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The Katz site : a prehistoric pithouse settlement in the lower Fraser Valley, British Columbia Hanson, Gordon William 1973

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THE  KATZ  SITE*  A PREHISTORIC PITHOUSE SETTLEMENT IN THE LOWER FRASER VALLEY, BRITISH  COLUMBIA  by GORDON WILLIAM HANSON B.A., U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  1970  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS MASTER  in  FOR THE DEGREE OF OF ARTS  the Department of  Anthropology We a c c e p t t h i s required  THE  and S o c i o l o g y  t h e s i s as conforming  to the  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH A p r i l , 1973  COLUMBIA  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e  and  study.  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  be granted by  Department or  I t i s understood t h a t copying or  of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n written  the Head of my  permission.  Department of The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8 , Canada  s h a l l not be  publication  allowed .without  my  ABSTRACT Salvage the Katz  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s were c a r r i e d  site  ( D i R j 1),  located along lower  a prehistoric  three miles  i n 1970-71 a t  pithouse  the F r a s e r R i v e r n e a r the  Fraser valley  out  settlement  e a s t e r n end  downriver  f r o m Hope,  V a r i o u s h y p o t h e s e s have been advanced t o account presence  of pithouses,  a house type  of the P l a t e a u ,  i n the  ogical research  conducted  that  the p i t h o u s e  of the  first  millennium  ogical affinities  locale.  r e m a i n s were f o u n d  seasonal u t i l i z a t i o n  pithouse  (3)  search  has  revealed  a b o u t the  the  site  "coastal",  of a u t i l i z a t i o n  In t h i s  earlier  i n floodplain  site  middle remains  technolas w e l l  as  and  social  prior  artefactual The  zone s u g g e s t  a  period, possibly  fishing  activities.  d i s c u s s e d i n the  thesis  site  alluvia.  during this  perhaps f a l l  examined and  i n this  of the  deposit,  f e a t u r e s , of t h i s  of the  derivation,  (1)  f u n c t i o n e d as a m u l t i -  accounts,  light  of  and  previous  adjacent  regions.  adds t o t h e  empirical re-  p r e v i o u s l y u n d e r t a k e n f o r the purpose o f  depth,  Archaeol-  occupancy express  f i n d i n g s i n t h e r e g i o n and  presented  characteristic  t h a t the a r t e f a c t u a l  information, ethnographic  archaeological Evidence  and  the  Archaeological i n v e s t i g a t i o n s at  summer and  These d a t a are ecological  (2)  interbedded  tools,  a s s o c i a t e d with  occupied  the  B.C.  for  region.  site  which are " i n t e r i o r " ,  occupancy.  stratigraphy,  was  B.C.,  a l s o y i e l d e d evidence  to pithouse  time  a t the Katz  i n c h a r a c t e r , and  season a c t i v i t y Katz  the  considered  Fraser river  settlement  i n a s s o c i a t i o n with  "local"  lower  of  activities  establishing  i n Northwest  pithouse and  villages,  activities  first  and  adds i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g  at a seasonally u t i l i z e d  millennium  B.C.  iii  site  early  tool in  kits, the  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES  vi  LIST OF FIGURES  x  LIST OF MAPS  xiv  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  xv  INTRODUCTION  1  CHAPTER I.  THE ENVIRONMENT OF THE LOWER FRASER VALLEY REGION Introduction Physiography Glacial History Climate Flora Fauna R i v e r i n e Resources C o r r e l a t i o n o f Resources and Time o f Year in Tait Territory Interpretation  II.  35 ^2  STALO ETHNOGRAPHY Introduction People and T e r r i t o r y The S t r u c t u r e o f S o c i e t y The S e a s o n a l Round Summary  III.  11 12 19 22 2^ 39 30  *. •  •  ^8 ^9 51 53 56  ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION F i e l d Work Recent H i s t o r y o f t h e K a t z S i t e P r e l i m i n a r y F i e l d Work (September, 1970). Surveying Backhoe. T e s t P i t s E x c a v a t i o n (May 15 t o August 31, 1971)...  58 60 61 62 65  Stratigraphy S t r a t i g r a p h y o f Zone A S t r a t i g r a p h y o f Zone B S t r a t i g r a p h y o f Zone C  69 72 73  iv  CHAPTER IV.  V.  Page ANALYSIS  OF  CULTURAL MATERIALS  Methodology ... Chipped Stone A r t e f a c t s Chipped Stone P o i n t s C h i p p e d B i f a c e s and U n i f a c e s Formed B i f a c e s Unformed B i f a c e s Formed U n i f a c e s Unformed U n i f a c e s Quartz I n d u s t r y Pieces Esquille'es Cortex S p a l l Tools C o r t e x S p a l l C o r e s (Zone A) C o r t e x S p a l l T o o l s (Zone A) C o r t e x S p a l l C o r e s (Zone B) C o r t e x S p a l l T o o l s (Zone B)  106  C o r e s and C o r e T o o l s S p l i t Cobble T o o l s Pebble T o o l s Edge B a t t e r e d C o b b l e s Hammerstones Anvilstones Ground S t o n e A r t e f a c t s Ground S l a t e Ground S l a t e P o i n t s Ground S l a t e K n i v e s (Zone A) Ground S l a t e K n i v e s (Zone B) M i s c e l l a n e o u s Ground S l a t e A r t e f a c t s T o o l s o f N e p h r i t e and R e l a t e d M a t e r i a l s .... The M a n u f a c t u r i n g Process Adze B l a d e s Nephrite C h i s e l s Nephrite Perforator N e p h r i t e End B l a d e s Nephrite D e t r i t u s M i s c e l l a n e o u s Stone A r t e f a c t s P e c k e d and G r o u n d A r t e f a c t s Hand M a u l s Abrasive Stones Saws (Zone A) Saws (Zone B) A b r a s i v e S l a b s (Zone A) A b r a s i v e S l a b s (Zone B) Bone A r t e f a c t s S p l i t Bone Awls A r t e f a c t Summary S h e e t  204 209 209 210 211 218 218 218  DISCUSSION  114 140  184 185 186  227  236 238 244 245 245 247 248 248 248 250 259  BIBLIOGRAPHY  357  APPENDICES  368  v  LIST OF TABLES TABLE  Page Salmon Spawning P o p u l a t i o n s of the H a r r i s o n and F r a s e r R i v e r s  33  E c o l o g i c a l Resource V a r i a b l e s  37  III.  Zone A Features;  Pithouse Number 1  76  IV.  Zone A F e a t u r e s :  Pithouse Number 2  82  I. II.  V. VI. VII.  Zone B Features  86  M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s of Group 1 P o i n t s  117  M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s of Group 2: Leaf-Shaped  119  Medium to Small  M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s of Group 3: Small, Broad Leaf-Shaped with S t r a i g h t Bases  120  IX.  M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s of Group 4: Unstemmed P o i n t s or Preforms  Large T r i a n g u l a r  121  X.  M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s of Group 5* Shouldered  Large S i n g l e -  123  XI.  M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s of Group 6: Shouldered  Small S i n g l e -  124  VIII.  XII.  M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s of Group Corner-Removed, C o n t r a c t i n g Stem, No Barbs (Narrow, Thick, Excurvate Blade)  126  XIII.  M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s of Group 8: Corner-Removed, C o n t r a c t i n g Stem, No Barbs (Broad, Thin, Excurvate Blade)  127  XIV.  M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s of Group 9* Corner-Removed, C o n t r a c t i n g Stems, No Barbs ( T r i a n g u l a r Blade Outline)  129  M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s of Group 10: Barb ( S l i g h t l y Expanding Stem)  130  XV. XVI.  Shouldered, No  132 M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s of Group 11: Corner Notched ( L a t e r a l - C o i n c i d e n t a l ) , No Barbs, Expanding Stems (Excurvate Blade, Open Notch)  vi  TABLE.  Page  XVII.  M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s of Group 12: Corner Notched ( L a t e r a l - C o i n c i d e n t a l ) , Barbed, Expanding Stem ( T r i a n g u l a r Blade, Narrow Notch)  I33  XVIII.  M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s of Group 131 Corner Notched ( L a t e r a l - C o i n c i d e n t a l ) , Barbed, Expanding Stem (Broad Blade, Broad Stem)  135  XIX.  M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s of Group l4t Corner Notched, Barbed (Narrow Excurvate Blade, Concave Base)  136  M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s of Group 15* Corner and B a s a l l y Notched ( B a s a l - B a s a l ) , Barbed (Broad Blade, Broad Stem)  137  M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s of Group 16: Basally Notched (Extreme Barbs, Narrow Stem)  138  XXII.  Group 1:  L e a f Shaped B i f a c e s  1^1  XXIII.  Group 2:  B i f a c e s with Broad Bases  1^3  Group  Stemmed B i f a c e s  14-5  Group 6:  B i f a c e s with Retouched P r o j e c t i o n s  14-7  XX.  XXI.  XXIV. XXV. XXVI.  Subgroup I t  Large B i f a c e Fragments  1^9  XXVII.  Subgroup 2:  P o i n t e d B i f a c e Fragments  151  XXVIII. XXIX.  Length Range and Mean Thickness of P o i n t e d B i f a c e Fragments  151  Subgroup 4: Fragments  152  Rounded or S t r a i g h t Based B i f a c e  M i s c e l l a n e o u s Formed B i f a c e s  153  Round to Oval U n i f a c e s  155  Elongate U n i f a c e s with Steep End Retouch  157  Round to R e c t a n g u l o i d U n i f a c e s with Steep End Retouch  159  XXXIV.  T r i a n g u l a r U n i f a c e s with Steep End Retouch  161  XXXV.  Formed U n i f a c e s with Retouched P r o j e c t i o n s (Subgroup I t Broad Blade Element)  16^  XXX. XXXI. XXXII. XXXIII.  vii  TABLE XXXVI. XXXVII. XXXVIII. XXXIX. XL. XLI. XLII. XLIII.  Page Formed U n i f a c e s with Retouched P r o j e c t i o n s (Subgroup 2: Narrow Blade Element)  168  Subgroup 3:  170  Diamond Shaped o r B i p o i n t e d T o o l s  U n i f a c e s with Continuous M a r g i n a l Retouch  172  B l a d e - L i k e U n i f a c e s with L a t e r a l Retouch  173  B i l a t e r a l l y Retouched Macroblades  176  T h i n T r i a n g u l a r U n i f a c e s with S t r a i g h t Edges  176  Crescent Shaped U n i f a c e s  177  Miscellaneous  178  Formed U n i f a c e s  XLIV.  Unformed U n i f a c e s :  Zone A  180  XLV.  Unformed U n i f a c e s :  Zone B  181  XLVI.  P o s i t i o n and Shape of Edge on Unformed Unifaces: Zone A  182  XLVII.  P o s i t i o n and Shape of Edge on Unformed Unifaces: Zone B  183  Pieces E s q u i l l ^ e s  187  XLVIII. IXL.  Maximum Length o f Cortex S p a l l s  (Zone A)  19^  L.  Maximum Length o f S e c o n d a r i l y F l a k e d Cortex S p a l l s (Zone A)  19^  LI.  P o s i t i o n o f the Working Edge of S e c o n d a r i l y F l a k e d S p a l l s (Zone A)  196  Maximum Length o f Cortex S p a l l s  201  LII.  (Zone B)  LIII.  P o s i t i o n of the Working Edge of S e c o n d a r i l y F l a k e d S p a l l s (Zone B)  201  LIV.  Maximum Length o f S e c o n d a r i l y F l a k e d Cortex S p a l l s (Zone B)  202  Edge B a t t e r e d Cobbles  211  LV. LVI. LVII.  M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s , General Provenience Wear of Hammerstones  and  P o s i t i o n of Wear ( P i t t i n g and B a t t e r i n g ) on Hammerstones  viii  213 217  TABLE LVIII.  Page Anvils-tones  218  Ground S l a t e P o i n t s  220  M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s , M o d i f i c a t i o n and Provenience of Nephrite Pebbles  231  M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s of Complete or Nearly Complete Adze Blades  233  M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s of C h i s e l s  235  Hand Mauls  238  LXIV.  Thickness  Range of Saws from Zone A  246  LXV.  Thickness  Range o f Saws from Zone B  246  LIX. LX. LXI. LXII. LXIII.  ix  LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE  Page  1.  A e r i a l Photograph of the Katz S i t e  17  2.  P r o f i l e of Climate and R i v e r G r a d i e n t i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y  23  3.  Flow Chart Showing 42 E c o l o g i c a l V a r i a b l e s Over 52 Weeks  39  4.  S m a l l e s t Space A n a l y s i s Showing 42 E c o l o g i c a l V a r i a b l e s Over 52 Weeks  40  5.  S m a l l e s t Space A n a l y s i s Showing R i v e r i n e Resource 41 V a r i a b l e s Over 52 Weeks  6.  P r o f i l e of Pithouse Number 1  75  7.  H o r i z o n t a l D i s t r i b u t i o n of C u l t u r a l Features A s s o c i a t e d with P i t h o u s e s  79  8.  Pithouse Number 1; Feature Number 16} Cobbles which E n c i r c l e the F l o o r Area o f the House  80  9.  Pithouse Number 1} Photograph Showing the C l a y Layer i n the S t r a t i g r a p h y of Pithouse 1  80  10.  Pithouse Number 1; Feature Number 13; Cachepit  81  11.  Pithouse Number 2; Feature Number 2; Charred Bark Sheets w i t h i n House  85  12.  H o r i z o n t a l D i s t r i b u t i o n of C u l t u r a l Features i n Flood P l a i n Deposits  98  13.  Feature 16:  99  14.  Features i n Zone B: Hearths and L i n e a r Arrangements o f Cobbles i n Zone B Deposit between Pithouse 1 and 2.  100  15.  Feature 15: The T r u n c a t i o n of Zone B C u l t u r a l Layers by Pithouse Number 1  101  16.  Feature 22: Hearth and Feature 23: Arrangement of Cobbles  101  17.  North Wall o f U n i t 0 -10  18.  I n t e r f a c e of Zone A and Zone B At West Rim o f Pithouse Number 1  Rock Oven?  x  Linear  West and 0.0  South  102 103  FIGURE  Page  19.  Chipped Stone P o i n t s :  Groups 1 - 2  293  20.  Chipped Stone P o i n t s :  Groups 3 - 6  294  21.  Chipped Stone P o i n t s :  Groups 7 - 9  295  22.  Chipped Stone P o i n t s :  Groups 10 - 12  296  23.  Chipped Stone P o i n t s :  Groups 13 - 14  297  24.  Chipped Stone P o i n t s :  Groups 15 - 17  298  25.  Formed B i f a c e s :  Groups 1 - 2  299  26.  Formed B i f a c e s :  Groups 3 - 6  3OO  27.  Formed B i f a c e s and B i f a c e Fragments:  Group 7  301  28.  Formed U n i f a c e s (Steep End Retouch):  Groups  302  29.  Formed U n i f a c e s :  Subgroups 1 - 3  303  30.  Formed U n i f a c e s :  Group 6 - 9  304  31.  Formed U n i f a c e s :  Group 10  305  32.  Unformed U n i f a c e s  306  33.  P i e c e s Esquille'es  307  34.  Quartz C r y s t a l s  3O8  35.  Schematic Drawing Showing Cortex S p a l l A t t r i b u t e s 195  36.  Cortex S p a l l Cores, Zone A  309  37.  Cortex S p a l l Core, Zone A  310  38.  Cortex S p a l l T o o l s , S e c o n d a r i l y Flaked, Zone A  311  39.  Cortex S p a l l T o o l s (Spokeshaves?), Zone A  312  40.  Cortex S p a l l Tools (Saws?), Zone A  313  41.  Cortex S p a l l Tools, Edge B a t t e r e d , Zone A  314  42.  Cortex S p a l l T o o l s , Worn Edges, Zone A  315  43.  Cortex S p a l l T o o l s , End Struck; Side Struck; Zone A  316  1-4  xi  FIGURE  Page  44.  Close-up of Cortex S p a l l Saw Edge, Zone A  317  45.  Cortex S p a l l Cores, Zone B  3I8  46.  Cortex S p a l l T o o l s , S e c o n d a r i l y F l a k e d , Zone B  319  47.  Cortex S p a l l T o o l s , S e c o n d a r i l y F l a k e d , Worn Edges; Zone B  320  48.  Cortex S p a l l T o o l s , Spokeshaves; Edge-Like, Zone B  321  49.  Close-up of Cortex S p a l l Edge, Edge B a t t e r e d , Zone B  322  50.  Close-up o f Cortex S p a l l Edge, Edge P o l i s h e d , Zone B  323  51.  Core T o o l s :  Group 1  324  52.  Core T o o l s :  Group 2  325  53.  Core T o o l s :  Group 3  326  54.  Core T o o l s :  Group 4  327  55.  Close-up of Spokeshave Concavity:  56.  Pebble T o o l s  329  57.  B i f a c i a l l y F l a k e d Pebble T o o l  330  58.  Edge B a t t e r e d Cobbles  331  59.  Hammerstones  332  60.  A n v i l Stone  333  61.  Ground S l a t e P o i n t s  334  62.  Ground S l a t e Knives  335  63.  Ground S l a t e , a t Stage of Manufacture,  64.  Ground S l a t e :  65.  M i s c e l l a n e o u s Ground S l a t e A r t e f a c t s  338  66.  Sawn Nephrite Cobble  339  67.  Sawn and Ground Nephrite Pebbles  340  Group 4  Zone B  S l a t e Knives and Sawn S l a t e  xii  328  336 337  FIGURE  Page  68.  F l a k e d and Ground Nephrite Pebbles  3^1  69«  Adze Blade i n Process of S e c t i o n i n g by Sawing  342  70.  Adze Blades  343  71.  Adze Blades  344  72.  Small Nephrite T o o l s  345  73.  Hand Mauls  345  74.  Large Pecked Cobble  34.7  75. •  M i s c e l l a n e o u s Stone A r t e f a c t s  343  76.  D e c o r a t i v e Stone A r t e f a c t s  3^q  77.  Stone Mortar  350  78.  Graphite and S t e a t i t e  351  79.  Abrasive Saws, Zone A  352  80.  Abrasive Saws, Zone B  353  81.  Abrasive S l a b  354  82.  Abrasives  355  83.  Bone Awls  355  xiii  L I S T OF MAPS  MAP  Page  1.  Map  o f t h e Lower F r a s e r  2.  E t h n o g r a p h i c Map  3.  C o n t o u r Map  Valley  o f t h e Lower F r a s e r  of the Katz S i t e  xiv  13 Valley  47 68  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am indebted to a great many people who together made this report possible. people  I wish t o express my thanks t o the  of the Hope I n d i a n Band, p a r t i c u l a r l y Mrs. P e t e r  Pete  and C h i e f P e t e r Dennis P e t e r s , f o r the many kindnesses shown toward our f i e l d crew d u r i n g the p r o j e c t . The Katz Salvage  P r o j e c t was funded  i t i e s f o r Youth grants  through  an Opportun-  f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e was supplemented  by the Men's Canadian Club, the p r o v i n c i a l Department of Highways, and the B.C. p r o v i n c i a l government.  Field  equip-  ment was p r o v i d e d by the U.B.C. Laboratory of Archaeology. During the l o n g p e r i o d o f a n a l y z i n g and w r i t i n g up the r e s u l t s of  the e x c a v a t i o n I was a i d e d by graduate  student b u r s a r i e s  administered by P r e s i d e n t Walter Gage and a Research A s s i s t a n t s h i p with Dr. C a r l Borden. C a r r y i n g out the p r e l i m i n a r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the s i t e i n the f a l l  of 1970, I was a s s i s t e d by A l a n C a r l , Les Kopas,  David Archer and Gary B u r n i k e l l .  Members of the A r c h a e o l o g i c a l  S o c i e t y of B.C. generously gave of t h e i r time d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d and i n the f o l l o w i n g summer, when the major salvage e x c a v a t i o n was mounted. Arduous workers d u r i n g the summer of 1971 i n c l u d e d : Wendy D e v l i n , Walter H a r r i s o n , J a n K r a l t B u r n i k e l l , Wayne Davis, Dick T i p t o n , Mary Lynn T i p t o n , Laura Wilimovsky, Gary B u r n i k e l l , Greta Lundborg, Graydon McMurdo, Candace Hanson, K i t t y Bernick, L i n d a Cobb, Mike Heiden, Tom Duff, Mel Stewart, Bonnie Stewart,  Ferguson N e v i l l e , Theresa Bruch, Anthony  xv  Arundel, Ron S u t h e r l a n d , E i l e e n S u t h e r l a n d , S h e i l a N e v i l l e and H i l a r y Stewart.  Numerous other v o l u n t e e r s j o i n e d us f o r  short p e r i o d s of time.  Each of the crew members made impor-  tant and e s s e n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the p r o j e c t as workers and companions over a p e r i o d of three months i n the "bush" . We  were f o r t u n a t e i n h a v i n g a l a r g e number of r a t h e r w e l l  accomplished  musicians  on the crew, whose music made the  s i x weeks of constant r a i n much e a s i e r to endure. bour" , Ed P i c k , was  first  Our " n e i g h -  a welcome and f r e q u e n t v i s i t o r to the  campsite. In the 20 months s i n c e the e x c a v a t i o n was  completed,  I  have been helped by many i n d i v i d u a l s i n the l a b o r a t o r y . p a r t i c u l a r l y indebted to Leonard Ham,  Mike Heiden,  I am  Jan K r a l t  B u r a i k e l l , Alan C a r l , David Archer, and Roger Poulton, f o r t h e i r unpaid, but p a i n s t a k i n g , a s s i s t a n c e .  Hilary  Stewart,  Moira I r v i n e , and Nancy Condrashoff were p a r t i c u l a r l y s c i e n t i o u s i n d r a f t i n g the f i g u r e s i n t o f i n a l form. I r v i n e g e n t l y reminded me developed  of d e a d l i n e s , and  conMoira  photographed,  and p r i n t e d the photographs of a r t e f a c t s t h a t appear  i n the t h e s i s .  Candace Hanson typed and e d i t e d e a r l i e r  of the t h e s i s and B e t t y Obee p a t i e n t l y and typed the f i n a l  drafts  professionally  copy.  Commenting on e a r l i e r d r a f t s of the t h e s i s , I b e n e f i t e d from the suggestions of B j o r n Simonsen, Don  Abbott,  Jim  Haggerty, Ray Kenny and Paul Sneed. I am p a r t i c u l a r l y indebted to members of my committee.  advisory  Dr. C a r l Borden, chairman of the committee,  xvi  was  a constant source of invaluable advice, h e l p f u l c r i t i c i s m , and encouragement.  Dr. Borden frequently v i s i t e d the salvage project,  bringing wise counsel, mail, and beer.  His meticulous attention to  e a r l i e r drafts of the thesis were of great benefit.  Dr. Richard  Pearson devoted many hours to careful consideration and c r i t i c i s m of e a r l i e r versions of this thesis. suggested vant.  His advice was encouraging; his  solutions to problems I encountered was useful and r e l e -  I used Professor Wilson Duff's valuable book, The Upper Stalo,  as a frequent reference on ethnographic d e t a i l ; Professor Duff was a cooperative member of my committee.  x  vii  INTRODUCTION T h i s study r e p o r t s the r e s u l t s of salvage i n v e s t i g a t i o n s conducted at the Katz s i t e  (DiRj 1),  a prehistoric  settlement  on the n o r t h bank of the F r a s e r R i v e r , 3 m i l e s downriver from Hope, B r i t i s h Columbia.  The  area under i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s  l o c a t e d on a p o r t i o n of Reserve Number 4 of the Hope Indian Band.  A r c h a e o l o g i c a l salvage was  a c t i v i t y on a new and Haig.  The  prompted by c o n s t r u c t i o n  Trans-Canada Highway l i n k between Agassiz  road-bed of the proposed highway was  under the auspices  of the A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S i t e s Advisory  of B r i t i s h Columbia i n June of 1969*  I t was  a t Katz was  imminent.  The  mounted f o r the 1971  pithouse  Preliminary test trenching  c a r r i e d out i n September of 1970 j e c t was  Board  revealed that  the d e s t r u c t i o n of a major p o r t i o n of the l a r g e village  surveyed  was  and a l a r g e s c a l e salvage  field  pro-  season.  r a t i o n a l e f o r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n at the  Katz s i t e was  to r e c o v e r i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t c o u l d p o s s i b l y shed  l i g h t on a number of problems r e l a t i n g to the p r e h i s t o r y of the lower F r a s e r v a l l e y r e g i o n .  Hypotheses have been advanced  by p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s r e g a r d i n g houses i n the lower F r a s e r v a l l e y , presence i n the v a l l e y , and c a r r i e d out a t pithouse village  at Katz,  (3)  (1) (2)  the d e r i v a t i o n of p i t the time depth of t h e i r  the nature  settlements.  The  of the large  s i t u a t e d near the e a s t e r n end  1  activities  pithouse of the  lower  2  F r a s e r v a l l e y , provided an o p p o r t u n i t y to t e s t some of these earlier  hypotheses.  I t i s of i n t e r e s t t h a t p i t h o u s e s , l o n g c o n s i d e r e d a c u l t u r e t r a i t of the I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u ( T e i t , 1900: 192-194; Waterman et a l . , 1921: 3I1  Ray,  1939« I32-I37), are found i n  the lower F r a s e r v a l l e y i n t e r r i t o r y d e s c r i b e d e t h n o g r a p h i c a l l y as Coast S a l i s h  (Duff, 1952:  11;  H i l l - T o u t , 1902:  356).  Boas  (1890: 81) was the f i r s t to note t h i s f a c t and r e p o r t e d t h a t pithouse d i s t r i b u t i o n extended westward a l o n g the lower F r a s e r to  the confluence of the H a r r i s o n and F r a s e r r i v e r s  "...  where both the l a r g e wooden house of Vancouver I s l a n d and subterranean  lodge are i n use."  The  the  l a t e r work of H i l l - T o u t  (1902: 9$ 1904: 331), M. Smith (19^7* 257), Emmons (1951* 53), and B a r n e t t (1944: 268)  expanded the recorded d i s t r i b u t i o n of  pithouse settlements a l o n g the C h i l l i w a c k R i v e r , southward down the Nooksack v a l l e y , northward i n t o the lower H a r r i s o n drainage, and f i n a l l y B a r n e t t (1944: 268)  out to Musqueam near the d e l t a mouth.  p o i n t e d out, however, t h a t the  pithouses  used a t Musqueam d i f f e r e d i n s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n from of  the P l a t e a u .  those  Instead of having c o n i c a l or pyramidal r o o f s ,  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r o o f s t r u c t u r e s of the northwest P l a t e a u d w e l l i n g s (Ray,  1939* 132-137), the Musqueam pithouses had  f l a t r o o f s supported by a ". . . c e n t r a l post on top of which r e s t e d two 1944:  268).  l o g s c r o s s i n g a t r i g h t angles  . . ." ( B a r n e t t ,  In terms of f u n c t i o n , the Musqueam p i t h o u s e s were  used only i n the c o l d e s t p a r t of winter and as a r u l e no cooking was done t h e r e . There was no g e n e r a l  3  abandonment o f plank houses; the subterranean chamber was s l e p t i n when i t was c o l d , and the weak and the i n f i r m spent most o f t h e i r time there i n bad weather. (Ibid) On the q u e s t i o n of the d e r i v a t i o n of the lower F r a s e r v a l l e y pithouses,  B a r n e t t argued t h a t the c o a s t a l p a t t e r n s  were d e r i v e d d i r e c t l y from the i n t e r i o r . C h i l l i w a c k pithouses,  In the case of the  and presumably those f u r t h e r east i n  the F r a s e r v a l l e y , he suggested t h a t these people d e r i v e d ".  . . the p r a c t i c e of b u i l d i n g w i n t e r h a b i t a t i o n s . . . from  the Thompson bands who l i v e d not f a r above them on the F r a s e r River"  ( I b i d ; 269). M. Smith (19^7: 266), i n c o n t r a s t ,  suggested t h a t p i t h o u s e s  came i n t o the lower F r a s e r v a l l e y  v i a the H a r r i s o n drainage,  establishing a " . . . well-defined  s t r i p of pithouses extending  from upper H a r r i s o n Lake s t r a i g h t  south t o the upper reaches of the C h i l l i w a c k and Nooksack Rivers."  She contended t h a t t h i s " w e l l - d e f i n e d s t r i p "  e s t a b l i s h e d p r i o r to the occupation Halkomelem speakers,  was  o f the lower F r a s e r by  and c o n s t i t u t e d a d i s t i n c t c u l t u r a l  which she c a l l e d the "Middle F r a s e r " .  Moreover, she suggested  that the d i f f u s i o n of pithouses  down the F r a s e r  a secondary d i f f u s i o n "  S u t t l e s (1957* 169). i n a  (Ibid).  entity  "represented  c r i t i q u e o f M. Smith's argument, r e f u t e d h e r a s s e r t i o n s s t a t i n g they had " . . . l i t t l e  j u s t i f i c a t i o n i n known ethnography  or l i n g u i s t i c s . " The  f i r s t r e f e r e n c e t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n of p i t h o u s e s i n  Coast S a l i s h t e r r i t o r y i n the lower F r a s e r Canyon was made by T e i t (1900: 195). He r e p o r t e d t h a t "The Indians  of Yale  c o n s t r u c t e d a few of these d w e l l i n g s s h o r t l y before 1858, but  4  o r d i n a r i l y they l i v e d i n l a r g e lodges made o f s p l i t planks." T e i t ' s statement was i n t e r p r e t e d "by M . Smith as meaning t h a t the  use o f p i t h o u s e s i n Coast S a l i s h  was a r e c e n t phenomenon.  (Halkomelem) T e r r i t o r y  A r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence r e c o v e r e d  from a p i t h o u s e e x c a v a t i o n a t E s i l a o V i l l a g e  (DjRi 5) has  i n d i c a t e d that p i t h o u s e s have a c o n s i d e r a b l e time depth i n the  F r a s e r canyon and were i n use l a t e i n the f i r s t millennium  B.C.  (Borden, 1968: 16).  Borden contends t h a t the advent o f  p i t h o u s e s a t t h i s time marks an abrupt change i n the 9,000 year c u l t u r e sequence  i n the lower F r a s e r canyon.  He argues  that p i t h o u s e s , c o r n e r and b a s a l l y notched barbed p o i n t s , and a wide v a r i e t y o f c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e l i t h i c s i n d i c a t e the i n t r u s i o n o f an i n t e r i o r c u l t u r e i n t o the lower F r a s e r r i v e r region (Ibid.) of  He goes on t o say that i n time the i n f l u e n c e  t h i s i n t r u s i v e c u l t u r e extended t o the F r a s e r d e l t a and  i s evidenced i n the Whalen I I phase a r t e f a c t assemblage  (Ibid:  20). The pithouse v i l l a g e a t Katz was e s t a b l i s h e d i n r e c e n t time a c c o r d i n g t o an informant o f D u f f ' s (1952: 33)» a t ". . . about 1870 o r e a r l i e r r i v e r from Hope.  . . ." as a r e s u l t o f a movement down-  On the b a s i s o f the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence  p r i o r t o i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a t Katz and ethnographic r e p o r t s , the use o f p i t h o u s e s i n the lower F r a s e r r i v e r r e g i o n began about 2,000 years ago and p e r s i s t e d i n t o the h i s t o r i c  period.  Warren (1968: 37-^6) and Nelson (1969: 37-50) have concluded on the b a s i s o f dated s i t e s t h a t the advent o f w i n t e r villages  ( p i t h o u s e s and other semipermanent d w e l l i n g s ) a l o n g  5  major water courses i n the Columbia P l a t e a u began around the middle  of the f i r s t millennium B.C.  d e s c r i b e d by Warren ( 1 9 6 8 : P a t t e r n " 1 Nelson  (1969*  43)  T h i s development i s  as the b e g i n n i n g of the " P l a t e a u  3 8 ) , using similar  c r i t e r i a defines  t h i s p e r i o d as the b e g i n n i n g of the "Cayuse Phase."  The  cul-  t u r a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s which d i s t i n g u i s h the " P l a t e a u P a t t e r n " or "Cayuse Phase" from e a r l i e r m a n i f e s t a t i o n s are as f o l l o w s : (1)  the presence  of p i t h o u s e s and other semipermanent  d w e l l i n g s a l o n g major waterways i n s h e l t e r e d l o c a t i o n s (Nelson, 1 9 6 9 s (2)  the presence villages,  43).  of " s i t e complexes" which i n c l u d e w i n t e r  storage s h e l t e r s , storage p i t s ,  and p e t r o g l y p h s (3)  4 3 ? Warren, 1 9 6 8 :  (Nelson, 1 9 6 9 *  pictographs  38).  i n c r e a s e d emphasis on f i s h i n g i n d i c a t e d by the of l a r g e s i t e s on f l o o d p l a i n banks, major etc.,  tributaries,  and f i s h i n g equipment such as notched,  and grooved weights,  net gauges and  location  perforated,  shuttles,  composite  harpoon t i p s and v a l v e s , three pronged salmon spear barbs and barb guards,  u n i l a t e r a l l y barbed  bone pro-  j e c t i l e p o i n t s , and c a r v i n g s d e p i c t i n g f i s h and implements commonly a s s o c i a t e d with f i s h i n g 1969*  (4)  of e x t e n s i v e t r a d e i n c o a s t a l items such  d e n t a l i a , ground mussel s h e l l  (5)  (Nelson,  57).  evidence  adzes,  other  (Mytilus californianus)  Odostomia t e n u i s c u l p t a (Nelson, 1 9 6 9 s  the presence  as  46).  of Columbia P l a t e a u corner-notched  Quilomene Bar Base-Notched p r o j e c t i l e  points  and  (Nelson,  6  1969'  ^9)  or Middle-Columbia  basal-notched and W a l l u l a  r e c t a n g u l a r stemmed p o i n t s (Warren, 1968: Nelson  (1969* 5*0  suggests t h a t the " . . .  44).  winter v i l l a g e  p a t t e r n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the e t h n o g r a p h i c a l l y documented P l a t e a u s o c i a l and economic o r g a n i z a t i o n was  established at  the beginning of the Cayuse Phase." I have i n t r o d u c e d the models of p l a t e a u p r e h i s t o r y developed by Warren (1968) and Nelson  (1969) because t h e i r  work r e p r e s e n t s the only major attempts  to d e s c r i b e the char-  a c t e r i s t i c s of pithouse v i l l a g e settlement on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s . The appearance of p i t h o u s e s i n the lower F r a s e r canyon d u r i n g the "Skamel Phase" (Borden,  1968:  16)  does not appear to be  c o r r e l a t e d with any observable i n c r e a s e i n r i v e r i n e  resource  e x p l o i t a t i o n , a t l e a s t not on the b a s i s of the data a v a i l a b l e . Evidence  suggesting the u t i l i z a t i o n of the main canyon f i s h  resources i s documented over a 9,000 year span (Borden, 13-18).  However, the reasons  f o r the adoption of pithouses  i n the lower F r a s e r v a l l e y remain unexplained. advent  1968:  Whether the  of p i t h o u s e s i s simply an adoption of an i n t e r i o r d w e l l -  i n g by c o a s t a l peoples i n response  to i n t e r i o r - l i k e  c o n d i t i o n s , or the r e s u l t of coastward  movement of i n t e r i o r  peoples as suggested by Borden (1968: 16), w i l l r e q u i r e much r e s e a r c h .  climatic  are problems which  However, the i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a t  Katz should e n r i c h our knowledge i n t h i s r e s p e c t . The l o c a l sequences developed  i n the F r a s e r canyon and  i n the F r a s e r d e l t a are based a t present on a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l number of excavated  sites.  The l o n g c u l t u r e sequence of the  7  canyon, due t o poor p r e s e r v a t i o n , has been e s t a b l i s h e d e x c l u s i v e l y on l i t h i c suggesting  i n d u s t r i e s and i n d i r e c t  evidence  the presence o f organic a r t e f a c t s .  The c o a s t a l  s i t e s o f the F r a s e r d e l t a , on the other hand, have good pres e r v a t i o n , and i n f o r m a t i o n has been obtained r e g a r d i n g and  formal  s t y l i s t i c a t t r i b u t e s o f a r t e f a c t s of organic m a t e r i a l s .  In both the canyon and d e l t a sequences c u l t u r e change has been documented on the b a s i s o f the a r t e f a c t content cal stratigraphic units. subsistence-settlement  In the ethnographic  in verti-  l i t e r a t u r e , the  system (Streuver, 1968: 191-192) of the  Coast S a l i s h d e s c r i b e d by S u t t l e s ( I 9 6 0 : 302) and Duff  (1952:  62-74) i n v o l v e d the movement and d i s p e r s a l o f p o p u l a t i o n s i n accordance with the seasonal appearance or resources resource  areas.  i n various  I t i s l i k e l y t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the a r c h a e o l o g i -  c a l samples recovered  from the semipermanent occupation  of the k i n d presumed to be r e p r e s e n t e d  sites  by c e r t a i n c o a s t a l  middens, and pithouse v i l l a g e s , may n o t r e f l e c t a l l aspects of the economies i n e x i s t e n c e a t t h a t time. l i t h i c a r t e f a c t s recovered  F o r example, the  from the area surrounding  a  sturgeon  spawning slough near S e a b i r d I s l a n d i n the lower F r a s e r v a l l e y may d i f f e r c o n s i d e r a b l y from the l i t h i c remains found a t a f i s h i n g s t a t i o n i n the F r a s e r canyon.  I f c u l t u r e change i s  to be demonstrated a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l y i n the lower F r a s e r  river  r e g i o n , the a r t e f a c t v a r i a b i l i t y over a broad range o f a c t i v i t y s i t e s must be accounted f o r . I t i s apparent t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the time depth of p i t h o u s e s  i n the lower F r a s e r , t h e i r s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e s ,  8  and the a r t e f a c t u a l remains i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h them, bears d i r e c t l y on i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the p r e h i s t o r y of the lower F r a s e r .  A r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n a t the p i t -  house v i l l a g e s i t e a t K a t z was  expected t o enhance our  knowledge c o n s i d e r a b l y i n t h i s r e g a r d . The o b j e c t i v e s o f the Katz e x c a v a t i o n were (1) t o d e t e r mine the time a t which the Katz s i t e was the h i s t o r i c account o c c u p i e d about 1870  ( D u f f , 1952:  33)  occupied, to t e s t  t h a t the s i t e  o r somewhat e a r l i e r , o r , t o  was  determine  whether the p i t h o u s e s a t Katz a r e of a comparable age t o the E s i l a o p i t h o u s e r e p o r t e d by Borden (1968: 1 6 ) , (2) t o examine the s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e s o f the p i t h o u s e s and t o r e c o v e r s t r u c t u r a l d a t a b e a r i n g on B a r n e t t ' s (1944: 269)  hypothesis  t h a t the p i t h o u s e s of the l o w e r F r a s e r were d e r i v e d from the Lower Thompson, and  (3) t o r e c o v e r as l a r g e a sample as  p o s s i b l e of a r t e f a c t u a l remains i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the p i t houses so t h a t the a r t e f a c t v a r i a b i l i t y i n a broad range of t o o l c a t e g o r i e s might be r e p r e s e n t e d f o r use i n f u t u r e i n t e r site  comparisons. I n the a n a l y s i s of m a t e r i a l a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p i t h o u s e  occupancy a t K a t z , the main o b j e c t i v e i s t o attempt  t o make  i n f e r e n c e s r e g a r d i n g the n a t u r e and range o f c u l t u r a l t i e s c a r r i e d out a t the s i t e . was  activi-  The p i t h o u s e v i l l a g e a t Katz  s t r a t e g i c a l l y l o c a t e d a l o n g s i d e the major r o u t e of migrat'  i n g salmon p o p u l a t i o n s h e a d i n g t o the u p r i v e r t r i b u t a r i e s o f the F r a s e r .  Because a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d t o the e x p l o i t a t i o n  of these r i v e r i n e r e s o u r c e s may  have been c a r r i e d out i n the  9  immediate v i c i n i t y o f the Katz s i t e d u r i n g the summer and early f a l l  i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the s i t e r e p r e s e n t s  season u t i l i z a t i o n l o c a l i t y .  a multi-  F u n c t i o n a l i n f e r e n c e s made on  the b a s i s of the a r t e f a c t a n a l y s i s may l e n d credence to t h i s hypothesis.  However, i t i s r e a l i z e d t h a t both n o n - c u l t u r a l  f a c t o r s , f o r example, d i f f e r e n t i a l p r e s e r v a t i o n of a r t e f a c t u a l remains, and c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s such as the method of data r e covery  and a n a l y s i s , may b i a s the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of c u l t u r a l  remains upon -which these f u n c t i o n a l i n f e r e n c e s are based. Chapter I of the t h e s i s c o n t a i n s a d i s c u s s i o n of the p r e sent environment of the lower F r a s e r v a l l e y .  Information  on  the physiography, c l i m a t e , and g l a c i a l h i s t o r y of the area as i t p e r t a i n s t o the Katz s i t e i s d e a l t with i n t h i s s e c t i o n . A l s o i n c l u d e d i s a d e s c r i p t i o n of the f l o r a and fauna of the r e g i o n with p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n p a i d t o p o t e n t i a l l y u t i l i z a b l e resource ity,  s p e c i e s and t h e i r p e r i o d i c i t y , or seasonal  i n d i f f e r e n t macro- and micro-environments.  availabil-  These  data  are summarized i n a m u l t i v a r i a t e (Smallest Space A n a l y s i s ) s o l u t i o n a t the end of the chapter. In Chapter I I these resource  data are examined i n the  l i g h t of ethnographic accounts of settlement e x p l o i t a t i o n , and s o c i a l The  pattern,  resource  organization.  d e s c r i p t i o n o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l y d e r i v e d data from  the Katz s i t e begins i n Chapter I I I .  This topic i s introduced  by a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n o f the r e c e n t h i s t o r y o f the s i t e and the events which l e d t o the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l salvage t i o n of the s i t e .  Included  of a por-  within this section i s a report  10  as to the methods by which the data were c o l l e c t e d and a d e s c r i p t i o n of the s i t e Chapter  stratigraphy.  IV reviews the methods used i n a n a l y z i n g  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l assemblage. s t i t u t e s the bulk of t h i s  the  The a r t e f a c t d e s c r i p t i o n conchapter.  The a r c h a e o l o g i c a l data are summarized i n Chapter V a l o n g with a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to hypotheses v i o u s l y advanced.  The  pre-  contents of the p r e v i o u s d e s c r i p t i v e  chapters d e a l i n g with the environment, ethnography,  and  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f i n d i n g s are i n t e g r a t e d i n t h i s chapter i n an attempt  to i n f e r the nature of p r e h i s t o r i c c u l t u r a l  at the s i t e . The  I n t e r s i t e comparisons are made i n t h i s  c o n c l u d i n g p o r t i o n of the d i s c u s s i o n d e a l s with  activities chapter. suggest-  ions f o r f u t u r e work a t Katz a r i s i n g from the data a t hand, and proposes  s e v e r a l hypotheses  future i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  which c o u l d be t e s t e d by  CHAPTER I THE  ENVIRONMENT OF THE  LOWER FRASER VALLEY REGION  Introduction The  e c o l o g i c a l l y f a v o r a b l e r i v e r i n e and  ment of the lower F r a s e r V a l l e y Region has occupation p l a n t and  for millennia.  estuarene  supported human  A v a r i e t y of p o t e n t i a l l y u t i l i z a b l e  animal r e s o u r c e s ,  a moderate c l i m a t e , and a major  r i v e r waterway f o r t r a n s p o r t and  trade are f a c t o r s which  constituted a p a r t i c u l a r l y desirable habitat. and  environ-  The  together  l a n d forms  environment of the r e g i o n have not been constant  throughout  the span of human occupancy, however, but have undergone cons i d e r a b l e change. occurred  I t i s important t h a t the changes which have  i n the t e r r a i n ,  composition  of p l a n t and  the c l i m a t e , and  the s t r u c t u r e  and  animal communities through time are  understood. At present  our knowledge i n these areas i s f a r from adequate.  However, r e c e n t p a l y n o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h and  i n the lower F r a s e r V a l l e y  i n the F r a s e r Canyon (Mathewes et a l . , 1972)  will  contribute  toward our understanding of the development of the ecosystem of the r e g i o n .  A more d e t a i l e d paleoenvironmental  t i o n would a s s i s t i n d e v e l o p i n g  new  research  c o l l e c t i o n of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l data and  s t r a t e g i e s f o r the  a l l o w c u l t u r a l remains to  be viewed i n more r e f i n e d e c o l o g i c a l contexts  11  reconstruc-  than was  previously  12 possible.  Moreover, i f hypotheses  r e l a t i n g t o change i n sub-  s i s t e n c e and s e t t l e m e n t systems through time are to be t e s t e d a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l y , adequate i s a necessary p r e r e q u i s i t e  paleoenvironmental r e c o n s t r u c t i o n ( S t r u e v e r , 1968; 1971:  9-19)•  T h i s chapter i s devoted t o a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n o f the present physiography and environment  o f the lower F r a s e r v a l l e y  and t o the g e o l o g i c - c l i m a t i c events which have been instrument a l i n i t s shaping and development.  The l a t t e r p o r t i o n o f  t h i s chapter c o n t a i n s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the b i o g e o c l i m a t i c  zones  of the r e g i o n , and the major p l a n t and animal resource s p e c i e s of these zones known t o have been u t i l i z e d by a b o r i g i n a l occupants i n ethnographic time.  The p e r i o d i c i t y and s e a s o n a l i t y  of these s p e c i e s i s summarized i n a flow c h a r t (Figure 3) and i n a S m a l l e s t Space A n a l y s i s s o l u t i o n ( F i g u r e s 4 and 5 ) .  This  i n f o r m a t i o n i s a p p l i e d i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the a r t e f a c t assemblages and s t r a t i g r a p h y o f the Katz s i t e i n the d i s c u s s i o n chapter ( V ) . Physiography One o f the most prominent western B r i t i s h Columbia R i v e r drainage system  p h y s i o g r a p h i c f e a t u r e s o f south-  i s the lower course of the F r a s e r  (Map 1 ) .  The main canyon of the F r a s e r  begins i n the v i c i n i t y o f L y t t o n , near the Fraser-Thompson confluence.  From here, over the next 47 m i l e s t o Y a l e , the  F r a s e r courses almost due south dropping 280 f e e t i n e l e v a t i o n through a narrow, s t e e p l y s i d e d gorge.  The steep p r o f i l e of  the r i v e r bed and the narrow channel g i v e a tremendous v e l o c i t y  Map Map  of  "Ite  1. tavjev  Fraser- Vfo'le^  14  to the r i v e r over t h i s d i s t a n c e .  At Yale the channel broadens  markedly and the r i v e r g r a d i e n t becomes l e s s steep,  thus over  the next 15 m i l e s t o Hope, the F r a s e r flows more s l o w l y and with l e s s t u r b u l e n c e .  T h i s decrease i n v e l o c i t y , however, does  not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r the sediment c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y of the F r a s e r ' s regime.  P r e t i o u s (1969« 22) r e p o r t s t h a t d u r i n g the  s p r i n g f r e s h e t , o r other p e r i o d s o f high discharge, all  practically  o f the sediment l o a d p a s s i n g by Hope i s i n suspension.  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s important  f o r understanding  the dynamics  and growth o f the f l o o d p l a i n banks along the meander b e l t o f the r i v e r and the b u i l d - u p o f the d e l t a proper.  F o r more de-  t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n see Johnston ( 1 9 2 1 ) , Mathews and Shepard (1962), The  and P r e t i o u s  (1969).  F r a s e r assumes a more w e s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n a t Hope and  drops a mere 100 f e e t i n the remaining  100 m i l e s before i t  debouches i n t o the S t r a i t o f Georgia.  T h i s extremely s l i g h t  g r a d i e n t of the lower course  o f the r i v e r allows t i d a l  ence t o encroach f a r i n t o the lower F r a s e r v a l l e y . to P r e t i o u s (1969*.  influ-  According  13)«  The F r a s e r R i v e r d u r i n g i t s low-flow season which extends from December t o March i n c l u s i v e i s t i d a l as f a r upstream as Sumas, approximately 56 m i l e s from the mouth. F l o o d t i d e s d u r i n g t h i s low-flow season can cause the s u r f a c e c u r r e n t s i n the r i v e r to r e v e r s e d i r e c t i o n ( i . e . , move upstream); t h i s flow r e v e r s a l b e i n g n o t i c e a b l e as f a r upstream as F o r t Langley. T h i s marine i n f l u e n c e on the behavior  o f the r i v e r i s  e t h n o g r a p h i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h a t canoe t r a v e l was a f f e c t e d d u r i n g these p e r i o d s .  Duff  (1952:  16) has r e p o r t e d t h a t a  journey by canoe from Yale t o Musqueam " . . . c o u l d be made  15  i n two days, except when one had t o oppose the incoming t i d e . . . i n which case another day might be added t o the t r i p . " The  Coast Mountains r i s e s t e e p l y a l o n g the n o r t h e r n  of the v a l l e y t o e l e v a t i o n s from 5,000 t o 6,000 f e e t .  side  The  southern boundary i s d e l i m i t e d more g r a d u a l l y by the f o o t h i l l s of the Cascades, which a r e o r i e n t e d i n a n o r t h e a s t e r l y t o southwesterly  direction.  There a r e f o u r major t r i b u t a r i e s which d r a i n i n t o the lower F r a s e r v a l l e y :  the Harrison,  Sumas r i v e r systems.  Only the l a t t e r j o i n s the F r a s e r from  the south, north,  Stave,  Pitt  and C h i l l i w a c k -  the others d r a i n through the Coast Range on the  settling first  the F r a s e r . tively l i t t l e  i n t o l a r g e g l a c i a l l a k e s before  These n o r t h e r n  meeting  t r i b u t a r i e s have c o n t r i b u t e d  rela-  t o the b u i l d - u p o f the v a l l e y a l l u v i u m as a  r e s u l t o f the " s e t t l i n g b a s i n " e f f e c t o f the l a k e s .  The impor-  tance o f these lower t r i b u t a r i e s l i e s n o t i n t h e i r impact on the s u r f i c i a l geology o f the F r a s e r V a l l e y but i n the c r u c i a l r o l e they p l a y as spawning grounds f o r the m i g r a t i n g f i s h populations. in this The  anadromous  T h i s s u b j e c t i s covered i n some d e t a i l  chapter. Katz s i t e i s s i t u a t e d on the n o r t h  ( r i g h t ) bank o f  the F r a s e r R i v e r a t the easternmost extremity  o f a broad  a l l u v i a l p l a i n approximately 3 m i l e s downriver from Hope ure 1 ) .  later  (Fig-  The main channel o f the F r a s e r where the r i v e r passes  the s i t e i s a g a i n s t the opposite,  o r south bank.  This i s  where the r i v e r bed i s deepest and has the g r e a t e s t v e l o c i t y . T h i s would suggest t h a t d u r i n g p e r i o d s o f high discharge the  16  degree o f e r o s i o n would be g r e a t e s t a l o n g t h e south bank. R a d i o c a r b o n a n a l y s i s o f a c h a r c o a l sample c o l l e c t e d 1.8 f e e t above t h e c o b b l e pavement o f t h e abandoned r i v e r c h a n n e l a t the K a t z s i t e has y i e l d e d a date o f 750 t 90 y e a r s B.C. ( I U8f). T h i s date s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e F r a s e r R i v e r has n o t meandered i n the d i r e c t i o n o f K a t z f o r almost 3,000 y e a r s and perhaps longer. Dog Mountain r i s e s s t e e p l y on t h e e a s t e r n boundary o f the f l o o d p l a i n t o an e l e v a t i o n o f 4,500 f e e t .  A rock spur  which descends s h a r p l y i n t o t h e r i v e r from t h i s  mountain,  i m m e d i a t e l y t o t h e e a s t o f t h e s i t e , was used a s a f i s h i n g s t a t i o n by t h e p r e s e n t occupant o f t h e s i t e , Mrs. P e t e r P e t e , u n t i l 1970 when r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n was i n i t i a t e d .  A petroglyph  p a n e l was removed from t h e base o f t h i s r o c k spur i n t h e summer o f 1971 t o a v o i d b u r i a l by t h e highway r o a d bed. A l s o t o t h e e a s t o f t h e s i t e i s a s m a l l s l o u g h c r e a t e d by t h e b u i l d up o f a l a r g e "bar" i n t h e r i v e r .  The slow moving water o f  t h i s s m a l l c h a n n e l i s r e p o r t e d t o have been a r e s t i n g p l a c e f o r salmon a s c e n d i n g t h e r i v e r , and thus an i d e a l f i s h i n g l o c a t i o n p r i o r t o i t s d e s t r u c t i o n by t h e highway (Mrs. P e t e p e r s o n a l communication,  1971).  Mrs. Pete i n f o r m e d us t h a t t h e  f l o o d p l a i n a t K a t z f o r m e r l y extended much f a r t h e r o u t i n t o t h e r i v e r than a t p r e s e n t b u t p a r t o f t h e bank was washed away i n the 1948 f l o o d .  What she d e s c r i b e d asfremnant o f t h e former  bank can be seen i n F i g u r e 1, i m m e d i a t e l y t o t h e west o f t h e West Coast T r a n s m i s s i o n gas p i p e l i n e which c r o s s e s t h e r i v e r n e a r t h e base o f t h e r o c k s p u r .  17  F i g u r e 1.  A e r i a l Photograph o f the Katz s i t e (1969). The s i t e i s l o c a t e d between the end of the highway under c o n s t r u c t i o n (broad white l i n e ) and the p i p e l i n e c r o s s i n g the r i v e r .  18  Between A g a s s i z and the Katz s i t e ,  a d i s t a n c e of some 20  m i l e s , the f l o o d p l a i n banks are extremely broad i n some p l a c e s . The p o s i t i o n of these banks has l i k e l y a l t e r n a t e d from  one  s i d e to the other i n accordance with the changing meander p a t t e r n of the r i v e r through time.  Along the n o r t h bank of  the r i v e r over t h i s d i s t a n c e are a number of o l d r i v e r  channels  which, as a r e s u l t of r a i l w a y (C.P.R.) and highway c o n s t r u c t i o n , have been transformed i n t o sloughs.  These channels o f t e n pene-  t r a t e some d i s t a n c e from the present r i v e r course i n t o the f l o o d p l a i n and i n e a r l i e r times c o u l d have p r o v i d e d l o c a l r o u t e s f o r canoe t r a v e l d u r i n g the h i g h - f l o w season.  The  calm  waters of these e x t i n c t channels were probably a l s o r e s t i n g p l a c e s f o r m i g r a t i n g salmon, as w e l l as f i s h i n g grounds f o r spawning sturgeon, as Maria Slough r e p o r t e d by Duff (1952s 68). The F r a s e r R i v e r has been the major agent of p h y s i o g r a p h i c change i n the lower F r a s e r v a l l e y .  The p e r i o d i c f l o o d i n g of  the sediment-laden waters of the r i v e r c r e a t e d most areas of flat,  w e l l drained, p o t e n t i a l l y h a b i t a b l e l a n d .  The meander-  i n g c h a r a c t e r of the r i v e r a l s o c r e a t e d numerous m i c r o e n v i r o n ments i n the form of marsh lands f o r the support of water f o w l , and sloughs and back eddies f o r spawning grounds and p l a c e s f o r anadromous f i s h p o p u l a t i o n s .  resting  The physiography  and  dynamics of the F r a s e r R i v e r are important c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n the c u l t u r a l ecology of the lower F r a s e r R i v e r v a l l e y . The c l i m a t i c and g e o l o g i c events which have served to shape the p r e s e n t physiography w i l l now  be b r i e f l y  summarized.  19  Glacial History The advances  o f g l a c i a l i c e which o c c u r r e d p e r i o d i c a l l y  throughout the P l e i s t o c e n e p r o f o u n d l y a f f e c t e d the present l a n d forms.  The g l a c i e r s a l t e r e d the landscape by s c o u r i n g and  gouging channels a l o n g t h e i r paths o f egress, by d e p o s i t i n g till,  or i n d i r e c t l y by r e d e p o s i t i n g u n c o n s o l i d a t e d m a t e r i a l s  v i a melt water r e l e a s e d by wasting i c e (e.g., the F r a s e r R i v e r f l o o d p l a i n banks and d e l t a ) .  The g l a c i e r s developed by a  gradual b u i l d - u p o f snow i n the h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s ,  particularly  at c e r t a i n primary and secondary g l a c i a l c e n t e r s i n the Coast and Rocky Mountain ranges.  The g l a c i a l episode b r i e f l y  summarized here i s the l a s t major g l a c i a l c y c l e , the " F r a s e r Glaciation." The F r a s e r G l a c i a t i o n i n c l u d e s what has p r e v i o u s l y been r e f e r r e d t o as an e a r l y a l p i n e phase of the Vashon G l a c i a t i o n ( C r a n d e l l , 1 9 6 3 ) , Vashon G l a c i a t i o n ( W i l l i s , 1898) and Sumas G l a c i a t i o n (Armstrong, 1957)» These t h r e e g l a c i a l episodes are now g i v e n the rank of s t a d e s . The Vashon and Sumas Stades are here separated by an e s s e n t i a l l y n o n - g l a c i a l episode here named the Everson I n t e r s t a d e (Armstrong et a l . 1965: 3 2 6 ) . The F r a s e r G l a c i a t i o n seems to correspond t o the same g e o l o g i c - c l i m a t i c episode known as the " c l a s s i c a l "  Wisconsin  G l a c i a t i o n of the midwestern  1957:  352).  United States ( F l i n t ,  351-  The exact date o f the e a r l y a l p i n e phase i s not y e t  f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d , but was probably around 26,000 B.P.  The  ensuing Vashon Stade was not l i m i t e d to h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s but e v e n t u a l l y came t o occupy the lowlands o f southwestern Columbia and northwestern Washington.  British  The t h i c k n e s s o f the  20  Vashon i c e has been i n v e s t i g a t e d by a number o f r e s e a r c h e r s and has been summarized by Armstrong et a l . (1965:  327).  The C o r d i l l e r a n g l a c i e r covered the Coast Mountains near the c i t y o f Vancouver to a l t i t u d e s o f a t l e a s t 6,000 f e e t , and on Vancouver I s l a n d i t extended t o at l e a s t 5,500 f e e t . F u r t h e r north on the Coast Mountains i t achieved a l t i t u d e s of 7,500 f e e t or more (Davis and Mathews, 1 9 4 4 ) . Vashon i c e began to v a n i s h from the Puget Lowland sometime before 13,500 years B.P.  T h i s estimate i s based on peat sam-  p l e s taken from Lake Washington and dated a t 14,000 t 900 (L-330) and 13,650 t 550 (L-346, Rigg and Gould, 1 9 5 7 ) .  Ice-  f r e e c o n d i t i o n s a p p a r e n t l y e x i s t e d i n the F r a s e r Canyon p r i o r to 11,500 years B.P. on the b a s i s o f r a d i o c a r b o n assays o f samples taken from P i n e c r e s t and Squeah Lakes (Mathewes e t a l . , 1972:  1056).  These r e s e a r c h e r s are c a r e f u l not to d i s c o u n t  the p o s s i b i l i t y o f the presence period.  of l o c a l i z e d i c e a f t e r  this  A r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n the F r a s e r Canyon  at the M i l l i k e n s i t e  ( D j R i : 7) has p r o v i d e d r a d i o c a r b o n  dates  as e a r l y as 9,000 t 150 years B.P. ( S - 1 1 3 ) , which i n d i c a t e s the F r a s e r R i v e r was f r e e - f l o w i n g a t t h a t time (Borden, 6).  1961:  F u r t h e r g e o l o g i c a l and p a l y n o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i s needed  before a more complete p i c t u r e of the p a l e o c l i m a t e o f the r e g i o n can be c o n s t r u c t e d .  F o r more d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n on  the F r a s e r G l a c i a t i o n , see Armstrong e t a l . ( 1 9 6 5 ) ,  Easter-  brook ( 1 9 1 3 ) , Mathews e t a l . (1970) and Mathewes e t a l . ( 1 9 7 2 ) . The advance and r e t r e a t o f Vashon Stade i c e brought about c o n s i d e r a b l e changes i n land-sea l e v e l r e l a t i o n s .  These  f l u c t u a t i o n s are o f obvious importance i n determining which  21  areas were s u i t a b l e f o r human h a b i t a t i o n at e a r l y p e r i o d s , which areas were not.  F l u c t u a t i o n s i n land-sea (1964: 1 1 6 )  t i o n s a c c o r d i n g to H o l l a n d i n t e r p l a y of three f a c t o r s : crust,  "...  i n f o r m a t i o n on land-sea  rela-  involved  the  (a) i s o s t a t i c adjustments of the  (b) t e c t o n i c movements of the c r u s t , and  movements of sea l e v e l . "  level  and  Loy  (c) e u s t a t i c  (1972) c o l l a t e d the a v a i l a b l e  l e v e l r e l a t i o n s p u b l i s h e d by  Easter-  brook ( 1 9 6 3 ) , Armstrong et a l . ( 1 9 6 5 ) . Mathews et a l . (1970) and Borden (1970) which p e r t a i n s to the F r a s e r lowland r e g i o n . Loy  suggests t h a t the F r a s e r lowlands were submerged through-  out the Everson I n t e r s t a d i a l and  continued  sometime p r i o r to 9,000 years B.P.  submerged u n t i l  In other words, Marine  waters made these low l y i n g areas i n a c c e s s i b l e f o r human h a b i t a t i o n u n t i l some time between 10,000 and 9,000 The  B.P.  F r a s e r R i v e r , r a t h e r than marine waters, has  the major determining  factor i n aboriginal site location in  the Katz v i c i n i t y from a very e a r l y time. Fraser,.estimated  been  The  volume of  to be 25,000 c u b i c f e e t per second  the f r e s h e t , ( P r e t i o u s , 1 9 6 9 '  22), was  probably  the  during  much g r e a t e r  p r i o r to the l a t e p o s t g l a c i a l p e r i o d (Heusser, I 9 6 0 ) .  