m e s s e n t i a l l y as "man's advance . towards knowing h i m s e l f and the world, s e e i n g t h i n g s as they are, s p o n t a n e i t y o f consciousness" and i t i s the P u r i t a n or Hebraic " s t r i c t n e s s o f c o n s c i e n c e " t h a t 2 checks and r e s t r a i n s such advance. Angel C l a r e presumably t h i n k s the same, t e l l i n g h i s f a t h e r " i n a moment o f i r r i t a t i o n , t h a t i t might have r e s u l t e d f a r b e t t e r f o r mankind i f Greece had been the source of the r e l i g i o n o f modern c i v i l i z a t i o n , and not P a l e s t i n e " (TD,IV,xxv,20 3). T h i s dichotomy f i n d s e x p r e s s i o n i n the very c h a r a c t e r s o f both Angel C l a r e and Sue Bridehead, o n l y Hardy e l a b o r a t e s h i s H e l l e n i s m 102 into the Shelleyan Idea. Hardy himself seems ambivalent here. He uses t h i s Idea to explore the a r t i s t ' s dilemma i n the person of J o c e l y n P i e r s t o n , and he may w e l l have f e l t i t d e s c r i b e d some of h i s own p e r s o n a l problems. Even as e a r l y as The Woodlanders, F i t z p i e r s t h i n k s t h a t " E v e r y t h i n g i s Nothing. There's only Me and Not Me i n the whole world" and, when he sees the r e f l e c t i o n o f Grace i n h i s room, he f e e l s "Nature has at l a s t recovered her l o s t union w i t h the Idea." Angel and Sue, r e c e i v i n g more s o p h i s t i c a t e d treatment than F i t z p i e r s , do not merely f l i r t w ith these n o t i o n s ; they almost i n c a r n a t e them. "Though not c o l d - n a t u r e d , £_ClareJ was rather bright than h o t — l e s s Byronic than Shelleyan; could love desperately, but with a love more e s p e c i a l l y i n c l i n e d to the imaginative and ethereal; i t was a f a s t i d i o u s emotion . . ." (TD,IV,xxxi,247). Tess knows t h i s , apostrophizing after her marriage: "'she you love i s not my r e a l s e l f , but one i n my image; the one I might have been'" (TD,IV,xxxiii,273), and the traumatic aspect of her confession for Clare i s the "grotesque p r e s t i d i g i t a t i o n " by which: "'You were one person; now you are another.'" He had indeed loved another woman i n her shape. For t h i s reason he i s able to subdue the grosser to the subtler emotion, the f l e s h to the s p i r i t . "Propensities, tendencies, habits, were as dead 1 0 3 l e a v e s upon the tyrannous wind o f h i s i m a g i n a t i v e ascendency" (T_D,V,xxxvi,313)• I t i s a " f u r y of f a s t i d i o u s n e s s " t h a t possesses him and prevents him from a c c e p t i n g the r e a l i t y o f Tess, her damaged past, and her redeeming l o v e . S i m i l a r l y , Sue Bridehead claims an H e l l e n i c i d e n t i t y , i n her choice o f s t a t u e s f o r a s t a r t , but a l s o i n the nature of her l o v e f o r Jude. P h i l l o t s o n "found from t h e i r manner t h a t an e x t r a o r d i n a r y a f f i n i t y , or sympathy, ent e r e d i n t o t h e i r attachment, which somehow took away a l l f l a v o u r of grossness. T h e i r supreme d e s i r e i s t o be t o g e t h e r — t o share each o t h e r ' s emotions, and f a n c i e s , and dreams" ( J O , I V , i v , 2 7 8 ) . G i l l i n g h a m c a l l s t h i s P l a t o n i c , but P h i l l o t s o n says " S h e l l e y a n would be nearer to i t " ( I b i d . p . 2 7 9 ) . C e r t a i n l y Sue enjoys the n o t i o n of h e r s e l f as a " s p i r i t . . . disembodied c r e a t u r e . . . dear, sweet, t a n t a l i z i n g p h a ntom—hardly f l e s h at a l l " who i s worthy o f " E p i p s y c h i d i o n " ( J 0 , I V , v , 2 9 4 ) . Hardy admits h i s a t t r a c t i o n t o t h i s type o f woman, and endorses her p i c t u r e of h e r s e l f , c a l l i n g her " e t h e r e a l , f i n e - n e r v e d , s e n s i t i v e " ( J O , I V , i i i , 2 6 3 ) . She c a p i t u l a t e s t o Jude's s e x u a l d e s i r e s o n l y when A r a b e l l a seems t o p r o v i d e a t h r e a t , but t h e i r a f f e c t i o n and harmony remain 104 e m p h a t i c a l l y s p i r i t u a l , no h i n t o f s e n s u a l i t y , o r , i n d e e d , o f v e r y s o l i d p h y s i c a l s u b s t a n c e , e v e r e n t e r i n g i n t o a d e s c r i p t i o n o f Sue. L i k e