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The Eastern Pacific halibut fishery 1888-1972 : an evolutionary study of the spatial structure of a resource-based… Dean, Leslie James 1973

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THE EASTERN PACIFIC HALIBUT FISHERY 1888-1972: AN EVOLUTIONARY STUDY OF THE SPATIAL STRUCTURE OF A RESOURCE-BASED COMPLEX  by  LESLIE JAMES DEAN B.A. (Ed.), B.A. ( H o n o u r s ) , Memorial U n i v e r s i t y o f Newfoundland 1970,1971  A THESIS SUBMITTED  IN PARTIAL  THE REQUIREMENTS  FULFILMENT OF  FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS  i n the Department of Geography We a c c e p t t h i s  t h e s i s as conforming  to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April,  1973  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t o f the  quirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y Columbia,  I agree t h a t  for reference extensive  the L i b r a r y  and s t u d y .  copying o f t h i s  I  s h a l l make i t  f u r t h e r agree t h a t  thesis  of  re-  British  freely  available  permission f o r  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be  g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . is  understood t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s  gain s h a l l  not be allowed w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  Department o f Geography The U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h  Vancouver 8, Canada April,  1973  Columbia  thesis  permission.  for  It  financial  i i i  Abstract T h i s study examines the s p a t i a l halibut  e v o l u t i o n o f the E a s t e r n  f i s h e r y over the p e r i o d 1888-1972 i n terms o f r e s o u r c e e x -  p l o i t a t i o n and v e s s e l - p o r t  interaction  and attempts  the f a c t o r s which brought about the observed  stage o f s p a t i a l  (3)  a stage o f s p a t i a l  extreme c o m p e t i t i o n , (4) decline, The s p a t i a l ment i s  vessel  (1)  adjustment,  a stage o f f u r t h e r  a  characterized  range,  (2)  a stage o f  e x t e n s i o n , company f l e e t d e c l i n e , and independent  expansion,  fleet  delineate  identified:  confinement and r e s o u r c e d e p l e t i o n  by c o r p o r a t e involvement and r e s t r i c t e d  to  patterns.  Four d i s t i n c t s t a g e s o f development are  spatial  Pacific  fleet  quota c o n t r o l , and  spatial  extension,  and maximum s u s t a i n e d y i e l d s .  s t r u c t u r e o f the i n d u s t r y at each s t a g e o f d e v e l o p -  shown to be a f u n c t i o n o f r e s o u r c e a v a i l a b i l i t y ,  and changes i n h a l i b u t f l e e t b e h a v i o r .  fishing costs,  The t i m e - c o s t - d i s t a n c e  between p r o d u c i n g grounds and the l a n d i n g / p r o c e s s i n g s e c t o r o f i n d u s t r y proved t o be a c r i t i c a l  factor  the  i n a f i s h e r y t h a t was  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i n c r e a s e d c o m p e t i t i o n f o r annual Conceptual models o f the i n d u s t r y ' s  factor  spatial  quotas. structure  have been  developed to p o r t r a y the major changes which o c c u r r e d from one s t a g e t o the n e x t .  These i n t u r n are f u r t h e r developed t o c o n c e p t u a l i z e  the e v o l u t i o n o f the h a l i b u t f i s h e r y over the 1888-1972 p e r i o d .  iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter  Page  I  INTRODUCTION  II  THE HALIBUT RESOURCE AND FISHERY CHARACTERISTICS.... Catching of H a l i b u t Management and - E x p l o i t a t i o n P r o c e s s i n g and Marketing H i s t o r i c a l Development  14 17 23 26 28  III  SPATIAL CONFINEMENT AND RESOURCE DEPLETION 1888-1912 Spatial Structure Functional Structure F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g I n i t i a l Development Extent of F i s h i n g  32 32 43 46 50  IV  SHIFT TO WESTERN GROUNDS AND FLEET EXPANSION 1913-1931 Spatial Structure Functional Structure F a c t o r s C o n t r i b u t i n g t o Westward Expansion Fleet Transition The H a l i b u t Convention o f 1923  56 57 68 70 76 81  V  SPATIAL ADJUSTMENT, COMMISSION QUOTA CONTROL, AND EXTREME COMPETITION 1932-1951 Spatial Structure Functional Structure Commission Quota C o n t r o l I m p l i c a t i o n s Shortened F i s h i n g Season I m p l i c a t i o n s Unrestricted Entry  87 88 99 101 106 112  VI  SPATIAL ENCOMPASSMENT, FLEET DECLINE AND SUSTAINED YIELDS 1952-1972 Spatial Structure Functional Structure Industry Control The Small Boat S e c t o r The B e r i n g Sea F i s h e r y  119 120 136 137 144 147  VII  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS.  155  BIBLIOGRAPHY  1  172  V LIST OF TABLES TABLE  PAGE  I  Trends i n Y i e l d , L a n d i n g s , E f f o r t  1907-1912  II  Average Annual H a l i b u t Landings by P o r t Area During t h e 1888-1912 and 1913-1931 P e r i o d s  III  H a l i b u t Landings a t Major  IV  Number o f Steamers  V  Number o f V e s s e l s >10 Tons With Home P o r t a t  61  P o r t s 1913-1931  67  O p e r a t i n g Each Year 1913-1931  77  the Major P o r t s and T o t a l VI  52  Gear F i s h e d 1912-1931  79  Average Annual H a l i b u t Landings by P o r t Area 1888-1912, 1913-1931, 1932-1951  95  VII  H a l i b u t Landings by P o r t 1932-1951  98  VIII  V e s s e l , Manpower, and Catch Trends 1943-1951  IX  Number o f V e s s e l s and Men i n t h e P a c i f i c Fleet  X  110  Halibut  1932-1951  113  Landings by Region f o r Each o f t h e Four P e r i o d s and Percentage o f t h e T o t a l Catch From Grounds West o f Cape Spencer  130  Average Annual Landings i n M i l l i o n s o f Pounds and Percentage o f T o t a l Average Annual Catch by P o r t Area f o r Each P e r i o d  131  XII  Pacific  Halibut  132  XIII  Percent  o f the Total  XI  Landings by P o r t 1952-1971 Catch Landed a t Each  P o r t f o r V a r i o u s Years XIV  XV  Number o f V e s s e l s and Men Engaged i n t h e H a l i b u t F i s h i n g 1952-1971, and Percentage o f t h e C a t c h From Each Area by Canadian and American F l e e t s Number o f V e s s e l s O p e r a t i n g i n B e r i n g Sea and Catch From Region During 1952-1972  134  140  148  LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1.  PAGE Trends i n T o t a l  Catch and Number o f V e s s e l s  1888-1972 2.  4  T r a n s f o r m a t i o n W i t h i n the H a l i b u t  Fishery  1888-1972 3.  5  E x t e n t o f the C o n t i n e n t a l  S h e l f o f the E a s t e r n  North  Pacific 4.  L o n g l i n e Gear Employed i n the E a s t e r n Halibut  5.  15 Pacific  Fishery  19  Manner i n Which Gear i s Deployed t o Accommodate Bottom Topography, E t c . Fishing Patterns  20  6.  Basic  7.  Spatial  8.  Degree o f C e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f H a l i b u t  Structure  o f t h e Dory F l e e t  o f the I n d u s t r y  1888-1912  10.  33  Landings  1888-1912 9.  22  35  Average Annual C a t c h From V a r i o u s Grounds 1888-1912 Average Annual Landings  (Millions  36  o f Pounds)  By P o r t Area 1888-1912  39  11.  Trend i n Landings by Region 1888-1912  40  12.  Functional  44  13.  Spatial  14.  Degree o f C e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f H a l i b u t  Structure  Structure  o f the I n d u s t r y  o f the I n d u s t r y  1888-1912  1913-1931  58  Landings  1913-1931  60  15.  Average Annual Catch From V a r i o u s Grounds 1913-1931  16.  Average Annual Landings ( M i l l i o n s  o f Pounds)  by P o r t Area 1913-1931  63  17.  Trend i n Landings by Region 1913-1931  18.  Functional  19.  Trends i n C a t c h , E f f o r t ,  Structure  61  o f the Industry  64 1913-1931  Y i e l d 1913-1931  69 75  vii PAGE 20.  Spatial  Structure  o f the I n d u s t r y  1932-1951  21.  Degree o f C e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f H a l i b u t  Landings  1932-1951 22.  89  90  Average Annual Catch From V a r i o u s Grounds 1932-1951  92  23.  Average Annual Landings by P o r t Area 1932-1951  94  24.  Trends i n Landings by Region and Average P r i c e Per Pound (Based on S e a t t l e  Prices)  1932-1951  96  25.  Functional  Structure  o f the I n d u s t r y  1932-1951  26.  Trends i n C a t c h , E f f o r t ,  27.  Length o f the F i s h i n g Season i n Area 2 and  Y i e l d 1932-1951  Area 3,1932-1951 Structure  104  107  28.  Spatial  29.  Degree o f C e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f  o f the I n d u s t r y  1952-1972  121  Halibut  Landings 1952-1972 30.  100  122  Average Annual Catch From V a r i o u s Grounds 1952-1972  125  31.  Average Annual Landings by P o r t Area 1952-1972  126  32.  Trend i n Landings by Region 1952-1972  128  33.  Length o f the F i s h i n g Season  i n Area 2 and  Area 3, 1952-1972  138  34.  Trends i n C a t c h , E f f o r t ,  35.  Spatial  36.  Degree o f C e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f H a l i b u t  37.  Conceptual Model o f I n d u s t r y  Structure  Y i e l d 1952-1972  o f the I n d u s t r y  1888-1912  157  Landings  1888-1972 1888-1972  143  158 Evolution 160  Total  Catch and Landings  by Region  1888-1972  Trends i n C a t c h , E f f o r t , 2 and 3, 1888-1972  Yield  For  Areas  Trends i n C a t c h , E f f o r t , Grounds 1888-1972  Yield  For  all  Trends i n Number o f V e s s e l s , Length o f F i s h i n g S e a s o n , Average Y e a r l y P r i c e (Based on B.C. P r i c e s ) , 1888-1972  1x Acknowledgements  I wish to express my s i n c e r e i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s a s p e c t s o f the h a l i b u t  thesis.  thanks to a l l A very  those who a s s i s t e d me  rewarding  time to engage i n l i v e l y  numerous to mention but s p e c i a l  All  d i s c u s s i o n w i t h the w r i t e r are  W i l l i a m Mossman, John Johnson  George Penny, A l l a n W a i n w r i g h t , and H a r o l d G r i n s t a d . Manager, Booth F i s h e r i e s ,  Prince Rupert;  and N. R.  Mr.  r e q u e s t e d i n f o r m a t i o n on company involvement  John (Sr.),  Don M c C l e o d ,  i n the  in supplying  industry.  L o k k e n , Manager, F i s h i n g V e s s e l Owner's A s s o c i a t i o n ,  S e a t t l e , and Mr. C. R.  Nordahl, Secretary  F i s h e r m e n ' s Union o f the P a c i f i c , number o f v e s s e l s and men i n t h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n on h a l i b u t Southward o f the Special  too  C h r i s t e n s e n , the  Canadian F i s h i n g Co. L t d . , Vancouver were v e r y h e l p f u l  H. E.  all  o f the f i s h e r m e n who  thanks are expressed t o M e s s r s .  J o h n s o n , David G r a n t , Jack P r i n c e ,  Mr.  into  f i s h e r y was a c h i e v e d d u r i n g the summer o f 1972  when the w r i t e r was s t a t i o n e d at P r i n c e Rupert. took o f t h e i r  insight  Seattle,  IPHC was most h e l p f u l  Department, U n i v e r s i t y  s u p p l i e d i n f o r m a t i o n on the  particular  landing practices  thanks to Dr. J .  T r e a s u r e r o f the Deep Sea  and p r i c e s .  throughout the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s  Mr. G.  Morris  in supplying requested i n f o r m a t i o n .  D. Chapman and Dr. A.  of B r i t i s h  o r g a n i z a t i o n s and a d d i t i o n a l  F.  Farley  Columbia f o r a s s i s t a n c e thesis.  o f the Geography rendered  Chapter  I  Introduction  The e v o l u t i o n o f the E a s t e r n interesting  subject  Pacific  halibut fishery  area f o r g e o g r a p h i c i n q u i r y .  A s s o c i a t e d with  development and expansion o f the f i s h e r y were d i s t i n c t which a c t i v i t i e s Major  shifts  phases  an the  through  r e l a t e d to e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the h a l i b u t r e s o u r c e p a s s e d .  to new p r o d u c i n g g r o u n d s , changes i n the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  the h a l i b u t f l e e t , fluctuating  presents  expansion o f the c o l d s t o r a g e s e c t o r , and the  r o l e s o f h a l i b u t ports represented r e a c t i o n to  o f h a l i b u t s t o c k s on d i f f e r e n t  availability  grounds a t each stage o f development.  major changes and s h i f t s which c h a r a c t e r i z e d the e v o l u t i o n o f f i s h e r y p r o v i d e the major themes o f t h i s made to e l a b o r a t e  of  upon c u l t u r a l  The dominance o f S c a n d i n a v i a n s ,  study.  No attempt  and e t h n i c a s p e c t s o f the e s p e c i a l l y Norweigans,  h a l i b u t f i s h e r y warrants a s t u d y i n  The  the  has been  fishery.  i n the  Pacific  itself.  S i n c e 1888, when commercial e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the r e s o u r c e commenced, the P a c i f i c development.  halibut  f i s h e r y has passed through f o u r main s t a g e s  The 1888-1912 p e r i o d i d e n t i f i e d  in t h i s  s t u d y as  of "Spatial  Confinement and Resource D e p l e t i o n " was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by e x t e n s i v e on grounds between Cape F l a t t e r y , a lineal fleet  Washington and Cape S p e n c e r ,  e x t e n t o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 600 m i l e s .  (fishermen-owned)  was r e l a t i v e l y  by the l a r g e company-owned s t e a m e r s .  Because  the  fishing  Alaska  —  independent  s m a l l , most o f the c a t c h was Major p o r t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  taken  the  2  growth o f the i n d u s t r y were l o c a t e d on Puget Sound, Washington and on the S t r a i t o f G e o r g i a i n southern B r i t i s h tions.  Columbia a t r a i l h e a d  loca-  Towards the end o f the p e r i o d , w i t h market improvements and  northv/ard expansion o f the c a t c h i n g s e c t o r , t h e r e was i n c r e a s e d movement o f the p r o c e s s i n g s e c t o r i n t o n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h Southeast  Columbia and  Alaska.  The second phase o f the f i s h e r y Grounds and F l e e t from Cape F l a t t e r y  herein t i t l e d  " S h i f t t o Western  Expansion 1913-1931" saw i n t e n s i v e  f i s h i n g on grounds  to the Shumagin I s l a n d s i n western A l a s k a .  expansion o f the independent f l e e t  o c c u r r e d and by the end o f  p e r i o d the company-owned f l e e t s were no l o n g e r engaged i n the Innovations  in vessel  p l e t i o n o f the Grand Trunk P a c i f i c the e s t a b l i s h e d p o r t s w i t h i n  the  l o s e ground to P r i n c e Rupert.  their  the fishery.  and engine d e s i g n and l e s s emphasis on dory  f i s h i n g , accompanied the move t o a t r u l y  own f l e e t ,  Rapid  Railway to P r i n c e Rupert  industry  In  The comi n 1914 caused  ( S e a t t l e and Vancouver)  to  a d d i t i o n to h a l i b u t l a n d i n g s by  a l a r g e number o f v e s s e l s  c a t c h e s a t P r i n c e Rupert.  deep-sea f i s h e r y .  from o t h e r p o r t s e l e c t e d t o  its land  Towards the end o f the p e r i o d s t e p s  were taken t o r e g u l a t e the f i s h e r y  because o f s t o c k d e p l e t i o n .  The  s i g n i n g o f the H a l i b u t Convention i n 1923 by the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada was to have an i m p o r t a n t b e a r i n g on subsequent development o f  the  industry. The t h i r d phase o f the f i s h e r y ,  "Spatial  Adjustment, Commission  Quota C o n t r o l , and Extreme C o m p e t i t i o n 1932-1951" saw confinement o f fishery  to p r e v i o u s l y developed b o u n d a r i e s .  No s h i f t s  t o new grounds  the  3  o c c u r r e d but a g r e a t e r  percentage o f the c a t c h was now being  on grounds between Cape Spencer and the Shumagin I s l a n d s .  taken  Regulation  o f the f i s h e r y on a quota b a s i s , commencing i n 1932, had i m p l i c a t i o n s the i n d u s t r y as a whole. large increase  Increases in h a l i b u t stocks r e s u l t e d  in a  i n the number o f v e s s e l s engaged i n the f i s h e r y .  c o m p e t i t i o n f o r t h e annual quotas d e c r e a s e d the l e n g t h o f the  for  Increased  fishing  season from nine months i n 1932 t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y one month i n 1951 on grounds south o f Cape Spencer.  T h i s p l a c e d time c o n s t r a i n t s  on  movement o f the c a t c h i n g s e c t o r and a f f e c t e d the r o l e s o f p o r t s the  in  industry. Stage f o u r o f the f i s h e r y ,  "Spatial  Encompassment, F l e e t  Decline,  and S u s t a i n e d Y i e l d s  1952-1972" was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by both the  largest  and s m a l l e s t c a t c h e s  i n the r e g u l a t e d phase o f the i n d u s t r y .  The  grounds i n the B e r i n g Sea were e x p l o i t e d i n t e n s i v e l y and as a r e s u l t a l l exploitation.  h a l i b u t grounds o f the E a s t e r n  Concentration of e f f o r t  Alaska led to increased h a l i b u t  f o r the f i r s t  Pacific  halibut time,  had come under  on grounds west o f the G u l f o f  l a n d i n g s at p o r t s i n western A l a s k a .  C o m p e t i t i o n f o r the r e s o u r c e over most s e c t i o n s o f the h a l i b u t grounds d i m i n i s h e d s h a r p l y as the r e s u l t  o f a l a r g e d e c r e a s e i n the number o f  v e s s e l s engaged i n the f i s h e r y .  Towards the end o f the  however, g r e a t l y within  period,  reduced quotas and c a t c h e s were c a u s i n g much concern  the i n d u s t r y a t a l l  levels.  F i g u r e I shows the t r e n d s engaged i n the f i s h e r y at a l l  in total  c a t c h and the number o f  f o u r p e r i o d s o f development.  vessels  Figure 2 is  d e s i g n e d t o d e p i c t the most s i g n i f i c a n t happenings which o c c u r r e d i n e v o l u t i o n o f the f i s h e r y and g i v e s within  the P a c i f i c  halibut  fishery.  an o v e r a l l  view o f  transformation  the  Figure 1.  TREND? IN TOTAL CATCH AND NUMBER OF VESSELS 1S8S-1972  VIRGIN  1888  1972  RECORD HIGH PRICES  PIONEER DEVELOPMENT  1888—1904  1972  RECORD LOW C A T C H  MARKET CONSTRAINTS  1888—1904  1961—  EXTERNAL COMPETITION  MARKET IMPROVEMENT  1905—  1956—  FLEET DECLINE  FLEET EXPANSION  1905—1951  1956—  FLEET CONSTRAINTS  RESOURCE DEPLETION  1905—1931  1954—  MAXIMUM SUSTAINED YIELDS  EXPANSION TO NEW GROUNDS  1913—1931  1951—  RISE OF NEW PORTS  1913—  1951—  EXPANSION TO NEW GROUNDS  STOCKS  INCREASED R O L E OF NEW PORTS  HALIBUT CONVENTION  QUOTA CONTROL  FIGURE 2.  1923  1946—1951  EXCESSIVE ENTRY  1932—  1932—1941  FLEET CONSTRAINTS  TRANSFORMATION WITHIN THE HALIBUT FISHERY 1888-1972.  6  The major theme o f t h i s  study i s  t h a t the s p a t i a l  structure  i n d u s t r y at each s t a g e o f development was determined by r e s o u r c e ability, fleet.  f i s h i n g c o s t s , and v a r i a t i o n Another theme i s  in landing p r a c t i c e s  of  avail-  by the  t h a t the t i m e - d i s t a n c e - c o s t f a c t o r  the  halibut  between  the p r o d u c i n g grounds and the l a n d i n g / p r o c e s s i n g s e c t o r proved to be a very c r i t i c a l  element  i n d e t e r m i n i n g the r o l e o f i n d i v i d u a l  d u r i n g expansion o f the h a l i b u t f i s h e r y .  ports  In a d d i t i o n , the common  p r o p e r t y n a t u r e o f the f i s h e r y was t o have important i m p l i c a t i o n s on r e n t s which were generated w i t h i n  the  fishery.  Methodology The methodology o f t h i s  s t u d y has i t s  and s u b s t a n t i v e work o f Lukerman.  empirical-inductive  Essentially,  from o b s e r v a t i o n s w i t h this  constitutes  a  (2)  s t a g e s on the b a s i s o f o u t p u t , employment, e t c . , s t r u c t u r e o f the  being examined f o r each o f the d e s i g n a t e d s t a g e s , and (4) o f the s p a t i a l  s t r u c t u r e o f the v a r i o u s  the  (1)  the d i v i s i o n o f the s e l e c t e d time  c a r t o g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the s p a t i a l  and a n a l y s i s  the  traditional  approach and i s based on f o u r main s t e p s :  s e l e c t i o n o f a time p e r i o d , into various  i n the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  Lukerman* has m a i n t a i n e d t h a t a more  g e o g r a p h i c economic geography would s t a r t r e c o r d i n g o f data on maps.  origins  (3)  period the  industry  the  description  s t a g e s and how t h e y  compare through t i m e . To a p p l y t h i s methodology r e q u i r e s conceptual (i.e.  frameworks  the development o f  f o r the r e s o u r c e - a c t i v i t y  complex under examination  a f i s h i n g c o m p l e x ) , and f o r the s p a t i a l - s t r u c t u r a l  o f the p a r t i c u l a r frameworks  complex ( i . e .  the P a c i f i c  general  characteristics  halibut fishery).  Such  l e a d t o the development o f a c o n c e p t u a l model to p o r t r a y  i n the complex through t i m e .  change  7  Activities  a s s o c i a t e d with e x t r a c t i v e  types o f i n d u s t r y such as  f i s h i n g c o i n c i d e s p a t i a l l y w i t h the sources o f raw m a t e r i a l  and are  2 largely  determined by the changing nature o f the r e s o u r c e .  and economic a s p e c t s o f a r e s o u r c e such as n a t u r a l e x p l o i t a t i o n have d i r e c t based i n d u s t r y . l a t i n g to s p a t i a l size,  b e a r i n g on the s p a t i a l  One o f the c e n t r a l and s t r u c t u a l  i n the h a l i b u t  o f economic a c t i v i t y sibility,  that  and i n t e r a c t i n g  rein  circulatory  f i s h e r y would help e x p l a i n the changing  r e l a t e d to p r i m a r y r e s o u r c e a v a i l a b i l i t y ,  patterns acces-  and e x p l o i t a t i o n .  From a s p a t i a l halibut  study is  The sequence o f change  number, and l o c a t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s  linkages  abundance and c o s t s o f  pattern of a resource-  themes o f t h i s  change.  Physical  viewpoint,  the s i g n i f i c a n t  f a c t o r s o f the  Pacific  f i s h e r y are the l i m i t e d e x t e n t o f f i s h i n g g r o u n d s ; the  uneven  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the h a l i b u t r e s o u r c e ; the marketing o f the r e s o u r c e a f r e s h or f r e s h - f r o z e n f o r m ; and dependence on e x t e r n a l considerable distances development the s p a t i a l  from areas o f p r o d u c t i o n .  critical  factors  a s s o c i a t e d with the e v o l u t i o n o f the f i s h e r y ,  The f o u r main s t a g e s  centres  At each s t a g e  of  T h i s study i d e n t i f i e s  examines how they c o n t r i b u t e d t o s p a t i a l  of sequential  markets  s t r u c t u r e o f the c a t c h i n g and p r o c e s s i n g  o f the i n d u s t r y r e f l e c t e d these f a c t o r s .  change w i t h i n  the  sectors the  and  industry.  i n the study have been s e l e c t e d on the  e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the P a c i f i c  h a l i b u t grounds.  basis  Stage one  around e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the grounds south o f Cape S p e n c e r .  second s t a g e examines the f i s h e r y a f t e r were e x p l o i t e d between 1913 and 1931.  The f i n a l  The  grounds west o f Cape Spencer Stage t h r e e o f the  c o r r e s p o n d s to the p e r i o d when the i n d u s t r y a d j u s t e d t o established boundaries.  in  fishery  previously  p e r i o d saw e x t e n s i o n o f the  fishery  8 t o B e r i n g Sea g r o u n d s . D e l i n e a t i o n o f p e r i o d s on the b a s i s o f o u t p u t , number o f and fishermen employed, and p r i c e would not be p r a c t i c a l o v e r l a p the s e q u e n t i a l is,  however,  because they would  p a t t e r n o f f i s h i n g ground e x p l o i t a t i o n .  There  a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between the e x t e n t o f grounds  f i s h e d and t o t a l sensitive  vessels  catch.  Since a l l  to raw m a t e r i a l  s e c t o r s o f the i n d u s t r y were  s u p p l y at each stage o f development, the  to new grounds n e c e s s i t a t e d adjustments t o t h e i r accommodate changes i n h a l i b u t s u p p l y . f i s h e r y was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s e r i e s  internal  As a r e s u l t of spatial  shift  structure  to  the e v o l u t i o n o f  the  and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  patterns. Geography has t r a d i t i o n a l l y ships.  This,  concerned i t s e l f  a c c o r d i n g to P a d g e t t ,  with man-land  relation-  e x p l a i n s why sea i n d u s t r i e s have been  3 a neglected f i e l d of geographic i n q u i r y . complex i s  somewhat d i f f e r e n t  The main d i f f e r e n c e  is  The geography o f a f i s h i n g  from t h a t o f any o t h e r e x t r a c t i v e  t h a t the r e s o u r c e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a f i s h e r y complex  may vary c o n s i d e r a b l y over space w i t h i n s h o r t p e r i o d s o f t i m e . i n d u s t r i e s are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by l a r g e numbers o f i n d i v i d u a l none o f whom has c o n t r o l o r t e n u r e over the r e s o u r c e . by those engaged i n a f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y tends to d i f f e r , that of extractive  industry.  industries  Fishing  entrepreneurs,  Behavior e x h i b i t e d therefore,  such as m i n i n g and f o r e s t r y  from  for this  reason.  4 Padgett strengths  r e c o g n i z e s an h o l i s t i c approach to be one o f the main  o f a g e o g r a p h i c s t u d y o f sea i n d u s t r i e s and argues f o r  which t h o r o u g h l y e x p l o r e and i n t e r r e l a t e and c u l t u r a l scope o f t h i s  factors.  the h a l i b u t f i s h e r y .  the p h y s i c a l , economic, e t h n i c  The e t h n i c and c u l t u r a l  s t u d y because i t  studies  f a c t o r s are beyond the  i s d e s i g n e d to show s p a t i a l  Two r e c e n t s t u d i e s are perhaps b e s t  change w i t h i n representative  9  o f the types o f marine s t u d i e s Padgett Europe" C o u l l  (1972)^ and " R e g i o n a l  Skipjack-Tuna  Fishery"  Keen (1971)^  argues f o r .  "The F i s h e r i e s  of  C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f the Japanese both t r a c e the p a t t e r n s  of  activity  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f i s h i n g complexes under e x a m i n a t i o n . Some o f the t r a d i t i o n a l examined v a r i o u s Fisheries",  empirical-inductive  s t u d i e s which  s i n g l e s p e c i e s f i s h i n g complexes i n c l u d e :  Innis  (1940); "Sa1mon 7  Industry  o f the P a c i f i c  have  "The Cod Coast"  o  Gregory  (1940)  ; "The F l o u n d e r I n d u s t r y  Katkoff  (1952) ; 9  o f the S o v i e t  Far  "The A l a s k a n Salmon I n d u s t r y - P r o l o g u e  Mathieson ( 1 9 5 4 ) ;  "The Grouper F i s h e r y o f Cay G l o r y ,  1 0  East,"  and  Prospect",  British  Honduras",  IP  •I  Craig  (1969);  and "The West Canadian Salmon I n d u s t r y " ,  In terms o f r e l a t i n g  the p h y s i c a l  as m a r k e t , g e a r , and v e s s e l  J u n g s t (1972)  environment to such c u l t u r a l  d e s i g n one o f the b e t t e r  studies  .  factors  is  "World  13 Sea F i s h e r i e s , " Morgan (1956) q u i t e general of all  .  Because o f i t s  and does not examine any one r e g i o n a l  f a c t o r s which have come t o bear upon i t .  studies  is  attempts  s c o p e , however,  "A Model o f a F i s h i n g R e g i o n " ,  to s e l e c t  fishery  i n the  One o f the few  Serck-Hanssen  it  is light  theoretical  (1964)^.  the b e s t l o c a t i o n f o r p r o c e s s i n g f i r m s  It  associated  w i t h a f i s h i n g complex. The g e o g r a p h i c a l marine f i s h e r i e s .  literature  rather  few s t u d i e s  Those t h a t do e x i s t are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the  o f a well-defined conceptual the treatment  contains r e l a t i v e l y  framework,  o f elements o f the t o t a l  than as p a r t s o f an i n t e r r e l a t e d  of absence  an emphasis upon d e s c r i p t i o n , f i s h i n g complex complex, and a  individually superficial  t r e a t m e n t o f the u t i l i z a t i o n o f the r e s o u r c e through t i m e . The Study  Region  The s t u d y d e a l s w i t h the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the h a l i b u t r e s o u r c e on  10  grounds between Cape F l a t t e r y ,  Washington and the E a s t e r n  i n c l u d i n g the A l e u t i a n C h a i n .  Within t h i s  based on the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the P a c i f i c  halibut,  c o m p r i s i n g more than 3,000 m i l e s o f c o a s t l i n e  administrative  two major d i v i s i o n s :  has been developed  The e n t i r e  coastal  i s marked by a  s h e l f over which the f i s h e r y  and r e g u l a t o r y  has e x t e n d e d .  For  p u r p o s e s , the area has been d i v i d e d  to northern C a l i f o r n i a  the f i s h e r y  as the f i s h e r y examined i n  is  (formerly  Although  f i s h e r y from Cape  Area 1 but now a p a r t o f Area  For t h i s  of  reason i t  exploitation is  not  detail. halibut  fishery  S t a t e s and Canada s i n c e 1888. the f i s h e r y each n a t i o n a l e s s a r y , and i f  has been j o i n t l y  Effective  fishery  i s not examined i n d i v i d u a l l y .  has b e a r i n g on s p a t i a l  settlement within  C o l u m b i a , and A l a s k a )  i n d u s t r y began e a r l y a significant  role  i n the  Where n e c -  (Washington,  dates from the e i g h t e e n f i f t i e s .  however,  h i s t o r y and has  o f the P a c i f i c  The f i s h i n g played  Northwest  ever  has been overshadowed by the  i m p o r t a n t salmon i n d u s t r y o f the r e g i o n .  Nevertheless,  halibut  very  has  always ranked amongst the top t h r e e o r f o u r commercial s p e c i e s i n o f volume and v a l u e .  of  fishery.  the r e g i o n as a whole  i n the European s e t t l e m e n t  industry,  United  i m p l i c a t i o n s , d i s t i n c t i o n i s made  i n the economic l i f e  The h a l i b u t  conducted by the  Because o f the common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  between American and Canadian i n t e r e s t s  since.  halibut  not c h a r a c t e r i z e d by such i n t e n s i t y  n o r t h o f Cape F l a t t e r y .  The P a c i f i c  British  into  Area 2 c o n s i s t s o f grounds south o f Cape S p e n c e r ,  l i m i t e d h a l i b u t s t o c k s have supported a small  2),  area  relatively  A l a s k a , and Area 3 comprises the grounds west o f Cape S p e n c e r .  Flattery  Sea,  r e g i o n , a common f i s h e r y  by U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canadian f i s h i n g f l e e t s .  narrow c o n t i n e n t a l  Bering  terms  11 Data  Sources Because the study c o v e r s a r a t h e r  o f d a t a sources have been employed. even f o r some subsequent y e a r s ,  l e n g t h y time p e r i o d a l a r g e number  For the p e r i o d p r i o r to 1910, and  an a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e o f h a l i b u t  by r e g i o n , the number and s i z e o f v e s s e l s other relevant  data f o r each are d i f f i c u l t  d a t a as were a v a i l a b l e  engaged i n the f i s h e r y , to o b t a i n .  1872-1910.  i n f o r m a t i o n on c a t c h e s ,  landings, etc.  o f the P a c i f i c  o f the h a l i b u t r e s o u r c e .  Branch,  Statistics-wise,  Pacific  gives  the Annual  proved t o be an i n v a l u a b l e  International  source  International H a l i b u t Commission)  t o the b i o l o g y , e x p l o i t a t i o n , and management  The monthly p u b l i c a t i o n s o f Western  from 1929 onwards p r o v i d e an added s o u r c e on m a t t e r s  Fisheries  r e l a t i n g t o expansion  o f the f i s h e r y .  A d e t a i l e d account o f the development o f P r i n c e  i n t o the w o r l d ' s  l e a d i n g h a l i b u t p o r t was o b t a i n e d from the P r i n c e  D a i l y News f o r the y e a r s journals  1911-1920.  and l a n d i n g s was taken from Report No. 17 o f the  A c c o r d i n g t o Area o f O r i g i n " .  Rupert trade  bibliography).  Most o f the data used i n the c o m p i l a t i o n o f maps on h a l i b u t  "Pacific  Rupert  In a d d i t i o n , a l a r g e number o f  and government p u b l i c a t i o n s were u t i l i z e d (see  Commission e n t i t l e d  provide  1902-1935 the  From 1928 onwards the Reports o f the  aspects related  Report(s)  Columbia Department o f F i s h e r i e s  Fisherman  Commission ( l a t e r the  deal w i t h a l l  Fisheries  For the y e a r s  a c c o u n t s o f the expanding h a l i b u t f i s h e r y .  Fisheries  such  S.  Between 1874-1929/30 the Annual  Annual R e p o r t ( s ) o f the B r i t i s h  of information.  Nevertheless,  B u l l e t i n ( s ) o f the U.  o f the Canada Department o f Marine and F i s h e r i e s ,  Yearbook(s)  and  f o r the p e r i o d l e a d i n g up to the development o f  the f i s h e r y were o b t a i n e d from the Annual Bureau o f F i s h e r i e s  landings  International  catches  Fisheries  Coast H a l i b u t Landings 1888-1950 and Catch As w e l l ,  "Fishery  Leaflet  602" o f the  U.S.  12  Bureau o f F i s h e r i e s ,  "Eastern  Pacific  Halibut  Fishery  1888-1966"  b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n on l a n d i n g s o f h a l i b u t by n a t i o n a l i t y  of  provided  vessel,  c a t c h o f h a l i b u t by f i s h i n g g r o u n d , and l a n d i n g s by p o r t , and p r i c e s r e c e i v e d were o b t a i n e d from i s s u e s o f P a c i f i c y e a r s from the IPHC r e p o r t s and Western The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r on the P a c i f i c  F i s h e r m a n , and i n  Fisheries.  i s d e s i g n e d to p r o v i d e t e c h n i c a l  h a l i b u t and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  o f the f i s h e r y .  deal w i t h each p e r i o d i n the e v o l u t i o n o f the f i s h e r y , schematic models o f the s p a t i a l Chapter 7 attempts the P a c i f i c  halibut  recent  and f u n c t i o n a l  each  information Chapters  3-6  containing  s t r u c t u r e o f the  industry.  to develop a c o n c e p t u a l model showing the e v o l u t i o n fishery.  of  13 References 1.  Lukerman, F.  "On E x p l a n a t i o n , Model and D e s c r i p t i o n " The Geographer V o l . M.I.  XII.  Jan.  1960. p.  Professional  1.  2.  Rostovstev,  3.  Padgett,  4.  Ibid,  5.  Coull, J.R.  The F i s h e r i e s  6.  Keen, E.A.  " R e g i o n a l C o n c e n t r a t i o n of the Japanese S k i p j a c k - T u n a Fishery." Yearbook o f the A s s o c i a t i o n o f P a c i f i c Coast Geographers. V o l . 33. 1971. pp. 127-140.  7.  I n n i s , H.A.  The Cod F i s h e r i e s .  8.  G r e g o r y , H.  "Salmon  H.R.  p.  "Sea I n d u s t r i e s : A Neglected F i e l d of Geography." The P r o f e s s i o n a l Geographer. V o l . X I I I . No. 6. Nov. 1961. pp. 26-28.  28.  Vol. 9.  Katkoff,  " G e o g r a p h i c a l Approaches to the Study o f E x t r a c t i v e Industries. S o v i e t Geography. V o l . XI. No. 8. Oct. 1970. pp. 616-629.  V.  o f Europe G. B e l l  University  I n d u s t r y o f the P a c i f i c  and S o n s , London, 1972.  of Toronto Press. Coast."  1940.  Economic Geography.  16. 1940. pp. 407-415.  "The F l o u n d e r Geography.  I n d u s t r y o f the S o v i e t Far E a s t . "  Vol.  Economic  28. 1952. pp. 171-180.  10.  M a t h i e s o n , R.S.  11.  C r a i g , A.K.  "The Grouper F i s h e r y o f Cay G l o r y , B r i t i s h H o n d u r a s . " Annals o f the A s s o c i a t i o n o f American G e o g r a p h e r s . V o l . 59. 1969. p. 252-264.  12.  JUngst,  "The West Canadian Salmon I n d u s t r y . " Geographische Rundschau. Volume 2 4 , Number 7. J u l y 1972. pp. 283-292.  13.  Morgan, R.  14.  Serck-Hanssen  P.  "The Japanese Salmon F i s h e r i e s : Appraisal." Economic Geography. p . p . 352-361.  World Sea J.  Fisheries  Methuen, London.  A Geographical V o l . 34. 1958.  1956.  "A Model o f a F i s h i n g Region" i n Papers and P r o ceedings. Regional S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n . " V o l . 12. 1964. pp. 107-118.  14 Chapter The H a l i b u t The P a c i f i c  Resource and F i s h e r y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  halibut  s i z e o f the E a s t e r n  35 pounds J  is  a boreal  Pacific  s p e c i e s and i s  temperature ranges from 3 ° to 8 ° C e n t i g r a d e . p e l a g i c s p e c i e s such as Salmon, the h a l i b u t s p e c i e s and i s c o n f i n e d t o the c o n t i n e n t a l  Stocks  is  the  f a m i l y and may exceed 250 pounds i n  a l t h o u g h the average  than 250 fathoms (1500  •  (Hippoglossus hippoglossus s t e n o l e p i s )  l a r g e s t member o f t h e f l a t f i s h  Halibut  II  catch  weight,  i s between 30 and  found at depths where the  U n l i k e free-swimming, o r i s a demersal o r g r o u n d f i s h  s h e l f at depths g e n e r a l l y  feet).  a r e most abundant on grounds e x t e n d i n g from the  northern  t i p o f Vancouver I s l a n d t o the Shumagin I s l a n d s i n western A l a s k a . joint  fishery  the v i c i n i t y  by American and Canadian f i s h i n g f l e e t s o f Cape F l a t t e r y ,  relatively  f o r American v e s s e l s  sparse h a l i b u t  only.  