Remnants  of former f l o o d p l a i n banks occur above the present f l o o d p l a i n i n the Katz v i c i n i t y .  One  such remnant i s l o c a t e d a g a i n s t  s t e e p l y r i s i n g c l i f f behind, or north of, the Katz s i t e ranges i n e l e v a t i o n between 8 and floodplain.  10  f e e t above the  and  present  H e a v i l y p a t i n a t e d stone a r t e f a c t s were observed  i n these t e r r a c e s which were c a s t up d u r i n g a r o o t excavation.  the  cellar  Whether t h i s m a t e r i a l i s approximately contempor-  22  aneous with the c u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l excavated  from the  lower  f l o o d p l a i n or r e p r e s e n t s occupation on a h i g h e r t e r r a c e a t an e a r l i e r time, when the r i v e r volume was  greater, i s a question  which awaits f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . The excavated p o r t i o n of the Katz s i t e i s assigned, on the b a s i s of 3 r a d i o c a r b o n dates, to a p e r i o d d u r i n g the f i r s t millennium B.C.  T h i s time p e r i o d f a l l s w i t h i n Heusser's  l a t e p o s t - g l a c i a l (or modern) c l i m a t i c p e r i o d .  (I960)  Thus a t t e n t i o n  i n the next chapter i s c o n f i n e d to a d e s c r i p t i o n of "modern c l i m a t e " and b i o g e o c l i m a t i c zones; no attempt  i s made to  s p e c u l a t e on p l a n t s u c c e s s i o n or paleoenvironmental  floral  or  f a u n a l communities. Climate The F r a s e r V a l l e y experiences a narrow seasonal range i n temperature, The average  and a marked seasonal v a r i a t i o n i n p r e c i p i t a t i o n . temperature  range f o r the F r a s e r lowlands i s  approximately 30 degrees. the bulk of r a i n f a l l  The  summers are r e l a t i v e l y dry with  i n the w i n t e r months.  The  mollifying  i n f l u e n c e of the ocean decreases with d i s t a n c e eastward  up  the  F r a s e r V a l l e y and an i n c r e a s e i n s n o w f a l l occurs i n the e a s t e r n p o r t i o n of the v a l l e y .  Duff (1952: 17)  observed t h a t the i n -  crease i n s n o w f a l l i n the e a s t e r n p o r t i o n of the v a l l e y corresponds with a change i n house type from the use of the plank house, the d w e l l i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Coast, semi-subterranean file  d w e l l i n g , a t r a i t of the I n t e r i o r .  to the A pro-  of c l i m a t e and r i v e r g r a d i e n t showing the changes which  23  occur i n winter temperature and s n o w f a l l i n the v a l l e y i s illustrated  i n F i g u r e 2. F i g u r e 2.  P r o f i l e o f Climate and R i v e r Gradient Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y  i n the  100  100 80  80  60  -f60  40  January  20  40  temp. ( * F . )  20  A y e r a g e " annual" snowfall- ( i n c h e s )  0 M j les->  mean  20m  Abbotsfprd  ve r  100  80m  60m  40m  Agassiz  0  Hope  Vancou  200  200  150  150  100  Elevation  above sea .level  (ft.)  100  50  50 0  During the summer months warm winds are funneled F r a s e r Canyon.  through the  These winds were extremely important  local inhabitants.  f o r the  F i s h d r y i n g r a c k s were c o n s t r u c t e d on high  p o i n t s of l a n d i n the canyon t o take advantage of the summer  24  winds f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n of salmon (Duff, 1 9 5 2 : salmon d r y i n g rack owned by Mrs. P. Pete was Katz s i t e u n t i l the summer of 1971*  66).  A  i n use a t the  I t i s r e p o r t e d that the  f i s h d r y i n g process down r i v e r from Yale o f t e n had to be supplemented  artificially  by smoke-drying  due to the reduced  v e l o c i t y of the wind a l o n g the lower course of the r i v e r (Duff, 1952:  18).  Flora The l o c a t i o n of the Katz s i t e i s approximately middle d i s t a n c e along the course of the F r a s e r i n what i s d e s c r i b e d e t h n o g r a p h i c a l l y as T a i t t e r r i t o r y Map  2).  (Duff, 1 9 5 2 :  19.  See  also  W i t h i n the boundaries of T a i t t e r r i t o r y there are  f o u r b i o g e o c l i m a t i c zones W i t h i n these "macro-zonal"  (Krajina, 1969;  Kra.iina e t a l . :  1965).  groupings t h e r e are a number of  subzonal and micro-environmental h a b i t a t s which d i f f e r from  one  another i n p l a n t s t r u c t u r e and composition as a response to s p e c i f i c v a r i a t i o n s a l o n g "environmental g r a d i e n t s " (Wittaker, 1970:  35)«  The g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r of these zones, and the  p l a n t i n d i c a t o r s and a s s o c i a t i o n s of each zone and subzone are o u t l i n e d below.  P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n here to r e s o u r c e  s p e c i e s mentioned  i n the ethnographic l i t e r a t u r e .  mation has been drawn from the work done by K r a j i n a K r a j i n a e t a l . (1965)» ( 1 9 4 7 ) , Heusser (1955)»  This i n f o r (1969),  with a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n from Hansen  (I960), Lyons ( 1 9 5 2 ) ,  and Turner ( 1 9 7 2 : unpublished  Duff ( 1 9 5 2 ) , ms.).  Suttles  25  1.  The A l p i n e Zone In southwestern  5,500  B r i t i s h Columbia  t h i s zone begins near  f e e t above sea l e v e l , and has an annual average s n o w f a l l  of approximately 7 7 0 . 0 i n c h e s .  The p r o d u c t i v i t y i n terms of  p l a n t and animal r e s o u r c e s i s low i n t h i s zone, with a climax p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n of white moss heather red heather nigrum).  (Cassiope mertensiana),  (Phyllodoce empetriformis) and crowberry  (Empetrum  Duff ( 1 9 5 2 ) r e p o r t s only one r e s o u r c e , mountain goat  (Oreamnos americanus) u t i l i z e d by the T a i t from t h i s zone. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t other r e s o u r c e s were u t i l i z e d but not mentioned i n the ethnographic 2.  literature.  The Mountain Hemlock Zone:  A Zone of the P a c i f i c  C o a s t a l Subalpine F o r e s t Region The mountain hemlock zone occupies the mountain s l o p e s from e l e v a t i o n s of 3 , 0 0 0 t o 5 , 5 0 0  feet.  The average  s n o w f a l l i s extremely h i g h , r a n g i n g from 110 annually.  There are two  to 800  annual inches  subzones w i t h i n t h i s zone which can  be d i s t i n g u i s h e d a l o n g an e l e v a t i o n g r a d i e n t , the lower suba l p i n e f o r e s t subzone, and the upper s u b a l p i n e park l a n d subzone.  The lower subzone grades from the lower c o a s t a l  western  hemlock zone a t approximately 3 , 0 0 0 f e e t and continues to 3,600 feet. way  T h i s subzone does not seem to support much i n the  of e d i b l e p l a n t m a t e r i a l .  The p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n climax  i s a m a b i l i s f i r (Abies a m a b i l i s ) , and mountain hemlock  (Tsuga  mertensiana), with l a d y f e r n s (Athyrium f i l i x f e m i n a ) and only one s p e c i e s of h u c k l e b e r r y (Vaccinium a l a s k a e n s e ) . subzone, from 3,600 to 5 , 5 0 0  The upper  f e e t , has a climax a s s o c i a t i o n of  26  m o u n t a i n h e m l o c k and membranaceum). present, the  blue  Two  additional  s u b z o n e i s an  animals,  such  tall  as w a p i t i  (Vaccinium  blue huckleberry  important  mule d e e r  3.  The  an a n n u a l  (Cervus  (1965),  canadensis deer  gradient within this  (Odocoileus  v i n e maple  red huckleberry  (Vaccinium  Oregon grape  wetter  The  subzonal  least  l e a f maple  (Mahonia  subalpine  this  resources u t i l i z e d  edible  p a r t s are not  the heavy f o r e s t  and  subzone:  110  inches  hemlock  (Tsuga are  (Gaultheria  inches  (western  of p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s hemlock c l i m a x  the  low  asso-  e l e v a t i o n sub-  h e m l o c k zone) a r e  the  subzones i n terms o f s u s t a i n i n g the p l a n t  animal  by  the T a i t .  sufficiently  canopy i n these  f a r i s the  Fraser lowlands  drier  nervosa).  s u b z o n e , and  forest  subzones  (Acer macrophyllum),  parvifolium), salal  s u b z o n e , above 110  In general,  productive  zone by  hemionus),  plant indicators  an a m a b i l i s f i r ( A b i e s a m a b i l i s ) — w e s t e r n  zone o f t h e  The  menziesii)—western  (Acer c i r i n a t u m ) , broad  s h a l l o n ) and  zone.  p r e c i p i t a t i o n r a n g e o f between 70  heterophylla) association.  ciation.  ovalifolium).  n e l s o n i ) i n the  have d i s t i n g u i s h e d two  a Douglas f i r (Pseudotsuga  The  (Vaccinium  C o a s t a l W e s t e r n Hemlock Zone  along a moisture  is  deliciosum), near  ( O d o c o i l e u s hemionus hemionus).  Krajina et a l .  with  also  b r o w s i n g a r e a f o r l a r g e game  upper S k a g i t Mountains, b l a c k t a i l and  (Vaccinium  s p e c i e s of huckleberry are  leafed huckleberry  t i m b e r l i n e , and  This  b l a c k mountain h u c k l e b e r r y  and  The  plants bearing  shade t o l e r a n t subzones.  The  to t h r i v e most  t o 500  under  productive  c o a s t a l D o u g l a s f i r zone o c c u p y i n g e l e v a t i o n s o f up  and  f e e t above  the sea  27  level. 4.  The C o a s t a l Douglas F i r Zone T h i s zone i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by low annual  27 to 67 i n c h e s a n n u a l l y .  rainfall,  from  In areas where the e f f e c t of the  outer Coast Mountain " r a i n shadow" i s most pronounced, i . e . , where the annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s under 40 i n c h e s a n n u a l l y , the climax p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n i s Garry oak with i t s e d i b l e acorn, and Douglas f i r . occur i n the southwestern groves  (Quercus garryana), Stands of Garry  p a r t of the F r a s e r d e l t a with  oak small  i d e n t i f i e d i n the F r a s e r Canyon near Yale and on Sumas  Mountain (Lyons,  1952:  ^3).  Camas (Camassia quamash) grows  i n the western p o r t i o n of the F r a s e r V a l l e y i n the of K a t z i e and Musqueam t e r r i t o r y  (Duff, 1952« 73)»  been a v a i l a b l e to the T a i t through  vicinity and may  have  trade.  Over most of the F r a s e r V a l l e y where the r a i n f a l l i s between 40 and 67 i n c h e s a n n u a l l y , the subzone i s an (Arbutus m e n z i e s i i ) — D o u g l a s  arbutus  f i r a s s o c i a t i o n with western  white pine (Pinus m o n t i c o l a ) , western r e d cedar  (Thu.ia p l i c a t a ) ,  western hemlock (Tsuga h e t e r o p h y l l a ) a l s o present.  This  sub-  zone supports a l a r g e v a r i e t y of p l a n t s b e a r i n g e d i b l e p a r t s which were u t i l i z e d by the Coast S a l i s h of the area (Duff, 1952;  Suttles, 1951)*  a q u i l i n i u m pubescens), salmonberry  Among these are bracken thimbleberry  (Pteridium  (Rubus p a r v i f l o r u s ) ,  (Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s ) , w i l d onions, w i l d t i g e r  (Lilium parviflorum), s a l a l  ( G a u l t h e r i a s h a l l o n ) , bunchberry  (Cornus canadensis), t r a i l i n g b l a c k b e r r y (Rubus u r s i n u s ) , P a c i f i c crabapple  lily  (Malus d i v e r s i f o l i a ) , h a z e l n u t  (Corylus  28  californica), (Vaccinium  Oregon grape (Mahonia nervosa),  red huckleberry  p a r v i f o l i u m ) , and t a l l blue h u c k l e b e r r y  (Vaccinium  ovalifolium)• The v e g e t a t i o n on the f l o o d p l a i n banks i n the v i c i n i t y of Katz, where the bench i s h i g h e r than the average summer water level,  c o n s i s t s of v a r i o u s s p e c i e s of willow  (Alnus r u b r a ) , Northern  (Salix  spp.),  Black Cottonwood (Populus t r i c h o c a r p a ) .  and Vine Maple (Acer c i r i n a t u m ) .  Most of the p l a n t s b e a r i n g  e d i b l e p a r t s which were l i s t e d above such as bracken,  thimble-  b e r r y , salmonberry, t r a i l i n g b l a c k b e r r y , e t c . , can be found on the f l o o d p l a i n .  Other p l a n t s p e c i e s o f economic importance  are found i n v a r i o u s microenvironments a l o n g the meander b e l t of  the r i v e r  (1951*  (e.g., g r a v e l bars, marshes and bogs).  Suttles  2 7 5 ) mentions the g a t h e r i n g of wapatoes ( S a g i t t a r i a  l a t i f o l i a ) from the marshes near the confluence and F r a s e r r i v e r s i n K a t z i e t e r r i t o r y .  of the P i t t  T h i s p o t a t o - l i k e tuber  i s r e p o r t e d to be r i c h i n s t a r c h (Szczawinski and Hordy, 1 9 6 7 : 79)•  S e v e r a l s p e c i e s of w i l d onions  ( A l l i u m spp.) grow i n the  F r a s e r V a l l e y , but only the Geyers onion i n moist  ( A l l i u m g e y e r i ) grows  c o n d i t i o n s a l o n g the r i v e r banks (Lyons,  1952: 127)•  Other marsh p l a n t s known t o have been used e t h n o g r a p h i c a l l y i n c l u d e water p l a n t a i n (Alisma p l a n t a g o - a a u a t i c a ) , bog c r a n berry  (Vaccinium  oxycoccus intermedium), " r i c e - r o o t " ,  (probably  F r i t i l l a r i a l a n c e o l a t a ) , and water p a r s n i p (Sium c i c u t a e f o l i u m ) , cow p a r s n i p (Heraeleum lanatum), h a z e l nut ( C o r y l u s spp.), w i l d crabapple,  Oregon grape (Mahonia nervosa) and s p e c i e s of the  c a r r o t f a m i l y (Lomatium spp.) are r e p o r t e d by Duff  ( 1 9 5 2 ) to  29  have been u t i l i z e d b y t h e T a i t . Though t h e e t h n o b o t a n y  f o r t h e a r e a i s f a r from  complete,  the i n v e n t o r y which h a s been r e c o r d e d i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e p l a n t r e s o u r c e p o t e n t i a l w i t h i n easy access o f the Katz is rich at  and v a r i e d .  site  Whether the p l a n t s p e c i e s b e i n g u t i l i z e d  t h e t i m e o f w h i t e c o n t a c t were a l s o u s e d d u r i n g t h e o c c u p a -  tion  o f the s i t e  be d e m o n s t r a t e d  d u r i n g t h e f i r s t m i l l e n n i u m B.C. h a s y e t t o archaeologically.  used r e q u i r e d r o a s t i n g ,  Many o f t h e p l a n t  foods  s t e a m i n g o r o t h e r means o f p r e p a r a t i o n .  C a r e f u l examination o f t h e contents o f excavated hearths and e a r t h ovens, p l a n t remains  and s o p h i s t i c a t e d techniques f o r the r e c o v e r y o f from a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s  questions relating  are necessary i f  t o s u b s i s t e n c e a r e t o be a n s w e r e d .  Fauna The ical  animals ( e x c l u d i n g f i s h e s ) which i n h a b i t  zones  surrounding the Katz s i t e  biogeograph-  and which a r e r e p o r t e d  by D u f f (1952) t o h a v e b e e n h u n t e d b y t h e U p p e r S t a l o a r e a s follows;  b l a c k bear  (Ursus americanus), mountain  (Oreamnos a m e r i c a n u s ) , d e e r wapiti  beaver  (Procyon l o t o r ) , and  squirrel  ducks, geese, and 71).  ( O d o c o i l e u s hemionus c o l u m b i a n u s ) ,  (Cervus canadensis n e l s o n i ) ,  horribilis),  goat  grizzly  bear  (Ursus a r c t o s  (Castor canadensis leucodontus), raccoon  marten (Martes americana  caurina),  (Tamiasciurus douglasi m o l l i p i l o s u s ) .  groundhog, Species o f  eagles, grouse, f i s h cranes, robins, blue  c r o w s were a l s o u t i l i z e d t o v a r y i n g d e g r e e s  jays  ( D u f f , 1952s  30  R i v e r i n e Resources As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, the Katz s i t e i s s i t u a t e d approximately  middle  d i s t a n c e a l o n g the course  of the F r a s e r  R i v e r i n what i s e t h n o g r a p h i c a l l y d e s c r i b e d as T a i t (Duff, 1952).  territory  An attempt i s made here to examine the r i v e r i n e  resources of the T a i t t e r r i t o r y i n some d e t a i l .  I t i s rea-  l i z e d t h a t the settlement p a t t e r n of the occupants of the  Katz  s i t e may  not have been i d e n t i c a l to t h a t recorded ethnograph-  ically.  However, i t i s f e l t t h a t an overview  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of T a i t t e r r i t o r y may  of the resource  prove u s e f u l f o r f u t u r e  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n the area, and w i l l a l l o w the Katz s i t e to be viewed i n a broader  ecological  context.  A c c o r d i n g to Duff, T a i t t e r r i t o r y extended from approxi m a t e l y 5 m i l e s above Y a l e , B. C ,  where i t bordered  the  t e r r i t o r y occupied by the Lower Thompson ( I n t e r i o r S a l i s h ) , downriver rivers.  almost  to the confluence of the H a r r i s o n and F r a s e r  The T a i t d i d not t r a d i t i o n a l l y occupy the area  surrounding the lower H a r r i s o n drainage but d i d p a r t i c i p a t e i n the f i s h e r y of the H a r r i s o n system with neighbouring S t a l o groups:  Upper  the C h e h a l i s , the P i l a l t and the S c o w l i t z .  T h i s gave the T a i t three major r i v e r i n e resource areas. h o l d i n g s i n the main canyon p r o v i d e d e x c e l l e n t f i s h i n g  Their sta-  t i o n s f o r the i n t e r c e p t i o n of salmon m i g r a t i n g to the upper F r a s e r spawning a r e a s .  The  lower course of the F r a s e r below  Hope p r o v i d e d access to the chum, coho, and pink s p e c i e s of salmon which are predominantly  "mainstream spawners", the  31  m a j o r i t y of which do not venture t h i r d area was  i n t o the upper system.  the very important  The  spawning ground of the  H a r r i s o n system. An examination of the m i g r a t i n g salmon p o p u l a t i o n s i n t o the F r a s e r R i v e r system was  c a r r i e d out.  running  Government  f i s h e r i e s p u b l i c a t i o n s were used to o b t a i n the necessary mation, and  these data were supplemented by i n f o r m a t i o n  inforgathered  through p e r s o n a l communication with v a r i o u s s p e c i a l i s t s a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia and  the F e d e r a l Department of  F i s h e r i e s i n New  average date of passage f o r  Westminster.  The  each spawning race of the f i v e salmon s p e c i e s represented the area was The  obtained  in  from the f e d e r a l f i s h e r i e s department.  term " race" a p p l i e s to a p o p u l a t i o n which spawns i n a  p a r t i c u l a r r i v e r or creek  ( L a r k i n , 1971s  2).  The "race" of a  s p e c i e s i s the s u i t a b l e u n i t f o r study because each race of a s p e c i e s e x h i b i t s i t s own  p a t t e r n of c y c l i c dominance.  f o r example, e x h i b i t a q u a d r e n n i a l  Sockeye,  p a t t e r n of peak abundance,  but each "race" w i t h i n the s p e c i e s may  not n e c e s s a r i l y share  the same c a l e n d r i c c y c l e of abundance. Information  was  c o l l e c t e d on the f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  of salmon p o p u l a t i o n b i o l o g y as i t p e r t a i n e d to T a i t 1.  The  p a t t e r n of c y c l i c dominance f o r each race.  2.  The  d u r a t i o n of the spawning p e r i o d .  3.  The present  4.  The  territory:  escapement or s i z e of spawning p o p u l a t i o n .  r a t i o of p o p u l a t i o n s i z e of the subdominant c y c l e s  to Cycle I (year of Peak abundance). The  escapement f i g u r e s f o r each year were not  collected  32  f o r use  i n the a n a l y s i s but  t i o n of the m u l t i v a r i a t e  r a t h e r f o r use  s o l u t i o n (Figure  i n the 5)•  interpreta-  Because  the  main concern of t h i s study i s with resource-time c o r r e l a t i o n s , the impact of the t i o n f i g u r e s was  commercial salmon f i s h e r y on present populal e f t as a separate c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  It i s  important to emphasize, however, t h a t c y c l i c f l u c t u a t i o n s i n abundance have probably always been a f e a t u r e l a t i o n biology  (P. A. L a r k i n ,  1972,  personal  To what extent the f l u c t u a t i o n s i n p o p u l a t i o n  of salmon popucommunication). s i z e manifested  today approximate those of the past i s unknown. The  list  on the f o l l o w i n g page p r e s e n t s the  information  on salmon runs p o t e n t i a l l y e x p l o i t a b l e by the T a i t . escapement f i g u r e s are based on the 1901  The  c y c l e , with the  cycle  of dominance or subdominance of each run i n d i c a t e d as w e l l the r a t i o of the subdominant c y c l e to Cycle I p o p u l a t i o n (Table  1).  as  size  33  TABLE 1 Salmon Spawning P o p u l a t i o n s  Of The H a r r i s o n And F r a s e r  Main Canyon Sockeye Ratio  Cycle  Run  I (Dom)  Early Stuart Bowron R.  III  —  1/2  E a r l y Nadina  I  —  H o r s e f l y R.  I  —  Late Nadina  I  —  Late  Stuart  I  —  S t e l l a k o R.  III  C h i l k o R.  III  Seymour R. Raft R.  161,000  July  14  10,900  July  28  20,000?  July  31  209,100  Aug.  8  Aug.  7  427,900  Aug.  11  1/3  43,100  Aug.  12  1/4  124,000  Aug.  10  20,000?  2,300  Sept. 30  III  1/8  6,700  Aug.  11  IV  2/3  7,600  Aug.  10  Main F r a s e r R. Chum Present  Area F r a s e r R. below Hope  ( H e l l ' s Gate) Average Peak ... Date o f Pasi  1/600  IV  Adams R.  Present Escapement  Escapement  75.000  Spawning Time (Approx.) Nov.i7-Dec.3i  Main F r a s e r R. Pink (run odd year 849,000  F r a s e r below Hope  Rivers  only)  Aug.25-0ct.  7  Main Canyon Coho Upper F r a s e r Runs  15-20,000  Oct.  6-Nov.l7  Main Canyon Chinook Upper F r a s e r Early Upper F r a s e r  Late  approx. 10-15,000  Aug.15-Sept.29  10-15,000  Sept.l5-Nov. 1  34  TABLE 1 (Continued) Salmon Spawning P o p u l a t i o n s  Of The H a r r i s o n And  Fraser Rivers  H a r r i s o n System Sockeye Run  Cycle  Ratio  Birkenhead  R.  II  1/2  Big S i l v e r  Ck.  II  1/14  IV  2/5  Weaver  Ck.  H a r r i s o n Rapids  I  Present Escapement  Average Peak Date of Passage  28,900  Aug.  20  400  Aug.  20  11,200  Sept. 25  22,500  Oct.  20  H a r r i s o n System Chum Present  Area  Escapement  Spawning Time (Approx.)  Chehalis  R.  20-50,000  Oct.  Harrison  R.  20-50,000  Oct.  H a r r i s o n System Pink  l - O c t . 27 27-Dec.  (run i n odd year  31  only)  Chehalis  R.  9,300  Sept. 1 5 - 0 c t .  27  Harrison  R.  294,000  Sept. 1 5 - 0 c t .  2?  7-Jan.  7  H a r r i s o n System Coho Chehalis  5-10,000  R.  Nov.  H a r r i s o n System Chinook Birkenhead Harrison  2-5,000  R.  R.  10-20,000  March-May Oct.  15-Dec.  1  Other S p e c i e s 7  Eulachen (Spawn)  A p r i l 24-May  Sturgeon (Spawn)  June  1-July  15  June  25-Aug.  7  Steelhead  ( C o q u i h a l l a R.)  Steelhead  (other runs)  Lake f i s h present  (Spawn)  Dee.-April on a year round b a s i s have not been  35  i n c l u d e d i n the i n v e n t o r y . The presence  of a salmon resource i s r e l a t i v e l y easy t o  bracket i n time,  Sockeye runs, f o r example, span  30  of t h e p o p u l a t i o n p a s s i n g w i t h i n one  days, w i t h 80$  on e i t h e r s i d e of the a v e r a g e peak p a s s i n g date.  approximately week  Other  fish  runs such as C h i n o o k and s t e e l h e a d are more d i f f u s e i n time. C o r r e l a t i o n of Resources and Time of Year i n T a i t  Territory  A l a r g e body of r e s o u r c e data presented i n l i s t  and  f i g u r e form i s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t f o r other r e s e a r c h e r s and readers to comprehend e a s i l y .  I f the number of r e s o u r c e s  u t i l i z e d by a group i s numerous, as i n the case of many hunting  and g a t h e r i n g p o p u l a t i o n s (e.g., the T a i t ) ,  c u l t to see the way micro-environments may  i t is diffi-  i n which these r e s o u r c e items of d i f f e r e n t occur or co-occur i n time, and how  this  a f f e c t the p a t t e r n s of resource e x p l o i t a t i o n adopted  by  the group. An attempt  was  made by Hanson (1972) to r e p r e s e n t these  data i n a d i f f e r e n t form u s i n g a m u l t i v a r i a t e technique developed  by Guttman (1968) and computerized  by Lingoes  The approach and r e s u l t s are b r i e f l y summarized below.  (1965). These  data are used i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l from the Katz s i t e i n the d i s c u s s i o n chapter. The p l a n t and animal r e s o u r c e s presented i n the ing  i n v e n t o r y p r o v i d e d the data f o r the a n a l y s i s .  preced-  The  p o p u l a t i o n elements were conceived as time u n i t s or weeks of the y e a r .  Any resource which c o u l d be bracketed w i t h i n a  36  time u n i t of l e s s than a f u l l year was Resources present  conceived  as a v a r i a b l e .  on a year round b a s i s but capable of i s o l a -  t i o n i n time a c c o r d i n g  to some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c seasonal move-  ment c o u l d a l s o be conceived  as v a r i a b l e s .  For example,  b l a c k bear occupying T a i t t e r r i t o r y throughout the year are known to have been hunted while 71): the time bracketed  i n hibernation  1952:  by the h i b e r n a t i o n p e r i o d d e f i n e d  black bear as an e c o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e . were conceived  (Duff,  the  Additional variables  to p l a c e the b l a c k bear a t low e l e v a t i o n s near  spawning streams d u r i n g a c e r t a i n p e r i o d and near b e r r y patches d u r i n g another.  Admittedly,  of the b i g game are more d i f f i c u l t c a t e g o r i e s such as present  a t low  the seasonal movements  to i s o l a t e i n time but e l e v a t i o n s , browsing near  the t i m b e r l i n e , h i b e r n a t i o n p e r i o d , e t c . , provide  some b a s i s  upon which to proceed. A t o t a l of 31  f i s h resources  were d i v i d e d i n t o 23  i a b l e s , 18 p l a n t foods i n t o 14 v a r i a b l e s , and ces i n t o f i v e v a r i a b l e s .  s i x game r e s o u r -  Other v a r i a b l e s such as average  monthly temperature, p r e c i p i t a t i o n , and a l s o have been conceived  and  s n o w f a l l ranges c o u l d  i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the a n a l y s i s .  C u l t u r a l v a r i a b l e s such as winter  dancing or other  events  d e f i n a b l e i n time c o u l d s i m i l a r l y have been i n t r o d u c e d . list  var-  of v a r i a b l e s i s presented  i n Table  2.  The  37  TABLE 2 E c o l o g i c a l Resource 1. 2. 3.  4. 5.  6. 7.  Variables  Harrison system sockeye  Birkenhead R i v e r , B i g S i l v e r Creek Weaver Creek H a r r i s o n Rapids  Main Canyon sockeye  E a r l y Stuart Bowron, E a r l y Nadina H o r s e f l y , Late Nadina Late S t u a r t , S t e l l a k o , C h i l k o , Seymour Adams R i v e r , L i t t l e R i v e r , S. Thompson  8. Harrison System - Chum Main Stream  Chehalis River Harrison River Fraser River, below Hope  12.  Lower F r a s e r  13.  Pink  14.  Coho  Chehalis, Harrison River F r a s e r , below Hope Chehalis Main Canyon Birkenhead Harrison River Main Canyon, e a r l y runs Main Canyon, l a t e runs  9. 10. 11.  15.  16.  17.  18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37.  Chinook  Eulachen Sturgeon Steelhead (Coquihalla) Bracken Sagittaria l a t i f o l i a W i l d Onions W i l d T i g e r L i l y - Cow p a r s n i p Camas; salmonberry shoots, t h i m b l e b e r r y shoots Hazelnuts Vaccinium membranaceum Vaccinium o v a l i f o l i u m , p a r v i f o l i u m Salmonberries Thimbleberries W.T. B l a c k b e r r i e s Salal Oregon grape W. Crabapple Black bear and g r i z z l e bear (summer range)  Aug.  6-Sept.  1  Sept. l l - O c t . Oct. 6-Nov.  . 9 3  July July July  1-July 14-Aug. 25-Aug.  28  11 22  July  29-Aug.  25  Sept. 16-Oct.  14  Oct. Oct.  l-0ct. 27-Dec.  27 31  Nov.  17-Dec.  31  Sept. 1 5 - 0 c t . Aug. 25-0ct. Nov. 7-Jan. 6-Nov. Oct.  27 7 7 17  March - May Oct. 15-Dec.  1  Aug.  15-Sept. 29  Sept. 15-Nov. April June June April Sept. May May -  24-May 1-July 25-Aug. - Aug. 22-Nov. July June  1 7 15 7  A p r i l - May Sept. l - 0 c t . 6 -Sept. 1 July Sept. June 9 - J u l y 31 July 7-Aug. June 3-Aug. 25 Aug. 7-0ct. 27 Aug. 10-Oct. 15 Aug. 18-0ct. 27 June - Aug.  38  TABLE 2 (Continued) E c o l o g i c a l Resource V a r i a b l e s 38. 39. 40. 41. 42.  Black bear and g r i z z l y bear ( f a l l range) Bears hunted i n h i b e r n a t i o n Deer, e l k ( w a p i t i ) , mountain goat (low e l e v a t i o n s ) Duck and geese m i g r a t i o n s Most s t e e l h e a d runs The  data was 3). ing  July -  Nov. Dec. - A p r i l  f i r s t step taken a f t e r the c o m p i l a t i o n  of the  solution i n i t s e l f .  The  resources  ordered  i n Table  The  an  (Figure  interest-  from l e f t  r i g h t can be i d e n t i f i e d from the l i s t of v a r i a b l e s  The  resource  to order the v a r i a b l e s i n time on a flow c h a r t  T h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the v a r i a b l e s provided  resources  Nov.  to  presented  flow c h a r t i l l u s t r a t e s q u i t e c l e a r l y how  appear throughout the course of the  the  year.  a p p l i c a t i o n of S m a l l e s t Space A n a l y s i s makes v i s i b l e  the r e l a t i o n s h i p s which e x i s t between the resource i n quite a d i f f e r e n t fashion. a n a l y s i s , and  The  variables  procedure f o l l o w e d i n the  the c o e f f i c i e n t of a s s o c i a t i o n used, i s i n c l u d e d  i n the Appendix.  The  S.S.A. s o l u t i o n , i n c l u d i n g a key  c r i b i n g the v a r i o u s p o i n t s and c o n f i g u r a t i o n i s presented  des-  the time s t r u c t u r e of the  i n Figure  4.  i l l ! 11 I M M M M M i II I M  T  f l I I I I l I  I 1 II I I M l I M I II I II M I II M I I I II I  I I i II I I I  I I I I I I M I I M I 1 II  M M I I M M II I I I I M i  T  19 09  6P 2P LP BP StPP ZP ZP IP OP I M M II I M I M I l l I I M l I II I Ii II I  6£ 8£ £8 98 9£  •oaQ •AON  100  t-E  I I I |M I I M M I I M M I I I I M M i l J II I I I I I  8£ Z£  l£  08 6Z 8Z  I I I I I I  LZ  9Z 9Z  A|np  PZ I I II II i I I I I I  I I I I I I I I  82 ZZ  IZ  eunp  oz 81  Ll 91  91  PI  81  Zl ll 01  6 8  'JEW  L  9 9  P  I !  II  6£ PI Zp U  £  IP  01 Ll 8 6 Z Zl 8Z £1 21 L 9 Z£ 6Z ZZ LZ 9Z 0Z £Z OP £ 91 PZ 61 0£ 9£ 9E t-£ t 9 8£ P ££ t£ IZ 9Z LZ 91  (pBiapjQ)  saiqejJBA  aojnosaa  Z I  •uep  40 }  • '• •  Figure 4  CONFIGURATION TWO  SHOWING  42 ECOLOGICAL  - D I M E N S I O N A L SOLUTION.  (S.S.A.)  K E Y :  *J)  ' Vegetable  Resources  O  Fish  R e s o u r c e s of the H a r r i s o n  ©  Fish  Resources of  A  Game  Resources  H-  Migrating  Birds  the F r a s e r  System River  VARIABLES  OVER  52  WEEKS.  Time  .J2  (  R . P I N K-O ' ^  LOWER FRASER  EARLY F. CANYON CHINOOK©^  CHEHAI.iS  12  - HARRISON PINK O  19  O B16I R K E N H E A D  V  ©  LATE  O  CHE'ri A t iS  %  R.  CHINOOK  WEAVER  CK.  1-  S P C K E Y E G  3S  ADAMS  B I R K E N H E A O -  B.  SILVER  S O C K E Y E O ^  LATE  S T U A R T - S T E L L A K O  HORSEFLY  R.  -  CHILKO  L.NADINA  BOWRON - EARLY  EARLY  SOCKEYE  0_  SOCKEY E  ©,  NADINA  STUART  SOCKEYE  SOOKEYE  ft.  1  R.  CHINOOK  \  4  C K0 M  © MASK  CANYON  CCKO  PAL  SOCKEYE OnARRiSCis!  A/  SPRING  F. C A N Y O N  >  1  H.  CHINOOK  7  'HARRISON R. SOCKEYE  HARRISON  0g  R. C H U M  O  Iff  11.  ©4 CHEHALIS  ft.  © L . Ffi.iSER  R.  C H U Ik  COHOO  14  WINTER O  HARRISON  ©  MAIN  10  R.  SYSTEM  CHANNEL  CHUM  OF  FRASER  20-50,000  O c t 2 7 - D e c 31  75,000  Nov 17- Dec 31  11 12 13 14  ODD Y E A R ONLY  > • ft COHO  15 CHINOOK  17  II  19  300,000  S e p t 15 - O c t 27  849,000  A u g 25 - O c t 7  5-  lO.OOO  15-36,000  16  18  R,  ••  1500-2,000 10-  20,000  8 - 16,OOO ?  Nov 7 -  Jan7  NO.  CYCLE  1 n 2 12: 3 r 4  1  O c t 6 - Nov 17  5 H1;I  M a r c h — May O c t 15 - D e c 1  .  29,000  Aug 6 " S e p l 1  s  •il.OOO  S e p t 11 - O c t 9  DOM.  22,500  O c t 6 - Nov 3  161,000  juiyl-Ju!y28  V  ..  55,000  J u l y 1 4 - A u g 11 j  6 I;I  209,000  J u l y 25--? "'3 2 2 ]  7 i uj;in;in  6 0 1 , 0 0 0 J u l y 2 9 - A u g 25.)  !  ;  Aug 15S e p t 29  8  m  S e p t 15 - Nov 1  9  CHUM  1^  ^600  2, 3C0  20-SO.OOO  I  SCf-i  16 - O c t  ^4  Octl~Oct27J  Figure 5 S m a l l e s t Space A n a l y s i s Showing R i v e r i n e Resource V a r i a b l e s Over 52 Weeks.  42  The time structure of the configuration takes the shape of an S curve placed on i t s side.  The early spring appears  i n the upper l e f t (variable 16), and the configuration flows downward through late spring, early summer then upwards to variable 13, which i s l a t e August, then down again toward winter at the lower r i g h t of the two space diagram. The hollow dots indicate f i s h resources migrating into the Harrison drainage; the s o l i d dots, spawning populations moving through the main course of the Fraser and through the canyon.  The f l e u r - d e - l i s symbols indicate the appearance of  plant resources; the triangles, game resources and the cross, migrating geese and ducks.  Figure 5 i s the same S.S.A. solu-  t i o n with the vegetable and game resource points removed to highlight the structure of the f i s h variables as they appear throughout  the course of the year.  There i s a table accompany  ing Figure 5, which provides the relevant information on cycle escapement and duration of each run. Interpretation The S.S.A. solution i n i t s e l f does not depict the pattern of resource exploitation engaged i n by the Tait, i t merely represents the major resource c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e i r t e r r i tory.  I t i s the job of the ethnologist and archaeologist to  superimpose a c u l t u r a l overlay on t h i s ecological context. Cultural factors, such as the preference f o r one resource over another, the needs of the group i n response to resource fluctuations, climatic contingencies a f f e c t i n g preservation  43  and manpower u t i l i z a t i o n ,  e t c . , would a l l p l a y a p a r t i n  determining which r e s o u r c e s would be e x p l o i t e d , and which r e s o u r c e s would be i g n o r e d . The  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the resources i n the S m a l l e s t Space  A n a l y s i s s o l u t i o n w i l l now be i n t e r p r e t e d from the p e r s p e c t i v e of the Katz s i t e .  These resource data are used a l o n g with  the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l i n the d i s c u s s i o n chapter V to make i n f e r e n c e s about the k i n d s o f a c t i v i t i e s  being  carried  out a t the s i t e . The  f i r s t m i g r a t i n g f i s h r e s o u r c e s to appear i n the  s p r i n g , the Birkenhead  R i v e r Chinook ( v a r i a b l e 16) and eulachen  ( v a r i a b l e 2 0 ) , are downriver  r e s o u r c e s and would n e c e s s i t a t e  movement from the Katz s i t e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the f i s h i n g . Camas ( v a r i a b l e 2 7 ) , a downriver  r e s o u r c e , makes i t s f i r s t  appearance a t a s i m i l a r time to p l a n t r e s o u r c e s i n the Katz l o c a l i t y such as salmonberry iable 2 7 ) — i n April April The  and May.  and t h i m b l e b e r r y shoots  ( a l s o var-  Bracken ( v a r i a b l e 2 3 ) occurs i n  but has an extended growing season l a s t i n g u n t i l  August.  l a t t e r p a r t o f the bracken's growing season competes i n  time with f i s h r e s o u r c e s o f the main canyon.  Wild  onions  ( v a r i a b l e 2 5 ) , w i l d t i g e r l i l y and cow p a r s n i p ( v a r i a b l e 26) are f o l l o w e d by the appearance o f sturgeon the downriver  sloughs i n e a r l y June.  (variable 21) i n  Beginning i n the l a s t  week o f June i s a run of s t e e l h e a d t r o u t i n t o the C o q u i h a l l a R i v e r ( v a r i a b l e 2 2 ) ; again, e x p l o i t a t i o n of t h i s  resource  would i n v o l v e movement from the s i t e . The  f i r s t main canyon salmon r u n to pass the Katz  site  44  i s t h e E a r l y S t u a r t sockeye Run ( v a r i a b l e 4 ) ,  which b e g i n s  J u l y 1 w i t h 80% o f the r u n p a s s i n g between J u l y 7 and J u l y 21.  The water l e v e l o f the F r a s e r a t t h i s time would be  d r o p p i n g and any p o s s i b i l i t y o f f l o o d i n g would have passed; t h i s r u n would be a c c e s s i b l e from the K a t z s i t e .  The E a r l y  S t u a r t Run i s f o l l o w e d by the Bowron-Early Nadina Run iable 5),  (var-  which peaks i n l a t e J u l y and e a r l y August, the  H o r s e f l y - L a t e Nadina Run ( v a r i a b l e 6 ) ,  and the L a t e S t u a r t -  S t e l l a k o - C h i l k o - S e y m o u r Run ( v a r i a b l e 7) which peak i n e a r l y and mid-August r e s p e c t i v e l y .  Throughout J u l y and August  p o p u l a t i o n s o f sockeye m i g r a t i n g t o the spawning ground o f the n o r t h e r n t r i b u t a r i e s pass the K a t z s i t e and on through the F r a s e r Canyon i n w a v e - l i k e s u c c e s s i o n .  The p o p u l a t i o n s i z e  of each r u n depends upon the c y c l e y e a r of dominance o r subdominance; but a t v i r t u a l l y no time d u r i n g J u l y and August would the r i v e r i n the v i c i n i t y o f K a t z be w i t h o u t m i g r a t i n g salmon.  Accompanying  the sockeye r u n s i n mid-August  and  l a s t i n g through September a r e r u n s o f C h i n o o k salmon 18).  (variable  I n l a t e August, on a l t e r n a t e y e a r s , p i n k salmon b e g i n  spawning i n the r i v e r below Hope. D u r i n g the time when the salmon a r e r u n n i n g i n J u l y and August, v a r i o u s p l a n t r e s o u r c e s a r e a l s o making t h e i r appearance.  B l a c k mountain h u c k l e b e r r i e s ( v a r i a b l e 29) a r e found  a t e l e v a t i o n s above 2 , 5 0 0 f e e t , w i l d t r a i l i n g b l a c k b e r r i e s (variable 33), 34),  thimbleberries (variable 32),  salal  (variable  and oregon grape ( v a r i a b l e 35) a r e a v a i l a b l e . Mid September marks the b e g i n n i n g o f the Adams R i v e r -  45  L i t t l e River-South Thompson Sockeye the  Runs ( v a r i a b l e 8 ) ,  l a t e C h i n o o k runs ( v a r i a b l e 1 9 ) .  r i v e r , the appearance  and  In the marshes down-  of wapatoes ( S a g i t t a r i a  latifolia)  c o i n c i d e s with the p a s s i n g of these l a t e sockeye and C h i n o o k Coho salmon ( v a r i a b l e 15)  runs. to  pass Katz from e a r l y  mid-November, and chum salmon ( v a r i a b l e 11)  October  spawn i n the  F r a s e r below Hope from mid-November u n t i l the end of December. Ducks and geese are m i g r a t i n g throughout November and compete in  time with the l a t t e r h a l f of the coho run and the  first  two or three weeks of the chum salmon spawning p e r i o d . the  late f a l l  the deer, w a p i t i , and mountain  goat  In  (variable  40) are browsing a t low e l e v a t i o n s , and sometime a f t e r l a t e November the b l a c k bears ( v a r i a b l e 39)  go i n t o t h e i r h i b e r -  nation period. In  summary, the s p r i n g r e s o u r c e s are l a r g e l y  resources:  downriver  Birkenhead R i v e r C h i n o o k , eulachen, spawning  sturgeon, camas, e t c .  P l a n t s such as bracken, t h i m b l e b e r r y  and salmonberry shoots, and w i l d onions are a v a i l a b l e near Katz i n the e a r l y s p r i n g , and game animals such as deer and bear c o u l d be present though l e a n d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d of the year.  A f t e r J u l y 1,  r i v e r i n e and p l a n t r e s o u r c e s are abun-  dant i n the Katz v i c i n i t y u n t i l w e l l i n t o the  fall.  The S m a l l e s t Space A n a l y s i s of the r e s o u r c e s which in  occur  T a i t t e r r i t o r y p r o v i d e s a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of these data i n  a f a i r l y comprehensible and i n t e r p r e t a b l e form.  The  solution  c o n t a i n i n g the 42 r e s o u r c e v a r i a b l e s can be p a r t i t i o n e d and examined i n v a r i o u s ways, depending upon the i n t e r e s t s of the  46  researcher. by  The p l a n t  indicating  Similarly, size  symbols c a n e a s i l y be made more p r e c i s e  t h e e c o l o g i c a l zone w i t h i n w h i c h t h e y  s y m b o l s c a n be d e v i s e d  o f t h e salmon r u n s ,  to i n d i c a t e the r e l a t i v e  o r t h e p r e f e r r e d Chinook and sockeye  r u n s c o u l d be s e p a r a t e l y i d e n t i f i e d coho  w o u l d be r e l a t i v e l y  characteristics resources  variables in  t h e chum, p i n k a n d  of these  by t h e T a i t  resources  resource  F o r example,  and L i l l o o e t  resource  c o u l d be i n c l u d e d  A r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n  i n t i m e a n d s p a c e o v e r t h e two  may be u s e f u l i n g e n e r a t i n g  This  e c o l o g i c a l s e t t i n g s by d e f i n -  i n time as v a r i a b l e s .  shared  settlement  e a s y t o compare t h e r e s o u r c e  o f two o r t h r e e  one S.S.A. s o l u t i o n .  and  from  runs. It  ing  occur.  territories  hypotheses about the s u b s i s t e n c e  p a t t e r n i n g o f t h e two g r o u p s .  technique  c o u l d prove u s e f u l f o r examining the  characteristics  of large c u l t u r a l  e.g.,  t h e Thompson R i v e r  drainage,  etc.  M u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s allows  e c o l o g i c a l zones,  o r the lower F r a s e r the researcher  to consider  a l a r g e number o f e c o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s a t one t i m e , a that  i s c o n s i d e r a b l y more d i f f i c u l t  using  valley,  task  l i s t s and t a b l e s .  47  Map 2 Ethnographic Map o f the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y (Borden u n p u b l i s h e d manuscript)  E T H N I C I N  LOWER GEORGIA  GROUPS T  H  E  FRASER STRAIT  RIVER AREA  48  CHAPTER I I STALO ETHNOGRAPHY Introduction A c c o r d i n g t o S t r u e v e r (1968a: 189-191) the " j o b o f archaeology" i s : . . . t o d e s c r i b e and, more p a r t i c u l a r l y , t o e x p l a i n the t o t a l range o f c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s observable i n space and through time. . . . Many a r c h a e o l o g i s t s who espouse these aims acknowledge technology as the most a c c e s s i b l e aspect o f the t o t a l c u l t u r a l s y s tem. They seek t o d e s c r i b e p r e h i s t o r i c s u b s i s tence p a t t e r n s i n terms of e x p l o i t a t i v e and maintenance t e c h n o l o g i e s u t i l i z e d and the r e s o u r ces e x p l o i t e d . The settlement p a t t e r n , t h a t i s , the manner i n which a s o c i e t y i s segmented and p a r t i t i o n e d t o e x p l o i t the e n v i r o n m e n t — i s a necessary c o r o l l a r y o f s u b s i s t e n c e , . . . Given a systemic view o f c u l t u r e , i t can be expected t h a t the m a t e r i a l remains o f an e x t i n c t s u b s i s tence-settlement system w i l l r e v e a l a s t r u c t u r e d s e t o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s , j u s t as s o c i a l anthropology has demonstrated these r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the b e h a v i o r a l aspect o f the system. The  term settlement p a t t e r n as d e f i n e d by Winters  110) i s ". . . the geographic  and p h y s i o g r a p h i c  (1969'  relationships  of a contemporaneous group o f s i t e s w i t h i n a s i n g l e  culture,"  while the term settlement system i s d e f i n e d as ". • . the f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the s i t e s contained w i t h i n the settlement p a t t e r n " ( i b i d t 110). Abbott  (1972: 267-268) has argued r e c e n t l y t h a t i f e a r l y  c u l t u r a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s i n southwestern  B r i t i s h Columbia are  1+9  to be i n t e r p r e t e d a c c u r a t e l y , more a t t e n t i o n should be p a i d to the e c o l o g i c a l a d a p t a t i o n s i s known e t h n o g r a p h i c a l l y . use  o f "ethnographic  o f Coast S a l i s h s o c i e t y as i t  In other words, he urges a g r e a t e r  analogy" as a h e u r i s t i c device i n a r c h a e o l -  o g i c a l r e s e a r c h aimed a t the d i s c o v e r y and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of change i n s u b s i s t e n c e - s e t t l e m e n t  systems through time.  I t i s evident from the p r e c e d i n g t h a t the p l a n t and animal resources  chapter  on environment  o f the lower F r a s e r v a l l e y  are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by marked s e a s o n a l i t y and p e r i o d i c i t y . e x p l o i t a t i o n o f t h i s resource  The  base as i t i s known ethnograph-  i c a l l y i n v o l v e d a complex system of seasonal p o p u l a t i o n movement and dispersement, " s c h e d u l i n g " e l a b o r a t e technology  and an  i n the form o f " t o o l k i t s " and " a c t i v i t y  (Struever, 1 9 6 8 a : 1 9 1 ) »  sets"  (Flannery, 1 9 6 8 ) ,  ( 1 9 5 2 ) and S u t t l e s ( 1 9 5 5 ;  The ethnographic  1960a,  work o f Duff  1 9 6 0 b ; 1 9 6 3 ) has p r o v i d e d  v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on s u b s i s t e n c e and settlement  p a t t e r n of  the Coast S a l i s h groups o f the lower F r a s e r R i v e r and adjacent S t r a i t of Georgia.  Some o f the major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the  s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , s u b s i s t e n c e , and technology the ethnographic  reported i n  l i t e r a t u r e are d i s c u s s e d below.  People and T e r r i t o r y The  Coast S a l i s h o f the lower E r a s e r R i v e r a r e known  c o l l e c t i v e l y as S t a l o ( s t a ' l u ) , which i n the language speak (Halkomelem), means " r i v e r " 1952).  they  ( H i l l - T o u t , 1 9 0 2 ; Duff,  The Halkomelem language i s spoken on  south-eastern  Vancouver I s l a n d by the Nanaimo and Cowichan, and along the  50  lower F r a s e r R i v e r to the boundary of the Upper S t a l o ( T a i t ) (lower Thompson), 5 m i l e s above Yale  and the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h i n the F r a s e r Canyon.  Duff ( i b i d : 1 1 - 1 2 )  r e p o r t s t h a t the  language and c u l t u r e of the S t a l o groups change g r a d u a l l y a l o n g the course of the r i v e r with a tendency of the more e a s t e r n groups to a l i g n themselves with the i n t e r i o r ; and downriver two  groups with the c o a s t .  sub-groupings:  On t h i s b a s i s he d i s t i n g u i s h e s  the Upper S t a l o , which i n c l u d e s the  C h i l l i w a c k , P i l a l t , S c o w l i t z , C h e h a l i s and T a i t ; and Lower S t a l o , which i n c l u d e s the downriver speaking non-Stalo,  the  Tswassen (Map  the  S t a l o and Halkomelem  2).  The Katz s i t e i s l o c a t e d i n the t e r r i t o r y of the T a i t (/tit/:  " u p - r i v e r people,"  A c c o r d i n g to Duff ( i b i d :  or simply " u p - r i v e r " ) ( i b i d :  19).  19):  The T a i t occupied the l a r g e s t area of a l l the t r i b e s of the r i v e r . I t extended from F i v e M i l e Creek above Yale down the r i v e r some 35 m i l e s to (and i n c l u d i n g ) S e a b i r d I s l a n d and Popkum. To the T a i t themselves, the only resource areas a c t u a l l y owned were the f i s h i n g - r o c k s i n the upper canyon; hence, the only t r i b a l boundary which they s h a r p l y d e f i n e d was t h e i r upper boundary on the r i v e r adjacent to the Lower Thompson f i s h i n g grounds. . . Down r i v e r , the T a i t f e l t no need to d e f i n e a lower boundary to t h e i r t e r r i t o r y . There were no f i s h i n g - r o c k s i n t h a t area, and resource areas such as sturgeon-sloughs were used j o i n t l y by a l l v i l l a g e s i n the v i c i n i t y with none a p p a r e n t l y c l a i m i n g ownership. People moved f r e e l y from T a i t to P i l a l t v i l l a g e s and the other way, with no thought to t r i b a l i d e n t i t y . . . . N e i t h e r d i d the T a i t d e l i m i t s t r i c t l y t h e i r h u n t i n g grounds. There was a s l i g h t tendency toward owners h i p of such r e s o u r c e areas, based on t h e i r proximi t y to c e r t a i n v i l l a g e s , k i n s h i p , and i n t e r v i l l a g e r e l a t i o n s ; but t h a t was a l l . During the summer months the Cowichan and Nanaimo and downriver  S t a l o people  other  journeyed u p r i v e r to p a r t i c i p a t e  51  i n the salmon f i s h e r y from the s t r a t e g i c p o s i t i o n i n the canyon occupied ".  . .as  by the T a i t .  These v i s i t o r s probably came  r e l a t i v e s , p r i v i l e g e d guests,  d e s i r a b l e s t a t i o n . . ." ( i b i d ; see F o r t Langley J o u r n a l ,  78).  or claimants  For more  1827-1830:  information,  1952.  Duff,  on l e s s  For  the  purpose of t h i s paper, the c e n t r a l p o i n t s are that the  upriver  boundary of T a i t t e r r i t o r y i s c l e a r l y demarcated, a f a c t o b v i o u s l y a s s o c i a t e d with the importance of m a i n t a i n i n g to the f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s i n the canyon. i s not  c l e a r l y d e l i m i t e d and  resource  groups were u t i l i z e d by the T a i t . t e r r i t o r y was  The  The  access  downriver boundary  areas of adjacent  Stalo  S t a l o conception  an e c o l o g i c a l l y sound one.  of  In r e t u r n f o r t h e i r  h o s p i t a l i t y , they r e c e i v e d access to eulachen, sturgeon, runs i n t o the H a r r i s o n which would not The  Structure The  system, and  a v a r i e t y of other  fish  resources  otherwise have been a v a i l a b l e to them.  of S o c i e t y  s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and  s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of  S t a l o i s presented i n d e t a i l i n Duff ( 1 9 5 2 ;  75-96).  the The  d i s c u s s i o n here b r i e f l y summarizes those a s p e c t s of S t a l o c u l t u r e which r e l a t e d i r e c t l y to s u b s i s t e n c e  and  settlement  pattern. The  " s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l u n i t s i n t o which the Upper S t a l o  were d i v i d e d were the extended f a m i l y , the v i l l a g e , 'tribe' " (ibid: 8 4 ) . and  The  extended f a m i l y was  g e n e r a l l y p a t r i l o c a l u n i t c o n s i s t i n g of ".  brothers,  t h e i r sons, grandsons, e t c . — w i t h  and  the  an exogamous, . .a  man,  t h e i r wives,  his  52  c h i l d r e n , and other dependents" ( i b i d ; 84-85)« v i l l a g e s were comprised cept " t r i b e " was  of one  The S t a l o  or more such u n i t s .  The  not w e l l d e f i n e d i n any f u n c t i o n a l  con-  sense,  but was mainly a d e s c r i p t i v e term a s s i g n e d to aggregations of v i l l a g e s by o u t s i d e r s ( i b i d : 86). at the extended ability.  L e a d e r s h i p was  achieved  f a m i l y l e v e l on the b a s i s of c h a r a c t e r and  In ". • . m u l t i - f a m i l y v i l l a g e s , these heads were  no doubt l o o s e l y ranked by p r e s t i g e , with one man  standing  above the others and h o l d i n g the most sway over the v i l l a g e as a whole" ( i b i d : The  extended  81). f a m i l y was  the main economic and  u n i t , and the v i l l a g e s tended to be " s m a l l and  social  impermanent"  aggregations of these u n i t s . F a m i l i e s f r e q u e n t l y moved to other v i l l a g e s or to u n i n h a b i t e d p l a c e s . As a r e s u l t , n e a r l y a l l f a v o r a b l e s i t e s have been occupied a t one time or another. The m o t i v a t i o n f o r most of these movements was a p p a r e n t l y a search f o r r i c h e r r e s o u r c e s of food and firewood, but some a t l e a s t were caused by such s o c i a l f a c t o r s as i n t e r f a m i l y f r i c t i o n , the s p l i t t i n g - u p of extended f a m i l i e s , and a d e s i r e f o r a change of scene ( i b i d : 85). The l i m i t e d ownership of resource areas which e x i s t e d i n S t a l o c u l t u r e was  a t the l e v e l of the extended  f a m i l y and  mainly i n v o l v e d salmon d i p n e t t i n g s t a t i o n s i n the F r a s e r Canyon. was  "...  The  owner of such a s t a t i o n , the head of a f a m i l y ,  c o n s i d e r e d extremely  s e l f i s h i f he forbade any-  body, r e l a t e d or not, reasonable use of the Through k i n r e l a t i o n s " . . .  station".  most people a l l a l o n g the  c o u l d and d i d c l a i m the r i g h t to use a t l e a s t one".  river  Other  resource areas, such as " s t u r g e o n - f i s h i n g sloughs, b e r r y  53  patches, and h u n t i n g grounds were used f r e e l y by a l l nearby groups"  (ibid;  77-78).  The Seasonal Round During the w i n t e r months the Upper S t a l o occupied subterranean d w e l l i n g s known i n Halkomelem as  semi-  (ska'mel).  I n f o r m a t i o n on p i t h o u s e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e i n T e i t (1900; of  1909)  f o r the Thompson and Shuswap, and a d i s t r i b u t i o n  p i t h o u s e s a c c o r d i n g to s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e s i s presented  i n Ray  ( 1 9 3 9 : 1 3 3 - 1 3 7 ) and Ray  (19^2).  At present, with the  e x c e p t i o n of the s u b r e c t a n g u l a r pithouse a t E s i l a o  village  i n the F r a s e r Canyon (Borden 1 9 6 6 ,  archaeolog-  Mitchell 1965),  i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n has c o n t r i b u t e d l i t t l e d w e l l i n g s i n the lower F r a s e r v a l l e y . i n the L i l l o o e t - F o u n t a i n a r e a may  i n f o r m a t i o n on these  Recent work by S t r y d  p r o v i d e more d e t a i l s on the  i n f r a - s t r u c t u r e and s u p e r - s t r u c t u r e of p i t h o u s e s ( p e r s o n a l communication, 1 9 7 2 ) .  U n f o r t u n a t e l y the e x c a v a t i o n of an  e n t i r e pithouse a t the Katz s i t e was of  not p o s s i b l e f o r l a c k  time; s t r u c t u r a l d e t a i l s , as recovered, are presented with  the s t r a t i g r a p h y i n Chapter I I I . The w i n t e r was  a ceremonial time with w i n t e r  dancing and p o t l a c h i n g as important events.  spirit  The w i n t e r  not e x c l u s i v e l y a ceremonial time, however, as Duff 6 7 - 7 3 ) mentions w i n t e r f i s h i n g and h u n t i n g .  was  (1952:  Cohoes, l a r g e  s p e c i e s of t r o u t , and suckers were harpooned i n the w i n t e r for  immediate consumption, and b l a c k bears were hunted while  in hibernation.  Deer, w a p i t i and mountain goat browsing  at  54  low e l e v a t i o n s may a l s o have been hunted o c c a s i o n a l l y d u r i n g the winter months but t h i s i s n o t r e p o r t e d i n the ethnographic literature. Spring As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, the f i r s t anadromous f i s h resource  t o appear i n the s p r i n g was the Birkenhead R i v e r  chinook salmon r u n ( i n March). resource  The e x p l o i t a t i o n o f t h i s  i n v o l v e d movement downriver where these f i s h " . . .  were harpooned . . . when the water was low and c l e a r " 1952: 67).  (Duff,  T h i s was a l s o a time f o r g a t h e r i n g the f r e s h shoots  of salmonberries,  t h i m b l e b e r r i e s , w i l d onions and bracken.  Eulachen appeared i n the v i c i n i t y of C h i l l i w a c k around the end of A p r i l and the e a r l y p a r t o f May.  These f i s h were taken by  d i p n e t s from canoes, " i f f i s h i n g was good, two men c o u l d t h e i r canoe i n an hour and go home" ( i b i d : 71). spawning i n the downriver sloughs  fill  Sturgeon began  i n June, and were caught by  a v a r i e t y o f methods depending on the l o c a t i o n and the time of year.  Harpoons, bag n e t s , weirs, and hook and l i n e a r e  a l l r e p o r t e d t o have been used ( i b i d ; 67-68).  In l a t e June  the s t e e l h e a d i n the C o q u i h a l l a R i v e r were caught i n bag n e t s , but harpoons, weirs, and hooks were a l s o used.,If of the Katz s i t e e x p l o i t e d any o r a l l o f these  the occupants  resources,  p o p u l a t i o n movement or d i s p e r s a l would have been r e q u i r e d . Summer The  summer salmon runs have a l r e a d y been considered i n  55  d e t a i l i n the p r e v i o u s the canyon was  chapter.  The  summer salmon f i s h i n g i n  predominantly by dipnet, however, the use  a bag net suspended by p o l e s between two by Simon F r a s e r i n 1808  canoes was  observed  below "the v i l l a g e of the Rock"  F r a n k l i n rock near Yale) (Masson, 1899« 2 0 8 - 2 0 9 ) .  of  (Lady  Much of  the a c t i v i t y d u r i n g the summer salmon runs i n v o l v e d the butchery  and p r e s e r v a t i o n of the f i s h through wind d r y i n g  racks, or by f i r e and  on  smoke d r y i n g , depending on the weather  c o n d i t i o n s and the time of the year. c o n d i t i o n s were adverse,  I f the summer weather  the g a t h e r i n g of firewood and main-  tenance of f i r e s f o r smoke d r y i n g would no doubt have added to  the l a b o u r of f i s h p r e s e r v a t i o n c o n s i d e r a b l y .  ing  of many p l a n t resources  (Table 2 f o r the l i s t  The  gather-  a l s o took p l a c e d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d  of resources e x p l o i t e d ) .  Fall Many of the f i s h r e s o u r c e s which appear i n the such as coho and  chum salmon, may  fall,  not have been e x p l o i t e d  very i n t e n s i v e l y by the T a i t i f adequate numbers of f i s h were obtained  d u r i n g the summer months.  have been a p e r i o d when h u n t i n g  Duff r e p o r t s the f a l l  took p l a c e .  Duck and  were m i g r a t i n g i n November and were caught at n i g h t by from a canoe ( i b i d : 7 2 ) .  to  geese nets  Game animals were considered most  d e s i r a b l e i n the f a l l because they were f a t from the summer's feeding. was  An informant  of D u f f ' s  (P.C.) r e p o r t e d t h a t there  a p r o h i b i t i o n a g a i n s t the k i l l i n g of game animals while  they were b e a r i n g t h e i r young ( i b i d ) .  In the f a l l  groups of  56  men,  women, and  c h i l d r e n would set out f o r the mountains  where h u n t i n g camps were e s t a b l i s h e d . t a i n e d by some of the men  and  These camps were main-  a l l of the women and  while p a r t i e s of hunters sought the game. included  the use  spears and  of ".  . . dogs, bows and  clubs, p i t f a l l s ,  children  Hunting techniques arrows, t h r u s t i n g  d e a d f a l l s , snares, and  nets  "...  depending on the animal hunted although s e v e r a l methods are mentioned f o r some game animals" the game was  f i r e and  ( i b i d : 71).  At the camp,  smoke-dried on r a c k s .  After  weeks when l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s had  been d r i e d and  pack, the group r e t u r n e d  How  home.  journeyed out to hunt d u r i n g  several  were easy to  many times each group  the f a l l  i s not r e p o r t e d .  l a t e November the p i t h o u s e s were r e o c c u p i e d  f o r the  In  winter.  