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Administrative response to the social aspects of community planning in Vancouver, B.C., 1965-1971 Jackson, Solomon 1973

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THE ADMINISTRATIVE  RESPONSE  TO THE  SOCIAL ASPECTS OF COMMUNITY PLANNING IN VANCOUVER, B.C. .  1965 - 1971  by SOLOMON JACKSON B.A.,  University  of B r i t i s h  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL THE REQUIREMENTS  Columbia, 1969  FULFILLMENT OF  FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS  in the School of Community and Regional  Planning  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard.  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SEPTEMBER, 1973  In presenting t h i s thesis in p a r t i a l  fulfilment of the requirements for  an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available  for reference and study.  I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this for  scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or  by his representatives. of  thesis  It  is understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  t h i s thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my  written permission.  Department of  Community  and R e g i o n a l  • The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  Date S e p t e m b e r ,  1973  Planning  ABSTRACT The  primary  some u n d e r s t a n d i n g between  of t h i s  process.  The a u t h o r  i n Vancouver,  attention  British  extent  t o which  dysfunctional The role  historical theoretical comparison original  planners  Columbia,  giving  these  i n the  particular  o r l i n k a g e s between the the d i f f e r i n g  attitudes  b e t w e e n members o f t h e two g r o u p s , concepts  generate  and t h e  f u n c t i o n a l and  conflict.  secondary  of the s o c i a l  some d e p t h ,  exist  s t u d i e d the m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g  to the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s  conceptions  was t o a c h i e v e  which  and s o c i a l  groups w i t h i n t h e p l a n n i n g system; and  thesis  of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s  t h e community p l a n n e r s  planning system  objective  objective  was t o e x a m i n e t h e e v o l v i n g  p l a n n e r w i t h i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n  giving particular  c o n s i d e r a t i o n to the  evolution  of s o c i a l  p l a n n i n g and some  concepts  of s o c i a l  p l a n n i n g ; and t o make a  o f t h e 1971 p r a c t i c e  objectives  of social  of e s t a b l i s h i n g  contemporary  p l a n n i n g with the  a social  planning  agency  i n 1968. The so  that  r e s e a r c h m e t h o d o l o g y was p r e s e n t e d  the l i m i t a t i o n s A historical  mid-Nineteenth  o f t h e d a t a w o u l d be r e v e a l e d .  survey  Century  current  around  social  was made, b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e  when p l a n n i n g and s o c i a l  were c o n s i d e r e d one, t h r o u g h noticeable  t o t h e two d i s t i n c t  the turn of the Century  milieu.  i n detail  planning emphases  and on t o t h e  Organizational organizational personnel result  i n the  the and  conflict, planning  and  process.  and  that  attitudes  little  the  Terms o f  reviewed  revealed  increasing  groups. and  The  The  appeared  p r a c t i c e i n 1971,  Planners  and  others.  The  social  planning  i n 1971  of  1968.  In  the  differently  also  conflict  was  differing  postulate  that  attitudes  and  the  from  the  An  viewpoints  by  conflict  was  both system.  Department's  planning  theory  social  the  Social  Social Planners the  stated  conflicts  the  writer  r e s u l t of  the  two  The  social data  resulted was  able  and  evaluation iii  was  to  differing  groups  of  system.  analysis  had  "ideal"  Planners perceived  the by  two  i n the  Development social  links  the  S o c i a l Planners.  but  planning  that  existed  d i f f e r e d from  non-Social  of  i n the  showed  as p e r c e i v e d  conceptions held  i n the  aspects  compared w i t h  indicate c a t e g o r i c a l l y that  the  these  and  organizational  perceptions  of  planners  social  to d e f i n e  This  planning  from  For  organization  i n t e r - a c t i o n between  information  V a n c o u v e r i n 1968.  not  the  of  S o c i a l Planning/Community  turn,  may  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  minimal  dysfunctional  Reference  planning  the  conflict.  r o l e Social Planners play  data  but  functional  did  these  of  Planners.  writer  The  planning  in  attitudes  t h e o r e t i c a l concepts  the  an  a f f e c t the  examined  Physical  that  may  system,  author  Using  and  structure  i n f u n c t i o n a l or d y s f u n c t i o n a l  reasons Social  t h e o r i s t s suggest  made u s i n g  the  historical concepts public in  a n t e c e d e n t s and  of planning.  planning  process  a manner w h i c h w o u l d  planning. aspects  Nor d o e s  of planning  The  contemporary evaluation  i n Vancouver  physical  and  might  the system  be g i v e n  social planning  the  social analysis, planning  desired  urban  may  n o t be  assure  that  so t h a t  p r o c e s s " might change.  that  the  organized  the s o c i a l  a r e most e n e r g e t i c a l l y  numerous d i s c i p l i n a r y s k i l l s of  indicated  r e s u l t i n t h e most e f f e c t i v e  Among t h e c o n c l u s i o n s consideration  theoretical  d r a w n was  pursued.  one  that  to the r e - i n t e g r a t i o n into  one  civic  are involved,  unit  of  where  including  that  "the t o t a l i t y  o f the whole  be  to b r i n g  emphasized  of  about  TABLE OF  CONTENTS PAGE ii  ABSTRACT TABLE OF CHARTS  v  CONTENTS  AND  ix  MAP  x  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  CHAPTER I.  II.  INTRODUCTION A.  The P r o b l e m  1  B.  Purpose o f t h e Study  3  C.  Methodology  6  D.  T h e o r e t i c a l Concepts of and C o n f l i c t  THE THEORY OF PLANNING AND FOR URBAN CHANGE Introduction  B.  The H i s t o r i c a l  C.  The D e v e l o p m e n t  E.  I T S IMPLICATIONS  Roots  of  of Social  Strategies f o r Social  2.  The V a n c o u v e r  The D e v e l o p m e n t Planning  2.  The V a n c o u v e r  24  Planning Service  Delivery  Case  of 'Physical'  1.  20  Planning  1.  Planning  32  as a P r o c e s s Case  C u r r e n t S o c i a l M i l i e u and I t s I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r U r b a n Change 1.  F.  15  20  A.  D.  Organization  The R e - I n t e g r a t i o n Social Planning  Summary  38  o f P h y s i c a l and 39 42  v  III.  IV.  THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL PLANNING/COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT A.  Introduction  B.  O b j e c t i v e s and t h e I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f Objectives For a Social Planning O r g a n i z a t i o n a s P r o p o s e d by t h e E i g h t Documents  C.  Summary  THE DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL PLANNING/ COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN ACTION A.  Introduction  B.  Social Within  P l a n n i n g as P e r c e i v e d by P e r s o n s the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department  1.  a.  The S t a t e d Department i n 1971  b.  The S t a t e d F u n c t i o n s o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t (1968) a s V i e w e d i n 1971 (i) U n i f i c a t i o n of s o c i a l services (ii) I n t e g r a t i o n o f s o c i a l and c i t y p l a n n i n g , and u r b a n renewal tasks (iii) Local area planning (iv) Prevention of s o c i a l problems (v) A n a l y s i s of s o c i a l problems and e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f s o c i a l service delivery (vi) Encouragement o f c i t i z e n involvement i n planning (vii) P r e p a r a t i o n o f a master s o c i a l development p l a n  2.  Purpose of the (1968) as V i e w e d  The S o c i a l P l a n n e r s ' R o l e , A c t i v i t i e s and R e l a t i o n s h i p s W i t h t h e (Sity P l a n n i n g Department a.  B r i t a n n i a Community Centre  b.  Fraserview  Services  Branch L i b r a r y  vi  C.  Social Planning Persons Outside Department 1. a. b.  (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii)  V.  87  The F u n c t i o n s o f t h e S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department  (ii)  D.  86  The P u r p o s e o f t h e S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department  (i)  2.  as P e r c e i v e d by the S o c i a l Planning  U n i f i c a t i o n of s o c i a l services I n t e g r a t i o n o f s o c i a l and c i t y p l a n n i n g , and u r b a n renewal tasks Local area planning Prevention of social problems A n a l y s i s of s o c i a l problems and e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f s o c i a l service delivery Encouragement of c i t i z e n involvement i n planning P r e p a r a t i o n o f a master s o c i a l development p l a n  The S o c i a l P l a n n e r s ' R o l e , A c t i v i t i e s and R e l a t i o n s h i p s W i t h t h e C i t y P l a n n i n g Department a.  B r i t a n n i a Community Centre  b.  Fraserview  94  Services  Branch L i b r a r y  Summary  105  SUMMARY, ANALYSIS, DISCUSSION  CONCLUSIONS  A.  Summary  of Purpose  B.  Summary  of Findings  C.  Analysis of Findings  AND  and P r o c e d u r e s  109 110  1.  Social Planning of Reference  2.  S o c i a l Planners' Role, and R e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h P l a n n i n g Department  vii  106  Department  Terms  Activities, the C i t y  D.  Conclusions  E.  Discussion, Related  118 Personal  R e f l e c t i o n s and  Observations  120  BIBLIOGRAPHY  123  APPENDICES The E i g h t R e p o r t s : A. C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , Downtown E a s t S i d e (1965) B.  Board o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , (1965)  C.  Ernest  D.  Board  E.  Ernest  F.  S o c i a l S e r v i c e D e p a r t m e n t and U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s , A p p l i c a t i o n (1967)  G.  Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , (1968)  H.  V a n c o u v e r , B.C., C i t y (1968)  D. H i l l ,  Recommendations  of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , D. H i l l ,  Memorandum  "Notes"  viii  (1966)  Report  (1966)  (1967)  "Terms o f R e f e r e n c e "  Council  "Resolutions"  /  CHARTS AND  MAP Preceding Page  City  of Vancouver  April, City  Organization,  1967  44  of Vancouver C i v i c  February, Map  Civic  Organization,  1972  of Vancouver,  67 B.C.  showing:  Local Area Boundaries L o c a t i o n o f B r i t a n n i a Community S e r v i c e Centre L o c a t i o n of F r a s e r v i e w Branch L i b r a r y  ix  106  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The  a s s i s t a n c e I r e c e i v e d from P r o f e s s o r  Wiesman i s h e r e b y  acknowledged.  Particular Newell  f o r their  continued  thanks  help  Tiessen  who h a v e g i v e n  their  to T e r r e l l  i n formulating  encouragement  workmates E r i c  and p o s i t i v e  Planning  t i m e and h e l p ,  this  expect  w h e t h e r by  available,  or typing,  sincere appreciation f o r their  and t h e r e s t  cost during my f r i e n d s , my  i nthe  and e s p e c i a l l y t o  my  task,  submitting  thanks a r e acknowledged.  this  o f our "extended"  many o f whom d o u b t e d  of  indulgence.  and  time.  that this  t h a t I was e v e r  thanks f o r t h e i r  nuclear  forebearance  too long period  w o u l d be w r i t t e n , o r q u e s t i o n e d in  t o my  To t h e many p e o p l e  Arleen  To  and f o r  criticism,  To opportunity  and C l a i r e  concepts;  D e p a r t m e n t s and e l s e w h e r e ,  M a u r i c e E g a n my  family,  Popoff  and Don B u c h a n a n .  to i n t e r v i e w s , making f i l e s two  Brahm  page  involved I now  t o renew o u r f r i e n d s h i p s and work i n c r e a s i n g l y f o r  necessary  social  changes.  x  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The  Problem Planners  1  concern  the  community,  and  economic a t t r i b u t e s ,  in  which  including  individuals  themselves with the p h y s i c a l , i n order  have  a l l aspects of  social,  to create  a choice  cultural  environments  o f as many  alternative  2  life-styles majority  as p o s s i b l e .  of planners  However, u n t i l  have  taken  r e c e n t l y the  too s i m p l i s t i c  a view o f  o  the  environment^and  have o f t e n used 4  e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s as m e a s u r e s , costs  involved i n their  outlook, and  they  depended  accomplish  restricted largely  their  their  on z o n i n g  n e g l e c t i n g the s o c i a l Having  thus  limited  use of a v a i l a b l e  their  services  b y l a w s and u r b a n d e s i g n t o  goals.  Moreover, w h i l e an  plans.  o n l y p h y s i c a l and  " o b j e c t i v e " manner,  attempting they  to look  a t the c i t y i n  may be u n w i t t i n g l y p l a n n i n g f o r  "Planners" f o r the purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s i s synonymous w i t h p h y s i c a l p l a n n e r s , community p l a n n e r s , u r ban p l a n n e r s , c i t y p l a n n e r s a s d i s t i n c t f r o m " s o c i a l planners." D i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e s f o r each of t h e i r r o l e s w i l l be g i v e n i n C h a p t e r I I , S e c t i o n s C and D. 2  M i c h a e l W h e e l e r , e d . , I n t e g r a t i o n o f P h y s i c a l and P l a n n i n g , (Ottawa: Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , 1967). No. 1, p . 76. 3 I . D a v i d i n W h e e l e r , I b i d . , p . 8. 4 See E . J . M i s h a n , G r o w t h : The P r i c e We Pay (London: S t a p l e s P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 ) , f o r a d i s c u s s i o n on s o c i e t y ' u s e o f e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s i n a l i m i t e d and m i s l e a d i n g manner. Social Report  2 the  status quo/  constantly.  Nevertheless,  People,  attitudes  and  planners'  d e c i s i o n s or  value-free  or  their  things are  changing  i d e a s , hopes,  d e c i s i o n s , are  riot  their  life-styles,  value-free.  Nor  l a c k of decision-making,  have begun t o d i s c u s s the p r o f o u n d  which occur  i n a community  of development c o n t r o l s . proposing  that social  preparation  as  a result  are  still  that  must be  plans,  and  being prepared  the  effects  implementation  considered  that citizens  f o r people  Canadian  social  Increasingly, planners  factors  of p h y s i c a l  of  become i n v o l v e d i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . plans  be  neutral.  In g e n e r a l , i t i s w i t h i n r e c e n t years planners  can  are in  the  must  Nonetheless, without  their  7  consent  and  often without  Social of  social  areas  of  planners  service social  T h i s has  now  provision  cures  brought  their  knowledge.  working p r i m a r i l y are  attempting  i n the  t o move  to the p r e v e n t i o n of s o c i a l  them t o a p o s i t i o n  of seeking  field  from problems.  increased  c o - o r d i n a t i o n w i t h u r b a n p l a n n e r s who a f f e c t t h e s o c i a l 8 l i f e of a c i t y . M i c h a e l Wheeler has noted t h a t " p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l p l a n n e r s h a v e s i m i l a r l y h a z y p e r c e p t i o n s o f 9 each o t h e r s r o l e s . " I f t h i s i s t r u e , then to achieve  R o b e r t A. A l e s h i r e , i n " P l a n n i n g and C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n - C o s t s , B e n e f i t s and A p p r o a c h e s " , U r b a n A f f a i r s Q u a r t e r l y , J u n e , 1970, pp. 369-93, s u g g e s t s t h a t s o c i a l c h a n g e s h o u l d be a p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e . ^ P a u l D a v i d o f f , " A d v o c a c y and P l u r a l i s m i n P l a n n i n g " i n T a m i n g M e g a l o p o l i s , e d . by H. W. E l d r e d g e ( G a r d e n C i t y , N.Y.: A n c h o r Books, 1 9 7 0 ) , V o l . I l l , p . 600. 7 See N e a l e Adams, "'We demand a s a y i n o u r h o u s i n g ' : N o r t h e a s t S e c t o r p e o p l e a r e f i g h t i n g c i t y h a l l , " The V a n c o u v e r Sun, May 13, 1971, p . 6. 8 M e l v i n Webber, " C o m p r e h e n s i v e P l a n n i n g and S o c i a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y , " i n J o u r n a l of the American I n s t i t u t e of P l a n n e r s . V o l . XXXIX, 1963, p . 233. Wheeler,  Ibid.,  p.  76.  3 such i n c r e a s e d c o - o r d i n a t i o n , i t w i l l some u n d e r s t a n d i n g social  B.  planner  o f how t h e r o l e s  are i n t e r r e l a t e d  be c r i t i c a l  o f t h e p h y s i c a l and  i n the planning  Purpose o f the Study  British  i n the C i t y  C o l u m b i a , was o r i g i n a l l y  given  municipal series  its  a Department  (SP/CD). injection  be p r i m a r i l y  a "physical"  Physical  and S o c i a l  study  paper, then,  the C i t y  Council to  o f t h e SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t , and considered  planning process  by some t o  t h e r e f o r e con-  o f an e v o l v i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p  Planners.  i s t o examine  The p r i n c i p a l this  between  purpose of  evolving  to achieve  of the r e s p e c t i v e r o l e s  within the o v e r a l l  a  Planning/Community D e v e l o p -  of Vancouver, i n order  understanding planners  of Social  i n t o what may h a v e b e e n  a case  in  t h e d e c i s i o n by C i t y  The f o r m a t i o n  1 1  stitutes this  with  Planning  I n 1968 t h e  s t r u c t u r e i n Vancouver underwent  of revisions  establish ment  planning  of Vancouver,  to the C i t y  when i t was f o r m e d i n 1952.  1 0  process.  •  The mandate f o r p l a n n i n g Department  t o have  relationship some  general  o f u r b a n and s o c i a l  public planning  process.  The V a n c o u v e r C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t was r e o r g a n i z e d i n M a r c h , 1971, and t h e o f f i c i a l name was c h a n g e d t o D e p a r t m e n t o f P l a n n i n g and C i v i c D e v e l o p m e n t , h e r e i n a f t e r a l s o r e f e r r e d t o as t h e P l a n n i n g Department. Persons working i n t h i s Department i n c l u d e P l a n n e r s . "^Department of S o c i a l Planning/Community D e v e l o p m e n t , h e r e i n a f t e r a l s o r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e SP/CD Department o r S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department. The t e r m "Community D e v e l o p m e n t " a p p e a r e d i n t h e name o f t h i s Department o r agency, however s t a f f p e r s o n n e l d i d n o t do community d e v e l o p m e n t work a c c o r d i n g t o a s t a t e m e n t made by t h e D i r e c t o r o f SP/CD d u r i n g an i n t e r v i e w i n h i s o f f i c e i n C i t y H a l l , A u g u s t , 1970. I n 1972, t h e name o f t h e SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t was c h a n g e d t o t h e S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department. F o r t h i s * r e a s o n , community d e v e l o p m e n t w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d o n l y p e r i p h e r a l l y i n t h i s t h e s i s . Individu a l s working i n t h i s Department i n c l u d e S o c i a l Planners or Co-Ordinators. The l a t t e r t i t l e w i l l be d e f i n e d l a t e r i n t h i s study.  The between and  case  those  those  study  Planners  working  Therefore  mine w h e t h e r  these  antecedents,  and  play, text  ganization  i f s o , how  may  be  groups,  by  Planning  gether  the they  linkages  exist  service  by  In differences w h i c h may be  of  be  S e c t i o n D. and  ments. be  of  primary  function.  i n Vancouver  of  and  An  related  and  approach can later attempt  behaviour  and  may  Social  to these  suggest in  gathered  i n the  as  that  conflict  Chapter of  and  sector).  T h i s view  to define  or  social  result  in this  to-  system  will  under  attitudes those  Planning  attitudes  persons Depart-  and  actions  to a f u t u r e researcher wishing  data  or-  system  S e r v i c e s , (a  or d y s f u n c t i o n a l . will  con-  i s done  another  o r g a n i z a t i o n , one  Planning  some v a l u e  formative  to  years  of  SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t . Since  ago,  the  Information  utilize the  i n both  w i t h i n the  i n the v o l u n t a r y or p r i v a t e  i n more d e t a i l thesis  planners  Interrelationships  Community  o f an  attitude  The  roles  of o v e r l a p p i n g  a component  a c t i o n s which i n f l u e n c e the  involved may  be  deter-  common  between groups w i t h i n t h i s  functional  considered  help  P l a n n i n g Departments,  a system.  system  a study  the  they  a system  Social  will  perform  as p l a n n i n g  the U n i t e d  delivery  as  and  o t h e r g r o u p s w h i c h may exemplied  tasks they  and  constitute  also  Department.  evolved.  to understanding  viewed  Department  branches with  they had  4  differences  Planning  Planning  o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n which  independent both  Social  are d i f f e r e n t  approach  the  i n the  of p l a n n i n g l i t e r a t u r e  i s t o examine the of  to i n d i c a t e  working  i n the  a review  One  appeared  t h e D e p a r t m e n t was  t h e w r i t e r had  involved  an  founded  opportunity  i n i t s establishment.  The  only f i v e  t o c o n t a c t many author  was  years persons  also involved  in  i n t e r - d e p a r t m e n t a l communication w i t h the S o c i a l P l a n 12 ners w h i l e w o r k i n g f o r a p e r i o d o f n i n e months i n t h e  "Social w i l l be u s e d when "social planners" when r e f e r r i n g t o planners.  P l a n n e r s " and " P l a n n e r s " ( u p p e r c a s e ) r e f e r r i n g to p a r t i c u l a r people, while and " p l a n n e r s " ( l o w e r c a s e ) w i l l be u s e d t h e g e n e r a l c l a s s o f s o c i a l and community  Planning cerning  Department social  planners social  Hall.  that  will  per  be  se.  The  their  of  welfare  planning  those  two in  distinguishing features,  and  to  cepts  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s o c i a l  the  than  study 13  on  on  more  this  the  effect  body o f  t h r o w some l i g h t had  social  SP/CD was  d i f f e r e n c e s between i n the  5 con-  discussions  some p h y s i c a l and  the Department  considered  to c l a r i f y  During  practice,  involved i n social  planning  concepts order  planning  suggested  extensively  at C i t y  that  these  differing and  con-  city  planners. To  appreciate  under review, and  planning.  Following of  suggested  theoretical  t h a t the  n i n g Department Deviations  a study  planning  purpose  and  s t a t e d i n the  planning  from  concepts  this,  a social  were a s o c i a l  significance  this  "ideal"  agency  or  i n the  planning  of  evolving actual role  opposed  lishment  to the  of  the  sidering ning,  more d e t a i l e d  estab-  I t may  be  Social  Plan-  of  the  concept.  theoretical  social  a study  planner,  the  estab-  is a  reason,  concepts  placed  three is  social  l e a d i n g to  for this be  1968,  reflecting  in  of  con-  plan-  on  the  social  so  forth.  at  one  of  the  planning  process  can  be  a w i d e number o f p e r s p e c t i v e s  involvement,  such  economic, p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s I t i s not  t i m e and on  the  Such a study  thesis;  and  as  the  physical  p r a c t i c e of  Thus,  concept  emphasis w i l l  examination  terms of  trate  this  the  to  branch. An  in  experience.  SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t .  the h i s t o r i c a l  planning  seen i n p a r t ,  theoretical  secondary purpose of  i n 1968.  theoretical  social  as  and  Terms o f R e f e r e n c e ,  years  the  be  given  made o f  f u n c t i o n of  conception,  may  was  i n 1971,  possible  the r e l a t i o n s h i p s  of s o c i a l  planning of  of  c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n some d e p t h was  historical lishment  the  certain  most a p p r o p r i a t e  See  any  p o s s i b l e to consider dissertation  f a c t o r s which  citizen  provision,  and  a l l perspectives  must n e c e s s a r i l y c o n c e n -  the  f o r h i s purposes.  particularly  as  made  Chapter  author This  b e l i e v e s to thesis i s  II, Section  C.  be  there-  6 fore  selective  with  the s o c i a l The  i n i t s approach;  i t concerns i t s e l f  primarily  aspects of planning i n the planning  process.  o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s p a p e r may be s u m m a r i z e d a s : 1.  To a c h i e v e tionships in  of social  study  of the r e l a -  and p h y s i c a l  the planning process,  case in  some u n d e r s t a n d i n g  planners  utilizing  the municipal planning  the C i t y  of Vancouver, with  as a process  particular  reference t o : a.  Interrelationships  o r l i n k a g e s between  the groups w i t h i n the p l a n n i n g b.  Differing  attitudes  system.  and c o n c e p t i o n s  b e t w e e n members o f t h e two g r o u p s , and the e x t e n t generate  t o which  these  functional  conceptions  and d y s f u n c t i o n a l  conflict. 2.  To s t u d y planner depth, a.  the e v o l v i n g r o l e  w i t h i n the p l a n n i n g process with  particular  The h i s t o r i c a l ning,  i n some  reference to:  e v o l u t i o n of s o c i a l  and some c o n t e m p o r a r y  concepts b.  of the s o c i a l  of s o c i a l  plan-  theoretical  planning.  The a c t u a l  practice  as r e l a t e d  to the o r i g i n a l o b j e c t i v e s  of e s t a b l i s h i n g  of s o c i a l  a social  planning  planning  agency. Methodology The  r e s e a r c h methodology w i l l  that  the l i m i t a t i o n s  give  the reader  the  author's  data  o f t h e d a t a may be r e v e a l e d .  an o p p o r t u n i t y t o e i t h e r  analysis  accept  i n order This  will  or challenge  o f t h e m a t e r i a l on t h e b a s i s o f t h e  presented. The  1969,  be p r e s e n t e d  while  collection  of data  for this  t h e w r i t e r was w o r k i n g  study  began i n  i n the Planning  Depart-  7 merit.  The a u t h o r d i s c u s s e d  availability for  of research  of this  departmental freely  cribed  files,  o f SP/CD t h e  which might provide  better  with  Following theoretical letters  evolution  onward.  discussions  Social  of planning  criteria  months.  activities  des-  Planning  from the  two d i s t i n c t  The s u r v e y  of this  branches  included of  a  planning.  h i s t o r i c a l and  of the various  reports,  o f t h e SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t  As a r e s u l t o f t h e s e a r c h  i n detail.  them  a r e v i e w was c a r r i e d  into  an e x a m i n a t i o n  were e s t a b l i s h e d  scrutinized  fifteen  t h e o r e t i c a l concepts  with various  Planning,  from  of planning  Also,  and memoranda i n t h e f i l e s  was c a r r i e d o u t .  was g a t h e r e d  the planning  the c o l l e c t i o n  material,  As a  made a v a i l a b l e t h e  the f o l l o w i n g  i n the Twentieth Century.  number o f c o n t e m p o r a r y  data  a s u r v e y was made o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e  the h i s t o r i c a l  of the dichotomy  early  during  comprehend  mid-Nineteenth Century out,  the Director  and i n f o r m a t i o n  i n t h e documents,  dealing  of the f i l e s  members o f C i t y H a l l s t a f f i n  and t h e C i t y C l e r k ' s  Office,  f o r s e l e c t i n g documents  The two c r i t e r i a  t o be  c h o s e n , were  that  d o c u m e n t s must h a v e b e e n drawn up p r i o r t o t h e t i m e 14  City and  material  interview,  and f r e q u e n t l y To  the  the D i r e c t o r  a t h e s i s on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f h i s D e p a r t m e n t .  result  and  with  Council  established  a l l the reports  sible  a social  planning  organization;  were t o h a v e b e e n p r e p a r e d  by  authorities"""ior presentation to Council. S e v e n d o c u m e n t s were c h o s e n on t h e b a s i s 16  above c r i t e r i a .  One a d d i t i o n a l r e p o r t  detailed  consideration  even  referred  The C i t y C o u n c i l t o as C o u n c i l .  "responof the  was i n c l u d e d f o r  t h o u g h i t d i d n o t meet one  of Vancouver, h e r e i n a f t e r  also  15 For purposes of t h i s c r i t e r i o n a r e s p o n s i b l e a u t h o r i t y meant a p e r s o n o r a g e n c y d o i n g p l a n n i n g , social p l a n n i n g or a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n the p r i v a t e or p u b l i c s e c t o r . 1 6  E.  D. H i l l ,  "Notes"  (1967), Appendix E.  8 criterion  since  Council.  These  i t was  not  prepared  for presentation  to  " N o t e s " were i n c l u d e d b e c a u s e t h e B o a r d 17 of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n had a u t h o r i z e d Mr. E. D. H i l l ( i n h i s c a p a c i t y as D i r e c t o r o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g f o r U n i t e d 18 Community S e r v i c e s ) to p r e p a r e recommendations r e g a r d i n g the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department f o r 19 p r e s e n t a t i o n to C o u n c i l . T h e r e f o r e , any v i e w s Mr. Hill e x p r e s s e d a t a 1967 m e e t i n g o f p l a n n e r s and s o c i a l 20 planners might p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n of value f o r c o m p a r a t i v e p u r p o s e s w i t h t h e r e p o r t he s u b m i t t e d , . 21 earlier.  U n t i l J a n u a r y , 1973, a two-man B o a r d i n V a n c o u v e r , c a r r y i n g out the f u n c t i o n s of a C i t y Manager. I n J a n u a r y , 1973, a new C i t y C o u n c i l w i t h n i n e o f i t s e l e v e n members f r o m The E l e c t o r s A c t i o n Movement, (TEAM) r e q u e s t e d and r e c e i v e d t h e r e s i g n a t i o n o f Mr. Gerald S u t t o n Brown, l e a v i n g o n l y one member on t h e B o a r d , Mr. L o r n e Ryan. 18 U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s o f t h e Greater Vancouver Area. F o r m e r l y c a l l e d the G r e a t e r Vancouver Community C h e s t and C o u n c i l s . A federative organization r e p r e s e n t i n g a l a r g e number o f v o l u n t a r y o r p r i v a t e s o c i a l s e r v i c e agencies. H e r e i n a f t e r a l s o r e f e r r e d t o as U.C.S. 19 See t h e B o a r d o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n R e p o r t ( 1 9 6 6 ) , A p p e n d i x D, p . 7. 20 C a n a d i a n W e l f a r e C o u n c i l C o n f e r e n c e on LowIncome H o u s i n g , O t t a w a , A p r i l , 1967. 21 E . D. H i l l , R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s ( 1 9 6 6 ) , A p p e n d i x C.  9 The e i g h t following  reports  sources:  22  were o b t a i n e d  A c o p y o f Downtown - E a s t  was made a v a i l a b l e b y t h e L i b r a r i a n Department. the  Administration Department from  the f i l e s  by E . D. H i l l  (1968)  o f t h e SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t . were l o c a t e d  Planning (1965),  t h e Board o f  and t h e S o c i a l 23  "Terms o f R e f e r e n c e "  (1965)  Memorandum  (1966) b y E . D. H i l l ,  R e p o r t (1966)  Side  a t the C i t y  The Board o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  Recommendations  from t h e  Planning  were  obtained  The "Notes"  i n the Marjorie  (1967)  Smith L i b r a r y  These documents c o n s t i t u t e A p p e n d i c e s A t o H of t h i s t h e s i s . C h r o n o l o g i c a l l y they a r e : Vancouver, B.C., C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , Downtown - E a s t S i d e ( 1 9 6 5 ) ; V a n c o u v e r , B.C., B o a r d o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Memorandum i n Support o f t h e Concept o f a S o c i a l Development Board and a Department o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Development (1965), h e r e i n a f t e r a l s o c a l l e d Memorandum; E . D. H i l l , Recommendat i o n s Re: t h e E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a Department o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g a n d D e v e l o p m e n t ( V a n c o u v e r : U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s , 1966), h e r e i n a f t e r a l s o c a l l e d Recommendations; V a n c o u v e r , B.C., B o a r d o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , R e p o r t on a P r o p o s e d D e p a r t m e n t o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g a n d D e v e l o p m e n t : To the C o u n c i l o f t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r ( 1 9 6 6 ) , h e r e i n a f t e r a l s o c a l l e d R e p o r t ; E . D. H i l l , " N o t e s on a D e p a r t m e n t of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g a n d D e v e l o p m e n t f o r t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r " i n I n t e g r a t i o n o f P h y s i c a l and S o c i a l P l a n n i n g : w i t h s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e t o p u b l i c h o u s i n g and u r b a n r e n e w a l ] R e p o r t number o n e , M i c h a e l W h e e l e r , e d . ( O t t a w a : C a n a d i a n W e l f a r e C o u n c i l , 1967), h e r e i n a f t e r a l s o c a l l e d " N o t e s " ; V a n c o u v e r , B.C., S o c i a l S e r v i c e D e p a r t m e n t and U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s , An A p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e H o n o u r a b l e D a n i e l J . C a m p b e l l , M i n i s t e r o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e , by t h e C i t y of V a n c o u v e r , Department o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Development, f o r C o n s i d e r a t i o n U n d e r t h e C a n a d a A s s i s t a n c e P l a n (196 7T"] h e r e i n a f t e r a l s o r e f e r r e d t o as A p p l i c a t i o n * Vancouver,B.C., Board o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Department o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Community D e v e l o p m e n t , Terms o f R e f e r e n c e , 1968 P r o g r a m a n d B u d g e t (1968T"] h e r e i n a f t e r a l s o c a l l e d S o c i a l P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t "Terms o f R e f e r e n c e " ; V a n c o u v e r , B.C., C i t y C o u n c i l M i n u t e s , " R e s o l u t i o n s " ( O c t o b e r 8, 1968), h e r e i n after called Council "Resolutions."  Council  A p p e n d i x G. T h i s d o c u m e n t on J u n e 13, 1 9 6 8 .  was a d o p t e d b y C i t y  at  the School  Columbia.  o f S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  A copy o f t h e A p p l i c a t i o n  from  the C i t y Clerk's  City  Council  were r e v i e w e d  a view t o o b t a i n i n g dates  Office.  The o r i g i n a l  information  regarding  received  Minutes of  i n the C i t y Clerk's  f o r the establishment  Social  (1967) was  Office  with  t h e m o t i o n s and  o f t h e SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t , t h e  Development Committee  ( S . D . C . ) ^ and t h e J o i n t 25 T e c h n i c a l Committee ( J . T . C ) . The M i n u t e s o f C o u n c i l d a t e d J u n e 13, 1968 s t a t e t h e Terms o f R e f e r e n c e f o r t h e 26 D e p a r t m e n t o f SP/CD, i t s p u r p o s e resolution  of Council  objectives of  reports not  advocated  Committee  t o implement planning  to determine  a Technical  Services  the general  objectives Given the  o b j e c t i v e s , the  t o determine whether o r of a Department, Committee.  a  If a  a f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s was made  i f the report defined  with  the s t a t e d  of these  the establishment  and/or  the proposed  organization.  i n an a t t e m p t  d e p a r t m e n t was recommended, relations  to determine  and t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  were a n a l y z e d  they  Policy  social  f u n c t i o n s and  authorized.  was e x a m i n e d  and p r o p o s a l s  the suggested  objectives  and t h e i r  s t r u c t u r e were  Each r e p o r t  By  on O c t o b e r 8, 1968 t h e S.D.C. and  J . T . C . were e s t a b l i s h e d administrative  and f u n c t i o n s .  the department's  community,  (U.C.S.) and t h e P l a n n i n g  the United  Community  Department.  S o c i a l Development Committee. A committee o f elected p o l i t i c a l representatives responsible f o rpolicy decisions i n social planning, hereinafter also referred t o as S . D . C , o r P o l i c y Committee. 25 J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee. A committee o f Administrators responsible f o r technical decisions i n s o c i a l p l a n n i n g , h e r e i n a f t e r a l s o r e f e r r e d t o as J . T . C , or T e c h n i c a l Committee. 26 W h i l e t h e D i r e c t o r o f SP/CD assumed t h i s p o s i t i o n J a n u a r y 1, 1968, f o r p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y t h e e f f e c t i v e d a t e o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t ' s f o u n d i n g was c o n s i d e r e d J u n e 13, 1968 when i t s Terms o f R e f e r e n c e were a d o p t e d b y C o u n c i l .  11  In the  addition, "responsible authorities"  author  t o borrow s p e c i f i c  Department United  and t h e o f f i c e  Community  the p e r s o n a l the by  establishment M r s . E . D.  Copies  of the l a t e  reports prepared  reports  and i n t e r v i e w s r e l a t i n g  "in  o f some p a p e r s  i n order  reports either this  to provide  f u r t h e r depth  to the o v e r a l l  had n o t been p r e s e n t e d  thesis  These r e p o r t s r e f l e c t data.  was w r i t t e n o r t h e y  and were o f some v a l u e  provided  with  regarding  t h e SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t ' s r o l e , they  in  of the study.  t h e body It  to  this  study  at  an e a r l y  decision  i t had e v o l v e d  evaluation  gathered of s o c i a l  difference  influential  the d r a f t of  Planners  and t h e P l a n n i n g  the f i n d i n g s mentioned  i n w r i t t e n form. a series  of the S o c i a l  three  by t h i s planning  years  one c a n p r e s u m e  t h e s i s , the  Planning  Department 27  of experience.  technique practice  would  The  a i d i n an  when c o m p a r e d  that there  between a p a r t i c i p a n t ' s  Consequently,  of interviews to  o b j e c t i v e s s e t out i n the "founding Since  the  after  and  and i t s r e l a t i o n s  i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s  the actual r o l e  information the  was a v a i l a b l e  stage  with  that not a l l information p e r t i n e n t  was made t o c o n d u c t  determine as  also corroborated  c a n be assumed  The  were d e a l t  and S o c i a l  Development Committee  Department,  study.  a better understanding  o f some V a n c o u v e r P l a n n e r s  the S o c i a l  to the  t o C o u n c i l up  be s t a t e d t h a t w h i l e  the author  used  i n the a n a l y s i s of the  the views with  provided  confidential.  the views of important  However, i t s h o u l d  reports  r e l a t i n g to  f o r C o u n c i l were  c a m e r a " and a r e t h e r e f o r e c o n s i d e r e d  informants  from  Hill.  sources  t h e time  D i r e c t o r of the  Mr. E . D. H i l l ,  as d a t a  to  t h e SP/CD  o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f SP/CD, were  Four d r a f t  draft  from  of the Executive  Services.  files  files  permitted  with  documents." i s a fundamental  v i e w o f h i s own  Names, o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n s , d a t e s and l o c a t i o n s o f interviews are given i n the Bibliography.  activities the  and an o b s e r v e r ' s  interviewees  non-Social the  included  Planners.  view of those  both  S o c i a l Planners  The i n t e r v i e w s  planning The  Director 28  Co-ordinators reflected planners  the o v e r a l l  were i n t e r v i e w e d  and t h e i r  planning  to obtain  of t h e i r  Senior  Department 1971,  (Planner  data  which the Planning  III)  to obtain  of the s o c i a l were a l s o h e l d  t h e SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t  working  data  planners'  of the  the  Planning  1970 and A p r i l , which r e f l e c t e d  their  r o l e and t h e r e l a t i o n s  and t h e i r  with  three of  and t h r e e  between June,  t h e SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t  Interviews with  Planners  were i n t e r v i e w e d  between  Area  the D i r e c t o r of Planning,  at City Hall  perceptions  system.  Department's r e l a t i o n s with  In turn,  determine  own r o l e s a s s o c i a l  f o u r Deputy D i r e c t o r s of P l a n n i n g  four  and  Department t o  o f SP/CD and f o u r L o c a l  their perceptions  Department. the  within  activities,  also helped  r e l a t i o n s h i p of the S o c i a l Planning  physical  same  own D e p a r t m e n t .  i n d i v i d u a l s who h a d w o r k e d  as c o n s u l t a n t s ,  o r who  were 29  members o f t h e F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y art o r g a n i z a t i o n Department. a member  of  Three  a d d i t i o n a l people  f o r the J o i n t T e c h n i c a l  members o f C i t y C o u n c i l ,  offices  Council, Planning  interviewed  included  O f f i c e who a c t e d  Committee  as  ( J . T . C . ) , and  o f whom one was t h e C h a i r m a n  the S o c i a l Development Committee Interviews  the  Area  which i s l i n k e d t o t h e S o c i a l  o f the Vancouver C i t y C l e r k ' s  Secretary two  Local  were c o n d u c t e d  of the interviewees  (S.D.C.).  mainly  unless  at City Hall i n  otherwise  stated.  A S o c i a l P l a n n e r i n t h e SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t . The name d e r i v e s f r o m t h e t a s k s S o c i a l P l a n n e r s h a d when t h e D e p a r t m e n t was e s t a b l i s h e d , and t h e y w o r k e d i n L o c a l A r e a s or Neighbourhoods i n Vancouver, c o - o r d i n a t i n g the e f f o r t s o f a team o f p r o f e s s i o n a l and n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l p e o p l e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o v i d i n g s o c i a l s e r v i c e s i n the area. 29 T h i s A r e a C o u n c i l d e f i n e s " A r e a C o u n c i l " a s an autonomous c o - o r d i n a t i n g body i n a l o c a l community w h i c h undertakes or encourages appropriate a c t i o n t o achieve d e s i r e d improvement i n l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s .  13 The  technique  ended  employed  questions  which i n v o l v e d  informal discussion. more t h a n one different  from  one  writer  and  and  first  of  notes  In  the  that  second  the  i f q u o t e d , he to  Not analyzed; because the  not  respondent. be  should  context  the  this  would  of  the To  w r i t e r was  name on  the  asked  top  of  to  refrain  the  pages  of h i s  cautioned  gathered  can  assume  that  can  be  remarks.  explicitly  presented  relevant information the  out  could  that  the  will  be  an  data  be  quoted  directly. under  implications i f considered i f a planner  planning be the  process,  shared and  by  thus  thesis.  other the  the  defines one  within  can  his  planners  opinion  in  may  I f , however,  opinion  might  the  i t might p o s s i b l y c o n f l i c t This  would  influence  Social with  be  certainly  this  is one  Department,  policies be  of  departmental  Planning the  role  assume  a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r of planning,  r e l a t i o n s with  of  given  statements presented  illustrate,  this  department.  not  be  anonymity  individuals position within  not  nor  author d e l e t e d  p o s s i b l e to preserve  o r may  s t a t e d view of  latter  two  "have t o d e n y " c e r t a i n s t a t e m e n t s  the  s i g n i f i c a n c e to  and  had  permitted  However, some i n d i c a t i o n s w i l l  the  policy  they In  Hall  confidentiality  Department of P l a n n i n g ,  minimal  and  the  instances,  pointed  may  thesis.  at C i t y  w r i t e r was  " s y n t h e s i z e r " i n the  that  indicated that  the  anonymity.  responses which  organization. as  notes during  requested  anonymity would have wider the  the  f r a n k l y , but  the  a few  i t was  It  gave  him.  In  the  take  lasted  matters 'freely  nonetheless,  regarding  and  consulted  interviews  consulted  on  discussed  a l l the d a t a  presented.  an  interview,  to assure  case,  of  in this  informant's  i n order  attributed  quoted  such i n s t a n c e ,  from p l a c i n g the  open-  in  p e r s o n s were  A l l persons  respondents  answered q u e r i e s the  respondent  majority  most i n f o r m a n t s  during  a v a r i e t y of  the  three  to interview  instances  note-taking In  The  o b j e c t i o n to being  particular  and  hours.  permission  discussion, no  times.  two  of  M o s t i n d i v i d u a l s were i n t e r v i e w e d  occasion,  five  to  consisted  the  of  the  case i f  14 such as  a planner  the  was  delegated  the  responsibility  P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on  Technical  Committee which i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  of  planning  social  of  the  acting  Joint  implementation  policy. 30  The  term  "Key  key  personnel  say  the D i r e c t o r ,  term  Planner"  will  be  used  i n the Department o f P l a n n i n g , o r one  "Senior Planner"  of f o u r A s s i s t a n t  will  be  Directors.  to denote  number o f P l a n n e r s  working under h i s d i r e c t i o n .  in  the P l a n n i n g  designated as  an  ranked  as  individual or S o c i a l  a Key  regard the  the  the  r e p o r t on of  the  Hall,  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of and  addition,  roles  of  compared  the with In  better under  the  the  author  Social  but  the  be  changes  P h y s i c a l and  through  an  with  Social  e v a l u a t i o n of  the p l a n n i n g  system  w i t h i n the  particularly  the methodology  the  employed  to  t a k i n g p l a c e i n the p l a n n i n g  included a survey was  were drawn  and  practice  o f p l a n n i n g and  system. the  practice  used  as  comprehend system  of p l a n n i n g l i t e r a t u r e .  a guide  to understanding  in particular  documents w i t h h i s t o r i c a l  i t s social  significance  to  s i n c e they  social  planning  these  the e a r l i e r  i n 1968,  theory.  The  and  "ideal"  the  the  P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t were r e v i e w e d , i n Vancouver  Thus  aspects.  Social  with  the  theory.  theory  compared  not  Administrator  drew c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g  Planners,  planning Certain  a  i n t e r v i e w s , the w r i t e r  dysfunctional conflicts  summary,  study,  the  Conclusions  relationships  i n Vancouver C i t y  functional In  Hall  A d m i n i s t r a t o r or Senior  has  Under  P l a n n i n g Departments w i l l  the d a t a g a t h e r e d .  to  Planners  working i n C i t y  I I I and  of  above.  Following analyzed  of P l a n n e r  The  a member  holds  typology  rank  that i s to  t h e D e p a r t m e n t who this  the  used  to denote  defined  were of  social  T h i s t e r m i s a d a p t e d f r o m F l o y d H u n t e r , Community Power S t r u c t u r e ; A S t u d y o f D e c i s i o n M a k e r s ( C h a p e l H i l l , North C a r o l i n a : U n i v e r s i t y of North C a r o l i n a P r e s s , 1953).  15 planning of  social  was  planning  then j u x t a p o s e d w i t h the  i n 1971  and  non-Social  The  author then analyzed  drew  D.  i n 1968  Planners involved  considered  purposes  the s i g n i f i c a n c e  relating  briefly  of t h i s  and  device  i n discussing  planning with  conflict  will  reviewed  point.  process.  of the d a t a  and  and  subsystems  s t a n d how  I.  For  as a m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  may  overlapping  has  organiza-  structure  of  be more a p p r o p r i a t e l y  a pattern  within  of the p u b l i c  Chris  Argyris  be  and  theory  dealt  will  be  (b)  maintenance  (c)  adaptation  itself,  Of  groups i t s own.  t h e p r o c e s s by  the groups,  system.  As  and how  a base  which groups  f o r studying  p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n Vancouver, and  discussed.  t h r e e main c o r e  of  t o the e x t e r n a l  system; environment.  o f o b j e c t i v e s heads  that p a r t i c u l a r  make m a i n t e n a n c e  activities  objectives;  of the i n t e r n a l  the achievement  the environment  of the  of the H a r v a r d S c h o o l o f B u s i n e s s  the achievement  states  Each  of  i t i s necessary to under-  o r g a n i z a t i o n s have  While  as a s y s t e m  of communication  stated  (a)  which  groups.  system  the o v e r a l l  concepts w i l l  that  be v i e w e d  i s p a s s e d between  structure  arise  of Chaper  will  be u t i l i z e d  each system views  information  Argyris  earlier  concepts of  Planning history  To u n d e r s t a n d t h e t o t a l  states  raised  theoretical  and may  organization  independent  relevant  Conflict  i n depth i n Chapter I I . An  interact  section  the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  i n Vancouver  at t h i s  and  to the i s s u e s  in this  thesis,  tion  the  Social Planners  i n the p l a n n i n g  Concepts of O r g a n i z a t i o n  Theories  or  by  conclusions.  Theoretical  be  as s t a t e d  perceptions  the  list,  c i r c u m s t a n c e s sometimes  of the system  t h e most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r  or a d a p t a t i o n f o r the  to  16 organization. is the  pursued  31  Decisions  most v i g o r o u s l y  perceptions  Therefore Director  regarding will  depend,  of the leadership  the author w i l l  which  core  activity  i t appears,  within  upon  the o r g a n i z a t i o n .  examine i n C h a p t e r !  I V how t h e  o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f SP/CD p e r c e i v e s h i s  department. The character a matter  ability  while  homogeneity  of outlook  thus  history  t h e meaning  through that  the goals.  