Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Political thought of Kita Ikki : the logical link between his critique of the national polity and his… Osedo, Hiroshi 1973

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1973_A8 O84.pdf [ 3.66MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0101393.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0101393-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0101393-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0101393-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0101393-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0101393-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0101393-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0101393-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0101393.ris

Full Text

i THE POL IT ICAL THOUGHT OF KITA IKKI : THE LOGICAL LINK BETWEEN HIS CRITIQUE OF THE NATIONAL POLITY AMD HIS ADVOCACY OF WAR by HIROSHI OSEDO A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRIT ISH COLUMBIA M a r c h , 1973 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission fo r extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of T>ptit/Yd J L<T/v'<g ?J f P. The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada i i ABSTRACT / E v e r s i n c e t h e M e i j i R e s t o r a t i o n , J a p a n e s e p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s , u n d e r a s t r o n g i m p a c t f rom t h e U les t , had u r g e d t h e c o m p l e t e a b o l i t i o n o f f e u d a l i s m o By t h e t u r n o f t he c e n t u r y , t h e y had c o n s o l i d a t e d t h e i r p o l i t i c a l power by means o f p u t t i n g t h e Empero r s y s t e m on a f i r m f o o t i n g , and had i n t r o d u c e d and c o n s i d e r a b l y d e v e l o p e d a modern c a p i t a l i s t economy . Opposed t o t h e s e r a d i c a l c h a n g e s were t h e s o c i a l i s t and r i g h t -w i n g movements , bu t f o r d i f f e r e n t r e a s o n s . The s o c i a l i s t s , whose t h e o r i e s were b a s e d e n t i r e l y on E u r o p e a n i d e a s , opposed t h e a u t h o r i -t a r i a n i s m o f t h e f f l e i j i g o v e r n m e n t , and i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s s u p p o r t e d p a c i f i s m . The r i g h t w i n g movements c r i t i c i s e d t h e g o v e r n -ment f o r i t s p u r s u i t o f e x t r e m e E u r o p e a n i s a t i o n , and f o r i t s b o u r g e o i s and l i b e r a l e t h o s . They a l s o e n c o u r a g e d J a p a n e s e t e r r i -t o r i a l e x p a n s i o n i n t o A s i a n c o u n t r i e s . B e c a u s e t h e s o c i a l i s t move-ments were s u p p r e s s e d by t h e g o v e r n m e n t , t h e r i g h t w i n g o n e s g r a d u a l l y came t o h o l d t h e i n i t i a t i v e among J a p a n e s e s o c i a l movemen ts . K i t a I k k i was a r a d i c a l opponen t o f t h e a u t h o r i t a r i a n form o f g o v e r n m e n t , bu t was a l s o a v i g o r o u s a d v o c a t e o f J a p a n e s e i m p e r i a l i s m as a means o f o v e r c o m i n g W e s t e r n i m p e r i a l i s m . These two p o s i t i o n s , u s u a l l y h e l d by two a n t a g o n i s t i c s e c t o r s o f J a p a n e s e s o c i e t y , were l o g i c a l l y l i n k e d i n K i t a ' s t h o u g h t on t h e b a s i s o f h i s b e l i e f i n s o c i a l e v o l u t i o n and t h e c l a s s s t r u g g l e . He c r i t i c i s e d t h e t h e o r y o f t h e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y f o r i t s m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f J a p a n e s e h i s t o r y i i i and s o c i a l c h a n g e . F o r h i m , t h e M e i j i R e s t o r a t i o n had a c c o m p l i s h e d a l e g a l r e v o l u t i o n , w h i c h l e d to t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a kom in k o k k a ( p u b l i c s t a t e ) , i n w h i c h b o t h t h e EmpBror and t h e p e o p l e owed t h e i r r i g h t s and d u t i e s t o t h e s t a t e . He b e l i e v e d t h a t an e c o n o m i c r e v o l u t i o n a l o n e wou ld s u f f i c e t o b r i n g abou t s o c i a l democracy i n J a p a n , a r e v o l u t i o n w h i c h c o u l d be c a r r i e d out p e a c e f u l l y by means o f t h e b a l l o t . T o t a l c l a s s war was u n n e c e s s a r y . Bu t c o n t r a r y t o p a c i f i s t s o c i a l i s t s , K i t a e n c o u r a g e d t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l c l a s s s t r u g g l e as t h e o n l y means o f a b o l i s h i n g t h e "age o f i m p e r i a l i s m . " E v o l u t i o n i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l w o r l d had n o t y e t r e a c h e d a p o i n t whereby a W o r l d F e d e r a t i o n c o u l d p e a c e f u l l y s e t t l e c o n f l i c t s among n a t i o n s . By 1 9 1 9 , h o w e v e r , K i t a had become an a d v o c a t e o f a coup d ' e t a t i n o r d e r t o o v e r t h r o w t h e c o r r u p t g o v e r n m e n t , a n d , by means o f t h e E m p e r o r ' s p r e r o g a t i v e s , t o h a s t e n e c o n o m i c change at home as w e l l as p u r s u e a r e v o l u t i o n a r y p o l i c y a b r o a d . The c e n t r a l theme i n t h i s s t u d y i s t h s l o g i c a l l i n k between K i t a ' s c r i t i q u e o f t h e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y and h i s a d v o c a c y o f w a r . B e c a u s e o f t h e l a t t e r , as w e l l as h i s s u p p o r t o f a coup d ' e t a t , K i t a has been l a b e l l e d t h e " i d e o l o g i c a l f a t h e r o f J a p a n e s e f a s c i s m . " P o s t - w a r J a p a n e s e s c h o l a r s have c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e s e " n e g a t i v e " a s p e c t s o f h i s t h o u g h t , and n e g l e c t e d t h e " p o s i t i v e " o n e s , n a m e l y , h i s c r i t i q u e o f t h e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y . Some c r i t i c i s e him f o r a l l e g e d c o n v e r s i o n f rom a s o c i a l i s t t o a f a s c i s t . T h i s s t u d y a v o i d s t h e f a s c i s t l a b e l and a r g u e s a g a i n s t t h e n o t i o n o f changes i n h i s f u n d a m e n t a l i d e a s . K i t a ' s a c t u a l w r i t i n g s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e r e c e n t l y i v p u b l i s h e d o n e s , r e v e a l t h a t t h r o u g h o u t h i s l i f e he a d h e r e d t o t h e b a s i c i d e a s o f s o c i a l e v o l u t i o n and c l a s s s t r u g g l e . Bo th r e m a i n e d t he f o u n d a t i o n o f h i s c r i t i q u e o f t h e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y as w e l l as h i s a d v o c a c y o f w a r . K i t a was n e v e r an o r t h o d o x s o c i a l i s t , even i n h i s e a r l y y e a r s , n o r a f a s c i s t o f any k i n d , even i n h i s l a t e r y e a r s . H i s s u p p o r t o f a coup d ' e t a t was a t a c t i c a l change made i n t h e l i g h t o f h i s c r i t i q u e o f t h e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y and a d v o c a c y o f w a r , and was meant t o s p e e d up d e v e l o p m e n t s a t home and a b r o a d . In t h e l i g h t o f p o s t - w a r d e m o c r a t i c d e v e l o p m e n t i n J a p a n , K i t a ' s c r i t i q u e o f t h e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y s h o u l d be e v a l u a t e d " p o s i t i v e l y . " The g e n e r a l f a i l u r e t o do so has been due to h i s advocacy o f war and a coup d ' e t a t . Bu t i f t h s two s t r a n d s o f t h o u g h t a r e l o g i c a l l y dependan t on t h e same p r e m i s e s , one c a n n o t have one w i t h o u t t h e o t h e r . The o n l y way t o a c c e p t K i t a ' s c r i t i q u e o f t h e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y and at t h e same t i m e c r i t i c i s e h i s a d v o c a c y o f w a r , i s by r e c o g -n i s i n g t h a t J a p a n i s no l o n g e r i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f a s e m i - c o l o n i s e d c o u n t r y , and t h a t even t h o u g h c o l o n i s e d c o u n t r i e s may j u s t i f i a b l y r e v o l t , t h e y a r e no t t h e r e b y e n t i t l e d to become c o l o n i s e r s t h e m s e l v e s . I f t h i s i s r e c o g n i s e d , t h e r e c e n t i d e o l o g i c a l a l l i a n c e between K i t a and t h e new l e f t c a n n o t be r e g a r d e d as h a r b o u r i n g a d a n g e r o f a f a s c i s t r e v i v a l . CONTENTS I. Introduction 1 I I . C r i t i q u e of the National P o l i t y 7 I I I . The Advocacy of War 20 IV. Conclusion 41 V. Epilogue 45 Notes 53 Bibliography 63 - 1 -I. INTRODUCTION C h a l l e n g e r s o f p o s t - w a r J a p a n e s e democracy ' have e x p o s e d a number o f i t s w e a k n e s s e s . ' ' They have s t u c k to t h e f a c t t h a t i t was i n t r o d u c e d f rom o u t s i d e on t h e b a s i s o f an a l m o s t c o m p l e t e d e n i a l o f p r e - w a r v a l u e s . A d v o c a t e s o f p o s t - w a r d e m o c r a c y , h o w e v e r , have t e n d e d t o n e g l e c t c a r e f u l s t u d y o f J a p a n ' s p a t h t o m o d e r n i s a t i o n 2 and o f i n d i g e n o u s t h o u g h t . E m p l o y i n g E u r o p e a n c r i t i c a l t o o l s , t hey u r g e c r i t i c i s m o f t h e uneven d e v e l o p m e n t o f J a p a n e s e m o d e r n i -s a t i o n . Maruyama M a s a o , f o r e x a m p l e , d i r e c t s most o f h i s c r i t i c i s m t o what i s c a l l e d t h e " p a t h o l o g i c a l phenomenon" i n p r e - w a r J a p a n e s e p o l i t i c s . M a r x i s t s , u n a b l e t o l i b e r a t e t h e m s e l v e s f rom " d e b i l i t a t i n g 4 p o l i t i c a l a n x i e t i e s and a s s o c i a t i o n s , " c o n c e n t r a t e on p r o v i d i n g an i d e o l o g i c a l c r i t i q u e o f J a p a n e s e f a s c i s m . N e i t h e r c h a l l e n g e r s n o r s u p p o r t e r s o f p o s t - w a r J a p a n e s e democracy have been a b l e t o p r e s e n t a f a i r and a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e o f K i t a I k k i ' s t h o u g h t , and t o r e l a t e i t t o p r e s e n t day J a p a n e s e p o l i t i c s . Too keen t o t o t a l l y a c c e p t o r r e j e c t K i t a ' s i d e a s , b o t h f a i l t o t a k e an o b j e c t i v e l o o k a t t h e " p o s i t i v e " as w e l l as t h e " n e g a t i v e " a s p e c t s o f h i s t h o u g h t . The f o r m e r r e f e r t o h i s c r i t i q u e 5 o f t h e J a p a n e s e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y , t h e l a t t e r t o h i s a d v o c a c y o f a p o w e r f u l s t a t e and w a r . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , s u p p o r t e r s o f p o s t -war democracy have f a i l e d t o n o t i c e t h e " p o s i t i v e " a s p e c t s o f h i s t h o u g h t , w h i l e c r i t i c s have t e n d e d t o i g n o r e b o t h , m e r e l y s u p p o r t i n g what t h e y b e l i e v e t o be K i t a ' s p o s i t i o n , , ^ B e c a u s e t h e s e c r i t i c s - 2 -d o n ' t d i s c r i m i n a t e be tween t h e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f K i t a ' s t h o u g h t , and f a i l t o a n a l y s e i t o b j e c t i v e l y , no more w i l l be s a i d about t h e m . More i m p o r t a n t a r e t h e p r o b l e m s r a i s e d by t h e a n a l y s e s o f K i t a ' s t h o u g h t p r o v i d e d by t h e d e f e n d e r s o f p o s t - w a r d e m o c r a c y . The most p e r s u a s i v e o f t hem, Maruyama M a s a o , d e s c r i b e d K i t a as 7 " t h e i d e o l o g i c a l f a t h e r o f J a p a n e s e f a s c i s m , " and t h e r e b y s e t t h e c o u r s e f o r t h e s t u d y o f h i s t h o u g h t . Maruyama r e l a t e s i t t o t h r e e d i s t i n c t i d e o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f J a p a n e s e f a s c i s m , n a m e l y , g f a m i l i s m , a g r a r i a n i s m , and p a n - A s i a n i s m . He s e e s o n l y t h e " n e g a -t i v e " a s p e c t s o f K i t a ' s t h o u g h t , c o m p l e t e l y f a i l i n g t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f K i t a ' s c r i t i q u e o f t h e J a p a n e s e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y . M a r x i s t s t e n d t o r e g a r d K i t a s i m p l y as a f a s c i s t . Tanaka S o g o r o ' s b i o g r a p h y o f K i t a I k k i was e n t i t l e d , N i h o n f u a s h i z u m u no q e n r y u : K i t a I k k i no s h i s o t o s h o q a i ( O r i g i n s o f J a p a n e s e F a s c i s m : g The Thought and C a r e e r o f K i t a I k k i ) . H o w e v e r , Tanaka c o n f e s s e s , "To t h e w r i t e r ' s s u r p r i s e , K i t a ' s 'A M e m o r i a l on F o r e i g n P o l i c y ' i s q u i t e a p e a c e f u l n a t i o n a l p o l i c y , and seems to have been d r a f t e d 10 by a J a p a n e s e d i p l o m a t i c o f f i c i a l . " Tanaka o b v i o u s l y e x p e c t e d t o f i n d a s t r o n g e m p h a s i s on war i n t h e w r i t i n g o f t h e " f a s c i s t " K i t a . Y e t , Tanaka f a i l e d t o s e e t h e m e r i t s o f K i t a ' s c r i t i q u e o f the J a p a n e s e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y . Two p u r p o s e s seem t o d o m i n a t e M a r x i s t a n a l y s e s o f K i t a , n a m e l y , t o p r o v i d e a s c i e n t i f i c a n a l y s i s and m o r a l c r i t i c i s m o f J a p a n e s e f a s c i s m . F r e q u e n t l y , t o o much e m p h a s i s i s p l a c e d on t h e m o r a l c r i t i c i s m , w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t an o b j e c t i v e e x a m i n a t i o n o f K i t a ' s c o m p l i c a t e d and d i v e r s e t hough t - 3 -i s l e f t w a n t i n g . So i s an a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e o f t h e a c t u a l dynamism o f J a p a n e s e f a s c i s m . The two above a p p r o a c h e s make i t i m p o s s i b l e t o f i n d a n y t h i n g i n K i t a ' s t h o u g h t t h a t c a n t h r o w l i g h t on p o s t - w a r d e m o c r a t i c d e v e l o p m e n t . B o t h i g n o r e t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f K i t a ' s c r i t i q u e o f t h e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y , and m e r e l y c o n c e n t r a t e on a t t a c k i n g h i s a d v o c a c y o f a p o w e r f u l s t a t e and w a r . These a p p r o a c h e s , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e f a c t o f a p o s t - w a r c o n s t i t u t i o n w h i c h i s b a s e d on t h e t o t a l d e n i a l o f w a r , seem t o a l l o w no p r e s e n t day s i g n i f i c a n c e to t h e s t u d y o f K i t a I k k i . B o t h a p p r o a c h e s , h o w e v e r , do no t t a k e f u l l c o g n i 2 a n c e o f t h e a c t u a l w r i t i n g s o f K i t a h i m s e l f . K i t a c o n t i n u a l -l y a s s e r t e d b o t h h i s c r i t i q u e o f t h e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y as w e l l as h i s a d v o c a c y o f w a r , and saw no c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n d o i n g s o . S u r e l y h i s c r i t i q u e o f t h e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y s h o u l d have some m e r i t f o r t h o s e a d v o c a t e s o f p o s t - w a r d e m o c r a c y who a r e opposed t o t h e o l d n a t i o n a l p o l i t y and t o p r e - w a r v a l u e s ? The re i s a t h i r d s c h o o l , h o w e v e r , w h i c h m a i n t a i n s t h a t K i t a was an i n d i g e n o u s s o c i a l i s t , who o p p o s e d t h e s i m p l e a p p l i c a t i o n o f w e s t e r n s o c i a l i s t i d e a s t o J a p a n . Kuno Osamu a r g u e s t h a t K i t a was n o t an o r t h o d o x i n t e r n a t i o n a l s o c i a l i s t , bu t an a d v o c a t e o f 11 b u i l d i n g s o c i a l i s m i n one c o u n t r y . He s a y s , "The p r o c e s s o f d e v e l o p m e n t o f K i t a ' s i d e a s i s t h e ' U r p h i l o s o p h i e ' ( q e n t e t s u q a k u ) o f t h e s e r i o u s t h o u g h t p r o c e s s o f most J a p a n e s e f rom t h e R u s s o -12 J a p a n e s e War t o t h e P a c i f i c W a r . " K u n o ' s e v a l u a t i o n o f K i t a ' s f u n d a m e n t a l m o t i v e s i n h i s c r i t i q u e o f t h e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y and h i s a d v o c a c y o f war i s , on t h e w h o l e , f a i r , and Kuno i s q u i t e aware o f t h e p r e s e n t day s i g n i f i c a n c e o f K i t a ' s t h o u g h t . But Kuno d e v o t e s much o f h i s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e q u e s t i o n why K i t a changed f rom an i n d i g e n o u s s o c i a l i s t t o an u l t r a - n a t i o n a l i s t , n a m e l y , t o someone who s u p p o r t e d a coup d ' e t a t as a means o f r e o r g a n i s i n g J a p a n e s e s o c i e t y , and a d v o c a t e d war t o o p p o s e w e s t e r n e x p a n s i o n i s m i n A s i a . H i s answer i s t h a t K i t a ' s s t r o n g e m p h a s i s on n a t i o n a l i s m b r o u g h t 13 abou t h i s c o n v e r s i o n . Kuno d o e s n o t , h o w e v e r , d e m o n s t r a t e t h e e x a c t n a t u r e o f the change t h a t i s s u p p o s e d t o have t a k e n p l a c e . He c a n n o t a c c o u n t f o r t h e f a c t t h a t , t h r o u g h o u t h i s l i f e , K i t a a d -v o c a t e d war a g a i n s t t h e Wes te rn p o w e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y R u s s i a and B r i t a i n . On t h e o t h e r hand i t i s t r u e t h a t , as a young man, K i t a had s u p p o r t e d p e a c e f u l means o f r e o r g a n i s i n g J a p a n , and l a t e r came t o a d v o c a t e a coup d ' e t a t . But George W i l s o n q u i t e c o r r e c t l y c a l l s t h i s , n o t a c h a n g s i n t h o u g h t , bu t a change i n t a c t i c s . T h r o u g h -ou t h i s l i f e , a t t h e v e r y h e a r t o f K i t a ' s t h o u g h t , were i d e a s o f s o c i a l e v o l u t i o n and c l a s s s t r u g g l e , b o t h o f w h i c h were t h e b a s i s o f h i s c r i t i q u e o f t h e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y and h i s a d v o c a c y o f w a r . B e c a u s e t h e r e was no change i n t h e s e b a s i c i d e a s , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o p r o v e t h a t K i t a was c o n v e r t e d f rom a s o c i a l i s t i n t o an u l t r a - n a t i o n a l i s t . K i t a h i m s e l f b e l i e v e d t h a t h i s t h o u g h t was c o n s i s t e n t , and s a i d t h a t 15 i n t w e n t y y e a r s t h e r e had been no c h a n g e . The a p p r o v a l o f a coup d ' e t a t was r a t h e r t h e r e s u l t o f m a i n t a i n i n g t h e c l o s e c o n n e c t i o n be tween h i s c r i t i q u e o f t h e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y and h i s advocacy o f w a r . The p o l i t i c a l t h o u g h t o f K i t a has been g e n e r a l l y m i s u n d e r s t o o d - 5 -by s o c i a l i s t s , l i b e r a l s , n a t i o n a l i s t s , r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s , m i l i t a r i s t s and p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s . I t was m i s u n d e r s t o o d by t h e young o f f i c e r s o f t h e J a p a n e s e I m p e r i a l Army who were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e F e b r u a r y 26 A f f a i r . K i t a was a r r e s t e d and e x e c u t e d f o r b e i n g t h e a l l e g e d " w i r e p u l l e r " b e h i n d t h i s a t t e m p t e d coup d ' e t a t . S i n c e t h e w a r , K i t a h a s been s t u d i e d by i d e o l o g u e s o f l i b e r a l i s m , M a r x i s m , and n a t i o n a l i s m , w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t h i s p o s i t i o n i n modern J a p a n e s e p o l i t i c s has n e v e r been c o r r e c t l y d e t e r m i n e d . The r e c e n t sympathy o f t h e new l e f t f o r K i t a i s a new phenomenon w h i c h makes a c o r r e c t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f h i s t h o u g h t a l l t h e more p r e s s i n g . Members o f t h i s g roup a r e among h i s most a r d e n t r e a d e r s t o d a y . The s u i c i d e o f M i s h i m a Y u k i o , a r i g h t w i n g w r i t e r who had r e c e i v e d some d e g r e e o f sympathy f rom t h e new l e f t , r e i n f o r c e d t h i s t r e n d . H o w e v e r , s i n c e thB new l e f t ' s p r i m a r y c o n c e r n i s no t an o b j e c t i v e a n a l y s i s o f K i t a ' s i d e a s , bu t t h e d i s c o v e r y o f r a d i c a l methods o f c h a n g i n g J a p a n e s e s o c i e t y , t h e y a l s o t e n d t o m i s u n d e r s t a n d h i m . Ma tsumoto K e n ' i c h i , t h e most p e r s u a s i v e new l e f t s t u d e n t o f K i t a , c o n s i d e r s h i s r e v o l u t i o n a r y i d e a s to be t h e most e f f e c t i v e way o f o p p o s i n g t h e p r e s e n t " G r e a t J a p a n e s e E m p i r e . " Matsumoto r e c o g n i s e s t h a t " n e i t h e r t h e r i g h t w i n g n o r t h e l e f t w i n g , bu t t h e l i b e r a l s , who, by c o n t i n u a l l y m a i n t a i n i n g a m i d d l e p o s i t i o n , have been a b l e t o h o l d p o w e r , took t h e i n i t i a t i v e i n t r a n s f o r m i n g t h e M e i j i s t a t e i n t o t h e G r e a t J a p a n e s e E m p i r e . " He i s a l s o aware t h a t " o u r g e n e r a t i o n 1 6 has a s u b c o n s c i o u s h a t r e d o f A m e r i c a o " The f a c t t h a t many p r e s e n t day l e f t w i n g c r i t i c s o f t h e new J a p a n e s e " n a t i o n a l p o l i t y " are at the same time among the most vociferous opponents of American imperialism, makes the study of a thinker who held similar ideas in an earlier historical period al l the more relevant. The study of Kita Ikki is important, not merely because certain members of the new left have become sympathetic towards him, but because his thought is largely misunderstood and would possibly be more popular were these misunderstandings dispelled. The recent publication of previously unstudied writings of Kita Ikki makes i t possible to demonstrate more conclusively than would otherwise be possible that Kita's critique of the national 17 polity is intimately related to his advocacy of war. - 7 -I I . CRITIQUE OF THE NATIONAL POLITY K i t a I k k i ' s t h e o r e t i c a l c r i t i q u e o f t h e J a p a n e s e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y was d e v e l o p e d d u r i n g t h e y