Summary The  s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and  the  s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of  S t a l o were w e l l adapted to the d i v e r s i t y and the resource base of the lower F r a s e r . was  a mobile and  The  the  seasonality extended  of  family  e f f i c i e n t economic u n i t capable of e x p l o i t i n g  the r e s o u r c e s of v a r i o u s microenvironments.  By k i n s h i p  and  r e c i p r o c i t y , each S t a l o group gained access to resource areas which would not have been e x p l o i t a b l e i f r i g i d l y t e r r i t o r i a l boundaries had Stalo included diverse single species  existed.  The  exclusive  technology of  e x p l o i t a t i v e t o o l s and  techniques.  A  of f i s h or game could be taken i n a number of  d i f f e r e n t ways depending on the l o c a t i o n , c o n d i t i o n s time of the  the  year.  and  57  How l o n g has such a s u b s i s t e n c e - s e t t l e m e n t system f u n c t i o n e d i n the lower F r a s e r Region, and how has i t been modified  through  time, and by what means?  which must be addressed  These are q u e s t i o n s  archaeologically.  To d e f i n e a s e t t l e -  ment system one must be able t o i n f e r the time of year d u r i n g which s i t e s were occupied and the a c t i v i t i e s performed a t these s i t e s (Winters, 1969' 110).  The range i n formal and  s t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n i n the " t o o l k i t s " at  and " a c t i v i t y  sets"  the s i t e s must be r e c o g n i z e d so t h a t the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  remains are a c c u r a t e l y i n t e r p r e t e d .  A salvage excavation of  a s i n g l e s i t e such as the Katz s i t e w i l l not c o n t r i b u t e subs t a n t i a l l y i n s o l v i n g these problems.  Future a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  work a t Katz based on a t h e o r e t i c a l l y o r i e n t e d r e s e a r c h d e s i g n i n v o l v i n g the systematic c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s of a wide v a r i e t y of data may c o n t r i b u t e i n t h i s r e g a r d .  T h i s problem  i s considered i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n the d i s c u s s i o n chapter.  CHAPTER I I I ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION Recent H i s t o r y Of The Katz S i t e The f i r s t r e f e r e n c e to the Katz s i t e appeared i n D u f f ' s The Upper S t a l o Indians (1952: 33).  He noted the Halkomelem  p l a c e name f o r Katz as sx^a' x iabai£, and provided the f o l l o w w  ing information: On the north bank of the r i v e r , a t the east end of the l a r g e f l a t area now i n c l u d e d i n the Katz Indian Reserve (I.R.4), i s t h i s o l d v i l l a g e - s i t e . In e a r l y times a c c o r d i n g to R.J., only one f a m i l y l i v e d there permanently, the a n c e s t o r s of the present c h i e f , P e t e r Pete. However, when the Hope people moved to Katz (about 1870 or e a r l i e r ) , many of them s e t t l e d here, and i t became a l a r g e v i l l a g e . Today one can see twentys i x h o u s e p i t s here, i n two rows p a r a l l e l to the r i v e r bank, and cut through the middle by the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway t r a c k s . . In 1956  the s i t e was  Scheme as D i R j : l (Borden,  recorded i n the S i t e D e s i g n a t i o n 1952).  In June of 1969  an a r c h a e o l  o g i c a l survey of the n o r t h bank of the F r a s e r R i v e r between A g a s s i z and H a i g was  c a r r i e d out under the a u s p i c e s of the  A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S i t e s A d v i s o r y Board The purpose of t h i s survey was s i t e s along the proposed  of B r i t i s h  Columbia.  to i d e n t i f y the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  Trans-Canada highway road bed.  A  recommendation was made t h a t the Katz s i t e be i n v e s t i g a t e d as c o n s i d e r a b l e damage to the l a r g e pithouse v i l l a g e appeared  58  59  imminent.  Funds were n o t made a v a i l a b l e , however, and the  s i t e r e c e i v e d no a r c h a e o l o g i c a l a t t e n t i o n u n t i l l a t e i n the following f i e l d  season  (1970).  S e v e r a l of the crew members ( i n c l u d i n g myself)  employed  on the "South Yale P r o j e c t " d u r i n g the summer of 1970 v i s i t e d Katz i n the company o f Dr. C E . Borden.  By e a r l y J u l y s u r -  f i c i a l d e s t r u c t i o n of the s i t e was a l r e a d y r a t h e r e x t e n s i v e due  to c l e a r i n g a c t i v i t y a l o n g the road allowance and a d j a c e n t  r i g h t - o f - w a y area (Map 3 ) .  Heavy e a r t h moving equipment  f i t t e d with a r a k e - l i k e d e v i c e termed a "brush rack" had d i s lodged stumps and removed the s u r f a c e v e g e t a t i o n .  The s u r -  face had been d i s t u r b e d t o a depth o f one t o three f e e t a l o n g the n o r t h s i d e o f the C.P.R. r i g h t - o f - w a y , a d i s t a n c e of 100 yards i n a north-south d i r e c t i o n , and approximately east-west  (Map 3 ) .  T h i s c l e a r i n g a c t i v i t y extended  barn owned by the present occupant, to  Mrs. P e t e r Pete,  the rock spur a t which p o i n t the West Coast  p i p e l i n e c r o s s e s the F r a s e r R i v e r . s i t e d u r i n g the summer (1970)  750 yards, from the eastward  Transmission  V i s i t s were made t o the  and twelve hundred a r t e f a c t s  were recovered from the d i s t u r b e d s u r f a c e .  S e v e r a l observa-  t i o n s were made a t t h a t timet 1. The a r t e f a c t s r e c o v e r e d were e n t i r e l y o f stone.  Arte-  f a c t s of o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l had not s u r v i v e d the hypera c i d i t y of the s o i l . 2. Contact goods, with the e x c e p t i o n of a few fragments of  Chinese p o t t e r y , were absent from the s u r f a c e sample.  These sherds were presumably l e f t by Chinese  workers  60  employed i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e C.P.R. 3. The most predominant t o o l appeared t o be t h e c o r t e x s p a l l t o o l , c o m p r i s i n g a l a r g e percentage o f t h e s u r face c o l l e c t i o n . 4. Evidence  s u g g e s t i n g t h e "on s i t e " manufacture o f  n e p h r i t e t o o l s was abundant.  Sawn n e p h r i t e b o u l d e r s ,  sawn d e t r i t u s and completed a r t e f a c t s o f n e p h r i t e were a l l present i n q u a n t i t y . 5. The p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s were d i v e r s e i n form.  Leaf-shaped  p o i n t s o f c o n s i d e r a b l e s i z e range were found a l o n g w i t h a v a r i e t y of shouldered, notched p o i n t s .  c o r n e r n o t c h e d and b a s a l l y  On t h e b a s i s o f t h e s u r f a c e a r t e f a c t s ,  t h e r e was a t l e a s t a s u g g e s t i o n o f a. r i c h l i t h i c assemblage and some time depth i n t h e c u l t u r a l d e p o s i t s a t Katz. P r e l i m i n a r y F i e l d Work (September, 1970) As highway c o n s t r u c t i o n was s c h e d u l e d  t o proceed i n t h e  f a l l o f 1970, an a p p l i c a t i o n was s e n t t o t h e A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S i t e s A d v i s o r y Board o f B.C. r e q u e s t i n g a p e r m i t and funds t o l a u n c h a two week s a l v a g e p r o j e c t .  A p e r m i t was g r a n t e d  (number 1970-19) and funds were made a v a i l a b l e f o r a s m a l l crew t o be brought t o g e t h e r .  The crew members i n c l u d e d Gordon  Hanson, L e s l i e Kopas, D a v i d A r c h e r , Gary B u r n i k e l l and A l a n Carl.  F i e l d equipment was made a v a i l a b l e by t h e L a b o r a t o r y  of A r c h a e o l o g y ,  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  61  Surveying A main datum p o i n t and i n September, 1970, The  and  main r e f e r e n c e  along  datum e l e v a t i o n was  established  a g r i d system l a i d out over the  p o i n t was  site.  l o c a t e d on a permanent f i x t u r e  the West Coast T r a n s m i s s i o n p i p e l i n e right-of-way  a b a s e l i n e was  extended to the r i v e r bank a l o n g a  l i n e , a distance  of approximately 435  west b a s e l i n e s were turned  feet.  and  "true-north"  A s e r i e s of  east-  90 degrees off t h i s l i n e a t 50 f e e t  i n t e r v a l s ; t h i s g r i d c o n s t i t u t e d the "primary g r i d system." A "secondary g r i d system" was 1971  f o r the pithouse  excavation  the "primary g r i d " was tion units.  The  e s t a b l i s h e d i n the s p r i n g of because the o r i e n t a t i o n of  inappropriate  The  degrees  the 4 7 5 '  south, 200* west c o o r d i n a t e . north-south, 0* been destroyed  p o i n t f o r the  e s t a b l i s h e d 4 0 . 4 5 f e e t north west of  excavations was  east-west.  This reference The  point  permanent bench  by c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t y so an  t r a r y e l e v a t i o n plane was e l e v a t i o n has  a l i g n e d 36  permanent r e f e r e n c e  pithouse  mark had  excava-  secondary g r i d system was  west of t r u e - n o r t h .  became 0 '  f o r the pithouse  e s t a b l i s h e d a t 100  feet.  arbi-  This  subsequently been t i e d i n with the permanent  bench mark l o c a t e d a t the base of the gas p i p e l i n e tower. The  a c t u a l e l e v a t i o n of the main datum plane i s 119*7  above sea l e v e l .  For the contour map  Because of time l i m i t a t i o n s and crew, i t was  decided  of the s i t e ,  3'  see Map  the small s i z e of  t h a t s e v e r a l t e s t p i t s along the  b a s e l i n e would produce the best r e s u l t s .  feet  the primary  A s e r i e s of p i t s  would i n d i c a t e both the depth of the d e p o s i t and  provide  a  62  b a s i c p r o f i l e of the c u l t u r a l and g e o l o g i c s t r a t i g r a p h y of the floodplain.  The t e s t p i t s were f i v e by f i v e f o o t u n i t s and  were excavated a c c o r d i n g t o a r b i t r a r y 6 i n c h l e v e l s from the datum plane.  Square nosed shovels were used t o skim o f f the  f i n e f l o o d p l a i n sediments i n l a y e r s . t u r n screened  T h i s m a t e r i a l was i n  through one-quarter i n c h mesh screens.  r a i n d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d made the use of f i n e r mesh  Heavy  screens  impossible. Only a few l e v e l s o f the d i s t u r b e d s u r f a c e were completed i n these u n i t s when the Highways Department engaged a backhoe f o r us.  With t h i s equipment a t our d i s p o s a l we adopted an  e n t i r e l y different strategy.  We decided  t o place s e v e r a l  p i t s a l o n g the a c t u a l highway road bed. Backhoe Test  Pits  A t e n f o o t i n c l i n e screen was c o n s t r u c t e d o f two-by-fours and plywood and covered  with one-quarter i n c h mesh screen.  A  t e s t p i t (5* x i o ' ) was l a i d out on the road bed o f the proposed Highway ( c o o r d i n a t e s 2 4 o ' - 2 5 0 ' Primary B a s e l i n e ) . observations,  south,  5'-10'  west-  A tape r e c o r d e r was obtained f o r r e c o r d i n g  and one member o f the crew was p l a c e d i n charge  of keeping a photographic  r e c o r d o f the excavation.  A con-  s c i e n t i o u s attempt was made t o keep the backhoe w i t h i n s i x inch l e v e l s .  The w a l l s were cleaned and s t r a i g h t e n e d  each l e v e l and exact provenience recorded  after  f o rartefacts situ-  ated i n the w a l l s . S e v e r a l problems o f contamination  were apparent i n the  63  use of such equipment 1.  and warrant mention a t t h i s p o i n t .  I t i s o b v i o u s l y impossible f o r a backhoe  to achieve the  same degree of c o n s i s t e n c y i n depths of l e v e l s obtained through e x c a v a t i o n by hand t o o l s .  The backhoe operator  was extremely i n t e r e s t e d i n what we were attempting to do and made an e f f o r t to come as c l o s e as p o s s i b l e to achieving s i x inch  levels.  2 . The w a l l opposite the backhoe  cannot be v e r t i c a l  after  a c e r t a i n depth due to the arc made by the boom and bucket of the  machine.  3 . A degree of mixing i s present i n every l e v e l ; t h i s i s unavoidable.  The s l i g h t e s t touch of the bucket a g a i n s t  the s i d e w a l l s skims m a t e r i a l from the l e v e l s 4.  A c e r t a i n amount o f undermining of the w a l l beneath the backhoe a l s o o c c u r s .  above.  directly  The amount o f t h i s  contamination i n c r e a s e s with depth. Backhoe T e s t P i t Number 1 (24o'-250' South, 5 ' - 1 0 '  West)  T h i s u n i t r e v e a l e d c u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l through f i f t e e n levels ( 7 . 5 ' ) .  An a d d i t i o n a l two f e e t of s t e r i l e f l o o d  sediments were removed from under the c u l t u r a l s t r a t a .  plain The  l a c k of adequate m a t e r i a l f o r s h o r i n g the w a l l s of the p i t s precluded a deeper e x c a v a t i o n . Backhoe T e s t P i t Number 2 (330'-3*K)' South, 255*-260' West) T h i s u n i t was highway road bed.  to the west of Number 1,  s i t u a t e d on the  I t proved to be l e s s p r o d u c t i v e and a f t e r  64  nine l e v e l s i t was  decided to abandon t h i s p i t and move to a  p o s i t i o n between Number 1 and Number 2 .  The backhoe was  at  our d i s p o s a l f o r a p e r i o d of only f o u r days and we wished to sample as much of the road bed as p o s s i b l e i n t h a t time. Backhoe T e s t P i t Number 3 ( 3 1 0 ' - 3 2 0 '  South,  205'-210*  West)  We managed t o take t h i s u n i t down t e n l e v e l s before the Highways Department r e c a l l e d the backhoe.  The w a l l s of these  t e s t p i t s were cleaned, photographed and s t r a t i g r a p h i c  pro-  f i l e s were drawn. At the same time the backhoe work was  being c a r r i e d  out,  t e s t p i t s on the south s i d e of the C.P.R. t r a c k s were s y s t e m a t i c a l l y excavated with the h e l p of members of the A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y of B r i t i s h Columbia.  These t e s t p i t s were  l a t e r re-opened and expanded i n the 1971 On September 1 5 i 1 9 7 0 ,  i t was  season.  not c l e a r whether f u r t h e r  work a l o n g the Highway r i g h t - o f - w a y would be p o s s i b l e b e f o r e the c o n s t r u c t i o n took p l a c e over the s i t e .  Our  constant  l i a i s o n with the Department of Highways had produced  assur-  ances t h a t the a r e a a d j a c e n t to the a c t u a l road bed would not be d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d and t h a t an attempt ensure  t h a t t h i s a r e a would not be d i s t u r b e d f u r t h e r .  these assurances proved to be Two  However,  unreliable.  weekends of f i e l d w o r k were planned f o r Dr. Borden's  Anthropology We  would be made to  420  course students a t Katz i n e a r l y  October.  found upon our a r r i v a l t h a t the d e s t r u c t i o n of the Katz  s i t e was  f a r advanced.  A b u l l d o z e r had ranged  over the  entire  65  a r e a t h a t had p r e v i o u s l y been c l e a r e d o f s u r f a c e v e g e t a t i o n . The h i g h e r p o i n t s of l a n d on the f l o o d p l a i n were "skimmed o f f " to f i l l of-way.  the d e p r e s s i o n s ( p i t h o u s e s ) and t o l e v e l the r i g h t T h i s a c t i v i t y was d e s c r i b e d by an engineer i n the  Highways Department as " l a n d s c a p i n g . "  The only areas t o  escape t h i s d e s t r u c t i o n were i n the immediate p r o x i m i t y o f our backhoe t e s t p i t s . as areas o f concern earlier,  These small areas were s i n g l e d out  t o the " a r c h a e o l o g i s t s . "  As mentioned  the c u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l i n backhoe T e s t P i t Number 1  was seven and one-half f e e t i n depth.  We have no i n f o r m a t i o n  at present as t o how much o f the s u r f a c e d e p o s i t was removed from these areas o f h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n .  We do know t h a t a t  l e a s t two and probably t h r e e p i t h o u s e s were destroyed by the bulldozer.  The damage t o the u n d e r l y i n g c u l t u r a l s t r a t a was  s l i g h t i n some areas and extreme i n o t h e r s . of the s i t e was t o t a l l y  unnecessary.  E x c a v a t i o n (May 15 to August 3 1 , The  This destruction  1971)  e x i g e n c i e s o f salvage archaeology  a t Katz  the adoption o f a systematic random sampling the e x c a v a t i o n o f the s i t e . the p r o j e c t were:  (1)  precluded  procedure f o r  The major c o n s t r a i n t s imposed on  the areas t o be excavated  were d i c t a t e d  by the Highways Department, and ( 2 ) the amount of time  avail-  a b l e f o r the e x c a v a t i o n o f each area depended upon the schedule The  of the c o n s t r u c t i o n c o n t r a c t o r . c o n s t r u c t i o n of the highway a t Katz n e c e s s i t a t e d a  realignment  o f the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway  t r a c k s to  66  accommodate the road.  T h i s meant t h a t the r a i l  s h i f t e d on top of P i t h o u s e s Number 1 and 2.  We  bed would be were a d v i s e d  t h a t a s i x week " s t a y of grace" would be g i v e n on t h i s  por-  t i o n of the s i t e , which l i e s to the south of the t r a c k s . With these f a c t o r s i n mind i t was  decided t h a t the  aim of the p r o j e c t should be to s y s t e m a t i c a l l y and excavate P i t h o u s e s 1 and 2 and to sample the surrounding a r e a s .  central intensively  immediately  The p r e l i m i n a r y t e s t i n g of the rim between  Pithouse 1 and 2, c a r r i e d out i n the f a l l l a r g e numbers of stone a r t e f a c t s .  of 1970,  I t appeared  revealed  t h a t i t would  be p o s s i b l e to r e c o v e r l a r g e samples of t o o l s a s s o c i a t e d with the p i t h o u s e s from these a r e a s .  At the same time, i n f o r m a t i o n  on the s t r u c t u r e and l i v i n g areas of the houses would be by e x t e n s i v e e x c a v a t i o n i n the house d e p r e s s i o n s . backhoe t e s t e d areas of the s i t e ,  sought  In the  on the n o r t h s i d e of the  r a i l w a y , e a r l i e r c u l t u r a l l a y e r s were observed beneath the pithouse occupation l a y e r s .  I f such l a y e r s were to be  near Pithouse 1 and 2 an attempt  would be made to  found  determine  the nature of these e a r l i e r l a y e r s and the c u l t u r a l remains a s s o c i a t e d with them. The e x c a v a t i o n of the house p i t depressions was "skimming" with square nosed shovels and was arbitrary  .5  m a t e r i a l was  by s h o v e l  conducted  in  f o o t l e v e l s f o l l o w i n g the s u r f a c e contour. screened through  one-eighth  or one-quarter i n c h  mesh screens, depending upon the weather c o n d i t i o n s . dimensional provenience was  recorded f o r a l l " i n s i t u "  f a c t s with approximate provenience  All  Three arte-  a s s i g n e d to screen f i n d s .  67  The  c u l t u r a l l a y e r s interbedded i n the f l u v i a l zone (Zone B)  were excavated trowel.  s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y and almost e x c l u s i v e l y by  Whereas the e x c a v a t i o n of the l a t e r mixed pithouse  d e p o s i t (Zone A) was concerned terms of v e r t i c a l l y excavated  p r i m a r i l y with sampling i n sections,  e a r l i e r c u l t u r a l l a y e r s was conducted i n g and r e c o r d i n g h o r i z o n t a l remains. by 5 f e e t .  The dimensions  the e x c a v a t i o n of the  with the aim of expos-  d i s t r i b u t i o n s of a r t e f a c t u a l  of the e x c a v a t i o n u n i t s were 5 f e e t  The l o c a l datum plane used f o r the e x c a v a t i o n of  P i t h o u s e s 1 and 2 was 97 f e e t (116.7 f e e t above sea level.)  68  Map 3 Contour Map o f the Katz S i t e  :DIRJJ  -  K A T Z  SITE  A91A  CONTOUR. INTERVAL SURVEY^ YUNG FAN  * T TELEGRAPH POLE * ^9 SL>RVEV STATION -x FENCE ' -»—i- CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY •'> IQ] B U I L .OING / -f-r ROAD [EXCAVATED ;  AREA  Q . T P = BACKHOE 'P = P I T H O U S E  TES  Mo-p 3.  69  Stratigraphy The graphic  e x c a v a t i o n a t Katz r e v e a l e d three major s t r a t i zonesJ  Zone A - The p i t h o u s e d e p o s i t  The  Zone B - The  f l u v i a l deposit  Zone C - The  bottom of the former r i v e r  channel  c r i t e r i a used t o d i s t i n g u i s h the three zones are both  g e o l o g i c a l and c u l t u r a l i n c h a r a c t e r .  The  characteristics  of each zone are o u t l i n e d below. S t r a t i g r a p h y of Zone A Included i n t h i s zone are the g e o l o g i c and  cultural  m a t e r i a l s a s s o c i a t e d with the c o n s t r u c t i o n , the occupancy, and the e v e n t u a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the p i t h o u s e s numbers 1 through  4.  The  designated  s t r a t i g r a p h y and c u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l s  of t h i s d e p o s i t are d i f f i c u l t  to order i n time f o r a number  of reasons. 1.  The  c o n s t r u c t i o n of a semi-subterranean  dwelling re-  q u i r e s the e x c a v a t i o n of a p i t i n t o e a r l i e r c u l t u r a l and/or geological strata. Pithouse Number 1,  The heavy b l a c k l i n e on the p r o f i l e Figure 6,  shows how  the o r i g i n a l  of  excava-  t i o n f o r the d w e l l i n g i n t r u d e s i n t o e a r l i e r c u l t u r a l l a y e r s which are interbedded here with f l u v i a l l a y e r s . d e p o s i t s have been designated Zone B.  These e a r l i e r  The heavy b l a c k l i n e  descends s t e e p l y through  Zone B a t approximately  west p o i n t on the g r i d .  At a depth  the 13  foot  of nearly, 6 f e e t below  the datum plane of 97 f e e t , t h i s steep angle l e v e l s  out  70  forming a b e n c h - l i k e f e a t u r e before descending  to the n a t u r a l  cobble pavement o f the abandoned r i v e r channel, Zone C.  A  s i m i l a r l e d g e - l i k e f e a t u r e appears on the p r o f i l e on the opposite s i d e of the pithouse from 48 f e e t t o 52 f e e t west. T h i s suggests floor  the presence  o f a p l a t f o r m e n c i r c l i n g the house  proper. The depth of the house appears to have been  determined  by the depth o f the e a s i l y removable sands and s i l t s because the occupation s t a i n extends downward to the cobble paved bottom of the o l d r i v e r channel.  T h i s channel i s approximately  9 t o 10 f e e t below the present s u r f a c e o f the pithouse rim, and approximately Zones A and B.  6 f e e t below the n a t u r a l s u r f a c e s e p a r a t i n g  I n only one of the excavated  Number 1 d i d we encounter  evidence  cobbles t o a t t a i n g r e a t e r depth.  u n i t s o f Pithouse  o f the removal o f r i v e r In t h i s case a 2 f o o t x 3  f o o t cache p i t (Feature 13) was c r e a t e d by i n t r u s i o n  into  Zone C. 2. The sediments removed i n the e x c a v a t i o n o f the house p i t e v e n t u a l l y serve t o cover the s u p e r s t r u c t u r e o f the d w e l l i n g ( T e i t . 1900: 192-194).  F o r our purposes i t i s  s u f f i c i e n t t o note t h a t e a r l y c u l t u r a l l a y e r s become d i s p l a c e d and mixed, and superimposed on temporally more r e c e n t  cultural  deposits. 3.  There may be a mixing o f c u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l through  fil-  t e r i n g of the r o o f c o v e r i n g down onto the f l o o r d e p o s i t . 4. P i t h o u s e s may have been p e r i o d i c a l l y abandoned and r e excavated.  T h i s p o s s i b i l i t y f u r t h e r complicates the task o f  71  a s s i g n i n g c u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l s to the pithouse  occupation.  v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n s i n the p r o f i l e of the house l e n s e s of s t a i n e d sand and tion layers.  silt  At un-  appear between d a r k l y s t a i n e d occupa-  These u n s t a i n e d  bands do not run  continuously  a c r o s s the f l o o r n e a t l y s e p a r a t i n g p e r i o d i c occupations the house, but occur as s h o r t l e n s e s , t r u n c a t e d by c l e a n i n g s and p a r t i a l r e - e x c a v a t i o n  of  repeated  of the house.  5« M a t e r i a l s a s s o c i a t e d with the occupancy of the  pithouse  appear to have been d e p o s i t e d around and between adjacent houses.  Such m a t e r i a l s c o u l d e a s i l y become mixed with a r t e -  f a c t s and  sediments s l o u g h i n g from the r o o f as a r e s u l t  of  weathering. 6. The  c o l l a p s e of the p i t h o u s e .  Through the  eventual  d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the s u p e r s t r u c t u r e , r o o f d e p o s i t s were probably  f u r t h e r mingled with house f l o o r d e p o s i t s .  On the p r o f i l e of Pithouse  Number 1 shown i n F i g u r e  6,  the v a r i o u s s t r a t a are numbered from top to bottom.  The  c o m p l e x i t i e s j u s t o u t l i n e d r e g a r d i n g the o r d e r i n g of  these  s t r a t a must be kept i n mind while examining the drawing. als  Top  soil,  r o o t mat,  d e b r i s from adjacent  railway  a2:  A broad l a y e r of mixed r o o f c o l l a p s e m a t e r i a l cons i s t i n g of s i l t , sand, f i r e cracked rock, with some s c a t t e r e d c h a r c o a l throughout. The sediments i n t h i s l a y e r are not uniform i n c o l o u r or t e x t u r e but are mixed bands and l e n s e s of u n s t a i n e d l i g h t y e l l o w sand, c l a y e y s i l t , and dark brown s i l t y loam.  a3:  T h i s stratum c o n s i s t i n g a l s o of r o o f c o l l a p s e m a t e r i a l , i s of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t and warrants separate i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . A broad band of extremely compact l i g h t yellow, unstained, s i l t y c l a y i s evident i n the p r o f i l e . This m a t e r i a l seems to have served as a c l a y cap c o v e r i n g the r o o f to decrease e r o s i o n , and provide a d d i t i o n a l i n s u l a t i o n a g a i n s t c o l d and moisture.  72  a4:  F l o o r d e p o s i t . There are d i f f e r e n c e s i n the degree of s t a i n i n g and compaction i n the f l o o r d e p o s i t . Lenses of d a r k l y s t a i n e d s i l t and sand are separated i n some l o c a t i o n s by t h i n l e n s e s of unstained, s t e r i l e sediments, p o s s i b l y r e s u l t i n g from p e r i o d i c abandonment.  S t r a t i g r a p h y of Zone B Zone B was realignment  c o n s t r u c t e d g r a d u a l l y as a r e s u l t of the  of the main or deep channel  toward the opposite bank.  This s h i f t  of the F r a s e r R i v e r  i n the course of the  r i v e r l e f t the u n d e r l y i n g cobble pavement of Zone C as a cobble bar which was  inundated by s l a c k water d u r i n g the  f l o o d stage of the r i v e r .  seasonal  Over time the l a y e r s of suspended  f l u v i a l sediments l a i d down by t h i s f l o o d i n g developed  the  f l o o d p l a i n bank. C u l t u r a l l a y e r s are interbedded i n t h i s f l u v i a l d e p o s i t , beginning approximately  2 f e e t above Zone C, and c o n t i n u i n g  with f l u v i a l s e p a r a t i o n to approximately Radiocarbon  6 f e e t above Zone C.  assays based on c h a r c o a l , from the lowermost and  uppermost c u l t u r a l l a y e r s of Zone B, have y i e l d e d dates of 7^5  pectively.  ( I - G>1%1 ) and 525  ( I - UfO  ), r e s -  T h i s d e p o s i t c o n s i s t i n g of f l u v i a l and  cultural  t 90 B.C.  - 90 B.C.  l a y e r s i s found i n the areas between the pithouses not turbed by the h o u s e p i t e x c a v a t i o n . Number 1, F i g u r e 6, f e e t and West 22.3 52.0  dis-  The p r o f i l e of Pithouse  shows such sediments between E a s t  2.5  f e e t and on the opposite s i d e from West  f e e t and 55 «0 f e e t .  The  c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e s exposed be-  tween the bottom and top of Zone B are s i m i l a r i n nature  as  can be seen i n the h o r i z o n t a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of s t r a t i f i e d  Zone  73  B features i n Figure 1 2 . f e a t u r e s , alignments moulds.  Zone B i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by hearth  o f cobbles p l a c e d on edge, and stake  In s e v e r a l cases these f e a t u r e s appear t o be a s s o c i a  t e d i n complexes.  The f e a t u r e s recorded i n t h i s zone appear  to r e f l e c t a seasonal u t i l i z a t i o n o f the s i t e , perhaps as a fishing station.  The s t r a t i f i c a t i o n o f s i m i l a r f e a t u r e s i n -  d i c a t e s some degree o f c o n s i s t e n c y i n the kinds of a c t i v i t i e s being c a r r i e d out a t the s i t e over a p e r i o d of about two cent u r i e s , t h a t i s , from 7^5 t o 525 B.C. S t r a t i g r a p h y of Zone C T h i s zone i s the n a t u r a l pavement of water worn pebbles and cobbles r e p r e s e n t i n g the bottom of the o l d r i v e r  channel.  T h i s "bar" i s approximately 9 t o 10 f e e t below the r i m i n the v i c i n i t y of the p i t h o u s e s .  The depth below the s u r f a c e i n -  creases i n the d i r e c t i o n o f the r i v e r as the b a r s l o p e s downward, which i n d i c a t e s t h a t the r i v e r has been degrading i t s bed. The main o b s e r v a t i o n s on the order o f development o f the three zones a r e as f o l l o w s .  The r i v e r once coursed  the cobble pavement s t r a t i f i e d beneath Zone B.  over  The r i v e r  g r a d u a l l y s h i f t e d i t s course toward the opposite bank and degraded i t s bed.  Seasonal f l o o d i n g over the cobble pavement  d e p o s i t e d l a y e r s o f s i l t and sand g r a d u a l l y b u i l d i n g the p r e sent f l o o d p l a i n bank.  During t h i s process, the s i t e was  s e a s o n a l l y occupied and c u l t u r a l l a y e r s c o n t a i n i n g t o o l s , rock f e a t u r e s , stake moulds and bands of c h a r c o a l were l e f t  74  interbedded  i n t h i s d e p o s i t , here designated  the f l o o d p l a i n had  achieved  Zone B.  a h e i g h t of approximately  When 6 feet  above the cobble pavement, semi-subterranean houses were c o n s t r u c t e d on the s i t e . p a t i o n , i n Zone B, houses.  The  remnants of the e a r l i e r occu-  are s i t u a t e d between and around the p i t -  F u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n on t h i s s u b j e c t i s i n c l u d e d i n  Chapter V. The  f e a t u r e s i n each zone are presented  below, a l o n g with F i g u r e s 7 and distribution.  The  12 showing t h e i r h o r i z o n t a l  f e a t u r e numbers correspond  on the d i s t r i b u t i o n diagram.  i n t a b u l a r form  with the numbers  For photographs of Zone A  Zone B f e a t u r e s , see F i g u r e s 8-11,  13-18.  and  75  Figure 6 P r o f i l e o f P i t h o u s e Number 1  I 10'  Di R j 1 P I T H O U S E  NUMBER 1  PROFILE OF Z O N E S  ^llllllh  CHARCOAL STAINED CONCENTRATIONS OCCUPATION  20  SOUTH  A.B.andC  FLUVIAL OF  STAINED  SEOEMENTS  CHARCOAL DEPOSIT,  AND  15'sOUTH  WALL  I  ASH  Z O N E  A WALL  W 5  1  SURFACE  PEDESTALED BARK  2  LOOSE  SANDY  SILT  j  I  j  )  »1  ZONE PITHOUSE  20  REVERSED)  W 1  r  I  TOPSOIL  (PROFILE  A  WITH  CHARRED  SHEET  (FEATURE  no.lO)  ZONE  B  745 ±90 B.C. (FEATURE  •HEARTH  no. 3 0 )  STERILE  SAND  AND  AREA-  SILT  UNEXCAVATED  ZONE  C  SOUTH 15'  WALL .  SOUTH  WALL  55'  98'  TABLE I I I (for  Feature Number  Type of Feature  Zone A F e a t u r e s ; Pithouse Number 1 h o r i z o n t a l d i s t r i b u t i o n , see F i g u r e 7)  Unit  Location  Dimensions  Depth Below 97 Feet  Description  11  large r i v e r cobbles ( p l a c e d on edge)  S 10-15 W 0-10'  S 16.8-18.3' w 8.9-10.0'  1-5 1.1  1.3-1.8  Three l a r g e f l a t c o b b l e s p l a c e d on edge i n a s e m i - c i r c l e on the e a s t e r n r i m of Pithouse 1. Possibly a s s o c i a t e d with a h i p r a f t e r , but o n l y . 8 * below the present s u r face.  12  hearth feature  S 15-20 w 20-30'  s 19-20  w 11-12.3'  1.0' 1.3'  7.3*  An arrangement o f s m a l l pebbles, some f i r e c r a c k e d exposed i n the south-east c o r ner o f the u n i t . Conc e n t r a t i o n o f ash and charcoal.  13  cache p i t ?  S 5- 8 w 30-38'  S 5.4-7.4' w 33.6-36.6  2.0 3.0  8.1-9.1'  A h o l e excavated i n t o Zone C ( r i v e r channel) north-west o f the cent e r o f the p i t h o u s e floor. The p i t i s 3 . 0 ' l o n g and 2 . 0 ' wide and l . o ' deep. Two f l a t rock s l a b s are p l a c e d on edge p a r t i a l l y  TABLE I I I (Continued) Feature Number  Type of Feature  Unit  Location  Dimensions  Depth Below 97 Feet  Description l i n i n g the s i d e s of the f e a t u r e . Absence of ash e t c . p r e c l u d e s the p o s s i b i l i t y that the f e a t u r e may have been a c e n t r a l hearth (see F i g u r e 10)  14  15  hearth feature?  S 10-21 W 40-45'  S 10-11.5  large r i v e r cobbles  S 0-10 W 45-55'  S W  W 40-41.5'  8.8'-10.0' 48-50.0'  1.5  1.5'  1.2' x 2.0'  7.3  .6'  An arrangement of r i v e r pebbles with dense c h a r c o a l and ash. T h i s f e a t u r e i s a t the same depth below the l o c a l datum plane as the other p o s s i b l e h e a r t h f e a t u r e (number 12). The f e a t u r e i s s i t u a t e d to the west of the c e n t e r of the house f l o o r , and below the e n c i r c l i n g p l a t form o r ledge (Feature 18). Large cobbles p l a c e d i n a p i l e on the western r i m o f the p i t house. The f e a t u r e was exposed j u s t beneath the s u r f a c e and extended downward 1.5 • May p o s s i b l y be a s s o c i a t e d with a h i p r a f t e r ?  TABLE I I I (Continued) Feature Number  Type of Feature  16  linear arrangement of l a r g e river cobbles  17  (combined with f e a t u r e 18)  18  pithouse ledge ( p a r t of an e n c i r cling platform? )  Unit 0-10 W 45-55' S  S 0-10 W 45-55'  Location 0-10 W 45.8-46.5' S  S 0-10 W 48*51  Dimensions 10.0' .8'  10.0 3.0  Depth Below 97 Feet x  x  6.6-7.0'  5.9-6.1  Description A s e r i e s of large r i v e r cobbles ( . 8 - 1 . 4 ' i n l e n g t h ) f o l l o w the i n t e r f a c e between Zone A and Zone B. The cobbles a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Zone A d e p o s i t and l i e approximately . 3 ' above the o l d r i v e r channel on charcoal stained s i l t (see F i g u r e 8 ) .  A ledge i n P i t h o u s e 1 approximately 3 . 0 ' i n width appears a t a depth o f 5 . 9 t o 6 . 1 below the l o c a l datum elevation of 9 7 . 0 . A s i m i l a r ledge f e a t u r e a l s o appears on the e a s t e r n s i d e o f the house a t a p p r o x i mately the same e l e v a t i o n above the cobble pavement s u g g e s t i n g an e n c i r c l i n g platform above the f l o o r of the house. t  79 7  Figure Horizontal  Distribution Associated  40 3  0  J  with  Features  Pithouses  , 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 1  - 0\RjJ _  of C u l t u r a l  HORIZONTAL  FEATURES  ASSOCIATED  DEPTHS ARE BELOW . " DATUM PLANE  97'  DISTRIBUTION WITH 0  OF  PITHOUSES  CULTURAL (ZONE A )  80  Zone A F e a t u r e s :  P i t h oils e Number 1  F i g u r e 8. P i t h o u s e Number 1. F e a t u r e Number 16 At t h e west s i d e o f t h e house f l o o r i s a l i n e a r arrangement o f e l o n g a t e c o b b l e s a t t h e i n t e r f a c e of Zone A and Zone B. The c o b b l e pavement t o t h l e f t i s t h e bottom o f t h e r i v e r c h a n n e l Zone C.  F i g u r e 9. P i t h o u s e Number 1 . Photograph shows s e c t i o n near center of pithouse. L i g h t coloured m a t r i x i s compact c l a y band.  81  Figure 10. P i t h o u s e Number 1. Cache p i t i n t o f l o o r o f p i t h o u s e ( U n i t s We 3 0 - 3 8 f e e t , South 5-8 f e e t ) . Two r o c k s l a b l i n e the p i t .  TABLE IV Zone A F e a t u r e s i P i t h o u s e Number 2 ( f o r h o r i z o n t a l d i s t r i b u t i o n , see F i g u r e Feature Number  Type of Feature  Unit  Location  6 . 0 - 8.4' E 28.0-29.6'  0-10 E 25-35'  S  0-10 E 25-35'  S  c l u s t e r of large rivers cobbles  S  sheets of c h a r r e d bark  S  0-10 E 27.8-31.5'  Dimensions  Depth Below 97 Feet 1.4*  2.4' x  1.6'  10.0' 3.7'  7)  Description P u r p o s e f u l arrangement of l a r g e r i v e r c o b b l e s from 4, t o 1.6' beneath the s u r f a c e . Possibly associated with h i p r a f t e r s of the house although the f e a t u r e seems too near the p r e s e n t s u r f a c e . t  x  4.7-5.1'  Sheets of c h a r r e d bark were exposed a t the i n t e r f a c e between Zone A and Zone B. The sheets appear to be a s s o c i a t e d with the p i t house, and i n t h i s u n i t run i n a north-south direction. The p o s i t i o n of t h i s f e a t u r e a l o n g with f e a t u r e s 4, 6, and 10 suggest t h a t the sheets of bark enc i r c l e d the house. Whether t h i s wood l i n e d the w a l l s or was p a r t of the s u p e r s t r u c t u r e i s not c l e a r (see F i g ure 11).  TABLE IV (Continued) Feature Number  Dimensions  Type o f Feature  Unit  large r i v e r cobbles  S 10-20 E 30-40'  S 14.0-15.4' E 30.0-31.0'  1.4' 1.0'  sheet o f c h a r r e d bark  S 10-15, E 30-40  S 10.0-12.5 E 25.0-26.8'  sheet o f c h a r r e d bark  S 10-15 E 15-25'  c h a r r e d bark  S 20-25 E 5-15'  Location  Depth Below 97 Feet  Description  1.6-2.0'  C l u s t e r of large cobbles j u s t beneath the s u r f a c e on the r i m of P i t h o u s e Number 2 , Presumed to be a s t r u c t u r a l feature, possibly a s s o c i a t e d with a h i p rafter.  2.5 1.8  4.9'  Charred bark, n o r t h south o r i e n t a t i o n . Appears t o be an extension of feature number 2 i n the a d j a cent u n i t , S 0 - 1 0 , E 25-35'.  s 12.0-15.0 E 21.8-25.0'  5.0 3.2  6.6-6.8  Charred bark, n o r t h south o r i e n t a t i o n . T h i s f e a t u r e i s deeper than f e a t u r e s 2 and 4 . I t appears t h a t the bark f o l l o w s the cont o u r o f the i n t e r f a c e between Zone A and B.  s 20.8-23.6' E 7.0-15.0'  3-2 8.0  5.2  Charred bark, east west o r i e n t a t i o n , runs p e r p e n d i c u l a r to bark f e a t u r e s 2 , 4 , and 5»  x  TABLE IV Feature Number  8  10  Type o f Feature  Unit  (Continued)  Location  Dimensions  Depth Below 97 Feet  Description  large r i v e r cobbles (burial c o v e r ) , assoc i a t e d with burial feature 8  S 20-30 E 0-10'  S 23 -26.5 E 1.5- 6.2'  3-5 4.7  0.9'  Large r i v e r cobbles p l a c e d s i d e by s i d e immediately beneath the s u r f a c e , Under the cobbles a p o r t i o n of mandible and a number o f t e e t h were found. The cobbles were 1 . 0 t o 1.6 i n length.  human jaw fragments and t e e t h  S 20.0-30.0 E 0 -10  S 22 - 2 5 . 5 E 3 . 0 - 7.0*  3.5 4.0  3.7'  The s c a t t e r e d f r a g ments o f decomposed bone were noised to a depth o f 3 . 7 below , the l o c a l datum o f 97 •  large r i v e r cobbles  S 10-1? E 0-5  s E  1-5 1.5  1.6-1.7  S e v e r a l l a r g e cobbles placed i n a p i l e . S i m i l a r i n nature to f e a t u r e s 1 and 3 i n P i t house 2 , and f e a t u r e s 11 and 15 i n Pithouse 1. Possibly associated with a h i p r a f t e r .  sheet of c h a r r e d bark  S 10-15 E 0 - 5'  S 10 -15 E 2.9-^.9'  T  13.5-15.0, 3 . 5 - 5.0  5.0' 2.0  x  4.0-4.5'  Charred bark sheet i n a north-south o r i e n t a t i o n f o l l o w i n g the west r i m o f the p i t house.  85  Zone A F e a t u r e :  Pithouse  Number 2  Figure 11. P i t h o u s e Number 2 . F e a t u r e Number 2 . Shows s h e e t s o f c h a r r e d b a r k r u n n i n g n o r t h - s o u t h i n u n i t South 0-10 f e e t , E a s t 25-35 f e e t . A s e c t i o n o f a Zone B h e a r t h f e a t u r e c a n be s e e n l e f t o f c e n t e r a t the bottom o f the photograph.  TABLE V Zone B Features (For h o r i z o n t a l d i s t r i b u t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to excavated p i t h o u s e s Feature Number  Type of Feature  Dimensions  Location  Unit  4.26.2' 33.0-34.8'  hearth  S 0-10 E 25-35'  S E  linear arrangement of cobbles  S 0-10 E 25-35'  S 0 E 33  7 - 35'  2.0 1.8'  7.0 2.0'  see F i g u r e  Depth Below 97 Feet  12")  Description  x  4.2-4.5'  A w e l l d e f i n e d hearth. An arrangement of r i v e r pebbles approximately 2 i n diameter. Some pebbles e x h i b i t f r a c t u r e from heat. The c h a r c o a l and ash c o n c e n t r a t i o n i s dense.  x  4.1-4.5'  T h i s i s a s e r i e s of l a r g e r i v e r cobbles mounted on edge i n a l i n e a r f a s h i o n extendi n g from the north w a l l of t h e u n i t , South 0 to 5 . 7 . The cobbles pass between f e a t u r e 1 and the west w a l l of the u n i t (35 E a s t ) . T h i s f e a t u r e appears to be a s s o c i a t e d with the hearth of f e a t u r e 1. (  3  t h r e e stake moulds  S 0-10' E 25-35'  0) S  7,8E 35 0 S 8.5E 35'  8.1'  0.3'  8.8  0.3'  3.6-4.6'  The stake moulds are 2 . 5 " i n diameter and approximately 4 apart. They appear s l i g h t l y ft  TABLE V (Continued) Feature Number  Type o f Feature  Unit  Location  0) S  Dimensions  9 1- 9.V E 35  0.3  ?  hearth  S 0-10 E 25-35'  S 2.5- 5.V E 33.0-35.0  2.9, 2.0  5  hearth  S 0-10 E 25-35'  S 0.2- 2.6' E 32 -33-9'  6  linear arrangement of cobbles  S 0-10' E 25-35'  E 3^  s o -  hearth  S 0-10 E 25-35'  Depth Below 97 Feet  Description above the hearth f e a t u r e and probe to a depth o f 1 . 0 ' . This f e a t u r e may be a s s o c i ated with f e a t u r e s 1 and 2 i n a f e a t u r e comp l e x which occurs i n other areas o f Zone B.  5.6'  Circular configuration of cobbles showing evidence o f heat f r a c t u r e . Dense c h a r c o a l and ash c o n c e n t r a t i o n s . Appears t o be i n assoc i a t i o n with f e a t u r e 6 .  2.4] 1.9  5.6'  Arrangement o f cobbles, dense c h a r c o a l and ash.  7.0' -35'  7.0; 1.0  5.4-6.0'  T h i s s e r i e s o f cobbles l i e s beneath the cobble arrangement o f f e a t u r e 2 but has the same o r i e n t a t i o n . The cobbles f o l l o w a l i n e s l i g h t l y c l o s e r t o the 35 E a s t l i n e than those of f e a t u r e 2 .  S 7.7- 9.0 E 33.2-34.5'  *-3 1.3  5.6'  Arrangement o f f i r e cracked pebbles, dense  x  Feature Number  Type o f Feature  Unit  TABLE V  (Continued)  Location  Dimensions  Depth Below 97 Feet  Description c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f charc o a l and a s h .  8  10  Flaking station?  S 10-20 E 30-40'  S 11 -18 E 33 - 3 9  elongate hearth?  S 10-20 E 30'4o'  S 10 E 30 E 33  hearth  S 20-25 E 10-15'  1  -20" -32:  7.0 6.0'  x  10.0 x 2.0'  4.4-4.6'  T h i s f e a t u r e i s a concentration of l i t h i c detritus within a clearl y defined area. Accompanying the f l a k e s and chips of various sizes were s e v e r a l a r t e f a c t s i n c l u d i n g a hammerstone (9237)» two cores (9241, 9242) and an a n v i l stone.  4.5-4.7'  T h i s elongate h e a r t h f e a t u r e runs i n a n o r t h to south d i r e c t i o n a c r o s s the u n i t . I t c o n t a i n s numerous rocks and dense c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of c h a r c o a l and a s h .  4.2'  T h i s f e a t u r e was o n l y p a r t i a l l y exposed but appeared s i m i l a r t o the other c i r c u l a r arrangements o f stones with dense c h a r c o a l found i n other l o c a t i o n s i n Zone B. Some o f the pebbles were f r a c t u r e d from heat.  -35  s 23.8-25 E 12 - 1 5 '  1.2' 3.0"  Feature Number  Type o f Feature  Unit  11  possibly hearth  S 20-30 E 5-10'  12  hearth  S E  20-25 5-W5'  TABLE V  (Continued)  Location  Dimensions  Depth Below 97 Feet  Description  S 22.8-25.9 E 4 . 2 - 7.8'  3.1 3.6'  x  4.3-4.7'  A c o n f i g u r a t i o n of cobbles with dense c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f charc o a l and ash.  S 20 E 0  2.0 4.0'  x  4.3'  T h i s hearth i s only p a r t i a l l y exposed with the remaining p o r t i o n w i t h i n the n o r t h w a l l of the u n i t S 20' l i n e . Circular configuration of cobbles and dense charcoal.  -22' - 4'  (  13  stake moulds (14)  S 20-25 E 5 5' and adjacent units: S 15-20* W 0- 5 and S 10-15 E 0 - 5' L w  See h o r i z o n t a l distribution, Figure 12.  4.0-4.3'  Fourteen stake moulds were exposed a t approxi m a t e l y the same depth below the l o c a l datum plane e l e v a t i o n ( 4 . 0 ' below 9 7 . 0 ) . The moulds appear a t i r r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s i n two arc l i k e formations around f e a t u r e 1 2 . One a r c o f stake moulds i s immediately a d j a c e n t to the h e a r t h , while an o u t e r a r c i s between 1 - 2 ' around the h e a r t h . The moulds appear t o be only 0 . 8 - 1 . 0 i n depth. Most o f these i n t r u s i o n s  Feature Number  Type o f Feature  Unit  TABLE V  (Continued)  Location  Dimensions  Depth Below 97 F e e t  Description c o n t a i n s e v e r a l pebbles which may have been p l a c e d i n t h e moulds to support a stake.  14  hearth  s 20-30 W 5-10'  S 23.9-26.2'  15  hearth  S 20-30 w 5-10'  S 29 W 8  16  r o c k oven?  s 20-30  s 25.3-29  W  W  5-10'  W  6.6-10.2*  -30 -10'  6.2-14'  2.3] 3.4'  3*3-3.7'  A c i r c u l a r arrangement o f r i v e r c o b b l e s , some f i r e c r a c k e d . The o u t s i d e row o f c o b b l e s a r e mounted on edge and l e a n s l i g h t l y outward. Q u a n t i t i e s o f c h a r c o a l and a s h . Samples have been t a k e n of the h e a r t h contents.  l.oj x 2.o'  4.2'  Only one h a l f o f t h e f e a t u r e was exposed w i t h t h e remainder i n the a d j a c e n t u n i t t o the s o u t h . A concent r a t i o n of f i r e cracked stones, charc o a l and a s h .  3.7' 7.8'  4 . 3 - 4 . 8 * . The l a r g e s t r o c k f e a t u r e exposed i n t h e e x c a v a t i o n . I t cons i s t s o f an arrangement o f r i v e r c o b b l e s mounted on edge which l e a n o u t ward from t h e c e n t e r  x  x  Feature Number  Type o f Feature  Unit  TABLE V  (Continued)  Location  Dimensions  Depth Below 97 Feet  Description o f t h e h e a r t h . The feature i s divided approximately i n h a l f by s e v e r a l l a r g e c o b b l e s giving i t a figure 8 appearance. The weste r n o n e - h a l f i s shown i n Figure 13. Samples of the h e a r t h contents were t a k e n , b u t o n l y a cursory examination of t h e c o n t e n t s has been p o s s i b l e t h u s f a r .  17  hearth  s  20-30 W 5-10'  S 28 W 5  •30' , • 7.5  2.0' 2.5'  18  hearth  s  S 24 W 6  •27 , • 8.5  2.5  W  20-30 5-10'  3.0  x  4.7-5.2'  One-quarter o f t h e c i r c u l a r ? f e a t u r e exposed. F i r e - c r a c k e d r o c k , dense c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f c h a r c o a l and ash.  5.0-5.6  A c i r c u l a r arrangement o f r i v e r c o b b l e s containing fire-cracked r o c k s , c h a r c o a l and ash. Appears t o be i n association with feature 19. ( L i n e a r conf i g u r a t i o n of cobbles p l a c e d on e n d ) .  Feature Number  Type of Feature  Unit  TABLE V  (Continued)  Location  Dimensions  Depth Below 97 Feet  Description  7.0 1.5  x  4.5-5.0'  The s e r i e s of cobbles f o l l o w s a s l i g h t NW to SE o r i e n t a t i o n p a s s i n g immediately t o the west of Feature 18.  s 25.5-30.0, w 17.2-20.0  4.5! 2.8  x  4.5-5.0'  A s e r i e s of r i v e r cobbles which appear to be p u r p o s e f u l l y arranged i n an a r c l i k e formation. This f e a t u r e may be assoc i a t e d with Feature 21.  s 20-30 W 15-20'  s 29  1.0 .4'  x  4.7-5.2'  Only a p o r t i o n of t h i s h e a r t h exposed. Firecracked rock and dense c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of charcoal.  S 15-20 W 0-10*  S 18 W 8  2.0' 2.0  x  4.3-4.7'  A c i r c u l a r configurat i o n of r i v e r cobbles on edge and l e a n i n g outward from the middle of the h e a r t h . S e v e r a l a d d i t i o n a l cobbles seem to have been p l a c e d f l a t to form a base t o the h e a r t h . Dense conc e n t r a t i o n s of c h a r c o a l between the c o b b l e s . Samples of the h e a r t h  19  l i n e a r arrange- S 2 0 - 3 0 ment of W 5-10' cobbles  20  l i n e a r arrange- S ment of W cobbles  21  hearth  22  hearth  (  20-30 15-20  s W  20.0-27.0 7 . 0 - 8.5*  -30 W 16.0-16.4'  -20 -10'  TABLE V Feature Number  Type o f Feature  Unit  (Continued)  Location"  Dimensions  Depth Below 97 Feet  Description c o n t e n t s were taken. See photograph i n F i g ure 16, o f Feature 22, Zone B.  23  linear arrangement o f cobbles  S 15-20 W 0-10'  S 15 -20 W 7.0'  5.0, .6  x  4.3-4.7'  A s e r i e s of f l a t r i v e r c o b b l e s p l a c e d on edge and l e a n i n g s l i g h t l y away from the hearth (Feature 2 2 ) . See photograph i n F i g u r e 16 o f Feature 23 of Zone B.  24  cobble pit  S 15-20 W 0-10 *  S 18  l.o' 1.0  x  3.6-4.7'  A p i t w i t h the s i d e s l i n e d with f l a t r i v e r c o b b l e s . The opening of the p i t i s s l i g h t l y narrower than the body of the p i t .  25  hearth  S 15-20 W 0-10'  S 15 -16.4' w 2.2-3.3  1.4'  4.4'  A s m a l l c i r c u l a r arrange ment o f f i r e - c r a c k e d rock and c h a r c o a l .  26  hearth  S 15-20 W 0-10'  S 19 -20 W 2.0- 3.3'  l.o' x 3.3'  4.2-4.5'  Well defined hearth. A c i r c u l a r arrangement of pebbles, some f i r e cracked, and dense c h a r c o a l and ash concentrations.  lined  w 5  -19, -6  l.l'  Feature Number  Type of Feature  Unit  TABLE V  (Continued)  Location  Dimensions  27  hearth  S W  15-20 0-10'  S 16.8-18.3' W 2 . 5 - 4.o'  28  linear arrangement o f cobbles  S W  15-20 0-10'  S 15 -20 W 1.0*  29  hearth  S  W  15-20 0-10'  S 19 -20.4' W 2.0- 3.8'  30  hearth  S W  15-20 0-10'  S 15 -17 , w 1.4- 3.0  Depth Below 97 Feet  Description  x  4.8'  Dense c h a r c o a l and ash with f i r e cracked r o c k . Appears t o be a s s o c i a t e d with the l i n e a r arrangement o f c o b b l e s (Feature 28).  x  4.3-4.5'  A s e r i e s of cobbles p l a c e d on edge and l e a n i n g s l i g h t l y away from the h e a r t h of Feature 2 7 . These cobbles seem to l i n e elongate h e a r t h f e a t u r e s .  1.4' 1.8'  5.0-5.2  A dense c o n c e n t r a t i o n of c h a r c o a l and ash surrounded by a c i r c u l a r c o n f i g u r a t i o n of r i v e r pebbles.  2.0 1.6'  6.2-6.5  C i r c u l a r arrangement of cobbles, some f i r e cracked. Dense c h a r c o a l and ash. Appears to be a s s o c i a t e d with the l i n e a r arrangement of cobbles a t the same depth (Feature 3 1 ) . Carbon sample from t h i s f e a t u r e assayed a t 745 ± 90 B.C. (1-1/8 9 ).  !«5 1.5  Feature Number 31  32  33  3^  35  Type o f Feature  Unit  linear arrangement of cobbles  s  15-20  W  0-10'  hearth  s  TABLE V  (Continued.)  Location  Dimensions  s w  15  -20  Depth Below 97 F e e t  Description  6.1-6.7'  Large r i v e r cobbles p l a c e d on edge i n a n o r t h - s o u t h l i n e a r configuration. Appears t o l i n e an e l o n g a t e hearth of which Feat u r e 30 i s one p o r t i o n .  6.0-6.6'  A large hearth feature l y i n g d i r e c t l y under the h e a r t h designated F e a t u r e 22. Large c o b b l e s , dense c h a r c o a l and a s h . Associated with a l i n e a r c o n f i g u r a t i o n of cobbles, F e a t u r e 33.  1.0"  5.0' .6  W  15-20 0' 10'  S 18 -20 W 7.8-10'  2.0 2.2'  linear arrangement of cobbles  s w  15-20 0-10'  s w  -20 ?'  5.0' 2.0*  x  6.0-6.6'  A c o n f i g u r a t i o n of r i v e r cobbles oriented i n a north-south d i r e c t i o n a c r o s s the unit. Perhaps assoc i a t e d w i t h F e a t u r e 32.  linear arrangement of cobbles  s w  15-20 0-10  S 15  -20  5.0 1.0  x  6.0-6.6'  T h i s s e r i e s o f edge mounted c o b b l e s a l s o has a n o r t h - s o u t h o r i e n tation.  hearth  s w  0-10  3.9'  Arrangement of r i v e r p e b b l e s , some f r a c t u r e d  1  o-io'  15 5  -  w  4.5-5.5*  S  1.04.2-  W  2.5  6.1*  1.5  1.9  x  Feature Number  Type o f Feature  Unit  36  linear arrangement of cobbles (2)  S W  37  stake moulds (13)  s 0-15 w o-io'  0-15, 0-10  TABLE V  (Continued)  Location  Dimensions  15.0 x 1.0-2.0  Extend from S 0 -15' with s e r i e s following a line 3-4 W and 6 - 8 W.  Thirteen stake moulds appear between 2 . 6 - 3 . 5 below 9 7 ' . See F i g u r e 12.  Depth Below 97 Feet  3.I-3.7'  F l a t r i v e r cobbles p l a c e d on edge l e a n i n g away from h e a r t h proper. These two rows were exposed oyer a d i s t a n c e o f 15 . Conc e n t r a t i o n s o f rock w i t h i n the rows seem to be s i t u a t e d a t i n t e r v a l s i n the f e a t u r e . The dense c h a r c o a l s t a i n i s continuous. See F i g u r e 17 f o r Feat u r e 36 o f Zone B.  2.6-3.5'  The stake moulds c l u s t e r around two h e a r t h features ( 3 6 , 3 9 ) . , They i n t r u d e 1 . 0 - 1 . 4 i n t o the s u r r o u n d i n g matrix.  3.4-3.5'  C i r c u l a r arrangement of pebbles, some w i t h  t  38  hearth  s 0-15 w o-io'  S W  7.0- 8.8' 6.4- 8.3'  1.8' 1.9'  Description from heat} dense charc o a l and ash. This f e a t u r e l i e s between two rows o f cobbles mounted on edge ( F i g ure 3 6 ) . See photograph i n F i g u r e 1 7 , o f Feature 3 5 i n Zone B.  TABLE V (Continued) Feature Number  .Type o f Feature  Unit  Location  Dimensions  Depth Below 97 Feet  Description evidence o f heat f r a c t u r e ; c h a r c o a l and ash concentration.  39  hearth  s 0-15 w o-io'  W  S  6.5- 8.0' 9.2-10.0*  40  hearth  S  0-10 o- 5'  S W  1.5-2.8, 3.2-4.7  w  41  hearth  s o-io w 45-55'  S 7.3-8.9 W 5^.1-55  42  stake mould  s o-io w 45-55'  S 9.6' W 54.3'  (1)  1.5  2.6' .9'  x  3.5'  Only p a r t i a l l y exposed. Appears t o be w e l l defined c i r c u l a r hearth. Dense c h a r c o a l and ash surrounded by r i v e r pebbles. This feature appears t o be a s s o c i a ted with the c l u s t e r of stake moulds desc r i b e d i n Feature 3 7 .  4.8-5.1'  Well d e f i n e d hearth. Arrangement of pebbles, dense c h a r c o a l and ash. This feature l i e s withi n the e l o n g a t e hearth stain.  3.65'  Only p a r t i a l l y exposed. C i r c u l a r hearth feature with r i v e r pebbles, dense c h a r c o a l and ash.  3.65'  Possibly associated with h e a r t h (Feature 41). Depth 1 . 6 ' .  98 F i g u r e 12 Horizontal Distribution ofCultural  Features  i n Flood. P l a i n D e p o s i t s  30  20  30  40  I  I  J "  DiRjJ  —  HORIZONTAL  FEATURES  "  IN F L O O D  DISTRIBUTION PLAIN  f°°°  OF  —.  J  ( Z O N E B)  DEPTHS DATUM  BELOW ARE c PLANE  9  HEARTH LINEAR  20  C U L T U R A L  FEET  ® STAKE M O L D Ol ^ I INDICATES RELATIVE X (DEPTH OF ROCK CONFIGURATIONS  "  DEPOSITS  OF  0  KEY:  —  EAST  E —*  ARRANGEMENT  COBBLES  8.W.4-4.6')  /4 BALK  JO 5  3.(3.6')-  ,-$  !  7.(5.6')  O  PITHOUSE NO. 2  U T r  H  A(4.2-1.5) 2. (4.2-4.5';  6.(5.4-6.0')  n 40  1  a.  4.(5.6')  P \ I £ - '' 5(5 6  n  —  r  30  WEST  99  Zone  B.  Figure 13. F e a t u r e 16: Rock oven? O n l y o n e - h a l f shown i n p h o t o g r a p h .  (s 2 0 - 3 0 ' ,  w 5-15')  C o b b l e s a r r a n g e d i n c o n c e n t r i c c i r c l e s p l a c e d on edge. Rock oven? D i v i d e d i n h a l f by l a r g e c o b b l e s on r i g h t of photograph. F e a t u r e has a f i g u r e e i g h t o u t l i n e .  100  Zone  F i g u r e 14. P h o t o g r a p h shows f e a t u r e s Top:  Feature Feature  Middle:  35 J6  Feature Feature  Bottom l e f t :  - hearth - linear  B.  at d i f f e r e n t  d e p t h s i n Zone  (3.9* below cobbles  9?')  30 - h e a r t h 31 - l i n e a r  Portion Feature  (6.2' b e l o w cobbles  of rock over 16 ( 1 4 . 3 * - 4 . 8 '  97')  below  97')  B.  101  Zone B  F i g u r e 15. Photograph shows t r u n c a t i o n o f Zone B c u l t u r a l and g e o l o g i c a l l a y e r s by Zone A P i t h o u s e d e p o s i t . (South w a l l o f u n i t West i o ' - 2 0 ' ; South 2 0 ' w a l l ) .  F i g u r e 16. Feature 22: Feature 2 3 :  h e a r t h (upper l e f t ) l i n e a r arrangement o f c o b b l e s  102  Zone  B.  Figure 17. , Showing n o r t h w a l l o f u n i t 0 - 1 0 West and 0 . 0 Feature 3 5 ' s t r a t i f i e d hearth Feature 36: l i n e a r arrangement of c o b b l e s F e a t u r e 37s two s t a k e m o u l d s (on l o w e r r i g h t )  South.  103  Zone B.  F i g u r e 18. Shows i n t e r f a c e p f Zone A and Zone B a l o n g c e n t e r o f u n i t (S 0 -10 , W 45'-55'), west r i m o f P i t h o u s e Number 1. F e a t u r e 41: h e a r t h F e a t u r e 42: s t a k e mould (P)  104  Three a d d i t i o n a l u n i t s were excavated which do not appear on the map showing the h o r i z o n t a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of Zone A and Zone B f e a t u r e s .  Two u n i t s were excavated away  from the pithouse a r e a f o r s t r a t i g r a p h i c comparison. 6o'-70' South,  Unit  15*-20' West (secondary b a s e l i n e ) l i e s only a  s h o r t d i s t a n c e toward the r i v e r from Pithouse 1 and 2. u n i t was found t o be completely s t e r i l e .  This  The s t r a t i g r a p h y  of t h i s u n i t c o n s i s t e d of bands of f l u v i a l sediments o f v a r i o u s degrees found.  of coarseness; no c h a r c o a l s t a i n e d l a y e r s were  In u n i t 3 4 4 ' - 3 5 0 '  South,  90'-96' E a s t (primary base-  l i n e ) s e v e r a l t h i n bands o f c h a r c o a l were recorded i n the p r o f i l e and c h a r c o a l samples were taken.  The t h i r d u n i t was  l o c a t e d on the pithouse r i m between P i t h o u s e s designated 3 and 4 on the n o r t h s i d e of the C.P.R. t r a c k s . of t h i s u n i t were 6 o ' - 7 0 ' baseline).  North,  180'-190' E a s t  T h i s u n i t was excavated  The c o o r d i n a t e s (secondary  only two complete l e v e l s  i n t o the pithouse d e p o s i t and no r e a d i l y d i s c e r n i b l e graphy was observed.  strati-  The l o c a t i o n o f these three p i t s a l o n g  with the backhoe t e s t p i t s are drawn on the contour map of the s i t e  (Map 3 ) .  CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS OF CULTURAL MATERIALS The  A r t e f a c t Sample The  sample of s y t e m a t i c a l l y excavated a r t e f a c t s recovered  from the Katz s i t e c o n s i s t s of 3,184 specimens; 2,698 from the mixed pithouse  d e p o s i t designated  the e a r l i e r f l u v i a l d e p o s i t designated  Zone A, and 486 from Zone B.  In a d d i t i o n  to the s y s t e m a t i c a l l y excavated a r t e f a c t s , the a n a l y s i s here i n c l u d e s a number o f s e l e c t e d c a t e g o r i e s o f a r t e f a c t s recovered from the d i s t u r b e d s u r f a c e of the s i t e and from the backhoe test pits.  Due to l i m i t a t i o n s i n time and manpower i t was  not p o s s i b l e to analyse i a l s which together with  a l l of the s u r f a c e and backhoe materthe Zone A and B assemblages  approximately 7 , 0 0 0 items. was made t o analyse  F o r the same reasons no attempt  the d e t r i t u s from the s i t e , estimated t o  c o n s i s t of about 7 5 , 0 0 0 The  total  pieces.  l i t h i c a r t e f a c t s s e l e c t e d f o r a n a l y s i s from the sur-  f a c e and backhoe samples were those t o o l c a t e g o r i e s  possessing  the g r e a t e s t number o f d i s t i n c t i v e a t t r i b u t e s and considered most u s e f u l f o r i n t e r s i t e comparisons when comparable data a r e a t hand.  These t o o l c a t e g o r i e s i n c l u d e chipped  stone p o i n t s ,  formed b i f a c e s and u n i f a c e s , ground stone t o o l s , and pecked and ground stone t o o l s .  