The E a s t e r n  approximately s i x t y percent of t o t a l remaining f o r t y percent  In  extends from  study.  s t o c k s s u p p o r t a small Pacific  fishery  f i s h e r y accounts  world h a l i b u t  and by the v a r i o u s  r e c e n t y e a r s the t o t a l  the  On grounds south o f  production.  for The  i s taken from grounds o f the Western P a c i f i c  Japanese and Russian f l e e t s Atlantic.  The  Washington t o the e a s t e r n margins o f  B e r i n g Sea and p r o v i d e s the f o c u s f o r t h i s Cape F l a t t e r y ,  less  fleets  f i s h i n g the  by  North  world c a t c h has amounted t o  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 100 m i l l i o n pounds. F i g u r e 3 shows the c o n t i n e n t a l  s h e l f o f f the e a s t e r n North  c o a s t l i n e and t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the P a c i f i c dominant f e a t u r e  o f the s h e l f area  o f ocean depths l e s s beyond the 100  i s the r e l a t i v e l y  than 250 fathoms.  fathom  isobath,  h a l i b u t grounds. constricted  The r a p i d i n c r e a s e  the r e c o g n i z e d  limit  of  Pacific The extent  i n ocean depth  ft  \  BERING SEA ALASKA  **-»,.  <' SHUMAGIN " ' (j^C^ ( ISLANDS / ' S L A N D S c ^ ^ K O D I A K *«0~--J ISLAND T  R  I  N  ' T Y  Port  !  Albatross Bonk  *** *~ ~  ,  ock  B.nk  / \  '^»-"Z"\ / \ '  —  GULF OF ALASKA  KETCHIKAN I'Vy-'The  British Columbia  QUEEN CHARLOTTE  *'  (approximately) EDGE S00  OF  P R , N C E  Flats  ISLANDS M  Legend Scale 1 inch equals 263 miles  ^  \ G o o s e island „  CONTINENTAL SHELF  F A T H O M ISOBATH  tSS DS ITRB I UTO I N OF PACIFIC HALB I UT S o u r c e : T e c h n i c a l R e p o r t n o . 6, I P H C .  PACIFIC OCEAN  Figure 3. EXTENT OF THE CONTINENTAL SHELF OF THE EASTERN NORTH PACIFIC  ft^  ^  M  \'\P'°j  Jnd  \  /  RUPERT  16 the c o n t i n e n t a l prevents  shelf,  has important b e a r i n g on h a l i b u t s t o c k s s i n c e  c o n s i d e r a b l e o f f s h o r e movement o f the s p e c i e s .  months t h e r e o c c u r s an o f f s h o r e movement o f h a l i b u t to 250 fathoms.  For the g r e a t e r  p a r t o f the y e a r ,  s t o c k s o f the e a s t e r n North P a c i f i c  During the w i n t e r  to depths from 125 however,  halibut  are found a t c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s d e p t h .  The average width o f the e a s t e r n North P a c i f i c 50 m i l e s and i t s approximate area  it  Shelf  i s approximately  i s 80 thousand square m i l e s .  The  most p r o l i f i c h a l i b u t grounds o f the r e g i o n are c o n f i n e d t o g e n e r a l l y sandy-gravel  bottom and r e p r e s e n t o n l y a small p r o p o r t i o n o f the t o t a l  shelf area.  Some o f the more i m p o r t a n t h a l i b u t banks ( F i g u r e 3)  the Goose I s l a n d Banks i n s o u t h e r n Hecate S t r a i t  (600 s q . m i l e s ) ;  area known as the F l a t s i n n o r t h e r n Hecate S t r a i t Portlock off  Bank i n the G u l f o f A l a s k a  quite extensive,  the  (1200 s q . m i l e s ) ;  (6800 s q . m i l e s ) ;  Kodiak I s l a n d (3700 s q . m i l e s ) .  include  and A l b a t r o s s Bank  A l t h o u g h the B e r i n g Sea s h e l f  is  h a l i b u t s t o c k s a r e c o n f i n e d m a i n l y to the s o u t h e a s t e r n  edge o f i t because e c o l o g i c a l  c o n d i t i o n s a r e more f a v o u r a b l e than  over  p the remainder o f t h e r e g i o n ' s s h a l l o w s h e l f . throughout t h e e n t i r e s t o c k s which  r e g i o n and i n d i r e c t l y  Extensive  upwelling  supports the p r o l i f i c  occurs fish  exist.  E x t e n s i v e experiments conducted by the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Commission ( I F C ) ,  and i t s s u c c e s s o r , the I n t e r n a t i o n a l  Commission (IPHC), showed the E a s t e r n o f two d i s t i n c t  Pacific  Fisheries  Pacific  Halibut  h a l i b u t population to c o n s i s t  s t o c k s , the B e r i n g Sea and G u l f o f A l a s k a s t o c k and  3 those on the grounds south o f Cape S p e n c e r . the  I t was on t h i s  IFC d i v i d e d the r e g i o n i n t o two p r i m a r y a r e a s :  basis  that  Area 2 comprises the  grounds south o f Cape Spencer and Area 3 those west o f Cape S p e n c e r .  17 The r e s t r i c t e d area over which h a l i b u t o c c u r i n the e a s t e r n Pacific  had important b e a r i n g on the e v o l u t i o n o f the f i s h e r y .  expansion and v e s s e l  along the r e g i o n ' s c o a s t l i n e  northwesterly  i n Washington and B r i t i s h  Cold s t o r a g e and p r o c e s s i n g p l a n t s were l o c a t e d at  strategic  locations  c o n n e c t i o n t o market.  m i l e s o f c o a s t l i n e from S e a t t l e , Washington to Sand  various  By the mid n i n e t e e n  major h a l i b u t p o r t s had developed along a p p r o x i m a t e l y  Catching of  Columbia.  i n response to r e s o u r c e d e p l e t i o n a t  s t a g e s o f development and r a i l fifties  Fishery  movement c o u l d o n l y o c c u r i n a g e n e r a l l y  d i r e c t i o n away from the dominant p o r t s  North  3,000  Point,Alaska.  Halibut  At each s t a g e o f development the c a t c h i n g s e c t o r o f the consisted of vessels the f i s h e r y ,  of various  types and s i z e s .  the i n i t i a l  s a i l i n g schooners and s l o o p s were employed.  end o f the 1888-1912 p e r i o d p r a c t i c a l l y installed.  In  all  phase o f  Towards  the  o f these had a u x i l i a r y  F i s h i n g was conducted from d o r i e s c a r r i e d by the  F i s h i n g was a l s o c a r r i e d out from small open boats o f l e s s ten tons based at many f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s  industry  power  vessels.  than f i v e  throughout the r e g i o n .  to  The  company-owned v e s s e l s which were i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the f i s h e r y were relatively feet  large.  They averaged a p p r o x i m a t e l y 125 t o n s , were about 120  l o n g , c a r r i e d up to 14 d o r i e s , and had a crew o f 20 to 44 men. From 1912 t o 1923 schooners a v e r a g i n g 25-60 tons were i n t r o d u c e d  i n t o the independent f l e e t . c a r r i e d up to 8 d o r i e s . from v e s s e l s diesel  but i t  They were powered by g a s o l i n e engines and  There was an i n c r e a s e d t r e n d towards  was not u n t i l  engine, that this  after  longlining  1923, w i t h the advent o f  type o f f i s h e r y expanded.  v e s s e l s e n t e r i n g the f l e e t were almost e n t i r e l y  After  the  1923, new  l o n g l i n e r s , and t h e y  18 d i d not have the prominent s a i l i n g recent years the f i s h e r y  larger vessels  lines of e a r l i e r  vessels.  In  o f the s e i n e r c l a s s have been i n t r o d u c e d  but few o f them exceed 100 f e e t  into  i n l e n g t h and average 50-100  tons. Most o f the E a s t e r n gear  (Figure  lining.  4)  Pacific  a l t h o u g h small  halibut catch  quantities  is  taken w i t h  are caught by t r o l l i n g and hand-  L o n g l i n e gear c o n s i s t s o f a long g r o u n d l i n e t o which i s  gangings and hooks a t equal b a i t e d and s e t ,  it  rests  intervals,  e.g.  on the ocean bottom i n the manner  c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f f i s h i n g grounds. the y e a r  attached  9 , 1 3 , and 18 f e e t .  When  illustrated.  F i g u r e 5 shows how gear i s s e t t o accommodate the a r e a l  fished,  longline  e x t e n t and  The method o f deployment v a r i e s  through  i n response to h a l i b u t movement, s i z e o f the grounds being bottom t o p o g r a p h y , and depth o f water being f i s h e d .  The  hook s p a c i n g i s determined by the s i z e o f the grounds being f i s h e d , r e s o u r c e availability,  and the s i z e o f the v e s s e l s .  In the e a r l y y e a r s  f i s h e r y , when d o r i e s were employed, the i n t e r v a l s generally  9 feet.  When l o n g l i n i n g from v e s s e l s  were i n c r e a s e d t o 13 f e e t  of  the  between gangings were  took p l a c e , the  intervals  but subsequent m o d i f i c a t i o n s have r e s u l t e d  in  4 18, 2 1 , 24, and 26-foot gear being i n t r o d u c e d i n the f i s h e r y . management p u r p o s e s , the as the  "standard skate"  effort.  i n 1943 adopted 13-foot gear w i t h 120 hooks  for all  areas  to determine the b a s i c u n i t  On the b a s i s o f r e c e n t experiments the  "standard skate" of e f f o r t  IFC  For  underestimated e f f o r t  of  IPHC has found t h a t  and o v e r - e s t i m a t e d c a t c h per  the unit  (CPUE).  F i s h i n g by o t t e r h i b i t e d by the dragger f l e e t  trawl and o t h e r types o f bottom net has been p r o -  IPHC. A l t h o u g h t h i s  has caused some concern amongst the  o p e r a t i n g out o f E a s t e r n  Pacific  p o r t s , the Commission  Figure 4.  LONGLINE GEAR EMPLOYED IN THE EASTERN PACIFIC HALIBUT  Figure 5.  MANNER IN WHICH G E A R IS DEPLOYED T O A C C O M M O D A T E B O T T O M TOPOGRAPHY, E T C .  ro  o  21 based i t s  d e c i s i o n on f i s h i n g p r a c t i c e s  determined t h a t set g i l l  elsewhere.  l a r g e h a l i b u t were p a r t i c u l a r l y  In Norway i t  vulnerable  nets and i n 1938 the Commission p r o h i b i t e d t h e i r  was  to bottomuse i n  the  5  Pacific  halibut  fishery  even b e f o r e they were employed.  Commission p r o h i b i t e d the use o f o t t e r the North A t l a n t i c gear.  Since  small  In  1944 the  t r a w l s because i t was shown t h a t  h a l i b u t were s u s c e p t i b l e to t h i s  type  of  1944 dory f i s h i n g has not been p e r m i t t e d because t h i s  f i s h i n g was removing l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s  o f small  While the l o n g l i n e i s a h i g h l y s e l e c t i v e type o f g e a r i t  does have i t s  disadvantages.  o p e r a t i o n as c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t and r e p a i r i n g the g e a r .  type  of  halibut. and a r e l a t i v e l y It  is a  inexpensive  labour-intensive  has to be expended i n h a u l i n g , b a i t i n g ,  As a r e s u l t the a c t u a l  q u i t e long and o f t e n amounts to twenty o p e r a t i o n s on the o t h e r hand, v e r y fishing operation.  in  hours.  little  f i s h i n g day tends t o be In d r a g g i n g ( o t t e r  effort  is  trawling)  i n v o l v e d i n the  actual  A 75-foot l o n g l i n e r f i s h i n g f o r h a l i b u t may employ  7-9 men, but a dragger o f the same s i z e may o n l y employ 4-5 men. The p h a s i n g - o u t o f the company-owned steamer f l e e t o f the s e t l i n e  f i s h e r y with d o r y v e s s e l s o f a very  interesting  and the  saw the p a s s i n g , i n  spatial  prohibition  Eastern  Pacific  waters,  fishing pattern.  When  vessels  c a r r i e d d o r i e s from which l o n g l i n i n g o p e r a t i o n s c o u l d be c a r r i e d  o u t , fishermen employed a number o f f i s h i n g p a t t e r n s which are d e p i c t e d F i g u r e 6.  F i s h i n g from d o r i e s was a two-man o p e r a t i o n , and depending on  the s i z e o f the v e s s e l s , a number o f d o r i e s were employed. such f a c t o r s  as weather  c o n d i t i o n s , abundance o f h a l i b u t , and e x t e n t  o f f i s h i n g g r o u n d s , the d o r i e s T h e i r small  s i z e and r e s t r i c t e d  of fishing operation.  Depending on  f i s h e d i n the manner shown i n F i g u r e range n e c e s s i t a t e d  One o f the l a s t  t h i s mothership  surviving operations of t h i s  6. type type  in  Legend  •^jj&IP Mother Ship Dories Direction and distance (usually less than 5 miles) Edge of continental shelf  i fishing edge of ground ^ and fish relatively confined.  On considerable expanses r i i • of level ground.  n e  Figure 6.  BASIC FISHING P A T T E R N S .  23  is  the Portuguese  "White F l e e t "  cod f i s h e r y  i n North A t l a n t i c  waters.  Management and E x p l o i t a t i o n  S i n c e 1924 the h a l i b u t managed by the International  f i s h e r y o f the E a s t e r n  International Fisheries  Pacific  has been  H a l i b u t Commission ( f o r m e r l y  Commission), c o n s i s t i n g o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  l i m i t i n g the number  of vessels  over economic a s p e c t s of the engaged i n the  It  was one o f the f i r s t  Fur Seal T r e a t y having been s i g n e d i n 1911.  the f i s h e r y being shared e q u a l l y by the two c o u n t r i e s . was a l s o d i r e c t e d t o engage i n very e x t e n s i v e b i o l o g i c a l  (2)  regulating  The Commission investigations  halibut.  The H a l i b u t Convention o f 1930 p r o v i d e d f o r : c o n v e n t i o n waters i n t o a r e a s ,  Convention  spawning p e r i o d  (November 16 to February 15) was i n s t i t u t e d , w i t h the c o s t s o f  h i s t o r y o f the  agree-  International  Under the  o f 1923, a c l o s e d season t o c o i n c i d e with the h a l i b u t  p e r t a i n i n g to the l i f e  phase  international  ments aimed a t p r o t e c t i n g a d e p l e t e d marine r e s o u r c e , the Pacific  fishery,  extensive  d e p l e t i o n o f h a l i b u t s t o c k s had o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the u n r e g u l a t e d (1888-1923).  of  fishery.  The s i g n i n g o f the H a l i b u t Convention i n 1923 came a f t e r  o f the f i s h e r y  the  The IPHC manages the f i s h e r y s o l e l y on  a b i o l o g i c a l b a s i s and has no c o n t r o l e.g.  Pacific  (1)  the d i v i s i o n o f  the l i m i t i n g o f the c a t c h o f h a l i b u t  be taken from each a r e a , ( 3 ) d e t e r m i n i n g the s i z e and c h a r a c t e r  of  f i s h i n g appliances  fishing  (gear) employed, and (4)  areas f r e q u e n t e d by small i n s t i t u t i o n o f annual  immature h a l i b u t . * *  the c l o s u r e o f a l l  Subsequent  Conventions o f 1937, 1950, and o f 1953 p r o v i d e d f o r f u r t h e r o f the f i s h i n g i n Convention w a t e r s .  to  halibut  T h i s Convention l e d t o  quotas commencing i n 1932.  the  the  Halibut regulation  These Conventions d e f i n e d  "convention  24  waters"  to comprise the t e r r i t o r i a l  waters and high seas o f f the  c o a s t s o f Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the western  coast of A l a s k a .  i n c l u d i n g the southern as w e l l  The Convention o f 1953 gave the  7  the power to take n e c e s s a r y steps to o b t a i n maximum s u s t a i n e d from the P a c i f i c It  halibut  western as  IPHC yields  stocks.  was m a i n l y on the b a s i s t h a t  the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada  had undertaken to manage and p r e s e r v e  h a l i b u t stocks that  foreign  fleets  g were d i s c o u r a g e d from e n t e r i n g the P a c i f i c British  In 1937 ,  h a l i b u t fishermen and d e a l e r s  nineteen-sixties  industry.  In  the  t o take h a l i b u t , but extreme o p p o s i t i o n from the I F C ,  Movement o f Japanese v e s s e l s early  fishery.  f i s h i n g i n t e r e s t s were p r e p a r i n g t o send an e x p e d i t i o n t o  North P a c i f i c Pacific  halibut  in p a r t i c u l a r  project.  i n t o the B e r i n g Sea i n  caused grave concern to those engaged i n  1962, the I n t e r n a t i o n a l  agreed w i t h Japan t h a t  l e d to abandonment o f the  North P a c i f i c  and  the  the  F i s h e r i e s Commission  s e c t i o n s o f the B e r i n g Sea were o u t s i d e Japanese  f i s h i n g a b s t e n t i o n as s p e c i f i e d i n the  International  Convention f o r  the  g High Sea F i s h e r i e s  o f the North P a c i f i c  Ocean.  As a r e s u l t  the  Japanese were p e r m i t t e d to engage i n the B e r i n g Sea s e t l i n e  fishery  a g a i n s t the wishes o f the IPHC.  implications  f o r the f i s h e r y as a whole,  T h i s was to have i m p o r t a n t  since there  is considerable  o f h a l i b u t s t o c k s o f the B e r i n g Sea and G u l f o f A l a s k a Prior  t o 1961, the E a s t e r n  Pacific  intermingling waters.  h a l i b u t f i s h e r y was conducted  e x c l u s i v e l y by Canadian and American f i s h i n g f l e e t s .  The commencement o f  h a l i b u t o p e r a t i o n s i n the B e r i n g Sea by a f o r e i g n n a t i o n no l o n g e r the North American h a l i b u t f l e e t grounds.  monopoly over a l l  On grounds o u t s i d e the B e r i n g S e a ,  exclusively  by American and Canadian f l e e t s  s e c t o r s o f the  s t o c k s are except t h a t  harvested incidental  gave halibut  25 c a t c h e s are made by Russian and Japanese f i s h i n g o p e r a t i o n s f o r g r o u n d f i s h s p e c i e s o t h e r than h a l i b u t .  Such i n c i d e n t a l  c a t c h e s are not  to be r e t a i n e d and must be r e t u r n e d to the o c e a n .  B e f o r e expansion o f  the Japanese and Russian f i s h i n g o p e r a t i o n s on a g l o b a l  scale  a f t e r World War II,  the i s o l a t e d and r e l a t i v e l y  the E a s t e r n  f i s h i n g grounds h i n d e r e d f o r e i g n f i s h i n g  Pacific  i n t o the r e g i o n . and as a r e s u l t  This greatly  facilitated  mainly  r e s t r i c t e d extent  management o f the  of  penetration resource,  the o n c e - d e p l e t e d s t o c k s were r e s t o r e d t o near-maximum  sustainable y i e l d  levels.  There has been no a d m i n i s t r a t i v e American and Canadian f l e e t s began.  permitted  d i v i s i o n o f c a t c h between  the  s i n c e commercial e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the  A f t e r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f annual  fishery  quotas i n 1932, f i s h e r m e n o f both  n a t i o n s c o n t i n u e d t o compete f o r a share o f the c a t c h , and up t o 1962, the American S e c t o r o f annual  o f the h a l i b u t  catches.  f o r the l a r g e s t  fleet  accounted f o r the l a r g e s t  S i n c e 1963, however,  percentage o f c a t c h .  the Canadian f l e e t  Such a r e v e r s a l  to the d e c l i n e o f the American h a l i b u t f l e e t Reciprocal early  attributed  r e l a t i v e t o t h a t o f Canada.  i n s i d e the t h r e e - m i l e  American v e s s e l s territorial  S i n c e the r i s e o f the independent vessel  has accounted  p o r t p r i v i l e g e s were e s t a b l i s h e d between the two c o u n t r i e s  phase o f the f i s h e r y .  to f i s h  is  percentage  are not p e r m i t t e d ,  versa.  h a l i b u t f i s h e r m e n and  owners have m a i n t a i n e d s t r o n g unions and f i s h i n g  associations.  the  however,  l i m i t o f Canada, and v i c e fleets,  in  vessel-owner  These groups have c o n t i n u e d to m a i n t a i n a s t r o n g b a r g a i n i n g  p o s i t i o n i n the h a l i b u t  fishery.  S i n c e the  the economic a s p e c t s o f the f i s h e r y ,  and t h i s e v e n t u a l l y  control  r e g u l a t i o n on a n o n - b i o l o g i c a l  remained with the f i s h e r m e n and v e s s e l was concern on t h e i r  IPHC does not d i r e c t l y  owners.  As e a r l y  as 1911  p a r t over e x c e s s i v e d e p l e t i o n o f the h a l i b u t  basis  there resource,  l e d to the s i g n i n g o f the H a l i b u t Convention i n 1923.  26 The i n s t i t u t i o n o f the v a r i o u s 1932 was  made  by the f l e e t  o f the h a l i b u t c a t c h . fishery,  however,  economic b a s i s . been l i t t l e the f l e e t  layover  programs  very  difficult  recent y e a r s ,  fishermen i n t o  e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e 1956, t h e r e  f r e e movement o f v e s s e l s  i n t o the f i s h e r y ,  has shown a sharp downward t r e n d .  from a b i o l o g i c a l  viewpoint,  has  and the s i z e o f  U n l i k e most f i s h e r i e s  has been very  based  halibut  e f f e c t i v e l y managed.  T h i s has r e q u i r e d and r e c e i v e d the f u l l  c o - o p e r a t i o n o f the Canadian and  American governments, f i s h e r m e n , v e s s e l  owners, and companies engaged i n  the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f  the  to manage the f i s h e r y on an  on the h a r v e s t i n g o f a common-property r e s o u r c e , the P a c i f i c fishery,  after  to a s s u r e more o r d e r l y e x p l o i t a t i o n and m a r k e t i n g  The e n t r a n c e o f n o n - r e g u l a r h a l i b u t  made i t In  between-trip  halibut.  P r o c e s s i n g and M a r k e t i n g There i s all  little  secondary p r o c e s s i n g o f the h a l i b u t c a t c h .  o f the c a t c h i s marketed i n a f r e s h o r f r e s h - f r o z e n f o r m .  excellent makes i t  keeping q u a l i t i e s  o f the s p e c i e s when h e l d i n c o l d  p o s s i b l e to spread marketing throughout the y e a r  maintain p r i c e s .  In  the e a r l y  The storage  and thus  s t a g e s o f the f i s h e r y , when f i s h i n g o p e r a -  t i o n s were c a r r i e d out on a y e a r - r o u n d b a s i s , the r o l e o f the s t o r a g e s e c t o r was s i g n i f i c a n t l y fishery.  A greater  Almost  cold  l e s s than i n more r e c e n t s t a g e s o f  percentage o f the c a t c h  is  now f r o z e n , and h e l d  the for  l o n g e r p e r i o d s o f t i m e , because the l e n g t h o f the f i s h i n g season has been r e d u c e d . wholesale  In  a d d i t i o n , improvements i n f r e s h - f o o d d i s t r i b u t i o n ,  and r e t a i l  marketing and r e s t a u r a n t  t o an i n c r e a s e i n the amount o f h a l i b u t the h a l i b u t wholesale  practices  that is  industry maintain frozen inventories  customer demands over the  yearJ  0  frozen.  have c o n t r i b u t e d All  large firms  o f h a l i b u t to  provide  in  27  U n l i k e most commercial s p e c i e s o f f i s h ports,  the P a c i f i c h a l i b u t c a t c h i s  l o c a t e d at a l l All  landed at  s o l d by a u c t i o n .  Pacific  Northwest  H a l i b u t exchanges  o f the major p o r t s , and buyers b i d f o r each v e s s e l  p r i c e s p a i d , a t the s m a l l e r p o r t s through out the r e g i o n are  a c c o r d i n g to p r i c e s p a i d at n e i g h b o u r i n g a u c t i o n p o r t s . o f the company f l e e t s  the v e s s e l s  sold d i r e c t l y  fleets  at the major p o r t s was accompanied by the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  exchanges which were operated by the h a l i b u t v e s s e l Most h a l i b u t v e s s e l s captive  at p o r t s o f t h e i r  Almost a l l  they independent  of  There i s no  by companies engaged i n the buying o f  and as a r e s u l t the independent v e s s e l s  catches  days  owners and f i s h e r m e n .  are owned by s e l f - e m p l o y e d f i s h e r m e n .  ownership o f v e s s e l s  halibut, their  In the  The r i s e o f  delivery.  scaled  t o the companies  f i s h e d f o r and thus bypassed the h a l i b u t exchange.  are  have been f r e e t o  land  choice.  o f the American f l e e t o u t p u t o f h a l i b u t f i n d s a market  i n the l a r g e r urban a r e a s o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s , m a i n l y e a s t o f the M i s s i s s i p p i . A p p r o x i m a t e l y s e v e n t y p e r c e n t o f the Canadian c a t c h i s marketed i n U n i t e d S t a t e s as w e l l ,  and from time to time Canada has e x p o r t e d small  amounts o f h a l i b u t t o European c o u n t r i e s , p r i n c i p a l l y B r i t a i n . Pacific halibut  it  Demand f o r  i n the North American market has remained s t r o n g ,  isolated fluctuations.  the  despite  Because o f the l i m i t e d world s u p p l y o f t h i s  commands premium p r i c e s .  The North American w h i t e f i s h m a r k e t ,  species  however,  has always been h i g h l y c o m p e t i t i v e , and h a l i b u t must compete w i t h o t h e r whitefish  s p e c i e s such as c o d , f l o u n d e r , perch and s o l e .  exploitation,  the s u r v i v a l  o f the  t h r e e o r f o u r thousand m i l e s away.  From  initial  i n d u s t r y has been dependent on markets Strong t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  the e a s t e r n markets were the key p r e - r e q u i s i t e s  for early  links  with  development o f  the f i s h e r y and c o n t i n u e to p l a y a l e a d i n g r o l e i n the marketing o f  the  28  perishable  catch.  Historical  Development  B e f o r e l a r g e s c a l e commercial development o f the E a s t e r n halibut  f i s h e r y o c c u r r e d , the presence o f an abundant h a l i b u t  was w e l l  known.  The c o a s t a l  Sitka  resource  Indians o f the r e g i o n had long r e l i e d upon the  species to supply part o f t h e i r o f Cape F l a t t e r y ,  Pacific  food r e q u i r e m e n t s . ^  the Haidas o f the Queen C h a r l o t t e  The Makah Indians Islands,  Indians o f S o u t h e a s t A l a s k a , and o t h e r c o a s t a l  and the  groups caught  12 halibut.  Both Cook and B e l c h e r  Alaskan waters.  took small q u a n t i t i e s o f h a l i b u t  The cod e x p e d i t i o n s from San F r a n c i s c o and Puget  Sound from t h e e i g h t e e n s i x t i e s halibut  in Alaskan  Prior  onwards made l a r g e  incidental  catches  t o 1888 the f i s h e r y  important r o l e s .  i n d u s t r y o f the r e g i o n was dominated by fur  s e a l , and cod f i s h e r i e s  Resource e x p l o i t a t i o n i n the P a c i f i c  o f the r e g i o n ' s to b e n e f i t  Nevertheless,  playing  Northwest,  however was h i n d e r e d by r e l a t i v e i s o l a t i o n and the absence o f a p o p u l a t i o n base.  of  waters.  the salmon f i s h e r y , w i t h the w h a l e , less  in  large  i n t e r e s t was e x p r e s s e d i n the abundance  r e s o u r c e s and the f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y was amongst the  from s p e c u l a t i v e  investment.  first  F o l l o w i n g the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  of  13 the f i r s t  salmon cannery on the Sacramento  o f the i n d u s t r y northwards A l a s k a o c c u r r e d at a f a i r l y  R i v e r i n 1860  to Oregon, Washington, rapid rate.  , expansion  British  C o l u m b i a , and  By 1896, 54 c a n n e r i e s were  14 operating in B r i t i s h and l a t e r  Columbia  canned, following  depend so h e a v i l y  .  Because  innovations  on e f f i c i e n t  salmon were i n i t i a l l y  i n c a n n i n g , the  salted,  i n d u s t r y d i d not  and f a s t modes o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n as was  to be the case w i t h the d e v e l o p i n g f r e s h h a l i b u t  fishery.  29  Development o f the h a l i b u t  f i s h e r y on a l a r g e commercial  not p o s s i b l e p r i o r to the c o m p l e t i o n o f r a i l w a y l i n k s p o i n t s such as Vancouver, S e a t t l e , Only then was i t f i s h markets  scale  to P a c i f i c  and Tacoma between 1885 and 1892.  o f North A m e r i c a .  fishing industry.  Insignificant  which were b e i n g made c o n s t i t u t e d i n c i d e n t a l  landings of  sector  halibut  c a t c h e s made by f i s h e r m e n  engaged i n o t h e r s e c t o r s o f the f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y . t o develop the h a l i b u t  large  Consequently,  the h a l i b u t f i s h e r y b e f o r e 1888 d i d not e x i s t as an independent  however,  coast  p o s s i b l e to move l a r g e volumes o f f r e s h h a l i b u t to the  i n the e a s t e r n c i t i e s  o f the r e g i o n ' s  was  Attempts were made,  f i s h e r y on a small s c a l e .  For example  i n 1880 an American v e s s e l was s e n t from San F r a n c i s c o t o S i t k a ,  Alaska  15 to f i s h f o r h a l i b u t l i m i t e d markets  .  These e a r l y  i n the c o a s t a l  attempts d i d not succeed because o f  cities  and c o m p e t i t i o n from o t h e r food  f i s h e s o f the r e g i o n . The f i r s t  commercial l a n d i n g s o f P a c i f i c h a l i b u t were made i n 1888  by h a l i b u t v e s s e l s the A t l a n t i c  from the New England h a l i b u t f i s h e r y .  h a l i b u t f i s h e r y was o c c u r r i n g at t h i s  to Thompson and Freeman^ Massachusetts  7  Depletion of  time^ .  According  6  the owner o f two h a l i b u t schooners at  responded to l e t t e r s  i n the l o c a l  upon the o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f s e a l i n g and h a l i b u t  newspaper expounding  f i s h i n g i n the P a c i f i c r e g i o n . I  By 1888 t h r e e New England schooners had a r r i v e d i n the P a c i f i c h a l i b u t f i s h e r y . had i t s  beginnings.  As w i l l  Gloucester,  at S e a t t l e  From such i n i t i a l  o  and engaged  endeavour the  be shown i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r ,  many problems t o be overcome i n the i n i t i a l  development o f the  t h e r e were fishery.  These r e l a t e d to c o m p e t i t i o n , h i g h f i s h i n g c o s t s , and r e l a t i v e l y halibut prices.  Nevertheless,  industry.  low  the f i s h e r y was to expand at a f a i r l y  p a c e , and developed i n t o an i n t e g r a l fishing  fishery  s e c t o r o f the P a c i f i c  Northwest  rapid  30 References 1.  St.  Pierre,  G. and F.  H. B e l l No. 6.  2.  "The P a c i f i c IPHC.  Halibut"  Seattle.  1970.  Technical p.  Report  8.  D u n l o p , H. A. e t a l .  " I n v e s t i g a t i o n , U t i l i z a t i o n , and R e g u l a t i o n o f the H a l i b u t i n the S o u t h e a s t e r n B e r i n g S e a . " Report No. 35. IPHC. S e a t t l e , 1964. p. 12.  Hardman, W. H.  " R e l a t i o n s h i p o f H a l i b u t Stocks i n the B e r i n g Sea As I n d i c a t e d by Age and S i z e C o m p o s i t i o n . " T e c h n i c a l Report No. 4. IPHC. S e a t t l e 1 9 6 9 , p . 1 .  4.  S k u d , B.  "A Reassessment o f E f f o r t i n the H a l i b u t F i s h e r y . " S c i e n t i f i c Report No. 54. IPHC. S e a t t l e 1972. pp. 5, 6.  5.  Myhre, R i c h a r d  6.  Bell,  7.  Ibid,  8.  Pacific  9.  Bell,  C.  F.  "Gear S e l e c t i o n and P a c i f i c H a l i b u t . " No. 51. IPHC. Seattle. 1969. p. 5,  63  Fisherman Yearbook.  F.  1938.  p. 223.  "Management o f P a c i f i c H a l i b u t . " In A Century o f F i s h e r i e s i n North A m e r i c a . Norman G. Benson (ed) S p e c i a l P u b l i c a t i o n No. 7. American Fisheries Society. Washington, 1970. p. 220.  H.  10.  Information  s u p p l i e d by Mr.  Frank Compantino, Manager.  11.  J o y c e , H.  12.  U n i t e d S t a t e s Bureau o f F i s h e r i e s .  13.  D o y l e , H.  14.  Jungst,  Booth F i s h e r i e s  II  Report  "Agreements, Conventions and T r e a t i e s Between Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s o f America w i t h Respect t o the P a c i f i c H a l i b u t F i s h e r y . " Report No. 50. IPHC. S e a t t l e 1969. p. 4 9 .  H.  p.  J.  V.  B.  L t d . , Prince  Rupert.  " I n t r o d u c t o r y notes on the H a l i b u t F i s h e r y . " In U. S. Bureau o f F i s h e r i e s . Document No. 763. Washington 1912. p.62. Bulletin.  1888.  p.  6.  The R i s e and D e c l i n e o f the P a c i f i c Salmon Fisheries D o y l e ' s C o l l e c t i o n o f Papers on The P a c i f i c Salmon. UBC S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , p. 135. P.  "The West Canadian Salmon I n d u s t r y . " In Geographische Rundschau. V o l . 24 No. 7. 1972. p. 289.  July  31 15.  U. S.  Bureau o f F i s h e r i e s .  16.  Goode, G. B.  17.  Thompson, W.  18.  U. S.  Bulletin.  1881.  p. 259.  "The F i s h e r i e s and F i s h e r y I n d u s t r i e s o f The U n i t e d S t a t e s . S e c t i o n V. V o l . 1. (1884-1887) Washington. 1887. p. 3. F.  and N. L. Freeman. " H i s t o r y o f the P a c i f i c Halibut Fishery." Report No. 5. IFC. Vancouver, 1930. p. 18.  Bureau o f F i s h e r i e s .  Bulletin  1888.  p.  54.  32 Chapter Spatial The o v e r a l l o f the E a s t e r n  III  Confinement and Resource D e p l e t i o n 1888-1912 aim o f t h i s  Pacific  chapter is  halibut  to t r a c e the i n i t i a l  fishery.  Factors  c o n t r i b u t i n g to  e a r l y growth o f the f i s h e r y and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which e v o l v e d w i l l  be a n a l y s e d .  u n r e g u l a t e d phase r e s u l t i n g  It  will  i n heavy,  be shown t h a t t h i s was an  During t h i s  period v i r t u a l l y  annual  catches  In t h i s  percentage o f the h a l i b u t c a t c h  Columbia (33%), and A l a s k a w i t h 6% o f t o t a l  l a n d i n g s amounting t o 21.5 m i l l i o n pounds.  the c a t c h  all  Washington and Cape Spencer  i n S o u t h e a s t A l a s k a , a d i s t a n c e o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 600 m i l e s .  f o l l o w e d by B r i t i s h  fishing  i n the c a t c h i n g and l a n d i n g / p r o -  were taken on grounds between Cape F l a t t e r y ,  Washington r e c e i v e d the g r e a t e s t  the  o f the f i s h i n g complex  successive exhaustion of  grounds c a u s i n g major n o r t h e r l y s h i f t s c e s s i n g s e c t o r s o f the i n d u s t r y .  development  period,  (61%), average  Between 1888 and-1912  i n c r e a s e d from 1.4 m i l l i o n t o 60.4 m i l l i o n pounds.  Seattle  developed i n t o the l e a d i n g h a l i b u t c e n t r e on the c o a s t , f o l l o w e d by Vancouver i n B r i t i s h  Columbia a n d , towards  the end o f the  K e t c h i k a n , A l a s k a commenced to p l a y an important r o l e .  period,  Small  h a l i b u t were a l s o made a t a l a r g e number o f s m a l l e r f i s h i n g throughout the r e g i o n .  In e s s e n c e , t h i s  t o near-shore waters and the s p a t i a l  Spatial  restricted  e x t e n s i o n o f the c a t c h i n g and p r o -  nevertheless,  all  and market  constraints.  major h a l i b u t grounds s o u t h  o f Cape Spencer were exposed to o v e r f i s h i n g and s p e c u l a t i v e was c o n t i n u i n g i n the  centres  phase o f the f i s h e r y was  c e s s i n g s e c t o r s was h i n d e r e d by t e c h n o l o g i c a l By the end o f the p e r i o d ,  landings of  investment  industry.  Structure  F i g u r e 7 shows the general  spatial  s t r u c t u r e o f the P a c i f i c  halibut  Legend  A • Q •  RAILHEAD LOCATION PORTS COLD STORAGE FACILITIES SECONDARY PORTS FISHING STATIONS [MINOR PORTS) LIMIT OF FISHING OPERATIONS -*• RANGE OF FISHING VESSELS BASED AT EACH PORT TYPE — • VESSELS ELECT TO LAND PART OF YEARLY CATCH AWAY FROM HOME PORT  a B m  FIGURE 7. SPATIAL STRUCTURE OF THE INDUSTRY 1888-1912.  34 f i s h e r y d u r i n g the p e r i o d .  It  was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a r e l a t i v e l y  number o f f i s h i n g p o r t s o f v a r y i n g s e c t o r was r e s t r i c t e d p o r t s , however,  halibut  The range of the  to f i s h i n g grounds near these p o r t s .  supported v e s s e l s w i t h a much g r e a t e r  p l a y e d a dominant r o l e w i t h i n marketed v i a  importance.  the i n d u s t r y .  large  The  catching railhead  range and they  S i n c e the e n t i r e  c a t c h was  the r a i l h e a d p o r t s , t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e r e - r o u t i n g o f  l a n d i n g s to t h e s e l o c a t i o n s .  F i g u r e 8 shows t h a t t h e r e was a  high degree o f c e n t r a l i z a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p r i m a r y h a l i b u t  landings  by p o r t . Initial  commercial e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the h a l i b u t s t o c k s took  with the development o f f i s h i n g grounds i n the v i c i n i t y Washington  place  o f Cape  Flattery,  i n 1888*, but by 1895 o p e r a t i o n s had extended as f a r  north  2 as Cape Spencer  in Southeast A l a s k a .  D e s p i t e the r a p i d  northward  e x t e n s i o n o f the boundary o f the c a t c h i n g a r e a , Vancouver and S e a t t l e developed i n t o the l e a d i n g h a l i b u t p o r t s o f the r e g i o n .  Average  annual  h a l i b u t c a t c h e s d u r i n g the p e r i o d amounted to 21.5 m i l l i o n pounds , and by the end o f the p e r i o d most o f the c a t c h was being taken n o r t h o f Vancouver I s l a n d ,  but south o f Cape Spencer.  major p o r t s were h e a v i l y  f i s h e d i n the i n i t i a l  a r e s u l t e f f o r t was d i v e r t e d  The grounds c l o s e to  the  y e a r s o f the f i s h e r y .  to the more p r o d u c t i v e grounds f u r t h e r  The small boat s e c t o r o f the i n d u s t r y which o p e r a t e d from the  north. smaller  p o r t s and f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s  f i s h e d the near shore g r o u n d s .  more h i g h l y mobile v e s s e l s  o p e r a t i n g from S e a t t l e , Tacoma, and Vancouver  concentrated t h e i r  effort  resource a v a i l a b i l i t y . i n d u s t r y and the major s t r o n g even a f t e r  over a l l  The  As  larger,  s e c t o r s o f grounds i n response t o  Linkages between the c a t c h i n g s e c t o r o f l a n d i n g , processing/marketing centres  d e p l e t i o n o f the s m a l l e r southern g r o u n d s .  the  remained  SIZE OF T H E S Q U A R E PROPORTIONAL TO A V E R A G E A N N U A L LANDINGS FOR T H E PERIOD ONE  Q U A R T E R INCH S Q U A R E EQUALS 8 MILLION POUNDS  OTHER PORTS  SEATTLE  FIGURE 8.  