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Voluntary associations in a Philippine municipality : Kabacan Diaz, Manuel Pascual 1973

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VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS IN A PHILIPPINE MUNICIPALITYJ  KABACAN  t>y  MANUEL P. DIAZ B. A , Ateneo de M a n i l a U n i v e r s i t y 0  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS  i n t h e department of. of Anthropology  and S o c i o l o g y  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g  to the  required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA July,  1973  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e  and  study.  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  be  granted by  the Head of my  I t i s understood t h a t copying or  of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be written  permission.  Department o f  Anthropology and  Sociology  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  Date  July 19>  1973  Department or publication  allowed without  my  ABSTRACT  The  aim o f t h i s  preliminary  way, t h e n a t u r e o f v o l u n t a r y  p e a s a n t community objective also  presents  a general  background  II discusses  faced  procedures  some f e a t u r e s  This  chapter  which  of the fieldwork,  i n conducting  research  d e s c r i p t i o n o f the  employed.  Chapter I I I presents i t s recent  in a  on t h e P h i l i p p i n e s .  some a s p e c t s  i n h i s own c u l t u r e , and a g e n e r a l  studied,  associations  i n the introductory  problems t h e r e s e a r c h e r  methodological  in a  i n t h e P h i l i p p i n e s , Kabacan.  i s discussed  Chapter the  thesis i s to describe,  a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e community  h i s t o r y , growth, and development a n d  of the s o c i a l  and e c o n o m i c l i f e  of the  population. C h a p t e r IV d i s c u s s e s the  c u l t u r e and s o c i a l  a n d a n a l y z e s some a s p e c t s o f  organization.  This  analysis i s  n e c e s s a r y as i t sheds l i g h t  on a b r o a d e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f  the  form and c h a r a c t e r  voluntary  and  the functions  that  they perform  associations  take  i n t h e community.  C h a p t e r V i s concerned w i t h an a n a l y s i s and d e s c r i p t i o n o f the voluntary s t u d i e d . The a n a l y s i s h e r e  associations  i s focused  -i-  i n t h e community  on p r o v i d i n g  answers  to the f o l l o w i n g questionsi  Why do p e o p l e j o i n  a s s o c i a t i o n s ? What r e l a t i o n s h i p s m a i n t a i n  voluntary  voluntary  a s s o c i a t i o n s and what undermine them? What t y p e s o f a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e found i n t h e community? Chapter VI, f i n a l l y , discusses voluntary  the functions  a s s o c i a t i o n s s e r v e i n a peasant community  Kabacan. T h i s a n a l y s i s i s based on t h e f i n d i n g s and d e s c r i b e d  i n Chapter V.  - i i -  that like  reported  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I wish to thank Dr. Blanca Muratorio who serves as a member of my committee and Dr. Graham E. Johnson, my adviser, who p a t i e n t l y guided me to complete t h i s study. To Dr. Helga E, Jacobson, a f r i e n d and teacher, I owe an irrepayable "debt of gratitude" f o r favors and services too many to mention here. Louie Siojo of the U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota provided suggestions on how to make the t h e s i s read smoothly. I thank him f o r t h i s help. Many people helped me i n Kabacan - among whom I must single out the mayor of the municipality and h i s wife, Mr. and Mrs. Armando S. Lagda. They helped me i n innumerable ways during my stay i n the community. The o f f i c e r s of the various associations were generous with t h e i r time and showed patience with my endless questioning. To them goes my sincere gratitude. F i n a l l y , I owe an enormous debt of gratitude to my mother, s i s t e r s , brother-in-law, and nieces f o r t h e i r f i n a n c i a l and moral support. To them I dedicate t h i s work.  M. P. D.  -iii-  TABLE. OF CONTENTS  i  Abstract  iii  Acknowledgements  1  Introduction Chapter I . The P r o b l e m The P h i l i p p i n e s : T h e B a c k g r o u n d Geography Historical Background The Governmental Structure Population Trends E t h n o - L i n g u i s t i c Groupings Chapter I I . E n t e r i n g t h e Communitya M e t h o d o l o g i c a l Comments Chapter  III.  Some  T h e Community! T h e B a c k g r o u n d  26 35  Chapter IV. C u l t u r e and S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n The A l l i a n c e S y s t e m Kinship Compadrazgo Reciprocity Hiya S o c i a l A c c e p t a n c e , Smooth I n t e r p e r s o n a l R e l a t i o n s , Pakikisama, Intermediaries, Amor P r o p i o Summary o f M a i n C o n c e p t s  59  C h a p t e r V. Voluntary Associations V o l u n t a r y A s s o c i a t i o n s i Some P r o b l e m s o f Definition Why P e o p l e J o i n V o l u n t a r y A s s o c i a t i o n s The " N i n g a s K u g o n E f f e c t " V o l u n t a r y A s s o c i a t i o n s i F o r m a t i o n , Growth, and D e c l i n e ? L e a d e r s and L e a d e r s h i p V o l u n t a r y A s s o c i a t i o n s i Outside Pressure and Prestige Economic A s s o c i a t i o n s Voluntary A s s o c i a t i o n s i A Typology  ?6  Chapter V I .  Conclusions  106  Bibliography  113  -iv-  LIST OF MAPS  Map I  The  Philippines  Map II  Northern Cotabato  LIST OF FIGURES  Figure I  Formal Philippine P o l i t i c a l Structure  1^  Figure II  Major Ethno-Linguistic Groups  2k  Figure I I I  Physiography of Southwestern Mindanao  37  -vi-  LIST OF TABLES  Table I  P o p u l a t i o n o f the P h i l i p p i n e s ,  1903 - I960  16  Table I I  P o p u l a t i o n o f the P h i l i p p i n e s , byR e l i g i o n , i960  21  Table. I l l  P o p u l a t i o n o f the P h i l i p p i n e s , Language Speakers, i960  by 23  T a b l e IV  P o p u l a t i o n o f Kabacan, 1903  1970  Table V  P o p u l a t i o n o f Kabacan, by R e l i g i o u s A f f i l i a t i o n , i960  Table VI  P o p u l a t i o n o f Kabacan, by E d u c a t i o n ,  I960  -  48  -vii-  LIST OF PLATES  Plate I  The Old Kabacan Municipal H a l l  52  Plate II  The. C a t h o l i c Parish Church  52  Plate III  Road Leading to a Barrio  53  Plate IV  A Barrio School  53  Plate V  Tha Kabacan Market  5k  Plate VI  Another View of the Market  5k  Plate VII  The Bus Terminal Building  55  Plate VIII  A Tractor Along the Market Road  55  Plate IX  A T y p i c a l Lower-Class Farmer's House  56  Plate X  An Upper-Class House  56  Plate XI  A Carabao-Drawn Carriage  57  Plate XII  Horse-Drawn Carriages  57  Plate XIII  Jeepneys  58  Plate XIV  Tricycles  58  -viii-  CHAPTER  I  INTRODUCTION  The  Problem  O n l y a few a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s voluntary and  associations  described  their  a n d have r e c o r d e d  character  ( e . g . , B a n t o n 1957l L i t t l e The  reason f o r t h i s  of voluntary 195^*  53)»  voluntary interest  associations  on t h e o t h e r associations  stemming  their  i n particular  1957;  relative  neglect  societies,  i s the apparent  concern o f  societies  from Durkheim  1955) lack  (Rose  anthropologists.  hand, has been c o n c e r n e d throughout  with  presense  L o w i e 1930? O l i v e r  i n preliterate  the t r a d i t i o n a l  Sociology,  have been c o n c e r n e d  i t s history,  with  pursuing  (1960t 28) a n d Simmel  (1950? 1 9 5 5 ) . In  general,  associated  with,  urbanization traditional  voluntary  associations  and c a n be s e e n a s t h e p r o d u c t  and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n setting  anthropologists  t e n d s t o be  of sociological  process,  the  i n q u i r y , and as  increasingly turn t h e i r  -1-  of, the  attention to  an  -2-  u r b a n i z i n g and  i n d u s t r i a l i z i n g s o c i e t i e s , voluntary-  a s s o c i a t i o n s w i l l become a s t r u c t u r a l phenomenon begging for  t h e o r e t i c a l explanations  as w e l l as  ethnographic  documentation. At p r e s e n t , however, t h e o r e t i c a l work on v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s i n anthropology and  the s o c i o l o g i c a l t r a d i t i o n has  i s largely lacking,  reached no agreement  on  the f u n c t i o n o f v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s i n s o c i e t y as a whole. Lowie (19^8i  13)  d e s p a i r s o f making any  statements whatsoever about the group or  general  individual  f u n c t i o n s served by v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , which he terms " s o d a l i t i e s . " His l i s t list,  of s o d a l i t i e s i s c l e a r l y a r e s i d u a l  i n c l u d i n g such d i v e r s e forms as o b l i g a t o r y age  c l a s s e s , t r i b a l men's c l u b s , and  economic s o c i e t i e s  w e l l as v o l u n t a r y s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s . As  l o n g as  a s s o c i a t i o n s remain a r e s i d u a l c a t e g o r y , we g r e a t l y impaired  as  voluntary  will  be  i n our e f f o r t s to c a t e g o r i z e t h e i r  social  functions. T h i s t h e s i s provides  i n f o r m a t i o n about  voluntary  a s s o c i a t i o n s i n a P h i l i p p i n e peasant community, Kabacan. I t i s an a r e a which has study begins  to f i l l  To answer and questions  l a r g e l y been n e g l e c t e d  i n that provide  and  this  gap.^ i n f o r m a t i o n on t h r e e r e l a t e d  about v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s are the  o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s t h e s i s . These a r e i why  primary  do people  v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s ? What r e l a t i o n s h i p s m a i n t a i n  join  -3-  voluntary  a s s o c i a t i o n s and what undermine them? What  functions  do v o l u n t a r y  a s s o c i a t i o n s perform i n t h e  community? To  answer t h e s e and o t h e r r e l a t e d . q u e s t i o n s ,  must l o o k a t the l a r g e r system o f which  one  voluntary  a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e a p a r t . And i n t h i s t h e s i s , I w i l l  argue  t h a t t o he a b l e t o understand t h e c h a r a c t e r and form o f , and  the dynamics i n v o l v e d  be a b l e  i n , voluntary  t o answer t h e q u e s t i o n  associations, to  as t o why they  o c c u r , an a n a l y s i s o f t h e c u l t u r e and s o c i a l  should organization  of P h i l i p p i n e s o c i e t y i s c r u c i a l .  The  P h i l i p p i n e s t The Background B e f o r e d i s c u s s i o n of t h e t h e s i s , some h i s t o r i c a l  framework on the P h i l i p p i n e s i s n e c e s s a r y as t h i s the r e l e v a n c e and  o f and p r o v i d e s  f o r the broader u n d e r s t a n d i n g  development o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s .  This  of t h i s s e c t i o n , with s p e c i a l considerations geography, governmental s t r u c t u r e , p o p u l a t i o n ethno-linguistic  t r e n d s , and  groupings.  P h i l i p p i n e Archipelago,  i s the aim  given to  Geography^ The  reflects  consisting of  7f083 i s l a n d s , i s l o c a t e d b e t w e e n t h e  approximately southern and  t i p o f F o r m o s a and  Indonesia,  less  than f i v e  Sibutu,  island,  Latitude.  the  Pacific  O c e a n ; on  The  size  of the  United  miles  o f the  island,  i s located  Y'ami,  degrees  the  South China  Sea.  and  United  have a r e a s  two  l a r g e s t i s l a n d s ' , L u z o n and of the  twelve l a r g e s t i s l a n d s account total  land The  most  have a r e a s  o f one  s q u a r e m i l e s . The  cent  to  a  12,877  only  per  the  extending  and  f o r o v e r 70  of  States.  7,083 i s l a n d s , o n l y ^63 eleven  the  l a r g e r than that  more s q u a r e m i l e s  account  the  P h i l i p p i n e s i s 115,600  coastline is irregular,  o f c o a s t l i n e of the  the  North  10,850 m i l e s i n comparison w i t h the  the  Borneo  than Japan, approximately  s t a t e of Arizona,  of  Of  21  of  P h i l i p p i n e s i s b o u n d e d by  t h e w e s t , by  i s smaller  parts  e q u a t o r and  at around  east, the  K i n g d o m . The  distance  lies  combined a r e a  square m i l e s ,  southernmost  degrees above the  northernmost On  the  the n o r t h e r n  total  f o r 95  per  or 1,000  of over  Mindanao,  land  area.  cent  of  The  the  area. climate  important  of the  Philippines is tropical  topographical  features  are  and  its  characterized  r u g g e d and i r r e g u l a r c o a s t s p r o v i d i n g numerous h a r b o r s o f a l l s i z e s ; h i l l y and m o u n t a i n o u s t e r r a i n , w i t h r a n g e s g e n e r a l l y p a r a l l e l and i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to the c o a s t l i n e s , a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s l a n d - f o r m b e i n g the mountainous s p i n e ; few l a r g e r i v e r s , b u t many s t r e a m s w h i c h a r e s h o r t and s w i f t ; r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l number o f  by  -5-  -6-  l a k e s , w i t h t h o s e f o r m e d "by l a v a - d a m s p r o b a b l y constituting a majority; heavily forested mountain ranges; c o m p a r a t i v e l y narrow c o a s t a l p l a i n s ; and b r o a d and f l a t a l l u v i a l p l a i n s found between mountains though n o t s t r i c t l y i n t e r - m o n t a n e i n c h a r a c t e r . (Donaghue, F o x , and S i b l e y 1 9 5 6 t 1 1 - 1 2 )  Historical  The with it  Background3  Philippines  the west which  i s the  pre-Spanish the  b e e n c h a n g e d by  of today  Lynch  early history  p o p u l a t i o n today  the  (1962:  of the  that the  are the N e g r i t o s  presumed t o h a v e o c c u p i e d  Today, they  living remain  islands The  next  the a r r i v a l Malaysia  and  remarkedt  has  i t has  arrived  is  p e r h a p s 6,000 y e a r s  a primitive in isolated  hunting  o f P a n a y and  coined ago.  gathering  spots, primarily the  by one  life  0  i n the interiors  Negros.  o f Malay  I n d o n e s i a , They  At  in  the  human m i g r a t i o n t o t h e P h i l i p p i n e s  of people  Asia."  element  most o f and  been  fragmentary.  oldest  m o u n t a i n r e g i o n s o f n o r t h e a s t e r n L u z o n and o f the  of  (the term  time,  archipelago,  kl)  Philippines  who  are  result  n a t i o n , then  the Spaniards) they  Superficially,  - along with a l l of Southeast  However, i t i s g e n e r a l l y a g r e e d the  long contact  o f A s i a n c o u n t r i e s . However,  i s a western  f o r a l o n g , long time  her  century.  are b a s i c a l l y  i n f l u e n c e s . As  Philippines  The  i n 16th  started  most w e s t e r n i z e d  the F i l i p i n o s  "If  has  stock, migrants  came w i t h  from  f o r c e d the N e g r i t o s back  and  -7-  t o o k over t h e b e s t a r e a s t h e m s e l v e s . T h e i r c u l t u r e  and  a g r i c u l t u r a l economy a r e p r o b a b l y b e s t p r e s e r v e d among the I g o r o t s , I f u g a o s , and Bontocs o f n o r t h e r n Luzon who most s u c c e s s f u l l y a v o i d e d subsequent  have  contacts. Theirs i s  t h e c u l t u r a l base upon which a l l subsequent  influences  f e l l . Most F i l i p i n o s t o d a y a r e o f t h i s r a c i a l s t o c k o r , a t l e a s t , m i x t u r e s o f i t and more r e c e n t m i g r a n t s . A f t e r t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f the i s l a n d s by t h e Malays I n d o n e s i a n s , t h e r e were a s e r i e s o f a l i e n  and  cultural  i n f l u e n c e s w i t h v a r i o u s l y l a s t i n g e f f e c t s upon t h e s e earlier  inhabitants.  The o l d e s t o f t h e s e i n f l u e n c e s came from I n d i a i n t h e form o f Buddhism which f l o u r i s h e d i n I n d o n e s i a from 500 B. G . u n t i l 500 A. D. Brahmanism, a l s o from r e p l a c e d Buddhism and was  p r e s e n t u n t i l 1,000  about  India,  A. D. These  r e l i g i o n s l e f t no i n t e g r a t e d e f f e c t s i n t h e P h i l i p p i n e s but o n l y b i t s and fragments such as p l a c e names and words. F o l l o w i n g these, another i n d i r e c t Indian i n f l u e n c e was t h e Hindu r e l i g i o n . A l t h o u g h t h i s r e l i g i o n became e n t r e n c h e d i n s o u t h e r n I n d o n e s i a , t h e e f f e c t s i n the P h i l i p p i n e s were, a g a i n , m o s t l y f r a g m e n t a r y  and  u n a s s o c i a t e d . M e t a l w o r k i n g , v a r i o u s words, and  Sanskrit  w r i t i n g were t h e most t a n g i b l e e f f e c t s o f H i n d u i s m . Today, a v a r i a n t o f I n d i a n s c r i p t i s i n use among t h e B a t a k s i n Palawan.  -8-  At  a b o u t t h e same t i m e ,  f r o m t h e 9th t o t h e 13th  c e n t u r i e s A. D., t h e C h i n e s e were c a r r y i n g on t r a d e the  P h i l i p p i n e s . The main i n f l u e n c e o f C h i n a  Philippines, The centuries  and p r o g r e s s e d  where t h e y sent and  lasting  i n Sulu  (from  closely-knit  by c o n v e r t i n g t o  came i n c o n t a c t w i t h .  the Spanish  word "Moors" w h i c h  They great.  i s applied  and M i n d a n a o a p p e a r t o d a y a  and a v i d M u s l i m p o p u l a t i o n u n a f f e c t e d  souls"  b e g a n when M a g e l l a n  the P h i l i p p i n e s i n 1521.  aims o f S p a n i s h  rule  b y more  (the conversion  the production  much so t h a t  of Spain  Thereafter, the dual  i n t h e P h i l i p p i n e s were t h e " s a v i n g o f the people  o f wealth  endeavors, the Spaniards  the  strong  contacts.  "discovered"  and  they  were  a n d M i n d a n a o . T h e i r i m p a c t was  European contacts  of  and S u m a t r a  t o t h e P h i l i p p i n e s a n d made a  to a l l Muslims) o f S u l u  recent  to Malaysia  influence i n the 14th century  first  Moros  I n d i a i n t h e 1 1 t h and 1 2 t h  eastward  Mohammedanism t h e p e o p l e  The  cultural.  e s t a b l i s h e d s u l t a n a t e s . Muslim c o l o n i s t s  from M a l a y s i a  arrived  on t h e  h o w e v e r , was e c o n o m i c r a t h e r t h a n  M u s l i m s came t h r o u g h  with  to Catholicism)  f o r t h e Crown. I n b o t h  were r e m a r k a b l y  s u c c e s s f u l - so  today C a t h o l i c i s m i s the dominant  P h i l i p p i n e s and v e s t i g e s o f resentment a t  plundering evident  are s t i l l  are limited  present.  Spanish  cultural  religion in Spanish values  t o the wealthy descendants o f  while  Spanish  -9-  nationals. By  I 8 9 8 , t h e F i l i p i n o s had t r i e d t o t h r o w o f f S p a n i s h  domination of  and  were on t h e v e r g e  f o r t u n e , the Americans took  over. P r i n c i p a l  influences  have been i n p o l i t i c a l  E n g l i s h as  lingua  f r a n c a , and  o f s u c c e s s when, by  concepts,  American  the  the development  a turn  switch  of  to  economic  dependence upon t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . F o l l o w i n g t h e war ten year t r a n s i t i o n a l Republic  of the  Philippines July  4,  with Japan  (1941-1945) and a f t e r a  p e r i o d as a Commonwealth,  Philippines  came i n t o  obtained her long awaited  the  e x i s t e n c e and independence  the on  1946.  B a s i c a l l y t h e modern F i l i p i n o s a r e t h e p r o d u c t o f t h r e e i n f l u e n c e s - the Malayan, the Spanish and t h e A m e r i c a n . The r e s u l t i s an u n u s u a l s o c i a l , and c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n t h a t f i t s i n t o n e i t h e r a n O r i e n t a l n o r an O c c i d e n t a l s t r a i g h t j a c k e t . I n t h e P h i l i p p i n e s , E a s t and West h a v e met and b l e n d e d . ( M a l c o l m 1951* 38)  The  Governmental Structure** The  new  Philippines,  A s i a n nations to achieve  W o r l d War.  Its constitution^  o f powers among t h e branches all  t h e n , was  one  female  of  the  the Second  provides f o r the s e p a r a t i o n  executive, l e g i s l a t i v e ,  citizens,  first  independence a f t e r  o f government. E l i g i b i l i t y  male and  of the  to vote  and  judicial  i s given to  over twenty-one y e a r s o f  age,  -10-  and  who a r e l i t e r a t e . Executive  elected  power i s v e s t e d  f o r a term  He a p p o i n t s justice,  i n t h e p r e s i d e n t . He i s  o f four years  and may be r e - e l e c t e d .  t h e heads o f t h e v a r i o u s  foreign affairs,  education,  l a b o r and a m b a s s a d o r s and o t h e r the  approval  The  Bureau  departments,  n a t i o n a l defense,  diplomatic  officials,  o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n on A p p o i n t m e n t s  of C i v i l  president  with  S e r v i c e , t h e B u d g e t C o m m i s s i o n and t h e  responsible  The  and  o f Congress,  N a t i o n a l E c o n o m i c C o u n c i l a r e among t h e many o t h e r directly  such as  t o the c h i e f  executive.  i s a l s o t h e commander-in-chief  armed f o r c e s and he c a n t a k e  offices  almost d i c t a t o r i a l  t i m e o f e m e r g e n c y , i n c l u d i n g t h e power t o p l a c e  of the  powers i n any p a r t  o r a l l o f t h e i s l a n d s u n d e r m a r t i a l l a w - a power w h i c h was u s e d b y t h e i n c u m b e n t P r e s i d e n t time i n t h e country's suspend  provincial  commute s e n t e n c e s conclude with  treaties,  history last  Marcos f o r t h e f i r s t S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 7 2 . He c a n  g o v e r n o r s and m a y o r s , g r a n t f o r almost a l l kinds subject  p a r d o n s and  o f o f f e n c e s . He c a n  to the approval  of Congress,  foreign countries. The  vice-president  four years.  He, h o w e v e r , h a s a l a r g e l y  In the event presidency  i s similarly  of the president's  during  the unexpired  b e l o n g s t o t h e same p o l i t i c a l  e l e c t e d f o r a term o f ceremonial  function.  d e a t h , he assumes t h e term o f o f f i c e .  party  When he  a s t h e p r e s i d e n t , he i s  -11-  u s u a l l y appointed  to a cabinet  portfolio.  L e g i s l a t i v e power i s v e s t e d i n a b i c a m e r a l  congress  w h i c h i s composed o f t h e s e n a t e , t h e upper house, and t h e House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , t h e l o w e r house. The senate has 24 members e l e c t e d by g e n e r a l s u f f r a g e f o r a term o f s i x y e a r s . One t h i r d o f t h e s e a t s a r e c o n t e s t e d every two y e a r s . The House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s has 120 s e a t s apportioned  among t h e d i f f e r e n t p r o v i n c e s a c c o r d i n g t o  p o p u l a t i o n . A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i s e l e c t e d f o r a term o f f o u r y e a r s and may a l s o be r e - e l e c t e d . The c o n g r e s s  n o r m a l l y convenes i n a r e g u l a r s e s s i o n  o f 100 days on t h e f o u r t h Monday o f J a n u a r y . The p r e s i d e n t . however may c a l l i t t o s p e c i a l s e s s i o n s t o c o n s i d e r  urgent  l e g i s l a t i o n . The two houses e l e c t t h e i r own s e t o f o f f i c e r s . The c h i e f o f f i c e r o f t h e upper house i s t h e senate p r e s i d e n t a n d , i n t h e l o w e r house, t h e s p e a k e r .  