The s u r f a c e and backhoe m a t e r i a l s  105  106  omitted from the a n a l y s i s were the c o r t e x s p a l l t o o l s ,  cores  and core t o o l s , unformed u n i f a c e s , a b r a s i v e s and pebble  tools.  A f u l l i n v e n t o r y of the c u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l analysed i n t h i s study i s presented on the a r t e f a c t summary sheets a t the end of  t h i s chapter.  T o o l c a t e g o r i e s which were omitted from the  a n a l y s i s are i n d i c a t e d by the symbol N/A, i . e . , not a p p l i c a b l e . Methodology The a n a l y s i s undertaken  i n t h i s study c o n s i s t s of three  approaches! (1)  the grouping of a r t e f a c t s on the b a s i s of shared formal a t t r i b u t e s ( d i s c r e t e and continuous)  (2)  the grouping o f a r t e f a c t s on the b a s i s of shared f u n c t i o n a l a t t r i b u t e s (edge damage, c h a r a c t e r o f the working edge, and/or i n f e r r e d use)  (3)  t e c h n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s f o c u s i n g on the m a t e r i a l s u t i l i z e d and the manufacturing processes i n v o l v e d i n the v a r i o u s l i t h i c i n d u s t r i e s .  The a n a l y s i s of c e r t a i n a r t e f a c t c a t e g o r i e s , f o r example, c o r tex s p a l l t o o l s , c o r e - t o o l s , and adze blades, i n v o l v e d a l l three approaches. analysis  attempt  In other cases, e.g., formed b i f a c e s , the  i s primarily  descriptive  was made t o determine  of f o r m a l a t t r i b u t e s ;  no  edge wear p a t t e r n s or t o recon-  s t r u c t the stages o f manufacture.  Such analyses were (con-  s i d e r e d ) beyond the scope o f t h i s r e p o r t . In  the f i r s t approach,  i . e . , grouping o f a r t e f a c t s on  the b a s i s of shared d i s c r e t e and continuous a t t r i b u t e s , the e n t i r e assemblage s u b j e c t e d to a n a l y s i s was d i v i d e d i n t o a number of major c a t e g o r i e s which were both formal and technol o g i c a l i n c h a r a c t e r , e.g., chipped stone t o o l s , ground  stone  107  t o o l s , pecked and ground t o o l s , bone t o o l s , e t c . s u b d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n these categories u n i t s or "classes". was s u b d i v i d e d  Further  yielded smaller a n a l y t i c  F o r example, the c h i p p e d stone c a t e g o r y  i n t o a b i f a c i a l s e r i e s which i n c l u d e d c h i p p e d  stone p o i n t s , formed b i f a c e s and unformed b i f a c e s , and a u n i f a c i a l s e r i e s which i n c l u d e d unifaces,  formed u n i f a c e s ,  cortex s p a l l t o o l s , e t c . Within  unformed  these " c l a s s e s " ,  g r o u p i n g s were e s t a b l i s h e d on the b a s i s o f s e l e c t e d a t t r i b u t e s judged by the a u t h o r t o be a p p r o p r i a t e the specimens under o b s e r v a t i o n  f o r the d e s c r i p t i o n o f  and which might be p r o f i t a b l y  employed f o r i n t e r s i t e comparisons and r e g i o n a l s t u d i e s when comparable d a t a become a v a i l a b l e .  The a t t r i b u t e s s e l e c t e d f o r  use i n the a n a l y s i s o f each t o o l c a t e g o r y are s t a t e d i n each d e s c r i p t i v e s e c t i o n and i n the t a b u l a r p r e s e n t a t i o n  o f each  group. An attempt was made i n the a n a l y s i s t o s e l e c t a t t r i b u t e s which may e v e n t u a l l y prove u s e f u l i n t e s t i n g c e r t a i n hypotheses already  advanced as a r e s u l t o f p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h .  most o f the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  F o r example,  work conducted i n B r i t i s h Columbia  t o date has been concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h the development o f " l o c a l sequences" ( W i l l e y and P h i l l i p s , 1963:  24-25).  The  f i r s t appearance i n time o f c e r t a i n l i t h i c i n d u s t r i e s ( e . g . ground n e p h r i t e ) fact categories  and t o o l forms and s t y l e s o f s e l e c t e d (e.g.,  arte-  c h i p p e d s t o n e p o i n t s ) , have been used  e x t e n s i v e l y as h o r i z o n markers.  Borden (1968: 14-16) found  t h a t stemmed p o i n t s make t h e i r appearance i n the F r a s e r d u r i n g the "Eayem Phase"  (ca. 3500-1500  B.C.), t h a t a  Canyon reduction  108  i n p o i n t s i z e i n the "Baldwin Phase" may mark the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the bow and arrow, and the " . . . d i a g o n a l l y  corner-notched  t r i a n g u l a r p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s , t h a t i s , barbed arrowheads with expanding stems . . ." are a s s o c i a t e d with the advent of p i t houses i n the "Skamel Phase"  ( c a . 350 B.C.-200 A.D.), a c u l -  t u r a l phase assumed to be i n t r u s i v e with an i n t e r i o r than a c o a s t a l o r i g i n .  rather  With t h i s r e l i a n c e on chipped stone  p o i n t forms as d i a g n o s t i c c u l t u r e t r a i t s i n the " l o c a l ces"  sequen-  o f the area and the f a c t t h a t these t o o l s have been used  a l o n g with other a r t e f a c t u a l remains t o suggest changes i n subsistence  a c t i v i t i e s as w e l l as p o p u l a t i o n  the lower F r a s e r R i v e r r e g i o n , lithic  migration  into  i t follows that t h i s c l a s s of  t o o l s warrants a thorough a n a l y s i s .  The  two r a d i o c a r b o n  d e t e r m i n a t i o n s from the Zone B d e p o s i t  a t Katz and the s i n g l e date from Pithouse Number 1 a l l f a l l w i t h i n the "Baldwin Phase" time p e r i o d of the F r a s e r Canyon. However, the presence o f pithouses,  diagonally  corner-notched  t r i a n g u l a r p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s , and an a r r a y of small  crypto-  c r y s t a l l i n e t o o l s which have been used to c h a r a c t e r i z e the "Skamel Phase" i n the canyon are dated a t Katz somewhat e a r l i e r . I f the hypothesis  advanced by Borden, t h a t the end of the  Baldwin phase i s accompanied by an "abrupt"  c u l t u r a l change  i s t o be t e s t e d a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l y and on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s , knowledge of the v a r i a b i l i t y i n chipped stone p o i n t forms and t h e i r frequency o f occurrence i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s i n the area w i l l be important.  Whether f u t u r e r e s e a r c h e r s  adopt  an exhaustive d e s c r i p t i v e approach of the kind suggested by  109  Binford (1963)  or an e n t i r e l y m e t r i c approach of the  suggested by Thomas ( 1 9 7 0 ) ,  type  s i t e r e p o r t s which c o n t a i n r e f i n e d  a r t e f a c t d e s c r i p t i o n s w i l l be of the g r e a t e s t u t i l i t y .  The  p r e s e n t a t i o n of raw  metric  data i s emphasized i n t h i s r e p o r t  so t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n  on the v a r i a b i l i t y i n dimensions of t o o l s  such as the chipped  stone p o i n t s i n the Katz sample  can  e v e n t u a l l y be used i n t e s t i n g Borden's hypotheses r e l a t i n g to changes i n s i z e of p o i n t s and the f i r s t millennium The  subsistence  technology  during  B.C.  second a n a l y t i c approach i s t h a t of grouping a r t e f a c t s  according  to f u n c t i o n a l a t t r i b u t e s .  Parsons ( 1 9 7 2 :  146)  argues  that, The a b i l i t y to i n f e r the f u n c t i o n of a r t e f a c t s and a r t e f a c t c l a s s e s of a l l kinds (e.g., t o o l s , s t r u c t u r e s , s i t e s ) i s perhaps the most fundament a l problem w i t h i n settlement p a t t e r n archaeology. Upon t h i s r e s t s the whole u t i l i t y of the s e t t l e ment system concept. Through an examination of edge damage and wear p a t t e r n s present  on a r t e f a c t s i n a number of t o o l c a t e g o r i e s i n the  Katz sample, an e f f o r t was  made to make f u n c t i o n a l i n f e r e n c e s  and determine the nature of c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d out at the  site. One  of the t o o l c a t e g o r i e s analysed  damage and wear p a t t e r n s  (Semenov, 1964;  on the b a s i s of edge Nance, 1970,  1971;  Wilmsen, 1968)  was  (1971:  suggested, on the b a s i s of a sample of  22)  has  the c o r t e x s p a l l t o o l category.  s p a l l t o o l s from the L i l l o o e t v i c i n i t y ,  Coulson cortex  t h a t wear p a t t e r n s i n  evidence i n d i c a t e a s c r a p i n g f u n c t i o n , perhaps i n the d e f l e s h ing  or d e h a i r i n g of h i d e s — a  f u n c t i o n proposed e a r l i e r by  H.I.  110  Smith (1899: 147). inference  I t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t t h i s f u n c t i o n a l  could account f o r the tremendous numbers of  s p a l l t o o l s found a t the Katz  site.  In the f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s of the from Katz, two  first  function  consisted  s p a l l t o o l s (124 The  cortex  or f u n c t i o n s  of coding the Zone B sample of  effort  cortex  of 22  attributes.  r e c o r d e d the f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s :  (1) the p o s i t i o n of the bulb of p e r c u s s i o n p o s i t i o n of the working edge, (2) the edge, (3) the k i n d and  i n r e l a t i o n to  shape of the  degree of m o d i f i c a t i o n  metric multivariate (Guttman, 1968), was  width, and  of the  thickness.  technique, S m a l l e s t Space  working  A  cedure d i d not prove to be p r i m a r i l y on the b a s i s  of shared a t t r i b u t e s .  successful;  the  (4)  non-  Analysis  used to c l u s t e r the p o p u l a t i o n  s p a l l s ) on the b a s i s  the  working  retouch, p o l i s h , secondary f l a k i n g , e t c . ) , and  m e t r i c a t t r i b u t e s of l e n g t h ,  (cortex  tools  these t o o l s served.  complete specimens) on a l i s t  attributes l i s t  edge (use  spall  a n a l y t i c techniques were employed i n an  to determine the The  cortex  tools  elements This  pro-  clustered  of continuous a t t r i b u t e s with  functional  a t t r i b u t e s c r o s s - c u t t i n g these groupings. The  second technique employed was  with groupings e s t a b l i s h e d and  p o s i t i o n of edge wear.  f r u i t f u l and  primarily  intuitive  on the b a s i s of the kind,  degree  T h i s technique proved to be more  several functional inferences  were made on  the  b a s i s of r e a d i l y observable wear on the edges of these t o o l s (see was  cortex  s p a l l t o o l s , Chapter I V ) .  c a r r i e d out  on c o r e - t o o l s ,  Edge wear a n a l y s i s  unformed u n i f a c e s  and  also  tools in  Ill  the formed u n i f a c e category, retouched  p r i m a r i l y formed u n i f a c e s  with  p r o j e c t i o n s (Group 5)» i n an e f f o r t t o determine  function. I t was f e l t t h a t t e c h n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s , the t h i r d approach used i n t h i s study, t i o n i n a number o f areas  c o u l d provide important  informa-  o f i n t e r e s t to a r c h a e o l o g i s t s . F o r  example, a r t e f a c t t y p o l o g i e s a r e c o n s t r u c t e d with the i n t e n t of d i s c o v e r i n g " h i s t o r i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t " I960; K r i e g e r , 1956) f o r synchronic of c u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l s .  u n i t s (Rouse, 1939»  and d i a c h r o n i c comparisons  T y p o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s assumes t h a t  observed t o o l s a r e complete or f i n i s h e d forms r e p r e s e n t i n g the intended recovery  forms o f the a r t i s a n s who produced them.  o f evidence  The  p e r t a i n i n g t o the manufacture of t o o l s  can be used to t e s t the assumptions u n d e r l y i n g t y p o l o g i c a l analysis.  Technological a n a l y s i s allows observations  made a t v a r i o u s stages  to be  o f t o o l manufacture, i n other words,  to determine " p r o c e d u r a l modes"  (Rouse, I960: 3 1 5 ) . F o r  example, i n h e r a n a l y s i s of cortex s p a l l t o o l s , Coulson (1971) i n f e r s the method by which s p a l l t o o l s were detached from cores by n o t i n g the p o s i t i o n o f the bulb of p e r c u s s i o n i n r e l a t i o n to the l o n g a x i s o f the t o o l s , e.g., end s t r u c k , . side struck, etc.  The a n a l y s i s of the cortex s p a l l cores a t  Katz i n d i c a t e s t h a t an elongate  r i v e r pebble s t r u c k on the  end does not n e c e s s a r i l y produce an elongate with the bulb o f p e r c u s s i o n on the end. typology  i s acceptable  cortex s p a l l  tool  In other words, h e r  as l o n g as i t i s made c l e a r t h a t the  term "end struck" d e s c r i b e s the p o s i t i o n of the bulb o f  112  p e r c u s s i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o the l o n g a x i s o f the t o o l and n o t the method of f l a k e detachment which could imply a d e c i s i o n or a " p r o c e d u r a l mode" on the p a r t o f the a r t i s a n to achieve a d e s i r e d form o f t o o l .  Technological analysis i n t h i s  study  has been used to shed l i g h t on the manufacture of c o r t e x s p a l l t o o l s , c o r e - t o o l s and ground stone  tools,  particularly  of n e p h r i t e . The  r a t i o n a l e f o r the use o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n  of these t o o l c a t e g o r i e s i s t h a t i t r e l a t e s t o broad  questions  of concern t o a r c h a e o l o g i s t s , assumptions made i n t y p o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s , f u n c t i o n a l i n f e r e n c e , the a c q u i s i t i o n of raw materials,  and t r a d e .  The l a t t e r a p p l i e s p a r t i c u l a r l y t o the ground  n e p h r i t e i n d u s t r y which has been prominent i n the lower F r a s e r Canyon f o r three m i l l e n n i a (Borden, 1968: 1 5 ) . The Katz s i t e , with easy access t o n e p h r i t e boulders  i n the g r a v e l i n the  lower F r a s e r canyon and along the C o q u i h a l l a R i v e r  (Holland,  1961s  This  120), had a f l o u r i s h i n g n e p h r i t e i n d u s t r y .  site  c o u l d p o s s i b l y have s u p p l i e d people from downriver and adjacent areas with adze blades and c h i s e l s .  The absence o r p a u c i t y o f  n e p h r i t e d e t r i t u s from c o a s t a l s i t e s suggests t h a t e i t h e r n e p h r i t e t o o l s were t r a d e d out i n f i n i s h e d forms from l o c a t i o n s such as the Katz s i t e or were manufactures a t the s i t e by v i s i t o r s from downriver p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the salmon f i s h e r y . The  l a r g e sample o f ground n e p h r i t e recovered  s i t e has p r o v i d e d important  i n f o r m a t i o n on the manufacture o f  these t o o l s , from the i n i t i a l the v a r i o u s stages  from the Katz  s e l e c t i o n o f raw m a t e r i a l through  of manufacture, and on the d i f f e r e n t  113  techniques employed  i n manufacture.  An attempt has been made i n the a n a l y s i s of the Katz material to select a t t r i b u t e s  (1) which w i l l p r o v i d e the k i n d  of i n f o r m a t i o n n e c e s s a r y f o r the t e s t i n g of hypotheses p r e v i o u s l y advanced r e l a t i n g t o the p r e h i s t o r y of the lower F r a s e r R i v e r r e g i o n , and (2) which can be used t o make i n f e r ences about the nature o f the a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d out a t the site.  An endeavour has a l s o been made t o make e x p l i c i t the  p r i n c i p l e s upon which the a r t e f a c t c a t e g o r i e s and a r t e f a c t groupings have been e s t a b l i s h e d , and whenever p o s s i b l e , t o provide the a t t r i b u t e v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n the groupings p r e s e n t e d i n t a b u l a r form.  Many o f the data p r o v i d e d i n the a r t e f a c t  a n a l y s i s are n o t used i n t h i s t h e s i s f o r i n t e r s i t e because as y e t there i s a p a u c i t y of comparable  comparisons  data a v a i l a b l e .  I am h o p e f u l that the method by which the data are presented w i l l prove to be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r use i n f u t u r e comparisons.  intersite  114  Chipped Stone P o i n t s Introduction The  category  chipped  stone p o i n t s , as conceived  here,  i n c l u d e s the stone implements which s a t i s f y the f o l l o w i n g three  conditions:  (1)  the specimen i s b i f a c i a l l y f l a k e d  (2)  the l a t e r a l edges converge (or can be  extrapolated  to converge) to a p o i n t on a t l e a s t one (3)  the specimen shows evidence opposite  end  the p o i n t e d  of d e l i b e r a t e m o d i f i c a t i o n i n the form of  end  notching,  stemming, b a s a l t h i n n i n g , or b i p o i n t i n g , which could facilitate hafting. As Sanger ( 1 9 7 0 : 36)  has noted, a l l such implements  not n e c e s s a r i l y have been used to arm  d a r t s or arrows.  may  e s p e c i a l l y the  have f u n c t i o n e d as h a f t e d knives,  forms.  And  b i f a c e s may systematic  conversely,  Some  foliate  some other specimens grouped as formed  have f u n c t i o n e d as p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s . microscopic  may  Perhaps a  a n a l y s i s of the edge damage of  the  k i n d c a r r i e d out by Semenov ( 1 9 6 4 ) and Nance ( 1 9 7 0 )  on  c l a s s e s of stone a r t e f a c t s would enable r e s e a r c h e r s  to make  other  f u n c t i o n a l d i s t i n c t i o n s w i t h i n these c a t e g o r i e s on a f i r m e r basis. The  chipped  stone p o i n t groupings were e s t a b l i s h e d on  the b a s i s of shared a t t r i b u t e s . r e l a t i v e l y few  Unstemmed p o i n t s which have  d i s c r e t e a t t r i b u t e s , compared with stemmed  and  notched v a r i e t i e s , were grouped on the b a s i s of o v e r a l l form  115  and s i z e . points  The a t t r i b u t e l i s t  f o r the stemmed and notched  was drawn p r i m a r i l y from the work o f Sanger  with the n o t c h i n g form a t t r i b u t e s from B i n f o r d a t t r i b u t e s which c h a r a c t e r i z e descriptive  (1963)«  each group are s t a t e d  The  i n each  s e c t i o n and a matrix showing the v a r i a t i o n i n  other a t t r i b u t e s within 2.  (1970),  each group i s presented i n Appendix  116  Unstemmed P o i n t s T h i s macrogroup, which i n c l u d e s Groups One through Four, i s comprised of p o i n t s without shoulders o r notches. a c l e a r l y d e f i n e d h a f t element  ( B i n f o r d , 1 9 6 3 : 1 9 7 ) , these  p o i n t s are m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y simple with few d i s c r e t e butes.  Lacking  attri-  An a n a l y s i s o f the t e c h n i c a l a t t r i b u t e s o f these  points ( i . e . ,  s i z e , depth, placement  and types of f l a k e  scars),  although u s e f u l f o r comparative purposes, i s beyond the scope of t h i s study.  Groupings presented here are based on d i s -  c r e t e a t t r i b u t e s o f geometric form and m e t r i c a t t r i b u t e s o f l e n g t h , width, and t h i c k n e s s .  In specimens with convex o r  s t r a i g h t bases widths of base measurements are a l s o i n c l u d e d . The f o u r groups e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n the macrogrouping  "Unstemmed  P o i n t s " are as f o l l o w s : Group 1:  Large  Group 2:  Medium t o Small Leaf-Shaped  Group 3 :  Small, Broad Leaf-Shaped With S t r a i g h t  Group 4:  Large T r i a n g u l a r P o i n t s or Preforms  Group 1:  Large  Leaf-Shaped  Bases  Leaf-Shaped  Number of Specimens:  3 ( F i g u r e 1 9 , a-c, Table VI)  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  These l e a f - s h a p e d p o i n t s are n o t a b l y  l a r g e r than the o t h e r unstemmed l e a f - s h a p e d p o i n t s . l e n g t h range o f 80 t o 82 mm., 20 mm.  With a  these p o i n t s are approximately  l o n g e r than the Group 2 specimens.  Blade Form:  A l l three p o i n t s are excurvate i n o u t l i n e  with the edges d e s c r i b i n g convex l i n e s between the proximal  117  and d i s t a l p o i n t s of the p r o j e c t i l e .  One specimen (number  3 2 6 , S u r f a c e ) has the p o i n t o f maximum width i n the proximal o n e - t h i r d o f the a r t e f a c t .  The two remaining specimens  (numbers 8 3 9 1 and 1 0 3 9 0 , Zone A) are widest i n the middle one-third. Blade C r o s s - S e c t i o n :  (Observed a t mid-point)  A l l three  specimens are biconvex ( l e n t i c u l a r ) i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n . Specimen 326 (Surface) has a convex or s l i g h t l y -  Base Form:  rounded base, specimen 8 3 9 1 (Zone A) has a s l i g h t l y  oblique  base, and on specimen IO390 (Zone A) the base i s broken. TABLE VI M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s of Group 1 P o i n t s General L o c a t i o n  Zone A  A r t e f a c t Numbers  Surface  IO39O  326  N  12  10-12  20-29 mm 80-82 mm  Width o f Base  (mm.)  8391 10  Maximum Width  (mm.)  29  20  26  A x i a l Length  (mm.)  82  N(80)  80  Thickness  (mm.)  11  Weight N N( )  (grams)  24.23  7 N  11 22.56  - No I n f o r m a t i o n - E s t i m a t e d Measurement  Material:  3 basalt  General Provenience:  Range  Zone A - 2 Zone B - 0 Surface - 1 Backhoe Test P i t - 0  7-11  mm  mm  22.56-24.23  118  Group 2:  Medium t o Small  Leaf-Shaped  Number o f Specimens:  18 ( F i g u r e 19, d-q, Table V I I )  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  These p o i n t s are l e a f - s h a p e d without  stems o r notches; they f a l l w i t h i n a l e n g t h range of 37-61 mm • Blade Form:  Most specimens are g e n e r a l l y excurvate and  widest i n the middle o n e - t h i r d o f the a r t e f a c t .  A few have  t h e i r maximum width nearer the proximal ( b a s a l ) end. Blade C r o s s - S e c t i o n :  Fourteen p o i n t s i n t h i s subgroup are  biconvex i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n , the remaining 4 are planoconvex. Base Form:  Some o f these specimens are b i p o i n t e d with the  s l i g h t l y wider end assumed to be the proximal o r h a f t e d end. Other p o i n t s have convex, s l i g h t l y concave, narrow but s t r a i g h t Group 3:  oblique, or  bases.  Small, Broad Leaf-Shaped  With S t r a i g h t Bases  Number of Specimens:  11 ( F i g u r e 20, a - i , Table V I I I )  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  These p o i n t s are s m a l l , broad and  s t r a i g h t based without stems o r notches. Blade Form:  These specimens have excurvate blade  Some are widest i n the middle  forms.  o n e - t h i r d o f the a r t e f a c t ;  others  are widest n e a r e r the proximal o n e - t h i r d . Blade C r o s s - S e c t i o n :  There are p o i n t s with biconvex (4),  b i p l a n o (2), and plano-convex in this  (4) c r o s s - s e c t i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d  group.  Base Form:  E i g h t o f the t e n specimens a r e s t r a i g h t  while the remaining two have s l i g h t l y o b l i q u e bases.  based  TABLE V I I M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s o f Group 2 s General L o c a t i o n  Zone A  A r t e f a c t Number 7686 9152 N 10 Width of Base (mm.) 26 Maximum Width (mm.) 23 60 A x i a l Length (mm.) 61 10 11 T h i c k n e s s (mm.) Weight (gm.) 14.18 1 3 . 5 8  Zone B  9132 N  3214 11  7650 11  6887 N  7451 N  17 53 9 7.73  19 45 8  19 48 8 8.07  19 45 6  23 56 9 10.65  6.13  K 9 20 55 7 7.01  348 6 14 50 7 5.86  5012 N 16 41 7 4.44  5186 5 12 N 5 1.88  11 b a s a l t 1 q u a r t z i t e (number 7 6 8 6 ; Zone A) 6 cryptocrystalline s i l i c a  G e n e r a l Proveniences  10392 N 21 52 8 7.63  10487 N 17 ^7 7 4.65 Range  Backhoe T e s t P i t  N - No I n f o r m a t i o n Materials  4.75  Surface  General L o c a t i o n A r t e f a c t Number 309 N Width o f Base (pan*) Maximum Width (pirn.) 19 A x i a l Length (jnm.) 57 T h i c k n e s s (mm.) 9 Weight (gm.) 8.72  Medium t o Small Leaf-Shaped  Zone A - 6 Zone B - 3 Surface - 5 Backhoe Test P i t - 4  12290 12 25 54 9 11.48  12992 5 20 52 11 10.1  12106 N 20 N 7 8.53  13071 N 17 45 6 5.71  5 - 1 2 mm. 12-26 mm. 37-61 mm. 5 - 1 1 mm. 1 . 9 - 1 1 . 5 gm.  TABLE V I I I M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s o f Group 3:  S m a l l , Broad Leaf-Shaped With S t r a i g h t  General L o c a t i o n A r t e f a c t Number Width o f Base (mm.) Maximum Width (mm.) A x i a l Length (mm.) T h i c k n e s s Onm.) Weight (gm.)  Zone 8233  6327  13 30  7 19  9 20  31  4  33  3  5  8  I.83  1.34  3.51  4.57  3195 6  6359 6  15 32  General L o c a t i o n  Zone B  A r t e f a c t Number Width o f Base (mm.) Maximum Width (pirn,)  IO3I6  A x i a l Length (mm.) T h i c k n e s s (mm.) Weight (gm.)  19 4 0.72  Material:  9 9  Surface  8784  10614  9004  11  10  12  16  18  16  33 6  33 6  29  31  5  6  2.97  2.71  3.01  Backhoe T e s t P i t  Range  973  12605 11  6-14  17 30  14  13-20  mm. mm.  34  19-34  mm.  6  5  3- 8  mm.  14  3.09  8 basalt 2 cryptocrystalline s i l i c a  General Provenience:  A  7537 8 20  3.70  Bases  Zone A - 8 Zone B - 1 Surface - 1 Backhoe T e s t P i t - 1  2.16  .72-4.57  gm.  121  Group 4:  Large T r i a n g u l a r Unstemmed P o i n t s or j-m,  Preforms  Number of Specimens!  4 ( F i g u r e 20,  Table  IX)  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  These p o i n t s or preforms are symmetri-  c a l l y or asymmetrically t r i a n g u l a r i n o v e r a l l o u t l i n e .  They  are v e r y s i m i l a r i n form to the c o r n e r notched Group 12 or b a s a l l y notched Group 14 barbed p o i n t s without n o t c h i n g . haps these specimens r e p r e s e n t a stage i n the process of notched and/or barbed p r o j e c t i l e Blade Form:  T r i a n g u l a r (asymmetrical or  Blade C r o s s - S e c t i o n : Base O u t l i n e :  Biconvex  (3),  Straight i n a l l four  Per-  manufacturing  points. symmetrical)  piano c o n v e x ( l ) . specimens.  TABLE IX M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s of Group 4: Large T r i a n g u l a r Unstemmed P o i n t s or Preforms Zone  General L o c a t i o n A r t e f a c t Number Width of Base (pirn,) Maximum Width (mm.)  8852 30  A x i a l Length (pan*) Thickness (mm.)  68 8  Weight  (gm.)  N - No  16.65  7093 40 40  003  N  53 6  8 N  27 27  27-40  mm.  27-40  mm.  N  53-68  mm.  6 N  6- 8  mm.  8.53  4 basalt  Provenience:  Range  12246 34 34  Information  Material: General  30  Backhoe Surface Test P i t  A  Zone A - 2 Zone B - 0 Surface - 1 Backhoe T e s t P i t - 1  8.53-16.65  gm.  122  Stemmed P r o j e c t i l e P o i n t s S i n g l e Shouldered  Points  These p o i n t s are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by one c l e a r l y d e f i n e d shoulder.  The  edge opposite the shouldered edge d e s c r i b e s  a convex l i n e from the t i p of the blade to the base.  The  stem, or tang form, which i s produced as a r e s u l t of the  sin-  g l e shoulder, i s g e n e r a l l y c o n t r a c t i n g and asymmetric i n outline.  U n l i k e the p o i n t s of Groups 1 through  k,  these p o i n t s  have a h a f t element which i s d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from the element of the a r t e f a c t .  blade  This increase i n morphological  complexity allows a g r e a t e r number of o b s e r v a t i o n s to be made.  For the f u l l a t t r i b u t e l i s t ,  i n c l u d i n g the  shouldered p o i n t s of Groups 5 and 6, The groups:  single  see Appendix 2.  s i n g l e shouldered p o i n t s have been d i v i d e d i n t o Group 5, Large S i n g l e - S h o u l d e r e d ,  and Group 6,  two Small  Single-Shouldered. Group 5  !  Large  Single-Shouldered  Number of Specimens:  3 ( F i g u r e 20, n-o,  s, Table X ) .  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  These p o i n t s have a s i n g l e  shoulder  somewhere w i t h i n the proximal o n e - t h i r d of the a r t e f a c t , an a x i a l l e n g t h range of 73 to 98 Blade Form:  Two  triangular outline.  mm.  specimens have asymmetrically  blade edges whereas one  and  (number 991?  excurvate  Surface) approximates a  A l l three specimens have a rounded  shoulder. Blade C r o s s - S e c t i o n :  Two  specimens are biconvex  and one i s  123  biplane- i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n .  The p o i n t h a v i n g the b i p l a n o  c r o s s - s e c t i o n (number 9 6 8 ) i s based on a f l a k e which has been b i f a c i a l l y retouched only m a r g i n a l l y . Stem Form:  A l l specimens have asymmetric stems which  contract proximally. S l i g h t l y p o i n t e d (number 991» S u r f a c e ) ,  Base Form: (number 6 4 4 8 ,  Convex  (number 9 6 8 , S u r f a c e ) .  Zone B), and S t r a i g h t TABLE X  M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s of Group 5: Large S i n g l e - S h o u l d e r e d General L o c a t i o n A r t e f a c t Number  Zone B  Surface  Range  6448  991  968  Width of Base  14  5  10  5-14  mm.  Width of Tang  17  24  19  17-24  mm.  Width o f Shoulder  25  32  27  25-32  mm.  Width of Blade  28  33  30  28-33  mm.  A x i a l Length  73  98  73  73-98  mm.  Length of Tang  12  26  18  12-26  mm.  Length of Blade  61  72  55  55-72  mm.  Thickness  11  11  7  7-11  mm.  20.52  31.19  Weight Material:  17.17-20.52  3 basalt  General Provenience:  Group 6 :  17.17  Zone A - 0 Zone B - 1 Surface - 2  Small S i n g l e - S h o u l d e r e d  Number of Specimens:  3 (Figure 2 0 , p - r , Table XI)  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  S i n g l e shouldered p o i n t s with an  a x i a l l e n g t h range of 3 5 t o 37  mm.  gm.  124  Blade Form:  T h i s group i n c l u d e s both symmetrically and  asymmetrically excurvate examples. Blade C r o s s - S e c t i o n :  Two specimens are b i p l a n o (numbers  8333 and 8 8 1 5 , Zone A) and the t h i r d i s plano-convex  (number 3 3 6 , S u r f a c e )  i n cross-section.  Stem Form:  A l l a r e asymmetric and c o n t r a c t i n g i n o u t l i n e .  Base Form:  The bases of the three specimens are narrow  and s t r a i g h t with l i t t l e  evidence o f p r e p a r a t i o n . TABLE XI  M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s o f Group 6 : Small S i n g l e - S h o u l d e r e d General L o c a t i o n A r t e f a c t Number  Zone A 8815 8333  Surface 336  Range 4- 8 mm.  8  6  4  Width of Tang Width of Shoulder  12 18  11 16  12 14  11-12 14-18  mm. mm.  Maximum Width  20  17  17  17-20  mm.  Axial  35 11  37 10  35-37 10-11  mm. mm.  25-27  mm.  Width of Base  Length  o f Tang  36 W 10  Length  o f Blade  25  N  27  4  4  6  Length  Thickness  2.58  Weight  2.63  N - No I n f o r m a t i o n (H) - Estimated measurement Material:  2 basalt 1 quartzite  General Provenience:  (number 3 3 6 ) Zone A - 2 Zone B - 0 Surface - 1  4.27  4- 6 mm. 2 . 5 8 - 4 . 2 7 gm  125  Group 7:  Corner-Removed, C o n t r a c t i n g Stem, No Barbs  t h i c k , excurvate  (narrow,  blade)  Number o f Specimens:  8 ( F i g u r e 2 1 , a-g, Table X I I )  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  The p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s i n t h i s group  have blades which are narrow and r e l a t i v e l y t h i c k i n c r o s s section. circular  The shoulders are g e n e r a l l y rounded or obtuse(Binford,1963).  Blade Form:  Most o f these specimens have excurvate blade  o u t l i n e s with the edges d e s c r i b i n g convex l i n e s from the s h o u l d e r ( d i s t a l j u n c t u r e of the h a f t element) to the blade tip. the  Symmetrical  and asymmetrical  examples are present i n  subgrouping.  Blade C r o s s - S e c t i o n :  A l l these p o i n t s have a biconvex  c r o s s - s e c t i o n observed a t the mid-point of the blade. Stem Form:  C o n t r a c t i n g i n a l l cases.  Base Form:  V a r i o u s base shapes i n evidence, e.g., convex,  straight, etc. Group 8 :  See Appendix 2 .  Corner-Removed, C o n t r a c t i n g Stem, No Barbs  (broad, t h i n , e x c u r v a t e b l a d e ) Number o f Specimens:  13 ( F i g u r e 2 1 , h-q, Table X I I I )  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  These p o i n t s are r e l a t i v e l y  broad  and t h i n with c o n t r a c t i n g stems, rounded shoulders and excurvate ( e x c u r v a t e - i n c u r v a t e ) blade Blade Form:  outlines.  The blade edges are excurvate i n most  Two p o i n t s , however, have convex edges which c o n s t r i c t  specimens. near  the d i s t a l end of the p r o j e c t i l e forming a recurved o u t l i n e (numbers 10202 and 8 ^ 3 0 , Zone A ) .  TABLE X I I M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s o f Group 7: Corner-Removed, C o n t r a c t i n g Stem, No Barbs (narrow, t h i c k , excurvate General L o c a t i o n  Zone« A  Zone B  Surface  blade) Range  3040  IO368  9362  7934  6862  976  974  Width o f Base  9495 8  4  7  6  9  8  11  16  4-16  mm.  Width o f Tang  15  8  9  11  13  15  15  17  8-17  mm.  Width o f S h o u l d e r  18  15  17  17  22  25  21  22  17-25  mm.  Maximum Width  19  16  17  18  22  25 (Iv  24  23  16-25  mm.  Axial  44  41  41  39  62  N  70  53  39-70  mm.  14  12  9-14  mm.  56  41  30-56  mm.  7  8  A r t e f a c t Number  Length  Length  o f Tang  14  10  11  9  10  Length  o f Blade  30  31  30  30  52  13 N  9  6  6  8  9  9  6.685  3.62  3-625  Thickness Weight N - No I n f o r m a t i o n  (N) - E s t i m a t e d Measurement Material:  8 basalt  General Provenience:  Zone A - 4 Zone B - 2 Surface - 2  5.38  11.72  6.78  12.47  9.68  6 - 9 mm. 3.62-12.47  gm.  TABLE X I I I M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s o f Group 81 Corner-Removed, C o n t r a c t i n g Stem, No Barbs (Broad, t h i n , e x c u r v a t e General L o c a t i o n A r t e f a c t Number Width o f Base Width o f Tang Width o f S h o u l d e r Maximum Width A x i a l Length Length o f Tang Length o f B l a d e Thickness Weight General L o c a t i o n A r t e f a c t Number Width o f Base Width o f Tang Width o f S h o u l d e r Maximum Width A x i a l Length Length o f Tang Length o f B l a d e Thickness Weight  Zone A 9053 . 10  14  22  24 46 13 33 7 5.88  9400 10 12 21 23  41 9 32 7 5.73  7998  N 14  21  24 45(N) N  38 6 5.89  Surface 975 12 15 23  24 48  7  41  8  9.08  5368  18  19 25 27 50 11 39 6 9.23  Zone B  3143 10 12  9111  N  11  18  20 32 7 25 5 3.30  18 19  27(N) N  22 3  1.41  970 6 9 17  12768 10 11  35  N  18 N  30 4 2.78  13 b a s a l t  General Provenience:  Zone A - 7, Surface - 3 ,  10202 10 23  28 29 57 15  42 5 2.40  Backhoe T e s t P i t  N - No I n f o r m a t i o n (N)- E s t i m a t e d Measurement Material:  blade)  Zone B - 1 Backhoe T e s t P i t - 2  18 19 13  ,N 4  N  13422 7 11  14 15  29 10 19 4  1.82  10237 5 7 13 15 36 9 27 4 1.72  Range «•  5-18 mm. 7-23 mm. 13-28 mm. 1 5 - 2 9 mm. 27-57 7-15  mm.  mm. 19-42 mm. 3 - 8 mm. 1 . 4 1 - 9 . 2 3 gm.  128  Blade C r o s s - S e c t i o n :  More plano-convex and b i p l a n o c r o s s -  s e c t i o n s i n t h i s subgroup than biconvex.  These p o i n t s appear  to have been based on t h i n f l a k e s , some r e c e i v i n g only marginal  retouching.  Stem Form:  C o n t r a c t i n g i n a l l cases.  Base Form:  S t r a i g h t , convex and o b l i q u e a l l represented.  See Appendix 2. Group 9*  Corner-Removed,  C o n t r a c t i n g Stems, No Barbs  ( t r i a n g u l a r blade) Number of Specimens:  16 (Figure 21, r - u , Table  General  These p o i n t s have c o n t r a c t i n g stems  Description:  and blades which are t r i a n g u l a r i n o u t l i n e .  The  XIV)  flaking  p a t t e r n on some of these p o i n t s i s extremely random and irregular. basalt.  T h i s may be due i n p a r t to the coarseness  of the  Some of these p o i n t s may be u n f i n i s h e d or r e j e c t s .  Blade Form:  The a t t r i b u t e which c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h i s group  i s a somewhat t r i a n g u l a r blade  outline.  Most of these p o i n t s ,  however, do not have s t r a i g h t blade edges but are o f t e n asymmetric and approximate t r i a n g u l a r i t y .  One  (number 10230, Zone A) e x h i b i t s s l i g h t barbs.  specimen I t has been  i n c l u d e d i n t h i s subgroup but t h i s a t t r i b u t e i s noted i n Appendix 2. Blade C r o s s - S e c t i o n :  Various  cross-sections  biconvex, p i a n o - t r i a n g u l a r , e t c .  represented:  See Appendix 2.  Stem Form:  C o n t r a c t i n g i n a l l specimens.  Base Form:  S t r a i g h t , Convex and oblique base o u t l i n e s are  represented  i n t h i s group.  TABLE XIV  Corner-Removed, General  Location  A r t e f a c t Number Width o f Base Width o f Tang Width o f S h o u l d e r Maximum W i d t h A x i a l Length Length o f Tang Length o f Blade Thickness Weight General  Zone A  7656 6 10 29 29 51 7 44 8 7.69  9061 6 10 24 24 40 8 32 5 3.61  7691 11 13 20 20 37 8 29 5 3-69  8439 7 12 21 21 36 8 28 4 2.54  601 5 10 25 25 58 10 48 7 7.81  365 10 11 23 23 47 11 36 8 8.49  6162 N  8 15 15  N N  17 5 1.48  10671 5 12 21 21 48 10 38 8 5.42  10230 7 10 20 20 41 7 34 6 3.55 Backhoe  971 7 13 28 28 45 11 34 7 5.95  13459 5 8 26 26 44 8 36 6 5.77  12913 7 12 25 25 44 13 31 5 5.25  Information  Material:  14 b a s a l t ,  General Provenience:  2 cryptocrystalline  blade  outline)  Zone B  Surface  Location  A r t e f a c t Number Width o f Base Width o f Tang Width o f S h o u l d e r Maximum W i d t h A x i a l Length Length o f Tang Length o f Blade Thickness Weight N - No  M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s o f Group 9 : C o n t r a c t i n g Stem, No B a r b s ( t r i a n g u l a r  silica  ZOne A - 7, Zone B - 2 S u r f a c e - 3 , Backhoe T e s t  P i t- 4  9981 16 19 25 25 55 15 40 8 4.23  6116 15 14 29 29 60 10 50 8 11.73  Test P i t  12917 11 17 29 29 37 8 29 6 4.83  Range  13182 6 10 21 21 N  9 N  6 2.81  •  5-16 mm. 8 - 1 9 mm. 1 5 - 2 9 mm. 1 5 - 2 9 mm. 3 6 - 6 0 mm. 7 - 1 5 mm. 17-50 mm. 4 - 8 mm. 1 . 9 - 1 1 . 7 gm.  130  G r o u p 10:  Shouldered,  No B a r b s  (expanding  stem)  Number o f S p e c i m e n s :  3  General Description:  T h i s i s a poor grouping i n terms of  ( F i g u r e 22,  t h e s m a l l number o f s p e c i m e n s a n d shared. and  The  slightly  a-b,  Table  XV)  i n terms of the  attributes  t h r e e p o i n t s grouped here have rounded expanding  stems.  One  specimen has a  shoulders  triangular  b l a d e o u t l i n e w i t h t h e s h o u l d e r and b l a d e edge a t r i g h t to  the stem.  The  o t h e r two  p o i n t s have e x c u r v a t e b l a d e s  rounded o b t u s e - c i r c u l a r s h o u l d e r s . c o n v e x i n t h e s e l a t t e r two  specimens,  p r e p a r a t i o n by p e r c u s s i o n f l a k i n g . base which  still  The  bases  are  and  slightly  none w i t h e v i d e n c e  Number 8 l 4 l h a s a  r e t a i n s the c o r t e x from the  angles  of  thick  core.  TABLE XV M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s o f G r o u p 10: S h o u l d e r e d , No B a r b ( S l i g h t l y E x p a n d i n g General Location A r t e f a c t Number Width of Base W i d t h o f Tang Width of Shoulder Maximum W i d t h A x i a l Length L e n g t h o f Tang Length of Blade Thickness Weight  Zone A 681? 20 19 27 3° , 55 (N 10 45 10 14.18  Surface 8141 20 18 30 31 50 Ov 14 36 7 8.65  001 19 18 34 34 65 11 54 7  (N) - E s t i m a t e d M e a s u r e m e n t Material:  3  basalt  General Provenience:  Zone A - 2 Zone B - 0 Surface - 1 Backhoe T e s t P i t - 0  Stem) Range 19-20 mm. 18-19 mm. 27-34 mm. 30-34 mm. 50-65 mm. 10-14 mm. 36-54 mm. 7-10 mm. 8.6-14.2 gm.  131  Group 1 1 :  Corner Notched  ( l a t e r a l - c o i n c i d e n t a l ) , No Barbs,  Expanding Stems (excurvate blade, open notch) Number o f Specimens:  20 ( F i g u r e 2 2 , c - r , Table XVI)  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  The p o i n t s i n t h i s group have a r a t h e r  more open corner o r l a t e r a l - c o i n c i d e n t a l notch very c l o s e t o a s i d e n o t c h i n g form ( B i n f o r d , I 9 6 3 ) , Group 1 2 .  than the p o i n t s o f  I n a d d i t i o n , the blade edge i s g e n e r a l l y excurvate,  both symmetrically and a s y m m e t r i c a l l y .  The shoulders are  u s u a l l y rounded a t the t r a n s i t i o n from the blade edge to the haft  element.  Blade Form:  Some of the specimens have r e l a t i v e l y  long  narrow excurvate b l a d e s while o t h e r s a r e s h o r t e r and wider a c r o s s the s h o u l d e r s . Blade C r o s s - S e c t i o n :  There are biconvex, b i p l a n o and p l a n o -  convex c r o s s - s e c t i o n s i n t h i s  2.  group.  Stem Form:  The stems expand i n a l l  Base Form:  F o r the f u l l range o f base shapes, see Appendix  Concave  specimens.  and s t r a i g h t bases are the most common form.  Group 12:  Corner Notched  ( l a t e r a l - c o i n c i d e n t a l ) , No Barbs,  Expanding Stem ( t r i a n g u l a r blade o u t l i n e , narrow notch) Number o f Specimens:  6 ( F i g u r e 2 2 , s-x, Table XVII)  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  These p o i n t s are s m a l l with a l e n g t h  range of 2 5 t o 40 mm.  T h i s group i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from Group  11 on the b a s i s of a narrower more c l o s e d n o t c h i n g form, and an a s y m m e t r i c a l l y t r i a n g u l a r blade o u t l i n e . Blade Form:  Asymmetrically t r i a n g u l a r i n a l l  Blade C r o s s - S e c t i o n :  specimens.  A l l specimens a r e biconvex i n c r o s s -  TABLE XVI M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s o f Group 11: Corner Notched ( l a t e r a l - c o i n c i d e n t a l ) . No Barbs, Expanding Stems (excurvate blade, open notch) General L o c a t i o n A r t e f a c t Number 3377 Width o f Base 20 Width o f Tang 15 21 Width o f S h o u l d e r Maximum Width 22 A x i a l Length 43 12 Length o f Tang Length o f Blade 31 Thickness 6 Weight 5.75  Zone! A 9174 17 16 19 20 32 8 24 6 3.86  9440 20 17 25 25 N 13 N 6 N  8751 18 16 20 N N 17 N 6 N  6263 16 13 16 18 27 10 17 6 3.01  Surface  General L o c a t i o n 5744 A r t e f a c t Number Width o f Base 15 14 Width o f Tang 21 Width o f S h o u l d e r 22 Maximum Width A x i a l Length 39 Length o f Tang 16 Length o f Blade 23 Thickness 6 5.20 Weight  7570 19 17 22 24 N 13 N 8 N  Zone B  K 18 14 21 22 33 9 24 6 3.06  362 19 15 26 26 31 12 19 5 3.48  K 15 14 21 23 38 13 25 6 3.77  IO38O  16 15 22 23 37 11 26 5 4.68  347 18 17 24 25 N 10 N 5 4.48  18 b a s a l t , 2 c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e  General Provenience:  10040 14 14 19 21 N 11 N 6 N  Backh oe Test; P i t 5023 19 16 20 21 23 8 15 5 2.19  12618 11 10 N N 44 8 36 5 5.09  N - No I n f o r m a t i o n Material:  6701 15 14 18 19 32 9 23 5 3.61  silica  Zone A - 6, Zone B - 4 Surface - 8, Backhoe T e s t P i t - 2  12245 16 11 21 21 N 10 N 5 3.43  Surface 9243 19 14 22 22 N 13 N 6 N  986 18 16 20 20 N 9 N 5 5.09  5006 24 12 24 25 40 13 27 6 5.7  Rang,e 11-24 10-17 16-26 18-26 23-44 8-17 15-36 5- 8  mm. mm. mm. mm. mm. mm. mm. mm.  133  section. Stem Form:  The stem (tang) expands i n a l l cases.  Base Form:  Base forms o f these p o i n t s i n c l u d e both concave  and s t r a i g h t examples. TABLE XVII M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s of Group 1 2 : Corner Notched ( l a t e r a l - c o i n c i d e n t a l ) , No B a r b s Expanding Stem ( T r i a n g u l a r blade, narrow n o t c h ! t  General L o c a t i o n  Zone A  Surface  Range  9142  7575  7254  969  984  358  Width of Base  18  18  16  15  N  9  9-18  mm.  Width o f Tang  14  14  11  12  N  8  8-14  mm.  Width of Shoulder  22  22  20  20  20  14  14-22  mm.  Maximum Width  22  22  20  20  20  14  14-22  mm.  A x i a l Length  40  34  33  29  N  , 25  25-40  mm.  Length of Tang  11  9  9  7  N  5  5-11  mm.  Length o f Blade  29  25  24  22  23  20  20-29  mm.  7  6  5  6  4  3  4.77  3-65  3.08  2.75  2.23  0.75  A r t e f a c t Number  Thickness Weight  N - No Information Material:  5 basalt 1 cryptocrystalline s i l i c a  General Provenience:  Zone A - 3 Zone B - 0 Surface - 3  3-  7  .8-4.8  mm. gm.  134  Group 1 3 :  Corner Notched  (lateral-coincidental),  Barbed,  Expanding Stem (broad t r i a n g u l a r , or broad excurvate blade) Number of Specimens:  10 ( F i g u r e 2 3 , a-h, Table XVIII)  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  These p o i n t s are barbed, c o r n e r  notched (narrow) w i t h wide b l a d e s and wide expanding stems. Blade Form:  Some of these p o i n t s have s t r a i g h t blade edges.  Others of the group have edges which are s l i g h t l y e x c u r v a t e . Although the form o f the blade edge v a r i e s , the a t t r i b u t e s of stem width, maximum width, and n o t c h i n g form are s i m i l a r . Blade C r o s s - S e c t i o n :  The group i n c l u d e s specimens o f both  biconvex and plano-convex  cross-sections.  Stem Form:  The stem expands to a broad base.  Base Form:  Most o f these specimens have s t r a i g h t bases,  although convex o r s l i g h t l y concave bases are a l s o p r e s e n t . See Appendix 2 . Group 14:  Corner Notched  (lateral-coincidental),  Barbed,  Expanding Stem (narrow excurvate blade, indented concave  base)  Number of Specimens:  5 (Figure 2 3 , i-m, Table XIX)  General Description;  These p o i n t s are d i s t i n g u i s h e d from  the o t h e r c o r n e r notched groups mainly on the b a s i s of blade o u t l i n e and base form.  The barbs, with the e x c e p t i o n of one  specimen, are f a r l e s s extreme  i n t h i s subgroup.  Most o f  these p o i n t s tend t o have a narrow o r c l o s e d n o t c h . Blade Form;  Excurvate i n a l l cases.  Blade C r o s s - S e c t i o n :  There are examples  and biconvex c r o s s - s e c t i o n s . Stem Form;  Expanding i n a l l cases.  o f plano-convex  TABLE XVIII M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s o f Group 13« Corner Notched ( L a t e r a l - c o i n c i d e n t a l ) , Barbed, Expanding Stem (broad blade, broad stem) General L o c a t i o n  Zone A  Surface  Backhoe  Test P i t  Range  7755  9457  7320  K  967  5352  002  12150  12305  12310  Width o f Base  23  N  21  28  26  16  21  20  17  20  16-28  mm  Width o f Tang  21  13  17  16  20  13  17  18  14  15  13-21  mm  Width o f S h o u l d e r  32  29  30  29  31  27  36  30  30  N  27-36  mm  Maximum Width  32  29  30  29  32  30  36  31  30  N  2 9 - 3 6 mm  A x i a l Length  44  45 <N) 44  48  47  43  46  41  46  N  41-48  mm  A r t e f a c t Number  Length o f Tang Length o f Blade Thickness Weight  8  N  8  11  12  10  11  8  10  13  8-13  mm  36  35  36  37  35  33  35  33  36  N  33-36  mm  8  5  5  6  10  6  6  6  6  5  5-10  mm  6.42  N  8.63  5.13  5 . 77  7.76  13.59  5.59  7.705  N - No I n f o r m a t i o n (N) - E s t i m a t e d Measurement Materials  9 basalt, 1 cryptocrystalline  G e n e r a l Proveniences  silica  Zone A - 3 , Zone B - 0 Surface - 4 , Backhoe T e s t P i t - 3  5.37  136  Base Form:  The bases i n t h i s group are g e n e r a l l y  (concave) t o some e x t e n t .  indented  T h i s i n d e n t i n g i s extremely pro-  nounced i n two specimens (numbers 350 and 3 3 9 . S u r f a c e ) and has produced a s p l i t  stem or " f l u k e - l i k e "  stem.  One specimen  ( F i g u r e 2 3 , 1) has near p a r a l l e l edges, and one specimen from the  S u r f a c e has a u n i l a t e r a l barb ( F i g u r e 2 3 , m). TABLE XIX M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s of Group 14: Corner Notched, ""Barbed (narrow excurvate blade, concave base)  General L o c a t i o n  Backhoe Test P i t  Surface 5041  972  350  Width o f Base  17  21  20  Width o f Tang  12  16  Width of Shoulder  22  21  Maximum Width  23  A x i a l Length  A r t e f a c t Number  Range  339 N  12151 10  10-21  mm.  14  14  11  11-16  mm.  N  18  18-22  mm.  21  19 20  20  20-25  mm.  40  N  42  40-55  mm.  Length of Tang  55 10  25 N  8  11  9  5  5-11  mm.  Length of Blade  45  32  N  N  37  32-45  mm.  5  8  5  8  6  3.04  N  5> 04  Thickness  7.88  Weight N - No  6.29  Information  Material:  4 basalt 1 cryptocrystalline  General Provenience:  silica  Zone A - 0 Zone B - 0 Surface - 4 Backhoe Test P i t - 1  5 - 8 mm. 3.0-7.9  gm.  137  Group 1 5 :  Corner and B a s a l l y Notched ( b a s a l - b a s a l ) ,  Barbed  (broad blade, broad stem) Number of Specimens:  5 ( F i g u r e 2 4 , a - f , Table XX)  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  The p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s of t h i s group  are b a s a l l y notched with barbs which do n o t extend p r o x i m a l l y as f a r as the base.  The blade and the stem (tang) are n o t a b l y  wide. Blade Form:  Some specimens have excurvate blade  and o t h e r s , s y m m e t r i c a l l y t r i a n g u l a r Blade C r o s s - S e c t i o n :  outlines,  outlines.  A l l f i v e specimens are biconvex i n  cross-section. Stem Form:  Expanding  i n a l l cases.  Base Form:  Generally straight  based.  TABLE XX M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s of Group 1 5 : B a s a l l y Notched ( b a s a l - b a s a l ) , Barbed (broad blade, broad stem) General L o c a t i o n A r t e f a c t Number Width of Base Width of Tang Width o f Shoulder Maximum Width A x i a l Length Length of Tang Length of Blade Thickness Weight  Surface  Zone A 7437 17 16 34 36 67  10664  58  38 6  9  12.80  5  19 18  32 33 47  9  7.23  2773 N N 40 40  N N  40 8  N  Backhoe Test P i t 12371 16 14 26 26 38 8  30 5 3.52  12722  13  4 basalt, 1 cryptocrystalline  General Provenience:  silica  Zone A - 2 Zone B - 0 Surface - 1 Backhoe T e s t P i t - 2  12 28 28 34 7  13-19  12-18 26-40 26-40 34-67 7- 9 27-58 5- 8  mm. mm.  mm. mm. mm.  mm.  mm. 27 mm. 5 4 . 1 3 3 . 5 2 - 1 2 . 8 gm.  N - No I n f o r m a t i o n Material:  Range  138  Group 16:  B a s a l l y Notched  ( b a s a l - b a s a l ) , Extreme Barbs,  Narrow Stem Number of Specimens:  5 ( F i g u r e 24, g-k, Table XXI)  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  These p o i n t s a r e b a s a l l y notched w i t h  barbs which extend p r o x i m a l l y to a l i n e even with the base o r beyond.  The stems are much narrower i n these specimens  those o f Group 15*  The notches are c l o s e r t o g e t h e r and run  almost p a r a l l e l t o the main a x i s of the p r o j e c t i l e Blade Form:  than  point.  T r i a n g u l a r (and symmetrical) i n a l l specimens.  Blade G r o s s - S e c t i o n :  Biconvex  (2), plano-convex  (2), and  no i n f o r m a t i o n (fragment) i n one case. Stem Form:  Expanding  (2), c o n t r a c t i n g (2), no i n f o r m a t i o n  (1). Base Form:  S t r a i g h t base i n a l l f o u r complete  specimens.  TABLE XXI M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s of Group 16: B a s a l l y (Extreme Barbs, Narrow Stem) General L o c a t i o n A r t e f a c t Number Width of Base Width o f Tang Width o f Shoulder Maximum Width A x i a l Length Length of Tang Length of Blade Thickness Weight  Zone A 9519 8 10 31 31 37 6 31 7 6.4  8562 12 11 30 30 32 10 22 5 3.12  Notched  Surface 8609 N N N N N 9 N 5 N  376 983 N 5 N 4 20 32 20 32 N 23 <N) N 5 17 53 4 5 1.2 5.7  N - No I n f o r m a t i o n (N) - Estimated Measurement Material: 5 basalt General Provenience:  Zone A - 3 , Zone B - 0 Surface - 2 Backhoe T e s t P i t - 0  Range 5--12 mm. 4 -11 mm. 20 -32 mm. 20 - 3 2 mm. 23 - 3 7 mm. 5'-10 mm. 17 - 3 1 mm. 4.- 7 mm. 1 . 2 - 6 . 4 gm.  139  Group 17s  S i d e Notched  (lateral-lateral,  Binford,  Figure  24, L) General D e s c r i p t i o n s  Only two s i d e notched specimens, one  complete (number 987, S u r f a c e ) and one fragment (number 249, S u r f a c e ) are i n c l u d e d  i n the assemblage  of p r o j e c t i l e  Both specimens were found i n the d i s t u r b e d Number 987 - Length 43 mm.  x Width  surface  ( maximum)  points.  layer.  19mm.  Excurvate b l a d e , plano-convex i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n .  Open  side notch. Number 249 (fragment) - E s t i m a t e d l e n g t h 37 mm. Width 13 mm. cross-section.  Estimated  T r i a n g u l a r blade o u t l i n e , plano-convex i n Narrow, or c l o s e d ,  s i d e notch.  140  Chipped B i f a c e s and U n i f a c e s The a r t e f a c t a n a l y s i s presented i n t h i s chapter f o l l o w s c l o s e l y the approach  used by Sanger ( 1 9 7 0 :  71-76).  In t h a t  study chipped stone t o o l s are d i v i d e d i n t o two broad c a t e gories. e.g.,  T o o l s which appear to have been d e l i b e r a t e l y shaped,  b i f a c i a l l y flaked d r i l l s ,  b i f a c i a l k n i v e s , e t c . , are  termed formed? other t o o l s with retouched working edges on otherwise unmodified f l a k e s are un-formed.  W i t h i n these broad  c a t e g o r i e s , groupings are made on the b a s i s of some degree similarity The  i n terms of d i s c r e t e and continuous  of  attributes.  c r i t e r i a upon which these more r e f i n e d d i v i s i o n s are  e s t a b l i s h e d are s t a t e d e x p l i c i t l y  f o r each grouping or sub-  grouping. Formed B i f a c e s These t o o l s are b i f a c i a l l y f l a k e d implements which were probably shaped to perform a v a r i e t y of s c r a p i n g , c u t t i n g , and d r i l l i n g f u n c t i o n s .  There are d i f f i c u l t i e s i n i n f e r i n g  f u n c t i o n s f o r these t o o l s , as some s p e c i m e n s may  not i n f a c t  be f i n i s h e d forms, but merely preforms a t a stage of manufacture.  Some of the c r u d e l y f l a k e d t o o l s i n the f i r s t  groups d e s c r i b e d below may  have been preforms  p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s , while others may  four  or blanks f o r  be d i s c a r d s f o r one r e a -  son or another. Group 1:  Leaf-Shaped  Number of Specimens: Figure 2 5 ,  a-1).  Bifaces IJ  complete  or n e a r l y so (Table XXII,  141  TABLE XXII Group 1: General Location  Leaf-Shaped B i f a c e s  Artefact Number  Length (mm.)  Width (mm.)  Thickness (mm.)  A A A A A  6944  57 68  25 21 18  Zone A Zone A  6928 3542  65 61 64  15 29 25  8 7 6 7 6 11  29  6  Zone B Zone B Zone B  7434 7950 7981  61 39 36  29 19 14  7 7 8  87  29 37  9 12  13203  68  20  9  13231  57  19  5  Zone Zone Zone Zone Zone  8405 7628  55 38  9475 6044  Surface Surface Backhoe Test P i t Backhoe Test P i t  —  375* 990  * Incomplete Specimen Range i n Length  - 36--87 mm.  Range i n Width  - 14--37 mm.  Range i n Thickness -  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  5'-12 mm.  T h i s grouping i s e s t a b l i s h e d on a  r e l a t i v e l y low degree of s i m i l a r i t y . istic  The d e f i n i n g c h a r a c t e r -  of these b i f a c e s i s t h a t the maximum width i s i n the  middle o n e - t h i r d o f the a r t e f a c t (Sanger, 1 9 7 0 : 7 2 - 7 3 ) . There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n the group i n terms of t e c h n i c a l a t t r i b u t e s o f retouch,  and i n metric  attributes.  Some specimens which have been produced by heavy p e r c u s s i o n f l a k i n g e x h i b i t deep and i r r e g u l a r l y p l a c e d f l a k e s c a r s and  142  markedly s e r r a t e d edges (numbers 6928, 1 3 2 0 3 , 3542,  13271).  Others have had only l i g h t marginal retouch which has produced even edges with shallow, r e g u l a r l y p l a c e d f l a k e s c a r s 7950,  7434).  (numbers  These t o o l s may have been k n i v e s or u n f i n i s h e d  p r o j e c t i l e points.  A l l specimens are of b a s a l t .  General Provenience:  Zone A - 7 Zone B - 3 Disturbed Surface - 1 Backhoe Test P i t - 2  Group 2:  B i f a c e s with Broad Bases  Number of Specimens: Figure 25,  9 complete or n e a r l y so (Table XXIII,  m-p).  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  These t o o l s are d i s t i n g u i s h e d from  Group One specimens i n t h a t they have the p o i n t of maximum width a t or near the base of the b i f a c e .  Again, there i s con-  s i d e r a b l e range i n the extent and q u a l i t y of the r e t o u c h . Three specimens (numbers 9555, 6871 and 6813, Zone A) e x h i b i t only marginal r e t o u c h .  Three t o o l s (numbers 3468 and 9606,  Zone A; and 6696, Zone B) have t h i n n i n g on the b a s a l , or broad end. tex.  Others are t h i c k and b l u n t with remnants of c o r -  A l l specimens are of b a s a l t .  General Provenience:  Zone A - 6 Zone B - 2 Disturbed Surface - 1  Group 3  s  Triangular Bifaces  Number of Specimens:  2 ( F i g u r e 26, a-b).  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  These t o o l s are based on f l a k e s of  143  TABLE XXIII Group 2 : General Location Zone Zone Zone Zone  B i f a c e s With Broad Bases  Artefact Number  A A A A  Zone A Zone A Zone B Zone B  Length (mm.)  9555 3468*  58  6929 6871 9606 6813  43 44  —  52 44  — —  6696* 10557* 404  Surface  47  * Incomplete  Specimen  Range i n Length  -  43-58  mm.  Range i n Width  -  21-38  mm.  Range i n Thickness -  3-H  mm.  good q u a l i t y c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e s i l i c a . t r i a n g u l a r i n form, men  Width (mm.)  Thickness (mm.)  22  3 7 8  25 21 38  5 11  35 32  9 10 6  24 34  r-  21  They are approximately  extremely t h i n with f i n e r e t o u c h .  Speci-  number 8235 (Zone A) i s m a r g i n a l l y retouched along a l l  three edges on one face and retouched e x t e n s i v e l y over the opposite f a c e . mm.  The dimensions  x width 30 mm.  of number 8235 are l e n g t h 45  x t h i c k n e s s 5 mm.  A r t e f a c t number 9284  (Zone A) i s a l s o m a r g i n a l l y retouched on one f a c e with t e n s i v e retouch on the o p p o s i t e f a c e . l e n g t h 45 mm. may  x width 40 mm.  I t s dimensions  x t h i c k n e s s 5 mm.  have f u n c t i o n e d as k n i v e s , or may  exare  These t o o l s  be w e l l made p r o j e c t i l e  p o i n t preforms a t a stage of manufacture p r i o r to n o t c h i n g or b a r b i n g .  144  Group 4 :  Stemmed B i f a c e s  Number of Specimens!  8 (Table XXIV, F i g u r e 26, c - f ) .  General  These b i f a c e s have an observable  Description.:  element.  haft  One specimen from Zone A (Figure c) i s a r e l a t i v e l y  l a r g e t h i c k b i f a c e o f b a s a l t with a s i n g l e shoulder and some evidence  o f t h i n n i n g by p e r c u s s i o n on the base.  Another  specimen from Zone B ( F i g u r e f ) i s a s m a l l asymmetric b i f a c e with  one shoulder and b a s a l t h i n n i n g by p e r c u s s i o n .  the other specimens i n t h i s group have marginal the blade, rounded shoulders  Most o f  retouch  and c o n t r a c t i n g stems.  along  These  t o o l s may have been h a f t e d as knives or may be u n f i n i s h e d or discarded p r o j e c t i l e points. General  Provenience:  A l l specimens are of b a s a l t .  Zone A - 7 Zone B - 1  Group 5*  Piano-Convex B i f a c e s  Number o f Specimens:  3 ( F i g u r e 26, g - i ) .  General  These t o o l s have one f l a t  Description:  t r a l face with l i m i t e d r e t o u c h .  (piano)  ven-  The d o r s a l face i s approx-  i m a t e l y convex i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n and r e t a i n s some cortex i n a l l three specimens.  One specimen from Zone A (Figure g) i s  a quadrangular f l a k e with  one end wider than the other.  