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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Administrative response to the social aspects of community planning in Vancouver, B.C., 1965-1971 Jackson, Solomon 1973

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THE ADMINISTRATIVE RESPONSE TO THE SOCIAL ASPECTS OF COMMUNITY PLANNING IN VANCOUVER, B.C. . 1965 - 1971 by SOLOMON JACKSON B.A., Univers i ty of B r i t i sh Columbia, 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the School of Community and Regional Planning We accept th is thes is as conforming to the required standard. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SEPTEMBER, 1973 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfi lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Br i t ish Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g • The University of Br i t ish Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date September, 1973 ABSTRACT The primary o b j e c t i v e of t h i s t h e s i s was to achieve some u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s which e x i s t between the community p l a n n e r s and s o c i a l p l a n n e r s i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The author s t u d i e d the m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g system i n Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, g i v i n g p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n to the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s or l i n k a g e s between the groups w i t h i n the p l a n n i n g system; the d i f f e r i n g a t t i t u d e s and c o n c e p t i o n s between members of the two groups, and the e x t e n t t o which these concepts generate f u n c t i o n a l and d y s f u n c t i o n a l c o n f l i c t . The secondary o b j e c t i v e was to examine the e v o l v i n g r o l e of the s o c i a l p l a n n e r w i t h i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n some depth, g i v i n g p a r t i c u l a r c o n s i d e r a t i o n to the h i s t o r i c a l e v o l u t i o n of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g and some contemporary t h e o r e t i c a l concepts of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g ; and to make a comparison of the 1971 p r a c t i c e of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g w i t h the o r i g i n a l o b j e c t i v e s of e s t a b l i s h i n g a s o c i a l p l a n n i n g agency i n 1968. The r e s e a r c h methodology was p r e s e n t e d i n d e t a i l so t h a t the l i m i t a t i o n s of the d a t a would be r e v e a l e d . A h i s t o r i c a l survey was made, b e g i n n i n g w i t h the mid-Nineteenth Century when p l a n n i n g and s o c i a l p l a n n i n g were c o n s i d e r e d one, through to the two d i s t i n c t emphases n o t i c e a b l e around the t u r n of the Century and on to the c u r r e n t s o c i a l m i l i e u . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l t h e o r i s t s suggest t h a t an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e may a f f e c t the a t t i t u d e s of p e r s o n n e l i n the system, and t h a t these a t t i t u d e s may r e s u l t i n f u n c t i o n a l or d y s f u n c t i o n a l c o n f l i c t . For these reasons the author examined the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between S o c i a l and P h y s i c a l P l a n n e r s . U s i n g t h e o r e t i c a l concepts of o r g a n i z a t i o n and c o n f l i c t , the w r i t e r reviewed the s o c i a l a s p e c t s of p l a n n i n g and the r o l e S o c i a l P l a n n e r s p l a y i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The d a t a r e v e a l e d minimal o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l i n k s and l i t t l e but i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r - a c t i o n between the two p l a n n i n g groups. The i n f o r m a t i o n a l s o showed t h a t both f u n c t i o n a l and d y s f u n c t i o n a l c o n f l i c t e x i s t e d i n the system. The S o c i a l Planning/Community Development Department's Terms of Reference appeared to d e f i n e s o c i a l p l a n n i n g theory i n Vancouver i n 1968. T h i s was compared w i t h s o c i a l p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e i n 1971, as p e r c e i v e d by the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s and o t h e r s . The p e r c e p t i o n s S o c i a l P l a n n e r s had of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i n 1971 d i f f e r e d from the s t a t e d " i d e a l " of 1968. In t u r n , the n o n - S o c i a l P l a n n e r s p e r c e i v e d s o c i a l p l a n n i n g d i f f e r e n t l y from the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s . The d a t a d i d not i n d i c a t e c a t e g o r i c a l l y t h a t c o n f l i c t s r e s u l t e d from the d i f f e r i n g v i e w p o i n t s but the w r i t e r was a b l e to p o s t u l a t e t h a t the c o n f l i c t was the r e s u l t of d i f f e r i n g a t t i t u d e s and c o n c e p t i o n s h e l d by the two groups of p l a n n e r s i n the system. An a n a l y s i s and e v a l u a t i o n was made u s i n g the i i i h i s t o r i c a l antecedents and contemporary t h e o r e t i c a l concepts of p l a n n i n g . The e v a l u a t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t the p u b l i c p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n Vancouver may not be o r g a n i z e d i n a manner which would r e s u l t i n the most e f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g . Nor does the system assure t h a t the s o c i a l a s p e c t s of p l a n n i n g are most e n e r g e t i c a l l y pursued. Among the c o n c l u s i o n s drawn was one t h a t c o n s i d e r a t i o n might be g i v e n to the r e - i n t e g r a t i o n of p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i n t o one c i v i c u n i t where numerous d i s c i p l i n a r y s k i l l s are i n v o l v e d , i n c l u d i n g t h a t of s o c i a l a n a l y s i s , so t h a t "the t o t a l i t y of the whole of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s " might be emphasized to b r i n g about d e s i r e d urban change. TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS CHARTS AND MAP ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS PAGE i i v i x x CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION A. The Problem B. Purpose of the Study C. Methodology D. T h e o r e t i c a l Concepts of O r g a n i z a t i o n and C o n f l i c t I I . THE THEORY OF PLANNING AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR URBAN CHANGE A. I n t r o d u c t i o n B. The H i s t o r i c a l Roots of P l a n n i n g C. The Development of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g 1. S t r a t e g i e s f o r S o c i a l S e r v i c e D e l i v e r y 2. The Vancouver Case D. The Development of ' P h y s i c a l ' P l a n n i n g 1. P l a n n i n g as a Process 2. The Vancouver Case E. C u r r e n t S o c i a l M i l i e u and I t s I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Urban Change 1. The R e - I n t e g r a t i o n of P h y s i c a l and S o c i a l P l a n n i n g 1 3 6 15 20 20 24 32 F. Summary 38 39 42 v I I I . THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL PLANNING/COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT A. I n t r o d u c t i o n B. O b j e c t i v e s and the Implementation of O b j e c t i v e s For a S o c i a l P l a n n i n g O r g a n i z a t i o n as Proposed by the E i g h t Documents C. Summary IV. THE DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL PLANNING/ COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN ACTION A. I n t r o d u c t i o n B. S o c i a l P l a n n i n g as P e r c e i v e d by Persons W i t h i n the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department 1. a. The S t a t e d Purpose of the Department (1968) as Viewed i n 1971 b. The S t a t e d F u n c t i o n s of the Department (1968) as Viewed i n 1971 ( i ) U n i f i c a t i o n of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s ( i i ) I n t e g r a t i o n of s o c i a l and c i t y p l a n n i n g , and urban renewal t a s k s ( i i i ) L o c a l area p l a n n i n g ( i v ) P r e v e n t i o n of s o c i a l problems (v) A n a l y s i s of s o c i a l problems and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s o c i a l s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y ( v i ) Encouragement of c i t i z e n involvement i n p l a n n i n g ( v i i ) P r e p a r a t i o n of a master s o c i a l development p l a n 2. The S o c i a l P l a n n e r s ' Role, A c t i v i t i e s and R e l a t i o n s h i p s With the (Sity P l a n n i n g Department a. B r i t a n n i a Community S e r v i c e s C entre b. F r a s e r v i e w Branch L i b r a r y v i C. S o c i a l P l a n n i n g as P e r c e i v e d by Persons Outside the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department 86 1. a. The Purpose of the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department 87 b. The F u n c t i o n s of the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department ( i ) U n i f i c a t i o n of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s ( i i ) I n t e g r a t i o n of s o c i a l and c i t y p l a n n i n g , and urban renewal tasks ( i i i ) L o c a l area p l a n n i n g ( i v ) P r e v e n t i o n of s o c i a l problems (v) A n a l y s i s of s o c i a l problems and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s o c i a l s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y ( v i ) Encouragement of c i t i z e n involvement i n p l a n n i n g ( v i i ) P r e p a r a t i o n of a master s o c i a l development p l a n 2. The S o c i a l P l a n n e r s ' Role, A c t i v i t i e s and R e l a t i o n s h i p s With the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department 94 a. B r i t a n n i a Community S e r v i c e s Centre b. F r a s e r v i e w Branch L i b r a r y D. Summary 105 V. SUMMARY, ANALYSIS, CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION A. Summary of Purpose and Procedures 106 B. Summary of F i n d i n g s 109 C. A n a l y s i s of F i n d i n g s 110 1. S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department Terms of Reference 2. S o c i a l P l a n n e r s ' Role, A c t i v i t i e s , and R e l a t i o n s h i p s with the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department v i i D. C o n c l u s i o n s 118 E. D i s c u s s i o n , P e r s o n a l R e f l e c t i o n s and R e l a t e d O b s e r v a t i o n s 120 BIBLIOGRAPHY 123 APPENDICES The E i g h t R e p o r t s : A. C i t y P l a n n i n g Department, Downtown - E a s t Side (1965) B. Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Memorandum (1965) C. E r n e s t D. H i l l , Recommendations (1966) D. Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Report (1966) E. E r n e s t D. H i l l , "Notes" (1967) F. S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department and U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s , A p p l i c a t i o n (1967) G. Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , "Terms of Reference" (1968) H. Vancouver, B.C., C i t y C o u n c i l " R e s o l u t i o n s " (1968) v i i i / CHARTS AND MAP P r e c e d i n g Page C i t y of Vancouver C i v i c O r g a n i z a t i o n , A p r i l , 1967 44 C i t y of Vancouver C i v i c O r g a n i z a t i o n , February, 1972 67 Map of Vancouver, B.C. showing: L o c a l Area Boundaries L o c a t i o n of B r i t a n n i a Community S e r v i c e Centre L o c a t i o n of F r a s e r v i e w Branch L i b r a r y 106 i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The a s s i s t a n c e I r e c e i v e d from P r o f e s s o r Brahm Wiesman i s hereby acknowledged. P a r t i c u l a r thanks to T e r r e l l Popoff and C l a i r e Newell f o r t h e i r h e l p i n f o r m u l a t i n g concepts; and f o r co n t i n u e d encouragement and p o s i t i v e c r i t i c i s m , to my workmates E r i c T i e s s e n and Don Buchanan. To the many people who have g i v e n t h e i r time and h e l p , whether by s u b m i t t i n g to i n t e r v i e w s , making f i l e s a v a i l a b l e , or t y p i n g , i n the two P l a n n i n g Departments and elsewhere, and e s p e c i a l l y to Maurice Egan my thanks are acknowledged. To A r l e e n and the r e s t of our "extended" n u c l e a r f a m i l y , my s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r t h e i r f o r e b e a r a n c e and o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t d u r i n g t h i s too l o n g p e r i o d of time. To my f r i e n d s , many of whom doubted t h a t t h i s page would be w r i t t e n , or q u e s t i o n e d t h a t I was ever i n v o l v e d i n t h i s task, my thanks f o r t h e i r i n d u l g e n c e . I now expect t o renew our f r i e n d s h i p s and work i n c r e a s i n g l y f o r nec e s s a r y s o c i a l changes. x CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The Problem P l a n n e r s 1 concern themselves w i t h a l l a s p e c t s of the community, i n c l u d i n g the p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and economic a t t r i b u t e s , i n o r d e r to c r e a t e environments i n which i n d i v i d u a l s have a c h o i c e of as many a l t e r n a t i v e 2 l i f e - s t y l e s as p o s s i b l e . However, u n t i l r e c e n t l y the m a j o r i t y of p l a n n e r s have taken too s i m p l i s t i c a view of o the environment^and have o f t e n used o n l y p h y s i c a l and 4 economic v a r i a b l e s as measures, n e g l e c t i n g the s o c i a l c o s t s i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r p l a n s . Having thus l i m i t e d t h e i r o u t l o o k , they r e s t r i c t e d t h e i r use of a v a i l a b l e s e r v i c e s and depended l a r g e l y on zo n i n g bylaws and urban d e s i g n to accomplish t h e i r g o a l s . Moreover, w h i l e a t t e m p t i n g to loo k a t the c i t y i n an " o b j e c t i v e " manner, they may be u n w i t t i n g l y p l a n n i n g f o r "P l a n n e r s " f o r the purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s synonymous wit h p h y s i c a l p l a n n e r s , community p l a n n e r s , u r -ban p l a n n e r s , c i t y p l a n n e r s as d i s t i n c t from " s o c i a l p l a n n e r s . " D i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e s f o r each of t h e i r r o l e s w i l l be g i v e n i n Chapter I I , S e c t i o n s C and D. 2 M i c h a e l Wheeler, ed., I n t e g r a t i o n of P h y s i c a l and  S o c i a l P l a n n i n g , (Ottawa: Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , 1967). Report No. 1, p. 76. 3 I. David i n Wheeler, I b i d . , p. 8. 4 See E. J . Mishan, Growth: The P r i c e We Pay (London: S t a p l e s P r e s s , 1969), f o r a d i s c u s s i o n on s o c i e t y ' use of economic v a r i a b l e s i n a l i m i t e d and m i s l e a d i n g manner. 2 the s t a t u s q u o / N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h i n g s are changing c o n s t a n t l y . People, t h e i r i d e a s , hopes, l i f e - s t y l e s , a t t i t u d e s and d e c i s i o n s , are riot v a l u e - f r e e . Nor can p l a n n e r s ' d e c i s i o n s or t h e i r l a c k of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , be v a l u e - f r e e or n e u t r a l . In g e n e r a l , i t i s w i t h i n r e c e n t years t h a t Canadian p l a n n e r s have begun to d i s c u s s the profound s o c i a l e f f e c t s which occur i n a community as a r e s u l t of the implementation of development c o n t r o l s . I n c r e a s i n g l y , p l a n n e r s are p r o p o s i n g t h a t s o c i a l f a c t o r s must be c o n s i d e r e d i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of p h y s i c a l p l a n s , and t h a t c i t i z e n s must become i n v o l v e d i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . N o n e t h e l e s s , p l a n s are s t i l l b e i n g p r e p a r e d f o r people w i t h o u t t h e i r 7 consent and o f t e n w i t h o u t t h e i r knowledge. S o c i a l p l a n n e r s now working p r i m a r i l y i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n are a t t e m p t i n g to move from areas of s o c i a l cures to the p r e v e n t i o n of s o c i a l problems. T h i s has brought them to a p o s i t i o n of s e e k i n g i n c r e a s e d c o - o r d i n a t i o n w i t h urban p l a n n e r s who a f f e c t the s o c i a l 8 l i f e of a c i t y . M i c h a e l Wheeler has noted t h a t " p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l p l a n n e r s have s i m i l a r l y hazy p e r c e p t i o n s of 9 each o t h e r s r o l e s . " I f t h i s i s t r u e , then to a c h i e v e Robert A. A l e s h i r e , i n " P l a n n i n g and C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n - C o s t s , B e n e f i t s and Approaches", Urban  A f f a i r s Q u a r t e r l y , June, 1970, pp. 369-93, suggests t h a t s o c i a l change should be a p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e . ^ P a u l D a v i d o f f , "Advocacy and P l u r a l i s m i n P l a n n i n g " i n Taming M e g a l o p o l i s , ed. by H. W. E l d r e d g e (Garden C i t y , N.Y.: Anchor Books, 1970), V o l . I l l , p. 600. 7 See Neale Adams, "'We demand a say i n our h o u s i n g ' : N o r t h e a s t S e c t o r p e o p l e are f i g h t i n g c i t y h a l l , " The  Vancouver Sun, May 13, 1971, p. 6. 8 M e l v i n Webber, "Comprehensive P l a n n i n g and S o c i a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y , " i n J o u r n a l of the American I n s t i t u t e of P l a n n e r s . V o l . XXXIX, 1963, p. 233. Wheeler, I b i d . , p. 76. 3 such i n c r e a s e d c o - o r d i n a t i o n , i t w i l l be c r i t i c a l t o have some u n d e r s t a n d i n g of how the r o l e s of the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l p l a n n e r are i n t e r r e l a t e d i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . B. Purpose of the Study • The mandate f o r p l a n n i n g i n the C i t y of Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, was o r i g i n a l l y g i v e n to the C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t 1 0 when i t was formed i n 1952. In 1968 the m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g s t r u c t u r e i n Vancouver underwent a s e r i e s of r e v i s i o n s w i t h the d e c i s i o n by C i t y C o u n c i l to e s t a b l i s h a Department of S o c i a l Planning/Community Develop-ment ( S P / C D ) . 1 1 The f o r m a t i o n of the SP/CD Department, and i t s i n j e c t i o n i n t o what may have been c o n s i d e r e d by some to be p r i m a r i l y a " p h y s i c a l " p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t h e r e f o r e con-s t i t u t e s a case study of an e v o l v i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between P h y s i c a l and S o c i a l P l a n n e r s . The p r i n c i p a l purpose of t h i s paper, then, i s to examine t h i s e v o l v i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the C i t y of Vancouver, i n order to achieve some g e n e r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the r e s p e c t i v e r o l e s of urban and s o c i a l p l a n n e r s w i t h i n the o v e r a l l p u b l i c p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g Department was r e o r g a n i z e d i n March, 1971, and the o f f i c i a l name was changed to Department of P l a n n i n g and C i v i c Development, h e r e i n a f t e r a l s o r e f e r r e d to as the P l a n n i n g Department. Persons working i n t h i s Department i n c l u d e P l a n n e r s . "^Department of S o c i a l Planning/Community Development, h e r e i n a f t e r a l s o r e f e r r e d to as the SP/CD Department or S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department. The term "Community Development" appeared i n the name of t h i s Department or agency, however s t a f f p e r s o n n e l d i d not do community development work a c c o r d i n g to a statement made by the D i r e c t o r of SP/CD d u r i n g an i n t e r v i e w i n h i s o f f i c e i n C i t y H a l l , August, 1970. In 1972, the name of the SP/CD Department was changed to the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department. For this* reason, community development w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d o n l y p e r i p h e r a l l y i n t h i s t h e s i s . I n d i v i d -u a l s working i n t h i s Department i n c l u d e S o c i a l P l a n n e r s or C o - O r d i n a t o r s . The l a t t e r t i t l e w i l l be d e f i n e d l a t e r i n t h i s study. 4 The case study appeared to i n d i c a t e d i f f e r e n c e s between those P l a n n e r s working i n the P l a n n i n g Department and those working i n the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department. T h e r e f o r e a review of p l a n n i n g l i t e r a t u r e w i l l h e l p d e t e r -mine whether these are d i f f e r e n t branches w i t h common antecedents, and i f so, how they had e v o l v e d . One approach to u n d e r s t a n d i n g the r o l e s p l a n n e r s p l a y , i s to examine the t a s k s they perform w i t h i n the con-t e x t of the o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n which they f u n c t i o n . An o r -g a n i z a t i o n may be viewed as a system of o v e r l a p p i n g and independent groups, and as p l a n n i n g i n Vancouver i s done by both the P l a n n i n g and S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Departments, t o -g e t h e r they c o n s t i t u t e a system. I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s or l i n k a g e s a l s o e x i s t between groups w i t h i n t h i s system and o t h e r groups which may be a component of another system as exemplied by the U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s , (a s o c i a l s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y system i n the v o l u n t a r y or p r i v a t e s e c t o r ) . In a study of an o r g a n i z a t i o n , one may suggest t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s of a t t i t u d e and approach can r e s u l t i n c o n f l i c t which may be f u n c t i o n a l or d y s f u n c t i o n a l . T h i s view w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n more d e t a i l l a t e r i n t h i s Chapter under S e c t i o n D. The t h e s i s w i l l attempt to d e f i n e a t t i t u d e s and a c t i o n s which i n f l u e n c e the behaviour of those persons i n v o l v e d i n both the P l a n n i n g and S o c i a l P l a n n i n g D e p a r t -ments. I n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d t o these a t t i t u d e s and a c t i o n s may be of some v a l u e to a f u t u r e r e s e a r c h e r w i s h i n g to u t i l i z e p rimary d a t a g a t h e r e d i n the f o r m a t i v e years of the SP/CD Department. S i n c e the Department was founded o n l y f i v e y e ars ago, the w r i t e r had an o p p o r t u n i t y to c o n t a c t many persons i n v o l v e d i n i t s e s t a b l i s h m e n t . The author was a l s o i n v o l v e d i n i n t e r - d e p a r t m e n t a l communication w i t h the S o c i a l P l a n -12 ners w h i l e working f o r a p e r i o d of n i n e months i n the " S o c i a l P l a n n e r s " and " P l a n n e r s " (upper case) w i l l be used when r e f e r r i n g to p a r t i c u l a r p e o p l e , w h i l e " s o c i a l p l a n n e r s " and " p l a n n e r s " (lower case) w i l l be used when r e f e r r i n g to the g e n e r a l c l a s s of s o c i a l and community p l a n n e r s . 5 P l a n n i n g Department at C i t y H a l l . D u r i n g d i s c u s s i o n s con-c e r n i n g s o c i a l p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e , some p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l p l a n n e r s suggested t h a t the Department of SP/CD was more e x t e n s i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n s o c i a l w e l f a r e p l a n n i n g than s o c i a l p l a n n i n g per se. The d i f f e r e n c e s between those two concepts w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n the body of t h i s study i n 13 o r d e r to c l a r i f y t h e i r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e s , and to throw some l i g h t on the e f f e c t t h a t these d i f f e r i n g con-c e p t s had on the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s o c i a l and c i t y p l a n n e r s . To a p p r e c i a t e the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s under review, c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n some depth was g i v e n to the h i s t o r i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l concepts of s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g . F o l l o w i n g t h i s , a study was made of the e s t a b -l i s h m e n t of a s o c i a l p l a n n i n g agency i n 1968. I t may be suggested t h a t the purpose and f u n c t i o n of the S o c i a l P l a n -n i n g Department s t a t e d i n the Terms of Reference, 1968, were a s o c i a l p l a n n i n g " i d e a l " or t h e o r e t i c a l concept. D e v i a t i o n s from t h i s c o n c e p t i o n , i n the p r a c t i c e of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i n 1971, may be seen i n p a r t , as r e f l e c t i n g t h r e e y e a r s of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g e x p e r i e n c e . Thus, a study i s p o s s i b l e of the e v o l v i n g a c t u a l r o l e of the s o c i a l p l a n n e r , as opposed to the t h e o r e t i c a l concept l e a d i n g to the e s t a b -l i s h m e n t of the SP/CD Department. Such a study i s a secondary purpose of t h i s t h e s i s ; f o r t h i s reason, i n con-s i d e r i n g the h i s t o r i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l concepts of p l a n -n i n g , more d e t a i l e d emphasis w i l l be p l a c e d on the s o c i a l p l a n n i n g branch. An examination of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s can be made i n terms of a wide number of p e r s p e c t i v e s such as c i t i z e n involvement, economic, p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s p r o v i s i o n , and so f o r t h . I t i s not p o s s i b l e to c o n s i d e r a l l p e r s p e c t i v e s a t one time and any d i s s e r t a t i o n must n e c e s s a r i l y concen-t r a t e on c e r t a i n f a c t o r s which the author b e l i e v e s to be most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r h i s purposes. T h i s t h e s i s i s t h e r e -See p a r t i c u l a r l y Chapter I I , S e c t i o n C. 6 f o r e s e l e c t i v e i n i t s approach; i t concerns i t s e l f p r i m a r i l y w i t h the s o c i a l a s p e c t s of p l a n n i n g i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s paper may be summarized as: 1. To a c h i e v e some u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the r e l a -t i o n s h i p s of s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l p l a n n e r s i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , u t i l i z i n g as a case study the m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n the C i t y of Vancouver, w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o : a. I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s or l i n k a g e s between the groups w i t h i n the p l a n n i n g system. b. D i f f e r i n g a t t i t u d e s and c o n c e p t i o n s between members of the two groups, and the e x t e n t t o which these c o n c e p t i o n s generate f u n c t i o n a l and d y s f u n c t i o n a l c o n f l i c t . 2. To study the e v o l v i n g r o l e of the s o c i a l p l a n n e r w i t h i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n some depth, w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o : a. The h i s t o r i c a l e v o l u t i o n of s o c i a l p l a n -n i n g , and some contemporary t h e o r e t i c a l concepts of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . b. The a c t u a l p r a c t i c e of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g as r e l a t e d to the o r i g i n a l o b j e c t i v e s of e s t a b l i s h i n g a s o c i a l p l a n n i n g agency. Methodology The r e s e a r c h methodology w i l l be p r e s e n t e d i n order t h a t the l i m i t a t i o n s of the d a t a may be r e v e a l e d . T h i s w i l l g i v e the re a d e r an o p p o r t u n i t y to e i t h e r a c cept or c h a l l e n g e the author's a n a l y s i s of the m a t e r i a l on the b a s i s of the d a t a p r e s e n t e d . The c o l l e c t i o n of d a t a f o r t h i s study began i n 1969, w h i l e the w r i t e r was working i n the P l a n n i n g Depart-7 merit. The author d i s c u s s e d w i t h the D i r e c t o r of SP/CD the a v a i l a b i l i t y of r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l which might p r o v i d e d a t a f o r a t h e s i s on the development of h i s Department. As a r e s u l t of t h i s i n t e r v i e w , the D i r e c t o r made a v a i l a b l e the departmental f i l e s , and i n f o r m a t i o n was gathere d from them f r e e l y and f r e q u e n t l y d u r i n g the f o l l o w i n g f i f t e e n months. To b e t t e r comprehend the p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s des-c r i b e d i n the documents, a survey was made of the l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h the h i s t o r i c a l e v o l u t i o n of p l a n n i n g from the mid-Nineteenth Century onward. A l s o , a review was c a r r i e d out, of the dichotomy of p l a n n i n g i n t o two d i s t i n c t branches e a r l y i n the Twentieth Century. The survey i n c l u d e d a number of contemporary t h e o r e t i c a l concepts of p l a n n i n g . F o l l o w i n g the c o l l e c t i o n of t h i s h i s t o r i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l m a t e r i a l , an examination o f the v a r i o u s r e p o r t s , l e t t e r s and memoranda i n the f i l e s of the SP/CD Department was c a r r i e d out. As a r e s u l t of the s e a r c h of the f i l e s and d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h v a r i o u s members of C i t y H a l l s t a f f i n S o c i a l P l a n n i n g , P l a n n i n g and the C i t y C l e r k ' s O f f i c e , c r i t e r i a were e s t a b l i s h e d f o r s e l e c t i n g documents t o be s c r u t i n i z e d i n d e t a i l . The two c r i t e r i a chosen, were t h a t the documents must have been drawn up p r i o r to the time 14 C i t y C o u n c i l e s t a b l i s h e d a s o c i a l p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n ; and a l l the r e p o r t s were to have been p r e p a r e d by "respon-s i b l e a u t h o r i t i e s " " " i o r p r e s e n t a t i o n t o C o u n c i l . Seven documents were chosen on the b a s i s of the 16 above c r i t e r i a . One a d d i t i o n a l r e p o r t was i n c l u d e d f o r d e t a i l e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n even though i t d i d not meet one The C i t y C o u n c i l of Vancouver, h e r e i n a f t e r a l s o r e f e r r e d to as C o u n c i l . 15 F o r purposes of t h i s c r i t e r i o n a r e s p o n s i b l e a u t h o r i t y meant a per s o n or agency d o i n g p l a n n i n g , s o c i a l p l a n n i n g or a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n the p r i v a t e or p u b l i c s e c t o r . 1 6 E . D. H i l l , "Notes" (1967), Appendix E. 8 c r i t e r i o n s i n c e i t was not p repared f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n to C o u n c i l . These "Notes" were i n c l u d e d because the Board 17 of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n had a u t h o r i z e d Mr. E. D. H i l l ( i n h i s c a p a c i t y as D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g f o r U n i t e d 18 Community S e r v i c e s ) to p repare recommendations r e g a r d i n g the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department f o r 19 p r e s e n t a t i o n to C o u n c i l . T h e r e f o r e , any views Mr. H i l l e x p ressed a t a 1967 meeting of p l a n n e r s and s o c i a l 20 p l a n n e r s might p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n of v a l u e f o r comparative purposes wi t h the r e p o r t he submitted , . 21 e a r l i e r . U n t i l January, 1973, a two-man Board i n Vancouver, c a r r y i n g out the f u n c t i o n s of a C i t y Manager. In January, 1973, a new C i t y C o u n c i l w i t h n i n e of i t s e l e v e n members from The E l e c t o r s A c t i o n Movement, (TEAM) req u e s t e d and r e c e i v e d the r e s i g n a t i o n of Mr. G e r a l d Sutton Brown, l e a v i n g o n l y one member on the Board, Mr. Lorne Ryan. 18 U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s of the G r e a t e r Vancouver A r e a . Formerly c a l l e d the G r e a t e r Vancouver Community Chest and C o u n c i l s . A f e d e r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n r e p r e s e n t i n g a l a r g e number of v o l u n t a r y or p r i v a t e s o c i a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s . H e r e i n a f t e r a l s o r e f e r r e d to as U.C.S. 19 See the Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Report (1966), Appendix D, p. 7. 20 Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l Conference on Low-Income Housing, Ottawa, A p r i l , 1967. 21 E. D. H i l l , Recommendations (1966), Appendix C. 9 22 The e i g h t r e p o r t s were o b t a i n e d from the f o l l o w i n g s o u r c e s : A copy of Downtown - E a s t Side (1965) was made a v a i l a b l e by the L i b r a r i a n a t the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department. The Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Memorandum (1965), the Recommendations (1966) by E. D. H i l l , the Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Report (1966) and the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g 23 Department "Terms of Reference" (1968) were o b t a i n e d from the f i l e s of the SP/CD Department. The "Notes" (1967) by E. D. H i l l were l o c a t e d i n the M a r j o r i e Smith L i b r a r y These documents c o n s t i t u t e Appendices A t o H of t h i s t h e s i s . C h r o n o l o g i c a l l y they a r e : Vancouver, B.C., C i t y P l a n n i n g Department, Downtown - E a s t Side (1965); Vancouver, B.C., Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Memorandum i n Support of the Concept of a S o c i a l Development Board and a Department of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Development (1965), h e r e i n a f t e r a l s o c a l l e d Memorandum; E. D. H i l l , Recommenda- t i o n s Re: the E s t a b l i s h m e n t of a Department of S o c i a l  P l a n n i n g and Development (Vancouver: U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s , 1966), h e r e i n a f t e r a l s o c a l l e d Recommendations; Vancouver, B.C., Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Report on a  Proposed Department of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Development: To  the C o u n c i l of the C i t y of Vancouver (1966), h e r e i n a f t e r a l s o c a l l e d Report; E. D. H i l l , "Notes on a Department of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Development f o r the C i t y of Vancouver" i n I n t e g r a t i o n of P h y s i c a l and S o c i a l P l a n n i n g :  w i t h s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e to p u b l i c h o u s i n g and urban renewal] Report number one, M i c h a e l Wheeler, ed.(Ottawa: Canadian W e l f a r e C o u n c i l , 1967), h e r e i n a f t e r a l s o c a l l e d "Notes"; Vancouver, B.C., S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department and Un i t e d Community S e r v i c e s , An A p p l i c a t i o n to the Honourable  D a n i e l J . Campbell, M i n i s t e r of S o c i a l W elfare, by the C i t y  of Vancouver, Department of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Development, f o r C o n s i d e r a t i o n Under the Canada A s s i s t a n c e P l a n (196 7T"] h e r e i n a f t e r a l s o r e f e r r e d t o as A p p l i c a t i o n * Vancouver,B.C., Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Department of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and  Community Development, Terms of Reference, 1968 Program and  Budget (1968T"] h e r e i n a f t e r a l s o c a l l e d S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department "Terms of Reference"; Vancouver, B.C., C i t y C o u n c i l Minutes, " R e s o l u t i o n s " (October 8, 1968), h e r e i n -a f t e r c a l l e d C o u n c i l " R e s o l u t i o n s . " Appendix G. T h i s document was adopted by C i t y C o u n c i l on June 13, 1968. a t the School of S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. A copy of the A p p l i c a t i o n (1967) was r e c e i v e d from the C i t y C l e r k ' s O f f i c e . The o r i g i n a l Minutes of C i t y C o u n c i l were reviewed i n the C i t y C l e r k ' s O f f i c e w i t h a view to o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the motions and d a t e s f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the SP/CD Department, the S o c i a l Development Committee ( S . D . C . ) ^ and the J o i n t 25 T e c h n i c a l Committee ( J . T . C ) . The Minutes of C o u n c i l dated June 13, 1968 s t a t e the Terms of Reference f o r the 26 Department of SP/CD, i t s purpose and f u n c t i o n s . By r e s o l u t i o n of C o u n c i l on October 8, 1968 the S.D.C. and J.T.C. were e s t a b l i s h e d and t h e i r f u n c t i o n s and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e were a u t h o r i z e d . Each r e p o r t was examined to determine the proposed o b j e c t i v e s and p r o p o s a l s to implement the s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s of the suggested s o c i a l p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n . Given the o b j e c t i v e s and the implementation of these o b j e c t i v e s , the r e p o r t s were an a l y z e d i n an attempt to determine whether or not they advocated the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a Department, a P o l i c y Committee and/or a T e c h n i c a l Committee. I f a department was recommended, a f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s was made to determine i f the r e p o r t d e f i n e d the department's r e l a t i o n s w i t h the g e n e r a l community, the U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s (U.C.S.) and the P l a n n i n g Department. S o c i a l Development Committee. A committee of e l e c t e d p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s i n s o c i a l p l a n n i n g , h e r e i n a f t e r a l s o r e f e r r e d to as S.D.C, or P o l i c y Committee. 25 J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee. A committee of A d m i n i s t r a t o r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t e c h n i c a l d e c i s i o n s i n s o c i a l p l a n n i n g , h e r e i n a f t e r a l s o r e f e r r e d to as J . T . C , or T e c h n i c a l Committee. 26 While the D i r e c t o r of SP/CD assumed t h i s p o s i t i o n January 1, 1968, f o r purposes of t h i s study the e f f e c t i v e d a t e of the Department's f o u n d i n g was c o n s i d e r e d June 13, 1968 when i t s Terms of Reference were adopted by C o u n c i l . 11 In a d d i t i o n , " r e s p o n s i b l e a u t h o r i t i e s " p e r m i t t e d the author to borrow s p e c i f i c f i l e s from the SP/CD Department and the o f f i c e of the E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r of the U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s . Copies of some papers from the p e r s o n a l f i l e s of the l a t e Mr. E. D. H i l l , r e l a t i n g to the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the Department of SP/CD, were p r o v i d e d by Mrs. E. D. H i l l . Four d r a f t r e p o r t s prepared f o r C o u n c i l were used as d a t a sources i n o r d e r to p r o v i d e f u r t h e r depth to the r e p o r t s and i n t e r v i e w s r e l a t i n g t o the o v e r a l l study. The d r a f t r e p o r t s e i t h e r had not been p r e s e n t e d t o C o u n c i l up to the time t h i s t h e s i s was w r i t t e n or they were d e a l t w i t h " i n camera" and are t h e r e f o r e c o n s i d e r e d c o n f i d e n t i a l . These r e p o r t s r e f l e c t the views of important and i n f l u e n t i a l i n f o r m a n t s and were of some v a l u e i n the a n a l y s i s of the d a t a . However, i t s h o u l d be s t a t e d t h a t w h i l e the d r a f t r e p o r t s p r o v i d e d the author w i t h a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the views of some Vancouver P l a n n e r s and S o c i a l P l a n n e r s r e g a r d i n g the SP/CD Department's r o l e , and i t s r e l a t i o n s w i t h the S o c i a l Development Committee and the P l a n n i n g Department, they a l s o c o r r o b o r a t e d the f i n d i n g s mentioned i n the body of the study. I t can be assumed t h a t not a l l i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t i n e n t to t h i s study was a v a i l a b l e i n w r i t t e n form. Consequently, at an e a r l y stage i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s , the d e c i s i o n was made to conduct a s e r i e s of i n t e r v i e w s to determine the a c t u a l r o l e of the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department 2 7 as i t had e v o l v e d a f t e r t h r e e years of e x p e r i e n c e . The i n f o r m a t i o n gathered by t h i s technique would a i d i n an e v a l u a t i o n of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e when compared wi t h the o b j e c t i v e s s e t out i n the "founding documents." S i n c e one can presume t h a t t h e r e i s a fundamental d i f f e r e n c e between a p a r t i c i p a n t ' s view of h i s own Names, o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n s , d a t e s and l o c a t i o n s of the i n t e r v i e w s are g i v e n i n the B i b l i o g r a p h y . a c t i v i t i e s and an o b s e r v e r ' s view of those same a c t i v i t i e s , the i n t e r v i e w e e s i n c l u d e d both S o c i a l P l a n n e r s and n o n - S o c i a l P l a n n e r s . The i n t e r v i e w s a l s o h e l p e d determine the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department to p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g w i t h i n the o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g system. The D i r e c t o r of SP/CD and f o u r L o c a l Area 28 C o - o r d i n a t o r s were i n t e r v i e w e d to o b t a i n d a t a which r e f l e c t e d t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r own r o l e s as s o c i a l p l a n n e r s and t h e i r Department's r e l a t i o n s w i t h the P l a n n i n g Department. In t u r n , the D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g , t h r e e of the f o u r Deputy D i r e c t o r s of P l a n n i n g and t h r e e of the f o u r S e n i o r P l a n n e r s (Planner I I I ) working the P l a n n i n g Department a t C i t y H a l l between June, 1970 and A p r i l , 1971, were i n t e r v i e w e d to o b t a i n d a t a which r e f l e c t e d t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of the s o c i a l p l a n n e r s ' r o l e and the r e l a t i o n s between the SP/CD Department and t h e i r own Department. I n t e r v i e w s were a l s o h e l d w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s who had worked with the SP/CD Department as c o n s u l t a n t s , or who were 29 members of the F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y L o c a l Area C o u n c i l , art o r g a n i z a t i o n which i s l i n k e d to the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department. Three a d d i t i o n a l people i n t e r v i e w e d i n c l u d e d a member of the Vancouver C i t y C l e r k ' s O f f i c e who a c t e d as S e c r e t a r y f o r the J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee ( J . T . C . ) , and two members of C i t y C o u n c i l , of whom one was the Chairman of the S o c i a l Development Committee (S.D.C.). I n t e r v i e w s were conducted mainly a t C i t y H a l l i n the o f f i c e s of the i n t e r v i e w e e s u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e s t a t e d . A S o c i a l P l a n n e r i n the SP/CD Department. The name d e r i v e s from the t a s k s S o c i a l P l a n n e r s had when the Department was e s t a b l i s h e d , and they worked i n L o c a l Areas or Neighbourhoods i n Vancouver, c o - o r d i n a t i n g the e f f o r t s of a team of p r o f e s s i o n a l and n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l p e o p l e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o v i d i n g s o c i a l s e r v i c e s i n the a r e a . 29 T h i s Area C o u n c i l d e f i n e s "Area C o u n c i l " as an autonomous c o - o r d i n a t i n g body i n a l o c a l community which undertakes or encourages a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n t o a c h i e v e d e s i r e d improvement i n l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s . 13 The technique employed c o n s i s t e d of a v a r i e t y of open-ended q u e s t i o n s which i n v o l v e d the respondent i n an i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n . Most i n d i v i d u a l s were i n t e r v i e w e d on more than one o c c a s i o n , and t h r e e persons were c o n s u l t e d f i v e d i f f e r e n t times. The m a j o r i t y of i n t e r v i e w s l a s t e d from one to two hours. A l l persons c o n s u l t e d gave the w r i t e r p e r m i s s i o n to i n t e r v i e w and take notes d u r i n g the d i s c u s s i o n , and most i n f o r m a n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t they had no o b j e c t i o n to b e i n g quoted i n t h i s t h e s i s . In two p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e s respondents a t C i t y H a l l p e r m i t t e d n o t e - t a k i n g d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w , d i s c u s s e d matters ' f r e e l y and answered q u e r i e s f r a n k l y , but r e q u e s t e d anonymity. In the f i r s t such i n s t a n c e , the w r i t e r was asked to r e f r a i n from p l a c i n g the i n f o r m a n t ' s name on the top of the pages of notes i n o r d e r to assure c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y of h i s remarks. In the second case, the w r i t e r was c a u t i o n e d e x p l i c i t l y t h a t i f quoted, he would "have to deny" c e r t a i n statements a t t r i b u t e d to him. Not a l l the d a t a gathered can be p r e s e n t e d nor a n a l y z e d ; n o n e t h e l e s s , the r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be p r e s e n t e d . In a few i n s t a n c e s , the author d e l e t e d d a t a because i t was not p o s s i b l e to p r e s e r v e the anonymity of the respondent. However, some i n d i c a t i o n s w i l l be g i v e n r e g a r d i n g the responses which c o u l d not be quoted d i r e c t l y . I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d out t h a t statements p r e s e n t e d under anonymity would have wider i m p l i c a t i o n s i f c o n s i d e r e d w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of the i n d i v i d u a l s p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . To i l l u s t r a t e , i f a p l a n n e r d e f i n e s h i s r o l e as " s y n t h e s i z e r " i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , one can assume t h a t t h i s may or may not be shared by o t h e r p l a n n e r s i n the Department of P l a n n i n g , and thus the o p i n i o n may be of minimal s i g n i f i c a n c e to the t h e s i s . I f , however, t h i s i s the s t a t e d view of an a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r of p l a n n i n g , one can assume t h a t t h i s o p i n i o n might i n f l u e n c e departmental p o l i c y and r e l a t i o n s with the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department, and i t might p o s s i b l y c o n f l i c t w i t h the p o l i c i e s of the l a t t e r department. T h i s would c e r t a i n l y be the case i f 14 such a p l a n n e r was d e l e g a t e d the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a c t i n g as the P l a n n i n g Department r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on the J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee which i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r implementation of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g p o l i c y . 30 The term "Key P l a n n e r " w i l l be used to denote key p e r s o n n e l i n the Department of P l a n n i n g , t h a t i s to say the D i r e c t o r , or one of f o u r A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r s . The term " S e n i o r P l a n n e r " w i l l be used to denote a member of the Department who h o l d s the rank of Planner I I I and has a number of P l a n n e r s working under h i s d i r e c t i o n . Under t h i s t y p o l o g y an i n d i v i d u a l working i n C i t y H a l l but not i n the P l a n n i n g or S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Departments w i l l be d e s i g n a t e d as a Key A d m i n i s t r a t o r or S e n i o r A d m i n i s t r a t o r as ranked above. F o l l o w i n g the r e p o r t on the i n t e r v i e w s , the w r i t e r a n a l y z e d the d a t a g a t h e r e d . C o n c l u s i o n s were drawn wi t h r e g a r d to the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the P h y s i c a l and S o c i a l P l a n n e r s i n Vancouver C i t y H a l l , through an e v a l u a t i o n of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of the p l a n n i n g system and the f u n c t i o n a l and d y s f u n c t i o n a l c o n f l i c t s w i t h i n the system. In a d d i t i o n , the author drew c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the r o l e s of the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the p r a c t i c e compared wi t h the t h e o r y . In summary, the methodology employed to comprehend b e t t e r the changes t a k i n g p l a c e i n the p l a n n i n g system under study, i n c l u d e d a survey of p l a n n i n g l i t e r a t u r e . Thus p l a n n i n g theory was used as a guide to u n d e r s t a n d i n g the p r a c t i c e of p l a n n i n g and i n p a r t i c u l a r i t s s o c i a l a s p e c t s . C e r t a i n documents w i t h h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e to the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department were reviewed, s i n c e they d e f i n e d s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i n Vancouver i n 1968, and these were compared w i t h the e a r l i e r t h e o r y . The " i d e a l " of s o c i a l T h i s term i s adapted from F l o y d Hunter, Community  Power S t r u c t u r e ; A Study of D e c i s i o n Makers (Chapel H i l l , North C a r o l i n a : U n i v e r s i t y of North C a r o l i n a P r e s s , 1953). 