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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Social change and high school opportunity in Guyana and Jamaica: 1957-1967 Bynoe, Jacob Galton 1972

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SOCIAL CHANGE AND HIGH SCHOOL OPPORTUNITY IN GUYANA AND JAMAICA: 1957 - 1967 by Jacob G a l t o n Bynoe B.A. ( E x t e r n a l ) , U n i v e r s i t y o f London, 1957 D i p . Ed., U n i v e r s i t y o f t h e West I n d i e s , 1959 M.A. (Ed.), U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION i n t h e Department of EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATIONS  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming r e q u i r e d standard  THE  t o the  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA February, 1972  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree  that  the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  may be granted by the Head of my Department or I t i s understood  t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without written  permission.  Department o f  j^dA.vc./f77Ty^'/yO. '^Sl^A^cLatZ^i^  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  Date  JO  ft Hj^JL  }  thesis  /?7V  my  ii  ABSTRACT  The  approach t o nationhood  and democratic  government  i n Guyana and Jamaica d u r i n g the 1950's and 1960's was c h a r a c t e r i s e d by a d e t e r m i n a t i o n  t o reduce i n e q u a l i t i e s i n  the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f goods and s e r v i c e s among v a r i o u s s o c i o economic groups.  The t h e s i s examines e f f o r t s made t o  l e s s e n i n e q u a l i t i e s i n e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y , and assesses the r e s u l t s a c h i e v e d .  S p e c i f i c a l l y i t enquires  i n t o the r e s u l t s o f measures i n s t i t u t e d d u r i n g 1957 t o 1967  t o reduce i n e q u a l i t i e s i n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t  groups among h i g h s c h o o l f r e e - p l a c e winners. The h y p o t h e s i s examined i s t h a t d e s p i t e  legislative  and o r g a n i s a t i o n a l changes, f o r m e r l y d e p r i v e d groups remain a t a c o n s i d e r a b l e disadvantage high school s e l e c t i o n .  i n t h e i r chances f o r  For both c o u n t r i e s , groups are  c l a s s i f i e d on the b a s i s o f four separate characteristics: sex,  still  differentiating  p a r e n t a l occupation, r e g i o n a l background,  and type o f p r e v i o u s s c h o o l attended.  For Guyana  e t h n i c background i s i n c l u d e d because o f p e c u l i a r ethnoh i s t o r i c a l problems i n t h a t  country.  A n a l y s i s of M i n i s t r y of Education records of a l l f r e e - p l a c e winners i n 1967 r e v e a l s t h a t the p o s i t i o n o f  iii the t r a d i t i o n a l l y l e s s p r i v i l e g e d r u r a l ,  and  skilled,  s e m i - s k i l l e d and u n s k i l l e d groups remained f a r below p u b l i c e x p e c t a t i o n s and o f f i c i a l c l a i m s . disadvantages  However, the  s u f f e r e d i n Guyana by E a s t I n d i a n s as a  group were r a p i d l y and almost completely e l i m i n a t e d with i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n of t h i s group i n the governmental machinery. The  t h e s i s a l s o seeks t o e x p l o r e some o f  those  s o c i a l and economic f a c t o r s t h a t seemed h i s t o r i c a l l y t o have f r u s t r a t e d e f f o r t s f o r the g e n e r a l expansion  and  e q u a l i s a t i o n o f h i g h s c h o o l o p p o r t u n i t y i n the two ies.  territor-  A study p r i m a r i l y of o f f i c i a l r e c o r d s , speeches,  r e p o r t s , and other documentary evidence  suggests  t h a t not  o n l y the s c a r c i t y of economic r e s o u r c e s but the system of  rewards, the k i n d s of employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e ,  and commitment on the p a r t of v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s of the community t o t r a d i t i o n a l e l i t i s t e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e s were contributory  factors.  E q u a l i z i n g e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y r e q u i r e s not merely i n c r e a s i n g the q u a n t i t y of s c h o o l p l a c e s a v a i l a b l e , but d i v e r s i f y i n g the s c h o o l programme t o r e l a t e t o v a r i o u s c u r r i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s and o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s .  The  success of such d i v e r s i f i e d programmes i s a f f e c t e d by a c t u a l p a t t e r n s of c u r r i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s and  the  occupational  iv aspirations.  The  success of such d i v e r s i f i e d programmes  i s a f f e c t e d by the a c t u a l p a t t e r n s and  occupational  of c u r r i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s  a s p i r a t i o n s of students, the i n v e s t i g a t i o n  of which forms a s u b s i d i a r y p a r t o f the t h e s i s . Implications and  of f i n d i n g s f o r the  e q u a l i s a t i o n of high  countries objectives  are d i s c u s s e d , outlined.  f u r t h e r expansion  school opportunity and  i n the  two  p r o p o s a l s f o r promoting these  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page L i s t of Tables  v i i  Chapter 1  INTRODUCTION - PURPOSE AND SCOPE  1  2  A NOTE ON EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY  9  3  SOME HISTORICAL AND DEMOGRAPHIC FEATURES  26  4  INEQUALITIES IN EDUCATIONAL PROVISION IN THE POST-EMANCIPATION PERIOD - SOME CONTRIBUTORY FACTORS  37  5  6  7  8  9  SOME HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENTS Review o f H i s t o r i c a l O r i g i n s Some Developments i n Guyana from 1840 - 1957 Guyana a f t e r 1957 Jamaica - Government, P o l i t i c s , Economy and S o c i e t y  110  THE EDUCATION SYSTEMS OF GUYANA AND JAMAICA IN THE LATE 1950*s Guyana's E d u c a t i o n a l System Jamaica's E d u c a t i o n a l System  130 151  THE DISTRIBUTION OF HIGH SCHOOL OPPORTUNITY IN GUYANA: 1957 - 1967  161  HIGH SCHOOL OPPORTUNITY IN JAMAICA, 1957 1967: SOCIAL AND POLITICAL PRESSURES FOR EXPANSION  200  SOCIO-ECONOMIC BACKGROUND, OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATIONS, AND CURRICULAR INTERESTS OF FOURTH-FORM STUDENTS IN GUYANA AND JAMAICA Procedure o f E n q u i r y A n a l y s i s of R e s u l t s  245 247 250  v  75 82 92  vi Chapter 10  Page  SUMMARY AND PROPOSALS FOR REFORM A C l o s i n g Note on Problems o f E d u c a t i o n a l Change i n Guyana  BIBLIOGRAPHY  276 299 309  APPENDICES (1) Map o f Commonwealth Caribbean (2) Map of Guyana (3) Map o f Jamaica (4) Q u e s t i o n n a i r e R e s u l t s - Summary o f Tables (5) Copy o f Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 2  317 318 319 320 331  LIST OF TABLES  Table  Page  1.  E t h n i c breakdown of Guyana's p o p u l a t i o n , 1967  26  2.  E t h n i c breakdown of Jamaica's p o p u l a t i o n , 1967  30  3.  Percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n of s e l e c t e d domestic exports, 1957 - 1960 (Guyana)  94  Percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n of s e l e c t e d f a c t o r s i n Gross Domestic Product, 1957 - 1960 (Guyana)  95  4.  5.  6.  7.  8.  9.  10.  11.  12.  E t h n i c composition of pensionable C i v i l Servants i n 1940 and 1960 (Guyana)  102  R a c i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n i n 1960 (Guyana)  104  Percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n of p r i n c i p a l s e c t o r s of domestic e x p o r t s i n 1950, 1956 and 1960 (Jamaica)  116  Percentage c o n t r i b u t i o n of v a r i o u s i n d u s t r i a l groups t o the G.D.P. 1950, 1957 and 1960 (Jamaica)  117  D i r e c t i o n of f o r e i g n t r a d e , 1950, and 1965 (Jamaica)  119  1957,  1960  Composition of labour f o r c e by i n d u s t r i a l group i n 1960 (Jamaica) _  121  A l l o c a t i o n s among s e l e c t e d e d u c a t i o n s e c t o r s from p u b l i c r e c u r r e n t and development expendit u r e , 1957 (Guyana)  149  Percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n of 1967 f r e e p l a c e winners a c c o r d i n g t o p a r e n t a l o c c u p a t i o n , sex, and r a c e (Guyana)  193  vii  viii Table 13.  14.  Page Percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n of 1967 f r e e p l a c e winners according t o the type of p r e v i o u s s c h o o l attended, r a c i a l group, and sex (Guyana)  196  S o c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n s i z e o f e n t r y and success i n the 1959 Common Entrance Examination (Jamaica)  203  15a. Percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n by r e g i o n , of 1967 p l a c e winners (Jamaica)  free  15b. D i s t r i b u t i o n of 1967 f r e e p l a c e winners i n Jamaica by type and l o c a t i o n of p r e v i o u s s c h o o l attended 16.  17 .  18.  19.  20.  21.  22.  228  230  Percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n of 1967 f r e e p l a c e winners by o c c u p a t i o n a l group and r e g i o n (Jamaica)  234  Percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n oir o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s ( f i r s t job) by r e g i o n - Guyana  252  Percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n of o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s (job e x p e c t a t i o n s ) by r e g i o n - Guyana Boys  253  Percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n of o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s ( u l t i m a t e preference) by r e g i o n Guyana Boys  2 54  Chi-square values of t e s t s of independence between r e g i o n a l background and o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s ( f i r s t - j o b c h o i c e , job e x p e c t a t i o n , and u l t i m a t e o c c u p a t i o n a l preference) - Jamaica Boys  256  Percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n , by r e g i o n , o f students o p t i n g f o r at l e a s t one t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t - Guyana Boys  259  Percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n , by r e g i o n , of students o p t i n g f o r at l e a s t one t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t - Jamaica Boys  259  ix Table 23.  24.  25.  26.  27.  Page Chi-square r e s u l t s o f t e s t s of independence between r e g i o n a l background and c h o i c e of farming - Guyana and Jamaica Boys  260  Chi-square r e s u l t s f o r t e s t s of independence between p a r e n t a l o c c u p a t i o n a l background and s t u d e n t s ' o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s - Guyana Boys  261  Chi-square r e s u l t s f o r t e s t s of independence between p a r e n t a l o c c u p a t i o n a l background and s t u d e n t s ' o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s - Jamaica Boys  263  Chi-square r e s u l t s f o r t e s t s of independence between r e g i o n a l background and o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s - Guyana G i r l s  264  Chi-square r e s u l t s f o r t e s t s of independence between r e g i o n a l background and o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s - Jamaica G i r l s  265  28.. R e s u l t s of c h i - s q u a r e t e s t s of independence between p a r e n t a l o c c u p a t i o n a l background and o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s - Guyana and Jamaica Girls 29.  Summary of r e s u l t s of hypotheses t e s t e d  267 268  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The author wishes t o thank the Chairman o f h i s s u p e r v i s o r y committee,  D r . J . Katz, and the other  members, D r s . H. B. Hawthorn, R. J . Rowan, and L . C. Marsh f o r t h e i r guidance, p a t i e n c e , and encouragement, without which n e i t h e r the e f f o r t t o complete t h i s work nor the v i s i o n o f an u l t i m a t e ending c o u l d have been sustained. Thanks a r e a l s o due t o o f f i c i a l s o f the M i n i s t r i e s o f E d u c a t i o n i n Guyana and Jamaica who made a v a i l a b l e important r e c o r d s and documents, and t o those headteachers, t e a c h e r s , and p u p i l s who i n severay ways p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the r e s e a r c h . S p e c i a l g r a t i t u d e i s extended t o t h e t y p i s t s , Miss J . Grant and Miss D. Dyer, who p a i n s t a k i n g l y saw the work through i t s v a r i o u s stages o f p r o d u c t i o n .  x  CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION  The  l a s t two  -  PURPOSE AND  SCOPE  decades are an important p e r i o d i n the  s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l development of the Commonwealth Caribbean.  W i t h i n t h i s p e r i o d four of the major  territor-  i e s , i n c l u d i n g Guyana and Jamaica, made a r a p i d t r a n s i t i o n through v a r i o u s forms o f s e m i - c o l o n i a l r u l e t o p o l i t i c a l independence.  full  But changes i n the p o l i t i c a l  governmental systems of these c o u n t r i e s were not c r u c i a l developments o c c u r r i n g between 1950 was  e q u a l l y important, and  and  and  the 1970.  indeed much r e l a t e d , was  What the  e f f o r t o f the d e m o c r a t i c a l l y e l e c t e d l e a d e r s t o respond t o the r i s i n g clamour by the masses f o r improved m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s of l i v i n g and  f o r the r e d u c t i o n of s o c i a l i n -  equalities . The  approach t o nationhood i n Guyana and  from the e a r l y 1950*s c o i n c i d e d with i n education  o f the i n d i v i d u a l .  not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t i n the two  gation—as  'explosion of  faith'  as a means of improving the n a t i o n a l economy  and the w e l l - b e i n g was  an  Jamaica  i n most other d e v e l o p i n g  i n t h i s context i t  c o u n t r i e s under as w e l l as  advanced s t a t e s — t h e p a t t e r n of d i s t r i b u t i o n and 1  investi-  economically expansion  2  of e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s became a major concern o f t h e n a t i o n a l government, p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s v y i n g f o r power, u n i v e r s i t y r e s e a r c h e r s , and the g e n e r a l p u b l i c .  Indications  are t h a t the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s w i l l remain a matter of i n t e n s e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t f o r some time t o come.  I n response t o t h i s concern,  however, two grave  k i n d s o f e r r o r s c o u l d be p e r p e t r a t e d .  The f i r s t i s t h a t  v a s t sums o f money and r e s o u r c e s o f human energy c o u l d be d i s s i p a t e d i n p u r s u i t o f an e l u s i v e and q u e s t i o n a b l e o f equal o p p o r t u n i t y ; the second i s t h a t  ideal  superficial  adjustments o f a country's e d u c a t i o n a l system, or dramatic i n s t a n c e s o f o u t s t a n d i n g s o c i a l and e d u c a t i o n a l  achieve-  ments by a few poor c h i l d r e n , c o u l d r e s u l t i n a complacency and d e l u s i o n t h a t worthwhile e g a l i t a r i a n o b j e c t i v e s are being  substantially attained. The  e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h e r can p l a y a u s e f u l r o l e  not o n l y i n c l a r i f y i n g and examining premises,  meanings and  o b j e c t i v e s embodied i n t h e i d e a l of equal o p p o r t u n i t y but a l s o i n f i n d i n g out through e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n whether p a r t i c u l a r e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s and i n n o v a t i o n s t h e i r intended s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s .  I t i s t h i s second r o l e  t h a t i s s p e c i f i c a l l y undertaken i n t h i s t h e s i s . i s made o f changes designed  achieve  A study  t o reduce inadequacies and  3 i n e q u a l i t i e s i n secondary  s c h o o l p r o v i s i o n i n Guyana and  Jamaica d u r i n g the p e r i o d 1957-1967, i n order t o e v a l u a t e the success achieved and the d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t  remain.  R e l a t e d s t u d i e s on the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f h i g h s c h o o l o p p o r t u n i t y i n these two c o u n t r i e s were c a r r i e d out by Manley (1963) i n Jamaica and Bacchus (1966) i n Guyana. Both r e s e a r c h e r s i n v e s t i g a t e d the s o c i a l c l a s s background o f students winning  f r e e p l a c e s t o Government-owned or  Government-aided secondary secondary  schools on the b a s i s o f open  s c h o o l entrance examinations.  The f i n d i n g s i n  both cases i n d i c a t e d t h a t urban c h i l d r e n and c h i l d r e n whose parents were i n " w h i t e - c o l l a r " occupations had much b e t t e r chances of s e l e c t i o n than r u r a l c h i l d r e n and c h i l d r e n of s k i l l e d , Eyre  s e m i - s k i l l e d and manual workers.  (1966:94) a l s o noted the advantages gained by urban  c h i l d r e n i n Jamaica,  p o i n t i n g out t h a t c h i l d r e n from the  c a p i t a l c i t y K i n g s t o n and i t s e n v i r o n s won 56 percent of the 1964 f r e e p l a c e awards t o secondary  s c h o o l s although  t h i s area c o n t a i n e d approximately o n l y 26 p e r c e n t o f the r e l e v a n t age group i n the n a t i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n . These f i n d i n g s are c o n s i s t e n t with the r e s u l t s o f s i m i l a r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n other d e v e l o p i n g as w e l l as more developed  countries.  P h i l i p F o s t e r (1965:241-244)  found  4 t h a t i n Ghana i n 1961  t h e r e was  a definite  association  between p a r e n t a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and t o secondary  school education.  access  C h i l d r e n of professional,  t e c h n i c a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and c l e r i c a l workers enjoyed over f i v e times the chances of e n t e r i n g a secondary as c h i l d r e n o f s k i l l e d , A l s o , t h e r e was secondary  s e m i - s k i l l e d and u n s k i l l e d  school workers.  a " f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n between  s c h o o l access and urban o r i g i n . "  Banks (1968:57)  showed t h a t i n those developed c o u n t r i e s such as Germany and B r i t a i n where most primary s c h o o l graduates e n t e r h i g h s c h o o l , but where secondary e d u c a t i o n i s of d i f f e r e n t types, w o r k i n g - c l a s s c h i l d r e n are l e s s l i k e l y than m i d d l e c l a s s c h i l d r e n t o e n t e r the more academic types of secondary  s c h o o l , and even i f they do so they are l e s s  l i k e l y t o complete  the c o u r s e .  I n the U n i t e d S t a t e s of  America the comprehensive s c h o o l i s the normal p a t t e r n of secondary first  s c h o o l o r g a n i s a t i o n , and most students e n t e r the  form of h i g h s c h o o l ; but i n the l a t e 1950's the r e -  t e n t i o n r a t e of students i n t h i s c o u n t r y v a r i e d f o r d i f f e r ent socio-economic  groups.  Prom a study of the r e s u l t s  o b t a i n e d i n a n a t i o n a l sample survey o f 35,000 t w e l f t h grade students i n 1955,  Ramsay (1967:71) estimated t h a t  c h i l d r e n o f non-manual workers comprised  43.2  percent of  5 the student p o p u l a t i o n and o n l y 32.6  percent of the  r e l e v a n t age cohort, w h i l e corresponding  figures for  c h i l d r e n of manual and farm workers were 53.2  and  61.2  percent r e s p e c t i v e l y . I t i s s u f f i c i e n t l y well established that high o p p o r t u n i t i e s vary f o r d i f f e r e n t r e g i o n a l and groups i n many s o c i e t i e s , developed  and  The main purpose o f t h i s study, then,  school  socio-economic  under-developed.  i s not merely t o  examine whether t h i s phenomenon p r e v a i l s i n Guyana and Jamaica, but t o i n v e s t i g a t e the e f f e c t s of changes i n p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s d e l i b e r a t e l y i n s t i t u t e d t o reduce i n e q u a l i t i e s acknowledged t o e x i s t i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f high school free places. incomplete  without  Such an i n v e s t i g a t i o n would be  some attempt t o i d e n t i f y and d i s c u s s the  s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic f a c t o r s , both  contemporary  and h i s t o r i c a l , t h a t seemed t o f a c i l i t a t e or h i n d e r attainment  the  of the o b j e c t i v e of equal o p p o r t u n i t y d u r i n g  the  p e r i o d s p e c i f i e d — C h a p t e r s 3 t o 5 are devoted t o t h i s t a s k . A l s o i n order t o assess whether changes i n the p a t t e r n of d i s t r i b u t i o n of o p p o r t u n i t y r e p r e s e n t a r e d u c t i o n of i n e q u a l i t i e s or not, i t would be necessary t o formulate apply some c r i t e r i a of equal o p p o r t u n i t y . d e f i n e d and examined i n Chapter 2. problem o f the t h e s i s i s presented  and  Such c r i t e r i a  Data f o r the  are  particular  and d i s c u s s e d i n  6 Chapters 7 and  8.  I t i s now  almost a t r u i s m t h a t the p r o v i s i o n of  equal e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r students with  different  t a l e n t s , backgrounds, and a s p i r a t i o n s e n t a i l s , among other c o n d i t i o n s , the o r g a n i s a t i o n of v a r i e d s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a . Two  important  f a c t o r s t h a t h e l p t o determine not o n l y the  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of d i v e r s i f i e d s c h o o l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , but  the  very d e c i s i o n s as t o what c u r r i c u l a r o p p o r t u n i t i e s are t o be provided,  are s t u d e n t s ' o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s and  t h e i r a t t i t u d e s to various school subjects.  Chapter 9  r e p o r t s the r e s u l t s of a survey on the o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s and the a t t i t u d e s t o s p e c i f i c t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t s o f a group of Jamaican and Guyanese h i g h s c h o o l  students.  F i n a l l y , the c l o s i n g chapter of the t h e s i s c o n t a i n s recommendations f o r the reform of the s c h o o l systems i n the  two  c o u n t r i e s i n order t o p r o v i d e f o r extended and more equal d i s t r i b u t i o n of h i g h s c h o o l  opportunity.  An e x p l a n a t i o n of the reason  for selecting  c o u n t r i e s f o r study i s a p p r o p r i a t e at t h i s p o i n t .  two The t h e s i s  i s f o c u s s e d p r i m a r i l y on Guyana, the w r i t e r ' s country origin.  Apart from the f a c t t h a t the w r i t e r has  of  acquired  deep i n t e r e s t i n Jamaica from l i v i n g and working t h e r e f o r a number of y e a r s , t h i s country has been i n c l u d e d i n the  7 i n v e s t i g a t i o n f o r t h r e e main r e a s o n s .  Firstly,  i t was f e l t  t h a t c o n d i t i o n s and events i n Guyana c o u l d be b e t t e r understood by being c o n s i d e r e d country  a g a i n s t t h e background o f another  such as Jamaica, with a p o l i t i c a l , economic, and  s o c i a l h i s t o r y s i m i l a r enough t o make c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e s meaningful. two  Secondly, important  d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e  c o u n t r i e s , such as t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n the e t h n i c composi-  t i o n of t h e i r populations,  provide a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r a s t  which c o u l d throw i n t o r e l i e f some o f the s o c i a l problems p r e v a i l i n g i n Guyana.  L a s t l y , Jamaica i n t r o d u c e d  and unique l e g i s l a t i o n t o l i m i t the attainment school f r e e p l a c e s by p a r t i c u l a r groups.  specific  of high  I t would be  i n t e r e s t i n g t o see what d i f f e r e n c e t h i s i n n o v a t i o n made f o r the r e d u c t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l i n e q u a l i t i e s i n t h a t country.  I t i s these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , r a t h e r than the  d e s i r e t o e s t a b l i s h or r e f u t e g e n e r a l t h e o r i e s about change and e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y on the b a s i s o f two case s t u d i e s , t h a t have motivated approach.  and guided  this  comparative  The l a t t e r o b j e c t i v e would have i n v o l v e d  arriv-  i n g a t c o n c l u s i o n s beyond what was j u s t i f i e d by the a v a i l able  evidence. D i f f e r e n t f a c e t s o f t h i s study r e q u i r e d t h e  a p p l i c a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t r e s e a r c h techniques and  8 o r g a n i s a t i o n a l procedures.  There was heavy r e l i a n c e on  documentary m a t e r i a l and i n t e r v i e w s f o r the h i s t o r i c a l s e c t i o n s o f t h e study, w h i l e two d i f f e r e n t survey p r o c e d ures were r e q u i r e d f o r the a n a l y s e s o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n of f r e e p l a c e winners  among v a r i o u s socio-economic  groups and  the o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s o f h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s .  To  f a c i l i t a t e c o n t i n u i t y of d i s c u s s i o n , the method used i n each survey i s d e s c r i b e d i n Chapters 7 and 9 where the r e s u l t s o f the survey are p r e s e n t e d .  CHAPTER  2  A NOTE ON EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY  I n e d u c a t i o n a l d i s c o u r s e , statements about the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s c h o o l o p p o r t u n i t y are not normally  intended  t o be p u r e l y d e s c r i p t i v e but always c a r r y an e x p l i c i t or i m p l i c i t value judgement.  One p r i n c i p a l i n g r e d i e n t o f the  c r i t e r i a o f judgement i s the concept  o f e q u a l i t y , or more  s p e c i f i c a l l y t h a t o f equal o p p o r t u n i t y . examination  A detailed  of the i d e a o f equal e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y  as w e l l as a j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f t h i s i d e a l was attempted i n a p r e v i o u s study by the present w r i t e r (1964). g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n reached  The  was t h a t e q u a l e d u c a t i o n a l  o p p o r t u n i t y i s a dynamic concept  requiring continual r e -  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f o r d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s , p e r i o d s and c i r c u m s t ances, and t h a t the concept  needs t o be analysed i n terms  of i t s r e l a t i o n t o other fundamental s o c i a l i d e a l s such as s o c i a l and s p i r i t u a l e q u a l i t y , j u s t i c e , human happiness and s e l f - a c t u a l i s a t i o n . view was expressed  A s i m i l a r p o i n t of  by J u l i a E v e t t s i n her d i s c u s s i o n o f the  r e c e n t h i s t o r y o f the concept ity.  brotherhood,  E v e t t s concluded  of equal e d u c a t i o n a l opportun-  (1970:430):  A l l we can say i s t h a t i t /equal e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y / continues t o be based on a moral premise o f s o c i a l 9  10 j u s t i c e ; beyond t h i s i t i s a p r i n c i p l e ever-changing i n i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s and i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . I n what f o l l o w s , our i n t e n t i o n w i l l be not t o p r o v i d e a b s o l u t e d e f i n i t i o n s of t h e i d e a o f equal o p p o r t u n i t y i n education, but t o propose t h r e e c r i t e r i a t h a t seem t o form r e l e v a n t bases f o r an e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n of  inequalit-  i e s i n e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y i n contemporary Western societies.  The  t h r e e dimensions, a l l i n t e r - r e l a t e d ,  into  which the problem of equal o p p o r t u n i t y can be broken down are:  the mathematical, the l o g i c a l ,  and,  put q u i t e  vaguely  f o r the moment, the s o c i o - p h i l o s o p h i c a l . The  mathematical n o t i o n o f use i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n of  e q u a l i t y i s the i d e a of p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y .  The  achievement  of equal e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y depends p a r t l y on  the  p r o p o r t i o n a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t groups i n the country's e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s .  1  Evetts  observed:  I m p l i c i t i n the c u r r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f equal o p p o r t u n i t y i s the p r i n c i p l e of equal or r a t h e r p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y equal outputs, i n terms of the a c h i e v e ments of groups, not i n d i v i d u a l s . The working c l a s s e s have the same p r o p o r t i o n s o f b r i g h t c h i l d r e n as the p r o f e s s i o n a l c l a s s , but because o f t h e i r l a r g e numbers, t h e r e are many more b r i g h t working c l a s s c h i l d r e n i n a b s o l u t e terms. The extent t o which equal o p p o r t u n i t y i s achieved i s the extent t o which groups do achieve p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y equal success r a t e s . ( I b i d . , 429)  A p p l i c a b l e where demand f o r o p p o r t u n i t y exceeds supply.  11 T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of e q u a l i t y has, ly,  i m p l i c i t l y or  formed the b a s i s of a l l the s t u d i e s of the  of o p p o r t u n i t y c i t e d i n the p r e v i o u s chapter, indeed be c e n t r a l t o our own c l u s i v e l y so.  explicit-  distribution and  will  i n v e s t i g a t i o n , though not  ex-  I t w i l l be noted t h a t E v e t t s i d e n t i f i e d  one  f a c t o r of s o c i a l grouping,  namely, o c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s .  Other f a c t o r s of contemporary r e l e v a n c e are commonly sex, e t h n i c o r i g i n , r e l i g i o u s , geographic  and p a r e n t a l e d u c a t i o n -  a l background. The  demand f o r equal o p p o r t u n i t y i n terms of equal  group r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s i n many c o u n t r i e s today g r a d u a l l y compelling  a m o d i f i c a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l l y r e s p e c t a b l e  social policies.  One  such p o l i c y i s t h a t of d i s t r i b u t i n g  o p p o r t u n i t y a c c o r d i n g t o proven m e r i t .  Experiments i n  u n i v e r s i t y s e l e c t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s t o allow f o r i n creased o p p o r t u n i t y f o r u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d groups o f t e n r e q u i r e a r e l a x a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l admission ures.  standards  I t w i l l be seen a l s o t h a t i n Jamaica,  performances at a s e l e c t i v e secondary s c h o o l examination  proced-  individual entrance  are p a r t i a l l y ignored, where necessary,  t o permit g i v e n percentages t o win  and  i n order  o f s p e c i f i c groups of c h i l d r e n  school p l a c e s . The r e l a x a t i o n o f the p o l i c y of o p p o r t u n i t y  according  12 t o proven m e r i t i s due not merely t o the i n s i s t e n t demand f o r e q u a l i t y but t o two other f a c t o r s a t l e a s t . i s the r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t  The f i r s t  'merit' i s o f t e n a f u n c t i o n o f the  very c o n d i t i o n s o f s o c i a l i n e q u a l i t y t h a t i t i s f e l t i n c r e a s e d o p p o r t u n i t y can e r a d i c a t e .  I n more s p e c i f i c  terms, "the c l o s e connection between measured a b i l i t y and s o c i a l background i s one o f t h e major s o c i a l d i s c o v e r i e s of the t w e n t i e t h century"  (Vaizey, 1967:166).  To continue  t o d i s t r i b u t e e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y then on t h e b a s i s of demonstrated e d u c a t i o n a l m e r i t i s t o perpetuate i n equality.  But t o apply the p r i n c i p l e o f p r o p o r t i o n a t e  group r e p r e s e n t a t i o n makes sense o n l y i f E v e t t ' s theory o f p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y equal d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l a t e n t a b i l i t y among the v a r i o u s groups i s assumed, or i f some n o t i o n o f an almost u n i v e r s a l a b i l i t y f o r g i v e n l e v e l s o f l e a r n i n g i s accepted.  I t i s t h i s l a t t e r b e l i e f t h a t c o n s t i t u t e s the  second f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the d e c l i n e o f achieved i n t e l l e c t u a l m e r i t as an adequate b a s i s of d i s t r i b u t i o n o f educational opportunity.  A look at t h r e e a b i l i t y models  d i s g r a m m a t i c a l l y d e p i c t e d by Boyer and Walsh (1968) w i l l h e l p t o e l u c i d a t e t h i s theory o f a common human p o t e n t i a l : Models showing:  a.  r e l a t i o n s h i p between e s s e n t i a l a b i l i t i e s of d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d uals (vertical lines)  13 b.  r e l a t i o n s h i p between a b i l i t y and demands o f s o c i a l l i v i n g (broken l i n e s )  H i g h l y 'v/arjLabi e  Equ a l  •  *P .1 .A.  *P .1 .A.  Model I  Model I I  Va r i a Lbl<5, b ut fun c t i ona]Lly ec[ual  *P .1 .A. Model I I I P.I .A. - P o t e n t i a l  Individual A b i l i t y  (Broken l i n e s r e p r e s e n t the demand o f s o c i a l  living)  14 In Model I , the p o t e n t i a l a b i l i t i e s of i n d i v i d u a l s vary, and not a l l i n d i v i d u a l s a r e capable o f t h e b a s i c k i n d s of  l e a r n i n g necessary f o r e f f e c t i v e s o c i a l l i v i n g .  In  Model I I p o t e n t i a l i n d i v i d u a l a b i l i t i e s are a l l equal (and adequate f o r e s s e n t i a l l e a r n i n g t a s k s ) . accept t h i s model.  H a r d l y anyone w i l l  I n Model I I I p o t e n t i a l  individual  a b i l i t i e s are unequal but are a l l adequate f o r e s s e n t i a l learning tasks.  T h i s i s the model o f human a b i l i t y t o  which Boyer and Walsh s u b s c r i b e and which the p r o p o r t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t h e o r y o f equal o p p o r t u n i t y can u s e f u l l y accommodate. Even i f one were t o accept the p r o p o r t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t h e o r y o f e q u a l i t y i n order t o come t o terms with the c o n d i t i o n s o f s c a r c i t y i n s o c i e t y (which preclude t h e p r o v i s i o n o f adequate e d u c a t i o n a l goods and s e r v i c e s f o r a l l ) c e r t a i n problems s t i l l remain.  Equal o p p o r t u n i t y i s  not a u t o m a t i c a l l y a t t a i n e d even by ensuring t h a t a l l students secure p l a c e s p r o g r e s s i v e l y i n v a r i o u s l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n a l institutions,  f o r t h e experiences gained i n these  institu-  t i o n s could y i e l d v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t b e n e f i t s f o r d i f f e r e n t students.  The mathematical c r i t e r i o n o f p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y  must be supplemented by the q u a l i t a t i v e c r i t e r i o n o f " f i t ness" .  R e a l l y , the n o t i o n o f p r o p o r t i o n a t e n e s s c o u l d be  r e t a i n e d but i n a d i f f e r e n t sense.  I n the s t r i c t l y mathe-  m a t i c a l sense the terms o f e q u a t i o n are q u a n t i t a t i v e , and the formula t o be a p p l i e d i s : T o t a l Urban School-age Cohort  T o t a l Urban S c h o o l - p o p u l a t i o n  T o t a l R u r a l School-age Cohort  T o t a l Rural School-population  In the new  sense of p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y the terms are  largely  q u a l i t a t i v e — i . e . programs o r g a n i s e d f o r v a r i o u s groups are designed their  t o s u i t t h e i r s p e c i a l circumstances  achievements. T h i s demand of  may  and t o maximise  ' f i t n e s s ' and r e l e v a n c e of p r o v i s i o n  w e l l r e q u i r e the i n v e r s i o n of numerical p r o p o r t i o n s —  t h a t i s , more money may  have t o be spent on a c u l t u r a l l y  and p h y s i c a l l y d e p r i v e d c h i l d with a lower measured gence Quotient or e d u c a t i o n a l attainment young genius possessed  than on a budding  of a l l the advantages of b i r t h ,  b i o l o g y , and environment. i s that d i f f e r e n t  Intelli-  The e s s e n t i a l p o i n t , however,  i n d i v i d u a l s may  have t o be t r e a t e d  d i f f e r e n t l y i f each i s t o u t i l i s e h i s r e s o u r c e s f u l l y . Tawney (1961) observed,  As  e q u a l i t y of p r o v i s i o n i s t o be  achieved not by t r e a t i n g d i f f e r e n t needs i n the same  way,  but by d e v o t i n g equal care t o e n s u r i n g t h a t they are met the d i f f e r e n t ways most a p p r o p r i a t e t o them. (1961:17) s i m i l a r l y e x p l a i n e d :  Halsey  in  16 . . . the i n f l u e n c e o f s o c i a l f a c t o r s on measured i n t e l l i g e n c e and on e d u c a t i o n a l attainment are such t h a t the moral c o n c l u s i o n i s drawn t h a t e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y must be r e d e f i n e d i n a s t r o n g sense t o i n c l u d e a l s o t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o overcome such o b s t a c l e s t o the development o f one's a b i l i t y . The  argument c o u l d be advanced, however, t h a t  although  e q u a l i t y of e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y does not mean complete i d e n t i t y o f p r o v i s i o n or t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o achieve  identi-  c a l e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s , i t may be t h a t a common minimum p r o v i s i o n should be made t o a l l on t h e b a s i s o f some fundamental concept  o f common humanity and o f fundamental  skills,  knowledge, and a t t i t u d e s needed t o cope with the problems of s o c i a l l i v i n g .  And beyond t h i s minimum  attainment  e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y f u r t h e r r e q u i r e s t h a t each i n d i v i d u a l be a f f o r d e d t h e chance of maximising h i s c a p a c i t y f o r s e l f improvement and f o r making the g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the common good. The  f o r e g o i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the i d e a o f equal  o p p o r t u n i t y c l e a r l y l e a v e s many q u e s t i o n s unanswered. f o r example i s the 'common good'? m a t e r i a l and s p i r i t u a l improvement?  What,  What c o n s t i t u t e s We s h a l l r e t u r n t o  these problems i n a while, but must d e a l next with t h e second measure o f e q u a l i t y , t h e l o g i c a l c r i t e r i a . The l o g i c a l aspect o f e q u a l i t y has been very expressed  effectively  i n Tussman and t e n Broek's n o t i o n s o f r e l e v a n t  17 and  forbidden c l a s s i f i c a t i o n outlined i n a  d i s c u s s i o n of "The  penetrating  E q u a l P r o t e c t i o n of the Law"  (1949).  R e j e c t i n g the n e c e s s i t y f o r , or even the d e s i r a b i l i t y of, i d e n t i t y of treatment the authors argue the importance of the p r i n c i p l e of s e l e c t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n between groups or i n d i v i d u a l s "on r e l e v a n t grounds."  The  problem of  e q u a l i t y reduces t o t h a t o f f a i r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f groups or i n d i v i d u a l s t o be allowed t o excluded from a p r i v i l e g e or t o s u f f e r a g i v e n p e n a l t y .  And  given  "the measure  of the reasonableness of a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s the degree of i t s success i n t r e a t i n g s i m i l a r l y those s i m i l a r l y s i t u a t e d " (p.344).  A relevant c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a t i s f i e s t h i s principle,  a forbidden theory we  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n v i o l a t e s i t . Applying  c o u l d a s s e r t t h a t i n the best  democracy e x c l u s i o n from e d u c a t i o n a l ground of race or sex w i l l be  problem of determining how be d i v i d e d .  s p i r i t of modern  b e n e f i t s on  forbidden,  w i l l as a g e n e r a l r u l e be considered  this  the  f o r sex and  i r r e l e v a n t to  educational  race  the  o p p o r t u n i t i e s are  to  I t must be noted, however, t h a t the r e a s o n a b l e -  ness or unreasonableness of a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w i l l depend the o b j e c t i v e s pursued and might be d i f f e r e n t circumstances and  on  seen d i f f e r e n t l y i n  by d i f f e r e n t p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d .  In the h i s t o r i c a l process c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s t h a t were once  18 f o r b i d d e n can l a t e r become r e l e v a n t , and v i c e - v e r s a . Jamaica and Guyana, indeed  In  i n the educational h i s t o r y of  most c o u n t r i e s , the wealthy and the poor or the members o f v a r i o u s r e l i g i o u s denominations were n o t c o n s i d e r e d t o be s i m i l a r l y s i t u a t e d with r e s p e c t t o the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f secondary e d u c a t i o n  services.  R e l i g i o u s and socio-economic  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s were h e l d t o be e d u c a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t .  In  t h e o r y such c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f persons who are e n t i t l e d t o secondary e d u c a t i o n  o p p o r t u n i t y have been f o r m a l l y r e j e c t e d  as f o r b i d d e n and r e p l a c e d by some such c l a s s e s as 'the i n t e l l e c t u a l l y m e r i t o r i o u s ' and the ' i n t e l l e c t u a l l y F u r t h e r , as i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r , even t h i s l a t t e r  unfit'.  classifi-  c a t i o n i s i n c r e a s i n g l y being c h a l l e n g e d and condemned as a means o f p e r p e t u a t i n g  inequalities.  Whatever the sub-  stance o f t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , however, the i d e a p r e v a i l s of t r e a t i n g s i m i l a r people s i m i l a r l y , or o f not e x c l u d i n g some groups from t h e enjoyment o f b e n e f i t s enjoyed by other groups i n s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n without grounds being produced.  good and r e l e v a n t  C r i t e r i a of relevance  and s i m i l a r -  i t y i n s i t u a t i o n have c o n t i n u a l l y t o be r e a p p r a i s e d , but t h i s l o g i c a l aspect o f e q u a l i t y cannot be i g n o r e d . The  t h i r d measure of equal o p p o r t u n i t y , r e f e r r e d t o  as the s o c i o - p h i l o s o p h i c a l c r i t e r i a ,  i s the most e l u s i v e t o  19 define.  One could probably best r e g a r d t h i s t h i r d measure  as t h e t e l e o l o g i c a l dimension o f e q u a l i t y , f o r the c r u c i a l q u e s t i o n t h a t remains a f t e r the mathematical and l o g i c a l i s s u e s i n s e l e c t i o n a r e r e s o l v e d i s , equal o p p o r t u n i t y f o r what, or t o what end?  I n f a c t t h i s might even be the b a s i c  question, the answer t o which determines how matters o f the l o g i c and mathematics o f s e l e c t i o n are t o be s e t t l e d .  It  i s t h i s aspect o f e q u a l i t y t h a t engages the deepest a t t e n t i o n o f p h i l o s o p h e r s , who i n t h e i r a n a l y s i s o f the concept i n e v i t a b l y s t r u g g l e t o get beyond  (or away from)  strictly  l o g i c a l problems, problems o f l e g a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , o f economic e f f i c i e n c y , and o f numerical Plamenatz (1956:105)  relationships.  f o r i n s t a n c e d e c l a r e s t h a t the  supreme o b j e c t of s o c i a l p o l i c y i s e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y which "connotes a s o c i e t y i n which each man i s f r e e and able t o seek the good l i f e  as he sees i t . . ." Again,  "our e q u a l i t y i s r o o t e d i n freedom, and i s not t o be understood apart from i t .  I t i s not e q u a l i t y o f s t a t u s , but  e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y , and t h e o p p o r t u n i t y i s t o 'be o n e s e l f , t o l i v e as one p l e a s e s "  (ibid.,  94) .  There a r e  obvious d i f f i c u l t i e s i n Plamenatz's statement, not the l e a s t o f which i s t h e problem t h a t Tawney perhaps had i n mind when he wrote:  What i s freedom f o r the p i k e i s death  f o r the minnows. t o have met  I n some ways Plamenatz may  be  considered  t h i s d i f f i c u l t y by h i s demand f o r the e q u a l i t y  of freedom and h i s i n s i s t e n c e t h a t equal o p p o r t u n i t y e n t a i l s not o n l y equal o p p o r t u n i t y of freedom but a l s o equal opportunity of s e r v i c e . For Dorothy Lee  (1956) e q u a l i t y must d e r i v e from  some n o t i o n o f i n f i n i t e i n d i v i d u a l human worth or human d i g n i t y ; i f not, by being based on comparisons by measurement or on a u t i l i t a r i a n c a l c u l u s can run counter t o the d r m o c r a t i c i d e a l of freedom. Recurrent themes i n the d i s c u s s i o n of the u l t i m a t e ends t o which the p r o v i s i o n of equal o p p o r t u n i t y must be d i r e c t e d and the attainment  o f which determines  the  fair-  ness of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of o p p o r t u n i t y , are the n o t i o n s of freedom, i n d i v i d u a l d i g n i t y , realisation.  s o c i a l s e r v i c e and  self-  P r a c t i c a l r u l e s f o r the assessment of the  f u l f i l m e n t of these ends are not so easy t o come by as i n t h e case of the l o g i c a l and mathematical o b j e c t i v e s d e s c r i b ed.  The reason f o r the d i f f i c u l t y i n f o r m u l a t i n g  such  r u l e s i s t h a t a n a l y s i s of the p h i l o s o p h i c a l (or t e l e o l o g i c a l ) dimension  o f equal e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y i n v o l v e s a con-  s i d e r a t i o n not merely of the nature and purpose o f education, but o f such m e t a p h y s i c a l  i s s u e s as the nature of man  and  of  s o c i e t y , and the purpose o f human e x i s t e n c e .  The i n f e r e n c e  t o be drawn from a l l t h i s i s t h a t t h e c r i t e r i a o f equal opportunity  cannot be wholly reduced t o l o g i c a l and quant-  i t a t i v e terms.  Perhaps the u l t i m a t e appeal must be t o some  presumed c a p a c i t y i n man f o r s p i r i t u a l i n s i g h t i n t o the c o n d i t i o n s necessary f o r i n d i v i d u a l human f u l f i l m e n t , and a c a p a c i t y f o r d e t e c t i n g when such c o n d i t i o n s are s a t i s f i e d , or a r e v i o l a t e d . F i n a l l y , t h e problem o f t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e general  i d e a l o f e q u a l i t y must r e c e i v e some a t t e n t i o n i n  order t o make t h i s a n a l y s i s o f equal e d u c a t i o n a l complete.  opportunity  Put i n a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t way t h e problem i s ,  on what grounds can t h e concern f o r e q u a l i t y be j u s t i f i e d ? I f t h e i d e a l o f e q u a l i t y c o u l d be shown t o be i n d e f e n s i b l e , t h e n e f f o r t s t o e q u a l i s e e d u c a t i o n a l chances, and r e s e a r c h i n t o e d u c a t i o n a l i n e q u a l i t y , are p o i n t l e s s or s o c i a l l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t ; f o r our c o n t e n t i o n opportunity  i s t h a t equal  educational  i s d e s i r a b l e c h i e f l y as a means o f a c h i e v i n g  wider s o c i a l e q u a l i t y . The  attempts made i n n a t u r a l i s t i c and pragmatic  p h i l o s o p h i e s t o j u s t i f y t h e i d e a l of e q u a l i t y are e i t h e r f u t i l e or inadequate.  The n a t u r a l i s t i c argument a s s e r t s  t h a t men are equal as men and should t h e r e f o r e be given  22 equal treatment. this position.  There are two k i n d s of c r i t i c i s m a g a i n s t Firstly,  the p r o p o s i t i o n , ' A l l men are e q u a l ' ,  i f intended as a f a c t u a l l y d e s c r i p t i v e statement t r i v i a l l y t r u e or s i g n i f i c a n t l y unprovable.  i s either  The p r o p o s i t i o n  i s t r u e i f what i s intended i s the t r i v i a l and t a u t o l o g i c a l statement  t h a t a l l men are equal by v i r t u e o f b e l o n g i n g t o  the same c l a s s o f l i v i n g t h i n g s . of  I n terms o f any a t t r i b u t e  i n d i v i d u a l members o f t h e c l a s s , fundamental d i f f e r e n c e s  can be found.  Secondly,  even g i v e n t h a t i n some s e r i o u s  sense men are i n f a c t equal, the p r e s c r i p t i v e r u l e ,  "Men  should be t r e a t e d as equals", i s e i t h e r redundant or l o g i c a l l y contingent.  Redundant, because i f men a r e equal t h a t  i s a l l t h a t i s r e q u i r e d ; i n other words t h e d e s i r e d p o s i t i o n obtains.  L o g i c a l l y c o n t i n g e n t , because t h e r e i s no  demonstrably necessary c o n n e c t i o n between the f a c t o f the e q u a l i t y o f men and a p r e s c r i p t i o n f o r equal treatment; IS_ does n o t l o g i c a l l y imply OUGHT. The  pragmatic  p o s i t i o n i s t h a t e q u a l i t y i s an i n s t r u -  mental i d e a l f o r which men have c o n s t a n t l y fought because i t s f u l f i l m e n t has l e d t o s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t — the i d e a l i s j u s t i f i a b l e on the ground t h a t i t i s i n s t r u m e n t a l for  achieving desired s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s .  inadequate  T h i s statement i s  because i t r a i s e s more q u e s t i o n s than i t answers,  23 questions  concerning  development' and of  the nature of  ' s o c i a l and  political  'desired s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s ' .  There can be no i n c o n t r o v e r t i b l e and c o n c l u s i v e ment f o r the i d e a l of e q u a l i t y on mere r a t i o n a l e m p i r i c a l grounds. experience  argu-  and  Reason and r e f e r e n c e t o man's h i s t o r i c a l  i n the s t r u g g l e f o r e q u a l i t y need t o be  mented by such eloquent  and  s t i r r i n g emotional  supple-  appeals  as  comes from M a r i t a i n (1941:17-18), quoted at l e n g t h i n order t o convey the f u l l impact o f M a r i t a i n ' s message: The e q u a l i t y i n nature among men c o n s i s t s o f t h e i r concrete communion i n the mystery o f the human s p e c i e s ; i t does not l i e i n an i d e a , i t i s hidden i n the h e a r t o f the i n d i v i d u a l and of the concrete, i n the r o o t s of the substance of each man. I t i s the n a t u r a l love of the human being f o r h i s own k i n d which r e v e a l s and makes r e a l the u n i t y of s p e c i e s among men. As long as love does not c a l l i t f o r t h , t h a t u n i t y slumbers i n a m e t a p h y s i c a l r e t r e a t where we can p e r c e i v e i t o n l y as an a b s t r a c t i o n . In the common experience of misery, i n the common sorrow of great c a t a s t r o p h e s , i n h u m i l i a t i o n and d i s t r e s s , under the blows o f the e x e c u t i o n e r or the bombs o f t o t a l war, i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n camps, i n the bowels o f s t a r v i n g people i n g r e a t c i t i e s , i n any common n e c e s s i t y , the doors of s o l i t u d e open and man r e c o g n i s e s man. Man a l s o r e c o g n i s e s man when the sweetness o f a great j o y or of a great love f o r an i n s t a n t c l e a r s h i s e y e s . Whenever he does a s e r v i c e t o h i s fellowmen or i s helped by them, whenever he shares the same elementary a c t i o n s and the same elementary emotions, whenever he t r u l y cons i d e r s h i s neighbour, the s i m p l e s t a c t i o n d i s c o v e r s f o r him, both i n o t h e r s and i n h i m s e l f , the common r e s o u r c e s and the common g o o d n e s s — p r i m i t i v e , rudimentary, wounded, unconscious and r e p r e s s e d — o f human n a t u r e . At once the r e a l n e s s of e q u a l i t y and community i n nature i s  24 r e v e a l e d t o him as a very p r e c i o u s t h i n g , an unknown marvel, a fundamental b a s i s o f e x i s t e n c e , more important than a l l t h e d i f f e r e n c e s and i n e q u a l i t i e s superimposed upon i t . When he w i l l have r e t u r n e d t o h i s r o u t i n e p l e a s u r e s , he w i l l have f o r g o t t e n t h i s d i s c o v e r y . R a t i o n a l and e m p i r i c a l modes o f argument are necessary but n o t s u f f i c i e n t f o r j u s t i f y i n g any fundamental human ideal.  Commitment t o an i d e a l i s secured p a r t l y by emotional  persuasion,  p a r t l y by what one may c a l l an " i d e a l i s t i c  leap",  t h a t i s , the acceptance o f an i d e a l through f a i t h or e x i s t e n t i a l c h o i c e when l o g i c a l and e m p i r c i s t i c arguments a r e seen t o be reasonable but i n c o n c l u s i v e . To  sum up, t h e argument o f t h i s chapter has been  t h a t c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i n g t h e extent opportunity  i s a t t a i n e d must i n c o r p o r a t e  t o which e q u a l a mathematical  n o t i o n o f p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y , i n c l u d i n g the q u a l i t a t i v e i d e a o f f i t n e s s , the l o g i c a l concept o f r e l e v a n t and  classification,  t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l dimension o f s o c i o - p e r s o n a l f u l f i l m e n t .  While t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e aspect  and t o some extent  the q u a l i -  t a t i v e and l o g i c a l c r i t e r i a form t h e p r i n c i p a l bases o f our  i n v e s t i g a t i o n , the importance i s recognised  of e s t a b l i s h -  i n g an u l t i m a t e purpose a g a i n s t which the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f available educational  o p p o r t u n i t i e s , or the f a i r n e s s o f  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f such o p p o r t u n i t i e s , can be e v a l u a t e d . i s f u r t h e r claimed  It  t h a t n a t u r a l i s t i c and pragmatic arguments  f o r e q u a l i t y are inadequate, and t h a t the i d e a l of e q u a l i t y i s j u s t i f i a b l e not merely on r a t i o n a l and e m p i r i c a l grounds but on the b a s i s of emotional appeal, f a i t h , and choice.  existential  CHAPTER 3 SOME HISTORICAL AND DEMOGRAPHIC FEATURES  GUYANA ( f o r m e r l y B r i t i s h Guyana) l i e s i n the n o r t h e a s t r e g i o n o f t h e South American c o n t i n e n t , f l a n k e d by Surinam on t h e e a s t , Venezuela on the west, B r a z i l on t h e south, and t h e A t l a n t i c ocean on t h e n o r t h . territorial  C u r r e n t l y engaged i n  d i s p u t e s with Venezuela and Surinam i t has an  area o f 83,000 square m i l e s and a p o p u l a t i o n which was e s t i mated a t over  720,089 i n December 1968 (Guyana Handbook  1971:61). The 1967,  e t h n i c composition  o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n December  the l a s t year f o r which d e t a i l e d estimated  figures  are a v a i l a b l e , was as f o l l o w s :  T a b l e I - E t h n i c breakdown o f Guyana's p o p u l a t i o n , 1967 Number  E t h n i c Group East Indians Africans Mixed  352,000 212,300 84,500  Amerindians  Percent 50.8 30.6 12 .2  32,180  4.6  Portuguese  6, 200  0.9  Chinese  4,400  0.7  Other Europeans  1,200  0.2  692,780  100.0  Total 26  27 Most o f the i n h a b i t a n t s r e s i d e along a narrow c o a s t a l b e l t c o n s t i t u t i n g about four percent of the t o t a l area o f the country.  