On  the v e n t r a l face there i s a s e r i e s o f l a m e l l a r , or l o n g p a r a l l e l f l a k e s c a r s a l o n g one l a t e r a l edge. are:  l e n g t h 52 mm.  x width 36 mm.  The dimensions  x t h i c k n e s s 10 mm.  The  form o f the t o o l suggests a c u t t i n g or s i d e s c r a p i n g f u n c t i o n . Specimen number 8 3 3 9 , width 35 mm.  ( F i g u r e h, Zone A:  x t h i c k n e s s 14 mm.)  l e n g t h 54 mm. x  i s almost ovate i n form with  145  TABLE XXIV Group 4 :  Stemmed B i f a c e s  Artefact Number  General Location Zone A Zone A  7186 708  Zone A Zone A Zone A  10725 7193 8860  Length (mm.) 72 59 48 48 51 44  U*  Zone A  Thickness (mm.)  Width (mm.) 35 33  15 8  23 29 36 22  7 9 9 10  Zone A  9218  24  19  5  Zone B  8357  43  15  5  U  unnumbered  * Incomplete Specimen Range i n Length  -  24-59  mm.  Range i n Width  -  15-35  mm.  Range i n Thickness -  5-15  mm.  convex l a t e r a l edges.  The retouch  extensive  than on number 1 0 5 6 0 .  on the v e n t r a l face i s more  The t o o l i s s i m i l a r i n form  to a l a r g e snub-nosed s c r a p e r but does not e x h i b i t retouch use  wear on the t h i c k steep end.  or  The l a t e r a l edges have been  c r u d e l y f l a k e d c r e a t i n g sharp and s e r r a t e d edges, p o s s i b l y f o r c u t t i n g or s c r a p i n g f u n c t i o n s .  The t h i r d t o o l of t h i s  group, number 7071  (Figure i , Zone As l e n g t h 45 mm.  29 mm.  12 mm.),  and  x thickness  has marginal retouch  one edge, and r e t a i n s a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n  dorsal face.  attempt to block  as a scraper,  on both ends  of c o r t e x on the  The p a t t e r n of f l a k i n g i s crude.  have f u n c t i o n e d  x width  The t o o l may  or may have been an incomplete  out a preform f o r a p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t or k n i f e  146  by t h i n n i n g a t h i c k primary b a s a l t f l a k e .  A l l specimens are  of b a s a l t . Group 6 :  B i f a c e s with Retouched P r o j e c t i o n s  Number of Specimens:  6 (Table XXV,  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  These b i f a c e s have narrow retouched  projections.  A l l but  one  Zone A) i s widest a l o n g  F i g u r e 26,  specimen (number 7241? Figure  the middle o n e - t h i r d of the  The  edges c o n t r a c t p r o x i m a l l y  ing  a stem l i k e tang.  The  suggests a r o t a r y or d r i l l  all  wear on the end action.  is  tool.  of the  pyles  Specimen number 7241  to the l o n g a x i s of the t o o l .  The  One  is  slightly  b a s a l element  t o o l s i s extremely t h i n , f o u r specimens e x h i b i t  thinning.  1,  from t h i s expanded p o r t i o n form-  a key-shaped d r i l l with a broad s t r a i g h t base, oblique  j-o).  on  percussion  t o o l number 13065 (Figure k, Backhoe Test P i t )  of a c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e s i l i c a ,  These t o o l s may  the  others are a l l of b a s a l t .  have been hand h e l d or i n s e r t e d i n t o a handle.  General Provenience:  Zone A - 3 Backhoe Test P i t - 3  Group 7''  B i f a c e Fragments ( P r o j e c t i l e P o i n t s , Knives,  Number of Specimens:  73  (Figures 27,  a-f).  In t h i s l a r g e grouping there are t i p , medial, and fragments of b i f a c i a l l y f l a k e d knives  and  projectile  Rather than l o s e these d i s t i n c t i v e c a t e g o r i e s i n one macrogrouping, some attempt has ial,  and  present  In most i n s t a n c e s  metric  etc.)  basal  points. large  been made to group t h i s mater-  information  and  the fragments are not  general  provenience.  l a r g e enough to make  147  TABLE XXV Group 6s  B i f a c e s With Retouched Artefact Number  Length (mm.)  Zone A  6810 7241  40 42  Zone A  9641  General Location Zone A  Backhoe Test P i t Backhoe Test P i t Backhoe Test P i t * Incomplete  Projections Width (mm.)  Thickness (mm.) 6 6  55  15 19 24  13065*  40  17  6  13075*  48  15  6  13147  55  20  6  7  ( t i p missing)  Range i n Length  -  40-55  mm.  Range i n Width  -  15-24  mm.  Range i n Thickness -  6-7  mm.  statements r e g a r d i n g the form of the t o o l s , however, the m e t r i c data may be u s e f u l i n e x t r a p o l a t i n g approximate dimensions f o r these specimens when l a r g e r samples are a t hand.  There a r e  s e v e r a l subgroupings which can be made with these fragments. Subgroup  1:  Large B i f a c e  Fragments  Number of Specimens:  8 ( F i g u r e 27, a - f ) .  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  T h i s subgroup c o n s i s t s of l a r g e  b i f a c e fragments over 3 5 mm.  i n width and over 38 mm.  i n length.  Of these, 7 are of b a s a l t and one (number 9 4 9 0 ; Zone A) o f quartzite.  An i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n i s that 6 of the 7 b a s a l t  specimens are n e a r l y the same s i z e . (38-42 mm.)  The l e n g t h range i s 4  and the t h i c k n e s s range i s l e s s than 4 mm.  The  mm.  148  measurements i n Table XXVI are  taken to the nearest  milli-  meter. What f a c t o r ( s ) might be r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r the  i n s i z e of these l a r g e b i f a c e fragments? attempt to answer t h i s q u e s t i o n  there  uniformity  Before one  can  i s a problem of  dis-  t i n g u i s h i n g the t i p fragments from the b a s a l fragments. we  If  can assume that a l l the fragments are b a s a l , or t i p f r a g -  ments, then the breakage may e.g.,  may  have some f u n c t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e  be r e l a t e d to h a f t i n g .  I f these fragments  represent  the p o r t i o n of the b i f a c e which extends beyond the h a f t or i s the p o r t i o n of the b i f a c e w i t h i n the h a f t then regarding  a p o i n t of s t r e s s i n the f u n c t i o n i n g of the  might be proposed.  base fragments then t h i s  would be unfounded.  The  i s number 9^90  protruding  suggestion  l a r g e s t specimen i n t h i s subgroup  ( q u a r t z i t e ) , i t i s a longer  Perhaps the l e n g t h  to the length and  tool  I f , on the other hand, the fragments are  a mixture of t i p and  fragment.  inferences  thickness  and  thicker biface  of these fragments i s r e l a t e d  of the b i f a c e s and  from the h a f t element.  the  length  T h i s i s a problem which  awaits an examination of a l a r g e sample of l a r g e b i f a c e f r a g ments f o r r e s o l u t i o n .  A r t e f a c t number 6739 (Zone B) i s a  t h i c k b a s a l fragment with cortex  on one  face.  T h i s fragment  appears to be at a much more primary stage of manufacture. General Proveniences  Zone A - 5 Zone B - 1 ( b a s a l fragment) Disturbed  Surface - 1  Backhoe Test P i t - 1  149  TABLE XXVI Subgroup I s General Location  Large B i f a c e Fragments Length of Fragment (mm.)  Artefact Number  Width of Fragment (mm.)  Thickness of Fragment (mm.)  Zone A Zone A Zone A  7151 9090 9490  38 39 74  35 37 44  6 6 12  Zone A Zone A  6166  38  36  9  3009  39  9  Zone B  6739*  37  39 46  Surface  985  38  39  15 10  13382  42  35  8  Backhoe Test P i t  * B a s a l Fragment Range i n Length  -  37-74  mm.  Range i n Width  -  36-46  mm.  6-15  mm.  Range i n Thickness Subgroup 2s  P o i n t e d B i f a c e Fragments  Number of Specimens:  40  (Tables XXVII and  XXVIII).  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  These fragments are a l l s l i g h t l y -  p o i n t e d but i t i s not p o s s i b l e to d i s t i n g u i s h with c e r t a i n t y whether these fragments are t i p or b a s a l p o r t i o n s of p r o j e c tile  Of a sample of 40 specimens, 33  p o i n t s or k n i v e s .  of b a s a l t and  7 are c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e s i l i c a .  are  It i s inter-  e s t i n g to note t h a t there seems to be a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the l e n g t h of the fragment and Table XXVIII shows how  i t s thickness.  the mean t h i c k n e s s i n c r e a s e s with  l e n g t h of the fragments.  T h i s breakage may  the  be r e l a t e d to the  l e n g t h the t o o l extends beyond the h a f t or i s i n s e r t e d w i t h i n  150  TABLE XXVII Subgroup 2s  General Location Zone A  Zone B  Surface  Backhoe Test P i t  Artefact Number  P o i n t e d B i f a c e Fragments Length, Width and Thickness of Fragment (mm.)  7718 9010 3163 7512 6058 6305 10642 7235 6000 6019 7090 6016  51 69 28 34 21 27 22 23 22 14 18 37  X X  9573 9754 10388 10186 6896  46 36 27 33 19  X  54 36 29 30 26 22 29 24 34 39  X  39 40 28 33 30 33 46 25 8 73 41 23 22  X  unnumbered 361 978 9434 3037 977 979 613 250 549 12915 13317 12077 12738 13150 12247 13096 12477 12478 13277 13144 13102 13073  X X X X X X X X X X  X X X X  X X X X X X X X X  X X X X X X X X X X X X  26 31 19 20 17 22 20 14 12 16 19 32  X X  25 20 19 18 15  X  24 19 16 19 14 14 17 16 21 21  X  26 23 23 18 20 29 21 19 17 36 26 21 18  X  X X X X X X X X X X  X X X X  X X X X X X X X X  X X X X X X X X X X X X  9 19 7 7 6 5 4 4 4 3 5 3  Cryptocrystalline Silica  Basalt X X  X X X X X X X X X X  8 6 6 4 4  X  9 4 6 6 4 ,:2 7 6 6 14  X  7 9 6 6 8 5 11 7 6 12 10 7 7  X X X X  X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X  151  TABLE XXVIII Length Range and Mean Thickness of P o i n t e d B i f a c e Fragments Length Range (mms.)  Number o f Items  Thickness Range  10-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79  4 18 10 4 2 1 1  3- 6 2- 8 3-14 8-11 9 19 12  the h a f t .  Mean Thickness 4.5 5.6 6.2 9.5 9.0 19.0 12.0  T h i s i s merely a s u g g e s t i o n a t t h i s stage as the  sample i s s m a l l . General Provenience:  Zone A - 12 Zone B -  5  D i s t u r b e d S u r f a c e - 10 Backhoe Test P i t - 13 Subgroup 3  :  M e d i a l B i f a c e Fragments  Number of Specimens:  5  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  These are fragments  p o i n t s and k n i v e s . fragments  of p r o j e c t i l e  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note how few medial  there are i n comparison  General Provenience:  t o t i p and base  fragments.  Zone A - 1 Zone B - 0 Disturbed Surface - 1 Backhoe T e s t P i t - 3  Subgroup 4 :  Rounded o r S t r a i g h t Based B i f a c e Fragments  Number o f Specimens:  22  152  General D e s c r i p t i o n : described  These fragments can probably be  as b a s a l fragments on the b a s i s of the roundness or  s t r a i g h t n e s s of the end of the fragment.  F i v e of the s p e c i -  mens have open corner notches and s t r a i g h t bases.  These  fragments may be b a s a l p o r t i o n s of Group 11 p r o j e c t i l e  points.  Three o f the above specimens, numbers 10620, 6997 and 1 2 5 7 0 , d i f f e r i n length by 1 mm. have p e r c u s s i o n were h a f t e d . the blade.  and i n t h i c k n e s s by 2 mm.  A l l three  t h i n n i n g on the base which suggests the t o o l s  A l l three broke a t almost the same p o i n t  along  T h i s may p o s s i b l y be another example of breakage  as a f u n c t i o n of h a f t i n g and the p o s i t i o n o f s t r e s s i n function.  Dimensions of these specimens are given below: TABLE XXIX  Subgroup 4: Artefact Number  Rounded or S t r a i g h t Based B i f a c e Fragments  Length, Width And Thickness  Material  Location  6997  24  X  22  X  5  Cryptocrystalline Silica  Zone A  10620  23  X  24  X  7  Cryptocrystalline Silica  Zone A  12570  24  X  21  X  5  Basalt  Backhoe Test P i t  Miscellaneous  Formed B i f a c e s  (Figures 2 7 , g - i )  There are s e v e r a l formed b i f a c e s from the Katz s i t e which are so u n l i k e any other a r t e f a c t s i n the sample that they require i n d i v i d u a l description.  153  TABLE XXX Miscellaneous General Location  Artefact Number  Zone A  6015  Zone B  83^0  Backhoe Test P i t  Formed B i f a c e s  Length, Width And Thickness 9k x kk  160  12210  x 20  x 65 x 11  36 x 2k x  5  Description Large c r u d e l y f l a k e d q u a r t z i t e b i f a c e . Some c o r t e x on one f a c e . The t o o l i s roughly l e a f shaped with the p o i n t o f maximum width near the middle o n e - t h i r d o f the specimen. T h i s i s an extremely large quartzite biface with a s h o r t s i n g l e shouldered tang on one end. The tang may be the r e s u l t of an a c c i d e n t a l removal of the edge near one end d u r i n g f l a k i n g , o r may have had functional significance as a h a f t element. T h i s specimen i s a t h i n asymmetric b a s a l t b i f a c e . I t has marginal retouch on both f a c e s and a s m a l l open notch near the base on one edge. The blade p o r t i o n i s asymmetric with a n e a r l y s t r a i g h t d i s t a l end. This t o o l i s s i m i l a r to t o o l s grouped asymmetric a l l y hafted bifaces, Group 2 of Formed B i f a c e s Sanger ( 1 9 7 0 : 7 1 - 7 2 ) .  Unformed B i f a c e s Number of Specimens:  7  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  These t o o l s a r e based on i r r e g u l a r l y  shaped f l a k e s with b i f a c i a l f l a k i n g on one edge. mens a r e a l l from the Zone A d e p o s i t .  The 7 s p e c i -  The l e n g t h range o f  154  these t o o l s i s 2.5 of m o d i f i c a t i o n the  to 4.8  cms.  They do not  show evidence  beyond the b i f a c i a l f l a k i n g of one  f l a k i n g pattern  These t o o l s may  cm.  be  edge  and  i s extremely i r r e g u l a r i n a l l i n s t a n c e s . crudely  f a s h i o n e d k n i v e s f o r use  as  cutt-  i n g implements. Formed U n i f a c e s C o n t i n u i n g with the approach adopted by Sanger (1970: 76-80), t h i s chapter d e s c r i b e s based on s m a l l shaping.  the u n i f a c i a l l y f l a k e d  f l a k e s which show evidence of  T h i s c l a s s of t o o l s does not  f l a k e d cortex  deliberate  include  s p a l l t o o l s , or core t o o l s .  tools  unifacially  Most of these  specimens are based on f l a k e s of good q u a l i t y c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e s i l i c a , m a t e r i a l which was graving,  drilling,  probably extremely s u i t a b l e f o r  scraping,  and  perforating functions  which these t o o l s are assumed to have been used.  the  for  Groupings  of these t o o l s have been made on the b a s i s of s i m i l a r i t y i n terms of shared a t t r i b u t e s .  The  c r i t e r i a upon which  groups have been e s t a b l i s h e d  are  s t a t e d i n the  the  description for  each group. Group 1:  Round to Oval U n i f a c e s  Number of Specimens - 2 (Figure 28, General D e s c r i p t i o n :  a-b).  Both specimens are based on  c r y s t a l l i n e f l a k e s approximately 1.0  cm.  thick.  They are  plano-convex i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n with retouch evident of the d o r s a l f a c e .  The  retouch i s n e a r l y  the e n t i r e edge with the s t e e p e s t  crypto-  over most  continuous around  edge angle (75 to 85  degrees)  155  at  the t h i c k e s t end of the f l a k e .  The  edge angle i s f a i r l y -  acute on the o p p o s i t e end with evidence of t h i n n i n g i n specimen number 3 5  (disturbed surface).  2  t h i n n i n g may  This "basal"  have f a c i l i t a t e d h a f t i n g , or may  c u t t i n g edge g i v i n g the t o o l a dual purpose, snub nosed (1970s hide  78),  s c r a p e r , and as a k n i f e . these t o o l s may  have been a s e r v i n g as a  As suggested by Sanger  have been hand h e l d and used i n  working. TABLE XXXI Round To Oval U n i f a c e s  General Location Zone A Surface  Group 2s  Artefact Number  Length (mm.)  Width (mm.)  95^5  33  28  11  75  325  31  31  10  85  or n e a r l y so ( F i g u r e 28,  fragments.  General D e s c r i p t i o n s fairly  Edge Angle (degrees)  Elongate U n i f a c e s with Steep End Retouch  Number of Specimens - 10 complete, c-k, m) 2  Thickness (mm.)  Most of these u n i f a c e s are based  t h i c k f l a k e s of c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e s i l i c a .  steep retouch on one end,  on  A l l have  g e n e r a l l y i n the 65 to 85  degree  range, and some have l a t e r a l retouch, which i s presumably the r e s u l t of shaping, as one-half of the specimens have none. The f l a k i n g on the steep ends of s e v e r a l specimens i s f i n e pressure retouch evidenced by elongate p a r a l l e l f l a k e See F i g u r e 28 with examples, numbers 5 0 2 9 , 7831,  ds Zone A.  In o n l y two  scars.  j , 9 0 0 0 , c, and  of the t o o l s i n t h i s group has  156  there been t h i n n i n g a t the end opposite the working end (numbers 1 0 1 0 , k, S u r f a c e , and 5 0 2 9 ,  Zone A ) .  The shapes o f  the working edges w i t h i n the group vary from convex to straight.  The c r o s s - s e c t i o n s i n c l u d e plano-convex, symmetric  and asymmetric keel-shaped  dorsal faces.  The ranges i n  m e t r i c a t t r i b u t e s do not i n c l u d e incomplete General Provenience:  specimens.  Zone A - 6 , 1 fragment Zone B - 1 fragment Surface - 3 Backhoe Test P i t - 1  Group 3:  Round to R e c t a n g u l o i d U n i f a c e s With Steep End  Retouch Number o f Specimens - 15 (Table XXXIII, F i g u r e 28, 1, n - t , w). General D e s c r i p t i o n : are  The d e f i n i n g a t t r i b u t e s of t h i s group  (1) a r e l a t i v e l y t h i n f l a k e with steep retouch a l o n g one  edge, and ( 2 ) an acute edge angle opposite the working edge which c o u l d f a c i l i t a t e h a f t i n g . "proximal" retouch.  The acute edge angle a t the  end i n s i x o f the specimens has been c r e a t e d by In f o u r of the other t o o l s the proximal end has  been snapped o f f and may a l s o have been b a s a l l y t h i n n e d when complete.  Most o f the specimens have steep retouch on the  t h i c k e s t p o r t i o n of the f l a k e .  E l e v e n o f the f i f t e e n  are based on f l a k e s o f c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e s i l i c a .  tools  The v a r i a -  t i o n i n terms of s e v e r a l s e l e c t e d a t t r i b u t e s are presented i n Table XXXIII. General Provenience:  Zone A - 6  TABLE Elongate  XXXII  U n i f a c e s With  S t e e p End  General Location Artefact Number  Material  Zone A  9000  7294*  9323  5029  12  30  24  29  33  Width  22  19  19  17  15  22  20  Thickness  8  8  7  9  10  7  10  Silica  X  X  X  A.°  One  End  Two  Ends  One  Side  Two  Sides  Convex  Straight Incomplete  8480  27  Specimen  X  X  X  70°  65°  70°  80°  65°  65°  85'  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X X  X  X  X  X  Concave  *  7831  35  Edge  Working Edge  8420*  Length  Basalt  Retouch  Retouch  X  X  X  TABLE XXXII General Location  Zone B  Artefact Number  9599*  1013  (fragment )  35  Length  Range  12428  25  31  38  24  -38  18  21  14  27  15  -27  8  7  5  15  5  -15  X  X  X  X  X  60°  85°  60°  80°  70°  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  Thickness Silica  Backhoe Test P i t  Surface 1010  Width  Material  (Continued)  1012*  Basalt Edge A.° Retouch  One End Two Ends One S i d e  Working Edge  Two S i d e s  X  Convex  X  X x  Concave Straight  * Incomplete  x  Specimen  X  60° -85°  TABLE XXXIII Round to R e c t a n g u l o i d U n i f a c e s With Steep End Retouch General Location  Zone  Artefact Number  7442  6809*  8822  9511  8884  398  5068  18  18  21  21  19  30  34  22  Width  17  19  23  21  18  23  23  17  4  4  5  6  6  9  7  4  65°  70°  70°  70°  80°  65°  80°  70"  X  X  X  X  X X  X  Edge A n g l e  0  Silica Basalt  Working Edge  Surface  Length  Thickness  Material  10108*  A  Convex  X X  X  X  X  X  Concave Straight  * Incomplete Specimen  X  X  X  TABLE X X X I I I General Location  Backhoe T e s t P i t 13072  12429  Length  24  22  25  18  22  16  21  18 - 3 4 mm  Width  21  20  20  22  21  20  22  17  5  6  5  5  5  6  4  65°  60°  60°  65°  65°  85°  80°  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  Thickness Edge  Angle  0  Silica Basalt  Working Edge  Range  12473  Artefact Number  Material  (Continued)  Convex Concave Straight  * I n c o m p l e t e Specimen  12557*  13193  X X  X  X  X  12303*  12481  -23  mm  4 - 9 mm 60°-85°  TABLE XXXIV Triangular General Location  Zone A  Artefact Number  9649*  6306*  Backhoe Test P i t  Range  9864  109  12823  12114  25  33  18  26  32  26  27  26 - 3 3 mm  Width  34  29  23  22  27  19  27  19 -34 mm  Thickness  11  10  9  8  5  4  7  70°  90°  75°  80°  85°  80°  80°  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  0  Basalt  X  Others Working Edge  9444  Surface  Length  Edge A n g l e Material  U n i f a c e s With Steep End Retouch  Convex  X  X  X  Concave Straight  * Incomplete B a s a l End  X  X  4 -11 mm 70°-90°  162  General Provenience;  Zone B - 0 Surface - 2 Backhoe T e s t P i t - 7  Group 4 :  T r i a n g u l a r U n i f a c e s With Steep End  Retouch  Number of Specimens:  7 (Table XXXIV, F i g u r e 28, u-v, x - z ) .  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  These t o o l s are a p p r o x i m a t e l y  a n g u l a r i n form.  One  tri-  specimen (number 9 6 4 9 , Zone A) i s based  on a b a s a l t f l a k e ; the remainder are based on f l a k e s of chalcedony and q u a r t z .  One edge i s s t e e p l y r e t o u c h e d , i n the  60 t o 90 degree range.  The s i d e s a d j a c e n t t o the w o r k i n g  edge c o n t r a c t t o form a narrow p y l e - l i k e element o p p o s i t e the w o r k i n g edge. i n a handle.  These t o o l s may have been hand h e l d , o r h a f t e d The shape o f the w o r k i n g edges v a r y from  con-  vex t o s t r a i g h t . General Provenience:  Zone A - 4 Zone B - 0 Surface - 1 Backhoe T e s t P i t - 2  Group 5:  Formed U n i f a c e s With.Retouched  Number o f Specimens:  Projections  28 complete, o r n e a r l y so (Table  XXXV, XXXVI, XXXVII, F i g u r e 2 9 ) .  4 b a s a l fragments, 4 t i p  fragments. General D e s c r i p t i o n :  A l l the t o o l s w i t h i n t h i s group  e x h i b i t u n i f a c i a l l y r e t o u c h e d p r o j e c t i o n s of v a r i o u s l e n g t h s . D i f f e r e n c e s i n o v e r - a l l form, and the k i n d o f wear i n e v i dence on the p y l e have been used t o e s t a b l i s h  subgroupings.  163  Five  specimens  thirty-one  a r e b a s e d on b a s a l t  on f l a k e s  flakes,  of cryptocrystalline  of hardness o f the s i l i c a t e s  relative  drilling,  this  intended.  functions  t o o l s might  Three  subgroups  obvious d i f f e r e n c e s p a t t e r n s appear groups  o f formed  attemptIn  o b s e r v a b l e use m o d i f i c a t i o n  A thorough m i c r o s c o p i c  f o r this  these  hardness of the  f o r the researcher  p r o v i d e a b r o a d e r range  than p o s s i b l e  miner-  f o r the  on t h e b a s i s o f wear p a t t e r n s .  s t u d y , o n l y t h e most r e a d i l y  h a s been n o t e d .  attribute  The extreme  p r e s e n t s some d i f f i c u l t y  ing to infer  The d e g r e e  and p e r f o r a t i n g f u n c t i o n s f o r which  t o o l s were p r e s u m a b l y silicates  silica.  to the b a s a l t i c  a l s u s e d was p r o b a b l y a most d e s i r a b l e graving,  the remaining  analysis  of these  of f u n c t i o n a l  inferences  report.  have been i n form.  to cross-cut  established Functional  on t h e b a s i s o f  t y p e s b a s e d on wear  these subgroupings.  The s u b -  u n i f a c e s w i t h r e t o u c h e d p r o j e c t i o n s a r e as  follows s 1.  Tools with broad blade  2.  T o o l s w i t h narrow  3»  Bipointed  Subgroup  1:  blade  19 c o m p l e t e ,  Elements  or nearly  so ( T a b l e  fragments, 3 t i p fragments  element;  General Description: b r o a d and r e l a t i v e l y asymmetric  tools  Tools with Broad Blade  XXXV, F i g u r e 29, a - k ) , k b a s a l some b l a d e  elements  o r diamond s h a p e d  Number o f S p e c i m e n s :  with  elements  These  t o o l s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  t h i n blade elements.  i n f o r m w i t h one s i d e  They  are generally  of the p r o j e c t i o n  or pyle  TABLE XXXV Formed U n i f a c e s W i t h General Location Artefact Number  Retouched  Projections  *  (Subgroup  Is  Broad Blade  Element)  Zone A  10172  10644  10662  7564  —  27  33  25  13  20  24  17  14  5  4  5  5  5  9590  8168  7707  6816  3451  Length  40  36  36  29  22  27  Width  23  27  21  17  15  Thickness  7  6  5  4  3  Basal Thinning  X  X  X  X  Silicate  X  X  X  X  X  5241*  X X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  Basalt Shape of T i p  Convex Pointed  X X  X  Straight Oblique Graver  X  * Incomplete x - Presence  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  Drill Perforator  X  X  X  X  TABLE XXXV ( C o n t i n u e d ) General Location Artefact Number  Zone B  Surface  Backhoe  6165  73^9  369  3550  12509  3552  Length  22  23  35  27  39  32  Width  15  15  20  23  22  4  4  6  7  5  Thickness Basal  Test P i t  12483*  12427  13285  30  40  29  12  27  13  25  5  11  5  7  Thinning  Silicate  X X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  Basalt Shape of T i p  Convex  X  Pointed  X  Straight Oblique  X  X  Graver  X  X  Drill ......  X  X  X  X  X  Perforator  * I n c o m p l e t e R a n g e i n Length 22-40 x - Presence Range i n W i d t h 12-27 Range i n T h i c k n e s s - 3 - 7  X? X  X  mm. mm. mm.  '  -  166  simply a c o n t i n u a t i o n of one  l a t e r a l edge of the f l a k e ,  while  the other s i d e of the p r o j e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s a concave l i n e element (Figure 2 9 ) .  the blade to  There are only two  the asymmetric form, these are numbers 369  face) and  10644 (Zone A).  to  exceptions  (Figure h, Sur-  These t o o l s are symmetrical  with  the p r o j e c t i o n c o n t r a c t i n g d i s t a l l y along the l o n g a x i s of the  flake. As s t a t e d e a r l i e r ,  d i f f e r e n c e s i n wear p a t t e r n e x i s t  t o o l s of s i m i l a r form.  on  Three specimens w i t h i n t h i s subgroup  have wear which suggests a r o t a r y or d r i l l a c t i o n on the t i p of the pyle (numbers 3 6 9 , and  9590,  Zone A).  Surface;  12483, Backhoe Test P i t ;  p r o j e c t i o n on specimen number 9590 i s  The  extremely t h i n i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n and would not stand up w e l l on other than r e l a t i v e l y s o f t organic m a t e r i a l s or s o f t such as s t e a t i t e .  The  other two  p y l e s and appear capable Ten  stone  d r i l l s have r a t h e r s t o u t  of a h e a v i e r d r i l l i n g a p p l i c a t i o n .  specimens have wear which suggest a g r a v i n g a c t i o n .  Extremely s m a l l f l a k e s have been removed from the d o r s a l face of the p r o j e c t i o n , or g r a v i n g spur, the pressure spur.  The  presumably as a r e s u l t  of  of l i n e a r s c o r i n g on the v e n t r a l face of the  shape of the g r a v i n g edge i n most cases i s s t r a i g h t  ( p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the l o n g a x i s of the t o o l , There i s one  or o b l i q u e ) .  specimen, however, with a d i s t i n c t l y rounded  g r a v i n g spur (number 6816,  c; Zone A) which i s s i m i l a r to the  Group 2 gravers d e s c r i b e d by Sanger from s i t e s i n the LochnoreNesikep L o c a l i t y  (I97O1  82-84).  F i v e complete specimens and  three t i p fragments have  167  sharply pointed  ends.  The absence of r e a d i l y observable  wear  on the t i p s of these t o o l s suggests a p e r f o r a t i n g f u n c t i o n . Another p o s s i b l e use may not have i n v o l v e d the t i p of the p r o j e c t i o n but the s t e e p l y retouched concave p o r t i o n of the t o o l , between the t i p and the broad proximal tool.  p o r t i o n of the  T h i s c o n c a v i t y may have been used as a spoke shave.  Two of the p e r f o r a t o r s and s i x of the gravers have been b a s a l l y retouched and could be e a s i l y accommodated i n a handle. The  three d r i l l s a r e t h i c k and b l u n t on the b a s a l end suggest-  ing  hand h e l d use.  A list  of a t t r i b u t e s showing the v a r i a t i o n  w i t h i n the subgroups i s presented General Provenience:  i n Table  XXXV.  Zone A - 12 ( 1 d r i l l ,  9 gravers, 2  perforators) 3 t i p fragments ( p e r f o r a t o r s ) 2 b a s a l fragments Zone B - 0 Surface  - 2  (gravers)  1 b a s a l fragment 1 medial fragment Backhoe Test P i t - 5 ( 1 d r i l l , graver,  1  3 perforators)  1 b a s a l fragment Subgroup 2 :  Tools with a Narrow Blade Element  Number of Specimens: XXXVI, F i g u r e 2 9 , 1-q). General D e s c r i p t i o n :  4 complete, or n e a r l y so (Table 1 t i p fragment The t o o l s i n t h i s subgroup have a  blade p o r t i o n which i s narrower and t h i c k e r than those o f  168  TABLE XXXVI Formed Unifaces-With- Retouched P r o j e c t i o n s (Subgroup 2 s Narrow Blade Element) General Location  Artefact Number  Length, Width and Thickness (mm.)  Description  Zone A  3045  32 x 13  x  8  Based on a f l a k e of quartz. The shape of the t i p i s oblique to the long a x i s . Graver.  Zone A  7799  47  x  8  *Basal portion missing. E x t e n s i v e retouch over dorsal face. Facets on t i p p e r p e n d i c u l a r to l o n g a x i s of f l a k e . Graver.  Zone A  3445  T i p fragment  Small s c a r s on d o r s a l face of p r o j e c t i o n suggest g r a v i n g f u n c t i o n . Cryptocrystalline s i l i c a .  Zone B  8604  54 x 13  x  10  E x t e n s i v e retouch over dorsal face. Slight c o n s t r i c t i o n at proximal end. The t o o l i s based on a f a i r l y t h i c k c r y p t o crystalline s i l i c a flake. Wear on t i p suggests graving function.  Zone B  8703  40*x 15  x  7  * T i p missing. Projection c o n t r a c t s from a narrow blade element. Thick b a s a l or proximal end. Cryptocrystalline s i l i c a . Function undetermined.  x 15  169  S u b g r o u p 1.  The  retouch  over the  dorsal face.  examples  (numbers 3 0 4 5 ,  the  other  Zone A) not  two  are  flake  Basal  specimens  incomplete  i n evidence scars  on  on  suggest a graving a p p e a r t o be p r o d u c e d by  m,  thinning i s evident  Zone A and  the  proximal  of the  function.  n,  of the  but  extensive in  two  Zone B ) ,  tips  and  3445,  Zone A and  end.  These s m a l l  b u r i n type  drawing the  8640, p,  subgroup. of the  Small  projections  f l a k e s c a r s do  not  r a t h e r the  kind  o f wear  a surface  in a  linear  t i p against  1,  R o t a r y wear i s  tools in this  dorsal face  of the  e x a m p l e s i s more  (numbers 7 7 9 9 , on  any  the  i n two  fashion.  S u b g r o u p 3s  Bipointed  Number o f S p e c i m e n s : 29,  r-u), 1  Description:  diamond s h a p e d .  pointed, other,  one  and  The  p r o j e c t i o n t e n d s t o be  only  the  of a l l the  Flake  specimens.  while  f l a k e was  core,  process  form to the  w h i c h was The  on tool  recovered  on the  the  the  more p r o n o u n c e d  present  than  as  the  dorsal  appearance flakes  r a t h e r than r e s u l t i n g from These  t o o l s are  a flake d r i l l  by M i t c h e l l 97)•  K a t z sample, however, do n o t  have  p r o j e c t i o n but  a  similar  (1972:  f r o m Montague H a r b o u r I  t i p of the  small  retouch  over the  removal of previous  flake i t s e l f .  described  t o o l s i n the  r o t a r y wear on  subgroup are  T h e s e s c a r s have t h e the  in  Figure  u n i f a c e s a p p e a r t o be b i -  s c a r s are  b e e n p r o d u c e d by  shaping  XXXVII,  more p r o m i n e n t p r o j e c t i o n e x h i b i t s  of having the  (Table  tools in this  Although these  to a v a r y i n g degree. faces  4 complete  Tools  fragment  General and  o r Diamond S h a p e d  appear t o have  170  had  graving  o r p e r f o r a t i n g f u n c t i o n s which i s suggested by  the absence o f c r u s h i n g  on t h e edges o f t h e t i p . TABLE XXXVII  Subgroup 3» General Location Zone A  Diamond Shaped o r B i p o i n t e d  A r t e f a c t L e n g t h , Width and Number T h i c k n e s s (mm.) 93^6  26 x 17 x 6  Zone A  10570  23  x 14 x 5  Zone A  6018  29  x 20 x 7  Zone A  9080  Fragment  Zone A  10310  30  x 19 x 6  Tools  Description L a t e r a l retouch along one s i d e o f p r o j e c t i o n . No e v i d e n c e o f b a s a l t h i n n i n g . Made from cryptocrystalline s i l i c a . The t i p o f t h e p r o j e c t i o n i s e x t r e m e l y sharp suggesting a perforating function. Retouch l i m i t e d t o t h e v e n t r a l f a c e a l o n g one side of the p r o j e c t i o n . The b u l b o f p e r c u s s i o n i s evident a t a medial p o s i t i o n a l o n g one l a t e r a l edge. Both t i p s are sharp and p o i n t e d suggesting a p e r f o r a t i n g r a t h e r than a d r i l l i n g or graving f u n c t i o n . The t i p o f t h e p r o j e c t i o n on t h i s t o o l i s snapped o f f p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o the l o n g a x i s o f the f l a k e . T h i s may be breakage r e s u l t i n g from a d r i l l i n g or graving action. Material i s basalt. S i m i l a r form t o o t h e r Subgroup 3 specimens. P r o j e c t i o n appears t o have wear from g r a v i n g . A s m a l l f l a k e s c a r extends from t h e s t r a i g h t t i p along the d o r s a l f a c e o f t h e s p u r . Very s l i g h t retouch along the l a t e r a l edge o f the s p u r on t h e d o r s a l f a c e .  171  Group 6s  U n i f a c e s With Continuous M a r g i n a l Retouch  Number of Specimenss  4 (Table XXXVIII, F i g u r e 3 0 ,  General D e s c r i p t i o n s  These t o o l s are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by con-  tinuous m a r g i n a l retouch on quadrangular f l a k e s .  a-d)  The angle  of retouch i s s t e e p e r on the ends s u g g e s t i n g use as endscrapers.  The a c u t e l y retouched l a t e r a l edges may a l s o have  had a s c r a p i n g or c u t t i n g f u n c t i o n , so the p o s s i b i l i t y as a multipurpose t o o l cannot be d i s c o u n t e d .  of use  Specimen number  9418 (Zone A) may have been used as a s c r a p e r i n i t s present form or may be a t a stage i n manufacture j u d g i n g from the heavy i r r e g u l a r p e r c u s s i o n f l a k i n g on the d o r s a l f a c e . u n i f a c e s c o u l d have been hand h e l d or h a f t e d .  These  A l l four  specimens are from Zone A. Group 7s  B l a d e - L i k e U n i f a c e s With L a t e r a l Retouch  Number of Specimenss  25 (Table XXXIX, F i g u r e 3 0 , c-r)  General D e s c r i p t i o n s  These t o o l s are based almost e x c l u s i v e l y  on b l a d e - l i k e f l a k e s of c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e s i l i c a . tion  (number 7725s Zone A) i s of b a s a l t .  f i n e d to one or both l a t e r a l edges. various outliness (numbers  One  excep-  The retouch i s con-  These l a t e r a l edges have  convex, s l i g h t l y concave and concave-convex  12075 and 1 2 4 7 2 ,  Backhoe Test P i t ) .  These t o o l s  may  have been used as s i d e s c r a p e r s or shaving t o o l s on organic materials.  The edge angles are g e n e r a l l y acute, between 20  and 40 degrees.  Two  specimens of f a i r l y t h i c k f l a k e s have  steeper edge angles i n the 50 to 60 degree range 6996 and 7 6 5 9 ,  Zone A ) .  (numbers  172  TABLE XXXVIII  General Location  U n i f a c e s With Continuous M a r g i n a l  Retouch  Artefact Number  Description  Length, Width and Thickness (mm.)  Zone A  8732  35 x 22 x  5  Based on a subrectangul a r f l a k e of b a s a l t . The ends have edge angles o f 60 and 8 5 degrees. The s i d e s , 70 degrees. The edges are a l l s l i g h t l y convex.  Zone A  9612  47 x 2 1 x  7  A cryptocrystalline s i l i c a f l a k e more e l o n gate than the other specimens. The extreme curve o f the f l a k e does n o t permit an e a s i l y determinable edge a n g l e . Some e v i dence o f c r u s h i n g or wear on the v e n t r a l f a c e a l o n g both l a t e r a l edges.  Zone A  9418  41 x 22 x  9  B a s a l t f l a k e , quadrang u l a r i n form. Some c o r t e x remaining on the dorsal face. Edges s l i g h t l y s e r r a t e d from heavy p e r c u s s i o n f l a k i n g . Edge a n g l e s between 40 and 50 degrees, more acute than other specimens.  Zone A  9099  46 x 30 x 10  A cryptocrystalline f l a k e , k e e l shaped i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n . Edge angle on one end extremely steep a t 90 degrees, angle on l a t e r a l edges near 4 5 degrees. Presumably a hand h e l d t o o l .  TABLE XXXIX Group 7s  Blade L i k e U n i f a c e s With L a t e r a l Retouch  General Location Artefact Number  1 0 1 7 8 * 6996  7659  8027  37  32  35  26  23  28  24  22  18  20  18  15  5  5  8  6  3  3  X  X  9766  7726  10403  Length  40  3?  37  Width  24  22  5  4  Thickness Retouch one s i d e Retouch Two S i d e s Edge Angle  X  X  35°  40°  * Incomplete Specimen  X  X  40°  40°  50°  60°  8714*  7724  7807  7704  8580  22  29  30  23  15  16  18  20  21  3  3  3  3  3  7115*  X  X  X  X  X  15°  20°  30°  40°  X  X  —  15°  TABLE XXXIX (Continued) General Location Artefact Number  Surface 1000*  356  1006  1008*  Backhoe Test P i t 1011  5005  618  12075  12137  12290  12472*  Length  35  41  29  33  32  33  28  34  33  27  31  Width  23  21  23  29  23  23  15  26  27  18  20  Thickness  4  3  4  2  2  6  3  4  5  3  3  Retouch One S i d e  X  Retouch Two S i d e s Edge Angle  35°  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  40°  20°  20°  20°  35°  20°  40°  Incomplete Specimen Range i n Length - 26-41 Range i n Width - 15-29 Range i n Thickness - 3 - 8  mm. mm. mm.  X  X  15°  15°  40°  175  General Provenience:  Zone A -  13  Zone B - 0 Surface - 7 Backhoe T e s t P i t - 4 Group 8 :  B i l a t e r a l l y Retouched Macroblades  Number of Specimens:  2 (Table XL,  Figure 3 0 ,  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  These u n i f a c e s are s i m i l a r i n form to  s-t)  the specimen d e s c r i b e d by Sanger from Zone I I I i n the Lochnore Creek S i t e EdRk:7 ( 1 9 7 0 :  79).  Specimen number 5189  from the  d i s t u r b e d s u r f a c e a t Katz l a c k s the proximal, or b u l b a r  end  of the blade, the other t o o l e x h i b i t s b a t t e r i n g on the b u l b a r end c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of macroblade core p r e p a r a t i o n 1970:  84-85).  (Sanger,  A r t e f a c t number 7790 (Zone A) i s m i s s i n g the  d i s t a l end so measurements are based on incomplete Group 9 :  tools.  T h i n T r i a n g u l a r U n i f a c e s With S t r a i g h t Edges  Number of Specimens:  2 (Table XLI, F i g u r e 3 0 ,  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  Both specimens are based on  f l a k e s of c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e s i l i c a . and m a r g i n a l l y retouched. acute, l e s s than 20 Group 1 0 :  The  The  edges are  edge angles are  thin straight  extremely  degrees.  Crescent Shaped U n i f a c e s  Number of Specimens:  4 (Table XLII, F i g u r e 3 ,  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  These t o o l s have one  edge and one  u-k)  convex l a t e r a l edge.  a-d)  concave l a t e r a l  In three of the f o u r  specimens both edges are u n i f a c i a l l y retouched. number 8203 from Zone A i s retouched  Specimen  along the convex edge  176  TABLE XL Bilaterally General Location  Artefact Number  Retouched  Macro-blades  Length, Width and Thickness (mm.)  Description  Surface  5169 46 x 15 x 5 ( m i s s i n g proximal end)  Cryptocrystalline silica. Keel-shaped o r piano-triangular i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n . Some l i m i t e d l a t e r a l retouch on the v e n t r a l f a c e as w e l l as e x t e n s i v e marg i n a l retouch a l o n g the l a t e r a l edges on the d o r s a l f a c e . Edge angle approximately 40 degrees.  Zone A  7790 48 x 13 x 4 ( d i s t a l end missing)  Cryptocrystalline s i l i c a . Also p i a n o - t r i a n g u l a r i n cross-section. Batteri n g on the b u l b a r or proximal end o f the blade. Retouch continuous on both l a t e r a l edges. Edge angle between 50-60 degrees.  TABLE XLI T h i n T r i a n g u l a r U n i f a c e s With S t r a i g h t Edges General Location  Artefact Number  Length, Width and Thickness (mm.)  Backhoe Test P i t  12104  33 x 27 x 3  S t r a i g h t retouched edges converge t o a p o i n t . One c o r n e r broken. No basal thinning evident but t o o l i s t h i n enough for hafting.  Backhoe Test P i t  13379  37 x 20 x 3  S t r a i g h t retouched edges converge t o a p o i n t . One corner a l s o m i s s i n g i n t h i s specimen.  Description  177  only.  The two t o o l s recovered  m i s s i n g the d i s t a l or t i p end. approximately  from the Backhoe Test P i t are The proximal  or b a s a l end i s  s t r a i g h t i n a l l cases. TABLE XLII Crescent  General Location  Shaped  Unifaces  Artefact Number  Length, Width and Thickness (mm.)  Zone A  8203  45 x 29 x 7  The t o o l i s based on a basalt flake. The r e touch i s a l o n g the convex s i d e o n l y .  Zone A  9^36  31  Basalt flake. Retouch a l o n g both l a t e r a l edges. No t h i n n i n g on proximal end.  Backhoe Test P i t  Backhoe Test P i t  x 21 x 4  Description  12553 3 4 x 22 x 6 ( t i p missing)  B a s a l t . Some c o r t e x on dorsal face. Although retouch i s present on both l a t e r a l edges i t i s more prominent on the concave edge.  13252 23 x.18 x 4 ( t i p missing)  Cryptocrystalline s i l i c a . Retouch a l o n g both l a t e r a l edges.  Miscellaneous  Formed U n i f a c e s  (Table X L I I I , F i g u r e 3 1 , e - i )  There are a number of formed u n i f a c e s from the Katz which are s u f f i c i e n t l y ple  site  u n l i k e any other specimens i n the sam-  t h a t they r e q u i r e i n d i v i d u a l d e s c r i p t i o n .  TABLE XLIII Miscellaneous General Location  Artefact Number  Length, Width and Thickness (mm.)  Formed U n i f a c e s Description  Zone A  6462  38  x 20  x 8  T h i s t o o l i s based on a f a i r l y t h i c k f l a k e of cryptocrystalline s i l i c a . I t i s c r e s c e n t shaped with one convex and one concave l a t e r a l edge. One end i s n e a r l y s t r a i g h t and the other i s pointed as a r e s u l t of the convergence of the l a t e r a l edges. The s t r a i g h t end has e x t e n s i v e retouch on the v e n t r a l f a c e of the t o o l with l i m i t e d retouch on the d o r s a l f a c e . The l a t e r a l edges are s t e e p l y retouched, and the t o o l i s t h i c k e s t at the p o i n t e d end. The broad s t r a i g h t end could f u n c t i o n as a s c r a p i n g edge. The pointed end could have been used as a g r a v i n g spur.  Zone A  6133  21  x 21  x 6  A wedge shaped f l a k e of c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e s i l i c a . The t h i c k end has remnants of c o r t e x and the f a c e s converge i n a u n i f a c i a l l y retouched b e v e l . The working edge i s s t r a i g h t . See F i g u r e 31.  Surface  1014  35  x 34  x 5  T h i s u n i f a c e i s a r e c t a n g u l a r f l a k e of c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e s i l i c a with three retouched concave sides. Two of the pronounced corners of the f l a k e show use from a g r a v i n g a c t i o n . T h i s specimen i s s i m i l a r to the t o o l d e s c r i b e d by Sanger i n h i s Group 1 Gravers (1970s 8 4 ) .  12294  42  x 29 x 6  Backhoe Test P i t  T h i s t o o l i s an end s c r a p e r with a c o n t r a c t i n g stem. There i s steep retouch on the widest end of the f l a k e (8O-90 d e g r e e s ) . The working edge i s convex. The l a t e r a l edges c o n s t r i c t s l i g h t l y near the mid p o r t i o n and c o n t r a c t to a convex  TABLE XLIII General Location  Artefact Number  Length, Width and Thickness (mm.)  (Continued) Description  or rounded base. T h i s t o o l c o u l d have been hand h e l d or h a f t e d . See F i g u r e 31. Backhoe Test P i t  12^71  45 x 14 x 5  it  H  T h i s t o o l i s based on a "boot shaped' f l a k e of b a s a l t . See F i g u r e . The retouch extends along both s i d e s , but i s more e v i d e n t on the convex s i d e .  180  Unformed U n i f a c e s T h i s c l a s s i n c l u d e s u n i f a c i a l l y retouched f l a k e s which have an e s t a b l i s h e d provenience i n Zones A and B, and appear to l a c k evidence of d e l i b e r a t e shaping.  They are assumed to  f u n c t i o n as c u t t i n g and s c r a p i n g t o o l s .  There are 101 s p e c i -  mens from Zone A and 23 from Zone B.  An examination was  c a r r i e d out i n terms of the f o l l o w i n g a t t r i b u t e s :  length,  width and t h i c k n e s s , the l e n g t h o f the working edge, and the angle o f the working edge.  The edge angle estimate was made  by p l a c i n g the f l a k e on p o l a r c o o r d i n a t e graph paper.  Of the  101 u n i f a c e s i n the Zone A sample, an edge angle i s p r o v i d e d f o r only 80 specimens.  It i s difficult  to read the angle on  the graph paper f o r specimens with concave and downcuring edges and where the edge angle v a r i e s i n acuteness a l o n g i t s extent. TABLE XLIV Unformed U n i f a c e s :  Zone A  Number  Range (mm.)  Mean (mm.)  Length  92  25 -80  47.0  Width  92  15 - 7 3  33.0  Thickness  92  5 -28  9.8  Length of Retouched Edge  71  9 -68  30.4  Edge Angle  80  15°-90°  44.0°  181  TABLE XLV Unformed U n i f a c e s :  Zone B Range (mm.)  Number  Mean (mm.')  Length  20  32  -95  50.0  Width  20  21  -48  33.0  Thickness  20  4  -16  9.3  Length of Retouched Edge  19  12  -60  28.4  Edge Angle  20  15°-&5°  42.0°  These t o o l s were a l s o grouped a c c o r d i n g to the shape of the working edge i n r e l a t i o n to the l o n g a x i s of thes f l a k e . T h i s method  was employed by Sanger ( 1 9 7 0 : 80-81) i n the  a n a l y s i s of s i m i l a r t o o l s from the Lochnore-Nesikep The r e s u l t s of these groupings and XLVII.  locality.  are presented i n Tables XLVI  The problem with the k i n d of a n a l y s i s presented  i n t h i s paper i s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l a t t r i b u t e s are examined s e p a r a t e l y and p o s s i b l e c o v a r i a n c e of s e v e r a l a t t r i b u t e s i s not r e a d i l y d e t e c t a b l e .  A s a t i s f a c t o r y a n a l y s i s of these  t o o l s , a l o n g with the c o r t e x s p a l l t o o l s , may  require a  m u l t i v a r i a t e technique which can c o n s i d e r a number of a t t r i butes s i m u l t a n e o u s l y over a l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n of t o o l s . The  samples from Zones A and B look very s i m i l a r when  compared a t t h i s l e v e l of a n a l y s i s . XLVII,  In Table XLVI and  Table  the p o s i t i o n of the working edge i n r e l a t i o n to the  l o n g a x i s of the f l a k e i s compared with the shape of the edge. The  terms are d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s :  l a t e r a l edges r e f e r to the  TABLE XLVI P o s i t i o n and Shape of Edge on Unformed U n i f a c e s :  Concave Retouch A l o n g A Single Lateral Edge  9  Retouch A l o n g A Single T r a n s v e r s e Edge  Straight  Shape of the Edge uonvex- uoncave Convex Convex Convex  Zone A  uoncaveStraight  Reversed Retouch  Totals  15  19  43  11  17  32  26  36  85  Continuous Retouch Along More Than One Edge Non-continuous Retouch A l o n g More Than One Edge Reversed Retouch On Opposite Surfaces Totals  13  M i s c e l l a n e o u s - 16  TABLE XLVII P o s i t i o n and Shape of Edge on Unformed U n i f a c e s ;  Zone B  Shape of the Edge Concave Retouch A l o n g A Single Lateral Edge  2  Retouch Along A Single Transverse Edge  Straight  Convex  6  7  2  1  ConcaveConvex  ConcaveConcave  Totals  1  16  iCD 1  Continuous Retouch Along More Than One Edge  0  Non-Continuous Retouch Along More Than One Edge  0  Reversed Retouch  0  Totals  2  8  8  1  0 Miscellaneous -  19 4 23  184  l o n g edges of the f l a k e , the t r a n s v e r s e edges are the s h o r t e r ones (Sanger,  1970:  80-81).  Continuous  than one edge and non-continuous  retouch a l o n g more  retouch a l o n g more than  edge are s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y terms.  Reversed  one  retouch on opposite  f a c e s , sometimes r e f e r r e d to as a l t e r n a t e - o p p o s i t e retouch also occurs.  Tables XLVI and XLVII i n d i c a t e t h a t , i n Zones  A and B, the u t i l i z e d edge i s most o f t e n the l o n g l a t e r a l edge, and convex and s t r a i g h t edges are the most frequent edge shapes. Quartz  Industry  A r t e f a c t s made of quartz have been mentioned i n s e v e r a l s e c t i o n s d e s c r i b e d thus f a r . Groups 3 ,  Quartz  t o o l s are i n c l u d e d i n  5 and 7 of the formed u n i f a c e category and among  the p i e c e s e s q u i l l e e s .  Besides these t o o l s , a few quartz cores,  a l a r g e number of quartz c r y s t a l s , and q u a n t i t i e s of d e t r i t u s have been recovered from the Katz s i t e .  A cursory  of the t i p s of the quartz c r y s t a l s through scope has r e v e a l e d evidence  Microscopic analysis  of the k i n d c a r r i e d out by Semenov ( 1 9 6 4 ) ,  f o r these t o o l s .  i s needed to determine  Nance (1970s  1971)  possible functions  Some of the quartz c r y s t a l s show evidence  of b a t t e r i n g on one end, which may e s q u i l l e e s (Macdonald, 1 9 6 8 : hardness  a b i n o c u l a r micro-  of wear on some of these specimens  i n the form of c r u s h i n g and s t r i a t i o n s .  and Wilmsen ( 1 9 6 8 )  examination  i n d i c a t e use as p i e c e s  85-90).  Undoubtedly the extreme  of t h i s m i n e r a l with the a t t r i b u t e of r e t a i n i n g a  sharp edge made i t a p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t a b l e m a t e r i a l f o r many  185  functions.  The number of specimens recovered from the v a r i o u s  areas of the s i t e i s presented  below (see a l s o F i g u r e  Zone A - 1 l a r g e and s e v e r a l s m a l l quartz 23 quartz 102  cores  crystals  c r y s t a l fragments and quartz  chips  Zone B - 3 c r y s t a l fragments and quartz  chips  Surface - 2 s m a l l quartz 5 quartz  34).  cores  crystals  9 c r y s t a l fragments and quartz  chips  Backhoe Test P i t - 10 c r y s t a l fragments and quartz  chips  Stone Wedges ( P i e c e s Esquille'es) (Figure 3 3 ,  Number of Specimens:  26  a-o,  and Table XLVIII)  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  These t o o l s are based on chunky  f l a k e s , g e n e r a l l y r e c t a n g u l a r i n form, and are d i s t i n g u i s h e d by the presence of b i p o l a r f l a k i n g .  The  bipolar flaking i s  presumably the r e s u l t of use as d i v i d i n g wedges i n the groove and s p l i n t e r technique  i n the working of bone, a n t l e r , i v o r y ,  and wood ( C l a r k and Thompson, 1 9 5 3 : 86-90) noted  the presence of these  assemblage and  (19681  have f u n c t i o n e d i n a  i n Old World a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  A s m a l l sample of b i p o l a r f l a k e d t o o l s were recovered  by Sanger ( 1 9 7 0 : 84) locality. ".  Macdonald  t o o l s i n the Debert S i t e  s p e c u l a t e d t h a t they may  s i m i l a r f a s h i o n to t o o l s recovered sites.  150).  He  from s i t e s i n the Lochnore-Nesikep  suggested  the Lochnore-Nesikep t o o l s were not  . . f u n c t i o n a l l y e q u i v a l e n t to the e a s t e r n specimens"  d e s c r i b e d by Macdonald, but were probably or d e t r i t u s of the g e n e r a l c h i p p i n g  a ".  technique."  . . by-product  186  At the Katz s i t e b i p o l a r f l a k e d a r t e f a c t s have been recovered  from Zones A and B,  Backhoe T e s t P i t .  the d i s t u r b e d s u r f a c e and  a  Some specimens have a p l a t f o r m on one  which e x h i b i t s b a t t e r i n g .  Other t o o l s are more  edge  symmetrical  i n l o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n with opposite ends e x h i b i t i n g  identi-  c a l wear i n the form of small b a t t e r i n g s p a l l s removed from both f a c e s .  There has been no attempt i n t h i s study to group  the specimens on the b a s i s of form.  Macdonald ( 1 9 6 8 : 86)  observed: P i e c e s esquille'es (or ecaille'es) d i f f e r from most concepts of a t o o l , s i n c e there i s no stage a t which they can be c o n s i d e r e d f i n i s h e d . They are i n i t i a l l y s h o r t s p a l l s or b l o c k y fragments, which r a p i d l y d i s i n t e g r a t e through use u n t i l they reach a s i z e t h a t i s d i f f i c u l t to h o l d , a t which time they are d i s c a r d e d . Consequently there are no intermediate steps of t o o l manufacture, and attempts to break them down i n t o types l e a d to c r i t e r i a which r e f l e c t only stages of exhaustion. M e t r i c data, and i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g m a t e r i a l and g e n e r a l provenience  i s p r o v i d e d f o r t h i s sample i n Table  XLVIII. Cortex S p a l l  Tools  Numerically  the dominant a r t e f a c t i n the Katz assemblage  i s the t o o l r e f e r r e d to by v a r i o u s authors as the spall,  cortex flake,  Coulson,  or c o r t e x s p a l l t o o l  19715 M i t c h e l l ,  1971)•  f l a k e s s t r u c k from r i v e r pebbles  (Borden, 1968,  These t o o l s are  The  1969;  primary  or cobbles of metamorphic  and igneous m a t e r i a l by a hammerstone or a n v i l technique.  boulder-  percussion  d o r s a l or c o r t i c a l face of the f l a k e converges  with the b u l b a r or v e n t r a l face to form a l o n g t h i n c u t t i n g  187  TABLE XLVIII P i e c e s Esquille'es General Location Zone A  A r t e f a c t Length, Width and Number Thickness (mm.) Basalt 7423 6092 9410 6457 6964 8088 6966 8534 7757 7733 8162 6773 8506 8406  X  9385 7377  68 51 34 45 40 34 40 32 23 63 44 24 25 23 21 15 19  9212 9755 10016 6724  21 27 29 23  X  Surface  552  Backhoe  12740 12861 12988 13196  7767  Zone B  X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X  56 45 28 23 24 21 37 26 20 29 24 18 23 23 15 10 12  28 18 14 9 12 12 14 8 10 17 13 11 5 10 6 6 6  X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X  Quartz  X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X  X  X  16 24 21 12  X  18 10 8 12  24  X  12  X  8  X  26 20 21 21  X  21 15 16 12  X  10 12 8 6  X X  X X  X X X  X X  X X X  Range i n Length  - 1 5 - 6 8 mm.  Range i n Width  - 1 0 - 5 6 mm.  Range i n T h i c k n e s s  -  Number of b a s a l t specimens  - 10  Number of quartz specimens  - 11  Number of other s i l i c a t e s  -  5-28 mm.  5  Other Silicates  X X X X  X  X  188  edge.  The opposite edge i s g e n e r a l l y t h i c k and t h e r e f o r e  suitable f o r grasping. Over one thousand specimens were r e c o v e r e d from the d i s t u r b e d s u r f a c e of the s i t e , and a s i m i l a r number from three backhoe t e s t p i t s excavated i n the F a l l o f 1 9 7 0 .  The  a n a l y s i s i n t h i s r e p o r t i n c l u d e s only the sample of c o r t e x s p a l l t o o l s with e s t a b l i s h e d provenience i n zones A and B excavated i n the Summer of 1971. The sample a s s i g n e d t o Zone A c o n s i s t s of 7 0 1 complete t o o l s and 146 fragments, which comprise 3 1 $ of the t o t a l Zone A assemblage.  The specimens r e c o v e r e d from Zone B num-  ber 124 complete t o o l s and 21 fragments, 3 3 $ of the t o t a l Zone B assemblage. A f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s of c o r t e x s p a l l t o o l s i s n o t an easy task d e s p i t e the r e l a t i v e s i m p l i c i t y of the t o o l s i n terms of d i s c r e t e and continuous a t t r i b u t e s . work has been l a i d by other r e s e a r c h e r s .  Little  ground-  Sanger (1970: 88-  89) grouped the c o r t e x s p a l l t o o l s r e c o v e r e d from the Lochnore Nesikep l o c a l i t y on the b a s i s of the amount of c o r t e x remaini n g on the d o r s a l s u r f a c e o f the t o o l s .  No mention was made  of form or a r t i f i c i a l m o d i f i c a t i o n of the t o o l s i n the sample. A major attempt to analyze c o r t e x s p a l l t o o l s was made by Coulson (1971: 17-26) on a c o l l e c t i o n of t o o l s r e c o v e r e d from the v i c i n i t y of L i l l o o e t , B.C. In Coulson's study the t o o l s were grouped on the b a s i s of the p o s i t i o n of the bulb of p e r c u s s i o n i n r e l a t i o n to the maximum width of the s p a l l .  I f the a x i s of p e r c u s s i o n was  189  p a r a l l e l with the a x i s of maximum length, grouped as "end struck." perpendicular  A t o o l with an a x i s of p e r c u s s i o n  to the a x i s of maximum l e n g t h was grouped as  " s i d e struck." two  the s p a l l was  "Corner struck"  t o o l s were v a r i a n t s of these  groups, and "round" t o o l s had a length  erence of l e s s than one c e n t i m e t e r . c l a s s e s of wear/retouchs  diff-  Coulson a l s o d e f i n e d  use chipping,  p o l i s h , n i b b l i n g , and r e t o u c h .  and width  use p o l i s h ,  five  extensive  She a l s o noted the p o s i t i o n  of wear/retouch i n r e l a t i o n to the bulb of p e r c u s s i o n . The  present a n a l y s i s w i l l be concerned with some o f the  observations  made by Coulson.  f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s of cortex  A completely s a t i s f a c t o r y s p a l l t o o l s , however, may r e -  q u i r e use of a m u l t i v a r i a t e technique capable o f c o n s i d e r i n g a l a r g e number of v a r i a b l e s over a l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n  of t o o l s .  Such a study i s not, attempted i n t h i s r e p o r t . Cortex S p a l l Cores An important q u e s t i o n  concerning cortex  spall tools i s  to what extent the form of the s p a l l t o o l may be determined by the method of detachment from the core.  This  question  r e l a t e s to assumptions which are made i n grouping the t o o l s as "end struck,"  " s i d e struck,"  e t c . , and q u e s t i o n s o f the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between these groupings and f u n c t i o n a l a t t r i b u t e s such as p o l i s h , b a t t e r i n g , e t c .  That i s to say,  has an  attempt been made by the a r t i s a n t o c r e a t e a d e s i r e d form of t o o l by a p p l y i n g  percussion  cobble of s u i t a b l e  material?  on the side or end of a r i v e r  190  In Coulson's study was  ( 1 9 2 1 : 2 2 ) only one c o r t e x s p a l l  core  a v a i l a b l e so no mention of manufacture other than t h a t  based on i n f e r e n c e was p o s s i b l e .  I n the Katz assemblage, 18  c o r t e x s p a l l cores were recovered  from Zone A, seven from  Zone B and f o u r from the d i s t u r b e d s u r f a c e . v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y  These cores  to make some statements on c o r t e x  pro-  spall  manufacture, not p o s s i b l e by o b s e r v i n g only the t o o l s themselves.  The cores i n each zone are d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y below.  Cortex S p a l l Cores (Zone A) Number o f Specimens:  18 ( F i g u r e s 36 and 3 7 )  General  The cores are based on r i v e r  Description:  cobbles  and pebbles of metamorphic and igneous m a t e r i a l , and range i n maximum l e n g t h from 13 t o 40 c e n t i m e t e r s . Some specimens (notably, number 3483) have up t o s i x s p a l l s c a r s i n evidence. elongate  One i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n i s t h a t an  r i v e r cobble  does not n e c e s s a r i l y produce a c o r t e x  s p a l l which would be grouped as end s t r u c k .  