Congress  has t h e s o l e power t o pass o r amend laws w i t h t h e a p p r o v a l of the p r e s i d e n t . I f the president vetoes a b i l l ,  i t can  s t i l l become a law i f i t i s passed f o r a second t i m e by a t w o - t h i r d s m a j o r i t y o f a l l t h e members o f t h e two h o u s e s . J u d i c i a l power i s v e s t e d i n t h e supreme c o u r t and i n m i n o r c o u r t s e s t a b l i s h e d by l a w . C o n s i s t i n g o f a c h i e f and ten associate justices, constitutionality  t h e supreme c o u r t r u l e s upon t h e  o f l e g i s l a t i v e and e x e c u t i v e a c t s . I t ,  t h u s , p r o v i d e s checks and b a l a n c e s a g a i n s t u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  -12-  executive  and  legislative  the  justices  of the  the  C o m m i s s i o n on  o r d e r s . The  president  supreme c o u r t w i t h  the  appoints  approval  A p p o i n t m e n t s . I t f u n c t i o n s a l s o as  P r e s i d e n t i a l E l e c t o r a l T r i b u n a l . Moreover, three justices  serve  S e n a t e and  on  courts first  each o f the  House o f  Below the  of  electoral  the  of i t s  t r i b u n a l s of  the  Representatives.  supreme c o u r t  o f a g r a r i a n and i n s t a n c e , and  are  a court  industrial  municipal  of  appeals,  relations,  courts  courts  of chartered  of  cities  and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . At  present,  provinces province o f two  has  and  into  fifty-six  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The  i t s own  g o v e r n o r who  heads a p r o v i n c i a l  board  o r more o t h e r  members. The  board  the  g o v e r n o r and four years.  organ o f the the  provincial  b o a r d members a r e  of p r o v i n c i a l  engineer,  The over the  government.  of the  authority  treasurer, f i s c a l , their  health  of  since the  officer,  respective  c e n t r a l government.  governor exercises general province.  The  e l e c t e d f o r a term  appointments to  e t c . - a l l o f whom s e r v e  departments  f u n c t i o n s as  T h e y , however, h a v e l i m i t e d  c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t makes t h e  offices  the  Philippines i s divided  which c o n s i s t o f c i t i e s  legislative  the  the  He  ensures that  c e n t r a l government a r e  carried  Each m u n i c i p a l i t y of every  supervisory  l a w s and out  regulations  i n the  province  powers  province.  c o n s i s t s of  a  of  -13-  town c e n t e r , c a l l e d t h e p o b l a c i o n , and a s u r r o u n d i n g  area  d i v i d e d i n t o u n i t s c a l l e d b a r r i o s . The t r e a s u r e r , j u s t i c e o f t h e peace, and c h i e f o f p o l i c e a r e t h e m u n i c i p a l o f f i c i a l s appointed  by t h e c e n t r a l government. The mayor,  v i c e - m a y o r , c o u n c i l o r s , and b a r r i o l i e u t e n a n t s who a r e normally responsible t o i n d i v i d u a l councilors i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e b a r r i o s a r e e l e c t e d f o r a term o f f o u r y e a r s . L y i n g o u t s i d e o f t h i s framework a r e t h e c h a r t e r e d c i t i e s which a r e "municipal c o r p o r a t i o n s possessing the power t o sue and be s u e d , t o r a i s e money by t a x a t i o n , and t o e x e r c i s e t h e r i g h t o f eminent domain." (Romani and Thomas 1954« 86)  Chartered  c i t i e s " d e r i v e t h e i r form o f  government and a u t h o r i t y from t h e i r c h a r t e r s , t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f w h i c h d i f f e r b u t i n few r e s p e c t s from c i t y to c i t y . "  (Romani and Thomas 1954« 87)  The c h a r t e r s o f  c i t i e s come from c o n g r e s s and c o n g r e s s c a n r e p e a l o r amend them. A t p r e s e n t , t h e r e a r e t h i r t y - n i n e c h a r t e r e d  cities  i n t h e P h i l i p p i n e s . Each c i t y c o u n c i l l e v i e s and c o l l e c t s t a x e s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e l a w and makes b y - l a w s . I t maintains  a l o c a l p o l i c e f o r c e and i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  p u b l i c works. Figure I depicts the i n t e r l o c k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the v a r i o u s agencies  and l e v e l s d i s c u s s e d above i n d e t a i l .  I t i s b e s t summarized by J a c o b s o n ( n . d.» 32-33)» The  p r i n c i p a l p o l i t i c a l d i v i s i o n of the  -14-  BARRIO (usually composed of small residential units called "sitios") Fig.  I  Formal P h i l i p p i n e P o l i t i c a l  ( S o u r c e : Nurge  1965*  17)  Structure  -15-  P h i l i p p i n e s i s the province. . . A province i s one whole a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t . • . d i v i d e d into municipalities. . . Barrios, f i n a l l y , are t h e s m a l l e s t u n i t s o f p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t o which a l l areas o f the P h i l i p p i n e s are d i v i d e d . . . Each a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and p o l i t i c a l l e v e l and u n i t d e f i n e d so f a r h a s . i t s own r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f f i c i a l s who a r e d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e c e n t r a l government and t o t h e s m a l l e r u n i t s and t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n s . . • Chartered c i t i e s stand o u t s i d e o f t h i s administrative hierarchy. Their representatives are r e s p o n s i b l e d i r e c t l y t o the c e n t r a l government and a r e n o t under t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l government as a r e , u l t i m a t e l y , the other u n i t s .  P o p u l a t i o n Trends Between 19^8 and i 9 6 0 , t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e P h i l i p p i n e s grew a t an average g a i n o f 3 p e r cent a y e a r . T h i s r e p r e s e n t s a c o n s i d e r a b l e a c c e l e r a t i o n o f growth o v e r the p r e v i o u s census i n t e r v a l s when t h e r a t e s o f i n c r e a s e were a p p r o x i m a t e l y present  2 p e r c e n t . (See T a b l e I , below^ The  r a t e o f i n c r e a s e i s one o f t h e h i g h e s t i n t h e  w o r l d a n d , among A s i a n c o u n t r i e s , e q u a l s t h o s e  of Ceylon,  T a i w a n , and M a l a y s i a . T h i s growth has been t h e r e s u l t o f t h e excess o f b i r t h s o v e r d e a t h s . The impact o f modern means o f d i s e a s e p r e v e n t i o n and cure has caused t h e m o r t a l i t y r a t e , p a r t i c u l a r l y the i n f a n t m o r t a l i t y rate t o drop sharply, e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e t h e Second World War. The b i r t h r a t e , however, has remained unchanged, c o n t i n u i n g a t a h i g h and  -16-  relatively  Table  stable  It  level.  1903 - I960  Population o f the P h i l i p p i n e s ,  Year  Population  1903 1918 1939 1948 I960  7,635,426 10,314,310 16,000,303 19,234,182 27,087,685  Average Annual Rate o f I n c r e a s e from P r e v i o u s Census ( i n p e r c e n t a g e s )  1.90 2.22 1.91 3.06  S o u r c e : C e n s u s o f t h e P h i l i p p i n e s , I 9 6 O 1 P o p u l a t i o n and H o u s i n g , Volume I I , Summary R e p o r t , p . 2 .  There population if  i s a strong likelihood increase w i l l  the present b i r t h  the  less  and d e a t h  p o p u l a t i o n have n o t e d  an urban fertility  Continued  little  a r e a s . I n view  d o e s n o t seem l i k e l y  advances to result  rate,  i n public  to double 185)  itself  Surveys o f  appreciable difference i n  groups  of this,  In f a c t ,  continue, the  i s expected  among s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  hand, the crude death  expected  rates  t h a n 23 y e a r s . ( C o n c e p c i o n 19661  fertility  the rate of  continue to accelerate.  population o f the P h i l i p p i n e s in  that  o r between t h e r u r a l  a significant  decline i n  f o r some y e a r s . On t h e o t h e r  though  declining,  health  i n the further  high.  programmes a r e  reduction  Many o f t h e d i s e a s e s now a c c o m p a n i e d  remains  of mortality.  by h i g h m o r t a l i t y , f o r  -17-  e x a m p l e , p n e u m o n i a , t u b e r c u l o s i s , and themselves to treatment The already  with  bronchitis,  modern d r u g s .  i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n of the  resulted, first,  i n continued  growth  p o p u l a t i o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n s and,  significant  redistribution  T h r o u g h o u t most o f t h e a r e a settlement, it  has  not  resources and  the  a l r e a d y been r e a c h e d . which are not  so a l s o a r e many o f t h e r e m o t e r e g i o n s . The  although  i s on  the  fully  lowlands  and  traditional  the the  rapid  on  the  in a  country.  concentrated  island  However, t h e r e a r e  are  and  extent  While the  sparsely  lowlands  availability  of these  land  populated,  of sparsely  remain a v a i l a b l e  i f  higher  i n the  o f Mindanao. Other  more  populated  lowlands,  i n other  relatively  intense population pressure  expanded  particularly  p o p u l a t i o n by  to the  of people. i t s road  b e e n one  The  islands. unused  i n the  central  migration  The  had  post-war  of l a r g e s c a l e government  and  has  c o n s t r u c t i o n programme,  i n M i n d a n a o , and  i n a c c e s s i b l e became more  internal  S e c o n d W o r l d War.  o t h e r h a n d , has  relocation  greatly  plains  largest  o f the  place p r i o r  period,  second,  p o p u l a t i o n c e n t e r s , o n l y a modest  redistribution taken  has  in  w i t h i n the  utilized.  country  smaller i n size  Despite  I966)  point of population s a t u r a t i o n i s near,  rougher p a r t s of the  lowland  of  Reyes  Philippines  established  of people  (See  lend  much o f what was  attractive.  previously  -18-  During the  the  population  of almost a l l of the  n u m b e r s . However, t h e r e the  the  centers  g r o w t h were t h e coastal  fringe  Without  exception,  these  regions  Visayan  the  the  population  i n the  in  the  rapidly  of least the  rapid  of  provinces  rapidly  indicating a considerable  than  northern  Ilocos coast  grew c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s  than  Luzon. in  the  out-migration  people. S u c h o u t w a r d movement  Visayan-Ilocos l a n d , not  already  persons per  With the  exception  Manila,  settled  areas  between  19^8  contain l i t t l e  regions  of the  most o f t h e  reaching  2,000  i n Cebu.  i n the  or near the  and  deHsely  n a t i o n a l average  i 9 6 0 . However, t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e  settlement  i n L u z o n . Of  i n d i c a t e d net  land  provinces  i n growth p a t t e r n i n the  had  high,  population  Ilocos coastal region  difference  Luzon, f i v e  are  central  cultivable  to absorb  of c u l t i v a t e d  o f L u z o n grew a t and  u n e x p e c t e d . The  under c u l t i v a t i o n ,  square mile  metropolitan  i s not  c o a s t a l areas  growth. D e n s i t i e s i n these  an  areas  islands,  o f M i n d a n a o , and  n a t i o n a l average, of  provinces..Generally,  r e g i o n s . The  central  gained  differences in  o f p o p u l a t i o n grew l e s s  sparsely populated  i960,  to  provinces  were s i g n i f i c a n t  r a t e o f g r o w t h among t h e  traditional  f r o m 19^8  inter-censal period  the nine  i n d i c a t e d net  areas  of  provinces  out-migration  dense  of  central  while  i n - m i g r a t i o n . However, i n o n l y  four two  had  -19-  p r o v i n c e s , C a v i t e and  R i z a l , were t h e  m i g r a t i o n l a r g e which  i s due  Manila, Bikol  In the  areas  population  on  additional l a n d and  the  soil  the  urban c e n t e r s , the  the  more r e m o t e b u t  the  populated  people,  the  has  The  most  hillier  pressure  19^8 and  from m e t r o p o l i t a n M a n i l a , Mindanao, Both areas national  average.  (Cotabato,  The  a l l the  of  The  an  of  to  seek  plain,  areas  less  the  the  or  of  densely  indicated  net  i960.  r a t e s of p o p u l a t i o n growth, occurred  i n M i n d o r o and  grew a t r a t e s more t h a n four provinces  D a v a o , L a n a o , and  of the  margins o f the  of Luzon experienced  impressive  the  i n c r e a s i n g impoverishment  settlement. Nearly  areas  around  permitted  expanding a g r i c u l t u r a l  i n - m i g r a t i o n between  southern  twice  of southern  Zamboanga) a b s o r b e d  apart  the  Mindanao 30  per  n a t i o n a l growth.  island  settlers  between  islands  of Bohol,  the  of r i c e  h a v e e n c o u r a g e d a l a r g e number o f p e o p l e  agricultural  cent  suburban spread  g e n e r a l l y dominated. While  of double-cropping  to absorb  in  o f t h e C e n t r a l P l a i n and  Region, out-migration  expansion area  rural  to the  indicated  o f Mindanao r e c e i v e d a l m o s t  a l l of i t s  19^8 and i960 f r o m t h e V i s a y a n a r e a . C e b u , Panay, and  Leyte  The  s u p p l i e d most  of  immigrants. The  more r a p i d  urban p o p u l a t i o n of the r a t e b e t w e e n 19^8  and  Philippines  grew a t  i960 t h a n t h e  total  new  a  -20-  p o p u l a t i o n . Whereas t h e t o t a l per  cent  centers  during  population  increased  t h e i n t e r - c e n s a l p e r i o d , t h e major  of cities,  general,  t h e l a r g e r and s m a l l e r urban c e n t e r s  grew q u i t e  while  was t h a t  communities  major c i t i e s  population  i n t h e more  the s a t e l l i t e  also  operating One  cities  o f w h i c h have grown more r a p i d l y t h a n a n y  Groupings i s used,  i t implies a  a n d e x h i b i t a common c u l t u r a l  a r e f a c t o r s such as these  then,  tothe  pattern. But,  operating  influences that are divisive  There are,  to unify,  i f  there  of the population.  i n Philippine society factors continually  t h a t make f o r b o t h h o m o g e n e i t y a n d o f t h e most g e n e r a l l y u s e d b r o a d  of the Philippine population is  units  p e o p l e who p o s s e s s a common h i s t o r y , b e l o n g  same r a c e ,  are  urban  c e n t e r s . The major  o f suburban M a n i l a ,  When t h e t e r m " F i l i p i n o "  there  registered  i n the country.  Ethno-Linguistic  unified  located  In  o f t h e P h i l i p p i n e s grew more r a p i d l y t h a n t h e  of the traditional  exception  the intermediate  s l o w l y . Moreover c i t i e s  remote a r e a s  and  h o w e v e r , was f a r f r o m u n i f o r m .  most r a p i d g a i n s  cities  urban  grew by 70 p e r c e n t . T h e g r o w t h by c l a s s a n d  location  the  b y 42,7  classification  i s by r e l i g i o n .  o v e r w h e l m i n g l y Roman C a t h o l i c  (Table  heterogeneity.  The p o p u l a t i o n  I I ) ; but, "there  -21-  are  four  s i g n i f i c a n t groupings  i n t o a way Moslem."  of  life:  p a g a n , Roman C a t h o l i c ,  (Wernstedt  and  Classification most g e n e r a l population. Christian  Table  II  by  impression I t may  i n which r e l i g i o n extends  also  F i l i p i n o s are  : Population  of  S p e n c e r 1967«  Protestant  157-158)  r e l i g i o n , however, g i v e s of the  d i v e r s i t y of  not  a m e a n i n g f u l one  be  themselves  the  the  only  a  Philippine since  the  heterogeneous.  Philippines  Total Population Roman C a t h o l i c s Aglipayans (Philippine Independent Church)  and  by  i960  Religion,  Number  Percentage  27,087,685 22,686,096  100.00 83.8  1,414,431  5.2  270,104  1.0  785.399 1.317,475 614,180  2.9 4.9 2.2  Iglesia ni Kristo (Church of C h r i s t ) Protestants (includes P h i l i p p i n e E p i s c o p a l Church) Muslims Others  S o u r c e : B u r e a u o f t h e C e n s u s and S t a t i s t i c s , C e n s u s o f P h i l i p p i n e s i 9 6 0 : P o p u l a t i o n and H o u s i n g , V o l . Summary R e p o r t , T a b l e 19, p. 17.  A more u s e f u l cultural  g r o u p i n g s . Whether o r  show a c l o s e refer the  to  classification  correlation  them as  findings  of  i n the  not  i s by  linguistic  l a n g u a g e and  Philippines  distinct ethno-linguistic further  empirical  so  and  culture that  groups  r e s e a r c h . The  the II,  we  can  awaits  evidence  -22-  we  have a t  instance,  present Lewis  More t h a n i n the  i960  indicate  remark! ".  All  of these  do.  (See,  for  1971.) e i g h t y l a n g u a g e s and  census,  to  t h a t they  a  . . we  figure do  dialects  are  that led Pascasio  (196?: 2 2 )  have a c o m p l e x l a n g u a g e  l a n g u a g e s and  of the Malayo-Polynesian  dialects,  linguistic  listed  situation."  however, a r e family,  varieties  and  I n d i v i d u a l s who move f r o m one l i n g u i s t i c a r e a to a n o t h e r , even the uneducated, u s u a l l y acquire a reasonable f a c i l i t y i n handling the new v e r n a c u l a r w i t h i n a few weeks' o r a month's t i m e d e p e n d i n g on t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e y u s e the language. ( P a s c a s i o 196?: 230) Table C e n s u s and the  I I I c o n t a i n s the Statistics  Of t h e can  data  o f the Eureau of  f o r t h e number o f n a t i v e s p e a k e r s  m a j o r l a n g u a g e s and  distribution  i960  dialects. Their  geographical  total  population of  27,087,685, 44.4  39*5  can  per cent  per  cent  Pascasio  i n c r e a s e o f 2.3  f o r Tagalog;  (I967: 2 2 8 )  and  0.3  per per  conjectures  per  speak E n g l i s h ,  2,1 p e r c e n t c a n s p e a k S p a n i s h . B e t w e e n 1948 and an  of  i s shown i n F i g u r e I I .  speak T a g a l o g ,  t h e r e was  the  cent cent  for  and  i960,  for English;  cent  7.3  Spanish.  that  t h e t o t a l number o f T a g a l o g s p e a k i n g i n d i v i d u a l s now e x c e e d E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s and t h a t t h e r a t e o f i n c r e a s e o f T a g a l o g w i l l c o n t i n u e t o exceed E n g l i s h . However, i t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e i f T a g a l o g w i l l supplement E n g l i s h i n f u n c t i o n s which i t now s e r v e s , a t l e a s t i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e .  -23-  Table  III :  P o p u l a t i o n by L a n g u a g e S p e a k e r s , Number  Languages  i960  Percent o f T o t a l Population  Spoken  English  10,689,171 12,019,193 588,634  39.5 44.4  6,529,882  24.1  Tagalog  5,694,072  21.0  Bisaya (Hiligaynon) Iloko Bikol B i s a y a (Samareno) Pampango Pangasinan Others  2,817,31^ 3,158,560  10.4  Tagalog Spanish Mother  2.1  Tongue  Bisaya  (Cebuano)  2,108,837 1,488,668 875,531 666,003 3,748,818  S o u r c e : B u r e a u o f t h e Census and S t a t i s t i c s . Handbook o f t h e P h i l i p p i n e s , M a n i l a , 20-21.  11.7 7.8 5.5 3.2 2.5 13.8 Statistical 1962, p p .  -24-  Figure  I I i Major E t h n o - L i n g u i s t i c  Groups  -25-  FOOTNOTES  1A n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n i s H o l l n s t e i n e r ' s s t u d y o f power i n a community on t h e i s l a n d o f L u z o n . H e r e , she i n c l u d e s a d i s c u s s i o n o f how power a l i g n m e n t s and s p l i t s i n t h e community a r e m a n i f e s t e d i n v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s . See H o l l n s t e i n e r , 1963» e s p e c i a l l y pp. 111-130. T h e r e a r e o n l y two o t h e r s t u d i e s o f P h i l i p p i n e v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t I know o f . T h e s e a r e S t y s k a l ' s (1967) and S t a u f f e r ' s (1966). B o t h o f t h e s e s t u d i e s , h o w e v e r , d e a l w i t h u r b a n b a s e d v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s and a s e t o f p r o b l e m s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t w h i c h this thesis i s concerned. 2 U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e i n d i c a t e d , t h e summary d a t a i n t h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y s t a t e m e n t a r e b a s e d on Donaghue, F o x , a n d S i b l e y (1956).  3unless  o t h e r w i s e i n d i c a t e d , t h e summary d a t a i n t h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y s t a t e m e n t a r e b a s e d on B e r r e m a n (1956).  ^ U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e i n d i c a t e d , t h e summary d a t a i n t h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y s t a t e m e n t a r e b a s e d on N e l s o n (1968). ^The d e s c r i p t i o n p r e s e n t e d h e r e r e f e r s t o t h e s i t u a t i o n d u r i n g t h e t i m e ' o f f i e l d work. S i n c e S e p t e m b e r , 1972, the s i t u a t i o n has changed c o n s i d e r a b l y . ^ U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e i n d i c a t e d , t h e summary d a t a i n t h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y s t a t e m e n t a r e b a s e d on S i m k i n s and V / e m s t e d t (I963) and W e r n s t e d t and S p e n c e r (I967).  CHAPTER ENTERING THE  COMMUNITY t SOME METHODOLOGICAL COMMENTS  When I l e f t to  initiate  II  Vancouver f o r the  fieldwork  f o r my  Philippines,  research  I  planned  p r o j e c t i n my  own  community, M i d s a y a p . I d e l i b e r a t e l y w o r k e d q u i t e s l o w l y the  outset,  spending  weeks d o i n g  t h i n g s t h a t may  to  my  projecti  in  my  honor?  forth.  f o r my  explicitly early, and  visiting  about  i t was  be  I avoided  my  gatherings  informants  t a l k i n g t o as  sources  held  and  activities  so  were  talking  i t f o r f e a r of " t u r n i n g people  s e l e c t e d , who  should  f o r , while  social  related  godparents?  s e n s e , however, t h e s e  i n these  three  some o f w h i c h were  family friends,  project?  first  seem o n l y m a r g i n a l l y  attending parties,  In another  important  the b e t t e r part of the  o f f " so  where I f o u n d  were g o i n g  at  t o be,  out,  whom I  o f i n f o r m a t i o n I would  need  eventually. This point  strategy apparently  o f a more f o r m a l i z e d and  collecting in  initial  i n f o r m a t i o n and,  a c q u i r i n g a quick  g r o w t h , and  systematic  in this  overview of the  design  r e g a r d , was community's  development. Because o f the  -26-  became t h e  vantage for  instrumental history,  almost t o t a l  absence  -2?-  of w r i t t e n  records,  p e o p l e who  had  I had  lived  long  s e e n i t grow. I t was anthropological  writer is  i s studying  true,  as  point  r o l e became  that  hand, i t i s a l s o t r u e s o c i e t y and  i s the  problem  of which  i s the  tendency to  in fact,  be  Moreover, being  can  go  to  other  i s a part.  part  of  s p e c i a l and  p o s i t i o n i n the  t o behave  t a l k to  sommunity  but  w o r d s , w h i l e he  information,  to  Conducting  others  not  has he  i t s own - one  social  not  seen  easy a c c e s s t o does  interviews  the  than  15)  On  research problems.  