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The Katz site : a prehistoric pithouse settlement in the lower Fraser Valley, British Columbia Hanson, Gordon William 1973

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THE KATZ SITE* A PREHISTORIC PITHOUSE SETTLEMENT IN THE LOWER FRASER VALLEY, BRITISH COLUMBIA by GORDON WILLIAM HANSON B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Anthropology and S o c i o l o g y We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1973 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis fo r scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed .without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada ABSTRACT Salvage i n v e s t i g a t i o n s were c a r r i e d out i n 1970-71 at the Katz s i t e (DiRj 1), a p r e h i s t o r i c pithouse settlement l o c a t e d a l o n g the F r a s e r R i v e r near the e a s t e r n end of the lower F r a s e r v a l l e y three m i l e s downriver from Hope, B.C. V a r i o u s hypotheses have been advanced to account f o r the presence of p i t h o u s e s , a house type c o n s i d e r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the P l a t e a u , i n the lower F r a s e r r i v e r r e g i o n . A r c h a e o l -o g i c a l r e s e a r c h conducted a t the Katz s i t e has r e v e a l e d (1) t h a t the pithouse s e t t l e m e n t was occupied about the middle of the f i r s t millennium B.C., (2) t h a t the a r t e f a c t u a l remains i n a s s o c i a t i o n with the pithouse occupancy express t e c h n o l -o g i c a l a f f i n i t i e s which are " i n t e r i o r " , " c o a s t a l " , as w e l l as " l o c a l " i n c h a r a c t e r , and (3) the s i t e f u n c t i o n e d as a m u l t i -season a c t i v i t y l o c a l e . A r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a t Katz a l s o y i e l d e d evidence of a u t i l i z a t i o n of the s i t e p r i o r to pithouse occupancy. In t h i s e a r l i e r d e p o s i t , a r t e f a c t u a l remains were found interbedded i n f l o o d p l a i n a l l u v i a . The s t r a t i g r a p h y , t o o l s , and f e a t u r e s , of t h i s zone suggest a seasonal u t i l i z a t i o n of the s i t e d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , p o s s i b l y a s s o c i a t e d with summer and perhaps f a l l f i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s . These data are examined and d i s c u s s e d i n the l i g h t of e c o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n , ethnographic accounts, and p r e v i o u s a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f i n d i n g s i n the r e g i o n and adjacent r e g i o n s . Evidence presented i n t h i s t h e s i s adds to the e m p i r i c a l r e -search p r e v i o u s l y undertaken f o r the purpose of e s t a b l i s h i n g time depth, d e r i v a t i o n , and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s i n Northwest pithouse v i l l a g e s , and adds i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t o o l k i t s , and a c t i v i t i e s a t a s e a s o n a l l y u t i l i z e d s i t e e a r l y i n the f i r s t millennium B.C. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES v i LIST OF FIGURES x LIST OF MAPS x i v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS xv INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER I. THE ENVIRONMENT OF THE LOWER FRASER VALLEY REGION I n t r o d u c t i o n 11 Physiography 12 G l a c i a l H i s t o r y 19 Climate 22 F l o r a 2^ Fauna 39 R i v e r i n e Resources 30 C o r r e l a t i o n of Resources and Time of Year i n T a i t T e r r i t o r y 35 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n 2^ I I . STALO ETHNOGRAPHY I n t r o d u c t i o n ^8 People and T e r r i t o r y *. 9^ The S t r u c t u r e of S o c i e t y 51 The Seasonal Round 53 Summary • • 56 I I I . ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION F i e l d Work Recent H i s t o r y of the Katz S i t e 58 P r e l i m i n a r y F i e l d Work (September, 1970). 60 Surveying 61 Backhoe. Test P i t s 62 Excavation (May 15 to August 31, 1971)... 65 S t r a t i g r a p h y S t r a t i g r a p h y of Zone A 69 S t r a t i g r a p h y of Zone B 72 S t r a t i g r a p h y of Zone C 73 i v CHAPTER Page IV. ANALYSIS OF CULTURAL MATERIALS Methodology ... 106 Chipped Stone A r t e f a c t s Chipped Stone P o i n t s 114 Chipped B i f a c e s and U n i f a c e s 140 Formed B i f a c e s Unformed B i f a c e s Formed U n i f a c e s Unformed U n i f a c e s Quartz I n d u s t r y 184 P i e c e s Es q u i l l e ' e s 185 Cortex S p a l l T o o l s 186 Cortex S p a l l Cores (Zone A) Cortex S p a l l T o ols (Zone A) Cortex S p a l l Cores (Zone B) Cortex S p a l l T o ols (Zone B) Cores and Core Tools 204 S p l i t Cobble T o o l s 209 Pebble T o o l s 209 Edge B a t t e r e d Cobbles 210 Hammerstones 211 A n v i l s t o n e s 218 Ground Stone A r t e f a c t s 218 Ground S l a t e 218 Ground S l a t e P o i n t s Ground S l a t e Knives (Zone A) Ground S l a t e Knives (Zone B) M i s c e l l a n e o u s Ground S l a t e A r t e f a c t s Tools of Nephrite and R e l a t e d M a t e r i a l s .... 227 The Manufacturing Process Adze Blades Nephrite C h i s e l s Nephrite P e r f o r a t o r Nephrite End Blades Nephrite D e t r i t u s M i s c e l l a n e o u s Stone A r t e f a c t s 236 Pecked and Ground A r t e f a c t s Hand Mauls 238 Abrasive Stones 244 Saws (Zone A) 245 Saws (Zone B) 245 Abrasive S l a b s (Zone A) 247 Abrasive S l a b s (Zone B) 248 Bone A r t e f a c t s 248 S p l i t Bone Awls 248 A r t e f a c t Summary Sheet 250 V. DISCUSSION 259 BIBLIOGRAPHY 357 APPENDICES 368 v LIST OF TABLES TABLE I. II . I I I . IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI. XII. XIII. XIV. XV. XVI. Page Salmon Spawning Populations of the Harrison 33 and Fraser Rivers Ecological Resource Variables 37 Zone A Features; Pithouse Number 1 76 Zone A Features: Pithouse Number 2 82 Zone B Features 86 Metric Attributes of Group 1 Points 117 Metric Attributes of Group 2: Medium to Small 119 Leaf-Shaped Metric Attributes of Group 3: Small, Broad Leaf-Shaped with Straight Bases Metric Attributes of Group 4: Unstemmed Points or Preforms Metric Attributes of Group 5* Shouldered Metric Attributes of Group 6: Shouldered 120 Large Triangular 121 Large Single- 123 Small Single-Metric Attributes of Group Corner-Removed, Contracting Stem, No Barbs (Narrow, Thick, Excurvate Blade) Metric Attributes of Group 8: Corner-Removed, Contracting Stem, No Barbs (Broad, Thin, Excurvate Blade) Metric Attributes of Group 9* Corner-Removed, Contracting Stems, No Barbs (Triangular Blade Outline) Metric Attributes of Group 10: Shouldered, No Barb ( S l i g h t l y Expanding Stem) Metric Attributes of Group 11: Corner Notched (Lateral-Coincidental), No Barbs, Expanding Stems (Excurvate Blade, Open Notch) 124 126 127 129 130 132 v i TABLE. Page XVII. Metric Attributes of Group 12: Corner I33 Notched (Lateral-Coincidental), Barbed, Expanding Stem (Triangular Blade, Narrow Notch) XVIII. Metric Attributes of Group 131 Corner 135 Notched (Lateral-Coincidental), Barbed, Expanding Stem (Broad Blade, Broad Stem) XIX. Metric Attributes of Group l4t Corner 136 Notched, Barbed (Narrow Excurvate Blade, Concave Base) XX. Metric Attributes of Group 15* Corner and 137 Basally Notched (Basal-Basal), Barbed (Broad Blade, Broad Stem) XXI. Metric Attributes of Group 16: Basally 138 Notched (Extreme Barbs, Narrow Stem) XXII. Group 1: Leaf Shaped Bifaces 1^ 1 XXIII. Group 2: Bifaces with Broad Bases 1^ 3 XXIV. Group Stemmed Bifaces 14-5 XXV. Group 6: Bifaces with Retouched Projections 14-7 XXVI. Subgroup I t Large Biface Fragments 1^ 9 XXVII. Subgroup 2: Pointed Biface Fragments 151 XXVIII. Length Range and Mean Thickness of Pointed 151 Biface Fragments XXIX. Subgroup 4: Rounded or Straight Based Biface 152 Fragments XXX. Miscellaneous Formed Bifaces 153 XXXI. Round to Oval Unifaces 155 XXXII. Elongate Unifaces with Steep End Retouch 157 XXXIII. Round to Rectanguloid Unifaces with Steep 159 End Retouch XXXIV. Triangular Unifaces with Steep End Retouch 161 XXXV. Formed Unifaces with Retouched Projections 16^ (Subgroup I t Broad Blade Element) v i i TABLE Page XXXVI. Formed Unifaces with Retouched Projections 168 (Subgroup 2: Narrow Blade Element) XXXVII. Subgroup 3: Diamond Shaped or Bipointed Tools 170 XXXVIII. Unifaces with Continuous Marginal Retouch 172 XXXIX. Blade-Like Unifaces with L a t e r a l Retouch 173 XL. B i l a t e r a l l y Retouched Macroblades 176 XLI. Thin Triangular Unifaces with Straight Edges 176 XLII. Crescent Shaped Unifaces 177 XLIII. Miscellaneous Formed Unifaces 178 XLIV. Unformed Unifaces: Zone A 180 XLV. Unformed Unifaces: Zone B 181 XLVI. Posit i o n and Shape of Edge on Unformed 182 Unifaces: Zone A XLVII. Posi t i o n and Shape of Edge on Unformed 183 Unifaces: Zone B XLVIII. Pieces E s q u i l l ^ e s 187 IXL. Maximum Length of Cortex Spalls (Zone A) 19^ L. Maximum Length of Secondarily Flaked Cortex 19^ Spalls (Zone A) LI. P o s i t i o n of the Working Edge of Secondarily 196 Flaked S p a l l s (Zone A) LII. Maximum Length of Cortex Spalls (Zone B) 201 LIII. Position of the Working Edge of Secondarily 201 Flaked S p a l l s (Zone B) LIV. Maximum Length of Secondarily Flaked Cortex 202 Spal l s (Zone B) LV. Edge Battered Cobbles 211 LVI. Metric Attributes, General Provenience and 213 Wear of Hammerstones LVII. Pos i t i o n of Wear ( P i t t i n g and Battering) on 217 Hammerstones v i i i TABLE Page LVIII. Anvils-tones 218 LIX. Ground Slate Points 220 LX. Metric Attributes, Modification and 231 Provenience of Nephrite Pebbles LXI. Metric Attributes of Complete or Nearly 233 Complete Adze Blades LXII. Metric Attributes of Chisels 235 LXIII. Hand Mauls 238 LXIV. Thickness Range of Saws from Zone A 246 LXV. Thickness Range of Saws from Zone B 246 ix LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1. A e r i a l Photograph of the Katz S i t e 17 2. P r o f i l e of Climate and River Gradient i n the 23 Lower Fraser Valley 3. Flow Chart Showing 42 Ec o l o g i c a l Variables 39 Over 52 Weeks 4. Smallest Space Analysis Showing 42 Eco l o g i c a l 40 Variables Over 52 Weeks 5. Smallest Space Analysis Showing Riverine Resource 41 Variables Over 52 Weeks 6. P r o f i l e of Pithouse Number 1 75 7. Horizontal D i s t r i b u t i o n of Cul t u r a l Features 79 Associated with Pithouses 8. Pithouse Number 1; Feature Number 16} 80 Cobbles which E n c i r c l e the Floor Area of the House 9. Pithouse Number 1} Photograph Showing the Clay 80 Layer i n the Stratigraphy of Pithouse 1 10. Pithouse Number 1; Feature Number 13; Cachepit 81 11. Pithouse Number 2; Feature Number 2; 85 Charred Bark Sheets within House 12. Horizontal D i s t r i b u t i o n of Cultural Features 98 i n Flood P l a i n Deposits 13. Feature 16: Rock Oven? 99 14. Features i n Zone B: Hearths and Linear 100 Arrangements of Cobbles i n Zone B Deposit between Pithouse 1 and 2. 15. Feature 15: The Truncation of Zone B Cul t u r a l 101 Layers by Pithouse Number 1 16. Feature 22: Hearth and Feature 23: Linear 101 Arrangement of Cobbles 17. North Wall of Unit 0 -10 West and 0.0 South 102 18. Interface of Zone A and Zone B At West Rim of 103 Pithouse Number 1 x FIGURE Page 19. Chipped Stone Points: Groups 1-2 293 20. Chipped Stone Points: Groups 3-6 294 21. Chipped Stone Points: Groups 7 - 9 295 22. Chipped Stone Points: Groups 10 - 12 296 23. Chipped Stone Points: Groups 13 - 14 297 24. Chipped Stone Points: Groups 15 - 17 298 25. Formed Bifaces: Groups 1-2 299 26. Formed Bifaces: Groups 3 - 6 3OO 27. Formed Bifaces and Biface Fragments: Group 7 301 28. Formed Unifaces (Steep End Retouch): Groups 302 1-4 29. Formed Unifaces: Subgroups 1-3 303 30. Formed Unifaces: Group 6-9 304 31. Formed Unifaces: Group 10 305 32. Unformed Unifaces 306 33. Pieces Esquille'es 307 34. Quartz Crystals 3O8 35. Schematic Drawing Showing Cortex S p a l l Attributes 195 36. Cortex S p a l l Cores, Zone A 309 37. Cortex S p a l l Core, Zone A 310 38. Cortex S p a l l Tools, Secondarily Flaked, Zone A 311 39. Cortex S p a l l Tools (Spokeshaves?), Zone A 312 40. Cortex S p a l l Tools (Saws?), Zone A 313 41. Cortex S p a l l Tools, Edge Battered, Zone A 314 42. Cortex S p a l l Tools, Worn Edges, Zone A 315 43. Cortex S p a l l Tools, End Struck; Side Struck; 316 Zone A x i FIGURE Page 44. Close-up of Cortex S p a l l Saw Edge, Zone A 317 45. Cortex S p a l l Cores, Zone B 3I8 46. Cortex S p a l l Tools, Secondarily Flaked, 319 Zone B 47. Cortex S p a l l Tools, Secondarily Flaked, 320 Worn Edges; Zone B 48. Cortex S p a l l Tools, Spokeshaves; Edge-Like, 321 Zone B 49. Close-up of Cortex S p a l l Edge, Edge Battered, 322 Zone B 50. Close-up of Cortex S p a l l Edge, Edge Polished, 323 Zone B 51. Core Tools: Group 1 324 52. Core Tools: Group 2 325 53. Core Tools: Group 3 326 54. Core Tools: Group 4 327 55. Close-up of Spokeshave Concavity: Group 4 328 56. Pebble Tools 329 57. B i f a c i a l l y Flaked Pebble Tool 330 58. Edge Battered Cobbles 331 59. Hammerstones 332 60. Anvil Stone 333 61. Ground Slate Points 334 62. Ground Slate Knives 335 63. Ground Slate, at Stage of Manufacture, Zone B 336 64. Ground Slate: Slate Knives and Sawn Slate 337 65. Miscellaneous Ground Slate Artefacts 338 66. Sawn Nephrite Cobble 339 67. Sawn and Ground Nephrite Pebbles 340 x i i FIGURE Page 68. Flaked and Ground Nephrite Pebbles 3^ 1 69« Adze Blade i n Process of Sectioning by 342 Sawing 70. Adze Blades 343 71. Adze Blades 344 72. Small Nephrite Tools 345 73. Hand Mauls 345 74. Large Pecked Cobble 34.7 75. • Miscellaneous Stone Artefacts 343 76. Decorative Stone Artefacts 3^q 77. Stone Mortar 350 78. Graphite and Ste a t i t e 351 79. Abrasive Saws, Zone A 352 80. Abrasive Saws, Zone B 353 81. Abrasive Slab 354 82. Abrasives 355 83. Bone Awls 355 x i i i LIST OF MAPS MAP Page 1. Map of the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y 13 2. Ethnographic Map of the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y 47 3. Contour Map of the Katz S i t e 68 x i v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am indebted to a great many people who together made th i s report possible. I wish to express my thanks to the people of the Hope Indian Band, p a r t i c u l a r l y Mrs. Peter Pete and Chief Peter Dennis Peters, f o r the many kindnesses shown toward our f i e l d crew during the project. The Katz Salvage Project was funded through an Opportun-i t i e s f o r Youth grants f i n a n c i a l assistance was supplemented by the Men's Canadian Club, the p r o v i n c i a l Department of Highways, and the B.C. p r o v i n c i a l government. F i e l d equip-ment was provided by the U.B.C. Laboratory of Archaeology. During the long period of analyzing and writing up the res u l t s of the excavation I was aided by graduate student bursaries administered by President Walter Gage and a Research Assistant-ship with Dr. Carl Borden. Carrying out the preliminary investigation of the s i t e i n the f a l l of 1970, I was assisted by Alan Carl, Les Kopas, David Archer and Gary B u r n i k e l l . Members of the Archaeological Society of B.C. generously gave of t h e i r time during t h i s period and i n the following summer, when the major salvage excavation was mounted. Arduous workers during the summer of 1971 included: Wendy Devlin, Walter Harrison, Jan Kralt Burnikell, Wayne Davis, Dick Tipton, Mary Lynn Tipton, Laura Wilimovsky, Gary Bur n i k e l l , Greta Lundborg, Graydon McMurdo, Candace Hanson, K i t t y Bernick, Linda Cobb, Mike Heiden, Tom Duff, Mel Stewart, Bonnie Stewart, Ferguson Neville , Theresa Bruch, Anthony xv Arundel, Ron Sutherland, E i l e e n Sutherland, Sheila Neville and H i l a r y Stewart. Numerous other volunteers joined us f o r short periods of time. Each of the crew members made impor-tant and essential contributions to the project as workers and companions over a period of three months i n the "bush" . We were fortunate i n having a large number of rather well accomplished musicians on the crew, whose music made the f i r s t six weeks of constant r a i n much easier to endure. Our "neigh-bour" , Ed Pick, was a welcome and frequent v i s i t o r to the campsite. In the 20 months since the excavation was completed, I have been helped by many individ u a l s i n the laboratory. I am p a r t i c u l a r l y indebted to Leonard Ham, Mike Heiden, Jan Kralt B u r a i k e l l , Alan Carl, David Archer, and Roger Poulton, f o r t h e i r unpaid, but painstaking, assistance. Hilary Stewart, Moira Irvine, and Nancy Condrashoff were p a r t i c u l a r l y con-scientious i n d r a f t i n g the figures into f i n a l form. Moira Irvine gently reminded me of deadlines, and photographed, developed and printed the photographs of artefacts that appear i n the thesis. Candace Hanson typed and edited e a r l i e r drafts of the thesis and Betty Obee pati e n t l y and professionally typed the f i n a l copy. Commenting on e a r l i e r drafts of the thesis, I benefited from the suggestions of Bjorn Simonsen, Don Abbott, Jim Haggerty, Ray Kenny and Paul Sneed. I am p a r t i c u l a r l y indebted to members of my advisory committee. Dr. Carl Borden, chairman of the committee, was xvi a constant source of invaluable advice, helpful criticism, and en-couragement. Dr. Borden frequently visited the salvage project, bringing wise counsel, mail, and beer. His meticulous attention to earlier drafts of the thesis were of great benefit. Dr. Richard Pearson devoted many hours to careful consideration and criticism of earlier versions of this thesis. His advice was encouraging; his suggested solutions to problems I encountered was useful and rele-vant. I used Professor Wilson Duff's valuable book, The Upper Stalo, as a frequent reference on ethnographic detail; Professor Duff was a cooperative member of my committee. x v i i INTRODUCTION This study reports the r e s u l t s of salvage investigations conducted at the Katz s i t e (DiRj 1), a p r e h i s t o r i c settlement on the north bank of the Fraser River, 3 miles downriver from Hope, B r i t i s h Columbia. The area under investigation i s located on a portion of Reserve Number 4 of the Hope Indian Band. Archaeological salvage was prompted by construction a c t i v i t y on a new Trans-Canada Highway l i n k between Agassiz and Haig. The road-bed of the proposed highway was surveyed under the auspices of the Archaeological S i t e s Advisory Board of B r i t i s h Columbia i n June of 1969* I t was revealed that the destruction of a major portion of the large pithouse v i l l a g e at Katz was imminent. Preliminary test trenching was carried out i n September of 1970 and a large scale salvage pro-ject was mounted f o r the 1971 f i e l d season. The rationale f o r archaeological investigation at the Katz s i t e was to recover information that could possibly shed l i g h t on a number of problems r e l a t i n g to the prehistory of the lower Fraser v a l l e y region. Hypotheses have been advanced by previous researchers regarding (1) the derivation of p i t -houses i n the lower Fraser v a l l e y , (2) the time depth of t h e i r presence i n the valley, and (3) the nature of the a c t i v i t i e s carried out at pithouse settlements. The large pithouse v i l l a g e at Katz, situated near the eastern end of the lower 1 2 Fraser valley, provided an opportunity to test some of these e a r l i e r hypotheses. It i s of i n t e r e s t that pithouses, long considered a culture t r a i t of the I n t e r i o r Plateau (Teit, 1900: 192-194; Waterman et a l . , 1921: 3I1 Ray, 1939« I32-I37), are found i n the lower Fraser v a l l e y i n t e r r i t o r y described ethnographically as Coast S a l i s h (Duff, 1952: 11; H i l l - T o u t , 1902: 356). Boas (1890: 81) was the f i r s t to note t h i s f a c t and reported that pithouse d i s t r i b u t i o n extended westward along the lower Fraser to the confluence of the Harrison and Fraser r i v e r s " . . . where both the large wooden house of Vancouver Island and the subterranean lodge are i n use." The l a t e r work of H i l l - T o u t (1902: 9$ 1904: 331), M. Smith (19^7* 257), Emmons (1951* 53), and Barnett (1944: 268) expanded the recorded d i s t r i b u t i o n of pithouse settlements along the Chilliwack River, southward down the Nooksack va l l e y , northward into the lower Harrison drainage, and f i n a l l y out to Musqueam near the delta mouth. Barnett (1944: 268) pointed out, however, that the pithouses used at Musqueam d i f f e r e d i n structure and function from those of the Plateau. Instead of having conical or pyramidal roofs, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c roof structures of the northwest Plateau dwellings (Ray, 1939* 132-137), the Musqueam pithouses had f l a t roofs supported by a ". . . central post on top of which rested two logs crossing at r i g h t angles . . ." (Barnett, 1944: 268). In terms of function, the Musqueam pithouses were used only i n the coldest part of winter and as a rule no cooking was done there. There was no general 3 abandonment of plank houses; the subterranean chamber was slept i n when i t was cold, and the weak and the infirm spent most of t h e i r time there i n bad weather. (Ibid) On the question of the derivation of the lower Fraser v a l l e y pithouses, Barnett argued that the coastal patterns were derived d i r e c t l y from the i n t e r i o r . In the case of the Chilliwack pithouses, and presumably those further east i n the Fraser valley, he suggested that these people derived ". . . the practice of b u i l d i n g winter habitations . . . from the Thompson bands who l i v e d not f a r above them on the Fraser River" (Ibid; 269). M. Smith (19^7: 266), i n contrast, suggested that pithouses came into the lower Fraser v a l l e y v i a the Harrison drainage, establishing a " . . . well-defined s t r i p of pithouses extending from upper Harrison Lake straight south to the upper reaches of the Chilliwack and Nooksack Rivers." She contended that t h i s "well-defined s t r i p " was established p r i o r to the occupation of the lower Fraser by Halkomelem speakers, and constituted a d i s t i n c t c u l t u r a l e n t i t y which she c a l l e d the "Middle Fraser". Moreover, she suggested that the d i f f u s i o n of pithouses down the Fraser "represented a secondary d i f f u s i o n " (Ibid). Suttles (1957* 169). i n a cr i t i q u e of M. Smith's argument, refuted her assertions s t a t -ing they had " . . . l i t t l e j u s t i f i c a t i o n i n known ethnography or l i n g u i s t i c s . " The f i r s t reference to the construction of pithouses i n Coast S a l i s h t e r r i t o r y i n the lower Fraser Canyon was made by Te i t (1900: 195). He reported that "The Indians of Yale constructed a few of these dwellings shortly before 1858, but 4 or d i n a r i l y they l i v e d i n large lodges made of s p l i t planks." Teit's statement was interpreted "by M . Smith as meaning that the use of pithouses i n Coast S a l i s h (Halkomelem) T e r r i t o r y was a recent phenomenon. Archaeological evidence recovered from a pithouse excavation at Esi l a o V i l l a g e (DjRi 5) has indicated that pithouses have a considerable time depth i n the Fraser canyon and were i n use late i n the f i r s t millennium B.C. (Borden, 1968: 16). Borden contends that the advent of pithouses at th i s time marks an abrupt change i n the 9,000 year culture sequence i n the lower Fraser canyon. He argues that pithouses, corner and basally notched barbed points, and a wide variety of cr y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e l i t h i c s indicate the i n -trusion of an i n t e r i o r culture into the lower Fraser r i v e r region (Ibid.) He goes on to say that i n time the influence of t h i s intrusive culture extended to the Fraser delta and i s evidenced i n the Whalen II phase ar t e f a c t assemblage (Ibid: 20). The pithouse v i l l a g e at Katz was established i n recent time according to an informant of Duff's (1952: 33)» at ". . . about 1870 or e a r l i e r . . ." as a r e s u l t of a movement down-r i v e r from Hope. On the basis of the archaeological evidence p r i o r to investigations at Katz and ethnographic reports, the use of pithouses i n the lower Fraser r i v e r region began about 2,000 years ago and persisted into the h i s t o r i c period. Warren (1968: 37-^6) and Nelson (1969: 37-50) have con-cluded on the basis of dated s i t e s that the advent of winter v i l l a g e s (pithouses and other semipermanent dwellings) along 5 major water courses i n the Columbia Plateau began around the middle of the f i r s t millennium B.C. This development i s described by Warren ( 1 9 6 8 : 4 3 ) as the beginning of the "Plateau Pattern"1 Nelson ( 1 9 6 9 * 3 8 ) , using s i m i l a r c r i t e r i a defines th i s period as the beginning of the "Cayuse Phase." The c u l -t u r a l manifestations which distinguish the "Plateau Pattern" or "Cayuse Phase" from e a r l i e r manifestations are as follows: ( 1 ) the presence of pithouses and other semipermanent dwellings along major waterways i n sheltered locations (Nelson, 1 9 6 9 s 43? Warren, 1 9 6 8 : 4 3 ) . ( 2 ) the presence of " s i t e complexes" which include winter v i l l a g e s , storage shelters, storage p i t s , pictographs and petroglyphs (Nelson, 1 9 6 9 * 3 8 ) . ( 3 ) increased emphasis on f i s h i n g indicated by the location of large s i t e s on floodplain banks, major tr i b u t a r i e s , etc., and f i s h i n g equipment such as notched, perforated, and grooved weights, net gauges and shuttles, composite harpoon t i p s and valves, three pronged salmon spear barbs and barb guards, u n i l a t e r a l l y barbed bone pro-j e c t i l e points, and carvings depicting f i s h and other implements commonly associated with f i s h i n g (Nelson, 1 9 6 9 * 5 7 ) . ( 4 ) evidence of extensive trade i n coastal items such as dentalia, ground mussel s h e l l (Mytilus californianus) adzes, Odostomia tenuisculpta (Nelson, 1969s 46). ( 5 ) the presence of Columbia Plateau corner-notched and Quilomene Bar Base-Notched p r o j e c t i l e points (Nelson, 6 1969' ^9) or Middle-Columbia basal-notched and Wallula rectangular stemmed points (Warren, 1968: 44). Nelson (1969* 5*0 suggests that the " . . . winter v i l l a g e pattern c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the ethnographically documented Plateau s o c i a l and economic organization was established at the beginning of the Cayuse Phase." I have introduced the models of plateau prehistory developed by Warren (1968) and Nelson (1969) because t h e i r work represents the only major attempts to describe the char-a c t e r i s t i c s of pithouse v i l l a g e settlement on a regional basis. The appearance of pithouses i n the lower Fraser canyon during the "Skamel Phase" (Borden, 1968: 16) does not appear to be correlated with any observable increase i n r i v e r i n e resource exploitation, at l e a s t not on the basis of the data available. Evidence suggesting the u t i l i z a t i o n of the main canyon f i s h resources i s documented over a 9,000 year span (Borden, 1968: 13-18). However, the reasons f o r the adoption of pithouses i n the lower Fraser v a l l e y remain unexplained. Whether the advent of pithouses i s simply an adoption of an i n t e r i o r dwell-ing by coastal peoples i n response to i n t e r i o r - l i k e climatic conditions, or the r e s u l t of coastward movement of i n t e r i o r peoples as suggested by Borden (1968: 16), are problems which w i l l require much research. However, the investigations at Katz should enrich our knowledge i n t h i s respect. The l o c a l sequences developed i n the Fraser canyon and i n the Fraser delta are based at present on a r e l a t i v e l y small number of excavated s i t e s . The long culture sequence of the 7 canyon, due to poor preservation, has been established exclusively on l i t h i c industries and i n d i r e c t evidence suggesting the presence of organic a r t e f a c t s . The coastal s i t e s of the Fraser delta, on the other hand, have good pre-servation, and information has been obtained regarding formal and s t y l i s t i c a t t r i b u t e s of artefacts of organic materials. In both the canyon and delta sequences culture change has been documented on the basis of the artefact content i n v e r t i -c a l s t r atigraphic u n i t s . In the ethnographic l i t e r a t u r e , the subsistence-settlement system (Streuver, 1968: 191-192) of the Coast S a l i s h described by Suttles ( I960: 302) and Duff (1952: 62-74) involved the movement and dispersal of populations i n accordance with the seasonal appearance or resources i n various resource areas. I t i s l i k e l y therefore, that the archaeologi-cal samples recovered from the semipermanent occupation s i t e s of the kind presumed to be represented by certain coastal middens, and pithouse v i l l a g e s , may not r e f l e c t a l l aspects of the economies i n existence at that time. For example, the l i t h i c artefacts recovered from the area surrounding a sturgeon spawning slough near Seabird Island i n the lower Fraser v a l l e y may d i f f e r considerably from the l i t h i c remains found at a f i s h i n g station i n the Fraser canyon. I f culture change i s to be demonstrated archaeologically i n the lower Fraser r i v e r region, the artefact v a r i a b i l i t y over a broad range of a c t i v i t y s i t e s must be accounted f o r . I t i s apparent that information regarding the time depth of pithouses i n the lower Fraser, t h e i r s t r u c t u r a l features, 8 and the a r t e f a c t u a l remains i n a s s o c i a t i o n with them, bears d i r e c t l y on important questions regarding the p r e h i s t o r y of the lower F r a s e r . A r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n at the p i t -house v i l l a g e s i t e at Katz was expected to enhance our knowledge considerably i n t h i s regard. The o b j e c t i v e s of the Katz excavation were (1) to deter-mine the time at which the Katz s i t e was occupied, to t e s t the h i s t o r i c account (Duff, 1952: 33) that the s i t e was occupied about 1870 or somewhat e a r l i e r , or, to determine whether the pithouses at Katz are of a comparable age to the E s i l a o pithouse reported by Borden (1968: 16), (2) to examine the s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e s of the pithouses and to recover s t r u c t u r a l data bearing on Barnett's (1944: 269) hypothesis that the pithouses of the lower Fraser were derived from the Lower Thompson, and (3) to recover as l a r g e a sample as p o s s i b l e of a r t e f a c t u a l remains i n a s s o c i a t i o n with the p i t -houses so t h a t the a r t e f a c t v a r i a b i l i t y i n a broad range of t o o l c a t e g o r i e s might be represented f o r use i n f u t u r e i n t e r -s i t e comparisons. In the a n a l y s i s of m a t e r i a l a s s o c i a t e d with the pithouse occupancy at Katz, the main o b j e c t i v e i s to attempt to make inferenc e s regarding the nature and range of c u l t u r a l a c t i v i -t i e s c a r r i e d out at the s i t e . The pithouse v i l l a g e at Katz was s t r a t e g i c a l l y l o c a t e d alongside the major route of migrat' i n g salmon populations heading to the u p r i v e r t r i b u t a r i e s of the F r a s e r . Because a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d to the e x p l o i t a t i o n of these r i v e r i n e resources may have been c a r r i e d out i n the 9 immediate v i c i n i t y of the Katz s i t e during the summer and early f a l l i t i s possible that the s i t e represents a multi-season u t i l i z a t i o n l o c a l i t y . Functional inferences made on the basis of the art e f a c t analysis may lend credence to thi s hypothesis. However, i t i s r e a l i z e d that both non-cultural factors, f o r example, d i f f e r e n t i a l preservation of artefact u a l remains, and c u l t u r a l factors such as the method of data re-covery and analysis, may bias the representation of c u l t u r a l remains upon -which these functional inferences are based. Chapter I of the thesis contains a discussion of the pre-sent environment of the lower Fraser v a l l e y . Information on the physiography, climate, and g l a c i a l h i s t o r y of the area as i t pertains to the Katz s i t e i s dealt with i n t h i s section. Also included i s a description of the f l o r a and fauna of the region with p a r t i c u l a r attention paid to p o t e n t i a l l y u t i l i z a b l e resource species and t h e i r p e r i o d i c i t y , or seasonal a v a i l a b i l -i t y , i n d i f f e r e n t macro- and micro-environments. These data are summarized i n a multivariate (Smallest Space Analysis) solution at the end of the chapter. In Chapter II these resource data are examined i n the l i g h t of ethnographic accounts of settlement pattern, resource exploitation, and s o c i a l organization. The description of archaeologically derived data from the Katz s i t e begins i n Chapter I I I . This topic i s introduced by a b r i e f discussion of the recent h i s t o r y of the s i t e and the events which led to the archaeological salvage of a por-tion of the s i t e . Included within t h i s section i s a report 10 as to the methods by which the data were col l e c t e d and a description of the s i t e stratigraphy. Chapter IV reviews the methods used i n analyzing the archaeological assemblage. The artefact description con-s t i t u t e s the bulk of t h i s chapter. The archaeological data are summarized i n Chapter V along with a discussion of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to hypotheses pre-viously advanced. The contents of the previous descriptive chapters dealing with the environment, ethnography, and archaeological findings are integrated i n t h i s chapter i n an attempt to i n f e r the nature of p r e h i s t o r i c c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s at the s i t e . I n t e r s i t e comparisons are made i n t h i s chapter. The concluding portion of the discussion deals with suggest-ions f o r future work at Katz a r i s i n g from the data at hand, and proposes several hypotheses which could be tested by future investigation. CHAPTER I THE ENVIRONMENT OF THE LOWER FRASER VALLEY REGION Introduction The e c o l o g i c a l l y favorable r i v e r i n e and estuarene environ-ment of the lower Fraser Valley Region has supported human occupation f o r millennia. A v a r i e t y of p o t e n t i a l l y u t i l i z a b l e plant and animal resources, a moderate climate, and a major r i v e r waterway for transport and trade are factors which together constituted a p a r t i c u l a r l y desirable habitat. The land forms and environment of the region have not been constant throughout the span of human occupancy, however, but have undergone con-siderable change. I t i s important that the changes which have occurred i n the t e r r a i n , the climate, and the structure and composition of plant and animal communities through time are understood. At present our knowledge i n these areas i s f a r from adequate. However, recent palynological research i n the lower Fraser Valley and i n the Fraser Canyon (Mathewes et a l . , 1972) w i l l contribute toward our understanding of the development of the ecosystem of the region. A more detailed paleoenvironmental reconstruc-t i o n would a s s i s t i n developing new research strategies f o r the c o l l e c t i o n of archaeological data and allow c u l t u r a l remains to be viewed i n more refined ecological contexts than was previously 11 12 possible. Moreover, i f hypotheses r e l a t i n g to change i n sub-sistence and settlement systems through time are to be tested archaeologically, adequate paleoenvironmental reconstruction i s a necessary prerequisite (Struever, 1968; 1971: 9-19)• This chapter i s devoted to a b r i e f discussion of the present physiography and environment of the lower Fraser v a l l e y and to the geologic-climatic events which have been instrumen-t a l i n i t s shaping and development. The l a t t e r portion of t h i s chapter contains a description of the biogeoclimatic zones of the region, and the major plant and animal resource species of these zones known to have been u t i l i z e d by aboriginal occu-pants i n ethnographic time. The p e r i o d i c i t y and seasonality of these species i s summarized i n a flow chart (Figure 3) and i n a Smallest Space Analysis solution (Figures 4 and 5 ) . This information i s applied i n the in t e r p r e t a t i o n of the artefact assemblages and stratigraphy of the Katz s i t e i n the discussion chapter (V). Physiography One of the most prominent physiographic features of south-western B r i t i s h Columbia i s the lower course of the Fraser River drainage system (Map 1). The main canyon of the Fraser begins i n the v i c i n i t y of Lytton, near the Fraser-Thompson confluence. From here, over the next 47 miles to Yale, the Fraser courses almost due south dropping 280 feet i n elevation through a narrow, steeply sided gorge. The steep p r o f i l e of the r i v e r bed and the narrow channel give a tremendous v e l o c i t y Map 1. Map of "Ite tavjev Fraser- Vfo'le^ 14 to the r i v e r over t h i s distance. At Yale the channel broadens markedly and the r i v e r gradient becomes les s steep, thus over the next 15 miles to Hope, the Fraser flows more slowly and with less turbulence. This decrease i n v e l o c i t y , however, does not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r the sediment carrying capacity of the Fraser's regime. Pretious (1969« 22) reports that during the spring freshet, or other periods of high discharge, p r a c t i c a l l y a l l of the sediment load passing by Hope i s i n suspension. This information i s important f o r understanding the dynamics and growth of the fl o o d p l a i n banks along the meander bel t of the r i v e r and the build-up of the delta proper. For more de-t a i l e d information see Johnston (1921), Mathews and Shepard (1962), and Pretious (1969) . The Fraser assumes a more westerly d i r e c t i o n at Hope and drops a mere 100 feet i n the remaining 100 miles before i t debouches into the S t r a i t of Georgia. This extremely s l i g h t gradient of the lower course of the r i v e r allows t i d a l i n f l u -ence to encroach f a r into the lower Fraser v a l l e y . According to Pretious (1969*. 13)« The Fraser River during i t s low-flow season which extends from December to March i n c l u s i v e i s t i d a l as f a r upstream as Sumas, approximately 56 miles from the mouth. Flood tides during t h i s low-flow season can cause the surface currents i n the r i v e r to reverse d i r e c t i o n ( i . e . , move upstream); t h i s flow reversal being noticeable as f a r upstream as Fort Langley. This marine influence on the behavior of the r i v e r i s ethnographically s i g n i f i c a n t i n that canoe t r a v e l was affected during these periods. Duff (1952: 16) has reported that a journey by canoe from Yale to Musqueam " . . . could be made 15 i n two days, except when one had to oppose the incoming tide . . . i n which case another day might be added to the t r i p . " The Coast Mountains r i s e steeply along the northern side of the va l l e y to elevations from 5,000 to 6,000 feet. The southern boundary i s delimited more gradually by the f o o t h i l l s of the Cascades, which are oriented i n a northeasterly to south-westerly d i r e c t i o n . There are four major t r i b u t a r i e s which drain into the lower F r a s e r v a l l e y : the H a r r i s o n , Stave, P i t t and C h i l l i w a c k -Sumas r i v e r systems. Only the l a t t e r joins the Fraser from the south, the others drain through the Coast Range on the north, s e t t l i n g f i r s t into large g l a c i a l lakes before meeting the Fraser. These northern t r i b u t a r i e s have contributed r e l a -t i v e l y l i t t l e to the build-up of the v a l l e y alluvium as a re s u l t of the " s e t t l i n g basin" e f f e c t of the lakes. The impor-tance of these lower t r i b u t a r i e s l i e s not i n t h e i r impact on the s u r f i c i a l geology of the Fraser Valley but i n the c r u c i a l role they play as spawning grounds f o r the migrating anadromous f i s h populations. This subject i s covered i n some d e t a i l l a t e r i n t h i s chapter. The Katz s i t e i s situated on the north (right) bank of the Fraser River at the easternmost extremity of a broad a l l u v i a l p l a i n approximately 3 miles downriver from Hope (Fi g -ure 1). The main channel of the Fraser where the r i v e r passes the s i t e i s against the opposite, or south bank. This i s where the r i v e r bed i s deepest and has the greatest v e l o c i t y . This would suggest that during periods of high discharge the 16 degree of e r o s i o n would be gre a t e s t along the south bank. Radiocarbon a n a l y s i s of a charcoal sample c o l l e c t e d 1.8 f e e t above the cobble pavement of the abandoned r i v e r channel at the Katz s i t e has y i e l d e d a date of 750 t 90 years B.C. ( I U8f). This date suggests t h a t the Fraser R i v e r has not meandered i n the d i r e c t i o n of Katz f o r almost 3,000 years and perhaps longer. Dog Mountain r i s e s s t e e p l y on the eastern boundary of the f l o o d p l a i n to an e l e v a t i o n of 4,500 f e e t . A rock spur which descends sharply i n t o the r i v e r from t h i s mountain, immediately to the east of the s i t e , was used as a f i s h i n g s t a t i o n by the present occupant of the s i t e , Mrs. Peter Pete, u n t i l 1970 when road c o n s t r u c t i o n was i n i t i a t e d . A petroglyph panel was removed from the base of t h i s rock spur i n the summer of 1971 to avoid b u r i a l by the highway road bed. Also to the east of the s i t e i s a small slough created by the b u i l d -up of a larg e "bar" i n the r i v e r . The slow moving water of t h i s small channel i s reported to have been a r e s t i n g place f o r salmon ascending the r i v e r , and thus an i d e a l f i s h i n g l o -c a t i o n p r i o r to i t s d e s t r u c t i o n by the highway (Mrs. Pete personal communication, 1971). Mrs. Pete informed us t h a t the f l o o d p l a i n at Katz formerly extended much f a r t h e r out i n t o the r i v e r than at present but part of the bank was washed away i n the 1948 f l o o d . What she described asfremnant of the former bank can be seen i n Figure 1, immediately to the west of the West Coast Transmission gas p i p e l i n e which crosses the r i v e r near the base of the rock spur. 17 Figure 1. A e r i a l Photograph of the Katz s i t e (1969). The s i t e i s located between the end of the highway under construction (broad white line) and the pipeline crossing the r i v e r . 18 Between Agassiz and the Katz s i t e , a distance of some 20 miles, the floodplain banks are extremely broad i n some places. The po s i t i o n of these banks has l i k e l y alternated from one side to the other i n accordance with the changing meander pattern of the r i v e r through time. Along the north bank of the r i v e r over t h i s distance are a number of old r i v e r channels which, as a r e s u l t of railway (C.P.R.) and highway construction, have been transformed into sloughs. These channels often pene-trate some distance from the present r i v e r course into the floodplain and i n e a r l i e r times could have provided l o c a l routes f o r canoe t r a v e l during the high-flow season. The calm waters of these extinct channels were probably also r e s t i n g places f o r migrating salmon, as well as f i s h i n g grounds f o r spawning sturgeon, as Maria Slough reported by Duff (1952s 68). The Fraser River has been the major agent of physiographic change i n the lower Fraser v a l l e y . The periodic flooding of the sediment-laden waters of the r i v e r created most areas of f l a t , well drained, p o t e n t i a l l y habitable land. The meander-ing character of the r i v e r also created numerous microenviron-ments i n the form of marsh lands f o r the support of water fowl, and sloughs and back eddies f o r spawning grounds and r e s t i n g places f o r anadromous f i s h populations. The physiography and dynamics of the Fraser River are important considerations i n the c u l t u r a l ecology of the lower Fraser River v a l l e y . The climatic and geologic events which have served to shape the present physiography w i l l now be b r i e f l y summarized. 19 G l a c i a l History The advances of g l a c i a l i c e which occurred p e r i o d i c a l l y throughout the Pleistocene profoundly affected the present land forms. The g l a c i e r s altered the landscape by scouring and gouging channels along t h e i r paths of egress, by depositing t i l l , or i n d i r e c t l y by redepositing unconsolidated materials v i a melt water released by wasting ice (e.g., the Fraser River floodplain banks and de l t a ) . The g l a c i e r s developed by a gradual build-up of snow i n the higher elevations, p a r t i c u l a r l y at certain primary and secondary g l a c i a l centers i n the Coast and Rocky Mountain ranges. The g l a c i a l episode b r i e f l y summarized here i s the l a s t major g l a c i a l cycle, the "Fraser Glaciation." The Fraser G l a c i a t i o n includes what has previously been referred to as an early alpine phase of the Vashon Gla c i a t i o n (Crandell, 1963), Vashon Glacia-t i o n ( W i l l i s , 1898) and Sumas Gl a c i a t i o n (Armstrong, 1957)» These three g l a c i a l episodes are now given the rank of stades. The Vashon and Sumas Stades are here separated by an e s s e n t i a l l y non-glacial episode here named the Everson Interstade (Armstrong et a l . 1965: 3 2 6 ) . The Fraser G l a c i a t i o n seems to correspond to the same geologic-climatic episode known as the " c l a s s i c a l " Wisconsin Glaciation of the midwestern United States ( F l i n t , 1957: 351-3 5 2 ) . The exact date of the early alpine phase i s not yet firmly established, but was probably around 26,000 B.P. The ensuing Vashon Stade was not l i m i t e d to higher elevations but eventually came to occupy the lowlands of southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia and northwestern Washington. The thickness of the 20 Vashon ice has been investigated by a number of researchers and has been summarized by Armstrong et a l . (1965: 327) . The C o r d i l l e r a n g l a c i e r covered the Coast Mountains near the c i t y of Vancouver to al t i t u d e s of at least 6,000 feet, and on Vancouver Island i t extended to at l e a s t 5,500 feet. Further north on the Coast Mountains i t achieved a l t i t u d e s of 7,500 feet or more (Davis and Mathews, 1944). Vashon ice began to vanish from the Puget Lowland sometime before 13,500 years B.P. This estimate i s based on peat sam-ples taken from Lake Washington and dated at 14,000 t 900 (L-330) and 13,650 t 550 (L-346, Rigg and Gould, 1957). Ice-free conditions apparently existed i n the Fraser Canyon p r i o r to 11,500 years B.P. on the basis of radiocarbon assays of samples taken from Pinecrest and Squeah Lakes (Mathewes et a l . , 1972: 1056). These researchers are careful not to discount the p o s s i b i l i t y of the presence of l o c a l i z e d ice af t e r t h i s period. Archaeological investigation i n the Fraser Canyon at the M i l l i k e n s i t e (DjRi: 7) has provided radiocarbon dates as early as 9,000 t 150 years B.P. (S-113) , which indicates the Fraser River was free-flowing at that time (Borden, 1961: 6 ) . Further geological and palynological research i s needed before a more complete picture of the paleoclimate of the region can be constructed. For more detailed information on the Fraser Glaciation, see Armstrong et a l . (1965), Easter-brook (1913), Mathews et a l . (1970) and Mathewes et a l . (1972). The advance and retreat of Vashon Stade ice brought about considerable changes i n land-sea l e v e l r e l a t i o n s . These fluctuations are of obvious importance i n determining which 21 areas were suitable f o r human habitation at early periods, and which areas were not. Fluctuations i n land-sea l e v e l r e l a -tions according to Holland (1964: 1 1 6 ) " . . . involved the interplay of three factors: (a) i s o s t a t i c adjustments of the crust, (b) tectonic movements of the crust, and (c) eustatic movements of sea l e v e l . " Loy (1972) c o l l a t e d the available information on land-sea l e v e l r e l a t i o n s published by Easter-brook (1963), Armstrong et a l . (1965). Mathews et a l . (1970) and Borden (1970) which pertains to the Fraser lowland region. Loy suggests that the Fraser lowlands were submerged through-out the Everson I n t e r s t a d i a l and continued submerged u n t i l sometime p r i o r to 9,000 years B.P. In other words, Marine waters made these low l y i n g areas inaccessible for human habi-t a t i o n u n t i l some time between 10,000 and 9,000 B.P. The Fraser River, rather than marine waters, has been the major determining factor i n aboriginal s i t e location i n the Katz v i c i n i t y from a very early time. The volume of the Fraser,.estimated to be 25,000 cubic feet per second during the freshet, (Pretious, 1 9 6 9 ' 22), was probably much greater p r i o r to the late p o s t g l a c i a l period (Heusser, I 9 6 0 ) . Remnants of former fl o o d p l a i n banks occur above the present floodplain i n the Katz v i c i n i t y . One such remnant i s located against the steeply r i s i n g c l i f f behind, or north of, the Katz s i t e and ranges i n elevation between 8 and 10 feet above the present floodplain. Heavily patinated stone artefacts were observed i n these terraces which were cast up during a root c e l l a r excavation. Whether t h i s material i s approximately contempor-22 aneous with the c u l t u r a l material excavated from the lower floodplain or represents occupation on a higher terrace at an e a r l i e r time, when the r i v e r volume was greater, i s a question which awaits future research. The excavated portion of the Katz s i t e i s assigned, on the basis of 3 radiocarbon dates, to a period during the f i r s t millennium B.C. This time period f a l l s within Heusser's (I960) late p o s t - g l a c i a l (or modern) clim a t i c period. Thus attention i n the next chapter i s confined to a description of "modern climate" and biogeoclimatic zones; no attempt i s made to speculate on plant succession or paleoenvironmental f l o r a l or faunal communities. Climate The Fraser Valley experiences a narrow seasonal range i n temperature, and a marked seasonal v a r i a t i o n i n p r e c i p i t a t i o n . The average temperature range f o r the Fraser lowlands i s approximately 30 degrees. The summers are r e l a t i v e l y dry with the bulk of r a i n f a l l i n the winter months. The m o l l i f y i n g influence of the ocean decreases with distance eastward up the Fraser Valley and an increase i n snowfall occurs i n the eastern portion of the v a l l e y . Duff (1952: 17) observed that the i n -crease i n snowfall i n the eastern portion of the v a l l e y corresponds with a change i n house type from the use of the plank house, the dwelling c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Coast, to the semi-subterranean dwelling, a t r a i t of the I n t e r i o r . A pro-f i l e of climate and r i v e r gradient showing the changes which 23 occur i n winter temperature and snowfall i n the v a l l e y i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 2. Figure 2. P r o f i l e of Climate and River Gradient i n the Lower Fraser Valley 100 80 60 40 20 0 M j les-> Vancou 200 150 100 50 January mean temp. (*F . ) Ayerage" annual" snowfall- (inches) 20m 40m 60m 80m ve r Abbotsfprd Agassiz Elevation above sea .level (ft.) 100 100 80 -f60 40 20 0 Hope 200 150 100 50 0 During the summer months warm winds are funneled through the Fraser Canyon. These winds were extremely important for the l o c a l inhabitants. Fish drying racks were constructed on high points of land i n the canyon to take advantage of the summer 24 winds for the preservation of salmon (Duff, 1952: 6 6 ) . A salmon drying rack owned by Mrs. P. Pete was i n use at the Katz s i t e u n t i l the summer of 1971* I t i s reported that the f i s h drying process down r i v e r from Yale often had to be supplemented a r t i f i c i a l l y by smoke-drying due to the reduced v e l o c i t y of the wind along the lower course of the r i v e r (Duff, 1952: 18). Flora The location of the Katz s i t e i s approximately middle distance along the course of the Fraser i n what i s described ethnographically as T a i t t e r r i t o r y (Duff, 1952: 1 9 . See also Map 2 ) . Within the boundaries of T a i t t e r r i t o r y there are four biogeoclimatic zones (Krajina, 1 9 6 9 ; Kra.iina et a l . : 1 9 6 5 ) . Within these "macro-zonal" groupings there are a number of subzonal and micro-environmental habitats which d i f f e r from one another i n plant structure and composition as a response to s p e c i f i c variations along "environmental gradients" (Wittaker, 1970: 35)« The general character of these zones, and the plant indicators and associations of each zone and subzone are outlined below. P a r t i c u l a r attention i s given here to resource species mentioned i n the ethnographic l i t e r a t u r e . This i n f o r -mation has been drawn from the work done by Krajina ( 1 9 6 9 ) , Krajina et a l . (1965)» with additional information from Hansen ( 1 9 4 7 ) , Heusser (I960), Lyons ( 1 9 5 2 ) , Duff ( 1 9 5 2 ) , Suttles (1955)» and Turner ( 1 9 7 2 : unpublished ms.). 