I n f a c t , of  seven cores e x h i b i t i n g a t o t a l of eleven f l a k e s c a r s a l l r e s u l t i n g from p e r c u s s i o n on the end of the pebble,  n o t one  s p a l l t o o l would be grouped as end s t r u c k , u s i n g Coulson's definition.  The s p a l l s c a r s i n a l l i n s t a n c e s would be des-  c r i b e d as s i d e or corner s t r u c k u s i n g the c r i t e r i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the a x i s of p e r c u s s i o n and the maximum l e n g t h of the s p a l l .  F i g u r e 36 shows s e v e r a l of the end  s t r u c k cobbles and the shape o f the s p a l l removed.  The  c a t e g o r i e s "end," " s i d e , " and " c o r n e r s t r u c k " s p a l l s a r e d e s c r i p t i v e of the form of the f l a k e , but do not n e c e s s a r i l y  191  denote the method by which the f l a k e was detached. The repeated f l a k i n g of a core i n t r o d u c e s another f a c t o r which determines the form of the s p a l l s .  I n s e v e r a l examples  from Zone A (numbers 9127, 8177, 8473, 3 2 5 5 ,  and 3483) there  i s evidence t h a t the shape o f the t o o l i s determined i n p a r t by the way the s p a l l hinges i n r e l a t i o n to the s c a r s of the p r e v i o u s l y removed s p a l l s . Specimen number 3^83 has a s e r i e s of three s p a l l s :  one  i s s t r u c k from one f a c e , two from the o p p o s i t e face of the pebble, and one from the end.  The r o t a t i o n of the core f o r  f l a k i n g suggests a randomness i n the p r o d u c t i o n with a s e l e c t i o n process f o r those most s u i t a b l e s i m i l a r t o the knapping of stone f o r the manufacture  of o t h e r t o o l s .  Eight  of the cores might have f u n c t i o n e d as t o o l s i n themselves. One might argue t h a t the way i n which the s p a l l i s detached from the core i s i r r e l e v a n t and that elongate "end struck"  s p a l l s , whether produced f o r t u i t o u s l y or d e l i b e r a t e l y ,  may f u n c t i o n d i f f e r e n t l y .  The remaining d i s c u s s i o n addresses  i t s e l f to t h i s q u e s t i o n . Cortex S p a l l T o o l s (Zone A) Number o f Specimens: The f i r s t  685 complete  t o o l s , 146 fragments  s t e p taken i n the a n a l y s i s was an examination  of the maximum l e n g t h d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r the e n t i r e  sample.  The r e s u l t s are presented i n Table IXL. The specimens  appear  to be n o r m a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d i n terms of maximum l e n g t h and without bimodal d i s t r i b u t i o n or other c l u s t e r i n g s t h a t might be r e l a t e d t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n f u n c t i o n .  192  The sample was retouch.  then d i v i d e d on the b a s i s of wear and  A l l specimens e x h i b i t i n g secondary f l a k i n g or r e -  touch were grouped and  examined.  Cortex S p a l l s S e c o n d a r i l y Flaked Number of Specimens:  (Zone A)  129  Approximately twenty per cent of the e n t i r e sample Zone A e x h i b i t e d secondary f l a k i n g to some degree.  from  An attempt  was made to determine whether maximum l e n g t h was r e l a t e d to the presence of secondary f l a k i n g .  I t was  found that the s i z e  d i s t r i b u t i o n of the s e c o n d a r i l y f l a k e d t o o l s c l o s e l y resembled the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the sample as a whole, r a n g i n g from f i v e to e i g h t e e n c e n t i m e t e r s .  See Table L.  The specimens i n t h i s sample were then coded f o r the p o s i t i o n of the bulb of p e r c u s s i o n i n r e l a t i o n to the a x i s of maximum width, a method o u t l i n e d by Coulson ( 1 9 7 1 ) . 112  Of the  specimens with an e a s i l y r e c o g n i z a b l e bulb of p e r c u s s i o n ,  44 appeared to be end s t r u c k , 44 s i d e s t r u c k , 11 and 13 round.  corner struck  The p o s i t i o n of the working edge(s) i n r e l a t i o n  to bulb of p e r c u s s i o n was noted f o r each of the 112  tools.  Secondary f l a k i n g as shown i n F i g u r e 38 appears over the f u l l l e n g t h range of s p a l l s .  T h i s r e t o u c h i n g may  simply be  a r e s h a r p e n i n g f o r c o n t i n u e d use i n the same f u n c t i o n as the unsharpened t o o l s , or the steepened edge angle may  put the  s p a l l i n t o a d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n a l category as a s c r a p i n g or chopping t o o l . The remaining c o r t e x s p a l l s from Zone A were a s s i g n e d to the f o l l o w i n g f i v e groupings on the b a s i s of the working  edge:  193  1.  Tools with a worn c o n c a v i t y on the working edge (Spoke shaves?)  2.  Tools with p o l i s h e d edges U- or V-shaped i n c r o s s section  3.  (Saws?)  Tools with b a t t e r e d edges, small c h i p s removed from the d o r s a l , v e n t r a l or both  4.  faces.  Tools with use wear i n the form of a b r a s i o n on  the  working edge (Knives or s c r a p i n g t o o l s ? ) 5.  Tools without  observable  wear  Of the 46 specimens grouped as end s t r u c k , only t h i r t e e n have a working edge on the narrow end of the f l a k e , the bulb of p e r c u s s i o n .  The  remaining  opposite  t h i r t y - o n e specimens  a l l have at l e a s t one working edge s u b p a r a l l e l to the l o n g a x i s of the f l a k e .  Of the 42 specimens grouped as s i d e s t r u c k ,  e i g h t are s e c o n d a r i l y f l a k e d on one narrow end s u b p a r a l l e l to the a x i s of p e r c u s s i o n .  The  of the  remaining  flake, 35 have  a working edge a l o n g the l o n g t h i n edge opposite the a x i s of percussion.  The  i n f o r m a t i o n i n c l u d e d i n Table LI seems to  i n d i c a t e t h a t the p o s i t i o n of the working edge i s not  necess-  a r i l y determined by the p o s i t i o n of the bulb of p e r c u s s i o n and  i t s r e l a t i o n to the l o n g a x i s of the s p a l l .  I t appears  t h a t a l l edges other than the t h i c k b u l b a r p o r t i o n are potentially utilizable.  The  advantage of an "end  t o o l i n some i n s t a n c e s i s t h a t two are s u i t a b l e f o r use.  struck"  spall  l o n g s i d e s of the  flake  TABLE IXL Maximum Length  Number o f Spalls  Number o f  Spalls-  4-5 3 14-15 10  5-6  6-7  26  70  15-16  16-17  of Cortex S p a l l s  (Zone A)  Length (Centimeters) 7-8 8-9 9-10 10-11 95  111  119  93  Length (Centimeters) 17-18 18-19 19-20 20-21  11  0  0  11-12 67 21-22  12-13 41  13-14 24  22-23  0  N - 6 8 5 Specimens TABLE L Maximum Length of S e c o n d a r i l y Flaked Cortex S p a l l s  Number of Spalls  Number o f Spalls  4_ 5  5- 6  8  0 14-15  N - 129 Specimens  6-7  15-16  16-17  Length (Centimeters) 7-8 8-9 9-10 10-11 14  19  23  26  Length (Centimeters) 17-18 18-19 19-20 20-21 0  0  0  (Zone A) 11-12 17  12-13  13-14  195  F i g u r e 35 Schematic Drawing Showing Cortex S p a l l A t t r i b u t e s P o s i t i o n of the Bulb of P e r c u s s i o n  End S t r u c k  Side S t r u c k  Corner S t r u c k  Circular  P o s i t i o n of the Working Edge i n R e l a t i o n to Bulb of P e r c u s s i o n (Side Struck)  O  •\r  Opposite  V  CD  4r  <CJ  Subparallel  Subparallel  (One end)  (Two ends)  4,  <^> Opposite-Subparallel (One side-one  end)  TABLE LI P o s i t i o n of the Working Edge of S e c o n d a r i l y F l a k e d S p a l l s , Zone A  Subparallel (Two s i d e s )  Opposite & Subparallel (One s i d e )  Opposite & Subparallel (Two s i d e s )  Opposite  Subparallel (One s i d e )  End Struck  13  13  12  6  0  44  Side Struck  34  8  0  1  1  44  Corner Struck  8  1  0  1  1  11  Round  9  1  1  2  0  13  N - 110 Specimens  Total  197  C o r t e x S p a l l Spoke Shaves Number o f S p e c i m e n s :  25 ( F i g u r e  39)  General Description:  These specimens a r e i d e n t i c a l i n f o r m  t o t h e o t h e r s p a l l s i n t h e s a m p l e e x c e p t f o r one o r two w e l l worn c o n c a v i t i e s a l o n g t h e w o r k i n g edge.  I n most c a s e s t h e  w e a r i s on t h e d o r s a l f a c e  These t o o l s may  of the s p a l l .  have s e r v e d a s b o t h c u t t i n g t o o l s and spoke  shaves.  C o r t e x S p a l l Saws Number o f S p e c i m e n s : 3 ( F i g u r e s General Description: shape w i t h  40 a n d 4 4 )  These t h r e e  tools are e l l i p t i c a l i n  e d g e s t h a t a r e U- o r V - s h a p e d i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n .  S p e c i m e n number 8577 h a s a V - s h a p e d edge i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n w i t h a g r o u n d f a c e t on e a c h f a c e . tioned  This  t o o l may h a v e  i n the sawing o f ground s l a t e o r organic  S p e c i m e n number 6219 h a s a U - s h a p e d edge w i t h i n g b e t w e e n two t o t h r e e The  three  millimeters  materials.  p o l i s h extend-  onto the v e n t r a l  s p e c i m e n s r a n g e i n maximum l e n g t h  func-  from 7.5  face. to 9.5  centimeters. Edge B a t t e r e d  Cortex S p a l l s  (Zone A)  Number o f S p e c i m e n s : 16 ( F i g u r e 4 l ) General Description:  These t o o l s range i n l e n g t h  from 8 t o  17 c e n t i m e t e r s a n d h a v e b a t t e r i n g a l o n g a t l e a s t one e d g e . One s p e c i m e n , number 9 0 1 7 , heavily battered.  has three  s t r a i g h t edges a l l  The e d g e s a r e b l u n t  suggesting a function  o t h e r than heavy chopping o r c u t t i n g , perhaps a s s o c i a t e d  with  198  the shredding repeated  of bark or some s i m i l a r a c t i o n which r e q u i r e s  pounding.  Cortex S p a l l s With Abraded or H e a v i l y Worn Edges (Zone A) Number of Specimenss  87 (Figure 42)  General  These specimens a l l e x h i b i t some degree  Descriptions  of use wear or a b r a s i o n on the working edge.  S e v e r a l of the  t o o l s , n o t a b l y numbers 8590 and 3 5 1 4 , have s t r i a t i o n s perpend i c u l a r to the working edge s u g g e s t i n g a s c r a p i n g f u n c t i o n perhaps i n the d e f l e s h i n g and d e h a i r i n g o f h i d e s proposed by H.I.  Smith (1899s  147) and Coulson ( 1 9 7 1 '  22).  I t i s not  p o s s i b l e with only s l i g h t m a g n i f i c a t i o n to make i n f e r e n c e s as to f u n c t i o n f o r most o f these the m a t e r i a l p r e c l u d e s The  tools.  The g r a n u l a r nature o f  the easy i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of wear p a t t e r n s .  edges might p o s s i b l y r e s u l t from heavy use i n hide  p a r a t i o n or a chopping a c t i o n i n f i s h  pre-  butchery.  Cortex S p a l l s Without E a s i l y Observable Wear (Zone A) Number of Specimenss  44l  General  In t h i s sample 78 s p a l l s are end  Descriptions  s t r u c k , 2 3 1 are s i d e s t r u c k , 46 are corner s t r u c k , and 75 a r e circular.  E l e v e n specimens do not have an e a s i l y  bulb o f p e r c u s s i o n .  recognizable  These t o o l s may have had a c u t t i n g f u n c -  t i o n , e.g., f i s h butchery,  which does n o t produce r e a d i l y  d e t e c t a b l e wear p a t t e r n s on these m a t e r i a l s .  Some experimen-  t a t i o n was c a r r i e d out. When b u t c h e r i n g salmon with s p a l l knives,  the s l i g h t l y s e r r a t e d edge o f a f r e s h l y  cortex struck  199  s p a l l cut through the tough back s k i n o f a salmon easily.  quite  The use o f a c o r t e x s p a l l i n s c o r i n g the f l e s h of  the salmon f o r d r y i n g tended t o t e a r the f l e s h .  Such  experi-  mentation suggests t h a t a sharp ground s l a t e k n i f e would be a more s u i t a b l e t o o l f o r t h i s purpose. Cortex S p a l l Cores (Zone B) Number o f Specimens:  7 (Figure 45)  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  The s p a l l cores r e c o v e r e d from Zone  B appear s i m i l a r t o those of Zone A, but without the s i z e range.  These specimens range i n l e n g t h from 10 t o 21 c e n t i -  meters.  There i s one good example (number 9672) of a s m a l l  elongate cobble with a bulb o f p e r c u s s i o n a t each end and s c a r s which suggest the removal of t o o l s which would be desc r i b e d as s i d e s t r u c k . 6705,  and 10399)  selves.  Three of the cores (numbers 6 8 5 6 ,  have s u i t a b l e edges f o r use as t o o l s them-  Number 10399 has two s p a l l s c a r s on the v e n t r a l face  and some secondary f l a k i n g a l o n g one edge. Cortex S p a l l T o o l s (Zone B) Number of Specimens:  124  The sample was measured f o r maximum l e n g t h t o compare the s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n with the upper zone.  See Table L I I .  The t o o l s i n Zone B have p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y fewer t o o l s i n the small s i z e range, i . e . , l e s s than seven centimeters, and p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y more of the l a r g e r t o o l s from 13 t o 21 c e n t i meters.  C o n s i d e r i n g the sample  size,  the d i s t r i b u t i o n i s  200  s i m i l a r to t h a t of Zone A. Cortex S p a l l s S e c o n d a r i l y F l a k e d Number o f Specimens:  (Zone B)  28 (Figure 46)  The percentage of s e c o n d a r i l y  flaked  B sample i s 22$, s i m i l a r t o the p r o p o r t i o n f l a k e d t o o l s i n Zone A.  t o o l s i n the Zone of s e c o n d a r i l y  The d i s t r i b u t i o n i n terms o f s i z e i s  presented i n Table LIV. Again, the d i s t r i b u t i o n based on length that  i s s i m i l a r to  of the Zone B sample as a whole, and t o the d i s t r i b u t i o n  i n Zone A with one e x c e p t i o n . a t e l y l a r g e r numbers of l a r g e Zone B than i n Zone A.  This  There appear t o be secondarily  flaked tools i n  could be the r e s u l t of sampling  e r r o r , but a l t e r n a t i v e l y may i n d i c a t e a r e l a t i v e l y use  o f heavy duty chopping and s c r a p i n g  greater  t o o l s i n Zone B.  Zone B appears t o be a s p e c i a l i z e d a c t i v i t y s i t e , f i s h i n g station associated  proportion-  e.g., a  with the butchery and/or p r o c e s s i n g  of f i s h f o r s t o r a g e . These t o o l s were examined f o r the p o s i t i o n of the worki n g edge i n r e l a t i o n t o the bulb of p e r c u s s i o n as was done f o r the s e c o n d a r i l y  f l a k e d s p a l l s of Zone A.  See Table L I I I .  These specimens e x h i b i t the same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as those found i n Zone A. thick bulbar portion  The edge most f a v o r e d i s opposite the  o f the f l a k e ; however, other edges, sub-  p a r a l l e l t o the a x i s o f p e r c u s s i o n , were a l s o retouched f o r use.  TABLE L I I Maximum Length of Cortex S p a l l s (Zone B) Length Number o f Spalls  4- 5 0  5-- 6  6-7 3  0  7-8  13-14 6  14--15  15-16  7  2  8-9  9-10  24  24  16 . Length  Number o f Spalls  (Centimeters)  16-17  10-11  11-12  16  14  12-13 7  (Centimeters) 17-18  3  18-19  1  1  19-20  20-21  0  0  N - 124 Spe cimens TABLE L I I I P o s i t i o n of the Working Edge o f S e c o n d a r i l y F l a k e d S p a l l s , Zone B  Opposite  Subparallel (One s i d e )  Subparallel (Two s i d e s )  Opposite & Subparallel (One s i d e )  Opposite & Subparallel (Two s i d e s )  Total  End Struck  6  3  0  2  0  11  Side Struck  8  2  0  4  0  14  Corner Struck  0  0  0  0  0  0  Round  3  0  0  0  0  3  N - 28 Specimens  TABLE LIV Maximum Length of S e c o n d a r i l y Flaked Cortex S p a l l s Length N  u  m  b  e  r  o  f  4 - 5  5- 6  6-7 0  Spalls  M  13-14 —-  Spalls N - 28 Specimens  14-15 1  15-16 4  8- 9  0 Length  . , Number of  (Centimeters)  7-8  0  9-10  1  10-11  6  3  11-12 4  12-1 5  (Centimeters) 17-18  16-17 ' 0  (Zone B)  1  19-20  18-19 1  0  0  20-21 0  2  3  203  Cortex S p a l l Spoke Shaves  (Zone B)  Number of Specimens:  5 (Figure 4 8 ,  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  These s p a l l s d i s p l a y e d w e l l worn  notches a l o n g  the working edge.  a-b)  The wear i s l o c a t e d on the  d o r s a l face of the t o o l . There are no c o r t e x s p a l l s with saw-like B.  edges i n Zone  One specimen (number 8 3 2 8 ) has a h i g h l y p o l i s h e d edge and  ventral face. See F i g u r e  I t may have f u n c t i o n e d  as a s c r a p i n g  tool.  50.  Edge B a t t e r e d  Cortex S p a l l s (Zone B)  Number of Specimens: 7 (Figure 4 9 ) General D e s c r i p t i o n : than 15 centimeters  Four of these specimens are l a r g e r  i n length.  They have pronounced b a t t e r i n g  which extends back on the d o r s a l and v e n t r a l f a c e s three to ten m i l l i m e t e r s . 8979 and 65^6)  Two  of the t o o l s i n t h i s group  (numbers  are a d z e - l i k e i n form with a s t r a i g h t working  edge s u b p a r a l l e l to the a x i s of p e r c u s s i o n .  B a t t e r i n g on both  f a c e s extends seven to e i g h t m i l l i m e t e r s from the edge. Cortex S p a l l s With Abraded or H e a v i l y Worn Edges (Zone B) Number of Specimens:  15  (Figure 4 7 ,  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  F i v e specimens have wear which extends  c-e)  back from the working edge s e v e r a l m i l l i m e t e r s on the d o r s a l face of the t o o l s u g g e s t i n g other  a s c r a p i n g wear p a t t e r n .  The  specimens have d u l l e d or worn edges but the d i r e c t i o n  of the a b r a s i o n  against  the edge i s not  evident.  204  Cortex S p a l l s Without  Observable Wear (Zone B)  Number of Specimenss  69  General D e s c r i p t i o n s  No observable wear p a t t e r n s are  dent.  T h i s group,  as those recovered i n Zone A, may  have  f u n c t i o n e d as k n i v e s f o r m a t e r i a l s which do not produce p a t t e r n s , e.g.,  evi-  wear  i n the butchery of f i s h .  Cores and Core T o o l s The a r t e f a c t s i n t h i s c l a s s are d i f f i c u l t to group a c c o r d i n g to c o n v e n t i o n a l s o r t i n g methods because to a l a r g e extent the items r e p r e s e n t stages i n a process r a t h e r than d e l i b e r a t e l y fashioned t o o l s .  T h i s process i n v o l v e s the p r o -  d u c t i o n of primary f l a k e s from nodules of raw m a t e r i a l , generally basalt.  Included i n the Katz sample are a l a r g e number  of items which r e f l e c t the knapping  process from nodules  a s i n g l e f l a k e removed, to completely exhausted only a few c e n t i m e t e r s i n s i z e .  Another  problem  core  with  fragments  i n analyzing  and p r e s e n t i n g these data i s the f a c t t h a t some of the o b j e c t s at d i f f e r e n t stages of exhaustion show evidence of m o d i f i c a t i o n s u g g e s t i n g use as t o o l s i n themselves. The f l a k i n g technique appears  to be d i r e c t p e r c u s s i o n ,  probably with a hammerstone, a p p l i e d without a break around  the edge of a pebble.  ing, produces  This u n i f a c i a l ,  unifacially  peripheral  flak-  a p a t t e r n of stepped f l a k e s c a r s on one f a c e ,  l e a v i n g the unmodified c o r t e x on the opposite f a c e .  As the  core i s r o t a t e d and the number of f l a k e s removed i n c r e a s e s , the edge angle r e s u l t i n g from the convergence  of the f l a k e d  205  face and the u n f l a k e d c o r t i c a l face becomes steepened.  In a  l a r g e number of specimens the f l a k i n g has been continued the c o r t i c a l f a c e i s almost a 75 t o 90 degree range. reduced  until  f l a t and the edge angle i s w i t h i n  Often the specimens which have been  t o s m a l l d i s c o i d a l cores of under f i v e centimeters i n  diameter  are o f the best v i t r e o u s b a s a l t .  There i s a s t r o n g  s u g g e s t i o n i n t h i s sample t h a t an attempt was made t o maximize the f l a k e p r o d u c t i o n of the best q u a l i t y m a t e r i a l s . Some of the cores and core fragments show evidence of use retouch and d e l i b e r a t e retouch a l o n g a p o r t i o n of the edge. These t o o l s may have f u n c t i o n e d as s c r a p e r - p l a n e s or s c r a p e r s depending upon the form, t h i c k n e s s , and edge angle o f the The Zone A sample c o n t a i n s a t o t a l of 4 2 3 items i n -  core.  c l u d i n g core fragments;  the Zone B sample c o n t a i n s 131 items.  A l l specimens were examined f o r retouch and d i v i d e d i n t o the f o l l o w i n g three (a)  groupings:  Cores - Included here are f l a k e d pebbles without  vable wear i n the form of edge b l u n t i n g , p o l i s h ,  obser-  o r stepped  f l a k e s c a r s a l o n g the edge which might suggest d e l i b e r a t e edge r e t o u c h .  The cores range i n s i z e from 3«0 to 1 8 . 0 c e n t i -  meters i n diameter The  and 1 . 5 to 8 . 0 centimeters i n t h i c k n e s s .  edges on most of these specimens are sharp and s l i g h t l y  jagged.  The a r t e f a c t s i n t h i s category number 109 items  from  Zone A and 29 items from Zone B. (b)  Core-Tools  - These specimens d i f f e r from the a r t e f a c t s  d e s c r i b e d i n groups (a) and (c) i n t h a t they e x h i b i t edges which appear t o have been a l t e r e d i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r , or  206  through,  use.  T h i s m o d i f i c a t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y i n the form of  a s e r i e s of s m a l l stepped hinge f r a c t u r e s which extend the f l a k e d face o f the core from the edge.  onto  In some specimens  the edge i s r e c e s s e d , p o s s i b l y from a heavy s c r a p e r plane a c t i o n on some hard m a t e r i a l . angle i s o f t e n obtuse.  In these examples the edge  Specimens i n t h i s group have the same  range i n dimensions as the cores and core fragments i d e n t i f i e d as n o t having been used as t o o l s .  There are 122 c o r e - t o o l s  assigned to Zone A and 38 "to Zone B. (c)  Core Fragments - In t h i s grouping have been p l a c e d a l l  the t h i c k i r r e g u l a r chunks of cores which o f t e n e x h i b i t remnants of c o r t e x and which l a c k evidence the k i n d d e s c r i b e d above.  There are 203 core fragments i n  Zone A and 69 core fragments i n Zone B. evidence  o f edge retouch o f  The cores which show  o f use as t o o l s are d i s c u s s e d below under the heading  core-tools. Core-Tools W i t h i n the sample of cores and core fragments with i d e n t i f i a b l e retouch there are s e v e r a l broad c a t e g o r i e s o f t o o l s based on the form of the core, the steepness and the k i n d o f wear i n evidence. utilized first  of the edge angle,  A l l specimens were probably  f o r the e x t r a c t i o n of primary f l a k e s and  s e c o n d a r i l y m o d i f i e d f o r use as t o o l s .  The form o f these  t o o l s depends l a r g e l y on the stage o f f l a k e removal a t which they were put to use. 1.  Large  c o r e - t o o l s (steep edge retouch,  scraper-planes?)  207  2.  Small t h i c k d i s c o i d a l core and core f r a g m e n t s - t o o l s (steep edge retouch, s c r a p i n g - p l a n e s ? or scrapers? spoke shaves?)  3.  T h i n d i s c o i d a l c o r e - t o o l s (acute edge retouch,  4.  Spoke shaves  Group l i  Large  scrapers?)  Core-Tools  Number o f Specimens:  27 (Zone A ) ; ( F i g u r e 51» a, c-d) 11  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  (Zone B); ( F i g u r e 5 1 , b)  The t o o l s i n t h i s group are c h a r a c t e r -  i z e d by a t h i c k n e s s range of between f o u r centimeters and nine c e n t i m e t e r s , and an edge angle a l o n g the edge e x h i b i t i n g wear of between 75 degrees and 90 degrees.  They resemble  pebble  t o o l s i n t h a t the p o r t i o n o f the t o o l opposite the working edge i s extremely  t h i c k and o f t e n u n f l a k e d .  i n many cases has undercut  The working edge  the f l a k e d face o f the core, and  has a s e r i e s o f small stepped f l a k e s c a r s and hinge f r a c t u r e s immediately  above the edge.  These t o o l s a l l have wear which  suggests use i n a heavy duty f u n c t i o n , e.g., a s c r a p e r plane action.  Most of the specimens i n t h i s group a r e of b a s a l t .  Group 2 :  Small, T h i c k D i s c o i d a l Core and Core Fragment-Tools  Number of Specimens:  57 (Zone A)» ( F i g u r e 5 2 , a-d) 14 (Zone B)5 ( F i g u r e 5 2 , e-h)  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  These t o o l s e x h i b i t e x t e n s i v e  peri-  p h e r a l f l a k i n g and thus l a c k the heavy backed, or u n f l a k e d edge, o f the Group 1 t o o l s .  The t h i c k e s t p o r t i o n of the t o o l  i s g e n e r a l l y near the c e n t e r of the a r t e f a c t , and the t h i c k n e s s  208  range i s between 1 . 5  c e n t i m e t e r s and 3 . 5 c e n t i m e t e r s .  edge angle i s comparable but  t o t h a t of the l a r g e  The  core-tools,  the s m a l l e r s i z e of these t o o l s would suggest a l i g h t e r  p l a n i n g or s c r a p i n g f u n c t i o n . are  cryptocrystalline s i l i c a ,  Two of the Zone A specimens the remainder are b a s a l t .  The  Zone B t o o l s are a l l o f b a s a l t . Group 3s  T h i n D i s c o i d a l Core and Core Fragment  Number of Specimenss  Tools  23 (Zone A); ( F i g u r e 53» a-b, d) 8 (Zone B ) ; ( F i g u r e 5 3 . c, e)  General D e s c r i p t i o n s exhausted remnants  These t o o l s a r e based on t h i n  and chunky core fragments.  They l a c k the  e x t e n s i v e f l a k i n g over one e n t i r e face of the t o o l istic  of the t o o l s based on Group 2 c o r e s .  character-  The edges  exhibit  secondary r e t o u c h and the edge angles are g e n e r a l l y under degrees.  fifty  The t h i c k n e s s range i s from .8 c e n t i m e t e r s to 2 . 5  centimeters.  Most o f the t o o l s are round to ovate i n form  with a diameter range of 3 . 5 c e n t i m e t e r s t o 7 c e n t i m e t e r s . The r e l a t i v e l y acute edge angle of these t o o l s suggests a s c r a p i n g r a t h e r than a p l a n i n g f u n c t i o n .  The edges are gen-  e r a l l y convex but i n some cases the r e t o u c h has produced a marked d e n t i c u l a t i o n a l o n g the edge.  A l l specimens from Zones  A and B a r e b a s a l t . Group 4 :  Spoke Shaves  Number o f Specimenss  4 (Zone A)s ( F i g u r e 5^ and 55)  General D e s c r i p t i o n s  These t o o l s are based on exhausted  cores and have a broad c o n c a v i t y on one o r more edges.  Some  209  of  the other cores i n the sample with marked d e n t i c u l a t i o n  a l o n g the edge might a l s o have f u n c t i o n e d as spoke shaves but the  edge damage i s not r e a d i l y o b s e r v a b l e .  The specimens i n  t h i s group have n o t i c e a b l e c r u s h i n g i n the c o n c a v i t y i n the form of compressed m u l t i p l e hinges which suggests use i n a heavy shaving a c t i o n .  The edge angles w i t h i n the c o n c a v i t i e s  extremely steep, i n the 80 degree to 90 degree range.  are  Three of the f o u r t o o l s have remnants  of c o r t e x on one f a c e .  Spoke shaves o f t h i s type were n o t r e c o v e r e d from Zone B. All  specimens a r e o f b a s a l t , and range i n diameter from f o u r  centimeters t o e i g h t  centimeters.  S p l i t Cobble T o o l s Number of Specimens:  15 (Zone A)  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  These t o o l s resemble c o r t e x  spall  t o o l s i n t h a t they have one c o r t i c a l face but are s u b s t a n t i a l l y t h i c k e r and e x h i b i t u n i f a c i a l f l a k i n g a l o n g most o f the edge. All  specimens here are over 4 cms. i n t h i c k n e s s and range  between 11 and 14 cms. i n maximum l e n g t h ( M i t c h e l l , 1971s 104). Pebble Tools Number of Specimenss  17 (Zone A ) ; (Figure 5 6 , c-d) 2 (Zone B ) : (Figure 5 6 , a-b)  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  These t o o l s are based on f l a t  river  cobbles and pebbles of predominantly m i c r o c r y s t a l l i n e m a t e r i a l s , e.g., d i o r i t e ,  rhyolite, basalt, etc.  F l a k e s are removed by  d i r e c t p e r c u s s i o n a l o n g one edge l e a v i n g a t h i c k rounded t i c a l p o r t i o n of the pebble opposite the working edge.  corMost  210  of these specimens are u n i f a c i a l l y occasional b i f a c i a l (Figure  57)•  t o have  J u d g i n g f r o m t h e number o f u n i f a c i a l l y  dorsal  of pebble t o o l s  8 t o 15 tool  face,  resulting  and  see Borden  pebble t o o l s cms.  the u n f l a k e d  examines  t h e shape  w o r k i n g edge  form.  cortical  by B o r d e n  o f t h e w o r k i n g edge  in relation  tools,"  discussion  range i n s i z e  from  the pebble  (1968: 58-63) w h i c h and t h e p o s i t i o n  to the l o n g a x i s  s p e c i m e n s f r o m t h e Zone A sample  gory "edged  appears  9-13).  a n a l y s i s here f o l l o w s  outlined  face  For a detailed  (1968: 55-69; 1969:  The  flaked  from the convergence o f  i n t h e K a t z sample  i n length.  classification  Fifteen  edge  been a most d e s i r a b l e  The  a l t h o u g h an  s p e c i m e n i s f o u n d , e.g., number 694-0  specimens, a b e v e l l e d the f l a k e d  flaked  o f the  of the pebble. fall  into  the  o f which 9 a r e o f the "convex-end"  catevariety,  5 a r e " c o n v e x - s i d e , " and one h a s a s t r a i g h t w o r k i n g edge the l o n g s i d e  of the pebble " s t r a i g h t - s i d e . "  specimens i n c l u d e tool." side"  The and  tool"  one  General Description:  These  c o b b l e s which one  "spokeshave-like one  i s "convex-  Cobbles 7 (Figure  least  one  "straight-side."  Number o f S p e c i m e n s :  river  and  The r e m a i n i n g  two Zone B t o o l s a r e e d g e d - t o o l s ,  Edge B a t t e r e d  at  one " b e a k e d  along  edge.  58)  specimens are t h i n ,  elongate  show e v i d e n c e o f h e a v y b a t t e r i n g One  tool  (number 411;  i n g along both l o n g l a t e r a l  edges.  excavated  rest  f r o m Zone A.  The  along  S u r f a c e ) has  O n l y one  specimen  o f t h e sample  was  batterwas  collected  211  from t h e s u r f a c e o r t h e Backhoe Test P i t a t the s i t e .  How  these t o o l s may have f u n c t i o n e d i s l a r g e l y s p e c u l a t i v e .  The  b a t t e r e d edges a r e f a i r l y b l u n t and do n o t suggest a chopping or c l e a v i n g a c t i o n .  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e y may have been  used i n a pounding f a s h i o n as i n t h e s h r e d d i n g o f cedar bark, o r t h e s o f t e n i n g o f some o t h e r o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l such as h i d e . TABLE LV Edge B a t t e r e d Cobbles General Location  Artefact Number  Length  Width  Thickness  Zone A  3480  106  72  21  Surface  202  160  83  22  Surface  204  117  80  19  Surface  437  111  70  22  Surface  411  170  66  23  Backhoe Test P i t  13027  126  52  16  Backhoe Test P i t  13266  190  86  23  52-86  16-23  Range:  111-190  G e n e r a l P r o v e n i e n c e - Zone A: Surface:  1 specimen 4 specimens  Backhoe Test P i t :  2 specimens  Hammerstones Number o f Specimens:  46; ( F i g u r e 59 and Table LVI)  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  These a r t e f a c t s a r e c o b b l e s and p e b b l e s  of v a r i o u s shapes and m a t e r i a l s which show evidence o f use a s  212  hamraerstones, in  or s t r i k e r s ,  form from l a r g e r i v e r  slender  stones.  granitic  to small  scars  which  a linear  homogeneous  Use wear i n t h e f o r m o f p i t t i n g and  I n some c a s e s  of the t o o l s ,  stone  m a t e r i a l s and o t h e r more  minerals.  of small  pebbles.  pitting  round o r ovate,  They range  The l a r g e s t hammerstones a r e g e n e r a l l y o f a  of these  crystalline  along  cobbles,  flaking.  o r g r a n o - d i o r i t i c m a t e r i a l , t h e s m a l l e r t o o l s a r e an  assortment  clusters  i n percussion  occur  at various  l o c a t i o n s on t h e  t h e wear i s p r e s e n t  only  on t h e ends  s u g g e s t s an a p p l i c a t i o n o f f o r c e  axis.  Extensive  wear a l o n g  downward  a lateral  edge, o r  s c a t t e r e d o v e r one f a c e n e a r t h e end o f t h e hammer-  suggests percussion  Wear on t h e e n d s r e s u l t i n g i s most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  applied along  an a r c - l i k e  swing.  from a l i n e a r a x i s o f p e r c u s s i o n  o f t h e l a r g e r hammerstones, where  p e r h a p s a blow m a x i m i z e s t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e l o n g of the pebble i n the removal of a c o r t e x positioned hibiting for  on a n a n v i l s t o n e .  different  sented  i n Table  r e c e i v e d wear d i r e c t l y  in the  see F i g u r e  kind  59.  LVII,  data  most o f t h e hammerstones  on t h e ends on t h e s t o n e s . stones  o f wear w h i c h  i s p o s s i b l y achieved  i n an a r c - l i k e  swing.  However,  were o f t e n  t h a t e s t a b l i s h e d wear on t h e f a c e s  of percussion  Metric  d e s c r i p t i o n o f wear a r e p r e -  t a b l e a l s o shows t h a t t h e s m a l l e r a manner  core  LVII.  As i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e  the  from a  F o r examples o f specimens ex-  wear p a t t e r n s ,  e a c h s p e c i m e n and a b r i e f  spall  axis  used  and e d g e s ,  by t h e a p p l i c a t i o n  TABLE LVI M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s . General Provenience and Wear o f Hammerstones General Location  Artefact Number  Shape  Length, Width & Thickness (to n e a r e s t 5 mm.)  Description  Zone A  8214  Oval  270  X  180  X  60  F l a k e s removed from both ends.  Zone A  8990  Elongate  205  X  115  X  55  P i t t i n g and s m a l l s c a r s one ends f l a k e s c a r s o p p o s i t e end  Zone A  8474  Round?  170  X  160  X  45  Small f l a k e s c a r s one end  Zone A  8761  Oval  195  X  125  X  45  P i t t i n g one end; f l a k e s c a r s opposite end  Zone A  3120  Oval  165  X  85  X  35  P i t t i n g on a l t e r n a t e l a t e r a l edges near both ends  Zone A  7961  Oval  135  X  105  X  45  F l a k e s c a r s one end  Zone A.  8317  Oval  110  X  80  X  45  P i t t i n g on one end; e x t e n s i v e b a t t e r i n g on opposite end.  Zone A.  8213  Oval  120  X  75  X  50  One end removed. P i t t i n g on oppos i t e end i s on l a t e r a l edges, both f a c e s , and on end; see F i g u r e 59  Zone A  3253  Oval  120  X  85  X  50  P i t t i n g one end only  Zone A  3374  Oval  100  X  70  X  32  F l a k e s c a r s on one end  Zone A  8576  Oval  95  X  60  X  60  L i g h t p i t t i n g a t three l o c a t i o n s on one f a c e , near each end and i n middle  TABLE LVI General Location  Artefact Number  Shape  (Continued)  Length, Width & Thickness ( t o nearest 5 mm.)  Description  Zone A  3244  Oval  90  X  65  X  25  Small f l a k e removed one end  Zone A  6026  Oval  90  X  70  X  30  P i t t i n g a l o n g one l a t e r a l edge nea: one end  Zone A  3321  Oval  80  X  60  X  20  Flake s c a r s one end  Zone A  3242  Oval  70  X  60  X  20  Flake s c a r s one end  Zone A  6479  Oval  95  X  70  X  25  F l a k e s c a r s both ends; one l a t e r a l edge  Zone A  5182  Round  80  X  75  X  55  P i t t i n g on one f a c e near one end  Zone A  6014  Round  85  X  75  X  70  P i t t i n g at several locations the stone  over  Zone A  6396  Round  90  X  80  X  50  P i t t i n g at various locations s u r f a c e of stone  over  Zone A  3370  Fragment  Zone A  10375  Elongate  140  X  50  X  40  P i t t i n g a t c e n t e r of one end  Zone A  6651  Elongate  100  X  50  X  30  P i t t i n g on both ends, and of s m a l l f l a k e s  Zone A  9237  Elongate (fragment)  105  X  45  X  35  P i t t i n g both f a c e s near one end  Zone A  7687  Elongate  105  X  40  X  15  Small f l a k e s removed on one end on!  P i t t i n g on one end  removal  TABLE LVI General Location  Artefact Number  Shape  (Continued)  Length, Width & Thickness (to nearest 5 mm.)  Description  Zone A  6366  Elongate  100  X  45  X  15  Small f l a k e s removed one end  Zone A  7661  Elongate  105  X  25  X  15  Small f l a k e s removed both ends  Zone A  9169  Elongate  100  X  15  X  10  A narrow p u n c h - l i k e t o o l with s l i g h t wear a t each end  Zone A  6054  Oval  60  X  30  X  15  P i t t i n g on one l a t e r a l edge only  Zone A  6763  Elongate (fragment)  75  X  40  X  40  P i t t i n g on one end which extends over onto one f a c e  Zone A  6483  Fragment  55  X  50  X  25  Small f l a k e s removed from one end  Zone A  3250  Fragment  55  X  35  X  25  E x t e n s i v e p i t t i n g one end  Zone B  7890  Elongate  145  X  65  X  40  P i t t i n g on one face near one end  Zone B  9235  Elongate  110  X  35  X  20  P i t t i n g on both f a c e s near one end  Surface  195  Elongate  240  X  80  X  70  P i t t i n g on one end o n l y  Surface  421  Elongate  190  X  70  X  35  F l a k e s removed a t both ends  Surface  197  Elongate  200  X  75  X  40  Small f l a k e s removed from one end only  Surface  199  Elongate  185  X  70  X  50  P i t t i n g one end o n l y  Surface  198  Elongate  155  X  80  X  50  P i t t i n g one end o n l y  TABLE LVI General Location  Artefact Number  Shape  (Continued)  Length, Width & Thickness (to nearest 5 mm.)  Description  Surface  201  Elongate  160  X  90  X  60  P i t t i n g one end, o p p o s i t e and broken  Surface  200  Oval  115  X  85  X  60  P i t t i n g one end only  Surface  507  Oval  135  X  85  X  60  P i t t i n g both ends, both f a c e s near ends, one l a t e r a l edge  Surface  191  Oval  140  X  90  X  60  P i t t i n g both ends, and on both f a c e s near ends  Surface  196  Elongate  120  X  55  X  35  P i t t i n g on both f a c e s , near one end and on one face near middle  Surface  190  Elongate (fragment)  110  X  60  X  40  F l a k e s removed from one  end  Backhoe Test P i t  12398  Oval  100  X  75  X  25  F l a k e s removed from both ends  Backhoe Test P i t  12679  Oval  120  X  70  X  45  F l a k e s removed from both ends  TABLE L V I I  P o s i t i o n o f Wear ( P i t t i n g a n d B a t t e r i n g )  Shape a n d S i z e  Ends Only  Ends and Faces  Ends and Faces  Ends, Faces, and E d g e s  Faces Only  Edges Only  Total  E l o n g a t e hammers t o n e s ( o v e r 125 millimeters)  8  0  0  0  1  0  9  E l o n g a t e hammerstones (under 125 mm.)  7  2  0  0  3  0  12  O v a l hammerstones (over 125 mm.)  3  1  0  1  0  1  6  10  0  1  2  0  2  15  1  0  0  0  3  0  4  29  3  1  3  7  3  46  O v a l hammerstones (under 125 mm.) Round Total  218  Anvilstones Number of Specimens:  3 (Figure 60)  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  The a r t e f a c t s are l a r g e r i v e r  with p i t t e d d e p r e s s i o n s i n the middle  cobbles  of one or both f a c e s .  Presumably cores were p l a c e d on these stones and then s t r u c k with a hammerstone  t o remove f l a k e s .  One specimen (number .  10062, Zone B) was found a s s o c i a t e d with a hammerstone and a l a r g e q u a n t i t y of d e t r i t u s i n s i t u .  These cobbles a r e a l l of  a granular g r a n i t i c material. TABLE L V I I I Anvilstones Artefact Number  Length, Width and Thickness (cms.)  7012 (Zone A)  20  X  10062 (Zone B)  17.5  X  16  X  13567 (Backhoe Test P i t )  'Description  X  9.5  P i t t e d d e p r e s s i o n on one face  11.5  X  6.7  P i t t e d d e p r e s s i o n s on both f a c e s  12  X  5  P i t t e d d e p r e s s i o n on one face  18  Ground S l a t e Both Zone A of the pithouse and the e a r l i e r Zone B dep o s i t c o n t a i n evidence try.  of a w e l l developed  C l e a v a b l e raw s l a t e , preforms,  been recovered from both zones.  ground s l a t e  indus-  and f i n i s h e d t o o l s have  Stages  i n the primary manu-  f a c t u r e process are present i n c l u d i n g the b l o c k i n g out o f  219  s l a t e blanks by p e r c u s s i o n , ally,  subsequent g r i n d i n g , and  s e c t i o n i n g by sawing.  A secondary process  broken or worn out t o o l s are f a s h i o n e d a l s o present blades  to a l i m i t e d e x t e n t .  occasion-  whereby  i n t o other t o o l s i s  For i n s t a n c e , ground  end  or p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s were reworked from s l a t e k n i f e  fragments ( F i g u r e 61,  e, i , and  q).  Ground S l a t e P o i n t s These t h i n b i f a c i a l l y  ground s l a t e p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s are  presumed to have been used to t i p d a r t s or to arm  composite  t o g g l i n g harpoons (Barnett, 1955; Borden, 1950; 1970). Number of Specimens:  9 complete or n e a r l y so ( F i g u r e  61)  2 t i p fragments, 2 b a s a l fragments 4 preforms or As the ground s l a t e p o i n t s are few  blanks  i n number and v a r i e d i n  form, each specimen w i l l be d e s c r i b e d with r e f e r e n c e to i t s metric a t t r i b u t e s , form, and See  Table  site.  LIX.  Ground S l a t e Knives: The  g e n e r a l provenience i n the  Zone A  sample from Zone A i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y l a r g e r than t h a t  from the u n d e r l y i n g Zone B.  In a d d i t i o n to raw  material  and  preforms f o r ground s l a t e k n i v e s , there are s e v e r a l p i e c e s (numbers 8585 and  1130) of raw s l a t e which show evidence  s e c t i o n i n g by sawing; see F i g u r e 64, Ground S l a t e Knives  of  c-d.  (Complete)  Although most knives are fragmentary there are specimens  TABLE LIX Ground S l a t e P o i n t s General Location  Artefact Number  Length, Width & Thickness (mm.)  Description  Zone B  7^59  85 x 24 x 8 Width of base: 12  T h i s p o i n t i s notched 15 mm. from the base. The blade edges a r e s l i g h t l y convex, and the blade i s diamond shaped i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n . The b a s a l o n e - t h i r d of the p o i n t i s thinned on both f a c e s by long, t a p e r i n g , t r i a n g u l o i d f a c e t s . There are two l a t e r a l l i n e g u a r d - l i k e p r o j e c t i o n s proximal to the notches. The base i s s t r a i g h t : see F i g u r e 61, d.  Zone A  9168  ?0 x 24 x 6  T h i s p o i n t , whose t i p and base a r e missing, appears to be u n f i n i s h e d . The blade edges a r e convex; the c r o s s - s e c t i o n i s hexagonal. See Figure 61, m.  Zone A  10404  51 x 17 x 2  A small u n i l a t e r a l l y notched p o i n t . The blade edges are convex and the stem c o n t r a c t s to a rounded base. I t appears t o have been based on a ground s l a t e k n i f e fragment; see Figure 61, e.  Zone A  3314  65 x 18 x 3  T h i s specimen has a t r i a n g u l a r blade o u t l i n e . Hexagonal i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n , the base i s concave and ground b i f a c i a l l y . There i s some t h i n n i n g on the b a s a l o n e - t h i r d o f the p o i n t . See Figure 61, f .  Zone A  6081  35 x 10 x 3 Width of base: 10  T h i s i s a s m a l l t r i a n g u l a r blade with a s t r a i g h t base. I t may have been d e r i v e d from a ground s l a t e k n i f e fragment. See F i g u r e 6 1 , g .  TABLE L I X (Continued) General Location  Artefact Number  Length, Width & T h i c k n e s s (mm.)  Description  Zone A  8031  80 x 15 x 6 Tip Missing Width of base: 10 mm. (estimate)  T h i s specimen i s a s l e n d e r p o i n t w i t h s l i g h t l y convex edges. I t i s h e x a g o n a l i n c r o s s s e c t i o n . B a s a l t h i n n i n g by g r i n d i n g i n evidence. See F i g u r e 61, c.  Zone A  6185  T i p fragment l e n g t h 41 mm. t h i c k n e s s 7 mm.  T h i s t i p fragment may have been a l a r g e ground s l a t e p o i n t . Edges b e v e l l e d from b o t h f a c e s . See F i g u r e 61, 1.  Zone A  3362  Preform?  T h i s specimen appears t o be a ground s l a t e k n i f e fragment i n the p r o c e s s of b e i n g ground i n t o a p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t p r e f o r m o r end b l a d e . The edges a r e convex and ground b l u n t . See F i g u r e 61, q.  Zone A.  6868  Preform 35 x 20 x 2  T h i s specimen c o u l d be a p r e f o r m f o r a s m a l l stemmed p o i n t . The b l a d e edges a r e s t r a i g h t and the stem c o n t r a c t s t o a convex o r rounded base. See F i g u r e 61, i .  Zone A  6994  B a s a l Fragment 51 x 31 x 5  T h i s fragment seems t o have been b i f a c i a l l y f l a k e d , perhaps i n a b l a n k i n g out o p e r a t i o n . See F i g u r e 61, j .  Surface  997  128 x 24 x 8 Width of base: 14 mm.  73 x 29 x 4  T h i s i s a l o n g s l e n d e r p o i n t w i t h convex edges which c o n s t r i c t s l i g h t l y n e a r the base. A r i d g e r u n s a l o n g the main a x i s o f the p o i n t on one f a c e t o a p o i n t where t r i a n g u l o i d f a c e t s l o p e s toward the base. The r e v e r s e f a c e i s f l a t w i t h some m a r g i n a l b e v e l l i n g o f the edges. The base i s s t r a i g h t . See F i g u r e 61, a.  TABLE LIX (Continued) General Location  Artefact Number  Length, Width & Thickness (mm.)  Description  Surface  338  89 x 27 x 9 Width of base: 24 mm.  Although s h o r t e r and t h i c k e r , t h i s p o i n t i s s i m i l a r i n form t o specimen number 997, except that i t l a c k s the c o n s t r i c t i o n near the base. C e n t r a l r i d g e s run a l o n g the main a x i s on both faces g i v i n g the blade a diamond shape i n cross-section. The b a s a l o n e - t h i r d o f the p o i n t i s t h i n n e d . The base i s s t r a i g h t . See Figure 61, b.  Surface  338a  60 x 25 x 3 Width of base: 7 mm. Length of stem: 13 mm.  This stemmed p o i n t has convex edges, and a hexagonal c r o s s - s e c t i o n . The shoulders a r e rounded and the stem i s c o n t r a c t . The base i s s l i g h t l y convex or rounded. The u n i f o r m thinness o f t h i s p o i n t suggests t h a t i t was based on a ground s l a t e k n i f e fragment.  Surface  995  Preform 72 x 41 x 5  This specimen i s perhaps a preform f o r a stemmed ground s l a t e p o i n t . The blade i s extremely broad with evidence of some g r i n d i n g along the edges. The stem i s 20 mm. i n l e n g t h See F i g u r e 6 1 , p.  Surface  998  Preform 83 x 32 x 3  This a r t e f a c t appears t o be a ground s l a t e k n i f e fragment, edge ground i n t o a f o l i a t e l i k e preform. See F i g u r e 61, r .  Surface  12914  B a s a l fragment 28 mm. long Width of base: 14 mm.  Judging from the b a s a l fragment t h i s p o i n t appears t o have been a l o n g narrow blade, hexagonal i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n , p o s s i b l y 2 0 - 2 5 mm. i n width. The base i s s t r a i g h t . See F i g u r e 61, 0 .  TABLE LIX (Continued) General Location Surface  Artefact Number 336  Length, Width & Thickness (mm.) T i p Fragment 22 mm. long 2 . 5 mm. t h i c k  Description T h i s t i p fragment has b e v e l l e d edges. I t s extreme t h i n n e s s suggests t h a t i t was based on a ground s l a t e k n i f e fragment. See F i g u r e 61, k.  ro ro  224  s u f f i c i e n t l y complete Specimen number 9531  to permit dimensional measurements. i s 145 mm.  long, 75 mm.  maximum t h i c k n e s s a t the back of 6 mm.  wide, with a  Other knives appear  to have been resharpened and used u n t i l they were no more than 25 mm.  i n width  (numbers 8632 and 8 1 9 5 ) •  were h a f t e d a l o n g one edge, very l i t t l e  I f these t o o l s  of the blade would  have extended beyond the handle; see F i g u r e 61,  a-b.  Ground S l a t e K n i f e Fragments Number of Specimens:  421  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  These fragments have a s l i g h t l y  g r e a t e r t h i c k n e s s range of 1 . 5 there are too few complete  to 6 . 0 m i l l i m e t e r s .  However,  t o o l s to enable a systematic com-  parison at present. In a d d i t i o n to the ground  s l a t e k n i f e m a t e r i a l excavated  from Zone A and Zone B, there i s a c o l l e c t i o n of 185 p i e c e s from the s u r f a c e and I 3 0 p i e c e s from Backhoe Test P i t numbers one and  two.  Ground S l a t e Knives:  Zone B  The smallness of the sample from t h i s zone i s due (1)  pri-  m a r i l y to two  factors,  of Zone B and  (2), the lower a r t e f a c t y i e l d which c h a r a c t e r i z e s  this deposit.  the r e l a t i v e l y l i m i t e d e x c a v a t i o n  Although the ground  s l a t e k n i f e sample from  t h i s d e p o s i t i s s m a l l compared with t h a t of Zone A, i t shows t h a t t h i s manufacturing process was this e a r l i e r period.  employed a t Katz d u r i n g  225  Ground S l a t e K n i f e Preforms Number of Specimens:  3 (Figure 63)  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  These are l a r g e s l a b - l i k e p i e c e s of  s l a t e , r e c t a n g u l o i d i n o u t l i n e with evidence of m a r g i n a l f l a k i n g or " b l o c k i n g out."  (number 8076)  form i n t h i s zone 8? mm.  The l a r g e s t and most complete p r e -  x t h i c k n e s s 6 . 5 mm.  c a r r i e d out on both f a c e s . Ground S l a t e Knives  i s : l e n g t h 140 mm.  x width  Some s u r f a c e a b r a d i n g has been See F i g u r e 6 3 ,  a.  (Complete) 3 (Figure  Number of Specimens:  64)  Only three complete or n e a r l y complete specimens were r e c o v e r e d from Zone B.  Specimens  8632 and 10061 were p r o b a b l y  s u b j e c t e d to numerous r e s h a r p e n i n g s j u d g i n g by the w i d t h - l e n g t h r a t i o of these t o o l s . wide and 2 , 5 mm.  Number 8632 i s 170 mm.  t h i c k a l o n g the back.  long, 2 2 - 4 9  mm.  The edge i s symmetri-  c a l l y b e v e l l e d from both f a c e s . Ground S l a t e K n i f e  Fragments  Number of Specimens:  47  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  These fragments vary i n width from  1.5  to 4 . 0 mm.,  depending on from what p o r t i o n of the k n i f e  the fragment o r i g i n a t e s .  They v a r y somewhat i n t h i c k n e s s .  A l l specimens suggest t h a t the complete t o o l s were ground over t h e i r e n t i r e  face.  226  Miscellaneous  Ground S l a t e A r t e f a c t s  Ground S l a t e Fragments With S e r r a t e d  Edges  Number of Specimens:  2 (Figure 65» d-e)  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  One specimen (number 3 2 7 ; s u r f a c e ) i s  3 mm.  i n t h i c k n e s s with the g e n e r a l  s l a t e k n i f e fragment.  appearance of a ground  The d i f f e r e n c e however, i s t h a t  along  the t h i n ground edge there are i n c i s e d notches which extend i n from the edge approximately three m i l l i m e t e r s .  This  s e r i e s of notches c r e a t e s a row of t o o t h - l i k e p r o j e c t i o n s along the edge. The  fragment i s a l s o decorated on one face by an i n c i s e d  arc with l i n e s i n c i s e d a t r i g h t angles w i t h i n the a r c . Another specimen (number 7882; Zone B) a l s o has a s e r i e s of t o o t h - l i k e grooves i n c i s e d i n t o the edge but t h i s l a c k s the embellishment of the other  piece  specimen.  Ground S l a t e Blade B i f a c i a l l y Sawn Number o f Specimens:  1 (Figure 65» a)  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  T h i s specimen (number 993»  appears to be the m i d - s e c t i o n  Surface)  o f a l a r g e ground s l a t e p o i n t  l e n t i c u l a r i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n with symmetrically  b e v e l l e d edges.  Along the main a x i s on both f a c e s i s a saw groove approximately two  m i l l i m e t e r s i n depth.  width 32 mm.  x thickness  The piece 10  is:  length 95 mm. x  mm.  Ground S l a t e K n i f e Fragment With B i c o n i c a l D r i l l Hole Number of Specimens:  1 (Figure 65» c)  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  T h i s i s a ground s l a t e k n i f e fragment  227  : Zone A) with a p o r t i o n (38 mm.)  (number  b e v e l l e d c u t t i n g edge.  object i s 2.5  The  mm.  and has a s i n g l e b i c o n i c a l l y d r i l l e d hole 5*5  of  symmetrically  i n thickness mm.  in  diameter.  Ground S l a t e P i n ( P e r f o r a t o r or D r i l l ? ) Number of Specimens:  1 ( F i g u r e 65»  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  T h i s ground s l a t e o b j e c t (number 9 0 8 9 )  from Zone A i s 63 mm.  long, 5 mm.  b)  wide and 4 mm.  i s roughly square i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n and has t i o n s a t v a r i o u s p o i n t s a l o n g the t o o l . The  complete t o o l may  T o o l s of Nephrite The  thick.  encircling  stria-  Both ends are  have been used as a d r i l l  It  missing.  point.  and Related M a t e r i a l s  i n d i s c r i m i n a t e use  of the terms jade, j a d e i t e ,  and  n e p h r i t e , i n r e f e r e n c e to the m a t e r i a l s used i n the manufacture of ground stone term "jade" minerals: necessary  implements has  c r e a t e d some c o n f u s i o n .  i s commonly used to r e f e r to two n e p h r i t e and  jadeite.  The  quite d i f f e r e n t  For our purposes i t i s  to be more p r e c i s e i n i d e n t i f y i n g the k i n d of min-  e r a l u t i l i z e d because t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e s d i r e c t l y to questions of source and Nephrite  technology.  i s a calcium magnesium s i l i c a t e which belongs  to the amphibole group of m i n e r a l s  (Pough I960: 2 6 2 - 2 6 5 ) .  I t s c r y s t a l l i n e s t r u c t u r e comprised of elongate together make i t extremely  f i b e r s matted  r e s i s t a n t to shaping by  percussion.  I t i s r e a d i l y sawn, however, i f a c u t t i n g agent with a degree of hardness g r e a t e r than 6 . 5 employed.  Abrasives  on the Mohs S c a l e of Hardness i s  such as quartz sand, sandstone, or  228  garnetiferous the  sawing  schist  a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y h a r d t o be  of nephrite.  u s u a l l y near 3.0 Jadeite,  The  but can f a l l  i n contrast,  c o n s i s t e n t l y n e a r 3«33» the pyroxene Jadeite  6.75  adze  gravity  w i t h i n a range  has  a specific  I t i s a sodium  of nephrite i s o f 2.9  3.1.  to  g r a v i t y which i s  aluminum s i l i c a t e  group w i t h a c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e  of  mineral structure.  i s h a r d e r on t h e Mohs S c a l e w i t h a r a n k i n g o f between  and  7.0.  The  specific  b l a d e s and  detritus  specific  effective i n  from  gravity  chisels,  tests and  the Katz s i t e  carried  o u t on t h e  complete  on some o f t h e raw n o d u l e s indicate  m i n e r a l s of the s e r p e n t i n e group  that nephrite  were u s e d  and  and other  exclusively.  Introduction There that  i s abundant  the manufacture  b e i n g conducted  evidence from the Katz s i t e  of ground  on s i t e .  stone t o o l s  complete  from  of d e t r i t u s  surface  from  from p e r c u s s i o n , with  sence  of t h i s  interbedded pithouse  stages i n  exhibiting grooves,  boulders to small f l a k e s  are abrasive  of coarseness.  saws and  quantities resulting  Found i n a s s o c i a t i o n abrasive  slabs  Evidence i n d i c a t i n g  i n the f l u v i a l  Zone B d e p o s i t  A number o f s p e c i m e n s  the d i s t u r b e d  of  the p r e -  i n d u s t r y h a s been f o u n d i n t h e c u l t u r a l  fill.  context from  saw  a r e p r e s e n t i n numbers.  the n e p h r i t e  v a r i o u s degrees  Pebbles  a b r a s i o n and/or  sectioned  was  unmodified pebbles to  t o o l s have b e e n r e c o v e r e d .  striations  from n e p h r i t e  Specimens r e p r e s e n t i n g  t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g p r o c e s s f r o m raw,  to suggest  layers  as w e l l a s i n t h e  were r e c o v e r e d o u t o f  s u r f a c e a r e a of the  site.  229  The  Manufacturing Process References to the sawing and  g r i n d i n g technique i n v o l v e d  i n adze manufacture are i n c l u d e d i n the works of T e i t Smith ( 1 9 0 7 ) , The  Emmons ( 1 9 2 3 ) , H o l l a n d  f i r s t step was  and Semenov  the a c q u i s i t i o n of the necessary  Semenov ( 1 9 6 4 : 69)  material.  (1961),  (1900),  pointed  s e l e c t i o n would he toward a " f l a t t i s h g r a v e l beds i n a r i v e r . "  (1964). raw  out t h a t the i n i t i a l o v a l pebble . . . from  Such a f l a t pebble would minimize  the amount of g r i n d i n g r e q u i r e d to a t t a i n the d e s i r e d t h i c k ness. ing  Furthermore, i f a s m a l l t h i n pebble roughly  the s i z e and  approximat-  o v e r a l l form of the t o o l intended  could  be  s e l e c t e d , the n e c e s s i t y of arduous s e c t i o n i n g by sawing c o u l d be e l i m i n a t e d .  Most n e p h r i t e pebbles i n the Katz sample are  "flattish,"  a number are s u f f i c i e n t l y s m a l l so t h a t modi-  and  f i c a t i o n to a f i n i s h e d form could be achieved grinding. 10563,  entirely  by  In f a c t , s e v e r a l of the s m a l l specimens (numbers  Zone B;  7544,  7383,  Zone A) show evidence of such  m o d i f i c a t i o n through s u r f a c e a b r a s i o n without sawing ( F i g u r e 68,  a-b,  d).  f l a t cobbles face.  From the d i s t u r b e d s u r f a c e of the s i t e two were recovered  large  which e x h i b i t sawn grooves on  one  Both specimens show s u r f a c e a b r a s i o n which seems to  have been executed p r i o r to sawing. Except f o r Semenov and  Borden ( 1 9 5 2 : 32 and  P l a t e I,  none of the a u t h o r i t i e s c i t e d above mention the use c u s s i o n i n the manufacture of adze blades beyond n o t i n g i t s use p a r t s of pebbles.  of  28),  per-  from n e p h r i t e ,  i n s e p a r a t i n g the p a r t i a l l y  sectioned  I t i s t h e r e f o r e i n t e r e s t i n g to r e p o r t  the  230  use  of p e r c u s s i o n d u r i n g primary stages of adze manufacture  on the b a s i s of a r t e f a c t s recovered  at Katz.  Some specimens  from Katz suggest t h a t t h i n n i n g by p e r c u s s i o n was on some pebbles,  and  carried  out  t h a t primary f l a k e s detached d e l i b e r a t e l y  or f o r t u i t o u s l y by p e r c u s s i o n were i n t u r n ground to form tools. on one  Pebble number 7339 (Zone A) has been b i f a c i a l l y f l a k e d (Figure 68,  end  an abraded f a c e t .  The  b e v e l l e d working edge. 68,  c).  On one  face of the same end i s  i n t e n t i o n was  apparently  Specimen number 1054  to c r e a t e a  (Surface,  Figure  d) e x h i b i t s remnants of f l a k e s c a r s on the uncompleted  b i t end  of the pebble which have been s u b s t a n t i a l l y abraded  away as a r e s u l t of g r i n d i n g . have been one to achieve  way  P e r c u s s i o n t h i n n i n g seems to  of r e d u c i n g the amount of g r i n d i n g r e q u i r e d .  a b e v e l l e d edge.  Three a d d i t i o n a l pebbles e x h i b i t -  i n g p e r c u s s i o n f l a k i n g were recovered  from Zone A.  There are a l s o examples of t o o l s made from primary d e c o r t i c a t i o n f l a k e s ( s p a l l s ) which e x h i b i t smooth outer tex on one  face and f i b r o u s matting  on the v e n t r a l f a c e .  