VANCOUVER  DEGREE OF CENTRALIZATION OF HALIBUT LANDINGS 1888-1912.  37 A l a r g e percentage o f the c a t c h landed at S e a t t l e , Tacoma, and Vancouver was made by steamers the steamer f l e e t  from the company-owned f l e e t s .  numbered 15 v e s s e l s  independent (fishermen-owned)  compared to a p p r o x i m a t e l y 75  schooners and each f l e e t  25 m i l l i o n pounds o f h a l i b u t . ^  By 1907  landed a p p r o x i m a t e l y  Vancouver was h e a d q u a r t e r s  the s t e a m e r s , S e a t t l e supported a f l e e t  for 6 of  o f 5 steamers and most o f  the 5  independent s c h o o n e r s , and Tacoma was headquarters  for four  With i n c r e a s e d northward e x t e n s i o n o f f i s h i n g e f f o r t , tendency f o r v e s s e l s  i n the independent f l e e t  steamers.  t h e r e was  to land catches  n o r t h e r n l o c a t i o n s such as T a k u , P e t e r s b u r g , and K e t c h i k a n . company steamers were f a s t e r p e r m i t t i n g them to f i s h home p o r t .  at The  larger  and more m o b i l e than the s a i l i n g s c h o o n e r s ,  i n d i s t a n t waters but t o land t h e i r  This p a r t i a l l y  increased  a c c o u n t s f o r the l a r g e r  m a i n t a i n t h e i r dominant p o s i t i o n s i n the  catch  at  p o r t s being a b l e  to  industry.  The northward e x t e n s i o n o f f i s h i n g o p e r a t i o n s was accompanied by the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f c o l d s t o r a g e f a c i l i t i e s grounds i n n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h A small  cold storage plant  A l a s k a i n 1902. Pacofi  (1909),  i n 1911.  Later and a t  c l o s e to the major  Columbia and S o u t h e a s t (using g l a c i e r  ice)  Alaska  small  waters.  was e s t a b l i s h e d at  p l a n t s were e s t a b l i s h e d a t  Ketchikan  In a d d i t i o n , the small  Island  from K e t c h i k a n  because the r a i l h e a d p o r t s o f S e a t t l e ,  and Tacoma o f f e r e d h i g h e r p r i c e s .  Vancouver,  boat  sector  expended f a r l e s s e f f o r t and accounted f o r a f r a c t i o n o f the t o t a l Cold storage f a c i l i t i e s  were c o n s t r u c t e d at  o f a r a i l w a y l i n k to t h a t p o r t .  It  P r i n c e Rupert  was not u n t i l  Taku,  (1909),  K i l d o n a n on the west c o a s t o f Vancouver  Landings o f h a l i b u t a t t h e s e l o c a t i o n s , a p a r t  were r e l a t i v e l y  halibut  catch.  i n 1912 ahead  the second phase o f  f i s h e r y t h a t n o r t h e r n p o r t s were to p l a y a more i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n the  the fishery.  38 F i g u r e 10 shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f average annual throughout the 1888-1912 p e r i o d .  landings  The dominant p o s i t i o n s o f p o r t s  r a i l h e a d l o c a t i o n s on Puget Sound and the Lower Mainland r e f l e c t  at the  s t r o n g o r i e n t a t i o n between the c a t c h i n g and l a n d i n g / m a r k e t i n g s e c t o r o f the h a l i b u t i n d u s t r y . fletched (salted)  A p a r t from l i m i t e d p r o d u c t i o n o f smoked and  h a l i b u t ^ , the e n t i r e  o r f r e s h - f r o z e n form. marketing f a c i l i t i e s  c a t c h was marketed i n a f r e s h  T h i s r e q u i r e d c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f c o l d s t o r a g e and a t the r a i l h e a d c e n t r e s on the c o a s t i n o r d e r t o  make f o r f a s t and e f f i c i e n t movement o f h a l i b u t t o e a s t e r n m a r k e t s . annual  l a n d i n g s a t p o r t s on Puget Sound ( p r i n c i p a l l y  Seattle)  Average  amounted t o  13.5 m i l l i o n pounds compared w i t h 5.9 m i l l i o n pounds f o r Lower Mainland  p ports  (mainly  Vancouver).  In a d d i t i o n , t h e s e p o r t s were e n t r y  points  f o r h a l i b u t landed i n A l a s k a , which was marketed i n e a s t e r n markets  as  well. In the i n i t i a l  phase o f the f i s h e r y the Washington h a l i b u t  expanded at a much f a s t e r r a t e than the B r i t i s h fleets.  fleet  Columbian and A l a s k a n  As a r e s u l t Washington accounted f o r the l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f  the c a t c h , f o l l o w e d by B r i t i s h  Columbia and A l a s k a r e s p e c t i v e l y .  11 shows the t r e n d i n l a n d i n g s f o r each o f these r e g i o n s .  Towards  end o f the p e r i o d Washington p o r t s were l o s i n g ground to both Columbia and A l a s k a p o r t s .  Figure the  British  The d e c i s i o n i n 1894 by the New England  F i s h i n g Company, one o f the l a r g e s t American f i s h i n g companies, to g make Vancouver i t s western highly e f f i c i e n t  headquarters,  steamers by the company, c o n t r i b u t e d to e a r l y growth o f  the p o r t ' s r o l e i n the f i s h e r y . large  and the subsequent use o f  independent f l e e t  Vancouver, however, d i d not s u p p o r t a  l i k e t h a t o f S e a t t l e , and t h i s was to  the f o r m e r ' s r o l e i n the second phase o f the  fishery.  affect  BERING SEA  ALASKA  'V-  QUEEN CHARLOTTE^ ISLANDS^-)  Legend  Scale 1 inch equals 263 miles (approximately) Percentage Landed By Region  ^  ^  1888 -1912 Washington pai]  British C o l u m b i a  F~l  Alaska  FIGURE 10. AVERAGE ANNUAL LANDINGS (MILLIONS OF POUNDS) BY PORT AREA 1888—1912. PORT  AREAS  INCLUDE: PUGET SOUND, LOWER  BRITISH C O L U M B I A , N O R T H E R N ALASKA.  MAINLAND, VANCOUVER  ISLAND,  NORTH CENTRAL  BRITISH C O L U M B I A , S O U T H E A S T A L A S K A A N D WEST  CENTRAL  vO  WASHINGTON  40  FIGURE 11. CATCH  TREND IN LANDINGS BY REGION 1888-1912.  •  (MILLIONS OF POUNDS)  1888  1893  1898  YEARLY CATCH LANDED IN WASHINGTON LANDED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA LANDED IN ALASKA  1903  1908  1912  41 H a l i b u t l a n d i n g s made o u t s i d e the major p o r t areas were dependent on either  a packer o r f r e i g h t e r  and the r a i l h e a d p o r t s . halibut deliveries  system to d e l i v e r c a t c h e s  In A l a s k a , f o r example, packers would  made to the s m a l l - b o a t f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s  Southeast A l a s k a and d e l i v e r freighter.^  Incidental  salmon cannery s i t e s average annual pounds,^  to h o l d i n g  units  collect  throughout  them to P e t e r s b u r g f o r d e l i v e r y  south by  l a n d i n g s of h a l i b u t were a l s o made at the  throughout the r e g i o n .  various  During the 1888-1912 p e r i o d ,  l a n d i n g s f o r Vancouver I s l a n d amounted t o 607 thousand  and were taken m a i n l y by the small  fishing stations  and v i l l a g e s  boat s e c t o r o p e r a t i n g  such as K i l d o n a n .  the f i s h e r y ,  V i c t o r i a was headquarters  landed t h e i r  c a t c h e s at t h a t p o r t .  In the e a r l y y e a r s o f  f o r several  From t h e r e  from  halibut vessels  which  they were shipped e a s t  12 via  the r a i l h e a d a t Tacoma. Butedale,  in north central  important salmon c e n t r e a f t e r  British  C o l u m b i a , developed i n t o an  the t u r n o f the c e n t u r y .  Incidental  l a n d i n g s o f h a l i b u t were a l s o made at B u t e d a l e  because i t was equipped  with holding f a c i l i t i e s  h a l i b u t grounds  north central  British  o f the c o a s t a small  and was near the major  Columbia w a t e r s .  Elsewhere  along t h i s  in  section  boat f i s h e r y was c a r r i e d out by w h i t e s and  Indians,  13 mainly  in inside i n l e t s .  The area south o f Hecate S t r a i t and n o r t h o f  Cape C a u t i o n accounted f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 473 thousand pounds a n n u a l l y d u r i n g the 1888-1912 p e r i o d . made a t a"number o f small Charlotte  Islands,  Incidental  fishing stations  but i t was not u n t i l  develop i n t o a major  l a n d i n g s o f h a l i b u t were a l s o i n the v i c i n i t y  after  1912 t h a t t h i s was  l a n d i n g s e c t o r o f the i n d u s t r y .  A small  s t o r a g e was c o n s t r u c t e d a t H a y e s p o r t , a few m i l e s south o f Rupert  i n 1911, and from t h e r e  o f the Queen to  cold  Prince  h a l i b u t l a n d i n g s were s e n t to  Vancouver  42 for final  marketing.  By 1901 the Alaska-based f l e e t In a d d i t i o n , a number o f v e s s e l s  numbered 20 small  from the Puget Sound independent  f i s h e d i n A l a s k a waters and landed p a r t o f t h e i r fishing stations  there.  schooners and s l o o p s ]  c a t c h e s at p o r t s and  Development o f the h a l i b u t f i s h e r y  in  A l a s k a proceeded i n the same manner as i n the i s o l a t e d a r e a s south.  It  was e s s e n t i a l l y  Southeast  to  the  a shore based f i s h e r y c a r r i e d out i n  boats from a number o f shore s t a t i o n s . s t a t i o n s were D o u g l a s , Wrangell  The l a r g e r ,  small  and more i m p o r t a n t  Narrows, T a k u , and P e t e r s b u r g .  i n c r e a s e i n the s i z e o f the Puget Sound independent f l e e t led to increased f i s h i n g a c t i v i t y  fleet  after  i n A l a s k a n waters by these  A f t e r the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f c o l d s t o r a g e f a c i l i t i e s  at  An 1901  vessels.  Ketchikan i n 1909,  i n c r e a s e d l a n d i n g s o c c u r r e d i n S o u t h e a s t A l a s k a , and the p o r t commenced to p l a y an important r o l e ports t o t a l l e d  i n the f i s h e r y .  10.3 m i l l i o n pounds.  By 1912, l a n d i n g s at A l a s k a  Although a f l o a t i n g c o l d  storage  15 p l a n t was s t a t i o n e d at was not u n t i l  after  Kodiak i n 1912  a large  , the experiment f a i l e d .  number o f v e s s e l s  It  had s h i f t e d t h e i r  effort  to the west s i d e o f the G u l f o f A l a s k a i n the second phase o f d e v e l o p ment, d i d West C e n t r a l  Alaska play a role  Increased demand i n e a s t e r n m a r k e t s , halibut,  and improvements i n r a i l  the i n d u s t r y a f t e r an i n c r e a s e  1905.  in halibut  l e s s c o m p e t i t i o n from A t l a n t i c  t r a n s p o r t l e d to r a p i d expansion o f  T h i s was r e f l e c t e d  i n the s i z e and number o f v e s s e l s  company-owned f l e e t s ,  in increased halibut  prices,  i n the independent and  expansion o f the c o l d s t o r a g e s e c t o r away from  Puget Sound and the Lower M a i n l a n d , and g r e a t l y The i n c r e a s e d use o f powered v e s s e l s greatly  landings.  increased mobility within  increased production.  i n the f i n a l  y e a r s o f the  period  the independent h a l i b u t f l e e t .  They  43 were,  however,  e x p e n s i v e to o p e r a t e because o f the high c o s t s o f g a s o l i n e ,  and as a r e s u l t  their  economic f i s h i n g range was l i m i t e d .  the c a t c h i n g s e c t o r o f the i n d u s t r y was  in a better  Nevertheless,  p o s i t i o n to cope w i t h  expansion t o new grounds and t o s u p p o r t the d e v e l o p i n g c o l d  storage  s e c t o r at p o i n t s c l o s e r to the more p r o l i f i c h a l i b u t grounds i n  northern  waters.  Functional  Structure  The i n i t i a l  phase o f the i n d u s t r y was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a  structure c o n s i s t i n g of three d i s t i n c t s e c t o r o p e r a t i n g m a i n l y from small independent dory f l e e t steamer f l e e t  patterns:  (1)  fishing stations,  based p r i m a r i l y a t S e a t t l e ,  functional  the small (2)  the  boat  larger  and the company owned  based a t S e a t t l e , Tacoma, and Vancouver.  F i g u r e 12  shows the s t r u c t u r e o f the i n d u s t r y d u r i n g the 1888-1912 p e r i o d and the flow p a t t e r n s  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each c a t c h i n g s e c t o r o f the  The independent dory v e s s e l s first  vessels  from Puget Sound p o r t s were the  to engage i n the h a l i b u t  In the e a r l y y e a r s o f the f i s h e r y  industry.  f i s h e r y on the P a c i f i c  Coast.  they c o n f i n e d f i s h i n g a c t i v i t y  to  near-shore grounds over which f i s h i n g o p e r a t i o n s were conducted from dories.  T h e i r c a t c h was then taken d i r e c t l y  to such p o r t s as  and Tacoma and s o l d by a u c t i o n on the h a l i b u t exchange. o f the s o u t h e r n g r o u n d s , however, go f u r t h e r all  north.  t h e i r catches  Seattle  With d e p l e t i o n  these s a i l i n g v e s s e l s were f o r c e d t o  S i n c e they d i d not have s u f f i c i e n t  speed to  deliver  to the major r a i l h e a d p o r t s , they landed p a r t o f  catch at ports in Southeast A l a s k a . packer to the major f r e i g h t e r  their  These l a n d i n g s were moved by  p o r t s o f P e t e r s b u r g and K e t c h i k a n , and  then were s h i p p e d i n a f r e s h o r f r e s h - f r o z e n form to the  southern  STOCKS  STOCKS  STOCKS  DORY DORY  VESSEL  VESSEL  L7_  VESSEL  HOLDING UNIT  EXCHANGE  I  HOLDING UNIT  PACKER  SOLD FRESH  r COLD STORAGE  COLD STORAGE  I  COLD STORAGE  L-J  I I  .ITT  L_J  SOLD FRESH  "T~  PACKER  SOLD FRESH  EXCHANGE  MARKET  MARKET MARKET 2.  1.  STRUCTURE  OF T H E COMPANY—OWNED  FLEET  FIGURE 12.  INDEPENDENT  STRUCTURE OF THE DORY V E S S E L  FLEET  3.  STRUCTURE  FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE INDUSTRY 1888-1912.  OF T H E S M A L L BOAT  FLEET  45 railhead locations.  Here the t r a n s s h i p p e d h a l i b u t was e i t h e r  c o l d s t o r a g e or shipped d i r e c t l y The small the h a l i b u t Vessels their  placed  to market.  boat s e c t o r o f the i n d u s t r y commenced to p l a y a r o l e  f i s h e r y soon a f t e r  in t h i s  commercial f i s h i n g s t a r t e d  s e c t o r were g e n e r a l l y  less  f i s h i n g o p e r a t i o n s to grounds l e s s  Island,  i n 1888.  than ten m i l e s from s h o r e .  and d e l i v e r e d t h e i r  o f Cape  catches  i n the a r e a , but i t areas  until  their  operations  this  date.  These small  vessels  boat f i s h e r y as w e l l ,  declined  northern confined  As a  result  on s t o r a g e f a c i l i t i e s  i s o l a t e d p o r t s , and a packer system t o t r a n s p o r t major marketing p o i n t s .  With  generally  to the more i s o l a t e d a r e a s o f the c o a s t .  s e c t o r o f the f i s h e r y r e l i e d h e a v i l y  Flattery  s e c t o r o f the f i s h e r y  continued to play a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n  a much l a t e r  In  to such p o r t s  as S e a t t l e , Tacoma, B e l l i n g h a m , P o r t Townsend, and V i c t o r i a . i n c r e a s e d d e p l e t i o n o f t h e s e grounds t h i s  in  than f i v e tons and c o n f i n e d  the e a r l y y e a r s they f i s h e d the waters i n the v i c i n i t y and southern Vancouver  in  l a n d i n g s to  at  the  The major n o r t h e r n p o r t s supported a small  but grounds c l o s e to t h e s e p o r t s were soon  d e p l e t e d , and i t was no l o n g e r p o s s i b l e f o r the small  boat s e c t o r  to  engage i n f i s h i n g o p e r a t i o n s . The company-owned v e s s e l s were i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the f i s h e r y 1898, the companies having c h a r t e r e d c o a s t a l c o n v e r t e d f o r the f i s h e r y  f r e i g h t e r s which were  p r i o r to t h a t d a t e .  They were based at  the r a i l h e a d c e n t r e s and conducted o p e r a t i o n s a l l as f a r n o r t h as Cape Spencer. (approximately  in  Because o f t h e i r  a l o n g the  large  coastline  carrying  capacities  200-300,000 pounds) and c o n s i d e r a b l e range they were  more h i g h l y m o b i l e than the independent dory and small  boat  F i s h i n g o p e r a t i o n s were conducted from d o r i e s c a r r i e d by the  fleets. streamers  46  and were r e s t r i c t e d t o waters s h o r t d i s t a n c e s from the mother s h i p . These l a r g e steamers r a r e l y  landed t h e i r c a t c h away from the  railhead  p o r t s , and as a r e s u l t the l a r g e r p o r t s were a s s u r e d o f h a l i b u t f o r as long as they were headquarters f o r the steamer f l e e t .  landings  Unlike  the independent v e s s e l s , the company-owned v e s s e l s d e l i v e r e d t h e i r directly  to c o l d s t o r a g e s and p l a n t s o p e r a t e d by i n d i v i d u a l c o m p a n i e s ,  and bypassed the h a l i b u t exchange. trade  catch  Major f i r m s engaged i n the  i n v e s t e d i n steamers to a s s u r e adequate s u p p l i e s o f  f o r the c o l d s t o r a g e s e c t o r . dependent f l e e t by the v a r i o u s  In the e a r l y  halibut  halibut  phase o f the f i s h e r y the  c o u l d not produce the q u a n t i t i e s o f h a l i b u t  in-  required  f i r m s , nor c o u l d they s u p p l y h a l i b u t a t a c o m p e t i t i v e  price. The p a t t e r n o f l a n d i n g s d e p i c t e d i n F i g u r e 10 was t h e r e f o r e a f u n c t i o n o f the c a t c h i n g and l a n d i n g p r a c t i c e s o f the v a r i o u s sectors.  The independent dory f l e e t  landed v i r t u a l l y  and the company-owned steamer  the e n t i r e c a t c h and c o n c e n t r a t e d t h e i r  landings  Puget Sound and Lower Mainland p o r t s , and to a l e s s e r e x t e n t , The small boat s e c t o r on the o t h e r hand landed i t s p o r t s throughout the r e g i o n . e f f i c i e n t than v e s s e l s f r a c t i o n o f the t o t a l  Because v e s s e l s  in t h i s  at  Ketchikan.  smaller  s e c t o r were l e s s  catch.  Investment c a p i t a l  Development  f o r development o f primary r e s o u r c e s i n  Northwest came m a i n l y from Great B r i t a i n ,  the e a s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s . fisheries, capital  catch at  fleet  i n the o t h e r s e c t o r s they accounted f o r o n l y a  Factors A f f e c t i n g I n i t i a l  Pacific  fleet  the  e a s t e r n Canada, and  In the case o f the Washington and A l a s k a  f o r f i s h e r i e s development came from the e s t a b l i s h e d  47 f i s h i n g companies o f New E n g l a n d , and to a l e s s e r e x t e n t San F r a n c i s c o . The e a r l y  halibut fishery  in B r i t i s h  England F i s h i n g Company o f B o s t o n , ^  Columbia was dominated by the New but investment i n the salmon s e c t o r  7  18 came p r i m a r i l y from e a s t e r n Canadian and B r i t i s h S i n c e the marketing s e c t o r o f the P a c i f i c  circles.  h a l i b u t f i s h e r y was  c o n t r o l l e d by companies who were a l s o the l e a d i n g f a c t o r s halibut fishery, this  i n the  had some b e a r i n g upon the slow growth o f  former up to 1904 a t l e a s t .  The p o s s i b i l i t y o f having the  markets f l o o d e d with l o w - p r i c e d P a c i f i c  Atlantic  the  eastern  h a l i b u t when A t l a n t i c  halibut  19 p r i c e s were r e a c h i n g 20 c e n t s per pound investment i n t h e A t l a n t i c f i s h e r y . o f the P a c i f i c far  fishery,  investment  was reason to p r o t e c t  In the f i r s t  ten t o f i f t e e n  years  i n the r e g i o n ' s h a l i b u t i n d u s t r y was  l e s s than accumulated investment i n the New England h a l i b u t  By 1904, the A t l a n t i c  their  h a l i b u t c a t c h had reached an a l l  time  fishery.  low,  having dropped from a peak o f 14.6 m i l l i o n pounds i n 1879 to a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4 m i l l i o n pounds. Pacific  fishery  20  It  was o n l y then t h a t company investment i n  increased.  the  For example, the number o f company-owned  21 steamers i n c r e a s e d from 5 i n 1904 t o 14 i n 1905. These steamers were e x t r e m e l y e f f e c t i v e  and were a c c o u n t i n g f o r  22 approximately f i f t y  p e r c e n t o f the t o t a l  c a t c h even by 1912  heavy l a n d i n g s by the steamers tended t o f l o o d the market  .  In  fact,  thereby  d e p r e s s i n g h a l i b u t p r i c e s , and had an adverse e f f e c t on e x p a n s i o n o f the independent f l e e t . ficult  U n s t a b l e markets i n the e a r l y  p e r i o d made i t  dif-  f o r the non-company v e s s e l s to compete w i t h the l a r g e r and more  highly e f f i c i e n t more c a p i t a l  company steamers.  In terms o f c a p i t a l  was r e q u i r e d f o r v e s s e l s  r e q u i r e m e n t s , much  i n the c a t c h i n g s e c t o r o f  the  48 halibut  fishery  than f o r the salmon f i s h e r y .  developed i n t o a deep-sea f i s h e r y  after  The h a l i b u t  1910, but the salmon i n d u s t r y  c o n t i n u e d to c o n f i n e o p e r a t i o n s to near-shore w a t e r s . of capital  for construction of vessels  fishery  D e s p i t e a shortage  i n the independent f l e e t ,  economic o p p o r t u n i t y p r o v i d e d by expansion t o new grounds a f t e r overcame t h i s  constraint  and t h e r e was a r a p i d i n c r e a s e  the 1912,  i n the number  23 of privately-owned  vessels.  Development o f the h a l i b u t f i s h e r y on a l a r g e commercial s c a l e not p o s s i b l e p r i o r to the c o m p l e t i o n o f r a i l w a y l i n e s p o i n t s i n the e i g h t e e n e i g h t i e s . large  Only then was i t  to P a c i f i c  The r e l a t i v e l y  coast  p o s s i b l e to move  volumes o f f r e s h h a l i b u t to the l a r g e f i s h markets  cities.  was  small p o p u l a t i o n o f the western  i n the  eastern  seaboard  24 c o u l d not absorb any e x t e n s i v e  halibut catches.  The c a t c h  increased  from 1.4 m i l l i o n pounds i n 1888 t o 4.2 m i l l i o n pounds i n 1895, but c a t c h i n g s e c t o r o f the i n d u s t r y was c a p a b l e o f p r o d u c i n g f a r quantities. competition. i n the l a r g e  T h i s was not p o s s i b l e because the i n d u s t r y f a c e d  greater extreme  L o c a l markets were small and most o f the demand was urban c e n t r e s o f the e a s t  T h e r e f o r e , the s u r v i v a l  the  located  i n C h i c a g o , New Y o r k , B o s t o n ,  and expansion o f the P a c i f i c  halibut fishery  etc. was  dependent on markets t h r e e thousand o r more m i l e s away. C o m p e t i t i o n from the New England s u p p l y o f h a l i b u t and e a s t e r n g r o u n d f i s h p r o d u c t i o n d i d not make p o s s i b l e a y e a r 1900.  Instead,  the P a c i f i c  h a l i b u t f i s h e r y was l e s s  T h i s r e s u l t e d i n i n c r e a s e d demand f o r P a c i f i c  high enough p r i c e s to make i t i n the f i s h e r y .  before  h a l i b u t f i s h e r y was o n l y conducted d u r i n g  the w i n t e r months when the A t l a n t i c pursued.  round f i s h e r y  e c o n o m i c a l l y worthwhile  B e f o r e 1900, i t  intensively  halibut  and  for vessels  was o f t e n the case where  to engage  incidental  49 summer c a t c h e s o f P a c i f i c  h a l i b u t c o u l d not f i n d w h o l e s a l e  buyers  in  the  r e g i o n because low p r i c e s combined w i t h high t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s d i d not make i t  an economical  undertaking.  The r a p i d i n c r e a s e  i n the number o f company v e s s e l s  expansion o f the independent f l e e t the c a t c h i n g s e c t o r . demand a f t e r  1905.  The t o t a l  resulted  together  in over-capacity  c a t c h i n c r e a s e d at a f a s t e r  As a r e s u l t ,  with  within rate  than  p r i c e s were kept low (around t h r e e  per p o u n d ) , e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g the summer months when the g r e a t e s t o f the c a t c h was t a k e n .  Even the number o f a v a i l a b l e  was to have a b e a r i n g upon p r i c e f l u c t u a t i o n s . any g i v e n day combined with a s h o r t a g e o f c a r s dropped and v i c e v e r s a . a s p e c t o f the h a l i b u t  In  fact,  to d e l i v e r  halibut,  prices  interesting years.  to market i n a f r e s h form  had to be p l a c e d i n c o l d s t o r a g e and brought lower p r i c e s at factor related  cars  With heavy l a n d i n g s on  i n d u s t r y , but to a l e s s e r degree i n r e c e n t  Another i n t e r e s t i n g  part  refrigerator  t h i s was always to be an  H a l i b u t which c o u l d not be forwarded d i r e c t l y  cents  to e a r l y  dockside.  growth o f the  Pacific  25 h a l i b u t f i s h e r y was the c o s t o f i c e . c a t c h e s at sea and e s p e c i a l l y journey to eastern markets.  Ice  was r e q u i r e d t o  b e f o r e 1895 to p r e s e r v e  preserve  h a l i b u t on t h e i r  The p r o h i b i t i v e c o s t o f i c e --  long  fifteen  26 d o l l a r s per ton a t S e a t t l e i n 1888 halibut  p r i c e s prevented a l a r g e number o f independent v e s s e l s  e n t e r i n g the f i s h e r y .  The l a r g e c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t i e s  steamers t o g e t h e r w i t h g r e a t e r the company-owned f l e e t s early  financial  to the r e l a t i v e s c a r c i t y  and B r i t i s h  Columbia.  low from  o f company-owned  backing made i t  possible  for  to engage i n the f i s h e r y more p r o f i t a b l y .  development o f the h a l i b u t  related  -- combined w i t h e x t r e m e l y  fishery  i n Southeast A l a s k a , was i n  and high p r i c e o f i c e  in  Washington  V e s s e l s proceeded n o r t h to A l a s k a to  secure  The part,  50 supplies of g l a c i e r  i c e , and t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a t i o n g i v e n to moving 27  large  volumes o f i c e  from A l a s k a to the r a i l h e a d c e n t r e s  o f the  South.  A f t e r the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f i n c r e a s e d numbers o f i c e making and c o l d storage plants  and subsequent expansion o f the f i s h e r y ,  c o s t s per u n i t volume decreased the p r i c e o f i c e . for greater  numbers o f independent v e s s e l s  from Cape F l a t t e r y  and heavy,  to Cape Spencer.  r e a c h i n g 60.4 m i l l i o n  production  T h i s made i t  to engage i n the  R e l a t i v e improvement o f market c o n d i t i o n s a f t e r creased landings of h a l i b u t ,  lower  possible  fishery.  1905 r e s u l t e d i n  in-  s u c c e s s i v e e x h a u s t i o n o f grounds  The p e r i o d ended w i t h the  pounds i n 1912, and much s p e c u l a t i v e  catch  investment 28  being i n j e c t e d  i n t o the i n d u s t r y , e s p e c i a l l y at P r i n c e Rupert.  In  e s s e n c e , the p e r i o d was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the presence o f l a r g e within  the i n d u s t r y .  fishery  in i t s  infrastructure  early  C o r p o r a t e involvement phase was e s s e n t i a l  (cold storages,  i n the P a c i f i c  companies  halibut  t o the development o f an  i c e p l a n t s , marketing t e c h n i q u e s ,  etc.)  around which the f i s h e r y c o u l d develop and expand. Extent o f  Fishing  The e x t e n t o f f i s h i n g grounds which c o u l d support the expanding halibut fishery small  i n the 1888-1912 p e r i o d was l i m i t e d to the  banks south o f Cape S p e n c e r , A l a s k a .  generally  The much l a r g e r banks  the G u l f o f A l a s k a and westwards were t o be e x p l o i t e d at a l a t e r when high v e s s e l  o p e r a t i n g c o s t s and t e c h n o l o g i c a l  and market  in date  constraints  were overcome. In  the i n i t i a l  most i n t e n s e l y  the f i s h i n g grounds  f i s h e d were those i n near-shore waters o f f Cape  and southern B r i t i s h rather  y e a r s o f the d e v e l o p i n g f i s h e r y ,  Columbia.  Flattery  D e p l e t i o n o f t h e s e grounds o c c u r r e d  q u i c k l y because o f heavy f i s h i n g p r e s s u r e and no f i s h i n g  restrictions.  51 As a r e s u l t ,  expansion t o grounds away from S e a t t l e , Tacoma, P o r t  Townsend, and Vancouver took p l a c e from 1900 onwards. centres  such as P o r t Townsend, B e l l i n g h a m ,  on Puget Sound were not as c o n v e n i e n t l y nor d i d they have the f a c i l i t i e s catches a f t e r  Fairhaven,  the t u r n o f the c e n t u r y .  l o c a t e d as the l a r g e r  i n the  ports,  increased  Consequently, these  role  halibut  and Whatcom  to handle the g r e a t l y  p o r t s no l o n g e r p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t Until  Smaller  smaller  fishery.  1909, f i s h i n g f o r h a l i b u t was c a r r i e d out i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y 35 s  fathoms o f water d u r i n g the summer months and s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r  depths  29 d u r i n g the w i n t e r months.  With i n c r e a s e d d e p l e t i o n o f s t o c k s on  i n s h o r e g r o u n d s , the o f f s h o r e h a l i b u t grounds came under more fishing.  It  was not u n t i l  intensive  1910 t h a t f i s h i n g was c a r r i e d out i n depths  30 exceeding 100 f a t h o m s , Queen C h a r l o t t e  and the deeper waters o f f the west c o a s t o f  I s l a n d s were f i r s t  the  e x p l o i t e d i n the 1910-1911 f i s h i n g  31 season.  Prior  to 1909 l a r g e c a t c h e s were p o s s i b l e on i n s h o r e g r o u n d s ,  but the movement t o deeper water r e f l e c t e d s t o c k d e c l i n e s . w i t h the a d d i t i o n o f l a r g e r and more h i g h l y m o b i l e v e s s e l s pendent f l e e t . lance of i t s  From 1909 onwards, however,  three mile f i s h i n g l i m i t  This coincided to the  i n c r e a s e d Canadian  c o n t r i b u t e d to American  inde-  surveilvessels  32 moving to o f f s h o r e grounds. Towards the end o f the 1888-1912 p e r i o d , c o m p e t i t i o n f o r f i s h i n g s t o c k s on the southern grounds i n c r e a s e d g r e a t l y , the t r e n d s  in c a t c h , e f f o r t ,  Although the c a t c h yield  and y i e l d  increased s l i g h t l y ,  per u n i t o f e f f o r t .  i n the number o f v e s s e l s  The i n c r e a s e  f o r the f i n a l  declining  T a b l e 1 shows  y e a r s o f the  period.  t h e r e o c c u r r e d a sharp d e c r e a s e in e f f o r t  e n t e r i n g the f i s h e r y ,  e f f o r t which were r e q u i r e d to take r e l a t i v e l y  r e f l e c t e d an  and g r e a t e r  increase  amounts o f  stable catches.  Catches  were being m a i n t a i n e d a t h i g h e r c o s t s than p r e v i o u s l y was the c a s e .  in  52 Table 1 Trends i n Y i e l d , L a n d i n g s , E f f o r t 1907-1912.  Source:  Year  Catch per Skate (Pounds)  Landings (Pounds)  Number o f Skates F i s h e d  1907 1910 1911 1912  280.0 271.0 237.0 176.0  50,000,000 51,849,240 56,931,796 60,479,550  178,571 191,325 240,219 343,066  Report No. 8.  IFC  By the end o f the second p e r i o d , a l l  major h a l i b u t grounds south o f  Cape Spencer were s u b j e c t e d t o o v e r f i s h i n g and had s u r p a s s e d maximum s u s t a i n a b l e y i e l d  levels.  grounds remained u n d i s c o v e r e d .  Only s m a l l , i s o l a t e d patches  General  engine power r e s u l t e d i n more e f f i c i e n t the f l e e t .  Consequently, t h i s  s t o c k s but a l s o on r e t u r n s I n c r e a s e d annual  improvements i n v e s s e l and l a r g e r  vessels  had an adverse e f f e c t  of d e s i g n and  being added t o  not o n l y on h a l i b u t  to f i s h e r m e n engaged i n the  fishery.  c a t c h e s were o n l y p o s s i b l e as the r e s u l t o f  e f f o r t and the c o n s t a n t s h i f t t o new grounds. yields  their  f i s h e r m e n not o n l y employed g r e a t e r  r e s o r t e d to l o n g e r hours o f f i s h i n g . company-owned v e s s e l s ,  the average  To compensate f o r  increased declining  amounts o f gear but a l s o  For example, i n the case o f  time spent f i s h i n g per t r i p  from 3.4 days i n 1906 to 8.9 days i n 1912.  the  increased  Over the same p e r i o d  the  35 average c a t c h d e c l i n e d from 135,300 pounds per t r i p pounds per t r i p  i n 1912  .  taken c o n s i s t e d o f s m a l l e r ,  i n 1906  to 97,355  Most o f the h a l i b u t which c o n t i n u e d to be lower-priced f i s h ,  the l a r g e r  f i s h having been  removed by o v e r f i s h i n g . Besides  increases  in e f f o r t ,  other factors  o f the grounds south o f Cape S p e n c e r .  a f f e c t e d the  These i n c l u d e d :  the  depletion limited  53  e x t e n t o f f i s h i n g g r o u n d s , the removal o f l a r g e numbers o f female the l a t e m a t u r i t y o f female f i s h , age c l a s s e s of l a r g e r  increased f i s h i n g pressure. of withstanding  s t o c k s which were e a s i l y  numbers  susceptible  The l i m i t e d h a l i b u t s t o c k s were not  to capable  the f i s h i n g e f f o r t which was brought to bear upon them.  i n c a t c h i n g methods and g r e a t e r  grounds by the fishermen were a d d i t i o n a l d e p l e t i o n o f h a l i b u t grounds.  As w i l l  familiarity  w i t h the  f a c t o r s which l e d to  be s e e n , the s h i f t  grounds i n the second phase o f the f i s h e r y brought o n l y relief  different  i n the h a l i b u t p o p u l a t i o n , and the presence o f l a r g e  f i s h i n the v i r g i n  Improvements  the slow r a t e o f growth o f  fish,  to  various  severe western  temporary  from t h e s e problems and r e s o u r c e d e p l e t i o n soon r e o c c u r r e d .  54 References 1.  Cobb, John N.  2.  Pacific  " P a c i f i c H a l i b u t F i s h e r y D e c l i n i n g " i n American F i s h e r i e s S o c i e t y - T r a n s a c t i o n s Vol XLV. No. 1. 1915/16. Dec. 1915. New York. p. 134.  Fisherman Yearbook, 1907  V o l . V . No. 2,  Freeman P u b l i c a t i o n s . 3.  Bell,  F.  4.  Pacific  Seattle,  p. 68.  H . , H. A. D u n l o p , & N. L. Freeman " P a c i f i c Coast H a l i b u t Landings 1888 to 1950 and Catch A c c o r d i n g t o Area o f O r i g i n . " Report Number 1 7 , I n t e r n a t i o n a l F i s h e r i e s Commission. S e a t t l e , 1952. p a s s i m . Fisherman Yearbook, 1908  V o l . 6.  No. I.  Freeman P u b l i c a t i o n s . 5.  Ibid,  p.  6.  Thompson, W. F.  7.  Pacific  8.  Bell,  F.  H. e t a l . , op_. c i t .  9.  Bell,  F.  Heward  Jan  Seattle,  1908. M i l l e r  p. 63.  63 and N. L. Freeman. " H i s t o r y o f the P a c i f i c H a l i b u t Fishery." Report No. 5, I n t e r n a t i o n a l Fisheries Commission. Vancouver, 1930, pp. 3 6 , 37.  Fisherman Yearbook 1908  op.cit.  p. 61.  passim ( e s p .  p.  Pacific  Fisherman Yearbook.  11.  Bell,  12.  U n i t e d S t a t e s F i s h e r i e s Commission B u l l e t i n  13.  British  H.,  10, 31).  "Agreements, Conventions and T r e a t i e s Between Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s o f America w i t h Respect t o the P a c i f i c H a l i b u t F i s h e r y . " Report Number 50. International P a c i f i c Halibut Commission. S e a t t l e , 1969. p. 6.  10.  F.  Feb. 1 9 0 7 - M i l l e r  1907  op_. c i t .  H. A. D u n l o p , & N. L.  Freeman.  Columbia Department o f F i s h e r i e s . p. & N. L.  p. 68. op_. c i t . 1897.  p. 31.  Washington.  Report 1913.  1898. p.  Victoria,  B.C.  R148.  14.  Thompson, W. F.  Freeman.  15.  Ibid,  16.  Ibid,  17.  U n i t e d S t a t e s Bureau o f F i s h e r i e s .  op_. c i t .  p. 29.  p. 40 p. 27.  p. 141.  Bulletin  1897.  Washington 1898.  141  55 18.  Royal  Commission on Canada's Economic P r o s p e c t s . Printer,  19.  Ottawa.  U n i t e d S t a t e s Bureau o f F i s h e r i e s .  1956.  p.  Bulletin  The Queen's 3.  1884.  Washington. 1895.  p. 92. 20.  Goode, G. B.  And J .  21.  Thompson, W. F.  22.  Pacific  W. C o l l i n s . "The H a l i b u t F i s h e r i e s . " In the F i s h e r i e s and F i s h i n g I n d u s t r y o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Washington 1884-1887. Sec. V. Vol I. 1887. p . 3 .  And N. L.  Fisherman.  Freeman,  V o l . XI.  No. 1.  Publications. 23.  Pacific  Fisherman Yearbook(s) Seattle.  24.  25.  Ibid,  p.  15  26.  Ibid,  p.  62  27.  Thompson, W. F.  28.  The P r i n c e  29.  Thompson, W. F.  30.  Ibid,  31.  British  p.  Freeman  Miller  Freeman P u b l i c a t i o n s .  Passim. Bulletin  1888.  Freeman,  op.cit.  p. 36.  and N. L.  Freeman, o p . c i t .  Columbia Department o f F i s h e r i e s  33.  Thompson,W. F.  34.  British  Washington 1889.  p. 31.  Report 1915. V i c t o r i a , B . C .  S74.  Fisherman Yearbook 1910.  Vol V I I I , No. 2.  Feb. 1910. p. 28.  and F. H. B e l l . " B i o l o g i c a l S t a t i s t i c s o f the P a c i f i c Halibut Fishery" Report Number 8. I n t e r n a t i o n a l F i s h e r j e s Commission. S e a t t l e . 1934. p. 12.  Columbia Department o f F i s h e r i e s . p.  Pacific  Miller  1913. p. 67.  31  Pacific  36.  1913.  Seattle.  Rupert D a i l y News Vol II. No. 232. O c t . 1 1 , 1911. p. 1; Vol II. No. 284. Dec. 12, 1911. p . l ; Vol II No. 2 9 1 , Dec. 20 1911, p. 1; Vol III. No. 225. S e p t . 24, 1912, p. 1; Vol III. No. 297. Dec. 1 8 , 1912. p. 5.  32.  Ibid,  Jan.  p. 46.  5.  And N. L.  p.  35.  cit.  1912-1923.  U n i t e d S t a t e s Bureau o f F i s h e r i e s . p.  OJD.  