15 p l a n n i n g i n 1968 was then j u x t a p o s e d w i t h the p e r c e p t i o n s of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i n 1971 as s t a t e d by S o c i a l P l a n n e r s and n o n - S o c i a l P l a n n e r s i n v o l v e d i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The author then a n a l y z e d the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d a t a and drew c o n c l u s i o n s . D. T h e o r e t i c a l Concepts of O r g a n i z a t i o n and C o n f l i c t T h e o r i e s r e l a t i n g to the i s s u e s r a i s e d e a r l i e r w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d b r i e f l y i n t h i s s e c t i o n of Chaper I. For purposes of t h i s t h e s i s , t h e o r e t i c a l concepts of o r g a n i z a -t i o n and c o n f l i c t w i l l be u t i l i z e d as a m e t h o d o l o g i c a l d e v i c e i n d i s c u s s i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of p l a n n i n g i n Vancouver and may be more a p p r o p r i a t e l y d e a l t w i t h at t h i s p o i n t . P l a n n i n g h i s t o r y and t h e o r y w i l l be reviewed i n depth i n Chapter I I . An o r g a n i z a t i o n may be viewed as a system of independent and o v e r l a p p i n g groups. Each of the groups or subsystems has a p a t t e r n of communication Of i t s own. To understand the t o t a l system i t i s n e c e s s a r y to under-stand how each system views i t s e l f , the p r o c e s s by which i n f o r m a t i o n i s passed between the groups, and how groups i n t e r a c t w i t h i n the o v e r a l l system. As a base f o r s t u d y i n g the s t r u c t u r e of the p u b l i c p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n Vancouver, r e l e v a n t concepts w i l l be s t a t e d and d i s c u s s e d . C h r i s A r g y r i s of the Harvard School of B u s i n e s s s t a t e s t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n s have t h r e e main core a c t i v i t i e s (a) the achievement of o b j e c t i v e s ; (b) maintenance of the i n t e r n a l system; (c) a d a p t a t i o n t o the e x t e r n a l environment. While the achievement of o b j e c t i v e s heads the l i s t , A r g y r i s s t a t e s t h a t p a r t i c u l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s sometimes a r i s e which make maintenance of the system or a d a p t a t i o n to the environment the most important f a c t o r f o r the 16 31 o r g a n i z a t i o n . D e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g which core a c t i v i t y i s pursued most v i g o r o u s l y w i l l depend, i t appears, upon the p e r c e p t i o n s of the l e a d e r s h i p w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e the author w i l l examine ! i n Chapter IV how the D i r e c t o r of the Department of SP/CD p e r c e i v e s h i s department. The a b i l i t y of an o r g a n i z a t i o n to m a i n t a i n i t s c h a r a c t e r w h i l e a d a p t i n g to changing c o n d i t i o n s , has been 32 a matter of concern to the s o c i o l o g i s t , P h i l i p S e l z n i c k . He emphasizes the importance of a l l employees h a v i n g a homogeneity of o u t l o o k c o n c e r n i n g the meaning and r o l e of the o r g a n i z a t i o n through a sense of c o n t i n u i t y of p o l i c y . T h i s can be ac h i e v e d through c o n t i n u i t y i n the sources of p o l i c y d e t e r m i n a t i o n , t h a t i s through the l e a d e r s h i p which s e t s the g o a l s . The l e a d e r s h i p , i n t u r n , i s c o n s t r a i n e d by the e x p e c t a t i o n s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n and thus the l e a d e r s h i p i s shaped by the employees and the h i s t o r y of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h i s concept of l e a d e r s h i p appears to take i n t o account what a c t u a l l y o c c u r s when an o r g a n i z a t i o n sees i t s e l f t h r e a t e n e d , as when the o r g a n i z a t i o n i s i n v o l v e d i n c o n f l i c t . C o n f l i c t may be a t h r e a t t o the i n t e r n a l e q u i l i b r i u m as a r e s u l t of the i n t e r n a l (or e x t e r n a l ) environment i n r e l a t i o n t o the system. In an a r t i c l e , C h r i s A r g y r i s , I n t e g r a t i n g the I n d i v i d u a l and the  O r g a n i z a t i o n , (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1964), pp. 315-16. A l s o Robert Perlman and A r n o l d G u r i n , Community O r g a n i z a t i o n and S o c i a l P l a n n i n g . (New York: John W i l e y & Sons, Inc., and the C o u n c i l f o r S o c i a l Work E d u c a t i o n , 1972), p. 2. S e l z n i c k , L e a d e r s h i p i n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Row, P e t e r s o n , 1957). 32 • ^ P h i l i p (Evanston, 111.: 17 33 Lewis Coser, the s o c i o l o g i s t contends t h a t not a l l c o n f l i c t has n e g a t i v e r e s u l t s f o r a group s t r u c t u r e , and he argues t h a t c o n f l i c t can be both f u n c t i o n a l and d y s f u n c t i o n a l " ^ f o r an o r g a n i z a t i o n . C o n f l i c t i s f u n c t i o n a l where th e r e i s agreement on 35 the b a s i c assumptions or b a s i c v a l u e s w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n and c o n s e q u e n t l y i t can be seen as a method of a d a p t i n g to change. I n t e r n a l s o c i a l , c o n f l i c t s which 36 37 concern g o a l s or i n t e r e s t s but which do not negate the b a s i c v a l u e s upon which the o r g a n i z a t i o n i s based "tend 38 to be p o s i t i v e l y f u n c t i o n a l f o r the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . " 33 Lewis Coser, "The F u n c t i o n s of C o n f l i c t " i n System,  Change and C o n f l i c t : A Reader on Contemporary S o c i o l o g i c a l  Theory and the Debate Over F u n c t i o n a l i s m . E d i t e d by N. J . Demerath I I I and R i c h a r d A. P e t e r s o n , TNew York: The Free P r e s s , 1967) p. 307. H e r e i n a f t e r r e f e r r e d to as Demerath and P e t e r s o n , System. 34 Robert K. Merton d e f i n e s d y s f u n c t i o n as". . .the concept of s t r a i n , s t r e s s and t e n s i o n on the s t r u c t u r a l l e v e l , and p r o v i d e s an a n a l y t i c a l approach to the study of dynamics and change" i n " M a n i f e s t and L a t e n t F u n c t i o n s . " See Demerath and P e t e r s o n , System, p. 45. 35 A b a s i c v a l u e f o r purposes of t h i s t h e s i s may be d e f i n e d as an u n d e r l y i n g base f o r judgement and e v a l u a t i o n . T h i s d e f i n i t i o n i s adapted from Roland L. Warren, "Types of P u r p o s i v e S o c i a l Change at the Community L e v e l " i n R. M. Kramer and H. Specht, Readings i n Community O r g a n i z a t i o n  P r a c t i c e . (Englewood C l i f f s , N.J. P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., 1969), p. 207. H e r e i n a f t e r r e f e r r e d to as Warren, P u r p o s i v e Change. 36 A g o a l w i l l be d e f i n e d as an o b j e c t i v e , which i f a c h i e v e d , w i l l b r i n g about d e s i r e d change. 37 An i n t e r e s t i s d e f i n e d i n terms of how one r e l a t e s to a s p e c i f i c i s s u e , Adapted from Warren, P u r p o s i v e  Change, p. 207. 38 Coser, i n Demerath and P e t e r s o n , System, p. 307. 18 C o n f l i c t s i n which the co n t e n d i n g p a r t i e s no l o n g e r 39 share the b a s i c assumptions upon which the l e g i t i m a c y of the s o c i a l system r e s t s t h r e a t e n to d i s r u p t the s t r u c t u r e . Coser a l s o s t a t e s t h a t the more c l o s e d or r i g i d the group, the more c o n f l i c t s w i l l be r e p r e s s e d u n t i l they can be c o n t a i n e d no l o n g e r and t h a t accumulated 40 g r i e v a n c e s w i l l be added to the immediate i s s u e s . He t h e r e f o r e suggests t h a t l o o s e l y s t r u c t u r e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s p r o v i d e a " s a f e t y v a l v e " f o r d i s c o n t e n t . One may assume t h a t a more e g a l i t a r i a n type of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e i s not as r i g i d as a h i e r a r c h i c a l type, and f u r t h e r t h a t i f p e r s o n n e l i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n p e r c e i v e the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e to be e g a l i t a r i a n , t h a t may be of s i g n i f i c a n c e to t h i s study. I t i s R o l f Dahrendorf's view t h a t s o c i a l change i s 41 u b i q u i t o u s , as i s s o c i a l c o n f l i c t . While t h e r e i s l i t t l e agreement amongst s o c i o l o g i s t s r e g a r d i n g the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of consensus and c o n f l i c t i n o r g a n i z e d s o c i e t y , Dubin argues t h a t ". . .group c o n f l i c t cannot be wished out of 42 e x i s t e n c e . " F u r t h e r , i t i s h i s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t c o n t i n u i n g group c o n f l i c t may be regarded as an important way of 43 g i v i n g d i r e c t i o n to s o c i a l change. Horowitz c a r r i e s the argument f u r t h e r , and comments t h a t i n a world of c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s , (where even the 39 To " l e g i t i m i z e " may be d e f i n e d as an a b i l i t y to j u s t i f y an o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s use or e x i s t e n c e . 40 Coser, I b i d . . p. 311. 41 R o l f Dahrendorf, C l a s s and C l a s s C o n f l i c t i n  I n d u s t r i a l S o c i e t y , ( S t a n f o r d , C a l i f : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959), p. 162. 42 R. Dubin, "Approaches to the Study of S o c i a l C o n f l i c t : A C o l l o q u i u m , " i n C o n f l i c t R e s o l u t i o n , V o l . I, No. 2, (June, 1957), p. 184. 4 3 I b i d . , p. 194. 19 very meaning of the term " i n t e r e s t s " i n d i s p u t e d ) , c o n f l i c t o p e rates w i t h i n the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e "as a means 44 of e x p r e s s i n g genuine s o c i a l needs and a s p i r a t i o n s . " A study of c o n f l i c t s which e x i s t w i t h i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l system (the P l a n n i n g and S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Departments), may b r i n g to l i g h t c o n f l i c t i n g v a l u e s , g o a l s and i n t e r e s t s w i t h i n the system. These c o n f l i c t s i n t u r n , may i n d i c a t e d i r e c t i o n s of change f o r the two P l a n n i n g Departments. More important, i n d i v i d u a l a c t o r s w i t h i n the system may be e x p r e s s i n g as b e s t they can, the "genuine 45 s o c i a l needs and a s p i r a t i o n s " of c e r t a i n groups w i t h i n our urban s o c i e t y . I. L. Horowitz, "Consensus, C o n f l i c t and C o - o p e r a t i o n , " i n Demerath and Pe t e r s o n , System, pp. 274-79. A l s o Roland Warren, T r u t h , Love and S o c i a l Change. (Chicago: Rand McNally & Company, 1971), p. 256. Perlman and G u r i n , I b i d . , p . 8, contend t h a t the community o r g a n i z a t i o n and s o c i a l p l a n n i n g ". . . . p r a c t i t i o n -e r i s not independent; he s e r v e s a group i n t e r e s t . " CHAPTER I I THE THEORY OF PLANNING AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR URBAN CHANGE A. I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s chapter i s concerned w i t h the t h e o r e t i c a l concepts of modern p l a n n i n g , i t s h i s t o r i c a l r o o t s , and i t s development i n t o two d i s t i n c t branches d u r i n g the e a r l y p a r t of the Twentieth Century. The i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s development are then c o n s i d e r e d , i n the l i g h t of today's s o c i a l m i l i e u . B. The H i s t o r i c a l Roots of P l a n n i n g Today's p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s can be t r a c e d back to the g r e a t p o l i t i c a l upheavals of the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y - - the American and French R e v o l u t i o n s — which brought w i t h them the seeds of p a r t i c i p a t o r y government, and the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n which brought e q u a l l y g r e a t changes i n the l i v e s of l a r g e numbers of people who were moving from the r u r a l areas to the f a c t o r y and m e r c a n t i l e c i t i e s i n B r i t a i n . Poets, n o v e l i s t s and p o l i t i c a l - e c o n o m i s t s 1 s t i r r e d by the worsening c o n d i t i o n s of the people, d e s c r i b e d the way of l i f e of the workers through poems, s t o r i e s , s t a t i s t i c s and p o l e m i c s , a l l of which were d e s i g n e d to change these c o n d i t i o n s . Attempts a t a l l e v i a t i n g the c o n d i t i o n s brought on by i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n gave r i s e to U t o p i a n s o l u t i o n s . A l l See Percy Bysshe S h e l l e y , "England i n 1819" (1819); Thomas Hood, "Song of the S h i r t " (1843); C h a r l e s D i c k e n s , David C o p p e r f i e l d (1850); F r i e d r i c h E n g e l s , The  C o n d i t i o n of the Working C l a s s i n England i n 1844* and W i l l i a m M o r r i s , "The Day i s Coming " ( 1 8 9 1 ) . these U t o p i a s r e c o g n i z e d the p h y s i c a l b a s i s of s o c i a l p e r f e c t i o n , and a l l dreams Of an i d e a l s t a t e were 2 supported by an environmental determinism. Two i n s t a n c e s , 3 among many, are Saint-Simon's communes i n France, and 4 Robert Owen's a b o r t i v e attempts to s e t up model c o l o n i e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The concern f o r b e t t e r h e a l t h , housing and environment by the s o c i a l r e f o r m e r s of B r i t a i n , r e s u l t e d i n the enactment of important l e g i s l a t i v e p r o p o s a l The B r i t i s h P u b l i c H e a l t h A c t . 1848, and the Town P l a n n i n g  A c t . 1909 are examples of what has been c a l l e d " p l a n n i n g by l e g i s l a t i o n . " The l a t t e r a c t , s i g n i f i c a n t l y , was a d m i n i s t e r e d by the M i n i s t e r of H e a l t h . T h i s l i n k between p l a n n i n g , h e a l t h and housing i s c o n t i n u o u s l y encountered i n the h i s t o r i c a l antecedents of p l a n n i n g . The p l a n n e r and p h i l o s o p h e r , Ebenezer Howard, i n Garden C i t i e s of  Tomorrow. (1898), p r e s e n t e d h i s p r o p o s a l f o r a balanced community: . . . . i n which the means of l i f e w i l l be s u b s e r v i e n t to the purposes of l i v i n g , and i n which the p a t t e r n needed f o r b i o l o g i c a l s u r v i v a l and economic e f f i c i e n c y w i l l l i k e w i s e l e a d to s o c i a l and p e r s o n a l f u l f i l l m e n t . The q u e s t i o n of f a c i l i t a t i n g the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of Gordon E. Cherry, Town P l a n n i n g i n I t s S o c i a l  Context (London: Routledge & Kegan P a u l , L t d . , 1970), p. 15 """Comte de Saint-Simon (1760-1825) was an e a r l y French s o c i o l o g i s t . 4 R o b e r t Owen (1771-1858), a B r i t i s h i n d u s t r i a l i s t and s o c i a l i s t , founded a number of model c o l o n i e s i n c l u d i n g one i n New Harmony, P e n n s y l v a n i a . The l a t t e r c o l o n y , an attempt to r e a l i z e "the new moral world," l a s t e d l e s s than t h r e e y e a r s . See Asa B r i g g s , "Owen, Robert" I n t e r n a t i o n a l  E n c y c l o p e d i a of the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s . (N.Y.: The M c m i l l a n Company & the Free P r e s s , 1968, V o l . I I ) , pp. 351-52. "'Lewis Mumford "The Garden C i t y Idea and Modern P l a n n i n g " i n E. Howard, Garden C i t i e s of Tomorrow, (London: Faber and Faber L t d . , 1965 e.1902), p. 40. 22 a f u l l l i f e f o r the g r e a t e s t number was a l s o the essence of the work of P a t r i c k Geddes, one of the e a r l i e s t modern e c o l o g i s t s i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g . H i s attempts to look a t p l a n n i n g h o l i s t i c a l l y , and h i s concern f o r the v i s i o n s of the f u t u r e c i t y by i t s c i t i z e n s were i n s i g h t f u l 6 c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the theory of p l a n n i n g . In Canada, d u r i n g the e a r l y y ears of the Twentieth Century, Thomas Adams--the "Fat h e r " of Canadian Town P l a n n i n g — w a s i n s t r u m e n t a l i n h a v i n g p l a n n i n g accepted as a f e a s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e to random growth. T h i s i s e x e m p l i f i e d by h i s i n f l u e n c e on p r o v i n c i a l governments who responded by p a s s i n g town p l a n n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , h i s r o l e on the Commission of C o n s e r v a t i o n (which e x i s t e d from 1909 -1919), ensured t h a t c o n s e r v a t i o n and environmental i s s u e s were c o n s i d e r e d along w i t h h e a l t h and h o u s i n g q u e s t i o n s . Today, these are a l l r e c o g n i z e d as i n t e r r e l a t e d p l a n n i n g problems. Concern w i t h the p o l i t i c s of p u b l i c i n t e r f e r e n c e i n p l a n n i n g , l e d L i e u t e n a n t C o l o n e l J e f f r e y Burland, Adam's p r e d e c e s s o r on the Commission of C o n s e r v a t i o n , to propose the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of l o c a l p l a n n i n g boards, which would be a " t e c h n o c r a t i c " body made up of the mayor, c i t y e n g i n e e r , c i t y h e a l t h o f f i c e r , and two c i t i z e n s such as a r c h i t e c t s and e n g i n e e r s . Together w i t h a Town Pl a n n e r , h a v i n g wide powers,the p l a n n i n g board c o u l d p r e p a r e a c i t y p l a n which 7 would be adopted without the p r e s s u r e s of p o l i t i c s . In the U n i t e d S t a t e s of America, d u r i n g "the middle of the N i n e t e e n t h Century, the p r o v i s i o n of u t i l i t i e s and o t h e r m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s , c o u l d not keep up w i t h the r a p i d P a t r i c k Geddes, C i t i e s i n E v o l u t i o n (London, W i l l i a m s and Norgate L t d . , r e v i s e d e d i t i o n , 1949, c. 1915. A. H. Armstrong, "Thomas Adams and the Commission of C o n s e r v a t i o n , " P l a n , V o l . I, No. 1, 1959. pp. 14-32. i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n , and the c i t i e s became overcrowded and congested, the r e s u l t i n g " c o n d i t i o n s s t i m u l a t e d the f o r m a t i o n of a number of c i v i c reform movements, which 8 were the f o r e b e a r s of contemporary c i t y p l a n n i n g . " Meanwhile, "State governments began i n the e i g h t e e n - s i x t i e s to c o - o r d i n a t e t h e i r s e p a r a t e c o r r e c t i o n a l , p s y c h i a t r i c , and 'poor law' programs. . . .because growing commitments 9 demanded some o r d e r . " S o c i o l o g i s t s and o t h e r s p r e s s i n g f o r h o u s i n g reform i n America, were a c t i v e around 1900 on s o c i a l a c t i o n i s s u e s i n p l a n n i n g , p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n , good government, s a n i t a t i o n , p u b l i c h e a l t h , and w e l f a r e programs. These American reform groups, l a r g e l y P r o t e s t a n t and upper-middle c l a s s , were concerned w i t h what they regarded as d i s o r d e r i n the c i t i e s . They sought to b r i n g about p h y s i c a l orde r through slum c l e a r a n c e and the c o n s t r u c t i o n of model tenement houses; s o c i a l o r d e r through c h a r a c t e r - b u i l d i n g f a c i l i t i e s , such as s c h o o l s , l i b r a r i e s , and s e t t l e m e n t houses; and p o l i t i c a l o r d e r through the "good government" movement. T h i s p u r s u i t of order i n a sense r e f l e c t s the dichotomy of p l a n n i n g which took p l a c e a f t e r the t u r n of the Century. Those r e f o r m e r s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s who were concerned w i t h s o c i a l o r d e r tended to emphasize p e r s o n a l 8 H.J. Gans, "Regional and Urban P l a n n i n g , " I n t e r - n a t i o n a l E n c y c l o p e d i a of the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , (N.Y.: The Macmillan Company & The Free P r e s s , 1968, V o l . 12), p. 129. H e r e i n a f t e r r e f e r r e d to as Gans "Regional and Urban P l a n n i n g . " 9 A . J . Kahn, Theory and P r a c t i c e of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g , (New York, R u s s e l l Sage Foundation, 1969), p. 24. 1 0 H . J . Gans, "Urban P o v e r t y and S o c i a l P l a n n i n g , " i n The Uses of S o c i o l o g y , P.F. L a z a r s f e l d , W. H. S e w e l l and H.L. Wilensky, Teds.) (New York: B a s i c Books, Inc., 1967) pp.438-39. 1 1 G a n s , "Regional and Urban P l a n n i n g , " p. 129. 24 s e r v i c e s such as p u b l i c and p r i v a t e w e l f a r e ; and today, t h i s i s a r e c o g n i z a b l e a s p e c t of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . Those who were concerned w i t h p h y s i c a l o r d e r , emphasized the a e s t h e t i c and d e s i g n a t t r i b u t e s of urban development. The a r c h e t e c t - e n g i n e e r stream of p l a n n i n g i n North America s t i l l c o n t r i b u t e s the main o r i e n t a t i o n of planners,, a l t h o u g h 12 t h i s may be changing. C. The Development of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g There i s , to date , no c l e a r l y s t a t e d d e f i n i t i o n of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g which i s u n i v e r s a l l y accepted by s o c i a l p l a n n e r s . Some t h e o r i s t s have attempted to d e f i n e i t by 13 s t a t i n g , " g e n e r a l t y p e s of e f f o r t s at s o c i a l change." Kahn d e f i n e s i t as " p o l i c y c h o i c e and programming i n the 14 l i g h t of f a c t s , p r o j e c t i o n s , and a p p l i c a t i o n of v a l u e s . " A f u r t h e r c o n c i s e statement appears i n the l i t e r a t u r e under the name, " s o c i e t a l p l a n n i n g . " 1 " ' The aforementioned views on s o c i a l p l a n n i n g w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n a l t h o u g h not i n t h a t o r d e r . 12 The author has been unable t o r e l o c a t e the source of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the o r i e n t a t i o n of the t a s k s of the 160 p l a n n e r s s t u d i e d . I t may be from P e t e r M o r r i s and M a r t i n R e i n , Dilemmas of S o c i a l Reform: Pove r t y and Communi- ty A c t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . (London: Routledge & Kegan P a u l , 1967). "~~ 13 Robert M o r r i s and R.H. B i n s t o c k w i t h the c o l l a -b o r a t i o n of M a r t i n Rein, F e a s i b l e P l a n n i n g f o r S o c i a l  Change, (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966), p. 14. H e r e i n a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as M o r r i s and B i n s t o c k , F e a s i b l e  P l a n n i n g . 1^Kahn, I b i d . , p. 17. 15 Gans, "Memorandum on S o c i a l P l a n n i n g " (1958), i n People and P l a n s : Essays on Urban Problems and S o l u t i o n s . (New York: B a s i c Books, Inc., 1968), p. 85. H e r e i n a f t e r r e f e r r e d to as Gans, People and P l a n s . A l f r e d Kahn, i n a study of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g was a b l e to d i s c e r n t h r e e h i s t o r i c t r e n d s from which c u r r e n t 16 s o c i a l p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e has been d e r i v e d . They a r e : 1) The c i t y p l a n n i n g movement fbunded by s o c i a l w e l f a r e people, muckrakers, and o t h e r s from the d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n f i e l d s . T h i s t r e n d or area w i l l be e l a b o r a t e d upon i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n (Chapter I I , D), on the development of ' p h y s i c a l ' p l a n n i n g ; 2) The development of p u b l i c c o - o r d i n a t i o n i n s o c i a l w e l f a r e , because i t was found t h a t one group c o u l d not a d m i n i s t e r , s u p e r v i s e , or i n s p e c t a l l s o c i a l programs. Kahn s t a t e s t h a t i n the U.S.A., t h i s problem was approached s e r i o u s l y o n l y a f t e r World War I I , because of p r e s s u r e s to meet the r e q u i r e -ments n e c e s s a r y to take advantage of f e d e r a l , 17 f u n d i n g . T h i s second a r e a mentioned by Kahn where s o c i a l p l a n n i n g r o o t s are found, i s the p u b l i c s e c t o r , whether a t the p r o v i n c i a l , r e g i o n a l or l o c a l l e v e l , and i t i s t h i s s e c t o r which has i n r e c e n t y e a r s , i n c r e a s i n g l y r e c e i v e d the mandate to do s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i n Canada. Kahn comments t h a t the p r i v a t e s e c t o r or v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s , "have made a b i d f o r the r o l e of s t a t u t o r y s o c i a l p l a n n i n g 18 b o d i e s , " but t h i s has not been a c h i e v e d . 3) The t h i r d area from which s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i s 1 6 K a h n , I b i d , pp. 23-25. 17 Kahn speaks of " s t a t e - l e v e l " c o - o r d i n a t i o n of s o c i a l w e l f a r e e f f o r t s . In Canada, s o c i a l w e l f a r e i s p r e -m a r i l y a p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . However, a f e d e r a l p r e -sence a l s o e x i s t s . One i n d i c a t i o n of t h i s d u a l r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y i s t h a t f e d e r a l Canada A s s i s t a n c e P l a n funds are c h a n n e l l e d through p r o v i n c i a l governments. Kahn, I b i d . , p. 26. 26 d e r i v e d , l i e s i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r where the community c h e s t and c o u n c i l movement appeared s h o r t l y b e f o r e World War I i n the s e a r c h f o r " c h a r i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . " Kahn s t r e s s e s t h a t the v o l u n t a r y s o c i a l s e r v i c e c o u n c i l s have been, and c o n t i n u e to be, p r e - o c c u p i e d w i t h : (a) the assessment of s o c i a l problems to b e t t e r a l l o c a t e a v a i l a b l e funds and c r e a t e new w e l f a r e programs; and (b) the c o - o r d i n a t i o n of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . S o c i a l p l a n n i n g i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r has been p r a c t i c e d f o r some time, and i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t the name S o c i a l P l a n n i n g was borrowed from s o c i a l w e l f a r e 19 s o u r c e s . The s o c i a l p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s of f e d e r a t e d 20 agencies i n Canada such as the Community Chest and C o u n c i l are the c o - o r d i n a t i o n of the a c t i v i t i e s of many i n d i v i d u a l a g e ncies p r o v i d i n g s o c i a l s e r v i c e s i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . However, s e r i o u s concern has been expressed r e g a r d i n g the l i m i t e d e x p e r i e n c e v o l u n t a r y s o c i a l , a g e n c i e s encounter i n p l a n n i n g s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . T h e i r main area of work i s i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l p a t h o l o g i e s and problems, and they are not i n v o l v e d w i t h the m a j o r i t y of people who do not r e q u i r e r e m e d i a l £socialJ s e r v i c e s . S o c i a l p l a n n i n g as p r a c t i s e d by f e d e r a t i v e agencies i s termed " s o c i a l w e l f a r e p l a n n i n g " by Perlman. In such p l a n n i n g a concern w i t h development i s expressed through 22 the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . 19 Gans, " S o c i a l Problems and Formal P l a n n i n g " i n People and P l a n s , p. 440. 20 In Vancouver, the name i s now U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s of the G r e a t e r Vancouver Area, (U.C.S.). 21 B.J. F r i e d e n and Robert M o r r i s , Urban P l a n n i n g  and S o c i a l P o l i c y , (New York: B a s i c Books, Inc. 1968) p. 4. 2 2 Robert PeAnan " S o c i a l W elfare P l a n n i n g and P h y s i -c a l P l a n n i n g " i n J o u r n a l of the American I n s t i t u t e of  P l a n n e r s . V o l . XXXII, 1966, p. 237. H e r e i n a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as J o u r n a l of the AIP. T h i s may occur w i t h i n a s o c i a l w e l f a r e agency or o r g a n i z a t i o n . Another l e v e l of s o c i a l w e l f a r e p l a n n i n g would be the 23 c o n c e r t i n g of s e r v i c e s a t the community l e v e l . From t h i s we see t h a t the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c r i t e r i o n f o r s o c i a l w e l f a r e p l a n n i n g i s the p l a n n i n g o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e s d e l i v e r y . A concept of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g as one of t h r e e " g e n e r a l types of e f f o r t s a t s o c i a l change" i s p r e s e n t e d by M o r r i s and B i n s t o c k . The f i r s t type they d i s c u s s , seeks to change p e o p l e s ' a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r a l p a t t e r n s through e d u c a t i o n , e x h o r t a t i o n , and o t h e r methods to s t i m u l a t e s e l f - d e v e l o p m e n t and f u l f i l l m e n t . T h i s i s sometimes c a l l e d Community Development. The second type p r i m a r i l y attempts to e f f e c t reforms i n major l e g a l and s o c i a l systems i n s o c i e t y . T h i s has a l s o been termed, " c e n t r a l l y planned change." The t h i r d type of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g they d e s c r i b e , s t r i v e s to change s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s by a l t e r i n g the p o l i c i e s 24 of f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the f i r s t and the t h i r d k i n d of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . The f i r s t i s the type of change which s o c i a l w e l f a r e case work i n North America has s t r e s s e d through the y e a r s . That i s , the b e l i e f t h a t a s o c i a l need i s r e q u i r e d because the i n d i v i d u a l i s a t f a u l t and he must be g i v e n a s s i s t a n c e t o enable him to b e t t e r h i m s e l f . The t h i r d k i n d of change assumes t h a t the f a u l t does not n e c e s s a r i l y l i e w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l , and t h a t change may be brought about by changing i n s t i t u t i o n a l p o l i c y . The l a t t e r i s r e l a t e d more c l o s e l y to s o c i a l work community o r g a n i z a t i o n . Concerted d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s d e f i n e d as a p r o c e s s i n which the i n d i v i d u a l d e c i s i o n s of two or more u n i t s are made on a more i n c l u s i v e s y s t e m i c l e v e l which i n c l u d e s these u n i t s . See Warren, "The C o n c e r t i n g of D e c i s i o n s as a V a r i a b l e i n O r g a n i z a t i o n a l I n t e r a c t i o n " , i n Roland L. Warren, Communi- ty Development and S o c i a l Change, (Vancouver, B.C.: School of S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969), Paper No. 7, undated £19653. H e r e i n a f t e r c a l l e d Warren, Community  Development. 24 M o r r i s and B i n s t o c k , F e a s i b l e P l a n n i n g , pp.14-15. 28 Kahn's s u c c i n c t d e f i n i t i o n of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g as, " p o l i c y c h o i c e and programming i n the l i g h t of f a c t s , 25 p r o j e c t i o n s , and a p p l i c a t i o n s of v a l u e s , " i s i n e s s e n t i a l agreement wi t h M e l v i n Webber's view of p l a n n i n g as an " i n t r i n s i c a l l y normative" a r t . Webber's d e f i n i t i o n of p l a n n i n g may be paraphrased as a p r o c e s s of r a t i o n a l p o l i c y and program c h o i c e , based on an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the 26 r e p e r c u s s i o n s of d i f f e r e n t c o u r ses of a c t i o n . These d e f i n i t i o n s appear to concur w i t h Gans' view of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . Gans, however, argues t h a t t h e r e are two d i s t i n c t i v e k i n d s of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g ; s o c i e t a l p l a n n i n g and s o c i a l programming. The f i r s t " i s concerned w i t h e v a l u a t i n g s o c i a l g o a l s and d e v e l o p i n g i n broad o u t l i n e the k i n d s of program to a c h i e v e the g o a l s chosen. S o c i a l programming may be d e f i n e d as the development of non-economic, n o n - p h y s i c a l programs f o r g o a l s 'adopted' by 27 s o c i e t a l p l a n n i n g . " E l a b o r a t i n g on Gans' two k i n d s of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g , John Dyckman suggests t h a t t h e r e are three l e v e l s of a c t i o n i n v o l v e d i n the implementation of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . F i r s t , t h e r e must be a s e l e c t i o n of broad g o a l s f o r s o c i e t y and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of t a r g e t s f o r t h e i r achievement. Second, the r e s u l t s a c h ieved from the a p p l i c a t i o n of s o c i a l v a l u e s must be t e s t e d and a c t i o n c r i t e r i a s e t f o r programs p u r s u i n g economic or p o l i t i c a l g o a l s . T h i r d , t h e r e must be p l a n n i n g and c o - o r d i n a t i o n of the w e l f a r e a c t i v i t i e s i n the p u b l i c 28 and p r i v a t e s e c t o r . 2 5 K a h n , I b i d . , p. 17. 26 M e l v i n Webber, "The P r o s p e c t s f o r P o l i c i e s Plan-n i n g , " i n L . J . Duhl, ed., The Urban C o n d i t i o n , (New York: B a s i c Books, Inc., 1963), p. 320. 27 Gans, People and P l a n s , p. 85. John Dyckman, " S o c i a l P l a n n i n g , S o c i a l P l a n n e r s and Planned S o c i e t i e s " i n J o u r n a l of the A.I.P., XXXII, No. 2, 1966, pp. 67-68. 29 I t appears from the d i v e r s e views which have been pr e s e n t e d above on s o c i a l p l a n n i n g , t h a t the theory has developed as a r e s u l t of a need f o r d i r e c t i o n i n s o c i a l p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e . S o c i a l p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t y ranges from s o c i a l w e l f a r e to s o c i e t a l p l a n n i n g and t h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n the th e o r y . Gans statement may prove to be the most v a l u a b l e f o r those i n v o l v e d i n s o c i a l p l a n n i n g , s i n c e t h i s d e f i n i t i o n i n v o l v e s a p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n , i . e . , " e v a l u a t i n g s o c i a l g o a l s , " which p e r m i t s a l l segments and c l a s s e s of s o c i e t y an o p p o r t u n i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n g o a l e v a l u a t i o n a t an e a r l y stage of p l a n p r e p a r a t i o n . One may assume t h a t program c h o i c e has a b e t t e r chance of p u b l i c acceptance where the c i t i z e n r y i s i n v o l v e d e a r l y i n the p r o c e s s . 1. S t r a t e g i e s f o r S o c i a l S e r v i c e D e l i v e r y A study of the S o c i a l Planning/Community Development Department i n Vancouver r e q u i r e s some i n f o r m a t i o n of the s t r a t e g i e s used by the s o c i a l p l a n n e r to accomplish h i s o b j e c t i v e . Roland Warren of the F l o r e n c e H e l l e r School of S o c i a l Work a t Brandeis U n i v e r s i t y has had some impact on the p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g i e s of Canadian s o c i a l p l a n n e r s . In 1969, he was i n v i t e d by the School of S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, to l e a d a summer i n s t i t u t e on Community Development and Planned S o c i a l Change. I t may be worth n o t i n g i f the concepts and p h r a s e o l o g y of the r e p o r t s p r i o r to 1968 by E. D. H i l l and the Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , r e f l e c t e d Warren's mid-1960 view on s o c i a l s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y . H i s concepts of c o n c e r t i n g or c o - o r d i n a t i n g s o c i a l s e r v i c e s a r t i c u l a t e d many concerns which s o c i a l p l a n n e r s had r e g a r d i n g the r e s u l t s achieved by s e r v i c e agencies. S o c i a l p l a n n e r s were attempting t o make a more u n i f i e d t h r u s t i n order 29 to cope wi t h the s e r i o u s problems of the day. The 1968 B r i a n "Wharf, S t r a t e g i e s of P l a n n i n g ; C o - o r d i n a t i o n  of Community S e r v i c e s . (Vancouver, B.C.: Unpublished l e c t u r e , 1971), mimeo, p. 2. 30 Seebohm Report on s o c i a l s e r v i c e s i n B r i t a i n a l s o s t r e s s e d the need f o r more i n t e g r a t e d s e r v i c e s and 30 e f f e c t i v e c o - o r d i n a t i o n among a g e n c i e s . Warren expressed the thought t h a t i n t e r - o r g a n i z a -t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g can be approached through the use of c o n c e r t e d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , a p r o c e s s whereby two or more groups d e c i d e j o i n t l y to work t o g e t h e r i n a p a r t i c u l a r area or on a s p e c i f i c i s s u e . He r a i s e d a number of problems i n v o l v e d i n t h i s p r o c e s s , one of which i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g . O r g a n i z a t i o n s v o l u n t a r i l y e n t e r i n t o c o n c e r t e d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g o n l y i f i t w i l l p r e s e r v e or expand t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e domains. In o r d e r to ensure the c o n c e r t i n g of s o c i a l s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y , one or more p a r t i e s may be r e q u i r e d to use 31 c o e r c i v e power over the o t h e r ( s ) . In 1969, Anthony P a s c a l of the RAND C o r p o r a t i o n argued t h a t c o n c e r t i n g s o c i a l s e r v i c e s was not n e c e s s a r i l y the b e s t s o l u t i o n to g e t t i n g b e t t e r s e r v i c e s to the people needing them, and he proposed a system of c o m p e t i t i o n among the s u p p l i e r s of s e r v i c e s , i n or d e r 3 2 to p e r m i t a c h o i c e f o r those r e q u i r i n g the s e r v i c e s . 33 T h i s view i s supported by M a r t i n R e i n and now by 30 Great B r i t a i n , the S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e f o r the Home Department, the S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e f o r E d u c a t i o n and S c i e n c e , the M i n i s t e r of Housing and L o c a l Government, and the M i n i s -t e r of H e a l t h , Report of the Committee on L o c a l A u t h o r i t y and  A l l i e d P e r s o n a l S o c i a l S e r v i c e s " (1968), W. Seebohm, Chairman H e r e i n a f t e r r e f e r r e d to as the Seebohm Report. ^ W a r r e n , "The C o n c e r t i n g of D e c i s i o n s as a V a r i a b l e i n O r g a n i z a t i o n a l I n t e r a c t i o n , " i n Warren Community Develop-ment . Paper No. 7, undated,C19653unpaged. 32 Anthony P a s c a l , "New Departures i n S o c i a l S e r v i c e s , " i n The S o c i a l "Welfare Forum, (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969), p. 82. 33 Rein, " C o - o r d i n a t i o n of S o c i a l S e r v i c e s , " i n M a r t i n Rein, S o c i a l P o l i c y (New York: Random House, 1970) p. 108. Roland Warren, both o f whom have r a i s e d s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n s about the p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s of C o - o r d i n a t i o n as a s t r a t e g y i n s o c i a l s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y . 2. The Vancouver Case In Vancouver, p r i v a t e s e c t o r s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i n the sence of s o c i a l w e l f a r e p l a n n i n g i s a f u n c t i o n of the U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s , (U.C.S.), sense and i s conducted under the a u s p i c e s of i t s Department of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Research. While o t h e r v o l u n t a r y agencies i n Vancouver a l s o c a r r y out some a s p e c t s of t h i s w o r k — Neighbourhood S e r v i c e s A s s o c i a t i o n i s an example--the U.C.S. appears to have been r e c o g n i z e d by the Adminis-t r a t i o n i n C i t y H a l l as the spokeman f o r the p r i v a t e 35 s e c t o r i n the s o c i a l p l a n n i n g f i e l d . P u b l i c s e c t o r s o c i a l w e l f a r e p l a n n i n g has been the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the S o c i a l S e r v i c e s Department at C i t y H a l l , both b e f o r e and a f t e r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the SP/CD Department. That Department, now c a l l e d the Welfare and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Department, a c t i v e l y a d m i n i s t e r s funds s u p p l i e d by the F e d e r a l , P r o v i n c i a l and M u n i c i p a l Governments. The p o r t i o n s u p p l i e d by the l o c a l government may under c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s be reimbursed under the Canada A s s i s t a n c e P l a n . S i n c e 1968, the SP/CD Department has had the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of p l a n n i n g , d e v e l o p i n g , c o - o r d i n a t i n g and i n t e g r a t i n g h e a l t h , e d u c a t i o n , w e l f a r e , r e c r e a t i o n a l and community Warren, "The D e c a r t e l i z a t i o n of the S o c i a l S e r v i -ces, (Waltham, Mass., Brandeis U n i v e r s i t y , n.d., n.p.), c i t e d i n B r i a n Wharf, I b i d . , pp. 2, 15. 35 Neighbourhood S e r v i c e s A s s o c i a t i o n (N.S.A.), does s o c i a l w e l f a r e p l a n n i n g i n c l u d i n g community development, and i s most a c t i v e i n some l o c a l neighbourhoods. renewal programs as w e l l as f o s t e r i n g c i t i z e n s e l f - h e l p and community-betterment programs. T h i s appears to be e s s e n t i a l l y s o c i a l s e r v i c e p l a n n i n g . In Chapter I I I t h e r e w i l l be an e l a b o r a t i o n of; the f u n c t i o n s and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l i n k s of the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department i n Vancouver. The Development of ' P h y s i c a l ' P l a n n i n g P l a n n i n g has i n the years s i n c e the t u r n of the c e n t u r y been concerned w i t h the c h a r a c t e r and use of l a n d . A c c o r d i n g to Chapin, l a n d use p l a n n i n g i s a method of ". . . . S y s t e m a t i c a l l y a n t i c i p a t i n g and a c h i e v i n g the adjustment i n the p h y s i c a l environment of a c i t y , c o n s i s t e n t w i t h s o c i a l and economic tren d s and sound p r i n c i p l e s of 36 c i v i c d e s i g n . " T h i s p h y s i c a l approach to p l a n n i n g was d e r i v e d from the same N i n e t e e n t h Century i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n as was the s o c i a l branch of p l a n n i n g . W i l l i a m Alonso p o i n t s to t h r e e main i n f l u e n c e s i n e a r l y p l a n n i n g : a r c h i t e c h t u r a l , r e f o r m i s t and t e c h n o c r a t i c . Perhaps the prime example of an attempt to a c h i e v e an a r c h i t e c t u r a l s o l u t i o n i n p l a n n i n g , i s the N i n e t e e n t h Century approach of Baron Haussmann i n h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of P a r i s , between 185 3 and 1869. Haussmann's f o u r fundamental aims were: (1) to r e - a r r a n g e the s t r e e t s so t h a t they would p e r m i t a more p l e a s i n g view of b u i l d i n g s , b e t t e r a c c e s s d u r i n g c e l e b r a t i o n s , and a s i m p l e r defence of the b u i l d i n g s d u r i n g r i o t s ; (2) to i n c r e a s e h e a l t h s tandards by d e s t r o y i n g the d i s o r d e r of the slums; S t u a r t Chapin, Urban Land Use P l a n n i n g , Urbana, 111: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1965, p. 3. 37 W i l l i a m A l o n s o , " C i t y and C i t y P l a n n e r s , " i n Taming  M e g a l o p o l i s , H.W. E l d r e d g e , ed. (Garden C i t y , N.Y.: Anchor Books, 1967), V o l . I I , p. 583. 3 3 (3) to c r e a t e l a r g e b o u l e v a r d s which would p e r m i t the c i r c u l a t i o n of l i g h t and a i r as w e l l as t r o o p s ; (4) to f a c i l i t a t e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to the c e n t r e s of 38 b u s i n e s s and p l e a s u r e . Along w i t h h i s d e s i r e to b e t t e r cope w i t h u p r i s i n g s i n P a r i s , Haussmann's aims r e f l e c t such p l a n n i n g concerns as a c c e s s , h e a l t h , slum c l e a r a n c e , c i r c u l a t i o n of a i r , l i g h t , and t r a f f i c , and a l s o s a f e t y . He t r e a t e d the c i t y as a d e s i g n or a r c h i t e c t u r a l problem and employed a r c h i t e c t s and 39 e n g i n e e r s to c a r r y through h i s p l a n s . P l a n n i n g by d e s i g n was enhanced i n l a r g e measure at the 1893 Columbian E x p o s i t i o n i n Chicago. The c l a s s i c m a g n i f i c a n c e of the f a i r g r o u n d s encouraged many v i s i t o r s to r e t u r n to t h e i r hometowns to work f o r community betterment through the C i t y B e a u t i f u l Movement. Although t h i s movement d i d not l a s t very l o n g , the impact of i t s a r c h i t e c t u r a l approach l e f t i t s mark on p l a n n i n g . I t can be r e c o g n i z e d i n North American c i t i e s by the b o u l e v a r d s , f o u n t a i n s , and ' 40 n e o - c l a s s i c a l a r c h i t e c t u r e of the e a r l y Twentieth Century. While some argue t h a t the Garden C i t i e s of Ebenezer 41 Howard are a l s o a d e s i g n - o r i e n t e d approach to p l a n n i n g , o t h e r s look, a t Howard's work as a p h y s i c a l answer to a s o c i a l 42 p l a n . T h i s might a l s o be s a i d of P a t r i c k Geddes o r g a n i c 38 E.M. B o u i l l a t , Georges-Eugene Haussmann, ( P a r i s : 1901), pp. 8-9, c i t e d i n S. G i e d i o n , Space, Time and A r c h i - t e c t u r e : The Growth of a New T r a d i t i o n ^ (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 5th e d i t i o n , 1967), pp. 745-46. H e r e i n a f t e r a l s o c a l l e d Giedon, Space, Time and  A r c h i t e c t u r e . 39 Giedon, I b i d . . pp. 762-65. 40 Alonso, I b i d . , p. 581 41 Gorden E. Cherry, Town P l a n n i n g i n i t s S o c i a l Con- t e x t , p. 31. 4 2Mumford, I b i d . , p. 40 analogy of the c i t y , f o r h i s method was an e a r l y attempt at an e c o l o g i c a l approach. The second seminal p l a n n i n g i n f l u e n c e which Alonso mentioned were the muckrakers and r e f o r m i s t s , who f o c u s s e d i n t e r e s t on the h o u s i n g of workers, c o n s i d e r i n g f i n a n c e s , f a m i l y l i f e and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n as w e l l as d e s i g n . In the 1920's and 1930's, the 'Chicago S c h o o l ' of urban s o c i o l o g i s t s was busy documenting the c o n d i t i o n s of urban l i v i n g , and concluded from t h e i r s t u d i e s t h a t "slums and bad housing were the cause of i l l h e a l t h , c r i m i n a l i t y , 43 i l l e g i t i m a c y and o t h e r s o c i a l e v i l s . " Thus, the ' p h y s i c a l o r d e r ' of which Gans speaks i n h i s commentary on the e a r l y r e form groups, was c a r r i e d out by p l a n n e r s who b e l i e v e d t h a t slum c l e a r a n c e would s o l v e the problems of poor h o u s i n g and b r i n g about b e t t e r l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s f o r those needing i t . A l onso's t h i r d group i s the t e c h n o c r a t i n p l a n n i n g . C i t i z e n p l a n n i n g commissions, as proposed by J e f f r e y Burland of the Commission of C o n s e r v a t i o n , attempted to g i v e p l a n n i n g an a p o l i t i c a l or n e u t r a l i s t approach. These commissions between World War I and World War I I , h i r e d p l a n n e r s or p l a n n i n g c o n s u l t a n t s to produce Master Plans which c o n s i s t e d of p r o p o s a l s f o r parkways, w a t e r f r o n t improvement, new c i t y h a l l s , z o n i n g by-laws and o t h e r p h y s i c a l changes, b e l i e v i n g t h a t t h e r e was an i d e a l f i n a l stage f o r a c i t y , and t h a t i t 44 c o u l d be achieved without r e s o r t i n g to p o l i t i c s . T h i s b e l i e f , however, d i d not take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the nature of changes t a k i n g p l a c e i n the c i t y , and t h a t t h e r e i s , i n f a c t , no i d e a l f i n a l stage which i s not an i n i t i a l stage f o r the next p e r i o d i n the l i f e of the c i t y . The p l a n n i n g commission i n a s o c i a l sense, and the zoning ordinance 43 Alonso, I b i d . . p. 581 44 See Gans, People and P l a n s , pp. 62-63. A l s o A. F a l u d i , R e g i o n a l Studies , (1970J, V o l . 4, p. 3. r_by-law3in a r e a l e s t a t e sense, r e p r e s e n t e d middle and upper c l a s s v a l u e s and were too o f t e n h o l d i n g o p e r a t i o n s 45 a g a i n s t the f o r c e s of change." A f t e r 1945 the i n f l u e n c e of a r c h i t e c t u r e on p l a n n i n g was enhanced as very l a r g e s c a l e redevelopment and r e h o u s i n g schemes were implemented. Although some a r c h i t e c t s were moving i n t o p l a n n i n g and away from r i g i d and d e f i n i t i v e s y s t e m s , 4 6 p l a n n i n g s t i l l s u f f e r e d from " p h y s i c a l determinism." To the e x t e n t t h a t p l a n n e r s have been concerned w i t h g e n e r a l s o c i a l w e l l - b e i n g , they have e i t h e r adopted some theory of a r c h i t e c t u r a l determinism which supported t h e i r b e l i e f t h a t p h y s i c a l , d e s i g n per se would have a d e t e r m i n a t e and, of c o u r s e , a d e s i r a b l e e f f e c t on s o c i a l a c t i v i t y , or they have assumed t h a t those matters would be p r o p e r l y d e a l t w i t h by s o c i a l development o f f i c e r s or s o c i a l workers.47 1. P l a n n i n g as a Process F a l u d i , the B r i t i s h s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t used the term " b l u e p r i n t p l a n n i n g " f o r the "promise of a f i n a l s t a t e of b l u e p r i n t harmony" f o r a c i t y . He p r e s e n t s a p l a n n i n g model which would see b l u e p r i n t p l a n n i n g a t one end of a continuum and process-approach p l a n n i n g a t the o t h e r end, and suggests t h a t the "prominence of t h i s model stems from the f a c t t h a t i t was indeed the e n g i n e e r 48 who e x p l o r e d the t e c h n i q u e s of p l a n n i n g . " The e n g i n e e r , however, was l e f t on h i s own to attempt to s o l v e the problems of the emerging i n d u s t r i a l c i t y a c c o r d i n g to F a l u d i , who takes h i s c o l l e a g u e s to task 45 Alonso, I b i d . , pp. 582-83. See a l s o Gans, People  and P l a n s , pp. 21, 179-80; and Maurice Broady, P l a n n i n g f o r  People, Essays on the S o c i a l Context of P l a n n i n g ^ (London: The Bedford Square P r e s s , 1968) pp. 66-68. H e r e i n a f t e r r e f e r r e d to as Broady P l a n n i n g f o r People. 46 47 Giedon, I b i d . . p. 817. Broady, I b i d . . p. 65, 4 8 F a l u d i , I b i d , p. 3. 36 49 f o r not s e e k i n g s o l u t i o n s to urban problems. The concept of p l a n n i n g as a continuous p r o c e s s i s a f l e x i b l e approach when compared wi t h the Master Plan method, where the b l u e p r i n t i s c e n t r a l . I f p l a n n i n g i s c o n c e i v e d of as c o n t i n u a l l y i n a p r o c e s s of change, any p l a n i s o n l y a working paper of but "momentary importance," and the g o a l s are the key i s s u e . T h i s view t r e a t s p l a n n i n g as a normative " a r t , " and takes g o a l s d e l i b e r a t e l y i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . D a v i d o f f e x p l i c i t l y argues t h a t p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t y s h o u l d not be c a r r i e d out from a p o s i t i o n of v a l u e n e u t r a l i t y , but r a t h e r t h a t the p l a n n e r should make a p e r s o n a l commitment to the work i n which he i s i n v o l v e d . The agency p l a n n e r i n a t t e m p t i n g to be v a l u e - f r e e , has "the burden of i n v e n t i n g 'a few r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e s ' . . . .and [ f a i l s } t o p r o v i d e f o r the f o r m u l a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s by the i n t e r e s t groups who w i l l e v e n t u a l l y be a f f e c t e d by the completed p l a n s . " i n o r d e r to be more r e s p o n s i v e to changing c o n d i t i o n s , p l a n n i n g has had i t s advocates of 'comprehensive-ness', ' c o m p e t i t i o n i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t ' , 'maximum f e a s i b l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n ' , the ' i n t e g r i t y of p l a n n i n g ' and ' p l a n n i n g w i t h the p e o p l e ' not ' f o r them'. But as M o r r i s and Rein p o i n t out, "each s l o g a n p o i n t s towards one a s p e c t of an i n t e r l o c k i n g complex of needs, where each can be f u l l y s a t i s f i e d o n l y a t the expense of i t s complementary o p p o s i t e . " ^ 1 49 F a l u d i , I b i d . , p. 3. See a l s o Broady, Ibid.,pp.99-100. W.H. Form and I.T. Sanders i n C e n t r a l l y Planned Change: P r o s p e c t s and Concepts, Robert M o r r i s ^ ed. (N.Y.:National A s s o c i a t i o n of S o c i a l Workers, 1964) pp. 69-90 and 102-15; and T.B. Bottomore, S o c i o l o g y : A Guide to Problems and  L i t e r a t u r e , (London: Unwin, U n i v e r s i t y Books, 1962) pp. 293-319, d i s c u s s the r o l e of s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s i n p l a n n i n g . ^ P a u l D a v i d o f f , "Advocacy and P l u r a l i s m i n P l a n n i n g " i n E l d r e d g e , I b i d . , p. 600. (Emphasis added, S.J.) 51 P e t e r M a r r i s and M a r t i n R e i n . Dilemmas of S o c i a l Reform: Pove r t y and Community A c t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . (London: Routledge & Kegan P a u l , 1967), pp. 226-27. 