The h i n t e r l a n d i s peopled c h i e f l y by the n a t i v e  Amerindians, who the autochthonous  proved l e s s v u l n e r a b l e t o e l i m i n a t i o n than Indians of the B r i t i s h West I n d i a n i s l a n d s .  E a r l y e x p e d i t i o n s by Dutch, French and E n g l i s h e x p l o r e r s were prompted by the l u r e of a myth about a c i t y of gold, E l Dorado, and by the d e s i r e t o c o u n t e r a c t Spanish i n f l u e n c e i n the Americas and the West I n d i e s .  S e t t l e d by  the Dutch s h o r t l y b e f o r e the end o f the 16th c e n t u r y Guyana experienced v i c i s s i t u d i n o u s i n t e r n a t i o n a l fortunes, c a p t o r s s e v e r a l times u n t i l i t was ceded t o the B r i t i s h i n 1814.  o f f i c i a l l y and  Raymond Smith  changing  finally  (1962:19)  p o i n t s out, however, t h a t the c o l o n y had come under the i n f l u e n c e o f B r i t i s h p r i v a t e e r s more than t h i r t y y e a r s earlier. The d e t e r i o r a t i o n of economic c o n d i t i o n s i n the West I n d i e s and the a t t r a c t i o n of f e r t i l e unexplored r e g i o n s i n Guyana c o n t r i b u t e d t o a steady i n f l u x o f immigrants  from  the West I n d i a n i s l a n d s , p a r t i c u l a r l y from Barbados  and  Trinidad.  A f t e r emancipation labour was  these two i s l a n d s and from Jamaica.  imported from  Between 1835 and  1841  over 10,800 immigrants came from the West I n d i e s (Dwarka  28 Nath,  1950:179).  Immigration from t h i s source v i r t u a l l y  ceased between 1846 and 1863, but by 1928 amounted t o a t o t a l of 42,562  (Raymond Smith, 1962:19).  There were a l s o about 31,628 Portuguese  immigrants  from Madeira, the Azores and Cape Verde between 1838 and 1882; but by f a r the l a r g e s t group o f immigrants were E a s t Indians—between  1838 and 1917 n e a r l y 239,000 E a s t I n d i a n  i n d e n t u r e d l a b o u r e r s were imported from I n d i a .  In recent  times the i n t e g r a t i v e f o r c e s i n t h i s s o c i e t y have been s e v e r e l y d i s r u p t e d by p o l i t i c a l r i v a l r y between the major e t h n i c groups, the B l a c k s and the E a s t I n d i a n s . The Caribbean i s l a n d of JAMAICA was d i s c o v e r e d i n 1494 by C h r i s t o p h e r Columbus.  Columbus's e x p l o r a t i o n was  sponsored by the Spanish Government eager t o improve i t s f o r e i g n t r a d e and expand i t s i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e .  The  n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n of Jamaica c o n s i s t e d of Arawaks and C a r i b s . The former t r i b e , u s u a l l y d e s c r i b e d by h i s t o r i a n s as peacef u l and f r i e n d l y , was q u i c k l y e l i m i n a t e d ; the w a r l i k e C a r i b s r e s i s t e d the i n v a d e r s f o r a w h i l e u n t i l they t o o were e v e n t u a l l y overrun by s u p e r i o r weaponry. The b e g i n n i n g o f f o r e i g n r u l e i n Jamaica, as i n Guyana, was c h a r a c t e r i s e d by c o n d i t i o n s o f e x p l o i t a t i o n , the country being used s o l e l y as a means of p r o c u r i n g the  g r e a t e s t wealth i n the cheapest way  f o r the I m p e r i a l power.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note, too, who  were the f i r s t  s e t t l e r s i n the i s l a n d .  These comprised c r i m i n a l  European elements  from the i n v a d i n g country; the unemployed, s o l d i e r s ,  priests,  and a few Spanish gentlemen and merchants seeking the s t a t u s and wealth t h a t eluded them i n t h e i r homeland. Spanish i n f l u e n c e and i n t e r e s t s i n the West I n d i e s widened s t e a d i l y u n t i l checked by the r i v a l powers of France, H o l l a n d and England. E n g l i s h i n 1655 attacks.  Jamaica was  and s u c c e s s f u l l y defended  Important  captured by the a g a i n s t repeated  demographic movements and other d e v e l o p -  ments begun d u r i n g the Spanish r e i g n c o n t i n u e d .  Local  c l i m a t i c and other c o n d i t i o n s proved h o s t i l e t o the Spanish and E n g l i s h l a n d l o r d s , who  r e t u r n e d home l e a v i n g t h e i r  e s t a t e s t o be r u n by second r a t e The  agents.  few n a t i v e I n d i a n s who  i n v a s i o n c o u l d not adapt t o new  sugar  s u r v i v e d the f o r e i g n  c o n d i t i o n s of work and  living  imposed by t h e i r masters,  and those who  killed  f o r s p o r t d i e d from other causes.  acute demand f o r labour which was met  were not  The r e s u l t was  an  by a burgeoning  A f r i c a n s l a v e t r a d e i n the West I n d i e s .  Jamaica became a  centre f o r t h i s t r a d e and by 1807 when s l a v e  trafficking  became i l l e g a l over a m i l l i o n s l a v e s were t r a n s p o r t e d t o the  30 island.  Of these,  20,000 were shipped t o other  Caribbean  i s l a n d s and the remainder p r o v i d e d the much needed manpower f o r Jamaica's sugar e s t a t e s . H e a l t h standards must have been low and rampant among the s l a v e p o p u l a t i o n , f o r by 1835 312,000 remained i n 28 years'.  I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o estimate the s i z e of the I t seems, though, t h a t  the whites were outnumbered at l e a s t t e n t o one who  o n l y about  (Gordon, 1963:26), a l o s s of over 480,000  white p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h i s p e r i o d .  mulattos  disease  by  the  were themselves a very s m a l l m i n o r i t y compared  with the b l a c k masses. The  Jamaican p o p u l a t i o n i n 1965  was  estimated  1,808,700 (Jamaica Department of S t a t i s t i c s , 1960  Census shows the e t h n i c composition  1968).  at The  as f o l l o w s :  T a b l e 2 - E t h n i c breakdown of Jamaica's p o p u l a t i o n , E t h n i c Group African  Number  Percent  1,236,706  76.8  235,494  14.6  East Indian  27,912  1.7  Afro-East Indian  26,354  1.6  European  12,428  0.8  Chinese  10.267  0.7  9,672  0.6  Afro-European  Afro-Chinese  1967  31 Table 2  (Continued)  Ethnic  Number  Percent  1, 354  0.1  49,627  3.1  1,609,814  100.0  Group  Syrian Other Total  Some A s p e c t s o f E a r l y S o c i a l  Structure  Before emancipation t h e r e were t h r e e main d i s t i n g u i s h able groupings i n Caribbean s l a v e  societies:  ( i )  the whites;  (ii)  the f r e e c o l o u r e d s and f r e e  (iii)  the b l a c k  slaves.  In Jamaica and Guyana the white E n g l i s h guished by t h e i r c o l o u r , constituted  blacks;  settlers, distin-  wealth, and c i t i z e n s h i p r i g h t s ,  a r u l i n g upper c l a s s .  The middle c l a s s  of the c o l o u r e d p o p u l a t i o n , descendants of white  planters  and negro women, whose freedom was bought by t h e i r Some owned land,  some were s e m i - s k i l l e d or  workers, and some were s m a l l merchants. middle c l a s s c o l o u r e d group a l s o bought slaves.  I t i s doubtful  consisted  fathers.  white-collar  A few o f t h i s and s o l d or h i r e d  whether t h e r e was much i n t e g r a t i o n  between the c o l o u r e d group and the white p o p u l a t i o n , f o r u n t i l 1830 t h e r e were d i s c r i m i n a t o r y  laws f o r b i d d i n g  the  32 f r e e b l a c k s and c o l o u r e d s from sending t h e i r  children  t o s c h o o l s attended by the whites (Augier e t a l , 1960:160161).  At the lowest rung o f the s o c i a l l a d d e r were the  slaves. after  T h i s s t r u c t u r e remained e s s e n t i a l l y u n a l t e r e d  emancipation. While a g r e e i n g with t h i s b a s i c  scheme M. G. Smith  (1965:Chapter  classificatory  V) g i v e s a f u l l e r  o f the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n w i t h i n each s o c i a l stratum.  account Thus  he observes t h a t among the upper c l a s s whites t h e r e were the " p r i n c i p a l whites" w i t h the f o l l o w i n g  characteristics:  a.  g e n e r a l l y e s t a t e owners;  b.  c o n t r o l l e d p o l i t i c a l and economic l i f e o f the colony;  The  c.  white  families;  d.  c h i l d r e n educated i n England.  "secondary whites" were l a r g e l y merchants and t r a d e r s  or h i g h l e v e l employees,  and g e n e r a l l y were not wealthy  enough t o have t h e i r c h i l d r e n educated i n England. Of the middle c l a s s f r e e c o l o u r e d s M. G. writes  Smith  (ibid:98):  A c c u l t u r a t i o n by a d a p t a t i o n of white behaviour and i n s t i t u t i o n s was a prominent aspect of . . . p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h improvement of s t a t u s f o r c o l o u r e d males, and c o n t r i b u t e d t o the great emphasis they l a i d on t h e i r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n as a group from b l a c k people, whether s l a v e or f r e e .  33 Smith a l s o notes t h a t s h o r t l y before d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n was "Of  emancipation  g r e a t e s t w i t h i n the lowest c l a s s :  a l l s e c t i o n s o f c o l o n i a l s o c i e t y at t h i s p e r i o d ,  the  s l a v e s probably showed the h i g h e s t degree of i n t e r n a l differentiation"  (ibid:101).  Some of the groups  the v a r i o u s ranks are d e s c r i b e d e s t a t e craftsmen, s k i l l e d and jobbing  as:  mentions too t h a t there was l o c a l born (Creole)  domestic s l a v e s ,  semi-skilled f i e l d  gang s l a v e s , town negroes.  comprising  negroes,  Raymond Smith (1956:28)  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between the  s l a v e and the r e c e n t l y imported  negro These p a t t e r n s of s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e had  important  consequences f o r the l a t e r development of education colonies.  i n the  E a r l y attempts t o i n s t i t u t e a system o f popular  education  r e a l l y aimed at p e r p e t u a t i n g  society.  The  schooling provided  the d i v i s i o n s i n  f o r the masses was  largely  intended  t o keep them s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r e x i s t i n g s o c i a l  r o l e and  social status.  was  intended  E d u c a t i o n f o r the upper c l a s s e s  to r e i n f o r c e B r i t i s h c u l t u r a l values.  For  the  A s i m i l a r s t r a t i f i c a t i o n among indentured I n d i a n s i n F i j i i s d e s c r i b e d by A d r i a n C. Mayer (1963). One i s reminded as w e l l of V i k t o r F r a n k l ' s account (1959) of the emergence o f ranking systems among v i c t i m s i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n camps of H i t l e r ' s Germany.  34 c o l o u r e d middle c l a s s , p a t t e r n s o f the dominant B r i t i s h c u l t u r e served as r i g i d models t o be i m i t a t e d and acquired, s i n c e s t a t u s v a r i e d with the degree o f l e a r n i n g and d i s p l a y of these models.  The k i n d o f e d u c a t i o n o f f e r e d t o the  whites was t h e r e f o r e much sought a f t e r by the c o l o u r e d middle c l a s s . Some e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s g e n e r a l p r a c t i c e of c u l t u r a l adoption must be made with r e g a r d t o the e a r l y a t t i t u d e t o e d u c a t i o n o f the E a s t I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n i n Guyana.  It is  g e n e r a l l y h e l d t h a t the E a s t I n d i a n s d i d not e a g e r l y seek t o adopt the B r i t i s h c u l t u r e but preserved much o f t h e i r own customs.  C e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s , t o o , favoured  v a t i o n of I n d i a n c u l t u r e .  the p r e s e r -  E s t a t e owners a s s i s t e d E a s t  I n d i a n workers with r e s o u r c e s f o r the b u i l d i n g o f mosques and temples.  Moreover, the I n d i a n s were c l u s t e r e d i n  s p e c i a l areas, sometimes on land which they r e c e i v e d i n l i e u of r e t u r n passages t o I n d i a . The  c u l t u r a l t e n a c i t y o f the I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n and  t h e i r r e s i s t a n c e t o the dominant c u l t u r e were not without some temporary disadvantages.  Suspicious of missionary  attempts t o d e s t r o y t h e i r c u l t u r e by p r o s e l y t i s i n g them the Indians were much slower than the b l a c k s t o r e c o g n i s e the s o c i a l and economic importance o f e d u c a t i o n and t o u t i l i s e  35 available educational f a c i l i t i e s .  I t must not be  over-  looked, however, t h a t a l a r g e percentage of the b l a c k popul a t i o n were concentrated  i n urban areas, which u s u a l l y  were the f i r s t t o b e n e f i t from any e d u c a t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n . Dwarka Nath (ibid:207) notes f o r i n s t a n c e t h a t i n  1891  E a s t Indians made up 79 percent of the p o p u l a t i o n on sugar e s t a t e s , 23 percent  i n the v i l l a g e s ,  the c i t i e s of Georgetown and New  and  the  3 percent i n  Amsterdam, and  their  environs. T h i s b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f the h i s t o r i c a l o r i g i n of the two  s o c i e t i e s p r o v i d e s a background a g a i n s t which the  social, political,  economic and e d u c a t i o n a l developments t o  be d e s c r i b e d i n subsequent chapters must be seen.  Both  Guyana and Jamaica were c o l o n i a l s o c i e t i e s whose r e s o u r c e s were e x p l o i t e d by i m p e r i a l powers w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of imported  s l a v e and indentured  labour.  The  two  societies  were s i m i l a r i n economic as w e l l as s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , except f o r some important  d i f f e r e n c e s i n the e t h n i c composition  t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n occasioned  of  by a massive i n f l u x o f E a s t  Indians i n Guyana d u r i n g the l a t t e r h a l f o f the  nineteenth  century. Modest m i s s i o n a r y a c t i v i t y i n the f i e l d of begun before emancipation  assumed more ambitious  education proportions  36 a f t e r the Emancipation  Act was  passed.  Motives  f o r the  new  t h r u s t i n e d u c a t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n d u r i n g the immediate p o s t emancipation  p e r i o d and the consequences f o r the  distribu-  t i o n of o p p o r t u n i t y w i l l be p r i n c i p a l concerns i n the following  chapter.  CHAPTER 4 INEQUALITIES IN EDUCATIONAL PROVISION IN THE POSTEMANCIPATION PERIOD - SOME CONTRIBUTORY FACTORS  E q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y was not a major concern o f t h e c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s i n Guyana and Jamaica i n the post-emancipation  p e r i o d , any more than i t  was a g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e f o r e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y i n B r i t a i n . The  o b j e c t i v e s o f e a r l y c o l o n i a l e d u c a t i o n were o f t e n  e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d i n I m p e r i a l Government commission r e p o r t s ; sometimes they were s u b t l y i m p l i e d .  Besides examining what  these o b j e c t i v e s were, we s h a l l c o n s i d e r what c o n d i t i o n s of i n e q u a l i t y could be i n f e r r e d from r e f e r e n c e s made i n the r e p o r t s t o e x i s t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n , what were some p u b l i c r e a c t i o n s t o these c o n d i t i o n s , and what were some f a c t o r s promoting and l i m i t i n g the e x t e n s i o n o f educ a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y t o wider s e c t i o n s of the community. The  year o f emancipation, 1834, r e p r e s e n t s an  ant water-shed i n the development o f e d u c a t i o n  import-  i n the  •^These r e p o r t s c o n s t i t u t e the p r i n c i p a l r e c o r d s o f e a r l y West I n d i a n e d u c a t i o n e f f o r t and commentary. E x t r a c t s of a l l the r e p o r t s c i t e d are presented i n S h i r l e y Gordon's "A Century o f West I n d i a n Education" 1963, and "Reports and Repercussions on West I n d i a n E d u c a t i o n " , 1968. 37  38 B r i t i s h Caribbean. Emancipation Day education s l a v e s who  As Gordon observes (1963), u n t i l  i n 1834  there was  no q u e s t i o n of  an  system, f o r the v a s t m a j o r i t y of r e s i d e n t s were were c e r t a i n l y not encouraged t o secure  education.  In f a c t m i s s i o n a r i e s were e x p l i c i t l y f o r b i d d e n by the white p l a n t e r s t o teach the s l a v e s t o read and w r i t e , and are r e p o r t s of a few p r i e s t s being persecuted ing this injunction. was  for disregard-  A f t e r emancipation, however, there  growing t o l e r a n c e and  education  there  some measure of support  f o r the  of the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s , as w e l l as i n t e r e s t i n a  widespread o r g a n i s e d  s c h o o l system, s t i m u l a t e d by  the  I m p e r i a l Government's p r o v i s i o n of the Negro Education  Grant.  I t i s argued here t h a t t h i s i n t e r e s t i n the expansion o f e d u c a t i o n p r o v i s i o n i n the post-emancipation  era  should  be a t t r i b u t e d at l e a s t i n p a r t t o motives other than the s e c u r i n g of s o c i a l j u s t i c e f o r the c o l o n i a l through the agency of formal s c h o o l i n g .  Two  population suggested  motives are: a.  the d e s i r e t o c h r i s t i a n i s e the n a t i v e  population,  b.  the a n x i e t y t o reduce the imagined t h r e a t t o  and,  life,  property,  and the s t a b i l i t y o f p l a n t a t i o n  s o c i e t y , presented unschooled  people.  by a l a r g e mass of newly f r e e d  39 These two  reasons are not u n r e l a t e d .  entitled,  "Heads of a P l a n f o r Promoting the E d u c a t i o n of  Youth i n the B r i t i s h West I n d i e s , " Negro E d u c a t i o n Grant was  A document o f  stipulated that  1834  the  t o be used " f o r the purpose o f  promoting C h r i s t i a n e d u c a t i o n  i n those B r i t i s h c o l o n i e s i n  which s l a v e r y has h i t h e r t o e x i s t e d  . . ."  In the  appro-  p r i a t i o n of the funds the M i n i s t e r of the Crown was guided by "the p r i n c i p l e t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n i n the and  precepts  made the  be  doctrines  of C h r i s t i a n i t y must form the b a s i s and must be  inseparable  education"  to  attendant of any  (Gordon, 1963:20).  such system of  A g a i n the Reverend John  S t e r l i n g i n h i s r e p o r t t o the B r i t i s h Government i n on the need f o r e d u c a t i o n  i n the c o l o n i e s  1835  writes:  The peace and p r o s p e r i t y o f the Empire at l a r g e may be not remotely i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r moral c o n d i t i o n . . . For although the negroes are now under a system of l i m i t e d c o n t r o l , which secures t o a c e r t a i n extent t h e i r o r d e r l y and i n d u s t r i o u s conduct, i n the s h o r t space o f f i v e y e a r s . . . t h e i r performance of the f u n c t i o n s of a l a b o u r i n g c l a s s i n a c i v i l i s e d community w i l l depend e n t i r e l y on the power over t h e i r minds of the same p r u d e n t i a l and moral,motives which govern more or l e s s the mass of people h e r e , i f they are not so disposed as to f u l f i l these f u n c t i o n s , p r o p e r t y w i l l p e r i s h i n the c o l o n i e s f o r l a c k of compulsion; the whites w i l l no longer r e s i d e t h e r e ; and the l i b e r a t e d negroes themselves w i l l probably cease t o be p r o g r e s s i v e . (Ibid:20-21) There i s a suggestion  i n t h i s and  other  e x t r a c t s of  i n t e r e s t i n the improvement of the circumstances of  an the  40 i n d i v i d u a l e x - s l a v e , and o f the t w e n t i e t h century  belief  i n e d u c a t i o n as a means o f n a t i o n a l economic p r o d u c t i v i t y , but one wonders whether the s t a b i l i t y and economic p r o s p e r i t y of the Empire were not the dominant and d i r e c t  concerns.  One f i n a l i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the t h i n k i n g t h a t i n s p i r e d the p r o v i s i o n o f the Negro E d u c a t i o n Grant w i l l  suffice.  The B r i t i s h Prime M i n i s t e r E a r l Grey i n h i s l e t t e r t o the Treasury  (21 J u l y , 1835) supported  the view o f the S e c r e t a r y  o f S t a t e t h a t the grant should be made t o the r e l i g i o u s b o d i e s working i n the Caribbean  "because of t h e i r  past  success i n d i f f u s i n g e d u c a t i o n among the negroes and having r e g a r d t o . . . the ' r e l i g i o u s and moral' c h a r a c t e r o f the e d u c a t i o n t o be provided" ( I b i d : 2 2 ) . I t would be reasonable t o assume t h a t the i n s t i t u t i o n o f s l a v e r y l e f t i n i t s wake c o n d i t i o n s o f i n e q u a l i t y i n e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y which c o u l d not be removed o v e r n i g h t . No e l a b o r a t e r e f e r e n c e s are t h e r e f o r e needed t o i l l u s t r a t e the p o i n t t h a t some groups were a f f e c t e d by d i s c r i m i n a t o r y r e g u l a t i o n s and p r a c t i c e s , or d e p r i v e d a l t o g e t h e r o f the chance f o r l i f e improvement through  education.  As noted i n the p r e v i o u s chapter, p l a n t a t i o n s o c i e t y i n the l a s t days o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s e d s l a v e r y i n Guyana and Jamaica c o u l d be broken down i n the f o l l o w i n g groups:  41 a.  a r u l i n g upper c l a s s o f white E n g l i s h  settlers  with exclusive c i t i z e n s h i p r i g h t s ; b.  a subordinate c l a s s o f f r e e b l a c k s and o f c o l o u r e d i n h a b i t a n t s , descendants o f white p l a n t e r s and negro women, whose freedom was bought by t h e i r f a t h e r s — s o m e o f these were s e m i - s k i l l e d or white c o l l a r workers, some owned land, and some were s m a l l merchants; and  c.  the s l a v e s .  I t was a l s o s t a t e d t h a t u n t i l 1830 there were d i s c r i m i n a t o r y laws f o r b i d d i n g the f r e e b l a c k s and coloureds c h i l d r e n t o schools  attended by w h i t e s .  t o send t h e i r  A f t e r emancipation,  as w i l l be shown i n Chapters 7 and 8, socio-economic c i r c u m s t a n c e s and the p r e j u d i c e s o f i n d i v i d u a l school masters, r a t h e r than o v e r t l e g i s l a t i o n , were some o f the f a c t o r s t h a t l i m i t e d the attendance by the poorer c l a s s e s a t c e r t a i n educational  institutions.  A f t e r i t was accepted i n p r i n c i p l e t h a t the newly f r e e d s l a v e s should be g i v e n resources  some k i n d o f education,  the  and e f f o r t s expended i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n were i n -  adequate t o cope with the r e a l i t i e s o f the s i t u a t i o n . S h o r t l y a f t e r emancipation f i g u r e s s u p p l i e d by the r e l i g i o u s b o d i e s engaged i n e d u c a t i o n a l work i n the West I n d i e s  42 i n d i c a t e d t h a t there were about 54,000 c h i l d r e n r e c e i v i n g some k i n d o f t e a c h i n g .  T h i s estimate  by h i s t o r i a n s t o be much i n f l a t e d . f a i r approximation,  i s generally  regarded  Even a l l o w i n g i t as a  however, one must i n f e r t h a t  popular  e d u c a t i o n was f a r from r e a l i s e d i n the e a r l y post-emancipat i o n p e r i o d , s i n c e the p o p u l a t i o n between the ages o f 3 and 12 was estimated  a t around 112,000.  I t must be f u r t h e r noted t h a t t h e r e were no r e f e r e n c e s t o the indigenous  p o p u l a t i o n i n Guyana i n the v a r i o u s  Commission r e p o r t s on e d u c a t i o n century.  d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h  Those Amerindians who s u r v i v e d the European  i n v a s i o n of B r i t i s h Guiana by f l e e i n g i n t o remote h i n t e r l a n d areas remained f o r many decades completely  o u t s i d e the p a l e  o f p l a n t a t i o n s o c i e t y and i t s c u l t u r e . I t c o u l d be r e a s o n a b l y one  o f the important  assumed t h a t the school was  instruments  of d i f f u s i o n o f the  dominant c u l t u r e , t h a t an e x - s l a v e  initiated into this  c u l t u r e was a t an advantage over one who was not, i n terms of s o c i a l acceptance by the dominant group, and t h a t such acceptance l e d t o the enjoyment o f s o c i a l and economic benefits. provide helped  One c o u l d t h e r e f o r e conclude t h a t the f a i l u r e t o  school opportunity t o perpetuate  t h a t p r e v a i l e d before  f o r every group i n the s o c i e t y  the u n j u s t s o c i a l and economic d i v i s i o n s emancipation.  43 Factors R e s t r i c t i n g Educational  Expansion  So f a r we have o u t l i n e d b r i e f l y some motives f o r the e a r l y attempts a t developing a system of mass e d u c a t i o n i n the West I n d i e s and have argued t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y was not u n i v e r s a l l y a v a i l a b l e .  We now go on t o d i s c u s s  some f a c t o r s l i m i t i n g the expansion and consequently  of e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s  c r e a t i n g or p e r p e t u a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f  inequality. These f a c t o r s a r e : a.  the absence of a n a t i o n a l system o f e d u c a t i o n ;  b. ' the g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n ; c.  l i n g e r i n g r e s i s t a n c e o f the white p l a n t e r s t o t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e negro, i n c l u d i n g t h e i r u n w i l l i n g ness t o provide  funds;  d.  the i n c r e a s i n g demands o f other s o c i a l  services;  e.  economic r e v e r s e s ;  f.  p u b l i c i n e r t i a and l a c k o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e s s ;  g.  e d u c a t i o n a l and s o c i o - c u l t u r a l problems.  a.  The absence o f a n a t i o n a l system o f e d u c a t i o n :  We have seen t h a t e a r l y e d u c a t i o n was o r g a n i s e d and a d m i n i s t ered  mainly by r e l i g i o u s bodies and t h a t i t was t o these  bodies the I m p e r i a l Government e n t r u s t e d i t s grant f o r education.  Both Latrobe i n h i s Report  on Jamaica  (1838),  44 and S t e r l i n g  (1835) commented on the tendency f o r d i f f e r e n t  r e l i g i o u s denominations t o concentrate t h e i r e f f o r t s on the same populated converts.  areas, each t r y i n g t o win i t s own  The r e s u l t was a d u p l i c a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s i n areas  f a i r l y w e l l p r o v i d e d f o r and a n e g l e c t o f s p a r s e l y populated or remote r e g i o n s . F o l l o w i n g t h e S t e r l i n g Report among the churches  the i n i t i a l wrangle  seemed t o be r e s o l v e d , a t l e a s t i n  p r i n c i p l e or t e m p o r a r i l y , by a mutual agreement t o r e s p e c t territorial  limits.  S t e r l i n g a l s o recommended t h a t no  funds should be made a v a i l a b l e f o r new church areas which were adequately b.  schools i n  provided.  The g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n ;  In Jamaica many of the emancipated s l a v e s r e j o i c i n g i n t h e i r new freedom sought t o secure i t by t a k i n g t o remote, mountainous, f o r e s t e d p a r t s o f the c o u n t r y .  The r e s u l t was  the d i s p e r s i o n o f a s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n of t h e p o p u l a t i o n over wide, i n a c c e s s i b l e areas, a c o n d i t i o n t h a t imposes great r e s t r i c t i o n s on the p r o v i s i o n o f s o c i a l  services.  (In Guyana, however, many of t h e f r e e d s l a v e s pooled money and bought l a r g e areas o f l a n d which they  their  organised  i n t o v i l l a g e s and administered themselves (R. Smith, 1962). T h i s circumstance  should have f a c i l i t a t e d e d u c a t i o n a l  45 o r g a n i s a t i o n and development i n some d i s t r i c t s . ) Showing concern l e s t l a r g e s e c t i o n s o f the p o p u l a t i o n should  remain deprived,  the I m p e r i a l Government from time  to time urged the l o c a l l e g i s l a t u r e s t o provide s e r v i c e s i n those areas n e g l e c t e d compulsory e d u c a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n  educational  by the church, t o pass  laws, and t o supplement the f i n a n c e s  from c o l o n i a l t a x a t i o n  l a c k o f commitment and r e s o u r c e s  (Gordon, 1968).  rendered such  But the  pleadings  ineffectual. c.  L i n g e r i n g r e s i s t a n c e o f the white p l a n t e r s :  Latrobe noted i n h i s Report on Jamaica, 1837: be  s a i d t h a t there  " I t cannot  i s not a numerous c l a s s y e t e x i s t i n g  i n the i s l a n d whose o p i n i o n s p r e j u d i c e s o f the o l d time  are s t i l l t i n c t u r e d w i t h the  . . ."  P a r t o f the reason f o r  l a c k o f f i n a n c i a l support from the l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r negro education,  Latrobe thought, was the b e l i e f t h a t t h e  kind of i n s t r u c t i o n o f f e r e d labour  ' f a i l e d t o embrace l e s s o n s o f  or i n d u s t r y ' . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t the p l a n t e r s thought t h a t a l i t e r -  ate p o p u l a t i o n might develop an a v e r s i o n t o e s t a t e work thus c r e a t i n g a labour  shortage.  As l a t e as 1894 an  i n s p e c t o r o f schools noted i n h i s r e p o r t t h a t there were some who were not i n sympathy with the movement f o r compulsory  46 education, read and  "who  t h i n k i t i s a mistake t o teach  w r i t e , and  Educational  one  children to  of them went so f a r as t o t e l l  D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r from h i s seat on the Bench  t h a t he was  ' s p o i l i n g a good shovelman'" ( i b i d ,  I t i s worth n o t i n g too t h a t i n 1832  1963:121).  a serious  s c a l e u p r i s i n g took p l a c e i n Jamaica, l e d by an s l a v e who The  my  was  large  intelligent  a prominent adherent of the B a p t i s t c h u r c h .  committee of the House of Assembly appointed t o i n q u i r e  i n t o the cause of the r e v o l t deemed t h a t main c o n t r i b u t o r y f a c t o r s were: a.  the i n t e r f e r e n c e of the I m p e r i a l Government with the colony's  l e g i s l a t u r e i n regard  t o the  of laws f o r the government of the s l a v e s , b.  Society'  c i r c u l a t e d by the a i d o f the press,  and  r e l i g i o u s sects  teaching  of  the  (Burns, 1954:621-622).  I t i s not d i f f i c u l t t o understand then why  the l o c a l  r e l u c t a n t t o f i n a n c e an education  proposed by the I m p e r i a l Government and was ed and  and  'wicked r e p o r t s o f the A n t i - S l a v e r y  mischievous p r a c t i c e s and  l a t u r e was  passing  executed by the r e l i g i o u s s e c t s .  legis-  p l a n which t o be  was  administer-  A l s o , i t does not  seem t h a t at t h i s e a r l y p e r i o d the average E n g l i s h l a n d l o r d i n the West I n d i e s had  any  ideas f o r the m o d e r n i s a t i o n o f  47 sugar p r o d u c t i o n or saw i v i t y and  any l i n k between i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t -  formal s c h o o l i n g .  I n B r i t i s h Guiana, however, Latrobe observed t h e r e was  that  a much more f a v o u r a b l e a t t i t u d e towards popular  e d u c a t i o n , and t h a t the l e g i s l a t u r e r e a d i l y voted  funds  and took other i n s t a n t measures f o r d e v e l o p i n g a s c h o o l system.  One  wonders though whether t h i s support d i d not i n  p a r t a r i s e from a g r e a t e r f e e l i n g of s e c u r i t y ,  since i n  B r i t i s h Guiana the p r o p o r t i o n of the e x - s l a v e t o the p o p u l a t i o n was,  total  i n comparison with Jamaica f o r example,  r e l a t i v e l y small.  And  t h e r e would have been l e s s a n x i e t y  over the p o s s i b l e r e s u l t a n t shortage o f labour, f o r t h e r e was  a steady i n f l u x of immigrants from other West I n d i a n  t e r r i t o r i e s t o s w e l l the labour f o r c e . too, u n l i k e Jamaica, was  w e l l on the way  B r i t i s h Guiana towards implementing  an i n t e n s i v e p o l i c y o f i m p o r t a t i o n o f indentured from I n d i a and other overseas t e r r i t o r i e s .  labour  ( I t i s estimated  t h a t d u r i n g 1841-1847 about 50,000 persons were brought i n from I n d i a , A f r i c a and the West I n d i e s a t a c o s t of about 360,655 pounds (Parry and Sherlock,  1963:202).  d.  I n c r e a s i n g demand of other s o c i a l s e r v i c e s ,  and  e.  Economic r e v e r s e s :  out-  With s l a v e r y o f f i c i a l l y  lawed, a t t i t u d e s towards the h e a l t h and g e n e r a l w e l f a r e o f  48 the working  c l a s s g r a d u a l l y became more h u m a n i t a r i a n .  Public  funds were beginning t o spread q u i t e t h i n l y over a wide f i e l d of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , e.g. h e a l t h , s a n i t a t i o n and portation.  Besides, the 1840's were l e a n y e a r s f o r the  B r i t i s h economy and a u s t e r i t y at home a f f e c t e d abroad.  trans-  spending  West I n d i a n sugar l o s t i t s p r e f e r e n t i a l  treatment  on the world market, producing s e r i o u s consequences on the c o l o n i a l economies. I n a d d i t i o n t o these d i f f i c u l t i e s t h e r e was  a series  of epidemics i n the 1850's i n most o f the West I n d i a n t e r r i t o r i e s , and a severe drought  i n Jamaica rendered  c o u n t r y ' s economic s i t u a t i o n p a r t i c u l a r l y a c u t e .  this  Besides,  under the system of e a r l y c o l o n i a l economic o r g a n i s a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n — n o t a b l y the p a t t e r n of absentee  owner-  s h i p of p r o p e r t y and c o n t r o l of p r o d u c t i o n — p r o f i t s which c o u l d be ploughed  back i n t o the c o l o n i a l b u s i n e s s e n t e r p r i s e  t o rescue i t from a d v e r s i t i e s and secure i t s expansion were remitted to B r i t a i n instead.  Under these  circumstances  e d u c a t i o n f i n a n c i n g and consequently the e x t e n s i o n of educ a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y were sure t o be f.  Public inertia:  We  affected.  l e a r n from the v a r i o u s r e p o r t s  t h a t even such o p p o r t u n i t i e s as were p r o v i d e d were not utilised.  fully  Gordon suggested t h a t the f a i l u r e of s e c t i o n s o f  49 the working c l a s s t o support  t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s education  must be e x p l a i n e d p a r t l y by the f a c t t h a t they c o u l d no p o i n t i n s c h o o l i n g , the nature  see  of the courses o f f e r e d  b e i n g i r r e l e v a n t t o t h e i r needs and  conditions.  In seeking t o account f o r h i s t o r i c phenomena one needs t o guard a g a i n s t the danger of m i s t a k e n l y n o t i o n s a c q u i r e d from contemporary experience,  applying or of making  t o o f a c i l e a use of t h e o r i e s about human behaviour t o d e r i v e an account of how  humans behaved at a given time and  However, by t a k i n g i n t o account the t o t a l s e t o f stances—as  f a r as these can be  place.  circum-  ascertained—surrounding  the phenomena r a t h e r than r e l y i n g on a s i n g l e f a c t o r , we be able t o minimise e r r o r , c l a i m i n g of course  no more than  some degree of p r o b a b i l i t y f o r the v a l i d i t y of our sions.  may  conclu-  With these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n mind we would wish t o  supplement Gordon's e x p l a n a t i o n by drawing a t t e n t i o n t o some other f e a t u r e s of the s i t u a t i o n t h a t may  be  considered  relevant. F i r s t , though, l e t us examine some of the evidence which Gordon probably m i s s i o n a r i e s and  based her  judgement.  The  British  teachers engaged i n e d u c a t i o n a l work i n  the West I n d i e s adopted e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s and m a t e r i a l with which they were f a m i l i a r i n England.  Keenan (1869)  on  50 r e p o r t e d , "The  books which I found  i n use were c h i e f l y  p u b l i c a t i o n s of the I r i s h N a t i o n a l Board  the  . . . notwith-  standing t h e i r e x c e l l e n c e and r e p u t a t i o n , I should d e s i r e to  see them superseded by a s e t of books whose l e s s o n s  would be r a c y of the colony."  The  content o f  education  from the k i n d e r g a r t e n t o the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l remained, w e l l i n t o the present decade, dominated by the of  overseas  recount  examination.  episodes  know l i t t l e ,  requirements  A h i g h s c h o o l graduate could  about E n g l i s h k i n g s and conquests  i f anything,  development of h i s own  about the s o c i a l and  country.  The  primary  and  political  school  c o u l d r e c i t e long poems about snow and d a f f o d i l s  child  experienced  o n l y through the p r i n t e d page. I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t such e d u c a t i o n a l t r a n s p l a n t c o u l d have withstood ex-slave population. seem r e a s o n a b l e .  r e j e c t i o n by v a s t s e c t i o n s of the e a r l y So Gordon's h y p o t h e s i s  does indeed  Yet, given a more s u i t a b l e system o f  s c h o o l i n g , a n e g l e c t t o u t i l i s e the o p p o r t u n i t i e s p r o v i d e d would s t i l l have been p o s s i b l e .  We  must seek, then, some  f u r t h e r element t o strengthen Gordon's t h e o r y . We  know t h a t the newly f r e e d s l a v e s r e j o i c e d i n  t h e i r freedom and t h a t the immediate response o f some t o run o f f i n remote h i l l s or r i v e r a i n a r e a s .  was  I t i s not  51 u n l i k e l y t h a t even those who would harbour m i s t r u s t organised little  and  remained near the  f o r programs i n i t i a t e d ,  executed by t h e i r  initial  plantations planned,  former masters w i t h  p a r t i c i p a t i o n on t h e i r own  very  p a r t , however  p r a c t i c a l l y u s e f u l these programs appeared t o be.  There  was,  the  f o r t h a t matter, very l i t t l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n by  masses i n the g e n e r a l  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of c o l o n i a l a f f a i r s .  In Guyana f o r example there were 561 1847  out of a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n  l a t e r i n Jamaica, 1864,  q u a l i f i e d voters i n  of about 130,000.  of a population  the number o f r e g i s t e r e d v o t e r s was the d e s i r e t o encourage g r e a t e r  And  much  o f about 450,000  1,903.  I t was  partly  concern and p a r t i c i p a t i o n  on the p a r t of p a r e n t s t h a t prompted l o c a l l e g i s l a t u r e s t o impose a s m a l l fee on parents f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s primary school e d u c a t i o n — a measure, i n c i d e n t a l l y , t h a t missed p o i n t e n t i r e l y and  t h a t was  t o achieve the d e s i r e d Further,  q u i c k l y abandoned a f t e r f a i l i n g  effect.  i t r e q u i r e s much p a t i e n c e ,  long term planning  and  discipline,  and  f o r e s i g h t f o r a parent t o send a  c h i l d t o s c h o o l p u n c t u a l l y and y e a r s i n order  the  r e g u l a r l y f o r a number of  t o achieve some d i s t a n t reward.  The  immediate  b e n e f i t s of an e x t r a p a i r of hands on the farm might have blocked  a l l t h i n k i n g about the p o s s i b l e r e t u r n s t h a t  could  52 accrue  from r e l e a s i n g a p o t e n t i a l worker f o r an extended  p e r i o d of s c h o o l i n g .  ( I t i s d o u b t f u l , as we  suggested  e a r l i e r , whether the p l a n t e r s themselves e s t a b l i s h e d t h i s c o n n e c t i o n between s c h o o l i n g and p r o d u c t i v i t y . )  I t requires  a l s o strong m o t i v a t i o n t o keep a c h i l d wanting t o go t o school.  Such p a t i e n c e , d i s c i p l i n e ,  and m o t i v a t i o n might  have been d i f f i c u l t t o a c q u i r e by a people e n j o y i n g freedom f o r the f i r s t g.  time.  E d u c a t i o n a l problems;  Educational  techniques  and knowledge o f o r g a n i s i n g u s e f u l l e a r n i n g experiences  for  a l a r g e number of c u l t u r a l l y d e p r i v e d c h i l d r e n were not developed suddenly  enough t o cope s i g n i f i c a n t l y with the demands o f a expanded system of popular  education.  Rote-  l e a r n i n g , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the penny pamphlet days i n e a r l y i n d u s t r i a l B r i t a i n , was i n education r e p o r t s .  p r e v a l e n t and f r e q u e n t l y c r i t i c i s e d Once a l a r g e mass of c h i l d r e n were  l u r e d i n t o the schoolhouses  the c h i e f l y u n t r a i n e d and  educated t e a c h i n g s t a f f might have had i n keeping occupied;  little  them a l l i n t e r e s t e d , amused, and f o r t h i s reason,  poorly  experience  profitably  gaining a school place,  then,  would not n e c e s s a r i l y have meant b e n e f i t t i n g from s c h o o l . The  s e r i o u s n e s s o f the language problem too must not  be o v e r l o o k e d .  During  the days of s l a v e r y l a n d l o r d s  developed  53 a s t r a t e g y of l i m i t i n g communication between s l a v e s p u t t i n g t o work together  members of d i f f e r e n t t r i b e s  spoke d i f f e r e n t languages. their  by  The  Africans gradually  who  lost  languages and much o f t h e i r n a t i v e c u l t u r e g e n e r a l l y .  There was  l i t t l e p o s s i b i l i t y then of u s i n g a common language  i n the e a r l y stages of i n s t r u c t i o n . ex-slaves  who  got much o p p o r t u n i t y  Consequently, those  t o hear E n g l i s h spoken  from day t o day or g e n e r a l l y t o experience aspects of B r i t i s h c u l t u r e on which i n s t r u c t i o n was  based, were at a  d i s t i n c t advantage, e d u c a t i o n a l l y , over those who  worked i n  remote f i e l d s . In c o u n t r i e s such as B r i t i s h Guiana and where the e t h n i c composition of the v a r i e d t h i s c u l t u r a l and  labour  Trinidad  f o r c e was  l i n g u i s t i c problem was  more  accentuated.  A Commission on E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Guiana wrote i n " S e r i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s present  themselves.  F i r s t may  be men-  t i o n e d the v a r i e t y of r a c e s composing the p o p u l a t i o n , the d i v e r s i t y among them o f language and  creed  1851,  and  ..."  (Gordon, 1963:50). T h i s Commission, i n c i d e n t a l l y , considered  that  d i v e r s i t y of creed presented the g r e a t e s t o b s t a c l e  the  to  education. Our  d i s c u s s i o n so f a r as been concerned mainly with  54 e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y at the primary f i r s t wide-scale now  l e v e l at which the  organised e f f o r t s were d i r e c t e d .  We  shall  take a b r i e f look at o p p o r t u n i t i e s provided at the  secondary l e v e l using the  same c a t e g o r i e s of a n a l y s i s , v i z . ,  c o n d i t i o n s of i n e q u a l i t y , emphasis p l a c e d on the i d e a l of e q u a l i t y , and c o n d i t i o n s l i m i t i n g the spread and  just  dis-  t r i b u t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s . Of g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the course of e d u c a t i o n a l development i n the West I n d i e s i n the l a t t e r h a l f o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y was  the c e s s a t i o n of the  Government's grant i n 1845. difficulties  Imperial  E x p e r i e n c i n g grave economic  and i n d u s t r i a l upheaval at home the  British  Government terminated  i t s f i n a n c i n g of primary  i n the c o l o n i e s .  burden of p r o v i d i n g e d u c a t i o n  The  f e l l h e a v i l y on the l o c a l l e g i s l a t u r e s and the  education then  religious  bodies. T h i s s h i f t of f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y l e d t o more frequent and of  vigorous e d u c a t i o n a l debates and  the s c h o o l system.  l y appointed  The  c r i t i c s now  criticism  were not o n l y  official-  commissions, but members of the t e a c h i n g body,  the press, and the p u b l i c .  The main themes r a i s e d were the  i r r e l e v a n t and d y s f u n c t i o n a l q u a l i t y of the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m , the r i s i n g c o s t of education,  and the i n e q u a l i t i e s i n the  55 d i s t r i b u t i o n o f secondary  e d u c a t i o n among v a r i o u s s o c i o -  economic and e t h n i c groups. Before p r e s e n t i n g some d e t a i l s o f the i s s u e s debated, let  us f i r s t  secondary  comment on the o r i g i n s and e a r l y purpose o f  education.  landowners, and c i v i l the c o l o n i e s .  Few e x p a t r i a t e B r i t i s h businessmen, servants sought permanent r e s i d e n c e i n  Instead, generous leave and passage r i g h t s  were i n i t i a t e d t o enable overseas employees t o r e t u r n home periodically.^  I n many other ways the e x p a t r i a t e sought t o  retain his culture.  The w e a l t h i e r c l a s s e s sent t h e i r  c h i l d r e n t o s c h o o l i n England w h i l e those who c o u l d not a f f o r d t o do so o r g a n i s e d or supported  private  secondary  s c h o o l s t o p r o v i d e the k i n d o f e d u c a t i o n t h a t might be o b t a i n e d i n the mother c o u n t r y .  The f r e e c o l o u r e d  middle  c l a s s s t r o v e t o i m i t a t e models o f the dominant c u l t u r e as f a i t h f u l l y as they could, with the e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t t h e i r s u c c e s s f u l i m i t a t i o n o f these models might improve t h e i r social status.  For some time they c o u l d not l e g a l l y send  t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o s c h o o l s attended by t h e whites,  so they  T h i s p r a c t i c e p e r s i s t e d long a f t e r circumstances ceased t o j u s t i f y i t . As l a t e as i n the 1950's the n a t i v e Guyanese s e n i o r c i v i l servant enjoyed s i x months' leave w i t h f u l l pay every t h r e e y e a r s t o h o l i d a y i n B r i t a i n , with f u l l r e t u r n passages f o r h i m s e l f and h i s f a m i l y .  56 organised  similar private institutions,  i n many cases  the h e l p o f c h a r i t a b l e endowments or through the of the m i s s i o n a r i e s , who  m i s s i o n a r y w r i t i n g t o the Methodist 1879,  a  laity.  Methodist  Missionary Society i n  " i s a f a i r l y educated middle c l a s s from which we  get our own  c h i e f and most e f f i c i e n t  l o c a l preachers man  initiative  sought t o c u l t i v a t e a l o c a l  ("What we want", counsels Stephen Sutton,  with  supply of l e a d e r s  and stewards t h o r o u g h l y  our s o c i e t i e s  shall and  t o do our work and  . . ." (ibid:248) .)  As i n B r i t a i n , t h e r e f o r e (and i n f a c t i n a l l the B r i t i s h , A s i a n and A f r i c a n c o l o n i e s ) , the s c h o o l systems i n Guyana and Jamaica comprised two primary  largely isolated sectors:  s c h o o l s f o r the masses, and  s c h o o l s with primary  secondary grammar  and even k i n d e r g a r t e n s e c t i o n s f o r the  3 privileged.  I n the c o l o n i e s the purposes of the two  of i n s t i t u t i o n s were as v a r i e d as t h e i r  structure.  types  The  0 f the 19th century B r i t i s h s i t u a t i o n David G l a s s , (1961:394) w r i t e s : " . . . e d u c a t i o n a l developments r e f l e c t ed two d i s t i n c t s e t s of c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , one r e l a t i n g t o the mass of the p o p u l a t i o n and the other t o the middle c l a s s e s . . ." The e x p l i c i t purposes of elementary e d u c a t i o n were t o 'gentle the masses', t o ensure d i s c i p l i n e and o b t a i n r e s p e c t f o r p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y and the s o c i a l order, and t o provide t h a t k i n d o f i n s t r u c t i o n which was i n d i s p e n s a b l e i n an i n d u s t r i a l and commercial n a t i o n ; secondary e d u c a t i o n e x i s t e d f o r the middle c l a s s who c o u l d a f f o r d i t , and p r o v i d e d an avenue f o r entrance t o the u n i v e r s i t i e s . J  57 secondary s c h o o l was  intended mainly t o i n i t i a t e c h i l d r e n  i n t o the B r i t i s h c u l t u r e and t o c u l t i v a t e a l e a d e r s h i p elite.  The  purposes of the primary  s c h o o l have a l r e a d y  been d e t a i l e d ; c h i e f among these seems t o have been the c r e a t i o n of a p e a c e f u l labour f o r c e .  T h i s two-fold  o r g a n i s a t i o n of the s c h o o l system had, later, of  as we  shall  see  s e r i o u s consequences on the subsequent development  popular e d u c a t i o n and on the f a i r d i s t r i b u t i o n of h i g h  school opportunity. Having d e p i c t e d t h i s background of development of the secondary s c h o o l system i n the West I n d i e s l e t us see how  the system operated during i t s expansion  l a t t e r h a l f of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y — m a i n l y  now  i n the  how i t  s e l e c t e d i t s p u p i l s , what c r i t i c i s m s were l e v e l l e d at i t c h i e f l y with r e s p e c t t o the concern  shown f o r the i d e a l of  e q u a l i t y , and what p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s tended t o r e s t r i c t i t s expansion. Firstly,  the s c h o o l s were e s t a b l i s h e d as grammar  s c h o o l s t o o f f e r i n s t r u c t i o n i n the c l a s s i c s ; the c u r r i c u l u m was  predominantly  determined by u n i v e r s i t y entrance r e q u i r e -  ments, and examinations. observed,  Consequently, as Hammond .(1946)  the e d u c a t i o n of the great m a j o r i t y of p u p i l s  would not be going to a u n i v e r s i t y was  who  ' t i e d t o the c h a r i o t '  58 o f the small number who would.  T h i s was one way i n which  secondary e d u c a t i o n p r o v i s i o n f a i l e d t o o f f e r equal  oppor-  t u n i t y f o r i n d i v i d u a l advancement even f o r those who were l u c k y t o o b t a i n the very l i m i t e d s c h o o l p l a c e s . As the secondary school system grew attempts were made t o d i v e r s i f y the c u r r i c u l u m t o i n c l u d e , f o r example, a g r i c u l t u r a l and i n d u s t r i a l s u b j e c t s , but p a r t l y through l a c k o f p u b l i c support  and i n some cases through  vigorous  o p p o s i t i o n these e f f o r t s were on t h e whole a b o r t i v e .  This  phenomenon w i l l r e c e i v e more e x t e n s i v e treatment when we come t o d i s c u s s the s i t u a t i o n i n 1957-1967. I t has a l r e a d y been e x p l a i n e d t h a t the primary s c h o o l provided o p p o r t u n i t y  f o r t h e b l a c k masses, w h i l e the  secondary s c h o o l c a t e r e d mainly f o r the white and c o l o u r e d population.  A d m i n i s t r a t o r s , however, seemed t o be fond o f  b o a s t i n g t h a t the system allowed  the poorest  c h i l d t o get  r i g h t through from the elementary s c h o o l t o a u n i v e r s i t y i n B r i t a i n a t p u b l i c expense i f he showed a b i l i t y . l a t e as 1946 Hammond remarked t h a t although  the system o f  s c h o l a r s h i p s from elementary schools t o secondary provided  Y e t as  an e d u c a t i o n a l ladder and had enabled  schools  some c h i l d r e n  o f poor parents t o r i s e c o n s i d e r a b l y i n the s o c i a l and economic s c a l e , i t had not i n t e g r a t e d the elementary and  59 secondary systems i n t o a s i n g l e whole ( i b i d : 4 4 2 ) .  T h i s was  a n a t u r a l r e s u l t of the e l i t e s t p a t t e r n o f secondary education  (which o n l y the p r i v i l e g e d c o u l d a f f o r d ) and the  i n e f f i c i e n c y o f the elementary system. Guiana S i r C h a r l e s Major  Note t h a t i n B r i t i s h  (1925) r e p o r t e d :  "The number of  Government Primary S c h o l a r s h i p s appears t o be s u f f i c i e n t t o meet present requirements.  F i v e are p r o v i d e d f o r Demerara,  four f o r B e r b i c e , and three f o r E s s e q u i b o — t w e l v e i n a l l . " No f u r t h e r comment i s needed except t h a t o n l y s i x primary school students Apart  q u a l i f i e d f o r these scholarships'.  from race and socio-economic c l a s s , sex and  c u l t u r o - r e l i g i o u s f a c t o r s served as bases f o r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n the process  o f secondary s c h o o l s e l e c t i o n .  (Discussion  o f t h e sex f a c t o r w i l l be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the s e c t i o n t o f o l l o w t h a t d e a l s with c r i t i c i s m s o f the s c h o o l system.) We comment now on how a c h i l d ' s c u l t u r a l background tended t o a f f e c t h i s chances f o r h i g h school s e l e c t i o n There i s evidence  t h a t i n the v a r i o u s c o l o n i e s ,  i n c l u d i n g Jamaica, there was some r e l u c t a n c e t o admit l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d r e n i n t o the secondary s c h o o l . (1873) a p r i n c i p a l — a reverend Education  il-  I n Barbados  g e n t l e m e n — j u s t i f i e d t o an  Committee the e x c l u s i o n o f two i l l e g i t i m a t e boys  from h i s s c h o o l on the grounds t h a t :  60 whatever a man's present r e s p e c t a b i l i t y may be, I cannot t h i n k t h a t he has any c l a i m t o honorary a s s i s t ance from the L e g i s l a t u r e i n the e d u c a t i o n of a c h i l d whom he has p u b l i c l y disowned by w i t h h o l d i n g from i t h i s name i n a P a r i s h R e g i s t e r , and a l l o w i n g i t s Mother whether or not s i n c e married t o him, t o bear alone the shame of i t s parentage . . . And moreover, u n l e s s a l i n e be drawn between l e g i t i m a c y and i l l e g i t i m a c y i n the admission of Candidates f o r the E x h i b i t i o n s , permit me t o ask the Committee . . . a t what p o i n t i n the s o c i a l s c a l e they would f i x the lower l i m i t o f t h e r e s p e c t a b l e middle c l a s s f o r whose b e n e f i t the E x h i b i t i o n s were designed. (Gordon, 1963:250) I n T r i n i d a d , Queen's C o l l e g i a t e School, a government f i n a n c e d i n s t i t u t i o n , d i d not accept i l l e g i t i m a t e  children,  while i n Jamaica i n 1877, a s c h o o l committee readmitted two i l l e g i t i m a t e b r o t h e r s e x p e l l e d by the p r i n c i p a l  because  t h e i r mother gave b i r t h t o a t h i r d i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d . committee found circumstance  The  i t necessary t o d e c l a r e t h a t " i n f u t u r e the  o f a c h i l d being o f parents l i v i n g together,  but not married, t o admission."  