consequence  crucial  importance. occupy  a  structure. researcher  i n other,  to a l l people be  It  common s e n s e what  p o s i t i o n , the  must n o t  of  the  quite  conducting  community means t o  i n p a r t i c u l a r , but  some, b u t  some p l a c e s ,  that  t r e a t as  of the  "one  ( J o h n s o n 1970:  familiarity  i n accordance with t h i s  expected he  units  of  in a  that  society other  c u l t u r e poses  Foremost  Thus,  fact  is culturally  the  particular  interviews  from the  in a  is a certain isolation."  may,  sociological/  Graham J o h n s o n e x p e r i e n c e d , t h a t  o n e ' s own  had  apparent.  distinct,  in  the  a community o f w h i c h he  one  with  community and  that  problems s p r i n g s  particularly  other  interviews  of conducting  problems o f c o n d u c t i n g r e s e a r c h one's own,  on  enough i n t h e  predicament  of these  rely  at t h i s  parteipant-observer One  to  freely;  i n others.  is  ways; he  may  In  some s o u r c e s  of  not.  with people  I can  t a l k to  also  -28-  presented me  as  p r o b l e m s . T h e s e were m o s t l y  a "little  boy."  Many o f them s i m p l y  difficult  to b e l i e v e that  instance,  r e m a r k : "Ikaw nga  that to  i s , "Is  the  process  end  up  And,  I realized definitely thought  that  lengthy  that this  i t was  community. B u t fact  p o s s i b l e , I was  my  stay  i n , the  fieldwork  mayor o f t h e  itself  knowledge only  and  persons  as  a  I was  my  "political  financial  my  would  out  substantive stay  l e a v e , and  part  I  in  the  whether i t  f o r the  cut  was  short  purpose  of  entails.  to  i n t e r v i e w were  t h r o u g h him,  being  usually  Nevertheless,  collect  find  I had  in  would  scheduled  least  now  And  indeed I  a l l what t h i s I felt  -  other  of the  the  municipal  community  problem.  mayor and  i n the  o f my  I could  - at  nai"  i n t e r v i e w i n g them.  gathering.  m u n i c i p a l i t y and,  Here, again,  conflicting  that  of s i t u a t i o n  " f o r c e d " to  community  Among t h e  The  was  o f me  kind  period  mo  for  y o u ' v e grown so much!"  p o s s i b l e to  even before  in  posed  laki-laki  interviews  data  still  i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h i n the  officials.  Ang  instead  s l o w down my  conducting  ba?  known  found i t  o f " w r i t i n g a book." T h e y , t h e n ,  conducted  had  grown. T h e y w o u l d ,  more u n b e l i e v a b l e  i n t e r v i e w i n g me,  they  I had  i t r e a l l y you? My,  some what was  p e o p l e who  family belong factions."  community  support  t h a t my  t o the  t o two  In f a c t ,  different  and  i t i s common  f a m i l y had  mayor's o p p o n e n t  given  not  i n the  last  -29-  election  but  had  Nevertheless, with  the  a l s o campaigned a c t i v e l y  after  the  e l e c t i o n s were o v e r ,  members o f t h e  other  h i m s e l f became c o r d i a l , available the  project.  of course,  Some p e o p l e f r o m my  wanted him  such  up  f o r an goal  so  easily.  t h a t we  met  I t was  and  look  my  asking  t o go  over  the  suspect use  that  them  f o r t h . But, I just  I  I did  had  c a s u a l l y on  "trust". This  the  against not  t o v/ait  s t a r t e d t o work t o w a r d  t a l k e d t o him  and  to  contrary.  j u s t a matter of time; then,  his "confidence"  into  that  could  so  be  said  I thought t h a t  o p p o r t u n e t i m e . I had  - having  to  would  important  o n l y make him  c o m i n g e l e c t i o n s , and  hope so  occasions. win  information  faction  permission  documents would  i n the  give  and  mayor  b e e n v/arned t o t h e  family's  mayor s u c h q u e s t i o n s  be  the  me  him.  our r e l a t i o n s  t h a t he  would a l l o w  d o c u m e n t s w h i c h may  I had,  municipal  f a c t i o n and  I then thought  f o r i n t e r v i e w and  municipal  against  that  several I would  t i m e , however, n e v e r  came • While involved the  I was  town p l a z a . He  was  f o r the box  community, t h e  mayor was  i n a f u n d - r a i s i n g p r o j e c t f o r the  from Cebu C i t y it  i n the  the  to  brought perform  proceeds  i n the  from the  beautification  office  to the  sales alone  show w h i c h he  p r o j e c t . He would not  improvement  community a municipal  be  deeply  c i r c u s group  gymnasium intended  realized,  of  and to  however,  sufficient  to  use that  raise  the  -30-  n e c e s s a r y amount. To to  this),  project.  he He  families, of  the  the  and  distributed  tickets  he  and/or f a m i l y ' s  certainly  the  family  (and  could  afford.  In  families  i n the  not  do  of  municipal  sold.  politicians  l e t t e r s and  are  not  be  used  standing people,  position  t h u s , how  individual  seem t o involved  for  the the  weeks a f t e r  received,  the  and  on  the  politics accept  a  collect.  and  of  graft  government.  fact,  i n them. I n my greater part improvement  then  however, does  prevalence  the  were  the  distribution,  i s sent to  less  mayor c o u l d  payment. He,  with  of  much i t  c o u l d , more o r  t i c k e t s , the  solicit  elaborate  common k n o w l e d g e t h a t will  Some two  amount the  social  note that  and,  i f an  to  the  and  The  community r e c e i v e d . T h e s e t i c k e t s  in Philippine  p e o p l e know, and  circus.  relative  to  for  individuals  much o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s  government c l e r k  corruption  was  t i c k e t s , he  p e r s o n a l l y . As  I need not  and  the  previous  support  f i n a n c i a l and  regard,  how  c o l l e c t and  this  to  i t s members) was this  always c o n s i d e r e d  expect to  a l w a y s done  mayor, knew j u s t what t h e  predict  distribution  had  is interesting  pesos worth of  accurately,  he  tickets  sent varied  community. I t  ten  (as  these l e t t e r s to  a c c o m p a n i e d by  every  say,  so  wrote form l e t t e r s s o l i c i t i n g  individual's in  do  of  that  The  their  community, of  the  the  money  i t is raised  town p l a z a  c l a i m e d . Nobody, h o w e v e r , w o u l d d a r e o p e n h i s  and  as  mouth a b o u t  -31-  it.  One  o f my  became t h e community  axe and  The  relatives,  t h a t l e d me do  fieldwork  d e c i s i o n was  b e c a u s e when t h i s over at  five  this  be  relations  . . Without  dispel  the  I had  an  aura  And,  involved  but  this  research.  point that  resources  and  only  faction  to  i t is essential  e m b a r k i n g on research  which c o u l d  take  that the  and  crucial  the  which i s  much o f  incident source  most o f t h o s e  e v e n t u a l l y l e d me  of  the  was  who  i s , his a l l i e s . to  the  had  t h e mayor h i m s e l f who  - that  "In  communication  . . It is  of t h i s  a l s o h i s f o l l o w e r s and  to h i s p o l i t i c a l  a l l over  o f communications  important  - f o r i t i s not  site  o b j e c t i v e s happen t o  on h i s own  However, I f e l t  o f f from an  information  research  i t i s t h i s aspect  time.  me  research  start  of legitimacy p r i o r to  researcher's  little  (1970» 15-16) once more:  establishment  to accomplish  blocked  only a  e x i s t i n g networks of  social  my  t o make p r i m a r i l y  t r a n s f e r to another  so d i f f i c u l t  was  e a s y one  to r e l y  with  to conduct  research."  belong  an  whatever the  r e s e a r c h e r has  impossible to  To  incident  another.  q u o t e Graham J o h n s o n  establish .  in  this  t o move f r o m  t i m e meant t h a t I w o u l d have t o  to achieve  the  not  to decide  i n c i d e n t happened  weeks l e f t .  a g a i n . To order  however, d i d . And,  It  d e c i s i o n to  move. After v i e w was  I had  made t h i s  w h e r e t o go.  d e c i s i o n , the  Considering  the  next  problem  t i m e I had  left,  in the  -32-  community  should  "be one where I w o u l d h a v e , more o r  less,  an easy time i n e s t a b l i s h i n g channels o f communication know o f someone who The  choice  approximately  43  municipality preliminary was to  could  fell  on K a b a c a n , a m u n i c i p a l i t y w h i c h i s f r o m M i d s a y a p . The mayor o f t h e  i s a close friend t a l k with  o f t h e f a m i l y . I had  him about t h e r e s e a r c h  e n t h u s i a s t i c about  closely  i t and e v e n o f f e r e d h i s p l a c e  important  also  block  only  what p o i n t s  being  o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n f o r me,  he  could  I decided  o v e r f i v e weeks o f  that  I would  h i s t o r y , g r o w t h , and  significant  of voluntary  focus  my  development  associations.  of interest  voluntary  in relation  were a p p a r e n t !  associations  t o what k i n d s  emerged  of social  and  circumstances,.  W o r k i n g on l o c a l facilitated  I stayed  t a l k with  i s to avoid  in  could  some q u e s t i o n s  and, s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  Since  experience  he  only a l i t t l e  on l o c a l  Parenthetically,  greatly  f o r me  t h e mayor f o r , w h i l e  a n d , s e c o n d , t h e emergence  political  o u t f o r now  He  others.  i n Kabacan,  attention  with  channels  Anticipating research  t o watch  identified  open  a  projecto  s t a y f o r t h e d u r a t i o n . I n r e t r o s p e c t o f my  too  at  facilitate i t .  kilometers  M i d s a y a p , what I had  or  him  h i s t o r y , g r o w t h , and d e v e l o p m e n t  f o r me  by t h e mayor o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y .  a t h i s h o u s e , I had ample on t h i s  was  aspect  opportunity  of the p r o j e c t . In  this  to  -33-  regard,  he became my  He a l s o  introduced  officials  me  important  to the other  and t o many o f t h o s e  "pioneers"  o f t h e community  s e t t l e r s . Through to  most  build-up  of  municipal  information.  government  whom he r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e  - that  interviews  source  with  i s , i t sfirst Christian these  people,  a workable p i c t u r e of the recent  I was  able  h i s t o r y of  Kabacan. Shortly after on t h i s  aspect  voluntary out by  I gained  a c e r t a i n amount  o f t h e community, I b e g a n w o r k i n g  a s s o c i a t i o n s . I thought t h a t  about t h e i r  associations  who  themselves*  In t h i s  the best  on t h e way  to  e m e r g e n c e , f o r m , and f u n c t i o n s was,  i n t e r v i e w i n g - those  associations  o f knowledge  regard,  a r e most f a m i l i a r w i t h  the presidents  I first  and/or  drew up a l i s t  i n t h e community, s i m p l y  find  again, the  founders.  of voluntary  by a s k i n g  people  since voluntary  a s s o c i a t i o n s i n the P h i l i p p i n e s are not  registered  t h e government as t h e y  in  with  Hongkong.  foremost  (See J o h n s o n 1970.) And t h e r e  among w h i c h was what v o l u n t a r y  I n any c a s e , named most  I s t a r t e d with  o f t e n . I thought  or consider  associations  those that  them t o b e , v o l u n t a r y  must be v o l u n t a r y interviewed  are, f o r instance,  informants  t h r o u g h t h e mayor  problems,  associations are.  a s s o c i a t i o n s which  people  i f people t h i n k they a r e , a s s o c i a t i o n s ; then,  a s s o c i a t i o n s . Again,  many o f my  were  I contacted  they  and  on t h e v o l u n t a r y  o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y and h i s  -34wife  (the  latter  for  those  associations  for  women,  especially)• The proper I  process  c o u l d be  thought  before  I  that  it  i n t e r v i e w would  precious  that  people  last  information  was  o n some  to  ten  make  it  This  appointments  a number  able  to  However,  appointments.  people  gather  interviewing  if  an I  For  example,  appointment knew t h a t  was n o t  the  infrequent  s l o w e d my w o r k meant  go t h r o u g h of  and  activities.  especially  and h a v i n g to  "wasting"  setting-up  s t i l l  missed!  almost  on the  a more  or  associations,  out  a  new So  day of  much my  less  detailed  of  total  a  of  twenty-five. Interviews,  information. however.  then,  They were  Living  i n the  "participant-observer" invaluable  source,  interaction able  -  long.  missed  which  I  interviews  only proper  even w h i l e t r y i n g u n t i l  departure,  over  to  for  time  appointment so  was  missed  considerably  setting-up  highly frustrating  talked  when p e o p l e  of  to  gain  with  community and what about.  was  only  five  an  important  for  it  was  knowledge the  as  one  of  in  a  -  t h r o u g h my  on l i f e  of  sources,  situations  people  sources  weeks  also  in different  for  important  the  community f o r  valuable life  my m o s t  b y n o means  in fact,  people  some  were  an daily  that  I  was  the  K a b a c a n was  a l l  CHAPTER THE  III  COMMUNITY: THE BACKGROUND  Kabacan i s a m u n i c i p a l i t y o f the p r o v i n c e one  o f over  second  a dozen provinces  largest  coincides with call  island  lowlands, upstream  o f Mindanao, t h e  o f t h e P h i l i p p i n e s . The whole  province  (1967)  t h e r e g i o n which Wernstedt and Spencer  Southwestern Mindanao. The  i n the island  o f Cotabato,  ( S e e F i g u r e I I I a n d Map I I )  m u n i c i p a l i t y i s l o c a t e d i n one o f t h e C o t a b a t o t h e Carmen B a s i n w h i c h , i n t u r n , i s l o c a t e d from t h e main Cotabato  c o r n e r o f Cotabato  Valley i n the northeastern  province. I t l i e s  a l o n g t h e major  trunk  system s e r v i n g t h e r e g i o n , t h e Cotabato-Davao N a t i o n a l H i g h w a y , a n d t h e p o b l a c i o n , o r town c e n t e r , i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 91 k i l o m e t e r s  from t h e C i t y  o f Cotabato,  the c a p i t a l  of the  province. Kabacan i s c r i s s c r o s s e d  by t h e P u l a n g i , Kabacan, and  Dalupuan r i v e r s which serve as i t s n a t u r a l d r a i n a g e . The terrain north  o f t h e Dalupuan r i v e r  i s h i l l y and  m o u n t a i n o u s , p a r t o f t h e C e n t r a l Mindanao H i g h l a n d s , good t i m b e r s itself,  abound. The s o u t h e r n  i s flat.  -35-  p o r t i o n , t h e Carmen  where Basin  * Table 2 , Census of Population, gives the name of each barrio. The /lumber near csch barrio symbol in the map correspond?, io the number -and name given for the same barrio for (hat municipality in said Table.  COTABATO (NORTHERN PART)  5 u  D E L  S  I  .' K I L O M E T E R S O ". 5 STATUTE  V  NILE5  LEGEND  \  Y  LOCATION NORTH  I Y  CITY. MUNICIPALITY . . . . . BARRIO* PROVINCIAL B O U N D A R Y . MUNICIPAL BOUNDARY —  7  \  \  •O^o' .: 1  • log  , .f**°  So,?*  COTABA.TO^CITY®-  u .1. «o -  "  \  „  35  Q  '  0  X,-  CARMEN^.,, \ 4?  19"Ol  - ^ o ^ 32  I'-/--  \ , , . © °/. °  Q  0  7  ° 0 4  \  • -  ,  45  0  Jo2  •. \  .  "l  -°c  ._ n ."v 0 I 3 2 0 ® 3 ---^jO ., " ' A  42  PA"|"o'  , 54  x  JDATUPIANG  -  \  "55 O *  40  IS  ' ° j '''"oil  2  2  TUMBAO  12  7  OM  47  '  n  IA  / ° PI6KAWAYA^ o,0 4 |  /  o ^  i •  o 4 3  A  io '  23  O" •« . s ° , ° "IT".** -  i-  4 5 "  _28  '» '• ^ K A B A C A N ° 3  . 0 O 612' ' 0>°_ o 15 3 3 3 5  0  0  " „o ° o"M  °i*  8  °4S  8  0 2  d "  1  39  \  O -  2  .-I -  ^  o»  o .--35  .0*0 0  3 7  •  I DAAFP A W A N il? * KKI D  :. i.  \  ^  '  -37-  Figure  III  Physiography of Southwestern  (Source* Wernstedt  and S p e n c e r I 9 6 7 :  5^3)  Mindanao  -38-  The name o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y , K a b a c a n , i s a M o s l e m w o r d whose r o o t i s p a g a t a c a n w h i c h means g r a n a r y o r , g e n e r a l l y , a p l a c e where one g e t s a n y t h i n g The r u l e r s  of the province  i n abundance.  d u r i n g t h e e a r l y days  shortened  t h e name t o K a b a c a n . T h e r e a r e o t h e r s , h o w e v e r , who s a y t h a t t h e name o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y o r i g i n a t e d f r o m t h e w o r d abaca. Abaca p l a n t s  (hemp) u s e d t o be g r o w n  a l o n g t h e Kabacan r i v e r . The f i r s t  abundantly  interpretation,  however,  i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y t h e more p o p u l a r o n e . K a b a c a n was c r e a t e d a m u n i c i p a l d i s t r i c t 1917  under Executive  o n M a r c h 8,  O r d e r No. 9 i s s u e d b y t h e t h e n A c t i n g  G o v e r n o r P o n c i a n o Reyes o f t h e Department o f Mindanao and S u l u , t h e government o f f i c e w h i c h a d m i n i s t e r e d I t was composed Pedtulasan. 1 8 , 19^7  o f t h e b a r r i o s o f K a t i d t u a n , T i m b a l o d , and  I t was c r e a t e d a r e g u l a r m u n i c i p a l i t y o n A u g u s t  by v i r t u e o f E x e c u t i v e  O r d e r No, 82 i s s u e d b y t h e  then P r e s i d e n t Manuel Roxas. I t s t e r r i t o r y municipal  the region.  districts  covered the  o f K a b a c a n , Carmen, L i t u b u d , and  B a n i s i l a n . P r e s i d e n t Ramon M a g s a y s a y , b y v i t r u e i s s u e d o n November 1 5 ,  executive  order  municipal  district  1956, c r e a t e d t h e  o f Carmen i n t o a r e g u l a r m u n i c i p a l i t y  and on December 29,  I96I,  the b a r r i o s o f Marbel, Kabacan and these  o f an  P r e s i d e n t C a r l o s P. G a r c i a  carved  Malamote, K i l a d a , and Kidama o u t o f  w e r e a n n e x e d t o t h e new m u n i c i p a l i t y o f  M a t a l a m . Due t o t h e s e , t h e l a n d a r e a  of the m u n i c i p a l i t y of  -39-  K a b a c a n has  been, r e d u c e d  to  i t s present  25,000 hectares,  I t i s now  whose p o p u l a t i o n  r a n g e f r o m 185  officially  approximate area  composed  o f 2k  (Salupangan) to  of  barrios  5» 77 2  (Poblacion). These r a p i d c i v i l has  been c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  twenty-six in  divisions  new  The indded  o f the whole p r o v i n c e  population  ( W e r n s t e d t and growth o f the  increase  resulting  S p e n c e r 1967*  initially  one  of sparse  19^3,  Christian  but  Philippines, migrants and  particularly  Filipinos,  outnumber t h e  of the  ratio  Filipinos population  now as  non-Christian and  other  original  is  that  the  groups  i n the  region,  with  uplands.  l a r g e numbers  so  of  t h a t now  Moslem s e t t l e r s .  of. the  these  (Wernstedt  5kk)  population  o f n e a r l y 20  considers  migrants coming from a l l p a r t s  Moslem F i l i p i n o s cent  555)  s i n c e ±9k$,  have moved i n t o t h e  S p e n c e r 1967:  from l a r g e - s c a l e  Moslem s e t t l e m e n t ,  a s c a t t e r i n g of non-Christian t r i b a l Since  19^8  since  S o u t h w e s t e r n Mindanao r e g i o n  p h e n o m e n a l e s p e c i a l l y when one  r e g i o n was  undergone  - where  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have been c r e a t e d  response to  migration.  t h a t K a b a c a n has  per  make up  tribal  of Cotabato cent  in i960,  s i n c e the  approximately  compared  35  c o n s t i t u t e d approximately  to only  35  per  groups l i v i n g  inaccessible territory  55  1939 per cent  i n the  per  a decrease  in  census. C h r i s t i a n cent  of  the  i n 1939. Tiruray  The Highlands  constituted nearly  9  per  -40-  cent  p o p u l a t i o n i n i 9 6 0 and. C h i n e s e  of the  "balance. T h u s , as W e r n s t e d t and have r e m a r k e d , "•  S o u t h w e s t e r n M i n d a n a o r e g i o n c a n be Philippine live  The by  the  one  financed  hopes  sites  the  by  the  settlement. earliest that  they  darkness  problem of congested  as  one  of  the  the  land settlement  I l o c o s c o a s t , and  lands  hostility  the  resettlement widespread  had  and  Spencer  settlers  to get  prevalence  the to  known  discourage  1967» 5 5 0 , 551)  The  o f Kabacan, f o r example,  launch,  the  stages,  of m a l a r i a ,  r e g i o n , and  to avoid being  particularly,  opening  p r o j e c t s were  under t h e i r mosquito nets  s e t i n so as  which navigated  of the  river  swarmed by  small crafts,  t h e S.  S.  in  Central  In i t s e a r l y  o f t h e Moslems combined  (Wernstedt  Christian  d u g o u t s , and  i n Cotabato.  inaccessibility  T h e y a l s o remember t h e  boat,  lowland  set i n motion  that  agricultural  imagined  pagan  n a t i o n a l government. I t f e l t  g e n e r a l l y a f a i l u r e . The  or  Moslem, and  I s l a n d s c o u l d r e c e i v e some b e n e f i t f r o m t h e  general  of  projects  government-sponsored  the  a sort  f o r a number o f r e s e t t l e m e n t  C e n t r a l Luzon, a l o n g the  o f new  viewed as  i n peace."  of the Cotabato  i n c r e a s i n g l y acute  Visayan  the  l a r g e waves o f m i g r a t i o n were f i r s t  selection  principal  sense  m e l t i n g p o t , where C h r i s t i a n ,  together?  the  (196?« 548-549)  Spencer  • i n a demographic  0  made up  Hall,  t o and  a  as  recall  soon  as  mosquitoes.  barge, flat-bottomed  from C o t a b a t o  City  -41-  and  were u s e d . t o  surplus  rice,  primary,  transport people,  c o r n , and  i f not  the  when t h e n a t i o n a l Cotabato  was  As  other produce.  highway l i n k i n g  1941,  by  t h a t would  It  arrived the  was  first  when t h e  o f Davao  island  1935  and  present,  B e t w e e n 1919  0  then  o f the Second World  g o v e r n m e n t made s e v e r a l  lands  link  and  between t h e s e  first  settlers.  S p e n c e r 19671 years  to  I t was  other barrios  became t h e - as  stay  f o r a year  they  had  the  Aringay,  o r two  areas  exact,  and  homeseekers  La Union,  and  settled  later  who  i n Aringay  t o be  settlers  springboard settlers  settlement 551)  i n 1921,  o f K a t i d t u a n which they  then  trunk  t o o when K a b a c a n r e c e i v e d  group of C h r i s t i a n  i n Kabacan from  and  War  attempts  o f M i n d a n a o more a t t r a c t i v e  the major c i t i e s  (Wernstedt  migrant  barrio  Aringay  cities  embarking upon the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f major  Mindanao.  its  the  of h o s t i l i t i e s  the n a t i o n a l  settlers  their  population increased at a rate considerably less  toward making the  of  were  the  constructed.  the beginnning  roads  rivers  o n l y , means o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n u n t i l  than t h a t of o t h e r p a r t s of the  in  The  much o f  l o n g a s t h e a b o v e m e n t i o n e d d e t e r r e n t s were  Cotabato's  and  s u p p l i e s , and  renamed  in  Aringay.  f o r the  founding  arrived  later  had  to  settling  the  lands  before  of  acquired.  