e a r s 1901 - 1 9 0 6 , a l t h o u g h i t was c o n t i n u a l l y e x p r e s s e d i n a v a r i e t y o f ways a f t e r t h a t . I t i s t o be f ound i n h i s N inon k a i z o hoan t a i k o ( G e n e r a l O u t l i n e o f M e a s u r e s 18 f o r t h e R e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f J a p a n ) , w r i t t e n i n 1 9 1 9 , as w e l l as i n d i r e c t l y i n s e v e r a l p a m p h l e t s and l e t t e r s o f b l a c k m a i l w r i t t e n 19 i n s u b s e q u e n t y e a r s . The c r i t i q u e was e x p r e s s e d t h e o r e t i c a l l y i n h i s e a r l y y e a r s , and more on t h e p r a c t i c a l l e v e l i n l a t e r y e a r s . A f u l l a p p r e c i a t i o n o f K i t a ' s i d e a s r e q u i r e s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how he v i e w e d t h e g r e a t d o m e s t i c and f o r e i g n c r i s e s t h e n a t i o n was e x p e r i e n c i n g d u r i n g h i s l i f e t i m e . The p e r i o d between t h e M e i j i R e s t o r a t i o n and t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y was c h a r a c t e r i s e d f i r s t and f o r e m o s t by a t r a n s i t i o n f rom f e u d a l i s m t o c a p i t a l i s m , u n d e r a s t r o n g i m p a c t f rom t h e Wes te rn p o w e r s . The dom inan t p o l i t i -c a l i d e o l o g y d u r i n g t h i s t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d was s o n ' n o j o i ( r e v e r e t h e E m p e r o r , e x p e l t h e b a r b a r i a n s ) . W h i l e t h e i n j u n c t i o n to r e v e r e t h e Empero r had g r e a t l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e M e i j i s t a t e , t h e one t o e x p e l t h e b a r b a r i a n s was s u b s e q u e n t l y o v e r s h a d o w e d -by t h e movement t o w a r d s ex t reme E u r o p e a n i s a t i o n . C a p i t a l i s m and a modern p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m based on E u r o p e a n m o d e l s were i n t r o d u c e d . B e c a u s e t h e r e was more e m p h a s i s on n a t i o n a l power t h a n on t h e " p e o p l e ' s r i g h t s , " t h e M e i j i R e s t o r a t i o n d i d n o t a c c o m p l i s h a c o m p l e t e b o u r g e o i s r e v o l u t i o n . The M e i j i s t a t e p o s s e s s e d two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h a r e f r e q u e n t l y r e g a r d e d as a n t a g o n i s t i c , n a m e l y , an a u t h o r i t a r i a n form o f government and a c a p i t a l i s t / economy. Opposed t o t h e a u t h o r i t a r i a n form o f government was t h e J i y u m inken undo (Freedom and C i v i l R i g h t s M o v e m e n t ) , w h i c h drew i t s 20 i n s p i r a t i o n f rom E u r o p e a n L i b e r a l i s m . But t h e f a t e o f t h e move-ment d e m o n s t r a t e d t h s w e a k n e s s o f E u r o p e a n L i b e r a l i s m as a g u i d a f o r t h e m o d e r n i s a t i o n o f J a p a n , w i t h t he r e s u l t t h a t t h e f o r c e s o f a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m r e c e i v e d an e x t r a b o o s t . S h o r t l y a f t e r w a r d s , t h e 21 f i r s t s o c i a l i s t and r i g h t w i n g movements began t o d e v e l o p , b o t h b e i n g o p p o s e d t o l i b e r a l i s m as w e l l as a b s o l u t i s m . W h i l e t h e r i g h t -w i n g movements were i n s p i r e d by t r a d i t i o n a l J a p a n e s e t h o u g h t , t h e s o c i a l i s t s we re e n t i r e l y d e p e n d e n t on E u r o p e a n s o c i a l i s t i d e a s . P e r t i n e n t t o t h i s s t u d y i s t h a t i n t he b e g i n n i n g K i t a was n e i t h e r a s o c i a l i s t n o r a s u p p o r t e r o f t h e r i g h t w i n g m o v e m e n t s . He saw i n t h e M e i j i s t a t e s e r i o u s i n t e r n a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , w h i c h had been b r o u g h t abou t by t h e d u a l n a t u r e o f t he M e i j i R e s t o r a t i o n . P a r t -l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e s e r i o u s p r o b l e m s he d i s c o v e r e d i n J a p a n e s e s o c i e t y was t h e K o k u t a i r o n (The Theory o f t h e N a t i o n a l P o l i t y ) . N e i t h e r s o c i a l i s t s n o r members o f t h e r i g h t w i n g had a t t e m p t e d t o c r i t i c i s e t h e t h e o r y o f t h s n a t i o n a l p o l i t y . Tha t K i t a d i d s o i s most s i g n i f i c a n t . In June 1903 K i t a w r o t e an e s s a y , " K o k u m i n t a i k o s h i t s u no r e k i s h i t e k i k a n s a t s u : i w a y u r u k o k u t a i r o n no d a h a " ( " H i s t o r i c a l O b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e P e o p l e v e r s u s t h e I m p e r i a l H o u s e : The Breakdown - 9 -of the so-called Theory of the National Polity"), in which he un-equivocally criticised the theory of the national polity. He wrote, "i t is the extremely illusory and unreal national polity, that infringes on the freedom of learning, restricts the freedom of thought, and has spoiled and poisoned the people's education through-22 out." In a careful examination of the history of the Imperial House, Kita tried to show that advocates of the theory of the national polity based i t on fallacious interpretations of history,. Rejecting the belief in the divinity of the Emperor, Kita said that 23 "our ancestors were all rebels." He tried to portray the real history of the relationship between Emperors and political leaders. Although, because of pressure from the Home Ministry, he did not complete the essay, what he did write demonstrated his strong c r i t i -cism of th8 theory of the national polity. Three years later, in 1906, Kita published his Kokutairon  oyobi junsei shekaishuqi (The Theory of the National Polity and Pure Socialism) at his own expense, because no publisher would 24 accept such a "dangerous" book for publication. Kita attempted in this book to develop his theory of social democracy, which was based on the findings of al l branches of knowledge, namely, econo-mics, ethics, sociology, history, jurisprudence, political science, biology, and philosophy. The book's five chapters were on the economic justice of socialism, the ethical ideal of socialism, the social sciences.and biological evolution, the counter-revolutionary nature of the so-called theory of the national polity, and the - 10 -e n l i g h t e n m e n t movement o f s o c i a l i s m . In each c h a p t e r , K i t a c r i t i -c i s e d t h e ma in a d v o c a t e s o f t he i d e a s and t h e o r i e s w i t h w h i c h he was d e a l i n g . As K i t a h i m s e l f n o t e s , t he f o u r t h c h a p t e r on t h e t h e o r y o f t h e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y c o n s t i t u t e d t h e most i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f the b o o k . The c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n was " w h e t h e r o r n o t s o c i a l i s m i s i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y . " 2 " ' K i t a a r g u e d t h a t h i s b r a n d o f s o c i a l i s m , w h i c h he c a l l e d " p u r e s o c i a l i s m , " wou ld b r i n g abou t s o c i a l democracy i n J a p a n . By " p u r e s o c i a l i s m " K i t a meant j u s t i c e i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h a l l b r a n c h e s o f k n o w l e d g e , n a m e l y , e c o n o m i c s , e t h i c s , s o c i o l o g y , h i s t o r y , j u r i s p r u d e n c e , p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e , b i o l o g y , and p h i l o s o p h y . T h i s r e l u c t a n c e to f r agmen t human e x i s -t e n c e i n t o autonomous and c o m p e t i n g w a l k s o f l i f e e x p l a i n s why K i t a i n s i s t e d t h a t " p u r e s o c i a l i s m " c o u l d no t be a c t u a l i s e d u n l e s s a c c o m p a n i e d by n a t i o n a l i s m ( k o k k a s h u g i ) . He saw t h a t man h a s a s o c i a l as opposed t o an i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r , and t h a t t h e a t t a i n -ment o f human e x c e l l e n c e i s d e p e n d e n t on l i v i n g i n a c e r t a i n q u a l i t y o f s o c i e t y , n a m e l y , one w h i c h i s no t o n l y j u s t i n a l l a r e a s o f l i f e , bu t i n w h i c h e v e r y o n e r e c o g n i s e s t h e i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e o f l i f e . N a t i o n a l i s m i s t h e r e f o r e a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o t h e r e a l i s a t i o n o f " p u r e s o c i a l i s m . " Wha teve r i n j u s t i c e s t h e r e happen t o be i n any p a r t i c u l a r h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d , have t o be ove rcome as a r e s u l t o f s o c i a l e v o l u -t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n t o t a l c l a s s w a r , w h i c h c o u l d so f ragmen t s o c i e t y as t o make a who lesome l i f e i m p o s s i b l e o f a t t a i n m e n t . The t h e o r y o f t h e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y , w h i c h a d v o c a t e s t h e 11 a t t a i n m e n t o f p a s t g r e a t n e s s , d i s r e g a r d s s o c i a l e v o l u t i o n . I t does n o t e n c o u r a g e s o c i a l b e t t e r m e n t and i s l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e / d e p r a v i t y w h i c h has p r e v a i l e d i n t h e r e a l m s o f e c o n o m i c s , e t h i c s , 27 s o c i o l o g y , h i s t o r y , p h i l o s o p h y , and j u r i s p r u d e n c e . K i t a d e l i -v e r e d a t h r e e - p r o n g e d a t t a c k on t h e t h e o r y o f t h e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y . F i r s t l y , he r e j e c t e d t h e h i s t o r i c a l myths on w h i c h p e o p l e l i k e Hozumi Y a t s u k a and A r u g a Nagao b a s e d t h e t h e o r y o f t h e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y . Hozumi and A r u g a b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e J a p a n e s e p e o p l e were t h e s o n s o f A m a t e r a s u Omikami (The H e a v e n - S h i n i n g - G r e a t - D e i t y ) , and t h a t u n d e r t h e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y o f B a n s e i I k k e i (The I m p e r i a l T h r o n e , t r a n s m i t t e d i n an u n b r o k e n l i n e ) , s o v e r e i g n t y b e l o n g e d t o t h e E m p e r o r , t h e d i v i n e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e J a p a n e s e p e o p l e . K i t a s t r o n g -l y c r i t i c i s e d t h e i r m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f J a p a n e s e h i s t o r y , and t h e i r i n c l u s i o n o f one t h o u s a n d y e a r s o f u n w r i t t e n h i s t o r y b e f o r e t h e c o m p i l a t i o n o f t h e K o j i k i (The R e c o r d o f A n c i e n t T h i n g s ) and t h e N i n o n s h o k i (The C h r o n i c l e s o f J a p a n ) i n 712 and 720 A . D . r e s -28 p e c t i v e l y . K i t a s u g g e s t e d t h e e x c l u s i o n f rom t h e h i s t o r y o f 29 J a p a n e s e p o l i t i c s t h e u n w r i t t a n h i s t o r y . S e c o n d l y , K i t a a r g u e d t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e Empero r and t h e p e o p l e had unde rgone p r o f o u n d c h a n g e s s i n c e t h e b e g i n n i n g o f r e c o r d e d h i s t o r y . He c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e were two b r o a d t y p e s o f n a t i o n a l p o l i t y . The one b e f o r e t h e M e i j i R e s t o r a t i o n , i n w h i c h t h e r i g h t s and d u t i e s o f t h e Empero r and t he p e o p l e were o p p o s e d t o one a n o t h e r , he c a l l e d k a i k y u k o k k a ( c l a s s s t a t e ) . In i t l e g i t i m a t e p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y was e n t i r e l y a m a t t e r o f m o r a l i t y , b e c a u s e - 12 -there e x i s t e d no l e g a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Emperor and the people. T h 8 n a t i o n a l p o l i t y a f t e r the M e i j i R e s t o r a t i o n , i n which both the Emperor and the people were l e g a l l y dependent on the s t a t e fo r t h e i r r i g h t s and d u t i e s , he c a l l e d komin kokka ( p u b l i c s t a t e ) . Sovereignty, under the M e i j i C o n s t i t u t i o n , he s a i d belonged n e i t h e r 30 to the Emperor nor the people, but to the s t a t e . T h i r d l y , K i t a c r i t i c i s e d the advocates o f the theory of the n a t i o n a l p o l i t y f o r not d i s t i n g u i s h i n g the system of government from the n a t i o n a l p o l i t y . R e j e c t i n g the notio n that only one system of government was compatible with a p a r t i c u l a r n a t i o n a l p o l i t y , K i t a argued that three systems o f government were compa-t i b l e with komin kokka. F i r s t l y , there was the system i n which one p r i v i l e g e d member of the s t a t e c o n s t i t u t e d the supreme organ, f o r example, the Russian government a f t e r the l i b e r a t i o n of the pea-sants , and the Japanese government from 1868 - 1890. The second system was one i n which the m a j o r i t y of the people, who have been declared equal to one another, and one member of the s t a t e , together c o n s t i t u t e the supreme organ, f o r example, the Japanese government a f t e r 1890 and the B r i t i s h government. T h i r d l y , there was the system i n which the m a j o r i t y , declared equal to one another, c o n s t i -t u t e the supreme organ, f o r example, the French and United States 31 governments. Under the second system, K i t a regarded the Emperor as an organ of the s t a t e . U n l i k e Minobe T a t s u k i c h i , who als o regarded the Emperor as an organ of the s t a t e , the supreme organ, K i t a d i d not want the Emperor alone to c o n s t i t u t e the supreme organ. - 13 -B e l i e v i n g t h a t t he Emperor and t h e D i e t t o g e t h e r c o n s t i t u t e d t he supreme o r g a n , he c r i t i c i s e d M i n o b e f o r d e v e l o p i n g h i s t h e o r y w i t h -ou t t a k i n g p r o p e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e a r t i c l e s i n t h e M e i j i C o n s t i -32 t u t i o n . K i t a was u n c o m p r o m i s i n g l y opposed to H o z u m i ' s and A r u g a ' s t h e o r y o f t he n a t i o n a l p o l i t y , as w e l l as M i n o b e ' s t h e o r y w h i c h made t h e Emperor t h e supreme o r g a n o f t h e S t a t e . In r e l a t i o n t o t h e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y o f komin k o k k a , he r e g a r d e d b o t h as c o u n t e r - r e v o l u - s t i o n a r y . When h i s K o k u t a i r o n o y o b i j u n s e i s h a k a i s h u q i was banned f i v e days a f t e r i t s p u b l i c a t i o n , K i t a gave up a l l a t t e m p t s t o o v e r t l y c r i t i c i s e t h e t h e o r y o f t h e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y . In November 1 9 0 6 , he w r o t e an e s s a y , " J i s a t s u t o a n s a t s u " ( " S u i c i d e and A s s a s s i n a t i o n " ) , w h i c h i s most d i f f i c u l t t o i n t e r p r e t , b e c a u s e o f h i s u s e o f i r o n y 33 t o e x p r e s s h i m s e l f . The argument seems t o be t h a t b e c a u s e t h e M e i j i l e a d e r s s e t l e g a l l i m i t s on t h e E m p e r o r ' s s o v e r e i g n t y , t h e y had t o t o l e r a t e " r e b e l s " i n t h e w o r l d o f i d e a s . And t h e s e r e b e l s had i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h i s w o r l d t h i n k e r s l i k e f r i e d r i c h N i e t z s c h e , Leo N i k o l a y e v i c h T o l s t o i , Maxim G o r k y , I v a n S s r g e e v i c h T u r g e n e v , P e t e r K r o p o t k i n , and M i k a h i l A l e x a n d r o v i c h B a k u n i n . I f t h e g o v e r n -ment were t o r e s t o r e t h e " l o s t s o v e r e i g n t y " o f i t s o f f i c i a l i d e o l o g y , i t wou ld have t o p r e v e n t t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h i n k e r s l i k e t h e s e . H o w e v e r , f o r t h e moment i t was s a t i s f i e d t o f o r c e t h e r e b e l s to "commi t s u i c i d e , " b e c a u s e o f t h e i r a g o n i s i n g i n a b i l i t y t o t o l e r a t e i t s p r e s s u r e on t h e m . K i t a w r o t e i r o n i c a l l y , "I p r a y t h a t no r a y - 14 -of hope will be cast on them. Alasl Who can guarantee that the agonising suicide will not be changed into a revolutionary assassi-34 nation?" The essay seems to lend support to totalitarianism under the EmpBror Meiji. But Kita was not trying to justify the Emperor system as a whole. Rather, he was saying that J a p a n , without an economic revolution to make the legal equality of the people under the Meiji Constitution a reality, would f a l l into the hands of revo-lutionary assassins, who would attempt the total destruction of the Meiji state. Concerning the practical implementation of his "pure socialism," Kita argued that the legal revolution of the Meiji Restoration, which had granted the people theoretical equality, required an economic revolution to make this equality a r e a l i t y . This economic revolution was to consist of the nationalisation of land and capital, 35 and the means to i t was to be universal suffrage. He wrote, "The ballot i s the bullet of the economic Restoration, and the possession of universal suffrage i s the occupation of an ammunition wagon . . . As a result of a class struggle carried out by means of the ballot, the economic Restoration w i l l appropriate for the state the capital and land of the wealthy aristocrats, and break up their de facto 36 monopolisation of p o l i t i c a l power." The f i r s t expression of a concrete plan appeared in 1901, in his essay, "Jindo no t a i q i " ("The Great Moral Obligation of Humanism"). He outlined the need to extend the power of the state in order to strengthen the foundations of Japanese c i v i l i s a t i o n , as - 15 -w e l l as t h e need t o amalgamate t h e u p p e r and l o w e r c l a s s e s , and t o u n i t e t he monarchy w i t h t he s u b j e c t s . F i v e c o n c r e t e m e a s u r e s were p r o p o s e d : t h e Emperor s h o u l d g r a n t an a u d i e n c e to t h e p e o p l e , t h e c l a s s sys tem s h o u l d be a b o l i s h e d , l e a r n i n g s h o u l d be d i s t r i b u t e d e q u a l l y , u n i v e r s a l s u f f r a g e s h o u l d be a d o p t e d , and t he g a i n s o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t s s h o u l d be r e s t r i c t e d t h r o u g h t he o r g a n i s a t i o n o f l a b o u r 37 u n i o n s and o t h e r fo rms o f m u t u a l a i d among l a b o u r e r s . In h i s N i h o n k a i z o hoen t a i k o , K i t a p r o p o s e d more d e t a i l e d and f a r - r e a c h i n g r e f o r m s , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e a b o l i t i o n o f t h e P e e r a g e S y s t e m , t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f u n i v e r s a l f r a n c h i s e , the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a N a t i o n a l R e o r g a n i s a t i o n C a b i n e t and D i e t , and t h e r e n u n c i a t i o n 38 o f t h e I m p e r i a l E s t a t e . He d e a l t w i t h t h e r i g h t s and d u t i e s o f 39 l a b o u r e r s , and t he p r i v i l e g e s and f reedom o f t h e p e o p l e . The l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y and p r i v a t e l a n d s y s t e m s , and t h e l i m i t a t i o n and n a t i o n a l i s a t i o n o f l a r g e c a p i t a l , was a l s o 40 t o u c h e d o n . A l l K i t a ' s p l a n s were e x t r e m e l y r a t i o n a l and p r a c -41 t i c a l , and most were i m p l e m e n t e d u n d e r t h e p o s t - w a r C o n s t i t u t i o n . The method o f t h e i r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a d v o c a t e d i n N i h o n k a i z o  hoan t a i k o d i d , h o w e v e r , i n v o l v e a m a j o r d e p a r t u r e f rom h i s e a r l i e r p e a c e f u l o n e s . By 1 9 1 9 , K i t a had come t o s u p p o r t a coup d ' e t a t , s u s p e n s i o n o f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n , and m a r t i a l l a w . He w r o t e , " I n o r d e r f o r t h e emperor and t h e e n t i r e J a p a n e s e p e o p l e t o e s t a b l i s h a s e c u r e base f o r t h e n a t i o n a l r e o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e emperor w i l l , by a show o f h i s i m p e r i a l p r e r o g a t i v e , s u s p e n d t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n f o r a p e r i o d o f t h r e e y e a r s , d i s s o l v e b o t h h o u s e s o f t h e D i e t , and p l a c e - 16 -t h e e n t i r e n a t i o n u n d e r m a r t i a l l a w . " A l t h o u g h t h i s t a c t i c a l change c a n n c t be f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d a p a r t from K i t a ' s i d e a s on f o r e i g n p o l i c y , t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n w e a k n e s s e s i n h i s c r i t i q u e o f t he n a t i o n a l p o l i t y w h i c h f a c i l i t a t e d h i s a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e supreme power o f t he Emperor as t h e s o l e p o s s i b l e means o f c a r r y i n g ou t t h e e c o n o m i c r e v o l u t i o n , f i r s t l y , he n e v e r c o n s i d e r e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f p o p u l a r s o v e r e i g n t y , but i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e Empero r and D i e t wou ld be t h e supreme o r g a n s o f t h e s o v e r e i g n s t a t e . S e c o n d -l y , h a v i n g n e v e r r e a l l y a t t e m p t e d to show i n d e t a i l how t h e c o - e q u a l Emperor and D i e t were meant to work i n p r a c t i c e , he had t e n d e d to n e g l e c t t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e g o v e r n m e n t , f i n a l l y , b e c a u s e K i t a n e v e r d o u b t e d t h a t t h e M e i j i R e s t o r a t i o n had l e g a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d a s o c i a l d e m o c r a c y , he n e v e r saw t h e need f o r a t o t a l r e v o l u t i o n . The s t r e n g t h s and w e a k n e s s e s o f K i t a ' s c r i t i q u e o f t h e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y can be t r a c e d t o c e r t a i n b a s i c i d e a s i n h i s t h o u g h t , n a m e l y , t h e t h e o r y o f s o c i a l e v o l u t i o n and t h e t h e o r y o f c l a s s s t r u g g l e . The f o r m e r was t h e b a s i s o f h i s r e j e c t i o n o f t h e myth o f t h e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y