UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Villa Imperiale at Pesaro Eiche, Sabine 1973

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Notice for Google Chrome users:
If you are having trouble viewing or searching the PDF with Google Chrome, please download it here instead.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1973_A8 E52_4.pdf [ 18.19MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0101447.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0101447-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0101447-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0101447-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0101447-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0101447-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0101447-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0101447-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0101447.ris

Full Text

c 1THE VILLA IMPERIALE AT PESARO by SABINE EICHE B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1971. A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OP THE REQUIREMENTS POR THE DEGREE OP ' MASTER OP ARTS i n the Department of PINE ARTS We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OP BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1973. In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date ABSTRACT The V i l l a I m p e r i a l e at Pesaro remains one of the few grand I t a l i a n Renaissance v i l l a s t o have escaped e x p l o i t a t i o n f o r the t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y . C u r i o u s l y enough, i t has a l s o been l o n g n e g l e c t e d i n the f i e l d of modern a r t h i s t o r i c a l s c h o l a r -s h i p . The only major study i s Bernhard Patzak's Die V i l l a  I m p e r i a l e b e i Pesaro, p u b l i s h e d i n 1 9 0 8 . Before, and s i n c e then, the m a j o r i t y of accounts d e a l i n g w i t h i t have been of a p u r e l y l o c a l Pesarese c h a r a c t e r — e i t h e r b r i e f guide-book re f e r e n c e s t o i t , or redundant v e r s i o n s of Pompeo Mancini's l i t e r a r y b l u e p r i n t , w r i t t e n f o r the E s e r c i t a z i o n i dell'Accademia  A g r a r i a of Pesaro i n 1 8 4 4 . More r e c e n t l y , Giuseppe M a r c h i n i , former Superintendent of G a l l e r i e s i n the Marches, p u b l i s h e d an a t t r a c t i v e and w e l l -i l l u s t r a t e d book on the V i l l a I m p e r i a l e , t o c o i n c i d e w i t h the completion of the v i l l a ' s e r e s t o r a t i o n . Although M a r c h i n i ' s book i s extremely v a l u a b l e f o r i t s v i s u a l m a t e r i a l , i t does not c o n t r i b u t e t o the s c h o l a r s h i p on the v i l l a ' s h i s t o r y . C r a i g Hugh Smyth, who had been a c o n s u l t a n t f o r the r e s t o r a -t i o n of the V i l l a I m p e r i a l e ' s f r e s c o e s , i s c o n c e n t r a t i n g h i s e f f o r t s on determining the a u t h o r s h i p of the eight-room decor-a t i v e c y c l e . With the e x c e p t i o n of one e n l i g h t e n i n g essay, a l s o by Smyth, the a r c h i t e c t u r e of the V i l l a I m p e r i a l e has not yet i n s p i r e d any major r e v a l u a t i o n . Although P a t z a k 1 s monograph, the standard reference work f o r more than s i x t y years, i s an i n f o r m a t i v e study, many of i t s arguments appear u n s a t i s f a c t o r y i n the l i g h t of modern s c h o l a r -s h i p . I n such a case, i t i s undoubtedly the a r t h i s t o r y student r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to r e i n t e r p r e t the evidence, employing the method which have been developed i n the i n t e r i m . i i i The V i l l a I m p e r i a l e , on Monte S. B a r t o l o outside of Pesaro, c o n s i s t s of two separate s t r u c t u r e s from d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s . I n the s i x t e e n t h century, the b u i l d i n g s become i n t e r -r e l a t e d — p h y s i c a l l y , by a connecting wing; and f u n c t i o n a l l y , i n terms of an i c o n o g r a p h i c programme devised t o serve a common purpose. The e a r l i e r s t r u c t u r e was b u i l t by Alessandro S f o r z a i n 14-69. Emperor F r e d e r i c k I I I , on a p o s t - c o r o n a t i o n journey to I t a l y , passed through Pesaro, and performed the o f f i c e of l a y -i n g the f o u n d a t i o n stone. A plaque hangs above the main entrance to commemorate the event. As a m i d - f i f t e e n t h century s t r u c t u r e , the v i l l a i s designed w i t h the i d e a of v e r s a t i l i t y i n mind. The concept of v i l l e g i a -t u r a , as i t was being promoted i n contemporary F l o r e n c e , was not yet popular or expedient i n Pesaro. Alessandro S f o r z a was p r i n c i p a l l y a s o l d i e r , and h i s b u i l d i n g s r e f l e c t h i s t a s t e s and requirements. Because of i t s s i t e on top of a h i l l , the v i l l a c o u l d p l a y both defensive and o f f e n s i v e r o l e s i n b a t t l e s . When war was not the momentary occupation of Alessandro, the I m p e r i a l e worked w e l l as an economic u n i t . The l a n d on which i t stands was f e r t i l e and w e l l c u l t i v a t e d ; a f o r e s t surrounding the v i l l a on three s i d e s provided adequate game f o r h u n t i n g , whether f o r sport or n e c e s s i t y . I t was b u i l t w i t h expansive subterranean rooms which served as storage, and food conversion, areas. Patzak noted t h a t the a r c h i t e c t u r a l m o t i f s and p r o p o r t i o n s of the S f o r z a v i l l a , . . . p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the c o r t i l e , must date from a p e r i o d before 1469. He suggests 1452, when F r e d e r i c k came to I t a l y the f i r s t time, t o be coronated Emperor. However, the d i f -iv f i c ' u l t p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between F r e d e r i c k and Francesco S f o r z a , Duke of M i l a n , would seem t o exclude the p r o b a b i l i t y of a v i s i t by the Emperor t o Francesco's b r o t h e r , Alessandro, Lord of Pesa-ro, at t h a t time. What Patzak has overlooked i s the d i s p l a y of s i m i l a r a r c h i t e c t u r a l p r o p o r t i o n s i n the Palazzo P r e f e t t i z i o of Pesaro, a s t r u c t u r e b u i l t c l 4 5 0 , when Alessandro assumed c o n t r o l of the c i t y . The t r a n s p o s i t i o n of a system of a r c h i t e c t u r a l propor-t i o n s from one b u i l d i n g t o another i s not unprecedented. Indeed, the p h y s i c a l p r o x i m i t y , and the common patron, of the Pal a z z o P r e f e t t i z i o and the V i l l a I m p e r i a l e , u n d e r l i n e the s u i t a b i l i t y of the theory. I n 1512, Pesaro and the V i l l a I m periale were e x p r o p r i a t e d from the S f o r z a f a m i l y by J u l i u s I I , f o r h i s nephew, Francesco Maria d e l l a Rovere, Duke of Urbino. P o l i t i c a l and d y n a s t i c i n -t r i g u e s on the pa r t of the Me d i c i Pope, Leo X, prevented Francesco Maria from f i n a l l y s e c u r i n g h i s Dukedom, and w i t h i t the V i l l a I m p e r i a l e , u n t i l 1522. Subsequent t o h i s re o c c u p a t i o n , the Duke i n i t i a t e d a r e s t o r -a t i o n and re n o v a t i o n programme f o r h i s v a r i o u s e s t a t e s . The V i l l a I m p e r i a l e , damaged i n a b a t t l e of 1517, r e q u i r e d extensive r e p a i r s . Girolamo Genga, a n a t i v e of Urbino, was c a l l e d from Rome t o be-come court a r c h i t e c t t o Francesco M a r i a . Along w i t h the r e s t o r a t i o n , a programme was conceived f o r the d e c o r a t i o n of s e v e r a l grand apartments i n the Sf o r z a v i l l a . Only two c e i l i n g s e x i s t from t h i s e a r l i e s t p r o j e c t . The next p l a n , which remains today, i n v o l v e d the p a i n t i n g , w i t h a f r e s c o c y c l e , of ei g h t apartments. The programme was c a r e f u l l y devised to ensure the proper p r o c e s s i o n through the rooms of the o l d v i i -V l a , over a connecting b r i d g e , i n t o an e n t i r e l y new s t r u c t u r e , b u i l t behind the S f o r z a v i l l a . The a r c h i t e c t u r a l experiences of Francesco Maria's new v i l l a are c l e v e r l y and s u b t l y a n t i c i p -ated i n the f r e s c o e s of the S f o r z a v i l l a . T h i s second p r o j e c t , i n v o l v i n g the f r e s c o e s and the new v i l l a , was conceived and be-gun between 1524 and 1527. Before he turned t o a r c h i t e c t u r e , Genga had been a designer of stage s e t s . The f r e s c o e s , and the a r c h i t e c t u r e of Francesco Maria's v i l l a , show h i s indebtedness to the t h e a t r e . I n f a c t , the V i l l a I m periale was t o f u n c t i o n as the stage f o r the a c t i v i t -i e s of the Duke of Urbino's c o u r t , so the c o n c e i t i s , p a r a d o x i c a l -l y , e n t i r e l y s u i t a b l e . I n the d e l l a Rovere v i l l a , entrances and e x i t s , means of ac-cess from one space to another, are as d i s g u i s e d to the v i s i t o r ' s eye, as they would be i n a r e a l t h e a t r e . P a r t i c i p a t i o n and ex-p l o r a t i o n solve the problems encountered i n t r y i n g to move through the complex. When the v i s i t o r f i n a l l y a r r i v e s at the f a r end of the l a s t t e r r a c e , a g i a r d i n o s e c r e t o , he i s confronted by the only indepen-dent entrance i n t o the new v i l l a (the other i s by way of the S f o r z a v i l l a , and over the connecting wing). Regarding the v i l l a from t h i s p o s i t i o n , the s i g h t c o n f r o n t i n g him i s a negation of the a r c h i t e c t u r a l spaces experienced only moments before. As i t i s , he can see no a r c h i t e c t u r a l spaces at a l l — o n l y what appears to be a s o l i d b u i l d i n g w i t h f o u r towers. The a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e t t i n g has changed as q u i c k l y and completely as the pa i n t e d backdrop of a stage might be exchanged. The guest i s d e l i g h t e d and confused; the i l l u s i o n i s complete. v i TABLE OF CONTENTS Fage I . ABSTRACT i i I I . TABLE OF CONTENTS v i I I I . LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS v i i IV. TEXT CHAPTER I : THE SFORZA VILLA IMPERIALE page 1 FOOTNOTES page 26 CHAPTER I I : THE VILLA IMPERIALE FRESCOES page 37 FOOTNOTES page 65 CHAPTER I I I : THE DELLA ROVERE VILLA IMPERIALE page 72 FOOTNOTES page 94 V.. CONCLUSION page 100 VI . BIBLIOGRAPHY page 102 V I I . ILLUSTRATIONS page 117 v i i LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS Fi g u r e Page 1 The V i l l a I m periale at Pesaro 1 1 7 2 The V i l l a I m periale 1 1 8 3 Drawing of the V i l l a I m p e r i a l e by Minguzzi 1 1 9 4 Medal of Costanzo S f o r z a 1 2 0 5 The Palazzo P r e f e t t i z i o of Pesaro 1 2 1 6 Entrance of the S f o r z a V i l l a I m p e r i a l e . . . 1 2 2 7 Entrance of the Pal a z z o P r e f e t t i z i o 1 2 3 8 - 9 D e t a i l s of D o n a t e l l o ' s niche of S . Ludovico on Orsanmichele, i n Fl o r e n c e . . . . 1 2 4 1 0 C o r t i l e of the S f o r z a V i l l a I m p e r i a l e . . . . 1 2 5 1 1 Arcade of the Palazzo P r e f e t t i z i o 1 2 6 1 2 C a p i t a l i n the c o r t i l e of the Sfo r z a I m p e r i a l e 127 1 3 C a p i t a l on the Palazzo R u c e l l a i facade 1 2 8 14 Peduccio i n the p o r t i c o of the Palazzo P r e f e t t i z i o 1 2 9 15 S. Sebastiano i n Mantua 1 3 0 16 Camera d e g l i Sposi i n the Palazzo Ducale, Mantua 1 3 1 17 P l a n of the V i l l a I m periale 1 3 2 1 8 - 1 9 S a l a d e l Giuramento 1 3 3 2 0 - 2 1 Sala d e l Giuramento 1 3 4 22 - 2 3 Sala d e i C a r i a t i d i 1 3 5 2 4 - 2 6 S a l a d e i C a r i a t i d i 1 3 6 2 7 - 2 8 Camera d e i Semibusti 1 3 7 v i i i F i g u r e Page 29-30 Camera d e i Semibusti 1 3 8 31-32 Gabinetto 1 3 9 33 Camera d e g l i Amorini 1 4 0 34 Camera d e l l e f o r z e d i E r c o l e 1 4 1 3 5 - 3 6 S a l a grande 1 4 2 3 7 - 3 8 S a l a d e l l a C alunnia 1 4 3 3 9 - 4 0 S a l a d e l l a C alunnia 1 4 4 4 1 P l a n of the V i l l a I m p e r i a l e by Buonamici 1 4 5 4 2 P l a n of the V i l l a I m p e r i a l e by BuonamiGi 1 4 6 4 3 P l a n of the V i l l a I m p e r i a l e by Buonamici 1 4 7 44 P l a n of the V i l l a I m p e r i a l e by Buonamici 1 4 8 45 Connecting wing, from west 1 4 9 46 Drawing of the V i l l a I m periale by P r a n c i s c o da Hollanda 1 5 0 47 The S f o r z a V i l l a I m p e r i a l e , east facade 1 5 1 48 The d e l l a Rovere I m p e r i a l e , west p r o j e c t i n g wing 1 5 2 49 D e l l a Rovere I m p e r i a l e , south facade 1 5 3 50 D e l l a Rovere I m p e r i a l e , sunken c o u r t y a r d 1 5 4 5 1 Loggia of sunken c o u r t y a r d 1 5 5 52 D e t a i l of l o g g i a 1 5 6 53 Grotto and g i a r d i n o p e n s i l e 1 5 7 54 Sunken c o u r t y a r d , g r o t t o w a l l 1 5 8 Figure Page 55 Giardino pensile 159 56 Giardino pensile of the Palazzo Ducale, Urbino 160 57 From the gate i n the giardino secreto 161 58 From the south belvedere, looking north to the giardino secreto 162 I l l u s t r a t i o n c r e d i t s : Unless otherwise noted, they are by the a u t h o r — F a r i e l l o , 56; Levey, 16; Marchini [La V i l l a Imperiale], 6, 18-45, 48, 57; O l i v i e r i [1781], 4; P i n e l l i , 46; Se i t z , 2, 17; Vaccaj [Bergamo], 3; Wittkower, 15. -1-CHAPTER I : THE SPORZA VILLA IMPERIALE - 2 -A f e w k i l o m e t r e s n o r t h - w e s t o f P e s a r o , o n t h e s o u t h s l o p e o f M o n t e S . B a r t o i o , s t a n d s t h e V i l l a I m p e r i a l e ( P i g s . 1 a n d 2 ) . I t a c t u a l l y c o m p r i s e s t w o s t r u c t u r e s , a l t h o u g h t h e s e b e c o m e p h y s i c a l l y j o i n e d a n d i c o n o g r a p h i c a l l y i n t e r r e l a t e d i n t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . T h e s t r u c t u r e t o t h e s o u t h w a s b e g u n b y A l e s s a n d r o S f o r z a i n t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y ; t h e o n e b e h i n d , a n d s l i g h t l y t o t h e w e s t , w a s b u i l t f o r t h e d e l l a R o v e r e f a m i l y i n t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . U n l i k e t h a t o f t h e l a t e r v i l l a , t h e b u i l d i n g c a m p a i g n u n d e r A l e s s a n d r o S f o r z a i s n o t w e l l d o c u m e n t e d , ^ a n d h a s c o n s e q u e n t l y l e d t o a n u m b e r o f h y p o t h e s e s r e g a r d i n g t h e a r c h i t e c t a n d t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d . A n e x a m i n a t i o n a n d c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e e v e n t s r e s u l t i n g i n t h e v i l l a b e i n g n a m e d " I m p e r i a l e " s h o u l d h e l p t o d e f i n e a m o r e p r e c i s e i n i t i a l b u i l d i n g p e r i o d . T h i s , i n t u r n , s h o u l d i n d i c a t e a m o r e s p e c i f -i c c o n t e x t , i n t e r m s o f c h r o n o l o g y , i n w h i c h , t o l o o k f o r t h e p o s s i b l e d e s i g n e r o r a r c h i t e c t . I t i s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d t h a t t h e V i l l a I m p e r i a l e r e c e i v e d i t s name f r o m t h e a c t o f F r e d e r i c k I I I o f A u s t r i a l a y i n g t h e f o u n d a t i o n s t o n e , d u r i n g h i s r e t u r n f r o m Rome w h e r e h e h a d b e e n c r o w n e d H o l y R o m a n E m p e r o r . F r e d e r i c k ' s c o r o n a t i o n o c -c u r e d i n 1 4 5 2 ; t r a d i t i o n , h o w e v e r , w i l l h a v e i t t h a t t h e V i l l a I m p e r i a l e w a s b e g u n i n 1 4 6 9 . G i u s e p p e M a r c h i n i , t h e m o s t r e -c e n t s c h o l a r t o s t u d y t h i s v i l l a , t r a c e s t h e o r i g i n o f w h a t h e b e l i e v e s t o h e t h e 1 4 6 9 m i s d a t i n g , t o a n a c c o u n t b y t h e 2 l a t e - s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y P e s a r e s e c h r o n i c l e r , L u d o v i c o Z a c c o n i . B e r n h a r d P a t z a k , w h o s e m o n o g r a p h o f 1 9 0 8 i s s t i l l c o n s i d e r e d t h e s t a n d a r d w o r k o n t h e v i l l a , t h i n k s O l i v i e r i , a l a t e -e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y l o c a l h i s t o r i a n , i s t o b e c r e d i t e d w i t h -3-falsely publishing the date as 1469. Therefore, he does not place much trust i n the following rather enlightening document, i n which O l i v i e r i has compiled various sources testifying to Frederick's Pesaro v i s i t at the later date: •Ebbe Alessandro l'onore di servire quest*anno, benche di passagio, i n Pesaro l'Imperator Federico 3.» ohe andava a Roma a prendere l a Corona Imperiale dal Papa. In un v i -glietto del bravo Marc'Antonio Gozze di sopra lodato, s c r i t -to a Camillo Giordani da Calibano l i 14. Novembre 1435. [ s i c . ] , leggesi: Quanto a l i a venuta a Pesaro di Federigo Imperatore  trovo cosi i n alcuni Mss. 1468. Federigo 3» d 1Austria  Imperatore venne a Pesaro adi 16. Dicembre a sei ore di not-?-te per andare a Roma a incoronarsi a tempi di Papa Paolo I I .  Veneziano. II Muratori ne suoi annali c i awiso gia, che Federico giunto a Ferrara ai 10. di Dicembre, prosegui nei di 12. i l suo viaggio a Roma, onde arrivato a Pesaro a l l e sei ore del di 16., trattenuto s i sara qui i l seguente giorno dei 17., nei quale spedi quel Diploma Pat. Pisauri  die 17. mens. Decembris anno Dni 1468. Regnorum nostrorum  &c. con cui Spectabilibus militibus Dnis Ranerio, Almerico,  & Francisco fratribus & f i l i i s Dni Petrigeorgii de Almericis conferisce l a dignita di Conti Palatini Sac. Lateranen.  P a l a t i i , auleque nre & Imperlalis consistorii comites facimus, i l quale Diploma conservasi nell'Arch. Jord. Aimer, n. 41. Del ritorao poi cosi segue i l Gozze nei sopradetto v i g l i e t t o : 1469. Federigo 3» ritorna da Roma adi 23. Gennaro, e g l i fu  fatto grande onore in Pesaro dal Commune e dal sig. Alessandro  Sforza, et and6 a spasso per l a c i t t a , e lodb i l sitb dove e  posta, e volse andare sopra i l vicino colle, dove nei fonda- mento v i butt5 una pietra di sua mano, e volse che i l Palazzo  che i l sig. Alessandro aveva dato ordine di fare s i chiamasse  Imperiale, e cosi s i e sempre nominato. Nbhb maraviglia, che fosse questo Palazzo da un tanto onore detto 1'Imperiale, dacche veggiamo dai r o g i t i di Sepolcro, che quella camera medesima i n cui l'Augusto fece i n Pesaro sua dimora, cangiato nome, fu detta i n appresso l a camera dell*Imperadore. In  noie &c. 1469. &. die sexta Maii. Actum i n c i v i t . Pisauri  i n domibus I l l u . D.N. Alexandri Sfortie Comitis Cotignole,  Pisauri Dni &c. videlidet i n camera residentie ad piis pref.  I l l u . Dni dicta l a camera de lo Imperadore posit, i n dictus  domibus &c. Dell'uso poi, che a'nostri di fu barbaramente -4-f a t t o d e l l a i s c r i z i o n e i n n a l z a t a a l P a l a z z o , l a c u i p i e t r a fondamentale f u posta da Pederigo, p a r l a i n e l l a l e t t e r a Sopra un medaglione non ancor osservato d i Costanzo S f o r z a pag. V I I I . I n the above e x t r a c t , one notes t h a t Gozze has s t a t e d 1469 as the co r o n a t i o n and subsequent b u i l d i n g date, which a number of h i s t o r i a n s have repeated, seemingly unaware of a seventeen-year discrepancy between the two supposedly proximate events. V a n z o l i n i , i n 1864, and F i r p o , i n 1957, r e f e r t o the 4 i n i t i a l date as 1464, but f a i l t o s u b s t a n t i a t e i t . Patzak and M a r c h i n i both p r e f e r the e a r l i e r — 1 4 5 2 — d a t i n g , f o r reasons which w i l l be di s c u s s e d below. A c l e a r e r r e a d i n g of F r e d e r i c k ' s a c t i v i t i e s i n I t a l y w i l l r e v e a l t h a t the t r a d i t i o n a l date should be c r e d i t e d w i t h accuracy, even i n the face of persuasive c o n t r a d i c t o r y t h e o r i e s by eminent a r t h i s t o r i a n s . On 1 January 1452, F r e d e r i c k I I I came to I t a l y w i t h three s p e c i f i c i n t e n t i o n s — t o be crowned Holy Roman Emperor; t o r e -ceive the crown of Lombardy; and t o marry Donna Leonora, daughter of the King of P o r t u g a l . F r e d e r i c k ' s p u b l i c image was never t h a t of a f e a r l e s s monarch, and, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , h i s journey through I t a l y was by way of those c i t i e s which could assure him a p a c i f i c welcome. F r e d e r i c k * s s u i t e i n c l u d e d many I t a l i a n s i n the r o l e of ambassadors. The d i p l o m a t i c m i s s i o n of the Milanese was per-haps, at l e a s t i n t h e i r own c o n s i d e r a t i o n , the most d e l i c a t e and p r e s s i n g . Francesco S f o r z a , Duke of M i l a n , had gained c o n t r o l of Lombardy i n a somewhat r u t h l e s s manner, upon the death of the l a s t V i s c o n t i , a few years e a r l i e r . F r e d e r i c k I I I had c e r t a i n claims t o Lombardy, and Francesco, r e c o g n i z i n g -5-t h e s e , and b e i n g aware o f h i s i n t e n t i o n s , w i s h e d t o i n v i t e h im t o r e c e i v e t h e crown f r o m h i s own hands r a t h e r t h a n f r o m 5 t h e Pope. Such a g e s t u r e w o u l d be a p o l i t i c a l l y a d v a n t a -geous one on t h e p a r t o f F r a n c e s c o , a l l o w i n g him t o manoeuvre t h e r e a f t e r u n d e r t h e c r e d i t o f F r e d e r i c k ' s name; were t h e Pope t o p e r f o r m t h e ceremony, i t would be an u n d i s g u i s e d a t t a c k on th e S f o r z a o c c u p a t i o n and u s u r p a t i o n o f Lombardy. F r e d e r i c k r e f u s e d t o be swayed by t h e e n t r e a t i e s o f t h e ambassadors, ^ and, upon h i s a r r i v a l i n Rome, wasted l i t t l e t i m e f u l f i l l i n g a l l t h r e e p l a n s . Due t o t h e s t r a i n e d r e l a -t i o n s h i p c o n s e q u e n t l y e x i s t i n g between t h e Emperor and t h e Duke o f M i l a n , F r e d e r i c k I I I c a r e f u l l y a v o i d e d S f o r z a ' s t e r -7 r i t o r i e s on h i s r e t u r n t o Germany. I t seems u n l i k e l y , i n su c h a s i t u a t i o n , t h a t F r e d e r i c k would have a c c e p t e d an o f f e r f r o m F r a n c e s c o ' s b r o t h e r , A l e s s a n d r o , t o l a y t h e f o u n d a t i o n s t o n e o f a v i l l a n e a r P e s a r o , a n o t h e r S f o r z a s t r o n g h o l d s i n c e 1447. G Y e t F r e d e r i c k r e t u r n e d t o I t a l y i n December 1468. H i s i t i n e r a r y , u n l i k e t h a t o f t h e e a r l i e r v i s i t , i n c l u d e d a j o u r n e y q a l o n g t h e A d r i a t i c , f r o m Ravenna t o L o r e t o . As i s i n d i c a t e d by O l i v i e r i ' s c o m p i l a t i o n o f documents q u o t e d above, he v i s i t e d P e s a r o t h i s t i m e , t h o u g h o n l y b r i e f l y on December 16 and 17. F r e d e r i c k d e p a r t e d f r o m Rome 9 J a n u a r y 1469, aneb, i f t h e docu-ment i n O l i v i e r i i s v e r i f i a b l e , was i n P e s a r o a g a i n on 23 J a n u -a r y . The c o n f u s i o n o f 1469 w i t h t h e c o r o n a t i o n d a t e can be a t t r i b u t e d t o a f a u l t y r e a d i n g o f h i s t o r y . C o n s u l t i n g a n o t h e r c o n t e m p o r a r y s o u r c e , one n o t e s t h a t V e s p a s i a n o da B i s t i c c i does n o t m e n t i o n t h e i m p e r i a l c o r o n a t i o n as a p r e l u d e t o F r e d e r i c k ' s P e s a r o v i s i t : " B a s t o g l i l a v i s t a a l l o g i a r e l o 'mperadore con t u t t a l a sua compagnia, t r a i n c a s a sua e n e i --6-l a t e r r a ; e f e c e g l i g r a n d i s s i m o onore, p e r o e s s e r e d i l i g e n t i s -simo i n t u t t e l a s ua c o s e ; e p e r q u e s t o onore r i c e v u t o , g l i dono l'arme sua, e f e c e m o l t i s s i m i p r i v i l e g i a t u t t a l a c a s a , g r a t i s . " 1 1 The h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t s o u t l i n e d above, i n d i c a t i n g t h e i m -p r o b a b i l i t y o f F r e d e r i c k ' s p r e s e n c e i n P e s a r o i n 1452, but t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a v i s i t d u r i n g t h e s e cond t r i p , a r e c o r r o b o r a t e d by an i m p r e s a f i x e d above t h e main p o r t a l o f t h e V i l l a I m p e r i a l e ( F i g . 6 ) , c a r r y i n g t h e i n s c r i p t i o n : A l e x a n d e r S f o r t i a  MCCCCLXVIII [ s i c . : ] . C u r i o u s l y enough, t h e r e a r e o n l y two h i s t o r i a n s who, i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e i n s c r i p t i o n , have p u b l i s h e d 12 t h e d a t e as 1469—Pompeo M a n c i n i and Henry Thode. B o t h were a b l e t o examine t h e v i l l a b e f o r e t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f a r e s t o r a -t i o n programme u n d e r t a k e n i n 1880. The f i r s t a r t i c l e p u b l i s h e d upon c o n c l u s i o n , o r c l o s e t o c o n c l u s i o n , o f t h e r e s t o r a t i o n i s 13 by F r i t z S e i t z i n 1905, who r e a d s t h e d a t e as 1468. P a t z a k a g r e e s w i t h t h i s r e a d i n g , as does M a r c h i n i . I n o r d e r t o r e -c o n c i l e i t w i t h t h e i r e a r l i e r d a t i n g o f t h e v i l l a a r c h i t e c t u r e , M a r c h i n i i n t e r p r e t s 1468 as t h e t e r m i n u s ad quern of c o n s t r u c -t i o n , whereas P a t z a k b e l i e v e s t h e s t y l e o f t h e i m p r e s a i n d i c a t e s i t b e l o n g s t o a l a t e r p e r i o d , and need t h e r e f o r e n o t be c o n s i d -14 e r e d v a l i d i n t erms o f e v i d e n c e . One can s u g g e s t a number o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e c o n t r o v e r s y . An o b v i o u s one i s t h i n k t h a t M a n c i n i and Thode m i s r e a d t h e d a t e . L e s s o b v i o u s , but more a t t r a c t i v e , i s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e i n s c r i p t i o n o r i g i n a l l y s t a t e d 1469, and, sometime between 1888 (Thode's a r t i c l e ) and 1905, had t h e f i n a l roman numberal o b l i t e r a t e d . On t h e o t h e r hand, S e i t z 1 5 m i g h t not have c o n s u l t e d Thode, and s i m p l y m i s r e a d t h e d a t e -7-himself, which later historians then repeated. Seitz, anyway, does not attribute absolute c r e d i b i l i t y to the date, be i t 1468 or 1469, since he mistakenly thinks Alessandro Sforza 16 died 1466. Similarly, Patzak does not want to rely on the inscription date to any great extent, since he i s concerned with assigning the construction of the v i l l a to an earlier period. Patzak's observation, whether accurate or not, that the impresa belongs s t y l i s t i c a l l y to a later era, brings up an interesting point. O l i v i e r i states that in 1763 Clement XIII allotted the V i l l a Imperiale to Portuguese Jesuits. Alterations and reparations were undertaken by the architect Vichi, from Pano, who also, apparently without the least qualms, removed the impresa and u t i l i z e d i t as a wash basin for the Jesuit com-17 munity. According to O l i v i e r i , the impresa had f i r s t been removed 18 when Genga commenced work on the della Rovere Imperiale. That i t was subsequently replaced, at least before Vichi en-dowed i t with a functional purpose i n 1763, i s indicated by two drawings—a view of the v i l l a by Minguzzi i n 1626 (Pig. 3), where the impresa i s only b r i e f l y sketched i n ; and one of the series of V i l l a Imperiale plans made by Buonamici i n 1756 (Pig. 42) in which the impresa i s clearly represented, with an enlarged version to the' l e f t . Even i f the impresa had to be replaced 19 after Vichi's maltreatment of i t , which Patzak seems to think, i t i s only reasonable to assume that the date inscribed on a copy would be 1469, i n view of the fact that that i s precisely the date insisted upon by the local Pesarese chroniclers. -8-P a t z a k ' s p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e 1452 d a t i n g o f t h e S f o r z a v i l l a depends i n i t i a l l y on t h e j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f t h i s a r c h i t -e c t u r e t o t h a t o f t h e P a l a z z o D u c a l e i n U r b i n o , s p e c i f i c a l l y of t h a t s e c t i o n begun by L u c i a n o da L a u r a n a c l 4 6 7 — t w o y e a r s 20 p r i o r t o t h e l a t e r d a t i n g o f t h e V i l l a I m p e r i a l e . A c c o r d -i n g t o P a t z a k , a post-1467 d a t e f o r t h e I m p e r i a l e would c l e a r l y condemn i t as an example o f s t y l i s t i c r e g r e s s i o n . The c o m p a r i s o n P a t z a k makes i s an a c c e p t a b l e one, i n so f a r as t h e r e was a c e r t a i n amount o f s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l i n t e r -c o u r s e between t h e M o n t e f e l t r o o f U r b i n o and t h e S f o r z a o f P e s a r o . P e d e r i c o da M o n t e f e l t r o , however, chose L a u r a n a s p e c i f i c a l l y because he, u n l i k e most co n t e m p o r a r y a r c h i t e c t s , comprehended t h e s t y l e s o f B r u n e l l e s c h i and A l b e r t i , and was a b l e t o d e v e l o p t h i s knowledge i n t o h i s own p e r s o n a l a r c h i t -e c t u r a l v o c a b u l a r y , t h e r e b y a v o i d i n g a n y t h i n g i n t h e n a t u r e 21 of a p a s t i c h e . G i v e n t h i s u n i q u e a b i l i t y o f L a u r a n a , i t does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w , i n d e e d i t r a t h e r e x c l u d e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y , t h a t A l e s s a n d r o S f o r z a employed a s i m i l a r l y g i f t e d a r c h i t e c t d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d . P a t z a k ' s j u x t a p o s i t i o n i s f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d i n t h a t he i s c o m p a r i n g a town p a l a c e w i t h a c o u n t r y v i l l a , two a r c h i t -e c t u r a l u n i t s f o r w h i c h he makes no a l l o w a n c e s r e g a r d i n g d i f -f e r e n t c o n t e x t s and f u n c t i o n s . I n terras o f a r t h i s t o r y , t h e U r b i n o p a l a c e became t h e c e n t r e o f a c t i v i t y f o r many l e a d i n g f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y a r t i s t s — t h e names o f P i e r o d e l l a P r a n c e s c a , L u c i a n o da L a u r a n a and F r a n c e s c o d i G i o r g i o come r e a d i l y t o mind. The S f o r z a v i l l a i s n o t , i n c o m p a r i s o n , a monument o f e q u a l p r e s t i g e i n t h e eyes o f p o s t e r i t y . There e x i s t s no c o n t e m p o r a r y l i t e r a t u r e , l e t a l o n e a r t i s t i c e n d e a v o u r s , w i t n e s s i n g t o $ and - q -i m m o r t a l i z i n g , the c h a r a c t e r and f u n c t i o n of t h i s v i l l a . Indeed, i t s p r e c i s e f u n c t i o n r e q u i r e s some thought to a s c e r t a i n . 