s h a l l not, o f i t s e l f ,  be c o n s i d e r e d a bar  (Ibid:251).  S e v e r a l c r i t i c i s m s were l e v e l l e d a g a i n s t the secondary s c h o o l system. i. ii. iii. iv. v.  These c r i t i c i s m s i n c l u d e d :  t o o much money spent on t o o few c h i l d r e n ; the masses u n e q u a l l y  represented;  g i r l s not p r o p e r l y p r o v i d e d f o r ; I n d i a n s n e g l e c t e d , and c u r r i c u l u m u n s u i t a b l e and system i n e f f i c i e n t .  61 i.  Too much f o r t o o few;  The l a s t two decades o f  the n i n e t e e n t h century were p e r i o d s o f severe economic d e p r e s s i o n throughout  the c o l o n i e s and d r a s t i c e f f o r t s were  made t o t i g h t e n the n a t i o n a l purse s t r i n g s .  Ill-conceived  economies were e f f e c t e d i n the E d u c a t i o n Budget g e n e r a l l y — i n B r i t i s h Guiana the t e a c h e r s ' c o l l e g e was c l o s e d and the number o f primary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s reduced  (Cameron, 1968);  i n many o f the c o l o n i e s t e a c h e r s ' s a l a r i e s were reduced and i n some cases a few s c h o o l s were c l o s e d .  There were i n  a d d i t i o n frequent complaints t h a t t o o much money was spent on t o o few secondary  school p u p i l s .  The generous s c h o l a r -  s h i p awarded a n n u a l l y t o one secondary Guyana (and i n Jamaica) t o pursue  s c h o o l graduate i n  studies at a B r i t i s h  u n i v e r s i t y came under severe a t t a c k s . I n Barbados the Governor i n h i s opening speech t o the Legislature  (February 2, 1891) expressed concern t h a t  about  o n e - t h i r d of the e d u c a t i o n budget p r o v i d e d f o r the ' i n t e l l e c t u a l wants' o f 500 or 600 students who attended the h i g h e r grade s c h o o l s , w h i l e the remaining t w o - t h i r d s were spent on over 23,000 of the ' c h i l d r e n o f the p e o p l e * . defended  The Assembly  t h i s system by c l a i m i n g t h a t i t was p o s s i b l e f o r  c h i l d r e n t o pass from the elementary t o the h i g h e s t grade s c h o o l s a t the expense of t h e Colony.  62 I n Guyana a D a i l y C h r o n i c l e a r t i c l e (August  1,  1889)  s t a t e d t h a t from a f i n a n c i a l p o i n t of view every item i n the expenditure of Queen's C o l l e g e was salaries  extravagant,  teachers'  were too h i g h , and the Guiana s c h o l a r s h i p worth  hundred pounds a year and granted t o one stopped.  two  candidate should  be  Besides, the c o l l e g e had not g i v e n r e s u l t s t o  warrant a continuance  of the heavy o u t l a y by the Government.  I n Jamaica a Committee on Retrenchment (1898) recommended t h a t secondary  s c h o o l s g r a n t s should be g r a d u a l l y reduced  each year and the schools o r g a n i s e d on a s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g basis.  The Committee d e c l a r e d :  "As r e g a r d s the Jamaica  and other S c h o l a r s h i p s we do not c o n s i d e r t h a t they i n any way  b e n e f i t the g e n e r a l body of taxpayers,  t h i n k they can a f f o r d t h i s  and we do  not  expenditure."  I t must be noted t h a t i n a l l the t e r r i t o r i e s these criticisms  d i d not come from members o f the House of  Assembly who  voted the funds and whose c h i l d r e n stood t o  b e n e f i t most from secondary  p r o v i s i o n . We  i n 1957-1967 the l e g i s l a t i v e body, now s u f f r a g e , was  t o l e a d the f i g h t  s h a l l see t h a t  e l e c t e d under a d u l t  f o r the d e m o c r a t i s a t i o n of  the e n t i r e s c h o o l system. ii.  The masses u n e q u a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d :  the c o s t of secondary  e d u c a t i o n was  On the whole  too great f o r the poor  63 c l a s s e s t o a f f o r d even i f they were eager to a v a i l thems e l v e s of i t and had ments.  the p r e r e q u i s i t e e d u c a t i o n a l  In some cases headteachers who  attain-  were a l i v e t o  the  problem s t a r t e d secondary l e v e l c l a s s e s i n t h e i r primary s c h o o l s (Cameron, 1968)  and  e n t e r p r i s i n g i n d i v i d u a l s opened  p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s of v a r y i n g  q u a l i t y , where the  were much cheaper than i n the e s t a b l i s h e d  fees  schools.  In  B r i t i s h Guiana an E d u c a t i o n Commission (1875) recommended t e n e x h i b i t i o n s i n open c o m p e t i t i o n t o Queen's C o l l e g e t h i s p o l i c y was  r e j e c t e d by the L e g i s l a t u r e .  And  the P r i n c i p a l , d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h the r e l u c t a n c e  in  but 1886  to i n t r o -  duce these e x h i b i t i o n s , granted t h r e e at h i s p e r s o n a l expense. In T r i n i d a d Keenan observed: The f i r s t t h i n g l i k e l y t o s t r i k e a person who has cons i d e r e d these r e p o r t s from the headmasters of the two secondary s c h o o l s i s the strangeness of the f a c t t h a t w h i l s t the white p o p u l a t i o n which i s o n l y between 5,000 and 6,000 f u r n i s h e s 142 p u p i l s to the c o l l e g i a t e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , the c o l o u r e d p o p u l a t i o n , which, e x c l u s i v e of the c o o l i e s , numbers from 60,000 t o 70,000 f u r n i s h e s o n l y 37 p u p i l s . (Gordon, 1963:242). The  P r i n c i p a l of one  of the  c o l l e g e s a l s o noted i n  1889,  What i s done . . . f o r secondary e d u c a t i o n i n t h i s c o l o n y amounts t o t h i s , t h a t i n i t s c h i e f town o n l y p r o f e s s i o n a l men, Government o f f i c e r s , m i n i s t e r s o f r e l i g i o n and b u s i n e s s men are able t o get f o r t h e i r sons a f a i r l y good Grammar School e d u c a t i o n at a comparati v e l y cheap r a t e . ( I b i d : 244)  64 In Barbados, one  c o n t r i b u t o r t o the l o c a l newspaper,  the A g r i c u l t u r a l Reporter, wealthy won  p r o t e s t e d t h a t the sons o f the  the e x h i b i t i o n s and  were accepted.  "We  f u r t h e r t h a t the e x h i b i t i o n s  are somewhat s u r p r i s e d " , t h i s c o n t r i b u t o r  s t a t e d , " t o f i n d gentlemen of such c a l i b r e l e n d i n g thems e l v e s t o the p e r p e t r a t i o n of such jobbery." 1873)  Not  a l l p u b l i c o p i n i o n , however, was  the system. defending  In the same i s s u e c i t e d we  the e x i s t i n g  The Board admission obnoxious s c h o o l as wreck the to steer.  (March  28,  d i r e c t e d against  f i n d one  writer  situation:  i s bound t o p r o t e c t the schools a g a i n s t the of such boys as e x h i b i t i o n e r s as would be t o the sons of gentlemen who attend the paying p u p i l s ; otherwise the committee w i l l v e s s e l s which the S t a t e has e n t r u s t e d them  E a r l i e r i n the same c o l o n y though there was  ( i n 1852)  i t seems as  some p l a n t o e s t a b l i s h separate  schools  f o r the c o l o u r e d p o p u l a t i o n , but a prominent Bishop r e j e c t e d the p o l i c y  stating:  The p r i n c i p l e of p r o v i d i n g a separate education f o r the f r e e c o l o u r e d p o p u l a t i o n of the West I n d i e s , we c o n s i d e r here a very o b j e c t i o n a b l e one, as t e a c h i n g t o p e r p e t r a t e the a n t i p a t h y of r a c e , which i t i s a primary o b j e c t with us t o e r a d i c a t e . . . I t would be, as i t appears t o me, a r e t r o g r a d e movement t o e s t a b l i s h e x c l u s i v e schools f o r e i t h e r white or c o l o u r e d . (Gordon, 1963:230) iii.  G i r l s not p r o p e r l y provided  denominations seemed not t o favour having  for:  The  religious  adolescent  girls  65 attend the same s c h o o l as boys or taught by male t e a c h e r s . Thus secondary  g i r l s ' and boys' s c h o o l s  developed  s e p a r a t e l y , and i n the e a r l y stages the e d u c a t i o n of received less attention. e d u c a t i o n a l expansion  But w i t h the growing demand f o r  a t the primary  l e v e l the  s u p p l y of female t e a c h e r s became n o t i c e a b l e . his  girls  T r i n i d a d r e p o r t expressed  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f g i r l s was  inadequate Keenan i n  the view t h a t the unequal  due t o the shortage of s c h o o l  m i s t r e s s e s and l a c k of s u i t a b l e programmes o f  instruction.  A Methodist M i s s i o n a r y i n Jamaica wrote t o h i s S o c i e t y (1877) : We have a l a r g e l y i n c r e a s i n g middle c l a s s , b l a c k and c o l o u r e d p o p u l a t i o n , and f o r g i r l s of t h i s c l a s s e s p e c i a l l y , we have no s u i t a b l e s c h o o l s i n the c o u n t r y . The consequence i s t h a t a v a s t number of g i r l s , who might, at t h e i r p a r e n t s ' expense, have a s u i t a b l e e d u c a t i o n t o f i t them f o r the p o s i t i o n of wives of educated N a t i v e Teachers, and t o become t e a c h e r s thems e l v e s , are o b l i g e d t o be content with the elementary e d u c a t i o n which, as l i t t l e c h i l d r e n , they o b t a i n i n the Day Schools . . . (Ibid:248) iv.  Indians neglected:  i n B r i t i s h Guiana showed l i t t l e  The E a s t I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n i n t e r e s t d u r i n g the e a r l y  stages i n primary e d u c a t i o n o r g a n i s e d by the r e l i g i o u s bodies. to  L a t e r they seemed t o oppose sending t h e i r  s c h o o l s taught by the negroes.  I t i s worth  children  mentioning  too t h a t the I n d i a n s were c o n c e n t r a t e d not i n the urban areas but around the sugar e s t a t e s , and,  u n l i k e the  negroes,  66 never l o s t t h e i r c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y as a group but took positive  steps t o r e t a i n t h e i r customs, p a r t i c u l a r l y  religious practices  and b e l i e f s .  their  Small wonder t h e r e f o r e  t h a t they were a p a t h e t i c , and even opposed, towards a system o f e d u c a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d p r i m a r i l y of C h r i s t i a n i s i n g  f o r t h e purpose  t h e masses and sought i n s t e a d t o o r g a n i s e  t h e i r own schools, i l l - e q u i p p e d  though these were i n most  cases. However as i t became apparent t h a t c e r t a i n b e n e f i t s attended i n i t i a t i o n i n t o the C h r i s t i a n  social culture,  t h e y l e a r n e d t o e f f e c t the compromise o f a c c e p t i n g and  even much o f the r e l i g i o u s t r a p p i n g s w h i l e  s t i c k i n g t o t h e i r own r e l i g i o u s f a i t h .  schooling  essentially  (Even today i t i s  q u i t e common t o f i n d E a s t I n d i a n s o f f i c i a l l y  joining  Christian  churches while o b s e r v i n g t h e i r own r e l i g i o u s  customs.  I n many cases, too,  middle c l a s s I n d i a n s go through  two  forms o f marriage c e r e m o n y — i n Hindu o r Muslim r i t e s  and  the r i t e s o f the C h r i s t i a n  denomination t o which they  belong.) From time t o time v a r i o u s I n s p e c t o r s i n t h e i r r e p o r t s spoke o f t h e i n d i f f e r e n c e  o f t h e I n d i a n s t o e d u c a t i o n and  of t h e need t o b r i n g them w i t h i n t h e p u b l i c system.  And i n T r i n i d a d  education  Keenan urged "the p r o p r i e t y o f  67 extending t o the C o o l i e s " , as I n d i a n l a b o u r e r s were called,  "an o p p o r t u n i t y o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g  of the p u b l i c system of e d u c a t i o n . " f o r Keenan's concern  i n the advantages  The expressed  motive  f o r I n d i a n e d u c a t i o n was not a  p a s s i o n t o e q u a l i s e o p p o r t u n i t y , but a d e s i r e t o i n c u l c a t e "a r e s p e c t f o r t r u t h  and other v i r t u e s which are a t present  wanting i n the C o o l i e c h a r a c t e r . "  One wonders whether  such e t h n o c e n t r i c i t y as d i s p l a y e d by Keenan d i d not serve t o d e l a y r a t h e r than promote r e a l e d u c a t i o n a l advancement of a l l s e c t i o n s of the l a b o u r i n g v.  Curriculum unsuitable;  class. C r i t i c i s m of the content,  method, purpose and success o f i n s t r u c t i o n  i n formal  e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s has been a common phenomenon a t a l l times i n a l l the West I n d i a n t e r r i t o r i e s ,  particularly  with these i n s t i t u t i o n s becoming p u b l i c concerns.  What i s  even more s t r i k i n g i s the f a c t t h a t n e a r l y everywhere and through d i f f e r e n t  p e r i o d s the jargon employed has been funda-  m e n t a l l y the same;  c u r r i c u l u m u n s u i t e d t o l o c a l needs;  l e a r n i n g v e r b a l and bookish; not enough a t t e n t i o n p a i d t o practical  (or t e c h n i c a l ) and s c i e n c e s u b j e c t s ;  s u b j e c t s n e g l e c t e d i n a predominantly not enough d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and  capabilities.  agricultural  agricultural  to s a t i s f y different  community;  interests  68 There were o f course a few who defended  classical  l e a r n i n g , e s p e c i a l l y the study o f Greek and L a t i n , as the supreme and proper o b j e c t i v e o f the secondary school, but these were a small,  though v o c a l , m i n o r i t y .  And as i n d i c a t e d  e a r l i e r o t h e r s viewed with s u s p i c i o n attempts t o i n t r o d u c e a g r i c u l t u r a l subjects  i n t o the c u r r i c u l u m .  Basically, for  reasons t h a t w i l l be e x p l o r e d l a t e r i n t h i s study, the classical, and  l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n , s u r v i v i n g both v e r b a l  f i t s of innovative  attacks  endeavour, p e r s i s t e d i n t h e secondary  s c h o o l s w e l l i n t o the present c e n t u r y . We now comment b r i e f l y on how t h e spread o f secondary school  o p p o r t u n i t y was r e s t r i c t e d by a t t i t u d e s n o t i m p l i c i t -  l y suggested i n the p r e c e d i n g a n a l y s i s or c l e a r l y s t a t e d i n the e a r l y s e c t i o n d e a l i n g with the expansion o f the primary system.  Then t o complete t h i s p i c t u r e of the d i s t r i b u t i o n  o f educational  s e r v i c e s i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y we must  a l s o examine some s p e c i a l c o n d i t i o n s growth o f these  t h a t f a c i l i t a t e d the  services.  Among t h e a t t i t u d e s a f f e c t i n g the speed and d i r e c t i o n of educational  growth, o f p a r t i c u l a r importance were the  doubts e n t e r t a i n e d capacity,  by some about the negro's i n t e l l e c t u a l  and the c u r i o s i t y o f o t h e r s over h i s p o t e n t i a l f o r  academic l e a r n i n g of the t r a d i t i o n a l v a r i e t y .  On t h e one  69  hand those who were c u r i o u s or convinced about the negro's a b i l i t y sought t o demonstrate t h a t the b l a c k c h i l d  could  match white i n t e l l e c t u a l achievement, by p u t t i n g him through the same k i n d o f academic programmes as obtained in B r i t i s h schools.  On the other hand, the b e l i e f i n  b l a c k i n f e r i o r i t y l e d t o the p o s i t i o n t h a t secondary s c h o o l o p p o r t u n i t y should be r e s t r i c t e d t o the e x c e p t i o n a l minority.  I n both cases the r e s u l t was the f a i l u r e t o  formulate v a l i d purposes and c l e a r p o l i c i e s f o r secondary education, t o d e v i s e s u i t a b l e c u r r i c u l a t o meet the demands of c i t i z e n s h i p ,  and t o c a t e r f o r the i n d i v i d u a l needs o f  a l l but a s o c i a l and economic e l i t e . In Jamaica (1882) a s c h o o l board governor wrote of a b l a c k student,  "He  i s a b l a c k l a d but has an i n t e l l e c t  and  smartness which show t h a t the A f r i c a n w i t h advantages and a p p l i c a t i o n may  be q u i t e e q u a l t o h i s Caucasian B r o t h e r . . ."  In Barbados the Mitchenson Report, 1875, recommended the opening o f avenues t o p r o f e s s i o n a l p o s i t i o n s through h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n f o r b r i g h t primary s c h o o l p u p i l s ; but the r e p o r t also stated: There w i l l p r o b a b l y be but very few i n each g e n e r a t i o n who are worth t h i s e x c e p t i o n a l treatment, and even of those some w i l l t u r n out f a i l u r e s a f t e r promise. I t i s , however, an experiment worth t r y i n g , and the e x i s t ence of even one such e x h i b i t i o n per annum from primary  70 t o f i r s t grade schools, w i l l have a wholesomely s t i m u l a t i n g e f f e c t on primary e d u c a t i o n g e n e r a l l y . (Gordon, 1963:247) A c o n t r i b u t o r t o the Barbados A g r i c u l t u r a l September 1891, notes ".  Reporter,  v i g o r o u s l y a t t e s t i n g the value of Greek,  . . i t i s from the p o i n t of view of i t s p e c u l i a r  value t o the few out of every hundred boys a t s c h o o l  who  are capable o f r e c e i v i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l c u l t i v a t i o n , t h a t i t i s o f advantage t o the West I n d i a n communities." years l a t e r , though, we  Three  f i n d i n the Barbados Times a  comment about "the fond d e l u s i o n of i n e q u a l i t y of  intellect-  u a l c a p a c i t y of the masses w i t h the c l a s s e s having  been  blown to the winds." I t should be observed  a l s o t h a t many b l a c k s themselves  e n t e r t a i n e d doubt about t h e i r c a p a c i t y f o r the mental t a s k s which they p e r c e i v e d secondary involve.  Those who  and h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n t o  s u c c e s s f u l l y crashed through  the  c u l t u r a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l b a r r i e r were c o n s i d e r e d phenomenal and  i n many cases regarded  origin.  as heroes i n t h e i r v i l l a g e of  (Some s u c c e s s f u l b l a c k s c h o l a r s a l s o tended  nurture these a t t i t u d e s i n themselves and others.) present w r i t e r r e c a l l s h i s own  s c h o o l days when  to The  determined  hard-working s c h o o l boys were warned by t h e i r parents t o take care l e s t they  'go mad'  by  ' b u r s t i n g t h e i r b r a i n s ' with  71 'the white man's books'. n e g a t i v e and p o s i t i v e ,  C e r t a i n s u p e r s t i t i o u s remedies,  mostly i n t h e form of foods t o be  taken or avoided, were recommended as means o f sharpening the b r a i n and o f f - s e t t i n g  i t s inherent d i s a b i l i t i e s .  F a c t o r s f a c i l i t a t i n g growth Many powerful  f o r c e s served p a r t i a l l y t o c o u n t e r a c t  these r e s t r i c t i v e i n f l u e n c e s on the expansion education.  The w r i t e r does not f i n d t h a t a p a s s i o n f o r  p r o v i d i n g equal o p p o r t u n i t y was s i g n i f i c a n t o f the f i r s t education.  account  i n the context  few decades o f the establishment  o f secondary  E q u a l i t y , n a t i o n a l u n i t y and awareness, and  d e c o l o n i s a t i o n were p r e s s i n g concerns century.  o f secondary  o n l y i n the t w e n t i e t h  But f o r our e a r l i e r p e r i o d i t i s p l a u s i b l e t o f o r the e x t e n s i o n o f secondary  o p p o r t u n i t y i n the  f o l l o w i n g ways: 1.  The l o g i c o f development o f a primary  system o f  popular e d u c a t i o n r e q u i r e d e x t e n s i v e o p p o r t u n i t i e s a t a h i g h e r l e v e l f o r a l l s e c t i o n s o f the m a s s e s — E a s t Indians, girls,  poor b l a c k s , persons  The primary  of a l l r e l i g i o u s  persuasions.  system, t h a t i s , c o u l d not expand without  growth i n the secondary  s c h o o l s and teacher  c o l l e g e s through which primary  some  training  s c h o o l t e a c h e r s are produced.  V a r i o u s e d u c a t i o n commissions were keen t o d e t e c t t h i s  logic  72 though l e s s w i l l i n g or shrewd t o d e v i s e ways and means of working i t out i n p r a c t i c e . 2. diffusion. and  With i n c r e a s e d  freedom came more r a p i d  cultural  Values o f t h e dominant white c u l t u r e were l e a r n e d  adopted, and the b e n e f i t s o f t h i s i n i t i a t i o n became  noticeable.  The secondary s c h o o l was r i g h t l y seen as a  main avenue t o t h e rewards o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n . 3.  The need t o c r e a t e a l o c a l group o f middle  order  o f f i c i a l s i n the growing s t a t e and church c o u l d not be met by the very d e f i c i e n t o f f e r i n g o f the primary  school.  Higher q u a l i t y and more w i d e l y d i s t r i b u t e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s were i n e v i t a b l e . 4.  The i n c r e a s i n g number o f b l a c k secondary  school  g r a d u a t e s rescued many of the poor l a b o u r i n g c l a s s from t h e i r i n e r t i a and f e e l i n g s o f i n f e r i o r i t y by p r o v i d i n g models and demonstrating what was a t t a i n a b l e .  new  The import-  ance of t h i s f a c t o r seems t o have been under-estimated i n much o f the l i t e r a t u r e on s o c i a l development i n the Caribbean.  I n the w r i t e r ' s i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n s with many  s o c i a l l y s u c c e s s f u l persons from small v i l l a g e on p o s s i b l e f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e i r and  enthusiastic references a.  communities  success,  frequent  were made t o  the i n f l u e n c e and d e d i c a t e d  concern o f a p a r t i c u l a r  73 p e r s o n — u s u a l l y mother or teacher, b.  the value of e x i s t i n g e g o - i d e a l s i n the community, u s u a l l y o u t s t a n d i n g persons who  5.  and  had made good.  The C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o u s t e a c h i n g s t h a t men  equal i n the s i g h t of God may  are  have had r e p e r c u s s i o n s q u i t e  c o n t r a r y t o the e x p e c t a t i o n s of the e a r l y purveyors  of  religion. One s l a v e s was  purpose of e a r l y r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t y among the undoubtedly t o d i v e r t a t t e n t i o n from t h e i r  w o r l d l y woes and towards a heavenly hope. t e a c h i n g s about human e q u a l i t y may  Instead,  religious  have served to c r e a t e or  r e i n f o r c e i n the f r e e d masses the f e e l i n g t h a t they had r i g h t t o , and the c a p a c i t y f o r , a q u a l i t y of l i f e t o t h a t enjoyed  similar  by t h e i r former masters.  From the end of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y s o c i a l political  a  and  i n s t i t u t i o n s e v o l v e d r a p i d l y i n B r i t i s h Guiana  and Jamaica.  The  f r a n c h i s e was  extended, governmental and  b u r e a u c r a t i c s t r u c t u r e s became more democratised,  economies  expanded, and the masses grew more p o l i t i c a l l y  aware and  b e t t e r equipped  Highlights  of  to react to s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e .  these developments w i l l be presented i n the f o l l o w i n g  chapter. Formal e d u c a t i o n e v e n t u a l l y came t o be regarded  as an  74 i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t and development. educators  as a major requirement f o r economic  Responsible  surveys  and  assessments by  exposed shortcomings of the e d u c a t i o n a l  P o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s made e d u c a t i o n e l e c t i o n campaigns.  local  system.  a c r u c i a l issue i n  Government o r g a n i s a t i o n s ,  political  l e a d e r s and the masses grew i n c r e a s i n g l y s e n s i t i v e t o i n e q u a l i t i e s of e d u c a t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n .  One  of the  first  concerns of p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s i n both c o u n t r i e s a f t e r attainment was  the  of f u l l i n t e r n a l self-government i n the 1950's,  the i n s t i t u t i o n of measures intended  to redress  the  imbalance i n h i g h school r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of v a r i o u s s o c i o economic groups.  CHAPTER 5 SOME HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENTS  In the  f o l l o w i n g b r i e f review of h i s t o r i c a l develop-  ments i n Guyana and lar attention  Jamaica up  to the  l a t e 1950*s  i s p a i d t o s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and  particu-  economic  changes which h e l p e d to i n t e n s i f y d i s c o n t e n t over s o c i a l inequalities,  including  the  unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n  of  e d u c a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t y , and  t o c r e a t e an awareness of  general l i m i t a t i o n s  e d u c a t i o n a l systems f o r coping  with national  and  of the  individual  aspirations.  the  Guyana's  s i t u a t i o n r e c e i v e s more exhaustive treatment because of s p e c i a l demographic and r e f e r e n c e has  ethno-political  a l r e a d y been made, and  described i n further  detail.  Review o f h i s t o r i c a l  origins  a.  Cultural  traditions:  which w i l l  Both Buyana and  B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l r u l e very e a r l y  civil  B r i t i s h s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and  culture  either  traditions  b.  S o c i a l and  Jamaica came under The  servant t r a n s p l a n t e d i n t o the  of the A f r i c a n  suppressed or d e s t r o y e d through the  imposed on t h e i r s o c i a l  be  in their history.  B r i t i s h p l a n t e r , m i s s i o n a r y and  while most of the  f e a t u r e s t o which  colonies,  s l a v e s were restrictions  interaction.  economic s t r u c t u r e :  The  c o l o n i e s were  76 e s s e n t i a l l y p l a n t a t i o n s o c i e t i e s w i t h the f o l l o w i n g main characteristics: i.  The economy r e s t e d on one main a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o -  duce, sugar.  For some time the sugar i n d u s t r y  depended f o r s u r v i v a l on p r e f e r e n t i a l treatment the B r i t i s h market and operated with very efficiency.  A f t e r t h i s c o n c e s s i o n was  in  limited  withdrawn the  f o r t u n e s of sugar f l u c t u a t e d r e s u l t i n g i n a r e d u c t i o n i n educational expenditure. ii.  S o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s were pervaded  with the  i n i q u i t i e s of the i n s t i t u t i o n s of s l a v e r y i n which some men was  were the c h a t t e l s of o t h e r s .  After slavery  a b o l i s h e d , the manual worker, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n  a g r i c u l t u r e , remained lowest i n the s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y i n terms of s t a t u s , r e s p e c t , and remuneration work done.  True, t h i s phenomen was  Guyana and Jamaica,  for  not p e c u l i a r t o  but i t assumed s p e c i a l  signifi-  cance i n these and other West I n d i a n c o l o n i e s s i n c e the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s was  v i r t u a l l y c o - e x t e n s i v e with  the c l a s s o f b l a c k - s k i n n e d p e o p l e . iii. was  The day t o day a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the c o l o n i e s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a few B r i t i s h land owners  concentrated mainly i n the c a p i t a l c i t y , with major  p o l i c y d i r e c t e d by the I m p e r i a l Government a c t i n g through the c o l o n i a l governor, "very much the monarch o f h i s l i t t l e kingdom".  There was  little  d e c e n t r a l i s a t i o n of governmental o r g a n i s a t i o n s and no p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the masses i n the p u b l i c d e c i s i o n making processes or i n the e l e c t i o n of p u b l i c officials.  In such a s i t u a t i o n s o c i a l l i f e  was  c h a r a c t e r i s e d by an "absence of an i d e o l o g y of n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y t h a t c o u l d serve as a g o a l f o r mass acculturation"  (Mintz, 1966), or t h a t c o u l d i n s p i r e  c o - o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t towards community improvement. c.  Population;  exterminated;  I n Jamaica the n a t i v e I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n  i n Guyana a few  s u r v i v e d conquest, but o n l y by  seeking r e f u g e i n t o the remote i n t e r i o r of the c o u n t r y . both c o u n t r i e s Chinese,  Portuguese and E a s t I n d i a n  l a b o u r e r s were imported  t o augment the predominantly  labour f o r c e . was  was  I n Jamaica the increment from these  In  indentured black  groups  modest, but i n Guyana the i m p o r t a t i o n of E a s t I n d i a n  l a b o u r remained a major p o l i c y f o r decades and a l t e r e d the e t h n i c composition  drastically  of the p o p u l a t i o n .  The  East  Indians i n Guyana l i v e d c h i e f l y on the sugar e s t a t e s while the main urban c e n t r e s were populated mostly by Blacks, Chinese,  Portuguese and other Europeans.  78 d.  E d u c a t i o n a l o r g a n i s a t i o n , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and f i n a n c e :  E d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s were i n i t i a l l y c o n t r o l l e d and f i n a n c e d by C a t h o l i c and P r o t e s t a n t m i s s i o n a r y support  bodies  from c h a r i t a b l e endowments and e d u c a t i o n a l  from the B r i t i s h Government.  Later,  with  grants  socio-political  changes brought about a gradual e r o s i o n o f h o s t i l i t y and the end o f i n d i f f e r e n c e of the r u l i n g c l a s s towards the education  o f the masses.  Consequent developments were the  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f f i n a n c i a l support a c t i v i t i e s by t h e l o c a l  f o r missionary  educational  l e g i s l a t u r e , and t h e development o f  a separate but by no means e x t e n s i v e  system o f primary and  secondary s c h o o l s f i n a n c e d and c o n t r o l l e d e n t i r e l y by the c e n t r a l government i n Guyana.  The c o s t s o f p u b l i c l y  f i n a n c e d e d u c a t i o n were met out o f the c u r r e n t n a t i o n a l budget, with no s p e c i f i c source  of e d u c a t i o n a l funding  such  as an education t a x . G e n e r a l l y , t u i t i o n f e e s were charged f o r secondary and h i g h e r , but not primary, e d u c a t i o n . s c h o l a r s h i p system enabled  limited  a n e g l i g i b l e number o f poor  g i f t e d primary school students a r y schools.  A very  t o win f r e e p l a c e s a t second-  Secondary e d u c a t i o n  facilities  p r o v i d e d by  Church and Government c o u l d not meet the r a p i d l y growing demand even o f those middle c l a s s parents who were w i l l i n g  79 and a b l e t o pay t u i t i o n f e e s .  The r e s u l t was a burgeoning  o f wholly p r i v a t e secondary s c h o o l s o f v a r y i n g q u a l i t y and life  span,  most o f them r u n by e n t e r p r i s i n g i n d i v i d u a l s .  As Guyana and Jamaica grew p o l i t i c a l l y ,  local  communities were v e s t e d with some degree of m u n i c i p a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , but even i n the c a p i t a l c i t i e s where the m u n i c i p a l o r g a n i s a t i o n was s t r o n g e s t v i r t u a l l y no a t t e n t i o n was p a i d t o e d u c a t i o n a l m a t t e r s .  Public participation i n  the e d u c a t i o n a l process was t h e r e f o r e r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e u t i l i s a t i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s p r o v i d e d o r , n e g a t i v e l y , t o the r e j e c t i o n o f these The  facilities.  e a r l y purposes o f e d u c a t i o n were narrowly  c e i v e d by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , parents and p u p i l s a l i k e ,  conThis  matter has a l r e a d y been d e a l t w i t h i n the preceding chapter.  I n b r i e f , the r e s u l t of decades of e d u c a t i o n a l  e f f o r t was t o p r o v i d e a means of s o c i a l m o b i l i t y f o r a few people  ( B r a i t h w a i t e , 1968) by a f f o r d i n g them access t o the  c l e r i c a l occupations, elitist  but without  structure of society.  s e r i o u s l y d i s t u r b i n g the  Educational strategies f o r  f a c i l i t a t i n g economic growth, promoting n a t i o n a l s o l i d a r i t y and c o - o p e r a t i o n , and f o r p r e p a r i n g the young f o r c i t i z e n s h i p r o l e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n a democratic were never s e r i o u s l y a r t i c u l a t e d , practice.  community  adopted, or put i n t o  Major emphasis was p l a c e d on the l e a r n i n g o f an  80 a r r a y o f f a c t s and t o a l e s s extent on the a c q u i s i t i o n o f a s e t of moral p r e c e p t s and d i s p o s i t i o n s . i n g s seemed t o s k i r t v i t a l p o l i t i c a l ,  Classroom  offer-  s o c i a l and economic  issues. e.  Teachers;  The  t e a c h e r s i n the post emancipation  were i n the main m i s s i o n a r i e s and  period  l a y e x p a t r i a t e s , most of  whom had no s p e c i a l t e a c h i n g q u a l i f i c a t i o n s or  experience.  These were a s s i s t e d l a r g e l y by l o c a l p u p i l teachers p o o r l y p a i d and i n most cases p o o r l y educated. extended very r a p i d l y without  The  any determined  s c h o o l system wide s c a l e  e f f o r t t o ensure even a b a r e l y adequate supply of t e a c h e r s . Such e f f o r t s as were made towards educating t e a c h e r s embodied a l l the d e f e c t s of the r e s t of the e d u c a t i o n of broad  and r e l e v a n t g o a l s , inadequate  system—lack  physical provision,  a l i m i t e d c l a s s i c a l c u r r i c u l u m , and unimaginative of instruction.  One  n o t a b l e f e a t u r e , however, was  methods t h a t the  s e l e c t i o n of t r a i n i n g c o l l e g e students seemed t o be l e s s i n f l u e n c e d by socio-economic  circumstances  f o r e n t r y t o the r e p u t a b l e secondary s c h o o l was  an important,  a l o p p o r t u n i t y and  than was  schools.  The  selection normal  a l b e i t narrow, avenue of e d u c a t i o n -  s o c i a l m o b i l i t y f o r working c l a s s  I t prepared t e a c h e r s f o r the primary  children.  schools, s e l e c t i n g i t s  e n t r a n t s from the ranks o f a p p r e n t i c e t e a c h e r s p a s s i n g  81 through the primary school system. In Guyana the E a s t Indian p o p u l a t i o n was represented  i n the t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n .  i n the r u r a l areas,  Their  very  poorly  concentration  t h e i r e a r l y i n d i f f e r e n c e to  formal  e d u c a t i o n p r o v i d e d by the C h r i s t i a n m i s s i o n a r i e s , and dominance of the s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e system by  the  non-  I n d i a n groups, mainly the B l a c k s , were f a c t o r s t h a t contributed to t h e i r under-representation.  The  Chinese  and  Portuguese i n h a b i t a n t s l a r g e l y c o n f i n e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o t r a d i n g i n the urban areas and  showed l i t t l e  interest i n  the t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n p a r t i c u l a r l y at the primary s c h o o l level. f.  E v a l u a t i o n procedures;  E d u c a t i o n a l systems have, u n t i l  r e c e n t l y , been n o t o r i o u s f o r t h e i r evaluative devices. no e x c e p t i o n . was  The  lack of objective  systems i n Guyana and Jamaica were  On a microcosmic l e v e l the e f f e c t o f  education  measured i n terms of i n d i v i d u a l student performance at  t e r m i n a l w r i t t e n examinations administered s c h o o l or, more c r u c i a l l y ,  i n t e r n a l l y by  the  e x t e r n a l l y by an overseas  u n i v e r s i t y or a c e n t r a l governmental a u t h o r i t y .  There  was  an almost t o t a l absence of a macrocosmic study of what the e d u c a t i o n a l system as a whole was economic terms.  a c h i e v i n g i n s o c i a l or i n  E v a l u a t i o n o f t e n c o n s i s t e d almost e n t i r e l y  82 of i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c o b s e r v a t i o n s about poor t e a c h i n g o f t r a d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t s or the i n e f f i c a c y o f the moral i n s t r u c t i o n provided, and u s u a l l y was c a r r i e d out i n times of economic  s t r e s s or s o c i a l u p h e a v a l .  There seems t o have  been no attempt t o encourage the people t o whom t h e educ a t i o n a l e f f o r t was d i r e c t e d even t o express t h e i r  views  on the adequacy of the system t o which t h e y were exposed. F u r t h e r , q u a n t i t a t i v e methods of p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y and e v a l u a t i n g the r e t u r n s from the output on e d u c a t i o n ,  in  t h e i r i n f a n c y i n more developed areas, were long absent i n our two t e r r i t o r i e s . Some Developments  i n Guyana from 1840 t o 1957  During Guyana's emergence from c o l o n i a l i s m t o p o l i t i c a l independence the composition o f opposing f o r c e s i n the s t r u g g l e f o r s o c i a l e q u a l i t y became i n c r e a s i n g l y  complex.  A f t e r emancipation t h e predominantly B l a c k working c l a s s p o p u l a t i o n a g i t a t e d a g a i n s t o p p r e s s i o n by the White class.  Changes i n t h e demographic,  ruling  s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l  s t r u c t u r e of t h e s o c i e t y widened the dimension o f the s t r u g g l e — t h e r a p i d l y growing s e c t i o n o f E a s t I n d i a n workers found a common cause w i t h the B l a c k s , but these two groups were e v e n t u a l l y engaged  i n a bitter r i v a l r y for  p o l i t i c a l power and s o c i a l rewards.  Some o f the main f e a t u r e s  83 of  these demographic, s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l  w i l l now  developments  be d i s c u s s e d .  Demographic changes: change was  The  f i r s t b a s i c demographic  the r a p i d growth of the p o p u l a t i o n ,  through immigration,  mainly  u n t i l the end of the f i r s t  two  decades of the t w e n t i e t h century and t h e r e a f t e r through natural increase. to  approximately  The  p o p u l a t i o n r o s e from 90,000 i n  127,700 i n 1851  and  1941  402,600 i n 1948—more  than a f o u r f o l d i n c r e a s e i n j u s t under a hundred y e a r s . * Other important geographic who  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the p o p u l a t i o n .  comprised o n l y about 0.32%  1841, 1948. of  changes o c c u r r e d i n the e t h n i c  r o s e t o 6% i n 1851, The  over  East  Indians,  of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n 25% i n 1883,  and 44.7%  B l a c k s on the other hand c o n s t i t u t e d over  the p o p u l a t i o n j u s t a f t e r emancipation,  f e l l t o 36% i n 1948.  Between 1838  immigrants t o t a l l e d 283,960.  and  and  1917  in 90%  but e v e n t u a l l y East Indian  (See page 27 f o r immigrants'  c o u n t r y of o r i g i n . ) Besides t h e i r g r e a t e r i n c r e a s e through  immigration,  the E a s t Indians achieved the h i g h e s t b i r t h r a t e by 1940's, and by 1960  t h e i r crude b i r t h r a t e reached  per 1,000, compared with the g e n e r a l r a t e o f 43.5 thousand. •From Census data, v a r i o u s y e a r s .  the 48.5  per  84 Of g r e a t importance was  the change i n the age d i s t r i b u t i o n  population.  In 1921  below 15; i n 1946 4:3  f o r the development of e d u c a t i o n of the g e n e r a l  the p o p u l a t i o n over 15 was  and 1960  and 1:1 r e s p e c t i v e l y .  twice t h a t  the r e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n s were (Between 1946  and 1960  the  t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n under 14 i n c r e a s e d by 86 percent.) There was  a l s o a steady s h i f t of the I n d i a n popu-  l a t i o n from the sugar e s t a t e s t o surrounding r u r a l  areas  as w e l l as i n c r e a s i n g m o b i l i t y of the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n from the r u r a l areas t o the two main urban c e n t r e s , Georgetown and New  Amsterdam.  In 1891  t h e r e were 71, 813  Indians  l i v i n g on the sugar e s t a t e s w h i l e 33,650 l i v e d i n the c i t i e s and v i l l a g e s .  By 1911  65,810 r e s p e c t i v e l y .  I n 1921,  t i o n was  urban,  but by 1960  the f i g u r e s were 60,707 and 21.9%  o f the t o t a l p o p u l a -  t h i s f i g u r e reached 29%.  Indians c o n s t i t u t e d 8% of the urban p o p u l a t i o n i n 16% i n 1964  and 22% i n 1960.  rose from 47% i n 1891 e t h n i c groups,  1891,  The B l a c k urban p o p u l a t i o n  t o 54% i n 1960.  the Amerindians  East  Of the remaining  stayed mainly i n the h i n t e r -  l a n d areas, w h i l e the Europeans and Chinese dwelt  chiefly  i n the towns, without any dramatic i n c r e a s e i n t h e i r  numbers.  The t o t a l p i c t u r e one gets from a l l t h i s , then, i s a r a p i d r i s e i n the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n c h i e f l y through  immi-  g r a t i o n i n the 19th c e n t u r y and through a sharp i n c r e a s e i n  85 the b i r t h r a t e a f t e r the 1940's, g r e a t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n urban l i f e by B l a c k s than by Indians but i n c r e a s i n g c i p a t i o n by both, and a phenomenal r i s e i n the  parti-  school-age  population. Changes i n s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ;  Both i n the urban  areas and more p a r t i c u l a r l y i n those r u r a l v i l l a g e s where s u b s t a n t i a l numbers of B l a c k s and E a s t Indians l i v e d t o gether, i n t e r m a r r i a g e and other forms of s o c i a l took p l a c e between the two main e t h n i c groups, E a s t I n d i a n s by and  In the urban r e g i o n , however,  economic and s o c i a l e l i t e was  emerging; and i t was  one t h a t cut a c r o s s e t h n i c b o u n d a r i e s . was  but the  l a r g e r e t a i n e d t h e i r i d e n t i t y as a group  and much of t h e i r t r a d i t i o n . a new  integration  Nevertheless there  evidence of some r e l u c t a n c e by the middle c l a s s Coloured  p o p u l a t i o n and the Europeans t o admit East Indians their 326)  s o c i a l ranks.  into  R. T. Smith and C. Jayawardena (1959:  observed: When Indians found themselves unable t o secure e n t r y t o e s t a b l i s h e d c l u b s they formed t h e i r own p a r a l l e l o r g a n i s a t i o n and began t o emphasise the value of the c u l t u r e of Mother I n d i a . I t does not seem reasonable t o h o l d without  qualifi-  c a t i o n , as do Smith and Jayawardena, t h a t separate E a s t Indian o r g a n i s a t i o n s were formed as a defence acceptance  on the p a r t of other Guyanese.  The  against  non-  f a c t i s , as  86 was  noted  i n the p r e v i o u s chapter,  t h a t the E a s t  Indians  made conscious e f f o r t s from the very beginning o f t h e i r life  i n Guyana t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r own  culture.  But  social  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n probably d i d h e l p t o d e l a y c u l t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n and t o promote the k i n d of e t h n i c i n s u l a r i t y which encouraged the establishment  of such e x c l u s i v e groups as  the E a s t I n d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n , Portuguese C l u b , Chinese A s s o c i a t i o n , and the League o f Coloured The  Peoples.  p a t t e r n s of economic s p e c i a l i s a t i o n and  i c residence also m i l i t a t e d against greater s o c i a l g r a t i o n among the v a r i o u s e t h n i c groups. E a s t I n d i a n s remained mainly  C o n s t i t u t i n g about 42% of the p o p u l a t i o n i n 1931 of the country's  public servants.  But  1397  inte-  U n t i l the 1940's  a rural agricultural  s u p p l i e d o n l y 100  geograph-  people. they  t e a c h e r s and  8% o f  some were s t e a d i l y g a i n i n g economic  power by a c q u i r i n g land and c u l t i v a t i n g r i c e .  The  clerical  s e r v i c e s and the t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n were c h i e f l y manned by the Blacks and Coloured  p o p u l a t i o n but r e a l e x e c u t i v e power  remained i n the hands of Europeans. I t was  e v i d e n t t h a t the v a r i o u s e t h n i c groups were  conscious o f and occupied  s e n s i t i v e t o the r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s they  i n the mixed community.  l a t e r i n 1889,  As f a r back as 1856,  t h e r e were anti-Portuguese  r i o t s by the  and Blacks  87 who  p r o t e s t e d what they b e l i e v e d t o be e x p l o i t a t i o n by t h e  Portuguese immigrants who (Burns, 1954). led  c o n t r o l l e d the r e t a i l  trade  The f i r s t of these r i o t s seems t o have  by a c o l o u r e d man,  John Orr, who had i n s p i r e d  C a t h o l i c r i o t s i n Boston, New  York.  anti-  1  On the whole, c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n s t e a d i l y through the y e a r s , but s e r i o u s problems o f s o c i a l persisted.  been  increased  integration  L e v e l s of socio-economic s t a t u s remained  r o u g h l y c o r r e l a t i v e with shades o f s k i n c o l o u r and e t h n i c origin.  The dominant w h i t e - o r i e n t e d c u l t u r a l group maintained  t h e i r s o c i a l d i s t a n c e from the o t h e r groups.  In  times o f peace the Guyanese s o c i e t y assumed an appearance of  solidarity.  T h i s s o l i d a r i t y proved tenuous and super-  f i c i a l d u r i n g moments of s t r e s s induced by r i s i n g of  the disadvantaged groups and t h e i r r e a l i s a t i o n t h a t they  had the power t o do something about t h e i r Political the  aspirations  and governmental changes;  f r a n c h i s e depended  situation. U n t i l the 1850's  on ownership o f p r o p e r t y o n l y .  A d d i t i o n a l income q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i n t r o d u c e d l a t e r were h i g h  I n l a t e r p o l i t i c a l developments i n the 20th c e n t u r y too, some important l e a d e r s of mass p o l i t i c a l movements i n Guyana were, as Dr. Jagan (19 54) noted, Guyanese who had r e t u r n e d from the U n i t e d S t a t e s where they came i n c o n t a c t with American democratic i d e a s . x  88 enough t o deny the r i g h t t o vote t o non-white c i t i z e n s even i n middle first  and h i g h l e v e l p r o f e s s i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s .  s i g n i f i c a n t change o c c u r r e d i n 1891  q u a l i f i c a t i o n s were lowered,  when the income  r e s u l t i n g i n the development  o f a p o l i t i c a l e l i t e o f Portuguese and middle (R. T. Smith, i b i d ) .  The  class Blacks  During t h i s p e r i o d E a s t I n d i a n s  formed  about 37% of the p o p u l a t i o n but they were p o l i t i c a l l y apathetic.  By 1909,  however, the B r i t i s h Guiana  Immigration  Agent General n o t i n g t h a t E a s t I n d i a n s were becoming uneasy at the way  i n which power was  p a s s i n g i n t o the hands of the  B l a c k s , urged c e r t a i n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l changes t o a l l o w an o f f i c i a l m a j o r i t y on a l l p u b l i c p o l i t i c a l  decision-making  bodies. I t was  labour unrest, the r i s i n g c o s t of  living  compared with s t a t i c low wages, and the r i s e of t r a d e  union  a c t i v i t y more than anything e l s e t h a t p r o v i d e d the major f i l l i p t o the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the Black and I n d i a n masses in political affairs.  As B e l l  (1967:18) s t a t e s :  The modern p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y of the B r i t i s h West I n d i e s began i n the l a t e 1930*s when outbreaks of p o v e r t y induced s t r i k e s and r i o t s spread throughout most of the (Caribbean) a r e a . The economic d i s c o n t e n t of the West I n d i a n people was g i v e n v o i c e by new labour l e a d e r s and n a t i o n a l i s t p o l i t i c i a n s , and l e d t o a s e r i e s of cons t i t u t i o n a l advances which got underway i n the mid 40's. A y e a r s t a l s o wrote (1960:39):  89 P r e v i o u s l y (to the 1930*s) the p o l i t i c a l l y conscious and a c t i v e group i n any of the c o l o n i e s was very s m a l l , and c o n s i s t e d of a few members o f the c o l o u r e d middle c l a s s wanting a r e a l share i n government f o r themselves, but d i f f e r i n g l i t t l e from the white o f f i c i a l s i n t h e i r view of the Negro working c l a s s as s t i l l unready f o r self-government. The labour d i s t u r b a n c e s were t o usher i n a new e r a . Some of the r e t u r n e d l a b o u r e r s had become f a m i l i a r with t r a d e unions i n other p l a c e s as w e l l as i d e a s , p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l , i n sharp c o n t r a s t with those c u r r e n t i n the i s l a n d s . The Negro working c l a s s had been compelled by economic d i s t r e s s t o look f o r l e a d e r s h i p t o g i v e d i r e c t i o n t o t h e i r e f f o r t s and t o s p e l l out t h e i r needs and o b j e c t i v e s . The  e t h n i c and g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of B r i t i s h  Guiana's work f o r c e at f i r s t  l e d t o the development of  separate trade unions r e p r e s e n t i n g E a s t I n d i a n sugar workers' i n t e r e s t s and the i n t e r e s t s of B l a c k urban labourers.  The  first  s e r i o u s labour u n r e s t among E a s t  Indian sugar workers o c c u r r e d i n 1896 wages on a sugar e s t a t e l e d t o a r i o t . workers' union was  industrial  when the r e d u c t i o n of In 1937  f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d , and  a sugar  i n 1947  Dr. J . P.  Lachmansingh, an a c t i v e E a s t I n d i a n t r a d e u n i o n i s t , formed a predominantly  I n d i a n working c l a s s p o l i t i c a l p a r t y .  f a t h e r of t r a d e unionism  i n Guyana was  c l a s s l e a d e r , Hubert C r i t c h l o w , who dock workers i n 1906 Union i n 1919.  and  The  the Black working  led a s t r i k e of Black  formed the B r i t i s h Guiana Labour  B l a c k workers seemed g e n e r a l l y t o  the e x i s t i n g middle c l a s s p o l i t i c a l  parties.  support  Despite  efforts  90 at  u n i t i n g the working c l a s s by the formation of the B.  Trades Union C o u n c i l i n 1941,  i t was  o n l y i n the 1950's t h a t  the d u a l development of trade unionism and along r a c i a l l i n e s was The  G.  p o l i t i c a l parties  temporarily arrested.  1940"s were years of i n t e n s e and  vigorous  labour  a g i t a t i o n i n which dominant f i g u r e s were Cheddi Jagan ( I n d i a n ) , by now  a c t i v e i n a sugar workers union,  and Forbes Burnham  (Black) a lawyer i n the B r i t i s h Guiana Labour Union. In 1950  the Peoples'  P r o g r e s s i v e P a r t y was  formed by  Cheddi Jagan, by t h i s time a s e l f - s t y l e d M a r x i s t . grew up on a sugar e s t a t e and r e c e i v e d h i s h i g h e r s i o n a l education  and  profes-  i n D e n t i s t r y i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , where,  a c c o r d i n g t o h i s own ing" .  Jagan  account, he got h i s " p o l i t i c a l awaken-  Burnham j o i n e d f o r c e s with him,  and the B l a c k  and  I n d i a n masses, u n i t e d f o r the f i r s t time for the purpose o f f i g h t i n g imperialism,  swept the p o l l s i n the f i r s t  under a d u l t s u f f r a g e i n  1953.  Guyana's f i r s t p o p u l a r l y e l e c t e d government shortlived,  election  was  f o r l e s s than s i x months a f t e r i t assumed o f f i c e  the B r i t i s h Government suspended the country's c o n s t i t u t i o n because of the r a d i c a l p o l i c i e s o f the r u l i n g p a r t y which i t accused o f t r y i n g t o s e t up a communist government. I m p e r i a l Government d i s s o l v e d the country's  The  legislature  and  91 nominated an I n t e r i m Government mainly from  conservative  l e a d e r s of the middle and upper c l a s s e s , some o f whom had u n s u c c e s s f u l l y contested  the 1953 e l e c t i o n s .  This  new  Government l a s t e d f o r four y e a r s u n t i l 1957 when a new c o n s t i t u t i o n was g r a n t e d .  During i t s regime  vigorous  attempts were made t o woo the e l e c t o r a t e by developing  the  s o c i a l s e r v i c e s such as h e a l t h , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and housing, by embarking upon an e x t e n s i v e  primary school b u i l d i n g p r o -  gramme and approving f i n a n c i a l a i d t o p r i v a t e secondary schools  fulfilling  s p e c i f i e d requirements.  By 1957 Burnham had e s t a b l i s h e d h i s own  political  p a r t y a f t e r he and Jagan had f a i l e d t o r e c o n c i l e d i f f e r e n c e s between them.  The ad hoc u n i t y o f the I n d i a n  and B l a c k  working c l a s s e s thus proved t r a n s i t o r y , and with t h e i r p o l i t i c a l consciousness awakened the stage was s e t f o r a s t r u g g l e f o r power.  In t h i s climate  a new s e n s i t i v i t y t o  i n e q u a l i t i e s i n the s o c i e t y was aroused and found  expression  i n the p o l i c i e s of the r u l i n g working c l a s s p a r t y as w e l l as i n the p r o t e s t o f the other mass p a r t y out o f o f f i c e . L e t us t u r n t o the s i t u a t i o n a f t e r 1957 and expand our d i s c u s s i o n t o i n c l u d e s e l e c t e d aspects of t h e country's economic s t r u c t u r e and employment  opportunities.  92 Guyana A f t e r  1957  Government:  New  e l e c t i o n s were h e l d i n August  1957  under a r e v i s e d c o n s t i t u t i o n which o f f e r e d l i t t l e more than a m o d i f i e d form o f Crown Colony Government.  Real executive  power r e s t e d f i r m l y w i t h the Governor and h i s S e c r e t a r i a t . The L e g i s l a t u r e was  composed o f a Lower and an Upper House  each w i t h a mixture o f Governor's nominees, members, and e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . to  ex-officio  The Governor  nominated  the Lower House enough members c o n s i d e r e d t o be l o y a l t o  the  r u l i n g p a r t y i n order t o g i v e i t a working m a j o r i t y .  Yet  a l l l e g i s l a t i v e d e c i s i o n s had t o be approved by the  Governor-in-council. The r u l i n g p a r t y was  soon t o complain and t o adopt  t a c t i c s t o demonstrate t h a t i t c o u l d not govern e f f e c t i v e l y under these c o n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements. p a r t i e s , l e d by Jagan and Burnham, now independence.  The two major  agitated for f u l l  In 1961 the c o l o n y gained f u l l  internal  self-  government, the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e r e t a i n i n g c o n t r o l over f o r e i g n p o l i c y and defence m a t t e r s .  Three y e a r s l a t e r  complete p o l i t i c a l independence was g r a n t e d . The M i n i s t e r i a l  form of government i n t r o d u c e d i n 1953  was r e t a i n e d i n the 1957 c o n s t i t u t i o n , one o f the M i n i s t e r s being r e s p o n s i b l e f o r Community Development  and E d u c a t i o n .  93 The  Indian-backed Peoples'  P r o g r e s s i v e P a r t y l e d by D r .  