as u n h i s t o r i c a l , t h e l a t t e r t h e b a s i s o f h i s e m p h a s i s on t he need f o r an e c o n o m i c r e v o l u t i o n to b reak down t h e a c t u a l f e u d a l i s t i c c l a s s e s t h a t e x i s t e d i n s p i t e o f t h e l e g a l r e v o l u t i o n a c c o m p l i s h e d a t t h e R e s t o r a t i o n . The D a r w i n i a n t h e o r y o f s o c i a l e v o l u t i o n was i n t r o d u c e d i n t o Japan i n 1 8 7 7 , a n d , b e c a u s e o f i t s c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s and o p t i m i s m , came t o o c c u p y a dom inan t p o s i t i o n i n t h e J a p a n e s e p h i l o s o p h i c a l - 17 -w o r l d . Many l e a d i n g t h i n k e r s a d o p t e d i t as a c e n t r a l p a r t o f t h e i r t h o u g h t , f o r e x a m p l e , Nakae C h o m i n , t h e r a d i c a l l i b e r a l l e a d e r o f t h e f reedom and C i v i l R i g h t s Movement . For K i t a , t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e t h e o r y l a y i n i t s c o m b i n a t i o n o f s c i e n c e and p h i l o s o p h y . I t c o u l d n o t c o n t r a d i c t h i s t h e o r y o f p u r e s o c i a l i s m , " b e c a u s e t h e who le b a s i s o f s c i e n c e and p h i l o s o p h y i s t h e t h s o r y o f b i o l o g i c a l e v o l u t i o n , t h e f u n d a m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e o f w h i c h i s t he s t r u g g l e f o r s u r v i v a l . " 4 4 A l t h o u g h K i t a made i t t he v e r y b a s i s o f h i s t h o u g h t , he was no t u n c r i t i c a l o f i t . He w r o t e , " A l t h o u g h t o d a y ' s t h e o r y o f b i o l o g i c a l e v o l u t i o n has been c o n s i d e r a b l y 45 d e v e l o p e d s i n c e D a r w i n , i t i s s t i l l c o n f u s e d as a w h o l e . " I t s m a j o r weakness was i t s o v e r e m p h a s i s o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m and n e g l e c t o f n a t i o n a l i s m . D e a l i n g o n l y w i t h t h e s m a l l u n i t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , i t i g n o r e d t h e l a r g e r u n i t o f s o c i e t y . The i n d i v i d u a l i s m o f Oka A s a j i r o , t h e ma in a d v o c a t e o f s o c i a l e v o l u t i o n i n J a p a n , was t h e 46 o b j e c t o f v i g o r o u s c r i t i c i s m f rom K i t a . The i d e a t h a t s o c i a l improvement c o u l d come o n l y a f t e r t h e i n d i v i d u a l e l e v a t i o n o f each member o f s o c i e t y was anathema to K i t a . On t h e c o n t r a r y , he b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e improvemen t o f i n d i v i d u a l s wou ld be t h e r e s u l t o f s o c i a l i m p r o v e m e n t . The n a t i o n a l p o l i t y and s y s t e m o f government were u n d e r g o i n g a p r o c e s s o f e v o l u t i o n , and s h o u l d be s t u d i e d h i s t o r i c a l l y as s o c i a l phenomena. The s e c o n d b a s i c t e n e t o f K i t a ' s t h o u g h t was a m o d i f i e d t h e o r y o f c l a s s s t r u g g l e . In h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o N i h o n k a i z o hoan t a i k o he w r o t e , "I do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r u l e ou t s o c i a l p r o g r e s s by means - 18 -o f a c l a s s s t r u g g l e . " K i t a owed much t o M a r x , bu t was c r i t i c a l o f h i m . The g r e a t n e s s o f M a r x , he s a i d , was " o n l y i n t h e f i e l d o f e c o n o m i c s , i n w h i c h he gave an h i s t o r i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n o f c a p i t a l i n e a r l y modern m a c h i n e i n d u s t r i e s , and i n t h e f i e l d o f h i s t o r y , i n w h i c h he d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e e v o l u t i o n o f s o c i e t y depends on t h e 48 c l a s s s t r u g g l e . " He went on t o s a y , " A l t h o u g h we r e s p e c t t h e g r e a t n e s s o f M a r x , and o f D a r w i n , who advanced t h e t h e o r y o f b i o -l o g i c a l e v o l u t i o n , we m o d e r n s , who a r e more e v o l v e d t h a n t h e y , do no t a c c e p t t h e i r words as a r t i c l e s o f f a i t h , bu t r e c o g n i s e t h a t c o m p e t i t i o n be tween s t a t e s i s as much o f a f a c t as i s t h e c l a s s 49 s t r u g g l e w i t h i n s t a t e s . " K i t a ' s s u b s e q u e n t s u p p o r t o f a coup d ' e t a t as a means o f i m p l e m e n t i n g s o c i a l democracy h i g h l i g h t s t h e d i f f e r e n c e be tween h i s and M a r x * s i d e a s o f t h e c l a s s s t r u g g l e . W h i l e Marx s u p p o r t e d a r e v o l u t i o n f rom b e l o w , t o be a c c o m p l i s h e d by t h e e n t i r e p r o l e t a r i a t , K i t a s u p p o r t e d a r e v o l u t i o n f rom a b o v e , t o be c a r r i e d ou t by t h e s t a t e . W h i l e Marx a imed a t t h e s i m u l -t a n e o u s r e v o l u t i o n o f t h e who le o f s o c i e t y , K i t a b e l i e v e d t h a t d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n , w h i c h need no t n e c e s s a r i l y be a c c o m p l i s h e d a l l a t o n c e , c o u l d f o l l o w one a n o t h e r . S i n c e t h e M e i j i R e s t o r a t i o n was a l e g a l r e v o l u t i o n , i t was o n l y n e c e s s a r y t o work f o r an e c o n o m i c r e v o l u t i o n . The q u e s t i o n o f t a c t i c s was no t u n r e l a t e d t o t h e b a s i c i d e a o f t h e c l a s s s t r u g g l e , an i d e a t o w h i c h K i t a a d h e r e d t h r o u g h o u t h i s l i f e . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o remem-be r t h a t he was o p e n l y s y m p a t h e t i c to t h e e a r l y s o c i a l i s t s , whose s t r u g g l e was c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e f a c e o f s e v e r e government s u p p r e s s i o n . - 19 -K i t a ' s i d e a s o f s o c i a l e v o l u t i o n and c l a s s s t r u g g l e d i f f e r e d f rom t h o s e o f c o n t e m p o r a r y D a r w i n i s t s and M a r x i s t s i n a way d i r e c t -l y r e l a t e d t o a n o t h e r c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f h i s t h o u g h t , n a m e l y , h i s e m p h a s i s on t h e s p e c i a l r o l e o f t h e s t a t e . B e c a u s e t h e s t a t e was t o p l a y an a c t i v e p a r t i n p r o m o t i n g t h e e c o n o m i c r e v o l u t i o n and c l a s s s t r u g g l e , i t s a c t i v i t y was e s s e n t i a l t o s o c i a l e v o l u t i o n . I f t he s t a t e ' s i n v o l v e m e n t was e s s e n t i a l t o t h e a b o l i t i o n o f c l a s s e s , t h e c l a s s s t r u g g l e s h o u l d p r o c e e d i n a way t h a t does no t c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a p o w e r f u l s t a t e . K i t a a d m i r e d P l a t o and M e n c i u s b e c a u s e o f t h i s b e l i e f t h a t the power o f t h e s t a t e s h o u l d n o t m e r e l y be u s e d t o a b o l i s h i n j u s t i c e , bu t s h o u l d be made 51 s u f f i c i e n t t o a c c o m p l i s h t h i s t a s k . He was most c r i t i c a l o f s o c i a l i s t s , who i g n o r e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e s t a t e and m e r e l y e m p h a s i s e d t h e c l a s s s t r u g g l e , a s w e l l as o f f o l l o w e r s o f Oka A s a j i r o , who b e l i e v e d i n e v o l u t i o n t h r o u g h t h e improvement o f i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h o u t any a i d f rom the s t a t e . K i t a I k k i ' s c r i t i q u e o f t h e J a p a n e s e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y was c o n -s i s t e n t and c o m p r e h e n s i v e . H i s a n a l y s i s o f H o z u m i ' s t h e o r y was r e g a r d e d by Kuno Osamu as a mode l c r i t i q u e o f a r u l e r ' s i d e o l o g y , and i t r e m i n d e d him o f M a r x ' s method o f c r i t i c i s m i n German 52 I d e o l o g y . I t i s most u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t t h e m e r i t s o f t h i s c r i t i q u e have n o t been n o t i c e d by a d v o c a t e s o f p o s t - w a r d e m o c r a c y . - 20 -I I I . THE ADVOCACY OF WAR The most s t r i k i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f K i t a I k k i ' s i d e a s on f o r e i g n p o l i c y i s a s t r o n g a d v o c a c y o f w a r , s o m e t h i n g w h i c h i s se ldom u n n o t i c e d . He s a i d q u i t e u n e q u i v o c a l l y i n h i s IMihon k a i z o hoan t a i k o , " p e a c e w i t h o u t war i s no t the way o f H e a v e n , " and went on t o e x p l a i n , "The r i g h t o f s t a r t i n g a w a r . A s t a t e s h a l l j u s t l y s t a r t a w a r , no t m e r e l y i f i t does s o f o r t h e s a k e o f i t s own s e l f - d e f e n c e , bu t i f i t does so t o p r o t e c t o t h e r n a t i o n s and p e o p l e s who have been o p -p r e s s e d by u n j u s t p o w e r « ( F o r e x a m p l e , t o p romote I n d i a n i n d e p e n d e n c e and t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f C h i n a ) . "A s t a t e . . . s h a l l j u s t l y s t a r t a war a g a i n s t t h o s e who u n f a i r l y m o n o p o l i s e l a r g e t e r r i t o r i e s , and i g n o r e H e a v e n ' s way o f p e o p l e s ' c o e x i s t e n c e . ( F o r e x a m p l e , a s t a t e may j u s t l y s t a r t a war a g a i n s t t h e p o s s e s s o r s o f A u s t r a l i a and F a r E a s t e r n S i b e r i a , i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n t h e s e t e r r i t o r i e s ) . " 5 4 The war w h i c h K i t a a d v o c a t e d was o f a s p e c i f i c k i n d , n a m e l y , one waged by t h e p o o r n a t i o n s a g a i n s t t h e r i c h n a t i o n s , and he d i d so i n o r d e r t o p romote t h e c l a s s s t r u g g l e and s o c i a l e v o l u t i o n i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l s o c i e t y . A war waged by J a p a n f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e A s i a n p e o p l e s f rom W e s t e r n i m p e r i a l i s m was m o r a l l y j u s t i f i a b l e . A l t h o u g h he may be c r i t i c i s e d f o r d i s r e g a r d i n g t h e s o v e r e i g n t y o f t h e c o l o n i s e d p e o p l e s , he was no t an a d v o c a t e o f " G r e a t e r A s i a n i s m . " He wan ted Japan t o p o s s e s s c o l o n i e s i n o r d e r t o oppose W e s t e r n i m p e r i a l i s m more e f f e c t i v e l y , no t i n o r d e r t o b r i n g t o t h e A s i a n p e o p l e s t h e b e n e f i t s o f t h e E m p e r o r ' s magnanimous r u l e . K i t a ' s i d e a s on i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s were r e m a r k a b l y - 21 -c o n s i s t e n t t h r o u g h o u t h i s l i f e . Between 1903 and 1 9 3 5 , when he w r o t e h i s l a s t e s s a y , " M i c h i b e i godo t a i s h i d a n no t e i g i " ( " D i s c o u r s e on a 55 J o i n t J a p a n e s e - A m e r i c a n C o n s o r t i u m f o r C h i n a " ) , he w r o t e s e v e r a l e s s a y s , b o o k s , l e t t e r s , p a m p h l e t s , and m e m o r i a l s on t h e s u b j e c t o f 56 f o r e i g n p o l i c y and i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s . One wou ld e x p e c t h i s i d e a s t o have changed w i t h c h a n g e s i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s i t u a -t i o n . Howeve r , a l t h o u g h h i s p r a c t i c a l p r o p o s a l s f o r J a p a n e s e f o r e i g n p o l i c y unde rwen t c o n s i d e r a b l e m o d i f i c a t i o n o v e r t h e y e a r s , h i s f u n d a m e n t a l i d e a s r e m a i n e d u n a l t e r e d . The c e n t r a l t heme , h i s a d v o c a c y o f w a r , w i l l be examined i n r e l a t i o n t o h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y i n t e r n a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n , h i s c o n c r e t e programme f o r s o l v i n g t he c r i s e s i n w h i c h Japan and o t h e r A s i a n n a t i o n s f ound t h e m s e l v e s , and t h e b a s i c t e n e t s o f h i s t h o u g h t w h i c h l e d h im to c r i t i c i s e t he J a p a n e s e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y . No one has y e t made an e x h a u s t i v e a t t e m p t to examine h i s 57 a d v o c a c y o f war i n t h i s l i g h t . As f a r as Japan was c o n c e r n e d , t h e most s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n a t t h e t u r n o f t he c e n t u r y was t h e d e s i r e o f t h e W e s t e r n c a p i t a l i s t c o u n t r i e s t o c o n q u e r t h e A s i a n p e o p l e s , i n o r d e r to expand t h e i r own e c o n o m i e s . The B r i t i s h a b i l i t y t o s e c u r e raw m a t e r i a l s and m a r k e t s was l a r g e l y due t o t h e i r p o l i c y o f m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i n d i g e n o u s s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e c o n q u e r e d p e o p l e s , f o r e x a m p l e , i n I n d i a . But t h e more b a c k -ward Wes te rn c a p i t a l i s t c o u n t r i e s , s u c h as Germany, F r a n c e , R u s s i a , and even t he U n i t e d S t a t e s , j o i n e d i n t h e s c r a m b l e f o r A s i a , and - 22 -had been c o n c e n t r a t i n g t h e i r e f f o r t s on C h i n a , f o r t he t i m e b e i n g t h e i r methods d e p a r t e d from g u n f i r e t o commerce and i n d u s t r y . C h i n a ' s own f a i l u r e t o m o d e r n i s e l e d t o h e r s e m i - c o l o n i s a t i o n . S i n c e t h e m i d d l e o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , Japan had f e l t h e r s e l f t h r e a t e n e d by t h e s e same p o w e r s . Even h e r d r i v e f o r mode r -n i s a t i o n had no t e n a b l e d h e r to o b t a i n e q u a l s t a t u s w i t h t h e m . J a p a n e s e c a p i t a l i s m was s t i l l u n d e v e l o p e d , and u n e q u a l t r e a t i e s were s t i l l i n f o r c e . E . H . Norman w r o t e , " J a p a n e s e c a p i t a l i s m had p a s s e d t h r o u g h i t s f o r m a t i v e s t a g e , d e p r i v e d f rom t h e f i r s t o f t a r i f f autonomy and hence f o r c e d t o l a b o r s i m u l t a n e o u s l y on two f r o n t s . I n t e r n a l l y i t s t a s k was t o h a s t e n i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and t he d e v e l o p m e n t o f a home m a r k e t , and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y , t o w in r e c o g n i t i o n as a G r e a t Power — a consummat ion w h i c h w o u l d a u t o m a t i c a l l y b r i n g t r e a t y r e v i s i o n , b e t t e r t r a d i n g p r i v i l e g e s , even a l l i a n c e w i t h some o f t h e G r e a t P o w e r s . " ^ 8 J a p a n , h o w e v e r , i n v a d e d K o r e a i n 1894 even b e f o r e she o b t a i n e d t he r e v i s i o n o f t he u n e q u a l t r e a t i e s , a move w h i c h i l l u s t r a t e s how b a d l y t h e M e i j i l e a d e r s wanted t o c r e a t e a p o w e r f u l s t a t e t h a t c o u l d s t a n d up t o t h e W e s t e r n p o w e r s . C o l o n i e s were r e q u i r e d t o p r o v i d e m a r k e t s f o r t h e J a p a n e s e economy, and t o e n a b l e t he J a p a n e s e t o d e m o n s t r a t e t o t h e powers h e r a b i l i t y to a d m i n i s t e r h e r own c o l o n i e s . The T r i p l e I n t e r v e n t i o n f o l l o w i n g t h e S i n o - J a p a n e s e war m e r e l y c o n -t r i b u t e d t o t h e g r o w i n g n a t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f t he J a p a n e s e 59 p e o p l e . Norman m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e "wa r o f 1894 -95 . . . marked a d e f i n i t e t u r n i n g - p o i n t i n J a p a n e s e f o r e i g n p o l i c y a l o n g t h e p a t h o f e x p a n s i o n , and e n o r m o u s l y s t r e n g t h e n e d t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e a d -v o c a t e s o f such a p o l i c y . " ^ Thus began J a p a n ' s e m u l a t i o n o f t h e - 23 Wes te rn c a p i t a l i s t c o u n t r i e s ' e x p l o i t a t i o n o f A s i a . B e f o r e t h i s , t h e J a p a n e s e government had t a k e n t h e i n i t i a t i v e i n t h e d r i v e t o w a r d s m o d e r n i s a t i o n . Now, a g r o w i n g n a t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s e n c o u r a g e d e x p a n s i o n i n t o A s i a . K i t a I k k i was f u l l y aware o f t h e s e r i o u s n e s s o f J a p a n ' s p o s i -t i o n , s u r r o u n d e d as she was by R u s s i a i n t h e n o r t h , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n t h e e a s t , Germany i n K i a o c h o w , B r i t a i n i n S h a n g h a i , and 61 F r a n c e i n Annam. He s u p p o r t e d t h e R u s s o - J a p a n e s e w a r , b e c a u s e , as he s a i d , " U n h a p p i l y I was b o r n i n t h e age o f i m p e r i a l i s m . The f i r s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f i m p e r i a l i s m i s t e r r i t o r i a l e x p a n s i o n . War 62 s h a l l n o t c e a s e . " He a r g u e d t h a t " g u n f i r e and commerce and 63 i n d u s t r y a r e o n l y means i n t h e s t r u g g l e f o r p o w e r . " To s u b s t a n -t i a t e h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e t i m e s , he c i t e d t h e i m p e r i a l i s t i c a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n Cuba and t h e P h i l i p p i n e s , B r i t a i n i n S o u t h A f r i c a and C h i n a , Germany i n C h i n a , and F r a n c e i n I n d o -c h i n a . ^ 4 He made an a n a l y s i s o f t h e f o r e i g n p o l i c y o f each one o f t h e s e c o u n t r i e s . 65 R u s s i a he c a l l e d t h e "mos t a g r e s s i v e c o u n t r y , " and t h e 66 S l a v o n i c p e o p l e t h e "enemy o f c i v i l i s a t i o n . " T h i s was b e c a u s e " t h e i m p e r i a l i s m o f t h e S l a v o n i c p e o p l e h a s i n v a d e d f o r t y m i l l i o n 67 b r o t h e r s , and f i v e h u n d r e d m i l l i o n C h i n e s e and K o r e a n s . " He a d d e d , " I n t e r n a l l y , R u s s i a has been t y r a n n i c a l and a u t h o r i t a r i a n , and e x t e r n a l l y , she h a s b r o k e n i n t e r n a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y , and v i o l a t e d 68 d e c l a r a t i o n s and t r e a t i e s . " Even a f t e r t h e R u s s i a n R e v o l u t i o n , K i t a n e v e r changed h i s m ind - 24 -about R u s s i a . On t he c o n t r a r y , i n h i s open l e t t e r to A d o l f J o f f e , he s a i d t h a t R u s s i a had become even more a g g r e s s i v e s i n c e t he R e v o -l u t i o n , b e c a u s e a l t h o u g h she abandoned t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l o b l i g a t i o n s c o n t r a c t e d by the T s a r s , she c o n t i n u e d to p u r s u e a p o l i c y o f i m -p e r i a l i s m . As K i t a s a i d , " t h e number o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l d e b t s has 69 n o t h i n g t o do w i t h s o c i a l i s m . " Nor c o u l d K i t a i g n o r e R u s s i a n a c t i v i t i e s i n Japan c a r r i e d ou t i n t h e name o f t h e communis t r e v o l u -t i o n . He w r o t e , " I t i s q u i t e a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e o r d e r s , p l a n s , and f u n d s . . . o f t h e commun is t s who have a t t e m p t e d t o c r e a t e d i s t u r -b a n c e s i n C h i n a , t o i n s t i g a t e r e v o l u t i o n i n K o r e a , and what i s m o r e , t o c a u s e t h e o v e r t h r o w o f t h e I m p e r i a l n a t i o n a l p o l i t y and s t a t e 70 s y s t e m i n m a i n l a n d J a p a n , a l l came f rom S o v i e t R u s s i a . " B e i n g an i n d i g e n o u s " p u r e s o c i a l i s t , " K i t a was opposed t o t h e d i r e c t i m p o r t a t i o n o f t h e commun is t i d e o l o g y i n t o J a p a n . K i t a was c o n v i n c e d t h a t R u s s i a wou ld a t t e m p t t o i n v a d e J a p a n . In 1 9 3 2 , when t h e r e was a p o s s i b i l i t y o f a J a p a n e s e - A m e r i c a n w a r , K i t a w r o t e , " R i g h t a f t e r t h e o p e n i n g o f a J a p a n e s e - A m e r i c a n w a r , t h e R u s s i a n s a r e c e r t a i n t o a t t a c k J a p a n w i t h a l l t h e i r s t r e n g t h , f rom i n s i d e and ou t . • . T h i s i s t he main p o l i c y o f S o v i e t R u s s i a . . . By e n c o u r a g i n g a war be tween J a p a n and A m e r i c a , and t h e r e f o r e a s e c o n d w o r l d w a r , she hopes t o a t t a i n h e r g r e a t aim o f c r e a t i n g d i s o r d e r i n A s i a and t h e w o r l d a t l a r g e . . . She c l a i m s t h i s i s f o r 71 t h e s a k e o f w o r l d r e v o l u t i o n . " K i t a ' s s t r a t e g y f o r d e a l i n g w i t h t h e R u s s i a n menace was t h e p r o d u c t o f c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . J a p a n s h o u l d b reak o f f d i p l o m a t i c - 25 -r e l a t i o n s w i t h R u s s i a . T h e n , i n an e s s a y , " N i h o n k o k u no s h o r a i t o t o n i c h i r o k a i s e n " ( "The F u t u r e o f Japan and t h e O p e n i n g o f t h e R u s s o - J a p a n e s e W a r " ) , he p r e s e n t e d two a l t e r n a t i v e s t o the J a p a n e s e p e o p l e , n a m e l y , " t h e o u t b r e a k o f war a g a i n s t R u s s i a o r t h e d o w n f a l l 72 o f t h e J a p a n e s e E m p i r e . " He went o n , " O n c e we f a l l i n t o t h e hands o f t he R u s s i a n s , f o u r h u n d r e d m i l l i o n y e l l o w p e o p l e i n C h i n a and 73 K o r e a w i l l be s u b j e c t e d t o c o n d i t i o n s o f s l a v e r y f o r e v e r . " K i t a was c o n v i n c e d t h a t " b e c a u s e j u s t i c e and m o r a l i t y were i n c o m p r e h e n -s i b l e t o t h e m , n o t h i n g but g u n f i r e c o u l d d e a l w i t h t h e b a r b a r o u s R u s s i a n s who i n v a d e o t h e r s . " ' ' 4 He even s a i d , "Who a r e we t o deny t h e R u s s i a n r i g h t to a g g r e s s i o n ? L e t us j u s t i n s i s t on ou r r i g h t 75 t o t h e s w o r d , when she u s e s h e r r i g h t t o i n v a d e o t h e r s . " So K i t a j u s t i f i e d J a p a n e s e i m p e r i a l i s m . He r e g a r d e d R u s s i a as t h e l a n d l o r d h o l d i n g u n e x p l o i t e d l a n d , and Japan as a member o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r o l e t a r i a t p o s s e s s i n g v e r y l i t t l e l a n d . He s a i d , "The o p e n i n g o