A n g e l C l a r e , Sue i s a l s o i n advance o f her t i m e . The s i m i l a r i t i e s between them, i n d e e d , even r a i s e t h e q u e s t i o n whether i t i s not t h i s s o r t o f p e r s o n who i s most l i k e l y t o h i d e f a s t i d i o u s emotions b e h i n d t h e s c r e e n o f advanced th o u g h t and i t s c o r o l l a r y , i ndependent a c t i o n . More d e l i b e r a t e l y t h a n C l a r e , Sue f l o u t s c o n v e n t i o n s . She l i v e s f i r s t w i t h h er und e r g r a d u a t e and t h e n w i t h Jude. L i k e C l a r e , she l e a d s h e r l o v e r away from acceptance o f t h e C h r i s t i a n f a i t h . She chooses t h e r a i l w a y s t a t i o n as a p l a c e t o s i t r a t h e r t h a n t h e c a t h e d r a l . A t Wardour C a s t l e , where Jude s t o p s "by p r e f e r e n c e i n f r o n t o f t h e d e v o t i o n a l p i c t u r e s " she, "£w]hen she had t h o r o u g h l y e s t i m a t e d him a t t h i s . . . would move on and w a i t f o r him b e f o r e a L e l y o r R e y n o l d s " ( J O , I I I , i i , 1 6 3 ) . She l i k e s t h e unex p e c t e d and, as i t t u r n s o u t , d i s a s t r o u s s t a y a t t h e shepherd's c o t t a g e because i t i s "£oJutside a l l l a w s e x c e p t g r a v i t a t i o n and g e r m i n a t i o n " ( I b i d , j ) . 165). She l o n g s t o ennoble some man t o h i g h aims, b u t i s daunted by Jude because he t a k e s so much t r a d i t i o n on t r u s t . 1 0 5 Sue l a c k s C l a r e ' s a u t h o r i t y and meets a very adequate i n t e l l e c t u a l match i n Jude. His p r a c t i c e , she i s f o r c e d t o r e c o g n i z e , i s f a r more advanced than h i s t h e o r i e s and, while he may be defe a t e d by a r e c u r r i n g sense o f h i s own unworthiness, he has the s t r e n g t h to e v olve a way o f l i f e t h a t f l o u t s convention by n e c e s s i t y but honours the n o b l e s t human i n s t i n c t s n o n e t h e l e s s . For Sue, as f o r Angel, i n a r e a l emotional c r i s i s the f a s t i d i o u s temper t h a t had seemed l i k e e s o t e r i c "Hellenism"proves t o be the t h i n n e s t veneer o v e r l a y i n g the most r e l e n t l e s s brand o f "Hebraism." Like Angel C l a r e , Sue s u f f e r s from an almost constant c o n f l i c t o f w a r r i n g impulses. Whereas Angel C l a r e , reminded o f the compass of Tess's l o v e , can say t h a t the f a c t s have not changed, Sue, scourged by g u i l t , suddenly d i s c o v e r s t h a t her marriage i s a sacrament and t h a t Jude's l o v e cannot match i t s s a n c t i t y . Stabbed i n the back by Fate, as she f e e l s , f o r t r y i n g to make a v i r t u e o f j o y , she becomes as s u p e r s t i t i o u s , Jude f e e l s , as a savage. She who has been r e p e l l e d by sex even where she l o v e s , submits t o a " f a n a t i c p r o s t i t u t i o n . " The mind t h a t has pla y e d " l i k e lambent l i g h t n i n g over conventions and f o r m a l i t i e s " veers round t o darkness. T h i s r e g r e s s i v e r e a c t i o n t o f e a r i n d i c a t e s the s t r e n g t h o f e a r l y c o n d i t i o n i n g ; i n t e n s e , i n t e l l i g e n t , 106 f a s t i d i o u s people are the f i r s t to accept new ideas but they a l s o prove f r a g i l e under s t r a i n . P h i l l o t s o n , t oo, demonstrates the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d i n adhering to e n l i g h t e n e d b e l i e f s . He a c t s nobly i n a l l o w i n g Sue t o l e a v e him, l e s s nobly i n a l l o w i n g her t o r e t u r n . For d i f f e r e n t reasons, Sue and P h i l l o t s o n l e a r n t o conform t o the most r i g i d s o c i a l conventions and t o welcome s o c i a l a p p r o v a l . Yet Hardy h i m s e l f disapproves of t h e i r f i n a l p o s i t i o n . He has moved so f a r from h i s e a r l i e r dependence on customs and community t h a t he supports the o n l y charac-t e r who i s able c o n s i s t e n t l y t o ignore them both. In Jude, as i n Tess, Hardy f e e l s most s t r o n g l y f o r the s u f f e r e r who a c t s i n the f u l l b e l i e f t h a t the s p i r i t o f compassion and l o v i n g - k i n d n e s s r e p r e s e n t s a f i n e r m o