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Toronto in the 1890's : a decade of challenge and response Carter-Edwards, Dennis 1973

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TORONTO IN THE 1890'S: A DECADE OF CHALLENGE AND RESPONSE by Dennis R u s s e l l Carter-Edwards B. A., T r e n t U n i v e r s i t y , 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of H i s t o r y We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia J u l y , 1 9 7 3 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission fo r extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada ABSTRACT 1 1 1 Toronto i n the 1890*s: A Decade of Challenge and Response T h i s t h e s i s examines the response of the c i t y o f Toronto a t the c l o s e of the n i n e t e e n t h century, to problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t s s t a t u s as a major m e t r o p o l i t a n c e n t r e . As the l a r g e s t and most populous c i t y o f O n t a r i o , these problems posed a more s e r i o u s c h a l l e n g e i n Toronto than i n any o t h e r c i t y o f the p r o v i n c e . The years 1890-1900 were chosen because i t was d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d t h a t these problems f i r s t began to a t t r a c t widespread p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n . Three s p e c i f i c problems were s e l e c t e d f o r i n t e n s i v e examination; a i d f o r the poor, m u n i c i p a l reform, and p u b l i c ownership. Each of these i s s u e s p r e s e n t a d i f f e r e n t aspect of Toronto's 'coming of age' and the response of c i t i z e n s to c h a l -lenges which accompanied t h i s growth. T h i s response of concerned c i t i z e n s p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y of o b s e r v i n g how a Canadian community t r i e d to d e a l w i t h these problems and the u n d e r l y i n g a t t i t u d e s which motivated the v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s of the community which took p a r t . The q u e s t i o n o f p r o v i d i n g a s s i s t a n c e f o r the c i t y ' s poor which f o l l o w e d the r e v e l a t i o n of widespread p o v e r t y i n Toronto, prompted a d i s c u s s i o n on the be s t means of d i s c r i m i n a t i n g be-tween worthy and unworthy a p p l i c a n t s . With the p e r s i s t e n c e of t h i s h a r d s h i p and i t s e x t e n s i o n i n t o the ranks of the middle c l a s s , p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n s h i f t e d from the c h a r i t y problem to the employment problem. Through a v a r i e t y o f schemes, c i t i z e n s i v attempted to ease the employment c r i s i s i n the c i t y and the dem o r a l i z a t i o n of i n d u s t r i o u s , respectable men. I t was the r e v i v a l i n business that accompanied the L a u r i e r boom,rather than any s p e c i f i c a c t i o n on the pa r t of those i n t e r e s t e d i n the problem, which helped ease the s i t u a t i o n . However t h e i r e f f o r t s d i d c o n t r i b u t e towards the development of e x p e r t i s e i n the f i e l d of r e l i e f and helped l a y the b a s i s f o r a p r o f e s s i o n a l approach to s o c i a l w e l f a r e . At the beginning of the decade, Toronto was saddled w i t h a cumbersome and outdated system of c i v i c government. The impor-tance of C i t y C o u n c i l i n d i r e c t i n g the a f f a i r s of the c i t y prompted concerned c i t i z e n s and aldermen to t r y and adapt the mun i c i p a l system to the needs of a modern c i t y . This reform movement was hindered by a l a c k of co-operation among i n t e r e s t e d groups and the l e t h a r g y of C i t y C o u n c i l . When a s e t of common o b j e c t i v e s was f i n a l l y agreed upon, the p r o v i n c i a l government emasculated the scheme. This dependent p o s i t i o n of the c i t y was c l e a r l y demonstrated when the p r o v i n c i a l government, on i t s own i n i t i a t i v e , l a t e r introduced a new system of muni c i p a l government. This system in c o r p o r a t e d the general reform demands f o r a d i v i s i o n of executive and l e g i s l a t i v e f u n c t i o n s . No d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n ( i s presented on the i n f l u e n c e of pa r t y p o l i t i c s i n c i v i c a f f a i r s . The absence of p r i v a t e papers ,"~for the mayors of t h i s p e r i o d l i m i t s the p o s s i b i l i t y of such a d i s c u s s i o n . A l s o , the campaign f o r municipal reform was based on the premise that c i t y government was business r a t h e r than p o l i t i c s . The debate on muni c i p a l ownership presents another area V where c i t i z e n s attempted to deal w i t h the problems of a l a r g e c i t y . The p r o v i s i o n of inexpensive s e r v i c e s was a b a s i c need f o r businessmen and c i t i z e n s a l i k e . D i s c u s s i o n of m u n i c i p a l owner-sh i p centred on whether p r i v a t e companies or. C i t y C o u n c i l c o u l d best f u l f i l t h i s need. Support f o r c i v i c o p e r a t i o n of c i v i c f r a n -c h i s e s was f i r s t c o n f i n e d to a s m a l l group of reformers who he l d p r o g r e s s i v e views on such i s s u e s . However, growing d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n among the business community w i t h the p r i v a t e c o r p o r a t i o n s o p e r a t i n g i n the c i t y , broadened the support f o r m u n i c i p a l owner-s h i p . Although an unfavourable combination of f a c t o r s prevented the s u c c e s s f u l implementation of s e v e r a l plans f o r c i v i c o p e r a t i o n of m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s , growing support among a l l s e c t i o n s of the community was c l e a r l y i n evidence by the end of the decade. This e s t a b l i s h e d a b a s i s f o r f u t u r e advances i n t h i s area. Thus, duri n g the 1890's, Toronto attempted to respond to the problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t s s t a t u s as an important urban community. Not a l l of these attempts were s u c c e s s f u l , but the d i s c u s s i o n which these i s s u e s provoked, drew p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n to these questions and l a i d a f i r m b a s i s f o r f u t u r e a c t i o n on them. TORONTO IN THE 1890'Ss A DECADE OF CHALLENGE AND RESPONSE v i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page I. INTRODUCTION 1 I I . CHARITY AND THE CHALLENGE OF THE UNEMPLOYED 8 I I I . THE CAMPAIGN FOR REFORMED MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT %k IV. MUNICIPAL MONOPOLIES AND MUNICIPAL MANAGEMENT Ilk V. CONCLUSION 170 BIBLIOGRAPHY 173 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Approaching the l a s t decade of the Nineteenth Century, Toronto no longer f e l t i t s e l f a compact l i t t l e c i t y , but a s t r a g g l i n g b i g one, outgrowing i t s c i v i c s e r v i c e s as.,rapidly as a s m a l l boy out-grows h i s pantaloons. In i n t r o d u c i n g h i s chapter on Toronto i n the 1 8 9 0 ' s , Jesse Edgar Middleton dwelt on the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n which took place i n the 'Queen C i t y ' a t the end of the century. E l e c t r i c l i g h t s r e placed gas lamps, e l e c t r i c s t r e e t cars crowded out the horse drawn t r o l l e y s , and the telephone r e v o l u t i o n i z e d communications. R e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s i n the c i t y were provided w i t h gas mains, paved roads, sewers, water and other s e r v i c e s . The establishment of the Massey Manufacturing Company i n Toronto introduced i n t o the c i t y the ' f a c t o r y economy' w i t h i t s l a r g e 2 s c a l e employment of men and production of goods. Torontonians took great p r i d e i n t h e i r accomplishments. C h r o n i c l e s of the "phenomenal growth and the marvellous development of the trade and i n d u s t r y of Toronto"-^ c a r e f u l l y documented the v i s i b l e signs of the c i t y ' s advance. This evidence v a r i e d from the number of business establishments i n the c i t y , to the t o t a l value of assessable property. I t was even suggested t h a t "Toronto w i l l be i n the van of Montreal from a manufacturing and t r a d i n g p o i n t i n L a few b r i e f years". Yet, there was another p i c t u r e of Toronto which was l e s s a t t r a c t i v e . The squalor and misery which c h a r a c t e r i z e d the l i v e s of the poor, l i v i n g i n shabby d w e l l i n g s and s t r u g g l i n g to keep 2 t h e i r f a m i l i e s clothed and fed, revealed an underside to the comfort and prosperity of the c i t y . For those unemployed who had no prospect of regular work, l i f e i n the c i t y was a tr y i n g ex-perience, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the winter months. During t h i s season, many fam i l i e s had to subsist on the food, f u e l and clothi n g provided by charitable i n s t i t u t i o n s . Both of these conditions, poverty and prosperity, provided a challenge to Toronto i n the 1890's. The presence of economic hardship amidst t h i s material progress s t i r r e d the conscience of the community. A C h r i s t i a n sense of duty and a fear that a dispossessed class would threaten the balance of society, prompted c i t i z e n s to provide assistance f o r the c i t y ' s poor. To ensure the continued expansion and growth of the c i t y i t was deemed necessary that c i v i c i n s t i t u t i o n s operate at maximum e f f i c i e n c y . S i m i l a r l y , the provision of high q u a l i t y and inexpensive services was another requirement f o r the c i t y ' s prosperous development. In order to discover how Toronto responded to the challenge posed by these questions, three s p e c i f i c issues were selected for consideration} r e l i e f for the poor, municipal reform, and public ownership. Each of these topics was of great importance to Toronto and, as such, merit: independent consideration. The diverse nature of these issues precludes a det a i l e d comparative study of municipal reform, public ownership and aid f o r the poor. How-ever, i t i s possible to detect a general underlying theme which motivated those who took part i n the discussion of these questions. This w i l l be set out i n the conclusion. 3 From the i n f o r m a t i o n compiled hy the c h a r i t a b l e s o c i e t i e s , and l i s t e d i n the c i t y ' s newspapers, i t i s p o s s i b l e to p r e s e n t a g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n of the degree o f hardship i n the c i t y . The presence of t h i s h a r d s h i p brought a response from v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s o f the community; women, l a b o u r , businessmen, lawyers, p r o f e s s o r s , and s o c i a l r e f o r m e r s . The a t t i t u d e s of these groups w i l l be examined a l o n g w i t h t h e i r e f f o r t s to promote d i s c r i m i n a t i o n be-tween the worthy and unworthy poor i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e l i e f , and e f f o r t s t o p r o v i d e employment f o r those out of work. The undercurrent o f v i o l e n c e which accompanied the p e r s i s t e n c e of h a r d s h i p i n the c i t y , as demonstrated by the meetings, marches, and r h e t o r i c of the unemployed w i l l a l s o be examined as i t added a sense of urgency to the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s . Though the L a u r i e r boom f i n a l l y eased the s i t u a t i o n i n Toronto, the e f f o r t s of concerned c i t i z e n s p r o v i d e an i n s i g h t i n t o e a r l y attempts to respond to problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a modern c i t y . The most important i n s t i t u t i o n i n d i r e c t i n g the a f f a i r s o f Toronto was C i t y C o u n c i l . In 1 8 9 0 , C o u n c i l c o n s i s t e d o f 39 a l d e r -men r e p r e s e n t i n g 13 wards. The waste, jobbery, and expense which was a f e a t u r e o f t h i s cumbersome system, prompted c i t i z e n s , e s p e c i a l l y the r a t e p a y e r s , to demand a reformed system o f m u n i c i p a l government. With a d i v i s i o n of e x e c u t i v e and l e g i s l a t i v e f u n c t i o n s , the former to a s m a l l c i v i c c a b i n e t and the l a t t e r to a reduced C o u n c i l , i t was f e l t the conduct of c i v i c a f f a i r s c o u l d be im-proved and a b e t t e r c l a s s of men encouraged to run f o r aldermanic o f f i c e . The e f f o r t s of those who took an i n t e r e s t i n c i v i c reform w i l l be d i s c u s s e d as w e l l as the d i f f i c u l t y they experienced i n f i x i n g on e i t h e r a s p e c i f i c p l a n f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of c i v i c a f f a i r s or the e l e c t i o n of sound, capable c o u n c i l l o r s . The im-p a c t of the r e v e l a t i o n s of aldermanic c o r r u p t i o n i n the l e t t i n g o f c i v i c f r a n c h i s e s , which were brought to l i g h t by the j u d i c i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of 189^, prompted a renewed e f f o r t by the advocates o f m u n i c i p a l reform to 'cleanse the Aegean s t a b l e s ' . Ratepayers, C i t y C o u n c i l , and the g e n e r a l p u b l i c a l l p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s campaign to imprpve the c i t y ' s system of government. The f o l l o w i n g year, C o u n c i l endorsed a p r o p o s a l c a l l i n g f o r a Board of Ad-m i n i s t r a t i o n . The proposed Board was to r e p r e s e n t a s m a l l c i v i c c a b i n e t charged w i t h l e t t i n g m u n i c i p a l f r a n c h i s e s and designed to g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s e i t s f u n c t i o n s w i t h experience gained i n con-t r o l l i n g the c i t y ' s a f f a i r s . The r e l a t i v e i n f l u e n c e of the v a r i o u s groups i n a c h i e v i n g t h i s reform measure w i l l be a s s e s s e d to determine the source of t h i s t h r u s t f o r m u n i c i p a l reform. S h o r t l y a f t e r Toronto i n s t i t u t e d the Board o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , the p r o v i n c i a l government on the request o f A. S. Hardy, C h a i r -man of the M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s Committee, approved a measure which r e q u i r e d the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a Board of C o n t r o l i n a l l c i t i e s w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n of 100,000 or more. A f t e r i n i t i a l r e l u c t a n c e on the p a r t of the p r o v i n c i a l government to support p r o g r e s s i v e measures requested by Toronto, the d e c i s i o n to im-plement a new system o f l o c a l government r e q u i r e s an e x p l a n a t i o n . Some p o s s i b l e reasons w i l l be suggested as w e l l as a b r i e f e v a l u a t i o n o f the success o f the Board of C o n t r o l . The p r o s p e r i t y of Toronto a l s o depended on the p r o v i s i o n of 5 inexpensive s e r v i c e s , such as water, gas, urban t r a n s i t , and e l e c t r i c a l power. The comfort of the c i t i z e n s and the success of business e n t e r p r i s e s i n the c i t y were d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the q u a l i t y and p r i c e at which these s e r v i c e s were provided. This demand f o r inexpensive s e r v i c e s prompted a campaign to have the c i t y supply these needs through a programme of m u n i c i p a l owner-s h i p . The t e r m i n a t i o n of the c i t y ' s s t r e e t r a i l w a y c o n t r a c t i n 1891 w i t h the Company of Senator Frank Smith, provided the ad-vocates of c i v i c o p e r a t i o n w i t h an opportunity to put t h e i r views before the p u b l i c . Despite a vigorous campaign on the p a r t of these i n d i v i d u a l s , C i t y C o u n c i l decided to lease the f r a n c h i s e to the K i e l y - E v e r e t t s y n d i c a t e . The i n f l u e n c e which the supporters of c i v i c ownership e x e r c i s e d on t h i s q u e s t i o n and the reasons f o r C o u n c i l ' s d e c i s i o n to lease the road w i l l be considered. During the remainder of the decade, s e v e r a l other i s s u e s touching on the q u e s t i o n of p u b l i c ownership came up f o r C o u n c i l ' s c o n s i d e r a t i o n , such as the telephone f r a n c h i s e , a system of m u n i c i p a l f i r e insurance, and a m u n i c i p a l e l e c t r i c p l a n t f o r l i g h t i n g the c i t y ' s s t r e e t s and b u i l d i n g s . In each case, the supporters and opponents of municipal ownership w i l l be examined along w i t h the arguments they put forward and the success which they experienced. In o u t l i n i n g these arguments, a growing sense of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h m u n i c i p a l r e g u l a t i o n of these f r a n c h i s e s among var i o u s s e c t i o n s of the community w i l l be demonstrated. The frequent l e g a l b a t t l e s which the c i t y had to i n i t i a t e to f o r c e the p r i v a t e companies to abide by the terms of t h e i r agree-6 ment w i t h the c i t y , turned c i t i z e n s away from the m u n i c i p a l c o n t r o l through c o n t r a c t s and towards m u n i c i p a l ownership through c i v i c o p e r a t i o n . The o p p o s i t i o n which manufacturers expressed over the monopoly p o s i t i o n enjoyed by the Toronto E l e c t r i c L i g h t Company and the hig h r a t e s they charged f o r power, added a r e s p e c t a b i l i t y to the campaign f o r m u n i c i p a l ownership. C o u n c i l responded to t h i s support f o r c i v i c owner-s h i p by f o r m u l a t i n g v a r i o u s p r o p o s a l s f o r having the c i t y p r o v i d e these s e r v i c e s . The f a i l u r e to have these p r o p o s a l s put i n t o a c t u a l o p e r a t i o n w i l l be d i s c u s s e d and the r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h o f the p u b l i c ownership movement a t the end o f the decade w i l l be determined. The t h e s i s thus examines the e a r l y e f f o r t s o f Toronto to respond to those q u e s t i o n s which drew widespread p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n d u r i n g the c l o s i n g decade of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The m o t i v a t i o n s behind these e f f o r t s and the r e l a t i v e success which they achieved w i l l be presented. NOTES 7 J , E, Mid d l e t o n , The M u n i c i p a l i t y o f Toronto - A H i s t o r y I (Toronto: Dominion P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1923), p.337. 2 J . E. MacNab, "Toronto's I n d u s t r i a l Growth to 1891," On t a r i o H i s t o r yM , N o . 2 ( 1 9 5 5 ) , p.73. ^ G. M. Adam, Toronto, Old and New (Toronto: The M a i l P r i n t i n g Company, 1891), p r e f a c e . ^ A B r i e f H i s t o r y of the C i t y from I t s Foundation to the Present Time (Toronto: C o n s o l i d a t e d I l l u s t r a t i n g Company, 1891), p . l 4 . 8 CHAPTER I I CHARITY AND THE CHALLENGE OF THE UNEMPLOYED An important feature of l i f e i n Toronto during the c l o s i n g decade of the century was the qu e s t i o n of r e l i e f f o r the c i t y ' s poor. The p l i g h t of the d e s t i t u t e was g r a d u a l l y perceived as re p r e s e n t i n g more than j u s t a case of improvident personal h a b i t s . Concerned c i t i z e n s , faced w i t h what appeared to be a long term business slump, saw the need of p r o v i d i n g f o r the l e s s f o r t u n a t e members of s o c i e t y i n an organized manner. The mounting evidence of hunger and s u f f e r i n g generated a se r i o u s p u b l i c debate as c i t i z e n s attempted to define the nature of the poverty problem and, to respond to the problem i n l i g h t of t h a t understanding. A l l s e c t i o n s of the community - business, l a b o u r , c l e r g y , women, and s o c i a l reformers - p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . T h e i r a t t i t u d e s and the*ir remedies provide an opportunity of observing an ex-ten s i v e network of r e l i e f agencies i n a l a t e V i c t o r i a n Canadian community and the p r e v a i l i n g a t t i t u d e s upon which those i n s t i t u -t i o n s were based. Economic hardship was not unique to Canada i n the 1890's. The economic d i f f i c u l t i e s of the 1870's had l e d to hard times f o r some. At t h a t time, there was no p u b l i c response e q u i v a l e n t to t h a t of twenty years l a t e r . The newspapers, r e f l e c t i n g a charac-t e r i s t i c m i d - V i c t o r i a n L i b e r a l i s m * , d i d not provide a forum f o r d i s c u s s i n g the p l i g h t of the poor and, as a r e s u l t , p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n was not focused on the problem. The Globe, the c h i e f exponent of Ontario L i b e r a l i s m , presented a harsh, Malthusian a t t i t u d e to p u b l i c r e l i e f . Poverty was viewed more as a moral 9 problem, and the poor were u s u a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d as l a z y o r 2 i n d o l e n t . A few y e a r s l a t e r , o p i n i o n had n o t g r e a t l y changed.. I n 1884, the C h r i s t i a n G u a r d i a n s t a t e d : "We have no f a i t h i n the a b o l i t i o n o f p o v e r t y by any laws t h a t can be made i n l e g i s l a t u r e s . . . The b e s t a n t i - p o v e r t y s o c i e t y i s an a s s o c i a t i o n o f men who would adopt as t h e i r g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e i n l i f e i n d u s t r y , s o b r i e t y , economy and i n t e l l i g e n c e . - ^ Such an a t t i t u d e can b e s t be viewed a g a i n s t the background o f an i m p r o v i n g economy w h i c h Canada e x p e r i e n c e d i n the e a r l y 1880's as a r e s u l t o f s t i m u l a t i o n by the N a t i o n a l P o l i c y and an improve-ment i n w o r l d economic c o n d i t i o n s . D e s p i t e the buoyant o p t i m i s m o f t h i s p e r i o d , the seeds o f d e s p a i r were b e i n g sown. The economic improvement w h i c h f o l l o w e d the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the N a t i o n a l P o l i c y r a i s e d e x p e c t a t i o n s and many im m i g r a n t s and r u r a l r e s i d e n t s , were drawn t o Toronto i n s e a r c h o f employment. Thus, when the economy too k a downswing i n the l a t e 1880's, e a r l y 1890*s, l a r g e u r b an c e n t r e s were f a c e d w i t h e x p a n d i n g p o p u l a t i o n s , a g r o w i n g p e r c e n t a g e o f w h i c h l a c k e d adequate means o f s u p p o r t . I t was the p r e s s u r e on r e l i e f a g e n c i e s w h i c h t h i s i n c r e a s e produced t h a t " p r e c i p i t a t e d a q u i c k e n i n g i n c r e a s e i n new forms o f s o c i a l t h o u g h t and a c t i o n among a g r o w i n g group o f C h r i s t i a n m i n i s t e r s and laymen."-^ T h i s i n t e r e s t p a r t l y stemmed from a c o n c e r n o v e r the p r e s e n c e o f a g r o w i n g c l a s s o f tramps i n the c i t y . I n the l a t e 1880*s f c i t i z e n s became al a r m e d a t the a p p a r e n t i n c r e a s e i n the number o f v a g r a n t s w a n d e r i n g i n t o the c i t y and making T o r o n t o t h e i r w i n t e r home.^ Many r e s i d e n t s f e l t t h a t T o r o n t o was the dumping ground f o r vagabonds from the s u r r o u n d i n g c o u n t r y s i d e . The 10 a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of Toronto stemmed from the g e n e r o s i t y of i t s r e s i d e n t s : The tramps have "begun t h e i r w i n t e r m i g r a t i o n to the c i t i e s . They now f i n d t h a t the a i r of t h e i r country haunts i s a l i t t l e too b r a c i n g f o r t h e i r l e i s u r e l y h a b i t s . . . He t h e r e f o r e h i v e s h i m s e l f to the c i t y where the g r e a t h e a r t of c h a r i t y p u l s a t e s more s t r o n g l y than i n the s p a r s e l y s e t t l e d r u r a l d i s t r i c t s . Canada's b r i s k w i n t e r s were not as s t r o n g d e t e r r e n t s to vagrancy o as some had hoped. Having moved to the c i t y , the tramp began an endless round of t r i p s to the v a r i o u s r e l i e f c e n t r e s where a i d might be r e c e i v e d or, he s t a t i o n e d h i m s e l f a t a s u i t a b l e s t r e e t o c o r n e r where begging might be p r o f i t a b l y pursued. The i n c r e a s i n g number of c a s u a l s who looked to p r i v a t e benevolence f o r food and l o d g i n g d i d not completely hide the presence of r e a l s u f f e r i n g among a d i f f e r e n t group of poor. In 1886, the Globe observed a t a f r e e b r e a k f a s t h e l d by one of the c i t y ' s churches on Sunday morning, t h a t many i n attendance appeared i n t e l l i g e n t and r e s p e c t a b l e . The paper concluded: "There must be a good d e a l of h a r d s h i p i n the c i t y which i s not 10 a t t r i b u t a b l e to any f a u l t of the i u f f e r e r s . " The presence of h a r d s h i p and p r i v a t i o n among r e s i d e n t s of the c i t y c o n t i n u e d to a t t r a c t the a t t e n t i o n of the c i t y ' s p r e s s . In December, 1889, a Telegram r e p o r t e r checked w i t h the s e c r e t a r y of one of the c i t y ' s benevolent s o c i e t i e s to get an i d e a o f the amount of d e s t i t u t i o n i n the c i t y . The s e c r e t a r y r e p l i e d : The r e p o r t o f the House of I n d u s t r y shows t h a t some 1 ,277 f a m i l i e s over-embracing 5»556 persons were g i v e n outdoor r e l i e f l a s t y ear. Now, the p o p u l a t i o n of Toronto i s 180,000, of these 5i556 or 1 i n 32 are r e c e i v i n g r e l i e f from the House of I n d u s t r y . A l l the o t h e r c h a r i t a b l e i n s t i t u t i o n s of the c i t y must a i d a t l e a s t 1,644 persons who don't get a i d from the House of I n d u s t r y , so t h a t would b r i n g the number up to 1 i n 25. I t h i n k 1 i n 25 i s a moderate c a l c u l a t i o n . Mayor E. F. C l a r k e , i n h i s i n a u g u r a l address to the new C o u n c i l of 1890, disputed t h i s f i g u r e , c l a i m i n g the s i t u a t i o n was not as se r i o u s as i t seemed, " I t h i n k i t i s f a i r to assume th a t t h i s aggregate i n c l u d e s many who were r e l i e v e d a dozen times or oft e n e r [ s i c ] ." 1 2 13 Whatever the exact f i g u r e , i t was c l e a r t h a t the w i n t e r months of 1889-1890 had presented a s e r i o u s problem f o r many f a m i l i e s i n the c i t y . The need f o r large q u a n t i t i e s of f o o d , f u e l , and warm c l o t h i n g made heavy demands on l i m i t e d incomes and, the s c a r c i t y of employment a t t h i s time of year, meant that many f a m i l i e s s u f f e r e d . The resumption of work i n the s p r i n g on the c i t y ' s p u b l i c works and i n the b u i l d i n g trades helped ease the •pinch of poverty'. One c h a r i t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n was able to r e p o r t t h a t they would di s c o n t i n u e t h e i r good work at the end of March "by which time those who are i n need, w i l l be b e t t e r able to look 14 a f t e r themselves." With the approach of w i n t e r and the accompanying increased demand f o r r e l i e f , the executive committees of the var i o u s c h a r i -t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s met to p l a n t h e i r programme f o r the upcoming c h a r i t a b l e season, which u s u a l l y ran from November to March. Another bad year was a n t i c i p a t e d and, by mid-winter, i t was apparent t h a t the c i t y was again faced w i t h the problem of poverty. Members of the A s s o c i a t e d C h a r i t i e s , a combined a s s o c i a t i o n of p r i v a t e p h i l a n t h r o p i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s , reported that a rush had come upon them i n l a t e December and there were more people i n want 1 *5 than ever before. J At a meeting l a t e i n January, 1891, the chairman of the Outdoor R e l i e f Committee of the House of Industry reported t h a t since May, 1890, more than 1 ,500 f a m i l i e s had been 12 a s s i s t e d . He added that the heavy demand on the House of Industry's resources was due, not to an increase i n the casual wards, but to d i s t r e s s among r e s i d e n t s of the c i t y , which was b e l i e v e d to be from o n e - t h i r d more to double the dimension of d i s t r e s s i n 16 former years. The s i t u a t i o n continued to d e t e r i o r a t e and, e a r l y i n February, a growing sense of anger and f r u s t r a t i o n among those s u f f e r i n g from the widespread d i s t r e s s , l e d to ' d i r e c t a c t i o n ' by the men to demonstrate t h e i r desperate c o n d i t i o n . In response to an anonymously published c i r c u l a r c a l l i n g f o r a meeting of the unemployed, s e v e r a l hundred men gathered at S t . Andrew's Square, u n f u r l e d a black f l a g bearing the motto "Work or Bread" and marched to c i t y h a l l . T h e i r ranks had increased to n e a r l y three thousand men by the time they reached the steps of c i t y h a l l . The Mayor addressed the demonstrators and, amid frequent i n -t e r r u p t i o n s , s t a t e d that the c i t y was pushing ahead as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e on the c i t y ' s p u b l i c works. The men a l s o heard speeches from s e v e r a l labour l e a d e r s , then p e a c e f u l l y disbanded. The f o l l o w i n g day, another group of demonstrators made t h e i r way to c i t y h a l l and appointed three delegates to confer w i t h the Mayor. The delegates l a t e r informed the men t h a t they had ob-ta i n e d a promise of d i r e c t a s s i s t a n c e by C i t y C o u n c i l . That afternoon, the aldermen passed a s p e c i a l a p p r o p r i a t i o n of $5,000.00 f o r the the c l e a n i n g of the c i t y ' s s t r e e t s by those 17 seeking work. ' The Mayor a l s o requested a s p e c i a l meeting of the A s s o c i a t e d C h a r i t i e s , a sking the members to determine the extent of d i s t r e s s and consider whether any s p e c i a l measures were r e q u i r e d . The 13 chairman c f the a s s o c i a t i o n conveyed the r e s u l t s of the meeting to C o u n c i l i n a l e t t e r : I t appears that there i s at present a s c a r c i t y of employment and t h a t men r e a l l y desirous of work are unable to o b t a i n i t , or o b t a i n i t i n only s t i n t e d measure. The c h i e f causes of t h i s are the suspension of a c t i v i t y i n the b u i l d i n g trades and the discharge of labourers from c i t y works. 18 The members of the a s s o c i a t i o n urged C o u n c i l to resume the c i t y ' s programme of p u b l i c works. Thus, the committee recognized t h a t some of the hardship was among i n d u s t r i o u s and respectable s e c t i o n s of the p o p u l a t i o n . They a l s o saw the problem as a temporary one, r e q u i r i n g only the resumption of the c i t y ' s works p r o j e c t s to reduce the degree of want. Reports from other c h a r i t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s confirmed the op i n i o n t h a t d e s t i t u t i o n was i n c r e a s i n g among the lower orders of the c i t y ' s p o p u l a t i o n . An o f f i c e r of the S a l v a t i o n Army s t a t e d t h a t they had a s s i s t e d more than 2,000 f a m i l i e s d u r i n g the w i n t e r 19 months. 7 The House of Industry claimed t h a t from A p r i l , 1890, to A p r i l , 1891, the Outdoor R e l i e f Committee had provided r e l i e f f o r 2 , 0 3 3 f a m i l i e s at a cost of $12,600.00. For the same p e r i o d i n 1889-1890, the House had a s s i s t e d 1,149, whi l e i n 1888-1889, 20 the f i g u r e was 1,280. This l e d one of the d i r e c t o r s of the House to s a d l y remark th a t one person i n every twenty was r e c e i v i n g 21 r e l i e f from the House of Industry. And t h i s from only one of the many c h a r i t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the c i t y l The p r e s s i n g need of those who had s u f f e r e d during the w i n t e r was soon f o r g o t t e n amidst the renewed business impetus of the summer months of 1891. Even i n t o l a t e f a l l and e a r l y w i n t e r , there were i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t the s i t u a t i o n was not as s e r i o u s as the previous year. Charles T a y l o r , who a s s i s t e d the Mayor i n d e a l i n g Ik w i t h the number of people coming to c i t y h a l l i n search of a s s i s -tance, had made i n q u i r i e s among c o n t r a c t o r s i n the c i t y and d i d not expect any l a r g e i n c r e a s e i n the number o f those s e e k i n g r e l i e f . T h i s g e n e r a l impression r e g a r d i n g c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n Toronto was r e i n f o r c e d by the f i n d i n g s of a group o f C h r i s t i a n workers who r e p o r t e d t h a t the numbers a t t e n d i n g t h e i r f r e e Sunday b r e a k f a s t had d e c l i n e d from the p r e v i o u s y e a r . Among the benevolent s o c i e t i e s , there was a r e t u r n to s t r i c t enforcement of r e g u l a t i o n s a f t e r a r e l a x a t i o n of the r u l e s d u r i n g the p e r i o d of d i s t r e s s the p r e v i o u s year. T h i s e a s i n g o f the problem o f p o v e r t y i n Toronto was a r e s p i t e not the t u r n i n g of a c o r n e r . The slow season i n February, 1 8 9 2 , produced no demonstrations, but there was s t i l l no c e r t a i n t y t h a t severe p r i v a t i o n would not make i t s e l f f e l t a g a i n i n the c i t y . T h i s i n t e r l u d e p r o v i d e d a b r e a t h i n g s p e l l i n which a c a r e f u l , d e t a i l e d study of the e n t i r e s t r u c t u r e of c h a r i t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the c i t y c o u l d have been made and some b e n e f i c i a l reforms i n t r o d u c e d . However, without the prompting of i n c r e a s e d need f o r t h e i r s e r v i c e s , the a s s o c i a t i o n s were unable to t a c k l e the problem. When the demand f o r r e l i e f i n c r e a s e d , they were too p r e o c c u p i e d p r o v i d i n g a s s i s t a n c e to c o n s i d e r p o s s i b l e reforms. The w i n t e r of 1 8 9 2 - 1 8 9 3 , saw a r e t u r n to the c o n d i t i o n s of h a r d s h i p and s u f f e r i n g , and a g a i n the c r y of hunger was heard i n the c i t y . One of Toronto's major r e l i e f s o c i e t i e s r e p o r t e d e a r l y i n February, 18931 t h a t a t the h e i g h t of the bad weather they had g i v e n food to over 500 f a m i l i e s who would otherwise have been i n a most p i t i a b l e c o n d i t i o n . S t a t i s t i c s from the House of I n d u s t r y showed t h a t between November and January, I , ? l 6 f a m i l i e s had been a s s i s t e d . The average c o s t o f t h i s r e l i e f was $7-50 p e r f a m i l y 22 and the d i f f i c u l t months o f F e b r u a r y and March were s t i l l ahead. The b e n e v o l e n t s o c i e t i e s a l s o e x p e r i e n c e d an i n c r e a s e d demand upon t h e i r r e s o u r c e s . The S t . George's S o c i e t y r e p o r t e d t h a t r e l i e f had been g i v e n t o 120 f a m i l i e s . From a l l t h e s e r e p o r t s , J o h n B a i l i e , s e c r e t a r y o f the I r i s h P r o t e s t a n t B e n e v o l e n t S o c i e t y , c o n c l u d e d t h a t i f the a i d g i v e n by the p r i v a t e a s s o c i a t i o n s was added t o t h a t o f the o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s , one f a m i l y i n s e v e n t e e n was r e c e i v i n g a s s i s t a n c e . 2 - ^ Once a g a i n , i t was the w i n t e r months w h i c h p r o v e d most d i f f i c u l t f o r s e a s o n a l w o r k e r s . By A p r i l , 1893» the s i t u a t i o n had eased somewhat and the Telegram was a b l e t o r e p o r t t h a t some t h i r t e e n hundred men had been t a k e n on by the . 24 c i t y , a t a c o s t o f $10,000.00 a week. The f o l l o w i n g w i n t e r o f 1893-1894, the e x t e n t o f p r i v a t i o n and want i n the c i t y t o o k a marked t u r n f o r the worse. A slow p e r i o d i n the b u i l d i n g and o t h e r t r a d e s combined w i t h an ' o l d -f a s h i o n e d C a n a d i a n w i n t e r ' t o l e a v e hundreds o f f a m i l i e s i n need o f f o o d , f u e l , and c l o t h i n g . The r e p o r t s o f the v a r i o u s c h a r i t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o l d a g r i m t a l e o f s u f f e r i n g among the p o o r o f the c i t y . The House o f I n d u s t r y f i g u r e s showed t h a t from the b e g i n n i n g o f December, 1893, t o F e b r u a r y , 1894, more t h a n 2,000 f a m i l i e s had been a s s i s t e d by the Outdoor R e l i e f Committee, T h i s r e p r e s e n t e d an i n c r e a s e o f o v e r 250 f a m i l i e s f o r the same p e r i o d OK the p r e v i o u s y e a r . J The a n n u a l r e p o r t f o r the House o f I n d u s t r y i n May, 1894, r e v e a l e d t h a t 2,343 f a m i l i e s , amounting t o n e a r l y 10 , 7 0 0 p e r s o n s had been r e l i e v e d . The c o s t t o t h i s one i n s t i t u t i o n was c l o s e t o $28,000.00. A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t c h a r i t a b l e i n s t i t u t i o n , the T o r o n t o R e l i e f S o c i e t y , r e p o r t e d t h a t 16 27 i t was p r o v i d i n g food and f u e l f o r over 1 ,500 f a m i l i e s . The s i t u a t i o n appeared to peak i n l a t e February when c o n d i t i o n s among the c i t y ' s unfortunate groups, reached c r i t i c a l p r o p o r t i o n s . The Globe conducted a s e r i e s of i n t e r v i e w s and found t h a t the hardest h i t s e c t i o n appeared to be the b u i l d i n g trades: The penury and hunger i n Toronto i s c h i e f l y among men engaged i n outdoor labour of a l l s o r t s , but e s p e c i a l l y i n the b u i l d i n g t r a d e s , and t h e i r sad p l i g h t i s the r e s u l t of a succession of hard seasons t h a t l e f t the men i n a c r i p p l e d p o s i t i o n f i n a n c i a l l y during a w i n t e r when not a tenth of the work formerly a v a i l a b l e had been obtained. 