f t h e R u s s o - J a p a n e s e war i s no t due t o t h e a g g r e s s i o n o f a hung ry • l a n d l o r d , ' no r t o t h e E m p e r o r ' s and p o l i t i c i a n s ' d e s i r e f o r fame and f o r t u n e . . . The war i s an e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e p e o p l e ' s demand f o r j u s t i c e , a demand w h i c h has s p r e a d i n t o M a n c h u r i a and K o r e a , and i s made i n t he name o f j u s t i c e f o r t h e s e 76 s t a t e s a g a i n s t t h e b a r b a r o u s d reams o f t h e w o r l d c o n q u e r o r . " K i t a ' s j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f war a g a i n s t R u s s i a was t h e b a s i s o f h i s s u p p o r t f o r t h e J a p a n e s e o c c u p a t i o n o f F a r E a s t e r n S i b e r i a . R e g a r d i n g G r e a t B r i t a i n as one o f t h e most a g g r e s s i v e c o u n t r i e s i n t h e w o r l d , K i t a was no l e s s c r i t i c a l o f h e r a c t i v i t i e s i n A s i a . - 26 -The i m m o r a l i t y and i n j u s t i c e o f B r i t i s h i m p e r i a l i s m i n A s i a and A f r i c a was s i n g l e d ou t f o r s p e c i a l a t t a c k . He n o t e d , " B r i t a i n who p r i d e s h e r s e l f f o r h e r f r e e d o m , h a s c o n q u e r e d t h e B o e r s who we re 77 f i g h t i n g f o r f r e e d o m . " H o w e v e r , K i t a ' s v e r y s t r o n g a n t i - B r i t i s h d i s p o s i t i o n was m a i n l y t h e r e s u l t o f h i s e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h e C h i n e s e R e v o l u t i o n . " I f i t were n o t f o r B r i t a i n , " he s a i d , " C h i n a wou ld n o t 78 have been d e l a y e d t h e s e f i f t y y e a r s s i n c e t h e M e i j i R e s t o r a t i o n . " B e f o r e C h i n a c o u l d g a i n any r e a l i n d e p e n d e n c e , B r i t a i n w o u l d have t o be e x p e l l e d . T h i s p r o p o s a l was f r u s t r a t e d by i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y m inded r e p u b l i -c a n s l i k e Sun Y a t - s e n , whom most C h i n e s e r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s had s u p p o r -t e d , and by t h e J a p a n e s e g o v e r n m e n t , who d i d n ' t want t o j e o p a r d i s e th8 A n g l o - J a p a n e s e A l l i a n c e , , B e l i e v i n g t h a t C h i n a s h o u l d adop t _ 79 T o y o t e k i k y o w a s e i ( E a s t e r n R e p u b l i c i s m ) , K i t a r e j e c t e d B r i t i s h p a r l i a m e n t a r i s m as w e l l as t h e A n g l o - J a p a n e s e A l l i a n c e . He was c o n -v i n c e d t h a t " t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e i n t e g r i t y o f C h i n a and t h e A n g l o -80 J a p a n e s e A l l i a n c e c o u l d n e v e r c o - e x i s t . " O n l y when b o t h c o u n t r i e s 81 were t h r e a t e n e d by R u s s i a d i d t h e a l l i a n c e have any s i g n i f i c a n c e , a c o n t i n g e n c y w h i c h c e a s e d t o e x i s t s i n c e t h e d e f e a t o f R u s s i a i n t h e war o f 1 9 0 4 - 5 . Japan s h o u l d t e r m i n a t e t h e a l l i a n c e and exp,e l 8 2 8 r i t a i n f rom s o u t h e r n C h i n a . B e s i d e s , t h e B r i t i s h e c o n o m i c p a r t i t i o n o f C h i n a was i n d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n t o J a p a n ' s p r i n c i p l e o f p r o t e c t i n g the w h o l e o f A s i a f rom W e s t e r n i m p e r i a l i s m . K i t a ' s d i s l i k e o f B r i t a i n a l s o stemmed f rom h i s s u s p i c i o n t h a t " B r i t a i n , who had u r g e d t h e w a g i n g o f a F r a n c o - G e r m a n war to p romo te - 27 -the s e c u r i t y of the 8 r i t i s h I s l e s , would t r y to b r i n g about a war between Japan and the United S t a t e s , i n order to protect her t e r r i -8 3 t o r i e s and vested i n t e r e s t s i n the P a c i f i c and China." He regarded i t as " q u i t e a normal p o l i c y f o r B r i t a i n , the country which possesses I n d i a , Hong Kong, Singapore, and Canada, . . <, to 8 4 eagerly look forward to the opening of a Japanese-American war." On a p r a c t i c a l l e v e l , K i t a advocated the expansion of Japanese m i l i t a r y preparedness, p a r t i c u l a r l y Japanese naval power, to promote the l i b e r a t i o n of I n d i a and to secure Chinese independence. Japan should also aim to take over the B r i t i s h c o l o n i e s of Hong Kong, Singapore, A u s t r a l i a , and New Zealand. Although K i t a was c r i t i c a l of American, German, and French i m p e r i a l i s m , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n A s i a , h i s views on these c o u n t r i e s were more f l e x i b l e . In an age of i m p e r i a l i s m , i t was n a t u r a l f o r a l l nations to seek c o l o n i e s . K i t a ' s anti-Americanism, however, was p a r t l y due to h i s antagonism towards Sun Yat-sen, who had t r i e d to introduce American r e p u b l i c a n i d e a l s i n t o China. K i t a was opposed to t h i s , because the h i s t o r y and development of China and the United States were poles a p a r t . To improve Japanese-American r e l a t i o n s , K i t a suggested to the Okuma cabinet that a j o i n t Japanese-American economic a l l i a n c e to aid China be e s t a b l i s h e d . He assumed that "United States investment i n China would f a c i l i t a t e c o ncluding a permanent a l l i a n c e between 8 6 Japan and the United S t a t e s , f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of China." This a l l i a n c e would also serve to reduce the anti-Japanese sentiment i n - 28 -C h i n a , b e c a u s e i t i n v o l v e d a f r i e n d l y c o u n t r y , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . K i t a ' s ma in p u r p o s e i n w r i t i n g h i s " N e i c h i b e i godo t a i s h i dan no t e i g i , " was t o a v o i d a war be tween Japan and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , s o m e t h i n g w h i c h was a d i s t i n c t p o s s i b i l i t y as l o n g as t he C h i n a p r o b l e m r e m a i n e d u n s o l v e d . Such a war was t o be s h u n n e d , b e c a u s e i t wou ld b e n e f i t B r i t a i n . K i t a c o n c l u d e d , "A c l o s e l o o k a t t h e p r e -s e n t w o r l d s i t u a t i o n and i t s d e v e l o p m e n t , s h o u l d make i t c l e a r t h a t t h e r e i s no a l t e r n a t i v e f o r t h e G r e a t J a p a n e s e E m p i r e bu t t o 88 a l l y i t s e l f w i t h A m e r i c a i n t h e P a c i f i c . " K i t a was more s y m p a t h e t i c t o w a r d s Germany , w h i c h , he s a i d , t h r o u g h l e a r n i n g and p a t r i o t i s m , had been t r a n s f o r m e d f rom a b a d l y r u i n e d c o u n t r y i n t o a w e a l t h y and p o w e r f u l o n e . Germany was d i f f e r e n t f rom R u s s i a , w h i c h had become p o w e r f u l t h r o u g h d e v o u r i n g s m a l l and weak c o u n t r i e s , and f rom B r i t a i n , w h i c h had g a i n e d i t s w e a l t h t h r o u g h m a s s a c r i n g u n c i v i l i s e d p e o p l e s . But " b e c a u s e o f h e r unsound f o r e i g n p o l i c y , Germany , l i k e J a p a n , was i n a p r e d i c a m e n t , and l i k e J a p a n , was t r y i n g t o be r e s c u e d . J a p a n and Germany s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e c o o p e r a t e i n C h i n a , bu t o n l y when Germany d e s i s t e d f rom h e r i m p e r i a l i s t i c a c t i v i t i e s i n A s i a , " w i t h t h e p r o m i s s t h a t she w o u l d t a k e o v e r t h o s e A f r i c a n t e r r i t o r i e s o f w h i c h B r i t a i n was i n p o s s e s s i o n , » 9 0 K i t a had a g r e a t a d m i r a t i o n f o r t h e F r e n c h p e o p l e , who had b r o u g h t a b o u t t h e F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n , t h e o r i g i n a l s o u r c e o f E u r o -91 pean m o d e r n i s a t i o n . He l e a r n t much f rom t h e F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n , w h i c h he f r e q u e n t l y compared w i t h t h e M e i j i R e s t o r a t i o n . O f 29 -J a p a n e s e - F r e n c h r e l a t i o n s he s a i d , " T h e F r e n c h R e p u b l i c s h a l l d e t e r -mine t h e r i s e and f a l l o f t h e p r e s e n t J a p a n e s e E m p i r e . H e saw t h a t F r a n c e , u n l e s s a l l i e d w i t h o t h e r g r e a t p o w e r s , was t h r e a t e n e d on a l l s i d e s i n E u r o p e , j u s t l i k e Japan i n A s i a . K i t a r e g a r d e d a " F r a n c o - J a p a n e s e a l l i a n c e as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r t h e League o f N a t i o n s , w h i c h does more harm t h a n g o o d , t o g u a r a n t e e peace t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d . ^ h e m a i n p u r p o s e o f t h i s a l l i a n c e was t o a v o i d a p o s s i b l e J a p a n e s e - A m e r i c a n w a r . S i n o - J a p a n e s e r e l a t i o n s were the s u b j e c t o f K i t a ' s most d i l i -gen t c o n s i d e r a t i o n . H i s sympa thy f o r C h i n a was due t o h e r p o s i t i o n i n t h e g r e a t c o n f r o n t a t i o n be tween A s i a and W e s t e r n i m p e r i a l i s m . H i s m a j o r p r e o c c u p a t i o n was t o f i n d ways o f a v o i d i n g c o n f l i c t s b e t -ween J a p a n e s e and C h i n e s e n a t i o n a l i s m , h i s c o n c l u s i o n s t h e r e s u l t o f h i s e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e C h i n e s e R e v o l u t i o n o f 1911 and t h e r e a f t e r . K i t a n e v e r d o u b t e d t h a t t h e C h i n e s e R e v o l u t i o n was i n s p i r e d by 94 J a p a n e s e t h o u g h t , s o m e t h i n g o f w h i c h J a p a n s h o u l d be p r o u d . Aware t h a t E n g l i s h t h o u g h t had h e l p e d s p a r k o f f t h e F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n , he r e g a r d e d Japan as t h e E n g l a n d o f t h e E a s t . He wan ted Japan t o s u p -p o r t t he C h i n e s e r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s i n t h e i r a t t e m p t t o o v e r t h r o w f e u d a l i s m and c r e a t e a modern n a t i o n s t a t e . The J a p a n e s e r e s p o n s e t o t he C h i n e s e R e v o l u t i o n , h o w e v e r , was q u i t e a m b i v a l e n t . D i f f e r e n t 95 p e o p l e i n C h i n a and Japan seemed t o want d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s . In h i s S h i n a k a k u m e i g a i s h i ( P r i v a t e H i s t o r y o f t h e C h i n e s e R e v o l u t i o n ) , he t r i e d t o make t h e J a p a n e s e p o l i c y make rs u n d e r s t a n d t h e r e a l n a t u r e o f t h e C h i n e s e R e v o l u t i o n . The a n t i - J a p a n e s e movement i n C h i n a - 30 -was due t o f a i l u r e s i n J a p a n e s e p o l i c y , and c o u l d c o n t i n u e i n s p i t e 96 o f t h e o r i g i n a l J a p a n e s e i n s p i r a t i o n o f t h e R e v o l u t i o n . In h i s " S h i n a no r a n k y o k u n i t a i s u r u tomen no s h i s a k u " ( "A T e n t a t i v e S h o r t Term P o l i c y t o w a r d s t h e D i s o r d e r i n C h i n a " ) , he examined t h e p o l i c i e s o f t he Okuma, T e r a u c h i , and H a r a c a b i n e t s , and f ound them l a c k i n g 97 any c o n c r e t e p l a n t o d e a l w i t h t h e C h i n e s e R e v o l u t i o n . M o r e o v e r , t he a c t i v i t i e s o f J a p a n e s e r S n i n i n S h a n g h a i and Hong Kong had made f o r e i g n e r s s u s p i c i o u s o f J a p a n e s e m o t i v e s i n C h i n a o K i t a wanted them 98 s t r i c t l y s u p e r v i s e d . W i t h o u t a f u n d a m e n t a l r e v o l u t i o n i n J a p a n e s e f o r e i g n p o l i c y t o -99 wa rds C h i n a , t h e r e c o u l d be no f r i e n d s h i p be tween t h e two c o u n t r i e s . He denounced t he J a p a n e s e e c o n o m i c i n v a s i o n and p a r t i t i o n o f C h i n a , a p o l i c y w h i c h e q u a l l e d B r i t i s h i m p e r i a l i s t i c a c t i v i t i e s t h e r e . To e n s u r e S i n o - J a p a n e s e f r i e n d s h i p , J a p a n s h o u l d go t o war a g a i n s t B r i t a i n and R u s s i a . As a means o f e x p e l l i n g t h e B r i t i s h p r e s e n c e i n t h e e a s t , Japan s h o u l d u n d e r t a k e t e r r i t o r i a l e x p a n s i o n i n t o Hong K o n g , S i n g a p o r e , F r e n c h I n d o - C h i n a , A u s t r a l i a , and New Z e a l a n d . A S i n o - J a P a n e s e a l l i a n c e s h o u l d be s u p p l e m e n t e d by a J a p a n e s e - A m e r i c a n e c o n o m i c a l l i a n c e i n a i d o f C h i n a , a c c o r d i n g t o w h i c h A m e r i c a n i n v e s t -ment w o u l d no t be i n t r o d u c e d i n t o C h i n a w i t h o u t J a p a n e s e armed s u p e r -• • 101 v i s i o n . ' U l K i t a had no i l l u s i o n s abou t t h e d i l emmas o f J a p a n e s e f o r e i g n p o l i c y i n t h e e a r l y 1 9 3 0 ' s . In h i s " T a n g a i k o k u s a k u n i t a i s u r u k e n p a k u s h o " ("A M e m o r i a l on F o r e i g n P o l i c y " ) , he w r o t e , " T h e r e has been no f u n d a m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e , s p i r i t , o r p o i n t t o t h e f o r e i g n 31 -p o l i c y o f ou r E m p i r e f o r t h e p a s t dozen y e a r s o r s o . The f o r e i g n p o l i c i e s o f s u c c e s s i v e g o v e r n m e n t s have been p u r s u e d on t he p r i n -c i p l e t h a t tomor row s h o u l d t a k e c a r e o f i t s e l f . " There was g e n e r a l c o n f u s i o n on t h e q u e s t i o n o f what ought t o be d o n e . " I n a n s w e r i n g t h i s q u e s t i o n , " K i t a n o t e d , "many p e o p l e say t h e r e i s no a l t e r n a t i v e to a J a p a n e s e - A m e r i c a n w a r . " He r e j e c t e d t h i s on t h e g rounds t h a t "when one t h i n k s o f a J a p a n e s e - A m e r i c a n w a r , one c a n n o t h e l p r e a l i s -i n g t h a t a s e c o n d w o r l d war w i l l r e s u l t f rom a war between Japan 102 and A m e r i c a . " I t was e s s e n t i a l t o c o n s i d e r A m e r i c a n p o w e r , as w e l l as t h e f a c t t h a t B r i t a i n , R u s s i a , and C h i n a wou ld j o i n i n on t h e A m e r i c a n s i d e . He w r o t e , " B r i t a i n w o u l d e i t h e r j o i n t h e A m e r i c a n s a t t h e o u t s e t , o r w o u l d r e m a i n n e u t r a l . . . u n t i l she had o b t a i n e d l a r g e p r o f i t s f rom s a l e s o f arms and m u n i t i o n s t o A m e r i c a . . . R u s s i a , t h e v e r y day a f t e r t h e o u t b r e a k o f w a r , wou ld a t t a c k J a p a n 103 f rom i n s i d e and o u t . " E n c o u r a g e d by t h e U n i t e d S t a t s s , C h i n a w o u l d become even more a n t i - J a p a n e s e , so t h a t Japan w o u l d have t o f i g h t C h i n a and R u s s i a on t h e A s i a n c o n t i n e n t , as w e l l as r e c k o n w i t h B r i t i s h and A m e r i c a n n a v a l p o w e r . 1 0 4 The c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e F r a n c o - J a p a n e s e a l l i a n c e was K i t a ' s answer t o J a p a n ' s d i l e m m a . 1 0 * * To ge t t h e J a p a n e s e government t o c o n c l u d e s u c h an a l l i a n c e as w e l l as c a r r y ou t t h e r e v o l u t i o n i n f o r e i g n p o l i c y t o w a r d s C h i n a , K i t a came t o b e l i e v s t h a t a change i n t h e d o m e s t i c s c e n e was n e c e s -s a r y . I n s t e a d o f a c c e p t i n g h i s a d v i c e on p o l i c y t o w a r d s C h i n a , t h e Dkuma c a b i n e t had r e s p o n d e d w i t h t h e Twenty -One Demands, a p o l i c y w h i c h p r o v o k e d a v i o l e n t a n t i - J a p a n e s e movement . I t was a t t h i s - 32 -p o i n t t h a t K i t a , who had been i n C h i n a , d e c i d e d t o r e t u r n home and work f o r t h e J a p a n e s e r e v o l u t i o n . By June 1 9 1 9 , he had come t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e o n l y way t o overcome t h e i n e r t i a o f J a p a n e s e p o l i c y m a k e r s , was to r e p l a c e them w i t h men who b e t t e r u n d e r s t o o d t h e n a t i o n ' s c r i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n and c o u l d c a r r y ou t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e r e m e d i e s . He w r o t e , "A few s c o r e p a t r i o t i c comrades c o u l d h a n d l e t h i s n a t i o n a l c r i s i s . K i t a had abandoned h i s b e l i e f i n t h e b a l l o t . To cope w i t h t h e d i l e m m a s a t home and a b r o a d , a coup d ' e t a t was n e c e s s a r y . The re was no o t h e r way t o ge t t he r i g h t p e o p l e i n t o power i n t i m e . Two months l a t e r , K i t a w r o t e N i n o n  k a i z o hoan t a i k o , i n w h i c h t h i s t a c t i c a l change was e x p l a i n e d . He w r o t e , "A coup d ' e t a t s h o u l d be l o o k e d upon as a d i r e c t m a n i f e s t a -t i o n o f t h e power o f t h e n a t i o n ; t h a t i s , o f t h e w i l l o f s o c i e t y . P r o g r e s s i v e l e a d e r s t e n d to emerge f rom p o p u l a r g r o u p s , and when p o p u l a r l e a d e r s l i k e N a p o l e o n o r L e n i n come t o p o w e r , i t ( t h e w i l l o f s o c i e t y ) i s e x p r e s s e d . In t h e r e o r g a n i s a t i o n o f J a p a n , t h e c o a l i t i o n be tween p o p u l a r g r o u p s and t h e emperor w i l l m a n i f e s t t h e 1D7 power o f t h e n a t i o n . ' T h i s change o f t a c t i c s i n v o l v e d no c o n -f l i c t w i t h K i t a ' s b a s i c i d e a s . He had a l w a y s b e l i e v e d t h a t a p o w e r f u l s t a t e , w h i c h p u r s u e d t h e c l a s s s t r u g g l e a t home and a b r o a d , was t h e v e h i c l e o f s o c i a l e v o l u t i o n . The o n l y change was the a b a n -donment o f h i s b e l i e f t h a t s u c h a s t a t e was p o s s i b l e o f a c h i e v e m e n t t h r o u g h t h e b a l l o t . A coup d ' e t a t wou ld p u t i n t o power men who wou ld c o m p l e t e t h e economic r e v o l u t i o n i n d o m e s t i c p o l i c y , and b e g i n t h e r e v o l u t i o n i n f o r e i g n p o l i c y . 33 -K i t a I k k i d i d no t a d v o c a t e a g e n e r a l o r even an a g r e s s i v e w a r . H i s a n a l y s i s o f c o n t e m p o r a r y i m p e r i a l i s m l e d him t o b e l i e v e t h a t u n l e s s J a p a n went o n t o t h e o f f e n s i v e a g a i n s t t h e two most a g g r e s s i v e i m p e r i a l i s t p o w e r s , B r i t a i n and R u s s i a , she wou ld be swamped. He hoped t h a t F r a n c e ' s i n s e c u r i t y i n E u r o p e wou ld l e a d h e r t o form an o f f e n s i v e a l l i a n c e w i t h Japan a g a i n s t t h e s e two p o w e r s . The a l l i a n c e w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s was d e f e n s i v e , m e r e l y d e s i g n e d t o s e c u r e A m e r i c a n n e u t r a l i t y . T h i s war " a g a i n s t t h o s e who u n f a i r l y m o n o p o l i s e l a r g e t e r r i t o r i e s , " was t o be waged by J a p a n no t m e r e l y " f o r t h e s a k e o f i t s own s e l f d e f e n c e , " bu t " t o p r o t e c t o t h e r n a t i o n s and p e o p l e s who have been o p p r e s s e d by u n j u s t p o w e r s . " K i t a ' s t h e o r y o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s was the r e s u l t o f h i s b l e n d i n g a r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i n e v i t a b i l i t y o f power p o l i t i c s i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l w o r l d , w i t h a b e l i e f t h a t t h i s w o r l d was c a p a b l e o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and s h o u l d be t h e s u b j e c t o f m o r a l c r i t i c i s m . H a s h i k a w a Bunzo w r i t e s t h a t K i t a ' s i n t e r n a t i o n a l programme was " b a s e d on an u n p a r a l l e l l e d and c o l d r e c o g n i t i o n o f power p o l i t i c s and S t a a t s r a s o n , " as w e l l a s " e l e m e n t s o f t r a n s c e n d e n t a l p r o p h e s y -108 i n g and m y s t i c a l w o r l d - i n t u i t i o n . " Bo th a r e i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d t o h i s a d v o c a c y o f w a r . K i t a r e c o g n i s e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f power p o l i t i c s i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s , and i n t h i s r e s p e c t h i s t h o u g h t was c l o s e t o t h a t o f t r a d i t i o n a l s t u d e n t s o f t h e s u b j e c t l i k e Hans M o r g e n t h a u . He c o u l d w e l l have w r i t t e n , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s , l i k e a l l p o l i t i c s , i s a s t r u g g l e f o r p o w e r . Wha teve r t h e u l t i m a t e a ims o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l - 34 -p o l i t i c s , power i s a l w a y s t h e i m m e d i a t e a i m . S t a t e s m e n and p e o p l e may u l t i m a t e l y seek F reedom, s e c u r i t y , p r o s p e r i t y , o r power i t s e l f . . . But whenever t h e y s t r i v e t o r e a l i s e t h e i r g o a l by means o f 109 i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s , t h e y do so by s t r i v i n g f o r p o w e r . " He i n f a c t w r o t e , " F o r e i g n p o l i c y o n l y f u n c t i o n s p r o p e r l y when i t p l a y s 110 o f f one b a r b a r i a n a g a i n s t t h e o t h e r . " A f u l l e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f power p o l i t i c s can be o b t a i n e d by l o o k i n g a t i t i n t he l i g h t o f t h o s e themes i n h i s t h o u g h t w h i c h l e d t o h i s c r i t i q u e o f t h e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y , n a m e l y , h i s t h e o r i e s o f s o c i a l e v o l u t i o n and c l a s s s t r u g g l e . A c c o r d i n g t o t he t h e o r y o f s o c i a l e v o l u t i o n , f e u d a l s o c i e t y wou ld g i v e way t o modern s o c i e t y a f t e r a phase o f s t r u g g l e . In i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s , a modern w o r l d f e d e r a t e d s o c i e t y w o u l d be u s h e r e d i n a f t e r a p h a s e o f s t a t e and r a c i a l s t r u g g l e . The n a t u r e o f t h i s s t r u g g l e , as w e l l as i t s p a r t i c i p a n t s , w i l l depend cn t h e s t a g e o f e v o l u t i o n each r a c e has a t t a i n e d d o m e s t i c a l l y . F i n a l l y , s t r u g g l