Report 1915, V i c t o r i a ,  B.C.  SI37.  p. S137 Fisherman Yearbook 1913. V o l . XI.  No. 1.  Jan.  1913. p. 67.  56 Chapter  IV  S h i f t t o Western Grounds and F l e e t  The main o b j e c t i v e spatial  o f Chapter IV  s t r u c t u r e o f the h a l i b u t  expansion o f the i n d u s t r y .  intensive  to account f o r changes i n  initial  phase o f the f i s h e r y  in northern  Columbia a t P r i n c e R u p e r t ,  Ketchikan  In  and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t at  a d d i t i o n , a number o f s m a l l e r p o r t s o f B r i t i s h  A l a s k a were to p l a y a more s i g n i f i c a n t  r o l e i n the h a l i b u t  A downward t r e n d i n l a n d i n g s at the major s o u t h e r n p o r t s o f Tacoma, and Vancouver o c c u r r e d . early  shift  T h i s c o n t r i b u t e d to the development and expan-  s i o n o f major l a n d i n g / p r o c e s s i n g and marketing p o r t s  Alaska.  Nevertheless,  British  in  Southeast  Columbia and industry. Seattle,  Seattle retained  its  pre-eminence and emerged as one o f the two dominant h a l i b u t  o f the r e g i o n . in British Seattle.  and  The p e r i o d was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by more  f i s h i n g on grounds south o f Cape Spencer and a westward  i n t o the G u l f o f A l a s k a .  the  i n d u s t r y d u r i n g the 1913-1931 p e r i o d  a r i s i n g from r e s o u r c e d e p l e t i o n i n the further  is  Expansion 1913-1931.  ports  P r i n c e Rupert r e p l a c e d Vancouver as the major h a l i b u t  Columbia and l a n d i n g s a t the former g r e a t l y  exceeded those  During the 1913-1931 p e r i o d a l a r g e percentage o f the  port at  catch  was taken from grounds west o f Cape Spencer which had remained u n e x p l o i t e d during the i n i t i a l  phase o f the f i s h e r y .  Throughout most o f the second  p e r i o d t h e r e was an i n c r e a s e d tendency f o r v e s s e l s at  ports r e l a t i v e l y  catch  c l o s e to the major f i s h i n g grounds i n n o r t h e r n  Columbia and A l a s k a w a t e r s .  T h i s was p e r p e t u a t e d by the growth  expansion o f t h e independent h a l i b u t f l e e t , owned f l e e t ,  to l a n d t h e i r  British  and  the d e c l i n e o f the company-  and e x t e n s i o n o f c o l d s t o r a g e f a c i l i t i e s .  In  essence,  1913-1931 p e r i o d was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c o n t i n u e d expansion o f the  the  industry  and d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f the p r o d u c i n g , c a t c h i n g , and l a n d i n g / p r o c e s s i n g  57 s e c t o r s o f the  Spatial  fishery.  Structure  The i n i t i a l Chapter III  phase o f the h a l i b u t f i s h e r y  (1888-1912) was shown i n  t o be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a r e l a t i v e l y  zation within  all  s e c t o r s o f the i n d u s t r y .  All  high degree o f  centrali-  h a l i b u t were taken on  grounds south o f Cape Spencer and S e a t t l e and Vancouver were dominant as headquarters and bases o f o p e r a t i o n f o r the h a l i b u t marketing o f the e n t i r e 88%* o f a l l first  direct  catch.  fleet  and f o r  Between them they accounted f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y  landings of h a l i b u t .  It  was o n l y towards the end o f  p e r i o d t h a t Ketchikan began to take on an important r o l e  halibut fishery.  The i n f r a s t r u c t u r e  a stage a t which l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s markets a t c o m p e t i t i v e  the  o f the i n d u s t r y had developed t o  o f h a l i b u t c o u l d be s u p p l i e d t o  spatial  i n d u s t r y d u r i n g the 1913-1931 p e r i o d .  structure  eastern  o f the P a c i f i c  area than was the case i n the i n i t i a l  boat f i s h e r y d e c l i n e d s h a r p l y .  w i t h the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the h a l i b u t  halibut  F i s h i n g o p e r a t i o n s were conducted  The range o f the c a t c h i n g s e c t o r had i n c r e a s e d g r e a t l y , the small  in  the  prices.  F i g u r e 13 shows the general  over a much g r e a t e r  the  period.  and the r o l e  Much o f the a c t i v i t y  of  associated  r e s o u r c e west o f Cape Spencer  became d i v e r t e d to the newly completed r a i l w a y terminus at  Prince  Rupert.  A number o f important secondary p o r t s a l s o developed i n Southeast  Alaska.  In West C e n t r a l  A l a s k a , to which an i n c r e a s i n g amount o f f i s h i n g  was d i r e c t e d , secondary p o r t s d i d not develop s i g n i f i c a n t l y . phase o f the f i s h e r y o n l y a small away from the v a r i o u s p h a s e , however,  In  activity the  p a r t o f the c a t c h was landed a t  home p o r t s o f the f i s h i n g v e s s e l s .  first  ports  In the second  v e s s e l s were e l e c t i n g to land a l a r g e share o f the  catch  RAILHEAD LOCATION PORTS SECONDARY PORTS FISHING STATIONS (MINOR PORTS) COLD STORAGE FACILITIES LIMIT OF FISHING OPERATIONS RANGE OF FISHING VESSELS BASED AT EACH PORT TYPE VESSELS ELECT TO LAND PART OF YEARLY CATCH AWAY FROM HOME PORT  FIGURE 13.  SPATIAL STRUCTURE OF THE INDUSTRY 1913-1931.  59 away from home p o r t on Puget Sound and the Lower M a i n l a n d . independent h a l i b u t f l e e t s  In  addition,  developed away from the major p o r t s to  the  south. F i g u r e 14 shows a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree o f d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n overall  structure  increase  o f the  i n d u s t r y d u r i n g the 1913-1931 p e r i o d .  i n c a t c h from grounds west o f Cape Spencer r e s u l t e d  h a l i b u t landings in northern B r i t i s h  Columbia and S o u t h e a s t  Whereas i n the 1888-1912 p e r i o d Washington p o r t s r e c e i v e d annual  landings, its  British  in  the  The  in  increased  Alaska.  61% o f  average  share decreased to 31% i n the 1913-1931 p e r i o d .  Columbia and A l a s k a p o r t s i n c r e a s e d t h e i r  share from 33% and 3  5% r e s p e c t i v e l y  t o 52% and 17% o v e r the two p e r i o d s .  i n c r e a s e d tendency f o r v e s s e l s  to l a n d t h e i r  This r e f l e c t e d  c a t c h e s near the  the  major  producing grounds. F i g u r e 15 shows the e x t e n t o f f i s h i n g on the h a l i b u t grounds o f Eastern  Pacific  and c a t c h e s  the 1913-1931 p e r i o d .  from v a r i o u s  the  s e c t o r s o f the grounds d u r i n g  P r o d u c t i o n from the newly e x p l o i t e d grounds  i n c r e a s e d from an i n s i g n i f i c a n t amount i n 1912 to 21.6 m i l l i o n pounds i n 1931.  4  Throughout the p e r i o d as a whole average annual  l a n d i n g s from  5 the western grounds t o t a l l e d average (Area  annual  landings.  3) was o f f s e t  (Area 2)  21.2 m i l l i o n pounds,  The i n c r e a s e  o r 41% o f  total  from grounds west o f Cape Spencer  by a l a r g e d e c l i n e on grounds south o f Cape Spencer  from 59.5 m i l l i o n pounds i n 1912 t o 21.6 m i l l i o n pounds i n 1931.  The northwestward  shift  i n l a n d i n g s r e s u l t e d i n the weakening o f  Puget Sound and Lower Mainland p o r t r o l e s Although average  annual  landings f o r the  i n the h a l i b u t  the  industry.  i n d u s t r y i n c r e a s e d from a p p r o x -  i m a t e l y 21.5 m i l l i o n pounds i n the 1888-1912 p e r i o d to 4 8 . 8 m i l l i o n pounds i n the 1913-1931 p e r i o d ,  those o f Puget Sound o n l y i n c r e a s e d from 13.5  WEST CENTRAL ALASKA PORTS SIZE O F T H E S Q U A R E PROPORTIONAL TO A V E R A G E A N N U A L LANDINGS FOR T H E PERIOD. ONE  Q U A R T E R INCH S Q U A R E EQUALS 8 MILLION POUNDS  FIGURE 14.  DEGREE OF CENTRALIZATION OF HALIBUT LANDINGS 1913-1931.  o  62 to 15.0 m i l l i o n p o u n d s  7  over the same two p e r i o d s .  Average annual  lando  ings on the Lower Mainland decreased from 5.9 to 3.0 m i l l i o n pounds. The most s i g n i f i c a n t the a t t r a c t i o n II  change i n the p a t t e r n o f l a n d i n g s was brought on by  o f f e r e d by the r a i l h e a d terminus at P r i n c e Rupert.  shows the average annual  periods. areas  l a n d i n g s by p o r t area f o r each o f the  The westward t r e n d i n l a n d i n g s o u t s i d e the e s t a b l i s h e d  i s q u i t e apparent  Table  (Figure  two port  16).  Table  II  Average Annual H a l i b u t Landings by P o r t Area During the 1888-1912 and 1913-1931 P e r i o d s (000  Period  P.  Sound  lbs.)  Lower Mainland  Van I  Cen. BC  Nor BC  SE Alaska  WC Alaska  1888-1912  13519  5905  607  473  89  1000  —  1913-1931  15046  3078  652  1140  18776  9619  1163  F i g u r e 17 shows the t r e n d s  i n l a n d i n g s f o r Washington,  Total 2  1  The upward t r e n d i n Washington  l a n d i n g s towards  British  the .end o f  the  p e r i o d r e f l e c t e d d e c r e a s i n g h a l i b u t p r i c e s between 1926 and 1931. For example, the average  landed p r i c e o f h a l i b u t  in B r i t i s h  Columbia  g decreased from 13 c e n t s per pound i n 1926 to 6 c e n t s per pound i n 1931. As a r e s u l t , most o f the S e a t t l e - b a s e d  vessels  o f t h e i r c a t c h at S e a t t l e where s l i g h t l y  landed an i n c r e a s e d  higher prices  northwestward  share  prevailed.  D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f l a n d i n g s throughout the P a c i f i c  Northwest,  g  3  49474  C o l u m b i a , and A l a s k a d u r i n g the 1913-1931 p e r i o d and f o r the r e g i o n as a whole.  5  the  movement o f the c a t c h i n g s e c t o r , and the c o m p l e t i o n o f a  FIGURE 17  TREND IN LANDINGS BY REGION 1913-1931.  I  J  I  1913  1918  1923  YEARLY CATCH LANDED IN WASHINGTON LANDED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA •  LANDED IN ALASKA  1 1928  I 1931  65 rail link to Prince Rupert in 1914 were the main factors which promoted the development of cold storage and port f a c i l i t i e s away from the established ports.  Following the westward shift to new grounds after 1912, ports in  northern British Columbia and Southeast Alaska took on a more prominent role in the halibut industry.  This was also accompanied by a larger number  of companies engaging in the halibut trade. Despite the increase in the number of important halibut centres, two centres continued to dominate landings:  Prince Rupert, which replaced  Vancouver as the main halibut port in British Columbia and became the main landing port in the Eastern Pacific, and Seattle.  In 1915 the United States  and Canada reached an agreement whereby American vessels were permitted to sell their catch to Prince Rupert buyers, who in turn could then process and transship the halibut to United States markets in b o n d J  0  The effect  of this agreement may be seen in the fact that landings of halibut by American vessels at Prince Rupert increased from 7.1 million pounds in 1915 to 22.1 million pounds by T925.  11  By the end of the second period each of the major sub-regions had developed an important halibut centre.  This resulted in the tendency  toward a more even distribution of landings throughout the entire region. Fleet reaction to spatial expansion of the fishery was to favour landing ports near the fishing grounds, but only i f prices were competitive with those  at Seattle and Vancouver.  Halibut prices paid at Prince Rupert  were highly competitive and this explains the strong showing of Prince Rupert during the 1913-1931 period.  Because the Seattle and Vancouver  based fleets consisted of larger vessels than the fleets which developed to the north, they were in a better position to deliver catches to ports  66 which o f f e r e d b e t t e r  p r i c e advantages. their  The s m a l l e r v e s s e l s ,  however, were  indirectly  f o r c e d to s e l l  c a t c h e s at the p o r t s from which  operated.  The importance o f each node was a f u n c t i o n o f p r o x i m i t y  to f i s h i n g g r o u n d s , the s i z e and number o f the v e s s e l s and the p r i c e paid f o r h a l i b u t at each T a b l e III  shows the y e a r l y  they  o p e r a t i n g from  port.  l a n d i n g s o f h a l i b u t at the more important  h a l i b u t p o r t s d u r i n g the 1913-1931 p e r i o d .  The dominant p o s i t i o n s o f  P r i n c e Rupert and S e a t t l e are q u i t e a p p a r e n t , with a major s h i f t ring in halibut  l a n d i n g s away from the T a t t e r  became the dominant p o r t i n the  industry.  after  developed as l a r g e were h e a v i l y  any decreases  and v i c e  independent f l e e t s  One o f the most s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e s  in  declined  Both these p o r t s had not  as S e a t t l e o r P r i n c e R u p e r t ,  dependent on company v e s s e l  Rupert  versa.  the r o l e o f Vancouver and Tacoma i n the i n d u s t r y  with the p a s s i n g o f the company-owned f l e e t s .  occur-  1915 when P r i n c e  Generally,  S e a t t l e l a n d i n g s were c a p t u r e d by P r i n c e R u p e r t , Essentially,  it,  and  landings.  o f the p e r i o d was the  increase  i n h a l i b u t l a n d i n g s o u t s i d e the major p o r t s , e s p e c i a l l y at S o u t h e a s t A l a s k a locations.  Such p o r t s as S i t k a ,  storage f a c i l i t i e s  towards  Juneau,  and P e t e r s b u r g had a c q u i r e d c o l d  the end o f the f i r s t  b e g i n n i n g o f the second p e r i o d .  p e r i o d and at  They were t h e r e f o r e  the  in a p o s i t i o n to  c a p t u r e a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n o f the c a t c h t h a t o t h e r w i s e would have gone to such p o r t s as K e t c h i k a n . independent f l e e t s  d u r i n g the second p e r i o d which landed t h e i r  p r i m a r i l y at home p o r t .  own small catches  With i n c r e a s e d expansion t o grounds on the west  s i d e o f the G u l f o f A l a s k a a f t e r l a n d i n g s as w e l l .  These p o r t s developed t h e i r  1923, Seward accounted f o r  considerable  T h e r e f o r e , by the end o f the p e r i o d f i s h i n g  activity  12 was being c a r r i e d out a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2500 m i l e s  from S e a t t l e and Vancouver  Table Halibut  ('000  Year  Seattle  Vancouver  35520 27906 16104 15592 9932 11400 12580 11795 9982 8218 7378 9676 10080 11911 13788 12359 12671 15087  9368 7851 9714 6486 3572 1726 2671 3184 4139 873 961 803 862 710 884 1241 894 1138 907  1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931  Source:  Butedale  —  Landings lbs.)  Prince Rupert 10749 8742 16055 19646 18709 15658 16887 19419 25212 25665 28984 28252 28273 26305 25062 28474 28442 23956 16792  -38 62 106 16 70 212 385 221 243 198 235 146 139 303  III  at Major P o r t s  Ketchikan  Sitka  Wrangel 1  1  (4539) (3106) 3632 3326 3528 4819 4553 6197 6624 2253 8006 7331 4297 8808 8393 5037 6060 4975 5908  ~J 1000 1300 1508 900 1600 2000 1800 900 1500 2000 2500 1750 2250 1375 967 1500 860  P a c i f i c Fisherman (Yearbooks) H a l i b u t Commission Reports Indicates information  not a v a i l a b l e but  do not vary s i g n i f i c a n t l y --  2  from y e a r l y  Landings at Seward r e l a t i v e l y small development o f western grounds.  landings  trends.  before  1913-1931  extensive  1 "1 "1 ~~1 50 30 25, "1 "1 "1  600 625 650 500 250 250 147 4  Juneau  Petersburg  Taku  1  1  1  "1  "J  "1  137 3 65 30 130 120 51 426 600 600 188 911 960 334 1715 1216 684  344 450 243 21 165  679 1570 900 "1 "1 "1 "1 "1  --  —  --  253 242  —  200.  —  ,  I  1500 -1 -1 1000 421 1972 907 426  Seward 2 ~~9 c 9 C  o c 9 L 9 C 9 C 9 C  1300 2000 1559 2049 1432 358 600 1200 1456 1602 1133  68  and i n t e r v e n i n g p o r t s  had become important c e n t r e s o f a c t i v i t y  w i t h the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f most h a l i b u t  Functional  stocks.  Structure  The 1888-1912 p e r i o d was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a f u n c t i o n a l c o n s i s t i n g of three d i s t i n c t operational three,  patterns.  link  from the e v o l u t i o n o f the l o n g l i n e r Prior over a l l  in patterns  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the h a l i b u t  F i g u r e 18 shows the a d d i t i o n a l  structure  In a d d i t i o n t o  the second p e r i o d saw f u r t h e r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  activity  associated  these  of  resource.  i n the f i s h i n g complex which  arose  fleet.  to 1913, l o n g l i n i n g o p e r a t i o n s were c a r r i e d out from d o r i e s  s e c t i o n s o f the h a l i b u t grounds.  the independent dory v e s s e l  fleet  By employing d o r i e s each v e s s e l  Both the company-owned f l e e t  engaged i n t h i s  could f i s h  type o f f i s h i n g o p e r a t i o n .  l a r g e r amounts o f gear  in  one day i n s u i t a b l e weather than was p o s s i b l e by f i s h i n g d i r e c t l y the l a r g e r v e s s e l s .  T h i s was e s p e c i a l l y  conducted i n r e l a t i v e l y  and  from  the case when f i s h i n g was being  s h a l l o w water where power g u r d i e s were not  r e q u i r e d to r e t r i e v e the l o n g l i n e s .  The move to o f f s h o r e grounds and  more t r e a c h e r o u s waters i n the G u l f o f A l a s k a i n 1913 r e s u l t e d i n  fishing  o p e r a t i o n s being c a r r i e d out from the l a r g e v e s s e l s .  these  vessels  came t o be known as  practically  all  vessels  1  longliners.  i n the  1  As a r e s u l t  By the end o f the  independent f l e e t  period  had switched to  this  type o f o p e r a t i o n . The move to l o n g l i n i n g from v e s s e l s power requirements  of a large  s i z e reduced man-  i n the c a t c h i n g s e c t o r o f the i n d u s t r y .  was a two man o p e r a t i o n and i f  a vessel  carried five dories  Dory f i s h i n g it  required  STOCKS  STOCKS  STOCKS  STOCKS  VESSEL  VESSEL  DORY DORY  VESSEL VESSEL  EXCHANGE  HOLDING UNIT  HOLDING UNIT  L EXCHANGE  SOLD FRESH  73  SOLD FRESH  COLD STROAGE  COLD STORAGE  :  I  COLD STORAGE  MARKET  u T H E COMPANY-OWNED F L E E T  PACKER  MARKET 2.  T H E INDEPENDENT  I  MARKET 3.  S T R U C T U R E OF  T H E INDEPENDENT DORY VESSEL F L E E T  FIGURE 18.  SOLD FRESH  __J  MARKET  1. S T R U C T U R E O F  PACKER  PACKER  Z_J  I—J  COLD STORAGE  L._  —A  HOLDING UNIT  SOLD FRESH  EXCHANGE  STRUCTURE  LONGLINER  OF  4.  FLEET  T H E S M A L L BOAT  FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE INDUSTRY 1913-1931.  S T R U C T U R E OF FLEET  70  a crew o f ten men i n a d d i t i o n t o the c a p t a i n a t method o f f i s h i n g fewer men were r e q u i r e d .  least.  In the new  For example the  average 13  s i z e crew per v e s s e l  o f the S e a t t l e based f l e e t  By 1931 when v i r t u a l l y  i n 1915 was ten men.  the e n t i r e c a t c h was taken by l o n g l i n e r s , the  average crew s i z e o f the S e a t t l e based f l e e t  had d e c l i n e d to  seven  men. In  the open waters o f the G u l f o f A l a s k a i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  less  f i s h i n g time was l o s t because the l o n g l i n e r s c o u l d c a r r y out f i s h i n g o p e r ations  i n more adverse weather  c o n d i t i o n s than the dory f l e e t .  c o s t s were t h e r e f o r e reduced and e a r n i n g s o f i n d i v i d u a l increased.  In  Fishing  crew members  1913 the e n t i r e h a l i b u t c a t c h was taken from d o r i e s . 15  By 1928, 93% o f the t o t a l to t h i s  c a t c h was taken from l o n g l i n e r s .  The move  type o f f i s h i n g came w i t h the move to o f f s h o r e grounds and g r e a t l y  f a c i l i t a t e d e x p l o i t a t i o n o f h a l i b u t s t o c k s on the new grounds west o f Cape S p e n c e r . F a c t o r s C o n t r i b u t i n g t o Westward E x t e n s i o n The maintenance o f the h i g h l e v e l end o f the f i r s t  period required that  of landings c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f i s h i n g e f f o r t be d i r e c t e d  of  the  to  grounds west o f Cape Spencer because the more s o u t h e r l y grounds had become s e v e r e l y d e p l e t e d (Chapter  III).  However,  to take p l a c e i t was n e c e s s a r y t h a t be i n c r e a s e d a n d , f u r t h e r ,  for this  r e l o c a t i o n or  the range and e f f i c i e n c y o f the  that c o l d storage f a c i l i t i e s  r e a s o n a b l y c l o s e t o these grounds.  shift  All  vessels  vessels  be developed  i n the h a l i b u t  fleet  were o u t f i t t e d w i t h g a s o l i n e engines by 1913, and as a r e s u l t they c o u l d r e a d i l y engage i n f i s h i n g o p e r a t i o n s some d i s t a n c e west o f Cape Spencer. Extension of cold storage f a c i l i t i e s  to n o r t h e r n l o c a t i o n s and the  71 development o f a r a i l h e a d p o r t at P r i n c e Rupert made i t p o s s i b l e to e x p l o i t western grounds. i n the i n i t i a l costs  Large y i e l d s  economically  from the western  banks  y e a r s o f westward expansion o f f s e t the added o p e r a t i n g  i n c u r r e d i n e x p l o i t i n g t h e s e banks. As a r e s u l t o f westward expansion and an i n c r e a s e  expended, h a l i b u t  to r e s t o r e h a l i b u t  potential  stocks.  This  1954 a f t e r measures had been taken  D e s p i t e the r a p i d i n c r e a s e  in t o t a l  catch  market f o r h a l i b u t was not c a p a b l e o f keeping pace with  p r o d u c t i v i t y o f the i n d u s t r y .  freezing capacity within  Nevertheless,  the i n c r e a s e  the  in  the c o l d s t o r a g e s e c t o r p r o v i d e d buyers w i t h  the means to o v e r - p u r c h a s e y e a r l y  s u p p l i e s o f h a l i b u t and encouraged the  c a t c h i n g s e c t o r to m a i n t a i n a h i g h l e v e l that a larger  effort  l a n d i n g s reached 68.7 m i l l i o n pounds i n 1915.  f i g u r e was not t o be s u r p a s s e d u n t i l  the a v a i l a b l e  in total  of production.  The r e s u l t  being  p r o p o r t i o n o f the c a t c h had to be p l a c e d i n c o l d s t o r a g e  longer p e r i o d s .  When catches were not moving from s t o r a g e at a f a s t  p r i c e s f o r f r e s h h a l i b u t d e c r e a s e d , as was the case i n the i n i t i a l westward e x t e n s i o n .  for  rate,  years of  For example, the average p r i c e p a i d f o r number one  h a l i b u t at S e a t t l e decreased from 8 c e n t s per pound i n 1913 t o 4.7  cents  1g per pound i n 1914.  The P a c i f i c  Fisherman s t a t e d t h a t " I t  t h a t t h e r e can be no permanent improvement i n the h a l i b u t the market f o r h a l i b u t  is  very  fishery  i s extended c o n s i d e r a b l y o r the output  evident  unless  materially  reduced. A n x i e t y on the p a r t o f the i n d u s t r y r e l a t i n g soon d i s a p p e a r e d .  to over-production  A l t h o u g h expansion to grounds on the e a s t s i d e o f  the G u l f o f A l a s k a r e s u l t e d i n a temporary i n c r e a s e  in catch, production  d e c l i n e d s h a r p l y d u r i n g the war p e r i o d d e s p i t e a sharp i n c r e a s e prices.  in  halibut  Landings dropped from 68.7 m i l l i o n pounds i n 1915 to a low o f  72  37.8 m i l l i o n pounds i n 1918.  The c a t c h d e c l i n e r e f l e c t e d  d e p l e t i o n o f h a l i b u t s t o c k s because t h e r e was no o v e r a l l  continued reduction  in  1g effort.  Food demands d u r i n g the war,  t o g e t h e r with decreased  catches  and i n c r e a s e d c o m p e t i t i o n between buyers  f o r decreased s u p p l i e s o f  l e d t o an e s c a l a t i o n o f h a l i b u t p r i c e s .  The average  halibut  p r i c e p a i d f o r number  one f i s h a t S e a t t l e i n c r e a s e d from 4.7 c e n t s per pound i n 1914 t o 18.3 19 cents per pound i n 1918. In a n t i c i p a t i o n o f the p o r t d e v e l o p i n g i n t o a major s e a p o r t , much speculative  investment o c c u r r e d a t P r i n c e Rupert p r i o r t o the c o m p l e t i o n  o f the Grand Trunk P a c i f i c  Railway i n 1914.  Associated with t h i s  ment was the c o m p l e t i o n o f a number o f c o l d s t o r a g e p l a n t s . capacity  invest-  One had a  i n excess o f 12 m i l l i o n pounds and was one o f the l a r g e s t  in  the  20 w o r l d at t h a t t i m e .  Much o f the c a p i t a l  was B r i t i s h ,  and North Sea 21  t r a w l e r s were brought out t o s u p p l y the c o l d s t o r a g e s e c t o r . v e s s e l s were d e s i g n e d f o r t r a w l i n g and they switched t o l o n g l i n i n g . at t h i s  northern r a i l h e a d  because o f i t s  strategic  grounds o f the E a s t e r n  o p e r a t i o n s but t h i s  The  proved  impractical  The development o f f i s h i n g  location greatly  facilitated  p o s i t i o n in r e l a t i o n  facilities  westward expansion  to the major  halibut  Pacific.  The r i s e o f P r i n c e Rupert as the l e a d i n g h a l i b u t p o r t was l o o k e d 22 upon b i t t e r l y  by S e a t t l e and K e t c h i k a n  in p a r t i c u l a r .  Because o f  r a i l h e a d l o c a t i o n , P r i n c e Rupert was i n a p o s i t i o n to c a p t u r e a p r o p o r t i o n o f the e n t i r e  The former p o r t s made  to the U n i t e d S t a t e s government to have t a r i f f s  on U n i t e d S t a t e s imported h a l i b u t from B r i t i s h failed.  significant  c a t c h s i n c e p r i c e s p a i d at the p o r t were  c o m p e t i t i v e w i t h those at p o r t s to the s o u t h . representation  its  Using the p o r t as an o p e r a t i o n a l  imposed  Columbia but t h e s e  and l a n d i n g p o r t ,  attempts  not o n l y  73  could vessels  f i s h the southern g r o u n d s , but they were a l s o  l o c a t e d to develop and e x p l o i t the western was a l s o c o n v e n i e n t l y additional  strategically  grounds as w e l l .  Ketchikan  l o c a t e d near the major grounds but because o f  transportation costs  the r a i l h e a d p o r t s f o r f i n a l those p a i d f o r h a l i b u t at  incurred in transshipping halibut  to  market d e s t i n a t i o n , p r i c e s were lower  P r i n c e Rupert.  developed on the s c a l e o f P r i n c e  As a r e s u l t  Ketchikan  than  never  Rupert.  Although westward e x t e n s i o n t o the grounds on the e a s t s i d e o f G u l f o f A l a s k a commenced on a very  intensive  o p e r a t i n g c o s t s o f the g a s o l i n e / d i s t i l l a t e  scale  i n 1913, the  powered v e s s e l s  expensive  still  h i n d e r e d expansion to waters o f the west s i d e o f the G u l f . w i t h the advent o f cheap o p e r a t i n g c o s t s and e f f i c i e n c y  the  A f t e r 1923,  o f the  diesel  e n g i n e , e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the banks on the west s i d e o f the G u l f o f A l a s k a expanded r a p i d l y .  Landings west o f Cape S t .  Elias  i n c r e a s e d from 4.5 23  m i l l i o n pounds i n 1922 t o 17.8 m i l l i o n pounds i n 1924. far  l e s s c o s t were now e c o n o m i c a l l y p o s s i b l e .  i n f r e e z i n g onboard v e s s e l s  such as small  In a d d i t i o n ,  time d u r a t i o n s .  A fleet  at  innovations  f r e e z i n g u n i t s and cork  i n s u l a t e d h o l d s p e r m i t t e d f i s h i n g over a g r e a t e r greater  Longer t r i p s  spatial  range  for  with a g r e a t e r degree o f m o b i l i t y and  range had developed by the end o f the second p e r i o d than was the case  in  the 1888-1912 p e r i o d . From T a b l e III  it  can be seen t h a t the i n c r e a s e d catches  western grounds were landed m a i n l y at n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h Southeast Alaska p o r t s .  from the  Columbia and  Landings on Puget Sound remained f a i r l y  Whereas l a n d i n g s i n west c e n t r a l c a t c h taken i n these w a t e r s .  stable.  A l a s k a were o n l y a f r a c t i o n o f the  halibut  With d e c r e a s e d p r i c e s towards the end o f  74 the 1913-1931 p e r i o d ,  however,  a greater  home p o r t on Puget Sound found i t Seattle.  number o f American v e s s e l s w i t h  more p r o f i t a b l e to d e l i v e r c a t c h e s  Because o f d e c l i n i n g p r i c e s f i s h e r m e n were l e s s  f i s h the f a r western grounds.  Instead,  to  i n c l i n e d to  they c o n c e n t r a t e d more e f f o r t  on the s o u t h e r n grounds and e l e c t e d to l a n d t h e i r c a t c h a t  home p o r t .  F i g u r e 19 shows the c a t c h i n m i l l i o n s o f pounds, the t o t a l  amount  of gear f i s h e d i n thousands o f s k a t e s , and the c a t c h per skate f o r Area 2 and Area 3 over the 1913-1931 p e r i o d . c o n t i n u e d on the s o u t h e r n grounds.  Then general  decline in  yields  On western g r o u n d s , the sharp  d e c r e a s e i n c a t c h per skate r e f l e c t e d the same p a t t e r n o f d e p l e t i o n which occurred e a r l i e r  on the banks south o f Cape Spencer.  Average y i e l d s  per  s k a t e o f gear i n western waters d e c r e a s e d from 266 pounds i n 1915 to 64.7 pounds i n 1930, but the number o f s k a t e s o f gear f i s h e d i n c r e a s e d 24 from 8 8 . 9 thousand to 431.2 t h o u s a n d .  South o f Cape S p e n c e r , the  average  y i e l d s d e c r e a s e d from 118 pounds to 35 pounds over the same p e r i o d and the number o f skates o f gear employed i n c r e a s e d from 381.5 thousand to 616.3 25 thousand.  The s l i g h t upward t r e n d s f o r both areas  t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e d e c l i n e i n e f f o r t because o f v e r y for  i n 1931 was  related  low p r i c e s b e i n g p a i d  halibut. By the end o f the 1913-1931 p e r i o d the amount o f e f f o r t expended was  d i v i d e d almost e q u a l l y between Area 2 and Area 3.  The g r e a t e r amounts o f  gear f i s h e d on the southern banks was due t o the l a r g e r number o f f i s h i n g these w a t e r s .  In a d d i t i o n , fishermen were f o r c e d to employ more  and more gear to compensate f o r d e c l i n i n g h a l i b u t s t o c k s .  Although a  c l o s e d f i s h i n g season between November 16 and February 15 was i n 1924 by the I F C ,  vessels  average y i e l d s c o n t i n u e d t o d e c r e a s e .  instituted  There i s no  c o n c l u s i v e e v i d e n c e t h a t the sharp decrease i n h a l i b u t l a n d i n g s 1915 was r e l a t e d to environmental  factors, e.g.  after  change i n ocean t e m p e r a t u r e .  75 FIGURE 19.  to ui  TRENDS IN CATCH, EFFORT, YIELD 1913-1931.  < to  in  60 h  600  AREA 3  Ll_ U. UJ  a z  o X  o  ZD  o  a.  u  u_ O  r<  z  Q z <  tO  500  50  VI  X H  to  400  to  LU  o  t<  300 0_ X  J  I  l  1915  1917  1919  L  1921  J  I  I  1923  1925  1927  u.  O to  a u LU a < z  X=  100  1913  o a.  LU  200  Q  Z  L  1929  1931 CO LU  AREA 2  ai  600  £  u.  LU  00  Q z  o  x °O  5  /  50  500  a z <  ^ H <  ° 30  300  to ai  LU  e-  to  LU  U-  to  O  to O X  400  40  < 00 LU  200  20  -  N  10  100  - ~_  1913  L  1  1  1  1915  1917  1919  1921  CATCH EFFORT - - CATCH PER SKATE  1 1923  •  1925  1927  1929  1931  a. X  to Q  LU  ai  u a < z X  76 Increased f l e e t and g r e a t e r  vessel  populations within  expansion a f t e r  efficiency,  1912, c o u p l e d with i n c r e a s e d  p l a c e d added s t r a i n on o v e r a l l  an economical s p a t i a l  The newly e x p l o i t e d grounds as w e l l  effort  halibut  r a d i u s o f the c a t c h i n g  sector.  as the l o n g e r f i s h e d s o u t h e r n grounds  c o u l d not m a i n t a i n outputs which were reached between 1910 and 1915. This resulted  i n decreased y i e l d s , g e n e r a l l y  s m a l l e r average  l a n d i n g s per t r i p  per v e s s e l .  l a n d i n g s o f the S e a t t l e schooner f l e e t trip  i n 1915 t o 10,465 pounds i n 1918.  steamer f l e e t  higher h a l i b u t prices For example, the  and  average  decreased from 29,337 pounds per ?fi  Average l a n d i n g s per t r i p o f  the  decreased from 106,457 pounds to 55,872 pounds over the same  27 period.  Because o f such d e c r e a s e s , S e a t t l e i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  p o s i t i o n to m a i n t a i n  its  dominant p l a c e i n the  fishery.  Although westward expansion promoted d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n s t r u c t u r e o f the E a s t e r n period,  it  Pacific  halibut  was not i n a  i n the  spatial  i n d u s t r y d u r i n g the 1913-1931  d i d not s o l v e the problems o f r e s o u r c e d e p l e t i o n and o v e r f i s h i n g .  Unrestricted  entry  i n t o the f i s h e r y  ( a p a r t from c a p i t a l  constraints)  r e s u l t e d i n i n c r e a s e d d e p l e t i o n o f s t o c k s and underemployment o f men, v e s s e l s , and gear w i t h i n s u p p o r t e d by r e l a t i v e l y  the c a t c h i n g s e c t o r .  s t r o n g p r i c e s throughout most o f the  r e s u l t e d i n the h a l i b u t f i s h e r y Fleet  Technological  innovations period  being c h a r a c t e r i z e d by o v e r - e x p a n s i o n .  Transition The i n i t i a l  fleets  p e r i o d o f the f i s h e r y was dominated by the company-owned  f o r reasons p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d .  had made Vancouver i t s steamers. imately  Vessels  100 f e e t  headquarters  The New England F i s h i n g Company  and was the major company o p e r a t i n g  i n the company f l e e t  averaged 125 t o n s , were a p p r o x -  l o n g , c a r r i e d 12 d o r i e s and a crew o f 30-35 men w i t h a  77 carrying capacity Seattle-based  o f 200-250,000 pounds.  independent f l e e t  pQ  A vessel  i n the 1915  averaged 27.2 t o n s , c a r r i e d an  average  o f 4 d o r i e s and 10 men, and had an average c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y o f 51,685 29 pounds. smaller  The steamer-based p o r t s t h e r e f o r e  had g r e a t advantage over  the  ports.  Company-owned f l e e t s phase of the f i s h e r y .  had been e x t r e m e l y e f f e c t i v e  i n the  initial  For example, one steamer a l o n e accounted f o r  1.6  30 m i l l i o n pounds  of halibut  (27% o f the t o t a l  f i s h i n g d u r i n g the w i n t e r o f 1898-99.  catch)  With i n c r e a s e d d e p l e t i o n o f  however,  the o p e r a t i n g c o s t s o f the steamer f l e e t  of t h e i r  large  effectively.  i n s i x months  rose s h a r p l y .  stocks,  Because  s i z e they c o u l d not r e a d i l y engage i n l o n g l i n i n g o p e r a t i o n s T h i s meant t h a t t h e i r  o f the G u l f o f A l a s k a , and i t  d o r i e s had t o be used i n the open waters  proved uneconomical to do so because o f  more adverse weather c o n d i t i o n s than was the case south o f Cape S p e n c e r . T a b l e IV shows the number o f steamers i n the h a l i b u t f i s h e r y the 1913-1931 p e r i o d .  Vertical  i n t e g r a t i o n was n e c e s s a r y Table  No. o f Steamers  Source:  i n the  during early  IV  O p e r a t i n g Each Year  1913-1931  Year  No.  Year  No.  Year  No.  1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919  13 18 17 15 15 14 11 9  1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927  9 4 4 6 5  1928 1929 1930 1931  1 1 1  IFC Report No. 5  phase o f the f i s h e r y c o l d storage sector.  0  1 1 1  i n o r d e r to a s s u r e adequate s u p p l i e s o f h a l i b u t f o r The expanded independent f l e e t  now s e r v e d t h i s  role  the  78 which f u r t h e r  c o n t r i b u t e d t o the d e c l i n e o f the company-owned f l e e t .  temporary i n c r e a s e  i n the s i z e o f the f l e e t  from 13 i n 1912 to 18 i n 1913  was brought about by expansion o f c o l d s t o r a g e f a c i l i t i e s A t t h a t time the P r i n c e Rupert small  independent f l e e t  at P r i n c e  were c a p a b l e o f h a n d l i n g .  the c o m p l e t i o n o f the r a i l w a y , however,  the independent f l e e t  Rupert expanded r a p i d l y and overcame t h i s  Rupert.  c o n s i s t e d o f a few  v e s s e l s which were not c a p a b l e o f p r o d u c i n g the volumes o f  t h a t the new c o l d s t o r a g e f a c i l i t i e s  The  difficulty.  halibut With  at  Prince  Essentially,  the r o l e o f Vancouver and Tacoma i n the f i s h e r y d e c l i n e d with the p a s s i n g o f the company f l e e t s . fleets  like  N e i t h e r o f t h e s e p o r t s had developed independent  those o f S e a t t l e and P r i n c e R u p e r t ,  on company v e s s e l  Columbia than i n Washington.  T a b l e V shows the number o f  The f u l l  impact o f the A c t was not f e l t  o f P r i n c e Rupert as a major h a l i b u t p o r t i n 1915.  1918.  i n c r e a s e d from a p p r o x i m a t e l y 35 v e s s e l s 31  British  independent 1913-1931 per  imported i n t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s from Canada,  d i d not have any immediate impact on v e s s e l  Columbia.  fleet  in  The Underwood T a r i f f A c t o f 1913 e l i m i n a t e d the one c e n t  pound import duty on h a l i b u t but i t  proceeded much slower  o p e r a t i n g from the major p o r t s i n v a r i o u s y e a r s o f the  period.  dependent  landings.  