28 This mounting evidence of widespread d e s t i t u t i o n i n Toronto revealed the existence of severe, economic hardship among c e r t a i n groups i n the c i t y . A seasonal l u l l i n the b u i l d i n g t r a d e s , and other outdoor t r a d e s , had l e f t many labourers short of the n e c e s s i t i e s of l i f e . The r e s u l t i n g increased demand f o r a s s i s t a n c e prompted a response from the C h r i s t i a n conscience of Toronto, and c i t i z e n s responded w i t h food, money, and c l o t h i n g . However, the presence of many l a z y and i n d o l e n t paupers among the c i t y ' s poor n e c e s s i t a t e d a c a r e f u l d i s c r e t i o n i n dispensing r e l i e f , to ensure t h a t only the deserving poor r e c e i v e d a s s i s t a n c e . The i d e a of worthy poor and unworthy poor had been elaborated by D. A. 0 ' S u l l i v a n , i n a paper d e l i v e r e d before the Canadian I n s t i t u t e i n 1885. In h i s d i s c u s s i o n of "Organized C h a r i t y " , O ' S u l l i v a n argued t h a t there were three c l a s s e s of poor: the s i c k , aged, and i n f i r m who were unable to work? the l a z y and the improvident who were u n w i l l i n g to work; and f i n a l l y those honest, i n d u s t r i o u s men f o r whom there was no work to do. The f i r s t category was a separate c l a s s and e a s i l y recognizable as r e q u i r i n g s t a t e a i d . But what of the l a t t e r two c l a s s e s ? In 17 r a i s i n g t h i s q u e s t i o n , 0 ' S u l l i v a n s u c c i n c t l y described the main t h r u s t of the debate on the c h a r i t y problem: What i s to be done f o r the honest poor who d e s i r e to b e t t e r t h e i r c o n d i t i o n and what remedies can be o f f e r e d to repress the degrading process by which a poor man becomes a pauper? How i n f a c t can the worthy poor be enabled to help themselves, and how can the pauper and the tramp be exterminated? 29 The danger of i n d i s c r i m i n a t e c h a r i t y was the f o s t e r i n g of a s p i r i t of dependency among those r e c e i v i n g alms. The p h i l a n t h r o p i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s which attempted to meet the p r e s s i n g need f o r r e l i e f , were conscious of t h i s danger, and employed a system of i n v e s t i g a t i o n and i n c e n t i v e s i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e i r r e l i e f . The House of Industry, one of the o l d e s t i n s t i t u t i o n s p r o v i d i n g r e l i e f f o r the c i t y ' s poor through i t s Outdoor Committee, used a 30 board of i n s p e c t o r s to assess the a p p l i c a n t s ' need. Depending on the i n s p e c t o r ' s r e p o r t , q u a n t i t i e s of bread and f u e l were given to the a p p l i c a n t . The House a l s o operated a soup k i t c h e n w i t h d i s p e n s a r i e s set up i n s e v e r a l areas of the c i t y . Vouchers f o r soup could be obtained from an i n s p e c t o r and were renewable on a weekly b a s i s . The c i t y annually provided a grant to the House to c o n t r i b u t e towards the outdoor r e l i e f administered by the 31 House .-^  The Toronto R e l i e f S o c i e t y used a work t e s t as w e l l as i n s p e c t i o n to discourage imposture. The S o c i e t y d i v i d e d the c i t y i n t o f o u r t e e n u n i t s , each w i t h a s e c r e t a r y , superintendent, and a number of lady v i s i t o r s . D e p o s i t o r i e s were l o c a t e d i n each d i s t r i c t from which r e l i e f was dispensed to the needy. A p p l i c a n t s f o r a s s i s t a n c e were r e q u i r e d to c o n t r i b u t e labour i n some u s e f u l c a p a c i t y : The s o c i e t y a p p l i e s the work t e s t i n two ways:(l) Work i s given from the d e p o s i t o r i e s f o r which women are p a i d i n p r o v i s i o n s or f u e l . (2) Each season, the board appoints a committee known as the 18 I n d u s t r i a l Room Committee, who take charge of a c e n t r a l room where work i s given to women sent by the superintendents, f o r which they are p a i d i n money. 32 The work u s u a l l y i n v o l v e d sewing, k n i t t i n g and garment making. The I n d u s t r i a l Room was regarded as p a r t i c u l a r l y b e n e f i c i a l both to the women a s s i s t e d and to the s o c i e t y . I t not only c o n t r i b u t e d to the a l l e v i a t i o n of poverty and s u f f e r i n g but a l s o encouraged the s p i r i t of self-dependence among the poor of the c i t y . Women were able to improve t h e i r t a l e n t s and s k i l l s i n these important domestic a r t s , while the s o c i e t y obtained garments which could be used by the numerous orphanages i n the c i t y . A s i m i l a r i n s t i t u t i o n was the Ontario Depository of Ladies Work.-^ The object of the s o c i e t y was to a s s i s t l a d i e s i n d i f f i c u l t circum-stances by c u l t i v a t i n g t h e i r t a l e n t s and p r o v i d i n g them w i t h a s u i t a b l e place f o r the e x h i b i t i o n and s a l e of t h e i r work. Besides c l o t h i n g , women d i s p l a y e d preserves, p a i n t i n g s and other home-made a r t o b j e c t s . The c i t y a l s o had s e v e r a l missions which provided care and as s i s t a n c e f o r the urban poor. I n 1885, W i l l i a m Howland organized the Toronto M i s s i o n Union to encourage the wealthy c i t i z e n s of Toronto to provide a s s i s t a n c e f o r the l e s s fortunate members of s o c i e t y . The M i s s i o n g r a d u a l l y expanded to inc l u d e s e v e r a l branches. The Deaconess Home M i s s i o n c o n s i s t e d of v o l u n t a r y workers who went out to the p o v e r t y - s t r i c k e n d i s t r i c t s of the c i t y to give comfort and a s s i s t a n c e to the d e s t i t u t e . The workers helped poor f a m i l i e s w i t h house c l e a n i n g , preparing meals, and c a r i n g f o r the c h i l d r e n . For working mothers, the M i s s i o n operated the Creeche, a day nursery which provided f o r as many as 50 i n f a n t s at a nominal charge of ten cents a day. The 19 Nursing-at-Home M i s s i o n a l s o d i d good work, sending t r a i n e d nurses out to v i s i t among the s i c k poor. Besides r e n d e r i n g m e d i c a l a t t e n t i o n , the nurse would o f t e n d i s t r i b u t e t e a , m i l k , eggs, and other n o u r i s h i n g food. In a d d i t i o n to d i r e c t a i d , the m i s s i o n s o r g a n i z e d e d u c a t i o n a l and p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g f o r the depressed p o p u l a t i o n . The S t . Andrew's I n s t i t u t e p r o v i d e d evening c l a s s e s f o r the s c h o o l i n g of young men and women. L a t e r cooking and sewing c l a s s e s were e s t a b l i s h e d , so t h a t g i r l s would be accomplished i n the domestic a r t s and equipped to p r o p e r l y care f o r t h e i r f a m i l i e s . The F r e d V i c t o r M i s s i o n a l s o p r o v i d e d e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s through i t s n i g h t s c h o o l programme and attempted to encourage the h a b i t s o f t h r i f t and s a v i n g w i t h the development of i t s penny sav i n g s bank. Even youth got i n v o l v e d i n the c i t y ' s m i s s i o n work. The Boys Band of M i s s i o n H e l p e r s had s i x t e e n a c t i v e workers doing good work among the c i t y ' s poor. The p r i v a t e p h i l a n t h r o p y which the missions a d m i n i s t e r e d p l a y e d an important r o l e i n p r o v i d i n g a s s i s t a n c e f o r the depressed c l a s s e s o f Toronto. Through t h e i r c h a r i t a b l e work d i r e c t l y among the poor, they helped ease the misery and s u f f e r i n g which was a f e a t u r e of Toronto's growth i n the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The s p i r i t u a l needs of the poor were p r o v i d e d f o r along 34 w i t h the m a t e r i a l needs. The Toronto C i t y M i s s i o n ^ had s e v e r a l r o v i n g waggons t r a v e l l i n g through the c i t y , d i s p e n s i n g the word o f God and cups of soup to the d e s t i t u t e . The C i t y M i s s i o n a r y , Robert H a l l , d a i l y v i s i t e d the poor, b r i n g i n g them the message of the g o s p e l and whatever food and c l o t h i n g the M i s s i o n c o u l d o b t a i n . The Church of the Ascension, under the p a s t o r s h i p of 20 Reverend H. G. Dixon, sponsored a f r e e Sunday b r e a k f a s t f o r a l l who wished to a t t e n d . The meal of sandwiches and c o f f e e was f o l l o w e d by a simple r e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e of hymn s i n g i n g and b i b l e l e s s o n s . T h i s mixture of ' s a l v a t i o n and sandwiches' was c r i t i c i z e d by some who f e l t i t c o n t r i b u t e d to the p a u p e r i z a t i o n of the poor. Reverend Dixon defended the work of the f r e e Sunday b r e a k f a s t , c l a i m i n g t h a t even the lowest of the low were being r e c l a i m e d and encouraged to l i v e r e s p e c t a b l e l i v e s : The tramp i s a f t e r a l l , a human being, and no doubt someone's son or husband. The q u e s t i o n people s h o u l d ask themselves, i s what would C h r i s t do, then a c t a c c o r d i n g l y . 35 The c h a r i t a b l e workers who helped these i n d i v i d u a l s were responding to the p l i g h t o f human misery whether s e l f - i n f l i c t e d or not. They were a l l c h i l d r e n of C h r i s t and t h e r e f o r e worthy of h e l p . P a r t of the m i s s i o n e f f o r t to. help the poor was i t s support f o r the campaign to stamp out the l i q u o r e v i l . The d e b i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t s of drunkeness were d a i l y v i s i b l e to those v i s i t i n g among the depressed c l a s s e s . They f e l t t h a t i f husbands and, i n some cases, wives and mothers, c o u l d be l e d away from d r i n k , more money would be a v a i l a b l e f o r b e t t e r food and c l o t h i n g , and harmony would be r e s t o r e d to domestic l i f e . They d i d not, however, re g a r d d r i n k and improvident l i v i n g as the s i n g l e cause of d e s t i t u t i o n among the poor. I t was r e c o g n i z e d t h a t wretched l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s , o n l y c a s u a l employment, and p e r s o n a l m i s f o r t u n e c o u l d d r i v e men to d r i n k . P o v e r t y c o u l d l e a d to intemperance as w e l l as r e s u l t from i t . 3 6 T h i s r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t s o c i a l e v i l s c o u l d r e s u l t from an i n i q u i t o u s s o c i a l system r e p r e s e n t e d the s t i r r i n g s o f the s o c i a l g o s p e l among some of the c i t y ' s C h r i s t i a n p o p u l a t i o n . I t prompted some C h r i s t i a n m i n i s t e r s to t r y and remedy the imbalance 21 by a p p l y i n g the teachings of C h r i s t to business and personal a f f a i r s . - ^ ? Besides r e l i g i o u s and p h i l a n t h r o p i c a s s o c i a t i o n s , there were s e v e r a l benevolent s o c i e t i e s a c t i v e i n Toronto. There were three kinds of benevolent a s s o c i a t i o n s : the n a t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s , the f r a t e r n a l lodges, and the occupational c l u b s . I t i s i n d i c a t i v e of the n o n - B r i t i s h character of Toronto's p o p u l a t i o n , s m a l l though i t was, t h a t there were s e v e r a l other a s s o c i a t i o n s apart from the I r i s h , E n g l i s h , and Scot. The I t a l i a n s had two s o c i e t i e s - ^ , the Hebrews, two benevolent o r g a n i z a t i o n s and s e v e r a l other 39 40 c h a r i t a b l e bodies^ , and the Germans, one . There were sm a l l groups of Chinese and Negroes i n Toronto but there are no records to determine i f they had benevolent a s s o c i a t i o n s i n existence i n the 1890's. The general aim of these s o c i e t i e s was o u t l i n e d i n an address by P r e s i d e n t McMaster of the I r i s h P r o t e s t a n t Benevolent S o c i e t y . Though d i r e c t e d to h i s own a s s o c i a t i o n , the Pr e s i d e n t ' s remarks were a p p l i c a b l e to other n a t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s . He t o l d the members t h a t "the purposes of the s o c i e t y were to a i d immigrants of I r i s h b i r t h on t h e i r f i r s t coming to the c i t y , to secure them p o s i t i o n s , and to help them become good c i t i z e n s and l o y a l s u b j e c t s . " Toronto a l s o had s e v e r a l c h a r i t a b l e i n s t i t u t i o n s designed to meet c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c needs. The numerous orphanages, rescue missions f o r c o n v i c t s , f a l l e n women and unwed mothers, l o d g i n g houses, and free medical d i s p e n s a r i e s formed p a r t of the ex-tensive network of a s s o c i a t i o n s which took as t h e i r object the 42 care of the c i t y ' s poor and depressed p o p u l a t i o n . With a l l these c h a r i t a b l e i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the c i t y , many 22 c i t i z e n s expressed the f e a r t h a t r e l i e f was not being a d m i n i s t e r e d i n a d i s c r i m i n a t e and j u d i c i o u s manner. In an e f f o r t to reduce the number of unworthy poor r e c e i v i n g alms and to help check f r a u d and o v e r l a p p i n g , s e v e r a l c h a r i t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s combined i n 1879-1880 J t to form the A s s o c i a t e d C h a r i t i e s . Regular meetings were h e l d d u r i n g the w i n t e r months, where delegates from the v a r i o u s c h a r i t a b l e bodies would exchange i n f o r m a t i o n on c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n the c i t y and the names of f a m i l i e s they were a s s i s t i n g . With the i n c r e a s e i n the vagrant p o p u l a t i o n , and the r i s i n g i n c i d e n c e of d e s t i t u t i o n i n the c i t y , the a s s o c i a t i o n began to p r e s s f o r a more comprehensive approach to the problem of r e -l i e v i n g the c i t y ' s poor. At the annual meeting o f the A s s o c i a t e d C h a r i t i e s i n 1889, P r e s i d e n t Goldwin Smith informed the d e l e g a t e s t h a t the c i t y ' s i n f o r m a l , v o l u n t a r y system of r e l i e f was u n s u i t e d to meet the r i s i n g l e v e l of poverty: "What s u f f i c e d f o r a p o p u l a t i o n of twenty, or even of f i f t y , thousand, w i l l not s u f f i c e f o r a p o p u l a t i o n of one hundred and e i g h t y thousand w i t h a p r o s p e c t of f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e . " J Smith went on to suggest t h a t a s s i s t a n c e f o r the c h r o n i c poor c o u l d b e s t be a d m i n i s t e r e d by a p u b l i c body, having the a u t h o r i t y to encourage the d e s t i t u t e and d i s c i p l i n e the unworthy: I t i s a g r e a t mistake to suppose t h a t p u b l i c c h a r i t y r e g u l a r l y and j u s t l y a d m i n i s t e r e d demoralizes or degrades more than p r i v a t e c h a r i t y , which through ignorance and want of time f o r the examination of cases, must o f t e n be dispensed w i t h a l a v i s h and c a p r i c i o u s hand." 46 The f o l l o w i n g year, Smith a g a i n drew the a s s o c i a t i o n ' s a t t e n t i o n to the h a r d s h i p p r e v a l e n t w i t h i n the c i t y . Immigration, s t r i k e s , and an epidemic had produced much hard s h i p among the c i t y ' s poor. D i s t r e s s was even r e a c h i n g i n t o the ranks of the r e s p e c t a b l e , 23 i n d u s t r i o u s c i t i z e n r y . A s s i s t a n c e provided by the c i t y ' s c h a r i t a b l e agencies helped r e l i e v e some of the s u f f e r i n g , but could the poor always count on the ge n e r o s i t y of the p u b l i c ? What about those c i t i z e n s who had no sense of C h r i s t i a n duty? How were tramps and paupers to be discouraged? These were some of the vexing problems which Smith set before the conference. The urgency of these questions become apparent i n February, 1891, when the march to c i t y h a l l took p l a c e . At the emergency meeting of the As s o c i a t e d C h a r i t i e s , the members observed t h a t d i s t r e s s had increased and c a l l e d f o r a review of the c i t y ' s c h a r i t a b l e system. In October, 1891, Mayor Clarke appointed a C h a r i t y Commission, composed of s e v e r a l l e a d i n g f i g u r e s i n the c h a r i t y f i e l d , f o r the purpose of " d e v i s i n g means to meet the demand f o r c h a r i t y . . . and to formulate a permanent scheme f o r the b e t t e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of r e l i e f funds." ' The commission decided to address a s e r i e s of questions to s e l e c t i n d i v i d u a l s , and a committee was appointed to draw up the qu e s t i o n n a i r e . The Globe drew the committee's a t t e n t i o n to the major d i f f i c u l t y a r i s i n g from the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of p r i v a t e c h a r i t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the c i t y : "At present each s o c i e t y f i g h t s f o r i t s own hand, there i s ^ . l i t t l e communication between them, and as a consequence the p r o f e s s i o n a l beggar f l o u r i s h e s exceedingly." The paper went on to suggest t h a t the ' s i l e n t poor', who were too proud to seek c h a r i t y , were not being a s s i s t e d by r e l i e f agencies and i t was both t r a g i c and w a s t e f u l to g r i n d these respectable poor between the m i l l s t o n e s of poverty. 24 As a remedy f o r t h i s e v i l , the C h a r i t y Commission considered the p o s s i b i l i t y of c h a n n e l l i n g c h a r i t a b l e r e l i e f through one c e n t r a l body. The i d e a of a c e n t r a l , c h a r i t a b l e bureau had e a r l i e r been suggested by O ' S u l l i v a n i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of systematic c h a r i t y . He had urged the c r e a t i o n of a c e n t r a l board which would act as "an a l l i a n c e , o f f e n s i v e f o r economy, thorough-ness and e f f i c i e n c y of a l l such o r g a n i z a t i o n s of p u b l i c o f f i c i a l r e l i e f , and of congregational and i n d i v i d u a l beneficence, i n t o one co-operative and harmonious body, mai n t a i n i n g i n t e r c o u r s e and comparison through one c e n t r a l agency, and pledged to u n i t e d and concurrent e f f o r t s f o r the suppression of the pauper and the rescue of the deserving poor."^^ Such a bureau would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r keeping a r e g i s t e r of a l l those r e c e i v i n g a s s i s t a n c e from a p r i v a t e or p u b l i c agency. Inspectors would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r keeping a r e c o r d of those who were in.: need, and s u p p l y i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n to churches and other c h a r i t a b l e groups. The bureau was intended to supplement r a t h e r than supplant p r i v a t e agencies, thus e l i m i n a t i n g c o n f l i c t s r e garding areas of j u r i s d i c t i o n . The i d e a of a c e n t r a l bureau was a l s o supported by Goldwin Smith and as chairman of the C h a r i t y Commission, he u t i l i z e d the opportunity to present C o u n c i l w i t h a comprehensive p l a n f o r such an agency. The object of Smith's proposals was to ensure t h a t c h a r i t a b l e funds were d i r e c t e d to those deserving of such r e l i e f . To achieve t h i s g o a l , he recommended tha t the Commission serve as a c e n t r a l bureau f o r the r e g i s t r a t i o n of a l l cases of des-t i t u t i o n . The Commission would r e l a y t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n to the p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and thus help reduce fraud and d u p l i c a t i o n . The Commission was to have a u t h o r i t y to compel tramps and other 25 c l a s s e s o f mendicants t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e i r upkeep by e n f o r c e d l a b o u r . The a c t u a l d i s p e n s i n g o f r e l i e f was t o remai n w i t h the p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s , though the Commission was t o a d v i s e C o u n c i l how b e s t t o a l l o c a t e the c i t y ' s a n n u a l g r a n t t o c h a r i t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . ^ The s u g g e s t i o n o f a c e n t r a l body d i r e c t i n g c h a r i t a b l e a c t i v i t y was d i s c u s s e d a t a m e e t i n g o f the A s s o c i a t e d C h a r i t i e s i n November, 1891. Many o f the members were c r i t i c a l o f Smi t h ' s p r o p o s e d bureau. Mrs. F l e t c h e r o f the G i r l ' s Home Committee t o l d the d e l e g a t e s t h a t h e r a s s o c i a t i o n was d e c i d e d l y a g a i n s t the i d e a : "The b o a r d would have the recommendation o f the c i t y g r a n t s and •51 the l o c a l committees would be p o w e r l e s s . " ^ The v a r i o u s p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s j e a l o u s l y guarded t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y and the c i v i c g r a n t s w h i c h r e s t e d on t h a t b a s i s . They f e a r e d t h a t the Commission, i n i t s campaign a g a i n s t i n d i s c r i m i n a t e c h a r i t y , would g r a d u a l l y c e n t r a l i z e r e l i e f under one bureau and the p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s would s l o w l y d i s a p p e a r . E a r l y i n 1892, Smit h a d d r e s s e d the A s s o c i a t e d C h a r i t i e s on b e h a l f o f the Commission. "At p r e s e n t , " he t o l d the members, " t h e r e i s h a r d l y a p r e t e n s e a t system i n T o r o n t o ; t h e r e i s n o t h i n g b u t a chaos o f d i v e r s e a g e n c i e s , each e x c e l l e n t i n i t s e l f , and the o c c a s i o n o f much h a r d work on the p a r t o f those c o n n e c t e d w i t h i t , b u t each i n s u f f i c i e n t t o d e a l a d e q u a t e l y w i t h c a s e s o f p r o l o n g e d d i s t r e s s , and w i t h b u t l i t t l e c o - o p e r a t i o n o r exchange o f i n f o r m a t i o n . n J The r e s u l t o f such a system was t h a t " f a m i l i e s i n grave d i s t r e s s , have t o go from one agency t o a n o t h e r t o g e t t h r o u g h the w i n t e r and how d e g r a d i n g t h i s must be i s o b v i o u s e n o u g h . n J J The e x h o r t a t i o n s o f S m i t h were s u p p o r t e d by C i t y C o u n c i l . I n 26 May, 1892, the aldermen recommended t h a t the C h a r i t y Commission continue i t s e f f o r t s on b e h a l f of a c h a r i t y board, so t h a t "the works of the v a r i o u s c h a r i t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s to whom c i v i c g r a n t s are made, c o u l d be c l e a r l y d e f i n e d , and a b e t t e r s u p e r v i s i o n e x e r c i s e d over the expenditures and a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r r e l i e f . " - ' The c i t y a n n u a l l y c o n t r i b u t e d towards the support o f c h a r i t a b l e works.,^ and the aldermen were anxious to see t h a t the money was spent w i s e l y . A c e n t r a l r e l i e f board would s t r e a m l i n e the d i s -t r i b u t i o n of p u b l i c r e l i e f , reduce f r a u d , and minimize the p a u p e r i z a t i o n of the poor through i n d i s c r i m i n a t e c h a r i t y . The i d e a of a bureau promoting an economical and e f f i c i e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n of c h a r i t y appealed to the b u s i n e s s i n s t i n c t s of the aldermen. They f e l t t h a t r e l i e f of Toronto's d e s t i t u t e through sound, bus i n e s s methods would reduce the c o s t to the c i t y , w h i le guaranteeing adequate a s s i s t a n c e f o r the worthy poor. The e f f o r t s of the Commission met the continued o p p o s i t i o n of the p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The House o f I n d u s t r y was p a r t i c u l a r l y opposed to the i d e a of a c e n t r a l bureau, ar g u i n g t h a t i t s Outdoor R e l i e f Committee performed a v a l u a b l e r o l e i n the care o f the c i t y ' s poor and should not be i n t e r f e r e d w i t h . Reverend J . G i l l e s p i e i n defending the work of the i n s t i t u t i o n , s t a t e d : The House has done i t s work v e r y thoroughly, and although there had been minor f a i l i n g s , the work was done i n e x p e n s i v e l y by gentlemen who gave t h e i r s e r v i c e s f r e e . Without a thorough i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the a l l e g a t i o n s o f i n e f f i c i e n c y , there should be no r a d i c a l changes i n the c i t y ' s method of d i s -t r i b u t i n g c h a r i t y . 56 T h i s r i v a l r y among the v a r i o u s p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s occupied much of the Commission's time and reduced i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s . In the f a l l o f 1 8 9 2 , the f a i l u r e of the Commission to i n i t i a t e the 27 d e s i r e d reform, drew the c r i t i c a l comment of C i t y C o u n c i l . - ^ A l i m i t e d s t e p towards improving the c i t y ' s r e l i e f system was taken i n September, 1893, when T a y l o r was o f f i c i a l l y a ppointed as Toronto's R e l i e f O f f i c e r . T h i s appointment confirmed him as the c i t y ' s ' c h a r i t a b l e ombudsman'. I t was h i s duty to see t h a t a p p l i c a n t s a t c i t y h a l l were d i r e c t e d to the proper agency, and i n extreme cases to g i v e food t i c k e t s from the House of I n d u s t r y ' s Outdoor R e l i e f Committee. T a y l o r ' s appointment r e p r e s e n t s the o n l y achievement of t h i s e a r l y e f f o r t to systemize the d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e l i e f i n the c i t y . The C h a r i t y Commission's e f f o r t s to promote a s i n g l e board a d m i n i s t e r i n g r e l i e f were supported by aldermen anxious to reduce the c i t y ' s annual c h a r i t a b l e grant but opposed by p r i v a t e o r -g a n i z a t i o n s . The p r i v a t e a s s o c i a t i o n s f e a r e d t h a t a m u n i c i p a l bureau would j e o p a r d i z e t h e i r good work. Faced w i t h t h i s l a c k of encouragement and c o - o p e r a t i o n , the C h a r i t y Commission never emerged as the s i n g l e v e h i c l e f o r c o n t r o l l i n g and a d m i n i s t e r i n g c h a r i t a b l e funds. The problem of r e l i e v i n g Toronto's poor a t t r a c t e d a t t e n t i o n from ot h e r s e c t i o n s of the community. Since many of the c i t y ' s d e s t i t u t e were l a b o u r e r s out of work, the trade unions took an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n the g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n which was prompted by the s t a t i s t i c s from the v a r i o u s r e l i e f s o c i e t i e s . From the l a b o u r e r ' s p o i n t of view, the c h i e f cause of the d e p r e s s i o n i n the c i t y was the l a x immigration p o l i c y which r e s u l t e d i n an i n f l u x of f o r e i g n e r s i n t o the c i t y and a f l o o d i n g of the l a b o u r p o o l . Many workingmen f e l t t h a t f o r e i g n e r s were t a k i n g jobs away from Toronto men because they would work f o r l e s s m o n e y . T h e 28 h o s t i l e a t t i t u d e of the trade unions towards immigration was demonstrated "by the s t r o n g l y worded r e s o l u t i o n passed a t the annual meeting of the Dominion Trades and Labour C o u n c i l : That whereas the continued s y s t e m a t i c and enormously i n c r e a s e d expenditure of l a r g e sums of p u b l i c money i n a i d i n g and encouraging to [ s i c ] t h i s c ountry mechanics, l a b o u r e r s , paupers, i n d i g e n t s , orphans, and c h i l d r e n of v i c i o u s , t a i n t e d , and c r i m i n a l t e n dencies from abroad, i s a gross i n j u s t i c e to the people of Canada, and more e s p e c i a l l y to the working c l a s s e s . Be i t r e s o l v e d t h a t i t i s the i m p e r a t i v e duty of the F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l Governments to a b o l i s h the same... 59 The debate on the c h a r i t y q u e s t i o n , such as who should r e c e i v e a i d and what was the b e s t method of a d m i n i s t e r i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n of a s s i s t a n c e , g e n e r a l l y c e n t r e d on an attempt to a r r i v e a t a c l e a r , accurate understanding of the v a r i o u s aspects o f the problem. The i d e a of a l o g i c a l , r a t i o n a l approach was p resented by James Mavor, an economics p r o f e s s o r a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto. In h i s i n a u g u r a l l e c t u r e a t the u n i v e r s i t y , Mavor ad-dressed h i m s e l f to the q u e s t i o n "Of What A v a i l i s the Study of Economics i n the P r a c t i c a l Work of D e a l i n g With the Problems of P overty." In h i s l e c t u r e , he c a l l e d f o r a s c i e n t i f i c approach to the study of the causes, exte n t , and e l i m i n a t i o n of p o v e r t y . Mavor argued t h a t the t o o l s which the economist had a t hand - o b s e r v a t i o n , i n d u c t i o n , and d e d u c t i o n - p e r m i t t e d a c l o s e study of the v a r i o u s f a c t o r s which produced poverty, as w e l l as the f o r m u l a t i o n of s o l u t i o n s to remove those c o n d i t i o n s . Through sy s t e m a t i c i n q u i r y and the c o m p i l i n g of the data obtained, Mavor suggested t h a t a c l e a r understanding of a c t u a l l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s among the depressed p a r t of the p o p u l a t i o n c o u l d be a r r i v e d a t . Much of the d i s c u s s i o n on the extent o f d i s t r e s s i n the c i t y , r e p r e s e n t e d a h y p o t h e t i c a l or i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c 29 e s t i m a t i o n . What was r e q u i r e d was a c c u r a t e , s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a . To o b t a i n t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , he urged the a d o p t i o n of the "LePlay 60 method* of i n q u i r y . What Mavor advocated was a comprehensive, s o c i o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n . He b e l i e v e d t h a t any study of p o v e r t y , while l o o k i n g to t r a d i t i o n a l reasons such as o l d age, s i c k n e s s , h e r e d i t a r y d e s t i t u t i o n , d r i n k and i r r e s o l u t e l i v i n g , must a l s o put p o v e r t y i n t o a l a r g e r s o c i a l s e t t i n g . The i n d u s t r i a l - c o m m e r c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the economy had brought hardship to c e r t a i n groups and something should be done to h e l p these " v i c t i m s of p r o g r e s s " . The r e s u l t s from such an i n q u i r y would h e l p f i l l an im-p o r t a n t gap i n knowledge r e g a r d i n g the l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s of the poor. A second method of i n v e s t i g a t i o n which Mavor recommended to h i s students was the approach developed by C h a r l e s Booth. From Booth's work, he concluded: I t i s c l e a r t h a t i n s t u d y i n g the problems o f poverty, we have to d e a l not o n l y w i t h those who c l a i m p u b l i c r e l i e f as paupers, or c l a i m p r i v a t e c h a r i t y as beggars, but w i t h the g r e a t army from which these c l a s s e s are c o n s t a n t l y r e c r u i t e d , the army of those who l i v e a t or under the p o v e r t y l i n e . 62 Armed w i t h the i n f o r m a t i o n which such s t u d i e s would p r o v i d e , Mavor expressed the b e l i e f t h a t some p o s i t i v e a c t i o n c o u l d be taken to h e l p improve the s i t u a t i o n . For those s u f f e r i n g from " c o n s t i t u t i o n a l weakness", asylums and o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s c o u l d be developed to meet t h e i r needs. For those s u f f e r i n g from weak-nesses or d e f i c i e n c i e s i n the economy, work p r o j e c t s c o u l d be d e v i s e d which would help f i l l i n some of the gaps without f u r t h e r undermining the economy. Mavor concluded t h a t a s c i e n t i f i c approach to the c h a r i t y q u e s t i o n o f f e r e d a s u i t a b l e method of coping w i t h the i n c r e a s e i n h ardship and p r i v a t i o n among c i t i z e n s of Toronto. In an 30 e d i t o r i a l comment, the M a i l p r a i s e d the work of men such as C h a r l e s Booth, and suggested t h a t the "Science of Poverty" would take i t s p l a c e among the new s c i e n c e s of Criminology, Sociology, and P o l i t i c a l Economy. T h i s i n t e r e s t i n a p p l y i n g 'academic s o l u t i o n s ' to p r a c t i c a l problems i s i n d i c a t i v e o f the involvement of the u n i v e r s i t y community i n the p r a c t i c a l a f f a i r s o f the c i t y . Many c i t i z e n s o u t s i d e the academic community were i n t e r e s t e d i n the f u n c t i o n i n g of the s o c i a l system. In December, 1892, a Conference on S o c i a l Problems was arranged to p r o v i d e f o r an open d i s c u s s i o n on the v a r i o u s aspects of p r e s s i n g economic and s o c i a l problems and a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of p o s s i b l e remedies. D The keynote address was g i v e n by Goldwin Smith i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of " C h a r i t y , and I t s R e l a t i o n to S o c i a l Reform". Smith t o l d h i s audience t h a t t h e i r e f f o r t s on b e h a l f of p r i v a t e benevolence had a r o l e to p l a y i n a l l e v i a t i n g d i s t r e s s i n the c i t y . The s i c k , aged, and t e m p o r a r i l y unemployed were worthy o b j e c t s of p r i v a t e c h a r i t y . As f o r the c l a s s of paupers and tramps, he recommended the r e c e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d C h a r i t y Commission, as a means of d e t e c t i n g the unworthy and c o m p e l l i n g them to c o n t r i b u t e to t h e i r upkeep. He urged t h e i r support f o r the c o - o p e r a t i o n of p r i v a t e benevolence and p u b l i c a u t h o r i t y f o r the 64 r e l i e f of the poor and the s u p p r e s s i o n of mendacity. Other speakers d e a l t w i t h d i f f e r e n t aspects of the problem. P h i l l i p s Thompson*^ spoke on the problem of unemployment. He t o l d the audience t h a t the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of c a p i t a l , the growth o f monopolies, and advances i n i n d u s t r i a l technology had combined t o reduce the worker's o p p o r t u n i t y f o r l a b o u r and robbed those 31 who had jobs, of the b e n e f i t s of t h e i r own l a b o u r . ^ T h i s d i s c u s s i o n r e p r e s e n t s an e f f o r t to put the problem o f Toronto's i n c r e a s i n g i n c i d e n c e o f d e s t i t u t i o n i n t o a s o c i a l c o n t e x t . T h i s e a r l y p r o b i n g a t the i n d u s t r i a l system was to become an important f e a t u r e o f the reform t h r u s t . The meeting was judged an overwhelming success and the i n t e r e s t demonstrated by the p u b l i c prompted the o r g a n i z e r s to e s t a b l i s h a permanent S o c i a l Problems A s s o c i a t i o n . In 1893» the A s s o c i a t i o n h e l d a s e r i e s o f weekly meetings f o r "the e d u c a t i o n a l and p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f s o c i a l problems."