e f o r s u r v i v a l w i l l g i v e way a s i t u a t i o n w h i c h w i l l make i t p o s s i b l e f o r a F e d e r a l C o n g r e s s t o s e t t l e d i f f e r e n c e s p e a c e f u l l y , l i t so t h a t war wou ld no l o n g e r be n e c e s s a r y . F o r t h e moment, war i s t h e s o l e means o f s e t t l i n g d i f f e r e n c e s . I t i s a l s o t h e p r e s e n t means o f p r o m o t i n g s o c i a l e v o l u t i o n i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l s o c i e t y . K i t a was t o t a l l y opposed t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , w h i c h was c o n t r o l l e d by c e r t a i n powers and w h i c h , by o b s t r u c t i n g t h e s t r u g g l e f o r s u r -v i v a l , was w o r k i n g a g a i n s t s o c i a l e v o l u t i o n . A W o r l d F e d e r a t i o n l i k e t h e League o f N a t i o n s w o u l d become f e a s i b l e o n l y a f t e r - 35 -d e m o c r a t i c s o c i a l i s t s h e l d power i n e v e r y s t a t e . U n t i l t h e n t he a d v o c a c y o f war was p r o g r e s s i v e . I m p e r i a l i s m t h e r e f o r e , was a means t o t h e r e a l i s a t i o n o f s o c i a l i s m . K i t a w r o t e , " I f s o c i a l i s m i s i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e t h e o r y o f t h e s t r u g g l e f o r s u r v i v a l , i t i s t r u l y an u n s c i e n t i f i c u t o p i a . " ' ' ' ' ^ On a n o t h e r o c c a s i o n he w r o t e , "I a b s o l u t e l y i n s i s t on i m p e r i a l i s m f o r t h e s a k e o f s o c i a l i s m . To me, t h e advocacy o f i m p e r i a l i s m i s t h e p r e m i s e f o r t h e r e a l i s a t i o n o f s o c i a l i s m . I f I 114 d i d no t b e l i e v e i n s o c i a l i s m , I w o u l d no t i n s i s t on i m p e r i a l i s m . " A l t h o u g h i t seems c o n t r a d i c t o r y t o denounce f o r e i g n i m p e r i a l i s m but no t h i s own i m p e r i a l i s m , i t i s no more so t h a n M a r x ' s d e n u n c i a t i o n o f b o u r g e o i s o n s l a u g h t s on t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s but no t v i c e v e r s a . T h i s was t h e r e l e v a n c e o f K i t a ' s b a s i c i d e a o f t h e c l a s s s t r u g -g l e . He b e l i e v e d t h a t i n t h e p a s t , t h e c l a s s s t r u g g l e had t a k e n t h e form o f r e b e l l i o n s , a s s a s s i n a t i o n s , and s o o n , b e c a u s e t h e r e was no p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i s a t i o n t o c h a n n e l i t i n a l e s s v i o l e n t w a y . H o w e v e r , i n t h e more modern s t a t e , t he c l a s s s t r u g g l e was c a r r i e d ou t by means o f t h e b a l l o t . But t h e r e we re a l s o c l a s s e s i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l s o c i e t y , and t h e s e c l a s s e s c o n s i s t e d o f dom inan t and o p p r e s s e d n a t i o n s . K i t a had a l w a y s r e g a r d e d M a r x ' s two m a j o r w e a k n e s s e s h i s f a i l u r e t o p r o v i d e an a d e q u a t e t h e o r y o f t h e s t a t e , and h i s n e g l e c t o f t h e f a c t t h a t p e o p l e s ' l o y a l t y t o t h e i r n a t i o n i s a l w a y s s t r o n g e r t h a n t h e i r l o y a l t y t o t h e i r c l a s s . S i n c e t h e r e was no p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i s a t i o n i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l s o c i e t y t o c h a n n e l t h e s t r u g g l e b e -tween s t a t e s i n a p e a c e f u l way , t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o u n t e r p a r t o f - 36 -r e b e l l i o n s and a s s a s s i n a t i o n s , i . e . w a r , wou ld s e t t l e c o n f l i c t s among s t a t e s . As t h e s t a t e s t r u g g l e p r o c e e d e d , c l a s s i n i n t e r -n a t i o n a l s o c i e t y wou ld d i s a p p e a r . K i t a was u n a l t e r a b l y opposed t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l communism, w h i c h r e c o g n i s e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f c l a s s e s i n d o m e s t i c bu t no t i n t e r n a t i o n a l s o c i e t y . He i n s i s t e d on t h e e x i s -115 t e n c e o f " b o t h t h e s t a t e s t r u g g l e and t h e c l a s s s t r u g g l e . " When e a r l y s o c i a l i s t s l i k e K o t o k u S h u s u i , S a k a i T o s h i h i k o , and Ka tayama Sen opposed t h e R u s s o - J a p a n e s e , W a r , K i t a s e v e r e l y c r i t i c i s e d t h e m . He d i d n o t s e e much d i f f e r e n c e between t h e i r s o c i a l i s m and a n a r c h i s m , w h i c h c o m p l e t e l y d e n i e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e s t a t e . D u r i n g t h e p h a s e o f s t a t e s t r u g g l e s , " t h e f reedom o f t h e s t a t e s h o u l d n o t be r e s t r i c -t e d by any o t h e r s o v e r e i g n t y , bu t s h o u l d be g u a r a n t e e d a b s o l u t e l y . " ^ ^ He had no sympathy f o r Wes te rn s o c i a l i s m . "The f u n d a m e n t a l i d e a o f E u r o p e a n and A m e r i c a n s o c i a l i s m i s s e l f - c o n t r a d i c t o r y , b e c a u s e i t r e g a r d s a war o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r o l e t a r i a n s as an a g g r e s s i v e o r m i l i t a r i s t i c p o l i c y , w h i l e i t a p p r o v e s o f t h e s t r u g g l e o f p r o l e -t a r i a n s w i t h i n a c o u n t r y . " I n t e r w o v e n w i t h t h i s t h e o r y o f power p o l i t i c s was a m o r a l v i s i o n o f t h e w o r l d . In h i s " C h o k o k k a s h u g i no r o n r i t o s h i n r i " ( " T h e o r y and P s y c h o l o g y o f U l t r a - N a t i o n a l i s m " ) , Maruyama Masao w r o t e , "We a r e now i n a p o s i t i o n t o have a c l e a r e r and f u l l e r p i c t u r e o f t h e w o r l d f rom t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f J a p a n e s e u l t r a - n a t i o n a l i s m . W i t h i n Japan t he s t a n d a r d o f v a l u e s i s r e l a t i v e p r o x i m i t y t o t h e c e n t r a l e n t i t y ; by e x t e n d i n g t h i s l o g i c to c o v e r the e n t i r e w o r l d , t he u l t r a - n a t i o n a l i s t s engende red a p o l i c y o f ' c a u s i n g a l l t h e n a t i o n s t o occupy - 37 -t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p o s i t i o n s C v i s - a - v i s 3 J a p a n ' . J a p a n , ' t h e s u z e r a i n c o u n t r y * , p l a c e d each o t h e r c o u n t r y i n an o r d e r t h a t was based on s o c i a l s t a t u s . Once t h i s o r d e r was s e c u r e d t h e r e wou ld be p e a c e t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d . " I n such a scheme , where e v e r y t h i n g i s based on t h e i d e a o f an a b s o l u t e c e n t r a l e n t i t y , t h e r e i s no room f o r a c o n c e p t l i k e i n t e r n a t i o n a l l a w , w h i c h i s e q u a l l y b i n d i n g on a l l n a t i o n s . " 1 1 9 The d i f f i c u l t y , h o w e v e r , i s t h a t t h i s does n o t a p p l y t o K i t a I k k i , a l t h o u g h Maruyama t h o u g h t i t d i d . From a v e r y e a r l y a g e , K i t a had r e j e c t e d t h e dom inan t J a p a n e s e v a l u e s . H i s c r i t i q u e o f t h e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y was based on the d e n i a l o f an " a b s o l u t e c e n t r a l e n t i t y . " I t . was t h e r e f o r e no t p o s s i b l e f o r him t o e x t e n d t h i s l o g i c t o t h e r e s t o f t h e w o r l d . K i t a ' s a d v o c a c y o f m e a s u r e s l i k e a S i n o - J a p a n e s e a l l i a n c e has n o t i n g t o do w i t h t h e G r e a t e r A s i a n i s m o f u l t r a -n a t i o n a l i s t s l i k e Okawa S h u m e i . The l a t t e r d i d b e l i e v e i n t h e myth o f Hakko I c h i u ( E i g h t C o r n e r s o f t h e W o r l d u n d e r One R o o f ) , and e x t e n d e d t h e l o g i c o f t h e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l . . 120 s o c i e t y . T h i s does not mean t h a t t h e r e was no m o r a l b a s i s t o K i t a ' s t h o u g h t . On the c o n t r a r y , h i s i d e a s o f m o r a l i t y were r e v e a l e d i n h i s i n s i s t e n c e on t h e j u s t i c e s e e k i n g n a t u r e o f J a p a n e s e i m p e r i a l i s m , and h i s b e l i e f t h a t J a p a n ' s m i s s i o n was to p r o t e c t A s i a f rom W e s t e r n i m p e r i a l i s m . K i t a had s a i d t h a t i n a komin k o k k a , f o l l o w i n g t h e c o m p l e t e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e c l a s s s t r u g g l e , t h e r e w o u l d be j u s t i c e i n a l l w a l k s o f l i f e , and t h e e r a o f s o c i a l democracy w i l l have b e g u n . T h i s i s 121 t h e l o g i c he e x t e n d e d t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l s o c i e t y . U n t i l t he s t a t e - 38 -s t r u g g l e had run i t s f u l l c o u r s e , t h e r e wou ld be no j u s t i c e i n t h e r e l a t i o n s among s t a t e s . He w r o t e , " T h e p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n i s d e -/ f i n i t e l y u n j u s t . . . E n g l a n d i s t h e m u l t i - m i l l i o n a i r e s t a n d i n g o v e r t h e who le w o r l d . R u s s i a i s t h e g r e a t l a n d l o r d o f t h e n o r t h e r n h e m i s p h e r e . J a p a n i s i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r o l e -t a r i a t , w i t h o n l y a s t r i n g o f s m a l l i s l a n d s as h e r b o u n d a r i e s . S u r e l y J a p a n h a s t h e r i g h t , i n t h e name o f j u s t i c e , t o go t o war and s e i z e t h e i r m o n o p o l y . " ' ' 2 2 A m e r i c a n e c o n o m i c e x p a n s i o n was n o t a j u s t i c e s e e k i n g i m p e r i a l i s m . Nor was t h e R u s s i a n a n n e x a t i o n o f M a n c h u r i a and K o r e a . B r i t a i n ' s e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t i e s i n I n d i a and C h i n a had n o t h i n g t o do w i t h j u s t i c e . Bu t i f Japan a t t a c k e d t h e s e powers i n o r d e r t o b r i n g abou t j u s t i c e , she wou ld n o t be m o r a l l y c u l p a b l e . K i t a d i d no t b e l i e v e t h e r e t o be a p u r e l y m o r a l way o f d e a l i n g w i t h i m p e r i a l i s m , b e c a u s e , as he s a i d , " i m p e r i a l i s m d i s r e g a r d s m o r a l i t y . " H e n c e , "one s h o u l d n o t r e s p o n d t o i m p e r i a l i s m w i t h 193 — m o r a l i t y . " K i t a had c r i t i c i s e d U c h i m u r a K a n z o , a C h r i s t i a n d e m o c r a t , f o r o p p o s i n g t h e R u s s o - J a p a n e s e War on g rounds o f human ism, a f t e r he had s u p p o r t e d t h e S i n o - J a p a n e s e W a r . K i t a s a i d , " T h e j u s t i c e o f o n e ' s c a u s e s h o u l d n o t depend on w h e t h e r o n e ' s o p p o n e n t s a r e C h i n e s e o r R u s s i a n . The p r e c e p t s o f humanism s h o u l d no t change o v e r t h e s h o r t p e r i o d o f f i v e o r s i x y e a r s . I w i l l have 124 n o t h i n g t o do w i t h s u c h j u s t i c e and h u m a n i s m . " The p o i n t i s t h a t K i t a d i d no t s e e a p u r e l y m o r a l way o f d e a l i n g w i t h i m p e r i a l i s m . J u s t i c e and m o r a l i t y c o u l d o n l y be i n f a l l i b l e g u i d e s t o s t a t e s i n - 39 -t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l w o r l d a f t e r t h e s t a t e s t r u g g l e had a b o l i s h e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l o p p r e s s o r s . T h i s was why K i t a was a l s o c r i t i c a l o f 125 T o l s t o i ' s p a c i f i s m . A s e c o n d m o r a l p u r p o s e b e h i n d K i t a ' s a d v o c a c y o f war was t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f o t h e r A s i a n c o u n t r i e s f rom W e s t e r n i m p e r i a l i s m . He saw t h a t J a p a n , I n d i a , and C h i n a were i n t h e f o r e f r o n t o f t h e e a s t - w e s t c o n f r o n t a t i o n . I n d i a had a l r e a d y been c o l o n i s e d , C h i n a was s e m i - c o l o n i s e d , and J a p a n was s u r r o u n d e d by i m p e r i a l i s t s on a l l s i d e s , R u s s i a i n t h e n o r t h , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n t he e a s t , and 126 B r i t a i n , F r a n c e , and Germany i n t h e s o u t h . One o f t h e f i r s t s t e p s t o w a r d s s o c i a l democ racy was t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f a komin k o k k a , s o m e t h i n g w h i c h Japan had a l r e a d y a c h i e v e d w i t h the M e i j i R e s t o r a -t i o n . I n d i a and C h i n a , h o w e v e r , were f i n d i n g i t w e l l n i g h i m p o s s i b l e t o r e a c h t h i s p r e l i m i n a r y s t a g e i n t h e f a c e o f W e s t e r n i m p e r i a l i s m . They t h e r e f o r e needed h e l p i n o v e r c o m i n g t h e i r m a j o r o b s t a c l e , h e l p w h i c h J a p a n a l o n e was i n a p o s i t i o n t o p r o v i d e . K i t a w r o t e , " W h e t h e r C h i n a w i l l f o l l o w Japan and d e v e l o p h e r s e l f , or f o l l o w F r a n c e and c o l l a p s e a f t e r h e r r e v o l u t i o n , i s e n t i r e l y dependen t on 127 t h e c h o i c e s J a p a n m a k e s . " J a p a n s h o u l d s a v e C h i n a f rom c o l l a p s e by r e m o v i n g t h e c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n a r y f o r c e s t h a t were p a r a l y s i n g h e r . K i t a was no t unaware o f t h e d a n g e r t o t h e C h i n e s e o f a c c e p -t i n g f o r e i g n a s s i s t a n c e . Remember ing t h a t t h e F r e n c h P e e r a g e had 128 i n v i t e d i n t e r v e n t i o n by a c c e p t i n g f o r e i g n h e l p , he warned t h e J a p a n e s e p o l i c y makers no t t o s u p p o r t t h e C h i n e s e r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s o v e r t l y - 40 -K i t a ' s t h e o r i e s o f s o c i a l e v o l u t i o n and c l a s s s t r u g g l e t a u g h t h im t h a t naked power was t h e most i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s . H i s m o r a l i n t e g r i t y d i d n o t , h o w e v e r , a l l o w him t o r e m a i n c o n t e n t w i t h t h i s . B e l i e v i n g t h a t t h e s t r u g g l e f o r power was o n l y a phase i n t h e e v o l u t i o n o f w o r l d s o c i e t y t o g r e a t e r j u s t i c e , he found i t i m p e r a t i v e t o i d e n t i f y p r o g r e s s i v e s t r u g g l e s f rom r e a c t i o n a r y o n e s . P r o g r e s s i v e o n e s , n a m e l y , t h o s e waged by t h e o p p r e s s e d n a t i o n s , w o u l d n o t be m o r a l l y c u l p a b l e . On t h e c o n t r a r y , b e c a u s e t h e y wou ld work f o r t h e a b o l i t i o n o f c l a s s e s i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l s o c i e t y , t h e y were p o s i t i v e l y t o be u n d e r t a k e n . K i t a a d v o c a t e d war no t as a G r e a t e r A s i a n u l t r a - n a t i o n a l i s t , but as a champ ion o f t h e A s i a n p r o l e t a r i a t , who had come t o s e e t h a t d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n w e a l t h and power be tween n a t i o n s were f a r g r e a t e r t h a n t h o s e w i t h i n n a t i o n s , and t h a t l o y a l t y t o n a t i o n was s t i l l much s t r o n g e r t h a n l o y a l t y t o c l a s s . I V . CONCLUSION The b a s i s o f K i t a I k k i ' s c r i t i q u e o f t he n a t i o n a l p o l i t y and h i s a d v o c a c y o f war was h i s b e l i e f i n " p u r e s o c i a l i s m , " j u s t i c e i n a l l w a l k s o f l i f e t o be a c h i e v e d a f t e r a p e r i o d o f s t r u g g l e a t home and a b r o a d , a s t r u g g l e t h a t a s t r o n g s t a t e a l o n e c o u l d a d e -q u a t e l y p u r s u e . A l t h o u g h he b o r r o w e d t h e f o r e i g n i d e a s o f s o c i a l e v o l u t i o n and c l a s s s t r u g g l e , h i s t h e o r y i n c l u d e d e l e m e n t s t h a t o n l y someone who had l i v e d i n an e c o n o m i c a l l y o p p r e s s e d c o u n t r y i n t h e age o f i m p e r i a l i s m c o u l d have d e v e l o p e d . K i t a , l i k e l e a d e r s i n t h e " T h i r d W o r l d " t o d a y , a p p r e c i a t e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f k o k k a s h u q i ( n a t i o n a l i s m ) , w h i c h a d v o c a t e s t he t h e o r y o f s o c i a l e v o l u t i o n , l i k e Oka A s a j i r o , and t h e c l a s s s t r u g g l e , l i k e K o t o k u S h u s u i , e n t i r e l y i g n o r e d . More l i k e P l a t o , K i t a b e l i e v e d i n a s t r o n g s t a t e t h a t s h o u l d u n d e r t a k e t he p u r s u i t o f j u s t i c e , n o t by a l l o w i n g a t o t a l c l a s s w a r , w h i c h c o u l d t e a r s o c i e t y a p a r t and deny m a n ' s e s s e n t i a l l y s o c i a l n a t u r e , bu t by u n d e r m i n i n g t h e c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h c r e a t e c l a s s e s . K i t a ' s c r i t i q u e o f t h e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y was an o b j e c t i v e a n a -l y s i s o f J a p a n e s e h i s t o r y , w h i c h he i n t e r p r e t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e t h e o r i e s o f s o c i a l e v o l u t i o n and c l a s s s t r u g g l e . He i n s i s t e d t h a t a f t e r t h e M e i j i R e s t o r a t i o n t h e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y had become a kom in  k o k k a , and t h a t s o v e r e i g n t y b e l o n g e d n e i t h e r t o t h e emperor n o r t h e p e o p l e , bu t t o t h e s t a t e , on w h i c h a l l were dependen t f o r t h e i r r i g h t s and d u t i e s . R e c o g n i s i n g t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e s y s t e m - 42 -o f government and t he n a t i o n a l p o l i t y , he h e l d t h a t t h e emperor c o u l d o n l y be one o f t he o r g a n s o f t h e s t a t e . W h i l e h i s t h e o r y o f " p u r e s o c i a l i s m " r e c o g n i s e d t h e need f o r a p e r i o d o f l i m i t e d c l a s s s t r u g g l e b e f o r e t h e r e c o u l d be j u s t i c e i n a l l w a l k s o f l i f e w i t h i n t h e J a p a n e s e i s l a n d s , when e x t e n d e d t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l s o c i e t y , i t made few p r o v i s i o n s f o r t h e l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e s t a t e s t r u g g l e . The re was no t y e t a s o v e r e i g n w o r l d s t a t e , w h i c h c o u l d r e g u l a t e t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t a t e s t r u g g l e i n a way t h a t p romoted i n t e r n a t i o n a l j u s t i c e . A t t e m p t s t o s e t up s u c h an a u t h o -r i t y m e r e l y r e s u l t e d i n one o r o t h e r o f t he powers u s i n g i t t o p romote t h e i r own i m p e r i a l i s m . The o n l y l i m i t a t i o n on t h e s t a t e s t r u g g l e wou ld be each c o u n t r y ' s judgement o f what was r e q u i r e d t o e n s u r e i t s own s u r v i v a l . K i t a d i d n o t , h o w e v e r , b e l i e v e t he s t a t e s t r u g g l e t o be e n t i r e l y d e v o i d o f m o r a l p u r p o s e s . J u s t as t h e f o r c e a p p l i e d by t h e b o u r g e o i s i e i s n o t i m m o r a l l y r e s i s t e d by the f o r c e o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s , an exchange t h a t c o u l d l e a d t o d o m e s t i c j u s t i c e , t he i m p e r i a l i s m o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r o l e t a r i a t , when d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t t he i n t e r n a t i o n a l l a n d l o r d s f o r t h e s a k e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l j u s t i c e , was no t m o r a l l y w r o n g . K i t a ' s s t a t e s t r u g g l e had n o t h i n g t o do w i t h t h e G r e a t e r A s i a n i s m o f u l t r a - n a t i o n a l i s t s , even t hough b o t h a d v o c a t e d t e r r i t o r i a l e x p a n s i o n . K i t a c o n t i n u a l l y p r e s e r v e d t h e l i n k between h i s c r i t i q u e o f t h e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y and h i s a d v o c a c y o f w a r . The d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f J a p a n ' s p o s i t i o n i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t r u g g l e f o r s u r v i v a l , made - 43 -a t a c t i c a l change on t h e d o m e s t i c s c e n e n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e i m p l e -m e n t a t i o n o f t h e r e q u i r e d r a d i c a l i s a t i o n o f t h e n a t i o n ' s f o r e i g n p o l i c y . A r e v o l u t i o n i n f o r e i g n p o l i c y r e q u i r e d a s t r o n g e r s t a t e t h a n had been g r a d u a l l y e v o l v i n g . The c r i s i s demanded t h e r e p l a c e -ment o f t h e b a l l o t by a coup d ' e t a t . C o n t i n u e d r e l i a n c e on t h e b a l l o t wou ld e x c e s s i v e l y weaken t h e s t a t e , t o t h e a d v a n t a g e o f t he W e s t e r n i m p e r i a l i s t s . The new means d i d n o t come i n t o c o n f l i c t w i t h any o f K i t a ' s b a s i c i d e a s . The c l a s s s t r u g g l e f o r " p u r e s o c i a l i s m " had t o be c a r r i e d ou t f rom a b o v e , t h a t i s , t h e g o v e r n -ment l e v e l . And b e l i e v i n g t h a t t h e M e i j i R e s t o r a t i o n had accom-p l i s h e d a l e g a l r e v o l u t i o n , he c o u l d e a s i l y a d v o c a t e s e i z u r e o f e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s by more p a t r i o t i c m e n . I t wou ld be u n f o r t u n a t e i f t h e " p o s i t i v e " a s p e c t s o f K i t a ' s t h o u g h t , name ly h i s c r i t i q u e o f t h e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y , were i g n o r e d b e c a u s e t h e i m p e c c a b i l i t y o f h i s l o g i c t i e s them t o o c l o s e l y t o t he " n e g a t i v e " a s p e c t s . E q u a l l y u n f o r t u n a t e wou ld be t o m i s s t h e " p o s i t i v e " a s p e c t s o f t h e s e " n e g a t i v e " a s p e c t s . K i t a has p o i n t e d ou t a s e r i o u s c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n W e s t e r n s o c i a l i s t t h o u g h t , n a m e l y , between t h e a d v o c a c y o f c l a s s war and t h e d e n i a l o f s t a t e w a r . I n s t e a d o f r e g a r d i n g n a t i o n a l i s m and s o c i a l i s m as a n t