25 1. The Alpine Zone In southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia t h i s zone begins near 5 , 5 0 0 feet above sea l e v e l , and has an annual average snowfall of approximately 7 7 0 . 0 inches. The productivity i n terms of plant and animal resources i s low i n t h i s zone, with a climax plant association of white moss heather (Cassiope mertensiana), red heather (Phyllodoce empetriformis) and crowberry (Empetrum  nigrum). Duff (1952) reports only one resource, mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) u t i l i z e d by the T a i t from t h i s zone. It i s possible that other resources were u t i l i z e d but not mentioned i n the ethnographic l i t e r a t u r e . 2 . The Mountain Hemlock Zone: A Zone of the P a c i f i c Coastal Subalpine Forest Region The mountain hemlock zone occupies the mountain slopes from elevations of 3 , 0 0 0 to 5 , 5 0 0 feet. The average annual snowfall i s extremely high, ranging from 110 to 800 inches annually. There are two subzones within t h i s zone which can be distinguished along an elevation gradient, the lower sub-alpine forest subzone, and the upper subalpine park land sub-zone. The lower subzone grades from the lower coastal western hemlock zone at approximately 3 , 0 0 0 feet and continues to 3 , 6 0 0 feet. This subzone does not seem to support much i n the way of edible plant material. The plant association climax i s amabilis f i r (Abies amabilis), and mountain hemlock (Tsuga  mertensiana), with lady ferns (Athyrium filixfemina) and only one species of huckleberry (Vaccinium alaskaense). The upper subzone, from 3,600 to 5 , 5 0 0 feet, has a climax association of 26 mountain hemlock and b l a c k mountain h u c k l e b e r r y (Vaccinium  membranaceum). Two a d d i t i o n a l s p e c i e s of h u c k l e b e r r y are a l s o present, blue l e a f e d h u c k l e b e r r y (Vaccinium d e l i c i o s u m ) , near the t i m b e r l i n e , and t a l l blue h u c k l e b e r r y (Vaccinium o v a l i f o l i u m ) . T h i s subzone i s an important browsing a r e a f o r l a r g e game animals, such as w a p i t i (Cervus canadensis n e l s o n i ) i n the upper S k a g i t Mountains, b l a c k t a i l deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus). 3. The C o a s t a l Western Hemlock Zone K r a j i n a e t a l . (1965), have d i s t i n g u i s h e d two subzones al o n g a moisture g r a d i e n t w i t h i n t h i s zone. The d r i e r subzone: with an annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n range of between 70 and 110 inches i s a Douglas f i r (Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i ) — w e s t e r n hemlock (Tsuga  h e t e r o p h y l l a ) a s s o c i a t i o n . The subzonal p l a n t i n d i c a t o r s are v i n e maple (Acer c i r i n a t u m ) , broad l e a f maple (Acer macrophyllum), r e d h u c k l e b e r r y (Vaccinium p a r v i f o l i u m ) , s a l a l ( G a u l t h e r i a  s h a l l o n ) and Oregon grape (Mahonia n e r v o s a ) . The wetter subzone, above 110 inches of p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s an a m a b i l i s f i r (Abies a m a b i l i s ) — w e s t e r n hemlock climax asso-c i a t i o n . In g e n e r a l , t h i s subzone, and the low e l e v a t i o n sub-zone of the subalpine f o r e s t (western hemlock zone) are the l e a s t p r o d u c t i v e subzones i n terms of s u s t a i n i n g the p l a n t and animal r e s o u r c e s u t i l i z e d by the T a i t . The p l a n t s b e a r i n g e d i b l e p a r t s are not s u f f i c i e n t l y shade t o l e r a n t to t h r i v e under the heavy f o r e s t canopy i n these subzones. The most p r o d u c t i v e zone by f a r i s the c o a s t a l Douglas f i r zone occupying the F r a s e r lowlands and e l e v a t i o n s of up to 500 f e e t above sea 27 l e v e l . 4. The Coastal Douglas F i r Zone This zone i s characterized by low annual r a i n f a l l , from 27 to 67 inches annually. In areas where the ef f e c t of the outer Coast Mountain " r a i n shadow" i s most pronounced, i . e . , where the annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s under 40 inches annually, the climax plant association i s Garry oak (Quercus garryana), with i t s edible acorn, and Douglas f i r . Stands of Garry oak occur i n the southwestern part of the Fraser delta with small groves i d e n t i f i e d i n the Fraser Canyon near Yale and on Sumas Mountain (Lyons, 1952: ^ 3 ) . Camas (Camassia quamash) grows i n the western portion of the Fraser Valley i n the v i c i n i t y of Katzie and Musqueam t e r r i t o r y (Duff, 1952« 73)» and may have been available to the T a i t through trade. Over most of the Fraser Valley where the r a i n f a l l i s between 40 and 67 inches annually, the subzone i s an arbutus (Arbutus menziesii)—Douglas f i r association with western white pine (Pinus monticola), western red cedar (Thu.ia p l i c a t a ) , western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) also present. This sub-zone supports a large va r i e t y of plants bearing edible parts which were u t i l i z e d by the Coast S a l i s h of the area (Duff, 1952; Suttles, 1951)* Among these are bracken (Pteridium  aquilinium pubescens), thimbleberry (Rubus p a r v i f l o r u s ) , salmonberry (Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s ) , wild onions, wild t i g e r l i l y (Lilium parviflorum), s a l a l (Gaultheria shallon), bunchberry (Cornus canadensis), t r a i l i n g blackberry (Rubus ursinus), P a c i f i c crabapple (Malus d i v e r s i f o l i a ) , hazelnut (Corylus 28 c a l i f o r n i c a ) , Oregon grape (Mahonia nervosa), red huckleberry (Vaccinium parvifolium), and t a l l blue huckleberry (Vaccinium  ovalifolium)• The vegetation on the floodplain banks i n the v i c i n i t y of Katz, where the bench i s higher than the average summer water l e v e l , consists of various species of willow (Salix spp.), (Alnus rubra), Northern Black Cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa). and Vine Maple (Acer cirinatum). Most of the plants bearing edible parts which were l i s t e d above such as bracken, thimble-berry, salmonberry, t r a i l i n g blackberry, etc., can be found on the floodplain. Other plant species of economic importance are found i n various microenvironments along the meander bel t of the r i v e r (e.g., gravel bars, marshes and bogs). Suttles ( 1 9 5 1 * 2 7 5 ) mentions the gathering of wapatoes ( S a g i t t a r i a  l a t i f o l i a ) from the marshes near the confluence of the P i t t and Fraser r i v e r s i n Katzie t e r r i t o r y . This potato-like tuber i s reported to be r i c h i n starch (Szczawinski and Hordy, 1 9 6 7 : 7 9 )• Several species of wild onions (Allium spp.) grow i n the Fraser Valley, but only the Geyers onion (Allium geyeri) grows i n moist conditions along the r i v e r banks (Lyons, 1 9 5 2 : 1 2 7 ) • Other marsh plants known to have been used ethnographically include water plantain (Alisma plantago-aauatica), bog cran-berry (Vaccinium oxycoccus intermedium), "r i c e - r o o t " , (probably F r i t i l l a r i a lanceolata), and water parsnip (Sium cicutaefolium), cow parsnip (Heraeleum lanatum), hazel nut (Corylus spp.), wild crabapple, Oregon grape (Mahonia nervosa) and species of the carrot family (Lomatium spp.) are reported by Duff ( 1 9 5 2 ) to 29 have been u t i l i z e d by the T a i t . Though the ethnobotany f o r the a r e a i s f a r from complete, the i n v e n t o r y which has been r e c o r d e d i n d i c a t e s t h a t t he p l a n t r e s o u r c e p o t e n t i a l w i t h i n easy a c c e s s o f the K a t z s i t e i s r i c h and v a r i e d . Whether the p l a n t s p e c i e s b e i n g u t i l i z e d a t the time o f w h i t e c o n t a c t were a l s o used d u r i n g the occupa-t i o n o f the s i t e d u r i n g t h e f i r s t m i l l e n n i u m B.C. has y e t t o be demonstrated a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l y . Many o f the p l a n t f oods used r e q u i r e d r o a s t i n g , s t e a m i n g o r o t h e r means o f p r e p a r a t i o n . C a r e f u l e x a m i n a t i o n o f th e c o n t e n t s o f e x c a v a t e d h e a r t h s and e a r t h ovens, and s o p h i s t i c a t e d t e c h n i q u e s f o r the r e c o v e r y o f p l a n t remains from a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s a r e n e c e s s a r y i f q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o s u b s i s t e n c e a r e t o be answered. Fauna The a n i m a l s ( e x c l u d i n g f i s h e s ) which i n h a b i t b i o g e o g r a p h -i c a l zones s u r r o u n d i n g the K a t z s i t e and which a re r e p o r t e d by D u f f (1952) t o have been hunted by the Upper S t a l o a r e as f o l l o w s ; b l a c k bear ( U r s u s a m e r i c a n u s ) , mountain goat (Oreamnos a m e r i c a n u s ) , deer ( O d o c o i l e u s hemionus c o l u m b i a n u s ) , w a p i t i (Cervus c a n a d e n s i s n e l s o n i ) , g r i z z l y b e a r (Ursus a r c t o s  h o r r i b i l i s ) , b e aver ( C a s t o r c a n a d e n s i s l e u c o d o n t u s ) , r a c c o o n ( P r o c y o n l o t o r ) , marten ( M a r t e s a m e r i c a n a c a u r i n a ) , groundhog, and s q u i r r e l ( T a m i a s c i u r u s d o u g l a s i m o l l i p i l o s u s ) . S p e c i e s o f ducks, geese, e a g l e s , g r o u s e , f i s h c r a n e s , r o b i n s , b l u e j a y s and crows were a l s o u t i l i z e d t o v a r y i n g degrees ( D u f f , 1952s 7 1 ) . 30 Riverine Resources As previously mentioned, the Katz s i t e i s situated approximately middle distance along the course of the Fraser River i n what i s ethnographically described as Ta i t t e r r i t o r y (Duff, 1952). An attempt i s made here to examine the r i v e r i n e resources of the T a i t t e r r i t o r y i n some d e t a i l . I t i s rea-l i z e d that the settlement pattern of the occupants of the Katz s i t e may not have been i d e n t i c a l to that recorded ethnograph-i c a l l y . However, i t i s f e l t that an overview of the resource c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of T a i t t e r r i t o r y may prove useful f o r future archaeological inve s t i g a t i o n i n the area, and w i l l allow the Katz s i t e to be viewed i n a broader ecological context. According to Duff, T a i t t e r r i t o r y extended from approx-imately 5 miles above Yale, B. C , where i t bordered the t e r r i t o r y occupied by the Lower Thompson (Interi o r S a l i s h ) , downriver almost to the confluence of the Harrison and Fraser r i v e r s . The T a i t did not t r a d i t i o n a l l y occupy the area surrounding the lower Harrison drainage but did participate i n the f i s h e r y of the Harrison system with neighbouring Upper Stalo groups: the Chehalis, the P i l a l t and the Scowlitz. This gave the T a i t three major r i v e r i n e resource areas. Their holdings i n the main canyon provided excellent f i s h i n g s t a -tions f o r the interception of salmon migrating to the upper Fraser spawning areas. The lower course of the Fraser below Hope provided access to the chum, coho, and pink species of salmon which are predominantly "mainstream spawners", the 31 majority of which do not venture into the upper system. The t h i r d area was the very important spawning ground of the Harrison system. An examination of the migrating salmon populations running into the Fraser River system was carried out. Government f i s h e r i e s publications were used to obtain the necessary i n f o r -mation, and these data were supplemented by information gathered through personal communication with various s p e c i a l i s t s at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia and the Federal Department of Fisheries i n New Westminster. The average date of passage f o r each spawning race of the f i v e salmon species represented i n the area was obtained from the federal f i s h e r i e s department. The term "race" applies to a population which spawns i n a p a r t i c u l a r r i v e r or creek (Larkin, 1971s 2). The "race" of a species i s the suitable unit f o r study because each race of a species exhibits i t s own pattern of c y c l i c dominance. Sockeye, for example, exhibit a quadrennial pattern of peak abundance, but each "race" within the species may not necessarily share the same calendric cycle of abundance. Information was c o l l e c t e d on the following c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of salmon population biology as i t pertained to T a i t t e r r i t o r y : 1. The pattern of c y c l i c dominance f o r each race. 2. The duration of the spawning period. 3 . The present escapement or size of spawning population. 4. The r a t i o of population size of the subdominant cycles to Cycle I (year of Peak abundance). The escapement figures for each year were not co l l e c t e d 32 f o r use i n the analysis but rather f o r use i n the interpreta-t i o n of the multivariate solution (Figure 5 )• Because the main concern of t h i s study i s with resource-time correlations, the impact of the commercial salmon fi s h e r y on present popula-t i o n figures was l e f t as a separate consideration. It i s important to emphasize, however, that c y c l i c fluctuations i n abundance have probably always been a feature of salmon popu-l a t i o n biology (P. A. Larkin, 1972, personal communication). To what extent the fluctuations i n population size manifested today approximate those of the past i s unknown. The l i s t on the following page presents the information on salmon runs p o t e n t i a l l y exploitable by the T a i t . The escapement figures are based on the 1901 cycle, with the cycle of dominance or subdominance of each run indicated as well as the r a t i o of the subdominant cycle to Cycle I population size (Table 1 ) . 33 TABLE 1 Salmon Spawning Populations Of The Harrison And Fraser Rivers Main Canyon Sockeye Present (Hell's Gate) Average Peak ... Run Cycle Ratio Escapement Date of Pasi Early Stuart I (Dom) — 161,000 July 14 Bowron R. III 1/2 1 0 , 9 0 0 July 28 Early Nadina I — 20,000? July 31 Horsefly R. I — 209,100 Aug. 8 Late Nadina I — 20,000? Aug. 7 Late Stuart I — 427 ,900 Aug. 11 Stellako R. III 1/3 43,100 Aug. 12 Chilko R. III 1/4 124,000 Aug. 10 Adams R. IV 1/600 2 , 3 0 0 Sept. 30 Seymour R. III 1/8 6 , 7 0 0 Aug. 11 Raft R. IV 2/3 7,600 Aug. 10 Area Fraser R. below Hope Fraser below Hope Upper Fraser Runs Upper Fraser Early Upper Fraser Late Main Fraser R. Chum  Present Escapement 75.000 Spawning Time (Approx.) Nov . i 7-Dec . 3 i Main Fraser R. Pink (run odd year only) 8 4 9 , 0 0 0 Aug . 2 5 - 0 c t . 7 Main Canyon Coho 1 5 - 2 0 , 0 0 0 Main Canyon Chinook approx. 1 0 - 1 5 , 0 0 0 1 0 - 1 5 , 0 0 0 Oct. 6-Nov . l 7 Aug . 15-Sept .29 Sept . l5-Nov. 1 34 TABLE 1 (Continued) Salmon Spawning Populations Of The Harrison And Fraser Rivers Run Birkenhead R. Big S i l v e r Ck. Weaver Ck. Harrison Rapids Area Chehalis R. Harrison R. Chehalis R. Harrison R. Chehalis R. Harrison System Sockeye Ratio Cycle II II IV I Present Escapement 1/2 28,900 1/14 400 2/5 1 1 , 2 0 0 2 2 , 5 0 0 Harrison System Chum  Present Escapement 2 0 - 5 0 , 0 0 0 2 0 - 5 0 , 0 0 0 Harrison System Pink (run 9 , 3 0 0 2 9 4 , 0 0 0 Harrison System Coho 5 - 1 0 , 0 0 0 Harrison System Chinook 2 - 5 , 0 0 0 1 0 - 2 0 , 0 0 0 Average Peak Date of Passage Aug. 20 Aug. 20 Sept. 25 Oct. 20 Spawning Time (Approx.) Oct. l-Oct. 27 Oct. 27-Dec. 31 i n odd year only) Sept. 1 5 - 0 c t . 27 Sept. 1 5 - 0 c t . 2? Nov. 7-Jan. 7 Birkenhead R. Harrison R. Other Species Eulachen (Spawn) Sturgeon (Spawn) Steelhead (Coquihalla R.) (Spawn) Steelhead (other runs) March-May Oct. 15-Dec. 1 A p r i l 24-May 7 June 1-July 15 June 25-Aug. 7 Dee.-April Lake f i s h present on a year round basis have not been 35 included i n the inventory. The presence of a salmon resource i s r e l a t i v e l y easy to bracket i n time, Sockeye runs, f o r example, span approximately 30 days, with 80$ of the p o p u l a t i o n p a s s i n g w i t h i n one week on either side of the average peak p a s s i n g date. Other f i s h runs such as Chinook and steelhead are more d i f f u s e i n time. Correlation of Resources and Time of Year i n T a i t T e r r i t o r y A large body of resource data presented i n l i s t and figure form i s often d i f f i c u l t f o r other researchers and readers to comprehend e a s i l y . I f the number of resources u t i l i z e d by a group i s numerous, as i n the case of many hunt-ing and gathering populations (e.g., the T a i t ) , i t i s d i f f i -c u l t to see the way i n which these resource items of d i f f e r e n t micro-environments occur or co-occur i n time, and how t h i s may a f f e c t the patterns of resource exploitation adopted by the group. An attempt was made by Hanson (1972) to represent these data i n a d i f f e r e n t form using a multivariate technique developed by Guttman (1968) and computerized by Lingoes (1965). The approach and r e s u l t s are b r i e f l y summarized below. These data are used i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the archaeological material from the Katz s i t e i n the discussion chapter. The plant and animal resources presented i n the preced-ing inventory provided the data f o r the analysis. The population elements were conceived as time units or weeks of the year. Any resource which could be bracketed within a 36 time unit of less than a f u l l year was conceived as a v a r i a b l e . Resources present on a year round basis but capable of i s o l a -t i o n i n time according to some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c seasonal move-ment could also be conceived as variables. For example, black bear occupying T a i t t e r r i t o r y throughout the year are known to have been hunted while i n hibernation (Duff, 1952: 71): the time bracketed by the hibernation period defined the black bear as an ecological resource. Additional variables were conceived to place the black bear at low elevations near spawning streams during a c e r t a i n period and near berry patches during another. Admittedly, the seasonal movements of the big game are more d i f f i c u l t to i s o l a t e i n time but categories such as present at low elevations, browsing near the timberline, hibernation period, etc., provide some basis upon which to proceed. A t o t a l of 31 f i s h resources were divided into 23 var-iables, 18 plant foods into 14 variables, and six game resour-ces into f i v e variables. Other variables such as average monthly temperature, p r e c i p i t a t i o n , and snowfall ranges could also have been conceived and introduced into the analysis. Cultural variables such as winter dancing or other events definable i n time could s i m i l a r l y have been introduced. The l i s t of variables i s presented i n Table 2. 37 TABLE 2 Eco l o g i c a l Resource Variables 1. Harrison Birkenhead River, Aug. 6-Sept. 1 system Big S i l v e r Creek 2 . sockeye Weaver Creek Sept. l l - O c t . . 9 3 . Harrison Rapids Oct. 6-Nov. 3 4. Main Ear l y Stuart July 1-July 28 5 . Canyon Bowron, Early Nadina July 14-Aug. 11 6. sockeye Horsefly, Late Nadina July 25-Aug. 22 7. Late Stuart, Stellako, Chilko, Seymour July 29-Aug. 25 8 . Adams River, L i t t l e River, S. Thompson Sept. 16-Oct. 14 9 . Harrison Chehalis River Oct. l - 0 c t . 27 1 0 . System - Chum Harrison River Oct. 27-Dec. 31 1 1 . Main Stream Fraser River, below Hope Nov. 17-Dec. 31 1 2 . Lower Fraser Chehalis, Harrison River Sept. 1 5 - 0 c t . 27 1 3 . Pink Fraser, below Hope Aug. 2 5 - 0 c t . 7 14. Coho Chehalis Nov. 7-Jan. 7 1 5 . Main Canyon Oct. 6-Nov. 17 16. Birkenhead March - May 17 . Chinook Harrison River Oct. 15-Dec. 1 18. Main Canyon, early runs Aug. 15-Sept. 29 1 9 . Main Canyon, late runs Sept. 15-Nov. 1 (Coquihalla) 2 0 . Eulachen 2 1 . Sturgeon 2 2 . Steelhead 2 3 . Bracken 24. S a g i t t a r i a l a t i f o l i a 2 5 . Wild Onions 26. Wild Tiger L i l y - Cow parsnip 2 7 . Camas; salmonberry shoots, thimbleberry shoots 28. Hazelnuts 2 9 . Vaccinium membranaceum 3 0 . Vaccinium ovalifolium, parvifolium 3 1 . Salmonberries 3 2 . Thimbleberries 3 3 . W.T. Blackberries 3 4 . S a l a l 3 5 . Oregon grape 3 6 . W. Crabapple 3 7 . Black bear and g r i z z l e bear (summer range) A p r i l 24-May June 1-July June 25-Aug. A p r i l - Aug. Sept. 22-Nov. May - July May - June A p r i l Sept. July Sept. June July June Aug. Aug. Aug. 9-July 7-Aug. 3-Aug. 7-0ct. 10-Oct. 18-0ct. 7 15 7 - May l - 0 c t . 6 -Sept. 1 31 25 27 15 27 June - Aug. 38 TABLE 2 (Continued) Eco l o g i c a l Resource Variables 38. Black bear and g r i z z l y bear ( f a l l range) July - Nov. 39. Bears hunted i n hibernation 40. Deer, elk (wapiti), mountain goat (low elevations) 41. Duck and geese migrations Nov. 42. Most steelhead runs Dec. - A p r i l The f i r s t step taken a f t e r the compilation of the resource data was to order the variables i n time on a flow chart (Figure 3). This representation of the variables provided an i n t e r e s t -ing solution i n i t s e l f . The resources ordered from l e f t to right can be i d e n t i f i e d from the l i s t of variables presented i n Table The flow chart i l l u s t r a t e s quite c l e a r l y how the resources appear throughout the course of the year. The a pplication of Smallest Space Analysis makes v i s i b l e the relationships which exist between the resource variables i n quite a d i f f e r e n t fashion. The procedure followed i n the analysis, and the c o e f f i c i e n t of association used, i s included i n the Appendix. The S.S.A. solution, including a key des-c r i b i n g the various points and the time structure of the configuration i s presented i n Figure 4. i l l ! 11 I f M M M M M i l I I I I I I I M l I I ! I I 6£ PI Zp I 1 I I I I M l I M I I I I II M I I II M I I i I I I I I I I I I I I I I M I I M I I I I M M M I I M M M II I I I 1 I I I M I I I I I M M i l l M l I I I I I I I I i I I I I I I | M I I I I I I J M M M M I M I M i l I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I i I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I IP 01 Ll 8 6 Z Zl 8Z £1 21 L 9 Z£ 6Z ZZ LZ 9Z 0Z £Z U OP £ 91 PZ 61 0£ 9£ 9E t-£ t 9 8£ P ££ t£ IZ 9Z LZ 91 T T 19 09 6P 2P LP BP St-PP ZP ZP IP OP 6£ 8£ £8 98 9£ t-E 8£ Z£ l£ 08 6Z 8Z LZ 9Z 9Z PZ 82 ZZ IZ oz 81 Ll 91 91 PI 81 Zl ll 01 6 8 L 9 9 P £ Z I •oaQ •AON 100 A|np eunp ' J E W •uep (pBiapjQ) s a i q e j J B A ao jnosaa 40 } • '• • Figure 4 CONFIGURATION SHOWING 42 ECOLOGICAL VARIABLES OVER 52 WEEKS. TWO - DIMENSIONAL SOLUTION. (S.S.A.) K E Y : *J) ' Vegetable Resources O Fish Resources of the Harrison System © Fish Resources of the Fraser River A Game Resources H- Migrating Birds T i m e LOWER FRASER R . P IN KO^ EARLY F. CANYON CHINOOK©^ .J2 ( C H E H A I . i S - HARRISON PINK - ' O 12 19 V O 16 B I R K E N H E A D R. C H I N O O K © L A T E F. C A N Y O N CH INOOK \ %O C H E ' r i A t i S R. C K 0 M 4 W E A V E R C K . S P C K E Y E G B I R K E N H E A O - B. S I L V E R S O C K E Y E O ^ SPRING  L A T E S T U A R T - S T E L L A K O - C H I L K O S O C K E Y E 0_ A/ H O R S E F L Y R. L . N A D I N A SOCKEY E © , BOWRON - EARLY NAD INA S O C K E Y E 0g EARLY S T U A R T S O O K E Y E ©4 3S 1 - 1 © M A S K C A N Y O N C C K O A D A M S ft. S O C K E Y E > 1 7 'HARRISON R. SOCKEYE PAL O n A R R i S C i s ! H. C H I N O O K HARR I SON R. C H U M O Iff 11. C H E H A L I S ft. COHOO 14 © L . F f i . i S ER R. C H U Ik O H A R R I S O N R. S Y S T E M © M A I N C H A N N E L OF F R A S E R R, WINTER 10 C H U M 2 0 - 5 0 , 0 0 0 Oct 27-Dec 31 NO. C Y C L E 11 7 5 , 0 0 0 Nov 17- Dec 31 1 n . 2 9 , 0 0 0 Aug 6 " S e p l 1 12 ODD YEAR ONLY 3 0 0 , 0 0 0 Sept 15 - Oct 27 2 12: V s •il.OOO Sept 11 - O c t 9 13 > • ft 8 4 9 , 0 0 0 Aug 25 - O c t 7 3 r D O M . 2 2 , 5 0 0 Oct 6 - Nov 3 14 COHO 5- lO.OOO Nov 7 - J an7 4 1 .. 161 ,000 j u i y l - J u ! y 2 8 15 1 5 - 3 6 , 0 0 0 Oct 6 - Nov 17 5 H1;I 5 5 , 0 0 0 J u l y 1 4 - A u g 11 j 16 CHINOOK 1 5 0 0 - 2 , 0 0 0 M a r c h — May 6 I;I ! 2 0 9 , 0 0 0 July 25--? " '3 2 2 ] 17 I 1 0 - 2 0 , 0 0 0 Oc t 15 - Dec 1 7 i ;uj;in;in I 6 0 1 , 0 0 0 J u l y 2 9 - A u g 25.) 18 •• 8 - 16,OOO ? Aug 15-Sept 29 8 m 1^ ^ 6 0 0 2, 3C0 SCf-i 16 - O c t ^4 19 Sept 15 - Nov 1 9 C H U M 2 0 - S O . O O O Oct l~Oct2 7 J Figure 5 Smallest Space A n a l y s i s Showing Over 52 Weeks. R i v e r i n e Resource V a r i a b l e s 42 The time structure of the configuration takes the shape of an S curve placed on i t s side. The early spring appears in the upper l e f t (variable 16), and the configuration flows downward through late spring, early summer then upwards to variable 13, which i s late August, then down again toward win-ter at the lower right of the two space diagram. The hollow dots indicate fish resources migrating into the Harrison drainage; the solid dots, spawning populations moving through the main course of the Fraser and through the canyon. The fleur-de-lis symbols indicate the appearance of plant resources; the triangles, game resources and the cross, migrating geese and ducks. Figure 5 i s the same S.S.A. solu-tion with the vegetable and game resource points removed to highlight the structure of the fish variables as they appear throughout the course of the year. There i s a table accompany ing Figure 5, which provides the relevant information on cycle escapement and duration of each run. Interpretation The S.S.A. solution in i t s e l f does not depict the pattern of resource exploitation engaged in by the Tait, i t merely represents the major resource characteristics of their t e r r i -tory. It i s the job of the ethnologist and archaeologist to superimpose a cultural overlay on this ecological context. Cultural factors, such as the preference for one resource over another, the needs of the group in response to resource fluctuations, climatic contingencies affecting preservation 43 and manpower u t i l i z a t i o n , etc., would a l l play a part i n determining which resources would be exploited, and which resources would be ignored. The representation of the resources i n the Smallest Space Analysis solution w i l l now be interpreted from the perspective of the Katz s i t e . These resource data are used along with the archaeological material i n the discussion chapter V to make inferences about the kinds of a c t i v i t i e s being carried out at the s i t e . The f i r s t migrating f i s h resources to appear i n the spring, the Birkenhead River Chinook (variable 16) and eulachen (variable 2 0 ) , are downriver resources and would necessitate movement from the Katz s i t e to parti c i p a t e i n the f i s h i n g . Camas (variable 2 7 ) , a downriver resource, makes i t s f i r s t appearance at a s i m i l a r time to plant resources i n the Katz l o c a l i t y such as salmonberry and thimbleberry shoots (also var-iable 2 7 ) — i n A p r i l and May. Bracken (variable 23) occurs i n A p r i l but has an extended growing season l a s t i n g u n t i l August. The l a t t e r part of the bracken's growing season competes i n time with f i s h resources of the main canyon. Wild onions (variable 2 5 ) , wild t i g e r l i l y and cow parsnip (variable 26) are followed by the appearance of sturgeon (variable 21) i n the downriver sloughs i n early June. Beginning i n the l a s t week of June i s a run of steelhead trout into the Coquihalla River (variable 2 2 ) ; again, exploitation of t h i s resource would involve movement from the s i t e . The f i r s t main canyon salmon run to pass the Katz s i t e 44 i s the E a r l y S t u a r t sockeye Run ( v a r i a b l e 4 ) , which begins J u l y 1 with 80% of the run passing between J u l y 7 and J u l y 2 1 . The water l e v e l of the Fraser at t h i s time would be dropping and any p o s s i b i l i t y of f l o o d i n g would have passed; t h i s run would be a c c e s s i b l e from the Katz s i t e . The E a r l y S t u a r t Run i s followed by the Bowron-Early Nadina Run (var-i a b l e 5 ) , which peaks i n l a t e J u l y and e a r l y August, the Horsefly-Late Nadina Run ( v a r i a b l e 6 ) , and the Late S t u a r t -Stellako-Chilko-Seymour Run ( v a r i a b l e 7) which peak i n e a r l y and mid-August r e s p e c t i v e l y . Throughout J u l y and August populations of sockeye m i g r a t i n g to the spawning ground of the northern t r i b u t a r i e s pass the Katz s i t e and on through the Fraser Canyon i n wave-like succession. The population s i z e of each run depends upon the c y c l e year of dominance or sub-dominance; but at v i r t u a l l y no time during J u l y and August would the r i v e r i n the v i c i n i t y of Katz be without m i g r a t i n g salmon. Accompanying the sockeye runs i n mid-August and l a s t i n g through September are runs of Chinook salmon ( v a r i a b l e 18). In l a t e August, on a l t e r n a t e years, pink salmon begin spawning i n the r i v e r below Hope. During the time when the salmon are running i n J u l y and August, v a r i o u s p l a n t resources are a l s o making t h e i r appear-ance. Black mountain h u c k l e b e r r i e s ( v a r i a b l e 29) are found at e l e v a t i o n s above 2 , 5 0 0 f e e t , w i l d t r a i l i n g b l a c k b e r r i e s ( v a r i a b l e 3 3 ) , t h i m b l e b e r r i e s ( v a r i a b l e 3 2 ) , s a l a l ( v a r i a b l e 3 4 ) , and oregon grape ( v a r i a b l e 35) are a v a i l a b l e . Mid September marks the beginning of the Adams R i v e r -45 L i t t l e River-South Thompson Sockeye Runs (variable 8 ) , and the late Chinook runs (variable 1 9 ) . In the marshes down-r i v e r , the appearance of wapatoes ( S a g i t t a r i a l a t i f o l i a ) coincides with the passing of these late sockeye and Chinook runs. Coho salmon (variable 15) pass Katz from early October to mid-November, and chum salmon (variable 11) spawn i n the Fraser below Hope from mid-November u n t i l the end of December. Ducks and geese are migrating throughout November and compete i n time with the l a t t e r h a l f of the coho run and the f i r s t two or three weeks of the chum salmon spawning period. In the l a t e f a l l the deer, wapiti, and mountain goat (variable 40) are browsing at low elevations, and sometime a f t e r late November the black bears (variable 39) go into t h e i r hiber-nation period. In summary, the spring resources are l a r g e l y downriver resources: Birkenhead River Chinook, eulachen, spawning sturgeon, camas, etc. Plants such as bracken, thimbleberry and salmonberry shoots, and wild onions are available near Katz i n the early spring, and game animals such as deer and bear could be present though lean during t h i s period of the year. After July 1, r i v e r i n e and plant resources are abun-dant i n the Katz v i c i n i t y u n t i l well into the f a l l . The Smallest Space Analysis of the resources which occur i n T a i t t e r r i t o r y provides a representation of these data i n a f a i r l y comprehensible and interpretable form. The solution containing the 42 resource variables can be partitioned and examined i n various ways, depending upon the interests of the 46 r e s e a r c h e r . The p l a n t symbols can e a s i l y be made more p r e c i s e by i n d i c a t i n g the e c o l o g i c a l zone w i t h i n which they occur. S i m i l a r l y , symbols can be d e v i s e d to i n d i c a t e the r e l a t i v e s i z e of the salmon runs, or the p r e f e r r e d Chinook and sockeye runs c o u l d be s e p a r a t e l y i d e n t i f i e d from the chum, pink and coho runs. I t would be r e l a t i v e l y easy to compare the resource c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of two or three e c o l o g i c a l s e t t i n g s by d e f i n -i n g r e s o u r c e s i n time as v a r i a b l e s . For example, resource v a r i a b l e s shared by the T a i t and L i l l o o e t c o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n one S.S.A. s o l u t i o n . A r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of these r e s o u r c e s i n time and space over the two t e r r i t o r i e s may be u s e f u l i n g e n e r a t i n g hypotheses about the s u b s i s t e n c e and s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n i n g o f the two groups. T h i s technique c o u l d prove u s e f u l f o r examining the resource c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of l a r g e c u l t u r a l e c o l o g i c a l zones, e.g., the Thompson R i v e r drainage, or the lower F r a s e r v a l l e y , e t c . M u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s a l l o w s the r e s e a r c h e r to c o n s i d e r a l a r g e number of e c o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s a t one time, a task t h a t i s c o n s i d e r a b l y more d i f f i c u l t u s i n g l i s t s and t a b l e s . 47 Map 2 Ethnographic Map of the Lower Fraser Valley (Borden unpublished manuscript) E T H N I C G R O U P S I N T H E L O W E R F R A S E R R IVER G E O R G I A S T R A I T A R E A 48 CHAPTER II STALO ETHNOGRAPHY Introduction According to Struever (1968a: 189-191) the "job of archaeology" i s : . . . to describe and, more p a r t i c u l a r l y , to explain the t o t a l range of c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s and c u l t u r a l differences observable i n space and through time. . . . Many archaeologists who espouse these aims acknowledge technology as the most accessible aspect of the t o t a l c u l t u r a l sys-tem. They seek to describe p r e h i s t o r i c subsis-tence patterns i n terms of exploitative and maintenance technologies u t i l i z e d and the resour-ces exploited. The settlement pattern, that i s , the manner i n which a society i s segmented and partitioned to exploit the environment—is a necessary c o r o l l a r y of subsistence,. . . Given a systemic view of culture, i t can be expected that the material remains of an extinct subsis-tence-settlement system w i l l reveal a structured set of relationships, just as s o c i a l anthropology has demonstrated these relationships i n the behavioral aspect of the system. The term settlement pattern as defined by Winters (1969' 110) i s ". . . the geographic and physiographic relationships of a contemporaneous group of s i t e s within a single culture," while the term settlement system i s defined as ". • . the functional relationships among the s i t e s contained within the settlement pattern" (ibi dt 110). Abbott (1972: 267-268) has argued recently that i f early c u l t u r a l manifestations i n southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia are 1+9 to be interpreted accurately, more attention should be paid to the ecological adaptations of Coast S a l i s h society as i t i s known ethnographically. In other words, he urges a greater use of "ethnographic analogy" as a h e u r i s t i c device i n archaeol-ogical research aimed at the discovery and inter p r e t a t i o n of change i n subsistence-settlement systems through time. It i s evident from the preceding chapter on environment that the plant and animal resources of the lower Fraser v a l l e y are characterized by marked seasonality and p e r i o d i c i t y . The exploitation of t h i s resource base as i t i s known ethnograph-i c a l l y involved a complex system of seasonal population move-ment and dispersement, "scheduling" (Flannery, 1 9 6 8 ) , and an elaborate technology i n the form of " t o o l k i t s " and " a c t i v i t y sets" (Struever, 1 9 6 8 a : 1 9 1 ) » The ethnographic work of Duff (1952) and Suttles ( 1 9 5 5 ; 1 9 6 0 a , 1960b; 1963) has provided valuable information on subsistence and settlement pattern of the Coast S a l i s h groups of the lower Fraser River and adjacent S t r a i t of Georgia. Some of the major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s o c i a l organization, subsistence, and technology reported i n the ethnographic l i t e r a t u r e are discussed below. People and T e r r i t o r y The Coast S a l i s h of the lower Eraser River are known c o l l e c t i v e l y as Stalo ( s t a ' l u ) , which i n the language they speak (Halkomelem), means " r i v e r " (Hill-Tout, 1 9 0 2 ; Duff, 1 9 5 2 ) . The Halkomelem language i s spoken on south-eastern Vancouver Island by the Nanaimo and Cowichan, and along the 50 lower Fraser River to the boundary of the Upper Stalo (Tait) and the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h (lower Thompson), 5 miles above Yale i n the Fraser Canyon. Duff ( i b i d : 11-12) reports that the language and culture of the Stalo groups change gradually along the course of the r i v e r with a tendency of the more eastern groups to a l i g n themselves with the i n t e r i o r ; and the downriver groups with the coast. On t h i s basis he distinguishes two sub-groupings: the Upper Stalo, which includes the Chilliwack, P i l a l t , Scowlitz, Chehalis and Tait; and the Lower Stalo, which includes the downriver Stalo and Halkomelem speaking non-Stalo, Tswassen (Map 2 ) . The Katz s i t e i s located i n the t e r r i t o r y of the T a i t ( / t i t / : "up-river people," or simply "up-river") ( i b i d : 1 9 ) . According to Duff ( i b i d : 1 9 ) : The T a i t occupied the largest area of a l l the tr i b e s of the r i v e r . I t extended from Five Mile Creek above Yale down the r i v e r some 35 miles to (and including) Seabird Island and Popkum. To the T a i t themselves, the only resource areas actually owned were the fishing-rocks i n the upper canyon; hence, the only t r i b a l boundary which they sharply defined was t h e i r upper boundary on the r i v e r adjacent to the Lower Thompson f i s h i n g -grounds. . . Down r i v e r , the Ta i t f e l t no need to define a lower boundary to t h e i r t e r r i t o r y . There were no fishing-rocks i n that area, and resource areas such as sturgeon-sloughs were used j o i n t l y by a l l v i l l a g e s i n the v i c i n i t y with none apparently claiming ownership. People moved f r e e l y from T a i t to P i l a l t v i l l a g e s and the other way, with no thought to t r i b a l i d e n t i t y . . . . Neither did the T a i t delimit s t r i c t l y t h e i r hunting grounds. There was a s l i g h t tendency toward owner-ship of such resource areas, based on t h e i r proxim-i t y to certain v i l l a g e s , kinship, and i n t e r v i l l a g e r e l a t i o n s ; but that was a l l . During the summer months the Cowichan and Nanaimo and other downriver Stalo people journeyed upriver to par t i c i p a t e 51 i n the salmon f i s h e r y from the strategic p o s i t i o n i n the canyon occupied by the T a i t . These v i s i t o r s probably came ". . . a s r e l a t i v e s , p r i v i l e g e d guests, or claimants on less desirable station. . ." ( i b i d ; 7 8 ) . For more information, see Fort Langley Journal, 1 8 2 7 - 1 8 3 0 : Duff, 1 9 5 2 . For the purpose of t h i s paper, the central points are that the upriver boundary of T a i t t e r r i t o r y i s c l e a r l y demarcated, a f a c t obviously associated with the importance of maintaining access to the f i s h i n g stations i n the canyon. The downriver boundary i s not c l e a r l y delimited and resource areas of adjacent Stalo groups were u t i l i z e d by the T a i t . The Stalo conception of t e r r i t o r y was an e c o l o g i c a l l y sound one. In return f o r t h e i r h o s p i t a l i t y , they received access to eulachen, sturgeon, f i s h runs into the Harrison system, and a variety of other resources which would not otherwise have been available to them. The Structure of Society The s o c i a l organization and s o c i a l structure of the Stalo i s presented i n d e t a i l i n Duff ( 1 9 5 2 ; 7 5 - 9 6 ) . The discussion here b r i e f l y summarizes those aspects of Stalo culture which relate d i r e c t l y to subsistence and settlement pattern. The " s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l units into which the Upper Stalo were divided were the extended family, the v i l l a g e , and the 'tribe' " ( i b i d : 8 4 ) . The extended family was an exogamous, and generally p a t r i l o c a l unit consisting of ". . . a man, his brothers, t h e i r sons, grandsons, e t c . — w i t h t h e i r wives, 52 children, and other dependents" ( i b i d ; 84-85)« The Stalo v i l l a g e s were comprised of one or more such units. The con-cept " t r i b e " was not well defined i n any functional sense, but was mainly a descriptive term assigned to aggregations of v i l l a g e s by outsiders ( i b i d : 86). Leadership was achieved at the extended family l e v e l on the basis of character and a b i l i t y . In ". • . multi-family v i l l a g e s , these heads were no doubt loosely ranked by prestige, with one man standing above the others and holding the most sway over the v i l l a g e as a whole" ( i b i d : 81). The extended family was the main economic and s o c i a l unit, and the v i l l a g e s tended to be "small and impermanent" aggregations of these units . Families frequently moved to other v i l l a g e s or to uninhabited places. As a r e s u l t , nearly a l l favorable s i t e s have been occupied at one time or another. The motivation f o r most of these move-ments was apparently a search f o r r i c h e r resources of food and firewood, but some at le a s t were caused by such s o c i a l factors as interfamily f r i c -t ion, the s p l i t t i n g - u p of extended families, and a desire f o r a change of scene ( i b i d : 85). The l i m i t e d ownership of resource areas which existed i n Stalo culture was at the l e v e l of the extended family and mainly involved salmon dipnetting stations i n the Fraser Canyon. The owner of such a station, the head of a family, was " . . . considered extremely s e l f i s h i f he forbade any-body, related or not, reasonable use of the st a t i o n " . Through kin r e l a t i o n s " . . . most people a l l along the r i v e r could and did claim the r i g h t to use at l e a s t one". Other resource areas, such as "sturgeon-fishing sloughs, berry 53 patches, and hunting grounds were used f r e e l y by a l l nearby groups" ( i b i d ; 7 7 - 7 8 ) . The Seasonal Round During the winter months the Upper Stalo occupied semi-subterranean dwellings known i n Halkomelem as (ska'mel). Information on pithouse construction i s available i n T e i t ( 1 9 0 0 ; 1909) f o r the Thompson and Shuswap, and a d i s t r i b u t i o n of pithouses according to s t r u c t u r a l features i s presented i n Ray ( 1 9 3 9 : 133-137) and Ray ( 1 9 ^ 2 ) . At present, with the exception of the subrectangular pithouse at E s i l a o v i l l a g e i n the Fraser Canyon (Borden 1966, M i t c h e l l 1 9 6 5 ) , archaeolog-i c a l i nvestigation has contributed l i t t l e information on these dwellings i n the lower Fraser v a l l e y . Recent work by Stryd i n the Lillooet-Fountain area may provide more d e t a i l s on the infra-structure and super-structure of pithouses (personal communication, 1 9 7 2 ) . Unfortunately the excavation of an entire pithouse at the Katz s i t e was not possible f o r lack of time; s t r u c t u r a l d e t a i l s , as recovered, are presented with the stratigraphy i n Chapter I I I . The winter was a ceremonial time with winter s p i r i t dancing and potlaching as important events. The winter was not exclusively a ceremonial time, however, as Duff ( 1952: 6 7 - 7 3 ) mentions winter f i s h i n g and hunting. Cohoes, large species of trout, and suckers were harpooned i n the winter for immediate consumption, and black bears were hunted while i n hibernation. Deer, wapiti and mountain goat browsing at 54 low elevations may also have been hunted occasionally during the winter months but t h i s i s not reported i n the ethnographic l i t e r a t u r e . Spring As previously mentioned, the f i r s t anadromous f i s h resource to appear i n the spring was the Birkenhead River chinook salmon run ( i n March). The ex p l o i t a t i o n of thi s resource involved movement downriver where these f i s h " . . . were harpooned . . . when the water was low and clear" (Duff, 1952: 67). This was also a time f o r gathering the fresh shoots of salmonberries, thimbleberries, wild onions and bracken. Eulachen appeared i n the v i c i n i t y of Chilliwack around the end of A p r i l and the early part of May. These f i s h were taken by dipnets from canoes, " i f f i s h i n g was good, two men could f i l l t h e i r canoe i n an hour and go home" ( i b i d : 71). Sturgeon began spawning i n the downriver sloughs i n June, and were caught by a v a r i e t y of methods depending on the loc a t i o n and the time of year. Harpoons, bag nets, weirs, and hook and l i n e are a l l reported to have been used ( i b i d ; 67-68). In late June the steelhead i n the Coquihalla River were caught i n bag nets, but harpoons, weirs, and hooks were also used.,If the occupants of the Katz s i t e exploited any or a l l of these resources, population movement or dispersal would have been required. Summer The summer salmon runs have already been considered i n 55 d e t a i l i n the previous chapter. The summer salmon f i s h i n g i n the canyon was predominantly by dipnet, however, the use of a bag net suspended by poles between two canoes was observed by Simon Fraser i n 1808 below "the v i l l a g e of the Rock" (Lady Franklin rock near Yale) (Masson, 1899« 2 0 8 - 2 0 9 ) . Much of the a c t i v i t y during the summer salmon runs involved the butchery and preservation of the f i s h through wind drying on racks, or by f i r e and smoke drying, depending on the weather conditions and the time of the year. I f the summer weather conditions were adverse, the gathering of firewood and main-tenance of f i r e s f o r smoke drying would no doubt have added to the labour of f i s h preservation considerably. The gather-ing of many plant resources also took place during t h i s period (Table 2 f o r the l i s t of resources exploited). F a l l Many of the f i s h resources which appear i n the f a l l , such as coho and chum salmon, may not have been exploited very i n t e n s i v e l y by the T a i t i f adequate numbers of f i s h were obtained during the summer months. Duff reports the f a l l to have been a period when hunting took place. Duck and geese were migrating i n November and were caught at night by nets from a canoe ( i b i d : 7 2 ) . Game animals were considered most desirable i n the f a l l because they were f a t from the summer's feeding. An informant of Duff's (P.C.) reported that there was a p r o h i b i t i o n against the k i l l i n g of game animals while they were bearing t h e i r young ( i b i d ) . In the f a l l groups of 56 men, women, and children would set out f o r the mountains where hunting camps were established. These camps were main-tained by some of the men and a l l of the women and children while parties of hunters sought the game. Hunting techniques included the use of ". . . dogs, bows and arrows, thrusting spears and clubs, p i t f a l l s , deadfalls, snares, and nets " . . . depending on the animal hunted although several methods are mentioned f o r some game animals" ( i b i d : 71). At the camp, the game was f i r e and smoke-dried on racks. After several weeks when large quantities had been dried and were easy to pack, the group returned home. How many times each group journeyed out to hunt during the f a l l i s not reported. In late November the pithouses were reoccupied f o r the winter. Summary The s o c i a l organization and the s o c i a l structure of the Stalo were well adapted to the d i v e r s i t y and seasonality of the resource base of the lower Fraser. The extended family was a mobile and e f f i c i e n t economic unit capable of e x p l o i t i n g the resources of various microenvironments. By kinship and r e c i p r o c i t y , each Stalo group gained access to resource areas which would not have been exploitable i f r i g i d l y exclusive t e r r i t o r i a l boundaries had existed. The technology of the Stalo included diverse exploitative tools and techniques. A single species of f i s h or game could be taken i n a number of d i f f e r e n t ways depending on the location, conditions and time of the year. 57 How long has such a subsistence-settlement system func-tioned i n the lower Fraser Region, and how has i t been mod-i f i e d through time, and by what means? These are questions which must be addressed archaeologically. To define a s e t t l e -ment system one must be able to i n f e r the time of year during which s i t e s were occupied and the a c t i v i t i e s performed at these s i t e s (Winters, 1969' 110). The range i n formal and s t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n i n the " t o o l k i t s " and " a c t i v i t y sets" at the s i t e s must be recognized so that the archaeological remains are accurately interpreted. A salvage excavation of a single s i t e such as the Katz s i t e w i l l not contribute sub-s t a n t i a l l y i n solving these problems. Future archaeological work at Katz based on a t h e o r e t i c a l l y oriented research design involving the systematic c o l l e c t i o n and analysis of a wide variety of data may contribute i n t h i s regard. This problem i s considered i n greater d e t a i l i n the discussion chapter. CHAPTER III ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION Recent History Of The Katz S i t e The f i r s t reference to the Katz s i t e appeared i n Duff's The Upper Stalo Indians (1952: 33). He noted the Halkomelem place name f o r Katz as sx^a' xwiabai£, and provided the follow-ing information: On the north bank of the r i v e r , at the east end of the large f l a t area now included i n the Katz Indian Reserve (I.R.4), i s t h i s old v i l l a g e - s i t e . In early times according to R.J., only one family l i v e d there permanently, the ancestors of the present chief, Peter Pete. However, when the Hope people moved to Katz (about 1870 or e a r l i e r ) , many of them s e t t l e d here, and i t became a large v i l l a g e . Today one can see twenty-si x housepits here, i n two rows p a r a l l e l to the r i v e r bank, and cut through the middle by the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway tracks. . In 1956 the s i t e was recorded i n the S i t e Designation Scheme as D i R j : l (Borden, 1 9 5 2 ) . In June of 1969 an archaeol ogical survey of the north bank of the Fraser River between Agassiz and Haig was c a r r i e d out under the auspices of the Archaeological Sites Advisory Board of B r i t i s h Columbia. The purpose of t h i s survey was to i d e n t i f y the archaeological s i t e s along the proposed Trans-Canada highway road bed. A recommendation was made that the Katz s i t e be investigated as considerable damage to the large pithouse v i l l a g e appeared 58 59 imminent. Funds were not made available, however, and the si t e received no archaeological attention u n t i l late i n the following f i e l d season ( 1 9 7 0 ) . Several of the crew members (including myself) employed on the "South Yale Project" during the summer of 1970 v i s i t e d Katz i n the company of Dr. C E . Borden. By early July sur-f i c i a l destruction of the s i t e was already rather extensive due to clearing a c t i v i t y along the road allowance and adjacent right-of-way area (Map 3 ) . Heavy earth moving equipment f i t t e d with a rake-like device termed a "brush rack" had d i s -lodged stumps and removed the surface vegetation. The sur-face had been disturbed to a depth of one to three feet along the north side of the C.P.R. right-of-way, a distance of 100 yards i n a north-south d i r e c t i o n , and approximately 750 yards, east-west (Map 3 ) . This c l e a r i n g a c t i v i t y extended from the barn owned by the present occupant, Mrs. Peter Pete, eastward to the rock spur at which point the West Coast Transmission pipeline crosses the Fraser River. V i s i t s were made to the si t e during the summer (1970) and twelve hundred artefacts were recovered from the disturbed surface. Several observa-tions were made at that timet 1. The artefacts recovered were e n t i r e l y of stone. Arte-facts of organic material had not survived the hyper-a c i d i t y of the s o i l . 