UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The social organization of the Clyde Inlet Eskimos Stevenson, David 1971

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1-1261 THE SOCIAL ORGANIZATION OF THE CLYDE INLET ESKIMOS by DAVID STEVENSON B . S c , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia , 1963 M.A. , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia , 1964 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF -Doctor o f P h i l o s o p h y i n the Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as con fo rming t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October , 1971 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8 , Canada ABSTRACT T h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h the i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n and c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r s e t o f d a t a d e a l i n g w i t h t h e s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and b e h a v i o u r o f two groups o f Esk imos t r a d i n g i n t o the p o s t a t C l y d e R i v e r , n o r t h e a s t B a f f i n I s l a n d . An a t tempt i s made t o show t h a t b o t h k i n s h i p and what I c a l l e x t r a - k i n s h i p f a c t o r s a r e i m p o r t a n t i n g a i n i n g a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f o t h e r w i s e i n e x p l i c a b l e b e h a v i o u r . The k i n s h i p system, i t i s p o s i t e d , i s o n l y one sys tem o f b e h a v i o u r and i s c l o s e l y l i n k e d w i t h the e x t r a -k i n s h i p sys tem w i t h i t s i n v o l v e m e n t o f spouse-exchange and t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f h a l f - s i b l i n g s t h u s c r e a t i n g k i n s h i p t i e s where none had e x i s t e d b e f o r e . These t i e s , i n t u r n , fade a t t h e b o u n d a r i e s so t h a t each s u c c e e d i n g g e n e r a t i o n must c r e a t e i t s own e x t r a - k i n s h i p t i e s . W i t h i n the bounds o f e i t h e r the k i n s h i p o r the e x t r a - k i n s h i p systems the p e o p l e o p e r a t e i n terms o f d y a d i c p a i r s . T h i s i s most c l e a r l y demons t ra ted f o r the k i n s h i p sys tem b u t i s a l s o shown f o r the e x t r a - k i n s h i p s y s t e m . S t i l l o t h e r systems o f i n f o r m a t i o n d i s p e r s a l and s o c i a l c o n t r o l c o u l d be seen i n a) the g o s s i p c i r c l e and i n b ) t h e a d u l t - e x c l u s i v e peer g roups among the u n m a r r i e d p o p u l a t i o n . F u r t h e r t o t h i s i s the e x i s t e n c e o f a w e l l -d e f i n e d h i e r a r c h i c a l system o f s t a t u s and i n f l u e n c e . The l a t t e r sys tem f u n c t i o n s t o s p e c i f y who i s t h e l e g i t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e i n v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s . The two groups o f Esk imos ment ioned show un ique b o n d i n g a c r o s s k i n s h i p l i n e s t h r o u g h the o p e r a t i o n o f the e x t r a - k i n s h i p system, t h e i l i g i t s y s t e m . T h i s b o n d i n g i s what s e r v e s t o g i v e a degree o f c o h e s i o n t o the e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n . The e x i s t e n c e o f two groups i n the a r e a i s a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t s b e g i n n i n g w i t h the i n i -t i a l d e p o p u l a t i o n o f the a r e a and e n d i n g , e s s e n t i a l l y , w i t h t h e r e t u r n o f Esk imos about one hundred y e a r s l a t e r . By . that t ime the w h a l i n g o p e r a t i o n s on the n o r t h e a s t c o a s t o f B a f f i n I s l a n d had ceased and the f u r - t r a d e r s had a r r i v e d . The e f f e c t s o f w h a l e r and t r a d e r c o n t a c t s i n r e c e n t h i s t o r i c a l t i m e s i s shown t o have had i m p o r t a n t c o n -sequences f o r the d e v e l o p i n g economy and the e c o l o g y o f the a r e a . I t i s f u r t h e r s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s i n t u r n , has had e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t e f f e c t s upon the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . These r e s u l t s , f o r example, had d i r e c t impact upon r e s i d e n c e p a t t e r n s and camp format ion . - I t i s presumed t h a t m a r r i a g e p a t t e r n s were a f f e c t e d and as a f u r t h e r c o n -sequence , k i n s h i p p a t t e r n s and o b l i g a t i o n s were i n t u r n s u b j e c t t o m o d i f i c a t i o n . Chapter I s e t s out the prob lems t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d and d i s c u s s e s the modus o p e r a n d i . Chapter I I p r e s e n t s the i i i contemporary k i n s h i p system i n the l i g h t o f t e r m i n o l o g y and b e h a v i o u r . Chapter I I I d e s c r i b e s the e x t r a - k i n s h i p system and a t t e m p t s t o show how t h i s i s l i n k e d w i t h t h e k i n s h i p sys tem o f Chapter I I . Chapter IV p r e s e n t s the h i s t o r i c a l b a c k g r o u n d as a p a r t i a l e x p l a n a t i o n o f contemporary s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n e s p e c i a l l y i n the a r e a o f the s u b s i s t e n c e or economic s y s t e m . Chapter V draws t o g e t h e r the major c o n -* e l u s i o n s a r r i v e d a t d u r i n g t h e a n a l y s i s o f m a t e r i a l s i n C h a p t e r s I I , I I I , and IV, and p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t i s t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the i l a g i t and the i l i g i t systems cannot be o v e r s t r e s s e d as a major f a c t o r i n l e n d i n g c o h e s i o n and a sense o f community f o r the l a r g e r s o c i a l s y s t e m . T h i s c o h e s i o n i s e s p e c i a l l y c r u c i a l f o r the e x c h a n g e . o f i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g v i t a l - r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n the i n d i g e n e o u s p o p u l a t i o n and the i t i n e r a n t White p o p u l a t i o n . i v ORTHOGRAPHY S i n c e I am not a t r a i n e d l i n g u i s t , I had t o r e s o r t t o e s t a b l i s h e d p h o n o l o g i e s f o r the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f Eskimo w o r d s . The o r t h o g r a p h y s e l e c t e d f o r use i s t h a t c o n s t r u c t e d by L e f e b v r e (1957) e n t i t l e d : A D r a f t Orthography f o r the Canad ian Esk imo. T h i s o r t h o g r a p h y s t a t e s t h a t : " (1) L e t t e r s : 21, - 17 s imp le l e t t e r s and 4 compound l e t t e r s . Our P r i n c i p l e i s : one b a s i c sound-one symbol . However, on account o f the l i m i t a t i o n s o f the L a t i n a l p h a b e t and the t r a d i t i o n s o f the same, we have not c o i n e d new symbols and we have been o b l i g e d t o make compound, r a t h e r heavy, l e t t e r s which s y m b o l i z e s t r i c t l y Eskimo phonemes: / l l / , /ng/ , / r n g / , / t s / . Each l e t t e r r e p r e s e n t s a phoneme o f the P o r t H a r r i s o n d i a l e c t , e x c e p t /e/ , / o / . / a / , / e / , / g / , / i / , / j / , /k/, / I / , / l l / , /m/, / n / , /ng/ , / r n g / , / o / , /p/ , / q / , / r / , / s / , / t / , / t s / , / u / , / v / . DIPHTHONGS: / a i / , / a u / . (2) T h e i r Names: " a h " , "ay" , "gah" , "ee" , "yah" , "kah" , " l a h " , " d l a h / h l a h " , "mah", "nah" , "ngah", " rngah" , "o" , "pah" , " r k a h " , "gkah", " s a h " / " h a h " , " t a h " , " t s a h " , "oo" , " v a h " . (3) T h e i r P r o n u n c i a t i o n i n the I n t e r n a t i o n a l P h o n e t i c A l p h a b e t (ai) (av) v (4) Vowel and Consonant L e n g t h e n i n g : A l o n g consonant and a l o n g vowel a re shown by the d o u b l i n g o f the l e t t e r . Double /ng/ i s w r i t t e n /nng/, - / l l / , / r n g / are not d o u b l e d ; the same f o r / t s / . / t a a q t u g / " i t i s dark" / t i k i p p o q / "he a r r i v e s " N .B . We use no a c c e n t s , as i n Green land , t o denote the l e n g t h e n i n g o f a phoneme. (5) C a p i t a l L e t t e r s : F o r p r o p e r names and a f t e r a p e r i o d ( . ) . (6) P u n c t u a t i o n : G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , the marks a re the same as i n E n g l i s h ; b u t the p u n c t u a t i o n f o l l o w s the Eskimo s y n t a x . (7) S i l e n t L e t t e r s : S t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g , t h e r e a re no s i l e n t l e t t e r s i n Esk imo . E v e r y w r i t t e n l e t t e r i s p ronounced . C e r t a i n sounds, wh ich are s e m i - s i l e n t , i n the sense t h a t they a re f a i n t l y h e a r d a t the end o f words (namely / - t / , / - k ) , a r e t o be w r i t t e n . (8) H y p h e n a t i o n : The hyphen can s e p a r a t e the members o f a d o u b l e d consonant or vowe l , bu t i t cannot d i v i d e a d i p h t h o n g nor a compound l e t t e r such as / t s / , / ( n ) n g / , / r n g / , / l l / , / a i / . / a u / C f . t i k i p p o q "he a r r i v e s " b u t . . . s u l l a p u n g a " I l e a v e " . (9) The Vowels / e / and / o / : In c o n f o r m i t y w i t h the p h o n e t i c s t r u c t u r e o f Eskimo, t h e r e a re o n l y 3 b a s i c vowels i n the N o r t h e r n b r a n c h o f the Esk imo f a m i l y o f l anguages . As Theodore B o u r q u i n , i n h i s Grammatik der Eskimo Sprache , F rench t r a n s l a t i o n by Balmes, i n 1934, had s t a t e d , / e / i s a n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n o f / i / b e f o r e the " g u t t e r a l " , wh ich i s c a l l e d " u v u l a r " by the l i n g u i s t s , or i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n , i . e . a t the end o f a word, when n o t h i n g f o l l o w s . S i m i l a r l y , / o / i s a v a r i a t i o n or an " a l l o p h o n e " o f / u / i n the same c o n -t e x t as above. Bourqu in w r i t e s t h a t "the d i f f e r e n t s p e l l i n g v i o f those vowels ( i . e . / i / , / e / , . /o/ , /u/) i s used BECAUSE OF THE EUROPEANS, and i t i s p r e c i s e l y because o f - t h e m t h a t i t s h o u l d be done a f t e r f i x e d r u l e s ( i . e . the c o n t e x t a l -r e a d y d e s c r i b e d ) . T h i s s ta tement i s a p r o o f t h a t the a c t u a l s t r u c t u r e o f the Eskimo language does not p o s s e s s / e / and / o / as e s s e n t i a l v o w e l s . The n a t i v e speaker can e a s i l y do w i t h o u t t h e i r s p e l l i n g s i n c e , g i v e n / i / and / u / , he w i l l make/have them v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o the c o n t e x t , on a c c o u n t o f h i s s u b c o n s c i o u s f e e l i n g o f h i s own l anguage . T h e r e f o r e , / e / , / o / w i l l appear b e f o r e / q / and a t the end o f a word . They w i l l a l s o appear i n f r o n t o f a c l u s t e r b e g i n n i n g w i t h / r / , and b e f o r e / - r / . " TABLE OF CONTENTS Index : Chapter 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n p. 1 Statement o f the T h e s i s J u s t i f i c a t i o n s Problems L o c a t i o n Demography F i e l d Approach Chapter I I . K i n s h i p Te rmino logy , Behav iour p. 2 1 • and L o c a l Groups I n t r o d u c t i o n G e n e r a l Terms The T e r m i n o l o g i c a l System The B e h a v i o r a l System The F a m i l y Camps and Households Chapter I I I . E x t r a - k i n s h i p Termino logy p. 104 and Behav iour G e n e r a l Terms The I l i g i t as a V o l u n t a r y Group The N o r t h e r n and Southern Groups E x t e n t o f I l i g i t T i e s Chapter IV. The H i s t o r i c a l Background p. 144 The R e l a t i o n s h i p between Economy, E c o l o g y and Demography The P r e - c o n t a c t P e r i o d 1818 t o 1900 1900 t o 1923 1923 t o 1 9 45 1945 t o 1965 Chapter v . C o n c l u s i o n s p. 192 v i i i LIST OF TABLES TABLE TITLE PAGE I Consanguinea1 K i n s h i p Terms 24 IA A f f i n e s and C o - A f f i n e s 26 I I Summarized T a b l e 30 I I I M a r r i a g e s , S i n g l e and M u l t i p l e (Males 55 ; and Females) a t C lyde R i v e r i n 1965 IV R e l a t i v e P o s i t i o n o f A d o p t i v e 63 V K i n R e l a t i o n s h i p s 70 VI Reasons f o r R e l e a s e 71 V I I Reasons f o r A d o p t i n g 71 V I I I Spouse-Exchange Termino logy 139 IX Summary o f H i s t o r i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 148 X T o t a l S tore S a l e s and Va lue o f 187 F u r s Traded a t C lyde Post 192 5-1964 XI P o p u l a t i o n C lyde R i v e r 1965 188 X I I P o p u l a t i o n F i g u r e s f o r Eskimos 189 T r a d i n g a t C lyde i x LIST OF DIAGRAMS DIAGRAM TITLE PAGE 1 C o u s i n Terms, N o r t h e r n Group, 36 Male Ego 2 C o u s i n Terms, N o r t h e r n Group, 37 Female Ego •3 C o n s a n g u i n e a l Terms, N o r t h e r n 40 Group, Male Ego 4 C o n s a n g u i n e a l Terms, N o r t h e r n 41 Group, Female Ego 5 A f f i n e s & C o - A f f i n e s , N o r t h e r n 44 Group, Male Ego 6 A f f i n e s & C o - A f f i n e s , N o r t h e r n 45 Group, Female Ego 7 C o u s i n Terms, Southern Group, 47 Male Ego 8 C o u s i n Terms, Southern Group, 48 Female Ego 9 Age Range o f I n d i v i d u a l s w i t h L i v i n g 50 Grandparents a t C lyde R i v e r 1965 10 Age D i s t r i b u t i o n o f P o p u l a t i o n a t 51 C lyde R i v e r 1965 11 Camp Compos i t i on a t N a k s a l u k u l u k 80 12 Camp Compos i t i on a t Sup iguyaktuk 81 13 Camp Compos i t i on a t P a n g n i r t u n g 82 14 Camp Compos i t i on a t A i l e r t a l i k , . 83 15 The S i e l a System 88 x DIAGRAM TITLE PAGE 16 Symmet r i ca l Two F a m i l y I l i g i t 114 16a A s y m m e t r i c a l Two F a m i l y I l i g i t 114 17 A i p a r j u g i t 122 18 N u l i a q a r i t 129 18a U i q a r i t 129 19 K a t a n g o t i q a t i g i t 133 20 E a r n e d Income and Cash S a l e s 173 • a t C lyde R i v e r Pos t 192 5-1964 x i XIX ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I t i s a lways d i f f i c u l t t o know t o whom one owes an e s p e c i a l d e b t . T h i s i s a l l t he more t r u e when t h e r e have b e e n numerous p e r s o n s i n v o l v e d i n some work, or p a r t o f some work . Fo r t h i s r e a s o n a l o n e , the f o l l o w i n g acknowledgements a r e n o t r a n k e d i n terms o f p r i o r i t y . T h i s has been a l o n g drawn out p i e c e o f work and t h e r e f o r e t o b e g i n a t the b e g i n n i n g I must e x t e n d my thanks t o Mr . A . J . Ke r r and h i s f e l l o w s o f the N o r t h e r n S c i e n c e . R e s e a r c h Group f o r t h e i r making i t p o s s i b l e f o r me t o s e l e c t and work i n t h e a r e a I c h o s e . In the f i e l d the numerous government o f f i c i a l s , in ' e v e r y p o s s i b l e c a p a c i t y , gave g e n e r a l l y u n s t i n t i n g s u p p o r t t o my f i e l d w o r k t h e r e f o r e making i t an even more amenable t a s k . In the f i e l d i t s e l f , I must t h a n k the f o l l o w i n g Eskimos f o r t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r a s s i s t a n c e and h e l p : K i d l a h E4-259, A r r e a k E5-861 , K a k a s i l k E6-265 , J a c o b i e E5-299 , Jeypoody E5-321 , J o s i e E5-313 , Hanneau E5-340 , Koonee loosee E5-275, Simonee E5-337, Simmionee Kayak E5-318 . T h i s l i s t does not i n c l u d e the many f a v o u r s and h e l p f u l i n f o r -m a t i o n s u p p l i e d by t h e i r c o m p a t r i o t s t o whom I am e q u a l l y g r a t e f u l . Thanks must a l s o go t o those who have been h e l p -f u l l y c r i t i c a l o f my e f f o r t s and i n c l u d e the p r o f e s s o r s I x i i i came i n t o u c h w i t h a t U . B . C . Foremost among t h e s e a r e P r o f e s s o r M. M. Ames, and t h e members o f my commit tee , some o f whom s h o u l d be ment ioned by name. P r o f e s s o r s W., E . W i l l m o t t , H. B. Hawthorn, M. Kew and W. Cohn were k i n d enough t o p r e s e n t me w i t h d e t a i l e d s u g g e s t i o n s f o r t h e improvement o f the i n i t i a l d r a f t . P r o f e s s o r W. D u f f gave me the b e n e f i t o f h i s l o n g e x p e r i e n c e i n making s t a t e m e n t s about the d i s -s e r t a t i o n . An e s p e c i a l thanks must go t o P r o f e s s o r C. S. Be lshaw, w i t h o u t whose i n s i s t e n t h e l p the t h e s i s would not have been c o m p l e t e d . S C A L E O 4° too tSO ' ' I I Ml L ES BAFFIN ISLAND WITH PLACE NAMES CHAPTER I The l i t e r a t u r e on Eskimos and on Eskimo s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n abounds w i t h r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e i r s o c i a l ' f l e x i b i l i t y ' and t o the l o o s e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l system as w e l l as the ' d i f f u s e ' and/or a t o m i s t i c n a t u r e o f g r o u p i n g s wh ich a re s a i d t o be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . F u r t h e r , the d e t e r -m i n a t i o n o f the e x t e n t o f k i n t i e s and k i n d r e d s a re u s u a l l y r e p o r t e d as b e i n g vague . Workers such as B a l i k c i (1960) and Damas (1963) among o t h e r s , have t a c k l e d the p rob lem o f d e f i n i n g the b o u n d a r i e s o f k i n d r e d s and d e s c r i b i n g the n a t u r e o f bands and camps b u t a w h o l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y answer has not y e t a p p e a r e d . D e s p i t e the e x i s t e n c e o f an e x t r e m e l y vo luminous l i t e r a t u r e t h e r e p e r s i s t s the need f o r s y s t e m a t i c a l l y o rgan z e d s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s e s o f k i n s h i p and o t h e r s t r u c t u r e s or systems.^" One o f the more o b v i o u s consequences o f t h i s l a c k i s a p p a r e n t i n the a lmost complete absence o f a n a l y s e s 2 a t a c o m p a r a t i v e , c r o s s - g r o u p l e v e l . In v iew o f t h i s p a r -t i c u l a r inadequacy o f the l i t e r a t u r e , wh ich i s i n many o t h e r r e s p e c t s e x c e l l e n t , t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n cannot hope t o f i l l t he p o s t u l a t e d gap by p r o v i d i n g a c o n c i s e , a c c u r a t e , and t h e o r e t i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t compara t i ve a n a l y s i s o f k i n s h i p o r any o t h e r s t r u c t u r e , f o r a number o f groups or even f o r one group a t d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s i n t i m e . What i s aimed f o r - 2 -h e r e i s a u s e f u l a d d i t i o n a l emphasis towards the k i n d s o f a n a l y s e s I t h i n k are r e q u i r e d b e f o r e t r u l y compara t i ve s t u d i e s can be c a r r i e d out a t a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l or group l e v e l . Other than making the u s u a l a t tempt to c o n t r i b u t e toward the g e n e r a l body o f e t h n o g r a p h i c m a t e r i a l s , t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s o r i e n t e d toward p r o v i d i n g a d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s o f one Eskimo p o p u l a t i o n i n terms g o i n g beyond the i d e a o f " l o o s e l y s t r u c t u r e d b i l a t e r a l t y p e . ' The groups chosen f o r d e t a i l e d s tudy are those t h a t t r a d e i n t o the s e t t l e m e n t o f C lyde R i v e r , Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s w i t h a n c i l -l a r y e v i d e n c e g a t h e r e d from m i g r a n t s i n t o F r o b i s h e r Bay, Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . The d i s s e r t a t i o n a t tempts t o show t h a t c o n v e n t i o n a l k i n s h i p p r i n c i p l e s a lone do not account f o r the o b s e r v e d i n t e g r a t i o n and sense o f community c h a r a c t e r i c t i c o f C lyde I n l e t s o c i e t y . The t h e s i s i s d e r i v e d out o f f i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n s and i n t e r v i e w s and a s s e r t s t h a t the k i n s h i p ( i l a g i t ) b e h a v i o r a l system, a l t h o u g h the most r e a d i l y apparent i n t e -g r a t i n g f a c t o r , c o n s t i t u t e s o n l y one o r g a n i z i n g f a c t o r o r p r i n c i p l e . I t i s f u r t h e r a s s e r t e d t h a t e x t r a - k i n s h i p ( i l i g i t ) b e h a v i o u r i s another impor tan t i n t e g r a t i n g system. I l i g i t b e h a v i o u r d i f f e r s from i l a g i t ( k i n s h i p ) b e h a v i o u r most i m p o r t a n t l y i n the rea lms o f spouse-exchange, the p r o d u c t i o n o f h a l f - s i b l i n g s h i p , and i n economic p a r t n e r s h i p s . I t i s suggested t h a t p r e v i o u s workers among Eskimo groups have c o n s i s t e n t l y f a i l e d t o s e p a r a t e , a n a l y t i c a l l y , - 3 -the two systems ment ioned above. The r e a s o n s f o r t h i s a re a p p a r e n t l y t w o - f o l d . F i r s t , most p r e v i o u s f i e l d o b s e r v e r s were not s u f f i c i e n t l y f a m i l i a r w i t h the language t o d i s t i n -g u i s h between the two terms by which the systems are l a b e l l e d by E s k i m o s . Second, s i n c e the b e h a v i o u r c o n t a i n e d i n the two systems a r e , on the s u r f a c e a t l e a s t , v e r y s i m i l a r , they a re e a s i l y c o n f u s e d . T h i s c o n f u s i o n has l e d t o numerous r e p o r t s and debate c o n c e r n i n g the ' r e a l ' na tu re o f Eskimo k i n d r e d s and the a p p a r e n t l y p e r v a s i v e na tu re o f v a g u e l y d e f i n e d k i n -"sh ip groups and c a t e g o r i e s . The c o n t e n t i o n o f the t h e s i s i s t h a t d e f i n i t i o n s and p r i n c i p l e s a re i n f a c t not vague, bu t i n d e e d h i g h l y p r e c i s e . The t h e s i s a l s o m a i n t a i n s t h a t h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p -ments have l e d t o the emergence o f a community composed o f , o r c o m p r i s i n g two d i s t i n c t p o p u l a t i o n g r o u p s . The d i s t i n c -t i o n s between them are t o be found i n k i n s h i p t e r m i n o l o g y and b e h a v i o u r and i n mar r i age and r e s i d e n c e p a t t e r n s . The common bonds between the two groups a re the o p e r a t i o n o f the e x t r a -k i n s h i p ( i l i g i t ) system and the s h a r i n g o f common economic p r o b l e m s . The economic prob lems stem from the u n c e r t a i n t y o f the r e s u l t s o f economic a c t i v i t i e s , i . e . t r a p p i n g and h u n t -i n g . In t h e i r a t tempts t o maximize the p r o d u c t i o n and c o n -sumpt ion o f the economy bo th groups v iew the l o c a l Whites (the t r a d e r , p o l i c e ) as p a r t s o f an e x p l o i t a b l e env i ronment and behave a c c o r d i n g l y . E x p l o i t a t i o n o f the env i ronment r e q u i r e s the e x i s t e n c e o f a complete network of. g o s s i p or shared i n f o r -m a t i o n t h a t goes beyond k i n s h i p l i n e s and i s termed i l i g i t by Esk imos . - 4 -U l t i m a t e l y , t h i s t h e s i s i s p r e d i c a t e d , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , upon my r e l u c t a n c e t o a c c e p t as a c c u r a t e commonly h e l d p o p u l a r v iews and g e n e r a l s ta tements about the u n s t r u c t u r e d 3 n a t u r e o f Eskimo s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and about the absence o f s t r u c t u r e s h e l d t o be c r u c i a l f o r the e x i s t e n c e o f any s o c i e t y . ^ The v iew t h a t s o c i a l systems r a r e l y , i f e v e r , op-e r a t e i n s i m p l e one t o one c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s , i . e . c a u s e -e f f e c t , g i v e s r i s e t o the q u e s t i o n : which s t r u c t u r e s or u n i t s t o s e l e c t f o r a d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n ? The i n h e r e n t c o m p l e x i t y o f such i n t e r a c t i o n becomes a l l the more n o t i c e a b l e i f feedback or rebound mechanisms can be seen t o i n f l u e n c e the s o c i a l a c t i o n ( s ) by which they were o r i g i n a l l y i n i t i a t e d . G iven the e x i s t e n c e o f a f u l l y e f f e c t -i v e feedback or s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g system one i s , t h e o r e t i c a l l y a t l e a s t , d e a l i n g w i t h a s o r t o f s o c i a l p e r p e t u a l - m o t i o n c o n -5 d i t i o n i n a number o f a reas s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . I say t h e o r e t i -c a l l y s i n c e the e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t some s o r t o f e x t e r n a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t i s i n v o l v e d i n a l l such s o c i a l r e l a -t i o n s h i p s r e s u l t i n g i n complex cha i rs or l a t t i c e s r a t h e r t h a n c y c l i c e f f e c t s . I t i s a t t h i s p o i n t i n an a n a l y s i s t h a t d e c i s i o n s r e l a t i n g t o the s e l e c t i o n o f u n i t s , as v a r i a b l e s , become c r u c i a l . I cannot c o n c e i v e o f an a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l s tudy i n which a l l p o s s i b l e s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s c o u l d be i s o l a t e d and d e s c r i b e d i n e i t h e r an a n a l y t i c or c o n c r e t e s e n s e . But some d e c i s i o n must be made as t o r e l a t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e i f any compara t i ve s t u d i e s are t o be a t t e m p t e d . - 5 -Abundant e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e shows the p e r v a s i v e n a t u r e and s t r u c t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the k i n s h i p system i n o r d e r i n g the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f n o n - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s ( c o n t r a modern i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s ) . . B e a r i n g t h i s i n mind i t seems r e a s o n a b l e t o focus on the k i n s h i p s t r u c t u r e (or s t r u c t u r e o f k i n s h i p ) as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t i n the a n a l y s i s o f economic u n c e r t a i n t y . A l t h o u g h the r e a s o n a b l e n e s s o f t h i s approach cannot e a s i l y be d e n i e d I would l i k e t o c a r r y the d e s c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f t h i s l o c a l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n beyond p u r e l y k i n s h i p f a c t o r s and at tempt t o demon-s t r a t e t h a t t h e r e i s another o v e r r i d i n g system o f o r g a n i z a -t i o n i n o p e r a t i o n among t h i s g r o u p / t h a t r e f e r r e d t o i n t h i s s o c i e t y as i l i g i t . Levy (1949) p o i n t s out t h a t two approaches t o the q u e s t i o n o f k i n s h i p a n a l y s i s a re u s u a l l y u s e d ; t h e s e he terms r e l a t i o n a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l . The d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e s e a re p r i m a r i l y i n the c h o i c e o f the f o c a l u n i t and the concomi tan t l e v e l o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . In s t u d i e s u s i n g the r e l a t i o n a l approach , the system under s c r u t i n y i s l ooked a t from the p o i n t o f v iew o f some ego ( u s u a l l y m a l e ) . The i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h i s ego w i t h o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s and t o s t r u c t u r e s i n v o l v i n g some number o f s u b - u n i t s a re exam-i n e d , e . g . the f a m i l y as a s t r u c t u r e h a v i n g a f i n i t e number o f component i n d i v i d u a l s assuming a p p r o p r i a t e r o l e s and s t a t u s e s v i s a v i s ego and o p e r a t i n g i n a c u l t u r a l l y p r e -s c r i b e d b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n , the t o t a l i t y o f which g i v e s the f a m i l y a d e s c r i b a b l e fo rm. The most c l e a r l y m a n i f e s t - 6 -prob lem o f t h i s approach l i e s i n the immensi ty o f r e l a t i o n -s h i p s any ego must be i n v o l v e d i n as a f u n c t i o n i n g t o t a l member o f the sys tem; so much so t h a t a complete d e s c r i p t i o n o f the s o c i a l system i n terms o f some s i n g l e ego assumes w e l l - n i g h i m p o s s i b l e p r o p o r t i o n s . T h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a p p r o a c h , on the o t h e r hand, has as i t s f o c u s the s t r u c t u r e s t h e m s e l v e s , „e.g. the f a m i l y as i n L e v y ' s s tudy o f the Ch inese f a m i l y . The importance o f the i n d i v i d u a l f o r t h i s c o l l e c t i v -i t y o r g roup i s not d e n i e d and i n d e e d must o f t e n be used f o r a f o c u s on, and c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f , the l a r g e r u n i t . The major c o n c e r n o f t h i s approach however r e m a i n s , or a t tempts t o r e m a i n , on the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s t r u c t u r e s and between t h e s e and the s u b - s t r u c t u r e s , e . g . between the f a m i l y (a s u b - s t r u c t u r e ) and the k i n s h i p s t r u c t u r e . A c c o r d i n g t o Levy, the s i g n i f i c a n t a n a l y t i c sub-s t r u c t u r e s o f any l a r g e r c o n c r e t e s t r u c t u r e such as k i n s h i p a r e : r o l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , s o l i d a r i t y , economic a l l o c a t i o n , p o l i t i c a l a l l o c a t i o n , and, as a r e s i d u a l c a t e g o r y , i n t e -g r a t i o n and e x p r e s s i o n . I t i s not i n t e n d e d t o u t i l i z e e v e r y one o f t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s i n the d e s c r i p t i o n b u t r a t h e r t o f o c u s upon the s t r u c t u r e s o f k i n s h i p and n o n - k i n s h i p group ing i n terms o f s o l i d a r i t y . T h i s w i l l be c a r r i e d out w i t h the i n t e n t i o n o f showing how k i n s h i p and e x t r a - k i n s h i p s t r u c t u r e s b o t h r e l a t e and o v e r l a p . The d e f i n i t i o n o f r o l e used i s t h a t f o r m u l a t e d by Levy (1952:159) a s : • . . . any p o s i t i o n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n terms o f - 7 -a g i v e n s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e whether the p o s i t i o n be i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d or n o t . Levy makes a d i s t i n c t i o n between i d e a l and a c t u a l r o l e s and b e l i e v e s t h a t h i s concept o f i d e a l r o l e , as an i n s t i t u t i o n -a l i z e d r o l e , co r responds c l o s e l y t o the term s t a t u s as used by D a v i s , L i n t o n , and P a r s o n s . S t a t u s f o r Levy i s t a k e n t o mean: "the sum t o t a l o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s or g r o u p s ' i d e a l o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d r o l e s " (1952:160) . The s u b - s t r u c t u r e o f s o l i d a r i t y i n v o l v e s the c r i t e r i a o f c o n t e n t , s t r e n g t h , and i n t e n s i t y o f i n t e r a c t i o n . m L e v y ' s o r i g i n a l use o f the term s o l i d a r i t y i s r e s t r i c t e d to the k i n s h i p s t r u c t u r e and t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between members o f a k i n s h i p system (1949:15) . For my o b j e c t i v e s i t i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t I take h i s more g e n e r a l meaning (1952: 341) i n o r d e r t o i n c l u d e an a n a l y s i s o f i n t e r a c t i o n between members o f the k i n s h i p system (kinsmen), and semi-members/ s p e c i a l members ( q u a s i - k i n s m e n ) , and extra-members ( e x t r a -k i n s m e n ) . T h i s p rocedure i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t f o l l o w e d by B e l l a h (1952) inasmuch as i t has the c o n n o t a t i o n o f mutua l o b l i g a t i o n i n e i t h e r k i n or e x t r a - k i n terms on the p a r t o f a l l o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s a t l e a s t some o f . t h e t ime i n a r e c i p r o c a l b e h a v i o u r sys tem. I t w i l l be impor tan t h e r e t o examine the v a r i o u s s u b - s t r u c t u r e s w i t h i n the range o f s t r u c t u r e s b e i n g examined f o r d y s f u n c t i o n a l p a t t e r n s a r i s i n g out o f the adherence t o v a l u e s and a s p e c t s o f b e h a v i o u r concordant w i t h the ' t r a d i -t i o n a l ' b u t d i s c o r d a n t w i t h the contemporary s e t t i n g . Of - 8 -c r u c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t h i s p a r t o f the a n a l y s i s a re the ' u n c e r t a i n t y f a c t o r s ' r e f e r r e d t o e a r l i e r (p. 5 ) . These I c o n c e i v e o f as non-man ipu lab le b u t h i g h l y i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s o r i g i n a t i n g from b o t h w i t h i n and w i t h o u t the s o c i a l system b e i n g examined. What I am p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n a re the p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s these f a c t o r s might have upon s o c i a l a c t i o n . Eskimo s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n has been v a r i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d as ' a d a p t i v e ' ( S t e f a n s s o n ; J e n n e s s ; e t a l . ) or as b e i n g ' f l e x i b l e ' (Wi l lmot t , S p e n c e r ) . I sugges t t h a t we can a r r i v e a t an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h i s ' a d a p t a b i l i t y ' or ' f l e x i b i l i t y ' o n l y i f we ask the ques t ion . : " a d a p t a b l e t o what?" o r , " f l e x i b l e f o r what?" I f u r t h e r sugges t t h a t t h e s e q u a l i t i e s o f Eskimo s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a re d i r e c t r e s p o n s e s t o o p e r a t i o n s o f a system i n which the h i g h l y i m p o r t a n t economic f a c t o r s ment ioned above are v iewed by the p e o p l e as e i t h e r not c o n t r o l l a b l e by themse lves or by anyone e l s e , or are and have been a r b i t r a r i l y de te rmined and c o n t r o l l e d by the l o c a l Whites s i n c e the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f permanent b a s e s , e i t h e r w h a l i n g or f u r - t r a d i n g . The major f a c t o r s a re e c o l o g i c a l and economic ones . E c o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s i n c l u d e the p o p u l a t i o n f l u c t u a t i o n s t h a t o c c u r i n the game and f u r a n i m a l s . Both government and Hudson 's Bay Company o f f i c i a l s have k e p t r e c o r d s f o r these f l u c t u a t i o n s over many y e a r s and have a r r i v e d a t a s tage where f a i r l y a c c u r a t e p r e d i c t i o n s about the game and f u r p o p u l a t i o n s can be made. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n u n f o r t u n a t e l y i s o n l y o c c a s i o n -a l l y p a s s e d to the l o c a l t r a p p e r s and, even i f i t were, - 9 -would be o f v e r y l i t t l e use i n h e l p i n g them a r r i v e a t d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the s u c c e s s o f f u t u r e economic a c t i v -i t i e s . Economic f a c t o r s i n c l u d e the f l u c t u a t i n g p r i c e s p a i d f o r f u r s t a k e n and t r a d e d a t the l o c a l s t o r e . S ince game numbers a re de termined by unmanageable e c o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s and s i n c e f u r p r i c e s a re not r e l a t e d t o the supp ly a t the l o c a l l e v e l , t h e r e i s no guarantee t h a t a t r a p p e r ' s e f f o r t s w i l l be rewarded w i t h economic s u c c e s s . Four p o s s i b l e s i t u a t i o n s can a r i s e : h i g h f o x numbers/high p r i c e s ; h i g h f o x numbers/low p r i c e s ; low fox numbers/high p r i c e s ; low f o x numbers/low p r i c e s . There w i l l be , o f c o u r s e , s i t u a t i o n s f a l l i n g i n t o a l l p o s s i b l e i n t e r m e d i a t e p o s i t i o n s between these a x e s . The h y p o t h e s i s I w i s h t o put f o r w a r d i s t h a t : g i v e n a n o n - p r e d i c t a b l e s e t o f f a c t o r s such as o u t l i n e d , t o g e t h e r w i t h a l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f market p r a c t i c e s ( e . g . h o l d i n g back s c a r c e goods u n t i l market p r i c e s i n c r e a s e ) b u t w i t h no l e s s e n e d need t o a c h i e v e economic and s u b s i s t e n c e g o a l s , t h e n we w i l l f i n d the p e o p l e o p e r a t i n g i n the p r e s e n t and e x t r a p o l a t i n g t o the f u t u r e the c o n d i t i o n s and s i t u a t i o n t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d the immediate p a s t . I w i l l examine t h i s th roughout the body o f the d i s -s e r t a t i o n and at tempt t o show, among o t h e r t h i n g s , t h a t r e s i d e n c e p a t t e r n s , a f f i l i a t i o n s ( k i n and n o n - k i n ) , the l o c u s o f a u t h o r i t y , and r o l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s show a r e s p o n s e t o the s h i f t i n g , u n c e r t a i n o r d e r . S o l i d a r i t y w i l l be d e s c r i b e d i n terms o f d y a d i c p a i r s . The r e a s o n s f o r t h i s a re r e l a t e d t o the g r a d u a l , - 1 0 -r a t h e r t h a n a b r u p t , t r a n s f e r o f l e a d e r s h i p / a u t h o r i t y i n a c t i o n between g e n e r a t i o n s . In s h o r t t h i s i s a p i e c e m e a l r e l i n q u i s h i n g o f a u t h o r i t y c o n t i n g e n t upon s a t i s f a c t o r y d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f l e a d e r s h i p a b i l i t y . As such i t b e a r s l i t t l e resemblance t o p o l i t i c a l a l l o c a t i o n as i t i s c o n -c e i v e d i n the more f o r m a l c o n c e p t u a l schemes or t h e o r i e s ( c f . M. J . Levy , J r ) . The n a t u r e o f the e m p i r i c a l m a t e r i a l i s such t h a t i t becomes impor tan t t o d i s t i n g u i s h between o v e r t and "covert b e h a v i o u r i n r e l a t i o n t o some s t r u c t u r e s and t o some a s p e c t s o f o t h e r s t r u c t u r e s . The c r i t e r i a o f i d e a l , a c t u a l , and s u p p o s i t i o n a l e n t e r i n t o t h i s a s p e c t o f s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r . What I am concerned w i t h h e r e i s whether or not p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c o n t e n t , and consequence, between the p r i v a t e and p u b l i c domains . In t h i s sense c e r t a i n a c t i o n s a re c o n s i d e r e d by the p a r t i c i p a n t s as b e i n g i d e a l l y p u b l i c or p r i v a t e b u t w i t h o u t any c o n n o t a t i o n s o f s e c r e c y . That i s , t h e r e e x i s t s a n o r m a t i v e s t a n d a r d f o r b e h a v i o u r i n each domain or s e t -t i n g . The u s e f u l n e s s o f the d i s t i n c t i o n i s most c l e a r when used i n r e f e r e n c e t o the s t r u c t u r e s o f r o l e d i f f e r e n t i a -t i o n s and the d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f s o l i d a r i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p s b u t can a l s o be seen t o have a b e a r i n g upon the d i s p l a y o f such a s p e c t s as r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s and p r a c t i c e s . The d i s t i n c t i o n between o v e r t and c o v e r t p a t t e r n s can be u s e f u l l y used i n r e f e r e n c e t o two o t h e r c o n c e p t s ; 7 t h o s e o f e u f u n c t i o n a l and d y s f u n c t i o n a l a s p e c t s or consequences o f a c t i o n . The parad igm below shows the v a r i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n s : e u f u n c t i o n a l d y s f u n c t i o n a l o v e r t ( p u b l i c ) EO DO c o v e r t ( p r i v a t e ) EC DC E u f u n c t i o n a l and o v e r t s i t u a t i o n s w i l l be found where t h e r e i s p u b l i c agreement on a c t i o n toward the a t t a i n m e n t o f some commonly h e l d g o a l , e . g . camp s h i f t s i n r e l a t i o n t o moves towards b e t t e r h u n t i n g a r e a s . C o n v e r s e l y , p u b l i c d i s a g r e -ement about t h i s q u e s t i o n i s o v e r t and d y s f u n c t i o n a l i f a r e s u l t i s the d i s p e r s a l o f h u n t e r s i n such a way t h a t a v a i l -a b l e game cannot be e f f i c i e n t l y e x p l o i t e d and i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l i e s s u f f e r . E u f u n c t i o n a l and c o v e r t s i t u a t i o n s may be found where the h u n t e r engages i n m a g i c a l p r a c t i c e s w i t h the a im o f i m p r o v i n g h i s take and i n t h i s way a c h i e v e s a g r e a t e r degree o f c o n f i d e n c e . Cover t and d y s f u n c t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n s w i l l be found where, f o r example, d e s p i t e the commitments f e l t by the male , and acknowledged p u b l i c l y , the spouse e x e r t s h e r w i l l t o b r i n g about ends o t h e r than the one e n v i s a g e d by b o t h her husband and h i s c o m p a t r i o t s . These have been o n l y by way o f b e i n g i l l u s t r a t i o n s and as such must be r e g a r d e d as l o o s e examples . P r o v i s i o n i s made h e r e f o r the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t some, i f not most, a c t i o n s have b o t h e u f u n c t i o n a l and - 1 2 -d y s f u n c t i o n a l a s p e c t s i n o p e r a t i o n s i m u l t a n e o u s l y ; the im-p o r t a n t c o n d i t i o n i s t h a t t h e s e be c l e a r l y s t i p u l a t e d where-e v e r t h e r e might be some doubt as t o wh ich a s p e c t i s i n the immediate ascendancy . A c c e p t i n g t h a t systems o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n have s u b - s t r u c t u r e s and f u n c t i o n s ( r e l a t i n g t o the l a r g e r s o c i a l system) v u l n e r a b l e t o b o t h e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l p r e s s u r e s and m o d i f y i n g f a c t o r s , t h e n we can a l s o a c c e p t t h a t M u r d o c k ' s s ta tement t o the e f f e c t t h a t " m u l t i p l e ' f a c t o r s a re n e a r l y a lways o p e r a t i v e " (1949:126) a p p l i e s i n t h i s case a l s o . Such a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f e f f e c t i v e f a c t o r s g i v e s r i s e t o i n t r i c a t e l y v a r y i n g forms o f s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s ' ( c f . T . Pa rsons , 1964) from which the a n a l y s t must s e l e c t those e lements he f e e l s a re s i g n i f i c a n t t o the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l fo rms . For example, a c c o r d i n g t o Murdock the i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n a n t s o f a k i n s h i p system a r e : r u l e s o f d e s c e n t and the k i n groups r e s u l t i n g from t h e s e , forms o f m a r r i a g e and the consequent f a m i l y t y p e s , and r u l e s o f r e s i d e n c e (1949: 182) . F u r t h e r , i f m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f one, some, or a l l o f these p r i n c i p a l e lements are i n i t i a t e d , as a r e s u l t o f e i t h e r i n t e r n a l or e x t e r n a l s t r e s s e s , the s t r a i n i s f i r s t i n d i -c a t e d by a change i n the r u l e o f r e s i d e n c e . The normal o r d e r o f change, a c c o r d i n g t o the same a u t h o r , b e g i n s w i t h a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f the r u l e o f r e s i d e n c e f o l l o w e d by changes i n the f a m i l y form i n a manner c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the change i n r e s i d e n c e . T h i s , he a v e r s , l eads t o congruent changes i n -13-the formation and composition of k i n groups. For purposes of my analysis the external (to the indigenous s o c i a l system) factors of environment and culture contact w i l l be regarded as the major external factors with respect to t h e i r e f f e c t upon the organizational system i n general and the kinship system i n p a r t i c u l a r . These two fa c t o r s taken together subsume Murdock's l i s t given i n h i s statement that: It i s i n respect to residence that changes i n economy, technology, property, or r e l i g i o n f i r s t a l t e r the s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s of r e l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s to one another, giving impetus to subsequent modifications i n the forms of the family. . . . ( i b i d . , p. 2 0 2 ) . Murdock, from h i s global s t r u c t u r a l analysis of presumed i d e a l behaviour, derived among others an Eskimo 'type' of s o c i a l organization. It i s not the purpose of t h i s t h e s i s to attempt to show that h i s 'type' i s notable for i t s absence among Eskimo groups. His type i s an i d e a l construct and cannot be shown to be 'wrong' by an appeal to v a r i e t i e s of actual phenomena. Further, Murdock provides for the t h e o r e t i c a l appearance of various sub-types (pp. 2 6 6 - 7 ) . The ethnographic l i t e r a t u r e shows that Eskimo groups everywhere represent varying degrees of departure from the type derived by Murdock. A synchronic view of a number of groups c l e a r l y shows that the following variables are involved: descent rules, k i n groupings, marriage types, family forms, residence rules, exogamic rules, and kinship - 1 4 -t e r m i n o l o g i e s . Most impor tan t i s the v a r i a t i o n o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n r e s u l t i n g from the p a t t e r n i n g o f the l i s t e d v a r i a b l e s . I t i s p r e c i s e l y these p r o b l e m a t i c a r e a s t h a t have prompted me t o adopt the s y s t e m a t i c s t r u c t u r a l - f u n c t i o n a l a p p r o a c h . B e s i d e s b e i n g conduc ive t o d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n , the approach makes i t p o s s i b l e t o draw compar isons between groups and s h o u l d u l t i m a t e l y l e a d t o a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the meanings o f the c l e a r l y demonstrab le v a r i a t i o n s among the l i n g u i s t i c a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y r e l a t e d groups o f Esk imos (see a l s o Damas, 1965). B e f o r e g o i n g on t o pu t fo rward the major f o c u s o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n I would l i k e t o p o i n t out t h a t the prob lem o f c o p i n g w i t h the t ime f a c t o r , i n h e r e n t i n any s t r u c t u r a l -f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s , a r i s e s here a l s o . A t t a c k s on s t r u c t u r a l -f u n c t i o n a l schemes and concepts u s u a l l y take the form o f s ta tements c o n c e r n i n g the u n r e l i a b i l i t y and s t e r i l i t y o f v i e w i n g s o c i e t i e s i n s t a s i s . T h i s a n t i - s t r u c t u r a l - f u n c t i o n a l s t a n d i s e x e m p l i f i e d by Dahrendor f (1958) who c l a i m s , among o t h e r t h i n g s , t h a t the approach "has l e d contemporary s o c i o l o g y t o a l o s s o f prob lem c o n s c i o u s n e s s . . . ." In an a t tempt t o assuage such a n t a g o n i s t s and t o o b v i a t e the need f o r l e n g t h y argument I suggest t h a t , a l t h o u g h i t i s p r o b a b l y t r u e t h a t a s t a t i c v iew o f contemporary s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s o f the group i s t ak en , the s i t u a t i o n i n which these s