22 Keeping i n mind p o s t - f i f t e e n t h century changes i n the f a b r i c , one must drawwone's c o n c l u s i o n s from the l o c a t i o n and appearance of the v i l l a , w i t h reference t o what one knows of Alessandro's a c t i v i t i e s . Patzak d e s c r i b e s i t as a casa d i signore c l o s e l y lsc 24 23 connected t o an economic u n t i . I t has a l s o been c a l l e d a h u n t i n g box, and a f o r t r e s s or watchtower. I n terms of p h y s i c a l l o c a t i o n , i t i s w e l l s u i t e d t o any of these. The l a n d s l o p i n g o f f t o the south i s p r e s e n t l y a v i n e y a r d ( P i g . l ) , and i t has been suggested t h a t there were 25 o r i g i n a l l y f r u i t t r e e s i n the v i c i n i t y ? There i s an ex-pansive wooded area nearby, which even today remains a hunt-26 i n g r e s e r v e . Furthermore, the v i l l a i s s i t u a t e d h i g h enough on the h i l l s i d e t o a f f o r d a view over both the l a n d t o the south, and the sea t o the. e a s t . Nor does i t s appearance deny any of these p o s s i b i l i t i e s . B u i l t on a p l a t f o r m , i t p r o v i d e s l a r g e subterranean rooms f o r 27 the storage and conversion of f o o d s t u f f s and s u p p l i e s . The a r c h i t e c t u r e i s c l o s e d o f f , r a t h e r than open, to the country-s i d e , and the s u b s t r u c t u r e i s spacious enough t o b i l l e t an army of s o l d i e r s . These f u n c t i o n s are a l l c o n s i s t e n t w i t h what one knows of Alessandro Sforza's c h a r a c t e r , which i s e s s e n t i a l l y t h a t 28 of a c o n d o t t i e r e . Perhaps the most s a t i s f a c t o r y temporary s o l u t i o n i s t o see i t as a combination of the above named, but a l l o w i n g i t the v e r s a t i l i t y t o f u n c t i o n i n the r o l e of one or the other, as the s i t u a t i o n demanded. -10-P a t z a k f i n d s a p r e c e d e n t f o r t h e I m p e r i a l e i n t h e Tuscan E a r l y R e n a i s s a n c e v i l l a t y p e . I n t h i s , he i s f o l l o w i n g S e i t ' z d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e S f o r z a v i l l a as h a v i n g " d i e Form des f r i i h e r e n 29 t o s k a n i s c h e n L a n d s i t z e s " , a l t h o u g h P a t z a k g r e a t l y expands on t h i s theme. The p o s s i b i l i t y o f a Tuscan p r e c e d e n t i s s u b s t a n -t i a t e d by t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g between t h e S f o r z a and t h e M e d i c i a t t h a t t i m e . A l e s s a n d r o , and h i s son, C o s t a n z o , were o f t e n h i r e d as c o n d o t t i e r i by t h e R e p u b l i c o f F l o r e n c e . D u r i n g s u c h m i l i t a r y e x p e d i t i o n s i n Tuscany, t h e y had ample o p p o r t u n -i t y t o s e e , and t o d e v e l o p a t a s t e f o r , t h e F l o r e n t i n e v i l l a 30 t y p e . One o f t h e o u t s t a n d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e Tuscan E a r l y R e n a i s s a n c e v i l l a , and t h e one t h a t i s o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n t h e I m p e r i a l e , i s t h e c o r t i l e . P a t z a k emphasizes t h a t , s i n c e t h e S f o r z a v i l l a was s p a r e d t h e f a t e o f many f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y F l o r e n t i n e v i l l a s , i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t n o t s i m p l y because i t i s a Tuscan t r a n s p l a n t t o t h e Marches, but because i t v e r y l i k e l y p r e s e r v e s t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h i s E a r l y R e n a i s s a n c e v i l l a t y p e , s p e c i f i c a l l y i n r e g a r d t o t h e c o r t i l e , i n i t s o r i g i n a l f o r m . ^ The c o n t e m p o r a r y F l o r e n t i n e v i l l a s had s u f f e r e d e x t e n s i v e dam-age when t h e m e r c e n a r y t r o o p s moved n o r t h w a r d t h r o u g h Tuscany a f t e r t h e Sack o f Rome i n 1527. When t h e s e v i l l a s were l a t e r r e p a i r e d , o r r e b u i l t , i t was p r e s u m a b l y i n t h e c u r r e n t 1 s t y l e , 32 w i t h o u t t h o u g h t g i v e n t o an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . S u b j e c t i n g t h e V i l l a I m p e r i a l e t o a c a r e f u l s c r u t i n y , P a t z a k d e c i d e s t h e i r r e g u l a r appearance o f i t s e l e v a t i o n and p l a n a r e t h e r e s u l t o f an E a r l y R e n a i s s a n c e i n s e n s i t i v i t y t o 33 t h i s k i n d o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l harmony. The e a s t f a c a d e i s OJ pronounced i r r e g u l a r i t y , and p r o v i d e s P a t z a k w i t h t h e key t o - 1 1 -a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of what he b e l i e v e s t o be the o r i g i n a l f i f -34 t e e n t h c e n t u r y a s p e c t of t h i s v i l l a . Immediately t o the l e f t o f the tower ( P i g . 1) i s a narrow segment,ohigher than the r e s t of the e a s t f a c a d e , which P a t z a k i n t e r p r e t s as an a d d i t i o n t o j o i n two o r i g i n a l l y s e p a r a t e s t r u c t u r e s — t h e s o u t h e r n wing of the v i l l a as i t stands today, and the tower w i t h f l a n k i n g wing. At a l a t e r p e r i o d , a d d i t i o n s were b u i l t n o r t h and west t o form a c u b i c s t r u c t u r e . I t was presumably 35 a t t h i s time t h a t the c o r t i l e was b u i l t . Por c o n f i r m a t i o n of h i s t h e o r y r e g a r d i n g the v i l l a ' s o r i g i n a l appearance, Patzak r e f e r s t o the r e v e r s e of a medal c a s t f o r Costanzo S f o r z a i n 1474 ( P i g . 4). I n t h i s i n s t a n c e , P a t z a k agrees w i t h O l i v i e r i ' s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the scene: I n f a c c i a v e d e s i i l Monte A c i o , che d i c i a m o r a d i S. B a r t o l o , v e r s o i l quale a b a n d i e r e s p i e g a t e s ' i n d i r i z -zano l e a l t r e truppe d i Costanzo p e r una s t r a d a , che puo d i r s i i n oggi r e s a i m p r a t i c a b i l e , ma che a l l o r a e r a i n grand'uso. I n cima d i q u e s t a c o l l i n a , o l t r e l a C h i e s a d i S. B a r t o l o , m i r a s i l a V i l l a t u t t a d e l l ' I m p e r i a l e , f a b b r i c a t a da A l e s s a n d r o S f o r z a .... ^ P a t z a k ' s r e l i a n c e on © M v i e r i i n t h i s ease i s somewhat remark-a b l e , i f not i n c o n s i s t e n t , s i n c e the e x i s t e n c e and d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s medal (non a n c o r o s s e r v a t o ) were f i r s t p u b l i s h e d by O l i v i e r i , whom Patzak had p r e v i o u s l y accused of b e i n g a " f o r g e r of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l o b j e c t s " . From the evidence of the i r r e g u l a r b u i l d i n g f a b r i c , and the medal, Patzak concludes t h a t the o r i g i n a l I m p e r i a l e was an example o f the v i l l a e n t e r i n g i t s second phase of e v o l u t i o n from a m e d i e v a l f o r t i f i e d economic u n i t , i . e . a v i l l a f r u t -t i f e r a o r casa c o l o n i c a , t o the v i l l a i n the Renaissance sense 39 of the term. I n o t h e r words, the l i v i n g q u a r t e r s — o r s o u t h e r n w i n g — w e r e a l r e a d y d i s t i n c t l y s e p a r a t e f r o m t h e f u n c t i o n a l b u i l d i n g s — t h e t o w e r a n d f l a n k i n g w i n g . T h e s t r u c t u r e s e e n i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e m e d a l r e v e r s e i s , i n d e e d , c o m p o s e d o f t w o a r c h i t e c t u r a l u n i t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g f a i r l y c l o s e l y t o t h e o u t l i n e o f t h e I m p e r i a l e . T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , h o w e v e r , c o n t r a d i c t s P a t z a k ' s o r i g i n a l t h e o r y o f t h e e a r l y , i . e . 1 4 5 2 , d a t i n g o f t h e c o r t i l e — t h e m e d a l w a s c a s t i n 1 4 7 4 , a n d s h o w s t h e b u i l d i n g s a s c l e a r l y d e t a c h e d , n o t 40 j o i n e d t o p e r m i t c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a n i n n e r a r c a d e d c o u r t y a r d . U p o n c o n c l u s i o n o f h i s t h e s i s , o n e m u s t r e a l i z e t h a t P a t z a k ' s i n i t i a l e r r o r i s d u e t o b e l i e v i n g t h e t e r m s s t y l e a n d t i m e a s c o r r e l a t i v e w h e n s p e a k i n g o f p r o g r e s s . C o n s e q u e n t -l y , t h e i n n o v a t i o n o f L a u r a n a ' s P a l a z z o D u c a l e a t U r b i n o d e n i e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f s u c h a s t r u c t u r e a s t h e V i l l a I m p e r i a l e s u c -c e e d i n g i t — t h e d a t e 1 4 5 2 w i n s b y d e f a u l t . T h a t s u c h a p o i n t o f v i e w i s n o l o n g e r a b s o l u t e i s i n d i c a t e d b y A c k e r m a n ' s s t a t e -m e n t t h a t "We w o u l d g e t a c l e a r e r i m a g e o f E a r l y R e n a i s s a n c e a r c h i t e c t u r e b y r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t , w h i l e t h e a r c h e t y p e s o f t h e p a l a c e a n d c h u r c h w e r e f o r m e d i n t h e s e c o n d q u a r t e r o f t h e f i f -t e e n t h c e n t u r y , v i l l a d e s i g n t o o k s h a p e i n t h e l a s t q u a r t e r . " . P o r m o r e t h a n h a l f a c e n t u r y , P a t z a k ' s m o n o g r a p h w a s c o n -s i d e r e d t h e c u l m i n a t i o n o f s c h o l a r s h i p o n t h e V i l l a I m p e r i a l e . I n 1 9 6 8 , M a r c h i n i b e c a m e t h e f i r s t t o r e s p o n d w i t h a s t u d y o n 4 2 t h e S f o r z a v i l l a . H i s a r t i c l e c a n , i n a s e n s e , f u n c t i o n a s a n e x t e n s i o n o f t h e 1 9 0 8 t h e s i s . P a t z a k i s p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h a s t y l i s t i c a n d s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s t o s h e d l i g h t o n t h e c h r o n o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e I m p e r i a l e i n p a r t i c u l a r , a n d o f t h e E a r l y R e n a i s s a n c e v i l l a i n g e n e r a l . M a r c h i n i e m p l o y s a s i m i l a r a p p r o a c h t o a d v a n c e t h e s t u d y o n e s t e p — h e s u g g e s t s a - 1 3 -43 p o s s i b l e a r c h i t e c t , who i s G i o r g i o O r s i n i d a S e b e n i c o . F u r t h e r m o r e , M a r c h i n i i s t h e o n l y s c h o l a r t o a g r e e w i t h P a t z a k o n t h e e a r l i e r d a t i n g o f t h e V i l l a I m p e r i a l e . He j u s t i f i e s t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e d a t e 1 4 5 2 b y t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n 4 5 o f a p a r t i c u l a r d o c u m e n t — a n a c c o u n t b y Z a c c o n i , i n w h i c h h e h a s s t a t e d t h a t t h e I m p e r i a l e w a s b u i l t n i n e t e e n y e a r s 4 6 a f t e r t h e P a l a z z o P r e f e t t i z i o o f P e s a r o . S i n c e t h e v i l l a d a t e , a s c o n f i r m e d b y t h e i m p r e s a , h a d t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e e n a c -c e p t e d a s 1 4 6 9 , M a r c h i n i i n t e r p r e t s t h e a b o v e m e n t i o n e d d o c u -m e n t a s a n a t t e m p t b y Z a c c o n i t o d e f i n e a n u n k n o w n d a t e i n 47 r e f e r e n c e t o o n e g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d c o r r e c t . M o s t s c h o l a r s , t h e r e f o r e , r e g a r d e d 1 4 6 9 a s t h e c e r t a i n d a t e , a n d a r g u e d o v e r t h a t o f t h e P a l a z z o P r e f e t t i z i o . M a r c h i n i , c o n v e r s e l y , c h o o s e s c l 4 5 0 a s t h e v e r i f i a b l e o n e , a n d m a i n t a i n s t h a t b o t h s t r u c t u r e s o r i g i n a t e d a t t h e same t i m e , and? f r o m t h e same a r c h i t e c t . G i o r g i o d a S e b e n i c o ' s r o l e a s a t e n t a t i v e c a n d i d a t e f o r t h e p o s i t i o n d e p e n d s o n M a r c h i n i ' s t h e o r y o f t h e P a l a z z o P r e f e t -t i z i o a r c h i t e c t , t h e t o w n p a l a c e b e i n g t h e a r c h e t y p e i n t h i s a r g u m e n t , a n d t h e S f o r z a v i l l a e s s e n t i a l l y a v a r i a t i o n o n , o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f , t h e t h e m e ( F i g . 5 ) . A b r i e f resume" o f t h e 49 48 M a r c h i n i ' s t h e s i s i s as f o l l o w s : a c c e p t i n g G i o r g i o as the S c h i a v o n e t o w h i c h V a s a r i r e f e r s i n h i s l i f e o f B r u n e l l e s c h i , o n e p o s s e s s e s a p i e c e o f t a n g i b l e e v i d e n c e f r o m w h i c h t o d e v e l o p t h e h y p o t h e s e s — a l e t t e r w r i t t e n f r o m t h e c o u r t o f U r b i n o , t o S i e n a , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t G i o r g i o S c h i a v o w a s i n t h e s e r v i c e o f 50 F e d e r i c o d a M o n t e f e l t r o i n 1 4 6 6 . A t t h a t t i m e , h e w a s p r o b -a b l y w o r k i n g o n t h e P a l a z z o D u c a l e , h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n n o w b e i n g o v e r s h a d o w e d b y L u c i a n o d a L a u r a n a ' s p r o g r a m m e , i n i t i a t e d o n l y a s h o r t t i m e l a t e r . M a r c h i n g , k n o w i n g t h a t L a u r a n a h a d b e e n i n -14-t h e s e r v i c e o f A l e s s a n d r o S f o r z a i n 1465, b e f o r e he was r e -q u e s t e d by F e d e r i c o da M o n t e f e l t r o i n 1466, s u g g e s t s t h a t G i o r g i o 1 s case might be s i m i l a r l y c o n s t r u e d — i . e . he, t o o , might have been i n A l e s s a n d r o ' s s e r v i c e b e f o r e b e i n g i n s t a l l e d a t t h e c o u r t o f U r b i n o . A c c e p t i n g t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y , i t i s s u g -g e s t e d he worked on t h e P a l a z z o P r e f e t t i z i o d u r i n g h i s a t t e n d -ance i n P e s a r o . I n s u p p o r t o f t h i s h y p o t h e t i c a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , M a r c h i n i n o t e s t h a t two windows a l o n g a m i n o r f a c a d e a r e framed by p i l a s t e r s w i t h l a t e - g o t h i c c a p i t a l s , i n d i c a t i v e o f a b u i l d i n g p e r i o d p r e - d a t i n g L a u r a n a ' s work i n t h e U r b i n o p a l a c e . F u r t h e r -more, t h e p i l a s t e r s a r e d e c o r a t e d w i t h a l a t e - g o t h i c ornamental v o c a b u l a r y , r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e k i n d f a v o u r e d by Maso d i Bartolommeo, one o f t h e U r b i n a t e a r c h i t e c t s o f t h e p r e - L a u r a n a e r a . M a r c h i n i e x t e n d s t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n t o s u g g e s t t h a t G i o r g i o worked a l s o on t h e V i l l a I m p e r i a l e . The c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g between t h e s e two s t r u c t u r e s i s e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e main e n t r a n c e ways ( F i g s . 6 and 7 ) , t h e i r a s p e c t o f c l a s s i c a l f o r m a l i t y v a r i e d by e n c i r c l i n g bands ofe l e a v e s . The c o r t i l e o f t h e v i l l a ( F i g . 10) e x p r e s s e s a c e r t a i n l e g e r i t y i n t h e rhythm o f i t s a r c h e s , w h i c h r e c a l l s t h a t k i n d o f E a r l y R e n a i s -sance s e n s i b i l i t y p r o b a b l y e v i d e n t i n t h e U r b i n o p a l a c e complex a t t h e t i m e o f Maso d i Bartolommeo. M a r c h i n i d e t e c t s i n t h e I m p e r i a l e s u g g e s t i o n s o f t h e same V e n e t i a n l a t e - g o t h i c s p i r i t seen i n t h e ornament o f t h e P a l a z z o P r e f e t t i z i o — f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e c a p i t a l s o f t h e n o w - c l o s e d c o r t i l e l o g g i a ; t h e S f o r z a i m p r e s a on t h e p o z z o ; t h e e x t e r n a l p r o j e c t i o n s o f t h e f i r e -p l a c e s ; and on t h e i n t e r i o r , t h e d e c o r a t i o n o f t h e f i r e p l a c e s , and o f some wood-beam c e i l i n g s . Whether o r n o t M a r c h i n i ' s t h e o r y i s e n t i r e l y a c c e p t a b l e , -15-and he himself states i t has yet to stand the te s t of time, he has c o r r e c t l y indicated that an examination of the Palazzo P r e f e t t i z i o i s pertinent to an analysis of the V i l l a Imperiale. The reason f o r t h i s , as mentioned above, i s that the town palace, and i t s tentative a r c h i t e c t , have been the subject of the majority of h i s t o r i c a l studies i n question. The town palace can therefore provide one with the frame of reference and points of contact to extend to the Sforza v i l l a ; the Imperiale had u s u a l l y been accepted and understood i n terms of what i t immediately r e v e a l e d — a structure having the same entrance way as the Palazzo P r e f e t t i z i o , and d i s p l a y i n g an impresa dated 1468(9). Speculation on the i d e n t i j y o o f the town palace a r c h i t e c t began when Antonio B e r t o l o t t i , i n 1889, published the fol l o w i n g l e t t e r : Ex. D. Alessandro Sforza. Mag.ce ecc. La V.S. sa che per sua l i t e r a questi d i l a ne p(re)g(a)ve ge volessemo mandare maestro Luciano per haver<3ielcoonsiglio e parere suo c i r c h a quelle sue fabriche et che non l o r i t e n e r i a se non pochi zorni et cusi nui de l a bono v o g l i a per f a r l e cosa grata l o l a s -sassemo venire et perche n e i vero a l presente habiamo gran bisogno de l a presentia sua p(re)gamo l a pref. S.Vl che, secondo l a promessa sua l e ce l o v o g l i a mand-are che l a ce ne f a r a singulare piacere e contentamento e quanto p i u presto l a i l l a s s a r a venir tanto ne f a r a cosa p i u grata perche senza d i l u i siamo impacciati per alcune cose ne accadeno. A l i p i a c e r i de l a p ( r e ) f ( a ) t a S.V. se offerimo d i continuo p a r a t i s s i m i . Mantua, 8 Maij 1465. 5 1 Von Fabriczy read t h i s l e t t e r i n the sense of the Gonzaga of Mantua requesting the services of Laurana, a r c h i t e c t of 52 Pesaro, from Alessandro Sforza. He followed by saying -16-t h a t t h e P a l a z z o P r e f e t t i z i o m u s t t h e n b e t h e w o r k o f L u c i a n o d a L a u r a n a . I n 1 9 0 4 , C o r n e l i o B u d i n i c h c o r r e c t l y i n t e r p r e t e d t h e l e t t e r , a n d p u b l i s h e d t w o m o r e , t h u s f o r m i n g a t r i o o f 53 d o c u m e n t s p e r t i n e n t t o t h i s p a r t i c u l a r e v e n t . T h e f i r s t , c i t e d a b o v e , i s d i r e c t e d f r o m M a n t u a t o P e s a r o , a s k i n g A l e s s a n d r o t o r e t u r n L a u r a n a , h i s s e r v i c e s h a v i n g b e e n r e q u e s t e d f o r a f e w d a y s ( p o o h i z o r n i ) o n l y . T h e s e c o n d , o f t h e same d a t e , i s f r o m M a n t u a t o L a u r a n a , r e c o m m e n d i n g h i m t o r e t u r n a t o n c e . T h e l a s t i s L a u r a n a ' s r e p l y , n i n e d a y s l a t e r . S i n c e t h e f i r s t l e t t e r i m p l i e s t h a t L a u r a n a w a s i n P e s a r o o n l y b r i e f l y , f o r c o n s i g l i o e p a r e r e , m o s t h i s t o r i a n s , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f 54 v o n P a b r i c z y , P i l i p p i n i - B o n i n i a n d P a t z a k , h a v e d e n i e d h i m t h e r o l e o f a c t i n g a r c h i t e c t f o r t h e t o w n p a l a c e . L a u r a n a ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n , o r n o n - c o n t r i b u t i o n , r e m a i n e d t h e p o i n t o f c o n t e n -t i o n u n t i l M a r c h i n i a d v a n c e d t h e name o f G i o r g i o d a S e b e n i c o . M o r e p o p u l a r a n d f r e q u e n t t h a n a r g u m e n t s c e n t e r i n g o n t h e t e n t a t i v e a r c h i t e c t , h a v e b e e n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e P a l a z z o P r e f e t t i z i o . Common t o a l l i s t h e e m p h a s i s o n t h e i r r e g u l a r i t y o f t h e f a c a d e a s a w h o l e , a n d o n t h e i n c o n g r u i t y o f c o m p o n e n t 55 e l e m e n t s . M a r c h i n i , i n s u p p o r t o f t h e l a t e - G o t h i c G i o r g i o d a S e b e n i c o a t t r i b u t i o n , t a l k s o f " t u t t a 1 ' i r r a z i o n a l i t a m e d i -56 e v a l e d e l t e s s u t o s t r u t t i v o d e l s u o p o r t i c a t o . " S a l m i ' s a n a l y s i s i s d e f i n i t e , a n d p e r t i n e n t , t h e r e f o r e p r o b a b l y t h e m o s t v a l u a b l e o f t h e v a r i o u s d e s c r i p t i o n s : : I 1 p o r t i c a t o t e r r e n o e i n f a t t i p i u t t o s t o d e p r e s s o , d i u n a p r o p o r z i o n e n o n c e r t o l a u r a n e s c a ma d a c o l l e g a r e g e n e r i c a m e n t e a d e c h i a l b e r t i a n i e d h a p i l a s t r i a b u g n e a s s a i p r i m o r d i a l i . Ne e b r u n e l l e s c h i a n o — c o m e v u o l e i l B u d i n i c h — i l m o t i v o d e i m e d a g l i o n i n e i p e n n a c c h i p e r c h e i n t e r p r e t a t o c o n a l t r a s e n s i b i l i t a , a n c h ' e s s a o r i e n t a t a v e r s o l ' A l b e r t i . - 1 7 -A l t h o u g h h e d o e s n o t d r a w a n y c o n c l u s i o n f r o m i t , S a l m i h a s i n d i c a t e d t h e u n d e r l y i n g c u r r e n t d e f i n i n g t h e a r c h i t e c t -u r a l v o c a b u l a r y o f t h e P a l a z z o P r e f e t t i z i o — e s s e n t i a l l y , i t i s t h a t o f a n A l b e r t i a n a p p r o a c h t o a r c h i t e c t u r e . T h i s a s -s o c i a t i o n i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d b o t h b y t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f v a r i o u s a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o n c e p t s , a n d b y t h e a r c h i t e c t s w h o s e n a m e s h a v e p r e v i o u s l y b e e n a d v a n c e d a s t h e d e s i g n e r s o f t h e t o w n p a l a c e — L u c i a n o d a L a u r a n a a n d G i o r g i o d a S e b e n i c o . M a r c h i n i , i n d e s c r i b i n g c e r t a i n d e c o r a t i v e m o t i f s a n d a r c h i t e c t u r a l m e m b e r s - o f t h e t w o P e s a r o s t r u c t u r e s , c o n n e c t e d G i o r g i o ' s name w i t h t h a t o f M a s o d i B a r t o l o m m e o . B e f o r e h e w a s a c t i v e i n U r b i n o , M a s o w o r k e d o n a c o m m i s s i o n f o r t h e > w 59 58 T e m p i o M a l a t e s t i a n o . G i o r g i o w a s a l s o t h e r e , i n 1 4 5 1 , i n c h a r g e o f s u p p l y i n g t h e m a r b l e . A l t h o u g h t h e f i r s t m e n t i o n o f L a u r a n a 1 s name i s i n t h e M a n t u a n l e t t e r o f 8 M a y 1 4 6 5 , o n e p r e s u m e s t h a t h e h a d b e e n i n M a n t u a f o r a n i n d e f i n i t e p e r i o d p r i o r t o t h a t d a t e . He p r o b a b l y m e t A l b e r t i t h e r e , who came t o t h e c i t y i n 1 4 5 9 - 6 0 , t o p r e p a r e t h e m o d e l f o r S . S e b a s t i a n o , a n d r e t u r n e d a g a i n i n 1 4 6 3 . E x a m i n e d i n t h e l i g h t o f a n A l b e r t i a n a r c h i t e c t u r a l v o c a b -u l a r y , t h e p i e c e s b e g i n t o f i t t o g e t h e r , l i t e r a l l y . T h e p o r t -i c o w i t h r u s t i c a t e d p i e r s a t s t r e e t l e v e l ( P i g . 5 ) h a s b e e n a s o u r c e o f d i s t u r b a n c e t o a r t h i s t o r i a n s d e s c r i b i n g i t . M a r c h i n i c o n s i d e r s t h e r u s t i c a t i o n u n i q u e , a n d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a n a n a -61 c h r o n i s m o f M a n n e r i s t a r c h i t e c t u r e . S a l m i s i m p l y d e s c r i b e s 62 t h e p i e r s a s " p r i m o r d i a l " . A l t h o u g h m o s t s c h o l a r s h a v e p r e f e r r e d t o a v o i d t h i s a s p e c t o f t h e p r o b l e m , M a r c h i n i s u g g e s t s a p r o t o t y p e . T h e t h e o r y d e p e n d s o n a p o s s i b l e v i s i t b y G i o r g i o - 1 8 -t o F l o r e n c e , w h e r e h e c o u l d h a v e b e e n i n s p i r e d b y t h e p i e r s b e t w e e n t h e w i n d o w s o f t h e P a l a z z o P i t t i f a c a d e . T h i s s u g g e s t i o n i s c e r t a i n l y a n a t t r a c t i v e o n e , i n s o f a r a s t h e t a c t i l e q u a l i t y o f t h e r u s t i c a t e d p i e r i s i n v o l v e d . B o t h M a r c h i n i a n d S a l m i a g r e e t h a t t h e s c a l e , a n d r h y t h m , o f t h e t o w n p a l a c e p o r t i c o i s i n d e b t e d t o a n A l b e r t i a n p r e c e d e n t — M a r c h i n i s u g g e s t s t h e a r c a d e a l o n g t h e s i d e f a c a d e o f t h e 64 T e m p i o M a l a t e s t i a n o . T h e m a i n e n t r a n c e w a y ( F i g . 7 ) p r o v i d e s f u r t h e r i n d i c a -t i o n o f a n i n i t i a l F l o r e n t i n e - A l b e r t i a n i n s p i r a t i o n . T h e c o n c e p t o f a n e n t r a n c e d e f i n e d o n l y b y m o u l d i n g s i s n o t w i d e s p r e a d a t t h i s t i m e , a l t h o u g h a v e r s i o n t h e r e o f c a n b e s e e n i n t h e P a l a z z o R u c e l l a i a n d S . M a r i a N o v e l l a . T h e f a c a d e o f S . M i n i a t o m i g h t h a v e p r o v i d e d A l b e r t i w i t h a p r e c e d e n t f o r t h i s e l e m e n t . One c a n t a k e t h e F l o r e n t i n e a s s o c i a t i o n e v e n b e y o n d t h i s s u p e r f i c i a l l e v e l . T h e m a j e s t y a n d s o l i d i t y i n h e r e n t i n t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e P e s a r o d o o r w a y ( F i g . 7 ) a r e c u r i o u s l y c o n t r a -d i c t e d b y b a n d s o f l e a v e s t y i n g t h e j a m b s . S c h o l a r s h a v e i n t e r -p r e t e d t h i s i n e s s e n t i a l l y t w o w a y s — a s a s i m p l e d i v i s i o n i n g o f t h e j a m b s , a n d a s d e c o r a t i o n a p p l i e d i n t h e s e n s e o f g o t h i c 65 b o t a n i c a l m o t i f s . A p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e g o t h i c c h a r a c t e r i z a -t i o n i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h M a r c h i n i ' s t h e o r y t h a t G i o r g i o d a 66 S e b e n i c o w a s t h e d e s i g n e r . S a l m i p r e f e r s t o r e m a r k o n t h e s i m i l a r i t y o f t h e P e s a r o m o t i f t o t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n o f t h e 67 p i l a s t e r s i n s i d e t h e T e m p i o M a l a t e s t i a n o . I n b o t h c a s e s , h o w e v e r , t h e e f f e c t o r s e n s a t i o n o f t h e v i s u a l i m p a c t i s n e g l e c t e d . A t h i r d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e , w h e r e b y t h e s e b a n d s o f l e a v e s p e r f o r m a s u b t l e a n d c o n s c i o u s l y d i s t u r b i n g -19-f u n c t i o n . They c r e a t e a paradox when one r e a l i z e s the a b s u r d i t y of mere l e a v e s e x e r t i n g , o r m a i n t a i n i n g , a h o l d over p o w e r f u l a r c h i t e c t u r a l members; the o v e r a l l i m p r e s s i o n b e i n g , however, t h a t w i t h o u t them the e n t i r e doorway would c o l l a p s e . V i s u a l p r e c e d e n t s have been o f f e r e d by Salmi and M a r c h i n i ; i n terms of s e n s a t i o n a l impact one might t u r n t o a D o n a t e l l i a n type o f a r t i s t i c humour, which p o s s e s s e s enough audacious w i t to ensure the d i s t u r b i n g s u b t l e t y of such an element. F o r example, D o n a t e l l o ' s n i c h e o f S. Ludovico on Orsanmichele ( F i g s . 8 and 9) have the same e f f e c t as the Pesaro doorway, al t h o u g h the means by which i t i s a c h i e v e d are d i f f e r e n t . I n t h i s case, the a r c h i t e c t u r e does not t h r e a t e n t o f a l l a p a r t , but r a t h e r the n i c h e , by means of s t r a n d s of cut rope beneath i t , i s on the verge of s l i d i n g out of i t s space on top of the s p e c t a t o r . The m e d a l l i o n s i n the s p a n d r e l s of the P a l a z z o P r e f e t t i z i o arcade have been i n t e r p r e t e d by B u d i n i c h as a B r u n e l l e s c h i a n , and by Salmi as an A l b e r t i a n , m o t i f . Comparing those of the Pesaro s t r u c t u r e t o those, f o r example, of the E l o r e n c e Ospedale d e g l i I n n o c e n t i , one r e a l i z e s t h a t the S f o r z a a r c h i t e c t , u n l i k e B r u n e l i e s c h i , has om i t t e d the f i n a l m e d a l l i o n s — t h e r e s u l t i s a n o t i c e a b l y d i f f e r e n t rhythm. Yet a d i s t r i b u t i o n o f m e d a l l i o n s s i m i l a r t o t h a t on the P a l a z z o P r e f e t t i z i o arcade can be seen on the s i d e facade o f the Tempio M a l a t e s t i a n o i n R i m i n i . 