Cheddi Jagan formed the Government, having won 9 o f 13 seats, while the predominantly B l a c k p a r t y l e d by Mr. Burnham, winning 3 seats, c o n s t i t u t e d the o f f i c i a l The  Opposition.  r i g h t - w i n g p a r t y r e p r e s e n t i n g c o n s e r v a t i v e and business  i n t e r e s t s won one s e a t .  The e l e c t e d L e g i s l a t i v e members  were t h e r e f o r e mainly r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the B l a c k and Indian masses, while at l e a s t some o f the members nominated by the Governor c o u l d c l a i m t o speak f o r the European and other upper c l a s s segments o f the s o c i e t y . The  e x i s t i n g l o c a l government system c o n s i s t e d o f  about 94 separate  l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s under the s u p e r v i s i o n  of a s t a t u t o r y board working through a c e n t r a l government department.  Smith (1962) wrote about the l o c a l government  organisation: T h i s system o f l o c a l government i s i n e f f i c i e n t , and although i t g i v e s some appearance o f a democratic p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l o c a l a f f a i r s , the v i l l a g e c o u n c i l s are too s m a l l and impoverished t o be e f f e c t i v e , (p.186-187) The  f u n c t i o n s o f these  l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s had not gone much  beyond the 19th century r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f c o l l e c t i n g r a t e s , mending roads and b r i d g e s , and e x e c u t i n g modest i r r i g a t i o n schemes. The  Guyanese economy:  For most o f the 19th century  sugar p r o d u c t i o n formed the o n l y important  i n d u s t r y i n the  94 country.  S p o r a d i c and a b o r t i v e attempts  at r i c e  farming  had been made by Black freedmen as e a r l y as i n the c e n t u r y , but i t was after  17th  not u n t i l l a t e i n the 19th c e n t u r y  the g r e a t i n f l u x o f E a s t I n d i a n immigrants and  the  r i s e o f a s i z e a b l e peasantry t h a t the r i c e i n d u s t r y was s o l i d l y e s t a b l i s h e d . Other founded  or developed  i n d u s t r i e s t h a t were e i t h e r  i n the 20th c e n t u r y were  b a u x i t e , g o l d and diamond mining,  and timber  chiefly production.  W i t h i n the past few decades sugar, b a u x i t e , r i c e  and  timber have formed the major export products of the country.  Between 1957  and  1960  these items  constituted  more than f o u r - f i f t h s of the t o t a l value of domestic The  individual Table  percentages were as f o l l o w s :  (3)  Percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n of s e l e c t e d domestic e x p o r t s , 1957-1960  Export Commodity Sugar, molasses and  Average %, 1957  rum  9.7  M e t a l l i f e r o u s ores and metal  Other  -  1960  54.8  Rice  Timber  exports.  scraps  2  24.9 3.2  exports  7.3  T h i s f i g u r e does not t r u l y r e p r e s e n t the r e l a t i v e importance of r i c e because of a d i s a s t r o u s crop f a i l u r e i n 1957.  95 Following  i s a l i s t of s e l e c t e d a c t i v i t i e s i n the  economy and t h e i r average percentage c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the G.D.P. over the same p e r i o d .  (The percentages f o r the  f o u r major export i n d u s t r i e s a r e much smaller here because the G.D P. i n c o r p o r a t e s  such background s e r v i c e s as  distribution.) T a b l e (4)  Percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s e l e c t e d f a c t o r s i n Gross Domestic Product, 1957-1960  Activity  Average %, 1957-1960  Sugar growing and m i l l i n g  18.0  Mining  7.7  R i c e growing and m i l l i n g  4.3  Forestry  5.2  Other A g r i c u l t u r e ,  including  processing Professions  5.8 and p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e  Distribution Manufacturing, e n g i n e e r i n g , chemicals  5.9 13.9 3.2  B u i l d i n g and c o n s t r u c t i o n  10.2  Government  10.0  Other 16.3 Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i s the f a c t t h a t the manufacturing i n d u s t r y not r e l a t e d t o the p r o c e s s i n g  o f t h e main export  96 crops accounted  f o r o n l y 3.2% o f the G.D.P.  The importance  of the four main export i n d u s t r i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y sugar, i s again e v i d e n t .  Other  s i z e a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s come from t h e  d i s t r i b u t i o n and government s e r v i c e s — t h i s f a c t ,  together  w i t h other evidence on employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s which w i l l 3  l a t e r be presented,  makes understandable  t h e b i a s towards  white c o l l a r jobs and the p r e f e r e n c e f o r secondary  education  of an academic n a t u r e . Trade:  The B r i t i s h Guiana economy depended h e a v i l y  on f o r e i g n t r a d e .  I n 1957 exports accounted  the n a t i o n a l income (Newman, 1964:55).  f o r 56.9% o f  O'Loughlin  (1959:7)  estimated t h a t imports i n 1955 were 42% o f t h e G.D.P. a t market p r i c e compared with 35% f o r Jamaica.  Governments  tended t o c o n c e n t r a t e development e f f o r t s on t h e four major export i n d u s t r i e s , n e g l e c t i n g t o formulate c l e a r  policies  f o r encouraging  The r e s u l t  t h e growth o f s m a l l i n d u s t r i e s .  was l a r g e s c a l e i m p o r t a t i o n o f f o o d - s t u f f and manufactured a r t i c l e s t h a t c o u l d be l o c a l l y produced, as the Jamaican experience has demonstrated.  Other  f a c t o r s such as l i m i t e d  e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p a b i l i t y and a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n i c a l  skills  may have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the slow development and d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n o f s m a l l i n d u s t r i e s i n Guyana. 3  S e e page 98 below.  97 The most important  s i n g l e import  areas were the  U n i t e d Kingdom, the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada.  Towards the  end of the 1960*s the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada played i n c r e a s i n g l y s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e s not o n l y i n Guyana's f o r e i g n t r a d e but, along with i n t e r n a t i o n a l agencies,  i n the  f i n a n c i n g of development p r o j e c t s ( i n c l u d i n g e d u c a t i o n a l expansion) through  loans and g r a n t s .  I n the years  l y f o l l o w i n g h i s r e - e l e c t i o n t o o f f i c e i n 1957,  immediate-  the  left-  wing l e a d e r Dr. Cheddi Jagan t r i e d i n v a i n t o o b t a i n economic a s s i s t a n c e from these Western sources, while  the  B r i t i s h Government, e x e r c i s i n g the c o n t r o l i t r e t a i n e d under Guyana's new  c o n s t i t u t i o n , b l o c k e d attempts t o seek c a p i t a l  l o a n s from E a s t e r n c o u n t r i e s . A t y p i c a l c o l o n i a l and undeveloped economy, B r i t i s h Guiana g e n e r a l l y exported  i t s raw m a t e r i a l cheaply and p a i d  c o m p a r a t i v e l y h i g h p r i c e s f o r import products were manufactured from i t s crude e x p o r t s .  some of which  Benefits derived  from the b a u x i t e t r a d e w i t h Canada were minimal i n terms of r o y a l t i e s and duty c o l l e c t e d from the ore exported t o the parent company (Smith, 1962:69); c o r p o r a t e income taxes were a f u n c t i o n o f the a r b i t r a r y  ' p r i c e ' of the ore, f i x e d by the  parent company (Reno, 1964:100).  Besides, the i n d u s t r y being  h e a v i l y mechanised, and what with the then  prevailing  98 a t t i t u d e of r e s e r v i n g e x e c u t i v e posts f o r Canadian personnel, employment b e n e f i t s were not as g r e a t as a s u p e r f i c i a l look at the volume of the bauxite t r a d e would suggest.  The Bauxite Companies showed no i n t e r e s t f o r a  l o n g time i n developing  s u b s i d i a r y i n d u s t r i e s or e s t a b l i s h -  i n g l o c a l r e f i n e r i e s , measures which would have b e n e f i t t e d 4  the Guyana economy.  However i n 1957  p l a n s were w e l l on  the way  f o r s u b s t a n t i a l c a p i t a l investment  plant.  With t h i s expansion  of o p e r a t i o n s , the  Company extended i t s t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g Employment;  i n an alumina Bauxite  programme.  Many f a c t o r s i n the employment  situation  of a country have a d i r e c t b e a r i n g on the p r o v i s i o n and u t i l i s a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y .  Not  l e a s t among  these are the extent t o which work o p p o r t u n i t i e s are open t o a v a r i e t y o f t a l e n t s and  are o b t a i n a b l e on a b a s i s of  achievement r a t h e r than a s c r i p t i o n , the t a n g i b l e rewards o f f e r e d f o r s e r v i c e i n v a r i o u s f i e l d s , knowledge of o p p o r t u n i t i e s and rewards, and a t t i t u d e s t o the  these  various  occupations. S i m i l a r p r o j e c t s were i n i t i a t e d i n Jamaica much e a r l i e r than i n Guyana, although mining o p e r a t i o n s commenced much l a t e r i n the former c o u n t r y . The l a c k of adequate power i n Guyana may have been one of the reasons f o r d e l a y i n g the expansion of Bauxite o p e r a t i o n s .  99 In 1956 18 percent  unemployment was  estimated between 16.4  and  i n an I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour O f f i c e survey (1957) .  Some other noteworthy f i n d i n g s i n t h i s survey were: a.  g r e a t e r urban than r u r a l unemployment;  b.  greater  c.  43% of t o t a l unemployed under  21;  d.  an unemployment r a t e of 17.2%  for s k i l l e d  unemployment r a t e f o r men  workers and  23.2%  than f o r women;  factory  f o r s k i l l e d workers i n the  b u i l d i n g and  c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r i e s compared  with 8.1  12.1%  and  i n the c l e r i c a l and  sales  services respectively; e.  22.6%  of the t o t a l labour  workers, 8.9% workers, and  f o r c e were a g r i c u l t u r a l  s k i l l e d b u i l d i n g and 10.6%  c l e r i c a l and  s a l e s workers.  A Manpower Survey by O. C. F r a n c i s mated t h a t craftsmen and f o r 21% of the e r s 38%, 34%.  and  labour  factory  (1965) e s t i -  technicians  f o r c e i n 1965,  c l e r i c a l s a l e s and  These f i g u r e s , together  accounted manual work-  s e r v i c e workers  with the  unemploy-  ment r a t e s mentioned above, i n d i c a t e t h a t white c o l l a r occupations o f f e r e d the work o p p o r t u n i t i e s With c l e r i c a l and  for high  school  the  greatest  graduates.  s e r v i c e workers accounting  for  100 such r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e percentages f o r c e i n comparison,  of the labour  say, with craftsmen  and  t e c h n i c i a n s , and with t h e i r r a t e of unemployment lower, the common c r i t i c i s m of Guyanese h i g h s c h o o l students f o r shunning and  technical subjects  seeking white c o l l a r jobs i s not w h o l l y  justified.  The Ghana experience has shown, as  P h i l i p F o s t e r (1965) p o i n t e d out, t h a t with l i m i t e d expansion  of the economy the mere p r o v i -  s i o n of t e c h n i c a l programmes i n h i g h s c h o o l does not s o l v e the problem of i n c r e a s i n g educat i o n a l opportunity. P r i o r t o the movement towards democratic  government  i n the 1950's c e r t a i n appointments t o both p u b l i c and o f f i c e at a l l l e v e l s were made l a r g e l y on and a s c r i p t i v e c r i t e r i a .  Despress  private  particularistic  w r i t i n g i n 1967  on  " C u l t u r a l P l u r a l i s m and N a t i o n a l i s t P o l i t i c s i n B r i t i s h Guiana"  stated:  U n t i l very r e c e n t l y , as a matter of p o l i c y , p r a c t i c a l l y a l l o f the s e n i o r s t a f f personnel on the sugar e s t a t e s had been r e c r u i t e d i n Europe or from among the Portuguese or l i g h t - c o l o u r e d group i n Guyana. As a r e s u l t o f p r e s s u r e s generated by n a t i o n a l i s t p o l i t i c i a n s ( p a r t i c u l a r l y Jagan and Burnham) t h i s p o l i c y has been undergoing change. (1967:142) B l a c k workers were denied c e r t a i n j u n i o r e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n s  101 on the sugar e s t a t e s with a predominant I n d i a n labour f o r c e , while t h e very small percentage o f I n d i a n workers i n the bauxite i n d u s t r y ( w e l l under 5%) occupied menial Women were denied  posts.  some e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n s a l t o g e t h e r or  were p a i d lower s a l a r i e s than men f o r s i m i l a r d u t i e s . I n the d i v i l  s e r v i c e women had t o r e s i g n from t h e i r  soon as they got m a r r i e d .  jobs as  Census f i g u r e s f o r 1946 show  t h a t the P u b l i c S e r v i c e e x e c u t i v e was dominated by Europeans and the lower l e v e l s by B l a c k s . observe,  As Despress was c a r e f u l t o  however, i n some cases a s c r i p t i v e c r i t e r i a were  not t h e s o l e determinants various occupations.  i n the s e l e c t i o n of employees f o r  Other f a c t o r s such as e t h n i c a t t i t u d e s  to s p e c i f i c jobs and l a c k o f a p p r o p r i a t e f o r example, played t h e i r  qualifications,  part.  While a s c r i p t i v e p a t t e r n s o f employment had not d i s appeared by 1957, t h e r e was a growing confidence t h a t one c o u l d a t t a i n f o r m e r l y e x c l u s i v e p o s i t i o n s on the b a s i s o f educational merit.  Moreover, d u r i n g the 1960's i n p a r t i c u l a r  not o n l y was there a d e f i n i t e d r i v e towards G u y a n i s a t i o n o f the p u b l i c s e r v i c e s , but some o f the major companies—Booker Brothers  (sugar), A l c a n  ( b a u x i t e ) , and t o a l e s s extent the  commercial banks—embarked upon a d e l i b e r a t e p o l i c y o f t r a i n i n g , p r o v i d i n g with s c h o l a r s h i p s , and employing a t  102 d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s groups t h a t were p r e v i o u s l y d i s c r i m i n a t e d against.  Improvements i n employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s and  p r a c t i c e s i n the Government S e r v i c e s between 1940 and 1960 are r e f l e c t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e , adopted from Despress ( i b i d : 1 6 3 ) ; the t a b l e shows the r e l a t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the v a r i o u s e t h n i c groups i n two d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s of o f f i c e i n the C i v i l Table  (5)  Service.  E t h n i c composition of pensionable Servants i n 1940 and 1960  E t h n i c Group  Departmental Heads (percent)  Civil  Pensionable S t a f f (percent)  1940  1960  1940  1960  79.4  38.6  14.1  12 .0  14.7  45.6  66.6  58.0  0.0  10.5  10 .0  16.1  Portuguese  5.9  1.8  6.4  3 .6  Chinese and o t h e r s  0.0  3.5  2 .9  10.3  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0  Europeans Afro-Guianese East  (Blacks)  Indians  Total  A survey c a r r i e d out by the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Commission of J u r i s t s  (1965:33) i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n 1965 E a s t  Indians  comprised 33.16% of C i v i l S e r v i c e employees, and the Blacks 53.05%.  (East Indians made up about 48% o f the t o t a l popu-  l a t i o n and the Blacks  33%).  I n the t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n t o o  103 E a s t Indians were making s i g n i f i c a n t gains, r i s i n g 21% o f primary  s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n 1956  t o 41% i n  from 1965.  I t i s c l e a r t h a t employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n the government s e r v i c e s r e q u i r i n g e d u c a t i o n a l beyond the primary  qualifications  s c h o o l l e v e l were becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y  opened t o v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s of the community. t h a t the h i g h e s t posts were open t o those who  The  awareness  possessed  a p p r o p r i a t e e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s must have h e l p e d i n no s m a l l way  t o s t i m u l a t e the demand f o r equal e d u c a t i o n a l  opportunity. Society;  T h i s a n a l y s i s o f p o l i t i c a l t r e n d s and s o c i o -  economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n Guyana has  so f a r been dominated  by c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of the p o s i t i o n of the E a s t I n d i a n Black population. suggest  T h i s pre-occupation  was  not intended  to  t h a t members of other e t h n i c groups were not  v i c t i m s o f s o c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n at one We  and  time or  another.  j u s t i f y t h i s focus of a t t e n t i o n on the p o s i t i o n of the  B l a c k s and E a s t Indians on two main grounds: i.  p o l i t i c a l events d u r i n g the p e r i o d under (1957-1967) p i t t e d the two other,  ii.  study  groups a g a i n s t each  and  historically,  the s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s of these  groups and the Amerindians have been the most  two  104 severe.  Any account o f the development o f  e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y must t r a c e the events t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d t o the a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f these groups i n the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l of In  affairs  the c o u n t r y .  the 1950's and 60*s the main p o p u l a t i o n and  c u l t u r a l t r e n d s t h a t were d e s c r i b e d f o r the p e r i o d 18501950 c o n t i n u e d .  However, some s p e c i f i c data f o r the p e r i o d  w i l l be b r i e f l y presented and two unique  developments  discussed. Between 1957 and 1967 the I n d i a n b i r t h - r a t e  continued  t o be the h i g h e s t and by 1957 E a s t I n d i a n s were about 50% of for  the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n estimated at 522,670.  Census data  1960 showed the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the v a r i o u s e t h n i c  groups as f o l l o w s : Table  (6)  R a c i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of population i n 1960 (from 1960 Census data)  Group  Number  Percent  E a s t Indians  267,840  47.8  Blacks  183,980  32.8  Mixed  67,189  12.0  Amerindians  25,450  4.5  15,947  2.9  560,406  100.0  Others ( i n c l u d i n g Chinese, guese and other Europeans Total  Portu-  105 The  t r e n d towards i n c r e a s i n g u r b a n i s a t i o n e i t h e r ceased or  slowed down i n t h e 1960's when r i o t s and t h e t h r e a t t o l i f e and p r o p e r t y caused  some E a s t Indians t o move t o  s a f e r r u r a l areas where t h e i r numbers predominated. Aspects of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p ;  While  some s e t s o f  circumstances tended t o b r i n g about g r e a t e r s o c i a l  cohesion  i n Guyana i n the 1950's and 1960's, o t h e r s operated t o produce i s o l a t i o n and the hardening o f d i f f e r e n c e s among v a r i o u s groups.  On t h e one hand the geographic  mobility  of the p o p u l a t i o n , the i n c r e a s i n g access by d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c groups t o f o r m e r l y e x c l u s i v e occupations and p o s i t i o n s , and t h e common e d u c a t i o n a l experience o f wider  s e c t i o n s o f the  community were f a c t o r s t h a t served t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e p r o cess of s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n and c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n .  On  the other hand the s t r u g g l e f o r p o l i t i c a l power by the two major e t h n i c groups and a t h i r d group g e n e r a l l y comprising Portuguese,  Chinese, Europeans, and upper c l a s s B l a c k s and  I n d i a n s , tended t o foment s o c i a l d i s r u p t i o n and perpetuate a pluralistic  society.  Renewed i n t e r e s t i n t h e r e i n f o r c e m e n t o f e t h n i c i d e n t i t y and c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s was p a r t l y a r e s u l t o f e f f o r t s by t h e East Indians and the B l a c k s t o m a i n t a i n group solidarity.  T h i s r i v a l r y between t h e two major groups was  106 not without chapter,  i t s benefits.  As w i l l be argued i n a l a t e r  a new f e r v o u r was d i s p l a y e d f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n  of educational q u a l i f i c a t i o n s requiref f o r entry t o several occupational p o s i t i o n s . Two other developments took p l a c e from 1957 onwards t h a t had an impact on e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y and debate.  The  Roman C a t h o l i c and Protestant- as w e l l as Hindu and Muslim r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i s a t i o n s had f o r a long time p r e v i o u s l y worked i n c l a n d e s t i n e f a s h i o n t o support  s p e c i a l groups  e i t h e r a c t u a l l y h o l d i n g p o l i t i c a l power or seeking political  c o n f l i c t now open and severe  c l e a r l y drawn, the support for  favoured  it.  With  and p o l a r i s a t i o n s  o f r e l i g i o u s groups and l e a d e r s  p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s became l e s s v e i l e d .  By and  l a r g e t h e Roman C a t h o l i c and some o f the P r o t e s t a n t churches supported  conservative p o l i t i c a l  Hindu and Muslim o r g a n i s a t i o n s supported Progressive Party. political  p a r t i e s while the Jagan*s People's  The B l a c k masses g e n e r a l l y r e j e c t e d the  l e a d e r s h i p of t h e C h r i s t i a n o r g a n i s a t i o n s and  backed Burnham's p a r t y .  ( T h e i r consciousness  o f t h e absence  of a c u l t u r a l r a l l y i n g p o i n t other than a p o l i t i c a l such as E a s t Indians  party,  found i n t h e i r Hindu or Muslim r e l i g i o u s  o r g a n i s a t i o n s , has probably  c o n t r i b u t e d t o the adoption  with-  i n r e c e n t times of symbols and concepts of the B l a c k Power  107 movement which o r i g i n a t e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s of America.) The  country's primary  schools had been p e a c e f u l l y a d m i n i s t -  ered under a system o f d u a l c o n t r o l by Government and the C h r i s t i a n Churches, but a f t e r 1957 the e d u c a t i o n a l scene was a very stormy one with the Jagan government committed t o a p o l i c y o f s e c u l a r i s a t i o n o f the e n t i r e s c h o o l system. The  other new development was e q u a l l y important.  The  Amerindians were always on the f r i n g e s o f Guyanese s o c i e t y , so much so t h a t they were o f t e n excluded  from n a t i o n a l  r e c o r d s (demographic s t a t i s t i c s f o r example). on the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a d u l t s u f f r a g e p o l i t i c a l t r i e d t o win t h e i r v o t e s .  Consequent parties  The Roman C a t h o l i c and A n g l i c a n  Bodies, however, had been f o r a long time engaged i n e d u c a t i o n a l and other s o c i a l s e r v i c e s i n t h e i r midst and no doubt e x e r c i s e d great i n f l u e n c e among them.  This fact,  t o g e t h e r with Venezuela's meddling on Guyana's f r o n t i e r s where t h e Amerindians l i v e d ,  f o r c e d t h e Guyana governments  a f t e r 1957 t o pay a t t e n t i o n t o Amerindian e d u c a t i o n and other s o c i a l welfare s e r v i c e s .  W e l l - a d v i s e d or not, a  department o f Amerindian a f f a i r s was s e t up and educators turned t h e i r  a t t e n t i o n f o r a moment t o d e v i s i n g a s u i t a b l e  e d u c a t i o n system f o r Amerindian  children.  From t h i s b r i e f h i s t o r i c a l background i t i s now  108 p o s s i b l e t o summarise the main f e a t u r e s of the s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic s i t u a t i o n i n Guyana as i t was around 1957: a.  A new c o n s t i t u t i o n allowed  the Guyanese  people  some measure o f c o n t r o l over t h e i r a f f a i r s , but f i n a l e x e c u t i v e a u t h o r i t y r e s t e d with the C o l o n i a l Governor.  The p o l i t i c a l p a r t y t h a t came t o power  was predominantly  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the E a s t  Indian  masses, and the leader o f the p a r t y was of r a d i c a l orientation. b.  Some important  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the economy  were: a h i g h degree o f unemployment both among uns k i l l e d workers and v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s of s k i l l e d workers; the heavy r e l i a n c e on the export o f a few primary products;  a low l e v e l o f i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n ;  a h i g h volume of r e t a i l t r a d e i n manufactured import  a r t i c l e s and f o o d s t u f f ; and f o r e i g n ownership  and c o n t r o l of major i n d u s t r i e s from which the b e n e f i t s t o Guyanese were minimal i n comparison with total profits yielded. c.  The growth r a t e of the p o p u l a t i o n f o l l o w e d the  h i g h p a t t e r n of other poor c o u n t r i e s . d.  E a s t Indians,  a m i n o r i t y group i n the mid-  109 n i n e t e e n t h century almost outnumbered the r e s t of the p o p u l a t i o n by 1957, i n the e a r l y years and  p a r t l y through  immigration  l a t e r through t h e i r  higher  birth-rate. e.  The  i n t r o d u c t i o n of a d u l t s u f f r a g e and  government i n 1953  democratic  h e l p e d to u n i t e the Black  I n d i a n masses a g a i n s t the country's e l i t e composed of European elements.  By 1957,  and  mainly through a  v a r i e t y o f circumstances,  the B l a c k and I n d i a n masses  were d i v i d e d and a b i t t e r  s t r u g g l e f o r power between  the two  groups ensued.  I n t h i s context the Amerin-  d i a n s , g e n e r a l l y n e g l e c t e d by past governments, began t o r e c e i v e more a t t e n t i o n as v a r i o u s  political  groups courted t h e i r  support.  The  s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s on edu-  e f f e c t s o f these  c a t i o n a l p o l i c y and debate w i l l become e v i d e n t l a t e r . we  What  contend at t h i s p o i n t i s t h a t economic c o n d i t i o n s played  a major p a r t i n s t i m u l a t i n g p o l i t i c a l  awareness and  which i n t u r n l e d t o an i n c r e a s e d popular c a t i o n a l expansion.  concern  I t w i l l be seen l a t e r how  activity,  f o r edu-  the economic,  demographic and c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e s d e s c r i b e d above  operated  as i n p u t s i n t o the e d u c a t i o n a l system i n f l u e n c i n g the t r i b u t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y .  dis-  110 Jamaica - Government, P o l i t i c s , Economy and Government: occupation  Society  From the beginning of the  i n the 17th  century  u n t i l 1866  British  Jamaica had  i s commonly r e f e r r e d t o as the Old R e p r e s e n t a t i v e government. system was  The  what  System o f  b a s i c p a t t e r n of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n under t h i s  that executive  a u t h o r i t y r e s i d e d with  Governor a s s i s t e d by an E x e c u t i v e  Council  the  (both nominated  by the Crown), while some degree of l e g i s l a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y r e s t e d with a L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly e l e c t e d by a r e s t r i c t e d group of land-owners.  very  Major landmarks i n the  i s l a n d ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l development were: a.  the i n t r o d u c t i o n of Crown Colony government i n  1866,  marked by the t o t a l absence o f e l e c t e d members;  i n 1884 and  e l e c t e d members were added but t h e i r number  the v o t i n g procedures kept the power of  nominated o f f i c i a l s b. 1944  an e l a b o r a t e t o allow  intact;  m o d i f i c a t i o n o f the c o n s t i t u t i o n i n  f o r a form o f m i n i s t e r i a l government  i n v o l v i n g a m i n o r i t y of e l e c t e d members; and s t i t u t i o n of a bicameral  s e n t a t i v e s e l e c t e d under a d u l t reforms i n 1953  the i n -  l e g i s l a t u r e c o n s i s t e d of a  nominated L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l and  c.  the  a House of Repre-  suffrage;  e s t a b l i s h i n g the m i n i s t e r i a l  Ill system f i r m l y , v e s t i n g m i n i s t e r s w i t h g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r v a r i o u s departments but r e t a i n i n g the Governor's r e s e r v e powers; d.  f u l l i n t e r n a l self-government i n 1957; under  the system o f self-government the Governor  became a  ceremonial e x e c u t i v e a l b e i t w i t h c e r t a i n emergency powers; the B r i t i s h Government r e t a i n e d c o n t r o l o f defence and f o r e i g n p o l i c y ,  and the former E x e c u t i v e  C o u n c i l over which the Governor  p r e s i d e d was r e -  p l a c e d by a C o u n c i l of M i n i s t e r s ; t h i s C o u n c i l cont a i n i n g no e x - o f f i c i o members was appointed on the advice o f t h e C h i e f M i n i s t e r and was p r e s i d e d over by him. Jamaica was e v e n t u a l l y granted independence  i n 1962  with the l a s t v e s t i g e o f I m p e r i a l p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l removed. The c o u n t r y ' s 20th century c o n s t i t u t i o n a l h i s t o r y , then, was c h a r a c t e r i s e d by a steady movement towards  complete  local  c o n t r o l o f the governmental machinery without any abrupt r e l a p s e such as t h a t which o c c u r r e d i n Guyana. The  l i m i t e d f u n c t i o n o f the l o c a l government u n i t s  i n both Guyana and Jamaica, p a r t i c u l a r l y with r e g a r d t o e d u c a t i o n , has a l r e a d y been r e f e r r e d t o (see p.93).  One  important d i f f e r e n c e between the two c o u n t r i e s was t h a t by  112 1957 e l e c t i o n t o the 14  'Parish C o u n c i l s ' i n Jamaica  was  on the b a s i s o f a d u l t s u f f r a g e , and l o c a l government e l e c t i o n s were c l o s e l y t i e d up with n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s .  In  Guyana the v o t e r s i n l o c a l government e l e c t i o n s were r a t e payers.  P r o p o s a l s f o r e x t e n s i v e reform o f the Guyanese  system have not so f a r been  implemented.  An attempt a t a West I n d i a n F e d e r a t i o n , i n 1958,  proved a b o r t i v e when Jamaica withdrew her member-  s h i p i n 1961. lived  instituted  Guyana had never been a member o f the s h o r t -  Federation. P o l i t i c a l parties:  The r i s e of mass p o l i t i c a l  p a r t i e s i n Jamaica dates from the f o r m a t i o n of the People's N a t i o n a l P a r t y i n 1938 by Norman Manley, Jamaican Queen's C o u n s e l .  T h i s p a r t y was  a British-educated founded i n the  aftermath of s e r i o u s p o v e r t y - i n d u c e d labour d i s t u r b a n c e s i n which a prominent f i g u r e was the dynamic Jamaican labour l e a d e r Alexander Bustamante, Bustamante  head o f the then newly  I n d u s t r i a l Trade Union.  Bustamante  formed  had a wide  background o f work and t r a v e l e x p e r i e n c e i n Spain, Cuba, South and C e n t r a l America and the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  He  and  Manley l e d a j o i n t working c l a s s movement f o r some time, but an e v e n t u a l s p l i t r e s u l t e d i n Bustamante's  formation of  the Jamaica Labour P a r t y and Manley's o r g a n i s a t i o n o f the  113 N a t i o n a l Workers' Union.  These two  p o l i t i c a l parties  and  t h e i r a s s o c i a t e t r a d e unions have almost completely dominated the Jamaica  labour and p o l i t i c a l scene ever  Bustamante's Jamaica Labour P a r t y won e l e c t i o n s under a d u l t s u f f r a g e i n 1944  since.  the  first  and has been i n  power s i n c e , except f o r the 1955-1961 regime o f the P .N .P. Both p a r t i e s r e p r e s e n t e d , g e n e r a l l y , a c r o s s s e c t i o n of s o c i a l and economic c l a s s e s and were not, as i n Guyana, p o l a r i s e d around e t h n i c groups. l a t i o n was  predominantly  At any r a t e the popu-  Black (see p.30) .  From the 1950's  onwards the J.L.P. claimed a s l i g h t l y more w i d e l y  distri-  buted support i n the r u r a l areas w h i l e the P.N .P. was l a r i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n c o r p o r a t e a r e a (O. W.  popu-  Phelps, 1960) .  In i t s formative years the People's N a t i o n a l P a r t y tended t o appeal t o middle  class intellectuals, particularly  be-  cause of Manley's r a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n and h i s concern f o r Jamaica's p o l i t i c a l independence (C. P a u l Bradley, 1960). Bustamante on the other hand e x e r c i s e d a powerful i n f l u e n c e on the l a b o u r i n g masses, and with no s p e c i f i c s t a n c e adopted  a pragmatic  economic problems.  The  ideological  ad hoc approach t o p o l i t i c a l  and  i d e o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r of both p a r t -  i e s changed somewhat over the years and by 1957 of popular support and appeal was  t h e r i base  c o n s i d e r a b l y broadened,  114 although there  s t i l l p r e v a i l e d among some o f the J.L.P.  l e a d e r s a s u s p i c i o n o f antagonism by a s e c t i o n of middle class i n t e l l e c t u a l s , p r i m a r i l y teachers. l a t e r t h a t both p a r t i e s d u r i n g  I t w i l l be seen  t h e i r terms o f o f f i c e  duced, without s u b s t a n t i a l o p p o s i t i o n ,  l e g i s l a t i o n for  s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o d i f y i n g the process o f secondary s e l e c t i o n t o allow greater  intro-  school  o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o the poorer  classes. A f e a t u r e of the o r g a n i s a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of both p a r t i e s was t h e i r heavy c e n t r a l i s a t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y , with the J.L.P. l e a d e r s h i p considered  t o be somewhat more  authoritarian  Incidentally, authoritarian-  (Bradley,  ibid.).  ism was a p r e v a i l i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f many s o c i a l  institu-  t i o n s i n Guyana and Jamaica i n c l u d i n g the f a m i l y and the school. Economy;  Despite  many c l o s e resemblances between the  Guyanese and Jamaican economies, some developments p e c u l i a r t o or more pronounced i n Jamaica are o f importance.  Huggins  and Cumper (1958:57) wrote of the Guyana and Jamaican economies: . . . the whole shape of the economies o f the two t e r r i t o r i e s i s s i m i l a r . In occupational d i s t r i b u t i o n , i n t h e importance of underemployed occupations such as domestic s e r v i c e s and small trade, i n the general cond i t i o n s o f labour and o r g a n i s a t i o n o f p r o d u c t i o n the two economies c l e a r l y belong t o the same c l a s s .  115 Yet i n the 1950's important economic  f o r c e s at work i n  Jamaica brought about a much more r a p i d expansion and e x t e n s i v e d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of t h a t c o u n t r y ' s economy. tween 1953 economic  and 1959 Jamaica had one of the h i g h e s t r a t e s o f  growth  i n the world, w i t h an average per c a p i t a  annual r a t e of i n c r e a s e o f 9.8%  i n the Gross Domestic  Product compared with Germany's 8.3% 1962).  T h i s r a p i d i n c r e a s e was  f o r example (U.N.,  l a r g e l y due, no doubt, t o  t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f b a u x i t e mining and p r o c e s s i n g 1952.  Be-  after  The mining s e c t o r grew from n i l i n 1950 t o a d i r e c t  c o n t r i b u t i o n o f 9% of the G.D.P. i n 1960,  by which time  Jamaica had become the world's l e a d i n g producer of b a u x i t e . The t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y too made remarkable p r o g r e s s .  The  number o f t o u r i s t s i n c r e a s e d from 75,000 i n 1950 t o over 200,000 i n 1960  (Jamaica Government, 1961)  while t o u r i s t  spending i n c r e a s e d c o n s i d e r a b l y as the l e n g t h of s t a y i n creased  (see Palmer,  1968:30).  In the 19th and e a r l y 20th c e n t u r i e s c o f f e e ,  5  sugar,  and bananas formed the major export product i n a predomina n t l y a g r i c u l t u r a l economy, but the i n t r o d u c t i o n of b a u x i t e mining i n 1952,  the remarkable growth of t o u r i s m i n the  C o f f e e p r o d u c t i o n d e c l i n e d i n importance emancipation.  after  116 1950's and 60's together with frequent r e v e r s e s i n the sugar and banana i n d u s t r i e s , s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r e d the s t r u c t u r e o f the economy and employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s .  The  c o n t r i b u t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r e t o t h e G.D.P. stood a t 36% i n 1938,  31% i n 1950,  19% i n 1955,  and 16% i n 1956,  mining, manufacturing and c o n s t r u c t i o n  while the  industries  increased  t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n from 19% i n 1950 t o 28% i n 1955. Agriculture,  Forestry  and F i s h i n g c o n t r i b u t e d  12.4% t o the  G.D.P. and Mining, Manufacturing and C o n s t r u c t i o n Throughout the 1969's t h i s t r e n d  I n 1962  32.9%.  continued o f i n c r e a s e d  a c t i v i t y i n the mining and manufacturing i n d u s t r i e s , as w e l l as i n t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  and d i s t r i b u t i o n s e r v i c e s  which were no doubt responding t o the r a p i d l y r i s i n g demands of  tourism. The  following  of s e l e c t e d  t a b l e s show the r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n  a c t i v i t i e s t o the t o t a l value o f exports and  the G.D.P. r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r s p e c i f i e d y e a r s . Table  (7) Percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p r i n c i p a l s e c t o r s o f domestic e x p o r t s i n 1950, 1956 and I 9 6 0 6  Percentage o f Domestic E x p o r t s Sector B a u x i t e and alumina  1950 n i l  1956  1960  27.3  49.3  Sources: Government o f Jamaica, N a t i o n a l Accounts, Income and Expenditure, v a r i o u s y e a r s ; Economic Survey o f Jamaica ( C e n t r a l P l a n n i n g U n i t ) .  117 Table  (7)  Continued Percentage  o f Domestic E x p o r t s  1950  1956  1960  Sugar, rum and molasses  51.3  37 .4  26.6  Bananas  14.4  16.0  8.6  Others ( i n c l u d i n g manufactured goods and m i s c e l l a n e o u s a g r i c u l t u r a l products)  34.3  19.3  15.5  100.0  100.0  Sector  Total Table  100.0  (8) Percentage c o n t r i b u t i o n o f v a r i o u s i n d u s t r i a l groups t o t h e G.D.P., 1950, 1957 and:I960 7  Group  Percentage C o n t r i b u t i o n t o . G.D.P. 1950  1957  1960  30.8  13 .8  12.4  nil  8 .8  11.3  12 .7  13.3  C o n s t r u c t i o n and I n s t a l l a t i o n  7.6  13 .6  10.8  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , U t i l i t i e s and Communications  8.7  7 .3  8.0  15.2  16 .6  15.4  5.9  3 .3  A g r i c u l t u r e , F o r e s t r y and Fishing Mining Manufacturing  Distribution Ownership o f d w e l l i n g s  8.7  3 .4  'Sources: Government o f Jamaica, N a t i o n a l Accounts, Income and Expenditure, v a r i o u s y e a r s ; Economic Survey o f Jamaica ( C e n t r a l P l a n n i n g Unit)  118 Table  (8)  Continued Percentage C o n t r i b u t i o n  Group  1950  1957  1960  6.1  6.5  8.4  15.0  17 .3  19.4  100.0  100.0  100.0  Government Miscellaneous  services  Total  t o G.D.P.  As i n Guyana, a g r i c u l t u r e , mining, and d i s t r i b u t i o n are dominant a c t i v i t i e s i n the i s l a n d ' s economy, but i n t h e 1950's and 60's i n Jamaica the percentage c o n t r i b u t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r e t o Domestic E x p o r t s and t h e G.D.P. d e c l i n e d steadily.  Adams (1968) noted t h a t between 1950-1961 the  r a t e of growth o f t h e G.D.P. was an average 8.3% per annum compared with 3.1% f o r a g r i c u l t u r e .  The d e c l i n e i n a g r i -  c u l t u r a l percentage c o n t r i b u t i o n i n Guyana was much l e s s dramatic. Not  o n l y the s t r u c t u r e but the d i r e c t i o n o f f o r e i g n  t r a d e was a f f e c t e d d u r i n g development i n Jamaica.  t h e p e r i o d o f r a p i d economic U n t i l the e a r l y 1950's the U n i t e d  Kingdom was by f a r Jamaica's most important t r a d i n g but  was subsequently superseded by the U n i t e d  partner  States.  Canada's p o s i t i o n remained f a i r l y s t a b l e over the y e a r s . These three and  countries,  the United  States,  United  Kingdom  Canada continued t o p r o v i d e the bulk o f Jamaica's  119 imports  and  absorbed most o f her exports throughout the  l a s t few decades, but the formation r e c e n t l y of the Caribbean  Common Market and growing l i n k s with  Organisation  of American S t a t e s member c o u n t r i e s should i n time a f f e c t t h i s p o s i t i o n moderately. The  f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s show the r e l a t i v e percentage  of Jamaica's exports t o , and  imports  from, her three main  trading partners: Table  (9)  D i r e c t i o n o f f o r e i g n trade, 1950, 1960 and 1965 (Percentages)  1957,  8  Percentage of T o t a l Trade Countries 1950  1957  56.7  37.1  31.4  27.3  5.2  22 .4  26.3  38.2  Canada  26.1  29 .6  24.7  15.7  Other  12 .0  10.9  17.6  18.8  Exports  1965  to  United Kingdom United  1960  States  Total  100.0  100.0  100 .0  100.0  U n i t e d Kingdom  43.0  38.0  34.3  24.0  United  14.3  22 .6  24.4  31.6  Imports from  States  ^Source: Computed from Jamaica Government, C e n t r a l Planning U n i t , Economic Survey, v a r i o u s y e a r s .  120 Table  (9) Continued Percentage of T o t a l Trade Countries  1950  1957  1960  1965  Canada  10.0  10.2  10.1  11.0  Other  32 .7  29.2  31.2  33.4  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0  Total T o t a l Trade U n i t e d Kingdom  37.55  32 .85  25.65  9.75  22 .5  25.35  34.9  Canada  18.05  19.9  17.4  13 .35  Other  22 .35  20 .05  24.4  26.1  100.0  100.0  United  49.85  States  100.0  Total  100.0  C l e a r l y apparent i s the r i s i n g importance of the United S t a t e s as a t r a d i n g p a r t n e r , with a t r a d e volume o f approximately  10% of the t o t a l i n 1950 and 34.9% i n 1965.  When one takes i n t o account,  too, other f a c t o r s such as the  preponderance o f United S t a t e s c i t i z e n s among t h e t o u r i s t s t o Jamaica one gets a p i c t u r e o f growing i n t e r a c t i o n between the two s o c i e t i e s . Employment;  Although  the p r o p o r t i o n o f workers i n  the a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r i e s d e c l i n e d s h a r p l y as other i n d u s t r i e s grew i n the t w e n t i e t h century, by 1960 t h i s s e c t o r s t i l l provided one of the main avenues of employment,  121 accounting f o r 39%  of the  labour f o r c e .  workers were i n a g r i c u l t u r e , i n 1891 The  proportion  more s h a r p l y  (In 1844  73%,  and  was  17%,  w h i l e the r e s p e c t i v e  male workers were 57% D e s p i t e the  and  great  50%  the  figures for  the  respectively.)  c o n t r i b u t i o n of the mining  labour f o r c e .  of a l l  i n 1960  t o the G.D.P. t h i s s e c t o r d i r e c t l y absorbed a very p o r t i o n of the  47%.  declined  Whereas 28%  female workers were i n a g r i c u l t u r e i n 1943, proportion  i n 1943  o f female workers i n a g r i c u l t u r e  than t h a t o f male workers.  80% of a l l  industry small  More important sources of  d i r e c t employment of labour were, as i n the case of Guyana, the d i s t r i b u t i o n , government, and f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows the by  composition of the  i n d u s t r i a l group i n 1960 T a b l e (10)  labour  %  of Labour Force 39.0  Mining, r e f i n i n g  0.8  Manufactur i n g  14.3 public  utilities  communications  Distribution,  force  Composition of labour f o r c e by i n d u s t r i a l group i n 1960  Agriculture  Construction,  The  (percentages):  I n d u s t r i a l Group  Transport,  service sectors.  finance  8.8 3.4 10.3  122 T a b l e (10) Continued I n d u s t r i a l Group  % o f Labour  S e r v i c e s , i n c l u d i n g government  23.4  Total Source:  1960  Force  100.0 Census  Some other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the employment  situ-  a t i o n were as f o l l o w s : a.  a high proportion of u n s k i l l e d  workers;  b.  g r e a t i n e q u a l i t i e s i n income d i s t r i b u t i o n  g e n e r a l l y , and s p e c i f i c a l l y between urban and workers and between workers sectors.  Ahiram  i n different  rural  industrial  (1964:348) e s t i m a t e d t h a t i n 1958  the income o f urban households was  about 2 t o  2.5  times t h a t of r u r a l households; t h a t the average per c a p i t a l incomes i n the mining and d i s t r i b u t i o n  sect-  o r s were at l e a s t s i x times as h i g h as t h a t i n a g r i c u l t u r e ; t h a t the lowest group o f 20% of household had r o u g h l y a 2 percent share of income measured, w h i l e the h i g h e s t 5% group had a 30% share; t h a t i n e q u a l i t i e s of income were g r e a t e r i n the r u r a l than i n the urban areas; and t h a t incomes i n the  distri-  b u t i o n , mining, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and g e n e r a l government s e c t o r s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than those i n  123 c o n s t r u c t i o n , manufacturing, c.  and a g r i c u l t u r e ;  unemployment and underemployment of a l l l e v e l s  of workers n o t a b l y i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r y , with an o v e r a l l unemployment r a t e of about 13%. P u b l i c a t t i t u d e s t o e d u c a t i o n and t o s p e c i f i c  occu-  p a t i o n s must be examined i n the l i g h t of these f a c t o r s o f l i m i t e d employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s and the g e o g r a p h i c a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l i n e q u a l i t i e s i n income d i s t r i b u t i o n .  Further,  any d e s i g n f o r e d u c a t i o n and s o c i a l reform must come t o g r i p s with the u n d e r l y i n g causes of these l i m i t a t i o n s and inequalities. F i n a l l y , the e f f e c t of e m i g r a t i o n of the labour a t i o n i n Jamaica deserves  some comment.  Except  situ-  for a brief  p e r i o d d u r i n g the war years e m i g r a t i o n has been a s i g n i f i cant f e a t u r e o f Jamaica s o c i e t y from the l a t e 19th century onwards, r e a c h i n g the h i g h e s t l e v e l s d u r i n g 1911-1921 and i n the mid-1950's, then again between 1960 and 1962 j u s t b e f o r e the B r i t i s h Government t i g h t e n e d i t s immigration restrictions.  During  1911-1921 and i n 1955 the net emi-  g r a t i o n amounted t o 74% and 43% r e s p e c t i v e l y o f the n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n (Roberts and M i l l s , main bulk of emigrants  1958:60).  went t o the U n i t e d Kingdom.  The  Net  e m i g r a t i o n t o the United Kingdom between 1953-1962 was  124 161,761, about 9.7% of 1962,  of the i s l a n d ' s p o p u l a t i o n at the  with an a d d i t i o n a l 20 t o 30 thousand  countries (Tidrick, Roberts  to other  1966:25).  and M i l l s  o f the emigrants  end  ( i b i d ) e s t i m a t i n g t h a t about  t o the U.K.  workers, were apprehensive  56.7%  d u r i n g 1953-1955 were s k i l l e d  of the p o s s i b l e i l l  e f f e c t s that  a continued outflow of s k i l l e d labour of such magnitude c o u l d have on the country's economy. T i d r i c k on the other hand argued 1962  that during  1954-  e m i g r a t i o n probably aided r a t h e r than impeded economic  development and a l l e v i a t e d the unemployment problem i n the country.  T i d r i c k c i t e d among other reasons  f o r h i s con-  c l u s i o n the r e d u c t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n pressure by the m i g r a t o r y movement, the heavy unemployment of the main c a t e g o r i e s o f s k i l l e d workers t h a t emigrated,  and the sub-  s t a n t i a l e a r n i n g s o f f o r e i g n exchange r e s u l t i n g from r e m i t tance by Jamaica emigrants Society:  The  t o r e l a t i v e s back home.  t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n Jamaica  at the  end  9 of 1957 38.1  was  estimated at 1,611,000  per thousand  with the b i r t h - r a t e at  and the r a t e of n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e at  29.0  ^Note - 1960 Census Data showed the e t h n i c composition of the p o p u l a t i o n , as f o l l o w s : A f r i c a n s (Blacks) 76.8%, Afro-Europeans (Coloured) 14.6%, Europeans 0.8%, E a s t Indians 1.7%, Chinese 0.6%, o t h e r s 5.5%.  125 per thousand (Government o f Jamaica, 1958).  Within  7 years  (1950-1957) a d e c l i n e i n i n f a n t m o r t a l i t y and death r a t e s combined with a r i s e i n the b i r t h r a t e t o produce a r i s e i n n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e from 21.3 t o 29.0 per thousand.  The  p o p u l a t i o n under 15 rose from 36.5% of the t o t a l i n 1943 t o 41.2%  i n 1960. The  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f these p o p u l a t i o n trends f o r edu-  c a t i o n a l development i s c l e a r .  Rapid i n c r e a s e s i n the  number and percentage o f the s c h o o l age p o p u l a t i o n , n a t i o n a l commitment t o u n i v e r s a l education and  at one l e v e l or another,  i n c r e a s e d demands f o r e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s at a l l  l e v e l s c o l l e c t i v e l y c r e a t e both q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e problems o f e d u c a t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n . Aspects o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p ; H i s t o r i c a l l y , has been an important  colour  f a c t o r i n a person's s t a t u s placement  i n the B r i t i s h Caribbean.  F. Henriques (1953) and M. G.  Smith (1961,and 1965) have d e a l t e x t e n s i v e l y with the problem of c o l o u r - c l a s s r e l a t i o n s h i p i n Jamaica.  Both i d e n t i f i e d  and d e s c r i b e d c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s among the upper c l a s s White p o p u l a t i o n , middle c l a s s Coloured Blacks.  and lower c l a s s  M. G. Smith (1961) observed t h a t the g r e a t e s t  cul-  t u r a l g u l f l a y between the White and Brown s t r a t a on the one hand, and the lower c l a s s B l a c k s on the o t h e r .  He noted  126 a l s o t h a t the s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n of these three groups had never been h i g h . Data from the 1943 Census on the ownership of land gave some i n d i c a t i o n o f the v a s t economic s u p e r i o r i t y o f the White group.  C o n s t i t u t i n g about 1.1% o f the p o p u l a t i o n  they owned n e a r l y 50% o f farms over 78.1%  Black p o p u l a t i o n owned 10.8%.  1,000 acres, while the There i s no question,  however, t h a t s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n and upward economic m o b i l i t y i n c r e a s e d n o t a b l y i n the 1950's and 60's with the country *s economic expansion nationhood,  and the movement towards  but t h e extent t o which the b a s i c t h r e e - t i e r e d  s t r u c t u r e o f t h e s o c i e t y has been m o d i f i e d i s a v i g o r o u s l y debated i s s u e i n contemporary Jamaican s o c i e t y . S o c i o - c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s among Jamaican s c h o o l c h i l d r e n c o n t r i b u t e d t o the p r e s s u r e s e x e r t e d on lower c l a s s B l a c k s i n the country's e d u c a t i o n a l There was and s t i l l  institutions.  i s , f o r example, the pressure t o con-  form t o t h e value systems o f the upper and middle c l a s s White and Coloured  groups, s i n c e these are the values  moted i n the s c h o o l s .  1 0  pro-  Further, socio-psychological  • Some members of a marginal group, the Ras T a f a r i s , who r e g a r d A f r i c a as t h e i r homeland, c l e a r l y r e j e c t e d the s c h o o l system as an agent o f continued European domination. LU  127 s t u d i e s by Kerr  (1955) and M i l l e r  (1969) suggested t h a t  among groups of lower and middle c l a s s Jamaican s c h o o l c h i l d r e n c o l o u r and  other e t h n i c f e a t u r e s are a source  of  much a n x i e t y . A c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a s u b s t a n t i a l number o f lower c l a s s B l a c k s t h a t a f f e c t s t h e i r c a p a c i t y t o u t i l i s e e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y i s the i n c i d e n c e of m a r i t a l unions of v a r y i n g s t a b i l i t y . terminated and  non-legal  I f these unions are  any o f f s p r i n g s u s u a l l y remain with the mother,  f i n a n c i a l support  by the f a t h e r i s not always  assured  (Davenport, 1961). Summary Some main p o i n t s a r i s i n g out of the  foregoing  accounts of the s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic context the e d u c a t i o n 1950's may 1.  systems i n Guyana and Jamaica i n the  of  late  be summarised as f o l l o w s :  Economy:  S i m i l i a r economic f e a t u r e s i n the two  countries  were a h i g h l e v e l of unemployment as w e l l as underemployment of v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s of s k i l l e d and u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r ; dominance of the a g r i c u l t u r a l , mining, d i s t r i b u t i o n  the  and  s e r v i c e s e c t o r s i n the economy; a labour i n t e n s i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y , c a p i t a l i n t e n s i v e mining i n d i s t r y ; the ance of the d i s t r i b u t i o n and  s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s i n the  import-  128 p r o v i s i o n o f employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s ;  great i n e q u a l i t i e s  i n income d i s t r i b u t i o n p a r t i c u l a r l y between i n d u s t r i a l sectors. Main d i f f e r e n c e s were:  a more r a p i d d e c l i n e i n the  importance of a g r i c u l t u r e i n the Jamaican economy and, correspondingly,  more r a p i d i n c r e a s e  i n the mining and  manufacturing i n d u s t r i e s ; consequently, greater  reliance  i n Guyana on f o r e i g n imports f o r the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f l o c a l needs i n f o o d s t u f f and manufactured a r t i c l e s ;  greater  importance t o Jamaica than t o Guyana of the United as a t r a d i n g p a r t n e r ; f o r the labour 2.  greater  States  s i g n i f i c a n c e of e m i g r a t i o n  s i t u a t i o n i n Jamaica.  Government and P o l i t i c s :  By 1957 n a t i o n a l e l e c t i o n s  under a d u l t s u f f r a g e were i n t r o d u c e d  i n both c o u n t r i e s and  mass p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s won these e l e c t i o n s . s t i t u t i o n a l reverses  P r e v i o u s con-  i n Guyana r e s u l t e d i n t h a t  country's  government being o n l y p a r t i a l l y e l e c t e d i n 1957 and i n i t s having more r e s t r i c t e d power than the Jamaican government. Besides, from 1953 t o 1957 Guyana was administered by a government w h o l l y nominated by the Crown. ferences  Other b a s i c  dif-  were t h a t on the whole Guyana's two main p o l i t i c a l  p a r t i e s , u n l i k e those i n Jamaica, were each  representative  mainly of a separate major e t h n i c group, and the r u l i n g  129 p a r t y i n Guyana was more r a d i c a l i n i t s p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n than i t s counterpart 3.  