2. Contact goods, with the exception of a few fragments of Chinese pottery, were absent from the surface sample. These sherds were presumably l e f t by Chinese workers 60 employed i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the C.P.R. 3. The most predominant t o o l appeared to be the cortex s p a l l t o o l , comprising a lar g e percentage of the sur-face c o l l e c t i o n . 4. Evidence suggesting the "on s i t e " manufacture of nephrite t o o l s was abundant. Sawn nephrite boulders, sawn d e t r i t u s and completed a r t e f a c t s of nephrite were a l l present i n q u a n t i t y . 5. The p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s were di v e r s e i n form. Leaf-shaped p o i n t s of considerable s i z e range were found along with a v a r i e t y of shouldered, corner notched and b a s a l l y notched p o i n t s . On the b a s i s of the surface a r t e f a c t s , there was a t l e a s t a suggestion of a. r i c h l i t h i c assem-blage and some time depth i n the c u l t u r a l deposits at Katz. P r e l i m i n a r y F i e l d Work (September, 1970) As highway c o n s t r u c t i o n was scheduled to proceed i n the f a l l of 1970, an a p p l i c a t i o n was sent to the A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S i t e s Advisory Board of B.C. req u e s t i n g a permit and funds to launch a two week salvage p r o j e c t . A permit was granted (number 1970-19) and funds were made a v a i l a b l e f o r a small crew to be brought together. The crew members included Gordon Hanson, L e s l i e Kopas, David Archer, Gary B u r n i k e l l and Alan C a r l . F i e l d equipment was made a v a i l a b l e by the Laboratory of Archaeology, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 61 Surveying A main datum point and datum elevation was established i n September, 1970, and a g r i d system l a i d out over the s i t e . The main reference point was located on a permanent f i x t u r e along the West Coast Transmission pipeline right-of-way and a baseline was extended to the r i v e r bank along a "true-north" l i n e , a distance of approximately 435 feet. A series of east-west baselines were turned 90 degrees off t h i s l i n e at 50 feet i n t e r v a l s ; t h i s g r i d constituted the "primary grid system." A "secondary g r i d system" was established i n the spring of 1971 f o r the pithouse excavation because the orientation of the "primary grid" was inappropriate f o r the pithouse excava-ti o n u n i t s . The secondary g r i d system was aligned 36 degrees west of true-north. The permanent reference point f o r the pithouse excavations was established 40 . 4 5 feet north west of the 4 7 5 ' south, 200* west coordinate. This reference point became 0 ' north-south, 0* east-west. The permanent bench mark had been destroyed by construction a c t i v i t y so an a r b i -trary elevation plane was established at 100 feet. This elevation has subsequently been t i e d i n with the permanent bench mark located at the base of the gas pipeline tower. The actual elevation of the main datum plane i s 119*7 feet above sea l e v e l . For the contour map of the s i t e , see Map 3 ' Because of time l i m i t a t i o n s and the small size of the crew, i t was decided that several test p i t s along the primary baseline would produce the best r e s u l t s . A series of p i t s would indicate both the depth of the deposit and provide a 62 basic p r o f i l e of the c u l t u r a l and geologic stratigraphy of the floodplain. The test p i t s were f i v e by f i v e foot units and were excavated according to a r b i t r a r y 6 inch l e v e l s from the datum plane. Square nosed shovels were used to skim off the fine f loodplain sediments i n layers. This material was i n turn screened through one-quarter inch mesh screens. Heavy r a i n during t h i s period made the use of f i n e r mesh screens impossible. Only a few l e v e l s of the disturbed surface were completed i n these units when the Highways Department engaged a backhoe for us. With t h i s equipment at our disposal we adopted an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t strategy. We decided to place several p i t s along the actual highway road bed. Backhoe Test P i t s A ten foot i n c l i n e screen was constructed of two-by-fours and plywood and covered with one-quarter inch mesh screen. A test p i t (5* x io') was l a i d out on the road bed of the pro-posed Highway (coordinates 24o ' -250 ' south, 5 ' - 1 0 ' west-Primary Baseline). A tape recorder was obtained f o r recording observations, and one member of the crew was placed i n charge of keeping a photographic record of the excavation. A con-scientious attempt was made to keep the backhoe within s i x inch l e v e l s . The walls were cleaned and straightened a f t e r each l e v e l and exact provenience recorded f o r artefacts s i t u -ated i n the walls. Several problems of contamination were apparent i n the 63 use of such equipment and warrant mention at t h i s point. 1. I t i s obviously impossible f o r a backhoe to achieve the same degree of consistency i n depths of l e v e l s obtained through excavation by hand tool s . The backhoe operator was extremely interested i n what we were attempting to do and made an e f f o r t to come as close as possible to achieving s i x inch l e v e l s . 2 . The wall opposite the backhoe cannot be v e r t i c a l a f t e r a cer t a i n depth due to the arc made by the boom and bucket of the machine. 3 . A degree of mixing i s present i n every l e v e l ; t h i s i s unavoidable. The s l i g h t e s t touch of the bucket against the side walls skims material from the l e v e l s above. 4. A cert a i n amount of undermining of the wall d i r e c t l y beneath the backhoe also occurs. The amount of t h i s contamination increases with depth. Backhoe Test P i t Number 1 (24o '-250' South, 5 ' - 1 0 ' West) This unit revealed c u l t u r a l material through f i f t e e n l e v e l s ( 7 . 5 ' ) . An additional two feet of s t e r i l e flood p l a i n sediments were removed from under the c u l t u r a l s t r a t a . The lack of adequate material f o r shoring the walls of the p i t s precluded a deeper excavation. Backhoe Test P i t Number 2 (330'-3*K)' South, 255*-260' West) This unit was to the west of Number 1, situated on the highway road bed. I t proved to be less productive and a f t e r 64 nine l e v e l s i t was decided to abandon t h i s p i t and move to a position between Number 1 and Number 2 . The backhoe was at our disposal f o r a period of only four days and we wished to sample as much of the road bed as possible i n that time. Backhoe Test P i t Number 3 ( 3 1 0 ' - 3 2 0 ' South, 2 0 5 ' - 2 1 0 * West) We managed to take t h i s unit down ten l e v e l s before the Highways Department r e c a l l e d the backhoe. The walls of these test p i t s were cleaned, photographed and stratigraphic pro-f i l e s were drawn. At the same time the backhoe work was being carried out, test p i t s on the south side of the C.P.R. tracks were syste-matically excavated with the help of members of the Archaeol-ogical Society of B r i t i s h Columbia. These test p i t s were l a t e r re-opened and expanded i n the 1971 season. On September 1 5i 1970, i t was not clear whether further work along the Highway right-of-way would be possible before the construction took place over the s i t e . Our constant l i a i s o n with the Department of Highways had produced assur-ances that the area adjacent to the actual road bed would not be d i r e c t l y affected and that an attempt would be made to ensure that t h i s area would not be disturbed further. However, these assurances proved to be unreliable. Two weekends of fieldwork were planned f o r Dr. Borden's Anthropology 420 course students at Katz i n early October. We found upon our a r r i v a l that the destruction of the Katz s i t e was f a r advanced. A bulldozer had ranged over the entire 65 area that had previously been cleared of surface vegetation. The higher points of land on the floo d p l a i n were "skimmed off" to f i l l the depressions (pithouses) and to l e v e l the r i g h t -of-way. This a c t i v i t y was described by an engineer i n the Highways Department as "landscaping." The only areas to escape t h i s destruction were i n the immediate proximity of our backhoe test p i t s . These small areas were singled out as areas of concern to the "archaeologists." As mentioned e a r l i e r , the c u l t u r a l material i n backhoe Test P i t Number 1 was seven and one-half feet i n depth. We have no information at present as to how much of the surface deposit was removed from these areas of higher elevation. We do know that at least two and probably three pithouses were destroyed by the bulldozer. The damage to the underlying c u l t u r a l s t r a t a was s l i g h t i n some areas and extreme i n others. This destruction of the s i t e was t o t a l l y unnecessary. Excavation (May 15 to August 3 1 , 1971) The exigencies of salvage archaeology at Katz precluded the adoption of a systematic random sampling procedure f o r the excavation of the s i t e . The major constraints imposed on the project were: (1) the areas to be excavated were dictated by the Highways Department, and (2) the amount of time a v a i l -able f o r the excavation of each area depended upon the schedule of the construction contractor. The construction of the highway at Katz necessitated a realignment of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway tracks to 66 accommodate the road. This meant that the r a i l bed would be s h i f t e d on top of Pithouses Number 1 and 2. We were advised that a six week "stay of grace" would be given on t h i s por-ti o n of the s i t e , which l i e s to the south of the tracks. With these factors i n mind i t was decided that the central aim of the project should be to systematically and in t e n s i v e l y excavate Pithouses 1 and 2 and to sample the immediately surrounding areas. The preliminary t e s t i n g of the rim between Pithouse 1 and 2, ca r r i e d out i n the f a l l of 1970, revealed large numbers of stone a r t e f a c t s . I t appeared that i t would be possible to recover large samples of tools associated with the pithouses from these areas. At the same time, information on the structure and l i v i n g areas of the houses would be sought by extensive excavation i n the house depressions. In the backhoe tested areas of the s i t e , on the north side of the railway, e a r l i e r c u l t u r a l layers were observed beneath the pithouse occupation layers. I f such layers were to be found near Pithouse 1 and 2 an attempt would be made to determine the nature of these e a r l i e r layers and the c u l t u r a l remains associated with them. The excavation of the house p i t depressions was by shovel "skimming" with square nosed shovels and was conducted i n a r b i t r a r y .5 foot l e v e l s following the surface contour. A l l material was screened through one-eighth or one-quarter inch mesh screens, depending upon the weather conditions. Three dimensional provenience was recorded f o r a l l " i n s i t u " arte-facts with approximate provenience assigned to screen find s . 67 The c u l t u r a l layers interbedded i n the f l u v i a l zone (Zone B) were excavated s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y and almost exclusively by trowel. Whereas the excavation of the l a t e r mixed pithouse deposit (Zone A) was concerned primarily with sampling i n terms of v e r t i c a l l y excavated sections, the excavation of the e a r l i e r c u l t u r a l layers was conducted with the aim of expos-ing and recording horizontal d i s t r i b u t i o n s of artefactual remains. The dimensions of the excavation units were 5 feet by 5 feet. The l o c a l datum plane used f o r the excavation of Pithouses 1 and 2 was 97 feet (116.7 feet above sea level.) 68 Map 3 Contour Map of the Katz S i t e : D I R J J - K A T Z S I T E A91A CONTOUR. INTERVAL Mo-p 3. SURVEY^  YUNG FAN * T TELEGRAPH POLE * ^ 9 SL>RVEV STATION - x FENCE ' -»—i- CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY '•> IQ] B U I L. O I N G / -f-r ROAD [ E X C A V A T E D A R E A ; Q.T P = BACKHOE TES 'P = PITHOUSE 69 Stratigraphy The excavation at Katz revealed three major s t r a t i -graphic zonesJ Zone A - The pithouse deposit Zone B - The f l u v i a l deposit Zone C - The bottom of the former r i v e r channel The c r i t e r i a used to distinguish the three zones are both geological and c u l t u r a l i n character. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each zone are outlined below. Stratigraphy of Zone A Included i n t h i s zone are the geologic and c u l t u r a l materials associated with the construction, the occupancy, and the eventual d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the pithouses designated numbers 1 through 4 . The stratigraphy and c u l t u r a l materials of t h i s deposit are d i f f i c u l t to order i n time f o r a number of reasons. 1. The construction of a semi-subterranean dwelling re-quires the excavation of a p i t into e a r l i e r c u l t u r a l and/or  geological s t r a t a . The heavy black l i n e on the p r o f i l e of Pithouse Number 1, Figure 6 , shows how the o r i g i n a l excava-t i o n f o r the dwelling intrudes into e a r l i e r c u l t u r a l layers which are interbedded here with f l u v i a l layers. These e a r l i e r deposits have been designated Zone B. The heavy black l i n e descends steeply through Zone B at approximately the 13 foot west point on the g r i d . At a depth of nearly, 6 feet below the datum plane of 97 feet, t h i s steep angle l e v e l s out 70 forming a bench-like feature before descending to the natural cobble pavement of the abandoned r i v e r channel, Zone C. A si m i l a r ledge-like feature appears on the p r o f i l e on the opposite side of the pithouse from 48 feet to 52 feet west. This suggests the presence of a platform e n c i r c l i n g the house f l o o r proper. The depth of the house appears to have been determined by the depth of the e a s i l y removable sands and s i l t s because the occupation s t a i n extends downward to the cobble paved bottom of the old r i v e r channel. This channel i s approximately 9 to 10 feet below the present surface of the pithouse rim, and approximately 6 feet below the natural surface separating Zones A and B. In only one of the excavated units of Pithouse Number 1 did we encounter evidence of the removal of r i v e r cobbles to a t t a i n greater depth. In t h i s case a 2 foot x 3 foot cache p i t (Feature 13) was created by intrusion into Zone C. 2. The sediments removed i n the excavation of the house  p i t eventually serve to cover the superstructure of the  dwelling (Teit. 1900: 192-194). For our purposes i t i s s u f f i c i e n t to note that early c u l t u r a l layers become displaced and mixed, and superimposed on temporally more recent c u l t u r a l deposits. 3 . There may be a mixing of c u l t u r a l material through f i l -t e r i n g of the roof covering down onto the f l o o r deposit. 4. Pithouses may have been p e r i o d i c a l l y abandoned and re-excavated. This p o s s i b i l i t y further complicates the task of 71 assigning c u l t u r a l materials to the pithouse occupation. At various locations i n the p r o f i l e of the house lenses of un-stained sand and s i l t appear between darkly stained occupa-t i o n layers. These unstained bands do not run continuously across the f l o o r neatly separating periodic occupations of the house, but occur as short lenses, truncated by repeated cleanings and p a r t i a l re-excavation of the house. 5« Materials associated with the occupancy of the pithouse  appear to have been deposited around and between adjacent  houses. Such materials could e a s i l y become mixed with arte-facts and sediments sloughing from the roof as a r e s u l t of weathering. 6. The collapse of the pithouse. Through the eventual disi n t e g r a t i o n of the superstructure, roof deposits were probably further mingled with house f l o o r deposits. On the p r o f i l e of Pithouse Number 1 shown i n Figure 6, the various s t r a t a are numbered from top to bottom. The complexities just outlined regarding the ordering of these s t r a t a must be kept i n mind while examining the drawing. als Top s o i l , root mat, debris from adjacent railway a2: A broad layer of mixed roof collapse material con-s i s t i n g of s i l t , sand, f i r e cracked rock, with some scattered charcoal throughout. The sediments i n t h i s layer are not uniform i n colour or texture but are mixed bands and lenses of unstained l i g h t yellow sand, clayey s i l t , and dark brown s i l t y loam. a3: This stratum consisting also of roof collapse material, i s of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t and warrants separate i d e n t i f i -cation. A broad band of extremely compact l i g h t yellow, unstained, s i l t y clay i s evident i n the p r o f i l e . This material seems to have served as a clay cap covering the roof to decrease erosion, and provide additional i n s u l a t i o n against cold and moisture. 72 a4: Floor deposit. There are differences i n the degree of staining and compaction i n the f l o o r deposit. Lenses of darkly stained s i l t and sand are separated i n some locations by t h i n lenses of unstained, s t e r i l e sediments, possibly r e s u l t i n g from periodic abandon-ment. Stratigraphy of Zone B Zone B was constructed gradually as a r e s u l t of the realignment of the main or deep channel of the Fraser River toward the opposite bank. This s h i f t i n the course of the r i v e r l e f t the underlying cobble pavement of Zone C as a cobble bar which was inundated by slack water during the seasonal flood stage of the r i v e r . Over time the layers of suspended f l u v i a l sediments l a i d down by t h i s flooding developed the flo o d p l a i n bank. Cultural layers are interbedded i n t h i s f l u v i a l deposit, beginning approximately 2 feet above Zone C, and continuing with f l u v i a l separation to approximately 6 feet above Zone C. Radiocarbon assays based on charcoal, from the lowermost and uppermost c u l t u r a l layers of Zone B, have yielded dates of 7^5 t 90 B.C. ( I - G>1%1 ) and 525 - 90 B.C. ( I - UfO ), res-pectively. This deposit consisting of f l u v i a l and c u l t u r a l layers i s found i n the areas between the pithouses not d i s -turbed by the housepit excavation. The p r o f i l e of Pithouse Number 1, Figure 6, shows such sediments between East 2.5 feet and West 22.3 feet and on the opposite side from West 52.0 feet and 55 «0 feet. The c u l t u r a l features exposed be-tween the bottom and top of Zone B are s i m i l a r i n nature as can be seen i n the horizontal d i s t r i b u t i o n of s t r a t i f i e d Zone 73 B features i n Figure 1 2 . Zone B i s characterized by hearth features, alignments of cobbles placed on edge, and stake moulds. In several cases these features appear to be associa ted i n complexes. The features recorded i n t h i s zone appear to r e f l e c t a seasonal u t i l i z a t i o n of the s i t e , perhaps as a f i s h i n g s t a t i o n . The s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of si m i l a r features i n -dicates some degree of consistency i n the kinds of a c t i v i t i e s being ca r r i e d out at the s i t e over a period of about two cen-turi e s , that i s , from 7^5 to 525 B.C. Stratigraphy of Zone C This zone i s the natural pavement of water worn pebbles and cobbles representing the bottom of the old r i v e r channel. This "bar" i s approximately 9 to 10 feet below the rim i n the v i c i n i t y of the pithouses. The depth below the surface i n -creases i n the d i r e c t i o n of the r i v e r as the bar slopes down-ward, which indicates that the r i v e r has been degrading i t s bed. The main observations on the order of development of the three zones are as follows. The r i v e r once coursed over the cobble pavement s t r a t i f i e d beneath Zone B. The r i v e r gradually s h i f t e d i t s course toward the opposite bank and degraded i t s bed. Seasonal flooding over the cobble pavement deposited layers of s i l t and sand gradually building the pre-sent f l o o d p l a i n bank. During t h i s process, the s i t e was seasonally occupied and c u l t u r a l layers containing tools, rock features, stake moulds and bands of charcoal were l e f t 74 interbedded i n t h i s deposit, here designated Zone B. When the f l o o d p l a i n had achieved a height of approximately 6 feet above the cobble pavement, semi-subterranean houses were constructed on the s i t e . The remnants of the e a r l i e r occu-pation, i n Zone B, are situated between and around the p i t -houses. Further discussion on t h i s subject i s included i n Chapter V. The features i n each zone are presented i n tabular form below, along with Figures 7 and 12 showing t h e i r horizontal d i s t r i b u t i o n . The feature numbers correspond with the numbers on the d i s t r i b u t i o n diagram. For photographs of Zone A and Zone B features, see Figures 8-11, 13-18. 75 Figure 6 P r o f i l e of Pithouse Number 1 Di R j 1 PITHOUSE NUMBER 1 PROFILE OF ZONES A . B . andC 20 S O U T H W A L L ^llllllh C H A R C O A L S T A I N E D F L U V I A L S E O E M E N T S C O N C E N T R A T I O N S O F C H A R C O A L A N D A S H O C C U P A T I O N S T A I N E D D E P O S I T , Z O N E A 15 ' sOUTH W A L L ( P R O F I L E R E V E R S E D ) W 5 1 T O P S O I L » 1 PITHOUSE 2 L O O S E S A N D Y S I L T W I T H P E D E S T A L E D C H A R R E D B A R K S H E E T ( F E A T U R E n o . l O ) ZONE B I 1 r j I I S U R F A C E j ) ZONE A 745 ±90 B.C. ( F E A T U R E no. 30) • H E A R T H A R E A -S T E R I L E S A N D A N D S I L T U N E X C A V A T E D 20 S O U T H W A L L W 1 5 ' . ZONE C I 10' S O U T H W A L L 5 5 ' 98' TABLE III Zone A Features; Pithouse Number 1 (for horizontal d i s t r i b u t i o n , see Figure 7) Feature Number Type of Feature Unit Location Dimen- Depth Below sions 97 Feet Description 11 large r i v e r cobbles (placed on edge) 12 hearth feature 13 cache p i t ? S 10-15 W 0 - 1 0 ' S 15-20 w 2 0 - 3 0 ' S 5 - 8 w 3 0 - 3 8 ' S 16.8-18.3' w 8 . 9 - 1 0 . 0 ' s 1 9 - 2 0 w 1 1 - 1 2 . 3 ' S 5 . 4 - 7 . 4 ' w 3 3 . 6 - 3 6 . 6 1-5 1 .1 1 . 0 ' 1 . 3 ' 2 . 0 3 . 0 1 . 3 - 1 . 8 Three large f l a t cobbles placed on edge i n a semi-circle on the eastern rim of Pithouse 1 . Possibly associated with a hip r a f t e r , but only . 8 * below the present sur-face. 7.3* An arrangement of small pebbles, some f i r e cracked exposed i n the south-east cor-ner of the u n i t . Con-centration of ash and charcoal. 8 . 1 - 9 . 1 ' A hole excavated into Zone C ( r i v e r channel) north-west of the cen-t e r of the pithouse f l o o r . The p i t i s 3 . 0 ' long and 2 . 0 ' wide and l.o' deep. Two f l a t rock slabs are placed on edge p a r t i a l l y TABLE I I I (Continued) Feature Number Type of Feature Unit Location Dimen-sions Depth Below 97 Feet Description 14 hearth feature? S 10-21 W 40-45' S 10-11.5 1 .5 W 40-41 .5 ' 1 . 5 ' 7.3 15 large r i v e r cobbles S 0-10 W 45-55' S 8.8 ' - 1 0 . 0 ' 1 .2 ' x W 48 - 5 0 . 0 ' 2 . 0 ' .6' l i n i n g the sides of the feature. Absence of ash etc. precludes the p o s s i b i l i t y that the feature may have been a central hearth (see Figure 10) An arrangement of r i v e r pebbles with dense charcoal and ash. This feature i s at the same depth below the l o c a l datum plane as the other possible hearth feature (number 12). The feature i s situated to the west of the center of the house f l o o r , and below the e n c i r c l i n g p l a t -form or ledge (Feature 18). Large cobbles placed i n a p i l e on the west-ern rim of the p i t -house. The feature was exposed just beneath the surface and exten-ded downward 1.5 • May possibly be associated with a hip r a f t e r ? TABLE III (Continued) Feature Number Type of Feature Unit Location Dimen-sions Depth Below 97 Feet Description 16 17 18 l i n e a r arrangement of large r i v e r cobbles S 0-10 W 45-55' S 0-10 W 45.8-46.5' 1 0 . 0 ' x 6 . 6 - 7 . 0 ' . 8 ' (combined with feature 18) pithouse ledge (part of an en c i r -c l i n g p l a t -form? ) S 0-10 W 4 5 - 5 5 ' S 0-10 W 4 8 * 5 1 1 0 . 0 x 5 . 9 - 6 . 1 3 . 0 A serie s of large r i v e r cobbles ( . 8 - 1 . 4 ' i n length) follow the inter f a c e between Zone A and Zone B. The cobbles are associated with the Zone A deposit and l i e approximately . 3 ' above the old r i v e r channel on char-coal stained s i l t (see Figure 8 ) . A ledge i n Pithouse 1 approximately 3 . 0 ' i n width appears at a t depth of 5 . 9 to 6 . 1 below the l o c a l datum elevation of 9 7 . 0 . A s i m i l a r ledge fea-ture also appears on the eastern side of the house at approxi-mately the same eleva-t i o n above the cobble pavement suggesting an e n c i r c l i n g platform above the f l o o r of the house. 79 F i g u r e 7 H o r i z o n t a l D i s t r i b u t i o n of C u l t u r a l Features A s s o c i a t e d w i t h Pithouses 40 3 0 J , 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 - 0\RjJ H O R I Z O N T A L D I S T R I B U T I O N O F C U L T U R A L _ F E A T U R E S A S S O C I A T E D W I T H P I T H O U S E S ( Z O N E A ) DEPTHS ARE BELOW 97' 0 . " DATUM PLANE 80 Zone A Features: P i t h oils e Number 1 Figure 8. Pithouse Number 1. Feature Number 16 At the west side of the house f l o o r i s a l i n e a r arrangement of elongate cobbles a t the i n t e r f a c e of Zone A and Zone B. The cobble pavement to th l e f t i s the bottom of the r i v e r channel Zone C. Figure 9. Pithouse Number 1 . Photograph shows s e c t i o n near center of pithouse. L i g h t coloured matrix i s compact c l a y band. 81 Figure 1 0 . Pithouse Number 1. Cache p i t i n t o f l o o r of pithouse (Units We 3 0 - 3 8 f e e t , South 5-8 f e e t ) . Two rock s l a b l i n e the p i t . TABLE IV Zone A Featuresi Pithouse Number 2 ( f o r horizontal d i s t r i b u t i o n , see Figure 7) Feature Number Type of Feature Unit Location Dimen- Depth Below sions 97 Feet Description c l u s t e r of large r i v e r s cobbles S 0-10 E 25-35' sheets of charred bark S 0-10 E 25-35' S 6 . 0 - 8.4' E 28.0-29.6' 2.4' x 1.6' 1.4* S 0-10 E 27.8-31.5' 10.0' x 4 .7-5 .1 ' 3.7 ' Purposeful arrangement of large r i v e r t c o b b l e s from 4, to 1.6' be-neath the surface. Possibly associated with hip r a f t e r s of the house although the feature seems too near the present surface. Sheets of charred bark were exposed at the inte r f a c e between Zone A and Zone B. The sheets appear to be associated with the p i t -house, and i n t h i s unit run i n a north-south d i r e c t i o n . The posi-t i o n of t h i s feature along with features 4, 6, and 10 suggest that the sheets of bark en-c i r c l e d the house. Whether t h i s wood l i n e d the walls or was part of the superstructure i s not c l e a r (see F i g -ure 11). TABLE IV (Continued) Feature Number Type of Feature Unit Location Dimen-sions Depth Below 97 Feet Description large r i v e r cobbles sheet of charred bark sheet of charred bark charred bark S 10-20 E 30-40' S 1 0 - 1 5 , E 30-40 S 10-15 E 1 5 - 2 5 ' S 2 0 - 2 5 E 5-15 ' S 14 .0-15.4' E 3 0 . 0 - 3 1 . 0 ' S 1 0 . 0 - 1 2 . 5 E 25.0-26.8' s 1 2 . 0 - 1 5 . 0 E 2 1 . 8 - 2 5 . 0 ' s 2 0 . 8 - 2 3 . 6 ' E 7 . 0 - 1 5 . 0 ' 1 . 4 ' x 1 . 6 - 2 . 0 ' 1 . 0 ' 2.5 1.8 5 . 0 3 . 2 3-2 8.0 4 . 9 ' 6 . 6 - 6 . 8 5 . 2 Cluster of large cobbles just beneath the surface on the rim of Pithouse Number 2 , Presumed to be a struc-t u r a l feature, possibly associated with a hip r a f t e r . Charred bark, north-south orientation. Appears to be an ex-tension of feature number 2 i n the adja-cent unit, S 0-10 , E 2 5 - 3 5 ' . Charred bark, north-south orientation. This feature i s deeper than features 2 and 4 . I t appears that the bark follows the con-tour of the interface between Zone A and B. Charred bark, east west orientation, runs perpendicular to bark features 2 , 4 , and 5» TABLE IV (Continued) Feature Number Type of Feature Unit Location Dimen-sions Depth Below 97 Feet Description 8 10 large r i v e r cobbles ( b u r i a l cover), asso-cia t e d with b u r i a l fea-ture 8 human jaw fragments and teeth large r i v e r cobbles sheet of charred bark S 2 0 - 3 0 E 0 - 1 0 ' S 20.0-30.0 E 0 -10 S 10-1? E 0 - 5 T S 10-15 E 0 - 5' S 23 -26.5 E 1.5- 6.2' S 22 - 2 5 . 5 E 3 . 0 - 7 .0* s 1 3 . 5 - 1 5 . 0 , E 3 . 5 - 5 . 0 S 10 -15 E 2 . 9 - ^ . 9 ' 3 - 5 4 . 7 3.5 4 . 0 1-5 1 .5 2 . 0 0 . 9 ' 3 . 7 ' 1.6-1.7 5 . 0 ' x 4 . 0 - 4 . 5 ' Large r i v e r placed side immediately the surface, the cobbles of mandible ber of teeth found. The were 1 . 0 to length. cobbles by side beneath Under a portion and a num-were cobbles 1.6 i n The scattered frag-ments of decomposed bone were noised to a depth of 3 . 7 below , the l o c a l datum of 97 • Several large cobbles placed i n a p i l e . S i m i l a r i n nature to features 1 and 3 i n P i t -house 2 , and features 11 and 15 i n Pithouse 1. Possibly associated with a hip r a f t e r . Charred bark sheet i n a north-south orienta-t i o n following the west rim of the p i t -house. 85 Zone A Feature: Pithouse Number 2 F i g u r e 1 1 . Pithouse Number 2 . Feature Number 2 . Shows sheets of charred bark running north-south i n u n i t South 0-10 f e e t , E a s t 2 5 - 3 5 f e e t . A s e c t i o n of a Zone B heart h f e a t u r e can be seen l e f t of c e n t e r a t the bottom of the photograph. TABLE V Zone B Features (For horizontal d i s t r i b u t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to excavated pithouses see Figure 12") Feature Number Type of Feature Unit Location Dimen- Depth Below sions 97 Feet hearth S 0-10 E 2 5 - 3 5 ' S 4 . 2 - 6 . 2 ' E 3 3 . 0 - 3 4 . 8 ' 2 . 0 x 4 . 2 - 4 . 5 ' 1 . 8 ' l i n e a r arrangement of cobbles S 0-10 S 0 - 7 7 . 0 E 2 5 - 3 5 ' E 33 - 3 5 ' 2 . 0 ' x 4 . 1 - 4 . 5 ' 3 three stake moulds S 0-10' 0) S 7,8- 8.1' E 2 5 - 3 5 ' E 35 0 S 8 . 5 - 8.8 E 3 5 ' 0 . 3 ' 3 . 6 - 4 . 6 ' 0 . 3 ' Description A well defined hearth. An arrangement of r i v e r pebbles approx-imately 2 i n diameter. Some pebbles exhibit fracture from heat. The charcoal and ash concentration i s dense. This i s a series of large r i v e r cobbles mounted on edge i n a l i n e a r fashion extend-ing from the north wall of t h e ( u n i t , South 0 to 5 . 7 . The cobbles pass between feature 1 and the west wall of the u n i t (35 East). This feature appears to be associated with the hearth of feature 1. Theft stake moulds are 2 . 5 " i n diameter and approximately 4 apart. They appear s l i g h t l y TABLE V (Continued) Feature Number Type of Feature Unit Location Dimen-sions Depth Below 97 Feet Description hearth 5 6 hearth l i n e a r arrangement of cobbles hearth S 0-10 E 2 5 - 3 5 ' S 0-10 E 2 5 - 3 5 ' S 0 - 1 0 ' E 2 5 - 3 5 ' S 0-10 E 2 5 - 3 5 ' 0) S 9 ? 1 - 9 . V E 35 S 2 . 5 - 5 . V E 3 3 . 0 - 3 5 . 0 S 0 . 2 - 2 . 6 ' E 32 - 3 3 - 9 ' s o - 7 . 0 ' E 3^ - 3 5 ' S 7 . 7 - 9 . 0 E 3 3 . 2 - 3 4 . 5 ' 0 . 3 2 . 9 , x 2 . 0 2 . 4 ] 1 .9 7 . 0 ; 1 . 0 * - 3 1 .3 5 . 6 ' 5 . 6 ' 5 . 4 - 6 . 0 ' 5 . 6 ' above the hearth fea-ture and probe to a depth of 1 . 0 ' . This feature may be associ-ated with features 1 and 2 i n a feature com-plex which occurs i n other areas of Zone B. C i r c u l a r configuration of cobbles showing evidence of heat f r a c -ture. Dense charcoal and ash concentrations. Appears to be i n asso-c i a t i o n with feature 6 . Arrangement of cobbles, dense charcoal and ash. This series of cobbles l i e s beneath the cobble arrangement of feature 2 but has the same orienta t i o n . The cobbles follow a l i n e s l i g h t l y closer to the 35 East l i n e than those of feature 2 . Arrangement of f i r e cracked pebbles, dense TABLE V (Continued) Feature Number Type of Feature U n i t L o c a t i o n Dimen-sions Depth Below 97 Feet Description 8 Flaking station? elongate hearth? 10 hearth S 1 0 - 2 0 E 30-40' S 10-20 E 3 0 ' 4 o ' S 2 0 - 2 5 E 1 0 - 1 5 ' S 11 -18 E 33 - 3 9 1 S 10 E 30 E 33 -20" - 3 2 : - 3 5 s 2 3 . 8 - 2 5 E 12 - 1 5 ' 7.0 6.0' x 4.4-4.6' 10.0 2.0' x 4.5-4.7' 1.2' 3 . 0 " 4.2' concentration of char-coal and ash. This feature i s a con-centration of l i t h i c d e t r i t u s within a clear-l y defined area. Accom-panying the flakes and chips of various sizes were several artefacts including a hammer-stone (9237)» two cores (9241, 9242) and an a n v i l stone. This elongate hearth feature runs i n a north to south d i r e c t i o n across the unit. I t contains numerous rocks and dense concentrations of charcoal and ash. This feature was only p a r t i a l l y exposed but appeared s i m i l a r to the other c i r c u l a r arrange-ments of stones with dense charcoal found i n other locations i n Zone B. Some of the pebbles were fractured from heat. TABLE V (Continued) Feature Type of Number Feature Unit Location Dimen-sions Depth Below 97 Feet Description 11 12 possibly hearth hearth 13 stake moulds (14) S 2 0 - 3 0 E 5 - 1 0 ' S 2 0 - 2 5 E 5-W5' S 2 0 - 2 5 E 5 L w 5 ' and adjacent units: S 15-20* W 0 - 5 and S 10-15 E 0 - 5 ' S 2 2 . 8 - 2 5 . 9 E 4 . 2 - 7 . 8 ' 3 . 1 3 . 6 ' x 4 . 3 - 4 . 7 ' S 20 E 0 -22 ' - 4 ' 2 . 0 x 4 . 0 ' 4 . 3 ' See horizon-t a l d i s t r i b u -tion, Figure 1 2 . 4 . 0 - 4 . 3 ' A configuration of cobbles with dense concentration of char-coal and ash. This hearth i s only p a r t i a l l y exposed with the remaining portion within the north (wall of the unit S 20' l i n e . C i r c u l a r configuration of cobbles and dense charcoal. Fourteen stake moulds were exposed at approx-imately the same depth below the l o c a l datum plane elevation ( 4 . 0 ' below 9 7 . 0 ). The moulds appear at i r r e -gular i n t e r v a l s i n two arc l i k e formations around feature 1 2 . One arc of stake moulds i s immediately adjacent to the hearth, while an outer arc i s between 1 - 2 ' around the hearth. The moulds appear to be only 0 . 8 - 1 . 0 i n depth. Most of these intrusions TABLE V (Continued) Feature Number Type of Feature Unit L o c a t i o n Dimen-sions Depth Below 97 Feet D e s c r i p t i o n 14 hearth 15 hearth 16 rock oven? s 2 0 - 3 0 W 5 - 1 0 ' S 2 0 - 3 0 w 5 - 1 0 ' S 2 3 . 9-26 . 2 ' W 6 . 6 - 1 0 . 2 * S 29 - 3 0 W 8 - 1 0 ' s 2 0 - 3 0 s 2 5 . 3 - 2 9 W 5-10' W 6 .2-14' c o n t a i n s e v e r a l pebbles which may have been placed i n the moulds to support a stake. 2 . 3 ] x 3 * 3 - 3 . 7 ' A c i r c u l a r arrange-3 . 4 ' ment of r i v e r cobbles, some f i r e cracked. The outside row of cobbles are mounted on edge and l e a n s l i g h t l y outward. Q u a n t i t i e s of c h a r c o a l and ash. Samples have been taken of the hearth contents. l . o j x 4 . 2 ' Only one h a l f of the 2.o' f e a t u r e was exposed wi t h the remainder i n the adjacent u n i t to the south. A concen-t r a t i o n of f i r e -cracked stones, char-c o a l and ash. 3 . 7 ' x 4 . 3 - 4 . 8 * . The l a r g e s t rock f e a -7 . 8 ' t u r e exposed i n the excavation. I t con-s i s t s of an arrangement of r i v e r cobbles mounted on edge which l e a n out-ward from the center TABLE V (Continued) Feature Number Type of Feature Unit L o c a t i o n Dimen-sions Depth Below 97 Feet D e s c r i p t i o n 17 hearth s 2 0 - 3 0 W 5 - 1 0 ' 18 hea r t h s 2 0 - 3 0 W 5 - 1 0 ' S 28 W 5 •30' , • 7 . 5 2 . 0 ' x 4 . 7 - 5 . 2 ' 2 . 5 ' S 24 W 6 •27 , • 8 . 5 3.0 2 . 5 5 . 0 - 5 . 6 of the hearth. The featu r e i s d i v i d e d approximately i n h a l f by s e v e r a l l a r g e cobbles g i v i n g i t a f i g u r e 8 appearance. The west-ern one-half i s shown i n Figure 1 3 . Samples of the hearth contents were taken, but only a cursory examination of the contents has been p o s s i b l e thus f a r . One-quarter of the c i r c u l a r ? f e a t u r e ex-posed. F i r e - c r a c k e d rock, dense concentra-t i o n of c h a r c o a l and ash. A c i r c u l a r arrangement of r i v e r cobbles con-t a i n i n g f i r e - c r a c k e d rocks, c h a r c o a l and ash. Appears to be i n a s s o c i a t i o n with f e a -ture 1 9 . ( L i n e a r con-f i g u r a t i o n of cobbles placed on end). TABLE V (Continued) Feature Number Type of Feature Unit Location Dimen- Depth Below sions 97 Feet Description 19 l i n e a r arrange- S 2 0 - 3 0 ( ment of W 5 - 1 0 ' cobbles 20 l i n e a r arrange- S 2 0 - 3 0 ment of W 15-20 cobbles 21 hearth 22 hearth s 2 0 - 3 0 W 1 5 - 2 0 ' s 2 0 . 0 - 2 7 . 0 W 7 . 0 - 8 . 5 * s 2 5 . 5 - 3 0 . 0 , w 1 7 . 2 - 2 0 . 0 s 29 - 3 0 W 16 . 0-16 . 4 ' S 15-20 S 18 - 2 0 W 0-10* W 8 - 1 0 ' 7 . 0 1 .5 2 . 8 2 . 0 x 4 . 5 - 5 . 0 ' 4 . 5 ! x 4 . 5 - 5 . 0 ' 1 .0 x . 4 ' 4 . 7 - 5 . 2 ' 2 . 0 ' x 4 . 3 - 4 . 7 ' The series of cobbles follows a s l i g h t NW to SE o r i e n t a t i o n passing immediately to the west of Feature 18. A series of r i v e r cobbles which appear to be purposefully arranged i n an arc-l i k e formation. This feature may be asso-ciated with Feature 21. Only a portion of t h i s hearth exposed. F i r e -cracked rock and dense concentrations of char-coal. A c i r c u l a r configura-t i o n of r i v e r cobbles on edge and leaning outward from the middle of the hearth. Several ad d i t i o n a l cobbles seem to have been placed f l a t to form a base to the hearth. Dense con-centrations of charcoal between the cobbles. Samples of the hearth TABLE V (Continued) Feature Number Type of Feature Unit Location" Dimen-sions Depth Below 97 Feet Description 23 l i n e a r arrange-ment of cobbles 24 cobble l i n e d p i t 25 26 hearth hearth S 15-20 W 0-10' S 15-20 W 0-10 * S 15-20 W 0-10' S 15-20 W 0-10' S 15 -20 W 7.0' S 18 -19, w 5 - 6 S 15 -16.4' w 2.2-3.3 S 19 -20 W 2.0- 3.3' 5.0, x .6 1.0 1.4' l . l ' 4.3-4.7' l . o ' x 3.6-4.7' 4.4' l.o' x 4.2-4.5' 3.3' contents were taken. See photograph i n F i g -ure 16, of Feature 22, Zone B. A serie s of f l a t r i v e r cobbles placed on edge and leaning s l i g h t l y away from the hearth (Feature 22). See photograph i n Figure 16 of Feature 23 of Zone B. A p i t with the sides l i n e d with f l a t r i v e r cobbles. The opening of the p i t i s s l i g h t l y narrower than the body of the p i t . A small c i r c u l a r arrange ment of fire-cracked rock and charcoal. Well defined hearth. A c i r c u l a r arrangement of pebbles, some f i r e cracked, and dense charcoal and ash concen-t r a t i o n s . TABLE V (Continued) Feature Number Type of Feature U n i t Location Dimen-sions Depth Below 97 Feet Description 27 hearth 28 l i n e a r arrange-ment of cobbles 29 hearth 30 hearth S 15-20 W 0 - 1 0 ' S 15-20 W 0 - 1 0 ' S 15-20 W 0 - 1 0 ' S 15-20 W 0 - 1 0 ' S 16.8-18.3' W 2 . 5 - 4.o' S 15 - 2 0 W 1.0* S 19 - 2 0 . 4 ' W 2 . 0 - 3 . 8 ' S 15 -17 , w 1 . 4 - 3 . 0 !«5 1 .5 x 1.4' 1.8' 2 . 0 1 . 6 ' 4 . 8 ' x 4 . 3 - 4 . 5 ' 5 . 0 - 5 . 2 6 . 2 - 6 . 5 Dense charcoal and ash with f i r e cracked rock. Appears to be associated with the l i n e a r arrange-ment of cobbles (Feature 28). A series of cobbles placed on edge and leaning s l i g h t l y away from the hearth of Feature 2 7 . These cobbles seem to l i n e elongate hearth features. A dense concentration of charcoal and ash surrounded by a c i r c u -l a r configuration of r i v e r pebbles. C i r c u l a r arrangement of cobbles, some f i r e cracked. Dense char-coal and ash. Appears to be associated with the l i n e a r arrangement of cobbles at the same depth (Feature 3 1 ) . Carbon sample from t h i s feature assayed at 745 ± 90 B.C. (1-1/8 9 ). TABLE V (Continued.) F e a t u r e Number Type o f F e a t u r e Unit L o c a t i o n Dimen-s i o n s Depth Below 97 F e e t D e s c r i p t i o n 31 32 l i n e a r arrangement o f c o b b l e s h e a r t h 33 l i n e a r arrangement o f c o b b l e s 3^ l i n e a r arrangement o f c o b b l e s 35 h e a r t h s 15-20 W 0-10' s 15-20 W 0' 10' s 15-20 w 0-10' s 15-20 w 0-10 1 s 0-10 w o-io' s w s w 15 - 2 0 1.0" S 18 -20 W 7.8-10' 15 - 2 0 5 - ?' S 15 - 2 0 w 4 . 5 - 5 . 5 * S 1 . 0 - 2 . 5 W 4 . 2 - 6.1* 5 . 0 ' x 6 . 1 - 6 . 7 ' .6 2 . 0 2 . 2 ' 5 . 0 1.0 1.5 1.9 6 . 0 - 6 . 6 ' 5 . 0 ' x 6 . 0 - 6 . 6 ' 2.0* x 6 . 0 - 6 . 6 ' 3 . 9 ' Large r i v e r c o b b l e s p l a c e d on edge i n a n o r t h - s o u t h l i n e a r con-f i g u r a t i o n . Appears t o l i n e an e l o n g a t e h e a r t h o f which Fea-t u r e 30 i s one p o r t i o n . A l a r g e h e a r t h f e a t u r e l y i n g d i r e c t l y under the h e a r t h d e s i g n a t e d F e a t u r e 2 2 . Large c o b b l e s , dense c h a r -c o a l and a s h . A s s o c i -a t e d w i t h a l i n e a r c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f c o b b l e s , F e a t u r e 3 3 . A c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f r i v e r c o b b l e s o r i e n -t e d i n a n o r t h - s o u t h d i r e c t i o n a c r o s s the u n i t . P erhaps a s s o -c i a t e d w i t h F e a t u r e 3 2 . T h i s s e r i e s o f edge mounted c o b b l e s a l s o has a n o r t h - s o u t h o r i e n -t a t i o n . Arrangement o f r i v e r p e b b l e s , some f r a c t u r e d TABLE V (Continued) Feature Number Type of Feature Unit Location Dimen-sions Depth Below 97 Feet Description 36 l i n e a r arrangement of cobbles (2) 37 stake moulds (13) 38 hearth S 0-15 , W 0-10 s 0-15 w o-io' s 0-15 w o-io' Extend from S 0 - 1 5 ' with series following a l i n e 3 - 4 W and 6 -8 W. 1 5 . 0 x 1 . 0 - 2 . 0 Thirteen stake moulds appear be- t tween 2 . 6 - 3 . 5 below 9 7 ' . See Figure 12. S 7 . 0 - 8 . 8 ' W 6 . 4 - 8 . 3 ' 1 . 8 ' 1 . 9 ' from heat} dense char-coal and ash. This feature l i e s between two rows of cobbles mounted on edge (Fig-ure 3 6 ) . See photograph i n Figure 17, of Feature 35 i n Zone B. 3 . I - 3 . 7 ' F l a t r i v e r cobbles placed on edge leaning away from hearth pro-per. These two rows were exposed oyer a distance of 15 . Con-centrations of rock within the rows seem to be situated at i n -terv a l s i n the feature. The dense charcoal s t a i n i s continuous. See Figure 17 f o r Fea-ture 36 of Zone B. 2 . 6 - 3 . 5 ' The stake moulds cl u s -t e r around two hearth features ( 3 6 , 3 9 ) . , They intrude 1 . 0 - 1 . 4 into the surrounding matrix. 3 . 4 - 3 . 5 ' C i r c u l a r arrangement of pebbles, some with TABLE V (Continued) Feature .Type of Number Feature Unit Location Dimen-sions Depth Below 97 Feet Description 39 hearth 40 hearth 41 hearth 42 stake mould (1) s 0-15 w o-io' S 0-10 w o- 5' s o-io w 45-55' s o-io w 45-55' S 6 . 5 - 8 . 0 ' W 9 . 2 - 1 0 . 0 * S 1 . 5 - 2 . 8 , W 3 . 2 - 4 . 7 S 7 . 3 - 8 . 9 W 5^.1-55 S 9 . 6 ' W 5 4 . 3 ' 1.5 2 . 6 ' . 9 ' 3 . 5 ' x 4 . 8 - 5 . 1 ' 3 . 6 5 ' 3 . 6 5 ' evidence of heat f r a c -ture; charcoal and ash concentration. Only p a r t i a l l y exposed. Appears to be well de-fined c i r c u l a r hearth. Dense charcoal and ash surrounded by r i v e r pebbles. This feature appears to be associa-ted with the c l u s t e r of stake moulds des-cribed i n Feature 37. Well defined hearth. Arrangement of pebbles, dense charcoal and ash. This feature l i e s with-i n the elongate hearth s t a i n . Only p a r t i a l l y exposed. C i r c u l a r hearth feature with r i v e r pebbles, dense charcoal and ash. Possibly associated with hearth (Feature 41). Depth 1 . 6 ' . 98 F i g u r e 12 H o r i z o n t a l D i s t r i b u t i o n of C u l t u r a l Features i n Flood. P l a i n Deposits 30 40 J 30 20 I I " DiRjJ H O R I Z O N T A L D I S T R I B U T I O N O F C U L T U R A L — F E A T U R E S IN F L O O D P L A I N D E P O S I T S ( Z O N E B) " KEY: — ® S T A K E M O L D 0 F E E T D E P T H S A R E B E L O W 9 O l c " ^ I INDICATES RELATIVE D A T U M P L A N E X (DEPTH O F ROCK C O N F I G U R A T I O N S f°°° H E A R T H 20 L I N E A R A R R A N G E M E N T O F C O B B L E S — . J 8.W.4-4.6') / 4 BALK JO 5 O U T H 3.(3.6')-r A(4.2-1.5) 2. (4.2-4.5'; 6.(5.4-6.0') n 1 40 !,-$ 7.(5.6') a. 4.(5.6') P \ I £ 5(5-6'' n — r 3 0 E —* PITHOUSE NO. 2 EAST W E S T 99 Zone B. F i g u r e 1 3 . Feature 16: Rock oven? Only one-half shown i n photograph. (s 2 0 - 3 0 ' , w 5 - 1 5 ' ) Cobbles arranged i n c o n c e n t r i c c i r c l e s p l a c e d on edge. Rock oven? D i v i d e d i n h a l f by l a r g e cobbles on r i g h t of photograph. Feature has a f i g u r e e i g h t o u t l i n e . 100 Zone B. F i g u r e 14. Photograph shows f e a t u r e s at d i f f e r e n t depths i n Zone B. Top: Feature 35 - hearth ( 3 . 9 * below 9 ? ' ) Feature J6 - l i n e a r cobbles Middle: Feature 30 - hearth (6.2' below 97') Feature 31 - l i n e a r cobbles Bottom l e f t : P o r t i o n of rock over Feature 16 (14 .3*-4.8' below 97') 101 Zone B Figure 15. Photograph shows t r u n c a t i o n of Zone B c u l t u r a l and g e o l o g i c a l l a y e r s by Zone A Pithouse deposit. (South w a l l of u n i t West i o ' - 2 0 ' ; South 2 0 ' w a l l ) . Figure 16. Feature 2 2 : hearth (upper l e f t ) Feature 2 3 : l i n e a r arrangement of cobbles 102 Zone B. F i g u r e 1 7 . , Showing north w a l l of u n i t 0 - 1 0 West and 0 . 0 South. Feature 3 5 ' s t r a t i f i e d h e a r t h Feature 3 6 : l i n e a r arrangement of cobbles Feature 37s two stake moulds (on lower r i g h t ) 103 Zone B. Figure 18. Shows i n t e r f a c e pf Zone A and Zone B along center of u n i t (S 0 -10 , W 45'-55'), west rim of Pithouse Number 1. Feature 41: hearth Feature 42: stake mould (P) 104 Three additional units were excavated which do not appear on the map showing the horizontal d i s t r i b u t i o n of Zone A and Zone B features. Two units were excavated away from the pithouse area for str a t i g r a p h i c comparison. Unit 6o'-70' South, 15*-20' West (secondary baseline) l i e s only a short distance toward the r i v e r from Pithouse 1 and 2. This unit was found to be completely s t e r i l e . The stratigraphy of t h i s unit consisted of bands of f l u v i a l sediments of var-ious degrees of coarseness; no charcoal stained layers were found. In unit 3 4 4 ' - 3 5 0 ' South, 90'-96' East (primary base-li n e ) several thin bands of charcoal were recorded i n the p r o f i l e and charcoal samples were taken. The t h i r d unit was located on the pithouse rim between Pithouses designated 3 and 4 on the north side of the C.P.R. tracks. The coordinates of t h i s unit were 6o ' -70' North, 180'-190' East (secondary baseline). This unit was excavated only two complete l e v e l s into the pithouse deposit and no r e a d i l y discernible s t r a t i -graphy was observed. The loc a t i o n of these three p i t s along with the backhoe test p i t s are drawn on the contour map of the s i t e (Map 3 ) . CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS OF CULTURAL MATERIALS The Artefact Sample The sample of sytematically excavated artefacts recovered from the Katz s i t e consists of 3,184 specimens; 2,698 from the mixed pithouse deposit designated Zone A, and 486 from the e a r l i e r f l u v i a l deposit designated Zone B. In addition to the systematically excavated artefacts, the analysis here includes a number of selected categories of artefacts recovered from the disturbed surface of the s i t e and from the backhoe test p i t s . Due to l i m i t a t i o n s i n time and manpower i t was not possible to analyse a l l of the surface and backhoe mater-i a l s which together with the Zone A and B assemblages t o t a l approximately 7 , 0 0 0 items. For the same reasons no attempt was made to analyse the detritus from the s i t e , estimated to consist of about 7 5 , 0 0 0 pieces. The l i t h i c a r t e f a c t s selected f o r analysis from the sur-face and backhoe samples were those t o o l categories possessing the greatest number of d i s t i n c t i v e a ttributes and considered most useful f o r i n t e r s i t e comparisons when comparable data are at hand. These t o o l categories include chipped stone points, formed bifaces and unifaces, ground stone tools, and pecked and ground stone t o o l s . The surface and backhoe materials 105 106 omitted from the analysis were the cortex s p a l l tools, cores and core tools, unformed unifaces, abrasives and pebble t o o l s . A f u l l inventory of the c u l t u r a l material analysed i n t h i s study i s presented on the artefact summary sheets at the end of t h i s chapter. Tool categories which were omitted from the analysis are indicated by the symbol N/A, i . e . , not applicable. Methodology The analysis undertaken i n t h i s study consists of three approaches! (1) the grouping of artefacts on the basis of shared formal attributes (discrete and continuous) (2) the grouping of artefacts on the basis of shared functional a t t r i b u t e s (edge damage, character of the working edge, and/or infer r e d use) (3) technological analysis focusing on the materials u t i l i z e d and the manufacturing processes involved i n the various l i t h i c i n d ustries. The analysis of certa i n artefact categories, for example, cor-tex s p a l l tools, core-tools, and adze blades, involved a l l three approaches. In other cases, e.g., formed bifaces, the a n a l y s i s i s p r i m a r i l y d e s c r i p t i v e of formal attributes; no attempt was made to determine edge wear patterns or to recon-struct the stages of manufacture. Such analyses were (con-sidered) beyond the scope of t h i s report. In the f i r s t approach, i . e . , grouping of artefacts on the basis of shared discrete and continuous attributes, the entire assemblage subjected to analysis was divided into a number of major categories which were both formal and techno-l o g i c a l i n character, e.g., chipped stone tools, ground stone 107 t o o l s , pecked and ground t o o l s , bone t o o l s , e t c . Further s u b d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n these cat e g o r i e s y i e l d e d smaller a n a l y t i c u n i t s or " c l a s s e s " . For example, the chipped stone category was subdivided i n t o a b i f a c i a l s e r i e s which included chipped stone p o i n t s , formed b i f a c e s and unformed b i f a c e s , and a u n i f a c i a l s e r i e s which in c l u d e d formed u n i f a c e s , unformed u n i f a c e s , cortex s p a l l t o o l s , e t c . Wi t h i n these " c l a s s e s " , groupings were e s t a b l i s h e d on the b a s i s of s e l e c t e d a t t r i b u t e s judged by the author to be appropriate f o r the d e s c r i p t i o n of the specimens under observation and which might be p r o f i t a b l y employed f o r i n t e r s i t e comparisons and r e g i o n a l s t u d i e s when comparable data become a v a i l a b l e . The a t t r i b u t e s s e l e c t e d f o r use i n the a n a l y s i s of each t o o l category are s t a t e d i n each d e s c r i p t i v e s e c t i o n and i n the t a b u l a r p r e s e n t a t i o n of each group. An attempt was made i n the a n a l y s i s to s e l e c t a t t r i b u t e s which may e v e n t u a l l y prove u s e f u l i n t e s t i n g c e r t a i n hypotheses already advanced as a r e s u l t of previous research. For example, most of the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l work conducted i n B r i t i s h Columbia to date has been concerned p r i m a r i l y with the development of " l o c a l sequences" ( W i l l e y and P h i l l i p s , 1963: 24 - 2 5 ) . The f i r s t appearance i n time of c e r t a i n l i t h i c i n d u s t r i e s (e.g. ground nephrite) and t o o l forms and s t y l e s of s e l e c t e d a r t e -f a c t c a t e g o r i e s (e.g., chipped stone p o i n t s ) , have been used e x t e n s i v e l y as h o r i z o n markers. Borden (1968: 14-16) found tha t stemmed p o i n t s make t h e i r appearance i n the Fraser Canyon during the "Eayem Phase" (ca. 3 5 0 0 - 1 5 0 0 B.C.), that a r e d u c t i o n 108 i n point size i n the "Baldwin Phase" may mark the introduction of the bow and arrow, and the " . . . diagonally corner-notched triangular p r o j e c t i l e points, that i s , barbed arrowheads with expanding stems . . ." are associated with the advent of p i t -houses i n the "Skamel Phase" (ca. 350 B.C.