t r u c t u r e s o p e r a t e and a re d e s c r i b e d i s l a r g e l y a, r e s u l t o f h i s t o r i c a l development and the p a r t i c u l a r s u c c e s s i o n o f events and - 1 5 -c o n d i t i o n s l e a d i n g t o the emergence o f the c u r r e n t s e t t i n g . F u r t h e r , s i n c e n e i t h e r s t r u c t u r e s nor f u n c t i o n s can be f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o the s e t t i n g , I t h i n k t h a t the i n c l u s i o n o f the t ime e lement i n t h i s way i s j u s t i f i e d and a n a l y t i c a l l y c o r r e c t . I t s h o u l d be c l e a r l y u n d e r s t o o d t h a t the c u r r e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o c c u p i e d camps i tes i s a r e s u l t o f a l o n g s u c c e s s i o n o f h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t s . The C lyde p e o p l e have been i n t o u c h w i t h White c u l t u r e f o r as l ong as 150 y e a r s as e v i d e n c e d by the f a c t t h a t P a r r y (18£§) found them i n p o s s e s s i o n o f goods o f E u r o -pean m a n u f a c t u r e . In the f i r s t p l a c e c o n t a c t w i t h Whites and White s o c i e t y took p l a c e f o r the s o u t h e r n p o p u l a t i o n , l ong b e f o r e than c o n t a c t was made w i t h the n o r t h e r n popu-l a t i o n . As a f i r s t r e s u l t we have two d i s t i n c t p o p u l a t i o n s t h a t I term the N o r t h e r n and the S o u t h e r n . T h i s c o n t a c t was i n i t i a l l y w i t h e x p l o r e r s and w h a l e r s b u t a l s o , a l t h o u g h l a t e r , w i t h the t r a d e r s and the m i s s i o n a r i e s . On the o t h e r hand, b o t h groups had had i n d i r e c t c o n t a c t th rough the medium o f t r a d e goods l ong b e f o r e the a c t u a l f a c e t o f a c e c o n t a c t s were made. For the N o r t h e r n group the c o n t a c t was th rough I g l o o l i k and v i a Amer i can wha le rs w h i l e the c o n t a c t f o r the Southern group was th rough P a n g n i r t u n g and the S c o t t i s h w h a l e r s . In the i n t e r i m b o t h groups m a i n t a i n e d t h e i r i m p o r t -ant s o c i a l c o n t a c t s w i t h q u i t e , d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s . A l t h o u g h s i m i l a r i t y i n h u n t i n g t e c h n i q u e s made i t p o s s i b l e f o r Eskimo males t o engage i n commerc ia l whale - 1 6 -hunting, the e f f e c t s on the basic s o c i a l organization were tremendous. Camps that had been formerly occupied the seasonal round were abandoned and a new l i f e - s t y l e entered i n t o ; that of the large whaling community l a s t i n g the en t i r e season. The f a l l caribou hunt and the large winter seal-camps were abandoned. Hunting during these periods became ex c l u s i v e l y a means of providing fresh meat for the whalers and the whaling community. Apart from the emergence of two d i s t i n c t groups •as a r e s u l t of the d i f f e r e n t i a l contact there also emerged the development of techniques for handling foreigners and eventually the uncertain economic system as i t e x i s t s today. Further developments can be seen i n the refinement of the t r a d i t i o n a l partnership system that i s explored i n Chapter I I I of the d i s s e r t a t i o n . The fieldwork f o r ' t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n was done i n northeast B a f f i n Island, D i s t r i c t of Franklin, Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . For federal administrative purposes the settlement, Clyde River, i s designated as being i n the I g l o o l i k (government s p e l l i n g ) Area of the Frobisher Bay Region. This work was c a r r i e d out i n 1964 and 1965. Clyde River settlement i s located on Latitude 70.25N and longitude 68.30W i n P a t r i c i a Bay, immediately north of the entrance to Clyde Inlet and about s i x t y miles northeast (true) of the mouth of the Clyde River which de-bouches at the head of the i n l e t of that name. In r e l a t i o n to the two c l o s e s t settlements, Clyde - 1 7 -R i v e r ( h e r e a f t e r C lyde) i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 280 m i l e s s o u t h o f Pond I n l e t ( h e r e a f t e r Pond) and 240 m i l e s n o r t h o f Broughton I s l a n d ( h e r e a f t e r B r o u g h t o n ) . The 244 Eskimos (44 n u c l e a r f a m i l i e s ) c u r r e n t l y t r a d i n g i n t o C lyde are l o c a t e d i n a s e a s o n a l l y and a n n u a l l y v a r i a b l e number o f camps a l o n g the c o a s t t o b o t h n o r t h and s o u t h . Over the p a s t few y e a r s t h e r e has been an i n c r e a s i n g tendency t o occupy those t r a d i t i o n a l s i t e s c l o s e s t t o the s e t t l e m e n t so t h a t many f o r m e r l y permanent w i n t e r and summer s i t e s a re now abandoned or o n l y i n t e r m i t t e n t l y u s e d . The southernmost o c c u p i e d camp from the s e t t l e -ment i s 140 m i l e s d i s t a n t a t T i g e r qan a few m i l e s t o the west o f Cape Henry Kater and a former l o c a t i o n o f the now d e f u n c t Sabe l lum T r a d i n g Company. The l o c a t i o n i s ment ioned by Boas a l t h o u g h a t t h a t t ime the permanent camp seems t o have been l o c a t e d on the s m a l l i s l a n d o f A n a r n i t o q . The nor thernmost camp i s about 100 m i l e s away a t a p l a c e c a l l e d N e t s a r s u y o q on the n o r t h shore o f S c o t t I n l e t o p p o s i t e the s p e c t a c u l a r S c o t t I s l a n d . T h i s camp was r e p o r t e d by P a r r y i n 1820 as h a v i n g been " r e c e n t l y o c c u p i e d . " The d i s t a n c e between t h e s e f a r t h e s t camps i s about 240 m i l e s . D u r i n g the w i n t e r s o f 1963-4 and 1964-5 t h e r e were, i n c l u d i n g the camps ment ioned and the s e t t l e m e n t i t s e l f , a t o t a l o f t e n o c c u p i e d w i n t e r camps. To r e i t e r a t e , i t s h o u l d be kep t i n mind t h a t the p r e s e n t camps o c c u p i e d and the occupants o f any camp d i f f e r from y e a r t o year and have a l t e r e d r a d i c a l l y over l ong p e r i o d s . - 1 8 -Of the 244 Eskimos i n the a r e a t h e r e were 51 a d u l t males and 53 a d u l t females a v a i l a b l e f o r i n t e r v i e w -i n g . In the course o f the n i n e months' f i e l d w o r k p e r i o d , 47 o f the a d u l t males and 41 o f the a d u l t females were i n -f o r m a l l y i n t e r v i e w e d . The 4 o t h e r males showed no co -o p e r a t i o n and the o t h e r 12 females e i t h e r showed no c o -o p e r a t i o n or I d e c i d e d t h a t i t would be imprudent t o a t tempt t o h o l d l e n g t h y i n t e r v i e w s w i t h them. In a d d i t i o n t o my f a c i l i t y w i t h the language, "which I had a t tempted t o p e r f e c t d u r i n g a t h r e e - y e a r s t a y t o the n o r t h o f the s tudy a r e a , I was more t h a n c a s u a l l y f a m i l i a r w i t h the g e n e r a l r u l e s o f e t i q u e t t e as r e c o g n i z e d by these p e o p l e . A p a r t from t h i s I was known by name t o many o f the men as the p e r s o n who b r e d good ' b e a r - h u n t i n g ' dogs ( indeed many o f the men had o f f s p r i n g o f my d o g s ) . A l s o , and i m p o r t a n t l y , I was v e r y f a m i l i a r w i t h the geo-graphy o f the r e g i o n and w i t h the s e a s o n a l c y c l e o f sub-s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s . These f a c t o r s a l o n e made the f i e l d -work b o t h e a s i e r and, I hope and b e l i e v e , more a c c u r a t e t h a n i t o t h e r w i s e would have been . Data f o r the d i s s e r t a t i o n were g a t h e r e d i n the c o n t e x t o f p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v a t i o n on my p a r t . In formants were u n p a i d but e s p e c i a l l y h e l p f u l i n d i v i d u a l s were g i v e n v a r i o u s g i f t s . The c o n d i t i o n s f o r c o l l e c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n were e x c e l l e n t . D u r i n g my seven y e a r s work ing f o r the Hudson 's Bay Company w i t h Eskimos I became p r o f i c i e n t i n the use o f the language . S ince I had spent t h r e e o f these - 19-y e a r s i n the n o r t h e r n p a r t o f the s tudy a r e a I was competent i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r d i a l e c t . Fu r thermore , I was known t o the a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n b o t h by r e p u t a t i o n and by h a v i n g had p a s t c o n t a c t s w i t h many o f them as a s t o r e manager f o r the t r a d i n g company. I found no d i f f i c u l t y i n e x p l a i n i n g my p r e s e n c e and o b j e c t i v e s and was a c c e p t e d i n t o the community w i t h no f u s s . Notes were k e p t i n notebooks f o r l a t e r t r a n s -c r i p t i o n and, depend ing upon the n a t u r e o f the d a t a and the c o n t e x t i n which they were g i v e n , were e i t h e r w r i t t e n out i m m e d i a t e l y or were r e c o r d e d as soon a f t e r the i n t e r v i e w as p o s s i b l e . A l t h o u g h some m a t e r i a l was t a k e n on t a p e s , u s i n g a t r a n s i s t o r type r e c o r d e r , the b u l k o f the i n f o r m a t i o n was w r i t t e n i n e i t h e r E n g l i s h or Esk imo. In the l a t t e r case t h i s was deemed n e c e s s a r y f o r the p r o t e c t i o n o f the i n f o r -mant and/or the i d e n t i t i e s o f c h a r a c t e r s ment ioned by the i n f o r m a n t . I n f o r m a t i o n about b o t h k i n s h i p and n o n - k i n s h i p a l l i a n c e s was t a k e n from a d u l t s (o lde r t h a n s i x t e e n ) o f b o t h sexes and was c o n s t a n t l y checked a g a i n s t o b s e r v e d b e -h a v i o u r . O b s e r v a t i o n was r e l a t i v e l y s imp le s i n c e I a lways o c c u p i e d a p o s i t i o n i n a h o u s e h o l d i n any camp I was v i s i t -i n g . Most i m p o r t a n t l y , owing t o my knowledge o f the language , I c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d and overhear w i t h i m p u n i t y . - 2 0 -1. Workers such as R. F. Spencer i n A l a s k a (1959), R- W. Dunning i n the n o r t h e r n Bay a r e a (1959 and 1962), and Dav id Damas a t v a r i o u s p o i n t s i n the c e n t r a l A r c t i c (1963), a re r e c o g n i z e d as h a v i n g c o n t r i b u t e d t o the r e -d u c t i o n o f t h i s p r o b l e m . 2. D. L. Guemple 's " I n n u i t Spouse Exchange" (1962), i s an e x c e l l e n t example o f the w o r s t k i n d o f compar i son drawing , as i t does , upon da ta g a t h e r e d by v a r i a b l y r e l i a b l e o b s e r v e r s , i n d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s . 3. In t h i s I am i n agreement w i t h the l i n e o f thought d e v e l o p e d by R. B. Pehrson (1957) i n r e l a t i o n t o Lapps and o t h e r b i l a t e r a l g r o u p s . 4 . C f . M. J . Levy, J r . , " S t r u c t u r e o f S o c i e t y " (1952) (pass im) . 5. A c y b e r n e t i c model might be most a p p l i c a b l e t o t h i s s i t u a t i o n . The prob lem of d e v i s i n g m a t h e m a t i c a l s c a l e s f o r the measurements r e q u i r e d and the a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s e s c a l e s t o a c t u a l s o c i a l phenomena has not y e t been s a t i s f a c t o r i l y s e t t l e d . 6. ' Economic ' here i s b e i n g used i n i t s most mundane mean-i n g , t h a t i s , as i t connotes s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s . 7. I am concerned h e r e w i t h s h o r t - t e r m r a t h e r than l o n g -term r e s u l t s . - 2 1 -CHAPTER I I A major o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o r e a c h an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the i m p l i c a t i o n s . o f c o n v e n t i o n a l k i n s h i p c a t e g o r i e s and k i n s h i p group o b l i g a t i o n s , b o t h f o r the i n -d i v i d u a l and f o r the f a m i l y , v i e w i n g the l a t t e r as a k i n s h i p s u b - s t r u c t u r e . I n v e s t i g a t i o n s l o o k i n g f o r o b v i o u s o n e - t o - o n e c o r r e l a t i o n s between k i n s h i p t e r m i n o l o g y , a c t u a l b e h a v i o u r , and k i n s h i p o b l i g a t i o n s a re bound t o f a i l i f they do not take i n t o account the s o c i a l and economic i m p e r a t i v e s . In p a r t i c u l a r , account s h o u l d be taken o f h a v i n g p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r a c t i o n t h a t r e l a t e t o k i n o b l i g a t i o n s o n l y s e c o n d a r i l y and t o i n d i v i d u a l s u r v i v a l p r i m a r i l y . I t i s b o t h t h e o r e t i c a l l y and e m p i r i c a l l y p o s s i b l e t h a t s i t u a t i o n s can be such t h a t the more f e a s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s demand c h o i c e s o f a c t i o n which i g n o r e k i n o b l i g a t i o n s and which can be v a l i d a t e d on the s imp le f o l k e x p l a n a t i o n t h a t "sometimes Eskimos do t h a t . " T h i s second p r i n c i p l e a l s o c o n t a i n s s t r u c t u r a l e lements , which w i l l form the s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f Chapter I I I . I t i s w i t h i n the bounds o f the i l a g i t t h a t i s , the k i n d r e d , t h a t a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s have c o l l e c t e d the Eskimo system o f k i n s h i p t e r m i n o l o g y . For the C lyde groups t h i s - 2 2 -system shows i n t e r n a l v a r i a t i o n r e l a t i n g p r i m a r i l y t o the e x i s t e n c e o f d i f f e r e n c e s between the n o r t h e r n and s o u t h e r n p o p u l a t i o n groups d e s c r i b e d s e p a r a t e l y l a t e r . The n o r t h e r n system i s e x a c t l y l i k e t h a t g i v e n by Damas f o r the I g l u l i k g roup (1963). The s o u t h e r n t e r m i n o l o g i c a l system d e p a r t s i n a number o f p l a c e s from t h a t o f the n o r t h e r n g r o u p . Accompanying these d i f f e r e n c e s are d i f f e r e n c e s i n m a r r i a g e p a t t e r n s and i n the r u l e s g o v e r n i n g i n c e s t u o u s " '"relat ion-s h i p s . As s t a t e d above, t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l be concerned w i t h the C lyde I n l e t E s k i m o ' s concep ts o f h i s r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s , as i n d i v i d u a l s and as' groups o f i n d i v i d u a l s . The e x t e n t o f k i n s h i p and q u a s i - k i n s h i p t i e s th roughout the l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n and the importance o f these i n d a i l y d i s c o u r s e and i n the o r d e r i n g o f s h o r t and l o n g term a c t i o n c o n v i n c e s me t h a t a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the i d e a l k i n s h i p system i s o f importance t o any a n a l y s i s c a r r i e d out f o r t h i s group o f p e o p l e . In t h i s sense a l l r e f e r e n c e s t o the k i n s h i p system as an e g o - o r i e n t e d system s h o u l d be r e g a r d e d as a p p r o a c h i n g the i d e a l systems as the v a r i o u s i n f o r m a n t s c o n c e i v e o f t h i s . The c o m p i l a t i o n o f the t e r m i -n o l o g i e s w i l l show t h a t t h e r e a re a number o f d i s c r e p a n t v iews o f the i d e a l sys tem; hence we have i n c l u d e d a l t e r n a -t i v e t e r m s . There a r e , o f c o u r s e , o t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the appearance o f a l t e r n a t i v e terms f o r r e l a t i v e s . The h e t e r o g e n e i t y o f the p o p u l a t i o n and the p e r s i -s t e n c e o f the 'home' t e r m i n o l o g y w i t h i n extended f a m i l y - 2 3 -groups a re two apparent and p l a u s i b l e r e a s o n s f o r the e x i s t -ence o f t h e s e a l t e r n a t i v e s . S i m i l a r l y , the a p p a r e n t l y r e c e n t appearance o f c r o s s - c o u s i n m a r r i a g e s c o u l d c o n c e i v -a b l y have r e q u i r e d t h a t some s h i f t s i n the t e r m i n o l o g y take p l a c e . I s h o u l d l i k e t o p o i n t out here t h a t the systems as i l l u s t r a t e d i n the v a r i o u s k i n s h i p c h a r t s have been ' c o r -r e c t e d ' by m y s e l f t o account f o r cases where terms were a n -omalous as a r e s u l t o f e i t h e r m u l t i p l e k i n - t i e s (of c o u s i n m a r r i a g e ) or as a r e s u l t o f the u b i q u i t o u s naming p r a c t i c e wh ich c a r r i e s the k i n - s t a t u s o f the deceased p e r s o n ' s name onto the name-sake. Thus where a b i o l o g i c a l son was termed ' e l d e r b r o t h e r ' t h e n h i s younger b r o t h e r i s r e f e r r e d t o as h i s 'nephew' . In such cases the i n d i v i d u a l s were r e c o r d e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r b i o l o g i c a l s t a t u s and t h e i r s o c i o l o g i c a l s t a t u s no ted s e p a r a t e l y . U n l i k e S c h e f f l e r (1965), we c a n -not c o n s i d e r "on l y terms used i n f a c e - t o - f a c e i n t e r a c t i o n by Ego" (p. 6 9 ) ; the c o m p l e x i t i e s o f the c h i l d - n a m i n g s i t u -a t i o n r e f e r r e d t o above p r e v e n t s t h i s . The terms we w i l l use f o r a n a l y s i s a re those l i s t e d i n T a b l e s I and IA (p. 24, 25, 26) and r e p r e s e n t the t o t a l c o l l e c t i o n o f terms from a number o f i n f o r m a n t s . In c o l l e c t i n g the g e n e a l o g i e s i t was apparen t t h a t no s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l was c a p a b l e o f p r o -v i d i n g a complete l i s t o f terms f o r the system s i m p l y f o r the l a c k o f r e l a t i v e s i n one or o t h e r c a t e g o r y . In t h i s case I went beyond the g e n e a l o g i e s i n a s k i n g f o r terms f o r f i c t i -t i o u s r e l a t i v e s . T h i s approach however p roduced such a wide range o f d i s c r e p a n c y t h a t I r e s o r t e d t o a m a t c h i n g method and - 2 4 -TABLE I CONSANGUINEAL KINSHIP TERMS A . A t a t a F a t h e r B. Anana Mother C. Agaq F a t h e r ' s b r o t h e r D. A t s a q F a t h e r ' s s i s t e r E. A i j a q M o t h e r ' s s i s t e r F. Angaq M o t h e r 1 s b r o t h e r G. Angajuq O lder b r o t h e r (male spkg) O lder s i s t e r (female spkg) H. Nuqaq Younger b r o t h e r (male spkg) ; Younger s i s t e r (female spkg) I . N a i j a q S i s t e r (male spkg) I I . N a i j a q s a q Q u a s i - s i s t e r ( cous in) (male spkg) J . A n g u t i q a t i q Same sex p a t r i l a t e r a l c o u s i n J J . I l l u r i v a q Same sex p a t r i l a t e r a l c o u s i n I l l u a k u l u q Same sex p a t r i l a t e r a l c o u s i n I l l u Same sex p a t r i l a t e r a l c o u s i n K. I l l u Same sex c r o s s - c o u s i n L. A n g n a q a t t i k Same sex m a t r i l a t e r a l c o u s i n L L . I l l u r j u k u l u q Same sex m a t r i l a t e r a l c o u s i n I l l u r i v a k Same sex m a t r i l a t e r a l c o u s i n I l l u a k u l u q Same sex m a t r i l a t e r a l c o u s i n I l l u Same sex m a t r i l a t e r a l c o u s i n M. A n i q B r o t h e r (female spkg) MM. A n i q s a q Q u a s i - b r o t h e r (cous in) (female spkg) N. I t o q G r a n d f a t h e r - o l d man 0. N i n g i j u q Grandmother - o l d woman P. Amuaq A n c e s t o r Q. E r n e q Son R. P a n i q Daughter S. K a n g i j a q B r o t h e r ' s c h i l d (male spkg) T . O j o r o q S i s t e r 1 s c h i l d (male spkg) U. E r n g o t a q G r a n d c h i l d - 2 5 -V. I l l u l i g G r e a t - g r a n d c h i l d W. Angnaq S i s t e r ' s c h i l d (female spkg) X. Nuvaq B r o t h e r ' s c h i l d (female spkg) - 2 6 -TABLE IA AFFINES AND CO-AFFINES 1. - N u l i a q 2. A i 3 . S a k i a q 4 . S a k k i q 5. Ukuaq * 6. N inguaq 7. N u l l i q 8. Nukaunruq 9. Anga juraungruq 10. U i n Spouse (male spkg) O p p o s i t e - s e x a f f i n e s on 0 and - 1 g e n e r a t i o n s Same-sex a f f i n e s i n 0 and - 1 g e n e r a t i o n s P a r e n t - i n - l a w A l l i n - m a r r y i n g females A l l i n - m a r r y i n g males C o - p a r e n t - i n - l a w Younger c o - b r o t h e r / s i s t e r - i n - l a w O lder c o - b r o t h e r / s i s t e r - i n - l a w Spouse (female spkg) A i p a r j u g i t I l a g i t Omajun I l a k a I n n u i n A l l a i n K a l l u n a n I l i r j u a r i t M a n g a r i t GENERAL TERMS Spouse-exchangers (group) Any r e c o g n i z e d group o f k insmen Any form o f r e c o g n i z e d l i f e Any kinsman/woman Human b e i n g s - Eskimos A l l s t r a n g e r s Eskimo or White A l l Whites N o n - r e s i d e n t , unnamed k insman C o - r e s i d e n t k insman b u t e x a c t r e l a t i o n -s h i p unknown T o ' q l o a r i t P a r a l l e l c o u s i n -2 7-f i t t e d t o g e t h e r i n c o m p l e t e t e r m i n o l o g i e s . The method i s not as i n a c c u r a t e as i t sounds however, s i n c e i n most cases o n l y two or t h r e e r e l a t i v e s were m i s s i n g f rom the most complete g e n e a l o g i e s . The v e r y g e n e r a l term, omajun, i s t a k e n t o mean ' l i f e ' o r ' l i v i n g ' h u t e x c l u d e s f l o r a o f a l l d e s c r i p t i o n s and a n i m a l s wh ich have l i t t l e resemblance t o f a m i l i a r l i f e - f o r m s . I n c l u d e d a re a l l forms o f human l i f e . A t the next lower l e v e l o f gen-e r a l i t y the term i s used t o s e p a r a t e human and non-human forms "of l i f e and i s s p e c i f i c a l l y used f o r game a n i m a l s . A t t h i s l e v e l a l s o the omajun term, when a p p l i e d t o any a n i m a l form and has the g l o s s o f ' i s he l i v i n g ' i . e . not dead . A t the next lower l e v e l . o f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n 'human b e i n g s ' , i n n u i n , a re d i s t i n g u i s h e d from s t r a n g e r s , a l l a i n . W i t h i n each o f these c a t e g o r i e s t h e r e a re f u r t h e r sub-d i v i s i o n s . K a l l u n a n (Whi tes) , f o r example, a re o n l y one k i n d o f a l l a i n and t h i s c a t e g o r y i s f u r t h e r s u b - d i v i d e d i n t o a number o f k a l l u n a n . The term a l l a i n a l s o connotes " s t r a n g e " E s k i m o s . The f o r e g o i n g has been s e t out s i m p l y t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e o f c o n s c i o u s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o f c a t e g o r i e s and v a r i a b l e usages o f words dependent upon the l e v e l o f g e n e r a l -i t y the i n d i v i d u a l i s t a l k i n g a t . S t r a n g e r s , a l l a i n , i n c l u d e l o c a l Whites (ka l l unan) and n o n - r e s i d e n t Esk imos from a d -j a c e n t a r e a s a l t h o u g h the l a t t e r a re p o t e n t i a l members s h o u l d they m i g r a t e i n t o the a r e a . The term p r e s e n t s some d i f f i -c u l t i e s o f d e f i n i t i o n inasmuch as t h e r e must be b o t h - 2 8 -p r o b a b i l i t y and p o s s i b i l i t y f o r e x p r e s s e d l y v a l u e d i n t e r -a c t i o n . S ince the term i s used i n a number o f c o n t e x t s i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s i d e r the meanings i t has a t the v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f g e n e r a l i t y . On the o t h e r hand, n o n - r e s i d e n t , non-i n t e r a c t i n g k i n u s u a l l y o n l y v a g u e l y known, a re d e s i g n a t e d as i l i r j u a r i t . T h e i r p e r s o n a l names and s p e c i f i c r e l a t i o n -s h i p s w i t h ego a re h a z y . I f r e s t r i c t e d t o a r e a - r e s i d e n t p e r s o n s i t has the meaning g i v e n i n the f i r s t sen tences above. When used r e f e r e n t i a l l y about s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l s i t e x c l u d e s k insmen who are d e s i g n a t e d i l a g i t . I t i s f rom among the l o c a l and we l l -known e x t r a - k i n group t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l i d e a l l y o b t a i n s a spouse and e s t a b l i s h e s a i p a r - j u g i t or spouse-exchange r e l a t i o n s h i p s . V i e w i n g the l a t t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p i n terms o f the e x t e n t o f the i n c e s t r e s t r i -c t i o n s as e x p r e s s e d by i n f o r m a n t s i n the c o n t e x t o f an i d e a l s t a t e i t i s c l e a r t h a t the e x i s t e n c e o f r e s t r i c t i o n s which e x c l u d e not o n l y consangu ines t o the second degree but a l s o t o spouses o f t h e s e s e r v e s t o s e r i o u s l y l i m i t the p o s s i b i -l i t i e s o f e s t a b l i s h i n g the k i n d s o f bonds wh ich d e r i v e out 2 o f spouse-exchange r e l a t i o n s h i p s . These t y p e s o f r e l a t i o n -s h i p s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I I I . The most g e n e r a l term used by C lyde Eskimos f o r a k i n s h i p group i s ' i l a g i t . ' T h i s c o r r e s p o n d s t o what i s c a l l e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e a b i l a t e r a l l y reckoned ' k i n d r e d ' (Pehrson, B a l i k c i , e t a l . ) . A more a c c u r a t e t r a n s l a t i o n o f the term i s ' g roup o f k insmen ' and i n the f i r s t p e r s o n p o s -s e s s i v e i s ' i l a k a ' ( l i t e r a l l y , p a r t o f m i n e ) . Among the - 2 9 -C lyde Eskimo a number o f q u a l i f i c a t i o n s a re subsumed under the i l a g i t r u b r i c . These q u a l i f i c a t i o n s have i m p o r t a n t c o n n o t a t i o n s f o r c o - r e s i d e n c e , l e a d e r s h i p , and p o t e n t i a l f o r i n t e r a c t i o n . Those i l a g i t not c o - r e s i d e n t w i t h i n the l a r g e r a r e a and whose names and s p e c i f i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s a re unknown or f o r g o t t e n are the i l i r j u a r i t . There i s no p r e s u m p t i o n o f e x p e c t a t i o n o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n o f any k i n d w i t h t h i s g r o u p . A somewhat more f a m i l i a r group a re the m a n g a r i t . These are named i n d i v i d u a l s b u t o t h e r t h a n t h i s iare as e q u a l l y d i s t a n t as the i l i r j u a r i t . N e i t h e r o f the above sub-groups p l a y s a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t i n the i l a g i t s t r u c t u r e except as t h e i r e x i s t e n c e i n o t h e r communit ies makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r a C lyde R i v e r Eskimo t o e n t e r a s t r a n g e community w i t h some a s s u r a n c e o f f i n d i n g a k insman who can p r o v i d e p r o t e c t i o n and a i d s h o u l d the need a r i s e . The t o t a l a r r a y o f f a m i l i a r and u n f a m i l i a r k insmen compr ise what has been r e f e r r e d t o as the ' e x t e n d e d - k i n d r e d ' w h i l e the more f a m i l i a r , i . e . c o - r e s i d e n t , s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n a t e d kinsmen compr ise the ' r e s t r i c t e d k i n d r e d ' ( B a l i k c i , 1962) . A l t h o u g h a l l k i n terms are e x p r e s s i b l e as s t a t u s terms (Edmonson, p. 4 6 ) , e . g . i t o q , i t o q a , "my g r a n d f a t h e r " and i t o r i t " o l d men" ( p l u r a l not d u a l ; see Tab le I I I f o r complete l i s t ) , the emphasis here w i l l be on those a g g r e g a t e s which f i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n has shown t o be o f c e n t r a l i m p o r t -ance t o the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . 30 TABLE I I SUMMARIZED TABLE K i n - K i n -Category- K i n s h i p Terms (1st p e r s . p o s s . ) Category S i n g l e Aggregate S i n g l e D u a l P l u r a l 1. i t o q i t o r a • i t o q a i t u 1 q a i t o r i t 2. n i n g i u q n i n g i o r a n i n g i u q a q n i n i j u ' q a n i n g i j o r i t 3. aqaq aqaga aqaqe a q a 1 q a a q a g i t 4 . angaq angaga angaqa anga 'qa a n g a g i t 5. a t c a q a t c h a g a a t chaqa a t c h a ' q a a t c h a g i t 6. a i j a q a i j a g a a i j a q a a i j a ' q a a i j a g i t 7. n a i j a q n a i j a g a n a i j a q a n a i j a ' q a a n i j a r i t 8. a n i q a n i g a a n i q a a n i ' q a a n i r i t 9. anga juq a n g a j o r a angajuqa a n a j u ' q a a n g a j r i t 10. nuqaq nuqara nuqaqa nuqa 'qa n u q a r i t 11. a n g n a q a t i q a n g n a q a t i q a a n g n a q a t i q a a n g n a q a t i 1 q a a n g n a q a t i g i t 12. a n g u t i q a r i q a n g u t i q a t i g a a n g u t i q a t i q a a n g u t i q a t i ' q a a n g u t i q a t i g i t 13. i l l u i l l o r a i l l u q a i l l u 1 q a i l l o r i t 14. e r n e q e r n e r a e r n i q a e r n i 1 q a e r n e r i t 15. p a n i q p a n i g a p a n i q a p a n i 1 q a p a n i g i t 16. k a n g i j a q k a n g i j a r a k a n g i j a q a k a n g i j a ' q a k a n g i j a r i t 17. o j o r o q o j o r o g a o j o r a q a o j o r a ' q a o j o r a g i t 18. e r n g o t a q e r n g o t a r a e r n g o t a q a e r n g o t a ' q a e r n g o t a r i t 19. i l l u l e v a q i l l u l e v a q a i l l u l i q a i l l u l i 1 q a i l l u l e v i t 20. s a q i q s a q i g a s a q i q a s a q i 1 q a s a q i g i t 21. s a q i a q s a q i a r a s a q i a q a s a q i a ' q a s a q i a r i t 22. n inguaq n ingauga n inguaqa n i n g a u ' q a n i n g a u g i t 23. a i a i g a akqa a i ' qa a i g i t 24. uqua uquara uquaqa uqua 1 qa u q u i v i t 25. nuqaungruq nuqaungora - nuqaungroqa nuqaungro 1 qa nuqaungro i t 26. anga jungruq a n g a j a u n g o r a angajaohgroqa a n g a j a o n g r o 1 q a a n g a j a o n g r o i t 27. n u l l i q n u l e r a n u l i q a n u l i 1 q a n u l e r i t - 3 1 -The b o u n d a r i e s o f the r e s t r i c t e d i l a g i t , l i k e t h o s e o f the extended i l a g i t , a re h i g h l y e l a s t i c and n a t u r a l l y v a r i a b l e f o r any i n d i v i d u a l . The absence o f some c a t e g o r i e s o f r e l a t i v e s , f o r example . FZ, means t h a t a l l t h o s e c a t e g o r i e s o f r e l a t i v e s u s u a l l y l i n k e d t o an ego t h r o u g h FZ a re c o m p l e t e l y m i s s i n g from the c a t a l o g u e o f t h a t p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l . In v iew o f t h i s k i n d o f d i s -p a r i t y i t becomes e s s e n t i a l t o make d i s t i n c t i o n s between the i d e a l and a c t u a l i l a g i t . S i m i l a r l y , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o b e a r i n mind t h a t no i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r a c t s w i t h a l l p o s -s i b l e members o f h i s i l a g i t a t the same t i m e ; thus t h e r e i s a r e a l d i s t i n c t i o n between a c t i v e and p o t e n t i a l l y a c t i v e i l a g i t . An i m p o r t a n t p o i n t h e r e i s t h a t a l t h o u g h an i n d i v i d u a l might not be a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d w i t h a l l p o t e n t i a l k insmen a t any one t ime , t h e i r p resence i n the l o c a l e p e r -m i t s easy s h i f t i n g between segments o f the i l a g i t . The i d e a l extended i l a g i t i n c l u d e s a l l known k insmen r e s i d e n t i n the g e n e r a l a r e a who are l i n k e d t o an i n d i v i d u a l th rough e i t h e r p a r e n t . T h i s i d e a l group t a k e s i n -t o account b o t h those members w i t h whom t h e r e i s an a c t u a l and o n - g o i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p and those members who are l i k e l y t o be i n v o l v e d a t some t ime , i . e . the p o t e n t i a l l y a c t i v e members. The a c t u a l i l a g i t i s c i r c u m s c r i b e d by two c o n -d i t i o n s . F i r s t , the e x i s t e n c e o f k i n c a t e g o r i e s (see above n o t e ) ; i f t h e r e has been no FZ, (atsaq) t h e r e w i l l be no FZ c h i l d r e n i d l u nor BZ ch i ldren" , o j o r o q . Second, c o -r e s i d e n c e and a s s o c i a t e d r e s i d e n t i a l c o o p e r a t i o n f i g u r e s - 3 2 -l a r g e l y i n d e t e r m i n i n g the s i g n i f i c a n t segment of. the i l a g i t . A c r u c i a l d i s t i n g u i s h i n g p o i n t between the i d e a l and a c t u a l i l a g i t and between the a c t i v e and p o t e n t i a l l y a c t i v e i l a g i t i s t h a t i t i s o n l y w i t h i n the bounds o f the a c t u a l and a c t i v e segment t h a t l e a d e r s h i p and a u t h o r i t y can be p i n n e d down and i n d i v i d u a l s named as n a l a k t i q (the l i s t e n e d t o ) , angayukaq (the e l d e s t ) , o r , r a r e l y a t C l y d e , i sumatoq (the one who t h i n k s ) . There i s no such f i g u r e a t the head o f the extended i l a g i t . T h i s l a t t e r aggregate d e r i v e s i t s form from the p r e s e n c e o f a number o f member-r e s t r i c t e d i l a g i t , each h a v i n g an a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e . These men are a l l c a p a b l e o f t r a c i n g c l o s e c o n s a n g u i n e a l or a f -f i n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h each o t h e r . The r e s t r i c t e d i l a g i t i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by h a v i n g a named l e a d e r , d e r i v i n g from h i s knowledge, s k i l l s and h u n t i n g powers, and h o l d i n g t o g e t h e r a c o - r e s i d e n t group o f c o n s a n g u i n e a l and a f f i n a l k insmen . These s m a l l e r co -r e s i d e n t groups range i n s i z e from e lementa ry f a m i l i e s t o extended f a m i l i e s o f t h r e e g e n e r a t i o n s d e p t h . In most, b u t not a l l c a s e s , the r e s t r i c t e d i l a g i t c o r r e s p o n d s t o the ' camp. ' Where i t does not have t h i s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , t h a t i s , where the camp i s a composi te g r o u p i n g , the e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t t h e r e i s a temporary a i p a r j u g i t r e l a t i o n s h i p h o l d i n g between, u s u a l l y , the heads o f two u n r e l a t e d r e s t r i c t e d i l a g i t ( c f . p. 2 6 ) . I t i s not p o s s i b l e t o t a l k about a camp composed o f two or more r e s t r i c t e d b u t r e l a t e d i l a g i t s i n c e the - 3 3 -f a c t o f c o - r e s i d e n c e even on a temporary b a s i s p roduces what I term a s i n g l e r e s t r i c t e d i l a g i t . L e a d e r s h i p and a u t h o r -i t y p a s s e s t o the 'most c a p a b l e ' r e s i d e n t p e r s o n u s u a l l y a k insman, and the two groups merge i n t o one l a r g e r though s t i l l r e s t r i c t e d group . As has been i m p l i e d i t might be most h e l p f u l t o t h i n k o f t h i s term i n two b r o a d s e n s e s : the ex tended and the r e s t r i c t e d i l a g i t . The extended i l a g i t i d e a l l y i n c l u d e s e v e r y p e r -son t o whom any s i n g l e ego can t r a c e a c o g n a t i c r e a l t i o n -"ship.' S ince the e x t e n t o f knowledge o f k i n i s h i g h l y v a r i a b l e from i n d i v i d u a l t o i n d i v i d u a l one can e x p e c t t o r e c o r d d i s p a r a t e b o u n d a r i e s f o r t h i s l a r g e r g roup . T h i s group i s i n no way l i n k e d t o a p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n or a r e a . Between the nameable and s p e c i f i c a l l y known members o f the r e s t r i c t e d i l a g i t and the o u t s i d e boundary o f the extended i l a g i t l i e s the k i n - c a t e g o r y o f m a n g a r i t ; members o f the i l a g i t b u t whose e x a c t r e l a t i o n s h i p i s not known t o the i n f o r m a n t . The r e s t r i c t e d i l a g i t , u n l i k e the extended group , i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h some r e g i o n or a r e a . E v e r y member i s named and e v e r y member's r e l a t i o n s h i p t o ego i s c l e a r l y s p e c i f i a b l e . S ince c o - r e s i d e n c e tends t o i n t e n s i f y i n t e r -a c t i o n and i n t e r d e p e n d e n c y i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the b o u n d a r i e s o f the r e s t r i c t e d i l a g i t a re c l e a r l y drawn. Nor i s i t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the maximum s i z e o f r e s t r i c t e d i l a g i t i s v a r i a b l e . The s m a l l e s t r e s t r i c t e d i l a g i t a re o f those i n d i v i d u a l s who have been f a t h e r e d by i t i n e r a n t Whi tes and have t h e r e f o r e o n l y h a l f the p o s s i b l e number o f - 3 4 -r e l a t i v e s a v a i l a b l e . W i t h i n the b o u n d a r i e s o f the r e s t r i c t e d i l a g i t a number o f aggregate terms a re u s e d . These terms are d e s c r i b e d below i n no p a r t i c u l a r o r d e r o f r a n k i n g . As shown on T a b l e I I I i n the column devoted t o aggregate t e r m i n o l o g y t h e r e i s a term which has the g l o s s ' p a r e n t ' o r , more s p e c i f i c a l l y perhaps , ' t h o s e s h a r i n g (having) c h i l d r e n , ' t h i s term i s q i t u r n g u a q a r i t . The term appears t o be used s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r those a d u l t s , i n a n , who have "assumed the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f p a r e n t h o o d . The term i n c l u d e s a d u l t s who have adopted c h i l d r e n o n l y as w e l l as those who have b i o l o g i c a l c h i l d r e n . The term i s not , t o my knowledge, commonly used i n a v o c a t i v e sense b u t u s u a l l y i n a r e f e r e n -t i a l s e n s e . The aggregate term f o r o f f s p r i n g , q i t u r n g u a q , and the aggrega te form q i t u r n g u a r i t , w i t h the g l o s s o f ' g roup o f o f f s p r i n g ' ( s i b l i n g s ) u n l i k e the ' p a r e n t ' te rm no ted above, i s used b o t h r e f e r e n t i a l l y and v o c a t i v e l y a l t h o u g h the l a t t e r usage i s r e l a t i v e l y r a r e . T h i s term i s never used between s i b l i n g s b u t o n l y between p a r e n t s , or a d u l t s , and c h i l d r e n . Between s i b l i n g s the common aggregate terms are n a i j a q i t ; a n i q i t ; and n u k a r i t . N a i j a q i t , the group term f o r s i s t e r s o f a male speaker i n c l u d e s a l l those consangu ines who are r e f e r r e d t o by the s i s t e r term n a i j a q . T h i s c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s a l l c o u s i n s t o the second degree o f l a t e r a l i t y and f i r s t degree o f r e m o v a l . A n i g i t i s the c o r r e s p o n d i n g term used by female speakers f o r a group o f -3 5-b r o t h e r s and i s extended i n e x a c t l y the same way and t o the same degree as the s i s t e r term d e s c r i b e d above . The same-sex s i b l i n g term n u k a r i t has a narrower range o f use i n s o -f a r as i t r e f e r s s p e c i f i c a l l y t o same-sex s i b l i n g s o n l y . W i t h i n these c a t e g o r i e s a d i s t i n c t i o n between f u l l ; h a l f ; s t e p ; and a d o p t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s p o s s i b l e , a l t h o u g h not common. T h i s i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by the use o f the sag s u f f i x so t h a t s t e p - s i s t e r s f o r example become n u q a s a r i t and s t e p -b r o t h e r s become a n i q s a r i t . W i t h i n these t h r e e q u a l i f i e d • k i n - r e l a t i o n s h i p s the h a l f - s i b l i n g c a t e g o r y i s s p e c i f i c a l l y d i s t i n c t from the o t h e r two as i n d i c a t e d by the e x i s t e n c e o f the term, q a t a n g o t i q a t i g i t w i t h the g l o s s o f , ' g roup o f h a l f - s i b l i n g s , same sex as speaker , the o p p o s i t e - s e x h a l f -s i b l i n g s b e i n g r e f e r r e d t o as e i t h e r a f u l l s i b l i n g o f the o p p o s i t e sex or as a q u a l i f i e d s i b l i n g o f the o p p o s i t e s e x , ' e . g . a n i q s a q . The t h r e e c o u s i n t ypes found i n e g o ' s g e n e r a t i o n a r e g i v e n aggregate terms as i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e I . A second d i s t i n c t i o n i s made which e f f e c t i v e l y e x c l u d e s what a re known i n the l i t e r a t u r e as c r o s s - c o u s i n s . The term, t o g ' l o a r i t , i n c l u d e s the c h i l d r e n o f m o t h e r ' s s i s t e r and f a t h e r ' s b r o t h e r as a s i n g l e aggregate u n i t . Cousin Terms North e r n Group 36 A T 6 OrA K I A B J I I G I 5 EGO 6 f A . ^ T O H I L 1 K I Ko a & A 6 A A 6 :U. • zTb Male Ego Diagram 1 I :— Cousin Terms Northern Group ,D AT<5 O t A A ' B M A~ K M G M H M ~& O A 6 O A £6 - 0 Female Ego : •' Diagram 2 3 7 (5 A A T O M L M l K A~X> AO - 3 8 -The K i n s h i p T e r m i n o l o g i c a l Systems  N o r t h e r n Group Consanguines - E g o ' s G e n e r a t i o n Diagrams 1 and 2 show the symmetry o f d i s t r i b u t i o n and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f r e l a t i v e s i n b o t h e g o ' s and the f i r s t a s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n s . ^ Same-sex s i b l i n g s a re s e p a r a t e d on the b a s i s o f . r e l a t i v e age w h i l e o p p o s i t e - s e x s i b l i n g s are denoted by a s i n g l e term f o r e i t h e r a male or female ego. The sex o f ego d e t e r m i n e s the s p e c i f i c term used f o r o p p o s i t e - s e x s i b l i n g s ; the s i s t e r o f a b r o t h e r i s n a i j a q w h i l e the b r o t h e r o f a s i s t e r i s a n i q . In the case o f same-sex s i b l i n g s the terms used a re the same f o r an ego o f e i t h e r sex . The term anga jug i s used f o r a l l o l d e r same-sex s i b l i n g s and the term a n g i l a q r e f e r s s o l e l y t o the e l d e s t o f a g roup . The term a n q i n e r - kpaq, o r a l t e r n a t i v e l y , a n g a y u k i n e r g i s used r e f e r e n t i a l l y f o r any p a r t i c u l a r o l d e r s i b l i n g . The term nukaq denotes any younger same-sex s i b l i n g . As i n the case o f t e r m i n o l g y d e s c r i b i n g o l d e r / e l d e s t , a s i m i l a r s e t e x i s t s f o r younger/ y o u n g e s t , these a re nukag f o r youngest and n u k a k i n e r q f o r any younger s i b l i n g o f the same sex . There are f o u r terms f o r c o u s i n s t h a t emphasize the c r i t e r i a o f g e n e r a t i o n , sex o f r e l a t i v e , sex o f speaker , and k i n d o f c o l l a t e r a l i t y . O p p o s i t e - s e x c o u s i n s , b o t h p a r a l l e l and c r o s s , a re d e s i g n a t e d by the o p p o s i t e - s e x s i b l i n g term, t h a t i s , n a i j a q f o r a female c o u s i n o f a male ego and a n i q f o r a male c o u s i n o f a female ego. There i s an o c c a s i o n a l use o f the s u f f i x sag w i t h t h e s e t e r m s . T h i s s u f f i x changes the meaning o f the term t o one w i t h a l e s s p o s i t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n as , f o r example, n a i j a k s a q , ' t h e m a t e r i a l f o r a s i s t e r ' (male speak-i n g ) . I t was o b s e r v e d t h a t t h i s q u a l i f y i n g s u f f i x was used more o f t e n w i t h o p p o s i t e - s e x c r o s s - c o u s i n s t h a n w i t h op-p o s i t e - s e x p a r a l l e l - c o u s i n s . I t s h o u l d be no ted t h a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s u f f i x i s not r e s t r i c t e d t o t h i s s i t u a t i o n b u t i s a l s o used v a r i o u s l y t o d e s i g n a t e h a l f - s i b l i n g s and adopted 4 s i b l i n g s and c o u s i n s as w e l l as q u a s i - k i n g e n e r a l l y . Same-sex c o u s i n s a re c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d t e r m i -n o l o g i c a l l y from same-sex s i b l i n g s by the use o f t h r e e t e r m s . C r o s s - c o u s i n s o f the same-sex as ego are d e s i g n a t e d as i l l u . P a t r i l a t e r a l p a r a l l e l - c o u s i n s o f the same sex are d e s i g n a t e d as a n g u t i q a t t i k . M a t r i l a t e r a l p a r a l l e l - c o u s i n s o f the same sex are d e s i g n a t e d as a n g n a q a t t i k . E t y m o l o g i c a l l y , the c r o s s -c o u s i n term sugges ts the meaning o f ' i n s i d e r s ' ( c f . i l l u l i q = t h o s e / t h a t are i n s i d e ) . The p a t r i l a t e r a l p a r a l l e l d e s i g n a -t i o n has the g l o s s o f , " those who share or have males" and the m a t r i l a t e r a l p a r a l l e l d e s i g n a t i o n has the g l o s s o f , " those who s h a r e , or have , f e m a l e s . " In b o t h the l a t t e r c a s e s the shared males and/or females a re presumed t o be , c o n t e x t u a l l y a t l e a s t , s i b l i n g s . ^onsangiuneaj. xerms Northern Group"" P A^ O A 7 O A ; 0 N C D C D D A?6~ So p A=?0 0 N 0 N. A?o~ p A ^ O 0 N A T < 5 " ~ A 0 . N F E F E C .. D C D K J I J A 7 0 <5rA £o A B ^f6" T O 0 N A ? 0 0 N 0 no F E F E I • , G H 2>FA AfO A AF5 o I I L I K EGO AO AO R A~^> A~^> A~7> A~b S T S T S S Q R "5?A A 5 £6L~b £6.&~b £6 T T . ,S T S T U V Male Ego Diagram 3 / Consanguineal Terms 41 Northern Group P A 7 < 3 p A = 0 p A ? 0 p A * 0 Ar6 I?o i f6 A ? O i?o A T 6 A I O A T 6 A?i A N O N O N O N O N O N O N O N O N O N C D C D H • 6 A b A~ K M OA F E F E C D C D " • A P. 0 N 0 N TO 0 F . E F E a?6 . i ?o H M M M L M 2>A A?6 A ? 0 A T 5 AfO A T O A ^ O A f 6 EGO K A"c) A^b A O AT6 A o ATlb A^o A o A o A o A d A 6 W Q R W X W X w .< . x x w x • u X u V Female Ego Diagram 4 i !• - 4 2 -Other Consanguines Diagram 3 (male ego) and Diagram 4 (female ego) show the complete s e t o f c o n s a n g u i n e a l t e rms . R e l a t i v e s i n the f i r s t a s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n a re s e p a r a t e d from each o t h e r on the bases o f sex and c o l l a t e r -a l l y . The term a t a t a i s a p p l i e d t o male p a r e n t and the term anana t o female p a r e n t . . There a re f o u r terms f o r a u n t s and u n c l e s , these a re the same f o r e i t h e r male or female ego . F a t h e r ' s b r o t h e r i s d e s i g n a t e d a t a q and m o t h e r ' s b r o t h e r angaq. F a t h e r ' s s i s t e r i s d e s i g n a t e d a t s a q and m o t h e r ' s s i s t e r , a i j a q . These are p r i m a r y terms t h a t may be used w i t h the a f f i x ' s a g ' i n the same way as t h a t de-s c r i b e d f o r c o u s i n s . G e n e r a l l y , when the saq a f f i x i s used i t a p p l i e s t o c o u s i n s o f p a r e n t s or t o i n d i v i d u a l s o f t h a t g e n e r a t i o n whose e x a c t r e l a t i o n s h i p i s i n doubt . In the f i r s t d e s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n a s i m i l a r t e r m i -n o l o g i c a l s e p a r a t i o n o f l i n e a l from c o l l a t e r a l k i n i s ma in-t a i n e d . The terms are the same f o r e i t h e r sex ego; a son i s e r n e q and a daughter i s p a n i q . These terms are extended w i t h the saq p o s t - b a s e o n l y t o a d o p t i v e s b u t i s u s u a l l y dropped i n a v a r i a b l y s h o r t p e r i o d o f t ime so t h a t adopted c h i l d r e n become t e r m i n o l o g i c a l l y i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from ' n a t u r a l ' o f f s p r i n g . In a d d i t i o n to the c r i t e r i a o f l i n e a l i t y and sex o f l i n k i n g r e l a t i v e the sex o f ego de termines the s p e c i f i c terms used f o r n i e c e s and nephews. For a male ego the - 4 3 -c h i l d r e n o f a s i s t e r a re o j o r o k . For a female ego the c h i l d r e n o f a b r o t h e r a re angnaq w h i l e the c h i l d r e n o f a s i s t e r a re nuvaq. These terms are. extended t o the c h i l d r e n o f c o u s i n s as f o l l o w s : the c h i l d r e n o f male c o u s i n s a re d e s i g n a t e d by the term f o r the c h i l d r e n o f a b r o t h e r and the c h i l d r e n o f a female c o u s i n a re d e s i g n a t e d by the term f o r c h i l d r e n o f a s i s t e r . I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d out t h a t t h i s mode a c c o r d s c o m p l e t e l y w i t h t h a t d e s c r i b e d f o r the I g l u l i k Esk imos (Damas, 1963) w i t h whom t h i s n o r t h e r n group i n t e r a c t s v e r y c l o s e l y . The a f f i n a l / c o n s a n g u i n e a l b o u n d a r y . s o i m p o r t a n t i n e g o ' s and the f i r s t a s c e n d i n g and d e s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n s i s absent i n the second a s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n . G r a n d p a r e n t a l terms are i t o q f o r g r a n d f a t h e r and n i n g u i q f o r grandmother , the terms b e i n g extended t o i n c l u d e i n - m a r r y i n g r e l a t i v e s o f t h i s g e n e r a t i o n . Whereas the p r e v i o u s terms d e s c r i b e d are * r e l a t i v e - s p e c i f i c 1 these two terms a re a p p l i c a b l e t o any aged p e r s o n , k i n or n o n - k i n w i t h k i n b e i n g denoted by the use o f the a f f i x d e f i n i n g p o s s e s s i o n , e . g . cja thus i t o g a has the meaning o f "my g r a n d f a t h e r ( o l d man) . " The term e r n g o t a q i s used t o denote a l l members o f the second d e s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , a s i n g l e a s e x u a l term i s used f o r members o f b o t h the t h i r d a s c e n d i n g and d e s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n s . The term amau has the g l o s s o f a n c e s t o r w h i l e the term i l l u l i k has the g l o s s o f ' i n s i d e r ' ( c f . a l s o the c r o s s - c o u s i n t e r m ) . A ;ffines & Co-Affines • .'Northern Group . 