i n Jamaica.  Demographic and S o c i a l F e a t u r e s :  The r a t e s of popu-  l a t i o n i n c r e a s e i n both c o u n t r i e s f o l l o w e d the h i g h  pattern  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s , but p a r t l y through the h i g h e r b i r t h - r a t e o f the I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n i n Guyana and the g r e a t e r e m i g r a t i o n r a t e s i n Jamaica, the r a t e of p o p u l a t i o n growth was h i g h e r  f o r Guyana than f o r  Jamaica. Both c o u n t r i e s had a very mixed p o p u l a t i o n but the vast m a j o r i t y o f Jamaicans were Black, while  i n Guyana  the E a s t Indians were the l a r g e s t e t h n i c group, by the B l a c k s .  followed  By 1957 c o n f l i c t between these two main  groups i n Guyana was a l r e a d y seething and was l a t e r t o d i s r u p t Guyanese s o c i e t y . There was no o v e r t c o n f l i c t between e t h n i c groups i n Jamaica, but c r i t i c s are g e n e r a l l y agreed t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s between the two main s e c t i o n s of the p o p u l a t i o n ,  broadly  d i s t i n g u i s h e d by t h e i r colour ' ' and socio-economic s t a t u s , 1  have always presented the  1  a grave t h r e a t t o s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y i n  country.  • -The concept o f c o l o u r as a p p l i e d t o the Caribbean s i t u a t i o n g e n e r a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e s not o n l y s k i n pigmentation but a l s o f a c i a l f e a t u r e s and t e x t u r e o f h a i r . LJ  CHAPTER 6 THE AND  EDUCATION SYSTEMS OF GUYANA JAMAICA IN THE LATE 1950'S  To put the d i s c u s s i o n of h i g h s c h o o l o p p o r t u n i t y i n Guyana and Jamaica i n p e r s p e c t i v e , we  f i r s t give a b r i e f  o u t l i n e of the e d u c a t i o n a l systems o f the two These systems c l o s e l y resembled each other i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e and  countries.  i n organisation,  i n school c u r r i c u l a .  There-  f o r e , a f t e r d e t a i l s o f the Guyana system have been d e s c r i b e d , o n l y major p o i n t s of d i f f e r e n c e i n the Jamaican s i t u a t i o n w i l l be presented. cerned  t o analyse  Inasmuch as we  s h a l l u l t i m a t e l y be  changes i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of h i g h  o p p o r t u n i t y d u r i n g 1957-1967, i t w i l l be a p p r o p r i a t e  conschool  to  d e s c r i b e the e d u c a t i o n a l systems as they e x i s t e d at the  be-  g i n n i n g of t h i s p e r i o d . F i r s t we  s h a l l look at the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the  system, then the f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e at d i f f e r e n t or phases, and  finally,  the sources  levels  and methods of f i n a n c e .  Guyana's E d u c a t i o n a l System 1.  Administration Guyana's e d u c a t i o n a l system, o r i g i n a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d  and  c o n t r o l l e d by p r i v a t e denominational  bodies,  came under  d u a l c o n t r o l by Church and Government i n the l a t t e r h a l f of 130  131 the 19th c e n t u r y .  Co-operation  between these two  though r u f f l e d o c c a s i o n a l l y , was  agencies,  g e n e r a l l y f a i r l y smooth  u n t i l the r i s e of n a t i o n a l i s m i n the middle of the  present  c e n t u r y when the c o n t r o l o f e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s became a live p o l i t i c a l issue. Of the 309 primary  schools i n 1956-1957, twenty  s c h o o l s with a p o p u l a t i o n of 8,326 p u p i l s were wholly owned and  c o n t r o l l e d by Government while 281  (95,785, p u p i l s ) were  under dual c o n t r o l by Government and the C h r i s t i a n denominations.  E i g h t other aided s c h o o l s  (2,348 p u p i l s ) belonged  t o the Mining and Sugar companies.  Under the system of  d u a l c o n t r o l t e a c h e r s are appointed  by and  a u t h o r i t y of denominational  s u b j e c t t o the  boards which pay  salaries  and  m a i n t a i n p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s out of g r a n t s from the n a t i o n a l government.  The  n a t i o n a l government has  i n matters of c e r t i f i c a t i o n ,  f i n a l authority  t r a n s f e r , promotion and  dis-  m i s s a l of t e a c h e r s ; i t e x e r c i s e s an a p p e l l a t e f u n c t i o n i n d i s c i p l i n a r y matters, implementation primary  s u p e r v i s e s the o r g a n i s a t i o n and  of c u r r i c u l a ,  school-leaving  and  students, two  about twenty-six  certifies  students.  There were i n 1957 with 1094  and examines and  two Government secondary s c h o o l s  grant-aided schools  p r i v a t e schools  (enrolment,  (enrolment  732)  about 5,200).  132 The  T e c h n i c a l I n s t i t u t e , the Carnegie School  o f Home  Economics, and the Teachers T r a i n i n g C o l l e g e were government i n s t i t u t i o n s while the remaining Home Economics was g r a n t - a i d e d .  The p r i v a t e s c h o o l s were e n t i r e l y  School outside  the j u r i s d i c t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n of the c e n t r a l government Both the government and church a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s were almost completely  centralised.  Some landmarks i n the development o f t h e governmental a d m i n i s t r a t i v e system were: a.  I n 1850 an E d u c a t i o n  of a Board o f Education  Commission with was appointed  functions  and q u i c k l y  a b o l i s h e d when t h e Church a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s  vigorously  opposed i t s recommendations f o r a s e c u l a r system o f education. b. with  An Inspector  o f S c h o o l s was appointed  i n 1853  f u l l c o n t r o l of the e n t i r e educational e f f o r t i n  Guyana.  T h i s appointment marked the beginning o f  the Department o f Education primary s c h o o l s .  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the  The head o f t h i s Department was  l a t e r renamed D i r e c t o r o f E d u c a t i o n C h i e f Education  Officer.  schools remained separate ment u n t i l l a t e i n 1957.  and f i n a l l y  The two government secondary sub-departments o f Govern-  133 c.  The  f i r s t Guyanese D i r e c t o r of E d u c a t i o n  appointed i n 1960. r e c r u i t e d from d.  was  A l l p r e v i o u s d i r e c t o r s were  Britain.  D u r i n g the b r i e f o f f i c e of the 1953  government a M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n was  elected appointed with  vaguely d e f i n e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and very  limited  powers. e.  On the r e t u r n t o r e p r e s e n t a t i v e government i n  l a t e 1957  the m i n i s t e r i a l  system was  firmly establish-  ed and a M i n i s t r y of Community Development E d u c a t i o n was  and  v e s t e d w i t h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l l  educational matters. 2.  Educational Provision  A.  Pre-Primary  School Stage;  N u r s e r i e s or k i n d e r g a r t e n s  f o r c h i l d r e n from 3 t o 6 years o l d have not been w i d e l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n s t i t u t i o n s e i t h e r i n Guyana or Jamaica.  In  Guyana t h e r e were four main avenues of p r e - s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y a v a i l a b l e t o a l i m i t e d number of c h i l d r e n . These were as f o l l o w s : i.  A few k i n d e r g a r t e n s run by p r i v a t e  These ranged conducted  individuals.  i n q u a l i t y from p o o r l y equipped c l a s s e s  by very i n e x p e r i e n c e d young g i r l s or  women with b a r e l y f u n c t i o n a l l i t e r a c y ,  t o those  few  134 schools, u s u a l l y i n the two urban areas of Georgetown and New  Amsterdam, taught by experienced t e a c h e r s  q u a l i f i e d i n F r o e b e l methods, and adequately e q u i p ped w i t h up-to-date physical f a c i l i t i e s .  t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s and other Even without the p r e s s i n g  demand f o r p l a c e s i n these l a t t e r s c h o o l s by m i d d l e c l a s s and u p p e r - c l a s s parents with a p p r o p r i a t e s o c i a l connections t o ensure e n t r y , the mass o f working c l a s s parents would have found the f e e s p r o h i b i t i v e . Of the poorer q u a l i t y of s c h o o l s a U n i t e d Nations E d u c a t i o n Commission wrote (1963:51) Those ( i n the r u r a l areas) which the m i s s i o n was f o r t u nate t o v i s i t could by no s t r e t c h of i m a g i n a t i o n be c a l l e d n u r s e r y s c h o o l s — a room i n a house with a l a r g e number o f young c h i l d r e n cramped i n , s i t t i n g huddled together on uncomfortable bench-desks; s u i t a b l e e q u i p ment and apparatus v i r t u a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t ; u n t r a i n e d l a d i e s and young g i r l s who see t h e i r t a s k as one o f l o o k i n g a f t e r c h i l d r e n and t e a c h i n g the alphabet and numbers . . . ii.  The p r e p a r a t o r y s e c t i o n s of some denominational  primary s c h o o l s . denominational  There were as w e l l some p r i v a t e  s c h o o l s which c a t e r e d f o r c h i l d r e n  from 3 or 4 through  11 y e a r s and concentrated on p r e -  p a r i n g t h e i r p u p i l s f o r entrance examinations  to  secondary s c h o o l s ; a g a i n ; these were rendered e x c l u s i v e by reason of the f e e s charged,  i f f o r no other  135 reasons. iii.  Government or denominational  p u b l i c primary  schools, which were allowed t o admit c h i l d r e n  one  year below the compulsory age o f 6 i n cases where accommodation was iv.  available.  The p r e p a r a t o r y s e c t i o n s of the two  secondary  schools and  Government  some p r i v a t e secondary  a l l i n the urban areas, and  admitting kindergarten  p u p i l s on a fee-paying b a s i s .  U n t i l 1957  when the  p r e p a r a t o r y forms were a b o l i s h e d i n the two ment secondary  schools,  Govern-  schools--Queen's C o l l e g e f o r boys  and Bishop's High School f o r g i r l s — t h e y c o n t r i b u t e d about 60% of the e n t r a n t s t o the secondary and t h i s system of r e c r u i t m e n t was  sections  constantly  criticised. Since no r e c o r d s were kept of the p r i v a t e k i n d e r g a r t e n s it  i s d i f f i c u l t t o estimate how  many of them e x i s t e d and  number of c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d , but i t i s more than  likely  t h a t w e l l under 5% of the age cohort attended these tions.  The  few nursery  a t i o n a l p u b l i c primary  institu-  s e c t i o n s o f the Government or denominschools had  at the end of August 1958 Report,  the  about 570 c h i l d r e n on  ( M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n Annual  1957-1958)—a f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t i n g not more than  t h r e e percent of the r e l e v a n t age  group.  roll  136 B.  Primary S c h o o l s ;  "Primary" s c h o o l s , which were r e -  named a l l - a g e s c h o o l s i n 1962,  p r o v i d e d the o n l y formal  e d u c a t i o n a l experience f o r most Guyanese c h i l d r e n .  These  schools by law admitted c h i l d r e n aged 6 t o 14, but where accommodation e x i s t e d p u p i l s c o u l d be admitted at f i v e and c o u l d s t a y u n t i l they reached  sixteen.  F i r s t attempts at e n f o r c i n g compulsory  school attend-  ance from 6 t o 14 i n Guyana were made i n 1945 Compulsory  although a  E d u c a t i o n Ordinance r e q u i r i n g attendance from  age 6 t o age 11 was  passed as e a r l y as 1876,  a f t e r a s i m i l a r law was  passed i n B r i t a i n .  s i x years An  Englishman,  George Dennis, the f i r s t I n s p e c t o r o f Schools i n Guyana was  l a r g e l y i n s t r u m e n t a l i n g e t t i n g t h i s law passed i n  Guyana. was  The main e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t u n t i l the e a r l y 1960's  aimed a t making primary e d u c a t i o n u n i v e r s a l , and the  growing  support of parents f o r t h i s o b j e c t i v e was  reflected  i n the s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s i n g enrolment and attendance I n 1930  t h e r e was  figures.  an 80% enrolment i n the primary s c h o o l s ,  with an average attendance r a t e o f 67%.  By 1945  enrolment  had reached over 90% and attendance 74%; the attendance r a t e f o r p u p i l s e n r o l l e d i n 1957-1958 was  84%.  The primary s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n doubled between and 1960.  T h i s i n c r e a s e i n s c h o o l enrolment was  1946  i n no s m a l l  137 measure due not merely t o the i n c r e a s e i n the s c h o o l age p o p u l a t i o n , but t o the growing i n t e r e s t shown i n e d u c a t i o n e s p e c i a l l y by the E a s t I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n . about 45% of the primary  Comprising  s c h o o l age cohort i n 1935, E a s t  Indians accounted f o r o n l y 36% o f the a c t u a l s c h o o l tion.^-  popula-  By 1945 t h e i r p o s i t i o n had improved though they were  s t i l l under-represented;  but by 1955 E a s t I n d i a n s  represent-  ed about 51% of the 5-15 p o p u l a t i o n as w e l l as of the primary  school population.  The r i s i n g i n t e r e s t shown by  E a s t Indians i n education c o i n c i d e d with t h e i r i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p o l i t i c a l and t r a d e Union i n s t i t u t i o n s (see pp. 87-89). A c t i v i t i e s i n t h e primary  s c h o o l centered around the  i n c u l c a t i o n o f l i t e r a c y p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the f i r s t f i v e or s i x grades. prepared  I n the l a s t two or t h r e e grades p u p i l s were  f o r a s c h o o l l e a v i n g examination  principally i n  E n g l i s h , A r i t h m e t i c and the S o c i a l S t u d i e s .  Work i n these  grades was v e r y much r e p e t i t i v e ; not enough c a r e f u l thought was given t o the o r g a n i s a t i o n o f worthwhile e d u c a t i o n a l experiences  f o r a d o l e s c e n t s , the v a s t m a j o r i t y of whom were  d e s t i n e d t o r e c e i v e no f u r t h e r s c h o o l i n g .  Attempts t o  U n l e s s otherwise i n d i c a t e d f i g u r e s are obtained or computed from M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n r e p o r t s .  138 teach  'school gardening' met  through  with l i t t l e  the a n t i p a t h y t o t h i s a c t i v i t y  c h a p t e r ) , and p a r t l y through sonnel r e s o u r c e s .  success,  partly  (noted i n an e a r l i e r  inadequate  p h y s i c a l and  per-  A e s t h e t i c , r e c r e a t i o n a l , and p h y s i c a l  e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s r e c e i v e d l i t t l e more than token a t t e n tion.  I n seven H a n d i c r a f t and t h r e e Domestic Science  Centres some p r e - v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g at the primary was  provided f o r l e s s than two  about one  level  percent of the boys and  percent of the g i r l s , while e i g h t e e n of the  country's 309 primary  s c h o o l s r e c e i v e d grants for Home  Economics c o u r s e s . N e a r l y a l l the primary  s c h o o l s conducted  a special  ' s c h o l a r s h i p c l a s s ' f o r a group of c h i l d r e n between the ages of 9 and 11 s e l e c t e d mainly on the b a s i s of t e a c h e r s ' estimate of t h e i r  intellectual potential.  t h i s c l a s s , h e l d d u r i n g s c h o o l hours,  Instruction for  i n the evenings,  weekends and even over the v a c a t i o n s , was  normally  ducted or s u p e r v i s e d by the headmaster h i m s e l f . g e n e r a l l y charged hours.  Fees were  staked h i s r e p u t a t i o n on " h i s "  successes at the secondary and f o r two  t h i s examination  con-  even f o r c l a s s e s taught w i t h i n s c h o o l  The headteacher  examination,  at  schools s c h o l a r s h i p entrance  or three years p u p i l s p r e p a r i n g f o r  were d r i l l e d almost e n t i r e l y i n the t h r e e  139 axeas e x a m i n e d — E n g l i s h ,  A r i t h m e t i c and General  Very few t e a c h e r s — o r parents f o r t h a t  matter—considered  the rod d i s p e n s a b l e f o r promoting e f f i c i e n t n e i t h e r parent nor teacher was  sought them.  l e a r n i n g , and  daunted by the f a c t t h a t o n l y  50 s c h o l a r s h i p s ( i n c r e a s e d t o 60 i n 1957) t h e thousands who  Intelligence.  were a v a i l a b l e f o r  This s i t u a t i o n  persisted  i n s p i t e of e f f o r t s by the Government a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o c o r r e c t i t s more a p p a l l i n g f e a t u r e s . C.  Secondary E d u c a t i o n :  The  19th c e n t u r y p a t t e r n of edu-  cational provision previously described—primary f o r the masses and secondary  e d u c a t i o n f o r the p r i v i l e g e d  f e w — b a s i c a l l y p r e v a i l e d i n 1957. Guyana i n 1963  education  The UNESCO M i s s i o n t o  observed:  An i n h e r i t e d weakness of the e d u c a t i o n a l system i s the l a c k of a r t i c u l a t i o n o f the primary and secondary l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n s i n c e each grew up s e p a r a t e l y . (1963:18) and  added, The primary schools c a t e r e d . . . f o r the mass of c h i l d r e n ; the secondary s c h o o l system was f o r the s e l e c t few who d i s t i n g u i s h e d themselves at the 11-plus examination or who c o u l d a f f o r d to go t o fee-paying i n s t i t u t i o n s . (Ibid:33) There were t h r e e main avenues of formal s c h o o l i n g open  t o c h i l d r e n between e l e v e n and e i g h t e e n . the 7 h a n d i c r a f t and earlier.  F i r s t there were  3 Domestic Science c e n t r e s r e f e r r e d t o  In a d d i t i o n the upper s e c t i o n of the primary  school  140 i n c l u d i n g 18 Domestic Science Departments provided educ a t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n up to the age of f o u r t e e n or A small number of p u p i l s stayed on f o r two t o prepare  f o r a c o m p e t i t i v e examination  fifteen.  further years  which served  the b a s i s f o r r e c r u i t m e n t of p u p i l t e a c h e r s f o r the schools.  as  primary  Of those c h i l d r e n over 11 years r e c e i v i n g some  k i n d o f formal e d u c a t i o n at the secondary  l e v e l about  (32,690) were i n the s e n i o r s e c t i o n s of these  primary  s c h o o l s , an enrolment r a t e of 66% o f the 11 t o 18 t i o n ; a c t u a l attendance  78%  popula-  f i g u r e s , however, were c o n s i d e r a b l y  lower. Next t h e r e were the secondary predominantly  c l a s s i c a l grammar s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m .  beginning o f 1957 2 grand-aided  At the  t h e r e were 2 Government secondary  schools,  schools and about 26 p r i v a t e s c h o o l s w i t h  enrolment of approximately secondary  schools, a l l with a  s c h o o l s , one  6,715  students.  of the two  Both Government  g r a n t - a i d e d schools,  more than h a l f of the p r i v a t e s c h o o l s were i n the c i t y , Georgetown.  an  Between 18 and 20 percent of  and  capital  students  from ages e l e v e n t o n i n e t e e n were e n r o l l e d i n these 30-odd secondary  schools.  relative quality,  (The f u n c t i o n o f these s c h o o l s , t h e i r s e l e c t i o n processes, and the s o c i o -  economic and e t h n i c composition  of the student p o p u l a t i o n  141 w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . ) The  t h i r d avenue was t h e p r e - v o c a t i o n a l  schools.  These were the Government T e c h n i c a l I n s t i t u t e , t h e Carnegie School  o f Home Economics and the F r e d e r i c k s School  Economics.  By 1957 September, 1,169 students,  o f Home  mostly boys,  were e n r o l l e d a t the T e c h n i c a l I n s t i t u t e f o r r e g u l a r c l a s s e s and  308 f o r short c o u r s e s .  had  a t o t a l of about 253 g i r l s . The  percent  The two Home Economics  schools  o v e r a l l p i c t u r e , then, i s t h a t j u s t about 20  o f c h i l d r e n over e l e v e n years were e n r o l l e d i n the  secondary s c h o o l s ,  somewhere between 10 and 15 percent  c e i v e d no k i n d o f formal  re-  s c h o o l i n g , while most o f t h e 66%  i n t h e primary s c h o o l s h a r d l y r e c e i v e d a worthwhile programme of i n s t r u c t i o n . Many o f t h i s l a s t group responded by absenting  themselves from s c h o o l or dropping out o f the  system a l t o g e t h e r .  Germanacos (ibid:50-51)  commenting on  t h e poor attendance i n the secondary departments o f the a l l age  s c h o o l s r e j e c t e d what he termed "the  pseudo-socio-  economic reasons" u s u a l l y advanced—namely, the n e c e s s i t y for  c h i l d r e n t o work i n the f i e l d s — s i n c e u n p u n c t u a l i t y and  poor attendance were a l s o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l areas.  The Germanacos Commission i n f e r r e d from t h e i r  sample  surveys t h a t the answer l a y mainly " i n the g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e  142 b u i l t up over the y e a r s towards q u e s t i o n s o f time, i n the u n a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f s c h o o l c o n d i t i o n s , and i n ignorance on the to ent  p a r t o f parents of the importance of r e g u l a r the e d u c a t i o n a l c a r e e r o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n " .  attendance  Many d i f f e r -  f a c t o r s have t o be taken i n t o account i n t r y i n g t o  e x p l a i n the apathy towards the o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f f e r e d i n the secondary s e c t i o n o f t h e primary s c h o o l s .  I t may be,  for  example, t h a t parents n e g l e c t t o send t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o the l a s t grades o f primary s c h o o l s not because they are unaware of  the importance o f r e g u l a r attendance t o the e d u c a t i o n a l  c a r e e r o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n , but because  they are f u l l y aware  t h a t f u r t h e r attendance a t a primary s c h o o l produces no apparent  rewards. Through the i n d i v i d u a l i n i t i a t i v e o f many primary  and secondary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s , some a b l e and ambitious c h i l d ren  l e f t out o f t h e formal secondary s c h o o l system were  t u t o r e d p r i v a t e l y f o r the same overseas examinations taken by h i g h s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , success at which p r o v i d e d a g a t e way t o middle c l a s s o c c u p a t i o n s and t o f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n . Some c h i l d r e n , too, s t u d i e d on t h e i r own with the a i d of correspondence courses from overseas c o l l e g e s .  True, the  r e s u l t s achieved through these two channels were modest i n terms of o v e r a l l examination successes, but the value o f  143 these o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the few s u c c e s s f u l students should not be  underestimated. In  a d d i t i o n t o these i n d i v i d u a l e f f o r t s t h e r e were  the f a c i l i t i e s o f the two  trade schools maintained  by the  major f i r m s of Bookers Sugar E s t a t e s L t d . and the Demerara Bauxite Company; but these f a c i l i t i e s were a v a i l a b l e t o no more than about two or t h r e e score of the Companies' employees or a p p r e n t i c e s and were l i m i t e d i n e d u c a t i o n a l scope.  F i n a l l y , t u i t i o n i n shorthand  and t y p i n g was p r o v i d -  ed by a few p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s , but the number of such c l a s s e s , which were not r e g i s t e r e d , i s d i f f i c u l t D.  Teacher  Education:  The  narrow apex of teacher  and overseas u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n completed education pyramid.  to estimate. training  the formal  From i t s e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n 1928  until  the  1960's the Government Teachers T r a i n i n g C o l l e g e p r o v i d e d p r o f e s s i o n a l and grammar s c h o o l courses f o r a s e l e c t h a n d f u l of  primary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s a l r e a d y i n the p r o f e s s i o n .  first  30 students were admitted every two years f o r a 2-year  course, but from 1953 In  1955  a scheme was  the 30 admissions  were made a n n u a l l y .  i n i t i a t e d f o r sending  experienced t e a c h e r s abroad sional  At  5 trained  and  f o r a 1-year u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s -  course. The  p o s i t i o n i n 1957  was  t h a t the c o l l e g e had on r o l l  144 60 f i r s t  and second year s t u d e n t s .  By t h i s date l e s s than  17% o f the country's primary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s had r e c e i v e d p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g , n e a r l y a l l of them a t t h i s tion.  (A few o f the o l d e r t e a c h e r s had r e c e i v e d  t r a i n i n g a t a s i m i l a r c o l l e g e i n Jamaica.)  institutheir  Opportunities  provided a t the Teachers T r a i n i n g C o l l e g e were more u s e f u l as a means o f s t i m u l a t i n g the e d u c a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s o f i t s s m a l l number of students than o f p r o v i d i n g a p r o f e s s i o n a l l y equipped t e a c h i n g f o r c e f o r the primary s c h o o l s ; t r a i n e d t e a c h e r s were i n f a c t t o o few t o make a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on the e d u c a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n .  Even so, l a t e r reform  and expansion of teacher e d u c a t i o n was not e f f e c t e d without c o n s i d e r a b l e o p p o s i t i o n from i n f l u e n t i a l members o f the t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n who expressed f e a r s about the lowering of s t a n d a r d s . Most secondary a r y s c h o o l graduates.  s c h o o l s were s t a f f e d mainly by secondI n the two government s c h o o l s 38 o f  the 53 t e a c h e r s were u n i v e r s i t y graduates  (approximately  72%), w h i l e i n the 28 other aided and p r i v a t e  secondary  schools, which had a t o t a l student p o p u l a t i o n more than s i x times t h a t of the government s c h o o l s , t h e r e were no more than 32 graduate t e a c h e r s , approximately 15 percent of the total staff.  Less than h a l f o f a l l graduate t e a c h e r s had  145 p r o f e s s i o n a l post-graduate  t r a i n i n g or q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ,  which were normally a c q u i r e d e i t h e r at the U n i v e r s i t y of the West I n d i e s or u n i v e r s i t i e s i n t h e United Kingdom, U n i t e d S t a t e s or Canada. E.  U n i v e r s i t y Education;  Higher e d u c a t i o n i n the p r o f e s -  s i o n s , a r t s , or s c i e n c e s was a c q u i r e d i n overseas u n i v e r s i t i e s mainly on s t u d e n t s ' own i n i t i a t i v e and at t h e i r expense.  own  However, the Guyana government b e s i d e s c o n t r i b u t -  i n g t o the U n i v e r s i t y of the West I n d i e s , provided  loans  for a few students and awarded a s m a l l number of ad hoc s c h o l a r s h i p s and b u r s a r i e s p r i n c i p a l l y f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l improvement c o u r s e s .  Two government s c h o l a r s h i p s were  awarded each year t o secondary  s c h o o l graduates t o pursue  u n i v e r s i t y degree courses and i n 1957 s i x t e e n students were i n r e c e i p t of Government l o a n s . I t was not u n t i l the 1960's t h a t f a i r l y r e c o r d s were kept of students s t u d y i n g abroad  reliable independently,  so f i g u r e s f o r p r i v a t e students f o r 1957 are not a v a i l a b l e ; some i d e a o f the s i t u a t i o n c o u l d be obtained, however,  from  a look a t the 1960 d a t a which shows t h a t fewer than onef i f t h of the 333 students i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n overseas were on government loans or s c h o l a r s h i p s .  ^Source Mission.  Of these students 220  - Germanacos, 1963, UNESCO E d u c a t i o n  Survey  146 were i n u n i v e r s i t i e s i n the U n i t e d Kingdom, 57 i n the U.S.A., 43 at the U n i v e r s i t y of the West I n d i e s , and 13 i n Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s . F.  Adult Education:  V a r i o u s o f f i c i a l and i n f o r m a l groups  took an i n t e r e s t i n promoting a d u l t l i t e r a c y and other welfare programmes, conducted evening s u b j e c t s , r a n s p e c i a l courses cookery, weaving and farming and  aesthetic a c t i v i t i e s .  c l a s s e s i n academic  i n such p r a c t i c a l areas as methods, and o r g a n i s e d  cultural  The i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e on  t h i s phase of e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t i s q u i t e fragmentary, but i t i s evident t h a t e f f o r t s were d i f f u s e , and  unintegrated,  i n some cases t o o s h o r t - l i v e d t o be e f f e c t i v e .  In  1958 the A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n was formed t o c o - o r d i n ate the a c t i v i t i e s o f a l l i n t e r e s t e d b o d i e s . had  Government  not assumed l e a d e r s h i p i n t h i s area o f e d u c a t i o n a l  endeavour, which r e c e i v e d o n l y p a s s i n g mention i n s e v e r a l commission r e p o r t s on e d u c a t i o n . Main groups i n v o l v e d i n some a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r o j e c t or another were Extra-mural  Department o f the U n i v e r s i t y of  the West I n d i e s , t h e Sugar Producers A s s o c i a t i o n , the B r i t i s h C o u n c i l , and v a r i o u s Government a g e n c i e s .  Except  f o r the work of the Sugar Producers A s s o c i a t i o n , which o r g a n i s e d e d u c a t i o n a l programmes among i t s workers on the  147 sugar e s t a t e s , much a t t e n t i o n and f a c i l i t i e s were concent r a t e d i n the urban a r e a s . 3.  Finance From the middle of the 19th century a f t e r  B r i t i s h government's withdrawal  the  of the Negro E d u c a t i o n  Grant,^ the Guyana government bore the major p o r t i o n of the t o t a l p u b l i c education c o s t s .  There has been no notable  change i n the method of e d u c a t i o n f i n a n c i n g over the y e a r s . In 1957  the main sources of e d u c a t i o n funding were: i.  ii. iii.  the r e c u r r e n t n a t i o n a l budget, the development budget,  and  v a r i o u s forms of p r i v a t e funds  (including  t u i t i o n f e e s and C o l o n i a l Welfare  and  Develop-  ment Funds p r o v i d e d by the U n i t e d Kingdom government). The Germanacos Commission ( i b i d : 2 9 ) estimated t h a t i n 1960  about 67% of the r e c u r r e n t expenditure  l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n was  met  by government sources; of the  non-recurrent expenditure 38 percent was and  62 percent by p r i v a t e s o u r c e s .  centage  for a l l  met  by government,  By f a r the g r e a t e s t p e r -  of o v e r a l l e d u c a t i o n a l investment went towards the  See p.  39.  148 o p e r a t i o n of the primary and a l l - a g e s c h o o l s , though the p r o p o r t i o n d e c l i n e d i n the 1950's and  1960's as a r e s u l t  o f i n t e n s e a c t i v i t y i n the areas of teacher  education  secondary and h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n .  The  funds devoted t o the primary and  a l l - a g e schools declined  from 84% i n 1945  to 74% i n 1966.  p r o p o r t i o n of  and  (Bacchus, 1969:416)  In c u r r e n t p r i c e s the expenditure than doubled between 1952  and  1961.  on e d u c a t i o n more  Although allowances  must be made f o r changing p r i c e s i t i s reasonable that there had expenditure But  education  t o assume  been gains i n r e a l terms s i n c e e d u c a t i o n a l  grew much more r a p i d l y than n a t i o n a l income.  s o c i a l and demographic f a c t o r s tended t o minimise the  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f these  gains.  While the t o t a l  expenditure  on the primary s c h o o l s per c a p i t a of p o p u l a t i o n rose 70% over the  same p e r i o d , expenditure  e n r o l l e d i n c r e a s e d by o n l y 34%.  by  per c a p i t a of p u p i l s  T h i s f a c t i s no doubt  ex-  p l a i n e d p a r t l y by the r i s i n g p r o p o r t i o n of the primary s c h o o l age p o p u l a t i o n growing support ance .  The  (see p. 137  above) and  p a r t l y by  for education r e f l e c t e d i n increased  i n c r e a s e i n the primary s c h o o l age  the  attend-  population  about 10% g r e a t e r than the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n percentage growth, while the attendance r a t e i n 1961 higher  than i n 1952.  The  was  i n c r e a s e d education  nearly  3%  expenditure  was  149 may be c o n s i d e r e d then t o have served the purpose more of p r e v e n t i n g the education s i t u a t i o n from  deteriorating  r a t h e r than s i g n i f i c a n t l y improving i t . Although the expenditure on e d u c a t i o n i n c r e a s e d i n a b s o l u t e terms, the percentage devoted  o f the r e c u r r e n t budget  t o e d u c a t i o n a l ends remained f a i r l y constant be-  tween 13 and 14 percent from 1946 t o 1957.  Approximately  1.8% o f the development budget and 14.1% o f the c u r r e n t budget went t o e d u c a t i o n i n 1957.  The i n d i v i d u a l  allocations  among s e l e c t e d e d u c a t i o n s e c t o r s are g i v e n i n the t a b l e below: Table  (W.I.  (11)  A l l o c a t i o n s among s e l e c t e d e d u c a t i o n s e c t o r s from p u b l i c r e c u r r e n t and development expenditure, 1957 $,000) Recurrent Percent Develop- P e r - T o t a l Expendiment Ex- cent Percent ture pentiture  Primary Schools  4,562  65.5  Teacher's C o l l e g e  99  1.4  1.3  Secondary Schools  437  6.3  5.9  V o c a t i o n a l Schools  255  3.7  3.5  Higher E d u c a t i o n  405  5.8  .107  1.5  S p e c i a l and Reform Schools  305  51  74.2  12.4  66.0  6.2  1.5  150 Table  (11)  Continued Recurrent Percent Develop- P e r - T o t a l Expendiraent Ex- cent Percent ture penditure  M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n  227  3.3  18  4.4  3.3  Other M i n i s t r i e s  869  12.5  37  9.0  12.3  A g r i c u l t u r a l extension services, medical s e r v i c e s i n the primary s c h o o l s , and  i n f o r m a t i o n and p u b l i c  s e r v i c e s are i n c l u d e d under the item while  'Other  library  Ministries',  ' M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n ' r e f e r s mainly t o e d u c a t i o n  administration.  Quite s t r i k i n g i s the h i g h percentage  of  t h e t o t a l r e c u r r e n t e d u c a t i o n budget and the even h i g h e r percentage cation.  of the c a p i t a l budget i n v e s t e d i n primary edu-  T h i s was  the g e n e r a l p a t t e r n u n t i l the 1960's when  c a p i t a l funds devoted  t o the expansion  of secondary  t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n rose more r a p i d l y than expenditure  and on  primary s c h o o l s ; i t must be remembered, though, t h a t the t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g e f f o r t was  d i r e c t e d p r i n c i p a l l y t o improv-  i n g the q u a l i t y and supply of primary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s . F u r t h e r d e t a i l s on the r e l a t i v e i n c r e a s e s i n expenditure p r i m a r y and secondary e d u c a t i o n are g i v e n on page  below.  Private contribution to educational provision  has  not been i n c l u d e d i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n because no data  was  a v a i l a b l e on the p r i v a t e secondary  on  s c h o o l s , which were not  151 r e g i s t e r e d before  1957  and were q u i t e r e t i c e n t  about  matters p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e i r f i n a n c i a l o p e r a t i o n s . it  However,  i s c l e a r t h a t the c e n t r a l government bore almost the  e n t i r e c o s t s of primary education while p r i v a t e c o n t r i b u t i o n s , apart from C o l o n i a l Development and Welfare Grants, p r i n c i p a l l y to secondary and h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n  and  went  sub-  s t a n t i a l l y supplemented the government e f f o r t i n these areas. Jamaica's E d u c a t i o n a l System 1.  Administration The  e v o l u t i o n of the Jamaica system o f e d u c a t i o n a l  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was  s i m i l a r t o t h a t of Guyana's, except f o r  the absence of any major c o n f l i c t i n Jamaica between Church and Government such as o c c u r r e d  i n Guyana d u r i n g the e a r l y  y e a r s of the Jagan a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . of e d u c a t i o n was u n t i l 1842 began.  administered  A rudimentary system  by the C h r i s t i a n denominations  when p a r t n e r s h i p between Church and Government  The  Government machinery f o r e d u c a t i o n a l  t i o n changed s t e a d i l y with developments i n the political constitution. Education  was  In 1944  established.  was  country's  a germinal M i n i s t r y of  In 1953  Jamaica adopted the  system of f u l l m i n i s t e r i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n  administra-  and  i n 1958  the  vested with f u l l c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  152 r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l l matters p e r t a i n i n g t o e d u c a t i o n . The Government as w e l l as the Denominational machinery was wholly  administrative  centralised.  I n 1958 Government was f u l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r 372 primary  schools while 334 primary  s c h o o l s were under d u a l  c o n t r o l by Government and v a r i o u s denominations.  Govern-  ment a l s o owned and c o n t r o l l e d t h r e e t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g c o l l e g e s and nine post-primary  schools (including s i x tech-  n i c a l s c h o o l s and one a g r i c u l t u r a l s c h o o l ) , while t h e r e were 34 g r a n t - a i d e d secondary training colleges.  s c h o o l s and 3 g r a n t - a i d e d t e a c h e r -  346 b a s i c s c h o o l s and i n f a n t  r e c e i v e d a small subvention  from Government.  centres  Finally,  t h e r e was an u n s p e c i f i e d number o f w h o l l y p r i v a t e schools a t the secondary  and k i n d e r g a r t e n  2.  Educational Provision  A.  Pre-Primary  School Stage:  levels.  The p r o v i s i o n a t t h i s  was v e r y much s i m i l a r t o t h a t d e s c r i b e d f o r Guyana.  level Private  k i n d e r g a r t e n s of v a r y i n g q u a l i t y p r o v i d e d accommodation f o r under 10 percent of c h i l d r e n between the ages of 3 and 7.  The best and most expensive  c a p i t a l c i t y , Kingston, t h e middle  s c h o o l s were l o c a t e d i n the  and were attended by c h i l d r e n of  and upper p r o f e s s i o n a l or b u s i n e s s c l a s s e s .  Jamaican Government showed some measure of concern f o r  The  153 e a x l y e d u c a t i o n by sponsoring  short courses  teachers and g r a n t i n g a s m a l l annual  for kindergarten  subvention t o over  300 b a s i c schools and i n f a n t c e n t e r s . B.  Primary S c h o o l s :  Jamaica has not so f a r been a b l e t o  p r o v i d e u n i v e r s a l primary e d u c a t i o n . admission was  t o the primary  The normal age f o r  s c h o o l was seven years, but t h e r e  no compulsory e d u c a t i o n law. S e v e r a l u n s u c c e s s f u l  attempts were made s i n c e 1892 t o i n s t i t u t e compulsory school attendance.  A new code of r e g u l a t i o n s passed  however, lowered  t h e p e r m i s s i b l e admission  years i n p u b l i c l y f i n a n c e d primary  i n 1966,  age t o s i x  schools, and made edu-  c a t i o n compulsory (from ages 6 t o 15) i n s e l e c t e d areas where adequate accommodation e x i s t e d . Approximately  80 percent of the 7-14 p o p u l a t i o n  were e n r o l l e d i n primary attendance  of the p u p i l s e n r o l l e d presented  year a f t e r y e a r . attendance  s c h o o l s i n 1957. I r r e g u l a r s c h o o l a grave  problem  Between 1950 and 1954 the o v e r a l l average  was 61 p e r c e n t .  The average attendance  f o r the  y e a r s 1957 and 1958, based on the 288 best s e s s i o n s , was approximately  69 percent each y e a r .  Jamaica's primary  s c h o o l s were s i m i l a r t o Guyana's i n  o r g a n i s a t i o n and courses o f f e r e d .  As i n Guyana, s t r o n g  p r e s s u r e s were e x e r t e d on the work of t h e primary  s c h o o l by  154 the demands of the secondary s c h o o l s ' entrance The  primary  examinations.  s c h o o l provided the o n l y formal e d u c a t i o n a l  experience  f o r the vast m a j o r i t y o f students, while i t s p r o -  gramme was  designed  t o meet the needs of the s m a l l number  of students going on t o h i g h C.  Secondary Education;  school.  D e t a i l s on o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e  a t the secondary l e v e l i n Jamaica i n 1957 Chapter 8 below.  are d i s c u s s e d i n  Only the e s s e n t i a l s i m i l a r i t i e s and  dif-  f e r e n c e s between the Jamaica secondary s c h o o l system the Guyanese system w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d  at t h i s p o i n t .  L i m i t e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r secondary education, p e t i t i o n f o r the few  and  severe com-  s c h o o l p l a c e s a v a i l a b l e , the emphasis  on l i t e r a r y s t u d i e s , and the i n f l u e n c e o f e x t e r n a l examina t i o n s on the secondary s c h o o l system were a l l notable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of secondary e d u c a t i o n  i n both Guyana and  Jamaica. Jamaica's secondary grammar and t e c h n i c a l were l e s s concentrated than was  i n the c a p i t a l c i t y and  schools  i t s environs  the case i n Guyana, but t h e r e were s t i l l  a h a l f of the country's  43 aided and  s c h o o l s i n Kingston and  surrounding  government owned areas, with n e a r l y  percent of the 14,000 secondary s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n . other important  j u s t under  One  d i f f e r e n c e between the secondary s c h o o l  60  155 system of the two c o u n t r i e s was t h a t t h e f i n a n c i a l  contri-  b u t i o n s made by the Jamaican Government t o the v a r i o u s aided and Government-owned schools were f a i r l y uniform;  so t o o  were the s a l a r i e s and c o n d i t i o n s o f s e r v i c e of the t e a c h e r s . On the other hand the two Government-owned  schools i n  Guyana enjoyed e x c l u s i v e p r i v i l e g e s i n terms o f annual per c a p i t a grants r e c e i v e d and t e a c h e r s ' s a l a r i e s and c o n d i t i o n s o f s e r v i c e (see Chapter  7) .  There was a marked expansion  of secondary  f a c i l i t i e s i n Jamaica i n the 1950's. 10 t o 19 p o p u l a t i o n i n secondary  school  The enrolment of the  schools rose from j u s t  over 8,500 i n 1954 t o about 12,800 i n 1958, an i n c r e a s e of over  50 p e r c e n t .  By the 1950's secondary  education  pro-  v i s i o n had become a l i v e p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l i s s u e i n Jamaican s o c i e t y . D.  Teacher E d u c a t i o n :  Jamaica's t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g e f f o r t  was much more ambitious than Guyana's. o f Jamaica's 4,500 primary qualifications,  sional  s c h o o l t e a c h e r s had p r o f e s s i o n a l  compared with a 17 percent r a t i o i n Guyana.  In 1958 approximately secondary  I n 1957, 46 percent  50 percent of 4,966 primary and  s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n Jamaica had r e c e i v e d p r o f e s -  training. Teacher t r a i n i n g i n Jamaica was not c e n t r a l i s e d i n a  156 s i n g l e c o l l e g e as i t was i n Guyana.  Instead, 4 primary  t e a c h e r s ' c o l l e g e s o f f e r e d 3-year courses i n academic and professional subjects.  The t o t a l enrolment  c o l l e g e s i n 1958 was 399 s t u d e n t s .  i n these  Besides, t h e Moneague  T r a i n i n g C o l l e g e , opened i n 1956, o f f e r e d an i n t e n s i v e 1-year course f o r an annual i n t a k e o f over 100 o l d e r and more experienced t e a c h e r s .  F i n a l l y , the C a l e d o n i a J u n i o r  C o l l e g e , e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1958, p r o v i d e d an " o r i e n t a t i o n course" of 20 weeks' d u r a t i o n t o two batches o f 150 young r e c r u i t s each y e a r . Except  f o r a s u b s t a n t i a l Home Economics programme,  T e c h n i c a l and A g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n was v i r t u a l l y from a l l the t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s .  absent  The normal course  o f f e r i n g s i n c l u d e d Science and Mathematics, E n g l i s h , the S o c i a l S t u d i e s , Music, A r t , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n ,  Principles  and P h i l o s o p h y o f E d u c a t i o n , H i s t o r y of Education, E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, The secondary  and courses i n C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n .  normal p r e p a r a t i o n f o r becoming a q u a l i f i e d s c h o o l teacher i n Jamaica was t o take an academic  f i r s t degree and then pursue p r o f e s s i o n a l courses e i t h e r at the U n i v e r s i t y o f the West I n d i e s i n Jamaica universities.  Jamaica's secondary  v i d e d with graduate  or i n overseas  schools were b e t t e r p r o -  t e a c h e r s than were the secondary  schools  157 i n Guyana.  N e a r l y 51 percent o f t h e 625 secondary  t e a c h e r s i n Jamaica were graduates, p e r c e n t r a t i o f o r Guyana.  school  compared with a 26  The Guyana Government pursued a  p o l i c y o f s u b s i d i s i n g the s a l a r i e s o f o n l y o n e - t h i r d o f the graduates  i n any a i d e d secondary  s t r i c t i o n s operated i n Jamaica. graduate  s c h o o l , while no such r e N e a r l y 63 percent o f the  t e a c h e r s i n Jamaica were t r a i n e d , compared w i t h  under 50 percent i n Guyana. E.  U n i v e r s i t y Education:  The presence  o f the West I n d i e s  r e g i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y i n Jamaica p l a c e d t h i s country a t a d i s t i n c t advantage over the other c o n t r i b u t i n g One  territories  reason was t h a t although the U n i v e r s i t y o f the West  I n d i e s out o f i t s own budget granted one r e t u r n f a r e t o West I n d i a n students o u t s i d e Jamaica,  most o f these  students  s t i l l had t o meet t h e i r own l i v i n g c o s t s , which would norm a l l y be h i g h e r than f o r a Jamaican s t u d e n t .  I n 1960 t h e r e  were 441 Jamaican students (238 male and 203 f e m a l e ) e n r o l l e d i n the U.W.I. F a c u l t i e s of A r t s , Science, A g r i c u l t u r e ,  Social  Science and Medicine which had a t o t a l student p o p u l a t i o n of 910.  I n 1964,  the number o f U.W.I. Jamaican students rose  •^Constituent c o l l e g e s o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y were opened i n T r i n i d a d and Barbados i n 1963. Guyana opened i t s own U n i v e r s i t y i n t h e same y e a r .  158 t o 771,  more than 63 percent of the t o t a l  M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n r e c o r d s f o r 1960  enrolment.  indicated that for  t h a t year t h e r e were about 3,800 Jamaican students  studying  i n U n i v e r s i t i e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , Canada and  the  U n i t e d Kingdom.  students  The  importance of the number of  e n r o l l e d i n overseas U n i v e r s i t i e s should not be ed,  s i n c e most of these  over-estimat-  students were not expected  to return  home at the end of t h e i r s t u d i e s . F.  Adult Education:  S e v e r a l Government and v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i -  s a t i o n s p r o v i d e d e d u c a t i o n a l courses a d u l t s and a d o l e s c e n t s .  The  Jamaica L i b r a r y s e r v i c e i n t r o -  duced a Bookmobile s e r v i c e i n 1957 extend  and was  thus a b l e t o  i t s o p e r a t i o n s t o remote r u r a l a r e a s .  S o c i a l Welfare 1951  for out-of-school  Commission launched  f o r which i t subsequently  The  Jamaica  a Literacy Project i n  secured UNESCO a s s i s t a n c e i n  t h e form of grants, f e l l o w s h i p s and p e r s o n n e l . L i t e r a c y S e c t i o n o f the Jamaica Welfare e s t a b l i s h e d with a f u l l - t i m e f i e l d  By 1958  Commission was  s t a f f as w e l l as  o f f i c e r s assigned t o work i n the P r i s o n s .  the well  special  T h i s s e c t i o n has  grown from s t r e n g t h t o s t r e n g t h making good use of the t e l e v i s i o n and b r o a d c a s t i n g media. In 1958  there were more than 30 Evening  Institutes  conducted i n s c h o o l s and community c e n t r e s throughout the  159 island.  These I n s t i t u t e s o f f e r e d courses i n Commerce,  A g r i c u l t u r e , and T e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t s i n a d d i t i o n t o General Education  courses.  A number o f v o l u n t a r y and semi-voluntary o r g a n i s a t i o n s a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d t o the program o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n .  Notable  among these were the 4-H Clubs o p e r a t i n g i n v a r i o u s p a r t s of the i s l a n d , and the Jamaica Youth Corps which organised camping p r o j e c t s f o r boys t o teach them t e c h n i c a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l s k i l l s and t o p r o v i d e them with experience  in social  and c o - o p e r a t i v e l i v i n g . G.  Finance:  The g e n e r a l sources and methods o f e d u c a t i o n a l  f i n a n c i n g i n Guyana and Jamaica were q u i t e s i m i l a r .  The  c e n t r a l n a t i o n a l budget p r o v i d e d the bulk o f the t o t a l educ a t i o n a l expenditure.  Students'  f e e s and a s s i s t a n c e from  i n t e r n a t i o n a l agencies supplemented Government's r e s o u r c e s . No s p e c i a l taxes were l e v i e d d i r e c t l y f o r e d u c a t i o n a l purposes.  In 1957-1958 Jamaica spent 11.2 percent of i t s  r e c u r r e n t budget and 11.6 percent of i t s development budget on e d u c a t i o n .  Comparative f i g u r e s f o r Guyana were 14.1  percent and 1.8 percent r e s p e c t i v e l y . h i g h development expenditure  i s accounted  dramatic i n c r e a s e i n secondary (see Chapter  8).  Jamaica's r e l a t i v e l y f o r mainly by the  s c h o o l f r e e p l a c e s i n 1958  I n 1966-1967 the r e c u r r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l  160 expenditure was 14.8 percent of the t o t a l r e c u r r e n t expendi t u r e f o r Jamaica and 17 percent f o r Guyana. As i n Guyana the r a t e of i n c r e a s e i n expenditure on secondary  e d u c a t i o n was mugh h i g h e r than t h a t f o r primary  e d u c a t i o n i n the 1950's and 1960's.  Between 1957 and 1967  expenditure on primary l e v e l e d u c a t i o n i n Jamaica i n c r e a s e d by 146 percent  (at c u r r e n t p r i c e s ) while t h a t on  l e v e l e d u c a t i o n rose by 364 p e r c e n t .  secondary  Corresponding  f o r Guyana were 163 percent and 372 percent  figures  respectively.  CHAPTER 7 THE  DISTRIBUTION OF HIGH SCHOOL OPPORTUNITY IN GUYANA 1957 - 1967  There i s no doubt t h a t the r o l e of the  secondary  grammar s c h o o l i n Guyana and Jamaica i n promoting the  ful-  f i l m e n t of p e r s o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s f o r upward s o c i a l m o b i l i t y has been c r u c i a l .  I t has  a l r e a d y been shown (Chapter  the c l e r i c a l s e r v i c e s provided employment.  The  5) t h a t  substantial opportunities for  usual p r e r e q u i s i t e for entry i n t o  s e r v i c e s i n c l u d i n g the t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n was  these  the  posses-  s i o n of a h i g h s c h o o l diploma or at l e a s t a s p e c i f i e d minimum o f h i g h s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e . e n t r y requirements,  Civil  Service  f o r example, were normally a Cambridge  School C e r t i f i c a t e , or some s t a t e d e q u i v a l e n t , with passes i n E n g l i s h and Mathematics. Again,  although t h e r e were a l t e r n a t i v e r o u t e s t o  coming a q u a l i f i e d primary and  be-  s c h o o l teacher, v a r i o u s grades  l e v e l s o f h i g h s c h o o l c e r t i f i c a t e s shortened  and made the t e a c h e r s ' p r e p a r a t i o n l e s s arduous. h i g h s c h o o l c e r t i f i c a t e a primary  the  process  Without a  s c h o o l graduate would  normally have t o pass e i g h t d i f f e r e n t l o c a l Teachers Examina t i o n s t o a c q u i r e the h i g h e s t c e r t i f i c a t e a v a i l a b l e f o r untrained teachers.  In theory a C l a s s I u n t r a i n e d 161  teacher's  162 c e r t i f i c a t e c o u l d be a c q u i r e d i n about 5 years, but i n p r a c t i c e the nature and o r g a n i s a t i o n o f the examinations, and the c o n d i t i o n s under which the teacher prepared f o r them, g e n e r a l l y made the process  interminable—failure  r a t e s f o r t h e Teachers' C e r t i f i c a t e examination tween 70% and 90% each y e a r . School C e r t i f i c a t e  v a r i e d be-  A Cambridge School or Higher  could make a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e  at l e a s t i n time i f not i n e f f o r t ; hence the importance, t o the teacher, of h i g h s c h o o l o p p o r t u n i t y . For the p u r s u i t o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n too, or o f study i n any of the l e a r n e d p r o f e s s i o n s , a h i g h s c h o o l c e r t i f i cate was i n d i s p e n s a b l e .  Higher e d u c a t i o n was obtained  chiefly i n British universities  and l a t e r a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y  of the West I n d i e s ; these i n s t i t u t i o n s n o r m a l l y r e q u i r e d f o r admission c e r t i f i c a t e s gained from examining Britain.  bodies i n  The Guyanese h i g h s c h o o l s , t h e r e f o r e , d i d not  grant t h e i r  own s c h o o l l e a v i n g c e r t i f i c a t e s but concentrated  almost e n t i r e l y on p r e p a r i n g t h e i r examinations.  students f o r overseas  Thus the o p p o r t u n i t i e s they p r o v i d e d were  useful only for limited  ends.  I t has always been  argued  t h a t t h i s need not have been the case; t h a t i s , t h a t there was  no i n t r i n s i c c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n p r e p a r i n g students f o r an  overseas examination w h i l e a t the same time o f f e r i n g  them  163 a l i b e r a l and p e r s o n a l l y s a t i s f y i n g e d u c a t i o n t h a t equipped them f o r c i t i z e n s h i p ; y e t the r e a l i t y o f t h e s i t u a t i o n was t h a t t h e r e was a v i r t u a l l y t o t a l n e g l e c t i n n e a r l y a l l but the two government financed or two g r a n t - a i d e d s c h o o l s of any area o f a c t i v i t y not i n c l u d e d i n narrowly Cambridge or London s y l l a b u s e s .  