Development o f an independent f l e e t  vessels  and were l a r g e l y  c o n s t r u c t i o n in until  the  British  development  The s i z e o f the Canadian  i n 1915 to 100 v e s s e l s  During the same p e r i o d the s i z e o f the P r i n c e Rupert f l e e t  in in-  32 c r e a s e d from 17 t o 71 v e s s e l s . Continued e x t e n s i o n o f the h a l i b u t  f i s h e r y d u r i n g the  p e r i o d was accompanied by the r i s e o f independent f l e e t s Sound and the Lower M a i n l a n d .  After  1913-1931  outside  Puget  the r i s e o f P r i n c e Rupert as a  Table V Number o f V e s s e l s >10 Tons with Home P o r t at the Major Ports and T o t a l Gear F i s h e d 1912-1931.  Year  Seattle  1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931  56 (70) 97 100 98 93 105 96 118 129 109 108 138 138 148 153 149 155 149 146  Prince Rupert  <10 <10 <10 10 11 27 24 26 33 35 25 17 17 19 16 25 30 37 26 26 (1)  N.B.  Vancouver  Ketchikan  12 <17 <17 17 20 57 71 65 62 84 72 80 89 94 96 107 112 116 109 98  Information  not  Juneau  ..(1)  ..(1)  ---  --  ------  —  47 46 40 35 41 36  — —  Petersburg  -----  —  —  —  —  ---  32 34 35 49 50 55  -26 26 51 45 44 44  Number o f Skates o f Gear Fi s 343066 436273 (460000) 470568 355690 494342 394379 430960 485271 588500 575200 642700 714000 724500 765000 825800 921600 1048400 1041200 838800  available.  These s i x p o r t s accounted f o r approximately 85% o f a l l v e s s e l s i n the h a l i b u t f l e e t . The remaining 15% were based a t s m a l l e r p o r t s throughout the r e g i o n e . g . W r a n g e l l , S i t k a , Seaward.  Source:  Pacific  Fisherman  Yearbook(s).  80 major l a n d i n g / p r o c e s s i n g and marketing p o r t , o f Vancouver.  its  fleet  outnumbered t h a t  In much the same manner the Alaska-based f l e e t  expense o f the S e a t t l e f l e e t .  With i n c r e a s e d expansion o f the  s e c t o r many f i s h e r m e n from Washington e s t a b l i s h e d permanent at such p l a c e s as Juneau, The f l e e t s  Sitka,  at Seattle.  tonnage o f the S e a t t l e - b a s e d  the  catching  headquarters  K e t c h i k a n , P e t e r s b u r g , and W r a n g e l l .  which developed at these p o r t s were s m a l l e r  number than the main f l e e t  grew at  fleet  i n s i z e and  For example, the average  net  i n 1931 was 28 tons compared to 20 33  tons f o r the Ketchikan-based S i n c e the small  fleet.  independent f l e e t s  p r o d u c i n g grounds i n n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h required operational  r a d i u s was f a r  based to the s o u t h .  In t h i s  fleet,  Columbia and A l a s k a w a t e r s ,  l e s s than t h a t o f the l a r g e r  but t h i s was c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d by the lower p r i c e s  based f l e e t s  received for their  substantially,  the l a r g e r  p o s i t i o n to d e l i v e r  major their vessels  r e s p e c t they h e l d an advantage over the  two to f i v e c e n t s per pound l e s s )  better  were l o c a t e d near the  their  (approximately  which the P r i n c e Rupert and A l a s k a -  catches.  vessels  southern  T h e r e f o r e , when p r i c e s  declined  from Vancouver and S e a t t l e were i n a catches  to the southern p o r t s .  e x p l a i n s why Vancouver and S e a t t l e i n c r e a s e d t h e i r  This  l a n d i n g s between 1926 and  1931. By the end o f the  1913-1931 p e r i o d , the independent f l e e t  had com-  pletely  r e p l a c e d the company f l e e t s which developed p r i o r to 1914.  In-  creases  i n the p r i c e o f h a l i b u t and more f a v o u r a b l e market c o n d i t i o n s made  34 it  more p r o f i t a b l e f o r fishermen and s p e c u l a t i v e  i n c r e a s e d numbers o f v e s s e l s the independent f l e e t  backers  to i n v e s t  in  t h e r e b y c o n t r i b u t i n g to r a p i d e x p a n s i o n o f  d u r i n g the second p e r i o d .  From a small number o f  81 small  s a i l i n g v e s s e l s a t the t u r n o f the c e n t u r y ,  expanded to a p p r o x i m a t e l y 500 r e l a t i v e l y Although the Canadian f l e e t 1931 p e r i o d ,  its  the independent  fleet  l a r g e powered v e s s e l s by 1931.  i n c r e a s e d i n number throughout the 1913-  share o f the t o t a l  c a t c h d e c r e a s e d from 26.5% i n 1915 to  35 17.4% i n 1931. American f l e e t , fleet.  T h i s r e f l e c t e d the f a s t e r as w e l l  Despite t h i s ,  landings o f h a l i b u t at B r i t i s h  port.  Columbia p o r t s  c a t c h i n 1913 to 41.4% o f t o t a l  The r i s e o f P r i n c e Rupert made i t  the American f l e e t  the  as the r e t i r e m e n t o f the steamers from the Canadian  i n c r e a s e d from 33.3% o f the t o t a l i n 1931.  i n c r e a s e i n the s i z e o f  convenient f o r vessels  to l a n d a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f i t s  T h i s accounts f o r the upward s h i f t  landings  in B r i t i s h  catch at  in  this  Columbia p o r t l a n d i n g s  d u r i n g the p e r i o d d e s p i t e a s i g n i f i c a n t d e c r e a s e i n the percentage o f the c a t c h by the Canadian s e c t o r o f the The r i s e o f the independent f l e e t the h a l i b u t i n d u s t r y as a whole.  Fleet  fleet. had i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s  for  expansion came a t a time when y i e l d s  from most o f the f i s h i n g grounds were d e c l i n i n g .  Any i n c r e a s e i n  the  number o f v e s s e l s r e s u l t e d i n i n c r e a s e d amounts o f e f f o r t b e i n g employed. Catch r e t u r n s were not p r o p o r t i o n a l t o the amount o f e f f o r t expended and c o n s e q u e n t l y f i s h e r m e n were competing f o r r e l a t i v e l y year a f t e r year. the f i s h e r y .  stable  This r e s u l t e d in overinvestment of c a p i t a l  By 1924 the p r o f i t s o f many v e s s e l  catches  within  owners were not i n keeping 37  w i t h the amount o f i n v e s t m e n t , l a b o u r , and hazards i n v o l v e d . amount o f e f f o r t  The  had i n c r e a s e d two and o n e - h a l f times between 1915 and  1930 but the c a t c h d e c l i n e d by 38% over the same p e r i o d . The H a l i b u t Convention o f 1923 It  is clear  from the f o r e g o i n g t h a t the h a l i b u t  i n d u s t r y reached a  82  critical  turning point during this  period.  Either biological  and o t h e r  c o n t r o l s had to be i n t r o d u c e d o r the i n d u s t r y would s u f f e r the same f a t e as the A t l a n t i c  halibut fishery,  Recognizing t h i s  that is  almost t o t a l  resource d e p l e t i o n .  s i t u a t i o n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canadian governments 38  signed the H a l i b u t Convention on March 2, first  international  deep-sea f i s h e r y .  1923.  T h i s c o n v e n t i o n was  agreement aimed at r e g u l a t i n g a s e r i o u s l y  the  depleted  Concern was being e x p r e s s e d by those engaged i n  i n d u s t r y over d e p l e t i o n o f h a l i b u t s t o c k s long b e f o r e s i g n i n g o f  the  the  39 convention, Seattle.  especially  by the F i s h i n g V e s s e l Owners A s s o c i a t i o n o f  4 0  In 1914, the government o f B r i t i s h Columbia s o l i c i t e d the o f a b i o l o g i s t (W. Pacific halibut. Fisheries  F.  Thompson) t o i n v e s t i g a t e  services  the l i f e - h i s t o r y o f  The Report o f the B r i t i s h Columbia Department o f  f o r 1914 s t a t e d t h a t "It  i s beyond q u e s t i o n t h a t . . .  some p r o -  t e c t i o n must be extended t o the s p e c i e s i n the near f u t u r e . " *  In  4  1916 a B i l l  the  was i n t r o d u c e d in the U n i t e d S t a t e s Congress (Senate  Bill  4586) to e s t a b l i s h a c l o s e d s e a s o n : f o r h a l i b u t and to c l o s e known 42 nursery grounds.  Enforcement o f t h e s e p r o v i s i o n s , however,  was  dependent on s i m i l a r a c t i o n by Canada because o f the i n t e r n a t i o n a l o f the  nature  fishery.  The American-Canadian F i s h e r i e s  Conference o f 1918 l e d t o the  signing  o f a h a l i b u t t r e a t y which p r o v i d e d f o r a c l o s e d season f o r h a l i b u t and r e ciprocal  port p r i v i l e g e s .  two p a r t i e s  The t r e a t y was not r a t i f i e d ,  c o u l d not agree on n o n - c o n s e r v a t i o n m a t t e r s  however,  because  such as  port-use  43 p r i v i l e g e s and t a r i f f s . finally  The e x c l u s i o n o f t r a d e and economic  l e d t o the s i g n i n g o f the H a l i b u t Convention i n 1923.  factors It  is  the  83 i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t those d i r e c t l y  engaged i n the i n d u s t r y ,  fishermen and f i s h d e a l e r s , were a d v o c a t i n g measures to p r o t e c t fishery,  but p o l i t i c a l  disagreement at the i n t e r n a t i o n a l  level  i.e. the  prevented  the a d o p t i o n o f the n e c e s s a r y measures. A r i s i n g from the c o n v e n t i o n the  International  F i s h e r i e s Commission  was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1923, c o n s i s t i n g o f f o u r members, two from each c o u n t r y , w i t h the j o i n t  expenses i n c u r r e d by the Commission t o be d i v i d e d  e q u a l l y between the two c o u n t r i e s . to r e s t r i c t tigation  vessel  entry  The Commission was not g i v e n the  i n t o the f i s h e r y  i n t o the l i f e - h i s t o r y  but to conduct a thorough  o f the P a c i f i c  recommendations as to the r e g u l a t i o n o f the As t h e s e b i o l o g i c a l  (1924)  fishery.  e f f o r t was c o n c e n t r a t e d  the  a c l o s e d season from mid-November  to mid-February t o c o i n c i d e w i t h the h a l i b u t move d i d not i n c r e a s e y i e l d s  inves-  h a l i b u t and t o make  s t u d i e s would take some time to d e v e l o p ,  Commission immediately e s t a b l i s h e d  powers  spawning p e r i o d .  per skate because o f the f a c t  This  that  fishing  i n the summer months anyway.  Toward the end o f the 1920-30 decade i t Convention r e q u i r e d changing and i n 1930 i t  had become c l e a r  t h a t the 1923  was r e - n e g o t i a t e d .  This  the Commission was g i v e n the power t o implement c a t c h quotas by areas be d e l i m i t e d ; to p r o h i b i t the d e p a r t u r e o f v e s s e l s  time to  f o r waters where s e t  l i m i t s were c l o s e to being r e a c h e d ; to f i x the s i z e and type o f gear used i n any a r e a ; t o make r e g u l a t i o n s  essential  f o r the c o l l e c t i n g o f  statistics;  44 and t o c l o s e f i s h i n g areas a result  f r e q u e n t e d by s m a l l , immature h a l i b u t .  o f t h e s e m e a s u r e s , g r e a t e r c o n s t r a i n t s were p l a c e d upon the  i n d u s t r y i n the 1932-1951 phase o f the  fishery.  As  84  References  1.  Bell,  F.  H . , H. A. Dunlop, and N. L. Freeman. " P a c i f i c Coast H a l i b u t Landings 1888 to 1950 and Catch A c c o r d i n g to Area o f O r i g i n . " Report Number 17. International F i s h e r i e s Commission, S e a t t l e . 1952. p p . 1 0 , 31.  2.  Bell,  F.  Heward.  3.  Ibid.  pp.  4.  Ibid.  p.  5.  Ibid.  p.7.  6.  Ibid.  p.  7.  Pacific  8.  Bell,  F.  " E a s t e r n P a c i f i c H a l i b u t F i s h e r y , 1888-1966." F i s h e r y L e a f l e t 602, U. S. Dept. o f the I n t e r i o r . U. S. F i s h and W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e , Bureau o f Commercial F i s h e r i e s . Washington, D.C. A u g u s t , 1968, pp. 4 , 5 .  4,5 7.  7.  Fisherman Yearbook(s) H. e t .  al.  1913-1931.  op. c i t .  p.  passim  31 and P a c i f i c  Fisherman  Yearbook(s)  1913-1931. p a s s i m . 9.  U r q u h a r t , M. C. and K. A. H. Buckley ( e d s . ) Historical Statistics of Canada Sponsored by the Canadian P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e A s s o c . and S o c i a l S c i e n c e Research C o u n c i l o f Canada. The U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . Cambridge. 1965. p. 395.  10.  Bell,  F.  Heward.  "Agreements, Conventions and T r e a t i e s Between Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s o f America w i t h Respect t o the P a c i f i c Halibut Fishery. Report Number 50 (IPHC). S e a t t l e , 1969. p. 6.  11.  Bell,  F. H. e t  12.  Pacific  Fisherman. Yearbook.  13.  Pacific  Fisherman. Yearbook.  14.  Pacific  Fisherman.  15.  Thompson, W. F . ,  a l . op.  cit.  Yearbook.  p.  31  1930. 1916. 1932.  p. 172. p. 102. p. 189  H. A. D u n l o p , and F. H. B e l l . "Biological Statistics o f the P a c i f i c H a l i b u t F i s h e r y . " Report Number 6. IFC. Vancouver, 1931. p. 35.  85  16.  Pacific  Fisherman.  Yearbook.  1924.  17.  Pacific  Fisherman.  J u l y 5, 1914.  18.  Thompson, W. F . ,  19.  Pacific  20.  The P r i n c e Rupert D a i l y News.  21.  Ibid,  22.  Pacific  23.  Bell,  24.  Chapman, D. C „ R.  25.  Ibid,  26.  Pacific  p. 96  p. 28.  and F. H. B e l l . " B i o l o g i c a l S t a t i s t i c s o f the P a c i f i c Halibut Fishery." Report Number 8, IFC. S e a t t l e . 1934. p. 12.  Fisherman Yearbook. 1924.  p. 96.  Vol  II.  No. 291. Dec. 20, 1911. p . l .  p. 1 Fisherman Yearbook.  F.  H. e t a l .  op. c i t .  1917, p. 75. p.  7.  J . Myhre, and G. M. Southward. " U t i l i z a t i o n of P a c i f i c Halibut Stocks: E s t i m a t i o n o f Maximum Sustainable Y i e l d . 1960. Report Number 31. IPHC. S e a t t l e , 1962. p. 33.  p. 33. Fisherman Yearbook, 1917. Yearbook.  27.  Ibid,  28.  British  p.  1919.  77 and P a c i f i c  Fisherman  p. "119.  p. 119 Columbia Department o f F i s h e r i e s . 1915.  29.  Pacific  30.  Thompson, W. F.  31.  Pacific  32.  Ibid,  33.  Pacific  34.  Thompson, W. F.  35.  Bell,  36.  Ibid,  Report.  1915.  Victoria,  p. SI 31.  Fisherman Yearbook.  1916.  p. 79.  and N. L. Freeman. " H i s t o r y o f the P a c i f i c H a l i b u t Fishery." Report Number 5. IFC. V a n c o u v e r , 1930. p. 29.  Fisherman  Yearbook.  1919.  pp. 1 2 1 , 121a.  pp. 1 2 1 , 121a. Fisherman Yearbook.  F.  H.,  pp. 4 ,  and N. L.  1932.  Freeman,  pp. 157, 158. op. c i t .  H. A. Dunlop, and N. L. 5.  p. 39.  Freeman,  op.cit.  p.  5.  37.  Pacific  Fisherman Yearbook.  38.  T r e a t y f o r the P r o t e c t i o n o f the P a c i f i c No. 809.  1925.  p. 114. Halibut.  The K i n g ' s P r i n t e r .  39.  Pacific  Fisherman Yearbook.  1924.  p. 108  40.  Pacific  Fisherman Yearbook.  1925.  p. 128.  41.  British  Columbia Department o f F i s h e r i e s .  42.  British  Columbia Department o f F i s h e r i e s .  B. B. 43.  Bell,  F.  Heward.  44.  Treaty Series.  C. 1915. C.  1916.  p. p.  1923. Ottawa.  Appendix B. 1923.  Report 1914.  Victoria,  Report 1916.  Victoria,  PnlO S12.  Report Number 50 (IPHC) o p . c i t . p.  7.  No. 917. Preservation of Halibut Fishery of P a c i f i c Ocean and B e r i n g Sea. Convention the U n i t e d S t a t e s o f America and Canada. 1937. U. S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e . 1937. Appendix M.  Northern Between Jan. 29, Wash.  87 Chapter V  Spatial  A d j u s t m e n t , Commission Quota C o n t r o l , and Extreme C o m p e t i t i o n  1932-1951.  Stages I and  II  o f the P a c i f i c  halibut  f i s h e r y were c h a r a c t e r i z e d  by heavy e x p l o i t a t i o n and d e p l e t i o n o f the major h a l i b u t grounds as a result  of intensive  fishing pressure.  The i n d u s t r y passed through an  u n r e g u l a t e d phase i n which t h e r e were no r e s t r i c t i o n s and e n t r y .  The e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g  halibut fleet  on annual  catch  o p e r a t e d i n response to  the changing p r o d u c t i v i t y o f f i s h i n g banks throughout the  Pacific  Northwest.  major  By the end o f the second stage  (1913-1931) a l l  banks  w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f those i n the B e r i n g Sea had been exposed to exploitation.  The f r e q u e n t s h i f t  a s p e c t o f the e a r l i e r the t h i r d s t a g e  to new grounds which was a dominant  s t a g e s o f the f i s h e r y was not c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  (1932-1951).  Rather,  f i s h e r y was one i n which the s p a t i a l  the t h i r d stage o f the structure  f i n e d to p r e v i o u s l y developed b o u n d a r i e s . controls  (commencing i n 1932) by the  was to a f f e c t  the c a t c h from v a r i o u s  and as a r e s u l t Nevertheless, vessels  heavy  expanded very  halibut  o f the i n d u s t r y was  con-  The i m p o s i t i o n o f quota  International  F i s h e r i e s Commission  s e c t o r s o f the h a l i b u t grounds  r e s o u r c e s t o c k s were t o improve d u r i n g the  the f l e e t  of  period.  r a p i d l y and c o m p e t i t i o n  f o r a share o f the c a t c h became very  keen.  between  As a r e s u l t o f such  c o m p e t i t i o n the d u r a t i o n o f the f i s h i n g season was decreased phenomenally s i n c e the quotas were taken i n f a r l e s s  time.  The f u n c t i o n a l  structure  o f the i n d u s t r y was l i m i t e d to two components, the l o n g l i n e r and small boat  sectors.  88 Spatial  Structure  Between 1888 and 1931 a l l  major h a l i b u t banks o f the E a s t e r n  w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f those i n the B e r i n g Sea had come under fishing pressure.  effort  t o the western grounds i n i t i a l l y  period. little  i n the amount o f e f f o r t  shift  e n t e r i n g the  i n the i n d u s t r y .  It  to  expended, but from 1939  onwards  i n c r e a s e d the number  fishery.  F i g u r e 20 shows the s p a t i a l 1932-1951 p e r i o d .  previous  low h a l i b u t p r i c e s l e d  upward p r i c e movement and a number o f o t h e r f a c t o r s of vessels  the  i n the amount o f  developed i n the  Between 1932 and 1939 r e l a t i v e l y variation  intensive  No expansion to new grounds o c c u r r e d d u r i n g  1932-1951 p e r i o d a l t h o u g h t h e r e was a general  Pacific  s t r u c t u r e o f the  industry during  the  d e p i c t s the i n c r e a s e d importance o f secondary  Because o f an i n c r e a s e  i n h a l i b u t s t o c k s on the  ports  inshore  g r o u n d s , the small boat s e c t o r o f the i n d u s t r y became o f some importance once a g a i n .  For reasons to be examined, t h e r e was a l s o l e s s  f o r some v e s s e l s  i n the f l e e t  to land t h e i r  Although much o f the f i s h i n g a c t i v i t y  c a t c h e s away from home p o r t .  was again c e n t r e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e  d i s t a n c e from the most s o u t h e r n p o r t s , no major h a l i b u t p o r t west o f Cape S p e n c e r . were o p e r a t i n g from a l l  During the p e r i o d a l a r g e r number o f ports within  o f the c a t c h i n g s e c t o r was g r e a t e s t railhead  the i n d u s t r y ,  developed vessels  but the s p a t i a l  f o r those v e s s e l s  based at  range  the  ports.  Similarly, their  tendency  F i g u r e 21 shows t h a t Southeast A l a s k a l o c a t i o n s  share o f the c a t c h over t h a t o f the 1913-1931 p e r i o d .  increased  Prince  Rupert l a n d i n g s d e c r e a s e d somewhat as more o f the American v e s s e l s  elected  Legend RAILHEAD LOCATION PORTS SECONDARY PORTS FISHING STATIONS (MINOR PORTS) COLD STORAGE FACILITIES nmnn LIMIT OF FISHING OPERATIONS — • RANGE OF FISHING VESSELS BASED AT EACH PORT TYPE —*  VESSELS ELECT TO LAND PART OF YEARLY CATCH AWAY FROM HOME PORT Co. FIGURE 20.  SPATIAL S T R U C T U R E O F T H E INDUSTRY  1932-1951.  SIZE OF T H E S Q U A R E PROPORTIONAL TO A V E R A G E A N N U A L LANDINGS FOR T H E PERIOD ONE Q U A R T E R  WEST CENTRAL ALASKA PORTS  INCH S Q U A R E EQUALS 8 MILLIONS POUNDS  OTHER PORTS  KETCHIKAN  SOUTHEAST ALASKA PORTS (EXC'L KETCHIKAN)  PRINCE RUPERT  SEATTLE  FIGURE 21.  VANCOUVER  DEGREE OF CENTRALIZATION OF HALIBUT LANDINGS 1932-1951.  91 to l a n d a g r e a t e r independent f l e e t s  part of t h e i r  in that area.  greatly  Landings at p o r t s  i n West The  Columbia a n d , to a  increase  lesser  i n Washington was the r e s u l t o f g r e a t e r c a t c h e s d u r i n g the  by the small  boat s e c t o r o f the  In the 1913-1931 p e r i o d , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 41% o f a l l  grounds west o f Cape Spencer produced  Eastern  average annual  period  industry.  Pacific  halibut  landings.  During  1932-1951 p e r i o d , l a n d i n g s from t h e s e western grounds accounted 49% o f t o t a l  the  in  A l a s k a i n c r e a s e d s l i g h t l y over the p r e v i o u s p e r i o d .  i n l a n d i n g s at o t h e r minor p o r t s i n B r i t i s h extent  Expansion o f  at Southeast A l a s k a l o c a t i o n s r e s u l t e d  i n c r e a s e d l a n d i n g s at p o r t s Central  c a t c h on Puget Sound,  landings.*  the  for  F i g u r e 22 shows the area  over  which f i s h i n g was c a r r i e d out i n the t h i r d p e r i o d and the breakdown o f catches  from v a r i o u s  s e c t o r s o f the h a l i b u t grounds.  In g e n e r a l ,  grounds n o r t h by Cape S c o t t were exposed t o the g r e a t e s t f i s h i n g p r e s s u r e and were the source o f the h e a v i e s t  the  amount o f  landings.  Grounds  south o f Cape S c o t t s u p p o r t l e s s p r o l i f i c s t o c k s and i n the e a r l y o f the p e r i o d quota c o n t r o l s were d e s i g n e d to take p r e s s u r e o f f heavily  years  these  depleted grounds.  Although the r a d i u s o f the c a t c h i n g s e c t o r was not extended t o new f i s h i n g g r o u n d s , changes d i d o c c u r i n the p a t t e r n o f l a n d i n g s by region.  T h i s gave r i s e  ton, British  to a more even d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l a n d i n g s i n Washing-  C o l u m b i a , and A l a s k a .  Washington l a n d i n g s  remained  2 unchanged from the p r e v i o u s p e r i o d at British  31%  of a s l i g h t l y  increased catch.  Columbia l a n d i n g s decreased from 53% i n the 1913-1931 p e r i o d t o 3  40% i n the 1932-1951 p e r i o d .  Alaska experienced a s i g n i f i c a n t  increase  4 i n average  annual  l a n d i n g s from 17% i n the p r e v i o u s  p e r i o d t o 29%  in  FIGURE 22. AVERAGE ANNUAL CATCH FROM VARIOUS GROUNDS 1932-1951.  WASHINGTON  93 the 1932-1951 p e r i o d .  In a d d i t i o n t o a general westward s h i f t  volume o f c a t c h t h e r e was an accompanying s h i f t well  in regional  in  l a n d i n g s as  (Figure 23). The s i g n i f i c a n t changes which o c c u r r e d throughout the p e r i o d were:  the d e c l i n e i n Washington l a n d i n g s a f t e r British  Columbia l a n d i n g s a f t e r  l a n d i n g s but most n o t a b l y a f t e r  1939; the r e l a t i v e s t a b i l i t y  the same d a t e ; and the i n c r e a s e i n A l a s k a 1939.  The i n c r e a s e d westward t r e n d  l a n d i n g s was i n l a r g e measure a t t r i b u t a b l e  to increased catches  in  from  the western grounds and the tendency f o r v e s s e l s to l a n d t h e i r c a t c h p o r t s c l o s e to the grounds.  of  T h i s was e s p e c i a l l y the case i n the  at  final  y e a r s o f the p e r i o d when the f i s h i n g season d u r a t i o n was reduced s h a r p l y . In an attempt t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r  share o f the c a t c h , i n d i v i d u a l  t r i e d t o make as many t r i p s as p o s s i b l e . l a n d a l l , but t h e i r f i n a l  To do t h i s ,  vessels  they e l e c t e d  to  t r i p a t p o r t s c l o s e t o the grounds they were  fishing. Halibut prices f e l l to r e c o v e r . in British  s h a r p l y d u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n and were slow  For example, the average p r i c e per pound o f h a l i b u t landed Columbia f e l l  from 13 c e n t s per pound i n 1926 to 4 c e n t s  5 per pound i n 1932.  To combat the low p r i c e s which p r e v a i l e d ,  fishermen i n s t i t u t e d a between-trip quotas.  6  the f l e e t  layover  program and s e t  the  vessel  To a v o i d heavy l a n d i n g s o f h a l i b u t on any g i v e n d a y ,  half  s t a y e d i n p o r t w h i l e the remaining h a l f engaged i n f i s h i n g  operations.  T h i s system worked q u i t e e f f e c t i v e l y  f o r h a l i b u t and h i g h e r p r i c e s a f t e r  but i n c r e a s e d demand  1939 r e s u l t e d i n i n c r e a s e d numbers  o f n o n - r e g u l a r h a l i b u t v e s s e l s e n t e r i n g the f i s h e r y . surveillance  purposes the l a y - o v e r  For maritime  program was t e r m i n a t e d a f t e r  the 1942  95 f i s h i n g season and was not r e - i n s t i t u t e d the  the war ended because  i n f l u x of vessels mitigated against t h i s .  the program was i n e f f e c t , at  after  vessels  During the y e a r s i n which  landed a g r e a t e r  share o f t h e i r  catch  home p o r t . F i g u r e 24 shows the i n c r e a s e  in halibut prices a f t e r  p r i c e s at S e a t t l e ) .  This f a c t o r ,  between-trip  program, weakened Washington's  halibut  layover  t o g e t h e r w i t h the t e r m i n a t i o n o f  i n d u s t r y i n terms o f primary l a n d i n g s .  the p o s i t i o n o f S e a t t l e and o t h e r p o r t s 1943-1945 p e r i o d w i l l  Other f a c t o r s  i n the  As was the case i n the 1913-1931 p e r i o d ,  and S o u t h e a s t A l a s k a .  Columbia,  p l a c e d upon the  did occur in  landings  The p o s i t i o n o f Puget Sound remained  p e r i o d at 31% o f average  w h i l e l a n d i n g s at n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h  annual  landings,  Columbia decreased from 38% o f  average  l a n d i n g s to 3 1 % , and those i n S o u t h e a s t A l a s k a i n c r e a s e d from 19%  to 25%^. Pacific  l a n d i n g s were  Because o f o p e r a t i n g c o n s t r a i n t s  unchanged over the p r e v i o u s  affecting  Puget Sound, n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h  throughout the r e g i o n as a whole.  the  chapter.  halibut  c a t c h i n g s e c t o r d u r i n g the p e r i o d , minor s h i f t s  annual  p o s i t i o n in  the  i n the i n d u s t r y d u r i n g the  be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r  dominated by t h r e e major a r e a s :  1939 (based on  T a b l e VI Northwest  shows how the l a n d i n g s were d i s t r i b u t e d throughout for all  the  three periods. Table  VI  Average Annual H a l i b u t Landings by P o r t Area 1888-1912,1913-1931,1932,1951.  Period 1888-1912 1913-1931 1932-1951  P.  Sound  Lower Mainld  13519 15046 16428  5905 3078 2562  The emergence o f major  ('000 Van.I. 607 652 1041  lbs.)  Cen.BC  Nor.BC  S.E. Alaska  W.C. Alaska  Total  473 1140 1590  89 18776 15789  1000 9619 13065  — 1163 1030  21593 49474 51505  h a l i b u t ports  in Southeast Alaska i s  shown  96 FIGURE 24. TRENDS IN LANDINGS BY REGION A N D A V E R A G E PRICE PER POUND (BASED ON S E A T T L E PRICES) 1932-1951. CATCH (MILLIONS O F POUNDS)  1932  YEARLY  1937  CATCH  L A N D E D IN WASHINGTON L A N D E D IN BRITISH COLUMBIA L A N D E D IN A L A S K A A V E R A G E PRICE  1942  1947  1951  97  i n T a b l e VII.  These p o r t s , l i k e the small  b e n e f i t e d from the i n c r e a s e result  in B r i t i s h  Columbia,,  i n h a l i b u t s t o c k s d u r i n g the p e r i o d as  o f quota r e g u l a t i o n o f the f i s h e r y but Vancouver and  d i d not improve t h e i r cause o f i t s  relative positions.  Nevertheless,  Ketchikan,  be-  larger  Vancouver.  Cold storage f a c i l i t i e s Seward and S e l d o v i a  the  Ketchikan  p r o x i m i t y to the major h a l i b u t grounds c a p t u r e d a  share o f l a n d i n g s than  e s t a b l i s h e d at western  l o c a t i o n s such as  d u r i n g the second p e r i o d were o n l y a b l e to  l a n d i n g s m a i n l y from v e s s e l s period.  ports  based at  these p o r t s d u r i n g the  P r i c e s p a i d f o r h a l i b u t at the western  attract  1932-1951  p o r t s were c o n s i d e r a b l y  lower than those p a i d a t more southern l o c a t i o n s .  F i s h landed o u t s i d e  the major r a i l h e a d p o r t s had t o absorb t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  costs  incurred  in  p shipment t o the r a i l h e a d s The s p a t i a l  for final  characteristics  p e r i o d were t h e r e f o r e the sharp i n c r e a s e  market  delivery.  o f the h a l i b u t f i s h e r y  i n the  a f u n c t i o n o f i n c r e a s e d westward s h i f t  i n h a l i b u t p r i c e s , the  c o n t r o l s , a sharp i n c r e a s e  in  catches,  i m p o s i t i o n o f h a l i b u t quota  i n the number o f v e s s e l s  and the d i s c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the v o l u n t a r y  1932-1951  e n t e r i n g the  between-trip  l a y o v e r program.  Between 1943 and 1945 the O f f i c e o f P r i c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the S t a t e s imposed p r i c e ranges at the v a r i o u s  fishery,  United  p o r t s and t h i s was to have a  b e a r i n g on the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f h a l i b u t l a n d i n g s d u r i n g t h e s e y e a r s . the end o f the 1932-1951 p e r i o d , the r e l a t i v e p r o x i m i t y o f British  By  northern  Columbia and Southeast A l a s k a p o r t s to the major p r o d u c i n g  g r o u n d s , a c t e d upon by the above f a c t o r s , a s s u r e d them o f a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f the h a l i b u t  catch.  pro-  Table VII Halibut Landings By Port 1932-1951 Year  Seattle  Vancouver  Prince Rupert  1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951  21791 21761 20205 21691 22572 21165 20769 20038 18831 19095 14865 13278 11881 12651 13932 5816 9434 10006 7473 9648  1188 1343 1513 2246 2054 2333 2794 3018 1999 3139 4035 5065 3561 2340 2023 4298 2641 2129 1096 2512  14860 14406 16537 14563 14318 16401 15943 19223 20529 18744 19325 18621 13896 16177 19495 20453 16144 17950 18921 20098  Source:  Ketchikan 3157 2877 3155 3752 3556 3642 2828 2263 3798 3367 5749 7450 9544 11208 12115 7503 7600 7628 6992 5170  ('000 lbs.)  Wrangell  Petersburg  Sitka  150 325 284 112 494 590 414 279 400 375 469 727 1008 585 699 643 716 499 479 496  482 1089 1002 474 1979 1352 1965 1460 1718 1463 1559 1936 2486 2161 2943 2828 2548 2675 3140 2869  53 845 1172 667 945 983 906 • 931 1370 2173 834 2694 2347 2773 2684 2634 2990 2008 3103 1985  Pelican  -—  -—  — — —  --—  589 1540 2000 2000 2200 2362 2102 3351 2294  Juneau 673 1621 1463 1341 1541 1832 2039 2001 1984 1616 1816 1700 2000 2363 2363 3232 2797 2473 3823 2386  International Pacific Halibut Commission Reports. Pacific Fisherman Yearbook.  CO  99  Functional  Structure  Figure 25 shows the functional structure of the h a l i b u t industry during the 1932-1951 p e r i o d .  By 1930 the company-owned steamer g  had been almost completely r e t i r e d from the industry  fleet  and the dory  vessel f l e e t was only accounting f o r a very small percentage of the total c a t c h J  0  V i r t u a l l y the e n t i r e f l e e t had switched to the more  e f f i c i e n t l o n g l i n i n g method of f i s h i n g .  As a r e s u l t the f u n c t i o n a l  ,  s t r u c t u r e of the industry in the t h i r d period consisted of only two components -- the l o n g l i n e r and the small boat s e c t o r s .  This compares  with three components i n the i n i t i a l phase of the f i s h e r y and four components in the 1913-1931 p e r i o d . The phasing out of company-owned vessels eliminated v e r t i c a l g r a t i o n in the industry at the company l e v e l .  inte-  As a r e s u l t the cold  storage sector of the ports at which the steamers were based no longer maintained ' c a p t i v e ' f l e e t s .  As previously s t a t e d , the steamers d e l i v e r e d  t h e i r catches to the companies which operated them.  The base ports were  therefore assured of h a l i b u t landings f o r as long as the steamers remained in the i n d u s t r y .  This was not the case in the 1932-1951 p e r i o d .  The e n t i r e f l e e t now consisted of independently-owned vessels which landed catches at ports of t h e i r choice.  Nevertheless, the smaller vessels  i n the f l e e t were r e s t r i c t e d to the ports from which they operated because of t h e i r l i m i t e d range.  The m o b i l i t y and non-captive ownership of  vessels also allowed f o r freedom of the market since ports had to compete f o r h a l i b u t l a n d i n g s . ^ P r o h i b i t i o n of dory f i s h i n g was a move taken by the IFC to meet the changing needs of h a l i b u t f i s h e r y management.  Because of r e l a t i v e l y  STOCKS  STOCKS  VESSEL  VESSEL  EXCHANGE  HOLDING UNIT  HOLDING UNIT  EXCHANGE  PACKER  PACKER  SOLD FRESH  IT™ SOLD FRESH  I I  1-  STRUCTURE OF THE  COLD STORAGE  COLD STORAGE  MARKET  MARKET  INDEPENDENT LONGLINER  FLEET  2.  _ J  I  S T R U C T U R E OF T H E S M A L L BOAT  FLEET  VO O  1  FIGURE 25.  FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE INDUSTRY 1932-1951.  101  light this  gear ( e . g .  s m a l l e r hooks) used i n dory f i s h i n g i t was found t h a t  type o f o p e r a t i o n was c a t c h i n g a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f s m a l l - s i z e d 12  h a l i b u t than the l o n g l i n e r o p e r a t i o n .  Dory f i s h i n g was  p r o h i b i t e d on grounds south o f Cape Spencer  therefore  i n 1935, and by the  time  13 the p r o h i b i t i o n was extended t o a l l  c o n v e n t i o n waters i n 1944  was being c a r r i e d out by the dory method anyway. boat s e c t o r o f the fleet  V e s s e l s i n the  i n d u s t r y employed gear s i m i l a r to t h a t of the  and they c o n t i n u e d to f u n c t i o n w i t h i n  gear a l s o accounted f o r l a r g e l y  incidental  the  industry.  i t was shown t h a t t h i s was not a very  catches of h a l i b u t .  selective  fleet  The v e s s e l s  c o n t i n u e d to land c a t c h e s almost e n t i r e l y  higher p r i c e s  prevailed.  to l a n d c a t c h e s a t port areas.  The small  halibut  In 1938  i n the  sectors longliner  at the major p o r t s where  boat s e c t o r o f the i n d u s t r y  continued  f i s h buying s t a t i o n s o r l a n d i n g p o i n t s o u t s i d e the  the end o f the p e r i o d a g r e a t e r  total  longliner  elsewhere-  Due to the decreased d u r a t i o n o f the f i s h i n g season  l e s s o f the t o t a l  small  type o f g e a r .  The marketing o f h a l i b u t by the c a t c h i n g and p r o c e s s i n g over the p r e v i o u s p e r i o d .  towards  i n a f r e s h form.  c a t c h c o u l d not be absorbed by the r e t a i l short f i s h i n g period.  The  market i n a  For example, i n  31% o f the h a l i b u t c a t c h was f r o z e n compared w i t h 70% o f the c a t c h 1951.  major  percentage o f the c a t c h was f r o z e n and  c a t c h was d e l i v e r e d to market  f r e s h form over a r e l a t i v e l y  fishing  Trolling  the Commission p r o h i b i t e d any use o f bottom s e t nets because  changed l i t t l e  little  1932, in  1 5  Commission Quota C o n t r o l  Implications  Under H a l i b u t Convention r e g u l a t i o n s o f 1930 and 1937 the Comm i s s i o n was g i v e n broader r e g u l a t o r y  powers.  The quota system was  intro-  102  duced d u r i n g the 1932 f i s h i n g s e a s o n , w i t h s e t opening dates fishery.  for  the  The f i s h i n g season t e r m i n a t e d as soon as quotas were r e a c h e d .  C o n s e q u e n t l y , c o m p e t i t i o n f o r the annual  quotas became so i n t e n s e t h a t  the  l e n g t h o f the f i s h i n g season was reduced from 249 days i n 1932 t o 28 days 16 i n 1951 on grounds south o f Cape Spencer.  On grounds west o f Cape  Spencer the f i s h e r y was somewhat l o n g e r - f r o m a p p r o x i m a t e l y 288 days 1932 to 56 days therefore  it  in 1951.*^  Fewer v e s s e l s  f i s h e d on the l a t t e r  took l o n g e r f o r the quotas t o be reached i n t h a t  S i n c e no r e s t r i c t i o n s  were p l a c e d on e n t r y  i n t o the  in  grounds, area.  halibut  f i s h e r y o r the amount o f gear t h a t c o u l d be f i s h e d , such i n c r e a s e d competition  f o r annual quotas was d i s t r i b u t e d o v e r a g r e a t e r number o f  vessels.  With an i n c r e a s e  more and more v e s s e l s halibut fishery. vessels  i n s t o c k s because o f h a l i b u t c o n t r o l  found i t  A l a r g e number o f new e n t r a n t s  to engage i n  economic a t t r a c t i o n s  the  i n t o the f i s h e r y were  t h a t a l s o engaged i n o t h e r s e c t o r s o f the f i s h i n g  m a i n l y the salmon f i s h e r y .  industry--  As a r e s u l t o f u n r e s t r i c t e d e n t r y and the  due to improved h a l i b u t s t o c k s , the number o f  engaged i n the h a l i b u t f i s h e r y 1951.  e c o n o m i c a l l y worthwhile  measures,  vessels  i n c r e a s e d from 407 i n 1932 to 820 i n  1 8  The g r e a t e s t  increase  o f f northern B r i t i s h  i n the number o f v e s s e l s was f e l t  Columbia and S o u t h e a s t A l a s k a .  