These examples (numbers 1 2 3 1 6 ,  12574,  been u n i f a c i a l l y ground a t one  end which has  edge (Figure 6 8 ,  f).  pebbles recovered i n evidence, presented  and  The  Backhoe Test P i t ) have c r e a t e d a keen  m e t r i c i n f o r m a t i o n on a l l the  from the s i t e ,  the kinds of m o d i f i c a t i o n s  t h e i r g e n e r a l provenience i n the s i t e  i n Table  cor-  are  LX.  Adze Blades Number of Specimens: F i g u r e 70 and  71)  16 complete or n e a r l y so (Table  10 p o l l fragments, 2 m i d - s e c t i o n  LXI,  fragments,  TABLE LX M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s , M o d i f i c a t i o n s , and Provenience o f N e p h r i t e Pebbles General Location  Artefact Number  Length (mm.)  Width (mm.)  Thickness (mm.)  Specific Gravity  Modification  Zone B  8335 10563  67 56  62 42  25 13  2.97 2.60 (not nephrite)  Unmodified S t r i a t i o n s over both f a c e s , s i n g l e b e v e l on b i t end, s i d e s ground s t r a i g h t and p a r a l l e l , not sawn  Zone A  7544 7339  109 123  80 65  40 16  ____  7383 7991 10072  80 96 145  37 52 43  27 25 41  ----  Abrasion on both f a c e s Abrasion one f a c e , one end B i f a c i a l l y f l a k e d same end Overall surface abrasion Unmodified Surface a b r a s i o n  12824  203  160  33  12834  52  39  14  2.90  Saw groove one f a c e , s u r f a c e g r i n d i n g same f a c e B i f a c i a l l y f l a k e d , no g r i n d i n g  68 55 68 81  62 55 55 55  25 24 22 25  Backhoe Test P i t Surface  Range :  435 435b 1059 1054  160 1055 113 1057 87 53 64 1057b 107 1058 70 91 1058b 88 115 103 1056 89 203 mm.; Width Length 52 39  28 27 31 25 35 40 - 160 mm.5  3.05 3-0 3.16  Unmodified Unmodified Surface abrasion Percussion thinning, extensive grinding Saw groove on one f a c e Unmodified Surface a b r a s i o n Unmodified Unmodified Unmodified Thickness 14 - 40 mm.  232  1 b i t fragment. General D e s c r i p t i o n s assemblage  Some o f the adze blades i n the Katz  show s i m i l a r i t y i n form, however, the sample i s  s m a l l and d i s t i n c t groupings a r e not w e l l d e f i n e d .  In one  form, of which f i v e complete specimens are on hand  (numbers  9539 and 6150, F i g u r e 70, f , a, Zone Aj 351 and 527, F i g u r e 70 b, h, S u r f a c e ; 12078, F i g u r e 7 L  a, Backhoe Test P i t ) the  p o l l and b i t ends are almost the same width while the s i d e s are s l i g h t l y convex.  The p o l l i s g e n e r a l l y rounded and the  b i t s t r a i g h t a t r i g h t angles t o the l o n g a x i s of the adze blade.  With the e x c e p t i o n of one t o o l  (number 1049, S u r f a c e )  the b i t i s c r e a t e d by the continuous convergence o f the two f a c e s without a d d i t i o n a l b e v e l .  Specimen number 1049 has a  l o n g s l o p i n g t r i a n g u l a r b e v e l which extends back from the working edge on one f a c e . Three o t h e r specimens  (numbers 8541, F i g u r e 71,  c, Zone  A; 3 0 8 , F i g u r e 71, b, S u r f a c e ; 12911, F i g u r e 71, e, Backhoe) are t r a p e z o i d a l with the s i d e s expanding i n s t r a i g h t  lines  from a rounded o r squared p o l l end t o a s t r a i g h t b i t . t o o l s have a s h o r t steep b e v e l on one f a c e .  These  The remaining  specimens do n o t share many d i s c r e t e a t t r i b u t e s .  One s p e c i -  men (number 9539, Zone A) has s i d e s which c o n t r a c t from a rounded p o l l t o a convex b i t .  The remaining specimens are  asymmetrical i n form with one s t r a i g h t s i d e r e s u l t i n g from a saw groove and one convex s i d e which i s the n a t u r a l curvature of the pebble from which they were made. (number I 3 I 8 I ,  One complete  adze  Backhoe Test P i t ) appears to be i n the process  of b e i n g s e c t i o n e d i n two by sawing.  A deep saw groove i s i n  TABLE LXI M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s of Complete General Location  Artefact Number  Length (mm.)  or N e a r l y Complete Adze Blades  Width of Bit (mm.)  Maximum Width (mm.)  10 20 25*  14 20 34  Width of Poll (mm.)  Thickness (mm.)  Specific Gravity  12 7 27  12 7 13  2.93 2.90 2.90  Zone A  9539 8541 6150  Surface  1049 308  100 94  32* 48  40 48  25 27  15 15  351 527 3212 :33^5 3256  95* 58 68 69 63 84 83 45 34 80  32* 26 25 26 27  41 29 25 27 30  R 23 20 18 20  14 15 12 8 16  7 21 41 17 57  29 33 41 17 57  27 30* 32 13 35  21 23 8 9 18  55 70 75*  12134 13531 12911 12078 13181 R - Too round to measure * - E s t i m a t e ; t o o l incomplete Length Ranges - 34 - 1 0 0 Width o f B i t Ranges - 7-57 Maximum Width Ranges - 1 4 - 4 8 P o l l Width Ranges - 7-35  Backhoe Test P i t  General Proveniences  (not  3.02 2.61 nephrite) 2.94 3.00 3.01 2.93 3.00 2.80 3.00 2.95 2.98 3.05  mm. mm. mm. mm.  3 complete or n e a r l y complete adzes, 3 p o l l fragments 1 b i t fragment Zone B - N i l Surface - 7 Complete t o o l s , 4 p o l l fragments, 2 m i d - s e c t i o n fragments Backhoe Test P i t - 5 complete or n e a r l y so, 3 p o l l fragments Zone A  -  234  evidence  on one  Nephrite  Chisels  f a c e of the t o o l  (Figure  69).  Number of Specimens:  4 (Table LXII, F i g u r e 7 2 ,  General  These t o o l s have been separated  Description:  the adze blades  Two  from  on the b a s i s of t h e i r extreme thinness  the absence of g r i n d i n g on one the b i t .  a-d)  of these  and  face except along the edge of  t o o l s (numbers 5 5 0 5 ,  349,  Surface)  appear to be primary f l a k e s which have been removed from extremely s m a l l pebbles;  the n a t u r a l curvature  i s r e t a i n e d a t the p o l l end. was  recovered  Nephrite  Only one  from Zone A (Figure 72  Perforator  of the pebbles 3316)  specimen (number  d).  (Drill?)  Number of Specimens:  1  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  A narrow s l i v e r of ground n e p h r i t e  (number 12107) was dimensions are: blunted,  ( F i g u r e 72  recovered  from the Backhoe Test P i t .  l e n g t h 52 mm.  x diameter 7 mm.  the other p o i n t e d and  Nephrite End  h)  One  Its  end i s  triangular i n cross-section.  Blades  Number of Specimens:  3 (Figure 7 2 ,  General  These t o o l s are based on t h i n f l a k e s  Description:  e-g)  of n e p h r i t e which have been ground i n t o a l e a f - s h a p e . men  number 9398 (Zone A) has  l e n g t h 29 mm.  x width 11  mm.  p o i n t e d and unground on one  Speci-  the f o l l o w i n g dimensions: x thickness 3 " i . m  face.  It i s b i -  Number 8262 (Zone A) i s  TABLE LXII M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s of C h i s e l s General Location Zone A Surface  Thickness (mm.)  Specific Gravity  12*  3  3.00  21  15  6  3.00  22  22  16  5  3.00  25  26  21  5  3.10  Width of B i t (mm.)  Maximum Width (mm. )  Artefact Number  Length (mm.)  3316  24  16  16  3^9  42  21  1051  32  5505  30  E s t i m a t e ; t o o l incomplete  Width of P o l l (mm.)  236  ground on the edges only.  The  so the l e n g t h i s estimated. x width 20 mm.  mm.  rounded.  One  t i p i s m i s s i n g from t h i s  The  dimensions a r e :  x t h i c k n e s s 3 mm.  l a r g e specimen was  s u r f a c e of the s i t e .  The  base i s s l i g h t l y  recovered  The  base i s s t r a i g h t .  from the d i s t u r b e d  s t r i a t i o n s from g r i n d i n g are  p l a i n l y v i s i b l e on the s u r f a c e of the t o o l . l e n g t h 75 mm.  55  length  I t i s b i f a c i a l l y ground with a double  b e v e l along both.edges.  are:  tool  x width 30 mm.  I t s dimensions  x thickness 3.5  These a r t e f a c t s may  mm.;  the  have been used to  arm  composite t o g g l i n g harpoon heads i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n to the c u t t i n g p o i n t s of s l a t e r e p o r t e d by Borden ( 1 9 7 0 ) . a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t these Nephrite  It i s  t o o l s were used as p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s .  Detritus  Number of Specimens:  Zone A - 130  pieces  15  pieces  - 59  pieces  Zone B Surface  Backhoe Test P i t - 3^ p i e c e s General  Description:  A l a r g e a r r a y of n e p h r i t e d e t r i t u s  c o n s i s t i n g of s m a l l percussed  f l a k e s , sawn remnants,  s e c t i o n e d boulders have been recovered  from the s i t e .  and Tests  f o r s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y were c a r r i e d out on a l l of the Zone B detritus.  Fourteen  of n e p h r i t e and Miscellaneous  p i e c e s were w i t h i n the 2 . 9  to 3 « 1  one had a s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y r e a d i n g of  range 2.6.  Stone A r t e f a c t s  An elongate  b a s a l t t o o l (number 1 3 2 8 2 ) ; (length 20 cm.  x  23?  width 5»8  x thickness 2.0  cms.  cms.)  with a s e r i e s of  c o n c a v i t i e s along both l a t e r a l edges was Backhoe T e s t P i t .  The  recovered  chipped  from the  specimen i s plano-convex i n c r o s s -  s e c t i o n and has a pronounced tang or h a f t element, a p p r o x i mately 5 cms.  l o n g a t one  end.  The wear w i t h i n the  concavi-  t i e s extends a few m i l l i m e t e r s onto both f a c e s of the A s i m i l a r specimen from Katz was by. a p r i v a t e c o l l e c t o r . which these  recovered  from the  surface  Suggestions r e g a r d i n g the way  t o o l s were used are h i g h l y s p e c u l a t i v e .  i n the c o n c a v i t i e s may  tool.  in  The  wear  p o s s i b l y have been c r e a t e d through  use as a s p e c i a l i z e d t o o l f o r the c u t t i n g of grasses  or  s i m i l a r p l a n t s , i . e . , as a k i n d of h a f t e d s i c k l e .  Another  p o s s i b i l i t y may  carding  be t h a t the t o o l f u n c t i o n e d i n the  of some animal f i b e r s such as mountain goat or dog wool. See  F i g u r e 75 a. (length 1.3  An unusual form of p l a n i n g (?) t o o l width 4 . 8  cms.  x thickness 4 . 0  cms.)  was  cms.  found on the  x  distur-  bed  s u r f a c e at the s i t e .  and  l e a f - s h a p e d with a t h i c k hump i n the middle o n e - t h i r d of  the a r t e f a c t .  The  I t i s plano-convex i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n ,  d o r s a l face i s covered  edges are extremely steep and b a t t e r e d . p o s s i b l y have had One A.  This t o o l could  (number 3001)  I t s dimensions are l e n g t h 1 2 . 5 cms.  the  a p l a n i n g or s c r a p i n g f u n c t i o n .  edge ground cobble  thickness 3 . 2  with cortex and  The  i n c l u s i o n s of garnet.  cms.  i s present  i n Zone  x width 6 cms.  x  m a t e r i a l i s a hard s c h i s t with  small  1.5  cms.  A ground f a c e t approximately  i n width f o l l o w s the curvature  of the pebble along one  edge.  238  T h i s t o o l may have f u n c t i o n e d as a g r i n d i n g implement p r e p a r a t i o n of pigment 75  or some p l a n t m a t e r i a l s .  i n the  See F i g u r e  c There i s one r i v e r pebble (number 3 5 2 ) with p i t t i n g on 2  each end and near the middle o f the pebble on both edges. The l a t e r a l p i t t i n g may be a m o d i f i c a t i o n t o f a c i l i t a t e l a s h i n g t o a h a f t o r f o r the placement of a l i n e f o r use as a net s i n k e r .  The p i t t i n g on both ends, however, suggests some  pounding or hammering f u n c t i o n . Hand Mauls  (Fragments)  See F i g u r e 75 b.  ( F i g u r e s 73 and 74)  There are s i x complete or fragmentary p o r t i o n s of pecked and ground hand mauls i n the Katz sample. 74.  See F i g u r e s 73 and  The dimensions, g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n , and the g e n e r a l  s i t e provenience i s p r o v i d e d  f o r each specimen i n the f o l l o w -  ing table. TABLE LXIII Hand Mauls Artefact Number  Length, Width & Thickness (cm.)  6615 ( t e s t trench u n i t south 344-350 f t . east 9 0 - 9 6 f t . )  12  x 9 . 2 x 7«3  T h i s hand maul i s i n complete on the p r o x i mal end. The d i s t a l or b a s a l p o r t i o n has an expanded c o l l a r about 4 . 5 cms. wide which e n c i r c l e s the f l a t base. T h i s i s the only excavated specimen from the s i t e , see F i g ure 73 c.  100a (proximal or top fragment)  14  x 6.5 x 6.5  T h i s i s only the top p o r t i o n of the hand maul. I t has two broad  Description  239  TABLE L X I I I Artefact Number  (Continued)  Length, Width & Thickness (cm.)  Description c o n c e n t r i c grooves which e n c i r c l e the p r o ximal end. The t i p shows some evidence of b a t t e r i n g and one l a r g e f l a k e s c a r runs l o n g i t u d i n a l l y from the t i p across the two e n c i r c l i n g rings. This wear on the t i p may have r e s u l t e d from use i n making an i n d e n t a t i o n i n the wood p r i o r to the s e t t i n g of the wedges, see F i g u r e 7 3 a .  689 ( d i s t a l or basal fragment)  9.5  x 7.7  x  6.0  T h i s specimen was found on the d i s t u r b e d s u r f a c e of the s i t e . The f l a t base of the hand maul shows extens i v e b a t t e r i n g which eventually resulted i n a longitudinal split of the t o o l , F i g u r e 7 3 d .  690 ( d i s t a l or basal fragment)  13.0  x 7.0  x  4.5  This tool i s also f r a c tured l o n g i t u d i n a l l y . I t has an expanded c o l l a r which e n c i r c l e s the b a s a l p o r t i o n f o r a d i s t a n c e of 3 . 5 cms. T h i s fragment was r e covered from the d i s turbed s u r f a c e .  25.0  x 9.6  x  7.0  T h i s specimen i s a t an i n c i p i e n t stage of manufacture. The b a s a l end has been pecked f l a t , and a broad patch near the middle onet h i r d of the hand maul on one face shows pecking. T h i s specimen i s a l s o from the d i s t u r b e d s u r f a c e , see F i g u r e 7 4 .  691  240  TABLE L X I I I (Continued) Artefact Number  L e n g t h , Width & T h i c k n e s s (cm.)  688  fragment - no measurements taken  (fragment w i t h a broad pecked groove)  Zoomorphic  Description From the d i s t u r b e d surface of the s i t e . T h i s fragment i s s p a l l l i k e i n form w i t h a pecked groove 4 cms. i n diameter running a c r o s s one f a c e and heavy b a t t e r i n g on>the t h i c k end.  Carving  A s m a l l zoomorphic c a r v i n g (number 1 0 6 0 ) was found on t h e See F i g u r e 7 6 , d.  disturbed surface of the s i t e .  I t i s an  e r e c t b i r d f i g u r i n e which s i t s on a f l a t bases the d e s i g n i s i n c i s e d i n t o the s o f t s t e a t i t e .  On e i t h e r s i d e o f the body  p o r t i o n o f t h e c a r v i n g a s e r i e s o f c o n v e r g i n g l i n e s form wingl i k e elements.  An i n c i s e d comb o r c r e s t - l i k e f o r m a t i o n i s  p r e s e n t on the t o p o f t h e head.  The eyes a r e c l a s s i c a l N o r t h -  west Coast eye forms, broad and l e n t i c u l a r as d e f i n e d by Holm (1971;  37-40).  Two s t r a i g h t l i n e s converge t o a p o i n t on t h e  f a c e t o form a b e a k - l i k e element; above and beneath the beak are  d r o o p i n g , rounded f o l d s .  There i s a s m a l l p i e c e m i s s i n g  from t h e back o f t h e f i g u r i n e which may have been a p r o j e c t i o n i n d i c a t i n g the t a i l .  T h i s d e p r e s s i o n on t h e back i s i r r e g u l a r  i n shape and does n o t appear t o be a d e l i b e r a t e attempt t o c r e a t e a bowl d e p r e s s i o n . Ground Stone P i p e A t u b u l a r s t e a t i t e p i p e (number 13-547» F i g u r e 7 6 , c) was  241  r e c o v e r e d from the Backhoe Test P i t e x c a v a t i o n . s i o n s of the pipe are: b a r r e l i s 1.3  cms.  l e n g t h 6 cms.  The dimen-  x width 24 cms.  The  i n diameter a t the narrow end and 1.7  at the opposite end.  There i s a p e r f o r a t e d l a t e r a l  cms.  projection  which extends a l o n g the pipe from the l a r g e end, a d i s t a n c e of 3 . 2  cms.  T h i s p e r f o r a t i o n shows p o l i s h , presumably  r e s u l t of a b r a s i o n from suspension.  the  Pipes s i m i l a r i n form  but without the p e r f o r a t i o n have been r e p o r t e d from the Lochnore-Nesikep l o c a l i t y  (Sanger, 1970:  Sandstone Bead ( F i g u r e 76,  90).  a)  Only one d r i l l e d bead was  found a t Katz.  This  specimen  (number 135^6) i s a b i c o n i c a l l y d r i l l e d bead of sandstone, 18 mm.  i n diameter and 7 mm.  thick.  I t was r e c o v e r e d from  the backhoe t e s t p i t t r e n c h . P h y l l i t e Spindle-Shaped Object ( F i g u r e 7 6 , A small p h y l l i t e s p i n d l e fragment cavated from the Zone A. d e p o s i t .  b)  (number 6392)  was  I t i s incomplete, with a  p o r t i o n m i s s i n g from one end and i t appears to have been lengthwise.  The dimensions are:  x t h i c k n e s s 4 mm.  l e n g t h 28 mm.  split  x width 11  I t i s plano-convex i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n with  the s e r i e s of 5 c o n c e n t r i c l i n e s i n c i s e d a c r o s s the f a c e only.  ex-  convex  A s i m i l a r specimen was r e c o v e r e d from the Eayem  Phase i n the F r a s e r Canyon Eayem Phase (Borden, 1966:  16).  Cobble Mortar A cobble mortar of g r a n i t e (number 9886) was  found i n  mm.  242  Zone A (Pithouse cms.  1).  i n diameter, and  6.0  cms.  one  face.  The  cobble  8.5  cms. 2.0  i n diameter and There i s no  A shallow  deep has  depression  been pecked i n t o  s t a i n i n the d e p r e s s i o n  what m a t e r i a l the mortar may graphite,  thick.  cms.  11.5  i s approximately round,  have contained,  to suggest  e.g.,  ochre,  etc.  Graphite Number of Specimenss  7 (Figure 7 8 ,  General  A l l specimens i n t h i s sample show  Descriptions  a-c)  evidence of m o d i f i c a t i o n through g r i n d i n g .  Specimen number  8877  (Zone As  x thickness  mm.)  i s the l a r g e s t p i e c e recovered  l e n g t h 5 7 mm.  x width 46 mm.  from the s i t e .  ground f a c e t s over most of the edge and face.  12 mm.  x width 1 1  with one  x t h i c k n e s s 6 mim)  mm.  I t has  a polished  Another specimen, number 6 6 5 7 i  on one  16  depression  (Zone As  length  i s a ground fragment  one h a l f of a b i c o n i c a l l y d r i l l e d hole i n evidence. specimen from Zone B, number 1 0 0 5 0 ,  p i e c e , length 13 mm.  x width 12 mm.  The  i s a rectangular  x t h i c k n e s s 6 mm.  t i o n s from a b r a s i o n are c l e a r l y e v i d e n t  Stria-  on a l l edges.  remaining f o u r specimens are s m a l l fragments with  The  ground  facets. General  Proveniences  Zone A  - 6 specimens  Zone B  - 1  specimen  Steatite Number of Specimenss  1  General  T h i s specimen, number 8987»  Descriptions  (Figure 7 8 ,  d) (Zone As  243  l e n g t h 55 mm,  x width 3 5 mm.  x t h i c k n e s s 14 mm.)  i s a fragment  which has been sawn on both l a t e r a l and one t r a n s v e r s e edge. On one face the cleavage  planes are p l a i n l y v i s i b l e .  The  sawing of s t e a t i t e has been r e p o r t e d i n the Baldwin Phase of the F r a s e r Canyon sequence (Borden, 1966: 1 5 ) • Pigment (Ochre) Number of Specimens:  General  Description:  32 p i e c e s  (Zone A)  1 piece  (Zone B)  These p i e c e s of ochre range i n s i z e  from t e n m i l l i m e t e r s t o 38 m i l l i m e t e r s , and i n c o l o u r from p a l e yellow t o r e d d i s h orange.  Most of the specimens are  extremely f r i a b l e with no ground f a c e t s from a b r a s i o n i n evidence.  S i x p i e c e s a r e hard and b r i t t l e ,  s u l t of burning.  The edge ground cobble  p o s s i b l y the r e -  (number 3 0 0 1 ) des-  c r i b e d e a r l i e r , F i g u r e ? 5 , c, appears to have some r e d d i s h and yellow m a t e r i a l lodged edge. The  i n the i n t e r s t i c e s of the ground  T h i s may be an implement f o r g r i n d i n g such pigments.  s i n g l e p i e c e found i n Zone B (number 8181) does not appear  to have been burnt. Mica  (Muscovite?)  Number of Specimens:  21 p i e c e s  General  T h i n p i e c e s of mica between 11  Description:  (Zone A)  meters and 36 m i l l i m e t e r s i n maximum dimension were from Zone A o n l y .  recovered  T h i s m a t e r i a l may have served some  a t i v e or ornamental purpose.  milli-  decor-  244  A b r a s i v e Stones A b r a s i v e s of sandstones and s c h i s t s of v a r i o u s grades of coarseness occur i n both zones.  These m a t e r i a l s were used as  saws and g r i n d i n g s l a b s i n the manufacture of t o o l s ground from stone and organic m a t e r i a l s .  Most abundant are abraders  made of g a r n e t i f e r o u s and micacious s c h i s t s .  Sandstone  abraders of a wide range of g r a i n s i z e , f r i a b i l i t y and degree of i n d u r a t i o n a l s o occur i n s m a l l numbers. The a c t u a l c u t t i n g was done by the hard quartz and garnet c r y s t a l s cemented  i n a c l a y or s i l t m a t r i x .  The hardness of  these m i n e r a l s i s s u f f i c i e n t to abrade rocks with the f i b r o u s m i n e r a l s t r u c t u r e of the amphibole group such as n e p h r i t e and to g r i n d with ease s o f t e r m a t e r i a l s such as s l a t e , bone, and antler.  The presence of ground n e p h r i t e and ground s l a t e i n  both zones has been mentioned e a r l i e r .  D i r e c t evidence of  the sawing and g r i n d i n g of wood, a n t l e r , and bone i s absent due to the l a c k of p r e s e r v a t i o n i n these m a t e r i a l s a t the s i t e . Semenov (1964t 69)  suggests t h a t the a d d i t i o n of water  to the abraded s u r f a c e would g i v e some a b r a s i v e s " s e l f sharpening" p r o p e r t i e s .  The a t t r i t i o n of the a b r a s i v e would  cause the b l u n t worn out c r y s t a l s to drop out and o t h e r sharp c r y s t a l s to appear i f the waste products of the a d d i t i o n of s i l i c a sand would f a c i l i t a t e sawing or g r i n d i n g . The a b r a s i v e s of each zone w i l l be' c o n s i d e r e d s e p a r a t e l y . Sepcimens with one or more ground edges which i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n are U- or V-shaped have been d e s c r i b e d as saws.  The remain-  i n g specimens which are ground on one or two f a c e s and which  245  l a c k evidence  of edge g r i n d i n g have been grouped as  and/or whet stones. a b r a s i v e plaques,  Some saws may  and  abraders  a l s o have f u n c t i o n e d  some of the plaques may  as  be p o r t i o n s of  saws. Saws (Zone A) Number of Specimenss  87  (Figure  79)  General D e s c r i p t i o n s  Most of the specimens are  They are g e n e r a l l y made of a g a r n e t i f e r o u s or  fragmentary.  micacious  s c h i s t , or a v a r i e t y of f r i a b l e sandstone which has been flat  along a bedding plane.  Some of the more complete s p e c i -  mens show they have been used as saws on more than one A few r e c t a n g u l o i d p i e c e s are ground on three edges. l e n g t h 130  l a r g e s t specimen i s s ness 13 mm.  mm.  x width 105  saws as i s shown i n Table LXIV.  a range of f i v e to seven m i l l i m e t e r s .  The x thick-  One  Most f a l l  edge - 10 mm.,  second edge - 9 mm.,  within  unusual specimen  three edges a l l of a d i f f e r e n t t h i c k n e s s  first  mm.  edge.  A c o n s i d e r a b l e range i n t h i c k n e s s i s e v i d e n t  among those  has  split  (number 9889»  t h i r d edge - 5*5  mm.).  Saws (Zone B) Number of Specimenss  15  General  A l l specimens are fragmentary.  Descriptions  (Table XLV,  Figure  m a t e r i a l s are s i m i l a r to the sandstone and  80) The  schistose abrasives  of Zone A, but the saws i n t h i s s m a l l sample are p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y thicker.  I t may  be t h a t the sawing of n e p h r i t e i n Zone B  mainly concerned with the s e c t i o n i n g of l a r g e r cobbles  and  was  TABLE LXIV Thickness Range o f Saws From Zone A Thickness Number of Saws  3.5  4.0  3  3  4.5  5.0  (mm.)  5.5  6.0  12  11  Thickness Number of Saws  9.0  9.5  10.0  10.5  11.0  6.5  7.0  7.5  8.0  10  3  5  8.5  (mm.) 11.5  12.6  12.5  13.0  13.5  7.0  7.5  1  N - 87 Specimens 58$ t o t a l specimens range between f i v e and seven mm.  i n thickness  TABLE LXV Thickness Range of Saws From Zone B  Number of Saws  Number of Saws  3.0  3.5  4.0  0 8.5  N - 15 Specimens  9.0  Thickness (mm.) 4.5 5.0 5.5 0  9.5  0  6.0  0  0  Thickness (mm.) 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 0  0  6.5  0  12.0 0  8.0 0  12.5 0  13.0 1  247  boulders  ( F i g u r e s 6 6 and 6 7 ) .  Abrasive  Slabs  (Zone A)  Number o f Specimens:  1 8 4 (Figure 8 1 )  General  These are f l a t i r r e g u l a r p i e c e s of  Description:  sandstone and s c h i s t s p l i t plane. sent.  from a l a r g e r b l o c k along a bedding  Some l a r g e p i e c e s o f a b r a s i v e m a t e r i a l are a l s o preOne specimen i s over 300 mm. i n l e n g t h with a maximum  t h i c k n e s s o f 110 mm.  Most of the specimens are fragments or  remnants exhausted through use. The  a b r a s i v e stones a r e predominantly of the s c h i s t o s e  v a r i e t y , with  the sandstone abraders  t e n d i n g to be o f a coarse  g r a i n e d and f r i a b l e type w e l l s u i t e d f o r heavy g r i n d i n g . Whet stones  o f s i l i c i f i e d s i l t s t o n e with wide deep  have a l s o been recovered The  a b r a s i v e stones  depressions  from t h i s zone i n s m a l l numbers.  range i n s i z e from l a r g e r e c t a n g u l o i d  s l a b s (number 8983: l e n g t h 201 mm. x width 130 mm... x t h i c k ness 4 5 mm.)  t o p i e c e s only a few m i l l i m e t e r s i n t h i c k n e s s .  Monihan ( 1 9 6 9 )  c a r r i e d out a d e t a i l e d study o f abraders  from the O l d Musqueam S i t e .  Included i n h i s a n a l y s i s was a  c a r e f u l examination of the kinds o f a b r a s i v e m a t e r i a l s  utili-  zed, the g r a i n s i z e s of these m a t e r i a l s , and the kinds and degree of wear i n evidence. types o f g r i n d i n g :  He d i s t i n g u i s h e d mainly two  p l a n a r and l i n e a r .  Planar g r i n d i n g  would tend t o c r e a t e a f l a t s u r f a c e or a broad shallow s s i o n on an a b r a s i v e s l a b . an elongate  depression.  depre-  L i n e a r g r i n d i n g tends to c r e a t e  The importance of n o t i n g  these  248  d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t r i t i o n of the a b r a s i v e i s to enable one to make i n f e r e n c e s about  the kinds of t o o l s b e i n g  manufactured.  In, the Katz sample o n l y a few a b r a s i v e s have a narrow elongate d e p r e s s i o n which might i n d i c a t e l i n e a r Most of the s l a b s have a f l a t  s u r f a c e or a broad  grinding. shallow  d e p r e s s i o n ( F i g u r e 81). Abrasive S l a b s (Zone B)  to  Number of Specimens:  48  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  The  those found i n Zone A.  s i v e m a t e r i a l predominantly few fragments  ( F i g u r e 82) types of specimens are The  sample i s comprised  of abra-  of a s c h i s t o s e type rock with a  of coarse f r i a b l e sandstone.  s u r f a c e s or broad shallow d e p r e s s i o n s . narrow elongate grooves  similar  S l a b s have f l a t  No specimens with  or deep d e p r e s s i o n s were found i n  t h i s zone. There are a number of known sources of g a r n e t i f e r o u s and micacious s c h i s t i n the v i c i n i t y of the Katz s i t e . Creek,  approximately twelve m i l e s downriver from Katz,  Ruby was  so named because of the q u a n t i t i e s of g a r n e t i f e r o u s s c h i s t i n the r i v e r bed.  S i m i l a r kinds of s c h i s t are washed out of  t e r t i a r y d e p o s i t s by the creeks between Yale and Hope. S p l i t Bone Awls Number of Specimens:  2 ( F i g u r e 83)  General D e s c r i p t i o n :  One  6603)  was  complete  s p l i t bone awl  recovered from the t e s t p i t u n i t South  (number  344'-350'»  249  E a s t 90'-96\ (primary b a s e l i n e ) . specimen a r e : A midsection  l e n g t h 89 mm.  mm.  fragment (number 8 3 0 1 ) was found i n the Zone A  t h i c k n e s s 10 mm.  36),  x thickness 8  x width 14 mm.  d e p o s i t ; i t s dimensions a r e :  v e r te br ae  The dimensions of t h i s  l e n g t h 6 ? mm.  x width 25 mm.  With the e x c e p t i o n of a few small  found i n a Zone B hearth  feature  fish  ( f e a t u r e number  these s p l i t bone awls are the only a r t e f a c t s of organic  m a t e r i a l recovered  from the s i t e .  x  ARTEFACT SUMMARY SHEET Artefact Categories  Zone A B  Surface  Backhoe  Group Total  Chipped Stone P o i n t s : Unstemmed  Group Group Group Group  1: 2: 3: 4:  Single Shouldered  Group 5«  Bilaterally Shouldered  Group 7:  Group 6:  Group 8: Group 9 : Group 30:  CornerNotched: No Barbs  Group IL:  CornerNotched; Barbs  Group 13:  BasallyNotched? Barbed  Group 15: Group 36: Group 17: Category  Group 32:  Group 34:  large leaf-shaped medium t o s m a l l l e a f - s h a p e d s m a l l , broad, s t r a i g h t based large t r i a n g u l a r (points or preforms) l a r g e s i n g l e shouldered, cont r a c t i n g stem s m a l l , s i n g l e shouldered, c o n t r a c t i n g stem narrow, t h i c k , excurvate blade, c o n t r a c t i n g stem broad, t h i n , excurvate blade, c o n t r a c t i n g stem t r i a n g u l a r blade, c o n t r a c t i n g stem excurvate blade, s l i g h t l y expanding stem wide corner notch,?expanding stem, excurvate blade narrow c o r n e r notch, expandi n g stem, t r i a n g u l a r blade broad t r i a n g u l a r o r excurvate blade, expanding stem expanding stem, narrow excurvate blade, concave base broad blade, broad stem extreme barbs, narrow stem s m a l l , s i d e notched Total - 135  2 6 8  3 1  2 1 2  1 5 1  1  3 18 11  1  1  4  2  3  1  3 8  4  2  2  7  1  3  7  2  3  16  1  3  2 6  4  8  2  2  13  20  -  6  3  3  3  4  3  10  4 1  1 2 2  5 5 5 2  2 3  2  ARTEFACT SUMMARY SHEET Artefact Categories  (Continued) Zone  A  B  Surface  Backhoe  Tota!  Formed B i f a c e s Group Group Group Group Group Group  leaf-shaped bifaces b i f a c e s with broad bases 2: t riangular bifaces 3«stemmed bifaces 4: plano-convex bifaces 5' b i f a c e s with retouched 6: projections Group 7 : b i f a c e fragments ( 8 0 specimens) Subgroup Is l a r g e b i f a c e fragments Subgroup 2s p o i n t e d b i f a c e fragments Subgroup 3$ medial b i f a c e fragments Subgroup 4$ convex (rounded) or s t r a i g h t based b i f a c e fragments M i s c e l l a n e o u s formed b i f a c e s Is  7 6  3 2  7  1  2  3  2 1  2  14 9  2 8  3 3  6  1 10 1  1 13 3  8 40  9  4  1  20 3  7  N/A  N/A  7  1  1  3 5  12 1 5  1  1 5  2 1  5  Category T o t a l - 1 1 8 Unformed  Bifaces  Category  Total - 7  Formed U n i f a c e s Group  1:  Group  2:  Group  3'  Group  4s  round to o v a l u n i f a c e s with steep retouch elongate u n i f a c e s with steep end retouch r e c t a n g u l o i d u n i f a c e s with steep end retouch t r i a n g u l a r u n i f a c e s with steep retouch  2  4-  1  12  6  2  7  15  4  1  2  7  6  1  ARTEFACT SUMMARY SHEET Artefact Categories  (Continued) Zone  A  Surface  B  Backhoe  Total  Formed U n i f a c e s 5*  formed u n i f a c e s with retouched projections: Subgroup t o o l s with broad blade elements (complete) T i p fragments Medial fragments B a s a l fragments t o o l s with narrow blade Subgroup 2 : elements (complete) T i p fragments diamond shaped t o o l s Subgroup 3« u n i f a c e s with continuous marginal Group 6: retouch Group 7: b l a d e - l i k e u n i f a c e s with l a t e r a l retouch Group 8: b i l a t e r a l l y retouched macroblades Group 9 : t h i n t r i a n g u l a r u n i f a c e s with s t r a i g h t edges Group 1 0 : crescent-shaped u n i f a c e s M i s c e l l a n e ous formed u n i f a c e s Group  12 3  5 1 1  2 3  1  1 1  19 3 1 4 4 1 5  5 4  24 2  7 1  13 1 2 3  2 2 2  2 4 6  N/A  124  Category T o t a l - 115 101  Unformed U n i f a c e s  23  N/A.  Category T o t a l - 124 Bipolar Flake Tools (pieces esquillees) Category T o t a l -  26  17  26  ARTEFACT SUMMARY SHEET Artefact Categories  A  (Continued) Zone  B  Surface  Backhoe  Total  Quartz I n d u s t r y quartz cores quartz c r y s t a l s and fragments  5 125  2 3  129 25 3 16  28 5  7 152  14  10  N/A  7 15  N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A  N/A N/A N/A  157 30 3 23 102  69  N/A  N/A  510  146  21  N/A  N/A  167  18  7  N/A  N/A  25  109  29  N/A  N/A  138  27  11  N/A  N/A  38  57  14  N/A  N/A  71  Category T o t a l - 159 Cortex S p a l l T o o l s Secondarily flaked spalls Spokeshave-like s p a l l s Cortex S p a l l Saws Edge b a t t e r e d s p a l l s S p a l l s with abraded or worn edges Cortex s p a l l s without r e a d i l y observable wear  87 441  N/A  Category T o t a l - 825 Cortex S p a l l Fragments Category T o t a l - 167 Cortex S p a l l  Cores  Category T o t a l -  25  Cores Core T o o l s : Group  1:  Group  2:  l a r g e core t o o l s ( s c r a p i n g planes) s m a l l , t h i c k , d i s d o i d a l core tools  ARTEFACT SUMMARY SHEET  Zone  Artefact Categories Cores Group Group  3« 4:  Category  t h i n , d i s c o i d a l core t o o l s spoke-shave l i k e core t o o l s  Pebble  Total -  Total -  Edge B a t t e r e d Category  N/A  N/A  272  15  N/A  N/A  15  17  N/A  N/A  19  4  69  7  Cobbles  Total -  Total -  Total -  ro -p-  19  7 31 46  Anvilstones Category  N/A N/A  31  N/A  4  15  Hammerstones Category  N/A  23  T o t a l - 272  Tools  Category  Backhoe  203  S p l i t Cobble Tools Category  Total  Surface  B  Total - 282  Core Fragments Category  (Continued)  3  M i s c e l l a n e o u s Chipped Stone Tools Elongate t o o l with b i l a t e r a l l y concavity  chipped  11  46  ARTEFACT SUMMARY SHEET Artefact Categories  (Continued) Zone  A  B  Surface  Backhoe  Total  N/A N/A N/A  102 232 3  M i s c e l l a n e o u s Chipped Stone Tools Category  Total -  1  Abrasive Stones Saws Slabs Whetstones Category  87 184 3  15 48  N/A. N/A N/A  5 1 1 2 3 421  1 1 1  3  T o t a l - 337  Ground S l a t e Ground s l a t e p o i n t s complete or n e a r l y so Ground s l a t e p o i n t t i p fragments b a s a l fragments preforms or end blades? Ground s l a t e knives complete fragments preforms Category  Total -  185  130  Total -  1  1  2  2  B i f a c i a l l y sawn blade Category  2  3 47 3  9 2 2 4 6 783 3  T o t a l - 809  M i s c e l l a n e o u s ground s l a t e a r t e f a c t s specimens with s e r r a t e d edges Category  0  1  1  1  ARTEFACT SUMMARY SHEET (Continued) Artefact Categories Elongate o b j e c t  (pin  Zone B  Surface  Backhoe  Total  perforator?)  1  Category T o t a l Nephrite Pebbles and cobbles  10  19  19  Category T o t a l -  Adze b l a d e s (complete o r n e a r l y so) p o l l fragments b i t fragments m i d s e c t i o n fragments Category T o t a l -  3 3 1  7 4  5 3  15 10 1 2  28  Nephrite c h i s e l s Category T o t a l Elongate o b j e c t  4 ( p e r f o r a t o r or d r i l l ) 1  Category T o t a l Nephrite end blades Category T o t a l -  3  Nephrite d e t r i t u s  (pieces)  Category T o t a l - 238  130  15  59  3^  238  ARTEFACT SUMMARY SHEET  Zone  Artefact Categories Hand Mauls (1 350'  A  B  Surface  Backhoe  Total  specimen from u n i t 33^'  S, 90-96  E)  Category T o t a l Edge Ground  (Continued)  6  Cobbles  Category T o t a l -  1  Zoomorphic C a r v i n g Category T o t a l Ground Stone  (Tubular) Pipe  Category T o t a l -  1  Sandstone Bead ( b i c o n i c a l l y Category T o t a l Cobble  ro -o  1  1  Mortar  Category T o t a l -  1  P h y l l i t e Spindle Category T o t a l -  1  Graphite G r a p h i t e with ground f a c e t s  drilled)  ARTEFACT SUMMARY SHEET Artefact Categories  (Continued) Zone  A  B  Surface  Backhoe  Total  Graphite B i c o n i c a l l y d r i l l e d graphite Category T o t a l -  N/A  -  1  32  1  33  33 21  Mica (Muscovite?) Category T o t a l -  1 1  Pigment (Ochre) Category T o t a l -  1  7  Steatite Category T o t a l -  1  21  21  Not A p p l i c a b l e ;  a r t e f a c t s not i n c l u d e d  i n this  analysis  CHAPTER V DISCUSSION T h i s chapter begins with a d i s c u s s i o n of the character  general  of each s o i l zone a t the Katz s i t e , f o l l o w e d by  attempt to i n t e g r a t e the s t r a t i g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n , f a c t s and  a r t e f a c t composition, the f e a t u r e s , and  ecology i n order  to determine the nature of the  performed at the s i t e .  the a r t e -  the  lower F r a s e r v a l l e y and  adjacent  posed i n t h i s t h e s i s concerning  activities  p r e v i o u s l y conducted i n the regions.  The  questions  the time depth, d e r i v a t i o n ,  a f f i n i t i e s with other lower F r a s e r v a l l e y c u l t u r e s  then addressed and  information  problems i s presented.  site  Next, the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f i n d i n g s are  examined i n the l i g h t of r e s e a r c h  and  an  from Katz b e a r i n g  At the c o n c l u s i o n of the  s e v e r a l p r o p o s i t i o n s are advanced and  a research  on  are  these  chapter strategy f o r  t e s t i n g these hypotheses i s proposed. In i n t e r p r e t i n g the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l remains from the Katz s i t e two  important caveats must be borne i n mind.  i s t h a t the data are b i a s e d v i v e d the h y p e r a c i d i c stone.  first  toward those a r t e f a c t s which  sur-  s o i l c o n d i t i o n s , i . e . , a r t e f a c t s of  Thus the absence of the broad spectrum of t o o l s made  from organic m a t e r i a l s and  The  i s the r e s u l t of n o n - c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s ,  the presence of such a r t e f a c t s can only be e s t a b l i s h e d a t  259  260  the s i t e through i n f e r e n c e . reasons already discussed designated  The second p r o v i s o i s t h a t f o r  the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l assemblages here  Zone A and Zone B p r o b a b l y do n o t c o n s t i t u t e a  s u f f i c i e n t l y representative  sample.  I t i s probable, therefore,  t h a t t h e range o f v a r i a t i o n i n implements and f e a t u r e s  from  each zone i s n o t e x p r e s s e d i n t h e samples o f a r t e f a c t u a l r e mains which have s u r v i v e d .  These n a t u r a l and  methodological  biases i n the data recovery  are important considerations i n  the e x p l i c a t i o n o f t h e a r c h a e o l o g y o f t h e K a t z s i t e . Zone C, the e x t i n c t r i v e r bed which u n d e r l i e s the e x c a v a t e d c u l t u r a l deposits, i s extremely important despite the f a c t that i t i s a n o n - c u l t u r a l zone.  I t provides  valuable  information  on t h e p a s t dynamics o f t h e r i v e r i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f the s i t e and e s t a b l i s h e s an approximate date a t which t h e p r e s e n t f l o o d p l a i n began t o d e v e l o p .  A c h a r c o a l sample t a k e n from t h e  lowermost c u l t u r a l l a y e r 1.8 f e e t above Zone C has y i e l d e d a date o f 7^5 t 90 B.C. ( I 6189).  The 1.8 f e e t o f s t e r i l e  m a t e r i a l between Zone C and t h i s dated l a y e r c o n s i s t s o f a l t e r n a t i n g bands o f f i n e f l u v i a l sands and s i l t s which i n d i c a t e p e r i o d i c f l o o d i n g by t h e r i v e r .  The r a d i o c a r b o n  assay suggests  t h a t the g r a d u a l r e a l i g n m e n t o f t h e r i v e r ' s course p r o b a b l y took p l a c e some time e a r l y i n t h e f i r s t m i l l e n n i u m  B.C.  Prior  t o t h i s t i m e , Zone C was p a r t o f t h e main c h a n n e l o f t h e r i v e r . As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, t h e e x c a v a t i o n s c u l t u r a l deposit  o f the e a r l i e s t  (Zone B) was conducted w i t h g r e a t c a r e .  emphasis was p l a c e d on t h e h o r i z o n t a l exposure o f f e a t u r e s and  a r t e f a c t a s s o c i a t i o n s , with the r e s u l t that a smaller  An  261  sample of the lowermost l a y e r s was above.  obtained than from  On the o t h e r hand, t h i s slow but meticulous  made p o s s i b l e some extremely  c o n s i s t e n t i n form.  c o n s i s t i n g of c i r c u l a r h e a r t h s alignments  procedure  i n t e r e s t i n g observations.  numerous rock f e a t u r e s encountered remarkably  those  throughout  The  t h i s zone are  "Complexes" of rock f e a t u r e s (rock ovens?) and  elongate  of r i v e r cobbles were found i n the lowermost l a y e r s  of the i n t a c t f l u v i a l d e p o s i t to the east of Pithouse Number 2 (Features 4 and 6 ) , and i n the d e p o s i t which l i e s between Pithouse Numbers 1 and 2 (Features 30 and 3 1 ) .  Stratified  above these l a y e r s with s e p a r a t i o n s of f l u v i a l sands and were s i m i l a r "feature-complexes" a p p a r e n t l y independent  silts  a l o n g with numerous hearths  of elongate rock alignments,  and  o c c a s i o n a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s of stake moulds adjacent t o the hearths.  The  i n t e r b e d d i n g of these c u l t u r a l l a y e r s with bands  of f l u v i a l sediments i n d i c a t e s t h a t the s i t e was s e a s o n a l l y f l o o d e d by the r i v e r .  The  f a c t t h a t the r i v e r t r a n s g r e s s e d  i t s banks d u r i n g t h i s e a r l y time would make the s i t e u n s u i t a b l e f o r use as a permanent or semipermanent o c c u p a t i o n s i t e . over, one may  surmise  on the b a s i s of the u n i f o r m i t y of the  f e a t u r e s i n Zone B, t h a t some r e g u l a r i t y e x i s t e d i n the z a t i o n of the s i t e .  More-  The  utili-  s t r a t i g r a p h y and the f e a t u r e s alone  suggest t h a t t h i s f l u v i a l zone r e p r e s e n t s a s e a s o n a l l y s p e c i a l ized a c t i v i t y site.  S i n c e p e r i o d i c f l o o d i n g e v i d e n t l y rendered  the s i t e i n a c c e s s i b l e f o r use i n the l a t e s p r i n g d u r i n g h i g h water, and hence u n s u i t a b l e f o r use as a semipermanent or permanent h a b i t a t i o n s i t e d u r i n g winter, one must  conclude  262  t h a t the c u l t u r a l l a y e r s of Zone B were probably l a i d down d u r i n g the summer and perhaps  the f a l l .  I f t h i s i s the case,  the a r t e f a c t u a l remains i n these l a y e r s should r e f l e c t some of the k i n d s of a c t i v i t i e s which took p l a c e a t the s i t e  dur-  i n g one or both of these seasons of the y e a r . The a r t e f a c t assemblage from Zone B t o t a l s 4 8 6  Of these, 33$ are c o r t e x s p a l l t o o l s and  excluding features. fragments,  items  1 1 $ are ground  s l a t e k n i f e fragments,  cores, core remnants, and core t o o l s . sample c o n s i s t s of a b r a s i v e s 1 3 $ ,  and 2 8 $  The remainder  of the  worked n e p h r i t e 3 $ ,  b i f a c e s 5 $ » and p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s 3$«  are  formed  Other t o o l c a t e g o r i e s  such as b i p o l a r f l a k e d t o o l s (pieces e s q u i l l e e s ) , quartz c r y s t a l s and f l a k e s , pebble t o o l s , and hammerstones are a l s o present i n s m a l l numbers.  What i n f e r e n c e s can be made from  these a r t e f a c t s and the composition of the assemblage i n t h i s zone? Ground s l a t e k n i v e s were used i n t o ethnographic time f o r the butchery of f i s h presence of ground  (Borden 1 9 6 8 ^  19;  Duff 1952s  66).  The  s l a t e k n i f e preforms i n t h i s d e p o s i t suggests  t h a t k n i f e manufacture  c o u l d have taken p l a c e a t the s i t e  or  that prepared blanks were brought to the s i t e and then sharpened f o r immediate use. of a b r a s i v e s l a b s ( 4 8  With 13$ of the assemblage  specimens), t h e r e i s ample evidence to  suggest t h a t t o o l s of some s o r t were b e i n g sharpened f a c t u r e d on s i t e .  consisting  or manu-  I n f e r e n c e s as to the f u n c t i o n of c o r t e x  s p a l l s are somewhat more d i f f i c u l t t o make.  L i t t l e systematic  a n a l y s i s of these t o o l s has been c a r r i e d out (Coulson,  1971;  263  Sanger, 1970).  The  a n a l y s i s of the c o r t e x s p a l l sample from  Katz suggests t h a t these t o o l s probably tions.  served v a r i o u s  Evidence of on s i t e manufacture of these  e x i s t s i n t h a t seven s p a l l cores were recovered  func-  tools also from the  zone.  Experiments u s i n g c o r t e x s p a l l s f o r b u t c h e r i n g salmon were c a r r i e d out i n the summer of 1971• m a t e r i a l upon which these  The  g r a n u l a r nature  t o o l s are based has  the e f f e c t  c r e a t i n g a s l i g h t l y s e r r a t e d edge which cuts f a i r l y through the tough d o r s a l s k i n of salmon.  of the of  easily  In s c o r i n g the  flesh  as a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r d r y i n g , the c o r t e x s p a l l tended to t e a r the f l e s h and slate knives.  d i d not cut as s h a r p l y and I t i s probable  i n the manner i n d i c a t e d .  c l e a n l y as the ground  t h a t many s p a l l t o o l s f u n c t i o n e d  However, i n s p e c t i o n of the working  edges of the e n t i r e sample suggests t h a t other s p a l l s performed more v i g o r o u s scraping.  and heavy duty f u n c t i o n s , such as chopping  and  F i v e c o r t e x s p a l l s with w e l l worn c o n c a v i t i e s along  the working edge (the spokeshave-like  t o o l s ) may  have been  used to prepare p o l e s , s h a f t s , or stakes of wood or to f a s h i o n other t o o l s of organic m a t e r i a l s a s s o c i a t e d with f i s h i n g hunting. evidence  Some s e c o n d a r i l y f l a k e d t o o l s may  simply  of edge r e j u v e n a t i o n , but on others the  w e l l worn edges may edge wear may The  represent  steepened  edge angle r e s u l t i n g from secondary m o d i f i c a t i o n may p r e p a r a t i o n f o r s c r a p i n g or chopping f u n c t i o n s .  or  indicate  Tools  be k n i v e s d u l l e d through much use,  with or the  be the r e s u l t of use as s c r a p i n g t o o l s .  second l a r g e s t t o o l category  of Zone B i n c l u d e s the  a r t e f a c t s a s s o c i a t e d with the p r o d u c t i o n of f l a k e s and  core  264  tools.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y the time r e q u i r e d f o r the a n a l y s i s of  the 3 i 8 5 6 a r t e f a c t s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s paper made i t impossible to i n c l u d e an examination  of the d e t r i t u s from each zone.  Hence n o t h i n g can be s a i d at t h i s p o i n t of the r a t i o of d e t r i tus to cores i n Zone B. The  t o o l s of Zone B whose f u n c t i o n s are assumed here to  be c u t t i n g implements a r e :  ground s l a t e k n i v e s , c o r t e x  t o o l s , and b i f a c e s (5 unstemmed, 2 stemmed and The  7  spall  fragments).  t o o l s assumed to have f u n c t i o n e d as s c r a p i n g t o o l s f o r  use on organic m a t e r i a l s are: and unformed u n i f a c e s .  cortex s p a l l s ,  A r t e f a c t s i n v o l v e d i n the manufacture  of other implements i n c l u d e a b r a s i v e saws ( 1 5 ) , (48),  cores ( 2 9 ) ,  c o r t e x s p a l l cores ( 7 ) ,  abrasive slabs  and hammerstones  Four b i p o l a r f l a k e t o o l s , or p i e c e s esquille'es, were from Zone B (Macdonald, 1 9 6 8 :  (2).  recovered  85-90).  The presence of a s m a l l sample of chipped i n the Zone B assemblage suggests than one  (32),  core t o o l s  stone  points  the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t more  e x p l o i t a t i v e a c t i v i t y may  have been c a r r i e d out a t  the s i t e u n l e s s one assumes t h a t these t o o l s were a c c i d e n t a l l y l e f t at the s i t e by i n d i v i d u a l s who hunting a c t i v i t y .  were engaged i n some non-  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t there i s a  v a r i e t y of chipped p o i n t forms i n Zone B.  There are 4  stemmed p o i n t s (3 of Group 2 and 1 of Group 3 ) , shouldered  forms (2 of Group 7, 11).  1 large single  p o i n t with a c o n t r a c t i n g stem (Group 5)t  b i l a t e r a l l y shouldered  p o i n t s with v a r i o u s blade and  1 of Group 8 ,  un-  and  9  notching  2 of Group,9 and 4 of Group  T h i s r a i s e s s e v e r a l very important  questions.  What  265  range o f v a r i a t i o n i n p o i n t forms d i d the people u t i l i z i n g the Katz s i t e d u r i n g the p e r i o d have?  Were unstemmed p o i n t s a  s p e c i f i c form f o r the e x p l o i t a t i o n of a c e r t a i n resource, e.g., bear or deer, and the corner-notched  p o i n t s with expanding  stems s p e c i f i c to c e r t a i n other s p e c i e s ?  I f a range of  v a r i a t i o n i n chipped stone p o i n t forms i s e x h i b i t e d i n a s p e c i a l i z e d a c t i v i t y s i t e , what other forms might these have possessed The  people  which are n o t t o be found i n t h i s deposit?  l a t t e r q u e s t i o n r e l a t e s d i r e c t l y t o the methodology o f  s e r i a t i o n and w i l l be addressed The examination  again l a t e r i n t h i s s e c t i o n .  of the hearth contents has y i e l d e d l i t t l e  i n f o r m a t i o n on food remains.  A s m a l l sample of extremely  small f i s h v e r t e b r a e was recovered from one of the elongate hearth f e a t u r e s (Feature Numbers 3 5 and 3 6 ) . have a diameter  These v e r t e b r a e  range of between 1 . 2 mm. and 2 . 6 mm.  A defin-  i t e s p e c i e s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n has y e t t o be made from these bones. However, a c u r s o r y examination  suggests  t h a t they are e i t h e r  salmon f i n g e r l i n g s or eulachen  (Alex Peden, Curator o f Marine  B i o l o g y , P r o v i n c i a l Museum, p e r s o n a l communication). present eulachen  At  do not migrate u p r i v e r past Nicomen I s l a n d  a few m i l e s west o f C h i l l i w a c k , however, a t the time the s i t e was  occupied the western margin of the F r a s e r d e l t a was s i t -  uated about 6 m i l e s to the east o f i t s present l o c a t i o n  (Mathews  and Shepard, 1 9 6 2 ) and e a r l y i n the l a s t millennium B.C. eulachen may have ventured  f u r t h e r u p r i v e r to spawn.  F o r the  present, t h i s i s s p e c u l a t i o n as there a r e no other data a t hand.  266  The  a r t e f a c t assemblage from Zone B,  s t i l l provides  some b a s i s upon which to generate hypotheses  about the kinds this period.  of a c t i v i t i e s  The  The  c a r r i e d out at the s i t e  numerous h e a r t h s suggest food  and/or p r e s e r v a t i o n . recovered  though l i m i t e d ,  The  few  f i s h vertebrae  r e v e a l that r i v e r i n e resources  preparation  t h a t have been  were being  f u n c t i o n of the l i n e a r arrangements of cobbles  a s s o c i a t e d with many of the h e a r t h s i s unknown. served as f i r e or wind breaks or they may c o n t a i n m a t e r i a l used i n the f i r e and  during  utilized. which are  They may  have f u n c t i o n e d  smoke d r y i n g of  Rocks r a d i a t e heat l o n g a f t e r a f i r e has  have  d i e d down.  to  fish. The  only  p a t t e r n d i s c e r n i b l e i n the alignment of these f e a t u r e s i s t h a t a l l are p o s i t i o n e d p e r p e n d i c u l a r river. hearth  The  to the course of  the  stake moulds p o s i t i o n e d around a number of  the  f e a t u r e s may  meat or f i s h  have supported s t i c k s f o r the r o a s t i n g of  (Duff, 1952:  remains of d r y i n g racks moulds are s m a l l .  ?4), (Ibid;  or they might r e p r e s e n t 65-66)  although the  the  stake  I f these moulds are remnants of d r y i n g r a c k s ,  then the p o s i t i o n s of the hearths would suggest a smoke d r y i n g process The  was  taking place.  stone implements a s s o c i a t e d with  these f e a t u r e s i n -  clude t o o l s which could have been used f o r the butchery of f i s h as w e l l as t o o l s s u i t a b l e f o r the manufacture of d e v i c e s and  equipment r e q u i r e d i n c a t c h i n g f i s h and  them f o r s t o r a g e .  The  presence of chipped  i n d i c a t e t h a t some h u n t i n g  was  processing  stone p o i n t s ,  g e n e r a l l y assumed to be a s s o c i a t e d with h u n t i n g may  the  activities,  a l s o done at t h i s time.  267  In comparing the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f i n d i n g s of Zone B with the resource  ecology of the s i t e , i t seems l i k e l y t h a t among  the resources  u t i l i z e d were the main canyon sockeye runs  which "begin a f t e r J u l y 1 and do know t h a t p r i o r to 1948  l a s t u n t i l the e a r l y f a l l .  the f l o o d p l a i n extended f u r t h e r  out i n t o the r i v e r at Katz but p a r t of i t was t h a t year's f l o o d .  The  washed away by  e f f e c t of an e a r l i e r f l o o d (1898) and  the numerous other major f l o o d s which have occurred time of occupancy on the physiographic i s unknown.  We  character  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the formation  since  of the  the  site,  of the f l o o d -  p l a i n d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d made the Katz s i t e a f a r more s u i t a b l e f i s h i n g s t a t i o n than i t appears to be The  s t r a t i g r a p h y and  l a r i t y and  consistency  this period.  The  today.  f e a t u r e s of t h i s zone r e v e a l regu-  i n the u t i l i z a t i o n of the s i t e  during  l i m i t e d range of t o o l s i s p o s s i b l y i n p a r t  a f u n c t i o n of the s p e c i a l i z e d nature of the a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d put  at the  site.  Zone A As the f l o o d p l a i n developed above the average h i g h water l e v e l and  the r i v e r continued  degrading i t s bed,  the Katz  s i t e became more s u i t a b l e f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of winter dwellings.  P i t s were dug  l a y e r s and  i n t o the e a r l i e r f l u v i a l and  cultural  semisubterranean houses were c o n s t r u c t e d .  A radio-  carbon assay based on c h a r c o a l taken from a c o n c e n t r a t i o n c h a r c o a l and 1 has  ash  of  from w i t h i n the f l o o r area of Pithouse Number  y i e l d e d a date of 480  t  90 B.C.  (I 6191).  The  date from  268  Pithouse Number 1 suggests t h a t the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the d w e l l i n g occurred not l o n g a f t e r the uppermost Zone B u t i l i z a dated a t 525 t  t i o n of the s i t e which was  90 B.C.  (I 6190).  There can be no doubt t h a t a r t e f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l from Zone B became mixed with the l a t e r Zone A d e p o s i t as the r e s u l t of this construction a c t i v i t y . The f i r s t f e a t u r e s to be encountered  i n the e x c a v a t i o n  of Pithouse Numbers 1 and 2 were c l u s t e r s of l a r g e r i v e r cobbles around the p e r i p h e r y of the rims of the pithouse depressions (Features 1, 3 ,  9.  H,  and 1 5 ) .  Sanger ( 1 9 7 0 :  found s i m i l a r aggregations of cobbles on the rims House P i t 1 a t the Pine Mountain S i t e , EdRk 9 .  32)  surrounding  Whether these  cobbles r e p r e s e n t f o o t i n g s or supports f o r the b i g h i p r a f t e r s extending upward from the rims c o u l d not be determined, it  but  i s probable t h a t the s u p e r s t r u c t u r e of these houses r e q u i r e d  cobble f o o t i n g s to keep i t from s h i f t i n g i n the l o o s e f l o o d plain alluvium.  Evidence  the house f l o o r was  of a ledge which presumably e n c i r c l e d  exposed i n the trenches on the east and  west s i d e s of Pithouse 1 (Feature 18 and the Pithouse 1 P r o f i l e Figure 6).  Teit  ( 1 9 0 0 : 1 9 4 ) mentions t h a t the p i t h o u s e s of the  Thompson were d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r "rooms" by the f o u r v e r t i c a l p o s t s which supported  the main r a f t e r s .  however, of the presence (1969* 63)  River.  of an e n c i r c l i n g p l a t f o r m .  r e p o r t s the presence  p i t h o u s e s a t the Sunset  He makes no mention, Nelson  of e n c i r c l i n g ledges i n two  Creek s i t e  (45KT28) on the Columbia  He assigned these houses to the e a r l i e s t subphase of  the Cayuse Phase (subphase I) on the b a s i s of the Quilomene  269  Bar Base-Notched and Columbia P l a t e a u Corner-Notched p o i n t found a s s o c i a t e d with them.  projectile  The e n c i r c l i n g ledge i n  Pithouse Number 1 i s s i m i l a r i n nature t o those d e s c r i b e d byNelson.  The c h a r r e d bark sheets found a l o n g the i n t e r f a c e o f  the Zone A and Zone B d e p o s i t i n Pithouse Number 2 may r e p r e sent the remains o f a wooden c o v e r i n g over such a p l a t f o r m . F e a t u r e s 2, 4,  5» 6, and 10 of Pithouse Number 2 are bark  sheets which e n c i r c l e the house a t approximately e l e v a t i o n below the datum plane.  the same  Two s m a l l hearths  (Features  12 and 14) were found s i t u a t e d on the f l o o r o f Pithouse 1 below the e n c i r c l i n g ledge.  E x c a v a t i o n o f the house f l o o r  d i d not produce evidence o f a c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d hearth of the type a t t r i b u t e d t o Thompson p i t h o u s e s by T e i t  (1900s 194).  Because the e n t i r e f l o o r area was n o t excavated  i t i s not  p o s s i b l e to say with c e r t a i n t y t h a t such a hearth was not l o cated i n the house.  However, the presence  o f s m a l l hearths  around the p e r i p h e r y of the f l o o r area proper may i n d i c a t e the absence o f a c e n t r a l h e a r t h . The  e x c a v a t i o n of the f l o o r area o f Pithouse Number 1  d i d n o t y i e l d much evidence r e l a t i n g to house s t r u c t u r e . time i n v o l v e d i n e x c a v a t i n g through  The  the deep Zone A d e p o s i t  and a l s o the c a r e f u l e x c a v a t i o n of the Zone B d e p o s i t made i t i m p o s s i b l e t o examine the f l o o r area of the house completely. No evidence was found o f a r t i f i c a l i n t r u s i o n s i n t o Zone C to p r o v i d e f o o t i n g s f o r v e r t i c a l support posts o f the k i n d desc r i b e d by T e i t  (1900s 192-194).  These f e a t u r e s may have been  present but not found w i t h i n our e x c a v a t i o n u n i t s .  A rock  270  l i n e d cache p i t (Feature 13) was found i n Pithouse Number 1 s i t u a t e d t o the north-west T h i s f e a t u r e appears  of the c e n t e r o f the f l o o r area.  t o be too l a r g e t o have f u n c t i o n e d as a  f o o t i n g f o r a v e r t i c a l post.  Along the i n t e r f a c e of the Zone  A and Zone B d e p o s i t on the western Number 1 f l o o r an alignment  s i d e o f the Pithouse  o f l a r g e r i v e r cobbles was found.  These cobbles were arranged a l o n g the base of the ledge immediately  above the abandoned r i v e r channel and a s s o c i a t e d  with the house d e p o s i t .  Sanger ( 1 9 7 0 : 3 2 ) has noted  similar  f e a t u r e s from Zone 1 o f House P i t 1 a t the Pine Mountain s i t e and from House P i t 2 a t the Loehnore Creek s i t e  (EdRks 7 ) .  