2. The Vancouver Case The development of p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g i n Vancouver appears to have been s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by Thomas Adams' view of p l a n n i n g , which may be comparable w i t h A l o n s o ' s f i r s t and t h i r d c a t e g o r i e s - - the a r c h i t e c t u r a l and t e c h n o c r a t i c approaches. In March, 1926, p l a n n i n g i n the C i t y of Vancouver became the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a board of c i t i z e n s c a l l e d the Vancouver Town P l a n n i n g Commission which h i r e d p l a n n i n g c o n s u l t a n t s to prepare master p l a n s f o r the 52 C i t y . The p l a n prepared by H a r l a n d Bartholomew and A s s o c i a t e s i n 1929 i s an i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s . The C i t y P l a n n i n g Department w i t h i t s own P l a n n e r s 53 was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1951 and g i v e n the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of drawing up an O f f i c i a l Development P l a n . S i n c e 1951, the Town P l a n n i n g Commission was r e l i e v e d of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of t e c h n i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e mat-54 t e r s and a s s i g n e d the task of r e v i e w i n g major development p r o p o s a l s and a d v i s i n g C o u n c i l on the m e r i t s of the p r o j e c t s from a c i t i z e n ' s p o i n t of view. At t h a t time, the T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Board made up of the heads of the v a r i o u s C i t y Departments i n v o l v e d i n the t e c h n i c a l d e c i s i o n s which a f f e c t p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g i n Vancouver was a l s o a p p o i n t e d . I t s Chairman i s the D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g . An o r g a n i z a t i o n c h a r t of the C i t y A P l a n f o r the C i t y of Vancouver, I n c l u d i n g a  General P l a n of the Region, (1929). Harland Bartholomewand A s s o c i a t e s were r e t a i n e d i n August, 1926 to prepare t h i s r e p o r t . 53 By r e s o l u t i o n of C o u n c i l , October 5,1951. The D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g , G e r a l d Sutton Brown was appointed i n 1952. Sutton Brown l a t e r became a member of the Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . 54 H a r o l d Spence-Sales and John Bland, " E s t a b l i s h m e n t of a P l a n n i n g Department i n the C i t y of Vancouver,", (Vancouver, B.C.: n.p. J u l y 20, 1951), c i t e d i n Sarah E. Holm, C i t y of  Vancouver P l a n n i n g Dept., an u n p u b l i s h e d paper prepared December, 1969, p. 6. 38 of Vancouver a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n 1972 , i s g i v e n a t the b e g i n n i n g of Chapter IV. C u r r e n t S o c i a l M i l e a u and I t s I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Urban Change The world-wide need f o r r e c o n s t r u c t i o n p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e g a r d to housing, f o l l o w i n g World War I I , was a v e r y important f a c t o r i n the development of " p l a n n i n g . " The i n c r e a s e d amounts of money from a l l l e v e l s of government to c a r r y out the p l a n s , the more sympathetic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of laws r e l a t e d to zoning and p l a n n i n g by the c o u r t s , and the added p r e s t i g e — b a s e d more on hopes than achievement of proposed c h a n g e s — b r o u g h t p l a n n i n g i n t o i t s own. In Canada, the N a t i o n a l Housing A c t r e f l e c t e d a change t a k i n g p l a c e i n the F e r d e r a l Government's approach. I t s i n i t i a l concern i n e s t a b l i s h i n g C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n , was the p r o v i s i o n of jobs w h i l e the l a t e r emphasis r e f l e c t e d an i n c r e a s i n g concern f o r h o u s i n g . D e s p i t e the p r e s t i g e of the p l a n n e r s i t became i n c r e a s i n g l y obvious t h a t i n many i n s t a n c e s the p l a n n e r s were not s u c c e e d i n g i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to make changes i n the l i f e s t y l e s of the p e o p l e b e i n g planned f o r . T h i s was 55 p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t i n the urban renewal programs. As a r e s u l t of t h i s , t h e r e were c a l l s among p l a n n e r s f o r g r e a t e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of s o c i a l v a l u e s i n the p h y s i c a l p l a n s b e i n g p r e p a r e d , a n d recommendations f o r comprehensive p l a n n i n g , s i n c e a " p h y s i c a l b u i l d i n g cannot be d i s a s s o c i a t e d 5 7 from the s o c i a l meaning i t c a r r i e s f o r i t s u s e r s . " See M a r r i s and Rein, I b i d . , I n t r o d u c t i o n and Chapter I; a l s o the Report of the Task F o r c e on Housing and  Urban Development. Paul H e l l y e r , Chairman, (Ottawa: The Queen's P r i n t e r , 1969), passim. c c See D a v i d o f f , i n E l d r e d g e , I b i d . , pp. 596-615; A l s o H.S. P e r l o f f , "New D i r e c t i o n s i n S o c i a l P l a n n i n g , " J o u r n a l of the A.I.P., V o l . XXXI, No. 4, 1965, pp.297-305. 5 7 M e l v i n Webber, "Comprehensive P l a n n i n g and S o c i a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y , " i n J o u r n a l of the A.I.P.. V o l . XXIX 1963. P. 233. A l e s h i r e contends t h a t one of the major o b j e c t i v e s 58 of p l a n n i n g should be s o c i a l change, t h a t i t cannot operate i n a vacuum u n r e l a t e d to a c t i o n , and t h a t i t must be a c c o u n t a b l e and r e s p o n s i v e to the community i n v o l v e d . I f p l a n n e r s are to respond to the needs of the people f o r whom they are p l a n n i n g , and i f the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s to encourage d e m o c r a t i c urban government, then D a v i d o f f ' s arugment f o r i n c r e a s e d s o c i a l concern by p l a n n e r s , must be g i v e n s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n . We must i n c l u d e c i t i z e n s i n the p r o c e s s of p l a n n i n g , and t h i s "means not o n l y p e r m i t t i n g the c i t i z e n to be heard. I t a l s o means t h a t he be a b l e to become w e l l - i n f o r m e d about the u n d e r l y i n g reasons f o r p l a n n i n g p r o p o s a l s , and be a b l e to respond to them. . . ." ^ 1. The R e - I n t e g r a t i o n of P h y s i c a l and S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S o c i a l p l a n n e r s have f o r some time been outspoken advocates of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h i s may be a r e s u l t of t h e i r i n t i m a t e involvement i n the e f f e c t s of the " s o c i a l b a c k l a s h " which the urban renewal schemes have brought about. The two seminars h e l d under the j o i n t s p o n s o r s h i p of the S p e c i a l P r o j e c t on Low-Income Housing and the Community Funds and C o u n c i l s D i v i s i o n of the Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l 6 0 r a i s e d a number of v e r y p e r t i n e n t p o i n t s i n t h e i r two r e p o r t s I n t e g r a t i o n of P h y s i c a l and  S o c i a l P l a n n i n g . M i c h a e l Wheeler's summation of the d i s c u s s i o n a t the f i r s t seminar i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e to t h i s t h e s i s , and, t h e r e f o r e , w i l l be Robert A. A l e s h i r e , " P l a n n i n g and C i t i z e n P a r t i -c i p a t i o n — C o s t s , B e n e f i t s and Approaches", Urban A f f a i r s  Q u a r t e r l y . June, 1970, pp. 369-93. 59 D a v i d o f f , i n E l d r e d g e , I b i d . .. pp. 599-600 6 0 T h e Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l has s i n c e been renamed The Canadian C o u n c i l on S o c i a l Development. 40 quoted at some l e n g t h : . . . . I t i s c l e a r t h a t p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l p l a n n e r s have s i m i l a r l y hazy p e r c e p t i o n s of each o t h e r ' s r o l e s . The p h y s i c a l p l a n n e r r e p u d i a t e s the s u g g e s t i o n i m p l i c i t i n the t i t l e t h a t he i s concerned w i t h o n l y t h i n g s p h y s i c a l and a f f i r m s h i s concern w i t h the t o t a l community i n a l l i t s v a r i o u s a s p e c t s — p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and economic. He speaks of the need to c r e a t e environments t h a t o f f e r i n d i v i d u a l s as many o p t i o n s as p o s s i b l e i n r e g a r d to the way they l i v e . By c o n t r a s t , he sees the s o c i a l p l a n n e r as o r i e n t e d p r i m a r i l y to one segment of the community--the s o c i a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d — and as engaged i n the t a s k of m o b i l i z i n g h e a l t h and w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s to serve the s p e c i a l needs of a d i s -advantaged group. There may even be an unspoken assumption t h a t the s o c i a l p l a n n e r should be c o n t e n t to perform t h i s f u n c t i o n without c o n c e r n i n g h i m s e l f too much with p l a n s f o r the r e s t of the community,. Any s u g g e s t i o n of a broader f u n c t i o n f o r the s o c i a l p l a n n e r i s apt t o be r e s i s t e d as p o s i n g a t h r e a t to an unwelcome degree of c o n t r o l over people's l i v e s . F or h i s p a r t , the s o c i a l worker as s o c i a l planner"-*-d i s c l a i m s any d e s i r e to t e l l people how they s h o u l d l i v e . In f a c t , he i s p r o b a b l y a good d e a l more t e n t a t i v e i n h i s p r e s c r i p t i o n s than most o t h e r k i n d s of p l a n n e r s , and h i s u n w i l l i n g n e s s or i n a b i l i t y to p r e s c r i b e can be i n t e n s e l y f r u s t r a t i n g to a d m i n i s t r a t o r s l o o k i n g f o r c o n c r e t e answers to immediate problems. The s o c i a l p l a n n e r i s apt to a s c r i b e to p h y s i c a l p l a n n e r s more d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers than they a c t u a l l y p o ssess and to assume t h a t t h e i r d e c i s i o n s are more s c i e n t i f i c a l l y based t h a t h i s own, which may not n e c e s s a r i l y be t r u e . But the s o c i a l p l a n n e r i s o f t e n i l l - p r e p a r e d to argue h i s own case.62 Edmund M. Burke, a s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t wrote i n 1966, 6 3 an a r t i c l e which r e i n f o r c e s Wheeler's c o n t e n t i o n t h a t s o c i a l p l a n n e r s presume t h a t p h y s i c a l p l a n n e r s have more a u t h o r i t y . He goes on to q u e s t i o n whether or not they 61 The phrase, 'the s o c i a l worker as s o c i a l p l a n n e r ' seems l i m i t i n g . . 62 M. Wheeler, ed., I n t e g r a t i o n of P h y s i c a l and  S o c i a l P l a n n i n g , (Ottawa: Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , 1967), Report No. 1, pp. 76-77. 6 3 E.M. Burke, "The Search f o r A u t h o r i t y i n P l a n n i n g " i n S o c i a l S e r v i c e Review, V o l . 41, No. 3,(September, 1967, Received December 22, 1966), pp. 250-60. 41 have more l e g i t i m a c y i n a c t u a l f a c t . Burke c i t e s C h a r l e s R. A d r i a n ' s comment t h a t i f a c i t i z e n f e e l s a p l a n n e r ' s d e c i s i o n runs counter to h i s v a l u e s and i n t e r e s t s , the p l a n n e r ' s i d e a s are s a i d to be a matter of o p i n i o n , whereas i f the p l a n n e r ' s views c o i n c i d e w i t h h i s , the p l a n n e r i s 64 c o n s i d e r e d an e x p e r t . D e s p i t e the p h y s i c a l p l a n n e r ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p to a f o r m a l power s t r u c t u r e , Burke s t a t e s t h a t i t i s h i g h l y q u e s t i o n a b l e to conclude t h a t a p l a n n e r t h e r e f o r e has h i s a c t i o n s s a n c t i o n e d . "Too many groups now c l a i m competency i n h i s sphere of decision-making." 6^" The B r i t i s h P l a n ner, Gordon Cherry, expresses s e r i o u s concern about the s e p a r a t i o n of p l a n n i n g i n t o the s e p a r a t e f i e l d s of p h y s i c a l , economic and s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . He s t r e s s e s t h a t "the main emphasis must be the t o t a l i t y of the whole of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . " While t h i s would r e q u i r e a s u b s t a n t i a l r e a l i g n m e n t of o u t l o o k , Cherry contends t h a t the f a t e of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g has f o r too l o n g been countenanced as an a f t e r t h o u g h t r a t h e r than a p r i o r . . 67 c o n s i d e r a t i o n . W i l l i a m M i c h e l s o n , i n d i s c u s s i n g s o c i a l problems wrote: ". . . .By sheer f o r c e of p o p u l a t i o n growth, the next t h i r t y years w i l l see more s o c i a l problems i n p l a n n i n g than ever b e f o r e . " 6 8 C R . A d r i a n , "The Community S e t t i n g , " i n S o c i a l  S e r v i c e i n Community A c t i o n . C h a r l e s R. A d r i a n , ed. E a s t L a n s i n g : Michigan, S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1960) pp. 6-7, c i t e d i n E.M. Burke, I b i d . . pp. 255-56. 6 5 B u r k e , I b i d . . p. 258. 6 6 Gordon E. Cherry, I b i d . . p. 174 6 7 Gordon E. Cherry, I b i d . . p. 177 W. M i c h e l s o n , "Urban North America: The Next T h i r t y Y e a r s : S o c i a l Problems i n P l a n n i n g , " P l a n . V o l . 10 No. 3, 1970, p. 28. There are, of course, obvious reasons f o r a g r e e i n g w i t h M i c h e l s o n . I n c r e a s i n g unemployment, s o a r i n g l i v i n g c o s t s , environmental p o l l u t i o n , the waste of human and p h y s i c a l energy, and the s t r u g g l e by people to f i n d t h e i r own s o l u t i o n t o these problems, w i l l a l l add to the d i f f i c u l t i e s of urban p l a n n e r s . In a p r e s e n t a t i o n to the Town P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t u e of Canada, E r i c T r i s t h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t the " a c c e l e r a t i n g and uneven change-rate i n the contemporary world i s p r o d u c i n g a p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y i n which a u t o - r e g u l a t i v e p r o c e s s e s cannot be depended upon to take c a r e of the f u t u r e . . . .and t h i s means p l a n n i n g i n i t s many v a r i e t i e s becomes a manda-t o r y a c t i v i t y . T r i s t argues t h a t p l a n n i n g as a p r o c e s s — r a t h e r than as a programme—is both continuous and p a r t i c i p a t i v e , and t h i s w i l l ". . ; .become the b a s i s of a 70 new ' c u l t u r e ' of p o l i t i c s . " He m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e r e are two a s p e c t s t o the "new c u l t u r e . " On the one hand, t h e r e i s "animation s o c i a l e " w i t h i t s continuous d i a l o g u e , b a r g a i n i n g and accommodation among i n t e r e s t groups which l e a d s t o i n n o v a t i v e j o i n t p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g as e x p e r i e n c e i s gained; w h i l e on the o t h e r , "the p l a n n i n g p r o f e s s i o n s and t h e i r s u p p o r t i v e s c i e n c e s a t a l l stages and a l l l e v e l s " c o n t r i b u t e 71 t h e i r e x p e r t i s e and t e c h n i c a l knowledge. F. Summary Both p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l p l a n n i n g are r o o t e d i n the same s o i l . P l a n n i n g i n the modern sense has i t s antecedents i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of p a r t i c i p a t o r y government and the d e s i r e t o m i t i g a t e the s o c i a l problems brought about by i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . Attempts t o f i n d s o l u t i o n s through U t o p i a n schemes E. T r i s t , "Urban North America: C h a l l e n g e of the Next T h i r t y Y e a r s: A S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g i c a l V i e w p o i n t . " P l a n , V o l . 10, No. 3, 1970, p. 15. I b i d . , pp. 15-16 I b i d . , p. 16. 43 f a i l e d , and were abandoned. Over the years two d i f f e r e n t emphases were r e c o g n i z a b l e among p l a n n e r s . One, 'planning by l e g i s l a t i o n ' , may be f o l l o w e d through the reform movement and the s o c i a l w e l f a r e system to what i s known today as s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . The o t h e r , w i t h i t s emphasis on 'planning by d e s i g n ' , may be t r a c e d through the e f f o r t s of those who attempted to shape the p h y s i c a l environment so t h a t i t would b e t t e r the q u a l i t y of l i f e of the community. Some p l a n n e r s p o s t u l a t e t h a t the dichotomy of p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i s not r e a l i s t i c , t h a t p l a n n i n g should c o n s i s t of the p r o c e s s of f i n d i n g agreement on g o a l s 72 and then f i n d i n g the b e s t method of a c h i e v i n g them. The f a i l u r e of the p r o f e s s i o n a l s to look a t p l a n n i n g more comprehensively and w i t h g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y as to method, may be p r i m a r y reasons f o r the d i f f i c u l t i e s which c o n f r o n t p l a n n e r s a t the p r e s e n t time. I t i s l i k e l y t h a t w i t h cln i n c r e a s i n g l y complex s o c i e t y , l a r g e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of p o p u l a t i o n , and changing s o c i a l v a l u e s , i n the next p e r i o d of time, the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of s o c i a l problems c o n f r o n t i n g p l a n n e r s w i l l i n c r e a s e . A number of t h e o r e t i c i a n s have proposed t h a t these 73 "meta-problems 1' can o n l y be s o l v e d by use of a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s which c o n t i n u a l l y i n v o l v e s the people b e i n g planned f o r ; t h a t o n l y i n t h i s way w i l l the p l a n n e r be exposed to the continuous feedback he r e q u i r e s . In t h i s p r o c e s s , the v a r i o u s e x p e r t s c a l l e d " p l a n n e r s " w i l l be a b l e to c o n t r i b u t e t h e i r e x p e r t i s e , and a t the same time achieve the g o a l of " p l a n n i n g w i t h p e o p l e " to b r i n g about d e s i r e d urban change. 72 Gans, People and P l a n s , p. 245. 73 M i c h e l C r o z i e r ' s term c i t e d by T r i s t , I bid.,p.16. CITY OF VANCOUVER, B.C. CIVIC ORGANIZATION (A) t ELECTORS VANCOUVER BOARD OF SCHOOL TRUSTEES (8) t VANCOUVER CITY COUNCIL STANDING COMMITTEE OF COUNCIL ON FINANCE ADVISORY BOARDS - ESTABLISHED BY (I) BY-LAW, (2) COUNCIL RESOLUTION (11 (1) (1) (1) * CIVIC AUDITORIUM BOARD CIVIC MUSEUM BOARD TOWN PLANNING COMMISSION ATHLET IC COMMISSION (2) - (2) (1) X (1) * CIVIL DEFENCE BOARD OFFICIAL TRAFFIC COMMISSION VEHICLES FOR HIRE BOARD PARKING COMMISSION TECHNICAL PLANNING BOARD (I) (8) t BOARD OF PARKS AND PUBLIC RECREATION I I . . ! «a_Ji PUBLIC LIBRARY BOARD <B) t BOARD OF POLICE COMMISSIONERS APPOINTED BY LT.GOV. IN COUNCIL CITY CLERK I -> j ASSESSMENT | I COMMISSIONER | MAYORS SECRETARIAT < - - - - - 1 J RETURNING I j OFFICER | i . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ J BOARD OF ADMINISTRATION OPERATIONS | AUDITORIUM CITY CLERK CIVIL DEFENCE ENGINEERING HEALTH LAW MUSEUMS I — — f FAMILY COURT FINANCE FIRE PERMITS AND LICENSES PERSONNEL SERVICE PLANNING SOCIAL SERVICE CODE COMMUNICATION, APPOINTMENT, CONTROL. F INANCIAL CONTROL BY CITY COUNCIL. APPOINTMENTS MADE BY COUNCIL. ( INCUMBENTS HAVE STATUTORY POWERS AND DUTIES.) THESE BOARDS MAY MAKE DECISIONS WHICH ARE BINDING ON PARTIES AFFECTED. EXECUTIVE BODIES ESTABL I SHED 8Y LEGISLATION (A) PUBLIC SCHOOLS ACT. (B) VANCOUVER CHARTER. (C) PUBLIC LIBRARY ACT. a (0 O n> 3 ft APRIL, 1967 CHAPTER I I I THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL PLANNING/COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT I n t r o d u c t i o n The Department of S o c i a l Planning/Community Develop-ment (SP/CD) i n Vancouver was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1968. A h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e of i t s development may be t r a c e d through a study of e i g h t documents or r e p o r t s which p r o - . posed the f o r m a t i o n of a p u b l i c s o c i a l p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the C i t y . These r e p o r t s were prepared by v a r i o u s p u b l i c and p r i v a t e agencies and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and were chosen f o r d e t a i l e d examination because they met the c r i t e r i a s t a t e d i n Chapter I.C. the r e s e a r c h methodology. The e i g h t s t a t e -ments are important to t h i s study because the S o c i a l P l a n -ners at C i t y H a l l c o n s i d e r them fo u n d i n g documents, and because they s t a t e s o c i a l p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s and the t e c h -niques r e q u i r e d to implement these o b j e c t i v e s . The p r o p o s a l s f o r the implementation of the o b j e c -t i v e s d e f i n e h i s t o r i c a l l y what was c o n s i d e r e d to be s o c i a l p l a n n i n g and more p a r t i c u l a r l y what the SP/CD Department d e f i n e d as s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i n Vancouver i n 1968. These documents i n c l u d e the "Terms of Reference" of the Department 2 (Seventh Report) which were drawn; up by the D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g who was appointed to h i s p o s i t i o n i n Janu-3 ary, 1968. The E i g h t h document a u t h o r i z e d the r e p r e s e n t a -t i o n on, and s t a t e d the d u t i e s of, the P o l i c y body ( S o c i a l Development Committee), and the T e c h n i c a l body ( J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee). Where r e p o r t s d i f f e r i n o b j e c t i v e s See Appendixes A to H i n c l u s i v e . Appendix G. p.5. 3 Appendix H. C o u n c i l Minutes, the R e s o l u t i o n s of October 8, 1968. and proposed implementation, i t may be surmised t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e s r e f l e c t changes i n t h i n k i n g over the years 1965-1968. The seventh and e i g h t h r e p o r t s were the 1968 c u l m i -n a t i o n of the d e f i n i t i o n s of p u b l i c s e c t o r s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i n Vancouver and thus may be compared with the l i t e r a t u r e which d e f i n e d s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . The o b j e c t i v e s and the proposed methods of i m p l e -mentation are a l s o d e f i n i t i v e of the Department of SP/CD, s i n c e they p r o j e c t i n p a r t how a Department of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g would i n t e r a c t w i t h o t h e r c i v i c departments, a g e n c i e s , and the g e n e r a l community. For these reasons, the documents were c o n s i d e r e d i n d i c a t i v e of the r e s p e c t i v e a u t h o r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . Each r e p o r t was a n a l y z e d to determine: .whether or not the r e p o r t advocated the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a Department of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g , a Committee r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s and/or a Committee r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t e c h n i c a l d e c i s i o n s i n s o c i a l p l a n n i n g ; .how i t d e f i n e d the Department's r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the g e n e r a l community, the U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s and the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department, where the f o r m a t i o n of a Department was recommended. O b j e c t i v e s and the Implementation of O b j e c t i v e s For a S o c i a l P l a n n i n g O r g a n i z a t i o n as Proposed by the E i g h t Documents The p r o p o s a l s f o r the f o r m a t i o n of a s o c i a l p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n or agency i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r d e f i n e both s o c i a l p l a n n i n g at a g i v e n p e r i o d i n time and the r o l e of an agency i n v o l v e d i n s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . The e i g h t r e p o r t s v a r i e d i n t h e i r recommendations and these were examined i n r e l a t i o n to each ot h e r and to the l i t e r a t u r e on s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . Each r e p o r t was s t u d i e d to determine how, w i t h whom and a t what l e v e l the Department Or Committee would i n t e r a c t w i t h the g e n e r a l community, the U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s (U.C.S.) and the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department. 46 The r e p o r t s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r , each b e g i n n i n g with a b r i e f review of the c i r c u m -s t a n c e s , purposes and p r o p o s a l s of the r e p o r t . T h i s w i l l s e r v e as a documentation of the sources from which the Terms of Reference of the SP/CD Department, the P o l i c y and the T e c h n i c a l Committees developed. The p e r i o d under d i s -c u s s i o n i s June, 1965 to October, 1968. The f i r s t document examined i n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n was the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department's r e p o r t , Downtown - E a s t  S i d e , (1965). T h i s was the f i r s t p u b l i c r e p o r t which advo-ca t e d some type o f s o c i a l p l a n n i n g agency a t C i t y H a l l . I t was addressed to the Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and was i n i t i -a ted by the P l a n n i n g Department. The C i t y ' s P l a n n e r s were concerned about urban " b l i g h t " i n S k i d Road and the economic c o s t s of d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t s e r v i c e s compared to the bene-f i t s of taxes i n the ar e a . While the r e p o r t was b e i n g p r e -pared t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e p u b l i c i t y i n the newspapers 4 r e g a r d i n g the s o c i a l problems i n S k i d Road, and th e r e were 5 d e l e g a t i o n s to C i t y C o u n c i l on t h i s q u e s t i o n . The purpose of the r e p o r t was t o look at the s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the area as a p r e l u d e t o p l a n n i n g the p h y s i c a l r e h a b i l i t a -t i o n and renewal of S k i d Road. The r e p o r t suggested a c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t to a t t a c k the s o c i a l problems i n the area by b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r a l l the agencies which supply s e r v i c e s t h e r e , and t h a t , " T h e i r combined e f f o r t of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g should be c o n s i d e r e d a p i l o t process." 6 The recommendations i n c l u d e d a r e q u e s t f o r a Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n r e p o r t on the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Board (a t e c h n i c a l body of a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n the s o c i a l s e r v i c e s f i e l d ) , and a mandate f o r the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department to c a r r y out f u r t h e r s t u d i e s toward the p r e p a r a t i o n of p l a n s f o r the Bud E l s i e , "Slum Fund a Bonanza, C i t y L e a r n s " , The P r o v i n c e , May 28, 1965, p. 33, " C i t y Moved to Re l o c a t e A l c o h o l i c s : P l a n P r o v i d e s H o s t e l f o r S k i d Road Boozers", The Vancouver Sun, May 26, 1965, p. 29. Appendix A, p. 5. I b i d . , p. 9. p h y s i c a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n or renewal of the area. The r e p o r t was e s s e n t i a l l y a p r e l i m i n a r y s o c i a l e xamination of S k i d Road by the " P h y s i c a l " P l a n n e r s . I t d i d not propose a f u l l c i v i c department but r a t h e r a Board s i m i l a r t o the T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Board with r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s 7 f o r c o - o r d i n a t i n g a s o c i a l p l a n n i n g program. T h i s should not be c o n s t r u e d as a l a c k of f o r e s i g h t r e g a r d i n g the pos-s i b i l i t i e s of a f u l l department; r a t h e r , i t may be c o n s i d e r -ed a statement of p o l i c y on the p a r t of the P l a n n i n g D i r e c -t o r r e g a r d i n g h i s views on the s y n t h e s i s of p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . No mention was made i n the r e p o r t of a committee r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p o l i c y d e t e r m i n a t i o n i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . The f o c u s of the r e p o r t was upon e f f i c i e n t 8 a d m i n i s t r a t i o n through the ( t e c h n i c a l ) Board i t proposed. The proposed o b j e c t i v e s of the Board were to c o - o r d i n a t e p l a n n i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y f o r s o c i a l needs and to i n t r o d u c e measures which would make p l a n n i n g and s o c i a l s e r v i c e e x p e n d i t u r e s more e f f e c t i v e . I t has been p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d t h a t s o c i a l s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y g e n e r a l l y has not changed the l i f e - s t y l e s of the people r e c e i v i n g the s e r v i -ces, and the P l a n n i n g Department ifeport r e f l e c t s the prob-lems i t p e r c e i v e d i n s t u d y i n g the a r e a . One may surmise t h a t the proposed implementation of the o b j e c t i v e s a l s o r e f l e c t s the P l a n n i n g Department's p e r c e p t i o n of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g and the s o l u t i o n s to s o c i a l problems i n Vancouver, and i n S k i d Road i n p a r t i c u l a r . Recommendations i n c l u d e d i n the r e p o r t , suggested t h a t C o u n c i l i n s t r u c t the Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n to r e p o r t on the f e a s i b i l i t y of e s t a b l i s h i n g a Board made up of p u b l i c and p r i v a t e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n v o l v e d i n the s o c i a l f i e l d . T h i s would i n c l u d e the P l a n n i n g Department s i n c e i t was concerned with p u b l i c h o u s i n g and urban renewal. I b i d . , pp. 9-10 48 While the r e p o r t r e c o g n i z e d t h a t p l a n n i n g "must be c o n s i d e r e d f i r s t l y i n human terms and s e c o n d l y , i n p h y s i c a l 9 terms" , i t d i d not comment on the l i n k a g e s r e q u i r e d f o r P l a n n e r s to i n t e r a c t w i t h the g e n e r a l community. E x i s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s with the Community Chest and C o u n c i l (U.C.S.), were r e c o g n i z e d i n the r e p o r t , s i n c e t h a t agency was a l r e a d y i n v o l v e d i n s o c i a l p l a n n i n g f o r the p r i v a t e s e c t o r and c o n s u l t a t i v e work i n the s o c i a l s e r v i c e s f i e l d f o r the C i t y . The r e p o r t proposed t h a t the l i n k s w i t h the C i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and the Community Chest (U.C.S.) would have to be worked out i f the ( t e c h n i c a l ) Board was e s t a b -l i s h e d . S i n c e the P l a n n i n g Department r e p o r t d i d not p r o -pose the f o r m a t i o n of a Department of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g but r a t h e r a t e c h n i c a l body of a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , the implementa-t i o n of the o b j e c t i v e s f o r s o c i a l p l a n n i n g were to be c a r r i e d out a t the h i g h e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l a t C i t y H a l l . The r e p o r t saw i n the T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Board a commendable example of how p l a n n i n g should be done i n Van-couver, and proposed t h a t t h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e be adapted to s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i n Vancouver. T h i s r e p o r t then, r e f l e c t e d an i n c r e a s i n g concern by the P l a n n e r s to f i n d a s o l u t i o n to the s o c i a l problems t h a t e x i s t e d i n Vancouver, and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the a r e a known as S k i d Road. E s t a b l i s h m e n t of a t e c h n i c a l board was proposed, to e f f e c t i v e l y implement s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . The l e v e l of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g suggested i n t h i s r e p o r t may be d e s c r i b e d as " s o c i a l w e l f a r e p l a n n i n g " i n Perlman's terms, or " s o c i a l programming" a c c o r d i n g to Gans 1 d e f i n i t i o n , both of which were d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I I . C . I t may be argued t h a t Wheeler's comments r e g a r d i n g the p h y s i c a l p l a n n e r ' s view of the s o c i a l p l a n n e r as b e i n g o r i e n t e d p r i m a r i l y to t h a t segment of the community which i s " s o c i a l l y handicapped" i s borne out by the p r o p o s a l s of I b i d . , p. 8. 49 the P l a n n i n g Department i n t h i s r e p o r t . The second statement, Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Memorandum, 1 9 6 5 , 1 0 was pre p a r e d by Mr. G e r a l d Sutton Brown, a t t h a t time, one of the two members of the Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and was p r e s e n t e d to C i t y C o u n c i l s h o r t l y a f t e r the Downtown - E a s t Side r e p o r t by the P l a n -n i n g Department. I t suggested the concept of a Board r e -s p o n s i b l e f o r s o c i a l development but i t a l s o recommended the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a Department of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Development. The purpose of the memorandum was to attempt to answer a number of q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g "the p o s s i b l e f u n c t i o n s o f the S o c i a l Development Committee and the D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Develo p m e n t . 1 1 The docu-ment proposed t h a t w h i l e the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the o p e r a t i o n would r e q u i r e the appointment of a D i r e c t o r , a number of matters c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d by C o u n c i l b e f o r e the a p p o i n t -ment. Among c o n s i d e r a t i o n s mentioned are, d i v i s i o n of the C i t y i n t o community areas; o r g a n i z a t i o n of Community Committees; neighbourhood s t u d i e s ; and o r g a n i z a t i o n of pro-grams a t the community l e v e l . F u r t h e r , the C i t y ' s admin-i s t r a t i v e ".. .. . .Departments and Boards should be r e p r e -sented on the S o c i a l Development Board, s i m i l a r to the „13 12 T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Board," which was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r " . . . .the c o - o r d i n a t i o n of a p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g programme. The Memorandum's p r o p o s a l f o r a Department of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g had as one of i t s o b j e c t i v e s , the c o - o r d i -Appendix B. The d r a f t of t h i s r e p o r t was s i g n e d by Commissioner Sutton Brown, and a copy was m a i l e d to U.C.S. f o r comments. The w r i t e r viewed t h i s m a t e r i a l i n the U.C.S. f i l e on the SP/CD Department. 1 1 I b i d . . p. 1. The terms " S o c i a l Development Commit-tee i n the body of the Memorandum and " S o c i a l Development Board i n the t i t l e and on p. 3, appear to be synonymous and r e f e r t o a T e c h n i c a l committee. T h i s document a l s o uses the terms Department of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Development i n the t i t l e and " S o c i a l Development Department" on p. 3 i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y . 12 13 I b i d . , p. 3. See Appendix A, p. 9. 50 n a t i o n of p u b l i c and p r i v a t e agency e f f o r t s i n s o c i a l s e r v i c e s and urban renewal wi t h an emphasis on l o c a l com-munity work. I t should be noted t h a t t h i s r e l a t e d to Gans' view of s o c i a l programming, and not s o c i e t a l p l a n n i n g . 1 ^ C o u n c i l on August 10, 1965, passed a r e s o l u t i o n r e c e i v i n g the r e p o r t and r e q u e s t i n g f u r t h e r study i n t o the c o s t s o f , and proposed f u n c t i o n s f o r , a Department. The s t a f f f u n c t i o n s were to be c a r r i e d out not o n l y by c i v i c , but a l s o by p r i v a t e or v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s . On the q u e s t i o n of a p o l i c y committee, the Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n p r e s e n t e d a view s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department. The proposed S o c i a l Development Com-m i t t e e mentioned on page one of the Memorandum, i s not to be confused with the l a t e r p r o p o s a l s f o r a "p o l i c y - m a k i n g " S o c i a l Development Committee, f o r i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , the use of the term appears t o be synonymous with the name S o c i a l Development Board, as used throughout the r e s t of the memo. The i n t e n t of the Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s c l e a r l y a p r o p o s a l f o r a ". . . .Board, s i m i l a r t o the T e c h n i c a l 16 P l a n n i n g Board", and, t h e r e f o r e , not one wit h a r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y f o r making p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s . The document s t a t e s t h a t i t would be a matter ( f o r C o u n c i l ) t o d e c i d e on the d e s i r a b i l i t y of h a v i n g a Committee or Board a t the p o l i c y -making l e v e l . T h i s p o i n t i s important and w i l l be e l a b o r a -ted upon i n the d i s c u s s i o n of the t h i r d r e p o r t c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s t h e s i s , E.D. H i l l ' s Recommendations. The Memorandum s t a t e d a d e s i r e f o r a T e c h n i c a l Com-mi t t e e which would have the o b j e c t i v e of d e v e l o p i n g the s o c i a l f a b r i c of the community t o p r e v e n t s o c i a l i l l s r a t h e than attempt to cure them. Implementation of t h i s o b j e c t i v was to be f a c i l i t a t e d by the T e c h n i c a l Board o r Committee Gans d e f i n e s s o c i a l programming as "non-economic n o n - p h y s i c a l programs f o r g o a l s 'adopted' by s o c i e t a l p l a n n i n g " . See Chapter I I . C. 15 Vancouver, B.C., C o u n c i l Minutes. 16 Appendix B, p. 3. which was to have r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from the School and Parks Boards, the S o c i a l S e r v i c e , H e a l t h , and P l a n n i n g Depart-ments, P o l i c e Commission, Family and C h i l d r e n ' s Court, and 17 Community Chest and C o u n c i l , (U.C.S.). L i n k a g e s w i t h the community were proposed, w i t h the i n t e n t i o n of g e t t i n g l o c a l community a c t i o n t o a c h i e v e s u c c e s s f u l s o c i a l programs. So t h a t t h i s might be ach i e v e d , t h e r e was to be an e f f o r t to o r g a n i z e programs a t the community l e v e l to a i d the development of i n d i v i d u a l s and groups. P r o p o s a l s i n c l u d e d d i v i s i o n of the C i t y i n t o l o c a l a r e a s , each h a v i n g a l o c a l committee. The author of the Memorandum, noted t h a t t h e r e are a l a r g e number of p r i v a t e a gencies concerned w i t h numerous types o f s o c i a l problems and concluded t h a t these a g e n c i e s s h o u l d be r e p r e s e n t e d i n the s o c i a l p l a n n i n g s t r u c t u r e . The o b j e c t i v e s f o r the SP/CD Department i n i t s r e l a t i o n -s h i p s w i t h the U.C.S., would be the c o - o r d i n a t i o n of the p r i v a t e and p u b l i c a g e n c i e s ' e f f o r t s i n s o c i a l s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n . The Community Chest and C o u n c i l (U.C.S.), would 18 be r e p r e s e n t e d on the proposed T e c h n i c a l Committee and i t would a l s o conduct neighbourhood s t u d i e s through i t s own S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Research D i v i s i o n . The document d e c l a r e s t h a t the D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g "has a major concern i n r e l a t i o n t o urban renewal and p u b l i c 19 h o u s i n g , " but does not s p e c i f i c a l l y mention any i n t e r -d epartmental r e l a t i o n s h i p s or l i n k a g e s , o t h e r than through mutual r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on the proposed T e c h n i c a l Committee. Thus the Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n suggested t h a t the o b j e c t i v e of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i n Vancouver was the s o c i a l 17 I b i d . , pp. 2-3. No mention i s made of i n c l u d i n g the proposed D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and we may p r e -sume t h a t t h i s i s an o v e r s i g h t . 18 The o n l y p r i v a t e agency the memorandum proposed f o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on the Committee was the U.C.S. 19 Appendix B, p. 2. 52 development of i t s c i t i z e n s , ". . . .as a p r e v e n t i o n to 20 s o c i a l i l l s , r a t h e r than t h e i r c u r e . " T h i s was to be accomplished be e s t a b l i s h i n g a Department of S o c i a l P l a n -n i n g and Development which would c o - o r d i n a t e the e f f o r t and s t a f f of p u b l i c and p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s , and by formin g a T e c h n i c a l Committee which would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s t u d i e s p r o p o s i n g a s o c i a l development program through l o c a l community endeavours. P r o p o s a l s f o r implementing s o c i a l p l a n n i n g o b j e c -t i v e s were t o be achieved by encouraging l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e f o r s e l f - b e t t e r m e n t . T h i s may be r e c o g n i z e d as the f i r s t type of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g d e f i n e d by M o r r i s and B i n s t o c k and which was c o n s i d e r e d i n Chapter II.C . T h i s r e p o r t d i d not s t a t e e x p l i c i t l y whether or not community development was proposed f o r a l l s e c t i o n s of the C i t y or o n l y those areas c o n s i d e r e d to have s o c i a l problems. One may gather from the c o n t e x t of the Memorandum, t h a t o n l y c e r t a i n areas were to be s t u d i e d to determine the l a c k of p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s and to i d e n t i f y s o c i a l problems i n these a r e a s . The i m p l i -c a t i o n of t h i s may be t h a t the author of the document con-s i d e r e d the l a c k of p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s as a c a u s a t i v e 21 f a c t o r i n the e x i s t e n c e of s o c i a l problems i n an a r e a . The t h i r d paper: E. D. H i l l , Recommendations, 22 (1966) was w r i t t e n a t the r e q u e s t of the Board of Admin-i s t r a t i o n , to a s s i s t the Board i n c o n s i d e r i n g "the o r g a n i -z a t i o n of the Department of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Develop-23 ment." He s t a t e d g o a l s f o r s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i n Vancouver; the i m p l i c a t i o n s of these o b j e c t i v e s , and he suggested methods of a c h i e v i n g them. H i s recommendations f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a Department 2 0 I b i d . . p. 1. 21 See Broady i n Chapter I I . C . 22 Appendix C. 23 See Appendix D, p. 7. 53 of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g i n c l u d e d Departmental o b j e c t i v e s such as d e f i n i n g s o c i a l problems, a s s i s t i n g the " s o c i a l fcservicej systems" of the community i n d e v e l o p i n g aggregate g o a l s , and a i d i n g i n c o n c e r t i n g , implementing and e v a l u -a t i n g p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . He a l s o proposed t h a t the department be accountable to the Board of Adminis-t r a t i o n . T h i s r e p o r t s t a t e d t h a t new o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c -t u r e s were r e q u i r e d i n the C i t y to implement the above ob-j e c t i v e s # and i t was the f i r s t b o l d statement r e g a r d i n g p o l i c y - m a k i n g i n the s o c i a l p l a n n i n g f i e l d i n Vancouver. H i l l recommended t h a t p o l i c y should be made by a consortium of "members of the Board of U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s and members of C i t y C o u n c i l a s s i s t e d (my emphasis, S. J . ) , by 24 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the School BOard and Parks Board." H i s view then, i n 1966, was t h a t a P o l i c y Committee was d e s i r a b l e and t h a t the U.C.S. should be r e p r e s e n t e d on i t as an equal w i t h C i t y Council., I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t the Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Memorandum, of the p r e v i o u s year regarded the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a committee on the p o l i c y -making l e v e l as a matter f o r d e c i s i o n . I t would be i n t e r e s -t i n g to know i f the U.C.S., r e q u e s t f o r equal p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h C i t y C o u n c i l i n d e c i d i n g s o c i a l p l a n n i n g p o l i c y was b e i n g persued d u r i n g the years 1965-67. I f the U.C.S. a c t i v e l y sought a r o l e a t the p o l i c y l e v e l , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n would r e p o r t to C i t y C o u n c i l t h a t C o u n c i l should d e c i d e whether or not the U.C.S. should be i n c l u d e d i n the p r o c e s s of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g a t t h i s l e v e l . The w r i t e r has not found any i n f o r m a t i o n i n the f i l e s r e g a r d i n g the d i f f e r e n c e s i n view between the U.C.S. and the Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n on t h i s i s s u e . While H i l l b e l i e v e d the purpose of the P o l i c y Committee was ". . . .to c o n c e r t the s o c i a l development and Appendix C, p. 2. 54 and p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s of the two o r g a n i z a t i o n s , " ( C o u n c i l 25 and U.C.S.), the o b j e c t i v e s f o r the T e c h n i c a l Committee were to a c t as a c o - o r d i n a t i n g body, to c o n s i d e r and r e p o r t on a d m i n i s t r a t i v e matters i n s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . The T e c h n i c a l Committee's f u n c t i o n s would i n c l u d e c o m p i l i n g d a t a , p r e p a r i n g s t u d i e s and submissions to C o u n c i l and o t h e r p o l i c y b o d i e s . I t would a l s o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r implementing approved r e p o r t s . H i l l , e x p l i c i t l y recommend-ed t h a t the two members of the Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n be i n c l u d e d on the T e c h n i c a l Committee. He expressed concern t h a t " c i t i z e n s o c i a l systems" had up to t h a t time been by-passed. H i l l ' s proposed o b j e c t i v e s of working i n the Community were to i n v o l v e c i t i z e n groups i n f o r m u l a t i n g aggregate s o c i a l g o a l s , and to d e v e l o p c o n c e r t e d p l a n n i n g and a c t i o n programs. The means of a c h i e v i n g t h i s g o a l was neighbourhood or l o c a l a r e a o r g a n i z a t i o n s which would i n v o l v e the l o c a l c i t i z e n s . The U.C.S. had garnered some ex p e r i e n c e a t the l o c a l community l e v e l i n s o c i a l w e l f a r e work. Along with t h i s , i t had the a b i l i t y t o c o n c e r t or c o - o r d i n a t e o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s (sub-systems) and i t was i n v o l v e d i n a l l o c a -t i n g funds f o r o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s . H i l l c i t e d these f a c t o r s as reasons f o r a major U.C.S. r o l e i n s o c i a l p l a n -n i n g i n the C i t y . The C i t y P l a n n i n g Department was c o n s i d e r e d i n the r e p o r t as an i n s t i t u t i o n w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n the f i e l d of h o u sing, urban renewal and development. I t s e f f o r t s would be brought t o g e t h e r w i t h o t h e r a gencies f o r purposes of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g and development through r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g on the T e c h n i c a l Committee. The recommendations of E. D. H i l l appear to r e f l e c t Warren's views r e g a r d i n g c o n c e r t i n g s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , and t h i s appears to be the main t h r u s t of the r e p o r t . Again, i 25 I b i d . , p. 5. can be suggested here t h a t Wheeler's v i e w p o i n t r e g a r d i n g the p h y s i c a l p l a n n e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n of the s o c i a l p l a n n e r b e i n g p r i m a r i l y o r i e n t e d to t h a t segment of the community which i s s o c i a l l y handicapped may be the r e s u l t of the s o c i a l p l a n n e r ' s l i m i t e d concept o f h i s own r o l e . The f o u r t h document t h i s t h e s i s examined was the 2 6 Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Report, (1966) which was the r e s u l t of a 1965 C o u n c i l r e s o l u t i o n r e q u e s t i n g an o u t l i n e "of the c o s t s of s e t t i n g up the proposed Department of 27 S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and development. . ." The purpose of the r e p o r t was to p r e s e n t as p o s i t i v e a case f o r s o c i a l p l a n -n i n g i n Vancouver as the C i t y was a c h i e v i n g i n the f i e l d o f p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g . The r e p o r t a l s o suggested t h a t C o u n c i l might wish to c o n s u l t w i t h the P r o v i n c i a l Govern-28 ment M i n i s t e r of S o c i a l W e l f a r e f o r e n d o r s a t i o n of the p r o p o s a l s i t c o n t a i n e d and f o r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e under the Canada A s s i s t a n c e P l a n . The Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n saw as a prime o b j e c -t i v e of the Department, the p r e v e n t i o n and treatment of s o c i a l maladjustment. Implementation would be brought about by a s o c i a l program i n v o l v i n g both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l l i n k s were to i n c l u d e two c i v i c committees, one of which was to be p o l i t i c a l t o determine p o l i c y and the ot h e r was to be a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t e c h n i c a l d e c i s i o n s . In t h i s r e p o r t , the p r o p o s a l to i n s t i t u t e a P o l i c y Appendix D. 27 C o u n c i l Minutes, August 10, 1965. 