selected  Even i n these  four Govern-  ment and g r a n t - a i d e d s c h o o l s e f f o r t s t o d i v e r s i f y the c u r r i c u l a t o i n c l u d e c e r t a i n p r a c t i c a l or t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t s met  with stubborn r e s i s t a n c e u n t i l the 1950's.  Memorandum on E d u c a t i o n  The Hammond  i n B r i t i s h Guiana (1942) recommended  the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t e c h n i c a l courses  as Queen's C o l l e g e ,  but o n l y i n 1956 were a few Queen's C o l l e g e students r e l e a s e d one day per week t o attend c l a s s e s i n t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t s a t the nearby T e c h n i c a l I n s t i t u t e . the government-owned Bishop's  Then i n 1953  High School and two non-aided  C a t h o l i c secondary schools f o r g i r l s added Home Economics courses t o t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m o f f e r i n g s . In view of the importance o f secondary school educat i o n f o r s o c i a l , p r o f e s s i o n a l and m a t e r i a l advancement, two v i t a l q u e s t i o n s need t o be r a i s e d on the p r o v i s i o n o f h i g h school opportunity: 1.  Do the v a r i o u s h i g h which enable able q u a l i t y ?  schools a l l have  facilities  them t o provide e d u c a t i o n o f compar-  164 2.  Does the s e l e c t i o n process c o n s i s t e n t l y some groups of c h i l d r e n and exclude  favour  others?  I t i s t o these questions t h a t a t t e n t i o n w i l l now be d i r e c t ed .  F i r s t the p o s i t i o n i n 1957 w i l l be d e s c r i b e d and then  an a n a l y s i s made o f the f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o change between 1957 and 1967. 1.  D i s p a r i t i e s between the s c h o o l s , 1957: I n many r e s p e c t s  t h e r e was great advantage i n a t t e n d i n g one o f the two government or two aided secondary  schools and t o a l e s s  extent two or t h r e e denominational graduates  schools.  Not o n l y were  o f these i n s t i t u t i o n s h e l d i n h i g h e r s o c i a l and  academic e s t e e m — a circumstance  t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l y enhanced  t h e i r p r o s p e c t s f o r employment—but a c t u a l l y f a r s u p e r i o r t o the other  t h e schools were (non-aided) secondary  s c h o o l s i n terms of accommodation and equipment, breadth o f c u r r i c u l a r o f f e r i n g , q u a l i t y of s t a f f ,  amount o f f i n a n c e s  a v a i l a b l e and, with some q u a l i f i c a t i o n s t o be d i s c u s s e d , examination  results  achieved.  Classrooms i n the government and a i d e d schools were equipped  with separate d e s k - c h a i r s f o r p u p i l s and the  number of p u p i l s per classroom was kept at a maximum of 35. In most o f t h e p r i v a t e unaided  s c h o o l s p h y s i c a l accommodation  was u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . The normal s e a t i n g arrangement c o n s i s t e d  165 of long bench-desks each h o l d i n g 4 t o 6 c h i l d r e n . a l s o common t o f i n d i n one o f 40 t o 60 c h i l d r e n .  It  was  open schoolroom s e v e r a l c l a s s e s  1  Further d i s p a r i t i e s i n p h y s i c a l accommodation equipment c o u l d be d e t a i l e d , but  some s i d e l i g h t s on  and the  t o t a l s i t u a t i o n show c l e a r l y from the methods of f i n a n c i n g for the d i f f e r e n t  institutions.  ment s c h o o l students  and  aided schools paid f e e s .  About 60% of the govern-  a much g r e a t e r percentage i n the Though more than 90% of the  p r i v a t e s c h o o l students were fee-paying, these  schools were 30 t o 50 percent  ways promptly p a i d . e n t i r e l y on student estimated  Besides,  fees charged i n  l e s s and were not a l -  most p r i v a t e schools depended  fees f o r t h e i r o p e r a t i o n , while  t h r e e - f o u r t h s of the c o s t of running  ment schools was  met  from government funds1  an  the govern-  There e x i s t e d ,  too, great d i f f e r e n c e s between the government s c h o o l s  and  the aided s c h o o l s , as w e l l as between the government boys s c h o o l and  the government g i r l s s c h o o l .  per p u p i l i n the government schools was  The  average grant  about 4% times  h i g h e r than t h a t f o r the aided p r i v a t e s c h o o l s , and c o s t per c h i l d i n the government boys s c h o o l was  the  nearly  •"•The present w r i t e r had the experience of teaching mathematics t o a c l a s s of 70 c h i l d r e n i n one of these s c h o o l s .  166 60 percent h i g h e r  than t h a t f o r the g i r l s  school.  L a r g e l y as a r e s u l t o f meagre f i n a n c e s l a b o r a t o r i e s were n o n - e x i s t e n t  science  i n most of the p r i v a t e  secondary schools, and l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s were f a r from adequate.  Dr. Jagan, while  a member of the House of  Assembly i n 1951, advocated t h a t the s c i e n c e f a c i l i t i e s at Queen's C o l l e g e be opened t o p r i v a t e school students evenings,  but t h i s p r o p o s a l was r e j e c t e d .  i n the  However, when he  became the head o f the Government i n 1953, the p o l i c y was i n t r o d u c e d o f a d m i t t i n g t o the s i x t h forms of Queen's C o l l e g e and Bishop's High School p r i v a t e school graduates;  a s m a l l number o f the t o p  i n 1957 f i f t e e n such students were  admitted. S t a f f i n the government and aided s c h o o l s were b e t t e r p a i d , and male s t a f f i n the government boys s c h o o l received higher  s a l a r i e s than the female s t a f f with  q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i n the government g i r l s s c h o o l .  similar  Queen's  C o l l e g e and Bishop's High School were government subdepartments and the t e a c h e r s grade c i v i l pension  servants.  i n these  schools were s e n i o r  They enjoyed generous leave and  r i g h t s not a v a i l a b l e i n any measure t o p r i v a t e  school teachers.  T r a d i t i o n a l l y they were r e c r u i t e d from  B r i t a i n ; though t h i s p o l i c y was g r a d u a l l y r e l a x e d , both  167 schools had E n g l i s h p r i n c i p a l s u n t i l the 1960's. The  s t a f f i n the government schools were a l s o b e t t e r  qualified.  Over 70 percent of the t e a c h e r s were u n i v e r s i t y  graduates while fewer than a t h i r d of a l l p r i v a t e s c h o o l t e a c h e r s possessed  a minimum of a Grade I I High  C e r t i f i c a t e or 5 Cambridge or London "O"  School  L e v e l passes.  view o f t h e i r s u p e r i o r academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , c i v i l vant s t a t u s , h i g h e r remunerations  In ser-  and b e t t e r terms of  employment, the government secondary  school teachers  enjoyed  much more p r e s t i g e than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n the p r i v a t e schools.  Together  with the t e a c h e r s i n the two  schools they belonged The  aided  t o a separate t e a c h e r s a s s o c i a t i o n .  four s c h o o l s a l s o o r g a n i s e d t h e i r own  annual  athletic  and games competitions i n which students from other s c h o o l s d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e . the comparative  The  community was  q u i t e conscious of  p r a c t i c a l b e n e f i t s and s t a t u s values which  attached t o both t e a c h i n g and attendance  at the d i f f e r e n t  groups of s c h o o l s . Differences i n staffing,  f i n a n c i n g and equipment were  g e n e r a l l y r e f l e c t e d i n r e l a t i v e examination 1955  success.  In  about 20 percent of a group of 487 p r i v a t e s c h o o l  students gained 5 or more passes a t the Cambridge School C e r t i f i c a t e examination,  compared w i t h 50 percent of  188  168 students from the government and aided s c h o o l s at a comparable examination. differences  Germanacos ( i b i d : 6 3 ) showed t h a t the  were even g r e a t e r i n the 1961  examinations.  However, some r e s e r v a t i o n s must be e n t e r t a i n e d about the v a l i d i t y or s i g n i f i c a n c e of these comparisons. the p r i v a t e s c h o o l s achieved o u t s t a n d i n g  A few  of  success i n c e r t a i n  years and on the whole d i d much b e t t e r work than the  rest  of the p r i v a t e s c h o o l s ; i t i s somewhat m i s l e a d i n g t h e r e f o r e to  lump a l l the p r i v a t e schools i n one  category and  them with the government and aided s c h o o l s . important  Also,  f a c t o r s such as the l e v e l of attainment  compare other  of the  p u p i l s on e n t r y i n t o the s c h o o l s and the number of years of p r e p a r a t i o n need t o be taken  i n t o account i n comparing the  performance of v a r i o u s s c h o o l s .  Yet the b a s i c p o i n t remains  t h a t the p r o b a b i l i t y of a c h i e v i n g a h i g h s c h o o l diploma  was  g r e a t e r f o r students i n government s c h o o l s and t h e aided s c h o o l s than f o r students i n the other 2.  D i s t r i b u t i o n of o p p o r t u n i t y ,  1957:  schools. I t i s c l e a r t h a t the  government and aided secondary s c h o o l s o f f e r e d t h e i r wider e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , r i c h e r experiences b e t t e r chances o f examination secondary s c h o o l s .  students and  success than the p r i v a t e  I t i s t h e r e f o r e i n t e r e s t i n g t o see  how  the o p p o r t u n i t i e s they p r o v i d e d were d i s t r i b u t e d among the  169 v a r i o u s s o c i a l , o c c u p a t i o n a l and r e g i o n a l groups i n the country.  The  c o n c e n t r a t i o n of secondary s c h o o l s mainly i n  two  or t h r e e urban areas, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the c a p i t a l c i t y ,  and  t h e i r g e n e r a l dependence on s t u d e n t s ' fees f o r t h e i r  o p e r a t i o n , were two  f a c t o r s determining  of the secondary school p o p u l a t i o n .  the  composition  Of the 30  secondary  s c h o o l s l i s t e d i n M i n i s t r y of Education r e c o r d s f o r o n l y 8 p r i v a t e non-aided s c h o o l s were i n r u r a l proper.  Comprising  j u s t under a t h i r d of the  1957,  areas nation's  p o p u l a t i o n , the c a p i t a l c i t y Georgetown and another New  Amsterdam, had n e a r l y t w o - t h i r d s of a l l the  schools. cruited  Students  town,  secondary  i n the urban s c h o o l s tended to be r e -  from middle and upper socio-economic  classes within  the town and i t s e n v i r o n s . Data obtained on the background of students t o three schools i n 1957 and  socio-economic  g i v e an i n d i c a t i o n  inequalities  of the r e g i o n a l  in selection.  sampled r e p r e s e n t three d i f f e r e n t  admitted  Three  schools  s t r a t a c l a s s i f i e d on  the  combined bases of the esteem i n which the schools were h e l d , the l e v e l of f i n a n c i a l and other r e s o u r c e s ,  and the academic  r e c o r d and r e p u t a t i o n of the s c h o o l . We  look f i r s t at the p a t t e r n of admission  Queen's C o l l e g e , one  of the two  into  government secondary schools,  170; representing  the most p r e s t i g i o u s group.  114  students  admitted to t h i s s c h o o l — 3 1 i n the p r e p a r a t o r y the  f i r s t two  secondary forms and  Of the t o t a l , East Indians  74 were from Georgetown or roughly  forms. 65%.  comprised j u s t under o n e - t h i r d of a l l students,  Between 1953 form, one  East Indians, 23rd May,  form, 68 i n  46 i n the other  as w e l l as o n e - t h i r d of the Georgetown  paratory  were  and was  1956,  students.  o f the boys e n t e r i n g the  Amerindian,  5 were Portuguese,  19 E n g l i s h , 49 A f r i c a n s and  85 Chinese  pre17  (Hansard,  1957).  I t w i l l be remembered t h a t over 60% of the students Queen's C o l l e g e and r e s t won  Bishop's High School  paid fees.  The  s c h o l a r s h i p s on t h e i r performance at the Government  County S c h o l a r s h i p examination.  In 1957,  were awarded, 44 on a County b a s i s and  59  scholarships  15 open.  The  County  of Demerara (see Appendix 2) got 19 of the County awards a l l the open awards.  F u r t h e r , Georgetown p u p i l s won In f a c t i t was  population.  n e a r l y a l l the open awards.  previously discovered  c o n s i s t e n t l y won  and  T h i s meant t h a t 58% of the awards went  t o an area with about 40% of the school-age  separate  at  t h a t Georgetown p u p i l s  most of the Demerara County awards, so a  d i v i s i o n , R u r a l Demerara, was  c r e a t e d t o which 12  o f the 19 Demerara awards were a l l o c a t e d .  171 Our middle  group of s c h o o l s i s r e p r e s e n t e d by S t .  Rose's High School, a non-aided the 39 p u p i l s admitted  Roman C a t h o l i c S c h o o l .  Of  to t h i s s c h o o l 20 came from p r i v a t e  Roman C a t h o l i c p r e p a r a t o r y schools, 10 from Roman C a t h o l i c primary  schools, 6 from p r i v a t e p r e p a r a t o r y schools, and  went t o other primary  schools.  3  7 of the 39 e n t r a n t s were  E a s t I n d i a n s . 3 students came from schools o u t s i d e Georgetown. The  f a t h e r s of 6 students were employed i n lower  working  c l a s s n o n - c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s ; the o t h e r s were e i t h e r h i g h e r l e v e l p r o f e s s i o n a l s or businessmen or occupied s e n i o r c l e r i c a l or managerial Finally, non-aided  positions.  f o r T u t o r i a l High School, a  s c h o o l r e p r e s e n t i n g the lower  p u p i l s admitted  privately-owned  group, of the  210  65 percent came from the Georgetown a r e a .  ( G e n e r a l l y , more r u r a l c h i l d r e n attended t h i s l a s t group o f p r i v a t e s c h o o l s than the other schools.)  21 of the  e n t r a n t s were East Indians, but much s i g n i f i c a n c e  210  should  not be attached to t h i s f a c t because some o f the p r i v a t e non-aided  secondary  schools a t t r a c t e d mainly B l a c k  students,  and o t h e r s E a s t I n d i a n s . F a c t o r s C o n t r i b u t i n g to Change There were two  v e r y important  factors influencing  development of e d u c a t i o n i n Guyana i n the 1950's and  the  1960's,  172 and  c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the e x t e n s i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l  opportunity  t o groups t h a t were f o r m e r l y g r o s s l y under-represented i n the secondary s c h o o l system. These f a c t o r s were: 1.  the p a r t played by e t h n i c r i v a l r y between the B l a c k s and the E a s t Indians i n the i n c r e a s e o f e d u c a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s , and  2.  the determined e f f o r t of the s o c i a l i s t - o r i e n t e d Jagan government t o implement e g a l i t a r i a n  I n Guyana, e t h n i c d i v i s i o n s c o i n c i d e d c l o s e l y with grouping  (see Chapter 5 ) . T h i s circumstance  ideals.  political  contributed t o -  wards i n t e n s e o p p o s i t i o n t o the Jagan government's p r o p o s a l s f o r e d u c a t i o n a l reform,  not o n l y from the i d e o l o g i c a l l y  f e r e n t r i g h t - w i n g United Force, but from Burnham's  dif-  People's  N a t i o n a l Congress which shared many of the s o c i a l i d e a l s o f Jagan's People's  Progressive Party.  Educational  controversy  i n Guyana was t h e r e f o r e much l i v e l i e r than i n Jamaica where p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s were not d i v i d e d along r a c i a l  line.  I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t i n Guyana the B l a c k s t i o n a l l y dominated the s e r v i c e occupations  tradi-  i n c l u d i n g the  The p e r c e p t i o n o f the value o f e d u c a t i o n as a means of s o c i a l and economic advancement i s taken f o r granted as a background c o n t r i b u t o r y f a c t o r .  173 teaching p r o f e s s i o n . s o l i d a t e d and  P o l i t i c a l change i n the 1950's con-  i n t e n s i f i e d the i n t e r e s t which E a s t  Indians  began t o show i n e d u c a t i o n a few decades b e f o r e .  This  enthusiasm f o r e d u c a t i o n shown by East I n d i a n s was  new  reflect-  ed i n t h e i r i n c r e a s i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the secondary s c h o o l s and the t e a c h e r s ' t r a i n i n g  college.  e x p l a n a t i o n s can be o f f e r e d f o r t h i s r i s i n g F i r s t l y , E a s t Indians dominated People's entrance  Two  interest.  f e l t t h a t s i n c e the E a s t  P r o g r e s s i v e P a r t y was  t o the p r o f e s s i o n s and  Indian  i n power t h e i r  s e r v i c e occupations  ed o n l y on t h e i r p o s s e s s i o n of a p p r o p r i a t e educational q u a l i f i c a t i o n s .  related  Secondly,  depend-  competitive  they r e a l i s e d  the e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s themselves were now  that  more open  to Indians as a r e s u l t of the Jagan government's s u s t a i n e d e f f o r t t o e l i m i n a t e remaining selection controlled  o f both  s t a f f and  or aided  p r a c t i c e s i n the  students f o r the Government-  schools.  I t i s not suggested o p p o r t u n i t i e s was  ascriptive  that competition f o r educational  e n t i r e l y a matter of i n t e r - g r o u p r i v a l r y  between the Blacks and E a s t Indians, but t h a t such r i v a l r y was  an important  dimension of the p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t  tween the two major e t h n i c groups.  The  be-  c o m p e t i t i o n between  East Indians and Blacks f o r the u t i l i s a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l  174 s e r v i c e s and the a c q u i s i t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , though not much a s u b j e c t o f open p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n , could be  f e l t by any observer  communities.  Parents  who  l i v e d i n B l a c k or E a s t  Indian  i n one e t h n i c group would seek t o  spur t h e i r c h i l d r e n on t o g r e a t e r e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t r e f e r r i n g t o the i n t e r e s t shown by c h i l d r e n of the  by  other  group. The  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f E a s t Indians i n the  a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n c r e a s e d r a p i d l y a f t e r 1957. admissions  t o the Teachers'  of f r e e p l a c e s t o the top  education-  Records of  T r a i n i n g C o l l e g e and of winners  ( c h i e f l y Government) secondary  s c h o o l s r e v e a l the improved p o s i t i o n of E a s t Indians between 1957  and  1967.  t o the Teachers'  Between 1956  and  1959,  of the 90  T r a i n i n g C o l l e g e , 17 were E a s t Indians,  average of 20 p e r c e n t .  The  percentage of E a s t Indian  r o s e s t e a d i l y , r e a c h i n g 47% percent of the 120 admitted  entrants  f o r the 1967-1969 course.  The  an  entrants  students  change i n r e p r e s e n t -  a t i o n of East I n d i a n g i r l s among the student body of the teachers c o l l e g e was  even more pronounced.  45 female students e n t e r i n g between 1956 Indians—an  1959  were E a s t  11 percent r e p r e s e n t a t i o n — o f the 69 female  students e n t e r i n g i n 1967 percent.  and  Whereas 5 of the  E a s t Indians numbered 29,  or  42  E a s t I n d i a n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n c r e a s e d too among  175 f r e e p l a c e winners at the top secondary s c h o o l s .  In  1957  31 percent of the boys e n t e r i n g Queen's C o l l e g e were E a s t I n d i a n s ; i n 1967  the f i g u r e rose t o 48 p e r c e n t .  d a t a on the composition  of the 1967  Further  f r e e p l a c e winners t o  t h e top secondary schools are provided below (see p. The  rising  i n t e r e s t and achievement i n education  the E a s t Indians i s c l e a r l y apparent from these T h i s i n t e r e s t was rivalry,  192)  shown by figures.  no doubt s t i m u l a t e d not o n l y by  political  but by an awareness of the s o c i a l and m a t e r i a l  v a l u e of education,  as w e l l as by the removal by the Jagan  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a s c r i p t i v e b a r r i e r s t o v a r i o u s p o s i t i o n s i n the e d u c a t i o n a l and other  institutions.  E x p r e s s i o n of P u b l i c Concern f o r E q u a l i t y I n c r e a s i n g p o l i t i c a l awareness and  constitutional  development were accompanied by p u b l i c e x p r e s s i o n s of d i s content over the l i m i t e d and unequal o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r secondary e d u c a t i o n .  E d i t o r i a l commentators i n the major  newspapers, the D a i l y C h r o n i c l e and  the Guyana Graphic,  f r e q u e n t l y c r i t i c i s e d Government f o r i t s f a i l u r e to the p r i v a t e secondary s c h o o l s .  But i n t h e i r advocacy of  e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t y these commentators s t i l l embraced about the t r i p a r t i t e d i v i s i o n of students i n t o those c l a s s i c a l education,  those  support  ideas f i t for  f i t for t e c h n i c a l education  and  those  f i t f o r a g e n e r a l "modern" e d u c a t i o n .  f o r example,  (Guyana Graphic, March 15,  One  1957)  commentator,  called  government t o f o l l o w T r i n i d a d ' s l e a d i n c l a s s i f y i n g ary schools i n t o grammar schools, modern schools, technical schools.  Here again we  on second-  and  find a restrictive  inter-  p r e t a t i o n of e q u a l i t y of e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y t h a t stems from the adoption of the s o c i a l  s t r u c t u r e and  e d u c a t i o n a l ideas of European s o c i e t i e s .  supporting  So t h a t while  t h e r e i s a l e g i t i m a t e clamour f o r more s c h o o l p l a c e s f o r c h i l d r e n from d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l s t r a t a ,  and  for a d i v e r s i f i -  c a t i o n of c u r r i c u l u r o f f e r i n g s , t h e r e i s a l s o an d e s i r e t o commit c h i l d r e n at a young age t o a station in l i f e .  The  predetermined  In t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of equal opportun-  i t y t o the wider s o c i a l and s c h o o l are  implicit  i n t e g r a t i v e purposes of the  ignored. cause of extended h i g h s c h o o l o p p o r t u n i t y and  government f i n a n c i a l support  f o r p r i v a t e s c h o o l s was  ed by the t e a c h e r - a s s o c i a t i o n s .  Teachers,  pansion of secondary s c h o o l s .  of any  champion-  however, were not  always w i l l i n g t o a d j u s t t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l values p r a c t i c e s t o meet the requirements  of  and  l a r g e s c a l e ex-  In p e r i o d s of r a p i d growth  most c o u n t r i e s have had to i n t r o d u c e emergency teacher ing schemes, or t o modify t r a d i t i o n a l procedures  of  train-  teacher  177 e d u c a t i o n i n order t o meet the sharp r i s e i n teacher-demand. Guyana's case was  no e x c e p t i o n .  The  Teachers T r a i n i n g  C o l l e g e t r a d i t i o n a l l y turned out a maximum of 30 a n n u a l l y a f t e r a t r a i n i n g p e r i o d of two y e a r s . came the e l i t e of primary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s .  teachers These  be-  When p l a n s were  announced f o r r e d u c i n g the l e n g t h of t r a i n i n g and i n c r e a s i n g the number of admissions  i n t o the t e a c h e r ' s c o l l e g e ,  teacher a s s o c i a t i o n s r a i s e d a storm o f p r o t e s t a g a i n s t what they termed branch  'the proposed d i l u t i o n of s t a n d a r d s ' .  A  p r e s i d e n t d e c r i e d "the i n t e n t i o n of Government to  produce a mass-production  of one-year t r a i n e d t e a c h e r s "  ( D a i l y C h r o n i c l e , March 15,  1959).  Again,  the  General  P r e s i d e n t o f the B r i t i s h Guyana Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n drew a t t e n t i o n t o the f a c t t h a t the Teachers T r a i n i n g C o l l e g e had b u i l t up so good a r e p u t a t i o n over the years t h a t i t s graduates were admitted  t o read f o r the Diploma i n E d u c a t i o n  at London U n i v e r s i t y ; he was  t h e r e f o r e d i s t u r b e d over  p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t any m o d i f i e d t r a i n i n g i c e the r e t e n t i o n of t h i s p r i v i l e g e 2, 1959) .  The  the  scheme might p r e j u d -  (Daily Chronicle, A p r i l  t e a c h e r s t r a i n i n g c o l l e g e was  seen more as  a means of p e r s o n a l improvement f o r a h a n d f u l of t e a c h e r s f o r t u n a t e enough t o g a i n admission r a t h e r than as an agency for improving  the q u a l i t y of as many of the  country's  178 t e a c h e r s as p o s s i b l e .  Thus sentiments  f o r the expansion o f  s c h o o l o p p o r t u n i t y were not always accompanied by a commitment t o such changes i n other s e c t i o n s of the e d u c a t i o n a l system, and such changes i n g o a l s and v a l u e s , as were necessary  to effect t h i s  expansion.  Abernethy (1969) noted t h i s tendency of t e a c h e r s t o be concerned with the maintenance of t r a d i t i o n a l r a t h e r than t h e r e v o l u t i o n i s i n g  standards  o f e d u c a t i o n t o meet  c u r r e n t needs.  B a s i c a l l y t h i s comment i s a p p l i c a b l e t o the  s i t u a t i o n both  i n Guyana and Jamaica, but with two q u a l i f i -  cations.  Firstly,  while t e a c h e r s have been  w i t h m a i n t a i n i n g t r a d i t i o n a l standards  preoccupied  and have played  only  a minor p a r t i n i n i t i a t i n g r a d i c a l change, they have i n t h e o r y at l e a s t as suggested  supported  many e d u c a t i o n a l i n n o v a t i o n s ; but,  e a r l i e r , they have not been t o o eager t o c a r r y  out and accept a l l the new r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and the reformul a t i o n o f goals l o g i c a l l y r e q u i r e d by the changes i n t r o d u c e d . To g i v e a concrete example, the expansion o p p o r t u n i t y has g e n e r a l l y been accepted  of h i g h  by h i g h  school  school  t e a c h e r s i n Guyana and Jamaica, but they have not been quick t o r e o r g a n i s e t h e i r t e a c h i n g and c u r r i c u l a a t the lower l e v e l s t o c a t e r f o r the l a r g e i n f l u x of new e n t r a n t s drawn from wider s e c t i o n s o f the community and with a wide range  179 I  of  ability.  Nor has t h e r e been a w i l l i n g n e s s t o modify  the t r a d i t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e of the t o t a l h i g h s c h o o l course, namely, the achievement by students o f s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t passes  i n overseas examinations.  Instead, h i g h s c h o o l  t e a c h e r s continue year a f t e r year t o lament the low of  attainment  the primary  o f the new  h i g h s c h o o l e n t r a n t s , and t o blame  s c h o o l s f o r not doing t h e i r  job w e l l .  Students  are o f t e n condemned, too, as being u n f i t f o r h i g h education.  standard  school  Note f o r i n s t a n c e t h i s comment by a u n i v e r s i t y  student i n Guyana i n a term paper on problems of the secondary primary  school teacher.  s c h o o l graduates  schools he d e c l a r e d , "The One  A f t e r e x p l a i n i n g t h a t the best get e n r o l l e d i n the top  secondary  r e s i d u a l dregs t h a t reach Form  are d e f i n i t e l y not the k i n d of p u p i l s t h a t the  secondary  schools or the secondary  ary schools would be proud of." o p i n i o n expressed Association  other  departments of the  When one  notes, too,  by the P r e s i d e n t o f Guyana  ( D a i l y C h r o n i c l e , September 9,  primthe  Teachers  1957)  that  out of 100 c h i l d r e n i s a generous estimate f o r those  "20 who  show r e a l a p t i t u d e f o r the k i n d of t r a i n i n g which w i l l make school t e a c h e r s and c i v i l  servants out of them", an argument  used t o support the e s t a b l i s h m e n t one  r e a l i s e s how  new  of v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s ,  e d u c a t i o n s t r u c t u r e s are planned  without  180 any r e l a x a t i o n o f commitment t o o l d v a l u e s . The  second  Abernethy's  q u a l i f i c a t i o n t h a t must be put on  assessment i s t h a t i t i s not o n l y t e a c h e r s who  show a p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h s t a n d a r d s . themselves  Parents and students  o f t e n b e t r a y an awesome r e g a r d f o r the hallowed  standards of the p a s t .  The present w r i t e r r e c a l l s h i s i n -  formal d i s c u s s i o n s with h i g h s c h o o l graduates  i n Guyana  when t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a u n i v e r s i t y i n Guyana was proposed.  These graduates, many o f them with  and unquestionable had reached  aspirations  c r e d e n t i a l s t o pursue h i g h e r education,  a dead end i n t h e i r academic career because of  t h e l a c k o f f a c i l i t i e s i n Guyana and the e x o r b i t a n t c o s t of o b t a i n i n g u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n abroad.  Yet they  a t the i d e a of a u n i v e r s i t y i n Guyana, concerned were with the "low standards" achieve.  scoffed  as they  such a u n i v e r s i t y might  I t should be observed,  though, t h a t the students  i n q u e s t i o n were mostly B l a c k s , who would g e n e r a l l y have been h o s t i l e t o changes proposed  by the dominantly  East  I n d i a n r u l i n g p a r t y — t h e o b j e c t i o n s about standards, might have c a r r i e d a heavy t a i n t of r a t i o n a l i s a t i o n . i s probably t r u e t h a t people i n s p i t e o f t h e i r i d e a l s worship  academic heroes  then, Yet i t  egalitarian  and admire t h e e d u c a t i o n a l  i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t are e x c l u s i v e l y devoted  t o n u r t u r i n g them,  181 j u s t as they admire emperors and maharajahas and t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements t h a t f o s t e r t h e r i s e of these e x c l u s i v e elites.  Hence the o b j e c t i o n t o a l o c a l u n i v e r s i t y which  promised some ease o f access t o many who might not otherwise get an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r h i g h e r  education.  The Role of Government We t u r n next t o the r o l e of Government i n the expans i o n o f h i g h s c h o o l o p p o r t u n i t y i n Guyana i n the 1950's and e a r l y 1960's.  The Jagan a d m i n i s t r a t i o n d e c l a r e d i t s commit-  ment t o the i d e a l o f equal o p p o r t u n i t y i n terms s i m i l a r , as we s h a l l see, t o those expressed leaders.  During  by Jamaica's p o l i t i c a l  i t s term o f o f f i c e i t sought t o accomplish  t h r e e main o b j e c t i v e s ; i.  t o l e s s e n the i n f l u e n c e of the C h r i s t i a n  churches  i n the appointment o f t e a c h e r s and r e c r u i t m e n t of teachers; ii.  t o democratise  e n t r y i n t o the secondary  schools  by i n t r o d u c i n g a s i n g l e n a t i o n a l entrance  examin-  a t i o n ; and iii.  t o expand secondary  s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s and make  them a v a i l a b l e t o wider s o c i a l s t r a t a i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f the country, i n s t e a d o f i n v e s t i n g a l l of Government's r e s o u r c e s on 3 or 4 urban s c h o o l s .  182 The Government's s t r u g g l e with the Church was a long and b i t t e r one, only the b a r e s t o u t l i n e o f which can be attempted here .  The system o f d u a l c o n t r o l o f s c h o o l s i n  Guyana was d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter 6.  B r i e f l y , t h i s system  made i t p o s s i b l e f o r the v a r i o u s church  administrations  t o e x e r c i s e c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r o l over the denominational primary  schools, which were h e a v i l y f i n a n c e d with p u b l i c  funds.  I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t one Roman C a t h o l i c and  one Lutheran  secondary s c h o o l r e c e i v e d Government a i d .  Jagan's s o c i a l i s t People's i t s uneasiness  P r o g r e s s i v e P a r t y d i d not conceal  over t h e power wielded by the Church with the  a i d of Government's r e s o u r c e s .  I t was w e l l known t h a t i n  matters o f appointment o f t e a c h e r s and s e l e c t i o n o f students church membership was a decided advantage. own appointment t o an A n g l i c a n primary  The w r i t e r ' s  s c h o o l was accompan-  i e d by a g e n t l e p e r s u a s i o n by t h e headmaster t h a t t h i n g s would be so much n i c e r i f he were b a p t i s e d i n the A n g l i c a n Chur c h . I n both the aided and the unaided  C a t h o l i c secondary  schools there was a predominance o f C a t h o l i c primary graduates.  I t was noted,  school  f o r example (see p.171), t h a t 30  of the 39 e n t r a n t s t o t h e C a t h o l i c S t . Rose's High School i n 1957  were from C a t h o l i c primary  or p r e p a r a t o r y  schools.  183 (Less than o n e - s i x t h of a l l the primary schools were Roman Catholic.) Frequent charges of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n appointments and admissions were l e v e l l e d a g a i n s t the Roman C a t h o l i c Church by m i n i s t e r s i n the Jagan Government.  One one o c c a s -  i o n the M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n d e c l a r e d i n a p u b l i c  speech:  Many c h i l d r e n o f r e s p e c t a b l e parentage were r e c e n t l y d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t and r e j e c t e d when t h e i r names were put forward by t h e E d u c a t i o n Department as being e n t i t l e d by v i r t u e of t h e i r performance a t the 1961 Government Primary S c h o l a r s h i p and Secondary Schools Common Entrance Examination t o admission t o these schools, and c h i l d r e n who were p l a c e d lower i n the order of m e r i t l i s t were s e l e c t e d . (Daily Chronicle, June 17, 1961 The M i n i s t e r threatened t o withdraw Government g r a n t s t o the schools i n q u e s t i o n , s t a t i n g : . . . how can the r i g h t o f freedom o f conscience be e f f e c t i v e l y guaranteed when i n order t o o b t a i n employment i n the C a t h o l i c School one has t o change one's name and r e l i g i o n ; when i n order t o get admission t o a C a t h o l i c School one has t o change one's name and r e l i g i o n , or i s d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t i f one i s a nonCatholic? (Ibid) Challenged t o g i v e evidence o f t h e a l l e g e d  discrimination,  the M i n i s t e r named 10 E a s t I n d i a n c a n d i d a t e s who were r e f u s e d admission t o C a t h o l i c secondary  s c h o o l s although t h e i r  stand-  i n g on the entrance examination earned them the r i g h t o f admission.  He noted:  184 Of 40 p l a c e s a v a i l a b l e i n S t . S t a n i s l a u s , the C a t h o l i c secondary s c h o o l f o r boys, o n l y 30 were chosen i n order of m e r i t and the reason was because they had come from C a t h o l i c s c h o o l s and had s t a t e d t h e i r f i r s t c h o i c e as S t . S t a n i s l a u s . ( I b i d . , June 25, 1961) In the case of S t . Rose's and S t . Joseph's, two C a t h o l i c girls' ted  schools, i t was maintained  t h a t o f 110 p l a c e s  o n l y 30 were chosen i n accordance with the m e r i t  w h i l e no fewer than 14 o f t h e candidates  admitted  allotlist,  failed to  r e a c h t h e minimum l e v e l recommended by the M i n i s t r y of Education  f o r e n t r y t o t h e aided  schools.  C r i t i c i s m s a l l e g i n g d i s c r i m i n a t i o n by the C h r i s t i a n churches a g a i n s t n o n - C h r i s t i a n t e a c h e r s and students  seldom  contained any d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e t o r a c e , but i t i s known t h a t the People's unfavourable  P r o g r e s s i v e P a r t y was concerned over the  p o s i t i o n o f E a s t Indian t e a c h e r s and students,  most of whom were e i t h e r Hindus or Muslims.  The Jagan  Government r e a c t e d t o the s i t u a t i o n i t condemned by p r o posing the establishment and by t a k i n g over  of a Teachers S e r v i c e Commission,  f u l l c o n t r o l and ownership of 50 primary  s c h o o l s which were b u i l t out of p u b l i c funds. ary l e v e l i t decreed Common Entrance  A t the second-  t h a t o n l y those who q u a l i f i e d a t the  Examination should be admitted  t o the aided  secondary s c h o o l s . These measures met with s t i f f o p p o s i t i o n from Church  185 a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s as w e l l as the p r i n c i p a l s o f most nondenominational  aided secondary schools .  Government was  charged with seeking t o d e s t r o y the freedom o f parents t o send t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o a s c h o o l o f t h e i r c h o i c e and with attempting  t o d r i v e t h e p r i v a t e l y owned s c h o o l s out of  existence.  P e t i t i o n s were sent t o the U n i t e d  and parents  and c h i l d r e n were organised t o stage p r o t e s t  rallies .  Nations,  I t must be noted t h a t t h i s m i l i t a n c y took p l a c e  i n a general c l i m a t e of i n t e n s e s t r u g g l e between Government and  a l l t h e f o r c e s opposed t o i t — t h e  Black dominated trade  unions and O p p o s i t i o n Party, r i g h t wing p o l i t i c a l and c i t y merchants. was  groups,  I n t h i s c l i m a t e o f o p p o s i t i o n there  l i t t l e e f f o r t a t compromise and c o o p e r a t i o n but Govern-  ment was s t i l l change.  able t o use i t s l e g i s l a t i v e power t o e f f e c t  Students  were now admitted  t o t h e aided and Govern-  ment secondary schools on the b a s i s of t h e i r performance at 3 a common s e l e c t i o n examination.  (Both by r e g u l a t i o n , how-  ever, and by a loop-hole i n t h e law, the aided schools could still  admit l i m i t e d numbers of students of t h e i r Government's r o l e i n extending  choice.)  educational opportunity  I n Jamaica, where both p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s represented a c r o s s s e c t i o n o f e t h n i c and socio-economic groups, a s i m i l a r change i n s e l e c t i o n procedures was accomplished without c o n t r o v e r s y .  186 was  not merely l e g i s l a t i v e .  I t i n t r o d u c e d and executed  p o l i c y , continued by the Burnham a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , of i s i n g secondary s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s ;  so t h a t by 1967  a  localthere  were 25 Government secondary s c h o o l s i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f the country,  compared with the e x i s t e n c e of o n l y 2 Govern-  ment Secondary s c h o o l s i n Georgetown i n 1957. of  The  students i n the Government and Government-aided  a r y s c h o o l s rose from 1,765 first  some of the new  i n 1957  number second-  t o 16,565 i n 1967.  government schools r a n w e l l below  c a p a c i t y because not enough c h i l d r e n w i t h i n the area by the s c h o o l s reached Common Entrance  At  served  the r e q u i r e d minimum l e v e l at the  Examination.  T h i s s i t u a t i o n provided  a  c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n of the i n f l e x i b l e ideas h e l d about the nature  and  purpose of secondary education,  namely, a k i n d of  academic o f f e r i n g s u i t a b l e o n l y f o r the o u t s t a n d i n g L a t e r , however, perhaps more from a d e s i r e t o  few.  prevent  economic wastage than from a change of h e a r t on the p a r t o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , entrance allow the s c h o o l s t o f i l l The  r e g u l a t i o n s were r e l a x e d t o  their  vacancies.  i n c r e a s i n g a t t e n t i o n paid t o the expansion  e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y i s r e f l e c t e d as w e l l i n the expenditure  of  rising  on e d u c a t i o n g e n e r a l l y , and on secondary edu-  cation i n particular.  The  r e c u r r e n t e d u c a t i o n budget rose  187 from 14 percent o f the t o t a l r e c u r r e n t p u b l i c budget i n 1957  t o 17 percent i n 1967, while the p r o p o r t i o n of t h e  r e c u r r e n t e d u c a t i o n budget devoted  t o secondary  education  rose from 6.3 percent t o 13 p e r c e n t . The establishment  o f a secondary  school i n a previous-  l y d e p r i v e d area d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y mean a noteworthy r e d u c t i o n i n i n e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y , f o r secondary v a r i e d w i d e l y i n q u a l i t y and r e s o u r c e s .  schools  The long e s t a b l i s h -  ed s c h o o l s , f o r i n s t a n c e , Queen's C o l l e g e and Bishop's  High  School i n Georgetown, and B e r b i c e High School i n New Amsterdam (which became a Government s c h o o l i n 1963) had a t o t a l o f 56 graduate new s c h o o l s .  t e a c h e r s as a g a i n s t o n l y 49 i n t h e 22  Teachers  were s t i l l  a t t r a c t e d t o the o l d e r  s c h o o l s where s a l a r i e s and c o n d i t i o n s o f s e r v i c e were much better.  Queen's C o l l e g e and Bishop's High School  continued  t o occupy the s p e c i a l p l a c e they have always h e l d i n Guyana's e d u c a t i o n system (see p.166).  No Government has been able,  or perhaps has ever cared, t o a l t e r  s i g n i f i c a n t l y the  o r g a n i s a t i o n and f u n c t i o n of these s c h o o l s .  Measures f o r  t h e d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n o f the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a have always passed  these s c h o o l s by, e s p e c i a l l y so Queen's C o l l e g e .  Even the most r a d i c a l M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n Guyana has ever had,  t h e People's P r o g r e s s i v e P a r t y ' s C e d r i c Nunes,  188 d e c l a r i n g h i s Government's commitment t o a comprehensive s c h o o l p o l i c y , added t h e caveat: C h i l d r e n who would b e n e f i t most from a secondary Modern type of e d u c a t i o n would be c a t e r e d f o r i n Government Secondary Modern Schools, or, f o r the time being, i n the Secondary Modern D i v i s i o n o f the p r e s e n t a l l - a g e s c h o o l s . . . The a d d i t i o n a l p l a c e s which would then be made i n the Secondary Grammar Schools w i l l be r e s e r v e d o n l y f o r those c h i l d r e n who are c o n s i d e r e d most l i k e l y t o b e n e f i t from such s c h o o l s . (Daily Chronicle, July 8, 1962) Today t h i s t h i n k i n g s t i l l remains.  New comprehensive s c h o o l s  are s e t up w h i l e t h e sacred c l a s s i c a l grammar s c h o o l s remain essentially unaltered. A f u r t h e r e f f o r t by the Jagan a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o make good i t s promise of secondary e d u c a t i o n f o r a l l proved abortive.  The upper s e c t i o n o f the a l l - a g e s c h o o l s were  r e q u i r e d t o be r e - o r g a n i s e d i n t o secondary departments p r e p a r i n g students f o r t h e normal overseas examinations i n mathematics,  language, s c i e n c e and the s o c i a l s t u d i e s .  In  most cases not even modest changes were made i n personnel and equipment.  Consequently, with a few e x c e p t i o n s which  the Government dramatised, the s c h o o l s were unable t o meet t h e i r new r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . In t h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f Government's r o l e i n expanding secondary s c h o o l o p p o r t u n i t y t h e p a r t p l a y e d by the Jagan a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was our primary c o n c e r n .  T h i s Government,  189 which l a s t e d from 1957 t o 1964, succeeded i n broadening the base o f secondary education, ing  expanding the teacher  train-  programmes, r e d u c i n g the grosser forms o f r e l i g i o u s  and r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n the s e l e c t i o n o f students and teachers  f o r the Government schools and t o some extent f o r  t h e aided secondary schools, f a c i l i t i e s t o r u r a l areas, Guyana.  spreading  out secondary s c h o o l  and s e t t i n g up the U n i v e r s i t y o f  I t f a i l e d t o e f f e c t any r e a l r e - o r g a n i s a t i o n of  secondary s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a and t o remove the d i s t i n c t i o n between students students  f i t f o r grammar s c h o o l education and  f i t f o r p r a c t i c a l education.  There i s no doubt,  however, t h a t the r e t e n t i o n o f the t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o l c u l a was supported  i n g e n e r a l by the popular  education.  the years  During  attitudes to  1964-1967 the Burnham Govern-  ment mainly c o n s o l i d a t e d the work o f the p r e v i o u s tion.  curri-  administra-  Major r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s by the Burnham a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  f a l l o u t s i d e t h e p e r i o d o f our i n v e s t i g a t i o n , but have so far  c o n s i s t e d o f the e r e c t i o n of t e c h n i c a l and comprehensive  h i g h schools, i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f the country,  heavily  anced by World Bank l o a n s . E f f e c t o f Changes on the D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Free i n the Top Secondary  Places*  Schools  Through the d e c e n t r a l i s a t i o n o f secondary school *No t u i t i o n  fees.  fin-  190 f a c i l i t i e s , h i g h s c h o o l o p p o r t u n i t y was extended t o formerl y d e p r i v e d r e g i o n a l and s o c i a l groups.  But the two Govern-  ment secondary schools i n Georgetown continued  t o provide  s e r v i c e s f a r s u p e r i o r t o those o f f e r e d by a l l other  govern-  ment s c h o o l s and most o f the p r i v a t e or aided secondary schools.  I t was noted e a r l i e r t h a t i n t h e 1950's the  e n t r a n t s t o these two schools which r e c e i v e d the bulk o f Government's secondary s c h o o l expenditure  were drawn mainly  from urban, non-Indian, and middle and upper groups.  socio-economic  I n a d d i t i o n , an a n a l y s i s of the admissions  to a  Roman C a t h o l i c aided secondary s c h o o l i n 1957 showed t h a t most of the e n t r a n t s came from p r i v a t e Roman C a t h o l i c preparatory  schools or from Roman C a t h o l i c primary  schools .  L e g i s l a t i v e and other changes i n i t i a t e d d u r i n g 19571967  i n an e f f o r t t o a l t e r these p a t t e r n s of r e c r u i t m e n t  have been d i s c u s s e d above.  We s h a l l now examine the e f f e c t  of these changes on the composition  of the f r e e p l a c e  winners t o the t o p secondary s c h o o l s . The  d i f f e r e n t i a l s t o be considered a r e :  a.  ethnic differences;  b.  regional differences;  c.  d i f f e r e n c e s i n p a r e n t a l o c c u p a t i o n ; and  d.  d i f f e r e n c e s i n type o f p r e v i o u s s c h o o l  attended.  191 The  occupations  of parents  were d i v i d e d i n t o 7  c a t e g o r i e s as f o l l o w s : 1.  P r o f e s s i o n a l and E x e c u t i v e — i n c l u d i n g members of the  l e a r n e d p r o f e s s i o n s , heads of government  departments and 2.  Teachers.  3.  C l e r i c a l and  executives.  Service workers—including  clerks, c i v i l 4.  business  servants, nurses,  Commercial—chiefly  store  policemen.  p r i v a t e t r a d e r s and  business-  men . 5.  S k i l l e d and  s e m i - s k i l l e d — i n c l u d i n g craftsmen,  tradesmen, middle and 6.  lower order  technicians.  U n s k i l l e d — i n c l u d i n g manual l a b o u r e r s ,  farmers,  f a c t o r y workers. 7.  H o u s e w i f e — t h e r e was  a l a r g e number of responses  with t h i s u n i n s t r u c t i v e d e s i g n a t i o n , which w i l l have t o be t r e a t e d as T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was  'unknown* .  adopted on the premise t h a t  m a t e r i a l wealth, s o c i a l s t a t u s and values, ground, and  educational  c u r r e n t c o n t a c t with the world of books combine  t o c r e a t e an environment f o r the c h i l d conducive t o supportive  back-  and  o f the k i n d of l e a r n i n g r e q u i r e d f o r success  the secondary schools entrance examination i n p a r t i c u l a r  at and  192 the k i n d o f s c h o o l i n g i n g e n e r a l .  I t i s f u r t h e r assumed  t h a t C a t e g o r i e s 1-4 embody these a t t r i b u t e s t o a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r degree than C a t e g o r i e s of  5-6, and i n the d i s c u s s i o n  the d a t a comparison w i l l be made between these two  groupings.  One f u r t h e r advantage o f t h i s broad  grouping i s  t h a t i t should h e l p t o reduce the p o s s i b l e e r r o r s r e s u l t i n g from i n t e r p r e t a t i v e judgements which were made necessary by the inadequacy of i n f o r m a t i o n obtained Education (a)  from M i n i s t r y of  files,  Ethnic differences In 1967 Government awarded 284 secondary school f r e e  p l a c e s mainly  at the t o p t h r e e Government Schools,  C o l l e g e , Bishop's  High School,  Queen's  and B e r b i c e High S c h o o l .  131 o f these p l a c e s went t o boys and 143 t o g i r l s . 46 percent of  the boys and 31 percent o f the g i r l s were E a s t  I n a l l , E a s t Indians comprised 37 percent  Indians.  of t h e winners.  Between 1953 and 1956 an average o f about 15 percent o f the e n t r a n t s t o Queen's C o l l e g e were E a s t I n d i a n s .  The p r o p o r t i o n  of East Indians rose t o 31 percent  i n 1957, and t o 48 percent  i n 1967.^  almost e l i m i n a t e d t h e i r  E a s t I n d i a n boys, then,  disadvantage  i n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n Queen's C o l l e g e d u r i n g  I n 1967 E a s t Indians comprised about 51 percent of Guyana's t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n .  193 the Jagan regime.  F i g u r e s f o r the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of E a s t  Indian g i r l s i n Bishop's a b l e , but i n 1967  High School i n 1957  are not  avail-  they comprised about 37 percent of the  entrants. (b)  Regional d i f f e r e n c e s I n 1957  about 65 percent  of the 74 e n t r a n t s t o  Queen's C o l l e g e were from Georgetown.  In 1967,  of the  e n t r a n t s 80 were from the m e t r o p o l i t a n area, again mately 65 p e r c e n t . winners i n 1967  approxi-  Of the t o t a l number of f r e e p l a c e  over  75 percent came from Greater Georgetown  (72 percent of the boys and There was  124  78 percent of the g i r l s ) .  no improvement i n the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the r u r a l  groups. (c)  Occupational d i f f e r e n c e s The  f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows the percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n  of f r e e p l a c e winners a c c o r d i n g t o o c c u p a t i o n a l group, race, and  sex: Table  (12)  Percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n of 1967 f r e e p l a c e winners a c c o r d i n g t o p a r e n t a l occupation, sex, and r a c e . (N = 284 = 131 Boys + 153 G i r l s ) Boys (%)  Occupational Group  1.  Professional and E x e c u t i v e  Girls  (%)  Ind- Non- T o t a l ian Indian  Ind- Non- T o t a l ian Indian  5.3  7.8  6.9  12.2  11.1  18.9  Gr and Total  15.8  194 Table  (12)  Continued Boys (%) Ind- Non- T o t a l i a n Indian  Girls i n d - Noni a n Indian  5.3  6.9  12.2  2.6  7.8  10.4  11.3  S e r v i c e Workers 11.4  26.0  37.5  6.5  22.9  29.4  33.1  11.5  6.1  17.6  5.9  11.1  17.0  17.3  Semi-skilled  3.8  3.1  6.9  2.0  11.1  13.1  10.2  6.  Unskilled  6.9  1.5  8.4  1.3  2.6  3.9  6.0  7.  Housewife and  1.5  3 .8  5.3  3 .3  4.0  7 .3  6.3  Occupational Group  2.  Teachers  3.  Clerks  Total  and  4.  Commercial  5.  Skilled  8.  (%)" Total  and  Unspecified Classes  ) ) )  1-4,  the p r o f e s s i o n a l  and  c l e r i c a l groups,  are h e a v i l y over r e p r e s e n t e d r e l a t i v e l y t o t h e i r of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . upper c l a s s e s i n Guyana was  The  p o s i t i o n of these middle  Firstly, was  percent of the  winners i n Guyana compared with 50.1  (see p.234) .  Two  the number of f r e e p l a c e s much smaller  free  percent i n Jamaica  factors help to explain this  proportionately  and  more advantageous than i n  Jamaica, f o r they comprised about 77.5 place  proportion  difference.  a v a i l a b l e i n Guyana  than i n Jamaica.  was  With very  - In 1965, the l a t e s t year f o r which r e l e v a n t f i g u r e s are a v a i l a b l e , these groups comprised about 45.8% of the labour f o r c e . (0. J . F r a n c i s . Manpower Survey Report, 1965) )  195 few  f r e e p l a c e s a v a i l a b l e , upper c l a s s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s  l i k e l y t o be h i g h .  Secondly,  being somewhat more urbanised would have provided  i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t Jamaica, and i n d u s t r i a l i s e d than Guyana,  a b e t t e r e d u c a t i o n a l and  economic  c l i m a t e f o r the c h i l d r e n of s k i l l e d workers, e n a b l i n g them t o compete with other o c c u p a t i o n a l groups on l e s s uneven terms than t h e i r counterpart  i n Guyana.  Some d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p a t t e r n of o c c u p a t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n between the E a s t Indians and other e t h n i c groups i n Guyana r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f these groups.  For the boys f o r example, g r e a t e s t d i s p a r -  i t i e s l i e i n the c l e r i c a l , pations.  26 percent  commercial and u n s k i l l e d  of the boys winning f r e e p l a c e s were  c h i l d r e n of non-Indian c l e r k s and w i t h 11.4  percent  occu-  f o r the I n d i a n s .  s e r v i c e workers, compared On the other hand i n  the commercial c l a s s I n d i a n boys accounted f o r 11.5 o f the winners as a g a i n s t o n l y 6.1  percent  percent  f o r non-Indian  groups.  B l a c k s and other non-Indian groups dominated the  clerical  and  s e r v i c e occupations while the East  were prominent among the merchant c l a s s . i n the  ' u n s k i l l e d ' c l a s s accounted f o r 6.9  Indians  E a s t I n d i a n boys percent of the  winners while non-Indians c o n s t i t u t e d o n l y 1.5  percent.  Farmers were l i s t e d i n t h i s category and i t i s p o s s i b l e  t h a t t h i s group c o n s i s t e d of a number of s u c c e s s f u l I n d i a n small  farmers. A l s o s t r i k i n g i s t h e r e l a t i v e l y poor showing o f the  Indian g i r l s of s k i l l e d ,  s e m i - s k i l l e d and u n s k i l l e d workers  compared w i t h both I n d i a n boys and non-Indian  girls.  