r a l i t y than t h a t e n f o r c e d by s o c i e t y . Obedience t o dehumanized s o c i a l codes l e a v e s Sue at the end of the n o v e l " T£yjears and years o l d e r than when you saw her l a s t . Quite a s t a i d , worn woman now" 1 (JO,VI,xi. 4 9 3 ) . Hardy b e l i e v e s with Jude t h a t Sue has chosen the c o n t r a c t of marriage over the sacrament o f t h e i r l o v e , so t h a t the c l o s i n g l i n e s of the novel suggest almost a f a i l u r e i n f a i t h : "'She's never found peace s i n c e she l e f t h i s arms, and nefeer w i l l again t i l l she's as he i s now!'" I f the l o v e of Sue and Jude had contravened a separate moral p o s i t i o n adopted by the n o v e l , these c l o s i n g l i n e s would be moving o n l y as melodrama. In f a c t , however, t h i s e x t r a m a r i t a l l o v e between cousins e s t a b l i s h e s the moral p o s i t i o n from which a l t e r n a t i v e s can be viewed and the l a s t 107 l i n e s are moving because Sue has acted a g a i n s t her f i n e r i n s t i n c t s . She has f a l l e n by the wayside of Hardy's new f a i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l apart from h i s community. Hardy f e e l s deep p i t y f o r her, but i t i s Jude, f o l l o w i n g the s i n g l e s t a r of h i s own s o u l , who demonstrates the courage t h a t Hardy has onl y s l o w l y l e a r n e d t o a d m i r e — t o be an o u t s i d e r , t o move f r e e o f custom and community, and to l e a d men t o "the acme and summit of human p r o g r e s s " where ana-chronisms t h a t now cause so much s u f f e r i n g may p o s s i b l y be " c o r r e c t e d by a f i n e r i n t u i t i o n " (TD,I,v,49)• Jude, l i k e Robert Elsmere, moves from an orthodox f a i t h t o the i s o l a t e d p o s i t i o n of the s c e p t i c . There i s a f r i g h t e n i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n h i s sermon t o the crowd on Remembrance Day, a powerful breadth of impulse and con-v i c t i o n so l a c k i n g e a r l i e r i n Clym. " ' I t takes two or th r e e g e n e r a t i o n s , ' " Jude t e l l s the crowd, " ' t o do what I t r i e d t o do i n one'" (JO, VI, i , 393) . He may be "»a p a l t r y v i c t i m t o the s p i r i t o f mental and s o c i a l r e s t l e s s -ness, t h a t makes so many unhappy i n these days'" ( I b i d . , pp.393-94), but Hardy r e s p e c t s Jude's v i s i o n o f h i s own p o t e n t i a l and the i n t e g r i t y t h a t has l e d him t o h i s present o u t c a s t p o s i t i o n : " I am i n a chaos o f p r i n c i p l e s — g r o p i n g i n the d a r k — a c t i n g by i n s t i n c t and not a f t e r example. E i g h t or nine years ago when I came here f i r s t , I had a neat st o c k o f f i x e d o p i n i o n s , but they dropped away one by one; and the f u r t h e r I get the l e s s sure I am." (Ibid.,p.394) While he t e l l s them t h a t h i s present r u l e f o r l i f e i s onl y 108 to f o l l o w ' " i n c l i n a t i o n s which do me and nobody e l s e any harm, and a c t u a l l y give p l e a s u r e t o those I l o v e b e s t , ' " he ends on a b i b l i c a l note: ""'For who knoweth what i s good f o r man i n t h i s l i f e ? — a n d who can t e l l a man what s h a l l be a f t e r him under the s u n ? " ' " ( I b i d . ) Arnold-would have p l a c e d Jude among h i s new c l a s s of ' a l i e n s , " people who have a c u r i o s i t y about t h e i r best s e l f , with a bent f o r s e e i n g t h i n g s as they are, f o r d i s e n t a n g l i n g themselves from machinery, f o r simply concerning themselves with reason and the w i l l o f God, and d o i n g t h e i r best t o make these p r e v a i l ; - - f o r the p u r s u i t , i n a word, o f p e r f e c t i o n . 