44 A=0 A=6 d>A oA Of A A ? i A f i O? A A f i A=o" A=6^ " A=o A=6 ^ 5 A 1, o3 - " 8 2 EGO • 3 • 9' 2 3 - 9 - 2 1 9 3 9 2 v 3 . |9 2 • 3 9 2 A?jO. • 5 Q Q R . 6 Male Ego • - '* Diagram 5 A f f i n e s & C o - A f f i n e s i Northern. Group 45 A •5 o A j O 1,5 AyO O T A 2. o )=A Or A A T O O f A O f A A r O A=0 A=6 A=0 A - O 2 8 3 EGO 2 9 3 2 ,.9. ..3 • A'fO u 5 Q 10 9 2 9 A=o i A A - i 2 • 9 '3 2 9 3 6 A y O R 6 Female Ego. Diagram 6 - 4 6 -A f f i n e s There a re s i x a f f i n a l terms f o r an ego o f e i t h e r s e x . Diagrams 5 and 6 show these f o r male and female ego. For a male ego spouse i s termed n u l j a k and f o r a female ego spouse i s u i n . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a l l o t h e r a f f i n a l terms i s the same f o r e i t h e r a male o r a female ego . The mutually-r e c i p r o c a l term a_i i s a p p l i e d t o a l l o p p o s i t e - s e x a f f i n e s b e l o n g i n g t o s p o u s e ' s own and f i r s t d e s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n s . Same-sex a f f i n e s i n these two g e n e r a t i o n s a re termed s a k i a q . "The te rm f o r p a r e n t - i n - l a w i s s a k i q . A l l i n - m a r r y i n g fema les a re uquaq and a l l i n - m a r r y i n g males a re n i n g a u q . As e x p e c t e d , a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s p a t t e r n the terms ukuaq and n inguaq a re complementary t o b o t h the s a k i a q and s a k i q t e r m s . C o - a f f i n e s There a re t h r e e c o - a f f i n a l t e rms . The term n u l i q i s used r e c i p r o c a l l y between c o - p a r e n t s - i n - l a w . C o - a f f i n e s m a r r i e d t o spouses ' o l d e r s i b l i n g s a re anga jaungruq w h i l e the term nukaungruq i s a p p l i e d t o those c o - a f f i n e s m a r r i e d t o s p o u s e s ' younger s i b l i n g s . Southern Group Consanguines - E g o ' s G e n e r a t i o n The c o u s i n t e r m i n o l o g y i n use among the s o u t h e r n C lyde I n l e t group shows g r e a t v a r i a t i o n b o t h i n t e r n a l l y and i n r e l a t i o n t o t h a t used among the n o r t h e r n g roup . The Cousin Terms Southern Group K I I A B A t O O f A A r 6" J J I I ' G I 6 r ^ ^ t o H I LL I I I K I I I A b -T"5 A 6 .A A 6 A c A o Male Ego Diagram 7 Cousin Terms Southern Group D A T 6 Or A • MM K K MM J J ~k - i rO G M j • H (A 0 OA 6 OA EGO Or A " I t MM LL O MM K AO a ~ 0 FemaLe Ego . Diagram 8 / - 4 9 -t e r m i n o l o g i e s f o r male and female ego are i l l u s t r a t e d i n Diagrams 7 and 8. As i s shown the t e r m i n o l o g y f o r the f i r s t a s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n i s the same as t h a t used by the n o r t h e r n g r o u p . The g r e a t e s t v a r i a t i o n i s found i n e g o ' s g e n e r a t i o n . Diagram 7, male ego, shows t h a t the s i s t e r term, n a i j a q i s not ex tended t o o p p o s i t e - s e x c o u s i n s . The term n a i j a q s a q i s ex tended t o a l l female c o u s i n s . Same-sex c r o s s - c o u s i n s a re termed i l u . Same-sex p a t r i l a t e r a l p a r a l l e - c o u s i n s a re i l u r i v a q . The v a r i a t i o n s a p p l i e d t o t h i s c o u s i n a re i l u a q u l u q and i l u . M a t r i l a t e r a l p a r a l l e l - c o u s i n s a re i l u r j u q u l u g w i t h the v a r i a t i o n s , i l u r i v a q , i l u a q u l u q and i l u sometimes r e p l a c i n g i l u r j u q u l u g . Diagram 8 shows the c o r r e s p o n d i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r a female ego . G e n e r a t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n s The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the components over a s e v e n -g e n e r a t i o n deep g e n e a l o g i c a l system i n d i c a t e s t h a t the d i s t i n c t i o n between a f f i n a l and c o g n a t i c k insmen h o l d s f o r e v e r y g e n e r a t i o n w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f the G+2 and G+3 g e n e r a t i o n s . From a r a t i o n a l p o i n t o f v iew t h i s i s not t o o s u r p r i s i n g . The n a t u r a l l y s h o r t l i f e expec tancy and the h i g h a c c i d e n t r a t e combine t o reduce the p o s s i b i -l i t y o f any i n d i v i d u a l h a v i n g a l i v i n g r e l a t i v e i n the G+3 g e n e r a t i o n . Not a s i n g l e p e r s o n i n the C lyde I n l e t a r e a had a l i v i n g member o f t h i s c a t e g o r y ; n e i t h e r was t h e r e anyone a namesake o f a deceased member o f t h a t g e n e r a t i o n . The term, amau, has the g e n e r a l g l o s s o f 'an a n c i e n t ' w i t h Age Range o f I n d i v i d u a l s w i t h L i v i n g Grandparents a t C lyde R i v e r 1965 20 18 16 14 M H 12 > 8 •H H 4 2 0 Age 0 — \ — \ \ A • A \ • 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 Diagram 9 Age D i s t r i b u t i o n o f P o p u l a t i o n a t C lyde R i v e r 1965 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Age 0 \ CO I-t (tf TJ > •H TJ C H 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 Diagram 10 a v e r y weak ly emphasized sense o f ' v e r y d i s t a n t r e l a t i v e . ' T h i s c o n n o t a t i o n i s much more weakly d e v e l o p e d t h a n t h a t found i n the E n g l i s h term ' a n c e s t o r . ' The term c o u l d be c o l l e c t e d o n l y be g o i n g o u t s i d e t h e . a v a i l a b l e a c t u a l gen-e a l o g i e s and e l i c i t i n g the term f o r pe rsons who, i f t h e y had been a l i v e , would occupy t h a t p a r t i c u l a r p o s i t i o n r e l a t i v e t o ego . A s i m i l a r p r o c e d u r e had t o be f o l l o w e d i n a t tempt ing t o de te rmine the p r e s e n c e or absence o f s p e c i f i e d b e h a v i o u r r e l e v a n t between amau and the complementary i l l u l i q c a t e g o r y . ' A g a i n , i t appears , the complete absence o f such d i s t a n t l y r e l a t e d pe rsons l e n t i t s e l f t o the f o r m u l a t i o n o f such vague s ta tements as "one would be r e s p e c t f u l t o amau because t h e y would be so o l d and u n d e r s t a n d a l o t o f t h i n g s , " " p i t s e r l e t o q , amaunun, sorka iman inamar iaa lukmata k i s o t u i n a m i q  t u q i s i j u n . " In the G+2 g e n e r a t i o n a d i s t i n c t i o n i s made as t o the sex o f a l t e r . T h i s i s the o n l y d i s t i n c t i o n between t h i s g e n e r a t i o n and the G+3 where sex d i s t i n c t i o n s a re t e r m i n o -l o g i c a l l y a b s e n t . The two terms used i n the G+2 g e n e r a t i o n are i t o q and n i n g i u q ; these have the g l o s s o f ' o l d man' and ' o l d woman' r e s p e c t i v e l y . Usage o f these terms i s r e m i n i -s c e n t o f the usage o f the amau term f o r the G+3 g e n e r a t i o n i n t h a t they a re a p p l i c a b l e t o any p e r s o n who i s a contemporary o f e g o ' s p a r e n t s ' p a r e n t s (PP) and assume meaning f o r k i n s h i p r e l a t i o n s o n l y when used w i t h a p o s s e s s i v e s u f f i x , e . g . i t o g a (my ' o l d m a n ' ) ; i t o i t (your ' o l d m a n ' ) ; and i t o n g a (h i s ' o l d m a n ' ) . In c o n v e r s a t i o n s not c e n t e r e d on k i n s h i p , f o r - 5 3 -example, questions concerning experience and s k i l l , the terms are used i n a d e s c r i p t i v e sense with undertones of v a l i d a t i o n for s k i l l s and knowledge as a consequence of experience and age. That i s to say, an older man (itok or itoaluk) w i l l be a t t r i b u t e d knowledge because he i s an o l d man. This general attitude i s expressible i n terms of 'older persons' without reference to eit h e r sex or a f f i n i t y by the use of the term inaq (pi. i n a i n ) . The remarks made on the previous page about the na t u r a l l y short l i f e expectancy and the high rate of accident applies also to t h i s generation. These conditions can be i l l u s t r a t e d i n a number of ways. Diagram 9 shows the re-l a t i v e numbers of persons at Clyde River of various age classes having l i v i n g r e l a t i v e s i n the G+2 generation i n 1965. The curves show that for those c h i l d r e n up to the age of 11 years, 63% have either i t o g or ninguiq r e l a t i v e s ; between 11 and 16 years the percentage drops sharply to 28%; no persons over the age of 16 had l i v i n g r e l a t i v e s i n t h i s category. It i s assumed that the percentages der-ived from the Clyde River population are representative for Eskimo groups as a whole. It i s also assumed that the r e l a t i v e percentages for the Clyde group are higher than would be s i m i l a r percentages computed for successively older generations i n the past. (This i s i n accord with the u n i v e r s a l l y increasing l i f e expectancy of populations i n general). - 5 4 -In v iew o f the c u r r e n t f i g u r e s , and b e a r i n g i n mind the assumpt ions made, i t can r e a d i l y be deduced t h a t i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n between r e l a t i v e s o f "the comple-mentary c a t e g o r i e s i t o q - n i n g i u q and e r n g o t a q a re and have been r e s t r i c t e d t o young p r e - a d u l t s . The o b s e r v e d behav-i o u r between these c a t e g o r i e s i s o f the u s u a l l y r e p o r t e d p e r m i s s i v e and g e n t l y j o k i n g k i n d a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a s u b t l e change t h r o u g h the l i f e o f the c h i l d . C h i l d r e n (SS; DS; SD; DD e t c . ) show an. i n c r e a s -i n g l y l e s s r e s p e c t f u l a t t i t u d e toward t h e i r i t o q - n i n g i u q as they approach and pass p u b e r t y . There i s l i t t l e o r no p o s s i b i l i t y f o r an a d u l t t o have i n t e r a c t i o n , as an a d u l t , w i t h e i t h e r i t o q o r n i n g i u q . Thus c h i l d r e n have no models f o r b e h a v i o u r o t h e r t h a n t h a t p r e s e n t e d by t h e i r p e e r s ; and f o r a d u l t s , the c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o u r f a l l s i n t o the l i m i t s o f the p a t t e r n they themse lves f o l l o w e d as p r e - a d u l t s . A t any p o i n t i n the i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e c y c l e the i t o q and n i n g i u q c a t e g o r i e s p l a y o n l y a minor p a r t i n h i s d a y - t o - d a y a c t i v i t -i e s . I t i s t r u e t h a t t h e r e a re a g r e a t many more namesakes d e r i v e d from the G+2 g e n e r a t i o n than from more d i s t a n t g e n e r a t i o n s and t h a t the memory o f these i n d i v i d u a l s i s k e p t a l i v e by t h i s mechanism. A second method o f i l l u s t r a t i n g the h i g h m o r t a l i t y r a t e o f a d u l t s i s t o be found i n the t a b l e showing the numbers o f p e r s o n s , male and female , who have or a re a t p r e s e n t m a r r i e d t o t h e i r f i r s t , second, or t h i r d spouse as a r e s u l t o f the death o f p r e v i o u s spouses . S i n c e these - 5 5 -TABLE I MARRIAGES, SINGLE AND MULTIPLE (MALES AND FEMALES) AT CLYDE RIVER IN 1965 M a r r i a g e Number o f Percentage Number o f Percentage Males o f Ma les Females o f Females 1 28 62 29 65 2 16 36 14 31 3 1 2 2 4 T o t a l s 45 100 45 100 - 5 6 -f i g u r e s a re i m p o r t a n t t o the d i s c u s s i o n o f the GO g e n e r a t i o n I w i l l l e a v e t h a t f o r the moment. The l a r g e r number o f components r e l e v a n t f o r the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o f the c a t e g o r i e s i n the G+l g e n e r a t i o n can be taken as an i n d i c a t i o n o f the r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t e r s i g n i f i -cance o f these c a t e g o r i e s f o r ego . L i n e a l i t y appears as the s i n g l e component s e t t i n g p a r e n t s o f f from t h e i r s i b l i n g s and c o l l a t e r a l s . The f o u r terms a p p l i e d t o p a r e n t s ' s i b l i n g s have the g e n e r a t i o n component i n common b u t a re d i s t i n g u i s h e d "from each o t h e r by the components o f sex o f a l t e r and sex o f the l i n e a l r e l a t i v e l i n k i n g a l t e r and ego . The male p a r e n t term, a t a t a and the female p a r e n t term, anana a re a p p l i e d i n * t h a t form u s u a l l y o n l y t o b i o l o g i c a l p a r e n t s . The m o d i f i e d forms a t a t a s a q and ananasaq are used between s t e p - p a r e n t and s t e p - c h i l d and between a d o p t i v e p a r e n t and adopted c h i l d . There i s no c l e a r p a t t e r n d e f i n i n g the usage o f the m o d i f i e d fo rms ; some adopted and some s t e p - c h i l d r e n u s i n g the u n m o d i f i e d te rms . An i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i s the age o f the c h i l d a t e i t h e r a d o p t i o n or when a c q u i r e d by r e -m a r r i a g e . In the case o f c h i l d r e n a c q u i r e d by e i t h e r means a t a v e r y e a r l y age the u n m o d i f i e d forms are f a i r l y c o n s i s -t e n t l y u s e d . The o p p o s i t e i s t r u e f o r c h i l d r e n a c g u i r e d a t a r a t h e r l a t e age, e . g . i n the e a r l y a d u l t y e a r s . In the case o f s t e p - r e l a t i o n s c h i l d r e n m a r r i e d p r e v i o u s t o the p a r e n t s r e m a r r i a g e tend t o c o n t i n u e t o use the p e r s o n a l name o f the s t e p - p a r e n t r a t h e r t h a n the m o d i f i e d p a r e n t t e rm. A second a p p a r e n t l y impor tan t f a c t o r r e l a t e s t o the p r e s e n c e or - 5 7 -absence o f some o t h e r k i n terms f o r the a d o p t i v e o r s t e p -p a r e n t . Where such a term e x i s t e d between the c h i l d and the a d u l t i t seems t h a t the m o d i f i e d p a r e n t term i s c o n -s i s t e n t l y u s e d . T h i s may be due t o the b i o l o g i c a l s p e c i f i -c i t y o f the p a r e n t terms and the s o c i o l o g i c a l g e n e r a l i t y o f the m o d i f i e d p a r e n t t e r m s . That i s , a p e r s o n who a c t s as a p a r e n t i s e x p e c t e d t o a c t can r e a d i l y be r e f e r r e d t o a s , f o r example, a t a t a s a q , which has the g l o s s o f ' m a t e r i a l f o r a f a t h e r ' i n c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n t o a t a t a ' b i o l o g i c a l f a t h e r . " C o l l a t e r a l i t y The degree o f c o l l a t e r a l i t y (or l i n e a l i t y ) appears „ as a component i n the GO, G+l and G+2 g e n e r a t i o n s . As a consequence o f t h i s d e l i m i t a t i o n p a r e n t s p l u s o f f s p r i n g form an a n a l y t i c a l l y d i s t i n c t u n i t . T e r m i n o l o g i c a l l y , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o use a number o f terms f o r a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the member c a t e g o r i e s o f the g r o u p . The term, q i t u r n g u a r i t , a l t h o u g h used i n the sense o f ' a group o f s i b l i n g s ' i s com-monly used w i t h the g l o s s o f ' f a m i l y ' , t h a t i s , as an i n -c l u s i v e c a t e g o r y c o n t a i n i n g p a r e n t s p l u s o f f s p r i n g . The d i f f e r e n c e s i n usage a p p a r e n t l y r e l a t e t o the r e l a t i v e age o f i n f o r m a n t s and the degree o f i nvo lvement w i t h the c h u r c h . Younger i n f o r m a n t s would a s s u r e me t h a t the meaning o f the term was ' f a m i l y ' and show me where i t was used t h i s way i n the b i b l e s p r i n t e d i n Eskimo language . O lder i n f o r m a n t s on the o t h e r hand were g e n e r a l l y u n c e r t a i n as t o whether the term meant f a m i l y or s i b l i n g s , or e i t h e r . The term, - 5 8 -q i t u r n g u a q a r i t , has the g l o s s o f ' p a r e n t s ' o r , perhaps more a c c u r a t e l y , ' p e r s o n s h a v i n g or s h a r i n g c h i l d r e n . ' S t i l l ano ther aggregate term i s used by s i b l i n g s i n r e f e r e n c e t o same-sex s i b l i n g s , t h i s i s the term n u k a r i t . In r e f e r e n c e t o p a r e n t s the term a t a t k u t i s used when some r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p a r e n t s and o f f s p r i n g i s e v i d e n t , e . g . a f f e c t i o n between them. Aggregate terms i n g e n e r a l pose prob lems f o r com-p o n e n t i a l d e s i g n a t i o n s i n c e they a re seldom used v o c a t i v e l y and when used r e f e r e n t i a l l y a re a p p l i e d i n a g e n e r a l way e . g . q i t u r g u a q a r i t a p p l i e s t o a l l pe rsons who share the s t a t u s o f ' h a v i n g or s h a r i n g c h i l d r e n ' Q i t u r n g u a q , on the o t h e r hand i s commonly used r e f e r e n t i a l l y b u t seldom v o c a -t i v e l y , e . g . q i t u r n g u a r a w i t h the meaning 'my o f f s p r i n g . ' The f o u r c o l l a t e r a l te rms , akaq, angaq, a t s a q , and a i j a q , have the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c a t e g o r i e s o f r e l a t i v e s as d i s t i n c t from the p a r e n t terms which were i n d i v i d u a l -s p e c i f i c . The compon ent i a l f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e s e terms can be v iewed as s e p a r a t i n g them f i r s t i n t o two groups on the b a s e s o f the sex o f the l i n e a l r e l a t i v e l i n k i n g them t o ego and second i n t o male or female a l t e r s . I f the l i n k i s a male l i n e a l o f ego (F, FF, MF) then males a re akaq and fema les a t s a q ; i f the l i n k i n g l i n e a l r e l a t i v e i s female (M, MM, FM) then the males a re angaq and the females a i j a q . There i s no i n h e r e n t c o n n o t a t i o n o f p r e f e r e n c e f o r any one o f these c a t e g o r i e s b u t as w i l l be "shown, r e s i d e n c e and m a r r i a g e p a t t e r n s a re such t h a t f a c e - t o - f a c e i n t e r a c t i o n i s more common w i t h f a t h e r ' s b r o t h e r s and i s more l i k e l y t o o c c u r w i t h m o t h e r ' s s i s t e r s t h a n w i t h r e l a t i v e s o f the o t h e r two c a t e g o r i e s . A d o p t i v e s and q u a s i - k i n A d o p t i o n i s a f a i r l y common and i m p o r t a n t method o f r e c r u i t m e n t i n t o the f a m i l y and h o u s e h o l d . A l t h o u g h the l i t e r a t u r e c o n t a i n s numerous r e f e r e n c e s t o cases o f a d o p t i o n among v a r i o u s Eskimo groups , few w r i t e r s have a t tempted t o r e l a t e the p r a c t i c e o f a d o p t i o n t o o t h e r a s p e c t s o f Eskimo l i f e . In the main , the e a r l i e r l i t e r a t u r e e x p l a i n s cases o f a d o p t i o n a t an i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l and i n p e r s o n a l te rms , e . g . a d e s i r e f o r o f f s p r i n g i n cases where the i n f e r t i l i t y o f one, or b o t h spouses i s g i v e n as a ' r e a s o n ' or f a c t o r . The more r e c e n t p u b l i c a t i o n s o f note i n c l u d e S p e n c e r ' s e c o l o g i c a l s tudy o f the Nor th A l a s k a n Eskimo groups (1959) and D u n n i n g ' s a n a l y s i s o f a d o p t i o n among the Southhampton I s l a n d Eskimo (1962). P r i o r t o D u n n i n g ' s i n v e s t i g a t i o n t h e r e , T e i c h e r (1953) p u b l i s h e d an a r t i c l e d e s c r i b i n g the form and p r o c e d u r e s s u r r o u n d i n g a d o p t i o n on Southhampton I s l a n d . Spencer sugges ts t h a t among the Nor th A l a s k a n groups a d o p t i o n s e r v e d as a means o f e x t e n d i n g the k i n s h i p c i r c l e and hence the bonds o f s o c i a l and economic c o o p e r a -t i o n (1959:87) . Dunning has c a r r i e d t h i s argument some-what f u r t h e r and argues t h a t : - 6 0 -Where the cases i n v o l v e k i n s h i p c l a i m s , e s p e c i -a l l y g r a n d p a r e n t a l c l a i m s , i t would appear t h a t r a t h e r than e x t e n d i n g a l r e a d y c l o s e l y e s t a b l i s h e d f a m i l y bonds, t h i s type o f a d o p t i o n i n t e n s i f i e s the s o c i a l i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f k i n by a d i s t r i -b u t i o n o f s u r p l u s or o t h e r new-born i s s u e w i t h i n t h i s ' c i r c l e ' . T h i s might be seen as f i l l i n g the gap w i t h i n the c i r c l e which i s g r a d u a l l y b e i n g opened by the d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f a n u c l e a r f a m i l y group , i . e . , t h a t of the g r a n d p a r e n t ( s ) ( i b i d , p. 165) . I suggest t h a t t h i s argument can a p p l y o n l y t o g r a n d p a r e n t a l k i n s h i p c l a i m s and a d o p t i o n s which occur under e x c e p t i o n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . I f we a c c e p t t h a t the p e r s o n n e l "of the Eskimo domest i c group u s u a l l y c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e g e n e r a t i o n s , i t can be seen t h a t o n l y g r a n d p a r e n t a l a d o p t i o n can t r a n s f e r the a d o p t i v e from the second d e s c e n d i n g g e n e r a -t i o n t o the f i r s t d e s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n , t h a t i s , t o the p o s i t i o n o f c o l l a t e r a l k insman o f b i o l o g i c a l p a r e n t s . I f we are concerned w i t h n u c l e a r f a m i l y f o r m a t i o n and r e p l a c e -ment, t h e n we must c o n s i d e r the f o l l o w i n g a s p e c t o f such a d o p t i o n s . The gap l e f t i n the n u c l e a r f a m i l y complement i s thought o f as b e i n g r e p l a c e d by e x i s t i n g or p o t e n t i a l n u c l e a r f a m i l i e s o f the next d e s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n . The p o t e n t i a l n u c l e a r f a m i l y o f an a d o p t i v e can be thought o f as f u l f i l l i n g a rep lacement r o l e o n l y i n those s i t u a t i o n s where the domest i c group o f the g r a n d p a r e n t s has l o s t , f o r one r e a s o n or a n o t h e r , the s o c i a l l y and f u n c t i o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t f i r s t d e s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n . Both Dunning ( i b i d . ) and W i l l m o t t (1961) s u b s c r i b e t o what Dunning terms the demographic h y p o t h e s i s ; he s t a t e s t h i s as f o l l o w s : . . . human f e r t i l i t y and m o r t a l i t y a re accom-modated t o the p r o d u c i n g a b i l i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l y h e a d s . In e s s e n c e , t h i s r e p r e s e n t s a p a r t i a l r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f dependents i n a c c o r d w i t h f o o d - p r o d u c i n g (p. 163) . Dunning notes t h a t a l t h o u g h h i s d a t a s u p p o r t the h y p o t h e s i s , t h e r e are cases o f a d o p t i o n wh ich cannot be e x p l a i n e d i n these te rms . For some o f those a d o p t i o n s a t Southhampton I s l a n d which cannot be f i t t e d i n t o e i t h e r S p e n c e r ' s k i n - e x t e n s i o n h y p o t h e s i s or i n t o the demographic h y p o t h e s i s , Dunning p o s t u l a t e s t h a t a s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a l ^exists and t h a t i t i s ' e x p r e s s e d i n p a r t by the number o f dependents which a man can b o t h c l a i m and p r o v i d e f o r ' (p. 165) . In summary, the l i t e r a t u r e p r o v i d e s us w i t h t h r e e t e s t a b l e h y p o t h e s e s wh ich r e l a t e a d o p t i o n t o o t h e r a s p e c t s o f the s o c i a l system o f Eskimo g r o u p s . These hypo theses a r e : 1. the k i n - e x t e n s i o n h y p o t h e s i s 2. the demographic h y p o t h e s i s 3. the s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a l h y p o t h e s i s I t w i l l be seen (Table IV) t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , my C lyde I n l e t a d o p t i o n d a t a f i t the demographic h y p o t h e s i s ; t h a t i s , the m a j o r i t y o f the a d o p t i o n s t h e r e c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as a consequence o f the l o c a l p roduc t ion/consump-t i o n p a t t e r n . T a b l e IV below shows the r e l a t i v e ages and d i s t r i -b u t i o n s o f sexes o f the c h i l d r e n i n b o t h f a m i l i e s a t the t ime o f t r a n s f e r . The t a b l e i s f o l l o w e d by a few b r i e f comments on each c a s e . - 6 2 -TABLE IV RELATIVE POSITION OF ADOPTIVE* Sex o f Age' o f Case No. A d o p t i v e Out f a m i l y In f a m i l y A d o p t i v e 1 M M f f f m M - 1 2 M M M m f - 1 3 M f M M m m f m 6 4 F f m F m m F 18 5 M M m . M - 1 6 F F F m m - 1 7 M M m f M m - 1 8 M M m m f M m - 1 9 M M m m f m M m m f - 1 ;*m - m a l e ; M - a d o p t i v e f - f e m a l e ; F - a d o p t i v e age i n y e a r s Case 1. The a d o p t i n g f a m i l y had s e v e r a l (2?) u n s u c c e s s f u l p r e g n a n c i e s . N e i t h e r f a m i l y has had f u r t h e r c h i l d r e n s i n c e the a d o p t i o n . Case 2. T h i s c h i l d was r e l e a s e d a t the t ime o f h i s m o t h e r ' s d e a t h . The f a t h e r was r e m a r r i e d and has f i v e c h i l d r e n . The a d o p t i n g f a m i l y has had no more c h i l d r e n . Case 3. C h i l d t a k e n by the m a t e r n a l grandmother when h e r daughter h o s p i t a l i z e d . Case 4 . I h e s i t a t e t o c a l l t h i s an a d o p t i o n . The g i r l had no r e c o g n i z e d , i . e . t e r m i n o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the r e l e a s i n g f a m i l y . She was the s t e p -daughter o f a woman who had r e m a r r i e d a f t e r the dea th o f her husband, the g i r l ' s f a t h e r . The a d o p t i n g f a m i l y i s t h a t o f h e r u n c l e ( F a B r ) . Case 5. T h i s boy was t a k e n by h i s m a t e r n a l grandmother s h o r t l y a f t e r b i r t h . The r e l e a s i n g f a m i l y has had two c h i l d r e n s i n c e t h e n . Case 6. T h i s c h i l d was r e l e a s e d s h o r t l y a f t e r b i r t h and when the mother was h o s p i t a l i z e d . The a d o p t i n g f a m i l y has had no c h i l d r e n s i n c e . Case 7. The e l d e s t son i n the a d o p t i n g f a m i l y i s s e r i o u s l y hampered by an a p p a r e n t l y c o n g e n i t a l d e f o r m i t y o f the s p i n e . - 6 3 -Case 8. The a d o p t i n g f a m i l y h e r e i s the same as i n Case 7. The i n i t i a l a d o p t i v e d i e d a few y e a r s a f t e r b e i n g t r a n s f e r r e d and the second a d o p t i o n was a r r a n g e d s h o r t l y a f t e r the death o f the boy i n Case 7. Case 9. T h i s boy was r e l e a s e d s h o r t l y a f t e r the dea th o f h i s f a t h e r . The a d o p t i n g f a m i l y , h i s FaBr , i s p r o v i d i n g f o r the widow. O b v i o u s l y the low number o f cases i n h i b i t s a t tempts a t m e a n i n g f u l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n f o r a d o p t i o n p a t t e r n s among the C lyde I n l e t g roup ; n e v e r t h e l e s s , i t seems p r o f i t a b l e t o examine the apparent t r e n d s w i t h i n the frameworks o f the e x i s t i n g h y p o t h e s e s . Even w i t h the q u a l i f i c a t i o n t h a t case number 4 i s i n some ways anomalous, s e v e r a l t r e n d s a re a p p a r e n t . I t appears t h a t t h e r e i s a tendency toward a d o p t i n g m a l e s . A l s o , i t seems t h a t where u n f o r e s e e a b l e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , e . g . d e a t h o f a p a r e n t , a re not a f a c t o r then a c h i l d i s moved from a l a r g e r t o a s m a l l e r ( i n numbers) f a m i l y . Perhaps the most i m p o r t a n t t r e n d i s t h a t r e l a t i n g t o the r e l a t i v e p o s i -t i o n o f the a d o p t i v e i n b o t h f a m i l i e s . There are f i v e cases where the r e l e a s e d c h i l d was the most r e c e n t l y b o r n and t h r e e cases where the c h i l d was a f i r s t b o r n . For the a d o p t i n g f a m i l i e s , t h e r e a re seven cases where the c h i l d r e p r e s e n t s the t e r m i n a l member o f the f a m i l y and t h r e e cases i n which the a d o p t i v e i s the i n i t i a l c h i l d o f the f a m i l y . Only one o f the a d o p t i n g f a m i l i e s has had another c h i l d a f t e r t a k i n g an a d o p t i v e . With the e x c e p t i o n s o f cases 3 and 4, a l l t r a n s f e r s o f a d o p t i v e s took p l a c e a t , o r s h o r t l y a f t e r , b i r t h . A f i n a l t r e n d apparent i n Tab le IV shows t h a t a l l a d o p t i o n s , w i t h one e x c e p t i o n , were a r r a n g e d and c a r r i e d - 6 4 -out between r e l a t e d f a m i l i e s . C o n c e r n i n g the a p p a r e n t t r e n d toward the a d o p t i o n o f male c h i l d r e n , my f i e l d no tes i n d i c a t e t h a t a h i g h v e r b a l v a l u e i s p l a c e d on male i s s u e . In g e n e r a l , t h e s e no tes show t h a t s u b j e c t i v e s ta tements r e l a t e t o the u l t i m a t e economic dependency o f aged p a r e n t s on the male c h i l d r e n o f the f a m i l y . D u n n i n g ' s d a t a f o r Southhampton I s l a n d are i n a c c o r d w i t h r e s p e c t t o the h i g h v a l u e f o r male i s s u e . For the Southhampton I s l a n d group , Dunning sees a c o r r e l a t i o n between the r e v e r s a l o f the r a t i o s o f sex o f c h i l d r e n adopted i n ' o l d f a m i l i e s ' i n the g e n e a l o g i e s and i n ' c u r r e n t f a m i l i e s ' (p. 165) . Whereas the a d o p t i o n s i n the ' o l d f a m i l i e s ' were p r e p o n d e r a n t l y male , the a d o p t i o n s i n the ' c u r r e n t f a m i l i e s ' a re more, t h a n seventy p e r c e n t f ema le . T h i s r e v e r s a l i s a t t r i b u t e d t o r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t changes i n the l o c a l economic system which p e r m i t c u r r e n t f a m i l i e s t o r e t a i n male i s s u e . Fo r these two g roups , the Southhampton I s l a n d and the C lyde I n l e t , we have the f o l l o w i n g s i t u a t i o n : Southhampton I s l a n d , e a r l i e r a d o p t i o n p a t t e r n - male a d o p t i o n s ; r e c e n t a d o p t i o n p a t t e r n - female a d o p t i o n s ; C lyde I n l e t , r e c e n t a d o p t i o n t r e n d - male a d o p t i o n s . The economic developments which have a f f e c t e d the Southhampton I s l a n d group have a l s o been o p e r a t i n g on the C lyde I n l e t g r o u p . These developments r e l a t e p a r t l y t o the change from a h u n t i n g t o a t r a p p i n g - h u n t i n g economy and p a r t l y t o an i n c r e a s e i n income i n the form of F a m i l y A l l o w a n c e s , R e l i e f I s s u e s , and Pens ions o f v a r i o u s k i n d s . These developments made i t not o n l y p o s s i b l e but even more - 6 5 -d e s i r a b l e t o a c q u i r e and r e t a i n a l l c h i l d r e n . Even i f we a c c e p t t h a t t h e r e has been a c o n s i s t -e n t l y h i g h e r v a l u e p l a c e d on male i s s u e f o r b o t h the South -hampton I s l a n d and C lyde I n l e t groups and t h a t the d e v e l o p -ments ment ioned p e r m i t f a m i l i e s t o r e t a i n male i s s u e , I f e e l t h a t the "why" o f a d o p t i o n has not been f u l l y answered. I f the v a l u e on male c h i l d r e n i n Southhampton I s l a n d and C lyde I n l e t i s a normat ive v a l u e f o r the g roups , t h e n the a c q u i s i t i o n o f boys i s congruent w i t h the v a l u e ; b u t , assum-i n g t h a t the r e l e a s i n g f a m i l i e s s u b s c r i b e t o the same normat ive v a l u e , why, and under what c i r c u m s t a n c e s , a re male c h i l d r e n r e l e a s e d ? To c a r r y t h i s a s t e p f u r t h e r , i f the v a l u e p l a c e d on female i s s u e has r i s e n , a l t h o u g h not t o the l e v e l o f t h a t p l a c e d on male i s s u e , as a r e s u l t o f the same economic deve lopments , and i f the s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a l h y p o t h e s i s o p e r a t e s on the b a s i s o f dependents o f e i t h e r s e x ; t h e n why are female c h i l d r e n r e l e a s e d ? The i n c r e a s i n g cash v a l u e f o r c l e a n s e a l s k i n s , a s p e c i f i c a l l y female o c c u p a t i o n , s h o u l d , I would t h i n k , i n c r e a s e the v a l u e o f h a v i n g a maximum number o f females i n a camp. Fur thermore , the i n c i d e n c e o f a d o p t i o n has d e c r e a s e d f o r Southhampton I s l a n d (Dunning, R. W., p. 165^ and has i n c r e a s e d f o r C lyde I n l e t (only two a d o p t i o n s found i n the g e n e a l o g i e s ) . Recent developments have made i t p o s s i b l e t o r e t a i n c h i l d r e n o f e i t h e r sex b u t a d o p t i o n i s s t i l l an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r f o r b o t h groups ment ioned . In g e n e r a l , Tab le IV i n d i c a t e s . t h a t t h e r e i s some tendency toward moving c h i l d r e n from a l a r g e r t o a s m a l l e r - 6 6 -f a m i l y . T h i s can be seen t o f i t the demographic h y p o t h e s i s . I f t h e r e a re o c c a s i o n s when c h i l d r e n i n t h i s r i g o r o u s env i ronment a re c o n s i d e r e d as l i a b i l i t i e s we must ask when and what a re the immediate c i r c u m s t a n c e s s u r r o u n d i n g the p a s s i v e or a c t i v e acceptance o f a d d i t i o n a l c h i l d r e n . These q u e s t i o n s may be p a r t i a l l y answered by c o n s i d e r i n g the t r e n d t o adopt c h i l d r e n as e i t h e r a f i r s t c h i l d ( three c a s e s ) o r as a l a s t c h i l d (seven c a s e s ) . Where the a d o p t i v e i s a f i r s t c h i l d , as i n case number 1, t h e r e may have been i n d i c a -t i o n s o f s t e r i l i t y o f one or b o t h s p o u s e s . T h i s was the p o s s i b i l i t y under c o n s i d e r a t i o n by the a d o p t i n g c o u p l e i n case number 1. An u l t i m a t e consequence o f s t e r i l i t y i s a c h i l d l e s s o l d - a g e and such a c o n d i t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d by the p e o p l e w i t h a g r e a t d e a l o f a n x i e t y . In formants i n d i c a t e d t h a t an a c c e p t a b l e (usua l?) p rocedure i n these i n s t a n c e s was f o r the husband t o e n l i s t the a i d o f a male, n o n - k i n s -man f o r purposes o f i m p r e g n a t i n g the w i f e . A c h i l d so c o n c e i v e d was c o n s i d e r e d t o be the c h i l d o f the mother and the a p p a r e n t l y s t e r i l e husband, and no a d o p t i o n or q u a s i - k i n terms were used i n r e f e r e n c e t o the c h i l d . The b i o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c h i l d and i t s f a t h e r were c o m p l e t e l y i g n o r e d i n economic , j u r a l , and s o c i a l a r e a s . F a i l i n g t h i s , the c h i l d l e s s coup le at tempt t o adopt a c h i l d . S u c c e s s f u l a d o p t i o n , t o a n t i c i p a t e a p o i n t , a p p a r e n t l y depends upon the f a v o u r a b l e c o i n c i d e n c e o f o p p o s i t e d e s i r e s ; on the one hand, a d e s i r e f o r a c h i l d and on the o t h e r hand, a w i l l i n g n e s s , i f no t a d e s i r e , t o r e l e a s e a c h i l d . The w i l l i n g n e s s t o r e l e a s e a c h i l d i s med ia ted by a p l e t h o r a o f s i t u a t i o n a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s i n c l u d i n g the c o n v i c t i o n o f the r e l e a s -i n g f a m i l y t h a t the c h i l d i s r e a d i l y r e p l a c e a b l e (proven f e r t i l i t y ) , c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the immediate and l o n g - t e r m economic and s o c i a l g a i n s i n v o l v e d ( g i f t s r e c e i v e d , r e c i -p r o c a l o b l i g a t i o n s i n c u r r e d , e t c . ) , and r e c o g n i t i o n o f duty t o , and r i g h t s , o f c l o s e k insmen. For those a d o p t i o n s which r e s u l t i n the a c q u i -s i t i o n o f a f i n a l c h i l d , I suggest t h a t t h e r e i s a c o n s c i o u s " r e c o g n i t i o n o f the t e r m i n a t i o n o f the w i f e ' s c h i l d - b e a r i n g p e r i o d . W i t h i n the l i m i t s s e t by the env i ronment , t h i s t e r m i n a l s tage does not c o i n c i d e w i t h the t e r m i n a t i o n o f economic and s o c i a l a c t i v i t y . I f we c o n s i d e r the v a l u e f o r male i s s u e as b e i n g r e l a t e d t o t h e i r p o t e n t i a l f o r s u p p o r t i n o l d - a g e as w e l l as the demonst ra ted f e r t i l i t y o f the younger r e l a t e d n u c l e a r f a m i l i e s , i t does not seem s u r p r i s -i n g t h a t a d o p t i o n s o f t h i s na tu re o c c u r . The a d o p t i o n o f c h i l d r e n a t a v e r y e a r l y age, w i t h -i n a s h o r t t ime a f t e r b i r t h , appears t o be r e l a t e d m a i n l y t o e m o t i o n a l f a c t o r s . A common s tatement was made t o the e f f e c t t h a t c h i l d r e n are non-human between the t ime o f b i r t h and the development o f p h y s i c a l m o b i l i t y and rud imen-t a r y s p e e c h . In v iew o f t h i s a t t i t u d e toward i n f a n t s , i t becomes much l e s s e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b i n g t o p a r t w i t h a c h i l d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . T h i s a t t i t u d e may a l s o e x p l a i n p a r t l y the i n f a n t i c i d e p a t t e r n s o f .the e a r l i e r and t r a d i -t i o n a l c u l t u r e . I n f a n t s , i t i s r e c o r d e d , were d i s p o s e d o f - 6 8 -a t b i r t h . The f i r m n e s s w i t h which t h i s b e l i e f i s h e l d i s i n d i c a t e d by the degree t o which the o b v i o u s l y h i g h m o r t a l -i t y r a t e o f adopted i n f a n t s i s i g n o r e d . Wi th one e x c e p t i o n (case number 2 ) , a l l a d o p t i o n s a t C lyde I n l e t were made between k i n - r e l a t e d f a m i l i e s . Be-f o r e c o l l e c t i n g d a t a on a d o p t i o n s , I e l i c i t e d the g e n e a l -o g i e s o f e v e r y a d u l t (marr ied) male and female i n the a r e a . These g e n e a l o g i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t the network o f k i n and e x t r a -k i n ( i l i g i t ) r e l a t i o n s h i p s extends t o t h i r t y - n i n e o f the ' f o r t y - f o u r f a m i l i e s on the C lyde I n l e t d i s c l i s t . The r e m a i n i n g f i v e f a m i l i e s a re r e c e n t immigran ts . In v iew o f the e x t e n t o f the k i n network among these p e o p l e , i t becomes c l e a r t h a t an e x p l a n a t i o n o f a d o p t i o n i n terms o f the k i n -e x t e n s i o n h y p o t h e s i s i s r a t h e r weak. S i m i l a r l y , u n l e s s i t can be shown t h a t t h e r e are f u n c t i o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t and d i s c e r n a b l e c a t e g o r i e s o f k i n w i t h i n the o v e r - a l l network, the use o f k i n - c l a i m s as a r e a s o n f o r a d o p t i o n becomes too vague . T a b l e s V, V I , and V I I , show the k i n - r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f the a d o p t i v e s t o a d o p t i n g f a m i l i e s ; the r e a s o n s g i v e n f o r r e l e a s i n g a c h i l d ; and the r e a s o n s g i v e n f o r a d o p t i n g a c h i l d . In those cases where a male p a r e n t or b o t h p a r e n t s a r e deceased or h o s p i t a l i z e d , the d e c i s i o n t o r e l e a s e c h i l d r e n i s made on a p u r e l y p r a c t i c a l b a s i s , i . e . i n c a p a c i t y t o look a f t e r the c h i l d r e n . -69-In Table VII, I have f i v e cases for which the rea-son given for accepting the c h i l d was phrased one way or another as a 'kin o b l i g a t i o n . ' This o b l i g a t i o n i s r e l a t e d to the parents of the c h i l d rather than to the c h i l d i t s e l f . In short, orphans are taken into a family who are sometimes rel u c t a n t but f e e l obligated. It can be seen that the kin-extension hypothesis does not, rather cannot, be used to explain adoption trends at Clyde Inlet. The demographic and status d i f f e r e n t i a l hypotheses throw l i g h t on some, but not a l l , adoptions i n t h i s area. Neither hypotheses i s f u l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y and i n a number of instances the status d i f f e r e n t i a l explanation appears as one of the mediating factors i n f l u e n c i n g the demographic r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of personnel. These two hypo-theses might be thought of i n combination as follows: TABLE V KIN RELATIONSHIPS Parental generation 6 to moBr 1 to mosi 2 to FaBr 3 Grandparental generation 2 to momo 2 No r e l a t i o n s h i p 1 9 - 7 0 -TABLE VI REASONS FOR RELEASE Paren t d i e d 2 Parent h o s p i t a l 2 No c l a i m 1 Grandparent c l a i m 1 Wanted t o h e l p 3 9 TABLE V I I REASONS FOR ADOPTING K i n o b l i g a t i o n 5 Wanted son 2 Wanted c h i l d 1 Had no c h i l d r e n 1 Human f e r t i l i t y and m o r t a l i t y a re accommodated t o the p r o d u c i n g a b i l i t y o f f a m i l y heads and a r e med ia ted by h i s immediate economic c i r c u m -s t a n c e and the i n t e n s i t y o f h i s d r i v e f o r s t a t u s w i t h i n the g roup . A r e s u l t a n t o f these f a c t o r s i s r e f l e c t e d i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c h i l d r e n and i n v a r i a t i o n s i n t o t a l f a m i l y s i z e , r a t i o o f a d o p t i v e s t o 'own' c h i l d r e n and the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f sexes among the c h i l d r e n . Even when f o r m u l a t e d t h i s way the h y p o t h e s i s does n o t account f o r a d o p t i o n s t h a t appear t o have a b a s i s o t h e r t h a n t h o s e found i n the h y p o t h e s i s , e . g . e m o t i o n a l e x p l a n a -t i o n s b e i n g o f f e r e d . B e s i d e s the problem o f f o r m u l a t i n g t e s t a b l e h y p o t h e s e s o f t h i s n a t u r e , t h e r e remains the prob lem o f what i s meant by ' a d o p t i o n . ' In our own- s o c i e t y , the term i s enmeshed i n a complex s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l framework d e r i v i n g -71-f rom our concepts o f the c h i l d - p a r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p . U n l i k e the C lyde I n l e t Esk imo, economic n e c e s s i t y and u l t i m a t e dependency o f the p a r e n t s upon the c h i l d i s not a f a c t o r (at l e a s t not f o r many). When o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n the l i m i t s o f a m a r g i n a l s u b s i s t e n c e h u n t i n g - t r a p p i n g economy i n which c h i l d r e n , e s p e c i a l l y male c h i l d r e n , a re r e g a r d e d as a form o f i n s u r a n c e i t i s i m p e r a t i v e t h a t the concept o f a d o p t i o n be r e l a t e d t o , and a d j u s t e d f o r , t h e s e f a c t o r s o f s u b s i s t e n c e . T h i s can o n l y be a c c o m p l i s h e d by c o n d u c t i n g more i n t e n s i v e A f i e l d s t u d i e s such as r e p r e s e n t e d by t h i s p a p e r . Such s t u d i e s s h o u l d be aimed toward d e v e l o p i n g a b r o a d e r v iew o f the o p e r a t i n g system. Such a b r o a d e t h n o g r a p h i c p i c t u r e w i l l p r o v i d e the framework w i t h i n wh ich the a t t i t u d e s toward c h i l d r e n and the i n t e r - f a m i l y m o b i l i t y o f c h i l d r e n w i l l assume more c o n c r e t e and a n a l y z a b l e meaning. The a r r i v a l o f the i n f a n t , whether n a t u r a l or adopted a t b i r t h (the u s u a l and i d e a l c a s e ) , i s s a i d t o be a r e a s o n f o r ' h a p p i n e s s . ' C i r c u m s t a n c e s , as has been p o i n t e d ou t , mod i fy t h i s . I f a l r e a d y committed f o r a d o p t i o n and t a k e n away immed ia te ly , no r e f e r e n c e i s made t o the e v e n t ; s i m i l a r l y , i f i t i s a s t i l l b i r t h . I f the c h i l d i s not wanted, t h a t i s , i f the p a r e n t s c o n s i d e r t h a t they cannot keep the c h i l d , t h e n an a p p e a l i s made t o r e l a t i v e s t o ' h e l p ' by a c c e p t i n g the c h i l d as one o f t h e i r own. - 7 2 -The F a m i l y Two major d i f f i c u l t i e s i n d e f i n i n g ' t h e f a m i l y ' o r i n a p p l y i n g the u s u a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f the f a m i l y t o the C lyde Eskimo s i t u a t i o n s h o u l d be c l a r i f i e d h e r e . For ex-ample, Levy r e c o g n i z e s t h r e e k i n s h i p s t r u c t u r e s , as he s a y s : The t h r e e k i n s h i p s t r u c t u r e s a r e : (1) d e s c e n t u n i t s (those o r i e n t e d a t l e a s t i n p a r t t o b i o -l o g i c a l r e l a t e d n e s s b u t not t o s e x u a l i n t e r -c o u r s e ) ; (2) n o n - f a m i l y u n i t s o r i e n t e d a t l e a s t i n p a r t t o s e x u a l i n t e r c o u r s e (perhaps a v e r y s p e c i a l k i n d o f k i n s h i p u n i t , not n e c e s s a r i l y r a r e but o r d i n a r i l y p r o b a b l y o f v e r y s h o r t d u r a t i o n ) ; and (3) f a m i l y u n i t s (1965 :4) . H i s d e s c e n t u n i t s u b - c a t e g o r y above d e s c r i b e s the i l a g i t s t r u c t u r e . He d e f i n e s the f a m i l y as (h i s e m p h a s i s ) : . . . any membership u n i t o f the k i n s h i p s t r u c t u r e f o r which i n a d d i t i o n t o o t h e r o r i e n t a t i o n s , some-t i m e s e q u a l l y i f not more i m p o r t a n t f o r the members, the membership o f the u n i t s and the na tu re o f the s o l i d a r i t y among the members i s de te rmined by o r i e n -t a t i o n t o the f a c t s o f b i o l o g i c a l r e l a t e d n e s s and s e x u a l i n t e r c o u r s e ( i b i d . , p. 2 - 3 ) . The prob lem h e r e i s r e l a t e d t o the i n c l u s i o n o f s e x u a l i n t e r c o u r s e as a p r i m a r y f a c t o r f o r the d i s t i n c t i o n o f the f a m i l y . As I a t tempt t o make c l e a r (p. 1 0 8 f f ) , s e x u a l i n t e r c o u r s e i s as impor tan t f o r the i l i g i t ( e x t r a -k i n s h i p ) as i t i s f o r k i n s h i p u n i t s b u t the i l i g i t i s i n no way r e m i n i s c e n t o f any k i n d o f s t a n d a r d k i n s h i p g r o u p i n g . I suggest t h a t a d e f i n i t i o n o f the f a m i l y s h o u l d p l a c e g r e a t e r emphasis upon the p r o d u c t i o n o f ' l e g i t i m a t e ' i . e . n a t u r a l and adopted o f f s p r i n g t h a n upon s e x u a l i n t e r c o u r s e . The p r o d u c t i o n o f l e g i t i m a t e o f f s p r i n g c e r t a i n l y r e q u i r e s h e t e r o s e x u a l i n t e r c o u r s e (par thenogenes i s b e i n g unknown among mammals) and t o i n c l u d e t h i s phenomenon as a p r i m a r y r e q u i r e m e n t appears redundant and not v e r y u s e f u l . A more u s e f u l g e n e r a l d e f i n i t i o n o f ' f a m i l y ' i s t o be found i n Bohannan; t h i s d e f i n i t i o n s t a t e s t h a t : . . . a f a m i l y c o n t a i n s peop le who are l i n k e d by s e x u a l and a f f i n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s as w e l l as those l i n k e d by d e s c e n t and c o l l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . . . (1963:124) . S t i l l another d i f f i c u l t y l i e s a t the e m p i r i c a l l e v e l . There a re two terms i n common use a t C l y d e , ' q i t u r n g u a r i t ' and ' q i t u r n g u a q a r i t . ' The f i r s t i s t r a n s -l a t a b l e as 'g roup o f s i b l i n g s , ' the second as ' s h a r e r s o f o f f s p r i n g . 