He r e p o r t s t h a t i n Housepit 2 a s e r i e s o f cobbles f o l l o w e d the "curve"  of the h o u s e p i t on the u p h i l l s i d e a g a i n s t the  earth wall (Ibidi  27).  At Katz these l a r g e cobbles may have  served t o keep the f i n e sediments of the surrounding  ledges  from s l o u g h i n g down onto the house f l o o r . In the " r o o f c o l l a p s e m a t e r i a l " o f P i t h o u s e s 1 and 2 broad l a y e r s o f compact y e l l o w s i l t y c l a y were ( P r o f i l e , Figure 6 ) .  observed  T h i s m a t e r i a l may have been used to  cover the s u p e r s t r u c t u r e o f the p i t h o u s e s i n order to i n c r e a s e the i n s u l a t i o n o f the houses and t o minimize e r o s i o n . An examination  of the Pithouse Number 1 p r o f i l e r e v e a l s  the tremendous s i z e of the i n t e r i o r o f the house.  The d i s -  tance from the top o f the e a s t e r n w a l l to the top of the western w a l l i s approximately 40 f e e t . which was o r i g i n a l l y excavated  The f l o o r of the house  down t o the cobble pavement i s  approximately 2 5 f e e t i n diameter.  The l i v i n g area of the  271  house, i n c l u d i n g the f l o o r area and the ledges, has a diameter of  approximately 37 f e e t .  The depth o f the house taken  from  the i n t e r f a c e o f the Zone A and Zone B d e p o s i t on the e a s t e r n and western rims i s a l i t t l e of  over s i x f e e t .  With the a d d i t i o n  a c o n i c a l , o r pyramidal, s u p e r s t r u c t u r e , the s i z e of the Pithouse Number 2 mea-  d w e l l i n g would be impressive indeed.  sures 32 f e e t i n diameter between the tops o f the east and west w a l l s . Future r e s e a r c h a t Katz i s r e q u i r e d t o e s t a b l i s h the s i z e s o f other houses i n the v i l l a g e .  I f Pithouse Number 1  proves to be the l a r g e s t , i t may have had s p e c i a l  significance  e i t h e r as a p l a c e where ceremonial a c t i v i t i e s took p l a c e o r as the d w e l l i n g p l a c e o f an important person i n the v i l l a g e . These are problems f a r beyond the data a t hand. Artefacts In proposed  the d i s c u s s i o n of the Zone B d e p o s i t a t Katz i t was t h a t the s t r a t i g r a p h y and a r t e f a c t content  a seasonal u t i l i z a t i o n of the s i t e and t h a t t h i s  suggested  utilization  was probably r e l a t e d to the e x p l o i t a t i o n of summer and/or f i s h resources.  Pithouse v i l l a g e s ,  d e s c r i b e d i n the ethnographic habitation sites  fall  on the other hand, are  l i t e r a t u r e as p r i m a r i l y w i n t e r  ( H i l l - T o u t , 1904: 3 3 I ; Duff, 1 9 5 2 : 4 6 ) . How-  ever, d u r i n g the l a t e r pithouse occupation the Katz s i t e c o u l d have served a m u l t i s e a s o n f u n c t i o n . s e r v a t i o n c o u l d have been performed and e a r l y f a l l ,  F i s h i n g and/or f i s h  pre-  there d u r i n g the summer  f o l l o w e d by pithouse occupancy d u r i n g the  2?2  winter.  I f t h i s was  the case one would expect t h a t the  a r t e f a c t u a l remains i n the l a t e r d e p o s i t would r e f l e c t a broader r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s than that of the  earlier  deposit. The  e x c a v a t i o n of Pithouse 1 and 2, which i n c l u d e d exten-  s i v e sampling  of the rim d e p o s i t s and t r e n c h i n g through  house d e p r e s s i o n s , p l u s the e x c a v a t i o n of 3 l e v e l s  the  (1.5 f e e t )  of the rim between Pithouse 3 and 4, produced a t o t a l of 2,698 a r t e f a c t s .  A l l the a r t e f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l recovered from  above the f l u v i a l l a y e r s designated Zone B, was Zone A.  As a l r e a d y i n d i c a t e d , i t i s r e a l i z e d that m a t e r i a l  from the e a r l i e r d e p o s i t was of pithouse c o n s t r u c t i o n .  mixed with the l a t e r as a r e s u l t  No attempt has been made here  separate m a t e r i a l from Zone A which may Zone B.  assigned to  to  have o r i g i n a t e d i n  To do t h i s one would have to assume t h a t the a r t e f a c t  types of Zone B are not present i n Zone A. no evidence  t o support t h i s assumption.  To date there i s  On the other hand,  many t o o l s of Zone A are not present i n Zone B, and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s to account l a t e r i n the  f o r these d i f f e r e n c e s are  presented  chapter.  Of the 2,698 a r t e f a c t s found i n Zone A, 31$ are c o r t e x s p a l l t o o l s and s p a l l fragments. i n t h i s sample have "u" suggest use as saws. i e r deposit.  various  or "v"  (847  specimens)  Three specimens  shaped ground edges which  These t o o l s are not present i n the  The Zone A sample a l s o i n c l u d e s 424  k n i f e fragments (16$ of the e n t i r e assemblage).  earl-  ground s l a t e The l a r g e  numbers of c o r t e x s p a l l t o o l s and ground s l a t e k n i f e fragments  273  s t r o n g l y suggests t h a t a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d to the of f i s h r e s o u r c e s were performed  exploitation  a t the s i t e d u r i n g t h i s  period. The pithouse d e p o s i t a l s o p r o v i d e s a wealth of evidence of t o o l manufacturing.  of 312  The presence  d i s c o i d a l cores  and core fragments and 31 hammerstones suggests t h a t the prod u c t i o n of primary f l a k e s f o r immediate use or f o r secondary m o d i f i c a t i o n was cores may  c a r r i e d out e x t e n s i v e l y a t the s i t e .  These  have p r o v i d e d the f l a k e s f o r many of the unformed  u n i f a c e s (101  specimens),  formed b i f a c e s (52  formed u n i f a c e s ( 5 ^  specimens),  specimens), (57  and chipped stone p o i n t s The r e c o v e r y of 274  specimens) found i n t h i s d e p o s i t .  abra-  s i v e s i n c l u d i n g 87 saws, and ground s l a t e and n e p h r i t e , showi n g v a r i o u s stages of manufacture, suggests t h a t a w e l l developed  ground stone i n d u s t r y was  n e p h r i t e i n d u s t r y appears  i n o p e r a t i o n a t Katz.  to have been p a r t i c u l a r l y  The  important  with n e p h r i t e cobbles, adze blades and c h i s e l s , and n e p h r i t e end blades a l l r e p r e s e n t e d .  The  sawn n e p h r i t e d e t r i t u s  from  t h i s d e p o s i t alone t o t a l s 130 p i e c e s . T o o l s which probably f u n c t i o n e d i n the manufacture of a r t e f a c t s from organic m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d e the v a r i o u s forms of core t o o l s , spokeshave-like c o r t e x s p a l l t o o l s , adze blades and c h i s e l s , p i e c e s esquille'es, quartz c r y s t a l s , and formed unifaces.  Some of the groups i n the l a t t e r category may  f u n c t i o n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of h i d e s and manufacture of c l o t h i n g .  have the  Seventeen of the formed u n i f a c e s  have steep end retouch which may  i n d i c a t e use as s c r a p e r s f o r  274  d r e s s i n g h i d e s ( T e i t , 1900: 185? Duff, 1952: 53)t and some o f the formed u n i f a c e s with retouched p r o j e c t i o n s may have f u n c t i o n e d as hide p e r f o r a t o r s as might have the formed b i f a c e s with retouched p r o j e c t i o n s .  In g e n e r a l , the formed  u n i f a c e category i n c l u d e s a broad range o f t o o l forms i n the Zone A d e p o s i t . In the chipped stone p o i n t category, Zone A specimens are i n c l u d e d i n 14 o f the 17 p o i n t groupings which were e s t a b l i s h e d on the b a s i s o f the t o t a l sample from the s i t e .  Seven  of these 14 groups were a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d i n the Zone B d e p o s i t . P o i n t forms found i n Zone A which are c o n s p i c u o u s l y absent i n Zone B i n c l u d e groups of corner-notched unbarbed forms, and corner-notched and b a s a l l y - n o t c h e d barbed forms.  To what  extent the g r e a t e r v a r i a t i o n i n p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t forms o f the Zone A assemblage can be a t t r i b u t e d to the p o s s i b l e m u l t i season u t i l i z a t i o n o f the s i t e i s undetermined.  I t i s of  i n t e r e s t however, t h a t the corner and b a s a l l y - n o t c h e d barbed p o i n t s present i n Zone A are s i m i l a r i n form t o those c o n s i d ered by Borden (1968a-:lJbO) t o be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the "Skamel Phase" i n the F r a s e r canyon, and by Nelson (1969: 63), of the e a r l i e s t subphase o f the "Cayuse Phase".  These p o i n t s  are c o n s i d e r e d d i a g n o s t i c forms a s s o c i a t e d with e a r l y pithouse v i l l a g e settlement.  What range i n t o o l forms e.g., chipped  stone p o i n t s , was possessed by the occupants of the Katz s i t e a t any one p o i n t i n time i s as y e t undetermined.  I t i s possible  t h a t much of the a r t e f a c t v a r i a t i o n i n the pithouse zone may be accounted f o r by the g r e a t e r d i v e r s i t y i n a c t i v i t i e s which  275  were  taking place  fall  hunting expeditions,  of  at  the  site, etc.  formed c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e  gravers,  drills  probably  tools  as  the  the  butchery  If  knives  of  hides  i n forms  of  literature 72).  associated  game as  this  of  case  expected  to  be  points  points,  are  L i k e bone  on t o g g l i n g h a r p o o n s ,  Other  the  are  the  fall  the  ethnographic  months  of  such  Similarly  with  i n the  in association  present  2 ground s l a t e  and 6 2 ) .  to  i n Zone B  associated  reported  also  ures  served  sorts,  (Ibid:  chipped  with  stone  a late  fall  site.  and 2 ground n e p h r i t e  have  may b e  then  various  clothing.  presence  the  array  or winter a c t i v i t i e s  making of  which i s  blades, 61  present  was  stone  slate  fall  of  with  The  71).  (scrapers not  bifaces  1952:  of  or winter h a b i t a t i o n  ground  with  associated  p r i m a r i l y an a c t i v i t y  m i g h t be  Ground  tools  and the  animals  tools  (Duff,  and p e r f o r a t o r s )  dressing  variety  e.g.,  the  end b l a d e s  Five  preforms  end  were  and ground s l a t e  ground nephrite  arm h a r p o o n  artefacts  point  i n Zone A . or  recovered cutting  blades  (Fig-  points  from Katz  heads.  f r o m Zone A i n c l u d e :  a  cobble  w h i c h may h a v e  been  pigment,  ochre—some  w h i c h showed e v i d e n c e  chunks  h a v i n g been of  burned,  muscovite,  piece  with  spindle found at 14).  of  possibly  5 pieces  of  to  the  incised Esilao  alter  graphite  a biconically drilled  with  of  with  hole,  encircling lines site  i n the  the  used  for  mortar,  an edge g r o u n d c o b b l e 32  may  colour,  grinding  21  ground facets and a  small  s i m i l a r to  Eayem d e p o s i t  of  pieces and  1  phyllite  the  (Borden,  specimen 1966:  276  The a r t e f a c t assemblage from Zone A r e f l e c t s a much broader range of a c t i v i t i e s than does t h a t of Zone B. assumed here to be a s s o c i a t e d with f i s h butchery,  Tools  i . e . , ground  s l a t e k n i v e s and v a r i e t i e s of c o r t e x s p a l l t o o l s are numerous. The presence  of these a r t e f a c t s i n the Zone A d e p o s i t suggest  t h a t a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d to the e x p l o i t a t i o n of summer and/or fall of  r i v e r i n e r e s o u r c e s were c a r r i e d out a t the s i t e .  stone t o o l manufacturing  Evidence  a t the s i t e i s abundant i n the  form of f l a k e d d i s c o i d a l cores, hammerstones, ground n e p h r i t e d e t r i t u s , ground s l a t e a t v a r i o u s stages of manufacture, abras i v e saws and s l a b s .  I n d i r e c t evidence which suggests t h a t  wood, bone and a n t l e r were worked a t the s i t e i s r e v e a l e d by the presence  of adze blades and c h i s e l s , p i e c e s e s q u i l l e e s ,  spokeshave-like core t o o l s and s p a l l t o o l s , gravers and (Group 5 formed u n i f a c e s ) .  T h i s a r t e f a c t composition  drills  may  p o s s i b l y r e f l e c t the kinds of t o o l manufacture performed semipermanent h a b i t a t i o n s i t e . (Groups 1 to 4 ) ,  S t e e p l y retouched u n i f a c e s  and u n i f a c e s and b i f a c e s with retouched  j e c t i o n s ( d r i l l s and p e r f o r a t o r s ) , may ing  manufacture.  i n d i c a t e winter  t h a t there i s a danger i n assuming t h a t the ment system (Struever, 1968as  191)  graphically. 1952:  cloth-  may  be analogous  It i s realized  subsistence-settle-  employed by the  the p i t h o u s e s at Katz d u r i n g the middle  millennium B.C.  pro-  The wide range of p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t forms  suggests h u n t i n g a c t i v i t y , p o s s i b l y i n the f a l l .  of  at a  occupants  of the f i r s t  to t h a t recorded  ethno-  S i m i l a r l y , the i n f e r e n c e of f a l l h u n t i n g (Duff,  7 1 - 7 2 ) may  be i n c o r r e c t .  The range of chipped  stone  277  point in  f o r m s i n Zone A may  point  site.  be  a broad  sample o f t h e  f o r m s w h i c h were p o s s e s s e d by  variation  the occupants  I n o t h e r words, i f t h e s e p e o p l e h a d  specific  of  the  point  f o r m s f o r h u n t i n g s m a l l game a n i m a l s , and  others f o r wapiti,  it  found a t a  may  be more l i k e l y  permanent h a b i t a t i o n limited  range  Thus, be  site  t h e s e w o u l d be  than a t a s p e c i a l i z e d  of a c t i v i t i e s  p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, fluvial  that  deposit.  the  a  As  earlier  m i x e d i n w i t h t h e Zone A d e p o s i t .  c h i p p e d s t o n e p o i n t s f r o m Zone B,  part  where  t o o k p l a c e ( e . g . , Zone B ) .  c u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l s from  zone a r e u n d o u b t e d l y  site  semi-  o f t h e l a t e r a s s e m b l a g e , may  be  w h i c h may part  not  actually  o f t h e Zone A  278 Extra-Local Relationships.  In the p r e c e d i n g b e e n on to  the  local  The  of t h i s  cultural  ogical  o f the  Katz  and  Before  s h o u l d be  d i s c u s s i o n the site  with  temporal  doing  little  site  has  reference  within  site.  the  perspective of previous a r c h a e o l - '  lower so,  focus  m a n i f e s t a t i o n s beyond the  s e c t i o n i s to p l a c e the  f i n d i n g s i n the  regions. that  archaeology  sequences or c u l t u r a l  intent  broad  s e c t i o n of the  Fraser r i v e r  there are  b o r n e i n mind and  r e g i o n and  adjacent  a number o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  warrant mentioning  at  this  point. The lower and  first  i s t h a t t h e number o f e x c a v a t e d  Fraser valley  and  adjacent  i n many i n s t a n c e s f u l l y  from these  sites  Second, comparative  the  are not  purposes  assumed t o r e p r e s e n t present  i n the  described artefact  the few,  assemblages  f o r comparative  purposes.  assemblages which are a v a i l a b l e  ( i n c l u d i n g the Katz the  in  regions are r e l a t i v e l y  yet available  artefact  sites  variability  archaeological sites  site)  cannot  in artefactual  for  be  remains  f r o m w h i c h t h e y were  exca-  vated. Third, the as  p a s t a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h has  excavation  of c e r t a i n  types  been b i a s e d  of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s  l a r g e c o a s t a l s h e l l midden d e p o s i t s or p i t h o u s e  Both these sites, with  sites  hence,  local traits  little  i s known a b o u t  In making i n t e r s i t e  c u l t u r e sequences based these  such  villages.  were p r e s u m a b l y s e m i p e r m a n e n t h a b i t a t i o n the  t h e numerous s p e c i a l i z e d a c t i v i t y  existed.  toward  aforementioned  technology sites  which  c o m p a r i s o n s and on  temporal  associated undoubtedly  interpreting  distributions  f a c t o r s must be  kept  of  i n mind.  279  The  i n t e r s i t e comparisons made here are by n e c e s s i t y g e n e r a l  i n nature and simply summarize the evidence a v a i l a b l e which p e r t a i n s to other e a r l y pithouse settlements i n the lower F r a s e r v a l l e y and adjacent r e g i o n s . The a r c h a e o l o g i c a l data obtained from Katz are compared here with i n f o r m a t i o n recovered i n the F r a s e r canyon a t the Milliken site  ( D j R i 3 ) (Borden,  (DjRi 5) (Borden,  1 9 6 8 ) and the E s i l a o  1968: Mitchell, 1965).  site  Comparisons with the  F r a s e r d e l t a s i t e s are made on the b a s i s o f r e p o r t s by Borden ( 1 9 5 0 ; 1954$ 1968s 1 9 7 0 ) .  General s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r -  ences are observed with the s i t e s i n the southern I n t e r i o r a t the Lochnore-Nesikep  locality  Fountain-Pavilion l o c a l i t y  (Sanger,  1970),  (Stryd, 1 9 7 2 ) .  and a t the  Other  interareal  comparisons a r e made with s i t e s i n the Arrow Lakes r e g i o n of south-eastern B r i t i s h Columbia ( T u r n b u l l , 1 9 7 1 ) , Okanagan v a l l e y  (Grabert, 1 9 6 8 : 1 9 7 1 ) ,  s i t e s i n the  and i n the middle  Col-  umbia P l a t e a u (Nelson, 1969* Leonhardy and R i c e , 1 9 7 0 ; Warren, 1968). The e a r l i e s t dated pithouse occupation i n the Canadian and Columbian P l a t e a u s i s r e p o r t e d from s i t e s on the Lower Arrow Lakes i n southeastern  B r i t i s h Columbia.  Turnbull (1971»  44) has recorded a s e r i e s o f 5 r a d i o c a r b o n determinations from p i t h o u s e s t h a t f a l l w i t h i n the 1300 to 400 years B.C. range.  The o l d e s t s i t e ,  the Cayuse Creek s i t e  (DiQml), has  been dated a t 3 2 1 5 B.P. t 180 (G.X. 1197) and 3150 B.P. t 170 (GaK  2896) based  on carbon samples taken from two d w e l l i n g s .  The Deer Park S i t e  (DiQm 4 ) , j u s t up-lake from the Cayuse  f  280  Creek s i t e , has y i e l d e d two d a t e s o f 2870 B.P. t 100 (GaK 2897) and 2530 B.P. t 220 (GaK 2898). ed from t h e I n o n o a k l i n s i t e  A t h i r d e a r l y date was o b t a i n -  (DkQm 5 ) •  The e x c a v a t e d p i t s o f  t h e s e e a r l y d w e l l i n g s d i f f e r from those o f P i t h o u s e Number 1 and P i t h o u s e Number 2 a t K a t z i n t h a t thev l a c k e v i d e n c e o f an e n c i r c l i n g bench.  T u r n b u l l r e p o r t s t h e presence o f i n t e r i o r s t o r a g e p i t s ,  o f t h e type found a t K a t z , l o c a t e d n e a r the w a l l s o f t h e houses and evidence o f c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d h e a r t h s ( I b i d ; 4 7 ) . Other a r t e f a c t u a l remains found i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the Cayuse Creek, Deer Park and I n o n o a k l i n s i t e s i n c l u d e c o r n e r - n o t c h e d p o i n t s , p e s t l e s , v a r i o u s forms o f s i d e and end s c r a p e r s and adze b l a d e s .  T u r n b u l l s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e Arrow Lakes  material  i s p o s s i b l y a r e g i o n a l v a r i a n t o f the " S e l a h S p r i n g s P a t t e r n " —a  c u l t u r a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n which p r e d a t e s t h e " P l a t e a u P a t t e r n "  (Warren, 1968; 3 2 - 3 5 ) and t h e "Cayuse Phase"  ( N e l s o n , 1968;  32-50).  I n t h e s o u t h e r n Okanagan v a l l e y e a r l y p i t h o u s e s e t t l e m e n t s have been r e c o r d e d a t t h e 45-0K-78 s i t e dated a t 27OO B.P., ( 1 - 2 0 3 2 ) and t h e Marron Lake s i t e  (DiQw 2) dated a t 2170 r a d i o -  carbon y e a r s ago ( G r a b e r t , 1971s 1 5 5 ) •  The p i t h o u s e s a t the  45-0K-78 s i t e a r e s t e e p - w a l l e d and w i t h o u t e n c i r c l i n g  benches.  These houses a r e s i m i l a r i n form t o those d e s c r i b e d by T u r n b u l l (1971s 4 7 ) .  I n one o f t h e 45-0K-78 p i t h o u s e s (P 9)1  Grabert  (1971s 159) r e p o r t s p o s t moulds s u r r o u n d i n g a s t o n e - l i n e d rectangular hearth.  He does n o t i n f e r from t h e p o s i t i o n o f  these moulds what r o o f form t h e s t r u c t u r e had.  In pithouses  281  3 and k,  however, he argues  moulds suggest ". . . a  t h a t the c o n f i g u r a t i o n s of post  c e n t r a l l y supported  conical roof  s i m i l a r i n c o n s t r u c t i o n to those used by the h i s t o r i c Thompson Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia" i n Chapter  (Grabert,  I9681  I I I of t h i s t h e s i s , no evidence  a c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d h e a r t h , was  89).  As  noted  of post moulds, or  r e c o v e r e d i n the e x c a v a t i o n  of Pithouse 1 and 2 a t the Katz s i t e .  The  entire f l o o r  areas  of the Katz p i t h o u s e s were not exposed and the absence of these f e a t u r e s c o u l d be the r e s u l t of incomplete The  two hearths t h a t were observed  sampling.  i n Pithouse Number 1 a t  Katz were s m a l l and p o s i t i o n e d on the p e r i p h e r y of the house f l o o r immediately  below the e n c i r c l i n g p l a t f o r m .  Good p r e s e r v a t i o n a t 45-OK-78 allowed f o r the recovery of s e v e r a l i n t e r e s t i n g organic a r t e f a c t s from t h i s e a r l y p i t house s i t e .  These specimens i n c l u d e d :  a b i r d bone p o i n t ,  a spatulate-ended bone p i n , a deer m e t a t a r s a l awl, a bone  tube  w h i s t l e or bead, and p o s s i b l y a fragment of a net gauge (Grabert, 1968: was  93"100» P l a t e 3 9 ) .  observed  A storage p i t c o n t a i n i n g salmon bones  i n Pithouse 4 i n a s s o c i a t i o n with a fragment of  an adze blade, i n d i c a t i n g some time depth f o r these i n the Okanagan v a l l e y  (Grabert, 1968:  traits  92).  In the southern I n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia an e a r l y pithouse occupation i s r e p o r t e d by Sanger (1970: 104) Lochnore Creek s i t e  (EdRk 7 ) .  After considerable d i f f i c u l t y  with the carbon dates from the Lochnore Creek s i t e , has t e n t a t i v e l y a s s i g n e d a date of 2600 B.P. the House p i t 2 d e p o s i t .  a t the  Sanger  (no number) to  There are i n t e r e s t i n g  similarities  282  b e t w e e n House p i t 2 a t t h e L o c h n o r e s i t e and Katz.  House p i t 2 h a s  the u p h i l l  ledges  . . rock r e t a i n i n g w a l l  s i d e o f t h e p i t . . ."  large cobbles 1 at Katz,  a ".  h o u s e s a t K a t z a p p e a r e d t o be not  accurate  1 was  by  9 meters.  round although  c a r r i e d o u t and  t r a c k s were s i t u a t e d a c r o s s ing  The p i t -  the Canadian P a c i f i c  of opposite  exca-  Railway  the n o r t h r i m of P i t h o u s e  measurement o f the p i t h o u s e  tops  encircling  a complete  1  dimensions.  somewhat l a r g e r t h a n House p i t 2 w i t h t h e  between the  Pithouse  Sanger suggests the Lochnore Creek p i t -  h o u s e i s o v a l w i t h d i m e n s i o n s o f 11  v a t i o n was  at  against  of the f l o o r i n  b o t h d w e l l i n g s have s t e p p e d w a l l s o r  ( I b i d : 27).  1  s i m i l a r t o the s e r i e s of  f o l l o w i n g the p e r i p h e r y  and  Pithouse  imped-  Pithouse  distance  w a l l s measuring approximately  40  feet. The  a r t e f a c t assemblage a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the e a r l y p i t -  house o c c u p a t i o n respects  a t the Lochnore Creek s i t e  t o t h e Zone A m a t e r i a l f r o m K a t z .  i s s i m i l a r i n many Tools  present  in  the Lochnore Creek s i t e assemblages which are a l s o present t h e K a t z Zone A a s s e m b l a g e i n c l u d e :  c o r n e r and  p o i n t s , b i f a c e s of v a r i o u s forms ( l e a f - s h a p e d , facial drills, tinuous  etc.),  retouch,  formed u n i f a c e s  (round  basally-notched stemmed, b i -  to oval with  t r i a n g u l a r unifaces with steep retouch,  l i k e unifaces, crescent  shaped u n i f a c e s , v a r i o u s forms  small steeply retouched  end  scrapers, unifaces with  projections including d r i l l s , n e p h r i t e adze b l a d e s , ground s l a t e ,  abrasive  p e r f o r a t o r s and saws and  in  conblade-  of  retouched  gravers,  etc.),  s l a b s , hand mauls,  p i g m e n t , edge b a t t e r e d c o b b l e s ,  hammerstones,  283  c o r t e x s p a l l s , and bone awls.  The  between the assemblages are (1) at Lochnore Creek, (2)  conspicuous  the presence  differences  of micro-blades  c o r t e x s p a l l t o o l s a t Katz are f a r more  numerous than a t Lochnore Creek; the same i s true of ground s l a t e knives, and  (3)  bone and a n t l e r a r t e f a c t s which are  present a t Lochnore Creek are absent a t Katz due to poor preservation.  However, more d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d  from a number of contemporaneous pithouse s i t e s i n the  inter-  vening area between Lochnore Creek and Katz to proceed  beyond  l i s t i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n t o o l t r a i t s to some k i n d of e x p l a n a t o r y l e v e l of a n a l y s i s . Recent work by S t r y d ( 1 9 7 2 ) l o c a l i t y has a l s o produced  i n the L i l l o o e t - P a v i l i o n  evidence  of e a r l y pithouse occupancy.  A r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a t the M i t c h e l l s i t e has y i e l d e d a pithouse date of 235 * 85 B.C.  (EeRi 22)  (S 5 8 0 ) .  House p i t 2 recorded by Sanger, the M i t c h e l l s i t e  Unlike  pithouses  were without e n c i r c l i n g ledges and stone r e t a i n i n g w a l l s . S t r y d r e p o r t s t h a t the m a t e r i a l s which c h a r a c t e r i z e the e a r l y pithouse occupation are "corner-notched  a t l a t l points, uni-  f a c i a l l y retouched f l a k e s , and the absence of micro-blades." Comparisons with t h i s s i t e are l i m i t e d by the data p r e s e n t l y available. The l o c a l sequence c l o s e s t to the Katz s i t e with of pithouse o c c u p a t i o n d u r i n g the f i r s t millennium B.C. F r a s e r canyon sequence e s t a b l i s h e d by Borden ( 1 9 6 8 ) .  evidence i s the The  e a r l i e s t phase i n the canyon with evidence of p i t h o u s e s i s the "Skamel Phase", t e n t a t i v e l y dated a t 350 B.C.  to A.D.  200.  284  Charred timbers from one house were r a d i o c a r b o n dated a t 80 B.C.  F i r s t appearing i n the "Skamel Phase" are " d i a g o n a l l y  corner-notched p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s , t h a t i s arrow heads with expanding  stems," a l a r g e v a r i e t y of c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e mater-  ials,  and s p e c i a l i z e d t o o l s such as d r i l l s and gravers  1968:  16).  To Borden, t h i s s i t e i n t r u s i o n suggested  appearance of a new interior  (Borden,  the  e t h n i c group i n the v a l l e y , probably of  origin.  I t i s obvious t h a t the e x c a v a t i o n of a s m a l l p o r t i o n of the Katz s i t e w i l l not p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t evidence to c o n f i r m or r e f u t e Borden's s u g g e s t i o n .  To do t h i s w i l l r e q u i r e exten-  s i v e sampling of a l a r g e number of s i t e s i n the r e g i o n .  In  f a c t , t h i s i s a problem which r e q u i r e s a r e s e a r c h d e s i g n of the magnitude formulated by S t r u e v e r (1968a: 194-206) f o r the Lower I l l i n o i s  valley.  On the b a s i s of a number of e a r l y pithouse s e t t l e m e n t s i n the Middle Columbia and Snake R i v e r r e g i o n s of c e n t r a l Washington, Warren (1968) and Nelson t h a t the advent  (1969) have hypothesized  of p i t h o u s e s l a t e i n the f i r s t millennium  B.C.  marked an abrupt change i n s u b s i s t e n c e and settlement p a t t e r n i n the P l a t e a u . characterized  Nelson  (1969s 38)  states that t h i s period i s  by:  . . . a d r a m a t i c a l l y new c o n f i g u r a t i o n of s i t e types which occur i n p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s both to one another and to the topographic and e c o l o g i c a l zones of the Columbia P l a t e a u . T h i s "new  configuration"  c o n s i s t e d of l a r g e pithouse  ments, densely d i s t r i b u t e d a l o n g major waterways, and complexes"s  winter v i l l a g e s ,  settle"site  open area s i t e s , b u r i a l areas,  285  storage (Ibid.).  s h e l t e r s , storage p i t s , p i c t o g r a p h s ,  and petroglyphs  Both Warren (1968: 46) and Nelson (1969: 56-58)  suggest t h a t d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d the s u b s i s t e n c e o r i e n t a t i o n on the p l a t e a u changed from h u n t i n g and g a t h e r i n g to an i n t e n sive e x p l o i t a t i o n of f i s h resources. f i s h i n g i s evidenced  T h i s marked i n c r e a s e i n  by the presence o f a wide a r r a y of f i s h -  i n g implements i n e a r l y "Cayuse Phase" components. implements i n c l u d e :  Recovered  notched, p e r f o r a t e d , and grooved weights,  net gauges and s h u t t l e s , composite harpoon t i p s and v a l v e s , three pronged salmon spear barbs and barb guards, u n i l a t e r a l l y barbed stone.oprojectile p o i n t s , and c a r v i n g s d e p i c t i n g f i s h (Nelson, The  1969: 57). advent o f the pithouse  w e l l s u i t e d to harsh w i n t e r s ,  on the P l a t e a u , a d w e l l i n g  combined with an e f f i c i e n t  tech-  nology f o r the e x p l o i t a t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n of r i v e r i n e r e sources, may i n p a r t account f o r the i n c r e a s e i n the s i z e and d e n s i t y of winter v i l l a g e settlements The  radiocarbon  during t h i s period.  dates p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e suggest these  v a t i o n s spread with  some r a p i d i t y i n t o the n o r t h e r n  P l a t e a u d u r i n g the f i r s t millennium  B.C.  r a p i d i t y of d i f f u s i o n , there i s evidence the p r e c e d i n g  Despite  inno-  Columbia  t h i s apparent  t h a t many f e a t u r e s of  c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s remained unchanged.  Nelson  (1969: 55) suggests t h a t the presence o f hopper mortars, p e s t l e s , d i g g i n g s t i c k handles,  and e a r t h ovens i n Cayuse  Phase assemblages i n d i c a t e s t h a t the u t i l i z a t i o n of r o o t s d i d not change d r a m a t i c a l l y from pre-Cayuse Phase p a t t e r n s  with  the advent of p i t h o u s e s and the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a p r o f i c i e n t  286  f i s h i n g technology.  S i m i l a r l y other t r a i t s a s s o c i a t e d with  hunting, dominant i n the pre-Cayuse Phase c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s , p e r s i s t e d w e l l i n t o the Cayuse Phase.  Nelson  (1969s  61)  suggests t h a t t h i s p e r s i s t e n c e of o l d e r p a t t e r n s i n the Cayuse Phase i n d i c a t e s t h a t the spread of the w i n t e r v i l l a g e p a t t e r n only i n v o l v e d those t r a i t s which were r e q u i r e d f o r producing a w i n t e r s u r p l u s ; the o l d e r P l a t e a u p a t t e r n s of r o o t g a t h e r i n g and h u n t i n g remained i n t a c t . What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the developments which appear to have taken p l a c e on the P l a t e a u d u r i n g the millennium B.C.  and the Katz s i t e ?  Archaeological investiga-  t i o n s a t Katz have r e v e a l e d t h a t t h i s l a r g e pithouse ment, s i t u a t e d a l o n g s i d e one  first  settle-  of the major salmon streams of  the P a c i f i c s l o p e , was  i n h a b i t e d a t about the middle  of the  f i r s t millennium B.C.  T h i s date, which i s s l i g h t l y  earlier  than the estimated b e g i n n i n g of the "Skamel Phase" 1968s 16)  i n the F r a s e r canyon, i s roughly contemporaneous  with the Lochnore Creek v i l l a g e i n the southern (Sanger,  (Borden,  Interior  1970), and i n the southern Okanagan v a l l e y  (Grabert,  1971), and s l i g h t l y e a r l i e r than s e t t l e m e n t s i n the Middle Columbia and Lower Snake R i v e r r e g i o n s dated thus f a r .  On  the b a s i s of the e a r l y pithouse occupation and r e l a t e d  cul-  t u r a l m a t e r i a l s r e c o v e r e d by Sanger i n the southern and by Grabert i n the southern Okanagan, Nelson argues  Interior,  (1969«  t h a t the w i n t e r v i l l a g e p a t t e r n d i f f u s e d from  the  Canadian P l a t e a u i n t o the Columbia P l a t e a u l a t e i n the millennium B.C.  59)  first  Perhaps the appearance of p i t h o u s e s a t Katz,  287  and  d u r i n g the Skamel Phase a t E s i l a o , are p a r t of the  a l r e a d y documented spread  of the winter v i l l a g e p a t t e r n  and  a s s o c i a t e d c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e s i n t o the n o r t h e r n Columbia P l a teau.  I f t h i s i s the case,  does the presence of  pithouse  v i l l a g e s i n the lower F r a s e r canyon and lower F r a s e r v a l l e y a t t h i s e a r l y time i n d i c a t e e t h n i c change as suggested Borden (1968: 1 6 ) ,  or does i t r e p r e s e n t an a d a p t a t i o n  c l i m a t e and/or economic change by indigenous  coastal  by to  peoples?  These are questions which w i l l r e q u i r e a g r e a t d e a l of o r d i n a t e d r e s e a r c h to answer.  However, a number of  co-  observa-  t i o n s can be made on the b a s i s of the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f i n d i n g s at  Katz. First,  i t i s of i n t e r e s t t h a t the pithouse  f e a t u r e s con-  s i d e r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the e a r l i e s t subphase of the Cayuse Phase (50 B.C. (1969« 98)  to 250 A.D.)  r e p o r t s t h a t on the b a s i s of evidence  three d i s t i n c t pithouse the Cayuse Phase. was  are present a t Katz.  The  Nelson now a v a i l a b l e ,  forms appeared i n s u c c e s s i o n e a r l i e s t of these  types, he  during  suggests,  the deeply excavated pithouse with a l e v e l f l o o r and  e n c i r c l i n g bench.  The  ensuing  pithouse  forms were  an  without  e n c i r c l i n g benches and became i n c r e a s i n g l y more saucer-shaped through time.  In the Canadian Plateau, the pithouse  d e s c r i b e d by T u r n b u l l ( 1 9 7 D were without pithouses  e n c i r c l i n g benches.  i n the n o r t h e r n  south-eastern  dated between 1300  forms  and 400  B.C.  T h i s suggests t h a t the e a r l y  Columbia were not d e r i v e d from the  p o r t i o n of the Canadian P l a t e a u .  forms most l i k e the subphase I pithouses  The  pithouse  i n the Vantage l o c a l e  288  are those found a t Lochnore Creek and Katz on the F r a s e r River.  To determine the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s shared t r a i t  d u r i n g the f i r s t m i l l e n n i u m B.C.  i s a problem f o r f u t u r e r e -  search. The second o b s e r v a t i o n i s that the a r t e f a c t  assemblage  i n a s s o c i a t i o n with the p i t h o u s e s a t Katz i s comprised of " c o a s t a l " , " i n t e r i o r " , and " l o c a l "  traits.  The t r a i t  con-  s i d e r e d here to be most s t r o n g l y c o a s t a l i s the ground industry.  slate  The presence of ground s l a t e p o i n t s , numerous  ground s l a t e knives, and abundant s l a t e manufacture, a t the s i t e .  evidence of on s i t e  ground  i n d i c a t e t h i s i n d u s t r y was w e l l developed  I f a r t e f a c t s of o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l s had  the h y p e r a c i d i c s o i l c o n d i t i o n s a t the s i t e ,  survived  i t is likely  that  other s i m i l a r i t i e s with the coast would have been r e v e a l e d . Tools found a t Katz which suggest t e c h n o l o g i c a l with the i n t e r i o r i n c l u d e :  affinities  numerous s t e e p l y retouched end  s c r a p e r s , c o r n e r and b a s a l l y - n o t c h e d p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s , and a v a r i e t y of s p e c i a l i z e d c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e t o o l s such as g r a v e r s , d r i l l s and p e r f o r a t o r s .  The c u r r e n t s t a t e of r e s e a r c h r e g a r d -  i n g p i t h o u s e d i s t r i b u t i o n would suggest that the Katz p i t houses were d e r i v e d from the i n t e r i o r .  Whether the Katz p i t -  houses were adopted by c o a s t a l peoples as an a d a p t i v e r e s ponse to c l i m a t e or were brought i n t o the lower F r a s e r r i v e r r e g i o n by another e t h n o - l i n g u i s t i c group has y e t to be d e t e r mined. The " l o c a l t r a i t s "  which d i s t i n g u i s h the Katz s i t e from  any o t h e r r e p o r t e d on to date are the u n u s u a l l y l a r g e number  289  of  c o r t e x s p a l l t o o l s and abundant evidence  of n e p h r i t e t o o l  manufacture. The  sample o f 701 complete c o r t e x s p a l l t o o l s and 146  fragments i n a s s o c i a t i o n with the pithouse d e p o s i t a t Katz i s by f a r the l a r g e s t sample o f these t o o l s excavated single site.  The f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s of these t o o l s has i n -  d i c a t e d t h a t they performed shaves, The  from a  a v a r i e t y of f u n c t i o n s as spoke-  saws, s c r a p e r s , chopping  t o o l s , and c u t t i n g  tools.  overwhelming m a j o r i t y , however, must have f u n c t i o n e d as  k n i v e s i n the butchery of f i s h . The numerous and v a r i e d n e p h r i t e t o o l s along with m o d i f i e d boulders and q u a n t i t i e s o f n e p h r i t e d e t r i t u s i n d i c a t e an ext e n s i v e n e p h r i t e i n d u s t r y a t the s i t e . in  The knowledge  evidenced  the manufacture of n e p h r i t e t o o l s , as d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter  III,  suggests f a m i l i a r i t y with the l i t h i c r e s o u r c e s of the  F r a s e r canyon, or a s i m i l a r l o c a l e with r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e n e p h r i t e , over some p e r i o d of time. In at  summary, on the b a s i s of the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f i n d i n g s  Katz, a number of g e n e r a l statements  site.  can be made about the  The evidence r e c o v e r e d from the Zone B d e p o s i t s t r o n g l y  suggests a seasonal u t i l i z a t i o n o f the s i t e d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , probably a s s o c i a t e d with summer and perhaps f a l l activities.  The Zone A, or pithouse d e p o s i t , r e p r e s e n t s both  a w i n t e r h a b i t a t i o n s i t e and a summer and/or f a l l ity.  fishing  fishing  This "multi-season u t i l i z a t i o n "  d i s t i n g u i s h e s Katz  most i n t e r i o r pithouse v i l l a g e s i t e s .  I n t e r i o r pithouse  localfrom sites  were o f t e n s i t u a t e d on high benches w e l l away from the f i s h i n g  290  s t a t i o n s along the r i v e r and f u n c t i o n e d p r i m a r i l y as habitation The  sites.  c u l t u r a l a f f i n i t i e s r e f l e c t e d i n the a r t e f a c t u a l  remains a s s o c i a t e d with the pithouse indicate " interior" butes.  winter  occupancy of the  and " c o a s t a l " , as w e l l as " l o c a l "  site attri-  Again, the broader q u e s t i o n r e l a t i n g to the d e r i v a t i o n  of the lower F r a s e r v a l l e y pithouses,  and  the economic  e t h n o - l i n g u i s t i c r a m i f i c a t i o n s of t h i s question, future research.  S e v e r a l problems can be  be t e s t e d i n the r e g i o n , and  and  must await  suggested t h a t  should  at the s i t e , which c o u l d enhance  our knowledge of the p r e h i s t o r y of the lower F r a s e r  river  region. A major problem i n the archaeology of the lower F r a s e r v a l l e y region i s that l i t t l e  i n f o r m a t i o n has been  obtained  p e r t a i n i n g to the d i f f e r e n t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of t o o l forms over a number of a c t i v i t y areas.  We  must know more about the  technology i n v o l v e d i n s p e c i a l i z e d a c t i v i t y s i t e s both on d e l t a and  along the lower course of the F r a s e r R i v e r .  the  The  a r t e f a c t v a r i a b i l i t y a s s o c i a t e d with s e a s o n a l l y u t i l i z e d  re-  source areas such as sturgeon spawning sloughs or f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s i n the F r a s e r canyon c o u l d be obtained r i g o r o u s sampling procedures.  by  employing  I f t e c h n o l o g i c a l change i n  a r t e f a c t s , and a r t e f a c t composition  i s to be  interpreted  w i t h i n a temporal p e r s p e c t i v e , adequate s i t e sampling w i t h i n the r e g i o n must be made a high  priority.  Although a l a r g e p o r t i o n of the Katz s i t e , i s now much of the s i t e remains i n t a c t f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h .  destroyed, The  site  291  a f f o r d s an e x c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t y t o sample r i g o r o u s l y and s y s t e m a t i c a l l y the c u l t u r a l l a y e r s of the f l u v i a l zone and r e c o r d the v a r i a t i o n i n f e a t u r e s and t o o l s w i t h i n t h i s d e p o s i t . A s u g g e s t i o n f o r f u t u r e work on the Zone B d e p o s i t would be t o t e s t whether t h i s d e p o s i t does i n f a c t r e p r e s e n t a activity"  area.  The  "seasonal  e x c a v a t i o n s h o u l d i n v o l v e wide a r e a  v a t i o n and n o t v e r t i c a l t r e n c h i n g .  An attempt s h o u l d be made  t o r e c o v e r a d d i t i o n a l f a u n a l remains through c a r e f u l of the h e a r t h c o n t e n t s .  exca-  examination  This could provide d i e t a r y information  and i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o s e a s o n a l i t y . A r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the l a t e r d e p o s i t be o r i e n t e d towards d e t e r m i n i n g  d i f f e r e n t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of  a r t e f a c t s , s i z e and s t r u c t u r e of the houses, and a n e i t y of the houses.  should  contempor-  These d a t a bear on q u e s t i o n s of s o c i a l  o r g a n i z a t i o n , demography, and c u l t u r a l a f f i n i t y . e a r l i e r i n the t h e s i s , c u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l s from the  As mentioned earlier  f l u v i a l zone are u n d o u b t e d l y mixed i n w i t h the Zone A d e p o s i t . Thus, chipped A.  stone p o i n t s from Zone B may  An approach which may  be p r e s e n t i n Zone  prove u s e f u l i n r e s o l v i n g t h i s sampl-  i n g problem would be t o l o c a t e p i t h o u s e s on the s i t e which do not o v e r l i e e a r l i e r c u l t u r a l d e p o s i t s .  A test p i t positioned  midway between P i t h o u s e 1 and 2 and the r i v e r proved t o be completely  sterile.  S i m i l a r s t e r i l e f l u v i a l deposits could  u n d e r l i e p i t h o u s e s a t the s i t e .  I f a v a r i e t y of t o o l s , f o r  example p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t forms, were found t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h unmixed p i t h o u s e d e p o s i t s t h e n one might b e t t e r e s t a b l i s h the range i n contemporaneously e x i s t i n g forms.  292  A remnant o f a f o r m e r bank o f the the n o r t h relating  of the t o an  site.  earlier  temporaneous w i t h i s no  this  if  the  terrace  valley region o f the  on  during  site  The context,  of pithouse  more r e c e n t  the  last  information  possibly  o f the  site.  t o an  culture within the  one  occupation However,  f l o o d p l a i n at Katz i n t o the B.C.,  are  lower  this  differ-  period.  t o o u t l i n e the site  relevant  Fraser  inland  s t r u c t u r a l remains of a  earlier  attempted  conThere  depressions.  millennium  might p r o v i d e  to b r i n g together  interior  site  o f a house form i n t r o d u c e d  house t y p e d a t i n g  of m a t e r i a l  provide  of the  occupation  i s s i t u a t e d to  e v i d e n c e o f semipermanent  form  the  T h i s r e p o r t has  and  Zone B  i n the  pithouses  representative  ent  the  t e r r a c e may  occupation  r e a d i l y observable  on  part  This  river  i n the data  rich variation  lower F r a s e r v a l l e y ,  f r o m the  coastal  and  areas. articulation  of these  two  areas,  i n i t s broadest  r e m a i n s a p r o b l e m t o engage a r c h a e o l o g i s t s  Northwest  i n the  reconstructions of highest  future. f o r the  priority.  f u t u r e work a t  the  In  Economic p a t t e r n s interior the  Katz s i t e  and  the  and  coast  of  the  environmental remain  problems  e l u c i d a t i o n of these  problems,  can  role.  p l a y a prominent  |M4» AIMl UM F i g u r e 19. Chipped Stone P o i n t s a-b, Group 1, Zone A; c, Group 1, S u r f a c e Group 2, Zone Aj i - 1 , G r o u p 2, B a c k h o e ; m Group 2, S u r f a c e ; o-q, Group 2, Zone B.  Figure 2 0 . Chipped Stone P o i n t s a - f , Group 3 , Zone A; g, Group 3 , S u r f a c e s h, Group 3 , B a c k h o e j i , Group 3 , Zone Bj j - k , Group 4 , Zone As 1» Group 4 , S u r f a c e s m, Group 4 , Backhoes n, Group 5 i Zone As o, s, Group 5» S u r f a c e ; p, q, G r o u p 6, Zone A; r , Group 61 S u r f a c e .  295  F i g u r e 21. Chipped Stone P o i n t s a, Group 7, S u r f a c e ; b-e, Group 7, Zone A; f - g i Group 7» Zone A; h-k, Group 8, Zone A; 1-m, Group 8, S u r f a c e ; p, Group 8, Zone A; o, q, Group 8, B a c k h o e ; r - t , Group 9, S u r f a c e ; u, Group 9i Zone A.  296  F i g u r e 22. Chipped Stone P o i n t s a-b, Group 10, Zone A; c - g , i , Group 11, Zone A; g-h, n, Group 11, S u r f a c e ; j-m, Group 11, Zone B; r , Group 11, B a c k h o e ; s-u, Group 12, Zone a; v-x, Group 12, Surface.  297  F i g u r e 23. Chipped Stone P o i n t s a-c, Group 13, Zone A: d - f , Group 13, S u r f a c e s g-h, Group 13, Backhoes i-l» Group 14, S u r f a c e s m, Group 14, B a c k h o e .  F i g u r e 24. Chipped Stone P o i n t s a-b, Group 15, Zone A? c-d, f , Group 15, Backhoe e, Group 15, S u r f a c e ; g - i , Group 16, Zone A; j - k Group 16, S u r f a c e ; 1, Group 17, S u r f a c e .  F i g u r e 25. Formed B i f a c e s a-d, f , Group 1, Zone A; e, g-h, Group 1, Zone B; i - j , Group 1, S u r f a c e ; k-1, Group 1, Backhoe; m-n, Group 2, Zone A; o-p, Group 2, Zone B.  300  F i g u r e 26. Formed B i f a c e s a-b, Group 3, Zone A; c-e, Group 4, Zone A; f , Group 4, Zone B j g - i , Group 5, Zone A; Group 6 , Zone A? m-o, Group 6 , B a c k h o e .  301  F i g u r e 27. Formed B i f a c e s and B i f a c e F r a g m e n t s a-d, Group 7 b i f a c e f r a g m e n t s , Zone A; f , Group 7 b i f a c e f r a g m e n t s , S u r f a c e ; e, Group 7 b i f a c e f r a g m e n t s , B a c k h o e ; g, m i s c e l l a n e o u s f o r m e d b i f a c e , Zone A; h, m i s c e l l a n e o u s f o r m e d b i f a c e , B a c k h o e ; i , m i s c e l l a n e o u s f o r m e d b i f a c e , Zone B,  302  f ~ j  k  #• o  •  1 pr,  f P  W q  m  i  l r  l s  F i g u r e 28. Formed U n i f a c e s ( s t e e p end r e t o u c h ) a, Group 1, S u r f a c e ; o, Group 1 , Zone A; c - g , Group 2, Zone A; h, Group 2, Zone B; i - j , m, G r o u p 2, S u r f a c e ; k, G r o u p 2, B a c k h o e ; 1 , n-o, r , G r o u p 3 i Zone A; p, Group 3» S u r f a c e j q , s - t , w, Group 3» Zone B; u-v, a , Group 4, Zone A* x, Group 4, S u r f a c e ; y - z , Group h, B a c k h o e . 1  303  F i g u r e 29. Formed U n i f a c e s ( r e t o u c h e d p r o j e c t i o n s ) Group 5 a - f , S u b g r o u p 1, Zone As g-h, S u b g r o u p 1, Surface; i - k , S u b g r o u p 1, B a c k h o e ; 1-m, S u b g r o u p 2, Zone A; n-o, S u b g r o u p 2, Zone B; p, S u b g r o u p 2, B a c k h o e ; q-s, S u b g r o u p 3 , Zone A; t , S u b g r o u p 3» Zone B.  Figure 30. Formed U n i f a c e s a-d, Group 6 , Zone A; c-1, Group 7 , Zone A; m-p, Group 7 , S u r f a c e ; q - r , Group 7 . Backhoe; s, Group 8 , S u r f a c e ; t , Group 8 , Zone A; u-v, Group 9» Backhoe.  305  Figure 31. Formed U n i f a c e s a-b, Group 1 0 , Zone A; c-d, Group 1 0 , Backhoe e - f , m i s c e l l a n e o u s formed u n i f a c e s , Zone As g m i s c e l l a n e o u s formed u n i f a c e s , S u r f a c e ; h - i , m i s c e l l a n e o u s formed u n i f a c e s , Backhoe.  306  F i g u r e 32. Unformed U n i f a c e s a, u n f o r m e d u n i f a c e ( c o n v e x e d g e ) , Zone A; t>, u n f o r m e d u n i f a c e ( c o n c a v e e d g e ) , Zone A; c, u n f o r m e d u n i f a c e ( s t r a i g h t e d g e ) , Zone As d, u n f o r m e d u n i f a c e ( c o n c a v e e d g e ) , Zone B; e, u n f o r m e d u n i f a c e ( s t r a i g h t e d g e ) , Zone B; f , unf o r m e d u n i f a c e ( r e c u r v e d e d g e ) , Zone B.  307  Ml Y  J  f A#9ft Figure 33' Pieces Esquille'es (Bipolar Flaked A r t e f a c t s ) a-h, p i e c e s e s q u i l l e ' e s , Zone Aj i - k , p i e c e s e s q u i l l e e s , Zone B; 1, p i d c e e s q u i l l e ' e , S u r f a c e s m-o, p i e c e s esquille'es, Backhoe.  308  Figure 34. Quartz C r y s t a l s a-c, q u a r t z c r y s t a l s ( c r u s h i n g on t i p s ) , Zone Aj d, q u a r t z c r y s t a l , Backhoe.  F i g u r e 36. C o r t e x S p a l l Cores a-c, c o r t e x s p a l l c o r e s (end s t r u c k ) , Zone A.  310  Figure 37. Zone A.  C o r t e x S p a l l Core  311  F i g u r e 38. Cortex S p a l l Tools a-g, c o r t e x s p a l l t o o l s , s e c o n d a r i l y f l a k e d , Zone A.  312  Figure 39. Cortex S p a l l T o o l s (Spokeshaves?) a-g, c o r t e x s p a l l t o o l s w i t h worn c o n c a v i t i e s ( s p o k e s h a v e s ? ) ; Zone A.  313  F i g u r e kO. C o r t e x S p a l l T o o l s (Saws?) a-c, c o r t e x s p a l l t o o l s w i t h g r o u n d and b e v e l l e d e d g e s , Zone A.  314  F i g u r e 41. C o r t e x S p a l l T o o l s a-d, edge b a t t e r e d c o r t e x s p a l l t o o l s , Zone A.  315  F i g u r e 42. C o r t e x S p a l l T o o l s a-b, c o r t e x s p a l l t o o l s w i t h worn edges, Zone A.  316  F i g u r e 43. C o r t e x S p a l l T o o l s a, c, c o r t e x s p a l l t o o l s s t r u c k on end, Zone A? b, d, c o r t e x s p a l l t o o l s s t r u c k on s i d e , Zone A.  317  F i g u r e 44. Close-up of C o r t e s S p a l l Saw Edge (U-Shaped), i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n , Zone A.  318  F i g u r e 4 5 . C o r t e x S p a l l Cores a, c o r t e x s p a l l core (end s t r u c k ) , Zone Bj b, c o r t e x s p a l l core t o o l ( s e c o n d a r i l y f l a k e d ) , Zone B,  319  F i g u r e 46. C o r t e x S p a l l T o o l s a-b, c o r t e x s p a l l t o o l s , s e c o n d a r i l y f l a k e d , Zone B.  320  Figure 4 7 . Cortex S p a l l Tools a-b, c o r t e x s p a l l t o o l s , s e c o n d a r i l y f l a k e d , Zone Bs c-e, c o r t e x s p a l l t o o l s , h e a v i l y worn edges, Zone B.  321  F i g u r e 48. C o r t e x S p a l l T o o l s a-b, c o r t e x s p a l l s w i t h worn c o n c a v i t i e s ( s p o k e s h a v e s ) , Zone B; c-d, c o r t e x s p a l l s w i t h s t r a i g h t edges (adzel i k e ) , Zone B.  322  F i g u r e 4 9 . Close-up of C o r t e x S p a l l Edge (Edge B a t t e r e d ) , Zone B.  F i g u r e 50. Close-up of Cortex S p a l l (Edge P o l i s h e d ) , Zone B.  Edge  F i g u r e 51. Core T o o l s a, c-d, Group 1, Zone As b, Group 1, Zone B.  325  F i g u r e 52t Core T o o l s a-d, Group 2 , Zone A; e-h, Group 2 , Zone B.  326  F i g u r e 53• Core T o o l s a-b, d, Group 3, Zone A; c, e, Group 3, Zone B.  F i g u r e 5^. Core T o o l s a-d, Group 4 , core t o o l s w i t h c o n c a v i t i e s e x h i b i t i n g e x t e n s i v e c r u s h i n g ( s p o k e s h a v e s ) , Zone A.  328  F i g u r e 55. C l o s e - u p o f Spokeshave Group 4 Core T o o l , Zone A.  Concavity  329  F i g u r e 5 6 . Pebble T o o l s a-b, Pebble T o o l s , Zone Bj c-d, Pebble T o o l s , Zone  F i g u r e 57. Zone A.  B i f a c i a l l y F l a k e d Pebble To  331  F i g u r e 58. Edge B a t t e r e d Cobbles a, edge b a t t e r e d c o b b l e , Backhoe? b, edge b a t t e r e d c o b b l e , Zone A; c-d, edge b a t t e r e d c o b b l e s , S u r f a c e .  F i g u r e 59 • Hammerstones a, s m a l l e l o n g a t e hammerstone, Zone A,  Zone B; b - c , hammerstones,  333  F i g u r e 60. Zone B.  A n v i l Stone  334  F i g u r e 61. Ground S l a t e P o i n t s a-b, k, n, ground s l a t e p o i n t s , S u r f a c e ; c, e - i , 1-m, ground s l a t e p o i n t s , Zone A; d, ground s l a t e p o i n t , Zone B; j , b a s a l fragment, Zone A; o, b a s a l fragment, Backhoe; p, r , ground s l a t e p o i n t p r e forms or end b l a d e s , S u r f a c e ; q, ground s l a t e p o i n t preform o r end b l a d e , Zone A.  335  F i g u r e 62. Ground S l a t e K n i v e s a-c, ground s l a t e k n i v e s , Zone Aj d, ground s l a t e knives, Surface.  336  F i g u r e 6 3 . Ground S l a t e a-b, ground s l a t e a t s t a g e of manufacture, evidence of c h i p p i n g a l o n g edges and g r i n d i n g on f a c e s , Zone B.  337  F i g u r e 64. Ground S l a t e a-b, ground s l a t e k n i v e s , Zone Br c-d, sawn s l a t e , Zone A.  338  F i g u r e 65, M i s c e l l a n e o u s Ground S l a t e A r t e f a c t s a, b i f a c i a l l y ground s l a t e o b j e c t w i t h a l o n g i t u d i n a l saw groove, S u r f a c e ; b, e l o n g a t e s l a t e o b j e c t ( n e e d l e ? ) , Zone A; c, ground s l a t e k n i f e fragment w i t h b i c o n i c a l l y d r i l l e d h o l e , Zone A: d, ground s l a t e k n i f e fragment w i t h i n c i s e d s e r r a t i o n s a l o n g the edge, S u r f a c e ; e, ground s l a t e k n i f e fragment w i t h i n c i s e d s e r r a t i o n s a l o n g the edge, Zone A.  339  F i g u r e 66. Sawn N e p h r i t e Cobble Backhoe Test P i t .  3^0  F i g u r e 6?. Surface.  Sawn and Ground N e p h r i t e  Pebbles  34l  Figure 68. F l a k e d and Ground N e p h r i t e P e b b l e s a, g r o u n d n e p h r i t e p e b b l e , Zone A; b, g r o u n d n e p h r i t e p e b b l e , Zone B; c, f l a k e d and g r o u n d n e p h r i t e p e b b l e , Zone A; d, f l a k e d and g r o u n d n e p h r i t e p e b b l e , Surface; e, f l a k e d and g r o u n d n e p h r i t e p e b b l e , Backhoe; f , ground s p a l l o f n e p h r i t e , Backhoe.  342  F i g u r e 69* Sawing Backhoe.  Adze Blade i n P r o c e s s o f S e c t i o n i n g by  3^3  F i g u r e 70. Adze B l a d e s a, d-g, adze b l a d e s , Zone A i b, c, h, adze b l a d e s , Surface.  344  F i g u r e 71. Adze B l a d e s a, d-e, adze b l a d e s , Backhoe; b-c, adze b l a d e s , Surface.  3^5  F i g u r e 72. S m a l l N e p h r i t e T o o l s a-c, n e p h r i t e c h i s e l s , S u r f a c e ; d, n e p h r i t e c h i s e l s , Zone A?; e, f , n e p h r i t e end b l a d e s , Zone A; g, n e p h r i t e end b l a d e , S u r f a c e ; h, e l o n g a t e n e p h r i t e t o o l , Backhoe.  346  F i g u r e 73. Hand Mauls a, hand maul fragment ( t o p p o r t i o n w i t h two e n c i r c l i n g g r o o v e s ) , S u r f a c e ; b, hand maul fragment ( b a s a l port i o n ) , S u r f a c e ; c, hand maul fragment ( b a s a l p o r t i o n ) , T e s t P i t 344' - 350* South, 90' - 96' E a s t ; d, hand maul fragment ( b a s a l p o r t i o n ) , S u r f a c e .  3^7  Figure 74. Large Pecked Cobble (hand maul i n s t a g e of m a n u f a c t u r e ? ) , S u r f a c e  348  F i g u r e 75. M i s c e l l a n e o u s Stone A r t e f a c t s a, e l o n g a t e p e b b l e s w i t h a s e r i e s o f b i l a t e r a l n o t c h e s and t a n g - l i k e end, B a c k h o e ; b, p e b b l e s w i t h b i l a t e r a l l y p e c k e d n o t c h e s , and p e c k e d ( s t r a i g h t ) ends, Zone A; c, edge ground p e b b l e , Zone A.  3^9  F i g u r e 76. D e c o r a t i v e Stone A r t e f a c t s a, sandstone bead, Backhoe; b, i n c i s e d p h y l l i t e s p i n d l e - s h a p e d o b j e c t , Zone A? c, ground s t e a t i t e p i p e , Backhoe; d, zoomorphic c a r v i n g ( s t e a t i t e ) , Surface.  350  F i g u r e ??. Zone A.  Stone M o r t a r  351  F i g u r e 78. G r a p h i t e and S t e a t i t e a, ground g r a p h i t e fragment ( b i c o n i c a l l y d r i l l e d ) , Zone Aj b, g r a p h i t e w i t h f a c e t s , Zone A; c, g r a p h i t e w i t h ground d e p r e s s i o n , Zone B i d, sawn s t e a t i t e , Zone A.  352  F i g u r e 79 • A b r a s i v e Saws a-d, s c h i s t o s e saws, Zone A.  F i g u r e 80. A b r a s i v e Saws a-c, g a r n e t i f e r o u s s c h i s t saws, Zone B.  354  F i g u r e 81. Zone A.  Abrasive Slab  355  F i g u r e 82. A b r a s i v e s a-b, coarse a b r a s i v e s l a b s , Zone B i c, s c h i s t w i t h l a r g e g a r n e t i n c l u s i o n s , Zone A; d, whetstone w i t h broad s h a l l o w d e p r e s s i o n , Zone A.  356  F i g u r e 8 3 . Bone Awls a, s p l i t bone awl fragment ( t i p p o r t i o n ) , Zone A: b, s p l i t bone a w l , T e s t P i t , 3^4 - 3 5 0 South, 90 96* E a s t .  BIBLIOGRAPHY Abbott, D.N. n.d. "A Study of F a c t o r s Relevant to the I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Remains on S o u t h e a s t e r n Vancouver Island." Ms., u n p u b l i s h e d M.A. t h e s i s , Washington S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , Pullman. 1972  The U t i l i t y of the Concept of Phase i n Archaeology of the Southern Northwest Coast," S y e s i s 5 : 267-278.  Armstrong,, J . , D. C r a n d e l l , D. E a s t e r b r o o k and J . Noble 1965 L a t e P l e i s t o c e n e S t r a t i g r a p h y and Chronology i n Southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia and Northwestern Washington," G e o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y o f America B u l l e t i n 76: 321-330. Armstrong,, J . 1957 S u r f i c i a l Geology of the New Westminster MapArea, B r i t i s h Columbia," Canada G e o l o g i c a l Survey Paper 5 7 - 5 . 2 5 p. Aro, K. and M. Shepard 1967 " P a c i f i c Salmon i n Canada," I n t e r n a t i o n a l North P a c i f i c F i s h e r i e s Commission, pp. 2 2 5 - 3 2 7 * Barnett, 1944  1955  H. "Underground Houses on the B r i t i s h Columbian Coast," American A n t i q u i t y , v o l . IX, No. 3 . The Coast S a l i s h of B r i t i s h Columbia. U n i v e r s i t y o f Oregon P r e s s .  Eugene:  B i n f o r d , L.R. 1963 " A Proposed A t t r i b u t e L i s t f o r the D e s c r i p t i o n and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of P r o j e c t i l e Points," i n M i s c e l l a n eous S t u d i e s i n Typology and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Papers, Museum of Anthropology, U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan, 19 193-221. Bloombaum,, M. 1971a ' Doing S m a l l e s t Space A n a l y s i s , " J o u r n a l of C o n f l i c t R e s o l u t i o n , 3 : 409-416. 1971b  "Some Recent Examples i n F a c e t Theory and Non M e t r i c Analysis." Paper p r e s e n t e d a t Canadian S o c i o l o g i c a l and A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n Meeting, Newfoundland.  357  358  Boas, F. 1890  1898  Second General Report on