Selznick. a  and r o l e  c o n t i n u i t y i n the i s through the  The l e a d e r s h i p ,  by t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s  i n turn,  of the organization  i s shaped  by t h e e m p l o y e e s  and t h e  of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . concept  a c c o u n t what a c t u a l l y in  Philip  has been 32  a sense o f c o n t i n u i t y of  determination,  the leadership This  itself  concerning  through  which s e t s  constrained  conditions,  o f a l l employees h a v i n g  c a n be a c h i e v e d  of policy  leadership and  the importance  This  sources  to changing  to maintain i t s  t o the s o c i o l o g i s t ,  the organization  policy.  is  adapting  of concern  He e m p h a s i z e s of  o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n  threatened,  of leadership  appears  to take  o c c u r s when an o r g a n i z a t i o n  a s when t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n  into sees  i s involved  conflict. Conflict  may be a t h r e a t  to the i n t e r n a l  equilibrium  as a r e s u l t  of the i n t e r n a l  (or external)  environment  i n relation  t o the system.  I n an  article,  C h r i s A r g y r i s , I n t e g r a t i n g t h e I n d i v i d u a l and t h e Organization, (New Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y & S o n s , I n c . , 1 9 6 4 ) , pp. 315-16. A l s o R o b e r t P e r l m a n and A r n o l d Gurin, Community O r g a n i z a t i o n and S o c i a l P l a n n i n g . (New Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y & S o n s , I n c . , and t h e C o u n c i l f o r S o c i a l Work Education, 1 9 7 2 ) , p . 2. 32 Selznick, Leadership i n Administration. • ^ P h i l i p Row, P e t e r s o n , 1 9 5 7 ) . ( E v a n s t o n , 111.:  17 Lewis Coser, conflict he  has  argues  33  the  s o c i o l o g i s t contends  negative  that  results for  conflict  dysfunctional"^ Conflict  f o r an  can  be  that  not a l l  a group s t r u c t u r e ,  both f u n c t i o n a l  and  and  organization.  i s f u n c t i o n a l where t h e r e  i s agreement  on  35  the  basic  assumptions  organization  and  or  basic  consequently  values i t can  within be  s e e n as  the a method  of a d a p t i n g to change. I n t e r n a l s o c i a l , c o n f l i c t s which 36 37 concern goals or i n t e r e s t s b u t w h i c h do n o t n e g a t e t h e b a s i c v a l u e s upon w h i c h t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s b a s e d " t e n d 38 t o be p o s i t i v e l y f u n c t i o n a l f o r t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . "  33 L e w i s C o s e r , "The F u n c t i o n s o f C o n f l i c t " i n S y s t e m , Change and C o n f l i c t : A R e a d e r on C o n t e m p o r a r y S o c i o l o g i c a l T h e o r y and t h e D e b a t e O v e r F u n c t i o n a l i s m . E d i t e d by N. J . D e m e r a t h I I I and R i c h a r d A. P e t e r s o n , TNew Y o r k : The F r e e P r e s s , 1967) p. 307. H e r e i n a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as D e m e r a t h and P e t e r s o n , S y s t e m . 34 R o b e r t K. M e r t o n d e f i n e s d y s f u n c t i o n a s " . . . t h e c o n c e p t o f s t r a i n , s t r e s s and t e n s i o n on t h e s t r u c t u r a l l e v e l , and p r o v i d e s an a n a l y t i c a l a p p r o a c h t o t h e s t u d y o f d y n a m i c s and c h a n g e " i n " M a n i f e s t and L a t e n t Functions." See D e m e r a t h and P e t e r s o n , S y s t e m , p . 45. 35 A b a s i c v a l u e f o r p u r p o s e s o f t h i s t h e s i s may be d e f i n e d as an u n d e r l y i n g b a s e f o r j u d g e m e n t and evaluation. T h i s d e f i n i t i o n i s a d a p t e d from R o l a n d L. Warren, "Types of P u r p o s i v e S o c i a l Change a t t h e Community L e v e l " i n R. M. K r a m e r and H. S p e c h t , R e a d i n g s i n Community Organization Practice. (Englewood C l i f f s , N.J. P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1 9 6 9 ) , p . 207. H e r e i n a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as W a r r e n , P u r p o s i v e Change. 36 A g o a l w i l l be d e f i n e d as an o b j e c t i v e , w h i c h i f a c h i e v e d , w i l l b r i n g about d e s i r e d change. 37 An i n t e r e s t i s d e f i n e d i n t e r m s o f how one r e l a t e s t o a s p e c i f i c i s s u e , Adapted from Warren, P u r p o s i v e Change, p . 207. 38 Coser,  i n Demerath  and  Peterson,  System, p.  307.  18 Conflicts share of  i n which  the basic  the s o c i a l  structure.  Coser  the group,  until  they  that  will  also  threaten  states  be a d d e d that  if  personnel  structure this  t h e more c l o s e d will  be  One may  agreement  as i s s o c i a l  conflict.  structure that  the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  be o f s i g n i f i c a n c e  study. I t i s R o l f Dahrendorf's view that 41  ubiquitous,  assume  and f u r t h e r  perceive  t o be e g a l i t a r i a n , t h a t may  He  organizations  of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n  accumulated 40  issues.  structured  as a h i e r a r c h i c a l t y p e ,  or  repressed  and t h a t  f o r discontent.  a more e g a l i t a r i a n t y p e  39  to d i s r u p t the  no l o n g e r  loosely  longer  the l e g i t i m a c y  t o the immediate  a "safety valve"  n o t as r i g i d  that  t h e more c o n f l i c t s  suggests  is  to  rests  upon w h i c h  c a n be c o n t a i n e d  grievances provide  assumptions  system  rigid  therefore  t h e c o n t e n d i n g p a r t i e s no  social  While  amongst s o c i o l o g i s t s r e g a r d i n g  there  change i s is little  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  o f c o n s e n s u s and c o n f l i c t i n o r g a n i z e d s o c i e t y , D u b i n a r g u e s t h a t ". . . g r o u p c o n f l i c t c a n n o t be w i s h e d o u t o f 42 existence." Further, i t i s h i s contention that continuing g r o u p c o n f l i c t may be r e g a r d e d as an i m p o r t a n t way o f 43 g i v i n g d i r e c t i o n t o s o c i a l change. H o r o w i t z c a r r i e s t h e argument f u r t h e r , that  i n a world  of c o n f l i c t i n g  and comments  i n t e r e s t s , (where e v e n t h e  39 To " l e g i t i m i z e " may be d e f i n e d as an a b i l i t y t o an o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s u s e o r e x i s t e n c e . 40 C o s e r , I b i d . . p . 311. 41 R o l f D a h r e n d o r f , C l a s s and C l a s s C o n f l i c t i n I n d u s t r i a l Society, (Stanford, C a l i f : Stanford University P r e s s , 1 9 5 9 ) , p . 162. 42 R. D u b i n , " A p p r o a c h e s t o t h e S t u d y o f S o c i a l Conflict: A C o l l o q u i u m , " i n C o n f l i c t R e s o l u t i o n , V o l . I, No. 2, ( J u n e , 1 9 5 7 ) , p . 184. justify  4 3  Ibid.,  p . 194.  19 very  meaning o f t h e term  conflict of  operates  expressing A  organizational  social  of c o n f l i c t s system  s t r u c t u r e "as a means 44 n e e d s and a s p i r a t i o n s . "  which e x i s t  (the Planning  Departments),  may b r i n g t o l i g h t  and  interests  w i t h i n the system.  may  indicate  Departments. the  our  directions  More i m p o r t a n t ,  n e e d s and a s p i r a t i o n s "  urban  w i t h i n an  and S o c i a l  conflicting  Planning  values,  These c o n f l i c t s  o f c h a n g e f o r t h e two  s y s t e m may be e x p r e s s i n g  social  i n disputed),  w i t h i n the s o c i a l  genuine  study  "interests"  individual as b e s t  they  of c e r t a i n  goals  i n turn,  Planning  actors within can, the "genuine 45 groups  within  society.  I . L . H o r o w i t z , " C o n s e n s u s , C o n f l i c t and C o - o p e r a t i o n , " i n D e m e r a t h and P e t e r s o n , S y s t e m , p p . 274-79. A l s o R o l a n d W a r r e n , T r u t h , L o v e and S o c i a l C h a n g e . ( C h i c a g o : Rand M c N a l l y & Company, 1 9 7 1 ) , p . 256. P e r l m a n and G u r i n , I b i d . , p . 8, c o n t e n d t h a t t h e community o r g a n i z a t i o n and s o c i a l p l a n n i n g ". . . . p r a c t i t i o n e r i s n o t i n d e p e n d e n t ; he s e r v e s a g r o u p i n t e r e s t . "  CHAPTER  II  THE THEORY OF PLANNING AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR URBAN CHANGE  A.  Introduction This concepts  chapter  development  into  part  Twentieth  of  social  The  the  two then  distinct  branches  Century.  The  Roots of  great p o l i t i c a l American  and  seeds large  and  French  of  implications light  of  factory  novelists  and  and  polemics,  be  and i t s early  of  this  today's  t r a c e d back  to  the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y - -  government,  and  with  the  who  them  Industrial  were m o v i n g f r o m  mercantile c i t i e s the people,  through  in  the  lives  rural  Britain.  stirred  1  by  the  d e s c r i b e d t h e way  poems, s t o r i e s ,  a l l o f w h i c h were d e s i g n e d  the the  e q u a l l y g r e a t changes i n the  political-economists  c o n d i t i o n s of  the workers  can  R e v o l u t i o n s — which brought  numbers o f p e o p l e  worsening of  upheavals  which brought  t o the  Poets, life  roots,  Planning  of p a r t i c i p a t o r y  Revolution areas  theoretical  d u r i n g the  c o n s i d e r e d , i n the  Today's p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s  of  the  milieu.  Historical  the  with  o f modern p l a n n i n g , i t s h i s t o r i c a l  development are  B.  i s concerned  of  statistics  t o change  these  conditions. Attempts by  at  industrialization  alleviating gave r i s e  the  c o n d i t i o n s brought  to Utopian  solutions.  on All  See P e r c y B y s s h e S h e l l e y , " E n g l a n d i n 1819" ( 1 8 1 9 ) ; Thomas Hood, "Song o f t h e S h i r t " ( 1 8 4 3 ) ; C h a r l e s Dickens, D a v i d C o p p e r f i e l d ( 1 8 5 0 ) ; F r i e d r i c h E n g e l s , The C o n d i t i o n o f t h e W o r k i n g C l a s s i n E n g l a n d i n 1844* and W i l l i a m M o r r i s , "The Day i s Coming " ( 1 8 9 1 ) .  these  Utopias  perfection, supported  recognized  and  by  the p h y s i c a l b a s i s of  a l l d r e a m s Of  an  environmental  among many, a r e  Saint-Simon's  4  Robert in  Owen's  the U n i t e d  housing  and  resulted The Act. by  1909  planning, and  The  Public Health  ideal  communes i n F r a n c e , to  concern the  by  The  s e t up  latter  1848,  of  Britain,  legislative  proposal  and  philosopher, (1898),  the  Town  been c a l l e d  housing  This  i s continuously  antecedents  of p l a n n i n g .  was  link  his proposal  between  encountered The  planner  E b e n e z e r Howard, i n G a r d e n C i t i e s presented  Planning  "planning  act, s i g n i f i c a n t l y ,  the M i n i s t e r of H e a l t h .  the h i s t o r i c a l  model c o l o n i e s  reformers  important  Act.  and  for better health,  social  e x a m p l e s o f what h a s  h e a l t h and  Tomorrow.  3  enactment of  legislation."  administered in  States.  e n v i r o n m e n t by  are  s t a t e were 2 determinism. Two i n s t a n c e s ,  a b o r t i v e attempts  i n the  British  an  social  for a  of  balanced  community: . . . . i n w h i c h t h e means o f l i f e w i l l be s u b s e r v i e n t t o t h e p u r p o s e s o f l i v i n g , and i n w h i c h t h e p a t t e r n n e e d e d f o r b i o l o g i c a l s u r v i v a l and e c o n o m i c e f f i c i e n c y w i l l l i k e w i s e l e a d t o s o c i a l and p e r s o n a l f u l f i l l m e n t . The  Context French  question  of  facilitating  the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  G o r d o n E. C h e r r y , Town P l a n n i n g i n I t s S o c i a l (London: R o u t l e d g e & Kegan P a u l , L t d . , 1970), p. """Comte de S a i n t - S i m o n sociologist.  (1760-1825) was  an  of  15  early  R o b e r t Owen ( 1 7 7 1 - 1 8 5 8 ) , a B r i t i s h i n d u s t r i a l i s t and s o c i a l i s t , f o u n d e d a number o f model c o l o n i e s i n c l u d i n g one i n New Harmony, P e n n s y l v a n i a . The l a t t e r c o l o n y , an a t t e m p t t o r e a l i z e " t h e new m o r a l w o r l d , " l a s t e d l e s s t h a n three years. See A s a B r i g g s , "Owen, R o b e r t " I n t e r n a t i o n a l E n c y c l o p e d i a o f t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s . (N.Y.: The M c m i l l a n Company & t h e F r e e P r e s s , 1968, V o l . I I ) , pp. 351-52. 4  "'Lewis Mumford "The G a r d e n C i t y I d e a and Modern P l a n n i n g " i n E. Howard, G a r d e n C i t i e s o f Tomorrow, ( L o n d o n : F a b e r and F a b e r L t d . , 1965 e . 1 9 0 2 ) , p . 40.  22 a full the  life  f o r t h e g r e a t e s t number was  work o f P a t r i c k Geddes,  ecologists planning the  one  of  involved i n planning.  holistically,  future city  by  and  the His  earliest  were  essence  of  modern  attempts  to look  at  f o r the  visions  of  h i s concern  i t s citizens  a l s o the  insightful 6  contributions Century,  to  of  planning.  the  Thomas Adams--the  "Father"  instrumental  alternative  by  h i s i n f l u e n c e on  by  passing  on  the  Commission  provincial  the  of Canadian planning This  legislation.  with  of  as  as  a  i s exemplified responded  e x i s t e d from  environmental  h e a l t h and  a l l recognized  Town  In a d d i t i o n , h i s  (which and  Twentieth  accepted  g o v e r n m e n t s who  of C o n s e r v a t i o n  along  are  years  i n having  that conservation  were c o n s i d e r e d these  early  t o random g r o w t h .  town p l a n n i n g  1919), ensured Today,  theory  In Canada, d u r i n g Planning—was feasible  the  housing  role  1909  -  issues  questions.  interrelated  planning  problems. Concern with in  planning,  predecessor the a  the  politics  led Lieutenant on  the  establishment  Colonel Jeffrey  Commission of  local  and  health officer, engineers.  and  Together  powers,the p l a n n i n g  two with  board  Burland,  of C o n s e r v a t i o n ,  planning  " t e c h n o c r a t i c " body made up  city  of p u b l i c i n t e r f e r e n c e  of  boards,  to  such  as  be  engineer,  architects  a Town P l a n n e r ,  could prepare  propose  which would  t h e mayor, c i t y  citizens  Adam's  having  a city  plan  wide which  7 w o u l d be  adopted In  of  the U n i t e d  the N i n e t e e n t h  other municipal  Williams  of  without  the p r e s s u r e s  States  Century,  services,  of  of America,  politics. during  "the  the p r o v i s i o n of u t i l i t i e s could not  k e e p up  with  the  middle and rapid  P a t r i c k Geddes, C i t i e s i n E v o l u t i o n (London, and N o r g a t e L t d . , r e v i s e d e d i t i o n , 1949, c. 1915.  A. H. A r m s t r o n g , "Thomas Adams and C o n s e r v a t i o n , " P l a n , V o l . I , No. 1, 1959.  the pp.  Commission 14-32.  increase and  i n population,  congested,  formation were t h e  of  demanded  of  law' some  in  America,  in  planning,  their  programs. 9 order."  reform  movements,  city  the  which 8  planning."  upper-middle  others  around  welfare  psychiatric, commitments  pressing f o r housing  1900  on  social  reform  class,  character-building settlement  cities. slum  action issues  and  largely  sanitation,  with  Protestant  what  They s o u g h t  clearance  tenement houses;  facilities,  houses;  groups,  were c o n c e r n e d  through  o f model  reform  programs.  as d i s o r d e r i n t h e  construction  correctional,  p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n , good government,  about p h y s i c a l order  and  overcrowded  . . .because growing  and  were a c t i v e  h e a l t h , and  regarded  civic  separate  These American and  became  "conditions stimulated  contemporary  Sociologists  public  cities  " S t a t e governments began i n the e i g h t e e n - s i x t i e s  to co-ordinate 'poor  the  resulting  a number o f  forebears  Meanwhile, and  the  and  such  as  political  and  social  to b r i n g the  order  schools,  order  they  through  libraries,  through  the  i n a sense r e f l e c t s  the  "good g o v e r n m e n t " movement. T h i s p u r s u i t of dichotomy  of planning  Century.  Those r e f o r m e r s  concerned  with  social  order  which  took  place  i n the U n i t e d  order  tended  after  the  t u r n of  S t a t e s who  to emphasize  the  were  personal  8 H . J . Gans, " R e g i o n a l and U r b a n P l a n n i n g , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l E n c y c l o p e d i a of t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , (N.Y.: The M a c m i l l a n Company & The F r e e P r e s s , 1968, V o l . 1 2 ) , p . 129. H e r e i n a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as Gans " R e g i o n a l and U r b a n Planning. " 9 (New  A . J . Kahn, T h e o r y and P r a c t i c e o f S o c i a l Y o r k , R u s s e l l Sage F o u n d a t i o n , 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 24.  Planning,  H . J . Gans, "Urban P o v e r t y and S o c i a l P l a n n i n g , " i n The U s e s o f S o c i o l o g y , P.F. L a z a r s f e l d , W. H. S e w e l l and H.L. W i l e n s k y , Teds.) (New Y o r k : B a s i c B o o k s , I n c . , 1967) p p . 4 3 8 - 3 9 . 1 0  1 1  Gans,  "Regional  and  Urban P l a n n i n g , "  p.  129.  24 services this  such  as p u b l i c and p r i v a t e w e l f a r e ;  i s a recognizable  who were c o n c e r n e d aesthetic  with  and d e s i g n  archetect-engineer still this C.  aspect  of s o c i a l  planning.  p h y s i c a l order,  attributes  stream  and t o d a y , Those  emphasized the  of urban development.  of planning  i n North  America  c o n t r i b u t e s t h e main o r i e n t a t i o n o f planners,, 12 may be c h a n g i n g .  The D e v e l o p m e n t o f S o c i a l  planning  planners. stating,  Some  "general  Kahn d e f i n e s  no c l e a r l y  which i s u n i v e r s a l l y theorists types  although  Planning  There i s , t o date, social  The  stated d e f i n i t i o n of  accepted  have attempted  of e f f o r t s  i t as " p o l i c y  choice  by  social  to define  at social  i t by 13  change."  and p r o g r a m m i n g  i n the 14  light  of facts,  p r o j e c t i o n s , and a p p l i c a t i o n o f v a l u e s . "  A further concise the  name,  statement  "societal The  considered  under  planning." "' 1  aforementioned  i n this  appears i n the l i t e r a t u r e v i e w s on s o c i a l  s e c t i o n although  planning  not i n that  will  be  order.  12 The a u t h o r h a s b e e n u n a b l e t o r e l o c a t e t h e s o u r c e of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the o r i e n t a t i o n of the tasks o f t h e 160 p l a n n e r s s t u d i e d . I t may be f r o m P e t e r M o r r i s and M a r t i n R e i n , Dilemmas o f S o c i a l R e f o r m : P o v e r t y and Communit y A c t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . (London: R o u t l e d g e & Kegan P a u l , 1967). "~~ 13 R o b e r t M o r r i s and R.H. B i n s t o c k w i t h t h e c o l l a boration of Martin Rein, F e a s i b l e Planning f o r S o c i a l Change, (New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 6 ) , p . 14. H e r e i n a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as M o r r i s and B i n s t o c k , F e a s i b l e Planning. 1  ^Kahn,  Ibid.,  p . 17.  15 Gans, "Memorandum on S o c i a l P l a n n i n g " ( 1 9 5 8 ) , i n P e o p l e and P l a n s : E s s a y s on U r b a n P r o b l e m s and S o l u t i o n s . (New Y o r k : B a s i c B o o k s , I n c . , 1 9 6 8 ) , p . 8 5 . H e r e i n a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o a s Gans, P e o p l e and P l a n s .  Alfred able  Kahn, i n a s t u d y  to d i s c e r n three h i s t o r i c  social 1)  city  welfare design area  and  will  muckrakers,  supervise,  do  to take  level,  advantage  i t i s this  after  of  1 6  third  increasingly  planning  Kahn,  area  Ibid,  World  federal  where  r e g i o n a l or  r e c e i v e d t h e mandate t o  i n Canada.  Kahn comments agencies,  made a b i d f o r t h e r o l e o f s t a t u t o r y s o c i a l 18 bodies," b u t t h i s has n o t been a c h i e v e d . The  this  s e c t o r which has i n  the p r i v a t e s e c t o r or v o l u n t a r y  3)  could  t o meet t h e r e q u i r e -  at the p r o v i n c i a l ,  and  years,  social  r o o t s are found, i s the p u b l i c  whether  social  only  s e c o n d a r e a m e n t i o n e d by Kahn  planning  recent  of  or i n s p e c t a l l s o c i a l  of pressures  ments n e c e s s a r y , 17 funding.  local  or  t h a t one g r o u p  approached s e r i o u s l y  I I , because  sector,  found  Kahn s t a t e s t h a t i n t h e U.S.A.,  p r o b l e m was  social  the  trend  of p u b l i c c o - o r d i n a t i o n i n  administer,  This  This  from  I I , D ) , on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t  b e c a u s e i t was  programs. War  others  planning;  The d e v e l o p m e n t not  social  be e l a b o r a t e d upon i n t h e f o l l o w i n g  (Chapter  welfare,  and  construction fields.  'physical' 2)  was  trends  p l a n n i n g movement f b u n d e d by people,  section  planning  from which c u r r e n t 16 has been d e r i v e d . They a r e :  planning practice The  of s o c i a l  from which  pp.  social  that  "have planning  planning i s  23-25.  17 Kahn s p e a k s o f " s t a t e - l e v e l " c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f s o c i a l welfare e f f o r t s . In Canada, s o c i a l w e l f a r e i s p r e marily a provincial responsibility. However, a f e d e r a l p r e sence a l s o e x i s t s . One i n d i c a t i o n o f t h i s d u a l r e s p o n s i bility i s t h a t f e d e r a l Canada A s s i s t a n c e P l a n f u n d s a r e c h a n n e l l e d through p r o v i n c i a l governments. Kahn,  Ibid.,  p.  26.  26 derived,  lies  community shortly  i n t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r where  chest  before  "charity voluntary  World  social  Social  pre-occupied  programs;  name S o c i a l 19 sources. The  problems  funds  and  to b e t t e r  create  new  and social  services.  i n t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r has  Planning social  with:  social  c o - o r d i n a t i o n of  f o r some t i m e ,  the  of  available  planning  for and  assessment  welfare  search  s e r v i c e c o u n c i l s have been,  (a)  the  I i n the  appeared the  t o be,  (b)  War  movement  Kahn s t r e s s e s t h a t  continue the  council  organizations."  allocate  practiced  and  the  and  i t is interesting  was  borrowed  planning  from  to note  social  o b j e c t i v e s of  been that  welfare  federated 20  agencies are  the  i n Canada such  as  c o - o r d i n a t i o n of  agencies  providing social  However, s e r i o u s c o n c e r n limited  experience  planning field  social  of s o c i a l  the  remedial  £socialJ  termed  planning  has  voluntary  a concern  the d e t e r m i n a t i o n  activities  and  o f many  been e x p r e s s e d  Council  individual  regarding  area. the  s o c i a l , a g e n c i e s encounter  T h e i r main a r e a and  problems,  m a j o r i t y of people  who  in  o f work i s i n and  do  they  not  are  the  not  require  services.  planning  "social  Community C h e s t  s e r v i c e s i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n  pathologies  with  is  the  services.  involved  Social  the  welfare  as p r a c t i s e d by planning"  with development of  social  by  federative  Perlman.  i s expressed 22 services.  In  agencies such  through  19 Gans, " S o c i a l P r o b l e m s and F o r m a l P l a n n i n g " i n and P l a n s , p . 440. 20 I n V a n c o u v e r , t h e name i s now U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s of the G r e a t e r Vancouver Area, (U.C.S.). 21 B . J . F r i e d e n and R o b e r t M o r r i s , U r b a n P l a n n i n g and S o c i a l P o l i c y , (New Y o r k : B a s i c B o o k s , I n c . 1968) p . 4. 22 R o b e r t PeAnan " S o c i a l W e l f a r e P l a n n i n g and P h y s i c a l P l a n n i n g " i n J o u r n a l of the American I n s t i t u t e of P l a n n e r s . V o l . X X X I I , 1966, p . 237. H e r e i n a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as J o u r n a l o f t h e A I P .  People  This  may  occur  Another  level 23  concerting we  see  of of  that  planning  within  social  the  Morris  and  planning of  of  change p e o p l e s '  efforts The  exhortation, and  to e f f e c t  reforms  society.  This  change."  The  social  first  and  i n major  legal  third  type of  the  type  of  America that  third  kind  as  one  of  welfare  This  planning  to  through  in  planned  they  altering  called  attempts  systems  "centrally by  seeks  i s sometimes  social  by  stimulate  type p r i m a r i l y  and  conditions 24  three  patterns  methods t o  social  of  social  change which  social  has  through  stressed  and  he  need  describe, the  policies  does not  The  welfare the  be  brought  because  assistance  third  kind  of  The  i s related  That the  is  first  the  North  i s , the  individual  t o e n a b l e him  belief is  the to  individual,  and  institutional  social  work  at  to  c h a n g e assumes t h a t  changing  more c l o s e l y  first  c a s e work i n  given  a b o u t by  The  years.  n e c e s s a r i l y l i e with  c h a n g e may latter  d i f f e r e n c e between the  planning.  i s required  must be  better himself. fault  this  organizations.  a social  fault  for social  they d i s c u s s ,  termed,  There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t and  From  behavioural  second  a l s o been  level.  change" i s p r e s e n t e d  type  other  has  the  services delivery.  planning  at  The  t o change s o c i a l  formal  social  organization.  w o u l d be  community  fulfillment.  Community D e v e l o p m e n t .  of  of  a t t i t u d e s and  self-development  strives  planning  the  social  Binstock.  education,  agency or  distinguishing criterion  A concept types  welfare  welfare  s e r v i c e s at  i s the  "general  a social  the that policy.  community  organization.  C o n c e r t e d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s d e f i n e d as a p r o c e s s i n w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l d e c i s i o n s o f two o r more u n i t s a r e made on a more i n c l u s i v e s y s t e m i c l e v e l w h i c h i n c l u d e s t h e s e units. See W a r r e n , "The C o n c e r t i n g o f D e c i s i o n s as a V a r i a b l e in O r g a n i z a t i o n a l I n t e r a c t i o n " , i n R o l a n d L . W a r r e n , Communit y D e v e l o p m e n t and S o c i a l Change, ( V a n c o u v e r , B.C.: School of S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 6 9 ) , P a p e r No. 7, u n d a t e d £19653. H e r e i n a f t e r c a l l e d W a r r e n , Community Development. 24  Morris  and  Binstock,  Feasible Planning,  pp.14-15.  28 Kahn's s u c c i n c t d e f i n i t i o n "policy  choice  projections,  and  and  programming  of  i n the  social light 25  planning  of  a p p l i c a t i o n s of v a l u e s , "  facts,  is in  agreement w i t h  M e l v i n Webber's view of p l a n n i n g  "intrinsically  normative"  p l a n n i n g may and  program  be  art.  paraphrased  c h o i c e , based  on  r e p e r c u s s i o n s of d i f f e r e n t of  social  planning.  two  distinctive  and  social  the  kinds  kinds  of  social be  J o h n Dyckman s u g g e s t s t h e r e must be the  results  of  achieved  t e s t e d and  and  Kahn,  two  are  of  Ibid.,  there  view are  planning  with outline  chosen.  Social  of  non-  'adopted'  by  social  planning,  three  levels  of a c t i o n  social  planning.  goals  First,  for society  achievement.  application  of  social  s e t f o r programs  T h i r d , t h e r e must be  welfare  p.  that  Gans'  of  targets for their  goals.  policy  i n broad  goals  kinds  of broad  from the  with  the development  that there  c o - o r d i n a t i o n of the 28 private sector. 2 5  Gans'  of  the  " i s concerned  the  action criteria  economic or p o l i t i c a l and  on  of 26  societal  programs f o r g o a l s  a selection  establishment  argues  developing  implementation  the  must be  and  an  action.  to concur  first  d e f i n e d as  Elaborating i n the  of  planning;  to achieve  economic, n o n - p h y s i c a l 27 societal planning."  involved  social  goals  of program  p r o g r a m m i n g may  appear  The  as  of r a t i o n a l  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  Gans, h o w e v e r ,  programming.  evaluating  a process  courses  These d e f i n i t i o n s  essential  Webber's d e f i n i t i o n  as  as,  activities  and Second, values  pursuing planning  i n the p u b l i c  17.  26 M e l v i n Webber, "The P r o s p e c t s f o r P o l i c i e s P l a n n i n g , " i n L . J . D u h l , e d . , The U r b a n C o n d i t i o n , (New Y o r k : B a s i c Books, I n c . , 1963), p. 320. 27 Gans, P e o p l e  and No.  and  Plans,  p.  85.  J o h n Dyckman, " S o c i a l P l a n n i n g , S o c i a l P l a n n e r s Planned S o c i e t i e s " i n J o u r n a l of the A.I.P., XXXII, 2, 1966, pp. 67-68.  It  appears from  presented  a b o v e on s o c i a l  developed  as a r e s u l t  planning social in  practice.  welfare  an  program  stage choice  study  planning,  chance o f p u b l i c  i s involved  "evaluating  evaluation at assume  that  acceptance  o f the S o c i a l Planning/Community  used  by t h e s o c i a l  Roland  this  Delivery  strategies  Development  some i n f o r m a t i o n  planner  of the  to accomplish h i s  Warren o f t h e F l o r e n c e  Heller  School  S o c i a l Work a t B r a n d e i s U n i v e r s i t y h a s h a d some  impact  on t h e p l a n n i n g  planners.  s t r a t e g i e s of Canadian  I n 1969, he was i n v i t e d  Social  Work, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  summer  institute  Social  Change.  and  and t h e B o a r d  or co-ordinating  achieved  were a t t e m p t i n g to cope w i t h  to lead  a  and P l a n n e d  t o 1968 by E . D.  social  planners  of  i f the concepts reflected  service delivery.  many c o n c e r n s w h i c h s o c i a l results  prior  of Administration,  mid-1960 v i e w on s o c i a l concerting  Columbia,  on Community D e v e l o p m e n t of the r e p o r t s  social  by t h e S c h o o l  I t may be w o r t h n o t i n g  phraseology  Hill of  since  e a r l y i n the process.  i n Vancouver r e q u i r e s  objective.  t o be t h e most  One may  Department  of  i s reflected  to p a r t i c i p a t e i n goal  has a b e t t e r  from  a l l s e g m e n t s and c l a s s e s o f  Strategies f o r Social Service A  and t h i s  decision, i.e.,  of plan p r e p a r a t i o n .  where t h e c i t i z e n r y 1.  ranges  i n social  which permits  has  activity  Gans s t a t e m e n t may p r o v e  an o p p o r t u n i t y  early  the theory  fordirection i n social  planning  a political  29 been  views which have that  Social planning  involves  goals,"  society  o f a need  f o r those i n v o l v e d  definition social  planning,  to societal  the theory.  valuable  the d i v e r s e  Warren's  H i s concepts  services articulated  had r e g a r d i n g  by s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s .  Social  the  planners  t o make a more u n i f i e d  thrust i n order 29 the s e r i o u s problems of the day. The 1968  B r i a n "Wharf, S t r a t e g i e s o f P l a n n i n g ; Co-ordination o f Community S e r v i c e s . ( V a n c o u v e r , B.C.: U n p u b l i s h e d l e c t u r e , 1 9 7 1 ) , mimeo, p . 2.  30 Seebohm R e p o r t stressed  on s o c i a l  t h e need  effective  co-ordination  among  decision-making  two  o r more g r o u p s d e c i d e  decision-making,  a p a r t i c u l a r area  i t will  In  order  In argued  issue.  interesting.  o r expand  whereby He r a i s e d  process,  Organizations respective  of social  that  necessarily  concerting the best  to  the people needing  of  competition  social  o f t h e RAND  only  domains.  service  one o r more p a r t i e s may be r e q u i r e d 31 power o v e r t h e o t h e r ( s ) .  1969, A n t h o n y P a s c a l  one o f  decision-making  their  the concerting  through the  t o work t o g e t h e r i n  i n this  i n t o concerted  preserve  t o ensure  delivery, coercive  enter  jointly  involved  i sparticularly  inter-organiza-  a process  o r on a s p e c i f i c  a number o f p r o b l e m s  if  that  c a n be a p p r o a c h e d  of concerted  voluntarily  s e r v i c e s and 30 agencies.  the thought  use  which  also  f o r more i n t e g r a t e d  Warren e x p r e s s e d tional  services i n Britain  t o use  Corporation  s e r v i c e s was n o t  solution to getting better them, and he p r o p o s e d  services  a system  among t h e s u p p l i e r s o f s e r v i c e s , i n o r d e r 32 to permit a choice f o r those r e q u i r i n g the s e r v i c e s . 33 T h i s v i e w i s s u p p o r t e d by M a r t i n R e i n and now by 30 G r e a t B r i t a i n , t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r t h e Home D e p a r t m e n t , t h e S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e f o r E d u c a t i o n a n d S c i e n c e , t h e M i n i s t e r o f H o u s i n g and L o c a l G o v e r n m e n t , and t h e M i n i s t e r o f H e a l t h , R e p o r t o f t h e C o m m i t t e e on L o c a l A u t h o r i t y and A l l i e d P e r s o n a l S o c i a l S e r v i c e s " ( 1 9 6 8 ) , W. Seebohm, C h a i r m a n H e r e i n a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e Seebohm R e p o r t . ^ W a r r e n , "The C o n c e r t i n g o f D e c i s i o n s a s a V a r i a b l e i n O r g a n i z a t i o n a l I n t e r a c t i o n , " i n W a r r e n Community D e v e l o p ment . P a p e r No. 7, u n d a t e d , C 1 9 6 5 3 u n p a g e d . 32 A n t h o n y P a s c a l , "New D e p a r t u r e s i n S o c i a l S e r v i c e s , " i n The S o c i a l "Welfare Forum, (New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 ) , p . 82. 33 Rein, "Co-ordination of S o c i a l S e r v i c e s , " i n M a r t i n R e i n , S o c i a l P o l i c y (New Y o r k : Random H o u s e , 1970) p . 108.  R o l a n d Warren, questions  2.  both  about  o f whom h a v e r a i s e d  the p o t e n t i a l  Co-ordination  as a s t r a t e g y  The V a n c o u v e r  Case  In  Vancouver, p r i v a t e  effectiveness  under and  Community  the auspices  Research.  Vancouver  also  Neighbourhood U.C.S. a p p e a r s tration sector  sector  i s a function  of the  o f i t s Department o f S o c i a l other  carry  o u t some a s p e c t s o f t h i s  Services  i n the  ( U . C . S . ) , s e n s e and i s c o n d u c t e d  While  voluntary  Association  Planning  agencies i n work—  i s an e x a m p l e - - t h e  t o have been r e c o g n i z e d  sector  by t h e A d m i n i s -  s o c i a l welfare planning  of the S o c i a l Services  both before  and a f t e r  SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t .  That  funds  and  Municipal  the  local  reimbursed  supplied  Governments.  Department  at City  of the  now c a l l e d t h e  Department,  actively  by t h e F e d e r a l , The p o r t i o n  g o v e r n m e n t may u n d e r under  has been the  the establishment  Department,  and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n  administers  1968,  s o c i a l planning  a s t h e spokeman f o r t h e p r i v a t e 35 i n the s o c i a l planning f i e l d .  responsibility  Welfare  delivery.  i n City Hall  Public Hall,  Services,  of  i n social service  sence o f s o c i a l w e l f a r e p l a n n i n g United  serious  certain  t h e Canada A s s i s t a n c e  Provincial  supplied  by  c i r c u m s t a n c e s be Plan.  Since  t h e SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t h a s h a d t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f  planning, health,  developing,  education,  co-ordinating  welfare,  and i n t e g r a t i n g  recreational  and community  W a r r e n , "The D e c a r t e l i z a t i o n o f t h e S o c i a l S e r v i c e s , (Waltham, Mass., B r a n d e i s U n i v e r s i t y , n . d . , n . p . ) , c i t e d i n B r i a n W h a r f , I b i d . , p p . 2, 15. 35 Neighbourhood S e r v i c e s A s s o c i a t i o n (N.S.A.), does s o c i a l w e l f a r e p l a n n i n g i n c l u d i n g community d e v e l o p m e n t , and i s most a c t i v e i n some l o c a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d s .  r e n e w a l p r o g r a m s as and  there  will  social be  an  administrative  The  century  i n the  social  land  early  of; t h e  from the  the  social  years the  since  planning  be  III  and  Department  trends  and  physical  prime  P a r i s , between  fundamental to  aims  of  land.  of  of the  a city,  consistent  approach  to p l a n n i n g  was  industrialization  planning. to  three  main i n f l u e n c e s  an  1869.  and  technocratic.  attempt  i s the  in  to  achieve  Nineteenth  transformation  Haussmann's  four  were: the  a more p l e a s i n g  s t r e e t s so  view of  celebrations,  buildings during to  use  achieving  B a r o n Haussmann i n h i s  re-arrange  during  the  sound p r i n c i p l e s of  example o f  185 3 and  of  and  architechtural, reformist the  turn  i s a method  environment  Alonso points  planning:  the  character  a n t i c i p a t i n g and  branch of  Century approach of  increase  disorder  111:  to  In Chapter  S o c i a l Planning  a r c h i t e c t u r a l solution i n planning,  (2)  appears  functions  same N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y  Perhaps  (1)  self-help  Planning  use  physical  This  William  of  i n the  and e c o n o m i c 36  design."  derived  an  has  . . .Systematically  was  the  'Physical'  to Chapin,  adjustment  as  of  This  planning.  elaboration  been c o n c e r n e d w i t h  According  civic  programs.  service  links  Development of  with  fostering citizen  Vancouver.  Planning  ".  as  community-betterment  essentially  in  well  of  buildings, a simpler  they would better defence  permit  access of  the  riots;  health the  and  that  s t a n d a r d s by  destroying  the  slums;  S t u a r t C h a p i n , U r b a n L a n d Use P l a n n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , 1965, p . 3.  Urbana,  37 W i l l i a m A l o n s o , " C i t y and C i t y P l a n n e r s , " i n T a m i n g M e g a l o p o l i s , H.W. E l d r e d g e , e d . ( G a r d e n C i t y , N.Y.: Anchor Books, 1967), V o l . I I , p. 583.  (3)  to  create  large  circulation (4)  to  of  facilitate  business  Along with h i s d e s i r e Paris,  health,  traffic,  design  and  to b e t t e r  or  slum  and  to  well the  as  troops;  centres  such planning  clearance,  also  a i r as  cope w i t h u p r i s i n g s  Haussmann's a i m s r e f l e c t  access, and  light  transportation 38 pleasure.  and  33 the  b o u l e v a r d s which would p e r m i t  He  a r c h i t e c t u r a l problem  treated  and  the  employed  in  concerns  c i r c u l a t i o n of  safety.  of  air, city  as  light, as  a  architects  and  39  engineers  to  carry  through h i s  P l a n n i n g by the  1893  return  to  the  did  last  not  approach  of  the  enhanced  City  fairgrounds  left  North American neo-classical While  long,  the  i t s mark on cities  by  impact  of  at  classic  community Although  planning.  to  betterment t h i s movement  i t s architectural I t can  be  recognized  in  the  boulevards, fountains, and ' 40 of the e a r l y T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y .  architecture  Ebenezer 41 are a l s o a d e s i g n - o r i e n t e d approach to planning, l o o k , a t Howard's work as a p h y s i c a l a n s w e r t o a s o c i a l This  some a r g u e  The  measure  e n c o u r a g e d many v i s i t o r s  B e a u t i f u l Movement.  very  i n large  i n Chicago.  t h e i r hometowns t o work f o r  through  Howard others 42 plan.  d e s i g n was  Columbian E x p o s i t i o n  magnificance  plans.  might  also  that  be  the  said  of  Garden C i t i e s  Patrick  of  Geddes  organic  38 E.M. B o u i l l a t , G e o r g e s - E u g e n e Haussmann, ( P a r i s : 1 9 0 1 ) , pp. 8-9, c i t e d i n S. G i e d i o n , S p a c e , Time and A r c h i t e c t u r e : The Growth o f a New T r a d i t i o n ^ (Cambridge, Mass: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 5 t h e d i t i o n , 1 9 6 7 ) , pp. 745-46. H e r e i n a f t e r a l s o c a l l e d G i e d o n , S p a c e , Time and Archi tecture. 39 Giedon,  I b i d . . pp.  Alonso,  I b i d . , p.  762-65.  40 581  41 text,  G o r d e n E. 31.  p. 4 2  Mumford,  Cherry, I b i d . , p.  Town P l a n n i n g 40  i n i t s S o c i a l Con-  analogy at  an  of  the  ecological The  mentioned interest family the  on  second  and and  sociologists and  seminal  social  early  planning influence  was  and  reformists,  of workers,  attempt  the  'Chicago  busy documenting  were  the  from  their  cause  of  which who  Alonso  focussed  considering finances,  o r g a n i z a t i o n as w e l l  1930's,  concluded  housing  an  approach.  the h o u s i n g  life  living,  f o r h i s method was  were t h e m u c k r a k e r s  1920's  bad  city,  as d e s i g n .  School' of  the  urban  c o n d i t i o n s of  studies that  i l l health,  In  urban  "slums  and  criminality,  43  illegitimacy  and  other  social  order'  o f w h i c h Gans s p e a k s  reform  groups,  that and  slum  was  carried  c l e a r a n c e would  bring  about  better  evils."  Thus,  i n h i s commentary out  by  on  p l a n n e r s who  s o l v e the problems  living  the  'physical  the  early  believed  of poor  c o n d i t i o n s f o r those  housing  needing  it. Alonso's Citizen of  apolitical  i s the  planning  technocrat i n planning.  as p r o p o s e d  by  of Conservation, attempted  or n e u t r a l i s t  b e t w e e n W o r l d War of  group  p l a n n i n g commissions,  the Commission  an  third  I and  approach.  W o r l d War  c o n s u l t a n t s to produce  Jeffrey  to g i v e planning  These  II, hired  Master  commissions  planners  Plans  which  that  z o n i n g by-laws  t h e r e was  an  and  ideal  other physical  final  stage  changes,  for a city,  or  consisted  p r o p o s a l s f o r parkways, w a t e r f r o n t improvement,  halls,  Burland  new  city  believing  and  that i t  44  could  be  belief, of  achieved  however, d i d n o t  changes  fact,  no  the next  without  take  into  t a k i n g p l a c e i n the  ideal  final  stage  p e r i o d i n the  commission  resorting  in a social  of  sense,  and  and  i s not  the  This  c o n s i d e r a t i o n the  city,  which  life  to p o l i t i c s .  city. the  that an  there i s , i n  initial The  zoning  nature  stage  planning ordinance  43  Alonso,  Ibid..  p.  581  44  A.  Faludi,  See Gans, P e o p l e and P l a n s , pp. 6 2 - 6 3 . R e g i o n a l S t u d i e s , ( 1 9 7 0 J , V o l . 4, p . 3.  Also  for  r_by-law3in  a real  e s t a t e sense,  upper c l a s s  values  against  f o r c e s of  the  After planning  was  rehousing  1945  suffered  from  i n f l u e n c e of  as v e r y  schemes were  away f r o m  and  operations  a r c h i t e c t u r e on  l a r g e s c a l e redevelopment  and  implemented.  some a r c h i t e c t s  rigid  middle  were t o o o f t e n h o l d i n g 45 change."  the  enhanced  Although and  and  represented  and  definitive  "physical  were m o v i n g i n t o systems,  planning  planning  4 6  still  determinism."  To t h e e x t e n t t h a t p l a n n e r s h a v e b e e n c o n c e r n e d w i t h g e n e r a l s o c i a l w e l l - b e i n g , they have e i t h e r a d o p t e d some t h e o r y o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l determinism which supported t h e i r b e l i e f t h a t p h y s i c a l , d e s i g n p e r s e w o u l d h a v e a d e t e r m i n a t e and, o f c o u r s e , a d e s i r a b l e e f f e c t on s o c i a l a c t i v i t y , o r t h e y h a v e assumed t h a t t h o s e m a t t e r s w o u l d be p r o p e r l y d e a l t w i t h by s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f f i c e r s o r s o c i a l workers.47 1.  Planning  as  Faludi,  a  Process the  British  social scientist  term  "blueprint planning"  state  o f b l u e p r i n t harmony" f o r a c i t y .  planning  f o r the  model w h i c h w o u l d  one  end  of a continuum  the  other  end,  and  see  and  model stems from  the  who  techniques  explored  engineer, solve  the  h o w e v e r , was  the problems of  according  to F a l u d i ,  the  He  t h a t the  a  final  presents  "prominence of indeed 48  on h i s own  the  his colleagues  at this  engineer  The  to attempt  emerging i n d u s t r i a l  a  at  planning  of p l a n n i n g . "  takes  the  blueprint planning  t h a t i t was  left  who  "promise of  process-approach  suggests fact  used  to  city to  task  45 A l o n s o , I b i d . , pp. 582-83. See a l s o Gans, P e o p l e and P l a n s , pp. 21, 179-80; and M a u r i c e B r o a d y , P l a n n i n g f o r P e o p l e , E s s a y s on t h e S o c i a l C o n t e x t o f P l a n n i n g ^ ( L o n d o n : The B e d f o r d S q u a r e P r e s s , 1968) pp. 66-68. H e r e i n a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as B r o a d y P l a n n i n g f o r P e o p l e . 46 47 G i e d o n , I b i d . . p . 817. B r o a d y , I b i d . . p . 65, 4 8  Faludi,  Ibid,  p.  3.  36 for  not  seeking The  a flexible  s o l u t i o n s to urban  concept  plan  as  a continuous  a p p r o a c h when compared w i t h  method, where t h e conceived  of p l a n n i n g  problems.  of  as  i s only  c o n t i n u a l l y i n a process  and  the g o a l s  are  as  a normative  of but  the  key  issue.  "art,"  and  takes  process  the M a s t e r  blueprint i s central.  a working paper  49  Plan  If planning  is  of  any  change,  "momentary  is  importance,"  T h i s view t r e a t s  planning  goals deliberately  into  consideration. Davidoff should  not  be  neutrality, personal The  but  of  affected  the  in  order  conditions, ness',  'planning Rein an  t o be has  only  at  f o r the  make a  i s involved.  v a l u e - f r e e , has alternatives'  formulation  g r o u p s who  more r e s p o n s i v e had  will  to  i t s advocates  the  'integrity  not  of  eventually  be  changing of  points  'comprehensive'maximum  of p l a n n i n g '  ' f o r them'.  "each s l o g a n  But  as  expense of  t o w a r d s one  i t s complementary  and  Morris aspect  c o m p l e x o f n e e d s , where e a c h c a n the  "the  plans."  the p e o p l e '  p o i n t out,  t o be  activity  value  should  i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t ' ,  participation',  interlocking  satisfied  interest  planning  with  planner  representative  provide  o  completed  'competition  feasible  of  the  by  the  of  t h e work i n w h i c h he  'a few t  that planning  a position  i n attempting  [fails} by  argues  from  that  to  inventing  . . .and  out  rather  commitment  alternatives  and  carried  agency p l a n n e r  burden .  explicitly  be  fully  opposite."^  49 F a l u d i , I b i d . , p . 3. See a l s o B r o a d y , Ibid.,pp.99100. W.H. Form and I . T . S a n d e r s i n C e n t r a l l y P l a n n e d C h a n g e : P r o s p e c t s and C o n c e p t s , R o b e r t M o r r i s ^ e d . (N.Y.:National A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o c i a l W o r k e r s , 1964) pp. 69-90 and 102-15; and T.B. B o t t o m o r e , S o c i o l o g y : A G u i d e t o P r o b l e m s and L i t e r a t u r e , ( L o n d o n : Unwin, U n i v e r s i t y Books, 1962) p p . 293319, d i s c u s s t h e r o l e o f s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s i n p l a n n i n g . in  ^ P a u l D a v i d o f f , " A d v o c a c y and P l u r a l i s m i n E l d r e d g e , I b i d . , p . 600. (Emphasis added, S.J.)  Planning"  51 P e t e r M a r r i s and M a r t i n R e i n . D i l e m m a s o f S o c i a l Reform: P o v e r t y and Community A c t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . (London: R o u t l e d g e & K e g a n P a u l , 1 9 6 7 ) , pp. 226-27.  1  2.  The  Vancouver The  appears  Case  development of p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g to have been  s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by  v i e w o f p l a n n i n g , w h i c h may first  and  third  technocratic  be  City.  1926,  planning  responsibility  consultants 52  The  comparable w i t h  c a t e g o r i e s - - the  of  t h e V a n c o u v e r Town P l a n n i n g planning  Thomas Adams' Alonso's  architectural  and  approaches.  In March, became t h e  i n Vancouver  plan  i n the C i t y a board  Vancouver  of c i t i z e n s  Commission which  to prepare  prepared  of  by  hired  master plans  Harland  for  e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1951  o f d r a w i n g up  an  and  Official  given  the  Bartholomew  A s s o c i a t e s i n 1929 i s an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h i s . The C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t w i t h i t s own 53 was  called  the  Planners  responsibility  Development P l a n .  Since  t h e Town P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n was r e l i e v e d o f t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t e c h n i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e 54 ters  and  assigned  the  development p r o p o s a l s of  the p r o j e c t s from  time, of  the  the  of r e v i e w i n g  Departments  also appointed.  of Planning.  An  made up  involved i n  affect  mat-  the  p o i n t of view.  Board  1951,  major  a d v i s i n g C o u n c i l on  a citizen's  d e c i s i o n s which  V a n c o u v e r was Director  and  Technical Planning  various City  technical  task  and  of  merits At  the  that  heads  the  physical planning  I t s Chairman i s  o r g a n i z a t i o n c h a r t of  in  the the  City  A P l a n f o r the C i t y of Vancouver, I n c l u d i n g a G e n e r a l P l a n of the Region, (1929). H a r l a n d B a r t h o l o m e w a n d A s s o c i a t e s were r e t a i n e d i n A u g u s t , 1926 t o p r e p a r e t h i s report. 53 By r e s o l u t i o n o f C o u n c i l , O c t o b e r 5,1951. The D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g , G e r a l d S u t t o n Brown was a p p o i n t e d i n 1952. S u t t o n Brown l a t e r became a member o f t h e B o a r d o f Administration. 54 H a r o l d S p e n c e - S a l e s and J o h n B l a n d , " E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a P l a n n i n g Department i n the C i t y of Vancouver,", (Vancouver, B.C.: n.p. J u l y 20, 1 9 5 1 ) , c i t e d i n S a r a h E . Holm, C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g D e p t . , an u n p u b l i s h e d p a p e r p r e p a r e d December, 1969, p . 