-200 A.D.), a c u l -t u r a l phase assumed to be intrusive with an i n t e r i o r rather than a coastal o r i g i n . With t h i s reliance on chipped stone point forms as diagnostic culture t r a i t s i n the " l o c a l sequen-ces" of the area and the fact that these tools have been used along with other a r t e f a c t u a l remains to suggest changes i n subsistence a c t i v i t i e s as well as population migration into the lower Fraser River region, i t follows that t h i s class of l i t h i c tools warrants a thorough analysis. The two radiocarbon determinations from the Zone B deposit at Katz and the single date from Pithouse Number 1 a l l f a l l within the "Baldwin Phase" time period of the Fraser Canyon. However, the presence of pithouses, diagonally corner-notched triangular p r o j e c t i l e points, and an array of small crypto-c r y s t a l l i n e tools which have been used to characterize the "Skamel Phase" i n the canyon are dated at Katz somewhat e a r l i e r . I f the hypothesis advanced by Borden, that the end of the Baldwin phase i s accompanied by an "abrupt" c u l t u r a l change i s to be tested archaeologically and on a regional basis, knowledge of the v a r i a b i l i t y i n chipped stone point forms and t h e i r frequency of occurrence i n the archaeological s i t e s i n the area w i l l be important. Whether future researchers adopt an exhaustive descriptive approach of the kind suggested by 109 Binford (1963) or an e n t i r e l y metric approach of the type suggested by Thomas ( 1 9 7 0 ) , s i t e reports which contain refined a r t e f a c t descriptions w i l l be of the greatest u t i l i t y . The presentation of raw metric data i s emphasized i n t h i s report so that information on the v a r i a b i l i t y i n dimensions of tools such as the chipped stone points i n the Katz sample can eventually be used i n t e s t i n g Borden's hypotheses r e l a t i n g to changes i n size of points and subsistence technology during the f i r s t millennium B.C. The second analytic approach i s that of grouping artefacts according to functional a t t r i b u t e s . Parsons ( 1972: 146) argues that, The a b i l i t y to i n f e r the function of artefacts and artefact classes of a l l kinds (e.g., tools, structures, s i t e s ) i s perhaps the most fundamen-t a l problem within settlement pattern archaeology. Upon t h i s rests the whole u t i l i t y of the s e t t l e -ment system concept. Through an examination of edge damage and wear patterns present on artefacts i n a number of t o o l categories i n the Katz sample, an e f f o r t was made to make functional inferences and determine the nature of certain a c t i v i t i e s carried out at the s i t e . One of the t o o l categories analysed on the basis of edge damage and wear patterns (Semenov, 1964; Nance, 1970, 1971 ; Wilmsen, 1968) was the cortex s p a l l t ool category. Coulson (1971: 22) has suggested, on the basis of a sample of cortex s p a l l tools from the L i l l o o e t v i c i n i t y , that wear patterns i n evidence indicate a scraping function, perhaps i n the deflesh-ing or dehairing of h i d e s — a function proposed e a r l i e r by H.I. 110 Smith (1899: 147). I t seems u n l i k e l y that t h i s functional inference could account f o r the tremendous numbers of cortex s p a l l tools found at the Katz s i t e . In the functional analysis of the cortex s p a l l tools from Katz, two analytic techniques were employed i n an e f f o r t to determine the function or functions these tools served. The f i r s t consisted of coding the Zone B sample of cortex s p a l l tools (124 complete specimens) on a l i s t of 22 a t t r i b u t e s . The attributes l i s t recorded the following c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : (1) the position of the bulb of percussion i n r e l a t i o n to the position of the working edge, (2) the shape of the working edge, (3) the kind and degree of modification of the working edge (use retouch, polish, secondary f l a k i n g , etc.), and (4) metric attributes of length, width, and thickness. A non-metric multivariate technique, Smallest Space Analysis (Guttman, 1968), was used to c l u s t e r the population elements (cortex spalls) on the basis of shared a t t r i b u t e s . This pro-cedure did not prove to be successful; the tools clustered primarily on the basis of continuous attributes with functional attributes cross-cutting these groupings. The second technique employed was primarily i n t u i t i v e with groupings established on the basis of the kind, degree and position of edge wear. This technique proved to be more f r u i t f u l and several functional inferences were made on the basis of r e a d i l y observable wear on the edges of these tools (see cortex s p a l l tools, Chapter IV). Edge wear analysis also was carried out on core-tools, unformed unifaces and tools i n I l l the formed uniface category, primarily formed unifaces with retouched projections (Group 5)» i n an e f f o r t to determine function. I t was f e l t that technological analysis, the t h i r d approach used i n t h i s study, could provide important informa-t i o n i n a number of areas of int e r e s t to archaeologists. For example, artefact typologies are constructed with the intent of discovering " h i s t o r i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t " units (Rouse, 1939» I960; Krieger, 1956) f o r synchronic and diachronic comparisons of c u l t u r a l materials. Typological analysis assumes that observed tools are complete or fini s h e d forms representing the intended forms of the artisans who produced them. The recovery of evidence pertaining to the manufacture of tools can be used to test the assumptions underlying typological analysis. Technological analysis allows observations to be made at various stages of to o l manufacture, i n other words, to determine "procedural modes" (Rouse, I960: 3 1 5 ) . For example, i n her analysis of cortex s p a l l tools, Coulson (1971) in f e r s the method by which s p a l l tools were detached from cores by noting the pos i t i o n of the bulb of percussion i n r e l a t i o n to the long axis of the tools, e.g., end struck, . side struck, etc. The analysis of the cortex s p a l l cores at Katz indicates that an elongate r i v e r pebble struck on the end does not necessarily produce an elongate cortex s p a l l t o o l with the bulb of percussion on the end. In other words, her typology i s acceptable as long as i t i s made clear that the term "end struck" describes the position of the bulb of 112 percussion i n r e l a t i o n to the long axis of the tool and not the method of flake detachment which could imply a decision or a "procedural mode" on the part of the ar t i s a n to achieve a desired form of t o o l . Technological analysis i n t h i s study has been used to shed l i g h t on the manufacture of cortex s p a l l tools, core-tools and ground stone tools, p a r t i c u l a r l y of nephrite. The rationale f o r the use of technological reconstruction of these t o o l categories i s that i t r e l a t e s to broad questions of concern to archaeologists, assumptions made i n typological analysis, functional inference, the a c q u i s i t i o n of raw mater-i a l s , and trade. The l a t t e r applies p a r t i c u l a r l y to the ground nephrite industry which has been prominent i n the lower Fraser Canyon fo r three millennia (Borden, 1968: 15). The Katz s i t e , with easy access to nephrite boulders i n the gravel i n the lower Fraser canyon and along the Coquihalla River (Holland, 1961s 120), had a f l o u r i s h i n g nephrite industry. This s i t e could possibly have supplied people from downriver and adjacent areas with adze blades and c h i s e l s . The absence or paucity of nephrite d e t r i t u s from coastal s i t e s suggests that either nephrite tools were traded out i n fini s h e d forms from locations such as the Katz s i t e or were manufactures at the s i t e by v i s i t o r s from downriver p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the salmon f i s h e r y . The large sample of ground nephrite recovered from the Katz s i t e has provided important information on the manufacture of these tools, from the i n i t i a l s e l e ction of raw material through the various stages of manufacture, and on the d i f f e r e n t 113 techniques employed i n manufacture. An attempt has been made i n the analysis of the Katz material to select a t t r i b u t e s (1) which w i l l provide the kind of information necessary f o r the te s t i n g of hypotheses pre-viously advanced r e l a t i n g to the prehistory of the lower Fraser River region, and (2) which can be used to make i n f e r -ences about the nature of the a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d out at the s i t e . An endeavour has also been made to make e x p l i c i t the pr i n c i p l e s upon which the artefact categories and artefact groupings have been established, and whenever possible, to provide the attribute v a r i a t i o n within the groupings presented i n tabular form. Many of the data provided i n the artefact analysis are not used i n t h i s thesis f o r i n t e r s i t e comparisons because as yet there i s a paucity of comparable data ava i l a b l e . I am hopeful that the method by which the data are presented w i l l prove to be appropriate f o r use i n future i n t e r s i t e comparisons. 114 Chipped Stone Points Introduction The category chipped stone points, as conceived here, includes the stone implements which s a t i s f y the following three conditions: (1) the specimen i s b i f a c i a l l y flaked (2) the l a t e r a l edges converge (or can be extrapolated to converge) to a point on at l e a s t one end (3) the specimen shows evidence opposite the pointed end of deliberate modification i n the form of notching, stemming, basal thinning, or bipointing, which could f a c i l i t a t e h afting. As Sanger ( 1 9 7 0 : 36) has noted, a l l such implements may not necessarily have been used to arm darts or arrows. Some may have functioned as hafted knives, e s p e c i a l l y the f o l i a t e forms. And conversely, some other specimens grouped as formed bifaces may have functioned as p r o j e c t i l e points. Perhaps a systematic microscopic analysis of the edge damage of the kind carried out by Semenov (1964) and Nance (1970) on other classes of stone artefacts would enable researchers to make functional d i s t i n c t i o n s within these categories on a firmer basis. The chipped stone point groupings were established on the basis of shared a t t r i b u t e s . Unstemmed points which have r e l a t i v e l y few discrete a t t r i b u t e s , compared with stemmed and notched v a r i e t i e s , were grouped on the basis of o v e r a l l form 115 and si z e . The attribute l i s t f o r the stemmed and notched points was drawn primarily from the work of Sanger ( 1 9 7 0 ) , with the notching form attr i b u t e s from Binford ( 1963)« The attri b u t e s which characterize each group are stated i n each descriptive section and a matrix showing the va r i a t i o n i n other attributes within each group i s presented i n Appendix 2 . 116 Unstemmed Points This macrogroup, which includes Groups One through Four, i s comprised of points without shoulders or notches. Lacking a c l e a r l y defined haft element (Binford, 1 9 6 3 : 1 9 7 ) , these points are morphologically simple with few discrete a t t r i -butes. An analysis of the technical a t t r i b u t e s of these points ( i . e . , size, depth, placement and types of flake scars), although useful f o r comparative purposes, i s beyond the scope of t h i s study. Groupings presented here are based on d i s -crete attributes of geometric form and metric attributes of length, width, and thickness. In specimens with convex or straight bases widths of base measurements are also included. The four groups established within the macrogrouping "Unstemmed Points" are as follows: Group 1: Large Leaf-Shaped Group 2: Medium to Small Leaf-Shaped Group 3 : Small, Broad Leaf-Shaped With Straight Bases Group 4: Large Triangular Points or Preforms Group 1: Large Leaf-Shaped Number of Specimens: 3 (Figure 19 , a-c, Table VI) General Description: These leaf-shaped points are notably larger than the other unstemmed leaf-shaped points. With a length range of 80 to 82 mm., these points are approximately 20 mm. longer than the Group 2 specimens. Blade Form: A l l three points are excurvate i n outline with the edges describing convex l i n e s between the proximal 117 and d i s t a l points of the p r o j e c t i l e . One specimen (number 3 2 6 , Surface) has the point of maximum width i n the proximal one-third of the ar t e f a c t . The two remaining specimens (numbers 8391 and 1 0 3 9 0 , Zone A) are widest i n the middle one-third. Blade Cross-Section: (Observed at mid-point) A l l three specimens are biconvex ( l e n t i c u l a r ) i n cross-section. Base Form: Specimen 326 (Surface) has a convex or slightly-rounded base, specimen 8391 (Zone A) has a s l i g h t l y oblique base, and on specimen IO390 (Zone A) the base i s broken. TABLE VI Metric Attributes of Group 1 Points General Location Zone A Surface Range Artefact Numbers 8391 IO39O 326 Width of Base (mm.) 10 N 12 10-12 mm Maximum Width (mm.) 29 20 26 20-29 mm Axial Length (mm.) 82 N(80) 80 80-82 mm Thickness (mm.) 11 7 11 7-11 mm Weight (grams) 24 .23 N 22.56 22.56-24.23 N - No Information N( ) - Estimated Measurement Material: 3 basalt General Provenience: Zone A - 2 Zone B - 0 Surface - 1 Backhoe Test P i t - 0 118 Group 2: Medium to Small Leaf-Shaped Number of Specimens: 18 (Figure 19, d-q, Table VII) General Description: These points are leaf-shaped without stems or notches; they f a l l within a length range of 37-61 mm • Blade Form: Most specimens are generally excurvate and widest i n the middle one-third of the ar t e f a c t . A few have t h e i r maximum width nearer the proximal (basal) end. Blade Cross-Section: Fourteen points i n t h i s subgroup are biconvex i n cross-section, the remaining 4 are planoconvex. Base Form: Some of these specimens are bipointed with the s l i g h t l y wider end assumed to be the proximal or hafted end. Other points have convex, s l i g h t l y concave, oblique, or narrow but straight bases. Group 3: Small, Broad Leaf-Shaped With Straight Bases Number of Specimens: 11 (Figure 20, a - i , Table VIII) General Description: These points are small, broad and straight based without stems or notches. Blade Form: These specimens have excurvate blade forms. Some are widest i n the middle one-third of the artefact; others are widest nearer the proximal one-third. Blade Cross-Section: There are points with biconvex (4), biplano (2), and plano-convex (4) cross-sections represented i n t h i s group. Base Form: Eight of the ten specimens are straight based while the remaining two have s l i g h t l y oblique bases. TABLE VII Metric Attributes of Group 2 s Medium to Small Leaf-Shaped General Location Zone A Zone B Artefact Number 7686 9152 9132 3214 7650 6887 7451 10392 10487 Width of Base (mm.) N 10 N 11 11 N N N N Maximum Width (mm.) 26 23 17 19 19 19 23 21 17 A x i a l Length (mm.) 61 60 53 45 48 45 56 52 ^7 Thickness (mm.) 10 11 9 8 8 6 9 8 7 Weight (gm.) 14.18 1 3 . 5 8 7 . 7 3 6 . 1 3 8 . 0 7 4 . 7 5 1 0 . 6 5 7 . 6 3 4 . 6 5 General Location Surface Backhoe Test P i t Range Artefact Number 309 K 348 5012 5186 12290 12992 12106 13071 Width of Base (pan*) N 9 6 N 5 12 5 N N 5-12 mm. Maximum Width (pirn.) 19 20 14 16 12 25 20 20 17 12-26 mm. Ax i a l Length (jnm.) 57 55 50 41 N 54 52 N 45 37-61 mm. Thickness (mm.) 9 7 7 7 5 9 11 7 6 5-11 mm. Weight (gm.) 8 . 7 2 7 . 0 1 5 . 8 6 4 . 4 4 1 . 8 8 11.48 1 0 . 1 8 . 5 3 5 . 7 1 1 . 9 - 1 1 . 5 gm. N - No Information Materials 11 basalt 1 quartzite (number 7 6 8 6 ; Zone A) 6 c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e s i l i c a General Proveniences Zone A - 6 Zone B - 3 Surface - 5 Backhoe Test P i t - 4 TABLE VIII Metric Attributes of Group 3: Small, Broad Leaf-Shaped With Straight Bases General Location Zone A Artefact Number 3 1 9 5 6 3 5 9 8233 6 3 2 7 7 5 3 7 8 7 8 4 1 0 6 1 4 9 0 0 4 Width of Base (mm.) 6 6 7 9 8 1 1 10 12 Maximum Width (mm.) 15 13 19 20 20 16 18 16 A x i a l Length (mm.) 32 30 3 3 31 3 3 3 3 29 31 Thickness Onm.) 4 3 5 8 6 6 5 6 Weight (gm.) I . 8 3 1 . 3 4 3 . 5 1 4 . 5 7 3 . 7 0 2 . 9 7 2 . 7 1 3 . 0 1 General Location Zone B Surface Backhoe Test P i t Range Artefact Number IO3I6 973 12605 Width of Base (mm.) 9 1 4 11 6 - 1 4 mm. Maximum Width (pirn,) 9 17 1 4 1 3 - 2 0 mm. Ax i a l Length (mm.) 19 30 34 1 9 - 3 4 mm. Thickness (mm.) 4 6 5 3 - 8 mm. Weight (gm.) 0 . 7 2 3 . 0 9 2 . 1 6 . 7 2 - 4 . 5 7 gm. Material: 8 basalt 2 c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e s i l i c a General Provenience: Zone A - 8 Zone B - 1 Surface - 1 Backhoe Test P i t - 1 121 Group 4: Large Triangular Unstemmed Points or Preforms Number of Specimens! 4 (Figure 20, j-m, Table IX) General Description: These points or preforms are symmetri-c a l l y or asymmetrically triangular i n o v e r a l l outline. They are very s i m i l a r i n form to the corner notched Group 12 or basally notched Group 14 barbed points without notching. Per-haps these specimens represent a stage i n the manufacturing process of notched and/or barbed p r o j e c t i l e points. Blade Form: Triangular (asymmetrical or symmetrical) Blade Cross-Section: Biconvex ( 3 ) , piano convex(l). Base Outline: Straight i n a l l four specimens. TABLE IX Metric Attributes of Group 4: Large Triangular Unstemmed Points or Preforms General Location Backhoe Zone A Surface Test P i t Range Artefact Number 8852 7093 003 12246 Width of Base (pirn,) 30 40 27 34 27-40 mm. Maximum Width (mm.) 30 40 27 34 27-40 mm. Axial Length (pan*) 68 N 53 N 53-68 mm. Thickness (mm.) 8 8 6 6 6- 8 mm. Weight (gm.) 16.65 N 8.53 N 8.53-16.65 gm. N - No Information Material: 4 basalt General Provenience: Zone A - 2 Zone B - 0 Surface - 1 Backhoe Test P i t - 1 122 Stemmed P r o j e c t i l e Points Single Shouldered Points These points are characterized by one c l e a r l y defined shoulder. The edge opposite the shouldered edge describes a convex l i n e from the t i p of the blade to the base. The stem, or tang form, which i s produced as a r e s u l t of the s i n -gle shoulder, i s generally contracting and asymmetric i n out-l i n e . Unlike the points of Groups 1 through k, these points have a haft element which i s distinguishable from the blade element of the a r t e f a c t . This increase i n morphological complexity allows a greater number of observations to be made. For the f u l l a t t r i b u t e l i s t , including the single shouldered points of Groups 5 and 6, see Appendix 2. The single shouldered points have been divided into two groups: Group 5, Large Single-Shouldered, and Group 6, Small Single-Shouldered. Group 5 ! Large Single-Shouldered Number of Specimens: 3 (Figure 20, n-o, s, Table X). General Description: These points have a single shoulder somewhere within the proximal one-third of the artefact, and an a x i a l length range of 73 to 98 mm. Blade Form: Two specimens have asymmetrically excurvate blade edges whereas one (number 991? Surface) approximates a triangular outline. A l l three specimens have a rounded shoulder. Blade Cross-Section: Two specimens are biconvex and one i s 123 biplane- i n cross-section. The point having the biplano cross-section (number 9 6 8 ) i s based on a flake which has been b i f a c i a l l y retouched only marginally. Stem Form: A l l specimens have asymmetric stems which contract proximally. Base Form: S l i g h t l y pointed (number 991» Surface), Convex (number 6 4 4 8 , Zone B), and Straight (number 9 6 8 , Surface). TABLE X Metric Attributes of Group 5: Large Single-Shouldered General Location Zone B Surface Range Artefact Number 6 4 4 8 9 9 1 968 Width of Base 14 5 10 5 - 1 4 mm. Width of Tang 17 2 4 19 1 7 - 2 4 mm. Width of Shoulder 25 32 27 2 5 - 3 2 mm. Width of Blade 28 33 30 2 8 - 3 3 mm. Axial Length 73 98 73 7 3 - 9 8 mm. Length of Tang 12 26 18 1 2 - 2 6 mm. Length of Blade 6 1 72 55 55-72 mm. Thickness 1 1 1 1 7 7 - 1 1 mm. Weight 2 0 . 5 2 3 1 . 1 9 1 7 . 1 7 1 7 . 1 7 - 2 0 . 5 2 gm. Material: 3 basalt General Provenience: Zone A - 0 Zone B - 1 Surface - 2 Group 6 : Small Single-Shouldered Number of Specimens: 3 (Figure 2 0 , p-r, Table XI) General Description: Single shouldered points with an ax i a l length range of 35 to 37 mm. 124 Blade Form: This group includes both symmetrically and asymmetrically excurvate examples. Blade Cross-Section: Two specimens are biplano (numbers 8333 and 8 8 1 5 , Zone A) and the t h i r d (number 3 3 6 , Surface) i s plano-convex i n cross-section. Stem Form: A l l are asymmetric and contracting i n outline. Base Form: The bases of the three specimens are narrow and straight with l i t t l e evidence of preparation. TABLE XI Metric Attributes of Group 6 : Small Single-Shouldered General Location Artefact Number Zone 8333 A 8815 Surface 336 Range Width of Base 8 6 4 4- 8 mm. Width of Tang 12 11 12 11-12 mm. Width of Shoulder 18 16 14 14-18 mm. Maximum Width 20 17 17 17-20 mm. Axia l Length 36 W 35 37 3 5 - 3 7 mm. Length of Tang 10 11 10 10-11 mm. Length of Blade 25 N 27 2 5 - 2 7 mm. Thickness 4 4 6 4- 6 mm. Weight 2 . 5 8 2 . 6 3 4 . 2 7 2 . 5 8-4 . 2 7 gm N - No Information (H) - Estimated measurement Material: 2 basalt 1 quartzite (number 336) General Provenience: Zone A - 2 Zone B - 0 Surface - 1 125 Group 7: Corner-Removed, Contracting Stem, No Barbs (narrow, thick, excurvate blade) Number of Specimens: 8 (Figure 2 1 , a-g, Table XII) General Description: The p r o j e c t i l e points i n t h i s group have blades which are narrow and r e l a t i v e l y thick i n cross-section. The shoulders are generally rounded or obtuse-c i r c u l a r (Binford, 1 9 6 3 ) . Blade Form: Most of these specimens have excurvate blade outlines with the edges describing convex l i n e s from the shoulder ( d i s t a l juncture of the haft element) to the blade t i p . Symmetrical and asymmetrical examples are present i n the subgrouping. Blade Cross-Section: A l l these points have a biconvex cross-section observed at the mid-point of the blade. Stem Form: Contracting i n a l l cases. Base Form: Various base shapes i n evidence, e.g., convex, straight, etc. See Appendix 2 . Group 8 : Corner-Removed, Contracting Stem, No Barbs (broad, thin, excurvate blade) Number of Specimens: 13 (Figure 2 1 , h-q, Table XIII) General Description: These points are r e l a t i v e l y broad and t h i n with contracting stems, rounded shoulders and excur-vate (excurvate-incurvate) blade outlines. Blade Form: The blade edges are excurvate i n most specimens. Two points, however, have convex edges which cons t r i c t near the d i s t a l end of the p r o j e c t i l e forming a recurved outline (numbers 10202 and 8 ^ 3 0 , Zone A). TABLE XII Metric Attributes of Group 7: Corner-Removed, Contracting Stem, No Barbs (narrow, thick, excurvate blade) General Location Zone « A Zone B Surface Range Artefact Number 9495 3040 IO368 9362 7934 6862 976 974 Width of Base 8 4 7 6 9 8 11 16 4-16 mm. Width of Tang 15 8 9 11 13 15 15 17 8-17 mm. Width of Shoulder 18 15 17 17 22 25 21 22 1 7 - 2 5 mm. Maximum Width 19 16 17 18 22 25 (Iv 24 23 16-25 mm. Axia l Length 44 41 41 39 62 N 70 53 3 9 - 7 0 mm. Length of Tang 14 10 11 9 10 13 14 12 9-14 mm. Length of Blade 30 31 30 30 52 N 56 41 30-56 mm. Thickness 9 6 6 8 9 9 7 8 6 - 9 mm. Weight 6 . 6 8 5 3.62 3 - 6 2 5 5 . 3 8 1 1 . 7 2 6 . 7 8 1 2 . 4 7 9 . 6 8 3.62 -12 .47 gm. N - No Information (N) - Estimated Measurement Material: 8 basalt General Provenience: Zone A - 4 Zone B - 2 Surface - 2 TABLE X I I I M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s of Group 81 Corner-Removed, C o n t r a c t i n g Stem, No Barbs (Broad, t h i n , excurvate blade) General L o c a t i o n Zone A Zone B A r t e f a c t Number 9053 9400 7998 3143 9111 10202 10237 Width of Base . 10 10 N 10 N 10 5 Width of Tang 14 12 14 12 11 23 7 Width of Shoulder 22 21 21 18 18 28 13 Maximum Width 24 23 24 20 19 29 15 A x i a l Length 46 41 45(N) 32 27(N) 57 36 Length of Tang 13 9 N 7 N 15 9 Length of Blade 33 32 38 25 22 42 27 Thickness 7 7 6 5 3 5 4 Weight 5.88 5 . 7 3 5 . 8 9 3 . 3 0 1.41 2 . 4 0 1 .72 General L o c a t i o n Surface Backhoe Test P i t Range A r t e f a c t Number 975 5368 970 12768 13422 «• Width of Base 12 18 6 10 7 5-18 mm. Width of Tang 15 19 9 11 11 7-23 mm. Width of Shoulder 23 25 17 18 14 13-28 mm. Maximum Width 24 27 18 19 15 15-29 mm. A x i a l Length 48 50 35 N 29 2 7 - 5 7 mm. Length of Tang 7 11 N 13 10 7-15 mm. Length of Blade 41 39 30 ,N 19 19-42 mm. Thickness 8 6 4 4 4 3 - 8 mm. Weight 9.08 9 . 2 3 2 . 7 8 N 1.82 1.41 -9 .23 gm. N - No Information (N)- Estimated Measurement M a t e r i a l : 13 b a s a l t General Provenience: Zone A - 7, Zone B - 1 Surface - 3 , Backhoe Test P i t - 2 128 Blade Cross-Section: More plano-convex and biplano cross-sections i n t h i s subgroup than biconvex. These points appear to have been based on th i n flakes, some receiving only mar-gin a l retouching. Stem Form: Contracting i n a l l cases. Base Form: Straight, convex and oblique a l l represented. See Appendix 2. Group 9* Corner-Removed, Contracting Stems, No Barbs (triangular blade) Number of Specimens: 16 (Figure 21, r-u, Table XIV) General Description: These points have contracting stems and blades which are triangular i n outline. The f l a k i n g pattern on some of these points i s extremely random and i r r e g u l a r . This may be due i n part to the coarseness of the basalt. Some of these points may be unfinished or r e j e c t s . Blade Form: The attribute which characterizes t h i s group i s a somewhat triangular blade outline. Most of these points, however, do not have st r a i g h t blade edges but are often asymmetric and approximate t r i a n g u l a r i t y . One specimen (number 10230, Zone A) exhibits s l i g h t barbs. It has been included i n t h i s subgroup but t h i s a t tribute i s noted i n Appendix 2. Blade Cross-Section: Various cross-sections represented: biconvex, piano-triangular, etc. See Appendix 2. Stem Form: Contracting i n a l l specimens. Base Form: Straight, Convex and oblique base outlines are represented i n t h i s group. TABLE XIV M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s of Group 9 : Corner-Removed, C o n t r a c t i n g Stem, No Barbs ( t r i a n g u l a r b lade o u t l i n e ) G e n e r a l L o c a t i o n Zone A Zone B A r t e f a c t Number 7656 9061 7691 8439 6162 10671 10230 9981 6116 Width o f Base 6 6 11 7 N 5 7 16 15 Width of Tang 10 10 13 12 8 12 10 19 14 Width of Sh o u l d e r 29 24 20 21 15 21 20 25 29 Maximum Width 29 24 20 21 15 21 20 25 29 A x i a l Length 51 40 37 36 N 48 41 55 60 Length of Tang 7 8 8 8 N 10 7 15 10 Length of Blade 44 32 29 28 17 38 34 40 50 T h i c k n e s s 8 5 5 4 5 8 6 8 8 Weight 7.69 3.61 3 - 6 9 2 . 5 4 1.48 5.42 3 . 5 5 4 . 2 3 1 1 . 7 3 General L o c a t i o n S u r f a c e Backhoe T e s t P i t Range A r t e f a c t Number 601 365 971 13459 12913 12917 13182 • Width of Base 5 10 7 5 7 11 6 5-16 mm. Width of Tang 10 11 13 8 12 17 10 8-19 mm. Width o f Shoulder 25 23 28 26 25 29 21 15-29 mm. Maximum Width 25 23 28 26 25 29 21 15-29 mm. A x i a l Length 58 47 45 44 44 37 N 3 6 - 6 0 mm. Length o f Tang 10 11 11 8 13 8 9 7-15 mm. Length o f Blade 48 36 34 36 31 29 N 17-50 mm. Th i c k n e s s 7 8 7 6 5 6 6 4 - 8 mm. Weight 7.81 8 . 4 9 5 . 9 5 5 . 7 7 5 . 2 5 4 . 8 3 2.81 1 . 9 - 1 1 . 7 gm. N - No I n f o r m a t i o n M a t e r i a l : 14 b a s a l t , 2 c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e s i l i c a G e n e r a l Provenience: ZOne A - 7, Zone B - 2 S u r f a c e - 3 , Backhoe T e s t P i t - 4 130 Group 10: S h o u l d e r e d , No Barbs ( e x p a n d i n g stem) Number of Specimens: 3 ( F i g u r e 22, a-b, Table XV) G e n e r a l D e s c r i p t i o n : T h i s i s a poor g r o u p i n g i n terms of the s m a l l number of specimens and i n terms of the a t t r i b u t e s s h a r e d . The t h r e e p o i n t s grouped here have rounded s h o u l d e r s and s l i g h t l y e x p a n d i n g stems. One specimen has a t r i a n g u l a r b l a d e o u t l i n e w i t h the s h o u l d e r and b l a d e edge a t r i g h t a n g l e s t o the stem. The o t h e r two p o i n t s have e x c u r v a t e b l a d e s and rounded o b t u s e - c i r c u l a r s h o u l d e r s . The bases are s l i g h t l y convex i n these l a t t e r two specimens, none w i t h e v i d e n c e o f p r e p a r a t i o n by p e r c u s s i o n f l a k i n g . Number 8 l 4 l has a t h i c k base which s t i l l r e t a i n s the c o r t e x from the c o r e . TABLE XV M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s o f Group 10: S h o u l d e r e d , No Barb ( S l i g h t l y E x p a n d i n g Stem) G e n e r a l L o c a t i o n Zone A S u r f a c e Range A r t e f a c t Number 681? 8141 001 Width o f Base 20 20 19 19-20 mm. Width o f Tang 19 18 18 18-19 mm. Width o f S h o u l d e r 27 30 34 27-34 mm. Maximum Width 3° , 31 34 30-34 mm. A x i a l Length 55 (N 50 Ov 65 50-65 mm. Length o f Tang 10 14 11 10-14 mm. Length o f B l a d e 45 36 54 36-54 mm. T h i c k n e s s 10 7 7 7-10 mm. Weight 14.18 8.65 8.6-14.2 gm. (N) - E s t i m a t e d Measurement M a t e r i a l : 3 b a s a l t G e n e r a l P r o v e n i e n c e : Zone A - 2 Zone B - 0 S u r f a c e - 1 Backhoe T e s t P i t - 0 131 Group 11: Corner Notched ( l a t e r a l - c o i n c i d e n t a l ) , No Barbs, Expanding Stems (excurvate blade, open notch) Number of Specimens: 20 (Figure 2 2 , c-r, Table XVI) General Description: The points i n t h i s group have a rather more open corner or l a t e r a l - c o i n c i d e n t a l notch very close to a side notching form (Binford, I 9 6 3 ) , than the points of Group 1 2 . In addition, the blade edge i s generally excurvate, both symmetrically and asymmetrically. The shoulders are usually rounded at the t r a n s i t i o n from the blade edge to the haft element. Blade Form: Some of the specimens have r e l a t i v e l y long narrow excurvate blades while others are shorter and wider across the shoulders. Blade Cross-Section: There are biconvex, biplano and plano-convex cross-sections i n t h i s group. Stem Form: The stems expand i n a l l specimens. Base Form: For the f u l l range of base shapes, see Appendix 2 . Concave and str a i g h t bases are the most common form. Group 12: Corner Notched ( l a t e r a l - c o i n c i d e n t a l ) , No Barbs, Expanding Stem (triangular blade outline, narrow notch) Number of Specimens: 6 (Figure 2 2 , s-x, Table XVII) General Description: These points are small with a length range of 25 to 40 mm. This group i s distinguished from Group 11 on the basis of a narrower more closed notching form, and an asymmetrically triang u l a r blade outline. Blade Form: Asymmetrically triangular i n a l l specimens. Blade Cross-Section: A l l specimens are biconvex i n cross-TABLE XVI Metric Attributes of Group 11: Corner Notched ( l a t e r a l - c o i n c i d e n t a l ) . No Barbs, Expanding Stems (excurvate blade, open notch) General Location Zone ! A Zone B Surface Artefact Number 3377 9174 7570 9440 8751 6263 IO38O 6701 10040 9243 986 5006 Width of Base 20 17 19 20 18 16 16 15 14 19 18 24 Width of Tang 15 16 17 17 16 13 15 14 14 14 16 12 Width of Shoulder 21 19 22 25 20 16 22 18 19 22 20 24 Maximum Width 22 20 24 25 N 18 23 19 21 22 20 25 Axial Length 43 32 N N N 27 37 32 N N N 40 Length of Tang 12 8 13 13 17 10 11 9 11 13 9 13 Length of Blade 31 24 N N N 17 26 23 N N N 27 Thickness 6 6 8 6 6 6 5 5 6 6 5 6 Weight 5.75 3.86 N N N 3.01 4.68 3.61 N N 5 . 0 9 5.7 General Location Surface Backh oe Test ; P i t Rang, e Artefact Number 5744 K 362 K 347 5023 12618 12245 Width of Base 15 18 19 15 18 19 11 16 11-24 mm. Width of Tang 14 14 15 14 17 16 10 11 10-17 mm. Width of Shoulder 21 21 26 21 24 20 N 21 16-26 mm. Maximum Width 22 22 26 23 25 21 N 21 18-26 mm. Ax i a l Length 39 33 31 38 N 23 44 N 23-44 mm. Length of Tang 16 9 12 13 10 8 8 10 8-17 mm. Length of Blade 23 24 19 25 N 15 36 N 15-36 mm. Thickness 6 6 5 6 5 5 5 5 5- 8 mm. Weight 5.20 3.06 3.48 3.77 4.48 2.19 5 . 0 9 3.43 N - No Information Material: 18 basalt, 2 c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e s i l i c a General Provenience: Zone A - 6, Zone B - 4 Surface - 8, Backhoe Test P i t - 2 133 section. Stem Form: The stem (tang) expands i n a l l cases. Base Form: Base forms of these points include both concave and straight examples. TABLE XVII Metric Attributes of Group 12 : Corner Notched  ( l a t e r a l - c o i n c i d e n t a l ) , No Barbs t Expanding Stem  (Triangular blade, narrow notch! General Location Zone A Surface Range Artefact Number 9142 7575 7254 969 984 358 Width of Base 18 18 16 15 N 9 9-18 mm. Width of Tang 14 14 11 12 N 8 8-14 mm. Width of Shoulder 22 22 20 20 20 14 14-22 mm. Maximum Width 22 22 20 20 20 14 14-22 mm. Axia l Length 40 34 33 29 N , 25 25-40 mm. Length of Tang 11 9 9 7 N 5 5-11 mm. Length of Blade 29 25 24 22 23 20 2 0 - 2 9 mm. Thickness 7 6 5 6 4 3 3 - 7 mm. Weight 4 . 7 7 3 - 6 5 3.08 2 . 7 5 2 . 2 3 0 . 7 5 . 8 - 4 . 8 gm. N - No Information Material: 5 basalt 1 c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e s i l i c a General Provenience: Zone A - 3 Zone B - 0 Surface - 3 134 Group 1 3 : Corner Notched ( l a t e r a l - c o i n c i d e n t a l ) , Barbed, Expanding Stem (broad triangular, or broad excurvate blade) Number of Specimens: 10 (Figure 2 3 , a-h, Table XVIII) General Description: These points are barbed, corner notched (narrow) with wide blades and wide expanding stems. Blade Form: Some of these points have straight blade edges. Others of the group have edges which are s l i g h t l y excurvate. Although the form of the blade edge varies, the attributes of stem width, maximum width, and notching form are s i m i l a r . Blade Cross-Section: The group includes specimens of both biconvex and plano-convex cross-sections. Stem Form: The stem expands to a broad base. Base Form: Most of these specimens have straight bases, although convex or s l i g h t l y concave bases are also present. See Appendix 2 . Group 14: Corner Notched ( l a t e r a l - c o i n c i d e n t a l ) , Barbed, Expanding Stem (narrow excurvate blade, indented concave base) Number of Specimens: 5 (Figure 2 3 , i-m, Table XIX) General Description; These points are distinguished from the other corner notched groups mainly on the basis of blade outline and base form. The barbs, with the exception of one specimen, are f a r less extreme i n t h i s subgroup. Most of these points tend to have a narrow or closed notch. Blade Form; Excurvate i n a l l cases. Blade Cross-Section: There are examples of plano-convex and biconvex cross-sections. Stem Form; Expanding i n a l l cases. TABLE XVIII Metric Attributes of Group 13« Corner Notched  (Lateral-coincidental), Barbed, Expanding Stem (broad blade, broad stem) General Location Zone A Surface Backhoe Test P i t Range Artefact Number 7755 9457 7320 K 967 5352 002 12150 12305 12310 Width of Base 23 N 21 28 26 16 21 20 17 20 16-28 mm Width of Tang 21 13 17 16 20 13 17 18 14 15 13-21 mm Width of Shoulder 32 29 30 29 31 27 36 30 30 N 27-36 mm Maximum Width 32 29 30 29 32 30 36 31 30 N 2 9 - 3 6 mm Axia l Length 44 45 <N) 44 48 47 43 46 41 46 N 41-48 mm Length of Tang 8 N 8 11 12 10 11 8 10 13 8-13 mm Length of Blade 36 35 36 37 35 33 35 33 36 N 3 3 - 3 6 mm Thickness 8 5 5 6 10 6 6 6 6 5 5-10 mm Weight 8 . 6 3 5.13 5 . 77 7 .76 1 3 . 5 9 5 . 5 9 7 . 7 0 5 5 . 3 7 6.42 N N - No Information (N) - Estimated Measurement Materials 9 basalt, 1 c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e s i l i c a General Proveniences Zone A - 3 , Zone B - 0 Surface - 4 , Backhoe Test P i t - 3 136 Base Form: The bases i n t h i s group are generally indented (concave) to some extent. This indenting i s extremely pro-nounced i n two specimens (numbers 350 and 3 3 9 . Surface) and has produced a s p l i t stem or " f l u k e - l i k e " stem. One specimen (Figure 2 3 , 1) has near p a r a l l e l edges, and one specimen from the Surface has a u n i l a t e r a l barb (Figure 2 3 , m). TABLE XIX Metric Attributes of Group 14: Corner Notched, ""Barbed (narrow excurvate blade, concave base) Backhoe General Location Surface Test P i t Range Artefact Number 5041 972 350 339 12151 Width of Base 17 21 20 N 10 10-21 mm. Width of Tang 12 16 14 14 11 11-16 mm. Width of Shoulder 22 21 19 N 18 18-22 mm. Maximum Width 23 21 20 25 20 2 0 - 2 5 mm. Axial Length 55 40 N N 42 40-55 mm. Length of Tang 10 8 11 9 5 5-11 mm. Length of Blade 45 32 N N 37 3 2 - 4 5 mm. Thickness 5 8 5 8 6 5 - 8 mm. Weight 7 . 8 8 6 . 2 9 3.04 N 5> 04 3 . 0 - 7 . 9 gm. N - No Information Material: 4 basalt 1 c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e s i l i c a General Provenience: Zone A - 0 Zone B - 0 Surface - 4 Backhoe Test P i t - 1 137 Group 15: Corner and Basally Notched (basal-basal), Barbed (broad blade, broad stem) Number of Specimens: 5 (Figure 2 4 , a-f, Table XX) General Description: The p r o j e c t i l e points of t h i s group are basally notched with barbs which do not extend proximally as far as the base. The blade and the stem (tang) are notably wide. Blade Form: Some specimens have excurvate blade outlines, and others, symmetrically triangular outlines. Blade Cross-Section: A l l f i v e specimens are biconvex i n cross-section. Stem Form: Expanding i n a l l cases. Base Form: Generally straight based. TABLE XX Metric Attributes of Group 1 5 : Basally Notched  (basal-basal), Barbed (broad blade, broad stem) Sur- Backhoe General Location Zone A face Test P i t Range Artefact Number 7 4 3 7 1 0 6 6 4 2773 1 2 3 7 1 1 2 7 2 2 Width of Base 17 19 N 16 13 13-19 mm. Width of Tang 16 18 N 14 12 1 2 - 1 8 mm. Width of Shoulder 3 4 32 40 26 28 2 6 - 4 0 mm. Maximum Width 36 33 40 26 28 2 6 - 4 0 mm. Axial Length 6 7 4 7 N 38 3 4 3 4 - 6 7 mm. Length of Tang 9 9 N 8 7 7 - 9 mm. Length of Blade 58 38 40 30 27 2 7 - 5 8 mm. Thickness 5 6 8 5 5 5 - 8 mm. Weight 1 2 . 8 0 7 . 2 3 N 3 . 5 2 4 . 1 3 3 . 5 2 - 1 2 . 8 gm. N - No Information Material: 4 basalt, 1 c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e s i l i c a General Provenience: Zone A - 2 Zone B - 0 Surface - 1 Backhoe Test P i t - 2 138 Group 16: Basally Notched (basal-basal), Extreme Barbs, Narrow Stem Number of Specimens: 5 (Figure 24, g-k, Table XXI) General Description: These points are basally notched with barbs which extend proximally to a l i n e even with the base or beyond. The stems are much narrower i n these specimens than those of Group 15* The notches are closer together and run almost p a r a l l e l to the main axis of the p r o j e c t i l e point. Blade Form: Triangular (and symmetrical) i n a l l specimens. Blade Gross-Section: Biconvex (2), plano-convex (2), and no information (fragment) i n one case. Stem Form: Expanding (2), contracting (2), no information (1). Base Form: Straight base i n a l l four complete specimens. TABLE XXI Metric Attributes of Group 16: Basally Notched (Extreme Barbs, Narrow Stem) General Location Zone A Surface Range Artefact Number 9519 8562 8609 376 983 Width of Base 8 12 N 5 N 5--12 mm. Width of Tang 10 11 N 4 N 4 -11 mm. Width of Shoulder 31 30 N 20 32 20 -32 mm. Maximum Width 31 30 N 20 32 20 -32 mm. Axial Length 37 32 N 23 <N) N 23 -37 mm. Length of Tang 6 10 9 5 N 5' -10 mm. Length of Blade 31 22 N 17 53 17 -31 mm. Thickness 7 5 5 4 5 4. - 7 mm. Weight 6 . 4 3 . 1 2 N 1.2 5 . 7 1 .2 - 6 . 4 gm. N - No Information (N) - Estimated Measurement Material: 5 basalt General Provenience: Zone A - 3 , Zone B - 0 Surface - 2 Backhoe Test P i t - 0 139 Group 17s Side Notched ( l a t e r a l - l a t e r a l , Binford, Figure 24, L) General Descriptions Only two side notched specimens, one complete (number 987, Surface) and one fragment (number 249, Surface) are included i n the assemblage of p r o j e c t i l e points. Both specimens were found i n the disturbed surface layer. Number 987 - Length 43 mm. x Width ( maximum) 19mm. Excurvate blade, plano-convex i n cross-section. Open side notch. Number 249 (fragment) - Estimated length 37 mm. Estimated Width 13 mm. Triangular blade outline, plano-convex i n cross-section. Narrow, or closed, side notch. 140 Chipped Bifaces and Unifaces The artefact analysis presented i n t h i s chapter follows closely the approach used by Sanger ( 1 9 7 0 : 7 1 - 7 6 ) . In that study chipped stone tools are divided into two broad cate-gories. Tools which appear to have been deliberately shaped, e.g., b i f a c i a l l y flaked d r i l l s , b i f a c i a l knives, etc., are termed formed? other tools with retouched working edges on otherwise unmodified flakes are un-formed. Within these broad categories, groupings are made on the basis of some degree of s i m i l a r i t y i n terms of discrete and continuous a t t r i b u t e s . The c r i t e r i a upon which these more refined d i v i s i o n s are established are stated e x p l i c i t l y f o r each grouping or sub-grouping. Formed Bifaces These tools are b i f a c i a l l y flaked implements which were probably shaped to perform a variety of scraping, cutting, and d r i l l i n g functions. There are d i f f i c u l t i e s i n i n f e r i n g functions f o r these tools, as some specimens may not i n f a c t be finished forms, but merely preforms at a stage of manufac-ture. Some of the crudely flaked tools i n the f i r s t four groups described below may have been preforms or blanks f o r p r o j e c t i l e points, while others may be discards for one rea-son or another. Group 1: Leaf-Shaped Bifaces Number of Specimens: IJ complete or nearly so (Table XXII, Figure 2 5 , a - 1 ) . 141 TABLE XXII  Group 1: Leaf-Shaped Bifaces General Artefact Length Width Thickness Location Number (mm.) (mm.) (mm.) Zone A 6944 57 25 8 Zone A 8405 68 21 7 Zone A 7628 55 18 6 Zone A 9475 38 15 7 Zone A 6044 65 29 6 Zone A 6928 61 25 11 Zone A 3542 64 29 6 Zone B 7434 61 29 7 Zone B 7950 39 19 7 Zone B 7981 36 14 8 Surface 375* — 29 9 Surface 990 87 37 12 Backhoe Test P i t 13203 68 20 9 Backhoe Test P i t 13231 57 19 5 * Incomplete Specimen Range i n Length - 36--87 mm. Range i n Width - 14--37 mm. Range i n Thickness - 5' -12 mm. General Description: This grouping i s established on a r e l a t i v e l y low degree of s i m i l a r i t y . The defining character-i s t i c of these bifaces i s that the maximum width i s i n the middle one-third of the artefact (Sanger, 1970: 7 2 - 7 3 ) . There i s considerable v a r i a t i o n within the group i n terms of technical attributes of retouch, and i n metric a t t r i b u t e s . Some specimens which have been produced by heavy percussion f l a k i n g exhibit deep and i r r e g u l a r l y placed flake scars and 142 markedly serrated edges (numbers 6928, 1 3 2 0 3 , 3542, 1 3 2 7 1 ) . Others have had only l i g h t marginal retouch which has produced even edges with shallow, regu l a r l y placed flake scars (numbers 7950, 7434). These tools may have been knives or unfinished p r o j e c t i l e points. A l l specimens are of basalt. General Provenience: Zone A - 7 Zone B - 3 Disturbed Surface - 1 Backhoe Test P i t - 2 Group 2: Bifaces with Broad Bases Number of Specimens: 9 complete or nearly so (Table XXIII, Figure 2 5 , m-p). General Description: These tools are distinguished from Group One specimens i n that they have the point of maximum width at or near the base of the biface. Again, there i s con-siderable range i n the extent and quality of the retouch. Three specimens (numbers 9555, 6871 and 6813, Zone A) exhibit only marginal retouch. Three tools (numbers 3468 and 9606, Zone A; and 6696, Zone B) have thinning on the basal, or broad end. Others are thick and blunt with remnants of cor-tex. A l l specimens are of basalt. General Provenience: Zone A - 6 Zone B - 2 Disturbed Surface - 1 Group 3 s Triangular Bifaces Number of Specimens: 2 (Figure 26, a-b). General Description: These tools are based on flakes of 143 TABLE XXIII Group 2 : Bifaces With Broad Bases General Artefact Length Width Thickness Location Number (mm.) (mm.) (mm.) Zone A 9555 58 22 3 Zone A 3468* — 25 7 Zone A 6929 43 21 8 Zone A 6871 44 38 5 Zone A 9606 52 35 11 Zone A 6813 44 32 9 Zone B 6696* — 24 10 Zone B 10557* — 34 6 Surface 404 47 21 r -* Incomplete Specimen Range i n Length - 43-58 mm. Range i n Width - 21-38 mm. Range i n Thickness - 3-H mm. good qua l i t y c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e s i l i c a . They are approximately triangular i n form, extremely thin with fine retouch. Speci-men number 8235 (Zone A) i s marginally retouched along a l l three edges on one face and retouched extensively over the opposite face. The dimensions of number 8235 are length 45 mm. x width 30 mm. x thickness 5 mm. Artefact number 9284 (Zone A) i s also marginally retouched on one face with ex-tensive retouch on the opposite face. Its dimensions are length 45 mm. x width 40 mm. x thickness 5 mm. These tools may have functioned as knives, or may be well made p r o j e c t i l e point preforms at a stage of manufacture p r i o r to notching or barbing. 144 Group 4 : Stemmed Bifaces Number of Specimens! 8 (Table XXIV, Figure 26, c - f ) . General Description.: These bifaces have an observable haft element. One specimen from Zone A (Figure c) i s a r e l a t i v e l y large thick biface of basalt with a single shoulder and some evidence of thinning by percussion on the base. Another specimen from Zone B (Figure f) i s a small asymmetric biface with one shoulder and basal thinning by percussion. Most of the other specimens i n t h i s group have marginal retouch along the blade, rounded shoulders and contracting stems. These tools may have been hafted as knives or may be unfinished or discarded p r o j e c t i l e points. A l l specimens are of basalt. General Provenience: Zone A - 7 Zone B - 1 Group 5* Piano-Convex Bifaces Number of Specimens: 3 (Figure 26, g - i ) . General Description: These tools have one f l a t (piano) ven-t r a l face with l i m i t e d retouch. The dorsal face i s approx-imately convex i n cross-section and retains some cortex i n a l l three specimens. One specimen from Zone A (Figure g) i s a quadrangular flake with one end wider than the other. On the ventral face there i s a series of lamellar, or long p a r a l l e l flake scars along one l a t e r a l edge. The dimensions are: length 52 mm. x width 36 mm. x thickness 10 mm. The form of the tool suggests a cutting or side scraping function. Specimen number 8 3 3 9 , (Figure h, Zone A: length 54 mm. x width 35 mm. x thickness 14 mm.) i s almost ovate i n form with 145 TABLE XXIV General Location Group 4 : Artefact Number Stemmed Length (mm.) Bifaces Width (mm.) Thickness (mm.) Zone A 7186 72 35 15 Zone A 708 59 33 8 Zone A 10725 48 23 7 Zone A 7193 48 29 9 Zone A 8860 51 36 9 Zone A U* 44 22 10 Zone A 9218 24 19 5 Zone B 8357 43 15 5 U unnumbered * Incomplete Specimen Range i n Length - 24-59 mm. Range i n Width - 15-35 mm. Range i n Thickness - 5-15 mm. convex l a t e r a l edges. The retouch on the ventral face i s more extensive than on number 1 0 5 6 0 . The tool i s s i m i l a r i n form to a large snub-nosed scraper but does not exhibit retouch or use wear on the thick steep end. The l a t e r a l edges have been crudely flaked creating sharp and serrated edges, possibly fo r cutting or scraping functions. The t h i r d tool of t h i s group, number 7071 (Figure i , Zone As length 45 mm. x width 29 mm. x thickness 12 mm.), has marginal retouch on both ends and one edge, and retains a large proportion of cortex on the dorsal face. The pattern of f l a k i n g i s crude. The tool may have functioned as a scraper, or may have been an incomplete attempt to block out a preform f o r a p r o j e c t i l e point or knife 146 by thinning a thick primary basalt flake. A l l specimens are of basalt. Group 6 : Bifaces with Retouched Projections Number of Specimens: 6 (Table XXV, Figure 26, j-o). General Description: These bifaces have narrow retouched projections. A l l but one specimen (number 7241? Figure 1, Zone A) i s widest along the middle one-third of the t o o l . The edges contract proximally from t h i s expanded portion form-ing a stem l i k e tang. The wear on the end of the pyles suggests a rotary or d r i l l action. Specimen number 7241 i s a key-shaped d r i l l with a broad straight base, s l i g h t l y oblique to the long axis of the t o o l . The basal element on a l l tools i s extremely thin, four specimens exhibit percussion thinning. One t o o l number 13065 (Figure k, Backhoe Test Pit) i s of a c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e s i l i c a , the others are a l l of basalt. These tools may have been hand held or inserted into a handle. General Provenience: Zone A - 3 Backhoe Test P i t - 3 Group 7'' Biface Fragments ( P r o j e c t i l e Points, Knives, etc.) Number of Specimens: 73 (Figures 2 7 , a - f ) . In t h i s large grouping there are t i p , medial, and basal fragments of b i f a c i a l l y flaked knives and p r o j e c t i l e points. Rather than lose these d i s t i n c t i v e categories i n one large macrogrouping, some attempt has been made to group th i s mater-i a l , and present metric information and general provenience. In most instances the fragments are not large enough to make 147 TABLE XXV Group 6s Bifaces With Retouched Projections General Location Artefact Number Length (mm.) Width (mm.) Thickness (mm.) Zone A 6810 40 15 6 Zone A 7241 42 19 6 Zone A 9641 55 24 7 Backhoe Test P i t 13065* 40 17 6 Backhoe Test P i t 13075* 48 15 6 Backhoe Test P i t 13147 55 20 6 * Incomplete ( t i p missing) Range i n Length - 40-55 mm. Range i n Width - 15-24 mm. Range i n Thickness - 6 - 7 mm. statements regarding the form of the tools, however, the metric data may be useful i n extrapolating approximate dimensions f o r these specimens when larger samples are at hand. There are several subgroupings which can be made with these fragments. Subgroup 1: Large Biface Fragments Number of Specimens: 8 (Figure 27, a - f ) . General Description: This subgroup consists of large biface fragments over 35 mm. i n width and over 38 mm. i n length. Of these, 7 are of basalt and one (number 9 4 9 0 ; Zone A) of quartzite. An i n t e r e s t i n g observation i s that 6 of the 7 basalt specimens are nearly the same si z e . The length range i s 4 mm. (38-42 mm.) and the thickness range i s less than 4 mm. The 148 measurements i n Table XXVI are taken to the nearest m i l l i -meter. What factor(s) might be responsible for the uniformity i n size of these large biface fragments? Before one can attempt to answer t h i s question there i s a problem of d i s -tinguishing the t i p fragments from the basal fragments. If we can assume that a l l the fragments are basal, or t i p frag-ments, then the breakage may have some functional significance e.g., may be related to hafting. I f these fragments represent the portion of the biface which extends beyond the haft or i s the portion of the biface within the haft then inferences regarding a point of stress i n the functioning of the tool might be proposed. I f , on the other hand, the fragments are a mixture of t i p and base fragments then t h i s suggestion would be unfounded. The largest specimen i n t h i s subgroup i s number 9^90 (quartzite), i t i s a longer and thicker biface fragment. Perhaps the length of these fragments i s related to the length and thickness of the bifaces and the length protruding from the haft element. This i s a problem which awaits an examination of a large sample of large biface frag-ments fo r resolution. Artefact number 6739 (Zone B) i s a thick basal fragment with cortex on one face. This fragment appears to be at a much more primary stage of manufacture. General Proveniences Zone A - 5 Zone B - 1 (basal fragment) Disturbed Surface - 1 Backhoe Test P i t - 1 149 TABLE XXVI Subgroup I s Large Biface Fragments Length of Width of Thickness of General Artefact Fragment Fragment Fragment Location Number (mm.) (mm.) (mm.) Zone A 7151 38 35 6 Zone A 9090 39 37 6 Zone A 9490 74 44 12 Zone A 6166 38 36 9 Zone A 3009 39 39 9 Zone B 6739* 37 46 15 Surface 985 38 39 10 Backhoe Test P i t 13382 42 35 8 * Basal Fragment Range i n Length - 37-74 mm. Range i n Width - 36-46 mm. Range i n Thickness - 6-15 mm. Subgroup 2s Pointed Biface Fragments Number of Specimens: 40 (Tables XXVII and XXVIII). General Description: These fragments are a l l slightly-pointed but i t i s not possible to distinguish with certainty whether these fragments are t i p or basal portions of projec-t i l e points or knives. Of a sample of 40 specimens, 33 are of basalt and 7 are c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e s i l i c a . It i s i n t e r -esting to note that there seems to be a positive r e l a t i o n -ship between the length of the fragment and i t s thickness. Table XXVIII shows how the mean thickness increases with the length of the fragments. This breakage may be related to the length the t o o l extends beyond the haft or i s inserted within 150 TABLE XXVII  Subgroup 2s Pointed Biface Fragments Length, Width Crypto-General Artefact and Thickness of c r y s t a l l i n e Location Number Fragment (mm.) S i l i c a Basalt Zone A 7718 51 X 26 X 9 X 9010 69 X 31 X 19 X 3163 28 X 19 X 7 X 7512 34 X 20 X 7 X 6058 21 X 17 X 6 X 6305 27 X 22 X 5 X 10642 22 X 20 X 4 X 7235 23 X 14 X 4 X 6000 22 X 12 X 4 X 6019 14 X 16 X 3 X 7090 18 X 19 X 5 X 6016 37 X 32 X 3 X Zone B 9573 46 X 25 X 8 X 9754 36 X 20 X 6 X 10388 27 X 19 X 6 X 10186 33 X 18 X 4 X 6896 19 X 15 X 4 X Surface unnumbered 54 X 24 X 9 X 361 36 X 19 X 4 X 978 29 X 16 X 6 X 9434 30 X 19 X 6 X 3037 26 X 14 X 4 X 977 22 X 14 X ,:2 X 979 29 X 17 X 7 X 613 24 X 16 X 6 X 250 34 X 21 X 6 X 549 39 X 21 X 14 X Backhoe Test P i t 12915 39 X 26 X 7 X 13317 40 X 23 X 9 X 12077 28 X 23 X 6 X 12738 33 X 18 X 6 X 13150 30 X 20 X 8 X 12247 33 X 29 X 5 X 13096 46 X 21 X 11 X 12477 25 X 19 X 7 X 12478 8 X 17 X 6 X 13277 73 X 36 X 12 X 13144 41 X 26 X 10 X 13102 23 X 21 X 7 X 13073 22 X 18 X 7 X 151 TABLE XXVIII Length Range and Mean Thickness of Pointed Biface Fragments Length Range Number of Thickness Mean (mms.) Items Range Thickness 10-19 4 3 - 6 4 . 