^"'' The t o p i c s c o n s i d e r e d touched on a v a r i e t y o f s u b j e c t s : Cumulative V o t i n g , the S i n g l e Tax, and C h r i s t i a n S o c i a l i s m . However, towards the end o f the year and e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g the f o l l o w i n g year, a p a r t i c u l a r emphasis became e v i d e n t . The cont i n u e d presence o f economic ha r d s h i p among r e s p e c t a b l e and i n d u s t r i o u s c i t i z e n s l e d t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f s u i t a b l e measures to meet the problem of unemployment. The women o f the c i t y were p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s q u e s t i o n . The l a r g e attendance o f the ' f a i r sex' a t the A s s o c i a t i o n ' s meetings was noted w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e s a t i s f a c t i o n . The presence of women a t these meetings i s i n d i c a t i v e o f the more a c t i v e r o l e t h a t women were t a k i n g i n the d i s c u s s i o n and c o n s i d e r a t i o n of s o c i a l q u e s t i o n s , c h a r i t y and the p l i g h t o f the poor being o n l y one o f t h e i r many concerns. Doctor E m i l y Stowe, one of the l e a d i n g f i g u r e s i n the movement to get women to p l a y a g r e a t e r r o l e i n p u b l i c a f f a i r s , was c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the campaign to g i v e women the vot e . Other women were s t u d y i n g the e f f e c t o f the new i n d u s t r i a l system, e s p e c i a l l y the sweated t r a d e s , on 32 69 the female sex , lobbying to open such p r o f e s s i o n s as law, and g e n e r a l l y making the 'moral i n f l u e n c e f o r good*, which i t was b e l i e v e d women could e x e r c i s e , f e l t i n the community. This campaign was given an impetus when Countess Lady Aberdeen, wife of the Canadian Governor-General, gave her a s s i s t a n c e to the movement. A formal o r g a n i z a t i o n , the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of Women, was e s t a b l i s h e d to promote the aims of women. In February, 1894, Lady Aberdeen addressed the l o c a l Toronto chapter: We are c a l l e d together a t t h i s time because there i s a very great amount of d i s t r e s s i n the c i t y . . . We know th a t the depression has s t r u c k a t a l l c l a s s e s and t h a t i t i s a time when the resources of a l l the s p l e n d i d c h a r i t a b l e s o c i e t i e s of t h i s c i t y are taxed to the utmost... These people are asking f o r work not c h a r i t y . 70 This emphasis on work r a t h e r than c h a r i t y , represents a s h i f t i n focus i n the debate on the problem of poverty and d e s t i t u t i o n . I n the e a r l y 1890's, much of the d i s c u s s i o n centred on how r e l i e f was to be given and what form t h i s a s s i s t a n c e was to take. With the increase i n the unemployment s i t u a t i o n , a t t e n t i o n was d i r e c t e d towards the p r o v i s i o n of u s e f u l employment f o r those without jobs. Observers, such as Thompson, had noted i n the e a r l y 1890's th a t the s o c i a l system was i n c r e a s i n g the depression of the working c l a s s e s i n t o the ranks of the unemployed. Ad hoc attempts to meet t h i s s i t u a t i o n , through the use of employment bureaus, had f a i l e d to produce any 71 s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n the s i t u a t i o n . Moreover, the 'pinch of poverty' was s t a r t i n g to make inroads i n t o other p r o f e s s i o n s besides the outdoor labour t r a d e s . The b i t t e r n e s s the men f e l t over t h e i r enforced i d l e n e s s r a i s e d the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t v i o l e n c e might accompany the p r o t e s t s and demonstrations of the unemployed, 33 and added a sense of urgency to the whole q u e s t i o n . In February, 1894, a meeting of the unemployed was h e l d i n response to a c a l l to d i s c u s s the c o n d i t i o n of men out of work. Sev e r a l speakers dwelt on the extent of p r i v a t i o n i n the c i t y and urged the members of C i t y C o u n c i l who were present a t the meeting, j t o give t h e i r immediate a t t e n t i o n to temporary measures to help ease the s i t u a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g day, between 300 and 400 men marched to c i t y h a l l and pressed on the c i t y f a t h e r s the s e v e r i t y of t h e i r c o n d i t i o n and asked f o r immediate employment by the c i t y f o r as many men as p o s s i b l e . C o u n c i l responded to t h i s emergency s i t u a t i o n by s e t t i n g aside a s p e c i a l $ 5 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 r e q u i s i t i o n f o r s t r e e t c l e a n i n g . Nearly 1 , 5 0 0 men gathered i n f r o n t of the S t r e e t Commissioner's o f f i c e to apply f o r temporary employment and w i t h i n three days the grant was depleted. These few days of labour d i d not d i s p e l the anger and f r u s t r a t i o n among those unemployed anxious to o b t a i n work. Another meeting of the unemployed was c a l l e d and a d e c i s i o n was taken to form an o r g a n i z a t i o n , the Toronto General Labourers Union, to press the men's demands. Some o f f i c i a l s were a f r a i d t h a t more d r a s t i c a c t i o n was being contemplated. Gatherings of the men at c i t y h a l l were t h r e a t e n i n g to become unruly and i t was rumoured t h a t a p o l i c e watch was being kept on one or two 72 of the l e a d e r s . I t was even suggested t h a t an i m i t a t i o n of Coxe's Army, by a march on Ottawa of the unemployed, was being c o n t e m p l a t e d . ^ However, no v i o l e n c e occurred, and the w i n t e r season passed without i n c i d e n t . The f o l l o w i n g year, 1 8 9 5 , the employment c r i s i s appeared to ease somewhat. C i t y C o u n c i l was not besieged by groups of 34 unemployed seeking work, nor d i d the c h a r i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s r e c o r d an e x c e p t i o n a l l y heavy demand on t h e i r r e s o u r c e s . T h i s s i t u a t i o n r e s u l t e d from the departure of many of those unable to f i n d work. The unions r e p o r t e d t h a t many from t h e i r ranks had r e t u r n e d to B r i t a i n or had gone to the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n search of work. The departure of these men l e s s e n e d the desperate s i t u a t i o n but d i d not s o l v e the problem of unemployment. In January, I 8 9 6 , l a r g e demonstrations of the unemployed were a g a i n e v i d e n t a t c i t y h a l l , p r e s s i n g the aldermen f o r temporary work c l e a r i n g the c i t y ' s s t r e e t s . The Mayor addressed the demonstrators and promised to have the S t r e e t Commissioner lo o k i n t o t h e i r r e q u e s t . The s i t u a t i o n of the men was a g a i n brought to C o u n c i l ' s a t t e n t i o n i n the e a r l y s p r i n g , a season when a resumption i n the b u i l d i n g trades and o t h e r employments, u s u a l l y p i c k e d up the s l a c k . C o u n c i l appointed a s p e c i a l committee to look i n t o the f e a s i b i l i t y of i n i t i a t i n g an e x t e n s i v e programme of p u b l i c works, such as b u i l d i n g a b i c y c l e path to the I s l a n d . L a t e r i n the summer, the c i t y ' s Works Committee c o n s i d e r e d a trunk sewer p r o j e c t which would employ men i n d i g g i n g the n e c e s s a r y t r e n c h e s . The concern f o r the w e l f a r e of these men d u r i n g the summer months, was borne out by the s e r i o u s c o n d i t i o n of the c i t y ' s depressed p o p u l a t i o n e a r l y i n the f a l l . In October, Alderman W. P r e s t o n t o l d a r e p o r t e r t h a t the d e l i b e r a t i o n s of the aldermen had y i e l d e d meager r e s u l t s f o r the c i t y ' s unemployed. There was p r a c t i c a l l y no work of any k i n d going on i n the c i t y d u r i n g the p a s t summer, and the r e s u l t i s t h a t now, w i t h w i n t e r s t a r i n g them i n the f a c e , they are without the means of p u r c h a s i n g the n e c e s s a r i e s [ s i c ] of l i f e . 74 Mr. D. J . O'Donoghue, a prominent f i g u r e i n Canadian l a b o u r 35 c i r c l e s , confirmed the alderman's view. "These poor f e l l o w s are q u i t e w i l l i n g t o work but there i s none f o r them."'^ Commissioner Jones agreed t h a t the s i t u a t i o n was desperate. The men a p p l y i n g f o r work from the c i t y were from a l l walks of l i f e . In p a r t i c u l a r he noted t h a t the business d e p r e s s i o n had pervaded i n t o the ranks of the middle c l a s s : We have had d u r i n g the e i g h t o r nine months more a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r work than ever b e f o r e . A l a r g e number of those who come to us belong to the middle c l a s s , and were i n f a i r l y good circumstances a few years ago. Indeed, some of them might have been a t one time deemed wealthy. The c o l l a p s e o f the r e a l e s t a t e boom, the s t r i n g e n c y o f the times, and one cause or another, has l e f t them without a d o l l a r . T h i s c l a s s are [ s i c ] i n my o p i n i o n s u f f e r i n g the most and t h e i r case i s d e s e r v i n g of every c o n s i d e r a t i o n . 76 The f e a r t h a t Toronto was f a c e d w i t h a s e r i o u s s i t u a t i o n was g i v e n support i n l a t e December. The Globe d e s c r i b e d how poor f a m i l i e s had managed to get by the p r e v i o u s w i n t e r through generous g r o c e r s and butchers who p e r m i t t e d delayed payments on the accounts of many honest working men. With the shortage of summer employment, the accounts remained o u t s t a n d i n g and they were f o r c e d t o c u r t a i l s e r v i c e to these customers. From these and other i n d i c a t i o n s , the paper concluded t h a t demands f o r 7? a s s i s t a n c e would be on the i n c r e a s e . ' The t h r e a t o f poverty and d e s t i t u t i o n had thus spread from tradesmen and day l a b o u r e r s to the ranks of c l e r k s and shop-keepers. No l o n g e r was the q u e s t i o n one of c o n f i n i n g c h a r i t y to the worthy, although t h i s a s s i s t a n c e was s t i l l needed, but one of p r o v i d i n g some means of c o p i n g w i t h the growing c l a s s o f urban poor who were without jobs and l a c k i n g the means to support themselves and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . 36 The d e s p a i r among the unemployed was t i n g e d w i t h elements of r a d i c a l i s m which f u r t h e r n e c e s s i t a t e d a s o l u t i o n . At a meeting h e l d i n August, 1895i to d i s c u s s the c o n d i t i o n o f l a b o u r problems, a s m a l l group of ' r a d i c a l s ' c i r c u l a t e d hand b i l l s to the audience u r g i n g the workers to secure a decent standard o f l i v i n g by any means a t t h e i r d i s p o s a l . The World noted t h a t "the h a n d b i l l i s p r i n t e d on r e d paper and i s intended to disseminate the desperate and d e t e s t a b l e methods of European 78 a n a r c h i s t s . " ' E a r l y i n January, I 8 9 6 , a t a meeting of the unemployed, W i l l i a m Dunlop gave a f o r c e f u l p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the S o c i a l i s t p l a t f o r m as a means of s o l v i n g the p r e s s i n g economic i l l s . A t another meeting i n A p r i l , Dunlop was a g a i n a d d r e s s i n g the unemployed. The f i e r y r a d i c a l t o l d the audience t h a t there was o n l y one f l a g f o r them to f o l l o w , the S o c i a l i s t f l a g . The most dramatic evidence of the r a d i c a l u ndercurrent which permeated the d i s c o n t e n t of the unemployed was a speech d e l i v e r e d before the aldermen i n the c o u n c i l chambers. A d e l e g a t i o n from the unemployed was granted p e r m i s s i o n to address the C o u n c i l . D. H. Watt, a lawyer, informed the c o u n c i l l o r s t h a t the p a t i e n c e o f the people was wearing t h i n . He warned them t h a t u n l e s s something was done to r e l i e v e the s u f f e r i n g and misery, the aldermen's i n a c t i o n ' 79 would be met by r i f l e s and r e b e l l i o n . 7 H i s harangue provoked an uproar among the aldermen, but he r e f u s e d to r e t r a c t h i s words. Watt's o p i n i o n s were not r e f l e c t e d by a l l those s e e k i n g employment, but they do i n d i c a t e the presence of an undercurrent of d e s p a i r among the unemployed. The problem of r e l i e v i n g the c i t y ' s depressed c l a s s e s d i d not escape the a t t e n t i o n o f the c i t i z e n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the 37 r a t e p a y e r s who a n n u a l l y c o n t r i b u t e d towards the upkeep and f u n c t i o n i n g o f c h a r i t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s through t h e i r p r o p e r t y t a x e s . The hope of l i m i t i n g p r i v a t e agencies by a c e n t r a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d system o f r e l i e f was abandoned w i t h the i n a b i l i t y o f the C h a r i t y Commission to pro v i d e t h i s s e r v i c e . S t i l l the ra t e p a y e r s f e l t t h a t a more e f f i c i e n t means of d i s t r i b u t i n g r e l i e f c o u l d be ob t a i n e d . In February, 1895, the Ratepayers' A s s o c i a t i o n appointed a s p e c i a l committee to look i n t o the whole q u e s t i o n of c i v i c g r a n ts t o c h a r i t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . C i t y C o u n c i l appointed a sub-committee to c o n f e r w i t h the r a t e p a y e r s . The A s s o c i a t i o n ' s main grievance c e n t r e d on money. Besides the annual g r a n t from C o u n c i l , the c i t y a l s o l o s t tax revenue because of the exemption a p p l i e d to c h a r i t a b l e p r o p e r t y . The ra t e p a y e r s f e l t t h a t s a l a r i e s and charges on mortgages were be i n g p a i d i n p a r t , w i t h money donated by the c i t y . To members of the committee the i n j u s t i c e o f t h i s was p e r f e c t l y c l e a r : Many of these i n s t i t u t i o n s are endowed to the extent o f $154,552.44, and they ought not to be allowed to draw on the taxes o f the poor r a t e p a y e r t i l l the s a i d endowments are ex-hausted. 80 The members r e a l i z e d t h a t "any attempt a t amalgamating e x i s t i n g P -i c h a r i t i e s would r e s u l t i n u t t e r f a i l u r e . " Nor d i d they wish to i n t e r f e r e w i t h the o p e r a t i o n of the v a r i o u s c h a r i t a b l e groups, ot h e r than to have them maintained on a s t r i c t l y p r i v a t e , v o l u n t a r y b a s i s . The committee recommended the c i t y ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n f o r r e l i e f of the poor be d i v i d e d i n t o two g r a n t s , outdoor r e l i e f and i n s t i t u t i o n a l eare. A l l outdoor r e l i e f was t o be ch a n n e l l e d through the Outdoor R e l i e f Committee of the House of Indu s t r y , w i t h due care f o r i n s p e c t i o n and e l i g i b i l i t y . Regarding 38 i n s t i t u t i o n a l c a r e , the committee recommended: There should be a permanent system of the r e l i e f p r o v i d e d by the C i t y , and t h a t system should be p l a c e d under one management, and f o r t h i s purpose a l a r g e t r a c t o f l a n d be purchased and b u i l d i n g s e r e c t e d thereon, the inmates of which c o u l d be employed i n c u l t i v a t i n g the l a n d i n r a i s i n g p r o v i s i o n s f o r t h e i r own use. 82 The members f e l t the purchase of f i f t y a c r e s near the c i t y would be s u f f i c i e n t to i n i t i a t e the p r o j e c t . R e l i e f O f f i c e r T a y l o r , i n a r e p o r t to the sub-committee, q u e s t i o n e d the wisdom of mixing v a r i o u s c l a s s e s of inmates from the c i t y ' s homes and i n s t i t u t i o n s . He reminded the aldermen t h a t " i n the c l a s s c a l l e d ' f a l l e n women', while human nature remains as i t i s , no one would be j u s t i f i e d i n p r o p o s i n g t h a t they be cared f o r on the same farm although i n a separate b u i l d i n g , i f male paupers are cared f o r on the same farm, or even on an a d j o i n i n g f a r m . " ^ The aldermen agreed w i t h T a y l o r ' s judgement and d e c i d e d to postpone a c t i o n on the proposed i n d u s t r i a l farm. Instead they adopted a few minor changes i n the a l l o c a t i o n o f grants to r e l i e f a g e n c i e s . Though C o u n c i l f a i l e d to a c t on the A s s o c i a t i o n ' s recomi-mendation, many c i t i z e n s were a t t r a c t e d to the i d e a of a farm where the poor c o u l d engage i n p r o d u c t i v e employment. The c i t i z e n s were a l s o i n t e r e s t e d i n a more l i m i t e d p r o j e c t on t u r n i n g the c i t y ' s vacant l o t s i n t o garden p l o t s where the poor c o u l d r a i s e potatoes and v e g e t a b l e s to help keep them s u p p l i e d d u r i n g the w i n t e r . The p l a n had f i r s t been t r i e d i n D e t r o i t w i t h QL g r e a t s u c c e s s . The "garden patch" programme was f i r s t mentioned i n Torbnto e a r l y i n 1895, when J . R. Code o f f e r e d to donate some p r o p e r t y to the c i t y f o r the purpose of having v e g e t a b l e s r a i s e d by the c i t y ' s poor. The c i t y ' s Parks and Gardens Committee 39 appointed a sub-committee to study the f e a s i b i l i t y of the p r o j e c t . The members unanimously favoured the id e a and decided to appeal to the p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l governments as w e l l as p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s , to donate vacant l a n d f o r t h i s purpose. The committee recommended th a t the c i t y supply seed and t o o l s to those who were i n t e r e s t e d i n the p l a n . At a meeting of the committee i n May, 1 8 9 5 , the land which the c i t y had obtained was announced and the p l o t s p a r c e l l e d out to the a p p l i c a n t s . The enthusiasm f o r the p l a n r e s t e d on the great b e n e f i t s which c i t i z e n s f e l t i t would produce: " I t would provide work and food f o r l a r g e numbers of needy persons, and so l i g h t e n the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the c h a r i t a b l y disposed and b e n e f i c e n t . " ^ The r e s u l t s of the pl a n i n terms of the crop y i e l d and i t s cash value are not recorded but the success of the p l a n i s i n d i c a t e d by i t s r e p e t i t i o n the f o l l o w i n g year. In May, I 8 9 6 , the Globe observed that the ex-perience of the previous year had been s u f f i c i e n t to demonstrate the usefulness of the scheme. The garden patch programme not only d i s p e l l e d the id e a t h a t the poor were u n w i l l i n g to work but a l s o acquainted a c l a s s of c i t i z e n s w i t h the rudiments of 86 farming p r a c t i c e s which might prove u s e f u l . Widespread i n t e r e s t was a l s o shown i n the l a r g e r p r o j e c t to e s t a b l i s h an i n d u s t r i a l farm. The support f o r the i n d u s t r i a l farm ide a symbolized the 'back to the l a n d ' movement which many reformers b e l i e v e d held the key to the nation's f u t u r e p r o s p e r i t y : The problem of modern s o c i e t y which more than any other has been found most d i f f i c u l t of s o l u t i o n i s how to give a s s i s t a n c e to the unemployed, without p a u p e r i z i n g them... The only s o l u t i o n which has seemed to have any p r a c t i c a l aspects, whether to the labour s o c i e t i e s , which have so f r e q u e n t l y discussed the q u e s t i o n of the un-employed, or to those other p h i l a n t h r o p i s t s 4o who have taken a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n the q u e s t i o n , has been t h a t of ' d e u r b a n i z a t i o n ' or the r e t u r n of the people to the l a n d . 8? The i n t e r e s t i n such a p r o p o s a l stemmed from a meeting h e l d i n August, 1894, to d i s c u s s the unemployment problem. The meeting produced no p r a c t i c a l r e s u l t s , but a number of c i t i z e n s who attended, d e c i d e d to meet on a r e g u l a r b a s i s and c o n s i d e r p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s to the s i t u a t i o n . The men f i n a l l y f i x e d on the i d e a of a c o - o p e r a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n and announced t h e i r p l a n to the p u b l i c i n September, 1895• The p l a n c a l l e d f o r the purchase o f 500 a c r e s of good, a r a b l e l a n d near Toronto. Those unable to o b t a i n employment i n the c i t y c o u l d move to the v i l l a g e community to be e s t a b l i s h e d on the p r o p e r t y . The o r g a n i z e r s planned a wide range o f a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r s u i t s such as d a i r y farming, f r u i t farming, and p o u l t r y farming to ensure t h a t p r a c t i c a l experience would be o b t a i n e d i n the v a r i o u s phases of farming and a l s o t h a t the investment c o u l d be d i v e r s i f i e d among s e v e r a l p r o d u c t i v e e n t r e p r i s e s . The p r o j e c t was to be f i n a n c e d by the s a l e o f 5 , 0 0 0 non-dividend b e a r i n g s t o c k s , which were to be s o l d f o r $ 1 0 . 0 0 each. A percentage of the colony's p r o f i t s , a f t e r p a y i n g f i x e d charges, was to go towards the purchase of s t o c k so t h a t the producers would e v e n t u a l l y become the owners of the proposed Co-operative I n d u s t r i a l Colony, L i m i t e d , and thus reap the f u l l b e n e f i t s of t h e i r l a b o u r . An open meeting was h e l d i n January, I896, f o r a d i s c u s s i o n by i n t e r e s t e d c i t i z e n s , i n the v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of the proposed colo n y . J . L. Hughes, the P r e s i d e n t of the Union f o r P r a c t i c a l P r o g r e s s , warmly supported the e f f o r t s o f the colony's o r g a n i z e r s , i n f o r m i n g the audience t h a t " c o - o p e r a t i o n was the g r e a t i d e a l of 41 89 the age". 7 E a r l y i n February, the s e c r e t a r y of the colony presented the colony's o b j e c t i v e s to the Trades and Labour C o u n c i l and r e c e i v e d the endorsement of Toronto workingmen. The e f f o r t s of the organizers even drew the a t t e n t i o n of the Ontario government. In March, 1896, E. H. Bronson^ 0 addressed the l e g i s l a t u r e on the q u e s t i o n of the i n c r e a s i n g r a t e of unemployment i n the c i t i e s and towns. He o u t l i n e d the trend towards u r b a n i z a t i o n and the e v i l s of crowding and unemployment which i t produced. As a s o l u t i o n f o r t h i s p r e s s i n g problem, he l i s t e d s e v e r a l programmes i n operation i n the United S t a t e s , England, and Europe. In p a r t i c u l a r he commended f o r the members' c o n s i d e r a t i o n , the co-operative movement and concluded by moving: That t h i s House view w i t h approval and as worthy of encouragement any movement towards the o r g a n i z a t i o n of v o l u n t a r y s o c i e t i e s i n the large c i t i e s of the Province having f o r t h e i r object the g i v i n g of such a s s i s t a n c e to the unemployed as would c o n t r i b u t e towards making them s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g , by s e t t i n g them on the unoccupied lands of the Province or other lands w i t h i n the Province. 91 In the f a l l of 1896, the proposed i n d u s t r i a l colony was s t i l l under d i s c u s s i o n . The Board of Management of the House of Industry was contemplating an extension of i t s f a c i l i t i e s at a proposed cost of $ 1 5 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 . The S t a r r e p l i e d t h a t r a t h e r than spend the money on the extension, the funds should go towards the proposed 92 . . . farm f o r the poor. The q u e s t i o n of f i n a n c i n g the p r o j e c t was a v i t a l p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r the commencement of the p l a n . This requirement proved too much f o r the c o l o n i z e r s , f o r they f a i l e d to r a i s e the necessary $ 5 0 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 to s t a r t the programme. The reluctance of the C i t y C o u n c i l and the p r o v i n c i a l government to c o n t r i b u t e to the p l a n and the i n a b i l i t y of the promoters to r a i s e the funds through p r i v a t e s u b s c r i p t i o n s , combined to defeat 42 the scheme. No f u r t h e r mention of an i n d u s t r i a l colony was made 93 d u r i n g the p e r i o d under s t u d y . y j S t i l l , the movement demonstrates t h a t the problem of urban crowding and the r e s u l t i n g scramble f o r scarce employment was a t t r a c t i n g the a t t e n t i o n o f concerned c i t i z e n s . By moving the unemployed of the c i t y to a farm i n the surrounding c o u n t r y - s i d e , they f e l t the employment c r i s i s i n Toronto c o u l d be eased, and the a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y of the p r o v i n c e a s s i s t e d . A l s o , the b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s of rewarding, p h y s i c a l l a b o u r i n a pure, open environment would h e l p to check the " p h y s i c a l , moral and i n t e l l e c t u a l 94 d e c l e n s i o n , i n c i d e n t to the p o s i t i o n of the unemployed i n c i t i e s . " 7 The f a i l u r e of the i n d u s t r i a l c o l o n y p l a n r e p r e s e n t e d o n l y a temporary setback f o r the a c t i v e ^group of reformers who had sponsored the i d e a . With the abandonment of one s o l u t i o n f o r the p r e s s i n g s o c i a l i l l s , they q u i c k l y launched i n t o a new programme to promote reform. In February, 1897, reformers h e l d a meeting i n Toronto f o r the d i s c u s s i o n of s o c i a l problems. F. T i t u s , who had served as s e c r e t a r y of the i n d u s t r i a l colony, spoke on the q u e s t i o n of l e g a l reform to a l l o w f o r c o n c i l i a t i o n and c o - o p e r a t i o n between the v a r i o u s economic i n t e r e s t s . T h i s i d e a of a c h i e v i n g reform through l e g i s l a t i v e enactment a t t r a c t e d the a t t e n t i o n o f reformers i n the c i t y . The f o l l o w i n g year, a t a convention of " s o c i a l ' p r o g r e s s i s t s " , the d e l e g a t e s f i x e d on the i d e a o f o b t a i n i n g the r i g h t f o r c i t i z e n s to i n i t i a t e d e s i r e d l e g i s l a t i v e reforms as a means of i n s t i t u t i n g some b e n e f i c i a l changes. J T h i s i d e a was the r a l l y i n g p o i n t which u n i f i e d the convention and the members decid e d to e s t a b l i s h the Canadian D i r e c t L e g i s l a t i o n League "to secure f o r the people the r i g h t to i n i t i a t e l e g i s l a t i o n by means 43 of the referendum, whether such l e g i s l a t i o n a p p l y to m u n i c i p a l , 96 p r o v i n c i a l , or n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s . " A new d i r e c t i o n was a l s o e v i d e n t among the group o f i n d i v i d u a l s who had been a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n the care and r e l i e f o f the c i t y ' s poor. In the summer of 1897, d e l e g a t e s from the N a t i o n a l Conference on C h a r i t i e s and C o r r e c t i o n , an a s s o c i a t i o n of American c h a r i t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , h e l d t h e i r annual meeting i n Toronto. F o l l o w i n g the meeting, s e v e r a l Canadian d e l e g a t e s met to c o n s i d e r the p o s s i b i l i t y o f forming a Canadian Conference 97 and a committee was appointed to study the p r o p o s a l . The committee arranged a meeting f o r November, 1898, a t which de l e g a t e s c o u l d c o n s i d e r the f o r m a t i o n of a s i m i l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n 98 i n Canada. At the November meeting, John K e l s o ^ , e x p l a i n e d to the d e l e g a t e s t h a t the proposed a s s o c i a t i o n was not to be an 99 e x e c u t i v e body, but an e d u c a t i o n a l one. 7 I t was intended to encourage the exchange of i n f o r m a t i o n and ideas on d i f f e r e n t approaches to c h a r i t y and c o r r e c t i o n . By a unanimous vot e , the members agreed to the f o r m a t i o n of a Canadian Conference on C h a r i t i e s and C o r r e c t i o n . The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the conference was seen as the f i r s t s t e p towards the development of "economical and s c i e n t i f i c p h i l a n t h r o p y i n Canada."* 0 0 The enthusiasm generated by the meeting prompted Toronto d e l e g a t e s to make another attempt a t improving the d i s t r i b u t i o n of c h a r i t y i n the c i t y . A meeting of i n t e r e s t e d workers was h e l d a t c i t y h a l l t o c o n s i d e r the r e v i v a l of a c h a r i t y commission. With the experience of p a s t f a i l u r e s , the members were c a r e f u l to s e t out the o b j e c t of the proposed Conference o f A s s o c i a t e d C h a r i t i e s . I t s f u n c t i o n was the s h a r i n g of "mutual i n f o r m a t i o n and a d v i c e , not the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f alms or work now done by kk 101 any p a r t i c u l a r i n s t i t u t i o n . " In t h i s manner the o r g a n i z e r s hoped to a v o i d the j e a l o u s i e s which had f r u s t r a t e d e a r l i e r attempts a t s y s t e m i z i n g r e l i e f f o r the p r e v e n t i o n of f r a u d and imposture. T h i s renewed e f f o r t to systemize the d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e l i e f , was matched by a g e n e r a l r e v i v a l i n b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t y i n the c i t y . The i n f l u e n c e s of the L a u r i e r boom were having a s a l u t a r y e f f e c t on the employment s i t u a t i o n i n Toronto. The i n c r e a s e d tempo i n b u s i n e s s throughout the c i t y , prompted one Toronto j o u r n a l to comment: The t r u e s t index of good times i s the s c a r c i t y of a s u p p l y of l a b o u r . T h i s d e s i r a b l e s t a t e of a f f a i r s has been reached i n Toronto. The C i t y E n g i n e e r has under-taken the work of r e p a i r i n g the t r a c k allowances on K i n g S t r e e t and cannot get enough men to c a r r y on the work as f a s t as he would l i k e . The same c o n d i t i o n p r e v a i l s i n the l a b o u r market throughout the c i t y and, i f men are so hard to g e t , a r a i s e i n wages i n a l l the i n d u s t r i a l t r a d e s w i l l s h o r t l y r e s u l t . 102 T h i s improved c o n d i t i o n took much of the s t i n g out o f the employ-ment problem. With the r e d u c t i o n i n unemployment, the c i t y ' s c h a r i t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , imbued wi t h the beginnings of a p r o f e s s i o n a l approach to s o c i a l w e l f a r e , were able to p r o v i d e f o r those c h r o n i c poor and depressed c l a s s e s of Toronto. The q u e s t i o n of p r o v i d i n g r e l i e f f o r the c i t y ' s poor had thus g r a d u a l l y moved from a concern over the e f f i c i e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n of c h a r i t y t o a concern f o r s o l v i n g the employment problem i n Toronto. T h i s s h i f t i n emphasis was prompted by the mounting evidence t h a t unemployment was b e g i n n i n g to make in r o a d s i n t o the "middle c l a s s " . The r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t c l e r k s , shopkeepers, and b u s i n e s s agents were w i l l i n g to d i g sewer trenches j u s t to p r o v i d e food and c l o t h i n g f o r t h e i r f a m i l i e s , s t i r r e d the p u b l i c conscience to attempt a s o l u t i o n t o t h i s problem. A l s o , the p o t e n t i a l under-45 c u r r e n t o f v i o l e n c e which many observers saw i n the d e m o r a l i z a t i o n of i n d u s t r i o u s , r e s p e c t a b l e men and the t h r e a t which t h i s posed to the s t a b i l i t y o f s o c i e t y , added a sense of urgency to the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the problem. The e a r l y probings of s o c i a l reformers i n t o the f u n c t i o n i n g of the c o m m e r c i a l - i n d u s t r i a l system l e d many of these men and women to suggest reform measures to achieve a wider d i s t r i b u t i o n of the b e n e f i t s o f the new i n d u s t r i a l o r d e r . In an e f f o r t to overcome the imbalance between employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s and men l o o k i n g f o r work, they t r i e d to move the excess l a b o u r p o p u l a t i o n to i n d u s t r i a l c o l o n i e s i n the surrounding c o u n t r y s i d e . T h i s attempt a t " d e u r b a n i z a t i o n " was i n e f f e c t i v e i n stemming the t i d e o f m i g r a t i o n towards the c i t i e s . The b u s i n e s s r e v i v a l which accompanied the L a u r i e r boom helped to ease the p l i g h t o f the c i t y ' s poor and to defuse the employment d i f f i c u l t y . Those c h r o n i c poor who remained i n need of r e l i e f were a s s i s t e d by the c i t y ' s c h a r i t a b l e i n s t i t u t i o n s . The emerging p r o f e s s i o n a l s c i e n t i f i c approach towards c h a r i t y and c o r r e c t i o n , and the c o - o p e r a t i o n among v a r i o u s agencies which accompanied t h i s development i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n the new centur y , r e l i e f would be put on a sound r a t i o n a l b a s i s . 46 NOTES i J . M. S. C a r e l e s s , " M i d - V i c t o r i a n L i b e r a l i s m i n C e n t r a l Canadian Newspapers, 1858-18677'' Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review.31, No.3(1950). " I t i s t r u e mercy to say t h a t i t would be b e t t e r t h a t a few i n d i v i d u a l s s h o u l d d i e of s t a r v a t i o n than t h a t a pauper c l a s s should be r a i s e d up w i t h thousands devoted to crime and the v i c t i m s of misery." Globe, February 27, 1874, quoted i n R. B. Splane, S o c i a l Welfare i n O n t a r i o , 1791-1893 (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1965), P«17. ^ R. A l l e n , "The S o c i a l Gospel and the Reform T r a d i t i o n i n Canada, 1890-1928," Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review,49,No.4(1968), P.383-4 As yet,no c l e a r i m p r e s s i o n of the performance of the Canadian economy d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , has y e t been e s t a b l i s h e d . A. W i l s o n suggests t h a t the " p e r s i s t e n t economic d i f f i c u l t i e s o f the l a t e 1880's worsened c o n s i d e r a b l y i n the f i r s t half->of' the 1890's, before the dawn o f p r o s p e r i t y and s t a b i l i t y i n the e a r l y L a u r i e r e r a . " A. Wilson, John Northway, A Blue Serge Canadian (Toronto: MacEachern and Burns, 1965), p.57» P. Waite argues t h a t "the years 1885-1887 had not been b r i s k commercial y e a r s " , p.191, while the " p r o s p e r i t y of the l a t e r 1880*s weakened L i b e r a l e f f o r t s to promote u n r e s t r i c t e d r e c i p r o c i t y . " , p.221. P. Waite, Arduous D e s t i n y (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1971). J . Sa y w e l l , on the o t h e r hand, sees the l a t e r 1880's as r r a t h e r gloomy years w i t h a "modest improvement i n Canada's economic c o n d i t i o n between 1891 and 1893••• hut a downturn began i n l a t e 1893 and the middle years of the decade were bleak . " J . S a y w e l l , "The 1890's," i n R. C. Brown and J . M. S. C a r e l e s s , The Canadians. 1867-196? (Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1 9 6 7 ) , p.113. 5 A l l e n , p.385. ^ The Evening Telegram. November 3 0 , 1890, ( h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d to as the Telegram) n ' Telegram, December 11, 1890. p C. Berger, Sense of Power (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1970), p.ljW. Q 7 John Ross Robertson, p u b l i s h e r of the Telegram, was a f a v o u r i t e t a r g e t f o r those l o o k i n g f o r handouts. He would s t a r t out each day f o r work w i t h a p o c k e t f u l of change and u s u a l l y have i t gone by the end of the day. 1 0 The Globe. February 18, 1886. ( h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d to as the G l o b e l Telegram. December 22, 1889. 47 The Toronto Daily Mail. March 30, 1890. (hereafter referred to as the Mail) Mayor Clarke showed that the House of Industry dispensed funds as follows: 1885- 86 $13,466.00 had been spent to re l i e v e 1,018 families 1886- 87 13,266.00 " " 1,076 1887- 88 16,999.00 -•• " " " " 1,296 1888- 89 16,154.00 " " " " " 1,277 However, Mayor Clarke made no allowance f o r the numbers re l i e v e d by other agencies. 