6.  38 of Vancouver beginning Current  with  of Chapter  Social The  regard  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n 1972  Mileau  world-wide need  f o l l o w i n g W o r l d War  increased  amounts o f money f r o m  carry  the p l a n s ,  laws r e l a t e d  the  i n the development  and  added p r e s t i g e — b a s e d  proposed  of  a l l levels  planning  more on  changes—brought  I I , was  by  Its  initial  concern  the  its  own.  an  were n o t  succeeding  lifestyles  of  particularly a result greater being  of  in their  the p e o p l e evident  this,  the  efforts  being  i n the urban  social  for.  for  the  housing.  i t became  the  planners  This  among p l a n n e r s  recommendations  the  was 55  renewal programs.  values  a  and  t o make c h a n g e s i n  planned  t h e r e were c a l l s  prepared,and since a  the p l a n n e r s  t h a t i n many i n s t a n c e s  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of s o c i a l  planning, from  obvious  jobs while  i n c r e a s i n g concern  of  approach.  C e n t r a l Mortgage  later  increasingly  reflected  F e r d e r a l Government's  the p r e s t i g e of  and  into  the p r o v i s i o n of  Despite  courts,  achievement  H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , was  to  interpretation  than  in establishing  emphasis r e f l e c t e d  The  hopes  planning  t a k i n g p l a c e i n the  very  of government  In Canada, the N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t change  a  "planning."  t h e more s y m p a t h e t i c  to zoning  Change  for reconstruction particularly  factor  of  the  I t s I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Urban  important out  at  IV.  and  to housing,  , i s given  As  for  i n the p h y s i c a l p l a n s for  comprehensive  "physical building  meaning i t c a r r i e s  c a n n o t be d i s a s s o c i a t e d 57 for i t s users."  See M a r r i s and R e i n , I b i d . , I n t r o d u c t i o n and C h a p t e r I ; a l s o t h e R e p o r t o f t h e T a s k F o r c e on H o u s i n g and U r b a n D e v e l o p m e n t . P a u l H e l l y e r , C h a i r m a n , ( O t t a w a : The Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 6 9 ) , p a s s i m . cc See D a v i d o f f , i n E l d r e d g e , I b i d . , pp. 596-615; A l s o H.S. P e r l o f f , "New D i r e c t i o n s i n S o c i a l P l a n n i n g , " J o u r n a l o f t h e A . I . P . , V o l . XXXI, No. 4, 1965, p p . 2 9 7 - 3 0 5 . 57 M e l v i n Webber, " C o m p r e h e n s i v e P l a n n i n g and S o c i a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y , " i n J o u r n a l o f t h e A . I . P . . V o l . XXIX 1963. P. 233.  Aleshire of  planning  operate  contends  should  be  that  social  and  responsive  planners  are  they  planning,  are  to respond and  the  the  i f the  given  for increased  serious  needs of  consideration.  process  of p l a n n i n g ,  the  citizen  t o be  heard.  become w e l l - i n f o r m e d planning 1.  The  proposals,  process  and  of  result  their  the  of  "social  of  the  of  intimate  only  to  the  seminars h e l d  Welfare C o u n c i l points  in their  Social  Planning.  in  be  able for  . . ."  Planning  This  outspoken  may  i n the  be  a  e f f e c t s of  urban renewal  schemes  at  6 0  the  joint  Councils reports  Michael first  to t h i s  sponsorship  Low-Income H o u s i n g D i v i s i o n of Integration  Wheeler's  seminar  t h e s i s , and,  is  and  the  r a i s e d a number o f v e r y  two  the  on  under  the  Canadian  pertinent  of  Physical  summation  of  Davidoff,  The  and  the  particularly  therefore,  will  be  59  renamed  to  R o b e r t A. A l e s h i r e , " P l a n n i n g and C i t i z e n P a r t i C o s t s , B e n e f i t s and A p p r o a c h e s " , U r b a n A f f a i r s J u n e , 1970, pp. 369-93.  cipation— Quarterly.  6 0  be  permitting  them.  Social  involvement  must  citizens  reasons  to respond  which  to  about.  F u n d s and  appropriate  "means n o t  participation.  Special Project  discussion  this  able  If  f o r whom  planners,  underlying  be  Davidoff's  must i n c l u d e  P h y s i c a l and  backlash"  two  Community  is  h a v e f o r some t i m e b e e n  citizen  have brought The  be  planners  advocates  then  We  the  i t must  people  I t a l s o means t h a t he  about  Re-Integration Social  and  that  involved.  the  c o n c e r n by  objectives  i t cannot  community  planning  social  the  major  that  encourage d e m o c r a t i c urban government, arugment  the  t o a c t i o n , and  to  to  of 58  change,  i n a vacuum u n r e l a t e d  accountable  one  i n Eldredge,  I b i d . .. pp.  599-600  T h e C a n a d i a n W e l f a r e C o u n c i l has s i n c e b e e n C a n a d i a n C o u n c i l on S o c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t .  ^  40 quoted  a t some l e n g t h :  . . . . I t i s c l e a r t h a t p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l p l a n n e r s have s i m i l a r l y hazy p e r c e p t i o n s of each o t h e r ' s r o l e s . The p h y s i c a l p l a n n e r r e p u d i a t e s t h e s u g g e s t i o n i m p l i c i t i n t h e t i t l e t h a t he i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h o n l y t h i n g s p h y s i c a l and a f f i r m s h i s c o n c e r n w i t h t h e t o t a l community i n a l l i t s v a r i o u s a s p e c t s — p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and e c o n o m i c . He s p e a k s o f t h e n e e d t o c r e a t e e n v i r o n m e n t s t h a t o f f e r i n d i v i d u a l s as many o p t i o n s as p o s s i b l e i n r e g a r d t o t h e way t h e y l i v e . By c o n t r a s t , he s e e s t h e s o c i a l p l a n n e r as o r i e n t e d p r i m a r i l y t o one segment o f t h e c o m m u n i t y - - t h e s o c i a l l y handicapped— and as e n g a g e d i n t h e t a s k o f m o b i l i z i n g h e a l t h and w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s t o s e r v e the s p e c i a l needs of a d i s advantaged group. T h e r e may e v e n be an u n s p o k e n a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e s o c i a l p l a n n e r s h o u l d be c o n t e n t to p e r f o r m t h i s f u n c t i o n w i t h o u t c o n c e r n i n g h i m s e l f t o o much w i t h p l a n s f o r t h e r e s t o f t h e community,. Any s u g g e s t i o n o f a b r o a d e r f u n c t i o n f o r t h e s o c i a l p l a n n e r i s a p t t o be r e s i s t e d as p o s i n g a t h r e a t t o an unwelcome d e g r e e o f c o n t r o l o v e r people's l i v e s . F o r h i s p a r t , t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r as s o c i a l planner"-*d i s c l a i m s any d e s i r e t o t e l l p e o p l e how t h e y s h o u l d l i v e . In f a c t , he i s p r o b a b l y a good d e a l more t e n t a t i v e i n h i s p r e s c r i p t i o n s t h a n most o t h e r k i n d s o f p l a n n e r s , and h i s u n w i l l i n g n e s s o r i n a b i l i t y t o p r e s c r i b e c a n be i n t e n s e l y f r u s t r a t i n g to a d m i n i s t r a t o r s l o o k i n g f o r c o n c r e t e answers to immediate p r o b l e m s . The s o c i a l p l a n n e r i s a p t t o a s c r i b e t o p h y s i c a l p l a n n e r s more d i s c r e t i o n a r y p o w e r s t h a n t h e y a c t u a l l y p o s s e s s and t o assume t h a t t h e i r d e c i s i o n s a r e more s c i e n t i f i c a l l y b a s e d t h a t h i s own, w h i c h may n o t n e c e s s a r i l y be t r u e . But t h e s o c i a l p l a n n e r i s o f t e n i l l - p r e p a r e d t o a r g u e h i s own c a s e . 6 2 Edmund M. 63 an  article  social  a social  which r e i n f o r c e s  planners  authority.  Burke,  He  scientist  Wheeler's c o n t e n t i o n  presume t h a t p h y s i c a l g o e s on  wrote i n  planners  that  have  t o q u e s t i o n whether or not  1966,  more  they  61 The p h r a s e , 'the s o c i a l w o r k e r as s o c i a l seems l i m i t i n g . 62 M. W h e e l e r , e d . , I n t e g r a t i o n o f P h y s i c a l S o c i a l P l a n n i n g , (Ottawa: Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , R e p o r t No. 1, pp. 76-77. 63 E.M. B u r k e , "The S e a r c h f o r A u t h o r i t y i n i n S o c i a l S e r v i c e R e v i e w , V o l . 41, No. 3 , ( S e p t e m b e r , R e c e i v e d December 22, 1 9 6 6 ) , pp. 250-60.  planner' . and 1967),  Planning" 1967,  41 h a v e more l e g i t i m a c y i n a c t u a l f a c t .  Burke c i t e s  R.  feels  Adrian's  decision  runs  planner's if  comment t h a t i f a c i t i z e n counter  ideas  are  to h i s values  said  t o be  and  a matter  the p l a n n e r ' s  considered  an  views c o i n c i d e with 64 expert.  Despite formal  competency  to conclude  that a planner  serious  British  concern  separate  "Too  i n h i s sphere  The  fields  He  stresses that  of  the  whole of  of  the  of o p i n i o n ,  whereas  planner  relationship  is  to  a  the  contends  fate  been countenanced . . 67 consideration. William ".  as  next  thirty  than  ever  years  of  an  will  expresses  and  social  process."  social  the  While  into  p l a n n i n g has  totality this Cherry  f o r too  in discussing social  a  more s o c i a l  problems  long  prior  problems  f o r c e of p o p u l a t i o n growth,  see  the  planning.  of outlook,  a f t e r t h o u g h t r a t h e r than  sheer  before."  economic  realignment  Michelson,  . . .By  Gordon C h e r r y ,  m a i n e m p h a s i s must be  the p l a n n i n g  t h a t the  claim  s e p a r a t i o n of planning  of p h y s i c a l , "the  many g r o u p s now  has  6  Planner,  about  therefore  decision-making." ^"  require a substantial  wrote:  interests,  h i s , the  the p h y s i c a l p l a n n e r ' s  actions sanctioned.  would  planner's  power s t r u c t u r e , B u r k e s t a t e s t h a t i t i s h i g h l y  questionable his  a  Charles  the  i n planning  6 8  CR. A d r i a n , "The Community S e t t i n g , " i n S o c i a l S e r v i c e i n Community A c t i o n . C h a r l e s R. A d r i a n , e d . E a s t L a n s i n g : M i c h i g a n , S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1960) pp. 6-7, c i t e d i n E.M. B u r k e , I b i d . . pp. 255-56. 6 5  Thirty No. 3,  Burke,  Ibid..  p.  258.  66 G o r d o n E.  Cherry,  Ibid..  p.  174  6 7 G o r d o n E.  Cherry,  Ibid..  p.  177  W. M i c h e l s o n , " U r b a n N o r t h A m e r i c a : The N e x t Y e a r s : S o c i a l P r o b l e m s i n P l a n n i n g , " P l a n . V o l . 10 1970, p . 28.  There  are, of course,  Michelson.  to  reasons  I n c r e a s i n g unemployment,  environmental energy,  obvious  pollution,  with  soaring l i v i n g  costs,  t h e w a s t e o f human and p h y s i c a l  and t h e s t r u g g l e by p e o p l e  these problems, w i l l  f o r agreeing  to find  their  own  a l l add t o t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s  solution of urban  planners. I n a p r e s e n t a t i o n t o t h e Town P l a n n i n g of Canada, E r i c and  Trist  uneven change-rate  a post-industrial cannot  that the " a c c e l e r a t i n g  i n the contemporary  society  be d e p e n d e d upon  to take  care  tory  a c t i v i t y . T r i s t  new  'culture'  two  aspects  "animation and  and t h i s  while  their  both  joint  as a p r o c e s s —  continuous  He m a i n t a i n s  with  and  problem-solving  that there are  On t h e one h a n d ,  i t s continuous  among i n t e r e s t  on t h e o t h e r ,  supportive  that planning  t o t h e "new c u l t u r e . " sociale"  becomes a manda-  w i l l ". . ; .become t h e b a s i s o f a 70  of p o l i t i c s . "  accommodation  innovative  argues  as a p r o g r a m m e — i s  participative,  i s producing  o f t h e f u t u r e . . . .and  means p l a n n i n g i n i t s many v a r i e t i e s than  world  i n which a u t o - r e g u l a t i v e p r o c e s s e s  this  rather  F.  hypothesized  Institutue  dialogue,  groups which  there i s  bargaining  leads to  as e x p e r i e n c e  i s gained;  " t h e p l a n n i n g p r o f e s s i o n s and t h e i r  sciences at a l l stages  e x p e r t i s e and t e c h n i c a l  and a l l l e v e l s " 71  contribute  knowledge.  Summary Both p h y s i c a l the  same s o i l .  antecedents and by  and s o c i a l  Planning  planning are rooted i n  i n t h e modern s e n s e  i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  of participatory  the d e s i r e to m i t i g a t e the s o c i a l industrialization. Attempts t o f i n d  has i t s  solutions  government  problems brought  through  Utopian  about  schemes  E . T r i s t , "Urban N o r t h A m e r i c a : C h a l l e n g e o f t h e Next T h i r t y Y e a r s : A S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g i c a l V i e w p o i n t . " P l a n , V o l . 10, No. 3, 1970, p . 15. Ibid.,  p p . 15-16  Ibid.,  p . 16.  failed,  and  were a b a n d o n e d .  emphases were r e c o g n i z a b l e by  legislation',  movement and today  as  may  the  social  those  attempted  that  design',  be  should  and  social  c o n s i s t of  then  failure  finding of  the  and  primary  planners society, social  other,  of  postulate  best with  reasons  the p r e s e n t  It  is likely  'planning  reform  t o what i s known with  life  that  i s not of  i t s emphasis the  of  greater  so  that  of planning  a g r e e m e n t on 72  achieving  goals  them.  at planning  f l e x i b i l i t y as  The  more t o method,  which  confront  time.  larger concentrations  cln  next  i n c r e a s i n g l y complex  of p o p u l a t i o n ,  period  of  time,  and  the  changing  quantity  q u a l i t y of s o c i a l problems c o n f r o n t i n g planners w i l l increase. A number o f t h e o r e t i c i a n s h a v e p r o p o s e d t h a t 73 "meta-problems ' can 1  process for; the  which  continuous  various experts their  in this  with  be  way  f e e d b a c k he called  e x p e r t i s e , and  "planning  only  solved  by  c o n t i n u a l l y i n v o l v e s the  that only  at  people"  of  community.  the dichotomy  finding  on  efforts  the  realistic,  method o f  that with  i n the  the  f o r the d i f f i c u l t i e s  at  values,  One,  p h y s i c a l environment  quality  process  43 different  two  through  p r o f e s s i o n a l s to look  comprehensively be  the  system  the  planning  the  through  traced  t o shape  i t would b e t t e r the  physical  may  The  may  Some p l a n n e r s  and  welfare  planning.  by  years  among p l a n n e r s .  followed  social  'planning who  be  Over the  will  of  requires. will  same t i m e  a  people  the p l a n n e r  "planners" the  use  In  be  this  be  able  achieve  and these  planning being  planned  exposed process, to the  to the  contribute goal  to b r i n g about d e s i r e d urban  of  change.  72 Gans, P e o p l e and  Plans,  p.  245.  cited  by  73 Michel  C r o z i e r ' s term  Trist,  Ibid.,p.16.  CITY OF VANCOUVER, B.C. CIVIC  ORGANIZATION ELECTORS VANCOUVER  (A)  t  (8) t  BOARD OF SCHOOL TRUSTEES  (8)  t  VANCOUVER  BOARD OF PARKS AND  CITY COUNCIL  PUBLIC RECREATION  !  STANDING C O M M I T T E E O F COUNCIL  <B) t  «a_Ji  ON F I N A N C E  BOARD OF POLICE COMMISSIONERS  PUBLIC LIBRARY  I  APPOINTED BY LT.GOV. IN COUNCIL  BOARD  I..  ADVISORY BOARDS - ESTABLISHED BY (I) BY-LAW, (2) COUNCIL RESOLUTION (11  (1)  (1)  (1)  *  CIVIC AUDITORIUM  CIVIC M U S E U M  TOWN PLANNING  ATHLETIC  BOARD  BOARD  COMMISSION  COMMISSION  (2) CIVIL D E F E N C E  -  (1) X  (2)  OFFICIAL  TRAFFIC  VEHICLES  COMMISSION  BOARD  (1) FOR  HIRE BOARD  I CITY  *  <-----  PARKING COMMISSION  BOARD  ASSESSMENT  |  MAYORS  I  COMMISSIONER  |  SECRETARIAT  I  OFFICER  j  ->  j  1  RETURNING  J  |  i . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ J  CODE  BOARD OF  TECHNICAL PLANNING  CLERK  COMMUNICATION,  ADMINISTRATION  (I)  OPERATIONS  FINANCIAL  |  (INCUMBENTS  —— f  CIVIL D E F E N C E  ENGINEERING  FAMILY COURT  HAVE STATUTORY  POWERS A N D DUTIES.) THESE  CITY CLERK  CONTROL.  BY C I T Y COUNCIL.  A P P O I N T M E N T S M A D E BY C O U N C I L .  I  AUDITORIUM  APPOINTMENT,  CONTROL  FINANCE  FIRE  B O A R D S MAY M A K E  WHICH A R E  DECISIONS  BINDING ON P A R T I E S A F F E C T E D .  HEALTH  APRIL, 1967  LAW  MUSEUMS  PERMITS AND  PERSONNEL  LICENSES  SERVICE  PLANNING  SOCIAL  SERVICE  8Y  O  n>  EXECUTIVE BODIES ESTABLISHED  a  (0  LEGISLATION  (A)  PUBLIC S C H O O L S A C T .  (B)  VANCOUVER CHARTER.  (C)  P U B L I C L I B R A R Y ACT.  3 ft  CHAPTER  III  THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL PLANNING/COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT  Introduction The ment  through posed  private  ments a r e  niques  of  agencies I.C.  the  and  The  to  this  consider  state  required  administrators  social  to  t h e y met study  these  f o r the  more p a r t i c u l a r l y  social  what was  planning  traced  public  were c h o s e n  criteria The the  for  stated  eight  state-  Social  Plan-  documents,  objectives  .  organization  various  and  and  the  tech-  objectives.  implementation  planning  as  because  planning  historically  defined  the  them f o u n d i n g  tives define and  and  methodology.  implement  proposals  by  A  which p r o -  planning  were p r e p a r e d  because  be  reports  a public social  research  important  they  i t s d e v e l o p m e n t may  These r e p o r t s  at C i t y H a l l  because  of  Develop-  e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1968.  e i g h t documents or  examination  Chapter  ners  of  formation  City.  detailed in  perspective  a study  the  the  and  S o c i a l Planning/Community  (SP/CD) i n V a n c o u v e r was  historical  in  Department of  of  considered  what t h e  the  objec-  t o be  social  SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t  i n V a n c o u v e r i n 1968.  These  d o c u m e n t s i n c l u d e t h e "Terms o f R e f e r e n c e " o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t 2 (Seventh Report) w h i c h were drawn; up by t h e D i r e c t o r o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g who was a p p o i n t e d t o h i s p o s i t i o n i n J a n u 3  ary,  1968.  tion  on,  The and  Eighth  stated  the  Development Committee), Technical  Committee).  See  document duties and  the  authorized of,  the  Appendixes A  to H  representa-  P o l i c y body  Technical  Where r e p o r t s  the  body  differ  inclusive.  in  (Social  (Joint objectives  A p p e n d i x G.  3  October  A p p e n d i x H. 8, 1968.  Council  Minutes,  the  Resolutions  of  p.5.  and  proposed  differences 1968.  The  nation  of  in  implementation, reflect  seventh the  Vancouver  mentation since  and  the  and  eighth  t h u s may  social  reports  are  be  and  and  the  i n t e r a c t with general  perceptions  analyzed  to  the  1965-  culmiplanning  literature  of  the  Department  a Department  other  civic  community.  of  of  SP/CD,  Social  departments,  For  these  i n d i c a t i v e of  social  imple-  planning.  reasons,  the  respective  Each r e p o r t  was  determine:  .whether or of  1968  social  with  the  years  p r o p o s e d methods of of  d o c u m e n t s were c o n s i d e r e d  authors'  the  were t h e  compared  also d e f i n i t i v e  the  that  planning.  objectives  would  agencies,  surmised  changes i n t h i n k i n g over  t h e y p r o j e c t i n p a r t how  Planning  be  d e f i n i t i o n s of p u b l i c s e c t o r  which d e f i n e d The  i t may  not  the  a Department of  report  advocated  the  S o c i a l Planning,  responsible  for policy decisions  responsible  for technical decisions  a  establishment  Committee  and/or in  a  Committee  social  planning; .how  i t defined  the  general  and  the  of  the Department's r e l a t i o n s h i p s  community,  C i t y Planning  a D e p a r t m e n t was  with  the U n i t e d  Community  Services  Department,  where t h e  formation  recommended.  O b j e c t i v e s and t h e I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f O b j e c t i v e s F o r a S o c i a l P l a n n i n g O r g a n i z a t i o n as P r o p o s e d by t h e E i g h t Documents The  proposals  organization social an  planning  agency  varied  or  the  i n the  at a given  involved  in their  relation  agency  for  formation  i n time  planning.  recommendations  and  and  to  Each r e p o r t  was  studied  whom and  a t what l e v e l  the  Department  interact  with  Services  (U.C.S.) and  the  general the  the  and  The  the  eight  planning both  role  of  reports  t h e s e were e x a m i n e d  to each other  planning.  a social  public sector define  period  in social  of  literature  on  social  t o d e t e r m i n e how,  community,  Or the  C i t y Planning  Committee United  in  with would  Community  Department.  The order,  each  stances, serve  reports w i l l beginning  purposes  as a d o c u m e n t a t i o n  Technical  cussion  (1965).  cated  some t y p e  was a d d r e s s e d  costs fits  there  regarding  area  tion  t o t h e Board  i n the area.  to City  effort  be c o n s i d e r e d  establishment  on t h i s  dis-  of a S o c i a l Planning  initiwere  and t h e e c o n o m i c t o t h e benepre-  The p u r p o s e  characteristics of rehabilita-  suggested  a  problems i n the area which supply  effort  process."  of s o c i a l  Planning  services planning  The r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  6  of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  i n the s o c i a l  It  i n the newspapers 4 Road, and t h e r e were 5  The r e p o r t  combined  advo-  Hall.  and was  the p h y s i c a l  the s o c i a l  a pilot  toward  at City  Road  a t the s o c i a l  f o r a Board  mandate f o r t h e C i t y  dissertation  question.  a l l the agencies  body o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r s studies  under  t h e r e p o r t was b e i n g  i n Skid  to planning  "Their  a request  agency  publicity  problems  to attack  together  i n this  i n Skid  o f S k i d Road.  should  further  The p e r i o d  The C i t y ' s P l a n n e r s  While  Council  and t h a t ,  included  t h e P o l i c y and  s e r v i c e s compared  was c o n s i d e r a b l e  there,  the  "blight"  and i n d i r e c t  and r e n e w a l  bringing  from which t h e  of Administration  Department.  as a p r e l u d e  concerted  will  p u b l i c r e p o r t which  planning  t h e r e p o r t was t o l o o k  the  by  of social  the s o c i a l  delegations of  T h i s was t h e f i r s t  of d i r e c t  pared  of the sources  This  D e p a r t m e n t ' s r e p o r t , Downtown - E a s t  about urban  of taxes  of the r e p o r t .  document examined  by t h e P l a n n i n g  concerned  review of the circum-  o f t h e SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t ,  Planning  Side,  46  i n chronological  1965 t o O c t o b e r , 1968.  first  was t h e C i t y  a brief  Committees d e v e l o p e d .  i s June, The  ated  with  and p r o p o s a l s  Terms o f R e f e r e n c e the  be d i s c u s s e d  Board  r e p o r t on  (a t e c h n i c a l  services field),  Department  the p r e p a r a t i o n  and a  to carry out  of plans  f o r the  Bud E l s i e , "Slum F u n d a B o n a n z a , C i t y Learns", The P r o v i n c e , May 28, 1965, p . 33, " C i t y Moved t o R e l o c a t e A l c o h o l i c s : P l a n P r o v i d e s H o s t e l f o r S k i d Road B o o z e r s " , The V a n c o u v e r Sun, May 26, 1965, p . 29. A p p e n d i x A, p . 5.  I b i d . , p . 9.  physical  rehabilitation The  of Skid  not propose  similar  of the area.  r e p o r t was e s s e n t i a l l y  examination did  or renewal  a preliminary  social  Road by t h e " P h y s i c a l " P l a n n e r s .  a full  civic  t o the Technical  department but r a t h e r  Planning  Board with  It  a Board  responsibilities 7  for  co-ordinating  not  be c o n s t r u e d  sibilities ed  a social as a l a c k  of a f u l l  planning  program.  of f o r e s i g h t regarding  department;  rather,  a s t a t e m e n t o f p o l i c y on t h e p a r t  tor  regarding  social  This  should  the pos-  i t may be  consider-  of the Planning  h i s v i e w s on t h e s y n t h e s i s  Direc-  o f p h y s i c a l and  planning. No m e n t i o n was made i n t h e r e p o r t  responsible planning.  f o rp o l i c y determination The f o c u s  of the report  o f a committee  i n the f i e l d  was u p o n  of s o c i a l  efficient 8  administration  through  t h e ( t e c h n i c a l ) Board  i t proposed.  The  proposed  objectives  co-ordinate  planning  administratively f o r social  to introduce service stated changed ces,  m e a s u r e s w h i c h w o u l d make p l a n n i n g  expenditures that  social  more e f f e c t i v e .  and t h e P l a n n i n g  t h a t the proposed  i n studying  the area.  implementation  planning  and t h e s o l u t i o n s  to social  problems  that Council  Administration  to report  on t h e f e a s i b i l i t y  B o a r d made up o f p u b l i c a n d p r i v a t e the s o c i a l  Department urban  field.  since  This  i t was c o n c e r n e d  renewal.  Ibid.,  would  p p . 9-10  instruct  i n Vancouver, included  the Board o f  of establishing  administrators  include with  also  of s o c i a l  Recommendations  suggested  in  surmise  of the o b j e c t i v e s  Department's p e r c e p t i o n  Road i n p a r t i c u l a r .  the prob-  One may  the r e p o r t ,  a  previously  r e c e i v i n g the s e r v i -  Department ifeport r e f l e c t s  the Planning  in  and s o c i a l  I t has been  of the people  reflects  i n Skid  needs and  s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y g e n e r a l l y has not  the l i f e - s t y l e s  lems i t p e r c e i v e d  and  o f t h e B o a r d were t o  involved  the Planning  p u b l i c h o u s i n g and  48 While considered 9 terms"  the  firstly  to  (U.C.S.),  for  and  the  City  with  with  the  that planning  involved  the  the  linkages  general  i n the  in social  The  Administration  h a v e t o be  worked  and  out  the  i f the  Existing  that  f o r the  social  Community  for  Council  since  that  be  in physical  required  and  planning  r e p o r t proposed  "must  community.  report,  c o n s u l t a t i v e work i n t h e  City.  secondly,  Community C h e s t  were r e c o g n i z e d  already  sector  comment on  interact  relationships  recognized  i n human t e r m s and  , i t d i d not  Planners  was  report  agency  private  services  the  links  Chest  field  with  the  (U.C.S.) w o u l d  ( t e c h n i c a l ) B o a r d was  estab-  lished. Since pose  the  rather tion  the  Planning  formation  of  a Department  a t e c h n i c a l body  of  the  objectives  carried  out  at  Hall.  The  the  report  and  adapted  to  saw  This by  the  that  existed  known as was  proposed,  r e p o r t may Perlman's It  may  be  Road.  terms, both  argued  or  an  a s o l u t i o n to  as  "social  that  planner's  oriented  p r i m a r i l y to  p.  be  at  City  Board  that  a  done i n Vanstructure  and  increasing  be  social  particularly of  "social  problems  i n the  a technical  implement planning  concern  social  suggested  welfare  area board  planning. in  this  planning"  programming" a c c o r d i n g  the  social  i n Chapter  segment o f  planner the by  as  Gans  II.C. the  being  community the  in  to  W h e e l e r ' s comments r e g a r d i n g  view of  8.  level  the  " s o c i a l l y handicapped" i s borne out  Ibid.,  were t o  be  but  implementa-  Planning  o f w h i c h were d i s c u s s e d  physical is  reflected  social  described  the  should  pro-  Planning  administrative  Establishment  of  not  i n Vancouver.  to e f f e c t i v e l y  level be  definition,  find  Technical  this  i n Vancouver,  Skid  The  to  Social  planning  planning  planning then,  of  administrative  o f how  report  Planners  for social  that  report did  administrators,  i n the  proposed social  of  highest  commendable e x a m p l e couver,  Department  which  proposals  of  1  49 the  Planning The  Memorandum,  Department  1965,  ning  by Mr. G e r a l d  Department.  and was p r e s e n t e d  establishment  Side  development  o f a Department  The p u r p o s e o f t h e memorandum  functions  o f the S o c i a l Development of S o c i a l Planning  ment p r o p o s e d t h a t w h i l e require  matters ment. City  could Among  regarding  "the p o s s i b l e  and D e v e l o p m e n t .  considerations areas;  by C o u n c i l mentioned  and t h e  level.  ".. .. . . D e p a r t m e n t s  The d o c u -  1 1  of the operation  before  a number o f the  appoint-  are, d i v i s i o n  organization  neighbourhood s t u d i e s ;  and  was t o a t t e m p t  Committee  the o r g a n i z a t i o n  be c o n s i d e r e d  grams a t t h e community istrative  by t h e P l a n recommended  the appointment of a D i r e c t o r ,  i n t o community  Committees;  report  of S o c i a l Planning  a number o f q u e s t i o n s  would  Council  but i t also  t o answer Director  to City  I t suggested the concept of a Board r e -  for social  Development.  Sutton  t i m e , one o f t h e two members o f t h e B o a r d  a f t e r t h e Downtown - E a s t  sponsible the  was p r e p a r e d  1 0  Administration,  shortly  report.  second statement, Board o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ,  Brown, a t t h a t of  i n this  o f Community  and o r g a n i z a t i o n  Further,  of the  the C i t y ' s  and B o a r d s s h o u l d  be  o f proadminrepre-  sented  on t h e S o c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t B o a r d , s i m i l a r t o t h e 12 T e c h n i c a l Planning Board," w h i c h was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r " . . „13 . . t h e c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f a p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g programme. The Memorandum's p r o p o s a l Social  Planning  f o r a Department  h a d a s one o f i t s o b j e c t i v e s ,  of  the c o - o r d i -  A p p e n d i x B. The d r a f t o f t h i s r e p o r t was s i g n e d by C o m m i s s i o n e r S u t t o n Brown, and a c o p y was m a i l e d t o U.C.S. f o r comments. The w r i t e r v i e w e d t h i s m a t e r i a l i n t h e U.C.S. f i l e on t h e SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t . I b i d . . p . 1. The t e r m s " S o c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t Committ e e i n t h e body o f t h e Memorandum and " S o c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t B o a r d i n t h e t i t l e and on p . 3, a p p e a r t o be synonymous and r e f e r t o a T e c h n i c a l committee. T h i s document a l s o u s e s t h e t e r m s D e p a r t m e n t o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and D e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e t i t l e and " S o c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t D e p a r t m e n t " on p . 3 interchangeably. 1 1  12  13 Ibid.,  p . 3.  See A p p e n d i x A, p . 9.  50 nation  of public  services  agency e f f o r t s  and u r b a n r e n e w a l w i t h  m u n i t y work.  I t should  view of s o c i a l Council  and p r i v a t e  on A u g u s t  the  report  and  proposed  functions  10, 1965, p a s s e d  and r e q u e s t i n g functions  mentioned  confused  Social of  Department.  f u r t h e r study  Development  the l a t e r  appears Board,  as used  be a m a t t e r of having  a Committee  This point  i s important  a desire  fabric  o f t h e community  was t o be f a c i l i t a t e d  i s clearly  a  a responsistates  to decide  on t h e  a t the p o l i c y -  report  be  elabora-  considered  Recommendations.  social  them.  the use  t h e name S o c i a l  and w i l l  of the t h i r d  Memorandum s t a t e d  to cure  instance,  or Board  which would have t h e o b j e c t i v e  attempt  "policy-making"  The d o c u m e n t  mittee than  the Board o f  n o t one w i t h  (for Council)  t h e s i s , E.D. H i l l ' s The  by c i v i c , b u t  s i m i l a r to the Technical  and, t h e r e f o r e ,  upon i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n this  staff  t h e r e s t o f t h e memo.  of Administration  f o r making p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s .  making l e v e l . in  for i n this  throughout  Board",  desirability  The  fora  t o be synonymous w i t h  Planning  i t would  the c o s t s o f ,  S o c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t Com-  proposals  f o r a ". . . . B o a r d , 16  ted  into  on p a g e one o f t h e Memorandum, i s n o t t o  proposal  that  1  a view s i m i l a r t o that o f the C i t y  The p r o p o s e d  i n t e n t o f the Board  bility  planning. ^  agencies.  Development Committee,  t h e term  The  with  r e l a t e d t o Gans'  o f a p o l i c y committee,  presented  com-  a resolution receiving  were t o be c a r r i e d o u t n o t o n l y  Administration  be  this  f o r , a Department.  On t h e q u e s t i o n  mittee  that  and n o t s o c i e t a l  a l s o by p r i v a t e o r v o l u n t a r y  Planning  an e m p h a s i s on l o c a l  be n o t e d  programming,  i n social  f o r a Technical of developing  to prevent  social  Implementation  by t h e T e c h n i c a l  Board  the  ills  of this  Comrathe  objectiv  o r Committee  Gans d e f i n e s s o c i a l p r o g r a m m i n g a s " n o n - e c o n o m i c n o n - p h y s i c a l p r o g r a m s f o r g o a l s ' a d o p t e d ' by s o c i e t a l p l a n n i n g " . See C h a p t e r I I . C. 15 Vancouver,  B.C., C o u n c i l  16 Appendix  B, p . 3.  Minutes.  w h i c h was t o h a v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f r o m Boards,  the Social  ments, P o l i c e  Commission,  Community C h e s t  of getting  successful achieved,  social  community  and  groups. areas,  of social  should The  were p r o p o s e d ,  community  action  So t h a t t h i s  with the  to achieve  m i g h t be  t o o r g a n i z e programs a t  included division  each h a v i n g author  Depart-  t o a i d the development o f i n d i v i d u a l s a local  agencies  noted  into  that there are  concerned  p r o b l e m s and c o n c l u d e d  be r e p r e s e n t e d  of the C i t y  committee.  o f t h e Memorandum,  l a r g e number o f p r i v a t e  types  i n the s o c i a l  with  numerous  that these  agencies  planning  structure.  o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t i n i t s r e l a t i o n -  ships  with  private  t h e U.C.S., w o u l d  and p u b l i c  provision. be  local  programs.  level  Parks  and C h i l d r e n ' s C o u r t , and 17 (U.C.S.).  t h e community  Proposals  The a  and P l a n n i n g  t h e r e was t o be an e f f o r t  the  local  with  and  Family  and C o u n c i l ,  Linkages intention  Service, Health,  the School  The Community  represented  would  also  Social "has  efforts  Chest  on t h e p r o p o s e d  conduct  i n social  and C o u n c i l  service  (U.C.S.), 18  T e c h n i c a l Committee  neighbourhood  s t u d i e s through  would and i t  i t s own  P l a n n i n g and R e s e a r c h D i v i s i o n . The d o c u m e n t d e c l a r e s t h a t t h e D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g  a major 19  housing,"  concern  i n relation  t o urban renewal  b u t does n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y  departmental mutual  agencies'  be t h e c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f t h e  relationships  or linkages, other  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on t h e p r o p o s e d Thus t h e Board  objective  of s o c i a l  mention  and p u b l i c  any i n t e r than  through  T e c h n i c a l Committee.  of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n suggested  that the  p l a n n i n g i n V a n c o u v e r was t h e s o c i a l  17 I b i d . , p p . 2-3. No m e n t i o n i s made o f i n c l u d i n g t h e p r o p o s e d D i r e c t o r o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and we may p r e sume t h a t t h i s i s an o v e r s i g h t . 18 The o n l y p r i v a t e a g e n c y t h e memorandum p r o p o s e d f o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on t h e C o m m i t t e e was t h e U.C.S. 19 A p p e n d i x B, p . 2.  development social  of i t s c i t i z e n s ,  ills,  rather  accomplished ning and  than  ". . . .as a p r e v e n t i o n t o 20  their  cure."  staff  co-ordinate  o f p u b l i c and p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s ,  a T e c h n i c a l Committee which would studies proposing local  community  for  a social  were t o be a c h i e v e d of s o c i a l  explicitly  proposed the to and  development program  by e n c o u r a g i n g  i n Chapter  to identify  planning  objec-  initiative  as t h e f i r s t  and B i n s t o c k and  This  report d i d not  w h e t h e r o r n o t community d e v e l o p m e n t problems.  be s t u d i e d t o d e t e r m i n e  sidered  II.C .  or only  social  those  One may g a t h e r  o f t h e Memorandum, t h a t o n l y  of this  forming  through  local  d e f i n e d by M o r r i s  t o have s o c i a l  context  cation  social  f o r a l l s e c t i o n s of the C i t y  considered  and by  T h i s may be r e c o g n i z e d  planning  w h i c h was c o n s i d e r e d state  the e f f o r t  be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  f o r implementing  self-betterment.  type  Plan-  endeavours.  Proposals tives  T h i s was t o be  be e s t a b l i s h i n g a D e p a r t m e n t o f S o c i a l  and D e v e l o p m e n t w h i c h w o u l d  52  certain  the lack of p h y s i c a l  problems i n these  may be t h a t t h e a u t h o r  areas.  was  areas from  areas  facilities The  impli-  o f t h e document  the lack of p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s  were  con-  as a c a u s a t i v e 21  factor  i n the existence The  third  of s o c i a l  p r o b l e m s i n an a r e a .  p a p e r : E . D. H i l l ,  Recommendations,  22 (1966)  was w r i t t e n a t t h e r e q u e s t  istration, zation  to assist  t h e Board  o f t h e Board  i n considering  of t h e Department o f S o c i a l  Planning  o f Admin-  "the o r g a n i -  and D e v e l o p -  23 ment." the  He s t a t e d g o a l s  i m p l i c a t i o n s of these  f o r social  o b j e c t i v e s , and he  methods o f a c h i e v i n g them. H i s recommendations 2 0  Ibid..  planning  p . 1.  Broady  i n Chapter I I . C .  22 A p p e n d i x C. 23 See  suggested  f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a Department  21 See  i n Vancouver;  A p p e n d i x D, p . 7.  of  S o c i a l Planning  included  as  defining social  problems,  fcservicej goals, ating that  Departmental assisting  s y s t e m s " o f t h e community and a i d i n g i n c o n c e r t i n g ,  public  and p r i v a t e s o c i a l  the " s o c i a l  i n developing  implementing services.  t h e d e p a r t m e n t be a c c o u n t a b l e  53 such  objectives  aggregate  and e v a l u -  He a l s o  t o the Board  proposed  of Adminis-  tration. This tures  report  were r e q u i r e d  jectives  of  t h a t new o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  i n t h e C i t y t o implement  and i t was t h e f i r s t  #  policy-making Hill  stated  i n the s o c i a l  recommended  members o f C i t y C o u n c i l  His  planning  of United assisted  of the School  t h e above o b -  statement  that p o l i c y should  "members o f t h e B o a r d  representatives  bold  field  struc-  regarding  i n Vancouver.  be made by a c o n s o r t i u m Community  S e r v i c e s and  (my e m p h a s i s ,  BOard  and P a r k s  S. J . ) , by 24 Board."  view then,  i n 1966, was t h a t  a Policy  was d e s i r a b l e and t h a t  t h e U.C.S. s h o u l d  be r e p r e s e n t e d  it  as an e q u a l  the  Board  regarded making  with  C i t y Council.,  of Administration the establishment  level  It will  Memorandum,  ting  t o know i f t h e U.C.S., r e q u e s t  with  City Council  being  persued during  actively that  should the  sought  the Board  Council this  i n deciding  be i n c l u d e d  files  should  p o l i c y was  i ti s possible to C i t y  w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e U.C.S. of social  The w r i t e r h a s n o t f o u n d  planning  at  any i n f o r m a t i o n i n  t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n view between t h e  U.C.S. and t h e B o a r d While H i l l  partnership  I f t h e U.C.S.  would r e p o r t  decide  i n the process  regarding  C o m m i t t e e was  planning  1965-67.  of Administration  year  I t would be i n t e r e s -  f o r equal  social  that  on t h e p o l i c y -  a r o l e a t the p o l i c y l e v e l ,  that Council  level.  the years  be r e c a l l e d  on  of the previous  o f a committee  as a m a t t e r f o r d e c i s i o n .  Committee  of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  believed  issue.  the purpose of the P o l i c y  ". . . . t o c o n c e r t  A p p e n d i x C, p . 2.  on t h i s  the s o c i a l  d e v e l o p m e n t and  and  planning  policies 25  and  U.C.S.),  the  were t o report  act on  as  preparing  other  policy  implementing  had  up  would  submissions  approved  reports.  Hill,  expressed that  time  the  that  i n the  organizations  compiling  to C o u n c i l  and  responsible  for  explicitly  "citizen  recommend-  social  Hill's  be  aggregate  planning goal  and was  which would  systems"  proposed  Community were t o  groups i n f o r m u l a t i n g this  The  of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  been b y - p a s s e d .  concerted  and  Committee.  concern  of working  achieving  Board  Committee  planning.  include  a l s o be  Technical  means o f  in social  I t would  the  to develop area  to consider  bodies.  on  objectives citizen  and  members o f  to  body,  matters  two  He  Technical  functions  studies  organizations,"  f o r the  a co-ordinating  the  included  two  objectives  Committee's  data,  that  the  administrative  Technical  ed  of  54 (Council  involve  social  goals,  a c t i o n programs. neighbourhood or  involve  the  and The  local  local  citizens. The  U.C.S. had  local  community  this,  i t had  the  organizations ting  as  The report  as  an  of housing, w o u l d be social  of  the  City  and  Planning  or  i t was  at  work.  the  Along  with  co-ordinate  other  involved  alloca-  Hill  D e p a r t m e n t was  i n s t i t u t i o n with urban  Director  appears  concert  organizations.  r e n e w a l and together and  cited  in  these  in social  with  development. other  plan-  on  the  recommendations  of  E . D.  the  25 Ibid.,  p.  5.  concerting  main  social  t h r u s t of  the  the field  efforts  for  purposes  representation  Technical Hill  in  i n the  Its  agencies  through  of Planning  t o be  considered  responsibilities  development  Warren's views r e g a r d i n g this  welfare  f o r a m a j o r U.C.S. r o l e  planning  The  some e x p e r i e n c e  City.  brought  of  to  (sub-systems)  reasons  i n the  in social  ability  funds f o r other  factors ning  level  garnered  Committee.  appear to  reflect  services, report.  and  Again,  i  can  be s u g g e s t e d  the  p h y s i c a l planner's  being  here  social  planner's The  Board  handicapped limited  Planning  report  was t o p r e s e n t  by  policy  The p u r p o s e o f t h e forsocial  i n the f i e l d that  f o r endorsation  of the  assistance  under  Plan.  of Administration  program  plan-  the P r o v i n c i a l Govern-  and f o r f i n a n c i a l  saw a s a p r i m e  the prevention Implementation  objec-  and t r e a t m e n t o f would  be b r o u g h t  about  i n v o l v i n g b o t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e  Organizational  committees, for  Board  maladjustment.  agencies.  an o u t l i n e  also suggested  with 28  of Social Welfare  i tcontained  a social  w h i c h was t h e  . ."  The r e p o r t  o f t h e Department,  social  role.  resolution requesting  to consult  Canada A s s i s t a n c e  tive  (1966)  a s t h e C i t y was a c h i e v i n g  might wish  The  of the  t h e s i s e x a m i n e d was t h e 26  as p o s i t i v e a case  of p h y s i c a l planning.  proposals  this  and d e v e l o p m e n t .  i n Vancouver  ment M i n i s t e r  may be t h e r e s u l t  o f s e t t i n g up t h e p r o p o s e d D e p a r t m e n t o f 27  Social  Council  planner  segment o f t h e community  Report,  o f a 1965 C o u n c i l  regarding  of the s o c i a l  c o n c e p t o f h i s own  f o u r t h document  the c o s t s  the  to that  of Administration,  result  ning  perception  primarily oriented  which i s s o c i a l l y  "of  t h a t Wheeler's viewpoint  links  were t o i n c l u d e  one o f w h i c h was t o be p o l i t i c a l  and t h e o t h e r  t o determine  was t o be a d m i n i s t r a t i v e ,  technical decisions. In t h i s r e p o r t , the p r o p o s a l  two c i v i c responsible  to i n s t i t u t e  a Policy  A p p e n d i x D. 27 Council  Minutes,  August  10, 1965.  28 The D e p a r t m e n t o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e was s u b s e q u e n t l y re-named t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f R e h a b i l i t a t i o n and S o c i a l I m p r o v e ment by t h e S o c i a l C r e d i t P a r t y M i n i s t e r , P h i l i p A. Gagliardi. I n 1973, t h e New D e m o c r a t i c P a r t y M i n i s t e r , Norman L e v i , r e v i s e d t h e name t o t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f Human Resources.  Committee between  ( S o c i a l Development Committee)  1965 and 1966, t h e B o a r d  a d e c i s i o n that lishment  i t should  of such  from e l e c t e d were b o t h  of Administration  recommend t o C o u n c i l  a Committee w i t h  civic  bodies.  advantages  U.C.S., a s a member  Council  regarding  t h e U.C.S. r o l e i n s o c i a l  initiating the  at this  Committee  new p r o g r a m s  proposed  Board  The p o i n t  Technical  that  Committee),  that  there  raised earlier planning  by t h e w r i t e r decision-  not c l a r i f i e d .  (S.D.C.) o b j e c t i v e s w o u l d  include  and a c t i n g on r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s Committee,  (J.T.C),  planning  from  o r t h e U.C.S.  matters.  The r e p o r t  t h e Mayor o r C h a i r m a n o f t h e C i t y H e a l t h  W e l f a r e Committee The  solely  S o c i a l Development  t i m e was s t i l l  o f D i r e c t o r s , on s o c i a l  suggested  came t o  to i n c l u d i n g the  of the policy-making  (S.D.C.).  Policy  was a d v i s e d  and d i s a d v a n t a g e s  that  the estab-  representation  Committee  making a p p a r e n t l y  indicates  chair  proposed  the P o l i c y  Technical  would r e c e i v e  and  Committee.  Committee  (Joint  Technical  from  the Confer-  recommendations 30  ence o f L o c a l A r e a C o u n c i l s , own.  However, t h e c h i e f i n i t i a t i v e  Department would  and i n i t i a t e  o f SP/CD.  p r o g r a m s on i t s  was e x p e c t e d  The J o i n t T e c h n i c a l  c o n s i s t o f Department heads i n v o l v e d  from t h e  Committee i n social  grams i n c l u d i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f r o m U.C.S. This report presents a d e t a i l e d account  (J.T.C.) pro-  o f how  T h i s r e p o r t i s t h e f i r s t t o use t h e term " S o c i a l Development Committee" f o r a committee r e s p o n s i b l e f o r policy decisions i n social planning. To a v o i d t h e c o n f u s i n g terminology used i n the v a r i o u s r e p o r t s , the author chose i n t h i s C h a p t e r t o use t h e term " P o l i c y Committee" which w i l l h e r e i n a f t e r a l s o be r e f e r r e d t o a s S o c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t Comm i t t e e o r S.D.C. S i m i l a r l y , the committee r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t e c h n i c a l d e c i s i o n s w i l l h e r e i n a f t e r a l s o be r e f e r r e d t o a s J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee, o r J.T.C. 30  A proposed city-wide Conference of Local. Area Councils responsible f o r co-ordinating the a c t i v i t i e s of the L o c a l A r e a C o u n c i l s . The l a t t e r a r e made up o f l o c a l community l e a d e r s , not n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v e d i n s o c i a l w e l f a r e work. S e e : A p p e n d i x D, p p . 6 - 7.  the  community  SP/CD. civic  The  would  report  staffs  and  with  the  as p a r t  In  addition  w h i c h would  staff  doing  to  be  social  Planning  in  report  may  no to  development. h o w e v e r , may ning by  result that  that  of  a l l the  community  responsible was  surmised the  accomplish  pro-  professional  area.  This  to i n c l u d e p a r t  of  Neigh-  the  the  not  that  Department  mentioned  and  represented  the  Board  of  is a social  programming  social  and  approach.  changes which might  a preventative  system  of  an  attempt  policies  t o do and  Committee  societal  programs  of  social  i n Vancouver would  be  one  plan-  proposed  could  evaluation  involved  to state in  planning. f i f t h d o c u m e n t c o n s i s t s o f t h e " N o t e s " by 32 p r e p a r e d f o r the Ottawa c o n f e r e n c e of  A p p e n d i x D, Appendix  E.  p.  8.  be  social  to e s t a b l i s h a P o l i c y  as  treating  goals  Hill,  the  Administration'  of p r e v e n t i n g  I f the  planning  the  on  from  social  staff  specifically  objective  proposal  viewed  Planning  were  the  to  (J.T.C).  d i s c u s s i o n of The  grants 31  program.  linkages  b o t h w o u l d be  Committee be  be  of  more  (S.D.C),  The D.  neighbourhood  S o c i a l Development Committee,  societal  E.  planning  w o u l d be  and  community  was  between  i n Vancouver.  the  of  by  the  SP/CD.  maladjustments  required  organized  D e p a r t m e n t was  comments r e g a r d i n g T h e r e was  of  t o have  Area Councils  s e r v i c e work i n t h e  except  Technical  welfare  Local  comprised  Department of  Social  social  the  Resource C o u n c i l  It  SP/CD t h e r e  social  level  Interaction  Joint  social  i n t e r l o c k i n g the  w h i c h were t o be  posed  the  Department  t o make a p p l i c a t i o n f o r p r o v i n c i a l  a preventative  bourhood  i n the  Department of  U.C.S., a n o t h e r  the  involved  of  leaders,  the  increasing pressure  adds t h a t by  opportunities  of  cites  administration  process,  the  i n t e r a c t with  58 physical  and s o c i a l  planners  discuss  low-income h o u s i n g .  