5 2 0 - 2 9 18 2 - 8 5 . 6 3 0 - 3 9 10 3-14 6 . 2 40-49 4 8-11 9 . 5 5 0 - 5 9 2 9 9 . 0 60-69 1 19 1 9 . 0 70-79 1 12 1 2 . 0 the haft. This i s merely a suggestion at t h i s stage as the sample i s small. General Provenience: Zone A - 12 Zone B - 5 Disturbed Surface - 10 Backhoe Test P i t - 13 Subgroup 3 : Medial Biface Fragments Number of Specimens: 5 General Description: These are fragments of p r o j e c t i l e points and knives. It i s in t e r e s t i n g to note how few medial fragments there are i n comparison to t i p and base fragments. General Provenience: Zone A - 1 Zone B - 0 Disturbed Surface - 1 Backhoe Test P i t - 3 Subgroup 4 : Rounded or Straight Based Biface Fragments Number of Specimens: 22 152 General Description: These fragments can probably be described as basal fragments on the basis of the roundness or straightness of the end of the fragment. Five of the speci-mens have open corner notches and straight bases. These fragments may be basal portions of Group 11 p r o j e c t i l e points. Three of the above specimens, numbers 10620, 6997 and 12570, d i f f e r i n length by 1 mm. and i n thickness by 2 mm. A l l three have percussion thinning on the base which suggests the tools were hafted. A l l three broke at almost the same point along the blade. This may possibly be another example of breakage as a function of hafting and the position of stress i n func-ti o n . Dimensions of these specimens are given below: TABLE XXIX Subgroup 4: Rounded or Straight Based Biface Fragments Artefact Length, Width Number And Thickness Material Location 6997 24 X 22 X 5 Cryptocrystalline S i l i c a Zone A 10620 23 X 24 X 7 Cryptocrystalline S i l i c a Zone A 12570 24 X 21 X 5 Basalt Backhoe Test P i t Miscellaneous Formed Bifaces (Figures 2 7 , g-i) There are several formed bifaces from the Katz s i t e which are so unlike any other artefacts i n the sample that they require i n d i v i d u a l description. 153 TABLE XXX Miscellaneous Formed Bifaces General Artefact Length, Width Location Number And Thickness Description Zone A 6015 9k x kk x 20 Zone B 83^0 160 x 65 x 11 Backhoe Test P i t 12210 36 x 2k x 5 Large crudely flaked quartzite biface. Some cortex on one face. The tool i s roughly l e a f -shaped with the point of maximum width near the middle one-third of the specimen. This i s an extremely large quartzite biface with a short single shouldered tang on one end. The tang may be the r e s u l t of an acciden-t a l removal of the edge near one end during fl a k i n g , or may have had functional significance as a haft element. This specimen i s a t h i n asymmetric basalt biface. It has marginal retouch on both faces and a small open notch near the base on one edge. The blade portion i s asymmetric with a nearly straight d i s t a l end. This t o o l i s s i m i l a r to tools grouped asymmetri-c a l l y hafted bifaces, Group 2 of Formed Bifaces Sanger ( 1 9 7 0 : 7 1 - 7 2 ) . Unformed Bifaces Number of Specimens: 7 General Description: These tools are based on i r r e g u l a r l y shaped flakes with b i f a c i a l f l a k i n g on one edge. The 7 speci-mens are a l l from the Zone A deposit. The length range of 154 these tools i s 2.5 cm. to 4.8 cms. They do not show evidence of modification beyond the b i f a c i a l f l a k i n g of one edge and the f l a k i n g pattern i s extremely i r r e g u l a r i n a l l instances. These tools may be crudely fashioned knives f o r use as cutt-ing implements. Formed Unifaces Continuing with the approach adopted by Sanger (1970: 76-80), t h i s chapter describes the u n i f a c i a l l y flaked tools based on small flakes which show evidence of deliberate shaping. This class of tools does not include u n i f a c i a l l y flaked cortex s p a l l tools, or core t o o l s . Most of these specimens are based on flakes of good qua l i t y c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e s i l i c a , material which was probably extremely suitable for the graving, d r i l l i n g , scraping, and perforating functions f o r which these tools are assumed to have been used. Groupings of these tools have been made on the basis of s i m i l a r i t y i n terms of shared a t t r i b u t e s . The c r i t e r i a upon which the groups have been established are stated i n the description f o r each group. Group 1: Round to Oval Unifaces Number of Specimens - 2 (Figure 28, a-b). General Description: Both specimens are based on crypto-c r y s t a l l i n e flakes approximately 1.0 cm. thick. They are plano-convex i n cross-section with retouch evident over most of the dorsal face. The retouch i s nearly continuous around the entire edge with the steepest edge angle (75 to 85 degrees) 155 at the thickest end of the flake. The edge angle i s fairly-acute on the opposite end with evidence of thinning i n specimen number 3 2 5 (disturbed surface). This "basal" thinning may have f a c i l i t a t e d hafting, or may have been a cutting edge giving the t o o l a dual purpose, serving as a snub nosed scraper, and as a knife. As suggested by Sanger (1970s 7 8 ) , these tools may have been hand held and used i n hide working. TABLE XXXI Round To Oval Unifaces General Artefact Length Width Thickness Edge Angle Location Number (mm.) (mm.) (mm.) (degrees) Zone A 95^5 33 28 11 75 Surface 325 31 31 10 85 Group 2s Elongate Unifaces with Steep End Retouch Number of Specimens - 10 complete, or nearly so (Figure 28, c-k, m) 2 fragments. General Descriptions Most of these unifaces are based on f a i r l y thick flakes of c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e s i l i c a . A l l have steep retouch on one end, generally i n the 65 to 85 degree range, and some have l a t e r a l retouch, which i s presumably the r e s u l t of shaping, as one-half of the specimens have none. The f l a k i n g on the steep ends of several specimens i s fine pressure retouch evidenced by elongate p a r a l l e l flake scars. See Figure 28 with examples, numbers 5 0 2 9 , j , 9 0 0 0 , c, and 7 8 3 1 , ds Zone A. In only two of the tools i n t h i s group has 156 there been thinning at the end opposite the working end (numbers 1010, k, Surface, and 5029, Zone A). The shapes of the working edges within the group vary from convex to stra i g h t . The cross-sections include plano-convex, symmetric and asymmetric keel-shaped dorsal faces. The ranges i n metric attributes do not include incomplete specimens. General Provenience: Zone A - 6 , 1 fragment Zone B - 1 fragment Surface - 3 Backhoe Test P i t - 1 Group 3: Round to Rectanguloid Unifaces With Steep End Retouch Number of Specimens - 15 (Table XXXIII, Figure 28, 1, n-t, w). General Description: The defining attributes of t h i s group are (1) a r e l a t i v e l y thin flake with steep retouch along one edge, and (2) an acute edge angle opposite the working edge which could f a c i l i t a t e hafting. The acute edge angle at the "proximal" end i n six of the specimens has been created by retouch. In four of the other tools the proximal end has been snapped off and may also have been basally thinned when complete. Most of the specimens have steep retouch on the thickest portion of the flake. Eleven of the f i f t e e n tools are based on flakes of cry p t o c r y s t a l l i n e s i l i c a . The v a r i a -t i o n i n terms of several selected attributes are presented i n Table XXXIII. General Provenience: Zone A - 6 TABLE XXXII Elongate U n i f a c e s With Steep End Retouch General L o c a t i o n Zone A A r t e f a c t Number 9000 8420* 7294* 7831 8480 9323 5029 Length 35 27 12 30 24 29 33 Width 22 19 19 17 15 22 20 Thickness 8 8 7 9 10 7 10 M a t e r i a l S i l i c a B a s a l t X X X X X X X Edge A.° 70° 6 5 ° 70° 80° 6 5 ° 6 5 ° 85' Retouch One End Two Ends One Side Two S i d e s X X X X X X X X X Working Edge Convex Concave S t r a i g h t X X X X X X X * Incomplete Specimen TABLE XXXII (Continued) General L o c a t i o n Zone B Surface Backhoe Test P i t Range A r t e f a c t Number 9599* 1013 1012* 1010 12428 Length ( f r a g -ment ) 35 25 31 38 24 -38 Width 18 21 14 27 15 -27 Thickness 8 7 5 15 5 -15 M a t e r i a l S i l i c a X X X X X B a s a l t Edge A.° 60° 85° 60° 80° 70° 60° -85° Retouch One End Two Ends One Side X X X x X X Two Sides X X X X Working Edge Convex Concave S t r a i g h t X X x X X * Incomplete Specimen TABLE XXXIII Round to Rectanguloid Unifaces With Steep End Retouch General Location Zone A Surface Artefact Number 7442 10108* 6809* 8822 9511 8884 398 5068 Length 18 18 21 21 19 30 34 22 Width 17 19 23 21 18 23 23 17 Thickness 4 4 5 6 6 9 7 4 Edge Angle 0 65° 70° 70° 70° 80° 65° 80° 70" Material S i l i c a Basalt X X X X X X X X Working Edge Convex Concave Straight X X X X X X X X * Incomplete Specimen TABLE XXXIII (Continued) General L o c a t i o n Backhoe Test P i t Range A r t e f a c t Number 12473 13072 12429 12557* 13193 1 2 3 0 3 * 12481 Length 24 22 25 18 22 16 21 18 - 3 4 mm Width 21 20 20 22 21 20 22 17 - 2 3 mm Thickness 5 6 5 5 5 6 4 4 - 9 mm Edge A n g l e 0 6 5 ° 60° 60° 6 5 ° 6 5 ° 8 5 ° 80° 6 0 ° - 8 5 ° M a t e r i a l S i l i c a B a s a l t X X X X X X X X X Working Edge Convex Concave S t r a i g h t X X X X * Incomplete Specimen TABLE XXXIV  Triangular Unifaces With Steep End Retouch General Location Zone A Surface Backhoe Test P i t Range Artefact Number 9649* 9444 6306* 9864 109 12823 12114 Length 25 33 18 26 32 26 27 26 - 3 3 mm Width 34 29 23 22 27 19 27 19 -34 mm Thickness 11 10 9 8 5 4 7 4 -11 mm Edge Angle 0 70° 90° 75° 80° 85° 80° 80° 7 0 ° - 9 0 ° Material Basalt X Others X X X X X X Working Edge Convex Concave Straight X X X X X X X * Incomplete Basal End 162 General Provenience; Zone B - 0 Surface - 2 Backhoe Test P i t - 7 Group 4 : T r i a n g u l a r Unifaces With Steep End Retouch Number of Specimens: 7 (Table XXXIV, Figure 28, u-v, x - z ) . General D e s c r i p t i o n : These t o o l s are approximately t r i -angular i n form. One specimen (number 9 6 4 9 , Zone A) i s based on a b a s a l t f l a k e ; the remainder are based on f l a k e s of chalcedony and quartz. One edge i s s t e e p l y retouched, i n the 60 to 90 degree range. The sides adjacent to the working edge contract to form a narrow p y l e - l i k e element opposite the working edge. These t o o l s may have been hand held , or hafted i n a handle. The shape of the working edges vary from con-vex to s t r a i g h t . General Provenience: Zone A - 4 Zone B - 0 Surface - 1 Backhoe Test P i t - 2 Group 5: Formed Unifaces With.Retouched P r o j e c t i o n s Number of Specimens: 28 complete, or n e a r l y so (Table XXXV, XXXVI, XXXVII, Figure 2 9 ) . 4 b a s a l fragments, 4 t i p fragments. General D e s c r i p t i o n : A l l the t o o l s w i t h i n t h i s group e x h i b i t u n i f a c i a l l y retouched p r o j e c t i o n s of various lengths. D i f f e r e n c e s i n o v e r - a l l form, and the k i n d of wear i n e v i -dence on the pyle have been used to e s t a b l i s h subgroupings. 163 F i v e specimens are based on b a s a l t f l a k e s , the remaining t h i r t y - o n e on f l a k e s of c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e s i l i c a . The degree of hardness of the s i l i c a t e s r e l a t i v e to the b a s a l t i c miner-a l s used was probably a most d e s i r a b l e a t t r i b u t e f o r the gra v i n g , d r i l l i n g , and p e r f o r a t i n g f u n c t i o n s f o r which these t o o l s were presumably intended. The extreme hardness of the s i l i c a t e s presents some d i f f i c u l t y f o r the r e s e a r c h e r attempt-i n g to i n f e r f u n c t i o n s on the b a s i s of wear p a t t e r n s . In t h i s study, only the most r e a d i l y observable use m o d i f i c a t i o n has been noted. A thorough m i c r o s c o p i c a n a l y s i s of these t o o l s might provide a broader range of f u n c t i o n a l i n f e r e n c e s than p o s s i b l e f o r t h i s r e p o r t . Three subgroups have been e s t a b l i s h e d on the b a s i s of obvious d i f f e r e n c e s i n form. F u n c t i o n a l types based on wear p a t t e r n s appear to c r o s s - c u t these subgroupings. The sub-groups of formed u n i f a c e s with retouched p r o j e c t i o n s are as f o l l o w s s 1. Tools with broad blade elements 2. T o o l s with narrow blade elements 3» B i p o i n t e d or diamond shaped t o o l s Subgroup 1: Tools with Broad Blade Elements Number of Specimens: 19 complete, or n e a r l y so (Table XXXV, F i g u r e 29, a-k), k b a s a l fragments, 3 t i p fragments with some blade element; General D e s c r i p t i o n : These t o o l s are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by broad and r e l a t i v e l y t h i n blade elements. They are g e n e r a l l y asymmetric i n form with one s i d e of the p r o j e c t i o n or pyle TABLE XXXV Formed U n i f a c e s With Retouched P r o j e c t i o n s (Subgroup Is Broad Blade Element) General L o c a t i o n * Zone A A r t e f a c t Number 8168 7707 6816 3451 10172 9590 5241* 10644 10662 7564 Length 40 36 36 29 22 27 — 27 33 25 Width 23 27 21 17 15 13 20 24 17 14 T h i c k n e s s 7 6 5 4 3 5 4 5 5 5 B a s a l T h i n n i n g X X X X X X S i l i c a t e X X X X X X X X X X B a s a l t Shape of T i p Convex P o i n t e d S t r a i g h t Oblique X X X X X X X X X X Graver X X X X X X X D r i l l X P e r f o r a t o r X X * Incomplete x - Presence TABLE XXXV (Continued) General L o c a t i o n Zone B S u r f a c e Backhoe T e s t P i t A r t e f a c t Number 6165 73^9 369 3550 12509 3552 1 2 4 8 3 * 12427 13285 Length 22 23 35 27 39 32 30 40 29 Width 15 15 20 23 22 12 27 13 25 Thickness 4 4 6 7 5 5 11 5 7 B a s a l T h i n n i n g X S i l i c a t e X X X X X X X X X B a s a l t Shape Convex X of T i p P o i n t e d X X X X S t r a i g h t X X Oblique X X Graver X X X X D r i l l X X ? ...... P e r f o r a t o r X X ' -* I n c o m p l e t e R a n g e i n Length - 22-40 mm. x - Presence Range i n Width - 12-27 mm. Range i n Thickness - 3 - 7 mm. 166 simply a continuation of one l a t e r a l edge of the flake, while the other side of the projection describes a concave l i n e to the blade element (Figure 2 9 ) . There are only two exceptions to the asymmetric form, these are numbers 369 (Figure h, Sur-face) and 10644 (Zone A). These tools are symmetrical with the projection contracting d i s t a l l y along the long axis of the flake. As stated e a r l i e r , differences i n wear pattern exist on tools of s i m i l a r form. Three specimens within t h i s subgroup have wear which suggests a rotary or d r i l l action on the t i p of the pyle (numbers 3 6 9 , Surface; 12483, Backhoe Test P i t ; and 9 5 9 0 , Zone A). The projection on specimen number 9590 i s extremely th i n i n cross-section and would not stand up well on other than r e l a t i v e l y soft organic materials or soft stone such as s t e a t i t e . The other two d r i l l s have rather stout pyles and appear capable of a heavier d r i l l i n g application. Ten specimens have wear which suggest a graving action. Extremely small flakes have been removed from the dorsal face of the projection, or graving spur, presumably as a r e s u l t of the pressure of l i n e a r scoring on the ventral face of the spur. The shape of the graving edge i n most cases i s straight (perpendicular to the long axis of the t o o l , or oblique). There i s one specimen, however, with a d i s t i n c t l y rounded graving spur (number 6816, c; Zone A) which i s s i m i l a r to the Group 2 gravers described by Sanger from s i t e s i n the Lochnore-Nesikep L o c a l i t y (I97O1 82-84). Five complete specimens and three t i p fragments have 167 sharply pointed ends. The absence of re a d i l y observable wear on the t i p s of these tools suggests a perforating function. Another possible use may not have involved the t i p of the projection but the steeply retouched concave portion of the tool, between the t i p and the broad proximal portion of the t o o l . This concavity may have been used as a spoke shave. Two of the perforators and six of the gravers have been basally retouched and could be e a s i l y accommodated i n a handle. The three d r i l l s are thick and blunt on the basal end suggest-ing hand held use. A l i s t of attributes showing the v a r i a t i o n within the subgroups i s presented i n Table XXXV. General Provenience: Zone A - 12 (1 d r i l l , 9 gravers, 2 perforators) 3 t i p fragments (perforators) 2 basal fragments Zone B - 0 Surface - 2 (gravers) 1 basal fragment 1 medial fragment Backhoe Test P i t - 5 (1 d r i l l , 1 graver, 3 perforators) 1 basal fragment Subgroup 2 : Tools with a Narrow Blade Element Number of Specimens: 4 complete, or nearly so (Table XXXVI, Figure 2 9 , 1-q). 1 t i p fragment General Description: The tools i n t h i s subgroup have a blade portion which i s narrower and thicker than those of 168 TABLE XXXVI Formed Unifaces-With- Retouched Projections  (Subgroup 2 s Narrow Blade Element) General Artefact Length, Width and Location Number Thickness (mm.) Description Zone A Zone A Zone A Zone B Zone B 3045 7799 32 x 13 x 8 47 x 15 x 8 3445 8604 Tip fragment 54 x 13 x 10 8703 40*x 15 x 7 Based on a flake of quartz. The shape of the t i p i s oblique to the long axis. Graver. *Basal portion missing. Extensive retouch over dorsal face. Facets on t i p perpendicular to long axis of flake. Graver. Small scars on dorsal face of projection suggest graving function. Cryptocrystalline s i l i c a . Extensive retouch over dorsal face. S l i g h t c o n s t r i c t i o n at proximal end. The tool i s based on a f a i r l y thick crypto-c r y s t a l l i n e s i l i c a f l a k e . Wear on t i p suggests graving function. *Tip missing. Projection contracts from a narrow blade element. Thick basal or proximal end. Cryptocrystalline s i l i c a . Function undetermined. 169 Subgroup 1. The retouch i n two examples i s more e x t e n s i v e over the d o r s a l f a c e . B a s a l t h i n n i n g i s evident i n two examples (numbers 3 0 4 5 , m, Zone A and 8640, p, Zone B), and the other two specimens (numbers 7799, n, Zone A and 3 4 4 5 , 1, Zone A) are incomplete on the proximal end. Rotary wear i s not i n evidence on any of the t o o l s i n t h i s subgroup. Small f l a k e s c a r s on the d o r s a l face of the t i p s of the p r o j e c t i o n s suggest a g r a v i n g f u n c t i o n . These s m a l l f l a k e s c a r s do not appear to be of the b u r i n type but r a t h e r the k i n d of wear produced by drawing the t i p a g a i n s t a s u r f a c e i n a l i n e a r f a s h i o n . Subgroup 3s B i p o i n t e d or Diamond Shaped Tools Number of Specimens: 4 complete (Table XXXVII, F i g u r e 2 9 , r - u ) , 1 fragment General D e s c r i p t i o n : The t o o l s i n t h i s subgroup are s m a l l and diamond shaped. Although these u n i f a c e s appear to be b i -pointed, one p r o j e c t i o n tends to be more pronounced than the other, and o n l y the more prominent p r o j e c t i o n e x h i b i t s r e t o u c h to a v a r y i n g degree. F l a k e s c a r s are present over the d o r s a l f a c e s of a l l the specimens. These s c a r s have the appearance of h a v i n g been produced by the removal of p r e v i o u s f l a k e s while the f l a k e was on the core, r a t h e r than r e s u l t i n g from a shaping process on the f l a k e i t s e l f . These t o o l s are s i m i l a r i n form to the t o o l d e s c r i b e d as a f l a k e d r i l l by M i t c h e l l which was recovered from Montague Harbour I ( 1972: 9 7 ) • The t o o l s i n the Katz sample, however, do not have r o t a r y wear on the t i p of the p r o j e c t i o n but appear to have 170 had graving or p e r f o r a t i n g f u n c t i o n s which i s suggested by the absence of crushing on the edges of the t i p . TABLE XXXVII  Subgroup 3» Diamond Shaped or B i p o i n t e d Tools General A r t e f a c t Length, Width and Lo c a t i o n Number Thickness (mm.) D e s c r i p t i o n Zone A 93^6 26 x 17 x 6 Zone A 10570 23 x 14 x 5 Zone A 6018 29 x 20 x 7 Zone A Zone A 9080 10310 Fragment 30 x 19 x 6 L a t e r a l retouch along one side of p r o j e c t i o n . No evidence of basal t h i n n i n g . Made from c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e s i l i c a . The t i p of the p r o j e c t -i o n i s extremely sharp suggesting a p e r f o r a t i n g f u n c t i o n . Retouch l i m i t e d to the v e n t r a l face along one side of the p r o j e c t i o n . The bulb of percussion i s evident at a medial p o s i t i o n along one l a t -e r a l edge. Both t i p s are sharp and pointed suggesting a p e r f o r a t i n g r a t h e r than a d r i l l i n g or graving f u n c t i o n . The t i p of the p r o j e c t -i o n on t h i s t o o l i s snapped o f f perpendicu-l a r to the long a x i s of the f l a k e . This may be breakage r e s u l t i n g from a d r i l l i n g or graving a c t i o n . M a t e r i a l i s b a s a l t . S i m i l a r form to other Subgroup 3 specimens. P r o j e c t i o n appears to have wear from graving. A small f l a k e scar ex-tends from the s t r a i g h t t i p along the d o r s a l face of the spur. Very s l i g h t retouch along the l a t e r a l edge of the spur on the d o r s a l face. 171 Group 6s Unifaces With Continuous Marginal Retouch Number of Specimenss 4 (Table XXXVIII, Figure 3 0 , a-d) General Descriptions These tools are characterized by con-tinuous marginal retouch on quadrangular flakes. The angle of retouch i s steeper on the ends suggesting use as end-scrapers. The acutely retouched l a t e r a l edges may also have had a scraping or cutting function, so the p o s s i b i l i t y of use as a multipurpose tool cannot be discounted. Specimen number 9418 (Zone A) may have been used as a scraper i n i t s present form or may be at a stage i n manufacture judging from the heavy i r r e g u l a r percussion f l a k i n g on the dorsal face. These unifaces could have been hand held or hafted. A l l four specimens are from Zone A. Group 7s Blade-Like Unifaces With Lateral Retouch Number of Specimenss 25 (Table XXXIX, Figure 3 0 , c-r) General Descriptions These tools are based almost exclusively on blade-like flakes of c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e s i l i c a . One excep-tion (number 7725s Zone A) i s of basalt. The retouch i s con-fined to one or both l a t e r a l edges. These l a t e r a l edges have various outliness convex, s l i g h t l y concave and concave-convex (numbers 12075 and 12472, Backhoe Test P i t ) . These tools may have been used as side scrapers or shaving tools on organic materials. The edge angles are generally acute, between 20 and 40 degrees. Two specimens of f a i r l y thick flakes have steeper edge angles i n the 50 to 60 degree range (numbers 6996 and 7659, Zone A). 172 TABLE XXXVIII  Unifaces With Continuous Marginal Retouch General Artefact Length, Width and Location Number Thickness (mm.) Description Zone A 8732 35 x 22 x 5 Zone A 9612 47 x 21 x 7 Zone A 9418 41 x 22 x 9 Zone A 9099 46 x 30 x 10 Based on a subrectangu-l a r flake of basalt. The ends have edge angles of 60 and 85 degrees. The sides, 70 degrees. The edges are a l l s l i g h t l y convex. A c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e s i l i c a flake more elon-gate than the other specimens. The extreme curve of the flake does not permit an ea s i l y determinable edge angle. Some e v i -dence of crushing or wear on the ventral face along both l a t e r a l edges. Basalt flake, quadran-gular i n form. Some cortex remaining on the dorsal face. Edges s l i g h t l y serrated from heavy percussion f l a k -ing. Edge angles be-tween 40 and 50 degrees, more acute than other specimens. A c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e flake, keel shaped i n cross-section. Edge angle on one end extremely steep at 90 degrees, angle on l a t e r a l edges near 45 degrees. Presumably a hand held t o o l . TABLE XXXIX Group 7s Blade Like Unifaces With La t e r a l Retouch General Location Artefact Number 9766 7726 10403 1 0 1 7 8 * 6996 7 6 5 9 8 0 2 7 8 7 1 4 * 7 7 2 4 7115* 7 8 0 7 7 7 0 4 8 5 8 0 Length 40 3 ? 37 3 7 32 3 5 26 23 28 2 2 2 9 30 23 Width 2 4 22 24 22 18 20 18 15 15 16 18 20 2 1 Thickness 5 4 5 5 8 6 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Retouch one side X X X X X Retouch Two Sides X X X X X X X X Edge Angle 3 5 ° 4 0 ° 4 0 ° 4 0 ° 50° 60° 1 5 ° 2 0 ° 3 0 ° 4 0 ° — 1 5 ° * Incomplete Specimen TABLE XXXIX (Continued) General Location Surface Backhoe Test P i t Artefact Number 1000* 356 1006 1008* 1011 5005 618 12075 12137 12290 12472* Length 35 41 29 33 32 33 28 34 33 27 31 Width 23 21 23 29 23 23 15 26 27 18 20 Thickness 4 3 4 2 2 6 3 4 5 3 3 Retouch One Side X X X Retouch Two Sides X X X X X X X X Edge Angle 3 5 ° 40° 20° 20° 20° 3 5 ° 2 0 ° 40° 1 5 ° 1 5 ° 40° Incomplete Specimen Range i n Length - 26-41 mm. Range i n Width - 15-29 mm. Range i n Thickness - 3 - 8 mm. 175 General Provenience: Zone A - 13 Zone B - 0 Surface - 7 Backhoe Test P i t - 4 Group 8 : B i l a t e r a l l y Retouched Macroblades Number of Specimens: 2 (Table XL, Figure 3 0 , s-t) General Description: These unifaces are s i m i l a r i n form to the specimen described by Sanger from Zone III i n the Lochnore Creek S i t e EdRk:7 ( 1 9 7 0 : 7 9 ) . Specimen number 5189 from the disturbed surface at Katz lacks the proximal, or bulbar end of the blade, the other t o o l exhibits battering on the bulbar end c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of macroblade core preparation (Sanger, 1970: 8 4 - 8 5 ) . Artefact number 7790 (Zone A) i s missing the d i s t a l end so measurements are based on incomplete t o o l s . Group 9 : Thin Triangular Unifaces With Straight Edges Number of Specimens: 2 (Table XLI, Figure 3 0 , u-k) General Description: Both specimens are based on th i n flakes of c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e s i l i c a . The edges are straight and marginally retouched. The edge angles are extremely acute, less than 20 degrees. Group 1 0 : Crescent Shaped Unifaces Number of Specimens: 4 (Table XLII, Figure 3 , a-d) General Description: These tools have one concave l a t e r a l edge and one convex l a t e r a l edge. In three of the four specimens both edges are u n i f a c i a l l y retouched. Specimen number 8203 from Zone A i s retouched along the convex edge 176 TABLE XL B i l a t e r a l l y Retouched Macro-blades General Artefact Length, Width and Location Number Thickness (mm.) Description Surface 5169 46 x 15 x 5 (missing proximal end) Zone A 7790 48 x 13 x 4 ( d i s t a l end missing) Cryptocrystalline s i l i c a . Keel-shaped or piano-triangular i n cross-section. Some lim i t e d l a t e r a l retouch on the ventral face as well as extensive mar-ginal retouch along the l a t e r a l edges on the dorsal face. Edge angle approximately 40 degrees. Cryptocrystalline s i l i c a . Also piano-triangular i n cross-section. Batter-ing on the bulbar or proximal end of the blade. Retouch continuous on both l a t e r a l edges. Edge angle between 50-60 de-grees. TABLE XLI Thin Triangular Unifaces With Straight Edges General Artefact Length, Width and Location Number Thickness (mm.) Description Backhoe Test P i t Backhoe Test P i t 12104 13379 33 x 27 x 3 37 x 20 x 3 Straight retouched edges converge to a point. One corner broken. No basal thinning evident but t o o l i s thin enough for hafting. Straight retouched edges converge to a point. One corner also missing i n t h i s specimen. 177 only. The two tools recovered from the Backhoe Test P i t are missing the d i s t a l or t i p end. The proximal or basal end i s approximately straight i n a l l cases. TABLE XLII  Crescent Shaped Unifaces General Artefact Length, Width and Location Number Thickness (mm.) Description Zone A Zone A Backhoe Test P i t Backhoe Test P i t 8203 9^36 45 x 29 x 7 31 x 21 x 4 12553 34 x 22 x 6 ( t i p missing) 13252 23 x.18 x 4 ( t i p missing) The tool i s based on a basalt flake. The re-touch i s along the con-vex side only. Basalt f l a k e . Retouch along both l a t e r a l edges. No thinning on proximal end. Basalt. Some cortex on dorsal face. Although retouch i s present on both l a t e r a l edges i t i s more prominent on the concave edge. Cryptocrystalline s i l i c a . Retouch along both l a t e r a l edges. Miscellaneous Formed Unifaces (Table XLIII, Figure 3 1 , e-i) There are a number of formed unifaces from the Katz s i t e which are s u f f i c i e n t l y unlike any other specimens i n the sam-ple that they require i n d i v i d u a l description. TABLE XLIII Miscellaneous Formed Unifaces General Artefact Length, Width and Location Number Thickness (mm.) Description Zone A 6 4 6 2 38 x 20 x 8 Zone A Surface 6133 1014 21 x 21 x 6 3 5 x 3 4 x 5 Backhoe Test P i t 12294 4 2 x 29 x 6 This tool i s based on a f a i r l y thick flake of cryptocrystalline s i l i c a . I t i s crescent shaped with one convex and one concave l a t e r a l edge. One end i s nearly straight and the other i s pointed as a r e s u l t of the convergence of the l a t e r a l edges. The straight end has extensive retouch on the ventral face of the t o o l with limited retouch on the dorsal face. The l a t e r a l edges are steeply retouched, and the tool i s thickest at the pointed end. The broad straight end could function as a scraping edge. The point-ed end could have been used as a graving spur. A wedge shaped flake of c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e s i l i c a . The thick end has remnants of cortex and the faces converge i n a u n i f a c i a l l y retouched bevel. The working edge i s s t r a i g h t . See Figure 31. This uniface i s a rectangular flake of crypto-c r y s t a l l i n e s i l i c a with three retouched concave sides. Two of the pronounced corners of the flake show use from a graving action. This specimen i s s i m i l a r to the t o o l described by Sanger i n h i s Group 1 Gravers (1970s 8 4 ) . This tool i s an end scraper with a contracting stem. There i s steep retouch on the widest end of the flake (8O-90 degrees). The working edge i s convex. The l a t e r a l edges c o n s t r i c t s l i g h t l y near the mid portion and contract to a convex TABLE XLIII (Continued) General Artefact Length, Width and Location Number Thickness (mm.) Description or rounded base. This t o o l could have been hand held or hafted. See Figure 31. Backhoe it H Test P i t 12^71 45 x 14 x 5 This tool i s based on a "boot shaped' flake of basalt. See Figure . The retouch extends along both sides, but i s more evident on the convex side. 180 Unformed Unifaces This class includes u n i f a c i a l l y retouched flakes which have an established provenience i n Zones A and B, and appear to lack evidence of deliberate shaping. They are assumed to function as cutting and scraping too l s . There are 101 speci-mens from Zone A and 23 from Zone B. An examination was carried out i n terms of the following a t t r i b u t e s : length, width and thickness, the length of the working edge, and the angle of the working edge. The edge angle estimate was made by placing the flake on polar coordinate graph paper. Of the 101 unifaces i n the Zone A sample, an edge angle i s provided for only 80 specimens. It i s d i f f i c u l t to read the angle on the graph paper f o r specimens with concave and downcuring edges and where the edge angle varies i n acuteness along i t s extent. TABLE XLIV  Unformed Unifaces: Zone A Range Mean Number (mm.) (mm.) Length 92 25 -80 4 7 . 0 Width 92 15 -73 3 3 . 0 Thickness 92 5 -28 9.8 Length of Retouched Edge 71 9 -68 3 0 . 4 Edge Angle 80 1 5 ° - 9 0 ° 4 4 . 0 ° 181 TABLE XLV Unformed Unifaces: Zone B Number Range (mm.) Mean (mm.') Length 20 32 - 9 5 50.0 Width 20 21 -48 3 3 . 0 Thickness 20 4 -16 9 . 3 Length of Retouched Edge 19 12 -60 28.4 Edge Angle 20 1 5 ° - & 5 ° 42.0° These tools were also grouped according to the shape of the working edge i n r e l a t i o n to the long axis of the s f l a k e . This method was employed by Sanger ( 1 9 7 0 : 80-81) i n the analysis of s i m i l a r tools from the Lochnore-Nesikep l o c a l i t y . The r e s u l t s of these groupings are presented i n Tables XLVI and XLVII. The problem with the kind of analysis presented i n t h i s paper i s that i n d i v i d u a l attributes are examined separately and possible covariance of several att r i b u t e s i s not r e a d i l y detectable. A s a t i s f a c t o r y analysis of these tools, along with the cortex s p a l l tools, may require a multivariate technique which can consider a number of a t t r i -butes simultaneously over a large population of t o o l s . The samples from Zones A and B look very s i m i l a r when compared at t h i s l e v e l of analysis. In Table XLVI and Table XLVII, the position of the working edge i n r e l a t i o n to the long axis of the flake i s compared with the shape of the edge. The terms are defined as follows: l a t e r a l edges r e f e r to the TABLE XLVI Position and Shape of Edge on Unformed Unifaces: Zone A Shape of the Edge uonvex-Concave Straight Convex Convex uoncave Convex uoncave-Straight Reversed Retouch Totals Retouch Along A Single L a t e r a l Edge Retouch Along A Single Transverse Edge Continuous Retouch Along More Than One Edge Non-continuous Retouch Along More Than One Edge Reversed Retouch On Opposite Surfaces 9 15 11 19 17 43 32 Totals 13 26 36 85 Miscellaneous - 16 TABLE XLVII Position and Shape of Edge on Unformed Unifaces; Zone B Shape of the Edge Concave- Concave-Concave Straight Convex Convex Concave Totals Retouch Along A Single L a t e r a l Edge 2 6 7 1 16 Retouch Along A Single Transverse Edge 2 1 Continuous Retouch Along More Than One Edge Non-Continuous Retouch Along More Than One Edge 0 Reversed Retouch 0 Totals 2 8 8 1 0 19 Miscellaneous - 4 23 i-1 CD 0 184 long edges of the flake, the transverse edges are the shorter ones (Sanger, 1970: 80-81). Continuous retouch along more than one edge and non-continuous retouch along more than one edge are self-explanatory terms. Reversed retouch on opposite faces, sometimes referred to as alternate-opposite retouch also occurs. Tables XLVI and XLVII indicate that, i n Zones A and B, the u t i l i z e d edge i s most often the long l a t e r a l edge, and convex and straight edges are the most frequent edge shapes. Quartz Industry Artefacts made of quartz have been mentioned i n several sections described thus f a r . Quartz tools are included i n Groups 3 , 5 and 7 of the formed uniface category and among the pieces es q u i l l e e s . Besides these tools, a few quartz cores, a large number of quartz c r y s t a l s , and quantities of detrit u s have been recovered from the Katz s i t e . A cursory examination of the t i p s of the quartz c r y s t a l s through a binocular micro-scope has revealed evidence of wear on some of these specimens i n the form of crushing and s t r i a t i o n s . Microscopic analysis of the kind ca r r i e d out by Semenov ( 1 9 6 4 ) , Nance (1970s 1971) and Wilmsen (1968) i s needed to determine possible functions for these too l s . Some of the quartz c r y s t a l s show evidence of battering on one end, which may indicate use as pieces esquillees (Macdonald, 1968: 8 5 - 9 0 ) . Undoubtedly the extreme hardness of t h i s mineral with the at t r i b u t e of retaining a sharp edge made i t a p a r t i c u l a r l y suitable material f o r many 185 functions. The number of specimens recovered from the various areas of the s i t e i s presented below (see also Figure 3 4 ) . Zone A - 1 large and several small quartz cores 23 quartz c r y s t a l s 102 c r y s t a l fragments and quartz chips Zone B - 3 c r y s t a l fragments and quartz chips Surface - 2 small quartz cores 5 quartz c r y s t a l s 9 c r y s t a l fragments and quartz chips Backhoe Test P i t - 10 c r y s t a l fragments and quartz chips Stone Wedges (Pieces Esquille'es) Number of Specimens: 26 (Figure 3 3 , a-o, and Table XLVIII) General Description: These tools are based on chunky flakes, generally rectangular i n form, and are distinguished by the presence of bipolar f l a k i n g . The bipolar f l a k i n g i s presumably the r e s u l t of use as d i v i d i n g wedges i n the groove and s p l i n t e r technique i n the working of bone, antler, ivory, and wood (Clark and Thompson, 1953: 1 5 0 ) . Macdonald (19681 86-90) noted the presence of these tools i n the Debert S i t e assemblage and speculated that they may have functioned i n a s i m i l a r fashion to tools recovered i n Old World archaeological s i t e s . A small sample of bipolar flaked tools were recovered by Sanger ( 1970: 84) from s i t e s i n the Lochnore-Nesikep l o c a l i t y . He suggested the Lochnore-Nesikep tools were not ". . . f u n c t i o n a l l y equivalent to the eastern specimens" described by Macdonald, but were probably a ". . . by-product or detrit u s of the general chipping technique." 186 At the Katz s i t e b ipolar flaked artefacts have been recovered from Zones A and B, the disturbed surface and a Backhoe Test P i t . Some specimens have a platform on one edge which exhibits battering. Other tools are more symmetrical i n longitudinal section with opposite ends exhibiting i d e n t i -c a l wear i n the form of small battering s p a l l s removed from both faces. There has been no attempt i n t h i s study to group the specimens on the basis of form. Macdonald (1968: 86) observed: Pieces esquille'es (or ecaille'es) d i f f e r from most concepts of a t o o l , since there i s no stage at which they can be considered f i n i s h e d . They are i n i t i a l l y short s p a l l s or blocky fragments, which rapidl y disintegrate through use u n t i l they reach a size that i s d i f f i c u l t to hold, at which time they are discarded. Consequently there are no intermediate steps of tool manufacture, and attempts to break them down into types lead to c r i t e r i a which r e f l e c t only stages of exhaustion. Metric data, and information regarding material and general provenience i s provided f o r t h i s sample i n Table XLVIII. Cortex S p a l l Tools Numerically the dominant artefact i n the Katz assemblage i s the tool referred to by various authors as the boulder-s p a l l , cortex flake, or cortex s p a l l t o o l (Borden, 1968, 1969; Coulson, 19715 M i t c h e l l , 1971)• These tools are primary flakes struck from r i v e r pebbles or cobbles of metamorphic and igneous material by a hammerstone or a n v i l percussion technique. The dorsal or c o r t i c a l face of the flake converges with the bulbar or ventral face to form a long thin cutting 187 TABLE XLVIII Pieces Esquille'es General Artefact Length, Width and Other Location Number Thickness (mm.) Basalt Quartz S i l i c a t e s Zone A 7423 68 X 56 X 28 X 6092 51 X 45 X 18 X 9410 34 X 28 X 14 X 6457 45 X 23 X 9 X 6964 40 X 24 X 12 X 8088 34 X 21 X 12 X 6966 40 X 37 X 14 X 8534 32 X 26 X 8 X 7757 23 X 20 X 10 X 7733 63 X 29 X 17 X 8162 44 X 24 X 13 X 6773 24 X 18 X 11 X 8506 25 X 23 X 5 X 8406 23 X 23 X 10 X 7767 21 X 15 X 6 X 9385 15 X 10 X 6 X 7377 19 X 12 X 6 X Zone B 9212 21 X 16 X 18 X 9755 27 X 24 X 10 X 10016 29 X 21 X 8 X 6724 23 X 12 X 12 X Surface 552 24 X 12 X 8 X Backhoe 12740 26 X 21 X 10 X 12861 20 X 15 X 12 X 12988 21 X 16 X 8 X 13196 21 X 12 X 6 X Range i n Length - 15-68 mm. Range i n Width - 10-56 mm. Range i n Thickness - 5-28 mm. Number of basalt specimens - 10 Number of quartz specimens - 11 Number of other s i l i c a t e s - 5 188 edge. The opposite edge i s generally thick and therefore suitable f o r grasping. Over one thousand specimens were recovered from the disturbed surface of the s i t e , and a s i m i l a r number from three backhoe test p i t s excavated i n the F a l l of 1 9 7 0 . The analysis i n thi s report includes only the sample of cortex s p a l l tools with established provenience i n zones A and B excavated i n the Summer of 1971. The sample assigned to Zone A consists of 701 complete tools and 146 fragments, which comprise 31$ of the t o t a l Zone A assemblage. The specimens recovered from Zone B num-ber 124 complete tools and 21 fragments, 33$ of the t o t a l Zone B assemblage. A functional analysis of cortex s p a l l tools i s not an easy task despite the r e l a t i v e s i m p l i c i t y of the tools i n terms of discrete and continuous a t t r i b u t e s . L i t t l e ground-work has been l a i d by other researchers. Sanger (1970: 88-89) grouped the cortex s p a l l tools recovered from the Lochnore Nesikep l o c a l i t y on the basis of the amount of cortex remain-ing on the dorsal surface of the tools . No mention was made of form or a r t i f i c i a l modification of the tools i n the sample. A major attempt to analyze cortex s p a l l tools was made by Coulson (1971: 17-26) on a c o l l e c t i o n of tools recovered from the v i c i n i t y of L i l l o o e t , B.C. In Coulson's study the tools were grouped on the basis of the position of the bulb of percussion i n r e l a t i o n to the maximum width of the s p a l l . I f the axis of percussion was 189 p a r a l l e l with the axis of maximum length, the s p a l l was grouped as "end struck." A tool with an axis of percussion perpendicular to the axis of maximum length was grouped as "side struck." "Corner struck" tools were variants of these two groups, and "round" tools had a length and width d i f f -erence of les s than one centimeter. Coulson also defined f i v e classes of wear/retouchs use chipping, use polish, extensive polish, nibbling, and retouch. She also noted the position of wear/retouch i n r e l a t i o n to the bulb of percussion. The present analysis w i l l be concerned with some of the observations made by Coulson. A completely s a t i s f a c t o r y functional analysis of cortex s p a l l tools, however, may re-quire use of a multivariate technique capable of considering a large number of variables over a large population of tools. Such a study i s not, attempted i n th i s report. Cortex S p a l l Cores An important question concerning cortex s p a l l tools i s to what extent the form of the s p a l l t o o l may be determined by the method of detachment from the core. This question relates to assumptions which are made i n grouping the tools as "end struck," "side struck," etc., and questions of the relati o n s h i p between these groupings and functional a t t r i b u t e s such as polish, battering, etc. That i s to say, has an attempt been made by the ar t i s a n to create a desired form of tool by applying percussion on the side or end of a r i v e r cobble of suitable material? 190 In Coulson's study ( 1921 : 22) only one cortex s p a l l core was available so no mention of manufacture other than that based on inference was possible. In the Katz assemblage, 18 cortex s p a l l cores were recovered from Zone A, seven from Zone B and four from the disturbed surface. These cores pro-vide an opportunity to make some statements on cortex s p a l l manufacture, not possible by observing only the tools them-selves. The cores i n each zone are discussed separately below. Cortex S p a l l Cores (Zone A) Number of Specimens: 18 (Figures 36 and 37) General Description: The cores are based on r i v e r cobbles and pebbles of metamorphic and igneous material, and range i n maximum length from 13 to 40 centimeters. Some specimens (notably, number 3483) have up to six s p a l l scars i n evidence. One i n t e r e s t i n g observation i s that an elongate r i v e r cobble does not necessarily produce a cortex s p a l l which would be grouped as end struck. In fact, of seven cores e x h i b i t i n g a t o t a l of eleven flake scars a l l re-su l t i n g from percussion on the end of the pebble, not one s p a l l tool would be grouped as end struck, using Coulson's d e f i n i t i o n . The s p a l l scars i n a l l instances would be des-cribed as side or corner struck using the c r i t e r i o n of the rel a t i o n s h i p between the axis of percussion and the maximum length of the s p a l l . Figure 36 shows several of the end struck cobbles and the shape of the s p a l l removed. The categories "end," "side," and "corner struck" s p a l l s are descriptive of the form of the flake, but do not necessarily 191 denote the method by which the flake was detached. The repeated f l a k i n g of a core introduces another fa c t o r which determines the form of the s p a l l s . In several examples from Zone A (numbers 9127, 8177, 8473, 3 2 5 5 , and 3483) there i s evidence that the shape of the tool i s determined i n part by the way the s p a l l hinges i n r e l a t i o n to the scars of the previously removed s p a l l s . Specimen number 3^83 has a series of three s p a l l s : one i s struck from one face, two from the opposite face of the pebble, and one from the end. The rotation of the core f o r fl a k i n g suggests a randomness i n the production with a selection process f o r those most suitable s i m i l a r to the knapping of stone f o r the manufacture of other tool s . Eight of the cores might have functioned as tools i n themselves. One might argue that the way i n which the s p a l l i s de-tached from the core i s ir r e l e v a n t and that elongate "end struck" s p a l l s , whether produced f o r t u i t o u s l y or deliberately, may function d i f f e r e n t l y . The remaining discussion addresses i t s e l f to t h i s question. Cortex S p a l l Tools (Zone A) Number of Specimens: 685 complete tools, 146 fragments The f i r s t step taken i n the analysis was an examination of the maximum length d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r the entire sample. The r e s u l t s are presented i n Table IXL. The specimens appear to be normally d i s t r i b u t e d i n terms of maximum length and without bimodal d i s t r i b u t i o n or other clusterings that might be related to differences i n function. 192 The sample was then divided on the basis of wear and retouch. A l l specimens exhi b i t i n g secondary f l a k i n g or re-touch were grouped and examined. Cortex Spalls Secondarily Flaked (Zone A) Number of Specimens: 129 Approximately twenty per cent of the entire sample from Zone A exhibited secondary f l a k i n g to some degree. An attempt was made to determine whether maximum length was related to the presence of secondary f l a k i n g . It was found that the size d i s t r i b u t i o n of the secondarily flaked tools closely resembled the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the sample as a whole, ranging from f i v e to eighteen centimeters. See Table L. The specimens i n t h i s sample were then coded f o r the position of the bulb of percussion i n r e l a t i o n to the axis of maximum width, a method outlined by Coulson ( 1 9 7 1 ) . Of the 112 specimens with an e a s i l y recognizable bulb of percussion, 44 appeared to be end struck, 44 side struck, 11 corner struck and 13 round. The position of the working edge(s) i n r e l a t i o n to bulb of percussion was noted for each of the 112 t o o l s . Secondary f l a k i n g as shown i n Figure 38 appears over the f u l l length range of s p a l l s . This retouching may simply be a resharpening f o r continued use i n the same function as the unsharpened tools, or the steepened edge angle may put the s p a l l into a d i f f e r e n t functional category as a scraping or chopping t o o l . The remaining cortex s p a l l s from Zone A were assigned to the following f i v e groupings on the basis of the working edge: 193 1. Tools with a worn concavity on the working edge (Spoke shaves?) 2. Tools with polished edges U- or V-shaped i n cross-section (Saws?) 3 . Tools with battered edges, small chips removed from the dorsal, ventral or both faces. 4. Tools with use wear i n the form of abrasion on the working edge (Knives or scraping tools?) 5 . Tools without observable wear Of the 46 specimens grouped as end struck, only thirteen have a working edge on the narrow end of the flake, opposite the bulb of percussion. The remaining thirty-one specimens a l l have at l e a s t one working edge subparallel to the long axis of the flake. Of the 42 specimens grouped as side struck, eight are secondarily flaked on one narrow end of the flake, subparallel to the axis of percussion. The remaining 35 have a working edge along the long thin edge opposite the axis of percussion. The information included i n Table LI seems to indicate that the p o s i t i o n of the working edge i s not necess-a r i l y determined by the p o s i t i o n of the bulb of percussion and i t s r e l a t i o n to the long axis of the s p a l l . It appears that a l l edges other than the thick bulbar portion are poten-t i a l l y u t i l i z a b l e . The advantage of an "end struck" s p a l l t o ol i n some instances i s that two long sides of the flake are suitable f o r use. TABLE IXL Number of Spal l s Number of S p a l l s -4 - 5 5 - 6 Maximum Length of Cortex Spalls (Zone A) Length (Centimeters) 6 - 7 7 - 8 8 - 9 9-10 10-11 11-12 12-13 13-14 3 14-15 26 15-16 70 16-17 95 111 119 93 67 41 Length (Centimeters) 17-18 18-19 19-20 20-21 2 1 - 2 2 2 2 - 2 3 10 11 0 0 0 Number of Spalls Number of Spalls 0 8 14 19 23 26 17 Length (Centimeters) 14-15 15-16 16-17 17-18 18-19 19-20 2 0 - 2 1 0 0 0 24 N - 685 Specimens TABLE L Maximum Length of Secondarily Flaked Cortex S p a l l s (Zone A) Length (Centimeters) 4_ 5 5 - 6 6 - 7 7 - 8 8 - 9 9-10 10-11 11-12 12-13 13-14 N - 129 Specimens 195 Figure 35 Schematic Drawing Showing Cortex S p a l l Attributes Position of the Bulb of Percussion End Struck Side Struck Corner Struck C i r c u l a r Position of the Working Edge i n Relation to Bulb of Percussion (Side Struck) •\r V 4r 4, O CD <CJ <^> Opposite Subparallel Subparallel Opposite-Subparallel (One end) (Two ends) (One side-one end) TABLE LI Position of the Working Edge of Secondarily Flaked Spa l l s , Zone A Opposite Subparallel (One side) Subparallel (Two sides) Opposite & Subparallel (One side) Opposite & Subparallel (Two sides) Total End Struck 13 13 12 6 0 44 Side Struck 34 8 0 1 1 44 Corner Struck 8 1 0 1 1 11 Round 9 1 1 2 0 13 N - 110 Specimens 197 C o r t e x S p a l l Spoke Shaves Number o f Specimens: 25 ( F i g u r e 39) G e n e r a l D e s c r i p t i o n : These specimens a r e i d e n t i c a l i n form t o the o t h e r s p a l l s i n the sample except f o r one o r two w e l l -worn c o n c a v i t i e s a l o n g the w o r k i n g edge. I n most cases the wear i s on the d o r s a l f a c e o f the s p a l l . These t o o l s may have s e r v e d as b o t h c u t t i n g t o o l s and spoke shaves. C o r t e x S p a l l Saws Number o f Specimens: 3 ( F i g u r e s 40 and 44) G e n e r a l D e s c r i p t i o n : These t h r e e t o o l s a re e l l i p t i c a l i n shape w i t h edges t h a t a re U- or V-shaped i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n . Specimen number 8577 has a V-shaped edge i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n w i t h a ground f a c e t on each f a c e . T h i s t o o l may have f u n c -t i o n e d i n the sawing o f ground s l a t e o r o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l s . Specimen number 6219 has a U-shaped edge w i t h p o l i s h e x t e n d -i n g between two t o t h r e e m i l l i m e t e r s onto the v e n t r a l f a c e . The t h r e e specimens range i n maximum l e n g t h from 7 . 