From  these d i f f e r e n c e s one c o u l d perhaps propose a h y p o t h e s i s t h a t the p r e s s u r e s on I n d i a n g i r l s o f lower working parents f o r post-primary  class  e d u c a t i o n a l achievement were l e s s  severe than on I n d i a n boys and non-Indian  g i r l s i n the same  group. (d)  D i f f e r e n c e s i n type of p r e v i o u s s c h o o l The  attended  f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the  f r e e p l a c e winners a c c o r d i n g t o the type o f s c h o o l  attended  previously: Table  (13)  Percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n o f 1967 f r e e p l a c e winners a c c o r d i n g t o the type of p r e v i o u s s c h o o l attended, r a c i a l group, and sex. (N= 284 = 131 Boys + 153 G i r l s )  Type of P r e v i o u s I n d - Nonbcnooi _ B  ±  a  n  o  v  s  <*> Total  I n d  G  i  a  i  r  l  s  I n d - Non_ n  I n d  ian  '<*> Total T  G  r a n d U i c U 1  Q  t  a  l  ian  Private Preparatory  10.7  14.5  25.2  11.8  33.3  45.1  35.9  Public Primary  35.1  39.7  74.8  17.6  37.3  54.9  64.1  197 In Guyana the award of f r e e p l a c e s t o p r e p a r a t o r y s c h o o l students was was  not r e s t r i c t e d by l e g i s l a t i o n as i t  i n Jamaica (see Chapter 8 ) .  These students  comprising  not more than 5 percent of the r e l e v a n t s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n won  n e a r l y 36 percent of the p l a c e s . I t w i l l be n o t i c e d t h a t the p r o p o r t i o n of p r e p a r a t -  ory s c h o o l students winning f r e e p l a c e s was g i r l s than  f o r boys.  Middle  much h i g h e r f o r  c l a s s parents i n Guyana are  more l i k e l y t o send t h e i r daughters to p r i v a t e p r e p a r a t o r y s c h o o l s and t h e i r sons t o p u b l i c primary F u r t h e r , the p a t t e r n of success Indians and non-Indians.  schools.  i s s i m i l a r for  The headmistress  of one  of the  l e a d i n g p r e p a r a t o r y s c h o o l s i n Georgetown informed  the  sent w r i t e r i n an i n t e r v i e w t h a t over the l a s t 10  years  pre-  E a s t Indians have shown an unprecedented i n t e r e s t i n e n r o l l i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n her  school.  Formerly,  she r e c e i v e d a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r admission  she  observed,  from a small  number of educated upper c l a s s E a s t I n d i a n s ; but i n r e c e n t times I n d i a n parents seeking a p l a c e f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n have come from d i f f e r e n t well  s o c i a l s t r a t a , with the business  class  represented. In g e n e r a l a l l our evidence  i n d i c a t e s the upsurae of  i n t e r e s t and r i s i n g e d u c a t i o n a l achievement of the East  198 Indians i n a l l l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n d u r i n g and a f t e r the Jagan regime.  However i t i s d o u b t f u l whether the r e p r e s e n -  t a t i o n of E a s t Indians i n the Roman C a t h o l i c secondary schools had a l t e r e d over t h e y e a r s . of 39 e n t r a n t s t o a f i r s t  I n 1957 out o f a c l a s s  form i n the C a t h o l i c S t . Rose's  High School 9 were E a s t Indians, while i n 1967 t h e r e were still  o n l y 7 E a s t Indians among t h e 36 e n t r a n t s .  t h e g e n e r a l socio-economic  composition  Nor was  of the e n t r a n t s t o  t h i s s c h o o l more v a r i e d i n 1957 than i n 1967. Of the 39 e n t r a n t s i n 1957, 36 came e i t h e r from p r i v a t e Roman C a t h o l i c preparatory  schools, Roman C a t h o l i c primary  p r i v a t e non-denominational p r e p a r a t o r y  s c h o o l s , or  s c h o o l s ; i n 1967,  31 o f the 36 e n t r a n t s were drawn from these  sources.  F u r t h e r , the f a t h e r s o f o n l y 6 o f the 1957 e n t r a n t s were employed i n manual, s k i l l e d ,  or n o n - c l e r i c a l  occupations;  i n 1967 o n l y two parents belonged t o these c a t e g o r i e s , a l l o t h e r s being e i t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s or businessmen, or h o l d i n g senior c l e r i c a l p o s i t i o n s . procedures  New admission  r e g u l a t i o n s and  i n i t i a t e d by Government between 1957 and 1967  d i d not a l t e r t h e socio-economic  composition  of the students  entering t h i s school. In g e n e r a l two notable changes were e f f e c t e d i n the p a t t e r n of d i s t r i b u t i o n o f secondary s c h o o l o p p o r t u n i t y  199 d u r i n g 1957-1967.  Firstly,  new secondary schools, were  e s t a b l i s h e d i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the country  providing  s c h o o l p l a c e s f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l y i n c r e a s e d number of children.  Secondly, E a s t Indians made great gains i n r e -  p r e s e n t a t i o n among the e n t r a n t s t o the t o p government secondary s c h o o l s .  However, the chances of s e l e c t i o n f o r a  f r e e p l a c e i n these t o p schools were s t i l l weighted h e a v i l y i n favour  or urban c h i l d r e n and c h i l d r e n from a middle  and upper socio-economic background. the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f E a s t Indians a t i o n a l schools d i d not improve.  I t seems, too, t h a t  i n the aided denominFurther comment on t h e  r e s u l t s of the survey w i l l f o l l o w an a n a l y s i s of the Jamaica s i t u a t i o n .  CHAPTER 8 HIGH SCHOOL OPPORTUNITY IN JAMAICA - 1957-1967 SOCIAL AND POLITICAL PRESSURES FOR EXPANSION  As i n Guyana, l i m i t e d education,  facilities  the l o c a t i o n o f these  f o r secondary  facilities,  and the p r o c e s -  ses of s e l e c t i o n were some f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n of h i g h  s c h o o l o p p o r t u n i t y i n Jamaica up t o 1957.  Secondary  school c h i l d r e n tended t o come from a few p r i v a t e p r e p a r a t o r y s c h o o l s , they g e n e r a l l y p a i d fees, and were mainly o f urban middle and upper c l a s s o r i g i n .  As members o f the  p u b l i c and d e m o c r a t i c a l l y e l e c t e d p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s became s e n s i t i v e t o , and v o c a l about, the i n e q u a l i t i e s of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the secondary s c h o o l s of v a r i o u s socio-economic groups, n a t i o n a l governments sought by v a r i o u s means t o i n c r e a s e t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f the under-represented and r u r a l c l a s s e s .  Some of the measures taken,  poorer  and the  concern shown by v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s of the community f o r the e q u a l i s a t i o n of secondary education sed i n what f o l l o w s .  o p p o r t u n i t y are d i s c u s -  F u r t h e r , the c o n c l u s i o n i s examined  t h a t d e s p i t e some modest r e d u c t i o n of s o c i a l  inequalities  i n secondary school s e l e c t i o n over a 10 year p e r i o d , 19571967, and  the s e l e c t i o n system s t i l l  favoured  urban c h i l d r e n ,  c h i l d r e n of w h i t e - c o l l a r workers, p r o f e s s i o n a l s , and 200  201 p r i v a t e businessmen, as was The  Position in  the case i n Guyana.  1957  There were i n 1957-1958 36 secondary  grammar s c h o o l s  p r o v i d i n g accommodation f o r 12,824 p u p i l s between the ages of 11 and  18,  and  7 t e c h n i c a l and v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s with  an enrolment of 2,247.^ these i n s t i t u t i o n s was  The  t o t a l number of students i n  under 20 percent of the 11 t o 14 year  o l d c h i l d r e n i n the a l l - a g e (7-15) schools, and not more than 10 percent of the e n t i r e 11 t o 18 year o l d p o p u l a t i o n . Competition  f o r e n t r y i n t o these schools was  therefore very  keen. Before 1957 a t i o n , and,  except  each school set i t s own  entrance  examin-  for a s m a l l number of s c h o l a r s h i p s p r o -  v i d e d by the schools out of t h e i r own s t u d e n t s were admitted  funds, s u c c e s s f u l  on a fee-paying b a s i s .  Scholarships  were a l s o awarded by the Government on the r e s u l t s of comp e t i t i v e examinations  s u p e r v i s e d by the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n .  The r e c i p i e n t of a Government s c h o l a r s h i p was  e n t i t l e d to a  f r e e p l a c e at a Government or g r a n t - a i d e d secondary  school  •nJnless otherwise i n d i c a t e d , f i g u r e s on s c h o o l e n r o l ment were obtained from Annual Reports of the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n . No i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e on the wholly p r i v a t e secondary schools, but the g e n e r a l argument throughout the chapter i s not thereby s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d .  202 of h i s c h o i c e .  Boarding,  a l s o p r o v i d e d f o r a few  book and c l o t h i n g allowances  s c h o l a r s h i p winners who  met  were  certain  c r i t e r i a of need s e t out by the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n . 1954  the t o t a l number of s c h o l a r s h i p s granted  and the secondary s c h o o l s amounted t o 200. more than doubled  by 1957;  e d u c a t i o n a l attainment, were important  by Government  T h i s number  yet i n t h i s year about 85  of a l l students were f e e - p a y i n g .  In  C a p a c i t y to pay,  was  percent  previous  and p r o x i m i t y t o a secondary s c h o o l  f a c t o r s determining  secondary s c h o o l  selection,  a l l these f a c t o r s f a v o u r i n g c h i l d r e n from urban middle  and  upper c l a s s homes. Under a new  secondary schools p o l i c y announced by  the Manley a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n 1957 and  f i n a l examination  a country-wide p r e l i m i n a r y  s u p e r v i s e d by the M i n i s t r y of  Education  p r o v i d e d the b a s i s f o r s e l e c t i o n o f both fee-paying and f r e e place students. s h i p s was  reduced  top c a n d i d a t e s .  At the same time the number of s c h o l a r and  1500  f r e e p l a c e s were awarded to the  I n a sample of 500  of the 1500  winners  ( s e l e c t e d by t a k i n g every t h i r d name on the e n t i r e l i s t ) i t was  found  t h a t 263,  or r o u g h l y  i t a l c i t y Kingston and  53 percent were from the cap-  i t s e n v i r o n s , which w i l l h e r e a f t e r  be r e f e r r e d t o as the urban a r e a . had  This metropolitan  area  l e s s than a quarter of the i s l a n d ' s t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n .  203 No r e c o r d s were a v a i l a b l e on the socio-economic  background  of the parents, but an a n a l y s i s by Douglas Manley (1963) of the r e s u l t s of a l a t e r year provided some i n f o r m a t i o n on this differential.  Manley s e l e c t e d a sample of 1730  17,532 e n t r i e s f o r the 1959 found  s e l e c t i o n examination  of the  and  a s i m i l a r degree o f o v e r - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the urban  group.  C h i l d r e n from M e t r o p o l i t a n Kingston won  of the f r e e p l a c e s though they c o n s t i t u t e d 25.4 the e n t r i e s . percent won  Of the urban primary  The  percent  percent  school entrants  f r e e p l a c e s compared with 4.6  r u r a l primary  52.7  of  15.3  percent f o r the  school.  i n f l u e n c e of o c c u p a t i o n a l background i s seen i n  the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e adopted from Manley: Table  (14)  % - age of Total Entries  Group  Professional  S o c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n s i z e of e n t r y and success i n the 1959 Common Entrance Examination* % - age of t o t a l Free Places  % - age Success  and  Managerial  5.1  20.5  45.8  Teachers  4.9  7.3  16.4  Clerical  21.8  36.3  18.5  Semi-skilled  29.4  24.2  9.2  Farmers  26.3  6.8  2.8  Skilled  and  204 Table  (14)  Continued % - age of Total Entries  Group  Unskilled  % - age of t o t a l Free Places  12.5  % - age Success  4.7  4.2  •Source - Manley, 'Mental A b i l i t y i n Jamaica', i n S o c i a l and Economic S t u d i e s , U n i v e r s i t y of the West I n d i e s , Vo. 12, No. 1, March, 1963. The  overwhelming r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the white  o c c u p a t i o n a l groups i s e v i d e n t . the t a b l e won  64 percent  of the  data f o r 1960  i t i s estimated  comprised about 15 percent the female labour  force.  The  f i r s t three groups i n  free places.  From census  t h a t these groups  of the male and  together  22 percent  examination than c h i l d r e n from the other  Each year  of  C l e a r l y , c h i l d r e n of the white  c o l l a r workers had much g r e a t e r chances of success entrance  collar  about 2,000 students who  p l a c e s were awarded g r a n t - a i d e d  places.  they p a i d p a r t of the c o s t of t u i t i o n .  at the groups.  d i d not g a i n f r e e T h i s meant t h a t  Annual  tuition  c o s t s t o the c h i l d ranged from 24 t o 54 pounds, e q u i v a l e n t t o about o n e - f i f t h to t w o - f i f t h s of the 1960 income.  Thus, t u i t i o n  fees and  per c a p i t a  other expenses i n c u r r e d i n  school attendance would have combined with the f a c t o r of i n f e r i o r performance on the entrance the number of poorer  c h i l d r e n who  examination t o l i m i t  could g a i n access  to  205 government supported A f u r t h e r disadvantage  secondary e d u c a t i o n  institutions.  s u f f e r e d by poor r u r a l c h i l d r e n was  the inadequacy o f secondary s c h o o l p r o v i s i o n i n r u r a l  areas.  In Jamaica t h e r e was a c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f the b e t t e r secondary s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s i n the c a p i t a l c i t y and i t s e n v i r o n s — a f a m i l i a r p a t t e r n i n many other under-developed  territories.  I n 1957 18 of t h e 37 g r a n t - a i d e d h i g h schools with  over  t w o - t h i r d s of t h e t o t a l secondary s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n were i n Kingston and surrounding  areas, w h i l e e n t i r e r u r a l p a r i s h e s  with s i z e a b l e p o p u l a t i o n s were without ies.  The p a r i s h o f S t . Mary,  any s i m i l a r  facilit-  f o r example, with a popu-  l a t i o n o f 100,000 had no secondary s c h o o l .  The nearest  secondary s c h o o l a v a i l a b l e t o boys i n Trelawny, a p a r i s h of 62,000 i n h a b i t a n t s , was about 20 m i l e s away.  Poor t r a n s -  p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s i n many of these areas made i t necessary for  many students t o spend hours t r a v e l l i n g t o and from  s c h o o l or t o board w i t h i n easy reach o f the s c h o o l . d e n t a l l y , i t seems d i f f i c u l t  t o understand  G i r l s School i n Trelawny was not converted t i o n a l school.  (Inci-  why t h e A n g l i c a n i n t o a co-educa-  Such weaknesses i n e d u c a t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n and  o r g a n i s a t i o n r e v e a l the disadvantages  See Appendix 3.  of an e d u c a t i o n a l  206 system t h a t i s allowed t o develop without  some measure of  p l a n n i n g and c o - o r d i n a t i o n a t a c e n t r a l n a t i o n a l  level.)  On the b a s i s of such c r i t e r i a as f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e and s o c i a l environment, r u r a l secondary were, with a few p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n s , i n f e r i o r to the urban s c h o o l s .  I t i s t r u e the secondary  schools  i n quality schools i n  Jamaica were more u n i f o r m l y s u b s i d i s e d by Government than was the case i n Guyana.  The Jamaica Government p a i d f i x e d  per c a p i t a grants t o each s u b s i d i s e d s c h o o l , out of which t e a c h e r s were p a i d uniform s a l a r i e s . enjoyed  special c i v i l  Guyana.  Besides, no teacher  s e r v i c e s t a t u s and p r i v i l e g e s as i n  However, d i r e c t grants by Government f o r s p e c i a l  expansion school.  and t e a c h i n g p r o j e c t s v a r i e d from  school t o  Moreover, the urban s c h o o l s were g e n e r a l l y much  l a r g e r than the r u r a l s c h o o l s and charged mugh h i g h e r f e e s . Thus they had g r e a t e r r e s o u r c e s and were able t o provide f a r b e t t e r s e r v i c e s and equipment f o r t h e i r  students.  Of  course, i n competing with the r u r a l s c h o o l s f o r t e a c h e r s they a l s o enjoyed the advantage o f t h e i r urban environment. T_he 1950's - Pressures and P o l i c i e s f o r Change and  Expansion  The l a t e 1940's and the 1950's were years of r a p i d p o l i t i c a l growth and r i s i n g p o l i t i c a l awareness i n Jamaica.  3  S e e Chapter  5.  3  207 C o n s t i t u t i o n a l changes p r o v i d e d f o r i n c r e a s i n g c o n t r o l of  the Government machinery by p o p u l a r l y e l e c t e d l e a d e r s .  The  1950's too were marked by an unprecedented growth i n  the Jamaican economy, f o r which the establishment b a u x i t e i n d u s t r y was  of the  i n no s m a l l measure r e s p o n s i b l e ; the  per c a p i t a income rose at an annual r a t e of 5 t o 6 percent over the same p e r i o d (Economic Survey, C e n t r a l Planning U n i t , Jamaica Government, 1961). Jamaica had the  Between 1953  and  1959  one of the h i g h e s t r a t e s of economic growth i n  world. I n t h i s new  the expansion  c l i m a t e of p o l i t i c a l and economic ferment  of e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s at a l l l e v e l s  viewed as a matter of d i r e urgency. o n l y saw  Political  l e a d e r s not  e d u c a t i o n as a means of s o c i a l , p e r s o n a l  economic development, but a l s o became concerned  was  and  over what  t h e y c o n s i d e r e d t o be the unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n of o p p o r t u n i t y . In p a r t they were responding  t o the mood o f the masses; i n  p a r t they sought t o s t i m u l a t e t h i s mood i n order t o g a i n political  support,  dorsement o f t h e i r  and no doubt t o pursue and seek an social  en-  ideals.  Some f a c t o r s d e s c r i b e d by Abernethy (1969) i n accounting  f o r the r a p i d e d u c a t i o n growth i n E a s t e r n and Western  N i g e r i a d u r i n g the 1950's c o u l d e q u a l l y apply to Jamaica's  208 case.  The f a c t o r s i d e n t i f i e d were:  popular  pressures f o r  expansion; the response by t h e new l e g i s l a t o r s t o these pressures  i n an e f f o r t t o p r o t e c t t h e i r c a r e e r s ; t h e i r  genuine p e r c e p t i o n of e d u c a t i o n  as a means c o n t r i b u t i n g t o  p e r s o n a l improvement, s o c i a l e q u a l i t y and n a t i o n a l economic growth; and t h e r o l e of t e a c h e r s i n p o l i t i c s . a l s o c i t e d r e g i o n a l competition, be a p p l i e d t o Jamaica.  Abernethy  a f a c t o r which c o u l d not  I n Guyana, though, as we have  argued, e t h n i c r i v a l r y played  an important  part i n stimulat-  i n g e d u c a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s and achievement. P u b l i c Enthusiasm Some i n d i c a t i o n of p u b l i c enthusiasm f o r primary and  secondary education  c o u l d be seen i n the numerous r e -  p o r t s i n the " D a i l y Gleaner",  Jamaica's o n l y d a i l y newspaper,  of d e l e g a t i o n s t o the M i n i s t r y o f Education,  or t o a con-  s t i t u e n c y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , t o complain e i t h e r about the absence o f a secondary school i n a given area, the d i l a p i dated  s t a t e o f a primary s c h o o l or, more g e n e r a l l y , the  inadequate p r o v i s i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s a t both primary and secondary l e v e l s .  S i m i l a r p r o t e s t s were t h e  s u b j e c t of many l e t t e r s t o the E d i t o r . (August 8, 1957) claimed  One c o n t r i b u t o r  t o know a p r i v a t e c i t i z e n who was  w i l l i n g t o donate a p i e c e of land as a s i t e f o r a secondary  209 s c h o o l i n one  of the d e p r i v e d p a r i s h e s .  Meanwhile, l e a d e r s of p u b l i c o p i n i o n made constant r e f e r e n c e s t o inadequacies system.  and  i n e q u a l i t i e s of the  education  E d i t o r i a l comments, f o r example, f r e q u e n t l y emphas-  i s e d the need f o r more s c i e n c e and t e c h n i c a l education,  and  f o r both governmental and p u b l i c i n i t i a t i v e i n extending f a c i l i t i e s t o v a r i o u s s o c i a l groups.  One  e d i t o r i a l comment  read: Under a t r u l y democratic e d u c a t i o n a l l e s s can s a t i s f y the long term needs Jamaican community—higher e d u c a t i o n of the s t a t e must be the o p p o r t u n i t y r a t h e r than by wealth or i n f l u e n c e . January 8, 1957)  s y s t e m — a n d nothing of the whole at the expense secured by a b i l i t y ( D a i l y Gleaner,  Again— I t i s a pretence and h y p o c r i s y t o say t h a t elementary s c h o o l leads to the secondary s c h o o l when the ages of admission t o both schools are so r i g g e d t h a t mostly those with s p e c i a l means are the o n l y ones who can r e a l l y b e n e f i t . ( I b i d . , A p r i l 24, 1957) There was  a l s o some r e f e r e n c e t o p u b l i c impatience  pace of the implementation  over  the  of change:  The d e m o c r a t i s a t i o n o f l o c a l e d u c a t i o n r e q u i r e s more than c o - o p e r a t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n a l c i r c l e s ; i t must e n l i s t the e n t h u s i a s t i c support of the general p u b l i c . That p u b l i c has grown c y n i c a l about e d u c a t i o n a l schemes which have not yet been t r a n s l a t e d from the realm of i d e a l i s m to the p r o v i s i o n of every k i n d of e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c h i l d r e n from every s o c i a l and economic background. ( I b i d . , J u l y 20, 1957) Other e d i t o r i a l columnists were concerned with the  inadequate  210 supply o f t e a c h e r s  and the importance o f e d u c a t i o n f o r  economic development: The shortage of secondary school t e a c h e r s i s most marked on the s c i e n c e s i d e — p r o b a b l y the most important branch of secondary e d u c a t i o n i n an i s l a n d s t r i v i n g f o r r a p i d a g r i c u l t u r a l and i n d u s t r i a l p r o g r e s s . ( I b i d . , January 18, 1957) Response of the Teaching The  Profession  t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n through the agency of the  v a r i o u s t e a c h e r s ' a s s o c i a t i o n s played the development o f Jamaican e d u c a t i o n .  an important  part i n  I t aroused p u b l i c  a t t e n t i o n and s t i m u l a t e d governmental response by i t s vigorous  campaign f o r the improvement not o n l y o f the  t e a c h e r s ' working c o n d i t i o n s but of the p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s and  accommodation i n the primary s c h o o l s .  As an o f f i c i a l  body i t p e r s i s t e n t l y advocated the expansion and reform of the secondary s c h o o l system t o broaden the base of secondary s c h o o l s e l e c t i o n and t o d i v e r s i f y the secondary school curriculum.^  Through r e s e a r c h e s  on secondary school s e l e c t i o n  conducted by i n f l u e n t i a l members of the a s s o c i a t i o n the need was demonstrated f o r i n c r e a s e d a t t e n t i o n t o i n f a n t  I t was common t o f i n d i n d i v i d u a l teachers, steeped i n t r a d i t i o n a l P l a t o n i c modes of e d u c a t i o n a l t h i n k i n g , p r o t e s t i n g s t r o n g l y a g a i n s t changes designed t o loosen the e l i t i s t s t r u c t u r e o f secondary education; but o f f i c i a l p r o f e s s i o n a l pronouncements on t h i s aspect o f e d u c a t i o n a l change were much l e s s r e a c t i o n a r y .  211 education.  But measures adopted by the t e a c h e r s ' a s s o c i a t i o n  for  improving  the e d u c a t i o n a l system were more than v e r b a l ,  for  they organised  for  i n t e r i m secondary s c h o o l  and  s u b s t a n t i a l l y financed short  courses  teachers.  In i n a u g u r a l addresses by a s s o c i a t i o n p r e s i d e n t s , demands f o r improved s a l a r i e s and working c o n d i t i o n s f o r teachers,  as w e l l as f o r a generous i n c r e a s e i n the  country's  e d u c a t i o n a l budget, could be expected with c e r t a i n t y . r e c u r r e n t demands were the r e v i s i o n o f s c h o o l  Other  curricula,  the i n t e g r a t i o n of the e n t i r e s c h o o l system, the lowering  of  the age of e n t r y t o the primary s c h o o l from 7 t o 5 years, and more a t t e n t i o n to i n f a n t e d u c a t i o n .  In January 1957  the  newly e l e c t e d p r e s i d e n t of the Jamaica Union of Teachers c a l l e d f o r the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a s p e c i a l education t h i s measure has British  territories.  t e a c h e r s ' a s s o c i a t i o n s i n Jamaica could have been  a very powerful  f o r c e f o r f a i r l y smooth and r a p i d e d u c a t i o n a l  change i n the 1960's had  not r e l a t i o n s d e t e r i o r a t e d between  them and the p o l i t i c a l e x e c u t i v e of the M i n i s t r y of Response and P r o t e s t of P o l i t i c a l Political pressure  but  not y e t been i n t r o d u c e d i n any of the  Caribbean The  tax,  l e a d e r s were not  Education.  Leaders slow t o respond t o the  for increased educational opportunity,  and  i n some  212 cases even took the i n i t i a t i v e i n e x p r e s s i n g  concern f o r  e d u c a t i o n a l development and the d e m o c r a t i s a t i o n school system.  of the  T h i s concern i s seen p a r t l y i n t h e i r p u b l i c  v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n of new i d e a l s and o f d i s c o n t e n t with the e x i s t i n g system, p a r t l y i n the schemes i n i t i a t e d t o d e a l with problems i d e n t i f i e d , and a l s o i n the w i l l i n g n e s s o f members o f government to vote  funds f o r the expansion o f the  school s e r v i c e s . It  i s c l e a r however, as subsequent d i s c u s s i o n w i l l  show, t h a t the r e a l i s a t i o n o f much d e s i r e d goals was thwarted by many f a c t o r s , of which two major ones can be identified.  The f i r s t was the p e r s i s t e n c e of adopted  European s o c i a l and e d u c a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s , and o f i n h e r i t e d traditional British e l i t i s t  ideas among members of a l l  s e c t i o n s o f the community—students, teachers, a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and e x e c u t i v e s — a b o u t of secondary e d u c a t i o n .  the nature  parents, and purpose  The second was the p a u c i t y of r e -  sources t h a t had t o be spread  t h i n l y over a wide range of  s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , r e s u l t i n g i n the f a i l u r e t o make a b o l d commitment o f sums o f money adequate t o produce any s p e c t a c u l a r impact on the e d u c a t i o n  situation.  This  discrepancy  between noble a s p i r a t i o n s and t a n g i b l e commitment o f r e sources has a f f l i c t e d the e d u c a t i o n a l s e c t o r i n p a r t i c u l a r  213 i n many poor  territories.  A r e c u r r e n t p r o t e s t o f p o l i t i c a l and government l e a d e r s was t h a t t h e e d u c a t i o n a l system d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t c h i l d r e n o f the poorer c l a s s e s , denying  them f a i r  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the p u b l i c l y f i n a n c e d h i g h s c h o o l s .  In  almost every p a r l i a m e n t a r y debate on education demands and p r o p o s a l s were made f o r remedying t h i s  situation.  The M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n i n the Manley Government i n 1957 i n t r o d u c e d measures f o r i n c r e a s i n g t h e number of f r e e secondary  school p l a c e s from 450 t o 1,500 f o r students  between 11 and 12 years o l d , and f o r the f i r s t time awarded 100 age.  f r e e p l a c e s t o o l d e r students between 13 and 15 years of A t t h e same time expansion  5 Kingston and 5 r u r a l secondary places.  E s t i m a t e s passed  o f secondary and  grants were awarded t o s c h o o l s t o p r o v i d e 700 new  f o r t h e development and expansion  schools amounted t o 75,000 pounds i n 1957-1958  211,000 pounds i n 1958-1959. In i n t r o d u c i n g the new p r o p o s a l s the M i n i s t e r e n u n c i -  ated 3 fundamental p r i n c i p l e s on which he s a i d the Government's p l a n proceeded: To provide primary e d u c a t i o n f o r a l l c h i l d r e n between the ages of seven and e l e v e n i n c l u s i v e , t o p r o v i d e i n creased f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o those c h i l d r e n who possess s p e c i a l a b i l i t y and t o p r o v i d e these f a c i l i t i e s on a b a s i s o f e q u a l i t y . (Hansard, A p r i l 30, 1957)  214 Free p l a c e grants and l i v i n g expenses f o r the needy c h i l d r e n who q u a l i f i e d  "would serve t o put an end t o the  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t h a t has e x i s t e d a g a i n s t c h i l d r e n of parents who cannot pay f e e s . " support  (Hansard,  ibid.)  The M i n i s t e r sought  f o r these p o l i c i e s not only by a p p e a l i n g t o t h e i r  e g a l i t a r i a n aspect, but by arguing t h a t they were necessary f o r n a t i o n a l and economic development. implementation  N o t i n g t h a t the  o f the new measures would i n c u r a c o n s i d e r -  able expenditure he urged: I ask Members of the House not t o be f r i g h t e n e d at t h i s l a r g e sum . . . because i n past years s i m i l a r expendit u r e s were made on a g r i c u l t u r e . We cannot i n d u s t r i a l i s e without more e d u c a t i o n . (Hansard, i b i d . ) Further E d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y must look forward t o the growing demands of our expanding economy and of our advance t o nationhood . . . we must aim at something which w i l l e v e n t u a l l y g i v e o p p o r t u n i t y t o every c h i l d i n Jamaica. (Hansard, i b i d . ) About four years l a t e r towards t h e end of the term o f o f f i c e of the Manley Government the then M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n claimed success f o r t h e p o l i c i e s implemented: Go i n t o the h i g h s c h o o l s today . . . When you hear t h i s t a l k about d i s c r i m i n a t i o n go i n t o the h i g h schools today . . . and you see s i t t i n g s i d e by s i d e white, brown, pink, blue, Indian, Chinese, a l l the c o l o u r s you can t h i n k o f . . . The new E d u c a t i o n Programme i s c r e a t i n g the r e a l base and foundation o f u n i t y amongst our people. (Hansard, March 8, 1961)  215 The  v a l i d i t y of t h i s c l a i m w i l l not be d i s c u s s e d  point-  The  at t h i s  r e f e r e n c e merely i l l u s t r a t e s the f a i t h i n edu-  c a t i o n as an instrument f o r c r e a t i n g s o c i a l e q u a l i t y  and  national unity. In these education  debates i n the House of Represent-  a t i v e s no v o i c e s were r a i s e d a g a i n s t proposals ported  to i n c r e a s e the o p p o r t u n i t i e s of the  S i m i l a r measures introduced  which pur-  poorer c l a s s e s .  i n Guyana r e s u l t e d i n a storm  of p r o t e s t among o p p o s i t i o n members.  In Jamaica  members were e i t h e r very c a r e f u l about the way c r i t i c i s e d matters of s t r a t e g y and  opposition  they  procedure or were concern-  ed t o show t h a t the government's p r o p o s a l s  d i d not  enough towards removing i n e q u a l i t i e s . The  c o n t r i b u t i o n s of  one  1957  o p p o s i t i o n member i n p a r t i c u l a r to the  of great was  importance, s i n c e t h i s member, the Hon.  go f a r  debate  are  E. L. A l l e n ,  t o become the M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n i n the Bustamante  Government from 1962  onwards.  A l l e n presented t o the House a counter p r o p o s a l education  reform, i n which he  for  stated,  We b e l i e v e t h a t w h i l e a l l men can h a r d l y ever be equal i n mental, p h y s i c a l and moral a t t r i b u t e s , n e v e r t h e l e s s i t i s the duty of the s t a t e to r e g a r d e q u a l i t y of opport u n i t y as an i d e a l to be aimed a t . Our e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y i s based on these premises. ( D a i l y Gleaner, A p r i l 30, 1957) Further:  216 The p o l i c y of s u b s i d i s i n g the r i c h or wealthy at secondary s c h o o l s should be a b o l i s h e d u n t i l p r o v i s i o n has been made f o r a l l s u i t a b l e poorer c h i l d r e n . (Ibid.) He  proposed the o b j e c t i v e of some form of secondary  edu-  c a t i o n f o r a l l students but argued: No grant should be payable by Government t o a Secondary Grammar School on account of any c h i l d who does not possess the a p t i t u d e and a b i l i t y t o p r o f i t s a t i s f a c t o r i l y from the type of education g i v e n a t t h a t s c h o o l . (Ibid.) Throughout most of the p a r l i a m e n t a r y debates on secondary  s c h o o l o p p o r t u n i t y i n Jamaica and Guyana one  can  d e t e c t , g e n e r a l l y , an u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o c h a l l e n g e the s t r u c t u r e and purpose of the adopted B r i t i s h and European i n s t i t u t i o n of the secondary important  was  grammar s c h o o l .  Perhaps more  the f a i l u r e t o r e c o g n i s e the p r i o r e n v i r o n -  mental c o n d i t i o n s t h a t a f f e c t e d performance a t the a r y s c h o o l s entrance examinations. p o r t u n i t y of admission  The  t o the secondary  second-  i d e a o f equal s c h o o l s was  op-  ;  inter-  p r e t e d by most p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s t o mean t h a t those  who  showed, presumably, by t h e i r performance a t the 11+  (entrance)  examination secondary  t h e i r c a p a c i t y to b e n e f i t from the type of  e d u c a t i o n o f f e r e d should not be kept out o f the  system by t h e i r p a r e n t s ' i n a b i l i t y to pay s c h o o l f e e s . deed  'secondary  heard,  e d u c a t i o n f o r a l l ' was  In-  a slogan f r e q u e n t l y  but i n p r a c t i c a l terms t h i s meant secondary  grammar  217 s c h o o l education  f o r a s e l e c t few  and  a much smaller  number of t e c h n i c a l h i g h s c h o o l p l a c e s f o r those unable to win grammar s c h o o l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Both as a Member of the O p p o s i t i o n i n 1957 later,  and,  as the M i n i s t e r of Education, Mr. A l l e n showed on  o c c a s i o n a c l e a r d e s i r e t o break out o f t h i s e d u c a t i o n a l tradition.  He d e c l a r e d , f o r example, t h a t the system of  p i c k i n g out the best c h i l d r e n on the Common Entrance i n a t i o n and  sending them t o grammar schools was  students, he  Exam-  wrong;  s a i d , should be allowed t o choose between the  secondary grammar and the t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l , a l l secondary s c h o o l s should u l t i m a t e l y provide a comprehensive programme, and the country's  f i n a l o b j e c t i v e should be t o  secondary school p l a c e s f o r a l l primary  school  secure graduates.  (Echoing here the e a r l y B r i t i s h e d u c a t i o n a l problem, the soundness of r e q u i r i n g a c h i l d t o choose at 11 or 12 between a secondary grammar and not seem to be s e r i o u s l y  a t e c h n i c a l programme d i d  questioned.)  The M i n i s t e r s of E d u c a t i o n notwithstanding were s t i l l  i n the Manley Government,  the major expansion  impressed  years  p r o j e c t s they  by t r a d i t i o n a l concepts.  initiated,  In 1957  one  M i n i s t e r announced the p r o p o s a l t o spend 30,000 pounds f o r post-primary  p l a c e s i n the a l l - a g e s c h o o l s to take care of  218 c h i l d r e n who  c o u l d not win f r e e p l a c e s a t the  grammar s c h o o l s , and  secondary  argued,  We want good manual t r a i n i n g o u t f i t s i n these p o s t primary a l l - a g e s c h o o l s where the c h i l d r e n can l e a r n woodwork, metal work, e t c . . . (Hansard, March 26, 1957) L a t e r another M i n i s t e r expressed h i s d i s a p p r o v a l of the i d e a of comprehensive s c h o o l s : In a d e v e l o p i n g s o c i e t y l i k e Jamaica t h e r e i s no doubt t h a t the system of d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g secondary e d u c a t i o n i s the most advantageous, and i s f a r s u p e r i o r to one which envisages a system of comprehensive s c h o o l s . (Hansard, A p r i l 22, 1959) P r a c t i c a l Government Measures and P u b l i c R e a c t i o n I t would be naive t o a s s e r t t h a t the p r e s s u r e s  identi-  f i e d above were the s o l e c o n t r i b u t o r y f a c t o r s towards the expansion One  of secondary  e d u c a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t y i n Jamaica.  c o u l d propose among other important  s c h o o l expansion  causes of  secondary  the i n t e r n a l dynamics of growth of the  e n t i r e e d u c a t i o n a l system.  An enlarged primary  school  system c r e a t e s not o n l y i n c r e a s e d p u p i l demand f o r the next  stage of formal education, but a need f o r more teachers  f o r the primary ates .  schools, i n e f f e c t f o r more secondary  gradu-  E v e n t u a l l y as the s c h o o l s and other employment  agencies begin t o compete with one s c h o o l graduates,  another  whose number must now  for  secondary  grow r a p i d l y , i t  becomes necessary t o broaden the b a s i s of admission  to  219 secondary  education i n s t i t u t i o n s .  would a l s o have i t s impact schools.  A growing u n i v e r s i t y  on the development of  secondary  To indulge i n paradox, nothing makes an  education  system expand l i k e an expanding e d u c a t i o n system.  However,  d e s p i t e t h i s l o g i c of s c h o o l development, under a c e n t r a l i s e d e d u c a t i o n system such as Jamaica's, and  e d u c a t i o n growth  the i n c r e a s i n g e q u a l i s a t i o n of o p p o r t u n i t y c o u l d not  be achieved without  some measure of Government support  and  sponsorship. Between 1957  and  1963  three b a s i c methods were  adopted by the Jamaican Government t o reduce i n e q u a l i t i e s i n secondary 1.  school  The  admission:  secondary  s e t t i n g up new  s c h o o l system was  expanded by  government schools, r e c o g n i s i n g  more p r i v a t e s c h o o l s f o r Government a i d , and o f f e r i n g expansion aided s c h o o l s . was  grants t o e x i s t i n g  The r e s u l t of these measures  a 55 percent  i n c r e a s e i n enrolment i n Govern-  ment and g r a n t - a i d e d secondary 1957-1958 and  grant-  s c h o o l s between  1963-1964, or over  5 times  the  r a t e of the p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e f o r the same period.  'These estimates are computed from M i n i s t r y of  220 2.  The  number of f i n a n c i a l s c h o l a r s h i p s was  and  a c o n s i d e r a b l y i n c r e a s e d number of f r e e  p l a c e s awarded.  The  l i v i n g allowances won  p r i n c i p l e of providing  f o r very poor c h i l d r e n  f r e e p l a c e s was  who  r e t a i n e d , but r e l a t i v e l y  c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d such 3.  reduced  A n a t i o n a l examination  few  allowances. under Government  v i s i o n served as a b a s i s of admission  super-  for a l l  students i n r e s p e c t of whom a Government grant was  paid.  grant-aided  Candidates  who  wished t o enter a  secondary s c h o o l were r e q u i r e d t o  o b t a i n a f i x e d aggregate at these  examinations,  but i n the r u r a l areas where enough c h i l d r e n d i d not q u a l i f y , the c u t - o f f p o i n t was allow r u r a l schools t o f i l l The minimum age was  their  f o r e n t r y at t h i s  reduced  to  vacancies. examination  s e t at 11 years a p p a r e n t l y t o h e l p  off-set  the advantage of e a r l y formal e d u c a t i o n a l experience enjoyed  by the more p r i v i l e g e d  children.  Education Annual Report, v a r i o u s years, and Annual A b s t r a c t of S t a t i s t i c s , 1968, Department of S t a t i s t i c s , Jamaica.  221 P u b l i c Response These measures f o r extending secondary t i e s met with immediate p u b l i c response.  school f a c i l i -  I n 1957  a f t e r the  Government announced i t s i n t e n t i o n t o more than t r i p l e number of f r e e p l a c e s , about  the  17,000 c h i l d r e n s a t the  s e l e c t i o n examination, compared with an average of 4,000 i n previous years. now  Many parents of primary s c h o o l c h i l d r e n  began t o f e e l t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n had  a chance of  g a i n i n g an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r f r e e secondary education, and exerted g r e a t pressure on headteachers t o e n t e r t h e i r c h i l d r e n and coach them s p e c i a l l y f o r the entrance examination. Some concern over the new middle and upper  p o l i c i e s was  class private c i t i z e n s .  shown by a few  Fears were ex-  pressed c h i e f l y over the p o s s i b l e drop of standards t h a t could r e s u l t from the sudden steep r i s e i n the school population.  secondary  A w e l l known and w i d e l y read columnist  of independent means, w r i t i n g under the pseudonym o f Thomas Wright, p r a i s e d the new  p o l i c y of o f f e r i n g a l a r g e number  of secondary s c h o o l p l a c e s but drew a t t e n t i o n t o the o f "coping w i t h the  problem  ' d i l u t i o n ' of e x i s t i n g secondary schools  when c h i l d r e n without c e r t a i n f a m i l y background  depress  standards of e d u c a t i o n , deportment and behaviour".  He  noted  222 t h a t there was effort  great o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i n c r e a s e d p r i v a t e  "to c o u n t e r a c t the e f f e c t of the Government's mass  production",  c a l l e d f o r a few  "'snob' schools  (nothing  to  do with colour or wealth beyond a c e r t a i n p o i n t ) " , and continued, every s o c i e t y has understood the n e c e s s i t y o f having e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t c a t e r t o a small m i n o r i t y t r a i n e d i n c h a r a c t e r , t a s t e , e t c . , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a l l t h a t i s mostly c u r r e n t l y c i v i l i s e d . We are now on our own. We must develop a r u l i n g c a s t e l i k e everyone e l s e , democracy n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g . ( D a i l y Gleaner, May 8, 1957) A secondary school teacher  supported  this  columnist  on the need f o r 'snob' s c h o o l s : The n a t i o n ' s l i f e needs a core of i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m . And the i n t e l l e c t u a l r u l i n g caste t h a t c o n s t i t u t e s t h i s core, as T. W. r i g h t l y b e l i e v e s , cannot be p r o duced by s t a t e education which by i t s very nature must be p u r e l y s e c u l a r . . . Thomas Wright was o b v i o u s l y t h i n k i n g of Eton and Harrow but we could f i n d examples nearer home i n H a r r i s o n C o l l e g e i n Barbados. ( D a i l y Gleaner, June 1, 1957) Another c o n t r i b u t o r i n a l e t t e r t o the E d i t o r , worried  about the r e s u l t a n t "tremendous h a r d s h i p s  middle c l a s s people who  was  among the  send t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o secondary  schools at great s a c r i f i c e  . . . These are the people  need h e l p as they are the backbone of Jamaica". t r i b u t o r f u r t h e r observed t h a t the measures could s o c i e t y as parents might decide  The  who con-  split  t o send t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o  schools i n England i f fees were the same 1  223 F u r t h e r Measures f o r E q u a l i s i n g Opportunity  - The  70-30 P l a n  I t soon became c l e a r t h a t i n s p i t e of i n c r e a s e s i n secondary s c h o o l accommodation, the award.of more f r e e p l a c e s , and  the r e - o r g a n i s a t i o n of the entrance  no s e r i o u s change occurred disadvantaged In 1960 while  i n the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of  In 1961,  954  free places  first  forms of secondary  primary school c h i l d r e n won  p l a c e s compared with 1,000 sources.  873  p l a c e s went t o c h i l d r e n e i t h e r from p r i v a t e p r e -  p a r a t o r y schools or a l r e a d y i n the schools.  the  groups i n the n a t i o n ' s best secondary s c h o o l s .  p u b l i c primary school c h i l d r e n won  871  procedures,  free  f r e e p l a c e winners from other  So i t would appear t h a t as the number of f r e e  p l a c e s i n c r e a s e d the d i s p a r i t i e s between the chances of p u b l i c primary school c h i l d r e n and  those  of p r i v a t e s c h o o l  c h i l d r e n e i t h e r remained s t a t i c or widened r a t h e r than narrowed.  T h i s s t a t e of a f f a i r s was  p r o p h e t i c a l l y commented  upon i n an e d i t o r i a l i n the D a i l y Gleaner i n 1957: what may  appear t o be more s c h o l a r s h i p s f o r the masses  t u r n out t o be f r e e education (May  "...  2, 1957)  may  f o r those with s p e c i a l means".  T h i s e d i t o r i a l w r i t e r was  no doubt aware of  the fundamental environmental and e d u c a t i o n a l disadvantages of the primary school c h i l d as compared with the p r i v a t e school c h i l d with whom he had examination.  t o compete at a s e l e c t i o n  224 The  phenomenon of widening i n e q u a l i t i e s  the i n i t i a l expansion of o p p o r t u n i t y was  attending  noted by  Foster  i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the development of secondary  education  i n Ghana and the I v o r y Coast i n the e a r l y 1960's. commented  Foster  (1970:231):  . . . e d u c a t i o n a l development i n A f r i c a w i l l not be c o r r e l a t e d n e c e s s a r i l y with i n c r e a s i n g e q u a l i t y of e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y ; r a t h e r at c e r t a i n stages of growth r e l a t i v e d i f f e r e n t i a l s may i n c r e a s e . . . T h i s does not suggest t h a t absolute chances f o r access t o secondary s c h o o l i n g among d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c or s o c i o economic groups w i l l become l e s s but t h a t as new p l a c e s are c r e a t e d a s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n of them w i l l be a p p r o p r i a t e d by groups a l r e a d y c h a r a c t e r i s e d by h i g h e r socio-economic s t a t u s and h i g h e r l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n a l achievement. In Jamaica two c r e a t e a new  circumstances  determination  c o n t r i b u t e d i n 1962  to grapple with the problem o f  c o n t i n u i n g i n e q u a l i t i e s i n secondary s c h o o l The  attainment  of a new Party,  to  of independence and  distribution.  the e l e c t i o n t o o f f i c e  p o l i t i c a l party, the Bustamante-led Jamaica Labour  s e t the stage  f o r f u r t h e r major changes i n secondary  s c h o o l p r o v i s i o n and r e c r u i t m e n t . t h a t gestures  I t can be s a i d ,  i n the r e - o r g a n i s a t i o n of education  indeed, are  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of c o l o n i a l t e r r i t o r i e s a t t a i n i n g new stitutional status.  The  new  M i n i s t e r o f Education  Bustamante a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , the Hon. a r a d i c a l measure which was  Edwin A l l e n ,  con-  i n the  introduced  aimed at a c h i e v i n g t h a t  reasonable  225 balance  of o p p o r t u n i t y among economic and r e g i o n a l groups  t h a t had  so f a r proved e l u s i v e .  Nothing  t h a t c h i l d r e n from  the p r i v a t e p r e p a r a t o r y s c h o o l s with a p o p u l a t i o n of 4,000 e l i g i b l e p u p i l s won  1,200  schools with 84,000 won  f r e e p l a c e s while the o n l y 900  primary  p l a c e s the M i n i s t e r p r o t e s t -  ed, I t h i n k t h a t t h i s i s not r i g h t and my Government w i l l not allow i n j u s t i c e s o f t h a t k i n d t o be perpetuated, f o r the c h i l d r e n i n the primary schools are not b a s i c a l l y , i n t r i n s i c a l l y or a c a d e m i c a l l y i n f e r i o r . (Hansard, June 6,  1962)  A t t r i b u t i n g the d i s p r o p o r t i o n t o the c u l t u r a l b i a s of the s e l e c t i o n t e s t s A l l e n s t a t e d t h a t i f he had h i s way, those who  could not pay t o go t o secondary s c h o o l would get  s c h o l a r s h i p s and  f r e e p l a c e s or other p a r t i a l h e l p "and  r e s u l t would be a c e r t a i n amount of e q u a l i t y with who  could go".  "But  f o r which the people continued,  only  would not be prepared"  a l l o t i n g 70 percent of the  and  i t was  the M i n i s t e r  e f f e c t i n g a compromise by  f r e e p l a c e s t o primary  30 percent t o the p r e p a r a t o r y  assumption here,  those  s i n c e t h i s would be too sudden a change  "the Government was  c h i l d r e n and  the  schools" .  q u i t e a reasonable  t h a t c h i l d r e n of poor parents d i d not normally p a r a t o r y schools) . The measure was  passed without  any  school  one,  (The was  attend  pre-  substantial dissent  from O p p o s i t i o n members.  Since both p o l i t i c a l  parties  claimed the support of the masses i t seemed as though no member of the House cared to go on r e c o r d as being opposed to measures a p p a r e n t l y designed  t o improve the p o s i t i o n of  the "working c l a s s " . E f f e c t i v e n e s s of New  Measures - The  High School Free P l a c e s i n Between 1957  and  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  1967.  1967,  then,  four d i f f e r e n t  approach-  es were taken to d e a l w i t h the problem of i n e q u a l i t i e s i n secondary  school s e l e c t i o n — i n c r e a s e i n school places,  i n c r e a s e i n f r e e p l a c e s , change i n examination entrance procedures,  and  and  other  l e g i s l a t i o n r e s t r i c t i n g the number  o f winners from the p r e p a r a t o r y s c h o o l s .  The r e s u l t s of  these i n n o v a t i o n s as r e f l e c t e d i n the composition f r e e p l a c e winners w i l l now  be examined.  The  of  1967  differentials  t o be c o n s i d e r e d are the same as those used i n d i s c u s s i n g the Guyana s i t u a t i o n , except students. (a)  These d i f f e r e n t i a l s Type o f primary primary,  (b)  f o r the e t h n i c background of are:  s c h o o l attended  or p r i v a t e p r e p a r a t o r y ;  G e o g r a p h i c a l r e s i d e n c e , as i n d i c a t e d by of p r e v i o u s s c h o o l attended;  (c)  - public  parental occupation.  and  location  227 The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of occupations remains the same as f o r Guyana, but one o b s e r v a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y .  Generally,  c h i l d r e n gave the o c c u p a t i o n of the male parent with whom they l i v e d ; but a f e a t u r e of Jamaican f a m i l y l i f e h i g h i n c i d e n c e of f a t h e r l e s s households. the mother's o c c u p a t i o n was  I t seems as though  given i n these c a s e s .  i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s together with the l a r g e number o f t h a t simply read  'housewife'  i t y of t h i s e x e r c i s e .  is a  These responses  are sure t o a f f e c t the  valid-  I t i s c l e a r t h a t any c o n c l u s i o n  drawn should take account  of these  limitations.  Regional D i f f e r e n c e s In 1967  the Government awarded 2,000 f r e e p l a c e s ,  d i v i d e d e q u a l l y between boys and g i r l s .  The f o l l o w i n g  t a b l e shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n of these p l a c e s a c c o r d i n g t o the g e o g r a p h i c a l r e g i o n of the s c h o o l attended; an i n s p e c t i o n of other d a t a suggests t h a t t h i s i s a r e l i a b l e i n d i c a t i o n of the student's normal r e s i d e n c e .  Where a p p r o p r i a t e data  are a v a i l a b l e a crude s t a t i s t i c w i l l be used to compare the r e l a t i v e o p p o r t u n i t y of v a r i o u s groups. be employed f o r t h i s purpose, Opportunity,  6  The  concepts  to  S e l e c t i v i t y Index and R e l a t i v e  are d e f i n e d o p e r a t i o n a l l y as f o l l o w s :  'Adopted from F o s t e r ( i b i d . ) .  Table  Region  (15a)  Percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n by r e g i o n of 1967 f r e e place winners i n Jamaica (N = 2,000 = 1,000 Boys + 1,000 G i r l s ) Boys Girls  %-age of %-age 11-13 of f r e e age place group winners  S.1  R.O.  %-age of %-age 11-13 of f r e e age place group winners  S.I  %-age of free R .0. p l a c e winners  Metropolitan Kingston  Rest of  country  16.0  56.5  3.5  17 .4  53 .7  84.0  43 .5 .  0.5  82 .6  46.3  Even allowing f o r i n a c c u r a c i e s i n Census estimates  3.08  5.5  55.1  0.56  i t i s evident that  44.9  the  chances of a f r e e place f o r a Kingston  school c h i l d were many times h i g h e r  than those  about 53 percent  for a r u r a l c h i l d .  In 1957  winners were from the c a p i t a l c i t y and stood n e a r l y the same, at 55  suburbs.  In 1967  of the f r e e - p l a c e the  proportion  percent. CO  229 S e l e c t i v i t y Index  =  % - age r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of s p e c i f i e d sub-group i n s e l e c t i v e system % - age r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f s p e c i f i e d sub-group i n t o t a l population  R e l a t i v e Opportunity of Sub-groups A and B  S e l e c t i v e Index f o r Sub-group A = S e l e c t i v e Index f o r Sub-group B  For convenience  of comparison  the sub-group with the  s e l e c t i v i t y index w i l l be g i v e n the value 1.  Data  lowest  concern-  i n g the s i z e of the sub-groups i n the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n are based on estimates from 1960 of E d u c a t i o n Annual  Census f i g u r e s and M i n i s t r y  Reports.  D i f f e r e n c e s i n Type of School Attended The  f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n of f r e e  p l a c e s a c c o r d i n g t o the type of schools from which f r e e p l a c e winners were r e c r u i t e d and the g e o g r a p h i c a l breakdown f o r each type of s c h o o l .  The  group  'Primary' i n c l u d e s a l l  government and denominational p u b l i c primary schools where no f e e s are p a i d , and  'Preparatory' r e f e r s t o the p r i v a t e  p r e p a r a t o r y s c h o o l s and j u n i o r s e c t i o n s of schools.  (Those who  from the secondary  secondary  sat the Common Entrance  s c h o o l s would have a l l been fee-paying  students, and f o r t h i s reason are t r e a t e d as p r e p a r a t o r y ' .)  Examination  'private  Table  (15b) D i s t r i b u t i o n o f 1967 f r e e p l a c e winners i n Jamaica by type and l o c a t i o n o f p r e v i o u s s c h o o l attended  Boys Type of School Number  Girls %  Number  Total %  Urban P r e p a r a t o r y  236  23 .6  246  24.6  Rural Preparatory  58  5.8  59  5.9  Total  Preparatory  294  29.4  305  30.5  Urban  Primary  329  32 .9  291  29.1  Rural  Primary  377  37 .7  404  40 .4  Total  Primary  706  70 .6  695  69.5  %  S.1 .  R.0 .  30  4.0  5  70  0.8  1  to o  231 I t can be seen t h a t the 70-30 p o l i c y was f o l l o w e d f o r the country as a whole. r e s u l t s emerge from the survey.  