28 The Department of S o c i a l W elfare was sub s e q u e n t l y re-named the Department of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n and S o c i a l Improve-ment by the S o c i a l C r e d i t P a r t y M i n i s t e r , P h i l i p A. G a g l i a r d i . In 1973, the New Democratic P a r t y M i n i s t e r , Norman L e v i , r e v i s e d the name to the Department of Human Resources. Committee ( S o c i a l Development Committee) i n d i c a t e s t h a t between 1965 and 1966, the Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n came to a d e c i s i o n t h a t i t should recommend to C o u n c i l the e s t a b -l i s h m e n t of such a Committee wit h r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o l e l y from e l e c t e d c i v i c b o d i e s . C o u n c i l was a d v i s e d t h a t t h e r e were both advantages and di s a d v a n t a g e s to i n c l u d i n g the U.C.S., as a member of the p o l i c y - m a k i n g S o c i a l Development Committee (S.D.C.). The p o i n t r a i s e d e a r l i e r by the w r i t e r r e g a r d i n g the U.C.S. r o l e i n s o c i a l p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n -making a p p a r e n t l y a t t h i s time was s t i l l not c l a r i f i e d . P o l i c y Committee (S.D.C.) o b j e c t i v e s would i n c l u d e i n i t i a t i n g new programs and a c t i n g on recommendations from the proposed T e c h n i c a l Committee, ( J . T . C ) , or the U.C.S. Board of D i r e c t o r s , on s o c i a l p l a n n i n g m a t t e r s . The r e p o r t suggested t h a t the Mayor or Chairman of the C i t y H e a l t h and Welfare Committee c h a i r the P o l i c y Committee. The proposed T e c h n i c a l Committee ( J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee), would r e c e i v e recommendations from the C o n f e r -30 ence of L o c a l A rea C o u n c i l s , and i n i t i a t e programs on i t s own. However, the c h i e f i n i t i a t i v e was expected from the Department of SP/CD. The J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee (J.T.C.) would c o n s i s t of Department heads i n v o l v e d i n s o c i a l p r o -grams i n c l u d i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from U.C.S. T h i s r e p o r t p r e s e n t s a d e t a i l e d account of how T h i s r e p o r t i s the f i r s t to use the term " S o c i a l Development Committee" f o r a committee r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s i n s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . To a v o i d the c o n f u s i n g t e r m i n o l o g y used i n the v a r i o u s r e p o r t s , the author chose i n t h i s Chapter to use the term " P o l i c y Committee" which w i l l h e r e i n a f t e r a l s o be r e f e r r e d to as S o c i a l Development Com-mi t t e e or S.D.C. S i m i l a r l y , the committee r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t e c h n i c a l d e c i s i o n s w i l l h e r e i n a f t e r a l s o be r e f e r r e d to as J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee, or J.T.C. 30 A proposed c i t y - w i d e Conference of L o c a l . Area C o u n c i l s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o - o r d i n a t i n g the a c t i v i t i e s of the L o c a l A rea C o u n c i l s . The l a t t e r are made up of l o c a l com-munity l e a d e r s , not n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v e d i n s o c i a l w e l f a r e work. See: Appendix D, pp. 6 - 7. the community would i n t e r a c t with the Department of SP/CD. The r e p o r t c i t e s i n c r e a s i n g p r e s s u r e to have the c i v i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n v o l v e d i n the s o c i a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , and adds t h a t by i n t e r l o c k i n g the neighbourhood s t a f f s w i t h the Department of SP/CD t h e r e would be more o p p o r t u n i t i e s to make a p p l i c a t i o n f o r p r o v i n c i a l g r a n t s 31 as p a r t of a p r e v e n t a t i v e s o c i a l w e l f a r e program. In a d d i t i o n to the L o c a l Area C o u n c i l s of community l e a d e r s , which were to be o r g a n i z e d by and r e s p o n s i b l e to the U.C.S., another l e v e l of community l i n k a g e s was p r o -posed which would be comprised of a l l the p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f d o i n g s o c i a l s e r v i c e work i n the a r e a . T h i s Neigh-bourhood Resource C o u n c i l was to i n c l u d e p a r t of the s t a f f of the Department of SP/CD. I n t e r a c t i o n between the P l a n n i n g Department and the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department was not mentioned s p e c i f i c a l l y i n the r e p o r t except t h a t both would be r e p r e s e n t e d on the J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee ( J . T . C ) . I t may be surmised t h a t the Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' comments r e g a r d i n g the o b j e c t i v e of p r e v e n t i n g and t r e a t i n g s o c i a l maladjustments i s a s o c i a l programming approach. There was no d i s c u s s i o n of s o c i a l changes which might be r e q u i r e d to accomplish a p r e v e n t a t i v e system of s o c i a l development. The p r o p o s a l to e s t a b l i s h a P o l i c y Committee however, may be viewed as an attempt to do s o c i e t a l p l a n -n i n g i n Vancouver. I f the p o l i c i e s and programs proposed by the S o c i a l Development Committee, ( S . D . C ) , were to r e s u l t from the e v a l u a t i o n of s o c i a l g o a l s one c o u l d s t a t e t h a t s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i n Vancouver would be i n v o l v e d i n s o c i e t a l p l a n n i n g . The f i f t h document c o n s i s t s of the "Notes" by 32 E. D. H i l l , p r e p a r e d f o r the Ottawa confe r e n c e of Appendix D, p. 8. Appendix E. 58 p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l p l a n n e r s c a l l e d i n A p r i l , 1967, to d i s c u s s low-income h o u s i n g . The r e p o r t was p r e s e n t e d to persons o t h e r than the C i t y A d m i n i s t r a t o r s and C o u n c i l , to e x p l a i n the aims of the proposed Department and Committees f o r s o c i a l development i n Vancouver. I t d i s -cussed the purposes of the o r g a n i z a t i o n and i t s r e l a t i o n -s h i p s w i t h the U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s . i These notes s t r e s s the Departmental o b j e c t i v e s of c o - o r d i n a t i n g c i v i c programs f o r s o c i a l development and s t u d y i n g community s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . H i l l a l s o proposed t h a t the D i r e c t o r of SP/CD sh o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s o c i a l p l a n n i n g and development i n i t i a t i v e s . W r i t t e n i n 1967, the Notes i n d i c a t e d a change i n approach w i t h r e g a r d to U.C.S., r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on the P o l i c y Committee ( S . D . C ) , when compared w i t h the same author's Recommendations, of 1966'. T h i s document proposed t h a t the S o c i a l Development Committee should be "composed 33 e x c l u s i v e l y of e l e c t e d p o l i c y - m a k e r s . " H i l l commented t h a t no " o f f i c i a l " r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the S.D.C. was sought by U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s i n order to assure an i n d e -pendent, and where n e c e s s a r y , c r i t i c a l stance by the U.C.S. T h i s s t a n d p o i n t i s not borne out by an examination of the two p r e v i o u s documents. One of the prime o b j e c t i v e s mentioned by H i l l was t h a t i n the p l a n n i n g o f p o l i c y and s e t t i n g of g o a l s , the p o l i c y - m a k e r s would be i n a p o s i t i o n t o commit the r e s p e c -t i v e b o d ies they r e p r e s e n t to a course of a c t i o n . I t may be presumed t h a t implementation of t h i s o b j e c t i v e would be ver y d i f f i c u l t , when one c o n s i d e r s the extreme c o m p l e x i t y of m u n i c i p a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e d u r e s . The views expressed r e g a r d i n g the J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee were e s s e n t i a l l y a r e i t e r a t i o n of those c i t e d i n the p r e v i o u s r e p o r t . The notes mentioned f o r the f i r s t time t h a t the D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g would c h a i r the 3 3 I b i d . , p. 88. 59 J.T.C. S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department r e l a t i o n s h i p s with the community were to c e n t r e on the Department's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o n d u c t i n g s t u d i e s of community s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . H i l l a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t d e t a i l s f o r the implementation of the g o a l s of the Department were b e i n g developed i n a formal p r o p o s a l f o r P r o v i n c i a l Government f u n d i n g under the Canada A s s i s t a n c e P l a n . As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, H i l l ' s s t a t e d views r e g a r d i n g the U.C.S. r o l e i n p u b l i c s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i n Vancouver were r e v i s e d c o n s i d e r a b l y i n t h i s r e p o r t . The U.C.S. was to c o n t i n u e to be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e v e l o p i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g L o c a l Area C o u n c i l s , and be r e p r e s e n t e d on the T e c h n i c a l Committee, but not on the P o l i c y Committee. There i s no d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s r e p o r t r e g a r d i n g i n t e r - d e p a r t m e n t a l r e l a t i o n s between the two Departments i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g a t C i t y H a l l . The J . T . C , would, however, b r i n g t o g e t h e r the A d m i n i s t r a t i v e heads of the C i t y and t h i s would i n c l u d e the D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g . An overview of H i l l ' s "Notes" would s i g n i f y the p e r c e p t i o n s he had of p u b l i c s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . I t appears 34 t h a t H i l l ' s views are b e s t d e f i n e d by Kahn i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the t h i r d a r e a from which s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i s d e r i v e d . The "Notes" i n d i c a t e a c o n t i n u e d pre-occupa-t i o n w i t h the assessment of s o c i a l problems to b e t t e r a l l o c a t e funds and c o - o r d i n a t e s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . The s i x t h r e p o r t i s the S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department 35 and U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s , A p p l i c a t i o n (1967) to the M i n i s t e r of S o c i a l W elfare on b e h a l f of the proposed Department of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g . Under terms of the Canada A s s i s t a n c e P l a n , the F e d e r a l Government i s prepared t o See Chapter I I . C Appendix F. 60 make c o n t r i b u t i o n s f o r c e r t a i n s o c i a l s e r v i c e s which r e c e i v e a p p r o v a l of the P r o v i n c i a l Government r e s p o n s i b l e f o r them. The i n t e n t i o n of the r e p o r t was to g e t P r o v i n c i a l Government support f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a Department of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g , the P o l i c y and T e c h n i c a l committees and a p p r o v a l of P r o v i n c i a l and F e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l s u pport. The a p p l i c a t i o n i n c l u d e d p r o p o s a l s f o r s t a f f i n g the Department and f i v e l o c a l a r e a o f f i c e s . T h i s a p p l i c a t i o n suggested the a d d i t i o n of another l e v e l of e l e c t e d d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s to the S o c i a l Development Committee— the P r o v i n c i a l Government. Correspondence i n the U.C.S. f i l e which was examined, i n d i c a t e d t h a t the M i n i s t e r of S o c i a l Welfare looked w i t h f a v o u r a t the proposed P o l i c y Committee and t h a t he was p repared to have a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n the person of a M i n i s t e r Without P o r t f o l i o s i t on the Committee. 1 P r o j e c t e d membership on the J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee was e s s e n t i a l l y the same as t h a t put f o r t h i n H i l l ' s Recommendations. w i t h the e x c e p t i o n t h a t the U.C.S. was to be r e p r e s e n t e d by not o n l y i t s D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g but a l s o by i t s E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r , i n c r e a s i n g the t o t a l t o twelve members. R e l a t i o n s h i p s between the;SP/CD Department and the committee are d e t a i l e d i n t h i s document. S t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s i n c l u d e d making the s o c i a l s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y system more s e n s i t i v e to c i t i z e n needs, c o - o r d i n a t i n g of w e l f a r e 36 s e r v i c e s w i t h i n l o c a l areas by L o c a l Area C o - o r d i n a t o r s , and f o s t e r i n g c o n c e r t e d r e s e a r c h , p l a n n i n g and s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y i n l o c a l areas by the L o c a l A rea C o u n c i l s . F i v e A C o - o r d i n a t o r i s a member of the s t a f f of the Department of S o c i a l Planning/Community Development, who works i n L o c a l Areas or neighbourhoods i n Vancouver, c o - o r d i n a t i n g the work of a team of p r o f e s s i o n a l and n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l people r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o v i d i n g s o c i a l s e r v i c e s i n the area; a S o c i a l P l a n n e r . c o - o r d i n a t o r s were to be r e s p o n s i b l e t o the D i r e c t o r of SP/CD w h i l e L.A. C o u n c i l s were to be autonomous u n i t s which would make recommendations to the U.C.S. That s e c t i o n of the b r i e f which s p e c i f i c a l l y d e a l s w i t h the U.C.S., l i s t s a number of f u n c t i o n s f o r the agency Which r e l a t e to SP/CD Departmental o b j e c t i v e s i n r e l a t i o n to U.C.S., i n c l u d i n g f a c i l i t a t i n g p l a n n i n g w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s on a l o c a l area b a s i s and c o - o r d i n a t i n g the v o l u n t a r y and p u b l i c s e c t o r s i n t h e i r d e l i v e r y of such s e r v i c e s . U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s i s e x p l i c i t l y a u t h o r i z e d to r e p r e s e n t the v o l u n t a r y or p r i v a t e s e c t o r of the community. The r e p o r t ' s o n l y concern w i t h i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the P l a n n i n g and S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Departments was w i t h the J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee where the D i r e c t o r s of the Departments were to be r e p r e s e n t e d . A review of the c o n t e n t s of the a p p l i c a t i o n b r i n g s to the f o r e i t s p r e dominantly s o c i a l w e l f a r e p l a n n i n g approach to s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i n Vancouver. T h i s may be expected when c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s g i v e n to the two agencies which p r e p a r e d the document - U.C.S., and the S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department a t C i t y H a l l . The seventh r e p o r t , Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Program 3 7 and Budget (1968) c o n t a i n s the J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee r e p o r t p repared by the newly-appointed D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Community Development i n h i s c a p a c i t y as Chairman of the J.T.C. In c l u d e d i n t h i s document are the 38 "Terms of Refe r e n c e " f o r the Department of SP/CD which 39 were adopted by C o u n c i l on June 13, 1968. T h i s r e p o r t was produced to p r o v i d e C i t y C o u n c i l w i t h a budget f o r the Department. I t a l s o s p e c i f i e d purposes or o b j e c t i v e s f o r the Department of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g , and f u n c t i o n s which would p e r m i t the o r g a n i z a t i o n to c a r r y out i t s o b j e c t i v e s . 3 7 38 Appendix G. I b i d . , pp. 5 - 6. 39 C o u n c i l Minutes, June 13, 1968. 6 2 I n c i d e n t a l l y , t h i s document i n d i c a t e s t h a t Canada A s s i s t a n c e P l a n funds were not a v a i l a b l e f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g the Department s i n c e the P r o v i n c i a l Government s t a t e d t h a t i t had no funds a v a i l a b l e f o r i t s p o r t i o n of the c o s t -s h a r i n g formula mandatory under the P l a n . For purposes of t h i s t h e s i s , i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t t h i s document i s the c u l m i n a t i o n of three years of p r e l i m i n a r y p r o p o s a l s f o r the f o r m a t i o n of a s o c i a l p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n i n Vancouver. S i n c e the "Terms of R e f e r e n c e " o u t l i n e the o b j e c t i v e s and the p r o p o s a l s f o r the implementation of the o b j e c t i v e s of the .Social P l a n n i n g Department, they may be c o n s t r u e d as d e f i n i n g s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i n Vancouver i n 1968. Most of the s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s f o r the Department were s i m i l a r to the p r o p o s a l s of e a r l i e r r e p o r t s , as m o d i f i e d i n subsequent documents. The implementation of o b j e c t i v e s are l i s t e d as f u n c t i o n s and c o n t a i n f o r the f i r s t time, t h r e e s i g n i f i c a n t a d d i t i o n a l t a s k s f o r the SP/CD Department. S p e c i f i c a l l y , they are the f o l l o w i n g u n d e r l i n e d passages, (my emphasis, S. J . ) : .to i n t e g r a t e the s o c i a l w i t h the o t h e r a s p e c t s of  c j t y p l a n n i n g , i n c l u d i n g Urban renewal and p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s ; .to study and d e f i n e Vancouver's s o c i a l problems, e v a l u a t e the impact of community s e r v i c e s on these problems, support e f f e c t i v e s e r v i c e s and recommend  the d i s c o n t i n u a n c e of i n e f f e c t i v e s e r v i c e s ; .to c r e a t e and r e g u l a r l y update a master s o c i a l  development p l a n f o r Vancouver.40 While i t may appear t h a t t h i s i s s o c i a l programming not u n l i k e e a r l i e r p r o p o s a l s , the p e r c e p t i o n s of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i n the C i t y as expressed i n t h i s r e p o r t , have been g i v e n added comprehensiveness by the D i r e c t o r of SP/CD. The f u n c t i o n s of the Department w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d a t Appendix G, p. 5. l e n g t h i n Chapter IV, a t which time the d e f i n i t i o n of a master s o c i a l development p l a n w i l l be g i v e n . The "Terms of Reference" made no major changes to recommendations s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y r e g a r d i n g the S o c i a l Development Committee. I t d i d n o n e t h e l e s s , s p e c i f i c a l l y mention t h a t the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r w i l l r e p r e s e n t the J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee a t S o c i a l Development Committee meetings. S p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s f o r the J . T . C , are n o t p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s document, however, the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the Committee appear to i n d i c a t e t h a t the g o a l s are viewed s i m i l a r l y to p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s . R e p r e s e n t a t i o n on the J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee was t o be augmented wit h the a d d i t i o n of the R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r of W e lfare r e p r e s e n t i n g the p r o v i n c i a l government agency. Community l i n k a g e s w i t h the SP/CD Department were to be f o s t e r e d through t h r e e C o - o r d i n a t o r s of l o c a l a r e a s e r v i c e s — a r e d u c t i o n of two from the p r o p o s a l i n the a p p l i c a t i o n to the M i n i s t e r of S o c i a l Welfare i n 1967. T h i s change r e s u l t e d from the P r o v i n c i a l Government's i n a b i l i t y a t the time, to commit funds f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n 41 Of a s o c i a l p l a n n i n g presence i n the C i t y . Departmental o b j e c t i v e s f o r community work were i n the main s i m i l a r to e a r l i e r p r o p o s a l s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d a d d i t i o n s which were recommended by the D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and adopted by C o u n c i l . P r o p o s a l s to implement the o b j e c t i v e s i n c l u d e d a u t h o r i z a t i o n f o r the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r to a s s i s t i n Urban Renewal Scheme No. 3, ( S t r a t h c o n a Sub-Area), and to employ a p a r t - t i m e worker f o r the Community S e r v i c e s Centre a t Grandview (sub s e q u e n t l y c a l l e d the B r i t a n n i a Community S e r v i c e s C e n t r e ) . 4 2 I b i d . , p. 1. 2 I b i d . , p. 3. 64 The "Terms of Reference" do not i n d i c a t e any change i n v i e w p o i n t on the Department's i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s from the A p p l i c a t i o n of 1967. I t r e i t e r a t e d the U.C.S. r o l e as a major c o n s u l t a n t f o r s o c i a l p l a n n i n g s t u d i e s i n Vancouver. T h i s document i s the o n l y one of the e i g h t s t u d i e s which makes r e f e r e n c e to the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the Departments of P l a n n i n g and S o c i a l P l a n n i n g . T h i s was s t a t e d i n the s o c i a l p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n of i n t e g r a t i n g the s o c i a l with the other a s p e c t s of c i t y p l a n n i n g . I t would be of c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t to t h i s study, to i n q u i r e i n t o the p e r c e p t i o n s t h a t P l a n n e r s and S o c i a l P l a n n e r s a t C i t y H a l l have wi t h r e g a r d to t h i s one r e p o r t which makes an e x p l i c i t statement on the i n t e r a c t i o n s of the two Departments, and t h i s i s r e p o r t e d i n Chapter IV. The f i n a l document examined i n t h i s t h e s i s , was the 43 C o u n c i l Minutes, " R e s o l u t i o n s " o f October 8, 1968, which e s t a b l i s h e d the S o c i a l Development Committee and the J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee, and a u t h o r i z e d . .these Committees to proceed w i t h t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . " These r e s o l u t i o n s c a r r i e d out the recommendations of the p r e c e d i n g r e p o r t - the Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Program and Budget of 1968, which d e a l t w i t h the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Department of SP/CD - and d i d not make any statement r e g a r d i n g the Department per se which had been i n e x i s t e n c e f o r appr o x i m a t e l y f o u r months. C o u n c i l ' s r e s o l u t i o n on the f o r m a t i o n of the S.D.C. d i f f e r e d from the p r e v i o u s r e p o r t ' s "Terms of Re f e r e n c e " by a s s i g n i n g to t h i s P o l i c y Committee two a d d i t i o n a l d u t i e s : 1) t o u n i f y the implementation of s o c i a l p o l i c i e s and p l a n s ; and 2) to f a c i l i t a t e changes i n the C i t y ' s s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s through c o - o r d i n a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n Appendix H. of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . These p r o p o s a l s appear to f a l l s h o r t of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g as an e f f o r t a t s o c i a l change as d e f i n e d by M o r r i s and B i n s t o c k and d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter II.C . In F e a s i b l e P l a n n i n g f o r S o c i a l Change, these authors d e s c r i b e a concept of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g which s t r i v e s to change s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s by a l t e r i n g the p o l i c i e s of formal o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 4 4 The d u t i e s of the S.D.C. may be s a i d to f o c u s on f a c i l i t a t i n g changes i n the C i t y ' s s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s to p r o v i d e b e t t e r s o c i a l s e r v i c e s r a t h e r than making changes i n the s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s by a l t e r i n g the p o l i c i e s of o r g a n i z a t i o n . O b j e c t i v e s f o r the J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee were not e x p l i c i t l y e n u n c i a t e d i n the C o u n c i l r e s o l u t i o n of October 8, 1968, a l t h o u g h the Committee's d u t i e s were d e f i n e d . S i n c e the t a s k s a s s i g n e d to the J . T . C , are the means of implementing o b j e c t i v e s of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g , they are very c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the f u n c t i o n s p r e v i o u s l y o u t l i n e d f o r the Department of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g . The d u t i e s of the T e c h n i c a l Committee a u t h o r i z e d by C o u n c i l d i f f e r from e a r l i e r Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n r e p o r t s o n l y by the i n c l u s i o n of t a s k s which r e f l e c t the changes proposed by the D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g i n the Department's Terms of Reference, which are t o : 1) u n i f y p l a n n i n g p r o c e d u r e s , and 2) c r e a t e and r e g u l a r l y update a master s o c i a l 45 development p l a n f o r Vancouver. At i t s i n c e p t i o n , J.T.C. membership r e f l e c t e d the views expressed by E r n e s t H i l l i n h i s Recommendations, (1966), where he l i s t e d e l e v e n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . C o u n c i l i n 1968, a u t h o r i z e d twelve r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s to the Committee, M o r r i s and B i n s t o c k , F e a s i b l e P l a n n i n g , pp.14-15. Appendix H, p. 4. i n c l u d i n g a P r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l Welfare r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . As s t a t e d e a r l i e r , the C o u n c i l r e s o l u t i d n s d e a l t e x c l u s i v e l y with the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the P o l i c y and T e c h n i c a l Committees, t h e i r membership and t h e i r d u t i e s . T h e r e f o r e a d i s c u s s i o n of SP/CD Department r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the g e n e r a l community, U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s and the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department i s not a p p r o p r i a t e a t t h i s p o i n t . i Summary The e i g h t documents examined, p r o v i d e a h i s t o r i c a l view of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g development i n Vancouver. They a l s o d e f i n e what the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s , the Pl a n n e r s and A d m i n i s t r a t o r s who wrote the r e p o r t s , p e r c e i v e d as s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . From the v a r i o u s accounts examined one can r e c o g n i z e a number of t h e o r e t i c a l concepts d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s study. The predominant t h e o r e t i c a l approach p r e s e n t e d i n the r e p o r t s may be b e s t d e s c r i b e d as s o c i a l programming. The seventh and e i g h t h r e p o r t s s t a t e d the o b j e c t i v e s and the methods of implementing the o b j e c t i v e s of the S o c i a l Planning/Community Development Department. These o b j e c t i v e s and the p r o p o s a l s f o r t h e i r achievement, then, d e f i n e i n p a r t s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i n Vancouver i n 1968, i n a d d i t i o n to the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between d i f f e r e n t groups i n v o l v e d i n the p l a n n i n g system or o r g a n i z a t i o n a t C i t y H a l l . T h i s b r i e f h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i n the C i t y , w i l l s e r v e as a b a s i s f o r comparison w i t h a 1971 view of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . CITY OF VANCOUVER, B.C C!V.'C ORGANIZATION ELECTORS VANCOUVER ( A ) • BOARD OF SCHOOL T R U S T E E S ( B l + VANCOUVER CITY COUNCIL S T A N O I N G C O M M I T T E E S T R A N S P O R T A T I O N F I N A N C E G E N E R A L P U R P O S E S H E A L T H A N D W E L F A R E P L A N N I N G D E V E L O P M E N T BOARDS - ESTAQLISKEO BY (I) B Y - L A W , (Z) COUNCIL RESOLUTION ( I ) V A N C O U V E R C I V I C A U O I T O R i U M B O A R D ( 2 ! F A M I L Y C O U R T C O M M I T T E E ( 2 1 ( 2 ) C I V I L D E F E N C E . B O A R D ( I ) II), ( r V A N C O U V E R C I T Y P L A N N I N G C O M M I S S I O N V A N C O U V E R A T H L E T I C C O M M I S S I O N ( I ) O F F I C I A L T R A F F I C C O M M I S S I O N B O A R D C F V A R I A N C E V E H I C L E S FOR H I R E eOARO (I) R E N T A L A C C O M M O D A T I O N G R I E V A N C E B O A R D J O I N T T E C H N I C A L C O M M I T T E E lx ** T E C H N I C A L P L A N N I N G DO'-RD BOARD OF ADMINISTRATION A U D I T O R I U M C l T Y C L E R K e A R C H I V E S C I V I L O E F E N C E E N G I N E E R I N G F I N A N C E J F I R E H E A L T H OPERATIONS I P R O V I N C I A L C O U R T S P E R M I T S A N D L I C E N C E S P E R S O N N E L S E R V I C E P L A N N I N G A N D C I V I C D E V E L O P M E N T S O C I A L P L A N N I N G A M D C O M M U N I T Y DEVELOP- ' . E ' J T > i R B L J I . , . (Bl ( 8 1 f r—| BOARD OF PARKS AND PUBLIC R ECREATION PU8LIC LIBRARY BOARD BOARD OF POLICE COMMISSIONERS A P P O I N T E O BY LT.GOV. IN COUNCIL ( F ) | + G R E A T E R V A N C O U V E R R E G I O N A L O I S T R I C T ADA GKLA7E .V A N C O U V E R j  V O U V ; R E G I O N A L H O S P I T A L D I S T . (P)l<-G R E A T E R V A N C O U V E R S EWER ANO ORAINAGE ClST. GRc" A T E R V A N C O U V E R W A T E R DISTRICT ID) P A C I F I C N A T I O N A L E X H I B I T I O N C I T Y C L E R K I - 1 J A S S E S S M E N T j I C O M M I S S I O N E R | I J M A Y O R S S E C R E T A R I A T R E T U R N I N G O F F I C E R M U N I C I P A L L A B O U R R E L A T I O N S B U R E A U P R O B A T I O N S E R V I C E S M U S E U M S W E L F A R E A N D R E H A B I L I T A T I O N *** CODE C O M M U N I C A T I O N , A P P O I N T M E N T , C O N T R O L . F I N A N C I A L C O N T R O L B Y C I T Y C O U N C I L . A P P O I N T M E N T S M A D E B Y C O U N C I L . ( I N C U M B E N T S H A V E S T A T U T O R Y P O W E R S AND OUTIES.) T H E S E B O A R D S M A Y M A K E D E C I S I O N S WHICH A R E B I N D I N G O N P A R T I E S A F F E C T E D . B U R E A U P R O V I D E S S E R V I C E T O - -V A N C O U V E R N O R T H V A N C O U V E R CITY B U R N A B Y N O R T H V A N C O U V E R DISTRICT R I C H M O N O N O R T H V A N C O U V E R N E W W E S T M I N S T E R S C H O O L DISTRICT M E M B E R S I N C L U D E A P P O I N T E D O F F I C I A L S FROM P R O V I N C I A L G O V ' T A N D F R O M O T H E R B O A R O S . EXECUTIVE BODIES E S T A B L I S H E D B Y L E G I S L A T I O N : ( A ) P U B L I C S C H O O L S A C T ( 8 ) V A N C O U V E R C H A R T E R ( C ) P U B L I C L I B R A R Y A C T ( 0 1 S P E C I A L . A C T S O F I N C O R P O R A T I O N ( E ) " R E G I O N A L " A C T S ( F ) M U N I C I P A L A C T n H a> o (t> p-ft CTl CHAPTER IV THE DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL PLANNING/ COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN ACTION I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s t h e s i s has d i s c u s s e d . t h e development of a s o c i a l p l a n n i n g agency i n Vancouver which c u l m i n a t e d i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a C i v i c Department i n 1968, i n a d d i t i o n to o b j e c t i v e s and p r o p o s a l s to implement the o b j e c t i v e s of the Department. The d i s s e r t a t i o n w i l l c o n s i d e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r , v a r i o u s aspects of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department a c t i v i t y i n 1971, so t h a t a comparison may be made wit h the views espoused f o r s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i n 1968. In a sense the l a t t e r may be c o n s i d e r e d an " i d e a l " or t h e o r e t i c a l concept of Vancouver s o c i a l p l a n n i n g , w h i l e the c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e may r e f l e c t m o d i f i c a t i o n s brought about by the e x p e r i e n c e s of the Department over a p e r i o d of th r e e y e a r s . For these reasons, the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s w i l l be examined: The manner i n which: . S o c i a l P l a n n e r s p e r c e i v e 1. s o c i a l p l a n n i n g , 2. t h e i r r o l e i n s o c i a l p l a n n i n g , t h e i r a c t i o n s as S o c i a l P l a n n e r s , and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department. .Persons o u t s i d e the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department p e r c e i v e 1. s o c i a l p l a n n i n g , 2. the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s ' r o l e , the a c t i o n s of S o c i a l P l a n n e r s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department. 1 68 As background i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the r e a d e r , a b r i e f comment on the Community Chest and C o u n c i l ' s (U.C.S.) 1 involvement i n s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i n Vancouver seems a p p r o p r i a t e a t t h i s p o i n t . The Community Chest, a f e d e r a t i o n of p r i v a t e or v o l u n t a r y s e r v i c e agencies concerned w i t h r a i s i n g and a l l o c a t i n g funds has been a c t i v e l y d o i n g s o c i a l p l a n n i n g s i n c e 1964, w i t h p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on l o c a l area p l a n n i n g . S e v e r a l agencies and i n d i v i d u a l s i n the Vancouver a r e a have been i n c o n f l i c t w i t h the Community Chest (U.C.S.) r e g a r d i n g 2 a p r i o r r i g h t to l o c a l area j u r i s d i c t i o n . By January, 1967, d e f i n i t i v e l o c a l areas were 3 i d e n t i f i e d by U.C.S. r e s e a r c h e r Barry Mayhew. However, the r e are i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t s h o r t l y a f t e r the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department was e s t a b l i s h e d , the d i v i s i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s between U.C.S. and Neighbourhood S e r v i c e s A s s o c i a t i o n , 4 N.S.A.) on "community development " and " p l a n n i n g c o n s u l t a t i o n " r e q u i r e d c l a r i f i c a t i o n . As a r e s u l t , an Ad Hoc Committee on L o c a l Areas and L o c a l Area C o u n c i l s was formed. T h i s Committee prepared and p u b l i s h e d a r e p o r t which recommended t h a t N.S.A., co n t i n u e i t s commitment t o , The Community Chest and C o u n c i l s of G r e a t e r Vancouver changed i t s named to U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s of the G r e a t e r Vancouver Area, (U.C.S.), i n 1966. 2 C h r i s t i a n a McNiven, p r i n c i p a l i n v e s t i g a t o r , Case  S e r i e s i n S o c i a l P l a n n i n g , 4: P l a n n i n g Under V o l u n t a r y  C o u n c i l and P u b l i c A u s p i c e s , Vancouver, (Ottawa: The Canadian C o u n c i l on S o c i a l Development, J u l y , 1972, p. 21. 3 Barry Mayhew, L o c a l Areas of Vancouver, (Vancouver, B.C.: Research Department, U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s of G r e a t e r Vancouver, January, 1967). I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t these areas are c o n s i d e r e d by some as l o g i c a l wards or c o n s t i t u e n c i e s i n the r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n of Vancouver C i v i c Government expected i n 1973-4. 4 Neighbourhood S e r v i c e s A s s o c i a t i o n i s a member agency wi t h U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s which s p e c i a l i z e s i n neighbourhood work. I t has been a c t i v e i n L o c a l Area C o u n c i l s (made up of community l e a d e r s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l s e r v i c e people) and Area Resource C o u n c i l s , (a team of p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l s e r v i c e p e r s o n n e l ) i n Vancouver. 69 arid r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r community development i n the L o c a l 5 Areas. Community development s e r v i c e s were r e - o r g a n i z e d under N.S.A.' aus p i c e s J u l y 1, 1970. 6 The reader w i l l r e c a l l t h a t Neighbourhood S e r v i c e s A s s o c i a t i o n i s a s o c i a l agency i n the Vancouver area d o i n g S o c i a l S e r v i c e P l a n n i n g . S o c i a l P l a n n i n g as P e r c e i v e d by Persons W i t h i n the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department The manner i n which S o c i a l P l a n n e r s p e r c e i v e t h e i r f i e l d of endeavour i n 1971 can be presumed to be t h e i r views of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g theory at t h a t time. T h i s w i l l p ermit a comparison w i t h the p e r c e p t i o n s S o c i a l P l a n n e r s had of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i n 1968 as expressed i n the Depart-mentis Terms of Reference. I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t the D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g drew up t h i s document which c o n t a i n s , a) the purpose, and b) the f u n c t i o n s of the Department of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Community Development. 1. a. The S t a t e d Purpose of the Department (1968) as Viewed i n 1971  8 D u r i n g an i n t e r v i e w with the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r , he commented t h a t the s t a t e d purpose or aim of the Department of SP/CD was c o n s i d e r e d the p h i l o s o p h y of the Department, and i s w r i t t e n i n very broad terms to cover most i s s u e s i n which the Department i s i n t e r e s t e d . In t h i s o p i n i o n , one o b j e c t i v e which i s i m p l i c i t i n the statement of purpose, i s t h a t of U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s of the G r e a t e r Vancouver Area, L o c a l Area and L o c a l Areas C o u n c i l s : Community Develop-ment S t a f f and Other Support Services"! (Vancouver, B.C.: A p r i l 16, 1970). T h i s r e p o r t d e s c r i b e s the p r o c e s s of Communi-ty Development as " h e l p i n g r e s i d e n t s of an area to d e v e l o p i n t o a c t i v e , r e s p o n s i b l e c i t i z e n s who undertake c o - o p e r a t i v e a c t i o n to improve t h e i r community." p. 3. 6McNiven, I b i d . , p. 28. 7 The r e a d e r i s r e q u e s t e d to use Appendix G., p. 5 , as an a i d to the d i s c u s s i o n which f o l l o w s . g Names, o f f i c i a l s p o s i t i o n s , d a tes and l o c a t i o n s of i n t e r v i e w s are g i v e n i n the B i b l i o g r a p h y . 70 endeavouring "to make C i t y H a l l more r e s p o n s i v e " to c i t i z e n needs. A second g o a l i s to h e l p the p u b l i c achieve i t s r i g h t to channels of i n f o r m a t i o n , i f the Department i s to " f o s t e r c i t i z e n s e l f - h e l p and community-betterment programs." I t should be mentioned t h a t d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h the 9 S o c i a l P l a n n e r s i n d i c a t e t h a t i n t h e i r view the o b j e c t i v e s of the Department are e s s e n t i a l l y s o c i a l programming and not s o c i e t a l p l a n n i n g as d i s t i n g u i s h e d by Gans. There was g e n e r a l agreement i n the Depart-ment t h a t s o c i e t a l g o a l s must be determined by C o u n c i l and the S o c i a l Development Committee. b. The S t a t e d F u n c t i o n s of the Department (1968) as Viewed i n 1971  In order to c a r r y out the o b j e c t i v e s of the Department, the Terms of Reference s t a t e seven f u n c t i o n s or t a s k s of the Department. P r e s e n t l y , the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s see the f u n c t i o n s as a guide f o r day-to-day departmental a c t i v i t i e s . ( i ) U n i f i c a t i o n of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s A c c o r d i n g to two S o c i a l P l a n n e r s , u n i f i c a t i o n of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s has not been accomplished, and t h i s may be good from the clients'"''"'' v i e w p o i n t . U n i f i c a t i o n or c o n c e r t i n g of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s would mean a r e s t r i c t i o n of o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e to the r e c i p i e n t , w h i l e l a c k of c o n c e r t i n g r e s u l t s i n g r e a t e r freedom of c h o i c e s i n c e the c l i e n t may seek a i d from a second agency i f the The term S o c i a l P l a n n e r s or C o - o r d i n a t o r s w i l l r e f e r to those S o c i a l P l a n n e r s i n t e r v i e w e d who work i n the Department of SP/CD, w h i l e the term D i r e c t o r s h a l l be r e s e r v e d f o r views expressed s o l e l y by the D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g . ""•^ See Chapter I I , S e c t i o n C f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of s o c i e t a l p l a n n i n g and s o c i a l programming. ""''"'In s o c i a l workers' te r m i n o l o g y the c l i e n t i s the i n d i v i d u a l or group r e c e i v i n g the s o c i a l s e r v i c e . f i r s t proves u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . One C o - o r d i n a t o r r e f e r r e d the w r i t e r to the l a t e r views expressed by Warren (and d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s i n Chapter 11(C) where he argued t h a t c o m p e t i t i o n i n s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y i n c r e a s e s the chances f o r i n n o v a t i o n , improves the q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e s and enhances the d i g n i t y of the r e c i p i e n t . ( i i ) I n t e g r a t i o n of s o c i a l and c i t y p l a n n i n g , and urban renewal t a s k s  I n t e g r a t i o n of " s o c i a l with other a s p e c t s of c i t y p l a n n i n g , " i n the o p i n i o n of the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r , i s o c c u r r i n g i n the B r i t a n n i a Community 12 S e r v i c e s Centre, and i t i s l i k e l y t h a t s e p a r a t e f a c i l i t i e s f o r s c h o o l s , l i b r a r i e s and r e c r e a t i o n w i l l no l o n g e r be c o n s t r u c t e d i n the C i t y . In t h i s matter, the D i r e c t o r commented t h a t an i n t e g r a t e d s e r v i c e s complex may pose a t h r e a t to a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and c a r e t a k e r s a l i k e . The i n t e g r a t i o n of the s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s of p l a n n i n g w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n d e t a i l l a t e r i n t h i s s e c t i o n under the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and P l a n n i n g Departments. S u f f i c e to mention at t h i s time, t h a t the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s appear to agree t h a t the Department's i n t e g r a t i v e f u n c t i o n has added a dimension to the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n Vancouver, and as an example of t h i s , p o i n t to urban renewal i n Vancouver s i n c e 1968. ( i i i ) L o c a l area p l a n n i n g R e f i n i n g the p l a n n i n g and d e l i v e r y of s e r v i c e s on a l o c a l a r e a b a s i s , i s i n the o p i n i o n of most of the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s i n t e r v i e w e d , a worthwhile concept, but i t has not worked out too w e l l . Two d i f f i c u l t i e s were mentioned by the respondents. F i r s t l y , the L o c a l A rea A m u l t i - s e r v i c e c e n t r e or complex, combin-i n g f a c i l i t i e s f o r a community c e n t r e with o t h e r s o c i a l s e r v i c e s such as l i b r a r i e s , s o c i a l agency o f f i c e s , e t c e t e r a . 72 C o - o r d i n a t o r s f a c e more ta s k s i n the community than they can adequately manage. Secondly, C o u n c i l g i v e s the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department, non-area t a s k s . An example of the l a t t e r i s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g c o n s u l t a n t work. A more important reason f o r the apparent f a i l u r e of l o c a l area work may have been p r e s e n t e d by one of the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s when he q u e s t i o n e d the p o s s i b i l i t y of r e f i n i n g the p l a n n i n g and d e l i v e r y of s e r v i c e s i n l o c a l communities. He p o i n t e d out t h a t s e n i o r s t a f f i n p u b l i c and p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s , were r e l u c t a n t to r e l a x t h e i r c o n t r o l over the l o c a l area s t a f f , and t h i s r e s u l t e d i n c o n f l i c t between s t a f f s w i t h i n the agencies as w e l l as between the agencies and the SP/CD Department. An i l l u s t r a t i o n of how t h i s s i t u a t i o n generated c o n f l i c t was p r e s e n t e d i n cases where l o c a l area s t a f f r equested more a u t h o r i t y to launch new programs or p l a n new s e r v i c e s but where s e n i o r s t a f f r e f u s e d a p p r o v a l . In only two l o c a l area tasks was t h e i r g e n e r a l consensus by the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s on the v a l u e of l o c a l community p l a n n i n g ; "community c o u n s e l l i n g " or a d v i s i n g on the a v a i l a b i l i t y of s e r v i c e s i n a neighbourhood; and c i t i z e n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g on the s e r v i c e requirements i n a community. ( i v ) P r e v e n t i o n of s o c i a l problems P r e v e n t i n g and c o n t r o l l i n g s o c i a l problems, as f o r example p o v e r t y , would r e q u i r e a g r e a t d e a l of e f f o r t , and the D i r e c t o r s t a t e d t h a t the Department has not undertaken work i n t h i s area i n any l a r g e measure. In h i s view t h i s would r e q u i r e m i n i m a l l y , a R e g i o n a l involvement, as i n the case of the r e g i o n a l a u t h o r i t y i n the f i e l d of housing, and p r o b a b l y a P r o v i n c i a l commitment. With r e g a r d to the task of m i t i g a t i n g f i n a n c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l dependence by people r e c e i v i n g s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e tne D i r e c t o r commented t h a t 73 these have C i t y - w i d e r a m i f i c a t i o n s , and the Department i s a c t i v e l y engaged i n s t u d i e s of s o c i a l s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y systems. One S o c i a l P l a n n e r was of the o p i n i o n t h a t o f t e n s o c i a l workers see added needs of the people they se r v e i n terms of "more of the same", and not as " d i f f e r e n t s e r v i c e s . " (v) A n a l y s i s of s o c i a l problems and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s o c i a l s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y .  A number of S o c i a l P l a n n e r s b e l i e v e t h a t s o c i a l problem a n a l y s i s i s a very important p a r t of the work of the Department. T h i s i n v o l v e s e v a l u a t i o n of s e r v i c e s and recommendations on budget a l l o c a t i o n to the v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s . E f f e c t i v e s e r v i c e s are encouraged by f u l l s upport of the agency i n i t s b i d f o r m u n i c i p a l funds. The f u n c t i o n of recommending the d i s c o n t i n u a n c e of s e r v i c e s has not been c a r r i e d out. A c c o r d i n g to the D i r e c t o r , there was a case where two minor p r i v a t e s o c i a l agencies i n v o l v e d i n the youth f i e l d , were not supported i n t h e i r e f f o r t s f o r i n c r e a s e d funds, because they r e f u s e d to amalgamate t h e i r s e r v i c e s a f t e r the SP/CD Department proposed t h a t t h i s be c a r r i e d out. The i n s t i t u t i o n s were not g r a n t e d the r e q u e s t e d i n c r e a s e i n funds, and they c o n t i n u e d to f u n c t i o n as s e p a r a t e a g e n c i e s . The S o c i a l P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r expressed the b e l i e f t h a t the q u e s t i o n of i n t e g r a t i o n i s a more important f a c t o r i n some of the l a r g e r s o c i a l s e r v i c e a g encies than the s m a l l e r ones i n the C i t y , and admitted t h a t i n t e g r a t i o n has not o c c u r r e d among the major a g e n c i e s . An even g r e a t e r concern than d i s c o n t i n u a n c e of some s e r v i c e s i n the D i r e c t o r ' s o p i n i o n , i s t h a t s i n c e s o c i a l problems do not remain s t a t i c , they must be s t u d i e d c o n t i n u o u s l y , and new s o c i a l s e r v i c e s must be p r o j e c t e d to take care of the changes which occ u r . 74 I t may be noteworthy t h a t w h i l e the SP/CD Department conducts s t u d i e s on s o c i a l s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y , the U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s w i t h i t s own Research D i v i s i o n , i s c a r r y i n g on s i m i l a r s t u d i e s , w i t h minimal c o - o r d i n a t i o n between the two ag e n c i e s . ( v i ) Encouragement of c i t i z e n involvement i n p l a n n i n g Encouraging r e s i d e n t s of an area to assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r improving t h e i r community has been an important task i n the eyes of the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s . E a r l y i n i t s e x i s t e n c e the Department assumed the r o l e of ombudsman i n Vancouver's E a s t End S t r a t h c o n a urban renewal area where i t r e g i s t e r e d what i t c o n s i d e r s i t f i r s t s u c c e s s e s . Working to g e t h e r with the c i t i z e n s of the area, the "community s e r v i c e s team" of p r o f e s s i o n -a l s working i n the s o c i a l f i e l d was able to stop the d e m o l i t i o n of homes i n the area. Other examples p r e s e n t e d , i n which S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department e f f o r t s r e s u l t e d i n c i t i z e n involvement to improve the s o c i a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l and ot h e r c o n d i t i o n s of t h e i r community i n c l u d e : the F r a s e r v i e w L i b r a r y ; S i r Sanford Fleming School Mothers; the U n i o n - P r i o r proposed freeway c o r r i d o r ; and the Neighbourhood Centre around Thunderbird Elementary S c h o o l . 1 3 ( v i i ) P r e p a r a t i o n of a master s o c i a l development p l a n  The D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g s t a t e d t h a t a s o c i a l development p l a n which c o n s i d e r s " s t a n d a r d s , " while t a k i n g i n t o account d i f f e r e n c e s i n areas, may be c a l l e d a master s o c i a l development p l a n . The example g i v e n , was the B r i t a n n i a Community S e r v i c e s Centre complex p l a n , s i n c e i t p r o v i d e s f o r standards of s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l s e r v i c e s f o r the s u r r o u n d i n g 1 3 T h e s e are a l l l o c a t e d i n the E a s t Side or E a s t End of Vancouver, community. We have above, an expressed v i e w p o i n t of the way the S o c i a l P l anners i n Vancouver p e r c e i v e s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i n 1971, a f t e r some t h r e e years of e x p e r i e n c e . When compar-i n g these views with the s t a t e d Terms of Reference i t would appear t h a t the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s see the 1968 document as a g e n e r a l guide r a t h e r than a dogma f o r Departmental a c t i v i t i e s . While the g o a l s remain the same, a number of the f u n c t i o n s are not c a r r i e d out by the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s . Some examples c i t e d by SP/CD p e r s o n n e l of t a s k s not a c t i v e l y pursued, i n c l u d e u n i f y i n g s e r v i c e s , r e f i n i n g s e r v i c e s on a l o c a l area b a s i s , p r e v e n t i n g and c o n t r o l l i n g c o n d i t i o n s of p o v e r t y , and recommending t h a t i n e f f e c t i v e s e r v i c e s be d i s c o n t i n u e d . The s t a t e d reasons f o r the l a c k of a c t i o n i n these areas range from q u e s t i o n i n g the a d v i s a b i l i t y of u n i f y i n g s e r v i c e s , through to l a c k of power, a u t h o r i t y , time and f i n a n c i a l l e v e r a g e to make an e f f e c t i v e impact i n the l o c a l a reas. In a d d i t i o n , the " p r e v e n t i o n of p o v e r t y " i s r e c o g n i z e d as a f u n c t i o n too broad f o r the Department to cope w i t h . The S o c i a l P l a n n e r s f o r e s e e an i n c r e a s i n g emphasis i n t h e i r work i n v o l v i n g the i n t e g r a t i o n of s o c i a l and c i t y p l a n n i n g , s t u d y i n g s o c i a l problems i n Vancouver and recommending changes to a l l e v i a t e the d i f f i c u l t i e s , and encouraging c i t i z e n involvement i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . I t may be worthy of note t h a t the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s expect to be working i n c r e a s i n g l y i n f i e l d s which w i l l b r i n g them i n c o n t a c t with the P h y s i c a l P l a n n e r s . One such f i e l d i s 14 t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g . The S o c i a l P l a n n e r s ' Role, A c t i v i t i e s and R e l a t i o n s h i p s With the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department  The f o l l o w i n g view by a Canadian S o c i a l Work Nancy Cooley, was with the Department i n 1971-1972 and i s a graduate P l a n n e r who majored i n S o c i o l o g y and was i n v o l v e d i n a s o c i a l r e p o r t on t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . 76 p r o f e s s o r , appears a p p r o p r i a t e as a prologue to t h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the S o c i a l P l a n n e r ' s r o l e . Ben Lappin argues t h a t a community worker's main g o a l i s permanent change. In order to pursue t h i s o b j e c t i v e , he suggests t h a t a community worker must wrest a measure of r o l e autonomy from those g r a n t i n g the mandate to p r a c t i c e , and t h a t these g r a n t o r s attempt to change the s o c i a l worker's r o l e many 15 times b e f o r e h i s r o l e i s understood and accepted. F o l l o w i n g w i l l be a comparison of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e with i t s " i d e a l " as p r e s e n t e d i n the views of the p e r s o n n e l of the SP/CD Department i n S e c . B . l . e a r l i e r . The p r a c t i c e w i l l be determined by an examination of the S o c i a l P l a n n e r ' s r o l e i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s and the i n t e r -r e l a t i o n s h i p s which e x i s t between the two c i v i c p l a n n i n g agencies as p e r c e i v e d by the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s i n C i t y H a l l . "Vancouver i s unique, w i t h i t s S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department." With these words, Maurice Egan, the D i r e c t o r of SP/CD opened a d i s c u s s i o n a t a c l a s s i n the School of S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia i n March, 1970. In Egan's view, the C i t y has been g i v e n an o p p o r t u n i t y to t a c k l e some of the problems of s o c i a l s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y . Although SP/CD i s not a s e r v i c e agency i t s e l f , i t a c t s as a " b r i d g e " f o r s o c i a l s e r v i c e i n s t i t u t i o n s . In a subsequent i n t e r v i e w , the D i r e c t o r of SP/CD saw h i s main r o l e as one of m i n i m i z i n g sloppy management. T h i s task was ne c e s s a r y due to a l a c k of managerial s k i l l s i n s o c i a l agencies which r e s u l t s i n i n f l e x i b l e programs. Egan mentioned t h a t i f a l l o t h e r s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s were more adaptable t h e r e would be no need f o r the Department of SP/CD to a s s i s t i n d r o p p i n g one program and go i n g i n t o another, and he noted t h a t some minimal p r o g r e s s has been made i n t h i s r e g a r d . Ben L a p p i n , Community Workers and the S o c i a l  Work T r a d i t i o n s , (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1971) pp. 131-44. 77 From the above two paragraphs we note t h a t the p r i o r i t i e s the Department s e t s f o r i t s e l f , are p l a n n i n g and d e l i v e r i n g more e f f e c t i v e s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . These p r i o r i t i e s p r o v i d e an i n s i g h t i n t o s o c i a l p l a n n i n g as p r a c t i c e d by the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s . P e r s o n n e l i n SP/CD see themselves as p a r t of a "maverick" Department. They are concerned w i t h s o c i a l change and the dilemmas of s o c i a l reform. As agents of change they s t a t e t h a t they must be i n n o v a t o r s , and a feW C o - o r d i n a t o r s suggest t h a t they should be implementors as we 11. To understand p e o p l e ' s needs i n the r e c r e a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l f i e l d s , c i t i z e n involvement i s c o n s i d e r e d a n e c e s s i t y by the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s . A c c o r d i n g l y , the s t r o n g e r the government s e c t o r becomes, the g r e a t e r the need f o r c o u n t e r - b a l a n c e . An example mentioned as i n d i c a t i n g the need f o r b e t t e r b alance was the e x p r o p r i a t i o n of l a n d f o r parks or urban renewal. The S o c i a l P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r b e l i e v e s t h a t c i t i z e n s must be i n v o l v e d i n the d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the l o c a t i o n s of parks, and whether or not urban renewal i s c a r r i e d out i n an area. He a l s o argues t h a t changes are r e q u i r e d i n e x p r o p r i a t i o n procedures and t h a t these w i l l be i n s t i t u t e d i n time. S e v e r a l S o c i a l P l a n n e r s s t a t e d t h a t the Department has supported l o c a l community groups on v a r i o u s i s s u e s i n o p p o s i t i o n to d i f f e r e n t p u b l i c and p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s (both a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and e l e c t i v e ) . Examples c i t e d i n c l u d e ; the K i l l a r n e y - F r a s e r v i e w Area C o u n c i l i n i t s s t r u g g l e f o r a F r a s e r v i e w Branch L i b r a r y ; S t r a t h c o n a P r o p e r t y Owners' and Tenants *s A s s o c i a t i o n (SPOTA) i n i t s e f f o r t s to s t o p urban renewal; and I n n e r - C i t y S e r v i c e s i n i t s endeavours 1 6 to e s t a b l i s h the NOW bus to s e r v e young pe o p l e . The NOW bus t r a v e l l e d throughout the C i t y p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n to young p e o p l e . 78 The S o c i a l Development Committee ( S . D . C ) , w i t h i t s p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d by most S o c i a l P l a n n e r s to be of g r e a t import. D i s c u s s i o n s w i t h s t a f f members of the SP/CD Department suggest there was g e n e r a l agreement t h a t the S.D.C showed promise as a new concept i n s o c i a l p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e because of i t s d i v e r s e l i n k a g e s , i . e . , i n two l e v e l s of government ( c i v i c and p r o v i n c i a l ) , and i n f o u r d i f f e r e n t " p o l i t i c a l " areas of e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ( C i t y C o u n c i l , School Board, Parks Board and P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e ) . In the f i r s t i n t e r v i e w w i t h the D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g , i n 1969, he s t a t e d t h a t the S o c i a l Development Committee had proven i t s e l f as a p o l i c y - m a k i n g body, s i n c e members of the S.D.C, c o u l d i n t r o d u c e s o c i a l p l a n n i n g p o l i c y d i r e c t l y to i t s member p o l i t i c a l b o d i e s . As a case i n p o i n t , the D i r e c t o r s t r e s s e d the advantage h i s Department had i n b r i n g i n g forward s o c i a l p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s to C o u n c i l where two Aldermen had a l r e a d y been i n v o l v e d i n the d i s -c u s s i o n s and recommendations b e i n g p l a c e d b e f o r e C o u n c i l . The p r o p o s a l s were not simply those of a Department i n C i t y H a l l , but c o u l d be, and were, i n t r o d u c e d from the C o u n c i l f l o o r by the Aldermen r e p r e s e n t e d on the Committee. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the S o c i a l Development Committee was rendered d e f u n c t on March 2, 1971 by a r e s o l u t i o n of . , 17 C o u n c i l . In an i n t e r v i e w w i t h the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r i n A p r i l , 1971, he reasoned t h a t the Committee was another h u r d l e f o r the SP/CD Department, and t h a t without t h i s i n t e r v e n i n g Committee, matters may be e x p e d i t e d to C o u n c i l . No mention was made r e g a r d i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the l o s s of a l i n k w i t h the P r o v i n c i a l Government a t the Ca b i n e t l e v e l . He d i d s t a t e , however, t h a t he hoped some The C o u n c i l Minutes. March 2, 1971, s t a t e t h a t h e n c e f o r t h the J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee was to r e p o r t to the C i t y ' s H e a l t h and "Welfare Committee of C o u n c i l , which was c h a i r e d by the M e d i c a l H e a l t h O f f i c e r . 79 q u e s t i o n s might be d e a l t with i n f o r m a l l y through p e r s o n a l d i s c u s s i o n s with the School or Parks Board, whereas wi t h the e x i s t e n c e of the S.D.C, the i s s u e might w e l l be d e l a y e d i n Committee. One can surmise t h a t the Committee was d i s s o l v e d as a r e s u l t of some c o n f l i c t i n g views at C i t y H a l l . T h i s matter w i l l be d i s c u s s e d more f u l l y , l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . B r i e f l y , then, Departmental p e r s o n n e l see themselves as "change-agents" and expect to antagonize some s o c i a l s e r v i c e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who are not prepared to b r i n g about ' r e q u i r e d ' changes. T h i s r o l e i s r e c o g n i z e d by them as a source of c o n f l i c t w i t h A d m i n i s t r a t o r s and P l a n n e r s i n both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s . While the g o a l s and p o l i c i e s may be the main dete r m i n a n t s of p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e , the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of p l a n n i n g agencies may i n p a r t l i m i t the r o l e s which S o c i a l P l a n n e r s p l a y i n the p r o c e s s of p l a n n i n g . A d i s c u s s i o n of the p e r c e p t i o n s S o c i a l P l a n n e r s have of t h e i r own o r g a n i z a t i o n and i t s c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department may i n d i c a t e p o t e n t i a l areas of c o n f l i c t . The S o c i a l P l a n n e r s a l l expressed the b e l i e f t h a t the SP/CD Department was l e s s h i e r a r c h i c a l l y s t r u c t u r e d than the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department. T h i s may have a b e a r i n g on the way they p e r c e i v e t h e i r own r o l e s i n the SP/CD Department and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s w i t h the Community Pl a n n e r s a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s . I t may be noteworthy t h a t the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r up to 1971, had arranged f o r the h i r i n g of a very d i v e r s e group of i n d i v i d u a l s as S o c i a l P l a n n e r s . The e x p e r t i s e and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of these people i n c l u d e d a lawyer, two s o c i a l workers, a p l a n n e r who majored i n S o c i o l o g y , another whose main i n t e r e s t s were i n housing and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , a r e c r e a t i o n s p e c i a l i s t , a m i n i s t e r and an "encounter group" worker. The D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g suggested t h a t the Department i s made up of a team of C o - o r d i n a t o r s w i t h h i m s e l f at the c e n t r e r a t h e r than the top. He r e g a r d s the Department 80 as p r o j e c t - o r i e n t e d to permit g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y and to f a c i l i t a t e change. The D i r e c t o r commented t h a t the Department l o o k s at a problem, imagines and proposes a s o l u t i o n , a c q u i r e s f i n a n c e s , and arranges f o r o t h e r s to implement i t . P r o j e c t s are d e c i d e d by the i s s u e s c o n f r o n t i n g the SP/CD Department. That i s , when the people of a neighbourhood express a s o c i a l need, the D i r e c t o r b e l i e v e s they may j u s t r e q u i r e a s s i s t a n c e from someone a t C i t y H a l l to h e l p a r t i c u l a t e the need. In a d d i t i o n , the Depart-ment r e f u s e s to get permanently i n v o l v e d i n p r o j e c t s , and i s thus i n a p o s i t i o n to remove i t s s e r v i c e s once i t s task i s completed. 18 One S o c i a l Planner s t a t e d t h a t the Department f u n c t i o n s as an "ad-hocracy," where the o r g a n i z a t i o n c o n s i d e r s and d e a l s w i t h each s p e c i f i c case on i t s own 19 -m e r i t s . Thus, a c c o r d i n g to t h i s source, the Department i s i n n o v a t i v e i n nature and one need not be concerned t h a t the Department may l o s e s i g h t of i t s g o a l s . He added t h a t SP/CD must not see i t s e l f as p a r t of the "e s t a b l i s h m e n t " , but r a t h e r as p a r t of the community i t s e r v e s , i f i t i s to c a r r y out the tasks i t has been a s s i g n e d . In d i s c u s s i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the Department of P l a n n i n g and S o c i a l P l a n n i n g , the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s contend t h a t w h i l e the P h y s i c a l P l a n n e r s do not d e a l w i t h s o c i a l i s s u e s per se, they n e v e r t h e l e s s a f f e c t the s o c i a l f a b r i c of Vancouver. One S o c i a l P l a n n e r who has been w i t h SP/CD f o r some time, b e l i e v e s t h a t i n i t i a l l y when the Department was e s t a b l i s h e d , the C i t y P l a n n e r s were dismayed, and there was no s o l i d a r i t y between the two p l a n n i n g u n i t s of C i t y H a l l . A c c o r d i n g to t h i s i n f o r m a n t , George Whitman, i n 1970, was the C o - o r d i n a t o r f o r Sk i d Road. 19 See I r v i n g T o f f l e r , F u t u r e Shock (New York: Bantam Books, 1970) pp. 124-51, f o r a d i s c u s s i o n on Ad-hocracy, ". . . .a new o r g a n i z a t i o n a l system t h a t w i l l i n c r e a s i n g l y c h a l l e n g e and u l t i m a t e l y s u p p l a n t b u r e a u c r a c y . " 81 the i m p r e s s i o n l e f t w i t h the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g s t a f f was t h a t the Planners acted i n a manner which suggested t h a t s o c i a l p l a n n i n g should be a minor f u n c t i o n of the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department. N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h i s respondent t h i n k s t h a t communications between the P l a n n e r s and S o c i a l P l a n n e r s has i n c r e a s d n o t i c e a b l y d u r i n g the p e r i o d he has been at C i t y H a l l . Another S o c i a l P l a n n e r surmised t h a t s i n c e the SP/CD Department was formed, the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department has r e a c t e d as though i t f e l t i t s e l f t h r e a t e n e d and t h i s was m a n i f e s t e d i n y e t a f u r t h e r r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n of the P l a n n i n g Department. I f t h i s were so, i t may c o n f i r m the argument of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t h e o r i s t C h r i s A r g y r i s who s t a t e d t h a t an o r g a n i z a t i o n which sees i t s e l f t h r e a t e n e d w i l l c o n c e n t r a t e 20 i t s e f f o r t s on maintenance of the i n t e r n a l system. S o c i a l P l a n n i n g p e r s o n n e l see t h e i r r o l e i n the i n t e g r a t i o n of s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g as one of h e l p i n g the P l a n n i n g Department look more comprehensively a t the p l a n s they are p r e p a r i n g . The D i r e c t o r of SP/CD d i s c u s s e d the i s s u e of urban renewal as an example of i n t e g r a t i o n of the s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s of p l a n n i n g . By c o n t i n u a l l y i n v o l v i n g the P l a n n i n g Department i n d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h the r e s i d e n t s of the S t r a t h c o n a Urban Renewal area the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s were able to r e p a i r the poor r e l a t i o n s h i p s which e x i s t e d between the P l a n n e r s and the r e s i d e n t s , and i n h i s words"there i s a new t r u s t of the 21 P l a n n i n g Department." 20 See Chapter I.E. f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of o r g a n i z a t i o n theory. 21 Egan i n t e r v i e w , A p r i l 8, 1971. The l a t t e r comment r e f l e c t e d the f a c t t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the C i t y P l a n -n i n g Department and the r e s i d e n t s of S t r a t h c o n a as r e p r e s e n t e d by the S t r a t h c o n a P r o p e r t y Owners' and Tenants' A s s o c i a t i o n broke down as a r e s u l t of the urban renewal p o l i c i e s pursued by the C i t y of Vancouver. For a comprehensive p i c t u r e of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s which e x i s t e d up to 1970, see Hermia L a i , I n t e g r a t i o n of P h y s i c a l and S o c i a l P l a n n i n g , Vancouver, U.B.C., un p u b l i s h e d M.A. T h e s i s of the School of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 82 The S o c i a l P l a n n e r s see themselves as s o c i a l c r i t i c s and they b e l i e v e they are r e c o g n i z e d as such by C o u n c i l . However, th e r e i s i n the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s ' view, a tendency f o r Aldermen and C i t y P l a n n e r s to look at the Department as an agency w i t h the s o l e purpose of p l a n n i n g s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . A number of C o - o r d i n a t o r s r e f l e c t t h a t i f t h i s view were upheld, i t would l i m i t the scope of SP/CD, and they p o i n t to urban renewal as an i l l u s t r a t i o n of a s o c i a l problem which i s not " s o c i a l s e r v i c e " o r i e n t e d . Two p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e s were reviewed, where the P l a n n i n g and S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Departments have both been i n v o l v e d , to f a c i l i t a t e a comparison of the approaches taken by the Departments to s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s . These were the B r i t a n n i a Community S e r v i c e s Centre and the F r a s e r v i e w Branch L i b r a r y . a, B r i t a n n i a Community S e r v i c e s Centre A c c o r d i n g to the D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g , t h i s Community S e r v i c e Centre i s a m u l t i p l e - u s e e d u c a t i o n a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l , s o c i a l s e r v i c e complex w i t h B r i t a n n i a Secondary School as a f o c a l p o i n t . The concept of a m u l t i - s e r v i c e c e n t r e was s t a t e d by Selwyn M i l l e r of the Vancouver School Board, who, by t h i s account, was not a b l e to g a t h e r support f o r the p r o p o s a l among h i s c o l l e a g u e s because i t d i d not f i t i n w ith the School Board's p r i o r i t i e s u n t i l someone a t C i t y H a l l was i n a p o s i t i o n to champion i t . The SP/CD Department recommended the p r o j e c t , a f t e r which 22 the School Board r e l u c t a n t l y approved the i d e a . The r e p o r t Community S e r v i c e s Centre ( B r i t a n n i a ) Report of the S o c i a l Development Committee (Vancouver, December, 1968): adopted by C o u n c i l , March 18, 1971, s t a t e s : "In A p r i l , 1967, the S t r a t h c o n a and Woodland Park Area C o u n c i l s . . . p u b l i s h e d a r e p o r t e n t i t l e d , "A Community S e r v i c e s C e n t r e , a P r o p o s a l f o r C i v i c and S o c i a l Development.' The r e p o r t was f i r s t p r e s e n t e d to C i t y C o u n c i l on August 1, 1967. . . S h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r the L i b r a r y Board endorsed the p r o p o s a l and ( l a t e r } the School Board and the Parks Board j o i n t l y passed ( i t ] ] . " P . l . The Department of SP/CD was f o r m a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d June 13, 1968. 83 The reader may note t h a t the t i m i n g of the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the Department (1968) and the p u b l i c a t i o n of the r e p o r t "A Community S e r v i c e s Centre, a P r o p o s a l f o r C i v i c and S o c i a l Development" (1967) do not appear to be c o n s i s t e n t with the s t a t e d view of the D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g . The comment by the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r appears to i n d i c a t e t h a t the School Board adopted the r e p o r t which went to C i t y C o u n c i l but c a r r i e d on a simultaneous s t r u g g l e to have i t d e f e a t e d . I t may a l s o be important to suggest t h a t the SP/CD D i r e c t o r p e r c e i v e d t h i s as h i s Department's r o l e i n the B r i t a n n i a Community S e r v i c e C e n t r e . Other f a c e t s of the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s ' r o l e i n t h i s c e n t r e were g i v e n by members of the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department. These i n c l u d e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i n t e g r a t i n g the p h y s i c a l development w i t h the s o c i a l programmes which were expected to occur t h e r e , encouraging c i t i z e n s to speak out, and i n f l u e n c i n g c i v i c and p r i v a t e a gencies to dev e l o p new p o l i c i e s more i n keeping w i t h the views expressed by i n t e r e s t e d c i t i z e n groups. The p r o p o s a l f o r the complex was p l a c e d i n the F i v e - Y e a r budget which went t o the v o t e r s . In Maurice Egan's o p i n i o n i t was the f i r s t time t h a t the E a s t Side of Vancouver "pushed" f o r a c a p i t a l p l a n , and t h i s may be the reason the c a p i t a l budget r e c e i v e d the r e q u i r e d p l u r a l i t y to pass. The SP/CD Department worked wi t h the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department on t h i s p r o j e c t through a P l a n n i n g A d v i s o r y Committee which i n c l u d e d s i x c i t i z e n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and f o u r c i v i c o f f i c i a l s . The l a t t e r r e p r e s e n t e d the Departments of C i t y P l a n n i n g and SP/CD i n a d d i t i o n to the Vancouver School Board and Vancouver Parks Board. C i t y C o u n c i l approved i t , and the F e d e r a l Government gave i t c o n d i t i o n a l a p p r o v a l . The P r o v i n c i a l Govern-ment r e s e r v e d a p p r o v a l on urban renewal a s p e c t s of i t 84 but the balance of the p r o j e c t was able to proceed, b. F r a s e r v i e w Branch L i b r a r y The F r a s e r v i e w Branch L i b r a r y has been demanded by c i t i z e n s i n the F r a s e r v i e w area s i n c e 1945. The 1959-63 F i v e - Y e a r P l a n and 1966-70 C a p i t a l Program both p r o v i d e d f i n a n c i a l a l l o c a t i o n s f o r t h i s l i b r a r y . In both i n s t a n c e s , the funds were d i v e r t e d away from the p r o j e c t , w i t h C o u n c i l ' s a p p r o v a l . The Vancouver L i b r a r y Board, i n the o p i n i o n of one S o c i a l Planner, was not anxious to e s t a b l i s h t h i s branch l i b r a r y , but the L o c a l Area C o u n c i l r e c o g n i z e d i t as a p r e s s i n g need. The L o c a l Area C o u n c i l , a c c o r d i n g to the C o - o r d i n a -t o r of the K i l l a r n e y - F r a s e r v i e w area, c a l l e d a p u b l i c meeting i n the community to work out a s t r a t e g y to move C i t y C o u n c i l i n t o a c t i o n on what appeared to be a 23 ' dormant i s s u e . A campaign p l a n was d e v i s e d and implemented to put c i t i z e n p r e s s u r e on the d e c i s i o n -makers at C i t y H a l l , which reached a climax w i t h a d e l e g a t i o n to C o u n c i l . F o l l o w i n g the s e s s i o n of C i t y C o u n c i l where a b r i e f was p r e s e n t e d , the L o c a l Area C o u n c i l c o n t i n u e d to p r e s s members of C o u n c i l f o r a p p r o v a l of a branch l i b r a r y . In June, 1969, the P l a n n i n g Department was a u t h o r i z e d to l o o k i n t o the a d v i s a b i l i t y and f e a s i b i l i t y of e s t a b l i s h i n g a l i b r a r y i n the area. o J o s l i n Behanec, the L o c a l Area C o - o r d i n a t o r T and Maurice Egan, the D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g , p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a meeting with P l a n n i n g Department o f f i c i a l s who were working on a report to C o u n c i l r e g a r d i n g t h i s p r o j e c t . The S o c i a l P l a n n e r s i n d i c a t e d i n a s o c i a l p l a n n i n g p o r t i o n of the P l a n n i n g Department r e p o r t , t h a t the proposed l i b r a r y , "was c o n s i s t e n t with I n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d d u r i n g an i n t e r v i e w w i t h Lynn S i g u r g e i r s o n , S e c r e t a r y of K i l l a r n e y - F r a s e r v i e w Area C o u n c i l confirmed the sequence of events mentioned above. 85 the p r i n c i p l e and p r a c t i c e of i n t e g r a t i n g . . . s o c i a l 24 s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s " s i n c e i t i n c l u d e d the p r o v i s i o n of space f o r more than one s o c i a l agency .. 25 o p e r a t i n g i n F r a s e r v i e w . C i t y C o u n c i l approved the proposed l i b r a r y a f t e r h a v i n g turned i t down e a r l i e r . I t was accepted d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t the new recommendation i n c l u d e d an e x p e n d i t u r e of $100,000 more than the p r e v i o u s l y r e j e c t -ed p r o p o s a l . The adopted r e p o r t recommended the p r o v i s i o n of l o c a l space f o r two s o c i a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s . The hope i n the Department i s t h a t as s o c i a l s e r v i c e s are d e c e n t r a l i z e d , the Department of P l a n n i n g w i l l g i v e more c o n s i d e r a t i o n to s o c i a l f a c t o r s i n p l a n n i n g . Members of SP/CD are encouraged by r e c e n t r e p o r t s of the P l a n n i n g Department, where they d e t e c t a s h i f t from c o n s i d e r a t i o n of o n l y economic and e n g i n e e r i n g f a c t o r s to an i n c l u s i o n of s o c i a l f a c t o r s as i n the case of the proposed road through the S t r a t h c o n a area, i . e . , the U n i o n - P r i o r - G e o r g i a V i a d u c t connector road. In the o p i n i o n of the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r , " p l a n n i n g should not be l e f t to the p l a n n e r s , j u s t as war s h o u l d not be l e f t to the g e n e r a l s . " C o u n c i l , i n a c c o r d w i t h t h i s view, d e c i d e d i n September, 1970, w h i l e d i s c u s s i n g a P l a n n i n g Department r e p o r t on the r e z o n i n g of F a i r v i e w S l o p e s , to have a l l major r e z o n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s reviewed by the D i r e c t o r of SP/CD to r e p o r t on the " s o c i o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s " of the Communication to Bob Parker, C i t y P l a n n i n g Depart-ment, from the SP/CD Department's Mrs. J o s l i n Bohanec, dated August 20, 1969. 25 Vancouver, B.C. Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Proposed  Branch L i b r a r y - F r a s e r v i e w . (September 4, 1969). 86 26 p r o p o s a l s . Comment was made e a r l i e r t h a t the SP/CD Department had been moving from s o c i a l w e l f a r e p l a n n i n g to s o c i a l programming, and t h a t i n e f f o r t s to do the former the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s have i n d i c a t e d t h a t c o n f l i c t s have a r i s e n between the SP/CD Department and the A d m i n i s t r a -t i o n of s o c i a l s e r v i c e system i n Vancouver. A study of P h y s i c a l P l a n n e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g may show o t h e r sources of c o n f l i c t betwen the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department and oth e r A d m i n i s t r a t i o n s i n C i t y H a l l , p a r t i c u l a r l y the P l a n n i n g Department. S o c i a l P l a n n i n g as P e r c e i v e d by Persons Outside the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department The f o r e g o i n g s e c t i o n d i s c u s s e d the theory and p r a c t i c e of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i n Vancouver i n 1971, from the p e r s p e c t i v e of the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s a t C i t y H a l l . T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l c o n s i d e r the same phenomena from the p o i n t s of view of i n d i v i d u a l s o u t s i d e the SP/CD Department. The reader w i l l r e c a l l t h a t i n Chapter I.D., the methodology d e s c r i b e d the reasons f o r i n t e r v i e w i n g c e r t a i n persons to g e t a v i e w p o i n t on the a c t i v i t i e s of the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s . A l l those i n t e r v i e w e d who were not S o c i a l P l a n n e r s worked w i t h the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s as c o n s u l t a n t s , as members of L o c a l Area C o u n c i l s or i n some c a p a c i t y w i t h i n a p u b l i c or p r i v a t e agency w i t h l i n k s to the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department. The l a r g e s t number of n o n - S o c i a l P l a n n e r s i n t e r v i e w e d were i n v o l v e d i n the p u b l i c p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s as Pl a n n e r s at C i t y H a l l . The term "Key P l a n n e r " w i l l denote the D i r e c t o r of Vancouver, B.C., C o u n c i l Minutes. September 22, 1970. 87 27 P l a n n i n g or one of f o u r A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r s , w h i l e the term "Senior P l a n n e r " w i l l denote a Planner I I I who has a number of p l a n n e r s and p l a n n i n g a s s i s t a n t s under h i s j u r i s d i c t i o n . Opinions of persons o u t s i d e the P l a n n i n g Department w i l l be acknowledged as. such, and, where p o s s i b l e , i d e n t i f i e d by the i n f o r m a n t ' s o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n . In d i s c u s s i n g the r o l e of S o c i a l P l a n n e r s w i t h those o u t s i d e the Department of SP/CD the author d e l i b e r a t e l y r e f r a i n e d from showing the i n t e r v i e w e e a copy of the Terms of Reference of SP/CD i n order to get an u n d i r e c t e d response from the i n f o r m a n t about the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s ' r o l e at the time of the i n t e r v i e w , r a t h e r than an o p i n i o n on a 1968 " i d e a l . " Responses from the i n t e r v i e w e e s were c a t e g o r i z e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n by the author to f a c i l i t a t e comparison with the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s ' views on the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department's 28 "Terms of Reference." 1. a» The Purpose of the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department P l a n n e r s at C i t y H a l l had l i t t l e to say about the s t a t e d purpose of the Department of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g . Only one Key Planner d i s c u s s e d the Terms of Reference per se, and i n h i s o p i n i o n the statement was too broad. Dr. C h r i s . McNiven, A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r i n the School of S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, has done c o n s u l t a t i v e work f o r the Department of SP/CD. I t was her view t h a t t h e r e were two opposing trends i n the theory of s o c i a l s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y : C e n t r a l i z a t i o n and Amalgamation—which may be brought about by o r g a n i z a t i o n a l W i l l i a m E. Graham, was the D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g u n t i l he was removed from o f f i c e s h o r t l y a f t e r The E l e c t o r s A c t i o n Movement (TEAM) swept i n t o power at C i t y H a l l i n December, 1972. On September 4, 1973, Mr. Ray Spaxman assumed the p o s i t i o n of D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g In Vancouver. The new C o u n c i l a l s o asked f o r and r e c e i v e d the r e s i g n a t i o n of the S e n i o r Commissioner, G e r a l d Sutton Brown. The l a t t e r p o s i t i o n has not been f i l l e d up to the time of t h i s w r i t i n g . Appendix G, p. 5. 88 means through an i n t e r v e n i n g f o r c e such as the P r o v i n c i a l Government or the SP/CD Department; and t h e i r o p p o s i t e , D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n — w h e r e the community s e t s up i t s own s e r v i c e s i n response to the needs i n the ar e a . A c c o r d i n g to McNiven, i t may have been t h a t the d e c i s i o n r e g a r d i n g which path the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department should f o l l o w had y e t t o be made, i n 1971. The s o c i o l o g i s t L l o y d O h l i n argues t h a t the s e l f -h e l p p r o c e s s e s t h a t p l a n n e r s i n i t i a t e , are onl y one as p e c t of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g , and t h a t p l a n n e r s must assume a 29 r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n b r i n g i n g about s o c i a l changes. b. The F u n c t i o n s of the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department ( i ) U n i f i c a t i o n of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s P l a n n e r s and A d m i n i s t r a t o r s at C i t y H a l l were i n g e n e r a l agreement t h a t s o c i a l s e r v i c e a gencies w i l l not agree to changes of p o l i c y such as amalgamation or the withdrawl from a s e r v i c e area 1 u n l e s s they are f o r c e d to to so by a h i g h e r body wit h a u t h o r i t y and power to e n f o r c e the d e c i s i o n . These o p i n i o n s c o i n c i d e w i t h the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s ' r e g a r d i n g the u n i f i c a t i o n of s e r v i c e s , s i n c e the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s suggest t h a t the c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t s of S e n i o r Governments may prove to be the onl y e f f e c t i v e method of e n f o r c i n g amalgamation of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . The w r i t e r has p r e v i o u s l y mentioned t h a t P a s c a l and Rein may not agree t h a t u n i f i c a t i o n would r e s u l t i n the p r o v i s i o n of b e t t e r s e r v i c e s f o r the c l i e n t . ( i i ) I n t e g r a t i o n of s o c i a l and c i t y p l a n n i n g , and urban renewal t a s k s L l o y d O h l i n , "Prospects f o r P l a n n i n g i n American S o c i a l W e l f a r e " i n C e n t r a l l y Planned Change: P r o s p e c t s and  Concepts, Robert M a r r i s (ed.) (N.Y.: N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of S o c i a l "Workers, 1964), p. 132. 89 Two Key P l a n n e r s q u a l i f i e d t h i s s o c i a l p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n by a r g u i n g t h a t the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s should not be the s y n t h e s i z e r s i n the p l a n n i n g system. I t may be noteworthy t h a t one 30 of these Key P l a n n e r s r e p r e s e n t e d the P l a n n i n g Department a t a number of meetings of the J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee and was q u i t e f a m i l i a r w i t h the o p e r a t i o n s of the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department. I t was h i s view t h a t w h i l e SP/CD had been g i v e n a u t h o r i z a t i o n to i n t e g r a t e s o c i a l and c i t y p l a n n i n g , i t was o n l y one Department on an equal l e v e l with o t h e r s . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h i s Key Planner added t h a t the only apparent powers which the D i r e c t o r of SP/CD c o u l d w i e l d were h i s p o l i t i c a l s k i l l and g o o d w i l l . I t would appear t h a t i n the view of t h i s P l a n n e r who had worked most c l o s e l y with the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s , t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s of the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r may be more s i g n i f i c a n t l y than the a u t h o r i t y of h i s p o s i t i o n . T h i s appears to concur w i t h Burke's views (Chapter II) t h a t s o c i a l p l a n n e r s must seek a u t h o r i t y f o r t h e i r p l a n s . Burke s t a t e d t h a t n e i t h e r the Planner nor S o c i a l P l a n n e r can assume automatic acceptance of p l a n s . In the f i e l d of urban renewal, P l a n n e r s g e n e r a l l y agreed t h a t S o c i a l P l a n n i n g had been most e f f e c t i v e . Some S e n i o r P l a n n e r s (one of whom had been i n v o l v e d i n urban renewal work i n the C i t y ) , suggested t h a t the P l a n n e r s "bungled" urban renewal by c o n c e r n i n g themselves more with an e n r i c h e d tax r o l l than w i t h the e f f e c t which p l a n implementation brought about. T h i s r e s u l t e d i n the d e m o l i t i o n of homes, with f a m i l i e s and communities d e s t r o y e d , and l i t t l e improvement i n p e o p l e s ' w e l f a r e . Two of the S e n i o r P l a n n e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t because SP/CD had Max C r o s s , former Deputy D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g , r e s i g n e d h i s p o s i t i o n as A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r i n 1972. 90 proven i t s e l f e f f e c t i v e i n t h i s f i e l d , the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department should be g i v e n more s t a f f t o c a r r y out t h i s f u n c t i o n . Thus t h e r e appeared to be some evidence to i n d i c a t e t h a t w h i l e the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s accepted t h e i r r o l e as the i n e g r a t o r s of s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g , some P h y s i c a l P l a n n e r s i n key p o s i t i o n s r e j e c t e d t h i s i n t e g r a t i v e f u n c t i o n of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . Both groups of P l a n n e r s , however, b e l i e v e d t h a t s o c i a l p l a n n i n g performed a worth-w h i l e r o l e i n urban renewal. ( i i i ) L o c a l Area P l a n n i n g Most P l a n n e r s were unaware of the a d m i n i s t r a -t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the l o c a l areas, and i t s l i n k a g e s with p u b l i c and v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s . In a d d i t i o n , one S e n i o r P l a n n e r expressed an u n e a s i n e s s about the l a c k of c l e a r - o u t d e f i n i t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the r o l e s of v a r i o u s agencies working i n the communities. L o c a l community work under e x i s t i n g c i r c u m -s t a n c e s i s seen by the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s as of l i m i t e d v a l u e i n s o c i a l p l a n n i n g , whereas most P l a n n e r s had l i t t l e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e i n v o l v e d and made few comments on i t . ( i v ) P r e v e n t i o n of s o c i a l problems O h l i n emphasizes t h a t p l a n n i n g to p r e v e n t s o c i a l problems must y i e l d a c t i o n programs to change b a s i c s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t produce the 31 problems. The Seebohm Report, i n f a c t , goes a s t e p f u r t h e r , by e x p r e s s i n g i t s concern t h a t a l l O h l i n , I b i d . , p. 131 91 c i t i z e n s s hould have o p p o r t u n i t i e s which would enhance t h e i r q u a l i t y of l i f e . T h i s can be c o n s i d e r e d a stage beyond the r e d u c t i o n of s o c i a l 32 problems. No Pla n n e r s i n t e r v i e w e d , d e a l t with the q u e s t i o n o f p r e v e n t i v e a c t i o n to reduce s o c i a l problems i n the C i t y . In Vancouver, the p r e v e n t i o n and c o n t r o l of s o c i a l problems are c o n s i d e r e d o u t s i d e the scope of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g a c c o r d i n g to the members of the SP/CD Department. T h i s view may not c o n f l i c t with the o p i n i o n s o f the Pl a n n e r s who d i d not express themselves on t h i s f u n c t i o n . (v) A n a l y s i s of s o c i a l problems and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s o c i a l s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y  A number of P l a n n e r s agree t h a t one of the f u n c t i o n s of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i s to study s o c i a l problems i n order to p r o v i d e b e t t e r s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , but they d i d not express the view t h a t t h i s was a p l a n n i n g t a s k . Two Key P l a n n e r s see t h i s as an a i d i n making b e t t e r recommendations to C o u n c i l on the a l l o c a t i o n o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e g r a n t s . One S e n i o r A d m i n i s t r a t o r mentioned t h a t the P r o v i n c i a l Government i s i n v o l v e d i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of a Planned Program and Budget System (PPBS), which w i l l i n c l u d e U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s , the C i t y and the P r o v i n c e . T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e may be some d r a s t i c changes i n s o c i a l s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y , because these changes w i l l take p l a c e under c i r c u m s t a n c e s of both a u t h o r i t y and power. In c o n t r a s t , a c c o r d i n g to t h i s i n f o r m a n t , the D i r e c t o r of SP/CD does not have the Great B r i t a i n , Report of the Committee on L o c a l  A u t h o r i t y and A l l i e d P e r s o n a l S o c i a l S e r v i c e s . F r e d e r i c Seebohm, Chairman. (London: Her Majesty's S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e . 1968) pp. 148-49. H e r e i n a f t e r r e f e r r e d to as the Seebohm Report. 92 power or a u t h o r i t y a t h i s d i s p o s a l to d i s c o n t i n u e i n e f f e c t i v e s e r v i c e s , nor does he have l a r g e funds which he can d i r e c t i n t o the p r o v i s i o n of new and more e f f e c t i v e s e r v i c e s . Members of the SP/CD Department see the need f o r c o n t i n u a l s t u d i e s of s o c i a l problems as an important a s p e c t of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . Not o n l y do the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s wish to use these s t u d i e s as a guide f o r the p r o v i s i o n of new s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , but a l s o as an i n f l u e n c e on the development p l a n s of the C i t y . While the P l a n n e r s agreed t h a t new s e r v i c e s are r e q u i r e d to a l l e v i a t e bad s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s , they d i d not agree t h a t the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s should be i n v o l v e d i n s t u d i e s which i n v o l v e the p h y s i c a l development of the C i t y . In p a r t i c u l a r , the Key P l a n n e r s expressed o b j e c t i o n s to t h i s f u n c t i o n of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . T h i s f a c e t w i l l be d e a l t w i t h more f u l l y when the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s ' r o l e s are d i s c u s s e d i n S e c t i o n C.2.of t h i s Chapter. ( v i ) Encouragement of c i t i z e n involvement i n p l a n n i n g  The S k e f f i n g t o n Report (1969), i n some nine pages d e t a i l s the reasons f o r and t e c h n i q u e s of a c h i e v i n g p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g . The Report reasons t h a t t h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n must "be regarded as p a r t of the job of any p l a n n i n g o f f i c e r 33 and not as an unwelcome a c c r e t i o n . " Most members of the P l a n n i n g Department i n t e r v i e w e d had l i t t l e p o s i t i v e to say r e g a r d i n g the p u b l i c ' s r o l e i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . In Great B r i t a i n , M i n i s t e r of Housing and L o c a l Government, People and P l a n n i n g , Report of the Committee on P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n P l a n n i n g , A.M. S k e f f i n g t o n , M.P. Chairman. H e r e i n a f t e r r e f e r r e d to as the S k e f f i n g t o n Report, p. 10. 93 g e n e r a l , P l a n n e r s a t the S e n i o r and lower l e v e l s were more c o g n i z a n t of a need to i n v o l v e the c i t i z e n s i n p l a n n i n g e f f o r t s than were the Key P l a n n e r s . The D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g expressed a concern t h a t i f c i t i z e n s were i n v o l v e d , the pace of p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s would be slowed to such an e x t e n t t h a t l i t t l e development would occ u r . The D i r e c t o r proposed t h a t , at b e s t , people i n an area might be i n v i t e d to p u b l i c meetings to have two a l t e r n a t i v e development schemes e x p l a i n e d to them, s i n c e they do not have the t e c h n i c a l knowledge to make p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s . I t may be worthy of mention, t h a t t h i s appears to compare wi t h D a v i d o f f s comment noted e a r l i e r r e g a r d i n g p l a n n e r s h a v i n g "the burden of i n v e n t i n g a few r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e s , " even though these may not r e f l e c t the i n t e r e s t s of the people whose l i v e s may be 34 a f f e c t e d by implementation of the p r o p o s a l s . One S e n i o r P l a n n e r expressed the view t h a t the SP/CD Department was s u c c e s s f u l i n communicating wit h people, and t h i s r e s u l t e d i n s o c i a l p l a n s which more l i k e l y r e f l e c t c i t i z e n ' s i d e a s . P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s , i s c o n s i d e r e d by the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s as an i n t e g r a l a s p e c t of s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g , whereas the P l a n n e r s view i t w i t h r e t i c e n c e and some Key P l a n n e r s q u e s t i o n i t s v a l u e as a p l a n n i n g t e c h n i q u e . ( v i i ) P r e p a r a t i o n of a master s o c i a l development p l a n  John Seeley and W i l l i a m Form are two s o c i o l o g i s t s who, i n the l i t e r a t u r e , r e j e c t the concept of " t o t a l p l a n n i n g " i n f a v o u r of a p r o c e s s i n v o l v i n g a g e n e r a l o u t l i n e of a p l a n . T h i s , they P a u l D a v i d o f f . "Advocacy and P l u r a l i s m i n P l a n n i n g , " i n E l d r e d g e , I b i d , p. 600. contend, would p r o v i d e a more f l e x i b l e framework 35 to p e r m i t the use of a v a r i e t y of s t r a t e g i e s . Most P l a n n e r s were of the o p i n i o n t h a t master p l a n s were indeed too r i g i d a framework to b r i n g about d e s i r e d development. I t was conceded, 3 6 n o n e t h e l e s s , t h a t the Vancouver Bartholomew P l a n was a master p l a n which over the years has been e s s e n t i a l l y implemented. The S o c i a l P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r s t a t e d t h a t a master s o c i a l development p l a n i s f e a s i b l e on a l o c a l b a s i s , i n c o n t r a s t to the P l a n n e r s ' b e l i e f t h a t master p l a n s were not f l e x i b l e enough f o r today's needs. 2. The S o c i a l P l a n n e r s ' Role, A c t i v i t i e s and R e l a t i o n s h i p s With the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department  T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l c o n t i n u e the examination of the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s i n Vancouver, a c c o r d i n g to the p e r c e p t i o n s of the n o n - S o c i a l P l a n n e r s i n t e r v i e w e d . As p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , the i n t e r v i e w e e s were chosen because they had c e r t a i n l i n k s w i t h the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department, and would t h e r e -f o r e g i v e another ( o u t s i d e r s ' ) v i e w p o i n t of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . The areas to be reviewed here are the r o l e and a c t i v i t i e s of the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s a t C i t y H a l l and the r e l a t i o n s h i p s they had with the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department as d e f i n e d by non-S o c i a l P l a n n e r s . While i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s e p a r a t e the s i g n i f i c a n c e of an a c t i o n by the Social P l a n n e r s without r e p o r t i n g the a c t i o n or r o l e of n o n - S o c i a l P l a n n e r s , the a c t i v i t y of the l a t t e r w i l l be s t a t e d o n l y where i t bears on the r o l e and John R. Seeley, " C e n t r a l P l a n n i n g Prologue to a C r i t i q u e , " p. 41, and W i l l i a m H. Form, " S o c i a l Power and S o c i a l W e l f a r e , " p. 69 both i n C e n t r a l l y Planned Change, Robert M o r r i s , (ed. ) 3 6 A development p l a n f o r Vancouver prepared i n 1929 by Thomas Bartholomew and A s s o c i a t e s . a c t i v i t i e s of the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s . T h i s w i l l then be compared w i t h the p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d S o c i a l P l a n n e r s ' views of the same i s s u e s . In a d d i t i o n , a comparison w i l l be made of the two o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s which may r e f l e c t , i n p a r t , how each t r e a t s problems they f a c e . A S e n i o r A d m i n i s t r a t o r i n Vancouver commented i n an i n t e r v i e w t h a t p r i o r i t i e s f o r a Department are s e t by the way the p e r s o n n e l of t h a t agency see i t s r o l e i n attempting to a c h i e v e s t a t e d g o a l s . In h i s view, c o n f l i c t s r e s u l t from the d i f f e r i n g g o a l s and p r i o r i t i e s the two P l a n n i n g Depart-ments s e t f o r themselves. In a d d i t i o n , s t a f f members of the two Departments do not look a t a g i v e n problem i n the same way. The Planner i s o r i e n t e d towards p r o v i d i n g p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , and the S o c i a l Planner to s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n o u t l o o k i n f l u e n c e s p r i o r i t i e s . To i l l u s t r a t e t h i s , the infor m a n t mentioned t h a t an engineer sees t r a f f i c problems d i f f e r e n t l y than a s o c i a l p l a n n e r - - t h a t a p l a n n e r approaches day-to-day problems with an a t t i t u d e of "moving i t a l o n g " w h i l e a s o c i a l p l a n n e r takes a more comprehensive loo k at the c i t y . In t u r n , a Key P l a n n e r saw the S o c i a l P l a n n e r ' s r o l e as one of s o c i a l s e r v i c e p l a n n i n g (a somewhat broader concept than s o c i a l w e l f a r e p l a n n i n g , s i n c e i t would i n c l u d e r e c r e a t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l f a c e t s ) . Thus S o c i a l P l a n n e r s would c o - o r d i n a t e s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , recommend to C i t y C o u n c i l on these s e r v i c e s and on the a l l o c a t i o n of funds. F u r t h e r , they should a c t as a r e s o u r c e f o r the P l a n n i n g Department as do the En g i n e e r s a t C i t y H a l l . I t has been s t a t e d t h a t two Key P l a n n e r s q u a l i f i e d the S o c i a l P l a n n e r ' s f u n c t i o n by e x c l u d i n g h i s r o l e as s y n t h e s i z e r i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . These respondents a l s o expressed the thoughts t h a t the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s should not be c o n s i d e r e d the e x p e r t s i n the s o c i a l f i e l d , not be g i v e n a l l the ta s k s w i t h a s o c i a l c o n n o t a t i o n , nor be gran t e d the r i g h t to p r i o r i n f o r m a t i o n i n order to comment on r e p o r t s prepared by the P l a n n i n g Department. 