5 t o 9 . 5 c e n t i m e t e r s . Edge B a t t e r e d C o r t e x S p a l l s (Zone A) Number of Specimens: 16 ( F i g u r e 4 l ) G e n e r a l D e s c r i p t i o n : These t o o l s range i n l e n g t h from 8 t o 17 c e n t i m e t e r s and have b a t t e r i n g a l o n g a t l e a s t one edge. One specimen, number 9017 , has t h r e e s t r a i g h t edges a l l h e a v i l y b a t t e r e d . The edges a r e b l u n t s u g g e s t i n g a f u n c t i o n o t h e r t h a n heavy c h o p p i n g o r c u t t i n g , perhaps a s s o c i a t e d w i t h 198 the shredding of bark or some sim i l a r action which requires repeated pounding. Cortex Spalls With Abraded or Heavily Worn Edges (Zone A) Number of Specimenss 87 (Figure 42) General Descriptions These specimens a l l exhibit some degree of use wear or abrasion on the working edge. Several of the tools, notably numbers 8590 and 3514 , have s t r i a t i o n s perpen-dicul a r to the working edge suggesting a scraping function perhaps i n the defleshing and dehairing of hides proposed by H.I. Smith (1899s 147) and Coulson ( 1 9 7 1 ' 2 2 ) . I t i s not possible with only s l i g h t magnification to make inferences as to function f o r most of these tools. The granular nature of the material precludes the easy i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of wear patterns. The edges might possibly r e s u l t from heavy use i n hide pre-paration or a chopping action i n f i s h butchery. Cortex Spalls Without E a s i l y Observable Wear (Zone A) Number of Specimenss 4 4 l General Descriptions In t h i s sample 78 s p a l l s are end struck, 231 are side struck, 46 are corner struck, and 75 are c i r c u l a r . Eleven specimens do not have an e a s i l y recognizable bulb of percussion. These tools may have had a cutting func-tion, e.g., f i s h butchery, which does not produce r e a d i l y detectable wear patterns on these materials. Some experimen-tatio n was carried out. When butchering salmon with cortex s p a l l knives, the s l i g h t l y serrated edge of a freshly struck 199 s p a l l cut through the tough back skin of a salmon quite e a s i l y . The use of a cortex s p a l l i n scoring the fle s h of the salmon f o r drying tended to tear the f l e s h . Such experi-mentation suggests that a sharp ground slate knife would be a more suitable t o o l f o r t h i s purpose. Cortex S p a l l Cores (Zone B) Number of Specimens: 7 (Figure 45) General Description: The s p a l l cores recovered from Zone B appear s i m i l a r to those of Zone A, but without the size range. These specimens range i n length from 10 to 21 c e n t i -meters. There i s one good example (number 9672) of a small elongate cobble with a bulb of percussion at each end and scars which suggest the removal of tools which would be des-cribed as side struck. Three of the cores (numbers 6 8 5 6 , 6 7 0 5 , and 10399) have suitable edges f o r use as tools them-selves. Number 10399 has two s p a l l scars on the ventral face and some secondary f l a k i n g along one edge. Cortex S p a l l Tools (Zone B) Number of Specimens: 124 The sample was measured f o r maximum length to compare the size d i s t r i b u t i o n with the upper zone. See Table LII. The tools i n Zone B have proportionately fewer tools i n the small size range, i . e . , less than seven centimeters, and proportionately more of the larger tools from 13 to 21 c e n t i -meters. Considering the sample size, the d i s t r i b u t i o n i s 200 si m i l a r to that of Zone A. Cortex Spalls Secondarily Flaked (Zone B) Number of Specimens: 28 (Figure 46) The percentage of secondarily flaked tools i n the Zone B sample i s 22$, si m i l a r to the proportion of secondarily flaked tools i n Zone A. The d i s t r i b u t i o n i n terms of size i s presented i n Table LIV. Again, the d i s t r i b u t i o n based on length i s sim i l a r to that of the Zone B sample as a whole, and to the d i s t r i b u t i o n i n Zone A with one exception. There appear to be proportion-ately larger numbers of large secondarily flaked tools i n Zone B than i n Zone A. This could be the r e s u l t of sampling error, but a l t e r n a t i v e l y may indicate a r e l a t i v e l y greater use of heavy duty chopping and scraping tools i n Zone B. Zone B appears to be a spe c i a l i z e d a c t i v i t y s i t e , e.g., a f i s h i n g s t a t i o n associated with the butchery and/or processing of f i s h f o r storage. These tools were examined f o r the position of the work-ing edge i n r e l a t i o n to the bulb of percussion as was done for the secondarily flaked s p a l l s of Zone A. See Table LI I I . These specimens exhibit the same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as those found i n Zone A. The edge most favored i s opposite the thick bulbar portion of the flake; however, other edges, sub-p a r a l l e l to the axis of percussion, were also retouched f o r use. TABLE LII Maximum Length of Cortex S p a l l s (Zone B) Length (Centimeters) Number of 4- 5 5--6 6-7 7-8 8-9 9-10 10-11 11-12 12-13 S p a l l s 0 0 3 16 . 24 24 Length (Centimeters) 16 14 7 Number of 13-14 14--15 15-16 16-17 17-18 18-19 19-20 20-21 Spal l s 6 7 2 3 1 1 0 0 N - 124 Spe cimens TABLE LIII Po s i t i o n of the Working Edge of Secondarily Flaked Spa l l s , Zone B Opposite Subparallel (One side) Opposite & Subparallel Subparallel (Two sides) (One side) Opposite & Subparallel (Two sides) Total End Struck 6 3 0 2 0 11 Side Struck 8 2 0 4 0 14 Corner Struck 0 0 0 0 0 0 Round 3 0 0 0 0 3 N - 28 Specimens TABLE LIV Maximum Length of Secondarily Flaked Cortex S p a l l s (Zone B) Length (Centimeters) N u m b e r o f 4 - 5 5 - 6 6 - 7 7-8 8- 9 9-10 10-11 11-12 12-1 3 S p a l l s 0 0 0 1 6 3 4 5 2 Length (Centimeters) M . , 13-14 14-15 15-16 16-17 17-18 18-19 19-20 2 0 - 2 1 Number of —- ' Spalls 1 4 0 1 1 0 0 0 N - 28 Specimens 203 Cortex S p a l l Spoke Shaves (Zone B) Number of Specimens: 5 (Figure 4 8 , a-b) General Description: These s p a l l s displayed well worn notches along the working edge. The wear i s located on the dorsal face of the t o o l . There are no cortex s p a l l s with saw-like edges i n Zone B. One specimen (number 8328) has a highly polished edge and ventral face. I t may have functioned as a scraping t o o l . See Figure 5 0 . Edge Battered Cortex Spalls (Zone B) Number of Specimens: 7 (Figure 49) General Description: Four of these specimens are larger than 15 centimeters i n length. They have pronounced battering which extends back on the dorsal and ventral faces three to ten millimeters. Two of the tools i n t h i s group (numbers 8979 and 65^6) are adze-like i n form with a straight working edge subparallel to the axis of percussion. Battering on both faces extends seven to eight millimeters from the edge. Cortex S p a l l s With Abraded or Heavily Worn Edges (Zone B) Number of Specimens: 15 (Figure 4 7 , c-e) General Description: Five specimens have wear which extends back from the working edge several millimeters on the dorsal face of the t o o l suggesting a scraping wear pattern. The other specimens have dulled or worn edges but the d i r e c t i o n of the abrasion against the edge i s not evident. 204 Cortex Spalls Without Observable Wear (Zone B) Number of Specimenss 69 General Descriptions No observable wear patterns are e v i -dent. This group, as those recovered i n Zone A, may have functioned as knives f o r materials which do not produce wear patterns, e.g., i n the butchery of f i s h . Cores and Core Tools The artefacts i n t h i s class are d i f f i c u l t to group according to conventional sorting methods because to a large extent the items represent stages i n a process rather than del i b e r a t e l y fashioned tools. This process involves the pro-duction of primary flakes from nodules of raw material, gen-e r a l l y basalt. Included i n the Katz sample are a large number of items which r e f l e c t the knapping process from nodules with a single flake removed, to completely exhausted core fragments only a few centimeters i n s i z e . Another problem i n analyzing and presenting these data i s the f a c t that some of the objects at d i f f e r e n t stages of exhaustion show evidence of modifica-tion suggesting use as tools i n themselves. The f l a k i n g technique appears to be d i r e c t percussion, probably with a hammerstone, applied without a break u n i f a c i a l l y around the edge of a pebble. This u n i f a c i a l , peripheral f l a k -ing, produces a pattern of stepped flake scars on one face, leaving the unmodified cortex on the opposite face. As the core i s rotated and the number of flakes removed increases, the edge angle r e s u l t i n g from the convergence of the flaked 205 face and the unflaked c o r t i c a l face becomes steepened. In a large number of specimens the f l a k i n g has been continued u n t i l the c o r t i c a l face i s almost f l a t and the edge angle i s within a 75 to 90 degree range. Often the specimens which have been reduced to small d i s c o i d a l cores of under f i v e centimeters i n diameter are of the best vitreous basalt. There i s a strong suggestion i n t h i s sample that an attempt was made to maximize the flake production of the best q u a l i t y materials. Some of the cores and core fragments show evidence of use retouch and deliberate retouch along a portion of the edge. These tools may have functioned as scraper-planes or scrapers depending upon the form, thickness, and edge angle of the core. The Zone A sample contains a t o t a l of 423 items i n -cluding core fragments; the Zone B sample contains 131 items. A l l specimens were examined f o r retouch and divided into the following three groupings: (a) Cores - Included here are flaked pebbles without obser-vable wear i n the form of edge blunting, polish, or stepped flake scars along the edge which might suggest deliberate edge retouch. The cores range i n size from 3«0 to 18 . 0 c e n t i -meters i n diameter and 1 .5 to 8 . 0 centimeters i n thickness. The edges on most of these specimens are sharp and s l i g h t l y jagged. The artefacts i n t h i s category number 109 items from Zone A and 29 items from Zone B. (b) Core-Tools - These specimens d i f f e r from the artefacts described i n groups (a) and (c) i n that they exhibit edges which appear to have been altered i n preparation for, or 206 through, use. This modification i s generally i n the form of a series of small stepped hinge fractures which extend onto the flaked face of the core from the edge. In some specimens the edge i s recessed, possibly from a heavy scraper plane action on some hard material. In these examples the edge angle i s often obtuse. Specimens i n t h i s group have the same range i n dimensions as the cores and core fragments i d e n t i f i e d as not having been used as tools . There are 122 core-tools assigned to Zone A and 38 "to Zone B. (c) Core Fragments - In t h i s grouping have been placed a l l the thick i r r e g u l a r chunks of cores which often exhibit rem-nants of cortex and which lack evidence of edge retouch of the kind described above. There are 203 core fragments i n Zone A and 69 core fragments i n Zone B. The cores which show evidence of use as tools are discussed below under the heading core-tools. Core-Tools Within the sample of cores and core fragments with iden-t i f i a b l e retouch there are several broad categories of tools based on the form of the core, the steepness of the edge angle, and the kind of wear i n evidence. A l l specimens were probably u t i l i z e d f i r s t f o r the extraction of primary flakes and secondarily modified f o r use as tools. The form of these tools depends l a r g e l y on the stage of flake removal at which they were put to use. 1. Large core-tools (steep edge retouch, scraper-planes?) 207 2 . Small thick d i s c o i d a l core and core fragments-tools -(steep edge retouch, scraping-planes? or scrapers? spoke shaves?) 3. Thin d i s c o i d a l core-tools (acute edge retouch, scrapers?) 4. Spoke shaves Group l i Large Core-Tools Number of Specimens: 27 (Zone A); (Figure 51» a, c-d) 11 (Zone B); (Figure 5 1 , b) General Description: The tools i n t h i s group are character-ized by a thickness range of between four centimeters and nine centimeters, and an edge angle along the edge exhi b i t i n g wear of between 75 degrees and 90 degrees. They resemble pebble tools i n that the portion of the tool opposite the working edge i s extremely thick and often unflaked. The working edge i n many cases has undercut the flaked face of the core, and has a series of small stepped flake scars and hinge fractures immediately above the edge. These tools a l l have wear which suggests use i n a heavy duty function, e.g., a scraper plane action. Most of the specimens i n t h i s group are of basalt. Group 2 : Small, Thick Discoidal Core and Core Fragment-Tools Number of Specimens: 57 (Zone A)» (Figure 5 2 , a-d) 14 (Zone B)5 (Figure 52 , e-h) General Description: These tools exhibit extensive p e r i -pheral f l a k i n g and thus lack the heavy backed, or unflaked edge, of the Group 1 tools . The thickest portion of the tool i s generally near the center of the artefact, and the thickness 208 range i s between 1 .5 centimeters and 3 . 5 centimeters. The edge angle i s comparable to that of the large core-tools, but the smaller size of these tools would suggest a l i g h t e r planing or scraping function. Two of the Zone A specimens are c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e s i l i c a , the remainder are basalt. The Zone B tools are a l l of basalt. Group 3s Thin Discoidal Core and Core Fragment Tools Number of Specimenss 23 (Zone A); (Figure 53» a-b, d) 8 (Zone B); (Figure 5 3 . c, e) General Descriptions These tools are based on thi n exhausted remnants and chunky core fragments. They lack the extensive f l a k i n g over one entire face of the tool character-i s t i c of the tools based on Group 2 cores. The edges exhibit secondary retouch and the edge angles are generally under f i f t y degrees. The thickness range i s from .8 centimeters to 2 . 5 centimeters. Most of the tools are round to ovate i n form with a diameter range of 3 . 5 centimeters to 7 centimeters. The r e l a t i v e l y acute edge angle of these tools suggests a scraping rather than a planing function. The edges are gen-e r a l l y convex but i n some cases the retouch has produced a marked denticulation along the edge. A l l specimens from Zones A and B are basalt. Group 4 : Spoke Shaves Number of Specimenss 4 (Zone A)s (Figure 5^ and 55) General Descriptions These tools are based on exhausted cores and have a broad concavity on one or more edges. Some 209 of the other cores i n the sample with marked denticulation along the edge might also have functioned as spoke shaves but the edge damage i s not r e a d i l y observable. The specimens i n th i s group have noticeable crushing i n the concavity i n the form of compressed multiple hinges which suggests use i n a heavy shaving action. The edge angles within the concavities are extremely steep, i n the 80 degree to 90 degree range. Three of the four tools have remnants of cortex on one face. Spoke shaves of t h i s type were not recovered from Zone B. A l l specimens are of basalt, and range i n diameter from four centimeters to eight centimeters. S p l i t Cobble Tools Number of Specimens: 15 (Zone A) General Description: These tools resemble cortex s p a l l tools i n that they have one c o r t i c a l face but are su b s t a n t i a l l y thicker and exhibit u n i f a c i a l f l a k i n g along most of the edge. A l l specimens here are over 4 cms. i n thickness and range between 11 and 14 cms. i n maximum length (Mitchell, 1971s 104). Pebble Tools Number of Specimenss 17 (Zone A); (Figure 5 6 , c-d) 2 (Zone B): (Figure 5 6 , a-b) General Description: These tools are based on f l a t r i v e r cobbles and pebbles of predominantly microcrystalline materials, e.g., d i o r i t e , r h y o l i t e , basalt, etc. Flakes are removed by di r e c t percussion along one edge leaving a thick rounded cor-t i c a l portion of the pebble opposite the working edge. Most 210 of these specimens are u n i f a c i a l l y f l a k e d although an o c c a s i o n a l b i f a c i a l specimen i s found, e.g., number 694-0 (Fi g u r e 57)• J u d g i n g from the number of u n i f a c i a l l y f l a k e d specimens, a b e v e l l e d edge r e s u l t i n g from the convergence of the f l a k e d d o r s a l f a c e , and the u n f l a k e d c o r t i c a l face appears to have been a most d e s i r a b l e form. For a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of pebble t o o l s see Borden (1968: 55-69; 1969: 9 - 1 3 ) . The pebble t o o l s i n the Katz sample range i n s i z e from 8 to 15 cms. i n l e n g t h . The a n a l y s i s here f o l l o w s the pebble t o o l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o u t l i n e d by Borden (1968: 58-63) which examines the shape of the working edge and the p o s i t i o n of the working edge i n r e l a t i o n to the l o n g a x i s of the pebble. F i f t e e n specimens from the Zone A sample f a l l i n t o the c a t e -gory "edged t o o l s , " of which 9 are of the "convex-end" v a r i e t y , 5 are "convex-side," and one has a s t r a i g h t working edge a l o n g the l o n g s i d e of the pebble " s t r a i g h t - s i d e . " The remaining specimens i n c l u d e one "beaked t o o l " and one " s p o k e s h a v e - l i k e t o o l . " The two Zone B t o o l s are edged-tools, one i s "convex-si d e " and one " s t r a i g h t - s i d e . " Edge B a t t e r e d Cobbles Number of Specimens: 7 ( F i g u r e 58) General D e s c r i p t i o n : These specimens are t h i n , elongate r i v e r cobbles which show evidence of heavy b a t t e r i n g a l o n g a t l e a s t one edge. One t o o l (number 411; Surface) has b a t t e r -i n g a l o n g both l o n g l a t e r a l edges. Only one specimen was excavated from Zone A. The r e s t of the sample was c o l l e c t e d 211 from the surface or the Backhoe Test P i t at the s i t e . How these t o o l s may have functioned i s l a r g e l y s p e c u l a t i v e . The battered edges are f a i r l y b l u n t and do not suggest a chopping or c l e a v i n g a c t i o n . I t i s p o s s i b l e that they may have been used i n a pounding f a s h i o n as i n the shredding of cedar bark, or the s o f t e n i n g of some other organic m a t e r i a l such as hide. TABLE LV  Edge Battered Cobbles General L o c a t i o n A r t e f a c t Number Length Width Thickness Zone A 3480 106 72 21 Surface 202 160 83 22 Surface 204 117 80 19 Surface 437 111 70 22 Surface 411 170 66 23 Backhoe Test P i t 13027 126 52 16 Backhoe Test P i t 13266 190 86 23 Range: 111-190 52-86 16-23 General Provenience - Zone A: 1 Surface: 4 specimen specimens Backhoe Test P i t : 2 specimens Hammerstones Number of Specimens: 46; (Figure 59 and Table LVI) General D e s c r i p t i o n : These a r t e f a c t s are cobbles and pebbles of v a r i o u s shapes and m a t e r i a l s which show evidence of use as 212 hamraerstones, or s t r i k e r s , i n p e r c u s s i o n f l a k i n g . They range i n form from l a r g e r i v e r cobbles, round or ovate, to smal l s l e n d e r stones. The l a r g e s t hammerstones are g e n e r a l l y of a g r a n i t i c or g r a n o - d i o r i t i c m a t e r i a l , the s m a l l e r t o o l s are an assortment of these m a t e r i a l s and other more homogeneous c r y s t a l l i n e m i n e r a l s . Use wear i n the form of p i t t i n g and c l u s t e r s of s m a l l s c a r s occur a t v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n s on the pebbles. In some cases the wear i s present only on the ends of the t o o l s , which suggests an a p p l i c a t i o n of f o r c e downward alon g a l i n e a r a x i s . E x t e n s i v e wear along a l a t e r a l edge, or p i t t i n g s c a t t e r e d over one face near the end of the hammer-stone suggests p e r c u s s i o n a p p l i e d a l o n g an a r c - l i k e swing. Wear on the ends r e s u l t i n g from a l i n e a r a x i s of p e r c u s s i o n i s most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the l a r g e r hammerstones, where perhaps a blow maximizes the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the l o n g a x i s of the pebble i n the removal of a c o r t e x s p a l l from a core p o s i t i o n e d on an a n v i l s t o n e . For examples of specimens ex-h i b i t i n g d i f f e r e n t wear p a t t e r n s , see F i g u r e 59. M e t r i c data f o r each specimen and a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of wear are pre -sented i n Table L V I I . As i n d i c a t e d i n Table LVII, most of the hammerstones r e c e i v e d wear d i r e c t l y on the ends on the stones. However, the t a b l e a l s o shows t h a t the s m a l l e r stones were o f t e n used i n a manner t h a t e s t a b l i s h e d wear on the f a c e s and edges, the k i n d of wear which i s p o s s i b l y achieved by the a p p l i c a t i o n of p e r c u s s i o n i n an a r c - l i k e swing. TABLE LVI Metric Attributes. General Provenience and Wear of Hammerstones Length, Width General Artefact & Thickness Location Number Shape (to nearest 5 mm.) Description Zone A 8214 Oval 270 X 180 X 60 Flakes removed from both ends. Zone A 8990 Elongate 205 X 115 X 55 P i t t i n g and small scars one ends flake scars opposite end Zone A 8474 Round? 170 X 160 X 45 Small flake scars one end Zone A 8761 Oval 195 X 125 X 45 P i t t i n g one end; flake scars opposite end Zone A 3120 Oval 165 X 85 X 35 P i t t i n g on alternate l a t e r a l edges near both ends Zone A 7961 Oval 135 X 105 X 45 Flake scars one end Zone A. 8317 Oval 110 X 80 X 45 P i t t i n g on one end; extensive battering on opposite end. Zone A. 8213 Oval 120 X 75 X 50 One end removed. P i t t i n g on oppo-s i t e end i s on l a t e r a l edges, both faces, and on end; see Figure 59 Zone A 3253 Oval 120 X 85 X 50 P i t t i n g one end only Zone A 3374 Oval 100 X 70 X 32 Flake scars on one end Zone A 8576 Oval 95 X 60 X 60 Light p i t t i n g at three locations on one face, near each end and i n middle TABLE LVI (Continued) Length, Width General Artefact & Thickness Location Number Shape (to nearest 5 mm.) Description Zone A 3244 Oval 90 X 65 X 25 Small flake removed one end Zone A 6026 Oval 90 X 70 X 30 P i t t i n g along one l a t e r a l edge nea: one end Zone A 3321 Oval 80 X 60 X 20 Flake scars one end Zone A 3242 Oval 70 X 60 X 20 Flake scars one end Zone A 6479 Oval 95 X 70 X 25 Flake scars both ends; one l a t e r a l edge Zone A 5182 Round 80 X 75 X 55 P i t t i n g on one face near one end Zone A 6014 Round 85 X 75 X 70 P i t t i n g at several locations over the stone Zone A 6396 Round 90 X 80 X 50 P i t t i n g at various locations over surface of stone Zone A 3370 Fragment P i t t i n g on one end Zone A 10375 Elongate 140 X 50 X 40 P i t t i n g at center of one end Zone A 6651 Elongate 100 X 50 X 30 P i t t i n g on both ends, and removal of small flakes Zone A 9237 Elongate (fragment) 105 X 45 X 35 P i t t i n g both faces near one end Zone A 7687 Elongate 105 X 40 X 15 Small flakes removed on one end on! TABLE LVI (Continued) Length, Width General Artefact & Thickness Location Number Shape (to nearest 5 mm.) Description Zone A 6366 Elongate 100 X 45 X 15 Small flakes removed one end Zone A 7661 Elongate 105 X 25 X 15 Small flakes removed both ends Zone A 9169 Elongate 100 X 15 X 10 A narrow punch-like t o o l with s l i g h t wear at each end Zone A 6054 Oval 60 X 30 X 15 P i t t i n g on one l a t e r a l edge only Zone A 6763 Elongate (fragment) 75 X 40 X 40 P i t t i n g on one end which extends over onto one face Zone A 6483 Fragment 55 X 50 X 25 Small flakes removed from one end Zone A 3250 Fragment 55 X 35 X 25 Extensive p i t t i n g one end Zone B 7890 Elongate 145 X 65 X 40 P i t t i n g on one face near one end Zone B 9235 Elongate 110 X 35 X 20 P i t t i n g on both faces near one end Surface 195 Elongate 240 X 80 X 70 P i t t i n g on one end only Surface 421 Elongate 190 X 70 X 35 Flakes removed at both ends Surface 197 Elongate 200 X 75 X 40 Small flakes removed from one end only Surface 199 Elongate 185 X 70 X 50 P i t t i n g one end only Surface 198 Elongate 155 X 80 X 50 P i t t i n g one end only TABLE LVI (Continued) Length, Width General Location Artefact Number Shape & Thickness (to nearest 5 mm.) Description Surface 201 Elongate 160 X 90 X 60 P i t t i n g one end, opposite and broken Surface 200 Oval 115 X 85 X 60 P i t t i n g one end only Surface 507 Oval 135 X 85 X 60 P i t t i n g both ends, both faces near ends, one l a t e r a l edge Surface 191 Oval 140 X 90 X 60 P i t t i n g both ends, and on both faces near ends Surface 196 Elongate 120 X 55 X 35 P i t t i n g on both faces, near one end and on one face near middle Surface 190 Elongate (fragment) 110 X 60 X 40 Flakes removed from one end Backhoe Test P i t 12398 Oval 100 X 75 X 25 Flakes removed from both ends Backhoe Test P i t 12679 Oval 120 X 70 X 45 Flakes removed from both ends TABLE LVII P o s i t i o n of Wear ( P i t t i n g and B a t t e r i n g ) Shape and S i z e Ends Only Ends and Faces Ends and Faces Ends, Faces, and Edges Faces Only Edges Only T o t a l E l o n g a t e hammer-s t o n e s ( o v e r 125 m i l l i m e t e r s ) 8 0 0 0 1 0 9 E l o n g a t e hammer-s t o n e s (under 125 mm.) 7 2 0 0 3 0 12 O v a l hammer-s t o n e s ( o v e r 125 mm.) 3 1 0 1 0 1 6 O v a l hammer-s t o n e s (under 125 mm.) 10 0 1 2 0 2 15 Round 1 0 0 0 3 0 4 T o t a l 29 3 1 3 7 3 46 218 Anvilstones Number of Specimens: 3 (Figure 60) General Description: The artefacts are large r i v e r cobbles with p i t t e d depressions i n the middle of one or both faces. Presumably cores were placed on these stones and then struck with a hammerstone to remove flakes. One specimen (number . 10062, Zone B) was found associated with a hammerstone and a large quantity of det r i t u s i n s i t u . These cobbles are a l l of a granular g r a n i t i c material. TABLE LVIII  Anvilstones Artefact Length, Width and Number Thickness (cms.) 'Description 7012 (Zone A) 20 X 18 X 9 . 5 P i t t e d depression on one face 10062 (Zone B) 1 7 . 5 X 1 1 . 5 X 6 . 7 P i t t e d depressions on both faces 13567 (Backhoe Test Pit) 16 X 12 X 5 P i t t e d depression on one face Ground Slate Both Zone A of the pithouse and the e a r l i e r Zone B de-posit contain evidence of a well developed ground slate indus-t r y . Cleavable raw slate, preforms, and fi n i s h e d tools have been recovered from both zones. Stages i n the primary manu-facture process are present including the blocking out of 219 slate blanks by percussion, subsequent grinding, and occasion-a l l y , sectioning by sawing. A secondary process whereby broken or worn out tools are fashioned into other tools i s also present to a l i m i t e d extent. For instance, ground end blades or p r o j e c t i l e points were reworked from slate knife fragments (Figure 61, e, i , and q). Ground Slate Points These th i n b i f a c i a l l y ground slate p r o j e c t i l e points are presumed to have been used to t i p darts or to arm composite toggling harpoons (Barnett, 1955; Borden, 1950; 1970). Number of Specimens: 9 complete or nearly so (Figure 61) 2 t i p fragments, 2 basal fragments 4 preforms or blanks As the ground slate points are few i n number and varied i n form, each specimen w i l l be described with reference to i t s metric attributes, form, and general provenience i n the s i t e . See Table LIX. Ground Slate Knives: Zone A The sample from Zone A i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y larger than that from the underlying Zone B. In addition to raw material and preforms f o r ground slate knives, there are several pieces (numbers 8585 and 1130) of raw slate which show evidence of sectioning by sawing; see Figure 64, c-d. Ground Slate Knives (Complete) Although most knives are fragmentary there are specimens TABLE LIX Ground Slate Points General Location Artefact Number Length, Width & Thickness (mm.) Description Zone B Zone A Zone A Zone A Zone A 7^59 9168 10404 3314 6081 85 x 24 x 8 Width of base: 12 ?0 x 24 x 6 51 x 17 x 2 65 x 18 x 3 35 x 10 x 3 Width of base: 10 This point i s notched 15 mm. from the base. The blade edges are s l i g h t l y convex, and the blade i s diamond shaped i n cross-section. The basal one-third of the point i s thinned on both faces by long, tapering, t r i a n g u l o i d facets. There are two l a t e r a l l i n e guard-like projections proximal to the notches. The base i s straight: see Figure 61, d. This point, whose t i p and base are missing, appears to be unfinished. The blade edges are convex; the cross-section i s hexagonal. See Figure 61, m. A small u n i l a t e r a l l y notched point. The blade edges are convex and the stem contracts to a rounded base. It appears to have been based on a ground sla t e knife fragment; see Figure 61, e. This specimen has a triangu l a r blade outline. Hexagonal i n cross-section, the base i s con-cave and ground b i f a c i a l l y . There i s some thinning on the basal one-third of the point. See Figure 61, f. This i s a small t r i a n g u l a r blade with a straight base. It may have been derived from a ground sla t e knife fragment. See Figure 6 1 ,g. TABLE L I X (Continued) General Lo c a t i o n A r t e f a c t Number Length, Width & Thickness (mm.) D e s c r i p t i o n Zone A Zone A Zone A Zone A. Zone A Surface 8031 80 x 15 x 6 Tip M i s s i n g Width of base: 10 mm. (estimate) 6185 Tip fragment length 41 mm. thickness 7 mm. 3362 Preform? 73 x 29 x 4 6868 Preform 35 x 20 x 2 6994 Basal Fragment 51 x 31 x 5 997 128 x 24 x 8 Width of base: 14 mm. This specimen i s a slender p o i n t w i t h s l i g h t l y -convex edges. I t i s hexagonal i n c r o s s -s e c t i o n . Basal t h i n n i n g by g r i n d i n g i n evidence. See Figure 61, c. This t i p fragment may have been a l a r g e ground s l a t e p o i n t . Edges b e v e l l e d from both faces. See Figure 61, 1. This specimen appears to be a ground s l a t e k n i f e fragment i n the process of being ground i n t o a p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t preform or end blade. The edges are convex and ground b l u n t . See Figure 61, q. This specimen could be a preform f o r a small stemmed p o i n t . The blade edges are s t r a i g h t and the stem c o n t r a c t s to a convex or rounded base. See Figure 61, i . This fragment seems to have been b i f a c i a l l y f l a k e d , perhaps i n a b l a n k i n g out operation. See Figure 61, j . This i s a long slender p o i n t with convex edges which c o n s t r i c t s l i g h t l y near the base. A ridge runs along the main a x i s of the p o i n t on one face to a p o i n t where t r i a n g u l o i d f a c e t slopes toward the base. The reverse face i s f l a t with some marginal b e v e l l i n g of the edges. The base i s s t r a i g h t . See Figure 61, a. TABLE LIX (Continued) General Artefact Length, Width & Location Number Thickness (mm.) Description Surface 338 89 x 27 x 9 Width of base: 24 mm. Although shorter and thicker, t h i s point i s similar i n form to specimen number 997, except that i t lacks the c o n s t r i c t i o n near the base. Central ridges run along the main axis on both faces giving the blade a diamond shape i n cross-section. The basal one-third of the point i s thinned. The base i s str a i g h t . See Figure 61, b. Surface 338a 60 x 25 x 3 Width of base: 7 mm. Length of stem: 13 mm. This stemmed point has convex edges, and a hexagonal cross-section. The shoulders are rounded and the stem i s contract. The base i s s l i g h t l y convex or rounded. The uniform thinness of th i s point suggests that i t was based on a ground slate knife fragment. Surface 995 Preform 72 x 41 x 5 This specimen i s perhaps a preform f o r a stemmed ground slate point. The blade i s extremely broad with evidence of some grinding along the edges. The stem i s 20 mm. i n length See Figure 6 1 , p. Surface 998 Preform 83 x 32 x 3 This artefact appears to be a ground slate knife fragment, edge ground into a f o l i a t e -l i k e preform. See Figure 61, r. Surface 12914 Basal fragment 28 mm. long Width of base: 14 mm. Judging from the basal fragment t h i s point appears to have been a long narrow blade, hex-agonal i n cross-section, possibly 20-25 mm. in width. The base i s st r a i g h t . See Figure 61, 0 . TABLE LIX (Continued) General Location Artefact Number Length, Width & Thickness (mm.) Description Surface 336 Tip Fragment 22 mm. long 2 . 5 mm. thick This t i p fragment has bevelled edges. Its extreme thinness suggests that i t was based on a ground slate knife fragment. See Figure 61, k. ro ro 224 s u f f i c i e n t l y complete to permit dimensional measurements. Specimen number 9531 i s 145 mm. long, 75 mm. wide, with a maximum thickness at the back of 6 mm. Other knives appear to have been resharpened and used u n t i l they were no more than 25 mm. i n width (numbers 8632 and 8195)• If these tools were hafted along one edge, very l i t t l e of the blade would have extended beyond the handle; see Figure 61, a-b. Ground Slate Knife Fragments Number of Specimens: 421 General Description: These fragments have a s l i g h t l y greater thickness range of 1 .5 to 6 . 0 millimeters. However, there are too few complete tools to enable a systematic com-parison at present. In addition to the ground slate knife material excavated from Zone A and Zone B, there i s a c o l l e c t i o n of 185 pieces from the surface and I 3 0 pieces from Backhoe Test P i t numbers one and two. Ground Slate Knives: Zone B The smallness of the sample from t h i s zone i s due p r i -marily to two factors, (1) the r e l a t i v e l y l i m i t e d excavation of Zone B and (2), the lower artefact y i e l d which characterizes t h i s deposit. Although the ground slate knife sample from t h i s deposit i s small compared with that of Zone A, i t shows that t h i s manufacturing process was employed at Katz during th i s e a r l i e r period. 225 Ground Slate Knife Preforms Number of Specimens: 3 (Figure 63) General Description: These are large s l a b - l i k e pieces of slate, rectanguloid i n outline with evidence of marginal f l a k i n g or "blocking out." The largest and most complete pre-form i n th i s zone (number 8076) i s : length 140 mm. x width 8? mm. x thickness 6 . 5 mm. Some surface abrading has been carried out on both faces. See Figure 6 3 , a. Ground Slate Knives (Complete) Number of Specimens: 3 (Figure 64) Only three complete or nearly complete specimens were recovered from Zone B. Specimens 8632 and 10061 were probably subjected to numerous resharpenings judging by the width-length r a t i o of these t o o l s . Number 8632 i s 170 mm. long, 2 2 - 4 9 mm. wide and 2 , 5 mm. thick along the back. The edge i s symmetri-c a l l y bevelled from both faces. Ground Slate Knife Fragments Number of Specimens: 47 General Description: These fragments vary i n width from 1 .5 to 4 . 0 mm., depending on from what portion of the knife the fragment originates. They vary somewhat i n thickness. A l l specimens suggest that the complete tools were ground over t h e i r entire face. 226 Miscellaneous Ground Slate Artefacts Ground Slate Fragments With Serrated Edges Number of Specimens: 2 (Figure 65» d-e) General Description: One specimen (number 3 2 7 ; surface) i s 3 mm. i n thickness with the general appearance of a ground slate knife fragment. The difference however, i s that along the thin ground edge there are incised notches which extend i n from the edge approximately three millimeters. This series of notches creates a row of tooth-like projections along the edge. The fragment i s also decorated on one face by an incised arc with l i n e s i n c i s e d at r i g h t angles within the arc. Another specimen (number 7882; Zone B) also has a series of tooth-like grooves incised into the edge but t h i s piece lacks the embellishment of the other specimen. Ground Slate Blade B i f a c i a l l y Sawn Number of Specimens: 1 (Figure 65» a) General Description: This specimen (number 993» Surface) appears to be the mid-section of a large ground slate point l e n t i c u l a r i n cross-section with symmetrically bevelled edges. Along the main axis on both faces i s a saw groove approximately two millimeters i n depth. The piece i s : length 95 mm. x width 32 mm. x thickness 10 mm. Ground Slate Knife Fragment With Bi c o n i c a l D r i l l Hole Number of Specimens: 1 (Figure 65» c) General Description: This i s a ground slate knife fragment 227 (number : Zone A) with a portion (38 mm.) of symmetrically bevelled cutting edge. The object i s 2 . 5 mm. i n thickness and has a single b i c o n i c a l l y d r i l l e d hole 5*5 mm. i n diameter. Ground Slate Pin (Perforator or D r i l l ? ) Number of Specimens: 1 (Figure 65» b) General Description: This ground slate object (number 9089) from Zone A i s 63 mm. long, 5 mm. wide and 4 mm. thick. I t i s roughly square i n cross-section and has e n c i r c l i n g s t r i a -tions at various points along the t o o l . Both ends are missing. The complete t o o l may have been used as a d r i l l point. Tools of Nephrite and Related Materials The indiscriminate use of the terms jade, jadeite, and nephrite, i n reference to the materials used i n the manufacture of ground stone implements has created some confusion. The term "jade" i s commonly used to r e f e r to two quite d i f f e r e n t minerals: nephrite and jadeite. For our purposes i t i s necessary to be more precise i n i d e n t i f y i n g the kind of min-er a l u t i l i z e d because t h i s information relates d i r e c t l y to questions of source and technology. Nephrite i s a calcium magnesium s i l i c a t e which belongs to the amphibole group of minerals (Pough I960: 262 - 2 6 5 ) . Its c r y s t a l l i n e structure comprised of elongate f i b e r s matted together make i t extremely r e s i s t a n t to shaping by percussion. It i s r e a d i l y sawn, however, i f a cutting agent with a degree of hardness greater than 6 . 5 on the Mohs Scale of Hardness i s employed. Abrasives such as quartz sand, sandstone, or 228 g a r n e t i f e r o u s s c h i s t are s u f f i c i e n t l y hard to be e f f e c t i v e i n the sawing of n e p h r i t e . The s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y of n e p h r i t e i s u s u a l l y near 3 . 0 but can f a l l w i t h i n a range of 2.9 to 3 . 1 . J a d e i t e , i n c o n t r a s t , has a s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y which i s c o n s i s t e n t l y near 3«33» I t i s a sodium aluminum s i l i c a t e of the pyroxene group with a c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e m i n e r a l s t r u c t u r e . J a d e i t e i s harder on the Mohs S c a l e with a r a n k i n g of between 6 . 7 5 and 7 . 0 . The s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y t e s t s c a r r i e d out on the complete adze blades and c h i s e l s , and on some of the raw nodules and d e t r i t u s from the Katz s i t e i n d i c a t e t h a t n e p h r i t e and other m i n e r a l s of the s e r p e n t i n e group were used e x c l u s i v e l y . I n t r o d u c t i o n There i s abundant evidence from the Katz s i t e to suggest t h a t the manufacture of ground stone t o o l s from n e p h r i t e was b e i n g conducted on s i t e . Specimens r e p r e s e n t i n g stages i n the manufacturing process from raw, unmodified pebbles to complete t o o l s have been re c o v e r e d . Pebbles e x h i b i t i n g s t r i a t i o n s from s u r f a c e a b r a s i o n and/or saw grooves, q u a n t i t i e s of d e t r i t u s from s e c t i o n e d boulders to s m a l l f l a k e s r e s u l t i n g from p e r c u s s i o n , are present i n numbers. Found i n a s s o c i a t i o n with the n e p h r i t e are a b r a s i v e saws and a b r a s i v e s l a b s of v a r i o u s degrees of coarseness. Evidence i n d i c a t i n g the pre-sence of t h i s i n d u s t r y has been found i n the c u l t u r a l l a y e r s interbedded i n the f l u v i a l Zone B d e p o s i t as w e l l as i n the pithouse f i l l . A number of specimens were recovered out of context from the d i s t u r b e d s u r f a c e area of the s i t e . 229 The Manufacturing Process References to the sawing and grinding technique involved i n adze manufacture are included i n the works of T e i t ( 1 9 0 0 ) , Smith ( 1 9 0 7 ) , Emmons ( 1 9 2 3 ) , Holland ( 1 9 6 1 ) , and Semenov ( 1 9 6 4 ) . The f i r s t step was the a c q u i s i t i o n of the necessary raw material. Semenov ( 1 9 6 4 : 69) pointed out that the i n i t i a l s e l e c t i o n would he toward a " f l a t t i s h oval pebble . . . from gravel beds i n a r i v e r . " Such a f l a t pebble would minimize the amount of grinding required to a t t a i n the desired thick-ness. Furthermore, i f a small thin pebble roughly approximat-ing the size and o v e r a l l form of the tool intended could be selected, the necessity of arduous sectioning by sawing could be eliminated. Most nephrite pebbles i n the Katz sample are " f l a t t i s h , " and a number are s u f f i c i e n t l y small so that modi-f i c a t i o n to a f i n i s h e d form could be achieved e n t i r e l y by grinding. In fact, several of the small specimens (numbers 10563, Zone B; 7544, 7 3 8 3 , Zone A) show evidence of such modification through surface abrasion without sawing (Figure 6 8 , a-b, d). From the disturbed surface of the s i t e two large f l a t cobbles were recovered which exhibit sawn grooves on one face. Both specimens show surface abrasion which seems to have been executed p r i o r to sawing. Except f o r Semenov and Borden ( 1 9 5 2 : 32 and Plate I, 28), none of the authorities c i t e d above mention the use of per-cussion i n the manufacture of adze blades from nephrite, beyond noting i t s use i n separating the p a r t i a l l y sectioned parts of pebbles. I t i s therefore i n t e r e s t i n g to report the 230 use of percussion during primary stages of adze manufacture on the basis of artefacts recovered at Katz. Some specimens from Katz suggest that thinning by percussion was ca r r i e d out on some pebbles, and that primary flakes detached d e l i b e r a t e l y or f o r t u i t o u s l y by percussion were i n turn ground to form tools. Pebble number 7339 (Zone A) has been b i f a c i a l l y flaked on one end (Figure 6 8 , c ) . On one face of the same end i s an abraded facet. The intention was apparently to create a bevelled working edge. Specimen number 1054 (Surface, Figure 6 8 , d) exhibits remnants of flake scars on the uncompleted b i t end of the pebble which have been su b s t a n t i a l l y abraded away as a r e s u l t of grinding. Percussion thinning seems to have been one way of reducing the amount of grinding required . to achieve a bevelled edge. Three additional pebbles e x h i b i t -ing percussion f l a k i n g were recovered from Zone A. There are also examples of tools made from primary decortication flakes (spalls) which exhibit smooth outer cor-tex on one face and fibrous matting on the ventral face. These examples (numbers 12316, 12574, Backhoe Test Pit) have been u n i f a c i a l l y ground at one end which has created a keen edge (Figure 6 8 , f ) . The metric information on a l l the pebbles recovered from the s i t e , the kinds of modifications i n evidence, and t h e i r general provenience i n the s i t e are presented i n Table LX. Adze Blades Number of Specimens: 16 complete or nearly so (Table LXI, Figure 70 and 71) 10 p o l l fragments, 2 mid-section fragments, TABLE LX Metric Attributes , Modifications, and Provenience of Nephrite Pebbles General Artefact Length Width Thickness S p e c i f i c Location Number (mm.) (mm.) (mm.) Gravity Modification Zone B 8335 67 62 25 2 . 9 7 Unmodified 10563 56 42 13 2.60 S t r i a t i o n s over both faces, single (not bevel on b i t end, sides ground neph- straight and p a r a l l e l , not sawn r i t e ) Zone A 7544 109 80 40 _ _ _ _ Abrasion on both faces 7339 123 65 16 3 . 0 5 Abrasion one face, one end B i f a c i a l l y flaked same end 7383 80 37 27 3 - 0 Overall surface abrasion 7991 96 52 25 3.16 Unmodified 10072 145 43 41 ---- Surface abrasion Backhoe 12824 203 160 33 Saw groove one face, surface grind Test P i t ing same face 12834 52 39 14 2 . 9 0 B i f a c i a l l y flaked, no grinding Surface 435 68 62 25 Unmodified 435b 55 55 24 Unmodified 1059 68 55 22 Surface abrasion 1054 81 55 25 Percussion thinning, extensive grinding 1055 160 113 28 Saw groove on one face 1057 87 53 27 Unmodified 1057b 107 64 31 Surface abrasion 1058 91 70 25 Unmodified 1058b 115 88 35 Unmodified 1056 103 89 40 Unmodified Range : Length 52 - 203 mm.; Width 39 - 160 mm.5 Thickness 14 - 40 mm. 232 1 b i t fragment. General Descriptions Some of the adze blades i n the Katz assemblage show s i m i l a r i t y i n form, however, the sample i s small and d i s t i n c t groupings are not well defined. In one form, of which f i v e complete specimens are on hand (numbers 9539 and 6150, Figure 70, f, a, Zone Aj 351 and 527, Figure 70 b, h, Surface; 12078, Figure 7L a, Backhoe Test Pit) the p o l l and b i t ends are almost the same width while the sides are s l i g h t l y convex. The p o l l i s generally rounded and the b i t straight at r i g h t angles to the long axis of the adze blade. With the exception of one tool (number 1049, Surface) the b i t i s created by the continuous convergence of the two faces without additional bevel. Specimen number 1049 has a long sloping triangular bevel which extends back from the working edge on one face. Three other specimens (numbers 8541, Figure 71, c, Zone A; 3 0 8 , Figure 71, b, Surface; 12911, Figure 71, e, Backhoe) are trapezoidal with the sides expanding i n straight l i n e s from a rounded or squared p o l l end to a straight b i t . These tools have a short steep bevel on one face. The remaining specimens do not share many discrete a t t r i b u t e s . One speci-men (number 9539, Zone A) has sides which contract from a rounded p o l l to a convex b i t . The remaining specimens are asymmetrical i n form with one straight side r e s u l t i n g from a saw groove and one convex side which i s the natural curvature of the pebble from which they were made. One complete adze (number I 3 I 8 I , Backhoe Test Pit) appears to be i n the process of being sectioned i n two by sawing. A deep saw groove i s i n TABLE LXI Metric Attributes of Complete or Nearly Complete Adze Blades General Artefact Length Width of Maximum Width of Thickness S p e c i f i c Gravity Location Number (mm.) B i t (mm.) Width (mm.) P o l l (mm.) (mm.) Zone A 9539 55 10 14 12 12 2 . 9 3 8541 70 20 20 7 7 2 . 9 0 6150 75* 2 5 * 34 27 13 2 . 9 0 Surface 1049 100 3 2 * 40 25 15 3 . 0 2 308 94 48 48 27 15 (not 2.61 nephrite) 351 95* 3 2 * 41 R 14 2 . 9 4 527 58 26 29 23 15 3 . 0 0 3212 68 25 25 20 12 3 . 0 1 :33^5 69 26 27 18 8 2 . 9 3 3256 63 27 30 20 16 3 . 0 0 Backhoe 12134 84 7 29 27 21 2.80 Test P i t 13531 83 21 33 3 0 * 23 3 . 0 0 12911 45 41 41 32 8 2 . 9 5 12078 34 17 17 13 9 2 . 9 8 13181 80 57 57 35 18 3 . 0 5 R - Too round to measure * - Estimate; t o o l incomplete Length Ranges - 34 - 100 mm. Width of B i t Ranges - 7 - 5 7 mm. Maximum Width Ranges - 1 4 - 4 8 mm. P o l l Width Ranges - 7 - 3 5 mm. General Proveniences Zone A - 3 complete or nearly complete adzes, 3 p o l l fragments 1 b i t fragment Zone B - N i l Surface - 7 Complete tools, 4 p o l l fragments, 2 mid-section fragments Backhoe Test P i t - 5 complete or nearly so, 3 p o l l fragments 234 evidence on one face of the tool (Figure 6 9 ) . Nephrite Chisels Number of Specimens: 4 (Table LXII, Figure 72 , a-d) General Description: These tools have been separated from the adze blades on the basis of t h e i r extreme thinness and the absence of grinding on one face except along the edge of the b i t . Two of these tools (numbers 5 5 0 5 , 3 4 9 , Surface) appear to be primary flakes which have been removed from extremely small pebbles; the natural curvature of the pebbles i s retained at the p o l l end. Only one specimen (number 3316) was recovered from Zone A (Figure 72 d). Nephrite Perforator ( D r i l l ? ) Number of Specimens: 1 (Figure 72 h) General Description: A narrow s l i v e r of ground nephrite (number 12107) was recovered from the Backhoe Test P i t . Its dimensions are: length 52 mm. x diameter 7 mm. One end i s blunted, the other pointed and triangular i n cross-section. Nephrite End Blades Number of Specimens: 3 (Figure 7 2 , e-g) General Description: These tools are based on t h i n flakes of nephrite which have been ground into a leaf-shape. Speci-men number 9398 (Zone A) has the following dimensions: length 29 mm. x width 11 mm. x thickness 3 m " i . I t i s b i -pointed and unground on one face. Number 8262 (Zone A) i s TABLE LXII  Metric Attributes of Chisels General Location Artefact Number Length (mm.) Width of B i t (mm.) Maximum Width (mm. ) Width of P o l l (mm.) Thickness (mm.) Sp e c i f i c Gravity Zone A 3316 24 16 16 12* 3 3 . 0 0 Surface 3^9 42 21 21 15 6 3 . 0 0 1051 32 22 22 16 5 3 . 0 0 5505 30 25 26 21 5 3 . 1 0 Estimate; tool incomplete 236 ground on the edges only. The t i p i s missing from t h i s tool so the length i s estimated. The dimensions are: length 55 mm. x width 20 mm. x thickness 3 mm. The base i s s l i g h t l y rounded. One large specimen was recovered from the disturbed surface of the s i t e . I t i s b i f a c i a l l y ground with a double bevel along both.edges. The s t r i a t i o n s from grinding are p l a i n l y v i s i b l e on the surface of the t o o l . Its dimensions are: length 75 mm. x width 30 mm. x thickness 3 . 5 mm.; the base i s s t r a i g h t . These artefacts may have been used to arm composite toggling harpoon heads i n a s i m i l a r fashion to the cutting points of slate reported by Borden ( 1 9 7 0 ) . I t i s also possible that these tools were used as p r o j e c t i l e points. Nephrite Detritus Number of Specimens: Zone A - 130 pieces Zone B - 15 pieces Surface - 59 pieces Backhoe Test P i t - 3^ pieces General Description: A large array of nephrite d e t r i t u s consisting of small percussed flakes, sawn remnants, and sectioned boulders have been recovered from the s i t e . Tests fo r s p e c i f i c gravity were carried out on a l l of the Zone B d e t r i t u s . Fourteen pieces were within the 2 . 9 to 3«1 range of nephrite and one had a s p e c i f i c gravity reading of 2 . 6 . Miscellaneous Stone Artefacts An elongate basalt t o o l (number 1 3 2 8 2 ) ; (length 20 cm. x 23? width 5»8 cms. x thickness 2 . 0 cms.) with a series of chipped concavities along both l a t e r a l edges was recovered from the Backhoe Test P i t . The specimen i s plano-convex i n cross-section and has a pronounced tang or haft element, approxi-mately 5 cms. long at one end. The wear within the concavi-t i e s extends a few millimeters onto both faces of the t o o l . A s i m i l a r specimen from Katz was recovered from the surface by. a private c o l l e c t o r . Suggestions regarding the way i n which these tools were used are highly speculative. The wear i n the concavities may possibly have been created through use as a spe c i a l i z e d tool f o r the cutting of grasses or s i m i l a r plants, i . e . , as a kind of hafted s i c k l e . Another p o s s i b i l i t y may be that the t o o l functioned i n the carding of some animal f i b e r s such as mountain goat or dog wool. See Figure 75 a. An unusual form of planing (?) tool (length 1 .3 cms. x width 4 . 8 cms. x thickness 4 . 