68 S e r r a , i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the Pesaro p a l a c e , d e c i d e d t h a t the i n c o n g r u i t y o f the r u s t i c a t e d arcade at ground l e v e l and the Renaissance windows on the piano n o b i l e , i n d i c a t e d t h a t the s t r u c t u r e was a cumulative e f f o r t . T h i s i n c o n g r u i t y , however, i s d i s t u r b i n g o n l y when c o n s i d e r e d as an a b s t r a c t concept. I f -20-one examines the facade, one sees t h a t the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a wide a t t i c r e l i e v e s the p o s s i b i l i t y of too r a d i c a l a c o n t r a s t . S i m i l a r a p p l i c a t i o n of a broad a t t i c f o r the purpose of s u b t l e t r a n s i t i o n has f r e q u e n t l y been p r a i s e d i n A l b e r t i ' s facade of 69 S. M a r i a N o v e l l a . I n an e a r l y monograph on Pesaro, G i u l i o Vaccaj had a l -ready remarked t h a t the a s s o c i a t i o n between the P a l a z z o P r e f e t t i z i o and the V i l l a I m p e r i a l e d i d not stop w i t h the r e -l a t e d entrance p o r t a l s — i t penetrated i n t o the c o r t i l e of the 70 S f o r z a v i l l a . Expansion of Vaccaj*s o b s e r v a t i o n should serve t o convince one t h a t a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two Pesaro s t r u c t u r e s i s more p l a u s i b l e than one i n v o l v i n g an e a r l y , u n s p e c i f i e d F l o r e n t i n e v i l l a , as Patzak suggests. The a r c h of the I m p e r i a l e c o r t i l e has a wide span and r e s t s on a comparatively short and s l e n d e r column ( P i g . 10); a l -though the component p a r t s are n e c e s s a r i l y more massive, the p r o p o r t i o n of the arch u n i t i n terms of h e i g h t t o w i d t h ( e s -s e n t i a l l y a r a t i o of 1:1) appears again i n the town palace p o r t i c o ( F i g . 11). Patzak d e s c r i b e s the c a p i t a l s i n the v i l l a 71 c o r t i l e as E a r l y Renaissance; however, at l e a s t f o u r ( F i g . 12) correspond i n design t o those A l b e r t i innovated f o r the second 72 s t o r e y of the P a l a z z o R u c e l l a i ( P i g . 13)» and which reappear f r e q u e n t l y i n the works of A l b e r t i ' s f o l l o w e r s . The peducci i n s i d e the town palace p o r t i c o are e s s e n t i a l l y a v a r i a t i o n of a s i m i l a r design ( P i g . 14). The wide a t t i c of the P a l a z z o P r e f e t t i z i o facade reappears i n the c o r t i l e of the v i l l a , but i t no l o n g e r serves the f u n c t i o n a l purpose i t d i d i n the town p a l a c e — t h e i n t e r c o l u m n i a t i o n of the arcade and of the now-closed upper l o g g i a was the same. -21-The evidence d e r i v e d from an a n a l y s i s of-the Palazzo P r e f e t t i z i o , and from a j u x t a p o s i t i o n of the two Pesaro s t r u c t u r e s i s c o n c l u s i v e i n at l e a s t two a s p e c t s — t h a t the a r c h i t e c t of the P a l a z z o P r e f e t t i z i o was f a m i l i a r w i t h A l b e r t i ' s approach to a r c h i t e c t u r e ; and t h a t the designer of the town palace was not the a c t i n g a r c h i t e c t of the V i l l a I m p e r i a l e . I n view of the c i r c a n ineteen years s e p a r a t i n g the s t r u c t u r e s , i f he had been the same a r c h i t e c t , one would expect t o see the c o r t i l e as developed,.'and not simply adapted and transposed, from the town palace prototype (note the " b l i n d " wide a t t i c i n the v i l l a ) . The s i t u a t i o n i n such a case would have been comparable to A l b e r t i ' s s u c c e s s i v e r e f o r m u l a t i o n s of the t r i u m p h a l arch church facade, from the f i r s t e x p r e s s i o n at R i m i n i , t o the f i n a l statement i n S. Andrea. As i t i s , the circumstance r a t h e r r e -sembles t h a t of Bernardo R o s s e l l i n o , t r a n s f e r r i n g the P a l a z z o R u c e l l a i facade t o the P a l a z z o P i c c o l o m i n i of P i e n z a . The p r i n c i p a l i s s u e i s t o i d e n t i f y the P a l a z z o P r e f e t t i z i o a r c h i t e c t . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h and documentary evidence might yet prove t h a t he was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the design of the V i l l a I m p e r i a l e , although i t i s improbable t h a t he c a r r i e d i t out 73 h i m s e l f . E s s e n t i a l l y three f a c t o r s are i n v o l v e d i n t h i s process of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n — t h o s e of time, geography, and a r c h i t -e c t u r a l precedents, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n regard t o m o t i f s . Zacconi was probably c o r r e c t when he i n t i m a t e d the P a l a z z o P r e f e t t i z i o was begun cl45 0 . Alessandro's l o r d s h i p over Pesaro was o f f i c i a l l y confirmed i n 1447, and i t seems only l o g i c a l t o assume t h a t a town pa l a c e , along w i t h c i t y f o r t i f i c a t i o n s , would be one of the e a r l i e s t major b u i l d i n g campaigns a r u l e r would 74 undertake. By 1460, c o n s t r u c t i o n was s u f f i c i e n t l y advanced -22-t o accomodate t h e wedding ceremony o f B a t t i s t a S f o r z a and 75 F e d e r i c o da M o n t e f e l t r o . The f i n a l c o r n i c e was o r d e r e d i n 1465, i n d i c a t i n g a t e r m i n a t i o n d a t e f o r t h e e x t e r i o r a t 7 6 l e a s t . The c r u c i a l p e r i o d , o f d e s i g n and i n i t i a l c o n s t r u c -t i o n , s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e be r e l e g a t e d t o t h e y e a r s 1450-55. Due t o t h e m o b i l i t y o f t h e a r c h i t e c t s d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d , t h e p r e c i s e g e o g r a p h i c a l c o n t e x t i s l e s s e a s i l y d e f i n e d . The p o s s i b l e c h o i c e s , however, can v a l i d l y be r e s t r i c t e d by ap-p l y i n g t h e f a c t o r o f t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l m o t i f p r e c e d e n t . Examined f r o m t h i s a n g l e , two a r e a s come i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n — R i m i n i and Mantua. The o b v i o u s p o i n t o f c o n t a c t i n R i m i n i i s t h e Tempio M a l a t e s t i a n o . A l b e r t i p r o v i d e d t h e d e s i g n i n 1450, and e n t r u s t e d t h e e x e c u t i o n t o M a t t e o d e ' P a s t i , i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h M a t t e o N u t i . C o n s t r u c t i o n i s documented s t i l l i n p r o g r e s s as l a t e as 1462, and i n d e e d , t h e f a c a d e was n e v e r c o m p l e t e d . P r e s e n t r e s e a r c h , however, has n o t r e v e a l e d any p o s t -R i m i n i a r c h i t e c t u r a l p u r s u i t s by t h e p r i n c i p a l f i g u r e s engaged, w h i c h c o u l d p r o v i d e a r e l a t i o n s h i p , i n terms o f e i t h e r s i m i l -77 a r i t y o r development, w i t h t h e P e s a r o s t r u c t u r e . The a s -s o c i a t i o n between t h e Tempio M a l a t e s t i a n o and t h e P a l a z z o P r e f e t t i z i o , i f a c c e p t a b l e , began i n R i m i n i and ended t h e r e , subsequent a p p l i c a b l e works b e i n g s i m p l y v a r i a t i o n s on t h e theme, and t h e r e f o r e redundant i n e i t h e r o f t h e abovementioned t e r m s . U l t i m a t e l y , t h e n , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s t o be sought w i t h A l b e r t i , and n o t o n l y w i t h t h e Tempio M a l a t e s t i a n o . Mantua p r o v e s t o be a more r e l e v a n t c o n t e x t . L u d o v i c o Gonzaga commissioned A l b e r t i t o b u i l d two c h u r c h e s , w h i c h s u b s e q u e n t l y became m a j o r s t a t e m e n t s i n h i s development o f -23-the triumphal arch church facade—S. Sebastiano and S. Andrea. As usual, A l b e r t i provided only the plans, and chose as h i s executing a r c h i t e c t Luca F a n c e l l i , a Florentine who resided i n Mantua from 1450-94. As of yet, F a n c e l l i ' s personal s t y l e i s d i f f i c u l t to formulate, since h i s best known and securely a t t r i b u t e d works involve the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of another a r c h i t e c t ' s d e s i g n s — s p e c i f i c a l l y those of A l b e r t i . His r e l a t i o n s h i p with Luca F a n c e l l i appeared to be a close one. In the words of Vasari: JFu esecutore de'disegni e modelli d i Leon B a t i s t a Salvestro F a n c e l l i f i o r e n t i n o [ I I Vasari qui non s i ram-mento che n e l l a V i t a del Brunellesco chiama Luca, e non S i l v e s t r o , i l F a n c e l l i ; e Luca e i l vero suo nome . . . ] , a r c h i t e t t o e scultore ragionevole; i l quale condusse, secondo i l v o l e r d i detto Leon B a t i s t a , t u t t e 1'opere che fece fare i n Firenze, con g i u d i z i o e d i l i g e n z a s t r a -o r d i n a r i a : ed i n q u e l l i d i Mantoa, un Luca f i o r e n t i n o [Qui i l Vasari f a del F a n c e l l i due persone diverse, chiamandolo ora S i l v e s t r o ed ora Luca] .... „ 0 Jo Although h i s a c t i v i t y during and subsequent to S. Sebastiano i s w e l l documented, nothing i s known of Luca F a n c e l l i during those c r u c i a l (from the point of view of Pesaro) years between 1450 and 1455. Could he have been on leave to accept commis-sions e lsewhere—in Pesaro perhaps? Di f f e r e n t aspects of F a n c e l l i ' s i n i t i a l development and a r c h i t e c t u r a l vocabulary encourage such a theory. He was a Flo r e n t i n e , and h i s background must necessarily have involved i n i t i m a t e f a m i l i a r i t y with contemporary l o c a l a r t i s t s and t h e i r work—one remembers the Donatellian aspect of the Pesaro doorways. Furthermore, i t was remarked that the e s s e n t i a l a r t i c u l a t i o n of the Pesaro e n t r a n c e s — i . e . r e s t r i c t e d to mould-- 2 4 -i n g s — w a s n o t common a t t h a t t i m e . I n i t s f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y c o n t e x t i t i s , o f c o u r s e , o r i g i n a l l y a n A l b e r t i a n m o t i f . I t a p p e a r s a g a i n , i n a l l i t s A l b e r t i a n c l a r i t y o f d e s i g n , i n L u c a F a n c e l l i 1 s d o o r s t o e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e S . S e b a s t i a n o 7 9 c e n t r a l e n t r a n c e ( F i g . 1 5 ) . I n t h e C a m e r a d e g l i S p o s i o f t h e C a s t e l S . G i o r g i o , t h e d o o r a n d t h e f i r e p l a c e a r e a t -80 t r i b u t e d t o F a n c e l l i ; s i n c e h e w a s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e s e m a j o r p i e c e s o f i n t e r i o r d e c o r a t i o n , c o u l d o n e n o t e x t e n d t h e a t t r i b u t i o n t o i n c l u d e t h e p e d u c c i ( F i g . 1 6 ) ? T h e y e x h i b i t t h e same A l b e r t i a n f o r m n o t e d b e f o r e i n t h e p e d u c c i o f t h e P e s a r o t o w n p a l a c e , a n d i n t h e c o r t i l e o f t h e V i l l a I m p e r i a l e . T h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e P a l a z z o P r e f e t t i z i o a r c a d e a n d t h e m e d a l l i o n s i n t h e s p a n d r e l s w e r e e a r l i e r e x a m i n e d i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e R i m i n i s t r u c t u r e . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e c l o s e w o r k i n g r e l a -t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n A l b e r t i a n d F a n c e l l i , i s i t n o t p r o b a b l e t h a t F a n c e l l i w a s f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e d e s i g n s f o r t h e T e m p i o M a l a t e s t i a n o ? A f t e r a l l , t h e P a l a z z o P r e f e t t i z i o d o e s n o t d e p e n d o n a n y o n e s t r u c t u r e f o r a p r e c e d e n t , b u t r e m a i n s e s s e n t i a l l y a c o m p o s i t e o f m o t i f s f r o m v a r i o u s s o u r c e s . T h e t h e o r y o f F a n c e l l i ' s P e s a r o a c t i v i t y i s a n a t t r a c t i v e o n e , a n d , i f a c c e p t a b l e , w o u l d s e r v e a d u a l p u r p o s e — i t w o u l d p r o v i d e a c a n d i d a t e f o r t h e a r c h i t e c t o f t h e P a l a z z o P r e f e t t i z i o , a n d i t w o u l d e r a s e t h e o b s c u r i t y o f t h e f i r s t f i v e y e a r s o f F a n c e l l i 1 s M a n t u a n c a r e e r . T h e V i l l a I m p e r i a l e c o u l d v e r y e a s i l y h a v e b e e n d e s i g n e d d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1 4 5 0 - 5 5 ; y e t i n v i e w o f n o t o n l y t h e s t y l i s t i c a n a l y s i s , b u t a l s o t h e h i s t o r i c a l e v i d -e n c e p r e s e n t e d e a r l i e r , t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d s h o u l d b e a d -v a n c e d t o 1 4 6 9 , w h e n F r e d e r i c k I I I " v i b u t t 6 u n a p i e t r a d i s u a -25-mano, e v o l s e che i l P a l a z z o che i l s i g , A l e s s a n d r o aveva  dato o r d i n e d i f a r e s i chiamasse I m p e r i a l e , e c o s i s i e  sempre nominato." ^ -26-Footnotes: Chapter I 1. I have found mention of such documents i n o n l y one secondary source, and am a n t i c i p a t i n g s e a r c h i n g through the B i b l i o t e c a O l i v e r i a n a of Pesaro f o r v e r i f i c a t i o n and/or more of the same. See Francesco F i l i p p i n i , "Luciano da Laurana a Pesaro," Melozzo da F o r l i , A p r i l 1939, p. 356. I n 1444, Alessandro S f o r z a married Costanza da Varano, onl y daughter of Galeazzo M a l a t e s t a , Lord of Pesaro. Alessandro subsequently gained c o n t r o l of Pesaro, p a r t l y by way of Costanza's dowry, and p a r t l y through funds p a i d on h i s b e h a l f by h i s b r o t h e r , Francesco. I n 1445 he had t o defend the c i t y a g a i n s t an a t t a c k by Sigismondo Pandolfo M a l a t e s t a ; i n 1447 the two p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d a r r i v e d at an agreement, and Alessandro assumed f u l l p o s s e s s i o n of Pesaro. Various sources have s t a t e d t h a t Alessandro b u i l t the V i l l a I m p e r i a l e on the s i t e of an o l d e r M a l a t e s t a v i l l a , named C a s a r t o l e . See G i u l i o V a c c a j , Pesaro, Bergamo, 1909, p. 55; James Dennistoun, Memoirs of the Dukes of Urbino, v o l . I I , London, 1909, p. 49; Mario Z u f f a , Pesaro, M i l a n , n.d., p. 65. Since Pesaro and i t s possessions were ceded to Alessandro as the r e s u l t of what one would c a l l a t r a n s a c t i o n , r a t h e r than as the booty of conquest, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t some records or documents do e x i s t , which mention or d e s c r i b e C a s a r t o l e . These, i n t u r n , might h e l p t o a s c e r t a i n whether Alessandro i n c o r p o r a t e d any p r e - e x i s t i n g f a b r i c i n t o the I m p e r i a l e ; and a l s o whether C a s a r t o l e i n any way i n f l u e n c e d the s i t e or p o s i t i o n of the S f o r z a v i l l a . 2. Giuseppe M a r c h i n i , La V i l l a I m p e r i a l e d i Pesaro, F l o r e n c e , [1968], p. 6. See a l s o idem., " I I Problema d e l l ' I m p e r i a l e , " Commentari, XIX, 1968, p. 66, n. 11. Ludovico Zacconi i s mentioned i n o n l y three other secondary sources: Giuseppe I g n a z i o Montanari, L'Imperiale d i Pesaro. Stanze, Pesaro, I 8 3 8 , p. 43; G i u l i o V a c c a j , Pesaro, Pesaro, 1909, pp. 74 and 76; F i l i p p i n i - B o n i n i , " I I Palazzo Sforzesco d i Pesaro," Rassegna Marchigiana, I I , 1923-4, p. 6. - 2 7 -3 . A n n i b a l e O l i v i e r i d e g l i A b a t i , Memorie d i A l e s s a n d r o  S f o r z a Signore d i Pesaro, Pesaro, 1 7 8 5 , p. C T I I . See Bernhard Patzak, Die V i l l a I m p e r i a l e i n Pesaro, L e i p z i g , 1 9 0 8 , Chapter One, n. 8 . Of the t h r e e c h r o n i c l e r s mentioned i n O l i v i e r i * s passage, I c o u l d t r a c e o n l y two. Gozze i s r e f e r r e d t o by Dennistoun, I I , p. 7 2 , n. 2 , who a l s o d e s c r i b e s him as a contemporary-see i b i d . , pp. 1 5 7 and 2 2 8 . L o d o v i c o M u r a t o r i ( 1 6 7 2 - 1 7 5 0 ) i s renowned f o r s e v e r a l h i s t o r i c a l tomes, among them G l i A n n a l i d ' I t a l i a , which are p o s s i b l y the a n n a l i t o which O l i v i e r i r e f e r s . Of S e p o l c r o (p. 2 , bottom q u a r t e r ) I found no o t h e r mention. 4 . P o r the dates o f f e r e d by v a r i o u s h i s t o r i a n s as the i n i t i a l b u i l d i n g date of the V i l l a I m p e r i a l e , see Pompeo M a n c i n i , L ' I m p e r i a l e , v i l l a d e ' s f o r z e s c h i e  r o v e r e s c h i a breve d i s t a n z a da Pesaro, Pesaro, 1 8 4 4 , p. 8 ; V a n z o l i n i , Guida d i Pesaro, Pesaro, 1 8 6 4 , p. 1 7 9 (see a l s o T o n i n i , n. 9 below); Henry Thode, " E i n f u r s t -l i c h e r Sommeraufenthalt i n der Z e i t d e r Hochr e n a i s s a n c e , " Jahrbuch der k'dniglichen p r e u s s i s c h e n Eunstsammlungen, IX, 1 8 8 8 , p. 1 6 6 ; F r i t z S e i t z , "Die V i l l a I m p e r i a l e b e i Pe s a r o , " Deutsche Bauzeitung, XXXIX, no. 7 5 , 20 September 1 9 0 5 , p. 4 5 4 ; Patzak, pp. 3 - 4 and 7 5 ; V a c c a j , Bergamo, p p V 5 4 8 - 5 0 and 5 5 ; F i l i p p i n i , 1 9 3 9 , p. 3 5 6 ; L u i g i P i r p o , Lo S t a t o i d e a l e d e l l a C o n t r o r i f o r m a , B a r i , 1 9 5 7 , p. 7 1 (see a l s o T o n i n i , n. 9 below). 5 . See B. Buser, Die Beziehungen der Mediceer zu F r a n k r e i c h  wahrend d er Ja h r e 1 4 3 4 b i s 1 4 9 4 i n ihrem Zusammenhange  mit den a l l g e m e i n e n V e r h a l t n i s s e n , L e i p z i g , 1 8 7 9 , p. 4 8 . 6 . See Ludwig von P a s t o r , G e s c h i c h t e d e r Papste, I , F r e i b u r g , 1 9 0 1 , p. 4 7 9 . 7 . See Buser, p. 5 7 . 8 . P a t z a k makes no mention of t h i s , and M a r c h i n i , La V i l l a - 2 8 -^ I m p e r i a l e , p . 5 , s t a t e s t h a t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e b i o g r a p h y ( c o n t ' d ) b y A e n e a s S i l v i u s , F r e d e r i c k d i d n o t r e t u r n a f t e r 1 4 5 2 . 9 . S e e P a s t o r , o p ^ c i t . , I I , p . 4 2 1 , a n d c o r r e s p o n d i n g n o t e : " T o n i n i V 3 2 9 , wo 1 4 6 8 s t a t t 1 4 6 4 z u l e s e n i s t . " P e r h a p s V a n z o l i n i a n d F i r p o ( s e e n . 4 a b o v e ) b a s e d t h e i r d a t i n g o f t h e I m p e r i a l e o n T o n i n i ' s a c c o u n t , o r o n a s o u r c e common t o a l l t h r e e . 1 0 . S e e P a s t o r , I I , p . 4 2 7 , n . 3 . 1 1 . V e s p a s i a n o d a B i s t i c c i , V i t e d i U o m i n i I l l u s t r i d e l s e c o l o X V , r i v e d u t e s u i m a n o s c r i t t i d a L u d o v i c o F r a t i , I , B o l o g n a , 1 8 9 2 , p . 3 2 8 . T h i s m u s t r e f e r t o F r e d e r i c k ' s s e c o n d I t a l i a n j o u r n e y , s i n c e c f . P a s t o r , I I , p . 4 2 7 : " H i e r w i e i n Rom t e i l t e F r i e d r i c h I I I . z a h l r e i c h e E h r e n -d i p l o m e a u s , w a s s i c h d a n n a u f d e r g a n z e n R t i c k r e i s e w i e d e r h o l t e . " 1 2 . M a n c i n i , p . 1 6 ; T h o d e , p . 1 6 6 6 1 3 . S e i t z , p . 4 5 4 . 1 4 . G i u s e p p e M a r c h i n i , " P e r G i o r g i o d a S e b e n i c o , " C o m m e n t a r i , X I X , 1 9 6 8 , p . 2 1 9 ; P a t z a k , p . 6 2 . 1 5 . A d m i t t e d l y , t h o u g h , h e i n c l u d e s h i m i n r - h i s b i b l i o g r a p h i c f o o t n o t e o n p . 4 5 3 . 1 6 . S e i t z , p T 4 5 4 . 1 7 . A n n i b a l e O l i v i e r i d e g l i A b a t i , S o ; p r a i u n M e d a g I l o n e , ; n o n a n c o r . o s s e r v a t o d i C o s t a n z o S f o r z a , P e s a r o , 1 7 8 1 , p . V I I I . S e e a l s o P a t z a k , p p . 5 2 - 3 . - 2 9 -1 8 . S e e O l i v i e r i , n . 1% a b o v e . 1 9 . C h a p t e r T w o , n . 4 . 2 0 . See P a t z k a k , p . 7 5 . 2 1 . B a t e s L o w r y , R e n a i s s a n c e A r c h i t e c t u r e , New Y o r k , 1 9 7 1 , p . 3 0 . 2 2 . I n 1 5 2 2 , G e n g a b e g a n a r e s t o r a t i o n o f t h e S f o r z a v i l l a f o r F r a n c e s c o M a r i a d e l l a R o v e r e . I t i s a s s u m e d t h a t , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e n o w - c l o s e d s o u t h w a l l , h e l e f t t h e a r c a d e o f t h e ! c o r t i l e m o r e o r l e s s a s i t w a s . See P a t z a k , p p . 1 1 -2 a n d 7 3 - 5 . 2 3 . S e e P a t z a k , n s . 28 a n d 39 b e l o w . S e e a l s o i d e m . , p p . 5 a n d 7 3 . A l t h o u g h t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e s e p a r a t e d s t r u c t u r e s m i g h t b e i m p o r t a n t i n t e r m s o f P a t z a k * s v i l l a e v o l u t i o n , I d o n o t t h i n k i t i s e q u a l l y s i g n i f i -c a n t i n r e g a r d t o t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e v i l l a . 2 4 . S e e P a t z a k , p . 6 ; V a c c a j , B e r g a m o , p . 5 6 ; F i l i p p i n i , 1 9 3 9 , p . 3 5 6 ; M a r c h i n i , " P e r G i o r g i o " , p . 2 1 9 ; b u t c f . T h o d e , p . 1 6 6 : " A l e s s a n d r o S f o r z a w a r e s , d e r z u r Z e i t s e i n e r H e r r s c h a f t i n P e s a r o , . . . s i c h e i n e n L u s t s i t z g r i i n d e t e . " 2 5 . V a c c a j , B e r g a m o , p . 5 8 , w h e r e h e i s r e f e r r i n g t o O l i v i e r i ' s a c c o u n t o f t h e S f o r z a m e d a l i n a S o p r a u n m e d a g l i o n e 7 , - ' , p . V I I I . V a c c a j c o r r e c t s O l i v i e r i * s c o n c l u s i o n s b y r e f e r e n c e t o t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y M i n g u z z i d r a w i n g o f t h e I m p e r i a l e ( F i g . 3 ) . T h e p r o b l e m i n t h i s c a s e i s w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e a r e a a r o u n d t h e I m p e r i a l e w a s u s e d i n 1 4 7 4 ( d a t e o f t h e m e d a l ) , a s i t a p p a r e n t l y w a s w h e n M i n g u z z i d i d h i s d r a w i n g . V a c c g . j i s n o t t o o c l e a r o n t h i s p o i n t , a n d i t m i g h t b e t h a t h e -30-25 (con 1d) 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. has neglected to take into account that the two descriptions are almost 150 years apart. Cf. Mancini, p. 19. The existence of this wood, presumably for hunting even i n the days of the Sforza, i s suggested by the w i l l of Giovanni Sforza, dated 24 July 1510. It i s cited by Patzak, Chapter One, n. 33t "Codex Oliveriana Nr. 443, p. 456: i l palazzo dell 1imperiale con le possessioni e selva intorno Seitz, p. 454. Ibid..* p-,X454; Patzak, p. 5. Seitz, p. 453. Patzak, p. 6. Ibid., pp. 117-8. Ibid. Essentially, Patzak* s evaluation of the Imperiale as displaying irregular proportions derives from examining i t as a two storey structure. Beneath the v i l l a , how-ever, i s a large subterranean space, and considering this played an important part i n i t s original context, i t should be regarded as an integral part of the whole unit. I f the structure i s examined from this point of view, I think one w i l l find some quite rational systems of proportion. Por the time being, one has only the unsatisfactory plans of Buonamcii to work from, and since they are frequently unreliable, one does not li k e to draw any ultimate conclusions from them. A -31-33 new s e t of p l a n s are needed. S e i t z p r o v i d e s one " b i r d ' s -(cont'd) eye view", which i s p r o b a b l y more a c c u r a t e than any of Buonamici's e f f o r t s . B a s i n g one's c a l c u l a t i o n s on t h i s drawing ( F i g . 2), i t i s found, f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t the pozzo, which has always been regarded as s t r a n g e l y o f f -c e n t r e , i s a c t u a l l y the c e n t r a l p o i n t of the v i l l a u n i t . 34. Patzak, p. 72. 35. I b i d . , pp. 76-7. 36. M e d a g l i e r e n. 8440, Museo O l i v e r i a n o , P esaro. By G i a n f r a n c e s c o d i Luca E n z o l a , a c t i v e 1456-78. Between 1473-5, E n z o l a was engaged on a s e r i e s of commemorative medals f o r A l e s s a n d r o and Costanzo S f o r z a . On the whole, h i s r e v e r s e d e s i g n s are not p r a i s e d as p a r t i c u l a r l y a c -c u r a t e o r s u c c e s s f u l . See C o r n e l i u s von F a b r i c z y , M e d a i l l e n der i t a l i e n i s c h e n Renaissance, L e i p z i g , 1903, p. 47; U l r i c h Thieme and F e l i x Becker, A l l g e m e i n e s  L e x i k o n der B i l d e n d e n K u n s t l e r von der A n t i k e b i s z u r  Gegenwart, L e i p z i g , 1907-50,—entry f o r E n z o l a . 37. O l i v i e r i , 1781, p. V I I I . 38. Patzak, Chapter One, n. 8. 39. Patzak, p. 73. 40. Patzak, r e a l i z i n g the medal i s not n e c e s s a r i l y a c c u r a t e , m a i n t a i n s t h a t the o r i g i n a l d i s p o s i t i o n of the s e p a r a t e b u i l d i n g u n i t s can s t i l l be determined from the p l a n of the v i l l a — t h i s , a g a i n , i s a f u r t h e r c o n t r a d i c t i o n of h i s t h e o r y about the E a r l y Renaissance c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of "k^e c o r t i l e . See Patzak, p. 73. 41. James Ackerman, "Sources of the Renaissance V i l l a , " A c t s - 3 2 -4 1 o f t h e T w e n t i e t h I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n g r e s s o f t h e H i s t o r y ( c o n t ' d ) o f A r t . S t u d i e s i n W e s t e r n A r t I I : T h e R e n a i s s a n c e a n d  M a n n e r i s m , P r i n c e t o n , 1 9 6 3 , p . 9 . 4 2 . M a r c h i n i , " P e r G i o r g i o . " 4 3 . P a t z a k d o e s m e n t i o n t h e name o f o n e t e n t a t i v e a r c h i t e c t , i n p a s s i n g , b u t e x c u s e s h i m s e l f o n t h e g r o u n d s o f l a c k o f d o c u m e n t a r y e v i d e n c e . S e e i d e m . , p . 7 6 . 4 4 . M a r c h i n i , " P e r G i o r g i o , " n . 1 3 . S e e a l s o n . 8 a b o v e . 4 5 . S e e n . 2 a b o v e . 4 6 . S e e a l s o V a c c a g , B e r g a m o , p p . 4 8 - 5 0 . 4 7 . S e e M a r c h i n i , L a V i l l a I m p e r i a l e , p . 6 . 4 8 . P r o m M a r c h i n i , " P e r G i o r g i o , " p p . 2 1 2 - 5 a n d 2 1 8 - 2 2 . 4 9 . C f . T h i e m e - B e c k e r o n G i o r g i o d a S e b e n i c o : " E i n e T o c h t e r G . ' s w a r m i t dem M a l e r G i o r g i o S c h i a v o n a v e r h e i r a t e t . " 5 0 . S e e G . P r a n c e s c h i n i , S a g g i d i s t o r i a m o n t e f e l t r e s c a  e u r b i n a t e , S e l c i U m b r o , 1 9 5 7 , p . 8 4 , n . 4 4 . 5 1 . C i t e d f r o m B o r n e l i o B u d i n i c h , I I P a l a z z o D u c a l e  d ' U r b i n o , T r i e s t e , 1 9 0 4 , p . 5 1 . 5 2 . C o r n e l i u s v o n P a b r i c z y , " L u c i a n o d a L a u r a n a e i l p a l a z z o p r e f e t t i z i o d i P e s a r o , " A r c h i v i o s t o r i c o  d e l l ' a r t e , 1 8 9 0 , p p . 2 3 9 - 4 0 . See B u d i n i c h , pp. 50-1. St a t e m e n t s by t h e v a r i o u s h i s t o r i a n s i n c o m p i l e d i n : M a r i o S a l m i , P i e r o d e l l a F r a n c e s c a e i l P a l a z z o D u c a l e  d ' U r b i n o , F l o r e n c e , 1945, pp. 126-7, n. 103. C f . P a t z a k , p. 5: "Der s t a d t i s c h e P a l a s t i s t , w ie B u d i n i c h n a c h -g e w i e s e n h a t , i m J a h r e 1465 von L u c i a n o da L a u r a n a a u f -g e f x i h r t worden." See B u d i n i c h , p. 54; L. S e r r a , L ' A r t e n e l l e Marche, I I , Rome, 1934, p. 26; c f . F i l i p p i n i , 1939, p. 352. M a r c h i n i , " P e r G i o r g i o , " p. 218. S a l m i , pp:. : 126-7, n. 103. See Thieme-Becker f o r Maso d i Bartolommeo. See M a r c h i n i , " P e r G i o r g i o , " , p . 218 and n. 12. See G. P a c c h i o n i , " L * o p e r a d i L u c i a n o da L a u r a n a a Mantova," B o l l e t t i n o d ' A r t e , I I I , 1923-4, p. 108. M a r c h i n i , " P e r G i o r g i o , " p. 218. S a l m i , pp. 126-7, n. 103. M a r c h i n i , " P e r G i o r g i o , " p. 218. The v a l i d i t y o f t h i s s u g g e s t i o n i s d i f f i c u l t t o a s c e r t a i n s i n c e t h e d a t e s f o r P a l a z z o P i t t i n u c l e u s v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y . I n t h e e n t r y f o r L u c a F a n c e l l i , Thieme-Becker g i v e as p o s s i b l e d a t e s , c l 4 4 6 and p o s t - 1 4 5 0 , and s t a t e t h a t by 1469 t h e o r i g i n a l - 3 4 -63 block was s t i l l incomplete. Lowry, f i g . 14, states i t (cont'd) was designed cl440; Nikolaus Pevsner, An Outline of  European Architecture, Harmondsworth, 1943, p. 191, suggests cl446 and cl458. 64. See Salmi, pp. 126-7, n. 1 0 3 ; Marchini, "Per Giorgio," p. 218. 65. See Budinich, p. 54; Patzak, p. 60. 66. In Giorgio's portal of S. Francesco, Ancona, the columns are articulated with horizontal bands, which, visually, can be related to the Pesaro entrances, but which, i n terms of effect, do not come anywhere near them. See Touring Club Italiano, Attraverso 1'Italia. Nuova Serie. Marche, Milan, 1971, f i g . 184. Was Giorgio inspired by the facade of S. Maria della Piazza (1210-25), i b i d . , f i g . 155? 67. Salmi, pp. 126-7, n. 1 0 3 . 68. Serra, pp. 26ff. 69. See Rudolf Wittkower, "Alberti's Approach to Antiquity i n Architecture," Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld  Institutes, vol. 4, 1941, pp. 9-10. 70. Vaccaj, Bergamo, p. 56; also F i l i p p i n i , 1939, p. 356. But cf. Patzak, p. 79. 