persons  other  to  explain  ships  i n April,  the C i t y  A d m i n i s t r a t o r s and C o u n c i l ,  f o r s o c i a l development  the purposes with  1967, t o  The r e p o r t was p r e s e n t e d t o  t h e aims o f t h e p r o p o s e d  Committees cussed  than  called  D e p a r t m e n t and  i n Vancouver.  It dis-  o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and i t s r e l a t i o n -  t h e U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s . i  These notes co-ordinating studying that  civic  community  the D i r e c t o r  planning approach  with  author's that  social  the Social  two  relationship  with  "composed  commented  to assure  critical  stance  objectives  an i n d e -  by t h e U.C.S.  would  mentioned  and s e t t i n g  be i n a p o s i t i o n  represent to a course  presumed  that  implementation  views expressed  C o m m i t t e e were e s s e n t i a l l y the previous r e p o r t . the D i r e c t o r  Ibid.,  p . 88.  the respec-  of action.  of this  was  of goals, the  objective  when one c o n s i d e r s t h e e x t r e m e  municipal decision-making  3 3  of the  by H i l l  t o commit  they  that  sought  documents.  bodies  time  Hill  proposed  t h e S.D.C. was  Services i n order  i n the planning o f p o l i c y  The in  s h o u l d be 33  s t a n d p o i n t i s n o t b o r n e o u t by an e x a m i n a t i o n  very d i f f i c u l t , of  t h e same  T h i s document  Committee  and where n e c e s s a r y ,  policy-makers be  o f 1966'.  policy-makers."  One o f t h e p r i m e  tive  proposed  a change i n  when compared w i t h  Development  of elected  previous  that  also  t o U.C.S., r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on t h e  (S.D.C),  U n i t e d Community  This  Hill  i n 1967, t h e N o t e s i n d i c a t e d  t h a t no " o f f i c i a l " pendent,  d e v e l o p m e n t and  initiatives.  Recommendations,  exclusively by  conditions.  objectives of  o f SP/CD s h o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s o c i a l  regard  Committee  the Departmental  programs f o r s o c i a l  and d e v e l o p m e n t Written  Policy  stress  I t may w o u l d be  complexity  procedures. r e g a r d i n g the J o i n t T e c h n i c a l  a reiteration  The n o t e s of Social  of those  mentioned  cited  f o r the f i r s t  P l a n n i n g would  c h a i r the  59 J.T.C. Social community  Planning  were t o c e n t r e  responsibility conditions. developed  on t h e D e p a r t m e n t ' s  f o r conducting  Hill  implementation funding  Department r e l a t i o n s h i p s with the s t u d i e s o f community  also indicated that d e t a i l s  of the goals  i n a formal  for Provincial  under t h e Canada A s s i s t a n c e As  regarding  i n this  maintaining  the  T e c h n i c a l Committee,  Local Area Councils,  at City  however, b r i n g t o g e t h e r and  this  would i n c l u d e An  between Hall.  that H i l l ' s  views a r e b e s t d e f i n e d  description  of the t h i r d  with  allocate  and  on  Committee. regarding  t h e two D e p a r t m e n t s The J . T . C ,  would,  area  s i g n i f y the  planning. 34 by Kahn  I t appears in his  from which s o c i a l  The " N o t e s " i n d i c a t e a c o n t i n u e d  the assessment  of social  problems  planning  pre-occupa-  to better  f u n d s and c o - o r d i n a t e s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . The s i x t h r e p o r t i s t h e S o c i a l S e r v i c e D e p a r t m e n t 35  United  Minister  report  "Notes" would  he h a d o f p u b l i c s o c i a l  tion  developing  the D i r e c t o r of Planning.  overview of H i l l ' s  derived.  The  t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i v e heads o f the C i t y  perceptions  is  report.  b u t n o t on t h e P o l i c y  relations  i n planning  planning i n  and be r e p r e s e n t e d  T h e r e i s no d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s involved  views  t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  and  inter-departmental  Government  stated  i n public social  V a n c o u v e r were r e v i s e d c o n s i d e r a b l y U.C.S. was t o c o n t i n u e  being  Plan.  p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, H i l l ' s t h e U.C.S. r o l e  f o rthe  o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t were  proposal  social  Community  of Social  Welfare  Department  of S o c i a l  Assistance  Plan,  See  S e r v i c e s , A p p l i c a t i o n (1967) on b e h a l f  Planning.  the Federal  Chapter I I . C  Appendix F.  Under  to the  of the proposed terms o f the Canada  Government i s p r e p a r e d  to  60 make c o n t r i b u t i o n s receive for  approval  them.  The  Provincial of  for certain social  of  the  S o c i a l Planning, of  the  approval  The  application included and  This level  of  P o l i c y and  U.C.S. f i l e  w h i c h was  of  proposed  P o l i c y Committee  a representative  i n the  Portfolio  the  s i t on  Projected C o m m i t t e e was was but to  area  the  twelve  by  i t s Executive  included sensitive  another  S o c i a l Development Correspondence  indicated that favour was  at  the  the  prepared  a Minister  in  to  have  Without  1  the  Joint  same as the  only  Technical  that put  exception  forth in  that  the  i t s D i r e c t o r of  Director,  U.C.S.  Planning  i n c r e a s i n g the  total  members.  Relationships committee  not  the  a d d i t i o n of  the  with  of  m e m b e r s h i p on  represented  a l s o by  to  Committee.  Recommendations. w i t h  t o be  the  t h a t he  person  essentially  support.  offices.  looked and  committees  for staffing  examined,  S o c i a l Welfare  get  financial  P r o v i n c i a l Government.  Minister  Hill's  Federal  a p p l i c a t i o n suggested the  responsible  to  Technical  proposals  local  was  which  f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a Department  P r o v i n c i a l and five  report  elected decision-makers  Committee— the  the  support  and  Department  P r o v i n c i a l Government  i n t e n t i o n of  Government  services  between  the;SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t  are d e t a i l e d i n t h i s document. making  the  social  to c i t i z e n  needs,  Stated of  the  objectives  s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y system co-ordinating  and more  welfare 36  services and  within  local  a r e a s by  f o s t e r i n g concerted  delivery  in local  Local  research,  a r e a s by  the  Area  planning  Co-ordinators, and  service  Local Area Councils.  Five  A C o - o r d i n a t o r i s a member o f t h e s t a f f o f t h e Department of S o c i a l Planning/Community Development, who works i n L o c a l A r e a s or n e i g h b o u r h o o d s i n Vancouver, c o - o r d i n a t i n g t h e work o f a team o f p r o f e s s i o n a l and non-professional people responsible f o r providing s o c i a l s e r v i c e s i n the area; a S o c i a l P l a n n e r .  co-ordinators  were t o be r e s p o n s i b l e  SP/CD w h i l e L.A. C o u n c i l s  were t o be autonomous u n i t s  w o u l d make r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s That with  which  t o U.C.S., i n c l u d i n g f a c i l i t a t i n g a local  public  sectors  Community the  area  The with the  or p r i v a t e sector  the Planning  only  authorized  approach  to social  expected  when c o n s i d e r a t i o n  Service  and  Budget  report  Planning  Departments  was  represented.  planning  of the a p p l i c a t i o n  social  welfare  i n Vancouver. i s given  at City  brings  planning  This  may be  t o t h e two a g e n c i e s  Hall.  seventh report, 37 (1968)  prepared  represent  t h e d o c u m e n t - U.C.S., and t h e S o c i a l  Department The  United  C o m m i t t e e where t h e D i r e c t o r s o f  i t s predominantly  which prepared  to  and  concern with i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s  D e p a r t m e n t s were t o be  the f o r e  services  o f t h e community.  A review o f the contents to  welfare  the v o l u n t a r y  and S o c i a l P l a n n i n g  the J o i n t T e c h n i c a l  i n relation  d e l i v e r y of such s e r v i c e s .  i s explicitly  report's  planning  deals  f o r t h e agency  objectives  and c o - o r d i n a t i n g  i n their  Services  voluntary  between  basis  specifically  a number o f f u n c t i o n s  W h i c h r e l a t e t o SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t a l on  which  t o t h e U.C.S.  s e c t i o n of the b r i e f  t h e U.C.S., l i s t s  to the D i r e c t o r of  Board  contains  of Administration  the J o i n t Technical  by t h e n e w l y - a p p o i n t e d D i r e c t o r  and Community D e v e l o p m e n t  Program  Committee of Social  i n h i s capacity  as  Chairman of the J.T.C. I n c l u d e d i n t h i s document a r e t h e 38 "Terms o f R e f e r e n c e " f o r t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f SP/CD w h i c h 39 were a d o p t e d  by C o u n c i l  on J u n e 13, 1968.  was p r o d u c e d  to provide  City Council  Department.  I t also  the  specified  with  This  report  a budget  f o r the  purposes or o b j e c t i v e s f o r  Department o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g ,  and f u n c t i o n s  which  would p e r m i t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n t o c a r r y o u t i t s o b j e c t i v e s . 37 38 A p p e n d i x G. I b i d . , p p . 5 - 6. 39  Council  Minutes,  June  13, 1968.  6 2 Incidentally, Assistance the it  Plan  Department had  no  sharing  that  funds  were n o t  s i n c e the  funds  this  t h i s document i s the  planning  proposals outline  implementation  Planning social  were s i m i l a r  the  they  may  be in  time,  underlined  as  a  Since the  passages,  (my  of  social "Terms  proposals  of  for  the .Social as d e f i n i n g  1968.  of e a r l i e r The  they  emphasis,  Department  reports,  as  implementation contain for  additional  Specifically,  cost-  years  the  construed  f u n c t i o n s and  significant  SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t .  three  s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s f o r the  listed  three  the  that  significant  of  o b j e c t i v e s of  to the p r o p o s a l s  are  of  formation  i n subsequent documents.  objectives  i t is  o b j e c t i v e s and the  establishing  Plan.  culmination  i n Vancouver  Most of  first  of  Department,  planning  modified  the  thesis,  f o r the  the  for  Government s t a t e d  o r g a n i z a t i o n i n Vancouver.  Reference"  Canada  f o r i t s p o r t i o n of  mandatory under  purposes of  preliminary  available  Provincial  available  formula For  the  t h i s document i n d i c a t e s t h a t  tasks  are  for  of  the the  the f o l l o w i n g  S. J . ) :  .to i n t e g r a t e the s o c i a l w i t h the o t h e r c j t y p l a n n i n g , i n c l u d i n g Urban renewal housing p r o j e c t s ;  aspects of and p u b l i c  . t o s t u d y and d e f i n e V a n c o u v e r ' s s o c i a l p r o b l e m s , e v a l u a t e t h e i m p a c t o f community s e r v i c e s on t h e s e p r o b l e m s , s u p p o r t e f f e c t i v e s e r v i c e s and recommend the d i s c o n t i n u a n c e of i n e f f e c t i v e s e r v i c e s ; . t o c r e a t e and r e g u l a r l y u p d a t e a m a s t e r development p l a n f o r Vancouver.40 While not  unlike earlier  planning given The  i t may  i n the  added  appear  that this  proposals,  City  as  c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s by  f u n c t i o n s of  in this  p.  5.  of  be  programming social  r e p o r t , have  the D i r e c t o r of  the Department w i l l  A p p e n d i x G,  i s social  the p e r c e p t i o n s  expressed  social  SP/CD.  considered  at  been  length  i n Chapter  master  social The  IV,  at which  time  the d e f i n i t i o n  development p l a n  will  be  "Terms o f  recommendations  Development Committee. mention the  that  the  Joint Technical  Committee  of  Committee  objectives  viewed  similarly  to p r e v i o u s l y  Representation  on  augmented w i t h  the  the  fostered  through  application  to  the  at  a social  earlier  the  of  planning  proposals,  stated  additions  Social  Planning  implement  the  No.  (Strathcona  (subsequently Centre).  of  the  Director  called  the  goals  the  Director  the  of  proposal  p.  1.  of  in in  were area  the 1967.  P r o v i n c i a l Government's  i n the  City. of  assist and  Services  main s i m i l a r to the  by  Council.  previously  the  Director  Proposals  authorization for i n Urban Renewal  the Scheme  a  Centre  Grandview  at  Ibid.,  p.  3.  of  to  t o employ  B r i t a n n i a Community  2  organization Departmental  4 2  Ibid.,  be  agency.  local  S o c i a l Welfare  included to  to  SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t  exception by  are  C o m m i t t e e was  work were i n t h e  Sub-Area),  Community  the  commit f u n d s f o r t h e 41  adopted  objectives  Planning  worker f o r the  from  presence  with  and  responsibilities  Regional  the  not  objectives.  w h i c h were recommended  Social 3,  to  f o r community  are  Co-ordinators  two  Minister  time,  the  with  three  change r e s u l t e d from  objectives  represent  p r o v i n c i a l government  linkages  reduction  inability  stated  Joint Technical the  services—a  the  to i n d i c a t e t h a t  a d d i t i o n of  representing Community  Of  J.T.C,  i n t h i s d o c u m e n t , however, appear  This  Social  specifically  Director will  f o r the  Committee  t o be  the  a t S o c i a l Development  the  Welfare  regarding  to  meetings.  Specific presented  major changes  I t d i d nonetheless,  S o c i a l Planning  a  given.  R e f e r e n c e " made no  stated previously  of  part-time Services  The in It  "Terms o f R e f e r e n c e "  viewpoint  United  on t h e D e p a r t m e n t ' s i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s  Community  reiterated  social  Services  from  t h e U.C.S. r o l e  planning  was s t a t e d i n t h e s o c i a l  into  Planners  Hall  the  two D e p a r t m e n t s , The  Council  final  Minutes,  established Technical Committees  1968, of  interest  to this  study,  that Planners regard  statement  carried  - t h e Board  their  thesis,  o f October .  was t h e  8, 1968, w h i c h and t h e J o i n t .these  responsibilities."  o u t the recommendations  These  of the preceding  o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Program  which d e a l t with  one r e p o r t  i n Chapter IV.  i n this  and a u t h o r i z e d with  to  and S o c i a l  to this  i s reported  "Resolutions"  It  on t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s o f  document examined 43  to proceed  This  function of integrating  t h e S o c i a l Development Committee  resolutions report  Planning.  planning.  and t h i s  Committee,  between  of c i t y  have w i t h  w h i c h makes an e x p l i c i t  studies  aspects  the perceptions  at City  one o f t h e e i g h t  and S o c i a l  planning  the other  would be o f c o n s i d e r a b l e inquire  as a major c o n s u l t a n t f o r  to the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s  the Departments o f P l a n n i n g with  t h e A p p l i c a t i o n o f 1967.  i s the only  w h i c h makes r e f e r e n c e  social  with  s t u d i e s i n Vancouver.  T h i s document  the  64 d o n o t i n d i c a t e any c h a n g e  and B u d g e t o f  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the Department  SP/CD - and d i d n o t make any s t a t e m e n t  regarding the  Department p e r se which had been i n e x i s t e n c e f o r approximately  four  Council's differed by  from  assigning 1)  r e s o l u t i o n on t h e f o r m a t i o n  the previous to this  Policy  report's  o f t h e S.D.C.  "Terms o f  Committee  t o u n i f y the implementation and  2)  months. Reference"  two a d d i t i o n a l d u t i e s : of s o c i a l  policies  p l a n s ; and  to f a c i l i t a t e institutions  Appendix  H.  changes i n t h e C i t y ' s  social  t h r o u g h c o - o r d i n a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n  of  social  services.  These p r o p o s a l s planning Morris  as  and  Feasible  effort  Binstock  Planning  a concept social  an  of  to focus  on  duties  facilitating  institutions  to p r o v i d e  policies  of  explicitly  O c t o b e r 8, defined.  f o r the  authors  In describe  change  policies  of  formal  S.D.C. may  be  said  City's  social  services  rather  c o n d i t i o n s by  Joint Technical  enunciated  1968, Since  i n the  although the  the  tasks  are  very  closely  r e l a t e d to  outlined  f o r the  Department of  Technical  Council  altering  to  o b j e c t i v e s of  Committee  Committee  the  the  J.T.C,  social  functions Social  authorized  were  r e s o l u t i o n of  Committee's d u t i e s  assigned  implementing  the  .  to  better social  means o f  of  II.C  organization.  Objectives not  these  by  strives  the  social  social  as d e f i n e d  changes i n the  t h a n making changes i n the the  the of  of  i n Chapter  which  altering  short  change  Change,  planning  The  4 4  fall  discussed  for Social  c o n d i t i o n s by  to  at s o c i a l  and  social  organizations.  appear  were are  planning,  they  previously  Planning.  The  by  differ  Council  Board  of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  reports  inclusion  tasks  which r e f l e c t  changes proposed  the  D i r e c t o r of  of Reference,  Social  which  Planning  are  1)  unify planning  2)  create  and  in  1968,  Department's  the  where he  by  procedures,  and  r e g u l a r l y update  a master 45 f o r Vancouver.  Ernest  listed  authorized  Morris  Hill  eleven  twelve  and  A p p e n d i x H,  4.  in his  social  the  Recommendations,  representatives.  representatives  Binstock, p.  by  Terms  i t s i n c e p t i o n , J.T.C. membership r e f l e c t e d  views expressed (1966),  i n the  by  to:  development p l a n At  the  only  duties  from e a r l i e r of  the  to  the  Feasible Planning,  Council Committee,  pp.14-15.  including  a P r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l Welfare  As  stated  exclusively  with  earlier,  the Council  the establishment  Technical  Committees,  Therefore  a discussion  with  the general  the  C i t y Planning  representative.  their  resolutidns  dealt  o f t h e P o l i c y and  m e m b e r s h i p and t h e i r  duties.  o f SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s  community, U n i t e d Department  Community  S e r v i c e s and  i s not appropriate  at this  point. i  Summary The  e i g h t documents examined, p r o v i d e  view of s o c i a l also define  recognize earlier  From  who w r o t e  stated  accounts  study.  programming.  objectives  social  one c a n  discussed  and e i g h t h  o f the S o c i a l Planning/Community  achievement,  then, d e f i n e  described reports  Development  and t h e p r o p o s a l s  i n part  social  f o r their  planning i n  i n 1968, i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s  between d i f f e r e n t organization  perspective a basis  as  and t h e methods o f i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e  These o b j e c t i v e s  or  examined  may be b e s t  The s e v e n t h  Department. Vancouver  perceived  and  The p r e d o m i n a n t t h e o r e t i c a l  i n the r e p o r t s  the o b j e c t i v e s  They  the Planners  a number o f t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c e p t s  i n this  social  the reports,  the various  approach presented as  development i n Vancouver.  what t h e S o c i a l P l a n n e r s ,  Administrators planning.  planning  a historical  groups  involved  at City Hall.  of s o c i a l  planning  f o r comparison with  i n the planning  This  brief  system  historical  i n the C i t y , w i l l  a 1971 v i e w o f s o c i a l  serve  as  planning.  CITY  O F V A N C O U V E R , B.C  C!V.'C  ORGANIZATION  ELECTORS VANCOUVER  (A)  •  BOARD SCHOOL  (Bl +  OF  VANCOUVER  TRUSTEES  CITY  STANOING  TRANSPORTATION  (81  >i H E A L T H A N D W E L F A R E  PURPOSES  R  PLANNING  GKLA7E.V G AN NCCOOUUVV; E R VA  (I)  (2!  CIVIC  BOARD  CIVIL .  CITY  (2)  DEFENCE  OFFICIAL  BOARD  (I) TRAFFIC  A T H L E T I C  P L A N N I N G  BOARD  COMMISSION  (I) CF  VARIANCE  CITY  ORAINAGE  GRc"  FOR  eOARO  A C C O M M O D A T I O N  I  -  1  J  ASSESSMENT  j  MAYORS  I  COMMISSIONER  |  SECRETARIAT  J  COMMUNICATION,  RETURNING  G R I E V A N C E  OFFICER  B O A R D  TECHNICAL  BOARD OF  TECHNICAL  P L A N N I N G  ADMINISTRATION OPERATIONS  lx **  AUDITORIUM  FINANCIAL  e  MUNICIPAL  T H E S E  L A B O U R R E L A T I O N S B U R E A U  CLERK CIVIL  ARCHIVES  O E F E N C E  ENGINEERING  P R O V I N C I A L  P R O B A T I O N  C O U R T S  S E R V I C E S  B Y CITY  M A D E H A V E  B O A R D S  C O N T R O L . C O U N C I L .  B Y C O U N C I L . S T A T U T O R Y  M A YM A K E  BINDING  O NP A R T I E S  B U R E A U  P R O V I D E S  P O W E R S  D E C I S I O N S  A N D OUTIES.)  WHICH  ARE  A F F E C T E D .  S E R V I C E TO -  V A N C O U V E R  N O R T H  V A N C O U V E R  CITY  B U R N A B Y  N O R T H  V A N C O U V E R  DISTRICT  R I C H M O N O  N O R T H  N E W  ***  A P P O I N T M E N T ,  C O N T R O L  ( I N C U M B E N T S  I  Cl T Y  NATIONAL EXHIBITION  DISTRICT  CODE  JOINT  DO'-RD  PACIFIC  WATER  ClST.  A P P O I N T M E N T S  C O M M I T T E E  ATER  (I)  VEHICLES  B Y L T . G O V . IN C O U N C I L  VANCOUVER  SEWER ANO  DIST.  I  R E N T A L HIRE  C L E R K  C O M M I S S I O N  COMMISSION  C O M M I T T E E  (21  V A N C O U V E R  V A N C O U V E R  C O U R T  AUOITORiUM  (r  II),  F A M I L Y  HOSPITAL  OISTRICT  AND  ID)  GREATER VANCOUVER  j  REGIONAL  REGIONAL  APPOINTEO  (P)l<-  ADA  (F)| + GREATER  PARKS  RECREATION  BOARD OF POLICE COMMISSIONERS  .,.  BOARD  VANCOUVER  V A N C O U V E R  OF  (Bl  JI P U 8 LB I CL LIBRARY  DEVELOPMENT  BOARDS - ESTAQLISKEO B Y (I) B Y - L A W , (Z) COUNCIL RESOLUTION  BOARD PUBLIC  COMMITTEES  G E N E R A L  FINANCE  r—|  COUNCIL  f  W E S T M I N S T E R  M E M B E R S PROVINCIAL  INCLUDE GOV'T  V A N C O U V E R S C H O O L  A P P O I N T E D  A N D F R O M  OFFICIALS  O T H E R  DISTRICT FROM  B O A R O S .  n  H  a> o (t>  FINANCE  J  FIRE  H E A L T H  M U S E U M S  E S T A B L I S H E D  PERMITS A N D  P E R S O N N E L  LICENCES  SERVICE  PLANNING A N D CIVIC DEVELOPMENT  SOCIAL PLANNING  AMD  COMMUNITY DEVELOP-'. E ' J T  p-  EXECUTIVE BODIES (A)  PUBLIC  (8)  V A N C O U V E R  B Y  L E G I S L A T I O N :  S C H O O L S A C T C H A R T E R  (C)  P U B L I C  W E L F A R E A N D  (01  SPECIAL.  L I B R A R Y A C T  REHABILITATION  (E)  " R E G I O N A L "  (F)  MUNICIPAL A C T  A C T S  O F I N C O R P O R A T I O N  A C T S  ft CTl  CHAPTER IV THE DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL PLANNING/ COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN ACTION  Introduction This social  planning  establishment to the  thesis  has d i s c u s s e d . t h e  agency  of a  i n Vancouver which culminated  o f a C i v i c Department  o b j e c t i v e s and p r o p o s a l s Department.  development  aspects  i n 1968, i n a d d i t i o n  t o implement  The d i s s e r t a t i o n  will  of Social  i n the  the o b j e c t i v e s of  consider  chapter,  various  activity  i n 1971, so t h a t a c o m p a r i s o n may be made w i t h t h e  views espoused f o r s o c i a l p l a n n i n g latter of  may be c o n s i d e r e d  Vancouver  Planning  i n this  Department  i n 1968.  In a sense the  an " i d e a l " o r t h e o r e t i c a l  s o c i a l planning, while  the c u r r e n t  concept  practice  may r e f l e c t m o d i f i c a t i o n s b r o u g h t a b o u t by t h e e x p e r i e n c e s of  the Department  reasons, The  over  a period of three  the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s  will  be  years.  For these  examined:  manner i n w h i c h : .Social  Planners  1.  social  2.  their  perceive planning,  role  actions  i n s o c i a l planning,  as S o c i a l  relationships  Planners,  their  and t h e i r  with  the C i t y  Planning  the S o c i a l  Planning  Department  Department. .Persons o u t s i d e perceive 1.  social  2.  the S o c i a l of  planning,  Social  with  Planners' Planners  the C i t y  role,  the a c t i o n s  and t h e i r  Planning  relationship  Department.  1  68 As comment on  background the  involvement this  or  voluntary  point.  allocating since  The  Chest  planning  s e r v i c e agencies with  agencies  been i n c o n f l i c t  and  f o r the  i n Vancouver  and  on  the  brief  social  1  appropriate  raising  local  i n d i v i d u a l s i n the  with  seems  a f e d e r a t i o n of  doing  emphasis  a  (U.C.S.)  concerned with  been a c t i v e l y  particular  reader,  Council's  Community C h e s t ,  f u n d s has  1964,  Several  Community  in social  at  information  private and  planning  area  planning.  Vancouver area  Community C h e s t  (U.C.S.)  have  regarding  2 a prior  right By  identified there  are  to  local  January, by  area  1967,  jurisdiction. definitive  U.C.S. r e s e a r c h e r  indications that  local  Barry  areas 3  Mayhew.  shortly after  the  were  However, Social  Planning  D e p a r t m e n t was e s t a b l i s h e d , t h e d i v i s i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s b e t w e e n U.C.S. and N e i g h b o u r h o o d S e r v i c e s A s s o c i a t i o n , 4 N.S.A.)  on  "community d e v e l o p m e n t  " and  "planning  consultation"  required  clarification.  As  Hoc  on  Areas  Area C o u n c i l s  Committee  formed.  This  Local  and  Committee p r e p a r e d  w h i c h recommended  Local and  a result,  published  t h a t N.S.A., c o n t i n u e  a  an  Ad was  report  i t s commitment  to,  The Community C h e s t and C o u n c i l s o f G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r c h a n g e d i t s named t o U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s the G r e a t e r Vancouver A r e a , (U.C.S.), i n 1966.  of  2 C h r i s t i a n a McNiven, p r i n c i p a l i n v e s t i g a t o r , Case S e r i e s i n S o c i a l P l a n n i n g , 4: P l a n n i n g Under V o l u n t a r y C o u n c i l and P u b l i c A u s p i c e s , V a n c o u v e r , ( O t t a w a : The C a n a d i a n C o u n c i l on S o c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t , J u l y , 1972, p. 21. 3 B a r r y Mayhew, L o c a l A r e a s o f V a n c o u v e r , ( V a n c o u v e r , B.C.: R e s e a r c h D e p a r t m e n t , U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s o f G r e a t e r Vancouver, January, 1967). It i s interesting that t h e s e a r e a s a r e c o n s i d e r e d by some as l o g i c a l w a r d s o r c o n s t i t u e n c i e s i n the r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n of Vancouver C i v i c G o v e r n m e n t e x p e c t e d i n 1973-4. 4 N e i g h b o u r h o o d S e r v i c e s A s s o c i a t i o n i s a member a g e n c y w i t h U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s w h i c h s p e c i a l i z e s i n n e i g h b o u r h o o d work. I t has b e e n a c t i v e i n L o c a l A r e a C o u n c i l s (made up o f community l e a d e r s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l s e r v i c e p e o p l e ) and A r e a R e s o u r c e C o u n c i l s , (a team o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l s e r v i c e personnel) i n Vancouver.  arid r e s p o n s i b i l i t y 5  Areas.  Community d e v e l o p m e n t  u n d e r N.S.A.' a u s p i c e s that in  Neighbourhood  the  Vancouver  Social Within  July  1,  Services  area  s e r v i c e s were 1970.  The  6  Association  doing  re-organized  reader  will  is a social  Social Service  of  agency  Planning.  manner i n w h i c h S o c i a l P l a n n e r s  endeavour  views of  social  i n 1971  planning  permit  a comparison with  had  social  of  planning  can  be  theory the  presumed  at  that  as  t o be  time.  perceptions  i n 1968  perceive This  Social  expressed  i n the  be  Director  drew up  t h i s document  Social Planning  contains,  a)  the  Department  of  S o c i a l Planning  a.  purpose,  and  b) and  The S t a t e d P u r p o s e o f t h e (1968) as V i e w e d i n 1971  the  will  Planners  It will  of  recalled  Depart-  that  functions  Community  their  their  mentis Terms o f R e f e r e n c e .  1.  recall  P l a n n i n g as P e r c e i v e d by P e r s o n s the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department The  field  69 Local  f o r community d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e  the  which of  the  Development.  Department  8 During Director, of  the  he  broad  terms  of  the  to  interested.  implicit  interview  commented  Department  philosophy is  an  i n the  of  that  with the  SP/CD was  Department, this  stated  and  opinion,  statement  Social  i n which  of purpose,  aim  the  i s written one  Planning  purpose or  considered  c o v e r most i s s u e s In  the  in  the  very  Department  o b j e c t i v e which i s that  is  of  U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s o f t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r A r e a , L o c a l A r e a and L o c a l A r e a s C o u n c i l s : Community D e v e l o p ment S t a f f and O t h e r S u p p o r t S e r v i c e s " ! (Vancouver, B.C.: A p r i l 16, 1 9 7 0 ) . T h i s r e p o r t d e s c r i b e s t h e p r o c e s s o f Communit y D e v e l o p m e n t as " h e l p i n g r e s i d e n t s o f an a r e a t o d e v e l o p i n t o a c t i v e , r e s p o n s i b l e c i t i z e n s who u n d e r t a k e c o - o p e r a t i v e a c t i o n t o i m p r o v e t h e i r community." p. 3. 6  McNiven,  I b i d . , p.  28.  7 as  an  aid  g  interviews  The r e a d e r i s r e q u e s t e d to the d i s c u s s i o n which  t o u s e A p p e n d i x G., follows.  Names, o f f i c i a l s p o s i t i o n s , d a t e s are g i v e n i n the B i b l i o g r a p h y .  and  p.  locations  5, of  70 endeavouring  " t o make C i t y  citizen  needs.  achieve  i t s right  Department  A  i s to  second  Social  should  "foster  be  of  the  T h e r e was  and b.  the  not  societal  Social  goals  must be  to c a r r y out  or  the Department.  Planners  see  departmental  of may  be  the  f u n c t i o n s as  by  Council  s t a t e seven  a guide  According  t o two  Social  s e r v i c e s has from  the  the  the  functions  Social  f o r day-to-day  not  the  may  unification  been a c c o m p l i s h e d ,  and  recipient,  i n greater  seek a i d from  freedom a second  while of  restriction lack  choice  agency  this  Unification  s e r v i c e s w o u l d mean a  a v a i l a b l e to the results  Planners,  clients'"''"'' v i e w p o i n t .  social  concerting client  Depart-  o b j e c t i v e s of  Presently,  services  options  social  Department  social  or c o n c e r t i n g of of  the  as d i s t i n g u i s h e d  determined  of  good  view  the  activities.  Unification  social  and  essentially  Terms o f R e f e r e n c e  the  the  Committee.  the  of  self-help  if  agreement i n the  The S t a t e d F u n c t i o n s o f t h e (1968) as V i e w e d i n 1971  tasks  public  information,  planning  general  Department,  (i)  are  societal  Development  In o r d e r  the  that d i s c u s s i o n s with  Department  by  that  of  indicate that i n their  and  ment  i s to help  to  programs."  programming Gans.  more r e s p o n s i v e "  citizen  mentioned  9  Planners  objectives  goal  to channels  community-betterment It  Hall  of  since  i f the  The t e r m S o c i a l P l a n n e r s o r C o - o r d i n a t o r s w i l l r e f e r t o t h o s e S o c i a l P l a n n e r s i n t e r v i e w e d who work i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f SP/CD, w h i l e t h e t e r m D i r e c t o r s h a l l be r e s e r v e d f o r v i e w s e x p r e s s e d s o l e l y by t h e D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g .  of  ""•^See C h a p t e r I I , S e c t i o n C f o r a d i s c u s s i o n s o c i e t a l p l a n n i n g and s o c i a l p r o g r a m m i n g .  is  the  ""''"'In s o c i a l w o r k e r s ' t e r m i n o l o g y t h e c l i e n t i n d i v i d u a l or group r e c e i v i n g the s o c i a l s e r v i c e .  first the  proves u n s a t i s f a c t o r y .  writer  discussed argued the  to  the  later  in this  that  thesis  competition  (ii)  and  enhances  planning,"  Director, Services longer  c o m p l e x may  and  of p l a n n i n g  in  s e c t i o n under  has  agree  at  (iii)  the  and  Local  as  area  Planners  it  not  mentioned  the  an  and aspects  Social  Community  that  and  separate  recreation  City.  of  Planning  In  this  integrated  will  matter,  services  to a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  and  the  the  social  considered  and  physical  in detail  i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  Planning Departments.  to  later  that  the  the  example since  Suffice  Social Planners  integrative  function  planning  process  of  point  this,  appear  in  to  urban  1968.  planning the  basis,  planning  out  and  i s i n the  interviewed,  worked by  be  time,  an  area  Social has  and  i n Vancouver  a local  other  Britannia  Department's  Refining on  that  the  a dimension  Vancouver, renewal  this  that  added  of  i n the  will  S o c i a l Planning  to mention to  planning,  with  libraries  i n t e g r a t i o n of  aspects the  recipient.  city  of  alike. The  this  increases  the  i t is likely  commented  he  d i g n i t y of and  pose a t h r e a t  caretakers  where  (and  quality  "social  constructed  Director  Warren  the  i n the  for schools, be  11(C)  referred  improves  opinion  i s occurring 12  facilities the  of  i n the  Centre,  by  in service delivery  I n t e g r a t i o n of s o c i a l urban renewal tasks  city  no  i n Chapter  the  Integration  Co-ordinator  views expressed  chances f o r i n n o v a t i o n ,  services  One  too  opinion Two  services  o f most o f  a worthwhile  well.  respondents.  d e l i v e r y of  concept,  difficulties  Firstly,  the  Local  the but  were Area  A m u l t i - s e r v i c e c e n t r e or complex, combini n g f a c i l i t i e s f o r a community c e n t r e w i t h o t h e r social s e r v i c e s s u c h as l i b r a r i e s , s o c i a l a g e n c y o f f i c e s , etcetera.  72 Co-ordinators they the  can  f a c e more t a s k s  adequately  Social  manage.  the  latter  consultant  work.  the of  Planners  refining  local in  public  the p l a n n i n g  and  resulted  over  presented  and  In  but  An  out  area  i n cases  new  local  area  c o n s e n s u s by  the  Social  and  the area  t a s k s was on  relax  agencies  SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t .  generated  refused  Planners  to  this  staff  programs or p l a n  where s e n i o r s t a f f two  staff  w i t h i n the  situation  where l o c a l  only  of s e r v i c e s i n  staff,  and  of  possibility  were r e l u c t a n t  agencies this  one  that senior  between s t a f f s  the  failure  by  the  delivery  local  more a u t h o r i t y t o l a u n c h services  tasks.  apparent  questioned  agencies,  i l l u s t r a t i o n o f how  was  non-area  f o r the  pointed  the  in conflict  as w e l l as b e t w e e n An  He  private  control  Council gives  have been p r e s e n t e d  when he  communities.  their  reason  a r e a work may  Social  than  i s transportation planning  A more i m p o r t a n t local  community  Secondly,  P l a n n i n g Department,  example o f  of  i n the  conflict requested new  approval.  their  general  the v a l u e  of  local  community p l a n n i n g ;  "community  on  of s e r v i c e s i n a neighbourhood;  the  citizen a  availability  decision-making  the  service  and  requirements  in  community.  (iv)  Prevention  of  social  Preventing as not  and  f o r example p o v e r t y ,  e f f o r t , and In  on  c o u n s e l l i n g " or a d v i s i n g  controlling would  social  problems,  require a great deal  the D i r e c t o r s t a t e d t h a t the Department  undertaken  work i n t h i s  h i s view t h i s  would  as  in  of housing,  field  i n the  area  i n any  case and  of  the  of has  l a r g e measure.  require minimally,  involvement, the  problems  a  Regional  regional authority  probably  a  Provincial  commitment. With regard financial  and  receiving  social  to the  task  of  mitigating  p s y c h o l o g i c a l d e p e n d e n c e by  people  a s s i s t a n c e t n e D i r e c t o r commented  that  73 these have C i t y - w i d e actively  engaged  r a m i f i c a t i o n s , and  in studies  of  social  of  the  the  Department  service  is  delivery  systems. One  S o c i a l Planner  often  social  serve  i n terms of  "different (v)  workers  see  added  "more o f  the  and  the  analysis  i s a very  Department.  This  recommendations  same", and  on  budget  the  of  The  agency  Director,  there  agencies  supported  to  of  institutions and  i n the  that  important  granted to  question  of  f a c t o r i n some o f  be  full funds.  to  the  private were  funds, after  not  because the  c a r r i e d out.  requested as  Director  the  than  the  admitted  that  i n t e g r a t i o n has  The  increase  in  separate expressed  the  larger social  ones i n the not  City,  occurred  service  and among  the  agencies. An  even g r e a t e r  some s e r v i c e s studied  smaller  by  i n t e g r a t i o n i s a more  agencies  social  minor  function  various  discontinuance  services  the  work services  the  youth f i e l d ,  this  S o c i a l Planning  the  two  their that  of  social  According  e f f o r t s for increased  amalgamate  the  for municipal  a c a s e where  involved  of  the  of  that  encouraged  was  were n o t  The  are  been c a r r i e d out.  they continued  agencies.  major  they  as  evaluation  recommending  SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t p r o p o s e d  belief  not  effectiveness  not  in their  refused  funds,  people  a l l o c a t i o n to  in i t s bid  function  s e r v i c e s has  and  involves  support  they  the  important part  Effective services  social  that  S o c i a l Planners believe  agencies.  of  needs of  A n a l y s i s of s o c i a l problems social service delivery.  problem  opinion  services."  A number o f of  was  i n the  p r o b l e m s do  Director's  not  continuously,  projected  to  take  concern  care  remain  than d i s c o n t i n u a n c e opinion,  static,  i s that  t h e y must  and  new  social  of  the  changes which  of  since be  s e r v i c e s must occur.  be  74 It  may be n o t e w o r t h y  Department  conducts  the U n i t e d  Community  Division,  Services with  b e t w e e n t h e two  responsibilities important  Early of  area  task  the area, working  Planning  minimal  t o assume  community h a s b e e n  i n the eyes o f the S o c i a l the Department  Working  Planners.  assumed  the r o l e  t h e "community i n the s o c i a l  other  field  resulted  the s o c i a l ,  proposed  a social  i n c l u d e : the School  corridor;  Thunderbird  Mothers;  and t h e  Elementary  called  development p l a n which  a master  example g i v e n ,  account social  Planning  considers  stated  d i f f e r e n c e s i n areas, development p l a n .  since i tprovides  that  "standards,"  was t h e B r i t a n n i a Community  complex p l a n ,  social  social  D i r e c t o r of Social  taking into  may  The Services  f o r standards  and p h y s i c a l s e r v i c e s f o r t h e s u r r o u n d i n g  T h e s e are a l l l o c a t e d i n the East o f Vancouver, 1 3  Social  i n citizen  Fleming  freeway  around  i n which  1 3  The  Centre  to stop the  r e c r e a t i o n a l and  community  P r e p a r a t i o n of a master development p l a n  while  was a b l e  L i b r a r y ; S i r Sanford  Neighbourhood Centre  (vii)  the c i t i z e n s  s e r v i c e s team" o f p r o f e s s i o n -  examples p r e s e n t e d ,  t o improve  the U n i o n - P r i o r School.  with  o f homes i n t h e a r e a .  conditions of their  Fraserview  urban  what i t c o n s i d e r s i t  together  Department e f f o r t s  involvement  End  their  where i t r e g i s t e r e d  Other  of  studies, with  agencies.  f o r improving  successes.  demolition  be  Research  ombudsman i n V a n c o u v e r ' s E a s t End S t r a t h c o n a  first als  i t s own  r e s i d e n t s o f an a r e a  i n i t s existence  renewal of  service delivery,  Encouragement o f c i t i z e n involvement i n planning Encouraging  an  t h e SP/CD  s t u d i e s on s o c i a l  i s c a r r y i n g on s i m i l a r  co-ordination (vi)  that while  Side  or East  community. We the in  Social 1971,  ing  t h a t the  the  Social  local  cited  poverty,  and  in  range  from  financial  leverage  recognized  cope  their  planning,  may  t o be  compar-  i t would  document  Social  of  as  controlling f o r the  of  Planners.  tasks not  refining  t o make an  be  Planners the  studying social changes citizen  worthy  working  the  actively  s e r v i c e s on  a  c o n d i t i o n s of  s e r v i c e s be l a c k of  action  advisability  effective  of  impact  "prevention of  contact with  foresee  in  poverty"  f o r the Department  to a l l e v i a t e involvement  of note  of  social  to  emphasis and  Social  in fields  the  Physical Planners. 14 planning.  One  and  a Canadian  such  and  process.  Planners  which w i l l  city  and  the d i f f i c u l t i e s ,  i n the p l a n n i n g  t h a t the  f o l l o w i n g v i e w by  increasing  i n Vancouver  S o c i a l Planners' Role, A c t i v i t i e s C i t y P l a n n i n g Department The  an  integration  problems  increasingly  transportation The the  the  a f u n c t i o n too broad  work i n v o l v i n g  encouraging  in  When  l a c k o f power, a u t h o r i t y ,  In a d d i t i o n ,  Social  recommending It  planning  with. The  in  as  to  way  same, a number  q u e s t i o n i n g the  time is  by  stated reasons through  areas.  the  Departmental  that ineffective  services,  local  1968  the  services,  unifying the  out  p r e v e n t i n g and  The  and  the  SP/CD p e r s o n n e l  recommending  areas  see  a dogma f o r  carried  by  discontinued. these  Planners  include unifying  area basis,  of  of e x p e r i e n c e .  the g o a l s remain  f u n c t i o n s are not  pursued,  viewpoint  s t a t e d Terms o f R e f e r e n c e  r a t h e r than  While  Some e x a m p l e s  expressed  i n Vancouver p e r c e i v e s o c i a l  views with  activities.  an  some t h r e e y e a r s  a general guide the  above,  Planners  after  these  appear  have  expect  b r i n g them field  is  R e l a t i o n s h i p s With Social  Work  Nancy C o o l e y , was w i t h t h e D e p a r t m e n t i n 19711972 and i s a g r a d u a t e P l a n n e r who m a j o r e d i n S o c i o l o g y and was i n v o l v e d i n a s o c i a l r e p o r t on t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  76 professor,  appears  discussion  of the S o c i a l  that  a community  In o r d e r  times  this  attempt  t o change  Following with  practice  Social  will  relationships  a  a discussion the C i t y  of B r i t i s h  a subsequent  of s o c i a l  due t o a l a c k  the D i r e c t o r  i n M a r c h , 1970.  itself,  delivery. i t a c t s as  i f a l l other  t h e r e w o u l d be no need i n dropping that  o f SP/CD  s l o p p y management. of managerial  i n inflexible  more a d a p t a b l e  made i n t h i s  Hall.  Planning  interview, the D i r e c t o r  which r e s u l t s  and he n o t e d  planning  institutions.  that  another,  of the  i n the School of  service  agency  Egan mentioned SP/CD t o a s s i s t  earlier.  i n City  Egan,  Columbia  as one o f m i n i m i z i n g  agencies  planning  h a s b e e n g i v e n an o p p o r t u n i t y t o  service  t a s k was n e c e s s a r y  social  at a class  SP/CD i s n o t a s e r v i c e  h i s main r o l e  This  words, M a u r i c e  some o f t h e p r o b l e m s  In  in  these  many  and t h e i n t e r -  i t s Social  "bridge" f o r social  saw  i n Sec.B.l.  t h e two c i v i c  with  these  i n the views of  i n the planning process  Work, U n i v e r s i t y  Although  of s o c i a l  by an e x a m i n a t i o n  between  a  and t h a t  "Vancouver i s unique, With  that  worker's r o l e 15 and a c c e p t e d .  as p r e s e n t e d  be d e t e r m i n e d role  change.  the s o c i a l  be a c o m p a r i s o n  argues  autonomy  Planners  In Egan's view, tackle  a measure o f r o l e  a s p e r c e i v e d by t h e S o c i a l  SP/CD o p e n e d  Social  will  which e x i s t  Department." of  i s permanent  o f t h e SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t  Planner's  agencies  Ben L a p p i n  he s u g g e s t s  i s understood  i t s "ideal"  the p e r s o n n e l The  to this  g r a n t i n g t h e mandate t o p r a c t i c e ,  before h i s role  practice  role.  objective,  w o r k e r must w r e s t  those  grantors  Planner's  worker's main g o a l  to pursue  community from  a p p r o p r i a t e as a p r o l o g u e  social  skills  programs.  institutions  were  f o r the Department of  one p r o g r a m some m i n i m a l  and g o i n g  into  p r o g r e s s has been  regard.  Ben L a p p i n , Community W o r k e r s and t h e S o c i a l Work T r a d i t i o n s , ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1971) p p . 131-44.  77 From priorities and  the  the  above  two  Department  p a r a g r a p h s we  sets  for itself,  d e l i v e r i n g more e f f e c t i v e s o c i a l  priorities practiced  provide by  the  an  insight into  Social  Personnel  i n SP/CD s e e They  c h a n g e and  of  change  they  dilemmas  state  Co-ordinators  that  suggest  that  are  planning  services.  social  the  These  planning  as  Planners.  "maverick" Department. the  note  themselves  are  concerned  social they  part  with  reform.  t h e y must be that  as As  be  a  social  agents  innovators,  should  of  and  of a  feW  implementors  as  we 11. To and  cultural  necessity stronger need  land  not  argues  citizen  the  need  f o r parks  sector  that  concerning  the  these w i l l  opposition  local  required  and  elective).  T e n a n t s *s A s s o c i a t i o n and  greater the  expropriation  in  in  and  and  whether  area.  He  providing  NOW  on  that  various  private  Examples  the  Department issues  agencies  cited  i n i t s struggle Property  Services  to serve  young  in  (both  include;  (SPOTA) i n i t s e f f o r t s t o  bus  also  procedures  for  Owners'  the a and  stop  i n i t s endeavours 16  t o e s t a b l i s h the  the  time.  stated  Strathcona  Inner-City  Planning  involved  parks,  the  as  Social  i n an  groups  Area Council  Branch L i b r a r y ;  urban renewal;  The  a  the  in expropriation  instituted  community  the was  must be  S o c i a l Planners  Killarney-Fraserview Fraserview  balance  i s c a r r i e d out be  i s considered  example mentioned  l o c a t i o n s of  to d i f f e r e n t p u b l i c  administrative  becomes,  citizens  changes are  supported  An  recreational  Accordingly,  urban renewal.  urban renewal  that  involvement  for better  or  believes  that  needs i n the  S o c i a l Planners.  government  Several has  people's  for counter-balance.  decisions  and  the  the  Director or  fields,  by  indicating of  understand  people.  The NOW bus t r a v e l l e d t h r o u g h o u t i n f o r m a t i o n to young p e o p l e .  the  City  78 The political Planners  Social  Development Committee  representation t o be o f g r e a t  was c o n s i d e r e d import.  by most  Discussions  members o f t h e SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t s u g g e s t agreement  that  in  planning  social  diverse and of  the S.D.C  linkages,  provincial),  general  showed p r o m i s e as a new  concept  i . e . , i n two l e v e l s  o f government  and i n f o u r d i f f e r e n t  "political"  (City  the f i r s t  Council,  interview with  i n 1969, he s t a t e d  Committee  had p r o v e n i t s e l f  members o f t h e S . D . C , policy  directly  point,  that  could  cussions  areas  Board, Parks  social  were n o t s i m p l y b e , and were,  by t h e A l d e r m e n r e p r e s e n t e d  In April,  i n t e r v e n i n g Committee,  Cabinet  Council.  from the C o u n c i l  Development  the S o c i a l  that  Committee  Planning  t h e Committee  was  Director  was  and t h a t  without  m a t t e r s may be e x p e d i t e d  No m e n t i o n was made r e g a r d i n g level.  before  on t h e C o m m i t t e e .  f o r t h e SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t ,  with  i n the d i s -  2, 1971 by a r e s o l u t i o n o f  1971, he r e a s o n e d  l o s s of a l i n k  to Council  o f a Department i n C i t y  introduced  the S o c i a l  an i n t e r v i e w w i t h  another hurdle  As a c a s e  policies  placed  those  floor  on M a r c h  since  planning  bodies.  been i n v o l v e d  but could  rendered defunct . , 17 Council.  body,  social  planning  and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s b e i n g  Nevertheless,  Development  the advantage h i s Department  Hall,  Council.  the S o c i a l  political  the D i r e c t o r stressed  The p r o p o s a l s  the  (civic  the D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l  introduce  t o i t s member  i n b r i n g i n g forward  this  School  as a p o l i c y - m a k i n g  where two A l d e r m e n h a d a l r e a d y  in  there  staff  was  Planning,  had  with  and P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e ) . In  in  Social  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e because of i t s  elected representation  Board  (S.D.C), with i t s  the P r o v i n c i a l  He d i d s t a t e , however,  to  the s i g n i f i c a n c e of Government  a t the  t h a t he h o p e d  some  The C o u n c i l M i n u t e s . M a r c h 2, 1971, s t a t e t h a t h e n c e f o r t h t h e J o i n t T e c h n i c a l C o m m i t t e e was t o r e p o r t t o t h e C i t y ' s H e a l t h and "Welfare C o m m i t t e e o f C o u n c i l , w h i c h was c h a i r e d by t h e M e d i c a l H e a l t h O f f i c e r .  79 questions  m i g h t be d e a l t  discussions existence  with  of  the  Committee.  One  as  of  a result  matter  will  the can  a source both  and  determinants  and  expect  This role  D e p a r t m e n t may The  and  policies practice, may  potential  SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t was  be  the  they p e r c e i v e t h e i r  and  their  about as  Planners  in  less own  with  main  organizational the  roles A  P l a n n e r s have o f with  areas  the C i t y  of  T h i s may  Planning  the b e l i e f  that  structured  than  h a v e a b e a r i n g on  i n the  t h e Community  their  conflict.  