a g o n i s t i c , K i t a comb ined them i n a way l i k e l y t o a p p e a l t o any champ ion o f j u s t i c e f o r t h e " T h i r d W o r l d . " B e c a u s e K i t a ' s c r i t i q u e o f t h e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y and h i s a d v o c a c y o f war were no t m e r e l y c l o s e l y l i n k e d i n h i s own t h o u g h t , bu t by i m p e c c a b l e l o g i c , h i s i d e a s c a n n o t be s e p a r a t e d i n t o " p o s i t i v e " and " n e g a t i v e " a s p e c t s w i t h o u t doing them great injustice. - 45 V . EPILOGUE R e a d e r s u n a c q u a i n t e d w i t h e v e n t s i n Japan d u r i n g t hB 1 9 3 0 ' s may f i n d a s t a t e m e n t on t h e way K i t a ' s i d e a s d i f f e r e d f rom t h o s e o f c o n t e m p o r a r y f a s c i s t s , w h e t h e r J a p a n e s e o r E u r o p e a n , a h e l p f u l way o f c a t e g o r i s i n g h i s t h o u g h t . W h i l e a g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d l i s t o f n e c e s s a r y and s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n s o f f a s c i s m d o e s n ' t e x i s t , t h e f o l l o w i n g f i v e t e n d e n c i e s a re p r o b a b l y as c l o s e as one can ge t t o a s e t o f d e f i n i t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . F i r s t l y , f a s c i s t s e v e r y w h e r e deny t h e e x i s t e n c e o f c l a s s e s , and a d v o c a t e t h e v i g o r o u s s u p p r e s s i o n o f t h o s e who s u p p o r t t h e c l a s s s t r u g g l e . S e c o n d l y , f a s c i s m c a l l s f o r t h e permanent i n s t i t u t i o n o f an a u t h o r i t a r i a n form o f g o v e r n m e n t , u s u a l l y u n d e r t h e a b s o l u t e c o n t r o l o f a s i n g l e c h a r a s m a t i c l e a d e r . T h i r d l y , f a s c i s t s u p h o l d r a c i a l and n a t i o n a l my ths o f a k i n d w h i c h e x c l u d e r e l i g i o u s o r e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s f rom t h e n a t i o n c o n c e p t . F o u r t h l y , f a s c i s t s a d v o c a t e t e r r i t o r i a l e x p a n s i o n by means o f w a r , i n o r d e r t o a c q u i r e Lebens raum and t o a s s e r t t h e v i r i l i t y o f t h e m a s t e r r a c e . F i f t h l y , f o r f a s c i s t s , v i o l e n c e , w h e t h e r d o m e s t i c o r i n t e r -n a t i o n a l , i s no t s i m p l y a means t o a p o l i t i c a l e n d , bu t i s p o s i t i -v e l y e n c o u r a g e d as an end i n i t s e l f , as t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e v i r t u e o f v i r i l i t y . E s s e n t i a l l y , f a s c i s m h a s been a r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t g r o w i n g - 46 -p r o l e t a r i a n c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s , and has been t h e most r a d i c a l form o f c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n i n t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , no t m e r e l y d e n y i n g t h e e x i s t e n c e o f c l a s s e s , bu t u n d e r t a k i n g t o smash a l l c l a s s c o n s c i o u s mass movements , u s u a l l y by v i o l e n t m e a n s . In I t a l y , f a s c i s m was a r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e g r o w i n g s t r e n g t h o f t h e S o c i a l i s t P a r t y , w h i l e German N a z i s m was a movement a g a i n s t t h e S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c and Communist p a r t i e s . In b o t h c a s e s , f a s c i s m had a mass base w h i c h was u s e d t o e x t e n d i t s p o w e r . B e c a u s e t h e r e was v e r y l i t t l e c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n J a p a n , f a s c i s t s t r i e d t o c r e a t e t e n s i o n by f a b r i -c a t i n g t h r e a t s o f r e v o l u t i o n , bu t were u n a b l e t o m o b i l i s e more t h a n a few e l i t e g r o u p s . They t h e r e f o r e t r i e d t o s p r e a d t h e i r i n f l u e n c e f rom above by g a i n i n g c o n t r o l o f t h e s t a t e , r a t h e r t han f rom be low 130 by m o b i l i s i n g mass s u p p o r t . F a s c i s t s i n a l l t h r e e c o u n t r i e s , h o w e v e r , u s e d t he t h r e a t o f f o r e i g n i n v a s i o n , r e a l o r i m a g i n a r y , t o j u s t i f y t h e s u p p r e s s i o n o f c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s , w h i c h , by d i v i d i n g t h e f a t h e r l a n d , was s u p p o s e d t o make i t more v u l n e r a b l e t o f o r e i g n c o n q u e s t . They a d v o c a t e d f o r e i g n w a r s i n o r d e r t o p l a y down t h e d o m e s t i c c l a s s s t r u g g l e , c l a i m i n g t h a t t h e o n l y i m p o r t a n t c l a s s s t r u g g l e was between n a t i o n s . W h i l e K i t a I k k i n e v e r wan ted t o t a l c l a s s w a r , he d i d no t a d v o -c a t e t h e s u p p r e s s i o n o f c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s o r t h e d o m e s t i c c l a s s s t r u g g l e . Nor d i d he r e g a r d t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l c l a s s s t r u g g l e as a means o f d i v e r t i n g a t t e n t i o n f rom the d o m e s t i c o n e D Bo th were t o be p u r s u e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , w i t h e q u a l v i g o u r . The d o m e s t i c e q u i v a -l e n t o f war was u n n e c e s s a r y , n o t b e c a u s e t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t r u g g l e - 4? -was more i m p o r t a n t , bu t b e c a u s e t h e M e i j i R e v o l u t i o n had done much t o a b o l i s h t h e c o n d i t i o n s t h a t c r e a t e d c l a s s e s . A l l t h a t was r e -q u i r e d was an economic r e v o l u t i o n , w h i c h c o u l d be a c c o m p l i s h e d f rom above by t h e e x i s t i n g s t a t e a p p a r a t u s . A coup d ' e t a t wou ld s u f f i c e , m a k i n g t o t a l c l a s s war u n n e c e s s a r y . B e c a u s e K i t a n e i t h e r d e n i e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f c l a s s e s , n o r a d v o c a t e d t h e s u p p r e s s i o n o f c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s , n o r even r e g a r d e d t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l c l a s s s t r u g g l e as more b a s i c t h a n t h e d o m e s t i c o n e , he can h a r d l y be c o n s i d e r e d t o have s h a r e d t h i s most e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f f a s c i s m . A c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n a r y phenomenon, f a s c i s m has s o u g h t t he permanent e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a u t h o r i t a r i a n government o v e r a p e r m a n e n t -l y h i e r a r c h i c a l s o c i e t y . H i t l e r and M u s s o l i n i , e n c o u r a g e d by t h e i r f o l l o w e r s , were u n a l t e r a b l y opposed to any change i n t h e i r own commanding p o s i t i o n o v e r a r i g i d l y s t r a t i f i e d s o c i e t y , J a p a n e s e f a s c i s t s t o any change i n t h e Empero r s y s t e m and n a t i o n a l p o l i t y . K i t a I k k i , h o w e v e r , a d v o c a t e d an a u t h o r i t a r i a n form o f g o v e r n -men t , no t m e r e l y f o r a l i m i t e d p e r i o d o n l y , bu t i n o r d e r to b r i n g abou t s o c i a l c h a n g e s , l i k e t h e a b o l i t i o n o f an h i e r a r c h i c a l s o c i e t y and i t s i d e o l o g y o f t h e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y . H i s aim was t o c o m p l e t e t h e s o c i a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n d u r i n g the t h r e e y e a r s o f a u t h o r i t a r i a n g o v e r n m e n t , a f t e r w h i c h t h e Empero r s y s t e m i t s e l f wou ld w i t h e r 131 away . The t e m p o r a r y s u s p e n s i o n o f t h e D i e t i n v o l v e d no d e p a r -t u r e from h i s l i f e - l o n g b e l i e f i n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e g o v e r n m e n t . I t i s h a r d l y s t r a n g e t h a t a r e a c t i o n a r y movement w i t h b a c k w a r d l o o k i n g i d e a l s o f s o c i e t y and p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y s h o u l d u p h o l d - 48 -e x c l u s i v e r a c i a l and n a t i o n a l my ths t o d e m o n s t r a t e h i s t o r i c a l l y t h e d e v e l o p m e n t t o s u p e r i o r i t y o f t h e " m a s t e r r a c e . " O n l y t h e t r a d i -t i o n a l r a c i a l t o l e r a n c e o f t h e I t a l i a n p e o p l e p r e v e n t e d M u s s o l i n i f rom e m u l a t i n g H i t l e r ' s " f i n a l s o l u t i o n " f o r t h o s e who d i d n ' t b e l o n g t o t h e German " m a s t e r r a c e . " The a b s e n c e o f r e l i g i o u s and e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s i n Japan d i d t h e same i n t h a t c o u n t r y , a l t h o u g h t h i s d o e s n ' t mean t h a t J a p a n e s e f a s c i s t s d i d n ' t u p h o l d n a t i o n a l m y t h s . M y t h s l i k e B a n k e i I s s e i and HakkC I c h i u were u s e d t o c o n s o l i d a t e t h e Emperor s y s t e m and n a t i o n a l p o l i t y by r o m a n t i c s s u c h as Hoda 132 Y o j u r o , and p h i l o s o p h e r s o f t h e K y o t o s c h o o l s u c h as K o s a k a M a s a a k i . K i t a I k k i n e v e r had any sympathy w h a t s o e v e r f o r t h i s c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c o f f a s c i s m . H i s c r i t i q u e o f t h e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y began w i t h t h e c o m p l e t e r e j e c t i o n o f J a p a n e s e n a t i o n a l m y t h s , and he a l w a y s i n s i s t e d t h a t K o r e a n s s h o u l d have t h e same r i g h t s and d u t i e s 133 as J a p a n e s e . War was t h e means by w h i c h t h e " m a s t e r r a c e " was to a c q u i r e Lebens raum ( L i v i n g s p a c e ) f rom t h e i n f e r i o r r a c e s , a l t h o u g h t h i s was u s u a l l y p r e s e n t e d i n l e s s o b j e c t i o n a b l e t e r m s , f o r e x a m p l e , as " a s t r u g g l e between a p r o l e t a r i a n r a c e and t h e p l u t o c r a t i c demo-134 c r a c i e s . " H i t l e r f r e q u e n t l y pu t i t t h i s way , " A c c o r d i n g t o common s e n s e , l o g i c , and a l l t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f human and o f h i g h e r j u s t i c e , n a y , even a c c o r d i n g t o t h e l a w s o f a O i v i n e w i l l , a l l n a t i o n s ought t o have an e q u a l s h a r e i n the goods o f t h i s w o r l d . I t s h o u l d no t be t h e c a s e t h a t one n a t i o n c l a i m s so much l i v i n g - 49 -s p a c e . " J a p a n e s e f a s c i s t s s p o k e o f a S e i m e i s e n ( L i v i n g l i n e ) w h i c h r e q u i r e d t h e J a p a n e s e o c c u p a t i o n o f M o n g o l i a , M a n c h u r i a , and K o r e a . The c o n c e p t o f G r e a t e r A s i a n i s m was t h e r e s u l t o f e x t e n d i n g t h i s i d e a t o C h i n a and S o u t h E a s t A s i a . O n l y t h e J a p a n e s e " m a s t e r r a c 8 " c o u l d e m a n c i p a t e t h e A s i a n p e o p l e . Okawa Shumei w r o t e , " I t i s my b e l i e f t h a t Heaven has d e c i d e d on J a p a n es i t s c h o i c e f o r 1 36 t h e champ ion o f t h e E a s t . " And J a p a n e s e f a s c i s t s spoke o f a G r e a t e r E a s t A s i a n C o - P r o s p e r i t y S p h e r e , " T h e J a p a n e s e e m p i r e i s a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f m o r a l i t y and i t s s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s t h e p r o p a g a t i o n o f t h e I m p e r i a l W a r . I t s t r i v e s bu t f o r t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f Hakko  I c h i u , t h e s p i r i t o f i t s f o u n d i n g . . . I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o f o s t e r t h e i n c r e a s e d power o f t h e e m p i r e , t o c a u s e E a s t A s i a to r e t u r n t o i t s o r i g i n a l form o f i n d e p e n d e n c e and c o - p r o s p e r i t y by s h a k i n g o f f t h e yoke o f E u r o p e and A m e r i c a , and t o l e t i t s c o u n t r i e s 8nd p e o p l e s d e v e l o p t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e a b i l i t i e s i n p e a c e f u l c o o p e r a t i o n and s e c u r e l i v e l i h o o d . " 1 3 7 K i t a I k k i a d v o c a t e d t h e c o n q u e s t o f B r i t i s h and R u s s i a n c o l o n i e s a l o n e , n a m e l y , E a s t e r n S i b e r i a , Hong K o n g , S i n g a p o r e , A u s t r a l i a , and New Z e a l a n d . He c o n s i s t e n l y opposed moves t h a t i n v o l v e d a l o s s o f C h i n e s e s o v e r e i g n t y t o J a p a n , and c o m p l e t e l y r e j e c t e d t h e e x t e n s i o n o f t he J a p a n e s e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y ' s v a l u e s y s t e m t o o t h e r A s i a n c o u n t r i e s . He d i d b e l i e v e t h a t J a p a n had a m i s s i o n , bu t t h i s was no t b e c a u s e she was a d i v i n e n a t i o n , bu t b e c a u s e t h e M e i j i R e s t o r a t i o n had e n a b l e d h e r t o d e v e l o p t o a p o s i t i o n o f power and l e a d e r s h i p . J a p a n ' s m i s s i o n was t o weaken t h e W e s t e r n i m p e r i a l i s t s so t h a t t h e A s i a n c o u n t r i e s c o u l d be f r e e f rom c o l o n i a l d o m i n a t i o n . W i t h o u t d e c o l o n i s a t i o n , t h e r e c o u l d be - 50 -no s o c i a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n i n A s i a . Storm t r o o p s , e s p i o n a g e , a s s a s s i n a t i o n , i n t i m i d a t i o n , t e r r o r -b o m b i n g , m a s s - m u r d e r , and so o n , a r e n o t s i m p l y t h e means by w h i c h f a s c i s t s g a i n t h e i r e n d s , bu t t e n d to become ends i n t h e m s e l v e s , ways i n w h i c h t h e m a s t e r r a c e a s s e r t s i t s v i r i l i t y , t h e supreme v i r t u e . The u s e o f v i o l e n c e by N a z i s and I t a l i a n f a s c i s t s , as w e l l as J a p a n e s e m i l i t a r i s t s , became i n s e p a r a b l e f rom t h e f a s c i s t move-ments i n t h e s e c o u n t r i e s . I t has become i n s e p a r a b l e f rom A m e r i c a n a c t i v i t i e s i n V i e t n a m . A l t h o u g h K i t a I k k i a d v o c a t e d a coup d ' e t a t , he d i d no t b e l i e v e t h a t v i o l e n c e w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y f o r i t s s u c c e s s . D e m o c r a t i c s o c i a l i s m was to be r e a l i s e d by means o f t h e E m p e r o r ' s l e g a l p r e r o -g a t i v e s , no t by f o r c e . O n l y i n f o r e i g n a f f a i r s d i d K i t a b e l i e v e t h a t v i o l e n c e was u n a v o i d a b l e , f o r t h e W e s t e r n i m p e r i a l i s t s wou ld no t w i l l i n g l y g i v e up t h e i r c o n t r o l o v e r t h e A s i a n p e o p l e s . Bu t even h e r e v i o l e n c e was v e r y much a t e m p o r a r y e x p e d i e n t . The re i s n o t h i n g i n K i t a ' s w r i t i n g s t o s u g g e s t t h a t v i o l e n c e p l a y e d even as g r e a t a p a r t i n h i s t h o u g h t as i t d i d i n t h a t o f F r a n z Fanon<> A l t h o u g h t h e above a n a l y s i s shows how f a r K i t a I k k i was f rom f a s c i s m , h i s a l l e g e d i n s p i r a t i o n o f and i m p l i c a t i o n i n t h e 138 F e b r u a r y 26 A f f a i r on t h e one h a n d , and t h e i n f l u e n c e o f s c h o l a r s l i k e fflaruyama |Y|asao who l a b e l l e d h im a f a s c i s t s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e war on t h e o t h e r , have comb ined t o p r e s e r v e t h e l i n k be tween him and J a p a n e s e f a s c i s m . I t i s now common k n o w l e d g e t h a t K i t a and t h e young o f f i c e r s who took p a r t i n t h e F e b r u a r y 26 A f f a i r - 51 -had l i t t l e i n common. But t h a t there are s e r i o u s flams i n Maruyama's arguments i s not g e n e r a l l y recognised. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to see why h i s three c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Japanese fascism should be d e f i n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s at a l l . Familism, agrarianism, and Pan-Asianism are n e i t h e r necessary nor s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n s of f a s -cism. On the c o n t r a r y , they are f r e q u e n t l y used as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s o c i a l i s m i n the Third World, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n present day A f r i c a . Maruyama's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are too general to describe s p e c i f i c a l l y what Japanese fascism was, or to demonstrate when i t began and 139 ended. Even so, there i s l i t t l e i n K i t a ' s w r i t i n g s to l i n k him w i t h these three c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . He hardly mentioned the family sys-tem, which played no part i n h i s concept of the n a t i o n . Nor d i d he ever advocate agrarianism, but i n s t e a d wanted the c a p i t a l i s t economy c o n t r o l l e d by the s t a t e . While he d i d advocate an a l l i a n c e with China against Western i m p e r i a l i s m f o r the sake of the l i b e r a -t i o n of the Asian peoples from c o l o n i a l i s m , he never spoke of Pan-Asianism or of extending the Japanese value system to other peoples. Even on h i s own c r i t e r i a of f a s c i s m , Maruyama i s i n e r r o r i n c a l l i n g K i t a the " i d e o l o g i c a l f a t h e r of Japanese fascism." I f K i t a was i n no sense a f a s c i s t , there i s no danger of a f a s c i s t r e v i v a l through the i d e o l o g i c a l a l l i a n c e between K i t a and the present new l e f t i n Japan, the b a s i s of which i s a common c r i t i c i s m of the "Great Japanese Empire" and the " n a t i o n a l p o l i t y . " The new l e f t must, however, face up to the problem of K i t a ' s advocacy of war, 52 -p a r t i c u l a r l y of t e r r i t o r i a l expansion i n t o other c o u n t r i e s . The fa c t that the Japanese c o n s t i t u t i o n p r o h i b i t s t e r r i t o r i a l expansion i s no way out, although the f a c t t h a t Western i m p e r i a l i s m no longer attempts d i r e c t p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l over i t s c o l o n i e s i s a p a r t i a l one. The only honest t h i n g to do i s recognise K i t a ' s e r r o r i n d i s m i s s i n g the sovereign r i g h t s of the peoples i n t o whose lands he had advocated t e r r i t o r i a l expansion, be they S i b e r i a n s , E n g l i s h , A u s t r a l i a n s , New Zealanders, or Chinese. K i t a ' s intense hatred of Western i m p e r i a l i s m made him unable to appreciate that Westerners, j u s t l i k e Asians, should not be made to l i v e under any k i n d of i m p e r i a l i s m . A r e v i v a l of Japanese i m p e r i a l i s m i s t h e r e f o r e no answer to present day American i m p e r i a l i s m . - 53 -NOTES The f o l l o w i n g a b b r e v i a t i o n i s u s e d i n t h e n o t e s : KIC : K i t a I k k i , K i t a I k k i c h o s a k u s h u , 3 v o l s ( T o k y o : M i s u z u S h o b o , 1 9 5 9 - 1 9 7 2 ) . 1 See Yamada Munemutsu , K i k e n na s h i s o k a : sen go m i n s h u s h u g i o h i t e i s u r u h i t o b i t o ( T o k y o : K o b u n s h a , 1 9 6 5 ) . M a r x i s t s a r e no t n e c e s s a r i l y a d v o c a t e s o f p o s t - w a r d e m o c r a c y . Howeve r , t h e y a r e no t opposed t o t h e v a r i o u s p o s t - w a r d e m o c r a t i c r e f o r m s , s u c h as t h e new C o n s t i t u t i o n , even t hough t h e i r c r i t i q u e o f democracy i s b a s e d on t h e M a r x i s t m o d e l . See H i d a k a R o k u r o , e d . , K i n d a i s h u q i , G e n d a i n i h o n s h i s o t a i k e i , V o l . 34 ( T o k y o : Ch ikuma S h o b o , 1 9 6 4 ) . 3 See Maruyama M a s a o ' s e s s a y s on J a p a n e s e n a t i o n a l i s m . Maruyama M a s a o , Thought and B e h a v i o u r i n Modern J a p a n e s e P o l i t i c s , I van M o r r i s , e d . , expanded e d . ( L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 ) . 4 H a r r y D . H a r o o t u n i a n , "Commentary on N a t i o n a l i s m i n J a p a n : N a t i o n a l i s m as I n t e l l e c t u a l H i s t o r y , " J o u r n a l o f A s i a n S t u d i e s , V o l . 2 1 , N o . 1 (November 1 9 7 1 ) , p . 5 8 . ^ " N a t i o n a l P o l i t y " has been a vague and c o n t r o v e r s i a l c o n c e p t i n t h e . p o s t - w a r s t u d y o f J a p a n e s e n a t i o n a l i s m . A c c o r d i n g t o M i y a z a w a T o s h i y o s h i , i t m e a n s , "A p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m i n w h i c h an h e r e d i t a r y r u l e r s e r v e s a t l e a s t as a symbo l o f n a t i o n a l u n i t y and as t h e c o n c r e t e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f m o r a l r i g h t e o u s n e s s . " See Maruyama M a s a o , Thought and B e h a v i o u r , p . 3 7 6 . ^ f o r e x a m p l e , H a y a s h i F u s a o , D a i t o a s e n s o k o t e i r o n , 2 v o l s . ( T o k y o : Bancho" S h o b o , 1 9 6 4 - 1 9 6 5 ) , V o l . 2 , 1 6 7 - 1 6 8 . 7 Maruyama M a s a o , Thought and B e h a v i o u r , p . 2 8 . 8 I b i d . , p p . 3 4 - 5 1 . 9 — — — N i h o n f u a s h i z u m u no q e n r y u : K i t a I k k i no s h i s o t o s h o g a i was p u b l i s h e d i n 1949 by H a k u y o s h a , and was r e w r i t t e n and p u b l i s h e d i n 1959 by M i r a i s h a u n d e r t h e t i t l e , K i t a I k k i : N i h o n t e k i f u a s h i -s u t o no s h o c h o . I t s expanded e d i t i o n was p u b l i s h e d u n d e r t h e same t i t l e i n 1972 by S a n ' i c h i S h o b o . - 54 -1D ' T a n a k a S S g o r o , K i t a I k k i , p . 3 0 5 . ^ K u n o Osamu, " C h o k o k k a s h u g i no i c h i g e n k e i : K i t a I k k i no b a a i , ' C h i s h i k i j i n no s e i s e i t o y a k u u i a r i , K i n d a i N i n o n s h i s o s h i k o z a , V o l . 4 ( T o k y o : Ch ikuma S h o b o , 1 9 5 9 ) , p . 130. 12 I b i d . , p . 126. The t r a n s l a t i o n comes f rom George M . W i l s o n , R a d i c a l N a t i o n a l i s t i n J a p a n : K i t a I k k i , 1683-1937 ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s . H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 ) , p p .154-155. 13 I b i d . , p p . 152-153. 