71. Patzak, pp. 62-4. 72. See Frederick Hart-t, It a l i a n Renaissance Art, New York, n.d., p. 187; Pevsner, p. 193. -35-73- I f e e l t h a t P a t zak (pp. 77-9) unde r e s t i m a t e s the harmony, and the r a t i o n a l and c o n s i s t e n t p r o p o r t i o n s e v i d e n t i n the v i l l a (see n. 33 above), which p o i n t s t o a mind t h a t a p p r e c i a t e d the A l b e r t i a n concern w i t h , and a p p l i c a t i o n of, a system of r a t i o s . Perhaps the v i l l a was c o n s t r u c t e d by m a e s t r i d i muro, as P i l i p p i n i (1939, p. 356) suggests i n h i s t h e s i s advancing Laurana as the d e s i g n e r of the I m p e r i a l e . 74. See V a c c a j , Bergamo, p. 56. See a l s o Francesco F i l i p p i n i , "Melozzo e g l i S f o r z a , "-"Melozzo da F o r l i , January 1938, XVI, no. 2, p. 61. 75. See F i l i p p i n i , i b i d . , f o r more c h r o n o l o g i c a l d e t a i l s of important events r e c o r d e d i n the P a l a z z o P r e f e t t i z i o . 76. See P i l i p p i n i , 1939, p. 352; M a r c h i n i , "Per G i o r g i o , " p. 213. 77. Matteo d e ' P a s t i ' s work r e m a i n e d ' p r i n c i p a l l y s m a l l s c a l e and d e c o r a t i v e . Matteo N u t i was more a m b i t i o u s — h i s major s t r u c t u r e i s the M a l a t e s t a L i b r a r y at Cesena, modelled on t h a t of M i c h e l o z z o f o r San Marco. N u t i designed a door-way f o r S. M i c h e l e i n Fano, which resembles the Pesaro v i l l a entrance o n l y i n terms of the square t a b l e t over the e n t a b l a t u r e . On the o t h e r hand, a s i m i l a r composi-t i o n i s seen i n the P a l a z z o R u c e l l a i , i f one w i l l admit the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f a window i n t o an impresa or plaque. A g o s t i n o d i Duccio, a t h i r d major f i g u r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h R i m i n i i s perhaps best know f o r the facade of S. Ber n a r d i n o i n P e r u g i a , which remains i n essence a composite of the Tempio M a l a t e s t i a n o m o t i f s . 78. G i o r g i o V a s a r i , Le V i t e , I I , ed. M i l a n e s i , F l o r e n c e , 1878, pp. 545-6. 79. See Wittkower, pp. 12-4. -36-80. See e n t r y f o r F a n c e l l i i n D i z i o n a r i o E n c i c l o p e d i c o d i  A r c h i t e t t u r a e U r b a n i s t i c a , Rome, 1968-9. 81. O l i v i e r i , 1785, p. C U I . -37-CHAPTER I I : THE VILLA IMPERIALE FRESCOES -38-I n h i s w i l l , G i o v a n n i S f o r z a , g r a n d s o n o f A l e s s a n d r o , w r o t e , t h a t upon e x t i n c t i o n o f t h e S f o r z a d i r e c t male l i n e , t h e V i l l a I m p e r i a l e and i t s grounds were t o p a s s t o t h e c o n -v e n t o f S. B a r t o l o i n P e s a r o . G i o v a n n i ' s son, C o s t a n z o I I , d i e d i n 1512, w i t h o u t an h e i r . Pope J u l i u s I I t o o k advantage o f t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y t o s t e p i n and a p p r o p r i a t e P e s a r o , a l o n g w i t h t h e V i l l a I m p e r i a l e , f o r h i s nephew, F r a n c e s c o M a r i a d e l l a R o v e r e , Duke o f U r b i n o . An i l l e g i t i m a t e son o f C o s t a n z o I s t i l l s u r v i v e d ; he had been c o n s i d e r e d an o b v i o u s and p o p u l a r c h o i c e as t h e n e x t r u l e r o f P e s a r o , but J u l i u s I I managed t o have him bought o f f w i t h an a n n u i t y . The q u e s t i o n o f t h e V i l l a I m p e r i a l e l e g a c y was s o l v e d s i m p l y by i g n o r i n g t h e c l a i m s o f S. B a r t o l o . 1 I t was d u r i n g F r a n c e s c o M a r i a ' s r u l e , more p r e c i s e l y t h e 1520's and 1530's, t h a t t h e V i l l a I m p e r i a l e underwent t h e metamorphosis f r o m a f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y c o u n t r y e s t a t e t o a R e n a i s s a n c e v i l l a . T h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n was a c h i e v e d b a s i c a l -l y i n two campaigns, i n v o l v i n g t h e p a i n t i n g , w i t h a f r e s c o c y c l e , o f e i g h t p i a n o n o b i l e rooms i n t h e S f o r z a v i l l a , and t h e b u i l d i n g o f an e n t i r e l y new s t r u c t u r e i m m e d i a t e l y b e h i n d t h e o l d e r one. I t i s t h e f o r m e r p r o j e c t w h i c h w i l l be t r e a t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . F r a n c e s c o M a r i a ' s o c c u p a t i o n o f P e s a r o d i d not p r o c e e d w i t h o u t i n t e r r u p t i o n . When Leo X ascended t h e P a p a l C h a i r , a f t e r t h e d e a t h o f J u l i u s I I i n 1513, F r a n c e s c o M a r i a was i n i t a l l y p e r m i t t e d t o r e t a i n t h e v a r i o u s o f f i c e s c o n f e r r e d upon him by h i s u n c l e . I t was n o t l o n g , however, b e f o r e t h e f i r s t i n d i c a t i o n o f M e d i c i p o l i t i c s o c c u r r e d , w h i c h u l t i m a t e l y r e s u l t e d i n d i s s e n s i o n between t h e two f a m i l i e s o f t h a t g e n e r a --39-t i o n — F r a n c e s c o Maria was replaced by Leo's brother, Giuliano, as Captain General of the Church. When Giuliano died i n 1516, and Leo produced another s u b s t i t u t e T - h i s nephew Lorenzo—Francesco Maria refused to co-operate any longer i n h i s subordinate p o s i -t i o n . He was ca l l e d ' t o Rome to excuse h i s misconduct, but, fe a r i n g possible s t r a t e g i c detainment by Leo, sent instead h i s f o s t e r mother, E l i s a b e t t a da Montefeltro, to plead h i s cause. The Pope did not appreciate t h i s t a c t i c , and responded by s t r i p -ping him of h i s t i t l e s and possessions, and f i n a l l y excommunicat-ing him. Lorenzo de 1Medici was made Duke of Urbino, and Francesco Maria was forced to f l e e with h i s family to Mantua. In 1517, he assembled an army of mercenaries to attempt a siege on Urbino. Although t h i s p a r t i c u l a r attack was not suc-c e s s f u l , Francesco Maria r e t a l i a t e d by vanquishing the enemy at Pesaro. The b a t t l e , fought i n May of that year, was con-centrated i n and around the V i l l a Imperiale. War between the two f a m i l i e s continued u n t i l e a r l y 1518. A treaty was subsequent-l y drawn up, by which terms Lorenzo retained possession of the Dukedom of Urbino, and Francesco Maria was compensated by what were obviously only temporarily s a t i s f y i n g c o n d i t i o n s — h e was absolved from e c c l e s i a s t i c a l censure, and was permitted to car-ry with him to Mantua, Duke Federico's f u r n i t u r e , a r t i l l e r y and l i b r a r y . When Lorenzo died i n 1519, the Duchy of Urbino passed to the Holy See. Leo X died on 10 December 1521, at which point Francesco Maria reclaimed h i s lands. The progress of work on the V i l l a Imperiale f o r the period immediately following Francesco Maria 1s reoccupation i s d i f f i -c u l t to gauge with chronological p r e c i s i o n or c l a r i t y , l e t alone -40-a b s o l u t e c e r t a i n t y . The p a u c i t y o f documents i n t h e e a r l y 1520's (and t h e o b s c u r i t y o f e x t a n t ones) i s augmented o n l y by V a s a r i i n h i s l i f e o f G i r o l a m o Genga: Essendo p o i r i t o r n a t o i l d uca n e l l o s t a t o , se ne t o r n o anco G i r o l a m o , e da e s s o f u t r a t t e n u t o e a d o p e r a t o p e r a r c h i t e t t o , e n e i r e s t a u r a r e un p a l a z z o v e c c h i o e f a r l i g i u n t a d ' a l t r a [ a l t a ? ] t o r r e n e i monte d e l l ' I M p e r i a l e s o p r a P e s a r o .... P e c e v i p o i l a t o r r e a l t a c e n t o v e n t i p i e d i , con t r e d i c i s c a l e d i l e g n o da s a l i r v i s o p r a , accomodate t a n t o bene, e n a s c o s t e n e l l e mura, che s i r i t i r a n o d i s o l a r o i n s o l a r o agevolmente; i l che rende q u e l l a t o r r e f o r t i s s i m a e m a r a v i g l i o s a . A document v e r i f y i n g V a s a r i ' s s t a t e m e n t t h a t Genga e n t e r e d t h e s e r v i c e o f t h e Duke o f U r b i n o as a r c h i t e c t i n 1522, i s a l e t t e r w r i t t e n 4 August t h a t y e a r , f o r Genga by F r a n c e s c o M a r i a ' s agent i n Rome, G i o v a n M a r i a d e l l a P o r t a . ^ C o n f u s i o n s t a r t s when one a t t e m p t s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e commencement o f work on 4 t h e P e s a r o v i l l a . F u r t h e r m o r e , and t h i s i s perha p s t h e most i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t h e pr o b l e m , t h e e x a c t c h a r a c t e r o f t h e 5 e a r l i e s t work on t h e I m p e r i a l e r e m a i n s t o be a s c e r t a i n e d . The document c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y subsequent t o Genga's l e t t e r o f i n t r o d u c t i o n , i s one w r i t t e n by t h e a r c h i t e c t t o F r a n c e s c o M a r i a on 8 March 1 5 2 3 — i t i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h commissions i n t h e P a l a z z o D u c a l e o f U r b i n o . Seven more l e t t e r s a r e e x t a n t f r o m t h e y e a r 1523. S i x o f t h e s e a r e f r o m e i t h e r Genga o r the Rome a g e n t , and a r e a c c o u n t s o f v a r i o u s a r t o b j e c t s and p i e c e s of m a r b l e w h i c h Genga was p r o c u r i n g f o r F r a n c e s c o M a r i a i n 7 Rome. A l t h o u g h t h e i r u l t i m a t e d e s t i n a t i o n i s n o t named, one presumes t h e y were b e i n g c o l l e c t e d f o r t h e P a l a z z o D u c a l e o f U r b i n o , c e r t a i n l y F r a n c e s c o M a r i a ' s p r i n c i p a l and g r a n d e s t g r e s i d e n c e o f t h a t t i m e . The s e v e n t h l e t t e r was w r i t t e n on 4 September 1523 by - 4 1 -A l o y s e M u c c i o l i , a P e s a r e s e agent f o r t h e Duke o f U r b i n o . M u c c i o l i r e f e r s t o a " p i c t o r e e ' l s c o l t o r e novamente v e n u t i che s t a r a n n o bene," and m e n t i o n s t h a t " l u n i d i p r o x i m i m.ro hier.mo g l i a h o r d i n a t o e l l a v o r anno a comenzare e c o s i s e g u i t e r a n n o . " I n v i e w o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e l e t t e r d e a l s w i t h t h e g a r d e n e r o f t h e ^ i l l a I m p e r i a l e , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e f i r s t p a r t , f r o m w h i c h t h e above e x t r a c t s a r e t a k e n , r e f e r s t o t h e same v i l l a . P i l i p p i n i — B a l d a n i r e f u t e s t h i s by m a i n t a i n i n g t h a t t h e rooms were n o t y e t r e a d y f o r d e c o r a t i o n . 1 0 P a t z a k l i k e s t h e i d e a o f an e a r l y , t h a t i s pre-1530, d e c o r a t i v e programme, but b e l i e v e s M u c c i o l i 1 s l e t t e r i n c o n c l u s -11 l v e . An a t t e m p t t o r e c o n s t r u c t t h e work p a t t e r n o f t h e r e s t o r -a t i o n s s h o u l d i n d i c a t e t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e d a t e , September 1523, i n t h e c o n t e x t s u g g e s t e d by t h e l e t t e r . I f a c c e p t a b l e , t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n w i l l e x p l a i n and j u s t i f y t h e p r e s e n c e o f a " p i c t o r e e ' l s c o l t o r e " a t t h a t e a r l y d a t e . The i m p l i c a t i o n i n M u c c i o l i ' s l e t t e r i s t h a t Genga had c e r t a i n l y i n i t i a t e d , and was p r o b a b l y a l r e a d y advanced i n , t h e r e p a i r and r e s t o r a t i o n o f t h e v i l l a . The p o s s i b l e work p e r i o d can o n l y be deduced by a p r o c e s s o f e l i m i n a t i o n — s i n c e e x i s t -i n g documents have a c c o u n t e d f o r t h e p r e s e n c e o f Genga e l s e -where t h a n i n P e s a r o f r o m March t o August 1523, he must have been a c t i v e i n t h e I m p e r i a l e between August 1522 and March 1523, a nd/or f r o m August 1523 on. A c c o r d i n g t o V a s a r i , r e s t o r a t i o n was c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e a r e a o f t h e t o w e r and i t s s t a i r c a s e . I n 1523, t h e n , t h e t o w e r s t a i r would have been t h e p r i n c i p a l a c c e s s t o t h e p i a n o n o b i l e , w h i l e t h e e n t r a n c e i n t h e west w i n g , where t h e p r e s e n t main -42-s t a i r i s l o c a t e d , would s t i l l be the o r i g i n a l one, l e a d i n g t o 12 the s t a b l e s i n the subterranean area. I n such a s i t u a t i o n , i t i s l o g i c a l t o assume t h a t any rooms or areas to be r e s t o r e d would be those adjacent t o the tower (and the p r i n c i p a l s t a i r of the t i m e ) — c o n c e n t r a t i o n of l a b o u r and m a t e r i a l s was time and cost saved. I n f a c t , there are two rooms to the n o r t h and north-west of the tower, the present S a l a Grande and S a l a d e l l a C a l u n n i a , ( F i g s . 35 and 3 7 ) , which are the only ones of the eight-room c y c l e t o possess a f l a t , p a n e l l e d c e i l i n g — t h a t i s , the o r i g i n a l c e i l i n g form. The " p i c t o r e e ' l s c o l t o r e " of M u c c i o l i ' s l e t t e r v ery l i k e l y worked on the panels and stucco of these two c e i l i n g s . I t becomes apparent now t h a t the p r o j e c t f o r the S f o r z a v i l l a d e c o r a t i o n must be subdivided i n t o two programmes, the p a n e l l e d c e i l i n g s being a v e s t i g e of the e a r l i e s t one. When was the f i r s t p r o j e c t abandoned f o r the present d e c o r a t i v e c y c l e ? One i s u n f o r t u n a t e l y denied both a terminus post and ante quem f o r the campaigns, s i n c e there are no more l e t t e r s 14 u n t i l 30 J u l y 1527. The next document r e l e v a n t to the V i l l a I m p e r i a l e , however, does not appear u n t i l 27 January 1528, as a l e t t e r w r i t t e n by Genga to Leonora: ... et d i p o i me ha o r d i n a t o quanto abbia ad esequire e l a prima e ' l magiore i m p o r t a n t i a me a i n p o s t o c h ' i o f a c c i a s e t t a r e t u t t e l e s t a n t i e d i V. E x . t i a . non s o l o i n Pesaro, ma anco i n fosombrone et con ogni c e l l e r i t a p o s s i b i l e .... ,_ 15 C l e a r l y , the f i n a l p r o j e c t i s underway. Genga i s being pressured t o f i n i s h " t u t t e l e s t a n t i e ... i n Pesaro." Since the V i l l a Imperiale was Francesco Maria's major commission i n t h a t c i t y , one can s a f e l y assume the reference t o be t o the - 4 3 -remaining s i x rooms comprising the cycle of frescoed apart-ments. I t must, therefore, have been between 1524 and 1527 that the o r i g i n a l idea of a series of f l a t - c e i l i n g e d rooms, ap-proached from the tower s t a i r , was changed to one of rooms with raised and vaulted c e i l i n g s , accessible from the west wing st a i r c a s e . Patzak implied the various restorations and repairs of the v i l l a were completed a l l at the same time. More probable, however, i s that the restorations correspond to the two separate i n t e r i o r decorating campaigns. As d i s -cussed above, work done on the tower and i t s s t a i r was con-current with the e a r l i e r projeet. Por the f i n a l plan, the p r i n c i p a l access was changed to the west wing to ensure the proper approach to the fresco cycle. I t was at that time 17 that Genga b u i l t the grand west stairway, and enclosed the south c o r t i l e arcades to provide support f o r the raised c e i l i n g of a piano nobile room. In addition, he closed the loggi a above the c o r t i l e arcade to gain the maximum room space. I t i s possible that the concept f o r the f i n a l decorative programme was coincidental with the decision to b u i l d a new 18 v i l l a behind the Sforza structure. The theory of the i n t e r -related fresco cycle and new architecture i s a tempting one, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n so f a r as i t explains the decision to change the o r i g i n a l sequence of decorated apartments i n the Sforza v i l l a . I n i t i a l l y , they had begun north of the tower, and were probably intended to include as many of the piano nobile apartments as were thought necessary f o r reception and l i v i n g rooms. Now, they commence i n the south wing, approached from a s t a i r i n the west, and lead the guest to the bridge connect--44-ing the old v i l l a with the new d e l l a Rovere Imperiale ( F i g . 17). Furthermore, as w i l l become apparent i n an examination of the fresco cycle i t s e l f , the iconography and themes of the decora^i* tions function s u c c e s s f u l l y as a prelude, or mental preparation, to the experience of the new architecture, thereby suggesting a synthetic concept. Supporting the argument of i n t e r a c t i n g programmes i s a l e t t e r of 13 August 1522, written by Castiglione i n reply to Francesco Maria's request f o r Raphael's l e t t e r on the V i l l a 21 Madama. I t seems, then, that Francesco Maria was already i n 1522 interested i n a terraced g a r d e n - v i l l a complex i n the Roman imperial s t y l e , f'or which the t e r r a i n behind the Sforza v i l l a was i d e a l l y s u i t ed. I t i s not known when he received the l e t t e r , but that he did, i s indicated by the f a c t that a copy of Raphael's l e t t e r on the V i l l a Madama has been found 22 i n the Florence A r c h i v i o d i Stato — t h e provenance of the document can be explained by the circumstance of V i t t o r i a d e l l a Rovere, l a s t of the family, marrying Grand Duke Ferdinand of Tuscany i n the seventeenth century, and bringing with her, into Medici possession, the inheritance of the d e l l a Rovere. As was the case with the other projects i n the Imperiale, the dating of the fresco cycle i s e s s e n t i a l l y a speculative matter. In t h i s instance, complications a r i s e because one a c t u a l l y has two stages of the campaign to consider—conception and r e a l i z a t i o n . The theory of an i n t e r r e l a t e d thematic-icono-graphic and a r c h i t e c t u r a l programme requires the idea of the decoration to already have been conceived, at l e a s t i n i t s es-s e n t i a l form, when the rooms were being f i n i s h e d and the present lay-out determined. As was discussed above, t h i s stage of the -45-p r o j e c t f a l l s between t h e y e a r s 1524 and 1527. When were the f r e s c o e s begun? C o n s i d e r e d out o f c o n t e x t , t h e r e f e r e n c e i n Genga 1s l e t t e r o f 27 J a n u a r y 1528 i s ambiguous, s i n c e one i s n o t t o l d w hether he was t o f i n i s h a l l t h e rooms i n terms o f w a l l s and c e i l i n g s p r e p a r e d t o r e c e i v e t h e d e c o r a t i o n s , o r w hether he was t o h u r r y w i t h t h e f r e s c o e s t h e m s e l v e s . The a m b i g u i t y can be r e s o l v e d by a l e t t e r f r o m L e o n o r a t o h e r agent i n V e n i c e , d a t e d 10 May 1530: Havendo n o i d a t a p r i n c i p i o a f a r d e p i n g e r e q u i a l I m p e r i a l e a l c u n e n o s t r e Camere e d e s i d e r a n d o c h ' e l l a s i a n o compite p e r i l medesimo m a e s t r o , ch'e Mr.o F r a n c e s c o da F o r l i .... ^ T h e r e f o r e , i f Genga had been r e q u i r e d t o f i n i s h a l l t h e f r e s c o e s by 1528, he had f a i l e d d r a s t i c a l l y . More l i k e l y i s t h a t he was t o complete o n l y t h e room a r c h i t e c t u r e . The i m -p l i c a t i o n i n L e o n o r a ' s l e t t e r i s t h a t t h e f r e s c o e s were a l -r e a d y underway, s i n c e F r a n c e s c o da F o r l i was b e i n g r e c a l l e d 24 t o do more work i n t h e I m p e r i a l e . T h i s p l a c e s t h e b e g i n n i n g 25 o f the f r e s c o p a i n t i n g between 1528 and 1530. The d e l l a Rovere p a p e r s i n c l u d e t h e names of o n l y two a r t i s t s who were engaged on t h e d e c o r a t i o n o f t h e V i l l a I m p e r i a l e — t h a t o f Genga, who, however, as c o u r t a r c h i t e c t , was p r i n c i p a l l y (but n o t e x c l u s i v e l y ) a s u p e r v i s o r o f t h e p r o j e c t ; and t h a t o f F r a n c e s c o da F o r l i ( o r M e n z o c c h i ) . V a s a r i , i n h i s l i f e o f G i r o l a m o Genga, r e f e r s t o f i v e more a r t i s t s : ... i l q u a l p a l a z z o [ I m p e r i a l e ] p e r o r d i n e e d i s e g n o d e l Genga f u o r n a t o d i p i t t u r a d ' i s t o r i e e f a t t i d e l duca da F r a n c e s c o da F o r l i , da R a f f a e l d a l B orgo, p i t t o r i d i buona fama, e da C a m i l l o Mantovano, i n f a r p a e s i e v e r d u r e r a r i s -simo; e f r a l i a l t r i v i l a v o r o anco B r o n z i n o f i o r e n t i n o g i o v i n e t t o , come s i e d e t t o n e l l a V i t a d e l Puntormo. E s s e n -d o v i anco c o n d o t t i i D o s s i P e r r a r e s i , f u a l l o g a t a l o r o una s t a n z a a d i p i g n e r e .... --46-The c o n t r i b u t i o n of these a r t i s t s can o n l y be a s c e r t -ained by a s t y l i s t i c a n a l y s i s . These analyses, however, have been a source of c o n t r o v e r s y before, as w e l l as a f t e r Patzak's monumental attempt i n the monograph of 1908. At present, C r a i g Hugh Smyth i s engaged on a study of the author-s h i p of the f r e s c o c y c l e . The attempts to i d e n t i f y each a r t i s t ' s work have been s e r i o u s l y handicapped by the f a c t t h a t the v i l l a underwent r e s t o r a t i o n i n the n i n e t e e n t h century, at which time a l o c a l a r t i s t , Giuseppe Gennari, r e p a i n t e d l a r g e p o r t i o n s of the f r e s c o e s . Although the v i l l a a;gain underwent e x t e n s i v e , and t h i s time s c i e n t i f i c , r e s t o r a t i o n i n the 1960's, i t was im-p o s s i b l e , i n some cases, to recover the o r i g i n a l l a y e r of p a i n t . T h i s i s an unfortunate s i t u a t i o n f o r the connoisseur. Por one who i s i n t e r e s t e d e s s e n t i a l l y i n themes and iconography, i t i s some s l i g h t c o n s o l a t i o n t o know tha t Gennari, i n many i n s t a n c e s , based h i s o v e r p a i n t i n g on the s i x t e e n t h century o r i g i n a l . The l i t e r a r y programme of the f r e s c o c y c l e i s an i n v o l v e d one, but, once again, we are not t o l d who devised i t . Patzak suggests Leonora, although he questions whether she could have 27 managed i t without an a d v i s o r , such as Paolo G i o v i o . I n view of her f a m i l y background, Leonora can be considered an acceptable candidate f o r the t a s k . Through her mother, I s a b e l l a d'Este, she haddcontact w i t h the court of P e r r a r a . Leonora h e r s e l f was a Gonzaga, and could t h e r e f o r e c l a i m to have know-l e d g e — i n one case i n t i m a t e — o f two of the most important f r e s c o c y c l e s of the t i m e — t h e Camera d e g l i Sposi i n Mantua, and the P a l a z z o S c h i f a n o i a i n P e r r a r a . Her a u n t — I s a b e l l a ' s s i s t e r - i n -- 4 7 -law, and h e r own f u t u r e mother-in-law—was E l i s a b e t t a , Duchess of U r b i n o . The c o u r t s of both U r b i n o and F e r r a r a were v e r y important i n terms of the development of Renaissance t h e a t r e , the i n f l u e n c e of which can c e r t a i n l y be d e t e c t e d i n 28 the V i l l a I m p e r i a l e . I s a b e l l a ' s l e t t e r s , l i b r a r y , and a r t c o l l e c t i o n i n d i c a t e t h a t she was an acute and informed l a d y , f a m i l i a r w i t h c l a s s i c a l and r e l i g i o u s t e x t s , as w e l l as medieval 30 29 romances — s u c h were the surroundings i n which Leonora was r a i s e d . In c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h i s , i t i s important t o note t h a t the few l e t t e r s p e r t a i n i n g t o the commission of the f r e s c o e s are p a r t of*Leonora's correspondence. ^ L e t t e r s t o and from F r a n c e s c o M a r i a begin a g a i n w i t h communications about the new v i l l a under c o n s t r u c t i o n . R e f e r r i n g once more t o the i d e a of c o r r e l a t i n g p r o j e c t s , oneacan p o i n t out t h a t Leonora's i n t e r e s t i n , and i n f l u e n c e on, the d e l l a Rovere v i l l a were equal t o those of F r a n c e s c o d 33 32 M a r i a . As i s r e v e a l e d by the i n s c r i p t i o n s she r e q u e s t e d from C a r d i n a l Bembo f o r the f a c a d e s of the new I m p e r i a l e , she i n t e n d e d the v i l l a as a g i f t f o r h e r husband: FR. MARIAE DVCI META1RENSIVM A BELLIS REDEVNTI LEONORA UXOR ANIMI EIVS CAVSA VILLAM EXAEDIFICAVIT PRO SOLE PRO PULVERE PRO VIGILIIS PRO LABORIBUS VT MILITARE NEGOTIVM REQVIETE INTERPOSITA CLARIOREM LAVDEM FRVCTVSQVE VBERIORES PARIAT; More than a g i f t , however, i t was a t r i b u t e t o the p o l i t -i c a l and m i l i t a r y f i g u r e of F r a n c e s c o M a r i a — h e , who c o u l d be a g r e a t and v i r t u o u s w a r r i o r i n s p i t e of the i n j u s t i c e s u f -f e r e d at the hands of o t h e r s , was t o c o n s i d e r t h i s h i s reward, and enjoy i t as a r e t r e a t from mundane a f f a i r s . -48-The i n s c r i p t i o n s are e q u a l l y r e l e v a n t t o the f r e s c o c y c l e . Indeed, a l t h o u g h the v i l l a was t o he a t r i b u t e t o F r a n c e s c o M a r i a , the f r e s c o e s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the new a r c h i t e c t u r e t r a n s f o r m e d the V i l l a I m p e r i a l e i n t o a memorial. The c y c l e i n v o l v e s e i g h t rooms of d i f f e r e n t s i z e s , s i x of which are v a u l t e d , and two of which have a f l a t c e i l i n g ( F i g . 