3 These are the people who are separate from c l a s s e s and i n v o l v e d o n l y w i t h humanity: They have, i n g e n e r a l , a rough time of i t i n t h e i r l i v e s ; but they are sown more abundantly than one might t h i n k , they appear where and when one l e a s t expects i t , they se t up a f i r e which e n f i l a d e s , so t o speak, the c l a s s with which they are ranked; and, i n g e n e r a l , by the e x t r i c a t i o n of t h e i r b est s e l f as the s e l f t o develop, and by the s i m p l i c i t y of the ends f i x e d by them as paramount, they h i n d e r the unchecked predominance of t h a t c l a s s - l i f e which i s the a f f i r m a t i o n of our o r d i n a r y s e l f , and seasonably d i s c o n c e r t mankind i n t h e i r worship of machinery.4 He has found, b u f f e t e d by adverse circumstance, t h a t " e x c e l l e n c e dwells among h i g h and steep rocks, and can 5 o n l y be reached by those who sweat blo o d t o reach her." L i k e Clym and Angel, Jude has wanted t o be a t e a c h e r of men. But when the academic and then the r e l i g i o u s l i f e 109 are made i n a c e s s i b l e t o him, both by s o c i a l convention and h i s own too f a l l i b l e human nature, he i s f o r c e d t o adapt to the r e a l i t i e s o f each new s i t u a t i o n and r e a l i z e the f u l l i m p l i c a t i o n s of Arnold's term, " a l i e n . " He f i n d s h i m s e l f " s e i z e d with a s o r t of shuddering" as he f e e l s h i m s e l f to be " a t the centre of [hlsj time" ( J 0 , I , i i , 1 5 ) . And, u n l i k e Clym, Angel, or Sue, Jude accepts f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i m s e l f and h i s m o r a l i t y . There i s no l a s t i n g s e p a r a t i o n i n Jude between h i s t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e . Rather, h i s development c o n s i s t s i n c r e a s i n g l y i n merging the two so t h a t , f o r i n s t a n c e , when he speaks on the pavement on Remembrance Day, the t r u t h o f a l l he says accords p e r f e c t l y w i t h the l i f e t h a t he has l i v e d . T h i s u n i f o r m i t y of purpose and achievement, t r a n s c e n d i n g a l l s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l f a i l u r e s , i n d e v e l o p i n g the b e s t s e l f , i s matched by a u n i f o r m i t y of form and t e x t u r e i n the n o v e l i t s e l f . C r i t i c s have commented with some frequency on the Bunyanesque p i l g r i m a g e , the tendency t o symbolism and a l l e g o r y i n t h i s book. P l a c e s , c l e a r l y l a b e l l e d and e a s i l y r e c o g n i z a b l e , seem important, but t h i s i s the o n l y n o v e l i n the Hardy canon t h a t l a c k s a l l s e r i o u s sense o f p l a c e . The changing towns and landscapes are i n r e a l i t y e x t e r n a l p r o j e c t i o n s of i n t e r n a l s t a t e s . The wanderings of Tess 110 from the summer o f Talbothays to the winter of Flintcomb-Ash h i n t at the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t h i s method i n d i c a t i n g Hardy's i n c r e a s i n g tendency t o g e n e r a l i z e , t o l e a v e Wessex behind, and t o express concern f o r a common human l o t . Here, however, t h e r e i s no s e p a r a t i o n between the man and h i s world, the i n n e r and the outer l i f e , and Hardy t r a c e s not an Edenic myth but the f a l t e r i n g movements of an i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l . I t i s p o s s i b l e , of course, t o f i n d mythic paradigms i n Jude, t o see C h r i s t m i n s t e r as Jerusalem, and t o see s i g n i f i c a n c e i n Jude's r e t u r n from h i s wanderings to d i e t h e r e . But these h i n t s at another s t r u c t u r e are l e s s paradigmatic than s u g g e s t i v e . They ennoble the s t o r y but do not c r e a t e e x p e c t a t i o n s . Meanwhile the headings, "At M e l c h e s t e r , " "At Shaston," and "At Aldbrickham and Elsewhere," p o i n t Jude's moves from academia t o the Church, from the Church t o Sue, and with Sue through a nomadic small-town l i f e , through a l l of which the C h r i s t m i n s t e r v i s i o n s p e l l s the o n l y hope and the o n l y g l i t t e r i n g i l l u s i o n . I t i s important t h a t even Marygreen i s an u n a t t r a c t i v e v i l l a g e s e t i n an u g l y and impersonal landscape, so t h a t i t i s Jude's s p i r i t t h a t draws him from u g l y r e a l i t y i n p u r s u i t o f a h i g h e r i d e a l . In f a c t Jude comes o r i g i n a l l y not from Marygreen but "from M e l l s t o c k down i n South W e s s e x " ( J O , I , i i , 8 ) . To the reader of the Wessex canon, the very name conveys a sense o f o l d - w o r l d community i n which the meaning of l i f