on the grounds  S i n c e they were not  as l a r g e a n d , hence, not as m o b i l e as the v e s s e l s which o p e r a t e d on the more d i s t a n t b a n k s , they found i t c a t c h e s at Petersburg.  c o n v e n i e n t and advantageous  such p o r t s as P r i n c e R u p e r t ,  Ketchikan, Pelican,  to  land  Sitka,  and  T h i s c o n t r i b u t e d to the s i g n i f i c a n t expansion o f t h e s e and  o t h e r p o r t s i n the same g e n e r a l  area d u r i n g the 1932-1951 p e r i o d .  103  Commission quota c o n t r o l s were designed to improve h a l i b u t on a l l  heavily  d e p l e t e d grounds o f the E a s t e r n  expected outcome o f such c o n t r o l s , halibut within  however,  s t o c k s r e p l e n i s h themselves the  i n d u s t r y as w e l l .  which c o u l d e n t e r  The long-run  was t h a t not o n l y would  but economic e f f i c i e n c y  With no l i m i t a t i o n s  o f the f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y c o u l d r e a d i l y  fishery.  T h i s meant t h a t by the end o f the  would  improve  on the number o f  the f i s h e r y d u r i n g any g i v e n y e a r ,  sectors  returns  Pacific.  stocks  vessels  engage i n the  vessels  from o t h e r halibut  1932-1951 p e r i o d any economic  from the improved s t o c k s had to be shared by t w i c e the number o f  vessels. Although t h e r e was a t w o - f o l d  increase  i n the number o f v e s s e l s  the 1932-1951 p e r i o d , t h e r e was a l s o a c o n s i d e r a b l e s t o c k s on a l l  grounds.  The c a t c h  in  halibut  i n c r e a s e d from 44.4 m i l l i o n pounds  1932 t o 56.3 m i l l i o n pounds i n 1951 w i t h s l i g h t l y number o f y e a r s d u r i n g the p e r i o d . amount o f gear f i s h e d , and y i e l d s  increase  higher catches  F i g u r e 26 shows the t r e n d s  in  for a  in  f o r Area 2 and Area 3 f o r the  over  catch,  1932.-1951  period. Average y i e l d intensity,  per s k a t e o f gear i s a f u n c t i o n o f s t o c k s i z e ,  and environmental  The number o f skates slightly grounds.  factors  such as wind and t i d e  The d e c r e a s i n g  in f a r  less  26 i t  southern  l e n g t h o f the f i s h i n g season reduced the S i n c e the  time by a s m a l l e r amount o f e f f o r t ,  h a l i b u t were more abundant over a l l Figure  declined  grounds and q u i t e c o n s i d e r a b l y on the  time and hence the number o f s k a t e s o f gear f i s h e d . was taken  conditions.  o f gear employed throughout the p e r i o d  on the western  sections  fishing  fishing  catch  i t meant  that  o f the f i s h i n g g r o u n d s .  can be seen t h a t t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e  improvement i n  From stocks  104 FIGURE 26.  TRENDS IN CATCH, EFFORT, YIELD 1932-1951. LU  H <  to to Q  Z  o  a. LL  O  to  z o  X u  — I  < 1932  1934  to  LU  H  <  IO LL  H  400  O O u. to LL LU a  z  < to :D  O X  300 LU  H  200  H <  to  -hoo  1932  1934  1936  1938  1940  1942  1944  1946  1948  1951  LU  ,H to  a  z o a. LL.  &. O  X u <  to  a  LU Q  z X  >• CATCH EFFORT CATCH PER SKATE  105  on the southern grounds which had been s e v e r e l y  d e p l e t e d b e f o r e quota  regulation. The quota system p l a c e d time c o n s t r a i n t s on the c a t c h i n g and p r o c e s s i n g s e c t o r s o f the i n d u s t r y .  In a t t e m p t i n g t o r e s t o r e  s i o n was aiming f o r a g r e a t e r  supply o f h a l i b u t  restrictions  on freedom o f e n t r y  some s h o r t run e f f e c t s . season r e s u l t e d  i n the long r u n .  i n t o the f i s h e r y ,  however,  The d e c r e a s e i n the l e n g t h o f the  in i n v e n t o r i e s  low demand i n v e n t o r i e s  Without  t h e r e were fishing  o f h a l i b u t having t o be h e l d i n  storage f o r a longer period o f time. relatively  s t o c k s , the Commis-  cold  In y e a r s o f heavy p r o d u c t i o n and  remained h i g h .  T h i s meant lower  being p a i d t o f i s h e r m e n at d o c k s i d e f o r h a l i b u t o r h i g h e r p r i c e s charged the consumer t o c o v e r a d d i t i o n a l  freezer costs.  being  Generally  was the l a t t e r because the e a s t e r n market was a l s o open t o l a r g e o f o t h e r w h i t e f i s h w i t h which h a l i b u t competed.  prices  it  volumes  Once h a l i b u t was  priced  too h i g h , consumers s u b s t i t u t e d such lower p r i c e d s p e c i e s as haddock, cod and s o l e . A second r e s u l t o f improved h a l i b u t s t o c k s was reduced f i s h i n g c o s t s . S i n c e y i e l d s were g r e a t e r  per u n i t o f e f f o r t ,  the amount o f gear f i s h e d and  the number o f hours spent f i s h i n g were reduced c o n s i d e r a b l y .  There o c c u r r e d  a r e d u c t i o n o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 29% i n the amount o f gear employed i n Area 2 between 1932 and 1951.  In Area 3 the d e c l i n e d amounted to  approximately  19 11% over the same p e r i o d . attributed  The s m a l l e r d e c l i n e  to a s m a l l e r number o f v e s s e l s  f i s h i n g season.  i n Area 3 can be  f i s h i n g these waters and a l o n g e r  Y i e l d s on the western grounds were much h i g h e r  those on the southern g r o u n d s . i n o r d e r t o a t t a i n the s e t  Because o f t h i s  quotas.  l e s s e f f o r t was  than required  106 ' The o v e r a l l  objective  o f the Commission was to r e s t o r e  halibut  stocks  to near maximum s u s t a i n a b l e y i e l d  levels.  1932-1951 p e r i o d .  managing each area o f f i s h i n g g r o u n d ,  it  By e f f e c t i v e l y  provided f o r stock r e s t o r a t i o n  T h i s was a c h i e v e d d u r i n g the  throughout the E a s t e r n  Pacific  halibut  grounds.  Shortened  F i s h i n g Season  Implications  F i g u r e 27 shows the l e n g t h o f the f i s h i n g season f o r the  1932-1951  p e r i o d and the sharp d e c l i n e t h a t o c c u r r e d on grounds south and west o f Cape S p e n c e r .  The annual  quotas which were imposed by the Commission  were not d e s i g n e d t o d e c r e a s e the l e n g t h o f the f i s h i n g s e a s o n . s e t t i n g o f annual  quotas was the most e f f e c t i v e  decreased h a l i b u t s t o c k s .  means to  The  replenish  The p o s s i b i l i t y o f l a r g e r economic g a i n s l e d  the d e c r e a s e i n the d u r a t i o n o f the f i s h i n g s e a s o n , because o f the i n the number o f v e s s e l s .  unregulated.  With u n r e s t r i c t e d e n t r y  the l e n g t h o f the f i s h i n g season d e c l i n e d  i m p o s i t i o n o f q u o t a s , commencing i n 1932, and the i n c r e a s e l a n d i n g s at p o r t s i n n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h influx of vessels  in  Columbia and Southeast  i n t o the h a l i b u t  into  sharply.  There was a time l a g o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y seven y e a r s between  Because o f the  increase  T h i s would p r o b a b l y not have o c c u r r e d had  the h a l i b u t f i s h e r y been l e f t the f i s h e r y ,  to  fishery,  the halibut  Alaska.  the  time/  d i s t a n c e f a c t o r between f i s h i n g grounds and l a n d i n g p o r t s became c r i t i c a l . Each v e s s e l  i n the h a l i b u t  fleet  would attempt to maximize output i n  s h o r t e s t time p o s s i b l e , thereby p r e f e r r i n g to land c a t c h e s a t those  the ports  c l o s e to the f i s h i n g grounds. Between 1932 and 1941 the h a l i b u t f l e e t ' s  voluntarily  instituted  107  FIGURE 27.  LENGTH OF THE FISHING SEASON IN AREA 2 AND AREA 3 1932-1951.  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  1932  1934  1936  1938  1940  1942  1944  1946  1  1948  1  1  19501951  N.B. IN 1935 FLEET TIED-UP VOLUNTARILY UNTIL APRIL 1. IN 1943 FLEET TIED-UP UNTIL MAY 20 TO PROTEST OPA PRICES IN 1947 SEATTLE FLEET TIED-UP UNTIL JULY 1 DUE TO SHARE DISPUTE  108  between-trip  l a y o v e r program and v e s s e l  quotas tended t o r e s t r i c t  number o f v e s s e l s which e n t e r e d the f i s h e r y . prices after  halibut  1939, i n p a r t i c u l a r , a t t r a c t e d a l a r g e r number o f  i n t o the f i s h e r y and g r e a t l y quotas.  The i n c r e a s e i n  the  vessels  i n c r e a s e d c o m p e t i t i o n f o r the annual  As a r e s u l t o f such c o m p e t i t i o n , and the attempt t o m i n i m i z e  the t i m e / d i s t a n c e f a c t o r t o and from f i s h i n g g r o u n d s , l a n d i n g s d e c r e a s e d c o n s i d e r a b l y a t the southern p o r t s o f S e a t t l e and Vancouver, but i n such n o r t h e r n p o r t s as P r i n c e R u p e r t , Sitka,  K e t c h i k a n , Juneau,  increased  Petersburg,  and P e l i c a n .  I l l u s t r a t i v e o f the s h i f t p e r i o d i s the case o f S e a t t l e . season was a t  its  i n v e s s e l movement over the 1932-1951 In  1932, when the l e n g t h o f the  l o n g e s t f o r the p e r i o d ,  fishing  h a l i b u t v e s s e l s made 1134 l a n d i n g s 20  a v e r a g i n g 19,216 pounds per t r i p a t S e a t t l e . landings at t h i s  By 1951, the number o f  p o r t had dropped to 4 8 5 , but the average l a n d i n g s o f 21  each v e s s e l  had i n c r e a s e d s l i g h t l y to 19,879 pounds.  As a r e s u l t o f  the  d e c r e a s e d d u r a t i o n o f the f i s h i n g s e a s o n , each v e s s e l would tend t o maximize the amount o f time spent i n a c t u a l the f l e e t  found i t  fishing operations.  j u s t as p r o f i t a b l e to land i t s  p o r t s , where s l i g h t l y  c a t c h a t the  lower p r i c e s p r e v a i l e d , than d e l i v e r the  t o southern p o r t s and l o s e v a l u a b l e  Therefore, northern catch  f i s h i n g time.  In e s s e n c e , the s h o r t e n e d f i s h i n g season p l a c e d l i m i t a t i o n s on v e s s e l movement w i t h i n of t r i p s  any one v e s s e l  the h a l i b u t c o u l d make.  not gamble on e x p l o r a t o r y t r i p s on the f i s h i n g g r o u n d s .  i n d u s t r y because i t  l i m i t e d the number  T h i s meant t h a t f i s h e r m e n c o u l d  and were f o r c e d to r e s t r i c t movement  T h e r e f o r e , most o f the f l e e t ' s  e f f o r t was c o n f i n e d  109 t o the most f a v o u r a b l y l a r g e s t catches Essentially  l o c a t e d grounds where the chances o f s e c u r i n g  in a r e l a t i v e l y  the f l e e t  the  s h o r t f i s h i n g p e r i o d were h i g h e s t .  tended to minimize the t i m e / d i s t a n c e f a c t o r  between  producing grounds and l a n d i n g p o r t s . T a b l e V I I I shows t h a t the h a l i b u t  f i s h e r y on grounds n o r t h o f Cape  Spencer was c a r r i e d out by a c o n s i d e r a b l y s m a l l e r f l e e t grounds south o f Cape Spencer.  than on the  The v e s s e l s which f i s h e d the  western  grounds were l a r g e r and more h i g h l y m o b i l e than most o f the v e s s e l s f i s h e d the southern grounds. larger  T h e r e f o r e they were c a p a b l e o f  volumes o f h a l i b u t over g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e s .  carrying  Because o f l e s s  p e t i t i o n on the western grounds the f i s h i n g season was l o n g e r . enabled the l a r g e r western  f i s h i n g vessels  to d e l i v e r  t h e i r catches  In a d d i t i o n , p r a c t i c a l l y  all  o p e r a t i n g on the western grounds were American-owned and t h i s considerably greater  l a n d i n g s a t S e a t t l e than at Vancouver.  o f American v e s s e l s , however,  did elect  to d e l i v e r  com-  This  the p o r t s o f S e a t t l e and V a n c o u v e r , s i n c e p r i c e s a t p o r t s i n west A l a s k a were c o n s i d e r a b l y lower.  which  catches  to  central  vessels resulted  in  A l a r g e number to  Prince  Rupert. The e x t e n t t o which p r i c e s the h a l i b u t c a t c h i s  p a i d an important r o l e  in a l l o c a t i o n  of  borne out by the s i t u a t i o n which e x i s t e d i n 1943.  In J u l y o f 1943, the U. S.  O f f i c e of Price Administration  established  22 price parity  between S e a t t l e and P r i n c e Rupert  move was made t o reduce the sharp i n c r e a s e s war.  for fresh halibut.  in h a l i b u t  This resulted in landings ceasing e n t i r e l y  at P r i n c e Rupert  f o r the remainder o f the s e a s o n .  prices during  at S e a t t l e and In  This the  increasing  1944 due t o  industry  T a b l e VIII V e s s e l , Manpower, and Catch Trends  TOTAL Vessels 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951  Source:  519 573 591 681 689 796 753 816 820  Men 2770 7654 2983 3287 3397 3851 3782 4050 4077  CANADIAN Area 2 3 Area Vessels Men V e s s e l s Men 162 278 175 187 215 249 225 235 270  767 831 867 952 1168 1221 1153 1210 1346  3 4 3 5 5. 5 5 5 8  24 34 26 41 40 39 41 39 66  1943-1951  AMERICAN Area 2 Area 3 Vessels ; Men V e s s e l s 247 278 316 373 350 403 314 426 394  I n t e r n a t i o n a l P a c i f i c H a l i b u t Commission R e p o r t s . P a c i f i c Fisherman Y e a r b o o k ( s ) .  1037 1056 1253 1373 1302 1496 1452 1654 1574  107 84 97 116 119 139 149 150 148  T o t a l Catch Mill. Men l b s . Area 2 942 753 837 921 887 1095 1134 1147 1091  53.6 53.3 54.6 60.2 55.9 55.4 55.0 57.2 56.0  24.8 26.1 24.9 28.5 27.5 27.4 26.0 26.7 30.6  Area 3 28.3 26.9 29.1 31.1 27.9 27.7 28.5 30.1 25.1  Ill p r o t e s t , the OPA e s t a b l i s h e d a p r i c e d i f f e r e n t i a l Prince Rupert,  and reduced p r i c e d i s p a r i t y  between S e a t t l e and  between A l a s k a and P r i n c e  23 Rupert.  This,  i n t u r n l e d to i n c r e a s e s  l a n d i n g s at S e a t t l e . had a minor e f f e c t  i n A l a s k a l a n d i n g s and  Company a l l o c a t i o n o f l a n d i n g s d u r i n g 1944-1945  on p o r t l a n d i n g s because the amount each company was  a l l o t e d was based on a f i v e y e a r average p r i o r to 1944. intervention  increased  to regulate  prices  Government  t e r m i n a t e d l a t e i n 1945 a f t e r  the war  had ended. The westward s h i f t s  i n output from f i s h i n g grounds and o f  r e s u l t e d i n the c o l d s t o r a g e s e c t o r o f the t a n t i n the n o r t h e r n a r e a s .  landings  i n d u s t r y becoming more impor-  Although c o l d storage f a c i l i t i e s  had been  l o c a t e d at such p o r t s i n the 1913-1931 p e r i o d , most l a n d i n g s were made at  K e t c h i k a n and P r i n c e Rupert.  and western  With i n c r e a s e d a c t i v i t y  on the  northern  g r o u n d s , more f a v o u r a b l e p r i c e s , and the s h o r t e n e d f i s h i n g  s e a s o n , e x c e s s - c a p a c i t y no l o n g e r e x i s t e d i n the c o l d s t o r a g e s e c t o r the n o r t h e r n p o r t s .  Plant capacities  were much s m a l l e r than those at  at the s m a l l e r p o r t s ,  P r i n c e Rupert.  i n the c a t c h i n g s e c t o r .  then shipped to S e a t t l e by p a c k e r / f r e i g h t e r American market. Prince Rupert,  Some q u a n t i t i e s  but i t  storage  operations  the l a r g e S e a t t l e based companies, and were e s t a b l i s h e d i n w i t h westward s h i f t s  however,  The s m a l l e r c o l d  p l a n t s s c a t t e r e d throughout A l a s k a were m a i n l y s a t e l l i t e  of  of  conjunction  Most o f the h a l i b u t  was  f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the  North  o f f r e s h h a l i b u t were marketed through  was cheaper to s h i p h a l i b u t d i r e c t  from A l a s k a  24 p o i n t s to S e a t t l e than to s h i p v i a  P r i n c e Rupert.  s h i p p i n g l i n e s o p e r a t e d between A l a s k a and S e a t t l e .  T h i s was because  regular  112  Unrestricted  T a b l e IX  Entry  shows the sharp i n c r e a s e i n the number o f v e s s e l s and men  engaged i n the P a c i f i c  h a l i b u t f i s h e r y over the 1932-1951 p e r i o d .  i n c r e a s e was i n v e r s e l y  p r o p o r t i o n a l to the l e n g t h o f the h a l i b u t  season d u r i n g the same p e r i o d . c o n s t r u c t e d , the g r e a t e s t  Such an fishing  Although some new h a l i b u t v e s s e l s were  i n c r e a s e i n the s i z e o f the f l e e t  n o n - r e g u l a r h a l i b u t boat movement i n t o the f i s h e r y .  r e s u l t e d from  T h i s movement was  encouraged by the improvement i n h a l i b u t s t o c k s , the low c a p i t a l  costs  i n c u r r e d i n e n t e r i n g the f i s h e r y , an improvement i n h a l i b u t p r i c e s , and the d e c r e a s i n g l e n g t h o f the f i s h i n g season f o r  halibut.  The h a l i b u t c a t c h i n c r e a s e d from 43.6 m i l l i o n pounds i n 1932 t o 5 6 . 0 m i l l i o n pounds i n 1951.  The number o f v e s s e l s engaged i n  h a i i b u t f i s h e r y i n c r e a s e d from 407 t o 820 over the same p e r i o d . i n c r e a s e i n c a t c h was taken by a f l e e t which i n c r e a s e d i t s The amount o f e f f o r t expended d e c r e a s e d , however. c a t c h was taken i n f a r grounds.  The t o t a l  the A 22%  s i z e by 100%.  The f a c t t h a t a l a r g e r  l e s s time r e f l e c t e d g r e a t e r h a l i b u t abundance on the  amount o f e f f o r t d e c r e a s e d 22%, from 709.8 thousand  s k a t e s i n 1932 t o 556.8 thousand s k a t e s i n 1951, and the y i e l d  per  25 skate i n c r e a s e d from 65.5 t o 102.0 pounds. The Commission d i d not r e s t r i c t  entry  i n t o the h a l i b u t f i s h e r y ,  from time to time took measures to p r e v e n t f o r e i g n i n t e r e s t s British)  from engaging i n the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the P a c i f i c  (e.g.  halibut  but  the resource.  The d e c i d i n g f a c t o r which determined whether o r not any g i v e n number o f v e s s e l s would e n t e r the f i s h e r y was r e l a t e d p r i m a r i l y to market c o n d i t i o n s . If  p r i c e s were h i g h , v e s s e l s  from o t h e r s e c t o r s o f the f i s h i n g  found i t economically worthwhile  industry  to engage i n the h a l i b u t f i s h e r y .  When  113  Table  Number o f  Year 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 Source:  V e s s e l s and Men i n the P a c i f i c Fleet 1932- 1951  Vessels  and Boats  U.S.  Canadian  Total  322 301 323 303 335 373 345 335 377 397 342 354 362 413 489 469 542 523 576 542  85 83 115 129 135 158 164 180 172 179 155 165 211 178 192 220 254 230 240 278  407 384 438 432 470 531 509 515 549 576 497 519 573 591 681 689 796 753 816 820  Pacific  IX  Fisherman  Yearbook(s)  Halibut  M e n U.S. 1588 1569 1632 1637 1734 1852 1855 1906 2096 2247 1894 1979 1809 2090 2294 2189 2591 2586 2801 2665 passim.  Canadian  Total  350 334 454 494 585 652 693 760 752 833 733 791 865 893 993 1208 1260 1194 1249 1412  1938 1903 2086 2131 2319 2504 2548 2666 2848 3080 2627 2770 2774 2983 3287 3397 3851 3780 4050 4077  114  prices  fell,  as they d i d in the e a r l y  stages o f the f i s h e r y ,  would drop out and r e t u r n again when p r i c e s T h e r e f o r e , the v e s s e l s s u f f e r e d from the  reached f a v o u r a b l e  engaged i n the f i s h e r y  i n f l u x of vessels  vessels  on a r e g u l a r  levels.  basis  from o t h e r s e c t o r s o f the  industry.  The problem o f managing a common p r o p e r t y r e s o u r c e such as is characteristic control enter  of all  major f i s h e r i e s .  halibut  S i n c e no one i n d i v i d u a l  over the r e s o u r c e , e x p l o i t a t i o n i s open t o those who wish  the f i s h e r y .  This w i l l  o r when average c o s t s equal  continue u n t i l  average  the bionomic y i e l d  revenues.  to  is  reached,  A statement made by a  f i s h i n g company manager engaged i n the P a c i f i c the b e h a v i o r o f fishermen and f i r m s q u i t e  has  f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y sums up  well:  "The b r i g h t sun o f p r o s p e r i t y s h i n e s f o r a season o r two upon r e g u l a r stand-bys i n the b u s i n e s s and l o o k s very  a t t r a c t i v e and i n v i t i n g  an o l d v e s s e l  or a l i t t l e  to some chaps w i t h  spare money.  i n and f o r a time c u t a b r i l l i a n t  So they jump  dash i n the b u s i n e s s .  So b r i g h t are they t h a t the sun o f p r o s p e r i t y i s e c l i p s e and everyone  it  all  i n the t r a d e walks i n shadow.  in When  they g e t t i r e d o f t h i s , or b r o k e , they drop o u t , and those who are trade, is  left  p i c k up the s c a t t e r e d ends o f  the  s t r u g g l e out i n the l i g h t a g a i n and by and by  there  some more p r o s p e r i t y , and then a new c r o p o f hopeful Of.  investors  appears and so o n , and o n . "  Between 1932 and 1939, low h a l i b u t p r i c e s combined with the layover  program kept down the number o f v e s s e l s which e n t e r e d the  voluntary fishery.  115  From 1940 onwards, however, with the e x c e p t i o n o f 1942, when a number o f v e s s e l s were a s s i g n e d wartime d u t i e s , t h e r e was a s t e a d y i n the number o f v e s s e l s  engaged i n the h a l i b u t f i s h e r y .  was r e l a t e d to s t r o n g h a l i b u t p r i c e s period.  The l a r g e s t  increase  This,  in  part,  throughout the remainder o f  the  i n c r e a s e o c c u r r e d i n the Canadian s e c t o r o f  the  f l e e t which i n c r e a s e d i n s i z e from 85 to 270 v e s s e l s , an i n c r e a s e o f 329%. The American f l e e t Virtually  all  i n c r e a s e d 68% from 322 to 542 v e s s e l s  over the  v e s s e l s which e n t e r e d the h a l i b u t f i s h e r y on a p a r t -  time b a s i s belonged to the l a r g e salmon f l e e t o f the P a c i f i c With the c o n t i n u e d d e c r e a s e  i n the d u r a t i o n o f the h a l i b u t  s e a s o n , the h a l i b u t and salmon f i s h e r i e s s i g n i f i c a n t extent.  o f s e i n e r s and t r o l l e r s  the salmon f i s h e r y  Northwest.  fishing  no l o n g e r o v e r l a p p e d t o any  S i n c e the most p r o d u c t i v e p a r t o f the h a l i b u t  o c c u r r e d b e f o r e the salmon f i s h e r y  fishery part-time.  found i t  reached i t s  peak, a g r e a t e r  c o n v e n i e n t to engage i n the  Because o f cheaper c o n v e r s i o n c o s t s (e.g.  seining)  halibut  in switching  to the h a l i b u t f i s h e r y  i n t o the salmon f i s h e r y .  With decreased r e t u r n s  halibut fishery,  a greater  however,  from the  p o s s i b l e f o r small  important r o l e In  the e a r l y  entry  shortened  This in  turn  engaged  industry.  The r e p l e n i s h e d h a l i b u t s t o c k s on the southern grounds i n made i t  the  number o f r e g u l a r h a l i b u t boats were  i n the number o f m u l t i - p u r p o s e v e s s e l s fishing  from  (longlining),  f o r c e d t o engage in o t h e r s e c t o r s o f the f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y .  i n the E a s t e r n P a c i f i c  season  number  r e g u l a r h a l i b u t boats d i d not have the same degree o f freedom o f  l e d t o an i n c r e a s e  period.  boats  ( l e s s than 5-10 t o n s )  particular  to p l a y a more  i n the h a l i b u t f i s h e r y throughout the 1932-1951 p e r i o d .  phase o f the f i s h e r y ,  the day-to-day o p e r a t i n g  sector  116  decreased i n importance because o f d e p l e t i o n o f s t o c k s on f i s h i n g grounds c l o s e to shore.  Once the c o n d i t i o n o f h a l i b u t  s t o c k s improved, a  number o f the s m a l l e r v e s s e l s e n t e r e d the f i s h e r y d u r i n g the period.  o f the small  boat f i s h e r y  In the main the l i m i t e d range and  vessels  r e s u l t e d i n them not being  a b l e to use p o r t s such as P r i n c e Rupert f o r h e a d q u a r t e r s . they r e l i e d on the packer system to d e l i v e r areas.  third  T h i s s e c t o r o f the f i s h e r y was c o n f i n e d m a i n l y to the west  c o a s t o f B r i t i s h Columbia and A l a s k a . capacity  The i n c r e a s e d r o l e o f small  catches  Therefore,  from the more  high f i s h i n g  c o s t s combined with low h a l i b u t p r i c e s played a major r o l e the number o f v e s s e l s which e n t e r e d the h a l i b u t f i s h e r y . especially  the case a f t e r  to a t r u l y  deep sea f i s h e r y  for larger  vessels.  as w i t h i n ,  in  determining  T h i s was  r e s o u r c e d e p l e t i o n on the near shore grounds l e d requiring greater capital  outlay  Because o f investment from o u t s i d e the  requirements industry,  a l a r g e r number o f v e s s e l s e n t e r e d the h a l i b u t  i n the 1913-1931 p e r i o d .  By the end o f the 1932-1951 p e r i o d ,  the  industry infrastructure  o f the P a c i f i c Northwest  whereby d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n  o f e f f o r t was p o s s i b l e on a much l a r g e r  This resulted  i n f r e e movement o f v e s s e l s  to the h a l i b u t f i s h e r y halibut  north  coast of B r i t i s h Columbia.  In the e a r l y y e a r s o f the P a c i f i c h a l i b u t f i s h e r y ,  as w e l l  isolated  boats d u r i n g the p e r i o d accounts  f o r the i n c r e a s e d l a n d i n g s o f h a l i b u t on Vancouver I s l a n d and the central  larger  fleet.  in p a r t i c u l a r ,  fishery fishing  had developed to the  from the i n d u s t r y  stage  scale.  in g e n e r a l ,  and l e d to a much l a r g e r - s i z e d  117  References  1.  Bell,  F.  Heward,  " E a s t e r n P a c i f i c H a l i b u t F i s h e r y 1888-1966" F i s h e r y L e a f l e t 602, U.S. D e p t . o f the I n t e r i o r U.S. F i s h and W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e . Bureau o f Commercial F i s h e r i e s . W a s h . , D . C . August 1968. p.7.  2.  Ibid,  p.2.  3.  Ibid,  p.p.  4.  Ibid,  pp. 4 , 5 .  5.  U r q u h a r t , M.C. and K . A . H . Buckley ( e d s . ) Historical S t a t i s t i c s of Canada. Sponsored by Canadian P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n and S o c i a l S c i e n c e Research C o u n c i l o f Canada. The U n i v e r s i t y Press - Cambridge. 1965. p. 395.  6.  Pacific  Fisherman Yearbook.  7.  Pacific  Fisherman Y e a r b o o k ( s ) .  8.  Pacific  Fisherman Yearbook.  9.  Thompson, W. F.  4,5.  1933.  p. 149.  1932-1951. p a s s i m .  1932.  p.  148  and N.L. F r e e m a n . , " H i s t o r y o f the P a c i f i c H a l i b u t Fishery." Report Number 5. International F i s h e r i e s Commission. Vancouver 1930. p. 46.  10.  Thompson, W. F . ,  11.  Bell,  F.  Heward,  B i o l o g i c a l and Economic A s p e c t s o f F i s h e r i e s Management. U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington, S e a t t l e , 1959, p. 59.  12.  Bell,  F.  H.  "The I n c i d e n t a l Capture o f H a l i b u t by V a r i o u s Gear Types." Report Number 23. International Pacific H a l i b u t Commission. S e a t t l e , Wash. 1956. p. 5.  13.  Ibid,  14.  Pacific  15.  Ibid,  16.  Pacific  p.  H. A. D u n l o p , and F. H. B e l l . , "Biological Statistics o f the P a c i f i c H a l i b u t F i s h e r y " Report Number 6. IFC. V a n c o u v e r , 1931. p. 35.  5.  Fisherman Yearbook. p.  1957.  p. 193.  1953.  p. 223.  193  Fisherman Yearbook.  Wash.,  118  17.  Ibid,  p. 223.  18.  Ibid,  p. 225.  19.  Chapman, D . G . ,  20.  Pacific  Fisherman Yearbook.  1933.  p.  21.  Pacific  Fisherman Yearbook.  1953.  p. 233.  22.  Pacific  Fisherman Yearbook.  1944.  pp. 297-298.  23.  Pacific  Fisherman Yearbook.  1945.  p. 291.  24.  Pacific  Fisherman Yearbook.  1944.  P.  25.  Chapman, D.G. e t a l , o p , c i t .  26.  Overton, C P .  R.J.  Myhre, and G. M. Southward, " U t i l i z a t i o n o f P a c i f i c Halibut Stocks: E s t i m a t i o n o f Maximum S u s t a i n a b l e Y i e l d , 1960. Report Number 3 1 , IPHC. S e a t t l e , 1962 p. 33. 150.  300.  p. 33.  " P i o n e e r s i n the P a c i f i c Coast i n P a c i f i c Fisherman Yearbook. 1906. p. 71.  Codfish-Industry" 1906. Seattle  119 Chapter  Spatial  Encompassment, F l e e t  VI  D e c l i n e , and S u s t a i n e d Y i e l d s 1952-1972  The p r e v i o u s p e r i o d was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a h i g h l y c o m p e t i t i v e d u r i n g which u n r e s t r i c t e d e n t r y men and g e a r .  A l t h o u g h annual  the o p e r a t i o n o f the h a l i b u t a share o f those q u o t a s .  halibut  fleet,  f i s h i n g season.  quotas p r e v a i l e d throughout the  fleet  In  interest  layover  s e c t o r , and g e n e r a l l y h a l i b u t l a n d i n g s at  rationally  i n t o the B e r i n g Sea from which o n l y  the f l e e t ,  the  The 1952-1972 p e r i o d saw the  had been taken d u r i n g p r e v i o u s y e a r s .  less competition within  isolated  Such e x t e n s i o n c o u p l e d w i t h  expansion w i t h i n  the c o l d  higher p r i c e s r e s u l t e d in g r e a t l y  storage  increased  f a r western A l a s k a n p o r t s and s t r i k i n g d e c l i n e s  some o f the more southern and l o n g e r e s t a b l i s h e d h a l i b u t c e n t r e s . latory  and c o n s e r v a t i o n programs o f the  International  Pacific  commencement o f Russian and Japanese f i s h i n g o p e r a t i o n s and e a r l y  s t o c k s i n f a r western w a t e r s . and c a t c h e s d u r i n g the f i n a l phenomenal i n c r e a s e  sixties  In p a r t ,  i n the  prices.  Regu-  The  Bering  p l a c e d added s t r a i n on h a l i b u t  this  led to a l l  time low  y e a r s o f the 1952-1972 p e r i o d and a  in halibut  at  Halibut  Commission (IPHC) l e d to r e c o r d high l a n d i n g s d u r i n g the p e r i o d .  Sea i n the l a t e f i f t i e s  between  i n m u l t i - p u r p o s e v e s s e l s , and a l o n g e r  e s s e n c e , t h i s was conducive to a more  e x t e n s i o n o f the f i s h e r y  for  the end o f the 1955  agreed a g a i n upon a v o l u n t a r y  o r g a n i z e d and conducted h a l i b u t f i s h e r y .  catches  period,  T h i s move r e s u l t e d i n a d e c r e a s e i n the s i z e o f a greater  vessels,  c e n t r e d around extreme c o m p e t i t i o n  T h i s was to c o n t i n u e u n t i l  f i s h i n g season when the f l e e t fishing trips.  i n c r e a s e d the underemployment o f  fishery  quotas  120 Spatial  Structure  F i g u r e 28 shows the g e n e r a l  spatial  s t r u c t u r e o f the h a l i b u t  industry  d u r i n g the 1952-1972 p e r i o d .  The f i s h e r y expanded t o new grounds  i n an i n c r e a s e  range o f the c a t c h i n g s e c t o r over the  period.  i n the s p a t i a l  There was l e s s tendency f o r some v e s s e l s  at the n o r t h e r n r a i l h e a d p o r t o f P r i n c e Rupert. secondary p o r t s  i n f a r western A l a s k a r e s u l t e d  h a l i b u t being d i v e r t e d to t h e s e l o c a t i o n s . at B e l l i n g h a m , j u s t n o r t h o f S e a t t l e , major  halibut centre.  the f l e e t  The decrease  reduced o v e r a l l  The r i s e  of  catch  important  in increased landings of facilities  l e d to t h a t p o r t d e v e l o p i n g i n t o a  i n the number o f v e s s e l s  movement w i t h i n  component o f the  previous  to l a n d p a r t o f t h e i r  Expansion o f h a l i b u t  the i n d u s t r y .  s t r u c t u r e o f the p r e v i o u s p e r i o d , the small be an i n t e g r a l  resulting  operating  As i n the  in  spatial  boat f i s h e r y c o n t i n u e d t o  industry.  F i g u r e 29 shows t h a t t h e r e was a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e  between  the p a t t e r n o f l a n d i n g s by p o r t i n t h i s most r e c e n t p e r i o d from t h a t which e x i s t e d i n the 1932-1951 p e r i o d . s h a r p l y w h i l e those at  Landings a t S e a t t l e  P r i n c e Rupert remained r e l a t i v e l y  and Ketchikan i n c r e a s e d t h e i r  stable.  however,  industry.  in  During the  a number o f important h a l i b u t p o r t s developed w i t h i n  Vessels e l e c t e d to land t h e i r  These new p o r t s had not developed l a r g e t h a t they were l a r g e l y l a n d i n g s they  o f the e a r l i e r  independent f l e e t s .  dependent on v e s s e l s received.  the  c a t c h at a g r e a t e r degree o f  d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n than was the case i n e i t h e r  halibut  Vancouver  l a n d i n g s , and t h e r e was l i t t l e change  l a n d i n g s a t the secondary p o r t s near the southern g r o u n d s . period,  declined  periods. T h i s meant  from o t h e r p o r t s f o r  the  SIZE O F T H E S Q U A R E PROPORTIONAL ANNUAL  LANDINGS  O N E Q U A R T E R INCH S Q U A R E 8 MILLION POUNDS  WEST CENTRAL ALASKA PORTS  TO A V E R A G E  F O R T H E PERIOD,  KODIAK  (EXC'L KODIAK)  EQUALS  OTHER PORTS  KETCHIKAN  SOUTHEAST ALASKA PORTS (EXC'L KETCHIKAN)  PRINCE  RUPERT  SEATTLE BELLINGHAM VANCOUVER FIGURE 29.  DEGREE OF CENTRALIZATION OF LANDINGS 1952-1972. 'to ro  123  Average annual  h a l i b u t l a n d i n g s d u r i n g the 1952-1972 p e r i o d  approximated 62 m i l l i o n pounds compared t o 52.4 m i l l i o n pounds i n  the  previous period.  the  fishery  The i n c r e a s e r e s u l t e d from s p a t i a l  to new grounds and i n c r e a s e d c a t c h e s  grounds.  The tendency f o r v e s s e l s  relatively  extension of  from the p r e v i o u s l y  to land p a r t o f t h e i r  exploited  c a t c h at  ports  c l o s e to the major h a l i b u t grounds south o f Cape Spencer  i n c r e a s e d s l i g h t l y , whereas Cape Spencer  average annual  l a n d i n g s from grounds west o f  i n c r e a s e d from 24.8 t o 35.8 m i l l i o n pounds.*  sented an i n c r e a s e from 49% to 57% o f t o t a l the two p e r i o d s .  average  This  annual  landings  over  Most o f the i n c r e a s e on the western grounds was  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the development o f the B e r i n g Sea h a l i b u t ings i n t h i s  repre-  banks.  r e g i o n i n c r e a s e d from 265 thousand pounds i n 1952 to  Land8.1  2 m i l l i o n pounds i n 1963. A p a r t from e x p a n s i o n o f the h a l i b u t f i s h e r y t h e r e was l i t t l e  spatial  s e c t o r over the v a r i o u s period.  Significant  Sea,  catching  h a l i b u t grounds throughout the 1952-1972 o c c u r r e d i n the l a n d i n g / p r o c e s s i n g  The p o r t s o f B e l l i n g h a m ,  K o d i a k , and Sand P o i n t  halibut centres.  i n the o p e r a t i o n o f the  c h a n g e s , however,  s e c t o r o f the i n d u s t r y . Seward,  variation  to the B e r i n g  Expansion at  i n west c e n t r a l  i n Washington,  and  A l a s k a developed i n t o  B e l l i n g h a m was r e l a t e d  major  to the i n i t i a t i v e  of  buyers at t h a t p o r t and the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a l a r g e c o l d s t o r a g e  plant.  The i n c r e a s e  related  i n l a n d i n g s at  f a r western  l o c a t i o n s was i n d i r e c t l y  to i n c r e a s e d l a n d i n g s from the extreme western these p o r t s w i l l  grounds.  be examined more c l o s e l y l a t e r  in t h i s  Developments chapter.  The most s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n the p a t t e r n o f h a l i b u t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the d e c l i n e o f S e a t t l e ' s r o l e  at  l a n d i n g s were  i n the p r i m a r y l a n d i n g phase  124  o f the h a l i b u t ing h a l i b u t  i n d u s t r y , and the emergence o f Kodiak as the second l e a d -  l a n d i n g p o r t o f the E a s t e r n  S e a t t l e d e c r e a s e d from 18% o f the t o t a l K o d i a k ' s share went from v i r t u a l l y  Pacific.  Halibut  landings  c a t c h i n 1952 to 4% i n  at  1971.  no l a n d i n g s i n 1952 to 20% o f  the  Landings at P r i n c e Rupert were s u f f i c i e n t  for  3  4 total  c a t c h i n 1971.  p o r t to m a i n t a i n  its  p o s i t i o n as "the  on the b a s i s o f an i n c r e a s e  halibut capital  o f the world'.'  i n the Canadian percentage o f the  Vancouver l a n d i n g s i n c r e a s e d c o n s i d e r a b l y d u r i n g the  1952-1972 p e r i o d . Bering Sea, a l l  f i s h i n g banks ( h a l i b u t ) o f the E a s t e r n  out a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2500 m i l e s  catch,  Pacific  s e c t o r s o f the grounds d u r i n g the  With the e x t e n s i o n o f f i s h i n g o p e r a t i o n s  under v a r y i n g degrees o f p r e s s u r e .  Mainly  period.  F i g u r e 30 shows the e x t e n t o f f i s h i n g o v e r the E a s t e r n h a l i b u t g r o u n d s , and c a t c h e s from v a r i o u s  the  As a r e s u l t ,  into  Pacific  the  had come  f i s h i n g was being  from the most s o u t h e r l y p o r t s .  carried  The southern  p o r t s o f S e a t t l e , B e l l i n g h a m , and V a n c o u v e r , i n p a r t i c u l a r o n l y accounted for a relatively  small p r o p o r t i o n o f h a l i b u t taken on the most  banks i n the B e r i n g Sea a r e a .  westerly  With decreased c o m p e t i t i o n f o r annual  extension of c o l d storage f a c i l i t i e s  at western p o i n t s , a r e d u c t i o n  p r i c e d i s p a r i t y o f h a l i b u t p r i c e s a t p o r t s throughout the e n t i r e  in halibut  l a n d i n g s d u r i n g the p e r i o d ( F i g u r e  During the l a t e n i n e t e e n f i f t i e s  and e a r l y  in  region,  and i n c r e a s e d d u r a t i o n o f the f i s h i n g s e a s o n , t h e r e o c c u r r e d a more shift  quotas,  westerly  31).  