14 George W i l s o n , R a d i c a l N a t i o n a l i s t i n J a p a n , p p . 167-170. 15 K i t a e m p h a s i s e d t h e c o n s i s t e n c y o f h i s t h o u g h t i n t h e t h i r d p u b l i c a t i o n o f N i h o n k a i z o hoan t a i k o i n 1926. K I C , I I , 360. 16 Matsumoto K e n ' i c h i , K i t a I k k i r o n ( T o k y o : G e n d a i H y o r o n s h a , 1972), p p . 296-299. . . . 17 F o r e x a m p l e , i n 1903, K i t a s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a t t e m p t e d h i s r a d i -c a l c r i t i q u e o f t h e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y and h i s a d v o c a c y o f t h e R u s s o -J a p a n e s e W a r . See K i t a I k k i , " K o k u m i n t a i k o s h i t s u no r e k i s h i t e k i k a n s a t s u : Iwayu ru k o k u t a i r o n no d a h a , " Sado Shimbun ( J u n e 25-26, 1 9 0 3 ) , " N i h p n k o k u no s h o r a i t o n i c h i r o k a i s e n , " Sado Shimbun ( J u l y 4-5, Sep tember 11-22, 1903), and " T o t s u , h i - k a i s e n o y u m o n o , " Sado Shimbun ( O c t o b e r 27 t o November 8, 1 9 0 3 ) . Because K i t a u s e d many pennames, s u c h as Takudo and M u s a s h i b o B e n k e i , h i s e a r l y w r i t i n g s were no t d i s c o v e r e d u n t i l r e c e n t l y . The new ly d i s c o v e r e d w r i t i n g s , t h e r e s u l t s o f Ma tsumoto K e n ' i c h i ' s r e s e a r c h , we re p u b l i s h e d u n d e r K i t a ' s name f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n K I C , I I I , i n A p r i l , 1972. See Matsumoto K e n ' i c h i , " S h o k i r o n b u n h a k k e n no k e i i , " G e n d a i n o . m e , V o l . I I , N o . 8 ( A u g u s t 1 9 7 0 ) , p p . 240-253. ^ T h e o r i g i n a l t i t l e o f N i h o n k a i z o ho an t a i k o was K o k k a  k a i z u a n g e n r i t a i k o , whose 47 c o p i e s were s e c r e t l y c i r c u l a t e d among u l t r a n a t i o n a l i s t s , s u c h as Qkawa Shumei and M i t s u k a w a K a m e t a r o , and w h i c h was s u b s e q u e n t l y p r o h i b i t e d by t h e M i n i s t r y o f Home A f f a i r s i n J a n u a r y 1920. N i h o n k a i z o hoan t a i k o was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n May , 1923 by K a i z o s h a , w i t h t h e o m i s s i o n o f many i m p o r t a n t p a r t s . B o t h v e r s i o n s were i n c l u d e d i n K I C , I I , when i t was p u b l i s h e d i n 1959. In t h i s t h e s i s , I u s e t h e t i t l e , N i h o n k a i z o  hoan t a i k o , b e c a u s e i t i s as famous i n Japan as H i t l e r ' s M e i n Kampf was i n t h e W e s t , bu t q u o t e f rom t h e e a r l i e r c o m p l e t e v e r s i o n . , = T o r e x a m p l e , i n 1926, he b r o u g h t up t h e c a s s o f t h e r e p r e -h e n s i b l e documents c o n c e r n i n g t h e I m p e r i a l H o u s e h o l d , i n w h i c h he a t t a c k e d M a t s u k a t a M a s a y o s h i and M a k i n o N o b u a k i , t h e c l o s e - 55 -a d v i s e r s to t h e E m p e r o r , f o r f i l l i n g t h e i r own p o c k e t s . K I C , I I I , 195-205. ^ T h e l e a d i n g l i b e r a l s , s u c h as Nakae Chomin and Baba T a t s u i , l e a r n t v e r y much f rom t h e works o f J . J . R o u s s e a u , J . S . M i l l , and H . S p e n c e r . 21 A c c o r d i n g t o Maruyama M a s a o , " t h e r i g h t w i n g movement i n Japan o r i g i n a t e d i n t h e f reedom and C i v i l R i g h t s fJYIovementTj . " He shows t h a t t he l i b e r a l e t h o s p e r m e a t e d t h e e a r l y r i g h t w i n g movements i n J a p a n . See Maruyama M a s a o , " M e i j i k o k k a no s h i s o , " R e k i s h i g a k u k e n k y u k a i , e d . , N i h o n s h a k a i no s h i t e k i k y u m e i ( T o k y o : Iwanami S h o t e n , 1949), p p . 181-236. 22 "Kokum in t a i k o s h i t s u no r e k i s h i t e k i k a n s a t s u , " K I C , I I I , 37. 23 I b i d . , p . 38. 24 K i t a was 23 y e a r s o l d when he p u b l i s h e d K o k u t a i r o n o y o b i  j u n s e i s h a k a i s h u q i i n May , 1906. As t h e book was banned f i v e d a y s a f t e r i t s p u b l i c a t i o n , K i t a p u b l i s h e d p a r t s o f t h e book s e p a r a t e l y , f i r s t T e t s u q a k u r o n i n J u l y , and K e i z a i r o n i n November t h e same y e a r . Bu t t h e v e r y i m p o r t a n t p a r t , c h a p t e r f o u r , i n w h i c h he c r i t i c i s e d t h e t h e o r y o f t h e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y , K o k u t a i r o n , was n o t p u b l i c l y a v a i l a b l e u n t i l t h e two v o l u m e s o f K i t a ' s w r i t i n g s were p u b l i s h e d i n 1959 by M i s u z u S h o b o . ^ K o k u t a i r o n o y o b i j u n s e i s h a k a i s h u q i , K I C , I, 209. 2 6 I b i d . , p . 211. 2 7 I b i d . , p . 211. 28 See G . B . Sansom, J a p a n : A S h o r t C u l t u r a l H i s t o r y (New Y o r k : D . A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y Company, 1936), p . 21-22o 29 K o k u t a i r o n o y o b i j u n s e i s h a k a i s h u q i , K I C , I, 217. 30 K i t a ' s a rgument was based on a c o r r e c t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f A r t i c l e v o f t h e M e i j i C o n s t i t u t i o n , " T h e Emperor e x e r c i s e s t h e l e g i s l a t i v e power w i t h t h e c o n s e n t o f t h e I m p e r i a l D i e t . " He u n d e r s t o o d t h a t i f s o v e r e i g n t y was a c c o r d e d t o t h e w i l l o f t h e s t a t e , t h e n n e i t h e r t h e Empero r n o r t h e D i e t , w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e d t h e p e o p l e , c o u l d be s o v e r e i g n . K i t a b e l i e v e d i n the r e a l i t y o f t h e s t a t e p e r s o n a l i t y . He w r o t e , "The s t a t e i s no t s o m e t h i n g l i k e a m e c h a n i s m , w h i c h i s c r e a t e d by a l e g a l f i c t i o n , bu t i s a p e r s o n a l i t y w i t h a r e a l e x i s t e n c e and i t s own p u r p o s e . " He a d d e d , " I f t h e s t a t e were a f i c t i t i o u s p e r s o n a l i t y , one c o u l d c o r r u p t i t and make i t c e a s e t o s x i s t by means o f l e g a l f o r c e . Bu t i f i t i s - 56 -a personality of real existence, then no one can destroy i t by creating an a r t i f i c i a l law." Kokutairon oyobi junsei shakaishugi, KIC. I, 232-240. . . . / 3 1 I b i d . , p. 236. 3 2 I b i d . , pp. 232-236. 33' Kita, using the pennams Gaiju, wrote "Jisatsu to ansatsu," Kakumei. Hyoron, No. 6 (November 10, 1906). It i s now available in KIC, III., 137-140. Matsumoto Ken'ichi, who discovered this essay, was also the f i r s t to recognise Kita's use of irony in i t . See Matsumoto Ken'ichi, Kita Ikki ron, pp. 174-194. 3 4 " J i s a t s u to ansatsu," KIC, III, 139-140. -'-'Kokutairon oyobi junsei shakaishugi, KIC, I, 377. 3 6 I b i d . , p. 393. 37 Kita, using the penname fcoseki, wrote "Jindo no t a i g i , " Sado Shimbun (November 21-29, 1901). See KK, III, 3-10. 3 BKokka kaizoan genri taiko, KIC, II, 224-226. 3 9 I b i d . , pp. 228-243. 4 0 I b i d . , pp. 244-259. ^According to Mishima Yukio, a right wing writer, about 70$ of Kita's plans were implemented by the Americans under the new Japanese Constitution. Hayashi fusao and Mishima Yukio, Taiwa: Nihonjin ron (Tokyo: Bancho Shobo, 1966), p. 214. 42 Kokka kaizoan genri taiko, KIC, II, 221. The translation comes from Ryusaku Tsunoda, Wm. Theodore de Bary, and Donald Keene, compilers, Sources of Japaness Tradition (New York : Columbia. University Press, 1964), Vol. 2, p. 270. 43 Kuno Osamu, "Chokokkashugi no ic h i genkei," pp. 131-132. ^Kokutairon oyobi junsei shakaishugi, KIC, I, 96. 4 5 I b i d . p. 124. 57 -4 6 I b i d . , p p . 1 0 9 - 1 2 5 . 4 7 K I C , I I , 2 2 0 . / 48 K o k u t a i r o n o y o b i j u n s e i s h a k a i s h u g i , K I C , 1, 431 . 4 9 I b i d . , p p . 1 1 1 - 1 1 2 . 50 I b i d . , p . 4 . 5 1 I b i d . , p . 4 1 2 . 52 Kuno Osamu, " C h B k o k k a s h u g i no i c h i g e n k e i , " p . 1 4 1 . 5 3 K I C , I I , 1 8 1 . 5 4 I b i d . , p . 2 7 2 . 55 " N i c h i b e i godo t a i s h i d a n no t e i g i , " was w r i t t e n and handed t o t h e J a p a n e s e government p o l i c y m a k e r s i n J u n e , 1 9 3 5 . T h i s d i s c o u r s e was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n t h e expanded e d i t i o n o f S h i n a kakume i g a i s h i i n A u g u s t , 1 9 3 7 . I t i s now a v a i l a b l e i n KIC, I I I , 4 1 7 - 4 2 4 . 5 6 M o s t o f them were p u b l i s h e d i n K_IC, 11— I I I . One i m p o r t a n t e s s a y on J a p a n e s e f o r e i g n p o l i c y , " S h i n a n o . r a n k y o k u n i t a i s u r u tomen no s h i s a k u , " w r i t t e n i n S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 2 0 , was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n H a y a s h i S h i g e r u , e t a l . , e d . , N i / n i r o k u j i k e n h i r o k u , Bekksn ( T o k y o : S h o g a k k a n , 1 9 7 2 ) , p p . 1 6 7 - 1 7 1 . 57 R e f e r r i n g t o K i t a ' s i d e a s on i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s , Kuno Osamu, f o r e x a m p l e , s a y s t h a t K i t a u n d e r s t o o d i n t e r n a t i o n a l power p o l i t i c s q u i t e w e l l . But he d o s s n o t f u r t h e r d e v e l o p t h e p o i n t . See Kuno Osamu, " K i t a I k k i : k a k u m e i no j i s s e n k a , " A s a h i j a a n a r u , V o l . 5 , N o . 25 ( J u n e 2 3 , 1 9 6 3 ) . ^ ^ E . H e r b e r t Norman, J a p a n ' s Emergence as a Modern S t a t e t P o l i t i c a l and Econom ic P r o b l e m s o f t h e M e i j i P e r i o d (New Yo rk : I n s t i t u t e o f P a c i f i c R e l a t i o n s , 1 9 4 0 ) , p . 19?T ( A u t h o r ' s i t a l i c s ) . 5^ In 1 8 9 5 , R u s s i a , Germany , and F r a n c e i n t e r v e n e d to compe l Japan t o g i v e up t he a n n e x a t i o n o f t h e L i a o t u n g P e n i n s u l a . The J a p a n e s e Government was f o r c e d t o a c c e p t t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n , w h i c h s u b s e q u e n t l y i n d u c e d t h e v i o l e n t a n t i - g o v e r n m e n t movement i n J a p a n . ^ E . H e r b e r t Norman, J a p a n ' s Emergence as a Modern S t a t e , p . 2 0 0 . 61 " N i h o n k o k u no s h o r a i t o n i c h i r o k a i s e n , " K I C , I I I , 8 1 . - 58 -6 2 I b i d . , p. 81. 6 3 I b i d . , p. 78. 6 4 I b i d . , pp. 73-84. 6 5 I b i d . , p. 78. 6 6"Totsu, hi-kaisen o yumono," K_IC , III, 86. 6 7 I b i d . , p. 87. 6 B I b i d . , p. 89. 6 9"Yoffe kun no oshiuru kokaijo," K_IC, II, 404. This open letter addressed to Mr. Adolf Joffe was written in May, 1923, when Mr. Joffe visited Japan for the negotiation of diplomatic relations between Russia and Japan. It was f i r s t published in the expanded edition of Shina kakumei qaishi in August, 1937, and i s now availa-ble in KIC, III , 397-407. "Taigai kokusaku ni kansuru kenpakusho," KIC, III, 412. This memorial on foreign policy was written and handed.to the Japanese government policy makers in April, 1932. It was f i r s t published in the expanded edition of Shina kakumei qaishi in in August, 1937, and i s now available in KIC, III, 409-416. ? 1 I b i d . , p. 410. 72 "Nihonkoku no shorai to nichiro kaisen," KIC, III, 73. 7 3 I b i d . , p. 84. 7 4"Totsu, hi-kaisen o yumono," KIC, III, 92. 75 This part was omitted when the essay was republished in KIC, III. I am quoting directly from the Sado Newspaper. Sado  Shimbun (July 4, 1904). 7fi "Totsu, hi-kaisen o yumono," K_IC, III, 96. 77 "Nihonkoku no shorai to nichiro kaisen," KIC, III, 78. 78 Kita Ikki, Shina kakumei qaishi, KIC, II, 172. This book was written in two parts, the f i r s t in December 1915, the second in April 19 26. It was handed to Japanese government policy makers, for example, Qkuma Shigenobu, and was published under the t i t l e , Shina kakumeito oyobi kakumei no shina, in 1916. But the exact publishing date and publisher were unknown. Shina kakumei qaishi - 59 -was o f f i c i a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n November , 1 9 2 1 , by D a i t o k a k u , and i t s expanded e d i t i o n was p u b l i s h e d i n A u g u s t , 1 9 3 7 , by U t s u m i F u m i h i r o d o . I t i s now a v a i l a b l e i n K I C , I I , 1 - 2 0 4 . In the f i r s t p a r t , K i t a was r a t h e r p a r t i a l i n e x a m i n i n g t h e n a t u r e and h i s t o r y o f t h e C h i n e s e R e v o l u t i o n o f 1 9 1 1 . Y o s h i n o S a k u z o , a T a i s h o d e m o c r a t , g r e a t l y a d -m i r e d i t . See K I C , I I I , 5 5 4 . In t he second p a r t , K i t a s u g g e s t e d a r e v o l u t i o n i n J a p a n e s e . f o r e i g n p o l i c y , a l o n g t h e l i n e s o f t e r r i t o -r i a l e x p a n s i o n , a theme he expanded i n h i s N i h o n k a i z o hoan t a i k o . K i t a d i f f e r e n c i a t e d T o y o t e k i k y o w a s e i f rom E u r o p e a n and A m e r i c a n r e p u b l i c a n i s m . The p r e s i d e n t i n T o y o t e k i k y o w a s e i wou ld r e p r e s e n t b o t h H e a v e n ' s and t h e p e o p l e ' s w i l l s . T h i s was q u i t e c o n -t r a r y t o E u r o p e a n and A m e r i c a n r e p u b l i c a n i s m , i n w h i c h t h e P r e s i d e n t , b e i n g e l e c t e d by t he p e o p l e , r e p r e s e n t e d o n l y t h e p e o p l e ' s w i l l . K i t a ' s i d e a o f T o y o t e k i k y o w a s e i was p a r a l l e l t o t h e i d e a o f T o y o t e k i  k u n s h u s e i ( E a s t e r n M o n a r c h i s m ) , w h i c h o r i g i n a t e d i n the M e i j i R e s t o -r a t i o n , and whose supreme l e a d e r , t he E m p e r o r , r e p r e s e n t e d H e a v e n ' s w i l l as w e l l as t h a t o f t h e e n t i r e J a p a n e s e p e o p l e . K i t a w r o t e , " J a p a n has o b t a i n e d h e r f reedom and u n i t y u n d e r a m o n a r c h y , w h i l e C h i n a w i l l o b t a i n them u n d e r a r e p u b l i c . " See S h i n a kakume i g a i s h i , K I C , I I , 1 5 2 - 1 6 4 . 80 81 I b i d . , p . 8 9 . I b i d . , p . 9 0 . 8 2 T 83 84 85 I b i d . , p . 9 0 . " N i c h i b e i godo t a i s h i d a n no t e i g i , " KIC, I I I , 418, I b i d . , p . 4 1 8 . S h i n a kakume i g a i s h i , K I C , I I » 7 . 8 6 I b i d . , p . 1 9 3 . 8? „ 88 89 90 91 N i c h i b e i godo t a i s h i d a n no t e i g i , " K I C , I I I , 4 2 3 . I b i d . , p . 4 2 4 . S h i n a kakumBj g a i s h i , K I C , I I , 2 0 1 . I b i d . , p . 2 0 1 . I b i d . , p . 3 . 92 " T a i g a i k o k u s a k u n i k a n s u r u k e n p a k u s h o , " K I C , I I I , 4 1 3 . 60- -93 I b i d . , p . 4 1 4 . 94 S h i n a kakume i q a i s h i , K I C . I I , 1 4 - 1 9 . 95 See I k e i M a s a r u , " J a p a n e s e R e s p o n s e to t h e C h i n e s e R e v o l u t i o n o f 1 9 1 1 , " J o u r n a l o f A s i a n S t u d i e s , V o l . 2 5 , N o . 2 ( F e b r u a r y 1 9 6 6 ) , p p . 2 1 3 - 2 2 7 . 96 S h i n a k a k u m e i g a i s h i , K I C , I I , 2 8 . 97 " S h i n a no r a n k y o k u n i t a i s u r u tomen no s h i s a k u , " H a y a s h i S h i g e r u , e t a l . , e d . , N i / n i r o k u j i k e n h i r o k u , B e k k a n , p p . 1 6 7 - 1 7 1 . 98 _ R o n i n were " a d v e n t u r e r s , s o l d i e r s o f f o r t u n e , and o t h e r s who l i v e d by t h e i r w i t s , c o u r a g e , and r e a d i n e s s to b reak t he l a w . " See Maruyama M a s a o , Thought and B e h a v i o u r , p . 3 B 2 . As soon as he a r r i v e d i n C h i n a i n 1 9 1 1 , K i t a f e l t t h a t t h e J a p a n e s e r o n i n were d o i n g t h e C h i n e s e R e v o l u t i o n , more harm t h a n g o o d . He w r o t e h i s i m p r e s s i o n s t o K i y o f u j i K o h i c h i r o and U c h i d a R y o h e i , t h e head o f t h e Koku ryD k a i ( B l a c k Dragon S o c i e t y ) , and u r g e d them t o s u p e r v i s e t h e s e r o n i n . K i t a ' s v i v i d r e p o r t s on the C h i n e s e R e v o l u t i o n were p u b l i s h e d i n K I C , I I I , 1 4 9 - 1 7 5 . See a l s o N i s h i o Y o t a r o , " K i t a I k k i ' n o s h i n g a i k a k u m e i n i k a n s u r u ' D e n b u n s h u ' to ' H o k o k u s h o k a n s h u * n i t s u i t e , " S h i e n , N o . 1 0 5 - 1 0 6 ( A u g u s t 1 9 7 1 ) , p p . 1 2 7 - 1 5 2 . 99 S h i n a k a k u m e i g a i s h i , K I C , I I , 1 0 6 . 1 0 0 I b i d . , p p . 1 0 7 - 1 1 6 . 1 0 1 I b i d . , p p . 1 8 2 - 2 0 0 . 102 " T a i g a i k o k u s a k u n i k a n s u r u k e n p a k u s h o , " K I C , I I I , 4 0 9 . 103 I b i d . , p p . 4 0 9 - 4 1 0 . 1 0 4 I b i d . , p . 4 1 1 . 105 In s u g g e s t i n g t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f a F r a n c o - J a p a n e s e a l l i a n c e , K i t a p r i m a r i l y i n t e n d e d t o d i v i d e and weaken B r i t i s h n a v a l p o w e r , as w e l l as d e t e r R u s s i a n a g g r e s s i o n i n C h i n a and K o r e a . He was c o n -v i n c e d t h a t t h e a l l i a n c e wou ld p r e v e n t the A m e r i c a n i n t e n t i o n t o b reak peace w i t h J a p a n . He was c e r t a i n t h a t A m e r i c a , w i t h o u t t he a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e B r i t i s h n a v y , wou ld n e v e r a t t a c k J a p a n . " T a i g a i k o k u s a k u n i k a n s u r u k e n p a k u s h o , " K I C , I I I , 4 1 3 . 1 n ft " B e r u s a i y u k a i g i n i t a i s u r u s a i k o h a n k e t s u , " K I C , I I , 2 1 3 . T h i s e s s a y was o r i g i n a l l y w r i t t e n i n J u n e , 1 9 1 9 , and was handed t o M i t s u k a w a K a m e t a r o . I t was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n S h i n a k a k u m e i g a i s h i 61 in November, 1921, by Daitokaku. l 0 7Kokka kaizoan genri taiko, KIC, II, 221-222. The trans-lation in Ryusaku Tsunoda, Wm* Theodore de Bary, and Donald Keene, compilers, Sources,of Japanese Tradition, Vol. 2, p. 270, is mis-leading. ""•^Hashikawa Bunzo, "Chokokkashugi no shoso," Hashikawa Bunzo, ed., Chokokkashugi, Gendai Nihon shiso taikai, No. 31 (Tokyo: Chikuma Shobo, 1964), p. 38. The translation comas from George Ulilson, Radical Nationalist in Japan, p. 167. 109 Hans Morgenthau, P o l i t i c s among Nations : The Struggle for  Power and Peace, 4th ed. (New York : Alfred A. Knopf, 1967), p. 25. 1 1 D 5 h i n a kakumei gaishi, KIC, II, 183. 111 . . Kokutairon oyobi junsei shakaishugi, KIC, I, 97. 112 Kita presented his idea on the League of Nations in his essay, "Berusaiyukaigi ni taisuru saikohanketsu ," KIC, II, 207-213. ''Kokutairon oyobi junsei shakaishugi, KIC, I, 97. 1 1 4 , ,Totsu, hi-kaisen o yumono," KIC, III, 87. ^^Kokutairon oyobi junsei shakaishugi, KIC, I, 112. 1 1 6"Totsu, hi-kaisen o yOmono," KIC, III, 85-98. See also Kokutairon oyobi junsei shakaishugi, KIC, I, 431-434. 117 "Totsu., hi-kaisan o yumono," KIC, III, 90. 118-Shina kakumei qaishi, KIC, II, 90. 119 Maruyama Masao, Thought and Behaviour, pp. 20-21. 120 _ See for example Okawa Shumei, "The Way of Japan and the Japanese," Ryusaku Tsunoda, Wm. Theodore de Bary, and Donald Keene, compilers, Sources of Japanese Tradition, Vol. 2, pp. 288-289. 121 Kokka kaizoan genri taiko, KIC, II, 273. 1 2 2 I b i d . , p. 173. "Nihonkoku no shorai to nichiro kaisen," KIC, III, 81. 1 2 4"Totsu, hi-kaisen o yumono," KIC, III, 89. - 62 -125 Kokutairon oyobi junsei shakaishuqi, KIC, I, 431. 126 ' ' "Nihonkoku no shorai to nichiro kaisen," KIC, III, 81. 127 Shina kakumei gaishi, KIC, II, 133. 1 2 8 I b i d . , pp. 131-134. 129 "Shina no rankyoku ni taisuru tomen no shisaku," Hayashi Shigeru,.et a l . , ed., Ni/niroku jiken hiroku, Bekkan, p. 170. 130 See Maruyama Masao, Thought and Behaviour, pp. 76-83. 131 'Kita was aware that the Emperor system would lose i t s base of support after the completion of the socialist revolution. See Kita's rational and practical plans in Nihon kaizo hoan taiko. 132 See Hashikawa Bunzo, Nihon romanha hihan josetsu (TokyB: Miraisha, 1965). 133 Kokka kaizoan genri taiko, KIC, II, 260-267. 134 Franz Neumann, Behemoth: The Structure and Practice of  National .Socialism, 1933-1944 (New York: Harper and Row, 1966), p. 130. 135 Ibid., p. 130. 136-Okawa Shurnei, "The Way of Japan and the Japanese," p. 289. 137 The Total War Research Institute, "Draft of Basic Plan for Establishment of Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere," January 1942, Ryusaku Tsunoda, Wm. Theodore de Bary, and Donald Keene, compilers, Sources of Japanese Tradition, vol. 2, pp. 294-295. 138 Kita exerted his influence on the young officers through his Nihon kaizo hoan taiko, which became their Bible. While they actually misunderstood Kita's ideas, they attempted the military coup d'etat in order to implement what they believed he meant. Kita however, never expected his plans to be implemented by means of the February 26 A f f a i r . See George Wilson, Radical Nationalist  in Japan, p. 130. 139 Maruyama concedes that " i t cannot be clearly stated from what point of time the fascist period began." Maruyama Masao, Thought and Behaviour, p. 80. 63 -BIBLIOGRAPHY A k a m a t s u , K a t s u m a r o . M i h o n s h a k a i u n d o s h i ( H i s t o r y o f t h e S o c i a l Movement i n J a p a n ) . Iuianami s h i n s h o , V o l . 8 3 . T o k y o : Iwanami S h o t e n , 1 9 5 2 . . A n d o , Y o s h i o . " N i h o n no f u a s h i z u m u : s e n z e n s e n j i no j a k k a n no m o n d a i " ( J a p a n e s e F a s c i s m : Some P r o b l e m s i n the P r e - w a r and I n t e r - w a r P e r i o d s ) . S h i s o , N o . 341 (November 1 9 5 2 ) , p p . 9 6 -1 0 8 . A p p r o a c h e s t o t h e " H i s t o r y o f T h o u g h t " : T r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f Modern  Japan T*Asian C u l t u r a l S t u d i e s , V ) . T o k y o : I n t e r n a t i o n a l C h r i s t i a n U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 6 6 . B a r k e r , E r n e s t . P r i n c i p l e s o f S o c i a l and P o l i t i c a l T h e o r y . L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 1 . B r o w n , De lmer M . N a t i o n a l i s m i n J a p a n . B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 5 5 . B y a s , H u g h . Government by A s s a s s i n a t i o n . New Y o r k : A l f r e d A . K n o p f , 1 9 4 2 . C r o w l e y , James B . " J a p a n e s e Army F a c t i o n a l i s m i n t h e E a r l y ^ S O ' s . " j o u r n a l o f A s i a n S t u d i e s , V o l . 2 1 , N o . 3 (May 1 9 6 2 ) , p p . 3 0 9 -3 2 6 . E i n a u d i , M a r i o . " F a s c i s m . " E n c y c l o p a e d i a o f t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s . New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n and F r s e P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 . E l i s o n , G e o r g e . " K o t o k u S h u s u i : The Change i n T h o u g h t . " Monuments  N i p p o n i c a , V o l . 