e i s sure. I t c o n j u r e s up the o l d i d y l l and the o l d heroes. D i f f e r i n g as he does from D i c k Dewy and G a b r i e l Oak, Jude y e t shares t h e i r f i n e s t q u a l i t i e s . L i k e them he i s a s k i l l e d and r e s p o n s i b l e workman. L i k e them he i s l o y a l i n l o v e , even, l i k e G i l e s , t o the death. But Jude i s d r i v e n by new needs t h a t cannot y e t be f u l f i l l e d and, whereas G i l e s knows why he d i e s , Jude does not. Hardy i s as f u l l y behind Jude as, f o r i n s t a n c e , behind G a b r i e l , but the complexity of t h i s f i n a l achievement measures s i g n i f i c a n t advance from the p a s t o r a l i d y l l i n t o the r e a l and modern world. I t measures Hardy's i n c r e a s i n s u b t l e t y as a n o v e l i s t and a l s o seems t o d e s c r i b e h i s hard-won a b i l i t y t o accept c o n f u s i o n and doubt as the p o s s i b l e sources o f new good. He has moved from the green meadows o f the r i v e r s Stour and Frome t o the bleak h i l l s o f the ea s t , from a secure l i f e whose meaning i s c l e a r t o a nomadic ca r e e r t h a t ends i n e x i s t e n t i a l d e s p a i r . But Hardy seems d e l i b e r a t e l y to suggest, by h a i l i n g Jude from M e l l s t o c k , t h a t he i s r e a l l y back where he s t a r t e d from but these days must wear h i s rue with a d i f f e r e n c e . FOOTNOTES I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 For a d i s c u s s i o n o f the dramatic changes t a k i n g p l a c e i n n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Dorset, see Merryn W i l l i a m s , Thomas  Hardy and R u r a l England (London: Macmillan, 1972). T. W. F l e t c h e r e x p l a i n s why the southern c o u n t i e s were more s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d than any o t h e r s by the r e p e a l of the Corn Laws i n h i s — a r t i c l e , "The Great Depression o f E n g l i s h A g r i c u l t u r e 1873-1896," Economic H i s t o r y Review, 13, 2nd s e r . (1960-61), 4 1 7 - 3 2 . Stephen Usherwood, "The Tolpuddle Martyrs 1834-37: A Case of Human R i g h t s , " H i s t o r y Today (Jan. 1968), 15-16 i s a l s o v a l u a b l e f o r q u o t a t i o n s from contemporary documents. 2 See reviews i n the S p e c t a t o r , the Academy, and The  Saturday Review i n R. G. Cox, Thomas Hardy: The C r i t i c a l  H e r i t a g e (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1970), pp.22 -41• 3 In Harold O r e l , ed., Thomas Hardy's Personal W r i t i n g s (Lawrence, Kansas: Univ. of Kansas P r e s s , 1 9 6 6 ) , p p . 1 6 8 - 8 9 • 4 See F l o r e n c e Emily Hardy. The L i f e ~ o f Thomas Hardy I84O-1928(London: Macmillan, 1962), pp. 3 1 2 - 1 4 . 5 See the Preface t o The Mayor o f C a s t e r b r i d g e and d i s -c u s s i o n i n the t e x t at Chapter x x v i . 6 The Mayor o f C a s t e r b r i d g e , Chapter x x i v ; Tess o f the  d ' U r b e r v i l l e s , Chapter x l v i i ; The Woodlanders, Pre f a c e . 7 Weber's i n t r o d u c t i o n t o An I n d i s c r e t i o n i n the L i f e of  an H e i r e s s makes a c o n v i n c i n g c l a i m f o r t h i s s t o r y ' s b e i n g the remnant of The Poor Man and the Lady, Hardy's f i r s t attempt at f i c t i o n . The hero's g r a n d f a t h e r d i e s when th r e a t e n e d w i t h l o s s of h i s house. See a l s o the f i r e at the Three T r a n t e r s ' i n n i n Desperate Remedies, Chapter x i ; The Mayor of C a s t e r b r i d g e , Chapters i and x x x v i ; The  Woodlanders, Chapter xv; Tess o f the d ' U r b e r v i l l e s , Chapter l i . 8 See note 7 above, but a l s o Car Darch and her a s s o c i a t e s i n Tess. The workfolk at T r a n t r i d g e and Chaseborough p o r t r a y e d i n Chapter x p a r t i c u l a r l y i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t . 113 9 See, f o r example, the I l l u s t r a t e d London News (Sept. 5, 1846), 156-58. 10 Two Royal Commissions (1879-82 and 1894-97) were e s t a b l i s h e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e a g r i c u l t u r a l problems i n the southern c o u n t i e s . M i c h a e l M i l l g a t e , Thomas Hardy: His  Career as a N o v e l i s t (New York: Random House, 1971)>P^98, quotes from a M i n o r i t y Report which found t h a t the " d e p r e s s i o n has been and s t i l l i s f a r more s e r i o u s i n the e a s t e r n and southern c o u n t i e s of England . . . than i n the other p a r t s o f Great B r i t a i n . " 11 F. E. Hardy, p. 312. 