1 7 ) . The door from the ground f l o o r t o the piano n o b i l e i s l o c a t e d near the southwest c o r n e r of the c o r t i l e . Genga 1s grand s t a i r w a y l e a d s the guest t o the f i r s t room of the c y c l e , the S a l a d e l Giuramento, l o c a t e d i n the south t r a c t of the v i l l a . Next i s the S a l a d e i C a r i a t i d i , f o l l o w e d by the Camera d e i  S e m i b u s t i , f o r m i n g the southeast c o r n e r . The s m a l l e s t room of the c y c l e , the G a b i n e t t o , o r i g i n a l l y gave a c c e s s t o a s t a i r l e a d i n g from the ground f l o o r up through the tower. Two more s m a l l rooms are i n the e a s t w i n g — t h e Camera d e g l i Amorini and the Camera d e l l e f o r z e d i E r c o l e . T h i s b r i n g s one t o the S a l a  Grande, at the angle of the e a s t and n o r t h wings, and f i n a l l y t o the S a l a d e l l a C a l u n n i a . The s e r i e s of f r e s c o e d apartments can be c o n s i d e r e d on two l e v e l s . They a r e , f i r s t of a l l , a c h a i n , a c o n t i n u a t e sequence of themes, which i s extended (and concluded?) i n the e x p e r i e n c e of the d e l l a Rovere v i l l a . On the o t h e r hand, th e y are a l s o a c y c l e , i n so f a r as a j u x t a p o s i t i o n , of theme and c o m p o s i t i o n , i s s t r e s s e d between the f i r s t room and the l a s t . The l a t t e r i s perhaps the more p e r s o n a l and i n t i m a t e l e v e l , t o suggest-sthe p e r p e t u i t y of F r a n c e s c o M a r i a ' s m i l i t a r y prowess 34 i n h i s son, h i s son's son, and so f o r t h . The l e i t m o t i f i n the t h e m a t i c - i c o n o g r a p h i c programme i s 35 the g l o r i f i c a t i o n of F r a n c e s c o M a r i a . The r a m i f i c a t i o n s off - 4 9 -t h i s e x a l t a t i o n are i m p l i e d i n the i n s c r i p t i o n s on the d e l l a Rovere facades. As a reminder, and f o r the sake of easy r e f e r -ence, they are here repeated i n Georgina Masson's E n g l i s h t r a n s -l a t i o n : Por Francesco M a r i a , Duke of the Metaurian States on h i s r e t u r n from the wars, h i s consort Leonora has er e c t e d t h i s v i l l a i n token of a f f e c t i o n , and i n compensation f o r sun and dust, f o r watching and t o i l , so t h a t d u r i n g an i n t e r v a l of repose h i s m i l i t a r y genius may prepare him f o r s t i l l wider renown and r i c h e r rewards. . r 36 I n the f r e s c o e s , one obvious aspect of the theme of g l o r i f i c a t i o n are the a l l u s i o n s t o the n o b i l i t y and splendour of Francesco M a r i a and Leonora. This occurs i n such d i r e c t form as the p r o f u s i o n of imprese, and as p e r s o n a l i n i t i a l s and names c l e v e r l y interwoven as p a r t of the t o t a l f a b r i c . The r e f e r e n c e s are a l s o expressed more s u b t l y — f o r i n s t a n c e , by a s s o c i a t i n g the patrons w i t h the c l a s s i c a l and m y t h o l o g i c a l past, and by making frequent use of such symbolic p l a n t s as oak, l a u r e l and palm.. F i n a l l y , a l l u s i o n t o t h e i r g l o r i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s achieved by a l l e g o r y i t s e l f . While t h i s s t a t e of e x a l t a t i o n i s i s h a r e d by Francesco M a r i a and Leonora, a more p e r s o n a l g l o r y i s the theme of the h i s t o r y f r e s c o e s , r e p r e s e n t i n g important events i n the Duke of U r b i n o 1 s p o l i t i c a l - m i l i t a r y c a r e e r . They are intended t o impress on the guest the grandeur and worthiness of the pa t r o n . The scenes commence i n the f i r s t room w i t h the Spanish and German mer-ce n a r i e s g i v i n g the oath of a l l e g i a n c e t o Francesco M a r i a on 17 January 1517, t o a i d him i n r e g a i n i n g the Duchy of Urbino. They culminate i n the f i n a l room w i t h a r e v e l a t i o n of the i n -j u s t i c e done t o the Duke, p r i n c i p a l l y by the M e d i c i — t h e -50-C a l u n n i a f r e s c o ; and w i t h a grand statement of F r a n c e s c o M a r i a ' s a b i l i t y t o w i t h s t a n d and overcome such i n t r i g u e s , i n d e e d t o succeed g l o r i o u s l y i n s p i t e of t h e m — t h e A p o t e o s i of F r a n c e s c o M a r i a . A c c o r d i n g t o Leonora's i n s c r i p t i o n s , the recompense f o r an arduous m i l i t a r y c a r e e r was the enjoyment of the p l e a s u r e s p r o v i d e d by a v i l l a , a house i n the c o u n t r y s i d e . The l a n d s c a p e s which predominate i n the room d e c o r a t i o n s sup-p o r t and extend t h i s theme. Leonora's r o l e as the one t o p r e s e n t , and d e d i c a t e , t h i s m a g n i f i c e n t g i f t i n honour of h e r husband, i s i m p l i e d by the t h i r d theme i n the f r e s c o e s — l o v e conquers war. A l t h o u g h war may wage o u t s i d e , w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s of the r e t r e a t (and by e x t e n s i o n , the Duchy of U r b i n o ? ) f l o u r i s h peace 37 and p r o s p e r i t y . One n o t i c e s , f o r example, t h a t a l t h o u g h g r e a t b a t t l e scenes were a p o p u l a r s u b j e c t i n s i m i l a r g l o r i -f y i n g c y c l e s ( P a l a z z o V e c c h i o , F l o r e n c e , and the V a t i c a n S t a n z e ) , and a l t h o u g h one presumes t h e r e were any number of such bloody scenes i n F r a n c e s c o M a r i a ' s c a r e e r , those chosen f o r the I m p e r i a l e are a l l of triumphant, but p e a c e f u l , e v e n t s . I n t h i s way, they are p r o b a b l y c l o s e r t o the programme of the Gran Salone i n the M e d i c i v i l l a a t Poggio a Caiano, where the p r i n c i p a l theme, as i n d i c a t e d by a q u o t a t i o n from the G e o r g i e s — S t v d i v q v i b v s a r v a  t v e r i — i s t h a t a g r i c u l t u r e ( p e a c e f u l c u l t i v a t i o n of the land) f l o u r i s h e s where t h e r e i s no war. The g r o t e s q u e s , abundant i n f o u r rooms, from the Camera  d e i S emibusti t o the Camera d e l l e f o r z e d i E r c o l e , are imbued w i t h m o t i f s p e r t a i n i n g t o a l u s h and p l e n t i f u l h a r v e s t . An-o t h e r m o t i f , e v i d e n t i n both the g r o t t e s c h i and the i l l u s i o n i s t w a l l d e c o r a t i o n , i s t h a t of t r o p h i e s of armour and weapons, -51-b e i n g b u r n t , o r si m p l y s e t up. One f i n d s them i n the A p o t e o s i scene, i n the s p a n d r e l s o f the Camera d e i Se m i b u s t i , b e s i d e c a r y a t i d s , J,and i n the v a u l t , of the G a b i n e t t o , as w e l l as along-s i d e r i v e r g o d s i n the S a l a Grande. S t r i c t a b s t i n e n c e from any and a l l warfare i s s t r e s s e d . A f t e r the r e v e l a t i o n , i n the S a l a d e l l a C a l u n n i a , of F r a n c e s c o M a r i a as a magnanimous w a r r i o r and e x a l t e d p e r s o n -age, the next s t e p , p h y s i c a l l y f o r the guest, l e a d s t o the f i r s t sunken c o u r t y a r d of the d e l l a Rovere v i l l a . The themes and a l l u s i o n s , developed i n the e i g h t f r e s c o e d apartments, are now p a r t of a r e a l i t y ; and one i n which not o n l y F r a n c e s c o M a r i a , but the guest h i m s e l f , can p a r t i c i p a t e , because he has l e a r n t and und e r s t o o d the d e d i c a t i o n , the r a i s o n d ' e t r e , of the new v i l l a . The attempt t o f i n d a precedent f o r t h i s unusual i d e a of a d e c o r a t i v e programme depending f o r i t s success and com-p l e t i o n on an i m p l i e d c o n t i n u a t i o n beyond the p h y s i c a l c o n t e x t of the rooms, p r e s e n t s d i f f i c u l t i e s . As i t i s , I know of o n l y two s i m i l a r e x a m p l e s — t h e f i r s t o f which c o u l d w e l l be a p r e -c e d e n t — s t r e s s i n g the concept of i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l c o r r e l a t i o n . One i s Raphael's S a l a d i P s i c h e i n the F a r n e s i n a , where two of the pendentive scenes on the garden s i d e of the l o g g i a depend, 39 i c o n o g r a p h i c a l l y , on an e x t e r n a l p r o j e c t i o n . The second example, from the m i d - s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , i s the V i l l a d'Este at T i v o l i , where the i n t e r i o r d e c o r a t i v e programme, and the 40 gardens, are governed by the same i c o n o g r a p h i c a l p l a n . As was the case w i t h the themes i n the e i g h t rooms, the compos i t i o n s o f the f r e s c o e s can a l s o be reduced t o a s e r i e s of common p r i n c i p l e s . I l l u s i o n i s m and i t s p o s s i b i l i t i e s are -52-a c o n s i s t e n t preoccupation which a l l o w s f o r the maximum of l i b e r t y i n a r t i c u l a t i n g both w a l l mass and w a l l d e c o r a t i o n . Por i n s t a n c e , l u n e t t e s sometimes become s h e l l n i c h e s , d i s -p l a y i n g antique busts or swags;: sometimes they are i n t e r p r e t e d as s e t t i n g s f o r m y t h o l o g i c a l s u b j e c t s . I n other rooms, c h i a r o -scuro s t a t u e s , i n b r i c k and stucco n i c h e s , or c a r y a t i d s , form p a r t of the i l l u s i o n i s t i c vocabulary. I n a l l cases, even i f the eye i s not deceived, i t i s e n t i c e d and d e l i g h t e d . The p a i n t e d a r c h i t e c t u r e d e f i n e s or extends the w a l l , or f u n c t i o n s as a frame, a f i x e d p o i n t , f o r an i l l u s i o n i s t i c l a n d -scape. Where p a i n t e d a r c h i t e c t u r e i s abandoned, pergolas and arbors take i t s p l a c e . I n one case, i l l u s i o n i s t i c t a p e s t r i e s are used t o create an i n t e r e s t i n g t e n s i o n by g i v i n g s u b t l e i n -d i c a t i o n of, and at the same time t a k i n g great care to h i d e , the p a i n t e d space beyond. I n t h i s context, the i d e a of p a i n t -41 ed t a p e s t r i e s d e r i v e s from Raphael's Sal a d i P s i c h e . A l -though i n the Roman v i l l a they appear only as v e l a r i a spanned across the v a u l t , i n the Impe r i a l e they are used on both w a l l and c e i l i n g . The concept of i l l u s i o n i s t i c mural p a i n t i n g i s e n t i r e l y i n keeping w i t h developments begun i n the f i f t e e n t h century i n Rome and n o r t h I t a l y — f o r example, N i c h o l a s V s B i b l i o t e c a 42 Greca and Mantegna's Camera d e g l i Sposi — a n d continued p a r t i c u l a r l y r a p i d l y i n l a t e f i f t e e n t h , and e a r l y s i x t e e n t h , century Rome, w i t h examples such as P i n t u r i c c h i o ' s f r e s c o e s i n the Belvedere, Michelangelo's S i s t i n e C e i l i n g , Raphael's V a t i c a n Stanze, and the f r e s c o e s i n the Parn e s i n a by P e r u z z i , Raphael and 43 Sodoma. In the S f o r z a v i l l a , i l l u s i o n i s m was c e r t a i n l y em-ployed because of i t s current vogue, but a l s o because i t was - 5 3 -the only s o l u t i o n f o r what were r e a l l y q u i t e s m a l l , f i f t e e n t h century rooms, and had t o be grand, s i x t e e n t h century r e c e p t i o n rooms. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t the two aspects of the d e c o r a t i o n , which f o r l a c k of b e t t e r terms I s h a l l c a l l the r e a l and the f a n c i f u l , are s t r i c t l y c o nfined t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e a r e a s — t h a t i s , the c e i l i n g ( e x c l u d i n g the l a s t room) and the w a l l . A d m i t t e d l y , the c e i l i n g p a i n t i n g s , i d n three out of s i x cases, are d i s p l a y e d as i l l u s i o n i s t t a p e s t r i e s . T h e i r essence, how-44 ever, l i e s i n the h i s t o r i c a l event d e p i c t e d . Not u n t i l the f i n a l room—but not, I t h i n k , f o r l a c k of c e i l i n g s p a c e — d o the r e a l and the f a n c i f u l merge. The h i s t o r i c a l scene T-the A p o t e o s i — has moved from i t s pre-ordained p o s i t i o n on the c e i l i n g , t o the w a l l , and, as an episode i n v o l v i n g the p r o t a g o n i s t p r o j e c t e d i n t o the realms of myth, becomes a union of the r e a l and the f a n c i f u l . T h i s union i s f u l l y j u s t i f i e d s i n c e , i n the context of the f r e s c o e s , i t i s the l o g i c a l outcome of Francesco Maria's p r o g r e s s i v e g l o r i f i c a t i o n . The f i r s t room of the c y c l e — t h e S a l a d e l Giuramento ( F i g s . 18-21) ^ — p e r f o r m s a dual r o l e . I t serves t o put the guest i n the proper frame of mind t o be able t o ap p r e c i a t e and accept Francesco Maria's u l t i m a t e apotheosis, and i t prepares him, i n terms of themes and compositions, f o r what he w i l l see i n i t h e subsequent apartments. Indeed, the room might be des c r i b e d as a stage set f o r the u n f o l d i n g of Francesco Maria's s t o r y . I n t h i s case, the vocabulary of the t h e a t r e i s no mere f i g u r e of speech—under the v a u l t , a row of p u t t i are l i f t i n g some volum-inous drapery, which can c o n c e i v a b l y be i n t e r p r e t e d as the c u r t a i n r i s i n g ( F i g s . 18 and 19). ^  T h i s c o n c e i t i s extended -54-t o the v a u l t — m o r e p u t t i are engaged i n l i f t i n g up d r a p e r y t o r e v e a l an expanse of p a i n t e d sky between the b a l u s t r a d e at the top of the v a u l t , and the c e i l i n g f r e s c o , ( F i g . 2 0 ) . Note how c o n s c i o u s i s the e f f o r t t o keep w a l l and c e i l i n g scenes s e p a r a t e — e a c h has i t s own u n v e i l i n g ceremony. The success of the S a l a d e l Giuramento as the i n i t i a l and i n t r o d u c t o r y e x p e r i e n c e of the f r e s c o c y c l e i s guaranteed by i t s awesome p r o p o r t i o n s , both r e a l and i l l u s i o n i s t i c , and 47 by i t s c l a s s i c a l s o l e m n i t y . A l t h o u g h i t i s the l a r g e s t room i n terms of l e n g t h and width, the c e i l i n g i s p r o p o r t i o n -a t e l y too low. I n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e the d e s i r e d harmony, Genga r a i s e d the c e i l i n g , at the same e n c l o s i n g the c o r t i l e a r cades immediately below, t o s t r e n g t h e n the base of the room. He a l s o t r i e d t o g a i n e x t r a h e i g h t by r e s o r t i n g t o i l l u s i o n i s t i o n i c columns i n the p e n d e n t i v e s of the room. Although i t i s understood f o r what i t attempted, the i l l u s i o n i s m i s f a r from . . 48 c o n v i n c i n g . The noble dimensions of the room are c o n t i n u e d i n the p a i n t e d w a l l a r c h i t e c t u r e . The f e e l i n g of w a l l mass i s c e r t a i n l y a i d e d by the f a c t t h a t the r i s i n g c u r t a i n obscures the t o p t h i r d of the p l e i n a i r view. The s p a n d r e l s , pendent-i v e s and l u n e t t e s c o n t r i b u t e t o t h i s sense of s o l i d i t y . The l u n e t t e s are d e c o r a t e d w i t h p u r p l e s h e l l s , i n t o which are set swags d i s p l a y i n g the l e t t e r s of the Duke's name and t i t l e . S h e l l s , however, are i n essence d e l i c a t e o b j e c t I n o r d e r f o r the l u n e t t e s t o be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the s e n s a t i o n of heavy a r c h i t e c t u r e , the s h e l l s are c l e v e r l y d e s i g n e d t o be s m a l l e r than the n i c h e a r e a , t h e r e b y r e v e a l i n g a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount 49 of i l l x i s i o n i s t masonry. The c e i l i n g f r e s c o i n t h i s room i s the l a r g e s t of a l l f i v e examples.(Fig. 21). I t s impression of grandeur and s o l i d -i t y does not, however, depend only on i t s generous dimensions. Whereas three of the f i v e c e i l i n g f r e s c o e s are t r e a t e d p l a y -f u l l y as awnings or t a p e s t r i e s , the Giuramento f r e s c o f l o a t s 50 m i r a c u l o u s l y , and w i t h the g r e a t e s t p r e c i s i o n and r e g u l a r -51 i t y . Considered i n the context of the other c e i l i n g f r e s -coes, such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s appear incongruous. They can, how-ever, be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y e x p l a i n e d by a j u x t a p o s i t i o n of t h i s froom w i t h the l a s t one, the S a l a d e l l a C a l u n n i a ( F i g . 37). The oath of a l l e g i a n c e , d e p i c t e d i n the f i r s t room, l e d u l t i m -a t e l y t o the apo t h e o s i s , seen i n the l a s t . These two a p a r t -ments, t h e r e f o r e , are p a r t i c u l a r l y c l o s e i n theme, being the commencement and c u l m i n a t i o n ( o r climax) of Francesco Maria's road t o g l o r y . Considered i n ab b r e v i a t e d form, they are con-s e q u e n t i a l . The f a c t t h a t the composition of the two c e i l i n g s compliment each other r e i n f o r c e s t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . I n the f i r s t room, i n c o n t r a s t t o the others ( e x c l u d i n g the Gabinetto and Camera d e g l i A m o r i n i ) , the c e i l i n g f r e s c o i s t r u l y a quadro  r i p o r t a t o . T h i s c e i l i n g , t h e r e f o r e , has as much of a s t r i c t l y f l a t aspect, as does the p a n e l l e d one of the f i n a l room. To c a r r y t h e i r s i m i l a r i t y even f u r t h e r , a border of s c r o l l w o r k decorates the Giuramento f r e s c o , as though i t were the outer row of panels on such a c e i l i n g as the l a s t one. Due t o the narrow t i e s between the S a l a d e l Giuramento and the S a l a d e l l a C a l unnia, one i s encouraged t o t h i n k of the f r e s c o e s as a c y c l e -52 the l a s t moves i n t o the f i r s t , and can begin again. 5 3 I n the S a l a d e l l e C a r i a t i d i ( F i g s . 22-6), the weight of solemn a r c h i t e c t u r e has d i s s o l v e d i n t o p l e i n a i r . A con--56-tinuous landscape extends up t o the l e v e l of the door l i n t e l s . The guest must determine h i s p o s i t i o n i n , and h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o , t h i s agoraphobic view by the placement of the c a r y a t i d s . Since they are set some d i s t a n c e i n t o the landscape, but at the same time f u n c t i o n as p a r t of the room framework, the sen-s a t i o n of space expands, as the guest imagines the p a i n t e d f o r e -ground merging w i t h the r e a l f l o o r at h i s f e e t ( F i g . 22). The c a r y a t i d s support an i n s u b s t a n t i a l a r c h i t e c t u r e of per g o l a s , composed, p r o p e r l y , of oak, l a u r e l and palm l e a v e s . Only the f o u r corners of the room suggest substance and s t r e n g t h , being d e f i n e d by t r e e t r u n k s from which grow l u x u r i o u s , l e a f y boughs. Above the landscape, and between the per g o l a s , i s an expanse of sky covered onl y by the c e i l i n g p a i n t i n g i n the centre of the v a u l t ( F i g . 26). T h i s , r e p r e s e n t i n g Francesco M a r i a i n t r i u m p h a l p r o c e s s i o n , i s t r e a t e d as though i t were a r u s t i c and st u r d y t a p e s t r y , which indeed i t would have t o be i n such a s e t t i n g of complete b o s c h e r e c c i a . I t i s a f f i x e d t o a frame of branches, which d e r i v e s , i n miraculous r e g u l a r i t y , from the corner t r e e t r u n k s . Ayputto r e i n f o r c e s each corner, s q u a t t i n g on top of the t r e e t r u n k and su p p o r t i n g the t a p e s t r y i n i m i t a t i o n of A t l a s . Although the pergolas are composed of l a u r e l , oak and palm, the branches t w i s t i n g around the c e i l i n g t a p e s t r y are s p r o u t i n g oak b r a n c h e s — a neat and p r e c i s e a l l u s i o n t o Francesco M a r i a d e l l a Rovere. 54 The Camera d e i Semibusti ( F i g s . 27-30) resumes the i l -l u s i o n i s t a r c h i t e c t u r e of the f i r s t room, which i n the t r a n s i -t i o n has l o s t much of i t s r e g u l a r i t y and c l a s s i c a l s o l e m n i t y — the backs of the window seats change from p e r f e c t l y s t r a i g h t t o -57-concave; the p i l a s t e r s have no c a p i t a l s , as a proper c l a s -s i c a l order should, but simply c o r b e l s w i t h s c r o l l s t o e i t h e r s i d e . I n place of the c u r t a i n r i s i n g on the landscape, as i n the f i r s t room, the guest now sees swags w i t h c l u s t e r s of f r u i t at the c e n t r e . Again, the change of g r a v i t y t o l i g h t n e s s can be i l l u s t r a t e d by the example of the s h e l l s i n the l u n e t t e s — where before they were s m a l l and d u l l - c o l o u r e d , they are now white and f r a g i l e , f i l l i n g out the e n t i r e l u n e t t e t o d i s p e l any s e n s a t i o n of t h i c k w a l l . T h i s room i s the f i r s t one t o use g r o t t e s c h i . I n t h i s case, they are confined t o the spandrels ( F i g . 28), but w i l l be e l a b o r a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g three rooms. A d i s t i n c t p a t -t e r n can be dis c e r n e d i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the spandrel g r o t e s q u e s — t h o s e over niches d i s p l a y i n g male busts have as a c e n t r a l m o t i f a p a i r of b i r d s p u l l i n g heads of wheat from cornucopiae. The l a d i e s s i m i l a r l y have two b i r d s ; most i n t e r e s t i n g , however, i s the e x t r a m o t i f of a trophy of crossed spear and a x e — a r e f e r e n c e , perhaps, t o Leonora, who has shown h e r s e l f capable of r e c a l l i n g Francesco Maria from the wars t o ind u l g e i n v i l l e g i a t u r a . The pendentives are the s e t t i n g s f o r m y t h o l o g i c a l gods and P e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s ( F i g s . 28-9). The a s s o c i a t i o n between the patrons and the c l a s s i c a l past i s here h e a v i l y under-scored. A sumptuously t h i c k g a r l a n d of twelve kinds of leaves c i r c u m s c r i b e s the top v a u l t area which, r e i n f o r c e d by a b a l u -strade seen a l d i s o t t o i n su, opens t o the sky ( P i g . 30). An octagonal c e i l i n g p a i n t i n g , the Coronation of Charles V -58-at Bologna i n 1530, i s d e p i c t e d as a t a p e s t r y , a t t a c h e d t o the b a l u s t r a d e by d e l i c a t e , f l u t t e r i n g r i b a n d s . The s m a l l e s t room of the s e r i e s , the G a b i n e t t o ( F i g s . 31-2), po s s e s s e s the s i n g u l a r v o l t a a s c h i f o . Room a r e a i s r e d e f i n e d by i l l u s i o n i s t a r c h i t e c t u r e . O r i g i n a l l y , t h e r e were l a n d s c a p e s p a i n t e d i n the g r e a t p a n e l s of the w a l l , which would have man-aged t o a b o l i s h the pr e s e n t c l a u s t r o p h o b i c e f f e c t . C a r y a t i d s , s i m i l a r t o those i n the V a t i c a n Stanza d ' E l i o d o r o , stand t o e i t h e r s i d e of the c o r n e r s . Between them and the no l o n g e r e x t a n t l a n d s c a p e s are narrow, i l l u s i o n i s t n i c h e s , d i s p l a y i n g grand t r o p h i e s of weapons and armour. The room a l s o has an a l c o v e , which i s p r o j e c t e d i n t o an i l l u s i o n i s t balcony, o v e r -l o o k i n g a v a s t l a n d s c a p e . The lower v a u l t i s r e s e r v e d e n t i r e l y f o r g r o t t e s c h i , and i s the most e l a b o r a t e example of these i n the c y c l e ( F i g . 32). The c e n t r a l p a r t of the f o u r s i d e s of the v a u l t d i s p l a y s o v a l m e d a l l i o n s , r e p r e s e n t i n g Pace s e t t i n g f i r e t o a s u i t of armoiir. The lower v a u l t a r e a approaches most c l o s e l y the concept of a Roman i m p e r i a l c e i l i n g , s u b d i v i d e d a c c o r d i n g t o the p r i n c i p l e s of a n t i q u e compartment schemes. Because of the v a u l t c o n s t r u c t i o n , the c e i l i n g p a i n t i n g i n the G a b i n e t t o f i l l s the e n t i r e upper a r e a , w i t h no i n d i c a t i o n of open sky beyond. T h i s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , i s p e r f e c t l y r a t i o n a l , s i n c e the G a b i n e t t o (as i s the next room) i s s i t u a t e d i n the tower t r a c t o f the e a s t wing. The c e i l i n g p a i n t i n g r e p r e s e n t s a church ceremony, p o s s i b l y t h a t performed i n 1509 by C a r d i n a l A l i d o s i , i n which F r a n c e s c o M a r i a was named C a p t a i n G e n e r a l of 56 the Church. I n the f o l l o w i n g two rooms T-the S a l a d e g l i Amorini ( F i g . 33) -59-and the Camera d e l l e f o r z e d i E r c o l e ( F i g . 34) — b o t a n i c a l forms and i l l u s i o n i s t a r c h i t e c t u r e are g i v e n equal r e p r e s e n t -a t i o n . I n the former, the w a l l i s s t i l l e s s e n t i a l l y a s o l i d w a l l , and o n l y the members of i t s framework are a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h t h i c k mouldings and g a r l a n d s of l e a v e s . The c e n t r e of the w a l l i s p e n e t r a t e d by a round-arched doorway, an opening c o n t i n u e d e x t e r n a l l y by a p e r g o l a l e a d i n g i n t o a l a n d s c a p e . C h i a r o s c u r o s t a t u e s i n r e d b r i c k n i c h e s adorn the w a l l space t o e i t h e r s i d e of the openings. The g r o t t e s c h i i n t h i s room have descended from the v a u l t t o the w a l l , where herms stem from c a p i t a l s (most a p p r o p r i a t e l y b a s k e t s of f r u i t ) of l e a f -columns s u r r o u n d i n g the doors. The herms support a f r a g i l e d rapery, which, as a form o n l y , r e c a l l s the swags of l e a f and f r u i t i n the Camera d e i Semibusti ( F i g . 27). C a r e f u l examin-a t i o n r e v e a l s t h a t most of the forms are q u i t e c o n s i s t e n t from room t o room, and o n l y manage t o de c e i v e the eye by metamor-p h o s i n g from one essence t o another. Above the ground l e v e l n i c h e s hang p o r t r a i t ; , ( d e l l a Rovere?) m e d a l l i o n s , e n c i r c l e d by a g a r l a n d of l a u r e l l e a v e s — t h e g l o r y of the p a s t as a s u p e r l a t i v e statement. The s p a n d r e l s , l u n e t t e s and pendentives are f i l l e d w i t h g r o t t e s c h i m o t i f s of generous h a r v e s t . The herms of the w a l l are r e p e a t e d i n the p e n d e n t i v e s , but now s u p p o r t i n g b a s k e t s of f r u i t o r l i t t l e m e d a l l i o n s . L u n e t t e s become the s e t t i n g f o r p u t t i , each shown w i t h a weapon, or a t t r i b u t e of war. However, l i k e C h r e t i e n de T r o i e ' s k n i g h t , Y v a i n , whose r o l e i n l a t e - m e d i -e v a l s o c i e t y had become meaningless, these d e v i c e s of warfare l o s e a l l menacing s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the co n t e x t of v i l l e g i a t u r a , and become the p l a y t h i n g s of p u t t i . -60-The upper v a u l t i s d i v i d e d i n t o one great o v a l m e d a l l i o n , c l e a r l y a v a r i a t i o n on the theme of the Gabinetto v a u l t — a n i l l u s i o n i s t compartment c e i l i n g . Again, any suggestion of open sky i s avoided, s i n c e t h i s room, l i k e the Gabinetto, i s contained i n the tower s e c t i o n . The Camera d e l l e f o r z e d i E r c o l e ( F i g . 34) has, s i m i l a r to the previous room, a great round-arched opening i n the w a l l , although i t i s now a window, r a t h e r than a door. I t l e a d s , i n the same way, through a p e r g o l a to a l a n d and seascape beyond. I n t h i s room, the s o l i d masonry between the openings has been 5 9 r e p l a c e d by I l l u s i o n i s t t a p e s t r i e s . The s u b j e c t s f o r the t a p e s t r i e s are drawn from mythology; s e v e r a l apparently i n -volve Venus and Psyche, but most have not been d e f i n i t e l y i d e n t -i f i e d . Patzak has d e s c r i b e d them thoroughly, ^° but pending a c r i t i c a l examination on my p a r t , I cannot c o n t r i b u t e i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n s . Again, the l u n e t t e s are s e t t i n g s f o r m y t h o l o g i c a l scenes, which i n t h i s case are the deeds of H e r c u l e s . L i k e Venus, goddess of l o v e , Hercules i s an a p p r o p r i a t e f i g u r e f o r Francesco Maria's and Leonora's f r e s c o e s — H e r c u l e s , condemned to the twelve deeds by the h a t r e d of Hera, f u l f i l l e d them an<§ e v e n t u a l l y r e -61 gained a l l h i s r i g h t f u l p o s s e s s i o n s . Hercules, i n con-j u n c t i o n w i t h the motto, f o r t e s c r e a n t u r f o r t i b u s , was f u r t h e r -62 more Francesco Maria's impresa. The spandrels and pendentives are f i l l e d w i t h g r o t t e s c h i , u s i n g the forms w i t h which the guest had a l r e a d y f a m i l i a r i z e d h i m s e l f i n the S a l a d e i Sernibusti ( F i g . 2 7 ) — b i r d s , wheat, more p l a n t s , humanoid forms. One of each p a i r of spandrels provides - 6 1 -a n e l a b o r a t e p a t t e r n o f p l a n t s a n d a n i m a l s t o f r a m e t h e l e t t e r s : F M D V X . V . B o t h t h i s r o o m , a n d t h e p r e v i o u s o n e , h a v e c o n s c i o u s l y c o n s t r u c t e d a n i l l u s i o n i s t b a r r i e r b e t w e e n t h e g u e s t a n d t h e s p a c e b e y o n d . I n t h e C a m e r a d e g l i A m o r i n i ( F i g . 3 3 ) » i t i s a g a r l a n d r u n n i n g t h e p e r i m e t e r o f t h e r o o m , r e q u i r i n g t h e g u e s t t o s t e p o v e r i t b e f o r e h e c o u l d , v i s u a l l y , p r o g r e s s u p t h e s t e p s a n d t h r o u g h t h e p e r g o l a i n t o o p e n s p a c e . I n " t n e C a m e r a d e l l e f o r z e d i E r c o l e ( F i g . 3 4 ) , t h e r o o m i s d e -s i g n e d w i t h a h i g h , i l l u s i o n i s t s o c l e , s e e m i n g l y i n s u r m o u n t -a b l e . I t i s d e c o r a t e d w i t h a s c r o l l w o r k f r i e z e , a n d w i t h m a s -s i v e c o r b e l s d i v i d i n g r e c e s s e d p a n e l s , w h i c h h o l d c h i a r o s c u r o d e s i g n s o f m e n o n h o r s e b a c k . T h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e c e i l i n g i n t h e H e r c u l e s r o o m r e -l a t e s t o t h a t o f t h e C a m e r a d e i S e m i b u s t i ( F i g . 2 7 ) , d i s p l a y -i n g t h e same t h i c k g a r l a n d o f l e a v e s a n d b u n c h e s o f f r u i t a r o u n d t h e v a u l t a p e r t u r e . T h e c e i l i n g f r e s c o , o n c e a g a i n a n a w n i n g s e c u r e d w i t h r i b a n d s , r e p r e s e n t s t h e i n v e s t i t u r e o f F r a n c e s c o M a r i a a s G e n e r a l t o t h e R e p u b l i c o f V e n i c e , a c e r e m o n y p e r f o r m e d 1 5 2 3 b y D o g e G r i t t i . I n t h e S a l a G r a n d e ( F i g s . 3 5 - 6 ) , t h e i l l u s i o n i s t a r c h i t -e c t u r e a b a n d o n s i t s e a r l y l i c e n s e , a n d b e c o m e s a g a i n c l a s s i c a l -l y a u s t e r e . F l u t e d c o r i n t h i a n p i l a s t e r s s u b d i v i d e t h e w a l l s p a c e s , w h i c h , i n t h e l o w e r a r e a s , a r e b a l c o n i e s , l e a d i n g t h e e y e t o l a n d s c a p e s b e y o n d . A b o v e , t h e w a l l s p a c e s b e c o m e r e -c e s s e d p a n e l s f o r e i g h t r i v e r g o d s a n d r e c l i n i n g y o u t h s . T h e s e l e a n o n t h e i r a m p h o r a e o r b o l s t e r s , w i t h t r o p h i e s a n d c o r n u c o p i a e b e s i d e t h e m . A t g r o u n d l e v e l , t w o c h i a r o s c u r o s t a t u e s * s t a n d i n i l l u s i o n i s t n i c h e s o p p o s i t e o n e a n o t h e r . -62-Since t h i s room has a l e v e l , p a n e l l e d c e i l i n g , d e c o r a t e d w i t h the pa t r o n s ' i n i t i a l s and imprese, the d e s i r e t o open t o the sky had t o he r e a l i z e d elsewhere. I n f a c t , above the b a l -c o n i e s rare o v a l a p e r t u r e s , complete w i t h a g a r l a n d c i r c u m -s c r i b i n g i t , and a b a l u s t r a d e a l d i s o t t o i n su ( P i g . 36). The guest has f i n a l l y come t o the S a l a d e l l a C a l u n n i a ( P i g s . 37-40). ^ Through the l a s t seven rooms he was c o n s t a n t -l y reminded of the p a t r o n ' s noble and magnanimous c h a r a c t e r — the scenes of C a r i t a , C a l u n n i a and A p o t e o s i are now compre-h e n s i b l e . L i k e the f i r s t room, the S a l a d e l l a C a l u n n i a s t r e s s e s the i d e a of s o l e m n i t y and a u s t e r i t y . The p l a y f u l m o t i f s of the p r e v i o u s rooms are momentarily f o r g o t t e n as the guest i s in d u c e d t o r e c a l l the i n i t i a l statement of the f r e s c o c y c l e — the G i u r a m e n t o — w h i c h a i d e d F r a n c e s c o M a r i a t o not o n l y r e g a i n h i s r i g h t f u l p l a c e as Duke of U r b i n o , but t o a s p i r e t o even g r e a t e r g l o r i e s , c limaxed i n the A p o t e o s i . The o t h e r two scenes i n the room a r e , as i t were, f o o t n o t e s t o the A p o t e o s i . The C a r i t a can be s p e c i f i c a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d as a r e f e r e n c e t o the C h r i s t i a n c h a r i t y , o r h o s p i t a l i t y , extended by the d e l l a Rovere t o the M e d i c i , when the y were exp u l s e d from F l o r e n c e a t the b e g i n n i n g of the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . T h i s scene en-f o r c e s the statement of the C a l u n n i a f r e s c o , where the i n -j u s t i c e s u f f e r e d by F r a n c e s c o M a r i a , due t o M e d i c i d y n a s t i c 65 p o l i c i e s , i s a l l e g o r i c a l l y suggested. C a r i t a ( F i g . 