hierarchically  roles  the  of p l a n n i n g .  a l l expressed  P l a n n i n g Department.  way  social them  i n part limit  i t s connections  Planners  relations  may  p l a y i n the p r o c e s s  indicate  Social  themselves  to b r i n g  i s r e c o g n i z e d by  the p e r c e p t i o n s S o c i a l  o r g a n i z a t i o n and  chapter.  agencies.  the g o a l s  Planners  of  prepared  This  see  some  w i t h A d m i n i s t r a t o r s and  private  Hall.  personnel  in  dissolved  in this  antagonize  are not  of p r o f e s s i o n a l  Social  the C i t y  views at C i t y later  the  be d e l a y e d  t h e C o m m i t t e e was  to  of p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s  discussion  the  that  personal  whereas w i t h  might w e l l  then, Departmental  changes.  While  own  issue  through  Board,  be d i s c u s s e d more f u l l y ,  public  which  surmise  of c o n f l i c t  structure  or Parks  the  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who  'required'  informally  some c o n f l i c t i n g  "change-agents"  service  School  S.D.C,  Briefly, as  with  the  SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t  Planners  at various  levels.  Director diverse and  It  may  be  up  t o 1971,  had  workers,  of  recreation  who  the  Planning of a very  Planners.  The  expertise  i n c l u d e d a lawyer,  majored  were i n h o u s i n g  specialist,  Social  f o r the h i r i n g  as S o c i a l  these people  a planner  whose m a i n i n t e r e s t s  that  arranged  group of i n d i v i d u a l s  qualifications  social  noteworthy  i n Sociology, and  a m i n i s t e r and  an  two  another  transportation, "encounter  a  group"  worker. The Department at  Director  of  Social  i s made up  of  a team o f C o - o r d i n a t o r s w i t h  the c e n t r e r a t h e r than  the  Planning suggested  top.  He  regards  the  that  the  himself  Department  80 as  project-oriented  facilitate  change.  Department  looks  The D i r e c t o r  a t a problem,  solution,  acquires  implement  i t .  the  to permit greater  finances,  Projects  SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t .  neighbourhood t h e y may Hall  express  just require  to help  ment r e f u s e s is  thus  is  completed.  commented  imagines  that the f o r others  by t h e i s s u e s  i s , when t h e p e o p l e  a social  need,  assistance  to g e t permanently  to  confronting  of a  the D i r e c t o r  from  a r t i c u l a t e the need.  and t o  and p r o p o s e s a  and a r r a n g e s  are decided That  flexibility  believes  someone a t C i t y  In a d d i t i o n ,  involved  the Depart-  i n p r o j e c t s , and  i n a p o s i t i o n t o remove i t s s e r v i c e s  once  its  task  18 One S o c i a l P l a n n e r  stated  that  the Department  functions  a s an " a d - h o c r a c y , " where t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n  considers 19 merits.  and d e a l s  is  Thus,  innovative  the  with  each  according  i n nature  D e p a r t m e n t may rather  lose  carry  as p a r t  sight  Planners deal  with  social  the  social  has  been w i t h  fabric  that  n o t be c o n c e r n e d  as p a r t  of the  planning  that  "establishment",  i t serves,  i f i t i s to  assigned.  and S o c i a l P l a n n i n g , while  issues  the P h y s i c a l  p e r se, they  of Vancouver.  P l a n n e r s do n o t  believes  that  the C i t y  was no s o l i d a r i t y  units of C i t y H a l l .  affect  One S o c i a l P l a n n e r  SP/CD f o r some t i m e , and t h e r e  the S o c i a l  nevertheless  when t h e D e p a r t m e n t was e s t a b l i s h e d , were d i s m a y e d ,  He added  that  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e  of Planning  contend  on i t s own the Department  of i t s goals.  i t has been  In d i s c u s s i n g  case  source,  o f t h e community  out the tasks  Department  to this  and one n e e d  SP/CD must n o t s e e i t s e l f but  specific  According  who  initially  Planners  between  t h e two  to this informant,  G e o r g e Whitman, i n 1970, was t h e C o - o r d i n a t o r Skid  for  Road. 19  See I r v i n g T o f f l e r , F u t u r e Bantam B o o k s , 1970) p p . 124-51, f o r a h o c r a c y , ". . . .a new o r g a n i z a t i o n a l i n c r e a s i n g l y c h a l l e n g e and u l t i m a t e l y  Shock (New Y o r k : d i s c u s s i o n on A d system t h a t w i l l supplant bureaucracy."  81 the  impression  the  Planners  planning  left  acted  should  Department.  be  with  Social  a minor  Nevertheless,  this  the  Social  SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t was r e a c t e d as  manifested  formed,  If this  organization efforts  which on  sees  r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n of i t may  been  at  discussed  the  integration  of  the  continually  discussions Renewal  social  involving  physical  see  the  Social  r e s i d e n t s , and  the  planning The  Planning  argument  and the  role as  in  one  physical  of  an  the  of  comprehensively  D i r e c t o r of as  was  concentrate 20 system.  their  l o o k more an  SP/CD  example  aspects  of  of planning.  P l a n n i n g Department i n  the r e s i d e n t s of  relationships  Planning  and  are p r e p a r i n g .  the  with  area  internal  i s s u e of urban renewal  of  the  this  will  threatened  Planning personnel  they  and  itself  P l a n n i n g Department  the p l a n s  Department  stated that  maintenance social  confirm  the  C h r i s A r g y r i s who  helping  the  Planners  that since  threatened  of  the  surmised  itself  integration  poor  Planning  has  Planning  were s o ,  theorist  Social  By  Social  the C i t y  though i t f e l t  organizational  at  social  thinks that  t h e p e r i o d he  Planner  i n yet a further  Department.  its  that  Hall. Another  has  and  was  that  the C i t y  respondent  Planners  staff  suggested  f u n c t i o n of  increasd noticeably during  City  Planning  i n a manner w h i c h  communications between has  the  Planners  which e x i s t e d  the  Strathcona  were a b l e between  i n h i s words"there 21  Urban  to r e p a i r  the  Planners  i s a new  trust  the and of  the  Department." 20 See  Chapter  I.E.  f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of o r g a n i z a t i o n  theory. 21 E g a n i n t e r v i e w , A p r i l 8, 1971. The l a t t e r comment r e f l e c t e d t h e f a c t t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n the C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t and t h e r e s i d e n t s o f S t r a t h c o n a as r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e S t r a t h c o n a P r o p e r t y Owners' and T e n a n t s ' A s s o c i a t i o n b r o k e down as a r e s u l t o f t h e u r b a n r e n e w a l p o l i c i e s p u r s u e d by t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r . For a comprehensive p i c t u r e of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h e x i s t e d up t o 1970, see H e r m i a L a i , I n t e g r a t i o n o f P h y s i c a l and S o c i a l P l a n n i n g , V a n c o u v e r , U.B.C., u n p u b l i s h e d M.A. T h e s i s o f t h e S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia.  82 The critics  and  Council. a  as  and  t h i s v i e w were u p h e l d , a social  Planning  problem  Social Planners'  sole  to  i t would  look  purpose  Co-ordinators limit  to urban renewal  which i s not  such  "social  to  facilitate  scope  an  Britannia  Fraserview  Departments  Branch  to  Community  educational,  oriented. the  been  approaches These  Centre  the  Services  Community to  Service  Services  the  and  Centre  Director  Centre  of  Secondary of  this  was  account,  the not  School  among h i s  in  with  School  at  C i t y H a l l was  Vancouver able  of  is a  a multi-service  Selwyn M i l l e r  service  as  was  School  Board,  Board's p r i o r i t i e s to  the  stated  support i t did until  project,  the  r e l u c t a n t l y approved  the  by  who,  by  for  the  not f i t someone  champion i t .  recommended  Board  point.  centre  because  in a position  Planning,  complex  a focal  to gather  colleagues  Social  multiple-use  SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t School  where  projects.  recreational, social  Britannia  the  of  illustration  service"  the  that  Library.  According  proposal  specific  Community  Britannia  concept  of  the  planning  were r e v i e w e d ,  a comparison  view,  reflect  the  as  of  by  at  S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Departments have b o t h  were t h e  The  as  and the  with  recognized  social  p a r t i c u l a r instances  t a k e n by  this  the  as  Two involved,  a,  are  City Planners  A number o f  they p o i n t  themselves  i s i n the  agency w i t h  services.  SP/CD, and of  an  see  they  there  f o r Aldermen  Department if  they b e l i e v e  However,  tendency  social  Social Planners  after  The which 22  idea.  The r e p o r t Community S e r v i c e s C e n t r e ( B r i t a n n i a ) R e p o r t of the S o c i a l Development Committee (Vancouver, December, 1 9 6 8 ) : a d o p t e d by C o u n c i l , M a r c h 18, 1971, states: " I n A p r i l , 1967, t h e S t r a t h c o n a and Woodland P a r k A r e a C o u n c i l s . . . p u b l i s h e d a r e p o r t e n t i t l e d , "A Community S e r v i c e s C e n t r e , a P r o p o s a l f o r C i v i c and S o c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t . ' The r e p o r t was f i r s t p r e s e n t e d t o C i t y C o u n c i l on A u g u s t 1, 1967. . . S h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r the L i b r a r y Board e n d o r s e d the p r o p o s a l and ( l a t e r } t h e S c h o o l B o a r d and t h e P a r k s B o a r d j o i n t l y passed ( i t ] ] . " P . l . The D e p a r t m e n t o f SP/CD was f o r m a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d J u n e 13, 1968.  83 The  reader  establishment publication Centre,  may n o t e  t h a t the t i m i n g of the  o f the Department  of the r e p o r t  a Proposal  "A Community  forCivic  (1967) d o n o t a p p e a r the S o c i a l  that  Board  adopted  Council but c a r r i e d  to have i t d e f e a t e d . suggest  Development"  t o be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Planning.  P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r appears  the School  to C i t y  Services  and S o c i a l  view of the D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l by  (1968) and t h e  the stated The comment  to indicate  the r e p o r t which  on a s i m u l t a n e o u s  I t may  also  went struggle  be i m p o r t a n t  to  t h a t t h e SP/CD D i r e c t o r p e r c e i v e d t h i s  Department's r o l e  i n t h e B r i t a n n i a Community  as h i s  Service  Centre. Other centre  facets  of the S o c i a l  These  integrating  the p h y s i c a l  encouraging  citizens  and p r i v a t e  more i n k e e p i n g citizen The  Planning  development with to occur  the s o c i a l  there,  t o s p e a k o u t , and i n f l u e n c i n g  agencies  with  to develop  new  the views expressed  policies by  interested  groups. p r o p o s a l f o r t h e c o m p l e x was p l a c e d  Five-Year  b u d g e t w h i c h went t o t h e v o t e r s .  E g a n ' s o p i n i o n i t was t h e f i r s t of Vancouver plurality  time  "pushed" f o r a c a p i t a l  the reason  The  i n this  included responsibility f o r  programmes w h i c h were e x p e c t e d  be  role  were g i v e n by members o f t h e S o c i a l  Department.  civic  Planners'  the c a p i t a l  In  Maurice  that the East plan,  and t h i s  Side may  budget r e c e i v e d the r e q u i r e d  to pass.  SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t worked w i t h  Department  i n the  on t h i s  project  through  the C i t y  Planning  a Planning  Advisory  Committee which i n c l u d e d s i x c i t i z e n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and  four c i v i c  officials.  Departments of C i t y  Planning  the Vancouver S c h o o l City  Board  C o u n c i l approved  gave i t c o n d i t i o n a l  The l a t t e r  and SP/CD i n a d d i t i o n t o  and V a n c o u v e r P a r k s  i t , and t h e F e d e r a l  approval.  ment r e s e r v e d a p p r o v a l  represented the  Government  The P r o v i n c i a l  on u r b a n r e n e w a l  Board. Govern-  aspects  of i t  but b.  the  balance  Fraserview  Branch  The by  of  i n the  1959-63 F i v e - Y e a r both provided the  Plan  p r o j e c t , with Board,  was  not  anxious  the  Local  tor  of  City  the  the  proceed,  84  since  1945.  approval.  opinion  of  one  to e s t a b l i s h t h i s  community  library.  away  The  from  Vancouver  Social  Planner,  branch l i b r a r y ,  recognized  i t as  according  Killarney-Fraserview  The  Program  allocations for this  Council's  i n the  area  b e e n demanded  1966-70 C a p i t a l  Area C o u n c i l ,  i n the  to  f u n d s were d i v e r t e d  Area Council  Local  meeting  and  financial  Library  able  Branch L i b r a r y has  Fraserview  instances,  The  p r o j e c t was  Library  Fraserview  citizens  In b o t h  the  t o work o u t  a pressing  to  area,  but  the  need.  Co-ordina-  called  a public  a strategy  t o move  Council  i n t o a c t i o n on what a p p e a r e d t o be a 23 ' dormant i s s u e . A c a m p a i g n p l a n was d e v i s e d and implemented  to put  citizen  makers a t C i t y H a l l , delegation  which reached  to C o u n c i l .  Council  where a b r i e f  Council  continued  Following was  approval  of  Planning  D e p a r t m e n t was  advisability in  the  and  on  the  decision-  a climax the  presented,  to p r e s s  a branch  pressure  with  session the  of  Local  members o f C o u n c i l  library.  In  June,  authorized  feasibility  of  to  City  Area for  1969,  look  a  the  into  establishing a  the library  area.  o Joslin Maurice  Behanec,  Egan,  participated  the  who  regarding  this  a social  report,  that  Local  Director  Area Co-ordinator  of  Social  i n a meeting with  officials in  the  were w o r k i n g project.  planning the  on  The  portion  proposed  and  T  Planning,  Planning a report  Department to  Council  S o c i a l Planners  indicated  of  Department  the  library,  Planning "was  consistent  I n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d d u r i n g an i n t e r v i e w w i t h S i g u r g e i r s o n , S e c r e t a r y of K i l l a r n e y - F r a s e r v i e w Area c o n f i r m e d the sequence of e v e n t s mentioned above.  with  Lynn Council  85 the  principle  p r a c t i c e of i n t e g r a t i n g . . . s o c i a l 24 s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s " s i n c e i t i n c l u d e d the p r o v i s i o n o f s p a c e f o r more t h a n one s o c i a l a g e n c y .. 25 operating i n Fraserview. City having the  Council  turned  fact  provision  of  new  recommendation  The  adopted  local  space  f o r two  of  the  a shift  from  engineering i n the  case  Strathcona connector In  area,  the  the  Planning  factors in by  recent  where t h e y economic  road  agencies.  social  detect  and  social  through  factors  the  i . e . , the U n i o n - P r i o r - G e o r g i a  should not  with  be  this  not  the be  left  Social  left to  to  the  Viaduct  view, d e c i d e d  discussing a Planning  a p p l i c a t i o n s reviewed the  the  planners,  just  as  Council, i n  i n September,  1970,  D e p a r t m e n t r e p o r t on  rezoning  r e p o r t on  Slopes,  Planning Director,  generals."  of F a i r v i e w  ment, f r o m A u g u s t 20,  service  encouraged  of  reject-  the  Department of  inclusion  rezoning to  social  only  proposed  o p i n i o n of  should  while  of  an  road.  "planning accord  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of  despite  the p r e v i o u s l y  Department,  f a c t o r s t o an  accepted  i s t h a t as  SP/CD a r e  Planning  after  included  g i v e more c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o s o c i a l  reports  library  r e p o r t recommended  are d e c e n t r a l i z e d , the Members o f  war  I t was  $100,000 more t h a n  planning.  as  proposed  hope i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t  services will  of  the  i t down e a r l i e r .  proposal.  The  approved  t h a t the  expenditure ed  and  the  t o have a l l major  "sociological  by  the D i r e c t o r of  i m p l i c a t i o n s " of  SP/CD  the  C o m m u n i c a t i o n t o Bob P a r k e r , C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t t h e SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t ' s Mrs. J o s l i n B o h a n e c , d a t e d 1969.  25 V a n c o u v e r , B.C. Branch L i b r a r y - F r a s e r v i e w .  Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , ( S e p t e m b e r 4, 1 9 6 9 ) .  Proposed  86 proposals.  26  Comment had  was made e a r l i e r  been moving from  programming,  social  t h a t t h e SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t welfare  and t h a t i n e f f o r t s  Planners  arisen  b e t w e e n t h e SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t  of s o c i a l  Physical  Planners'  show o t h e r Planning Hall,  s e r v i c e system  sources  particularly  that c o n f l i c t s i n Vancouver. of Social  of c o n f l i c t  betwen  and o t h e r  have  and t h e A d m i n i s t r a -  perceptions  Department  to s o c i a l  t o do t h e f o r m e r t h e  Social tion  have i n d i c a t e d  planning  A study of  Planning  may  the S o c i a l  Administrations i n City  the Planning  Department.  S o c i a l P l a n n i n g as P e r c e i v e d by P e r s o n s Outside the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department The practice  of s o c i a l  perspective section  foregoing section discussed planning  of the S o c i a l  will  consider  view of i n d i v i d u a l s The  reader  outside will  A l l those worked w i t h  Planners  I.D., t h e  of the S o c i a l  the S o c i a l  Planners  as c o n s u l t a n t s ,  C o u n c i l s o r i n some c a p a c i t y w i t h i n links  t o the S o c i a l  number o f n o n - S o c i a l  term  Planning  Planners  were i n v o l v e d i n t h e p u b l i c p l a n n i n g  The  process  as  Hall. "Key P l a n n e r "  Vancouver, 1970.  the p o i n t s of  i n t e r v i e w e d who were n o t S o c i a l  The l a r g e s t  at City  This  f o r interviewing certain  on t h e a c t i v i t i e s  a p u b l i c o r p r i v a t e agency w i t h interviewed  Hall.  that i n Chapter  the reasons  as members o f L o c a l A r e a Department.  at City  t h e SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t .  recall  to get a viewpoint  Planners. Planners  Planners  i n 1971, f r o m t h e  t h e same phenomena f r o m  methodology d e s c r i b e d persons  i n Vancouver  t h e t h e o r y and  will  denote  B.C., C o u n c i l M i n u t e s .  the D i r e c t o r of  S e p t e m b e r 22,  87 Planning term  27  or  "Senior  one  of  Planner"  number o f p l a n n e r s jurisdiction. identified  by  discussing  the  of  the  the  SP/CD t h e to get  an  Social  the  section  author  Social  by  the  a»  Purpose  Planners stated  purpose of Planner  of  Key  and  i n h i s o p i n i o n the Dr.  School  of  the  discussed  and,  her  outside  those  deliberately of  the  the  role  o p i n i o n on  theory  of  refrained  Terms o f at  from  the  a 1968  comparison  Social  had  Planning  Planning little Social  was  too  social  t h e r e were two  service delivery:  Amalgamation—which  may  be  brought  this  with  the  Department's  Department  to say  about  Planning. per  the Only  se,  broad.  British  opposing  of  "ideal."  Terms o f R e f e r e n c e  statement  the  time  C h r i s . McNiven, A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r i n  that  Reference  were c a t e g o r i z e d i n  S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y o f  view  where p o s s i b l e ,  with  d o n e c o n s u l t a t i v e work f o r t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f was  Planning  Planners  Social  Hall  a  In  the Department of  one  the  u n d i r e c t e d response an  has  position.  a copy  the  at C i t y  I I I who  official  to f a c i l i t a t e  v i e w s on 28 Reference."  The  as. s u c h ,  interviewees  Planners'  "Terms o f  outside  Planners'  i n t e r v i e w , r a t h e r than  the  a s s i s t a n t s under h i s  author  interviewee  about the  a Planner  of persons  of S o c i a l  Responses from  1.  planning  acknowledged  role  the  denote  informant's  SP/CD i n o r d e r  informant  and  be  the Department of showing  will  Opinions  Department w i l l  from  four A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r s , while  the  Columbia, SP/CD.  trends  in  Centralization  has  It the and  a b o u t by o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  W i l l i a m E. Graham, was t h e D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g u n t i l he was removed f r o m o f f i c e s h o r t l y a f t e r The E l e c t o r s A c t i o n Movement (TEAM) swept i n t o power a t C i t y H a l l i n December, 1972. On S e p t e m b e r 4, 1973, Mr. Ray Spaxman assumed the p o s i t i o n of D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g In Vancouver. The new C o u n c i l a l s o a s k e d f o r and r e c e i v e d t h e r e s i g n a t i o n o f t h e S e n i o r C o m m i s s i o n e r , G e r a l d S u t t o n Brown. The l a t t e r p o s i t i o n h a s n o t b e e n f i l l e d up t o t h e t i m e o f t h i s w r i t i n g . A p p e n d i x G,  p.  5.  88 means t h r o u g h  an i n t e r v e n i n g  force  such  G o v e r n m e n t o r t h e SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t ; Decentralization—where services  i n response  to McNiven, which path yet  and t h e i r  t h e community  sets  opposite,  up i t s own  t o t h e needs i n t h e a r e a .  i t may h a v e b e e n  that  the S o c i a l Planning  According  the d e c i s i o n  regarding  Department should  f o l l o w had  Ohlin  the s e l f -  t o be made, i n 1 9 7 1 . The  help of  as the P r o v i n c i a l  s o c i o l o g i s t Lloyd  processes  social  that  planning,  responsibility b.  planners  initiate,  and t h a t  p l a n n e r s must  i n bringing  The F u n c t i o n s (i)  about  general  will  with  These o p i n i o n s regarding Social of  effective services.  from  agencies  a service  t o t o s o by a h i g h e r  and power t o e n f o r c e coincide  with  suggest  that  the S o c i a l  method  of enforcing  The w r i t e r  and R e i n may n o t a g r e e  result  i n the p r o v i s i o n  body  since the efforts  t o be t h e o n l y  amalgamation o f s o c i a l  has p r e v i o u s l y  Pascal  1  Planners'  the concerted  G o v e r n m e n t s may p r o v e  area  the d e c i s i o n .  the u n i f i c a t i o n of s e r v i c e s ,  Planners  Senior  service  t o changes o f p o l i c y such as  are forced  authority  Department  a t C i t y H a l l were  social  amalgamation o r the withdrawl they  aspect  services  and A d m i n i s t r a t o r s  agreement t h a t  one  assume a 29 changes.  of the S o c i a l Planning  n o t agree  unless  that  are only  social  U n i f i c a t i o n of s o c i a l Planners  in  argues  that  of better  mentioned  that  u n i f i c a t i o n would services  f o r the  client. (ii)  I n t e g r a t i o n of s o c i a l urban renewal tasks  and c i t y  planning,  and  L l o y d Ohlin, "Prospects f o r Planning i n American S o c i a l W e l f a r e " i n C e n t r a l l y P l a n n e d Change: P r o s p e c t s and C o n c e p t s , R o b e r t M a r r i s ( e d . ) (N.Y.: N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o c i a l "Workers, 1 9 6 4 ) , p . 132.  89 Two  Key  Planners  planning  f u n c t i o n by  Planners  should  planning  system.  not  qualified arguing  be  the  I t may  this  social  t h a t the  Social  synthesizers i n  be  noteworthy  the  that  one  30  of  these  Key  Department Technical  Committee of  h i s view  the  was  and  Social  Significantly,  the  apparent  SP/CD had on  this  an Key  powers w h i c h  Planner  I t would  who  Planners, the  been and  to  the  social  appear  Burke's views  planners  Planner  can  assume a u t o m a t i c  In  the  field  been by  agreed  roll  than  brought little  be  about.  the  families  Senior Planners  Social  II)  that  and  Social  of  plans. been  o f whom  work i n t h e  "bungled" an  which p l a n  most had  City),  urban  renewal  enriched  tax  implementation  i n the d e m o l i t i o n of  communities d e s t r o y e d ,  i n peoples'  indicated  nor  plans.  Planners  (one  more w i t h  of  appears  P l a n n i n g had  This resulted  improvement  Max C r o s s , his position  effect  this  significantly  This  acceptance  that Social  themselves  with  and  the  more  renewal,  t h a t the P l a n n e r s  homes, w i t h  resigned  of urban  that  view of  with  Planner  Some S e n i o r P l a n n e r s  concerning  added  skill  (Chapter  i n v o l v e d i n urban renewal  suggested  with  must s e e k a u t h o r i t y f o r t h e i r  Planner  effective.  planning,  personal q u a l i t i e s  Burke s t a t e d t h a t n e i t h e r the  generally  It  level  t h a t i n the  individual  the  the D i r e c t o r of  P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r may with  with  city  a u t h o r i t y of h i s p o s i t i o n .  concur  Joint  given  equal  w o r k e d most c l o s e l y  t h a t the  Social  than  had  the  P l a n n i n g Department.  SP/CD c o u l d w i e l d were h i s p o l i t i c a l goodwill.  Planning  quite familiar  Department  others. only  was  to i n t e g r a t e s o c i a l  o n l y one  the  of meetings of  that while  authorization it  represented  a t a number  operations was  Planners  welfare.  that because  Two SP/CD  of had  former Deputy D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g , as A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r i n 1972.  and the  90 proven  itself  Planning carry  effective  Department  out  this  their  should  appeared  that while  role  planning, rejected  as  planning.  the  the  role  (iii)  L o c a l Area  i n urban  social  to  accepted and  physical  i n key p o s i t i o n s  f u n c t i o n of  social  however, a  worth-  Planning were unaware o f local  p u b l i c and  addition,  one  about  l a c k of  roles  Planners  planning performed  o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the  the  to  renewal.  Most P l a n n e r s  the  Social  Both groups of P l a n n e r s ,  with  Social  some e v i d e n c e  i n e g r a t o r s of  that s o c i a l  linkages  t o be  integrative  while  tive  the  g i v e n more s t a f f  some P h y s i c a l P l a n n e r s this  believed  be  field,  function.  Thus t h e r e indicate  in this  Senior  areas,  voluntary  Planner  the  administra-  and i t s  agencies.  expressed  an  clear-out definitions  of v a r i o u s  agencies  working  In  uneasiness  regarding  in  the  communities. Local stances value  community  i s s e e n by  in social  little  (iv)  and  Ohlin  of  of  the  The  further,  Ohlin,  by  Ibid.,  of  had  problems  that planning  to  prevent  a c t i o n programs  to  c o n d i t i o n s that produce  expressing  131  limited  organizational structure  Seebohm R e p o r t ,  p.  as  comments on i t .  p r o b l e m s must y i e l d  problems.  Planners  circum-  w h e r e a s most P l a n n e r s  social  emphasizes  change b a s i c s o c i a l 31 step  Social  planning,  made few  Prevention  social  the  understanding  involved  work u n d e r e x i s t i n g  i n fact,  i t s concern  the  goes  a  that a l l  citizens enhance  should their  have  o p p o r t u n i t i e s which  quality  considered a stage 32  of l i f e .  beyond  No P l a n n e r s  the  of preventive  problems  of  problems  social  are considered  planning  opinions  according  o f the Planners  functions  of s o c i a l  problems i n order planning in  Provincial  of social  i s to study  social  better social  the view t h a t  services,  this  see t h i s  a s an a i d  to C o u n c i l  Province.  mentioned  that the  Program  and B u d g e t S y s t e m Community  Therefore,  Services,  (PPBS),  t h e r e may be some  s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y , because  changes w i l l  p l a c e under  take  and power.  which  t h e C i t y and  changes i n s o c i a l  informant,  on t h e  service grants.  Administrator  include United  authority  was a  Government i s i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n  a Planned  will the  to provide  and e f f e c t i v e n e s s  t h a t one o f t h e  Two Key P l a n n e r s  One S e n i o r  with  who d i d n o t e x p r e s s  making b e t t e r recommendations  allocation  of  t o t h e members o f t h e  agree  planning  d i d not express task.  the scope  function.  A number o f P l a n n e r s  they  social  and c o n t r o l o f  outside  A n a l y s i s o f s o c i a l problems of s o c i a l s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y  but  with  T h i s v i e w may n o t c o n f l i c t  t h e m s e l v e s on t h i s (v)  dealt  a c t i o n t o reduce  the prevention  SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t . the  interviewed,  i n the C i t y .  In Vancouver, social  c a n be  the r e d u c t i o n of s o c i a l  problems. question  This  91  would  circumstances  In c o n t r a s t , according  drastic these o f both to t h i s  t h e D i r e c t o r o f SP/CD d o e s n o t h a v e t h e  G r e a t B r i t a i n , R e p o r t o f t h e C o m m i t t e e on L o c a l A u t h o r i t y and A l l i e d P e r s o n a l S o c i a l S e r v i c e s . Frederic Seebohm, C h a i r m a n . ( L o n d o n : Her Majesty's S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e . 1968) p p . 148-49. H e r e i n a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as t h e Seebohm R e p o r t .  power o r  authority  ineffective w h i c h he  s e r v i c e s , nor  can  direct  more e f f e c t i v e  continual  important the but of  the  also  aspect  the  as  of  Planners involve  particular, this be  social  wish  the  required they d i d  problems  t o use  funds and  be  involved  Key of  d e a l t with  social  bad  that  planning.  more f u l l y  r o l e s are d i s c u s s e d  new  which City.  In  objections This  when t h e  plans  Social  the  expressed  as  that  the  of  do  social  i n studies  Planners  only  services,  agreed  p h y s i c a l development the  an  development  to a l l e v i a t e agree  as  need  studies  social  the  the  Not  these  Planners  not  see  planning.  i n f l u e n c e on  function  Planners'  large  p r o v i s i o n o f new  p r o v i s i o n o f new  should the  of  social  While  are  conditions,  will  an  City.  have  SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t  studies  f o r the  services  to  i n t o the  S o c i a l Planners  a guide  d o e s he  92 discontinue  to  services.  Members o f for  at his disposal  facet  Social  i n Section  C.2.of  this  Chapter. (vi)  Encouragement planning The  Skeffington  pages d e t a i l s achieving  the  and  not  Report  reasons  that  as p a r t as  an  of  this the  involvement  (1969),  f o r and  in  i n some  nine  techniques  of  interviewed  p a r t i c i p a t i o n must job  of  any  planning 33  The "be officer  unwelcome a c c r e t i o n . "  M o s t members o f the  citizen  public p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n planning.  Report reasons regarded  of  had  little  the  Planning  p o s i t i v e to  p u b l i c ' s r o l e i n the  planning  Department say  regarding  process.  In  G r e a t B r i t a i n , M i n i s t e r o f H o u s i n g and L o c a l G o v e r n m e n t , P e o p l e and P l a n n i n g , R e p o r t o f t h e C o m m i t t e e on P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n P l a n n i n g , A.M. Skeffington, M.P. Chairman. H e r e i n a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as t h e S k e f f i n g t o n R e p o r t , p. 10.  general,  Planners  at  were more c o g n i z a n t citizens  of  i n planning  Planners. concern  the  The  Senior  a need  efforts  that i f citizens that l i t t l e  Director  proposed  m i g h t be  invited  alternative since  they  that this  Davidoffs having  the  burden of  alternatives," the  interests  affected  by  One the  even of  though  the  Public considered  aspect  of  and  this  involving  Planning,"  the  who,  "total  a general  be 34 that  plans  ideas.  Planners  as  as  social  the  Key technique.  development two  reject  i n favour  P a u l D a v i d o f f . " A d v o c a c y and i n E l d r e d g e , I b i d , p. 600.  integral  whereas  a planning  literature, of  an  some  W i l l i a m Form a r e  outline  may  i n planning decisions,  a master  planning"  reflect  in social  r e t i c e n c e and  i n the  planners  communicating  physical planning,  and  of  view  and  sociologists of  not  social  John Seeley  to  representative  Social  P r e p a r a t i o n of plan  them,  proposals.  citizen's  i t s value  to  with  the  question  two  worthy  by  Planners  area  knowledge  successful i n  participation  view i t with  concept  to have  may  expressed  resulted  The  regarding  the  an  i n an  whose l i v e s of  reflect  Planners  (vii)  these  people  Senior Planner  people,  people  be  earlier  pace  occur.  t o compare  implementation  w h i c h more l i k e l y  is  I t may  a  to such  i n v e n t i n g a few  SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t was  with  slowed  technical  appears  comment n o t e d  "the  be  schemes e x p l a i n e d  make p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s . mention,  expressed  to p u b l i c meetings have  Key  were i n v o l v e d , t h e  that, at best,  not  the  were t h e  development would  development do  to i n v o l v e than  93 levels  lower  D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g  o f p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s would extent  and  a plan.  of  a  the process  This,  Pluralism in  they  contend,  would p r o v i d e  to permit  t h e use  of  Most P l a n n e r s plans  were i n d e e d  a more f l e x i b l e  a variety were o f  of  the  too r i g i d  framework 35 strategies.  opinion that  master  a framework to b r i n g  about d e s i r e d development.  I t was  conceded, 36  nonetheless, was  t h a t the  a master p l a n which over  essentially The local  Social  basis,  the  development  i n c o n t r a s t to  section  will  Planners  of  non-Social Planners  stated, links fore  the  with  were n o t  the P l a n n e r s ' flexible  give  areas t o be  the  Social  had  with  an  Social  on  a  belief  enough f o r  R e l a t i o n s h i p s With  the examination  a c c o r d i n g to the  interviewed.  P l a n n i n g Department,  reviewed  the C i t y  here are the  at City  Hall  role  and  the  P l a n n i n g Department  of  the  perceptions  As p r e v i o u s l y  (outsiders') viewpoint  Planners  they  and  had  would  of s o c i a l and  certain there-  planning.  activities  relationships  as d e f i n e d by  of they  non-  Planners. While  of  i n Vancouver,  another  The  Social  continue  and  i n t e r v i e w e e s were c h o s e n b e c a u s e the  been  needs.  Social the  has  plan i s feasible  The S o c i a l P l a n n e r s ' R o l e , A c t i v i t i e s the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department This  years  Plan  Planning Director stated that a  t h a t master p l a n s today's  Bartholomew  implemented.  master s o c i a l  2.  Vancouver  action  action  or  latter  will  by  role be  i t is difficult the  to separate  Social Planners  without  of n o n - S o c i a l Planners,  the  s t a t e d o n l y where i t b e a r s  the  significance  r e p o r t i n g the activity on  the  of  role  the and  J o h n R. S e e l e y , " C e n t r a l P l a n n i n g P r o l o g u e t o a C r i t i q u e , " p. 41, and W i l l i a m H. Form, " S o c i a l Power and S o c i a l W e l f a r e , " p. 69 b o t h i n C e n t r a l l y P l a n n e d Change, R o b e r t M o r r i s , (ed. ) 36 A d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n f o r V a n c o u v e r p r e p a r e d i n 1929 by Thomas B a r t h o l o m e w and A s s o c i a t e s .  activities  o f the S o c i a l  compared w i t h  Planners.  This w i l l  the p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d S o c i a l  t h e same i s s u e s .  of  t h e two o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h may how  each  treats  problems  way  that p r i o r i t i e s  the personnel  to achieve  they  of t h a t agency  goals  The P l a n n e r  facilities, difference this,  i n outlook  the informant  a t a g i v e n problem Planner  mentioned  would  than  than  service  social  to s o c i a l  a social  planner--  planner  takes  To  This  illustrate  sees  traffic  that a planner  a more  o f "moving  comprehensive  It Social  at City  Planner's  s i n c e i t would Thus S o c i a l  recommend  to C i t y  of funds.  f o r the Planning  the tasks with to p r i o r  Further,  Department  qualified  by t h e P l a n n i n g  should not  field,  n o t be g i v e n  connotation,  Department.  also  Planners  i n the s o c i a l  information i n order  as  These respondents  that the S o c i a l  a social  Council  Hall.  i n the planning process. the experts  include  Planners  f u n c t i o n by e x c l u d i n g h i s r o l e  the thoughts  role  broader  h a s b e e n s t a t e d t h a t two Key P l a n n e r s  considered  prepared  ( a somewhat  services,  a c t as a r e s o u r c e  Planner's  synthesizer  right  planning  s e r v i c e s and on t h e a l l o c a t i o n  should  expressed  saw t h e S o c i a l  and e d u c a t i o n a l f a c e t s ) .  as d o t h e E n g i n e e r s  all  services.  an a t t i t u d e  welfare planning,  co-ordinate social  these  they  be  of the  i n t h e same  t h a t an e n g i n e e r  t u r n , a Key P l a n n e r  recreational  the  Depart-  members  influences priorities.  a social  one o f s o c i a l  concept  on  staff  from  a t the c i t y . In  as  result  t h e two P l a n n i n g  approaches day-to-day problems with look  i n attempting  conflicts  In a d d i t i o n ,  and t h e S o c i a l  along" while  i n an  i s o r i e n t e d towards p r o v i d i n g p h y s i c a l  problems d i f f e r e n t l y it  commented  see i t s r o l e  and p r i o r i t i e s  Departments do n o t l o o k  way.  reflect, in  face.  In h i s view,  ments s e t f o r t h e m s e l v e s . two  be made  f o r a D e p a r t m e n t a r e s e t by t h e  stated goals.  the d i f f e r i n g  views  a comparison w i l l  A S e n i o r A d m i n i s t r a t o r i n Vancouver interview  be  Planners'  of  part,  In a d d i t i o n ,  then  n o r be g r a n t e d t h e  t o comment  on r e p o r t s  96 It Planners of  may  was  at  Planning,  Social  be the  the  the  qualified  with  and  one  associated with  who  acted  the  as  Joint  This Planner  to  Key the  the Technical  believed  that  politicians  the  Social  Planners  for  i n h i s o p i n i o n , the  Social  Planners  were  the  In h i s view,  Over-view of  the  are  limitations  when p l a n n i n g .  calling  the p l a n n e r  and  present  is:  not still  and' f u t u r e ;  political  and  responsible for recognizin  This respondent  "physical planner"  Planner  social,  considered; and  the  past,  t h a t economic,  aspects  about because  these  SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t ,  been g o i n g  t o see  h i s own term  the  of  i n t e r v i e w the Deputy D i r e c t o r  most c l o s e l y  sociologists.  ecological  the  had  but  responsible  fields  the  this period.  i n c e p t i o n of  citizens  charged  t h a t one  D e p a r t m e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on  solutions,  ing  of  Planner  Committee d u r i n g and  time  P l a n n i n g Department,  Planning since  worth n o t i n g  'experts' resented  averred  in the  t h a t the  i s considered  an  those use  of  term  came  in  civic  expert  design. Most P l a n n e r s Planning for to  Departments  the p e o p l e achieve  time,  pointed  social for  shared  of V a n c o u v e r — b u t objective.  share  the  b e l i e v e d t h a t the  a common g o a l - - t h a t o f The  t h a t they  work  D i r e c t o r of  W i l l i a m Graham, e m p h a s i z e d  Planners  Creek  this  interviewed  same c o n c e r n s  working  differently  Planning  that Planners for social  two  and  at  the  Social  values,  and  t o P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t r e p o r t s on Downtown, F a l s e 37  and  Gastown.  At  p l a n n i n g has  the  conscience"  in this  p h y s i c a l overtones,  a multi-service centre The  same t i m e ,  i n the  proposal  complex.  P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r , welcomed which  as  opinion,  the D i r e c t o r of  the  "social  SP/CD b r o u g h t  to  the  These are t h r e e d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e a r e a s of Vanc o u v e r , t h e l a s t named a r e a b e i n g a p o r t i o n o f S k i d Road w h i c h h a s b e e n r e v i t a l i z e d as a c o m m e r c i a l c e n t r e by r e - d e v e l o p i n g a number o f i n e x p e n s i v e r o o m i n g h o u s e s and o l d warehouses.  Technical the  Planning  Board,  B o a r d were n o t s o c i a l l y The  Committees  appointed  consideration the  Social  to the "planning  Committee,  former  that  a very  co-ordinate  social  The  some c o n c e r n  he  expressed  authorities  effort  Development  believed  function.  I t was h e r  f o r Vancouver. Planner  Another  source,  the reasons  f o r i t s death.  the view that  matters  which  are purported  the c i v i c  while  have s e t p o l i c y  o f t h e S.D.C.  the S o c i a l  and d i r e c t  it  "was o f t e n u s e d  of  the A d m i n i s t r a t o r s , "  Committee  to lapse.  informative regarding  t o have o c c u r e d  f o r the a b o l i t i o n  source,  i t was a l l o w e d  h o w e v e r , was v e r y  and may  the J o i n t  Technical  some  help  According  Development Committee  i n an a t t e m p t 39  was  i n t e r v i e w e d , and  d i d n o t know how t o u s e t h e P o l i c y reason,  that the  Development Committee  one S e n i o r  Director held  (S.D.C.) and f o r t h i s  account  City.  and was i n a p o s i t i o n t o  no o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g  %  integrally  c o n t r i b u t i o n to planning  policy  planning  to only  U,CS E x e c u t i v e  Board  worthwhile  Technical  course,  of the S o c i a l 38  demise o f the S o c i a l  of  the  system" i n t h a t  forth  " o u t s i d e r s " had o f  and J o i n t  were,of  the Committee's b e s t  was t h a t i t b r o u g h t  this  to the views  chairman  and T e c h n i c a l  on O c t o b e r 8, 1968 t h a t  Alderman Marianne L i n n e l l ,  S.D.C. p e r f o r m e d  The  by C o u n c i l  must be g i v e n  and a c t i v i t i e s i n  the P o l i c y  The two C o m m i t t e e s  The  view  with  Development Committee  Committee. linked  aware.  SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t ' s r o l e  V a n c o u v e r were s o l i n k e d  to  s i n c e i n h i s v i e w most members o f  to  was t o  Committee,  to rubber-stamp  the ideas  and where a d e c i s i o n d i d n o t s u i t  of Administration  t h e r e p o r t was d e l a y e d .  At the  o o  Social  I n t e r v i e w e d a t C i t y H a l l , S e p t e m b e r 20,1970 D e v e l o p m e n t C o m m i t t e e was s t i l l i n e x i s t e n c e .  while  39 The q u o t a t i o n i s g i v e n v e r b a t i m f r o m an i n t e r v i e w w i t h a p e r s o n employed a t C i t y H a l l . I t i s the w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n t h a t t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h i s r e s p o n d e n t was s u c h , t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e t o t h e i n t e r v i e w e e .  98 time  of  the  Committee referred  S.D.C. d i s s o l u t i o n ,  resolutions s t i l l to C o u n c i l .  according  to this  outstanding  I n one  two  The  interviewee  Commissioners  continuing and  the  Board  contenders Planning  Executive  the  for  could This ing  the  Board  have c a l l e d informant resulted  Community  their  own  was  an  not  together  C o m m i t t e e was  from and lack Key  friction the  comments on and  the  Planner  involved that  between  of c l a r i t y  this  exemplify  o p i n i o n of  they  the  two  Planner's t o him  the  Social  are disposed  contended  employed  one  19 71,  and  although Heads  meeting. not f u n c t i o n and  Planning  more t o w a r d they  the  operate,  i n SP/CD.  Senior  Planner,  most  of  results  l a c k of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , little  planning  direction  goals.  t h a t the D i r e c t o r of  in a political  the  vehicle  P l a n n i n g Departments  t o be  in social  the  organizational structure  t h a t of  e s t i m a t i o n of  what a p p e a r e d  cited  communication.  s t r u c t u r e d system  Social  he  SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t ' s p r o j e c t s t a n c e ,  o r g a n i z a t i o n under which  the  to  met,  for a  type  the  and  o t h e r Department  hierarchal  In  Social  important  that  less  the  Services, during  suggest  the  Department  of  i n the  Department than  long-  t h a t the  J . T . C . had  Committee  Department of  a  Between S e p t e m b e r ,  the  i n diminished  Planners  one  of  of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  b e l i e v e d t h a t the the  of  (one  intervened.  f o r c e d t o draw back,  D i r e c t o r and/or  the  direct  time)  Planning  T e c h n i c a l Committee,  Planning  SP/CD,  Brown  Development Committee  however,  because of  this  the  Social  of i t s e s t a b l i s h m e n t  1972,  Social  at  been  of g e t t i n g Board  Sutton  h i s view  growth i n communication.  the  of  the  D i r e c t o r of U n i t e d  February,  Gerald  Board  I t was  Social  Joint  stages  to r e p o r t  the p o s s i b i l i t y  D i r e c t o r w o u l d be  s t r e n g t h of  early  the  between  retreating.  The  attempted but  not  D i r e c t o r of  of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i t h o u t  the demise of the  on  questioned  conflict  the  five  which had  the u s u a l procedure  of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a p p r o v a l , the  case  informant,  to C o u n c i l , by-passing  t h e r e were some  process  required planning,  called  coalitions  to  a  Contrarily,  a  SP/CD  due was  "influencing" and  alliances  and to  achieve the  specific  Social  Social  99 quite clear to  g o a l s w h i c h were p r o b a b l y  Planners.  Planning  This informant  and P l a n n i n g  was c o n c e r n e d  that  o b j e c t i v e s on s p e c i f i c  issues  may n o t c o i n c i d e . One C i t y question  Hall  respondent  of organizational survival  Department. perceive  This person  itself  concentrate  reasoned  as b e i n g under  mentioned  were  simple  p r o j e c t s which would  ments,  o r t h e D e p a r t m e n t may  interviewee continued  "can  problems  and i t s u n h o l y  Social  expressed  difficult indeed  concern  organizational  relations,  take  t o expand  In consultant  with  Hall  feel  groups?"  t h a t one o f t h e  the steps  the C i t y  Planning  between  The f o r e g o i n g s u g g e s t s t h e two P l a n n i n g  in a that there i s  agencies  on t h e  level. about e x i s t i n g  this  i n the course Department.  commented  Most P l a n n e r s  that  indicated  there general  together  study.  to this  communicate,  with  to  the Health  who h a d a c t e d  o f h i s work, p e r s o n a l i t y which e x i s t with  between  t h e SP/CD and  on a S k i d  should  Road  t h e two c o u l d n o t  that the S o c i a l  and P o l i c e  with  plays a  a Co-ordinator  a Planner  respondent,  the r e s u l t  as a  and h a d some c o n t a c t s  I n one c a s e ,  have been w o r k i n g According  inter-departmental  view.  i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p s  work w i t h  accomplish-  approach to  citizen  to note  t o t h e SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t  Planning  at City  unorthodox  t h e o p i n i o n o f an i n f o r m a n t  Planners  only  the h y p o t h e t i c a l q u e s t i o n ,  the D i r e c t o r of Planning  agreement w i t h  Two  i t s domain.  to insure i t s continuance  was room f o r i m p r o v e m e n t .  the  successful  attempt  alliance  When q u e s t i o n e d  role  indicate  with  about  environment.  conflict  may  also discussed o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s u r v i v a l , but  Department might  the  t h a t the Department  t h a t SP/CD may u n d e r t a k e  may be o f i n t e r e s t  Planners  Planning  a t t a c k and may h a v e t o  by i t s u n d i s c i p l i n e d ,  It he  f o r the S o c i a l  SP/CD s u r v i v e i f o t h e r D e p a r t m e n t s  threatened  about t h e  on m e a s u r e s f o r i t s own c o n t i n u a n c e .  possibilities  The  was c o n c e r n e d  Planner  Departments.  The  tended result-  100 ing  report therefore lacked  Planners issues  The  same i n t e r v i e w e e  are  "concerned  which  Planners. oriented ional  are not  level  w h i c h he  are  in a position  require  Department would  of  to  a lesser  in  fields  He  may  involved  the  be  as  the  both  the C i t y  Melville-Dunsmuir Planners,  living  i n an  t h a t two  The  reader  that  the  City  role  the  staff  Planning  friction  alienation.  Planners  SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t  r e v e a l the  of s o c i a l  who  citizens  t h e hope t h a t t h e and  Social  Co-ordinators  Hall  apparent  service delivery  Departments.  and  However,  planning An  even  areas,  example  street  In a t t e m p t i n g  of  the  Social the  to the  by  one  After  the  Planners proposal.  relocation  Senior  concern  was  large office will  Planner  recall  to g e t  complexes  the  Planners  should  information  i n order  t o comment on  P l a n n i n g Department. avoiding  conflict  involved  i n the  circumstances.  One  simply  social  not  be  were t o l o o k The  Social  of e l d e r l y  the  the p r o j e c t .  