Before Luzon a r r i v e d  the  first  i n 1921,  group o f C h r i s t i a n homeseekers t h e r e were V i s a y a n s  from  working f o r the  -42-  R i o Grande Rubber E s t a t e Company. There were a l s o a few Chinese t r a d e r s who were engaged i n t h e b u y i n g and s e l l i n g o f r i c e , c o r n , c o p r a , and o t h e r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s . The Moslems who were t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e a r e a b e f o r e t h e C h r i s t i a n s began t o a r r i v e , s o l d t h e i r l a n d t o t h e l a t t e r and moved out o f t h e town c e n t e r . M e n t i o n has a l r e a d y been made o f t h e a c u t e problem o f congested  l a n d s e t t l e m e n t a l o n g t h e I l o c o s c o a s t and o t h e r  p a r t s o f Luzon and t h e V i s a y a n i s l a n d s and t h e n a t i o n a l government's e f f o r t s t o encourage o u t - m i g r a t i o n i n t o t h e s p a r s e l y p o p u l a t e d r e g i o n s o f C o t a b a t o . The C h r i s t i a n s who came t o Kabacan, t h e n , d i d s o , as one i n f o r m a n t puts i t , " i n s e a r c h o f g r e e n e r p a s t u r e s . " The n a t i o n a l government p r o v i d e d f r e e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and f o o d up t o t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n . They came i n groups composed p r i m a r i l y o f f r i e n d s , r e l a t i v e s , and townmates. The husbands and male members o f t h e f a m i l y u s u a l l y came f i r s t and a f t e r they had a c q u i r e d a p a r c e l o f l a n d t o farm, t h e y f e t c h e d t h e r e s t o f t h e i r f a m i l y members. A g a i n , f r e e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and food up t o t h e d e s t i n a t i o n were p r o v i d e d by t h e n a t i o n a l government. These e a r l i e s t s e t t l e r s had t o s t a r t  from  s c r a t c h . And, t o make t h e b r i e f p e r i o d o f p i o n e e r l i f e d i f f i c u l t , they h e l p e d each o t h e r b u i l d houses and t i l l the  farms. The importance  o f the v a r i o u s attempts t o a t t r a c t  less  -43-  settlers  to  government who  the  subsidies l i e s  participated  stimulus  these  migrations.  i n the  first  resettlement  not  i n the  i n the  demonstrated t h a t the pionner  life  individual  was  not  r e g i o n was t o be  more f o l l o w e d t h e m  following  Table  census  IV t  0  safe to  But  initial  occupy,  considerable be  551) two  these  t h a t the  T h i s g r o w t h may  people  that rewards  of  sacrifice  seen i n  the  figurest  Population  o f K a b a c a n , 1903  Year  Population  1903 1918 1939 1948 I960 1970  78 5,394 8,659 13,119 21,043 23,293  Sources:  more t h a n  i n 1921.  f e a r e d , and  land ownership merited  Filipinos  S p e n c e r 1967«  K a b a c a n , i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e r e were no came t o s e t t l e  voluntary  expense s i n c e the  ( W e r n s t e d t and  people  tremendous  hundreds o f thousands o f  programs„  through  a c t u a l numbers o f  programs but  t o Mindanao a t t h e i r  d o z e n s f a m i l i e s who  and  o f S o u t h w e s t e r n Mindanao  p r o j e c t s gave t o subsequent  Literally  have m i g r a t e d  To  empty l a n d s  -  1970  Percentage  -  Increase  7000 60 51 60 10  C e n s u s o f t h e P h i l i p p i n e s I 9 6 0 : P o p u l a t i o n and H o u s i n g . Volume I , R e p o r t by P r o v i n c e , C o t a b a t o , p 2$ C e n s u s o f t h e P h i l i p p i n e s 1970. Advance R e p o r t No. 22, C o t a b a t o , p. 1. 0  -44-  Regarding the f i g u r e s i n t h e above t a b l e , i t i s important t o note t h a t the 1948 f i g u r e i n c l u d e s t h e population Libpas,  o f the b a r r i o s o f Carmen, K i l a d a , Limayong,  and Malapog which were t r a n s f e r r e d t o the  municipality  o f Carmen i n 1 9 5 6 , I n a d d i t i o n , the i 9 6 0  figure s t i l l  includes  the combined p o p u l a t i o n  of the  b a r r i o s o f Kidama, K i l a d a , Malamote, and Marbel which became p a r t o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y o f Matalam on December 2 9 , 1961,  Thus, t h r growth o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y  population  i s , i n f a c t , greater  i n terms o f  than what t h e fugures i n  the t a b l e show. A p p r o x i m a t e l y 70 p e r cent o f the people o f Kabacan are  Ilocanosj  Ilongos, up  20 per cent a r e Moslems, Combined, Cebuanos,  T a g a l o g s , and o t h e r e t h n o - l i n g u i s t i c groups make  10 per cent o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n .  As i s t h e case w i t h t h e  r e s t o f t h e P h i l i p p i n e s , t h e C h r i s t i a n s a r e predominantly Roman C a t h o l i c , There a r e , however, o t h e r C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o u s sects Kristo the  i n t h e community» M e t h o d i s t , I g l e s i a n i  (Church o f C h r i s t ) , the United  Church o f C h r i s t i n  P h i l i p p i n e s , and Seventh Day A d v e n t i s t s ,  this distribution.  T a b l e V shows  -45-  Table  Vt  Religious A f f i l i a t i o n  of the Population,  Number Roman C a t h o l i c Protestant  9,414 3.411  Aglipayan Iglesia n i Kristo Moslem Others Total  1.299  Sources  Percentage  45 16 6 2 28 3 100  416 5.918 585 21,043  farming  corn, rubber,  i s t h e main vegetables,  occupation and o t h e r  grown a b u n d a n t l y .  A small percentage  i n t h e government  s e r v i c e - as t e a c h e r s  example. few  % % # io % % %  C e n s u s o f t h e P h i l i p p i n e s i960: P o p u l a t i o n a n d H o u s i n g . Vol-. I , R e p o r t b y P r o v i n c e , C o t a b a t o , p . 1?  Rice but  I96Q  Aside  employment  even those  f r o m t h e government o p p o r t u n i t i e s open  who a r e r e g u l a r l y  of the people;  food  crops  are also  of the population i s and c l e r k s , f o r  service,  there are very  i n t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y . And  employed,  s t o r e owners, and  those  i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n s do some f a r m i n g  their  i n c o m e s . I n d u s t r i e s i n t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y a r e s m a l l and  designed  t o serve  l o c a l needs. They  s h o p s w h i c h make f u r n i t u r e ,  4,300  Around receive  their  hectares  source  hollow  t o supplement  include  b l o c k s , and lumber.  o f t h e farm  o f i r r i g a t i o n water  lands  has r e s u l t e d  was l a r g e l y  i n increased productivity  responsible f o r the r i s e  i n Kabacan  from t h e N a t i o n a l  I r r i g a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , the establishment 1969  family-operated  o f which i n and, i n t u r n ,  o f Kabacan  from a  -46-  fifth  c l a s s m u n i c i p a l i t y i n 1947 to a t h i r d  m u n i c i p a l i t y i n 1969» w i t h an annual  class  income o f 245,000  pesos. I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s i r r i g a t i o n system of t h e N a t i o n a l I r r i g a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h e r e a r e t h r e e communal i r r i g a t i o n systems o p e r a t i n g i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y . Combined, they i r r i g a t e an a d d i t i o n a l 700 h e c t a r e s o f farm  lands.  These communal i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t s were s t a r t e d by t h e P r e s i d e n t i a l Arm on Community Development, S i n c e 1964, however, a l l t h r e e have been turned over to the b a r r i o s and have s i n c e then been managed by the b a r r i o The resulted  establishment  councils.  o f these i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t s  i n i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i v i t y s i n c e they made i t  p o s s i b l e f o r farmers  t o p l a n t two crops a y e a r . Other  f a c t o r s i n s t r u m e n t a l t o t h e growth i n a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i v i t y i n c l u d e t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f new h i g h - y i e l d i n g v a r i e t i e s o f r i c e , t h e use o f i n s e c t i c i d e s , modern farming methods, t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f modern, mechanized implements l i k e t r a c t o r s and t h r e s h e r s , and the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f c r e d i t facilities• Kabacan has become an important the p r o v i n c e s i n c e t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t  educational center of of the state-run  Mindanao I n s t i t u t e o f Technology i n 1954. The i n s t i t u t e o f f e r s courses  i n a g r i c u l t u r e , a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n , home  economics, i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n , a g r i c u l t u r a l  engineering,  elementary  production  e d u c a t i o n , t e c h n i c a l t r a d e , rubber  -47-  and farm mechanics. I n 1 9 7 1 i t h e i n s t i t u t e had  technology, a student  population  There  i s , however, added p r e s t i g e f o r b e i n g  send a c h i l d are w i l l i n g sell  of 2,301.  f o r a college education to sacrifice  some p r o p e r t y ,  - spend  elsewhere and parents  s a v i n g s , mortgage o r even  o r b o r r o w - t o be a b l e t o s e n d a c h i l d  to g r e a t e r urban educational s e t t i n g s , l i k e Cebu C i t y ,  o r even M a n i l a  Aside other  high  Davao  City,  for schooling.  from t h e Mindanao I n s t i t u t e school  able t o  i n the poblacion  o f Technology, the  i s t h e N o t r e Dame o f  K a b a c a n w h i c h was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1 9 5 6 . I t s t a r t e d o u t a s a p a r o c h i a l s c h o o l under t h e d i r e c t parish  priest.  religious  congregation  administration  Institute  attend  o f N o t r e Dame, a  f o r women, t o o k o v e r t h e  o f the school. In 1971.  o f Technology a l s o operates of the upper-class  i t had a  families  a high  student t h e Mindanao  school,  o f t h e community  t h e N o t r e Dame s c h o o l . Every  (grades  b a r r i o i n Kabacan has a t l e a s t  a primary  school  1 t o 4 ) » a s u b s t a n t i a l number have a c o m p l e t e  elementary high  the Oblates  o f around 450 boys and g i r l s . While  population  children  In i960,  supervision of the  school  (grades  1 t o 6 ) ; some e v e n have b a r r i o  s c h o o l s . T h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows t h e e d u c a t i o n a l  attainment  o f the population o f the m u n i c i p a l i t y .  -48-  Table  VI: E d u c a t i o n a l Attainment  o f the  Percent  Number No  Grade  10,729 5,402 3,328 School,  Completed  Elementary, 1 to 5 Elementary, 6, to High  j High School Graduate C o l l e g e Graduate Total  51% 26% 16%  1,584  to  7%  21,043  Population  i960  Population,  100%  S o u r c e : C e n s u s o f t h e P h i l i p p i n e s 1960» P o p u l a t i o n and H o u s i n g . Volume 1 , R e p o r t by P r o v i n c e , C o t a b a t o , p. 1 3 .  The the  population  of Kabacan, i n i 9 6 0 ,  g r a d e a t a l l . However, 5 9 . 7 years  o f age  and  over,  per  are  d i d not  cent  at l e a s t  of  81.5  (Koronadal) The municipal called  the  highest  lowest,  p o b l a c i o n which government as  the  commemorate t h e v i s i t  a r e a was  the  district  made by  cent  Osias  the  was  seat  and  of  the  formerly Second  i t to  to the  o f K a b a c a n was 1947  figure  (Tumbao).  b a r r i o renamed  18,  10  cent  outbreak o f the  of Senator  any  population,  per  p r e v i o u s l y noted,  r e g u l a r m u n i c i p a l i t y on A u g u s t the  per  of  other m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  i s , among o t h e r s ,  r e s i d e n t s of the  When t h e m u n i c i p a l  of  being  22.6  B a r r i o Sayugan. B e f o r e  W o r l d War, to  and  - the  cent  l i t e r a t e . This the  province  per  complete  of the  f a r e s q u i t e w e l l i n comparison with the  50  a b o v e t a b l e shows t h a t more t h a n  barrio.  created after a  the Bureau of Lands, the  Osias,  a survey  seat  of  -49-  t h e m u n i c i p a l government was name was  e s t a b l i s h e d i n Osias which  l a t e r changed t o P o b l a c i o n . To r e t a i n the name o f  B a r r i o O s i a s , a s e t t l e m e n t about a k i l o m e t e r e a s t o f t h e p o b l a c i o n was  c a l l e d Barrio Osias.  I t i s i n the p o b l a c i o n where the C a t h o l i c p a r i s h church, the p i l o t elementary  s c h o o l , t h e Mindanao I n s t i t u t e  o f T e c h n o l o g y , the N o t r e Dame o f Kabacan, and t h e m u n i c i p a l h a l l a r e l o c a t e d . A t p r e s e n t , however, the mayor and  other  m u n i c i p a l o f f i c i a l s h o l d o f f i c e i n the bus t e r m i n a l b u i l d i n g i n t h e market p l a c e w h i l e a w a i t i n g the o f a new  completion  m u n i c i p a l b u i l d i n g b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d . The  other  government o f f i c e s t h o u g h , l i k e the B u r e a u o f I n t e r n a l Revenue, t h e Post O f f i c e , and the Bureau o f H e a l t h , c o n t i n u e t o occupy the o l d m u n i c i p a l b u i l d i n g . W h i l e t h e r e a r e s t o r e s t o be found a l l o v e r  the  p o b l a c i o n - s t o r e s s e l l i n g f o o d , c l o t h i n g , hardware, and medicines  - many a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the market. The  market  i s open e v e r y day but on s o - c a l l e d market d a y s , Sundays and Thursdays, i t i s b u s i e r than a l l o t h e r s . I t i s d u r i n g these days when vendors from o t h e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s come. More people  from t h e b a r r i o s too come t o the p o b l a c i o n d u r i n g  t h e s e d a y s . I t i s u s u a l l y a m u l t i - p u r p o s e t r i p t h a t the b a r r i o people t a k e : t o s e l l c h i c k e n s and v e g e t a b l e s ; t o s a l t , canned goods, d r i e d f i s h , k e r o s e n e , and o t h e r w h i c h a r e not a v a i l a b l e o r a r e more e x p e n s i v e  buy  items  i n the b a r r i o ;  -50-  to  see  the  official;  doctor, dentist, to v i s i t  pohlacionj  lawyer,  f r i e n d s and  to recreate}  and  so  or a  relatives  private  barrios,  people  people  travel  is available  f o r by  nearby  tricycles  for travel  jeepney  are a c c e s s i b l e ;  few  are  stop. Privately  limited  to the  otherwise,  owned a u t o m o b i l e s  upper-class families  and  t o more  carabao-drawn c a r r i a g e s or s i m p l y walk t o  nearest and  i s provided  by means o f m o t o r i z e d  b a r r i o s where t h e r o a d s use  i n the  c o m p a n i e s . W i t h i n t h e p o b l a c i o n and  c a l e s a s . Jeepney s e r v i c e distant  residing  forth.  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n between p o b l a c i o n e s large  government  the  are  of  very  the  municipality. Many f a m i l i e s access  transistorized  r a d i o s o r have  t o them - t h a t i s , t h e i r n e i g h b o r s ' .  become a v a i l a b l e own  own  television  can a f f o r d afford  f r o m Davao C i t y  s e t s . One  t o buy  t o buy  them. On  reason  poblacion  i s provided  from  the  them g i v e t h e  important  limited  reason  f o r not  early  f o r by  h o w e v e r , l e a v e s much t o be  for this  Television hut  few  i s that very  few  electric  i s very  low.  one  power i n t h e  a cooperative. Service i s  until  e a r l y m o r n i n g . The  d e s i r e d . The  generator  w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n , more o f t e n t h a n n o t . A l s o , t h e generated  can  power p r o b l e m a s  s o . The  has  very  o t h e r h a n d , t h o s e who  electric  doing  evening  s i n c e 1971?  easy  Moreover, i t i s very  D a i l y newspapers a r e a v a i l a b l e  i n the  service,  i s not  in  power  expensive. p o b l a c i o n . These  -51-  are  flown from M a n i l a t o Cotabato C i t y  brought  t o t h e community by  The is  broad  outline  a town c e n t e r ,  and  are, in turn,  bus.  I have s k e t c h e d i n t h i s  the p o b l a c i o n ,  surrounding a r e a , the b a r r i o s ,  of  chapter  o f 5,000 people s e r v i n g 16,000.  The m a j o r a c t i v i t y o f t h i s c o m p l e x i s t h e p r o d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f o o d . O t h e r m a j o r e n t e r p r i s e s a r e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and e d u c a t i o n . I n s p i t e o f the busy round o f a c t i v i t y , t h e w h o l e p i c t u r e i s one o f s u b s i s t e n c e marketing i n which i n d i v i d u a l s s e e k enough t o c a r r y them t h r o u g h t h e d a y . T h e r e i s v i r t u a l l y no s a v i n g o r g r o w t h i n t h e s e e n t e r p r i s e s . ( G u t h r i e 1 9 7 0 i 27)  a  Plate  Hi  The  Catholic  Parish  Church  -53-  Plate  IVt  A  Barrio  School  Plate VIi  Another view  of the  Market  -55-  Plate V i l l i  A T r a c t o r A l o n g the  Market  Road  -56-  -57-  Plate XIIi  Horse-drawn C a r r i a g e s  (Kalesas)  Plate  XIVJ  Tricycles  CHAPTER CULTURE AND  No d i s c u s s i o n municipality account the is  The  and is  aspects  Alliance  associations  social  taking  and s o c i a l  organization  of the present  our purposes, a relevant Philippine culture  one w h i c h L y n c h  chapter.  (1959)  model t o u s e i n v i e w i n g and s o c i a l  has f o r m u l a t e d  organization  and c a l l e d t h e  system," A l t h o u g h t h e model i s based  data gathered  from a d i f f e r e n t a r e a ,  L u z o n , i t c a n be a p p l i e d  world are  defined  by v a r i o u s  involved i n  (1964» 19-20) f i r s t p o s i t s t h e  o f segmentation which s t i p u l a t e s t h a t  i s divided  empirical  t o Kabacan as w e l l .  a l l i a n c e system, Lynch  principle  on  the B i k o l region i n  In d e f i n i n g the s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s the  into  s t r u c t u r e . An a n a l y s i s o f  of the culture i s the task  without  i n the  System  discussing  "alliance  ORGANIZATION  o f Kabacan i s p o s s i b l e  necessary. This  For  SOCIAL  of voluntary  t h e community's  crucial  IV  criteria  either absolutely  -59-  the s o c i a l  i n t o segments. Segments  or i n r e l a t i o n to the  -60-  i n d i v i d u a l . For instance,  an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  k i n s m e n f o r m one segment?  h i s a f f i n e s another.  speakers  consanguineal Neighbors,  o f t h e same m o t h e r t o n g u e , and members o f t h e same  religious  group c o n s t i t u t e  still  o t h e r segments t h a t a r e  r e c o g n i z e d . T h e s e , h o w e v e r , do n o t e x h a u s t a l l t h e possibilities evident that  of affiliation.  e a c h i n d i v i d u a l i s a member o f many d i f f e r e n t  segments. While  l o y a l t y to the kindred  enjoined, actual  segments w h i c h  i s normatively  interaction i s not confined  k i n s m e n . On t h e c o n t r a r y ,  preferential  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i t i s  include  interactors  exclusively, to  come f r o m  different  n o n - k i n s m e n . On a c o n s c i o u s  judgement on an i n t e r a c t o r  level,  a  r e f l e c t i n g segmental  l o y a l t y may be e x p r e s s e d b y a r e m a r k s u c h a s "He i s my relative" Out  o r "We  are neighbors,"  o f a number o f i n d i v i d u a l s who h a v e shown m u t u a l  preference  f o r e a c h o t h e r a s i n t e r a c t o r s , a new g r o u p  then  emerges whose members a r e bound b y e m o t i o n a l t i e s o f closenessi To be c l o s e i s t o be on i n t i m a t e t e r m s , f r i e n d l y , a f f e c t i o n a t e , a t t e n t i v e , and a c t i v e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n each o t h e r . I t i s the q u a l i t y o f a good f r i e n d . I t s o p p o s i t e i s t o be d i s t a n t , w h i c h s u g g e s t s a c o o l n e s s o f f e e l i n g b e t w e e n t h e two, o r u n f r i e n d l i n e s s , u n e a s i n e s s , d i s i n t e r e s t , and perhaps even complete estrangement, whether the persons be b l o o d r e l a t i v e s o r n o t , ( L y n c h 1959» 53) Emotional t i e s a r e , i n turn, interaction  m a i n t a i n e d by f r e q u e n t  and b y e x c h a n g e o f f a v o r s  i n goods and  services  -61-  among members. T h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e governed by a s e e - s a w i n g "debt i n s i d e o n e s e l f " r e c i p r o c i t y . From t h e viewpoint  o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n t h i s group, t h e members a r e  "one's a l l i e s .  . . t h e p e o p l e one c a n count on." Hence,  L y n c h a p p r o p r i a t e l y c a l l s t h e group t h e a l l i a n c e  system.  T h i s model o f t h e a l l i a n c e system c a n be a p p l i e d t o Kabacan a s w e l l . K i n s h i p p r o v i d e s t h e p r i m a r y u n i v e r s e which a l l i e s a r e s e l e c t e d ; f o r the strong c u l t u r a l  from  emphasis  on l o y a l t y t o t h e k i n group i s complemented by r e s i d e n c e norms and p a t t e r n s t h a t f a v o r an i n d w e l l i n g extended kindred. But, the b i l a t e r a l kinship structure creates o v e r l a p p i n g k i n s h i p t i e s among a g r e a t number o f i n h a b i t a n t s i n t h e community and s m a l l e r g r o u p i n g s w h i c h d e v e l o p must be r a t i o n a l i z e d on o t h e r b a s e s . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e same p r i n c i p l e s open up membership i n t h e a l l i a n c e s y s t e m t o non-kinsmen. And, W h i l e t h e b o u n d a r i e s between k i n and f a m i l y , and k i n and n o n - k i n , may be c l e a r l y demarcated, t h e y a r e n o t a b s o l u t e i n t h e sense t h a t t h e y do n o t a l w a y s c o v e r t h e same range i n t h e f o r m e r case and t h a t k i n s h i p models may be used f o r f r i e n d s h i p r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the l a t t e r . For example, c l o s e r e l a t i v e s c a n be d e f i n e d t o i n c l u d e o r e x c l u d e d i f f e r e n t ranges o f c o u s i n s , some p e o p l e d r a w i n g t h e l i n e a t t h e f i r s t c o u s i n range and o t h e r s a t second c o u s i n s . I n t h e c o n t e x t o f f r i e n d s h i p t i e s , some f r i e n d s a r e l i k e ' b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s . ' What t h i s means i n o p e r a t i o n i s t h a t t h e r e i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f f l e x i b i l i t y i n t h e mode o f r e c o g n i t i o n o f b o t h k i n s h i p and f r i e n d s h i p t i e s . ( J a c o b s o n , n . d . t 36-37)  -62-  By the  t h e same p r i n c i p l e s , t h e l o w e r - c l a s s  individual  seeking  favor,  assistance,  and p r o t e c t i o n , o f t h e w e a l t h y  individual  i s provided  with a consciously  culturally  approved r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n f o r . p r e f e r r i n g the  wealthy  i n d i v i d u a l as an  In  other  palatable,  ally.  words, an i n d i v i d u a l forms h i s a l l i a n c e  s y s t e m s by s e l e c t i n g f r o m among t h o s e a l r e a d y by  "bonds o f k i n s h i p , r i t u a l  reciprocal,  kinship  or associational t i e s , "  Some o f t h e s e w i l l  be d i s c u s s e d  j o i n e d t o him  (compadrazgo), ( H o l l n s t e i n e r 1963«  further  83)  below.  