96 I t may be worth n o t i n g t h a t one of these Key P l a n n e r s was at the time of the i n t e r v i e w the Deputy D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g , the Planner most c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department, and one who acted as the P l a n n i n g Department r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on the J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . T h i s P l a n n e r b e l i e v e d t h a t s i n c e the i n c e p t i o n of the SP/CD Department, p o l i t i c i a n s and c i t i z e n s had been going to the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s f o r s o l u t i o n s , but i n h i s o p i n i o n , the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s were not q u a l i f i e d s o c i o l o g i s t s . In h i s view, the P l a n n e r i s : s t i l l charged w i t h the Over-view of the p a s t , p r e s e n t and' f u t u r e ; r e s p o n s i b l e t o see t h a t economic, s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and e c o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s are c o n s i d e r e d ; r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e c o g n i z -i n g h i s own l i m i t a t i o n s and c a l l i n g i n 'experts' i n those f i e l d s when p l a n n i n g . T h i s respondent r e s e n t e d the use of the term " p h y s i c a l p l a n n e r " and a v e r r e d t h a t the term came about because the p l a n n e r i s c o n s i d e r e d an e x p e r t i n c i v i c d e s i g n . Most Pl a n n e r s i n t e r v i e w e d b e l i e v e d t h a t the two P l a n n i n g Departments shared a common g o a l - - t h a t of working f o r the people of V a n c o u v e r — b u t t h a t they work d i f f e r e n t l y to a c h ieve t h i s o b j e c t i v e . The D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g a t the time, W i l l i a m Graham, emphasized t h a t P l a n n e r s and S o c i a l P l a n n e r s share the same concerns f o r s o c i a l v a l u e s , and p o i n t e d to P l a n n i n g Department r e p o r t s on Downtown, F a l s e 37 Creek and Gastown. At the same time, i n t h i s o p i n i o n , s o c i a l p l a n n i n g has p h y s i c a l o v e r t o n e s , as i n the p r o p o s a l f o r a m u l t i - s e r v i c e c e n t r e complex. The P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r , welcomed the " s o c i a l c o n s c i e n c e " which the D i r e c t o r of SP/CD brought to the These are t h r e e d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e areas of Van-couver, the l a s t named area b e i n g a p o r t i o n of S k i d Road which has been r e v i t a l i z e d as a commercial c e n t r e by re-developing a number of i n e x p e n s i v e rooming houses and o l d warehouses. T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Board, s i n c e i n h i s view most members of the Board were not s o c i a l l y aware. The SP/CD Department's r o l e and a c t i v i t i e s i n Vancouver were so l i n k e d with the P o l i c y and T e c h n i c a l Committees appointed by C o u n c i l on October 8, 1968 t h a t c o n s i d e r a t i o n must be g i v e n to the views " o u t s i d e r s " had of the S o c i a l Development Committee and J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee. The two Committees were,of course, i n t e g r a l l y l i n k e d to the " p l a n n i n g system" i n t h a t C i t y . The former chairman of the S o c i a l Development 38 Committee, Alderman Marianne L i n n e l l , b e l i e v e d t h a t the S.D.C. performed a v e r y worthwhile f u n c t i o n . I t was h e r view t h a t the Committee's b e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n to p l a n n i n g was t h a t i t brought f o r t h p o l i c y and was i n a p o s i t i o n to c o - o r d i n a t e s o c i a l p l a n n i n g e f f o r t f o r Vancouver. The demise of the S o c i a l Development Committee was of some concern to o n l y one Se n i o r Planner i n t e r v i e w e d , and he expressed no o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g the reasons f o r i t s death. The U,CS% E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r h e l d the view t h a t the c i v i c a u t h o r i t i e s d i d not know how to use the P o l i c y Committee (S.D.C.) and f o r t h i s reason, i t was allowed to l a p s e . Another source, however, was very i n f o r m a t i v e r e g a r d i n g some matters which are p u r p o r t e d to have occured and may h e l p to account f o r the a b o l i t i o n of the S.D.C. A c c o r d i n g to t h i s source, while the S o c i a l Development Committee was to have s e t p o l i c y and d i r e c t the J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee, i t "was o f t e n used i n an attempt to rubber-stamp the i d e a s 39 of the A d m i n i s t r a t o r s , " and where a d e c i s i o n d i d not s u i t the Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n the r e p o r t was d e l a y e d . At the o o I n t e r v i e w e d a t C i t y H a l l , September 20,1970 w h i l e S o c i a l Development Committee was s t i l l i n e x i s t e n c e . 39 The q u o t a t i o n i s g i v e n v e r b a t i m from an i n t e r v i e w w i t h a person employed a t C i t y H a l l . I t i s the w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n t h a t the p o s i t i o n of t h i s respondent was such, t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e to the i n t e r v i e w e e . 98 time of the S.D.C. d i s s o l u t i o n , t h e r e were some f i v e Committee r e s o l u t i o n s s t i l l o u t s t a n d i n g which had not been r e f e r r e d to C o u n c i l . In one case the D i r e c t o r of SP/CD, a c c o r d i n g to t h i s informant, attempted to r e p o r t d i r e c t to C o u n c i l , b y - p a s s i n g the u s u a l procedure of g e t t i n g Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a p p r o v a l , but G e r a l d Sutton Brown (one of the two Commissioners on the Board at the time) i n t e r v e n e d . The i n t e r v i e w e e q u e s t i o n e d the p o s s i b i l i t y of a l o n g -c o n t i n u i n g c o n f l i c t between the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department and the Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n without one of the contenders r e t r e a t i n g . I t was h i s view t h a t the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r would be f o r c e d to draw back, and he c i t e d the demise of the S o c i a l Development Committee to e x e m p l i f y the s t r e n g t h of the Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee, i n the o p i n i o n of the E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r of U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s , d u r i n g the e a r l y stages of i t s e s t a b l i s h m e n t was an important v e h i c l e f o r growth i n communication. Between September, 19 71, and February, 1972, however, the J.T.C. had not met, a l t h o u g h the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r and/or o t h e r Department Heads c o u l d have c a l l e d the Committee t o g e t h e r f o r a meeting. T h i s i n f o r m a n t b e l i e v e d t h a t the Committee was not f u n c t i o n -i n g because of the SP/CD Department's p r o j e c t stance, and t h i s r e s u l t e d i n d i m i n i s h e d communication. P l a n n e r s comments on the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of t h e i r own Department and t h a t of the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department suggest t h a t they are d i s p o s e d more toward the h i e r a r c h a l type of o r g a n i z a t i o n under which they o p e r a t e , than the l e s s s t r u c t u r e d system employed i n SP/CD. In the e s t i m a t i o n of one S e n i o r Planner, most of the f r i c t i o n between the two P l a n n i n g Departments r e s u l t s from the S o c i a l P l a n n e r ' s l a c k of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , and what appeared to him to be l i t t l e d i r e c t i o n due to a l a c k of c l a r i t y i n s o c i a l p l a n n i n g g o a l s . C o n t r a r i l y , a Key Planner contended t h a t the D i r e c t o r of SP/CD was i n v o l v e d i n a p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s c a l l e d " i n f l u e n c i n g " and t h a t t h i s r e q u i r e d p l a n n i n g , c o a l i t i o n s and a l l i a n c e s to 99 a c h i e v e s p e c i f i c g o a l s which were p r o b a b l y q u i t e c l e a r to the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s . T h i s i n f o r m a n t was concerned t h a t S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and P l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s on s p e c i f i c i s s u e s may not c o i n c i d e . One C i t y H a l l respondent was concerned about the q u e s t i o n of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s u r v i v a l f o r the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department. T h i s person reasoned t h a t the Department may p e r c e i v e i t s e l f as b e i n g under a t t a c k and may have to c o n c e n t r a t e on measures f o r i t s own continu a n c e . Two p o s s i b i l i t i e s mentioned were t h a t SP/CD may undertake o n l y simple p r o j e c t s which would i n d i c a t e s u c c e s s f u l a c c o m p l i s h -ments, or the Department may attempt to expand i t s domain. The interviewee c o n t i n u e d with the h y p o t h e t i c a l q u e s t i o n , "can SP/CD s u r v i v e i f other Departments at C i t y H a l l f e e l t h r e a t e n e d by i t s u n d i s c i p l i n e d , unorthodox approach to problems and i t s unholy a l l i a n c e w i t h c i t i z e n groups?" I t may be of i n t e r e s t to note t h a t one of the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s a l s o d i s c u s s e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s u r v i v a l , but he expressed concern about the st e p s the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department might take to i n s u r e i t s continuance i n a d i f f i c u l t environment. The f o r e g o i n g suggests t h a t t h e r e i s indeed c o n f l i c t between the two P l a n n i n g agencies on the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l e v e l . When q u e s t i o n e d about e x i s t i n g i n t e r - d e p a r t m e n t a l r e l a t i o n s , the D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g commented t h a t t h e r e was room f o r improvement. Most P l a n n e r s i n d i c a t e d g e n e r a l agreement with t h i s view. In the o p i n i o n of an informant who had acted as a c o n s u l t a n t to the SP/CD Department and had some c o n t a c t s with the P l a n n e r s i n the course of h i s work, p e r s o n a l i t y p l a y s a r o l e i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p s which e x i s t between the SP/CD and the P l a n n i n g Department. In one case, a C o - o r d i n a t o r should have been working t o g e t h e r with a Plan n e r on a S k i d Road study. A c c o r d i n g to t h i s respondent, the two c o u l d not communicate, w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t the S o c i a l P l a n n e r tended to work wit h the H e a l t h and P o l i c e Departments. The r e s u l t -100 i n g r e p o r t t h e r e f o r e l a c k e d a P l a n n i n g Department i n p u t . The same i n t e r v i e w e e contends t h a t the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s are "concerned p e o p l e " who tend to d i s c u s s s o c i a l i s s u e s which are not understood by the E n g i n e e r s and many P l a n n e r s . In h i s view, i t may be t h a t the p h y s i c a l l y o r i e n t e d c i v i c employees can o n l y be reached on the p r o f e s s -i o n a l l e v e l which he b e l i e v e s d i s t r a c t s from the r o l e S o c i a l P l a n n e r s must pursue. As a consequence, the C o - o r d i n a t o r s are t o r n between t h e i r p u b l i c and the C i t y H a l l s t a f f who are i n a p o s i t i o n to propose changes which the c i t i z e n s r e q u i r e or d e s i r e . He expressed the hope t h a t the P l a n n i n g Department would accept the e x i s t e n c e of the SP/CD Department i n order to reduce e x i s t i n g f r i c t i o n and a l i e n a t i o n . D i s c u s s i o n s with the P l a n n e r s r e v e a l the apparent acceptance of SP/CD i n areas of s o c i a l s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y and to a l e s s e r e x t e n t i n urban renewal problems. However, even i n f i e l d s r e c o g n i z e d as l e g i t i m a t e s o c i a l p l a n n i n g a r e a s , c o n f l i c t s a r i s e between the two Departments. An example of t h i s may be seen i n a downtown Vancouver p r o j e c t which i n v o l v e d both Departments of P l a n n i n g . In a t t e m p t i n g to f a c i l i t a t e a change i n the s t r e e t p a t t e r n i n downtown Vancouver, the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department proposed the M e l v i l l e - D u n s m u i r Connector. A f t e r the r e p o r t was p r e p a r e d by the P l a n n e r s , the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s were to l o o k a t the s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of the p r o p o s a l . The S o c i a l P l a n n e r s s e e k i n g a s o l u t i o n to the r e l o c a t i o n of e l d e r l y c i t i z e n s l i v i n g i n an o l d r e s i d e n c e h o t e l which was to be demolished, were accused by one S e n i o r P l a n n e r of h o l d i n g up the p r o j e c t . H i s expressed concern was to g e t the road system completed so t h a t two l a r g e o f f i c e complexes c o u l d proceed smoothly. The reader w i l l r e c a l l the s t a t e d view of two Key P l a n n e r s t h a t S o c i a l P l a n n e r s should not be g r a n t e d the r i g h t to p r i o r i n f o r m a t i o n i n o r d e r to comment on r e p o r t s prepared by the P l a n n i n g Department. One might q u e s t i o n the p o s s i b i l i t y of a v o i d i n g c o n f l i c t simply i n terms of the time sequence i n v o l v e d i n the s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i n p u t under the g i v e n c i r c u m s t a n c e s . 101 For one S e n i o r Planner, theSP/CD Department's 40 c r i t i c a l review o f the F a i r v i e w S l o p e s , r e p o r t , tended to be sh a l l o w and somewhat " c a r p i n g . " He argued t h a t the matter of d e n s i t y and f l o o r space r a t i o s were not the most p r e s s i n g s o c i a l i s s u e s i n the area. A l l P l a n n e r s i n t e r v i e w e d , agreed t h a t s o c i a l a s p e c t s of p l a n n i n g must be c o n s i d e r e d when p r e p a r i n g r e p o r t s . D i f f e r e n c e s i n views among the Pl a n n e r s were n o t i c e a b l e when the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the s o c i a l i n p u t was q u e s t i o n e d . While the D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g c o n s i d e r e d t h a t h i s Department's r e p o r t s adequately r e f l e c t e d a concern f o r the s o c i a l f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d , P l a n n e r s lower down the h i e r a r c h i c a l l a d d e r expressed some d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the s o c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of c u r r e n t p l a n n i n g r e p o r t s . One S e n i o r and t h r e e Key P l a n n e r s argue t h a t s o c i a l p l a n n i n g a t one time was j u s t another " m a n i f e s t a t i o n " of p l a n n i n g , and not a s e p a r a t e e n t i t y . They m a i n t a i n t h a t i t should s t i l l be p a r t of one o p e r a t i o n , w i t h i n the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department. Many Pla n n e r s below the rank of Key Planner, however, hoped f o r b e t t e r c o - o r d i n a t i o n betwen the two Departments, but d i d not suggest i n t e g r a t i o n as an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s o l u t i o n to more comprehensive p l a n n i n g . Taking a p o s i t i o n a g a i n s t i n t e g r a t i n g the two P l a n n i n g Departments, one respondent who was a c o n s u l t a n t to the SP/CD Department, suggested t h a t the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s would be "swamped" i f amalgamation took p l a c e , whereas i n a separ a t e department they gather s t r e n g t h from each o t h e r to take a s t a n d . He b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s i s important i f s o c i a l v a l u e s are to be c o n s i d e r e d i n the p r o c e s s of p l a n n i n g . In h i s view a team of people e x p e r t i n d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s s h ould work t o g e t h e r , but he c o u l d not propose how to o r g a n i z e i t , nor how to cope wi t h the d i f f e r i n g v a l u e , An area i n Vancouver, on the south s l o p e of F a l s e Creek which was the s u b j e c t of a redevdopment r e p o r t by the P l a n n i n g Department i n 1970. 102 systems of the c o - o p e r a t i n g d i s c i p l i n e s . Another i n t e r v i e w e e knowledgeable about C i t y H a l l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n d i s c u s s e d the i s s u e s of c o - o r d i n a t i n g some type of i n t e r - d i s c i p l i n a r y e f f o r t . The main problem i n h i s o p i n i o n was f i n d i n g compatible g o a l s and imposing them on f o u r key Departments at C i t y H a l l - - E n g i n e e r i n g , S o c i a l S e r v i c e s , S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and P l a n n i n g . He q u e s t i o n e d the p o s s i b i l i t y of e s t a b l i s h i n g some type of Super Agency, which c o u l d c l o s e the gap which e x i s t s between p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g as i n the case of the T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Board and s o c i a l p l a n n i n g as c a r r i e d out by the J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee. T h i s respondent concluded t h a t C o u n c i l must take a p o s i t i o n on comprehensive p l a n n i n g and p r o v i d e guidance to the v a r i o u s Departments i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g f o r Vancouver. 41 One member of C i t y C o u n c i l expressed h i s concern about the l a c k of l e a d e r s h i p C o u n c i l had g i v e n on P l a n n i n g matters g e n e r a l l y , and s o c i a l i s s u e s i n p a r t i c u l a r . He h e l d t h a t p l a n n i n g i n Vancouver was i n the redevelopment stage s i n c e t h e r e was l i t t l e l a n d a v a i l a b l e , and argued t h a t s t e r n d e c i s i o n s had to be made soon to r e v e r s e some of the e x i s t -i n g t r e n d s such as h i g h d e n s i t y developments and the i n c r e a s i n g numbers of people b e i n g e v i c t e d because of h i g h e r r e n t s which accompanied the redevelopment of S k i d Road (Gastown). In h i s view, SP/CD was p l a y i n g a c o n s t r u c t i v e r o l e i n the P l a n n i n g of Vancouver, but the p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s were supposed to be made by C o u n c i l - - a n d worthwhile changes i n p l a n n i n g would o n l y come about when C i t y C o u n c i l c o n s i s t e d of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who were more r e s p o n s i v e to p e o p l e ' s needs. The D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g i s acknowledged by one S e n i o r Planner as b e i n g more p o l i t i c a l l y o r i e n t e d than Alderman Harry Rankin was i n t e r v i e w e d because he i s g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d as the spokesman f o r the E a s t Side of Vancouver and i s the o n l y member of C o u n c i l l i v i n g i n t h i s a r e a of the C i t y where most s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i s conducted. 103 the D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g . T h i s may be a cause of c o n f l i c t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s were to be p o l i t i c a l l y i n v o l v e d i n a matter which was to be the s u b j e c t of a P l a n n i n g Department r e p o r t . The B r i t a n n i a Community S e r v i c e s Centre ( BCSC) and the F r a s e r v i e w Branch L i b r a r y have both been d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r from the v i e w p o i n t of the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s (Chapter IV, s e c t i o n B. 2J ; here the same i s s u e s w i l l be reviewed from the Planners* s t a n d p o i n t . a. B r i t a n n i a Community S e r v i c e s Centre The C i t y P l a n n i n g Department was i n v o l v e d i n the BCSC b e f o r e the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department was e s t a b l i s h e d . A Key P l a n n e r s t a t e d t h a t h i s Department was a c t i v e i n both committee work as w e l l as i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of r e p o r t s and p l a n s , submission of b r i e f s , e t c e t e r a . T h i s work has i n v o l v e d s t a f f a t a l l l e v e l s up to and i n c l u d i n g the D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g . The P l a n n i n g A d v i s o r y Committee f o r the B r i t a n n i a Complex at the time was c h a i r e d by an A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g , Harry P i c k s t o n e . At the r e q u e s t of the now disbanded S o c i a l Development Committee, the P l a n n i n g A d v i s o r y Committee was formed of s i x r e s i d e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and 42 f o u r c i v i c o f f i c i a l s . The S o c i a l P l a n n e r i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p r o j e c t ; w h i l e the P l a n n e r ' s j o b , as he sees i t , i s to ensure t h a t the c o n s u l t a n t s work with the c i t i z e n s i n o r d e r t h a t B r i t a n n i a area r e s i d e n t s get what they d e s i r e . The S.D.C. i n t h i s Key P l a n n e r ' s o p i n i o n , was of v a l u e as a c o - o r d i n a t i n g body, but not as an a c t i o n committee. With the S o c i a l Development Committee disbanded, the P l a n n i n g A d v i s o r y Committee of the B r i t a n n i a Community The f o u r c i v i c o f f i c i a l s r e p r e s e n t e d the Depart-ment of P l a n n i n g , the Department of SP/CD, the Vancouver School Board, and the Vancouver Parks Board. 104 S e r v i c e s Centre can a c t as an a d v i s o r to v a r i o u s Boards without g o i n g through the S . D . C . — t h a t i s , d i r e c t to the School Board or L i b r a r y Board. b. P r a s e r v i e w Branch L i b r a r y The p r o p o s a l i n 1969 to study the f e a s i b i l i t y of e s t a b l i s h i n g the F r a s e r v i e w Branch L i b r a r y o r i g i n a t e d f o r the P l a n n i n g Department with a memorandum from the Board 43 of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . C o l l a b o r a t i o n between the P l a n n i n g and S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Departments came about e a r l y i n the study, s i n c e the memorandum mentioned the i n t e r e s t t h a t SP/CD had i n p r o v i d i n g space f o r s o c i a l s e r v i c e agencies w i t h i n the l i b r a r y b u i l d i n g . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the memorandum i n c l u d e d the f o l l o w i n g statement: I am s o r r y to say t h a t t h i s matter i s p o l i t i c a l l y l i v e l y at the moment so t h a t I am 4 ^ hoping you can l e t me have a r e p o r t f a i r l y soon. The two Departments worked out the d e t a i l s on space requirements f o r s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , as w e l l as the f i n a n c i a l a s p e c t s to cover the c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance of the s t r u c t u r e . I n cluded i n the P l a n n i n g Department r e p o r t was a s e c t i o n p repared by the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s , d e a l i n g w i t h the i n t e g r a t i v e , m u l t i - s e r v i c e c e n t r e approach b e i n g taken f o r the proposed l i b r a r y . 4 " * The w r i t e r wishes to note t h a t d u r i n g the p r e p a r a -t i o n of the C o u n c i l r e p o r t two Se n i o r P l a n n e r s and a Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , memo #4181, June 26, 1969, s i g n e d by Commissioner Sutton Brown. 44 I b i d . The author worked i n the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d and help e d d r a f t the r e p o r t to C o u n c i l . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r branch l i b r a r y was proposed some 24 years e a r l i e r . I t became " p o l i t i c a l l y l i v e l y " i n 1969 by the a c t i v i t y of the L o c a l Area C o u n c i l and a F r a s e r v i e w L i b r a r y Committee which i n c l u d e d a number of concerned young people l i v i n g i n F r a s e r v i e w . Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Proposed Branch L i b r a r y - F r a s e r v i e w , September 4, 1969. 105 P l a n n i n g A s s i s t a n t i n d i c a t e d t h a t s i n c e the Vancouver L i b r a r y Board Chairman and h i s Deputy appeared to g i v e o n l y r e l u c t a n t a p p r o v a l to the scheme, the p o s s i b i l i t y of implementation seemed remote. 4^ D. Summary Chapter IV was an examination of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e i n 1971, compared to the " i d e a l " of 1968. One can assume t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e s between the two were a r e s u l t of the a c t i v i t y of the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s between 1968 and 1971. Thus, i n p a r t , the p r a c t i c e was a r e f l e c t i o n of the i n t e r a c t i o n between the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s and C i t y P l a n n e r s i n Vancouver. T h i s chapter a l s o s t u d i e d the view of c e r t a i n n o n - S o c i a l P l a n n e r s to s o c i a l p l a n n i n g , and how they and the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s see the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the two P l a n n i n g Departments. The author found t h a t there are some d i f f e r e n c e s i n v i e w p o i n t which appear to be areas of c o n f l i c t . In Chapter V, the w r i t e r w i l l a n a l y s e these d i f f e r e n c e s and draw c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r f u n c t i o n a l and d y s f u n c t i o n a l a s p e c t s . The F r a s e r v i e w Branch L i b r a r y was o f f i c i a l l y opened i n March, 19 72. preceding p.. 106 RrtUMOAPY . — CHAPTER V SUMMARY, ANALYSIS, CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION Summary of Purpose and Procedures While community planners attempt t o c r e a t e e n v i r o n -ments which o f f e r i n d i v i d u a l s a c h o i c e of l i f e s t y l e s , they l i m i t t h e i r p r a c t i c e by depending l a r g e l y on zoning bylaws and urban design, without adequately t a k i n g i n t o account the s o c i a l c o s t s e n t a i l e d i n the pl a n s they prepare. Meanwhile, s o c i a l p l a n n e r s now working p r i m a r i l y t o achieve s o c i a l cures, are attempting t o move i n t o f i e l d s where they w i l l prevent s o c i a l problems. T h i s b r i n g s them i n t o a p o s i t i o n where they are seeking i n c r e a s e d c o - o r d i n a t i o n with urban planners who a f f e c t the s o c i a l l i f e of a c i t y . The o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s t h e s i s have been t o : 1. Achieve some understanding of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s which e x i s t between the c i t y p l a n n e r s and soc-i a l p l a n n e r s i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The author s t u d i e d the m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g system i n Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o : a. I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s or l i n k a g e s between the groups w i t h i n the p l a n n i n g system. b. D i f f e r i n g a t t i t u d e s and conceptions be-tween members of the two groups, and the extent t o which these conceptions generate f u n c t i o n a l and d y s f u n c t i o n a l c o n f l i c t . 2. Examine the e v o l v i n g r o l e of the s o c i a l planner w i t h i n the p l a n n i n g process i n some depth, with p a r t i c u l a r c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o : a. The h i s t o r i c a l e v o l u t i o n of s o c i a l p l a n -ning, and some contemporary t h e o r e t i c a l concepts of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . b. The a c t u a l p r a c t i c e of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i n 1971 as a comparison w i t h the o r i g i n a l o b j e c t i v e s of e s t a b l i s h i n g a s o c i a l p l a n -ning agency i n 1968. The r e s e a r c h methology was presented so t h a t the l i m i t a t i o n s of the d a t a may be r e v e a l e d , g i v i n g the reader an o p p o r t u n i t y to accept or c h a l l e n g e the w r i t e r ' s a n a l y s i s of the d a t a presented. T h i s paper i s n e c e s s a r i l y s e l e c t i v e and concerns i t s e l f p r i m a r i l y w i t h the s o c i a l aspects of p l a n n i n g and the r o l e s S o c i a l Planners p l a y i n the p u b l i c p l a n n i n g process i n Vancouver. The author examined the h i s t o r i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l framework which preceded the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the S o c i a l Planning/Community Development (SP/CD) Department. F o l l o w i n g t h i s , the SP/CD f i l e s were researched and d i s c u s s i o n s with C i t y H a l l s t a f f were c a r r i e d out to determine the "founding documents" of the Department which would be s t u d i e d i n d e t a i l . C r i t e r i a 1 were set and e i g h t documents were chosen as a r e -s u l t of meeting a l l or n e a r l y a l l the necessary c r i t e r i a . The e i g h t r e p o r t s were examined t o determine t h e i r s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s and the means of implementing the o b j e c t i v e s f o r 2 a proposed s o c i a l p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n . To gather data r e l a t i n g t o how the S o c i a l P lanning Department was p e r c e i v e d by C i t y Planners, and by the S o c i a l Planners i n the p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r s ... f i l e s i n the Planning and S o c i a l Planning Departments at C i t y H a l l and the United Community S e r v i c e s (U.C.S.) were perused w i t h the p e r m i s s i o n of those i n a u t h o r i t y . In a d d i t i o n , a number of d r a f t r e p o r t s which d i d not reach C i t y C o u n c i l were reviewed. 1 The c r i t e r i a are s t a t e d and e l a b o r a t e d upon i n the metho-dology (Chapter I.C.). 2 See Appendices A t o H i n c l u s i v e . 108 M i c h ael Wheeler has s t a t e d t h a t " p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l p l a n n e r s have s i m i l a r l y hazy p e r c e p t i o n s of each 3 other's r o l e s . " I f t h i s i s so, i t i s of some value t o c l a r i f y the r o l e s of both planners and how they i n t e r r e l a t e . One approach to understanding p l a n n e r s 1 r o l e s i s t o examine the t a s k s they perform w i t h i n t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l system. I t may be assumed t h a t not a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t to t h i s study was a v a i l a b l e i n w r i t t e n form, and t h e r e f o r e p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s were conducted by the author. I n t e r -viewees i n c l u d e d S o c i a l Planners, A d m i n i s t r a t o r s and Planners at a number of h i e r a r c h i c a l l e v e l s i n C i t y H a l l . Other r e s -pondents were chosen because they had some s i g n i f i c a n t l i n k w ith the SP/CD Department, as f o r example, an Alderman who acted as Chairman of the S o c i a l Development Committee. The informants were i n v o l v e d i n d i s c u s s i o n s on t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g theory, the r o l e s and a c t i v i t i e s of the S o c i a l Planners and the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the two Pla n -ning Departments. T h e o r e t i c a l concepts of o r g a n i z a t i o n and c o n f l i c t were a l s o c o n s i d e r e d i n Chapter One s i n c e they were being used as a metho d o l o g i c a l d e v i c e r e l a t e d to the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of p l a n n i n g i n Vancouver. O r g a n i z a t i o n t h e o r i s t s have suggested t h a t d i f f e r -ences i n a t t i t u d e s and approach by persons i n a system of o r g a n i z a t i o n may r e s u l t i n f u n c t i o n a l or d y s f u n c t i o n a l con-f l i c t s w i t h i n that system. From the d e s c r i p t i o n g i v e n i n Chapter One, the Planning and S o c i a l Planning Departments i n Vancouver c o n s t i t u t e a system of groups doing p l a n n i n g . T h i s system was s t u d i e d i n some d e t a i l as subsequently d e s c r i b e d . M i c h a e l Wheeler, ed., I n t e g r a t i o n of P h y s i c a l and S o c i a l  Planning, (Ottawa: Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , 1967). Report No. 1, p. 76. 109 Summary of F i n d i n g s A review of the l i t e r a t u r e of modern p l a n n i n g i n d i c a t e d t h a t both p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l p l a n n i n g have com-mon antecendents d a t i n g back to the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of p a r t i c i p a t o r y government and the d e s i r e to m i t i g a t e the s o c i a l problems accentuated by i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . A number of U t o p i a n schemes were proposed as s o l u t i o n s to the problems of u r b a n i z a t i o n , but were abandoned when they f a i l e d . Two d i f f e r e n t emphases i n p l a n n i n g became d i s c e r n a b l e around the b e g i n n i n g of the 20th c e n t u r y . One, s o c i a l p l a n n i n g , may be t r a c e d through the s o c i a l r e f o r m e r s and the s o c i a l w e l f a r e system, and t h i s f a c e t i s known to s o m e as 'planning by l e g i s l a t i o n ' . The o t h e r , 'planning by d e s i g n ' can be f o l l o w e d through the movements which i n v o l v e d a r c h i t e c t s , e n g i n e e r s and o t h e r s who attempted to shape the p h y s i c a l environment. The dichotomy of p l a n n i n g i n t o p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l , a c c o r d i n g to some p l a n n e r s , i s n e i t h e r r e a l i s t i c or d e s i r a b l e . They b e l i e v e t h a t p l a n n i n g should be a p r o c e s s c o n s i s t i n g of f i n d i n g g o a l s upon which agreement can be reached and then s e e k i n g the b e s t method of r e a c h i n g these o b j e c t i v e s . The d i f f i c u l t i e s p l a n n e r s are e n c o u n t e r i n g may i n p a r t be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e i r f a i l u r e to see p l a n n i n g more comprehensively. In the next p e r i o d of time, p l a n n e r s can be expected to c o n f r o n t s o c i a l problems of i n c r e a s e d magnitude. Among reasons f o r t h i s e x p e c t a t i o n are changing s o c i a l v a l u e s , an i n c r e a s i n g l y complex s o c i e t y and l a r g e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of p o p u l a t i o n . C e r t a i n p l a n n i n g t h e o r i s t s propose t h a t p l a n n i n g must i n v o l v e the p u b l i c i n c o n t i n u o u s feedback to a c h i e v e s e t g o a l s . E i g h t documents examined i n Chapter Three p r o v i d e d a h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e of the development of p u b l i c s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i n Vancouver. These r e p o r t s , w r i t t e n by P l a n n e r s , A d m i n i s t r a t o r s and S o c i a l P l a n n e r s , d e f i n e t h e i r 110 perceptions of s o c i a l planning. Two documents appear to describe s o c i a l planning i n terms of Perlman's s o c i a l welfare planning while the other s i x may be considered s o c i a l programming as characterized by Gans. The objectives and the methods of implementing the objectives stated i n the seventh and eighth reports, define i n part s o c i a l planning i n Vancouver i n 1968. This h i s t o r i c a l view of s o c i a l planning served as a basis for comparison with s o c i a l planning p r a c t i c e i n Vancouver, 1971. How Social Planners and non-Social Planners perceived s o c i a l planning and how each group viewed the re l a t i o n s h i p s of the two Vancouver Planning Departments, were examined i n Chapter Four. I t was found that there were d i f f e r i n g views which appeared to point to areas of c o n f l i c t . In succeeding sections, an evaluation w i l l be made and conclusions drawn regarding the func t i o n a l and dysfunctional aspects of these d i f f e r e n t viewpoints. Analysis of Findings The perceptions of s o c i a l planning p r a c t i c e have heretofore been considered i n thi s t h esis, from the standpoint of the theoreticians, the Soc i a l Planners, the Physical Planners and others with l i n k s to the SP/CD Department. In th i s section the author, as an observer, w i l l analyse the data presented. Information regarding organization and c o n f l i c t between the two Planning Departments was gathered a f t e r approximately three years of a c t i v i t y by members of the Social Planning Department. Organization t h e o r i s t s have indicated that the structure of an organization w i l l a f f e c t the a c t i v i t i e s and conceptions of members i n the group. Members of the Soc i a l Planning Department believed t h e i r group to be e s s e n t i a l l y e g a l i t a r i a n not due to s i z e , but rather because of i t s purpose, and the c l i e n t s i t served, and they noted that the organization was les s structured than the C i t y Planning Department. I t should be I l l mentioned t h a t the SP/CD Department was s t i l l p y r a m i d a l , and the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s ' b e l i e f appears to 4 be the f a c t t h a t they h e l d i t to be u n - h i e r a r c h i c a l . The S o c i a l P l a n n e r s a l s o appeared to have a homogeneity of o u t l o o k w i t h r e g a r d to the meaning and r o l e of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . The r e s u l t of t h i s might be t h a t i n f a c e of e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e s , the a c t i v i t i e s of the group can c o n t i n u e to c o n c e n t r a t e on core a c t i v i t i e s a c c o r d i n g to A r g y r i s ' d e s c r i p t i o n g i v e n e a r l i e r . I t may be suggested t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l i n k s p r o v i d e the group a means of communication and i n t e r - a c t i o n . The S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department's l i n e s to the community i n c l u d e d the L o c a l Area C o u n c i l s , the Neighbourhood Resources C o u n c i l s , and at a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l , the S o c i a l Development Committee ( S . D . C ) . The o n l y apparent l i n k w i t h the U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s (U.C.S.) was on the J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee ( J . T . C ) . The comment by the E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r of the U.C.S. r e g a r d i n g the J.T.C.'s f a i l u r e to meet becomes r e l e v a n t when one c o n s i d e r s t h a t both the SP/CD Department and the U.C.S. are engaged i n s o c i a l p l a n n i n g s t u d i e s . Without r e g u l a r d i s c u s s i o n s there may be o v e r l a p of r e p o r t s , and worse, no l i n k a g e between p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . The J.T.C. was a l s o the o n l y o f f i c i a l l i n k with the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department except f o r the c o n n e c t i o n • o n the B r i t a n n i a Community S e r v i c e s Centre, which i s a q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t l i n k . J o i n t e f f o r t s of the two P l a n n i n g u n i t s as i n the F r a s e r v i e w L i b r a r y Report cannot be c l a s s e d as an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l i n k a l t h o u g h the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s i n v o l v e d I t may be of i n t e r e s t to note t h a t between 1971 and 1973 the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department dropped "/Community Development" from i t s t i t l e ; r a i s e d two s e n i o r S o c i a l P l a n -ners to head up two s e p a r a t e d i v i s i o n s - S o c i a l S e r v i c e P l a n n i n g and S o c i a l Development P l a n n i n g ; and employed a man w i t h a background i n b u s i n e s s and a d v e r t i s i n g to do p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s work f o r the Department. 112 the P h y s i c a l P l a n n e r s i n the s o c i a l a s p e c t s of a p l a n n i n g problem. O r g a n i z a t i o n a l l i n k s and i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s appeared to be minimal, w i t h i n d i c a t i o n s of l i t t l e co-opera-t i o n arid i n t e r - a c t i o n . I t seems t h a t the two groups i n 1971 were e s s e n t i a l l y independent of each o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n -a l l y , w i t h l i t t l e ground to exchange i d e a s . The a t t i t u d e s and c o n c e p t i o n s of the two groups of P l a n n e r s may be understood more c l e a r l y i f juxtaposed with each o t h e r . We are here concerned w i t h a n a l y z i n g what S o c i a l P l a n n e r s and P h y s i c a l P l a n n e r s have s t a t e d i n the i n t e r v i e w s r e g a r d i n g s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . The S o c i a l P l a n n e r s b e l i e v e d t h a t the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department was not d o i n g a good job and t h e r e f o r e t h e i r Department was e s t a b l i s h e d to p r o v i d e the c i t i z e n s with someone at C i t y H a l l to respond m e a n i n g f u l l y to them. The P l a n n e r s on the other hand appeared to agree w i t h "Wheeler's p e r c e p t i o n s of the p h y s i c a l p l a n n e r s ' view t h a t the SP/CD Department should be o r i e n t e d to the s o c i a l l y handicapped and be i n v o l v e d e s s e n t i a l l y i n s o c i a l w e l f a r e p l a n n i n g . T h i s appears to be an area of c o n f l i c t between the two P l a n n i n g groups and w i l l be e l a b o r a t e d upon l a t e r . Another area where t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n s d i f f e r e d was i n how they both looked a t s o c i a l a s p e c t s i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The S o c i a l P l a n n e r s o f t e n were i n t r o d u c e d to s o c i a l problems i n the community through a c t i v i t y connected w i t h the L o c a l Area C o u n c i l s and the Neighbourhood Resources C o u n c i l s , whereas the P h y s i c a l P l a n n e r s a p p a r e n t l y d i d not have a review p r o c e s s f o r the s o c i a l a s p e c t s of the developments they were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r . A f t e r September, 1970, when C o u n c i l adopted a r e s o l u t i o n r e q u i r i n g t h a t a l l major r e - z o n i n g s be reviewed by the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s , SP/CD was g i v e n p l a n n i n g r e p o r t s f o r i t s " s o c i a l " i n p u t a f t e r the r e p o r t had been e s s e n t i a l l y completed. I t should be r e c a l l e d t h a t a c c o r d i n g to two Key P l a n n e r s , the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s were not e n t i t l e d to " p r i o r i n f o r m a t i o n . " As p r e v i o u s l y suggested the time sequence i s such t h a t the r e p o r t must be d e l a y e d 113 and t h i s c r e a t e d bad i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . More c r i t i c a l than the d e l a y however, i s t h a t at t h i s stage i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s the s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i n p u t can not be a j o i n t e f f o r t a t p l a n n i n g by an " i n t e r - d i s c i p l i n a r y team;" the b e s t one can expect from t h a t sequence would be c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n of the s o c i a l a s p e c t s of a r e p o r t . P r e v i o u s l y i t was i n d i c a t e d t h a t the t h e o r e t i c a l concepts of c o n f l i c t are used i n t h i s paper as a d e v i c e f o r the a n a l y s i s of the d i f f e r i n g a t t i t u d e s and c o n c e p t i o n s of the S o c i a l and n o n - S o c i a l P l a n n e r s . C o n f l i c t s have been d e f i n e d as f u n c t i o n a l where there i s agreement on b a s i c v a l u e s , w h i l e they have been d e f i n e d as d y s f u n c t i o n a l where the contending groups cease to share the b a s i c assumptions upon which the l e g i t i m a c y of t h a t p a r t i c u l a r system r e s t s . I t may be assumed t h e r e f o r e , t h a t where the p e r s o n n e l of the two groups w i t h i n the p l a n n i n g system r e c o g n i z e d s i m i l a r v a l u e s , any c o n f l i c t expressed would be f u n c t i o n a l and where b a s i c assumptions were not agreed upon, the r e s u l t i n g c o n f l i c t would be d y s f u n c t i o n a l . The v a l u e s are r e c o g n i z a b l e i n the r o l e s the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s assume and the a c t i v i t i e s they c a r r y out. The most e x p l i c i t statement however, of the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s ' u n d e r l y i n g assumptions are the Department's Terms of Reference which express the purpose and f u n c t i o n s or t a s k s of the agency, and l e g i t i m i z e i t s a u t h o r i t y . 1. S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department Terms of Reference T h i s document which i n 1968 d e f i n e d s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i n Vancouver, was p e r c e i v e d by the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r t h r e e years l a t e r as a g e n e r a l guide to a c t i o n . Meanwhile, Key P l a n n e r s b e l i e v e d i t gave too much a u t h o r i t y to the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s . The D i r e c t o r of SP/CD expressed s o c i a l p l a n n i n g g o a l s as making C i t y H a l l more r e s p o n s i v e to c i t i z e n needs, and a s s i s t i n g the p u b l i c i n i t s r i g h t s of access to i n f o r m a t i o n and were based on the c i t i z e n as c l i e n t . T h i s was i n c o n t r a s t to the P l a n n i n g Department's views of 114 p l a n n i n g f o r the p u b l i c through c i v i c development which saw the C o u n c i l as c l i e n t . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to r e c a l l the Key P l a n n e r ' s b e l i e f t h a t s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i s e s s e n t i a l l y s o c i a l w e l f a r e 5 p l a n n i n g . T h i s was expressed i n the f i r s t r e p o r t examined and d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h P l a n n e r s confirmed t h i s i n 1971. Even g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e may be a t t a c h e d to the f a c t t h a t t h i s r e p o r t recommended the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a t e c h n i c a l body (the J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee). P r e v i o u s l y i t was s t a t e d t h a t the d e c i s i o n of the P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r to propose a committee and not a f u l l department may have been a c o n s c i o u s a c t , and remarks of the Key P l a n n e r s and the a c t i o n s of the P l a n n i n g Department i n d i c a t e t h a t i t was. I n t e g r a t i o n of s o c i a l and c i t y p l a n n i n g was accepted by S o c i a l P l a n n e r s as t h e i r task whereas the P l a n n e r s were most outspoken i n t h e i r disagreement. I t i s noteworthy t h a t Key P l a n n e r s i n p a r t i c u l a r , s t r e s s e d t h a t t h i s was a b a s i c assumption which they c o u l d not a c c e p t . The r e a d e r w i l l r e c a l l t h a t t h i s was not one of the tasks proposed f o r the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department i n a l l the p r e c e d i n g "founding documents" reviewed. T h i s was one of three a d d i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s i n c l u d e d i n the Department's Terms of Reference, which was prepared by the D i r e c t o r of SP/CD. I t i s important to note t h a t i n the i n s t a n c e s g i v e n above, we are concerned with b a s i c assumptions. These examples i l l u s t r a t e areas where the P l a n n e r s and S o c i a l P l a n n e r s do not p e r c e i v e S o c i a l P l a n n i n g s i m i l a r l y and t h e r e f o r e r e v e a l d y s f u n c t i o n a l c o n f l i c t . The Terms of Reference of the SP/CD Department s t a t e o t h e r t a s k s which are an a i d i n d e f i n i n g p r i o r i t i e s and d i r e c t i o n s f o r the Department. The d i s c u s s i o n i n Chapter IV r e v e a l e d a number of c o n f l i c t i n g views r e g a r d i n g the p r a c t i c e of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g and these w i l l be a n a l y s e d a t Vancouver,B.C.,City P l a n n i n g Department, Downtown -E a s t S i d e (1965). t h i s time t o determine whether or not these c o n s t i t u t e f u n c t i o n a l c o n f l i c t between the groups i n the system. The S o c i a l Planners had not determined by 1971 what t h e i r g o a l s should be r e g a r d i n g s o c i a l s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y . They were problem-oriented and t h i s was d i s c o n c e r t i n g t o the Planners, who looked on t h i s as f i g h t i n g brush f i r e s . T h i s by d e f i n i t i o n must be con s i d e r e d f u n c t i o n a l inasmuch as the go a l s had not been c l a r i f i e d by the S o c i a l Planners. U n i f i c a t i o n of s e r v i c e s was an i s s u e on which n e i t h e r t h e o r e t i c i a n s nor S o c i a l Planners agreed, and again would be f u n c t i o n a l . L o c a l area p l a n n i n g too, was a sphere of f u n c t i o n a l c o n f l i c t , s i n c e most Planners were unaware of the L o c a l Area C o - o r d i n a t o r 1 s ( S o c i a l Planner's) r o l e i n the communities. An ex c e p t i o n to t h i s was the agreement amongst those i n the system t h a t the S o c i a l Planners were e f f e c t i v e i n urban renewal. One may assume t h a t some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s which the Planners were having were r e s o l v e d f o l l o w i n g the en t r y of the SP/CD Department i n t o the f i e l d . 6 Other s o c i a l p l a n n i n g t a s k s with which the Planners agreed, i n c l u d e d the a n a l y s i s of s o c i a l problems and the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s o c i a l s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y . The p r e v e n t i o n of s o c i a l problems was another r e s p o n s i b i l i t y S o c i a l P l a n -ners had, however, they d i d not c o n s i d e r t h i s f e a s i b l e at the l o c a l l e v e l . Planners d i d not i n d i c a t e t h e i r awareness of t h i s task, and thus any c o n f l i c t would have been f u n c t i o n -a l . Encouragement of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , at the time the r e p o r t e d i n t e r v i e w s occured, was a major source of c o n f l i c t s i n c e i t was at the r o o t of the S o c i a l P lanning Department's o b j e c t i v e s . While non-Key Planners were pr e -pared t o accept some p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , only one agreed with the i d e a of encouraging c i t i z e n groups t o speak out. Mrs. Darlene M a r z a r i ( e l e c t e d Alderman f o r 1973-74) was the C o - o r d i n a t o r i n the Strathcona-Woodland area who worked wi t h the Strathcona Property Owners and Tenants A s s o c i a t i o n (SPOTA) d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . 116 Three Key Pla n n e r s d i s c u s s e d t h i s . At t h a t time o n l y one s t a t e d t h a t the p u b l i c should be i n v o l v e d , but he q u e s t i o n e d i t s v a l u e i n p l a n n i n g . T h i s may be c l a s s i f i e d as d y s f u n c t i o n a l c o n f l i c t . There appeared t o be some d i s c r e p a n c y i n the d e f i -n i t i o n s of master s o c i a l development plans, when the two 7 groups d i s c u s s e d t h i s f a c t o r . The e f f e c t would be f u n c t i o n a l . 2. S o c i a l P l a nners' Role, A c t i v i t i e s and R e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the C i t y Planning Department  The p r i o r i t i e s S o c i a l Planners s e t f o r t h e i r t a s k s are a r e f l e c t i o n of the v a l u e s they h o l d . The two areas of concern expressed by the S o c i a l Planning D i r e c t o r suggest t h a t h i s Department c o n s i d e r e d s o c i a l s e r v i c e p l a n n i n g i t s main duty, l e a v i n g s o c i e t a l p l a n n i n g w i t h i t s s e a r c h f o r g o a l s , to those i n the p o l i t i c a l arena. Where the S o c i a l Planners i n v o l v e d themselves i n aspects of s o c i a l s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y , c o n f l i c t w i t h the Planners was minimal. As agents f o r change, the v a l u e s of S o c i a l Planners appeared t o re p r e s e n t opposing i n t e r e s t s when compared w i t h the Planners on c e r t a i n p l a n n i n g i s s u e s . An example of t h i s s i t u a t i o n o c c u r r e d with regard t o the Me l v i l l e - D u n s m u i r Connector r e p o r t where the S o c i a l Planner working on the problem of r e l o c a t i n g people came i n c o n f l i c t with the Planners who were concerned w i t h completing the p r o j e c t . The P l a n n e r s o b j e c t e d to the d e l a y r e s u l t i n g from the s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i n p u t . Comment was p r e v i o u s l y made r e l a t i v e t o the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s ' b e l i e f t h a t p l a n n i n g was too important to leave t o the Planners while the Planners c o n s i d e r e d the S o c i a l Planners l e s s expert i n the f i e l d than themselves The author was informed by a c o n s u l t a n t to the SP/CD Department t h a t G e r a l d Sutton Brown, former Senior Commissioner on the Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n expressed h i s disappointment to a c l a s s of Pla n n i n g students at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Spring, 1972, t h a t the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r d i d not produce a s o c i a l development p l a n f o r the C i t y . F a l u d i might suggest t h a t t h i s harks back t o " b l u e p r i n t p l a n n i n g " w i t h i t s e n g i n e e r i n g beginnings. 