could proceed granted  completed smoothly.  Key  the  the  Planners  right  reports prepared  i n terms of  the  demolished,  system two  at  citizens  t o be  road  prepared Planners  o f h o l d i n g up  might q u e s t i o n  planning  the  r e p o r t was  s t a t e d view of  Social  to  p a t t e r n i n downtown  o l d r e s i d e n c e h o t e l w h i c h was  expressed  so  the  profess-  the  two  Connector.  a solution  were a c c u s e d His  many  the  P l a n n i n g Department proposed  i m p l i c a t i o n s of  seeking  on  from  Departments of P l a n n i n g .  Vancouver,  social  and  s e e n i n a downtown V a n c o u v e r p r o j e c t w h i c h a change i n the  the  reached  legitimate social  between  social  physically  i n urban renewal problems.  facilitate  by  Engineers  t h a t the  the  Social  e x i s t e n c e of  the  SP/CD i n a r e a s  arise  the  changes which  expressed  with  recognized  conflicts  be  p u b l i c and  accept  extent  by  input.  to d i s c u s s  a consequence,  to reduce e x i s t i n g  acceptance  tend  o n l y be  to p r o p o s e  Discussions  this  can  As  their  or d e s i r e .  order  i t may  who  t h a t the  believes distracts  must p u r s u e .  t o r n between  in  understood  employees  are  contends  people"  In h i s view, civic  Planners  a P l a n n i n g Department  to by  prior the  the p o s s i b i l i t y time  i n p u t under  sequence  the  given  of  101 For critical  one S e n i o r  review  t o be s h a l l o w matter  and somewhat " c a r p i n g . "  social All  aspects  tended that the  were n o t t h e most  i s s u e s i n the area.  Planners  interviewed,  i n views  agreed  adequately Planners  lower  expressed  some d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  were n o t i c e a b l e when While  that h i s Department's  a concern  involved,  social  i n p u t was q u e s t i o n e d .  considered  reflected  that  when p r e p a r i n g r e p o r t s .  among t h e P l a n n e r s  the D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g  f o r the s o c i a l  down t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l with  factors  ladder  the s o c i a l  considerations  current planning reports. One S e n i o r  planning planning, should  and t h r e e Key P l a n n e r s  a t one t i m e  was j u s t  and n o t a s e p a r a t e  still  Department.  Planner,  however, hoped  two  another entity.  Departments,  organizational Taking  Many P l a n n e r s  solution  values  one r e s p o n d e n t suggested  department  they  gather  work t o g e t h e r ,  integration  that i t  planning.  took  expert  Planners  p l a c e , whereas i n a each o t h e r t o  i s important  i n the process  i t , n o r how t o c o p e w i t h  t h e two  who was a c o n s u l t a n t  s t r e n g t h from  b u t he c o u l d  a s an  that the S o c i a l  He b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s  a r e t o be c o n s i d e r e d  organize  They m a i n t a i n  against integrating  I n h i s v i e w a team o f p e o p l e should  "manifestation" of  t o more c o m p r e h e n s i v e  w o u l d be "swamped" i f a m a l g a m a t i o n a stand.  social  f o r b e t t e r c o - o r d i n a t i o n betwen the  a position  t h e SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t ,  take  that  b e l o w t h e r a n k o f Key  but d i d not suggest  P l a n n i n g Departments,  separate  argue  be p a r t o f one o p e r a t i o n , w i t h i n t h e C i t y  Planning  to  report,  space r a t i o s  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the s o c i a l  reports  Department's  He a r g u e d  o f p l a n n i n g must be c o n s i d e r e d  Differences  of  theSP/CD 40  o f the F a i r v i e w Slopes,  o f d e n s i t y and f l o o r  pressing  the  Planner,  i f social  of planning.  i n different  fields  n o t p r o p o s e how t o the d i f f e r i n g  value  , An a r e a i n V a n c o u v e r , on t h e s o u t h s l o p e o f F a l s e C r e e k w h i c h was t h e s u b j e c t o f a r e d e v d o p m e n t r e p o r t by t h e P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t i n 1970.  102 systems  of  the  co-operating  Another  interviewee  administration discussed type of his on  was  key  Services,  of  could  the  i n the  planning This on  gap of  The goals  and  and  Planning.  He  the  Technical by  concluded  comprehensive p l a n n i n g Departments  the  Planning  and  involved  provide  them  Social  questioned  the  Super Agency, Board  guidance for  which  planning  and  social  Committee.  must t a k e  i n planning  in  imposing  Joint Technical  that Council  Hall some  main problem  which e x i s t s between p h y s i c a l  c a r r i e d out  respondent  various  effort.  co-ordinating  e s t a b l i s h i n g some t y p e o f  case as  of  about C i t y  at C i t y Hall--Engineering,  Social Planning  possibility as  issues  f i n d i n g compatible  Departments  close  knowledgeable  the  inter-disciplinary  opinion four  disciplines.  a position  to  the  Vancouver.  41 One about  the  member o f  l a c k of  leadership  matters generally, that planning since  there  decisions ing  trends  rents  social  little  t o be  such  increasing  and  as  land  accompanied  the  In h i s view,  role  Planning  i n the  were s u p p o s e d planning  consisted people's  would  of  made by  only  some o f  of  Skid  exist-  the of  higher  Road  a  but  policy decisions  the  Council--and who  the  stern  playing  constructive  worthwhile  come a b o u t when C i t y  representatives  and  held  stage  that  e v i c t e d because  redevelopment  Vancouver,  He  changes  Council  were more r e s p o n s i v e  to  needs. The  one  t o be  of  Planning  argued  developments  SP/CD was  on  redevelopment  to reverse  numbers o f p e o p l e b e i n g  which  given  concern  in particular.  i n the  density  (Gastown).  in  issues  had  a v a i l a b l e , and  made s o o n high  expressed h i s  Council  i n V a n c o u v e r was  was  had  City Council  Senior  Director  Planner  as  of  Social Planning  being  i s acknowledged  more p o l i t i c a l l y  oriented  by  than  A l d e r m a n H a r r y R a n k i n was i n t e r v i e w e d b e c a u s e he i s g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d as t h e spokesman f o r t h e E a s t S i d e o f V a n c o u v e r and i s t h e o n l y member o f C o u n c i l l i v i n g i n t h i s a r e a o f t h e C i t y where most s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i s c o n d u c t e d .  103 the D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g .  T h i s may  be  particularly  Planners  were t o be  i f the  Social  involved  i n a matter  Planning  Department The  the  section  t o be  the  of  B. 2J ; h e r e  politically  s u b j e c t of  Services Centre  Branch L i b r a r y have both  viewpoint  conflict, a  report.  B r i t a n n i a Community  the F r a s e r v i e w from  w h i c h was  a cause of  the  the  Social  ( BCSC)  been d i s c u s s e d  Planners  same i s s u e s w i l l  (Chapter  be  and earlier  IV,  reviewed  from  the  Planners* standpoint. a.  B r i t a n n i a Community The  BCSC b e f o r e A Key  the  Planner  committee plans,  Planning  involved i n  D e p a r t m e n t was  s t a t e d t h a t h i s D e p a r t m e n t was  work as w e l l as staff  the  established.  active  in  both  i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of r e p o r t s  of b r i e f s ,  at a l l l e v e l s  et cetera. up  t o and  T h i s work including  and  has  the D i r e c t o r  Planning. The  Complex  Planning  a t the  time  Planning,  Harry  disbanded  Social  C o m m i t t e e was four for  civic  was  Committee  c h a i r e d by  Pickstone.  At  the  an  of 42  request  work w i t h  of  the  the  now  Planning  Advisory  six resident representatives The  participation as he  f o r the B r i t a n n i a  A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r of  Development Committee,  formed  job,  consultants area  Advisory  officials.  citizen  Planner's  sees the  Social  Planner  i s responsible  i n the p r o j e c t ; w h i l e  the  i t , i s to ensure  the  citizens  and  that  i n order  that Britannia  r e s i d e n t s g e t what t h e y d e s i r e . The  value  as  S.D.C. i n t h i s  Key  Planner's  a c o - o r d i n a t i n g body, b u t  committee. the  Centre  P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t was  Social  submission  involved of  City  Services  Planning  With  the  Advisory  Social  not  as  o p i n i o n , was an  action  Development Committee  Committee  of  the  of  disbanded,  B r i t a n n i a Community  The f o u r c i v i c o f f i c i a l s r e p r e s e n t e d t h e D e p a r t ment o f P l a n n i n g , t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f SP/CD, t h e V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d , and t h e V a n c o u v e r P a r k s B o a r d .  104 Services  Centre  without going School  b.  Board  c a n a c t as an a d v i s o r  through  the S.D.C.—that  or L i b r a r y  Praserview The  Branch  i n 1969 t o s t u d y  the Fraserview  the  Department with 43  of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . since  Planning  a memorandum  Collaboration  Departments  i n providing  the  library  the  following  originated f o r from  between  came a b o u t  the Board  the Planning  early  service  Significantly,  and  i n the study,  the i n t e r e s t that  space f o r s o c i a l  building.  the f e a s i b i l i t y of  Branch L i b r a r y  t h e memorandum m e n t i o n e d  had  i s , d i r e c t t o the  Board.  establishing  Social  Boards  Library  proposal  Planning  to various  SP/CD  agencies  within  t h e memorandum  included  statement: I am s o r r y t o s a y t h a t t h i s m a t t e r i s p o l i t i c a l l y l i v e l y a t t h e moment s o t h a t I am ^ h o p i n g y o u c a n l e t me h a v e a r e p o r t f a i r l y s o o n . 4  The requirements aspects  forsocial  to cover  structure. a  two D e p a r t m e n t s worked services,  the c o n s t r u c t i o n  Included  section prepared  the  library. "*  tion  1969,  centre  as the f i n a n c i a l  and maintenance o f the Department r e p o r t  by t h e S o c i a l P l a n n e r s ,  multi-service  The  as w e l l  i n the P l a n n i n g  integrative, proposed  o u t t h e d e t a i l s on s p a c e  dealing  approach being  was  with the  taken f o r  4  writer  wishes  to note  that during  of the C o u n c i l  report  two S e n i o r  Planners  the preparaand a  B o a r d o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , memo #4181, J u n e 26, s i g n e d b y C o m m i s s i o n e r S u t t o n Brown. 44  Ibid. The a u t h o r w o r k e d i n t h e C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d and h e l p e d d r a f t t h e r e p o r t to C o u n c i l . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r b r a n c h l i b r a r y was p r o p o s e d some 24 y e a r s e a r l i e r . I t became " p o l i t i c a l l y l i v e l y " i n 1969 by t h e a c t i v i t y o f t h e L o c a l A r e a C o u n c i l and a F r a s e r v i e w L i b r a r y C o m m i t t e e w h i c h i n c l u d e d a number o f c o n c e r n e d young p e o p l e l i v i n g i n F r a s e r v i e w . Fraserview,  Board o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , S e p t e m b e r 4, 1969.  Proposed  Branch  Library-  105 Planning Assistant Library  Board  reluctant  Chairman  approval  implementation  D.  indicated  that  since  and h i s D e p u t y  t o t h e scheme,  seemed  the Vancouver  appeared  to give  only  the p o s s i b i l i t y of  remote. ^ 4  Summary Chapter practice can of  i n 1971, compared  assume  Thus,  interaction in  that  the a c t i v i t y  1971.  IV was an e x a m i n a t i o n  planning  t o t h e " i d e a l " o f 1968.  the d i f f e r e n c e s of the S o c i a l  i n part,  of s o c i a l  between  t h e two were a r e s u l t  P l a n n e r s between  the p r a c t i c e  One  1968 and  was a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e  between t h e S o c i a l P l a n n e r s  and C i t y  Planners  Vancouver. This  chapter  also  studied  the view of c e r t a i n  non-Social  Planners  to s o c i a l planning,  the  Planners  see the r e l a t i o n s h i p s  Social  P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t s . The a u t h o r differences  i n v i e w p o i n t which  found appear  and how t h e y and between  that  there  t h e two a r e some  t o be a r e a s o f  conflict. In differences and  C h a p t e r V, t h e w r i t e r and draw c o n c l u s i o n s  dysfunctional  opened  will  analyse  regarding  these  their  functional  aspects.  The F r a s e r v i e w i n M a r c h , 19 72.  Branch L i b r a r y  was  officially  preceding p.. 106 RrtUMOAPY  . —  CHAPTER V SUMMARY, ANALYSIS, CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION Summary o f P u r p o s e and P r o c e d u r e s While  community p l a n n e r s  ments w h i c h o f f e r limit and  their  urban  individuals  on z o n i n g b y l a w s  i n the plans they prepare.  Meanwhile,  p l a n n e r s now w o r k i n g  primarily  t o move i n t o f i e l d s  t o achieve s o c i a l  where t h e y w i l l  T h i s b r i n g s them i n t o  the s o c i a l  life  objectives of t h i s  1.  Achieve  thesis  planners  some u n d e r s t a n d i n g  who  of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s p l a n n e r s and s o c -  planners i n the planning process.  author  they  have b e e n t o :  w h i c h e x i s t between t h e c i t y  in  prevent  of a c i t y .  The  ial  cures,  a p o s i t i o n where  are s e e k i n g i n c r e a s e d c o - o r d i n a t i o n w i t h urban affect  they  account t h e  social  problems.  styles,  taking into  costs entailed  social  largely  adequately  social  are attempting  to create environ-  a choice of l i f e  p r a c t i c e by depending  design, without  attempt  The  studied the municipal planning  Vancouver,  B r i t i s h Columbia  with  system  particular  reference t o : a.  Interrelationships  o r l i n k a g e s between t h e  groups w i t h i n t h e p l a n n i n g b.  Differing  attitudes  system.  and c o n c e p t i o n s b e -  tween members o f t h e two g r o u p s , extent  t o which these conceptions  functional 2.  of the s o c i a l  the planning process  particular  generate  and d y s f u n c t i o n a l c o n f l i c t .  Examine t h e e v o l v i n g r o l e within  and t h e  planner  i n some d e p t h ,  consideration to:  with  a.  The  historical  ning,  and  concepts b.  The  some c o n t e m p o r a r y of s o c i a l  as  ning  limitations  and  o f t h e d a t a may  concerns  planning  and  itself  planning process The  be  City  author  staff  presented  Criteria sult  Social  The  the establishment  and  reader  aspects  of  public  theoretical Social  (SP/CD) D e p a r t m e n t .  were r e s e a r c h e d  were c a r r i e d  and  of the  out  Following  and d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h  to determine  the  "founding  studied in d e t a i l .  e i g h t documents were c h o s e n as a r e -  a l l or n e a r l y a l l the necessary  e i g h t r e p o r t s were examined t o d e t e r m i n e  objectives  the  selective  Planners play i n the  examined t h e h i s t o r i c a l  were s e t and  of meeting  the  i s necessarily  d o c u m e n t s " o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t w h i c h w o u l d be 1  so t h a t  i n Vancouver.  SP/CD f i l e s  Hall  plan-  or c h a l l e n g e the w r i t e r ' s a n a l y s i s  Planning/Community Development the  a social  p r i m a r i l y with the s o c i a l  framework w h i c h p r e c e d e d this,  original  revealed, giving  T h i s paper  the r o l e s  planning i n  1968.  r e s e a r c h m e t h o l o g y was  of the d a t a p r e s e n t e d .  of s o c i a l  of e s t a b l i s h i n g  agency i n  an o p p o r t u n i t y t o a c c e p t  theoretical  a comparison with the  objectives  plan-  planning.  actual practice  1971  The  e v o l u t i o n of s o c i a l  t h e means o f i m p l e m e n t i n g  criteria.  their stated  the o b j e c t i v e s f o r 2  a proposed  social planning organization. To g a t h e r  D e p a r t m e n t was  data r e l a t i n g  p e r c e i v e d by C i t y  Planners  i n the p u b l i c  Planning  and  Social  t h e U n i t e d Community permission of those draft  1  dology 2  and  Appendices A t o H  and  by  files  at C i t y  In a d d i t i o n ,  Planning  the  Social i n the  Hall  (U.C.S.) were p e r u s e d  in authority.  r e p o r t s which d i d not  Social  s e c t o r s ...  P l a n n i n g Departments Services  the  Planners,  private  and  with  the  a number o f  r e a c h C i t y C o u n c i l were  The c r i t e r i a a r e s t a t e d and (Chapter I.C.). See  t o how  reviewed.  e l a b o r a t e d upon i n t h e metho-  inclusive.  108 M i c h a e l Wheeler has s t a t e d t h a t social  p l a n n e r s have s i m i l a r l y  other's  roles. "  hazy p e r c e p t i o n s  3  clarify  If this  t h e r o l e s of both p l a n n e r s  tasks  and how t h e y  they perform w i t h i n  their  1  organizational  s t u d y was a v a i l a b l e i n w r i t t e n f o r m ,  personal  interviews  interrelate.  r o l e s i s t o examine  I t may be assumed t h a t n o t a l l t h e i n f o r m a t i o n this  of each  i s s o , i t i s o f some v a l u e t o  One a p p r o a c h t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g p l a n n e r s the  " p h y s i c a l and  system.  relevant to  and t h e r e f o r e  were c o n d u c t e d b y t h e a u t h o r .  viewees i n c l u d e d S o c i a l P l a n n e r s ,  Administrators  Interand P l a n n e r s  a t a number o f h i e r a r c h i c a l l e v e l s i n C i t y H a l l .  Other  p o n d e n t s were c h o s e n b e c a u s e t h e y had some s i g n i f i c a n t with  t h e SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t ,  acted  of s o c i a l Social  planning  Planners  theory,  the roles  on t h e i r  The  perceptions  and a c t i v i t i e s  of the  and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e two  Plan-  Departments. Theoretical  were a l s o c o n s i d e r e d used  i n discussions  link  an A l d e r m a n who  as C h a i r m a n o f t h e S o c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t Committee.  i n f o r m a n t s were i n v o l v e d  ning  as f o r example,  res-  concepts of o r g a n i z a t i o n i n C h a p t e r One s i n c e  as a m e t h o d o l o g i c a l d e v i c e  structure  of planning Organization  and c o n f l i c t  t h e y were  being  r e l a t e d to the organizational  i n Vancouver. t h e o r i s t s have s u g g e s t e d  that  differ-  e n c e s i n a t t i t u d e s and a p p r o a c h by p e r s o n s i n a s y s t e m o f organization flicts  within  may r e s u l t i n f u n c t i o n a l o r d y s f u n c t i o n a l that  system.  C h a p t e r One, t h e P l a n n i n g  From t h e d e s c r i p t i o n g i v e n i n and S o c i a l P l a n n i n g  Departments i n  Vancouver c o n s t i t u t e a system o f groups d o i n g p l a n n i n g . s y s t e m was s t u d i e d  con-  i n some d e t a i l  as s u b s e q u e n t l y  M i c h a e l Wheeler, ed., I n t e g r a t i o n o f P h y s i c a l Planning, ( O t t a w a : C a n a d i a n W e l f a r e C o u n c i l , 1967). No. 1, p . 76.  This  described.  and S o c i a l Report  Summary o f A indicated mon  review  participatory  literature  p h y s i c a l and  government  o f modern  social  to the  and  accentuated  Utopian  number o f  the  d a t i n g back  problems  problems  of  t h a t both  antecendents  social  109  Findings planning  p l a n n i n g have  establishment  of  the d e s i r e to m i t i g a t e by  industrialization.  schemes were p r o p o s e d  of u r b a n i z a t i o n , but  as  com-  the A  s o l u t i o n s to  were a b a n d o n e d when  the  they  failed. Two  different  discernable social and by  planning,  the  some  as  social  involved  may  be  beginning  be  welfare  can  of  the  t r a c e d through system,  and  engineers  the  the  and  century.  social  facet  The  through  became  20th  this  legislation'.  followed  architects,  reformers  i s known  other, who  to  'planning  movements  others  One,  which  attempted  to  the p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t . The  according consisting reached  dichotomy  of p l a n n i n g  t o some p l a n n e r s ,  desirable.  of  finding  then  objectives.  The  p a r t be  into  goals  seeking  the  to  should  upon w h i c h  be  a  agreement  planners  their  social,  or process  can  b e s t method o f r e a c h i n g  difficulties  attributed  p h y s i c a l and  i s neither r e a l i s t i c  They b e l i e v e t h a t p l a n n i n g  and  in  the  ' p l a n n i n g by  design'  shape  around  emphases i n p l a n n i n g  be these  are encountering  failure  t o see  planning  may more  comprehensively. In to  confront  reasons  the  next  social  for this  p e r i o d of  problems of  expectation  time,  planners  be  i n c r e a s e d magnitude.  are  increasingly  c o m p l e x s o c i e t y and  population.  Certain planning  changing larger  theorists  must i n v o l v e t h e p u b l i c i n c o n t i n u o u s set  can  social  expected Among  values,  concentrations propose  feedback  that to  an  of  planning  achieve  goals. E i g h t documents examined  a h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e of planning  i n Vancouver.  Administrators  and  i n Chapter  the development  Three  of p u b l i c  T h e s e r e p o r t s , w r i t t e n by  Social  Planners,  define  provided  their  social  Planners,  110 Two documents appear to  p e r c e p t i o n s of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g .  d e s c r i b e s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i n terms of Perlman's  social  w e l f a r e p l a n n i n g w h i l e the o t h e r s i x may be c o n s i d e r e d programming as c h a r a c t e r i z e d by Gans. the methods of implementing seventh  The o b j e c t i v e s and  the o b j e c t i v e s s t a t e d i n the  and e i g h t h r e p o r t s , d e f i n e i n p a r t s o c i a l  i n Vancouver i n 1968.  social  planning  T h i s h i s t o r i c a l view o f s o c i a l  p l a n n i n g s e r v e d as a b a s i s f o r comparison w i t h  social  p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e i n Vancouver, 1971. How S o c i a l P l a n n e r s and n o n - S o c i a l  Planners  p e r c e i v e d s o c i a l p l a n n i n g and how each group viewed the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the two Vancouver P l a n n i n g Departments, were examined i n Chapter  Four.  I t was found  d i f f e r i n g views which appeared In s u c c e e d i n g  t h a t t h e r e were  to p o i n t t o areas of c o n f l i c t .  s e c t i o n s , an e v a l u a t i o n w i l l be made and  c o n c l u s i o n s drawn r e g a r d i n g the f u n c t i o n a l and d y s f u n c t i o n a l a s p e c t s of these d i f f e r e n t  viewpoints.  A n a l y s i s of Findings The p e r c e p t i o n s o f s o c i a l p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e have h e r e t o f o r e been c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s t h e s i s , from of the t h e o r e t i c i a n s ,  the s t a n d p o i n t  the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s , the P h y s i c a l  P l a n n e r s and o t h e r s w i t h l i n k s to the SP/CD Department. this section  the author,  data presented.  as an o b s e r v e r , w i l l  In  a n a l y s e the  I n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n and  c o n f l i c t between the two P l a n n i n g Departments was gathered a f t e r approximately  t h r e e years of a c t i v i t y by members of  the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department. O r g a n i z a t i o n t h e o r i s t s have i n d i c a t e d s t r u c t u r e o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l  t h a t the  a f f e c t the a c t i v i t i e s and  c o n c e p t i o n s o f members i n the group. Members o f the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department b e l i e v e d t h e i r group t o be e s s e n t i a l l y e g a l i t a r i a n n o t due t o s i z e , but r a t h e r because of i t s purpose, s e r v e d , and they noted structured  and the c l i e n t s i t  t h a t the o r g a n i z a t i o n was l e s s  than the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department.  I t s h o u l d be  Ill mentioned the be  t h a t the  significance the  fact  homogeneity the  face  of the  t h a t they  The of  SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t was  Social  Planners  of outlook with  organization.  The  to concentrate  Argyris'  description  provide  may  be  Social  on  the and  Committee  (S.D.C).  Community  Services  Committee  (J.T.C).  social The  City  the  according  communication lines  and  to the  inter-action. community  level,  the  apparent on  link  the  comment by  Social  the  the  United  Technical  Executive Director  J.T.C.'s f a i l u r e  t o meet  c o n s i d e r s t h a t both engaged  Development  with  Joint  Resources  the  in social  SP/CD  planning be  l i n k a g e between p u b l i c  overlap and  planning.  J . T . C . was  also  the  P l a n n i n g Department except Community  different  link.  link  only o f f i c i a l f o r the  Services Centre,  Joint  i n the F r a s e r v i e w  organizational  to  that organizational links  (U.C.S.) was  w o r s e , no  can  earlier.  only  The  role  group  C o u n c i l s , the Neighbourhood  The  to  that i n  activities  t h e U.C.S. a r e  Britannia as  m i g h t be  W i t h o u t r e g u l a r d i s c u s s i o n s t h e r e may  r e p o r t s , and  private  t o t h e m e a n i n g and this  and  a  core  suggested  becomes r e l e v a n t when one studies.  to have  of  at a d i f f e r e n t  and  appeared  activities  t h e U.C.S. r e g a r d i n g t h e  Department  belief  the  given  Local Area  pyramidal,  appears 4 un-hierarchical.  of  P l a n n i n g Department's  Councils,  of  result  t h e g r o u p a means o f  included  of  also regard  of e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e s ,  It  Planners'  h e l d i t t o be  continue  The  Social  still  efforts  Library although  of  the  two  cannot  Social  with  connection•on  which i s a  the  Report  link  the  qualitatively  Planning be  units  c l a s s e d as  Planners  the  an  involved  I t may be o f i n t e r e s t t o n o t e t h a t b e t w e e n 1971 and 1973 t h e S o c i a l P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t d r o p p e d "/Community D e v e l o p m e n t " f r o m i t s t i t l e ; r a i s e d two s e n i o r S o c i a l P l a n n e r s t o h e a d up two s e p a r a t e d i v i s i o n s - S o c i a l S e r v i c e P l a n n i n g and S o c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n n i n g ; and e m p l o y e d a man w i t h a b a c k g r o u n d i n b u s i n e s s and a d v e r t i s i n g t o do p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s work f o r t h e D e p a r t m e n t .  the  P h y s i c a l Planners  i n the  social  112 of a p l a n n i n g  aspects  problem.  appeared  Organizational  links  t o be  with  minimal,  tion  arid i n t e r - a c t i o n .  1971  were e s s e n t i a l l y  ally,  with  little  The of  Planners  with  each o t h e r .  Social  Planners  interviews believed good  provide  the  agree the  social  a n a l y z i n g what  have s t a t e d i n The  Social  D e p a r t m e n t was  the  Planners  not doing  Hall  to  respond  of  the  physical  view t h a t the  SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t  handicapped  between the upon  they  be  t o be  i n the  P l a n n i n g g r o u p s and  looked  aspects  at s o c i a l  Planners  community  C o u n c i l s and process  they  major r e - z o n i n g s  activity  social  were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r . be  a resolution  reviewed  by  the  entitled  the  time  to  t o two "prior  Key  Planners,  information."  sequence i s such  t h a t the  of  As  with  September,  requiring  that a l l  Planners,  SP/CD  input after  Social  not  the  I t should  the  social  Resources  After  Social  completed.  to  apparently d i d  aspects  was  planning  connected  the Neighbourhood  f o r the  been e s s e n t i a l l y  not  of  differed  i n the  given planning reports for i t s "social" according  in  be  o f t e n were i n t r o d u c e d  through  when C o u n c i l a d o p t e d  r e p o r t had  area  will  conceptions  whereas the P h y s i c a l P l a n n e r s  developments  an  a r e a where t h e i r  Social  have a r e v i e w  be o r i e n t e d  involved essentially  T h i s appears  two  should  appeared  later.  both  The  and  a  e s t a b l i s h e d to  w i t h "Wheeler's p e r c e p t i o n s  Councils,  that  i f juxtaposed  with  someone a t C i t y  The  groups  o t h e r hand  the L o c a l A r e a  was  two  the  process.  1970,  with  welfare planning.  problems  the  P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t was  t o them.  Another how  groups i n  on  elaborated  in  concerned  planning.  therefore their  socially  conflict  of  more c l e a r l y  P h y s i c a l Planners  citizens  two  co-opera-  Planners  planners' to  and  little  ideas.  conceptions  are here  t h a t the C i t y  meaningfully to  and  understood We  of  of each other o r g a n i z a t i o n -  to exchange  regarding social  j o b and  indications  independent  ground  be  interrelationships  I t seems t h a t t h e  attitudes may  and  be  recalled  Planners  previously  r e p o r t must be  the were  suggested  delayed  113 and  this  than  created  the  delay  planning joint the  bad  however,  process  effort  best  the  can  of  for of  the the  of  the  Social as  values,  while  and  the  upon which  of  be  the  cease  of  similar  functional  and  i n this  resulting  conflict  are  recognizable  and  the  activities  s t a t e m e n t however, of assumptions  are  express  purpose  the  legitimize  the  any  three Key  years  Social needs,  and  and  theoretical  as  a  device conceptions  the  basic  have basic  system the  planning  system  The  expressed were n o t  would  agreed The  Planners most  Planners' tasks  where  rests.  t h a t where  Social  been  assumptions  dysfunctional.  f u n c t i o n s or  be upon,  values  assume  explicit  underlying of  D e p a r t m e n t Terms o f  perceived as  in contrast  i t gave  The  the  the  which  agency,  the  defined  Social  guide  to  Reference social  Planning  action.  t o o much a u t h o r i t y Hall  on  the  Planning  as  Director  to  the  social  more r e s p o n s i v e citizen  planning  Meanwhile,  SP/CD e x p r e s s e d  p u b l i c i n i t s r i g h t s of  were b a s e d to  the  D i r e c t o r of  as m a k i n g C i t y  assisting and  by  a general  believed  goals  information was  was  Planners.  planning  critical  D e p a r t m e n t ' s Terms o f R e f e r e n c e  Planning  later  Planners  team;"  as d y s f u n c t i o n a l  assumptions  Social  a  i t s authority.  Social  Vancouver,  be  Conflicts  conflict  T h i s d o c u m e n t w h i c h i n 1968 in  paper  the  c a r r y out.  the  the  that p a r t i c u l a r  r o l e s the  they  not  i s a g r e e m e n t on  to share  w o u l d be  i n the  can  the  a t t i t u d e s and  groups w i t h i n  values,  in  report.  therefore,  where b a s i c  the  a  Planners.  of  critical  s e q u e n c e w o u l d be  differing  assumed  two  recognized  1.  used  legitimacy  may  input  have been d e f i n e d  groups  stage  indicated that  non-Social  they  the  It  and  that  aspects  are  this  More  "inter-disciplinary  f u n c t i o n a l where t h e r e  contending  personnel  an  from  i t was  a n a l y s i s of  at  planning  by  social  conflict  defined the  social  expect  Previously concepts  i s that  at planning  one  evaluation  interrelationships.  to  citizen  access  client.  Department's views  of  to  This  114 planning saw  f o r the p u b l i c  t h e C o u n c i l as It  belief  through  civic  development  which  client.  i s interesting  that social  to r e c a l l  the  Key  planning i s essentially  Planner's  social  welfare 5  planning. and  T h i s was  expressed  d i s c u s s i o n s with  greater report  Planners  significance recommended  (the  Joint  that  the d e c i s i o n  may  the of  and  conscious  a c t , and  of  Social  not  basic will the  this  to the  establishment  a full  of  i n 1971. fact  P r e v i o u s l y i t was  t h e Key  have been  Planners  the P l a n n i n g Department i n d i c a t e Planners  Planners  assumption recall  Social  of  as  social  their  and  which  disagreement. they  was  not  the  of  accept. the  one  of  Planners  do  therefore  not  and  other  with  areas  three  perceive Social  tasks which  are  Planners  Planning  of s o c i a l  was  a  reader for  "founding  additional Reference,  instances  given  These  and  Social  similarly  (1965).  the  and  SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t  aid i n defining The  and  priorities  discussion in  of c o n f l i c t i n g  planning  Vancouver,B.C.,City Side  an  of  f o r the Department.  IV r e v e a l e d a number  the p r a c t i c e  East  were  SP/CD.  t h a t i n the  where t h e  accepted  tasks proposed  b a s i c assumptions.  Terms o f R e f e r e n c e  directions  Chapter  to note  was.  reveal dysfunctional conflict. The  state  the D i r e c t o r o f  concerned  the  The  prepared  i s important  and  i n a l l the p r e c e d i n g  T h i s was  by  a  stressed that this  one  a  Planners  w h i c h was  examples i l l u s t r a t e  stated  p l a n n i n g was  i n c l u d e d i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t ' s Terms o f  are  body  that i t  functions  a b o v e , we  this  I t i s noteworthy  could not  P l a n n i n g Department  documents" reviewed.  city  t a s k whereas  in particular,  that this  It  Even  that  a technical  d e p a r t m e n t may  remarks of  most o u t s p o k e n i n t h e i r t h a t Key  attached  r e p o r t examined  the P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r to propose  Integration by  be  first  confirmed  T e c h n i c a l Committee).  committee actions  i n the  these  views r e g a r d i n g  will  be  analysed  at  P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , Downtown -  this  time  t o determine  functional  conflict The  whether o r not these  between t h e g r o u p s  Social  Planners  Planners,  who l o o k e d  i n t h e system.  had n o t d e t e r m i n e d  t h e i r g o a l s s h o u l d be r e g a r d i n g s o c i a l They were p r o b l e m - o r i e n t e d  service  as f i g h t i n g  g o a l s had n o t b e e n c l a r i f i e d  theoreticians  would be f u n c t i o n a l . of f u n c t i o n a l  by t h e S o c i a l  nor S o c i a l  resolved the  Planners  agreed,  and a g a i n sphere  (Social  Planner's)  role i n  An e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s was t h e agreement  i n urban renewal.  Planners  were  One may assume t h a t some o f  which t h e Planners  were h a v i n g  were  f o l l o w i n g t h e e n t r y o f t h e SP/CD Department  field.  social  p l a n n i n g t a s k s with which the Planners  included the analysis  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s o c i a l of s o c i a l  into  6  Other agreed,  Planners.  i n t h e system t h a t t h e S o c i a l  the d i f f i c u l t i e s  i n a s m u c h as t h e  s i n c e most P l a n n e r s were unaware o f 1  effective  This  L o c a l a r e a p l a n n i n g t o o , was a  the L o c a l Area C o - o r d i n a t o r s amongst t h o s e  fires.  o f s e r v i c e s was an i s s u e on w h i c h  conflict,  the communities.  delivery.  brush  by d e f i n i t i o n must b e c o n s i d e r e d f u n c t i o n a l  neither  by 1971 what  and t h i s was d i s c o n c e r t i n g t o t h e  on t h i s  Unification  constitute  o f s o c i a l p r o b l e m s and t h e  service delivery.  p r o b l e m s was a n o t h e r  The p r e v e n t i o n  responsibility  Social  Plan-  n e r s had, however, t h e y d i d n o t c o n s i d e r t h i s f e a s i b l e a t the of  local this  level.  task,  Planners d i d not i n d i c a t e  and t h u s  any c o n f l i c t  their  awareness  would have b e e n  function-  al. Encouragement o f c i t i z e n time  the reported i n t e r v i e w s occured,  of c o n f l i c t  was a m a j o r  at the source  s i n c e i t was a t t h e r o o t o f t h e S o c i a l  Department's o b j e c t i v e s . pared  participation,  While  non-Key P l a n n e r s were  t o a c c e p t some p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n ,  with the idea of encouraging  Planning  citizen  o n l y one  pre-  agreed  groups t o speak o u t .  Mrs. D a r l e n e M a r z a r i ( e l e c t e d A l d e r m a n f o r 1973-74) was t h e C o - o r d i n a t o r i n t h e S t r a t h c o n a - W o o d l a n d a r e a who worked w i t h t h e S t r a t h c o n a P r o p e r t y Owners and T e n a n t s A s s o c i a t i o n (SPOTA) during this period.  116 T h r e e Key P l a n n e r s stated its  discussed  that the p u b l i c  value  should  i n planning.  dysfunctional  A t t h a t time  o n l y one  be i n v o l v e d , b u t he  T h i s may be c l a s s i f i e d  questioned  as  conflict.  There appeared nitions  this.  t o be some d i s c r e p a n c y  of master s o c i a l  i n the d e f i -  d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s , when t h e two 7  groups d i s c u s s e d t h i s 2.  of  priorities  a reflection concern  suggest  Planners  and R e l a t i o n s h i p s  set for their  of the v a l u e s they h o l d .  expressed  by t h e S o c i a l  i t s main d u t y ,  search f o r goals,  Where t h e S o c i a l of s o c i a l was  Social  would be f u n c t i o n a l .  leaving  t o those  Planners  areas  Planning D i r e c t o r  societal  service  planning  i n the p o l i t i c a l  i n v o l v e d themselves  service delivery,  tasks  The two  t h a t h i s Department c o n s i d e r e d s o c i a l  planning its  The e f f e c t  S o c i a l P l a n n e r s ' Role, A c t i v i t i e s w i t h t h e C i t y P l a n n i n g Department The  are  factor.  conflict  with  arena.  i n aspects  with the Planners  minimal. As  agents  appeared  f o r change,  t o represent opposing  with the Planners example o f t h i s  with completing  Connector  r e p o r t where t h e S o c i a l of r e l o c a t i n g  w i t h t h e P l a n n e r s who were the project.  the delay r e s u l t i n g  from  The P l a n n e r s  people concerned  objected to  the s o c i a l planning  Comment was p r e v i o u s l y made r e l a t i v e Planners' b e l i e f  An  occurred with regard to the  w o r k i n g on t h e p r o b l e m  came i n c o n f l i c t  Planners  i n t e r e s t s when compared  on c e r t a i n p l a n n i n g i s s u e s .  situation  Melville-Dunsmuir Planner  the values of S o c i a l  input.  to the Social  t h a t p l a n n i n g was t o o i m p o r t a n t t o  leave t o the Planners while  the Planners  considered the  Social  i n the f i e l d  than  Planners  less  expert  themselves  The a u t h o r was i n f o r m e d b y a c o n s u l t a n t t o t h e SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t t h a t G e r a l d S u t t o n Brown, f o r m e r S e n i o r C o m m i s s i o n e r on t h e B o a r d o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n e x p r e s s e d h i s d i s a p p o i n t m e n t t o a c l a s s o f P l a n n i n g s t u d e n t s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, S p r i n g , 1972, t h a t t h e S o c i a l P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r d i d n o t p r o d u c e a s o c i a l development p l a n f o r the C i t y . F a l u d i might suggest t h a t t h i s harks back t o " b l u e p r i n t p l a n n i n g " w i t h i t s e n g i n e e r i n g beginnings.  117 and  o b j e c t e d to the  ponsibility The  Social  P l a n n i n g Department's r e s -  for synthesizing planning  m a j o r i t y of P l a n n e r s  implied  that both  in City  i n Vancouver. Hall  Departments have the  working f o r the people  of Vancouver.  same g o a l s — Social  nevertheless,  d i d not  appear t o t h i n k of  broad  Rather,  they  terms.  c o m p o s i t e of c o m m u n i t i e s . that  Planners  screening not  express  their  o n l y was  the people It this and  i t was  of the  can  be  Social  Social roles  Planners, The Planning  differ  roles  and  'the e s t a b l i s h m e n t ' so  b u t more  and  that  important  " i n the minds of  the  a n a l y s i s of the d a t a  radically  of the  of the  the d i s c o r d they  in  Planners  with regard  m i r r o r the v a l u e s  to  the  these Social  engender i s a r e f l e c t i o n  of  conflict.  writer earlier  noted  D e p a r t m e n t showed  ing  system of p l a n n i n g  role  the C i t y  of t h e i r Planners  t h a t members o f t h e  r e s u l t must be v i e w e d  Social  an homogeneous v i e w o f group.  the  However, when c o n s i d e r -  i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r i n Vanand  the  Social  not d i s p l a y the homogeneity of o u t l o o k The  a  a means o f  Since  and  couver,  these  suggested  activities.  meaning the  Co-ordinator  t h a t the p e r c e p t i o n s  activities  dysfunctional  in  City."  Planners  Planners' and  One  considered g  assumed f r o m  sub-section,  a goal  t h i s g e n e r a l g o a l as  links with  Planners,  seemed t o see V a n c o u v e r as  t h i s h i s understanding  in his opinion,  s t a t e d or  Planners  Selzwick  as d y s f u n c t i o n a l .  did  describes. '  S i n c e t h i s s t a t e m e n t was made i n 1971, t h e r e have b e e n e x t e n s i v e c h a n g e s n o t o n l y on C o u n c i l , b u t a l s o i n t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n at C i t y H a l l , i n c l u d i n g the v o l u n t a r y r e l o c a t i o n of the S o c i a l P l a n n e r who made t h e comment.  118 Conclusions The reveals public  data  gathered  that c o n f l i c t planning  categorized  during  exists  interests could  This c o n f l i c t  functional  A number o f i n t e r n a l  conflicts  concerned  goals or and  these  functional.  of the S o c i a l  Planners,  may be  the b a s i c values  I n some i n s t a n c e s , t h e g o a l s system  study,  and d y s f u n c t i o n a l .  which d i d n o t negate  be c o n s i d e r e d  of this  i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l system of  i n Vancouver.  as b o t h  the course  Planners  i n which case  reflected  the value  who were i n c o n f l i c t  the c o n f l i c t  brought  with the  about,  must be  considered dysfunctional. The  SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t ' s  of Reference, where  a basic value,  s t a t e d p u r p o s e i n i t s Terms  was one o f a number of•. a r e a s  t h e r e was no a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n S o c i a l  Planners.  Thus,  a study  of the d a t a  P l a n n e r s and  r e v e a l s both  types of  conflict. By conflict for  definition,  exists,  appraisal given. stated an  i tw i l l  the system.  advisability  However,  This  of course,  social the  conflict  m i g h t be  i s n o t r e q u i r e d , s i n c e the author theory  was e m p l o y e d  p o i n t s of view o f the P l a n n e r s  b u t one c a n p o s t u l a t e t h a t t h i s  a secondary  role  historical  realistic  state conclusively that c o n f l i c t  of the d i f f e r i n g  evolving  o f making a  o n l y as  tool.  the d i f f e r e n t  As  functional  t h e w r i t e r would q u e s t i o n t h e  previously that c o n f l i c t  Planners  functional  t o be p o s i t i v e l y  and t h e p o s s i b i l i t y  One c a n n o t  result  tend  t o which  of the v a r y i n g weights each  analytic  from  the extent  a t t i t u d e s and  antecedents.  planning  1968 " i d e a l "  and S o c i a l was t h e  conceptions.  objective, this  o f t h e SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t  conflict  resulted  thesis  examined t h e  i n the l i g h t  of i t s  I n a d d i t i o n , t h e 1971 p r a c t i c e o f  i n V a n c o u v e r was r e v i e w e d or theory  of s o c i a l  and c o m p a r e d  planning.  with  119 It  can  Reference" tions  of  and  modified  and  Lappin's Planning  the  social  1968  of  Hill  "Terms  the  statement regarding  into social  D e p a r t m e n t was  service planning  This  a measure of emphasis  social  apparently  then  the  concep-  social  was  Social Planning.  Director's  mid-1960  l a r g e l y with  views of  of  regarding  same " i d e a l "  the  worker w r e s t i n g  expansion  that  the  incorporate  Director  community  the  Ernest  i n a sense d e a l t However,  to  appointed  that  r e f l e c t e d i n l a r g e measure the  pathologies.  Social  concluded  R o l a n d W a r r e n and  planning,  confirm  be  newly appears  necessity  for  a  r o l e autonomy.  on  The  problem-orientation  p r o g r a m m i n g were f u r t h e r  moving  away f r o m  and  to broader  on  to  social  evidence  welfare  social  to  aspects  of  planning. M e a n w h i l e , Key the  SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t  City  P l a n n e r s may  potential  the  which even  Key  group c o n f l i c t  that  Planners  on  an  stated,  of  this  way  the  question  should  timing  was  that be  i t has  and  the  i s moved  dysfunctional  role in  to  conflict  considerable.  One  regarded  about  this on  conflict  the  Physical  demonstrated. o f ;a  earlier,  deduce  that  Planners'  social  i t is  i n undesirable  may  was  impression  requirement stated  social  and  the  opinions  the this  matter of  1971. that  the  conflict  conclude  that  that  data  revealing  c a n n o t be the  apparent w i t h i n  I t appears  Dubin  bringing  impact  1970  the  changes  S o c i a l Planners'  As  been s t a t e d  dysfunctional  R.  system,  a r a m i f i c a t i o n o f Key  functional writer  of  sequence  reviewed.  S o c i a l Planners While  time  view of  the  desirable.  t o have been  i s Council's the  as  believed  group f o r  their  that  increasing  a l l major r e z o n i n g s . view  was  an  and  they  f o r encouraging  indicated  important  that  a resource  Vancouver p l a n n i n g  and  writer's  the  as  regarded  at C i t y H a l l appears  example  report  of  i t was  t h e y were h a v i n g  Planners An  as  the  both v i s i b l e  act  S o c i a l P l a n n e r s had  the  In  should  stated  have been r e s t r i c t i n g  Previously change.  P l a n n e r s who  the  amount  the  weighted, of  planning  s y s t e m may  system  not  be  120 organized  i n a manner w h i c h g e n e r a t e s  desirable  conflict.  re-organizing increase the  the  social  I t may  the p u b l i c  functional  t h e r e f o r e be  useful  planning process  or to  consider  i n Vancouver  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of p l a n n i n g w h i l e a s s u r i n g  aspects  energetically  o f p l a n n i n g may  than  they  be  were a t t h e  pursued  time  to that  more .  the d a t a  was  gathered. The that is  social  history and  t h e modern p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s  would  be  community p l a n n i n g h a v e common r o o t s .  given  and  so  social  forth,  assistants will  to i n s t i t u t i n g  encompass a number o f  including  be  skilled  the  about  a goodly  i n 1952  Development Department which w i l l interest  Discussion, In personal  be  by  this  the  It  i n 1968 able  section and  bounds o f  author  related  the  related  to the  s u b j e c t matter  It  been  planners  community p l a n n e r s concerned  the  are  who  a r e most i n t e r e s t e d  Vancouver  Planning  with  social  according  Department;  culminate t o an  i n a planning  ever-wider  a force for social  Related  would  like  of  this  not  t o d i s c u s s some while  nonetheless  thesis.  very  of  f a r apart;  the p h y s i c a l  values,  change.  Observations  s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s are  really  the p h y s i c a l  t h a t many p h y s i c a l  the  o b s e r v a t i o n s which,  want t o i m p r o v e  are  t o be,  worthwhile  s t a t e d t h a t the v i e w p o i n t s  but  to improve  would  to respond  the  that planning  Planning/Community  R e f l e c t i o n s and  reflections  social  the C i t y  economists  planning so  replacing  which  skills  Thus the  Social  outside  appears  number o f  becoming i t s e l f  Personal  has  by  Commission w i t h of  unit,  urbanists,  i n working with people,  establishment  process  civic  inter-disciplinary  v i e w e d more c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y .  Town P l a n n i n g  public  a single  analysts, ecologists,  along with  changes brought  and  indicates  the w r i t e r ' s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t i n Vancouver, c o n s i d e r a t i o n  should  and  of  and  the  physical that  environment  social  planners  in social  considerations s t i l l  facilites  available.  t o a number o f  planners  are  social  environmental  the  The  want  rub  scientists, determinists  121 who  b e l i e v e that with  facilities,  society  delinquency  and  be,  on  the  will  other  be  c o u n s e l l i n g and  other  social  problems w i l l  viewed  more c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y .  involvement  of  ton Report  clearly  officer's Trist's  job.  calls  Social in  and  "field  City  to assure  be  of  one  that  i n one  a planning Eric  Social  from  local  t h a t i n 1973  area  the  together  of F a l s e Creek,  in  of p l a n n i n g  t h a t the  the  which  The  interview, that i f a l l skills One  no  need  Council elected service  prove  i n what d i r e c t i o n  Social  Planning  might  experience,  i s changed  as  presume to  the  Social  f o r 1973-74  i n August,  be  discontinuance  f o r the  have c o n s i d e r a b l e s o c i a l t o see  t h e r e would  to encourage  Government e l e c t e d  interesting  Social  were more r e s p o n s i v e  t h e r e w o u l d be  P l a n n i n g Department.  of  an  are working  of o t h e r s .  i f the d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s  Director  active  Skeffing-  as  The  withdrawing  b e t t e r managerial  programme i n f a v o u r  the P r o v i n c i a l  was  the  not  feedback.  SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t  needs of p e o p l e ,  that  continuous c o n s u l t a t i o n .  