nineteen  sixties,  Commission quota c o n t r o l s were d e s i g n e d t o t e s t maximum s u s t a i n a b l e yields  o f most banks.  were a t t a i n e d  T h i s accounts f o r the r e c o r d high c a t c h e s  d u r i n g the p e r i o d .  T h i s was e s p e c i a l l y a p p l i c a b l e  the most p r o d u c t i v e grounds from n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h  Columbia waters  which to  FIGURE 30. AVERAGE ANNUAL CATCH FROM VARIOUS GROUNDS 1952-1972.  127  westward.  The s t r o n g r e v e r s a l  in landing practices  l o c a t i o n s , which accompanied the westward s h i f t different  than those o f p r e v i o u s  i n c a t c h , was much  British  decreased from 42 to 38 per c e n t ; w h i l e l a n d i n g s  landings of halibut  catch.^  yearly  catch.  i n Washington, B r i t i s h  i n A l a s k a i n c r e a s e d from  F i g u r e 32 shows the  C o l u m b i a , and A l a s k a . Pacific  The i n c r e a s e d tendency d u r i n g the p e r i o d f o r Canadian o f h a l i b u t at Washington and A l a s k a  Columbia p o r t s .  i n A l a s k a as w e l l , ports.  With i n c r e a s e d l a n d i n g s by American  Prince Rupert,  in p a r t i c u l a r  Landings by American v e s s e l s  3.0 m i l l i o n pounds i n 1 9 5 2  6  In halibut  vessels ports  e x p l a i n s the d i s c r e p a n c y between the Canadian c a t c h and l a n d i n g s British  yearly  and y e a r l y  accounted f o r 54.6% o f the e n t i r e  t o land g r e a t e r q u a n t i t i e s  catch  Columbia l a n d i n g s  r e g i o n d u r i n g the 1952-1972 p e r i o d ,  1971 the Canadian f l e e t  western  percentage o f the t o t a l  decreased c o n s i d e r a b l y from 21 to 10 per c e n t ;  c a t c h f o r the e n t i r e  far  periods.  Between 1952 and 1971, W a s h i n g t o n ' s  35 t o 51 per c e n t o f the t o t a l  at  at  vessels  l o s t ground t o A l a s k a n ,  at Canadian p o r t s decreased from  t o 1.5 m i l l i o n pounds i n 1971.  Canadian  l a n d i n g s at American p o r t s i n c r e a s e d from 974 thousand pounds to  9.2  m i l l i o n pounds over the same p e r i o d . In a d d i t i o n t o i n c r e a s e d Canadian l a n d i n g s at A l a s k a n p o r t s the 1952-1972 p e r i o d , i n c r e a s e d as w e l l .  l a n d i n g s by Canadian v e s s e l s  Most o f the l a n d i n g s at the l a t t e r  by Vancouver-based v e s s e l s and the g r e a t e r such v e s s e l s  at Washington  ports  l o c a t i o n s were made  t h a t took advantage o f h i g h e r h a l i b u t  par v a l u e o f the American d o l l a r .  during  prices  From 1961 onwards  b e n e f i t e d from the opening o f a l a r g e c o l d s t o r a g e  at B e l l i n g h a m , Washington, a s h o r t d i s t a n c e south o f Vancouver.  plant Despite  126*  YEARLY CATCH LANDED IN WASHINGTON LANDED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA LANDED IN ALASKA.  129  i n c r e a s e d Canadian l a n d i n g s at Washington p o r t s , by the Puget Sound f l e e t ,  Washington  T a b l e X shows the t r e n d s p e r i o d s o f development. catch c o r r e l a t e s  l a n d i n g s reached an a l l  in h a l i b u t  Alaska's  Spencer at each s t a g e o f development.  Alaska.  T a b l e XI  l a n d i n g s at each o f the  catches  This p a r t i a l l y  the f i v e major p o r t areas  trends  four  total  e x p l a i n s the  and Seward i n west  in halibut  rise central  l a n d i n g s a t each o f  throughout the f o u r p e r i o d s o f development.  A g a i n , the i n c r e a s e d r o l e o f west c e n t r a l  A l a s k a i n h a l i b u t l a n d i n g s was  r e l a t e d t o e x p l o i t a t i o n o f h a l i b u t grounds i n t h a t Figure  low.  from grounds west o f Cape  as K o d i a k , Sand P o i n t ,  shows the general  landings  time  i n c r e a s e d percentage o f the  s t r o n g l y with greater  o f such h a l i b u t c e n t r e s  in a d d i t i o n to  area.  32 shows t h a t a more even d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l a n d i n g s by sub-  r e g i o n was a t t a i n e d  d u r i n g the 1952-1972 p e r i o d .  With the  introduction  8 o f the seven-day dency f o r v e s s e l s  layover  program i n 1956 , t h e r e was an i n c r e a s e d  to l a n d p a r t o f t h e i r  catch at  home p o r t s .  This  tenre-  s u l t e d i n l a n d i n g s being more n e a r l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o the number o f vessels  o p e r a t i n g out o f the v a r i o u s  i n the number o f v e s s e l s  ports  i n each s u b - r e g i o n .  i n the h a l i b u t f l e e t  onwards, d e c r e a s e d c o m p e t i t i o n c o n s i d e r a b l y . Vancouver, and P r i n c e Rupert based f l e e t s western A l a s k a n w a t e r s , their  and e l e c t e d  from the e a r l y As a r e s u l t ,  A decline  sixties  the  Seattle,  spent more time f i s h i n g  far  to l a n d a c o n s i d e r a b l e percentage o f  c a t c h at p o r t s i n western A l a s k a . The breakdown o f l a n d i n g s by p o r t s  r e s e n t s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 95% o f t o t a l  i s given  i n T a b l e XII  l a n d i n g s d u r i n g the 1952-1972 p e r i o d .  The remaining l a n d i n g s were made m a i n l y by the small c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f s t a t i o n s  and r e p -  from Washington  boat f i s h e r y at a  to A l a s k a .  The emergence  Table X Landings by Sub-Region f o r Each o f the Four P e r i o d s and Percentage o f the T o t a l Catch From Grounds West o f Cape Spencer  % Of Total Catch  % Of Total Catch  % Of T o t a l Catch From Grounds West Of C. Spencer  Wash.  % Of Total Catch  B.C.  1888-1912  13,519  61  7074  34  1000  5  1913-1931  15,046  31  25749  52  8168  17  41  1932-1951  16,428  31  21149  41  14837  28  49  1952-1972  13,890  22  24800  40  23600  38  57  Period  Alaska  CO  o  Table  XI  Average Annual Landings i n M i l l i o n s of Pounds, and Percentage T o t a l Average Annual Catch By P o r t Area For Each P e r i o d  Puget-, Sound  Period 1888-1912 1913-1931 1932-1951 1952-1972  1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  13.5 15.4 16.4 13.8  Mill. Mill. Mill. Mill.  Lower Mainland (61%) (31%) (31%) (22%)  5.9 3.0 2.5 5.5  Mill. Mill. Mill. Mill.  2  (27%) ( 6%) (.555) (8%)  Prince Rupert Area 3  .1 18.7 15.7 17.0  Mill. Mill. Mill. Mill.  (.4%) (38%) (31%) (27%)  of  Southeast, Alaska' 1.0 9.6 13.0 15.9  Mill. Mill. Mill. Mill.  West C e n t r a l Alaska ( 5%) (19%) (25%) (26%)  — 1.1 M i l l . 1.0 M i l l . 7.7 M i l l .  Puget Sound i n c l u d e s S e a t t l e , Bellingham and a number o f minor p o r t s . Lower Mainland i n c l u d e s Vancouver and immediate a r e a , i . e . S t e v e s t o n . P r i n c e Rupert Area i n c l u d e s P r i n c e Rupert, B u t e d a l e , and Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d P o r t s , i . e . Masset. S o u t h e a s t A l a s k a i n c l u d e s K e t c h i k a n , W r a n g e l l , P e t e r s b u r g , Juneau, P e l i c a n , S i t k a and minor p o r t s . West C. A l a s k a i n c l u d e s Seward, Kodiak, Sand P o i n t , C o r d o v a , P o r t W i l l i a m s , S e l d o v i a and minor p o r t s .  5  ( 2%) ( 2%) (12%)  Table P a c i f i c Halibut 1952-1971 ('000  Year  Seattle  1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971  11299 12985 16140 13755 13527 14496 16976 20148 18166 13070 10844 11879 9119 6103 4068* 8176 8667 7089 3929 2005  Bellinqham Vancouver (400) (500) (600) (750) (800) (900) 910 775 1789 3047 5321 3685 2570 2346 3638 2087 3854 2564 3255 2664  2400 4572 5892 5230 7631 5651 5610 5609 8495 6782 4527 5783 5739 4012 4067 7048 7315 5718 4573 3996  XII  Landings lbs.)  By  Prince Wran- P e t e r s Sitka Rupert Ketchikan g e l l burg 19686 18086 18187 14626 15827 15689 14901 14706 15733 16915 17786 17981 18837 20401 18449 9838* 13327 19423 15167 12847  7696 4823 5611 3811 7639 5741 6992 9443 6263 9498 10806 8008 7052 8749 8346 7734 3325 3266 2875 2371  430 368 376 298 727 660 521 773 660 670 747 405 298 363 385 401 197 554 652 811  3022 2847 4117 3393 4151 3703 3497 3384 3972 5338 5904 3963 4248 5035 4198 4818 3018 4838 3806 2589  * Due to v e s s e l share d i s p u t e the S e a t t l e f l e e t d i d not depart u n t i l May 1, although season opened March 25. * S t r i k e at P r i n c e Rupert  2023 1662 2382 1040 1772 1359 1179 984 1234 1534 1333 1210 472 1090 1229 753 510 790 720 1263  Port  P e l i c a n Juneau Cordova Seward 2244 2829 3020 2621 2215 1879 2449 2232 1973 1693 1910 1344 1162 1528 2183 1358 643 1506 1405 1446  for fishing  2645 1706 3382 2679 3049 2364 2085 2367 2054 1698 1912 2169 1235 1824 2131 1961 1022 1601 1717 1223  .  Kodiak  __  __  689 725 693  —  ---—  --—  ---  --—  —  17 62 52 34  —  76  —  11 13 15  —  —  87 619 1005  —  666 1167 1238 381 294 4046 3611  —  -— 116 119 2259 3425 2326 4382 3405 4206 2646 6338 8698 9217  Sand Point 676 1027 1041 .1900 1295 1340 2900 ^ 4545 2946 2947 4750 4305 3843 3070 3704 2487 1566 1492 1764 684  grounds  CO  ro  133  o f major new h a l i b u t c e n t r e s  d u r i n g the p e r i o d c o n t r i b u t e d t o  i n c r e a s e d d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f the l a n d i n g / p r o c e s s i n g s e c t o r . ed i n c r e a s e d c o m p e t i t i o n amongst the h a l i b u t catches  throughout the p e r i o d .  There o c c u r r -  p o r t s f o r a share o f  total  The p o r t t o s u f f e r most from such d i v e r -  s i f i c a t i o n o f l a n d i n g s was S e a t t l e . a major c e n t r e  further  Sand P o i n t ,  f o r p a r t o f the p e r i o d .  However,  A l a s k a developed heavy f i s h i n g  into  pressure  on B e r i n g Sea s t o c k s a f t e r  1963 r e s u l t e d i n a c o n s i d e r a b l e decrease  catch.  i n the  Sand P o i n t ' s  role  t i o n o f the B e r i n g Sea grounds. d e c r e a s e i n catches In  the l a t t e r  T h e r e f o r e , the p o r t d e c l i n e d with Sea.  as the second l e a d i n g h a l i b u t c e n t r e o f the E a s t e r n As i n p r e v i o u s p e r i o d s , S e a t t l e  Pacific maintained  dominant p o s i t i o n as the l e a d i n g marketing and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  f o r the i n d u s t r y as a whole.  Most o f the h a l i b u t  c o n t i n u e d t o be forwarded t o f i n a l by the l a r g e r v e s s e l s  the  Kodiak s u r p a s s e d those o f S e a t t l e and r e p l a c e d  i n terms o f p r i m a r y l a n d i n g s . its  i n d u s t r y was c e n t r e d around e x p l o i t a -  from the B e r i n g  1970 l a n d i n g s at  in  centre  frozen in Alaska  markets v i a S e a t t l e .  Greater  landings  o u t s i d e the l o n g e r e s t a b l i s h e d c e n t r e s o c c u r r e d as a  r e s u l t o f decreased d i s p a r i t y  i n p o r t h a l i b u t p r i c e s and the extended  l e n g t h o f the f i s h i n g s e a s o n . T a b l e X I I I shows the percentage o f the t o t a l leading halibut  ports  c a t c h landed at  f o r v a r i o u s y e a r s throughout a l l  the  four periods.  The  d e c l i n e o f the o l d e r p o r t s and the i n c r e a s i n g importance o f emerging ports i s q u i t e apparent. relatively halibut.  large  By the end o f the 1952-1972 p e r i o d ,  f l e e t s were no l o n g e r a s s u r e d o f  For example, S e a t t l e w i t h a f l e e t  i n 1971 r e c e i v e d o n l y 4% o f the t o t a l  large  ports with  landings of  o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50 v e s s e l s  c a t c h , whereas  Kodiak with a much  9  T a b l e XIII Percent o f the T o t a l Catch Landed a t Each Port f o r V a r i o u s Years  Year  Seattle  Vancouver  Prince PetersRupert Ketchikan burg Sitka  —  Pelican  Juneau  Seward  Kodiak  Point  Bel 1ingham  —  1900  (50)  (24)  1912  (37)  28  5  (9)  1  1920  27  7  41  13  1  1931  34  2  38  13  1940  35  3  34  1951  17  5  1960  25  1971  4  Source:  Sand  —  < 1  —  —  --  —  2  —  < 1  —  —  —  —  1  <1  —  3  <1  —  —  —  7  3  2  <1  3  <1  —  —  —  44  9  5  3  4  4  <1  —  1  <1  13  23  9  5  1  3  3  <1  <1  4  <1  8  27  5  5  3  3  3  8  20  1  6  P a c i f i c Fisherman Y e a r b o o k ( s ) . IPHC R e p o r t s .  135  smaller f l e e t facilities  accounted f o r 20% o f the t o t a l  at western  catch.  Better  l o c a t i o n s no l o n g e r f a v o u r e d f r e q u e n t movement b e -  tween home p o r t and the major h a l i b u t p r o d u c i n g g r o u n d s . e x c e p t i o n being P r i n c e Rupert w i t h a f l e e t vessels  marketing  The one  numbering a p p r o x i m a t e l y 80  i n 1971, most o f which f i s h e d s h o r t d i s t a n c e s from the p o r t ,  e l e c t e d to land t h e i r catches Spatial  interaction  s e c t o r s o f the h a l i b u t the p e r i o d .  This,  at home p o r t .  between the c a t c h i n g and l a n d i n g / p r o c e s s i n g  i n d u s t r y underwent  i n p a r t , was l a r g e l y  further  related  transformation during  to v e s s e l  behavior,  a l t h o u g h f u r t h e r expansion i n the c o l d s t o r a g e s e c t o r o f the i n c r e a s e d d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f l a n d i n g s amongst the v a r i o u s During the p r e v i o u s  industry,  ports.  p e r i o d s , e x p l o i t a t i o n o f grounds west o f Cape  Spencer was not accompanied by any major s h i f t  in landings of  halibut  to t h a t r e g i o n d e s p i t e the presence o f c o l d s t o r a g e f a c i l i t i e s . s h i f t westward was r e f l e c t e d at  ports further  deliveries  south.  i n fewer v e s s e l s  electing  1 0  By the end o f the 1952-1972 p e r i o d t h e r e was every  to j u s t  Prior to y e a r  22 i n  In  i n d i c a t i o n that  it  1 1  these  percentage  p o r t p r i v i l e g e s were m a i n t a i n e d on a y e a r  1950, the Convention Between the U n i t e d S t a t e s and  Canada f o r the E x t e n s i o n o f P o r t P r i v i l e g e s was s i g n e d .  1972.  catch.  t o 1950 r e c i p r o c a l  basis.  catches  vessel  p o r t s i n western A l a s k a would c o n t i n u e t o account f o r a l a r g e annual  The  to l a n d  For example, the number o f h a l i b u t  to S e a t t l e decreased from 514 i n 1 9 5 2  o f the t o t a l  and  to Halibut Fishing  T h i s move c o n t r i b u t e d to a more harmonious f i s h e r y  Vessels since  e s t a b l i s h e d by Convention what was p r e v i o u s l y an ad hoc arrangement. The H a l i b u t Convention o f 1953 changed the name o f the  halibut  136  r e g u l a t o r y body from the International  Pacific  International  Fisheries  H a l i b u t Commission (IPHC).  Commission to  the  The Commission was  d i r e c t e d by the American and Canadian governments to take measures to p r o v i d e f o r maximum s u s t a i n a b l e y i e l d s w i t h i n result,  certain  s e c t i o n s o f grounds were o n l y open f o r p a r t  the f i s h i n g s e a s o n , and i n both areas introduced. until  the f i s h e r y . of  (2 and 3) a s p l i t - s e a s o n was  In Area 2, an e x t r a f i s h i n g p e r i o d o f seven days  1960, a f t e r  the main f i s h i n g season had ended.  same p a t t e r n o f s p l i t - s e a s o n s was s t i l l f i s h i n g season. in r e l a t i o n  As a  in effect  at  lasted  An Area 3,  the  the end o f the 1972  T h i s management move was d e s i g n e d t o c o n c e n t r a t e  to a v a i l a b i l i t y  o f h a l i b u t at d i f f e r e n t  effort  times o f the y e a r  over  s e c t i o n s o f the g r o u n d s .  Functional  Structure  The f u n c t i o n a l  s t r u c t u r e o f the i n d u s t r y remained unchanged from  the p r e v i o u s p e r i o d with the e x c e p t i o n o f an i n c r e a s i n g tendency bypass the h a l i b u t exchange. the P r i n c e Rupert  A t P r i n c e Rupert  were a l s o s e l l i n g d i r e c t  o f f e r e d to f i s h e r m e n .  jeopardy.  If  Other v e s s e l s  to o t h e r f i r m s  c o n c e r n because i t was f e l t  in  i n p a r t i c u l a r , members o f  F i s h e r m a n ' s Co-Operative A s s o c i a t i o n were s e l l i n g  c a t c h d i r e c t to the c o - o p e r a t i v e .  catch d i r e c t  to  i n the h a l i b u t  i n the i n d u s t r y .  their  fleet  T h i s was c a u s i n g  t h a t the exchange was m a i n t a i n i n g  more and more f i s h e r m e n were to s e l l  prices their  to buyers then the whole marketing s t r u c t u r e would be p l a c e d  137  Industry Control  The s h o r t e n e d f i s h i n g season and the i n f l u x o f v e s s e l s halibut  f l e e t had p l a c e d the i n d u s t r y  into  the  i n a c h a o t i c c o n d i t i o n by 1955.  Catches had i n c r e a s e d and heavy l a n d i n g s o f h a l i b u t over the s h o r t ing season decreased p r i c e s c o n s i d e r a b l y .  fish-  For example, the average  p r i c e o f h a l i b u t landed at B r i t i s h Columbia p o r t s decreased from  20 c e n t s  12 per pound i n 1950 to 13 c e n t s per pound i n 1955. Commencing i n the 1956 f i s h i n g season the h a l i b u t f l e e t i n s t i t u t e d a layover season.  voluntarily  program t o s t r e t c h out the l e n g t h o f the  fishing  T h i s was an attempt t o combat low p r i c e s p a i d f o r heavy  of halibut.  Each v e s s e l  i n the e n t i r e  landings  f l e e t was to remain i n p o r t  seven  13 days a f t e r  the c o m p l e t i o n o f each t r i p .  days s e v e r a l  years l a t e r .  The l a y o v e r  T h i s was i n c r e a s e d to program l e d t o :  i n the l e n g t h o f the f i s h i n g s e a s o n , (2) vessels  i n the f l e e t ,  (3)  the h a l i b u t  an  increase  a d e c r e a s e i n the number o f  a r e d u c t i o n i n p r i c e f l u c t u a t i o n s which accom-  panied the shortened f i s h i n g s e a s o n , and (4) procedure at  (1)  eight  a more o r d e r l y  marketing  ports.  The i n c r e a s i n g l y s h o r t e n e d f i s h i n g season had p l a c e d s e v e r e  strain  upon the c a t c h i n g , p r o c e s s i n g , and marketing s e c t o r s o f the i n d u s t r y . increase  i n the d u r a t i o n o f the h a l i b u t  f i s h e r y no l o n g e r made i t  possible  f o r annual quotas to be taken b e f o r e the peak o f the salmon f i s h e r y . f o r e , a l a r g e number o f salmon fishermen who engaged i n the h a l i b u t p a r t - t i m e no l o n g e r found i t w o r t h w h i l e to f i s h f o r  increased greatly  after  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the l a y o v e r  Therefishery  halibut.  F i g u r e 33 shows how the l e n g t h o f the f i s h i n g season f o r  The  halibut  scheme i n 1956.  * QUOTA NOT REACHED IN AREA 2 IN 1963, 1967 and 1971  ""•INCLUDES SPLIT-SEASON PERIODS  0»  139  Potential  e f f o r t was now spread over a l o n g e r p e r i o d .  annual quotas were taken over a l o n g e r time p e r i o d . halibut  season on grounds south o f Cape Spencer  As a r e s u l t  the  The l e n g t h o f  the  i n c r e a s e d from 36 days  14 i n 1952 to 178 days i n 1971.  On grounds west o f Cape Spencer  it  increas-  15 ed from 77 to 242.days f o r most g r o u n d s . T a b l e XIV  shows the number o f v e s s e l s  f i s h e r y d u r i n g the 1952-1972 p e r i o d .  and men engaged i n the  The sharp downward t r e n d s  a pattern of increased s p e c i a l i z a t i o n within more m u l t i - p u r p o s e v e s s e l s industry  in p a r t i c u l a r .  the f i s h e r y ,  fleet.^  longliners lingers, vessels  In  although the  For example, i n 1960 t h e r e were 31 l o n g l i n e r s , i n the B r i t i s h Columbia  a d d i t i o n , t h e r e was a high number o f  i n the f l e e t .  In  troller-  1969 t h e r e were 28 l o n g l i n e r s , 52 s e i n e r - l o n g -  and 59 t r o l l e r - l o n g l i n e r s in a l l  reflected  are being added t o the Canadian s e c t o r o f  42 s e i n e r - l o n g l i n e r s , and 40 l o n g l i n e r - p a c k e r s halibut  halibut  o f these c a t e g o r i e s  i n a much s m a l l e r B.  C. f l e e t .  Some  engaged i n packing salmon and h e r r i n g  1p from time to t i m e . Because o f a s t a t e law r e s t r i c t i n g fleet  to v e s s e l  the s i z e o f the A l a s k a salmon  s i z e s l e s s than 49.5 f e e t , m u l t i - p u r p o s e v e s s e l s  not developed to the e x t e n t t h e y have i n B r i t i s h therefore  l i m i t e d the number o f v e s s e l s  In A l a s k a , salmon i s men f i s h  for this  This  i n the A l a s k a h a l i b u t  has  fleet.  k i n g , and most f i s h e r m e n , i n c l u d i n g h a l i b u t  species.  salmon from the same v e s s e l why most o f the v e s s e l s shore waters and are  Columbia.  have  If  they wish to f i s h f o r both h a l i b u t  i t must not exceed 49.5 f e e t .  This  forced to s e l l  and  explains  at S o u t h e a s t A l a s k a p o r t s are c o n f i n e d to  indirectly  the immediate v i c i n i t y .  fisher-  near  their  c a t c h at p o r t s  in  In western A l a s k a , however,  the d e c l i n e o f  the  Table  XIV  Number o f V e s s e l s and Men Engaged i n the H a l i b u t F i s h e r y 1952-1972, and Percentage o f the Catch From Each Area By Canadian and American F l e e t s  Total Vessels/Men 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970. 1971 Source:  670 691 658 617 556 629 574 554 521 510 557 562 412 404 487 400 307 334 353 311  3403 3400 3274 3069 2724 3046 2783 2740 2518 2400 2566 2600 2000 1916 2173 1852 1459 1532 1533 1391  Canadian American Total Area 2 Area 3 Area 2 Area 3 Catch Vessels/Men Vessels/Men Vessels/Men Vessels/Men OOOlbs 233 229 224 189 155 171 140 139 130  129 ^  133 154 121 107 127 82 82 80 102 92  IPHC R e p o r t s .  1211 1151 1149 959 829 859 712 675 558 493 502 565 420 367 421 315 295 287 353 338  8 20 20 24 17 27 37 51 61 66 73 82 86 82 85 69 63 64 53 50  64 159 167 203 134 206 291 394 467 495 548 632 636 611 630 512 482 478 406 383  295 273 289 281 285 351 276 239 205 198 216 185 109 125 170 142 87 117 127 105  1243 1147 1238 1209 1213 1402 1135 978 798 754 769 661 406 441 589 483 295 378 413 341  134 139 121 122 99 no 121 125 125 117 135 141 96 90 105 107 75 73 71 64  885 883 720 698 548 595 645 693 695 658 747 740 538 497 533 542 387 389 361 329  62. 8 60. 5 71. 2 69. 0 67. 5 61. 3 65. 2 71. 7 71. 9 69. 5 75. 1 71. 4 59. 9 63. 4 62. 2 55. 5 48. 8 58. 6 54. 9 47. 3  P e r c e n t Of Catch Canadian American Area Area 3 56.1 55.8 47.6 45.5 42.6 46.3 49.6 46.7 47.6 45.6 49.3 54.7 57.8 50.2 48.9 49.0 63.8 58.5 54.6 47.3  24.2 28.0 29.9 30.8 33.5 34.7 40.6 41.2 46.8 40.8 44.2 48.2 55.0 53.3 52.8 43.8 58.7 56.3 50.7 49.8  43.9 44.2 52.4 54.5 57.4 53.7 50.4 53.3 52.4 54.4 50.7 45.3 42.2 49.8 51.1 51.0 36.2 41.5 45.4 38.9  75.8 72.0 .70.1 69.2 66.5 65.3 59.4 58.8 53.2 59.2 55.8 51.8 45.0 46.7 47.2 56.2 41.3 43.7 49.3 50.2  P e r c e n t o f Catch Canadian/American All 39.6 42.9 38.9 37.6 38.1 40.3 44.8 43.5 46.9 43.7 46.0 51.9 55.9 51.8 51.2 45.9 60.2 57.1 52.7 54.6  Areas 60.4 57.1 61.1 62.4 61.9 59.7 55.2 56.5 53.1 57.3 54.0 48.1 44.1 48.2 48.8 54.1 39.8 42.9 47.3 45.4 °  141  king c r a b f i s h e r y  has r e s u l t e d  i n a number o f v e s s e l s  e n t e r i n g the  halibut  fishery. During the p e r i o d the number o f v e s s e l s and Canadian h a l i b u t f l e e t s United States f l e e t were r e t i r e d size.  d e c l i n e d but at d i f f e r e n t  a number o f o l d e r v e s s e l s  and not r e p l a c e d r e s u l t i n g  In Canada the t o t a l  there  o f the E a s t e r n  i n the  In  the  1920's)  i n a sharp decrease i n  the c o s t o f f i s h i n g v e s s e l  has been a steady  Pacific  (built  rates.  States  fleet  r e d u c t i o n has been somewhat lower because o f  government s u b s i d i e s towards As a r e s u l t  i n both the U n i t e d  halibut  The most s e v e r e d e c l i n e  increase  construction.  i n the Canadian  percentage  catch.  in h a l i b u t p r i c e s  i n the r e g u l a t e d  phase  o f the f i s h e r y o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the 1967 and 1968 f i s h i n g s e a s o n s . Halibut prices  fell  s h a r p l y over the whole r e g i o n with the average  landed  p r i c e at S e a t t l e d r o p p i n g from 36.2 c e n t s per pound i n 1966 to 25.3 19 cents  i n 1967 and 1968.  The average  price for halibut  landed i n  British  20 Columbia dropped from 35.4 c e n t s  to 25.6 cents over the same p e r i o d .  Such a d e c r e a s e i n p r i c e s was the r e s u l t o f expansion o f the  Newfoundland  l o n g l i n e r f l e e t which saw t u r b o t p r o d u c t i o n i n c r e a s e from 3.6  million  21 pounds i n 1964 to 32.6 m i l l i o n pounds i n 1967. was marketed i n North American h a l i b u t markets "Greenland h a l i b u t , "  Most o f t h i s  output  under the t r a d e name  and competed i n the w h i t e f i s h market with  Pacific  halibut. In  fact,  the t u r b o t  i s not a member o f the h a l i b u t  low-priced flounder s p e c i e s . c o u l d not d i f f e r e n t i a t e conducted by the P a c i f i c  It  a p p e a r e d , however,  between t u r b o t and h a l i b u t halibut  industry  family,  but a  t h a t the consumer because market  surveys  "showed the consumer to be con-  142  f u s e d and d e c e i v e d . " made i t  illegal  A d e c i s i o n o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s Supreme C o u r t  f o r e a s t e r n buyers to s e l l  "Greenland h a l i b u t . "  Its  t u r b o t under the  label  marketing brand name change to Greenland  r e s t o r e d h a l i b u t p r i c e s to p r e v i o u s  turbot  levels.  The r e d u c t i o n o f the 1972 quota to 40 m i l l i o n pounds, the i n the r e g u l a t e d phase o f the h a l i b u t  fishery,  t i o n between buyers f o r a share o f the c a t c h . c o m p e t i t i o n on the f i s h i n g grounds as w e l l  lowest  promoted i n t e n s e c o m p e t i There was a l s o  increased  amongst f i s h e r m e n .  The 1971  quota o f 53 m i l l i o n pounds was not r e a c h e d , and as a r e s u l t t h e r e was very l i t t l e  f r o z e n h a l i b u t on hand at the b e g i n n i n g o f the 1972 f i s h i n g  season.  In a d d i t i o n , g r o u n d f i s h p r o d u c t i o n from e a s t e r n Canadian waters  was down  significantly.  T h i s f a v o u r e d i n c r e a s e d consumption o f h a l i b u t w h i t e f i s h market.  i n the North American  The Newfoundland c a t c h a l o n e , which i s almost  entirely  marketed i n the American h a l i b u t m a r k e t s , was down from 705 m i l l i o n pounds i n the f i r s t  e i g h t months o f 1971 t o 459 m i l l i o n pounds over 23  the same p e r i o d i n 1972. phenomenal i n c r e a s e  i n the  Such a combination o f f a c t o r s landed p r i c e o f h a l i b u t .  resulted  The average  in a  price  24 p a i d at S e a t t l e  in 1972 was 62.8 cents per pound  c e n t s per pound i n 1971.  In terms o f r e t u r n s  compared with 3 6 . 0  to f i s h e r m e n , the  increase  i n p r i c e more than compensated f o r the r e c o r d low c a t c h i n the quotar e g u l a t e d phase o f the  fishery.  F i g u r e 34 shows the t r e n d s 1952-1972 p e r i o d .  i n c a t c h , y i e l d , and e f f o r t  for  G r e a t e r y e a r l y c a t c h e s were taken from Area 3 than  the p r e v i o u s p e r i o d and r e f l e c t e d the development o f the B e r i n g grounds and g r e a t e r  the  effort  in  Sea  being expended on grounds throughout the  area.  FIGURE 34. CATCH (MILLIONS OF POUNDS)  TRENDS IN CATCH, EFFORT, YIELD 1952-1972. 400  AREA 3  EFFORT  (THOUSANDS OF SKATES) 300  200 „  •  10  100  •  1952  1954  1956  1  1958  1960  1962  •X.  1964  1966  1968  1970  CATCH (MILLIONS OF POUNDS)  1972  "  EFFORT 400 (THOUSANDS OF SKATES)  -  300  200  "  1952  CATCH PER SKATE  (HUNDREDS OF POUNDS)  1954  1956  CATCH EFFORT CATCH PER SKATE  1958  1960  1962  1964  1966  1968  1970  CATCH PER SKATE (HUNDREDS OF POUNDS)  100  1972  144  Yields  decreased i n p a r t because o f more e f f o r t  being employed on l e s s  abundant s t o c k s over a much l o n g e r f i s h i n g s e a s o n . o f Cape Spencer  (Area 2)  t h e r e o c c u r r e d a sharp d e c r e a s e  of gear employed over t h a t o f the p r e v i o u s p e r i o d . per skate remained f a i r l y declined.  It  On grounds south  stable after  i n the amount  Average  yields  1962, but the y e a r l y  catch  may have been t h a t quotas on these grounds were s e t  high i n the i n i t i a l  y e a r s o f the p e r i o d .  If  t h i s were the c a s e ,  too fewer  f i s h would have been added to the h a l i b u t p o p u l a t i o n i n the y e a r s immediately a f t e r ,  The Small  Boat  especially  phase o f the f i s h e r y  i n s h o r e grounds made i t tons to engage i n the  of S e a t t l e ,  e f f o r t were m a i n t a i n e d at  levels.  halibut fishery.  1910, w i t h most v e s s e l s  Vancouver,  the abundance o f h a l i b u t on  p o s s i b l e f o r small  Prince Rupert,  small boat f i s h e r y d e c l i n e d .  boats o f l e s s  than 5-10  With the development o f a deep-sea o p e r a t i n g from the major  ports  and K e t c h i k a n , the r o l e o f  In e s s e n c e , t h i s  o f l a n d i n g s by the r e g u l a r h a l i b u t f l e e t . small  high  Sector  In the i n i t i a l  fishery after  if  gave r i s e  The . s p a t i a l  to  the  centralization  range o f  boats l i m i t e d them to near shore g r o u n d s , and w i t h the  the  possible  exception of Alaskan waters,  d e p l e t i o n o f s t o c k s on these banks no  l o n g e r made f o r an i n t e n s i v e  small  boat  fishery.  H a l i b u t banks i n A l a s k a waters are more e x t e n s i v e south.  T h e r e f o r e , they were not as e x t e n s i v e l y o v e r - f i s h e d as the  more s o u t h e r l y grounds. halibut  than those  As a r e s u l t ,  the small  f i s h e r y proved t o be l o n g e r l a s t i n g  The presence o f deep-water  channels  further smaller,  boat s e c t o r o f the A l a s k a  than t h a t f a r t h e r  south.  i n Southeast A l a s k a , i n which  halibut  145  generally  s t a y e d throughout the y e a r w i t h o u t much o f f s h o r e movement,  favoured the small  boat f i s h e r y  boat s e c t o r o f the E a s t e r n  in A l a s k a .  Pacific  By 1931, however,  h a l i b u t f i s h e r y was o n l y  the  also  small  taking  25 a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3% o f the t o t a l  halibut  catch.  26 In a d d i t i o n to the 500-600 one and two man boats b e n e f i t e d from i n c r e a s e d h a l i b u t  s t o c k s on i n s h o r e grounds s i n c e quota  r e g u l a t i o n , a l a r g e number o f v e s s e l s account f o r  incidental  catches  which have  i n the salmon t r o l l i n g  of halibut.  Most e f f o r t  fleet  by the l a t t e r  is  e x e r t e d i n the s p r i n g months b e f o r e the peak o f the salmon s e a s o n ,  in  y e a r s when salmon runs are p o o r , o r when h a l i b u t p r i c e s are h i g h .  Al-  though they employ l e s s e f f o r t and g e a r , t h e i r  the  h a l i b u t c a t c h i n c r e a s e d from 3% i n the  total  percentage o f  1931-1935 p e r i o d to 10% i n  the  27 1950-1955 p e r i o d . Salmon f l e e t  L a r g e r and more e f f i c i e n t  trollers  have a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d t o such an i n c r e a s e  i n the in  Pacific  their  landings. Essentially, carries  the small  boat s e c t o r o f the p a r t - t i m e  halibut  fleet  out a near-shore f i s h e r y o v e r grounds throughout the r e g i o n .  Although the l a r g e s t  volumes o f t h e i r  c a t c h are landed at the many  salmon and h a l i b u t camps a l o n g the c o a s t l i n e , landed d i r e c t l y given year  at the major p o r t s .  some o f the c a t c h may be  In B r i t i s h  Columbia alone i n any  t h e r e may be 25 o r 30 l o c a t i o n s at which small q u a n t i t i e s  h a l i b u t are l a n d e d .  Most o f these i s o l a t e d s t a t i o n s  engaged i n h a n d l i n g salmon.  Centralization within  i n d u s t r y has c o n t r i b u t e d t o a decrease  are  of  predominately  the salmon canning  i n the number o f such l o c a t i o n s .  For example, such cannery s i t e s  as Klemtu, Namu, and Butedale  no l o n g e r support c a n n e r i e s a l l  had h a l i b u t  holding f a c i l i t i e s  which in  146  c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h salmon p r o c e s s i n g f a c i l i t i e s . h a l i b u t l a n d i n g s at Butedale  Between 1940 and 1960,  amounted t o over 100 thousand pounds a n n u a l l y ,  a l t h o u g h they were f a r g r e a t e r d u r i n g the 1913-1931 phase o f the Improvements greatly  in vessel  d e s i g n and r e f r i g e r a t o r  increased m o b i l i t y within  relatively  facilities  however,  characteristic  f o r the small  o f the r e g u l a r h a l i b u t f l e e t .  boat s e c t o r o f the h a l i b u t f l e e t .  i n the f i s h e r y  is  p r i m a r i l y due to a v a i l a b i l i t y  l e s s than 10-15 m i l e s from bases o f o p e r a t i o n . c o s t s , t o g e t h e r with high p r i c e s r e c e i v e d them t o remain i n the f i s h e r y ermen i n the small  Their  combined with t h e i r  crew s i z e (1-2 men), do not p r e s e n t the type o f s c a l e o f which i s  have  the salmon t r o l l i n g f l e e t .  small c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t i e s ,  This also  The l a t t e r s  o f h a l i b u t on grounds T h e i r low  operating  f o r h a l i b u t , make i t  numbers f l u c t u a t e  resentative  o f the i n i t i a l  o f the small  from y e a r  the e n t i r e  region.  fishing stations  In an u n r e g u l a t e d f i s h e r y  their  to  fishery,  however,  by the small  Unlike vessels trawler f l e e t  rep-  r o l e would have f o r them  In the case o f the P a c i f i c  halibut landings  fleet.  i n the t r o l l i n g  fleet,  i s not p e r m i t t e d to r e t a i n  The Commission (IFC)  fleet.  throughout  quota r e g u l a t i o n has c o n t r i b u t e d t o i n c r e a s e d  boat s e c t o r o f the  year  when d a y - t o -  d e c l i n e d to the p o i n t where i t would be no l o n g e r f e a s i b l e to engage i n f i s h i n g o p e r a t i o n s .  fish-  in  boat s e c t o r i s  phases o f the h a l i b u t f i s h e r y ,  day o p e r a t i o n s were conducted from small  possible for  Most  i n the same manner as those engaged i n the l a r g e r v e s s e l - s i z e d characteristics  holds  existence  1  boat s e c t o r o f the i n d u s t r y may o n l y engage  The o p e r a t i o n a l  small  operations  even when c a t c h e s are s m a l l .  the f i s h e r y p a r t - t i m e , and t h e i r  fishery.  f o r example, the  incidental  Pacific  catches of  p r o h i b i t e d the r e t e n t i o n o f o t t e r  halibut.  trawl-caught  halibut  147 i n 1944,  29  has not prevented the expansion o f the t r a w l e r  fleet.  From b i o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e i t was shown by the Commission t h a t o t t e r  trawls  are l e s s  but t h i s  selective  than s e t l i n e gear ( l o n g l i n e s )  high p r o p o r t i o n o f immature h a l i b u t .  and account f o r a v e r y  Consequently, a l l  caught h a l i b u t must be r e t u r n e d to the s e a .  Trawler  fishermen,  have s i n c e advocated t h a t they be p e r m i t t e d t o r e t a i n of  otter-trawl however,  incidental  catches  halibut.  The B e r i n g Sea  Fishery  Although i s o l a t e d t r i p s  to the B e r i n g Sea h a l i b u t grounds had been  30 made as e a r l y as 1930 commenced i n 1952.  , development o f the f i s h e r y  Improved h a l i b u t s t o c k s on the o l d e r grounds  1932; the l a c k o f adequate marketing and o u t f i t t i n g western A l a s k a l o c a t i o n s ; and p r i c e d i s p a r i t y  the B e r i n g Sea f i s h e r y .  effort  facilities  nineteen f i f t i e s ,  at f a r w  l a t e development o f  With the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f c o l d s t o r a g e  i n the e a r l y  after  i n f a v o u r o f the southern  p o r t s were f a c t o r s which a f f e c t e d the r e l a t i v e l y  a t Sand P o i n t  i n these waters o n l y  facilities  f i s h e r m e n s h i f t e d more  to the B e r i n g Sea g r o u n d s .  T a b l e XV shows the number o f v e s s e l s o p e r a t i n g i n the B e r i n g between 1952 and 1972, and the North American c a t c h from the  area.  Canadian v e s s e l s were l a t e i n e x p l o i t i n g those grounds which was result of t h e i r after  1958.  Sea  the  i n c r e a s e d tendency to f i s h grounds west o f Cape Spencer  Such a move c o i n c i d e d with the a d d i t i o n o f s u b s i d y - b u i l t  v e s s e l s to the Canadian f l e e t .  A g r e a t e r number o f v e s s e l s  o f s i x t y tons were added and t h i s made i t e x p l o i t grounds at  p o s s i b l e to more  i n c r e a s e d d i s t a n c e s from B r i t i s h  i n excess effectively  Columbia p o r t s .  