117 and o b j e c t e d to the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department's r e s -p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s y n t h e s i z i n g p l a n n i n g i n Vancouver. The m a j o r i t y of Planners i n C i t y H a l l s t a t e d or i m p l i e d t h a t both Departments have the same g o a l s — working f o r the people of Vancouver. S o c i a l Planners, n e v e r t h e l e s s , d i d not appear to t h i n k of a g o a l i n these broad terms. Rather, they seemed to see Vancouver as a composite of communities. One C o - o r d i n a t o r suggested t h a t Planners express t h i s g e n e r a l g o a l as a means of s c r e e n i n g t h e i r l i n k s w i t h 'the establishment' and t h a t not only was t h i s h i s understanding but more important i n h i s o p i n i o n , i t was c o n s i d e r e d so " i n the minds of g the people of the C i t y . " I t can be assumed from the a n a l y s i s of the d a t a i n t h i s s u b - s e c t i o n , t h a t the p e r c e p t i o n s of the Planners and S o c i a l Planners d i f f e r r a d i c a l l y with r e g a r d to the S o c i a l Planners' r o l e s and a c t i v i t i e s . Since these r o l e s and a c t i v i t i e s m i r r o r the v a l u e s of the S o c i a l Planners, the d i s c o r d they engender i s a r e f l e c t i o n of d y s f u n c t i o n a l c o n f l i c t . The w r i t e r e a r l i e r noted t h a t members of the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department showed an homogeneous view of the meaning and r o l e of t h e i r group. However, when c o n s i d e r -i n g the system of p l a n n i n g i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r i n Van-couver, the C i t y Planners and the S o c i a l Planners d i d not d i s p l a y the homogeneity of outlook Selzwick d e s c r i b e s . The r e s u l t must be viewed as d y s f u n c t i o n a l . ' Since t h i s statement was made i n 1971, there have been e x t e n s i v e changes not only on C o u n c i l , but a l s o i n the Adminis-t r a t i o n at C i t y H a l l , i n c l u d i n g the v o l u n t a r y r e l o c a t i o n of the S o c i a l Planner who made the comment. 118 C o n c l u s i o n s The d a t a gathered d u r i n g the course of t h i s study, r e v e a l s t h a t c o n f l i c t e x i s t s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l system of p u b l i c p l a n n i n g i n Vancouver. T h i s c o n f l i c t may be c a t e g o r i z e d as both f u n c t i o n a l and d y s f u n c t i o n a l . A number of i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t s concerned g o a l s or i n t e r e s t s which d i d not negate the b a s i c v a l u e s and these c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d f u n c t i o n a l . In some i n s t a n c e s , the g o a l s r e f l e c t e d the v a l u e system of the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s who were i n c o n f l i c t w i t h the P l a n n e r s , i n which case the c o n f l i c t brought about, must be c o n s i d e r e d d y s f u n c t i o n a l . The SP/CD Department's s t a t e d purpose i n i t s Terms of Reference, a b a s i c v a l u e , was one of a number of•. areas where th e r e was no agreement between S o c i a l P l a n n e r s and P l a n n e r s . Thus, a study of the d a t a r e v e a l s both types of c o n f l i c t . By d e f i n i t i o n , the e x t e n t to which f u n c t i o n a l c o n f l i c t e x i s t s , i t w i l l tend to be p o s i t i v e l y f u n c t i o n a l f o r the system. However, the w r i t e r would q u e s t i o n the a d v i s a b i l i t y and the p o s s i b i l i t y of making a r e a l i s t i c a p p r a i s a l of the v a r y i n g weights each c o n f l i c t might be g i v e n . T h i s of course, i s not r e q u i r e d , s i n c e the author s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y t h a t c o n f l i c t theory was employed o n l y as an a n a l y t i c t o o l . One cannot s t a t e c o n c l u s i v e l y t h a t c o n f l i c t r e s u l t e d from the d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s of view of the P l a n n e r s and S o c i a l P l a n n e r s but one can p o s t u l a t e t h a t t h i s c o n f l i c t was the r e s u l t of the d i f f e r i n g a t t i t u d e s and c o n c e p t i o n s . As a secondary o b j e c t i v e , t h i s t h e s i s examined the e v o l v i n g r o l e of the SP/CD Department i n the l i g h t of i t s h i s t o r i c a l a n tecedents. In a d d i t i o n , the 1971 p r a c t i c e of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i n Vancouver was reviewed and compared wi t h the 1968 " i d e a l " or the o r y of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . 119 I t can be concluded t h a t the 1968 "Terms of R e f e r e n c e " r e f l e c t e d i n l a r g e measure the mid-1960 concep-t i o n s of Roland Warren and E r n e s t H i l l r e g a r d i n g s o c i a l p l a n n i n g , and i n a sense d e a l t l a r g e l y with s o c i a l p a t h o l o g i e s . However, the same " i d e a l " was a p p a r e n t l y m o d i f i e d to i n c o r p o r a t e the views of the then newly appointed D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g . T h i s appears to c o n f i r m L a p p i n ' s statement r e g a r d i n g the n e c e s s i t y f o r a community worker w r e s t i n g a measure of r o l e autonomy. The S o c i a l P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r ' s emphasis on p r o b l e m - o r i e n t a t i o n and expansion i n t o s o c i a l programming were f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e t h a t the Department was moving away from s o c i a l w e l f a r e to s o c i a l s e r v i c e p l a n n i n g and on to broader s o c i a l a s p e c t s of p l a n n i n g . Meanwhile, Key P l a n n e r s who s t a t e d t h a t they b e l i e v e d the SP/CD Department should a c t as a r e s o u r c e group f o r the C i t y P l a n n e r s may have been r e s t r i c t i n g t h e i r view of the p o t e n t i a l the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s had f o r encouraging changes which even the Key P l a n n e r s regarded as d e s i r a b l e . P r e v i o u s l y i t was i n d i c a t e d t h a t R. Dubin regarded group c o n f l i c t as an important way of b r i n g i n g about s o c i a l change. In the Vancouver p l a n n i n g system, t h i s c o n f l i c t was both v i s i b l e and s t a t e d , and the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s ' i m p r e s s i o n t h a t they were h a v i n g an i n c r e a s i n g impact on the P h y s i c a l P l a n n e r s a t C i t y H a l l appears to have been demonstrated. An example of t h i s i s C o u n c i l ' s 1970 requirement of ;a s o c i a l r e p o r t on a l l major r e z o n i n g s . As s t a t e d e a r l i e r , i t i s the w r i t e r ' s view t h a t the time sequence i n u n d e s i r a b l e and t h i s q u e s t i o n should be reviewed. One may deduce t h a t the matter of t i m i n g was a r a m i f i c a t i o n of Key P l a n n e r s ' o p i n i o n s of the S o c i a l P l a n n e r s r o l e i n 1971. While i t has been s t a t e d t h a t the d a t a r e v e a l i n g f u n c t i o n a l and d y s f u n c t i o n a l c o n f l i c t cannot be weighted, the w r i t e r i s moved to conclude t h a t the amount of d y s f u n c t i o n a l c o n f l i c t apparent w i t h i n the p l a n n i n g system was c o n s i d e r a b l e . I t appears t h a t the system may not be 120 o r g a n i z e d i n a manner which generates f u n c t i o n a l or d e s i r a b l e c o n f l i c t . I t may t h e r e f o r e be u s e f u l to c o n s i d e r r e - o r g a n i z i n g the p u b l i c p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n Vancouver to i n c r e a s e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of p l a n n i n g w h i l e a s s u r i n g t h a t the s o c i a l a s p e c t s of p l a n n i n g may be pursued more . e n e r g e t i c a l l y than they were a t the time the d a t a was g a t h e r e d . The h i s t o r y of the modern p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n d i c a t e s t h a t s o c i a l and community p l a n n i n g have common r o o t s . I t i s the w r i t e r ' s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t i n Vancouver, c o n s i d e r a t i o n should be g i v e n to i n s t i t u t i n g a s i n g l e c i v i c u n i t , which would encompass a number of i n t e r - d i s c i p l i n a r y s k i l l s i n c l u d i n g s o c i a l a n a l y s t s , e c o l o g i s t s , u r b a n i s t s , economists and so f o r t h , a l o n g w i t h a goodly number of p l a n n i n g a s s i s t a n t s s k i l l e d i n working w i t h people, so t h a t p l a n n i n g w i l l be viewed more comprehensively. Thus the worthwhile changes brought about i n 1952 by r e p l a c i n g the Vancouver Town P l a n n i n g Commission with the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department; and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the S o c i a l Planning/Community Development Department i n 1968 would cul m i n a t e i n a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s which w i l l be a b l e to respond to an ever-wider p u b l i c i n t e r e s t by becoming i t s e l f a f o r c e f o r s o c i a l change. D i s c u s s i o n , P e r s o n a l R e f l e c t i o n s and R e l a t e d O b s e r v a t i o n s In t h i s s e c t i o n the author would l i k e to d i s c u s s some p e r s o n a l r e f l e c t i o n s and r e l a t e d o b s e r v a t i o n s which, w h i l e o u t s i d e the bounds of the s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s are n o n e t h e l e s s r e l a t e d to the s u b j e c t matter of t h i s t h e s i s . I t has been s t a t e d t h a t the v i e w p o i n t s of p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l p l a n n e r s are r e a l l y not very f a r a p a r t ; t h a t the community p l a n n e r s want to improve the p h y s i c a l environment but are concerned with s o c i a l v a l u e s , and the s o c i a l p l a n n e r s who are most i n t e r e s t e d i n s o c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s s t i l l want to improve the p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t e s a v a i l a b l e . The rub appears to be, a c c o r d i n g to a number of s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s , t h a t many p h y s i c a l p l a n n e r s are environmental d e t e r m i n i s t s 121 who b e l i e v e t h a t with the p r o v i s i o n of adequate p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , s o c i e t y w i l l be assured t h a t j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y and other s o c i a l problems w i l l w i t h e r . I t may be, on the o t h e r hand, t h a t s o c i a l p l a n n e r s have been p r e s c r i b i n g c o u n s e l l i n g and o t h e r s e r v i c e s i n t h e i r own v e r s i o n of environmental determinism. The w r i t e r on h i s p a r t p o s t u l a t e s t h a t n e i t h e r h a v e the u l t i m a t e s o l u t i o n ; t h a t s o c i a l problems w i l l be r e s o l v e d when urban development i s viewed more comprehensively. T h i s w i l l r e q u i r e the a c t i v e involvement of the people b e i n g planned f o r . With r e g a r d to c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the S k e f f i n g -ton Report c l e a r l y c a l l s f o r the i t s used not as an "unwelcome a c c r e t i o n , " but r a t h e r as p a r t of a p l a n n i n g o f f i c e r ' s j o b . T h i s can be c o n s i d e r e d along with E r i c T r i s t ' s p r o p o s a l f o r continuous feedback. The S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department i n 1971 was withdrawing from l o c a l area c o - o r d i n a t i o n , however i t i s noteworthy t h a t i n 1973 the S o c i a l and C i t y P l a n n i n g Departments are working t o g e t h e r i n " f i e l d o f f i c e s " i n the West End of F a l s e Creek, i n the attempt to i n v o l v e people i n a p r o c e s s of p l a n n i n g which appears to assure continuous c o n s u l t a t i o n . E a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n mentioned t h a t the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r commented i n one i n t e r v i e w , t h a t i f a l l s o c i a l a g encies had b e t t e r managerial s k i l l s t h e r e would be no need f o r the SP/CD Department to encourage d i s c o n t i n u a n c e of one programme i n f a v o u r of o t h e r s . One might presume t h a t i f the d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s were more r e s p o n s i v e to the needs of pe o p l e , t h e r e would be no need f o r the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department. The C o u n c i l e l e c t e d f o r 1973-74 and the P r o v i n c i a l Government e l e c t e d i n August, 1972, both have c o n s i d e r a b l e s o c i a l s e r v i c e e x p e r i e n c e , and i t might prove i n t e r e s t i n g to see i n what d i r e c t i o n the r o l e of the D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g i s changed as a r e s u l t of t h i s f a c t o r . i The d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter I I i s a v a i l a b l e i n the l i t e r a t u r e on p l a n n i n g . L i k e w i s e the f i l e s of v a r i o u s 122 p u b l i c and p r i v a t e a gencies w i l l i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d be a v a i l a b l e to an i n t e r e s t e d r e s e a r c h e r . The m a t e r i a l g a t h e r e d f o r Chapter IV however i s i n a sense, not a v a i l a b l e any l o n g e r . A person's p e r c e p t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r a t t i t u d e or concept changes over time, and an i n t e r v i e w e r d i s c u s s i n g a g i v e n q u e s t i o n with an i n f o r m a n t i n 1973 w i l l not g e t the same response he would have r e c e i v e d i n 1971. T h i s would be p a r t i c u l a r l y so, i f the respondent's p o s i t i o n i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n had changed i n the i n t e r i m . For t h i s reason, the author hopes t h a t the raw d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter IV w i l l be of some v a l u e to a f u t u r e r e s e a r c h e r who may wish to compare s o c i a l and n o n - s o c i a l p l a n n e r s ' views on c e r t a i n q u e s t i o n s . In c o n c l u s i o n the w r i t e r would l i k e to expand on the p r o p o s a l to r e - i n t e g r a t e s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g i n Vancouver. D i s c u s s i o n s i n 1971 with P l a n n e r s and S o c i a l P l a n n e r s d i d not r e v e a l any d e s i r e f o r an amalgamation of the two Departments. I t may have been t h a t the times were not r i g h t or t h a t the p e r s o n n e l i n v o l v e d i n the p l a n n i n g system and C i t y C o u n c i l were such t h a t r e - i n t e g r a t i o n was not f e a s i b l e . One might suggest t h a t the s o c i a l s e r v i c e p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n be r e - a l l o c a t e d to a r e v i s e d Welfare and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Department, w h i l e the s o c i a l a s p e c t s of p l a n n i n g become the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a broadened P l a n n i n g Department. I f i t i s found t h a t r e - i n t e g r a t i o n i s not f e a s i b l e , c o n s i d e r a t i o n might be g i v e n to a s e p a r a t e "super-agency" as f o r example a Department of the Environment. P e r s o n n e l f o r e i t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e agency would be i n t e r - d i s c i p l i n a r y , and they would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o n s i d e r i n g a wide range of f a c t o r s i n c l u d i n g s o c i a l and environmental c o s t s , w i t h i n the c o n s t r a i n t s of any i n d i v i d u a l p r o j e c t undertaken. These and o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r o p o s a l s should be s t u d i e d , to see t h a t the " t o t a l i t y of the whole of.ithe p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s " i s employed to b r i n g about d e s i r a b l e urban change. -BIBLIOGRAPHY ARTICLES: A l e s h i r e , R. A. Alonso, W i l l i a m " P l a n n i n g and C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n — C o s t s , B e n e f i t s and Approaches." 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C l a s s and C l a s s j C o n f l i c t i n I n d u s t r i a l  S o c i e t y . S t a n f o r d , C a l i f . S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 1959. • The P e r s o n a l H i s t o r y of David C o p p e r f i e l d . London. Bradbury and Evans. "1850. The C o n d i t i o n of the Working C l a s s i n  England i n 1844. Trans, by F l o r e n c e K e l l e y Wischnewetzky. London. A l l e n "and Unwin. 1920. Urban P l a n n i n g and S o c i a l P o l i c y . New York. B a s i c Books, Inc. 1968. People and P l a n s : Essays on Urban Problems  and S o l u t i o n s . New York. B a s i c Books, Inc. 1968. C i t i e s i n E v o l u t i o n . London. "Williams and Norgate L t d . Revised ed. 1949 ( c . 1915). Space, Time and A r c h i t e c t u r e : The Growth  of a New T r a d i t i o n . Cambridge, Mass. Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 5th e d i t i o n . 1967. BOOKS: (continued) Heady, F e r r e l Hunter, F l o y d Kahn, A. J . Lap p i n , Ben McNiven, C h r i s t i a n e M a r r i s , P e t e r and Rein, M a r t i n Mishan, E. J . Montesquieu, C h a r l e s de. M o r r i s , Robert and B i n s t o c k , R.H. with the c o l l a b o r a t i o n of Rein, M a r t i n . Perlman, Robert and Gu r i n , A r n o l d S e l z n i c k , P h i l i p 128 P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n : A Comparative  P e r s p e c t i v e . Englewood C l i f f s , N. J . P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc. 1966. Community Power S t r u c t u r e : A Study of  Deci s i o n - M a k e r s. Chapel H i l l , North C a r o l i n a . U n i v e r s i t y of North C a r o l i n a P r e s s . 1953 Theory and P r a c t i c e of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g . New York. R u s s e l Sage Foundation. 1969. Community Workers and the S o c i a l Work  T r a d i t i o n : T h e i r quest f o r a r o l e examined  i n I s r a e l and i n Canada. Toronto. U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s . 1971. Case S e r i e s i n S o c i a l P l a n n i n g , 4:  P l a n n i n g Under V o l u n t a r y C o u n c i l and  P u b l i c A u s p i c e s , Vancouver. Ottawa. The Canadian C o u n c i l on S o c i a l Development. J u l y , 1972. Dilemmas of S o c i a l Reform: Pove r t y and  Community A c t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . London. Routledge Kegan P a u l . 1967. Growth: The P r i c e We Pay. London. S t a p l e s P r e s s . 1969. ''The S p i r i t of Laws." (1748). C i t e d i n S e l e c t e d Readings i n Law f o r L o c a l P u b l i c  A d m i n i s t r a t o r s . W. J . Lane, (ed.) Vancouver, B.C. n.p. 1970. F e a s i b l e P l a n n i n g f o r S o c i a l Change. New York. Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 1966. Community O r g a n i z a t i o n and S o c i a l  P l a n n i n g . New York. P u b l i s h e d j o i n t l y by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and The C o u n c i l f o r S o c i a l Work E d u c a t i o n . 1972. L e a d e r s h i p i n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . ' Evanston, 111. Row, P e t e r s o n . 1957. BOOKS: (continued) 129 T o f f l e r , I r v i n g F uture Shock. New York. Bantam Books. 1970, Warren, R. L. T r u t h , Love and S o c i a l Change: and o t h e r Essays on Community Change. Chicago. Rand McNally & Company. 1971. Weber, Max From Max Weber: Essays i n S o c i o l o g y . H. H. Gerth and C. W. M i l l s (Trans, and eds.) New York. Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 1958. DOCUMENTS AND REPORTS: 130 CANADA P a r l i a m e n t . Senate. S p e c i a l Committee on Aging. F i n a l Report. 1966. Report of the F e d e r a l Task F o r c e on Housing  and Urban Development. Paul T. H e l l y e r , Chairman. Ottawa. The Queen's P r i n t e r . 1969. S t a t u t e s of Canada. 1966-67. Ottawa. Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y . 1966. " R e o r g a n i z a t i o n Report" (Vancouver). C i t e d i n Vancouver, B.C. Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Report on a Proposed  Department of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and  Development: To the C o u n c i l of the C i t y  of Vancouver. 1966. GREAT BRITAIN M i n i s t r y of Housing and L o c a l Government, S c o t t i s h Development, Welsh O f f i c e . People and P l a n n i n g : Report ;of the Committee on P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  Pl a n n n i n g . A. M. S k e f f i n g t o n , Chairman. London. Her Majesty's S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e . 1969. COMMUNITY CHEST AND COUNCILS OF GREATER VANCOUVER Report of the Committee on L o c a l A u t h o r i t y and A l l i e d P e r s o n a l S o c i a l S e r v i c e s . F r e d e r i c Seebohm, Chairman. London. Her Majesty's S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e . 1968. ' Sub-Committee of the C e n t r a l Housing A d v i s o r y Committee. M i n i s t r y of Housing and L o c a l Government. Welsh O f f i c e . London. Her Majesty's S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e . 1967. The Needs of New Communities: A  r e p o r t on s o c i a l p r o v i s i o n i n new and  expanding communities. Mayhew, B. W. L o c a l Areas i n Vancouver. Vancouver, B.C. U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s of the Gr e a t e r Vancouver Area. 196 7. H i l l , E. D. Recommendations Re the E s t a b l i s h m e n t of a Department of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and  Development. Vancouver. U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s . 1966. P a s c a l , A. H. A Framework f o r P l a n n i n g S o c i a l S e r v i c e s . Santa Monica, C a l i f . The RAND C o r p o r a t i o n . 1968. DOCUMENTS AND REPORTS: (continued) 131 Spence-Sales, H a r o l d and Bland, John U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s of the G r e a t e r Vancouver Ar e a . VANCOUVER, B.C. " E s t a b l i s h m e n t of a P l a n n i n g Department i n the C i t y of Vancouver," c i t e d i n Sarah E. Holm, C i t y of Vancouver P l a n n i n g  Dept. Vancouver, B.C. Unpublished paper. Xerox. December, 1969. I n t e r i m Report of an Ad Hoc C o m m i t t e e , L o c a l Areas and L o c a l Area C o u n c i l s . Vancouver, B.C. U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s . 1970. i Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Department of  S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Community  Development, Terms of Reference, 1968. Program and Budget. 1968. Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Memorandum, (to C i t y P l a n n i n g Department) #4181. June 26, 1969. Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Memorandum i n  Support of the Concept of a S o c i a l  Development Board and a Department of  S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Development. 1965. Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Neighbourhood  C e n t r e : Thunderbird Elementary S c h o o l . (Report to C o u n c i l ) . March 18, 1971. Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Proposed  Branch L i b r a r y - F r a s e r v i e w . September 4, 1969. Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Report on a  Proposed Department of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g  and Development: To the C o u n c i l of the  C i t y of Vancouver. 1966. C i t y P l a n n i n g Department. Downtown -E a s t S i d e . June, 1965. S o c i a l Development Commi t t e e l Community  S e r v i c e Centre ( B r i t a n n i a ) . December, 1968. S o c i a l Planning/Community Development, Department o f . I n t e r - o f f i c e Memorandum from Mrs. J . Bohanec to Mr. R. W. Walker, C i t y P l a n n i n g Department. August 20, 1969. c. DOCUMENTS AND REPORTS: (continued) 132 VANCOUVER, B.C. S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department and U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s . An A p p l i c a t i o n to  the Honourable D a n i e l R. J . Campbell,  M i n i s t e r of S o c i a l Welfare, by the  C i t y o f Vancouver Department of S o c i a l  P l a n n i n g and Development. For  C o n s i d e r a t i o n under the Canada A s s i s t a n c e P l a n . 1967. Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l , Minutes. August 10, 1965 June 13, 1968 October 8, 1968 September 22, 1970 March 2, 1971 March 18, 1971 March 23, 1971 Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l , Townsite Committee, Improvement of Downtown E a s t Area S o c i e t y , Chinatown Improvement Group. R e s t o r a t i o n Report: A Case f o r Renewed L i f e i n the Old C i t y . 1969. D. NEWSPAPERS: Adams, Neale E l s i e , Bud / 133 " 'We Demand a Say i n Our Housing': N o r t h e a s t S e c t o r People are F i g h t i n g C i t y H a l l . " The Vancouver Sun. May 13, 1971. "Slum Fund a Bonanza, C i t y L e a r n s . " The P r o v i n c e . May 28, 1965. " C i t y Moves to R e l o c a t e A l c o h o l i c s : P l a n P r o v i d e s H o s t e l f o r S k i d Road Boozers." The Vancouver Sun. May 26, 1965. PERSONAL INTERVIEWS: Mr. Jonathan B. Baker Mrs. J o s l i n Bohanec Mr. Robert Burgess Mr. L i n c o l n H. Cheng Mr. John P. Coates Mr. M. C. C o l c l e u g h Mr. M. Max Cross Mr. Maurice F. Egan Mr. W i l l i a m E. Graham 134 L o c a l Area C o - o r d i n a t o r , ( S o c i a l P l a n n e r ) , SP/CD Department, R i l e y Park - Kensington -Cedar Cottage Area; i n h i s o f f i c e at C i t y H a l l , February 9, and March 5, 1971. L o c a l Area Co-ordinator, ( S o c i a l P l a n n e r ) , SP/CD Department, F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y Area; i n her o f f i c e January, 1971, and by telephone September 14, 1973. L o c a l Area Co-ordinator, ( S o c i a l P l a n n e r ) , SP/CD Department, K i t s i l a n o - F a i r v i e w Area; i n h i s o f f i c e at C i t y H a l l , March 9, 1971. Senior Planner, i n h i s o f f i c e at C i t y H a l l , A p r i l 7, 1971. 1 Planner, i n h i s o f f i c e at C i t y H a l l , February 12, and August 18, 1971. S o c i a l S e r v i c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ^ O f f i c e r , by telephone, August 20, 1971. 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Alderman, C i t y C o u n c i l (Non-Partisan Assoc-i a t i o n , NPA), i n her o f f i c e at C i t y H a l l , September 8, 1970. 135 PERSONAL INTERVIEWS: (continued) Mrs. Joy L i t t l e Dr. C h r i s t i a n e McNiven Mr. C. Howard N a p h t a l i Mr. George M. Peter S e c r e t a r y to the D i r e c t o r , SP/CD Department i n her o f f i c e at C i t y H a l l , August 18, 1970. At the time, a D o c t o r a l Candidate, A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r , School of S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, on Campus, August 21, 1970, December 4, 1970, March 15, A p r i l 5, 1971; i n SP/CD o f f i c e at C i t y H a l l , J u l y 19, 1971. E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r , U nited Community S e r v i c e s of the Greater Vancouver Area, i n h i s o f f i c e i n Vancouver, February 25, 1972. Planner, i n h i s former o f f i c e at C i t y H a l l , March 5. 1971. Mr. Harry W. 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OTHER SOURCES: 136 Benjamin, Kenneth An Aspect of the S o c i a l I m p l i c a t i o n s C a i t o n . of R e s i d e n t i a l Area P l a n n i n g : A Technique to A s s e s s the I d e a l Role  of Neighbour Vancouver, B.C. M.A. t h e s i s , School of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. January 1970. N a t i o n a l Urban Growth S t r a t e g y . Vancouver, B.C. M.A. t h e s i s , School of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. A p r i l 1970. Hood, Thomas "Song of the S h i r t , " (1843). Stevenson, B. E. (ed.) Home Book of V e r s e .  American and E n g l i s h . 8th ed. New York. H o l t . 1949. 2.v. Cameron, Kenneth Duncan. L a i , Hermia Kwok-yee. M o r r i s , W i l l i a m I n t e g r a t i o n of P h y s i c a l and S o c i a l  P l a n n i n g : A Case Study of The  S t r a t h c o n a Urban Renewal Area. Vancouver, Vancouver, B.C. M.A. t h e s i s . School of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. "The Day i s Coming." (1891). Page, C. H. B r i t i s h Poets of the N i n e t e e n t h  Century. Rev. ed. New York. B. H. Sanborn. 1914. S h e l l e y , Percy .Bysshe. Wharf, B r i a n "England i n 1819." (1819). The C o l l e g e Survey of E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e . Rev. s h o r t e r e d i t i o n . A. M. Witherspoon (Gen. ed.) New York. H a r c o u r t , Brace and World, Inc. 1951. S t r a t e g i e s of P l a n n i n g : C o - o r d i n a t i o n  of Community S e r v i c e s . Vancouver, B.C. Unpublished l e c t u r e , mimeographed. 1971. D O W N T O W N - E A S T S I D E A preliminary study City of Vancouver Planning Department W . E . G r a h a m , D i r e c t o r . June, 1 9 6 5 S U M M A R Y A N D R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S T h e Downtown-East S i d e Report examines the phenomenon we often r e f e r to as S k i d Road, which overlaps the E a s t E n d of Downtown and the inner part of the eastern residential and indus -trial redevelopment a r e a s . T h e study recognizes that planning for the a r e a must be considered firstly in human t erms and second-ly in physical terms. F a c t s and figures to justify this a r e p r e -sented. It also attempts to dispel some misconceptions about local-habits and inhabitants. While the r e p o r t offers no immediate solution either to the human or physical condition, it explains that both public and private agencies a r e doing much to alleviate the day-to-day human prob-lems. It also suggests that this part of the City is rundown physically. B e c a u s e of the underlying human factor, however, it is impossible to recommend physical changes without a greater and more important, concerted effort to tackle the fundamental social weaknesses. A single measure which can do much to change present c i r c u m -stances is to bring together all agencies active in the a r e a to combine their efforts to improve or control the social ills that permeate this part of V a n c o u v e r . 8 T h e i r combined effort of social planning could be considered a pilot p r o c e s s . E v i d e n c e that a joint programme can be successful is produced even by the present early stage of the a r e a development programme sponsored by the Community Chest in the southeast quadrant of the City. A successful example of the co-ordination of a physical planning programme' can be found in the T e c h n i c a l Planning B o a r d . It is suggested that more effective measures for planning for social needs and expenditures of public funds could be introduced by a S o c i a l Planning B o a r d of officials similar to the T e c h n i c a l Planaing Board. A number of meetings have been held with representatives of departments and boards from which it is clear that there is much support for this concept of a S o c i a l Planning B o a r d . It is clear, however, that if any measures are to be effective along these lines, staff will be n e c e s s a r y . F o r example, the City has an effective organization for physical planning but not for' social planning. F u r -thermore, the Community Chest have both S o c i a l Planning and R e s e a r c h Divisions to which the City contributes *$25 ,000 towards a total budget of $134,947. T h e relationship of this activity to any-thing which the City might do needs working out. * A grant of $25,000 for this and in addition, for 1965, a special extra grant of $10,000 for the purpose of local a r e a studies. 9 It Is therefore R E C O M M E N D E D that: 1. C i t y C o u n c i l r e c e i v e the Downtown-East S i d e preliminary r e p o r t and make It available to Interested organizations and Individuals. 2. T h e B o a r d of Administration be instructed to report on the administrative details n e c e s s a r y to establish a new B o a r d of city officials and others to be known as the S o c i a l Planning B o a r d . T h i s r e p o r t would Include specific proposals as to staff, other expenditures which may be involved, and terms of r e f e r e n c e . 3. T h e D i r e c t o r of Planning be instructed to c a r r y out further studies aimed toward the preparation of co-ordinated plans for the physical rehabilitation o r rene w a l of the Downtown-E a s t S i d e a r e a as part of U r b a n Renewal Scheme No. h o r 5. 10 APPENDIX B CITT OP VANCOUVER Juno 28, 1965 MEMORANDUM BY TK.J BOARD OF ADMINISTRATION IN SUPPORT OP THE CONCEPT OF A SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT BOARD and a DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL PLANNING and DEVELOPMENT During consideration of the Skid Road report and the recommendations therein thoro woro many questions ao to the possible functions of tho Social Development .Committee and the Director of Social Planning- and Development < This, memorandum seeks to answer these questions. It has been of interest to find a similar idea proposed for the City of Providence, Rhod© Island, exceptthat i n this case the Social Planning function i s proposed only i n relation to Urban Renewal projects.. A copy of this report i s available i n the Board of Administration Office. ;'••'/• Clearly, the organisation of this operation would need to await the appointment of the Director of .Social Planning and Develop ment, who w i l l have his own ideas on the matter. However, the operation might be considered along the following li n e s : (a) The City would bo divided into community areas, e.g. Grandviewi Kitsilano, FraE-erview, etc.; (b) In each of those areas there would be organised Community Committees since i t 'is believed that local community effort i s necessary for successful social programs; (o) Studies would be made progressively of these neighbour-hood nroaa to idontify social problems in th© aroa and outl'ino proposals to deal with'tho so probloma. Moro importantly, tho studios would propose a pro'gram of soolal development 5 tho philosophy being the development of the social fabric of the community as a prevention to-social i l l s rather than their cure. (d) The studies would also determineJ (i) the lack of physical f a c i l i t i e s , e.g. parks, rocroation f a c i l i t i e s , community halls, churches, schools, community centres, otc. The provision of those f a c i l i t i e s on a city-wldo basis would be established i n order of p r i o r i t y by Council as part of their Capital Works program. B Page 2, (d) cont'd. /.'./• (i±) S i m i l a r l y , t h e r e would be i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f f a m i l l e e and persons r e q u i r i n g a s s i s t a n c e , and i t would be the f u n c t i o n of the c i v i c S o c i a l Development Department t o o b t a i n a c o o r d i n a t i o n o f e f f o r t b y the a g e n c i e s a v a i l a b l e to d e a l w i t h the problem. F o r example, th e r e have been a r e a s o f the c i t y where the J u v e n i l e d e l i n q u i n c y problem has been met to some degree by the o r g a n i s a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n to enable the J u v e n i l e s i n v o l v e d t o have an o u t l e t f o r t h e i r e n e r g i e s through i n t e r e s t s o r g a n i s e d b y the community. ( i i i ) S i m i l a r l y , i f there i s a need f o r s p e c i a l o l i n i c s , e.g. V e i l Baby C l i n i c s , t h i s problem c o u l d be ex-amined i n order t h a t the need can be met. (e) e v e n t u a l l y t h e r e would be a program o r g a n i s e d a t the community l e v e l f o r e d u c a t i o n , r e c r e a t i o n , e t c . , t o f a c i l i t a t e the development o f i n d i v i d u a l s t hrough group a c t i v i t i e s , e t p . I t i s c l e a r from the v e r y b r i e f a n a l y s i s g i v e n above t h a t the C i t y a l r e a d y p r o v i d e s many o f these s e r v i c e s i n whole or i n p a r t throught (1) The School Board i n c l u d i n g t h e i r PTA arrangments, (2) The Park Board and t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , '.. (3) The S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department i n r e l a t i o n to problem f a m i l i e s , (4) The H e a l t h Department, (5) The D i r e o t o r o f P l a n n i n g who has a major oonoem i n r e l a t i o n to urban renewal and p u b l i o housing. I n a d d i t i o n , the P o l i c e Commission and the Family and C h i l d r e n ' s C o u rts have a maj or i n t e r e s t s i n c e they are concerned w i t h the "end p r o d u c t " o f s o c i a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n and would welcome, some form d f p r e v e n t i o n i n the same way t h a t we have p u b l i o h e a l t h as a p r e -v e n t ! t i v e s e r v i c e . Pago 3, A l l of the foregoing Departments and Boards should be represented on the Social Development Board, similar to the Technical Planning Board, so that surveys and reports can be examined by them for recommendation to Council. The Social Development Board differs from the Technical Planning Board i n that there are a large number of private agencies dealing with many types of social problems. It i s thought that, generally speaking, their work i n the total scheme in a neighbour-hood ahoidd be organised through the Community Chest and Councils with i t s own Social Planning and Research bivision. I n i t i a l l y , at any rate, the research and survey work i n a neighbourhood might be conducted by the Community Cheat staff so as to avoid dupli-cation; and the Community Chest should be represented on the Social Development Board. It i s visualized that the function of the Social Development Department within the framework of the Social Development Board Would be the coordination of effort and staff provided by civic and individual agencies to achieve concerted application of health, education, welfare, recreation, and employment services combined with public works of a l l descriptions including public housing and urban renewal. It would be a matter for determination whether i t i s desirabl to have a pa r a l l e l Board or Committee at the policy-making levels. RECOMMENDATIONS RE THE ESTABLISHMENT  OF A DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT E.D. HILL (Revised September 1966) c OBJECTIVES OF SOCIAL PLANNING  AND SOME COMMENTS ON THEIR ACHIEVEMENT IN THE CITY OF VANCOUVER In view of the possible new developments i n social planning i n the City of Vancouver, i t i s timely to state the objectives of social planning, consider some implications of these objectives and suggest ways, of achieving them i n this City. THE OBJECTIVES OF SOCIAL PLANNING A. To define social problems and opportunities for social development. B. To assist the social systems of the community to develop aggregate goals and concerted plans i n respeot to these problems and opportunities. C. To f a c i l i t a t e the implementation of these plans. D. To evaluate the impaot of resulting programs on sooial problems or sooial development opportunities. SOME IMPLICATIONS OF THESE OBJECTIVES Re #A - Defining Social Problems and Social Development Opportunities (a) It i s important that social planning move beyond the study and alleviation of existing social pathology. Planning must concern i t s e l f with the strengths as well as the weaknesses of the community and i t s sub-areas, and be active i n social development as well as social rehab-i l i t a t i o n . Social research must, therefore, be directed toward identifying social development opportunities as well as social problems. (b) It i s essential that social problems and social development opportunities be identified and described accurately on a comprehensive, non-fragmented basis. Good social research resouroes are therefore a f i r s t requirement for concerted planning. (c) Social research and social planning must place their f i r s t emphasis on the problems of people l i v i n g i n the community. Muoh social planning has f a i l e d to date because of i t s preoccupation with institutional and inter-agency problems. These cannot be ignored since to a great extent social planning i s implemented through the institutions and agencies of the community. Nevertheless, the agency network i s a means toward the realization of social planning and i s not a primary focus. c - 2 -Re #B - Assisting the Social Systems of the Community Develop Aggregate Goals and Concerted Elans i n Respect to these Problems and Opportunities Social planning and social development depend for realization on the acceptance of aggregate goals and concerted plans by the major social systems of the community. These systems carry out the principal funotions of society, v i z . , production, distribution and consumption, socialization, mutual support, social control and social participation. These systems include institutions and agencies i n the fields of health, welfare, education, religion, recreation, employment, housing, urban planning and development. To date the institutional means for bringing together these systems for the purposes of planning are not f u l l y developed. New organizational structures for bringing together social systems for joint planning and oonoerted action are essential. The following need to be considered: Citizen Organization - Implementation of social planning and sooial develop-ment depends to a substantial degree on the extent to which the residents of the community and i t s sub-areas identify with aggregate goals. Citizen social . systems have, been largely ignored i n the formulation of aggregate social goals to date. Structures which w i l l permit the involvement of "grass roots" citizens in the formulation of plans (such as neighbourhood or community associations) are an essential requirement for social planning and social development. Institutional Organization - New structures to concert institutional social systems are required. It i s evident that such a variety of agencies exist i n the urban community under various levels of government auspices and voluntary sponsorship, that no "super" system has sufficient influence or mandate to concert a l l others. It seems necessary therefore to establish a "consortium" which could eventually include three or four principal or centralizing systems, each of which exercises considerable influence over numbers of other systems. A beginning social planning consortium could include the City of Vancouver and the United Community Services. United Community Services would bring to such a consortium i t s influence v/ith the voluntary systems in the community (including local area citizens' associations). In turn, the City would concert o f f i o i a l agencies and depart-ments. Together, the consortium could develop aggregate goals and concerted planning and action programs which would unite the community systems and stand a good chance of implementation. It i s important for the successful operation of the consortium that -joint working structures be established between the members at two levels: (i) At policy formulating levels, i.e., between members of the Board of the United Community Services and members of City Council assisted by representatives of the School Board and Parks Board. ( i i ) At technical planning levels, i.e., between the United Community Services and appropriate Civic departments, , including Education, Parks, Police and Planning. These "joint working structures" at policy and technical levels should be just that - working groups which together would develop concerted planning and development goals, objectives and programs for the City of Vancouver and recommend these to their respective governing bodies (i . e . , City Council School and Parks Boards and the Board of Directors of the United Community Services) for approval. If approved, the members of the consortium would be responsible in their respective spheres of achieving implementation and these joint working groups would have the task of ensuring coordination. Other members might be added to the consortium as indicated. However, potential members of the planning and action consortium should possess definite characteristics oft (i) Exercising a concerting influence on other systems and sub-systems i n their orbit. , ( i l ) Carrying out a granting or allocation role for the systems related to them. Re HQ - Fa c i l i t a t i n g the Implementation of Concerted Planning and  Action Programs Implementation i s fa c i l i t a t e d in these ways: The use of social research for the accurate identification and description of social problems and social development opportunities on a comprehensive basis. The alliance of centralizing systems which Can involve and influence other systems and sub-systems (in their respective spheres). The development of aggregate goals and concerted planning based on comprehensive research. The allocation of funds on the basis of conoerted plans* The evaluation of the social impact or effeot of the services provided by the systems and sub-systems and the development of units of service costing methods. Re $D - Evaluating the Impact of Resulting Programs May be undertaken through: 1. Use of social research to measure the impaot of programs on designated social problems or social development opportunities, 2. The establishment of standardized s t a t i s t i c a l procedures through out the service systems participating i n concerted planning and programming. 1. 2. 