37), a g e n e r o u s l y p r o p o r t i o n e d l a d y w i t h f o u r c h i l d r e n around her, i s sea t e d on a r a i s e d p l a t f o r m i n the c e n t r e of an o v a l a l c o v e , the s e t t i n g a l s o used f o r the o t h e r two scenes. The guest i s s e p a r a t e d from these by an -63-i l l u s i o n i s t step, and two grand columns s u p p o r t i n g the room a r c h i t r a v e . The o n l y escape appears t o be, "by way of s i d e doors, p a i n t e d i n t o the c o r n e r s of the room, and l e a d i n g t o a landscape ( F i g . 38). They are, perhaps, an i n d i c a t i o n of the doors by which the guest w i l l s h o r t l y e n t e r the f i r s t sunken c o u r t y a r d of the new v i l l a . To e i t h e r s i d e of C a r i t a stand Spes and F i d e s . The C a l u n n i a scene ( F i g . 40) i s composed of e i g h t c e n t r a l f i g u r e s , w i t h P e n i t e n z a on the r i g h t , and V e r i t a on the l e f t . As P a tzak p o i n t e d out, the scene depends on both L u c i a n ' s and A l b e r t i ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f A p e l l e s ' p a i n t i n g . I n De P i c t u r a . L i b e r I I I , A l b e r t i p r o v i d e s the f o l l o w i n g summary: L o d a s i leggendo q u e l l a d i s c r e z i o n e d e l l a C a l u n n i a , quale Luciano r a c c o n t a d i p i n t a da A p p e l l e . Parmi cosa non a l i e n a d a l n o s t r o p r o p o s i t o q u i n a r r a r l a , p e r ammonire i p i t t o r i i n che cose c i r c a a l i a i n v e n -z i o n e l o r o convenga e s s e r e v i g i l a n t i . E r a q u e l l a p i t t u r a uno uomo con sue o r e c c h i e molte gra n d i s s i m e , a p r e s s o d e l quale, una d i qua e una d i l a , stavano due femmine: l ' u n a s i chiamava Ignoranza, 1 ' a l t r a s i chiamava Sospezione. P i u i n l a v e n i v a l a Ca l u n -n i a . Questa e r a una femmina a v e d e r l a b e l l i s s i m a , ma parea n e i v i s o troppo a s t u t a . Tenea n e l l a sua d e s t r a mano una f a c e i n c e s a ; con 1 ' a l t r a mano t r a i n -ava, preso p e ' c a p e l l i , uno g a r z o n e t t o , i l quale stendea suo mani a l t e a l c i e l o . Ed e r a v i uno uomo p a l i d o , b r u t t o , t u t t o l o r d o , con a s p e t t o i n i q u o , quale p o t r e s t i a s s i m i g l i -are a c h i ne'campi d e l l ' a r m ! con lu n g a f a t i c a f u s s e magrito e r i a r s o : c o s t u i e r a g u i d a d e l l a C a l u n n i a , e chiamavasi L i v o r e . Ed erano due a l t r e femmine compagne a l i a C a l u n -n i a , q u a l i a l e i aconciavano s u o i ornamenti e panni: chiamasi l ' u n a I n s i d i e e 1 ' a l t r a Fraude. D i e t r o a queste e r a l a P e n i t e n z a , femmina v e s t i t a d i ves t e f u n -e r a l i , quale s^ s t e s s a t u t t a s t r a c c i a v a . D i e t r o s e g-u i v a una f a n c i u l l e t t a vergognosa e p u d i c a , chiamata V e r i t a . ,,. -64-The climax i s reached i n the A p o t e o s i . Francesco M a r i a k n e e l s b e f o r e a seated l a d y , whom Patzak i d e n t i f i e s as Leonora. ^ She extends him an o l i v e branch, ^ and a t the same time a p u t t o i s crowning h e r w i t h a g a r l a n d of 69 l a u r e l l e a v e s . Abbondanza and Pace, the themes which dominated i n the p r e v i o u s apartments, are here r e p r e s e n t e d i n p e r s o n i f i e d form t o e i t h e r s i d e of the p r i n c i p a l scene. The guest can now proceed through t o the new d e l l a Rovere v i l l a , over the c o n n e c t i n g wing, and down a hidden s t a i r c a s e , t o the f i r s t sunken c o u r t y a r d . -65-Footnotes: Chapter I I 1. See Patzak, p. 8. 2. V a s a r i - M i l a n e s i , v o l . V I , pp. 318-9. 3. I n Georg Gronau, "Die Kunststrebungen der Herzoge von Urbino. I I I . Girolamo Genga und der Bau der V i l l a I m p e r i a l e , " Jahrbuch der p r e u s s i s c h e n Kunstsammlungen, B e i h e f t , v o l . 27, s u p p l . 3, 1906, doc. I . 4. Cf. S. J . Freedberg, P a i n t i n g i n I t a l y : 1500-1600, Harmondsworth, 1971, p. 174, where he s t a t e s the work was begun i n 1524, and t h a t Genga d i e d i n 1531. 5. Cf. Antonio P i n e l l i and O r i e t t a R o s s i , Genga A r c h i t e t t o , Rome, 1971, p. 126. 6. Gronau, doc. I I . 7. I b i d . , docs. I I I - V I I I . 8. See P i n e l l i , p. 124. 9. Gronau, doc. IX. 10. Laura F i l i p p i n i - B a l d a n i , "Francesco Menzocchi. P i t t o r e F o r l i v e s e d e l '500 e l a V i l l a I m p e r i a l e d i Pesaro," Melozzo da F o r l l , v o l . XVI, A p r i l 1938, p; 136. But c f . i b i d . , p. 143, where she t a l k s of the S a l a d e l Giuramento arid the Camera d e g l i Amorini as having been done d u r i n g the f i r s t work phase of 1523-6. - 6 6 -11. Patzak, pp. 12-3; c f . A d o l f o V e n t u r i , S t o r i a d e l l ' a r t e  i t a l i a n a — L a P i t t u r a d e l Cinquecento, v o l . 9. v., M i l a n , 1932, p. 666, and C a r l o A r s e n i , V i l l a I m p e r i a l e a Pesaro  e a l t r e q u e s t i o n i r i g u a r d a n t i 1 ' a t t i v i t a d i Girolamo  a r c h i t e t t o , U r b i n o , 1969, p. 46. 12. See Patzak, pp. 66 and 70. 13. See i b i d . , p. 76, and M a r c h i n i , La V i l l a I m p e r i a l e , p. 12. N e i t h e r , however, a s s o c i a t e them w i t h an e a r l i e r campaign. 14. Gronau, doc. X. 15. I b i d . , doc. X V I I I . 16. Patzak, pp. 11-2. 17. See Amico R i c c i , S t o r i a d e l l ' a r c h i t e t t u r a i n I t a l i a , v o l . I l l , Modena, 1859, p. 127. 18. C f . M a r c h i n i , " I I Problema d e l l ' I m p e r i a l e , " p. 66. 19. Although i t has been assumed (see Patzak, p. 40) t h a t the c o n n e c t i n g wing was not b u i l t u n t i l 1587, P i n e l l i , p. 192, argues t h a t i t a c t u a l l y was b u i l t i n the 1530's when the new v i l l a was b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d . He supports h i s argument w i t h two p o i n t s — i n the S a l a d e l Giuramento i s a view of the V i l l a I m p e r i a l e under c o n s t r u c t i o n , w i t h the b r i d g e c l e a r l y i n c l u d e d ; an e a r l y s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y drawing of the V i l l a I m p e r i a l e , i n the Stephen Spec t o r C o l l e c t i o n , a l s o i n d i c a t e s the c o n n e c t i n g wing.. 20. See a l s o P i n e l l i , p. 127. -67-21. See L. P u n g i l e o n i , E l o g i o s t o r i c o d i R a f f a e l l o da Urbino, Urbino, 1829, pp. 181-2, corresponding note. See a l s o Georgina Masson, I t a l i a n V i l l a s and Pa l a c e s , London, 1959, p. 129; and C r a i g Hugh Smyth, "The Sunken Courts of the V i l l a G i u l l i a and the V i l l a I m p e r i a l e , " Essays i n Memory of K a r l Lehmann, New York, 1964, p. 306, ns. 11 and 12. 22. See P h i l i p F o s t e r , "Raphael on the V i l l a Madama: the t e x t of a l o s t l e t t e r , " Romisches Jahrbuch f u r Kunst-g e s c h i c h t e , v o l . 11, 1967/8, pp. 307-12. 2 3 . Gronau, doc. XXVIII. 24. See a l s o V e n t u r i , v o l . 9. v., p. 668. 25. See a l s o P i n e l l i , p. 127. 26. V a s a r i - M i l a n e s i , v o l . V I , pp. 318-9; see i b i d . , v o l . V, pp. 99-100, f o r more d e t a i l e d account. 27. Patzak, p. 15; see a l s o Thode, p. 173, and V e n t u r i , v o l . 9. v., p. 666. 28. I n both the f r e s c o e s and the d e l l a Rovere v i l l a . See Amalia M e z z e t t i , I I Dosso e B a t t i s t a F e r r a r e s i , F e r r a r a , 1965, pp. 34-5; F e l t o n Gibbons, Dosso and B a t t i s t a D o s s i , P r i n c e t o n , 1968, pp. 20-1; A r s e n i , pp. 16-7 and 24; P i n e l l i , pp. 129 - 3 0 , 137 and 153-5. 29. See J u l i a C a r t w r i g h t , I s a b e l l a d'Este, v o l . I , London, 1932, pp. 76-7. 30. See a l s o P i n e l l i , p. 191. -68-31. Gronau, docs. XXVIIIj XXX; see also Marchini, La V i l l a  Imperiale, p. 29. 32. See Arseni, pp. 11-2; also Ricci, vol. I l l , p. 127. 33. Gronau, doc. XLII; see also ib i d . , docs. XLIII-XLVI. 34. In the Apoteosi fresco, note the two young men kneeling behind Francesco Maria—his sons? 35. See also Mancini, p. 59, and P i n e l l i , pp. 127-9. 36. Masson, p. 129. 37. See P i n e l l i , pp. 127 and 138. 38. As w i l l be discussed in Chapter III,.the approach over the connecting wing i s one of the only two entrances to the della Rovere v i l l a . In fact, the guest was more or less forced to progress through the frescoed apartments before going into the new v i l l a , since the other entrance i s hardly obvious, being far from the main r o a d — i t i s simply a door into the third terrace, or giardino secreto. 39. See John Shearman, "Die Loggia der Psyche in der V i l l a Parnesina und die Probleme der letzten Phase von Raffaels graphischem S t i l , " Jahrbuch der Kunsthistorischen Samm- lungen i n Wien, vol. LX, 1964, pp. 70-1. 40. See David Coffin, The V i l l a d'Este at T i v o l i , Princeton, 1960, p. 91. 41. See Sven Sandstrom,! Levels of unreality, Uppsala, 1963, p. 126; also Shearman, "Die Loggia der Psyche," p. 70. -69-42. See Anthony B l u n t , " I l l u s i o n i s t i c D ecoration i n C e n t r a l I t a l i a n P a i n t i n g of the Renaissance," J o u r n a l of the  Royal S o c i e t y of A r t s , v o l . CVII, A p r i l 1959, pp. 312-3. 43. See a l s o Preedberg, pp. 174-5, and M a r c h i n i , La V i l l a  I m p e r i a l e , pp. 27-9. 44. See Gibbons, p. 81. 45. Por extensive d e s c r i p t i o n , c o n s u l t Patzak, pp. 264-85, and M a n c i n i , pp. 41-3. 46. The p o s s i b i l i t y of a stage w i t h a c u r t a i n , at t h i s time, i s i n d i c a t e d by Gibbons, p. 22, i n reference to A r i o s t o ' s d e s c r i p t i o n i n Orlando f u r i o s o , XXXII, 80; see a l s o M a r c h i n i , La V i l l a I m p e r i a l e , p. 16; but c f . S e i t z , p. 462, where he s t a t e s the drapery i s a modern a d d i t i o n (by Gennari?). 47. See M a r c h i n i , La V i l l a I m p e r i a l e , p. 16. 48. See a l s o P i l i p p i n i - B a l d a n i , p. 142. 49. See i b i d . 50. See P i n e l l i , p. 131, f o r h i s e x p l a n a t i o n . 51. See M a r c h i n i , La V i l l a I m p e r i a l e , p. 16, where he t a l k s of t h i s one as a t a p e s t r y i n s p i r e d by the F a r n e s i n a Sala d i P s i c h e ; see a l s o Preedberg, p. 175. 52. See p. 48, and a l s o n. 34 above. - 7 0 -53. Most thorough d e s c r i p t i o n s are contained i n Patzak, pp. 285-309, and Man c i n i , pp. 47-8. 54. See Patzak, pp. 309-30, and Man c i n i , pp. 49-50. 5 5 . See Patzak, pp. 330-9, and Mancini, p. 5 2 . 5 6 . Cf. E. Monti, D e s c r i z i o n e a r t i s t i c a d e l l e P i t t u r e e s i s -n e l l a V i l l a I m p e r i a l e , Pesaro, 1 8 8 1 , p. 1 1 ; P i l i p p i n i -B a l d a n i , p. 2 4 9 ; and M a r c h i n i , La V i l l a I m p e r i a l e , p. 2 3 , a l l of whom de s c r i b e i t as a ceremony i n which Francesco M a r i a was named Captain of the Republic of F l o r e n c e . 5 7 . See Patzak, pp. 3 3 9 - 4 8 , and Ma n c i n i , pp. 5 2 - 4 . 5 8 . See Patzak, pp. 3 4 8 - 6 7 , and Man c i n i , pp. 5 4 - 5 . 5 9 . See Sandstrdm, pp. 1 2 5 , and 1 2 6 - 7 . 6 0 . Patzak, pp. 3 5 8 - 6 4 . 6 1 . See a l s o V a c c a j , Bergamo, p. 6 8 . 6 2 . H e i n r i c h Wurm, Der Palazzo Massimo a l l e Colonne, B e r l i n , 1 9 6 5 , p. 2 6 3 . Note a l s o the Apoteosi f r e s c o i n the con-t e x t of my i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the c y c l e as a c y c l e — f o r t e s c r e a n t u r f o r t i b u s — t h e m i l i t a r y g l o r y i s to be continued i n h i s descendants. 63. See Patzak, pp. 367-75, and Ma n c i n i , pp. 55-7. 6 4 . See Patzak, pp. 3 7 5 - 9 9 , and Ma n c i n i , pp. 5 7 - 9 . - 7 1 -6 5 . See Thode, pp. 1 7 5 and 1 7 7 ; a l s o P i n e l l i , p. 1 3 4 . 6 6 . Leon B a t t i s t a A l b e r t i , "De P i c t u r a . L i b r o Terzo," Opere V o l g a r i , ed. by C e c i l Grayson, B a r i , 1 9 7 3 , pp. 9 5 - 7 . 6 7 . Patzak, p. 3 8 4 . 6 8 . See P i l i p p i n i - B a l d a n i , pp. 2 5 7 - 8 , where she s t a t e s t h a t t h i s had o r i g i n a l l y been a l i l y , symbol of p u r i f i c a t i o n (from g u i l t ) . 6 9 . Patzak s t a t e s the putto i s crowning Francesco M a r i a . I t i s e n t i r e l y , a p p r o p r i a t e , though, t h a t Leonora should a l s o be acknowledged f o r her r o l e i n Francesco Maria's g l o r i o u s c a r e e r . -72-CHAPTER I I I : THE DELLA ROVERE VILLA IMPERIALE -73-The d e l l a Rovere I m p e r i a l e , b u i l t to the northwest of the S f o r z a v i l l a , i s o r i e n t e d on a south-north a x i s (the S f o r z a v i l l a on an east-west a x i s ) , w i t h the casino at the south, and the gardens extending n o r t h ( F i g s . 2 and 41-4). On i t s east side i t i s j o i n e d to the o l d e r s t r u c t u r e by a connecting wing, and thereby shares w i t h i t a spacious p i a z z a , which l i e s west of the S f o r z a v i l l a , and south of the d e l l a Rovere v i l l a . T h i s connecting arm i s balanced on the west side of the casino by a wing of equal l e n g t h . Immediately t o the n o r t h of the S f o r z a v i l l a , Monte S. B a r t o l o r i s e s i n two steep l e v e l s , which have been u t i l i z e d by the a r c h i t e c t to serve as t e r r a c e s i n the v i l l a - g a r d e n eom-l e x . The p i a z z a shared by the two s t r u c t u r e s i s the lowest l e v e l of the d e l l a Rovere v i l l a , and consequently the one on 2 which the domestic quarter s of the casino are s i t u a t e d . I n a d d i t i o n , the casino has two n o b i l e l e v e l s , of which the f i r s t i s almost one height w i t h the roof l i n e of the Sf o r z a v i l l a . I n s i d e the complex, t h i s piano n o b i l e extends i n t o a c o u r t -yard, or the f i r s t of the three t e r r a c e s . ^ To the n o r t h of the ca s i n o , across and on the same l e v e l as the cour t y a r d , i s a g r o t t o . This f u n c t i o n s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y as the base f o r the second t e r r a c e , a g i a r d i n o p e n s i l e , which i t s e l f i s l e v e l w i t h the second piano n o b i l e of the c a s i n o . F i n a l l y , the n o r t h e r n -most t e r r a c e i s a g i a r d i n o s e c r e t o , b u i l t at the same height as the walkways which surmount the casino and the c o n t a i n i n g w a l l s of the complex. The Urbino papers are once again vague i n the matter of an i n i t i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n date f o r the d e l l a Rovere I m p e r i a l e . I n -74-Chapter I I , i t was poi n t e d out t h a t Francesco M a r i a could a l r e a d y have been t h i n k i n g of a new s t r u c t u r e i n 1522, The theory was f u r t h e r developed t o be one of c o r r e l a t i n g pro-j e c t s , which placed the beginning of the conception of the d e l l a Rovere v i l l a , along w i t h t h a t of the present S f o r z a apartment l a y - o u t , between the years 1524'and 1527. Two l e t t e r s , from 27 January and 12 March 1528, a l r e a d y mention nove f a b r i c h e and nove cose, but do not s p e c i f y the I m p e r i a l e . However, the f i r s t l e t t e r i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y a t -t r a c t i v e one i n t h a t i t mentions l e nove f a b r i c h e i n j u x t a -p o s i t i o n to l e vech i e , and i n tha t sense encourages the view t h a t the two p r o j e c t s were conceived as i n t e r r e l a t e d : 111.ma et Ex.ma S i g . r a et Patrona mia Obs.ma. Esendo t o m a t o da l a E x . t i a d e l Si g . o r Duca a l a quale p o r t a i l a n e c e s s i t a t a l i t i e r a , g i a de m i l l e anni pensava senza dubbio v e n i r e ha V. E x . t i a . Non d i manco a l p r e f a t o I11.mo e parso f a r e q u e l l a p r o v i s i o n e per l a quale v o l e v a v e n i r e a V. E x . t i a p i u mesi sono: La quale p r o v i s i o n e per tempo a v a n t i d e s i d e r a i de avere a spendere quatrocento o cinque c i e n t o scudi de l e sue en t r a t e i n f a b r i c h e et a l t r i o c u r e n t i b i s o g n i e s e r v i t i j s o i ogni anno. Perche non s o l o che non s i possa f i n i r e l e nove f a b r i c h e , ma non s i p6 r i p a r a r e a l e vechie che non rovinano ogni g i o r n o , ne l e quale non v' e s t a n t i e che non v i p i o v a .... Da Urbino a l i XXVIJ de Gienaro 1528. Bon servo Gieronimo Gingha. 5 Patzak does not r e f e r to the above l e t t e r , but uses one from 12 March 1528 i n support of an e a r l y c o n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d . I t i s w r i t t e n by Raphael Hermenzono to Leonora: Hieronimo da Genga mi ha mandato l a qui a l l i g a t a l e t t e r a , et s i e doluto con mi d i haver havuto t a r d i l a l e t t e r a de V. Ex. sopra l a p i c o l e z z a d e l Camarino .... Et perche desegna f a r nove cose e vole m o l t i d i n a r i e d e l l e i n t r a t e d e l Signore, non se pub s a t i s f a r e a questa f a b r i c a .... , -75-The f i r s t s p e c i f i c mention of the d e l l a Rovere Imperiale occurs i n August 1532. I n a l e t t e r w r i t t e n 17 August to Leonora, Genga mentions th a t " L 1 a l t r o giorno s c r i s s i a V. E x . t i a , 7 a longho sopra l a f a b r i c a delo i n p e r i a l e G This document, Patzak w r i t e s , erases the o b s c u r i t y of a l e t t e r from 4 June 1532, i n which Francesco Maria r e g r e t s t h a t he has not r e c e i v e d Genga's l e t t e r d e s c r i b i n g many a r c h i t -e c t u r a l d e t a i l s — i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h a t of 17 August, the r e f e r e n c e s are c l e a r l y t o the I m p e r i a l e : I I p r a e f a t o Gio: antonio c i ha p o r t a t o una l e t t e r a d e l Genga, i l qual ne s c r i v e che con essa c i manda m o l t i d i s s e g n i de f e n e s t r e , colonne et a l t r e cose per l e n o s t r e f a b r i c h e , d i somma importanza et a n o i somma-mente a cuor .... ^ Another l e t t e r , w r i t t e n by Leonora to Leonardi on 8 August 1532, mentions " a l c u n i T e l a r i de i n v e t r i a t i d e l l a casa d e l I m p e r i a l e " which have been r u i n e d by a storm and must be r e -p a i r e d . The above l e t t e r s r e v e a l t h a t , by 1532, the d e l l a Rovere Imperiale was advanced to the stage of r e q u i r i n g colonne and other a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e c o r a t i o n , as w e l l as T e l a r i de i n v e t r i -a t i . I t i s known t h a t work proceeded very s l o w l y on the V i l l a I m p e r i a l e , due not only to the d i f f i c u l t t e r r a i n , but a l s o to 11 the frequent l a c k of funds to pay work crews and m a t e r i a l s . From t h i s p o i n t of view, i t i s reasonable to consider the nove  f a b r i c h e , mentioned i n 1528, as indeed r e f e r r i n g t o the I m p e r i a l e . My d a t i n g does not correspond w i t h t h a t of Patzak, who s t a t e s t h a t Genga may a l r e a d y have had the plans f o r the new v i l l a i n e c 13 12 mind by 1528, but t h a t he d i d not undertake any a c t u a l con-s t r u c t i o n work u n t i l 1530. A l s o i n terms of i t s l a t e r chronology, the V i l l a I mperiale presents an i n t e r e s t i n g , complicated problem. I t was never completed under Francesco M a r i a I's b u i l d i n g programme. The l a s t document from t h a t p e r i o d concerning i t , i s a l e t t e r of 24 J u l y 1 5 3 8 — i t r e f e r s t o a payment of 400 scudi t o Genga 14 f o r the I m p e r i a l e . A f t e r Francesco M a r i a died i n October 1538, u n t i l the end of the eighteenth century, at which time i t was occupied by Spanish and Portuguese J e s u i t s , the v i l l a was subjected t o a d d i t i o n s , unfortunate a d a p t a t i o n s , and simple n e g l e c t . Francesco Maria's son, Guidobaldo I I , i n v e s t e d h i s money i n wars against the Pope, and a p p a r e n t l y was l e f t w i t h no funds to continue b u i l d i n g the V i l l a I m p e r i a l e . I n 1587, Guidobaldo's son, Frances'co M a r i a I I , recorded t h a t " s i e congiunta l a casa 15 v e c c h i a con l a nuova con l e s c a l e che vanno da a l t o a basso." Whether or not t h i s r e f e r s t o the connecting wing has been ques-t i o n e d . As was p o i n t e d out i n Chapter I I , P i n e l l i g i v e s a con-v i n c i n g argument t h a t the wing was b u i l t contemporaneously. The Imperiale passed to the M e d i c i i n 1631, at which p o i n t a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of the v i l l a was drawn up f o r V i t t o r i a d e l l a Rovere. One reads t h a t " n e i 2.° piano sono n.° 15 stanze ornate 16 parte con s t u c c h i q u a l i patono notabilmente d a l humido ...." The Loraines a c q u i r e d the p r o p e r t y i n 1737, but l e f t i t to decay. I n 1763, Clement X I I I gave i t to the J e s u i t s , who remained there u n t i l the end of t h a t century. The A l b a n i were awarded the p r o p e r t y i n 1777 by P i u s VI, and a major r e s t o r a -t i o n programme was i n i t i a t e d by t h i s f a m i l y i n the 1880's. I t remains i n the A l b a n i f a m i l y to date. -77-One presumes t h a t the V i l l a I mperiale was to be completed as Genga and Francesco M a r i a I had intended i t . Late n i n e t e e n t h and e a r l y t w e n t i e t h century drawings and photographs i n d i c a t e t h a t the p r i n c i p a l areas of i n c o m p l e t i o n were on the south facade. The c e n t r a l s e c t i o n had to be surfaced, and the west 17 p r o j e c t i n g wing completed i n i t s upper s t o r e y . The two facades (east and west) of the connecting wing are e n t i r e l y devoid of a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e c o r a t i o n , the surface broken only by two windows, one above the other ( F i g . 45). The great entrance arch, however, had r e c e i v e d the same a r t i c u l a -t i o n as the south facade of the casin o , at ground l e v e l . The a r c h i t r a v e of the lower p i e r s , and the s o c l e pediment of the piano nobile,windows and n i c h e s , are c a r r i e d over t o both s i d e s of the connecting b r i d g e . I n view of t h i s , i s i t not reason-able t o assume th a t these facades were intended to continue the composition of the casino south facade, as w e l l as that of the p r o j e c t i n g west wing, which would be seen as one came through 18 the arch? I n f a c t , F r a n c i s c o da Hollanda, i n h i s drawing of the I m p e r i a l e , decorates the facade of the bridge i n p r e c i s e l y t h i s manner.(Fig. 46). The i n s p i r a t i o n to b u i l d the d e l l a Rovere v i l l a had un-doubtedly come from Rome. There, s i m i l a r v i l l a - g a r d e n p r o j e c t s were e a g e r l y supported by great s i x t e e n t h century patrons. Ref-erences t o , and p a r a l l e l s between the V i l l a I mperiale and the Belvedere, F a r n e s i n a and V i l l a Madama have f r e q u e n t l y been made. One remembers, i n p a r t i c u l a r , Francesco Maria's i n t e r e s t i n the l a t t e r v i l l a , t e s t i f i e d by h i s request f o r a copy of Raphael's d e s c r i p t i v e l e t t e r . -78-The p r e s t i g i o u s name of these Roman v i l l a s i s sometimes awesome enough t o eraseaany q u e s t i o n of i n f l u e n c e from another source. I t would he a most f a c i l e , and unf o r t u n a t e , presump-t i o n , however, to say tha t the Im p e r i a l e depended e x c l u s i v e l y from such Roman prot o t y p e s . Rather, the Roman i n s p i r a t i o n must share the l i g h t w i t h an a r c h i t e c t u r a l t r a d i t i o n t h a t , about f o u r decades e a r l i e r , had i n f l u e n c e d Rome i t s e l f — i n essence, i t i s the Urbinate-Sienese b u i l d i n g s t y l e of l u c i a n o 21 da Laurana and of Francesco d i G i o r g i o . As Frommel p o i n t s 22 out, t h i s was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the f i r s t Roman Renaissance v i l l a , i n the narrower sense of the w o r d — t h e Belvedere of Innocent V I I I . I n order t o be comprehended, and c r i t i c a l l y a p p r e c i a t e d , the a r c h i t e c t u r e of the V i l l a I m p e r i a l e must f i r s t of a l l be seen as a confluence of the Romanized Urbino-Siena t r a d i t i o n , and of the d i r e c t Urbinate h e r i t a g e of Girolamo Genga, the de s i g n i n g a r c h i t e c t . The experiences of Genga i n Rome, h i s awareness of, and a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h , the c i r c l e s of Bramante and Raphael, d o u b t l e s s l y had a d e c i s i v e i n f l u e n c e on him. But i t would be i n c o r r e c t t o regard i t as formative t o the po i n t of e x c l u d i n g h i s own e a r l y a r t i s t i c experiences and a r c h i t e c t -23 u r a l h e r i t a g e . The debts t o Rome, Bramante and Raphael are most evident i n terms of Genga 1s storehouse of m o t i f s and a r c h i t e c t u r a l vocabulary; the syntax i s h i s own. An a n a l y s i s of the V i l l a I m p e r i a l e i s complicated (or enriched) by the f a c t t h a t t h i s i s Genga's f i r s t major a r c h i t -e c t u r a l p r o j e c t . As court a r c h i t e c t i n the s e r v i c e of Francesco M a r i a , he had been i n i t i a l l y engaged mainly on r e s t o r a t i o n s , -79-r e p a i r s , and modernizations of h i s e s t a t e s . Although h i s t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s may have been given adequate scope here, s u r e l y h i s c r e a t i v e s p i r i t would n e c e s s a r i l y have been r e -s t r a i n e d . T h i s c r e a t i v e genius, however, was a c l e a r l y de-f i n e d one; and one which enabled him t o handle the i n h e r i t e d vocabulary i n a new and e x c i t i n g manner. Genga's e a r l y t r a i n i n g had been as a p a i n t e r i n the st u d i o s of S i g n o r e l l i and Perugino, where he acquired p a r t i c -u l a r s k i l l i n the a r t of p e r s p e c t i v e p a i n t i n g . During h i s e a r l y years i n Urbino, t h i s t a l e n t was a p p l i e d to d e s i g n i n g f u r n i s h i n g f o r mascherati and tr i u m p h a l m arches—a very e l a b -orate one began i n 1509 w i t h the wedding f e a s t of Francesco Maria and Leonora, and culminated i n Rome d u r i n g the c a r n i v a l 24 of the f o l l o w i n g year. However, at t h a t time, Genga's primary occupation at the court of Urbino was the d e s i g n i n g of stage s e t s , and of other p e r t i n e n t p a r a p h e r n a l i a of the t h e a t r e . I t i s p o s s i b l e , as 25 P i n e l l i argues, t h a t Genga had been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the scenography of Bibbiena's C a l a n d r i a , the themes of w h i c h — l o v e expels war, b r i n g s concordance—are c l e a r l y r e i t e r a t e d i n the Sf o r z a v i l l a f r e s c o e s . Genga's background, then, made him an admirably s u i t a b l e choice f o r the designer of the I m p e r i a l e . I t s f u n c t i o n , a f t e r 26 a l l , was t o be a backdrop f o r the court of Urbino. I t con-27 t a i n e d no l i v i n g q u a r t e r s per se. Indeed, the S f o r z a v i l l a was the one to be i n h a b i t e d on these occasions, while the new v i l l a provided the many pleasur e s and entertainments. This i s p r e c i s e l y s t a t e d i n a l e t t e r w r i t t e n by Bernardo Tassoto - 8 0 -Vincenzo Laureo: I I P alazzo e d i v i s o i n due p a r t i , l'una f a t t a da que'Signori d i casa S f o r z e s c a che l o possedevano prima, ma agg r a n d i t a d a l l a g l o r i o s a memoria d e l detto P r i n c i p e ; 1 ' a l t r a f a b b r i c a t a da l u i , N e l l a parte vec-eh i a , come p i u sana, piena d i molte stanze, v i sono f r a g l i a l t r i duo appartamenti, uno d e ' q u a l i , dov'e una gran camera t u t t a f o d e r a t a d i t a v o l e , mi pare comodissimo per S . S i g . I l l u s t r i s s i m a : l a parte nova, ancor che non s i a f i n i t a , e piena d i stanze (benche p i c c o l e ) ben compartite .... ^ g Was Francesco Maria's choice of Genga a d e l i b e r a t e and conscious one? The p r o x i m i t y of the dates of Genga's l e t t e r of i n t r o d u c t i o n (4 August 1522), and of C a s t i g l i o n e 1 s r e p l y to the Duke's request f o r Raphael's V i l l a Madama l e t t e r (13 August 1522) c e r t a i n l y encourages t h i s view. Since Genga had been i n the s e r v i c e of Francesco Maria before the Duke's e x p u l s i o n i n 1516, he would have been p e r f e c t l y aware of Genga's p a r t i c u l a r t a l e n t s and p o t e n t i a l s . As V a s a r i s t a t e s : I n questo tempo, morto i l duca Guido, e successo Francesco Maria duca t e r z o d'Urbino, f u da l u i r i -chiamato da Roma e c o n s t r e t t o a r i t o r n a r e a Urbino i n quel tempo c h e ' l predetto duca t o l s e per moglie e menb n e i s t a t o Leonora Gonzaga f i g l i u o l a d e l mar-chese d i Mantova, a da Sua E c c e l l e n z a f u adoperato i n f a r a r c h i t r i o n f a l i , a p p a r a t i e scene d i commedie; che t u t t o f u da l u i tanto ben or d i n a t o e messo i n opera, che Urbino s i poteva a s s i m i g l i a r e a una Roma t r i o n f a n t e : onde ne r i p o r t b fame e onore grandissimo. ^ The f a c t t h a t there had been an e a r l i e r (1523) d e c o r a t i v e campaign i n the S f o r z a v i l l a , which was subsequently abandoned, need not i n v a l i d a t e the theory t h a t Francesco Maria had a l r e a d y intended from the s t a r t to Have Genga create such a s e t t i n g f o r h i s c o u r t . I t simply means t h a t not u n t i l a f t e r 1523 d i d the -81-patrons conceive of a synthetiiecprogramme. Why, i f not f o r the i m p l i e d reason, would Francesco Maria h i r e as a r c h i t e c t an a r t i s t who p r e v i o u s l y had been e s s e n t i a l l y a p a i n t e r ? ^ The key to the r o l e , or purpose, of the V i l l a I mperiale i s provided by the entrances and accesses, both i n t o and t h r o u g h o u t — t h e s e are n e c e s s a r i l y l i m i t e d and inapparent, but a l s o c a l c u l a t e d and compulsory. 