12 G. M. Trevelyanj. E n g l i s h S o c i a l H i s t o r y (London: Long-man^, Green, 1944), p. 554. 13 General Preface t o the Novels and Poems, 1912./ i n O r e l , p. 44. 14 Far from the Madding Crowd, x x i i , 166. A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o Hardy's nov e l s w i l l be made i n the t e x t and w i l l r e f e r t o the Wessex e d i t i o n . 15 O r e l , p. 169. 16 1897 Preface t o The Well-Beloved. Chapter One 1 M i l l g a t e , p. 81. 2 I b i d . , p . 80. 3 F. E. Hardy, p. 176. Chapter Two 1 1882 P r e f a c e . 114 2 Vere C o l l i n s , Conversations with Thomas Hardy at  Max Gate (London: Duckworth, 1928), p. 65. 3 Thomas Hardy, C o l l e c t e d Poems (London: Macmillan, 1919), I , 145. 4 M i l l g a t e , p. 150. 5 I b i d . , p . 140. Chapter Three 1 F. E. Hardy, p. 102. 2 I b i d . , p. 176. 3 I b i d . , p. 358. 4 David J . De Laura, "'The Ache o f Modernism' i n Hardy's L a t e r Novels," ELH, 34 (1967), 380-99. 5 W i l l i a m H. Matchett, "The Woodlanders, or Realism i n Sheep's C l o t h i n g , " Nineteenth Century F i c t i o n , 9 (1955), 244. Chapter Four 1 The Book of Common Prayer (London: Oxford Univ. Press, n.d.), A r t i c l e s o f R e l i g i o n , p p . 677-78. 2 Matthew A r n o l d , C u l t u r e and Anarchy, ed. R. H. Super (Ann Arbor: The Univ. o f Michigan Press, 1965), p. 175. 3 I b i d . , p. 145. 4 I b i d . , p. 146. 5 I b i d . , p. 152. 115 S e l e c t e d B i b l i o g r a p h y 1. Primary Sources The Wessex n o v e l s , p u b l i s h e d by Macmillan i n London and c o n t a i n i n g Hardy's f i n a l r e v i s i o n s , appeared over s e v e r a l years a f t e r the t u r n o f the century. References i n the t e x t are t o the Wessex e d i t i o n , but i t seems s e n s i b l e here, as i n the t e x t , t o p r o v i d e the o r i g i n a l dates of p u b l i c a t i o n so t h a t a s e n s i b l e chronology i s maintained. Hardy, Thomas. Desperate Remedies. 1871. Under the Greenwood Tree. 1872. A P a i r o f Blue Eyes. 1873. Far from the Madding Crowd. I 8 7 4 . The Hand of E t h e l b e r t a . I876. The Return o f the N a t i v e . I878. The Trumpet-Ma.ior. 1880. A Laodicean. 1881. .• Two on a Tower. 1882. -• The Mayor of C a s t e r b r i d g e . 1886. .. The Woodlanders. I 8 8 7 . Tess of the d ' U r b e r v i l l e s . 1891. . Jude the Obscure. I895. . The Well-Beloved. 1897. . An I n d i s c r e t i o n i n the L i f e of an H e i r e s s . Ed. C a r l . J . Weber. New York: R u s s e l l & R u s s e l l , 1965. Rpt. New Q u a r t e r l y Magazine. J u l y I878. "Dearest Emmie": Thomas Hardy's L e t t e r s t o h i s F i r s t Wife. Ed. C a r l . J . Weber. London:Macmillan,1963. Thomas Hardy's Personal W r i t i n g s . Ed. Harold O r e l . Lawrence, Kansas: Univ, of Kansas Press, 1966. Thomas Hardy's Notebooks and Some L e t t e r s from 116 J u l i a Augusta M a r t i n . Ed. Ev e l y n Hardy. London: The Hogarth Press, 1955. . One Rare F a i r Woman: Thomas Hardy's L e t t e r s t o Fl o r e n c e Henniker 1893-1922. Ed. Evelyn Hardy and F. B. P i n i o n . London: Macmillan, 1972. . T a l k s with Thomas Hardy at Max Gate 1920-1922. Ed. Vere H. C o l l i n s . London: Duckworth, 1928. 2. Secondary Sources a) Complete Works on Hardy Barber, D. F. Concerning Thomas Hardy. London: Charles S k i l t o n , 1968. Beach, Joseph Warren. The Technique of Thomas Hardy. New York: R u s s e l l & R u s s e l l , 1962. Blunden, Edmund. Thomas Hardy. London: Macmillan, 1951. Braybrooke, P a t r i c k . Thomas Hardy and His Philosophy. New York: R u s s e l l & R u s s e l l , 1928. Brennecke, E r n e s t . Thomas Hardy's U n i v e r s e : A Study of a  Poet's Mind. New York: R u s s e l l & R u s s e l l , 1966. Brooks, Jean R. Thomas Hardy: The Po e t i c S t r u c t u r e . I t h a c a , N.Y.: C o r n e l l Univ. Press, 1971. Brown, Douglas. Thomas Hardy. London: Longman's Green, 1954. Carpenter, R i c h a r d . Thomas Hardy. New York: Twayne, 1964. C e c i l , David. Hardy the N o v e l i s t : An Essay i n C r i t i c i s m . L o n d o n : Constable, 1943. Chase, Mary E l l e n . Thomas Hardy: From S e r i a l t o Novel. Minnea-p o l i s : Univ. of Minnesota Press, 1927. Chew, Samuel C. Thomas Hardy: Poet and N o v e l i s t . New York: R u s s e l l & R u s s e l l , I964. Cox, J . Stevens, ed. Thomas Hardy: M a t e r i a l s f o r a Study of  His L i f e , Times and Works. Guernsey: The Toucan Press, 1968. 