13 J In t r y i n g to calculate the actual number of cases l i v i n g on public r e l i e f , some d i f f i c u l t y i s encountered because of the scattered nature of the records. Reports for many of the charitable bodies were often printed i n the Toronto papers and i t i s thus possible to get a general idea of how many people were receiving r e l i e f . The figures however, are more useful as a guide, rather than as an accurate r e f l e c t i o n of the actual state of de s t i t u t i o n within the c i t y . Agencies receiving public funds eithe r as c i v i c grants or private donations, generally kept good records, though the private agencies were not nearly as complete . Most of the benevolent s o c i e t i e s appeared to be self-contained -units and while there i s the occasional reference to the quantities of food given out by the organization, there appeared to be no consistent set of figures a v a i l a b l e . F i n a l l y , there existed what appeared to be a small, but s i g n i f i c a n t group, who despite the severity of t h e i r s i t u a t i o n , were reluctant to take charity and there i s no way of knowing how many were missed by the benevolent or other charitable s o c i e t i e s . Also, those who act u a l l y did receive r e l i e f may not have been legitimate cases of charity and some allowance must be made f o r duplication and impersonation. Toronto's population i n 1890 was 181,215} i n 1901 i t was 208,040. P.G. Goheen, V i c t o r i a n Toronto. 1850 to 1900 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970), p.66. 14 Mail. March 3 0 , 1890. 15 16 Globe. December 3 0 , 1890. Globe. January 24, 1891. 17 the 18 The account of the march and subsequent events i s taken from he Globe. February 12-16, 1891. Minutes of Proceedings of the Council of the Corporation of the C i t y of Toronto. 1891. Appendix A . p.72. (hereafter referred to as Minutes of C i t y Council) 1 9 7 The Toronto World. March 12, 1891. (hereafter referred to as the World! 2 0 Globe. A p r i l 2 9 , 1891. 2 1 Ibid. 2 2 Ibid.. February 16, 1893-48 2 3 I b i d . , ?4 c Telegram. A p r i l 13, 1893. 2 5 Globe, February 17, 1894. 2 6 I D i d . . May 1, 1894. 2 7 M a i l . February 23, 1894. 2 8 Globe, February 24, 1894. 2 9 D. A. 0 ' S u l l i v a n , "Systematic C h a r i t y , " Proceedings of  the Canadian Institute.3,(1885). p.101. 30 J "For r e l i e f purposes, the c i t y i s d i v i d e d i n t o 60 d i s t r i c t s , each d i s t r i c t under the charge of a gentleman or v i s i t o r . . . When anyone i n need of a s s i s t a n c e makes a p p l i c a t i o n , t h e i r name i s g i v e n to the v i s i t o r i n charge of the d i s t r i c t where the a p p l i c a n t r e s i d e s . The v i s i t o r makes a r e p o r t on the case and decides what help s h a l l be extended." Globe, December 19, 1896. 3 1 In 1893. f o r example, C i t y C o u n c i l gave $8,000.00 to the House of I n d u s t r y as a r e g u l a r g r ant and an e x t r a $5,000.00 as a s p e c i a l g r a n t . Minutes of C i t y Council,1894, Appendix C , p.25. 3 2 Globe. A p r i l 7, 1892. 33 J J The " d e p o s i t o r y " i d e a was begun i n New York i n 1879 and appeared i n Toronto the f o l l o w i n g . Globe, ftpri&^8,1895£S>%. 34 The o r i g i n s of the M i s s i o n are obscure. I t appears t h a t a C h r i s t i a n Temperance M i s s i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d i n Toronto i n 1879. In 1884, R. H a l l was appointed as C i t y M i s s i o n a r y , and he began h i s work among the poor i n the Toronto a r e a . Globe, January 16, 1886. 3 ^ M a i l , December 6, 1890. F. S. Spence, a prominent Toronto j e w e l l e r y manufacture, p r o g r e s s i v e c i t y alderman, and a c t i v e temperance worker, t o l d a Toronto audience t h a t i n many cases poverty c o u l d l e a d to d r i n k . M a i l , February 19, 1894. 37 J l Reverend C h a r l e s S h o r t t , p a s t o r of S t . C r y p i a n ' s Church, r e p r e s e n t s one of the best examples of t h i s s t i r r i n g of the s o c i a l g o s p e l among concerned clergymen. S h o r t t preached the need f o r C h r i s t i a n S o c i a l i s m which he took to be "the p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of C h r i s t i a n i t y to our everyday l i f e . " The Canada's  Farmers' Sun Weekly, March 28, 1893* S h o r t t encouraged the o r g a n i z a t i o n of unions among female workers, government n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of monopolies, and a church "of the people". P r o f e s s o r R. A l l e n has argued t h a t the urban experience of the c l e r g y d u r i n g the l a t t e r years of the c e n t u r y was not a c e n t r a l f a c t o r i n the development of the Canadian s o c i a l g o s p e l : "Although i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t a Canadian s o c i a l godpel might 49 have developed i n response to domestic urban and i n d u s t r i a l problems, i t d i d not i n f a c t happen t h a t way." A l l e n , p.2 8 3 . Yet, from the d i s c u s s i o n among some of the c l e r g y and the a t t e n t i o n they devoted to s o c i a l q u e s t i o n s , i t appears t h a t i n the case of Toronto, the domestic, urban, i n d u s t r i a l experience was an important f a c t o r . The e f f o r t s of f i g u r e s such as Reverend S h o r t t to p o p u l a r i z e C h r i s t i a n S o c i a l i s m , i n d i c a t e t h a t a t l e a s t some o f the c l e r g y were?.aware fo the needs of the urban poor and responded withiny; a r e l i g i o u s context to those needs. The s o c i e t i e s were: the C h r i s t o p h i o r e Colombo S o c i e t y w i t h M. Basso as P r e s i d e n t , and the Umberto Primo B e n e f i t S o c i e t y w i t h D. G l i o n n a as P r e s i d e n t . 3 9 The Toronto Hebrew Benevolent Society.,and the M o n t i f i o r e L a d i e s A i d S o c i e t y served the Hebrew community. They a l s o had day n u r s e r i e s f o r working mothers and o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 40 The German Benevolent S o c i e t y c a r ed f o r Germans s e t t l i n g i n the c i t y . 41 Globe. September 28, 1892. 42 For a f u l l e r d i s c u s s i o n o f these i n s t i t u t i o n s see S. Speisman, " M u n i c i f i c e n t Parsons and M u n i c i p a l Parsimony," O n t a r i o History.65.No.1(1973). 43 J "The A s s o c i a t e d C h a r i t i e s was o r g a n i z e d some twelve or t h i r t e e n y e ars ago." M a i l , January 2 3 , 1892. The c h a r i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n movement was a f e a t u r e of England and the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n the l a t t e r h a l f of the century, though i t i s not c l e a r from which source Canada drew on. N e i t h e r E . Wallace nor R. Splane i n d i c a t e the source of the A s s o c i a t e d C h a r i t i e s i d e a . Judging from the experience of the D e p o s i t o r y o f L a d i e s Work which appeared i n New York i n 1879 and appeared the f o l l o w i n g y e a r i n O n t a r i o , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the i d e a stemmed from the U n i t e d S t a t e s . 44 "The o b j e c t of t h i s combination was not the d i s p e n s a t i o n of funds, but r a t h e r the f o r m a t i o n of a c o u n c i l where methods and plans are d i s c u s s e d and recommendations made, each s o c i e t y or o r g a n i z a t i o n b e i n g l e f t to expend i t s own funds i n the l i g h t o f the i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d a t the meeting of t h i s c o u n c i l . " World, January 6, I890. 45 J G. Smith, S o c i a l P r o b l e m s s ( T o r o n t o : C. B l a c k e t t Robinson, 1889), p . l . 46 4? ^ I b i d . , p.4. Globe. October 7, 1891. I b i d . ^ 9 O ' S u l l i v a n , p . 1 0 3 . 50 5 0 Globe. November 26, 1891. 5 1 World. November 24, 1891. 5 2 M a i l . January 12 , 1892. 5 3 I b i d . 54 J Minutes of C i t y C o u n c i l . 1892, Appendix A , p.218. 55 i n 1891, the c i t y gave $ 8 3 , 6 8 7 . 0 9 . Minutes of C i t y C o u n c i l . Appendix C , p . 1 0 9 . In 1892, the c i t y gave $ 8 5 . 9 9 5 . 3 3 . M i n u t e s " of C i t y C o u n c i l . 1893, Appendix C , p.81 . 5 6 Globe. November 3, 1891. 57 J l Alderman D. Lamb complained t h a t the Commission was not doing as much good work as had been expected. Globe, November 9, 1892. D One group i n p a r t i c u l a r t h a t appeared to come i n f o r p a r t i c u l a r condemnation was the I t a l i a n s . During the I 8 9 I demonstrations, t h r e a t e n i n g remarks were made r e g a r d i n g a group of I t a l i a n s . w o r k i n g f o r low wages. 5 9 M a i l . September 6, 1890. ^° J . Mavor, "The R e l a t i o n o f Economic Study to P r i v a t e and P u b l i c C h a r i t y v " Annuals of the American Academy o f P o l i t i c a l  and S o c i a l S c i e n c e s . 1893, p . 4 0 . The "LePlay method" took the f a m i l y as the b a s i c u n i t of s o c i e t y and through a d e t a i l e d examination of a g r e a t number of these u n i t s , some b a s i c g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s c o u l d then be made; the f a m i l y was to be s t u d i e d under three main headings: e x t e r n a l c o n d i t i o n s , c i v i c s t a t e , and means of e x i s t e n c e . The f i r s t concerned the nature o f p l a c e of h a b i t a t i o n , whether r u r a l or urban, s i z e of d w e l l i n g and o t h e r such f a c t o r s . The second concerned the s i z e of f a m i l i e s , r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e s , and such f a c t o r s . The f i n a l c ategory d e a l t w i t h p r o p e r t y h o l d i n g s , o c c u p a t i o n , income, and r e l a t e d f a c t o r s . 61 I b i d . . p.44. Booth's method, Mavor p o i n t e d out, c o n s i s t e d of a d e t a i l e d i n q u i r y among the poor-of London. A f t e r d e v i s i n g a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n which c o u l d serve as a standard f o r measuring the degree of poverty, he was able to l i s t the v a r i o u s ranks o f poor, based on t h e i r a b i l i t y to o b t a i n the n e c e s s i t i e s of l i f e . 6 2 I b i d . . p.46. 6 ? The o r i g i n of t h i s conference went back to the summer o f 1892. At t h a t time there o c c u r r e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of correspondence among the members of the S i n g l e Tax League, the N a t i o n a l i s t s , and the c l e r g y , based l a r g e l y on an e f f o r t o f those i n v o l v e d , to e x p l a i n the r e s p e c t i v e p o s i t i o n s of each group to the o t h e r s . As a r e s u l t o f t h i s communication, i t was suggested t h a t a meeting should be h e l d a t which the c l e r g y and reformers c o u l d o u t l i n e t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e stands on the 51 i s s u e s o f the day. A committee was s t r u c k t o a r r a n g e the ... d e t a i l s and, e a r l y i n November, a programme was announced. The f o l l o w i n g l i s t o f t o p i c s and s p e a k e r s was agr e e d upon* F r i d a y - T h e R e l a t i o n o f R e l i g i o n t o S o c i a l and Economic Q u e s t i o n s , Reverend C. S h o r t t -How B e s t t o P r o v i d e Employment f o r the Unemployed, P h i l l i p s Thompson Saturday-The L i q u o r P roblem, Reverend W. F r i t z w e l l - Crime, I t s Causes and C u r e s , Dr. E. Stowe - C h a r i t y , and I t s R e l a t i o n t o S o c i a l Reform, G. S m i t h -The M a c h i n e r y and F u n c t i o n o f M u n i c i p a l Government, W. Houston -How Can the C o n f l i c t between Labour and C a p i t a l be S e t t l e d , A. J u r y A f t e r the c o n f e r e n c e , i t was d e c i d e d t o form a permanent o r g a n i z a t i o n , a permanent S o c i a l Problems Conference and r e g u l a r l y h o l d p u b l i c l e c t u r e s on p r e s s i n g s o c i a l q u e s t i o n s . T h i s was a c c o m p l i s h e d and a s e r i e s o f p u b l i c meetings were h e l d i n 1893 and 1894. I n the f a l l o f 1894, the Conference changed i t s name to the Uni o n f o r P r a c t i c a l P r o g r e s s . The Union o r i g i n a t e d i n Bo s t o n and was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h The Bos t o n A r e n a . The aim o f the Un i o n w h i c h the Toro n t o group j o i n e d , was t o promote an i n t e l l i g e n t d i s c u s s i o n o f s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s , w i t h a view t o i m p r o v i n g them. The Week. December 16, 1892. ^ P h i l l i p s Thompson was a prominent f i g u r e i n ' r a d i c a l ' c i r c l e s i n T o r o n t o . As e d i t o r o f the Labour Advocate and l a t e r P r e s i d e n t o f the N a t i o n a l i s t A s s o c i a t i o n , he was a c t i v e i n pr o m o t i n g r e f o r m q u e s t i o n s i n the c i t y . 66 G l o b e . December 12, 1892. 68 6 7 I b i d . . March 1 3 , 1893« J . E. Thompson, "The I n f l u e n c e o f Dr. E. H. Stowe on the Women's S u f f r a g e Movement i n Canada," O n t a r i o H i s t o r y , 5 4 , No.4 ( 1 9 6 2 ) . 69 J . S c o t t , --.''The C o n d i t i o n s o f Female Labour i n O n t a r i o , " T o r o n t o U n i v e r s i t y S t u d i e s i n P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e . 1 , N o . 3 ( 1 8 9 2 ) . G l o b e . F e b r u a r y 10, 1894. 70 71 L o c a l groups such as the H e l p i n g Hand Home o r g a n i z e d bureaus where men d e s i r i n g work c o u l d r e g i s t e r . G l o b e , June 29, I 8 9 6 . However, the bureaus were n o t e f f e c t i v e i n r e l i e v i n g t h e d i s t r e s s r e s u l t i n g from l a c k o f employment. 7 2 G l o b e . F e b r u a r y 28, 1894. 7 3 I b i d . . March 3 0 , 1894. 52 7 ^ The D a i l y M a i l and Empire, October 10, 1896. ( h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d to as the M a i l and Empire). 75 I b i d . 7 6 I b i d . , November 7, 1896. 7 7 Globe, December 16, I896. 78 79 World. August 5, 1895. The Toronto Evening S t a r , October 20, 1896. ( h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d to as the S t a r ) . 80 81 82 83 84 Minutes of C i t y C o u n c i l , 1895, Appendix A , p.2 2 5 . I b i d . I b i d . I b i d . . p.228. In the f i r s t year of o p e r a t i o n , 1894, 975 f a m i l i e s had been helped and crops to the value of n e a r l y $14,000.00 were ha r v e s t e d . For a f u l l d i s c u s s i o n o f the p l a n see, B. 0. Flower, "A S u c c e s s f u l Experiment For the Maintenance of S u c c e s s f u l Manhood," Arena. March(1895). 85 86 87 88 W. C l a r k , " C i v i c Gardens," The Week. March 2 5 , 1895. Globe. May 5 , I896. M a i l and Empire, September 2 5 , 1895-T h i s f e a t u r e was designed to appeal to the business i n t e r e s t s of p o t e n t i a l s u p p o r t e r s o f the scheme. The M a i l and  Empire i n an e d i t o r i a l comment on September 2 5 , 1895 s t a t e d * " I t has been the view of the committee t h a t the scheme should be such as to appeal t o the busi n e s s sense of the community, whether by c a p i t a l i s t or by workingmen, and t h a t the i d e a of c h a r i t a b l e a s s i s t a n c e should, as f a r as p o s s i b l e , be r e p l a c e d by the i d e a t h a t , g i v e n a common aim, unhampered by l i m i t a t i o n s o f over-c o m p e t i t i o n and u n c e r t a i n employment, honest l a b o u r w i l l by co-o p e r a t i o n be able to engage i n p r o d u c t i v e i n d u s t r i e s and make them f i n a n c i a l l y s u c c e s s f u l . " 8 9 World. January 15, I896. 9 0 E. H. Bronson served as M. P. P. f o r Ottawa from 1886-1889. As a M i n i s t e r without P o r t f o l i o he took an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n p r o g r e s s i v e measures. He supported a planned approach to e x p l o i t i n g O n t a r i o ' s timber r e s e r v e s , a s s i s t e d c i t i e s i n t h e i r b a t t l e s a g a i n s t g r a s p i n g c o r p o r a t i o n s , and took a keen i n t e r e s t i n s o c i a l q u e s t i o n s and p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s to these problems. E. H. Bronson, The Que s t i o n of the Unemployed (Toronto: Queen's P r i n t e r , I896), p . l . 53 9 2 S t a r . October 31. 1896. 93 7 J In 189? a somewhat d i f f e r e n t ' a g r i c u l t u r a l ' scheme was attempted. In September, 1897. J . C h a r l e s Spence, Chairman of the Canadian- Co-operative Commonwealth, arranged f o r a ten day-t o u r o f O n t a r i o by Eugene V. Debs to promote the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s aims. "The t o u r i s i n f u r t h e r a n c e of the t o p i c s of the a s s o c i a t i o n , who have a p l a n to r e l i e v e some of the misery o f people out o f work by l o c a t i n g a hundred good men on lands i n the West, paying $2.00 a day f o r the work of t i l l i n g the l a n d f o r c u l t i v a t i o n . " Globe, September 29, 1897. No f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e to t h i s scheme was l o c a t e d . ^ M a i l and Empire. September 25, 1895. 9 5 World, November 25, 1898. 96 97 98 I b i d . M a i l and Empire, J u l y 14, 1897. J . J . K e l s o was an a c t i v e worker i n the s o c i a l s e r v i c e f i e l d . He was p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the q u e s t i o n of s t a t e p r o t e c t i o n f o r minors and was the moving f o r c e i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y . For a b r i e f o u t l i n e of h i s c a r e e r , see W. Baker, "John Joseph K e l s o " , Canadian W e l f a r e , 46,No.6(1966). 9 9 Globe. November 11, 1898. lOO^Proceedings of the Second Canadian Conference of C h a r i t i e s  and C o r r e c t i o n s , 1899, PP. 25-26, quoted i n T. K. Haraven. "An Ambiguous A l l i a n c e : Some Aspects of American I n f l u e n c e s on Canadian S o c i a l W elfare", S o c i a l H i s t o r y . N o . 3 ( 1 9 6 9 ) . p.86. 101 S t a r , November 26, 1898. 102 S t a r , June 27, 1898. CHAPTER I I I THE CAMPAIGN FOR REFORMED MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT Toronto's r a p i d growth and expansion i n the l a t t e r decades of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y was accompanied by an i n c r e a s e i n a t t e n t i o n which c i t i z e n s p a i d to the management o f c i v i c a f f a i r s . The e x t e n s i o n of m u n i c i p a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s r e f l e c t e d the i n c r e a s i n g importance of the m u n i c i p a l sphere of a c t i v i t y . The a c t i o n s of C i t y C o u n c i l were b e g i n n i n g to form an adminis-t r a t i v e 'web', to u c h i n g the i n t e r e s t s and comfort of the c i t i z e n a t s e v e r a l major p o i n t s . With s c i e n t i f i c advances i n the f i e l d s of l i g h t i n g , h e a t i n g , urban t r a n s i t , and communications, C i t y C o u n c i l was c a l l e d upon to p r o v i d e a measure of c o n t r o l and r e g u l a t i o n over the manner which these s e r v i c e s were d e l i v e r e d to the community. T h i s r e q u i r e d c a r e f u l n e g o t i a t i o n between the c i t y and l a r g e c o r p o r a t i o n s i n d e c i d i n g the c o n d i t i o n s on which these companies c o u l d operate i n the c i t y . The q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d , thus o f t e n depended on how e f f e c t i v e a b a r g a i n the aldermen c o u l d s t r i k e w i t h the company concerned. M u n i c i p a l government a l s o had an important r o l e to p l a y i n the business a f f a i r s of the c i t y . C o u n c i l , through i t s committees and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e departments, c o n t r o l l e d the assessment of p r o p e r t y v a l u e s , the l e v y i n g of m u n i c i p a l taxes, the c o n s t r u c t i o n of paved roads and sidewalks, the p r o v i s i o n of p o l i c e and f i r e f i g h t i n g s e r v i c e s , and thus, c o u l d m a t e r i a l l y i n f l u e n c e the b u s i n e s s c l i m a t e of the c i t y . Through a f a v o u r a b l e r e g u l a t i o n of water r a t e s and p r o p e r t y taxes, C o u n c i l c o u l d a c t to induce manufacturing and o t h e r concerns to l o c a t e i n the c i t y . 55 Besides the comfort and p r o s p e r i t y of the community, C i t y C o u n c i l was a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the h e a l t h of the c i t i z e n s . Such b a s i c needs as pure water, removal of sewage, c l e a n s t r e e t s , and s p a c i o u s parks and gardens where the c i t y ' s r e s i d e n t s might enjoy the b e n e f i t s of f r e s h , c l e a n a i r were of prime concern to a l l . Another area where C o u n c i l had a r o l e to p l a y was i n the maintenance of the g e n e r a l C h r i s t i a n c h a r a c t e r of Toronto. An adequate and e f f i c i e n t p o l i c e f o r c e c o u l d reduce crime and v i c e , w h i le the enforcement of by-laws, such as those p r o h i b i t i n g i n d e c e n t shows, r e q u i r i n g the use of a curfew b e l l , and p r e v e n t i n g Sunday amusements, c o u l d serve to upgrade the 'moral c h a r a c t e r ' of c i t y l i f e . The C o u n c i l a l s o f e l t an o b l i g a t i o n to provide f o r the l e s s f o r t u n a t e of the c i t y , and a n n u a l l y s e t a s i d e a l a r g e c h a r i t a b l e g r ant f o r the care of the s i c k and poor. With the c i t y ' s m u n i c i p a l government performing a l l of these f u n c t i o n s , i t was deemed e s s e n t i a l f o r the growth and w e l l -b e i n g of Toronto, t h a t the system of l o c a l government perform e c o n o m i c a l l y and e f f i c i e n t l y . These g o a l s c o u l d b e s t be achieved, i t was b e l i e v e d , by viewing the c o r p o r a t i o n of Toronto as i f i t were a bu s i n e s s o p e r a t i o n to be run on sound, bus i n e s s p r i n c i p l e s . H e rbert Ames, speaking before a Toronto audience, dwelt on t h i s theme, c a l l i n g a t t e n t i o n to "the B r i t i s h i d e a as s e t f o r t h by Joseph Chamberlain, namely, than the m u n i c i p a l c o r p o r a t i o n i s a j o i n t s t o c k company, i n which the aldermen are the d i r e c t o r s and 2 the c i t i z e n s the s h a r e h o l d e r s . " T h i s c o r p o r a t e analogy remained an important f e a t u r e of the m u n i c i p a l reform movement. However, there were ot h e r themes which formed a p a r t of the campaign to improve the p r a c t i c e o f m u n i c i p a l government. Women, la b o u r , and 56 o t h e r groups attempted to i n t e r e s t the c i t y f a t h e r s i n extending the f r a n c h i s e , broadening C o u n c i l ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , and responding to reform i s s u e s . M u n i c i p a l reform then, r e p r e s e n t e d a m u l t i - f a c e t e d campaign o p e r a t i n g a t the c i v i c l e v e l . A d e s i r e to s t r e a m l i n e m u n i c i p a l p r a c t i c e , improve e f f i c i e n c y and reduce c o s t by adopting business p r i n c i p l e s , the d e s i r e to promote reform to ensure m a t e r i a l growth and p r o s p e r i t y , and the z e a l of reform groups aiming a t the removal of i n j u s t i c e a l l f i g u r e d i n the campaign f o r reformed c i v i c government. Toronto's m u n i c i p a l system i n 1890 c o n s i s t e d o f ' a Mayor, e l e c t e d from the whole c i t y , and t h i r t y - n i n e aldermen, three each b e i n g r e t u r n e d from the c i t y ' s t h i r t e e n wards. S e v e r a l s t a n d i n g committees prepared r e p o r t s which were approved by the E x e c u t i v e Committee, then passed on to the whole of C i t y C o u n c i l f o r f i n a l acceptance. There were s e v e r a l departments a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the c i v i c government, Assessment, L e g a l , Water Works, E n g i n e e r i n g , and Treasury, w i t h each headed by an o f f i c i a l a ppointed by C o u n c i l and charged w i t h o v e r s e e i n g the workings of the department. T h i s system was based on the c o r p o r a t i o n ' s c h a r t e r of 1834. In t h a t year, Hon. H..J. B o l t o n , S o l i c i t o r - G e n e r a l f o r Upper Canada and a l s o a prominent r e s i d e n t of Toronto, succeeded i n g e t t i n g an A c t o f I n c o r p o r a t i o n passed by the Upper Canadian Assembly. Under t h i s c h a r t e r , the c i t y had been d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e wards, each to e l e c t two aldermen and two common c o u n c i l l o r s . The Mayor had then been s e l e c t e d from among the aldermen. Though the d u t i e s of the C o u n c i l , i n comparison w i t h more modern 5? urban govenment were of a l i m i t e d nature, the recognition of 'Home Rule' for the c i t y represented a major achievement f o r the forces pushing f o r greater l o c a l control of l o c a l a f f a i r s . The basic r i g h t s and duties of the Corporation of Toronto were set out i n the charter of I834. While two major modifications i n the municipal system of the Province of Canada were under-taken i n 1 8 4 1 and again i n 1 8 4 9 , these acts were primarily concerned with e s t a b l i s h i n g D i s t r i c t Councils f o r counties, townships, and other unincorporated areas, and seeing that there were no discrepancies between urban and county systems. The 1 8 4 9 Municipal Corporations Act, as f a r as c i t i e s l i k e Toronto were concerned, was of minor importance. Robert Baldwin, as sponsor of the b i l l , "had very l i t t l e to do i n order to bring the provisions for urban authorities into l i n e with the general p r i n c i p l e s of his Act, other than to provide a uniform basis fo r both towns and c i t i e s , and to remove the l i m i t a t i o n s on 4 t h e i r power to tax." Growth and expansion, two key features of Toronto's history, made t h e i r mark on the c i t y and necessitated periodic charges. In 1 8 4 ? and again i n 1 8 5 3 , new wards were created, bringing the t o t a l number of wards to seven. The c i t y also experimented with a d i f f e r e n t system of ward representation. In 1 8 4 9 each ward was to be represented by only one aldermen and two c o u n c i l l o r s but, t h i s system was found to be impractical, and was changed back to the previous system the following year. In 1 8 5 7 , the municipal campaign was accompanied by some e l e c t o r a l d i f f i c u l t y and the Council lacked a f u l l complement of members.^ Disregarding t h i s s i t u a t i o n , the Council went ahead 58 and selected a Mayor. The outcome of th i s d i f f i c u l t y was a request by the Council, f o r an amendment to the c i t y ' s charter to permit the e l e c t i o n of the Mayor by the people, and also to abolish the d i s t i n c t i o n between aldermen and c o u n c i l l o r s . This method of se l e c t i n g the Mayor prevailed u n t i l 1866, when the Government of the United Canadas returned the s e l e c t i o n of the Mayor once more to the Council.^ This system continued t i l l 18?3 when the Municipal Act was consolidated and provision was made for the e l e c t i o n of 7 the Mayor and aldermen by the people.' Though the Mayor now became a popularly elected o f f i c i a l , his influence and authority i n d i r e c t i n g the a f f a i r s of the c i t y remained somewhat l i m i t e d . Though he might undertake p a r t i c u l a r programmes or i n i t i a t e c e r t a i n reforms, i t was up to the whole of the Council to f i n a l l y approve any changes. Thus, the Mayor's role was l a r g e l y t i t u l a r , such as signing b i l l s into law and making applications on behalf of the c i t y . However, i t appears that i n the 1880's, the leadership of Mayor W. H. Howland introduced an a l t e r a t i o n i n the po s i t i o n of the Mayor. From being a mere President of the Council and dispenser of c i v i c charity, the Mayor was to be henceforth, an active p a r t i c i p a n t i n the government of the c i t y . 8 This active p a r t i c i p a t i o n on the part of Mayor Howland was l a r g e l y directed towards curbing the expanding drink t r a f f i c of the c i t y . A great 'moral reform' campaign was conducted by the Howland forces to reduce the incidence of intemperance and the •vices which followed from i t . However, no changes i n the system of municipal government were made during Howland's two terms and the accumulating administrative d i f f i c u l t i e s were l e f t f o r 59 the new Mayor, E. F. C l a r k e , to d e a l w i t h . These weaknesses i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of c i v i c a f f a i r s were becoming e v i d e n t i n s e v e r a l departments of the c i v i c government. The mismanagement of the Water Works Department, through p o o r l y s u p e r v i s e d c o n s t r u c t i o n and o p e r a t i o n of important equipment, posed a d i r e c t t h r e a t to the h e a l t h o f the c i t i z e n s ; and, the dangers of an outbreak of c h o l e r a were ever p r e s e n t . In c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h i s , the H e a l t h Department was c r i t i c i z e d f o r not m a i n t a i n i n g a c l o s e check on the q u a l i t y of water p r o v i d e d f o r use by the c i t y and f o r f a i l i n g to keep a d e t a i l e d r e c o r d of expenditure of the department's funds. The Works Department was charged w i t h f a i l i n g to o b t a i n f u l l value f o r the c o n t r a c t s which i t l e t out to p r i v a t e companies. Poor grade m a t e r i a l s and c a r e l e s s workmanship o f t e n meant a very s h o r t l i f e - s p a n f o r sewers, s t r e e t s , and sidewalks and these would have to be c o n s t a n t l y r e p a i r e d a t f u r t h e r expense to the c i t y . I t was a l s o suspected t h a t f a v o u r i t i s m and ' p u l l ' were used to secure c o n t r a c t s from the c i t y . I n f o r m a t i o n which o came to l i g h t i n the Godson t r i a l 7 suggests a system of b r i b e r y and g r a f t i n the l e t t i n g of some of the c i t y ' s c o n t r a c t s . The Assessment Department r e p r e s e n t e d another area where the c i t y was g e t t i n g l e s s than f u l l value.,Semi-autonomous a s s e s s o r s would go out and v a l u a t e p r o p e r t y i n the v a r i o u s wards of the c i t y and a g a i n i t was f e l t t h a t i n f l u e n c e c o u l d serve to reduce one's assessment r a t e and thus lower taxes, thereby r e d u c i n g the c i t y ' s revenue. C i t y C o u n c i l a l s o came i n f o r c r i t i c i s m i n i t s h a n d l i n g of n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway over the q u e s t i o n of running r i g h t s a l o n g the c i t y ' s w a t e r f r o n t . Many c i t i z e n s f e l t t h a t C o u n c i l was not t a k i n g a s t r o n g enough stand a g a i n s t the r a i l w a y and thus formed a ' c i t i z e n s ' committee' to work wi t h the C o u n c i l to defend Toronto's i n t e r e s t s . While there were major complaints a g a i n s t the manner i n which the v a r i o u s departments were managed, the brunt o f o p p o s i t i o n was d i r e c t e d towards C i t y C o u n c i l . C r i t i c i s m was e s p e c i a l l y c e n t r e d on those 'sidewalk aldermen' who had' approved the paving, l i g h t i n g , and e x t e n s i o n of m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s to those r e l a t i v e l y u n i n h a b i t e d areas o f the c i t y where they happened to h o l d p r o p e r t y , thus i n c r e a s i n g the value o f t h e i r r e a l e s t a t e investment: The r e a l e s t a t e c o n t i n g e n t was l a r g e i n C o u n c i l and many a q u e s t i o n a b l e t r a n s a c t i o n took p l a c e w i t h the o b j e c t o f adding a few d o l l a r s to the value o f r e a l e s t a t e aldermen's p r o p e r t y . The days of such p r a c t i c e s are gone, but the le g a c y o f extended m u n i c i p a l borders, l o o s e l y b u i l t suburbs w i t h paved s t r e e t s , s c h o o l s , p o l i c e and firemen adminis-t e r i n g to a sparse p o p u l a t i o n , remains. I t i s t h i s l e g a c y t h a t i s the r e a l cause o f the c r y f o r c i v i c reform among a g r e a t many overburdened c i t i z e n s . 1 0 The M a i l remarked t h a t "the r e a l e s t a t e element i s another f e a t u r e of the c o u n c i l o f which e l e c t o r s should be aware. I t i s probably as hard f o r a r e a l e s t a t e s p e c u l a t o r to be a j u s t and s t r a i g h t member of a c i t y c o u n c i l as i t i s f o r a camel to 11 go through the eye of a needle." Much of the c r i t i c i s m o f c i v i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was d i r e c t e d a t the system o f ^ m u n i c i p a l government p r a c t i c e d i n Toronto.'^The M a i l noted, "an i n c a p a b l e C o u n c i l i s bound to r e s u l t from a d e f e c t i v e m u n i c i p a l system, and t h a t i n order to secure men of a b i l i t y and unquestioned p r o b i t y to the C o u n c i l , the system must 61 12 be r e v o l u t i o n i z e d . " John G a i t , a prominent c i t i z e n of Toronto, summed up the s i t u a t i o n i n an i n t e r v i e w w i t h a city-r e p o r t e r : The time has come f o r a change. The p r e s e n t system has been proved and found wanting a l l a l o n g the l i n e . I t i s e n t i r e l y r o t t e n , and i s unworthy of Toronto. 13 I f the system was c h a r a c t e r i z e d as r o t t e n to the c o r e , i t was f e l t t h a t the core of m u n i c i p a l government, the ward system, was r e s p o n s i b l e . One Toronto newspaper remarked t h a t "the ward system i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r more jobbery, more scheming, more robbery of one p a r t of the c i t y to b e n e f i t another than any o t h e r i n e q u a l i t y i n the c i t y government." The Globe, i n the f a l l of 1 8 9 0 , r a n a s e r i e s of e d i t o r i a l s t i t l e d "What Our Masters Cost Us", p o i n t i n g out abuses and weaknesses i n the m u n i c i p a l system. One f e a t u r e i n p a r t i c u l a r which i t s i n g l e d out was the ward system. Commenting on the " m u n i c i p a l machine", the paper s t a t e d : The ward system i s a f a i l u r e and u n t i l i t i s a b o l i s h e d the m u n i c i p a l government o f the c i t y w i l l be simply a huge cumbersome machine, i n v o l v i n g both waste and jobbery. L e t the c i t i z e n s u n i t e i n demanding a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of C o u n c i l , i n c l u d i n g the a b o l i t i o n of the ward system. 15 The d i f f i c u l t y w i t h the ward system was the k i n d of p r a c t i c e s which r e s u l t e d from aldermen t r y i n g to secure f a v o u r a b l e ad-vantages f o r t h e i r a r e a s . C o u n c i l members o f t e n 'traded* votes to ensure t h a t p u b l i c works p r o j e c t s and o t h e r 'plums' would be d i s t r i b u t e d to t h e i r wards. The ward system a l s o encouraged the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of committees to ensure t h a t each ward r e c e i v e d a t l e a s t one chairmanship. Supporters and campaign workers of the v a r i o u s aldermen r e q u i r e d 'favours' and the c i v i c p a y r o l l s were swollen w i t h su p p o r t e r s working as c l e r k s , i n s p e c t o r s , and 62 other c i v i c o f f i c i a l s . To maintain such a cumbersome and i n e f f i c i e n t o peration r e q u i r e d an e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g supply of funds. The increase i n the c i t y ' s assessment r a t e during the e a r l y 1890*s prompted c i t i z e n s to demand an end to extravagance and waste. Another weakness i n the municipal system was C o u n c i l ' s i n a b i l i t y to f i x r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and a u t h o r i t y f o r i t s p o l i c i e s . The various committees, departments, and boards were not always u n i f i e d behind a s i n g l e programme, and at times appeared to be working at cross purposes. One c i t y alderman t e r s e l y summed up the s i t u a t i o n w i t h the comment: At present there i s no d e f i n i t e a u t h o r i t y . The heads of departments and the aldermen e x e r c i s e a j o i n t c o n t r o l and the r e s u l t i s o f t e n changed p o s i t i o n s , i n e f f i c i e n t work, the r e t e n t i o n of men who are p r a c t i c a l l y u s e l e s s , and general confusion. 