2 2 , N o . 3 -4 ( 1 9 6 7 ) , p p . 4 3 7 - 4 6 7 . F u j i w a r a , H i r o t a t s u . " 1 G i j i ' - k a k u m e i s h a no y a k u w a r i : s e i n e n s h o k o , m inkan uyoku o c h u s h i n t o s h i t e " (The R o l e o f t he " P s e u d o " R e v o l u t i o n a r i e s : C e n t e r i n g on t h e Young O f f i c e r s and t h e C i v i l i a n R i g h t W i n g ) . S h i s o , N o . 355 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 5 4 ) , p p . 4 8 -G o t o , S o i c h i r o . " K i t a I k k i t o m i k a n no k a k u m e i " ( K i t a I k k i and t h e U n f i n i s h e d R e v o l u t i o n ) . G e n d a i no me, V o l . 1 1 , N o . 2 ( F e b r u a r y 1 9 7 0 ) , p p . 9 2 - 9 9 . H a n a d a . K i y o t e r u . " K i t a I k k i . " Chuo k o r o n , V o l . 7 0 , N o . 11 (November 1955) , p p . 4 4 3 - 4 4 8 . . - 64 -Hanzawa , H i r o s h i . " T B a k y o e i k e n no s h i s o : U c h i d a R y o h e i o c h u s h i n n i " ( i d e o l o g y o f t h e E a s t - A s i a C o - P r o s p e r i t y S p h e r e : C e n t e r -i n g o n . U c h i d a R y o h e i ) . S h i s o no k a q a k u , Mo. 21 (December 1 9 6 3 ) , p p . 2 0 - 3 1 . /-' and Murakami I c h i r o . " K i t a I k k i t o Okawa S h u m e i " ( K i t a I k k i and Okawa S h u m e i ) . G e n d a i no me, V o l . 1 3 , N o . 1 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 7 2 ) , p p . 2 4 - 3 5 . H a r o o t u n i a n , H a r r y D . "Commentary on N a t i o n a l i s m i n J a p a n : N a t i o n a -l i s m as I n t e l l e c t u a l H i s t o r y . " J o u r n a l o f A s i a n S t u d i e s , V o l 3 1 , N o . 1 (November 1 9 7 1 ) , p p . 5 7 - 6 2 . H a s e g a w a , Y o s h i n o r i . K i t a I k k i . T o k y o : K i n o k u n i y a S h o t e n , 1 9 6 9 . " K i t a I k k i t o m i t s u i z a i b a t s u " ( K i t a I k k i and t h e M i t s u i F i n a n c i a l C l i q u e ) . Gekkan p e n , V o l . . 5 , N o . 3 (Ma rch 1 9 7 2 ) , p p . 1 1 0 - 1 2 2 . H a s h i k a w a , B u n z o . K i n d a i n i h o n s e i j i s h i s o no s h o s o ( V a r i o u s S t r e a m s o f Modern J a p a n e s e P o l i t i c a l T h o u g h t ) . T o k y o : M i r a i s h a , 1 9 6 9 . " K i t a I k k i s h o k i r onbun o y o n d e " (An I m p r e s s i o n on R e a d i n g K i t a I k k i ' s E a r l y E s s a y s ) . G e n d a i no me, V o l . I I , N o . 8 ( A u g u s t 1 9 7 0 ) , p p . 2 5 4 - 2 5 7 . " K o k k a s h a k a i s h u g i no h a s s 5 y 5 s h i k i : K i t a K a z u t e r u t o T a k a b a t a k e M o t o y u k i o c h u s h i n ' n i " (The C o n c e p t i o n o f S t a t e i n J a p a n e s e S o c i a l i s m : The C a s e s o f K a z u t e r u K i t a and M o t o y u k i T a k a b a t a k e ) . N i h o n no s h a k a i s h u g i ( S o c i a l i s m i n J a p a n ) . The A n n u a l s o f t h e J a p a n e s e P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n . E d . The J a p a n e s e P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n . T o k y o : Iwanami S h o t e n , 1 9 6 8 , p p . 1 0 4 - 1 3 8 . N i h o n romanha h i h a n j o s e t s u ( I n t r o d u c t o r y S tudy t o t h e C r i t i q u e o f J a p a n e s e R o m a n t i c F a c t i o n ) . T o k y o : M i r a i s h a , 1 9 6 5 . , e d . C h o k o k k a s h u g i ( U l t r a n a t i o n a l i s m ) . G e n d a i N i h o n s h i s o t a i k e i , N o . 3 1 . T o k y o : C h i k u m a S h o b o , 1 9 6 4 . H a t t o r i , S h i s o . " K i t a I k k i no i s h i n s h i k a n : Rono ha t o r o n i n h a " ( K i t a I k k i ' s V i e w ' s on M e i j i R e s t o r a t i o n H i s t o r y : The Rono , F a c t i o n and t h e R o n i n F a c t i o n ) . H a t t o r i S h i s o c h o s a k u s h u ( C o l l e c t e d Works o f H a t t o r i S h i s o ) . T o k y o : R i r o n s h a , 1 9 5 5 , V I , 4 1 - 8 0 . - 65 -H a y a s h i , F u s a o . D a i t o a s e n s o k o t e i r o n (The A f f i r m a t i o n o f t he G r e a t e r E a s t A s i a n W a r ) . 2 v o l s . T o k y o : Bancho S h o b o , 1 9 6 4 - 1 9 6 5 . and M i s h i m a Y u k i o . T a i w a : N i h o n j i n r o n ( D i a l o g u e : On J a p a n e s e P e o p l e ) . T o k y o : Bancho S h o b o , 1 9 6 6 . H a y a s h i , S h i g e r u , e t a l . , e d . N i / n i r o k u j i k e n h i r o k u ( C o n f i d e n t i a l Documents o f t h e F e b r u a r y 26 A f f a i r ) . 4 v o l s . T o k y o : S h o g a k k a n , 1 9 7 1 - 1 9 7 2 . H i d a k a , R o k u r o , e d . K i n d a i s h u q i ( M o d e r n i s m ) . G e n d a i N i h o n s h i s o t a i k e i , N o . 3 4 . T o k y o : Ch i kuma S h o b o , 1 9 6 4 . I k e i , M a s a r u . " J a p a n e s e R e s p o n s e to t h e C h i n e s e R e v o l u t i o n o f 1 9 1 1 . " J o u r n a l o f A s i a n S t u d i e s , V o l . 2 5 , N o . 2 ( F e b r u a r y 1 9 6 6 ) , p p . 2 1 3 - 2 2 7 . I m a i , S e i i c h i . " G u n k o k u s h u g i k a no k e t t e i d a ; N i / n i r o k u j i k e n " ( D e c i s i v e E v e n t s i n t h e Coming o f M i l i t a r y F a s c i s m : The F e b r u a r y 26 A f f a i r ) . A s a h i J a a n a r u , v o l . 7 , N o . 27 ( J u l y 4 , 1 9 6 5 ) , p p . 7 4 - 7 8 . I r i e , A k i r a . A f t e r I m p e r i a l i s m : The S e a r c h f o r _a New O r d e r i n t h e  F a r E a s t , 1 9 2 1 - 1 9 3 1 . C a m b r i d g e , M a s s . : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 . N i h o n no q a i k o : M e i j i i s h i n k a r a g e n d a i made ( D i p l o m a t i c H i s t o r y o f J a p a n : From the M e i j i R e s t o r a t i o n to t h e P r e s e n t ) . ChukO s h i n s h o , V o l . . 1 1 3 . T o k y o : Chuo K o r o n s h a , 1 9 6 6 . I s h i d a , T a k e s h i . M e i j i s e i j i s h i s o s h i k e n k y u ( S t u d i e s i n t h e H i s t o r y o f M e i j i P o l i t i c a l T h o u g h t ) . T o k y o : M i r a i s h a , 1 9 5 4 . I s h i i , K i n ' i c h i r o . " K i t a I k k i to s e i n e n s h o k o " ( K i t a I k k i and t h e Young O f f i c e r s ) . S h i s o , N o . 404 ( F e b r u a r y 1 9 5 8 ) , p p . 5 9 - 7 4 . I s h i z a k a , T o m i j i . " K i t a I k k i k e n k y u s h i j o s e t s u " ( I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e H i s t o r y o f R e s e a r c h on K i t a I k k i ) . N i h o n r e k i s h i , N o . 178 ( M a r c h 1 9 6 3 ) , p p . 7 3 - 8 5 , and N o . 230 ( J u l y 1 9 6 7 ) , p p . 4 7 - 6 3 . J a n s e n , M a r i u s B . , e d . C h a n g i n g J a p a n e s e A t t i t u d e s Toward M o d e r -n i z a t i o n . P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 . K i n o s h i t a , H a n j i . N i h o n f u a s h i z u m u s h i ( H i s t o r y o f J a p a n e s e F a s c i s m ) . 2 v o l s . . T o k y o : I w a s a k i S h o t e n , 1949-1951 . " U y o k u , t h e R i g h t Wing o f J a p a n " . C o n t e m p o r a r y J a p a n , V o l . 2 7 , - 66 -N o . 3 ( 1 9 6 2 ) , p p . 4 2 3 - 4 3 7 , V o l . 2 7 , N o . 4 ( 1 9 6 3 ) , p p . 7 0 1 - 7 1 8 , V o l . 2 8 , N o . 1 ( 1 9 6 4 ) , p p . 1 1 6 - 1 3 2 , V o l . 2 8 , N o . 2 ( 1 9 6 5 ) , p p . 3 6 4 - 3 8 4 , and V o l . 2 9 , N o . 1 ( 1 9 6 8 ) , p p . 6 0 - 8 1 . . K i t a , I k k i . K i t a I k k i c h o s a k u s h u ( C o l l e c t e d Works o f K i t a I k k i ) . 3 . v o l s . T o k y o ; M i s u z u S h o b o , 1 9 5 9 - 1 9 7 2 . K u n o , Osamu. " C h S k o k k a s h u g i no i c h i g a n k e i : K i t a I k k i no b a a i " (An A r c h e t y p e o f U l t r a n a t i o n a l i s m : The C a s e o f K i t a I k k i ) . C h i s h i k i . j i n no s e i s e i t o y a k u w a r i ( F o r m a t i o n and F u n c t i o n o f t h e I n t e l l e c t u a l ) . K i n d a i n i h o n s h i s o s h i k o z a , V o l . 4 . T o k y o : Ch i kuma S h o b o , 1 9 5 9 , p p . 1 2 6 - 1 5 4 . " F u a s h i z u m u no i d e o r o g i " ( i d e o l o g y o f F a s c i s m ) . S h i s o , N o . . 3 4 1 (November 1 9 5 2 ) , p p . 4 1 - 4 6 . " K i t a I k k i : k a k u m e i no j i s s e n k a " ( K i t a I k k i : P r a c t i t i o n e r o f R e v o l u t i o n ) . A s a h i j a a n a r u , V o l . 5 , N o . 25 ( J u n e 2 3 , 1 9 6 3 ) , p p . 9 8 - 1 0 3 . and T s u r u m i S h u n s u k e . G e n d a i N ihon no s h i s o : sono i t s u t s u no uzu ( F i v e W h i r l p o o l s o f C o n t e m p o r a r y J a p a n e s e Thought"}". Iwanami s h i n s h o , V o l . 2 5 7 . T 5 k y B : Iwanami S h o t e n , 1 9 5 6 . L o e w e n b e r g , B e r t J a m e s , e d . D a r w i n i s m : R e a c t i o n o r Re fo rm? New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1 9 5 7 . M a r t i n , H a r r i s I n w a r d . "The E a r l y L i f e and Thought o f K i t a I k k i . " P h . D . t h e s i s ; S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 5 9 . Maruyama, M a s a o . Thought and B e h a v i o u r i n Modern J a p a n e s e P o l i t i c s . E d . w i t h an i n t r o . I van M o r r i s . Expanded ed. L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 . M a t s u d a , M i c h i o . " K i n d a i k a no t a n t o s h a t o h i h a n s h a : N i h o n t o R o s h i y a t o " ( S u p p o r t e r s and C r i t i c s o f M o d e r n i z a t i o n : Japan and R u s s i a ) . S h i s o , N o . 473 (November 1 9 6 3 ) , p p . 3 7 - 4 2 . " N i h o n o y o b i R o s h i y a no s h o k i s h a k a i s h u g i : G e r u t s u e n t o K i t a I k k i " ( E a r l y S o c i a l i s m i n J a p a n and R u s s i a : H e r z e n and K i t a I k k i ) . B u r u j o w a k a k u m e i no h i k a k u t e k i k e n k y u ( C o m p a r a -t i v e S t u d i e s i n B o u r g e o i s R e v o l u t i o n ) . E d . Kuwabara T a k e o . T o k y o : Ch i kuma S h o b S , 1 9 6 4 , p p . 4 2 1 - 4 3 4 . M a t s u m o t o , K e n ' i c h i . K i t a I k k i r o n ( S t u d y o f K i t a I k k i ) . T o k y o : G e n d a i . H y o r o n s h a , 1 9 7 2 . " ' S a d o c o n m u n ' r o n j o s e t s u : e t o s u t o s h i t e n o j u n s e i - 67 -s h a k a i s h u g i " (An I n t r o d u c t o r y S tudy o f t h e " S a d o Commune": P u r e S o c i a l i s m as an E t h o s ) . Ternbo, N o . 1 5 1 . ( J u l y 1 9 7 1 ) , . p p . 1 1 0 -1 3 0 , and N o . 153 ( S e p t e m b e r 1 9 7 1 ) , p p . 1 3 1 - 1 4 9 . " S h o k i r o n b u n hakken no k e i i " ( D e t a i l s o f t h e D i s c o v e r y o f [ k i t a I k k i ' s ] E a r l y E s s a y s ) . G e n d a i no me, V o l . I I , N o . 8 ( A u g u s t 1 9 7 0 ) , p p . 2 4 0 - 2 5 3 . Wakak i K i t a I k k i : K o i to u t a t o kakume i t_o (Young K i t a I k k i : L o v e , Poems, and R e v o l u t i o n ) . T o k y o : Genda i H y o r o n s h a , 1 9 7 1 . M a t s u z a w a , H i r o a k i . " M e i j i s h a k a i s h u g i no s h i s o " ( M e i j i S o c i a l i s t T h o u g h t ) . N i h o n no s h a k a i s h u g i ( S o c i a l i s m i n J a p a n ) . The A n n u a l s o f t h e J a p a n e s e P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n . E d . The J a p a n e s e P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n . T o k y o : Iwanami S h o t e n , 1 9 6 8 , p p . 5 - 6 2 . M a t s u z a w a , T e t s u n a r i . T a c h i b a n a K o s a b u r o : N i h o n f u a s h i z u m u g e n s h i k a i k i r o n h a ( T a c h i b a n a K o s a b u r o : J a p a n e s e F a s c i s m and t he R e t u r n t o t h e P r i m i t i v e l y G o v e r n e d G r o u p ) . T o k y o : S a n ' i c h i S h o b o , 1 9 7 2 . M o r g e n t h a u , Hans J . P o l i t i c s among N a t i o n s : The S t r u g g l e f o r Power  and P e a c e . 4 t h e d . New Y o r k : A l f r e d A . K n o p f , 1 9 6 7 . M o r l e y , James W i l l i a m , e d . D i l emmas o f Growth i n P r e - w a r J a p a n . P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 1 . M o r r i s , I v a n , e d . J a p a n 1 93 1 -19 45 : M i l i t a r i s m , F a s c i s m , J a p a n i s m ? L e x i n g t o n , M a s s . : D . C . Hea th and Company, 1 9 6 3 . M u r a k a m i , I c h i r o . K i t a I k k i r o n ( S t u d y o f K i t a I k k i ) . T o k y o : S a n ' -i c h i S h o b o , 1 9 7 0 . Neumann, F r a n z . B e h e m o t h : The S t r u c t u r e and P r a c t i c e o f N a t i o n a l  S o c i a l i s m , 1 9 3 3 - 1 9 4 4 . New Y o r k : H a r p e r and Row, 1 9 6 6 . N i s h i o , Y o t a r o . " K i t a I k k i no s h i n g a i k a k u m e i n i k a n s u r u ' D e n b u n s h u ' t o • H o k o k u s h o k a n s h u ' n i t s u i t e " (On t h e R e p o r t s o f t he C h i n e s e R e v o -l u t i o n o f 1911 W r i t t e n by I k k i K i t a ) . S h i e n , N o . 105 -106 ( A u g u s t 1 9 7 1 ) , p p . 1 2 7 - 1 5 2 . N o r m u r a , K o i c h i . " K o k u m i n t e k i s h i m e i k a n no s h o r u i k e i t o sono t o k u s h i t s u : Bkum.a S h i g e n o b u , U c h i m u r a K a n z S , K i t a I k k i " ( S e v e r a l Types o f N a t i o n a l - M i s s i o n I d e a s and. T h e i r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : Okuma S h i g e n o b u , U c h i m u r a K a n z o , K i t a I k k i ) . S e k a i no naka no N i h o n ( j a p a n i n t h e W o r l d ) . K i n d a i N i h o n s h i s o s h i k o z a , V o l . 8 . T o k y o : Ch ikuma S h o b o , 1 9 6 1 , pp.. 1 3 7 - 1 7 3 . " P r o f i l e o f A s i a n M i n d e d Man I I : I k k i K i t a 0 " The D e v e l o p i n g E c o n o m i e s , V o l . 4 , N o . 2 ( J u n e 1 9 6 6 ) , . p p . 2 3 1 - 2 4 4 . . - 68 -Norman, E . H e r b e r t . J a p a n ' s Emergence as _a Modern S t a t e : P o l i t i c a l  and E c o n o m i c P r o b l e m s o f t h e jvtei j i P e r i o d . New Y o r k : I n s t i t u t e o f P a c i f i c R e l a t i o n s , 1 9 4 0 . "The G e n y o s h a : A S tudy i n t h e O r i g i n s o f J a p a n e s e I m p e r i a -l i s m , " P a c i f i c A f f a i r s , V o l . 7 , N o . 3 (Sep tember 1 9 4 4 ) , p p . 2 6 1 - 2 8 4 . Okawa, S h u m e i . " F u t a r i no Hokekyo g y o j a : I s h i w a r a shogun to K i t a I k k i k u n " (Two D e v o t e e s o f t h e L o t u s S u t r a : G e n e r a l I s h i w a r a K a n j i and K i t a I k k i ) . K a i z o , V o l . 3 2 , N o . 12 (November 1 9 5 1 ) , . p p . 1 0 2 - 1 1 1 . " K i t a I k k i kun o omou" ( R e c o l l e c t i o n s o f K i t a I k k i ) . 5k awa. Shumei z e n s h u ( C o m p l e t e Works o f Okawa S h u m e i ) . T o k y o : I w a s a k i S h o t e n , 1 9 6 2 , I V , 2 2 7 - 2 4 5 . O k e t a n i , H i d e a k i . " K i t a I k k i n o t o : Dochaku N i h o n s h i s o no e t o s u " (No te on K i t a I k k i : I n d i g e n o u s E t h o s o f J a p a n e s e T h o u g h t ) . Dochaku t o j y o k y o ( A b o r i g i n a l i t y and S i t u a t i o n ) . T o k y o : N a n b o k u s h a , 1 9 6 7 . . O t a , M a s a o . "Roman t s k i k a k u m e i k a n no 2 a s e t s u " ( F r u s t r a t i o n o f a R o m a n t i c I d e a o f R e v o l u t i o n ) . Ternbo, V o l . 164 ( A u g u s t 1 9 7 2 ) , p p . 1 3 4 - 1 5 1 . P y l e , K e n n e t h B . "Some R e c e n t A p p r o a c h e s to J a p a n e s e N a t i o n a l i s m " ( I n t r o d u c t i o n t o ' A Symposium on J a p a n e s e N a t i o n a l i s m ' ) . J o u r n a l o f A s i a n S t u d i e s , V o l . 3 1 , N o . 1 (November 1 9 7 1 ) , p p . 5 - 1 6 . R o u s s e a u , J e a n J a c q u e s . The S o c i a l C o n t r a c t and D i s c o u r s e s . T r . w i t h an i n t r o . G . D . H . C o l e . New Y o r k : D u t t o n , 1 9 6 8 . Sansom, G . 8 . J a p a n : A S h o r t C u l t u r a l H i s t o r y . New Y o r k : D . A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y Company, 1 9 3 6 . S c a l a p i n o , R o b e r t A . Democracy and t h e P a r t y Movement i n P r e w a r J a p a n . B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 5 3 . S c h w a r t z , B e n j a m i n . _In S e a r c h o f W e a l t h and P o w e r : Yen Fu and t h e W e s t . C a m b r i d g e , M a s s . : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 . S h i l l o n y , B e n - A m i . " T h e F e b r u a r y 26 A f f a i r : P o l i t i c s o f a M i l i t a r y I n s u r r e c t i o n . " C r i s i s P o l i t i c s i n P r e w a r J a p a n . E d . G . M . W i l s o n , T o k y o : S o p h i a U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 7 0 , p p . 2 5 - 5 0 . Somura , Y a s u n o b u . " A j i a s h u g i e no k e i k o k u " (A Warn ing abou t A s i a n i s m ) . ChDo k o r o n , V o l . 8 1 , N o . 6 ( J u n e 1 9 6 6 ) , p p . 6 2 - 9 9 . - 69 -S t u d i e s on M o d e r n i z a t i o n o f Japan ( A s i a n C u l t u r a l S t u d i e s , I I I ) . T o k y o : I n t e r n a t i o n a l C h r i s t i a n U n i v e r s i t y , 1962 . S t o r r y , R i c h a r d . The D o u b l e P a t r i o t s : A S tudy o f J a p a n e s e  N a t i o n a l i s m . B o s t o n : Houghton M i f f l i n , 1 9 5 7 . T a k a h a s h i , K a z u m i . " K i t a I k k i . " H a n q y a k u s h a no s h o z o ( R e b e l P o r -t r a i t s ) . N i j u s s e i k i o u g o k a s h i t a h i t o b i t o , V o l . 1 3 . E d . M a t s u d a M i c h i o . T o k y o : K o d a n s h a , 1963, p p * 3 3 9 - 4 1 4 . T a k a h a s h i , M a s a e . N i / n i r o k u j i k e n : "Showa i s h i n " np_ sh j jso to  kodo (The F e b r u a r y 26 A f f a i r : The I deas and A c t i o n s o f t he " S h o w a . R e s t o r a t i o n " ) . Chuko s h i n s h o , V o l o 7 6 . T o k y o : ChOo K o r o n s h a , 1 9 6 9 . T a k a m i , J u n . " D a i mao kannon — f u u n j i K i t a I k k i " (The G r e a t P r i n c e o f D e v i l s . a n d Buddha o f Me rcy — S o l d i e r o f F o r t u n e K i t a I k k i ) . B u n q e i s h u n j u , B e s s a t s u ( S u p p l e m e n t ) , N o . 84 ( O c t o b e r 1 9 6 3 ) , p p . 6 4 - 7 4 . T a k e u c h i , Y o s h i m i . N i h o n to A z i a ( j a p a n and A s i a ) o T a k e u c h i Y o s h i m i  h y o r o n s h u ( C o l l e c t e d C r i t i c a l E s s a y s o f T a k e u c h i Y o s h i m i ) . T o k y o : Ch ikuma S h o b o , 1,969. V o l . 3 . T a n a k a , S o g o r o . K i t a I k k i : N i h o n t e k i f u a s h i s u t o no s h o c h o ( K i t a I k k i : Symbol o f J a p a n e s e F a s c i s m ) . Expanded e d . T o k y o : S a n ' i c h i S h o b o , 1 9 7 1 . N i h o n f u a s h i z u m u no g e n r y u : K i t a I k k i no s h i s o t o s h o g a i ( " o r i g i n s o f J a p a n e s e F a s c i s m : The Thought and C a r e e r o f K i t a I k k i ) . T o k y o : H a k u y o s h a , 1 9 4 9 . N i h o n f u a s h i z u m u s h i ( H i s t o r y o f J a p a n e s e F a s c i s m ) . T o k y o : Kawade Shobo S h i n s h a , 1960 . "Showa g u n b a t s u k o s o h i s h i 2 : K i t a I k k i t o Okawa S h u m e i " ( "Secret H i s t o r y o f t h e _ F a c t i o n a l S t r u g g l e o f t h e Showa M i l i t a -l i s t s : K i t a I k k i and Okawa S h u m e i ) . N i h o n r e k i s h i , V o l . 1, N o . 3 ( A u g u s t . 1 9 4 6 ) , p p . 7 5 - 8 2 . Toa s e n k a k u s h i s h i k i d e n ( B i o g r a p h i e s o f P i o n e e r i n g E a s t A s i a n S h i s h i ) . 3 v o l s . T o k y o : H a r a S h o b o , 1966 . T o k o r o , S h i g e m o t o . N i c h i r e n no s h i s o t o Kamakura Bukkvo ( N i c h i r e n ' s Thought and Kamakura B u d d h i s m ) . T o k y o : Fuzambo, 1 9 6 5 . Tonegawa, Y u t a k a . K i t a I k k i : Kakume i no s h i s h a ( K i t a I k k i : A M e s s e n g e r o f R e v o l u t i o n ) . T o k y o : J i n b u t s u O r a i s h a , 1967 . - 70 -Totten, George 0., ed. Democracy i n Prewar Japan : Groundwork or  Facade? Lexington, Mass.: D .C . Heath and Company, 1965. Toyarna, S h i g e k i , et a l . Showashi (Showa' H i s t o r y ) . Iwanami shinsho, V o l . 355. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1959. Tsukui, Tatsuo. Nihon kokkashuqi undo s h i r o n (Study of the H i s t o r y of the Japanese N a t i o n a l i s t Movement)• Tokyo: Chuo Koronsha, 1942. . . "Showa minzokushugi no choryD: shu to s h i t e K i t a I k k i no sh i s o o chushin to s h i t e " (The Current of Showa N a t i o n a l i s m : Centering C h i e f l y on the Ideas of K i t a I k k i ) . Chuo koron, V o l . 76, No. 9 (September.1961), pp. 108-117. Uyoku (The Right Wing). Tokyo: Showa Shobo, 1952. T s u k i j i , H i c h i r o . Uyoku no r e k i s h i ( H i s t o r y of the Right Wing). Tokyo: Tsubasa Shoin, 1967. Tsunoda, Ryusaku, Wm. Theodore de Bary, and Donald Keene, comps. Sources of Japanese T r a d i t i o n . V o l . 2. New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 196B. Ward, Robert E., ed. P o l i t i c a l Development i n Modern Japan. P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968. and Dankwart A. Rustow, eds. P o l i t i c a l Modernization i n Japan and Turkey. Englewood C l i f f s , N. J . : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1964. Weber, Eugen. V a r i e t i e s of Fascism : Doctrines of Revolution i n the Twentieth Century. P r i n c e t o n , N.J.: D. Van Nostrand Company, 1964. Wilson, George M. "A New Look at the Problem of 'Japanese Fascism.'" Comparative Studies i n Society and H i s t o r y , V o l . 10, No. 4 ( J u l y 1968), pp. 401-412. " K i t a I k k i ' s Theory of R e v o l u t i o n . " Journal of Asian S t u d i e s , V o l . 26, No. 1 (November 1966), pp. 89-99. R a d i c a l N a t i o n a l i s t i n Japan : K i t a I k k i , 1883-1937. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969. " R e f l e c t i o n s on Japanese I m p e r i a l i s t Ideology." Imperial Japan and A s i a : A Reassessment. Comp. Grant K. Goodman (Occasional Papers of the East Asian I n s t i t u t e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1967), pp. 46-51. - 71 -, ed. Crisis P o l i t i c s in Prewar Japan: Institutional and Ideological Problems of ths 1930s. Tokyo:. Sophia University, 1970. Woolf, Stuart Joseph. The Nature of Fascism; Proceedings of a Conference held by the Reading University Graduate School of  Contemporary European Studies. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1968. Yamada, Munemutsu. Kiken na shisoka: sengo minshushuqi o h i t e i - suru hitobito (Dangerous Thinkers : Men who Reject Postwar Democracy). Tokyo: Kobunsha, 1965. Yamamoto, Katsunosuke. Nihon o horoboshita mono : qunbu dokusaika  to sono hokai no katei (They who Ruined Japan : The Coming of Military Dictatorship and the Process of i t s Collapse). Tokyo: Shoko Shoin, 1949. Yoshino, Sakuzo. Chuqoku kakumei shiron (Historical Essays on the Chinese Revolution). Yoshino Sakuzo hakushi minshushugi ronshu, Vol. 7. Tokyo: Shin Kigensha, 1947. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0101393/manifest

Comment

Related Items