had  f o r the  his  for.  along with  i n a process  P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r commented need  considered  d i s c u s s i o n mentioned  agencies  own  w r i t e r on  r a t h e r as p a r t o f  i n t h e West End  appears  Earlier  may  been  r e q u i r e the  i t s used  P l a n n i n g Departments  offices"  It  ultimate solution;  however i t i s n o t e w o r t h y  to i n v o l v e people  no  The  participation,  f o r continuous  attempt  social  the  f o r the  P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t i n 1971 co-ordination,  wither.  services in their  being planned  but  T h i s can  proposal  juvenile  p l a n n e r s have  This w i l l  to c i t i z e n  "unwelcome a c c r e t i o n , "  physical  r e s o l v e d when u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t i s  the p e o p l e  With regard  that  determinism.  part postulates that neitherhave be  adequate  problems w i l l  that social  of environmental  of  assured  social  o t h e r hand,  prescribing version  the p r o v i s i o n  1972, and  the  and  both  i t might  role  a result  of of  the this  factor. i  The literature  data presented on p l a n n i n g .  i n Chapter  Likewise  the  II i s a v a i l a b l e files  of  various  in  the  122 public  and  available gathered any or  to  A person's perception  question  particularly  with  organization  so,  had  will  be  of  time,  an  material  an  i f the  some v a l u e  to  and  available  interviewer  i n 1973  will  discussing not  get  i n 1971.  This  respondent's p o s i t i o n i n  in  the  not  a particular attitude  would have r e c e i v e d  that  compare s o c i a l  and  of  informant  changed  a u t h o r hopes  The  IV h o w e v e r i s i n a s e n s e ,  same r e s p o n s e he  the  i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d be  interested researcher.  concept changes over  the  to  an  agencies w i l l  f o r Chapter  longer.  a given be  private  the  raw  interim.  For  data presented  a future  planners'  the  would  the reason,  i n Chapter  researcher  non-social  this  would  who  may  IV  wish  v i e w s on  certain  questions. In the in  conclusion  proposal  to r e - i n t e g r a t e  Vancouver.  Discussions  Planners d i d the  two  not  r i g h t or  system not  writer  not  reveal  Departments. and  that  planning  Rehabilitation planning  be  suggest  become t h e  with  Planners  f o r an  that  while  the  and  Social of were  planning  re-integration the  social  social  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of  planning  times  i n the  a revised  the  on  amalgamation  that  that  r e - a l l o c a t e d to  Department,  expand  physical  involved  were s u c h  to  and  have been  personnel  might  function  desire  I t may  the  One  i n 1971  any  City Council  feasible.  social  like  was  service  Welfare  aspects  a broadened  and  of  Planning  Department. If  i t i s found  consideration as  that  m i g h t be  f o r example  r e - i n t e g r a t i o n i s not  given  a Department  to of  a separate the  e i t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e a g e n c y w o u l d be  and  they would  of the  be  responsible  factors including constraints These  of  and see  any  to  that  planning  process"  for considering  and  environmental  organizational  the  "totality  i s employed  of  to b r i n g  Personnel  inter-disciplinary,  individual project  other  studied,  urban change.  social  "super-agency"  Environment.  for  feasible,  a wide  range  costs,  within  undertaken.  proposals the  should  whole of.ithe  about  desirable -  be  BIBLIOGRAPHY ARTICLES: Aleshire,  Alonso,  R.  A.  William  " P l a n n i n g and C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n — C o s t s , B e n e f i t s and A p p r o a c h e s . " Urban A f f a i r s Q u a r t e r l y . J u n e , 19 70. " C i t y and C i t y P l a n n e r s " i n T a m i n g Megalopolis. 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Mayhew, B. W.  L o c a l Areas i n Vancouver. Vancouver, B.C. U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s o f t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r A r e a . 196 7.  Hill,  Recommendations Re t h e E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a Department o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and D e v e l o p m e n t . V a n c o u v e r . U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s . 1966.  E . D.  Pascal,  A. H.  A Framework f o r P l a n n i n g S o c i a l S e r v i c e s . S a n t a M o n i c a , C a l i f . The RAND C o r p o r a t i o n . 1968.  DOCUMENTS AND  REPORTS:  Spence-Sales, H a r o l d and B l a n d , John U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s of the Greater Vancouver Area. VANCOUVER,  B.C.  131  (continued)  " E s t a b l i s h m e n t of a P l a n n i n g Department i n the C i t y of Vancouver," c i t e d i n S a r a h E . Holm, C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g D e p t . V a n c o u v e r , B.C. U n p u b l i s h e d p a p e r . X e r o x . December, 1969. I n t e r i m R e p o r t o f an Ad Hoc C o m m i t t e e , L o c a l A r e a s and L o c a l A r e a C o u n c i l s . V a n c o u v e r , B.C. U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s . 1970.  i  Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Department of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Community D e v e l o p m e n t , Terms o f R e f e r e n c e , 1968. P r o g r a m and B u d g e t . 1968. B o a r d o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Memorandum, ( t o C i t y P l a n n i n g Department) #4181. J u n e 26, 1969. B o a r d o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Memorandum i n Support of the Concept of a S o c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t B o a r d and a D e p a r t m e n t o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and D e v e l o p m e n t . 1965. Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Neighbourhood Centre: Thunderbird Elementary School. ( R e p o r t t o C o u n c i l ) . M a r c h 18, 1971. Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Proposed Branch L i b r a r y - F r a s e r v i e w . September 4, 1969. B o a r d o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . R e p o r t on a Proposed Department of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and D e v e l o p m e n t : To t h e C o u n c i l o f t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r . 1966. City East  P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . Downtown S i d e . J u n e , 1965.  S o c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t C o m m i t t e e l Community S e r v i c e C e n t r e ( B r i t a n n i a ) . December, 1968. S o c i a l Planning/Community Development, D e p a r t m e n t o f . I n t e r - o f f i c e Memorandum f r o m M r s . J . Bohanec t o Mr. R. W. W a l k e r , C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . A u g u s t 20, 1969.  c.  DOCUMENTS AND VANCOUVER,  REPORTS:  B.C.  (continued)  132  S o c i a l S e r v i c e D e p a r t m e n t and U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s . An A p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e H o n o u r a b l e D a n i e l R. J . C a m p b e l l , M i n i s t e r o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e , by t h e C i t y o f Vancouver Department o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and D e v e l o p m e n t . F o r C o n s i d e r a t i o n under t h e Canada A s s i s t a n c e P l a n . 1967. Vancouver C i t y  Council,  Minutes.  A u g u s t 10, 1965 J u n e 13, 1968 O c t o b e r 8, 1968 S e p t e m b e r 22, 1970 M a r c h 2, 1971 M a r c h 18, 1971 M a r c h 23, 1971 Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l , Townsite C o m m i t t e e , Improvement o f Downtown E a s t A r e a S o c i e t y , C h i n a t o w n Improvement Group. R e s t o r a t i o n R e p o r t : A Case f o r Renewed L i f e i n t h e O l d C i t y . 1969.  D.  NEWSPAPERS:  133  Adams,  Neale  " 'We Demand a S a y i n Our H o u s i n g ' : Northeast Sector People are F i g h t i n g C i t y H a l l . " T h e V a n c o u v e r Sun. May 13, 1971.  Elsie,  Bud  "Slum Fund a B o n a n z a , C i t y L e a r n s . " The P r o v i n c e . May 28, 1965.  /  " C i t y Moves t o R e l o c a t e Alcoholics: P l a n P r o v i d e s H o s t e l f o r S k i d Road B o o z e r s . " The V a n c o u v e r Sun. May 26, 1965.  134 PERSONAL INTERVIEWS: Mr.  Mrs.  J o n a t h a n B. B a k e r  Joslin  Bohanec  Local SP/CD Cedar Hall,  Area Co-ordinator, (Social Planner), Department, R i l e y Park - K e n s i n g t o n Cottage Area; i n h i s o f f i c e at C i t y F e b r u a r y 9, and M a r c h 5, 1971.  Local Area Co-ordinator, (Social Planner), SP/CD Department, F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y A r e a ; i n h e r o f f i c e J a n u a r y , 1971, and b y t e l e p h o n e September 14, 1973.  Mr.  Robert Burgess  Local Area Co-ordinator, (Social Planner), SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t , K i t s i l a n o - F a i r v i e w A r e a ; i n h i s o f f i c e a t C i t y H a l l , March 9, 1971.  Mr.  L i n c o l n H. Cheng  Senior Planner, i n h i s o f f i c e A p r i l 7, 1971.  at City  Hall,  1  Mr.  J o h n P. C o a t e s  Planner, February  Mr.  M. C. C o l c l e u g h  Social Service Administration^Officer, t e l e p h o n e , A u g u s t 20, 1971.  Mr.  M. Max C r o s s  Former A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g , i n h i s o f f i c e a t C i t y H a l l , September 2, 1970 and A p r i l 2, 1971.  Mr.  M a u r i c e F. Egan  D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l Planning, i n h i s o f f i c e at C i t y H a l l , A u g u s t 5, 1969, A u g u s t 19, 1970, F e b r u a r y 4, and A p r i l 8, 1971; i n S o c i a l Work C l a s s , March 11, 1970.  Mr.  William  Former D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g , i n h i s o f f i c e at C i t y H a l l , September 8, 1970 and M a r c h 19. 1971.  Mr.  Cyril  Mrs.  E. D.  E. Graham  i n h i s o f f i c e at C i t y Hall, 12, and A u g u s t 18, 1971.  A. G r e e n g r a s s S e n i o r P l a n n e r i n h i so f f i c e F e b r u a r y 12, 1971. Hill  Social  at City  Worker, by t e l e p h o n e , A u g u s t  by  Hall, 18, 1972  Mr.  Joseph J . H o r n e l l  Former S e r g e a n t (now I n s p e c t o r ) V a n c o u v e r P o l i c e Department, f o r m e r head o f t h e Y o u t h P r e v e n t i v e Squad ( s i c ) ; i n h i s home, A u g u s t 19, 1970.  Mr.  C. M u r r a y  James  Assistant C i t y Clerk, i n h i s o f f i c e at C i t y H a l l , A u g u s t 21, and September 2, 1970.  Linnell  Alderman, C i t y C o u n c i l ( N o n - P a r t i s a n A s s o c i a t i o n , NPA), i n h e r o f f i c e a t C i t y H a l l , September 8, 1970.  Mrs. M a r i a n n e  135 PERSONAL INTERVIEWS: Mrs.  Joy  Christiane  Mr.  C.  Mr.  G e o r g e M.  Mr.  H a r r y W.  Mr.  Harry  Mrs.  S e c r e t a r y to the i n her o f f i c e at  Little  Dr.  Howard  Lynn  (continued)  McNiven  D i r e c t o r , SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t C i t y H a l l , A u g u s t 18, 1970.  At the time, a D o c t o r a l C a n d i d a t e , A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r , S c h o o l of S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , on Campus, A u g u s t 21, 1970, December 4, 1970, M a r c h 15, A p r i l 5, 1971; i n SP/CD o f f i c e a t C i t y H a l l , J u l y 19, 1971.  Naphtali  E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r , U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s of the G r e a t e r Vancouver Area, i n h i s o f f i c e i n V a n c o u v e r , F e b r u a r y 25, 1972.  Peter  Planner, M a r c h 5.  Pickstone  in his 1971.  former o f f i c e  at  A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g , a t C i t y H a l l , A p r i l 2, 1971.  City  Hall,  in his  office  Rankin  A l d e r m a n , C i t y C o u n c i l (Committee o f P r o g r e s s i v e E l e c t o r s , COPE), i n h i s o f f i c e a t C i t y H a l l , September 8, 1970.  Sigurgeirson  Secretary, K i l l a r n e y - Fraserview C o u n c i l , a t h e r o f f i c e , March 13,  Whitman  Area 1971.  Former L o c a l A r e a C o - o r d i n a t o r , (Social P l a n n e r ) , SP/CD D e p a r t m e n t , S k i d Road A r e a ; i n h i s o f f i c e a t C i t y H a l l , September 8, 1970.  Mr.  G e o r g e A.  Mr.  John  Mr.  Robert  Young  R e s e a r c h C o n s u l t a n t t o t h e Department o f SP/CD, a t C i t y H a l l , M a r c h 4 and 5, 1971.  Mr.  Ron  Youngberg  Senior Planner, i n his o f f i c e A u g u s t 27, December 28, 1970, March 5, and A p r i l 2, 1971.  Winsor  S.  Planner, i n h i s o f f i c e at C i t y December 29, 1970 and M a r c h 5,  Hall, 1971  at C i t y H a l l , F e b r u a r y 12,  OTHER SOURCES: Benjamin, Caiton.  Cameron, Duncan.  Kenneth  Kenneth  136 An A s p e c t o f t h e S o c i a l I m p l i c a t i o n s of R e s i d e n t i a l Area Planning: A Technique to A s s e s s the I d e a l Role o f N e i g h b o u r V a n c o u v e r , B.C. M.A. t h e s i s , S c h o o l o f Community and Regional Planning. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . J a n u a r y 1970. N a t i o n a l U r b a n Growth S t r a t e g y . V a n c o u v e r , B.C. M.A. t h e s i s , S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. April 1970.  Hood, Thomas  "Song o f t h e S h i r t , " ( 1 8 4 3 ) . S t e v e n s o n , B. E . (ed.) Home Book o f V e r s e . A m e r i c a n and E n g l i s h . 8 t h e d . New Y o r k . H o l t . 1949. 2.v.  L a i , Hermia Kwok-yee.  I n t e g r a t i o n o f P h y s i c a l and S o c i a l P l a n n i n g : A C a s e S t u d y o f The S t r a t h c o n a Urban Renewal A r e a . Vancouver, V a n c o u v e r , B.C. M.A. t h e s i s . School of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia.  Morris,  "The Day i s C o m i n g . " ( 1 8 9 1 ) . Page, C. H. B r i t i s h P o e t s o f t h e N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y . Rev. e d . New Y o r k . B. H. S a n b o r n . 1914.  William  Shelley, Percy .Bysshe.  " E n g l a n d i n 1819." ( 1 8 1 9 ) . The C o l l e g e S u r v e y o f E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e . Rev. s h o r t e r e d i t i o n . A. M. W i t h e r s p o o n (Gen. ed.) New Y o r k . H a r c o u r t , B r a c e and W o r l d , I n c . 1951.  Wharf,  S t r a t e g i e s of Planning: C o - o r d i n a t i o n o f Community S e r v i c e s . V a n c o u v e r , B.C. U n p u b l i s h e d l e c t u r e , mimeographed. 1971.  Brian  DOWNTOWN  -  EAST  SIDE  City of V a n c o u v e r Planning W. E . Graham, Director.  June,  1965  A  preliminary  Department  study  T h e i r combined pilot p r o c e s s . SUMMARY  AND  effort  of  s o c i a l planning  c o u l d be  considered  a  RECOMMENDATIONS  T h e Downtown-East Side Report e x a m i n e s the p h e n o m e n o n we often r e f e r to a s S k i d R o a d , w h i c h o v e r l a p s the E a s t E n d of D o w n t o w n a n d the i n n e r p a r t of the e a s t e r n r e s i d e n t i a l a n d indus trial redevelopment a r e a s . T h e study r e c o g n i z e s that p l a n n i n g f o r the a r e a must b e c o n s i d e r e d f i r s t l y i n h u m a n t e r m s a n d s e c o n d ly in p h y s i c a l t e r m s . F a c t s a n d f i g u r e s to justify this a r e p r e sented. It a l s o attempts to d i s p e l s o m e m i s c o n c e p t i o n s about local-habits and inhabitants. W h i l e t h e r e p o r t o f f e r s no i m m e d i a t e solution either to the h u m a n o r p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n , it e x p l a i n s that both public a n d p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s a r e d o i n g m u c h to alleviate the d a y - t o - d a y h u m a n p r o b lems. It a l s o s u g g e s t s that this p a r t of the C i t y i s r u n d o w n physically. B e c a u s e of the u n d e r l y i n g h u m a n f a c t o r , h o w e v e r , it i s i m p o s s i b l e to r e c o m m e n d p h y s i c a l c h a n g e s without a g r e a t e r a n d m o r e important, c o n c e r t e d effort to t a c k l e the fundamental social weaknesses. A s i n g l e m e a s u r e w h i c h c a n do m u c h to c h a n g e p r e s e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s i s to b r i n g together a l l a g e n c i e s a c t i v e i n the a r e a to c o m b i n e t h e i r efforts to i m p r o v e o r c o n t r o l the s o c i a l ills that p e r m e a t e this p a r t of V a n c o u v e r .  E v i d e n c e that a joint p r o g r a m m e c a n b e s u c c e s s f u l i s p r o d u c e d e v e n by the p r e s e n t e a r l y s t a g e of the a r e a d e v e l o p m e n t programme sponsored by the C o m m u n i t y C h e s t in the s o u t h e a s t q u a d r a n t of the C i t y . A s u c c e s s f u l e x a m p l e of the c o - o r d i n a t i o n of a p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m m e ' c a n be found in the T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d . It i s s u g g e s t e d that m o r e effective m e a s u r e s f o r p l a n n i n g f o r s o c i a l n e e d s a n d e x p e n d i t u r e s of public funds c o u l d be i n t r o d u c e d by a S o c i a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d of officials s i m i l a r to the T e c h n i c a l P l a n a i n g Board. A n u m b e r of meetings h a v e b e e n held with r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of d e p a r t m e n t s a n d b o a r d s f r o m w h i c h it is c l e a r that t h e r e is m u c h s u p p o r t f o r this c o n c e p t of a S o c i a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d . It i s clear, h o w e v e r , that if any m e a s u r e s a r e to be effective a l o n g t h e s e lines, staff will b e n e c e s s a r y . F o r e x a m p l e , the C i t y h a s a n effective o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r p h y s i c a l planning but not for' s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . Furt h e r m o r e , the C o m m u n i t y C h e s t h a v e both S o c i a l P l a n n i n g a n d R e s e a r c h D i v i s i o n s to w h i c h the C i t y c o n t r i b u t e s *$25 ,000 towards a total budget of $134,947. T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p of this activity to a n y thing w h i c h the C i t y might do n e e d s w o r k i n g out.  * A g r a n t of $25,000 f o r this and in addition, f o r 1965, a s p e c i a l e x t r a g r a n t of $10,000 f o r the p u r p o s e of l o c a l a r e a s t u d i e s .  8  9  It Is t h e r e f o r e R E C O M M E N D E D  that:  1.  C i t y C o u n c i l r e c e i v e the D o w n t o w n - E a s t S i d e p r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t a n d m a k e It a v a i l a b l e to I n t e r e s t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d Individuals.  2.  T h e B o a r d of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n b e i n s t r u c t e d to r e p o r t o n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e details n e c e s s a r y to e s t a b l i s h a n e w B o a r d of city officials a n d o t h e r s to b e k n o w n a s the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d . T h i s r e p o r t w o u l d Include s p e c i f i c p r o p o s a l s a s to staff, o t h e r e x p e n d i t u r e s w h i c h m a y b e i n v o l v e d , a n d t e r m s of r e f e r e n c e .  3.  T h e D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g b e i n s t r u c t e d to c a r r y out f u r t h e r s t u d i e s a i m e d t o w a r d the p r e p a r a t i o n of c o - o r d i n a t e d plans f o r the p h y s i c a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o r r e n e w a l of the D o w n t o w n E a s t S i d e a r e a a s p a r t of U r b a n R e n e w a l S c h e m e N o . h o r 5.  10  APPENDIX B CITT OP VANCOUVER Juno 28, 1965 MEMORANDUM B Y TK.J BOARD OF ADMINISTRATION IN SUPPORT OP THE CONCEPT OF A SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT BOARD and a DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL PLANNING and DEVELOPMENT During consideration of the Skid Road report and the recommendations t h e r e i n thoro woro many questions ao t o the possible functions of tho S o c i a l Development .Committee and the D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l Planning- and Development < This, memorandum seeks to answer these questions. It has been of i n t e r e s t to f i n d a s i m i l a r idea proposed for the City of Providence, Rhod© Island, e x c e p t t h a t i n t h i s case the S o c i a l Planning function i s proposed only i n r e l a t i o n to Urban Renewal projects.. A copy o f t h i s report i s a v a i l a b l e i n the Board o f Administration O f f i c e . ;'••'/• C l e a r l y , the organisation of t h i s operation would need to await the appointment of the D i r e c t o r of .Social Planning and Develop ment, who w i l l have h i s own ideas on the matter. However, the operation might be considered along the following l i n e s : (a)  The C i t y would bo divided i n t o community Grandviewi K i t s i l a n o , FraE-erview, e t c . ;  (b)  In each o f those areas there would be organised Community Committees since i t 'is believed that l o c a l community e f f o r t i s necessary f o r s u c c e s s f u l s o c i a l programs;  (o)  Studies would be made p r o g r e s s i v e l y of these neighbourhood n r o a a to i d o n t i f y s o c i a l problems i n th© aroa and outl'ino proposals to deal with'tho so probloma. Moro importantly, tho studios would propose a pro'gram of s o o l a l development 5 tho philosophy being the development of the s o c i a l f a b r i c of the community as a prevention t o - s o c i a l i l l s rather than t h e i r cure.  (d)  The studies would also determineJ (i)  areas, e.g.  the lack of p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , e.g. parks, r o c r o a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , community h a l l s , churches, schools, community centres, o t c . The p r o v i s i o n of those f a c i l i t i e s on a city-wldo basis would be e s t a b l i s h e d i n order of p r i o r i t y by Council as part of t h e i r C a p i t a l Works program.  B Page 2,  (d)  (e)  cont'd.  /.'./•  (i±)  S i m i l a r l y , t h e r e w o u l d be i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f f a m i l l e e and p e r s o n s r e q u i r i n g a s s i s t a n c e , and i t w o u l d be t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e c i v i c S o c i a l Development Department t o o b t a i n a c o o r d i n a t i o n of e f f o r t b y the agencies a v a i l a b l e to deal with the p r o b l e m . F o r example, t h e r e have been a r e a s o f t h e c i t y where t h e J u v e n i l e d e l i n q u i n c y p r o b l e m h a s b e e n met t o some d e g r e e b y t h e o r g a n i s a t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n to enable the Juveniles involved t o have a n o u t l e t f o r t h e i r e n e r g i e s t h r o u g h i n t e r e s t s o r g a n i s e d b y t h e community.  (iii)  S i m i l a r l y , i f there i s a need f o r s p e c i a l o l i n i c s , e . g . V e i l Baby C l i n i c s , t h i s p r o b l e m c o u l d be e x a m i n e d i n o r d e r t h a t t h e n e e d c a n be met.  e v e n t u a l l y t h e r e w o u l d be a p r o g r a m o r g a n i s e d a t t h e community l e v e l f o r education, r e c r e a t i o n , etc., t o f a c i l i t a t e the development o f i n d i v i d u a l s t h r o u g h group a c t i v i t i e s , e t p .  I t i s c l e a r from t h e v e r y b r i e f a n a l y s i s g i v e n above t h a t t h e C i t y a l r e a d y p r o v i d e s many o f t h e s e s e r v i c e s i n w h o l e o r i n part throught (1)  The S c h o o l B o a r d arrangments,  including their  PTA  (2)  The Park Board a n d t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n a l activities,  (3)  The S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department i n r e l a t i o n to problem f a m i l i e s ,  (4)  The H e a l t h  (5)  T h e D i r e o t o r o f P l a n n i n g who h a s a m a j o r o o n o e m i n r e l a t i o n t o urban r e n e w a l and p u b l i o housing.  '..  Department,  I n a d d i t i o n , t h e P o l i c e Commission and the Family and C h i l d r e n ' s C o u r t s h a v e a maj o r i n t e r e s t s i n c e t h e y a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e "end p r o d u c t " o f s o c i a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n a n d w o u l d welcome, some f o r m d f p r e v e n t i o n i n t h e same way t h a t we h a v e p u b l i o h e a l t h a s a p r e vent!tive service.  Pago 3, A l l of the foregoing Departments and Boards should be represented on the S o c i a l Development Board, similar to the Technical Planning Board, so that surveys and reports can be examined by them f o r recommendation to Council. The S o c i a l Development Board d i f f e r s from the Technical Planning Board i n that there are a large number of p r i v a t e agencies dealing with many types o f s o c i a l problems. It i s thought that, generally speaking, t h e i r work i n the t o t a l scheme i n a neighbourhood ahoidd be organised through the Community Chest and Councils with i t s own S o c i a l Planning and Research b i v i s i o n . Initially, at any rate, the research and survey work i n a neighbourhood might be conducted by the Community Cheat s t a f f so as to avoid d u p l i cation; and the Community Chest should be represented on the Social Development Board. It i s v i s u a l i z e d that the function of the S o c i a l Development Department within the framework of the Social Development Board Would be the coordination of e f f o r t and s t a f f provided by c i v i c and i n d i v i d u a l agencies to achieve concerted a p p l i c a t i o n of health, education, welfare, r e c r e a t i o n , and employment services combined with p u b l i c works o f a l l d e s c r i p t i o n s including p u b l i c housing and urban renewal. I t would be a matter f o r determination whether i t i s desirabl to have a p a r a l l e l Board or Committee at the policy-making l e v e l s .  RECOMMENDATIONS RE THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT  E.D. HILL  (Revised September 1966)  c  OBJECTIVES OF SOCIAL PLANNING AND SOME COMMENTS ON THEIR ACHIEVEMENT IN THE CITY OF VANCOUVER  In view of the possible new developments i n s o c i a l planning i n the C i t y of Vancouver, i t i s timely to state the objectives of s o c i a l planning, consider some implications of these objectives and suggest ways, of achieving them i n t h i s C i t y . THE OBJECTIVES OF SOCIAL PLANNING A.  To define s o c i a l problems and opportunities f o r s o c i a l development.  B.  To a s s i s t the s o c i a l systems of the community to develop aggregate goals and concerted plans i n respeot to these problems and opportunities.  C.  To f a c i l i t a t e the implementation  D.  To evaluate the impaot of r e s u l t i n g programs on s o o i a l problems or s o o i a l development opportunities.  of these plans.  SOME IMPLICATIONS OF THESE OBJECTIVES Re #A - Defining S o c i a l Problems and S o c i a l Development Opportunities (a) I t i s important that s o c i a l planning move beyond the study and a l l e v i a t i o n of e x i s t i n g s o c i a l pathology. Planning must concern i t s e l f with the strengths as well as the weaknesses of the community and i t s sub-areas, and be active i n s o c i a l development as well as s o c i a l rehabi l i t a t i o n . S o c i a l research must, therefore, be d i r e c t e d toward i d e n t i f y i n g s o c i a l development opportunities as well as s o c i a l problems. (b) I t i s essential that s o c i a l problems and s o c i a l development opportunities be i d e n t i f i e d and described accurately on a comprehensive, non-fragmented b a s i s . Good s o c i a l research resouroes are therefore a f i r s t requirement f o r concerted planning. (c) S o c i a l research and s o c i a l planning must place t h e i r f i r s t emphasis on the problems of people l i v i n g i n the community. Muoh s o c i a l planning has f a i l e d to date because of i t s preoccupation with i n s t i t u t i o n a l and inter-agency problems. These cannot be ignored since to a great extent s o c i a l planning i s implemented through the i n s t i t u t i o n s and agencies of the community. Nevertheless, the agency network i s a means toward the r e a l i z a t i o n of s o c i a l planning and i s not a primary focus.  c  - 2 -  Re #B - Assisting the S o c i a l Systems of the Community Develop Aggregate Goals and Concerted Elans i n Respect to these Problems and Opportunities S o c i a l planning and s o c i a l development depend for r e a l i z a t i o n on the acceptance of aggregate goals and concerted plans by the major s o c i a l systems of the community. These systems carry out the p r i n c i p a l funotions of s o c i e t y , v i z . , production, d i s t r i b u t i o n and consumption, s o c i a l i z a t i o n , mutual support, s o c i a l c o n t r o l and s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . These systems include i n s t i t u t i o n s and agencies i n the f i e l d s of health, welfare, education, r e l i g i o n , r e c r e a t i o n , employment, housing, urban planning and development. To date the i n s t i t u t i o n a l means for bringing together these systems for the purposes of planning are not f u l l y developed. New organizational structures for bringing together s o c i a l systems f o r j o i n t planning and oonoerted action are e s s e n t i a l . The following need to be considered: C i t i z e n Organization - Implementation of s o c i a l planning and s o o i a l development depends to a s u b s t a n t i a l degree on the extent to which the residents of the community and i t s sub-areas i d e n t i f y with aggregate goals. C i t i z e n s o c i a l . systems have, been l a r g e l y ignored i n the formulation of aggregate s o c i a l goals to date. Structures which w i l l permit the involvement of "grass roots" c i t i z e n s i n the formulation of plans (such as neighbourhood or community associations) are an e s s e n t i a l requirement f o r s o c i a l planning and s o c i a l development. I n s t i t u t i o n a l Organization - New structures to concert i n s t i t u t i o n a l s o c i a l systems are required. I t i s evident that such a variety of agencies exist i n the urban community under various l e v e l s of government auspices and voluntary sponsorship, that no "super" system has s u f f i c i e n t influence or mandate to concert a l l others. I t seems necessary therefore to e s t a b l i s h a "consortium" which could eventually include three or four p r i n c i p a l or c e n t r a l i z i n g systems, each of which exercises considerable influence over numbers of other systems. A beginning s o c i a l planning consortium could include the C i t y of Vancouver and the United Community Services. United Community Services would bring to such a consortium i t s influence v/ith the voluntary systems i n the community (including l o c a l area c i t i z e n s ' a s s o c i a t i o n s ) . In turn, the C i t y would concert o f f i o i a l agencies and departments. Together, the consortium could develop aggregate goals and concerted planning and a c t i o n programs which would unite the community systems and stand a good chance of implementation. I t i s important for the successful operation of the consortium that -joint working structures be established between the members at two l e v e l s : (i)  At p o l i c y formulating l e v e l s , i . e . , between members of the Board of the United Community Services and members of C i t y Council a s s i s t e d by representatives of the School Board and Parks Board.  (ii)  At technical planning l e v e l s , i . e . , between the United Community Services and appropriate C i v i c departments, , including Education, Parks, Police and Planning.  These " j o i n t working structures" at policy and technical l e v e l s should be just that - working groups which together would develop concerted planning and development goals, objectives and programs for the C i t y of Vancouver and recommend these to t h e i r respective governing bodies ( i . e . , C i t y Council School and Parks Boards and the Board of Directors of the United Community Services) f o r approval. I f approved, the members of the consortium would be responsible i n t h e i r respective spheres of achieving implementation and these j o i n t working groups would have the task of ensuring coordination. Other members might be added to the consortium as indicated. However, p o t e n t i a l members of the planning and action consortium should possess d e f i n i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s oft (i)  Exercising a concerting influence on other systems and sub-systems i n t h e i r o r b i t . ,  (il)  Carrying out a granting or a l l o c a t i o n r o l e f o r the systems r e l a t e d to them.  Re HQ - F a c i l i t a t i n g the Implementation of Concerted Planning and Action Programs Implementation i s f a c i l i t a t e d i n these ways: 1.  The use of s o c i a l research for the accurate i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and description of s o c i a l problems and s o c i a l development opportunities on a comprehensive b a s i s .  2.  The a l l i a n c e of c e n t r a l i z i n g systems which Can involve and influence other systems and sub-systems ( i n t h e i r respective spheres).  3.  The development of aggregate goals and concerted planning based on comprehensive research.  k.  The a l l o c a t i o n of funds on the basis of conoerted plans*  5.  The evaluation of the s o c i a l impact or effeot of the services provided by the systems and sub-systems and the development of units of service costing methods.  Re $D - Evaluating the Impact of Resulting Programs May be undertaken through: 1.  Use of s o c i a l research to measure the impaot of programs on designated s o c i a l problems or s o c i a l development opportunities,  2.  The establishment of standardized s t a t i s t i c a l procedures through out the service systems p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n concerted planning and programming.  c  - k RECOMMENDATIONS RE THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A C3TY OF VANCOUVER DEPARTMENT OFSOCIAL PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT  A.  Department of S o c i a l Planning and Development 1.  2.  B.  That a Department of S o c i a l Planning and Development be established under the Board of Administration with the following objectives: a)  To define s o c i a l problems and opportunities f o r s o c i a l development i n the C i t y of Vancouver.  b)  To a s s i s t the s o c i a l systems of the community to develop aggregate goals and concerted plans i n respect to these problems and opportunities,  c)  To f a c i l i t a t e the implementation of these plans.  d)  To evaluate the impact of r e s u l t i n g programs on s o c i a l problems and s o c i a l development opportunities.  e)  To concert the a c t i v i t i e s of the C i t y and the a c t i v i t i e s of other s o c i a l planning and action organizations i n the City.  That the Department have an i n i t i a l s t a f f of a Director of S o c i a l Planning and Development, an Assistant Director, and a ClerkStenographer.  J o i n t Technical Committee on S o c i a l Development That an Interdepartmental Committee be established consisting of the two Commissioners, the Director of S o c i a l Planning and Development and the heads of the Departments of Planning, S o c i a l Service, Health, Family Court, Police and senior s t a f f representatives from the Board of School Trustees, the Board of Parks and Public Recreation, Police and the Director of Planning, United Community Services. The duties of the Committee would be to act as a coordinating body and to consider and report upon technical or administrative matters bearing on the s o c i a l planning and development of the C i t y of Vancouver and, without r e s t r i c t i n g the q u a l i t y of the foregoing, to carry out any of the following functions: a)  Compile data and carry out surveys and i n v e s t i g a t i o n s .  b)  Prepare for submission to C i t y Council and other p o l i c y making bodies, proposals for s o c i a l planning and development for the whole or any part of the C i t y .  c)  Act as an advisory committee to Council and other p o l i c y making bodies i n matters r e l a t e d to s o c i a l planning, development and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  Generally speaking, i t would be anticipated that reports are presented to the J o i n t P o l i c y Committee.' on S o c i a l Development to enable that Committee to consider the reports and advise thereon. J o i n t P o l i c y Committee on S o c i a l Development That a J o i n t Committee on S o c i a l Development be established consisting of representatives from the Board of Directors of the United Community Services ami Council members, C i t y of Vancouver with elected representatives of the School and Parks Boards. The purpose of the committee would be to concert the s o c i a l development and planning p o l i c i e s of the two organizations and to form a s o c i a l development and planning cnsortium for the community. Recommendations for action would be made to the respective governing bodies*  c  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Dyson, William A: ORGANIZATION OF COMMUNITY RESOURCES AND AGENCIES, American Public Welfare Association, West Coast Regional Conference, V i c t o r i a , B.C., September 1965 H i l l , E.D.: SOCIAL PLANNING COUNCILS AND THE POVERTY PROGRAM: Presentation to Mr. Tom Kent, S p e c i a l Planning S e c r e t a r i a t , Privy Council, Ottawa, June 1965 McCrae, Robert H: OVERALL COMMUNITY PLANNING: Service Review, Chicago, September 1965  HOW AND BY WHOM?:  Sooial  O f f i c e of Economic Opportunity: PRIORITIES AND STRATEGIES FOR COMMUNITY ACTION PROGRAMS: Washington, D.C. 1964 Rhode Island Council of Community Services, Inc.: A SOCIAL PLAN FOR COMMUNITY RENEWAL OF THE CITY OF PROVIDENCE, R.I., 1964 v  United Community Funds and Councils of America: MINNEAPOLIS ANTI-POVERTY ORGANIZATION: MILWAUKEE ANTI-POVERTY ORGANIZATION, 3^5 East 46 Street*, New York, 1965 Warren, Roland: THE COMMUNITY IN AMERICA,. Rand McNally and Co., Chicago, 1963 Warren, Roland: CONCERTED DECISION-MAKING IN THE COMMUNITY: SOME THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS: Lindeman Lecture, National Conference on S o c i a l Welfare, 1965  APPENDIX D  R E P O R T ON  A  PROPOSED DEPARTMENT OP SOCIAL PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT  TO  THE OP  CITY  COUNCIL  THE  OF  VANCOUVER  Prepared By The BOARD  O c t o b e r 19» 1966  OF  ADMINISTRATION  3 PROPOSED DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL PLANNING and DEVELOPMENT On August 1 0 T H ,  1 9 6 5 , Council passed the following resolutions  "RESOLVED THAT the report and memorandum be received and that the Board of Administration prepare an outline f o r t h i s Committee of the costs of s e t t i n g up the proposed Department of S o c i a l Planning and Development with reference to the personnel who would be required to set up the functions of the Department." This r e s o l u t i o n followed a report by the D i r e c t o r of Planning e n t i t l e d "Downtown-East Side" i n which the following statement was made: "A successful example of the co-ordination of a physical planning programme can be found i n the Technical Planning Board. I t i s suggested that more e f f e c t i v e measures for planning for s o c i a l needs and expenditures of p u b l i c funds could be introduced by a S o c i a l Planning Board of o f f i c i a l s s i m i l a r to the Technical Planning Board. A number of meetings have been held with representatives of the departments and boards from which i t i s c l e a r that there i s much support f o r t h i s concept of a S o c i a l Planning Board. It i s clear, however, that i f any measures are to be e f f e c t i v e along these l i n e s , s t a f f w i l l be necessary. For example, the . City has an e f f e c t i v e organization f o r physical planning but not for s o c i a l planning. Furthermore, the Community Chest have both S o c i a l Planning and Research D i v i s i o n s to which the City contributed $ 2 5 , 0 0 0 towards a t o t a l budget of $ 1 3 4 , 9 4 ? in  1965."  The Council r e s o l u t i o n a l s o followed a memorandum from the Board of Administration, headed "Memorandum by the Board of Admini s t r a t i o n i n Support of the Concept of a S o c i a l Development Board and a Department of Social Planning and Development." A copy of t h i s memorandum Is attached as APPENDIX A. While the Board of Administration regrets the time elapsed before submitting their report, the delay has allowed a maturing of ideas and may not have been wasted. Since the Council r e s o l u t i o n there has been a number of events which appear to strengthen the case f o r the same p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n and co-ordination i n s o c i a l planning and development as the City i s achieving with physical planning and development. Some of these are:  rage and  (1)  2.  Development  A p r o p o s e d r e - o r g a n i s a t i o n o f t h e Community C h e s t and C o u n c i l s ( U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s ) w i t h p a r t i c u l a r reference to t h e i r S o c i a l Planning Section. In t h e i r r e ; - o r g a n i s a t i o n r e p o r t t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t i s madei "The p r o p o s e d c h a n g e s i n C h e s t s t r u c t u r e a r e n o t s w e e p i n g , b u t an i m p o r t a n t new p r i n c i p l e a p p e a r s . T h i s c o n s i s t s of d e v e l o p i n g L o c a l Area C o u n c i l s as a b a s i c p a r t o f t h e p l a n n i n g programme. These C o u n c i l s w i l l d e v e l o p p l a n n i n g f o r l o c a l a r e a purp o s e s a n d t h r o u g h them r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g o f a c e n t r a l p l a n n i n g c o m m i t t e e o f t h e B o a r d w i l l be g i v e n l o c a l a p p l i c a t i o n . T h e y w o u l d become f o c a l p o i n t s f o r t h e h e a l t h , w e l f a r e , and r e c r e a t i o n a l work o f many o f t h e A g e n c i e s . " The c o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e s e L o c a l A r e a C o u n c i l s i s g i v e n i n APPENDIX B, a n d i s i n l i n e w i t h t h e c o n c e p t a d v a n c e d i n t h e B o a r d o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Memorandum o f J u n e 1965• The s u g g e s t i o n i s a l s o made i n t h i s r e - o r g a n i s a t i o n r e p o r t t h a t a t the e a r l i e s t p o s s i b l e time a s m a l l committee of o f f i c e r s o f the Chest s h o u l d s t a r t e x p l o r a t o r y t a l k s with e l e c t e d members o f V a n c o u v e r C i t y P a r k s B o a r d a n d School B o a r d , and w i t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y C o u n c i l t o f u r t h e r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a j o i n t c o m m i t t e e , w h i c h m i g h t be o f v e r y g r e a t . p o t e n t i a l v a l u e i n f o r m u l a t i n g and i m p l e m e n t i n g Board p o l i c i e s and i n d e v e l o p i n g c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f p u b l i o a n d p r i v a t e p o l i c i e s i n h e a l t h , w e l f a r e , and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s ,  (2)  A summary p r o g r e s s r e p o r t (1965) f o r t h e A r e a D e v e l o p m e n t P r o j e c t - a n e x p e r i m e n t w i t h ways o f i n t e g r a t i n g and coo r d i n a t i n g h e a l t h , w e l f a r e , and r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s to p r o b l e m f a m i l i e s . The p h i l o s o p h y w h i c h f o r m s t h e b a s i s o f t h i s p r o j e c t i s g i v e n i n APPENDIX C a s t a k e n f r o m t h e summary p r o g r e s s r e p o r t . I t i s n o t i c e a b l e t h a t t h i s experiment i n c l u d e s an approach w h e r e b y t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d i s t h e f o c u s o f s e r v i c e . An A r e a R e s o u r c e s C o u n c i l has been f o r m e d s i m i l a r i n p a t t e r n t o the Chest's proposed Local Area C o u n c i l . The o v e r a l l a i m i s d e s c r i b e d "to a i d i n the s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f a n e i g h b o u r h o o d t h a t c o n t a i n s many l o w i n c o m e f a m i l i e s , many f a m i l i e s w i t h s o c i a l p r o b l e m s , a n d e x p e c t e d d e p r i v a t i o n s i n many c h i l d r e n . S p e c i f i c a i m s i n t h e R i l e y P a r k a r e a were f o r m u l a t e d a f t e r the i n i t i a l p e r i o d o f s t u d y and e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . T h e s e were t o i n i t i a t e a d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f community d e v e l o p m e n t m e t h o d s ;  Proposed Department of Social and Development  Planning  Page 3/  ( 2 ) Continued to help the tenant sub-community (of a Public Housing Project) to work toward improved neighbourhood r e l a t i o n s ; to a s s i s t i n the development of co-operatively planned community action programmes; to help meet some of the s o c i a l problems of the area, and to provide l i m i t e d neighbourhood family services. (3) The p u b l i c a t i o n of the f i n a l report of the Special Committee of the Senate on Aging. This very comprehensive report has been r e f e r r e d to the Health and Welfare Committee of Council. Among i t s many recommendations the following i s perhaps appropriate: "That i n a l l M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , and/or appropriate l o c a l regions, on the i n i t i a t i v e of the public authority where necessary, an o f f i c i a l l y recognized body be established to plan and co-ordinate programs, f a c i l i t i e s and services f o r older people, and that the concern of such bodies embrace not only the areas of health and welfare but also l i v i n g arrangements, employment, education and l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s . " (k) A report prepared by the Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area on "Juvenile Delinquency Prevention, City of Vancouver." This report contains many recommendations i n d e t a i l , but the following general recommendations are appropriate to t h i s reportt "That the Welfare and Recreation Council proceed to a s s i s t with the establishment of a Youth Service Commission, such a Commission to be responsible to the municipal government, and that t h i s report be implemented by t h i s Commission. That a p o s i t i o n of Municipal Coordinator of. Youth 1 Services i n Vancouver be established with the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to include p r o v i s i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l services to the Commission."  Proposed Department of Social Planning and Development . , (5)  Page 4.  The production of a report f o r the City's Health and Welfare Committee by a Sub-Committee of the Special J o i n t Committee on Skid Road Problems. This report, "Skid Road: A Plan f o r A c t i o n " , contained the following broad recommendations 1 (a)  The creation of a short-stay, hostel-reoeption centre;  (b)  The creation of a long-stay hostel f o r domioiliary care;  (c)  The creation of a s p e c i a l unit f o r the City Social Service Department f o r Skid Road problems;  (d)  The appointment of a permanent Mayor's Committee on Skid Road problems.  Although the Skid Road problem might be regarded as a special case, i t i s noted that a Mayor's Committee i s proposed to expedite and co-ordinate a c t i o n on t h i s report. It i s perhaps too early to seek to derive conclusions from • the f i v e events described. I t i s evident, however, that there i s increasing concern as to not only the e f f e c t but a l s o the causes of s o c i a l maladjustments. I f we begin to a n t i c i p a t e measures under the Canada Assistance Plan along the l i n e s of the United States A n t i - Poverty programmes, we s h a l l be facing s t i l l greater executive problems. I t i s reasonable perhaps to recognize two trends: (a)  The r e c o g n i t i o n that we must develop s o c i a l strengths and enter the f i e l d of prevention of s o c i a l i l l s rather than deal only with the end products of sooial f a i l u r e through health, welfare, and law enforcement programmes;  (b)  We cannot and should not depend only on i n s t i t u t i o n a l means, but must harness the resources of the Community i f we are to be e f f e c t i v e .  The recommendations of the Board of Administration are based on these two p r i n c i p l e s .  Proposed Department of S o c i a l Planning and Development  Page 5.  LEGISLATIVE and POLICY-MAKING ORGANISATION The f i r s t stage should be to establish a J o i n t Committee of elected representatives of Council and the Boards who each have a r e l a t e d function to perform. This Is stressed by a l l recommendations to deal with c i v i c problems. C e r t a i n l y , i t would seem: preferable to have one J o i n t Committee rather than a series of separate Committees dealing with s p e c i f i c matters. FIGURE 1 . i l l u s t r a t e s the l e g i s l a t i v e and policy-making organisation which i s recommended. The Vancouver Joint S o c i a l Development Committee would compris elected representatives of City Council, the Board of School Trustee and the Board of Parks and Public Reoreation. The suggestion i s that t h i s Committee would be under the chairmanship of the Mayor who would a l s o represent the P o l i c e Commission. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , the Chairman of the City's Health and Welfare Committee might act i n that capacity. This Committee would make i t s recommendations as to action and expenditure of funds to the three elected bodies whom they would represent. These recommendations would include 1 (a)  the sharing of e x i s t i n g physical f a c i l i t i e s ? ,  (b)  c a p i t a l works to make good d e f i c i e n c i e s i n the f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e i n the several parts of the City 5  (c)  the co-ordinating of e x i s t i n g programmes, i . e . s o c i a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l and educational;  (d)  a c t i o n which would i n i t i a t e new programmes and involve a d d i t i o n a l revenue expenditures.  