1 The two are u s u a l l y t r a n s l a t e d as " f a m i l y " and a re r e g a r d e d as i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e and t h e r e f o r e , presumably e q u i v a l e n t . I t s h o u l d be c l e a r t h a t the two are not e q u i v a l e n t s and t h a t a 'g roup o f s i b l i n g s ' i s a d i f f e r e n t u n i t than ' s h a r e r s o f o f f s p r i n g . ' A t the k i n s h i p l e v e l the i n d i v i d u a l can make a number o f d i s t i n c t i o n s : a . c o - r e s i d e n t k insman; a r e c o g n i z e d k insman; a c l o s e ( p a r t i c i p a t i n g ) k insman. These g r a d a t i o n s have been d e s c r i b e d i n p r e c e d i n g pages . 'Groups o f s i b l i n g s ' a re v e r y c l o s e l y bound, bo th i d e a l l y and a c t u a l l y . S i m i l a r l y p a r e n t s s h a r i n g o f f s p r i n g are c l o s e l y bound by the s e x u a l i t y o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p but t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s l e s s b i n d i n g t h a n the c o n s a n g u i n e a l one. I f we i n s i s t t h a t , whatever a d e f i n i t i o n might i n c l u d e , a d e f i n i t i o n o f the ' f a m i l y ' must r e l a t e p a r e n t a l and o f f s p r i n g g e n e r a t i o n s so t h a t i t r e a d s a s , p a r e n t ( s ) p l u s o f f s p r i n g ; then we must a l s o a c c e p t t h a t - 7 4 -t h e r e i s no t e r m i n o l o g i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n o f ' t h e f a m i l y ' among the C lyde Esk imos . T h i s i s o f course not the c a s e ; ' f a m i l i e s ' as s t r u c t u r a l l y o p e r a t i n g u n i t s do e x i s t and a r e o f c r u c i a l importance t o the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f C lyde I n -l e t Eskimo ' s o c i e t y . ' The major e m p i r i c a l q u e s t i o n r e -l a t e s t o how the two terms r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f o p e r a t i o n . These d i s t i n c t i o n s w i l l become c l e a r e r as the ' f a m i l y ' i s a n a l y z e d . The s t r u c t u r e o f the f a m i l y , as a k i n s h i p u n i t , " w i l l be d e s c r i b e d and a n a l y z e d i n terms o f the s t r u c t u r e o f Ro le D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n among k i n c a t e g o r i e s , u s i n g some o f the s u b - c a t e g o r i e s sugges ted by Levy (1952:306-7) . A p a r t from the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s made by Levy ( f o o t n o t e 2, p. 300) , t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t r u c t u r e seems the most amenable t o e m p i r i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n ; p e o p l e are d i s t r i b u t e d among the a v a i l a b l e and n e c e s s a r y r o l e s i n s o c i e t y . The f a c t t h a t t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n has a number o f r e f e r e n t c r i t e r i a , a l -though i n t r o d u c i n g a h i g h degree o f c o m p l e x i t y , p e r m i t s the o b s e r v e r t o make d e c i s i o n s as t o the most r e l e v a n t c r i t e r i a i n use i n v a r i o u s s o c i e t i e s or groups w i t h i n a l a r g e r s o c i e t y . The second impor tan t f a c t o r f o r the i l i g i t or e x t r a - k i n s h i p r e l a t i o n s h i p i s , as w i l l be no ted , the e x i s t -ence o f h a l f - s i b l i n g s and the concomi tant b e h a v i o r a l expec-t a t i o n s i n v o l v e d . H a l f - s i b l i n g s can be produced as a r e s u l t o f m u l t i p l e s e q u e n t i a l m a r r i a g e , polygamous f a m i l y p r a c t i c e s or through spouse-exchange r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A l l - 7 5 -t h r e e modes are known t o the C lyde I n l e t E s k i m o s . H a l f -s i b l i n g s produced by any o f the t h r e e s i t u a t i o n s a re named ' q a t a n g o t i q a t i g i t ' ( s h a r e r s o f a s i n g l e p a r e n t ) . A g a i n , i n d i sagreement w i t h Guemple's (1962) scheme, t h e r e i s no t e r m i n o l o g i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n made between h a I f - s i b l i n g s p r o -duced i n any o f the t h r e e s e t t i n g s . ~* H a l f - s i b l i n g s are. s a i d by the C lyde p e o p l e t o be more fond o f each o t h e r t h a n f u l l - s i b l i n g s . Whether or not t h i s i s t r u e c o u l d not be checked t o my e n t i r e s a t i s f a c t i o n . I t c e r t a i n l y appears t h a t h a l f - s i b l i n g s w i l l go t o g r e a t l e n g t h s t o v i s i t each o t h e r b u t they do the same f o r f u l l , and adopted s i b l i n g s . There i s , o f course a g r e a t d e a l o f v a r i a t i o n i n t h i s m a t t e r ; a young m a r r i e d male i n f o r m a n t s t a t e d t h a t , o f a l l h i s s i b l i n g s , h i s h a l f - s i s t e r was h i s f a v o u r i t e . There was an added f a c t o r i n v o l v e d h e r e and one t h a t comes up o c c a s i o n a l l y i n t h i s a r e a ; t h i s i s t h a t the acknowledged f a t h e r o f the two had been a Whi te . There a re a number o f p a r t - W h i t e c h i l d r e n i n the a r e a and these d i s -p l a y a c l e a r a n i m o s i t y toward t h e i r p u t a t i v e p a t e r s . An impor tan t l i m i t e d f a c t o r i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f spouse-exchange r e l a t i o n s h i p s l i e s i n the e x t e n t , degree , and i n t e n s i t y o f the i n c e s t r e g u l a t i o n s . B r o a d l y s p e a k i n g , i n c e s t (see f o o t n o t e 1, Chapter I I ) r e g u l a t i o n s are e x p r e s s e d i n two q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t man i -f e s t a t i o n s o f ' a v o i d a n c e . ' The avo idance o f c l o s e c o l l a t e r a l s o f o p p o s i t e - s e x , e . g . o f s i s t e r s by b r o t h e r s and v i c e v e r s a and o f o p p o s i t e - s e x c o u s i n s f a l l s i n t o the p a t t e r n d e s c r i b e d by - 7 6 -Damas as ongayoqtoq ( l i t . f ondness) and a t C lyde o f t e n g i v e n as n a g l i g i y o g t o q ( l i t . t o l o v e ) . Avo idance o f c e r t a i n a f f i n e s on the o t h e r hand f i t s Damas' p a t t e r n o f n a l a k t o q , ( l i t . t o l i s t e n t o , t o o b e y ) . The i n c e s t r e s t r i c t i o n s a p p l i c a b l e t o c h o i c e o f m a r r i a g e p a r t n e r s are e q u a l l y e n f o r c e d i n the spouse-exchange sys tem. Both the n o r t h e r n and s o u t h e r n groups o f C lyde Eskimos a v o i d the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f exchange r e l a t i o n s w i t h p e r s o n s o f f i r s t degree o f c o l l a t e r a l i t y , t h a t i s , c l o s e r than f i r s t c o u s i n . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , the s o u t h e r n group has a number o f c r o s s - c o u s i n ( m a t r i l a t e r a l ) m a r r i a g e s w h i l e the n o r t h e r n group e x p r e s s l y frown upon t h a t p a r t i c u l a r ar rangement . A l s o impor tan t i s the f a c t t h a t a l t h o u g h spouse-exchange r e l a t i o n s h i p s are e s t a b l i s h e d a c r o s s the b o u n d a r i e s between the n o r t h e r n and s o u t h e r n groups m a r r i a g e s between persons a c r o s s the same b o u n d a r i e s a re r a r e . Camps and househo lds The l a r g e s t c o - r e s i d e n t groups are camps and house-h o l d s . "Camp" s h o u l d be taken t o mean: t h a t aggregate o f k i n and n o n - k i n who occupy a g i v e n camps i te a t a g i v e n t i m e . A more f o r m a l d e f i n i t i o n would b e : . . . r e s i d e n t i a l g r o u p i n g s are open, f l e x i b l e , and h i g h l y v a r i a b l e i n c o m p o s i t i o n . They have no i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d l e a d e r s h i p (emphasis mine) and, i ndeed , no c o r p o r a t e i d e n t i t y . They do not own t e r r i t o r y and c l e a r - c u t j u r a l l y d e f i n e d modes o f a f f i l i a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s to r e s i d e n -t i a l g roup ings do not e x i s t . . . meaning s i m p l y the s e t o f pe rsons who happen t o be l i v i n g - 7 7 -t o g e t h e r a t one p l a c e a t one t ime (Woodburn, James, 1964) . Campsi tes a re g e n e r a l l y t r a d i t i o n a l , or h i s t o r i c a l , i n the sense t h a t they have been o c c u p i e d c o n t i n u a l l y by the p e o p l e and t h e i r a n c e s t o r s . The c o m p o s i t i o n o f any camp can and does v a r y from season t o season and from y e a r t o year". The a c t u a l t u r n o v e r o f p e r s o n n e l i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the d iagrams i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . There a re r a r e o c c a s i o n s when o n l y a s i n g l e n u c l e a r f a m i l y i s i n r e s i d e n c e i n a camp-s i t e . W i t h i n a camp the next l a r g e s t u n i t i s t h a t o f the h o u s e h o l d . A l t h o u g h d e f i n i t i o n s o f h o u s e h o l d u s u a l l y imp ly c o - r e s i d e n c e under one r o o f , f o r example: The h o u s e h o l d . . . , i s a group o f peop le who l i v e t o g e t h e r and form a f u n c t i o n i n g domest i c u n i t . They may or may not c o n s t i t u t e a f a m i l y , and i f they do, i t may or may not be a s i m p l e n u c l e a r f a m i l y (Bohannan, 1963:86 e t p a s s i m ) . t h i s does not a lways a p p l y t o the Eskimo s i t u a t i o n . Indeed, a number o f c l o s e l y a l i g n e d summer t e n t s , each h o u s i n g a n u c l e a r f a m i l y ( u s u a l l y r e l a t e d ) , can be taken as a house-h o l d . T h i s a s s e r t i o n i s based upon the f a c t t h a t a l l the h u n t e r s from each t e n t a re o p e r a t i n g t o p r o v i d e sus tenance f o r everyone i n a l l t e n t s . The a c t u a l o c c u p a t i o n o f any g i v e n camps i te i s dependent upon a number o f f a c t o r s i n c l u d i n g season , game c o n d i t i o n s , the a t t i t u d e o f the l o c a l p o l i c e , the p e r s u a s i o n o f the l o c a l s c h o o l t e a c h e r , the a t tachments t o o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s , bo th k i n and n o n - k i n and so f o r t h . In the main, w i n t e r camps are chosen f o r t h e i r - 7 8 -p r o x i m i t y t o good s e a l i n g a r e a s and, more r e c e n t l y , f o r b e i n g w i t h i n easy t r a v e l l i n g d i s t a n c e from the s e t t l e m e n t . D u r i n g the w i n t e r the major a c t i v i t i e s a re s e a l i n g a t s e a l h o l e s or a t the f l o e - e d g e and t r a p p i n g (I have a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d the importance o f s e a l s k i n s and the l a c k o f em-p h a s i s on t r a p p i n g f o r t h i s group, Chapter I I . A g r e a t d e a l o f v i s i t i n g between camps i s c a r r i e d out and, t o g e t h e r w i t h the f r e q u e n t t r i p s t o the s e t t l e m e n t t o t r a d e and c o l -l e c t r e l i e f i s s u e s , can be c o n s i d e r e d a major a c t i v i t y . I f "a move t o a summer camp i s contempla ted t h i s u s u a l l y t a k e s p l a c e i n e a r l y s p r i n g when the weather i s warmer b u t b e f o r e the snow m e l t s on the sea i c e . Summer camps u s u a l l y a re s i t u a t e d c l o s e t o good s e a l i n g , w a l r u s and narwal h u n t i n g w i t h the added advantage o f the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r w a l k i n g i n l a n d t o hunt c a r i b o u i n the f a l l . There i s much l e s s t r a v e l l i n g done d u r i n g the summer months, m i d - J u l y / e a r l y September, than i s done i n the w i n t e r . D u r i n g the summer h u n t i n g i s c a r r i e d out by s m a l l boat powered by ou tboard motor b u t i s dependent upon calm weather c o n d i t i o n s . D u r i n g the e a r l y summer p e r i o d a c o m b i n a t i o n o f dog-team and s m a l l boat h u n t i n g i s engaged i n the hunt f o r the l a r g e r b a s k i n g s e a l s , the s g u a r e - f l i p p e r and the w a l r u s . F a l l a c t i v i t i e s a re p r i m a r i l y ' p r e p a r a t o r y ' a c t i v i t i e s . Caches o f food are put up, the women work on p r e p a r i n g s k i n s e i t h e r f o r t r a d e or f o r c l o t h i n g . I f the •weather i s conduc ive the move t o the w i n t e r camp i s made - 7 9 -j u s t b e f o r e f r e e z e - u p or as soon as the nev/ly-formed i c e w i l l b e a r a l oaded s l e d . The c o m p o s i t i o n o f househo lds i n the camps a l s o v a r i e s s e a s o n a l l y and from year t o y e a r . The s o c i a l u n i t w i t h which we are concerned w i t h h e r e i s t h a t u n i t which , f o r any i n d i v i d u a l - , p r o v i d e s the most b a s i c or c o r e - g r o u p o f soc ioeconomic importance and which o p e r a t e s as the major p r i m a r y c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r l a r g e r groups b o t h k i n and n o n - k i n . Membership i n e i t h e r the f a m i l y or h o u s e h o l d s t r u c t u r e i s b rought about i n a number o f ways some o f which have been a l l u d e d t o i n p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n . The most common and u n e q u i v o c a l membership adheres t o those b o r n i n t o the s t r u c t u r e . Other modes o f r e c r u i t m e n t o f members a re v i a an a i p a r j u g i t s i t u a t i o n and the emergence o f h a l f -s i b l i n g s h i p . S ince c h i l d r e n b o r n i n an a i p a r j u g i t r e l a t i o n -s h i p a re kep t by the mother r a t h e r than by the imputed spous exchanger male , i t can been seen t h a t wherever such exchange take p l a c e the c r i t e r i o n o f h a l f - s i b l i n g s h i p , q a t a n g o t i q a t - i g i t becomes impor tan t c r i t e r i o n f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the r e s i d e n t k i n s h i p g roup . Camp c o m p o s i t i o n Four camps have been s e l e c t e d as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the t e n o c c u p i e d camps d u r i n g the 1965 to 1965 p e r i o d . These w i l l show the range o f v a r i a t i o n . i n c o m p o s i t i o n t h a t have been ment ioned i n o ther c h a p t e r s . 80 Camp C o m p o s i t i o n a t Naksa luku luk A7o 6 S2> 8 5 5 4 5 4 t r a n s f e r o f # Diagram 11 a d o p t i v e o r h a l f - s i b l i n g 81 Camp C o m p o s i t i o n a t Sup iguyaktuk 12" A = O 10 A. o A = O i i o Slimmer 1964 ABANDONED Winter/Summer 1964-1965 A o A-- O i i 12 A 40 A . O o 34 41 _ A : Q A = O 36 A = O Summer 1965 Diagram 12 82 Camp C o m p o s i t i o n a t P a n g n i r t u n g 18 _ 19 A ] O-;K£ A = o 20 Summer 1964 1 8 ST A - O 19 Ao A = o 20 32 12 A = O Winter 1964-1965 21 A ? O 38 16 A=o A 5 o A= o A * o 22 23 Summer 1965 83 25 A 2 4 r A - < 5 25 A 2 4 x 17 13 Camp Compos i t i on a t A i l e r t a l i k Summer 1964 26 A- o 9 A 1 o 26 A - o 10 £7o 38 A - O Winter 1964-1965 11 "A-o o 15 18 19 A^O- )2( Summer 1965 20 Diagram 14 - 8 4 -N a k s a l u k u l u q T h i s camp has been o c c u p i e d by the same extended f a m i l y f o r a number o f y e a r s . D u r i n g the 1964 f i e l d w o r k | p e r i o d , the male c o n t i n g e n t c o n s i s t e d o f two b r o t h e r s , t h e i r w ives and c h i l d r e n and one i n - m a r r y i n g male o r c o - b r o t h e r -i n - l a w (younger) . A u t h o r i t y was r e l e g a t e d t o number.6 . Peeongeetook (see c h a r t ) who was the e l d e s t o f the two b r o -t h e r s . D u r i n g the w i n t e r o f 1964-1965 a Pond I n l e t man d i e d a t a camp somewhat t o the n o r t h a t the camps i te c a l l e d I k p i q . S ince the widow was an adopted s i b l i n g o f the w i f e o f number 8 Seevoga, she and her c h i l d r e n were taken i n t o the camp a t N a k s a l u k u l u q . D u r i n g the w i n t e r o f 1964-1965 the widow remained i n the camp under the ca re and i n the h o u s e -h o l d o f number 8 Seevoga and h i s w i f e ; i n the summer o f 1965 t h i s widow was m a r r i e d t o number 5 A t a k a h l e e so t h a t d u r i n g the 1965 f i e l d w o r k p e r i o d the camp was under the a u t h o r i t y o f number 6 Peeongeetook, h i s b r o t h e r number 7 Koman i l , and c o n t a i n e d the two c o - b r o t h e r s - i n - l a w number 5 A t a k a h l e e and number 8 Seevoga. Sup iquyaqtuq T h i s c a m p s i t e , l i k e t h a t o f N a k s a l u k u l u q , i s an a p p a r e n t l y o l d and t r a d i t i o n a l s i t e . W. E. P a r r y (1820), (see a l s o p. 151-2, Chapter IV) d e s c r i b e s t h i s s i t e as b e i n g the p l a c e where he f i r s t went ashore to meet Esk imos . D u r i n g the summer o f 1965 t h e r e were f o u r n u c l e a r f a m i l i e s a t t h i s s i t e . Three o f these formed an extended k i n group and a s i n g l e h o u s e h o l d w h i l e the f o u r t h compr i sed - 8 5 -a combined n u c l e a r f a m i l y and h o u s e h o l d . A u t h o r i t y i n the camp l a y i n number 9 Ahpah. Number 12 Nowya, and number 9 Ahpah had an a i p a r j u g i t r e l a t i o n s h i p . D u r i n g the w i n t e r o f 1964-1965 the s i t e was c o m p l e t e l y abandoned. The extended k i n -group under the l e a d e r s h i p o f number 9 Ahpah moved t o a s i t e t o the southwest , A i l e r t a l i g w h i l e number 12 Nowya moved south t o the camps i te c a l l e d P a n g n i r t u n q . D u r i n g the summer o f 1965 the camps i te became r e -l a t i v e l y d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d . Number 9 and 11, Ahpah and Johan- •assie, formed an extended k i n group and a s i n g l e h o u s e h o l d . B e s i d e s these f a m i l i e s t h e r e were f i v e o t h e r n u c l e a r f a m i l i e s r e s i d i n g h e r e . T h i s camp i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o u r m i l e s from the main s e t t l e m e n t a t C l y d e . I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e r e was a g e n e r a l movement i n t o the s i t e s c l o s e s t t o C lyde as w e l l as i n t o C lyde i t s e l f ; e i g h t e e n n u c l e a r f a m i l i e s d u r i n g the summer o f 1964, seventeen d u r i n g the w i n t e r o f 1964-1965, and t h i r t e e n d u r i n g the summer o f 1965. P a n g n i r t u n g D u r i n g the summer o f 1964 t h i s s i t e was o c c u p i e d by a l a r g e extended k i n - g r o u p fo rm ing two h o u s e h o l d s . D u r i n g the w i n t e r o f 1964-1965 t h i s k i n - g r o u p was added t o by the a d d i t i o n o f one more n u c l e a r f a m i l y , a h a l f - s i b l i n g t o number twenty . The camp was e n l a r g e d d u r i n g the w i n t e r by the a d d i t i o n o f an u n r e l a t e d n u c l e a r f a m i l y . D u r i n g the summer o f 1965 a complete change i n p e r s o n n e l took p l a c e . At t h a t t ime' two extended k i n - g r o u p s a r r i v e d t o r e p l a c e the w i n t e r p o p u l a t i o n . - 8 6 -A i l e r t a l i q D u r i n g the summer o f 1964 t h i s . c a m p s i t e was o c c u -p i e d by a s i n g l e l a r g e extended k i n - g r o u p w i t h one i n -m a r r y i n g ma le . T h i s same k i n - g r o u p was j o i n e d by another e q u a l l y l a r g e k i n - g r o u p , so t h a t the camp compr i sed two h o u s e h o l d s d u r i n g the w i n t e r o f 1964-1965. Once a g a i n we have a complete change o f p e r s o n n e l from w i n t e r t o summer. D u r i n g the summer o f 1965 t h e r e were seven n u c l e a r f a m i l i e s b e l o n g i n g t o two d i s t i n c t k i n - g r o u p s . Househo ld f o r m a t i o n assumed the u s u a l a s p e c t o f a number o f r e l a t e d n u c l e a r f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n v e r y c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o each o t h e r and a l l s h a r i n g i n the common t a s k o f food g e t t i n g and g e n e r a l work p r e p a r a t i o n . The v a r i a b l e na ture o f camps i te c o m p o s i t i o n s h o u l d be c l e a r from the f o r e g o i n g i l l u s t r a t i o n s . Both homogeneous and he terogeneous camps have been d iagramed. The v a r i a t i o n i n c o m p o s i t i o n through b o t h l ong and s h o r t term p e r i o d s i s a f u n c t i o n o f a number o f v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d i n g game a v a i l -a b i l i t y , the f o r m a t i o n o f h u n t i n g p a r t n e r s h i p s , the co-a l e s c i n g o f k i n s h i p u n i t s , e s p e c i a l l y t h a t o f s i b l i n g groups and, i m p o r t a n t l y , the f o r m a t i o n o f e x t r a - k i n s h i p ( i l i g i t ) r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I n t e r - p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s Be fo re g o i n g on t o d e s c r i b e the na tu re and e x t e n t o f the i n t e r - p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n the f a m i l y , f o l l o w i n g A b e r l e (1961:164-75) , I would l i k e t o c l a r i f y a - 8 7 -number o f i s s u e s . These i s s u e s r e l a t e t o a b r o a d e r d i s t r i -b u t i o n o f i n f l u e n c e and power than i s g e n e r a l l y a l l u d e d t o i n the v a r i o u s p u b l i c a t i o n s on Eskimo s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . A l t h o u g h many Eskimo groups have been d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g t o t a l l y e g a l i t a r i a n ( c f . S t e f a n s s o n , Jenness , B i r k e t - S m i t h , e t a l . ) t h e r e i s enough e v i d e n c e t o the c o n t r a r y t o war ran t a c a r e f u l e x a m i n a t i o n o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o w e r / i n f l u e n c e . For example, Spencer (19 59) i n t a l k i n g about i n t e r - g r o u p r i v a l r y s a y s : C o m p e t i t i o n and the c o m p e t i t i v e sense a rose b o t h between communit ies and between i n d i v i d u a l s . There was some f e e l i n g f o r community l o y a l t y and some sense o f r i v a l r y between v i l l a g e s or l o c a l g r o u p i n g s (1959). More s p e c i f i c a l l y Damas s t a t e s , f o r the I q l u l i k group, t h a t : Another p r i n c i p l e t h a t i s e v i d e n t i n the t e r -mino logy i s the predominance o f complementary over s e l f - r e c i p r o c a l t e rms . T h i s f e a t u r e would t e n d t o emphasize the g e n e r a l l a c k o f e q u a l i t y among the v a r i o u s s t a t u s p o s i t i o n s . In c o n t r a -d i c t i o n t o p o p u l a r n o t i o n s o f democracy among the Eskimo, t h e r e does appear t o be a c o n c e r n w i t h r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n i n the i n t e r p e r s o n a l b e -h a v i o u r o f the I g l u l i g m i u t (1963:201) . For the C lyde group the d i f f e r e n t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f power and i n f l u e n c e i s c l e a r l y seen by the Esk imos , them-s e l v e s . My own o b s e r v a t i o n s have l e d me t o a s s e r t t h a t , among the C lyde groups , t h e r e i s a d e f i n i t e h i e r a r c h i c a l system o f p o w e r / i n f l u e n c e and b e h a v i o u r . For example, w h i l e t a l k i n g w i t h a young m a r r i e d f a t h e r I c a s u a l l y asked him how l o n g he would be s t a y i n g i n the s e t t l e m e n t a t C l y d e . H i s answer was t o the e f f e c t t h a t he " d i d not know s i n c e h i s f a t h e r had not y e t t o l d him what t o do n e x t . " S i m i l a r l y , - 8 8 -The S i e l a System R e l a t i o n t o Ego T i t l e Used Diagram 15 - 8 9 -s e v e r a l i n f o r m a n t s a s s e r t e d t h a t w h i l e i t was b e s t t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s s h o u l d do as they w ished , i suman iq , i t was o f t e n the case t h a t they needed g u i d a n c e . The j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h i s was u s u a l l y t h a t , "some peop le have more knowledge and s k i l l s than o t h e r s . " S i n c e these and o t h e r examples appeared t o c o n t r a d i c t the i d e a l o p e r a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t t o make d e c i s i o n s I q u e r i e d f u r t h e r and can a s s e r t w i t h a s s u r a n c e t h a t w i t h i n each C lyde group and between c e r t a i n members o f the two groups a c l e a r l y d e f i n e d h i e r a r -c h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y e x i s t e d . I p ropose t o c a l l 6 t h i s system o f d i s t r i b u t i o n the s i e l a sys tem. R e f e r r i n g t o Diagram 15, i t can be seen t h a t e i t h e r a p y r a m i d a l type r e l a t i o n s h i p h o l d s or t h a t a s t e p -l i k e p r o c e s s c o u l d be used t o i l l u s t r a t e the framework o f the s i e l a system. By t a k i n g any ego, male e s p e c i a l l y , i t becomes c l e a r t h a t t h e r e i s more t o t h i s h i e r a r c h y than the c r i t e r i o n o f sex . For example, no female i s angayukaq t o any grown male but she w i l l be angayukaq t o any younger s i s t e r s o r female consangu ines , a f f i n e s , and p r e - a d u l t c h i l d r e n o f e i t h e r sex . Look i ng a t the l i f e c y c l e o f a f i r s t b o r n male ego the f o l l o w i n g changes take p l a c e . F i r s t he i s s i e l a t o h i s p a r e n t s b u t angayukaq to no one. As h i s p a r e n t s produce more c h i l d r e n he remains s i e l a to h i s p a r e n t s but becomes angayukaq t o h i s younger s i b l i n g s o f e i t h e r sex . A l t h o u g h he i s angayukaq t o h i s younger s i b l i n g s when he m a r r i e s and goes t o t a k e up h i s b r i d e - s e r v i c e he i s , w h i l e i n the camp - 9 0 -o f h i s w i f e ' s c o n s a n g u i n e a l group, s i m p l y s i e l a . That i s , he has no a u t h o r i t y whatsoever . Upon h i s r e t u r n t o h i s own c o n s a n g u i n e a l group he once more has peop le t o whom he i s s i e l a and t o some o t h e r s , e . g . younger s i b l i n g s and s i s t e r s as w e l l as t o i n - m a r r y i n g males , he i s anqayukaq. As he a c q u i r e s c h i l d r e n o f h i s own he b e g i n s t o ga ther t o g e t h e r a . number o f peop le t o whom he a c t s as anqayukaq i . e . h i s w i f e and c h i l d r e n , f o l l o w e d by i n - m a r r y i n g i n d i v i d u a l s and h i s younger s i b l i n g s so l ong as they camp t o g e t h e r . He may, " i n c i d e n t a l l y , a c q u i r e o t h e r s i e l a i n the form o f orphans and/or m e n t a l l y d e f e c t i v e persons who a t t a c h themse lves t o h i s g r o u p . A t t h i s p o i n t h i s term of r e f e r e n c e can become n a l a q t i , the one l i s t e n e d t o . B e g i n n i n g w i t h the most g e n e r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y w i t h i n and between the n o r t h e r n and s o u t h e r n C lyde groups t h e r e i s , a p a r t from i n t r a - f a m i l i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s and networks , a g e n e r a l i z e d system o f h i e r a r c h i c a l a u t h o r i t y t h a t has t o do w i t h a complex i n t e r a c t i o n o f k i n s h i p and o t h e r c r i t e r i a . I t can be seen t h a t r e l a t i v e and a b s o l u t e ages (and e x p e r i e n c e ) between c o - a f f i n e s or between a f f i n e s and the c o n s a n g u i n e a l group i n t o which males and females marry i s i m p o r t a n t . T h i s , o b v i o u s l y r e l a t e s i n t u r n t o r e s i d e n c e , t h a t i s , t o which l o c a l group i s h o s t i n g which m a r r i a g e p a r t n e r . A young man meet ing the b r i d e - s e r v i c e r e q u i r e m e n t s i n the camp of h i s w i f e ' s group assumes a r e l a t i v e l y i n f e r i o r p o s i t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o her p a r e n t s , b r o t h e r s , c o u s i n s , u n c l e s , e t c . On the o t h e r hand, when -91-t h e s e r v i c e p e r i o d i s t e r m i n a t e d and the c o u p l e r e t u r n t o the camp o f the groom's r e l a t i v e s she assumes a s i m i l a r l y a b j e c t p o s i t i o n u n t i l she has e s t a b l i s h e d some s e n i o r i t y o r a c q u i r e d g r e a t e r p r e s t i g e among the women o f t h a t camp. He, i n t u r n , w i l l most l i k e l y have i n - m a r r y i n g males oyer wh ich he has power. A g a i n , f o r example, a l t h o u g h two co -a f f i n e s might r e f e r t o each o t h e r as ' younger ' and ' o l d e r ' c o - a f f i n e depend ing upon the r e l a t i v e ages o f the same-sex s i b l i n g s they had m a r r i e d , the c r i t e r i a o f a b s o l u t e and r e l a t i v e age and e x p e r i e n c e a re more c l o s e l y r e c k o n e d w i t h t h a n the t e r m i n o l o g i c a l system i n d i c a t e s . The g e n e r a l i t y o f the h i e r a r c h i c a l system can be e x e m p l i f i e d by the s imp le d e v i c e - o f q u e r y i n g about a camp b e i n g approached , " k i t k u t ? " l i t e r a l l y , "whose group?" w i t h the i m p l i c a t i o n o f "by who?" Assuming, f o r example t h a t t h e r e a re s e v e r a l d w e l l i n g s the f i r s t answer w i l l be the name o f the r e c o g n i z e d l e a d e r . As the camp i s e n t e r e d one can t h e n ask w h i l e i n d i c a t i n g s i n g l e d w e l l i n g s , " k i t k u t ? " and the name o f the head o f t h a t f a m i l y o r h o u s e h o l d w i l l be g i v e n . In t h i s way a complete r o s t e r o f i n d i v i d u a l s as w e l l as the o v e r a l l ' head ' can be e l i c i t e d . Fur thermore , a l l t hose p e r s o n s not named w i l l be s i e l a . That i s , upon b e i n g g i v e n the f i r s t name a l l o t h e r s i n the camp a re s i e l a w h i l e when i n the camp i t s e l f the v a r i o u s s e p a r a t e d w e l l i n g s w i l l be seen as h a v i n g a head and the o t h e r c o - r e s i d e n t members o f each d w e l l i n g w i l l be seen as s i e l a . - 9 2 -I t i s c l e a r t h a t k i n s h i p and sex a l o n e do not account f o r the d i s t r i b u t i o n . For the C lyde r e g i o n my ob-s e r v a t i o n s s u g g e s t , t h e n , I have d e c i d e d , t h a t the f a c t o r s o f r e l a t i v e and a b s o l u t e age as w e l l as k i n s h i p were impor-t a n t . In a d d i t i o n any male p e r s o n c o u l d become n a l a q t i by the p r o c e s s o f a c q u i r i n g s k i l l s t o a g r e a t e r degree t h a n o t h e r males i n h i s camp group . S i m i l a r l y , an anqayukaq t h a t d i d not e i t h e r a c q u i r e or m a i n t a i n h i s s k i l l s c o u l d , and was, e a s i l y r e p l a c e d . In c o n c l u s i o n my d a t a and the a n a l y s i s o f the s i t u a t i o n suppor t Damas' c o n t e n t i o n t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s a re concerned w i t h t h e i r s t a t u s i n a h i e r a r c h i c a l sys tem. Up t i l l now we have been d e a l i n g w i t h the g e n e r a l a s p e c t s o f a u t h o r i t y f o r the l a r g e r system. A n a l y s i s o f a u t h o r i t y i n the f a m i l y r e v e a l s a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n o f d i f f e r -e n t i a l i n f l u e n c e and the p a t t e r n i n g o f s i e l a . Husband-wi fe or u i n - n u l l i a q The c o n j u g a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a re weakened by the p e r s i s t e n c e o f s t r o n g bonds t o o n e ' s f a m i l y o f o r i e n t a t i o n and by the f a c t t h a t e i t h e r one or o t h e r spouse i s l i v i n g i n an a f f i n a l g roup . A l t h o u g h the husband i d e a l l y r u l e s the f a m i l y and h i s w i f e i s s i e l a t o him, t h e r e are enough cases t o show t h a t w i t h i n the p r i v a t e domain the w i f e o f t e n has i n f l u e n c e i n d e c i s i o n making . By t h i s I mean t h a t b r o a d l y s p e a k i n g when the c a r i b o u season , f o r example, i s under way t h e n the - 9 3 -husband d e c i d e s t o hunt c a r i b o u b u t the e x a c t l o c a t i o n o f h i s . h u n t i n g i s d e c i d e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h h i s w i f e who might w i s h him t o hunt where she can meet i n d i v i d u a l s from h e r own f a m i l y o f o r i e n t a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , d u r i n g t r a d i n g i t appears t h a t the husband i s making the c h o i c e s o f goods t o buy b u t , i n most c a s e s , t h i s i s o n l y a f t e r the f a c t t h a t h i s w i f e and he have a r r i v e d a t a m u t u a l l y a g r e e a b l e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what i s t o be bought and i n what o r d e r o f p r i o r i t y . I d e a l l y , such d e c i s i o n s between husband and w i f e take p l a c e i n p r i v a t e . " P u b l i c a l l y the w i f e a c t s i n a demure f a s h i o n i n s i s t i n g t h a t i t i s up t o the husband t o d e c i d e , i s u m a n i q . In day t o day m a t t e r s each p r o v i d e s f o r the o t h e r . The husband p r o v i d e s meat i n the form o f f i s h , s e a l s or w h a l e s k i n e t c . and the w i f e p r o v i d e s the t a i l o r e d c l o t h i n g t h a t e n a b l e s the h u n t e r t o c a r r y out h i s d a i l y round o f t a s k s . Without t h i s i n t e r c h a n g e t h e r e c o u l d be no permanent c o n j u g a l f a m i l y . A t the same t ime , w h i l e f u l f i l l i n g the de-mands o f the mar r i age p a r t n e r each must f u l f i l l the demands o f h i s / h e r own f a m i l y o f o r i e n t a t i o n and w i l l do so u n t i l i t i s an i m p o s s i b i l i t y . S ince i n h e r i t a n c e i s t o o n e ' s own group r a t h e r than b i l a t e r a l l y t o spouses group the d i s p o s i t i o n o f w e a l t h tends t o f o l l o w a l o n g a u n i l a t e r a l p a t h on b o t h s i d e s . The m a r i t a l bond i s the weakest o f a l l bonds w i t h -i n the f a m i l y . D e s p i t e the l a c k o f b a r r i e r s t o d i v o r c e , few d i v o r c e s are r e c o r d e d . The s o l e case t h a t came t o my a t t e n t i o n was be tween 'a c h i l d l e s s woman and her husband. - 9 4 -The male p a r t n e r was n o t o r i o u s l y l a z y and the woman a f t e r much nagg ing and c a j o l i n g f i n a l l y asked her f a t h e r t o come, and take h e r away. The s e p a r a t i o n took p l a c e w i t h no f u s s between e i t h e r p a r t n e r . C o n t r i b u t i n g t o the weakness o f the m a r i t a l bond i s the s t r e n g t h o f the n a t a l t i e s h e l d by b o t h p a r t n e r s . These t i e s a re such t h a t i n cases where an i s s u e was d o u b t f u l i t i s more t h a n l i k e l y t h a t the c h o i c e o f a c t i o n t a k e n w i l l be i n terms o f the n a t a l o b l i g a t i o n s . M i l i t a t i n g a g a i n s t easy d i v o r c e i s the l a c k o f a l t e r n a t i v e spouses w i t h i n the p o p u l a t i o n . In o t h e r words., a l t h o u g h d i v o r c e i s a r e l a t i v e l y easy mat te r the prob lem o f f i n d i n g s u i t a b l e p a r t n e r s looms l a r g e i n b o t h c a s e s . S ince i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t men have women t o look a f t e r the c l o t h i n g and so f o r t h and s i n c e women need men t o p r o v i d e food i t i s easy t o see how t h i s s i t u a t i o n b o l s t e r s and upho lds the m a r r i a g e bond . In v iew o f t h i s f a c t i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the f a m i l i e s o f each p a r t n e r at tempt t o b r i n g about a r e c o n c i l l i a t i o n b e f o r e a c c e p t i n g t h a t a s e p a r a t i o n i s i n e v i t a b l e . The causes o f d i v o r c e are u s u a l l y the u n a c c e p t a b l e b e h a v i o u r on the p a r t o f one o f the p a i r . For example, l a z i n e s s , l y i n g , ' w a l k i n g about a t n i g h t ' (the i m p l i c a t i o n h e r e i s one o f i n f i d e l i t y ) , and i n e p t i t u d e a t i m p o r t a n t t a s k s . The s i e l a r e l a t i o n s h i p o f w i f e t o husband i s c l e a r and o b v i o u s i n the p u b l i c domain where the w i f e a lways g i v e s the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t the husband made whatever d e c i s i o n i s i n q u e s t i o n . How-e v e r , i n p r i v a t e the w i f e d e f i n i t e l y does have i n f l u e n c e i n the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s . - 9 5 -I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t the o n l y e q u a l i t y i n d e c i s i o n making i s i n the case o f d i v o r c e . In t h i s case e i t h e r the husband or w i f e can d e c i d e t o l eave and t h i s d e c i s i o n i s b i n d i n g upon b o t h p a r t n e r s . M o t h e r - c h i l d or A n a n a - q i t u r n g u a q A mother can and u s u a l l y does d i s c i p l i n e her immature c h i l d r e n o f e i t h e r sex . Chas t i sement n o r m a l l y t a k e s the form o f s c o l d i n g , p h y s i c a l punishment i s somewhat r a r e b u t when i t does occur i t i s o f t e n v e r y s e v e r e . In the main , boys are t r e a t e d more b e n i n g n l y by the mother t h a n a r e g i r l s . Boys f o r example w i l l walk i n f r o n t o f a group o f a d u l t s w h i l e g i r l s , who a re b e i n g t r a i n e d t o be shy i n company, w i l l u s u a l l y make t h e i r way around the edges o f a g r o u p . Upon a p p r o a c h i n g m a t u r i t y the sexes s e p a r a t e so t o speak and boys w i l l pass i n t o the f a t h e r ' s sphere o f a c t i v i t i e s w h i l e g i r l s w i l l be more and more under the i n -f l u e n c e o f t h e i r mother . In t h i s sense the mother has c o n -t r o l over the g i r l s a l t h o u g h i t i s not unknown f o r her t o c o n t i n u e w i e l d i n g her power over boys up t o , and sometimes beyond matur i t y . . In s h o r t , the mother i s the l e g i t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y v i s - a - v i s the c h i l d r e n and the e a r l y u p b r i n g i n g o f c h i l d r e n f a l l s t o h e r . In the economic sphere o f a c t i v i t i e s a mother has much a u t h o r i t y over her c h i l d r e n ' s d a y - t o - d a y a c t i v i t i e s . G i r l c h i l d r e n are expec ted t o f e t c h water and t o h e l p the - 9 6 -mother w i t h a l l h o u s e h o l d chores such as g e t t i n g f u e l t o -g e t h e r and i n work ing h i d e s . Boys a re e x p e c t e d t o a s s i s t i n f e e d i n g dogs and i n the h e a v i e r t a s k s t h a t f a l l t o t h e i r mother . G i r l s are expec ted t o d e v e l o p s k i l l i n sewing and o t h e r f e m a l e - l i n k e d j o b s . In r e t u r n a mother e x p e c t s sup-p o r t i n her o l d age and i n f a c t o f t e n r e f e r s to t h i s a s p e c t o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p . The i d e a l , and a p p a r e n t l y the a c t u a l , r e l a t i o n s h i p between a mother and her c h i l d r e n i s one o f c o n f i d e n c e , warm and s u p p o r t i v e f o r e i t h e r male or female c h i l d r e n . T h i s seems t o be t r u e t o the e x t e n t t h a t g i r l s c o n f i d e i n t h e i r mothers c o n c e r n i n g such impor tan t t h i n g s as l o v e r s , a mother i n t u r n , might admonish a g i r l c h i l d not t o ge t p regnant b u t beyond t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e at tempt t o i n s t i l l c h a s t i t y i n g i r l c h i l d r e n . C h i l d r e n w i l l o f t e n go t o t h e i r mother f o r h e l p or a d v i c e even a f t e r m a r r i a g e . F a t h e r - c h i l d or A t a t a - q i t u r n g u a q A f a t h e r i s a s t e r n f i g u r e whose word i s law. A l -though a f a t h e r might show g r e a t a f f e c t i o n f o r i n f a n t s he i s uncommunicat ive w i t h o l d e r immature c h i l d r e n . When he g i v e s an o r d e r t h e r e i s no r e p l y b u t s i m p l y a c a r r y i n g out o f the demand. As h i s g i r l c h i l d r e n approach m a t u r i t y the f a t h e r has l e s s and l e s s c o n t a c t w i t h them and u s u a l l y t r a n s m i t s h i s p l e a s u r e and d i s p l e a s u r e through the mother . Upon q u e s t i o n s o f mar r i age the f a t h e r has the g r e a t e s t say and u s u a l l y i s i n agreement w i t h h i s w i f e . The degree t o which - 9 7 -the s i e l a r e l a t i o n s h i p h o l d s can be demonst ra ted by two d e v i a n t c a s e s . In the f i r s t case the f a t h e r had been away on an extended h u n t i n g t r i p and came home t o f i n d t h a t h i s son had gone t o another camp and b r o u g h t home a w i f e . S i n c e t h i s was not the f a m i l y t h a t the f a t h e r had wanted t o make an a l l i a n c e w i t h he sent her back t o h e r own camp. In the second case the son had been obdurant and had b r o u g h t home a g i r l who n e i t h e r f a t h e r nor mother l i k e d b u t a l l o w e d h e r t o s t a y . A t the t ime o f my v i s i t the g i r l was s i t t i n g i n one c o r n e r o f the shack w h i l e the p a r e n t s and I t a l k e d . The c o n v e r s a t i o n c e n t e r e d around the ' f o o l i s h n e s s ' o f the son f o r c h o s i n g a woman f o r her l o o k s r a t h e r than f o r her s k i l l s . Meanwhile the g i r l s i m p l y kep t on d o i n g what she was d o i n g , s c r a p i n g s e a l s k i n s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t i n one case the norms o f b e h a v i o u r were u p h e l d w h i l e i n the o t h e r case the o n l y r e c o u r s e l e f t t o the p a r e n t s was one o f c o n s t a n t r i d i -c u l e . In any event the f r a g i l e m a r r i a g e bond was b e i n g even f u r t h e r c o r r o d e d . E c o n o m i c a l l y s p e a k i n g , i t was i m p o r t a n t t h a t the f a t h e r c o u l d depend upon h i s sons f o r h e l p i n the d a i l y a c q u i s i t i o n o f f o o d . T h i s was c a r r i e d out by the f a t h e r a l -l o c a t i n g s e v e r a l jobs t o h i s sons , i . e . i n f i s h i n g or i n h a n d l i n g the boat w h i l e the f a t h e r h u n t e d . As w i t h the case o f the mother, the f a t h e r expec ted t o be h e l p e d by h i s sons i n h i s o l d age. - 9 8 -The bond between f a t h e r and c h i l d r e n i s one o f mutua l r e s p e c t i n the case o f g i r l s because o f the i n c e s t taboos and i n the case o f boys because o f the need f o r p a r t -n e r s h i p i n the h u n t . Some examples o f the na tu re o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r e n t s and o f f s p r i n g seem a p p r o p r i a t e h e r e . When a c h i l d i s g i v e n an o r d e r t o do some t a s k or o t h e r , the p e r s o n , o f t e n the f a t h e r , does not w a i t f o r an a q u i e s e n t answer but s i m p l y assumes t h a t what he has commanded w i l l be obeyed by the r e c i p i e n t o f the o r d e r . For example, a f a t h e r w i l l t e l l h i s son t o u n t a n g l e the dogs and immed ia te l y t u r n t o one o f h i s p e e r s and b e g i n a c o n v e r s a t i o n as t o i c e c o n d i t i o n s o r whatever w i t h o u t even l o o k i n g t o see i f h i s son has s t a r t e d d o i n g the job he was g i v e n . S i m i l a r l y i n the case o f g i r l s b e h a v i o u r , he w i l l t e l l h i s w i f e what h i s c o m p l a i n t i s and e x p e c t s t h a t r e m e d i a l a c t i o n w i l l be t a k e n . T h i s k i n d o f response i n d i c a t e s a g a i n the n a t u r e o f the s i e l a h i e r a r c h y ; the g i v e r o f an o r d e r e x p e c t s c o n f o r m i t y and g e t s i t . The r e l a t i o n s h i p , then , between f a t h e r and c h i l d i s one i n which i n f l u e n c e and d u t i f u l obed ience rank h i g h . D i s o b e d i e n t c h i l d r e n are q u i c k l y b rought i n t o l i n e by t h r e a t s o f w i t h d r a w a l o f s u p p o r t . Same-sex s i b l i n g s or n u q a r i t The f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n a p p l i e s t o p a i r s o f b r o t h e r s and p a i r s o f s i s t e r s . - 9 9 -An o l d e r b r o t h e r or s i s t e r has a u t h o r i t y over younger b r o t h e r s or s i s t e r s . O lder immature s i b l i n g s o f e i t h e r sex a re r e q u i r e d t o ' t a k e c a r e ' o f younger s i b l i n g s o f the same sex. Indeed they are o f t e n h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the a c t i o n s o f younger s i b l i n g s . T h i s i s t r u e f o r e i t h e r male or female o l d e r s i b l i n g . S i s t e r s and b r o t h e r s h e l p each o t h e r i n the d a i l y round o f t a s k s w i t h the e l d e r t a k i n g the l e a d and i s s u i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s i n the absence o f the p a r e n t s . A f t e r m a r r i a g e "it i s l i k e l y t h a t s i s t e r s see l e s s o f each o t h e r than do b r o t h e r s s i m p l y because o f the p a t t e r n o f r e s i d e n c e t h a t i s i n o p e r a t i o n . That i s , females t end t o marry i n t o the camps o f t h e i r husbands w h i l e sons b r i n g t h e i r b r i d e s home t o the f a t h e r ' s camp o r , as o f t e n happens, t o the camp o f an e l d e r b r o t h e r o f the groom. The bond between s i b l i n g s i s v e r y s t r o n g and e m o t i o n a l l y charged , so much so t h a t s i s t e r s w i l l o f t e n co -e r c e t h e i r husbands t o make camp or c a r r y out h u n t i n g i n a v