16 One general remedy which was w i d e l y supported as a means of s o l v i n g t h i s problem was the d i v i s i o n of the l e g i s l a t i v e from the executive f u n c t i o n to e l i m i n a t e much of the confusion and l a c k of u n i f o r m i t y which c h a r a c t e r i z e d c i t y a f f a i r s . However, while the f e e l i n g t h a t something must be done might animate the c i t i z e n s , c o u n c i l members were r e l u c t a n t to d i s t u r b the c i v i c machinery. As f a r back as 1879-1880, Mayor J . B e a t t y 1 7 had prepared a c h a r t e r which proposed a longer term f o r the Mayor and aldermen, executive and l e g i s l a t i v e branches, the former comprising the aldermen, the l a t t e r the Mayor and heads of departments. No a c t i o n was taken on the pro p o s a l . S i x years l a t e r , Alderman Defoe, Chairman of the Executive Committee, had suggested a 63 r e d u c t i o n of the c i t y ' s wards to n i n e , w i t h three aldermen per ward, but t h i s s u g g e s t i o n aroused l i t t l e enthusiasm. Such a scheme, while i t might reduce the cumbersome nature o f an unwieldy C o u n c i l , was no guarantee t h a t 'undue i n f l u e n c e ' would not s t i l l pervade C i t y C o u n c i l . The reform s p i r i t was not t o t a l l y d e funct i n the c i t y . In the 1886 mayoralty e l e c t i o n , a M u n i c i p a l Reform A s s o c i a t i o n was formed to a i d the campaign of W. H. Howland. The main t h r u s t o f t h i s reform push was c e n t r e d on the l i q u o r q u e s t i o n w i t h the Howland supp o r t e r s l i n i n g up on the s i d e a g a i n s t the 'whiskey i n t e r e s t s ' as re p r e s e n t e d by candidate Manning. Howland was s u c c e s s f u l a t the p o l l s and, while he reduced the number of u n l i c e n s e d 'grog shops' from two hundred to e i g h t e e n and undertook some development p r o j e c t s , no r e a l m o d i f i c a t i o n of the m u n i c i p a l system was attempted. Moreover, the b u r s t o f reform enthusiasm proved t o be s h o r t l i v e d . In the e l e c t i o n o f 1888, E l i a s Rogers, who was endorsed by Howland, f a i l e d to g a i n e l e c t i o n . I n stead the c o n t e s t was won by E. F. C l a r k e , C o n s e r v a t i v e Toronto M. P. P., e d i t o r of the Orange S e n t i n e l , and l e a d i n g f i g u r e i n the Orange Lodge. C l a r k e ' s v i c t o r y was seen as a r e t u r n to a 'machine* brand o f m u n i c i p a l government, w i t h i n f l u e n c e i n s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s and p o l i t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s being the d e c i d i n g f a c t o r i n o b t a i n i n g i n f l u e n c e a t c i t y h a l l . The O n t a r i o p r o v i n c i a l government a l s o took an i n t e r e s t i n the q u e s t i o n o f m u n i c i p a l government. In 1887, the Mowat M i n i s t r y s e t up a Government Commission under W. Houston, T. A n g l i n , and E. Johnston, to i n v e s t i g a t e and r e p o r t on the p r a c t i c e o f gover n i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The Commission pre s e n t e d 64 two detailed reports which described the various systems of municipal government i n existence i n Canada, the United States, England, and some European countries. The reports contained a large body of information, but were guarded and imprecise when of f e r i n g possible recommendations f o r municipal practice i n Ontario. As an attempt to "examine the municipal i n s t i t u t i o n s of the province and of other countries to see i f improvements could be made at home i n l i g h t of experience elsewhere, the 19 Commission was a f a i l u r e . " 7 The Globe concluded that "the Commission had demonstrated that one c i t y ' s meat i s another 20 c i t y ' s poison." I t thus appeared that any i n i t i a t i v e on th i s question would have to come from the c i t i e s themselves. I t was l e f t to l o c a l c o u n c i l l o r s and i n f l u e n t i a l c i t i z e n s to organize a movement f o r c i v i c reform. One such movement which emerged i n the c i t y of Toronto was the Citizens* Association. The Association was formed by a number of leading Toronto c i t i z e n s and was o r i g i n a l l y designed to a s s i s t the Board of Trade, C i t y Council, and the Toronto Trades and Labour Council i n tr y i n g to s e t t l e the Esplanade d i f f i c u l t y with the {.Canadian P a c i f i c Railway. The discussion of t h i s broader c i v i c issue helped to promote an in t e r e s t i n the a f f a i r s of the whole c i t y rather than p a r t i c u l a r ward grievances. With t h i s larger perspective, many c i t i z e n s were able to recognize a common in t e r e s t i n working f o r an improvement i n the management of c i v i c a f f a i r s . This i n t e r e s t i n c i v i c issues was of p a r t i c u l a r importance as i t was f e l t that the reform thrust would have to come from outside of the Council. Many c i t i z e n s argued that i t was f o o l -65 hardy to expect men to l e g i s l a t e out of e x i s t e n c e the system to which many of them owed t h e i r e l e c t i o n to C o u n c i l . T h i s i d e a t h a t reform would have to come from ou t s i d e of C o u n c i l was emphasized by one of the p o p u l a r c o u n c i l l o r s , Alderman J . Boustead: I t i s i d l e to expect any change f o r the b e t t e r i n c i v i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n to be inaugurated by the c i v i c a u t h o r i t i e s . Reform must come from the o u t s i d e . 21 E. E. Sheppard, e d i t o r of Saturday Night and l e a d i n g f i g u r e i n p o l i t i c a l and l i t e r a r y c i r c l e s i n Toronto, suggested t h a t the c i t i z e n s ' group should meet and r e s o l v e i t s e l f i n t o another o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h m u n i c i p a l reform and improved c i v i c 22 a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as i t s g o a l . The P r e s i d e n t of the C i t i z e n s ' A s s o c i a t i o n , D. Thompson, d e c l a r e d h i m s e l f i n favour of r e f o r m i n g the system of m u n i c i p a l government, however, he was r e l u c t a n t to see the A s s o c i a t i o n get d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n m u n i c i p a l campaigns. He f e l t t h a t i f the A s s o c i a t i o n supported a p a r t i c u l a r s l a t e of candidates or a c e r t a i n p l a n of reform i t would become the o b j e c t of i n f i l t r a t i o n by v a r i o u s aldermen. Thompson was conscious of the f a c t t h a t the P h i l a d e l p h i a C i t i z e n s ' A s s o c i a t i o n , which appeared to be the model of the Toronto group, had been wrecked by nominating c a n d i d a t e s . "When t h a t b u s i n e s s was taken i n hand, i t became an 23 o b j e c t w i t h the w i r e - p u l l e r s to belong to the A s s o c i a t i o n . " J Many c i t i z e n s looked upon the A s s o c i a t i o n as the nucleus of an o r g a n i z a t i o n p r o v i d i n g l e a d e r s h i p i n the campaign f o r reform. The r e l u c t a n c e of the C i t i z e n s * A s s o c i a t i o n to a c t i n t h i s c a p a c i t y d i d not augur w e l l f o r a v i g o r o u s , u n i t e d m u n i c i p a l reform movement s u c c e s s f u l l y c a r r y i n g through a programme o f c i v i c improvement. 66 W i t h i n C o u n c i l i t s e l f , some members expressed an i n t e r e s t i n the r e c e n t a g i t a t i o n among the c i t i z e n s r e g a r d i n g the q u e s t i o n of improving the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of c i v i c a f f a i r s . While C o u n c i l as a whole might be r e l u c t a n t to t a c k l e the q u e s t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l aldermen were attempting to provide some s o r t of s o l u t i o n to the d i f f i c u l t y . One alderman i n p a r t i c u l a r who served as a c a t a l y s t i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n was E a r n e s t A l b e r t Macdonald. On October 16, 1889, the L e g i s l a t i v e Committee of C i t y C o u n c i l met to d i s c u s s a scheme proposed by Macdonald to reform c i t y government. E s s e n t i a l l y , h i s p l a n c a l l e d f o r s i x p a i d commissioners to a c t as an e x e c u t i v e i n c o n d u cting the c i t y ' s b u s i n e s s . The commissioners, a l o n g w i t h the Mayor, were to i n i t i a t e p r o j e c t s , s i g n f o r c o n t r a c t s , and be i n charge of h i r i n g and f i r i n g c i v i c employees. They were to be s e l e c t e d by the Mayor and approved by C o u n c i l . As w e l l , t h e i r p l a n s and programmes were to be r a t i f i e d by two-t h i r d s of C i t y C o u n c i l . G e n e r a l l y , the comments provoked by t h i s i d e a were of a subdued nature. There was some debate about committee chairmen s e r v i n g i n s t e a d of commissioners and a l s o a b o l i t i o n o f p r o p e r t y q u a l i f i c a t i o n s but, a f t e r a few minor a l t e r a t i o n s , the p l a n was accepted. In November, the whole of C i t y C o u n c i l met to c o n s i d e r Macdonald's scheme. Not a l l the c o u n c i l l o r s were e n t h u s i a s t i c about the i d e a . Alderman J . Baxter remarked t h a t " i f the C o u n c i l endorsed the p r i n c i p l e o f p a i d Commissioners, they would be stamping themselves as i m b e c i l e s . He was not prepared to g i v e way to p a i d h i r e l i n g s . " J Mayor C l a r k e r a i s e d the q u e s t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the heads of the v a r i o u s departments and the Commissioners. In t h i s he was supported by Alderman McDougall, who f e l t t h a t to endorse 67 such a p r i n c i p l e was to d i s p l a y a want of confidence i n po p u l a r government. The meeting d i d not come to any agreement save t h a t a s p e c i a l committee should be s e t up to look i n t o the q u e s t i o n . E a r l y i n December, the committee under the chairmanship of Alderman J . T a i t , met to d i s c u s s the q u e s t i o n of c i v i c reform. At t h i s meeting another scheme was pres e n t e d by Alderman G. G i l l e s p i e . In p r e s e n t i n g h i s p l a n to the committee, G i l l e s p i e p o i n t e d out the major d e f e c t s of the e x i s t i n g system: There are three prominent d e f e c t s connected w i t h our p r e s e n t system; a d i s p o s i t i o n to e l e v a t e the ward above the c i t y , l a c k o f c o n t i n u i t y o f p o l i c y , and an absence of t h a t f e e l i n g o f p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y among the people's r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , w i t h o u t which e f f i c i e n t c i v i c government i s i m p o s s i b l e . 26 As a remedy, he suggested e i g h t wards r e t u r n i n g two aldermen f o r a term of two y e a r s , one to r e t i r e a n n u a l l y . E i g h t other aldermen were to a c t as chairmen of the v a r i o u s committees and be e l e c t e d f o r three year terms from the c i t y a t l a r g e . The Mayor and e i g h t aldermen were t o a c t as an a d v i s o r y board and an e x e c u t i v e , while the C o u n c i l , now p r e s i d e d over by a P r e s i d e n t , would a c t as a l e g i s l a t i v e body p a s s i n g or r e j e c t i n g b i l l s p resented to i t by the E x e c u t i v e Board. C i t y C o u n c i l decided to have the scheme p r i n t e d f o r f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n by the aldermen. However, one aldermen had reached a d e c i s i o n as to the wisdom of the p l a n . Alderman C. Denison, a staunch s u p p o r t e r o f the i m p e r i a l c o n n e c t i o n , f e l t t h a t " i t was worse than a Yankee dodge. I f adopted, i t would p l a c e the c i t y i n the hands of r i n g s and a s t a t e of a f f a i r s would e x i s t worse 27 than the Tammany regime i n New York." ' The p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s proposed a l t e r a t i o n i n the s t r u c t u r e 68 o f c i v i c government was o f g r e a t i n t e r e s t t o t h o s e c i t i z e n s who were c o n c e r n e d about the s t a t e o f a f f a i r s i n the c i t y . The Globe remarked t h a t c i v i c r e f o r m had become a f r e q u e n t t o p i c and was p l e a s e d t o n ote t h a t the q u e s t i o n had t a k e n h o l d on 28 the p u b l i c mind as a m a t t e r o f f i r s t i m p o r t a n c e . However, C i t y C o u n c i l found i t h a r d t o s u s t a i n any momentum on the t o p i c and a t a m e e t i n g o f the s p e c i a l C i v i c Reform Committee h e l d i n December, o n l y f i v e members o f the f o u r t e e n member committee b o t h e r e d t o make an appearance. The i s s u e o f c i v i c r e f o r m d i d emerge as one o f the i s s u e s i n the m u n i c i p a l e l e c t i o n and Mayor C l a r k e commented on the q u e s t i o n i n h i s n o m i n a t i o n speech. I n o u t l i n i n g h i s view on the i s s u e , C l a r k e showed a p r e f e r e n c e f o r the B r i t i s h system o f permanent e x e c u t i v e department heads as opposed t o the A m e r i c a n system o f p o p u l a r l y e l e c t e d e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r s and department heads. The mayor b e l i e v e s the remedy needed i s t o p l a c e i n t h e i r j _ i . e« department h e a d s ] hands, f u l l c o n t r o l o f t h e i r department, r i d them o f a l d e r m a n i c i n t e r -f e r e n c e , making the A l d e r m a n i c p o s i t i o n a l e g i s l a t i v e one pure and s i m p l e , and t h e n demand o f the o f f i c i a l s r e s u l t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o the powers p l a c e d i n t h e i r hands. 29 The r e s u l t o f the m a y o r a l t y c o n t e s t was a v i c t o r y f o r Mayor C l a r k e . The incumbency, the C a t h o l i c and Orange v o t e , and the g e n e r a l a c c e p t a n c e o f C l a r k e ' s s t e w a r d s h i p , combined t o g i v e the Mayor a s i z e a b l e m a j o r i t y . The g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n o f s t r e a m l i n i n g c i t y government s e r v e d as a backdrop f o r the e l e c t o r a l c o n t e s t , b u t the Mayor d i d n o t r e g a r d h i s r e t u r n as a mandate f o r any d r a m a t i c changes. Indeed, i n h i s i n a u g u r a l a d d r e s s t o the new C o u n c i l i n J a n u a r y , 1890, the q u e s t i o n o f 69 c i v i c reform was not even d i s c u s s e d . However, a t the f i r s t meeting of C i t y C o u n c i l , a s p e c i a l committee was s t r u c k to c o n s i d e r and r e p o r t to the C o u n c i l , "a scheme f o r the b e t t e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the a f f a i r s of T o r o n t o . " 3 0 The f i r s t meeting of the new committee took p l a c e i n e a r l y February. The main p r o p o s a l put forward was the motion of Alderman J . L e s l i e , c a l l i n g f o r the d i v i s i o n of the c i t y i n t o nine wards, running n o r t h to south, each e l e c t i n g three aldermen. Alderman G i l l e s p i e p r o t e s t e d , a r g u i n g t h a t the e v i l s complained of would p e r s i s t . He p r e f e r r e d to see e i g h t wards w i t h a t l e a s t h a l f of the C o u n c i l e l e c t e d a t l a r g e by the whole c i t y . However, the motion passed and the scheme was sent on to the surveyor's o f f i c e . D e s p i t e the volume of debate both w i t h i n and without C o u n c i l , the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of schemes, and c o u n t l e s s e d i t o r i a l s i n the p r e s s , the g e n e r a l p l a n of c i v i c reform which was to emerge i n the e a r l y 1 8 9 0 *s, d i d not depart s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the g e n e r a l o u t l i n e c o n t a i n e d i n Alderman L e s l i e ' s motion. T h i s approach to c i v i c reform was confirmed e a r l y i n A p r i l when the O n t a r i o L e g i s l a t u r e passed an amendment to the M u n i c i p a l A c t , s t a t i n g t h a t i n c i t i e s o f O n t a r i o w i t h over one hundred thousand p o p u l a t i o n , upon the r e c e i p t of a p e t i t i o n s i g n e d by 500 r a t e p a y e r s , the C i t y C o u n c i l s h a l l decrease the number of the c i t y ' s wards. Should the C i t y C o u n c i l ignore the p e t i t i o n , the L i e u t e n a n t Governor i n C o u n c i l , s h a l l i s s u e a Commission which s h a l l a l t e r , r earrange, and decrease the c i t y wards and the a c t i o n of the Commission s h a l l be f i n a l . 31 I t was hoped t h a t t h i s would spur on the c i v i c reform committee which a f t e r i t s i n i t i a l enthusiasm i n February, had s l i p p e d i n t o the doldrums. A sub-committee r e p o r t prepared by Macdonald, 70 a g a i n a d v o c a t i n g p a i d commissioners, had provoked v e r y l i t t l e response. Alderman F. Moses commented: "The o b j e c t i o n s to p a i d commissioners i s [sic*] the expense and the f a c t t h a t men would spend l a r g e sums to secure t h e i r e l e c t i o n , l e a v i n g themselves 32 i n the pcwer of those who supported them."^ The q u e s t i o n was l e f t over t i l l e a r l y J u l y when the committee met a g a i n . At t h i s meeting, the schemes as drawn up by G i l l e s p i e and Macdonald were put forward f o r debate, but the committee h e l d t o i t s o r i g i n a l d e c i s i o n c a l l i n g f o r the d i v i s i o n o f the c i t y i n t o nine wards. As the Telegram noted, "The m e r i t s of the v a r i o u s schemes were not gone i n t o . " 3 3 A few days l a t e r , the committee met w i t h the C i t y Surveyor to f i n a l i z e the new d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n the c i t y and, a f t e r the boundaries had been dec i d e d on, the scheme was accepted. When one alderman j o c u l a r l y asked whose p l a n had been s u c c e s s f u l i n g e t t i n g the a p p r o v a l of the committee, Alderman Macdonald r e p l i e d , " i t i s a mongrel 34 scheme adopted by nobody."^ The scheme had indeed f a l l e n s h o r t of the e x p e c t a t i o n s of many. R. G l o c k i n g , P r e s i d e n t of the Toronto Trades and Labour C o u n c i l , and l e a d i n g f i g u r e i n l a b o u r i n g c i r c l e s i n Toronto, had favoured a removal of the wards and the b a n e f u l i n f l u e n c e they e x e r t e d , and i n t h e i r p l a c e , a reduced number of aldermen, who were to be e l e c t e d from the c i t y a t l a r g e . Together w i t h a more l i b e r a l f r a n c h i s e , he f e l t such changes would promote r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a l l c l a s s e s . However, f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n on the p l a n was postponed as the aldermen took t h e i r summer v a c a t i o n . With the approach of f a l l , and the s e a s o n a l i n c r e a s e i n the tempo of business a t c i t y h a l l , the i s s u e was a g a i n put to the 71 f o r e . The Globe c o n t i n u e d i t s e d i t o r i a l s a g a i n s t the e v i l s o f the ward system and the waste and jobbery which accompanied i t . The continued unhealthy s t a t e of the c i t y ' s water supply, the water works muddle, the u n s a t i s f a c t o r y p rogress of Esplanade n e g o t i a t i o n s , a l l demonstrated the c u r r e n t weakness of the m u n i c i p a l machinery. T h i s s t a t e o f a f f a i r s was g i v e n dramatic demonstration when l a t e i n October, Alderman Boustead, a sound and able a d m i n i s t r a t o r , tendered h i s r e s i g n a t i o n to C o u n c i l as a means of demonstrating h i s d i s p l e a s u r e w i t h i t s conduct of c i v i c b u s i n e s s . The l o s s o f men of h i s c a l i b r e from C o u n c i l was viewed as a s e r i o u s commentary on the d e p l o r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s e v i d e n t a t c i t y h a l l . In l i g h t o f these developments, the C i v i c Reform Committee c a l l e d an important meeting of i t s members to c o n s i d e r p o s s i b l e remedies to the d i f f i c u l t i e s b e s e t t i n g the c i t y . A comprehensive and r a d i c a l p l a n f o r r e s t r u c t u r i n g the whole system of m u n i c i p a l 35 government was g i v e n g e n e r a l a p p r o v a l by the committee,-^ The su g g e s t i o n of such sweeping changes caused some concern among the more c a u t i o u s observers o f c i v i c a f f a i r s . The Telegram s t a t e d : A mere a l t e r a t i o n of c i v i c a t t i r e i s not n e c e s s a r i l y b e n e f i c i a l . There are changes and changes. Some are improvements and others are o n l y changes. The wearer i s not b e n e f i t t e d by p u t t i n g o f f one d i r t y s u i t of l i n e n and p u t t i n g on another... The c r a z y -p atch scheme which Chairman E . A. Macdonald i d e n t i f i e s h i m s e l f w i t h i s a f a r c e . The c i v i c government i s not to be p u r i f i e d , c l e a n s e d , o r rendered e f f i c i e n t by the acceptance of p r o p o s a l s to l e n g t h e n the aldermanic term to three y e a r s . . . Alderman Macdonald's change would allow two years f o r s i n and one f o r repentance. 36 The Telegram remained r e l u c t a n t to a c t i v e l y support o r g a n i c change of the m u n i c i p a l system, p r e f e r r i n g to p l a c e i t s t r u s t i n " b i g g e r men from s m a l l e r wards". The Globe took a more p o s i t i v e stand on the work of the committee: The m u n i c i p a l machinery i s bad and n a t u r a l l y good engineers w i l l not have an y t h i n g to do w i t h i t . The f i r s t reform must come i n the machine i t s e l f . A f t e r t h a t good men w i l l come forward to operate i t . J ' The j o u r n a l went on to urge the committee not to put the " c a r t before the horse" by changing the system but not r e d u c i n g the wards. T h i s " l e f t - h a n d e d m u n i c i p a l reform" was comparable to b u i l d i n g a house from the r o o f down; "The ward system i s the f o u n d a t i o n of our m u n i c i p a l government and the s t a r t i n g p o i n t of a l l the p o l l u t e d streams t h a t t a i n t i t . " 3 8 A few days l a t e r the E x e c u t i v e Committee met to c o n s i d e r and prepare the r e p o r t s of the v a r i o u s committees f o r forwarding on to C o u n c i l f o r f i n a l acceptance. The r e p o r t of the C i v i c Reform Committee was accepted without any major a l t e r a t i o n , the s a l a r y of the Committee Chairmen being reduced to $3iu°0«00» On October 27, the p r o p o s a l was put to a f u l l debate by the Committee of the Whole C o u n c i l . The r e s u l t s were l e s s than g r a t i f y i n g . During the debate, "amendments and amendments to amendments i n f a v o u r of annual e l e c t i o n s , a b o l i t i o n of wards, of a hundred and one schemes, f o l l o w e d each o t h e r amid up-r o a r i o u s l a u g h t e r . " ^ Alderman G. Frankland, i n summarizing the debate remarked t h a t there had been much wr a n g l i n g and d i s c u s s i o n , but v e r y l i t t l e o f sense had been s a i d . As f o r the scheme i t s e l f , the p r o p o s a l s f o r s t r e a m l i n i n g committee work t r i e n n i a l e l e c t i o n s , and the e l e c t i o n of a P r e s i d e n t of the C o u n c i l were a l l s t r u c k out. Instead, C o u n c i l stayed w i t h a 73 v e r y modest p l a n of r e d u c i n g the number o f wards and c o u n c i l l o r s . While C o u n c i l as a whole may have been complacent on the q u e s t i o n of c i v i c reform, i n d i v i d u a l aldermen continued to devote t h e i r time and e f f o r t to t h i s important q u e s t i o n . At a meeting of C i t y C o u n c i l , h e l d i n l a t e November, Alderman A l f r e d McDougall moved t h a t an a p p l i c a t i o n be made to the O n t a r i o Government, " a u t h o r i z i n g the C o u n c i l to pass a by-law f o r the 41 b e t t e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the a f f a i r s of the C i t y of Toronto." H i s d e t a i l e d p l a n f o r r e v i s i n g the system of government i n Toronto which accompanied the n o t i c e of motion, was sent on to the C i v i c Reform Committee, which met December 1, to c o n s i d e r the p l a n . Aside from r e d u c i n g the number of wards to s i x and the s i z e of C o u n c i l to f o u r aldermen per ward, the most dramatic 42 f e a t u r e of the scheme was the p l a n f o r a Board of C o n t r o l . The most important f e a t u r e of the Board was the p r o p o s a l t h a t , ; "no recommendation of any committee i n v o l v i n g an expenditure or a p p r o p r i a t i o n of money, or a r e d u c t i o n of c i v i c revenue exceeding $200.00 c o u l d be submitted to the C o u n c i l u n t i l i t had f i r s t been submitted to the Board of C o n t r o l and, i f not approved by the Board, c o u l d not be passed except by a t w o - t h i r d s vote of the 43 whole C o u n c i l . " J R e a c t i o n to the p r o p o s a l s was mixed. The Globe h a i l e d i t 44 as the "outward and v i s i b l e s i g n of c i v i c reform". The Telegram f e l t t h a t while McDougall*s motives were honest, the scheme i t s e l f was doomed. The paper d e p l o r e d the i n c r e a s e d power g i v e n to the Mayor. I t s t a t e d : "A c i t y t h a t has been a f f l i c t e d by the f a u l t s of the mayor's f a v o u r i t e s does not covet the r i g h t 4< to pay them f o r b l u n d e r i n g a t the c i t y ' s expense." J A few weeks l a t e r the p l a n was sent on to C o u n c i l f o r d e l i b e r a t i o n by a l l 7k the members. However, a f t e r a s h o r t debate, Mayor C l a r k e asked McDougall f o r an o p p o r t u n i t y to d i s c u s s the b i l l w i t h him and suggested a s p e c i a l meeting of C o u n c i l to meet a few days l a t e r t o decide on the p l a n . Thus on December 26, C i t y C o u n c i l was c a l l e d i n t o s p e c i a l s e s s i o n f o r the purpose of a c c e p t i n g a scheme f o r the b e t t e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f c i v i c a f f a i r s . The main o u t l i n e of McDougall's p l a n was concurred i n by the members o f C o u n c i l . McDougall had to compromise on s i x wards r a t h e r than f o u r and on the Mayor nominating chairmen, s u b j e c t to C o u n c i l ' s a p p r o v a l , r a t h e r than a p p o i n t i n g them, i n order to get h i s b i l l through. A l l members were p l e a s e d w i t h the end r e s u l t and, a by-law i n c o r p o r a t i n g the changes, was prepared f o r a p u b l i c vote on the day of the m u n i c i p a l e l e c t i o n s . At the same meeting of C o u n c i l , Alderman B. Saunders pre s e n t e d a p e t i t i o n of f i v e hundred names r e q u e s t i n g the r e d u c t i o n i n the number of wards. He informed C o u n c i l t h a t they must submit t h i s q u e s t i o n of ward r e d u c t i o n to the e l e c t o r s as w e l l , i n keeping w i t h the terms of the b i l l r e c e n t l y passed by the O n t a r i o l e g i s l a t u r e . With t h i s i s s u e s e t t l e d , the members plunged i n t o the m u n i c i p a l campaign. One of the d i s a p p o i n t i n g f e a t u r e s of the m u n i c i p a l c o n t e s t was the f a i l u r e of the C i t i z e n s ' A s s o c i a t i o n to g a l v a n i z e p u b l i c o p i n i o n behind a s l a t e of sound and able c a n d i d a t e s . The Globe lamented: Not a s i n g l e member of the a s s o c i a t i o n has entered the f i e l d as an aldermanic c a n d i d a t e . No attempt has been made to h o l d p u b l i c meetings to d i s c u s s the g r e a t i s s u e s of the day. The C i t i z e n s ' A s s o c i a t i o n has had an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r good and has f o l d e d i t s arms and c a l l e d f o r a more convenient season. 46 The A s s o c i a t i o n members had hoped t h a t W. R. B r o c k ^ 7 would a c t as t h e i r standard-bearer i n the mayoralty c o n t e s t . A f t e r g i v i n g 75 an i n d i c a t i o n of h i s support f o r m u n i c i p a l reform, Brock informed the members at a dinner h e l d i n h i s honour, t h a t business o b l i g a t i o n s prevented h i s accepting t h e i r nomination. The World h i n t e d t h a t ' p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e * was r e a l l y the u n d e r l y i n g 48 motive. With the C i t i z e n s ' A s s o c i a t i o n thus f r u s t r a t e d and the v o t i n g p u b l i c unorganized i n support of a strong reform t i c k e t , the r e -e l e c t i o n of Mayor Clarke was assured. The r e s u l t s of the v o t i n g confirmed t h i s w i t h Mayor Clarke winning by a comfortable margin over h i s only opponent, E. A. Macdonald. The r e a l s u r p r i s e of the e l e c t i o n s however, was the overwhelming support f o r the McDougall by-law f o r c i v i c reform. The f i n a l wording of the by-law had been s l i g h t l y a l t e r e d at the l a s t meeting of the 1890 C o u n c i l . The question of paying aldermen remained a troublesome issue and, to a v o i d a misunderstanding over the motives behind the payment of aldermen, Alderman McDougall moved t h a t the tenth c l a u s e , p r o v i d i n g f o r aldermanic s a l a r i e s , be withdrawn. The motion was approved by C o u n c i l . The by-law proposal of Alderman Saunders, advocating simple r e d u c t i o n of the wards to seven, a l s o f a r e d w e l l , r e c e i v i n g a s l i g h t l y l a r g e r number of votes than the McDougall p l a n . -~ Though the main fe a t u r e s of the b i l l had been s e t t l e d on i n C o u n c i l and r a t i f i e d by the v o t e r s , a c o n t i n u i n g debate on the c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e of paying aldermen continued outside the c o u n c i l chambers. Labour i n p a r t i c u l a r was v o c a l i n i t s o p p o s i t i o n to the a l t e r a t i o n of the McDougall scheme at the l a s t meeting of C o u n c i l . At the February 16, meeting of C i t y C o u n c i l , a r e s o l u t i o n from the Trades and Labour C o u n c i l was 76 p r e s e n t e d to the members assembled: No system of m u n i c i p a l reform not embodying the payment o f the Mayor and Aldermen, the a b o l i t i o n o f p r o p e r t y q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r c i v i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and the e l e c t i o n t h e r e o f by cumulative v o t i n g w i l l secure the f u l l c o n f i d e n c e o f the working c l a s s e s of the c i t y . 49 Meanwhile, w i t h i n the new C i t y C o u n c i l of 1891, the Legis - v . l a t i v e Committee which was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d r a f t i n g the by-laws which the c i t y wanted approved by the p r o v i n c i a l government^ 0 submitted i t s r e p o r t which i n c l u d e d the d r a f t scheme approved by the r a t e p a y e r s . C o u n c i l adopted the r e p o r t , without any important changes i n the p l a n , o u t l i n i n g a new system o f c i v i c government. On A p r i l 14, the P r i v a t e B i l l s Committee o f the O n t a r i o government met to d i s c u s s the McDougall scheme. S e v e r a l i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s were p r e s e n t . J . Armstrong was i n attendance r e p r e s e n t i n g the Toronto Trades and Labour C o u n c i l . A l s o i n attendance were Alderman McDougall a l o n g w i t h h i s f e l l o w c o u n c i l l o r s , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the newspapers, and a number of p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s . O p i nion was d i v i d e d between those s u p p o r t i n g simple r e d u c t i o n of the wards and those who favoured a dominant p o s i t i o n f o r the Mayor and a s m a l l c i v i c e x e c u t i v e . Ex-Alderman R. J . Fleming, as the f i r s t speaker, c r i t i c i z e d the degree of power g i v e n to the Mayor to appoint chairmen, f e a r i n g t h a t men anxious to o b t a i n a p o s i t i o n would "toady" to the Mayor. He a l s o f e l t the two year term was u n s a t i s f a c t o r y as i t would remove the aldermen from the p u r i f y i n g e f f e c t of annual e l e c t i o n s . Joseph T a i t , L i b e r a l M. P.P. f o r Toronto, spoke out a g a i n s t the b i l l , opposing the wide powers v e s t e d i n the Mayor. Mr. Armstrong of the Labour C o u n c i l , c a l l e d upon the Committee to pass the scheme as presented. However, A. F. J u r y d i s p u t e d h i s r i g h t to speak out on b e h a l f of a l l the d e l e g a t e s of the Trades and Labour C o u n c i l . He f o r one, opposed a scheme which would leave the nomination of chairmen i n the Mayor's hands, thus p l a c i n g the patronage of the c i t y a t h i s d i s p o s a l . Alderman McDougall r e p l i e d to these c r i t i c i s m s by p o i n t i n g out t h a t C o u n c i l had f i n a l say as to who would be chairmen of the s t a n d i n g committees and furthermore, i t c o u l d o v e r - r u l e a d e c i s i o n of the Board of C o n t r o l by a t w o - t h i r d s v o t e . Concluding, he reminded the P r i v a t e B i l l s Committee t h a t C o u n c i l had overwhelmingly supported the measure and the proposed changes had been approved by a l a r g e m a j o r i t y of v o t e r s . Mayor C l a r k e r e i t e r a t e d the b e n e f i t s to be d e r i v e d from the proposed Board of C o n t r o l i d e a . "The i n t e r e s t s of the c i t y can best be guarded" he t o l d the members, "by a s m a l l committee such as the Board of C o n t r o l , p o s s e s s i n g the b e n e f i t of the advice of the v a r i o u s heads of departments."^ W. R. Meredith, l e a d e r of the C o n s e r v a t i v e O p p o s i t i o n , dwelt a t some l e n g t h on the p a r t i c u l a r needs of Toronto: "We must remember t h a t the C i t y of Toronto occupies an e x c e p t i o n a l p o s i t i o n , i t s monetary t r a n s a c t i o n s CO b e i n g g r e a t e r than those of the P r o v i n c e . " ^ He f e l t t h a t the b i l l would not o n l y c e n t r a l i z e power, but would prompt people to pay g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n to a f f a i r s of the c i t y and the choosing of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . He supported the broad o u t l i n e of the b i l l but opposed the two year terms, Meredith f e l t t h a t the q u e s t i o n of p a y i n g aldermen should be d e c i d e d by the government and added i t as an amendment to the M u n i c i p a l A c t to apply to a l l O n t a r i o . R e p l y i n g f o r the Government, Chairman J . M. Gibson saw the p l a n 78 as the f i r s t step towards a c h a r t e r f o r the c i t y of Toronto and remarked t h a t the M i n i s t r y was not averse to t h i s s t e p . He suggested a vote be taken on the b i l l w i t h the p r o v i s i o n t h a t C i t y C o u n c i l c o u l d not amend of r e p e a l the by-law. The vote was taken and the measure r e p o r t e d w i t h Messrs. J . T a i t and A. Smith b e i n g the o n l y d i s s e n t e r s . The outcome of the i n i t i a l debate on McDougall's p l a n was s h a r p l y c r i t i c i z e d by the Telegram. In p a r t i c u l a r , i t had harsh words f o r Gibson: Hi s power was e x e r t e d on b e h a l f of the bunglers and h i s i n f l u e n c e a f f l i c t e d Toronto w i t h a system such as he would never t h i n k of f a s t e n i n g upon Hamilton. Perhaps to o b l i g e a decaying c l i q u e , the M i n i s t r y , through the Hon. Mr. Gibson, can a f f o r d to snub Mr. Smith, to h u m i l i a t e nine out of ten c i t y L i b e r a l s and to make i t s own Mr. T a i t a t a r g e t f o r Tory j e e r s . I t has l i c e n s e d p o l i t i c a l r i n g s to pay p a r t y debts w i t h p u b l i c money and has made harder, the work of those who are t r y i n g to f o r c e i n t o p r a c t i c e the p r i n c i p l e t h a t m u n i c i p a l government i s b u s i n e s s not p o l i t i c s . 53 L a t e r i n A p r i l , the Committee h e l d another meeting to decide on the r e p o r t . Again a number o f i n t e r e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l s were pr e s e n t w i t h the main i s s u e s t i l l r e v o l v i n g around the Mayor and s m a l l executive c a b i n e t i d e a . The f i r s t two c l a u s e s d e a l i n g w i t h ward r e d u c t i o n and the number o f aldermen per ward passed without any o p p o s i t i o n . However, the c l a u s e s d e a l i n g w i t h the s t a n d i n g committees, Board o f C o n t r o l , and o t h e r f e a t u r e s r a n i n t o d i f f i c u l t y , a number of the committee members v o i c i n g < o p p o s i t i o n ; and, when they were f i n a l l y put to a vote, the measures were defeated on a s t r a i g h t p a r t y vote, f o u r t e e n C o n s e r v a t i v e s v o t i n g yes and twenty L i b e r a l s no. Thus the t h r u s t embodied i n the McDougall p l a n f o r reform 79 i n T o r o n t o ' s c i v i c government had y i e l d e d the b a r e s t r e s u l t s , r e d u c t i o n i n the number o f wards and aldermen. I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o a s c e r t a i n w i t h any c e r t a i n t y why the L i b e r a l s v o t e d the b i l l down. Perhaps the f a c t t h a t Toronto was c o n s i d e r e d a Tory s t r o n g -h o l d , headed by a C o n s e r v a t i v e Mayor might a c c o u n t f o r t h e i r r e l u c t a n c e t o accede t o any scheme w h i c h might s t r e n g t h e n the C o n s e r v a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the c i t y . A n o t h e r p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s the r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h o f the r e f o r m i m p u l s e i n the C i t y o f To r o n t o i n comparison w i t h the a t t i t u d e o f the P r o v i n c i a l Government. I n 1890, C i t y C o u n c i l i n c l u d e d i n i t s l i s t o f amendments w h i c h i t wanted approved by the O n t a r i o government, a r e q u e s t f o r g r a n t i n g a l l women w i t h the n e c e s s a r y p r o p e r t y q u a l i f i c a t i o n s the r i g h t t o v o t e a t m u n i c i p a l e l e c t i o n s . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r r e q u e s t was n o t acceded t o . The same r e s u l t s f o l l o w e d an e f f o r t t o e l i m i n a t e p r o p e r t y q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r aldermen. W i t h i t s base i n r u r a l O n t a r i o , the government was c a u t i o u s i n i t s approach t o r e f o r m i s s u e s . The Mowat M i n i s t r y ' s d e c i s i o n t o s u p p o r t ward r e d u c t i o n and d e l a y a c t i o n on' the Board o f C o n t r o l was an attempt n o t t o s a t i s f y the w i d e s p r e a d d e s i r e f o r changes i n the c i t y ' s system o f government, but t o appease t h o s e a d v o c a t i n g m u n i c i p a l r e f o r m . W i t h the d e f e a t o f the McDoug a l l scheme, the C i v i c Reform Committee o f C i t y C o u n c i l t u r n e d i t s a t t e n t i o n t o a d i v i s i o n o f To r o n t o i n t o new wards. L a t e i n June, 1891» a p l a n o u t l i n i n g s i x wards r u n n i n g n o r t h from the Bay was adopted by C o u n c i l . The breakdown o f the o l d ward system was n o t w i t h o u t i t s b e n e f i t s t o the c i t y . The new ward d i v i s i o n s e n s u r e d a w i d e r c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f v o t e r s . The new p l a n o f d i v i d i n g the c i t y i n t o l o n g s l i c e s 80 mixed business centres w i t h r e s i d e n t i a l areas of both the wealthy and the poor and, cut across o c c u p a t i o n a l , r e l i g i o u s , and p o l i t i c a l l i n e s . A l s o , i t encouraged c i t i z e n s to take a gr e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n the upcoming municipal e l e c t i o n s f o r the year 1892, as aldermen, cut a d r i f t from the o l d ward moorings, sought support among the voters of the new ward d i v i s i o n s . On October 23, 1891, a p u b l i c meeting was held to consider the p o s s i b i l i t y of r e v i v i n g the dormant Ratepayers' A s s o c i a t i o n . The moving for c e i n r e o r g a n i z i n g the A s s o c i a t i o n was a number of businessmen, concerned w i t h the expense of c i v i c a f f a i r s and desirous of i n s t i t u t i n g a p e r i o d of economy a t c i t y h a l l . The movement cut across p o l i t i c a l l i n e s w i t h W. R. Brock and R. J a f f r a y , p u b l i s h e r of the Globe, both t a k i n g p a r t i n the meeting At the meeting, a number of speakers reviewed the v a r i o u s weak-nesses i n the c i v i c machinery-and the need f o r strong l e a d e r s h i p to improve Toronto's m u n i c i p a l s i t u a t i o n . The A s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a s l i g h t m a j o r i t y of those present, decided t h a t E. B. O s l e r - ^ could provide the necessary l e a d e r s h i p , and o f f e r e d him the mayoralty nomination on behalf of the Ratepayers' A s s o c i a t i o n . O s i e r thanked the assembled group f o r t h e i r o f f e r , but claimed t h a t the press of business forced him to d e c l i n e the nomination. The A_ssociation then decided to set up a committe under the chairmanship of Goldwin Smith to consider the best method of p u t t i n g the d e s i r e d improvements i n t o p r a c t i c e . Two weeks l a t e r , the committee presented t h e i r r e p o r t . T h e i r eleven p o i n t programme was o u t l i n e d at a meeting of the A s s o c i a t i o n . I t c a l l e d f o r a r e s t r u c t u r i n g of the whole system of m u n i c i p a l government. The re p o r t recommended the d i v i s i o n of 81 the c i t y i n t o three d i s t r i c t s , w i t h a Commissioner, nominated by the Mayor and approved by C o u n c i l , to a d m i n i s t e r p u b l i c works and departmental a c t i v i t i e s i n each of the d i s t r i c t s . The Mayor's r o l e was designed to be p r i m a r i l y an honourary one, while the C o u n c i l was to c o n f i n e i t s e l f to l e g i s l a t i v e d u t i e s . The r e p o r t went on to suggest a r e d u c t i o n i n committees, o f f i c i a l s , and departments to l i m i t expense and a f i v e y ear f r e e z e on assessment v a l u e s . Such a scheme presented obvious d i f f i c u l t i e s , b e i n g more r a d i c a l than t h a t drawn up by Alderman McDougall and i t generated c o n s i d e r a b l e c r i t i c a l debate both d u r i n g the meeting and a f t e r -wards i n the p r e s s . A d e c i s i o n on the recommendations of the committee was postponed to a l a t e r meeting of the A s s o c i a t i o n . Meanwhile, the s m a l l group of men who were t r y i n g to induce a s t r o n g b u s i n e s s f i g u r e to o f f e r h i m s e l f as a candidate f o r Mayor, c a l l e d a meeting of c i t i z e n s i n t e r e s t e d i n the q u e s t i o n of m u n i c i p a l reform f o r e a r l y November. The outcome of the meeting of t h i s ' C i t i z e n s ' Committee', a r a t h e r l o o s e l y formed group o f the v e s t i g e s of the C i t i z e n s ' A s s o c i a t i o n , was a d e c i s i o n to agai n o f f e r the nomination to O s i e r . T h i s time the o f f e r was accepted. Ex-Alderman D. Defoe, who was p r e s e n t a t the meeting, expressed some concern over the manner i n which O s i e r ' s nomination had been engineered and warned t h a t o f f e r i n g the nomination to O s i e r without c o n s u l t i n g the Ratepayers' A s s o c i a t i o n , might a l i e n a t e the l a t t e r . However, he was assured by Sheppard, J a f f r a y and others who were members of both groups, t h a t there would be no t r o u b l e . Nothing c o u l d have been f u r t h e r from the t r u t h . 82 At a r a t h e r 'heated' meeting of the ratepayers a few days l a t e r , strong o p p o s i t i o n was voiced by the members, to the s e l e c t i o n of the C i t i z e n s ' Committee. P a r t l y through personal pique at not being consulted and p a r t l y through a s i n c e r e concern th a t Osier's connection w i t h the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway might i n v o l v e him i n a c o n f l i c t of i n t e r e s t when n e g o t i a t i n g w i t h the r a i l w a y on behalf of the c i t y , the members of the A s s o c i a t i o n reversed t h e i r e a r l i e r d e c i s i o n and decided not to support the candidacy of Os i e r . With the C i t i z e n s ' Committee and the Ratepayers' A s s o c i a t i o n d i v i d e d on the iss u e of the mayoralty nomination, the p o s s i b i l i t y of a j o i n t , u n i t e d e f f o r t remained d o u b t f u l . The e f f o r t of the pro-Osier f o r c e s both i n the Committee and the A s s o c i a t i o n to force the Osier candidacy on the ratepayers was f a c i n g a determined r e s i s t a n c e by a la r g e s e c t i o n of the ratepayers. The showdown between the two groups came at the nomination meeting of the Ratepayers' A s s o c i a t i o n h e l d e a r l y i n December. The meeting was c o n s t a n t l y i n t e r r u p t e d by shouting and s c u f f l e s and the chairman, unable to maintain order, announced h i s r e s i g n a t i o n and the meeting q u i c k l y ended i n d i s a r r a y . O s i e r remained as a candidate f o r Mayor, but without the support of the Ratepayers' A s s o c i a t i o n . Nor was anymore heard of the plan drawn up by the executive committee of the A s s o c i a t i o n , and the o r g a n i z a t i o n was an i n e f f e c t u a l force during the muni c i p a l campaign. With Clarke r e t i r i n g , the mayoralty race a t t r a c t e d other candidates; Ex-Mayor Beatty, John McMi l l a n , and R. J . Fleming a l s o entered the con t e s t . Fleming had sat on C o u n c i l i n the l a t e 1880*s, and had a l s o been a c t i v e i n opposing the McDougall 83 p l a n when i t came before the P r i v a t e B i l l s Committee. H i s busin e s s i n t e r e s t s l a y i n r e a l e s t a t e , though a t the time r e a l e s t a t e was s u f f e r i n g from the c o l l a p s e o f the b u i l d i n g boom of the l a t e 1880*s. Fleming was a l s o a nominal L i b e r a l , running f o r o f f i c e i n a s t r o n g C o n s e r v a t i v e c i t y , but as the Globe, not an unbiased observer, remarked: He i s a n y t h i n g but an o f f e n s i v e p a r t i s a n . . . T h i s i s not because Mr. Fleming i s i n c l i n e d to h a l t between two o p i n i o n s ; i t i s simply because the bent o f h i s mind i s l e s s toward F e d e r a l o r P r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s , than toward m u n i c i p a l a f f a i r s . The Telegram echoed these sentiments and c o n c e n t r a t e d on Fleming's s t r o n g reform q u a l i t i e s . The paper argued t h a t as a sound a d m i n i s t r a t o r and a man f r e e of ' r i n g i n f l u e n c e s ' , Fleming would f e a r l e s s l y i n t r o d u c e economy and order i n the conduct of c i t y a f f a i r s . On b e h a l f o f O s i e r , i t was claime d t h a t h i s f i n a n c i a l a b i l i t y , as e x h i b i t e d i n h i s meteoric r i s e to prominence i n the business world, would be a v a l u a b l e a s s e t f o r the c i t y . Running on a campaign s l o g a n o f a "business man w i t h a business p l a n " , O s i e r had the backing o f J a f f r a y , Goldwin Smith, and o t h e r l e a d i n g f i g u r e s i n the community. H i s l a c k of m u n i c i p a l experience was downplayed and the case o f W. H. Howland, who was e l e c t e d d i r e c t l y to the mayoralty without f i r s t having served on C o u n c i l , was h e l d up as an example. However, O s i e r ' s c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway continued to cause some d i f f i c u l t y . The Globe remarked t h a t "the p o s i t i o n of t h a t gentleman i s such as to warrant grave s u s p i c i o n t h a t i t i s a b a s t a r d c i v i c reform 57 movement t h a t he r e p r e s e n t s i n t h i s c o n t e s t . ' On e l e c t i o n day, Fleming succeeded i n winning the c o n t e s t , 84 even p o l l i n g f a v o u r a b l y i n those areas where the C o n s e r v a t i v e s might have expected to have done w e l l . - * 8 The Telegram pronounced h i s win a v i c t o r y of p r i n c i p l e over p a r t y and i n c i d e n t a l l y f l e s h e d out the legend t h a t a nod from John Ross Robertson, the KQ paper's e d i t o r , "was as good as a master key to C i t y H a l l . 7 As f o r the O s i e r campaign, i t r e p r e s e n t e d "the f i r s t and l a s t attempt to run a business man of the h i g h e s t eminence f o r Mayor of T o r o n t o . " 6 0 The g e n e r a l approach of the Fleming a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was s e t out i n the new Mayor's f i r s t i n a u g u r a l a d d r e s s t o the C o u n c i l of 1892. He advocated a shake-up i n the committee system through a j u d i c i o u s p l a n of amalgamating c e r t a i n committees and d i s p e n s i n g w i t h unnecessary o f f i c i a l s . He f e l t such a move would "improve our s e r v i c e s , convenience our c i t i z e n s , and save a g r e a t d e a l of Z-I money." As a f i n a l comment he added t h a t "as you so generously have kept p a r t y p o l i t i c s out of the campaign, so s h a l l I never l e t p a r t y p r e f e r e n c e i n f l u e n c e a s i n g l e a c t of. my o f f i c i a l d u t i e s . " 6 2 R. Fleming served as Toronto Mayor f o r two y e a r s , o b t a i n i n g the customary second term by a comfortable margin over E . E . Sheppard. The e l e c t i o n of t h a t year, January, 1893* was a par-t i c u l a r l y b i t t e r one and of more than u s u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the c i t y ' s h i s t o r y . The o r g a n i z e r s of Sheppard's b i d f o r the mayoralty attempted to l i n e up the C o n s e r v a t i v e vote f o r t h e i r c a n d i d a t e . J "However, the attempt to i n t r o d u c e p a r t i s a n p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n s i n the 1893 m u n i c i p a l e l e c t i o n s was defeated and Fleming's sound r e c o r d was s u f f i c i e n t f o r a ' G r i t ' Mayor to succeed i n Tory Toronto. During h i s stewardship, s e v e r a l im-85 improvements were made i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f c i v i c a f f a i r s . These changes were not attempts a t any major r e s t r u c t u r i n g o f the m u n i c i p a l system, but r a t h e r r e p r e s e n t e d a 'piecemeal' reform, a 'pruning of the dead wood', to improve the e f f i c i e n c y and l e v e l of s e r v i c e p r o v i d e d f o r the c i t i z e n s . S e v e r a l d e p a r t -ments a t c i t y h a l l were r e o r g a n i z e d w i t h t h i s g o a l i n mind. One of the f i r s t departments to f e e l the reform impulse of C i t y C o u n c i l under the s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e of R. Fleming, was the T r e a s u r y Department. The C i t y T r e a s u r e r was g i v e n c o n t r o l over the e n t i r e department and i t s o f f i c i a l s , except r e g a r d i n g s a l a r y i n c r e a s e s , and was thus brought i n t o l i n e w i t h the p r a c t i c e of o t h e r departments. A l s o , s h o r t l y a f t e r t a k i n g o f f i c e , a new C i t y E n gineer was appointed, the o l d engineer being h e l d i n d i s a p p r o b a t i o n . Under h i s v i g o r o u s l e a d e r s h i p , a new d i r e c t i o n i n the department was q u i c k l y shown as he attempted to see t h a t Toronto got f u l l value f o r i t s c o n t r a c t s . A s i m i l a r shake-up o c c u r r e d i n the M e d i c a l H e a l t h Department which had been v e r y l o o s e l y managed. A new M e d i c a l H e a l t h O f f i c e r was appointed and c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n was p a i d to s e e i n g t h a t the q u a l i t y of the c i t y ' s water, m i l k , and food s u p p l i e s was kept up to standard. A l s o , i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the supply of water to the c i t y , the Water Works Department was a b o l i s h e d and i t s a c t i v i t i e s brought under the d i r e c t c o n t r o l o f the C i t y E n g i n e e r . Another advance which o c c u r r e d d u r i n g Fleming's term was the e l e c t r i f i c a t i o n of the s t r e e t r a i l w a y by the over-head t r o l l e y system. S e v e r a l o t h e r changes were i n t r o d u c e d d u r i n g t h i s period? a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the E x h i b i t i o n Committee, a p o l i c y 86 f a v o u r a b l e to p r o t e c t i n g parks and r e c r e a t i o n a l areas i n the c i t y , and a l s o the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a p o l i c y f o r a s p h a l t i n g the main s t r e e t s o f the busi n e s s s e c t i o n o f the c i t y . The C o u n c i l a l s o made another attempt to broaden the m u n i c i p a l f r a n c h i s e by g i v i n g the vote to ma r r i e d women w i t h the necessary p r o p e r t y q u a l i f i c a t i o n . In March of 1893 a r e s o l u t i o n from Mr. J . L. Hughes, the Chairman o f the Womens* Enfranchisement A s s o c i a t i o n was p r e s e n t e d to C o u n c i l and, by a vote o f f o u r t e e n to e i g h t , the aldermen dec i d e d to a g a i n p e t i t i o n the On t a r i o Government f o r the d e s i r e d change. In t h i s i n s t a n c e , the C o u n c i l was more p r o g r e s s i v e than the Mowat Government and the measure was turned back. These changes and improvements i n t r o d u c e d d u r i n g Fleming's term earned the Mayor the r e s p e c t of Toronto c i t i z e n s f o r h i s 64 "vigorous and e f f i c i e n t " a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the c i t y ' s b u s i n e s s . While Mayor Fleming was s u c c e s s f u l i n improving s e r v i c e s f o r the community, the f i g h t f o r economy was l e s s s u c c e s s f u l , and the o b j e c t of a r e d u c t i o n i n t a x a t i o n remained an e l u s i v e g o a l . The f i x e d p a r t o f the c i t y ' s annual budget continued to be s e t a t a hig h r a t e and e f f o r t s to pare down expenses were of no r e a l conse-quence. A l s o , the c i t y s t i l l had a l a r g e f i x e d payment on the debenture debt i n c u r r e d d u r i n g the boom y e a r s . The c i t i z e n s c o n t i n u e d t o grow r e s t l e s s w i t h t h i s s t a t e o f a f f a i r s . The c r y f o r economy had been one of the r a l l y i n g p o i n t s f o r c i v i c reform groups, e s p e c i a l l y the Ratepayers* A s s o c i a t i o n . T h e i r e f f o r t s to b r i n g out good candidates i n the 1892 c o n t e s t had been a f a i l u r e and, f o l l o w i n g the campaign, the reform movement experie n c e d a temporary r e l a p s e . The. A s s o c i a t i o n ' s 8f weak campaign i n l a t e 1892 t o have the Mayor w i t h d r a w n from C o u n c i l and g i v e n a v e t o power, t h u s making him c l e a r l y the C h i e f E x e c u t i v e and the man most r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the conduct o f c i t y b u s i n e s s , was i n e f f e c t i v e . However, w i t h the approach o f the 1894 c i v i c e l e c t i o n s and the c o n t i n u e d h i g h t a x r a t e ^ , a s t r o n g movement was emerging t o form a u n i t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n t o b r i n g about some economy a t c i t y h a l l . The Globe i n J u l y , 1893» gave an i n d i c a t i o n o f the g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n w h i c h i t f e l t t he movement might t a k e . M u n i c i p a l r e f o r m i n t he p a s t "had been m a i n l y d i r e c t e d towards i m p r o v i n g the mach i n e r y o f c i v i c government and the e l e c t i o n o f a s t r o n g Mayor r a t h e r t h a n the a l d e r m a n i c c o n t e s t s . " ^ The a r t i c l e went on t o s u g g e s t t h a t g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be p a i d t o the e l e c t i o n o f aldermen, the ' u n i t s ' w h i c h r e a l l y made up the d r i v i n g f o r c e o f C i t y C o u n c i l . The r e d u c t i o n o f the wards had not f u l f i l l e d e x p e c t a t i o n s i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n and i t was c l e a r t h a t some f u r t h e r changes were needed. I n September, the Globe a g a i n drew a t t e n t i o n t o the need t o e l e c t b e t t e r aldermen i f c i v i c r e f o r m was t o be a c h i e v e d . I n an e d i t o r i a l i t s t a t e d : The movement f o r c i v i c r e f o r m i s r e a l l y one t o p u t the c i t y ' s b u s i n e s s on a b u s i n e s s b a s i s and take i t out o f the hands o f the p o p u l a r i t y h u n t e r s who have been wont t o c o n t r o l i t t h r o u g h l o d g e room and p o l i t i c a l i n t e r f e r e n c e . 6? There were a l s o s i g n s t h a t a g r e a t e r s p i r i t o f harmony and c o - o p e r a t i o n would be f o r g e d among the v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t e r e s t e d i n the q u e s t i o n o f m u n i c i p a l r e f o r m . I n O c t o b e r , a m e e t i n g o f d e l e g a t e s from the Board o f Trade, R a t e p a y e r s * A s s o c i a t i o n , and the Trades and Labour C o u n c i l met t o see i f a common p l a t f o r m o u t l i n i n g some b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s c o u l d be a c h i e v e d . 88 The meeting d i d not decide on any p r o p o s a l s , but agreed to form a J o i n t Committee which was to seek the a s s i s t a n c e o f C i t y C o u n c i l . Late i n October, the J o i n t Committee met w i t h C i t y C o u n c i l and secured the appointment of a committee to c o n f e r w i t h 68 them "with a view of s e c u r i n g a d e f i n i t e scheme o f reform." A s e t of p r o p o s a l s were drawn up and agreed upon a t a meeting of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the v a r i o u s groups h e l d e a r l y i n November. Again, the g e n e r a l o b j e c t which the p l a n was designed to promote was the s e p a r a t i o n of l e g i s l a t i v e and e x e c u t i v e f u n c t i o n s . The f i r s t c l a u s e adopted s e t f o r t h t h i s b a s i c p r i n c i p l e . "The E x e c u t i v e and L e g i s l a t i v e work of c i t y government be e n t i r e l y 69 s e p a r a t e d . " 7 To ensure t h a t the executive work was s u i t a b l y c a r r i e d out, the J o i n t Committee c a l l e d f o r the f o r m a t i o n of a Board of C o n t r o l composed of the Mayor and three o t h e r s , nominated by the Mayor from o u t s i d e the C o u n c i l and approved by the aldermen. T h i s Board was to devote i t s f u l l time to the e x e c u t i v e d u t i e s of the c i t y such as drawing up by-laws, s i g n i n g c o n t r a c t s , and p r e p a r i n g the budget. The p r o p o s a l s a l s o d e a l t w i t h the q u e s t i o n of improving the Assessment Department, indeed h a l f of the c l a u s e s were concerned w i t h a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f the system of assessment. The p l a n drawn up by the J o i n t Committee was then submitted f o r a p p r o v a l by the v a r i o u s i n d i v i d u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The Ratepayers' A s s o c i a t i o n a t a p u b l i c meeting, approved of the scheme as p r e s e n t e d . The Trades and Labour C o u n c i l decided i n f a v o u r of the scheme w i t h a few adjustments, the most important concerned the proposed Board of C o n t r o l . The l a b o u r d e l e g a t e s d e c i d e d to have the c o n t r o l l e r s e l e c t e d from the whole c i t y r a t h e r than appointed. In l i g h t of these changes, another meeting 89 of the J o i n t Committee was h e l d to see on what common ground they c o u l d agree to a c t . The most important p r o p o s a l was the c l a u s e r e q u e s t i n g the C i t y C o u n c i l to ask the government f o r power to e l e c t aldermen from the c i t y a t l a r g e - i n e f f e c t doing away wi t h the ward system. The committee a l s o agreed on an a p p o i n t i v e Board of C o n t r o l and the payment of aldermen on the b a s i s of t h e i r attendance a t meetings. A l l the members were p l e a s e d t h a t a programme had been agreed upon which not o n l y sought the improvement of the machinery of government, but a l s o allowed f o r the e l e c t i o n o f a b e t t e r c l a s s of men to C o u n c i l . The agreement on a p l a n of c i v i c reform was a good s i g n f o r those advocates of m u n i c i p a l reform. A l s o encouraging was the widespread p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n the q u e s t i o n . P a r t of t h i s i n t e r e s t i n c i v i c i s s u e s was a c a r r y over of the Sunday s t r e e t c a r a g i t ' a t i o n which took p l a c e i n the f a l l o f 1893* Even the c l e r g y of Toronto got i n v o l v e d i n the q u e s t i o n . At a meeting of the M i n i s t e r i a l i s t A s s o c i a t i o n , the Reverend Dr. Thomas read a paper on the t o p i c of m u n i c i p a l reform. He opened h i s address by o b s e r v i n g t h a t , the whole system of m u n i c i p a l government i s wrong. S e c r e t s o c i e t i e s , r i n g r u l e and e c c l e s i a s t i c i s m r u l e m u n i c i p a l p o l i t i c s . The system now i n use i s one which would r u i n any business c o r p o r a t i o n . 70 A f u r t h e r i n d i c a t i o n t h a t p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n was d i r e c t e d towards the q u e s t i o n , was the l a r g e audience which turned out to hear a p u b l i c l e c t u r e by W. Houston on "The Problem of C i v i c 71 Government".' In a v i g o r o u s address, he p o i n t e d out t h a t the expanding p o p u l a t i o n and r e s u l t i n g i n c r e a s e i n demand f o r c i v i c s e r v i c e s , f u r t h e r added to the complexity of conducting Toronto's a f f a i r s . The p r e s e n t system he argued, put a "premium on b l u n d e r i n g and waste, and o f f e r e d f a c i l i t i e s f o r d i s h o n e s t y and 90 f r a u d . " 7 2 The remedy f o r such a s t a t e of a f f a i r s was the c o n f i n i n g of l e g i s l a t i v e a f f a i r s to C o u n c i l , two y e a r terms f o r aldermen, and g i v i n g c o n t r o l of e x e c u t i v e a f f a i r s to the Mayor and permanent heads of the v a r i o u s departments. Houston's remarks were w e l l r e c e i v e d by the l i s t e n e r s and the g e n e r a l i d e a of s e p a r a t i n g the two f u n c t i o n s of government was h e a r t i l y endorsed. With t h i s i n t e r e s t shown by the c i t i z e n s , i t was hoped t h a t they would c a s t t h e i r vote f o r those candidates who supported the g e n e r a l reform programme o u t l i n e d by the J o i n t Committee and approved of by the r a t e p a y e r s . The A s s o c i a t i o n submitted a q u e s t i o n n a i r e to the candidates a s k i n g t h e i r stand on the p l a n drawn up by the committee and p u b l i s h e d the r e s u l t s f o r the b e n e f i t of the v o t e r s . The Trades and Labour C o u n c i l had g i v e n some thought to r u n n i n g 'labour c a n d i d a t e s ' making an o f f e r to O'Donoghue, an a c t i v e member of the C o u n c i l , to run as an aldermanic candidate under the l a b o u r banner i n Ward Four. He d e c l i n e d the o f f e r owing to the l a c k of an e l e c t o r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n among working men. The r e s u l t s of the ward e l e c t i o n s showed t h a t n e a r l y h a l f of those who had been endorsed by the r a t e p a y e r s had f a i l e d to get e l e c t e d . Many of these men were not w i d e l y known i n the ward and, i n the e l e c t i o n s , i t was d i f f i c u l t f o r new men to get i n by d e f e a t i n g incumbent aldermen. More than the s a n c t i o n of the Ratepayers' A s s o c i a t i o n was needed to break i n t o the a i d e r -manic c i r c l e . The mayoralty c o n t e s t c e n t r e d on a f i g h t between -two Methodist businessmen, R. Fleming running f o r t h i s t h i r d term, and Warren Kennedy, a popular Toronto merchant and a c t i v e worker i n the f i e l d o f s o c i a l reform. The main i s s u e o f the 91 campaign was the need f o r economy, and F l e m i n g , s a d d l e d w i t h the h i g h assessment r a t e o f 1892 and 1893, was d e f e a t e d by Kennedy by a wide m a r g i n . The new C o u n c i l , under the d i r e c t i o n o f Mayor Kennedy, was g i v e n an o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i s p l a y i t s p o s i t i o n on c i v i c r e f o r m when the J o i n t Committee b r o u g h t i t s p r o p o s a l s b e f o r e the a l d e r -men i n F e b r u a r y , 1894. A f u l l d i s c u s s i o n o f the proposed a l t e r a t i o n s i n the c i t y ' s system o f l o c a l government was under-t a k e n , though s e v e r a l aldermen spoke out a g a i n s t the recommendation r e g a r d i n g the B oard o f C o n t r o l , o b j e c t i n g t o the s e l e c t i o n o f t h r e e men from o u t s i d e o f C o u n c i l . I t was f i n a l l y d e c i d e d t o r e f e r the p r o posed a l t e r a t i o n s t o a committee f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y . No more was h e a r d o f c i v i c r e f o r m d u r i n g the m i d d l e o f 1894. O t her i s s u e s , a push f o r economy w i t h i n C o u n c i l , and a g e n e r a l i n a b i l i t y t o s u s t a i n any e n t h u s i a s m on the r e f o r m q u e s t i o n , a l l c o n t r i b u t e d t o push the scheme o f the J o i n t Committee w e l l i n t o the background. Many aldermen adopted a ' s e a s o n a l ' i n t e r e s t i n the m u n i c i p a l r e f o r m q u e s t i o n becoming concerned i n November, committed i n December, and a f t e r the J a n u a r y e l e c t i o n , c o n v i n c e d t h a t C o u n c i l ' s a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be d i r e c t e d t o more immediate i s s u e s . However, e v e n t s d u r i n g the l a t t e r p a r t o f 1894 i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the l e t t i n g o f the c i t y ' s l i g h t i n g c o n t r a c t once a g a i n drew p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n t o a f f a i r s a t c i t y h a l l . When the F i r e and L i g h t i n g Committee o f C i t y C o u n c i l f i n a l l y a c c e p t e d the o f f e r o f the T o r o n t o E l e c t r i c L i g h t Company f o r s u p p l y i n g the c i t y w i t h l i g h t i n g , t h e r e were rumours t h a t some 'shady d e a l i n g s ' had been i n v o l v e d i n the l e t t i n g o f the c o n t r a c t . One o f those t o c o m p l a i n was the u n s u c c e s s f u l t e n d e r e r . In an e f f o r t to ' c l e a r the a i r ' and get to the bottom of the v a r i o u s charges, C o u n c i l ordered a 73 j u d i c i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n . ' ^ The f i n d i n g s of the i n q u i r y r e v e a l e d d i r e c t r e q u e s t s f o r b r i b e s made by some aldermen, to the v a r i o u s t e n d e r i n g f i r m s . With t h i s evidence of b l a t a n t c o r r u p t i o n i t was decided to h o l d a f a r - r a n g i n g i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the conduct of c i t y a f f a i r s e s p e c i a l l y the r e c e n t l e t t i n g o f the s t r e e t r a i l w a y c o n t r a c t . The f i n d i n g s produced a wave of shock and i n d i g n a t i o n , as i t was found t h a t "Toronto the Good' had been betrayed by d i s r e p u t a b l e aldermen who w i l l i n g l y s o l d t h e i r votes to the h i g h e s t b i d d e r . The Canadian Engineer, d e p a r t i n g from i t s t e c h n i c a l format, commented: The s p e c t a c l e which Judge McDougall's s p e c i a l t r i b u n a l has exposed i n Toronto i s enough to make the angels of commerce weep. The f a c t t h a t such a t r i b u n a l . . . has been so e f f e c t i v e i n exposing the c u r r e n t r a s c a l i t y , g i v e s us ground to hope f o r b e t t e r t h i n g s i n the Queen C i t y . 74 These r e v e l a t i o n s spurred those c i t i z e n s who had worked on b e h a l f of c i v i c reform to renew t h e i r e f f o r t s . They deemed i t e s s e n t i a l t h a t pressure be put on C i t y C o u n c i l to take steps to ensure t h a t such occurrences were not repeated. The f i r s t comprehensive step towards a p u b l i c campaign to improve the conduct of c i v i c a f f a i r s was a meeting between the Trades and Labour C o u n c i l and the Ratepayers' A s s o c i a t i o n to see i f some p l a n of c o - o p e r a t i o n c o u l d not be a r r i v e d a t . The M a i l h a i l e d t h i s development as the p o r t e n t of some d e f i n i t e a c t i o n on the q u e s t i o n and added t h a t , " c i v i c reform ought to be the q u e s t i o n of the day i n Toronto and i t i s g r a t i f y i n g t h a t people are b e g i n n i n g to see i t i n t h a t l i g h t . " ^ ^ The outcome of t h i s 93 c o - o p e r a t i o n between the two bodi e s , was a d e c i s i o n to h o l d an open p u b l i c meeting f o r the d i s c u s s i o n o f two r e s o l u t i o n s , one con c e r n i n g the d i v i s i o n o f exe c u t i v e and l e g i s l a t i v e f u n c t i o n s and the oth e r c o n c e r n i n g the a b o l i t i o n o f the c i t y * s s i x wards. The p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n the proposed meeting was an encouraging s i g n t h a t the c i t i z e n s had decid e d to gi v e t h e i r f u l l support to the pr e s e n t e f f o r t . The l a r g e attendance a t the meeting h e l d e a r l y i n December was a good i n d i c a t i o n o f the concern which c i t i z e n s f e l t f o r the dismal l e v e l o f c i t y a f f a i r s and t h e i r d e s i r e to promote a campaign f o r c l e a n , c i t y government. An impressive l i s t o f speakers, many of whom had been l o n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the q u e s t i o n o f m u n i c i p a l reform i n Toronto, addressed the audience. The opening speaker, W. R. Brock, drew a t t e n t i o n to the f a u l t y system which dis c o u r a g e d able men from t a k i n g an i n t e r e s t i n the c i t y ' s a f f a i r s . P r o f e s s o r Goldwin Smith emphasized t h i s i d e a , p o i n t i n g out t h a t Toronto's p r e s e n t m u n i c i p a l system had not been designed to meet the needs of a c i t y as l a r g e and as populous as was Toronto. "Unless we make some e f f o r t to change the system", he t o l d the audience, " a l l our e f f o r t s to improve the e l e c t i o n s w i l l do us no good; we s h a l l r e l a p s e a g a i n . " 7 ^ H. B l a i n , speaking on b e h a l f o f the Board o f Trade, remarked t h a t b u s i n e s s men f a c e d w i t h the demands o f day to day a f f a i r s were o f t e n unable to take on the e x t r a d u t i e s r e q u i r e d of aldermen. He s t a t e d t h a t , " u n t i l the d u t i e s of aldermen and the c a l l upon t h e i r time were l e s s e n e d , they c o u l d not expect good men to take 77 the p o s i t i o n . " ' ' A r e s o l u t i o n a d v o c a t i n g the a l l o c a t i o n o f l e g i s l a t i v e f u n c t i o n s to C o u n c i l and exe c u t i v e f u n c t i o n s to a s a l a r i e d Board 94 of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was endorsed by the meeting, and an E x e c u t i v e Committee was appointed to a i d i n c a r r y i n g the r e s o l u t i o n i n t o e f f e c t . The meeting ended on an o p t i m i s t i c note when G. Bertram moved a r e s o l u t i o n , s t a t i n g t h a t , " t h i s meeting pledges i t s e l f to use i t s i n f l u e n c e to b r i n g about a b e t t e r c o n d i t i o n of t h i n g s f o r 1895, then has e x i s t e d f o r some years p a s t . " 7 8 Commenting on the outcome of the meeting, the M a i l dwelt on the dominant theme of b e t t e r men o p e r a t i n g a b e t t e r system. In an e d i t o r i a l the j o u r n a l p o i n t e d out t h a t b e t t e r men would have to be e l e c t e d to C o u n c i l before the d e s i r e d reforms c o u l d be implemented; "any reform of the system must be i n i t i a t e d by the aldermen themselves, and the whole e f f o r t of the e l e c t o r s should 79 be d i r e c t e d to t h i s end,"' 7 The need f o r a r e d u c t i o n i n the workload of aldermen by a d i v i s i o n of e x e c u t i v e and l e g i s l a t i v e f u n c t i o n s was w i d e l y r e c o g n i z e d as an important step i n m u n i c i p a l reform. However, i t was a l s o f e l t t h a t ' b e t t e r men' would have to be e l e c t e d to C o u n c i l before these changes c o u l d be e f f e c t e d . T h i s t a u t o l o g i c a l r i d d l e accounts f o r the s h i f t i n g emphasis of the c i v i c reform movement on e l e c t i n g good men and i n s t i t u t i n g a b e t t e r system to a t t r a c t b e t t e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . One of the f i r s t a c t i o n s of the E x e c u t i v e Committee was a l o n g the l i n e s suggested i n the M a i l e d i t o r i a l . The committee appointed s i x ward committees who were to assess the s i t u a t i o n i n each of the c i t y ' s wards, and r e p o r t back to the e x e c u t i v e , who i n r e t u r n would r e p o r t to the members a t a p u b l i c meeting. T h i s l i s t o f c a n didates was presented to the g e n e r a l p u b l i c e a r l y i n January, i n time f o r the m u n i c i p a l e l e c t i o n s . The r e s u l t s on v o t i n g day, i n d i c a t e d t h a t the committee had many of i t s f a v o u r i t e s e l e c t e d . The Globe c o n g r a t u l a t e d the group on i t s 95 e f f o r t s and the good r e s u l t s i t had produced. "The C i t i z e n s ' Committee must f e e l t h a t i t s nominees were enc o u r a g i n g l y r e c e i v e d and t h a t a l t o g e t h e r the u s e f u l n e s s of such an o r g a n i z a t i o n has 80 been demonstrated." The e l e c t i o n o f a 'good C o u n c i l ' had been viewed d u r i n g the e l e c t i o n as a f i r s t s t e p towards c i v i c reform. Mayor Kennedy, who r e t a i n e d the mayor's c h a i r by narrowly d e f e a t i n g Fleming, s e t out i n h i s i n a u g u r a l address to the C o u n c i l of 1895» what he hoped would be the g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e f o r the aldermen on the v i t a l q u e s t i o n of reform: The d i f f i c u l t y i n the p a s t has been t h a t p r o b a b l y too much time has been g i v e n to s e c u r i n g reform A c t s from the L e g i s l a t u r e and not s u f f i c i e n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n g i v e n to such improvements as c o u l d be c a r r i e d out without the expense and waste of time i n v o l v e d i n c a r r y i n g A c t s o f P a r l i a m e n t . 