It might be noted i n the report by Mr. E. D. H i l l , Director of Planning, United Community Services, attached as APPENDIX D, the suggestion i s made that the J o i n t Soeial Development Committee should have representation from the Board of the United Community Services. This proposal has advantages and disadvantages and should be determined by Council.  Proposed Department of Sooial Planning and Development ,  Page 6 .  Joint Technical Committee on S o c i a l Development The J o i n t Social Development Committee oould I n i t i a t e action, or act on the basis of recommendations from the Board of Directors of the United Community Services, or as i n i t i a t e d by reports from a Joint Technical Committee on Social Development. The J o i n t Technical Committee on Social Development would be a Committee of O f f i c i a l s a c t i n g under the same type of authority and generally i n the same manner as the Technical Planning Board. I t would receive recommendations f o r t h e i r consideration from the Conference of Local Area Councils and the Regional Planning Committee A l t e r n a t i v e l y , matters could be introduced by i t s constituent members Generally speaking, however, i t would be expected that the c h i e f i n i t i a t i v e would come from the Department of Sooial Planning and Development. Local Area Councils I t might be worthwhile at t h i s stage to explain the functions of the Local Area Councils. They are i n many respects the key to the whole concept. I t i s v i s u a l i s e d that the C i t y of Vancouver would be d i v i d e d into Neighbourhood Areas of about 3 0 , 0 0 0 population. Accordingly, there would be a p o t e n t i a l of about 13 such Neighbourhoods. I t i s hoped that they would approximate i n t h e i r boundaries to the present recognized areas of the c i t y and beaxvtheir well known community names, such as K i t s i l a n o , Mount Pleasant, Fraserview, Riley Park, etc. I t i s also considered that they would,basically operate from the Community Centres. \ \ Each neighbourhood would have a Local Area Council made up of Community Leaders. Through sub-committees and voluntary workers the Local Area. Councils would i n i t i a t e and organise programmes designed to meet the r e c r e a t i o n a l , educational, and s o c i a l needs of the neighbourhood. They would also a s s i s t f a m i l i e s i n the community who are i n d i f f i c u l t i e s and are being a s s i s t e d by i n s t i tutional and voluntary welfare agencies. A prime function would be to integrate these problem f a m i l i e s into the neighbourhood. Miss Audrey Selander, P r o j e c t Director, Area Development Project, has provided a d e t a i l e d report as to how these Local Area Councils might operate based on her p r a c t i c a l experience i n the southeast area of the c i t y . This report i s given as a reference i n APPENDIX E.  Proposed Department of Sooial Planning and Development .  Page 7.  . Local Area Councils - cont•d. These Local Area Councils would oo-ordinate t h e i r programmes on a city-wide basis through a conference of Local Area Councils who could report to the J o i n t Committee on S o c i a l Development or d i r e c t to the Board of Directors of the United Community Servloes under whose general J u r i s d i c t i o n they would operate. I t w i l l be noted that t h i s l e g i s l a t i v e and policy-making organisation adheres c l o s e l y to the concept put forward by the United Community Services i n t h e i r re-organlsatlon report. ORGANISATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL PLANNING AND  DEVELOPMENT  The Board of Administration have bad the assistance of Mr. E. D. H i l l , Director of Planning, United Community Services, i n t h e i r consideration of the organisation of the Department of S o c i a l Planning and Development, Mr. H i l l ' s q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and experience make him eminently q u a l i f i e d to advise on t h i s problem. Mr. H i l l ' 8 complete report of the functions and organisation of the Department of S o c i a l Planning and Development i s given i n APPENDIX D. The recommended i n i t i a l organisation of the Department of Social Planning and Development i s shown i n FIGURE 2, I t should be noted that the planning and research f o r t h i s Department w i l l continue to be c a r r i e d but by the s t a f f of the United Community Services f o r which the City has been g i v i n g an annual grant of $35,000. I f Local Area Councils are to operate with maximum e f f e c t i v e ness, i t i s e s s e n t i a l that they be a s s i s t e d by a small s t a f f . I t i s proposed that t h i s be provided by the Social Planning and Development Department under a D i r e c t o r of Neighbourhood Services. There would a l s o be a Neighbourhood Resources Committee operating under the chairmanship of the D i r e c t o r of Neighbourhood Services. This Neighbourhood Resources Committee would comprise a l l the' prof e s s i o n a l s t a f f s operating i n the neighbourhood on behalf of Government and voluntary agencies. Accordingly, the Resources Committee would be instrumental not only l n co-ordinating a l l aspects of welfare programmes f o r f a m i l i e s but would a l s o be i n the best p o s i t i o n to a s s i s t the L o c a l Area Councils. For example, i t i s v i s u a l i s e d that the Local Area Councils would have recreat i o n a l and educational programmes whloh would be a s s i s t e d d i r e c t l y by the School Board and Parks Board*  Proposed Department of Social Planning and Development  Page 8.  Local Areft .Councils - cont'd. The present Area Development Project, working under the d i r e c t i o n of t h e i r Project Manager, Miss Audrey Selander, has had such an organisation operating Very successfully but over a comp a r a t i v e l y l i m i t e d area of about 10,000 people. Her d e t a i l e d account i n APPENDIX E of the operation of Local Area Councils and Neighbourhood Resources Committees i s , therefore, based on her p r a c t i c a l experience of t h i s matter. Miss Selander recommends that the United Community Services, rather than the Neighbourhood Services Unit of a Municipal Social Planning and Development Department, would be the appropriate body to s t a f f the Local Area Councils and bring the i n t e r e s t s of each area i n t o the research, planning, and evaluation a t a communitywide l e v e l . Presumably, the C i t y would have to buy t h i s service and the cost i s not l i k e l y to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t whichever method i s used. There are perhaps two major advantages to Miss proposal:  Selander's  (a)  The Community might more r e a d i l y accept the United Community Services' s t a f f than Municipal s t a f f . However, there i s no suggestion of t h i s problem i n Community Centre a c t i v i t i e s .  (b)  Municipal s t a f f s could get involved i n p o l i t i c a l controversy i n connection with programmes and services requested by Local Area Councils.  However, the following considerations have lead the Board of Administration to recommend that these neighbourhood s t a f f s form part of the Department of S o c i a l Planning and Development! (a)  There i s more and more pressure to involve the City i n these types of s o c i a l developments since the Council i s i n the best p o s i t i o n to exercise leadership where several agencies are involved.  (b)  The Council and the School Board, p a r t i c u l a r l y the former, w i l l be the main source of funds. Ther# Wduld be more opportunity to apply f o r P r o v i n c i a l grants on the basis of a preventive s o c i a l welfare programme s i m i l a r to that i n i t i a t e d i n Alberta t h i s year.  3>  Proposed Department of Sooial Planning and Development , ,  Page 9.  Local Area Councils - cont'd. (d)  I f anti-poverty programmes are i n i t i a t e d , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s l i k e l y to be required.  municipal  However, your Board take the view that i n a d d i t i o n to survey work, duties involving the formation of Local Area Councils could best be vested i n the United Community Services. These would include Item 2 tand Item 3(b) i n the procedure outlined by Miss Selander on Page 3 of her report. Council may wish to give consideration to these a l t e r natives. It i s v i s u a l i s e d that i n the i n i t i a l stages, allowance should be made f o r the formation o f f i v e Area Councils. These could be added to from time t o time as f i n a n c i a l resources made i t possible. In a d d i t i o n to the D i r e c t o r of Social Planning and Development, there would be a small Headquarters s t a f f , which i t i s expected would have to be expanded as the work of the Department develops. The job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r the Direotor of S o c i a l Planning and Development has been requested by Council. Other c l a s s i f i cations w i l l be reported to Council as the p o s i t i o n s are approved.  Proposed Department and Development  Page 10.  of S o c i a l Planning . , ...  COSTS I t i s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t each Neighbourhood O f f i c e would be l o c a t e d c e n t r a l l y i n a shopping a r e a , or other s u i t a b l e l o c a t i o n , where i t would be e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e to the p u b l i c . The e s t i m a t e d c o s t o f o p e r a t i n g e a c h Neighbourhood O f f i c e on the b a s i s o f the present R i l e y Park Neighbourhood S e r v i c e s o p e r a t i o n o f the Area Development P r o j e c t would be:  Neighbourhood  Office  Personnel Including Fringe Benefits  $19,000  O p e r a t i n g Expenses  3,175  >  y  $ 22,175  Total E s t i m a t e d Budget o f Department o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Development $27,300  Personnel Director of Social Planning and Development Clerk-StenographBr  1,700  O p e r a t i n g Expenses  $ 29,000  Total Cost o f O p e r a t i n g F i v e Neighbourhood F i v e times $22,175  *  Offices  $110,875 GRAND TOTAL  $111,000 $i4o,ooo  Added t o t h i s f i g u r e would be f u r n i s h i n g s e s t i m a t e d a t $8,700, and any a l t e r a t i o n s to o f f i c e s . I f the programme d e v e l o p s s u c c e s s f u l l y , i t i s obvious t h a t further increases i n cost w i l l r e s u l t .  Proposed Department of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Development . . ...  Page  11.  RECOMMENDATIONS At the time o f p r e p a r i n g t h i s r e p o r t , your Board was not aware o f any s i m i l a r o r g a n i s a t i o n f o r S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Development i n e x i s t e n c e i n North America, o r f o r t h a t matter, i n the world. To a ( g r e a t degree they have been dependent on the a d v i c e o f persons w e l l q u a l i f i e d i n the f i e l d s o f s o c i a l w e l f a r e whose h e l p they have acknowledged. Your Board b e l i e v e t h a t t h e i r p r o p o s a l , i f a c c e p t e d by C o u n c i l , w i l l be w e l l worthwhile and c o s t s w i l l be s m a l l i n r e l a t i o n to the v e r y l a r g e sums p a i d out by ffcjyernment f o r w e l f a r e purposes. I f the p o s i t i v e programmes o f s o c i a l development now proposed prevent even a s m a l l p o r t i o n of the human wastage i n our modern s o c i e t y , the c o s t w i l l be p a i d back many times over. However, these p r o p o s a l s can only be r e g a r d e d as e x p e r i m e n t a l a t t h i s stage. I t has r e c e n t l y come to t h e a t t e n t i o n of y o u r Board that the P r o v i n c e o f A l b e r t a has i n i t i a t e d as from J u l y 1, 1966, a " P r e v e n t i v e S e r v i c e . " The P r o v i n c e d e s c r i b e s the programme as follows t "In essence a P r e v e n t i v e S e r v i c e i s one designed to d e v e l o p Community r e s o u r c e s , to s t r e n t h e n and p r e s e r v e human i n i t i a t i v e and t o p r e c l u d e f a m i l y breakdown w i t h subsequent i n t e r v e n t i o n by t h a S t a t e . " The P r o v i n c i a l Government w i l l pay 80 per cent o f any approved P r e v e n t i v e Programme, and a copy o f the a p p r o p r i a t e c i r c u l a r i s a t t a c h e d as APPENDIX F. I t i s w i t h t h i s background i n mind t h a t your Board make the f o l l o w i n g recommendationst (1)  THAT the C i t y C o u n c i l e s t a b l i s h an o r g a n i s a t i o n designed to improve and s t r e n g t h e n the s o c i a l , e d u c a t i o n a l , and r e c r e a t i o n a l programmes and r e s o u r c e s o f i t s c i t i z e n s . A prime o b j e c t i v e would be p r e v e n t i o n as w e l l as the treatment o f the r e s u l t s o f s o c i a l maladjustment.  (2)  THAT f o r t h i s purpose C o u n c i l approve i n p r i n c i p l e proposals described i n t h i s report;  (3)  THAT a Department o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Development established;  the  be  Proposed Department of S o c i a l Planning and Development .  Page 12.  RECOMMENDATIONS - cont'd. (k)  THAT as a f i r s t step a D i r e c t o r of Social Planning and Development be appointed by Council, and the job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n be submitted by the Board o f Administration;  (5)  THAT the Director of S o c i a l Planning and Development be given the opportunity of reviewing the proposed organisation, including h i s proposed budget, and make recommendations thefeon to Council.  However, before Council formally adopt a l l or part of the above-noted recommendations they may wish to consult with the Minister of Sooial Welfare, the Hon. Wesley D. Black, on the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of endorsation of these proposals and f i n a n c i a l assistance.  Board of Administration City of Vancouver October 19, 1966  APPENDIX E  vui-iSi sjpooitil rofcriMccG io public  housi&ng on«i u r b a n renew?) 1  Report number owe /''  ftspcri: of is seminar held 13-14 April 1967 u:rJ©r tJso io; .' i &t>Oi»so?'a't:p o f i::e» Special ProjoiiJ on Lov.f-Snccr.io Housing ami Conumist&t' Funds and C©tt»c i l s Division o? the Canadian I'tfalfero Cous:ciS 63 I'crlsdata, C-itavvs, C&»cda r  u  r  \  NOTES ON A DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT FOR THE CITY OF VANCOUVER, prepared by E. D. H i l l , Director of Planning, United Community Services, Vancouver, B.C. - A p r i l 27, 1967  1  The purpose i s to emphasize the idea of s o c i a l development i n the C i t y ; that i s , an active encouragement of the s o c i a l strengths of the people i n the various sectors of the c i t y as opposed to a primary emphasis on s o c i a l pathology and s o c i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  2  Vancouver J o i n t S o c i a l Development Committee would bring  together  the elected p o l i c y d e c i s i o n makers f o r the c i t y departments and boards; e.g. aldermen and board members of parks, school, p o l i c e commission, f o r the purposes of j o i n t planning and s e t t i n g of aggregate goals.  The American practice of a broad advisory committee  made up of many public and voluntary representatives was not favoured. The design c a l l s f o r a committee composed e x c l u s i v e l y of elected • policy-makers who could come to j o i n t p o s i t i o n s and go to c i t y c o u n c i l with combined recommendations o f f i c i a l l y committing a l l boards and departments concerned. 3  J o i n t Technical Committee on S o c i a l Development would bring  together  the administrative heads of the various c i t y departments concerned with s o c i a l planning and development as well as the c i t y commissioners ( c i t y commissioners are two i n number and carry out the functions of,' a c i t y manager).  The purpose of the committee would be to prepare  planning and development proposals f o r consideration by the Vancouver' J o i n t S o c i a l Development Committee. to coordinate  The. committee would also serve  the programs of the c i t y departments and enable them to  set up combined operational o b j e c t i v e s . k  A Department of S o c i a l Planning and Development would carry the main r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r studies of community s o c i a l conditions and the preparation of s p e c i f i c proposals f o r consideration by the J o i n t Technical Committee on S o c i a l Development.  The d i r e c t o r would be  responsible for s o c i a l planning and development i n i t i a t i v e s  within' the c i t y departmental s t r u c t u r e . The department would not hold a senior istatus  in r e l a t i o n to other dity departments but the d i r e c t o r would  chair the J o i n t Technical Committee and would have the o f f i c i a l function of coordinating the programs of other departments f o r s o c i a l development purposes. Relationship of United Community Services and the voluntary sector of the new department (as indicated on the accompanying c h a r t ) . United Community Services would be represented on the J o i n t Technical. Committee and would p a r t i c i p a t e i n the development of p r o j e c t s by that committee.  No o f f i c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p has been sought between  the Board of United Community Services and the Vancouver J o i n t P o l i c y Committee on S o c i a l Development f o r the reasons of preserving the autonomy of United Community Services and i t s a b i l i t y to be c r i t i c a l of o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n s taken by the c i t y committee.  At the  same time i t i s v i s u a l i z e d that United Community Services would i n many instances be supportive of p o l i c i e s and p r o j e c t s developed by the Vancouver J o i n t P o l i c y Committee. A second important feature would be the continued function of United Community Services i n developing and maintaining l o c a l area councils within p r i o r i t y d i s t r i c t s of the City, of Vancouver.  Standard  d i s t r i c t i n g f o r the c i t y has been e s t a b l i s h e d . Further d e t a i l s w i l l be a v a i l a b l e s h o r t l y i n a formal proposal which i s now being developed for financing by P r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s under the Canada Assistance Plan.  The Department of S o c i a l Planning and Development has been  approved i n p r i n c i p l e by c i t y c o u n c i l and by the M i n i s t e r of Welfare for the Province.  CITY OF VANCOUVER ORGANIZATIONAL CHART OF PROPOSED DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT  UNITED COMMUNITY SERVICES  VANCOUVER JOINT SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE ( 1 )  CITY COUNCIL  Board of Administration  Other C i t y Depts  'lanning Committee  Conference of Local Area Councils  Local Area Council  J o i n t Technical (2) Committee on S o c i a l Development  (1)  Composed o f :  3 Representatives from each o f the f o l l o w i n g under chairmanship of the Mayor (who would also represent the P o l i c e Commission) City Council Board of School Trustees Board o f Parks and Public Recreation  Local Area Council (2) Local Area Council  Department of S o c i a l Planning  Composed o f :  D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l Planning and Development (Chairman) Commissioners, C i t y of Vancouver S o c i a l Welfare Administrator Medical Health O f f i c e r D i r e c t o r of Planning D i r e c t o r of Education Superintendent, Parks and P u b l i c Recreation C h i e f Probation O f f i c e r Executive Director, United Community Services D i r e c t o r of Planning, United Co;:iniunity Services  APPENDIX F  AN APPLICATION TO  THE HONOURABLE DANIEL R . J . CAMPBELL MINISTER OF SOCIAL WELFARE  BY THE CITY OF VANCOUVER DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT  FOR CONSIDERATION  UNDER  THE CANADA ASSISTANCE PLAN  Prepared by: U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s , V a n c o u v e r , B.C.  S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department, Vancouver, B.C. J u l y , 1967.  F  1.  Department of S o c i a l Planning and Development  In the proposal f o r the establishment of a Department of S o c i a l Planning and Development within the C i t y of Vancouver the following are some of the main objectives underlying t h i s Plan:  a)  The emerging concept of the planning f o r welfare services on a l o c a l area b a s i s .  b)  The concept of the concerted d e l i v e r y of services t o a i d i n the integration and co-ordination of Health, Welfare and Recreational Services with a view t o strengthening of neighbourhoods and family life.  c)  To plan and co-ordinate the programmes, f a c i l i t i e s and services for various age groups, such as: (1)  The Aged (as o u t l i n e d i n the S p e c i a l Committee of the Senate on Aging report)  (ii) d)  Juvenile delinquency prevention.  To develop s o c i a l strengths and a c t i v e l y enter the f i e l d of Prevention of S o c i a l Problems.  e)  To mobilize the human resources of the community through Community Development programmes.  f)  To co-ordinate public and voluntary welfare services.  F Page 2  2.  L e g i s l a t i v e and P o l i c y Making  The p o l i c y of the Department would be determined by a j o i n t S o c i a l Development Committee comprised of representatives of the C i t y Council, Board of School Trustees, Board of Parks and Public Recreation, and of the P r o v i n c i a l Government.  3.  J o i n t Technical Committee  To carry out the p o l i c i e s of the Department, a j o i n t Technical Committee comprised of key personnel of the C i t y and United Community Services would be formed.  This Committee would include:  \ (Director of S o c i a l Planning & Development (Chairman) •J-(Commissioners ( S o c i a l Welfare Administrator \(Medical Health O f f i c e r ^(Chief Probation O f f i c e r v(Director of Planning ^(Superintendent of Schools ^ (Superintendent Parks & Public Recreation \(Chief Constable  C i t y of Vancouver  United Community Services  '(Executive D i r e c t o r United Community Services \(Director of Planning United Community Services IX  I t i s understood  that U.C.S. personnel would represent the i n t e r e s t s o f the  voluntary sector.  k.  Administrative Organization  The proposed Department would be under the d i r e c t i o n of a D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l Planning and Development, whose duties and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are o u t l i n e d i n the attached Appendix "D".  An A s s i s t a n t Director of S o c i a l Development and  a Clerk Stenographer would provide the nucleus of an administrative body.  A Co-ordinator of Local.Area Services would be appointed to co-ordinate the various welfare services within a designated l o c a l area.  F  Page 3  A tentative estimate of the i n i t i a l annual budget f o r the Department vould be as given below.  As programs develop, increases i n personnel may be d e s i r a b l e .  Salaries Director of S o c i a l Planning and Development  ) )  Assistant D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l ) Planning & Development ) Clerk Stenographer  )  $26,000  Fringe Benefits 10$  2,600  Operating expenses, t r a v e l , etc.  1,700 $30,300  Local Area Services Salaries Co-ordinator  )  Assistant Co-ordinator ) Clerk Stenographer  $i8,Uoo  )  Fringe Benefits 10$  l,8j*0 $20,240 Operating expenses, t r a v e l , etc. 3,000 . ,,//,;>- $23,240 Cost o f operating f i v e o f f i c e s would be TOTAL  $116,200 $lU6^500  5.  S p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n of United Community Services  The "Report on a Proposed Department of S o c i a l Planning and Development, (October 19, 1966), prepared by the Board of Administration,  incorporates  reference to the complementary functions of United Community Services.  It  i s proposed that these functions be defined as follows:  1.  Promotion, development and maintenance of Local Area Councils.  2.  Provision of c i t i z e n development services r e l a t e d t o l o c a l area planning.  3.  Provision of s o c i a l research services to l o c a l areas.  U.  Leadership sector.  5.  Carrying out programs of research as agents f o r the C i t y .  6.  P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n planning and s o c i a l development projects with C i t y of Vancouver and representing the voluntary sector of the community.  i n concerting agencies and services i n the voluntary  The concept involves an active partnership between the C i t y and United Community Services f o r purposes of j o i n t s o c i a l planning and development and service p r o v i s i o n .  The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the United Community Servioes w i l l be to work with the c i t i z e n s i n l o c a l areas to stimulate t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f i n d i n g solutions to the problems i n t h e i r areas, p a r t i c u l a r l y through the v e h i c l e of l o c a l area c o u n c i l s .  This work with c i t i z e n s w i l l be c a r r i e d on by  community development workers under the supervision of the D i r e c t o r of Community Development Programs.  p Page 5  United Community Services community development workers w i l l have the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o e f f e c t close r e l a t i o n s h i p s with the Local Area Service Co-ordinators  ( C i t y of Vancouver) so that service d e l i v e r y w i l l be s e n s i t i v e  to the needs expressed by c i t i z e n s .  Communication between Local Area Councils w i l l be f a c i l i t a t e d by a Conference of Local Area Councils sponsored by United Community Services.  U.C.S. w i l l also be responsible f o r providing research services  to l o c a l  areas, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r purposes o f survey and evaluation.  D e f i n i t i o n of Local Area Councils 1.  Local Area Councils are councils serving a defined l o c a l area recognized by the Board of Directors and made up o f l o c a l r e s i d e n t s , i n d i v i d u a l s a c t i v e i n the area, community organizations and service agencies f o r the purpose of f o s t e r i n g concerted research, planning and service operations i n t h e i r defined l o c a l areas.  2.  Local Area Councils are autonomous u n i t s which, when recognized by the Board of D i r e c t o r s , may receive s t a f f services from the  U.C.S. *  and may appoint three representatives Councils.  to the Conference of Local Area  3.  The Conference of Local Area Councils s h a l l "be established by and function under the authority of the Board of Directors.  It shall  provide a means of communication between Local Area Councils and between Local Area Councils, the Planning Committee and the Board of D i r e c t o r s .  I t s h a l l consider matters brought t o i t by Local Area  Councils and when appropriate, make recommendations t o either the Planning Committee or the Board of Directors.  U.C.S. Personnel indicated i n the following appendices: 1.  Director of Community Development Programs - see Appendix "A"  2.  k Community Development Workers - see Appendix "B"  3.  Research Assistant (Local Areas) - see Appendix "C".  BUDGET Planning, Research, Community Development Services f o r 11 p r i o r i t y Local Areas Salaries: Director of Community Development Programs) Four Community Development Workers ) Research Assistant (Local Areas) ) Three S e c r e t a r i a l )  $ 71,30U '  Employee Benefits  U,550  Transportation  1,500  (Car allowance)  Purchased Services  1,000  Staff training  1,000 TOTAL  $ 79.35U  DIAGRAM OF CITY OF VANCOUVER AND UNIT 3D COMMUNITY SERVICES FUNCTIONS AND STAFF ROLES for. SOCIAL PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT  United Community Services.  C i t y of Vancouver  Director of Community Development Programs (U.C.S.)  D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l Planning and Development (C. of V.)  Research Assistant Local Areas (U.C.S.)  Community Development. Worker (U£ .S.)  Community Development Worker (U.C.S.)  Community Development Worker (U.C.S.)  Local Area .Council  Local Area Council  Local Area Council  f  >  Coordinated Local Area Services.  Coordinated Local Area Services-  Coordinated Local Area Services  Co-ordinator of Local Area Services (C. of V.)  HOARD OF ADMINISTRATION  "hu^  frfffiJ^Kt  TOt  Vancouver  SUBJECT:  City  fiP-ftlPJ  .  APPENDIX G  Juno  10, 1968  Council  D e p a r t m e n t o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g a n d Community D e v e l o p m e n t , Terms o f R e f e r e n c e , 1968 P r o g r a m and B u d g e t  CLASSIFICATION:  Recommendation  Your Board submit h e r e w i t h a r e p o r t o f t h e J o i n t T e c h n i c a l C o m m i t t e e a s p r e p a r e d by Mr. M a u r i c e E g a n , D i r e c t o r o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g a n d Community D e v e l o p m e n t . This report presents f o r the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f C o u n c i l t h e Terms o f R e f e r e n c e f o r t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g a n d Community D o v o l o p m o n t a n d t h e proposed 1968 Program. S i n c e t h i s r e p o r t was p r e p a r e d , d i s c u s s i o n s h a v e b e e n t a k i n g p l a c e with the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l and F e d e r a l Departments o f Welfare as t o t h e f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e which the C i t y might r e c e i v e under t h e Canada A s s i s t a n c e A c t . The P r o v i n c i a l D e p a r t m e n t o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e h a s e x p r e s s e d i n t e r e s t i n t h e work o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t , b u t i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e P r o v i n c e c a n n o t be c o m m i t t e d a t t h i s t i m e t o c o s t - s h a r i n g s i n c e t h e P r o v i n c i a l b u d g e t f o r C a n a d a A s s i s t a n c e P l a n programmes i s c u r r e n t l y overexpended. However, P r o v i n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e a t a l a t e r date i s n o t r u l e d out. T h e r e i s a g o o d p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t some, i f n o t a l l , a s p e c t s o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t ' s programme m i g h t q u a l i f y f o r F e d e r a l s h a r i n g t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e programmes c a n f u l f i l l s t a t u t o r y r e q u i r e m e n t s t h a t t h e y be d i r e c t e d t o " p e r s o n s i n n e e d o r l i k e l y t o be i n need." Your Board  RECOMMEND:  1.  A p p r o v a l by C o u n c i l o f t h e s i x r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee;  of the  2.  C o p i e s o f t h e r e p o r t bo s u b m i t t e d t o t h e S c h o o l B o a r d and P a r k s B o a r d a s k i n g f o r t h e i r o n d o r s a t i o n a n d t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f one r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f r o m e a c h B o a r d t o the S o c i a l Development Committee;  3.  Copy o f t h e r e p o r t be s u b m i t t e d t o t h e U n i t e d Services asking for their ondorsation;  /».  A p p r o v a l by C o u n c i l o f t h e f o l l o w i n g e x p e n d i t u r e s t h e D c p a r t m o n t o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g a n d Community Development as f o l l o w s :  Community  by  Salaries 3 Co-ordinators  - L o c a l Area Services - a v e r a g e k months  $10,000.  F r i n g e B e n e f i t s - f o r above Auto Allowance - Co-ordinators F u r n i t u r e f o r C o - o r d i n a t o r s - Desks and C h a i r s TOTAL Funds All the  t o be p r o v i d e d  1,200 450 500 $12,150  from  Contingency  other items o f expenditure 1 9 6 8 Revenue b u d g e t .  Reserve  are already  $12,150  included i n  F o r m a l s u b m i s s i o n o f t h e r e p o r t t o H o n o u r a b l e Dan C a m p b e l l , M i n i s t e r o f S o c i a l Welfare, asking f o r h i s endorsation o f t h e p r o p o s a l s a n d c o n s i d e r a t i o n by h i s D e p a r t m e n t o f f i n a n c i a l a i d when P r o v i n c i a l f u n d s a r e a v a i l a b l e ; Copy o f t h e r e p o r t be s u b m i t t e d t o t h e M i n i s t e r o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e f o r submission t o the Honourable Grace McCarthy, M i n i s t e r W i t h o u t P o r t f o l i o , who h a s b e e n n o m i n a t e d by t h e P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t a s t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on theS o c i a l Development Committee, a s k i n g f o r h e r s u p p o r t .  3  CITY OF  VAlVCOUViSR  REPORT TO  COUNCIL Kay  TO:  His  FROM:  J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee, Department o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and  SUBJECT:  W o r s h i p t h e Mayor  and Members o f  7,  1968.  Council  Development  T e r m s o f R e f e r e n c e , and 1968 P r o g r a m and B u d g e t Department o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Development  CLASSIFICATION:  Recommendation  C o u n c i l , by p r e v i o u s r e s o l u t i o n s , has a u t h o r i s e d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and D e v e l o p m e n t , and h a s a p p r o v e d t h e a p p o i n t m e n t s o f a D i r e c t o r and a C l e r k - S t e n o g r a p h e r I I I . P r i o r t o t h e D i r e c t o r ' s a p p o i n t m e n t , a J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee c o m p r i s e d o f A d m i n i s t r a t o r s o f c e r t a i n C i v i c D e p a r t m e n t s and o u t s i d e B o a r d s and C o m m i s s i o n s a c t e d a s a R e s o u r c e C o m m i t t e e and recommended p r e l i m i n a r y programs t o C o u n c i l . On A p r i l 2 9 t h , t h e J o i n t T e c h n i c a l C o m m i t t e e met t o c o n s i d e r t h e D i r e c t o r ' s p r o p o s e d Terms' o f ' R e f e r e n c e f o r t h e D e p a r t m e n t ( A t t a c h m e n t A) a n d t h e 1968 P r o g r a m and B u d g e t (Attachment B ) . As a r e s u l t o f t h e A p r i l 2 9 t h m e e t i n g , t h e J o i n t T e c h n i c a l submits t o C o u n c i l t h e f o l l o w i n g recommendations: 1.  The  Department  be known a s - The D e p a r t m e n t and  2.  The  3.  The  of Social  Community  Committee  Planning  Development  t e r m s o f R e f e r e n c e ( A t t a c h m e n t A) b e a p p r o v e d . establishment of the (i) S o c i a l Development  (ii)  Joint  Technical  Committee,  and  Committee be  approved by C o u n c i l  By-law.  4.  The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h r e e p o s i t i o n s o f C o - o r d i n a t o r s o f L o c a l . A r e a S e r v i c e s , P a y G r a d e 28 ($697-834) a s recommended b y t h e D i r e c t o r o f P e r s o n n e l S e r v i c e s , be a p p r o v e d . ( S e e A t t a c h m e n t C)  5.  T h e 1968 P r o g r a m a s p r o p o s e d ( A t t a c h m e n t B) be a p p r o v e d and t h e D i r e c t o r o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and D e v e l o p m e n t be a u t h o r i z e d t o (i)  (ii)  P r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e f o r Urban (Strathcona Sub-area);  Renewal  Scheme No.  3  P r o c e e d w i t h t h e s t u d y o f t h e Community S e r v i c e s C e n t r e a t G r a n d v i e w and t o h i r e one p a r t - t i m e e m p l o y e e to f a c i l i t a t e the implementation o f t h i s p r o j e c t , s u b j e c t t o t h e c o n d i t i o n t h a t t h e $3,600 s a l a r y r e q u i r e m e n t be s h a r e d b y t h e V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d and t h e 3 o a r d o f P a r k s and P u b l i c R e c r e a t i o n ; a n y b a l a n c e o f t h e f u n d s a l l o c a t e d b y C o u n c i l on December 15, 1967 t o p r o c e e d w i t h t h e s t u d y o f t h i s Community S e r v i c e s C e n t r e w i l l be u s e d t o p a y t h e C i t y ' s s h a r e ($1,200) o f t h i s s a l a r y ;  . ./2  i .;,  Cr  H i s Worship the  M a y o r and  Members o f  /2  Council May  (iii)  6.  1968  A r r a n g e w i t h U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s f o r t h e p u r c h a s e o f s e r v i c e s , t o an amount o f $10,000 f o r L o c a l Area Programs.  T h a t t h e D i r e c t o r o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and D e v e l o p m e n t p r e p a r e a new s u b m i s s i o n f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l and F e d e r a l Governments f o r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e u n d e r t h e Canada A s s i s t a n c e Plan.  SUMMARY OF The  7,  costs  COSTS f o r personnel  Director  of  Social  and  services:  Planning  and  Development  15,336  Clerk-Stenographer Co-ordinators, Services  3,112  L o c a l Area  purchased  Services  from U n i t e d  G r a n d v i e w Community S e r v i c e s  12,150  Community S e r v i c e s  Centre  C i t y grants to S o c i a l Agencies ( c o n d i t i o n a l upon p r o g r a m c o s t s b e i n g s h a r e a b l e under the Canada A s s i s t a n c e  10,000 3,600  Plan) TOTAL  20,000 64,198  5  CITY OF VANCOUVER DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL PLANNING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT  I. (a)  TERMS OF REFERENCE Purpose The p u r p o s e o f t h e Department o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Community Development i s t o s t r e n g t h e n i n d i v i d u a l and f a m i l y l i f e and t o e n r i c h neighbourhood and c i t y l i v i n g , by h e l p i n g t o :  (b)  (i)  p l a n , d e v e l o p , c o - o r d i n a t e and i n t e g r a t e h e a l t h , e d u c a t i o n , w e l f a r e , r e c r e a t i o n a l , and community r e n e w a l programs;  (ii)  f o s t e r c i t i z e n s e l f - h e l p and community-betterment programs.  Functions The f u n c t i o n s o f t h e Department o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Development a r e :  and Community  (i)  t q u n i f y t h e d i r e c t s e r v i c e approaches o f a v a r i e t y o f c i v i c departments and o u t s i d e a g e n c i e s ;  (ii)  to integrate the s o c i a l with the other aspects of c i t y p l a n n i n g , i n c l u d i n g urban r e n e w a l and p u b l i c housing p r o j e c t s ;  (iii)  t o r e f i n e t h e p r e s e n t system o f p l a n n i n g and d e l i v e r i n g h e a l t h , e d u c a t i o n , w e l f a r e and r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s on a neighbourhood o r l o c a l a r e a b a s i s ;  (iv)  t o seek ways o f p r e v e n t i n g and c o n t r o l l i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f p o v e r t y , c h i l d n e g l e c t and d e l i n q u e n c y , and m i t i g a t i n g f i n a n c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l dependence;  (v)  t b s t u d y and d e f i n e Vancouver's s o c i a l p r o b l e m s , e v a l u a t e t h e impact o f community s e r v i c e s on t h e s e problems s u p p o r t e f f e c t i v e s e r v i c e s and recommend t h e d i s c o n t i n u ance o f i n e f f e c t i v e s e r v i c e s ;  (vi)  t o encourage r e s i d e n t s t o assume p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r i m p r o v i n g t h e s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e i r community;  (vii)  t o c r e a t e , and r e g u l a r l y update a m a s t e r s o c i a l ment p l a n f o r Vancouver.  II.  '  (a)  Director  develop-  ADMINISTRATION  The Department o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Community Development i s a d m i n i s t e r e d by a D i r e c t o r who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a c h i e v i n g t h e p u r p o s e and c a r r y i n g o u t t h e f u n c t i o n s i n d i c a t e d i n t h e terms o f reference.  .  .  .  cont'd  & 6  - 2 -  (b)  Joint Technical  Committee  I t i s proposed t h a t a J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee be c o m p r i s e d o f c i v i c a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and o t h e r p e r s o n s whose c o - o p e r a t i o n and s u p p o r t a r e v i t a l t o t h e s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n o f t h e Department o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Community Development. They i n c l u d e : Chief Constable Chief Probation Officer C o m m i s s i o n e r s (Board o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g , U.C.S. E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r , U.C.S. Medical Health O f f i c e r R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r o f Woxfare ( P r o v i n c i a l ) Social Service Administrator Superintendent of Schools Superintendent of Parks & P u b l i c Recreation  1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  D i r e c t o r o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Community Development Total  1 13  The r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee w i l l be: (i)  t o a c t as a l i a i s o n and c o - o r d i n a t i n g body;  (ii)  to compile  (iii)  t o p r e p a r e s o c i a l p l a n n i n g and community development p r o p o s a l s f o r s u b m i s s i o n t o C i t y C o u n c i l and o t h e r p o l i c y - m a k i n g B o a r d s and Commissions.  d a t a and c a r r y o u t s u r v e y s  and i n v e s t i g a t i o n s ;  U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s r e p r e s e n t t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s i n t h e h e a l t h , w e l f a r e and r e c r e a t i o n f i e l d s . The D i r e c t o r o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Community Development i s C h a i r m a n of t h e J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee. (c)  S o c i a l Development Committee I t i s p r o p o s e d t h a t a S o c i a l Development Committee be c o m p r i s e d o f e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , as f o l l o w s : City Council P r o v i n c i a l Government Board of School Trustees B o a r d o f P a r k s and P u b l i c R e c r e a t i o n Total  2 1 1 1 "~5~  M a j o r p o l i c y recommendations o f t h e J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o S o c i a l Development Committee f o r a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n , i n c l u d i n g r e f e r r a l t o t h e p u b l i c b o d i e s which t h e y r e p r e s e n t . The D i r e c t o r o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Community Development w i l l r e p r e s e n t t h e J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee a t t h e m e e t i n g s o f t h e S o c i a l Development Committee.  APPENDIX  E X P L A N A T I O N  DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL PLANNING COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT  AND  On J u n e 1 3 t h , 196 8, C o u n c i l a d o p t e d a r e p o r t o f t h e B o a r d o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h the e s t a b l i s h m e n t , s t r u c t u r e and b u d g e t f o r ' t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Community Development. I n t h e s e c t i o n o f the r e p o r t d e a l i n g w i t h the s t r u c t u r e o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t t h e r e was a r e c o m m e n d a t i o n that two b o d i e s be e s t a b l i s h e d : A.  S o c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t C o m m i t t e e - composed o f e l e c t e d members o f C o u n c i l , P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e , S c h o o l B o a r d and t h e P a r k s B o a r d .  B.  J o i n t T e c h n i c a l C o m m i t t e e - composed o f members o f the A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Department o f the C i t y o f V a n c o u v s r . P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t , S c h o o l B o a r d / P a r k s B o a r d and U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s .  A t t a c h e d a r e two r e s o l u t i o n s w h i c h i n d e t a i l and by e x p l i c i t a c t i o n o f C o u n c i l e s t a b l i s h t h e two C o m m i t t e e s and authorize t h e s e Committees t o p r o c e e d w i t h t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  * * * # *  H  H ft.  MOVED BY  Alderman  SECONDED BY A l d e r m a n  WHEREAS on t h e 1 3 t h d a y o f J u n e , 1968 C o u n c i l d i d b y r e s o l u t i o n a d o p t a recommendation o f t h e B o a r d o f Administration  o f J u n e 10, 1968 w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e t e r m s  o f r e f e r e n c e o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Community Development; AND WHEREAS s u c h recommendation a s a d o p t e d p r o v i d e d f o r t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f a S o c i a l Development Committee: BE I T THEREFORE RESOLVED a s f o l l o w s ; 1.  ' A i C o m m i t t e e , t o be known a s t h e S o c i a l Development  Committee i s h e r e b y e s t a b l i s h e d 2.  and a p p o i n t e d .  T h e membership o f t h e s a i d Committee s h a l l  comprise the f o l l o w i n g ,  namely:  (a)  Two  (b)  One member o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e t o be named b y t h e M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s  (c)  One member o f t h e B o a r d o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s o f S c h o o l D i s t r i c t No. 39 t o be named b y the s a i d Board  (d)  One member o f t h e B o a r d o f P a r k s and P u b l i c Recreation t o be named b y t h e s a i d B o a r d .  3.  the  members  Mayor  The duties  o f C i t y C o u n c i l t o be named b y  o f t h e Committee s h a l l be t o :  a  S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Community Development p r o p o s a l s a n d recommendations f r o m t h e J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee;  (b)  F o r m u l a t e and s u b m i t s o c i a l p o l i c y recommendations t o C i t y C o u n c i l and o t h e r p u b l i c b o d i e s ;  (c)  U n i f y t h e ways and means o f i m p l e m e n t i n g s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t p o l i c i e s and p l a n s ;  (d)  F a c i l i t a t e reform and renewal o f Vancouver's s o c i a l i n n t i t u t i o n s by c o - o r d i n a t i n g and i n t e g r a t i n g  Receive  u  A.  2 education, w e l f a r e , r e c r e a t i o n and associated community s e r v i c e s .  health,  The members o f the Committee s h a l l hold o f f i c e ( by v i r t u e o f t h e i r respective o f f i c e s . 4.  5.  The Committee s h a l l designate one of i t s members  as Chairman thereof. 6.  Meetings o f the Committee s h a l l be held at the  c a l l of the Chairman. 7.  At any meeting o f the Committee a majority o f  the members thereof s h a l l form a quorum. 8.  The Committee s h a l l keep written minutes o f a l l  business transacted at the meeting. 9.  Subject to the p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s r e s o l u t i o n  the Committee s h a l l determine i t s own procedure. 10.  No member of the Committee s h a l l receive any  - remuneration by reason o f h i s appointment thereto. 11*  The Committee s h a l l not incur any expenditure  o r l i a b i l i t y on behalf o f the C i t y o f Vancouver without the p r i o r approval o f C i t y C o u n c i l .  I, RONALD THOMPSON, C i t y Clerk of the C i t y of Vancouver hereby c e r t i f y the foregoing to be a true and c o r r e c t copy of a r e s o l u t i o n o f the Council o f the C i t y o f Vancouver passed on the 8& day o f October, 1968.  C i t y Clerk  H  MOVED BY Alderman SECONDED BY Alderman WHEREAS on the 13th day of June, 1968  Council d i d  by r e s o l u t i o n adopt a recommendation o f the Board o f Administ r a t i o n o f June 10,  1968  with respect to the terms of  reference of the Department of S o c i a l Planning and Community Development? J  AND  WHEREAS such recommendation as adopted pro-  vided f o r the appointment of a J o i n t Technical Committeet BE IT THEREFORE RESOLVED AS FOLLOWS: 1.  A Committee, to be known as the J o i n t Technical  Committee, i s hereby e s t a b l i s h e d and 2.  appointed.  The membership of the s a i d Committee s h a l l •  o  comprise the following, namely? 1.  The D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l Planning and Community Development  2.  The members of the Board of Administration  3.  The Chief Constable  4.  The C h i e f Probation  5.  The D i r e c t o r of Planning  6.  'The S o c i a l Service  7.  The Medical Health O f f i c e r  8.  The Executive D i r e c t o r , United Community Services  9.  The Regional D i r e c t o r o f S o c i a l Welfare, B r i t i s h Columbia  Officer  Administrator  10.  The Superintendent of Schools, School No. 39  11.  The Superintendent of Parks and' P u b l i c Recreation  3*  District  The d u t i e s of the Committee s h a l l be tot (a)  Act as a l i a i s o n and co-ordinating .body and t o consider and report upon t e c h n i c a l and adminis, t r a t i v e matters r e l a t i n g to s o c i a l planning and 'community development;  (b)  Compile data, c a r r y out surveys and i n v e s t i g a tions, t o a c t i n an advisory capacity t o C i t y Council and to make recommendations to the S o c i a l Development Committee;  (c)  Unify, planning procedures, co-ordinate and integrate health, education, welfare, r e c r e a t i o n and r e l a t e d community s e r v i c e s on l o c a l area and neighbourhood bases;  (d)  Study and define Vancouver's s o c i a l problems and evaluate the impact of community s e r v i c e s on these problems; Create and r e g u l a r l y update a mast* development plan f o r Vancouver.  4.  social  The members o f the Committee s h a l l hold o f f i c e  by v i r t u e o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e appointments. 5.  Any member o f the Committee may designate h i s  Deputy t o a c t as h i s a l t e r n a t e a t any p a r t i c u l a r meeting o f the Board. 6.  The D i r e c t o r o f S o c i a l Planning and Community  Developmentishall be the Chairman o f the Committee. 7.  Meetings o f the Committee s h a l l be held a t the  c a l l o f the Chairman. 8.  At any meeting o f the Committee a majority o f  tho members thereof s h a l l form a quorum. 9.  The Committee s h a l l keep w r i t t e n minutes o f  a l l business transacted a t the meeting. 10.  Subject t o the provisions, o f t h i s r e s o l u t i o n  the Committee s h a l l determine i t s own procedure. 11.  Ho member o f the Committee s h a l l receive any r e -  muneration by reason o f h i s appointment thereto.  I, RONALD THOMPSON, C i t y C l e r k o f the C i t y o f Vancouver hereby c e r t i f y the foregoing t o be a true and c o r r e c t copy o f a r e s o l u t i o n o f tho C o u n c i l o f the c i t y o f Vancouver passed on the $*£ day o f October, 1968. .  C i t y Clerk  

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