0 cms.) was found on the d i s t u r -bed surface at the s i t e . It i s plano-convex i n cross-section, and leaf-shaped with a thick hump i n the middle one-third of the artefact. The dorsal face i s covered with cortex and the edges are extremely steep and battered. This tool could possibly have had a planing or scraping function. One edge ground cobble (number 3001) i s present i n Zone A. Its dimensions are length 1 2 . 5 cms. x width 6 cms. x thickness 3 . 2 cms. The material i s a hard schist with small inclusions of garnet. A ground facet approximately 1 .5 cms. i n width follows the curvature of the pebble along one edge. 238 This tool may have functioned as a grinding implement i n the preparation of pigment or some plant materials. See Figure There i s one r i v e r pebble (number 3 2 5 2 ) with p i t t i n g on each end and near the middle of the pebble on both edges. The l a t e r a l p i t t i n g may be a modification to f a c i l i t a t e lash-ing to a haft or f o r the placement of a l i n e f o r use as a net sinker. The p i t t i n g on both ends, however, suggests some pounding or hammering function. See Figure 75 b. Hand Mauls (Fragments) (Figures 73 and 74) There are six complete or fragmentary portions of pecked and ground hand mauls i n the Katz sample. See Figures 73 and 7 4 . The dimensions, general description, and the general s i t e provenience i s provided f o r each specimen i n the follow-ing table. 75 c TABLE LXIII Hand Mauls Artefact Number Length, Width & Thickness (cm.) Description 6615 12 x 9 . 2 x 7«3 This hand maul i s i n -complete on the proxi-mal end. The d i s t a l or basal portion has an expanded c o l l a r about 4 . 5 cms. wide which encircles the f l a t base. This i s the only excavated specimen from the s i t e , see F i g -ure 73 c. (test trench unit south 3 4 4 - 3 5 0 f t . east 9 0 - 9 6 f t . ) 100a 14 x 6 . 5 x 6 . 5 This i s only the top (proximal or top portion of the hand fragment) maul. It has two broad 239 TABLE LXIII (Continued) Artefact Number Length, Width & Thickness (cm.) Description 689 ( d i s t a l or basal frag-ment) 9 . 5 x 7 . 7 x 6 . 0 690 ( d i s t a l or basal frag-ment) 1 3 . 0 x 7 . 0 x 4 . 5 691 2 5 . 0 x 9 . 6 x 7 . 0 concentric grooves which enci r c l e the pro-ximal end. The t i p shows some evidence of battering and one large flake scar runs l o n g i -t u d i n a l l y from the t i p across the two encir-c l i n g rings. This wear on the t i p may have resulted from use i n making an indenta-t i o n i n the wood p r i o r to the s e t t i n g of the wedges, see Figure 7 3 a . This specimen was found on the disturbed surface of the s i t e . The f l a t base of the hand maul shows exten-sive battering which eventually resulted i n a longitudinal s p l i t of the to o l , Figure 7 3 d . This tool i s also f r a c -tured l o n g i t u d i n a l l y . It has an expanded c o l l a r which e n c i r c l e s the basal portion f o r a distance of 3 . 5 cms. This fragment was re-covered from the d i s -turbed surface. This specimen i s at an i n c i p i e n t stage of manufacture. The basal end has been pecked f l a t , and a broad patch near the middle one-t h i r d of the hand maul on one face shows peck-ing. This specimen i s also from the disturbed surface, see Figure 7 4 . 240 TABLE L X I I I (Continued) A r t e f a c t Number Length, Width & Thickness (cm.) D e s c r i p t i o n 6 8 8 (fragment w i t h a broad pecked groove) fragment - no measurements taken From the di s t u r b e d surface of the s i t e . This fragment i s s p a l l -l i k e i n form with a pecked groove 4 cms. i n diameter running across one face and heavy b a t t e r i n g on>the t h i c k end. Zoomorphic Carving A small zoomorphic c a r v i n g (number 1 0 6 0 ) was found on the dist u r b e d surface of the s i t e . See Figure 7 6 , d. I t i s an erect b i r d f i g u r i n e which s i t s on a f l a t bases the design i s i n c i s e d i n t o the s o f t s t e a t i t e . On e i t h e r side of the body p o r t i o n of the c a r v i n g a s e r i e s of converging l i n e s form wing-l i k e elements. An i n c i s e d comb or c r e s t - l i k e formation i s present on the top of the head. The eyes are c l a s s i c a l North-west Coast eye forms, broad and l e n t i c u l a r as defined by Holm ( 1 9 7 1 ; 3 7 - 4 0 ) . Two s t r a i g h t l i n e s converge to a point on the face to form a b e a k - l i k e element; above and beneath the beak are drooping, rounded f o l d s . There i s a small piece missing from the back of the f i g u r i n e which may have been a p r o j e c t i o n i n d i c a t i n g the t a i l . This depression on the back i s i r r e g u l a r i n shape and does not appear to be a d e l i b e r a t e attempt to create a bowl depression. Ground Stone Pipe A t u b u l a r s t e a t i t e pipe (number 13-547» Figure 7 6 , c) was 241 recovered from the Backhoe Test P i t excavation. The dimen-sions of the pipe are: length 6 cms. x width 24 cms. The barrel i s 1 .3 cms. i n diameter at the narrow end and 1 .7 cms. at the opposite end. There i s a perforated l a t e r a l projection which extends along the pipe from the large end, a distance of 3 . 2 cms. This perforation shows polish, presumably the r e s u l t of abrasion from suspension. Pipes s i m i l a r i n form but without the perforation have been reported from the Lochnore-Nesikep l o c a l i t y (Sanger, 1970: 9 0 ) . Sandstone Bead (Figure 76, a) Only one d r i l l e d bead was found at Katz. This specimen (number 135^6) i s a b i c o n i c a l l y d r i l l e d bead of sandstone, 18 mm. i n diameter and 7 mm. thick. It was recovered from the backhoe test p i t trench. P h y l l i t e Spindle-Shaped Object (Figure 76, b) A small p h y l l i t e spindle fragment (number 6392) was ex-cavated from the Zone A. deposit. It i s incomplete, with a portion missing from one end and i t appears to have been s p l i t lengthwise. The dimensions are: length 28 mm. x width 11 mm. x thickness 4 mm. It i s plano-convex i n cross-section with the series of 5 concentric l i n e s i n c i s e d across the convex face only. A s i m i l a r specimen was recovered from the Eayem Phase i n the Fraser Canyon Eayem Phase (Borden, 1966: 16). Cobble Mortar A cobble mortar of granite (number 9886) was found i n 242 Zone A (Pithouse 1 ) . The cobble i s approximately round, 1 1 . 5 cms. i n diameter, and 8 . 5 cms. thick. A shallow depression 6 . 0 cms. i n diameter and 2 . 0 cms. deep has been pecked into one face. There i s no s t a i n i n the depression to suggest what material the mortar may have contained, e.g., ochre, graphite, etc. Graphite Number of Specimenss 7 (Figure 7 8 , a-c) General Descriptions A l l specimens i n t h i s sample show evidence of modification through grinding. Specimen number 8 8 7 7 (Zone As length 57 mm. x width 46 mm. x thickness 16 mm.) i s the largest piece recovered from the s i t e . It has ground facets over most of the edge and a polished depression on one face. Another specimen, number 6 6 5 7 i (Zone As length 12 mm. x width 1 1 mm. x thickness 6 mim) i s a ground fragment with one hal f of a b i c o n i c a l l y d r i l l e d hole i n evidence. The one specimen from Zone B, number 1 0 0 5 0 , i s a rectangular piece, length 13 mm. x width 12 mm. x thickness 6 mm. S t r i a -tions from abrasion are c l e a r l y evident on a l l edges. The remaining four specimens are small fragments with ground facets. General Proveniences Zone A - 6 specimens Zone B - 1 specimen Ste a t i t e Number of Specimenss General Descriptions 1 (Figure 7 8 , d) This specimen, number 8987» (Zone As 243 length 55 mm, x width 35 mm. x thickness 14 mm.) i s a fragment which has been sawn on both l a t e r a l and one transverse edge. On one face the cleavage planes are p l a i n l y v i s i b l e . The sawing of s t e a t i t e has been reported i n the Baldwin Phase of the Fraser Canyon sequence (Borden, 1966: 1 5 ) • Pigment (Ochre) Number of Specimens: 32 pieces (Zone A) 1 piece (Zone B) General Description: These pieces of ochre range i n size from ten millimeters to 38 millimeters, and i n colour from pale yellow to reddish orange. Most of the specimens are extremely f r i a b l e with no ground facets from abrasion i n evidence. Six pieces are hard and b r i t t l e , possibly the re-s u l t of burning. The edge ground cobble (number 3001) des-cribed e a r l i e r , Figure ? 5 , c, appears to have some reddish and yellow material lodged i n the i n t e r s t i c e s of the ground edge. This may be an implement f o r grinding such pigments. The single piece found i n Zone B (number 8181) does not appear to have been burnt. Mica (Muscovite?) Number of Specimens: 21 pieces (Zone A) General Description: Thin pieces of mica between 11 m i l l i -meters and 36 millimeters i n maximum dimension were recovered from Zone A only. This material may have served some decor-ative or ornamental purpose. 244 Abrasive Stones Abrasives of sandstones and schists of various grades of coarseness occur i n both zones. These materials were used as saws and grinding slabs i n the manufacture of tools ground from stone and organic materials. Most abundant are abraders made of garnetiferous and micacious s c h i s t s . Sandstone abraders of a wide range of grain size, f r i a b i l i t y and degree of induration also occur i n small numbers. The actual cutting was done by the hard quartz and garnet cr y s t a l s cemented i n a clay or s i l t matrix. The hardness of these minerals i s s u f f i c i e n t to abrade rocks with the fibrous mineral structure of the amphibole group such as nephrite and to grind with ease softer materials such as slate, bone, and antler. The presence of ground nephrite and ground sla t e i n both zones has been mentioned e a r l i e r . Direct evidence of the sawing and grinding of wood, antler, and bone i s absent due to the lack of preservation i n these materials at the s i t e . Semenov (1964t 69) suggests that the addition of water to the abraded surface would give some abrasives " s e l f -sharpening" properties. The a t t r i t i o n of the abrasive would cause the blunt worn out c r y s t a l s to drop out and other sharp cr y s t a l s to appear i f the waste products of the addition of s i l i c a sand would f a c i l i t a t e sawing or grinding. The abrasives of each zone w i l l be' considered separately. Sepcimens with one or more ground edges which i n cross-section are U- or V-shaped have been described as saws. The remain-ing specimens which are ground on one or two faces and which 245 lack evidence of edge grinding have been grouped as abraders and/or whet stones. Some saws may also have functioned as abrasive plaques, and some of the plaques may be portions of saws. Saws (Zone A) Number of Specimenss 87 (Figure 79) General Descriptions Most of the specimens are fragmentary. They are generally made of a garnetiferous or micacious sc h i s t , or a variety of f r i a b l e sandstone which has been s p l i t f l a t along a bedding plane. Some of the more complete speci-mens show they have been used as saws on more than one edge. A few rectanguloid pieces are ground on three edges. The largest specimen iss length 130 mm. x width 105 mm. x thick-ness 13 mm. A considerable range i n thickness i s evident among those saws as i s shown i n Table LXIV. Most f a l l within a range of f i v e to seven millimeters. One unusual specimen has three edges a l l of a d i f f e r e n t thickness (number 9889» f i r s t edge - 10 mm., second edge - 9 mm., t h i r d edge - 5*5 mm.). Saws (Zone B) Number of Specimenss 15 (Table XLV, Figure 80) General Descriptions A l l specimens are fragmentary. The materials are s i m i l a r to the sandstone and schistose abrasives of Zone A, but the saws i n t h i s small sample are proportionately thicker. I t may be that the sawing of nephrite i n Zone B was mainly concerned with the sectioning of larger cobbles and Number of Saws Number of Saws 3 . 5 4 . 0 3 9 . 0 TABLE LXIV Thickness Range of Saws From Zone A Thickness (mm.) 4 . 5 5 . 0 5 . 5 6 . 0 6 . 5 7 . 0 7 . 5 8 . 0 8 . 5 3 9 . 5 12 11 10 Thickness (mm.) 1 0 . 0 1 0 . 5 11 .0 11 .5 1 2 . 6 1 2 . 5 3 1 3 . 0 1 5 1 3 . 5 N - 87 Specimens 58$ t o t a l specimens range between f i v e and seven mm. i n thickness Number of Saws Number of Saws 3 . 0 3 . 5 TABLE LXV Thickness Range of Saws From Zone B Thickness (mm.) 4 . 0 4 . 5 5 . 0 5 . 5 6 . 0 6 . 5 7 . 0 7 . 5 8 . 0 0 8 . 5 9 . 0 0 0 0 0 Thickness (mm.) 9 . 5 1 0 . 0 1 0 . 5 1 1 . 0 1 1 . 5 1 2 . 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 . 5 1 3 . 0 0 1 0 N - 15 Specimens 2 4 7 boulders (Figures 66 and 6 7 ) . Abrasive Slabs (Zone A) Number of Specimens: 1 8 4 (Figure 8 1 ) General Description: These are f l a t i r r e g u l a r pieces of sandstone and s c h i s t s p l i t from a larger block along a bedding plane. Some large pieces of abrasive material are also pre-sent. One specimen i s over 300 mm. i n length with a maximum thickness of 110 mm. Most of the specimens are fragments or remnants exhausted through use. The abrasive stones are predominantly of the schistose variety, with the sandstone abraders tending to be of a coarse grained and f r i a b l e type well suited for heavy grinding. Whet stones of s i l i c i f i e d s i l t s t o n e with wide deep depressions have also been recovered from t h i s zone i n small numbers. The abrasive stones range i n size from large rectanguloid slabs (number 8983: length 201 mm. x width 130 mm... x thick-ness 4 5 mm.) to pieces only a few millimeters i n thickness. Monihan ( 1 9 6 9 ) c a r r i e d out a detailed study of abraders from the Old Musqueam S i t e . Included i n h i s analysis was a careful examination of the kinds of abrasive materials u t i l i -zed, the grain sizes of these materials, and the kinds and degree of wear i n evidence. He distinguished mainly two types of grinding: planar and l i n e a r . Planar grinding would tend to create a f l a t surface or a broad shallow depre-ssion on an abrasive slab. Linear grinding tends to create an elongate depression. The importance of noting these 248 differences i n a t t r i t i o n of the abrasive i s to enable one to make inferences about the kinds of tools being manufactured. In, the Katz sample only a few abrasives have a narrow elongate depression which might indicate l i n e a r grinding. Most of the slabs have a f l a t surface or a broad shallow depression (Figure 81). Abrasive Slabs (Zone B) Number of Specimens: 48 (Figure 82) General Description: The types of specimens are si m i l a r to those found i n Zone A. The sample i s comprised of abra-sive material predominantly of a schistose type rock with a few fragments of coarse f r i a b l e sandstone. Slabs have f l a t surfaces or broad shallow depressions. No specimens with narrow elongate grooves or deep depressions were found i n th i s zone. There are a number of known sources of garnetiferous and micacious s c h i s t i n the v i c i n i t y of the Katz s i t e . Ruby Creek, approximately twelve miles downriver from Katz, was so named because of the quantities of garnetiferous schist i n the r i v e r bed. Similar kinds of sc h i s t are washed out of t e r t i a r y deposits by the creeks between Yale and Hope. S p l i t Bone Awls Number of Specimens: 2 (Figure 83) General Description: One complete s p l i t bone awl (number 6603) was recovered from the test p i t unit South 3 4 4 ' - 3 5 0 ' » 249 East 90'-96\ (primary baseline). The dimensions of t h i s specimen are: length 89 mm. x width 14 mm. x thickness 8 mm. A midsection fragment (number 8301) was found i n the Zone A deposit; i t s dimensions are: length 6? mm. x width 25 mm. x thickness 10 mm. With the exception of a few small f i s h vertebrae found i n a Zone B hearth feature (feature number 3 6 ) , these s p l i t bone awls are the only artefacts of organic material recovered from the s i t e . ARTEFACT SUMMARY SHEET Artefact Zone Group Categories A B Surface Backhoe Total Chipped Stone Points: Unstemmed Group 1: large leaf-shaped 2 1 3 Group 2 : medium to small leaf-shaped 6 3 5 18 Group 3 : small, broad, st r a i g h t based 8 1 1 1 11 Group 4: large t r i a n g u l a r (points or preforms) 2 1 1 4 Single Group 5« large single shouldered, con-Shouldered t r a c t i n g stem 1 2 3 Group 6: small, single shouldered, contracting stem 2 1 3 B i l a t e r a l l y Group 7: narrow, thick, excurvate Shouldered blade, contracting stem 4 2 2 8 Group 8: broad, thin, excurvate blade, contracting stem 7 1 3 2 13 Group 9 : triangular blade, contracting stem 7 2 3 16 Group 30: excurvate blade, s l i g h t l y expanding stem 2 1 3 Corner- Group IL: wide corner notch,?expanding Notched: stem, excurvate blade 6 4 8 2 20 No Barbs Group 32: narrow corner notch, expand- -ing stem, tr i a n g u l a r blade 3 3 6 Corner- Group 13: broad trian g u l a r or ex-Notched; curvate blade, expanding Barbs stem 3 4 3 10 Group 34: expanding stem, narrow excur-vate blade, concave base 4 1 5 Basally- Group 15: broad blade, broad stem 2 1 2 5 Notched? Group 36: extreme barbs, narrow stem 3 2 5 Barbed Group 17: small, side notched 2 2 Category Total - 135 ARTEFACT SUMMARY SHEET (Continued) Artefact Zone Categories A B Surface Backhoe Tota! Formed Bifaces Group Is leaf-shaped bifaces 7 3 2 2 14 Group 2: bifaces with broad bases 6 2 1 9 Group 3«- triangular bifaces 2 2 Group 4 : stemmed bifaces 7 1 8 Group 5' plano-convex bifaces 3 3 Group 6 : bifaces with retouched projections 3 3 6 Group 7 : biface fragments (80 specimens) Subgroup Is large biface fragments 5 1 1 1 8 Subgroup 2s pointed biface fragments 12 5 10 13 40 Subgroup 3$ medial biface fragments 1 1 3 5 Subgroup 4$ convex (rounded) or straight based biface fragments 5 2 9 4 20 Miscellaneous formed bifaces 1 1 1 3 Category Total - 118 Unformed Bifaces 7 N/A N/A 7 Category Total - 7 Formed Unifaces Group 1: round to oval unifaces with steep retouch 1 1 2 Group 2: elongate unifaces with steep end retouch 6 1 4- 1 12 Group 3' rectanguloid unifaces with steep end retouch 6 2 7 15 Group 4 s t r i a n g u l a r unifaces with steep retouch 4 1 2 7 ARTEFACT SUMMARY SHEET (Continued) Artefact Categories Zone A B Surface Backhoe Total Formed Unifaces Group 5* Subgroup formed unifaces projections: with retouched Subgroup 2 : Subgroup Group 6: Group 7: Group 8: Group 9 : Group 1 0 : Miscellane 3« tools with broad blade elements (complete) Tip fragments Medial fragments Basal fragments tools with narrow blade elements (complete) Tip fragments diamond shaped tools with continuous marginal unifaces retouch blade-like unifaces with l a t e r a l retouch b i l a t e r a l l y retouched macroblades t h i n triangular unifaces with s t r a i g h t edges crescent-shaped unifaces ous formed unifaces Category Total - 115 Unformed Unifaces Category Total - 124 Bipolar Flake Tools (pieces esquillees) 12 3 2 3 5 4 13 1 2 3 101 17 1 1 23 1 1 7 1 N/A. 5 1 2 2 2 N/A 19 3 1 4 4 1 5 24 2 2 4 6 124 26 Category Total - 26 Artefact ARTEFACT SUMMARY SHEET (Continued) Zone Categories A B Surface Backhoe Total Quartz Industry quartz cores quartz c r y s t a l s and fragments 5 125 2 3 14 10 7 152 Category Total - 159 Cortex S p a l l Tools Secondarily flaked s p a l l s Spokeshave-like spalls Cortex S p a l l Saws Edge battered s p a l l s Spalls with abraded or worn edges Cortex s p a l l s without r e a d i l y observable wear 129 25 3 16 87 441 28 5 7 15 69 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 157 30 3 23 102 510 Category Total - 825 Cortex S p a l l Fragments 146 21 N/A N/A 167 Category Total - 167 Cortex S p a l l Cores 18 7 N/A N/A 25 Category Total - 25 Cores 109 29 N/A N/A 138 Core Tools: Group 1: large core tools (scraping planes) Group 2 : small, thick, disdoidal core tools 27 57 11 14 N/A N/A N/A N/A 38 71 Artefact Categories ARTEFACT SUMMARY SHEET (Continued) Zone B Surface Backhoe Total Cores Group 3« thin, d i s c o i d a l core tools Group 4 : spoke-shave l i k e core tools Category Total - 282 Core Fragments Category Total - 272 S p l i t Cobble Tools Category Total - 15 Pebble Tools Category Total - 19 Edge Battered Cobbles Category Total - 7 Hammerstones Category Total - 46 Anvilstones Category Total - 3 Miscellaneous Chipped Stone Tools Elongate t o o l with b i l a t e r a l l y chipped concavity 23 4 203 15 17 31 6 9 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 11 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 31 4 2 7 2 15 19 7 46 ro -p-ARTEFACT SUMMARY SHEET (Continued) Artefact Zone Categories A B Surface Backhoe Total Miscellaneous Chipped Stone Tools Category Total - 1 Abrasive Stones Saws 87 15 N/A. N/A 102 Slabs 184 48 N/A N/A 232 Whetstones 3 N/A N/A 3 Category Total - 337 Ground Slate Ground slate points complete or nearly so 5 1 3 0 9 Ground slate point t i p fragments 1 1 2 basal fragments 1 1 2 preforms or end blades? 2 2 4 Ground slate knives complete 3 3 6 fragments 421 47 185 130 783 preforms 3 3 Category Total - 809 Miscellaneous ground slate artefacts specimens with serrated edges 1 1 2 Category Total - 2 B i f a c i a l l y sawn blade 1 1 Category Total - 1 Artefact Categories ARTEFACT SUMMARY SHEET (Continued) Zone B Surface Backhoe Total Elongate object (pin perforator?) Category Total - 1 Nephrite Pebbles and cobbles Category Total - 19 Adze blades (complete or nearly so) p o l l fragments b i t fragments midsection fragments Category Total - 28 Nephrite c h i s e l s Category Total - 4 Elongate object (perforator or d r i l l ) Category Total - 1 Nephrite end blades Category Total - 3 Nephrite detritus (pieces) Category Total - 238 3 3 1 130 15 10 7 4 59 5 3 3 ^ 19 15 10 1 2 238 ARTEFACT SUMMARY SHEET (Continued) Artefact Categories Zone A B Surface Backhoe Total Hand Mauls (1 specimen from unit 33^' 350' S, 90-96 E) Category Total - 6 Edge Ground Cobbles Category Total - 1 Zoomorphic Carving Category Total - 1 Ground Stone (Tubular) Pipe Category T o t a l - 1 Sandstone Bead ( b i c o n i c a l l y d r i l l e d ) Category Total - 1 Cobble Mortar Category Total - 1 P h y l l i t e Spindle Category Total - 1 Graphite Graphite with ground facets  ro -o ARTEFACT SUMMARY SHEET (Continued) Artefact Zone Categories A B Surface Backhoe Total Graphite B i c o n i c a l l y d r i l l e d graphite 1 1 Category Total - 7 S t e a t i t e 1 1 Category Total - 1 Pigment (Ochre) 32 1 33 Category Total - 33 Mica (Muscovite?) 21 21 Category Total - 21 N/A - Not Applicable; artefacts not included i n t h i s analysis CHAPTER V DISCUSSION This chapter begins with a discussion of the general character of each s o i l zone at the Katz s i t e , followed by an attempt to integrate the s t r a t i g r a p h i c information, the arte-facts and a r t e f a c t composition, the features, and the s i t e ecology i n order to determine the nature of the a c t i v i t i e s performed at the s i t e . Next, the archaeological findings are examined i n the l i g h t of research previously conducted i n the lower Fraser v a l l e y and adjacent regions. The questions posed i n t h i s thesis concerning the time depth, derivation, and a f f i n i t i e s with other lower Fraser v a l l e y cultures are then addressed and information from Katz bearing on these problems i s presented. At the conclusion of the chapter several propositions are advanced and a research strategy f o r t e s t i n g these hypotheses i s proposed. In i n t e r p r e t i n g the archaeological remains from the Katz s i t e two important caveats must be borne i n mind. The f i r s t i s that the data are biased toward those artefacts which sur-vived the hyperacidic s o i l conditions, i . e . , artefacts of stone. Thus the absence of the broad spectrum of tools made from organic materials i s the r e s u l t of non-cultural factors, and the presence of such artefacts can only be established at 259 2 6 0 the s i t e through i n f e r e n c e . The second p r o v i s o i s that f o r reasons already discussed the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l assemblages here designated Zone A and Zone B probably do not c o n s t i t u t e a s u f f i c i e n t l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample. I t i s probable, t h e r e f o r e , that the range of v a r i a t i o n i n implements and fea t u r e s from each zone i s not expressed i n the samples of a r t e f a c t u a l r e -mains which have s u r v i v e d . These n a t u r a l and methodological biases i n the data recovery are important c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n the e x p l i c a t i o n of the archaeology of the Katz s i t e . Zone C, the e x t i n c t r i v e r bed which u n d e r l i e s the excavated c u l t u r a l d e p o s i t s , i s extremely important despite the f a c t t h a t i t i s a n o n - c u l t u r a l zone. I t provides valuable i n f o r m a t i o n on the past dynamics of the r i v e r i n the v i c i n i t y of the s i t e and e s t a b l i s h e s an approximate date at which the present f l o o d -p l a i n began to develop. A charcoal sample taken from the lowermost c u l t u r a l l a y e r 1.8 f e e t above Zone C has y i e l d e d a date of 7^ 5 t 90 B.C. ( I 6189). The 1.8 f e e t of s t e r i l e m a t e r i a l between Zone C and t h i s dated l a y e r c o n s i s t s of a l t e r -n a t i n g bands of f i n e f l u v i a l sands and s i l t s which i n d i c a t e p e r i o d i c f l o o d i n g by the r i v e r . The radiocarbon assay suggests that the gradual realignment of the r i v e r ' s course probably took place some time e a r l y i n the f i r s t millennium B.C. P r i o r to t h i s time, Zone C was part of the main channel of the r i v e r . As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, the excavations of the e a r l i e s t c u l t u r a l deposit (Zone B) was conducted with great care. An emphasis was placed on the h o r i z o n t a l exposure of fe a t u r e s and a r t e f a c t a s s o c i a t i o n s , with the r e s u l t t h a t a sma l l e r 261 sample of the lowermost layers was obtained than from those above. On the other hand, t h i s slow but meticulous procedure made possible some extremely i n t e r e s t i n g observations. The numerous rock features encountered throughout t h i s zone are remarkably consistent i n form. "Complexes" of rock features consisting of c i r c u l a r hearths (rock ovens?) and elongate alignments of r i v e r cobbles were found i n the lowermost layers of the i n t a c t f l u v i a l deposit to the east of Pithouse Number 2 (Features 4 and 6), and i n the deposit which l i e s between Pithouse Numbers 1 and 2 (Features 30 and 3 1 ) . S t r a t i f i e d above these layers with separations of f l u v i a l sands and s i l t s were s i m i l a r "feature-complexes" along with numerous hearths apparently independent of elongate rock alignments, and occasional configurations of stake moulds adjacent to the hearths. The interbedding of these c u l t u r a l layers with bands of f l u v i a l sediments indicates that the s i t e was seasonally flooded by the r i v e r . The fact that the r i v e r transgressed i t s banks during t h i s early time would make the s i t e unsuitable for use as a permanent or semipermanent occupation s i t e . More-over, one may surmise on the basis of the uniformity of the features i n Zone B, that some r e g u l a r i t y existed i n the u t i l i -zation of the s i t e . The stratigraphy and the features alone suggest that t h i s f l u v i a l zone represents a seasonally s p e c i a l -ized a c t i v i t y s i t e . Since periodic flooding evidently rendered the s i t e inaccessible f o r use i n the late spring during high water, and hence unsuitable f o r use as a semipermanent or permanent habitation s i t e during winter, one must conclude 262 that the c u l t u r a l layers of Zone B were probably l a i d down during the summer and perhaps the f a l l . I f t h i s i s the case, the ar t e f a c t u a l remains i n these layers should r e f l e c t some of the kinds of a c t i v i t i e s which took place at the s i t e dur-ing one or both of these seasons of the year. The ar t e f a c t assemblage from Zone B t o t a l s 486 items excluding features. Of these, 33$ are cortex s p a l l tools and fragments, 1 1 $ are ground slate knife fragments, and 2 8 $ are cores, core remnants, and core tools. The remainder of the sample consists of abrasives 1 3 $ , worked nephrite 3 $ , formed bifaces 5$» and p r o j e c t i l e points 3$« Other tool categories such as bipolar flaked tools (pieces esquillees), quartz cr y s t a l s and flakes, pebble tools, and hammerstones are also present i n small numbers. What inferences can be made from these artefacts and the composition of the assemblage i n t h i s zone? Ground slate knives were used into ethnographic time f o r the butchery of f i s h (Borden 1 9 6 8 ^ 1 9 ; Duff 1952s 6 6 ) . The presence of ground slate knife preforms i n t h i s deposit suggests that knife manufacture could have taken place at the s i t e or that prepared blanks were brought to the s i t e and then sharp-ened f o r immediate use. With 13$ of the assemblage consisting of abrasive slabs ( 48 specimens), there i s ample evidence to suggest that tools of some sort were being sharpened or manu-factured on s i t e . Inferences as to the function of cortex s p a l l s are somewhat more d i f f i c u l t to make. L i t t l e systematic analysis of these tools has been car r i e d out (Coulson, 1 9 7 1 ; 263 Sanger, 1970). The analysis of the cortex s p a l l sample from Katz suggests that these tools probably served various func-tions. Evidence of on s i t e manufacture of these tools also exists i n that seven s p a l l cores were recovered from the zone. Experiments using cortex s p a l l s f o r butchering salmon were carried out i n the summer of 1971• The granular nature of the material upon which these tools are based has the e f f e c t of creating a s l i g h t l y serrated edge which cuts f a i r l y e a s i l y through the tough dorsal skin of salmon. In scoring the f l e s h as a preparation f o r drying, the cortex s p a l l tended to tear the f l e s h and did not cut as sharply and cleanly as the ground slate knives. I t i s probable that many s p a l l tools functioned i n the manner indicated. However, inspection of the working edges of the entire sample suggests that other spalls performed more vigorous and heavy duty functions, such as chopping and scraping. Five cortex s p a l l s with well worn concavities along the working edge (the spokeshave-like tools) may have been used to prepare poles, shafts, or stakes of wood or to fashion other tools of organic materials associated with f i s h i n g or hunting. Some secondarily flaked tools may simply represent evidence of edge rejuvenation, but on others the steepened edge angle r e s u l t i n g from secondary modification may indicate preparation f o r scraping or chopping functions. Tools with well worn edges may be knives dulled through much use, or the edge wear may be the r e s u l t of use as scraping too l s . The second largest tool category of Zone B includes the artef a c t s associated with the production of flakes and core 264 t o o l s . Unfortunately the time required f o r the analysis of the 3i8 5 6 artefacts included i n t h i s paper made i t impossible to include an examination of the detritus from each zone. Hence nothing can be said at t h i s point of the r a t i o of d e t r i -tus to cores i n Zone B. The tools of Zone B whose functions are assumed here to be cutting implements are: ground slate knives, cortex s p a l l tools, and bifaces (5 unstemmed, 2 stemmed and 7 fragments). The tools assumed to have functioned as scraping tools f o r use on organic materials are: cortex s p a l l s , core tools ( 3 2 ) , and unformed unifaces. Artefacts involved i n the manufacture of other implements include abrasive saws ( 1 5 ) , abrasive slabs ( 4 8 ) , cores ( 2 9 ) , cortex s p a l l cores ( 7 ) , and hammerstones ( 2 ) . Four bipolar flake tools, or pieces esquille'es, were recovered from Zone B (Macdonald, 1968: 8 5 - 9 0 ) . The presence of a small sample of chipped stone points i n the Zone B assemblage suggests the p o s s i b i l i t y that more than one exploitative a c t i v i t y may have been carried out at the s i t e unless one assumes that these tools were accidentally l e f t at the s i t e by i n d i v i d u a l s who were engaged i n some non-hunting a c t i v i t y . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that there i s a var i e t y of chipped point forms i n Zone B. There are 4 un-stemmed points (3 of Group 2 and 1 of Group 3 ) , 1 large single shouldered point with a contracting stem (Group 5)t and 9 b i l a t e r a l l y shouldered points with various blade and notching forms (2 of Group 7, 1 of Group 8 , 2 of Group,9 and 4 of Group 1 1 ) . This raises several very important questions. What 265 range of v a r i a t i o n i n point forms did the people u t i l i z i n g the Katz s i t e during the period have? Were unstemmed points a s p e c i f i c form f o r the exploitation of a certain resource, e.g., bear or deer, and the corner-notched points with expanding stems s p e c i f i c to certain other species? I f a range of va r i a t i o n i n chipped stone point forms i s exhibited i n a specialized a c t i v i t y s i t e , what other forms might these people have possessed which are not to be found i n thi s deposit? The l a t t e r question relates d i r e c t l y to the methodology of ser i a t i o n and w i l l be addressed again l a t e r i n thi s section. The examination of the hearth contents has yielded l i t t l e information on food remains. A small sample of extremely small f i s h vertebrae was recovered from one of the elongate hearth features (Feature Numbers 35 and 3 6 ) . These vertebrae have a diameter range of between 1 .2 mm. and 2 . 6 mm. A def i n -i t e species i d e n t i f i c a t i o n has yet to be made from these bones. However, a cursory examination suggests that they are either salmon f i n g e r l i n g s or eulachen (Alex Peden, Curator of Marine Biology, P r o v i n c i a l Museum, personal communication). At present eulachen do not migrate upriver past Nicomen Island a few miles west of Chilliwack, however, at the time the s i t e was occupied the western margin of the Fraser delta was s i t -uated about 6 miles to the east of i t s present location (Mathews and Shepard, 1962) and early i n the l a s t millennium B.C. eulachen may have ventured further upriver to spawn. For the present, t h i s i s speculation as there are no other data at hand. 266 The a r t e f a c t assemblage from Zone B, though limited, s t i l l provides some basis upon which to generate hypotheses about the kinds of a c t i v i t i e s carried out at the s i t e during t h i s period. The numerous hearths suggest food preparation and/or preservation. The few f i s h vertebrae that have been recovered reveal that r i v e r i n e resources were being u t i l i z e d . The function of the l i n e a r arrangements of cobbles which are associated with many of the hearths i s unknown. They may have served as f i r e or wind breaks or they may have functioned to contain material used i n the f i r e and smoke drying of f i s h . Rocks radiate heat long a f t e r a f i r e has died down. The only pattern discernible i n the alignment of these features i s that a l l are positioned perpendicular to the course of the r i v e r . The stake moulds positioned around a number of the hearth features may have supported s t i c k s f o r the roasting of meat or f i s h (Duff, 1952: ?4), or they might represent the remains of drying racks (Ibid; 65-66) although the stake moulds are small. I f these moulds are remnants of drying racks, then the positions of the hearths would suggest a smoke drying process was taking place. The stone implements associated with these features i n -clude tools which could have been used f o r the butchery of f i s h as well as tools suitable f o r the manufacture of the devices and equipment required i n catching f i s h and processing them f o r storage. The presence of chipped stone points, generally assumed to be associated with hunting a c t i v i t i e s , may indicate that some hunting was also done at t h i s time. 267 In comparing the archaeological findings of Zone B with the resource ecology of the s i t e , i t seems l i k e l y that among the resources u t i l i z e d were the main canyon sockeye runs which "begin a f t e r July 1 and l a s t u n t i l the early f a l l . We do know that p r i o r to 1948 the f l o o d p l a i n extended further out into the r i v e r at Katz but part of i t was washed away by that year's flood. The e f f e c t of an e a r l i e r flood (1898) and the numerous other major floods which have occurred since the time of occupancy on the physiographic character of the s i t e , i s unknown. I t i s possible that the formation of the flood-p l a i n during t h i s period made the Katz s i t e a f a r more suitable f i s h i n g s t a t i o n than i t appears to be today. The stratigraphy and features of t h i s zone reveal regu-l a r i t y and consistency i n the u t i l i z a t i o n of the s i t e during t h i s period. The l i m i t e d range of tools i s possibly i n part a function of the s p e c i a l i z e d nature of the a c t i v i t i e s c arried put at the s i t e . Zone A As the f l o o d p l a i n developed above the average high water l e v e l and the r i v e r continued degrading i t s bed, the Katz s i t e became more suitable f o r the construction of winter dwel-l i n g s . P i t s were dug into the e a r l i e r f l u v i a l and c u l t u r a l layers and semisubterranean houses were constructed. A radio-carbon assay based on charcoal taken from a concentration of charcoal and ash from within the f l o o r area of Pithouse Number 1 has yielded a date of 480 t 90 B.C. (I 6191). The date from 268 Pithouse Number 1 suggests that the construction of the dwelling occurred not long a f t e r the uppermost Zone B u t i l i z a -t i o n of the s i t e which was dated at 525 t 90 B.C. (I 6190). There can be no doubt that artefa c t u a l material from Zone B became mixed with the l a t e r Zone A deposit as the r e s u l t of t h i s construction a c t i v i t y . The f i r s t features to be encountered i n the excavation of Pithouse Numbers 1 and 2 were clusters of large r i v e r cobbles around the periphery of the rims of the pithouse depressions (Features 1, 3 , 9 . H, and 1 5 ) . Sanger ( 1 9 7 0 : 32) found si m i l a r aggregations of cobbles on the rims surrounding House P i t 1 at the Pine Mountain S i t e , EdRk 9 . Whether these cobbles represent footings or supports for the big hip r a f t e r s extending upward from the rims could not be determined, but i t i s probable that the superstructure of these houses required cobble footings to keep i t from s h i f t i n g i n the loose flood-p l a i n alluvium. Evidence of a ledge which presumably encircled the house f l o o r was exposed i n the trenches on the east and west sides of Pithouse 1 (Feature 18 and the Pithouse 1 P r o f i l e Figure 6). T e i t ( 1 9 0 0 : 1 9 4 ) mentions that the pithouses of the Thompson were divided into four "rooms" by the four v e r t i c a l posts which supported the main r a f t e r s . He makes no mention, however, of the presence of an e n c i r c l i n g platform. Nelson (1969* 63) reports the presence of e n c i r c l i n g ledges i n two pithouses at the Sunset Creek s i t e (45KT28) on the Columbia River. He assigned these houses to the e a r l i e s t subphase of the Cayuse Phase (subphase I) on the basis of the Quilomene 269 Bar Base-Notched and Columbia Plateau Corner-Notched p r o j e c t i l e point found associated with them. The e n c i r c l i n g ledge i n Pithouse Number 1 i s s i m i l a r i n nature to those described by-Nelson. The charred bark sheets found along the interface of the Zone A and Zone B deposit i n Pithouse Number 2 may repre-sent the remains of a wooden covering over such a platform. Features 2, 4, 5» 6, and 10 of Pithouse Number 2 are bark sheets which en c i r c l e the house at approximately the same elevation below the datum plane. Two small hearths (Features 12 and 14) were found situated on the f l o o r of Pithouse 1 below the e n c i r c l i n g ledge. Excavation of the house f l o o r did not produce evidence of a c e n t r a l l y located hearth of the type attributed to Thompson pithouses by T e i t (1900s 194). Because the entire f l o o r area was not excavated i t i s not possible to say with certainty that such a hearth was not l o -cated i n the house. However, the presence of small hearths around the periphery of the f l o o r area proper may indicate the absence of a central hearth. The excavation of the f l o o r area of Pithouse Number 1 did not y i e l d much evidence r e l a t i n g to house structure. The time involved i n excavating through the deep Zone A deposit and also the careful excavation of the Zone B deposit made i t impossible to examine the f l o o r area of the house completely. No evidence was found of a r t i f i c a l intrusions into Zone C to provide footings f o r v e r t i c a l support posts of the kind des-cribed by Tei t (1900s 192-194). These features may have been present but not found within our excavation units. A rock 270 l i n e d cache p i t (Feature 13) was found i n Pithouse Number 1 situated to the north-west of the center of the f l o o r area. This feature appears to be too large to have functioned as a footing for a v e r t i c a l post. Along the interface of the Zone A and Zone B deposit on the western side of the Pithouse Number 1 f l o o r an alignment of large r i v e r cobbles was found. These cobbles were arranged along the base of the ledge immediately above the abandoned r i v e r channel and associated with the house deposit. Sanger ( 1 9 7 0 : 32) has noted s i m i l a r features from Zone 1 of House P i t 1 at the Pine Mountain s i t e and from House P i t 2 at the Loehnore Creek s i t e (EdRks 7 ) . He reports that i n Housepit 2 a series of cobbles followed the "curve" of the housepit on the u p h i l l side against the earth wall (Ibidi 2 7 ) . At Katz these large cobbles may have served to keep the fine sediments of the surrounding ledges from sloughing down onto the house f l o o r . In the "roof collapse material" of Pithouses 1 and 2 broad layers of compact yellow s i l t y clay were observed ( P r o f i l e , Figure 6 ) . This material may have been used to cover the superstructure of the pithouses i n order to increase the i n s u l a t i o n of the houses and to minimize erosion. An examination of the Pithouse Number 1 p r o f i l e reveals the tremendous size of the i n t e r i o r of the house. The d i s -tance from the top of the eastern wall to the top of the west-ern wall i s approximately 40 feet. The f l o o r of the house which was o r i g i n a l l y excavated down to the cobble pavement i s approximately 25 feet i n diameter. The l i v i n g area of the 271 house, including the f l o o r area and the ledges, has a diameter of approximately 37 feet. The depth of the house taken from the interface of the Zone A and Zone B deposit on the eastern and western rims i s a l i t t l e over s i x feet. With the addition of a conical, or pyramidal, superstructure, the size of the dwelling would be impressive indeed. Pithouse Number 2 mea-sures 32 feet i n diameter between the tops of the east and west walls. Future research at Katz i s required to establish the sizes of other houses i n the v i l l a g e . I f Pithouse Number 1 proves to be the largest, i t may have had special significance either as a place where ceremonial a c t i v i t i e s took place or as the dwelling place of an important person i n the v i l l a g e . These are problems f a r beyond the data at hand. Artefacts In the discussion of the Zone B deposit at Katz i t was proposed that the stratigraphy and art e f a c t content suggested a seasonal u t i l i z a t i o n of the s i t e and that t h i s u t i l i z a t i o n was probably related to the exploitation of summer and/or f a l l f i s h resources. Pithouse v i l l a g e s , on the other hand, are described i n the ethnographic l i t e r a t u r e as primarily winter habitation s i t e s (Hill-Tout, 1904: 3 3 I ; Duff, 1952: 46). How-ever, during the l a t e r pithouse occupation the Katz s i t e could have served a multiseason function. Fishing and/or f i s h pre-servation could have been performed there during the summer and early f a l l , followed by pithouse occupancy during the 2?2 winter. I f t h i s was the case one would expect that the artefactual remains i n the l a t e r deposit would r e f l e c t a broader representation of a c t i v i t i e s than that of the e a r l i e r deposit. The excavation of Pithouse 1 and 2, which included exten-sive sampling of the rim deposits and trenching through the house depressions, plus the excavation of 3 lev e l s (1.5 feet) of the rim between Pithouse 3 and 4, produced a t o t a l of 2,698 ar t e f a c t s . A l l the artefa c t u a l material recovered from above the f l u v i a l layers designated Zone B, was assigned to Zone A. As already indicated, i t i s r e a l i z e d that material from the e a r l i e r deposit was mixed with the l a t e r as a r e s u l t of pithouse construction. No attempt has been made here to separate material from Zone A which may have originated i n Zone B. To do t h i s one would have to assume that the artefact types of Zone B are not present i n Zone A. To date there i s no evidence to support t h i s assumption. On the other hand, many tools of Zone A are not present i n Zone B, and various interpretations to account f o r these differences are presented l a t e r i n the chapter. Of the 2,698 artefacts found i n Zone A, 31$ (847 specimens) are cortex s p a l l tools and s p a l l fragments. Three specimens i n t h i s sample have "u" or "v" shaped ground edges which suggest use as saws. These tools are not present i n the e a r l -i e r deposit. The Zone A sample also includes 424 ground slate knife fragments (16$ of the entire assemblage). The large numbers of cortex s p a l l tools and ground slate knife fragments 273 strongly suggests that a c t i v i t i e s related to the exploitation of f i s h resources were performed at the s i t e during t h i s period. The pithouse deposit also provides a wealth of evidence of t o o l manufacturing. The presence of 312 d i s c o i d a l cores and core fragments and 31 hammerstones suggests that the pro-duction of primary flakes f o r immediate use or for secondary modification was ca r r i e d out extensively at the s i t e . These cores may have provided the flakes f o r many of the unformed unifaces (101 specimens), formed unifaces (5^ specimens), formed bifaces (52 specimens), and chipped stone points (57 specimens) found i n t h i s deposit. The recovery of 274 abra-sives including 87 saws, and ground slate and nephrite, show-ing various stages of manufacture, suggests that a well developed ground stone industry was i n operation at Katz. The nephrite industry appears to have been p a r t i c u l a r l y important with nephrite cobbles, adze blades and c h i s e l s , and nephrite end blades a l l represented. The sawn nephrite detrit u s from t h i s deposit alone t o t a l s 130 pieces. Tools which probably functioned i n the manufacture of artefacts from organic materials include the various forms of core tools, spokeshave-like cortex s p a l l tools, adze blades and c h i s e l s , pieces esquille'es, quartz c r y s t a l s , and formed unifaces. Some of the groups i n the l a t t e r category may have functioned s p e c i f i c a l l y i n the preparation of hides and the manufacture of clothing. Seventeen of the formed unifaces have steep end retouch which may indicate use as scrapers f o r 274 dressing hides (Teit, 1900: 185? Duff, 1952: 53)t and some of the formed unifaces with retouched projections may have functioned as hide perforators as might have the formed b i -faces with retouched projections. In general, the formed uniface category includes a broad range of tool forms i n the Zone A deposit. In the chipped stone point category, Zone A specimens are included i n 14 of the 17 point groupings which were estab-l i s h e d on the basis of the t o t a l sample from the s i t e . Seven of these 14 groups were also represented i n the Zone B deposit. Point forms found i n Zone A which are conspicuously absent i n Zone B include groups of corner-notched unbarbed forms, and corner-notched and basally-notched barbed forms. To what extent the greater v a r i a t i o n i n p r o j e c t i l e point forms of the Zone A assemblage can be attributed to the possible multi-season u t i l i z a t i o n of the s i t e i s undetermined. It i s of inte r e s t however, that the corner and basally-notched barbed points present i n Zone A are sim i l a r i n form to those consid-ered by Borden (1968a-:lJbO) to be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the "Skamel Phase" i n the Fraser canyon, and by Nelson (1969: 63), of the e a r l i e s t subphase of the "Cayuse Phase". These points are considered diagnostic forms associated with early pithouse v i l l a g e settlement. What range i n tool forms e.g., chipped stone points, was possessed by the occupants of the Katz s i t e at any one point i n time i s as yet undetermined. It i s possible that much of the artefact v a r i a t i o n i n the pithouse zone may be accounted f o r by the greater d i v e r s i t y i n a c t i v i t i e s which 275 w e r e t a k i n g p l a c e a t t h e s i t e , e . g . , t o o l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f a l l h u n t i n g e x p e d i t i o n s , e t c . ( D u f f , 1 9 5 2 : 7 1 ) . The a r r a y o f f o r m e d c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e t o o l s ( s c r a p e r s o f v a r i o u s s o r t s , g r a v e r s , d r i l l s a n d p e r f o r a t o r s ) n o t p r e s e n t i n Z o n e B a r e p r o b a b l y t o o l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f a l l o r w i n t e r a c t i v i t i e s s u c h a s t h e d r e s s i n g o f h i d e s a n d t h e m a k i n g o f c l o t h i n g . S i m i l a r l y t h e v a r i e t y i n f o r m s o f b i f a c e s may b e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e b u t c h e r y o f game a n i m a l s w h i c h i s r e p o r t e d i n t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c l i t e r a t u r e a s p r i m a r i l y a n a c t i v i t y o f t h e f a l l m o n t h s ( I b i d : 7 2 ) . I f t h i s w a s t h e c a s e t h e n t h e p r e s e n c e o f c h i p p e d s t o n e k n i v e s m i g h t b e e x p e c t e d t o b e i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a l a t e f a l l o r w i n t e r h a b i t a t i o n s i t e . G r o u n d s t o n e p o i n t s a r e a l s o p r e s e n t i n Z o n e A . F i v e g r o u n d s l a t e p o i n t s , 2 g r o u n d s l a t e p o i n t p r e f o r m s o r e n d b l a d e s , a n d 2 g r o u n d n e p h r i t e e n d b l a d e s w e r e r e c o v e r e d ( F i g -u r e s 6 1 a n d 6 2 ) . L i k e b o n e a n d g r o u n d s l a t e c u t t i n g p o i n t s o n t o g g l i n g h a r p o o n s , t h e g r o u n d n e p h r i t e b l a d e s f r o m K a t z may h a v e s e r v e d t o a r m h a r p o o n h e a d s . O t h e r a r t e f a c t s f r o m Z o n e A i n c l u d e : a c o b b l e m o r t a r , a n e d g e g r o u n d c o b b l e w h i c h may h a v e b e e n u s e d f o r g r i n d i n g p i g m e n t , 32 c h u n k s o f o c h r e — s o m e o f w h i c h s h o w e d e v i d e n c e o f h a v i n g b e e n b u r n e d , p o s s i b l y t o a l t e r t h e c o l o u r , 2 1 p i e c e s o f m u s c o v i t e , 5 p i e c e s o f g r a p h i t e w i t h g r o u n d f a c e t s a n d 1 p i e c e w i t h a b i c o n i c a l l y d r i l l e d h o l e , a n d a s m a l l p h y l l i t e s p i n d l e w i t h i n c i s e d e n c i r c l i n g l i n e s s i m i l a r t o t h e s p e c i m e n f o u n d a t t h e E s i l a o s i t e i n t h e E a y e m d e p o s i t ( B o r d e n , 1 9 6 6 : 1 4 ) . 