3. k. 5. c - k -RECOMMENDATIONS RE THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A  C3TY OF VANCOUVER DEPARTMENT OFSOCIAL PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT A. Department of Social Planning and Development 1. That a Department of Social Planning and Development be established under the Board of Administration with the following objectives: a) To define social problems and opportunities for social development in the City of Vancouver. b) To assist the social systems of the community to develop aggregate goals and concerted plans in respect to these problems and opportunities, c) To f a c i l i t a t e the implementation of these plans. d) To evaluate the impact of resulting programs on social problems and social development opportunities. e) To concert the a c t i v i t i e s of the City and the a c t i v i t i e s of other social planning and action organizations i n the City. 2. That the Department have an i n i t i a l staff of a Director of Social Planning and Development, an Assistant Director, and a Clerk-Stenographer. B. Joint Technical Committee on Social Development That an Interdepartmental Committee be established consisting of the two Commissioners, the Director of Social Planning and Development and the heads of the Departments of Planning, Social Service, Health, Family Court, Police and senior staff representatives from the Board of School Trustees, the Board of Parks and Public Recreation, Police and the Director of Planning, United Community Services. The duties of the Committee would be to act as a coordinating body and to consider and report upon technical or administrative matters bearing on the social planning and development of the City of Vancouver and, without restricting the quality of the foregoing, to carry out any of the following functions: a) Compile data and carry out surveys and investigations. b) Prepare for submission to City Council and other policy-making bodies, proposals for social planning and development for the whole or any part of the City. c) Act as an advisory committee to Council and other policy-making bodies i n matters related to social planning, develop-ment and rehabilitation. Generally speaking, i t would be anticipated that reports are presented to the Joint Policy Committee.' on Social Development to enable that Committee to consider the reports and advise thereon. Joint Policy Committee on Social Development That a Joint Committee on Social Development be established consisting of representatives from the Board of Directors of the United Community Services ami Council members, City of Vancouver with elected representatives of the School and Parks Boards. The purpose of the committee would be to concert the social development and planning policies of the two organizations and to form a social development and planning cnsortium for the community. Recommendations for action would be made to the respective governing bodies* c BIBLIOGRAPHY Dyson, William A: ORGANIZATION OF COMMUNITY RESOURCES AND AGENCIES, American Public Welfare Association, West Coast Regional Conference, Victoria, B.C., September 1965 H i l l , E.D.: SOCIAL PLANNING COUNCILS AND THE POVERTY PROGRAM: Present-ation to Mr. Tom Kent, Special Planning Secretariat, Privy Council, Ottawa, June 1965 McCrae, Robert H: OVERALL COMMUNITY PLANNING: HOW AND BY WHOM?: Sooial Service Review, Chicago, September 1965 Office of Economic Opportunity: PRIORITIES AND STRATEGIES FOR COMMUNITY ACTION PROGRAMS: Washington, D.C. 1964 Rhode Island Council of Community Services, Inc.: A SOCIAL PLAN FOR COMMUNITY RENEWAL OF THE CITY OF PROVIDENCE, R.I., 1964 v United Community Funds and Councils of America: MINNEAPOLIS ANTI-POVERTY ORGANIZATION: MILWAUKEE ANTI-POVERTY ORGANIZATION, 3^ 5 East 46 Street*, New York, 1965 Warren, Roland: THE COMMUNITY IN AMERICA,. Rand McNally and Co., Chicago, 1963 Warren, Roland: CONCERTED DECISION-MAKING IN THE COMMUNITY: SOME THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS: Lindeman Lecture, National Conference on Social Welfare, 1965 APPENDIX D R E P O R T ON A PROPOSED DEPARTMENT OP SOCIAL PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT TO THE COUNCIL OP THE CITY OF VANCOUVER Prepared By The BOARD OF ADMINISTRATION October 19» 1966 3 PROPOSED DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL PLANNING and DEVELOPMENT On August 1 0 T H , 1 9 6 5 , Council passed the following resolutions "RESOLVED THAT the report and memorandum be received and that the Board of Administration prepare an outline for this Committee of the costs of setting up the proposed Department of Social Planning and Development with reference to the personnel who would be required to set up the functions of the Department." This resolution followed a report by the Director of Planning entitled "Downtown-East Side" i n which the following statement was made: "A successful example of the co-ordination of a physical planning programme can be found i n the Technical Planning Board. It i s suggested that more effective measures for planning for social needs and expenditures of public funds could be introduced by a Social Planning Board of o f f i c i a l s similar to the Technical Planning Board. A number of meetings have been held with representatives of the departments and boards from which i t i s clear that there i s much support for this concept of a Social Planning Board. It i s clear, however, that i f any measures are to be effective along these lines, staff w i l l be necessary. For example, the . City has an effective organization for physical planning but not for social planning. Furthermore, the Community Chest have both Social Planning and Research Divisions to which the City contributed $ 2 5 , 0 0 0 towards a total budget of $ 1 3 4 , 9 4 ? i n 1 9 6 5 . " The Council resolution also followed a memorandum from the Board of Administration, headed "Memorandum by the Board of Admin-istratio n in Support of the Concept of a Social Development Board and a Department of Social Planning and Development." A copy of this memorandum Is attached as APPENDIX A. While the Board of Administration regrets the time elapsed before submitting their report, the delay has allowed a maturing of ideas and may not have been wasted. Since the Council resolution there has been a number of events which appear to strengthen the case for the same positive direction and co-ordination in social planning and development as the City i s achieving with physical planning and development. Some of these are: and Development (1) A proposed r e - o r g a n i s a t i o n o f the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s ( U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s ) w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o t h e i r S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n . I n t h e i r r e ; - o r g a n i s a t i o n r e p o r t the f o l l o w i n g statement i s madei "The proposed changes i n Chest s t r u c t u r e a r e not sweeping, but an important new p r i n c i p l e appears. T h i s c o n s i s t s of d e v e l o p i n g L o c a l Area C o u n c i l s as a b a s i c p a r t o f the p l a n n i n g programme. These C o u n c i l s w i l l develop p l a n n i n g f o r l o c a l a r e a pur-poses and through them r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g o f a c e n t r a l p l a n n i n g committee o f the Board w i l l be g i v e n l o c a l a p p l i c a t i o n . They would become f o c a l p o i n t s f o r the h e a l t h , w e l f a r e , and r e c r e a t i o n a l work o f many o f the A g e n c i e s . " The c o n s t i t u t i o n o f these L o c a l Area C o u n c i l s i s g i v e n i n APPENDIX B, and i s i n l i n e w i t h the concept advanced i n the Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Memorandum o f June 1965• The s u g g e s t i o n i s a l s o made i n t h i s r e - o r g a n i s a t i o n r e p o r t t h a t a t the e a r l i e s t p o s s i b l e time a s m a l l committee of o f f i c e r s o f the Chest s h o u l d s t a r t e x p l o r a t o r y t a l k s with e l e c t e d members of Vancouver C i t y Parks Board and School Board, and w i t h Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l to f u r t h e r the de-velopment of a j o i n t committee, which might be o f very g r e a t . p o t e n t i a l v a l u e i n f o r m u l a t i n g and implementing Board p o l i c i e s and i n d e v e l o p i n g c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f p u b l i o and p r i v a t e p o l i c i e s i n h e a l t h , w e l f a r e , and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , (2) A summary pr o g r e s s r e p o r t (1965) f o r the A r e a Development P r o j e c t - an experiment w i t h ways of i n t e g r a t i n g and co-o r d i n a t i n g h e a l t h , w e l f a r e , and r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s to problem f a m i l i e s . The p h i l o s o p h y which forms the b a s i s of t h i s p r o j e c t i s g i v e n i n APPENDIX C as taken from the summary p r o g r e s s r e p o r t . I t i s n o t i c e a b l e t h a t t h i s experiment i n c l u d e s an approach whereby the neighbourhood i s the focus o f s e r v i c e . An Area Resources C o u n c i l has been formed s i m i l a r i n p a t t e r n to the Chest's proposed L o c a l A rea C o u n c i l . The o v e r a l l aim i s d e s c r i b e d "to a i d i n the s t r e n g t h e n i n g of a neighbourhood t h a t c o n t a i n s many low income f a m i l i e s , many f a m i l i e s with s o c i a l problems, and expected d e p r i v a t i o n s i n many c h i l d r e n . S p e c i f i c aims i n the R i l e y Park a r e a were f o r m u l a t e d a f t e r the i n i t i a l p e r i o d o f study and e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . These were to i n i t i a t e a d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f community development methods; rage 2. Proposed Department of Social Planning and Development Page 3/ (2) Continued to help the tenant sub-community (of a Public Housing Project) to work toward improved neighbourhood relations; to assist i n the development of co-operatively planned community action programmes; to help meet some of the social problems of the area, and to provide limited neighbourhood family services. (3) The publication of the f i n a l report of the Special Committee of the Senate on Aging. This very comprehensive report has been referred to the Health and Welfare Committee of Council. Among i t s many recommendations the following i s perhaps appropriate: "That i n a l l Municipalities, and/or appropriate local regions, on the i n i t i a t i v e of the public authority where necessary, an o f f i c i a l l y recognized body be established to plan and co-ordinate programs, f a c i -l i t i e s and services for older people, and that the concern of such bodies embrace not only the areas of health and welfare but also l i v i n g arrangements, employment, education and leisure time a c t i v i t i e s . " (k) A report prepared by the Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area on "Juvenile Delinquency Prevention, City of Vancouver." This report contains many recommendations in detail, but the following general recommendations are appropriate to this reportt "That the Welfare and Recreation Council proceed to assist with the establishment of a Youth Service Commission, such a Commission to be responsible to the municipal government, and that this report be implemented by this Commission. That a position of Municipal Coordinator of. Youth 1 Services i n Vancouver be established with the re-sponsibility to include provision of professional services to the Commission." Proposed Department of Social Planning and Development . , Page 4. (5) The production of a report for the City's Health and Welfare Committee by a Sub-Committee of the Special Joint Committee on Skid Road Problems. This report, "Skid Road: A Plan for Action", contained the following broad recommendations 1 The creation of a short-stay, hostel-reoeption centre; The creation of a long-stay hostel for domioiliary care; The creation of a special unit for the City Social Service Department for Skid Road problems; The appointment of a permanent Mayor's Committee on Skid Road problems. Although the Skid Road problem might be regarded as a special case, i t i s noted that a Mayor's Committee i s proposed to expedite and co-ordinate action on this report. It i s perhaps too early to seek to derive conclusions from • the five events described. It i s evident, however, that there i s increasing concern as to not only the effect but also the causes of social maladjustments. I f we begin to anticipate measures under the Canada Assistance Plan along the lines of the United States Anti- Poverty programmes, we shall be facing s t i l l greater executive problems. It i s reasonable perhaps to recognize two trends: (a) The recognition that we must develop social strengths and enter the f i e l d of prevention of social i l l s rather than deal only with the end products of sooial failure through health, welfare, and law enforcement programmes; (b) We cannot and should not depend only on institutional means, but must harness the resources of the Community i f we are to be effective. The recommendations of the Board of Administration are based on these two principles. (a) (b) (c) (d) Proposed Department of Social Planning and Development  Page 5. LEGISLATIVE and POLICY-MAKING ORGANISATION The f i r s t stage should be to establish a Joint Committee of elected representatives of Council and the Boards who each have a related function to perform. This Is stressed by a l l recommendations to deal with c i v i c problems. Certainly, i t would seem: preferable to have one Joint Committee rather than a series of separate Committees dealing with specific matters. FIGURE 1 . illustrates the legislative and policy-making organisation which i s recommended. The Vancouver Joint Social Development Committee would compris elected representatives of City Council, the Board of School Trustee and the Board of Parks and Public Reoreation. The suggestion i s that this Committee would be under the chairmanship of the Mayor who would also represent the Police Commission. Alternatively, the Chairman of the City's Health and Welfare Committee might act in that capacity. This Committee would make i t s recommendations as to action and expenditure of funds to the three elected bodies whom they would represent. These recommendations would include 1 (a) the sharing of existing physical facilities?, (b) capital works to make good deficiencies i n the f a c i l i t i e s available i n the several parts of the City 5 (c) the co-ordinating of existing programmes, i.e. social, recreational and educational; (d) action which would i n i t i a t e new programmes and involve additional revenue expenditures. It might be noted in the report by Mr. E. D. H i l l , Director of Planning, United Community Services, attached as APPENDIX D, the suggestion i s made that the Joint Soeial Development Committee should have representation from the Board of the United Community Services. This proposal has advantages and disadvantages and should be determined by Council. Proposed Department of Sooial Planning Page 6 . and Development , Joint Technical Committee on Social Development The Joint Social Development Committee oould Initiate action, or act on the basis of recommendations from the Board of Directors -of the United Community Services, or as ini t i a t e d by reports from a Joint Technical Committee on Social Development. The Joint Technical Committee on Social Development would be a Committee of O f f i c i a l s acting under the same type of authority and generally i n the same manner as the Technical Planning Board. It would receive recommendations for their consideration from the Conference of Local Area Councils and the Regional Planning Committee Alternatively, matters could be introduced by i t s constituent members Generally speaking, however, i t would be expected that the chief i n i t i a t i v e would come from the Department of Sooial Planning and Development. Local Area Councils It might be worthwhile at this stage to explain the functions of the Local Area Councils. They are i n many respects the key to the whole concept. It i s visualised that the City of Vancouver would be divided into Neighbourhood Areas of about 3 0 , 0 0 0 population. Accordingly, there would be a potential of about 13 such Neighbour-hoods. It i s hoped that they would approximate in their boundaries to the present recognized areas of the city and beaxvtheir well known community names, such as Kitsilano, Mount Pleasant, Fraserview, Riley Park, etc. It i s also considered that they would,basically operate from the Community Centres. \ \ Each neighbourhood would have a Local Area Council made up of Community Leaders. Through sub-committees and voluntary workers the Local Area. Councils would i n i t i a t e and organise programmes designed to meet the recreational, educational, and social needs of the neighbourhood. They would also assist families in the community who are i n d i f f i c u l t i e s and are being assisted by i n s t i -tutional and voluntary welfare agencies. A prime function would be to integrate these problem families into the neighbourhood. Miss Audrey Selander, Project Director, Area Development Project, has provided a detailed report as to how these Local Area Councils might operate based on her practical experience in the southeast area of the city. This report i s given as a reference in APPENDIX E. Proposed Department of Sooial Planning and Development . Page 7. . Local Area Councils - cont•d. These Local Area Councils would oo-ordinate their programmes on a city-wide basis through a conference of Local Area Councils who could report to the Joint Committee on Social Development or direct to the Board of Directors of the United Community Servloes under whose general Jurisdiction they would operate. It w i l l be noted that this legislative and policy-making organisation adheres closely to the concept put forward by the United Community Services i n their re-organlsatlon report. ORGANISATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT The Board of Administration have bad the assistance of Mr. E. D. H i l l , Director of Planning, United Community Services, i n their consideration of the organisation of the Department of Social Planning and Development, Mr. H i l l ' s qualifications and experience make him eminently qualified to advise on this problem. Mr. H i l l ' 8 complete report of the functions and organisation of the Department of Social Planning and Development i s given i n APPENDIX D. The recommended i n i t i a l organisation of the Department of Social Planning and Development i s shown i n FIGURE 2, It should be noted that the planning and research for this Department w i l l continue to be carried but by the st a f f of the United Community Services for which the City has been giving an annual grant of $35,000. If Local Area Councils are to operate with maximum effective-ness, i t i s essential that they be assisted by a small staff. It i s proposed that this be provided by the Social Planning and Development Department under a Director of Neighbourhood Services. There would also be a Neighbourhood Resources Committee operating under the chairmanship of the Director of Neighbourhood Services. This Neighbourhood Resources Committee would comprise a l l the' pro-fessional staffs operating i n the neighbourhood on behalf of Government and voluntary agencies. Accordingly, the Resources Committee would be instrumental not only l n co-ordinating a l l aspects of welfare programmes for families but would also be in the best position to assist the Local Area Councils. For example, i t i s visualised that the Local Area Councils would have recrea-tional and educational programmes whloh would be assisted directly by the School Board and Parks Board* Proposed Department of Social Planning and Development Page 8. Local Areft .Councils - cont'd. The present Area Development Project, working under the direction of their Project Manager, Miss Audrey Selander, has had such an organisation operating Very successfully but over a com-paratively limited area of about 10,000 people. Her detailed account i n APPENDIX E of the operation of Local Area Councils and Neighbourhood Resources Committees i s , therefore, based on her practical experience of this matter. Miss Selander recommends that the United Community Services, rather than the Neighbourhood Services Unit of a Municipal Social Planning and Development Department, would be the appropriate body to staff the Local Area Councils and bring the interests of each area into the research, planning, and evaluation at a community-wide level. Presumably, the C i t y would have to buy this service and the cost i s not l i k e l y to be significantly different which-ever method i s used. There are perhaps two major advantages to Miss Selander's proposal: (a) The Community might more readily accept the United Community Services' staff than Municipal staff. However, there i s no suggestion of this problem i n Community Centre a c t i v i t i e s . (b) Municipal staffs could get involved in p o l i t i c a l contro-versy i n connection with programmes and services requested by Local Area Councils. However, the following considerations have lead the Board of Administration to recommend that these neighbourhood staffs form part of the Department of Social Planning and Development! (a) There i s more and more pressure to involve the City in these types of social developments since the Council i s in the best position to exercise leadership where several agencies are involved. (b) The Council and the School Board, particularly the former, w i l l be the main source of funds. Ther# Wduld be more opportunity to apply for Provincial grants on the basis of a preventive social welfare programme similar to that i n i t i a t e d i n Alberta this year. Proposed Department of Sooial Planning and Development , , 3> Page 9. Local Area Councils - cont'd. (d) I f anti-poverty programmes are initiated, municipal participation i s li k e l y to be required. However, your Board take the view that in addition to survey work, duties involving the formation of Local Area Councils could best be vested in the United Community Services. These would include Item 2 tand Item 3(b) in the procedure outlined by Miss Selander on Page 3 of her report. Council may wish to give consideration to these al t e r -natives. It i s visualised that i n the i n i t i a l stages, allowance should be made for the formation of five Area Councils. These could be added to from time to time as financial resources made i t possible. In addition to the Director of Social Planning and Develop-ment, there would be a small Headquarters staff, which i t i s expected would have to be expanded as the work of the Department develops. The job classification for the Direotor of Social Planning and Development has been requested by Council. Other c l a s s i f i -cations w i l l be reported to Council as the positions are approved. Proposed Department of S o c i a l Planning and Development . , ... Page 10. COSTS I t i s considered that each Neighbourhood O f f i c e would be located c e n t r a l l y i n a shopping area, or other suitable l o c a t i o n , where i t would be e a s i l y accessible to the public. The estimated cost o f operating each Neighbourhood O f f i c e on the basis of the present R i l e y Park Neighbourhood Services operation of the Area Development Project would be: $19,000 3,175 y> Total $ 22,175 Estimated Budget of Department of S o c i a l Planning and Development Personnel $27,300 Director of Soc i a l Planning and Development Clerk-StenographBr Operating Expenses 1,700 Total $ 29,000 Cost of Operating Five Neighbourhood Offices Five times $22,175 * $110,875 GRAND TOTAL Added to t h i s figure would be furnishings estimated at $8,700, and any a l t e r a t i o n s to o f f i c e s . I f the programme develops successfully, i t i s obvious that further increases i n cost w i l l r e s u l t . Neighbourhood Of f i c e Personnel -Including Fringe Benefits Operating Expenses $111,000 $i4o,ooo Proposed Department of S o c i a l Planning and Development . . .. Page 11. RECOMMENDATIONS At the time of preparing t h i s report, your Board was not aware of any s i m i l a r organisation f o r Social Planning and Development i n existence i n North America, or f o r that matter, i n the world. To a (great degree they have been dependent on the advice of persons well q u a l i f i e d i n the f i e l d s of s o c i a l welfare whose help they have acknowledged. Your Board believe that t h e i r proposal, i f accepted by Council, w i l l be well worthwhile and costs w i l l be small i n r e l a t i o n to the very large sums paid out by ffcjyernment f o r welfare purposes. I f the p o s i t i v e programmes of s o c i a l development now proposed prevent even a small portion of the human wastage i n our modern society, the cost w i l l be paid back many times over. However, these proposals can only be regarded as experimental at t h i s stage. I t has recently come to the attention of your Board that the Province of Alberta has i n i t i a t e d as from July 1, 1966, a "Preventive Service." The Province describes the programme as follows t "In essence a Preventive Service i s one designed to develop Community resources, to strenthen and preserve human i n i t i a t i v e and to preclude family breakdown with subsequent intervention by tha State." The P r o v i n c i a l Government w i l l pay 80 per cent of any approved Preventive Programme, and a copy of the appropriate c i r c u l a r i s attached as APPENDIX F. I t i s with t h i s background i n mind that your Board make the following recommendationst (1) THAT the City Council e s t a b l i s h an organisation designed to improve and strengthen the s o c i a l , educational, and r e c r e a t i o n a l programmes and resources of i t s c i t i z e n s . A prime objective would be prevention as well as the treatment of the r e s u l t s of s o c i a l maladjustment. (2) THAT f o r t h i s purpose Council approve i n p r i n c i p l e the proposals described i n t h i s report; (3) THAT a Department of S o c i a l Planning and Development be established; Proposed Department of Social Planning and Development . Page 12. RECOMMENDATIONS - cont'd. (k) THAT as a f i r s t step a Director of Social Planning and Development be appointed by Council, and the job cla s s i f i c a t i o n be submitted by the Board of Administration; (5) THAT the Director of Social Planning and Development be given the opportunity of reviewing the proposed organi-sation, including his proposed budget, and make recommendations thefeon to Council. However, before Council formally adopt a l l or part of the above-noted recommendations they may wish to consult with the Minister of Sooial Welfare, the Hon. Wesley D. Black, on the po s s i b i l i t i e s of endorsation of these proposals and financial assistance. Board of Administration City of Vancouver October 19, 1966 APPENDIX E vui-iSi sjpooitil rofcriMccG io public housi&ng on«i urban renew?) 1 Report number owe /'' ftspcri: of is seminar held 13-14 April 1967 u:rJ©r tJso io;r.'ui &t>Oi»so?'a't:p of i::e» Special ProjoiiJ on Lov.f-Snccr.io Housing ami Conumist&t' Funds and C©tt»-cils Division o? the Canadian I'tfalfero Cous:ciSr 63 I'crlsdata, C-itavvs, C&»cda \ NOTES ON A DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT FOR THE CITY OF VANCOUVER, prepared by E. D. H i l l , Director of Planning, United Community Services, Vancouver, B.C. - April 27, 1967 1 The purpose i s to emphasize the idea of social development i n the City; that i s , an active encouragement of the social strengths of the people i n the various sectors of the city as opposed to a primary emphasis on social pathology and social rehabilitation. 2 Vancouver Joint Social Development Committee would bring together the elected policy decision makers for the city departments and boards; e.g. aldermen and board members of parks, school, police commission, for the purposes of joint planning and setting of aggregate goals. The American practice of a broad advisory committee made up of many public and voluntary representatives was not favoured. The design c a l l s for a committee composed exclusively of elected • policy-makers who could come to joint positions and go to city council with combined recommendations o f f i c i a l l y committing a l l boards and departments concerned. 3 Joint Technical Committee on Social Development would bring together the administrative heads of the various ci t y departments concerned with social planning and development as well as the city commissioners (city commissioners are two i n number and carry out the functions of,' a cit y manager). The purpose of the committee would be to prepare planning and development proposals for consideration by the Vancouver' Joint Social Development Committee. The. committee would also serve to coordinate the programs of the ci t y departments and enable them to set up combined operational objectives. k A Department of Social Planning and Development would carry the main responsibility for studies of community social conditions and the preparation of specific proposals for consideration by the Joint Technical Committee on Social Development. The director would be responsible for social planning and development i n i t i a t i v e s within' the cit y departmental structure. The department would not hold a senior istatus in relation to other dity departments but the director would chair the Joint Technical Committee and would have the o f f i c i a l function of coordinating the programs of other departments for social development purposes. Relationship of United Community Services and the voluntary sector  of the new department (as indicated on the accompanying chart). United Community Services would be represented on the Joint Technical. Committee and would participate i n the development of projects by that committee. No o f f i c i a l relationship has been sought between the Board of United Community Services and the Vancouver Joint Policy Committee on Social Development for the reasons of preserving the autonomy of United Community Services and i t s a b i l i t y to be c r i t i c a l of o f f i c i a l positions taken by the cit y committee. At the same time i t i s visualized that United Community Services would i n many instances be supportive of policies and projects developed by the Vancouver Joint Policy Committee. A second important feature would be the continued function of United Community Services i n developing and maintaining local area councils within p r i o r i t y d i s t r i c t s of the City, of Vancouver. Standard d i s t r i c t i n g for the cit y has been established. Further details w i l l be available shortly i n a formal proposal which i s now being developed for financing by Provincial authorities under the Canada Assistance Plan. The Department of Social Planning and Development has been approved i n principle by cit y council and by the Minister of Welfare for the Province. CITY OF VANCOUVER ORGANIZATIONAL CHART OF PROPOSED DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT UNITED COMMUNITY SERVICES VANCOUVER JOINT SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE ( 1 ) 'lanning Committee Conference of Local Area Councils (2) Joint Technical Committee on Social Development Local Area Council (1) Composed of: Local Area Council (2) Composed of: Local Area Council CITY COUNCIL Board of Administration Department of Social Planning Other City Depts 3 Representatives from each of the following under chairmanship of the Mayor (who would also represent the Police Commission) City Council Board of School Trustees Board of Parks and Public Recreation Director of Social Planning and Development (Chairman) Commissioners, City of Vancouver Social Welfare Administrator Medical Health Officer Director of Planning Director of Education Superintendent, Parks and Public Recreation Chief Probation Officer Executive Director, United Community Services Director of Planning, United Co;:iniunity Services APPENDIX F AN APPLICATION TO THE HONOURABLE DANIEL R.J. CAMPBELL MINISTER OF SOCIAL WELFARE BY THE CITY OF VANCOUVER DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT FOR CONSIDERATION UNDER THE CANADA ASSISTANCE PLAN Prepared by: Un i t e d Community S e r v i c e s , S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department, Vancouver, B.C. Vancouver, B.C. J u l y , 1967. F 1. Department of Social Planning and Development In the proposal for the establishment of a Department of Social Planning and Development within the City of Vancouver the following are some of the main objectives underlying this Plan: a) The emerging concept of the planning for welfare services on a local area basis. b) The concept of the concerted delivery of services to aid i n the integration and co-ordination of Health, Welfare and Recreational Services with a view to strengthening of neighbourhoods and family l i f e . c) To plan and co-ordinate the programmes, f a c i l i t i e s and services for various age groups, such as: (1) The Aged (as outlined in the Special Committee of the Senate on Aging report) ( i i ) Juvenile delinquency prevention. d) To develop social strengths and actively enter the f i e l d of Prevention of Social Problems. e) To mobilize the human resources of the community through Community Development programmes. f) To co-ordinate public and voluntary welfare services. F Page 2 2. Legislative and Policy Making The policy of the Department would be determined by a joint Social Development Committee comprised of representatives of the City Council, Board of School Trustees, Board of Parks and Public Recreation, and of the Provincial Government. 3. Joint Technical Committee To carry out the policies of the Department, a joint Technical Committee comprised of key personnel of the City and United Community Services would be formed. This Committee would include: \ (Director of Social Planning & Development (Chairman) •J-(Commissioners (Social Welfare Administrator City of \(Medical Health Officer Vancouver ^(Chief Probation Officer v(Director of Planning ^(Superintendent of Schools ^ (Superintendent Parks & Public Recreation \(Chief Constable United Community '(Executive Director United Community Services Services \(Director of Planning United Community Services I X It i s understood that U.C.S. personnel would represent the interests of the voluntary sector. k. Administrative Organization The proposed Department would be under the direction of a Director of Social Planning and Development, whose duties and responsibilities are outlined i n the attached Appendix "D". An Assistant Director of Social Development and a Clerk Stenographer would provide the nucleus of an administrative body. A Co-ordinator of Local.Area Services would be appointed to co-ordinate the various welfare services within a designated local area. F Page 3 A tentative estimate of the i n i t i a l annual budget for the Department vould be as given below. As programs develop, increases i n personnel may be desirable. Salaries Director of Social Planning ) and Development ) Assistant Director of Social ) Planning & Development ) Clerk Stenographer ) $26,000 Fringe Benefits 10$ 2,600 Operating expenses, travel, etc. 1,700 $30,300 Local Area Services Salaries Co-ordinator ) Assistant Co-ordinator ) Clerk Stenographer ) $i8,Uoo Fringe Benefits 10$ l,8j*0 $20,240 Operating expenses, travel, etc. 3,000 . ,,//,;>- $23,240 Cost of operating five offices would be - $116,200 TOTAL $lU6^500 5. Specifications for Participation of United Community Services The "Report on a Proposed Department of Social Planning and Development, (October 19, 1966), prepared by the Board of Administration, incorporates reference to the complementary functions of United Community Services. It is proposed that these functions be defined as follows: 1. Promotion, development and maintenance of Local Area Councils. 2. Provision of citizen development services related to l o c a l area planning. 3. Provision of social research services to local areas. U. Leadership in concerting agencies and services i n the voluntary sector. 5. Carrying out programs of research as agents for the City. 6. Participating in planning and social development projects with City of Vancouver and representing the voluntary sector of the community. The concept involves an active partnership between the City and United Community Services for purposes of joint social planning and development and service provision. The responsibility of the United Community Servioes w i l l be to work with the citizens in local areas to stimulate their participation in finding solutions to the problems in their areas, particularly through the vehicle of local area councils. This work with citizens w i l l be carried on by community development workers under the supervision of the Director of Community Development Programs. p Page 5 United Community Services community development workers w i l l have the responsibility to effect close relationships with the Local Area Service Co-ordinators (City of Vancouver) so that service delivery w i l l be sensitive to the needs expressed by citizens. Communication between Local Area Councils w i l l be f a c i l i t a t e d by a Conference of Local Area Councils sponsored by United Community Services. U.C.S. w i l l also be responsible for providing research services to local areas, particularly for purposes of survey and evaluation. Definition of Local Area Councils 1. Local Area Councils are councils serving a defined l o c a l area recognized by the Board of Directors and made up of local residents, individuals active i n the area, community organizations and service agencies for the purpose of fostering concerted research, planning and service operations in their defined local areas. 2. Local Area Councils are autonomous units which, when recognized by the Board of Directors, may receive staff services from the U . C . S . * and may appoint three representatives to the Conference of Local Area Councils. 3. The Conference of Local Area Councils shall "be established by and function under the authority of the Board of Directors. It shall provide a means of communication between Local Area Councils and between Local Area Councils, the Planning Committee and the Board of Directors. It shall consider matters brought to i t by Local Area Councils and when appropriate, make recommendations to either the Planning Committee or the Board of Directors. U.C.S. Personnel indicated in the following appendices: 1. Director of Community Development Programs - see Appendix "A" 2. k Community Development Workers - see Appendix "B" 3. Research Assistant (Local Areas) - see Appendix "C". BUDGET Planning, Research, Community Development Services for 11 p r i o r i t y Local Areas Salaries: Director of Community Development Programs) Four Community Development Workers ) Research Assistant (Local Areas) ) Three Secretarial ) $ 71,30U ' Employee Benefits U,550 Transportation (Car allowance) 1,500 Purchased Services 1,000 Staff training 1,000 TOTAL $ 79.35U DIAGRAM OF CITY OF VANCOUVER AND UNIT 3D COMMUNITY SERVICES FUNCTIONS AND STAFF ROLES  for. SOCIAL PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT United Community Services. Director of Community Development Programs (U.C.S.) Research Assistant Local Areas (U.C.S.) Community Development. Worker (U£ .S.) Community Development Worker (U.C.S.) Community Development Worker (U.C.S.) Local Area .Council f Local Area Council Local Area Council City of Vancouver Director of Social Planning and Development (C. of V.) > Coordinated Local Area Services. Coordinated Local Area Services-Coordinated Local Area Services Co-ordinator of Local Area Services (C. of V.) HOARD OF ADMINISTRATION APPENDIX G "hu^ frfffiJ^Kt fiP-ftlPJ . Juno 10, 1968 TOt Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l SUBJECT: Department o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Community Development, Terms of R e f e r e n c e , 1968 Program and Budget CLASSIFICATION: Recommendation Your Board submit h e r e w i t h a r e p o r t o f the J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee as p r e p a r e d by Mr. Maurice Egan, D i r e c t o r o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Community Development. T h i s r e p o r t p r e s e n t s f o r the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of C o u n c i l the Terms o f Reference f o r the Department o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Community Dovolopmont and the proposed 1968 Program. S i n c e t h i s r e p o r t was prepared, d i s c u s s i o n s have been t a k i n g p l a c e with the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the P r o v i n c i a l and F e d e r a l Departments o f Wel f a r e as t o the f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e which the C i t y might r e c e i v e under the Canada A s s i s t a n c e A c t . The P r o v i n c i a l Department o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e has e x p r e s s e d i n t e r -e s t i n the work of the Department, but i n d i c a t e s t h a t the P r o v i n c e cannot be committed a t t h i s time to c o s t - s h a r i n g s i n c e the P r o v i n c i a l budget f o r Canada A s s i s t a n c e P l a n programmes i s c u r r e n t l y overexpended. However, P r o v i n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e a t a l a t e r date i s n o t r u l e d out. There i s a good p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t some, i f not a l l , a s p e c t s o f the Department's programme might q u a l i f y f o r F e d e r a l s h a r i n g to the e x t e n t t h a t the programmes can f u l f i l l s t a t u t o r y r e q u i r e -ments t h a t they be d i r e c t e d to "persons i n need or l i k e l y to be i n need." Your Board RECOMMEND: 1. A p p r o v a l by C o u n c i l o f the s i x recommendations o f the J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee; 2. C o p i e s o f the r e p o r t bo s u b m i t t e d to the S c h o o l Board and Parks Board a s k i n g f o r t h e i r o n d o r s a t i o n and the appointment o f one r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from each Board to the S o c i a l Development Committee; 3. Copy o f the r e p o r t be s u b m i t t e d to the U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s a s k i n g f o r t h e i r o n d o r s a t i o n ; /». A p p r o v a l by C o u n c i l o f the f o l l o w i n g e x p e n d i t u r e s by the Dcpartmont o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Community Development as f o l l o w s : S a l a r i e s 3 C o - o r d i n a t o r s - L o c a l Area S e r v i c e s - average k months $10,000. F r i n g e B e n e f i t s - f o r above 1,200 Auto Allowance - C o - o r d i n a t o r s 450 F u r n i t u r e f o r C o - o r d i n a t o r s - Desks and C h a i r s 500 TOTAL $12,150 Funds t o be p r o v i d e d from Contingency Reserve $12,150 A l l o t h e r items o f e x p e n d i t u r e a r e a l r e a d y i n c l u d e d i n the 1 9 6 8 Revenue budget. Formal submission o f the r e p o r t to Honourable Dan Campbell, M i n i s t e r o f S o c i a l Welfare, a s k i n g f o r h i s e n d o r s a t i o n o f the p r o p o s a l s and c o n s i d e r a t i o n by h i s Department of f i n a n c i a l a i d when P r o v i n c i a l funds a re a v a i l a b l e ; Copy of the r e p o r t be submitted to the M i n i s t e r o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e f o r submission to the Honourable Grace McCarthy, M i n i s t e r Without P o r t f o l i o , who has been nominated by the P r o v i n c i a l Government as t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on the-S o c i a l Development Committee, a s k i n g f o r h e r support. Cr 3 CITY OF VAlVCOUViSR REPORT TO COUNCIL Kay 7, 1968. TO: Hi s Worship the Mayor and Members o f C o u n c i l FROM: J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee, Department of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Development SUBJECT: Terms o f Reference, and 1968 Program and Budget Department o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Development CLASSIFICATION: Recommendation C o u n c i l , by p r e v i o u s r e s o l u t i o n s , has a u t h o r i s e d the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e Department o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Development, and has approved the appointments of a D i r e c t o r and a C l e r k - S t e n o g r a p h e r I I I . P r i o r t o the D i r e c t o r ' s appointment, a J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee comprised o f A d m i n i s t r a t o r s o f c e r t a i n C i v i c Departments and o u t s i d e Boards and Commissions a c t e d as a Resource Committee and recommended i p r e l i m i n a r y programs to C o u n c i l . On A p r i l 29th, the J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee met t o c o n s i d e r the D i r e c t o r ' s proposed Terms' of' Reference .;, f o r the Department (Attachment A) and the 1968 Program and Budget (Attachment B ) . As a r e s u l t o f the A p r i l 29th meeting, the J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee submits t o C o u n c i l the f o l l o w i n g recommendations: 1. The Department be known as - The Department of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Community Development 2. The terms o f Reference (Attachment A) be approved. 3. The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the 4. The e s t a b l i s h m e n t of t h r e e p o s i t i o n s o f C o - o r d i n a t o r s o f L o c a l . Area S e r v i c e s , Pay Grade 28 ($697-834) as recommended by the D i r e c t o r o f P e r s o n n e l S e r v i c e s , be approved. (See Attachment C) 5. The 1968 Program as proposed (Attachment B) be approved and t h e D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Development be a u t h o r i z e d t o -( i ) P r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e f o r Urban Renewal Scheme No. 3 ( S t r a t h c o n a Sub-area); ( i i ) Proceed w i t h the study of the Community S e r v i c e s Centre a t Grandview and to h i r e one p a r t - t i m e employee t o f a c i l i t a t e the implementation o f t h i s p r o j e c t , s u b j e c t t o the c o n d i t i o n t h a t the $3,600 s a l a r y requirement be shared by the Vancouver School Board and the 3oard o f Parks and P u b l i c R e c r e a t i o n ; any balance o f the funds a l l o c a t e d by C o u n c i l on December 15, 1967 t o proceed w i t h the study of t h i s Community S e r v i c e s Centre w i l l be used to pay the C i t y ' s share ($1,200) o f t h i s s a l a r y ; ( i ) S o c i a l Development Committee, and ( i i ) J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee be approved by C o u n c i l By-law. . ./2 H i s Worship the Mayor and Members of C o u n c i l /2 May 7, 1968 ( i i i ) Arrange w i t h U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s f o r the purchase o f s e r v i c e s , to an amount o f $10,000 f o r L o c a l Area Programs. 6. That t h e D i r e c t o r o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Development prepare a new submission f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n t o the P r o v i n c i a l and F e d e r a l Governments f o r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e under the Canada A s s i s t a n c e P l a n . SUMMARY OF COSTS The c o s t s f o r p e r s o n n e l and s e r v i c e s : D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Development 15,336 C l e r k - S t e n o g r a p h e r 3,112 C o - o r d i n a t o r s , L o c a l Area S e r v i c e s 12,150 S e r v i c e s purchased from U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s 10,000 Grandview Community S e r v i c e s Centre 3,600 C i t y g r a n t s t o S o c i a l Agencies ( c o n d i t i o n a l upon program c o s t s b e i n g s h a r e a b l e under the Canada A s s i s t a n c e Plan) 20,000 TOTAL 64,198 5 CITY OF VANCOUVER DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL PLANNING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT I . TERMS OF REFERENCE (a) Purpose The purpose of the Department of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Community Development i s to strengthen i n d i v i d u a l and f a m i l y l i f e and t o e n r i c h neighbourhood and c i t y l i v i n g , by h e l p i n g t o : ( i ) p l a n , develop, c o - o r d i n a t e and i n t e g r a t e h e a l t h , education, w e l f a r e , r e c r e a t i o n a l , and community renewal programs; ( i i ) f o s t e r c i t i z e n s e l f - h e l p and community-betterment programs. (b) Functions The f u n c t i o n s of the Department of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Community Development are: ( i ) t q u n i f y the d i r e c t s e r v i c e approaches of a v a r i e t y of c i v i c departments and o u t s i d e agencies; ( i i ) to i n t e g r a t e the s o c i a l w i t h the other aspects of c i t y p l a n n i n g , i n c l u d i n g urban renewal and p u b l i c housing p r o j e c t s ; ( i i i ) to r e f i n e the present system of planning and d e l i v e r i n g h e a l t h , education, w e l f a r e and r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s on a neighbourhood or l o c a l area b a s i s ; ( i v ) to seek ways of prev e n t i n g and c o n t r o l l i n g c o n d i t i o n s of poverty, c h i l d n e g l e c t and delinquency, and m i t i g a t i n g f i n a n c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l dependence; (v) tb study and d e f i n e Vancouver's s o c i a l problems, evaluate the impact of community s e r v i c e s on these problems support e f f e c t i v e s e r v i c e s and recommend the d i s c o n t i n u -ance of i n e f f e c t i v e s e r v i c e s ; ( v i ) to encourage r e s i d e n t s to assume personal r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r improving the s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s of t h e i r community; ( v i i ) to c r e a t e , and r e g u l a r l y update a master s o c i a l develop-ment p l a n f o r Vancouver. I I . ' ADMINISTRATION (a) D i r e c t o r The Department of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Community Development i s administered by a D i r e c t o r who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a c h i e v i n g the purpose and c a r r y i n g out the f u n c t i o n s i n d i c a t e d i n the terms of re f e r e n c e . . . . c o n t ' d - 2 - & 6 (b) J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee I t i s proposed that a J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee be comprised o f c i v i c a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and other persons whose co-o p e r a t i o n and support are v i t a l to the s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n of the Department of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Community Development. They i n c l u d e : C h i e f Constable 1 C h i e f P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r 1 Commissioners (Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) 2 D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g 1 D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g , U.C.S. 1 Exe c u t i v e D i r e c t o r , U.C.S. 1 Medical H e a l t h O f f i c e r 1 Regio n a l D i r e c t o r of Woxfare ( P r o v i n c i a l ) 1 S o c i a l S e r v i c e A d m i n i s t r a t o r 1 Superintendent of Schools 1 Superintendent of Parks & P u b l i c R e c r e a t i o n 1 D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Community Development 1 T o t a l 13 The r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee w i l l be: ( i ) to act as a l i a i s o n and c o - o r d i n a t i n g body; ( i i ) to compile data and c a r r y out surveys and i n v e s t i g a t i o n s ; ( i i i ) to prepare s o c i a l p l a n n i n g and community development proposals f o r submission to C i t y C o u n c i l and other policy-making Boards and Commissions. United Community S e r v i c e s represent the i n t e r e s t s of the volun-t a r y agencies i n the h e a l t h , w e l f a r e and r e c r e a t i o n f i e l d s . The D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Community Development i s Chairman of the J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee. (c) S o c i a l Development Committee I t i s proposed that a S o c i a l Development Committee be comprised of e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , as f o l l o w s : C i t y C o u n c i l 2 P r o v i n c i a l Government 1 Board of School Trustees 1 Board of Parks and P u b l i c R e c r e a t i o n 1 T o t a l "~5~ Major p o l i c y recommendations of the J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee w i l l be r e f e r r e d to S o c i a l Development Committee f o r a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n , i n c l u d i n g r e f e r r a l to the p u b l i c bodies which they r e p r e s e n t . The D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Community Development w i l l r e -present the J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee a t the meetings of the S o c i a l Development Committee. APPENDIX H E X P L A N A T I O N DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL PLANNING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT On June 13th, 196 8, C o u n c i l adopted a r e p o r t o f the Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h the e s t a b l i s h m e n t , s t r u c t u r e and budget fo r ' the Department o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Community Development. In the s e c t i o n o f the r e p o r t d e a l i n g w i t h the s t r u c t u r e of the Department t h e r e was a recommendation that two b o d i e s be e s t a b l i s h e d : A. S o c i a l Development Committee - composed o f e l e c t e d members of C o u n c i l , P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e , S c h o o l Board and the Parks Board. B. J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee - composed of members of the A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Department o f the C i t y o f Vancouvsr. P r o v i n c i a l Government, S c h o o l Board/ Parks Board and U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s . A t t a c h e d are two r e s o l u t i o n s which i n d e t a i l and by e x p l i c i t a c t i o n o f C o u n c i l e s t a b l i s h the two Committees and a u t h o r i z e t h e s e Committees t o p r o c e e d w i t h t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . * * * # * H ft. MOVED BY Alderman SECONDED BY Alderman WHEREAS on the 13th day o f June, 1968 C o u n c i l d i d by r e s o l u t i o n adopt a recommendation o f the Board o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f June 10, 1968 w i t h r e s p e c t t o the terms o f r e f e r e n c e o f the Department o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Community Development; AND WHEREAS such recommendation as adopted p r o v i d e d f o r the appointment o f a S o c i a l Development Committee: BE IT THEREFORE RESOLVED as f o l l o w s ; 1. ' AiCommittee, t o be known as the S o c i a l Development Committee i s hereby e s t a b l i s h e d and appointed. 2. The membership o f the s a i d Committee s h a l l comprise the f o l l o w i n g , namely: (a) Two members o f C i t y C o u n c i l t o be named by the Mayor (b) One member o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e t o be named by the M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s (c) One member of the Board o f School T r u s t e e s o f School D i s t r i c t No. 39 t o be named by the s a i d Board (d) One member o f the Board o f Parks and P u b l i c Recreation to be named by the s a i d Board. 3. The d u t i e s o f the Committee s h a l l be t o : a R e c e i v e S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Community Development p r o p o s a l s and recommendations from the J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee; (b) Formulate and submit s o c i a l p o l i c y recommendations t o C i t y C o u n c i l and o t h e r p u b l i c b o d i e s ; (c) U n i f y the ways and means o f implementing s o c i a l development p o l i c i e s and p l a n s ; (d) F a c i l i t a t e reform and renewal o f Vancouver's s o c i a l i n n t i t u t i o n s by c o - o r d i n a t i n g and i n t e g r a t i n g u A . 2 h e a l t h , education, w e l f a r e , recreation and associated community services. 4. The members o f the Committee shall hold of f i c e ( by virtue o f their respective offices. 5. The Committee shall designate one of i t s members as Chairman thereof. 6. Meetings of the Committee shall be held at the c a l l of the Chairman. 7. At any meeting of the Committee a majority of the members thereof shall form a quorum. 8. The Committee shall keep written minutes of a l l business transacted at the meeting. 9. Subject to the provisions of this resolution the Committee shall determine i t s own procedure. 10. No member of the Committee shall receive any - remuneration by reason of his appointment thereto. 11* The Committee shall not incur any expenditure or l i a b i l i t y on behalf of the City of Vancouver without the prior approval of City Council. I, RONALD THOMPSON, City Clerk of the City of Vancouver hereby c e r t i f y the foregoing to be a true and correct copy of a resolution of the Council of the City of Vancouver passed on the 8& day of October, 1968. City Clerk H MOVED BY Alderman SECONDED BY Alderman WHEREAS on the 13th day of June, 1968 Council did by resolution adopt a recommendation of the Board of Adminis-tration of June 10, 1968 with respect to the terms of reference of the Department of Social Planning and Com-munity Development? J AND WHEREAS such recommendation as adopted pro-vided for the appointment of a Joint Technical Committeet BE IT THEREFORE RESOLVED AS FOLLOWS: 1. A Committee, to be known as the Joint Technical Committee, i s hereby established and appointed. 2. The membership of the said Committee shall • o comprise the following, namely? 1. The Director of Social Planning and Community Development 2. The members of the Board of Administration 3. The Chief Constable 4. The Chief Probation Officer 5. The Director of Planning 6. 'The Social Service Administrator 7. The Medical Health Of f i c e r 8. The Executive Director, United Community Services 9. The Regional Director of Social Welfare, B r i t i s h Columbia 10. The Superintendent of Schools, School D i s t r i c t No. 39 11. The Superintendent of Parks and' Public Recreation 3* The duties of the Committee shall be tot (a) Act as a l i a i s o n and co-ordinating .body and to consider and report upon technical and adminis-, tr a t i v e matters relating to social planning and 'community development; Compile data, carry out surveys and investiga-tions, to act i n an advisory capacity to City Council and to make recommendations to the Social Development Committee; Unify, planning procedures, co-ordinate and integrate health, education, welfare, recreation and related community services on local area and neighbourhood bases; Study and define Vancouver's social problems and evaluate the impact of community services on these problems; Create and regularly update a mast* social development plan for Vancouver. The members of the Committee shall hold o f f i c e by virtue of their respective appointments. 5. Any member of the Committee may designate his Deputy to act as his alternate at any particular meeting of the Board. 6. The Director of Social Planning and Community Developmentishall be the Chairman of the Committee. 7. Meetings of the Committee shal l be held at the c a l l of the Chairman. 8. At any meeting of the Committee a majority of tho members thereof shall form a quorum. 9. The Committee shall keep written minutes of a l l business transacted at the meeting. 10. Subject to the provisions, of this resolution the Committee shall determine i t s own procedure. 11. Ho member of the Committee shall receive any re-muneration by reason of his appointment thereto. I, RONALD THOMPSON, Cit y Clerk of the City of Vancouver hereby c e r t i f y the foregoing to be a true and correct copy of a resolution of tho Council of the city of Vancouver passed on the $*£ day of October, 1968. . (b) (c) (d) 4. City Clerk 

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