Kinship In  the P h i l i p p i n e s , descent  w h i c h means t h a t  a Filipino  both h i s father's a vast  recognizes  r e l a t i o n s h i p s v/ith  a n d m o t h e r ' s c o n s a n g u i n e k i n . T h u s , he h a s  another kinship  s e t as h i s w i f e ' s  as w e l l , and v i c e - v e r s a  further  9  r e l a t i v e s become  and h i s number o f r e l a t i v e s i s  augmented,  Filipinos  inculcate a strong  which s p r e a d s beyond t h e n u c l e a r c h i l d r e n . Family  obligations  removed and t o i n - l a w s . the  reckoned  number o f r e l a t i v e s . When he g e t s m a r r i e d , he  acquires his  is bilaterally  family  extend  The t i e s  sense  of family loyalty o f p a r e n t s and  t o cousins  several  a r e j u s t as s t r o n g  whether  r e l a t i o n s h i p i s t h r o u g h m a l e s o r f e m a l e s . No o n e ,  alonej  rather,  each stands ready t o g i v e  or receive  times  thus,  help  -63-  f r o m t h e members o f t h a t It system  g r o u p when he r e c k o n s h i s f a m i l y .  i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e , however, t h a t  i sflexible,  relatives  that  the relationships  e s p e c i a l l y , may be i m p l e m e n t e d  individual  c h o o s e s . Among  that  t h e o b l i g a t i o n system  With  distant  implementing it  alive,  close  the kinship  among  distant  o r n o t as the  r e l a t i v e s , i ti s expected  o p e r a t e more o r l e s s  rigorously.  r e l a t i v e s , however, t h e r e i s a c h o i c e o f o r n o t implementing  so t o speak,  As H o l l n s t e i n e r  (1963*  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p ; making  or leaving 68)  i t i na sort  o f limbo.  writes:  In a system o f b i l a t e r a l d e s c e n t , t h e i n d i v i d u a l c a n t r a c e a b l o o d r e l a t i o n s h i p t o s o many p e o p l e t h a t t o c a r e e q u a l l y a b o u t a l l o f them becomes i m p o s s i b l e . He must draw a l i n e somwhere a n d s e l e c t c o n s c i o u s l y o r u n c o n s c i o u s l y t h o s e among h i s r e l a t i v e s w i t h whom he v / i l l a s s o c i a t e c l o s e l y . T h o s e whom he c h o o s e s become members o f h i s a l l i a n c e Lynch  (19581  he w r i t e s :  16)  expresses t h i s s e l e c t i v i t y  "Relatives  very well  are important, but t h e i r  group. when  importance  is relative." C'ompadrazgo  v  C'ompadrazgo relationships  " d e s i g n a t e s t h e p a r t i c u l a r complex o f  s e t up between i n d i v i d u a l s p r i m a r i l y ,  not  always, through baptism."  the  relationships  who  i s t o be b a p t i z e d ,  ( M i n t z and Wold  a r e s e t up when p a r e n t s o f a  though  1950) B r i e f l y , child  confirmed, or married ask c e r t a i n  -64-  adults  to  is  most  the  act  as  the  important  marriage,  second.  About  situation  the  Foster  child's  (1953*.  event  sponsor i n terms  Confirmation is of  the  for of  the  event.  Baptism  compadrazgo  relatively  and  unimportant.  institution in Latin  America,  writes*  167)  T h e c o m p l e x i t y o f c o m p a d r a z g o i n t h e New W o r l d surpasses t h a t o f S p a i n , and appears i n v e r y c o n s i d e r a b l e measure t o be t h e r e s u l t o f l o c a l e l a b o r a t i o n t o meet f e l t n e e d s i n t h e emergent s o c i a l structure of Post-Conquest America. The  statement  compadrazgo  might  i n the  According sponsors  or  that  child  the  equally apply to  traditional Christian teaching,  godparents  at  raised  baptism are as  a C h r i s t i a n i n the  s h o u l d happen  aspect  compadrazgo,  however,  seems t o  i n Kabacan?  although  the  understood to  provide the  universally not  as  besides are  child's  present  used  describe to  terminology  parents.  is  these  by  role  is  doctrinal  obligation  the  sponsors  other. kinds  one  parties  another. to  of  dyads  godparent-  used The  is  Thus,  terminology is  that  almost  three  and  sure  poorly  each  Special  make  event  godparent-godchild,  relationships  the  be  of  of  relationship,  i n addressing used  This  clothes  major  godparent-godparent.  them  of  the  to  godparents'  co-parents  i n compadrazgo:  and  parties  The  as  parent-child  parent, to  but  his  baptismal  articulated.  godparents, the  to  supposed  something of  development  Philippines.  to  is  the  /  by  is the  same  a marriage  compadrazgo  -65-  relationship. A t "baptism,  there are usually  m a l e and one f e m a l e . A t m a r r i a g e , Although  Catholic  practice  just  two s p o n s o r s , one  there are several  sponsors.  does n o t p r o v i d e f o r s p o n s o r s a t  w e d d i n g s , t h e i d e a o f s p o n s o r s h i p seems t o have e x t e n d e d witnesses the  (1963*  so t h a t , as H o l l n s t e i n e r  " w e d d i n g makes t h e w i t n e s s - c o u p l e  godparent-godchild." sixteen  of these  65)  to  points out,  relationship  that of  T h e r e c a n "be a s many a s t w e l v e t o  sponsors, although  s i x or eight  i s more  common, u s u a l l y d i v i d e d "between t h e s e x e s . Hollnsteiner system  (1963*  i n the Philippines  means o f f o r m a l i z i n g for  bringing  closer  grouping,  extreme c a r e  states  that  p r o v i d e s an  a friendship  institutionalized  between s t a t u s e q u a l s o r  incorporating a non-relative into  one i s i n e f f e c t  i n one's d e a l i n g s w i t h t h a t  would w i t h a s o c i a l l y  close  The godparent  relative."  a s one  T h i s holds  true f o r  i n g i v i n g the  unity.  co-parent  relationship  i n both  and g o d p a r e n t - g o d p a r e n t ,  like  c a n be e x t e n d e d . T h u s , a c o - p a r e n t ' s f a r as t h i r d  individual,  i n h i s presence  K a b a c a n where compadrazgo p l a y s a r o l e social  one's  d i s p e n s i n g w i t h t h e need f o r  a l l o w i n g a more r e l a x e d a t t i t u d e  community  " t h e compadre  t o g e t h e r s p o n s o r s , o f h i g h and l o w  s t a t u s . By v i r t u a l l y kin  70)  cousins" are potential  i t s forms,  parent-  kin relationships,  k i n extedning co-parents  out "as  o r compadres,  -66-  showing t h a t has  selectivity  e n t e r s - i n among c o n s a n g u i n e  b e e n d i s c u s s e d a b o v e . As i n t h e c a s e  those  persons  o t h e r way The  must be a v a i l a b l e  i n order to activate selection  k i n as  of k i n relationships  as n e i g h b o r s  o r i n some  the r e l a t i o n s h i p .  of co-parents  i s not r e s t r i c t e d  to the  community b u t r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o n e ' s c o - p a r e n t s w i t h i n i t a r e more i n t e n s i v e compadrazgo t i e s people  and a r e c o n s i d e r e d more i m p o r t a n t . T h e  w i t h i n t h e community a r e g e n e r a l l y  o f more o r l e s s  e q u a l s t a t u s . The p e o p l e  community a r e more a p t t o a s k a f a v o r i t e sister, less  or cousin, or a close  t h e same a g e a n d s o c i a l  baptism  o f the  kinsman - a b r o t h e r ,  f r i e n d , neighbor status  between  o f more o r  - t o be t h e s p o n s o r a t  t h a n t o a s k t h e l a n d l o r d o r some o t h e r  influential  person. F o r w e d d i n g s , h o w e v e r , t h e r e i s more o f a t e n d e n c y t o a s k n o n - k i n and p e r s o n s be  o f h i g h e r s t a t u s and i n f l u e n c e t o  the sponsors. T h i s bear  that  marriage  that  o f the parents of the b r i d a l  baptismal  sponsors  out Arce's  sponsors  usually  ( I 9 6 I : 26)  come f r o m a c l a s s pair,  findings higher  than  i n contrast to  who may be o f e q u a l o r s u p e r o r d i n a t e  status. The  godparents  except, perhaps,  has few o b l i g a t i o n s  to give the c h i l d  wedding p r e s e n t . The c h i l d to  towards t h e c h i l d  Christmas  p r e s e n t s and a  a l s o h a s few o b l i g a t i o n s  show r e s p e c t t o h i s g o d p a r e n t s  a n d t o pay them a  except visit  -67-  at  Christmast  can  i f they a r e a v a i l a b l e . Co-parents,  he c a l l e d  When t h e r e  upon t o do f a v o r s  i s a difference  however,  a n d t h e y must n o t r e f u s e .  i n status,  there  i s a tendency  toward  e x p l o i t a t i o n . When t h e p a r t i e s  status  " e x p l o i t a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p does n o t l u r k so  p r o m i n e n t l y as i t does treatment  isstill  reciprocal  favors  expected tend  19631  (Hollnsteiner  i n cross-class  a r e o f t h e same  compadrazgo.  Special  o f each o t h e r , hut the p o t e n t i a l  t o he more o r l e s s  o f t h e same  type."  70)  Reciprocity Another r e l a t i o n s h i p which p r o v i d e s a v e h i c l e important, close, the  and e n d u r i n g l i n k s  i t as an o p e r a t i o n a l  s o c i e t y and H o l l n s t e i n e r  loob. this  important  important general,  principle i n Philippine  quasi-contractual,  Because o f i t s immediate t h e s i s , only  (1964; 1970)  (1964; 1970) e n u m e r a t e s t h r e e  t y p e s , namely, c o n t r a c t u a l ,  is  c a n be e s t a b l i s h e d i s  system o f r e c i p r o c a l o b l i g a t i o n s . Lynch  identifies  whereby  the t h i r d  basic  and u t a n g n a  importance and r e l e v a n c e f o r  type w i l l  t o n o t e , however, t h a t  mechanisms o f exchange  be d i s c u s s e d  a l l three  i n Philippine  here  0  It  types a r e society, in.  and Kabacan, i n p a r t i c u l a r .  Hollnsteiner inside  (1964»  oneself  28) t r a n s l a t e s  "a  debt  it  a s a s i t u a t i o n where " a t r a n s f e r  u t a n g na l o o b as  o r sense o f g r a t i t u d e . "  She  defines  o f goods o r s e r v i c e s  -68-  takes  place  b e t w e e n i n d i v i d u a l s b e l o n g i n g t o two d i f f e r e n t  groups." Since  i n these  situations  one d o e s n o t o r d i n a r i l y e x p e c t f a v o r s o f a n y o n e n o t o f h i s own g r o u p , a s e r v i c e o f t h i s k i n d t h r o w s t h e norm i n t o b o l d r e l i e f . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t c o m p e l s t h e r e c i p i e n t t o show h i s g r a t i t u d e by r e t u r n i n g t h e f a v o r w i t h i n t e r e s t t o be s u r e t h a t he d o e s n o t r e m a i n i n t h e o t h e r ' s d e b t . ( H o l l n s t e i n e r 196^1 28-29) It  s h o u l d be e m p h a s i z e d  that  Every F i l i p i n o i s expected t o possess utang na l o o b : t h a t i s he s h o u l d be aware o f h i s o b l i g a t i o n s t o t h o s e f r o m whom he r e c e i v e s favors and s h o u l d r e p a y them i n a n a c c e p t a b l e manner. S i n c e u t a n g n a l o o b i n v a r i a b l y stems f r o m a s e r v i c e r e n d e r e d , e v e n t h o u g h a m a t e r i a l g i f t may be i n v o l v e d , q u a n t i f i c a t i o n i s i m p o s s i b l e . One c a n n o t a c t u a l l y measure t h e repayment b u t c a n a t t e m p t t o make i t n e v e r t h e l e s s e i t h e r b e l i e v i n g i t supersedes the o r i g i n a l s e r v i c e i n q u a l i t y or a c k n o w l e d g i n g t h a t t h e r e c i p r o c a l payment i s p a r t i a l and r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r payment. Some s e r v i c e s c a n n e v e r be r e p a i d . S a v i n g a p e r s o n ' s l i f e w o u l d be one o f t h e s e s g e t t i n g a s t e a d y j o b , e s p e c i a l l y f o r a n u n s k i l l e d l a b o r e r a t a t i m e when employment i s s c a r c e a n d u n s k i l l e d l a b o r e r s a b o u n d , m i g h t be a n o t h e r . ( H o l l n s t e i n e r 1964i 29) Utang na loob,  thus,  i s a n o b l i g a t i o n w h i c h c a n n o t be  repaid  i n money, b u t w h i c h h a s t o be p a i d  should  be p a i d  upon r e q u e s t . I f a p e r s o n h e l p s  nephew t o go t h r o u g h to  speak,, upon b o t h  time, they expected  school,  friend's  f o r e x a m p l e , he h a s a c l a i m ,  t o do s o m e t h i n g and t h e y a r e  t o comply. Because  . . .  a  t h e f r i e n d and h i s nephew. A t some  c a n be asked  n e v e r r e a l l y be  i n s e r v i c e s and  some s e r v i c e s ,  however, c a n  repaid  a spiral  of reciprocal favors  is built  up  so  future  -69-  f o r when the favor done i s a service which can not be repaid i n kind or which can not be measured q u a n t i t a t i v e l y , one cannot r e a l l y t e l l when one's debt has been discharged. (Hollnsteiner 19631 66) According to Hollnsteiner (1964i 31-33)» utang na loob debts characterize  intra-family as well as e x t r a - f a m i l i a l  and non-kin obligations and r e l a t i o n s h i p s . But, they tend to be extended s e l e c t i v e l y . Which r e l a t i v e s are c l o s e r than others are determined by such factors as geographical proximity, t r a d i t i o n a l family and personal preferences. I t i s , thus, one means of implementing kinship with d i s t a n t r e l a t i v e s . I t i s also a means of e s t a b l i s h i n g working r e l a t i o n s h i p s with neighbors and with trading partners. I t i s also one basis f o r the landlord-tenant "one  reason why the landlord-tenant  r e l a t i o n s h i p and  r e l a t i o n s h i p i n areas  where i t operates properly does not cause the d i f f i c u l t i e s that i t does i n other areas." (Eggan 1968» 11)  Hiya "Hiya," according to Lynch (1964J 17)» " i s a universal sanction  i n lowland Philippine society, f o r i t enforces  conformity with a l l aspects of the s o c i a l code, whether the end  i n view i s acceptance by society i n general or by the  i n d i v i d u a l with whom one i s dealing at the moment." The term i s most commonly translated as "shame," but much i s l o s t i n the t r a n s l a t i o n . I t involves a f e e l i n g of  -70-  inferiority, which  embarrassment, shyness,  i s e x p e r i e n c e d as Hiya  i s incurred  reciprocation. related regulate  na  for failure  l o o b and  b e h a v i o r and  of  alienation  a c u t e l y d e p p r e s s i n g by  (Jacobson, n.d.j  to utang  and  48)  both  keep the  to ensure  Filipinos,  correct  I t i s thus  are moral  social  closely  forces  system  which  i n good  ordert  working  U t a n g n a l o o b d e f i n e s any s i t u a t i o n h a r b o r i n g i t s i n c e e a c h p e r s o n has a n a p p r o x i m a t e i d e a o f where he s t a n d s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e o t h e r . H i y a seems t o s t e m e i t h e r f r o m t h e n o n - e x i s t e n c e o r non-observance o f utang na l o o b . I n the case o f n o n - e x i s t e n c e an u n d e f i n e d s i t u a t i o n i s c r e a t e d where e a c h a c t o r i s n o t s u r e o f what h i s r e s p o n s e s ought t o be, w h i l e i n n o n - o b s e r v a n c e , h i y a d e v e l o p s o r s h o u l d d e v e l o p from a person's s e n s e o f n o t h a v i n g l i v e d up t o t h e u t a n g n a l o o b e x p e c t a t i o n o f another. Both are powerful e l e m e n t s o f t h e v a l u e s y s t e m and p r o v i d e t h e s t r o n g moral compulsion which i n i t i a t e s a c t i o n s and m a i n t a i n s c u l t u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . ( H o l l n s t e i n e r 1963« 79) For a F i l i p i n o , learned  i n the  third  hiya to  very  serious experience  lead  him  or  threat  a very  (Bulatao  year  of l i f e  in a child's  life  to leave school, avoid certain  for hiya  of the  approved is  fifth  c h a n g e h i s o u t l o o k on  capacity  is a very painful  life.  The  i s encouraged  experience  b e h a v i o r . To  that  s e r i o u s reproach to both 1964;  Guthrie  because  desirable  development  i n the  I968)  it  the  f a m i l y and  the  parent  may  to o b t a i n  i s without and  a  activities,  of  a child  It is  w h i c h c a n be  i s held over a c h i l d  suggest  reaction.  child.  hiya  -71-  Hiya and  an i n d i v i d u a l w i l l  being who  c a n be p u b l i c l y  recognized  fails  Tagalog  puts  the stigma o f  shame," w a l a n g h i y a ,  t o meet o b l i g a t i o n s . ( J a c o b s o n ,  proverb  i t : "Hindi baleng  n . d . j 48) A s t h e  huwag mo  l a n g akong h i y a i n " - t h a t  i f you don't  situation  r e i n f o r c e d or both,  always t r y t o a v o i d  as a person "without  m a h a l i n ; huwag mo matter  or privately  l o v e me;  just  don't  i s summed up by H o l l n s t e i n e r  akong  i s , " I t does n o t  shame me."  The  (19631 3 1 ) a s f o l l o w s !  By n o t s e t t l i n g a n o b l i g a t i o n when t h e opportunity ar';es, the F i l i p i n o v i o l a t e s a h i g h l y valu?. o p e r a t i n g p r i n c i p l e and e x p e r i e n c e s a c o n s e q u e n t h i y a To a v o i d t h i s p a i n f u l e x p e r i e n c e he makes e v e r y e f f o r t t o repay h i s obligations.. 0  S o c i a l A c c e p t a n c e , Smooth I n t e r p e r s o n a l P a k i k i s a m a , I n t e r m e d i a r i e s , Amor  A Basic Philippines without of  postulate with  i s that  t o o much  cultural  friction.  particular  situations,  conformity  to this  Philippines.  Propio  regard  to social  life  i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s should  expectations,  relationships  Relations,  Filipinos  expectations  ( E g g a n 19681  in  i n v a r y i n g ways,  system. T h e r e f o r e ,  r u n smoothly  go on  have s e t up a s e r i e s  behavioral  and e n f o r c e ,  i n the  the attempt  t o make  i s a primary s o c i a l value 9)  Lynch  theme i n P h i l i p p i n e c u l t u r e " s o c i a l  (1964»  15)  calls  i n the this  acceptance" which i s  -72the desire "to be accepted by one's fellows f o r what one i s , or would l i k e to be, and be given the treatment due to one's s t a t i o n . " Lynch (1964; 1970) i d e n t i f i e s "smooth interpersonal r e l a t i o n s " as an intermediate value i n the attainment of s o c i a l acceptance. Abbreviated SIR, smooth interpersonal r e l a t i o n s i s defined by Lynch (1964i 8) as • • . a f a c i l i t y at getting along with others i n such a way as to avoid outward signs of conflict» glum or sour looks, harsh words, open disagreement, or physical violence. I t connotes the smile, the f r i e n d l y l i f t of the eyebrow, the pat on the back, the squeeze of the arm, the word of praise or f r i e n d l y concern. I t means being agreeable, even under d i f f i c u l t circumstances and of keeping quiet or out of sight when d i s c r e t i o n , passes the word. I t means s e n s i t i v i t y to what other people at any given moment f e e l , and a willingness and a b i l i t y to change tack ( i f not d i r e c t i o n ) to catch the s l i g h t e s t favorable breeze. In turn, "SIR i s acquired and preserved p r i n c i p a l l y by three meansi namely, pakikisama, euphemism, and the use of the go-between." (Lynch 1964i 8)  For our discussion, only  pakikisama and the use of the go-between are relevant and w i l l be elaborated here. Pakikisama i s a Tagalog word. I t s root, sama, means "accompany" or "go along with." Lynch (1964t 9) formally defines the concept as "giving i n , following the lead or suggestion of another; i n a word, concession. I t refers  -73-  e s p e c i a l l y t o the l a u d e d  p r a c t i c e of y i e l d i n g to the  will  o f the l e a d e r o r m a j o r i t y so as t o make the group d e c i s i o n unanimous. No ( 1 9 6 8 J 22)  one  l i k e s a h o l d out." As G u t h r i e and  put i t , an i n d i v i d u a l who  o r m a b u t i n g makisama, who 'okay,' n o t a k i l l  i s "magandang makisama  p r a c t i c e s pakikisama,  j o y , f o l l o w s the w i l l o f the  shares h i s successes,  Azores  i s game, group,  h e l p s on s p e c i a l o c c a s i o n s , and  g e n e r a l l y good-natured and  c h e e r f u l toward  others."  Because r e l a t i o n s h i p s among members o f an group a r e h i g h l y p e r s o n a l i z e d , f r e q u e n t  use  is  alliance  i s made o f  go-betweens o r i n t e r m e d i a r i e s - a n o t h e r means by w h i c h i s preserved  o r r e s t o r e d . H e r e , a t h i r d p a r t y i s used  SIR and  c a l l e d upon " t o assuage a b r u i s e , h e a l a wound o r p r e v e n t injury."  (Lynch 1 9 6 4 t 13)  The  go-between i s a l s o used i n  s i t u a t i o n s l i k e an e m b a r r a s s i n g r e q u e s t  or complaint  a v o i d shame, h i y a , o f f a c e - t o - f a c e e n c o u n t e r o r bad Go-betweens and  feeling.  i n t e r m e d i a r i e s , f i n a l l y , are u t i l i z e d  remedy an e x i s t i n g s t a t e o f c o n f l i c t o r t e n s i o n . " 1964t 13)  to  "to  (Lynch  Thus, even when r e l a t i o n s h i p s have been  severed,  t h e r e i s a l w a y s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e c o n c i l i a t i o n between t h e f e u d i n g p a r t i e s ; n e g o t i a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e and achieved The  this is  t h r o u g h an i n t e r m e d i a r y o r go-between. same p a t t e r n o b t a i n s i n f a m i l y d i s p u t e s where  a r e l a t i v e who i s not i n v o l v e d i n the d i f f i c u l t y becomes the middle-man f o r two f e l l o w - k i n s m e n who a r e not on s p e a k i n g terms  -74-  w i t h each o t h e r . T h i s i s c o n s i d e r e d h i s d u t y , p r o v i d e d he h a s t h e o t h e r q u a l i t i e s t h a t make him d e s i r a b l e a s a g o - b e t w e e n i smooth s p e e c h and w i t a b o v e a l l . ( L y n c h 1964i 14) We h a v e d i s c u s s e d ensures proper  h i y a as t h e u n i v e r s a l s a n c t i o n t h a t  r e c i p r o c a t i o n and e n f o r c e s  (1964; 1970), h o w e v e r , i d e n t i f i e s limited  He c a l l s  I t i s important  t o note  severe  this  o r s e l f - e s t e e m which i s s e n s i t i v i t y  affront."  Lynch  a n o t h e r s a n c t i o n , "more  i n scope, a s p e c i a l defense against  i n t e r p e r s o n a l unpleasantness." propio  conformity.  s a n c t i o n amor  to personal  that  T h i s s e n s i t i v i t y i s n o t , l i k e smooth i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s , f o r t h e a t t a i n m e n t a n d enhancement o f s o c i a l acceptance} i t serves r a t h e r t o r e t a i n the a c c e p t a n c e one a l r e a d y h a s . I t i s a n e m o t i o n a l high-tension wire that g i r d s the i n d i v i d u a l ^ d e a r e s t s e l f , p r o t e c t i n g from disparagement o r q u e s t i o n t h e q u a l i t i e s he most j e a l o u s l y g u a r d s a s h i s own b e s t c l a i m t o o t h e r s r e s p e c t and esteem. ( L y n c h 19641 1?) 1  Although Oriental it  sense and s o c i a l  should  resembles l o s i n g insecurity  n o t be e q u a t e d w i t h  amor p r o p i o person,  amor p r o p i o  i s t h e need  face  i n the  i n t h e Western  sense,  e i t h e r . A c e n t r a l element o f  of the F i l i p i n o  n o t as an o b j e c t . H i s f r a g i l e  t o be t r e a t e d a s a  sense o f p e r s o n a l  w o r t h and d i g n i t y l e a v e s h i m e s p e c i a l l y v u l n e r a b l e t o negative  remarks from o t h e r s  and l e a d h i m t o be v i g i l a n t t o  the  s i g n s o f s t a t u s which w i l l  i n d i c a t e how he s t a n d s i n  his  g r o u p a t t h e moment. The v a r i o u s  and  dialects  P h i l i p p i n e languages  a r e r e p l e t e w i t h numerous e x p r e s s i o n s  which  s t a t e t h a t a l m o s t a n y f a t e i s t o be p r e f e r r e d t o b e i n g  -75-  criticized. will  Thus, i t i s not  experience  mistakes. these  Since  a l l members o f t h e  I t i s tempting  i n s e c u r i t y , arrogance, of a  these  f o r m s on  or  his peril.  in  such a  admitting  irritability  of  extreme  t o e q u a t e amor p r o p i o  o c c a s i o n . The  person  s o c i e t y i s aware  i s offered with  since  with  i t takes  each  common e l e m e n t , h o w e v e r , i s  s e n s e o f i n d i v i d u a l d i g n i t y and  at  that  extraordinary d i f f i c u l t y  conditions, criticism  deference.  