3 ^ The confusing s i t u a -t i o n becomes apparent as soon as one s u b j e c t s the v i l l a com-32 p l e x t o a c l o s e s c r u t i n y . In terms of both groundplan and e l e v a t i o n , the south f a -cade of the d e l l a Rovere Imp e r i a l e i s the p r i n c i p a l one. I t i s the facade of the casino exposed to the c o u n t r y s i d e ; indeed, i t i s the only p a r t of the new v i l l a t h a t could, from a s i n g l e vantage p o i n t (the v i n e y a r d and lands t o the south), be seen by the e x t e r n a l w o r l d — a f o r e s t surrounds the s t r u c t u r e on the remaining three s i d e s ( F i g . 2 ) . The south facade i s worthy of being s e e n — f i v e massive bays a r t i c u l a t e the middle t r a c t at ground l e v e l . Each t e r m i n -ates i n a s e m i c i r c u l a r n i c h e , c o f f e r e d as i s the bay v a u l t . Access from one bay t o the next i s by way of small archways cut i n t o t h e i r s i d e s ( F i g . 41). On the piaiino n o b i l e , the d i v i s i o n i n t o f i v e i s continued by the v e r t i c a l e x t e n s i o n of the bay p i e r s i n t o doubled p i l a s t -e r s . The f i v e f i e l d s thus created are given over to t r i a n g u l a r pedimented windows at e i t h e r end, and three niches i n the cent-r a l f i e l d s ( F i g . 41). 3 3 The m o t i f s Genga employs i n the facade r e v e a l h i s i n d e b t -edness to both Rome and Bramante. The s i m i l a r i t y between the great c o f f e r e d bays at ground l e v e l , and such as are found i n the B a s i l i c a of Constantine or the Baths of C a r a c a l l a , i s too obvious t o be more than mentioned. I t i s from Bramante th a t Genga learned how to handle the w a l l s u r f a c e — i t s p o t e n t i a l p l a s t i c i t y i s here f u l l y e x p l o r e d . Not only the lower arcade c o n t r i b u t e s to a c o n t r a p u n t a l game of l i g h t and shade, but a l s o the niches i n the piano n o b i l e . The s o l i d w a l l i t s e l f p a r t i c i p a t e s i n a more s u b t l e way, i n t h a t Geng<a has pared away surface l a y e r s , d e f i n i n g the spaces between a r c h i t e c t u r a l members, such as p i e r s , as e i t h e r recessed or r a i s e d panels ( F i g . 48). One has, i n f a c t , an extremely f i n e l y modelled facade, w i t h no entrance, and only two windows f o r a great expanse of 34 w a l l . The v i s i t o r to the V i l l a I m p e r i a l e , i t w i l l be r e -membered, would take the road l e a d i n g to the tower entrance of the S f o r z a v i l l a ( F i g . 47), walk across the c o r t i l e , and ascend by way of the west s t a i r t o the decorated apartments. E v e n t u a l l y , he would cross over t o the new v i l l a , by way of the connecting b r i d g e , and f i n d h i m s e l f i n the courtyard of the d e l l a Rovere I m p e r i a l e . During t h i s p r o c e s s i o n , he would not once have caught a glimpse of the casino's south facade. I t i s not v i s i b l e on the approach to the S f o r z a v i l l a ( F i g . l ) . The rooms, a l s o , do not provide a view, s i n c e they are l o c a t e d i n the south, east, and p a r t i a l l y i n the n o r t h , wings. A view from a n o r t h window, however, would be blocked by the connecting wing ( F i g . 17). The access to the p i a z z a before the casino i s e q u a l l y 35 impressive — t h e connecting bridge between the two v i l l a s has, at ground l e v e l , an arch i d e n t i c a l to the bays on the -83-casino facade. Through t h i s archway one can see a s i m i l a r bay on the east facade of the west p r o j e c t i n g arm. The i n v i t a -t i o n to pass through, the promise of an a t t r a c t i v e and e x c i t i n g a r c h i t e c t u r e once one enters the next space, i s very t e m p t i n g — but t o what purpose, since the guest h i m s e l f does not a r r i v e there? This question can, I t h i n k , be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y answered by attempting to d i s c o v e r the f u n c t i o n of i t s s e t t i n g , which, to my knowledge, has not been done before. At t h i s time, i t was not only expedient, but a l s o very popular, t o have a l a r g e s t a b l e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the v i l l a . Whereas i n the E a r l y Renaissance such s t r u c t u r e s were b u i l t as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the v i l l a , i n the s i x t e e n t h century they become a separate, but s t i l l important, p a r t of the complex. In order to give ae-clearer impression of the s c a l e and r o l e of such s t a b l e s , one can recount a number of examples contemporary w i t h the V i l l a I m p e r i a l e . Agostino C h i g i was s a i d t o be a connoisseur of horses, and t o keep a l a r g e and f i n e s t a b l e . When he commissioned the F a r n e s i n a , he a l s o planned a s c u d e r i a , but had to wait u n t i l 1510 to purchase the adjacent piece of la n d on which to b u i l d i t . Although i t was i n complete r u i n by 1808, the remaining foundations, and r e l e v a n t a r c h i t e c t u r a l drawings, i n d i c a t e i t had been a s t r u c t u r e no l e s s magnificent than the 37 P a r n e s i n a . The s t a b l e s of C a r d i n a l G i u l i o de'Medici's V i l l a Madama are c a r e f u l l y and e l a b o r a t e l y d e s c r i b e d i n Raphael's l e t t e r : Questo hypodramo ha da un l a t o t u t t o l o e d i f i t i o p(er) l u g e z z a et da l a t r o s t a l l e p ( er) 400 c a v a l l j eq(ue)ste -84-s t a l l o fanno argine et speronj asostenere i l piano e t u t t a l a lunghezza d(e) hypodramo e l i c a v a l l j volghano l a t e s t a •.y. a l e v a ( n ) t e & Greco come l a t r o e d i f i t i o et p o s s e l j dare laqua p(er) t u t t e l e mangiatoie. ^g Fed e r i c o Gonzaga, perhaps the most reputed breeder of horses of t h i s p e r i o d , requested G i u l i o Romano to b u i l d him a v i l l a near h i s s t a b l e s i n Mantua: ... e montato che G i u l i o v i f u sopra se n'andarono f u o r i d e l l a p o r t a d i San Ba s t i a n o , lontano un t i r o d i b a l e s t r a , dove sua E c c e l l e n z a aveva un luogo e c e r t e s t a l l e , chiamato i l T, i n mezzo a una p r a t e r i a , dove teneva l a r a z z a de'suoi c a v a l l i e c a v a l l e : e q u i v i a r r i v a t i , d i s s e i l marchese che arebbe v o l u t o , senza guastare l a muraglia v e c c h i a , accomod-are un poco d i luogo da p o t e r v i andare .... Since both Leonora's f a t h e r (Francesco), and her b r o t h e r ( F e d e r i c o ) , possessed such famed s t a b l e s , i t i s not a l t o g e t h e r u n l i k e l y t h a t the f e r v o u r would c a r r y over t o Leonora h e r s e l f , 40 i f i t were not a l r e a d y w e l l imbued i n Francesco Maria. I n the V i l l a I m p e r i a l e , the s t a b l e s are a part of the Sf o r z a s t r u c t u r e . T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the two i d e a l s — an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the e a r l y v i l l a , yet separate from the l a t e r s t r u c t u r e . S i t u a t e d beneath the S f o r z a v i l l a proper, the s c u d e r i a occupies two l a r g e rooms i n the southern t r a c t , to e i t h e r side of a main c e n t r a l entrance ( F i g . 41). Not i n -cluded i n the S f o r z a v i l l a , however, i s a c a v a l l e r i z z a , or open area f o r e x e r c i s i n g and d i s p l a y i n g the horses. The p i a z z a to the south of the casino i s i d e a l l y s u i t e d t o t h i s purpose. The horses are l e d out from the s t a b l e , around the east side of the v i l l a , and f i n a l l y up a ramp to the ground f l o o r l e v e l . They are then r i d d e n through the archway of the connecting wing, i n t o the p i a z z a . The e x e r c i s i n g horses are confined t o t h i s area, no entrance i n t o the v i l l a i s wanted i n the south facade. The - 8 5 -guests could watch from the walkways on the roof of the c a s i n o — p r e c i s e l y the a c t i v i t y recorded i n F r a n c i s c o da Hollanda* s drawing ( F i g . 4 6 ) . An examination of the a r c h i t e c t u r e of the south facade should provide f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t i o n f o r t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n . Of primary importance i s to f i n d a precedent f o r such a facade, p r e f e r a b l y i n terms of a s c u d e r i a . T h i s , I b e l i e v e , can be achieved by re f e r e n c e , once more, t o the Fa r n e s i n a . The ground-p l a n of the Fa r n e s i n a , and the Imper i a l e c a s i n o , are based on a Roman v i l l a t y p e — a n oblong c e n t r a l space f l a n k e d by two wings. 41 C h i g i ' s s c u d e r i a was b u i l t a c c o r d i n g to the same p l a n . Frommel's r e c o n s t r u c t i o n provides i t w i t h a west ( s t r e e t ) facade, composed of seven bays, or compartments, and defined by s e t s of double p i l a s t e r s . The s i m i l a r h i g h a t t i c over the piano n o b i l e of the Fa r n e s i n a s c u d e r i a and of the Imp e r i a l e south facade has al r e a d y been noted by Wurm. The east (garden) facade of the Far n e s i n a s t a b l e s had two p r o j e c t i n g wings, presumably reducing the number of compartments i n the c e n t r a l east facade to f i v e . Although the ground f l o o r had no windows opening on to the s t r e e t , i n the east facade t h i s l e v e l i s i d e n t i f i e d by Frommel as a L i c h t h o f — t h a t i s , open t o the l i g h t , c o n c e i v a b l y by means of an arcade. We are u n f o r t u n a t e l y prevented from knowing e x a c t l y how clos e the formal j u x t a p o s i t i o n of these two facades i s , since one no longer e x i s t s , except i n a part of i t s foundation. How-ever, a p o s s i b l e c o n f i r m a t i o n i s provided by G i u l i o Romano's c a v a l l e r i z z a of the Palazzo Ducale at Mantua. I t was begun 1538-9, but completed by him i n only one wing. There, i n G i u l i o 1 s - 8 6 -south w a l l , one f i n d s a s i m i l a r d i s p o s i t i o n of a r c h i t e c t u r a l e l e m e n t s — a n arcaded ground f l o o r , and a piano n o b i l e w i t h a 4 3 h i g h p i l a s t e r base. Another p o i n t of contact: i s i t s t r i c t l y a coincidence t h a t the wing of the I m p e r i a l e , over-l o o k i n g the c o u n t r y s i d e , and the wing of the c a v a l l e r i z z a , open-i n g onto the l a k e , both possess a tr i u m p h a l arch m o t i f window, which at tha t time was not a commonly used form ( F i g . 4 8 ) ? ^ Although i n terms of groundplan, the south p i a z z a i s l o g i c a l l y the f i r s t p a r t of the v i l l a t o d i s c u s s , i n a c t u a l experience i t i s one of the l a s t s u r p r i s e s f o r the v i s i t o r , s i n c e he can see i t only when he has reached the top l e v e l of the v i l l a , and l o o k s down from the casino ( F i g . 4 9 ) . I n s t e a d , h i s f i r s t a r c h i t e c t u r a l experience i s of the lowest t e r r a c e , or sunken c o u r t y a r d . As de s c r i b e d i n the previous chapter, the guest enters t h i s a f t e r p a s s i n g from the S f o r z a v i l l a a p a r t -ments, through the connecting wing, i n t o the d e l l a Rovere cas-ino . H is entrance i s h a r d l y g rand—he merely s l i p s u n o b t r u s i v e -l y from the opening i n the east convex corner of the sunken courtyard ( F i g . 50). But he has been, f o r e w a r n e d — i n the l a s t S f o r z a apartment, the i l l u s i o n i s t w a l l a r c h i t e c t u r e provides a s i m i l a r modest and unexpected e x i t i n the corner ( F i g . 3 8 ) . I n the same way tha t the south facade l a c k s an a n t i c i p a t e d entrance i n t o the v i l l a , the sunken co u r t y a r d n e g l e c t s to pro-v i d e an obvious access t o the gardens which can be seen over-head. Such w a l l openings as are immediately comprehended by the v i s i t o r , i n i t i a l l y s t i l l f a i l to s a t i s f y h i s e x p e c t a t i o n s . I n the south w a l l i s an arcaded l o g g i a ( F i g s . 51-2) which has, at e i t h e r end of an oblong i n t e r i o r , a door l e a d i n g to f o u r - 8 7 -v a r i o u s l y shaped s m a l l apartments, disposed i n i d e n t i c a l a r -rangement to e i t h e r s i d e of the main oblong room ( F i g s . 17 and 43). Across the courtyard i s a g r o t t o ( F i g s . 53-4), having a c e n t r a l area w i t h f o u n t a i n and s k y l i g h t , and two bathrooms to e i t h e r s i d e . The door through which the guest came from the S f o r z a v i l l a i s s i t u a t e d i n the east corner of the c o u r t y a r d , and, as a m o t i f , i s repeated i n the other three corners. How-ever, i n both corners of the n o r t h ( g r o t t o ) w a l l , the door i s a c t u a l l y a sunken panel ( F i g . 54); i n the opposite corner of the south ( l o g g i a ) w a l l , i t i s open, as i s the f i r s t entrance d i s c u s s e d . But the guest has d i f f i c u l t y d e c i d i n g , at f i r s t glance, whether these m o t i f s are only an i n t e g r a l p a r t of Genga's w a l l a r t i c u l a t i o n , c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the p l a y of l i g h t and shade, or whether they a c t u a l l y provide access t o the space beyond. In f a c t , the two short w a l l s of the courtyard house the s t a i r s l e a d i n g to the g i a r d i n o p e n s i l e above the g r o t t o ( F i g s . 53 and 55). The s t a i r s can be reached from the southern east and west doors, as w e l l as from the a i s l e s l o c a t e d immediately behind the facade of the g r o t t o . As was mentioned above, the d e l l a Rovere Imperiale was intended as the s e t t i n g f o r the many entertainments of the Duke of Urbino's c o u r t . By narrowing down the broad term 'entertainment', to the more s p e c i f i c one of ' t h e a t r e ' , i t becomes c l e a r t h a t whether or not the sunken courtyard was d e l i b e r a t e l y intended t o be f u n c t i o n a l f o r such an a c t i v i t y , the design of i t was c e r t a i n l y i n f l u e n c e d by Genga's e a r l i e r career m scenography. The generous p r o p o r t i o n s of the casino l o g g i a are e x p l a i n e d by P i n e l l i as the r e q u i r e d space f o r t h e a t r i c a l productions -88-( F i g s . 51-2). ^ I t a l s o served as an a i r y and shaded room f o r meals, i n which case the guests could l o o k across the 47 c o u r t y a r d and see the g r o t t o w a l l — t h i s , as Patzak and 48 Coolidge a l r e a d y noted, i s designed i n accordance w i t h 49 the V i t r u v i a n p r i n c i p l e s of a Roman scaena f r o n s . As would be the case i n a r e a l t h e a t r e , the passages and c o r -r i d o r s are concealed. The short ends of the sunken c o u r t -yard are described by P i n e l l i as corresponding to the wings 50 of a stage. The great c e n t r a l entrance of the g r o t t o be-comes the v a l v a r e g i a ( P i g . 53), which could be reached by way of the narrow c o r r i d o r s behind the g r o t t o w a l l . At p r e s -ent there are secondary e n t r a n c e s — v a l v a e h o s p i t a l i u m ( P i g . 5 4 ) — t o the r i g h t and l e f t of the main one, but Patzak ques-t i o n s whether or not they are p a r t of Genga 1s design, s i n c e 51 Buonamici omits them i n h i s e l e v a t i o n of the c o u r t y a r d . Patzak has suggested t h a t , i n p l a n n i n g the l a y - o u t of the gardens and t e r r a c e s , Genga has kept i n mind the c o n s t r u c -t i o n of the ducal palaces at Urbino and Gubbio, both of which 52 would have been f a m i l i a r to him. The most obvious j u x t a p o s i t i o n i s w i t h the Gubbio p a l a c e . There, as at Pesaro, the a r c h i t e c t u r a l u n i t i n v o l v e s f o u r t e r -r aces, or l e v e l s . The p r i n c i p a l l i v i n g q uarters are contained i n the f i r s t , or n o b i l e , l e v e l i n both s t r u c t u r e s . S i m i l a r l y , both have, at the lowest l e v e l — b e n e a t h the piano n o b i l e — t h e domestic and storage q u a r t e r s . The main l o n g i t u d i n a l room of both b u i l d i n g s leads i n t o a c o u r t y a r d . Across t h i s c o r t i l e , one has, at Gubbio, a w a l l w i t h a f o u n t a i n n i c h e ; at Pesaro, a g r o t t o . Whereas i n the V i l l a I m periale the g r o t t o w a l l sup--89-p o r t s a hanging garden, i n the Gubbio Palazzo Ducale i t sup-p o r t s the f o u r t h s i d e of the n o b i l e l e v e l . Both at Pesaro and Gubbio the f i n a l t e r r a c e i s a garden, although at Gubbio i t a l s o i n c l u d e s another t r a c t of rooms. The e n g i n e e r i n g p r i n c i p l e s a p p l i e d i n the complicated system of t e r r a c i n g at Urbino no doubt provided Genga w i t h many f u r t h e r s o l u t i o n s to problems encountered due to the d i f f i c u l t t e r r a i n at Pesaro. However, I should l i k e to sug-gest t h a t Genga looked to the Urbino palace f o r more than j u s t c o n s t r u c t i o n methods. The f o u r convex corners of the V i l l a I m p e r i a l e sunken co u r t y a r d have u s u a l l y been considered remarkable i n t h e i r context. Such round 'towers' are not unique per se — o n e has seen them, as t u r r e t s , i n Raphael's plans of the V i l l a Madama. Ne v e r t h e l e s s , round 'towers' as s e m i c i r c u l a r convex corners are seen most d i s t i n c t l y i n the 53 g i a r d i n o p e n s i l e of the Urbino ducal palace ( P i g . 56). Can t h i s be considered Genga's prototype? C l i m b i n g up the s t a i r s , hidden i n the east and west w a l l s of the Impe r i a l e sunken c o u r t y a r d , the v i s i t o r a r r i v e s a t i t h e g i a r d i n o p e n s i l e ( P i g s . 2, -142, f 53 and 55). I n s i z e , i t i s the same as the g r o t t o area i t covers, and s i m i l a r l y the sunken cou r t y a r d below i t . I t had three f o u n t a i n s , which r e c e i v e d t h e i r water supply from the r e s e r v o i r s i t u a t e d behind the 54 g r o t t o . I n a d d i t i o n , t h i s garden was decorated w i t h numer-ous ornamental p l a n t s . As Mancini d e s c r i b e s i t : "Sopra l e v o l t e i n s i s t e un g i a r d i n o a f i o r i con t r e fontane contornato da verdissime s p a l l i e r e d i agrumi, e da s t u d i a t i meandri ed 55 a j u o l e . " -90-The f i n a l t e r r a c e — a g i a r d i n o s e c r e t o — s u r p a s s e s i n s i z e any of the previous spaces considered s i n g l y ( F i g s . 2 and 42). The garden i s e n c i r c l e d by h i g h w a l l s on three s i d e s , which i n the northern east and west corners extend i n t o b a s t i o n - l i k e s e m i c i r c l e s . I n the centre of the n o r t h w a l l i s a gate, the second entrance i n t o the V i l l a I m p e r i a l e . The garden i t s e l f i s p a r t i t i o n e d i n t o f o u r r e c t a n g u l a r p l o t s , w i t h two paths on cross a x i s , f u n c t i o n i n g as the d i v i d i n g l i n e . This l a s t t e r r a c e was a l s o f i l l e d w i t h a r i c h v a r i e t y of p l a n t s , some imported 56 from other g e o g r a p h i c a l regions of I t a l y . As d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , the means of ascending from one t e r r a c e to the next i n v o l v e the element of s u r p r i s e . On the other hand, the s i g h t encountered on each l e v e l does not, since the suggestion of b e a u t i f u l gardens was evident a l r e a d y i n the 57 sunken co u r t y a r d , w i t h i t s two f o u n t a i n s and l a u r e l t r e e s . .' In--the context of the f i r s t two t e r r a c e s , t h e r e f o r e , the g i a r d i n o secreto a c t s as a l o g i c a l c u l m i n a t i o n of the progres-s i o n from the lowest to the hi g h e s t l e v e l s . As such, i t i s a s a t i s f y i n g c u l m i n a t i o n of the a e s t h e t i c experiences, which com-menced i n the S f o r z a v i l l a apartments, and continued i n the d e l l a Rovere I m p e r i a l e . I n other words, i t i s the experience of the v i s i t o r by way of the f i r s t entrance i n t o the V i l l a I mperiale complex. I f , however, he were t o encounter, or re-encounter, the v i l l a from the second e n t r a n c e — t h e c e n t r a l p o r t a l i n the n o r t h garden w a l l — h e would experience what i s e s s e n t i a l l y a r e v e r s a l , or negation, of the v i l l a s p a t i a l u n i t s , such as they e x i s t . I t w i l l be remembered th a t i n the sunken co u r t y a r d , the -91-v i s i t o r could see q u i t e p l a i n l y the l e v e l s of the v i l l a above and beyond, but could not, at f i r s t , know how to reach them ( P i g . 54). S i m i l a r l y , on the second t e r r a c e , he would see, f i r s t the cou r t y a r d he had j u s t l e f t ( P i g . 51), then the walk-ways on top of the casino and c o n t a i n i n g w a l l s ( P i g . 50), and f i n a l l y another garden above him. Again, he would f i n d the s t a i r s purposely obscured. Throughout t h i s p r o g r e s s i o n , the guest's meanderings, l o o k -i n g f o r e x i t s , were from east to west, or v i c e v e r s a . I n terms of the v i l l a groundplan, i t i s a h o r i z o n t a l movement. H i s as-cension from one t e r r a c e t o the next was v e r t i d a l , but always confined t o i n t e r n a l s t a i r w a y s . Coming to the g i a r d i n o s e c r e t o , a h o r i z o n t a l movement i s to no p r a c t i c a l purpose, s i n c e i t simply leads from one c o n t a i n -i n g w a l l to the other. The p r i n c i p a l a x i s i s the v e r t i c a l one, running n o r t h t o south. U n l i k e the other v e r t i c a l passages, i n the g i a r d i n o s e c r e t o i t i s e n t i r e l y exposed, and l o c a t e d not only t o e i t h e r s i d e of the area, but a l s o i n the centre ( P i g . 2 ) . Walking down the c e n t r a l north-south a x i s from the garden gate, one i s confronted, not by tempting l e v e l s f u r t h e r on, but by a c a r e f u l l y c o n s t r u c t e d p e r s p e c t i v e view, which changes the v i l l a complex from one of- a s e r i e s of t e r r a c e s , to what appears to be a s o l i d a r c h i t e c t u r a l u n i t ( P i g . 57). The f i r s t and second, t e r r a c e have disappeared from s i g h t - - t h e guest sees only the f o u r belvedere along the walkways, and the b a l u s t r a d e , f i x i n g the edge of the walkway along the casino r o o f . The only one of the three t e r r a c e s which i s not, as i t were, contained -92-( s i n c e i t i s a c c e s s i b l e from the outside and has no hidden s t a i r ) , p rovides one w i t h a view of a c l o s e d and f i n i t e a r c h i t -ecture . When one examines the means by which t h i s i l l u s i o n i s achieved, i t becomes c l e a r t h a t i t i s a c a r e f u l l y planned, and anything but a c c i d e n t a l , e f f e c t . The f o u r corners of what becomes, v i s u a l l y , the s o l i d b l o c k of a r c h i t e c t u r e , are the belvedere. Two are o r i e n t e d south-north on the east and west s i d e s of the casino r o o f , and two, ©on -i: a* s i m i l a r a x i s , on the east and west walkways at the boundary between the g i a r d i n o  p e n s i l e and the g i a r d i n o s e c r e t o ( P i g . 2 ) . To make the south boundary, which i s the b a l u s t r a d e d casino walkway, appear i l -l u s i o n i s t i c a l l y even c l o s e r to the viewer, Genga has made the two f u r t h e s t belvedere h i g h e r than those at the garden boundary. I n order to continue the concept of a c l o s e d a r c h i t e c t u r a l mass beyond, an eventual view of the gardens below must be p r e -vented f o r as l o n g as p o s s i b l e . Does t h i s m o t i v a t i o n e x p l a i n the i r r e g u l a r d i s p o s i t i o n of a r c h i t e c t u r a l elements i n the two garden belvedere? I n each case, the s i n g l e archway p e n e t r a t i n g the belvedere i s i n l i n e w i t h one of the v e r t i c a l side paths of the g i a r d i n o s e c r e t o , but i s n o t i c e a b l y o f f - c e n t r e i n respect to the walkway onto which i t leads ( P i g . 58). That i s to say, there i s more w a l l mass between the archway and the i n s i d e b a l u s t r a d e , than between that and the outside one. I t i s even more d i s t i n c t l y o f f - c e n t r e i n regard to the belvedere i t s e l f . The archway i s , i n f a c t , s h i f t e d to the outside h a l f of the b e l v e d e r e — t h a t i s , t o the s i d e c l o s e s t the e x t e r i o r w a l l s of the v i l l a complex. This i r r e g u l a r i t y can h a r d l y be d e s c r i b e d as a e s t h e t i c . I t i s , however, f u n c t i o n a l , i n so f a r as the - 9 3 -r e l e g a t i o n of apertures as c l o s e t o the e x t e r n a l w a l l s as p o s s i b l e , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h s o l i d w a l l to the i n t e r i o r off the u n i t , helps to o b l i t e r a t e a view of the gardens and t e r -r aces, as the guest approaches the belvedere from the path. To one who had a l r e a d y come through the d e l l a Rovere I m p e r i a l e , t h i s approach i n re v e r s e , as i t were, must have convinced him tha t Genga 1s v i l l a was something m a r v e l l o u s — a t h e a t r i c a l i l l u s i o n e f f e c t i v e l y achieved i n three dimensions, r a t h e r than i n the two dimensions of a sc e n i c backdrop. To the guest who f i r s t experienced the v i l l a from the g i a r d i n o  s e c r e t o entrance, the s u r p r i s e of d i s c o v e r i n g t h a t the v i l l a was not, as a n t i c i p a t e d , a c l o s e d block, but a s e r i e s of i n -v i t i n g gardens and t e r r a c e s , must have been unprecedented i n 59 the e a r l y s i x t e e n t h century. As Smyth has suggested, t h i s concept very l i k e l y p rovided the i n s p i r a t i o n f o r the sunken nympheum of the V i l l a G i u l i a . -94-Footnotes: Chapter I I I 1. See Chapter I I , n. 19. 2. See a l s o M a n c i n i , pp. 28-9. 3. See i b i d . , pp. 29-31. 4. Gronau, doc. X V I I I . Gronau, p. 24, does not b e l i e v e t h i s reference i s t o the I m p e r i a l e . Cf. Smyth, "The Sunken Courts of the V i l l a G i u l i a and the V i l l a I m p e r i a l e , " p. 306, n. 11. Gronau, p. 13, t h i n k s the V i l l a I m periale c o n s t r u c t i o n was begun cl530. A l s o Thode, p. 167, p l a c e s the beginning of c o n s t r u c t i o n i n the years 1529-30. 5. Patzak, p. 19. 6. Gronau, doc. XXV. 7. I b i d . , doc. XXXIX. 8. Patzak, p. 20. 9. Gronau, doc. XXXVI. 10. I b i d . , doc. XXXVIII. 11. See Patzak, pp. 20-1. 12. I b i d . , p. 18. -95-13. Patzak, p. 19 14. Gronau, doc. LXXV. 15. I b i d . , p. 15; see a l s o corresponding n. 5. 16. I b i d . , p. 44. 17. See S e i t z , p. 465, and Patzak, p. 95. 18. See a l s o P i n e l l i , p. 192. 19. See James Ackerman, The C o r t i l e d e l Belvedere, V a t i c a n C i t y , 1954, p. 141 n.; A r s e n i , p. 15; Kurt P o r s t e r and R i c h a r d T u t t l e , "The Palazzo d e l Te," J o u r n a l of  the S o c i e t y of A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r i a n s , XXX, December 1971, p. 271. 20. See a l s o Smyth, "The Sunken Courts of the V i l l a G i u l i a and the V i l l a I m p e r i a l e , " pp. 306-7, n. 12. 2 1 . See Patzak, pp. 1 3 7 , 1 4 1 - 3 , and A r s e n i , pp. 9 and 19. 22. C h r i s t o p h Prommel, Die P a r n e s i n a und P e r u z z i s a r c h i t e k -t o n i s c h e s Friihwerk, B e r l i n , 1961, pp. 9 9 f f . See a l s o Ackerman, The C o r t i l e d e l Belvedere, p. 7. 23. See L u i s a Gothein, Geschichte der Gartenkunst, I , Jena, 1926, p. 253; a l s o Smyth, "The Sunken Courts of the V i l l a G i u l i a and the V i l l a I m p e r i a l e , " p. 308. 24. See P i n e l l i , pp. 108 ;and 114-5. -96-25. P i n e l l i , p. 108. See a l s o Thierne-^Beeker' s e n t r y f o r Girolamo Genga. 26. See P i n e l l i , pp. 137-9. 27. See Gronau, p. 4 4 — a 1631 d e s c r i p t i o n of the V i l l a I m p e r i a l e : "Nei 2.° piano sono n.° 15 stanze ... p i c c o l e similmente da non p o t e r v i accomodare un l e t t o . " 28. D e l l e l e t t e r e d i M. Bernardo Tasso, Padua, I I , 1733, p. 242, from P i n e l l i , p. 191, n. 42. 29. V a s a r i - M i l a n e s i , v o l . VI, p. 317. See a l s o Thode, p. 167. 30. See Gothein, pp. 251-2, where one reads that she c o n s i d e r s i t of importance t h a t a scenographer was the d e s i g n i n g a r c h i t e c t . 31. See M a n c i n i , p. 27, and Gothein, p. 253. 32. See P i n e l l i , pp. 140-1. 33. Por f u l l d e s c r i p t i o n of south facade, consult Patzak, pp. 81-8 and 150-72. 