117 Cox, R. G., ed. Thomas Hardy: The C r i t i c a l H e r i t a g e . New York: Barnes & Noble, 1970. Deacon, L o i s , and T e r r y Coleman. Providence and Mr. Hardy. London: Hutchinson, 1966. E l l i o t t , A l b e r t Pettigrew. F a t a l i s m i n the Works of Thomas  Hardy. New York: R u s s e l l & R u s s e l l , 1966. F i r o r , Ruth A. Folkways i n Thomas Hardy. New York: A. S. Barnes, 1931. Guerard, A l b e r t J . Hardy: A C o l l e c t i o n o f C r i t i c a l Essays. New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1963. Hardy, E v e l y n . Thomas Hardy: A C r i t i c a l Biography. London: The Hogarth Press, 1955. Hardy, F l o r e n c e Emily. The L i f e o f Thomas Hardy 1840-1928. New York: S t . M a r t i n ' s Press, 1962. Holloway, John. The V i c t o r i a n Sage: S t u d i e s i n Argument. London: Archon Books, 1962. Howe, I r v i n g . Thomas Hardy. New York: Macmillan, 1967. Hugman, Bruce. Hardy: Tess of the d ' U r b e r v i l l e s . London: Edward A r n o l d , 1970. Hynes, Samuel. The P a t t e r n o f Hardy's Poetry. Chapel H i l l , N. C.: Univ. of North C a r o l i n a Press, 1961. Lawrence, D. H. S e l e c t e d L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m . Ed. Anthony B e a l . New York: V i k i n g , 1932. Lea, Hermann. Thomas Hardy's Wessex. Guernsey: The Toucan Press, 1966. McDowall, A r t h u r . Thomas Hardy: A C r i t i c a l Study. London: Faber & Faber, 1931. M e i s e l , Perry. Thomas Hardy: The Return o f the Repressed: A Study of the Ma.jor F i c t i o n . New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1972. M i l l e r , J . H i l l i s . Thomas Hardy: D i s t a n c e and D e s i r e . Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard Univ. Press, 1970. M i l l g a t e , M i c h a e l . Thomas Hardy: H i s Career as a N o v e l i s t . New York: Random House, 1971. M o r r e l l , Roy. Thomas Hardy: The W i l l and the Way. Kuala Lumpur: Univ. o f Malaya Press, 1965. 118 P i n i o n , F. B. A Hardy Companion: A Guide to the Works o f  Thomas Hardy and T h e i r Background. New York: S t . M a r t i n ' s Press, 1968. Purdy, R i c h a r d L i t t l e . Thomas Hardy: A B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l  Study. London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1954. Roberts, Marguerite, ed. "Tess" i n the Theatre: Two  Dra m a t i z a t i o n s by Thomas Hardy: One by Lorrimer  Stoddard. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press, 1950. Saxelbv, F. Outwin. A Thomas Hardy D i c t i o n a r y . London: feoutledge & Kegan Paul, 1911. Southern Review, The, 6 (1940). Thomas Hardy C e n t e n n i a l I s s u e . Southworth, James G r a n v i l l e . The Poetry o f Thomas Hardy. New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1947. Symons, A r t h u r . A Study of Thomas Hardy. London: Sawyer, 1927. Weber, C a r l J . Hardy o f Wessex: His L i f e and L i t e r a r y  Career. rev. ed. New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1965. b) Essays and A r t i c l e s on Hardy Anderson, C a r o l Reed. "Time, Space, and P e r s p e c t i v e i n Thomas Hardy." Nineteenth Century F i c t i o n , 9 (1954), 198-208. B u l l , P h i l i p . "Thomas Hardy and S o c i a l Change." Southern  Review, (Aust.) 3 (1969), 199-213. De Laura, David J . "'The Ache o f Modernism' i n Hardy's L a t e r Novels." ELH, 34 (1967), 380-99. H a l l e t t , M a r t i n C h a r l e s . "Impression or C o n v i c t i o n : Two Kinds of Being i n the Wessex Novels of Thomas Hardy." M. A. T h e s i s , Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1969. Hassett, M i c h a e l E. "Compromised Romanticism i n Jude the Obscure." Nineteenth Century F i c t i o n , 25 (1971)> 432-43. Heilman, Robert B. I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Tess of the d ' U r b e r v i l l e s , by Thomas Hardy, New York: Bantam, 1971. H e l l s t r o m , Ward. "Hardy's S c h o l a r - G i p s y . " In The E n g l i s h  Novel i n the Nineteenth Century: Essays i n the L i t -e r a r y M e d i a t i o n of Human V a l u e s , e d i t e d by George Goodin, pp. 196-213. Chicago: Univ. o f I l l i n o i s Press, 1972. 