T a b l e XV Number o f V e s s e l s Operating i n Bering Sea and Catch ('000 l b s . ) from Region During 1952-1972  Year 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 Source:  No. o f 9 6 2 1 3 1 7 19 35 34 43 51 36 19 4 17 11 7 6 4 4  United S t a t e s Catch Vessels 251 227 41 45 177 39 965 1777 2308 2040 3820 3323 1072 745 557 1287 653 565 245 137 475  (lbs.)  No. o f  Vessels  Canada  Catch  — — —  — — —  —  —  2  14 20 31 27 33 53 32 15 11 19 17 16 13 13 7  T e c h n i c a l Report No. 8 IPHC. For Years 1952-1960. G. M o r r i s Southward, IPHC. For Years 1961-1972.  3  1211 2391 3341 1928 3499 4784 1256 590 638 1108 668 668 889 729 253  Total  U.S. and Canada Total Vessels  9 6 2 1 5 1 21 39 66 61 76 104 68 34 15 36 28 23 19 15 11  251 227 41 45 260 39 2176 4157 5649 3968 7322 8136 2328 1335 1195 2395 1321 1233 995 866 728 CO  149  Because o f i n c r e a s e s c l o s e to the B e r i n g  i n the p r i c e o f h a l i b u t landed at p o r t s Sea,  little  b e n e f i t was d e r i v e d from l a n d i n g  at p o r t s a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e away.  In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e was  c o m p e t i t i o n i n the stormy A l e u t i a n r e g i o n and v e s s e l s from p o t e n t i a l l y however,  higher catches.  could  catches  less  benefit  O v e r f i s h i n g on the B e r i n g Sea g r o u n d s ,  l e d to a sharp decrease  were v e n t u r i n g  relatively  in c a t c h and as a r e s u l t  fewer  vessels  i n t o the area by the end o f the 1952-1972 p e r i o d .  In o r d e r t o make f o r a more even d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f i s h i n g e f f o r t the P a c i f i c  h a l i b u t grounds and to g a i n g r e a t e r  knowledge o f the  over  Bering  Sea h a l i b u t s t o c k s , the H a l i b u t Commission encouraged movement o f  North  31 American v e s s e l s started e a r l i e r  i n t o the a r e a .  For example, the f i s h i n g season  than on the southern grounds.  R u s s i a commenced o t t e r  trawl o p e r a t i o n s f o r g r o u n d f i s h i n  B e r i n g Sea i n the l a t e n i n e t e e n f i f t i e s . halibut operations  In  the  1961 the Japanese began  i n the area and i n t h a t y e a r produced 24.2 m i l l i o n pounds  32 of h a l i b u t . levels  Continued o p e r a t i o n s  i n s u c c e e d i n g y e a r s reduced s t o c k  i n the B e r i n g Sea c o n s i d e r a b l y .  Commission t a g g i n g experiments  International  Pacific  Halibut  had shown t h a t h a l i b u t s t o c k s i n  the 33  B e r i n g Sea c o n t r i b u t e d to s t o c k s i z e on grounds west o f Cape Spencer. T h e r e f o r e , by the end o f the 1952-1972 p e r i o d such o v e r f i s h i n g was reflected  i n r e c o r d low quotas f o r the i n d u s t r y as a whole.  Movement o f Japanese v e s s e l s ,  in p a r t i c u l a r ,  caused grave concern to those i n v o l v e d industry.  In  North P a c i f i c  i n t o the B e r i n g  in the North American  Sea  halibut  1962, the Convention f o r the High Seas F i s h e r i e s  of  the  Ocean o f Canada, Japan and the U n i t e d S t a t e s agreed t h a t  h a l i b u t s t o c k s o f the e a s t e r n B e r i n g Sea d i d not q u a l i f y  for  abstention  150  as s p e c i f i e d i n the I n t e r n a t i o n a l  Convention f o r the High Seas  Fisheries  34 o f the North P a c i f i c  Ocean.  S i n c e 1965 h a l i b u t s t o c k s o f the  Sea have been managed j o i n t l y  by the I n t e r n a t i o n a l  Pacific  Bering  Halibut 35  Commission and the I n t e r n a t i o n a l  North P a c i f i c  Fisheries  Commission.  The c a t c h i n the area has been taken by J a p a n , Canada, and the States.  As a r e s u l t ,  with a f o r e i g n f l e e t  the North American h a l i b u t f l e e t f o r catches  complete c o n t r o l over the e n t i r e  United  has t o compete  i n the B e r i n g Sea and no l o n g e r has Pacific  halibut  fishery.  E x t e n s i o n o f the North American h a l i b u t f i s h e r y i n t o the Sea was c a r r i e d out o n l y by the l a r g e s t v e s s e l s In a d d i t i o n , the King c r a b f i s h e r y  Bering  i n the h a l i b u t  fleet.  i n Western A l a s k a waters expanded  considerably after  1960 and some o f the v e s s e l s engaged i n t h i s  s h i f t e d to h a l i b u t  in the o f f - s e a s o n .  This trend accelerated  fishery  after  1967 when king c r a b s t o c k s began t o show e v i d e n c e o f d e p l e t i o n .  Most  o f the v e s s e l s o p e r a t e d on the grounds a l o n g the s o u t h e a s t e r n edge o f the B e r i n g Sea c o n t i n e n t a l  shelf.  In t h i s  locality  temperature  c o n d i t i o n s f o r h a l i b u t are more f a v o u r a b l e than over most areas  of  the s h a l l o w s h e l f o f the r e g i o n .  in  Consequently, halibut f i s h i n g  the B e r i n g Sea was c o n c e n t r a t e d , r a t h e r than spread over  relatively  l a r g e expanses o f f i s h i n g ground as was the case i n the G u l f o f A l a s k a . As a r e s u l t h a l i b u t s t o c k s i n the former area were s u b j e c t to fishing  effort.  Development o f the B e r i n g Sea grounds i n c r e a s e d the  distance  between the o l d e r p o r t s and the c a t c h area f o r those v e s s e l s to e x p l o i t these g r o u n d s . activity  intensive  Such e x t e n s i o n o f e f f o r t  electing  saw f i s h i n g  being c a r r i e d out a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2500 m i l e s from S e a t t l e and  151  V a n c o u v e r , and a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1800 m i l e s from P r i n c e Rupert and K e t c h i k a n . It  was no l o n g e r e c o n o m i c a l l y worthwhile  southern p o r t s . o f h a l i b u t at  Instead,  v e s s e l s would d e l i v e r  o f the season was u s u a l l y  vessels.  several  t r i p to  delivered  to  The  landed at the home p o r t o f the  given  latter.  The i n c r e a s e d s c a l e o f o p e r a t i o n s o f the f a r western c o l d  and r e d u c t i o n s  t o b r i n g about a r e d u c t i o n i n o p e r a t i o n  in transportation  final  f a v o u r e d p o r t s on Puget  t h e r e was a p r i c e d i s c r e p a n c y i n f a v o u r o f the  s e c t o r was s u f f i c i e n t  the  o r more catches  B e l l i n g h a m , and Vancouver.  Vancouver based b o a t s , however,  Sound i f  every  p o r t s i n western A l a s k a f o r every t r i p  southern p o r t s such as S e a t t l e , trip  to d e l i v e r  storage costs  c o s t s o f h a l i b u t being shipped t o  the  37 southern r a i l h e a d p o r t s .  Much o f the a c t i v i t y  was c e n t r e d at  Kodiak  38 where 18 f i s h p l a n t s were o p e r a t i n g the h a l i b u t b u s i n e s s .  i n 1966,  some o f which were  The southern based v e s s e l s were f r e q u e n t i n g the  w i t h l a r g e numbers o f h a l i b u t d e l i v e r i e s  taken i n western w a t e r s .  l e d to Kodiak d e v e l o p i n g i n t o the second l e a d i n g h a l i b u t c e n t r e o f Eastern  Pacific  i n terms o f p r i m a r y  significance.  It  i n west c e n t r a l  c u l m i n a t e d the g e n e r a l  westward  which had o c c u r r e d i n the c a t c h i n g and p r o c e s s i n g s e c t o r s . r e s u l t major  h a l i b u t p o r t s were l o c a t e d a l o n g the r e g i o n ' s  from Cape F l a t t e r y  to f a r western w a t e r s .  o f the c a t c h i n g and p r o c e s s i n g s e c t o r s f a c t o r s , however, and f l e e t  This r e f l e c t e d  to raw m a t e r i a l  c o m p e t i t i o n helped shape s p a t i a l period.  This the  Alaska shifts  As a coastline the  supply.  orientation Other  such as the l e n g t h o f the f i s h i n g s e a s o n , p r i c e  i n d u s t r y d u r i n g the  port  landings.  The emergence o f a dominant h a l i b u t c e n t r e was o f g r e a t  in  interaction within  the  disparity,  152  References  1.  Bell,  F.  Heward,  2.  Hardman, W. H.  3.  International  " E a s t e r n P a c i f i c H a l i b u t F i s h e r y 1888-1966." F i s h e r y L e a f l e t 602, U.S. Dept. o f the I n t e r i o r , U. S. F i s h and W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e . Bureau o f Commercial F i s h e r i e s Wash. D.C. August 1968. p.7. Information f o r 1967-1971 S u p p l i e d by G. M. Southward, I n t e r n a t i o n a l P a c i f i c H a l i b u t Commission. "The S i z e , Age and Sex Composition o f North American S e t l i n e Catches o f H a l i b u t ( H i p p o g l o s s u s h i p p o g l o s s u s s t e n o l e p i s ) i n B e r i n g S e a , 1964-1970." T e c h n i c a l Report No. 8 (IPHC). S e a t t l e , 1970. p . 3 .  Pacific  H a l i b u t Commission.  Annual R e p o r t .  1972.  p. 12. 4.  Ibid,  p.12.  5.  Ibid,  p. 12.  6.  Pacific  7.  International  Fisherman Yearbook. Pacific op.  8.  International  9.  Information  1953.  p. 225.  H a l i b u t Commission. cit.  p.  Annual Report 1971.  12.  P a c i f i c H a l i b u t Commission. Report No. 25. " R e g u l a t i o n and I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the P a c i f i c H a l i b u t F i s h e r y in 1956." S e a t t l e , 1957. p . 9 .  s u p p l i e d by Mr. H. E.  L o k k e n , Manager, F i s h i n g V e s s e l  Owner's A s s o c i a t i o n . Fisherman Yearbook.  Seattle.  10.  Pacific  1953. p. 233.  11.  Information  12.  U r q u h a r t , M.C. and Buckley K . A . H . ( e d s . ) Historical Statistics of Canada. Sponsored by Canadian P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n and S o c i a l S c i e n c e Research C o u n c i l o f Canada. The U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . Cambridge. 1965. p. 395.  13.  Pacific  14.  IPHC.  Annual R e p o r t .  15.  Ibid,  p.8.  s u p p l i e d by Mr. H. E.  Fisherman Yearbook. 1971.  1957. p.8.  Lokken.  p. 197.  153  16.  Ibid.  p.  13.  17.  Western  Fisheries,  18.  Federal  Department o f F i s h e r i e s and F o r e s t r y . Economics Branch. P a c i f i c Region. "Fisheries S t a t i s t i c s of B r i t i s h Columbia 1 9 6 9 . " p.14.  19.  Information  20.  Western  21.  Information  V o l . 62.  s u p p l i e d by Mr. H. E.  Fisheries,  V o l . 78.  May 1961. p. 35.  Lokken.  No. 2  May 1969. p. 4 3 .  s u p p l i e d by Economics B r a n c h , St.  F.  No. 2.  Heward,  John's,  Department o f  Fisheries,  Newfoundland.  22.  Bell,  In A Century o f F i s h i n g i n North A m e r i c a . Norman G. Benson (ed) S p e c i a l P u b l i c a t i o n No. 7. American F i s h e r i e s S o c i e t y . Wash. 1970. p. 221.  23.  The F i n a n c i a l  24.  Information  25.  Bell,  F.  Heward, B i o l o g i c a l and Economic A s p e c t s o f F i s h e r i e s Management. U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington, S e a t t l e . 1959. p. 58.  26.  Bell,  F.  Heward, and G. S t .  Post.  Oct.  2 8 , 1972.  s u p p l i e d by Mr. H. E.  Bell,  F.  Heward.  "Biological Management"  28.  Information  "The P a c i f i c  IPHC.  Seattle.  Halibut" 1970. p.  and Economic A s p e c t s o f op. c i t .  s u p p l i e d by Mr. N. R. Company L t d .  C-4  Lokken.  Pierre.  Report No. 6. 27.  p.  p.  Technical 14.  Fisheries  58.  C h r i s t e n s e n , Canadian F i s h i n g  Vancouver.  29.  International  P a c i f i c H a l i b u t Commission. Report No. 23. "The I n c i d e n t a l Capture o f H a l i b u t by V a r i o u s Types o f Gear." Seattle. 1956. p. 37.  30.  Pacific  Fisherman Yearbook.  1931.  P-  185.  31.  Pacific  Fisherman Yearbook.  1959.  P-  199.  32.  Pacific  Fisherman Yearbook.  1962.  P-  167.  33.  Hardman, W. H . ,  " R e l a t i o n s h i p o f H a l i b u t Stocks i n B e r i n g Sea as I n d i c a t e d by Age and S i z e C o m p o s i t i o n " Technical Report No. 4. IPHC. S e a t t l e , 1969. p. 1.  154 34.  Bell,  F.  Heward,  In  "A Century o f F i s h i n g in North A m e r i c a "  op.cit. F.  Heward,  p. 220.  35.  Bell,  "Agreements, C o n v e n t i o n s , and T r e a t i e s Between Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s o f America w i t h Respect to the P a c i f i c H a l i b u t F i s h e r y . " Report No. 50. IPHC. Seattle. 1969. p. 21.  36.  D u n l o p , Henry A . , et a l . " I n v e s t i g a t i o n , U t i l i z a t i o n , and R e g u l a t i o n o f the H a l i b u t i n S o u t h e a s t e r n B e r i n g Sea" Report No. 35. IPHC. Seattle. 1964. p. 12.  37.  Information  s u p p l i e d by Mr. Donald M c C l e o d , Manager, A t ! i n F i s h e r i e s L t d . - P r i n c e R u p e r t , S u b s i d u a r y o f the New England F i s h i n g Company L t d .  38.  Chaffin, Y.,  A l a s k a ' s Southwest - Koniaq t o King C r a b . Publ i s h e d by C h a f f i n Inc. K o d i a k , A l a s k a . 1967. p. 72.  155 Chapter  VII  Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s  Examination o f the h i s t o r i c a l  economic development o f f i s h i n g com-  plexes suggests a c o n c e n t r i c r i n g p a t t e r n o f expansion and development. Evolution  o f the s p a t i a l  the P e r u v i a n  s t r u c t u r e o f the Japanese s k i p j a c k - t u n a  anchovy f i s h e r y ,  salmon f i s h e r y ,  and most deep-sea f i s h e r i e s  a p a t t e r n o f development. resource a v a i l a b i l i t y , institutional in these  the Newfoundland cod f i s h e r y ,  Pacific  o f the world bear out such  Such a c o n c e n t r i c p a t t e r n  is associated with  resource d e p l e t i o n , nature of f i s h i n g grounds,  c o n t r o l , changing t e c h n o l o g y , e t c .  factors  the  fishery,  eventually  Changes o r  determine the s p a t i a l  f i s h i n g complex and i n t e r a c t i o n  between v a r i o u s  variation  s t r u c t u r e of a given  sectors of the  resource-  based complex. Activities  associated with e x t r a c t i v e  s p a t i a l l y w i t h raw m a t e r i a l  supply.  the nature o f the r e s o u r c e p r e s e n t s  i n d u s t r y tend t o  coincide  In the case o f a f i s h i n g complex different  problems than would be t h e  case with a f o r e s t r y  r e s o u r c e , f o r example.  In the case o f the  resource inventories  are more e a s i l y m o n i t o r e d and c o n t r o l l e d .  common p r o p e r t y nature o f marine r e s o u r c e s p l a c e s l i m i t a t i o n s optimum e x p l o i t a t i o n . the s p a t i a l  This,  in i t s e l f ,  of a given f i s h e r y ,  The upon  has important i m p l i c a t i o n s  and economic a s p e c t s o f a f i s h e r y .  characteristics  latter,  for  Economic and b i o l o g i c a l  i n t u r n , are a f u n c t i o n o f  intensity  o f resource e x p l o i t a t i o n . Variability  o f s t o c k s i z e s o f a f i s h r e s o u r c e , such as h a l i b u t ,  expanses o f f i s h i n g grounds has an important b e a r i n g on the type and  over  156  characteristics locational  o f the f i s h i n g complex which d e v e l o p s .  Harvesting  d e c i s i o n s must be made i n l i g h t o f f i s h a v a i l a b i l i t y  and  accessibility.  The h a r v e s t i n g o f p e l a g i c s p e c i e s , however, might  for a different  set of c o n s t r a i n t s  s p e c i e s such as h a l i b u t .  than would be the case f o r demersal  over broad expanses o f o c e a n .  on the o t h e r hand are f a r more l o c a l i z e d .  In  Demersal  the case o f the  s t o c k s o f h a l i b u t which may occupy v a r i o u s  salmon, however,  Pacific  Salmon r i v e r s  o f development  s t r u c t u r e o f the h a l i b u t  o f the resource.:  is i l l u s t r a t e d  i n d u s t r y at a l l  in Figure 35.  In g e n e r a l ,  e x t e n s i o n o f the f i s h e r y and r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s and a c c e s s i b i l i t y .  four it  at  stages  shows  i n response t o  the  resource  D e p l e t i o n o f the more s o u t h e r l y grounds  and subsequent development o f new grounds l e d to a g e n e r a l l y i n e f f o r t and o f the c o l d s t o r a g e s e c t o r .  the c a t c h i n g s e c t o r was a f u n c t i o n o f f l e e t and v e s s e l  With the  throughout the r e g i o n .  The s p a t i a l  availability  grounds.  the f i s h e r y c o u l d be p r o s e c u t e d i n such a manner  t h a t v e s s e l s would o n l y have to await the a r r i v a l  shift  species  f o r example, v e s s e l s are f o r c e d t o s e a r c h out and c a p t u r e  different Pacific  call  Most p e l a g i c s p e c i e s such as salmon and tuna  tend to range q u i t e f r e e l y  halibut,  and  northwesterly  The i n c r e a s e d range o f  competition, fishing costs,  design.  F i g u r e 36 shows the degree o f c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f l a n d i n g s by p o r t a t each stage o f development. of  In e s s e n c e , i n c r e a s e d  decentralization  l a n d i n g s o c c u r r e d a t each stage w i t h the e x t e n s i o n o f f i s h i n g  There was, however, to the more w e s t e r l y these grounds.  a time l a g between e x t e n s i o n o f f i s h i n g grounds and the  T h i s was l a r g e l y  rise  related  activity.  operations  o f important l a n d i n g p o r t s to p r i c e d i s p a r i t y  in favour  near of  1888-1912  1913-1931  LEGEND ^  RAILHEAD  #  S E C O N D A R Y PORTS  LOCATION  PORTS  •  F I S H I N G S T A T I O N S (MINOR PORTS)  •  C O L D S T O R A G E FACILITIES  rrn ^ --->  LIMIT O F FISHING  OPERATIONS  R A N G E O F FISHING V E S S E L S B A S E D A T E A C H PORT T Y P E V E S S E L S E L E C T T O L A N D PART O F Y E A R L Y C A T C H A W A Y F R O M H O M E PORT  1932-1951  FIGURE 35.  SPATIAL STRUCTURE OF THE INDUSTRY 1888-1972.  159  the more s o u t h e r l y p o r t s .  By the end o f the study p e r i o d t h i s was  the case to such a l a r g e e x t e n t , actual  and as a r e s u l t o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s  f i s h i n g o p e r a t i o n s were more c l o s e l y o r i e n t e d to raw  not besides  material  supply. The c o n c e n t r i c p a t t e r n o f development a r i s i n g from s p a t i a l o f the P a c i f i c  halibut fishery  extension  i s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d i n F i g u r e 37.  Essentially,  the stage by stage e v o l u t i o n was accompanied by r e s o u r c e d e p l e t i o n under intensive  fishing,  i n the s p a t i a l  a decline  i n the number o f small  range o f the c a t c h i n g s e c t o r w i t h i n  p o r t s , an  increase  c o s t and t e c h n o l o g i c a l  c o n s t r a i n t s , and the emergence o f major h a l i b u t p o r t s c l o s e r t o f i s h i n g grounds.  The amount o f e f f o r t  expended i n each stage was  a f u n c t i o n of c o m p e t i t i o n between v e s s e l s Institutional  the largely  f o r a share o f the h a l i b u t  c o n t r o l s p l a c e d c o n s t r a i n t s on l e v e l s  catch.  o f e x p l o i t a t i o n and  proved to have i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n w i t h i n  the  halibut  complex. Stage I by v i r g i n  (1888-1912) o f the P a c i f i c  h a l i b u t f i s h e r y was  s t o c k s which c o u l d be h a r v e s t e d w i t h r e l a t i v e l y  of technology.  low  levels  The major c o n s t r a i n t p l a c e d upon r a p i d e x p l o i t a t i o n o f  the r e s o u r c e was r e l a t e d  to market demand.  were a p r e - r e q u i s i t e  initial  for  Efficient  transportation  development and e x p a n s i o n o f the  The p e r i o d was dominated by c o r p o r a t e  involvement a t a l l  o f f i s h i n g c o s t s and i n c r e a s e d demand f o r h a l i b u t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the independent fishermen i n the  levels.  links  fishery. Reduction  l e d to more a t t r a c t i v e industry.  o f the nature o f f i s h s t o c k s and s h o r t range o f the v e s s e l s spatial  characterized  Because i n the  o p e r a t i o n s o f the c a t c h i n g s e c t o r were q u i t e l i m i t e d .  fleet,  A large  number o f f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d from which a day-to-day  fishery  160 STAGE I  STAGE  1888-1912  1913-1931  E V O L U T I O N A R Y STAGES O F T H E PACIFIC HALIBUT  9  II  FISHERY (1888-1972)  MINOR PORTS MAJOR  PORTS  RANGE OF T H E CATCHING SECTOR  FIGURE 37.  CONCEPTUAL  MODEL OF INDUSTRY  EVOLUTION  1888- 1972.  161  was c a r r i e d o n .  The major p o r t s o f S e a t t l e , V a n c o u v e r , and Tacoma  emerged as the c e n t r a l o f the p e r i o d ,  nodes w i t h i n the f i s h e r y .  Until  the f i n a l  the independent f l e e t was not s u f f i c i e n t l y  w i t h the company-owned f l e e t s .  years  l a r g e t o compete  Increased northward m i g r a t i o n o f  the  c a t c h i n g s e c t o r i n response to r e s o u r c e d e p l e t i o n o f nearby grounds had i n c r e a s e d the f i s h e r y m i l e s from the major  range o f the l a r g e r v e s s e l s ports.  to a p p r o x i m a t e l y 600  T h i s l e d to expansion o f the c o l d  to n o r t h e r n p o i n t s and h e r a l d e d the f u t u r e  use o f such p o r t s as  storage Prince  Rupert and K e t c h i k a n . Stage II to a l l  (1913-1931) o f the f i s h e r y  saw e x t e n s i o n o f f i s h i n g  operations  the h a l i b u t grounds w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f those i n the B e r i n g  Sea.  T h i s r e s u l t e d i n grounds a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2000 m i l e s from S e a t t l e and V a n couver.being exploited. in greatly  Rapid e x p a n s i o n o f the independent f l e e t  i n c r e a s e d c o m p e t i t i o n f o r annual c a t c h e s .  hastened the d e p l e t i o n o f h a l i b u t  This  resulted  further  s t o c k s throughout the r e g i o n , and l e d  the s i g n i n g o f the H a l i b u t Convention i n 1923.  D e p l e t i o n o f s t o c k s on  i n s h o r e grounds l e d to the d e c l i n e o f the small  boat f i s h e r y .  to  In a d d i t i o n ,  expansion o f the f i s h e r y to o f f s h o r e grounds l e d to the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the l o n g l i n e r v e s s e l s o f the r a i l  l i n k to P r i n c e Rupert  with a s t r a t e g i c spatial  i n t o the f i s h e r y o f the company s t e a m e r s . i n 1914 p r o v i d e d the  halibut  Completion fleet  base o f o p e r a t i o n s , and had important i m p l i c a t i o n s  i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n the  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by g r e a t l y  industry.  The second p e r i o d was  therefore  i n c r e a s e d investment to meet i n c r e a s e d expansion  requirements and market demands.  This,  however,  l e d to underemployment  o f l a b o u r , c a p i t a l , and equipment w i t h i n the i n d u s t r y by the end o f period.  for  the  162  Stage III  (1932-1951)  s t r u c t u r e o f the  saw l i t t l e  i n d u s t r y , but  western g r o u n d s .  s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the  spatial  increased f i s h i n g e f f o r t was expended on  The i n s t i t u t i o n o f annual  quotas l e d to a sharp  decline  i n the d u r a t i o n o f the f i s h i n g season and l e d to severe c o m p e t i t i o n . Restoration  of h a l i b u t stocks provided incentive  v e s s e l s t o e n t e r the f i s h e r y . marketing s e c t o r s o f the to o p e r a t e  in a very  T h i s put added s t r a i n on the l a n d i n g and  industry.  As a r e s u l t  uneconomical manner.  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h extreme f l e e t  the i n d u s t r y was  Increased f i s h i n g  c o m p e t i t i o n o f f s e t the  a c h i e v e d through s t o c k r e s t o r a t i o n . by a s e r i e s o f c r i t i c a l  f o r a l a r g e number o f  events.  Essentially  forced  costs  gains which were  the p e r i o d was marked  Record low p r i c e s  i n the non-pioneer  phase o f the i n d u s t r y d u r i n g the e a r l y y e a r s o f the 1932-1951 p e r i o d c o n t r a s t e d with high p r i c e s and the l a r g e s t v e s s e l h i s t o r y o f the f i s h i n g i n the f i n a l Stage IV  y e a r s o f the  size fleet  (1952-1972) saw the problem o f e x c e s s i v e e n t r y  program.  the  period.  f i s h i n g b e i n g c u r t a i l e d by the a d o p t i o n o f a v o l u n t a r y layover  in  into  between-trip  T h i s proved t o be a v e r y s u c c e s s f u l measure  a t r e s t o r i n g o r d e r to the problem-plagued f i s h e r y .  the  Extension of  aimed the  f i s h e r y to the B e r i n g Sea grounds was s h o r t - l i v e d because o f f o r e i g n involvement  i n the  halibut fishery  f o r the f i r s t t i m e .  T h i s l e d to d e -  p l e t i o n o f the B e r i n g Sea grounds and a f f e c t e d s t o c k l e v e l s grounds as w e l l .  Extreme c o m p e t i t i o n from o t h e r w h i t e f i s h  s u l t e d i n a sharp d e c r e a s e i n landed p r i c e s f o r h a l i b u t .  outside species  sustained l e v e l s .  these re-  By the end o f  the p e r i o d c a t c h e s were f a r below r e c o r d high c a t c h e s which were d u r i n g the mid-nineteen f i f t i e s  fleet  attained  when s t o c k s were t e s t e d at maximum  The 1971 quota was not reached and l e d to the IPHC  163  s e t t i n g the lowest quota i n the r e g u l a t e d the 1972 f i s h i n g s e a s o n . p r i c e s , which r e f l e c t e d the w o r l d ' s  phase o f  the f i s h e r y  Accompanying such low quotas were r e c o r d h i g h to a c e r t a i n e x t e n t ,  the premium p r i c e s demanded by  l i m i t e d s u p p l y of a h i g h l y v a l u e d food  The e v o l u t i o n o f the s p a t i a l  fish.  s t r u c t u r e o f the P a c i f i c  f i s h e r y r e p r e s e n t e d i n d u s t r y response to a v a i l a b i l i t y resource over d i f f e r e n t  during  halibut  o f the  halibut  expanses o f f i s h i n g grounds a t v a r i o u s  stages.  The t i m e - d i s t a n c e - c o s t f a c t o r between p r o d u c i n g grounds and p o r t s very c r i t i c a l  in a f i s h e r y  that  was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i n t e n s i v e  c o m p e t i t i o n f o r a share o f the c a t c h . p o r t s was l a r g e l y  vessel  The competive p o s i t i o n o f  a function of h a l i b u t p r i c e d i f f e r e n t i a l s  proved  individual  between them.  The d u r a t i o n o f the f i s h i n g season and the amount o f e f f o r t expended, however, was to have important b e a r i n g on v e s s e l - p o r t northwesterly  s h i f t o f the  tendency o f v e s s e l s  cold s t o r a g e s e c t o r accompanied the  The  increased  to m i n i m i z e the d i s t a n c e s between the p r o d u c i n g grounds  and the l a n d i n g / p r o c e s s i n g s e c t o r o f the and c o s t c o n s t r a i n t s  interaction.  industry.  Within c e r t a i n  the f l e e t attempted to maximize the u t i l i t y  price  of  various  p o r t s and f i s h i n g grounds ( F i g u r e s 35 and 3 6 ) . Greater  vessel  m o b i l i t y and range a t each subsequent s t a g e o f d e v e l o p -  ment reduced the t i m e - d i s t a n c e - c o s t f a c t o r o f f i s h i n g o p e r a t i o n s  because  of  better  innovations  in vessel  and engine d e s i g n .  The a v a i l a b i l i t y  market o p p o r t u n i t i e s a t the more s o u t h e r l y l o c a t i o n s  (e.g.  Vancouver,  i n the  P r i n c e R u p e r t ) , m i n i m i z e d westward s h i f t s  p r o c e s s i n g s e c t o r o v e r much o f the s t u d y p e r i o d . o p p o r t u n i t i e s occurred at Kodiak), a s h i f t  of  Seattle, landing/  Once i n t e r v e n i n g  p o i n t s c l o s e r to the p r o d u c i n g grounds  to new l a n d i n g p o r t s o c c u r r e d .  The l a r g e r  market  (e.g.  vessels  in  164  the h a l i b u t f l e e t  could r e a d i l y  adapt t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s t o e x p l o i t  r e s o u r c e , but the s m a l l e r v e s s e l s constricted  (Figure 37).  v e s s e l s t o land t h e i r Technological very  within  F i g u r e 38 shows the  spatial  i n c r e a s e d tendency  change i n v e s s e l  c o n f i n e d f i s h i n g grounds p l a c e d s p a t i a l  which comprised the h a l i b u t complex.  limitations  p o s s i b l e f o r small  from which t h e s e v e s s e l s o p e r a t e d and landed t h e i r extreme, the development o f h i g h l y e f f i c i e n t possible for a greater  to be s e l e c t e d .  resource  fishing catch.  At the  range o f l o c a t i o n a l  Approximately seventy years a f t e r t i o n o f the h a l i b u t r e s o u r c e , a l l  within  and l a n d i n g  initial  s t o c k s o c c u r r e d at a very  distances  opportunities,  and f a v o u r a b l e commercial  halibut  fast  Depletion of  pace but r e g u l a t i o n o f the  1924 helped r e s t o r e s t o c k s to g e n e r a l l y  healthy  levels.  high c a t c h e s and y i e l d s were m a i n t a i n e d t h r o u g h o u t the  p a r t o f the r e g u l a t e d phase o f the f i s h e r y  (Figures  prices.  exploita-  h a l i b u t grounds o f the E a s t e r n  had come under v a r y i n g degrees o f f i s h i n g p r e s s u r e .  result  other  In e s s e n c e , home p o r t t i e s were no l o n g e r  s u p p l i e s , p o r t and marketing f a c i l i t i e s ,  after  to  stations  and m o b i l e v e s s e l s  from home p o r t , and i n t e r v e n i n g p o r t s o f f e r e d c o m p e t i t i v e  virgin  inshore  boats  m a i n t a i n e d when r e s o u r c e e x p l o i t a t i o n o c c u r r e d a t c o n s i d e r a b l e  e.g.  on the  between components  engage i n the f i s h e r y and l e d to a d e c l i n e i n small  sites  interaction  D e p l e t i o n o f s t o c k s on the  g r o u n d s , f o r example, no l o n g e r made i t  the f l e e t made i t  ports.  The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the h a l i b u t  s t r u c t u r e o f the i n d u s t r y and i n t e r a c t i o n  for  t y p e ) proved to be a  i n a f f e c t i n g the degree o f s p a t i a l  the h a l i b u t complex.  over r e l a t i v e l y  spatially  c a t c h away from the l o n g e r e s t a b l i s h e d  adaption ( e . g .  important f a c t o r  i n the f l e e t were f a r more  the  Pacific the fishery  As a greater  39 and 4 0 ) .  CATCH  (MILLIONS OF POUNDS)  168  I n d u s t r y c o o p e r a t i o n and government i n t e r a c t i o n a t the level  p r o v i d e d the b a s i s around which e f f e c t i v e  occurred.  management o f the  resource  The r e s t o r a t i o n o f h a l i b u t s t o c k s i s a c l a s s i c example o f  what can be a c h i e v e d  if  s o u n d l y based s t e p s are taken i n time to  endangered f i s h s t o c k s . will  international  I n d u s t r y approval o f IPHC r e g u l a t o r y  no doubt h e l p r e v e r s e  measures  the c a t c h d e c l i n e s which o c c u r r e d in the  two y e a r s o f the s t u d y p e r i o d . w o r l d , the P a c i f i c  protect  U n l i k e most deep-sea f i s h e r i e s  h a l i b u t f i s h e r y c o n t i n u e d t o be f r e e o f  f i s h i n g p r e s s u r e and o n l y to a v e r y  l i m i t e d extent  The common p r o p e r t y n a t u r e o f the P a c i f i c  of  final  the  foreign  in recent  years.  halibut resource,  like  most marine s p e c i e s , a f f e c t e d economic r e t u r n s which were generated within  the f i s h e r y .  In  the e a r l y y e a r s o f development when y i e l d s were  h i g h , and f i s h i n g c o s t s r e l a t i v e l y number o f v e s s e l s .  low,  the c a t c h was shared by a small  Markets were slow d e v e l o p i n g , however, and because  o f o v e r - p r o d u c t i o n , p r i c e s p a i d t o f i s h e r m e n remained r e l a t i v e l y With i n c r e a s e d d e p l e t i o n o f s t o c k s and the need to go f a r t h e r take c a t c h e s , f i s h i n g c o s t s  increased.  p e r i o d was r e q u i r e d to take annual accompanied by g e n e r a l l y This provided incentive e n t e r the  fishery.  over a much l a r g e r  low.  afield  In a d d i t i o n , a much l o n g e r  catches.  increased halibut  Decreases  to  time  i n c a t c h e s were  p r i c e s at dockside (Figure  41).  f o r a l a r g e r number o f v e s s e l s and f i s h e r m e n t o  As a r e s u l t ,  the landed v a l u e o f the c a t c h was  spread  fleet.  Regulation of  fisheries  on a quota b a s i s i s one o f the most  efficient  measures to r e g u l a t e  f i s h s t o c k s and m a i n t a i n maximum s u s t a i n e d y i e l d s .  With no r e s t r i c t i o n s  on v e s s e l  entry  i n t o the h a l i b u t f i s h e r y ,  system was accompanied by i n c r e a s e d c o m p e t i t i o n .  the quota  Under i n t e n s i v e  fishing  CATCH (MILLIONS OF POUNDS) NUMBER OF VESSELS (HUNDREDS) "•"——LENGTH OF FISHING SEASON (DAYS) AVERAGE PRICE (CENTS PER POUND)* "BASED ON B.C. PRICES  1888  1894  1900  1906  1912  1918  1924  1930  1936  1942  1948  1954  1960  1966  FIGURE 41. TRENDS IN NUMBER OF VESSELS, LENGTH OF FISHING SEASON, AVERAGE YEARLY PRICE 1888— 1972.  1972  S  170 effort in  the annual  itself  tions.  quotas were taken i n f a r  is a p o s i t i v e aspect of f i s h e r i e s  In the case o f the P a c i f i c  s h o r t e n e d , more v e s s e l s entering  less  halibut  fishery, fleet.  Most o f the  prices  vessels  increased  Firstly,  Secondly,  heavy  l e s s o f the c a t c h c o u l d be a b -  sorbed f r e s h o v e r a s h o r t l a n d i n g p e r i o d .  As a r e s u l t , g r e a t e r  amounts  o f h a l i b u t had t o be h e l d i n c o l d s t o r a g e f o r a l o n g e r d u r a t i o n o f which a l s o tended to depress h a l i b u t  prices.  T h e r e f o r e , unless  b e n e f i t s were not being d e r i v e d from the From an i n d u s t r y v i e w p o i n t  the  economic  fishery.  i n s t i t u t i o n o f the second  voluntary  program i n the f o u r t h stage o f the f i s h e r y ,  i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the h a l i b u t  i n d u s t r y as a whole.  had  Heavy l a n d i n g s  a s s o c i a t e d with s t o c k s being f i s h e d at maximum s u s t a i n a b l e y i e l d had c r e a t e d chaos w i t h i n the i n d u s t r y .  The i n c r e a s e  the  i n the f i n a l  The f i s h e r y was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by g e n e r a l l y large  to  A p a r t from p r i c e d e c l i n e s r e l a t e d t o e x t e r n a l  i n d u s t r y fared q u i t e well  phase o f the study high h a l i b u t  r e d u c t i o n had o c c u r r e d i n the number o f v e s s e l s  levels  i n the d u r a t i o n o f  the f i s h i n g seasons which f o l l o w e d tended t o r e s t o r e s t a b i l i t y halibut fishery.  time  measures  were taken to s t r e t c h out the l e n g t h o f the f i s h i n g s e a s o n , f u l l  layover  short  over a much s h o r t e r f i s h i n g season tended t o depress  at the l a n d i n g p o r t s .  between-trip  catches  c a t c h was taken o v e r a v e r y  The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s were t w o f o l d .  landings of halibut  season  from the salmon f l e e t o f the r e g i o n .  s t o c k s had improved and the e n t i r e  f i s h i n g season.  limita-  as the f i s h i n g  The market was not c a p a b l e o f a b s o r b i n g the g r e a t l y after  This,  r e g u l a t i o n but w i t h i n  e n t e r e d the h a l i b u t  the f i s h e r y were v e s s e l s  time ( F i g u r e 4 0 ) .  the  factors,  period.  prices.  A  engaged i n the  The i n c r e a s e d l e n g t h o f the f i s h i n g season no l o n g e r made i t  fishery.  possible for  171 salmon fishermen t o r e a d i l y being taken with l e s s halibut fleet  engage i n h a l i b u t o p e r a t i o n s .  effort, yields  The c a t c h was  had s t a b i l i z e d , and the  was b e n e f i t i n g from c o n s e r v a t i o n and r e g u l a t o r y  designed to c r e a t e  a g r e a t e r degree o f s t a b i l i t y  The development and expansion o f the P a c i f i c  w i t h the  regular measures  industry.  halibut fishery  around c r i t i c a l  factors  associated with resource a v a i l a b i l i t y  accessibility.  Although these two f a c t o r s determined the b e h a v i o r  fishing vessels  i n the h a l i b u t  fleet  to a large e x t e n t ,  and r e s o u r c e  i n the i n d u s t r y .  o f development.  T h i s was m a n i f e s t e d throughout the f o u r  As a r e s u l t ,  resource a c c e s s i b i l i t y ,  a combination o f r e s o u r c e  technological  determined the degree o f s p a t i a l whole.  T h i s i n t u r n e f f e c t e d change i n the s p a t i a l  s t r u c t u r e o f the P a c i f i c  halibut fishery  the  response  various  stages  availability  change, and i n s t i t u t i o n a l  interaction within  of  i t was v e s s e l  to economic and time c o n s t r a i n t s which determined the importance o f ports  evolved  controls  i n d u s t r y as a  and f u n c t i o n a l  throughout i t s  evolutionary  stages.  172  Bibliography  A. Bardach, J .  E.  H a r v e s t o f the S e a .  B e r r y , B . J . L . , and D.F.  Bingham, J.W.  W.  Harper and Row New Y o r k , 1968.  Marble ( E d s . ) S p a t i a l A n a l y s i s -- A Reader i n S t a t i s t i c a l Geography. P r e n t i c e Hal 1, New J e r s e y , 1968.  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