i c i n i t y i n which they , the s i s t e r s , can be t o g e t h e r f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e . B r o t h e r s have fewer problems i n t h i s r e s p e c t s i n c e they tend to make camp t o g e t h e r or w i t h the f a t h e r . B r o t h e r - s i s t e r or A n i k - n a i y a q B r o t h e r s i d e a l l y command the obed ience o f s i s t e r s r e g a r d l e s s o f r e l a t i v e age. Pragmatism, as u s u a l , d i c t a t e s t h a t o n l y o l d e r b r o t h e r s or b r o t h e r s who have p roven - 1 0 0 -themse lves do i n f a c t have a u t h o r i t y over unmarr ied s i s t e r s . Whi le the f a t h e r i s l i v i n g , the a u t h o r i t y o f the b r o t h e r s i s somewhat ambiguous a l t h o u g h an o l d e r b r o t h e r might have some v o i c e i n who h i s s i s t e r m a r r i e s . S i s t e r s h e l p b r o t h e r s whenever needed and e s p e c i -a l l y i f a b r o t h e r has l o s t h i s w i f e f o r one r e a s o n or a n o t h e r , e . g . by h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n . On the o t h e r hand her f i r s t obed ience i s t o her f a t h e r , t h e n , a p p a r e n t l y , t o h e r husband and t h e n t o h e r b r o t h e r s . The bond between b r o t h e r and s i s t e r i s p o s s i b l y the s t r o n g e s t w i t h the o n l y e x c e p t i o n b e i n g the bond b e -tween b r o t h e r s or between s i s t e r s . The s i s t e r s o f a b r o t h e r ' w i l l assume a good d e a l o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the b r o t h e r i f younger and w i l l show marked d e f e r e n c e i f the b r o t h e r i s o l d e r . The i n c e s t taboo i s s t r o n g t o the p o i n t o f making i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r a b r o t h e r and a s i s t e r t o share the same t e n t or house t o g e t h e r a l o n e . I f i t has not been p o s s i b l e t o a v o i d b e i n g a lone one or the o t h e r w i l l p r e t e n d t o be a s l e e p u n t i l someone e l s e e n t e r s the house . C e r t a i n l y the na tu re o f the bond i s such t h a t no c a s u a l c o n v e r s a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e between b r o t h e r and s i s t e r . T h i s avo idance i s f u r t h e r borne out by the myth i n which i n c e s t u o u s r e l a t i o n s between a b r o t h e r and a s i s t e r or between a p a r e n t and c h i l d w i l l r e -s u l t i n the death o f the f ema le . Peer g r o u p i n g A l t h o u g h ment ioned i n p a s s i n g i n much o f the l i t e r a t u r e (c f . Hughes, 1960 and Honigman, 1965), the - 1 0 1 -importance o f peer g r o u p i n g has g e n e r a l l y been p a s s e d o v e r . I would l i k e t o s t r e s s h e r e t h a t such g r o u p i n g may p l a y a v e r y i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n the e d u c a t i o n o f Eskimo c h i l d r e n . The f o l l o w i n g seems t o be t r u e f o r a number o f g r o u p s . Peer groups b e g i n t o form as b i s e x u a l agg lomerates whose p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n appears t o be mutua l s e l f - e n t e r t a i n m e n t . As the c h i l d r e n grow a b i t o l d e r , i n the seven t o t e n y e a r age group , the sexes tend t o s e p a r a t e , g i r l s g o i n g t o g e t h e r and l i k e w i s e boys p l a y i n g t o g e t h e r . A t about t h i s s tage a d u l t s w i l l remark t h a t the t r o u p e s o f young g i r l s a re l i k e a k i g i a q , f l o c k s o f p t a r m i g a n f l i t t i n g over the l a n d . Boys a re s a i d t o be n o k a p i a q , h a v i n g eye t e e t h . G i r l s a t the l a t t e r end o f t h i s p e r i o d are seldom i f ever a lone or w i t h o u t a companion s i m i l a r l y w i t h b o y s . Upon the a t t a i n m e n t o f p u b e r t y g i r l s t end t o have s e l e c t e d as bosom mates a few o f the g i r l s t h a t she f o r m e r l y r a n about w i t h i n her e a r l i e r y e a r s . The name f o r a g i r l a t t h i s p e r i o d i s n i v i a r s a g , 'one w i t h the making o f b r e a s t s . ' Boys, on the o t h e r hand are s t i l l r e f e r r e d t o as n o k a p i a q . U n l i k e the groups o f boys , which p e r s i s t t h r o u g h the e a r l y p u b e r t y p e r i o d , g i r l s t end t o become ' s h y ' o f men. A t t h i s s tage a l s o a g i r l w i l l demand a t e n t o f h e r own. T h i s t e n t i s not c a l l e d a t u p e r q b u t i s r e f e r r e d t o as a t o ' k l i a q or m a i d e n ' s t e n t . I t i s here t h a t most g i r l s e x p e r i e n c e f i r s t h o m o s e x u a l i t y and l a t e r h e t e r o s e x u a l i t y and i s c o n s i d e r e d a normal p r o c e s s i n the growing up phase o f a l l young g i r l s . Boys have no e q u i v a l e n t p e r i o d i n a d j u s t -ment t o a d u l t l i f e but make use o f the v a r i o u s t o ' k l i a q i n t h e i r s e x u a l e x p l o i t s . - 1 0 2 -FOOTNOTES By i n c e s t u o u s and i n c e s t I mean t h a t de te rmined by the Eskimos i n terms o f c a t e g o r i e s o f r e l a t i v e s w i t h whom s e x u a l i n t e r c o u r s e i s frowned upon and w i t h whom mar-r i a g e cannot take p l a c e . A l t h o u g h c a t e g o r i e s o f f o r -b i d d e n un ions d i f f e r between the n o r t h e r n and s o u t h e r n group the f o l k - e x p l a n a t i o n s are the same, v i z . , t h a t the female p a r t n e r o f an i n c e s t u o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i l l s u r e l y d i e . As i s the case w i t h the i l i g i t term, the b o u n d a r i e s o f the group t o which i t i s used (see a l s o p. 33) i s w e l l r e c o g n i z e d . A t the most g e n e r a l l e v e l i t can be taken as meaning a l l k insmen known t o the i n f o r m a n t as b e i n g a c o g n a t i c r e l a t i v e o f . o n e s o r t or a n o t h e r . Not a s i n g l e i n f o r m a n t i n c l u d e d h i s or her spouse or a f f i n e s i n p r o v i d i n g the l i s t o f t h e i r i l a g i t . Responses t o q u e r i e s c o n c e r n i n g the g i v i n g o f a s s i s t a n c e or the r e a s o n s f o r a v o i d i n g p h y s i c a l c o n t a c t between o p p o s i t e sexed r e l a t i v e s was g e n e r a l l y a s ta tement t h a t he/she was i l a q a (my r e l a t i v e ) . A key t o these and a l l o t h e r t e r m i n o l o g i c a l d iagrams i s p r o v i d e d . Each l e t t e r r e p r e s e n t s a d i s t i n c t t e rm. - 1 0 3 -The use o f the s u f f i x sag i s v e r y common and i s a p p l i e d t o a l l 'unworked' m a t e r i a l . For example, i f a woman has d e c i d e d t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r s k i n i s t o be used f o r p a n ts then she w i l l r e f e r t o t h a t s k i n as k a r g l i q s a q , the m a t e r i a l f o r p a n t s , r a t h e r t h a n as k r i s i q , h i d e and c e r t a i n l y not as k a r g l i q , p a n t s . Other a d j e c t i v a l usages i n c l u d e p r o b a b l e , p o s s i b l e , and p o t e n t i a l . I have o m i t t e d any ment ion o f p o l y a n d r o u s f a m i l y s i t u -a t i o n s s i m p l y because these have not been a f a c t o r f o r the l o c a l g roup ; p l u r a l spouse arrangements have been o f a po lygynous na tu re and i n f o r m a n t s were q u i t e un-c e r t a i n as t o the p o s s i b l e consequences o f p o l y a n d r o u s arrangement . The term s i e l a seems t o be a l o a n word from the E n g l i s h ' s a i l o r ' and connotes i t s a u t h o r i t a r i a n d i f f e r e n t i a l system "one who does as he i s t o l d . " I had p r e v i o u s l y thought t h i s term t o mean ' s l a v e ' bu t a f t e r a r a t h e r l e n g t h y e x p l a n a t i o n by a group o f i n f o r m a n t s ( t o g e t h e r ) I was c o n v i n c e d t h a t , a l t h o u g h my o r i g i n a l i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n was by i t s e l f a v a l i d one i t d i d not approach the e x t e n t o f usage and meant " s u b o r d i n a t e . " - 1 0 4 -CHAPTER III This chapter presents a des c r i p t i v e analysis of the structure of contemporary l o c a l extra-kinship groupings and aggregates among the Eskimos l i v i n g i n the v i c i n i t y of Clyde Inl e t . Before proceeding with t h i s description, I would l i k e to comment upon some misconceptions concerning the usage and si g n i f i c a n c e of "group names" among the northeast-ern B a f f i n Island Eskimos. An assumption sometimes underlying the analysis of groups among "primitive" peoples i s that i f the grouping under discussion has an empirical referent and s p e c i f i e d membership c r i t e r i a , i . e . i f i t i s a formal and concrete structure, then i t w i l l also be named. The converse assump-t i o n also occurs; i f a "name" exi s t s then there must be a dis c r e t e group to which i t applies. For example, any group of people banded together for purposes of improving say, working conditions, then we, i n English, can c a l l i t a union. On the other hand i t would be very d i f f i c u l t to specify membership i n the group named the Mafia, even though a l l members, unknown but bound by secrecy, are termed Ma f i o s i . Such assumptions may be appropriate for many s o c i e t i e s and many situ a t i o n s but where congruency between a structure and a name i s not r e a d i l y evident there' often r e s u l t s a confusion - 1 0 5 -between what Levy terms a n a l y t i c arid c o n c r e t e s t r u c t u r e s (Levy, 1952) . O f t e n i n v e s t i g a t o r s b e g i n by i s o l a t i n g , d e s c r i b i n g , and a n a l y z i n g the c o n c r e t e s t r u c t u r e s chosen f o r s t u d y ; they then at tempt t o b r i n g these s t r u c t u r a l i d e a s i n t o concordance w i t h a p r e d e t e r m i n e d a n a l y t i c a l s t r u c t u r a l framework o f a n a l y s e s . The prob lem emerges a l o n g two d imens ions i n the f o l l o w i n g manner. On the one hand t h e r e a re u n s t a t e d i n s e r t i o n s o f concep ts a p p l i c a b l e t o the s tudy o f a n a l y t i c s t r u c t u r e s , f o r example, the economic or the p o l i t i c a l , which cut a c r o s s a l l o t h e r s t r u c t u r a l boun-d a r i e s such as found i n r o l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n or k i n s h i p . On the o t h e r hand t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s i n g l y c l e a r , b u t a g a i n u n s t a t e d , r e i f i c a t i o n o f a l l amorphous s t r u c t u r e s such as r e l i g i o n and so f o r t h . With r e s p e c t t o Eskimos i t i s easy t o a c c e p t as i m p l i c i t t h a t such terms as " i n n u i t , " the p e o p l e , or "nunamiut , " the peop le o f the l a n d , or " t a g e o m i u t , " the p e o p l e o f the sea c a r r y w i t h them some s o r t o f pan-Esk imo s o l i d a r i t y or i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . Noth ing c o u l d be f u r t h e r from the t r u t h . Indeed i t would be more a c c u r a t e t o d e s c r i b e the g e n e r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between groups o f Eskimos as b e i n g b a s i c a l l y s u s p i c i o u s i f not host i l e . " ' " A good i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h i s o c c u r r e d when the s c h o o l a t Y e l l o w k n i f e was b u i l t t o accommodate Eskimos from b o t h the e a s t e r n and w e s t e r n d i s t r i c t s . At t h i s s c h o o l b o t h i n l a n d and c o a s t a l t y p e s - 1 0 6 -were represented but the major d i v i s i v e factor was rooted i n the d i a l e c t s spoken, the easterners using 's' sounds and the westerners using *h' sounds as i n siqine r q as opposed to hiq i n e r q (the sun). On top of t h i s were the introduced d i v i s i o n s , within both eastern and western groups, of r e l i g -ious a f f i l i a t i o n , the Roman Catholics versus the Anglicans. In a b o r i g i n a l times simply knowing which persons belonged to which kinship groups probably s u f f i c e d to determine and d i s -t i n g u i s h between neighbours and strangers. S i m i l a r l y , many writers have observed, recorded and commented upon the use of vaguely t e r r i t o r i a l " t r i b a l " names among the Eskimos (Boas, 1888; Rasmussen, 1930a; Mathiassen, 1928; Jenness, 1922; et a l . ) . Such names are purely l o c a l i n o r i g i n and make sense with reference to variables or some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the source area. Rink, 1894, Boas, 1888, and a few l a t e r workers have at least mentioned the p e c u l i a r l y l o c a t i o n a l / d i r e c t i o n a l / geographical implications of such " t r i b a l " names. For ex-ample, for whatever Eskimo group concerned, the name for a l l people l i v i n g to the west of t h e i r l o c a l i t y i s "wanermiut" or some d i a l e c t variant. To the Clyde Eskimo a l l of southern B a f f i n Island i s the home of the "sikosuitomiut" ( l i t e r a l l y , the "people of the i c e - f r e e places)." Although the modern Clyde Eskimo can specify more narrowly c e r t a i n areas i n southern B a f f i n Island such as Frobisher Bay he w i l l use that term i n a general sense. To the.southern B a f f i n Islanders on the other hand, the term i s usually applicable only to people 2 l i v i n g i n Hudson's S t r a i t s . - 1 0 7 -C lyde I n l e t Eskimos are r e f e r r e d t o by a d j a c e n t Eskimo groups and White r e s i d e n t s as the " K a n g e r s u a p i g m i u t . " W i t h i n the a r e a t h i s term i s r e s e r v e d f o r those p e o p l e who a c t u a l l y l i v e i n or near P a t r i c i a Bay (Kangersuapiq) [ l i t e r a l l y , s m a l l ( shor t ) i n l e t ] o t h e r groups b e i n g d u l y d e s i g n a t e d by the a p p r o p r i a t e camp name.. There i s no a l l -embrac ing " t r i b a l " name i n use among the C lyde Eskimos f o r t h e m s e l v e s . A b r o a d e r usage o c c u r s when d i s c u s s i n g the h a b i t u a l t r a d e c e n t r e u s e d ; i n t h i s case a l l those Eskimos . t r a d i n g a t C lyde s e t t l e m e n t ( P a t r i c i a Bay.) a re d e s i g n a t e d by the term, Kangersuap igmiut , b u t o n l y i n the t r a d e - c e n t r e s e n s e . The s o c i o - c u l t u r a l homogeneity i n f e r r e d by Whi tes from the term and i t s seeming use i s f a l s e . As shown i n the chapte r on k i n s h i p I no ted the e x i s t e n c e o f two d i s c r e t e groups w i t h i n the C lyde community which I c a l l e d the " n o r t h e r n " and " s o u t h e r n " g r o u p s . The i l i g i t s t r u c t u r e (see d i s c u s s i o n below) i s p o s i t e d as the i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the o b s e r v e d c o h e s i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n t h a t e x i s t s between the two g r o u p s . The i m p o r t -ant f a c t o r s s e p a r a t i n g the two groups a r e : group-endogamous m a r r i a g e (with r a r e e x c e p t i o n s ) , c o n s a n g u i n e a l k i n s h i p a f f i l i a t i o n s , d i a l e c t d i f f e r e n c e s , and g e o g r a p h i c a l o r i g i n s . Where group-exogamous m a r r i a g e s take p l a c e p e o p l e o f the n o r t h e r n group tend toward marr iage w i t h the n o r t h e r n or Pond I n l e t ( o c c a s i o n a l l y I g l u l i k ) group and, p e o p l e o f the s o u t h e r n group w i t h the Broughton I s l a n d and P a n g n i r t u n g g r o u p s . - 1 0 8 -Before my a r r i v a l i n the study area r had assumed, on the basis of past (non-anthropological) experience immediately to the north, that I would be dealing with a homogeneous population c a l l e d the Kangersuapiqmiut. Very soon a f t e r I ar r i v e d the p o s s i b i l i t y that t h i s might, not be true became evident i n the existence of two d i a l e c t s , one that I was very f a m i l i a r with and another that I was less 3 f a m i l i a r with. A closer examination confirmed the e x i s t -ence of two d i s t i n c t segments or groups, these are the northern and southern groups mentioned and described e a r l i e r . Also revealed, through genealogical constructs, were two apparently self-contained networks of k i n - t i e s . This seemed to f i t the evidence gathered. On the other hand, as I became more f a m i l i a r with the kinship networks and as I con-tinued to attempt to place d e f i n i t e boundaries on the various a f f i l i a t e d kindreds there was an increasingly high frequency of the kinship category, k a t a n g o t i q a t i g i t (half-s i b l i n g ) between the two groups. Since a perusal of the marriage records c l e a r l y indicated that marriage between members of the two groups was conspicuously absent I had to look i n other d i r e c t i o n s for an explanation of what seemed to be anomalous k i n - t i e s . Over and above the existence of these apparently anomalous k i n - t i e s there was a pervasive sense of community as demonstrated by the heterogeneity of the composition of households and camps. Although there were occasional (seasonally variable) instances of camps that were homogeneous - 1 0 9 -with respect to kinship a f f i l i a t i o n the incidence of composite, or heterogeneous camps was r e l a t i v e l y great. A f i r s t clue to t h i s puzzle came from an. informant when, asking the question, " k i s o g i v i g i t X," "What i s the 4 r e l a t i o n s h i p between you and X?" and the answer was, l l i k a . My f i r s t r e action was that the informant had mispronounced ' i l a k a , ' "my kinsman." There were several confusing points. F i r s t , i f indeed the two persons were kinsmen then an incestuous r e l a t i o n s h i p was occurring since I had good information that the informant had a rather steady sexual r e l a t i o n s h i p with the other person's wife, or, my previous information concerning t h i s aspect was f a l s e , or, as I said there had been a mis-pronunciation of the kinship term. This I checked immediately by repeating the respondent's 5 answer but su b s t i t u t i n g the kinship, i l a k a , for l l i k a . I was immediately met by a stony silence and the departure of the informant. I then asked others why t h i s had offended him. I was t o l d that I had, knowing as I did the sexual r e l a t i o n s h i p between the other's wife and the informant, greatly offended him by imputing an incestuous r e l a t i o n s h i p . Integration and community The importance of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between kinship ( i l a g i t ) and extra-kinship ( i l i g i t ) structure cannot be over-emphasized. This i s because although the i l a g i t or kinship structure serves to hold i n d i v i d u a l s i n an involun-tary r e l a t i o n s h i p complete with sets of r i g h t s and duties, i t - 1 1 0 -i s w i t h i n the work ings o f the i l i g i t s t r u c t u r e t h a t members o f u n - r e l a t e d k i n s h i p groups a re a b l e t o pursue a c t i v i t i e s t h a t would o t h e r w i s e be i m p o s s i b l y awkward and energy w a s t -i n g . In s h o r t , the o p e r a t i o n o f the i l i g i t s t r u c t u r e h a s , as one consequence, a community-wide i n t e g r a t i o n u n l i k e the i l a g i t s t r u c t u r e which i s r e s t r i c t e d t o members o f ex tended and r e s t r i c t e d k i n d r e d s or f a m i l i e s . In t h i s s e c t i o n (Chapter) I want t o d e s c r i b e and i l l u s t r a t e the na tu re o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t h o l d s between the i l a g i t and the i l i g i t . As has been s t a t e d , a major d i f f e r e n c e between these two systems l i e s i n the spouse-exchange p a t t e r n and the emergence o f i n t e r - f a m i l i a l b o n d i n g a c r o s s g e n e r a t i o n s th rough the medium o f h a l f - s i b l i n g s . A t the same t ime t h e r e a re many s i m i l a r i t i e s between the e x p e c t e d and observed b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s . For t h i s r e a s o n a l o n e the e x a c t na tu re o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d . To b r i e f l y o u t l i n e a g a i n the k i n s h i p system, t h a t i s , the i l a g i t , system I s h o u l d l i k e t o s t r e s s t h a t b o t h c o n s a n g u i n e a l and a f f i n a l t i e s a re i m p o r t a n t . These a re subsumed under the r u b r i c o f ' i l i g i t . ' W i t h i n the k i n s h i p c i r c l e , the i l a g i t , t h e r e a re a number o f s u b d i v i s i o n s wh i ch have been e x p l a i n e d and i n t e r p r e t e d i n p r e v i o u s chap-t e r s . Two major a s p e c t s can be d i s c e r n e d h e r e ; f i r s t the i n v o l u n t a r y a s p e c t o f k i n s h i p and second the v o l u n t a r y a s p e c t o f p a r t n e r s h i p . As Bohannan p o i n t s ou t , however, a l l v o l u n t a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p s can become i n v o l u n t a r y by one means - 1 1 1 -o r a n o t h e r . I sugges t t h a t spouse exchange and the appearance o f h a l f - s i b l i n g s can r e t u r n a v o l u n t a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p t o an i n v o l u n t a r y one. That i s t o say , a l t h o u g h i n i t i a l a g r e e -ments a re between v o l u n t a r y i n d i v i d u a l s the r e s u l t s change the r e l a t i o n s h i p t o an i n v o l u n t a r y one . T h i s , i n i t s e l f , c o u l d e x p l a i n some o f the anomal ies r e p o r t e d by p r e v i o u s workers among Esk imos . A f f i l i a t i o n s w i t h the a d j a c e n t groups a re a lways g i v e n i n terms o f c o n s a n g u i n i t y ( i n c l u d i n g h a l f - s i b l i n g s as "consangu ines) , i n terms o f " p a r t n e r s h i p s , " i . e . pe r gat i q o r , o c c a s i o n a l l y i n a f f i n a l t e rms . D i a l e c t d i f f e r e n c e s a re g e n e r a l l y minor e . g . t u a t o q v e r s u s ami toq f o r " t h i n " ; p a n i k a ' v e r s u s e r n g o s e r q for mug. More i m p o r t a n t l y , c o u s i n k i n s h i p t e r m i n o l o g y as has been shown i s d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t between the two g r o u p s . W i t h i n each group the p a t t e r n o f d i s p e r s a l and arrangements o f camps i s s i m i l a r w i t h i n each group.• The same camp s i t e s have been i n use i n d e f i n i t e l y i n t o the p a s t f rom D o r s e t t h r o u g h Thu le and i n t o neo-Esk imo (see Chapter IV on h i s t o r i c a l developments i n the a r e a ) . Camps, as has been shown (p. 79f_f) a re g e n e r a l l y composed o f c o n s a n g u i n e a l l y and a f f i n a l l y r e l a t e d n u c l e a r f a m i l i e s and c o r r e s p o n d c l o s e l y t o what Damas c a l l e d "the band" (Damas, 1973, e t p a s s i m ) . P r o p e r l y c o n s t i t u t e d " f a m i l i e s , " e i t h e r m u l t i p l e s e q u e n t i a l l y monogamous (extended and n u c l e a r ) or the now r a r e polygamous t ypes a re o f more d i r e c t r e l e v a n c e f o r the s t r u c t u r e o f the extended and -Un-r e s t r i c t e d k i n d r e d s , the " i l a g i t , " and have been d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n t o those g r o u p i n g s . The p o i n t I w i s h t o make h e r e i s t h a t , i f t h e r e a re u n r e l a t e d n u c l e a r f a m i l i e s i n the camp t h e n t h e r e i s a h i g h p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t an i l i g i t spouse-exchange arrangement i s p r e s e n t . However, judgement s h o u l d be c a u t i o u s s i n c e i t may s i m p l y be a case o f a t r a v e l l i n g group r e s t i n g b e f o r e c o n t i n u i n g to t h e i r f i n a l d e s t i n a t i o n , o r a f a m i l y v i s i t i n g f o r o t h e r r e a s o n s , e . g . t o a r r a n g e a m a r r i a g e between c h i l d r e n . The most i n c l u s i v e group term (not a p r o p e r name) used a t C lyde i s " i l i g i t . " For d e f i n i t i o n a l purposes o f t h i s c o n c r e t e s t r u c t u r e the f o l l o w i n g i s adequate ; d e t a i l s 7 w i l l be b r o u g h t out i n the d e s c r i p t i o n . The i l i g i t i s t h a t community o f p e r s o n s , k i n and n o n - k i n ( r e g a r d l e s s o f age and sex) w i t h whom an i n d i v i d u a l might p r o b a b l y , and c e r -t a i n l y p o s s i b l y , e n t e r i n t o an a s y m m e t r i c a l or s y m m e t r i c a l i n t e r m i t t e n t b u t a lways m u t u a l l y b e n e f i c i a l , r e l a t i o n s h i p o f h i g h l y v a r i a b l e d u r a t i o n . Such a r e l a t i o n s h i p i s p r i m a r i l y economic , as d e f i n e d on p. 8, and i s cemented by s h a r i n g o f spouses between n o n - k i n and f u r t h e r bound by the p r o d u c t i o n o f h a l f - s i b l i n g s , thus r e s u l t i n g i n the emergence o f a k i n -s h i p r e l a t i o n s h i p between n o n - r e l a t e d f a m i l i e s a c r o s s a d j a c e n t g e n e r a t i o n s . T h i s i s not a " p e r q a t i q " ( p a r t n e r s h i p ) r e l a t i o n s h i p between two or more men but i n c l u d e s these as s u b s i d i a r y phenomena. In s h o r t , a l l p e r s o n s , k i n , q u a s i - k i n , a f f i n a l k i n , and n o n - k i n w i t h whom an i n d i v i d u a l h a s , or might c o n c e i v a b l y - 1 1 3 -g have , a demonst rab le and amiab le r e l a t i o n s h i p a re d e s i g n a t e d i l i g i t . Other problems r e l a t i n g t o a t i g h t d e f i n i t i o n o f the meaning o f the i l i g i t term i n v o l v e the c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t a l t h o u g h the l a r g e s t k i n - g r o u p term, i l a g i t , i s sub-r sumed under i t , the r e v e r s e i s not n e c e s s a r i l y t r u e . That i s t o say , i f we assume some c o r r e l a t i o n between a term and the b e h a v i o r s i d e a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the term then some o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i l i g i t b e h a v i o u r c o r r e l a t e or equate "with some o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c b e h a v i o u r o f i l a g i t . But  t h e r e i s l i t t l e or no r e v e r s a l . The d i s t r i b u t i o n and a p p l i c a t i o n o f i n c e s t r e s t r i c t i o n s would appear t o bear t h i s o u t . Among i l i g i t not o n l y i s s u p p o r t i v e a c t i o n p o s s i b l e and e x p e c t a b l e b u t the added d i m e n s i o n o f s u p p o r t and a i d i n m a t t e r s p e r t a i n i n g t o s e x u a l and s e x u a l l y d e r i v e d b o n d i n g or o b l i g a t i n g p a r t n e r s h i p s s e t s t h i s c a t e g o r y a p a r t . On the o t h e r hand the s u p p o r t i v e b e h a v i o u r e x p e c t e d from i l a g i t , a l t h o u g h perhaps more i n t e n s e l y e m o t i o n a l l y s u p p o r t i v e , s t o p s s h o r t o f spouse-exchange . Whereas the i l i g i t a s s o c i a t i o n s c o n t a i n the v o l u n t a r y and c o n t r a c t u a l a s p e c t s o f n o n - k i n s h i p groups (Bohannon, p. 156), C lyde Eskimo k i n s h i p groups have another p r i m a r y r e f e r e n t i n g e n e a l o g i c a l c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h the major emphases on c o n s a n g u i n e a l i t y . T h i s has been p o i n t e d out f o r Esk imo groups i n g e n e r a l (Guemple, 1961) and f o r the I g l u l i k group (Damas, 1963) i n p a r t i c u l a r . . The k i n s h i p c a t e g o r i e s f o r the extended and r e s t r i c t e d k i n d r e d s c o l l e c t e d f o r the 114 DIAGRAM 16 SYMMETRICAL TWO FAMILY I L I G I T > i Q . A 9 rO 6 t A A 3) ki DIAGRAM 16a ASYMMETRICAL TWO FAMILY I L I G I T >1 A = 0 Q . o1 6 f A- J — - O A 6 ^ j H . B . S i n c e an a d u l t n i g h t bo i n v o l v e d w i t h U p a r t n e r s , the e x t e n s i o n of t h e nbova li n k a ^ f . 3 to i n c l u d e th«a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n becomes o b v i o u s . - 1 1 5 -C lyde I n l e t Eskimos have been l i s t e d i n T a b l e I IA . The d iagrams, numbers 16 and 16a, i l l u s t r a t e two most common i l i g i t a r rangements . The d iagrams d e p i c t o n l y two n u c l e a r f a m i l i e s bu t they r e p r e s e n t what i s u s u a l l y a l a r g e r number. The s y m m e t r i c a l t ype i l l u s t r a t e d i s more common i n the w e s t e r n a reas a c c o r d i n g t o Spencer , Guemple and o t h e r workers w h i l e the a s y m m e t r i c a l arrangement i s , a c - ' c o r d i n g t o my d a t a , the most common type i n n o r t h e a s t B a f f i n " I s l a n d . In the west , t h i s arrangement u s u a l l y i n v o l v e d i n l a n d and c o a s t a l groups and was c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the need f o r economic-exchange p a r t n e r s a c r o s s e c o l o g i c a l boun-d a r i e s ( c f . Spencer , 1959:130 e t p a s s i m ) . In the a r e a o f c o n c e r n h e r e the s i t u a t i o n seems t o a r i s e not between e c o l o g i c a l l y d i s t i n c t u n i t s , b u t r a t h e r between u n i t s t r a d i t -i o n a l l y o c c u p y i n g v a r i a b l y r i c h h u n t i n g t e r r i t o r i e s and so e n a b l e s peop le t o u t i l i z e a r e a s beyond t h e i r own as need a r i s e s . The e x a c t t e r m i n o l o g y a s s i g n e d t o the arrangements shown and t o the members i n v o l v e d are g i v e n i n Diagrams 16 t h r o u g h 19. For the moment I w i s h t o make the p o i n t t h a t the most g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t a b l e t r a n s l a t i o n o f i l i g i t , f rom the Eskimo p o i n t o f v iew, i s "community o f n e i g h b o u r s . " A l -though I use t h i s term i n the sense o f "community" or " n e i g h b o u r h o o d , " I s h o u l d p o i n t out t h a t t h i s e rodes con-s i d e r a b l e nuance and scope from the te rm. When i l l u s t r a t i n g - 1 1 6 -the meaning o f the term, i n f o r m a n t s would o f t e n r e f e r t o a b a l l game p l a y e d w i t h p a r t n e r s . In t h i s s i t u a t i o n t h e r e a re two l e v e l s o f meaning; everyone p l a y i n g can be i n c l u d e d as i l i g i t , and a t a more s p e c i f i c l e v e l , p a r t n e r s who keep and pass the b a l l e x c l u s i v e l y t o each o t h e r a re s a i d t o b e -i l i g i t . Games observed r e s u l t e d i n the p a i r i n g o f f o f ma le - fema le p a r t n e r s and t h e i r u n o b t r u s i v e w i t h d r a w a l as the game wore on, f i n a l l y l e a v i n g o n l y c h i l d r e n and un-p a i r e d a d u l t s p l a y i n g . (I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t b o t h "females and males c o u l d p u b l i c a l l y i n i t i a t e a t r y s t by throw-i n g the b a l l t o the p e r s o n they were i n t e r e s t e d i n . D e l i -b e r a t e l y l e t t i n g the b a l l go p a s t was taken as a d e f i n i t e 9 l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n t r y s t i n g ) . The i l i g i t r e l a t i o n s h i p subsumes those o f p u r e l y k i n s h i p type ( i l a g i t ) and c u t s a c r o s s the b o u n d a r i e s b e -tween the n o r t h e r n and s o u t h e r n groups ment ioned above . L i m i t a t i o n o f r e c r u i t m e n t and membership i n the i l i g i t i s de te rmined by a number o f f a c t o r s i n c o m b i n a t i o n . These a r e : s i m i l a r s o c i o - c u l t u r a l r e f e r e n t s , p r o p i n q u i t y , adherence t o a c c e p t a b l e modes o f b e h a v i o u r (common v a l u e s ) , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n and c o n c e r n w i t h same or s i m i l a r economic problems and a common language . Parameters f o r i n c l u s i o n / e x c l u s i o n from t h i s g r o u p i n g f o l l o w a l o n g these l i n e s i n the f o l l o w i n g o r d e r : r e s i d e n c e must be w i t h i n the g e o g r a p h i c a l range p e r -m i t t i n g a t l e a s t i n t e r m i t t e n t , n e u t r a l , or p o s i t i v e s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n ; s o c i a l i n t e r c h a n g e and b e h a v i o u r must comply w i t h l o c a l l y a c c e p t e d modes as de te rmined by v a l u e s h e l d i n - 1 1 7 -common by the g e n e r a l community; economic endeavour and n o t i o n s o f the r e l a t i v e worth o f v a r i o u s e f f o r t s must have a common b a s e . In the most g e n e r a l sense the term i l i g i t i s the a n t i t h e s i s o f the term " a l l a i n , " or f o r e i g n e r s . The l a t t e r term, a l l a i n , i s used as two l e v e l s o f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . A l l f o r e i g n e r s a re a l l a i n but s p e c i f i c a l l y White f o r e i g n e r s a re k a l l u n a n and Eskimo f o r e i g n e r s a re a l l a i n . "*"° Eskimo • a l l a i n a re g i v e n a degree o f r e c o g n i t i o n , b u t w i t h o u t any sense o f s o l i d a r i t y . The r e c o g n i t i o n i s t h a t they are " i n n u i t , " " p e o p l e , " "human b e i n g s , " and as such are p o t e n t i a l members o f the l o c a l i l i g i t i f they move i n t o the a r e a . On the o t h e r hand, Whi tes and o t h e r s not covered by the i n n u i t term a re immutably " f o r e i g n e r s " r e g a r d l e s s o f d u r a t i o n o f r e s i d e n c e , p e r s o n a l i t y , language s k i l l s and so f o r t h and are never r e f e r r e d t o as i l i g i t . T h i s h o l d s even f o r those Europeans who have mar-r i e d and c l a i m c h i l d r e n by an Eskimo spouse.'''"'' R e c r u i t m e n t o f i l i g i t members from among the l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n i s de te rmined by b i r t h i n the a r e a or on the assumpt ion o f l o c a l r e s i d e n c e f o r immigrants from o t h e r a r e a s . Eskimos m i g r a t i n g i n t o the a r e a f u l f i l l the q u a l i -f i c a t i o n s o f p r o p i n q u i t y and s o c i o - c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t y . Should the i m m i g r a n t ' s b e h a v i o u r be d i f f e r e n t enough t o war-r a n t comment, and s h o u l d he f a i l t o a d j u s t t o l o c a l l y a c c e p t e d p a t t e r n s , he w i l l be e x c l u d e d from the i l i g i t . That i s , he w i l l r e c e i v e no h e l p i n h u n t i n g or any o t h e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c p u r s u i t s nor w i l l he be welcome to take p a r t i n o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s such as gambl ing or b a l l - p l a y i n g . Most - 1 1 8 -i m p o r t a n t o f a l l , he w i l l be e x c l u d e d from the communicat ions system t h a t passes a l o n g c r u c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the l o c a l White p o p u l a t i o n , game, i c e c o n d i t i o n s , e t c . In such c a s e s the e x c l u d e d i n d i v i d u a l , i f a man, w i l l have t o make h i s own v i s i t t o , and assessment o f , f o r example, a newly a r r i v e d p o l i c e m a n or t r a d e r . The i l i g . i t members, on the o t h e r hand, w i l l be b u s i l y v i s i t i n g the new a r r i v a l and each o t h e r t o t r a d e i n f o r m a t i o n v i t a l t o the s u c c e s s f u l manipu-l a t i o n o f these i m p o r t a n t f i g u r e s . The k i n d o f i n f o r m a t i o n " r e l a t e s t o the c h a r a c t e r o f the s t r a n g e r : "does he s m i l e ? " ; "does he ge t a n g r y ? " ; "does he l i k e g i r l s ? " ; "does he g i v e out l o t s o f r e l i e f i s s u e s ? " ; "does he d r i n k a l c o h o l ? " ; " i s he v a i n ? " and l i k e q u e s t i o n s . U l t i m a t e l y , a composi te p i c t u r e i s deve loped and, whether i t i s a c c u r a t e or not , i t w i l l t o a l a r g e e x t e n t determine the approach the Eskimos take t o t h a t p e r s o n . S ince the C lyde Eskimos have an un-shakab le c o n v i c t i o n t h a t each new p o l i c e m a n , t r a d e r , t e a c h e r , or any o t h e r White i s t o t a l l y a u t o c r a t i c and a r b i t r a r y i n h i s  p a r t i c u l a r o c c u p a t i o n , t h e i r c o n c e r n w i t h h i s i d i o s y n c r a c i e s and the urgency o f a c q u i r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about him can be a p p r e c i a t e d . Whether the e x c l u d e d p e r s o n i s a man or a woman i t means s i m p l y t h a t he/she w i l l not be i n c l u d e d i n the g o s s i p - t r a n s f e r c i r c l e and w i l l have o n l y r e l u c t a n t a s s i s t a n c e a t c h i l d b i r t h or o t h e r l i f e c r i s e s . In the case o f a woman, the e f f e c t o f her e x c l u s i o n w i l l have l e s s s e r i o u s consequences f o r the s u b s i s t e n c e o f her c o n j u g a l f a m i l y . The e x c l u s i o n s I am d e s c r i b i n g are a lways w i t h - 1 1 9 -r e f e r e n c e t o an i n d i v i d u a l . A b e r r a n t b e h a v i o u r , or o t h e r un-a c c e p t a b l e q u a l i t i e s , on the p a r t o f the w i f e or husband, who may, f o r example, be White a re never c a s u a l l y e x t r a -p o l a t e d by the group t o i n c l u d e the spouse, c h i l d r e n or o t h e r k i n u n l e s s they too d i s p l a y s i m i l a r l y d e v i a n t p a t t e r n s . Two c a s e s i l l u s t r a t e t h i s s i t u a t i o n . X, a man l i v i n g a t C lyde R i v e r i s an i n v o l u n t a r y immigrant from a s e t t l e m e n t f a r t o the s o u t h . H i s f a t h e r had been e x i l e d by the a u t h o r i t i e s some y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y f o r "var ious o f f e n c e s , i n c l u d i n g murder, and X had been abandoned by h i s f a t h e r a t C l y d e . I n i t i a l l y the l o c a l peop le had ex-tended a s s i s t a n c e , and o f f e r s o f a s s i s t a n c e , t o the man to the e x t e n t t h a t he had managed t o a c q u i r e a w i f e . As i t t u r n e d out , however, he began t o d i s p l a y e x t r e m e l y a n t i -s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r and e v e n t u a l l y was l e f t t o camp by h i m s e l f . By 1964 he was t o t a l l y a v o i d e d , perhaps because he was t h r e a t e n i n g t o shoot anyone who came t o h i s camp ( a c t u a l l y he had shot a t a man i n 1963) b u t more l i k e l y because he had c e a s e d c o m p l e t e l y a l l h u n t i n g a c t i v i t i e s and was r e l y i n g upon h i s t w e l v e - y e a r - o l d son and the l o c a l p o l i c e f o r s u p p l i e s and f o o d . The b r o t h e r s o f h i s w i f e , had they not been chary o f the l o c a l p o l i c e , would e i t h e r have k i l l e d [ o b l i q u e a s s e r t i o n ] him or t a k e n t h e i r s i s t e r and her c h i l d r e n i n t o t h e i r own camp. T h i s woman was g i v e n m a t e r i a l and o t h e r h e l p by b r o t h e r s and was t r e a t e d w e l l by the community as a who le . Her o l d e s t son, the t w e l v e - y e a r - o l d . boy, was c o n s i d e r e d by the l o c a l f a t h e r s as a " c a t c h " f o r some daughter s i n c e , -12 el-even at t h i s early age, he r e g u l a r l y hunted and k i l l e d the high-status animals, walrus and polar bear. The second case concerns a man who appeared to be congenitally simple-minded. At the age of forty-two he had not yet acquired a wife. Although h i s mental deficiency was not by i t s e l f r e v i l e d , the incapacity to follow "normal" male pursuits, e.g. hunting and so forth, reduced him to an absolutely subordinate status. According to the l o c a l people he was worthless, a l i a r (a very serious charge) and, i n sum "a non-member of the group. The man eventually declared him-s e l f or was declared, a Roman Catholic and with the help of the missionaries went to I g l u l i k where he married a mentally retarded g i r l of the same r e l i g i o n . I would l i k e to stress here that I am describing events i n which exclusion i s of i n d i v i d u a l s and not of groups. In a number of areas i n the Canadian A r c t i c there have been migrations of groups from one area to another, e.g. the Cape Dorset group to B e l l o t S t r a i t s , then to Spence Bay; or, the Repulse Bay groups to I g l u l i k and to Southhampton Island. Although mutual h o s t i l i t y and r e j e c t i o n occurred between the emigrant and indigenous groups, there were enough people involved i n the migrating groups to f a c i l i t a t e adequate s u r v i v a l - a c t i o n and to operate as self-contained i l i g i t which, as group-endogamous marriages took place, became large kinship groups. The i n t e n s i t y of the inter-group d i s t r u s t and r e j e c t i o n i s perhaps r e f l e c t e d i n the number of group-endogamous marriages that have taken place within the - 1 2 1 -m i g r a n t g r o u p s . A t Spence Bay t h e r e a re a number o f " c o u s i n - m a r r i a g e s " and a t l e a s t one documented case o f c l a s s i f i c a t o r y b r o t h e r - s i s t e r m a r r i a g e among the m i g r a n t Cape D o r s e t Esk imos . I t i s o n l y v e r y r e c e n t l y t h a t any Cape D o r s e t woman has m a r r i e d a N e t s i l i k man. P r i o r t o t h i s t h e r e was e i t h e r endogamous m a r r i a g e or an a t tempt by D o r s e t i n d i v i d u a l s t o a c q u i r e a spouse from B a f f i n I s l a n d . The o r i g i n a l home a r e a was p r e f e r r e d but p l a c e s such as Pang-n i r t u n g were a c c e p t a b l e . In the Repu lse B a y - I g l u l i k a r e a c o u s i n m a r r i a g e i s common (see a l s o Damas, 1963) . One impor tan t r e s u l t o f i n d i v i d u a l m i g r a t i o n i s the e x t e n s i o n o f i l i g i t t i e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s a c r o s s group b o u n d a r i e s , e . g . between the n o r t h e r n and s o u t h e r n groups about C lyde , or between the n o r t h e r n group and Pond I n l e t and between the s o u t h e r n group and Broughton I s l a n d . I t s h o u l d be unders tood t h a t a l t h o u g h i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r a man t o suspend an i l i g i t r e l a t i o n s h i p , i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o t e r m i n a t e the a s s o c i a t i o n . The r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s f a i r l y o b v i o u s ; s i n c e spouse-exchange i s used t o s e a l the a g r e e -12 ment between the i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d the q u e s t i o n o f p a t e r n i t y o f c h i l d r e n b o r n d u r i n g the p e r i o d the r e l a t i o n -13 s h i p i s i n e x i s t e n c e becomes i m p o r t a n t . H a l f - s i b l i n g s i d e a l l y , do not marry and are e x p e c t e d t o behave i n the same manner toward each o t h e r as f u l l - s i b l i n g s , w i t h r e s p e c t t o i n c e s t and b e h a v i o u r i n g e n e r a l . . In t h i s way the p a r t n e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s a re seen t o have consequences f o r the d e s c e n d -i n g g e n e r a t i o n s by p r o d u c i n g k i n s h i p r e l a t i o n s h i p s wh i ch . DIAC-ILVi-I 17 AIPAPJUGIT' • 1 .2 6 = A 2 . 