surprising  worth which  one  violates  61-62)  (Guthrie 19681  Summary o f M a i n C o n c e p t s "An  alliance  s y s t e m may  be  held together  f r a m e w o r k o f k i n s h i p , c o m p a d r a z g o , and obligations." alliance  (Hollnsteiner  system  reciprocal  i s nurtured  1963« 66) by  discouraging behavior  which  Once f o r m e d , contact  i s d i s r u p t i v e of  The  one  Philippine achieved  by  culture - that means o f an  interpersonal  relations  means o f p a k i k i s a m a intermediaries•  and  o f the  of s o c i a l  intermediate ( S I R ) . SIR, the  use  sanctions  the  i n c l u d e h i y a and  system manifests  an  and  i s g u a r d e d by  r e l a t i o n s h i p . These sanctions alliance  the  reciprocal  frequent  s e r v i c e . I t s continuance  by  amor  propio.  m a i n themes i n  acceptance which i s value,  smooth  i n turn, i s achieved  o f go-betweens  and  by  CHAPTER  V  VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS  One describe a  of  the  the  c e n t r a l concerns  f o r m and  meaning o f v o l u n t a r y  P h i l i p p i n e r u r a l community. An  is  that, while voluntary  practically  a l l types  t h e y take v a r y from  associations  one  type  of  particular society's order.  The  Philippine the  present  describe  last  culture  and  culture  social  chapter w i l l  some a s p e c t s  and  do  two  results  field  This  a n s w e r some o f  the  assumption  here  why  To  people  join  maintain  i n f a c t , why  and  analysis  of  organization  some a s p e c t s For  First,  associations  description  in  meaning  to another.  social  is  of  i t s part, i t will in a  i s based  on  the  i n Kabacan. Second, i t  problems r a i s e d  -76-  in  o c c u r , an  things.  work c a r r i e d o u t  to  associations  f o r m and  organization.  of voluntary  municipality.  of  should  chapter discusses  Philippine  will  as  o r what u n d e r m i n e them o r ,  u n d e r what c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h e y  in  society  for instance,  is  have been found  a s s o c i a t i o n s , what r e l a t i o n s h i p s  associations  the  underlying  of s o c i e t i e s , the  answer s u c h q u e s t i o n s , voluntary  of t h i s t h e s i s  and  questions  asked  -77-  above a s w e l l as e a r l i e r I  should l i k e  amount o f t i m e The a c c o u n t  impressionistic; that  future  thesis.  t o emphasize a t t h i s  I spent  I will  i n this  i n the f i e l d  present here  point  was s h o r t  therefore  - five  I t i s hoped  provide quantitative  check on c o n c l u s i o n s reached  h e r e b y more  weeks.  i s largely  the conclusions, tentative.  research w i l l  that the  data to  qualitative  techniques.  V o l u n t a r y A s s o c i a t i o n s t Some P r o b l e m s o f D e f i n i t i o n As h a s been n o t e d , v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s to almost  a l l types  o f s o c i e t i e s . However, t h e f r e q u e n c y  with which they  occur d i f f e r s  from  It  believed  t h e more c o m p l e x ,  i s generally  industrial  a r e common  societies  that  one s o c i e t y  to another. western,  t e n d t o have t h e h i g h e s t number o f  a s s o c i a t i o n s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e s i m p l e  isolated  societies  have t h e l e a s t . T h u s , v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s  generally  been r e g a r d e d as a product  social where  scientists  have s t u d i e d  t h e y a r e most  their  o f western  c u l t u r e and  occurrence  i n this  numerous. D e f i n i t i o n s  a s s o c i a t i o n s , as a r e s u l t ,  have been based  which a r e found  industrial  review  i n western  o f these d e f i n i t i o n s Robert  Lowie  (1927),  have  i s deemed recognizing  area  of voluntary on t h o s e  societies. A  types brief  necessary. t h e importance o f  -78-  that cut across to represent  k i n s h i p l i n e s , used t h e term a s s o c i a t i o n  t h e s e g r o u p i n g s and d e f i n e d t h e term as " s o c i a l  u n i t s n o t based on t h e k i n s h i p f a c t o r . " (Lowie 1 9 7 « 2 5 7 ) 2  I n a l a t e r work, he used " s o d a l i t y " as a d e s c r i p t i v e term f o r a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t would i n c l u d e " p a i r s o f c o n g e n i a l comrades and groups o f n o d d l e d e h o y s , s t o c k companies and trade unions,  s c i e n t i f i c s o c i e t i e s and t h e Y.M.C.A.,  c o n g r e g a t i o n s o f c h u r c h e s and b r i d g e c l u b s . " 14)  (Lowie 1948*  I t i s t h e f o r m e r term t h a t seems t o have s u r v i v e d i n  t h e l i t e r a t u r e . I t i s , i n f a c t , t h i s term w h i c h  Herskovits  ( 1 9 5 2 t 3 0 6 ) r e t a i n s i n d i s c u s s i n g some o f t h e f a c t o r s t h a t draw t h e members t o g e t h e r * of i n t e r e s t s , possession establishment  namely, p r o p i n q u i t y , community  o f t h e same s k i l l , and t h e  o f s t a t u s by e x c l u s i v e n e s s .  The i n t e r e s t here i n Kabacan a s s o c i a t i o n s i s i n t h e formal type, t h a t which s o c i o l o g i s t s l i k e W i l l i a m s  (1959«  4 9 9 ) would c a l l " v o l u n t a r y f r a t e r n a l " o r " c i v i c a s s o c i a t i o n s . " T h i s t y p e o f a s s o c i a t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by contemporary s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s as f o l l o w s * Tsouderos  ( 1 9 5 8 ) d e s c r i b e s v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s as  a group o f p e o p l e h a v i n g some s o r t o f f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e w i t h membership open t o a l l who have a p a r t i c u l a r o c c u p a t i o n o r p r o f e s s a common a s p i r a t i o n o r i n t e r e s t and i n w h i c h p e o p l e become members o f t h e i r own d e c i s i o n . G e n e r a l l y , these o r g a n i z a t i o n s are o r g a n i z e d t o a c h i e v e some g o a l o r t o change i n a l i m i t e d way a segment o f t h e community as a whole.  -79-  N e l s o n and  (1962t  his associates  225)  statet  As autonomous g r o u p s "become l a r g e r t h e y t e n d to introduce formal structures with r o l e s d e f i n e d , w r i t t e n c o n s t i t u t i o n s , membership l i s t s and o f t e n a f o r m a l a l l i a n c e w i t h some s t a t e or f e d e r a l a s s o c i a t i o n with s i m i l a r i n t e r e s t s . These groups are o f t e n ' r e f e r r e d t o as i n t e r e s t g r o u p s , v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s o r formal organizations. Finally,  Rose  (195^:  5 )  defines  2  a voluntary  a s s o c i a t i o n as  a s m a l l g r o u p o f p e o p l e f i n d i n g t h e y have a c e r t a i n i n t e r e s t i n common, a g r e e t o meet and act together i n order to s a t i s f y that i n t e r e s t o r t o a c h i e v e t h a t p u r p o s e . As a s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e t h e y have d i s t i n c t f e a t u r e s o f f o r m a l l e a d e r s h i p , s p e c i a l i z e d a c t i v i t i e s , r u l e s of operating, place and t i m e o f m e e t i n g . The  most s i g n i f i c a n t  associations  and  informal  members. T h e  formal  d i f f e r e n c e between groups  groups are  i s the  organized  purpose, f o r m a l l y chosen o f f i c i a l s , informal  g r o u p s have no  norms and  sanctions  have a r e c o g n i z e d  are  not  r e l a t i o n s h i p between around a s p e c i a l written rules.  written regulations although  w h i c h g u i d e them may  may  e l e c t e d nore  and  formal  be  specific.  s t r u c t u r e o f l e a d e r s h i p but r e f e r r e d t o as  f r i e n d s h i p g r o u p s , and  gangs a r e  officials.  examples.  Along these concepts, Anderson p o i n t s  The  the They  leaders  Cliques,  (Loomis  I963)  outi  P a r t i c i p a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d f o r m a l when i n d i v i d u a l s a s s o c i a t e w i t h o t h e r s on a v o l u n t a r y d i r e c t e d b a s i s in arranged s i t u a t i o n s that involve defined i n d i v i d u a l r o l e s . . • In i n f o r m a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l s t a k e p a r t on a v o l u n t a r y d i r e c t e d b a s i s b u t t h e r o l e s a r e n o t so d e f i n e d t h a t t h e r e i s a fixed patterning, d e f i n i t e obligations or  -80-  stratification  of  L u n d b e r g , S c h r a g , and distinction  participants. (1954»  Larsen  between the  two  types  405)  of  make a  similar  association!  In f o r m a l l y o r g a n i z e d groups expectations as t o b e h a v i o r o f members a r e p r e s c r i b e d and u s u a l l y defined independently of the person who h a p p e n s t o be i n a g i v e n p o s i t i o n w i t h i n a g r o u p . T h a t i s , r o l e p r e s c r i p t i o n s a r e formed a r o u n d t h e p o s i t i o n and a r e a p p l i e d t o any i n d i v i d u a l who h a p p e n s t o o c c u p y i t . . . T h i s c o n t r a s t s w i t h i n f o r m a l l y o r g a n i z e d g r o u p s where s o c i a l r o l e s tend to develop around the p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l occupying a p o s i t i o n with i n t h e g r o u p , and a r o u n d t h e p o s i t i o n i t s e l f . When I  first  s t a r t e d t o draw up  associations  i n K a b a c a n , I was  criteria  d e f i n i t i o n s discussed  and  between v o l u n t a r y It  d i d not  followed the  one  such c r i t e r i a conclusion  associations reasons  do  Larsen  be  - that  a r r i v e d at  i s the  to  consider  group. That  p o s i t i o n and  i s , ".  are  i f  . . expectations and  i s that  voluntary  a number  i s , r o l e p r e s c r i p t i o n s are t o any  of  four. Schrag  voluntary as  usually defined i n a given  one  associations,  c r i t e r i o n which Lundberg,  h a p p e n s t o be  applied  the  groupings.  however, t h a t  e x i s t i n Kabacan. There are  prescribed  p e r s o n who  used,  other kinds of  (195^1 405) c o n s i d e r c r u c i a l t o  o f members a r e  the  can  voluntary  distinguish  for defining voluntary  I would l i k e  of these  associations  o f the  and  of  and  above t o  to discover,  that  not  for this.  First and  long  list  g u i d e d by,  associations  t a k e me  a  to  behavior  independently  position  within  formed around  i n d i v i d u a l who  happens  to  the  -81-  occupy i t . . ."  The implication here i s that a change i n  the person who occupies a given p o s i t i o n does not a f f e c t the nature of the r o l e prescriptions formed around the p o s i t i o n . This c r i t e r i o n , I found, i s not applicable to the voluntary associations i n Kabacan where, i n f a c t , r o l e prescriptions are formed more importantly around the i n d i v i d u a l who happens to occupy a given p o s i t i o n rather than around the p o s i t i o n i t s e l f . That i s , expectations as to behavior of o f f i c e r s , e s p e c i a l l y , change as i n d i v i d u a l s who occupy them change. In f a c t , as I w i l l show l a t e r , i n many associations a change of o f f i c e r s often leads to the d i s s o l u t i o n of the associations themselves. A second important c r i t e r i o n f o r defining voluntary associations i s that " i n d i v i d u a l s associate with others on a voluntary directed basiso"  (Anderson 1953» 28-29)  In  Kabacan, however, i n d i v i d u a l s , frequently, j o i n associations not on a voluntary directed basis. Rather, they do so because of pressures  that are a function of the s o c i a l  structure and c u l t u r e , as discussed  i n the preceding  chapter. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that only one i n d i v i d u a l I interviewed  said that he joined associations because "he  wanted to." Many joined f o r a v a r i e t y of other reasons which one can hardly describe as voluntary. Again, I w i l l discuss and  elaborate on these below. A t h i r d c r i t e r i o n i n the d e f i n i t i o n of voluntary  -82-  a s s o c i a t i o n s which, i s n o t a p p l i c a b l e t o many o f t h e associations around fact, any  i n Kabacan i s t h a t  a s p e c i a l purpose.  associations  Some a s s o c i a t i o n s  i n Kabacan, i n  a r e m u l t i f u n c t i o n a l . Many a r e e v e n o r g a n i z e d w i t h o u t  d e f i n i t e a i m s and o b j e c t i v e s Finally,  rules,  at a l l .  many a s s o c i a t i o n s  i n K a b a c a n have no  c o n s t i t u t i o n s , o r membership l i s t s  of which  i s another  of associations local  are organized  important  that  written  - the existence  c r i t e r i o n . There  a r e a number  do have t h e s e b u t t h e y a r e n o t p u r e l y  a s s o c i a t i o n s but a r e part  o f a n e t w o r k s e t up on a  n a t i o n a l b a s i s . P r e s s u r e , t h u s , i s b e i n g e x e r t e d o n them from  the outside. It  not  i s apparent  just apply d e f i n i t i o n s of voluntary  on t h o s e t h a t societies  i n this  as v o l u n t a r y  a r e found  i n western,  associations  i n other types o f  those that  people  thought a r e ,  o f b y t h e i r members and  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f these a s s o c i a t i o n s  an intermediate kind  o f grouping. That  p r i m a r i l y k i n based  associational. particular  based  industrial  a s more t h a n c l i q u e s , f r i e n d s h i p g r o u p s ,  A primary  neither  associations  one c a n  c a s e , Kabacan. F o r Kabacan, I c o n s i d e r e d  named a s , s u c h and a r e t h o u g h t  officers  are  e x i s t and a r e f o u n d  to those that  societies,  and  from t h e d i s c u s s i o n above t h a t  Riggs  (I954i  o r gangs.  i s that  they  i s , they a r e  nor y e t predominantly 21), i m p r e s s e d  with  b l e n d o f k i n and a s s o c i a t i o n t i e s  this  i n the r u r a l  -83-  areas  of the  "elect." 113)  On  P h i l i p p i n e s , coined  of  so  associational  f a r from the  b e h a v i o r as  doubtful."  I agree since  collective  jockeying  within  the  association."  limitations,  structures.  of non-kin,  But  "the  the  association, r e f e r to  whether  is  common i n t e r e s t f a c t o r ,  with  the  113) the  a  groups  standard d e f i n i t i o n of 1963*  the  strictly  f o r power, k e e p s f o r m a l l o c a l  range o f  to  pole  effectively in  an  I then r e t a i n  the  above-mentioned  associational  groupings  found  Kabacan.  Why  People J o i n Voluntary  One  of  the  regard  to  why  people  do  the  could  the  also  association  I first  asked  o f f i c e r s of  how  most i n t e r e s t e d  associations?  one  as  the  question! could  To  wast  many o f t h e  various how  elicit shed l i g h t  on,  presidents-heads  associations  as  I  they r e c r u i t t h e i r  join t h e i r respective  a s k e d a number o f t h e  i n with  membership i n Kabacan  w o u l d p r o v i d e a n s w e r s t o , and  following  members and  I was  join voluntary  question,  and/or other  Associations  questions  voluntary  responses that  I  function  112-  to warrant a s p e c i a l term  (Hollnsteiner  term v o l u n t a r y  in  do  Philippine associational  they deviate  well  (19&3*  t h i s s p e c i a l term, H o l l n s t e i n e r  comments! " P r i m a r y t i e s  context  a s p e c i a l term f o r i t i  members o f v a r i o u s  associations. associations  -84-  to describe  t h e p r o c e s s by w h i c h t h e y became members o f t h e  associations interviewed  t o w h i c h t h e y now b e l o n g . F i n a l l y , some r e s i d e n t s  o f t h e community who were n o t  members o f a n y a s s o c i a t i o n s belong  t o , or join, The  question,  how t h e y  and asked  any a s s o c i a t i o n s  common r e s p o n s e  I  them why t h e y d i d n o t ata l l .  g i v e n by t h e o f f i c e r s  to the  r e c r u i t t h e i r members o r how one j o i n s  their associations,  was t h a t  they  invite  people  to join  them a n d become members. T h e p r o c e s s b y w h i c h t h i s done most i n t e r e s t i n g . M o s t a s s o c i a t i o n s membership committee  o f some s o r t t o w h i c h a n o f f i c e r a n d  p r e s e n t members c a n s u b m i t The is  committee presented  first  screens  t h e name o f a p o t e n t i a l  to the association at large  f o r a v o t e on  I f the association  a group o f o f f i c e r s  considered  votes  and members, i n c l u d i n g t h e  i n d i v i d u a l who recommended h i m , a p p r o a c h e s member who, o f t e n ,  member.  t h e c a n d i d a t e b e f o r e h i s name  whether t o accept him o r n o t . positively,  i n Kabacan have a  i s n o t e v e n aware t h a t  f o r membership, t o f o r m a l l y  the p o t e n t i a l he i s b e i n g  invite  him t o j o i n  t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n . D e p e n d i n g on a number o f f a c t o r s will  be d i s c u s s e d  b e l o w , he may a c c e p t  which  or refuse the  invitation. It  i s important  members c a n s u g g e s t consideration  t o note  here  that  while  "ordinary"  names o f p o t e n t i a l members f o r  by t h e membership c o m m i t t e e , o f t e n ,  t h e y do  -85-  n o t . Two often  reasons  may "be g i v e n f o r t h i s .  not interested  i n the a c t i v i t i e s  to which they b e l o n g . They temselves "forced" and  or "pressured" to join  related to the f i r s t ,  most p a r t , The  as I w i l l  associations  invite  125)  responses  "club  i n Kabacan, f o r t h e  puts  i n a very r e a l  sense,"  as  i t . They r u n t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s regarding  the  a n d p r o j e c t s . T h e y d e c i d e whom t o  o f t h e members  they  joined  to the question,  o f the a s s o c i a t i o n s )  c o n f i r m and s u p p o r t t h i s  response  p r i m a r i l y because  j o i n . A s I have n o t e d  earlier,  interviewed  that  responded  joined stated  because  only  -  that  one i n d i v i d u a l I associations and v o l i t i o n  i n the - that i s ,  o b j e c t i v e s . What u s u a l l y h a p p e n s t h e n  many i n d i v i d u a l s a c c e p t t h e i n v i t a t i o n  activities  delong,  the o f f i c e r s  i n the associations'  b u t do n o t p a r t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y  aims  i s that  and become  members  i n the association's  and a f f a i r s . T h e o f f i c e r s  seem t o be  satisfied  with the arrangement. There  a r e , however, e x c e p t i o n s t o  this,  of association  depending  on t h e t y p e  they  t h e y were i n v i t e d t o  he j o i n e d  he b e l i e v e d  how  t o which they  from  community o u t o f h i s own i n i t i a t i v e  and  Secondly,  show, a r e t y p e d b y t h o s e who h e a d t h e m .  activities  became members  he  been  t o j o i n a s members. The  is,  just  o r become members.  by t h e m s e l v e s . T h e y make a l l t h e d e c i s i o n s association's  members a r e  of the a s s o c i a t i o n s  may have  associations  are their  (1963*  Hollnsteiner  First,  involved.  I  -86-  will  discuss this  i n the sections that  Non-members r e s p o n d e d associations  that  follow.  they d i d n o t j o i n any  a t a l l b e c a u s e no one a s k e d  t h e y do n o t know t h e o f f i c e r s  them t o o r b e c a u s e  a n d members o f s u c h a n d s u c h  a n a s s o c i a t i o n . T h u s , e v e n when t h e y meet a n d p o s s e s s t h e qualifications  f o r membership and even i f t h e y wanted t o  j o i n a p a r t i c u l a r a s s o c i a t i o n , unless they a r e i n v i t e d to do  s o , t h e y do n o t . It  factors  i s important outlined  t o draw a t t e n t i o n h e r e  by H e r s k o v i t s (1952:  to the four  306) t h a t  draw  people,  t o g e t h e r t o f o r m a s s o c i a t i o n s . T h e s e f a c t o r s do o p e r a t e i n K a b a c a n . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e P o b l a c i o n PTA ( P a r e n t s a n d Teachers of  A s s o c i a t i o n ) r e s t r i c t s : i t s membership t o t h e a d u l t s  the poblacion, to the parents  and  the teachers o f , t h e p o b l a c i o n elementary  propinquity. improvement  Interest lead  i n cooking,  Skill  i n playing a musical  a community b r a s s b a n d  And,  graduates  professionals they these  establish factors  possession  sewing,  school -  a n d home  h o u s e w i v e s and women o f t h e community t o  j o i n t h e R u r a l Improvement C l u b  of  of the c h i l d r e n attending,  - community  instrument  of interests.  leads to the formation  - p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e same  skills.  o f t h e N o t r e Dame o f K a b a c a n a n d t h e o f t h e community, t h e Y's Men - b y w h i c h their  s t a t u s by e x c l u s i v e n e s s . However,  - p r o p i n q u i t y , community o f i n t e r e s t ,  o f t h e same s k i l l ,  and t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f  status for  by e x c l u s i v e n e s s  - are only  m e m b e r s h i p . T h u s , one must  musical  instrument  t h e minimum  first  b e f o r e he c a n j o i n  must be a p r o f e s s i o n a l  (doctor,  be a b l e  requirements  to play  a  t h e b r a s s b a n d o r he  lawyer,, o r u n i v e r s i t y  g r a d u a t e ) b e f o r e he c a n become a member o f t h e Y's Men. more i m p o r t a n t individual,  consideration,  an  o v e r a n d a b o v e t h e minimum q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r  m e m b e r s h i p , must be a  however, i s t h a t  A  i n v i t e d by t h e o f f i c e r s  and members o f  p a r t i c u l a r a s s o c i a t i o n b e f o r e he c a n become a member.  T h u s , e v e n i f he p o s s e s s e s t h e n e c e s s a r y minimum requirements personally crucial by  such as p o s s e s s i o n  apply  of the s k i l l ,  he w i l l n o t  f o r m e m b e r s h i p . He h a s t o w a i t  f o r the  i n v i t a t i o n . The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s i s emphasized  the f a c t that  there  are instances  when i n d i v i d u a l s  do n o t p o s s e s s t h e minimum r e q u i r e m e n t s  f o r membership  b e e n i n v i t e d t o become a member o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n . mayor  o f K a b a c a n , f o r e x a m p l e , i s a member o f t h e  P a r e n t s and T e a c h e r s A s s o c i a t i o n , parent  of a child  elementary that  attending,  school.  and he i s n e i t h e r  nor a teacher  Because o f the p r e s t i g e  and  Poblacion a  influence has of  the a s s o c i a t i o n prestige t o o .  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i n d i v i d u a l s p o s s e s s i n g qualifications  The  t o have t h e mayor's name i n t h e l i s t  members w o u l d b r i n g  have  i n , the  t h e mayor p o s s e s s e s , h o w e v e r , t h e r e q u i r e m e n t  been w a i v e d s i n c e  who  f o r membership and who  t h e minimum  a r e extended  an  -88-  invitation  do n o t , a n d u s u a l l y c a n n o t , r e f u s e t h e  invitation  - even though  to  join.  