81 In e f f e c t , he was s u g g e s t i n g a r e t u r n to the Fleming approach to reform; piecemeal r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the v a r i o u s departments to improve t h e i r e f f i c i e n c y . However, the C o u n c i l of 1895 d i d not undertake a m o d i f i c a t i o n of the m u n i c i p a l system to t r y and reduce the problems which the c i t y f a c e d . The Waterworks Department presented the most dramatic c h a l l e n g e to the aldermen, as the q u a l i t y of the c i t y ' s water supply was a g a i n i n q u e s t i o n . Despite the urgency, a d e c i s i o n as to the b e s t remedy to a l l e v i a t e the s i t u a t i o n was postponed by C o u n c i l . Instead, an expert from England was engaged to study the v a r i o u s remedies and recommend a s o l u t i o n to C o u n c i l . T h e i r i n a b i l i t y to s u c c e s s f u l l y d e a l w i t h such problems p a r t l y stemmed from the l a c k of.V> : l e a d e r s h i p from a v i g o r o u s Mayor. During h i s second term, Mayor Kennedy faced s e r i o u s r e v e r s e s i n h i s p e r s o n a l business a f f a i r s and r e s i g n e d h i s o f f i c e before the l e g a l end of h i s term. T h i s l a c k o f d e c i s i v e n e s s a t c i t y h a l l prompted the c i v i c reform groups to ifcsegin o r g a n i z i n g e a r l i e r than u s u a l . At the beg i n n i n g o f October, an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l meeting of the C i t i z e n s ' Committee was arranged t o c o n s i d e r p u r s u i n g some of the go a l s which the committee had d i s c u s s e d d u r i n g the l a s t m u n i c i p a l e l e c t i o n . The members decided to appoint an E x e c u t i v e Committee to d r a f t a p l a n i n c o r p o r a t i n g the d e s i r e d reforms. Members of C i t y C o u n c i l r e c e i v e d an i n c e n t i v e to d i r e c t t h e i r a t t e n t i o n to the problems of c i v i c government, when a d e l e g a t i o n o f aldermen, who had attended the s p e c i a l meeting of the American S o c i e t y f o r M u n i c i p a l Improvement, presented t h e i r r e p o r t . C o u n c i l , a c t i n g on the motion of Alderman Davies, agreed to a p p o i n t a s p e c i a l committee to study the q u e s t i o n o f m u n i c i p a l Op reform. The aldermen a l s o decided to s e l e c t the C i t y E n g i n e e r as Toronto's permanent member of the American s o c i e t y to keep the c i t y informed of c u r r e n t developments i n the f i e l d o f m u n i c i p a l reform. T h i s Committee of C i t y C o u n c i l prepared a p l a n f o r r e m o d e l l i n g the c i v i c government. At the opening meeting, the Chairman, Alderman D a v i e s 8 3 presented a d r a f t p r o p o s a l which c a l l e d f o r a Board of C o n t r o l , composed of the Mayor and s i x aldermen e l e c t e d from the whole c i t y and a c t i n g as chairman of the s t a n d i n g committees. The Board would i n i t i a t e b u s i n e s s and C o u n c i l , composed of e i g h t e e n men, three from each ward, would r e q u i r e a two- t h i r d s vote to a l t e r any of i t s recommen-d a t i o n s . A P r e s i d e n t would p r e s i d e over the d e l i b e r a t i o n s of 97 C i t y C o u n c i l and a l s o serve as chairman of the Board of C o n t r o l . The committee reached no d e c i s i o n on the s u g g e s t i o n , but agreed to p r i n t the p l a n of Alderman Davies and meet a g a i n . The E x e c u t i v e Committee of the C i t i z e n s ' Committee brought down i t s scheme a few days l a t e r . I t s p r o p o s a l s were of a more ' r e v o l u t i o n a r y ' n a t u r e . The most important f e a t u r e of the p l a n , was a recommendation f o r a s m a l l c i v i c c a b i n e t known as the Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h i s Board would be composed of the Mayor and three d i r e c t o r s , the l a t t e r b e i n g nominated from among the aldermen and approved by C i t y C o u n c i l . T h i s s m a l l committee would have ready access to advice from the department heads and would be charged w i t h the e x e c u t i v e work of C o u n c i l . The p l a n a l s o c a l l e d f o r two year terms f o r aldermen, changes i n assessment procedures, and the method of p r e p a r i n g e s t i m a t e s , the l a t t e r to be c a r e f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d by the Board of Adminis^A t r a t i o n . The r e a c t i o n to these two schemes was mixed. The C i t i z e n s * Committee r e p o r t drew the most c r i t i c a l comment. The Globe h e l d t h a t the committee "would pr o b a b l y be wasting time i n 84 recommending any r a d i c a l changes i n c i v i c government." Judging from p a s t e x p e r i e n c e , i t c a u t i o n e d a g a i n s t any dramatic departure from c i v i c p r a c t i c e . While s u p p o r t i n g the proposed d i v i s i o n o f f u n c t i o n s , the paper suggested t h a t perhaps d e v o l v i n g more power on to the permanent heads of departments might be a method of d i v o r c i n g the e x e c u t i v e f u n c t i o n from the g e n e r a l business o f C i t y C o u n c i l . S i m i l a r l y , the World was c r i t i c a l o f the committee's p l a n . P r e f e r r i n g to p l a c e i t s t r u s t i n the s a f e t y of numbers, the e d i t o r i a l s t a r t e d t h a t aldermen s i t t i n g as the d i r e c t o r s s t i l l 98 had to be e l e c t e d , and w i t h a l l i t s f a r r e a c h i n g powers, there was no r e a l method of c a l l i n g i n d i v i d u a l members of the board to account f o r i n e f f i c i e n c y or misconduct. The one f e a t u r e which d i d f i n d support, was the recommendation to b r i n g the department heads, a c t i n g as an a d v i s o r y body, i n t o a l l a r g e r r o l e i n c o n d ucting c i v i c b u s i n e s s . 8 ^ The Telegram, m a i n t a i n i n g i t s d i s t r u s t of sweeping changes, condemned the scheme and c o n t i n u e d to support a push f o r b e t t e r men; "The one t h i n g n e e d f u l to the good government of Toronto, i s the g e n e r a l e x e r c i s e of common 86 sense a t the p o l l s . " The M a i l and Empire a l s o e x h i b i t e d a d i s t r u s t of the c e n t r a l i z i n g of s t r o n g powers i n t o a s m a l l committee s t a t i n g , "we want to make our c i v i c b u i l d i n g s the home of an i n t e l l i g e n t , b u s i n e s s - l i k e , and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e assembly of our b e s t c i t i z e n s and not a mere bureau where three or f o u r powerful men w i l l s i t and p u l l the w i r e s . " 8 7 The recommendations of C i t y C o u n c i l ' s committee r e c e i v e d more support. At a meeting i n November, the committee r e j e c t e d the e l a b o r a t e D a v i e s ' p l a n and i n s t e a d opted f o r a r e s o l u t i o n proposed by Alderman G. McMurrich and amended by Alderman B. Saunders. The main o b j e c t of the r e s o l u t i o n was to take the awarding of a l l c i t y c o n t r a c t s from the v a r i o u s departments and committees, and p l a c e i t i n a s i n g l e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e board. The p l a n was a master s t r o k e , as i t allowed f o r the r e d u c t i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e t a i l of the committees, without a r a d i c a l departure i n m u n i c i p a l p r a c t i c e . A l s o , the Saunders' amendment which c a l l e d f o r C i t y C o u n c i l to e n t r u s t from time to time, more a d m i n i s t r a t i v e work to the board as i t saw f i t , allowed f o r a g r a d u a l e v o l u t i o n of the c i v i c machinery. The proposed Board 99 o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was to be composed o f the Mayor, chairmen o f the E x e c u t i v e and Works Committee and v a r i o u s c i t y o f f i c i a l s such as the C i t y E n g i n e e r , the C i t y S o l i c i t o r , the C i t y Commissioner, and the C i t y T r e a s u r e r . The d e l i b e r a t i o n s of the two committees generated c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t on the i s s u e . Interviews i n the newspapers, e d i t o r i a l comment, and p u b l i c meetings, a l l drew the a t t e n t i o n of the c i t i z e n s t o the d i f f e r e n t aspects of the m u n i c i p a l reform q u e s t i o n . The advantages and disadvantages of the v a r i o u s schemes were d e a l t w i t h , and i t was hoped t h a t a t l a s t some change i n m u n i c i p a l p r a c t i c e would be e f f e c t e d . A p o s i t i v e step i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n was taken by C i t y C o u n c i l when the Report of the C i v i c Reform Committee was presented to C o u n c i l . A f t e r a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n i n which a few aldermen r a i s e d the q u e s t i o n of a s m a l l board d e l i b e r a t i n g on important c o n t r a c t s , the McMurrich-Saunders scheme was adopted by C o u n c i l and a t a subsequent meeting was put i n t o by-law form. I t was decided t h a t no vote by the p u b l i c was r e q u i r e d i n l i g h t of the i n t e r e s t and support shown f o r the measures. With t h i s i n n o v a t i o n , the main t h r u s t of the C i t i z e n s ' Committee was b l u n t e d and a t a j o i n t meeting of the C i v i c Reform Committee and the C i t i z e n s ' Committee, i t was decided to r e f e r a l l f u r t h e r schemes to the new incoming C o u n c i l . The m u n i c i p a l campaign i t s e l f , saw the r e t u r n o f R. Fleming to the Mayoralty, d e f e a t i n g Alderman J . Shaw, a C o n s e r v a t i v e and l o n g time member of C i t y C o u n c i l . The C o u n c i l of I896 promptly e s t a b l i s h e d the new Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and i t q u i c k l y became an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the c i v i c machinery. Besides l o o k i n g a f t e r the awarding of contracts?, 100 the board became a focus f o r aldermen w i s h i n g to implement p a r t i c u l a r m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n the s t r u c t u r e of m u n i c i p a l government. I t s f i r s t r e p o r t c o n t a i n e d a recommendation u r g i n g C o u n c i l to study the p o s s i b i l i t y of amalgamating the E n g i n e e r i n g and pp S a n i t a r y Departments w i t h the Me d i c a l H e a l t h Board. With the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h i s important measure of m u n i c i p a l reform, the v a r i o u s c i v i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t e r e s t e d i n the q u e s t i o n o f reform, d i r e c t e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n to o b t a i n i n g s p e c i f i c changes i n the M u n i c i p a l A c t , such as extending the hours o f v o t i n g and moving p o l l i n g day to January 1. To achieve these reforms, a p p l i c a t i o n would have to be made to the O n t a r i o Government and, the C i v i c Reform Committee of C i t y C o u n c i l , i n v i t e d the c o - o p e r a t i o n o f the C i t i z e n s ' Committee i n o b t a i n i n g these a l t e r a t i o n s . The problem of m u n i c i p a l government had not been d e a l t w i t h by the O n t a r i o Government i n a comprehensive f a s h i o n s i n c e the a l t e r a t i o n s made i n the ward system i n 1891. Amendments and minor adjustments were made to the M u n i c i p a l A c t and the Assessment A c t was c o n s o l i d a t e d i n 1892, but no overhaul of the system o f l o c a l government f o r l a r g e c i t i e s had been undertaken. While the Mowat M i n i s t r y as a whole had been slow to respond to the needs o f c i t i e s , i n d i v i d u a l members kept themselves a b r e a s t o f these needs and attempted to b r i n g t h e i r e x i s t e n c e to the a t t e n t i o n 89 o f the House. One such member was J . R. S t r a t t o n . Though r e p r e s e n t i n g the s m a l l c i t y o f Peterborough, S t r a t t o n took an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n the l a r g e i s s u e s f a c i n g O n t a r i o . He was an e a r l y advocate o f opening the 'New On t a r i o * and took up the q u e s t i o n of improving the q u a l i t y o f government a t the l o c a l 101 l e v e l . E a r l y i n the s e s s i o n of 1896, he i n t r o d u c e d a b i l l c a l l i n g f o r a o n e - t h i r d r e d u c t i o n i n the number of men who made up the c i t y and town c o u n c i l s . In support of h i s measure, S t r a t t o n read l e t t e r s from s e v e r a l mayors and aldermen which he had r e c e i v e d endorsing h i s b i l l . Summing up, S t r a t t o n d e c l a r e d , "he had o b t a i n e d a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n he p o s s i b l y c o u l d , and he wished to draw the a t t e n t i o n of the government to the f a c t t h a t a l l the towns and c i t i e s i n the p r o v i n c e r e q u i r e d l e g i s l a t i o n 90 of t h a t k i n d . " 7 A. S. Hardy, the Chairman of the Standing Committee on M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , concurred i n the d e s i r e of S t r a t t o n to see the conduct of m u n i c i p a l a f f a i r s improved -but he f e l t the scheme proposed would not be s u i t a b l e f o r c i t i e s the s i z e of Toronto and s i n c e the proposed changes had not thoroughly been d i s c u s s e d , the matter should be l e f t over t i l l next y e a r . The b i l l was withdrawn. However, the chairman of the committee d i d not l e t the q u e s t i o n of m u n i c i p a l reform l i e f a l l o w t i l l the f o l l o w i n g year. He b e l i e v e d t h a t l a r g e c i t i e s , such as Toronto, r e q u i r e d s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n : I have always f e l t the deepest i n t e r e s t i n the workings of the m u n i c i p a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y as developed i n Toronto, as being the l a r g e s t of the communities i n the P r o v i n c e , and i n which the most complex problems which had to be c o n s i d e r e d and s o l v e d , were presented. 91 On February 19, I896, Hardy i n t r o d u c e d a b i l l " r e s p e c t i n g C i t y C o u n c i l s and o t h e r matters". The b i l l was read f o r the f i r s t time and o u t l i n e d a number o f changes i n the p r a c t i c e of m u n i c i p a l government i n c i t i e s over 100,000 p o p u l a t i o n , thus a p p l y i n g o n l y to Toronto. 102 The most important feature of the measure, was the proposal to introduce a Board of Control f o r the c i t y . I t was to be composed of the Mayor and three aldermen, the l a t t e r to be bal l o t e d f o r from among the aldermen at the f i r s t meeting of the incoming Council. The Board had extensive powers; having the r i g h t to h i r e , r e t i r e , or a l t e r departmental heads and t h e i r administration of t h e i r departments, i n i t i a t e business f o r Council's consideration, and these actions could Only be over-turned by a two-thirds vote of the entire Council. Some other changes such as lengthening the aldermanic term to two years and r e v i s i n g the composition of the Court of Revision were also included i n the b i l l . Reaction to the proposed changes was generally c r i t i c a l , varying from moderate to severe. The Telegram bluntly stated that, "Toronto never expected a hard headed and far-sighted leader l i k e Hardy, to introduce a b i l l which represents the Ontario Government's complete surrender to the views of fad 92 peddlers and t h e o r i s t s , and the i n t e r e s t of schemers." 7 The Mail and Empire claimed to see the fine hand of party patronage at work: The Ontario Government s l i d e s with such unconscious f a c i l i t y into the creation of posts which may sometimes be convenient f o r supporters that i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g to f i n d that f i v e or six pleasant positions, with comfortable s a l a r i e s attached to them, c l u s t e r about the present proposals. 93 The World was more moderate i n tone but f e l t that interference into the a f f a i r s of the c i v i c departments by the Board was an objectionable feature which i t hoped would be corrected. The Globe reserved judgement on the proposed changes. A sp e c i a l meeting of the L e g i s l a t i v e Committee of C i t y Council had been 103 c a l l e d t o c o n s i d e r the proposed changes, and the members were g e n e r a l l y agreed to the need f o r f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the measure by the Government. The aldermen appeared content to experiment w i t h the newly i n t r o d u c e d Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n before making any f u r t h e r changes a l o n g the l i n e s suggested by Hardy. At the c l o s e of the meeting, the committee adopted a r e s o l u t i o n r e q u e s t i n g the l e g i s l a t u r e "not to pass the b i l l u n t i l C o u n c i l a r r i v e s a t some d e c i s i o n as to whether the experiment now b e i n g made i n Toronto v o l u n t a r i l y w i t h a somewhat s i m i l a r 94 board, can be regarded as a s u c c e s s f u l one." 7 However, Hardy had decided to p r e s e n t h i s b i l l to the M u n i c i p a l Committee and on March 24, the M u n i c i p a l Committee met and d e l i b e r a t e d on the measure. The meeting gave s e v e r a l i n t e r e s t e d groups an o p p o r t u n i t y to address the committee on the proposed scheme. Hardy was the f i r s t speaker, e x p l a i n i n g the f e a t u r e s of the b i l l and the aim of the reforms which he was a d v o c a t i n g . He a l s o s a i d t h a t some amendments to the p l a n were contemplated such as the a l t e r a t i o n of the two year term, but he proposed to h o l d these over u n t i l p r i v a t e members had an o p p o r t u n i t y of e x p r e s s i n g themselves on the b i l l . A l l the important groups of the c i t y were r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h the speakers e i t h e r s u p p o r t i n g the scheme or opposing i t . Toronto's L e g a l Department was p r e s e n t and took s t r o n g e x c e p t i o n to the f e a t u r e s of the scheme which concerned executive ' i n t e r -f e r e n c e ' i n departmental a f f a i r s . Ex-Alderman McDougall was p r e s e n t and i n l i g h t o f h i s past e f f o r t s both as an alderman and as Chairman of the C i t i z e n s * Committee, s t r o n g l y supported the b i l l : 104 A l l I can say i s t h a t the " b i l l i s i n response to p u b l i c demand. The people want a r e s p o n s i b l e board w i t h the Mayor of the c i t y as a head. 95 Mayor Fleming, who had opposed the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the board of c o n t r o l idea i n 1891, now came out i n support of the i d e a although he s t a t e d t h a t the C o u n c i l had not discussed i t to any great extent. They were w i l l i n g to leave the matter to the good sense of the l e g i s l a t u r e . Alderman D. Lamb spoke out against the measure and drew a t t e n t i o n to the r e s o l u t i o n of the L e g i s l a t i v e Committee of C i t y C o u n c i l r e q u e s t i n g Hardy to withdraw the b i l l u n t i l such time as the experiment w i t h the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n board had shown the b e n e f i t s of such a system. Delegates from the Board of Trade and the Ratepayers* A s s o c i a t i o n were present and gave t h e i r support to the general p r i n c i p l e s of the b i l l as tending towards the e f f i c i e n t and economical management of c i v i c a f f a i r s . The Toronto M. P. P.'s 0. Howland, T. Crawford, and Doctor G. Ryerson opposed the *coerc i v e ' feature of the b i l l and supported i n s t e a d a permissive a p p l i c a t i o n to Toronto. However, by a vote of eighteen to t h i r t y - f o u r , i t was decided to make the scheme imperative. Two f u r t h e r a l t e r a t i o n s were added, c l a r i f y i n g the s e l e c t i o n of the c o n t r o l l e r s and the e x t r a vote f o r the Mayor i f the Board of C o n t r o l produced a t i e vote. These changes were endorsed and the committee rose. While the general p r i n c i p l e behind the b i l l was w i d e l y approved some concern was expressed both i n the press and by i n d i v i d u a l aldermen over p a r t i c u l a r f eatures of the b i l l . t T h e Globe r a i s e d the problem of the Board of C o n t r o l being r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the appointment of c i v i c o f f i c i a l s whether they be c l e r k s or firemen. Such a system might undermine the d i s c i p l i n e w i t h i n the 105 departments and e l e v a t e the p r i n c i p l e o f f a v o u r i t i s m r a t h e r than m e r i t , i n the s e l e c t i o n o f o f f i c i a l s . I t was f e l t t h a t Heads of Departments should he l e f t i n charge of t h e i r departments. The o t h e r problem which continued to cause some d i f f i c u l t y was the t w o - t h i r d s requirement f o r C o u n c i l to o v e r - r u l e an a c t i o n o f the Board. Alderman D. Lamb r a i s e d t h i s problem a t a meeting of C i t y C o u n c i l l a t e i n March, s t a t i n g t h a t the two-t h i r d s r u l e should o n l y apply to the awarding of c o n t r a c t s and the p r e p a r a t i o n o f the es t i m a t e s . A compromise was f i n a l l y worked out by Mayor Fleming and i t was agreed to p e t i t i o n Hardy to r e s t r i c t the tw o - t h i r d s p r i n c i p l e to the awarding of c o n t r a c t s , the p r e p a r i n g o f the es t i m a t e s , and the h i r i n g of department heads, l e a v i n g a l l o t h e r matters to be r e v e r s e d by a simple m a j o r i t y vote of C i t y C o u n c i l . These suggestions were taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n by the O n t a r i o L e g i s l a t u r e and were added as amendments to the b i l l to c o n f i n e the t w o - t h i r d s vote to those areas suggested and to r e - i n s t a t e the powers of department heads to h i r e and f i r e subordinate o f f i c i a l s . With these a l t e r a t i o n s , the b i l l was sent on to the House and passed i n Committee of the Whole. Hardy's d e t e r m i n a t i o n to r e v i s e the s t r u c t u r e o f Toronto's m u n i c i p a l government r e p r e s e n t s the c u l m i n a t i o n o f the campaign of i n t e r e s t e d aldermen and c i t i z e n s to de v i s e an improved system f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g Toronto's a f f a i r s . A f t e r s e v e r a l years o f d i s c u s s i o n , C o u n c i l f i n a l l y adopted a method of c o n f i n i n g e x e c u t i v e a f f a i r s to a s m a l l c i v i c c a b i n e t and l e g i s l a t i v e a f f a i r s to the aldermen s i t t i n g on C i t y C o u n c i l . The experiment 106 w i t h the Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n l a s t e d only a few months. Chairman Hardy of the M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s Committee decided to introduce h i s own system of government f o r Toronto and, a f t e r a few a l t e r a t i o n s , h i s proposal was approved by the government. Hardy's a c t i o n not only emphasized the dependent p o s i t i o n which c i t i e s h e l d i n r e l a t i o n to the p r o v i n c i a l government, but a l s o r a i s e d the qu e s t i o n of why the government suddenly decided to implement a reform scheme a f t e r t u r n i n g down the request i n 1891. By i n t r o d u c i n g the machinery f o r s t r e a m l i n i n g m unicipal p r a c t i c e i n c i t i e s of 100,000 p o p u l a t i o n , the government may have been t r y i n g to demonstrate i t s i n t e r e s t i n the problems of r a p i d l y expanding urban communities. A broadening of L i b e r a l support i n urban centres would prevent the r e s t r i c t i o n of the pa r t y to a l i m i t e d r u r a l base and undercut the st r e n g t h of the Conservatives i n c i t i e s such as Toronto. I t was a l s o a bold stroke f o r Hardy and, w i t h the upcoming f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n and p o s s i b l e h i n t s that O l i v e r Mowat might switch to f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s , helped place h i s name prominently among p o t e n t i a l l e a d e r s h i p candidates. With the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the Board of C o n t r o l , the Ontario government e s t a b l i s h e d the system of c i v i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i t h which large c i t i e s of the province would meet the problems of twent i e t h century urban l i f e . A few a l t e r a t i o n s were l a t e r made to the system, a d d i t i o n a l c o n t r o l l e r s were added and members of the Board were e l e c t e d from the whole c i t y , but the basic format of the mun i c i p a l system was f i x e d i n I896. The various reform groups continued t h e i r e f f o r t s on behalf of s p e c i f i c changes, such as r e v i s i o n of the assessment laws, extending 107 v o t i n g hours, and broadening the f r a n c h i s e . Labour, a c t i n g through the Trades and Labour C o u n c i l , f l i r t e d w i t h the i d e a of r u n n i n g l a b o u r c a n d i d a t e s , but the v o t e r s remained r e l u c t a n t to s a n c t i o n the i d e a of ' c l a s s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ' . The c i t i z e n s of Toronto a l s o c o n t i n u e d to show t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e f o r non-p a r t i s a n m u n i c i p a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . C i v i c a f f a i r s were looked upon as business not p o l i t i c s , and i t was i n keeping w i t h t h i s g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e t h a t the lawyers, d o c t o r s , l a b o u r e r s , and businessmen who were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c i v i c reform, had waged t h e i r campaign f o r reform i n the p r a c t i c e of c i v i c government. 108 NOTES i J . Joyce and H. Hosse suggest that "In Canada, reformism was the c r y of an a r t i c u l a t e m i n o r i t y of middle c l a s s entrepreneurs to c a t a p u l t themselves i n t o power, d e p o l i t i c i z e the c i t y , and operate i t i n the way they were most f a m i l i a r w i t h , namely t h a t of a small business." J . Joyce and H. Hosse, C i v i c P a r t i e s i n Canada (Ottawat Canadian Federation of Mayors and M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , 1970), pp.15-16. 2 H. Ames was a l e a d i n g f i g u r e i n the municipal reform movement i n Montreal and founder of the Montreal Volunteer E l e c t o r a l League, H i s address was the t h i r d i n a s e r i e s of 'Canadian T a l k s ' sponsored by the Young Mens' C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n and was t i t l e d ! "The Young Canadian i n M u n i c i p a l L i f e " . 0 Globe, March 4, 1896. 3 J For a d e s c r i p t i o n of Toronto's f i r s t Mayor, see F. Armstrong, "Reformer as C a p i t a l i s t : W i l l i a m Lyon MacKenzie and the P r i n t e r ' s S t r i k e of I836," Ontario History,59.No.3 (1967). k I J . H. A i t c h i s o n , "Local Government i n Canada", (Unpublished Ph. D. Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, 1953). p.122. ^ "In S a i n t David's Ward on the second day of the p o l l i n g a r i o t o u s group of amateur p o l i t i c i a n s stopped the v o t i n g and the r e t u r n i n g o f f i c e r was unable l e g a l l y to make a r e p o r t . He s a i d i n an a f f i d a v i t that he was placed i n b o d i l y f e a r by an outrageous p a r t y f o r c i n g t h e i r way i n t o the p o l l room and t a k i n g possession of the premises." J . E. Middleton, The  M u n i c i p a l i t y of Toronto - A H i s t o r y I (Toronto: Dominion P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1923). p.263. 6 I b i d . , p.289. 7 I b i d . , p.3 0 3 . 8 Globe, September 3. 1893. 9 Telegram, A p r i l 14, 1891, g i v e s f u l l d e t a i l s of the casse. 1 0 Globe, September 12, 1893. I I M a i l , December 17, I889. I b i d . , October 2 3 , 1890. I b i d . 12 13 14 The Evening News, February 20, 1890. ( h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d to as the News) Globe, September 24, 1890. 109 1 6 1 Globe. December 13, 1890. 17 Mr. James Beatty J r . was from a strong Conservative f a m i l y ; h i s uncle was e d i t o r of the Leader and, Beatty h i m s e l f helped found the Monetary Times. He a l s o a s s i s t e d i n the formation of the Confederation L i f e A s s o c i a t i o n and served as Mayor of Toronto i n 1879 and 1880. 18 S. Spencer, "Municipal T r i u m v i r a t e : P o l i t i c s , S e r v i c e s and Economy i n Late Nineteenth Century Toronto," a paper read before the Canadian H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n (1972) , p.9. 19 G. P. de Glazebrooke, The S t o r y of Toronto (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1971), p.136. 20 Globe, September 21, 1889. 2 1 M a i l , October 23, 1890. 22 I b i d . 2 3 Globe, December 17, 1889. 2k Earnest A l b e r t Macdonald was a prominent b u i l d e r , r e a l estate agent, and e d i t o r of the s h o r t - l i v e d The Factor  and Legal and M u n i c i p a l Gazette. He took an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n municipal a f f a i r s , s e r v i n g s e v e r a l terms as alderman, i n t e r -spersed w i t h three mayoralty c o n t e s t s . He s t r o n g l y supported c o n t i n e n t a l union and c l o s e l y f o llowed American municipal p r a c t i c e , i n p a r t i c u l a r , the commission system as p r a c t i c e d i n New York. He hunted out a l l e g e d scandals and misdemeanours a t c i t y : h a l l and remained a t the centre of controversy throughout the decade under study. As a r e a l e s t ate agent w i t h considerable holdings i n the suburbs, h i s i n t e r e s t i n c i v i c reform i s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t . I t seems that the r e a l e s t a te aldermen who were i n t e r e s t e d i n improving municipal p r a c t i c e endeavoured to encourage the growth and p r o s p e r i t y of the c i t y and i n d i r e c t l y the l e g i t i m a t e increase i n t h e i r own personal wealth. E. A. Macdonald represents one of the best examples of ' c i v i c boomers' during the 1890's. 2 5 Globe, November 19, I889. I b i d . , December 12, 1889. 2 7 I b i d . 2 8 I b i d . , December 16, 1889. 2 9 I b i d . , December 18, 1889. 3 0 Minutes of C i t y C o u n c i l . 1890, Appendix A , p.23. 3 1 Globe, A p r i l 9, I89O. 110 3 2 News, February 19, 1890. 3 3 Telegram, J u l y 12, 1890. 3 4 I b i d . , J u l y 1 5 , 1890. 35 The aldermen adopted the f o l l o w i n g proposals: "the e l e c t i o n of aldermen f o r three years, one t h i r d r e t i r i n g a n n u a l l y , the number of committees reduced to f i v e , presided over by a chairman to be e l e c t e d by C o u n c i l and paid a s a l a r y of $5,000.00 per annum. I t was a l s o recommended th a t a l l c i t y p roperty should be i n the hands of one committee and that the estimates be prepared each year before municipal e l e c t i o n s . " Globe, October 21, 1890. 36 37 38 39 40 Telegram. October 2 3 , I 8 9 0 . Globe,October 2 3 , 1 8 9 0 . I b i d . I b i d . , October 28, I89O. Alderman A l f r e d McDougall represented the S a i n t James Ward on C i t y C o u n c i l , an area i n the heart of the business d i s t r i c t of the c i t y . He had a thorough grasp of the problems before C o u n c i l and earned the respect of h i s f e l l o w aldermen. M a i l , October 2 5 , 1890. 41 Minutes of C i t y C o u n c i l , 1890, p.378. 42 The Board of C o n t r o l was designed as a small c i v i c c abinet f o r d i s c u s s i o n and c o n s i d e r a t i o n of executive a f f a i r s . The Board was a uniquely Canadian development. P. Rutherford, "Tomorrow's M e t r o p o l i s : The Urban Reform Movement i n Canada," Canadian H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n H i s t o r i c a l Papers (1971), p.212. 4 3 J Minutes of C i t y C o u n c i l . 1890, p.380. 44 Globe. December 10, 1890. 45 J Telegram, December 9, 1890. 46 Globe. December 22, 1890. 47 Wv.Rfi,:Brock was a prominent Toronto c a p i t a l i s t . He was Pr e s i d e n t of the Canadian General E l e c t r i c Company, A D i r e c t o r of the General Trust Company, and the Chairman of the Board of D i r e c t o r s of the Empire. He was a l s o a prominent Toronto Conservative and served f o r many years as P r e s i d e n t of the Toronto Conservative A s s o c i a t i o n . "The s t o r y goe  th a t on hearing of t h i s , E. F. C l a r k e went to Ottawa to confer w i t h the Old Man and word was put out that Brock was i n l i n e f o r a seat i n the Senate and,.^at a b i g I l l dinner a t the N a t i o n a l Club held f o r the purpose of o f f e r i n g the candidature to Mr. Brock, the l a t t e r d e c l i n e d . " World, December 13, 1890. ^ 9 Toronto Trades and Labour C o u n c i l Minutes, 1891, p.29 k. Labour was g e n e r a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n making i t e a s i e r f o r working c l a s s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s to s i t on C o u n c i l by such means as paying the aldermen and reducing the 'ward i n f l u e n c e s * by which many aldermen obtained e l e c t i o n . ^° Under the terms of the B r i t i s h North America A c t , the provinces have c o n t r o l over the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . " This means tha t changes i n the municipal s t r u c t u r e depend on... the w i l l i n g n e s s of the l e g i s l a t u r e to make changes which are b e l i e v e d to be g e n e r a l l y acceptable." C. A. C u r t i s , " Mu n i c i p a l Government i n Ontario," Canadian J o u r n a l of  Economics and P o l i t i c a l Science,8,No.3(1942), p.4l6. ^ Telegram, A p r i l 14, 1891. 5 2 News, A p r i l , 1 4 , 1891. 53 Telegram, A p r i l 16, 1891. The Ratepayers' A s s o c i a t i o n had been formed back i n the e a r l y 1880's, but over the years had lapsed i n t o i n a c t i v i t y i n c i v i c a f f a i r s . The obj e c t s of the A s s o c i a t i o n wire c l e a r l y set f o r t h i n the P r e s i d e n t i a l address to the I895 annual meeting. Dr. E. J . B a r r i e k informed h i s audience t h a t the aims of the A s s o c i a t i o n were "to create a deeper i n t e r e s t i n municipal a f f a i r s , to e f f e c t a more e f f i c i e n t and economical a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of c i v i c a f f a i r s , to improve our system of municipal government, and to d i s t r i b u t e as e q u a l l y as p o s s i b l e the burden of t a x a t i o n . " Globe, February 14, 1895. 55 E. B. Os i e r entered the b r o k e r a g e business w i t h Henry P e l l a t t , the f a t h e r of S i r Henry P e l l a t t , and g r a d u a l l y rose to a p o s i t i o n of prominence i n the f i n a n c i a l c i r c l e s i n Toronto. He became a s s o c i a t e d with the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway, s e r v i n g on the Board of D i r e c t o r s . In I896, he was e l e c t e d as a Conservative M. P. f o r Toronto. 56 57 58 59 Globe, December 12, 1891. I b i d * , December 28, 1891. I b i d . , January 6, 1892. R. Poulton, The Paper Tyrant (Toronto: C l a r k e , I r w i n , and Company, 1971), p.98. 60 . / A. W i l k i n s o n , L i o n s i n the Way (Toronto: Macmillan Company of Canada, 1956), p.189. 112 6 1 Minutes of Toronto C i t y Council, 1892, Appendix C , p . l . 6 2 I b i d . 6 3 During the summer of 1892, at a meeting i n the Empire o f f i c e s , the chief organizers of the Conservative Party decided to reorganize the party structure i n the c i t y . A small committee was appointed to look into the matter. Their report was presented i n September, and recommended, among other changes, the introduction of party p o l i t i c s into municipal ele c t i o n s . Many of the active workers i n the party opposed the move, fearing a 'backlash' i f a Conservative Mayor were forced to raise taxes. Their p o s i t i o n f i n a l l y prevailed but an informal e f f o r t was made to run the 1893 contest on p o l i t i c a l l i n e s . Dr. Nesbitt, President of the Conservative Association i n Ward Three and R. Armstrong, President of the Young L i b e r a l Conservatives, were active i n bringing E. E. Sheppard out. In a l e t t e r to John Thompson, Sam Hughes noted that "these are the two men who brought out Mr. Sheppard and oneeiohey^i was brought out he was taken up by the Empire, the World, and the Albany Club as the l a s t hope of beating a G r i t candidate f o r mayor. But the r e s u l t was a catastrophe." Public Archives of Canada. Thompson Papers, Hughes to Thompson, February 10, 1893. 6 i* Middleton, p.3 k9. 6 5 one member of the Ratepayers' Association termed the rates "confiscation". 6 6 6 G l o b e , July 10, 1893. 6 7 Ibid., September 11, 1893. 0 Minutes of Toronto C i t y Council, 1893, p.26l. y Telegram, November 1, 1893. 7 0 World, December 12, 1893. 71 ' W. Houston was a graduate i n Sociology and P o l i t i c a l Science from the University of Toronto and was a close observer of municipal a f f a i r s . As the L e g i s l a t i v e L i b r a r i a n he was responsible f o r keeping the reading shelves f i l l e d with journals on current topics and, i n t h i s capacity, he was able to keep a close watch on what American and other foreign writers were saying about the question of municipal reform. 7 2 Globe, December 13, 1893. l l«The findings of Judge McDougall were issued in two reports and published i n f u l l i n the Minutes of Toronto C i t y 1 1 3 C o u n c i l 7 4 The Canadian Engineer,2.No.10(1895). p . 2 9 . 7 5 M a i l , November 30, 1 8 9 4 . 76 World. December 8 , 1 8 9 4 . 78 7 7 I b i d . I b i d . 7 9 M a i l , December 1 0 , 1 8 9 5 . 8 0 Globe, January 9 , 1 8 9 5 . 8 1 M a i l , January 2 2 , 1 8 9 5 . Minutes of Toronto C i t y C o u n c i l , p . 2 0 9 . J Alderman T. Davies was another of the aldermen who had l a r g e r e a l e s t a t e h o l d i n g s and took an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n m u n i c i p a l reform. 84 Globe, November 1 3 . 1 8 9 5 . 