1 - 1 2 3 -as i s usual, are not voluntary r e l a t i o n s h i p s 0 In the north B a f f i n area, there are two w e l l -defined c i r c l e s of migration for i n d i v i d u a l s . One c i r c l e includes Iglulik-Pond I n l e t / A r c t i c Bay-Clyde and the other Broughton Island-Pangnirtung regions. Boas (1884) describes the l a t t e r and notes Clyde (Home Bay) as being included i n the migration pattern (p. 474). The e f f e c t of the h i s t o r -i c a l l y persistent inter-group migration (and assumption of i l i g j t r e l a tionships) by i n d i v i d u a l s has been to assure 'almost any North B a f f i n Eskimo the existence of (a) kinsmen ( h a l f - s i b l i n g s ) and offspring, and (b) former i l i g i t partners i n these areas. The reappearance of formerly co-resident i n d i v i d u a l s s u f f i c e s to create the p o s s i b i l i t y of r e a c t i v a t i n g the t i e s by which they are bound, be i t h a l f -s i b l i n g s h i p or partnership. Within t h i s all-embracing network of extra-kin and k i n t i e s the more s p e c i f i c terms used are i l l u s t r a t e d i n Diagrams 17, 18 and 19 (see also Table VIII). Beginning with the paired adults the males, numbered 1 use the r e c i p r o c a l term, aiparjuga i n both address and reference to each other; s i m i l a r l y , the females, numbered 2, use the same term i n the same way. For a t h i r d party they are r e f e r r e d to as a i p a r j u g i t . Diagram 17 i l l u s t r a t e s a symmetrical r e l a t i o n -ship between two pairs of spouses (the symmetrical type has been chosen for the sake of s i m p l i c i t y ) ; as shown, a single term i s used i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p and i s applicable to each i n d i v i d u a l of the foursome, t h i s term i s a i p a r j u g i t and i s - 1 2 4 -used t o denote a same-sex p a r t n e r . The r o o t o f the term, a i p a , denotes one o f a p a i r (the o t h e r one o f a p a i r t o be p r e c i s e ) and i n the c o n t e x t o f the i l i g i t r e l a t i o n s h i p i m p l i e s commonal i ty o f u s i n g or s h a r i n g . On t h i s b a s i s , i . e . b e i n g p a i r e d , the term can be t r a n s l a t e d as "exchange p a r t n e r s . " The k i n - e x c l u s i v e na tu re o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s e x p l i c i t l y r e c o g n i z e d and the term a i p a r j u g i t i s never used e i t h e r between kinsmen or t o d e s c r i b e a p a r t n e r s h i p between k i n s m e n . ^ A l t h o u g h the f a c t o r o f s e x u a l i t y has been the c o n -c e r n o f l o c a l m i s s i o n a r i e s and p o l i c e , t h i s overemphas is has o b s c u r e d the e x i s t e n c e o f o t h e r , o f t e n more i m p o r t a n t , c o n -s i d e r a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s . e x c h a n g e r e l a t i o n s h i p . These have t o do w i t h economic or s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s p r i m a r i l y and w i t h the a l l o c a t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y and group 15 s o l i d a r i t y t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t . Some o f these f a c t o r s have been ment ioned p r e v i o u s l y (p. 1 1 6 f f ) b u t can be a m p l i f i e d and s t r e s s e d h e r e . Involvement i n an a i p a r j u g i t r e l a t i o n s h i p i s r e s t r i c t e d t o m a r r i e d and/or widowed i n d i v i d u a l s . Unmarr ied males never e n t e r i n t o these arrangements and a l t h o u g h b r i e f romances w i t h m a r r i e d women a re f a i r l y common, these k i n d s o f a f f a i r s a re never l o n g - l a s t i n g , are u s u a l l y kept " s e c r e t , " and do not have the h u s b a n d ' s c o n s e n t . S i m i l a r l y (and more commonly), the husband might have an a f f a i r w i t h an unmarr ied female w i t h or w i t h o u t h i s s p o u s e ' s consent bu t h e r e a l s o the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s u s u a l l y o f s h o r t d u r a t i o n . - 1 2 5 -N e i t h e r o f the l a t t e r two s i t u a t i o n s d i s p l a y the e x p e c t e d a i p a r j u g i t c o n t e n t w i t h r e s p e c t to. b e h a v i o u r . F o l k ex-p l a n a t i o n s o f t h i s r e s t r i c t i o n a re g i v e n i n terms o f "awkward-ness/" a k a o n g i t o q , o r , perhaps b e t t e r , l a c k o f " r i g h t n e s s . " I t i s a s s e r t e d by i n f o r m a n t s t h a t the i n c l u s i o n o f an un-m a r r i e d p e r s o n would r e s u l t i n j e a l o u s y , s i n g n a y o q , between the spouse and the unmarr ied " r i v a l " (a i p a , a l l a k , a s i a k ) . When u s i n g the e x p l a n a t i o n o f 'awkwardness' the p r i m a r y r e -f e r e n t i s t o the d i f f i c u l t y o f imbuing the r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a sense o f r e c i p r o c i t y . That i s , the unmarr ied male i s e x p e c t e d t o ( w i l l p r o b a b l y ) move i n t o the camp o f h i s w i f e ' s group upon m a r r i a g e and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y s h i f t h i s f o c u s o f c o n c e r n between them and h i s own f a m i l y or h o u s e h o l d o f o r i e n t a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t an unmarr ied p e r s o n would have a c g u i r e d the n e c e s s a r y equipment (dogs, s l e d s , b o a t s , weapons, e t c . ) needed i n d a y - t o - d a y a c t i v i t i e s t h u s f u r t h e r r e d u c i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y o f e q u i t y i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p . An unmarr ied female , a f t e r the b r i d e s e r v i c e p e r i o d was completed , would most l i k e l y m i g r a t e w i t h h e r husband t o a camp o f h i s k insmen r e s u l t i n g i n a r e l a t i o n -s h i p even more tenuous than the one she had l e f t . The i n i t i a t i o n o f an a i p a r j u g i t r e l a t i o n s h i p i s g e n e r a l l y made by males , and o c c a s i o n a l l y by f ema les , some-t imes a t the i n s i s t e n c e o f w i v e s . Same-sex a i p a r j u g i t a re s a i d t o "behave w e l l towards each o t h e r , " p i t s e r m a t a q , or t o " l i k e " each o t h e r , p i u j u g i j o g . -The c o n n o t a t i o n s h e r e a re b r o a d and vague b u t i n d i c a t e , i n a sense , r e l a t i v e l y - 1 2 6 -u n l i m i t e d a s s i s t a n c e and g o o d w i l l . The f i r s t s t e p t a k e n i s t h a t o f s u g g e s t i n g and/or c o a x i n g a p r o s p e c t i v e or d e s i r e d p a r t n e r t o e s t a b l i s h a camp and work group t o g e t h e r . The men p o o l equipment and t r a v e l t o g e t h e r d u r i n g h u n t i n g , 16 s h a r i n g e q u a l l y a l l game t a k e n . The women h e l p each o t h e r w i t h h e a v i e r t a s k s such as s k i n n i n g , s c r a p i n g , and s t r e t c h -i n g h i d e s , sewing, the care o f the c h i l d r e n , and l e n d i n g each o t h e r m a t e r i a l i tems as r e q u e s t e d . Requests f o r a s s i s -t a n c e a re a lmost a lways couched i n c a u s a t i v e terms , e . g . "" q imerqo t i saqang inama" o r , "because I have no dog food" ; the e x p e c t e d response from the p a r t n e r i s , "because I have p l e n t y o f dog f o o d . " An e q u a l l y impor tan t a s p e c t o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s the f r e e t r a n s m i s s i o n o f a l l i m p o r t a n t g o s s i p and g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n . Sexua l exchange does not take p l a c e u n t i l i t appears t h a t the economic a s p e c t o f the p a r t n e r s h i p i s amenable t o b o t h p a i r s o f s p o u s e s . A l t h o u g h i d e a l l y e g a l i t a r i a n the a i p a r j u g i t r e l a t i o n s h i p s t end t o f a l l i n t o a p a t t e r n o f l e a d e r / f o l l o w e r w i t h the w i f e o f the male " l e a d e r " g e n e r a l l y assuming a c o r r e s p o n d i n g r o l e v i s - a - v i s h e r o p p o s i t e . One o f the most p o w e r f u l f i g u r e s i n the a r e a i s a man who has two spouse exchange r e l a t i o n s h i p s g o i n g s imu-l t a n e o u s l y . B e s i d e s t h i s he has a younger b r o t h e r , m a r r i e d , who camps w i t h h im. The r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g between t h i s man and h i s p a r t n e r s i s one o f d o m i n a n c e / s u b o r d i n a t i o n . T h i s man has had spouse exchange r e l a t i o n s w i t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y e l e v e n men (as f a r as he c o u l d remember) and has numerous - 1 2 7 -c h i l d r e n s c a t t e r e d th roughout the a r e a . He k i l l e d h i s f i r s t w i f e " . . . because she a lways whined a t me!" and was s e n t i n t o e x i l e f o r t h r e e y e a r s . Upon h i s r e t u r n he e n t e r e d i n t o an agreement w i t h a man whose w i f e he took c o n t r o l over and r e d u c e d the ex-husband t o the s t a t u s o f ' s i e l a . ' A key t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the s t r u c t u r e o f the i l i g i t i s the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c need f o r f e a s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s and s u b s t i t u t e s t o k i n - b a s e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The need f o r a man t o e s t a b l i s h t i e s o u t s i d e the k i n s h i p group can be under -"stood i n v a r i o u s ways. For example, g i v e n the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f s u p p l i e s i n the form o f government r e l i e f , m e d i c a l ca re and so on, t h e r e i s no apparent need t o form t h e s e k i n d s o f p a r t n e r s h i p s ; b u t j u s t as n u c l e a r group exogamy has been i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d , the a i p a r j u g i t r e l a t i o n s h i p has become (more a c c u r a t e l y , i s becoming) as much o f a r e l i c t s t r u c t u r e as i n c e s t taboos i n i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s . P u t t i n g t h i s d i f f e r e n t l y , i n e a r l i e r p e r i o d s a man might have e n t e r e d i n -t o such a p a r t n e r s h i p i n o r d e r t o ensure economic c o o p e r a t i o n , ex tend c o o p e r a t i v e t i e s i n a n o n - k i n s h i p or q u a s i - k i n s h i p manner, and t o g a i n some a s s u r a n c e o f the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f female l a b o u r . In the contemporary s e t t i n g membership i n the c h a i n i s i m p o r t a n t p r i m a r i l y f o r the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a s u b v e r s i v e b u t s o l i d f r o n t a g a i n s t the Whites and a guarantee o f sympathy and a s s i s t a n c e i n d e a l i n g w i t h these " s t r a n g e r s " i n the c o n f u s i n g c o n t e x t o f the i n t r o d u c e d economy, w e l f a r e , r e l i e f payments, e t c . - 1 2 8 -Any e n d u r i n g or s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p must be s u p p o r t e d and cemented i n some way. V o l u n t a r y c o n -t r a c t s t h a t a re e s s e n t i a l f o r i n d i v i d u a l s must be t r a n s -fo rmab le i n t o r e l a t i v e l y unbreakab le n o n - v o l u n t a r y c o n t r a c t s by some means. For the i l i g i t a t C lyde there , a re two such i m p o r t a n t b i n d i n g , f a c t o r s : spouse-exchange and the p r o d u c -t i o n o f h a l f - s i b l i n g s . The etymology o f the t e rmino logy , r e f l e c t s t o some e x t e n t the na tu re o f t h e s e f a c t o r s . When q u e s t i o n i n g male i n f o r m a n t s as t o t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r male n o n - k i n , I r e c e i v e d answers t o the e f f e c t t h a t : "he i s not my kinsman ( i l a o n g i t o q ) . P e r s i s t e n t q u e r y i n g (and a promise not to d i v u l g e the i n f o r m a t i o n ) g e n e r a l l y l e d t o the s ta tement t h a t : "we a re h a l v e s (of a p a i r ) a i p a r j u v u g . " The s i t u a t i o n upon e x a m i n a t i o n d i s c l o s e d t h a t t h e r e a re s u b - c l a s s e s o f "be ing h a l v e s . " These a r e : g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t — a i p a r j u g i t , the s p o u s e - h a l v e s / s h a r e r s ; t h e n by sex, the n u l i a q a r i t t h a t i s , men who are s h a r i n g women and c o n v e r s e l y , u i q a r i t o r , women who are s h a r i n g men (see Diagram 18) . A i p a r j u g i t as has been shown (p. 1 2 2 f f ) s t a n d i n a s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o each o t h e r . T h i s r e l a t i o n -s h i p i s o f a much more b i n d i n g na tu re than the p e r k a t i q r e l a t i o n s h i p ment ioned e a r l i e r (p. 1 1 2 f f ) and d i s c u s s e d by Damas (1963). Whereas the i l i g i t r e l a t i o n s h i p and the a i p a r j u g i t r e l a t i o n s h i p s are p e r p e t u a t e d i n some form th rough the g e n e r a t i o n s , the p e r q a t i q r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a s h o r t term c o n t r a c t t h a t can be t e r m i n a t e d e a s i l y . In s h o r t , i t i s a p u r e l y v o l u n t a r y and n o n - b i n d i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t , 129 - 1 3 0 -i f i t does not p r o g r e s s t o spouse-exchange , can be t e r m i n a t e d a t w i l l . The system i s not l e f t i n c o m p l e t e . There a re two more terms used t h a t round out the system o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; t h e s e a r e , f o r the p e r s o n u s u a l l y the woman, whose spouse has e n t e r e d i n t o a r e l a t i o n s h i p i n v o l v i n g spouse-exchange by themse lves i s " p a i j o g " and has the c o n n o t a t i o n o f t e m p o r a r i l y "abandoned"; (see Diagram 18, p e r s o n numbered 2 ) . One woman whose husband has made such an arrangement r e f e r e d t o my own w i f e t o i l l u s t r a t e the meaning, t h a t i s , she i s , she t. s a i d t h a t "your w i f e and I a re p a i j o g u v u k ( t e m p o r a r i l y abandoned) f o r a w h i l e . " The impor tan t t h i n g h e r e i s t h a t a l t h o u g h a t t h a t t ime "abandoned," the woman c o u l d i f she w ished i n i t i a t e or a c c e p t a s i m i l a r arrangement f o r h e r s e l f . T h i s f a c t l i e s a t the base o f the " c h a i n - t y p e " e x p l a n a t i o n o f spouse-exchange t h a t I have a r r i v e d a t f o r t h i s g roup . The l a s t term used i s t h a t o f p e r q a t a n g , (number 3 i n Diagram 3) and r e f e r s t o any p e r s o n whose spouse has not e n t e r e d i n -t o an exchange w i t h them. O b v i o u s l y , i f o n l y one o f a p a i r engages i n spouse-exchange ( g e n e r a l l y men) then the terms p e r q a t a n g / p a i j o k are complementary. T h i s can occur i n e i t h e r the n u l i a q a r i t or u i q a r i t s i t u a t i o n . In any e v e n t , i s s u e s a re a lways k a t a n g o t i q a t i g i t . When a p e r q a t i g r e l a t i o n s h i p l e a d s t o spouse-exchange then b o t h terms become e f f e c t i v e . U n l i k e the spouse-exchange systems p o s i t e d by Guemple (1961), the C lyde system i s d i f f e r e n t from the A l a s k a n system i n b e i n g more l i k e a l i n e a l , b u t complex, c h a i n t h a n a s y m m e t r i c a l , r e s t r i c t e d , and r e c i p r o c a l s e t o f - 1 3 1 -r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A l s o u n l i k e the scheme p r e s e n t e d by Guemple, t h e r e a r e no s p e c i a l t e r m i n o l o g i c a l r e f e r e n t s f o r c h i l d r e n i s s u i n g from such r e l a t i o n s h i p s . For those A l a s k a n Esk imos p r o v i d i n g the e m p i r i c a l r e f e r e n t t o . G u e m p l e ' s model spouse-exchange was a p p a r e n t l y v e r y c l o s e l y l i n k e d w i t h the need t o e s t a b l i s h t r a d i n g - p a r t n e r s w i t h a v iew t o m a i n t a i n i n g such e c o n o m i c a l l y based r e l a t i o n s h i p s over l ong p e r i o d s o f t i m e . The o p p o s i t e s i t u a t i o n p o s s i b l y has had impor tan t e f f e c t s on spouse-exchange r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the more nomadic "hunters o f the n o r t h e a s t B a f f i n I s l a n d c o a s t . Here , i t was more i m p o r t a n t t o e s t a b l i s h spouse-exchange t i e s w i t h a number o f pe rsons not r e s i d e n t i n a s i n g l e l a r g e s e t t l e m e n t b u t r a t h e r s c a t t e r e d over the a v a i l a b l e h u n t i n g t e r r i t o r y . Guemple's d e f i n i t i o n o f spouse-exchange i s as f o l l o w s (my e m p h a s i s ) : Common spouse-exchange i s i n i t i a t e d when two -m a r r i e d c o u p l e s agree t o exchange p a r t n e r s w i t h  each o t h e r ; and the arrangement i s made b i n d i n g when each member has s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h the O p p o s i t e sexed member o f the o t h e r coup le (1961 :1) . There a re a number o f o b j e c t i o n s t o t h i s d e f i n i t i o n . I t o v e r - e m p h a s i z e s the s e x u a l a s p e c t o f the. r e l a t i o n s h i p ; i t makes no ment ion o f o t h e r more i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s t h a t l e a d t o the arrangement i n the f i r s t p l a c e , e . g . the d e s i r e f o r economic c o o p e r a t i o n and p a r t n e r s h i p s ; l a s t l y , i f a c c e p t e d as s y m m e t r i c a l , i t would exc lude a s y m m e t r i c a l un ions t h a t 17 a re found a t C lyde R i v e r and o t h e r a reas t o the wes t . The arrangement a t C lyde i n c l u d e s widows and widowers ; t h a t - 1 3 2 -i s , t h e s e p e o p l e can e n t e r i n t o a spouse-exchange r e l a t i o n -s h i p d u r i n g the p e r i o d they a re s p o u s e - l e s s . When not p a r -t i c i p a t i n g i n spouse-exchange the widows and widowers a re r e f e r r e d t o by the p a i j o q te rm. Where, f o r example, o n l y the husband i s s h a r i n g the spouse o f another husband and h i s w i f e i s p a i j o q , the husband i s s a i d t o be n u l i a q a r i t t o the husband o f the women he i s s h a r i n g ; and she, i n t u r n , i s s a i d t o have a "perqatang" r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h im . That i s , the u i g a r i t r e l a t i o n s h i p i s n o n - e x i s t e n t . I t can be seen ' t h a t , t e r m i n o l o g i c a l l y a t l e a s t , a l l p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the a c t i v e p a r t n e r s a re r e c o g n i z e d by the peop le i n v o l v e d . The second i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r f o r the i l i g i t r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s , as has been no ted , the e x i s t e n c e o f h a l f -s i b l i n g s and the concomi tant b e h a v i o r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s i n -v o l v e d , Diagram 18. H a l f - s i b l i n g s can be p roduced as a r e s u l t o f m u l t i p l e s e q u e n t i a l m a r r i a g e , polygamous f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e , or th rough spouse-exchange r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A l l t h r e e modes are known t o the C lyde Esk imos . H a l f - s i b l i n g s p roduced by any o f the t h r e e modes l i s t e d above are named " k a t a n g o t i q a t i g i t " t r a n s l a t e d by me as h a v i n g the meaning, "group h a v i n g one common p a r e n t ( e i t h e r male or f e m a l e ) . " A g a i n , i n c o n t r a s t t o Guemple 's scheme, C lyde Eskimos make no t e r m i n o l o g i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n s between h a l f - s i b l i n g s p r o -duced i n any o f the t h r e e ways o u t l i n e d . Guemple b e g i n s h i s a n a l y s i s by a s s e r t i n g t h a t t h e r e i s a t e r m i n o l o g i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n between " r e a l " D I A C - H A : ' 1 9 KWiH-GOTlOATIGlT' 133 4-9 o 0 1 6 j A . 3 - 1 3 4 -s i b l i n g s ; " s t e p " s i b l i n g s ; "adopted" s i b l i n g s ; and "exchange" s i b l i n g s . He t h e n a s s e r t s t h a t t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r d i s t i n c -t i o n between "s tep" and " h a l f " s i b l i n g s as f o l l o w s : S t e p - r e l a t i v e s a re pe rsons who.share no common b i o l o g i c a l h e r i t a g e b u t whose t i e s are b a s e d s o l e l y on the r e m a r r i a g e o f one r e l a t i v e o f the r e f e r e n t . H a l f - r e l a t i v e s a re those whose h e r i t a g e i s s h a r e d by o n l y one p a r e n t / b u t not b o t h (1961 :4) . Guemple p r o v i d e s a l i s t o f r e l a t i o n s h i p terms w i t h the term f o r " h a l f - s i b l i n g " o m i t t e d b u t does i n c l u d e what he c l a i m s . i s the "exchange" s i b l i n g te rm. The term he used f o r e x c h a n g e - s i b l i n g he f i n d s i n the l i t e r a t u r e and g i v e n as " k a t a n u t i g a " w i t h o u t t r a n s l a t i o n and w i t h o u t .not ing t h a t the s u f f i x - g a denotes the speaker as f i r s t p e r s o n s i n g u l a r p o s s e s s i v e o f an i t em, s i n g u l a r or p l u r a l . Spencer (1959) l i s t s a term " k a t a n g u t i g i t " ( t h i r d p e r s o n p l u r a l ) , no r e l a t i o n s h i p t o speaker , as h a l f - s i b l i n g , and Damas (1963) l i s t s the term " g a t a n g u q a t t i g i t " f o r the same c a t e g o r y ( t h i s d i f f e r s from S p e n c e r ' s term o n l y i n h a v i n g the p o s -s e s s i v e i n f i x , k a t , " p o s s e s s i o n " i n s e r t e d ) . The h a l f -s i b l i n g term used by the C lyde peop le i s e x a c t l y the same as those r e p o r t e d f o r v a r i o u s Canadian and A l a s k a n Eskimo g r o u p s . To r e i t e r a t e a p o i n t a l r e a d y made, among the C lyde Esk imos n o r t h e r n and s o u t h e r n groups i n c l u d e d , t h e r e i s no s p e c i a l t e r m i n o l o g y t h a t s e t s a p a r t the h a l f - s i b l i n g s i s s u i n g from spouse-exchange r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A r e v i e w of the l i t e r -a t u r e shows c o n c l u s i v e l y t h a t t h i s i s the g e n e r a l case e v e r y -where and t h a t Guemple's c o n c l u s i o n s are i n c o r r e c t . -13 5-The p r e v a l e n c e o f spouse-exchange whether as a r e c i p r o c a l and s y m m e t r i c a l arrangement between two husband/ w i f e p a i r s o r , as i s v e r y common i n C l y d e , a s y m m e t r i c a l l y between a number o f husband/wife p a i r s , cannot be e x p l a i n e d i n terms o f l u s t , s e x u a l p r o m i s c u i t y , and so f o r t h . The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f widows and unmar r i ed g i r l s t o a l l males m a r r i e d and s i n g l e s e r v e s t o r e f u t e t h i s l i n e o f argument. F u r t h e r , spouse-exchange arrangements are seldom made b e -tween a m a r r i e d man and a s i n g l e man. I am i g n o r i n g h e r e -the few i n s t a n c e s i n which the w i f e t a k e s a s i n g l e man as a l o v e r . R i g h t s , p r i v i l e g e s , and o b l i g a t i o n s incumbent upon every p e r s o n who i s i n v o l v e d or has been i n v o l v e d i n spouse-exchange r e l a t i o n s h i p s a re such t h a t the gap between k i n s h i p s o l i d a r i t y and community s o l i d a r i t y i s b r i d g e d . P a s t spouse-exchange agreements a re r e s i d u a l i n the p r o d -u c t i o n o f h a l f - s i b l i n g s , the k a t a n g o t i q a t i g i t s h a r e r s o f a common p a r e n t . These c h i l d r e n are c o n s i d e r e d t o be c l o s e k i n and as a consequence are not p e r m i t t e d t o marry each o t h e r . T h e i r k i n s h i p r e l a t i o n s h i p t o each o t h e r s e r v e s as a f u r t h e r bond between the u n r e l a t e d husband/wife p a i r s . For the g e n e r a t i o n i n which the exchanges take p l a c e , the u t i l i t y o f exchange r e l a t i o n s h i p s l i e s i n the immediate r e c i p r o c a l b e n e f i t s a c c r u i n g t o i t . These i n c l u d e mutua l a i d , c o o p e r a t i o n i n most spheres o f e f f o r t , a s s u r a n c e t h a t i f a spouse i s l o s t ( p a r t i c u l a r l y a w i f e ) t h e r e w i l l be an i n t e r i m a s s i s t a n c e o f the k i n d p r o v i d a b l e o n l y by a spouse - 1 3 6 -or non-kinswoman. The i d e a l i n c e s t r e s t r i c t i o n s a re such t h a t a f a t h e r , b r o t h e r , o r male c o u s i n may n e i t h e r speak t o 18 nor t o u c h a daughter , s i s t e r , or female c o u s i n . C o n s i d e r -i n g the impor tan t r o l e o f women i n m a i n t a i n i n g a h o u s e h o l d , e . g . sewing c l o t h i n g , w o r k i n g h i d e s , e t c . , one can v i s u a l i z e the n e a r l y c r i p p l i n g e f f e c t s o f the l a c k o f a woman. Should a man l o s e h i s w i f e , t h e r e i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t h i s k insmen w i l l t ake ca re o f h i s c h i l d r e n ; b u t over and beyond t h i s , h i s exchange p a r t n e r s w i l l be e x p e c t e d t o take c a r e o f h im " u n t i l r e - m a r r i a g e . Wi thout such a i d , a h u n t e r cannot f u n c t i o n t o f u l l c a p a c i t y and maximum e f f i c i e n c y . A s i n g l e case w i l l i l l u s t r a t e t h i s . There was, d u r i n g my f i e l d w o r k p e r i o d , a man whose w i f e was t a k e n sou th f o r t r e a t m e n t f o r t u b e r c u l o s i s . T h i s man farmed h i s c h i l d r e n out t o r e l a t i v e s and moved t o a camp o c c u p i e d by p o t e n t i a l l y a c t i v e p a s t p a r t n e r s . H i s c l o t h i n g and s e x u a l demands were met u n s t i n t i n g l y by the women o f the camp he had moved i n t o upon the d e p a r t u r e o f h i s w i f e . Upon i n q u i r -i n g i n t o the s i t u a t i o n I d i s c o v e r e d t h a t the man, i n the p a s t , had had numerous p e r i o d s o f spouse-exchange w i t h the men o f t h a t camp. Whereas h i s c h i l d r e n were guaran teed h e l p from h i s own k i n he h i m s e l f was, because o f the i n c e s t r e s t r i c t i o n s , f o r c e d i n t o e x t r a - k i n s h i p a l l i a n c e s . A t the end o f the f i e l d w o r k p e r i o d he was s t i l l b e i n g * l ooked a f t e r ' by the p a r t n e r s . As has been noted , the consequences o f the spo\ise-exchanges a re d i f f e r e n t l y f e l t a t the - 1 g e n e r a t i o n . K i n - 1 3 7 -bonds are extended t remendous ly t h e r e b y i n c r e a s i n g b o t h d u t i e s and p r i v i l e g e s r e l a t e d t o k i n t i e s . Each g e n e r a t i o n must i n i t i a t e i t s own p e r m i s s i b l e s e t s o f spouse-exchange p a r t n e r s . S imple c a l c u l a t i o n s c l e a r l y show t h a t n e i t h e r immigrant nor l o c a l l y d e r i v e d p o p u l a t i o n s c o u l d p o s s i b l y ,. keep up w i t h exchange demands i n each g e n e r a t i o n and s t i l l a v o i d b r e a k i n g i n c e s t r e s t r i c t i o n s . The answer appears t o be t h a t the C lyde Eskimo, l i k e many b i l a t e r a l g roups , take advantage o f the hazy b o u n d a r i e s o f the k i n d r e d t o man i -p u l a t e the e x t e n t o f the i n c e s t t a b o o s . T h i s i s an e s p e c i -a l l y c r u c i a l f a c t o r where the p o p u l a t i o n i s v e r y s m a l l . The i n t e r - g r o u p m i g r a t i o n s between s e t t l e m e n t s i s a l s o a c r u c i a l f a c t o r i n the appearance o f n o n - k i n . In c o n c l u s i o n , two f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e d t o the d i f f i c u l t y o f examin ing the i l i g i t s t r u c t u r e . F i r s t , a l l e l i g i b l e a d u l t s are not (and p r o b a b l y never were) i n v o l v e d i n an o n - g o i n g s o c i o - e c o n o m i c p a r t n e r s h i p (with spouse-exchange) a t the same t i m e . Many former a s s o c i a t i o n s were dormant between the p a r t n e r s a t the t ime the f i e l d w o r k was b e i n g conducted and the r e l a t i o n s h i p was c o n t i n u e d and v a l i d a t e d s o l e l y th rough the h a l f - s i b l i n g s b o r n t o the u n i o n s . Of the p o s s i b l e numbers o f p e r m i s s i b l e spouse-exchange ar rangements , reckoned on the b a s i s o f the numbers o f un-r e l a t e d m a r r i e d or widowed a d u l t s , o n l y e i g h t were a c t i v e or had been a c t i v e d u r i n g the two f i e l d w o r k p e r i o d s . On the o t h e r hand, no s i n g l e a d u l t male and l e s s than s i x a d u l t women had ever been a t some t ime , i n some p l a c e , i n a - 1 3 8 -p a r t n e r s h i p r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the k i n d d e s c r i b e d . T h i s t h e n , f rom the o b s e r v e r 1 s p o i n t o f v iew, r e s u l t e d i n a complex mosa i c o f a c t i v e , dormant ( p o t e n t i a l l y a c t i v e ) , and i n a c t i v e (between aged p e r s o n s ) k i n s h i p and e x t r a - k i n s h i p r e l a t i o n -s h i p s . The second d i f f i c u l t y r e l a t e d t o the r e l u c t a n c e o f i n f o r m a n t s t o d i v u l g e i n f o r m a t i o n , o r even i d e a s , t h a t . they knew or assumed would b r i n g the wrath o f the m i s s i o n -a r i e s and p o l i c e m e n upon them. F o r t u n a t e l y , a f t e r the i n i t i a l h e s i t a t i o n my a s s u r a n c e s and guarantee o f anonymity overcame t h i s t o a g r e a t e x t e n t . F o l l o w i n g from t h i s , o f c o u r s e , once knowing what t o look f o r , I was a b l e t o c o n -f i r m or r e j e c t imputed exchange s i t u a t i o n s . - 1 3 9 -TABLE V I I I SPOUSE-EXCHANGE TERMINOLOGY a l l a g a i p a a i p a r j u g a a j p a r j u g i t a r v a k . a r v a r a a s i a k i l i g i t k a t a n g o t i q a t i g i t n u l i a q a r i t p a i y o q p e r q a t a n g p e r q a t i q p i t s e r m a t a g p i u y u g i j o q u i q a r i t o u t s i d e r the o t h e r one (of a p a i r ) my s h a r e r ( f i r s t p e r s o n , p o s s e s s i v e o f spouse) s h a r e r s o f spouses h a l f ( i n t h i s c o n t e x t , h a l f name) my h a l f , i . e . name s h a r e r the o t h e r one (of many); f o r example, "another p o s s i b i l i t y " community s h a r e r s o f one p a r e n t s h a r e r s o f w ives abandoned p e r s o n u s i n g two spouses companion, f r i e n d , p a r t n e r i n h u n t i n g , e t c . t o "behave p r o p e r l y " t o " l i k e " someone ( th ing) n e i t h e r " fondness" nor " l o v e " s h a r e r s o f husbands - 1 4 0 -FOOTNOTES See a l s o Spencer , 1949:129-130 e t pass im and B a l i k c i , 1959, p a s s i m . In p a s s i n g , and f o r what i t i s wor th , i t appears t h a t such s e l f - c e n t e r e d o r i e n t a t i o n s a re common amongst Esk imos g e n e r a l l y and C lyde Eskimos i n p a r t i c u l a r . The mode o f measur ing d i s t a n c e s between s e l f and o b j e c t a lways has i t s b e g i n n i n g w i t h the o b j e c t and ends a t t h e p e r s o n . In wes te rn terms t h i s i s r e v e r s e d . P e r -s p e c t i v e o f d i s t a n c e a p p a r e n t l y f o l l o w s l o g i c a l l y from t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n ; l i n e s , i n s t e a d o f c o n v e r g i n g i n t o the d i s t a n c e , converge i n t o the p o s i t i o n o f the v i e w and open up o u t w a r d l y . Ego and h i s group a r e , i t seems, the c e n t r e o f the u n i v e r s e . T h i s i s p a r t i a l l y borne out by s ta tements as t o the r e l a t i v e worth o f f a m i l y members. The answers i n v a r i a b l y i n d i c a t e t h a t , s h o u l d the s i t u a t i o n ever o c c u r , the v i r i l e p a i r o f p a r e n t s ought t o s u r v i v e a t the expense, f i r s t o f o l d e r p e o p l e t h e n c h i l d r e n (we can a lways make new c h i l d r e n ! ) . T h i s may be a t o p i c o f i n t e r e s t t o f u t u r e r e s e a r c h e r s . There were, f o r example, q u i t e d i f f e r e n t terms f o r • c o u s i n s . ' I knew o f the e x i s t e n c e o f t h i s term i n the c o n t e x t o f games i n which p a r t n e r s , or p a i r s , were an i n t e g r a l p a r t . - 1 4 1 -A l t h o u g h I was f a m i l i a r w i t h the Eskimo impu lse t o c o r -r e c t e r r o r s i t was not u n t i l I was d o i n g a c t u a l f i e l d -work t h a t the t e c h n i q u e o f ' b e i n g c o r r e c t e d 1 assumed i m p o r t a n c e . When f a c e d w i t h d o u b t f u l s ta tements , f o r example about k i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s , I would go over the m a t e r i a l g i v e n b u t would i n s e r t ' m i s t a k e s ' d e l i b e r a t e l y . These would be c o r r e c t e d by i n f o r m a n t s thus the i n f o r -m a t i o n c o u l d be checked on the s p o t . I d i s c u s s e d the term i l i g i t w i t h D. Damas, p e r s . comm. who t e s t e d i t i n the B a t h u r s t I n l e t a r e a . He found t h a t the term e x i s t s b u t c o u l d not determine p r e c i s e l y what i t meant o t h e r than ' f r i e n d ' or ' n e i g h b o u r ' . I have been unab le t o l o c a t e a s i n g l e r e f e r e n c e t o t h i s term i n the l i t e r a t u r e on Esk imos . P r e l i m i n a r y c h e c k i n g a t F r o b i s h e r Bay among Eskimos from a number o f E a s t e r n A r c t i c s e t t l e m e n t s showed t h a t the term i s i n use g e n e r a l l y and i n much the same manner as g i v e n by the above d e f i n i t i o n . One p o s s i b l e r e a s o n f o r the absence o f the term from the l i t e r a t u r e i s t h a t i t sounds v e r y much l i k e the term f o r " k i n d r e d " or " r e l a t i v e , " i . e . i l a g i t and s i n c e the b e h a v i o r a l demands o f the two k i n d s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s have a g r e a t d e a l i n common, p r e v i o u s i n v e s t i g a t o r s might have m i s s e d the d i s t i n c -t i o n s . I use the term "amiab le" d e l i b e r a t e l y f o r a l t h o u g h an i n d i v i d u a l might appear t o have an "amiab le" - 1 4 2 -r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h an o u t s i d e r , e . g . the t r a d e r or the p o l i c e m a n , the d a t a g a t h e r e d from i n f o r m a n t s and ob-s e r v e d by m y s e l f i n d i c a t e q u i t e c l e a r l y t h a t the most b a s i c a t t i t u d e toward Whites i s one o f c a r e f u l l y c o n -c e a l e d and suppressed h o s t i l i t y . 9. I am e s p e c i a l l y i n d e b t e d to A l a l u , J a c o b i , and S imoni f o r c l a r i f y i n g t h i s ' p a i r i n g ' s i t u a t i o n . 10. The White f o r e i g n e r s can be f u r t h e r s p e c i f i e d , e . g . S i k o t s i m i u t ( S c o t t i s h = Whaler) N i o v e r t i k u t (T raders) P o l i c i k u t ( P o l i c e ) b u t as a d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r f o r b e h a v i o u r , the g e n e r a l form s u f f i c e s . 11. The e x c e p t i o n s occur d u r i n g the games d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r (see p. 115-116) and by c o n f i r m e d townsmen i n p l a c e s l i k e F r o b i s h e r Bay. 12. I say i n d i v i d u a l s r a t h e r than men s i n c e q u i t e o f t e n the arrangements are a r e s u l t o f d e c i s i o n s made between women. 13. The a c c e p t e d p a t t e r n o f d e c i d i n g p a t e r n i t y i s u s u a l l y l e f t t o the mother o f the c h i l d . T h i s p r e r o g a t i v e i s seldom i f ever d i s p u t e d . 14. Two o t h e r terms are i n use i n t h i s a r e a t h a t a re common-l y a p p l i e d t o e i t h e r k i n or n o n - k i n and have the g l o s s o f " p a r t n e r " or " s h a r e r . " These a re p e r g a t i q , companion, f r i e n d , p a r t n e r , and a r v a r a , "my h a l f " or "name-share r . " Whereas i n the a i p a r j u g i t and p e r g a t i q r e l a t i o n s h i p s p e r s o n a l names are used between the i n d i v i d u a l s the - 1 4 3 -a r v a q do not use t h e i r common name i n a d d r e s s . 1 5 . I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t these s ta tements a p p l y o n l y t o the p e r s o n s i n v o l v e d i n the a c t u a l p a r t n e r s h i p and not t o the o f f s p r i n g o f the p a i r s . 'The major commitment o f the G—l g e n e r a t i o n i s i n terms o f h a l f - s i b l i n g s h i p and a s s o c i a t e d o b l i g a t i o n s , r i g h t s , e t c . 1 6 . T h i s does not a p p l y t o f u r s or h i d e s t a k e n f o r t r a d e a l t h o u g h the goods a c q u i r e d by t r a d i n g are d o l e d out between the p a r t n e r ' s f a m i l i e s . 1 7 . In f a i r n e s s , Guemple a l l u d e s t o t h i s i n h i s t e x t . 1 8 . One i n f o r m a n t , i n a t t e m p t i n g t o d e s c r i b e . t h e r i g i d -i t y o f the i n c e s t r e s t r i c t i o n s between f a t h e r / d a u g h t e r and between b r o t h e r / s i s t e r , t o l d me t h a t , " I have obeyed the r e s t r i c t i o n a l l my l i f e . I have , so f a r as I can remember, never spoken t o any o f my s i s t e r s . " - 1 4 4 -CHAPTER IV The f o l l o w i n g i s a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n o f the more o b v i o u s l y r e l e v a n t e c o l o g i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l f a c t o r s t h a t have a f f e c t e d the C lyde R i v e r a r e a . There a re no d a t a on the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h i s Eskimo group i n the p r e - c o n t a c t p e r i o d . A l s o , the r e p o r t s o f the e a r l y c o n t a c t p e r i o d a re e i t h e r t o o ambiguous or l a c k s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l f o r a c c u r a t e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the t h e n e x i s t i n g s o c i a l p a t t e r n s . I t i s p o s s i b l e , however, t o a t tempt r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s about 1 2 t h e i r economy, e c o l o g y , demography , and r e l a t i o n s between them f o r which t h e r e i s some e v i d e n c e , and from t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o draw some g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s about the p r o b a b l e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r a l p a t t e r n s . The a t t a c h e d t a b l e summarizes what I c o n s i d e r e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s i n the development o f contemporary C lyde I n l e t s o c i e t y . I t cannot e a s i l y be d e n i e d t h a t the i n t e r -r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n d i c a t e d between the t h r e e f a c t o r s i s o l a t e d i n T a b l e 10 are o f importance f o r a t l e a s t some s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s . Changes such as the a d d i t i o n t o , d e l e t i o n f rom, o r d e p l e t i o n o f , components from an e s t a b l i s h e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l s e t i n e v i t a b l y r e s u l t i n a subsequent a l t e r a t i o n o f b o t h s o c i a l and e c o l o g i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s . • These a l t e r a t i o n s , i n - 1 4 5 -t u r n , w i l l have e i t h e r , or b o t h , q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a -t i v e e f f e c t s f o r s t r u c t u r a l a l t e r n a t i v e s and a d j u s t m e n t s . Depending upon the k i n d s and degree o f e c o l o g i c a l change, e . g . q u a n t a t i v e or q u a l i t a t i v e or b o t h , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o e x p e c t t h a t one o f the e a r l i e r r e s u l t s w i l l p e r t a i n t o a d -jus tments o f the human p o p u l a t i o n i n e i t h e r numbers o r d i s t r i b u t i o n . Such ad jus tments can be thought o f i n terms o f the maintenance or i n c r e a s e o f e f f i c i e n c y i n e n v i r o n -3 m e n t a l e x p l o i t a t i o n . The s tudy o f h u n t i n g groups p r e s e n t s *a m y r i a d o f s p e c i a l prob lems ( S e r v i c e , 1962) r e l a t i n g t o s u b s i s t e n c e t e c h n o l o g y , group c o m p o s i t i o n , d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r , and so f o r t h . Lee and Devore (1968) sugges t a d d i t -i o n a l a s p e c t s o f problems f a c e d by the a n a l y s t . The c o n -c l u s i o n s a r r i v e d a t on a g e n e r a l l e v e l by t h e s e and o t h e r w r i t e r s (Murdoch, 1949: Damas, 1963) a re a p t l y a p p l i c a b l e t o t h i s s t u d y . On the o t h e r hand I t h i n k t h a t the o v e r a l l p rob lem i s one o f d e t e r m i n i n g what c o n s t i t u t e s maximum sub-s i s t e n c e e f f i c i e n c y under a v a r i e t y o f c o n d i t i o n s . In s h o r t , an e x a m i n a t i o n o f the e x i s t i n g e c o l o g i c a l s t a t e a t any g i v e n t ime i n the h i s t o r y o f a group i s l i k e l y t o p r o -v i d e c l u e s about the v i a b i l i t y o f the group i n q u e s t i o n , t h a t i s , as t o t h e i r a d a p t a b i l i t y or c a p a c i t y f o r ad justment t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l changes . Ma intenance o f p r e v a i l i n g e f f i c i e n c y i s a s t a t e -ment o f an i d e a l and s t a t i c e c o l o g i c e q u i l i b r i u m and a c o n d i t i o n t h a t i s never m a i n t a i n e d .for any a p p r e c i a b l e l e n g t h o f t i m e . E c o l o g i c c l i m a x e s and s t a t i c s t a t e s a re - 1 4 6 -s i m p l y i n t e r i m s t a g e s i n a s u c c e s s i v e s e r i e s o f changes and s h o u l d not be assumed t o r e p r e s e n t a n y t h i n g more t h a n a temporary c o n d i t i o n - P o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e over t ime on the o t h e r hand can be t a k e n as i n d i c a t i v e o f a . g e n e r a l t r e n d toward i n c r e a s i n g e f f i c i e n c y ; t h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e o f human p o p u l a t i o n s and i s a development u s u a l l y u n d e r s t o o d as p r o c e e d i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h the i n c r e a s i n g m a x i m i z a t i o n o f a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s . In any event , s h o u l d the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the p o p u l a t i o n undergo s h i f t s as a r e s u l t o f o t h e r p r i m a r y f a c t o r s t h e n , depend ing upon the n a t u r e o f these s h i f t s , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t s o c i a l i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i l l be a f f e c t e d i n v a r i o u s ways. S ince a l l c o n c r e t e s t r u c t u r e s a r e , u l t i m a t e l y , d e r i v e d from p a t t e r n e d s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n on the p a r t o f i n d i v i d u a l s and groups o f i n d i v i d u a l s , i t can be assumed t h a t t h e r e w i l l most l i k e l y be c o r r e s p o n d i n g and congruent changes i n the s t r u c t u r e s t h e m s e l v e s . I t i s impor tan t f o r t h i s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n t h a t the r e a d e r bear i n mind the l i m i t a t i o n s o f the approach t a k e n as w e l l as h a v i n g a c l e a r i d e a o f the o b j e c t i v e s sought . F i r s t , i t i s p roposed t h a t g i v e n changes i n the e n v i r o n -m e n t a l c a t a l o g u e as a r e s u l t o f e i t h e r i n t e r n a l or e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s w i l l r e s u l t i n ad jus tments o f the e c o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o the e x t e n t t h a t the economy, p o p u l a t i o n p a t t e r n s (as numbers and demography), e x p l o i t a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s , and e c o l o g i c a l b a l a n c e s w i l l a d j u s t t o new e n v i r o n m e n t a l e l e m e n t s . The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f some c r i t i c a l e l e m e n t ( s ) w i l l - 1 4 7 -have i m p o r t a n t e f f e c t s on the e c o l o g i c a l b a l a n c e ; t h e r e w i l l be (a) a l t e r a t i o n s o f the economy ( s u b s i s t e n c e ) , (b) changes i n p o p u l a t i o n d i s p e r s a l , and (c) ad jus tments i n t e c h n i g u e s o f e x p l o i t a t i o n . These are then presumed t o have some b e a r -i n g upon s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s inasmuch as f o r example, w i d e l y s c a t t e r e d i s o l a t e d n u c l e a r f a m i l i e s cannot i n t e r a c t w i t h o t h e r s o f t h e i r k i n d i n the same ways i n which l a r g e c o n g l o -merates o f i n d i v i d u a l s s e t t l e d about core c e n t r e s c a n . Statements c o n c e r n i n g the e a r l i e r p a t t e r n s a re p u r e l y " s p e c u l a t i v e and are made on the b a s i s o f o b s e r v a t i o n s about e a r l y demographic p a t t e r n s , economic b a s e s , and e c o l o g y . Second, i t i s thought t h a t contemporary C lyde I n l e t s o c i e t y w i l l 'make more s e n s e ' when v iewed a l o n g the h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t a l h o r i z o n s . I t s h o u l d a l s o be borne i n mind t h a t the s p e c u l a t i v e h i s t o r i c a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n might or might not have a b e a r i n g upon the d e s c r i p t i o n o f c u r r e n t s t r u c t u r e s o f t h i s group but i s i n c l u d e d mere ly as an at tempt t o p r o v i d e a degree o f p e r s p e c t i v e f o r the d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s o f the contemporary s i t u a t i o n . P r e - c o n t a c t p e r i o d T a b l e IX sugges ts t h a t the w i d e l y s c a t t e r e d r u i n s o f D o r s e t and Thu le type and the e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d by 4 a r c h a e o l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l s i n d i c a t e s t h a t whatever the p o p u l a t i o n s i z e , the Thu le peop le were much more w i d e l y s e p a r a t e d a l o n g the c o a s t i n s m a l l e r s e a s o n a l assemblages than the p r e v i o u s Dorse t g r o u p s . F u r t h e r , the harpoon t ypes S ^ r ^ t - to about 1400 (sec Taylor, W. E. 1908) Th-jlc - 1400 - 1800's (see Kathiasscn (1923) . et a l re dating problems) ,. ^ TABLE TTX* , r ^•Tm**~ SUMMARY OP H ISTORICAL CHARACTERISTICS cjio^s-cin.Tjau AIM T K T S R - C 3 Q H P C O N T A C T S Adjacent groups Adjacent groups Whalers? S U B S I S T E N C E : R E S O U R C E S i AN'O A C T I V I T I E S BY SEASON Smaller sea mammals; caribou; f i s h ; b i r d s ? P O P U I A T 1 C N O . ' . U ' S S S T O ? ; Small (L507) migrating groups Both large and smaller sea mammals; caribou; Small, seasonally mobile groups f i s h ; birds 148 Period preceding 1318 F i r s t recorded contacts made with B r i t i s h whalers and explorers. Winter: sealing at breathing h o l e s . . Spring: sealing at open holes walrus at floc-cdgc whales i n open water f i s h through i c e . Sunnier: whale, walrus i n open water birds and eggs from c o l o n i c s . F a l l : caribou f i s h i n g at traps sc a l i n g through breathing holes Large m u l t i - f a m i l y canpo E a r l y d i s p e r s a l of winter carps followed by regrouping f o r whaling i n t o su~.er. Summer whale/walrus camps Cooperative multt-and extended family ca=ps 1818 Whaling stations erected a t Blacklcad I s l a n d , K i v i t o k , Durran Harbour, E r i c Harbour e t . Winter: wat^ e labour 1900 sc a l i n g at breathing holes scalint; at floc-ed^o usinfi  r i f l e s . Spring: wage labour scaling at breathing holes and floe-edge vhaling'/walrus i n open* water • Summer: whalln^/walrus for companies F a l l :' wnpie labour whaling caribou '. f i s h at traps b i r d s , eggs Increasingly large aggregates about whaling s t a t i o n s . Break-down of the seasonal .•aigracions and aggregations. r r. Whalers cease a c t i v i t i e s and vithdraw contact. Various observers on government explorations note hardships en-dured by abandoned Eskimos. Hudson's Day Company, free traders, R. C. M. P., It. C. M i s s i o n , D. 0. T., Anglican MiBsion, a l l a r r i v e i n area. As above with a d d i t i o n of U. S. Coast Guard Station.and the Federal Day School. 149 L i t t l e data; Presumed that the people attempted to r c - i n s t i t u t e pro-contact seasonal patterns a f t e r f i v e generations of large community l i v i n g at whaling s t a t i o n s . D ispersal i n t o far.ily oriented ca-ps. Winter: trapping s c a l i n g at breathing holes Spring: r i f l e scaling/walrus at floe-edge. ' Narwal. and Beluga Summer: F a l l : Other : se a l i n g ; Narwal; Beluga; walrus caribou f i s h i n g with nets wage labour family allowance Further d i s p e r s a l i n t o i s o l a t e d : nuclear family carps. Winter: sealing/welfare/trapping Spring: sealing-holes and floe-edge Summer: Harwal/walrus/Beluga/seal s c a l i n g on new ice • F a l l Other wage labour Government subsidies Increasing migration to settlements and camps close to settlements. i \ - 1 5 0 -and o t h e r weapons p o i n t t o a d e f i n i t e o r i e n t a t i o n towards the sea and t o mar ine mammal h u n t i n g . The e v i d e n c e o f o r i e n t a t i o n towards the sea and t o the h a b i t u a l c a p t u r e o f the l a r g e r wha les , ' r i g h t ' wha les (Balaena m y s t i c e t u s ) and p r o b a b l y the humpback whale (Megaptera n o v a e a n g l i a e ) i s t o be found i n the w i d e s p r e a d use o f v a r i o u s whale bones , p a r t i c u l a r l y r i b s , jaws, and c e r t a i n v e r t e b r a e i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the house f rames . I t i s assumed t h a t these l a r g e an ima ls o f up t o f i f t y or "s ixty tons c o u l d o n l y be t a k e n i n a f a i r l y l a r g e b o a t by a crew o f s i x or seven men, or a l t e r n a t i v e l y , by a number o f h u n t e r s h u n t i n g i n c o o p e r a t i o n from s m a l l e r kayaks and c o o p e r a t i n g t o tow t h e a n i m a l t o . t h e b e a c h . A t the beach , and t h e r e i s observed e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s ; a number o f men by u t i l i z i n g the t i d e s and p l a c i n g t u r n s about the c a r c a s s c o u l d r o l l the a n i m a l a t each h i g h t i d e t o a p o i n t j u s t above h i g h water f o r ease o f b u t c h e r i n g . These two p o i n t s , the l a r g e s i z e o f the an ima l and the d i s p e r s e d n a t u r e o f s i n g l e , doub le , or r a r e l y , t r i p l e house s i t e s (see Boas, 1884) s u g g e s t s t h a t the Thu le p e o p l e p r o b a b l y congrega ted a t d i f f e r e n t t imes o f the y e a r f o r whale h u n t i n g and p r o b a b l y f o r o t h e r c e r e m o n i a l and s o c i a l p u r p o s e s . The use o f sma l -l e r harpoon heads f o r s e a l s and the na tu re o f h u n t i n g a t s e a l b r e a t h i n g - h o l e s , i . e . the g r e a t e r the number o f h u n t e r s i n v o l v e d the g r e a t e r the numbers o f b r e a t h i n g - h o l e s c o v e r e d ; the more l i k e l y the s u c c e s s o f the group , p r o b a b l y r e s u l t e d i n w i n t e r a g g r e g a t i o n s o f h u n t e r s and f a m i l i e s e i t h e r on the - 1 5 1 -s e a - i c e or a t p o i n t s on the shore c l o s e t o good s e a l i n g grounds (Damas e t a l . ) . There i s some c i r c u m s t a n t i a l e v i d e n c e f o r s u p p o r t o f the i d e a t h a t the contemporary Eskimo p o p u l a t i o n a re d i r e c t l y descendent from these Thu le p e o p l e , (Boas, M a t h i a s s e n , T a y l o r ) . C e r t a i n l y the Home Bay and Cumberland Sound groups were t r a d i t i o n a l l y o r i e n t e d toward f l o e - e d g e h u n t i n g o f the l a r g e r whales (Boas, 1884:440) , a l t h o u g h the major emphasis th roughout the y e a r was t h e n ( c i r c a 1840), "as now, on s e a l and c a r i b o u . Whatever the a b s o l u t e s i z e o f the a b o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n s , i t i s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y t h a t a k i n - g r o u p o f s u f f i c i e n t numbers would e x i s t f o r the accom-p l i s h m e n t o f such h u n t i n g endeavors as d e s c r i b e d . I t i s much more l i k e l y t h a t c o o p e r a t i o n between u n r e l a t e d segments were a c c o m p l i s h e d . These c o o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t s c o u l d have been i n the na ture o f u n r e s t r i c t e d c o o p e r a t i n g g r o u p s . I t i s p r o b a b l y s a f e t o assume, f u r t h e r , t h a t food s h a r i n g p a r t n e r s h i p s were more h i g h l y f o r m a l i z e d as h u n t i n g and g a m e -shar i ng a s s o c i a t i o n s p o s s i b l e i n v o l v i n g more than one p a i r o f men and i n c l u d i n g f a v o u r e d k insmen. 