Yet two  Firstly,  closely striking  despite their  lower r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n absolute terms non-primary s c h o o l c h i l d r e n s t i l l had  f i v e times  as much chance as  s c h o o l c h i l d r e n of winning a f r e e p l a c e .  primary  Secondly,  while  the 70-30 p o l i c y a p p l i e d f o r the country as a whole, i t did  not apply i n c e r t a i n a r e a s .  won  f r e e p l a c e s , f o r example, 58 percent came from the  primary for  schools and  the Kingston  42 percent  Of the Kingston boys  who  from the non-primary s c h o o l s ;  g i r l s the r a t i o was  54:46.  The  concen-  t r a t i o n o f the p r e p a r a t o r y s c h o o l s i n K i n g s t o n i s r e f l e c t e d i n these  results.  I t w i l l be observed were w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d  from a l l these t a b l e s t h a t  girls  among h i g h s c h o o l f r e e p l a c e winners.  In f a c t Manley ( i b i d . ) drew a t t e n t i o n to the s u p e r i o r p e r formance of g i r l s i n the Common Entrance  Examination  and  t h e i r l a r g e r numbers i n the secondary s c h o o l s . D i f f e r e n c e s Among P a r e n t a l Occupation Jamaica's e d u c a t i o n  Groups  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and  e x e c u t i v e s u s u a l l y made c a r e f u l s t a t i s t i c a l  political  analyses of the  degree of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the secondary s c h o o l s of p u b l i c primary  and p r i v a t e p r e p a r a t o r y s c h o o l graduates,  but i t  232 seems t h a t comments on the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of v a r i o u s s o c i o economic groups were o f t e n based on knowledge of a dramatic  i n s t a n c e s or on the r e s u l t s of cursory,  observation. informed  few  informal  Senior o f f i c i a l s i n the M i n i s t r y of  Education  the present w r i t e r i n an i n t e r v i e w (June 10,  1969)  t h a t a d i r e c t r e s u l t of the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the 70-30 p o l i c y was  the i n c r e a s i n g i n t e g r a t i o n of upper and  socio-economic groups as the upper c l a s s e s began t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o p u b l i c primary s c h o o l s . s t r i k i n g evidence winners t o support  By and  s k i l l e d and  seemed  sent t h e i r c h i l d r e n  schools or a few  outstanding  ( c h i e f l y denominational) primary s c h o o l s — a s did—while  no  free place  large i t s t i l l  as though p r o f e s s i o n a l s and e x e c u t i v e s t o p r i v a t e preparatory  sending  There was  i n the r e c o r d s of the 1967 t h i s view.  lower  they always  u n s k i l l e d workers sent t h e i r c h i l d r e n  t o p u b l i c primary schools, without  any o p p o r t u n i s t i c change  of s c h o o l c a l c u l a t e d t o i n c r e a s e the c h i l d ' s chances of winning a f r e e p l a c e . represented  I t was  the middle c l a s s e s who  s o l i d l y i n both types of i n s t i t u t i o n s and  showed a s p e c u l a t i v e tendency t o change from one  type  s c h o o l t o another j u s t before the examination, u n t i l p r a c t i c e was  r e s t r i c t e d by government  Of a t o t a l of 167  legislation.  f r e e p l a c e winners from the  were who of this  233 p r o f e s s i o n a l and e x e c u t i v e c l a s s 131 came from the p r e p a r a t o r y schools, about 78%. s c a l e 12% of the 595 students skilled  A t the other end of the  from the s k i l l e d  and un-  groups were r e c r u i t e d from p r e p a r a t o r y s c h o o l s .  occupation  group (4) comprising  In  p r i v a t e businessmen 60  percent came from p r e p a r a t o r y s c h o o l s ; f o r groups 2 and 3 c o n s i s t i n g o f t e a c h e r s , c l e r k s , and c i v i l p r o p o r t i o n was 35 p e r c e n t .  servants, the  The s o c i a l c l a s s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  i n p r e p a r a t o r y schools cannot be determined merely from the composition  of the f r e e p l a c e winners; but the f i g u r e s lend  support t o the b e l i e f t h a t attendance at the c o s t l y p r e p a r a t o r y schools concentrated is  i n metropolitan  Kingston  l a r g e l y a s s o c i a t e d with s i z e of p a r e n t a l income and t o a  l e s s e r degree with p a r e n t a l e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s . The  t o t a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the v a r i o u s o c c u p a t i o n a l  groups among the f r e e p l a c e winners i s shown i n the f o l l o w ing  table. About 50 percent of the f r e e p l a c e winners were from  the f i r s t  four groups, while the s p e c i f i e d s k i l l e d and un-  s k i l l e d workers r e p r e s e n t e d  29.8 p e r c e n t .  I t i s quite  p o s s i b l e however t h a t Group (7) i n c l u d e d a s u b s t a n t i a l proportion of s k i l l e d  and u n s k i l l e d workers; y e t i t i s  c l e a r t h a t the white c o l l a r p r o f e s s i o n a l and merchant groups,  Table  (16)  Percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n of 1967 f r e e p l a c e winners by o c c u p a t i o n a l group and r e g i o n (N = 2,000 = 1,000 Boys + 1,00Q G i r l s ) G i r l s i{%)  Boys (%)  Gr and T o t a l  O c c u p a t i o n a l Group  1.  P r o f e s s i o n a l and Executive  2 . Teachers 3.  C l e r k s and S e r v i c e Workers  Urban  Rural  Total  Urban  Rural  Total  7.8  2 .1  9.9  5.4  1.4  6.8  8.35)  3 .4  3 .8  7.2  2.2  2 .9  5.1  6.15!  )  17 .2  7.7  24.9  17 .4  8.1  25.5  25.2  1  Commercial  7.3  3 .2  10 .5  7.8  2.5  10 .3  5.  S k i l l e d and Semi-Skilled  7 .9  7.9  15.8  7.6  7.2  14.8  Unskilled  3.7  10.7  14.4  4.0  10.6  14.6  15.3 ). ) 14.5 j  7 . Housewife  6.3  7.3  13 .6  7 .6  12 .1  19 .7  16.65)  0.8  3 .7  1.7  3 .2  ) 3.45)  8.  Unspecified  2.9  1.5  50 .1  ) 10.4 > )  4.  6.  (%)  29 .8  20  .1  to U)  235 comprising enjoyed of  no more than 20 percent  markedly s u p e r i o r chances--the r e l a t i v e  the f i r s t  times  of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n , opportunity  four groups i s computed t o be at l e a s t  as h i g h as the remaining  four groups put  four  together.  No r e l i a b l e data were a v a i l a b l e f o r 1957  with which  the 1967  f i g u r e s can be compared, and Manley's a n a l y s i s of  the 1959  situation  of  occupations  (see p.203) uses a d i f f e r e n t  from the one employed h e r e .  classification  However, the  r e s u l t s can be weighed a g a i n s t the Government's claims objectives.  Most c e r t a i n l y ,  o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the  c l a s s e s from the 1950's onwards was  phase of expansion  much g r e a t e r than i n almost  But i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t a f t e r the  was  and  poorer  e a r l i e r years when the secondary s c h o o l system was entirely exclusive.  1967  initial  completed i n the 1950's f u r t h e r  e f f o r t s t o i n c r e a s e the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the working c l a s s e s were o n l y moderately s u c c e s s f u l .  The  70-30 s e l e c t i o n  f a i l e d to e q u a l i s e the chances of the upper and  policy  lower c l a s s e s  as intended, but might have achieved a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of f r e e p l a c e s among middle and upper c l a s s c h i l d r e n , and  prevented  a d e c l i n e i n r u r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the secondary s c h o o l s . I n c r e a s i n g the number o f f r e e p l a c e s s u r e l y r e s u l t e d i n a l o s s of funds from those who  could a f f o r d t o pay  and would normally have done so.  s c h o o l fees  236  In e x p l a i n i n g the continued  disadvantage of the  c l a s s e s i n s p i t e of s c h o o l expansion and comment was  lower  l e g i s l a t i o n Manley*s  instructive:  C h i l d r e n from these groups (from the homes of u n s k i l l e d workers and peasant farmers) win a f a i r l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of a l l the f r e e p l a c e s awarded, because of t h e i r great numbers, but such a s m a l l percentage of the group i t s e l f a c t u a l l y wins these p l a c e s t h a t these p u p i l s can s c a r c e l y be s a i d t o be competing i n the same sense as the c h i l d r e n of c l e r i c a l or s k i l l e d manual workers, f o r example. The mean performance of these groups i s so low t h a t a d j u s t i n g the system of rewards so as to improve t h e i r chances of o b t a i n i n g f r e e p l a c e s w i l l be of l a r g e l y marginal b e n e f i t , f o r a f t e r seven years of primary s c h o o l i n g i t appears t h a t o n l y a very small p r o p o r t i o n of them are capable of h i g h s c h o o l work. ( I b i d : p.71) The  unequal r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of working c l a s s c h i l d r e n  among secondary s c h o o l f r e e p l a c e winners was but one  indeed  striking,  should not overlook the f a c t t h a t the system of  s e l e c t i o n was  open enough t o allow a number o f these c h i l d r e n  t o g a i n s o c i a l m o b i l i t y through s c h o o l i n g .  An awareness of  t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y c e r t a i n l y s t i m u l a t e d the i n t e r e s t of the poorer  c l a s s e s i n secondary education  many whose c h i l d r e n could not win  to the extent  that  f r e e p l a c e s i n open compet-  i t i o n were w i l l i n g t o pay t u i t i o n fees f o r attendance at the grant-aided schools.  or l e s s w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d p r i v a t e secondary  The  s i t u a t i o n arose,  c h i l d r e n of w e l l - o f f parents  t h e r e f o r e , i n which many  got a good secondary  education  at the expense of the Government, while many c h i l d r e n of  237 poorer  parents p a i d f o r i n f e r i o r  secondary school s e r v i c e s .  Comment In both Guyana and Jamaica l e g i s l a t i v e and other changes d u r i n g 1957-1967 f a i l e d t o improve a p p r e c i a b l y , i f at a l l ,  the r e l a t i v e chances f o r f r e e secondary e d u c a t i o n of  r u r a l and lower working c l a s s groups.  The s t r a t e g i e s adopted  i n the two c o u n t r i e s were f o r the most p a r t  similar.  Jamaica, however, was bolder t o attempt by l e g i s l a t i v e means the c o n t r o l of admissions  from the p r i v a t e p r e p a r a t o r y  s c h o o l s , while Guyana took steps t o weaken the i n f l u e n c e o f the C h r i s t i a n churches i n matters of s e l e c t i o n o f students 1 and teacher  recruitment.  Though the socio-economic  balance  i n high school r e -  p r e s e n t a t i o n was l a r g e l y u n a f f e c t e d , the e t h n i c balance i n Guyana was c o n s i d e r a b l y a l t e r e d . Guyana secured  The changes i n t r o d u c e d i n  f o r the E a s t I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n g r e a t e r  The uniqueness of these measures i n the r e s p e c t i v e t e r r i t o r i e s may be accounted f o r i n d i r e c t l y by the d i f f e r e n c e s i n e t h n i c composition o f the two p o p u l a t i o n s and the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between e t h n i c and p o l i t i c a l d i v i s i o n s i n Guyana. Any attempt by the Jagan a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o i n t r o d u c e Jamaica's "70-30" p o l i c y would have a l i e n a t e d the non-Indian s e c t i o n o f the e l e c t o r a t e s i n c e t h e i r c h i l d r e n were predominantly r e presented i n the p r e p a r a t o r y s c h o o l s . T h i s r a c i a l element i n p r e p a r a t o r y s c h o o l attendance was absent i n Jamaica. Again, s i n c e t h e r e was no strong a s s o c i a t i o n between r e l i g i o n and race i n Jamaica the q u e s t i o n o f the c o n t r o l of s c h o o l s was not as urgent as i n Guyana.  238 o p p o r t u n i t y f o r f r e e secondary e d u c a t i o n  and g e n e r a l l y i n -  creased t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n at a l l l e v e l s of the system.  education  I t seems c l e a r t h a t the E a s t Indians were denied  c e r t a i n e d u c a t i o n a l p r i v i l e g e s by the a p p l i c a t i o n of tive criteria,  and when these were removed by a Government  t h a t championed t h e i r cause they made r a p i d socio-economic  ascrip-  and  gains.  socio-psychological b a r r i e r s to  a l achievement, however, proved more d i f f i c u l t and continued t o thwart  the attainment  The education-  to eradicate  of e g a l i t a r i a n  objectives. Perhaps the most important  single  factor  affecting  performance on the secondary s c h o o l s e l e c t i o n t e s t s i s the e d u c a t i o n a l experiences ment and  provided by the c h i l d ' s home e n v i r o n -  the s u p p o r t i v e behaviour  of p a r e n t s .  The  elaborate  survey by Coleman e t a l (1969) on e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y i n the United S t a t e s of America tended t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t socio-economic learning  background, or more p r e c i s e l y the  environment, r a t h e r than the q u a l i t y of s c h o o l or  s i z e of classroom, ment.  child's  was  the c r u c i a l f a c t o r  i n school  achieve-  In view, though, of the v e r y d e p l o r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s  of some primary  schools i n Jamaica and Guyana one may  be  i n c l i n e d t o c h a l l e n g e the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the Coleman f i n d ings t o these c o u n t r i e s .  But Reid  (1964) drew s i m i l a r  239 c o n c l u s i o n s from h i s comprehensive study of the e f f e c t s of a number of e d u c a t i o n a l and  s o c i o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s on  the  performance i n E n g l i s h and A r i t h m e t i c of Jamaican primary school c h i l d r e n . c l a s s s i z e nor  Reid's r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t n e i t h e r  a v a i l a b i l i t y o f equipment bore any  appreciable  r e l a t i o n s h i p t o p u p i l performance while very strong t i e s were found between the c r i t e r i o n and v a r i a b l e s such as p a r e n t a l education  and other socio-economic f a c t o r s , as w e l l as  p r o f e s s i o n a l l e v e l of  the  teachers.  On the b a s i s of such f i n d i n g s i t i s tempting t o conclude t h a t the weakness of the s e l e c t i o n system t h a t  limits  the e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r r u r a l and working c l a s s groups l i e s i n the e d u c a t i o n a l p o v e r t y of the home e n v i r o n ment of these  groups.  However the p o s s i b i l i t y cannot be  ignored t h a t the f a u l t may  l i e e q u a l l y i n the  Procrustean  school system which p u p i l s are r e q u i r e d to f i t .  The  causes  of f a i l u r e t o achieve equal o p p o r t u n i t y r e s i d e not o n l y i n the circumstances  of those who  o f the o p p o r t u n i t i e s at stake, ised,  fail,  but  a l s o i n the  i n the way  schools are organ-  i n t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s , i n the k i n d s of values  l e a r n i n g they promote. as these  I t i s probably  and  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s such  t h a t have i n s p i r e d the a g g r e s s i v e  outstanding  nature  campaign of the  L a t i n American e d u c a t i o n i s t Ivan I l l i c h  against  240 the formal s c h o o l .  " T h i s g e n e r a t i o n , " I l l i c h wrote  (1969),  "should bury the myth t h a t s c h o o l i n g i s a necessary means of  becoming a u s e f u l member of s o c i e t y  . . . The  free public  s c h o o l must be fought i n the name of t r u e e q u a l i t y of educational opportunity."  I l l i c h ' s p o i n t here was  t h a t the  methods of p u b l i c s c h o o l o r g a n i s a t i o n and p r o v i s i o n w i t h i n the present context of L a t i n American s o c i e t y c a r r y b u i l t - i n c o n d i t i o n s t h a t perpetuate the e x i s t e n c e of i n e q u a l i t i e s . In  s e v e r a l important ways t h i s c r i t i c i s m i s a p p l i c a b l e t o  Guyana and Jamaica.  For i n s t a n c e , the e a r l y  differentiation  of  secondary  schools and the i d e a s and r e a l i t i e s  to  t h e i r r e l a t i v e m e r i t most c e r t a i n l y encourage i n students  e i t h e r a f e e l i n g of arrogance for  to  ( i n the case of those  the secondary grammar schools) or a sense of  i n the o t h e r s .  pertaining  Moreover, many of those who  selected  inferiority  g a i n entrance  grammar s c h o o l s f a i l t o achieve the narrow o b j e c t i v e s  and  demands imposed on them and are consequently f i l l e d with a sense of f r u s t r a t i o n and w o r t h l e s s n e s s . I t has been demonstrated  t h a t i n both c o u n t r i e s the  concern f o r "standards", combined w i t h the view t h a t some people are not f i t f o r "secondary the promotion  education" i n t e r p r e t e d  of c e r t a i n k i n d s of l e a r n i n g i n s p e c i f i e d  s u b j e c t areas, has helped t o l i m i t the e x t e n s i o n of h i g h  as  241 s c h o o l o p p o r t u n i t y to d e p r i v e d groups.  In t h e i r a n a l y s i s of  the problems of e d u c a t i o n a l development i n Southern A s i a , Adams and B j o r k elitist  (1969) commented t h a t r e s i s t a n c e from  groups t o the d e m o c r a t i s a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n  several guises: of  took  t h e r e were arguments about the maintenance  q u a l i t y and standards; e x c l u s i v e l y  'quality'  secondary  i n s t i t u t i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d ; and v o c a t i o n a l schools were promoted.  Our  study was  r e v e a l e d t h a t these were f a m i l i a r  t a c t i c s i n Guyana and Jamaica, and t h a t even mass l e a d e r s , parents, and  students c o n t r i b u t e d t o the d e l a y of  s c h o o l expansion of  by being unable  t o disabuse t h e i r minds  P l a t o n i c modes o f e d u c a t i o n a l thought.  pansion of secondary  schools and  secondary  At f i r s t  secondary  the  ex-  school c u r r i c u l a  took the form of v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n f o r grammar s c h o o l r e j e c t s and t r i v i a l  a g r i c u l t u r a l education for r u r a l  L a t e r , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t r i e d t o remove these but they found  i t difficult  children.  distinctions,  t o overcome the p r e j u d i c e s  a g a i n s t n o n - l i t e r a r y e d u c a t i o n which had  a l r e a d y been b u i l t  up i n the minds of the p u b l i c and nurtured by the  differential  system of rewards i n the s o c i e t y f o r v a r i o u s k i n d s of work done. Finally, secondary  attempts t o e q u a l i s e o p p o r t u n i t y at the  l e v e l by modifying the s e l e c t i o n procedures  and  by  242 l e g i s l a t i v e c o n t r o l of admissions continued t o meet with o n l y l i m i t e d success, p a r t l y because of the f a i l u r e of the p r i m a r y s c h o o l system.  From time t o time commentators i n  both c o u n t r i e s p u b l i c l y expressed c o n s t e r n a t i o n at the l e v e l of attainment of primary s c h o o l graduates, but c o n c e n t r a t e d a t t a c k was  no  ever made on t h i s problem, apart  from the i n i t i a t i o n o f modest t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g schemes.  low  expansion  M o d i f y i n g the secondary s c h o o l entrance procedures  t o c o r r e c t d i s p a r i t i e s i n the s e l e c t i o n o p p o r t u n i t y of v a r i o u s groups, was  a s u p e r f i c i a l r a t h e r than  fundamental  s o l u t i o n t o the problems of e d u c a t i o n a l i n e q u a l i t y . I n s p i t e of the weakness of the primary system the Government i n both t e r r i t o r i e s p l a c e d overwhelming emphasis on secondary l e v e l expansion.  Bacchus (1969:42) has shown  t h a t the growth of expenditure on e d u c a t i o n i n Guyana i n the 1950's and 1960's was  over 40 percent h i g h e r f o r the  secondary stage than f o r the primary s t a g e . secondary e d u c a t i o n p r o v i s i o n -was  True,  universal  at a germinal stage  compared with u n i v e r s a l primary e d u c a t i o n ; t h e r e f o r e much more e f f o r t was  needed i n the former a r e a .  Apart from  this  f a c t , however, t h r e e other reasons c o u l d be suggested f o r the d i r e c t i o n of e f f o r t : 1.  I n t e r n a t i o n a l agencies p r o v i d e d funds f o r the  243 expansion of secondary s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s and not f o r primary e d u c a t i o n .  As a r e s u l t Governments tended  t o c o n c e n t r a t e mainly on those areas i n which they could o b t a i n f i n a n c i a l 2.  There was  assistance.  the p r e v a i l i n g view among e d u c a t i o n  e x e c u t i v e s and i n t e r n a t i o n a l economists t h a t the q u i c k e s t r e t u r n s t o investment  i n e d u c a t i o n were t o  be o b t a i n e d by spending at the secondary l e v e l ; y e t the assumption  t h a t the primary s c h o o l base  was  s o l i d enough t o support secondary s c h o o l expansion was  not t r u e i n p r a c t i c e i n Guyana and  Jamaica.  3.  By the middle of the 20th c e n t u r y the expansion  of primary e d u c a t i o n had ceased t o be newsworthy i n Guyana and Jamaica or t o e x c i t e the sentiments of voters.  Because of the importance  of  secondary  s c h o o l c e r t i f i c a t e s f o r o b t a i n i n g jobs and the s o c i a l s t a t u s they c o n f e r r e d , the e r e c t i o n of a  improved new  secondary s c h o o l by Government made a great impact on the minds of the e l e c t o r a t e . There i s no reason t o b e l i e v e t h a t f u r t h e r e f f o r t s t o p r o v i d e g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d c l a s s e s by expanding  secondary e d u c a t i o n along the  d e s c r i b e d above w i l l meet with any n o t a b l e s u c c e s s .  lines  244  Improvements w i l l have to be sought i n new d i r e c t i o n s . a n t i c i p a t e l a t e r d i s c u s s i o n , there needs t o be new  To  emphasis  on development at the primary l e v e l , on the r e o r g a n i s a t i o n not o n l y of the s c h o o l system but of the system of rewards i n the s o c i e t y , and i n g e n e r a l  on the a m e l i o r a t i o n of the  s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s throughout the two t e r r i t o r i e s .  CHAPTER 9 SOCIO-ECONOMIC BACKGROUND, OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATIONS AND CURRICULAR INTERESTS OF FOURTH-FORM STUDENTS IN GUYANA AND JAMAICA  The  e f f e c t i v e expansion  of secondary  education  o p p o r t u n i t y depends on the extent t o which h i g h  schools  c a t e r f o r the v a r i e t y of c u r r i c u l a r and o c c u p a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s of students drawn from d i f f e r e n t r e g i o n s and different  socio-economic  groups.  The c u r r i c u l u m  planner  needs t o know the e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s of students  i n order t o a n t i c i p a t e and r e s o l v e some o f the  problems l i k e l y t o be encountered i n the development of new programmes. classroom  teacher  Such knowledge i s a l s o u s e f u l t o the i n v o l v e d i n e d u c a t i o n a l and career  guidance . The  survey undertaken i n t h i s chapter was  by other c o n s i d e r a t i o n s as w e l l .  Traditionally,  schools i n Jamaica and Guyana o f f e r e d mainly science courses.  motivated high  l i t e r a r y and  E f f o r t s t o introduce t e c h n i c a l subjects  i n t o the c u r r i c u l u m o f t e n proved a b o r t i v e p a r t l y because o f poor o r g a n i s a t i o n and p a r t l y because of l a c k of enthusiasm on the p a r t o f students,  parents  The h i g h s c h o o l was seen mainly 245  and t e a c h e r s  alike.  as an avenue t o c l e r i c a l ,  246  p r o f e s s i o n a l and s e r v i c e occupations  or, put d i f f e r e n t l y ,  as a means through which the l e s s p r e s t i g i o u s s k i l l e d manual occupations The  could be  avoided.  growth of n a t i o n a l i s m and the concomitant d r i v e  f o r economic development c r e a t e d a d e t e r m i n a t i o n  i n govern-  ment a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s t o t r a i n t e c h n i c a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l s k i l l s through the h i g h  schools.  There p r e v a i l e d , however,  a t a c i t assumption t h a t t e c h n i c a l courses were r e a l l y able f o r those  suit-  lower working c l a s s c h i l d r e n who f a i l e d t o  do w e l l i n the t r a d i t i o n a l l i t e r a r y and s c i e n c e programmes, and t h a t a g r i c u l t u r e i n p a r t i c u l a r was f o r r u r a l c h i l d r e n . T h i s survey  i n v e s t i g a t e s whether such assumptions  underlying  e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y f o r the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a are r e f l e c t e d i n the i n t e r e s t s of s t u d e n t s . general i t seeks t o answer the q u e s t i o n :  In  I s there any  d i s t i n c t i o n among secondary school students  from v a r i o u s  r e g i o n a l and socio-economic groups i n Jamaica and Guyana w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s and i n t e r e s t i n t e c h n i c a l subjects? students  continue  The theory advanced here i s t h a t  t o see the secondary s c h o o l as a means  of escape from manual occupations, consequently  s k i l l e d or u n s k i l l e d ;  there would be no g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n t e c h n i c a l  s u b j e c t s and s k i l l e d occupations  among r u r a l and lower  247 working c l a s s c h i l d r e n than among c h i l d r e n from the metrop o l i s and from c l e r i c a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l backgrounds.  Specifically,  the f o l l o w i n g hypotheses are  investigated: 1.  There i s no r e l a t i o n between r e g i o n a l background  and o c c u p a t i o n a l choice . 2.  There i s no r e l a t i o n between r e g i o n a l background  and  interest i n technical subjects.  3.  There i s no r e l a t i o n between r e g i o n a l background  and p r e f e r e n c e  f o r farming  over other t e c h n i c a l  subjects. 4.  There i s no r e l a t i o n between o c c u p a t i o n a l back-  ground and o c c u p a t i o n a l choice . Procedure o f E n q u i r y Sample:  In each country a l i s t of r e g i s t e r e d non-  t e c h n i c a l secondary schools was of E d u c a t i o n  and  obtained from the M i n i s t r y  about o n e - t h i r d of these  schools s e l e c t e d  f o r the survey c a r r i e d out i n the 1969-1970 academic y e a r . The  r e s e a r c h e r used h i s own  knowledge of the schools and  judgement of E d u c a t i o n O f f i c e r s t o s e l e c t s t r a t i f i e d samples r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of v a r i o u s r e g i o n s , l e v e l s , types o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and  the  school  socio-economic  c o n t r o l (Church, P r i v a t e ,  Government and Government-aided), and  academic p r e s t i g e .  248 A fourth-form  c l u s t e r was s e l e c t e d from each s c h o o l .  t o t a l sample comprised 405 students  The  from 13 s c h o o l s i n  Guyana and 406 from 14 Jamaican s c h o o l s . Method: students  The  A questionnaire  1  was administered  were asked t o i n d i c a t e i n t e r  alia  (a)  area of permanent r e s i d e n c e ;  (b)  p r e v i o u s primary school  (c)  parental  (d)  o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e ; and  (e)  curricular  a c t u a l questions  i n which  attended;  occupation;  choice.  asked f o r (d) and (e) w i l l be presented  below, where a p p r o p r i a t e . The  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were sent t o head teachers and  administered  by form-masters.  One of the l e a d i n g secondary  schools i n Guyana, a Government boys* s c h o o l , d i d not respond t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The  o c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n used was  fundamentally  the same as t h a t which formed the b a s i s o f our a n a l y s i s o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l c l a s s and secondary selection,  and which was d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter 7.  m o d i f i c a t i o n s had t o be made t o meet c e r t a i n  See Appendix 5.  school  Some  statistical  249 requirements;  these w i l l be i n d i c a t e d as the need  A l l d a t a were regarded  as c a t e g o r i c a l i n n a t u r e .  In a d d i t i o n , there was no reason  f o r assuming n o r m a l i t y o f  d i s t r i b u t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n s concerned. metric s t a t i s t i c ,  arises.  The non-para-  chi-square t e s t of independence, was  t h e r e f o r e employed i n the a n a l y s i s of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e sponses . percent  S t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i s r e p o r t e d a t the 5  l e v e l of confidence. Limitations:  The v a l i d i t y of any q u e s t i o n n a i r e  type  r e s e a r c h i s l i a b l e t o be a f f e c t e d by problems of the use and  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of concepts.  To o f f s e t t h i s  difficulty  as much as p o s s i b l e a p r e l i m i n a r y d r a f t of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was administered  t o two f o u r t h forms i n an e f f o r t t o d e t e c t  and remove a m b i g u i t i e s .  Nevertheless,  problems o f w r i t t e n  communication could not thereby be e n t i r e l y e l i m i n a t e d . A f u r t h e r source of weakness o f the survey was the r e l i a n c e on one s i n g l e f a c t o r t o determine o c c u p a t i o n a l and c u r r i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s , t h a t i s , the response t o d i r e c t q u e s t i o n s concerning  o c c u p a t i o n a l and c u r r i c u l a r  choice.  F u r t h e r , i t may be argued t h a t what c h i l d r e n say they are i n t e r e s t e d i n becoming or s t u d y i n g o f t e n r e p r e s e n t s not t h e i r r e a l i n t e r e s t but t h e i r b e l i e f about what i s expected of them by the r e s e a r c h e r , or teacher, or p a r e n t .  Yet, what  250 a c h i l d t h i n k s he ought t o say can be u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n about s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s and values which must be taken  into  account i n p l a n n i n g and e x e c u t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y . Finally,  i t may  have been b e t t e r t o administer  the  q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o a random s e l e c t i o n of c h i l d r e n from d i f f e r e n t forms throughout a l l the h i g h schools r a t h e r than  to  some f o u r t h form c l u s t e r s , but the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems would have been c o n s i d e r a b l y i n c r e a s e d , thereby  reducing  the w i l l i n g n e s s of the schools t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the exercise.  T h i s survey must be seen not as a complete  and  p e r f e c t p i e c e o f r e s e a r c h but as a p r e l i m i n a r y e x p l o r a t i o n in a field the two  i n which l i t t l e  or nothing has been w r i t t e n i n  countries studied.  A n a l y s i s of R e s u l t s - Boys 1.  R e g i o n a l Background vs O c c u p a t i o n a l Hypothesis  tested:  Choice  There i s no r e l a t i o n between area  of r e s i d e n c e and o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e of  students.  As i n p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n s of t h i s study two  areas of  r e s i d e n c e were d i s t i n g u i s h e d , (a)  the c a p i t a l c i t y along with i t s e n v i r o n s ,  the urban area, (b) area.  called  and  the r e s t of the country,  t r e a t e d as the  rural  251 The  category  ' o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e ' was d i v i d e d i n t o three  components, namely, choice o f a f i r s t  job a f t e r l e a v i n g  school, j o b e x p e c t a t i o n , and u l t i m a t e o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e f e r ence.  The questions asked were as f o l l o w s : a.  What i s the f i r s t  j o b you would l i k e t o get?  b.  What i s the f i r s t  j o b you t h i n k you w i l l  c.  I f you had a f r e e choice what o c c u p a t i o n would you  The  get?  l i k e t o take up e v e n t u a l l y ?  following basic c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  o f occupations  was  employed: Class 1  -  h i g h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l and e x e c u t i v e ;  Class 2  -  teachers;  Class 3  -  c l e r i c a l and s e r v i c e workers, i n c l u d i n g civil  The  servants, nurses,  Class 4  -  small businessmen;  Class 5  -  skilled  Class 6  -  u n s k i l l e d workers  s i z e s of c e l l  and s e m i - s k i l l e d workers;  e n t r i e s i n the chi-square  t a b l e s made i t necessary  policemen;  contingency  t o combine c l a s s e s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l  c h o i c e s , or i n some cases t o ignore c l a s s e s a l t o g e t h e r where the f r e q u e n c i e s were n e g l i g i b l e . As can be seen i n Table 17, the h y p o t h e s i s  t h a t there  i s no r e l a t i o n between r e g i o n a l background and choice of a  252 first  j o b i s r e j e c t e d a t the 5 percent l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e . Table  (17)  Percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n of o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s ( f i r s t job) by r e g i o n - Guyana Boys  O c c u p a t i o n a l Choice ( F i r s t job)  Regional D i s t r i b u t i o n Urban Rural  Occ. c l a s s 1  38  30  Occ. c l a s s 2  11  28  Occ. c l a s s 3, 4  28  25  Occ. c l a s s 5  23  17  (100%)  (100%)  N = = 8.167 P  0.05  -  88  (%)  104  Hypothesis r e j e c t e d  3 df The  f i n d i n g s do not support the view t h a t r u r a l  are more l i k e l y than urban c h i l d r e n t o choose occupations.  children  skilled  I n s t e a d t h e r e are i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t there i s  g r e a t e r p r e f e r e n c e among the urban than among the r u r a l groups f o r s k i l l e d and higher p r o f e s s i o n a l occupations the c h o i c e o f t e a c h i n g as a f i r s t  while  j o b i s a s s o c i a t e d more  with r u r a l than with urban r e s i d e n c e . Table  (18) r e v e a l s a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n f o r j o b expect-  a t i o n s o f the two r e g i o n a l groups i n Guyana.  In t h i s  the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the c h o i c e of t e a c h i n g , s k i l l e d and c l e r i c a l jobs are more pronounced.  case  253 Table  (18)  Percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s (job e x p e c t a t i o n s ) by r e g i o n Guyana Boys  Occupational Expectations  Regional D i s t r i b u t i o n Urban Rural  Occ. c l a s s 1  23  15  Occ. c l a s s 2  17  50  35  23  25  12  (100%)  (100%)  Occ.  c l a s s 3,  4  Occ. c l a s s 5  N = 19.285  P  0.05  96  = 71  (also P  0.01) -  3 df The  (%)  Hypothesis rejected  n o - r e l a t i o n s h i p h y p o t h e s i s i s r e q u i r e d even at the  percent l e v e l .  one  50 percent of the r u r a l c h i l d r e n expect  to  get a t e a c h i n g job when they leave s c h o o l , compared with 17 percent of urban c h i l d r e n .  Perhaps r u r a l c h i l d r e n are  aware of the low l e v e l of i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n and  limited  p o r t u n i t y f o r s k i l l e d and c l e r i c a l employment i n the  op-  rural  areas, and see t e a c h i n g as o f f e r i n g the q u i c k e s t temporary employment o p p o r t u n i t y at a c c e p t a b l e r a t e s of  remuneration.  A r e l a t e d factor c o n t r i b u t i n g to t h e i r pattern of choices i s probably the r e l a t i v e conspicuousness  of t e a c h e r s , compared  with other workers, as models with which students c o u l d identify.  2 54 When students were asked  t o s t a t e what j o b they  would p r e f e r t o do u l t i m a t e l y i f they had a f r e e c h o i c e , Guyana boys opted occupations—76 r u r a l group.  overwhelmingly f o r h i g h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l  percent o f the urban and 61 percent of the  But as shown i n Table  (19) the n o - r e l a t i o n -  s h i p h y p o t h e s i s was again r e j e c t e d , a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f urban than r u r a l students choosing h i g h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l occupations,  and a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n of r u r a l than urban  students choosing t e a c h i n g . skilled  Ultimate preference for  occupations was not c o n s i s t e n t with  first-job  c h o i c e s and j o b e x p e c t a t i o n s . Table  (19)  Percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n of o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s ( u l t i m a t e preference) by r e g i o n Guyana Boys  Ultimate Occupational Preference Occ.  R e g i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n (%) Urban Rural  class 1  76  61  Occ. c l a s s 2  2  14  Occ. c l a s s 3, 4  12  12  Occ. c l a s s 5  10  14  (100%)  (100%)  N = = 10.127 3 df  P  92  0.05 - Hypothesis  102 rejected  255 Two  s t r i k i n g r e s u l t s c o n s i s t e n t throughout  the  e n t i r e survey are (a) the g r e a t e r w i l l i n g n e s s shown by r u r a l and lower working c l a s s groups t h a t urban and and upper c l a s s groups t o opt f o r t e a c h i n g , and r e l a t i v e l y low p r o p o r t i o n of students who  middle  (b) the  chose t e a c h i n g  as an u l t i m a t e c a r e e r , compared with those who  expected  t e a c h i n g as a f i r s t  (19) i t can  be noted t h a t two  job.  From T a b l e s  (18) and  percent o f the urban group expressed  an  u l t i m a t e p r e f e r e n c e f o r t e a c h i n g compared with 17 percent who  expected  their f i r s t  job t o be t e a c h i n g .  f i g u r e s f o r the r u r a l group are 14 percent and  Corresponding 50 percent  respectively. The was  fundamental p a t t e r n of c h o i c e s of Jamaican boys  almost e n t i r e l y s i m i l a r t o t h a t f o r Guyana boys.  D i f f e r e n c e s i n r u r a l and urban p r o p o r t i o n s were g e n e r a l l y i  more pronounced and a l l three hypotheses even at the one percent l e v e l .  Table  were r e j e c t e d  (20)  summarises  the chi-square r e s u l t s of the t e s t s of independence tween area of r e s i d e n c e and e x p e c t a t i o n s and In  be-  (a) f i r s t - j o b c h o i c e , (b) job  (c) u l t i m a t e o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e .  Guyana and Jamaica  urban c h i l d r e n were more l i k e l y  than r u r a l c h i l d r e n t o opt f o r s k i l l e d o c c u p a t i o n s .  The  u l t i m a t e p r e f e r e n c e s of Guyana boys, however, were not s i s t e n t with t h i s o v e r - a l l p a t t e r n .  con-  256 Table  (20)  Chi-square v a l u e s of t e s t s of independence between r e g i o n a l background and occupational aspirations ( f i r s t - j o b choice, job e x p e c t a t i o n and u l t i m a t e o c c u p a t i o n a l preference) - Jamaica boys df  Variables  Region  Result  N N (urban)(rural)  vs  F i r s t - j o b choice  25 .885  3  76  66  Significant*  Job e x p e c t a t i o n  12 .858  3  65  58  Significant*  Ultimate preference  13 .425  3  80  67  Significant*  •Hypothesis of n o - r e l a t i o n s h i p between v a r i a b l e s r e j e c t e d at the one percent l e v e l . There was,  on the whole, markedly l e s s i n t e r e s t i n  t e a c h i n g among Jamaican boys than among t h e i r Guyanese c o u n t e r p a r t but the u r b a n - r u r a l d i f f e r e n t i a l s were s i m i l a r . For example, 3 percent of urban Jamaican boys expected t e a c h i n g t o be t h e i r f i r s t f o r Guyana.  job, compared with 17 percent  For the r u r a l groups corresponding  were 2 6 percent and  50 percent r e s p e c t i v e l y .  figures  Complete  d i s t r i b u t i o n t a b l e s f o r a l l t e s t s are given i n Appendix ( 4 ) . The d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s between Jamaica  and Guyana with  r e s p e c t t o the p o p u l a r i t y of t e a c h i n g as a c a r e e r i n f a c t reflect  some socio-economic  countries.  d i f f e r e n c e s between the  Jamaica with i t s h i g h e r degree of  two  industriali-  s a t i o n o f f e r s more a t t r a c t i v e jobs i n commerce and i n d u s t r y  257 to i t s male p o p u l a t i o n . t e a c h e r s i n the two  The  r a t i o of male to female  countries i s illuminating,  l e s s than 20 percent of a l l primary  school teachers  male, compared with about 50 percent i n Guyana. p o r t i o n s of male t e a c h e r s i n the secondary r o u g h l y 40 and  i n Jamaica  64 percent r e s p e c t i v e l y .  are  The  pro-  schools are  An e t h n i c h i s t o r i -  c a l f a c t o r i n Guyana, however, the l a t e e n t r y of East I n d i a n g i r l s i n t o the p r o f e s s i o n , c o n t r i b u t e s t o the g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n of males i n t e a c h i n g . 2.  R e g i o n a l Background vs C u r r i c u l a r The  Choice  item t h a t sought to determine students'  i n a given l i s t  interest  of t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t s read as f o l l o w s :  I f you were o f f e r e d the o p p o r t u n i t y t o take two of the f o l l o w i n g courses i n your remaining years i n s c h o o l which two would you choose? (Put a t i c k opposite the two you choose. I f you would not l i k e t o do any of these s u b j e c t s put a t i c k o p p o s i t e 'none of the above'): a. b. c. d. e. f.  motor mechanic woodwork ( i n c l u d i n g c a b i n e t making and farming methods r a d i o and e l e c t r i c a l r e p a i r s metal work masonry  g.  none of the above.  carpentry)  These are the courses e i t h e r commonly o f f e r e d i n t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l s i n Jamaica and Guyana or u s u a l l y mentioned i n p r o p o s a l s f o r the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a . Contingency  t a b l e s were prepared  showing the number  258 of  students who  chose at l e a s t one  a g a i n s t those who  opted  of the s u b j e c t s as  f o r 'none of the above'.  f e l t t h a t t h i s method of approach was  It  l i k e l y to y i e l d  more genuine r e s u l t s than i f students were asked t o d i r e c t l y t o the q u e s t i o n :  was  respond  Would you l i k e t o do a t e c h n i c a l  s u b j e c t i n your remaining years i n school? The h y p o t h e s i s i n v e s t i g a t e d was  t h a t there i s no  r e l a t i o n between r e g i o n a l background of students and w i l l i n g n e s s t o pursue t e c h n i c a l c o u r s e s . was  their  This hypothesis  r e j e c t e d f o r Guyana boys at the 5 percent l e v e l .  the r e l a t i o n s h i p suggested  i n Table  But  (21) i s c o n t r a d i c t o r y  to what e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y normally assumes, f o r r u r a l boys were l e s s w i l l i n g than urban boys t o opt f o r t e c h n i c a l courses. for,  T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e i s probably  at l e a s t p a r t i a l l y ,  by the presence  accounted  of a t e c h n i c a l  i n s t i t u t e of h i g h standing i n Georgetown and  l a c k of s i m i l a r  f a c i l i t i e s i n the r u r a l areas, as w e l l as by the urban c h i l d ' s keener p e r c e p t i o n of o p p o r t u n i t i e s open t o persons technical s k i l l s .  with  I t i s not i n c o n c e i v a b l e , however, t h a t  r u r a l c h i l d r e n more than urban c h i l d r e n see h i g h s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n as a means of escaping from manual labour, or  u n s k i l l e d , and a means of g a i n i n g 'white  occupations.  collar'  skilled  259 Table  (21)  Percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n , by r e g i o n , of students o p t i n g f o r at l e a s t one t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t - Guyana Boys  Response t o T e c h n i c a l Subjects  R e g i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n (%) Urban Rural  Choosing  at l e a s t  one  85  71  Choosing  'none . . .'  15  29  (100%)  (100%)  N = 99 = 4.733  P  108  0.05 - Hypothesis r e j e c t e d  1 df Table  (22) i n d i c a t e s t h a t the h y p o t h e s i s of no r e l a t i o n -  s h i p i s t e n a b l e f o r Jamaica boys. Table  (22)  Percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n , by r e g i o n , o f students o p t i n g f o r at l e a s t one t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t - Jamaica Boys  Response to T e c h n i c a l Subjects  Regional D i s t r i b u t i o n Urban Rural  Choosing  at l e a s t  one  75  79  Choosing  'none . . .'  25  21  (100%)  (100%)  84  67  N = = 0.160 1 df  P  0.05  Hypothesis  tenable  (%)  260 In both c o u n t r i e s a q u i t e s u b s t a n t i a l p r o p o r t i o n of students showed a w i l l i n g n e s s t o pursue t e c h n i c a l a f a c t o r t h a t reduces the importance t h a t may  of any  be noted between the responses  the r u r a l groups,  courses,  differences  of the urban and  and t h a t should prove encouraging  t o the  curriculum planner. The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t there i s no r e l a t i o n between r e g i o n a l background and for  s e l e c t i o n of farming was  both Guyana and Jamaica,  Table  (Biii)  larity  (23), but  i n Appendix (4) shows the g e n e r a l low popu-  of farming. Table  Country  as seen i n T a b l e  confirmed  (23)  2  Chi-square r e s u l t s of t e s t s of independence between r e g i o n a l background and c h o i c e of farming - Guyana and Jamaica Boys N N (Urban) (Rural)  df  Results  Guyana  1.176  1  99  108  Not  significant*  Jamaica  1.744  1  84  67  Not  significant*  •Hypothesis of no r e l a t i o n s h i p at 5 percent l e v e l . 3.  accepted  P a r e n t a l O c c u p a t i o n a l Background vs Students' O c c u p a t i o n a l Choice Hypothesis:  There i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p between occu-  p a t i o n a l background of parents and choice.  students' o c c u p a t i o n a l  2 61 Some m o d i f i c a t i o n of the s i x - f o l d  occupational  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n had t o be adopted i n order t o meet the r e quirements of chi-square computation concerning c e l l entries.  s i z e of  P a r e n t a l o c c u p a t i o n a l l e v e l s were  combined  i n t o two groups thus: Classes 1 - 4  'white c o l l a r ' ,  sional, c l e r i c a l , Classes 5 - 6  comprising  the p r o f e s -  commercial and s e r v i c e o c c u p a t i o n s ;  "blue c o l l a r ' ,  s e m i - s k i l l e d and u n s k i l l e d  comprising  skilled,  workers.  O c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s were put i n t o t h r e e groups: Higher  p r o f e s s i o n a l ( c l a s s 1) ,  Teaching,  c l e r i c a l and s e r v i c e ( c l a s s e s 2 - 4) , and  S k i l l e d and s e m i - s k i l l e d  ( c l a s s e s 5 - 6) .  The complete d i s t r i b u t i o n s of c h o i c e s are shown i n Appendix (4) .  Table  (24) below g i v e s the chi-square r e s u l t s f o r the  v a r i o u s t e s t s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r Guyana boys. Table  Variables  1.  (24)  Chi-square r e s u l t s f o r t e s t s o f independence between p a r e n t a l o c c u p a t i o n a l background and students' o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s - Guyana Boys o *  Occ. background Vs F i r s t - j o b Choice 3.229  N d  f  2  parents' Occ. White Collar'  109  N Parents' Occ. 'Blue Collar '  80  Result  Not significant  262 Table  (24) Continued  Variables  2.  3.  2  N  df  N  Parents' Parents' Occ. Occ. 'White 'Blue Collar' Collar '  Occ. background Vs Job e x p e c t ation  6.161  2  94  72  Occ. background Vs U l t i m a t e preference  5.530  2  113  90  Result  Significant*  Not significant  •Hypothesis o f n o - r e l a t i o n s h i p r e j e c t e d a t 5 percent l e v e l . There was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t  relationship  between p a r e n t a l o c c u p a t i o n a l l e v e l and immediate or u l t i m a t e o c c u p a t i o n a l choice among Guyana boys, but there seemed t o be some dependency r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r e n t a l o c c u p a t i o n a l l e v e l and the students' o c c u p a t i o n a l e x p e c t ation.  An i n s p e c t i o n of T a b l e  ( C i i ) i n Appendix (4) r e v e a l s  t h a t e x p e c t a t i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l jobs i s more a s s o c i a t e d with students from a 'white c o l l a r ' p a r e n t a l o c c u p a t i o n a l background, while e x p e c t a t i o n of c l e r i c a l and s e r v i c e jobs i s more a s s o c i a t e d with c h i l d r e n of parents w i t h  'blue c o l l a r '  occupations . A s i m i l a r dependency r e l a t i o n s h i p was shown f o r a l l t h r e e t e s t s f o r Jamaican b o y s — c h o i c e  and e x p e c t a t i o n o f  p r o f e s s i o n a l jobs was more a s s o c i a t e d with  'white  collar'  263 p a r e n t a l o c c u p a t i o n a l background, while choice e x p e c t a t i o n of c l e r i c a l collar'  jobs was  Table  (25)  There was  'blue  no c o n s i s t e n t  occupations i n e i t h e r  country.  Chi-square r e s u l t s f o r t e s t s of independence between p a r e n t a l o c c u p a t i o n a l background and students' o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s - Jamaica Boys N-Parents' OccupaWhite t i o n Blue R e s u l t Collar Collar  Variables  1.  more a s s o c i a t e d with  o c c u p a t i o n a l background.  p a t t e r n of choice of s k i l l e d  and  Occ. background vs f i r s t - j o b choice 9.070  50  Significant*  68  45  Significant*  81  51  Significant*  77  Occ. background vs j o b expectation 8.733 Occ. background vs U l t i m a t e preference 13.403  2  •Hypothesis of no r e l a t i o n s h i p r e j e c t e d — a t 5 percent l e v e l f o r (1) and (2), and at 1 percent l e v e l f o r (3)..' On the whole our h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e r e i s no between p a r e n t a l o c c u p a t i o n a l l e v e l a l c h o i c e was  not supported  low p o p u l a r i t y of s k i l l e d  and  students'  by the survey,  occupations was  occupation-  but the g e n e r a l l y evident, and  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p a r e n t a l background and e x p e c t a t i o n , and u l t i m a t e p r e f e r e n c e  relationship  the  choice,  for s k i l l e d  occupations  264 were not uniform  (see d i s t r i b u t i o n t a b l e s i n Appendix).  Girls 1.  Regional  Background vs O c c u p a t i o n a l  Choice  One s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e p e c u l i a r t o the o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s among the g i r l s was the n e g l i g i b l e frequency of c h o i c e of s k i l l e d o c c u p a t i o n s .  N e a r l y a l l g i r l s i n both  Guyana and Jamaica chose e i t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l and c l e r i c a l or s e r v i c e o c c u p a t i o n s .  Table  (26) shows t h a t f o r Guyana  g i r l s there was no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e g i o n a l background and u l t i m a t e o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e , but s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t e d between r e g i o n and ch oi ce of a f i r s t  job as w e l l as between r e g i o n and o c c u -  pational expectation.  In each case g i r l s  from the urban  area were more l i k e l y than r u r a l g i r l s t o opt f o r c l e r i c a l jobs but l e s s l i k e l y t o opt f o r t e a c h i n g . Table  (2 6)  Chi-square r e s u l t s f o r t e s t s o f independence between r e g i o n a l background and o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s - Guyana G i r l s 2  Variables  df  N N (urban) (Rural)  Region vs F i r s t - j o b Choice  27.169  3  91  85  19.216  1  65  75  Region vs Job e x p e c t a t i o n Region vs U l t i m a t e preference  4.350  2  88  85  •Hypothesis o f n o - r e l a t i o n s h i p r e j e c t e d at 1 percent l e v e l .  Significant* Significant* Not significant  265 In Jamaica there was a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p i n a l l three cases as shown i n Table  (2 7), the choice o f  t e a c h i n g again being more a s s o c i a t e d with r u r a l than with urban r e s i d e n c e . Table  (27)  Variables  Chi-square r e s u l t s o f t e s t s of independence between r e g i o n a l background and o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s - Jamaica G i r l s 2  df  N  N  (Urban)(Rural)  Result  Region vs F i r s t - j o b Choice  13.459  2  109  108  Significant  12.475  2  86  99  Significant  Region vs Job e x p e c t a t i o n  Region vs Ultimate preference 13.238 2 110 111 •Hypothesis of n o - r e l a t i o n s h i p r e j e c t e d at 1 percent l e v e l .  Significant  Urban g i r l s were as i n Guyana more l i k e l y than r u r a l  girls  t o choose and expect p r o f e s s i o n a l occupations, but the p a t t e r n o f choice of c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s was not uniform. The  a t t i t u d e t o t e a c h i n g as an " i n t r a n s i t "  job, so e v i d e n t  among the boys, a l s o p r e v a i l e d among the g i r l s ,  while  t e a c h i n g a g a i n seemed t o be more popular among Guyanese than among Jamaican s t u d e n t s . 2  .  R e g i o n a l Background vs Choice of T e c h n i c a l S u b j e c t s No s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was found i n e i t h e r  country between r e g i o n a l background and w i l l i n g n e s s t o opt  266 for  at l e a s t one t e c h n i c a l course from a l i s t  home economics, h a n d i c r a f t , shorthand and  farming.  comprising  and t y p i n g , woodwork  In both Guyana and Jamaica  over 80 percent  of the students chose at l e a s t one t e c h n i c a l course,  but  l e s s than 8 percent opted f o r farming. 3.  O c c u p a t i o n a l Background vs O c c u p a t i o n a l A s p i r a t i o n s The number of g i r l s choosing s k i l l e d  both c o u n t r i e s was  i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l ; t h i s category was  f o r e omitted i n the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . classification boys was  and  s e r v i c e occupations  retained—professional,  group, while s k i l l e d , c o n s t i t u t e d the o t h e r . modified.  clerical,  there-  two-fold adopted  commercial  ( i n c l u d i n g teaching) comprised  s e m i - s k i l l e d and u n s k i l l e d The  classification  one  occupations  of o c c u p a t i o n a l  C a t e g o r i e s employed were h i g h e r p r o -  f e s s i o n a l , t e a c h i n g , and c l e r i c a l  and  service jobs.  S i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s were found tween p a r e n t a l o c c u p a t i o n a l background and job  The  of p a r e n t a l o c c u p a t i o n a l background  for  c h o i c e was  occupations i n  (Table 28) first-job  be-  choice,  e x p e c t a t i o n , and u l t i m a t e job p r e f e r e n c e of Jamaican  girls;  and f o r Guyana g i r l s , between o c c u p a t i o n a l background  and job e x p e c t a t i o n as w e l l as u l t i m a t e o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e f e r ence.  In each case g i r l s from a ' w h i t e - c o l l a r ' p a r e n t a l  o c c u p a t i