119 H o l l a n d , Norman, J r . "'Jude the Obscure': Hardy's Symbolic Indictment of C h r i s t i a n i t y . " Nineteenth Century  F i c t i o n , 9 (1954), 50-60. Huss, Roy. " S o c i a l Change and Moral Decay i n the Novels of Thomas Hardy." The Dalhousie Review. 47 (1967), 28-44. Hyde, W. J . "Hardy's View o f Realism: A Key to the R u s t i c C h a r a c t e r s . " V i c t o r i a n S t u d i e s 2 (1958), (45J-59. Matchett, W i l l i a m H. "The Woodlanders. or Realism i n Sheep's C l o t h i n g . " Nineteenth Century F i c t i o n , 9 (1955), 241-61. P a r i s , Bernard J . "'A Confusion of Many Standards': C o n f l i c t i n g Value Systems i n Tess o f the d'Urber-v i l l e s . " Nineteenth Century F i c t i o n , 24 (1969), 57-79. Paul, C. Kegan. "The R u s t i c o f George E l i o t and Thomas Hardy." Merry England, 1 (I883), 40-51. Pearman, M. M. "Changing V i l l a g e L i f e i n Hardy's England." Canadian G e o g r a p h i c a l J o u r n a l 8 (1934), 16-25. S c o t t , Nathan A., J r . "The L i t e r a r y Imagination and the V i c t o r i a n C r i s i s o f F a i t h : The Example of Thomas Hardy." J o u r n a l of R e l i g i o n , 40 (I960), 267-81. Sherman, George W. "The Wheel and the Beast: The I n f l u e n c e o f London on Thomas Hardy." Nineteenth Century  F i c t i o n , 4 (1949), 209-19. . "Thomas Hardy and the A g r i c u l t u r a l Labourer." Nineteenth Century F i c t i o n , 1 (1952), 111-18. Spivey, Ted. R. "Thomas Hardy's T r a g i c Hero." Nineteenth  Century F i c t i o n , 9 (1954), 179-91. S q u i r e s , M i c h a e l . "Far from the Madding Crowd as M o d i f i e d P a s t o r a l . " Nineteenth Century F i c t i o n , 25 (1970), 299-326. S t e i n b e r g , M. W. I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Tess o f the d ' U r b e r v i l l e s , by Thomas Hardy. Toronto: Macmillan, 1968. T o l i v e r , H a r o l d E. "The Dance under the Greenwood Tree: Hardy's B u c o l i c s . " Nineteenth Century F i c t i o n , 17 (1962), 57-68. 120 "Wessex Labourer, The." The Examiner, 15 J u l y 1 8 7 6 , 7 9 3 - 9 4 . W i l l i a m s , Raymond. "Thomas Hardy." C r i t i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , 6 ( 1 9 6 4 ) , 3 4 1 - 5 1 . Yamaguchi, Masao. " K i n g s h i p as a System o f Myth: An Essay i n S y n t h e s i s . " Diogenes, 77 ( 1 9 7 2 ) , 4 3 - 7 0 . c) Background M a t e r i a l  Books: A r n o l d , Matthew. C u l t u r e and Anarchy. Ed. R. H. Super. Ann Arbor: The Univ. of Michigan Press, 1 9 6 5 . Henkin, Leo J . Darwinism i n the E n g l i s h Novel 1 8 6 0 -1 9 1 0 : The Impact of E v o l u t i o n i n V i c t o r i a n F i c t i o n . New York: R u s s e l l & R u s s e l l , 1 9 6 3 . K a r l , F r e d e r i c k R. A Reader's Guide to the Nineteenth Century B r i t i s h Novel. New York: F a r r a r , S t r a u s , 1 9 6 4 . Knoepflmacher, U. C. Laughter and D e s p a i r : Readings i n  Ten Novels of the V i c t o r i a n E r a . Berkeley: Univ. of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1 9 7 1 . Lodge, David. Language o f F i c t i o n : Essays i n C r i t i c i s m  and V e r b a l A n a l y s i s of the E n g l i s h Novel. New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1 9 6 6 . M u l l e r , Herbert J . Modern F i c t i o n : A Study of Values. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1 9 3 7 . T r e v e l y a n , G. M. E n g l i s h S o c i a l H i s t o r y . London: Longman's Green, 1 9 4 4 . Ward, Mrs. Humphry. Robert Elsmere. London: Nelson, n.d. W i l l i a m s , Merryn. Thomas Hardy and R u r a l England. London: Macmillan, 1 9 7 2 . A r t i c l e s : F l e t c h e r , T. W. "The Great Depression of E n g l i s h A g r i c u l -t u r e , 1 8 7 3 - 1 8 9 6 . " Economic H i s t o r y Review, 2 n d s e r . , 1 3 ( 1 9 6 0 - 6 1 ) , 4 1 7 - 3 2 . I l l u s t r a t e d London News, The, 5 Sept. 1 8 4 6 , 1 5 6 - 5 8 . Usherwood, Stephen. "The Tolpuddle Martyrs 1 8 3 4 - 3 7 : A Case o f Human R i g h t s . " H i s t o r y Today (Jan. 1 9 6 8 ) , 1 3 - 2 1 . 

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