1818 t o 1900 A l t h o u g h e x p l o r a t i o n and w h a l i n g v e n t u r e s have been c a r r i e d out i n the v i c i n i t y o f B a f f i n Bay s i n c e D a v i s (1585) and B y l o t and B a f f i n (1616), the f i r s t r e c o r d o f a f a c e - t o - f a c e meet ing between Europeans and C lyde Eskimos i s c o n t a i n e d i n a r e p o r t by P a r r y (1824) and took p l a c e as - 1 5 2 -n e a r l y as can be de termined from the d e s c r i p t i o n a t S u p i g u j - a k t o g on the n o r t h e a s t s i d e o f the mouth o f C lyde I n l e t . P a r r y r e p o r t s (p. 275) t h a t he met w i t h the w h a l e r , the Lee, Mr. W i l l i a m s o n , Mas te r , j u s t n o r t h o f Agnes Monument and was t o l d t h a t some Eskimos had been met " i n the i n l e t named R i v e r C lyde i n 1818." P a r r y a c c o r d i n g l y s a i l e d i n t o the mouth o f the i n l e t and met seventeen pe rsons l i v i n g i n two t e n t s . There i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t e a r l i e r c o n t a c t s had been made between wha le rs and the l o c a l Eskimos s i n c e , f o r "example, Ross (1835) p o i n t s out t h a t a f a v o u r i t e w h a l i n g p l a c e over the y e a r s was about Agnes Monument (Umyuyak) a s m a l l r o c k y i s l e t two m i l e s o f f Cape C h r i s t i a n . I t i s t h e r e f o r e not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t P a r r y found t h e p e o p l e i n p o s s e s s i o n o f beads o f presumably European manufac ture and u s i n g an a d z e - l i k e t o o l f a s h i o n e d out o f an i r o n f i l e (Parry , p. 2 8 6 ) . F a r t h e r i n t o the i n l e t , i n what sounds l i k e P a t r i c i a Bay, h i s men came a c r o s s two u n i n -h a b i t e d ' w i n t e r - h u t s ' (p. 2 8 6 ) . C o u p l i n g these f i n d i n g s w i t h those made by P a r r y a few days e a r l i e r a t N e t s a r s u j o k i n S c o t t I n l e t , i t seems s a f e t o assume t h a t these t h r e e s i t e s have been i n use f o r a g r e a t many g e n e r a t i o n s . D e s p i t e the p r o b a b i l i t y o f the S u p i g u j a k t o g p e o p l e h a v i n g o b t a i n e d t h e i r beads and f i l e s from w h a l e r s o n l y a few y e a r s e a r l i e r , i t would not be s a f e t o d i s c o u n t the p o s s i -b i l i t y o f these p e o p l e h a v i n g a c q u i r e d such i tems v i a the n o r t h - s o u t h t r a d e r o u t e s d e s c r i b e d so t h o r o u g h l y by Boas (1884) . Whatever the source o f European goods, i t i s c l e a r - 1 5 3 -t h a t the C lyde Eskimo have had i n d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h E u r o -peans f o r a p e r i o d i n excess o f 150 y e a r s and d i r e c t c o n -t a c t f o r a p e r i o d not much s h o r t e r . The f o l l o w i n g summary r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the immediate p r e - c o n t a c t p e r i o d i s d e r i v e d from the k i n d s o f e v i d e n c e d e s c r i b e d i n the p r e c e d i n g pages . The p o p u l a t i o n was l i k e l y s m a l l , p r o b a b l y fewer t h a n one hundred , and d i s p e r s e d i n extended f a m i l y camps between N e t s a r s u j o k i n the n o r t h and T i k e r q a n i n the s o u t h . "There was p r o b a b l y some amiab le c o n t a c t between the n o r t h -ern' camps a t N e t s a r s u j o k , T u p e r v i a l u k , and N a k s a l u k u l u w i t h the southernmost camps o f the Pond I n l e t p e o p l e (Tununermiutan) ; a l t h o u g h t h i s l a t t e r group has had i t s major t r a d i t i o n a l c o n t a c t s w i t h the I g l u l i k p e o p l e (Math i -a s s e n , 1923; Damas, 1963). In the s o u t h , the major con-t a c t s would have been w i t h the K i v i t o k and Broughton I s l a n d ( K i k e r t a r j u a g ) p e o p l e , who, i n t u r n , conducted e x t e n s i v e s o c i a l and t r a d e i n t e r c h a n g e w i t h the Cumberland Sound Esk imo groups (Boas, 1884). S e a s o n a l m i g r a t i o n s and a g g r e g a t i o n s p r o b a b l y b r o u g h t the d i s p e r s e d camps t o g e t h e r , p e r i o d i c a l l y , i n the s p r i n g f o r the l a r g e - w h a l e hunt a t the f l o e - e d g e , and i n the w i n t e r f o r w i n t e r s e a l h u n t i n g . The end o f s p r i n g l i k e l y b rought about a r e - d i s p e r s a l o f the f a m i l i e s a l o n g the c o a s t and down the i n l e t s f o r c a r i b o u h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g . Two apparent d i f f e r e n c e s from the type Thu le c u l t u r e a re s e e n : t h e r e appears t o have been an i n c r e a s e - 1 5 4 -i n dog p o p u l a t i o n and a consequent i n c r e a s e i n m o b i l i t y . Boas d e s c r i b e s e x t e n s i v e t r i p s by d o g - s l e d between Cumber-l a n d Sound and Broughton I s l a n d and, from secondary i n f o r -m a t i o n , t r i p s even f u r t h e r n o r t h . Second, t h e r e appears t o have been an i n c r e a s i n g tendency t o dependence upon s e a l and the f o r m a t i o n o f l a r g e compos i te s e a l - h u n t i n g w i n t e r camps. These s p e c u l a t i o n s a re b a s e d p a r t l y upon the d e s c r i b e d change i n house s t r u c t u r e , sod and s tone karmat c o v e r e d w i t h w a l r u s o r s q u a r e - f l i p p e r h i d e r a t h e r t h a n ' f raming o f whale-bone and p a r t l y upon the e v i d e n c e f o r ex tended s l e d t r i p s d e s c r i b e d by Boas. The a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y more d e t a i l e d toward the end o f the 19th c e n t u r y and r e c o n -s t r u c t i o n s a re p r o b a b l y more a c c u r a t e l y drawn. U n f o r t u n -a t e l y , the a r e a covered by Boas and o t h e r s i s a l m o s t e n t i r e l y r e s t r i c t e d t o the s o u t h e r n p a r t o f my s tudy a r e a . M a t h i a s s e n , on the o t h e r hand f o r example, r e f e r s t o the Pond I n l e t a r e a peop le as " l i t t l e known Esk imos" (1923:131) . The major c o n t r i b u t o r s t o the e thnography o f the Cumberland Sound r e g i o n , Boas, Wakeham, and Low r e s t r i c t e d t h e i r e x p l o r a t i o n s . t o t h i s s o u t h e r n p o r t i o n o f the C lyde Eskimo c o u n t r y ; and B e r n i e r , a l t h o u g h he t r a v e l l e d down the c o a s t and even anchored i n P a t r i c i a Bay makes no ment ion o f the l o c a l Esk imos . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o examine the e f f e c t s o f the c u l t u r e c o n t a c t s o f t h a t e r a upon the i n d i g e n o u s C lyde Esk imos . - 1 5 5 -Whi le P a r r y was engaged i n e x p l o r i n g the c o a s t near C lyde I n l e t , Penny e s t a b l i s h e d the f i r s t permanent w h a l i n g shore s t a t i o n i n Cumberland G u l f on B l a c k l e a d I s l a n d i n 1820 (Wakeham, p. 7 5 ) . The permanent s h o r e -b a s e d w h a l i n g s t a t i o n s were p r e c e d e d by r e g u l a r a n n u a l c o n -t a c t between w h a l e r s and Eskimos a t the f l o e - e d g e . These meet ings were the scene o f f a i r l y e x t e n s i v e b a r t e r , c o u n t r y p roduce , e . g . whale produce , h i d e s , e t c . , i n r e t u r n f o r t e a , t o b a c c o (two o r i g i n a l s t a p l e s ) , h a r d t a c k , and o c c a s i o n -a l l y f i r e a r m s and ammunit ion, and l i q u o r . C o n s i d e r i n g the d i f f i c u l t i e s and dangers i n v o l v e d i n r e a c h i n g the B a f f i n Bay w h a l i n g gounds from e i t h e r the n o r t h e a s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s or B r i t a i n , i t can be a p p r e c i a t e d t h a t ' w i n t e r i n g ' i n the a r e a was a l o g i c a l next s t e p a f t e r the d i s c o v e r y o f the r i c h n e s s o f the game. From these b e g i n n i n g s i t was an easy s t e p t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f permanent s t a t i o n s emp loy ing a few Whites and as many Eskimo men and t h e i r f a m i l i e s as c a r e d t o work f o r wages. As Low s t a t e s about the Cumberland G u l f s i x t y y e a r s l a t e r : The t o t a l number o f Eskimos r e a c h e d (by the m i s -s i o n a r i e s ) i s about f i v e hundred , and they a re a l l connec ted w i t h , and depend upon, the w h a l i n g s t a t i o n s o f B l a c k l e a d , Keker tan , and Cape Haven (1903 :9) . A l t h o u g h Amer ican , E n g l i s h , and S c o t t i s h w h a l e r s hunted these shores and made c o n t a c t s w i t h the v a r i o u s groups o f Esk imos , the i n t e n s i t y and p a t t e r n o f t h e i r r e -l a t i o n s d i f f e r e d c o n s i d e r a b l y . Amer i can w h a l e r s never e s t a b l i s h e d permanent s h o r e - b a s e d s t a t i o n s and employed few - 1 5 6 -Esk imos on the c a t c h e r b o a t s . T h e i r r e l a t i o n s c o n s i s t e d m a i n l y o f e s t a b l i s h i n g t rade/exchange , whale produce f o r v a r i o u s i tems and o f f e r i n g s e a s o n a l employment as whale c a t c h e r s . A p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t Amer i can p r a c t i c e was t h e i r custom o f l e a v i n g the wooden wha leboats b e h i n d each season e i t h e r f o r s a f e - k e e p i n g or as p a r t payment f o r t h e s e a s o n ' s work. By the t ime o f Boas' t r i p i n t o Cumber-l a n d G u l f i n the l a t e 18th c e n t u r y , the use o f s k i n umiags as w h a l i n g v e s s e l s was r a p i d l y p a s s i n g away and the s k i n umiaq was a l r e a d y becoming a woman's boat a l t h o u g h t h i s development was not f u l l y r e a l i z e d u n t i l w h a l e - h u n t i n g had c e a s e d a l t o g e t h e r . The E n g l i s h and S c o t t i s h w h a l e r s , on the o t h e r hand, i n i t i a t e d and d e v e l o p e d the use o f permanent s h o r e - b a s e d s t a t i o n s and the w h o l e s a l e employment o f the Esk imo f o r w h a l i n g d u r i n g the s p r i n g , summer, and f a l l , and f o r s e c u r i n g s u p p l i e s o f f r e s h meat, r e p a i r i n g b o a t s and g e a r , p r e p a r i n g h i d e s f o r shipment the f o l l o w i n g season , and so f o r t h . T h i s d e v e l o p i n g dependency was c a r r i e d t o the p o i n t where, as Low s t a t e s i n 1903, t h a t s h o u l d the w h a l e r s e v e r r u n i n t o d i f f i c u l t t imes and abandon t h e i r s t a t i o n s , t h e Esk imos would be i n " d i r e p l i g h t " and t h a t the Canad ian government would be r e g u i r e d t o p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e , p r o b a b l y i n the form o f arms and ammunit ion (p. 10, 271, e t p a s s i m ) . I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d out here t h a t no permanent s t a t i o n s were e r e c t e d i n the immediate v i c i n i t y of C lyde I n l e t . The southernmost s t a t i o n s were l o c a t e d g e n e r a l l y i n the Home Bay a r e a a t A r c t i c Harbour , K i v i t c q , Durban Harbour - 1 5 7 -and P a d l o p i n g I s l a n d . None o f these were ever as l a r g e as B l a c k l e a d I s l a n d and Keker tan i n Cumberland Sound but they d i d p l a y an e q u a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t i n b r i n g i n g about l a r g e - s c a l e p o p u l a t i o n r e d i s t r i b u t i o n s . The nor thernmost s t a t i o n s were l o c a t e d a t E r i c Harbour , a few m i l e s e a s t o f the p r e s e n t Pond I n l e t s e t t l e m e n t , and i n 1903 the s t a t i o n a t Bu t ton P o i n t was e s t a b l i s h e d . I t i s assumed t h a t these f o r t u i t o u s c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f s t a t i o n l o c a t i o n s had f a r -r e a c h i n g e f f e c t s on the contemporary p o p u l a t i o n a t C lyde " I n l e t . I n t e r g r o u p c o n t a c t d u r i n g t h i s e a r l y c o n t a c t p e r i o d was r e g u l a r . T r a d i t i o n a l t r a v e l route's between C l y d e , Pond, and Broughton as w e l l as P a n g n i r t u n g were w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d and u s e d . European goods moved a l o n g these r o u t e s and i n t o the C lyde a r e a v i a two d i r e c t i o n s : from the s o u t h , from P a n g n i r t u n g t o P a d l o p i n g I s l a n d and Broughton I s l a n d and from those p l a c e s n o r t h t o Home Bay then C l y d e ; from the n o r t h from Pond I n l e t which had s t r o n g t r a d e and o t h e r t i e s w i t h I g l u l i k where the Amer ican w h a l e r s custom-a r i l y hunted and t r a d e d . B e s i d e s t r a d e d European goods, news o f the permanent s t a t i o n s f i l t e r e d a l o n g b o t h r o u t e s . The advantages o f b e i n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h these s t a t i o n s and the a t t r a c t i o n e x e r t e d by the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a c q u i r i n g h i g h l y v a l u e d , and then r a r e , f i r e a r m s a l l s e r v e d t o draw the o r i g i n a l C lyde I n l e t p o p u l a t i o n away from the home t e r r i t o r y . I t appears t h a t , j u s t as t h e r e had been two p r i m a r y c o n t a c t s and k i n - t i e s w i t h o t h e r g roups , the Pond - 1 5 8 -and the Broughton I s l a n d , t h e r e were two d i r e c t i o n s f o r m i -g r a t i o n : southward t o the Broughton a r e a i n i t i a l l y , and a f t e r the open ing o f the s t a t i o n a t B u t t o n P o i n t , n o r t h w a r d . I t i s assumed h e r e t h a t the d i r e c t i o n o f m i g r a t i o n would be d e t e r m i n e d p r i m a r i l y upon the e x i s t e n c e o f k i n - t i e s i n the a r e a b e i n g moved i n t o . As had been p o i n t e d out (p. 1 5 3 f f ) , t h e r e was a g r e a t e r l i k e l i h o o d o f e s t a b l i s h e d k i n - t i e s between the n o r t h e r n C lyde group and the s o u t h e r n Pond group , and a l s o between the s o u t h e r n C lyde group and the ' n o r t h e r n Broughton g r o u p . 1900 t o 1923 Wha l ing as a p r o f i t a b l e commerc ia l e n t e r p r i s e began t o f a i l as e a r l y as 1860. Whereas the numbers o f v e s s e l s engaged i n the D a v i s S t r a i t f i s h e r y averaged about s i x t y between 1815 and 1834, ( L e s l i e , p. 4 5 8 f f ) , t h i s number d i m i n i s h e d s t e a d i l y th rough the y e a r s and by 1904 o n l y f o u r v e s s e l s ( s t e a m - s a i l f rom Pe te rhead , S c o t l a n d ) a r r i v e d on t h e c o a s t , and a f t e r 192 5 none are r e p o r t e d . T h i s i n f l u x o f the w h a l e r s had r e p e r c u s s i o n s upon a l l t h r e e i n d i c e s ment ioned above : economy, e c o l o g y , and p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n . The s h i f t from w h a l i n g f o r t h e i r own consumpt ion t o w h a l i n g as an employee o f the commerc ia l e n t e r p r i s e s was p r o b a b l y an easy one f o r the Eskimos and one t h a t had m i n i m a l d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s on c o o p e r a t i v e p a r t n e r s h i p . The i n s i s -t e n c e o f the wha le rs t h a t men employed f o r whale h u n t i n g - 1 5 9 -r e m a i n employed d u r i n g the o f f - s e a s o n and make t h e i r homes a t the s t a t i o n s i t e s wrought g r e a t e r damage. Low's (1906) o b s e r v a t i o n s l e d him t o s a y : The n a t i v e s have f o r y e a r s l o o k e d f o r a s s i s t a n c e t o the w h a l e r s b o t h on B a f f i n I s l a n d and Hudson Bay. They have q u i t e g i v e n up the use o f t h e i r p r i m i t i v e weapons, and t h e r e i s no doubt t h a t a w i t h d r a w a l o f the w h a l e r s would l e a d t o g r e a t h a r d -s h i p and many deaths among these p e o p l e (Low, 1904: 2 7 1 ) . The assumpt ion o f the s t a t i o n - c e n t e r e d mode o f l i f e t o be c o n t i n u e d over f o u r g e n e r a t i o n s r e s u l t e d i n the d i s r u p t i o n and abandonment o f the t r a d i t i o n a l s e a s o n a l c y c l e . Winter was spent h u n t i n g c a r i b o u and s e a l t o s u p p l y the s t a t i o n , r a t h e r than i n s e a l - h u n t i n g f o r immediate consump-t i o n . Supplementary i s s u e s o f t e a , t o b a c c o , and h a r d t a c k were t o be had from the w i n t e r i n g w h a l e r s i n r e t u r n f o r f r e s h game. The s p r i n g p e r i o d , f o r m e r l y spent on the i c e a f t e r s e a l and a t the f l o e i n community w h a l i n g p r o j e c t s , were now spent r e p a i r i n g and r e a d y i n g the gear f o r the com-m e r c i a l w h a l e r s and p a r t i c i p a t i n g as employees drawing wages i n v a r i o u s fo rms . S i m i l a r l y , the summer c a r i b o u hunts were dropped a l t o g e t h e r and the t ime was used a t the s t a t i o n p r e -p a r i n g f o r the f a l l whale h u n t . The whale h e r d s were d e p l e t e d t o the e x t e n t t h a t an I n t e r n a t i o n a l Whal ing Commission was s e t up t o de termine the e x t e n t o f the damage. The most i m p o r t a n t l e g i s l a t i o n p a s s e d by t h i s Body was t h a t f o r b i d d i n g the t a k i n g o f ' r i g h t ' wha les (Balaens m y s t i c u s ) and thus p u t t i n g the f i n a l coup de g r a c e t o an a l r e a d y d y i n g i n d u s t r y . The consequences o f t h i s - 1 6 0 -f o r the Eskimo p o p u l a t i o n were t w o f o l d : , f i r s t , the c e s s a -t i o n o f w h a l i n g a c t i v i t i e s t e r m i n a t e d what h a d , by the t ime t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s were p l a c e d , become the " t r a d i t i o n a l " way o f l i f e ; second , even had the Eskimos r e t a i n e d the a b o r i g i n a l t e c h n i q u e s o f w h a l i n g and whale-weaponry t o g e t h e r w i t h a d e s i r e or a b i l i t y t o p u t t h e s e t o use , they would not have been a b l e t o do so i n v iew o f the d e p l e t i o n o f whale s t o c k s and the a11-encompass ing l e g i s l a t i o n r e g a r d i n g k i l l i n g wha le . On the o t h e r hand, the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f f i r e a r m s made " i t p o s s i b l e t o take s e a l s a t the f l o e - e d g e , a h i t h e r t o r e l a t i v e l y un impor tan t h u n t i n g method. T h i s s i n g l e new e lement and t e c h n i q u e appears t o have more or l e s s b a l a n c e d ou t the l o s s o f whales t o the g e n e r a l economy. The e f f e c t s o f t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n p r o b a b l y had more s e r i o u s consequences f o r the f o o d - s h a r i n g p a r t n e r s h i p a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a n f o r the l a r g e r c o o p e r a t i n g group's. The former were a p p a r e n t l y more d i r e c t l y concerned w i t h a s p e c i f i c g o a l , f o o d - g e t t i n g and s h a r i n g ; w h i l e the l a t t e r was (and i s ) o f a more d i f f u s e n a t u r e embrac ing f o o d - s h a r i n g w i t h i n a p a t t e r n o f g e n e r a l c o o p e r a t i o n . Demographic changes d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d were p r o b a b l y d r a s t i c ; the C lyde a r e a was a lmost c o m p l e t e l y d e s e r t e d f o r s e v e r a l g e n e r a t i o n s . The same must have been t r u e f o r o t h e r a reas a l t h o u g h I have not made any s p e c i a l e f f o r t t o determine t h i s . From the presumed s m a l l , s t r a t e g i c a l l y d i s p e r s e d camps the s h i f t was t o l a r g e h e t e r -ogeneous a g g r e g a t i o n s about the w h a l i n g s t a t i o n s . Wi th the - 1 6 1 -d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f the suppor t t h a t the w h a l i n g s t a t i o n s had p r o v i d e d and the absence o f the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r a r e t u r n t o " t r a d i t i o n a l " h u n t i n g p r a c t i c e s , the Eskimo p o p u l a t i o n s t h a t had depended g r e a t l y upon the w h a l e r s were, as Low had p r e d i c t e d , i n d i r e c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The d e p l e t i o n o f game s m a l l e r t h a n the bowhead and f i n b a c k whales must a l s o have had a s e r i o u s e f f e c t on the l a r g e communi t ies . I n t e n s i v e s e a l i n g and c a r i b o u h u n t -i n g , f a c i l i t a t e d by the i n t r o d u c e d f i r e a r m s , l e s s e n e d the "need f o r economic c o o p e r a t i o n and the s c a r c i t y o f game would p r o b a b l y induce the segmenta t ion o f the l a r g e popu-l a t i o n s s e t t l e d a t the w h a l i n g s t a t i o n s . F l o e - e d g e s e a l h u n t i n g , now p o s s i b l e w i t h r i f l e s , became i m p o r t a n t t o the s u b s i s t e n c e economy. S m a l l whale h u n t i n g c o u l d be c a r r i e d out w i t h o n l y one or two men i n k a y a k s . In s h o r t , t h e r e must have been a r e t u r n o f a m o d i f i e d p r e - c o n t a c t s e a s o n a l c y c l e . Winter s e a l i n g and compos i te camp s t r u c t u r e f o l l o w e d by s p r i n g f i s h i n g e i t h e r a t sapot ( f i s h - t r a p s ) , u s i n g the l e i s t e r or by net ( i n t r o d u c e d by the w h a l e r s ) p r o b a b l y by n u c l e a r f a m i l i e s ; f o l l o w e d by camp d i v i s i o n f o r c a r i b o u h u n t i n g by some o f the men and summer s e a l i n g and w a l r u s by o t h e r s . F a l l c a r i b o u s k i n sewing would then be c a r r i e d out and the w i n t e r p a t t e r n assumed once more. M i s s i n g from the t r a d i t i o n a l round o f a c t i v i t i e s was the wha le . The d e p l e -t i o n o f ammunit ion f o r the i n t r o d u c e d r i f l e s p r o b a b l y caused a r e t u r n t o maukpug ( s e a l - h o l e ) h u n t i n g w i t h the h a r p o o n . A few f o r t u n a t e i n d i v i d u a l s had a c q u i r e d the l e a d , powder and - 1 6 2 -caps n e c e s s a r y f o r home p r o d u c t i o n . In g e n e r a l , a g r e a t many i tems t h a t had, over the y e a r s , assumed a g r e a t d e a l o f impor tance were t h e n not a v a i l a b l e . Concomitant w i t h the s p e c u l a t e d changes i n r e s i -dence , t h e r e were p r o b a b l y changes i n m a r r i a g e p a t t e r n s . Wi thout g o i n g i n t o the argument about m a r r i a g e , a u t h o r i t y , and f i n a l c a u s e s , i t seems r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t p r o -p i n q u i t y i s a c r u c i a l f a c t o r i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f who m a r r i e s who, whether the m a r r i a g e system i s p r e s c r i b e d or p r e f e r r e d . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t the n o r t h e r n group o f t h i s s tudy s t i l l adhere r i g i d l y t o the p r a c t i c e o f non-marr iage t o c o u s i n s ( t e r m i n o l o g i c a l l y " s i b l i n g o f o p p o s i t e s e x " ) , w h i l e the s o u t h e r n group have a number o f documented c o u s i n ( t e r m i n o l o g i c a l l y not s i b l i n g s o f o p p o s i t e sex) m a r r i a g e s . I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d out t h a t the n o r t h e r n , o r Pond I n l e t , group had l e s s i n t e n s e c o n t a c t w i t h w h a l e r s and f o r a s h o r t e r p e r i o d o f t ime than d i d the s o u t h e r n g r o u p s . When the w h a l i n g communit ies d i s b a n d e d , they p r o b a b l y d i d so i n terms o f c o n s a n g u i n e a l and a f f i n a l k i n s h i p r e l a t i o n -s h i p , these b e i n g n o n - v o l u n t a r y and o f g r e a t e r endurance t h a n n o n - k i n s h i p r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I f t h i s were the c a s e , t h e n the appearance o f c o u s i n m a r r i a g e i n o p p o s i t i o n t o the i d e a l s e x p r e s s e d c o u l d r e a d i l y have emerged. 1923 t o 1945 The next s tage o f t h i s h i s t o r i c a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n b e g i n s a t the end o f the w h a l i n g p e r i o d and the appearance - 1 6 3 -o f the f u r t r a d e r w i t h the concomi tant changes i n the t h r e e a s p e c t s w i t h which we are concerned h e r e . There i s much more a c c u r a t e d a t a f o r t h i s p e r i o d than f o r the p r e v i o u s two and, f o r the f i r s t t ime , a f a i r amount o f d e t a i l con-c e r n i n g s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e i s a v a i l a b l e . The f i r s t accounts o f f u r t r a d e r s i n the a r e a a r e , a g a i n , r e s t r i c t e d t o the s o u t h e r n p e r i p h e r y o f the s tudy r e g i o n . I n i t i a l l y these o p e r a t i o n s were r e s i d u a l p a r t s o f the w h a l i n g i n v e s t m e n t s . D u r i n g the d e c l i n i n g y e a r s o f the whale i n d u s t r y , the "shore s t a t i o n s " came t o b a r t e r more and more f o r c o u n t r y produce o t h e r than whale p r o d u c t . T h i s b a r t e r i n c l u d e d the w h i t e f o x p e l t as w e l l as the v a r i o u s c o l o r v a r i e t i e s . Other f u r s bought i n c l u d e d b e a r , s e a l s k i n s , w a l r u s h i d e ( s t i l l a much sought a f t e r commodity f o r b u f f i n g w h e e l s ) . A t y p i c a l such o p e r a t i o n was the Sabe l lum T r a d i n g Company l o c a t e d a t the former w h a l i n g s t a t i o n o f K i v i t o k i n the Home Bay a r e a . T h i s became d e f u n c t when the l a s t manager, P i t c h f o r t h , d i e d t h e r e d u r i n g the w i n t e r o f 192 5. The Hudson 's Bay Company a t t h i s t ime had f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d i t s e l f i n the Hudson 's S t r a i t s r e g i o n s and was l o o k i n g f o r f r e s h , p r o f i t a b l e t e r r i t o r y f o r e x p a n s i o n i n c o i n c i d e n c e w i t h the i n c r e a s i n g demand i n Europe f o r the so -c a l l e d " l o n g - h a i r f u r s , " e . g . the f o x e s . A c c o r d i n g l y , the Hudson 's Bay Company made a number o f p r e l i m i n a r y i n v e s t i -g a t i o n s a l o n g the n o r t h e a s t B a f f i n I s l a n d c o a s t and b u i l t t h e i r Pond I n l e t p o s t i n 1921 and thus, r e p l a c e d the Newfound-l a n d e r " f r e e t r a d e r , " Janes , who had been murdered a t Cape - 1 6 4 -Crawford i n 1920. The R o y a l Canadian Mounted P o l i c e e s t a b -l i s h e d t h e i r detachment a t Pond i n the same y e a r (1921) and the f i r s t p a t r o l t o " R i v e r C lyde" was c a r r i e d out i n 1925 by C o n s t a b l e F r i e d . A t t h i s t ime the " m e t r o p o l i s " o f the A r c t i c was a t Lake Harbour i n the s o u t h , and the Hudson 's Bay Company had t h e i r h e a d q u a r t e r s t h e r e . In 1921 the Hudson 's Bay Company i n Winn ipeg were i n fo rmed by t h e i r c h i e f man i n the f i e l d t h a t c o n d i t i o n s i n the Pond [ s i c ] I n l e t were i d e a l f o r t r a d e and t h a t a p o s t t h e r e would be o f b e n e f i t t o b o t h Esk imos and the Company. T h i s r e p o r t , d a t e d 1921 a t Lake Harbour , d e c r i e d the uneconomica l t r a d i n g p r a c t i c e s o f the " f r e e - t r a d e r s , " e s p e c i a l l y t h e i r f o c u s on whale p r o d u c t s and a t tempts t o induce the Esk imos t o rema in a t the t r a d i n g p o s t th roughout the y e a r and t o c a r r y out the t r a p p i n g a c t i v i t i e s from the main p o s t . F u t u r e developments i n the a r e a a re a n t i c i p a t e d i n the r e p o r t . The n a t i v e s , the r e p o r t goes on, s h o u l d be d i s c o u r a g e d from s t a y i n g a t the p o s t and encouraged t o " r e t u r n t o the l a n d " and s e t up camps under the l e a d e r s h i p o f the "most a b l e men." These camps s h o u l d not be l a r g e and s h o u l d be l o c a t e d i n such a way t h a t the l o c a l f o x r e s o u r c e s can be a d e q u a t e l y t r a p p e d . A c c o r d i n g l y p l a n s were l a i d t o b u i l d p o s t s a t P a n g n i r t u n g , Pond I n l e t , and C lyde R i v e r i n 1921. Ice c o n d i t i o n s p r e v e n t e d the l a n d i n g o f the b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l a t C l yde u n t i l 1923. D u r i n g t h i s summer the Hudson 's Bay Company landed s u p p l i e s , b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s , and t r a d e goods - 1 6 5 -under the charge of a manager with a Labrador Eskimo i n t e r -preter and h i s wife, together with f i v e Eskimo f a m i l i e s brought from Lake Harbour. This was a necessary move on the part of the Hudson's Bay Company since there were no people l i v i n g at Clyde ( P a t r i c i a Bay) at that time and the fox population was predicted as being large. Knowledge of the numbers of Eskimos along the northeast coast from Cumberland Gulf northward was extremely hazy at that time, although i t was known i n a general way that there were a "good many people i n the Home Bay area. During the winter of 1925, there were ten "fam i l i e s " of Clyde Eskimos l i v i n g i n the area and f i v e " f a m i l i e s " l i v i n g at Tikerkan to the south (for details.on the population see appendix). The s i t u a t i o n i n 1923 and i n the years immediately preceding the opening of the post at Clyde was as follows. The a b o r i g i n a l population had moved south to the lower Home Bay region and north to the Pond Inlet/Bylot Island. Men l i k e Janes i n Pond Inlet; P i t c h f o r t h at Kivitok; Munn, Kinnes, and Mutch i n the Cumberland Gulf area were attempt-ing to maintain the whaling s t a t i o n pattern of operations with the Eskimos staying at the settlements throughout the year. These operations were marginal at best and changing conditions of the markets precluded t h e i r persistence. The entrance of the fur trade introduced a r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t economy and way of l i f e . The establishment of the trade store at Clyde served to provide a fe a s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e for the l o c a l Eskimos. During the pre-fur trader period, there -166-was a slow but steady migration of Eskimos back to the o r i -g i n a l camp s i t e s from the abandoned whaling stations i n the peripheral areas. The people returning from Button Point took up permanent residence i n those camps to the north of Clyde Inlet and s t i l l maintain important associa-tions with the Pond Inlet group. Those returning from the Home Bay areas took up residence i n the camps at Clyde Inlet and the camp s i t e s to the south; t h i s group maintains i t s most important t i e s with the Broughton Island Eskimos. B r i e f l y , the two groups achieve discreteness through d i a -l e c t a l speech differences, r e s t r i c t e d cross-group marriage, kinship terminological v a r i a t i o n and r e s t r i c t e d in-group camp formation as well as generally confining themselves to the t e r r i t o r i e s mentioned above with the boundary between them l y i n g at Clyde Inlet. 1945 to 1965 By 1945, a number of changes had taken place i n the Clyde v i c i n i t y . The economic sector was affected by the introduction of Family Allowances and various kinds of pension payments such as Old Age and D i s a b i l i t y pensions. The long-hair fur market, so p r o f i t a b l e before, reached an a l l - t i m e low and foxes were being traded at between two and f i v e d o l l a r s per p e l t ; sealskins were traded at between f i f t y cents and two d o l l a r s and f i f t y cents. Bearskins were being traded at ten to twenty d o l l a r s . As far as trade i n 'country produce' was concerned the outlook was gloomy indeed. - 1 6 7 -Throughout t h i s p e r i o d f o x - f u r p r i c e s d e c r e a s e d s t e a d i l y and i n 1958 s e a l s k i n p r i c e s began t o i n c r e a s e , e v e n t u a l l y r e a c h i n g a h i g h o f about t w e n t y - f i v e d o l l a r s pe r s k i n . T h i s change i n the economy meant t h a t h u n t e r s now had a source o f income d e r i v e d d i r e c t l y from d a i l y h u n t i n g a c t i v i t y . The upsurge i n s e a l s k i n p r i c e s and the i n c r e a s i n g demand f o r c a r v i n g s t o g e t h e r w i t h the now w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d payment o f F a m i l y A l l o w a n c e s and W e l f a r e payments b r o u g h t the o v e r - a l l income o f t h i s group t o a new h i g h . The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f c a s u a l , s e a s o n a l l a b o u r h e l p e d some f a m i l i e s b u t was never enough t o c o m p l e t e l y make f a m i l i e s f r e e o f the government r e l i e f sys tem. In s h o r t , i f i t had not been f o r the r e l i e f and o t h e r government monies t h e s e p e o p l e would have been i n d i r e s t r a i g h t s i n d e e d . The a l l o c a t i o n o f the government funds took the form o f v o u c h e r s and i n the b e g i n n i n g , i . e . b e f o r e the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the R . C . M . P . a t Cape C h r i s t i a n , where the N a v a l base was l o c a t e d , the monies and a l l bookkeep ing were h a n d l e d by the Pond I n l e t detachment . I t was d u r i n g t h i s e a r l y p e r i o d t h a t the s low m i g r a t i o n t o camps c l o s e t o the p o s t a t C lyde began t o take p l a c e . A p a r t from the a t t r a c t i o n s o f f e r e d by the a v a i l a -b i l i t y o f government suppor t t h e r e was a l s o the a t t r a c t i o n o f such t h i n g s as mov ies , l i q u o r , and the p o s s i b i l i t y o f p r o f i t a b l e a l l i a n c e s between the r e l a t i v e l y r i c h Whites and d e s t i t u t e Eskimo men. In o t h e r words, where sex p r e v i o u s l y - 1 6 8 -was a fun t h i n g i t became p o s s i b l e t o have f u n and have a take-home pay . The i d e a o f p a y i n g f o r sex was f o r e i g n . The most u n f o r t u n a t e a s p e c t o f t h i s k i n d o f r e c i p r o c i t y was t h a t a l t h o u g h the n a t i v e p e o p l e s e n t e r e d i n t o these a g r e e -ments they d i d so i n a manner q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from t h a t h e l d by the W h i t e s . In o t h e r words, i t was easy enough f o r Esk imos t o see the advantages o f such l i a s o n s b u t where t h e y e x p e c t e d r e c i p r o c i t y t h e r e was none. The assumpt ion o f a t r a p p i n g - h u n t i n g p a t t e r n i n -* v o l v e d a d i spe rsement o f the l a r g e heterogeneous g r o u p i n g s about the w h a l i n g s t a t i o n s and the f o r m a t i o n o f camps, g e n e r a l l y a l o n g f a m i l y or k i n l i n e s . Winter became a season a lmost s o l e l y r e s e r v e d f o r t r a p p i n g (a l though the Hudson 's Bay Company had l e s s s u c c e s s w i t h the C lyde Eskimos as t r a p p e r s t h a n w i t h many o t h e r g r o u p s ; see f o r example the c o n s i s t e n t l y low i n t a k e o f f u r over the y e a r s ) . An i n -c r e a s e i n m o b i l i t y as an a d j u n c t t o t r a p p i n g b r o u g h t about an i n c r e a s e i n the dog p o p u l a t i o n , and o f c o u r s e , an i n c r e a s e i n the c o s t o f m a i n t a i n i n g the l a r g e r teams. H u n t i n g f o r d o g - f o o d and f o r g e n e r a l s u b s i s t e n c e purposes became concen-t r a t e d i n the s p r i n g and f a l l seasons w h i l e the summer c a r i b o u hunt was r e i n s t a t e d . The i n c r e a s i n g dependency upon impor ted food and m a t e r i a l s , no ted p r e v i o u s l y , r e c e i v e d added emphasis d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . The f i r s t permanent e s t a b l i s h m e n t a t the p r e s e n t 5 C lyde R i v e r s i t e was the Hudson's Bay Company f u r - t r a d i n g p o s t opened i n 1923. A t t h a t t ime the a r e a was p r a c t i c a l l y - 1 6 9 -u n i n h a b i t e d and, i n o r d e r t o e x p l o i t the l o c a l f u r p o t e n t i a l , t h e Hudson 's Bay Company brought a number o f t r a p p e r s and t h e i r f a m i l i e s from Lake Harbour and, a t a l a t e r d a t e , f rom F r o b i s h e r Bay a r e a . C o i n c i d e n t l y , and prompted by the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the t r a d i n g p o s t and the c l o s u r e o f the w h a l i n g - t r a d i n g s t a t i o n s , f a m i l i e s f o r m e r l y from C lyde I n l e t r e g i o n began t o r e t u r n from Pond I n l e t ( M i t s i m a t i l i q ) , K i v i t o k , and A u l i t s i v i k . These r e t u r n i n g h u n t e r - t r a p p e r s supplemented, and e v e n t u a l l y r e p l a c e d , the t r a p p e r s from "Southern B a f f i n I s l a n d . The changes b rought about i n the economy, e c o l o g y , demography, and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d were a t l e a s t as d r a s t i c as those b rought about by e i t h e r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f w h a l i n g s t a t i o n s or the b u i l d i n g o f a Hudson 's Bay Company f u r - t r a d i n g p o s t . D u r i n g the p r e c e d i n g p e r i o d the Hudson 's Bay Company p e r s o n n e l c o n s t i t u t e d the s o l e i n f l u e n c e from o u t -s i d e the a r e a . With the advent o f Wor ld War I I t h e r e was an a d d i t i o n made t o the White p o p u l a t i o n i n the appearance o f the Department o f T r a n s p o r t r a d i o s o n d s t a t i o n which was e r e c t e d i n the immediate v i c i n i t y o f the t r a d i n g p o s t . A l i t t l e l a t e r , i n 1945, the U n i t e d S t a t e s Coas tguard a r r i v e d and b u i l t a s t a t i o n a t Cape C h r i s t i a n about "twelve m i l e s f rom the s e t t l e m e n t . The numbers o f p e r s o n n e l v a r i e d over t ime and e v e n t u a l l y l e v e l l e d out a t t h i r t y men. With the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h i s ' f o r e i g n ' base t h e r e a r r i v e d the R o y a l Canad ian Mounted P o l i c e complete w i t h F a m i l y A l l o w a n c e - 1 7 0 -v o u c h e r s and w e l f a r e a l l o t m e n t s . S t i l l l a t e r i n I960, a s i n g l e room s c h o o l and a h o s t e l to. accommodate e i g h t was b u i l t by the F e d e r a l Government and o p e r a t e d by a t e a c h e r and h i s w i f e . By 1945, the C lyde Eskimos had become f a m i l i a r w i t h wage l a b o u r , t r a p p i n g , and w e l f a r e payments as w e l l as F a m i l y A l l owance payments. A p a r t from the f l u c t u a t i o n s i n f u r p r i c e s and the p o p u l a t i o n c y c l e o f the foxes the s i t u a t i o n d e s c r i b e d b r i e f l y , p e r s i s t e d f o r about 20 y e a r s w i t h o u t s e r i o u s changes i n e c o l o g y and economy and demography. A l t h o u g h f u r s were the s o l e source o f income f o r a good many y e a r s , t r a p -p i n g as an a c t i v i t y f o r t h i s group never assumed the im-p o r t a n c e nor a t t a i n e d the a s s o c i a t i v e s t a t u s found, f o r example, among the Banks I s l a n d group i n the Western A r c t i c . In s h o r t , the C lyde I n l e t Eskimo remained a h u n t i n g - o r i e n t e d r a t h e r than a t r a p p i n g - o r i e n t e d s o c i e t y . T h i s , and o t h e r e v e n t s p r e c i p i t a t e d by World War I I , have had an i m p o r t a n t b e a r i n g upon the subsequent development o f t h i s community. The f i r s t i m p o r t a n t a l t e r a t i o n i n the system came d u r i n g the Second World War when the U n i t e d S t a t e s Armed F o r c e s a r r i v e d t o s e t up a weather s t a t i o n i n the s e t t l e m e n t a t C lyde d u r i n g 1944. D u r i n g World War I I the i n c u r s i o n o f a l a r g e r non-Eskimo p o p u l a t i o n p l u s the e r e c t i o n o f a weather and n a v i g a t i o n a l - a i d s t a t i o n o p e r a t e d and manned by p e r s o n -n e l o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s Armed F o r c e s t o g e t h e r w i t h the d e c r e a s e i n f u r p r i c e s p o i n t e d up the v a l u e o f wage- labour - 1 7 1 -as an a l t e r n a t i v e source o f income. C o n s i d e r i n g a l s o t h a t F a m i l y A l l owances and W e l f a r e payments were i n s t i t u t e d d u r i n g the same p e r i o d , i t can be seen how t h i s Eskimo group has been d i v e r t e d from t r a p p i n g as an economic p u r s u i t . S e v e r a l e f f e c t s were f e l t i m m e d i a t e l y ; a number o f men were h i r e d as rough c a r p e n t e r s and i n t r o d u c e d t o the concept o f wage e a r n i n g ; the U.S. s e r v i c e m e n were r e g u l a r l y s u p p l i e d w i t h movies and the l o c a l and v i s i t i n g Eskimos were i n i t i a t e d i n t o the w o n d e r f u l c e l l u l o i d w o r l d o f A m e r i c a ; l a s t l y , q u a s i - o r g a n i z e d p r o s t i t u t i o n and the a s s o c i a t e d p imp ing became w i d e s p r e a d . T h i s d i f f e r e d from the k i n d s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s s e t up between e i t h e r w h a l e r s or t r a d e r s and Eskimo women inasmuch as payment i n the form o f cash was immed ia te ly f o r t h c o m i n g and a l s o no s t a b l e r e -l a t i o n s h i p deve loped between the i n d i v i d u a l se rv i ceman and the men r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the women. T h i s s i t u a t i o n d i d not l a s t l o n g however; the U.S. Army t u r n e d the s t a t i o n over t o the Canadian Department o f T r a n s p o r t , M e t e o r o l o g i c a l D i v i s i o n , i n 1947, and the U.S. Coast Guard a r r i v e d t o b u i l d t h e i r base a t Cape C h r i s t i a n twe lve m i l e s n o r t h . In 1953, the R o y a l Canadian Mounted P o l i c e e s t a b l i s h e d a detachment a t Cape C h r i s t i a n about t e n m i l e s n o r t h o f the s e t t l e m e n t thus l o c a l i z i n g the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n wh ich had p r e v i o u s l y come under the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the Pond I n l e t detachment . S i m u l t a n e o u s l y , the U n i t e d S t a t e s Coast Guard b u i l t a LORAN s t a t i o n a t Cape C h r i s t i a n and the b u i l d i n g s and equipment a t the C lyde R i v e r s e t t l e m e n t were - 1 7 2 -t u r n e d over t o the Canadian Department o f T r a n s p o r t who de-v e l o p e d t h i s i n t o a s ix-man u p p e r - a i r weather s t a t i o n . Whi tes i n the s e t t l e m e n t numbered e i g h t and a t Cape C h r i s t i a n , twenty- two. D u r i n g , t h e s e p e r i o d s o f a c t i v -i t y , a few Eskimo men secured s teady employment i n the s e t t l e m e n t and q u i t e a number managed t o o b t a i n p a r t - t i m e wage labour p o s i t i o n s . The b i g g e s t s i n g l e b o o s t t o the l o c a l average income came when F a m i l y A l l owances and r e l i e f i s s u e s became a v a i l a b l e . I n i t i a l l y , t hese government monies "were g i v e n out o n l y i n the form o f p r e s c r i b e d t r a d e i t ems , t h i s b e i n g c o n t r o l l e d by the R .C .M.P . i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h the l o c a l t r a d e r . The e s t a b l i s h i n g o f an R .C .M .P . d e t a c h -ment a t Cape C h r i s t i a n (the a r e a had f o r m e r l y been v i s i t e d y e a r l y by p a t r o l s from the Pond I n l e t detachment) , saw ano ther i n f u s i o n o f money i n the form o f such i tems as r e g u l a r l y d i s b u r s e d r e l i e f i s s u e s e t c . A look a t the e v e r -w i d e n i n g gap between monies d e r i v e d from f u r s and o t h e r s a l e s a t the l o c a l s t o r e show t h i s development q u i t e c l e a r l y (see Diagram 2 0 ) . The r e s t r i c t i o n s p l a c e d on the u t i l i z a t i o n o f F a m i l y A l l owance and o ther government money was r a t h e r e a s i l y c i r c u m v e n t e d . The hunte r s i m p l y took h i s f u r s t o the s t o r e , bought the c h e r i s h e d a c c o r d i a n or whatever , knowing f u l l w e l l t h a t the Fami l y A l lowance money would be used t o p r o v i d e the needed ammunit ion, t e a , t o b a c c o , and so f o r t h ; and i f t h i s were not enough, then a r e q u e s t f o r r e l i e f was made. The system c o u l d be r a t h e r e a s i l y m a n i p u l a t e d - 1 7 4 -and Whites p l a y e d o f f a g a i n s t Whites i f n e c e s s a r y t o o b t a i n the d e s i r e d ends . B e a r i n g these developments i n mind, i t becomes c l e a r why some o f the f a r t h e r t r a d i t i o n a l camp s i t e s were b e i n g abandoned and r e s i d e n c e s h i f t e d c l o s e r t o the s e t t l e m e n t , the major source o f s u p p l y . Another major change i n the economy took p l a c e b e g i n n i n g about 1958. The p r i c e o f s e a l s k i n s , then about seven d o l l a r s f o r a d u l t s and two d o l l a r s and f i f t y c e n t s f o r y e a r l i n g s k i n s r o s e t o as much as t w e n t y - f i v e d o l l a r s f o r any undamaged h i d e . Fox t r a p p i n g s i m p l y c o u l d not compete w i t h t h i s t u r n o f e v e n t s and t r a p p i n g e f f o r t s dropped t o such a low t h a t the Hudson 's Bay Company p o s t manager c o u l d a t the end o f a r e c e n t season a i r - m a i l h i s w i n t e r ' s take o f w h i t e fox t o the M o n t r e a l c l e a r i n g house . There were, however, a number o f r e p u r c u s -s i o n s from t h i s . The i n c r e a s e i n v a l u e f o r s e a l h i d e s had l i t t l e or no e f f e c t on the normal a l l o c a t i o n o f t ime spent by the h u n t e r s ; second, the h u n t e r s had l i t t l e t o do w i t h the numbers o f h i d e s made a v a i l a b l e f o r the market . Men s i m p l y do not hand le s e a l h i d e s a f t e r they have removed them from the c a r c a s s . I t can be seen t h a t the women i n any camp had , th rough the whims o f the i n t e r n a t i o n a l f u r market , a t t a i n e d a new p o s i t i o n o f d i r e c t economic i nvo lvement and i m p o r t a n c e . U n l i k e the s i t u a t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o F a m i l y A l l o w a n c e payments, a lways made out t o the mother o f the c h i l d r e n , the i n c r e a s e i n d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n th rough con-t r o l l i n g