276 The artefact assemblage from Zone A r e f l e c t s a much broader range of a c t i v i t i e s than does that of Zone B. Tools assumed here to be associated with f i s h butchery, i . e . , ground slate knives and v a r i e t i e s of cortex s p a l l tools are numerous. The presence of these artefacts i n the Zone A deposit suggest that a c t i v i t i e s related to the exploitation of summer and/or f a l l r i v e r i n e resources were carr i e d out at the s i t e . Evidence of stone tool manufacturing at the s i t e i s abundant i n the form of flaked d i s c o i d a l cores, hammerstones, ground nephrite detritus, ground slate at various stages of manufacture, abra-sive saws and slabs. Indirect evidence which suggests that wood, bone and antler were worked at the s i t e i s revealed by the presence of adze blades and c h i s e l s , pieces esquillees, spokeshave-like core tools and s p a l l tools, gravers and d r i l l s (Group 5 formed unifaces). This artefact composition may possibly r e f l e c t the kinds of t o o l manufacture performed at a semipermanent habitation s i t e . Steeply retouched unifaces (Groups 1 to 4 ) , and unifaces and bifaces with retouched pro-jections ( d r i l l s and perforators), may indicate winter c l o t h -ing manufacture. The wide range of p r o j e c t i l e point forms suggests hunting a c t i v i t y , possibly i n the f a l l . I t i s r e a l i z e d that there i s a danger i n assuming that the subsistence-settle-ment system (Struever, 1968as 191) employed by the occupants of the pithouses at Katz during the middle of the f i r s t millennium B.C. may be analogous to that recorded ethno-graphically. S i m i l a r l y , the inference of f a l l hunting (Duff, 1952: 71-72) may be incorrect. The range of chipped stone 277 p o i n t forms i n Zone A may be a broad sample of the v a r i a t i o n i n p o i n t forms which were possessed by the occupants of the s i t e . In other words, i f these people had s p e c i f i c p o i n t forms f o r h u n t i n g s m a l l game animals, and others f o r w a p i t i , i t may be more l i k e l y t h a t these would be found a t a semi-permanent h a b i t a t i o n s i t e than a t a s p e c i a l i z e d s i t e where a l i m i t e d range of a c t i v i t i e s took p l a c e (e.g., Zone B). As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, c u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l s from the e a r l i e r f l u v i a l zone are undoubtedly mixed i n with the Zone A d e p o s i t . Thus, chipped stone p o i n t s from Zone B, which may not a c t u a l l y be p a r t of the l a t e r assemblage, may be p a r t of the Zone A d e p o s i t . 278 Extra-Local Relationships. In the p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n of the d i s c u s s i o n the focus has been on the archaeology of the Katz s i t e with l i t t l e r e f e r e n c e to l o c a l sequences or c u l t u r a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s beyond the s i t e . The i n t e n t of t h i s s e c t i o n i s to p l a c e the s i t e w i t h i n the broad c u l t u r a l and temporal p e r s p e c t i v e of previous a r c h a e o l - ' o g i c a l f i n d i n g s i n the lower F r a s e r r i v e r r e g i o n and adjacent r e g i o n s . Before doing so, there are a number of c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t should be borne i n mind and warrant mentioning a t t h i s p o i n t . The f i r s t i s t h a t the number of excavated s i t e s i n the lower F r a s e r v a l l e y and adjacent r e g i o n s are r e l a t i v e l y few, and i n many i n s t a n c e s f u l l y d e s c r i b e d a r t e f a c t assemblages from these s i t e s are not y e t a v a i l a b l e f o r comparative purposes. Second, the a r t e f a c t assemblages which are a v a i l a b l e f o r comparative purposes ( i n c l u d i n g the Katz s i t e ) cannot be assumed to r e p r e s e n t the v a r i a b i l i t y i n a r t e f a c t u a l remains present i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s from which they were exca-vated. T h i r d , past a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h has been b i a s e d toward the e x c a v a t i o n of c e r t a i n types of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s such as l a r g e c o a s t a l s h e l l midden d e p o s i t s or pithouse v i l l a g e s . Both these s i t e s were presumably semipermanent h a b i t a t i o n s i t e s , hence, l i t t l e i s known about the technology a s s o c i a t e d with the numerous s p e c i a l i z e d a c t i v i t y s i t e s which undoubtedly e x i s t e d . In making i n t e r s i t e comparisons and i n t e r p r e t i n g l o c a l c u l t u r e sequences based on temporal d i s t r i b u t i o n s of t r a i t s these aforementioned f a c t o r s must be kept i n mind. 279 The i n t e r s i t e comparisons made here are by necessity general i n nature and simply summarize the evidence available which pertains to other early pithouse settlements i n the lower Fraser v a l l e y and adjacent regions. The archaeological data obtained from Katz are compared here with information recovered i n the Fraser canyon at the M i l l i k e n s i t e (DjRi 3) (Borden, 1968) and the Es i l a o s i t e (DjRi 5) (Borden, 1968: M i t c h e l l , 1 9 6 5 ) . Comparisons with the Fraser delta s i t e s are made on the basis of reports by Borden ( 1 9 5 0 ; 1954$ 1968s 1 9 7 0 ) . General s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r -ences are observed with the s i t e s i n the southern I n t e r i o r at the Lochnore-Nesikep l o c a l i t y (Sanger, 1 9 7 0 ) , and at the Fountain-Pavilion l o c a l i t y (Stryd, 1 9 7 2 ) . Other i n t e r a r e a l comparisons are made with s i t e s i n the Arrow Lakes region of south-eastern B r i t i s h Columbia (Turnbull, 1 9 7 1 ) , s i t e s i n the Okanagan va l l e y (Grabert, 1968: 1 9 7 1 ) , and i n the middle Col-umbia Plateau (Nelson, 1969* Leonhardy and Rice, 1970; Warren, 1 9 6 8 ) . The e a r l i e s t dated pithouse occupation i n the Canadian and Columbian Plateaus i s reported from s i t e s on the Lower Arrow Lakes i n southeastern B r i t i s h Columbia. Turnbull ( 1971» f 44) has recorded a series of 5 radiocarbon determinations from pithouses that f a l l within the 1300 to 400 years B.C. range. The oldest s i t e , the Cayuse Creek s i t e (DiQml), has been dated at 3215 B.P. t 180 (G.X. 1197) and 3150 B.P. t 170 (GaK 2896) based on carbon samples taken from two dwellings. The Deer Park S i t e (DiQm 4), just up-lake from the Cayuse 280 Creek s i t e , has y i e l d e d two dates of 2870 B.P. t 100 (GaK 2897) and 2530 B.P. t 220 (GaK 2898). A t h i r d e a r l y date was o b t a i n -ed from the Ino n o a k l i n s i t e (DkQm 5 )• The excavated p i t s of these e a r l y d w e llings d i f f e r from those of Pithouse Number 1 and Pithouse Number 2 at Katz i n that thev l a c k evidence of an e n c i r c l i n g bench. T u r n b u l l r e p o r t s the presence of i n t e r i o r storage p i t s , of the type found at Katz, l o c a t e d near the w a l l s of the houses and evidence of c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d hearths ( I b i d ; 4 7 ) . Other a r t e f a c t u a l remains found i n a s s o c i a t i o n with the Cayuse Creek, Deer Park and Inonoaklin s i t e s i n c l u d e corner-notched p o i n t s , p e s t l e s , v a r i o u s forms of side and end scrapers and adze blades. T u r n b u l l suggests that the Arrow Lakes m a t e r i a l i s p o s s i b l y a r e g i o n a l v a r i a n t of the "Selah Springs Pattern" — a c u l t u r a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n which predates the " P l a t e a u Pattern" (Warren, 1968; 3 2 - 3 5 ) and the "Cayuse Phase" (Nelson, 1968; 3 2 - 5 0 ) . In the southern Okanagan v a l l e y e a r l y pithouse settlements have been recorded at the 45-0K-78 s i t e dated at 27OO B.P., ( 1 - 2 0 3 2 ) and the Marron Lake s i t e (DiQw 2) dated at 2170 r a d i o -carbon years ago (Grabert, 1971s 155)• The pithouses at the 45-0K-78 s i t e are steep-walled and without e n c i r c l i n g benches. These houses are s i m i l a r i n form to those described by T u r n b u l l (1971s 4 7 ) . In one of the 45-0K-78 pithouses (P 9)1 Grabert (1971s 159) r e p o r t s post moulds surrounding a s t o n e - l i n e d r e c t a n g u l a r hearth. He does not i n f e r from the p o s i t i o n of these moulds what roof form the s t r u c t u r e had. In pithouses 281 3 and k, however, he argues that the configurations of post moulds suggest ". . . a c e n t r a l l y supported conical roof s i m i l a r i n construction to those used by the h i s t o r i c Thompson Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia" (Grabert, I 9 6 8 1 8 9 ) . As noted i n Chapter III of t h i s thesis, no evidence of post moulds, or a c e n t r a l l y located hearth, was recovered i n the excavation of Pithouse 1 and 2 at the Katz s i t e . The entire f l o o r areas of the Katz pithouses were not exposed and the absence of these features could be the r e s u l t of incomplete sampling. The two hearths that were observed i n Pithouse Number 1 at Katz were small and positioned on the periphery of the house f l o o r immediately below the e n c i r c l i n g platform. Good preservation at 45-OK-78 allowed for the recovery of several i n t e r e s t i n g organic artefacts from t h i s early p i t -house s i t e . These specimens included: a b i r d bone point, a spatulate-ended bone pin, a deer metatarsal awl, a bone tube whistle or bead, and possibly a fragment of a net gauge (Grabert, 1968: 93"100» Plate 3 9 ) . A storage p i t containing salmon bones was observed i n Pithouse 4 i n association with a fragment of an adze blade, i n d i c a t i n g some time depth for these t r a i t s i n the Okanagan v a l l e y (Grabert, 1968: 9 2 ) . In the southern I n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia an early pithouse occupation i s reported by Sanger (1970: 104) at the Lochnore Creek s i t e (EdRk 7). After considerable d i f f i c u l t y with the carbon dates from the Lochnore Creek s i t e , Sanger has t e n t a t i v e l y assigned a date of 2600 B.P. (no number) to the House p i t 2 deposit. There are i n t e r e s t i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s 282 between House p i t 2 a t the Lochnore s i t e and P i t h o u s e 1 a t K a t z . House p i t 2 has a ". . . r o c k r e t a i n i n g w a l l a g a i n s t the u p h i l l s i d e o f the p i t . . ." s i m i l a r t o the s e r i e s o f l a r g e c o b b l e s f o l l o w i n g the p e r i p h e r y o f the f l o o r i n P i t h o u s e 1 a t K a t z , and b oth d w e l l i n g s have stepped w a l l s o r e n c i r c l i n g l e d g e s ( I b i d : 27). Sanger s u g g e s t s the Lochnore Creek p i t -house i s o v a l w i t h d i m e n s i o n s of 11 by 9 meters. The p i t -houses a t K a t z appeared t o be round a l t h o u g h a complete e x c a -v a t i o n was n o t c a r r i e d out and the Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y t r a c k s were s i t u a t e d a c r o s s the n o r t h r i m o f P i t h o u s e 1 imped-i n g a c c u r a t e measurement o f the p i t h o u s e d i m e n s i o n s . P i t h o u s e 1 was somewhat l a r g e r t h a n House p i t 2 w i t h the d i s t a n c e between the t o p s o f o p p o s i t e w a l l s m e a s u r i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y 40 f e e t . The a r t e f a c t assemblage a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the e a r l y p i t -house o c c u p a t i o n a t t h e Lochnore Creek s i t e i s s i m i l a r i n many r e s p e c t s t o the Zone A m a t e r i a l from K a t z . T o o l s p r e s e n t i n the Lochnore Creek s i t e assemblages which a r e a l s o p r e s e n t i n the K a t z Zone A assemblage i n c l u d e : c o r n e r and b a s a l l y - n o t c h e d p o i n t s , b i f a c e s o f v a r i o u s forms ( l e a f - s h a p e d , stemmed, b i -f a c i a l d r i l l s , e t c . ) , formed u n i f a c e s (round t o o v a l w i t h con-t i n u o u s r e t o u c h , t r i a n g u l a r u n i f a c e s w i t h s t e e p r e t o u c h , b l a d e -l i k e u n i f a c e s , c r e s c e n t shaped u n i f a c e s , v a r i o u s forms o f s m a l l s t e e p l y r e t o u c h e d end s c r a p e r s , u n i f a c e s w i t h r e t o u c h e d p r o j e c t i o n s i n c l u d i n g d r i l l s , p e r f o r a t o r s and g r a v e r s , e t c . ) , n e p h r i t e adze b l a d e s , a b r a s i v e saws and s l a b s , hand mauls, ground s l a t e , pigment, edge b a t t e r e d c o b b l e s , hammerstones, 283 cortex s p a l l s , and bone awls. The conspicuous differences between the assemblages are (1) the presence of micro-blades at Lochnore Creek, (2) cortex s p a l l tools at Katz are f a r more numerous than at Lochnore Creek; the same i s true of ground slate knives, and (3) bone and antler artefacts which are present at Lochnore Creek are absent at Katz due to poor pre-servation. However, more detailed information i s required from a number of contemporaneous pithouse s i t e s i n the i n t e r -vening area between Lochnore Creek and Katz to proceed beyond l i s t i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences i n t o o l t r a i t s to some kind of explanatory l e v e l of analysis. Recent work by Stryd (1972) i n the L i l l o o e t - P a v i l i o n l o c a l i t y has also produced evidence of early pithouse occupancy. Archaeological investigations at the M i t c h e l l s i t e (EeRi 22) has yielded a pithouse date of 235 * 85 B.C. (S 5 8 0 ) . Unlike House p i t 2 recorded by Sanger, the M i t c h e l l s i t e pithouses were without e n c i r c l i n g ledges and stone retaining walls. Stryd reports that the materials which characterize the early pithouse occupation are "corner-notched a t l a t l points, uni-f a c i a l l y retouched flakes, and the absence of micro-blades." Comparisons with t h i s s i t e are l i m i t e d by the data presently available. The l o c a l sequence closest to the Katz s i t e with evidence of pithouse occupation during the f i r s t millennium B.C. i s the Fraser canyon sequence established by Borden ( 1 9 6 8 ) . The e a r l i e s t phase i n the canyon with evidence of pithouses i s the "Skamel Phase", t e n t a t i v e l y dated at 350 B.C. to A.D. 2 0 0 . 284 Charred timbers from one house were radiocarbon dated at 80 B.C. F i r s t appearing i n the "Skamel Phase" are "diagonally corner-notched p r o j e c t i l e points, that i s arrow heads with expanding stems," a large va r i e t y of c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e mater-i a l s , and s p e c i a l i z e d tools such as d r i l l s and gravers (Borden, 1968: 16). To Borden, t h i s s i t e i n t r u s i o n suggested the appearance of a new ethnic group i n the valley, probably of i n t e r i o r o r i g i n . It i s obvious that the excavation of a small portion of the Katz s i t e w i l l not provide s u f f i c i e n t evidence to confirm or refute Borden's suggestion. To do t h i s w i l l require exten-sive sampling of a large number of s i t e s i n the region. In fact, t h i s i s a problem which requires a research design of the magnitude formulated by Struever (1968a: 194-206) f o r the Lower I l l i n o i s v a l l e y . On the basis of a number of early pithouse settlements i n the Middle Columbia and Snake River regions of central Washington, Warren (1968) and Nelson (1969) have hypothesized that the advent of pithouses late i n the f i r s t millennium B.C. marked an abrupt change i n subsistence and settlement pattern i n the Plateau. Nelson (1969s 38) states that t h i s period i s characterized by: . . . a dramatically new configuration of s i t e types which occur i n p a r t i c u l a r relationships both to one another and to the topographic and ecological zones of the Columbia Plateau. This "new configuration" consisted of large pithouse s e t t l e -ments, densely d i s t r i b u t e d along major waterways, and " s i t e complexes"s winter v i l l a g e s , open area s i t e s , b u r i a l areas, 285 storage shelters, storage p i t s , pictographs, and petroglyphs (Ibid.). Both Warren (1968: 46) and Nelson (1969: 56-58) suggest that during t h i s period the subsistence orientation on the plateau changed from hunting and gathering to an inten-sive e x p l o i t a t i o n of f i s h resources. This marked increase i n f i s h i n g i s evidenced by the presence of a wide array of f i s h -ing implements i n early "Cayuse Phase" components. Recovered implements include: notched, perforated, and grooved weights, net gauges and shuttles, composite harpoon t i p s and valves, three pronged salmon spear barbs and barb guards, u n i l a t e r a l l y barbed stone.oprojectile points, and carvings depicting f i s h (Nelson, 1969: 57). The advent of the pithouse on the Plateau, a dwelling well suited to harsh winters, combined with an e f f i c i e n t tech-nology for the expl o i t a t i o n and preservation of r i v e r i n e re-sources, may i n part account for the increase i n the size and density of winter v i l l a g e settlements during t h i s period. The radiocarbon dates presently available suggest these inno-vations spread with some r a p i d i t y into the northern Columbia Plateau during the f i r s t millennium B.C. Despite t h i s apparent r a p i d i t y of d i f f u s i o n , there i s evidence that many features of the preceding c u l t u r a l patterns remained unchanged. Nelson (1969: 55) suggests that the presence of hopper mortars, pestles, digging s t i c k handles, and earth ovens i n Cayuse Phase assemblages indicates that the u t i l i z a t i o n of roots did not change dramatically from pre-Cayuse Phase patterns with the advent of pithouses and the introduction of a p r o f i c i e n t 286 f i s h i n g technology. S i m i l a r l y other t r a i t s associated with hunting, dominant i n the pre-Cayuse Phase c u l t u r a l patterns, persisted well into the Cayuse Phase. Nelson (1969s 61) suggests that t h i s persistence of older patterns i n the Cayuse Phase indicates that the spread of the winter v i l l a g e pattern only involved those t r a i t s which were required for producing a winter surplus; the older Plateau patterns of root gathering and hunting remained i n t a c t . What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the developments which appear to have taken place on the Plateau during the f i r s t millennium B.C. and the Katz site? Archaeological investiga-tions at Katz have revealed that t h i s large pithouse s e t t l e -ment, situated alongside one of the major salmon streams of the P a c i f i c slope, was inhabited at about the middle of the f i r s t millennium B.C. This date, which i s s l i g h t l y e a r l i e r than the estimated beginning of the "Skamel Phase" (Borden, 1968s 16) i n the Fraser canyon, i s roughly contemporaneous with the Lochnore Creek v i l l a g e i n the southern I n t e r i o r (Sanger, 1970), and i n the southern Okanagan va l l e y (Grabert, 1971), and s l i g h t l y e a r l i e r than settlements i n the Middle Columbia and Lower Snake River regions dated thus f a r . On the basis of the early pithouse occupation and related c u l -t u r a l materials recovered by Sanger i n the southern Interior, and by Grabert i n the southern Okanagan, Nelson (1969« 59) argues that the winter v i l l a g e pattern diffused from the Canadian Plateau into the Columbia Plateau late i n the f i r s t millennium B.C. Perhaps the appearance of pithouses at Katz, 287 and during the Skamel Phase at E s i l a o , are part of the already documented spread of the winter v i l l a g e pattern and associated c u l t u r a l features into the northern Columbia Pla-teau. I f t h i s i s the case, does the presence of pithouse v i l l a g e s i n the lower Fraser canyon and lower Fraser v a l l e y at t h i s early time indicate ethnic change as suggested by Borden (1968: 16) , or does i t represent an adaptation to climate and/or economic change by indigenous coastal peoples? These are questions which w i l l require a great deal of co-ordinated research to answer. However, a number of observa-tions can be made on the basis of the archaeological findings at Katz. F i r s t , i t i s of i n t e r e s t that the pithouse features con-sidered c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the e a r l i e s t subphase of the Cayuse Phase (50 B.C. to 250 A.D.) are present at Katz. Nelson (1969« 98) reports that on the basis of evidence now available, three d i s t i n c t pithouse forms appeared i n succession during the Cayuse Phase. The e a r l i e s t of these types, he suggests, was the deeply excavated pithouse with a l e v e l f l o o r and an e n c i r c l i n g bench. The ensuing pithouse forms were without e n c i r c l i n g benches and became increasingly more saucer-shaped through time. In the Canadian Plateau, the pithouse forms described by Turnbull ( 1 9 7 D dated between 1300 and 400 B.C. were without e n c i r c l i n g benches. This suggests that the early pithouses i n the northern Columbia were not derived from the south-eastern portion of the Canadian Plateau. The pithouse forms most l i k e the subphase I pithouses i n the Vantage locale 288 are those found at Lochnore Creek and Katz on the Fraser River. To determine the significance of t h i s shared t r a i t during the f i r s t millennium B.C. i s a problem for future re-search. The second observation i s that the artefact assemblage i n association with the pithouses at Katz i s comprised of "coastal", " i n t e r i o r " , and " l o c a l " t r a i t s . The t r a i t con-sidered here to be most strongly coastal i s the ground slate industry. The presence of ground slate points, numerous ground slate knives, and abundant evidence of on s i t e ground slate manufacture, indicate t h i s industry was well developed at the s i t e . I f artef a c t s of organic materials had survived the hyperacidic s o i l conditions at the s i t e , i t i s l i k e l y that other s i m i l a r i t i e s with the coast would have been revealed. Tools found at Katz which suggest technological a f f i n i t i e s with the i n t e r i o r include: numerous steeply retouched end scrapers, corner and basally-notched p r o j e c t i l e points, and a variety of sp e c i a l i z e d c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e tools such as gravers, d r i l l s and perforators. The current state of research regard-ing pithouse d i s t r i b u t i o n would suggest that the Katz p i t -houses were derived from the i n t e r i o r . Whether the Katz p i t -houses were adopted by coastal peoples as an adaptive res-ponse to climate or were brought into the lower Fraser r i v e r region by another ethno-linguistic group has yet to be deter-mined. The " l o c a l t r a i t s " which distinguish the Katz s i t e from any other reported on to date are the unusually large number 289 of cortex s p a l l tools and abundant evidence of nephrite tool manufacture. The sample of 701 complete cortex s p a l l tools and 146 fragments i n association with the pithouse deposit at Katz i s by f a r the largest sample of these tools excavated from a single s i t e . The functional analysis of these tools has i n -dicated that they performed a variety of functions as spoke-shaves, saws, scrapers, chopping tools, and cutting t o o l s . The overwhelming majority, however, must have functioned as knives i n the butchery of f i s h . The numerous and varied nephrite tools along with modified boulders and quantities of nephrite detritus indicate an ex-tensive nephrite industry at the s i t e . The knowledge evidenced i n the manufacture of nephrite tools, as discussed i n Chapter III, suggests f a m i l i a r i t y with the l i t h i c resources of the Fraser canyon, or a s i m i l a r locale with r e a d i l y accessible nephrite, over some period of time. In summary, on the basis of the archaeological findings at Katz, a number of general statements can be made about the s i t e . The evidence recovered from the Zone B deposit strongly suggests a seasonal u t i l i z a t i o n of the s i t e during t h i s period, probably associated with summer and perhaps f a l l f i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s . The Zone A, or pithouse deposit, represents both a winter habitation s i t e and a summer and/or f a l l f i s h i n g l o c a l -i t y . This "multi-season u t i l i z a t i o n " distinguishes Katz from most i n t e r i o r pithouse v i l l a g e s i t e s . I n t e r i o r pithouse s i t e s were often situated on high benches well away from the f i s h i n g 290 stations along the r i v e r and functioned primarily as winter habitation s i t e s . The c u l t u r a l a f f i n i t i e s r e f l e c t e d i n the a r t e f a c t u a l remains associated with the pithouse occupancy of the s i t e indicate " i n t e r i o r " and "coastal", as well as " l o c a l " a t t r i -butes. Again, the broader question r e l a t i n g to the derivation of the lower Fraser v a l l e y pithouses, and the economic and ethno-linguistic ramifications of t h i s question, must await future research. Several problems can be suggested that should be tested i n the region, and at the s i t e , which could enhance our knowledge of the prehistory of the lower Fraser r i v e r region. A major problem i n the archaeology of the lower Fraser v a l l e y region i s that l i t t l e information has been obtained pertaining to the d i f f e r e n t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of t o o l forms over a number of a c t i v i t y areas. We must know more about the technology involved i n s p e c i a l i z e d a c t i v i t y s i t e s both on the delta and along the lower course of the Fraser River. The artefact v a r i a b i l i t y associated with seasonally u t i l i z e d re-source areas such as sturgeon spawning sloughs or f i s h i n g stations i n the Fraser canyon could be obtained by employing rigorous sampling procedures. I f technological change i n artefacts, and artefact composition i s to be interpreted within a temporal perspective, adequate s i t e sampling within the region must be made a high p r i o r i t y . Although a large portion of the Katz site, i s now destroyed, much of the s i t e remains i n t a c t f o r future research. The s i t e 291 a f f o r d s an e x c e l l e n t opportunity to sample r i g o r o u s l y and s y s t e m a t i c a l l y the c u l t u r a l l a y e r s of the f l u v i a l zone and record the v a r i a t i o n i n f e a t u r e s and t o o l s w i t h i n t h i s deposit. A suggestion f o r f u t u r e work on the Zone B deposit would be to t e s t whether t h i s deposit does i n f a c t represent a "seasonal a c t i v i t y " area. The excavation should i n v o l v e wide area exca-v a t i o n and not v e r t i c a l t r e n c h i n g . An attempt should be made to recover a d d i t i o n a l f a u n a l remains through c a r e f u l examination of the hearth contents. This could provide d i e t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g to s e a s o n a l i t y . A r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the l a t e r deposit should be o r i e n t e d towards determining d i f f e r e n t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of a r t e f a c t s , s i z e and s t r u c t u r e of the houses, and contempor-a n e i t y of the houses. These data bear on questions of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , demography, and c u l t u r a l a f f i n i t y . As mentioned e a r l i e r i n the t h e s i s , c u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l s from the e a r l i e r f l u v i a l zone are undoubtedly mixed i n with the Zone A deposit. Thus, chipped stone p o i n t s from Zone B may be present i n Zone A. An approach which may prove u s e f u l i n r e s o l v i n g t h i s sampl-i n g problem would be to l o c a t e pithouses on the s i t e which do not o v e r l i e e a r l i e r c u l t u r a l d e p o s i t s . A t e s t p i t p o s i t i o n e d midway between Pithouse 1 and 2 and the r i v e r proved to be completely s t e r i l e . S i m i l a r s t e r i l e f l u v i a l deposits could u n d e r l i e pithouses at the s i t e . I f a v a r i e t y of t o o l s , f o r example p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t forms, were found to be a s s o c i a t e d with unmixed pithouse deposits then one might b e t t e r e s t a b l i s h the range i n contemporaneously e x i s t i n g forms. 292 A remnant of a former bank of the r i v e r i s s i t u a t e d to the n o r t h of the s i t e . T h i s t e r r a c e may provide i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g to an e a r l i e r o ccupation of the s i t e p o s s i b l y con-temporaneous with the Zone B occupation of the s i t e . There i s no r e a d i l y observable evidence of semipermanent occupation on t h i s t e r r a c e i n the form of pithouse d e p r e s s i o n s . However, i f the p i t h o u s e s on the more r e c e n t f l o o d p l a i n a t Katz are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a house form i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the lower F r a s e r v a l l e y r e g i o n d u r i n g the l a s t millennium B.C., t h i s i n l a n d p a r t of the s i t e might pr o v i d e s t r u c t u r a l remains of a d i f f e r -ent house type d a t i n g to an e a r l i e r p e r i o d . T h i s r e p o r t has attempted to o u t l i n e the r i c h v a r i a t i o n of m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e w i t h i n one s i t e i n the lower F r a s e r v a l l e y , and to b r i n g t o g e t h e r the r e l e v a n t data from the c o a s t a l and i n t e r i o r a r e a s . The a r t i c u l a t i o n of these two areas, i n i t s broadest context, remains a problem to engage a r c h a e o l o g i s t s of the Northwest i n the f u t u r e . Economic p a t t e r n s and environmental r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the i n t e r i o r and the c o a s t remain problems of h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y . In the e l u c i d a t i o n of these problems, f u t u r e work at the Katz s i t e can p l a y a prominent r o l e . |M4» AIMl U M F i g u r e 19. Chipped Stone P o i n t s a-b, Group 1, Zone A; c, Group 1, Surface Group 2, Zone Aj i - 1 , Group 2, Backhoe; m Group 2, S u r f a c e ; o-q, Group 2, Zone B. F i g u r e 2 0 . Chipped Stone P o i n t s a-f, Group 3 , Zone A; g, Group 3 , Surfaces h, Group 3 , Backhoej i , Group 3 , Zone Bj j-k, Group 4 , Zone As 1» Group 4 , Surfaces m, Group 4 , Backhoes n, Group 5 i Zone As o, s, Group 5» Sur-f a c e ; p, q, Group 6, Zone A; r, Group 61 S u r f a c e . 295 F i g u r e 21. Chipped Stone P o i n t s a, Group 7, S u r f a c e ; b-e, Group 7, Zone A; f - g i Group 7» Zone A; h-k, Group 8, Zone A; 1-m, Group 8, S u r f a c e ; p, Group 8, Zone A; o, q, Group 8, Backhoe; r - t , Group 9, Surface; u, Group 9i Zone A. 296 F i g u r e 22. Chipped Stone P o i n t s a-b, Group 10, Zone A; c-g, i , Group 11, Zone A; g-h, n, Group 11, S u r f a c e ; j-m, Group 11, Zone B; r , Group 11, Backhoe; s-u, Group 12, Zone a; v-x, Group 12, S u r f a c e . 297 F i g u r e 23. Chipped Stone P o i n t s a-c, Group 13, Zone A: d-f, Group 13, Surfaces g-h, Group 13, Backhoes i-l» Group 14, Surfaces m, Group 14, Backhoe. Figure 24. Chipped Stone P o i n t s a-b, Group 15, Zone A? c-d, f, Group 15, Backhoe e, Group 15, Surface; g - i , Group 16, Zone A; j-k Group 16, Surface; 1, Group 17, Surface. F i g u r e 25. Formed B i f a c e s a-d, f , Group 1, Zone A; e, g-h, Group 1, Zone B; i - j , Group 1, Surf a c e ; k-1, Group 1, Backhoe; m-n, Group 2, Zone A; o-p, Group 2, Zone B. 300 F i g u r e 26. Formed B i f a c e s a-b, Group 3, Zone A; c-e, Group 4, Zone A; f , Group 4, Zone Bj g - i , Group 5, Zone A; Group 6, Zone A? m-o, Group 6 , Backhoe. 3 0 1 F i g u r e 27. Formed B i f a c e s and B i f a c e Fragments a-d, Group 7 b i f a c e fragments, Zone A; f , Group 7 b i f a c e fragments, S u r f a c e ; e, Group 7 b i f a c e fragments, Backhoe; g, m i s c e l l a n e o u s formed b i f a c e , Zone A; h, m i s c e l l a n e o u s formed b i f a c e , Backhoe; i , m i s c e l l a n e o u s formed b i f a c e , Zone B, 302 f 1 • ~ j k p r , m #• f i l l o P W q r s F i g u r e 28. Formed U n i f a c e s (steep end retouch) a, Group 1 , S u r f a c e ; o, Group 1 , Zone A; c-g, Group 2, Zone A; h, Group 2, Zone B; i - j , m, Group 2, Sur f a c e ; k, Group 2, Backhoe; 1 , n-o, r, Group 3 i Zone A; p, Group 3» S u r f a c e j q, s - t , w, Group 3» Zone B; u-v, a 1 , Group 4, Zone A* x, Group 4, Sur f a c e ; y-z, Group h, Backhoe. 303 F i g u r e 29. Formed U n i f a c e s (retouched p r o j e c t i o n s ) Group 5 a-f, Subgroup 1, Zone As g-h, Subgroup 1, S u r f a c e ; i - k , Subgroup 1, Backhoe; 1-m, Subgroup 2, Zone A; n-o, Subgroup 2, Zone B; p, Subgroup 2, Backhoe; q-s, Subgroup 3 , Zone A; t, Subgroup 3» Zone B. Figure 30. Formed Unifaces a-d, Group 6 , Zone A; c-1, Group 7 , Zone A; m-p, Group 7 , Surface; q-r, Group 7 . Backhoe; s, Group 8 , Surface; t , Group 8 , Zone A; u-v, Group 9» Backhoe. 305 Figure 3 1 . Formed Unifaces a-b, Group 1 0 , Zone A; c-d, Group 1 0 , Backhoe e-f, miscellaneous formed u n i f a c e s , Zone As g miscellaneous formed u n i f a c e s , Surface; h - i , miscellaneous formed u n i f a c e s , Backhoe. 306 F i g u r e 32. Unformed U n i f a c e s a, unformed u n i f a c e (convex edge), Zone A; t>, unformed u n i f a c e (concave edge), Zone A; c, unformed u n i f a c e ( s t r a i g h t edge), Zone As d, unformed u n i f a c e (concave edge), Zone B; e, un-formed u n i f a c e ( s t r a i g h t edge), Zone B; f, un-formed u n i f a c e (recurved edge), Zone B. 307 Ml Y J f A#9ft F i g u r e 3 3 ' P i e c e s Esquille'es ( B i p o l a r Flaked A r t e f a c t s ) a-h, p i e c e s esquille'es, Zone Aj i - k , p i e c e s e s q u i l l e e s , Zone B; 1, pidce esquille'e, Surfaces m-o, p i e c e s esquille'es, Backhoe. 308 Figure 3 4 . Quartz C r y s t a l s a-c, quartz c r y s t a l s (crushing on t i p s ) , Zone Aj d, quartz c r y s t a l , Backhoe. Figure 36 . Cortex S p a l l Cores a-c, cortex s p a l l cores (end s t r u c k ) , Zone A. 310 Figure 3 7 . Cortex S p a l l Core Zone A. 311 Figure 38. Cortex S p a l l Tools a-g, cortex s p a l l t o o l s , s e c o n d a r i l y f l a k e d , Zone A. 312 F i g u r e 3 9 . Cortex S p a l l T o ols (Spokeshaves?) a-g, c o r t e x s p a l l t o o l s with worn c o n c a v i t i e s (spokeshaves?); Zone A. 313 F i g u r e kO. Cortex S p a l l Tools (Saws?) a-c, cortex s p a l l t o o l s with ground and b e v e l l e d edges, Zone A. 314 Figure 41. Cortex S p a l l Tools a-d, edge battered cortex s p a l l t o o l s , Zone A. 315 Figure 42. Cortex S p a l l Tools a-b, cortex s p a l l t o o l s with worn edges, Zone A. 316 Figure 43. Cortex S p a l l Tools a, c, cortex s p a l l t o o l s struck on end, Zone A? b, d, cortex s p a l l t o o l s struck on s i d e , Zone A. 3 1 7 Figure 44. (U-Shaped), Close-up i n c r o s s -of Cortes S p a l l Saw s e c t i o n , Zone A. Edge 318 Figure 4 5 . Cortex S p a l l Cores a, cortex s p a l l core (end s t r u c k ) , Zone Bj b, cortex s p a l l core t o o l ( s e c o n d a r i l y f l a k e d ) , Zone B, 319 Figure 46. Cortex S p a l l Tools a-b, cortex s p a l l t o o l s , s e c o n d a r i l y f l a k e d , Zone B. 320 Figure 4 7 . Cortex S p a l l Tools a-b, cortex s p a l l t o o l s , s e c o n d a r i l y f l a k e d , Zone Bs c-e, cortex s p a l l t o o l s , h e a v i l y worn edges, Zone B. 321 Figure 48. Cortex S p a l l Tools a-b, cortex s p a l l s with worn c o n c a v i t i e s (spokeshaves), Zone B; c-d, cortex s p a l l s with s t r a i g h t edges (adze-l i k e ) , Zone B. 322 Figure 49. Close-up of Cortex S p a l l Edge (Edge Battered), Zone B. F i g u r e 50. Close-up of Cortex S p a l l Edge (Edge P o l i s h e d ) , Zone B. Figure 51. Core Tools a, c-d, Group 1, Zone As b, Group 1, Zone B. 325 Figure 52t Core Tools a-d, Group 2 , Zone A; e-h, Group 2 , Zone B. 326 Figure 53• Core Tools a-b, d, Group 3 , Zone A; c, e, Group 3 , Zone B. Figure 5^. Core Tools a-d, Group 4 , core t o o l s with c o n c a v i t i e s e x h i b i t i n g extensive crushing (spokeshaves), Zone A. 328 Figure 55. Close-up of Spokeshave Concavity Group 4 Core Tool, Zone A. 329 Figure 5 6 . Pebble Tools a-b, Pebble Tools, Zone Bj c-d, Pebble Tools, Zone Figure 57 . B i f a c i a l l y Flaked Pebble To Zone A. 331 Figure 58. Edge Battered Cobbles a, edge battered cobble, Backhoe? b, edge battered cobble, Zone A; c-d, edge battered cobbles, Surface. F i g u r e 59 • Hammerstones a, small elongate hammerstone, Zone B; b-c, hammerstones, Zone A, 333 Figure 60. A n v i l Stone Zone B. 334 Figure 61. Ground S l a t e P o i n t s a-b, k, n, ground s l a t e p o i n t s , Surface; c, e - i , 1-m, ground s l a t e p o i n t s , Zone A; d, ground s l a t e p o i n t , Zone B; j , b a s a l fragment, Zone A; o, bas a l fragment, Backhoe; p, r , ground s l a t e p o i n t pre-forms or end blades, Surface; q, ground s l a t e p o i n t preform or end blade, Zone A. 335 Figure 62. Ground S l a t e Knives a-c, ground s l a t e knives, Zone Aj d, ground s l a t e knives, Surface. 336 Figure 6 3 . Ground S l a t e a-b, ground s l a t e at stage of manufacture, evidence of chipping along edges and g r i n d i n g on faces, Zone B. 3 3 7 Figure 64. Ground S l a t e a-b, ground s l a t e knives, Zone Br c-d, sawn s l a t e , Zone A. 3 3 8 Figure 65, Miscellaneous Ground S l a t e A r t e f a c t s a, b i f a c i a l l y ground s l a t e object with a l o n g i t u d i n a l saw groove, Surface; b, elongate s l a t e object (needle?), Zone A; c, ground s l a t e k n i f e fragment with b i c o n i c a l l y d r i l l e d hole, Zone A: d, ground s l a t e k n i f e fragment with i n c i s e d s e r r a t i o n s along the edge, Surface; e, ground s l a t e k n i f e fragment with i n c i s e d s e r r a t i o n s along the edge, Zone A. 339 Figure 66. Sawn Nephrite Cobble Backhoe Test P i t . 3^0 Figure 6?. Sawn and Ground Nephrite Pebbles Surface. 34l F i g u r e 6 8 . F l a k e d and Ground Nephrite Pebbles a, ground n e p h r i t e pebble, Zone A; b, ground n e p h r i t e pebble, Zone B; c, f l a k e d and ground n e p h r i t e pebble, Zone A; d, f l a k e d and ground n e p h r i t e pebble, S u r f a c e ; e, f l a k e d and ground n e p h r i t e pebble, Backhoe; f, ground s p a l l of n e p h r i t e , Backhoe. 342 Figure 69* Adze Blade i n Process of S e c t i o n i n g by Sawing Backhoe. 3^3 Figure 70. Adze Blades a, d-g, adze blades, Zone Ai b, c, h, adze blades, Surface. 344 Figure 71. Adze Blades a, d-e, adze blades, Backhoe; b-c, adze blades, Surface. 3 ^ 5 Figure 72. Small Nephrite Tools a-c, nephrite c h i s e l s , Surface; d, nephrite c h i s e l s , Zone A?; e, f, nephrite end blades, Zone A; g, nephrite end blade, Surface; h, elongate nephrite t o o l , Backhoe. 346 Figure 73. Hand Mauls a, hand maul fragment (top p o r t i o n with two e n c i r c l i n g grooves), Surface; b, hand maul fragment (basal por-t i o n ) , Surface; c, hand maul fragment (basal p o r t i o n ) , Test P i t 344' - 350* South, 90' - 96' East; d, hand maul fragment (basal p o r t i o n ) , Surface. 3^7 Figure 7 4 . Large Pecked Cobble (hand maul i n stage of manufacture?), Surface 348 F i g u r e 75. M i s c e l l a n e o u s Stone A r t e f a c t s a, elongate pebbles with a s e r i e s of b i l a t e r a l notches and t a n g - l i k e end, Backhoe; b, pebbles with b i l a t e r a l l y pecked notches, and pecked ( s t r a i g h t ) ends, Zone A; c, edge ground pebble, Zone A. 3^9 Figure 76. Decorative Stone A r t e f a c t s a, sandstone bead, Backhoe; b, i n c i s e d p h y l l i t e spindle-shaped object, Zone A? c, ground s t e a t i t e pipe, Backhoe; d, zoomorphic c a r v i n g ( s t e a t i t e ) , Surface. 350 Figure ??. Stone Mortar Zone A. 351 Figure 78. Graphite and S t e a t i t e a, ground graphite fragment ( b i c o n i c a l l y d r i l l e d ) , Zone Aj b, graphite with f a c e t s , Zone A; c, graphite with ground depression, Zone Bi d, sawn s t e a t i t e , Zone A. 352 Figure 79 • Abrasive Saws a-d, s c h i s t o s e saws, Zone A. Figure 80. Abrasive Saws a-c, g a r n e t i f e r o u s s c h i s t saws, Zone B. 354 Figure 81. Abrasive Slab Zone A. 355 Figure 82. Abrasives a-b, coarse abrasive s l a b s , Zone B i c, s c h i s t with large garnet i n c l u s i o n s , Zone A; d, whetstone with broad shallow depression, Zone A. 356 Figure 8 3 . Bone Awls a, s p l i t bone awl fragment ( t i p p o r t i o n ) , Zone A: b, s p l i t bone awl, Test P i t , 3^4 - 3 5 0 South, 90 -96* East. BIBLIOGRAPHY Abbott, D.N. n.d. "A Study of Factors Relevant to the Interpretation of Archaeological Remains on Southeastern Vancouver Island." 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Struever, u S. 1968a "Problems, Methods and Organization: A Disparity i n the Growth of Archaeology," i n Anthropological Archaeology i n the Americas, ed. by Betty Meggers. 1968b "Woodland Subsistence-Settlement Systems i n the Lower I l l i n o i s Valley," i n New Perspectives i n Archaeology, ed. by S a l l y Binford and Lewis Binford, University of New Mexico, Aldine Publishing Co. 1971 Comments on Archaeological Data Requirements and Research Strategy," American Antiquity, Vol. 3 6 , No. 1. Stryd, A.H. 1972 "Housepit Archaeology at L i l l o o e t , B r i t i s h Columbia: the 1970 F i e l d Season," B. C. Studies, No. 14. Suttles, W. 1951 " The Economic L i f e of the Coast S a l i s h of Haro and Rosario S t r a i t s . " Ms., unpublished Ph. D. di s s e r t a -tion, University of Washington, Seattle. 1955 Katzie Ethnographic Notes. Anthropology i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Memoirs Nos. 2 and 3 . 1957 ' The Middle Fraser and F o o t h i l l Cultures ; A Criticism," Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, Vol. 1 3 , No. 2 . 1960a " A f f i n a l Ties, ( iSubsistence and Prestige Among the Coast Salish," American Anthropologist 62: 2 9 6 - 3 0 5 . 1960b Variation i n Habitat and Culture on the Northwest Coast. Akten des Jk. Internationalen Amerikanisten-kongresses, Vienna, pp. 5 2 2 - 5 3 7 . 1963 " The Persistence of In t e r v i l l a g e Ties Among the Coast Salish," Ethnology 2 : 5 1 2 - 5 2 5 , Pittsburgh. 366 Szczawinski, A.F. and G.A. Hordy 1967 Guide to Common Edible Plants of B r i t i s h Columbia. B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum Handbook No. 2 0 , V i c t o r i a . Teit, J . 1900 The Thompson Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia. Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural History, New York, 2s 1 6 3 - 3 9 2 . 1906 "The L i l l o o e t Indians," The Jesup North P a c i f i c Expedition, Vol. II, Part V. 1 9 0 9 The Shuswap. American Museum of Natural History, Jesup North P a c i f i c Expedition 2 : 443-789. Thomas, D.H. 1 9 7 0 "Archaeology's Operational Imperatives; Great Basin P r o j e c t i l e Points as a Test Case." Archaeological Survey Annual Report, Department of Anthropology, University of C a l i f o r n i a , Los Angeles. Turnbull, hC.J. 1 9 7 1 "Recent Archaeological Fieldwork i n the Arrow Lakes, B r i t i s h Columbia," i n Aboriginal Man and Environ-ments on the Plateau of Northwest America, ed. by Arnoud Stryd and Rachel Smith, University of Calgary Archaeological Association. Turner, N. 1972 " Ethnobotany. Information on L i l l o o e t Plant Names and Their Uses." Ms., unpublished. Botanical Garden, University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Warren, C.L. 1968 The View From Wenass A Study i n Plateau Prehistory, Occasional Papers of the Idaho State University Museum, No. 2 4 , Pocatello, Idaho. Waterman and Collaborators 1 9 2 1 "Native Houses of Western North America," Indian Notes and Monographs, Museum of the American Indian Heye Foundation. Willey, G.R. 1 9 5 3 " P r e h i s t o r i c Settlement Patterns i n the Viru Valley, Peru," Bureau of American Ethnology B u l l e t i n 155s 4 5 3 . 1966 An Introduction to American Archaeology: Volume One, North and Middle America. Prentice H a l l . 367 Willey G., and P. P h i l l i p s 1963 Method and Theory i n Archaeology. University of Chicago Press. W i l l i s , B. 1 8 9 8 " D r i f t Phenomena of Puget Sound," Geological Society of America B u l l e t i n , Vol. 9 , pp. 1 1 1 - 1 6 2 . Wilmsen, E.N. 1 9 6 8 "Functional Analysis of Flaked Stone A r t i f a c t s , " American Antiquity 33s 1 5 6 - 1 6 1 . Winters, H.D. 1 9 6 9 The Riverton Culture. I l l i n o i s State Museum Mono-graph, No. 1 . Wittaker, R.H. 1970 Communities and Ecosystems. Current Concepts i n Biology Series, MacMillan. APPENDIX I Smallest Space Analysis Smallest Space Analysis (S.S.A.) i s a non-metric multi-variate technique developed by Guttman (1968 ) and computerized by Lingoes ( 1 9 7 0 ) . This technique i s p a r t i c u l a r l y appropriate for the kind of data most often co l l e c t e d by anthropologists. The features of S.S.A. are outlined by Bloombaum ( 1 9 7 1 a : 4 1 5 ) : 1. a multivariate technique suitable f o r f a i r l y large numbers of variables; 2 . geometric output to render the structure of a body of data e a s i l y comprehensible; 3 . no special assumptions with respect to l e v e l of measurement, l i n e a r i t y of data, etc.; 4 . gives the fewest number of dimensions; 5 . analyzes any matrix of observed relationships within computer size l i m i t a t i o n s ; present capacity 120 v a r i a b l e ^ 6 . provides a measure of "goodness of f i t " ; 7. r e s u l t s remain invariant under rotation; 8 . eliminates the necessity of choosing between orthagonal and oblique solutions; 9 . no communalities to estimate; 1 0 . output may be checked d i r e c t l y against Input table; 11 . available as part of a standard l i b r a r y of computerized programs. The Procedure The procedure involved i n t h i s analysis i s documented i n the following steps: Step 1. The Mapping Sentence The construction of a mapping sentence i n accordance with the following formula P (cf. Guttman 1968 ) P refers to the population elements, here conceived as 3 6 8 369 time units, or weeks of the years V r e f e r s to the variables, i n t h i s case, the ecological resources} the arrow indicates the mapping operation? and C i s the Cartesian product of P and V (Bloombaum 1971b: 2 ) . For purposes of i l l u s t r a t i o n , a portion of the mapping sentence used i n t h i s analysis i s as Week (X) of the year has -(ResourceV-(ResourceVlResourceX-^C The mapping sentence was composed of 52 population ele-ments (weeks of the year), and 42 facets (resource v a r i a b l e s ) . If the resource i n the f i r s t facet was present during the week (Population element) being considered, the positive presence was indicated by a plus sign. I f absent, a minus sign. From the 42. facets, a p r o f i l e of plus and minus values, i n d i c a t i n g the resources present i n each week was obtained. Step 2. The Data Matrix The flow chart i s an ordered version of the data matrix with the variables arranged from l e f t to r i g h t across the top of the matrix as they make t h e i r appearance i n time. The ordering of the variables i n t h i s way was not necessary f o r the S.S.A. but was done purely for purposes of interpretation. Step 3 . The Co e f f i c i e n t of Association An appropriate measure, or c o e f f i c i e n t of association, was selected. The nature of the data i n t h i s analysis made this a p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t task. Not only was i t important to measure the degree to which resources were co-occuring i n follows: 370 time, but also to measure the distance between resources i n time i f there was no overlap. A simple measure of j o i n t occurrence would provide a negative c o r r e l a t i o n for resources which did not overlap i n time even though they appeared "back-to-back" i n time. To s a c r i f i c e the sequential ordering of the resources would have minimized the value of the analysis. Mr. Frank Flynn, a resident programmer at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, suggested a weighted measure of Phi to counterbalance the computational e f f e c t on the correlations. The regular Phi c o e f f i c i e n t was used at a l a t e r date and pro-vided an almost i d e n t i c a l S.S.A. solution. The way i n which the matrix was weighted and the formula f o r Phi are included below: Weights Weeks Variables For Phi 371 Each week ^ i s assigned a weight W ^ e.g., week one W i equals 26 week twenty-six W2^  equals 1 week twenty-seven W2^  equals 1 week fifty-two W 2^ equals 26 The normal Phi 2 X 2 table i s used: — nz. — *3 T i Tz. H i mv — 102. n3 J T i Tt T? H The c e l l entry i f there i s a j o i n t occurrence of two re-sources i n one week i s the value of the weight of that particu l a r week. Step 4 . The Correlation Matrix The c o r r e l a t i o n or derived matrix i s the matrix of expressed re l a t i o n s h i p s among the variables taken i n pair s . The score matrix i n t h i s analysis was symmetrical and thus re-quired the S.S.A. I programme. Step 5« Smallest Space Analysis 372 According to Bloombaum (1971a: 409), " . . . the basic question addressed by S.S.A. i s what i s the smallest space i n which a body of data may be adequately represented?" He points out that "smallest space" ref e r s to the fewest number of dimensions, "adequately" ref e r s to the ease to which these data can be reconstructed from the S.S.A. solution, and "representation" r e f e r s to the presentation of the empirical structure of the data i n a comprehensible form. An r mode analysis ( i . e . , the resource variables were correlated i n time), was carried out i n 1, 2, and 3 dimensions. Each of the 42 variables were plotted as an i n d i v i d u a l point, with the distance between points expressing the correlations among the variables. The closer together the points, the more highly correlated i n time were the variables, the greater the distance between points the more negatively correlated were the variables. APPENDIX II MATRIX SHOWING PROJECTILE POINT VARIATION WITHIN GROUPINGS 373 i • I - 1 | ! i I i i.i ; M l ! in in 6 fr Z £ ft fi 4 a 3 o O in < < i' y s 9 £ E 6 0 9 8 Z 9 S 8 6 I S 6 m Q 3 O ' O < < ll ll \ I L t Z I E L L Z H 9 0 I £ £ * £ a T T T T T 6 E E 0 S E Z £ 6 I M S z 2 Z Z J z i -• 4 Z ! ! Q 3 o a (0 in (/> 10 ; < • < < fi'' ' 0 Z E £ M H S S L L a 3 o km in </> in < < < B S E : P 8 6 6 9 6 • S Z £ S £ S £ J H 6 z 4. . z i 1 z 4 I- i T r-T T T T ~ -t- 8 i 9 z i : ._ 4 . z 0 r E fi! M i " : z 9 £ » 1 . -" M + 44.44 1 i i Q 3 O w 0 to £ S 0 S 6 Z 6 0 0 £ 9 8 £ 0 9 Z 9 fi £ 8 * V6 £ S £ f £ I 6 £ £ E £ -1 ( I I ! . j . . 1 . z z t _l...L. j t i.. LL f-rl-+.. l.l -r q : •!• ! i -t t i : !. LL I j ! < T o o I M S £ I 8 9 . L . . _ .1.. 1 I • ! 01 o 9 1 I 6 I 6 S £ 9 E I Z 1 Z I f £ I 6 £ 10 9 9 1 1 9 18 6 6 0 £ Z 0 1 9 I t-9 l i : - -0 6 9 £ IL 1......, - z 4 I ! i ; 1 1 4 4 z 4 i I -i -i i I r t T i Q 3 a in in m ; on h P E I L Z I, 6 ! £ S i 6 ' I Z 0 I P 8 : Z 0 4 --1 1 1 6 E P I £ 8 6 6 £ 0 0 P 6 E S 0 6 z I z + z 4. 1 . 1 in in ca m o 0 t- £ 6 £ Z 9 £ 6 E 0 0 £ P 6 ! I i I 1 1 i I.! ! 1 ! i in < < T n S I 8 8 £ E £ 8 "1 < 8 r t 9 8 9 6 I 6 6 0 3 . c in ! w < < M O £ 0 0 £ 6 0 £ 2 5 8 8 a 3 o a 5 0 9 Z £ £ 6 9 I £ 0 f 0 0 6 M 9 0 P 8 £ 8 £ E S £ £ Z £ 9 £ E Z 8 6 S £ 9 fi 6 I E 1—-: I - -1 Q 3 O t_ C £ 0 £ I 0 I Z I 6 6 Z I 6 Z Z I 8 1 S 0 E 8 0 £ 0 P L 6 S 8 8 9 S 9 £ I Z £ Z E 16 Z S I 6 9 8 9 £ 5" 1 I . ! ...I . ! I 4 4 --.!' • | " " T t r ! 1 "1 •i I ! L.l 4-1-! I T r , .1 ..L. .! ...I. J . i ! 1 j 1 ... r -,--|~ j-j "?"')' i ' . ' Q tlj : i i 1 1 j -j. ,.. i . . ; . 1. ' i 1 • 1 i ! !! ! I j i. _L H-- i 1 -1 ; a 3 in 9 2 E 0 6 £ 0 1 6 E 8 z z 4 4 a i l •ou l a e j u i e j j M in i i ! I i »-i Z ; O ; a. i ui (TI 3 • o n ,0 3 3 O O 0) c > oj n c — — O >- 3 u *^  cn , o , c c ™ c C n a m * ' 3 ' cr ! O CC i a I T3 ! (0 cn 1 , n a n a n • w I M l o ! i . 3 o n o o o o — o ta • c . Ic 1 "a C : c o o o *- — O) « «> e ^ Q . U> . _ re a> 3 -o >- ^  u c a c o •-3 a. ai ! <0 ca 1 ! ! / . ! ' ! ,c : o> !' ui •B • i «-.« i ^ ' ' ! C D ' ! I - . I I 3~! ! t o.,;i I in '•' oTJ <0 o JO o it „ r ** r (0 IS 1— k_ 1) (9 ID Q (S _ (0 in re JO 1 «s ^ 0) c n 0) JO •o , c • ._ n o <o u X I I : t ! <p c — I r C K O (0 " — 3 <p o a 1 n ! O ' ' ,0 ija C O S APPENDIX III Carbon Dates Depth Below Depth Below Lab Material Zone Provenience Datum Plane (97') Surface C14 Date Number Charcoal A South West 5 . 9 ' 46 . 8 ' - 6 . 3 " - 4 7 . 2 ' 7 . 5 ' 6 . 6 ' 2430 480 + 90 90 B.P. B.C. or 1-6191 Charcoal B South West 5 3 - 5 " 7.5', - 5 4 . 5 2 . 4 ' 2475 525 + + 90 90 B.P. B.C. or 1-6190 Charcoal B South West 16 .0* 1.7" -16 .6 ' - 2 . 7 ' 6 . 4 ' 5 . 5 ' 2695 745 + + 90 90 B.P. B.C. or 1-6189 A l l samples received pretreatment for the removal of humic acids and carbon. 

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