Many s t a t e d  practically refuse the  t h e y may p e r s o n a l l y  that  they  joined  a g a i n s t t h e i r wishes;  the i n v i t a t i o n . Very  friend,  relative,  of gratitude," one  but, again, could not  o f t e n , the persons  extending  o r one t o whom he owes some  p l a y . To r e f u s e , they  example, n a k a k a h i y a that  i fthey  s a n c t i o n s would  responded,  would b e ,  (shameful). In a d d i t i o n ,  r e f u s e d , t h e y w o u l d be b r a n d e d  marunong makisama o r w a l a n g p a k i k i s a m a  know how t o pay a d e b t  they  for  know  as h i n d i  ( d o e s n o t know how  g e t a l o n g w i t h o t h e r s ) o r walang utang  sanctions,  "debt  u t a n g n a l o o b . T o r e f u s e a p e r s o n w i t h whom  i s i n s u c h a r e l a t i o n s h i p means t h a t  come i n t o  not  associations  i n v i t a t i o n were a compadre o r c o m a d r e , a n e i g h b o r ,  close  to  be r e l u c t a n t  na l o o b  (does  of g r a t i t u d e ) . Fearing these  they a r e then f o r c e d  and p r e s s u r e d , though  i na  s u b t l e way, t o a c c e p t t h e i n v i t a t i o n a n d become members. Officers extend  of associations,  invitations  f o r membership p r i m a r i l y  whom t h e y a l r e a d y m a i n t a i n t i e s friendship,  view  their  reinforcing  with  kinship,  t h o s e whom t h e y  o n . " On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h o s e who a r e  acceptance  means o f r e p a y i n g a d e b t and  t o those  o f compadrazgo,  and r e c i p r o c i t y . T h e y i n v i t e  know " t h e y c a n c o u n t invited  i t must be e m p h a s i z e d ,  of the i n v i t a t i o n  of gratitude,  a s one  of strengthening  f u r t h e r bonds o f f r i e n d s h i p ,  kinship,  -89-  c o m p a d r a z g o , and  reciprocity.  meachanisms o f the  The  "Ningas Kugon  Upon c l o s e that  alliance  It i s , i n short,  system a t  examination of the of the  i n the are  " y o u n g , " so  organized  within  Grande Lodge 1968}  the  o f the  emerges i s t h a t a s s o c i a t i o n s  community h a v e b e e n o r g a n i z e d  very  associations  d a t e s t h e y gave a s  t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s were f o r m e d , one that  work.  Effect"  p e o p l e named and  features  to  the  very  last  four  or f i v e  associations  i n the  two.  the At  - to c i t e  of a s s o c i a t i o n s  that  and  for a while.  associations question this  that  "died"  i n the  existed  just  as  poses i t s e l f  i n the But,  r e c e n t l y . They  which  The  Rio  the  only  in  Catholic:  earlieri  founded  the  1959  in  and  remember a  community  number  i n the  past  t h e y a l s o n o t e d how  t h e n i s , how (19631  few  e a r l y 1 9 5 0 ' s , t o name  q u i c k l y as  phenomenon? H o l l n s t e i n e r  " n i n g a s kugon e f f e c t "  found  some e x a m p l e s . O n l y a  same t i m e , p e o p l e r e c a l l  were a c t i v e  presently  community were o r g a n i z e d  Boys S c o u t s , founded the  striking  organized  L e a g u e o f P u e r i c u l t u r e C e n t e r w h i c h was and  t o when  most  years.  Improvement C l u b i n 1 9 7 1 ;  Women's L e a g u e i n 1968  i n Kabacan  s p e a k . Many o f them were  ( M a s o n s ) , f o r e x a m p l e , was  Ryral  the  they arose. d o e s one  126)  calls  i s a term d e r i v e d  these  The  explain i t the  from the  way  -90-  cogon g r a s s burns to  very brightly  and r a p i d l y when f i r s t p u t  the t o r c h , but then d i e s out almost  phenomenon w h i c h s h e a l s o associations  found  o f a community  and  t o be common t o t h e  i n Luzon  One e x p l a n a t i o n may be f o u n d  discussion  which she s t u d i e d .  i n the nature  leadership of the associations  particular,  immediately,"' a  of the leaders  i n Kabacan, i n  and i n t h e P h i l i p p i n e s ,  i n g e n e r a l . To a  o f t h e s e a s p e c t s , t h e n , we now t u r n o u r  attention.  Voluntary Associations: Leaders  I  Formation,  and L e a d e r s h i p  have a l r e a d y n o t e d  associations  how, f i r s t  The  following  of  the fact  formed  their  t a k e n b y a man who  and q u i t e  ambiguous  never  from  decline.  first  conceives of the idea f o r f o r m i n g one a r e  - t o improve  o r change  some a s p e c t o f t h e community, f o r e x a m p l e , a n d a r e , always,  head  i n Kabacan?  seems t o be t h e common p a t t e r n . T h e  forming aa a s s o c i a t i o n . H i s reasons lofty  most  by t h o s e who  inception until  of a l l , are associations  i s usually  usually  that  i t must be e m p h a s i z e d , r u n s  of the associations'  But  step  briefly  i n Kabacan a r e i d e n t i f i e d  them. T h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , the time  G r o w t h , and D e c l i n e ;  achieved. T h i s person then t a l k s  o v e r w i t h t h o s e whom he t h i n k s w i l l  approve  almost  the idea  of the idea  -91-  and  will  this  join  him. I t i s important  stage, t h e founder  whom he a l r e a d y it  t o note here t h a t , a t  i n v i t e s only  those  persons  has e x i s t i n g o r m a i n t a i n i n g  - whether  be compadrazgo, f r i e n d s h i p , r e c i p r o c i t y , o r k i n s h i p .  And  because, a s has been noted  earlier,  a person i n such a  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a n o t h e r does n o t u s u a l l y other or h i s requests, he  ties  with  chooses w i l l  refuse the  t h e f o u n d e r knows t h a t  approve o f h i s i d e a  and w i l l  the people j o i n him. They  t h e n become t h e c o r e g r o u p o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n a n d t h e association w i l l  draw i t s f u t u r e  whom t h e y m a i n t a i n t h e same t i e s core  members f r o m p e o p l e  and r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The  group o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n u s u a l l y  social  with  c l a s s , "upper," and s t a t u s ,  b e l o n g t o t h e same  "elite."  The f u t u r e  members, o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , a r e d r a w n f r o m t h e members o f the  lower c l a s s . A s s o c i a t i o n s  i n K a b a c a n , t h e n , assume t h e  character  o f a n a l l i a n c e system and c r o s s - c u t  two-class  system o f s t r a t i f i c a t i o n ,  upper-class, It officers  with  i salso  specific  lower-class,  of the association  are just an  live  the f i r s t  i s chosen, with  f o r a number o f y e a r s ,  specific  individuals.  from t h e core group t h a t  assuming the p o s i t i o n o f p r e s i d e n t . should  joining  theb a s i c a l l y  set of  the founder  And, i f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n t h e same s e t o f p e o p l e  elected  or re-elected  to the positions  rotate  the positions  among t h e m s e l v e s . F o r i n s t a n c e ,  i n d i v i d u a l may s e r v e a s t h e s e c r e t a r y  a v a i l a b l e . They  f o r one y e a r ,  -92-  vice-president  t h e n e x t , and p r e s i d e n t  S o m e t i m e s , new p o s i t i o n s the  core  elected  are held,  t o which p o s i t i o n  group has a l r e a d y  talked  t h e m s e l v e s on t h i s w e l l then, are held association's exist  a r e even c r e a t e d  g r o u p members c o u l d  role. Elections  only  f o rthe third so t h a t  assume a n o f f i c i a l  year.  a l l of leadership  o f c o u r s e . B u t , who w i l l  be  i s known b e f o r e h a n d . T h e c o r e t h e m a t t e r o v e r and a g r e e d  before the elections.  as a f o r m a l i t y  Elections,  - t o a b i d e by t h e  c o n s t i t u t i o n and r u l e s , f o r e x a m p l e ,  at a l l . I t i s also  during  among  e l e c t i o n s when t h e  i f such majority  o f t h e members, who may n o t have a t t e n d e d a n y m e e t i n g s during  the year at a l l , are present. E l e c t i o n s  the  function  of bringing  for  once. Before  to  t h e m e e t i n g , h o w e v e r , members h a v e  of  been  a n d whom t o v o t e  p o s i t i o n b y t h e same p e r s o n ( s ) who  i n v i t e d them  become members. This  and  serve  members a n d o f f i c e r s t o g e t h e r ,  approached, t o l d o f t h e coming e l e c t i o n s f o r which  thus  p a s s i v i t y and non-involvement  its activities  a r e seen by " o r d i n a r y "  t h e i r r o l e , as " p a r t  acceptance  of the deal."  members a s  They view  of gratitude"  o f them i s t o be p a s s i v e  upper-class a l l i e s , association.  part  their  o f the i n v i t a t i o n t o j o i n an a s s o c i a t i o n  means o f r e p a y i n g a " d e b t expected  i n the association  as a  and a l l t h a t i s  followers  of their  i n t h i s case, the o f f i c e r s o f the  -93-  From tends to club  i t s i n c e p t i o n , t h e n , an  he  identified  i n a very  d r o p out  of  friends  also  real  by  who  leads  sense. For  i t , his  association i t . And,  i f he  w i t h him.  The  then c o l l a p s e s . "  ( H o l l n s t e i n e r 1963*  the  i n the  studied,  limited  to  one  This C l u b . The  - that  i n the  by  formation  objectives  bring together  people  the  was  to  purpose, l i k e  Kabacan  conceived  quite  c h u r c h e s , who officers.  members f r o m t h e for a while  too.  than  the  how  one  man  and  and  to  church  associations  that  that  its  time,  the  formation  members  of  association's  a s s o c i a t i o n grew, d r a w i n g i t s  of the  of the long  by  leading  a l s o became t h e  core  attended. Ecumenical  For  Inter-Fellowship  ambiguous. At  g r o u p . I t was  i s , m e e t i n g s were h e l d  major p r o j e c t s  attended  The  allies  - that  t h e s e were w e l l of the  rather  t h o s e o f most o t h e r  welcomed by  a s s o c i a t i o n was  of  to  of  community's v a r i o u s  of the  set  In c o n t r a s t  associations  a p o p u l a r word so  first  organization  Hollnsteiner  h o w e v e r , ecumenism was  various  and  promote " b r o t h e r h o o d "  from the  i n K a b a c a n , a i m e d a t was  the  reason  individual.  club's  groups. This  125)  i s , i t i s shared  is illustrated  main m a n i f e s t  f o r some  entire  community w h i c h  however, l e a d e r s h i p  Kabacan i s p l u r a l  " i t is his  f o l l o w i n g o f k i n , compadres,  t e n d s t o go  associations  should  essentially  regularly  church  and  services,  a s s o c i a t i o n , were  t h i s was  active  sustained,  one  well no  one  I  -94-  I  talked  out in  to  remembers f o r s u r e ;  when t h e  founder of  Davao C i t y a n d ,  the  since  but,  i t started  association  found  to  fizzle  employment  t h e n , came t o K a b a c a n  only  occasionally. A n o t h e r e x a m p l e , a more t y p i c a l one, an  association  o r g a n i z e d by  male p r o f e s s i o n a l s It a  was,  like  couple  to d i e  the  Kabacan I n t e r - F e l l o w s h i p  of years but,  a f t e r that." the  to  to  lack  They s a i d o f the extra  the  that  bills  induction  contributions collected  of  and  footing  every  were g i v e n o n l y  joined  them; what more c o u l d  supposed  contributing  only  to  had but  to also  of  the  the  bills."  first  the  and  officers  to  the  been  "I  One  actual  member's  already  f o r ? " The  officers,  required  amount w h i c h  from the  members i n t h e  have  officers.  s h a r e wast  foot  Monetary  member b u t  make t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l had  work  These  i n Kabacan.  they ask  have b e e n c o l l e c t e d  Non-involvement  extra  officer  his  failure  o f d o i n g a l l the  affair  by  former  members.  a f f a i r were s u p p o s e d t o  f o r not  contributions  the  during  reason  t h u s , not  association's the  for  started  i t s f o u n d e r s and  tired  - always a g a l a f o r the  community.  Club, active  i n t e r e s t shown by  j u s t got  f r o m e a c h and  contributions  f o r the  Men,  open t o a l l ,  former s a i d , " j u s t  interviews,  were i n c u r r e d  ball  one  reason  "they  association  as  In  traced  on  and  Y's  ( u n i v e r s i t y graduates) of the  officers go  a group o f ,  i s the  was  members.  scholarship  for  needy  -95-  but  deserving  students  project  discouraged  the o f f i c e r s  involvement  and, e v e n t u a l l y ,  of the a s s o c i a t i o n  and l e d t o t h e i r  a s s o c i a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g  own n o n -  to the d e c l i n e  pattern  further  of the  then f o l l o w s i  Rather than t r y to r e s u s c i t a t e a dying o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h drew a l l i t s s t r e n g t h f r o m the r e t i r i n g president's f o l l o w i n g , a s p i r i n g p r e s i d e n t s w i l l a l l o w t h e c l u b t o d i e and t h e n c r e a t e a new o n e . I n t h i s manner c r e d i t f o r t h e new o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l go c o m p l e t e l y t o t h e new p r e s i d e n t , w h e r e a s i f he s u c c e s s f u l l y r e v i v e s t h e o l d c l u b , he must s t i l l s h a r e t h e honors with the f i r s t p r e s i d e n t . F a r b e t t e r t o h a v e a new s e t o f o f f i c e r s , a c l u b w i t h a new name, a n d no t a i n t o f f a i l u r e , e v e n t h o u g h i t s s t a t e s a i m s may be e x a c t l y t h e same a s i t s p r e d e c e s s o r . ( H o l l n s t e i n e r 1963* 126) And  indeed,  f r o m t h e r a n k s o f t h e Y's Men,  associations among  several  were f o r m e d : T h e Masons, t h e K n i g h t s  others. A n o t h e r r e a s o n f o r t h e " n i n g a s kugon e f f e c t "  the  nature  given  o f t h e a l l i a n c e system  a l l i a n c e system  continually followers argument the  shifting,  itself.  i s n o t permanent. I t i s , i n f a c t , as u p p e r - c l a s s  leaders  voluntary  and  a l i g n and r e - a l i g n t h e m s e l v e s . S i n c e that  voluntary  a s s o c i a t i o n membership  g r o u p membership b r i n g s associations  i n fact,  lies i n  Membership i n a  a l l i a n c e system, t h e n , any changes t h a t  alliance  but,  of Rizal,  - not only  as has been n o t e d  emergence a n d f o r m a t i o n  i t i s my i s b a s e d on  occurs  a consequent  lower-class  i n the  change  i nthe  i n terms o f membership  above, r e s u l t i n g i n t h e  o f a new a s s o c i a t i o n .  -96-  This  phenomenon  is illustrated  Motorized T r i c y c l e Drivers  by t h e K a b a c a n  and O p e r a t o r s  Association  (KMTDO), h e a d e d by t h e mayor o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y . this  a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h whose members and, o f f i c e r s  most c o n t a c t reason that held  during  my  stay  again,  aspect  formed, an a s s o c i a t i o n  operators.  by  The d r i v e r s  t h e y h a d no i d e a  I talked  he,  illustrates  a s s o c i a t i o n under the of t r i c y c l e  d r i v e r s and  t o , however, complained  where t h e d u e s c o l l e c t e d f r o m them  t h e i r former president  that  That  o f the a l l i a n c e system.  T h e r e was, b e f o r e t h i s new mayor was  The  minimum  f o r m e m b e r s h i p he d o e s n o t meet  class bridging  were  staying.  d r i v e r nor operator.  b e l o n g s t o a n a s s o c i a t i o n whose  qualification  that  and m e e t i n g s  a t t h e mayor's h o u s e where I was a l s o a tricycle  I had t h e  i n Kabacan f o r t h e simple  t h e mayor i s i t s p r e s i d e n t  mayor i s n e i t h e r  the  It i s  were s p e n t . M o r e o v e r , t h e y  t h e i r former president  said  was n o t much o f a h e l p i n  s o l v i n g t h e i r problems and t h e y ,  i n f a c t , w o u l d go t o t h e  mayor f o r a s o l u t i o n t o t h e s e p r o b l e m s . I t was b e c a u s e o f these that association The  they  g o t t o g e t h e r and d e c i d e d  and t o make t h e mayor h i m s e l f  mayor a g r e e d , r e a l i z i n g h i m s e l f  w o u l d be p o l i t i c a l l y . but  t o form a  how  their  vital  And a t t h e t i m e o f f i e l d  new  president.  the p o s i t i o n work, a l l  two o f t h e d r i v e r s a n d o p e r a t o r s and members o f t h e  f o r m e r a s s o c i a t i o n had j o i n e d  t h e new  one u n d e r t h e mayor.  -97-  This regarding system and  the  very  upper-class  clearly  i n d i v i d u a l s (the  tricycle  reciprocal gratitude  between t h e  hand, the  with  by  president  t r y i n g to  problems. F i n a l l y ,  party  to  the  their  a l l i a n c e group t o  of another could  lead  the  another.  formation  Voluntary  of  however, t h a t despite the  case of the this  suggests that  on  the  up  in their  officers.  long  by  "one  a n s w e r w o u l d be  the  and  Prestige  i n Kabacan,  as  they  have  I have a l r e a d y  Hollnsteiner  one  group  L e a g u e o f P u e r i c u l t u r e C e n t e r and exception,  in  expectations  d i s s o l u t i o n of the  f o r as  his  effort  to the  a number o f a s s o c i a t i o n s  the  other  failure  O u t s i d e P r e s s u r e and  have e x i s t e d  changes  S c o u t s . To  to the  Associations:  There are  hand,  contribute  a serious  live  and  of  must show a d e e p c o n c e r n f o r p r i m a r i l y by  solve  contact  one  faithfully  followers, manifested  lower  operators).  sense  the  to t h e i r president}  mayor  specific  frequent  p a r t i c i p a n t s . On  a s s o c i a t i o n s must  show r e s p e c t  the a l l i a n c e  d r i v e r s and  nurtured  points  i n d i v i d u a l s (the  s e r v i c e which develop a b i n d i n g  members o f t h e and  several  i s that  former a s s o c i a t i o n president)  Secondly, a l l i a n c e s are  fees  out  a l l i a n c e system. F i r s t  joins specific  the  class  example b r i n g s  (1963*  mentioned the  126)  institutional  Boys  -98-  nature  of these c l u b s . They are  of a network set with  pressure  going."  as  pressured  Agricultural  exerted  Rural  from o u t s i d e  -  little  involved  from o u t s i d e  to the  - by  paid  the  Rural  prestige  to  as  ingredients  Improvement C l u b a r e  "ningas  kugon e f f e c t . "  associations that Masons and n e t w o r k and  the  On  at  longer  alliance  alliance  the  highly  members  agents  of  of the  they w i l l than the  the  e f f e c t s that  of  the  national Club,  i t s members.  The  outside  may  group membership.  joining  like  are  Men,  l i n k e d to a  the  the  namely,  the  national  p r e s t i g e , I have  continue to purely are  the  to  hand, because  Y's  etc.  cooking  associations  other  i n these associations  system; but,  disruptive  elite  Improvement  m e m b e r s h i p i n them b r i n g s that  Membership  is also  needed f o r a  Knights of R i z a l ,  l e a s t , survive  k e e p them  especially vulnerable  grew o u t  reason to believe  part  c l o t h , needle, thread,  demonstration. Because of these, Rural  to  a l s o d i s c o u r a g e many women f r o m  expenses f o r such t h i n g s  f o r s e w i n g and  are  international basis  P r o d u c t i v i t y Commission of the  however, b r i n g s  but  Improvement C l u b , f o r e x a m p l e , i s  government. Membership i n the  expenses  local  i n these associations  i t is restricted  community. The  also  on a n a t i o n a l and  thus being  Membership  prestigeful the  up  purely  function  local  still  pressures  ones.  based  on  offset  a r i s e from s h i f t s  or,  in  the the  the  -99-  Econoinic  Associations  In a d d i t i o n to the associations pressured outside  from the  and membership i n w h i c h i s p r e s t i g e f u l , t h e r e i s  a n o t h e r t y p e o f a s s o c i a t i o n i n K a b a c a n w h i c h do n o t d i s p l a y the  p a t t e r n a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e " n i n g a s kugon e f f e c t . " An  example i s t h e I r r i g a t o r s A s s o c i a t i o n . W h i l e i t i s a purely  local association with  o u t s i d e , by t h e N a t i o n a l  pressure  Irrigation  being  exerted  Administration,  membership i n t h e I r r i g a t o r s A s s o c i a t i o n b r i n g s p r e s t i g e . On t h e o t h e r  from  little  h a n d , i t h a s e x i s t e d f o r a number  o f y e a r s a n d shows no s i g n o f d e c l i n e . T h e I r r i g a t o r s A s s o c i a t i o n was  organized  personnel o f the Kabacan o f f i c e o f the N a t i o n a l  by t h e Irrigation  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The p r i m a r y r e a s o n f o r i t s f o r m a t i o n regulate  i s to  the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i r r i g a t i o n water from the  main canals  t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l f a r m i n l e t s . The m a j o r  problem h i t h e r t o faced Administration  by t h e N a t i o n a l  p e r s o n n e l was " w a t e r s t e a l i n g " - t h a t i s ,  some f a r m e r s w e r e d i v e r t i n g t h e f l o w farms before  Irrigation  of water i n t o  their  o r a f t e r t h e y w e r e s c h e d u l e d t o h a v e done s o .  This  r e s u l t s i n the d i s r u p t i o n of the a g r i c u l t u r a l  and,  sometimes, t h e f a i l u r e  to plant altogether. While the  r e g u l a t i o n of water d i s t r i b u t i o n should b y t h e NIA p e r s o n n e l ,  cycle  have been  t h e government o f f i c e  simply  performed do n o t  -100-  h a v e enough men t o do so e f f e c t i v e l y . T h u s , t h e a s s o c i a t i o n was o r g a n i z e d  so t h a t  these f u n c t i o n s .  i t s members c o u l d  In addition,  the I r r i g a t o r s  a s a l i a s o n b e t w e e n t h e NIA a n d t h e  acts  example, r a t h e r  t a k e o v e r some o f Association  farmers. F o r  than d e a l w i t h t h e problems o f t h e farmers  with regard  to irrigation  pulls  t o g e t h e r a n d p r e s e n t s them t o t h e NIA  these  collectively*  i f the a s s o c i a t i o n  the  problems. F i n a l l y ,  the  NIA i s a b l e  It  itself  i s unable t o solve  a g a i n due t o t h e l a c k  to maintain only  thus delegated  of personnel,  t h e main i r r i g a t i o n  canals.  t o t h e a s s o c i a t i o n t h e maintenance and  repair of the inlets this,  i n d i v i d u a l l y , the association  t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l f a r m s . To a c c o m p l i s h  t h e members work i n g r o u p s u n d e r a n a s s i g n e d  group  leader. While  the establishment  did not t o t a l l y  eliminate  o f the I r r i g a t o r s  Association  "water s t e a l i n g , " t h e problem has  been g r e a t l y reduced which, i n t u r n ,  reduced  unnecessary  delays  i n p l a n t i n g . D e l a y s c a u s e d b y damaged d i k e s  canals  have a l s o All  "forced" exerted  been  and  minimized.  f a r m e r s whose f a r m s a r e i r r i g a t e d  b y t h e NIA a r e  t o become members o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n . T h e p r e s s u r e o n them t o j o i n  farmer r e l u c t a n t  to join  f a r m . T h e same s a n c t i o n t o do t h e i r e x p e c t e d  i s great.  The s a n c t i o n s  i s the blocking i s applied  share  used  f o ra  o f water from h i s  on members who  refuse  i n t h e maintenance and r e p a i r  -101-  of the dikes  and c a n a l s .  (A s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n o c c u r s i n (1972)  Taiwan. See P a s t e r n a k ' s  Another a s s o c i a t i o n that Association and  i s t h e "new"  claimed  that  good" s i n c e  field  briefly  t h e new  Kabacan M o t o r i z e d T r i c y c l e D r i v e r s  o r d i n a n c e was that  terminal  that  was  T h e mayor, t h e i r  council session  for  brought  this  c o n s e q u e n t l y p a s s e d by t h e c o u n c i l t o t h e  jeepneys would only  o p e r a t e between t h e j e e p n e y (not w i t h i n the  operate w i t h i n the  ( a n d n o t t o a n d f r o m t h e b a r r i o s ) . The by b o t h  jeepney and t r i c y c l e  ordinance  d r i v e r s and  alike.  t h e mayor c o u l d , fare  up a t a  i m m e d i a t e l y and  Other problems which the d r i v e r s f a c e d said  solve  the time o f  president,  i n t h e market and t h e b a r r i o s  accepted  operators  and  t h e j e e p n e y s were g i v i n g them  p o b l a c i o n ) w h i l e t r i c y c l e s would poblacion  during  w o r k , one o f t h e c o m p l a i n t s b r o u g h t  m a t t e r up a t t h e m u n i c i p a l  effect  i n a position to help  problems. For instance,  competition.  operators  a s s o c i a t i o n had done them " a l o t o f  p a r t i c u l a r m e e t i n g was stiff  e a r l i e r . The d r i v e r s a n d  t h e mayor was  many o f t h e i r  an  i s s i m i l a r to the I r r i g a t o r s  O p e r a t o r s A s s o c i a t i o n , h e a d e d b y t h e mayor, w h i c h h a s  been d i s c u s s e d  my  description.)  increases  and d i d , e a s i l y  and w h i c h  they  s o l v e were a p e t i t i o n  and problems w i t h t h e Land  Transportation  Commission. T h e s e two a s s o c i a t i o n s  display a different  pattern  -102-  from those a s s o c i a t i o n s  described  of a l l , o f the recruitment the  nature of the leaders  result,  not. v u l n e r a b l e  reason f o r t h i s the  fact  that  e a r l i e r i n terms,  o f members and:j s e c o n d l y , o f and l e a d e r s h i p . T h e y a r e , a s a  t o t h e " n i n g a s kugon e f f e c t . "  invulnerability,  they are part nor i n the fact  prestigeful.  T h e y have s u r v i v e d ,  however, does n o t l i e i n  that  membership i n them i s and I b e l i e v e  continue to function e f f e c t i v e l y , an i n s i t u t i o n a l  needs c o u l d  be f u l f i l l e d  Association,  associations survival a  fields. that  and " r e a l "  members i n t h i s basis are  to and  and r e a l Irrigators  f o rwater f o r the  w o r d s , i t i s on t h e and economic  sense, these a s s o c i a t i o n s  s y s t e m - a l t h o u g h most o f t h e members by t i e s  of kinship,  compadrazgo,  a n d f r i e n d s h i p - b u t , p r i m a r i l y , on  livelihood. the a l l i a n c e operators  perform  f u n c t i o n . Because o f t h i s , t h e  l i n k e d t o each other  association  associations  t y p e o f a s s o c i a t i o n a r e drawn n o t on t h e  of the alliance  reciprocity, and  - i n the case of t h e  t h e members' l i v e l i h o o d  depend. I n t h i s  concrete  framework w h e r e b y f e l t  In other  will  because these  f o r example, t h e need  farmers' r i c e  The  o f a n a t i o n a l network o f  associations  provide  first  Thus, even i f an i n d i v i d u a l g r o u p t o w h i c h most  b e l o n g , he w i l l  occupation  does n o t b e l o n g  of the t r i c y c l e d r i v e r s  be p r e s s u r e d  i f he i s a d r i v e r o r o p e r a t o r  t o j o i n the of a t r i c y c l e .  -103-  Voluntary A s s o c i a t i o n s ! A Typology On t h e b a s i s o f t h e p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n and a n a l y s i s , we may c l a s s i f y t h e v o l u n t a r y  associations  found  i n Kabacan i n t o t h r e e main t y p e s . The f i r s t two t y p e s f a l l under t h e r u b r i c o f c i v i c - r e l i g i o u s - f r a t e r n a l - n e i g h b o r h o o d a s s o c i a t i o n s . Combined, t h e s e two t y p e s a r e t h e most numerous i n Kabacan. They i n c l u d e , among o t h e r s , t h e Y's Men, t h e C a t h o l i c Women's League, t h e L e g i o n o f Mary, t h e Laymen, t h e Women's A u x i l i a r y Corps o f t h e P h i l i p p i n e Independent C h u r c h , t h e Purok (neighborhood) S a r a n a y A s s o c i a t i o n , t h e P a r e n t s and T e a c h e r s A s s o c i a t i o n , t h e K n i g h t s o f R i z a l , and t h e Masons. These two t y p e s o f voluntary  a s s o c i a t i o n s draw t h e i r membership on t h e b a s i s  o f t h e a l l i a n c e system. T h e i r m a n i f e s t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l aims and o b j e c t i v e s a r e " l o f t y " and ambiguous a n d , o f t e n , n e v e r achieved. What d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h e s e two t y p e s from each o t h e r i s t h e i r v u l n e r a b i l i t y t o t h e " n i n g a s kugon e f f e c t . " The f i r s t t y p e i s e s p e c i a l l y prone t o i t . I t s membership, based on t h e a l l i a n c e s y s t e m , c r o s s - c u t s  t h e b a s i c a l l y two  c l a s s s t r a t i f i c a t i o n system o f t h e community. Any s h i f t s i n t h e membership o f t h e a l l i a n c e g r o u p , and i t i s c o n t i n u a l l y s h i f t i n g , t h e r e f o r e a f f e c t s t h e membership i n  -104-  these associations dissolution The  and  very  the  second  greatly  - usually  f o r m a t i o n o f new  type  is relatively  leading  associations  the  a l l i a n c e system does not  drawn from a l l i e s upper-class. is  highly  set  up  Membership  a national  from the  pressure  one  class  still  The  i n the  third  basis, with to  - usually  pressure thus  effects that  a l l i a n c e group  may  arise  i n Kabacan  distinguished  first  i s membership - t h a t  association primarily,  i s based not on  two  types  the  o c c u p a t i o n . Most  are  linked to  c o m p a d r a z g o , and  of  livelihood.  the  e a c h o t h e r by  them t o g e t h e r t o  but, the  ties  of  form  friendship, these  the source  S e c o n d l y , t h i s t y p e o f a s s o c i a t i o n has objectives  which are  of  Operators  t h e i r common o c c u p a t i o n and  s p e c i f i c a i m s and  are  i n t h i s type  members o f  and  is  factors.  r e c i p r o c i t y : however, i t i s not  have brought  a s s o c i a t i o n but  two  a l l i a n c e system  Kabacan M o t o r i z e d T r i c y c l e D r i v e r s Association  on  i s , membership  on  are  outside  economic a s s o c i a t i o n s . They  that  the  membership.  type of a s s o c i a t i o n found  from the  is  being  what I h a v e c a l l e d t h e  ties  It  therefore,  k e e p them g o i n g . T h i s  disruptive  the  based  classes.  i n these a s s o c i a t i o n s ,  outside  o f f s e t s the  from s h i f t s  First  to  p r e s t i g e f u l . Moreover, these a s s o c i a t i o n s  on  exerted  belonging to  cross-cut  their  0  less vulnerable  " n i n g a s k u g o n e f f e c t . " I t s membership w h i l e on  to  economic  of very  i n nature,  -105-  as discussed  e a r l i e r . Because of these two f a c t o r s ,  organizational basis and objectives, t h i s type of a s s o c i a t i o n i s , I believe, less vulnerable  to the "ningas  kugon e f f e c t " than the f i r s t two types. They are, however, a very recent phenomenon i n the community and t h i s conclusion can only be validated i n time. The implications of t h i s typology and a discussion of the functions of voluntary associations i n a community l i k e Kabacan i s discussed below.  CHAPTER  VI  CONCLUSIONS  The  main o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o d e s c r i b e , i n  a p r e l i m i n a r y way, the c h a r a c t e r  of voluntary  associations  i n a P h i l i p p i n e peasant community, Kabacan. In t h i s way, it  hopes t o make some c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e t h e o r i e s which  have attempted t o e x p l a i n the development and n a t u r e o f such a s s o c i a t i o n s . Among the more important o f these t h e o r i e s i s the one  according  t o which the development o f v o l u n t a r y  a s s o c i a t i o n s i s r e l a t e d t o the growth o f such r e l a t e d p r o c e s s e s as s o c i a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n ,  differentiation,  u r b a n i z a t i o n , m o d e r n i z a t i o n , and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n .  This  type o f t h e o r y attempts t o e x p l a i n the f u n c t i o n a l p l a c e o f v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s undergoing o r have undergone any o r all  o f these p r o c e s s e s .  Kenneth L i t t l e  example, p o s i t s the h y p o t h e s i s experiencing  (1954; 1957), f o r  that i n a s o c i e t y  i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and u r b a n i z a t i o n ,  associations play a s i g n i f i c a n t mechanism. He w r i t e s i  -106-  voluntary  r o l e as an adaptive  -107-  The n e w l y a r r i v e d i m m i g r a n t f r o m t h e r u r a l a r e a s has "been u s e d t o l i v i n g and w o r k i n g as a member o f a compact g r o u p o f k i n s m e n on a h i g h l y p e r s o n a l b a s i s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p and m u t u a l i t y . He knows no o t h e r way o f community l i v i n g t h a n t h i s , and h i s n a t u r a l r e a c t i o n i s t o make a s i m i l a r a d j u s t m e n t t o u r b a n c o n d i t i o n s . ( L i t t l e 1957s 5 9 2 - 5 9 3 ) Little  (1957«  593)  then argues  that  T h i s adjustment the a s s o c i a t i o n f a c i l i t a t e s by s u b s t i t u t i n g f o r t h e e x t e n d e d g r o u p o f k i n s m e n a g r o u p i n g b a s e d u p o n common i n t e r e s t w h i c h i s c a p a b l e o f s e r v i n g many o f t h e same needs as the t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l y o r l i n e a g e . Graham J o h n s o n ' s argument r u n s i n a q u o t e him  at  similar vein.  To  lengthJ  The e m e r g e n c e o f a n i n d u s t r i a l l y - b a s e d s o c i e t y i n v o l v e s a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the r u l e s of b e h a v i o r i n t o a more c o m p l e x f r a m e w o r k . S u c h a s o c i e t y i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e e m e r g e n c e o f d i s c r e t e s e t s o f norms w h i c h have a p a r t i c u l a r f o c u s - the o r g a n i z a t i o n of p r o d u c t i o n , the a l l o c a t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l power, e d u c a t i o n , r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l , and t h e l i k e . T h e s e s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t f o c i o r norms r e p r e s e n t s o c i e t a l p r o b l e m s t h a t a r e no l o n g e r c a p a b l e o f s o l u t i o n w i t h i n t h e c o n f i n e s o f one a l l embracing i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r e a . S i m i l a r l y , there emerge d i s t i n c t s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s s u c h as f a c t o r i e s , p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , schools, churches and so o n . W i t h e c o n o m i c c h a n g e t h e harmony o f t h e f o r m e r s y s t e m i s d e s t r o y e d o r becomes i r r e l e v a n t . The 'family-community' complex i s no l o n g e r a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d w h o l e b u t i s p a r t o f a much w i d e r s t r u c t u r e . And w i t h economicchange t h e r e i s a r e a l p r o b l e m o f cooperation between the v a r i o u s newly s p e c i a l i z e d segments. G i v e n t h e s e new s e c t o r s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h e former p r i n c i p l e s of i n t e g r a t i o n which i d e a l l y r e s t e d on t h e l o c a l k i n s h i p and community s t r u c t u r e no l o n g e r s u f f i c e s . In  o t h e r words, there  i s a n e c e s s a r i l y w i d e gap  between  the  -108-  values  and norms o f p r e - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y , on t h e one  hand, and t h o s e o f i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y , on t h e o t h e r , "There i s t h u s a need f o r b r i d g i n g mechanism a c r o s s  t h e gap which  w i l l c a r r y groups from t h e o l d s o c i e t y Into t h e new," (Johnson 1 9 7 1 « 5)  Using data gathered i n a r a p i d l y  i n d u s t r i a l i z i n g a r e a i n Hongkong, Johnson (1971* 5) argues that " i t i s voluntary associations - i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d groups i n w h i c h membership i s a t t a i n e d by j o i n i n g  - that  a r e i m p o r t a n t as b r i d g i n g mechanisms and t h e f u n c t i o n o f these a s s o c i a t i o n s i s overwhelmingly i n t e g r a t i v e , " S i m i l a r conclusions  a r e r e a c h e d by Manning Nash ( i 9 6 0 )  i n h i s s t u d y o f k i n s h i p and v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n i n C a n t e l , Guatamela and J i n j a , Uganda, He w r i t e s * V o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s d i r e c t l y connected w i t h wage work, c h i e f l y l a b o r u n i o n s and r e c r e a t i o n a l c l u b s and sometimes p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , a r e i m p o r t a n t a g e n t s i n p r o m o t i n g i d e o l o g i e s and s e n t i m e n t s t h a t t i e w o r k e r s t o t h e i r jobs and make t h e new o c c u p a t i o n a l n i c h e e s p e c i a l l y meaningful, A d e v e l o p e d l a b o r f o r c e depends on t h e p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f t i e s and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s c o n n e c t e d w i t h i n d u s t r i a l work. Such t i e s a r e f o s t e r e d by v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , (Nash I 9 6 O 1 325)  Kabacan, however, i s n e i t h e r an i n d u s t r i a l n o r an i n d u s t r i a l i z i n g s o c i e t y . While forces o f modernization s u c h as t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f new f a r m i n g t e c h n o l o g y and methods, s c h o o l s , t e l e v i s i o n , r a d i o , newspapers, and more e f f i c i e n t means o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communication a r e  -109-  effecting  changes i n the s o c i e t y , t r a d i t i o n a l forms s o c i a l  o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e s u f f i c i e n t and s t i l l p r o v i d i n g the necessary p r i n c i p l e s  efficient in  o f i n t e g r a t i o n . I n view  o f t h i s , i t can he expected t h a t the nature o f v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s i n such a s o c i e t y would d i f f e r g r e a t l y from the nature o f v o l u n t a r y and in  a s s o c i a t i o n s i n mature  industrial  r a p i d l y i n d u s t r i a l i z i n g s o c i e t i e s . And, I argue t h a t a s o c i e t y l i k e Kabacan, v o l u n t a r y  merely serve  associations, i n fact,  t o r e i n f o r c e the t r a d i t i o n a l bases o f s o c i a l  o r g a n i z a t i o n which a r e s t i l l  functional integrative  mechanisms i n c o n t r a s t t o the s i t u a t i o n  i n mature  i n d u s t r i a l and r a p i d l y i n d u s t r i a l i z i n g s o c i e t i e s voluntary  where  a s s o c i a t i o n s serve t o i n t e g r a t e the s o c i a l  s t r u c t u r e which the f o r c e s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n tend t o d i s l o c a t e and t h r e a t e n The  t o fragment.  d i s c u s s i o n i n Chapter 5 makes t h i s a s s e r t i o n  apparent where i t was shown t h a t the r e c r u i t m e n t voluntary  of  a s s o c i a t i o n s I n kabacan i s based on t i e s  already bind  people t o g e t h e r  - namely, k i n s h i p ,  compadrazgo, and r e c i p r o c i t y .  What t h i s means i s t h a t  r a t h e r than c r e a t e new l i n k s between people, a s s o c i a t i o n s merely provide whereby l i n k s t h a t a l r e a d y  that  voluntary  an i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d exist  framework  between people a r e  formalized. K i n s h i p , compadrazgo, and r e c i p r o c a l t i e s , however,  -110-  are  i n themselves very  strong  bonds and t h e y become  stronger  when t h e y c u l m i n a t e  alliance  network, the primary b a s i s  formation only the of  i n the s t r u c t u r i n g o f an of associational  i n Kabacan. I t i s because o f t h i s  minimal p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n voluntary links  b e t w e e n members and t h e i r  that  there i s  associations  common  since  identification  i n t e r e s t s do n o t n e e d t o be v a l i d a t e d o r s t r u c t u r e d  f u r t h e r . Thus, a pattern chapter obtains  - that  r a p i d l y when f i r s t then dies related  i n the  preceding  i s , t h e way a new g r o u p grows  formed, i s very  cause o f t h i s  phenomenon i s t h e f a c t  i n K a b a c a n do n o t s e r v e  of being  served  very  active f o r a short  out almost as q u i c k l y as i t a r o s e .  associations capable  described  time,  A closely that  voluntary  any needs t h a t  are not  by kinsmen, f r i e n d s , n e i g h b o r s ,  compadres, o r t h e a l l i a n c e group. I n t h e u r b a n  areas  . . . t h e m i g r a n t ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n some o r g a n i z a t i o n such as t r i b a l union o r a dancing c o m p i n n o t o n l y r e p l a c e s much o f what he h a s l o s t i n terms o f moral assurance i n removing from h i s n a t i v e v i l l a g e , but o f f e r s him companionship and an o p p o r t u n i t y o f s h a r i n g j o y s a s w e l l a s s o r r o w s w i t h o t h e r s i n t h e same p o s i t i o n as h i m s e l f . . • Such an a s s o c i a t i o n a l s o s u b s t i t u t e s f o r the extended f a m i l y i n p r o v i d i n g c o u n s e l and p r o t e c t i o n , i n terms o f l e g a l a i d ; and b y p l a c i n g h i m i n t h e company o f women members, i t a l s o h e l p s f i n d h i m a w i f e . I t a l s o s u b s t i t u t e s f o r some o f t h e e c o n o m i c s u p p o r t a v a i l a b l e a t home b y s u p p l y i n g him b o t h s i c k n e s s and f u n e r a l b e n e f i t s , t h e r e b y e n a b l i n g h i m t o c o n t i n u e h i s most i m p o r t a n t k i n s h i p o b l i g a t i o n s . F u r t h e r , i t i n t r o d u c e s him t o a number o f e c o n o m i c a l l y u s e f u l h a b i t s and  -Ill-  p r a c t i c e s such as p u n c t u a l i t y and t h r i f t and i t a i d s h i s s o c i a l r e o r i e n t a t i o n by i n c u l c a t i n g new s t a n d a r d s o f d r e s s , e t i q u e t t e , a n d p e r s o n a l h y g i e n e . Above a l l , by e n c o u r a g i n g him t o mix s o c i a l l y w i t h p e r s o n s o u t s i d e o f h i s own l i n e a g e , sometimes t r i b e , the v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n h e l p s h i m t o a d j u s t t o t h e more c o s m o p o l i t a n e t h o s o f t h e c i t y . ( L i t t l e 1957»  593)  In  kabacan,  most  associations kinsmen, in  the  felt  absence  needs  not  to  be  themselves  or  is  called  types  neighbors,  s e r v i n g any  already  a  over  is,  long  however, i n the  a  economic  With example,  functions  confines  This  a  group.  or  Thus,  fulfilling  in  Kabacan  maintain  no  voluntary type  type  principles  described  of  of  community -  and are  friends,  above-mentioned  a n d do n o t  new t y p e  organized to  emerged  sense,  alliance  by  period.  associations.  are  the  the  by the  for  within  voluntary  group, voluntary associations  associations  integrative  or  of  and f u l f i l l e d  real  served  on v e r y d i f f e r e n t  have  served  and can not  associations that  of  economic  of  functions  and c a n be  emerging  recruit  these  unstable  There that  are  compadres,  individuals tend  of  which  resolve  c a n be  have  first  two  Economic  a new s e t  capable  of  of  seen as  problems  solution  traditional institutions.  associations  I  association  from the  earlier.  longer  of  association  In  adaptive  this or  mechanisms. the  there  i n t r o d u c t i o n of arose  an i r r i g a t i o n system,  an accompanying set  of  problems  for v/hich  -112-  were n o t p r e s e n t on  rain  when t h e f a r m e r s were s o l e l y d e p e n d e n t  f o r water.  1972.)  ( S e e Wickham,  p r o b l e m s , t h e f a r m e r s banded t o g e t h e r  T o meet  these  and formed  an  irrigators  a s s o c i a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n and  consequent  rise  means  of transportation created  present To  i n t h e use o f m o t o r i z e d  before  - that  a new  of t r i c y c l e  meet t h e p r o b l e m s t h a t  tricycles  f o r m o f work, n o t  d r i v e r s and  stem from t h i s  new  group, the Kabacan M o t o r i z e d T r i c y c l e D r i v e r s O p e r a t o r s A s s o c i a t i o n was  b e "one i m p o r t a n t  o f new 1971'  technologies 9)  This  source  and new  work - c o n t i n u e traditional  voluntary  occupational and  associations  f o r d e a l i n g w i t h the problem methods o f work."  seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t  m o d e r n i z a t i o n - s u c h a s new  operators.  organized.  T h e s e two e x a m p l e s show t h a t can  as a  (Johnson  as the f o r c e s o f  technologies  and new  forms o f  t o a f f e c t Kabacan and d i s r u p t t h e  b a s e s a n d p r i n c i p l e s o f i n t e g r a t i o n o r make  them l e s s e f f e c t i v e , t h i s new m u l t i p l y and i t s f u n c t i o n w i l l  type  of association  will  p r e d o m i n a n t l y be i n t e g r a t i v e  a  BIBLIOGRAPHY  A n d e r s o n , W. W. 1953 R u r a l S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n and t h e F a m i l y L i f e C y c l e . I t h a c a , New Y o r k . C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y A g r i c u l t u r a l E x p e r i m e n t S t a t i o n Memoir 3 1 ^ • Arce, Wilfredo 1961 The C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f R i t u a l Kinsmen i n a S m a l l Community. U n p u b l i s h e d M. A . T h e s i s , A t e n e o de M a n i l a . Banton, 1957  Michael West A f r i c a n C i t y : A S t u d y o f T r i b a l L i f e i n Freetown. London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s .  Berreman, 1956  Bulatao, 1964  Gerald The P h i l i p p i n e s : A Survey o f C u r r e n t S o c i a l , E c o n o m i c a n d P o l i t i c a l C o n d i t i o n s . New Y o r k : S o u t h e a s t A s i a Program, Department o f F a r E a s t e r n S t u d i e s , D a t a P a p e r Number 1 9 . Jaime Hiya. Philippine  438.  Studies, V o l . 12,  No. 3 : 4 2 4 -  Bureau o f t h e Census and S t a t i s t i c s i960 Census o f t h e P h i l i p p i n e s I 9 6 0 : Agriculture. Volmme I , R e p o r t b y P r o v i n c e : C o t a b a t o . M a n i l a : Bureau o f t h e Census and S t a t i s t i c s . i960  Census o f t h e P h i l i p p i n e s i 9 6 0 : P o p u l a t i o n and H o u s i n g . Volume I , R e p o r t bjp P r o v i n c e : C o t a b a t o . M a n i l a : Bureau o f t h e Census and S t a t i s t i c s .  1962  S t a t i s t i c a l Handbook o f t h e P h i l i p p i n e s . 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