the numbers o f s e a l h i d e s r e a c h i n g the t r a d e s t o r e has c r e a t e d i n t r a f a m i l y t e n s i o n s . These are not o v e r t l y - 1 7 5 -e x p r e s s e d d u r i n g the a c t u a l t r a d i n g o f the h i d e s i n the s t o r e , the women i n s i s t i n g upon h a v i n g an a c t i v e p a r t i n the t r a n s -a c t i o n s . T h i s i s t r u e g e n e r a l l y and e x c e p t i o n s e x i s t ; i t i s t r u e a l s o t h a t some women have a lways been v o c i f e r o u s i n p u b l i c , e s p e c i a l l y those women who are p a s t c h i l d - b e a r i n g age and who have , th rough the m a r r i a g e o f sons , become the a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e f o r a number o f d a u g h t e r s - i n - l a w . I t i s a l s o t r u e t h a t women i n g e n e r a l have been, and a r e , p o w e r f u l d e c i s i o n makers i n p r i v a t e . The impor tan t changes I r e f e r "to a re those i n v o l v i n g p u b l i c b e h a v i o u r and the a l l o c a t i o n o f economic a u t h o r i t y . In s t i l l another a r e a the changes under d i s c u s s i o n have had impor tan t consequences . The r e s i d e n c e assumed by newly-wed c o u p l e s i s becoming a mat te r o f b i t t e r c o n t e n t i o n . On the one hand the g i r l ' s f a m i l y i n s i s t upon f o l l o w i n g the ' t r a d i t i o n a l ' p a t t e r n o f b r i d e -s e r v i c e and thus r e t a i n i n g the daughter as an a c t i v e p a r t i -c i p a n t i n the domest i c economy. On the o t h e r hand the groom's p a r e n t s a re e q u a l l y i n s i s t e n t t h a t the g i r l come i n t o t h e i r camp. These prob lems a r e , as u s u a l , s e t t l e d a l o n g l i n e s de termined by the r e l a t i v e powers o f the two f a m i l i e s i n v o l v e d . The c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n i s one i n which i t i s no l onger taken f o r g r a n t e d t h a t the groom w i l l move i n t o the g i r l ' s f a t h e r ' s camp f o r some v a r y i n g p e r i o d o f t ime b e f o r e b r i n g i n g h i s b r i d e i n t o h i s own f a t h e r ' s h o u s e h o l d . C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f these and o t h e r l i k e ad jus tments o f ' n o r m a l ' p r a c t i c e s , e . g . i n the v a l u e s p l a c e d upon the sex o f p r o s p e c t i v e adoptees l eads t o the p r o p o s i t i o n advanced - 1 7 6 -e a r l i e r c o n c e r n i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between l o c a l a p p r o a -ches t o an economy de te rmined s o l e l y o u t s i d e o f the s o c i a l system under e x a m i n a t i o n . B r i e f l y s t a t e d t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n a s s e r t s t h a t : g i v e n an economy over wh ich the l o c a l p r o -d u c e r s have l i t t l e or no c o n t r o l i n terms o f p r i c e or demand and one i n which t h e r e i s a l a c k o f f e a s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s and r e s o u r c e s t h a t a re s u b j e c t t o i n t e r n a l f l u c t u a t i o n s i n q u a n t i t y and e x t e r n a l f l u c t u a t i o n s i n v a l u e t h e n the f o l l o w -i n g c o n d i t i o n s w i l l most l i k e l y a r i s e : p a r t i c i p a n t s a t the l o c a l l e v e l because t h e y have no c o n t r o l over such f l u c t u a -t i o n s i n q u a n t i t y , v a l u e , or market demand, can o n l y assume t h a t the l a s t most r e c e n t s e t o f c o n d i t i o n s w i l l h o l d and t h a t f u t u r e endeavours s h o u l d be- o r i e n t e d w i t h t h i s i n mind . T h i s i s not t o say t h a t p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s o f the i n s t a b i l i t y o f the economy are i g n o r e d , i n d e e d the o n l y c e r t a i n t y i s t h a t the market w i l l change. The t ime , d i r e c t i o n , and q u a l i t y o f the change remain f o r e v e r unknown f a c t o r s . A t C l y d e , h u n t e r s never h o l d back s k i n s o f any k i n d i n hopes t h a t the p r i c e w i l l i n c r e a s e . I t might be argued t h a t i n such a m a r g i n a l l y s u b s i s t e n c e economy t h i s would not be p o s s i b l e i n any e v e n t . However, the peop le a re aware t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o a c q u i r e a s s i s t a n c e v i a government f u n d s . They are a l s o f a m i l a i r w i t h the system o f debt used by the l o c a l t r a d e r ( a k i l i k s h a q ) . The un-c e r t a i n t y o f the market i s a cause o f c o n c e r n and a s u b j e c t o f c o n v e r s a t i o n (and, i n the case o f the few o v e r t l y h o s t i l e men, a bone o f c o n t e n t i o n ) . Concepts o f ' i n t e r n a t i o n a l - 1 7 7 -m a r k e t ' and a l l t h a t i s e n t a i l e d a re absent and r e j e c t e d when p o s i t e d . S i m i l a r l y , the concept o f 'government ' and government funds a re r e o r g a n i z e d t o make more sense a t the l o c a l l e v e l . In the former case the c u r r e n t t r a d e r i s e i t h e r the v i l l a i n or the h e r o . He, i t i s f i r m l y b e l i e v e d , s e t s t h e p r i c e p o l i c y as w e l l as d e t e r m i n i n g who g e t s debt e t  c e t e r a . In the second c a s e , the c u r r e n t p o l i c e m e n d e t e r -mines who g e t s r e l i e f , p e n s i o n money, and even F a m i l y A l l o w -ance money. In b o t h c a s e s , a change o f p e r s o n n e l r e q u i r e s 'a r e a s s e s s m e n t o f the p o s i t i o n and a t t i t u d e s o f the new Whi tes s i n c e each o f the i m p o r t a n t Whi tes i s an a b r i t r a r y and autonomous a u t h o r i t y i n t h e i r spheres o f i n f l u e n c e as p o i n t e d out e a r l i e r . The rep lacement o f e i t h e r o f these two f i g u r e s , the t r a d e r or the p o l i c e m a n i s accompanied by a f u r i o u s exchange o f o b s e r v a t i o n a l d a t a among the Esk imos . In a s h o r t t ime the new a r r i v a l s have been o b s e r v e d , a n a l y z e d , and c a t a l o g u e d and a p p r o p r i a t e approaches i n i t i a t e d . The f a c t t h a t t h e s e assessments may be q u i t e wrong m a t t e r s l e s s t h a n the f a c t t h a t the p e o p l e a d j u s t t h e i r b e h a v i o u r i n the b e l i e f t h a t they a re c o r r e c t . S i m i l a r s h o r t - t e r m a d j u s t -ments t o l o c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f l a r g e r market economy can be p o s i t e d i n the p e r i o d i c s h i f t o f v a l u e s from s o n - i n - l a w t o d a u g h t e r - i n - l a w ; from s e a l - h u n t i n g f o r cash t o the a c q u i -s i t i o n o f w a g e - l a b o u r ; from male a d o p t i v e s t o female adop-t i v e s . An i m p o r t a n t r e d i s t r i b u t i v e f a c t o r i n the l o c a l economy i s found i n the w i d e s p r e a d gambl ing games t h a t take - 1 7 8 -p l a c e c o n s t a n t l y i n the a r e a and are a major a t t r a c t i o n a t the s e t t l e m e n t a t g a t h e r i n g t imes l i k e Chr i s tmas or when-e v e r a l a r g e group have come t o g e t h e r t o t r a d e a t the s e t t l e m e n t . The law, as I unders tand i t , does not f o r b i d gambl ing per se b u t does f o r b i d the o p e r a t i n g o f gambl ing games f o r p r o f i t . The C lyde Eskimo however, b e l i e v e t h a t the p o l i c e and/or the l o c a l Whites a re capab le o f l a y i n g ch a rg e s f o r gambl ing i t s e l f , as a r e s u l t , the games are kep t s e c r e t from the W h i t e s . A f t e r o b s e r v i n g and p a r t i c i p a t i n g " in a number o f games I took an o p p o r t u n i t y t o t e s t how s u c c e s s f u l the peop le were i n k e e p i n g the games s e c r e t by a s k i n g the assembled Whites i f the l o c a l Eskimo gambled. The answer was a unanimous n e g a t i v e and the l o n g e s t r e s i d e n t White made a s tatement t o the e f f e c t t h a t , "the n a t i v e s d o n ' t even know how t o use p l a y i n g c a r d s f o r non-gambl ing games." Between the Esk imos ' s e c r e c y (a c h i l d w i l l s i m p l y p r e s e n t a v a c a n t e x p r e s s i o n when q u e s t i o n e d about the games) and the f a c t t h a t the gambl ing games do not i n v o l v e p l a y i n g c a r d s seems to have been adequate i n m a i n t a i n i n g the d e s i r e d s e c r e c y . The most common game i s c a l l e d , ' k u d l i g ' and uses a t o p h a v i n g f o u r s i d e s each w i t h d i f f e r e n t v a l u e . The v a l u e s range from a h i g h s i d e t h a t t a k e s a l l , a low s i d e t h a t t a k e s n o t h i n g , one s i d e t h a t t a k e s one i t em, and the l a s t s i d e t h a t t a k e s two i t e m s . The s i d e s a re e n g r a v e d ; the h i g h e s t w i t h the image o f a s e a l - o i l lamp, the ' k u d l i q , ' z e r o s i d e i s b l a n k , and the o t h e r two s i d e s have a s i n g l e and doub le l i n e r e s p e c t i v e l y . Anyone may put down a s take - 1 7 9 -and p a r t i c i p a t e i n a game. Some games o b s e r v e d i n c l u d e d men, women, and male c h i l d r e n . Other games i n c l u d e d o n l y men and s t i l l o t h e r s o n l y women. No game o b s e r v e d i n c l u d e d j u v e n i l e females a l t h o u g h i n f o r m a n t s i n s i s t e d t h a t they c o u l d p l a y i f they w i s h e d . Stakes were not equated on a d o l l a r - v a l u e b a s i s so t h a t i n any game a p o c k e t - k n i f e , a box o f ammunit ion, a r i f l e , cash , and a c i g a r e t t e l i g h t e r c o u l d be i n c l u d e d . I f the s p i n n e r had put i n the l i g h t e r f o r example and got the s i n g l e - s i d e he c o u l d choose t o take 9 the r i f l e , or the box o f ammunit ion. In the example g i v e n the man chose t o take the r i f l e s a y i n g t h a t he was o v e r -j o y e d s i n c e he had wanted such a c a l i b r e (.2 70) r i f l e f o r a l o n g t i m e . The games are conducted i n an atmosphere o f h i l a r i t y b o r d e r i n g on h y s t e r i a . I n d i v i d u a l s w i l l be goaded i n t o p l a c i n g s t a k e s t h a t , i n a u t i l i t a r i a n sense , a re f o o l i s h , e . g . an ou tboard motor or a canoe b o t h i tems wor th s e v e r a l hundred d o l l a r s e a c h . I f he succumbs and l o s e s he i s d e r i d e d and made the b u t t o f jokes w i t h o u t a p p a r e n t l y , . l o s i n g h i s good humour. In some senses the gambl ing a t C lyde i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f the b i d d i n g f o r i tems t h a t took p l a c e i n n o r t h A l a s k a (Spencer, 1959) . Items l o s t i n a game are n o t r e t u r n a b l e except th rough n e g o t i a t i o n between the winner and l o s e r . A c l a s s i c case i n v o l v e d a man who had one canoe and won another i n a game ( i t was the l a s t s take o f the game o t h e r w i s e he p r o b a b l y would not have chosen i t ) . He t h e n n e g o t i a t e d w i t h the l o s e r and r e t u r n e d the canoe f o r a worn-out ou tboard motor t h a t had spare p a r t s he wanted . - 1 8 0 -The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the grade s c h o o l and h o s t e l i n 1963 c r e a t e d t h r e e permanent o f semi-permanent wage p o s i t i o n s : mechanic f o r the d i e s e l p l a n t , j a n i t o r f o r the s c h o o l , and w i t h the e r e c t i o n o f the s i x t e e n w e l f a r e houses , garbage c o l l e c t o r ( s a n i t a t i o n e n g i n e e r i n governmentese) . The d i s s o n a n c e between v a r i o u s government department p o l i c i e s (perhaps the l a c k o f p o l i c y ) became apparent upon the com-p l e t i o n o f t h i s s c h o o l . The Department o f E d u c a t i o n ex-pounded the advantages o f h a v i n g o n e ' s c h i l d r e n a t t e n d s c h o o l and i n i t i a t e d the p e n a l t y o f w i t h d r a w a l o f F a m i l y A l l owance from those f a m i l i e s who d i d not send t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o s c h o o l . The l o c a l R .C .M.P . however, have , a p p a r e n t l y , an u n o f f i c i a l and l ong s t a n d i n g p o l i c y o f k e e p i n g the Eskimos out o f the s e t t l e m e n t backed up by t h r e a t s o f r e -f u s i n g a s s i s t a n c e t o those who r e f u s e t o go 'back on the l a n d . ' These c o e r c i v e t e c h n i q u e s have done l i t t l e t o c r e a t e f e e l i n g s o f a m i a b i l i t y between Whites and Eskimos i n the a r e a and i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t d e e p l y - r o o t e d h o s t i l e a t t i t u d e s a g a i n s t Whites a re f i r m l y e n t r e n c h e d among the p o p u l a t i o n a t l a r g e . In summary, r e c e n t developments have c r e a t e d the f o l l o w i n g b r o a d c o n d i t i o n s . Fox t r a p p i n g as the major w i n t e r p u r s u i t has been v i r t u a l l y abandoned. More s e a l -s k i n s are t u r n e d i n t o cash a t the p o i n t where they are s u i t a b l e f o r c l o t h i n g and s t o r e - b o u g h t s u b s t i t u t e s a re i n -c r e a s i n g . The f a r t h e s t camps are b e i n g abandoned and r e s i d e n c e i s now r e s t r i c t e d t o t e n or fewer camps c l o s e r t o - 1 8 1 -the s e t t l e m e n t . There i s a g e n e r a l i n c r e a s e i n dependence upon i m p o r t a n t goods o f a l l d e s c r i p t i o n s and an e s c a l a t i n g v a l u e f o r w a g e - l a b o u r . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a r e c o g n i z e d v a l u e o f e d u c a t i o n ( s c h o o l i n g ) f o r c h i l d r e n and t r a i n i n g f o r a d u l t s t h i s i s o f f s e t t o a l a r g e degree by the l a c k o f o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the a p p l i c a t i o n o f a c q u i r e d s k i l l s . Popu-l a t i o n has s p i r a l l e d accompanied by the u s u a l d i s a d v a n t a g e s e n t a i l e d by poor p e o p l e . Resumpt ion o f the former t r a p p i n g -h u n t i n g mode o f l i f e has become i n c r e a s i n g l y l e s s p o s s i b l e w h i l e a t the same t ime a l t e r n a t i v e s a re l a c k i n g . An i n t e n s e d i s t r u s t o f Whites and a g r o s s l y d i s t o r t e d concept o f the White w o r l d makes i t p r a c t i c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e f o r c r o s s -c u l t u r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e where the Whi tes have a t tempted t o i n t r o d u c e ' d e m o c r a t i c ' i d e a s and n o t i o n s o f the e s s e n t i a l e q u a l i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s . For the C lyde Eskimos i n d i v i d u a l s a re not e q u a l , some men (and women) are s u p e r i o r t o o t h e r s and the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the l e s s by the more s t r o n g i s w i d e s p r e a d and n a t u r a l . S i m i l a r d i s t o r t e d r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f the mores o f the Whi tes , i n c l u d i n g those r e l a t i n g t o sex and r e l i g i o n abound. Wh i tes , w i t h t h e i r emphasis and i n s a t i a b l e i n t e r e s t (as d e p i c t e d i n magaz ines , mov ies , and i d e a i n t e r c h a n g e ) i n female b r e a s t s t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i r d i s p l a y o f temper tantrums and o v e r - a l l n a i v e n e s s a re t a k e n as p r o o f o f t h e i r c h i l d - l i k e n a t u r e . S i m i l a r l y , the Eskimo v e r s i o n s o f the C h r i s t i a n b i b l e and the accommodation o f t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e - c r i s e s p r a c t i c e s w i t h i n the c h r i s t i a n framework c o u l d be t a k e n as s y n c r e t i c - 1 8 2 -ad jus tments t o t h i n g s as they seem t o b e . A f u r t h e r a s p e c t o f contemporary s o c i a l l i f e t h a t r e q u i r e s m e n t i o n i n g i s t h a t o f economic a l l o c a t i o n . I t s h o u l d be made c l e a r a t the s t a r t t h a t no a t tempt i s b e i n g made t o a p p l y t r a d i t i o n a l w e s t e r n economic t h e o r y t o t h i s r e l a t i v e l y ' p r i m i t i v e ' s o c i e t y . The immense prob lems i n v o l -ved i n such endeavours have been i l l u s t r a t e d i n p a s t works and have been d e a l t w i t h by more q u a l i f i e d economic s p e c i a l -i s t s f rom F i r t h and Mauss th rough P o l a n y i and Bohannan t o 9 D a l t o n and Belshaw and needs no f u r t h e r ment ion a t t h i s p o i n t . The s t r u c t u r e s o f economic a l l o c a t i o n among f a m i l i e s o f C lyde Eskimo must be' c o n s i d e r e d i n two frames o f r e f e r e n c e t h a t g i v e r i s e t o a number o f prob lems p e c u l i a r t o t h i s , and p r o b a b l y o t h e r , t r a n s i t i o n a l g r o u p s . In the b r o a d e s t sense 'economic a l l o c a t i o n ' i n c o n c r e t e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s i s t aken t o b e : . . . the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the goods and s e r v i c e s making up the income o f the c o n c r e t e s t r u c t u r e concerned and o f the goods and e f f o r t s making up the ou tpu t o f t h a t s t r u c t u r e among the members o f t h a t s t r u c t u r a l u n i t and o t h e r s t r u c t u r a l u n i t s w i t h which i t i s i n c o n t a c t i n these r e s p e c t s (Levy, 1952:330) . The c o n c r e t e u n i t i s , o f c o u r s e , the k i n s h i p u n i t , f a m i l y and ' o t h e r s t r u c t u r a l u n i t s ' w i t h which i t i s i n c o n t a c t a re o t h e r f a m i l i e s and the c o - r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s , h o u s e h o l d s . These l a t t e r may or may not c o i n c i d e w i t h the f a m i l y as i t i s used h e r e b u t , whatever the case may be, a re i m p o r t a n t f o r the a n a l y s i s i n terms o f v i e w i n g the dynamic l i n k a g e o f - 1 8 3 -the f a m i l y w i t h s o c i e t y . The two frames o f r e f e r e n c e t h a t I see n e c e s s a r y a re the t r a d i t i o n a l and r e l i c t r e c i p r o c a l b u t r e s t r i c t e d exchange system and the f u r - t r a d e market system w i t h which, t r a p p i n g i s a s s o c i a t e d b u t h u n t i n g n o t . Both Levy (1952:330-1) and P o l a n y i (1957:48) f o c u s upon the d i s t i n c t i o n between ' p r o d u c t i o n ' and ' c o n -sumpt ion . ' The former t o the p o i n t where he c o n s i d e r s t h e s e as d i s t i n c t s t r u c t u r e s w i t h i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d modes o f a l l o c a t i o n . The l a t t e r a u t h o r i n d i c a t e s t h a t , as a p r o g r e s -s i v e v iew th rough p r i m i t i v e t o i n d u s t r i a l t y p e s o f s o c i e t i e s i s t a k e n , the concomi tant c o m p l e x i t i e s i n h e r e n t i n the two s t r u c t u r e s a re r e v e r s e d . That i s , whereas p r o d u c t i o n i n i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y becomes complex and a f u l l y l i q u i d ex-change medium emerges (money), consumpt ion ( a l l o c a t i o n o f goods and s e r v i c e s ) becomes r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e , i f u n e q u a l . On the o t h e r hand, i n p r e - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s p r o d u c t i o n i s r e l a t i v e l y s imp le ( a v o i d i n g q u e s t i o n s o f r e l i g i o n and magic) b u t the a l l o c a t i o n o f goods and s e r v i c e s i s o f t e n embedded i n a complex network o f i n t e r - p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . As F i r t h , Belshaw, and Bohannan have demonst ra ted , such a s i m p l e cont inuum i s not to be found among contemporary s o c i e t i e s . The u s u a l case i s one i n which e lements o f b o t h p o l a r t y p e s e x i s t . The C lyde Eskimo v i n d i c a t e t h i s q u a l i -f i c a t i o n ; some a s p e c t s o f the economic a l l o c a t i o n f i t s c l o s e l y toward one p o l e w h i l e o t h e r a s p e c t s a re more l i k e the o p p o s i t e p o l e . T h i s t h e n , i s the complex economic - 1 8 4 -m i l e a u o f b a c k d r o p a g a i n s t which t h i s a n a l y s i s i s g i v e n . A l t h o u g h the l i t e r a t u r e on Eskimos abounds w i t h s ta tements t o the e f f e c t t h a t Eskimo are 1 c o m m u n a l i s t i c ' and, c o n v e r s e l y , ' i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c ' ; the r e s o l u t i o n o f t h i s paradox i s t o be seen i n the l e v e l s o f a c t i o n t h a t Eskimos a r e engaged i n and concerned about . As a communal member o f a community he i s i n d e e d c o m m u n a l i s t i c t o the e x t e n t t h a t communal members o t h e r than f a m i l y have r i g h t s t o h i s t ime and endeavours b u t he i s i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c i n s o f a r as he has some c h o i c e i n who he a s s o c i a t e s w i t h i n e i t h e r k i n s h i p or n o n - k i n s h i p t e r m s . N o t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g ' s e l f - h e l p ' among p r i m i t i v e p e o p l e s have been h i n d e r e d by a l a c k o f e x p l i c i t n e s s c o n -c e r n i n g the n a t u r e o f ' s e l f - h e l p . ' S e l f - h e l p i s not p o s s i b l e i n most groups w i t h o u t r e c o u r s e t o some ' t h r e a t ' o f l a r g e r -group n e g a t i v e r e a c t i o n . S e l f - h e l p as a p r o c e s s i s i m p o r t a n t f o r the C lyde Eskimos b u t i n v o l v e s the c a r e f u l m a n i p u l a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g ' t r o o p s , ' so t o speak. These m a n i p u l a t i o n s a re d i f f i c u l t and r e q u i r e a s e r i o u s e x p e n d i t u r e o f t i m e . T h i s h i s t o r i c a l s e c t i o n has been g i v e n as a p a r t i a l e x p l a n a t i o n o f the demography and some a s p e c t s o f the econo-mic and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the contemporary groups about C l y d e . In sum, i t can be seen t h a t the impact o f the w h a l e r s and t r a d e r s upon e s t a b l i s h e d o r d e r was g r e a t i n b o t h c a s e s . In the case o f the whaler c o n t a c t s , the s h i f t away from the then t r a d i t i o n a l s e a s o n a l c y c l e and camp d i s p e r s a l - 1 8 5 -i s c l e a r . In o t h e r words, the move i n t o l a r g e w h a l e r -dependent s e t t l e m e n t s s e r v e d t o depopu la te v a s t a r e a s o f the e a s t e r n c o a s t o f B a f f i n I s l a n d . The break-away from s e a s o n -a l a c t i v i t i e s a l s o s e r v e d t o b r i n g about changes i n the f a c e - t o - f a c e c o n t a c t p a t t e r n s t h a t had e x i s t e d between groups o f Esk imos . I t i s presumed t h a t such changes would a l s o have e f f e c t s upon r e s i d e n c e r u l e s c o n c e r n i n g newly m a r r i e d c o u p l e s and p r o b a b l y a l s o had e f f e c t s on the weaker a s p e c t s o f k i n s h i p o r g a n i z a t i o n as w e l l as upon m a r r i a g e p a t t e r n s " g e n e r a l l y . A f t e r s e v e r a l g e n e r a t i o n s , l o n g enough f o r the wha le r p a t t e r n t o be e s t a b l i s h e d and become t r a d i t i o n a l , the a r r i v a l o f the t r a d e r s on the h e e l s o f the f a i l i n g wha le -based economy wrought e q u a l l y d r a s t i c changes i n the r e s i d -ence and camp c o m p o s i t i o n p a t t e r n s . Whereas the w h a l e r s encouraged the peop le t o s t a y a t the w h a l i n g s t a t i o n s the y e a r round the t r a d e r s were e q u a l l y adamant and s t r o n g l y u rged the breakup o f the l a r g e w h a l e - s t a t i o n s e t t l e m e n t s . I n s t e a d o f the l a r g e cong lomerates they i n s i s t e d upon the u t i l i t y o f the f o r m a t i o n o f s m a l l e r camps s c a t t e r e d a l o n g the c o a s t . T h i s had t o do w i t h the n e c e s s i t y o f s t r i n g i n g t r a p l i n e s over as wide an a r e a as p o s s i b l e i n o r d e r t o m a x i -mize the f u r t a k e . T h i s move i n v o l v e d the development o f g r e a t e r m o b i l i t y t h a n had been the case , i . e . the upkeep o f l a r g e r dog-teams and, c o n c o m i t a n t l y , l a r g e e x p e n d i t u r e s o f t ime and e f f o r t f o r dog s u s t e n a n c e . - 1 8 6 -Whereas, f o r m e r l y i n v o l v e d w i t h l a r g e s e l f - c o n t a i n e d u n i t s f o r work the Eskimo now found t h a t he had t o r e l y on h i m s e l f f o r t r a v e l l i n g , t r a p p i n g and t r a d i n g . The r e l i c t s t r u c t u r e s o f game-shar ing came once a g a i n i n t o the f o r e w i t h f o r m a l i z e d s e a l - s h a r i n g p a r t n e r s h i p s and o t h e r e q u a l l y im-p o r t a n t exchanges i . e . spouse-exchange as a medium f o r the maximal e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the env i ronment . I t i s i n these s e c t o r s t h a t W i l l m o t t ' s and Honigman's t h e s e s a re most r e -l e v a n t . Wi th the advent o f F a m i l y A l l owances and R e l i e f i s s u e s the economy took another t u r n . Where b e f o r e the c r e d i t / d e b t o r system w i t h the t r a d e r s u f f i c i e d , b a r e l y , t o take c a r e o f the needs o f i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l i e s the i n f l u x o f government monies p l u s wages h e l p e d t o b r i n g about the l a t e s t changes, t h a t o f the w e l f a r e s t a t e . A c u r s o r y g l a n c e a t the t a b l e showing the v a l u e o f f u r s t r a d e d i n t o the s t o r e and the amounts spent i n b u y i n g from the s t o r e i n d i c a t e q u i t e c l e a r l y t h a t the government i s i n e f f e c t , i f no t i n t e n t , s u b s i d i z i n g the l o c a l t r a d e s t o r e . T h i s c o n d i t i o n remains t o d a y . TABLE X TOTAL STORE SALES AND VALUE OF FURS* TRADED AT CLYDE POST 1925-1964 U > Year S a l e s F u r s Year S a l e s Furs Year Sa les Furs Year S a l e s F u r s 192 5 1, 970 1, 179 1935 8, 040 9,637 1945 7,354 3, 500 1955 21, 095 1, 947 1926 3, 720 3, 339 1936 1, 755 2, 061 1946 11, 063 8,906 1956 23,932 2, 156 1927 11,432 12,083 1937 3, 029 3, 294 1947 9, 780 5, 761 1957 24,523 1,473 1928 6, 162 4, 574 1938 5, 082 6, 613 1948 10,224 2, 180 1958 24,099 3, 704 1929 4,453 3, 340 1939 7, 013 7, 570 1949 10,857 2, 520 1959 27, 990 9,630 1930 6, 342 5, 513 1940 2, 512 2, 131 1950 10,136 1, 569 1960 35, 026 8, 845 1931 10, 120 11, 552 1941 4, 096 5, 043 1951 16,621 5, 205 1961 53,048 8, 276 1932 6, 268 8, 047 1942 14, 166 16, 129 1952 13,852 2, 352 1962 63, 121 8, 728 1933 1, 849 1, 549 1943 12, 257 14,466 1953 13,940 1, 504 1963 69, 919 19,188 1934 4, 657 3, 787 1944 11, 322 7, 374 1954 16,705 2, 501 1964 72,708 29,488 * P r i m a r i l y w h i t e f o x and h a i r s e a l . (1) T h i s , and the t a b l e s on pp . 188, 189, 190 have been c o n s t r u c t e d on d a t a s u p p l i e d by the Hudson 's Bay Co. - 1 8 8 -TABLE XI POPULATION CLYDE RIVER 1965 F a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n s e t t l e m e n t 15 F a m i l i e s w i t h i n 10 - 30 m i l e s 20 F a m i l i e s i n d i s t a n t camps 11 T o t a l 46 P o p u l a t i o n A n a l y s i s Age grade M F m s m s Over 45 9 1 7 2 18 - 44 33 6 35 6 6 - 17 0 50 0 42 Under 6 24 . 3 0 Summary Age group M F Over 45 10 9 18 - 44 39 41 p o t e n t i a l l abour f o r c e 6 - 1 7 50 42 o f f i c i a l s c h o o l age Under 6 24 30 T o t a l p o p u l a t i o n 244 M = male F = female m = m a r r i e d s = s i n g l e or widowed f a m i l y i s t a k e n t o mean p a r e n t ( s ) p l u s m a r r i e d dependents - 1 8 9 -TABLE X I I POPULATION FIGURES FOR ESKIMOS TRADING AT CLYDE Numbers o f i n d i v i d u a l s i f g i v e n , or f a m i l i e s ( n u c l e a r ) Year Camp Name M F m f T o t a l s 1923 Kangetsuuap iq 23 24 p p 47 T i k e r q a n 9 10 p p 19 K i v i t o q 16 17 p p 33 N e t s a r s u j o q 5 6 p p 11 110 1924 K i v i t o q 7 10 6 10 33 T i q e r q a n 9 10 p p 19 Kangetsuuap iq 23 24 p p 47 N e t s a r s u j o q 5 6 p p 11 110 1925 A l l camps ( e x c l u d i n g s e t t l e m e n t ) 50 1926 N e t s a r s u j o q 1 1 4 6 A k o l i a k a t a q p p p p 11 Kangetsuuap iq p p p p 27 K i v i t o q p p p p 94 135 1927- 8 No d a t a 1929 N e t s a r s u j o q (no da ta) 4 f am. T u p e r v i a l u q 1 1 p p 6 P i n g u a r j u k 3 3 p p 15 T i k e r q a n (numerous J i ? p 1930 No da ta 1931 Pond-Home Bay 39 f am. 1933- 5 No d a t a 1936 N e t s a r s u j o q 5 5 p p 5 f am. Kangetsuuap iq 6 6 p p 6 f am. Otchongajok 1 1 4 6 K i v i t o q 9 1937-•41 No d a t a 1942 A l l camps 39 48 82 169 1943 A l l camps 37 45 93 175 1944 A l l camps 36 42 82 160 -190-TABLE XII (Continued) 1945 A l l camps 29 35 41 37 142 1946 No data 1947 A l l camps 22 26 37 34 119 1948 A l l camps 24 27 31 30 112 1949 A l l camps 28 27 34 33 112 1950 A l l camps 25 26 34 40 125 1951 A l l camps 26 27 37 40 130 1952 A l l camps 26 27 37 40 130 1953 A l l camps 30 31 40 42 143 1965 A l l camps (see Table No. X) - 1 9 1 -FOOTNOTES 1. By e c o l o g y I mean the r e l a t i o n s h i p between e n v i r o n -m e n t a l u n i t s ; f o r example between wo lves and c a r i b o u o r between men and w h a l e s . 2 . Demography here means the numbers and d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f ; human p o p u l a t i o n s . 3. E x p l o i t a t i o n i s e q u i v a l e n t t o m a x i m i z a t i o n o f the e n v i r o n m e n t . 4 . W. E. T a y l o r , p e r s . comm. has l ooked over the m a t e r i a l and d iagrams and c o n f i r m s b o t h D o r s e t and Thu le t y p e s . 5. The t r a d e s t o r e has been v a r i o u s l y known as C lyde R i v e r and C lyde I n l e t . 6. I t has been sugges ted i n the l i t e r a t u r e and by P r o f e s s o r R. K. N. Crook, p e r s . comm. t h a t where gambl ing o f t h i s n a t u r e t a k e s p l a c e one s h o u l d look f o r o t h e r s i g n s o f d i s o r i e n t a t i o n . In v iew o f what I have d e s c r i b e d as ' u n c e r t a i n t y sys tems ' t h i s seems a r e a s o n a b l e p o s s i b i l i t y ; u n f o r t u n a t e l y my immediate i n t e r e s t s w h i l e i n the f i e l d l a y i n o t h e r a r e a s c o n s e q u e n t l y I f e e l my d a t a inadequate f o r c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h i s f a c t o r . I sugges t , how-e v e r , t h a t a l a r g e r community, such as F r o b i s h e r Bay might p r o v i d e the k i n d o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t an a n a l y s i s would r e q u i r e . - 1 9 2 -CHAPTER V T h i s has been an e x e r c i s e i n the c l a r i f i c a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r s e t o f d a t a c o n c e r n i n g the a c t u a l and i d e a l b e h a v i o u r o f two groups o f Esk imos , those t r a d i n g i n t o the p o s t a t C lyde R i v e r ( I n l e t ) . An at tempt has been made t o show t h a t b o t h k i n s h i p and what I term ' e x t r a - k i n s h i p ' f a c t o r s have an i m p o r t a n t b e a r i n g upon the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the work ings o f the l a r g e r s o c i a l system w i t h i n which i n d i v i d u a l s and groups o f i n d i v i d -u a l s o p e r a t e . W i t h i n the bounds o f the k i n s h i p system i t was demonst ra ted t h a t these Eskimos o p e r a t e i n d y a d i c p a i r s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s , f o r example the c l o s e l i n k a g e between n e i c e / nephew terms and aunt/unc le te rms . The na tu re o f t h i s c l o s e b o n d i n g can be f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e d by an example from the n o r t h e a s t e r n A l a s k a n groups (Spencer, 1949) . There , the term f o r f a t h e r ' s b r o t h e r has been dropped i n the course o f changes i n the o v e r - a l l s t r u c t u r e o f t h a t k i n s h i p system and, as c o u l d have been p r e d i c t e d , the c o r r e s p o n d i n g term f o r b r o t h e r ' s son/daughter has a l s o been d ropped . The k i n s h i p system, i t was p o s i t e d , i s o n l y one system o f b e h a v i o u r and was c l o s e l y l i n k e d w i t h the e x t r a -k i n s h i p system and i t s i nvo lvement .wi th spouse-exchange - 1 9 3 -p a r t n e r s h i p s . The i n t e r c h a n g e w i t h i n and between t h e s e two systems cannot be o v e r s t r e s s e d . S t i l l another system o f i n f o r m a t i o n d i s p e r s a l and s o c i a l c o n t r o l c o u l d be seen i n the f o r m a t i o n o f a d u l t -e x c l u s i v e peer groups among the unmarr ied i n d i v i d u a l s . The impor tance o f t h i s group l i e s i n i t s a b i l i t y t o a s s i m i l a t e and share i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g a l l a s p e c t s o f d a y - t o - d a y l i f e as w e l l as t o more ephemera l a s p e c t s o f s o c i a l l i f e such as r e l i g i o n . A l s o b rought out i n the a n a l y s i s o f the "data were the e x i s t e n c e o f a w e l l - d e f i n e d h i e r a r c h i c a l system o f s t a t u s and i n f l u e n c e or power. My d a t a concur w i t h those o f Damas (1963) i n a s s e r t i n g t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s a re i n d e e d concerned w i t h t h e i r p o s i t i o n s i n the h i e r a r c h i c a l sys tem. In b r i e f , the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the C lyde groups c o n s i s t s o f c l e a r l y d e f i n e d r o l e s w i t h i n the k i n s h i p s t r u c t u r e , w i t h i n the e x t r a - k i n s h i p s t r u c t u r e , and between the two sys tems . The h i e r a r c h i c a l system f u n c t i o n s t o s p e c i f y who i s the l e g i t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e i n v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s . I t has a l s o been shown t h a t b e h a v i o u r v a r i e s between p u b l i c and p r i v a t e domains. I t appears t h a t the i d e a l , normat ive b e h a v i o u r i s adhered t o p u b l i c a l l y b u t t h a t i n p r i v a t e more i n f o r m a l norms are o p e r a t i n g . For example, w i t h r e s p e c t t o d e c i s i o n making w i t h i n the h o u s e h o l d where women have a g r e a t e r p a r t i n the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s than she i n d i c a t e s i n p u b l i c . . I t was shown t h a t t h e r e a re v a r i a b l e degrees o f - 1 9 4 -s o l i d a r i t y r a n g i n g from v e r y h i g h , as between s i b l i n g s t o v e r y low, as between s p o u s e s . S o l i d a r i t y o u t s i d e o f the f a m i l y , t h a t i s between u n r e l a t e d p a r t n e r s was v e r y h i g h d u r i n g spouse-exchange s i t u a t i o n s b u t c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s so i n the a f t e r m a t h o f such a r rangements . The two d i s t i n c t groups d e s c r i b e d i n the d i s s e r -t a t i o n as N o r t h e r n and Southern showed un ique b o n d i n g a c r o s s k i n s h i p l i n e s th rough the o p e r a t i o n o f the i l i g i t system (see Chapter I I I ) . P u t t i n g t h i s more p r e c i s e l y , the i l i g i t "system o p e r a t e d t o t i e u n r e l a t e d f a m i l i e s t o g e t h e r by p r o d u c i n g , on each s i d e , the c a t e g o r y o f k insman r e f e r r e d t o as k a t a n g o t i q a t i g i t (the s h a r e r s o f one p a r e n t ) . F u r t h e r -more s i n c e m a r r i a g e s were absent- between the two groups and s i n c e t h e r e were i n d i v i d u a l s c o n s i d e r e d as k i n from each group the f u n c t i o n o f the i l i g i t can be seen t o o p e r a t e as a t y i n g u n r e l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s and groups i n bonds as c l o s e as those o f the k i n s h i p sys tem. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the i l a g i t and the i l i g i t systems cannot be o v e r s t r e s s e d as a major f a c t o r i n l e n d i n g c o h e s i o n and a sense o f community f o r the l a r g e r s o c i a l sys tem. T h i s c o h e s i o n i s e s p e c i a l l y c r u c i a l f o r the ex-change o f i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g v i t a l r e l a t i o n s between the i n d i g e n e o u s p o p u l a t i o n and the i t i n e r a n t White p o p u l a t i o n . The e f f e c t s o f h i s t o r i c a l developments i n the f o r m i n g o f contemporary C lyde s o c i e t y are r e l a t i v e l y c l e a r . The w h a l e r s i n t r o d u c e d many i tems i n t o the i n d i g e n e o u s economy. T h i s , i n t u r n , a l t e r e d the e c o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s - 1 9 5 -t h a t had e x i s t e d f o r the Esk imos . Some examples o f t h e s e changes r e l a t e d t o the use o f the r i f l e wh ich changed the s e a l i n g p a t t e r n by making i t p o s s i b l e t o hunt a t the f l o e -edge on a l a r g e s c a l e . Maukpak, or s e a l - h o l e h u n t i n g d u r i n g the w i n t e r d i m i n i s h e d a c c o r d i n g l y . With the i n c e n t i v e o f r i f l e s and the p o s s i b i l i t y o f wage l abour the s i z e o f camps was r e d u c e d as more and more Eskimos a t t a c h e d themse lves t o the v a r i o u s w h a l i n g s t a t i o n s . Over the g e n e r a t i o n s , most o f the n o r t h e a s t c o a s t o f B a f f i n I s l a n d became economi-c a l l y dependent upon the w h a l e r s . T h i s was t r u e t o the e x t e n t t h a t Low (1923) p r e d i c t e d t h a t s h o u l d the w h a l e r s l eave the a r e a the dependent Eskimos would be i n d i r e s t r a i g h t s . He f u r t h e r sugges ted ( i b i d ) t h a t the government would have t o e n t e r the a r e a and assume the r o l e o f s u p p l i e r o f those goods t h a t the Eskimos needed i n o r d e r t o eke out s u b s i s t e n c e . W i t h i n the next decade h i s gloomy p r e d i c t i o n s were r e a l i z e d as the w h a l i n g o p e r a t i o n s became more and more s p o r a d i c and f i n a l l y became d e f u n c t . The next major change i n the a r e a took p l a c e w i t h the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a t r a d i n g s t o r e a t C lyde R i v e r . When the Hudson 's Bay Company a r r i v e d they had t o impor t t r a p p e r s from f u r t h e r south i n o r d e r t o e x p l o i t the f u r r e s o u r c e s and t o t e a c h the i n d i g e n e o u s few Eskimos the a r t o f t r a p p i n g c o m m e r c i a l l y . As more peop le a r r i v e d , f r o m Home Bay i n the south and from Pond I n l e t i n the n o r t h the impor ted t r a p p e r s r e t u r n e d t o t h e i r home s e t t l e m e n t s . No major changes took - 1 9 6 -p l a c e u n t i l the e a r l y p a r t o f Wor ld War I I when the r a d i o -sonde s t a t i o n was b u i l t , more Whites a r r i v e d , and unearned income i n the form o f F a m i l y A l l o w a n c e s was i n t r o d u c e d . The next major change was the a r r i v a l o f the R .C .M .P . and the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a detachment i n 1 9 5 3 . T h i s development was p a r a l l e l e d by the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the U.S. Coas tguard s t a t i o n a t Cape C h r i s t i a n . The impact o f these two changes were t h a t on the one hand more unearned income was made a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h the p o l i c e a t Cape C h r i s t i a n and the Amer icans on the base s e t up an e n t e r t a i n m e n t program c o n s i s t i n g o f movie shows. I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e c i d e e x a c t l y what impact t h i s l a t t e r development had on the l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n b u t t h e r e were, f o r example, many more Eskimo c h i l d r e n w i t h a r u d i m e n t a r y know-ledge o f the E n g l i s h language . The b u i l d i n g o f a one-room schoo lhouse w i t h h o s t e l accommodation o f e i g h t was the l a s t development t o take p l a c e . T h i s meant t h a t Eskimo c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s c o u l d b e g i n t o l e a r n a l o n g the l i n e s o f D i c k and Jane . T h i s development b r o u g h t t o a head a r u n n i n g d i s p u t e between the l o c a l p o l i c e , who wanted the peop le out o f the s e t t l e m e n t , and the s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s who wanted the c h i l d r e n i n the s e t t l e m e n t . A t the t ime o f the f i e l d w o r k t h i s d i s p u t e had not been s e t t l e d . In summary, the e f f e c t s o f e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s , some s o c i a l b u t m a i n l y t e c h n o l o g i c a l and economic , on the s o c i a l -197-o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h i s n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n are c l e a r . For example, t h e r e was an i n c r e a s i n g tendency f o r the peop le t o move i n t o the camps c l o s e s t t o the s e t t l e m e n t and even i n t o the s e t t l e -ment i t s e l f . A l s o , as i n d i c a t e d on Diagram 20 (p. 173) t h e r e was an i n c r e a s i n g dependency upon c a r v i n g s and government monies ( i n the form o f F a m i l y A l l o w a n c e s and w e l f a r e pay-ments) as a source o f income. Fur thermore , a t the t ime o f the f i e l d w o r k t h e r e was an i n c i p i e n t , b u t c l e a r l y a p p a r e n t , breakdown o f former l i f e - s t y l e s and customs, e s p e c i a l l y those customs r e l a t i n g t o mar r i age arrangements and r e s i d e n c e p a t -t e r n s . A l s o the advantages o f s t u d y i n g a s m a l l group over t ime t o d i s c o v e r the e f f e c t s o f such changes s h o u l d be n o t e d . D e s p i t e the e x i s t e n c e o f a f a i r l y r i g i d h i e r a r c h -i c a l system o f a u t h o r i t y - o b e d i e n c e the system i s a d a p t a b l e enough t o accommodate a l t e r n a t i v e a c t i o n . I t i s t h i s k i n d o f p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t l ends an a i r o f f l e x i b i l i t y t o the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . For example, by i n s i s t i n g t h a t e v e r y p e r -son s h o u l d make h i s own d e c i s i o n s , i sumanik , i t becomes p o s s i b l e t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l or a s m a l l group such as the f a m i l y can determine who h i s angajukak was t o b e . T h i s p e r -m i t t e d camp changes and, o f c o u r s e , a change i n the a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e . Even though i t was s a i d t o be p o s s i b l e t o change a f f i l i a t i o n s t h e r e was always a p r i c e t o pay i n e i t h e r a r e a l or s o c i a l s e n s e . By i n s i s t i n g upon making o n e ' s own d e c i s i o n s the i n d i v i d u a l might g a i n a r e p u t a t i o n f o r f i c k l e -ness and would be l e s s l i k e l y t o f i n d p a r t n e r s from among the l a r g e r g r o u p . - 1 9 8 -One e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h i s seeming f l e x i b i l i t y might be found i n the u n c e r t a i n t y o f s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s (see a l s o W i l l m o t t , 1960) . P r i c e s o f f u r may f l u c t u a t e t remend-o u s l y and the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f f u r s from t r a p p i n g i s a lways a t b e s t a chancy b u s i n e s s . Thus, i n the m a j o r . a s p e c t s o f • the economic system, the peop le a re f a c e d w i t h not ever knowing what t o e x p e c t . The most common r e s p o n s e t o a change i n f u r p r i c e s i s t h a t the t r a d e r a t t h a t t ime i s h e l d t o be r e s p o n s i b l e by the t r a p p e r s . Not o n l y i s the t r a d e r seen as b e i n g i d i o s y n c r a t i c b u t so too the o t h e r Whi tes i n the s e t t l e m e n t not e x c l u d i n g the l o c a l p o l i c e . From a f u n c t i o n a l p o i n t o f v iew the u n c e r t a i n t y f a c t o r s can be seen t o have b o t h e u f u n c t i o n a l and d y s -f u n c t i o n a l a s p e c t s . In terms o f h a v i n g t o maximize the env i ronment a t any g i v e n t ime and under any g i v e n c i r c u m -s t a n c e s i t can be seen t h a t an o p p o r t u n i s t i c a t t i t u d e i s l i k e l y t o be o f more use than a c a u t i o u s a t t i t u d e . On the o t h e r hand s i n c e t h e r e i s no c o n t r o l over i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s , i t becomes i m p o s s i b l e to p r e d i c t or p l a n ahead. T h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n the h a b i t u a l use o f the c a u s a t i v e s u f f i x i n c o n v e r s a t i o n , f o r example, "qaujumanginama," l i t e r a l l y , "because I do not know." I t appears then , t h a t economic u n c e r t a i n t y might c r e a t e a more f l e x i b l e s o c i a l system, e s p e c i a l l y one i n which l e a d e r s h i p and a u t h o r i t y i s g a i n e d by i n d i v i d u a l e f f o r t . T h i s i n t u r n sugges ts the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t : the more - 1 9 9 -d e t e r m i n a t e or secure the economic system then the more i n -f l e x i b l e the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . As a g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n , i t appears t h a t the s t r u c t u r a l approach , f o r example as i t has been used by Damas (1963) c o u l d l e n d i t s e l f v e r y w e l l t o the c o n t r o l l e d compara t i ve a n a l y s e s as o u t l i n e d by Eggan (1954). A l t h o u g h t h e r e have been o t h e r s t u d i e s o f the Eskimo i n t h i s g e n e r a l v i c i n i t y , i . e . I g l u l i k and F r o b i s h e r Bay, I have not a t tempted t o draw compar isons between my m a t e r i a l and t h a t o f o t h e r s s i m p l y because we were not u s i n g the same s e t s o f terms o f r e f e r e n c e . I might sugges t t h a t what we need most a t the moment a re good s o l i d l y b a s e d e t h n o g r a p h i e s such as t h a t put out by Spencer (1959). I f t h i s were done t h e n the e t h n o l o g i s t s as w e l l as those work-e r s who see the u s e f u l n e s s o f the s t r u c t u r a l approach c o u l d b e g i n drawing compar i sons . T h i s would h e l p t o f o c u s on the r e g u l a r i t i e s o f b e h a v i o u r w i t h i n and between d i s t i n c t Eskimo g r o u p s . Fur thermore , i t would enab le workers t o take a t e m p o r a l su rvey o f change i n many a s p e c t s o f Eskimo l i f e . As Damas p h r a s e s t h i s : Our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l change i n the Eskimo r e g i o n , . . . , w i l l approach completeness o n l y i f the p i c t u r e o f c o n t a c t s o c i e t y and c u l t u r e i s g r e a t l y m o d i f i e d (1963:212) . - 2 0 0 -BIBLIOGRAPHY ABERLE, DAVID F. Navaho. _In D. M Schne ider & K a t h l e e n Gough (Eds . ) M a t r i l i n e a l K i n s h i p , pp . 96-201, U n i v . C a l . P r e s s , 1961. ANDERSON, RUSSELL. ( K i n s h i p ) E t h n o l o g y J u l y 1968. V o l . 7, No. 3, pp . 290 f f . ANDERSON, H. DEWEY and WALTER CROSBY E L L E S . A l a s k a N a t i v e s : A Survey o f T h e i r S o c i o l o g i c a l and E d u c a t i o n a l S t a t u s . S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 1935. BALIKCI, ASEN. 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