34. There are entrances from the two n i c h e s at e i t h e r end of the c e n t r a l facade, which l e a d t o the domestic q u a r t e r s . These, however, would h a r d l y concern the guest. 35. See R i c c i , p. 127. 36. See Prommel, p. 54. -97-37. See Frommel, pp. 54-61; E l s a G e r l i n i , G i a r d i n o e  a r c h i t e t t u r a n e l l a F a r n e s i n a , Rome, 1942, pp. 5-7; A. Schiavo, "Le a r c h i t e t t u r e d e l l a F a r n e s i n a . I I . Le s c u d e r i e , " C a p i t o l i u m , XXXV, no. 9, September 1960, pp. 3-9. 38. F o s t e r , p. 311. See a l s o David C o f f i n , "The Plans of the V i l l a Madama," A r t B u l l e t i n , XLIX, June 1967, p. 118. 39. V a s a r i - M i l a n e s i , v o l . V, p. 536. See a l s o F o r s t e r , "The Palazzo d e l Te," p. 269, and A. L u z i o and R. Renier, Mantova e Urbino, Torino-Rome, 1893, p. 184, n. 1. 40. Note a l s o Francesco d i G i o r g i o ' s s t a b l e s i n the Palazzo Ducale of Urbino. See Francesco d i G i o r g i o M a r t i n i , T r a t t a t i d i a r c h i t e t t u r a , i n g e g n e r i a e a r t e m i l i t a r e , ed. by Corrado Maltese, M i l a n , 1967, v o l . I I , pp. 340-1, and n. 3• 41. See Frommel, p. 61, and G e r l i n i , p. .7. 42. Wurm, p. 162. 43. See F r e d e r i c k H a r t t , G i u l i o Romano, New Haven, 1958, v o l . I I , f i g . 408. The h i g h a t t i c was added l a t e r , and a p p a r e n t l y was not p a r t of G i u l i o ' s o r i g i n a l design. 44. See i b i d . , v o l . I , p. 2:88, n. 14, and v o l . I I , f i g . 410. 45. See a l s o Patzak, p. 116. 46. P i n e l l i , pp. 137, 142, and 146. -98-47. Patzak, p. 172. 48. John Coolidge, "The V i l l a G i u l i a , A Study of C e n t r a l I t a l i a n A r c h i t e c t u r e i n the M i d - S i x t e e n t h Century," A r t B u l l e t i n , XXV, 1943, pp. 217, n. 278. 49. V i t r u v i u s , The Ten Books on A r c h i t e c t u r e , t r a n s , by M. H. Morgan, New York, I960, Bk. V, Chapt. VI: P l a n of the Theatre, pp. 146-50. 50. P i n e l l i , p. 146. 51. Patzak, p. 172. 52. I b i d . , pp. 137-42. 53. See Francesco F a r i e l l o , A r c h i t e t t u r a d e i G i a r d i n i , Rome, 1967, p i . 38, f o r r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . 54. See Patzak, pp. 97 and 31. 55. Mancini, p. 30. 56. See Patzak, p. 32, and Gronau, docs. L X I I I , LXIV, LXVI, L X X I I I . 57. See Patzak, p. 31. 58. An i n t e r e s t i n g problem which can be r e f e r r e d to at t h i s p o i n t concerns the S f o r z a v i l l a tower, which V a s a r i claims Genga b u i l t h i g h e r by 120 f e e t . Was Genga, i n f a c t , t r y i n g -99-58 to b r i n g i t i n l i n e , i l l u s i o n i s t i c a l l y , w i t h the per-(cont'd) s p e c t i v a l a x i s he had drawn up, u s i n g the f o u r belvedere ( F i g . 5 7 ) ? I n such a case, the tower would presumably have been r a i s e d , i f not when the belvedere themselves were being b u i l t , then c e r t a i n l y when the d e t a i l e d plans were being drawn up. This does not c o n t r a d i c t the theory t h a t the tower was Genga 1s f i r s t r e s t o r a t i o n p r o j e c t i n the S f o r z a v i l l a , i n 1 5 2 3 — t h e tower can e a s i l y have been b u i l t h i g h e r at a l a t e r date. I f acceptable, the theory would e x p l a i n what can r i g h t l y be c a l l e d the e x t r a o r d i n a r y dimensions of the tower. 5 9 . Smyth, "The Sunken Courts of the V i l l a G i u l i a and the V i l l a I m p e r i a l e . " -100-C0NCLUSI0N I n h i s monograph of 1908, Patzak examines the a r c h i t e c t -ure of the V i l l a I m periale i n the l i g h t of h i s theory of v i l l a e v o l u t i o n . Therefore, h i s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the Imperiale as a Renaissance b u i l d i n g emphasizes those elements and m o t i f s which support h i s theory. The r e s u l t i s an incomplete, or, at the most, a one-sided view. The problem of the v i l l a ' s h i s t o r y can be approached from another angle, by f i r s t f r e e i n g the b u i l d i n g from the l i m i t a t i o n s of such a theory, and examining i t as a s t r u c t u r e per se. Then, i f d e s i r e d , a new, or a l t e r n a t e , theory can be formulated on the b a s i s of the c o n c l u s i o n s d e r i v e d from such an examination. I t i s t h i s approach which the arguments p r e s -ented i n the t h e s i s have t r i e d to e s t a b l i s h . However, a b u i l d i n g ' s h i s t o r y does not r e v e a l i t s e l f by an examination of o n l y i t s p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Documents are r e q u i r e d t o c h r o n o l o g i z e , organize, and c l a r i f y the evidence. In the case of the d e l l a Rovere v i l l a , the documents provide an e x c e l l e n t framework of r e f e r e n c e . In regard to the S f o r z a v i l l a , the documents are, t o date, l i m i t e d , and a s u b s i d i a r y approach must be employed—the v i l l - a i s juxtaposed t o the Palazzo P r e f e t t i z i o , a s t r u c t u r e t h a t i s c l e a r l y i t s prototype, and f o r which there does e x i s t a documented chronology of s o r t s . Although documents are p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l i n answering questions of chronology, they cannot always e x p l a i n or e l u c i d a t e the purpose and f u n c t i o n of the a r c h i t e c t u r a l u n i t . Why was the f r e s c o programme arranged i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r order of e i g h t -101-apartments i n the S f o r z a v i l l a ? Why d i d Genga b u i l d the tower 120 f e e t h i g h ? Why are c e r t a i n of the a r c h i t e c t u r a l elements anomalies i n the context of an e s s e n t i a l l y c l a s s i c a l s t r u c t u r e ? The answers to these questions can be found only by r e a l i z i n g t h a t the v i l l a i s , above a l l , a f u n c t i o n a l u n i t , w i t h a s p e c i f i c purpose or programme; and t h a t , i n order t o be comprehended, i t i s necessary to experience the f r e s c o e s and the a r c h i t e c t u r e as they were intended t o be experienced. To Patzak, the S f o r z a and d e l l a Rovere v i l l a s are incom-p a t i b l e i n a s i x t e e n t h century c o n t e x t — h e t h e r e f o r e t r e a t s , and analyses, them as two d i s t i n c t l y separate b u i l d i n g s . Pos-s i b l y t h a t i s the most s e r i e u s e r r o r he makes; i t c e r t a i n l y p r e -vents him from c a l c u l a t i n g the importance of the S f o r z a v i l l a i n the s i x t e e n t h century V i l l a I m periale complex. I n p u r e l y v i s u a l terms, the austere E a r l y Renaissance a r c h i t e c t u r e of the S f o r z a v i l l a , and the grand, c l a s s i c a l s t a t e -ments of the d e l l a Rovere v i l l a , do appear incongruous. But Patzak has not r e a l i z e d t h a t , from the two most v i t a l stand-p o i n t s i n the v i l l a — t h e e n t r a n c e s — o n l y one" s t r u c t u r e at a time can be seen c l e a r l y . What does remain i n view of the other v i l l a , i s camouflaged. Por example, from the main door of the S f o r z a v i l l a , the d e l l a Rovere Imperiale i s shrouded by the f o r e s t ; from the entrance i n the g i a r d i n o s e c r e t o , the only p a r t of the S f o r z a v i l l a t h a t i s v i s i b l e — t h e t o w e r — h a s been brought i n l i n e w i t h the belvedere. I t i s obvious, then, t h a t due to t h e i r common f u n c t i o n and shared i c o n o g r a p h i c a l programme, the two s t r u c t u r e s become i n t e r -r e l a t e d and interdependent, each an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the V i l l a I m p e r i a l e . -102-BIBLIOGRAPHY Ackerman, James. The C o r t i l e d e l Belvedere. V a t i c a n C i t y : B i b l i o t e c a a p o s t o l i c a v a t i c a n a , 1954. . "Sources of the Renaissance V i l l a . " A cts of the Twentieth I n t e r n a t i o n a l Congress of the H i s t o r y  of A r t . Studies i n Western A r t I I : The Renaissance and  Mannerism. P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963. A l b e r t i , Leandro. D e s c r i t t i o n e d i t u t t a I t a l i a . Venice: A. S a l i c a t o , 1588. A l b e r t i , Leon B a t t i s t a . Opere V o l g a r i . E d i t e d by C e c i l Grayson. B a r i , 1973. . Ten Books on A r c h i t e c t u r e . T r a n s l a t e d by James L e o n i . E d i t e d by Joseph Rykwert. London: A. T i r a n t i , 1955. A r s e n i , C a r l o . V i l l a I m p e r i a l e a Pesaro e a l t r e q u e s t i o n i r i g u a r d a n t i l ' a t t i v i t a d i Girolamo Genga a r c h i t e t t o . Urbino Stabilmento T i p o g r a f i c o E d i t o r i a l e U r b i n a t e , 1969. B a f i l e , M. I I g i a r d i n o d i V i l l a Madama. Rome: R. I s t i t u t o d 1 A r c h a e o l o g i a e S t o r i a d e l l ' A r t e , 1942. B a l d i , Bernardo. D e l l a V i t a e d e ' F a t t i d i Guidobaldo da  M o n t e f e l t r o , Duca d'Urbino. V o l . 2. M i l a n , 1821. Berenson, Bernard. I t a l i a n P a i n t e r s of the Renaissance. Oxford: The Clarendon P r e s s , 1932. -103-Bergstrom, Ingvar. R e v i v a l of Antique I l l u s i o n ! s t i c W a l l -P a i n t i n g i n Renaissance A r t . G'dteborg: Elanders b o k t r . a k t i e b o l a g , 1 9 5 7 . B e r t o l o t t i , Antonio. A r c h i t e t t i , i n g e g n e r i e matematici i n r e l a z i o n e c o i Gonzaga. Genoa, 1 8 9 9 . da B i s t i c c i , Vespasiano. V i t e d i Uomini I l l u s t r i d e l secolo XV". Rivedute s u i m a n o s c r i t t i da Ludovico P r a t i . V o l . I . Bologna: R. Commissions p e ' t e s t i d i Lingua n e l l e p r o v i n c i e d e l l ' E m i l i a , 1 8 9 2 . B l u n t , Anthony. " I l l u s i o n i s t i c D e coration i n C e n t r a l I t a l i a n P a i n t i n g of the Renaissance." J o u r n a l of the Royal S o c i e t y  of A r t s CVII ( A p r i l 1 9 5 9 ) : 3 0 9 - 1 3 . B o n a r e l l i , G. "I G i a r d i n i a l l ' i t a l i a n a n e l l e Marche." Rassegna Marchigiana IX ( 1 9 3 0 ) . B o r i o s i , M. T. C r u c i a n i . "I g i a r d i n i d e l l ' I t a l i a c e n t r o -s e t t e n t r i o n a l e d i d e r i v a z i o n e tosco-romana." A n t i c h i t a v i v a IX no. 3 ( 1 9 7 0 ) : 5 4 f f . B o t t a r i , Giovanni and T i c o z z i , Stefano. R a c c o l t a d i l e t t e r e d e l l a p i t t u r a , s c u l p t u r a ed a r c h i t e t t u r a . V o l . 5 . M i l a n : 1 8 2 2 . B r a g h i r o l l i , W. "Luca F a n c e l l i . S c u l t o r e , A r c h i t e t t o e I d r a u l i c o d e l Secolo XV." A r c h i v i o S t o r i c o Lombardo I I I ( 1 8 7 6 ) : 6 1 0 - 3 8 . B r u n e l l i , E. "Recensioni s u l D i a r i o d e l Sammarino." L'Arte X: 3 9 2 . -104-B-udinich, C o r n e l i o . I I Palazzo Ducale d'Urbino. T r i e s t e , 1904. Burckhardt, Jakob. The C i v i l i z a t i o n of the Renaissance. London: Phaidon, 1944. . Geschichte der Renaissance i n I t a l i e n . S t u t t g a r t : P. Neff (C. B i i c h l e ) , 1904. B u s c a r o l i , R. La p i t t u r a d i paesaggio i n I t a l i a . Bologna, 1935. Buser, B. Die Beziehungen der Mediceer zu F r a n k r e i c h wahrend  der Jahre 1434 b i s 1494 i n ihrem Zusammenhange mit den  allgemeinen V e r h a l t n i s s e n . L e i p z i g , 1879. Campagnari, R i c c i a r d o . "Un palazzo r u r a l e quattrocentesco. La G h i r a r d i n a d i Motteggiana." P a l a z z i e V i l l e d e l Con-tado Mantovano. Mantua: V a l l e c h i , 1966. C a r t w r i g h t , J u l i a . I s a b e l l e d'Este. V o l . I . London, 1932. C a s t i g l i o n e , Baldesar. The Book of the C o u r t i e r . T r a n s l a t e d by George B u l l . Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1967. C h a s t e l , Andre. A r t et humanisme a Florence au temps de Laurent l e Magnifique. P a r i s : Presses U n i v e r s i t a i r e s , 1959. C i m a r e l l i , Vincenzo M a r i a . I s t o r i e d e l l o Stato d i Urbino. B r e s c i a , 1642. F a c s i m i l e by L i b r e r i a E d i t r i c e F o r n i . Bologna, 1967. -105-C i n e l l i , C a r l o . I ' I m p e r i a l e c a s t e l l o s u l c o l l e d i S. B a r t o l o  presso Pesaro, g i a d e g l i S f o r z a e d e i D e l i a Rovere, oggi  de i p r i n c i p i A l b a n i , d e s c r i t t o e i l l u s t r a t e P a r t e s t o r i c a . Pesaro, 1881. C o f f i n , David. "The Plans of the V i l l a Madama." A r t B u l l e t i n XLIX (June 1967): 111-22. The V i l l a d'Este at T i v o l i . P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , I960. Coolidge, John. "The V i l l a G i u l i a . A Study of C e n t r a l I t a l i a n A r c h i t e c t u r e i n the Mid - S i x t e e n t h Century." A r t B u l l e t i n XXV (1943): 176-225. C o t t a f a r i , C. Ricerche e Bbcumenti s u l l a Costruzione d e l Pal a z z o Ducale d i Mantova. Mantua, 1939. D'Arco, C a r l o . D e l l e a r t i e d e g l i a r t i f i c i d i Mantova. Mantua, 1857. Dennistoun, James. Memoirs of the Dukes of Urbino. V o l . I I . London, 1909. D i z i o n a r i o E n c i c l o p e d i c o d i A r c h i t e t t u r a e U r b a n i s t i c a . Rome: I s t i t u t o E d i t o r i a l e Romano, 1968-9. von P a b r i c z y , C o r n e l i u s . "Luciano da Laurana e i l palazzo p r e f e t t i z i o d i Pesaro." A r c h i v i o s t o r i c o d e l l ' a r t e (1890): 239-40. M e d a i l l e n der i t a l i e n i s c h e n  Renaissance. L e i p z i g , 1903. -106-F a g i o l o , M a u r i z i o . La Sce n o g r a f i a . F l o r e n c e : Sansoni, 1973. F a r i e l l o , Francesco, A r c h i t e t t u r a d e i G i a r d i n i . Rome, 1967. F i l i p p i n i , Francesco. "Luciano da Laurana a Pesaro." Melozzo  da F o r i ! XVII no.;.7 ( A p r i l 1939): 352-8. ''.'Melozzo e g l i S f o r z a . " Melozzo da  F o r i ! XVI no. 2 (January 1938): 58-66. F i l i p p i n i - B a l d a n i , Laura. "Francesco Menzocchi. P i t t o r e F o r l i v e s e d e l '500 e l a V i l l a I m p e r i a l e d i Pesaro." Melozzo  da F o r l i XVI ( A p r i l 1938): 136-45; XVII (October 1938): 248-59. F i l i p p i n i - B o n i n i . " I I Palazzo Sforzesco d i Pesaro." Rassegna  Marchigiana I I (1923-4): 3-20. F i r p o , L u i g i . Lo Stato i d e a l e d e l l a C o n t r o r i f o r m a . B a r i : La t e r z a , 1957. F o r s t e r , Kurt and T u t t l e , R i c h a r d . "The Palazzo d e l Te." J o u r n a l of the S o c i e t y of A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r i a n s XXX (December 1971): 267-93. Pontormo. Munich: Bruckmann, 1966. Fo s t e r , P h i l i p . "Raphael on the V i l l a Madama: the t e x t of a l o s t l e t t e r . " R'dmisches Jahrbuch f u r Kunstgeschichte V o l . 11 (1967/8): 307-12. F r a n c e s c h i n i , G. Saggi d i s t o r i a m o n t e f e l t r e s c a e u r b i n a t e . S e l c i Umbro, 1957. -107-F r a n c i o s i , G. G l i S f o r z a . F l o r e n c e , 1931. Freedberg, S. J . P a i n t i n g i n I t a l y : 1500-1600. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1971. Frommel, C h r i s t o p h . Die F a r n e s i n a und P e r u z z i s a r c h i t e k t o n i s c h e s  Fruhwerk. B e r l i n : De Gruyter, 1961. Gaye, Giovanni. Carteggio i n e d i t o d i a r t i s t i . F l o r e n c e : Presso G. M o l i n i , 1839. G e r l i n i , E l s a . G i a r d i n o e a r c h i t e t t u r a d e l l a F a r n e s i n a . Rome: Reale I s t i t u t o d i St u d i Romani, 1942. Gibbons, F e l t o n . Dosso and B a t t i s t a D o s s i . P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968. G i o v i o , Paulo. G l i E l o g i . Le v i t e brevemente s c r i t t e d e g l i  i l l u s t r i uomini d i guerra a n t i c h i e moderni. T r a n s l a t e d by L. Domenichi. F l o r e n c e : T o r r e n t i n o , 1551. Gothein, L u i s a . Geschichte der Gartenkunst. V o l . I . Jena, 1926. Greenwood, W. E. The V i l l a Madama Rome. London: J . T i r a n t i and Co., 1928. Gronau, Georg. "Die Kunststrebungen der Herzoge von Urbino. I I I . Girolamo Genga und der Bau der V i l l a I m p e r i a l e . " Jahrbuch der preussis c h e n Kunstsammlungen. B e i h e f t v o l . 27, suppl. 3 (1906): 12-44. G r o s s i , P. C a r l o . D e g l i Uomini I l l u s t r i d i Urbino. Urbino, 1856. -108-Gruyer, G. L ' a r t f e r r a r a i s . V o l . I I . P a r i s , 1897. G u i . c c i a r d i n i , Paolo. Riccordanze i n e d i t e d i Prancesco  G u i c c i a r d i n i . F l o r e n c e , 1930. H a r t t , F r e d e r i c k . G i u l i o Romano. New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958. . I t a l i a n Renaissance A r t . New York: Harry N. Abrams Inc., n.d. Hofmann, Theodor. Bauten des Herzogs Federigo d i M o n t e f e l t r o . N.p., 1905. R a f f a e l i n s e i n e r Bedeutung a l s A r c h i t e k t . I . V i l l a Madama zu Rom. Z i t t a u , 1908. da Hollanda, F r a n c i s c o . Le Opere. E d i t e d by A c h i l l e P e l l i z z a r i . Naples, 1914. Huemer, Frances. "Raphael and the V i l l a Madama." Essays i n  Honor of Walter F r i e d l a e n d e r . New York, 1965. I o v i i , P a u l i . E l o g i a . Virorum b e l l i c a v i r t u t e i l l u s t r i u m . B a s l e : P e t r i Pernae, 1575. K i m b a l l , F i s k e . "Luciano Laurana and the 'High Renaissance'." A r t B u l l e t i n X (1927): 125-51. Krautheimer, R i c h a r d . "The T r a g i c and Comic Scene of the Renaissance: The Baltimore and Urbino P a n e l s . " Studies i n E a r l y C h r i s t i a n , Medieval, and Renaissance A r t . New York: New York U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969. -109-Landucci, Lucca. Tagebuch. I I Bd. 1498-1516. Nebst e i n e r anonymen F o r t s e t z u n g 1516-1542. T r a n s l a t e d and annotated by M a r i a H e r z f e l d . Jena, 1913. L a z z a r i , A. Memorie i s t o r i c h e d e i C o n t i e Duchi d i Urbino. Fermo, 1795. Lef e v r e , Renato. V i l l a Madama. Rome: I s t i t u t o p o l i g r a f i c o d e l l o s t a t o , n.d. Lehmann, K a r l . "The Dome of Heaven." A r t B u l l e t i n XXVII (1945): 1-27. Leoni, G.l B. V i t a d i Francesco M a r i a d i M o n t e f e l t r o d e l l a  Rovere I I I I Duca d'Urbino. Venice: C i o t t i , 1605. Levey, M i c h a e l . E a r l y Renaissance. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1967. Lowry, Bates. Renaissance A r c h i t e c t u r e . New York: George B r a z i l l e r , 1971. Lu z i o , Alessandro. La G a l l e r i a d e i Gonzaga. M i l a n , 1913. and Renier, R. Mantova e Urbino. T o r i n o -Rome, 1893. Manc i n i , Pompeo. L 1 I m p e r i a l e , v i l l a d e ' s f o r z e s c h i e r o v e r e s c h i  a breve d i s t a n z a da Pesaro. Pesaro: P e i T i p i d i Annesio N o b i l i , 1844. M a r c h i n i , Giuseppe. "Aggiunte a l Palazzo Ducale d i Urbino." B o l l e t t i n o d'Arte XLV ( i 9 6 0 ) : 73-9. -110-M a r c h i n i , Giuseppe. "Per G i o r g i o da Sebenico." Commentari XIX (1968): 212-28. " I I Problema d e l l ' I m p e r i a l e . " Commentari XXI (1970): 66-91. . La V i l l a I m periale d i Pesaro. F l o r e n c e : Cassa d i Risparmio, [1968]. M a r t i n i , Francesco d i G i o r g i o . T r a t t a t i d i a r c h i t e t t u r a , i n g e g n e r i a e a r t e m i l i t a r e . E d i t e d by Corrado Maltese. M i l a n : I I P o l i f i l o , 1967. Masson, Georgina. I t a l i a n V i l l a s and P a l a c e s . London: Thames and Hudson, 1959. Master Drawings. The Stephen Spector C o l l e c t i o n . Jerusalem, 1969. Mendelsohn, H e n r i e t t e . Das Werk der D o s s i . Munich, 1914. M e z z e t t i , Amalia. I I Dosso e B a t t i s t a F e r r a r e s i . F e r r a r a : Cassa d i Risparmio, 1965. M i c h e l i n i T o c c i , L u i g i . Pesaro S f o r z e s c a n e l l e t a r s i e d e l Coro d i S. Agostino. Pesaro: Cassa d i Risparmio, 1971. M i l i z i a , Francesco. Memorie d e g l i A r c h i t e t t i A n t i c h i e Moderni. V o l . I . Bassano: A spese Remondini d i Venezia, 1785. Montanari, Giuseppe I g n a z i o . L'Imperiale d i Pesaro. Stanze. Pesaro, I 8 3 8 . - I l l -M o nti, E. D e s c r i z i o n e a r t i s t i c a d e l l e P i t t u r e e s i s t e n t i n e l l a  V i l l a I m p e r i a l e . Pesaro, 1881. M o r a n t i , I . B i b l i o g r a f i a u r b i n a t e . F l o r e n c e , 1959. N a r d i n i , l u i g i . Le imprese 0 f i g u r e simboliche d e i M o n t e f e l t r o  e d e i D e l l a Rovere. Urbino: Coi t i p i d e l l a S o c i e t a t i p o g r a f i c a E d i t r i c e U r b i n a t e , 1931. Neuerburg, Norman. "Raphael at T i v o l i and the V i l l a Madama." Essays i n Memory of K a r l Lehmann. New York: I n s t i t u t e of F ine A r t s , New York U n i v e r s i t y , 1964. O l i v i e r i d e g l i A b a t i , A n n i b a l e . Memorie d i Alessandro S f o r z a  Signore d i Pesaro. Pesaro: I n Casa G a v e l l i , 1785. :-. Sopra un medaglione non ancor osservato d i Costanzo S f o r z a . Pesaro: I n Casa G a v e l l i , 1781. P a c c h i o n i , G. "L 1opera d i Luciano da Laurana a Mantova." B o l l e t t i n o d'Arte I I I (1923-4): 97-111. von P a s t o r , Ludwig. Geschichte der Papste. F r e i b u r g : Herdesche Verlagshandlung. V o l s . I and I I , 1901; v o l s , I I I , 1899; v o l . IV, 1906. Patzak, Bernard. Die V i l l a I m p e r i a l e i n Pesaro. L e i p z i g : von K l i n k h a r d t und Biermann, 1908. Pevsner, N i k o l a u s . An O u t l i n e of European A r c h i t e c t u r e . Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1943. -112-P i e l , F r i e d r i c h . Die Ornament-Grotteske i n der i t a l i e n i s c h e n  Renaissance. B e r l i n : De Gruyter, 1962. P i n e l l i , Antonio and R o s s i , O r i e t t a . Genga A r c h i t e t t o . Rome: B u l z o n i , 1971. Pouncey, P h i l i p and Gere, J . A. I t a l i a n Drawings. Raphael  and h i s c i r c l e . London, 1962. P u n g i l e o n i , L. E l o g i o s t o r i c o d i R a f f a e l l o da Urbino. Urbino, 1829. Reinhard, H i l d e . Lorenzo von M e d i c i , Herzog von Urbino 1492-1515_. P r e i b u r g , 1935. R i c c i , Amico. S t o r i a dell'.'iarchitettura i n I t a l i a . V o l . I I I . Modena, 1859. Roth, C e c i l . The Last F l o r e n t i n e R e p u b l i c . London, 1925. Rotondi, Pasquale. I I Palazzo d i Urbino. Urbino: I s t i t u t o s t a t a l e d'arte per i l l i b r o , 1950. R u s c e l l i , Ieronimo. Le Imprese I l l u s t r i . Venice, 1584. Salmi, Mario. P i e r o d e l l a Prancesca e i l P a l a z z o Ducale  d'Urbino. F l o r e n c e , 1945. Sandstrom, Sven. L e v e l s of u n r e a l i t y . Uppsala, 1963. S a n g u i n e t t i , F. "Palazzo ex ducale, sede d e l l a p r e f e t t u r a . 1 1  B b l l e t t i n o d'Arte XLIX (1964). -113-Santoro, C a t e r i n a . G l i S f o r z a . Varese: D a l l ' O g l i o , 1968. Schiavo, A. "Le a r c h i t e t t u r e d e l l a F a r n e s i n a . I I . Le sc u d e r i e . " C a p i t o l i u m XXXV no. 9 (September I960): 3-9. Schulz, J . "P i n t - u r i c c h i o and the R e v i v a l of A n t i q u i t y . " J o u r n a l of the Warburg and Courtauld I n s t i t u t e s 25 (1962): 35-55. S e i t z , F r i t z . "Die V i l l a I m p e r i a l e b e i Pesaro." Deutsche  Bauzeitung-,XXXIX no. 75 (20 September 1905): 453-4.; no. 76 (23 September 1905.): 462-3; no. 77 (27 September 1905): 465-6, 468. S e r a f i n i , A. Girolamo da C a r p i . Rome, 1915. S e r l i o , Sebastiano. Tutte 1'Opera d ' a r c h i t e t t u r a et  p r e s p e t t i v a . Venice: G. de'Franceschi, 1619. Serra, L u i g i . L'Arte n e l l e Marche. V o l . I I . Rome, 1934. . " P r o v i n c i e d i Pesaro-Urbino." Rassegna Marchigiana IV (1926): 217. Shearman, John. "Die Loggia der Psyche i n der V i l l a F a r n e s i n a und d i e Probleme der l e t z t e n Phase von R a f f a e l s graphischem S t i l . " Jahrbuch der K u n s t h i s t o r i s c h e n Sammlungen i n Wien LX (1964): 59-100. . Mannerism. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1967. -114-Smyth, C r a i g Hugh. Bronzino as a draughtsman. New York, 1971. "The e a r l i e s t works of B r o n z i n . " A r t B u l l e t i n XXXI (1949): 184-210. . Mannerism and 'Maniera'. Locust V a l l e y : J . J . Augustin, 1963. "The Sunken Courts of the V i l l a G i u l i a and the V i l l a I m p e r i a l e . " Essays i n Memory of K a r l Lehmann. New York: I n s t i t u t e of Pine A r t s , New York U n i v e r s i t y , 1964. Thieme, U l r i c h and Becker, P e l i x . Allgemeines Lexikon der  Bildenden K u n s t l e r von der A n t i k e b i s zur Gegenwart. L e i p z i g : E.A. Seemann, 1907-50. Thode, Henry. " E i n f i i r s t l i c h e r Sommeraufenthalt i n der Z e i t der Hochrenaissance." Jahrbuch der k o n i g l i c h e n p r e u s s i s c h e n  Kunstsammlungen IX (1888): 161-84. T i c o z z i , S. D i z i o n a r i o d e g l i a r c h i t e t t i , p i t t o r i , s c u l t o r i . M i l a n , 1831. Touring club i t a l i a n o . . A t t r a v e r s o 1 ' I t a l i a . Nuova S e r i e .  Marche. M i l a n : Touring c l u b i t a l i a n o , 1971. Turner, R i c h a r d . The V i s i o n of Landscape i n Renaissance I t a l y . P r i n c e t o n , 1966. Ugolino, P i l i p p o . S t o r i a d e i c o n t i e duchi d i Urbino. F l o r e n c e , 1859. -115-Vaccaj, G i u l i o . " I I Palazzo Sforzesco d i Pesaro." Rassegna  Marchigiana IV (1925): 48. Pesaro. Bergamo: I s t i t u t o i t a l i a n o d ' a r t i G r a f i c h e , 1909. . Pesaro. Pesaro: Premiato S t a b i l i m e n t o T i p o -L i t o g r a f i c o a Vapore d i G u a l t i e r o F e d e r i c i , 1909. [ V a n z o l i n i ] . Guida d i Pesaro. Pesaro: P e i T i p i d i Annesio N o b i l i , 1864. V a s a r i , G i o r g i o . Le v i t e . E d i t e d by M i l a n e s i . F l o r e n c e : Sansoni, 1878-85. V e n t u r i , A d o l f o . S t o r i a d e l l ' a r t e i t a l i a n a — L a P i t t u r a d e l  Cinquecento. V o l . Sr v. M i l a n : U. H o e p l i , 1932. V i t r u v i u s . The Ten Books on A r c h i t e c t u r e . T r a n s l a t e d by M.H. Morgan. New York: Dover, I960. Voss, Hermann. Die M a l e r e i der Spatrenaissance i n Rom und  F l o r e n z . B e r l i n : G. Grote, 1920. Wittkower, Rudolf. " A l b e r t i ' s Approach to A n t i q u i t y i n A r c h i t e c t u r e . " J o u r n a l of the Warburg and Courtauld  I n s t i t u t e s 4 (1941): 1-19. Wlirtenberger, F;I "Die M a n i e r i s t i s c h e Deckenmalerei i n M i t t e l i t a l i e n . " Romisches Jahrbuch f u r Kunstgeschichte IV (1940): 61-141. Wurm, H e i n r i c h . Der P a l a z z o Massimo a l l e Colonne. B e r l i n : De Gruyter, 1965. -116-Z u f f a , Mario. Pesaro. M i l a n , n.d. Zwanziger, Walter C u r t . Dosso Dossi und B a t t i s t a . L e i p z i g , 1911. -117-F i g . 1. The V i l l a I m p e r i a l e at Pesaro. -118-F i g . 2 . The V i l l a I m p e r i a l e . -119-F i g . 3 . Drawing of the V i l l a I mperiale by M i n g u z z i . -121-F i g . 5. The Palazzo P r e f e t t i z i o of Pesaro. - 1 2 2 -Entrance of the S f o r z a V i l l a I m p e r i a l e . -123-F i g . 7. Entrance of the Palazzo P r e f e t t i z i o . -124-F i g s . 8 and 9. S. Ludovico on D e t a i l s of D o n a t e l l o ' s niche of Orsanmichele, i n F l o r e n c e . -125-F i g . 10. C o r t i l e of the S f o r z a V i l l a I m p e r i a l e . -126-F i g . 11. Arcade of the P alazzo P r e f e t t i z i o . -127-F i g . 12. C a p i t a l i n the c o r t i l e of the S f o r z a I m p e r i a l e . -128-P i g . 13. C a p i t a l on the P a l a z z o R u c e l l a i F i g . 14. Peduccio i n the p o r t i c o of the P a l a z z o P r e f e t t i z i o . P i g . 15. S. Sebastiano i n Mantua. -131-F i g . 16. Camera d e g l i Sposi i n the "Palazzo Ducale, Mantua. -132-g. 17. P l a n of the V i l l a I m p e r i a l e . -133--134-F i g s . 20 and 21. Sala d e l Giuramento. -135--136-F i g s . 24, 25 and 26. S a l a d e i C a r i a t i d i . -137-27 and 28. Camera d e i Semibusti. - 1 3 8 -F i g s . 29 and 30. Camera d e i Semipusti. -139-F i g s . 31 and 32. Gabinetto. F i g . 33. Camera d e g l i Amorini. -141-F i g . 34. Camera d e l l e f o r z e d i E r c o l e . gs. 35 and 36. Sala grande. -143-F i g s . 37 and 3 8 . S a l a d e l l a C a l u n n i a . -144--145-—f • J rr u. r_i... H.rnil •• 4« iw Ji i PC • » • f F i g . 41. P l a n of the V i l l a I mperiale by Buonamici. -146-» • — i l . J _ JU._/_y~i. . A* |HtL «U A III Bill lllPII. * • \zS?.czc£—*"*•****** i B IIII G&>ytto dtl litiaito vttth to Jill'&ftrUUe Spcetto fir il Jun^oWi >»•» I. tSiitric miov.j, < </<> Clori i i | i i i P i g . 42. P l a n of the V i l l a I mperiale by Buonamici. -147-F i g . 4 3 . P l a n of the " V i l l a I m periale by Buonamici. -148-F i g . 44. P l a n of the V i l l a I m periale by Buonamici. -149-F i g . 45. Connecting wing, from west. -150-F i g . 46. Drawing of the V i l l a I m periale by F r a n c i s c o da Hollanda. -151-F i g . 47. The S f o r z a I m p e r i a l e , east facade. -152-F l g . 48. The d e l l a Rovere I m p e r i a l e , west p r o j e c t i n g wing. -153-F i g . 4g. D e l l a Rovere I m p e r i a l e , south facade. -154-F i g . 50. D e l l a Rovere I m p e r i a l e , sunken c o u r t y a r d . -155-- 1 5 6 -F i g . 52 . D e t a i l of l o g g i a . P i g . 53. Grotto and g i a r d i n o p e n s i l e . - 1 5 8 -F i g . 54. Sunken c o u r t y a r d , g r o t t o w a l l . -159-F i g . 55. G i a r d i n o p e n s i l e . -160-F i g . 56. G i a r d i n o p e n s i l e of the Palazzo Ducale, Urbino. -161-F i g . 57. From the gate i n the g i a r d i n o s e c r e t o . F i g . 58. From the south belvedere, l o o k i n g n o r t h to the g i a r d i n o s e c r e t o . 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            data-media="{[{embed.selectedMedia}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0101447/manifest

Comment

Related Items