8 5 World, November 1 8 , 1 8 9 5 . 86 Telegram, November 15, 1 8 9 5 . 8 7 M a i l and Empire, November 1 5 . 1 8 9 5 . 8 8 Minutes of CityaCouncil.01896? Appendix A , p. 3 3 . 89 J . R. S t r a t t o n was the L i b e r a l R e p r e s e n t a t i v e from Peterborough West from 1 8 8 6 - 1 9 0 5 . r i s i n g to the p o s i t i o n of P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y . He was a former Mayor of the c i t y and e d i t e d the Peterborough Examiner. 9 0 Globe, March 1 9 , I 8 9 6 . 9 1 Minutes of C i t y C o u n c i l . I 8 9 6 , Appendix C , p.511. 9 2 Telegram, February 29, I896. 9 3 M a i l and Empire. February 2 1 , I896. 9 ^ Globe, February 29, I896. 9 ^ Telegram, March 24, 1896. 9 6 M a i l and Empire, March 25, I 8 9 6 . 114 CHAPTER I Y i MUNICIPAL MONOPOLIES AND MUNICIPAL MANAGEMENT: TORONTO, AND THE QUESTION OF PUBLIC OWNERSHIP T e c h n o l o g i c a l advances a t the end of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n the f i e l d s of l i g h t i n g , communication, and urban t r a n s i t , h e l d out the promise of g r e a t e r comfort and convenience f o r the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . The p r o v i s i o n of gas, l i g h t , telephone, and s t r e e t c a r s e r v i c e thus became a v i t a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n of l o c a l c o u n c i l s , as c i t i z e n s demanded cheap, e f f i c i e n t s e r v i c e . Along w i t h t h i s demand, a v i g o r o u s debate ensued on the best method of p r o v i d i n g these s e r v i c e s . In keeping w i t h the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y l a i s s e z - f a i r e e t h i c of p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e , important s e c t i o n s of Toronto's business community argued f o r p r i v a t e c o r p o r a t i o n s d e v e l o p i n g and s u p p l y i n g these s e r v i c e s to the community. The p r o s p e c t of l u c r a t i v e p r o f i t s p l u s a genuine b e l i e f i n the i n d i v i d u a l i s t e t h i c u n d e r l y i n g the f r e e e n t e r p r i s e system prompted many of Toronto's foremost c a p i t a l i s t s to become a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n the promotion of companies to supply these needs. Other groups w i t h i n the community such a s , l a b o u r , s o c i a l r e f o rmers, and some businessmen argued t h a t water, gas, and l i g h t companies should be operated f o r the b e n e f i t of the c i t i z e n s , not f o r a s m a l l group of g r a s p i n g c a p i t a l i s t s . Drawing on the experience of England, Europe, and some American c i t i e s , they argued t h a t p u b l i c c o n t r o l of m u n i c i p a l f r a n c h i s e s was the d i r e c t i o n i n which e n l i g h t e n e d communities were moving. B r i s t l i n g w i t h the s c o r n and moral i n d i g n a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the p o p u l i s t reform t h r u s t , the more a g g r e s s i v e proponents of p u b l i c ownership engaged i n a v i g o r o u s campaign a g a i n s t the Canadian 115 v a r i e t y of the 'Robber Baron'. Less s t r i d e n t advocates argued f o r p u b l i c ownership on grounds of cheaper p r i c e s and b e t t e r s e r v i c e . S e v e r a l important f r a n c h i s e s were considered by Toronto C i t y C o u n c i l during the p e r i o d under study. On each occasion the advantages and disadvantages of the var i o u s plans suggested were debated i n the press, i n the c o u n c i l chamber, and from p u b l i c p l a t f o r m s . This debate provides an i n s i g h t i n t o s e v e r a l c u r r e n t s of thought which were present i n Toronto on the qu e s t i o n of m u n i c i p a l ownership. One of the e a r l i e s t b a t t l e s to be fought on the q u e s t i o n of c i v i c ownership occurred when Toronto took c o n t r o l of i t s s t r e e t r a i l w a y f r a n c h i s e . In March, 1861, the c i t y had granted a t h i r t y year f r a n c h i s e to the Toronto S t r e e t Railway Company - formed by an aggressive P h i l a d e l p h i a promoter, A. Easton. The Company agreed to provide t r a c k and cars along the main s t r e e t s of the c i t y f o r at l e a s t fourteen hours a day at a maximum far e of f i v e cents. The c i t y r e c e i v e d an annual revenue from the company i n the form of a r e n t a l on the number of cars employed. At the te r m i n a t i o n of the f r a n c h i s e , the c i t y was to be given the opportunity of buying out the company, at a p r i c e to be set by a r b i t r a t i o n . In i t s e a r l y h i s t o r y , the Company faced a s e r i e s of f i n a n c i a l 2 d i f f i c u l t i e s and underwent s e v e r a l r e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . F i n a l l y , Senator Frank Smith, the Company's l a r g e s t i n v e s t o r , became pr e s i d e n t of the Toronto S t r e e t Railway Company. The other p r i n c i p a l s t o c k h o l d e r i n the Company was G. K i e l y . Under t h e i r 3 c o n t r o l the Company became a very p r o f i t a b l e o p e r a t i o n . y The f i n a n c i a l g a i n which accrued to the owners, d i d not escape 116 the attention of the c i t y fathers and, with the approach of the franchise's termination, Council determined to arrange for a large r return to the c i t y from the street railway. E a r l y i n January, 1890, on motion of E. A. Macdonald, a committee was appointed to "formulate a scheme(s) f o r the taking over of the assets and the franchise of the Toronto Street Railway Company, and f o r the [disposition of the same." The committee quickly became embroiled with c o n f l i c t s among the members, and Alderman Macdonald was voted out as chairman and replaced by Alderman G. G i l l e s p i e . This action brought a strong protest from Macdonald, who claimed to see ' s i n i s t e r * implications i n the actions of the committee .5 The importance of having a v i g i l a n t committee was evident when the Toronto Street Railway Company applied to the Ontario government f o r the r i g h t to use e l e c t r i c motive power i n the operation of i t s s t r e e t cars. Such a conversion from horse drawn cars to e l e c t r i c cars would greatly enhance the value of the franchise and increase the cost which the c i t y would have to pay. Council, acting on the recommendation of a now united committee, successfully petitioned the l e g i s l a t u r e to withhold the request as matters were pending between the c i t y and the Company. Frustrated by the C i t y Council i n i t s attempted 'grab' the Company remained h o s t i l e and unco-operative i n i t s dealings with the c i t y . The Globe complained that, i t i s rather a p i t y and something close to a mistake that when the c i t y authorities applied to the Street Railway Company for the balance sheets of the company for the l a s t few years, with a view to ascertaining just how much the franchise was r e a l l y worth to the c i t y , the o f f i c i a l s of the company refused that i n -117 formation. The suspicion has arisen that the p r o f i t s are r e a l l y so great, that the company does not care to have them made p u b l i c . 6 The arrogant attitude of the Company and the p o s s i b i l i t y of a handsome p r o f i t , raised the prospect of having the c i t y c offers benefit from the franchise rather than pockets of^private i n d i v i d u a l s . However, at t h i s juncture i n the debate on the 7 railway, the idea of municipal control was not widely discussed. Before the c i t y could acquire the assets of the Company, the ratepayers had to approve a by-law empowering Council to raise the necessary funds to purchase the Company. Those opposed to renewing the Company's contract were c a r e f u l not to alienate public support by advocating the c i t y operating the r a i l r o a d . On the other hand, agents of the Toronto Street Railway Company attempted to d i s c r e d i t the idea of the c i t y taking control of the franchise by c i r c u l a t i n g rumours implying that the aldermen wanted the c i t y to operate the road because of the patronage i t would provide. A c i r c u l a r published by the Street Railway Committee of C i t y Council f l a t l y denied any such intention: The report which i s being c i r c u l a t e d , that i t i s the intention of the Council to operate the street railway as a corporation work i s u t t e r l y f a l s e , and has been given p u b l i c i t y by parties h o s t i l e to the c i t y ' s i n t e r e s t . 8 Mayor Clarke added to t h i s statement the pledge, There has never been on our part, any intention to operate the road. A l l that we desire i s to amend the terms and conditions under which the r i g h t to operate i s leased, and then put i t up to public competition. 9 On the day of the ratepayer vote, an overwhelming number of c i t i z e n s cast t h e i r b a l l o t i n favour of the c i t y taking over the assets of the Toronto Street Railway Company. The prospects 118 of a b e t t e r f i n a n c i a l r e t u r n from the r a i l w a y and a g e n e r a l d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the a t t i t u d e o f the Company towards the c i t y , were f a c t o r s which l e d the v o t e r s to r e j e c t a renewal o f 10 the f r a n c h i s e . As a r e s u l t o f the vote, the c i t y was now in: a p o s i t i o n to begin proceedings to r e c l a i m the f r a n c h i s e which had been g i v e n to the Company i n 1861. The l e g a l i t y of the c i t y ' s p o s i t i o n had been c l a r i f i e d e a r l i e r t h a t year by a b i l l i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the O n t a r i o l e g i s l a t u r e by E. H. Bronson. The b i l l had been requested by the Ottawa C i t y C o u n c i l but was made a p p l i c a b l e to the whole p r o v i n c e . The b i l l o u t l i n e d a c i t y ' s r i g h t to operate a s t r e e t r a i l r o a d , under a s p e c i f i e d s e t of c o n d i t i o n s . Toronto was thus f r e e to buy out the e x i s t i n g Company and e i t h e r operate i t as a c i v i c e n t e r p r i s e or, l e a s e i t out to another ^ _ 11 company. The c i t y q u i c k l y i n i t i a t e d a r b i t r a t i o n h earings to a r r i v e a t a f a i r p r i c e f o r the Compan's p r o p e r t y . C i t y S o l i c i t o r , S. H. Blake and G. F u l l e r t o n r e p r e s e n t e d Toronto, w h i l e D'Alton McCarthy r e p r e s e n t e d the Company i n proceedings before the 12 a r b i t r a t i o n t r i b u n a l . In the course o f i t s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , the c i t y met w i t h the continued o b s t r u c t i o n on the p a r t o f the Company and was hampered i n i t s e v a l u a t i o n o f the r a i l w a y ' s 13 a s s e t s . y While the lawyers attempted to s e t t l e on a p r i c e f o r the pr o p e r t y , the pre s s and p a r t i s a n s were engaged i n another k i n d o f b a t t l e . F o l l o w i n g the s u c c e s s f u l vote on the by-law, the a l d e r -men had to decide what to do wit h the r a i l w a y , once the c i t y took p o s s e s s i o n of the p r o p e r t y . S. T. Wood, P r e s i d e n t o f the S i n g l e Tax League, s t a t e d i n a l e t t e r to the Globe t h a t there were two o p t i o n s ; "there seems to me but two courses open to C i t y C o u n c i l v i z . to l e a s e the p r o p e r t y f o r a term of ye a r s , or to operate the road through a s p e c i a l committee." Wood's l e t t e r was the s i g n a l f o r a vigo r o u s campaign between those who favoured the c i t y l e a s i n g out the newly a c q u i r e d f r a n c h i s e , and those who wanted the c i t y to operate the s t r e e t r a i l w a y . The M a i l argued t h a t the time was not opportune f o r such an experiment; " c i v i c government i n Toronto i s i n a t r a n s i t i o n s t a t e . . . the work of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n has not been taken i n hand and, pending t h a t , i t would be unwise to l o a d down the c i v i c machine w i t h b u s i n e s s t h a t i t would be unable to perform." J In oth e r words, c i v i c reform should precede c i v i c o p e r a t i o n . The Telegram was s u s p i c i o u s o f those s u p p o r t i n g p u b l i c ownership s u g g e s t i n g i t was "an a g i t a t i o n b e i n g f o s t e r e d i n somebody's i n t e r e s t . . . w i t h these f i n e t h e o r i e s as t h e o r i e s , we are not a t war; the p r o p o s a l i s not o b j e c t i o n a b l e i n 1 fi p r i n c i p l e but i n p r a c t i c e . " The paper f i r m l y b e l i e v e d t h a t the r a i l w a y , i f operated by the c i t y , would be used to f i n d • p l a c e s ' f o r aldermanic f a v o u r i t e s . These arguments were answered by the suppo r t e r s of m u n i c i p a l c o n t r o l . The most ardent advocates o f the c i t y o p e r a t i n g the 17 road were the members of the N a t i o n a l i s t A s s o c i a t i o n '. Through l e t t e r s and r e s o l u t i o n s sent to C o u n c i l , the members attempted to f o r c e the c i t y f a t h e r s to gi v e s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n to t h e i r p r o p o s a l . In December, 1891, a d e l e g a t i o n waited on C o u n c i l to s e t before the aldermen the N a t i o n a l i s t s ' p o s i t i o n . P h i l l i p s Thompson spoke on b e h a l f o f the A s s o c i a t i o n u r g i n g the c i t y to r e t a i n the f r a n c h i s e and manage the r a i l w a y by " p l a c i n g the 120 s t r e e t r a i l w a y s e r v i c e i n the hands of a c i v i c department under a committee of C o u n c i l , and a p p o i n t i n g a p r a c t i c a l man, w i t h 1 8 c o n t r o l over d e t a i l s , as s u p e r i n t e n d e n t . " Such a system would minimize the p o s s i b i l i t y of aldermanic i n t e r f e r e n c e and r e t a i n the b e n e f i t s of the r a i l w a y f o r the c i t i z e n s of Toronto. Thompson a l s o argued t h a t , a t p r e s e n t , i t was i m p o s s i b l e to put a value on the f r a n c h i s e as advances i n the f i e l d o f e l e c t r i c motive power might g r e a t l y reduce the c o s t of o p e r a t i o n . The speaker p l a c e d no t r u s t i n any 'guarantees* which might be i n c l u d e d i n an agreement w i t h a p r i v a t e c o r p o r a t i o n . The s a l e of the f r a n c h i s e to any c o r p o r a t i o n , l e a v e s the p u b l i c a t t h e i r mercy, d e s p i t e any so c a l l e d 'guarantees* which might be o f f e r e d , as c o r p o r a t i o n s are n e a r l y always s u f f i c i e n t l y powerful and unscrupulous to defy l e g a l r e s t r i c t i o n s w i t h impunity. 19 Thompson c l o s e d h i s address by reminding the aldermen t h a t the c i t y ' s i n t e r e s t s i n g e n e r a l , and the s t r e e t c a r employees i n p a r t i c u l a r , would be b e t t e r p r o t e c t e d as regards c o n d i t i o n s of work and the q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e i f the c i t y r e t a i n e d c o n t r o l of the s t r e e t r a i l w a y . The Toronto Trades and Labour C o u n c i l a l s o took an a c t i v e 20 i n t e r e s t i n the q u e s t i o n . The C o u n c i l had appointed a s p e c i a l j o i n t committee to c o n f e r w i t h the Knights of Labour on the q u e s t i o n of c i v i c management. The C o u n c i l l a t e r adopted a r e p o r t c a l l i n g f o r the s t r e e t r a i l w a y "to be operated f o r the c i t y by a commission to be composed of the Mayor and o t h e r gentlemen, 21 appointed by the S u p e r i o r Court Judges." Labour was e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the question, of r a i l w a y f r a n c h i s e . S p e c i a l reduced f a r e s i n the morings and the evenings were c o n s i d e r e d necessary f o r working people t r a v e l l i n g to and from work. The men were a l s o 121 concerned t h a t a reasonable standard of wages and working c o n d i t i o n s should p r e v a i l i n any arrangement the c i t y might make. The supporters of p u b l i c ownership were given encouragement when Alderman McDougall i n December, 1890, gave n o t i c e t h a t he would move tha t the q u e s t i o n of the c i t y o perating the r a i l w a y be submitted to a vote by the c i t i z e n s a t the upcoming municipal e l e c t i o n . McDougall p e r s o n a l l y favoured r e t a i n i n g the f r a n c h i s e . He b e l i e v e d t h a t i t was capable of generating a minimum annual revenue of $500,000.00 f o r the c i t y . A l s o , i f the c i t y found the management too cumbersome,then i t could always put the f r a n c h i s e 22 up f o r l e a s e . However, h i s o p i n i o n represented a m i n o r i t y view on C o u n c i l and h i s motion, c a l l i n g f o r a p u b l i c vote, was 23 not considered by the aldermen. E a r l y i n December, 1890, the S t r e e t Railway Committee presented a r e p o r t c o n t a i n i n g a l i s t of c o n d i t i o n s which should 24 be met by any company wish i n g to operate the s t r e e t r a i l w a y . A f t e r making a few a l t e r a t i o n s i n the d r a f t s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , C o u n c i l adopted the r e p o r t and r e f e r r e d i t to the C i t y S o l i c i t o r to be put i n proper l e g a l shape. During the ensuing municipal contest, most of the a t t e n t i o n was focused on the municipal reform scheme d r a f t e d by McDougall. When t h i s issue was f i n a l l y decided, the c i t i z e n s were able to devote t h e i r a t t e n t i o n to the municipalsownership q u e s t i o n . In h i s i n a u g u r a l address to the C o u n c i l of 1891, Mayor Clarke noted that "a strong f e e l i n g has developed i n favour of the C i t y operating the road, e i t h e r through a Committee of C o u n c i l or 25 by a Commission." -* This strong f e e l i n g was i n evidence at a 122 p u b l i c meeting h e l d to d i s c u s s the i s s u e of m u n i c i p a l ownership. Thompson, Wood, and others addressed the audience, and the meeting unanimously adopted a r e s o l u t i o n c a l l i n g f o r the c i t y to operate the road by an e l e c t i v e commission. The q u e s t i o n of the c i t y running the r a i l w a y a l s o came up f o r d i s c u s s i o n by the s p e c i a l S t r e e t Railway Committee. Alderman G i l l e s p i e reminded the members t h a t the c i t y had pledged i t s e l f not to operate the road. Alderman W. Gibbs r e p l i e d t h a t the c i r c u l a r i s s u e d a t the time of the r a t e p a y e r vote had never been approved by the committee or even c o n s i d e r e d by C o u n c i l and was thus not b i n d i n g . Whether l e g a l l y bound or not, the Telegram argued t h a t the 27 c i t y had a "moral commitment" to put the f r a n c h i s e up-..for s a l e . C o n t i n u i n g i t s crusade a g a i n s t the 'machine' a t c i t y h a l l , the paper argued t h a t m u n i c i p a l c o n t r o l would r e s u l t i n the squandering of c i v i c funds and the s w e l l i n g of the c i t y ' s p a y r o l l w i t h incompetent men. The Toronto Board of Trade f e l t t h a t a more important i s s u e was a t stake than the l o s s of a few d o l l a r s through p e t t y c o r r u p t i o n . The Board regarded the p r i n c i p l e t h a t a governmental body c o u l d manage a bu s i n e s s more e f f i c i e n t l y and more p r o f i t a b l y than a p r i v a t e c o r p o r a t i o n as d e c e i t f u l , and i t f e l t t h a t to i n i t i a t e such a p r a c t i c e s e t a dangerous precedent. The C o u n c i l of the Board of Trade adopted a r e s o l u t i o n s t a t i n g , " i t would be d e t r i m e n t a l to the commercial i n t e r e s t s of the c i t y of Toronto, to have the s t r e e t r a i l w a y system run op or managed by the c i t y c o r p o r a t i o n or i t s employees" 29 T h i s statement brought a s t i n g i n g r e p l y from Thompson. The i d e a t h a t m u n i c i p a l monopolies were operated f o r the b e n e f i t of the community was soundly c r i t i c i z e d i n a s e r i e s of adresses 123 d e l i v e r e d by l e a d i n g N a t i o n a l i s t s . 3 0 The main t h r u s t of t h e i r argument was t h a t s e r v i c e s operated i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t -whether i t be f i r e f i g h t i n g , sewage removal, or urban t r a n s i t -were the l e g i t i m a t e f u n c t i o n o f l o c a l government. The e f f o r t s of some opponents to d i s c r e d i t the i d e a l by d w e l l i n g on the c o r r u p t i b i l i t y of aldermen were r e j e c t e d out of hand. T h i s i s the most d e s p i c a b l e and cowardly argument t h a t can be used a g a i n s t m u n i c i p a l management and i s o n l y worthy of where i t had i t s b i r t h , and t h a t i s i n the minds of those who are i n t e r e s t e d i n p r i v a t e e x p l o i t a t i o n of the p u b l i c purse. 31 The N a t i o n a l i s t s argued t h a t i t was the pressure of powerful c o r p o r a t i o n s l o b b y i n g f o r v a l u a b l e f r a n c h i s e s t h a t was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c o r r u p t i n g of aldermen and, i f t h i s b a n e f u l i n f l u e n c e were removed, a major step towards c l e a n c i v i c government would be a c h i e v e d . The e f f o r t s of the N a t i o n a l i s t s drew the a t t e n t i o n o f the M a i l . In a p a t r o n i z i n g e d i t o r i a l , the paper noted t h a t there were "a number of amiable and w e l l meaning people who not o n l y wish the c i t y to assume command of the r a i l w a y but to r e t a i n i t i n d e t a i l . " The a r t i c l e went on to a s s e r t , w i t h q u e s t i o n a b l e v a l i d i t y , t h a t " a l l c i t i z e n s , without e x c e p t i o n , wish t h a t a t t h i s j u n c t u r e , the c o r p o r a t i o n of the C i t y of Toronto, may have a chance of a s s e r t i n g i t s c o n t r o l by s t i p u l a t i n g f o r a b e t t e r s e r v i c e , q u i c k e r t r a n s i t , lower f a r e s , and a p e r i o d i c a l r e v i s i o n 32 of contracts."-^ The World adopted much the same a t t i t u d e : Make the p r i v i l e g e s more or l e s s a monopoly, but i n every case r e s e r v e the r i g h t to the c i t y of a r b i t r a t i n g the r a t e s and t a r i f f s every two years or so. When we have succeeded i n t h i s , then we may b egin to t a l k of the c i t y running the monopoly i t s e l f . 33 The Globe too k a n e u t r a l p o s i t i o n i n the e a r l y p a r t o f the d e b a t e , p r e f e r r i n g t o see the q u e s t i o n put t o a p u b l i c v o t e , and t h u s l e t the c i t i z e n s d e c i d e "which o f the horns o f the -ill. dilemma l o o k s the more i n v i t i n g . " ^ The C o u n c i l had a l r e a d y d r a f t e d a s e t o f s p e c i f i c a t i o n s and was a c c e p t i n g t e n d e r s from i n t e r e s t e d companies. The i d e a o f a p u b l i c v o t e was n o t c o n s i d e r e d by the aldermen. On A p r i l 17» the S t r e e t R a i l w a y Committee d e c i d e d t o open the t e n d e r s from those companies w i s h i n g t o o p e r a t e the r o a d . A sub-committee was a p p o i n t e d t o t r y and d e c i p h e r the v a r i o u s c o n d i t i o n s and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i n w h i c h the o f f e r s were couched and determine w h i c h was the b e s t . A t the end o f A p r i l , the sub-committee r e p o r t e d : y o u r committee do n o t c o n s i d e r e i t h e r o f the t e n d e r s s h o u l d be a c c e p t e d , as t h e y are o f the o p i n i o n , now the award o f the a r b i t r a t o r s has been made p u b l i c , t h a t b e t t e r o f f e r s can be o b t a i n e d . . . and i t i s recommended t h a t new Tenders be r e c e i v e d up t o May 2 0 t h , 1891. 35 The o l d f r a n c h i s e t e r m i n a t e d on May 17, and i t thus became e v i d e n t t h a t the c i t y would have t o o p e r a t e the r o a d f o r a s h o r t time u n t i l the new t e n d e r s c o u l d be a c t e d upon. On the day a p p o i n t e d , the c i t y t o o k p o s s e s s i o n o f the Company's p r o p e r t y and r e q u e s t e d the manager, J . Gunn, t o s t a y on and s u p e r v i s e the o p e r a t i o n o f the r a i l r o a d . 3 6 I t seemed as i f the p r i n c i p l e o f m u n i c i p a l ownership might s l i p i n the back door . The d e c i s i o n o f C o u n c i l t o o p e r a t e the r o a d d u r i n g the i n t e r i m was h a i l e d by the N a t i o n a l i s t s as an i m p o r t a n t v i c t o r y f o r the c i t y . I t i s t u r n i n g i n day by day a handsome s u r p l u s o f r e c e i p t s o v e r e x p e n d i t u r e s t o 125 go towards the r e d u c t i o n of t a x a t i o n . . . the p o l i c y of the p r e s e n t ought to be one of m a s t e r l y i n a c t i v i t y . 37 The c i t y ' s d a i l y press was l e s s e n t h u s i a s t i c . The Globe f r e t t e d t h a t once begun " c i v i c o p e r a t i o n , even as a temporary measure, would be e x c e e d i n g l y d i f f i c u l t , i f not impossible to take from under the c o n t r o l of the C i t y H a l l a u t h o r i t i e s . " 3 8 The World now expressed a c a u t i o u s a p p r o v a l of c i v i c o p e r a t i o n , a r g u i n g t h a t under c i v i c c o n t r o l "the q u e s t i o n of r a p i d t r a n s i t , which i s of immense importance to the c i t y and i t s c i t i z e n s , can b e s t be s e t t l e d i f the c i t y r e t a i n s the r o a d . " 3 9 The paper b e l i e v e d t h a t the t r a n s i t i o n to e l e c t r i c motive power would be s t be s e t t l e d i f the c i t y r e t a i n e d c o n t r o l of the road: No matter what i n v e n t i o n s or improvements may take p l a c e i n two or three y e a r s , i t w i l l be v e r y d i f f i c u l t to have them put i n o p e r a t i o n when a powerful c o r p o r a t i o n . . . has got h o l d of the f r a n c h i s e f o r a l o n g p e r i o d of time. 40 Toronto's temporary o p e r a t i o n of the s t r e e t r a i l w a y as a c i v i c e n t e r p r i s e was a t t r a c t i n g , a t t e n t i o n from other m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and o t h e r j o u r n a l s i n t e r e s t e d i n the q u e s t i o n ? o f m u n i c i p a l o p e r a t i o n of c i v i c f r a n c h i s e s . The New Nation, a reform j o u r n a l p u b l i s h e d i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , c a r r i e d an a r t i c l e by Thompson d e s c r i b i n g the events l e a d i n g up to Toronto's experiment and the p o s s i b i l i t y of s u c c e s s f u l l y m a i n t a i n i n g the road under c i v i c c o n t r o l . We have f e l t a l l along t h a t i f we can o n l y secure d e l a y , and prevent a d e a l being suddenly concluded, the people w i l l come round to our way of t h i n k i n g , as the f e e l i n g i n f a v o u r of c i v i c management i s growing every day. 41 P a r t of the reason f o r t h i s g r a d u a l acceptance was based on the s e r v i c e p r o v i d e d by the c i t y . O b j e c t i o n s to c i v i c c o n t r o l 126 on grounds t h a t mismanagement and incompetent o f f i c i a l s would 42 q u i c k l y undermine the s t r e e t c a r system were proven f a l s e . A l s o , the c i t y had a p p l i e d the wage r a t e r e q u i r e d on a l l c i v i c u ndertakings - t e n hours a day and f i f t e e n cents per hour - to the s t r e e t c a r employees and thus o b t a i n e d t h e i r c o - o p e r a t i o n i n the s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n of the road. The system was a l s o p roducing a s u b s t a n t i a l revenue f o r the c i t y , showing a p r o f i t of $ 2 5 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 f o r each month the c i t y owned the road.**'3 In l i g h t of t h i s s a t i s f a c t o r y s t a t e of a f f a i r s , the committee d e l i b e r a t i n g on the new s e t of tenders experienced some d i f f i c u l t y 44 i n d e c i d i n g which tender to accept. The S t r e e t Railway Committee experienced the same d i f f i c u l t y i n t r y i n g to determine the a c t u a l cash v a l u a t i o n of the new t e n d e r s . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the companies were asked to appear before the members and e x p l a i n t h e i r terms and l a t e r to submit r e v i s e d t e n d e r s . A l l o f t h i s d i c k e r i n g over tender s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , adjustments, and r e v i s i o n s f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d the i s s u e . At a committee meeting l a t e i n June, one alderman a p t l y summed up the f e e l i n g s of the committee by remarking, "I f e e l something as i f I was between the d e v i l and the deep blue sea. I h a r d l y know what to do 4< t o n i t e . " J The s u p p o r t e r s of the K e r r s y n d i c a t e asked the committee f o r more time i n p r e p a r i n g t h e i r new tender. The o t h e r main s y n d i c a t e headed by G. K i e l y , p r o t e s t e d a g a i n s t any f u r t h e r d e l a y and threatened to withdraw the Company's tender i f the matter was not s e t t l e d ^ o n c e and f o r a l l . The committee, however, r e f u s e d to be ' r a i l r o a d e d ' and granted the K e r r group the e x t r a time. The Telegram as a r e s u l t of a l l t h i s , s a d l y remarked t h a t "there i s n o t h i n g now before the committee and 127 the s t r e e t r a i l w a y b u s i n e s s s i f j u s t where i t was before tenders 46 were asked." The committee attempted to grapple w i t h the problem at another meeting held at the end of June. Before the aldermen commenced d i s c u s s i o n on the tenders, a deputation from the 47 C e n t r a l S o c i a l Reform Committee ' presented an address to the committee urging that the experiment i n c i v i c management be given a f a i r t r i a l . "Every c o n s i d e r a t i o n of j u s t i c e and honest d e a l i n g 48 p o i n t s to a t e s t t r i a l of c i v i c c o n t r o l . " The success of the road and the absence of i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h manager Gunn were marshalled as evidence to support the argument of municipal operation of the s t r e e t r a i l w a y s e r v i c e . Even c i t y o f f i c i a l s had 4 9 recommended the pr o p o s a l . ' The committee thanked the d e l e g a t i o n f o r t h e i r p r e s e n t a t i o n and voted to have the tenders p r i n t e d f o r f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n by the committee. On J u l y 12, the committee met again and took f o r i t s f i r s t business, the question of municipal operation of the road. Alderman W. H a l l asked the committee to f i n a l l y decide whether or not the c i t y was to run the road. By a vote of e i g h t to seven the committee decided to keep "the promise made to the e l e c t o r s when v o t i n g money to acquire the s t r e e t r a i l w a y , t h a t i t should not be operated under c i v i c c o n t r o l . " 5 ° By a m a j o r i t y of only one vote, the committee decided against the c i t y c o n t i n u i n g the experiment of mu n i c i p a l ownership. The j u d i c i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n of 1894, probing i n t o a l l e g e d misconduct i n c i v i c a f f a i r s , concluded t h a t two of the committee members v o t i n g f o r the measure had p r i v a t e l y consulted w i t h the tendering companies and were g u i l t y of v i o l a t i n g the honour of t h e i r o f f i c e . ^ With the r e j e c t i o n of 1 2 8 c i v i c ownership, a t t e n t i o n turned to the three tenders before" the committee. Mayor C l a r k e p r o t e s t e d t h a t none of the o f f e r s were good enough and moved t h a t new tenders be c a l l e d . H i s motion was d e f e a t e d . Alderman H a l l then moved t h a t the K i e l y o f f e r be accepted and, by a vote of nine to seven, the motion c a r r i e d . The committee's a c t i o n aroused a storm of p r o t e s t among those s u p p o r t i n g the r e t e n t i o n of the road as a department of C i t y C o u n c i l . Thompson, w r i t i n g i n the Labour Advocate, charged: There i s every reason to b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s d e c i s i o n i s due to b r i b e r y of the most f l a g r a n t k i n d . . . the shameless c l i q u e of r i n g s t e r s who have so wantonly s a c r i f i c e d the c i t y ' s i n t e r e s t s and voted to enthrone another monopoly i n the p l a c e of t h a t ousted a t such i n f i n i t e expense and t r o u b l e , should be i n the p e n i t e n t i a r y i n s t e a d of a t c i t y h a l l h e l p i n g govern the c i t y o f Toronto. 52 A mass meeting a t c i t y h a l l o f c i t i z e n s opposed to the committee's d e c i s i o n was arranged by the Combined S o c i a l Reform Committee. Upwards of two thousand people attended and heard a l i s t o f speakers e l a b o r a t e on the theme of c o r r u p t i o n i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the proposed l e a s e of the r a i l w a y . A r e s o l u t i o n condemning the hasty a c t i o n of the committee and u r g i n g the r a i l w a y be r e t a i n e d as c i v i c property,-was passed w i t h o n l y a h a n d f u l of nays.52 Meanwhile, w i t h i n the c o u n c i l chambers, the aldermen had decided to postpone a c t i o n on the S t r e e t Railway Committee's r e p o r t . The aldermen met a g a i n the f o l l o w i n g evening and, a f t e r s e v e r a l attempts to have the r e p o r t r e f e r r e d back, decided by a vote of twenty-four to f o u r t e e n , to accept the o f f e r of the K i e l y 54 s y n d i c a t e . T h i s a c t i o n so angered Alderman Boustead t h a t a f t e r the vote was r e c o r d e d he stood up and shouted, "You have j u s t thrown away a m i l l i o n and a half."55 129 In an e f f o r t to prevent the c i t y from completing the agreement, Alderman Macdonald sought a c o u r t i n j u n c t i o n p r o h i b i t i n g the Mayor from s i g n i n g the c o n t r a c t . S h o r t l y a f t e r , Macdonald suddenly dropped the l e g a l a c t i o n c l a i m i n g he had been b r i b e d to do so. T h i s r e v e l a t i o n i n t e n s i f i e d the rumours of 'boo d l i n g ' surrounding the l e a s i n g of the f r a n c h i s e , and a j u d i c i a l i n q u i r y was commenced to t r y and determine i f c o r r u p t a c t i v i t i e s had taken p l a c e . The Globe argued t h a t while the i n q u i r y was t a k i n g p l a c e there must be no s i g n i n g of the agreement w i t h the s y n d i c a t e . To s i g n the f r a n c h i s e away f o r t h i r t y years and then d i s c o v e r t h a t i t had been obtained by improper means would be a s o r r y ending to the l a r g e s t t r a n s a c t i o n i n which the people o f Toronto have been concerned. 56 T h i s p o l i c y o f d e l a y met w i t h the s t r o n g d i s a p p r o v a l of the K i e l y s y n d i c a t e . In a correspondence to the Mayor, the Company made t h e i r wishes c l e a r : We are ready to pay over our money and take p o s s e s s i o n , and we i n s i s t t h a t we s h a l l be put i n a p o s i t i o n to do so a t once. The de l a y has been c a u s i n g s e r i o u s damage and we c -w i l l h o l d the c i t y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the d e l a y . ' As the j u d i c i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the Macdonald a l l e g a t i o n s c o n t i n u e d , i t was r e v e a l e d t h a t a b r i b e had been p a i d to the alderman by Noel M a r s h a l l , an agent of the s u c c e s s f u l t e n d e r e r . However, the c o u r t concluded t h a t the money had been p a i d "on h i s own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and from h i s own purse, but not wit h c o r r u p t i n t e n t . " ^ 8 With the main c l a i m o f the Macdonald charges s e t a s i d e , the i n q u i r y g r a d u a l l y d e t e r i o r a t e d i n t o a ' f i s h i n g e x p e d i t i o n ' . In l i g h t of these developments and w i s h i n g to a v o i d f u r t h e r o p p o r t u n i t y f o r b o o d l i n g , C o u n c i l met l a t e i n August, confirmed the agreement w i t h the K i e l y Company, and requested the 130 C i t y S o l i c i t o r to prepare the necessary documents to complete the t r a n s f e r . A m a j o r i t y of the aldermen b e l i e v e d t h a t the c i t y was eg g e t t i n g good value f o r the r a i l w a y . 7 A f i x e d mileage r e n t a l fee and an e s c a l a t i n g percentage r e t u r n on company p r o f i t s , ensured the c i t y a l a r g e r f i n a n c i a l r e t u r n from the r a i l w a y than had e x i s t e d under the o l d agreement. The c o n t r a c t w i t h the K i e l y Company a l s o i n c l u d e d s p e c i f i c a t i o n s on f a r e s , s e r v i c e , expansion, and upkeep of the r a i l w a y . The subsequent h i s t o r y of the s t r e e t r a i l w a y was not as encouraging as the s e t of s p e c i f i c a t i o n s might have suggested. The s p e c i f i c a t i o n s agreed to by the Company became the o b j e c t of f r e q u e n t c o u r t b a t t l e s . Crowding on s t r e e t c a r s , f a i l u r e to extend l i n e s beyond narrowly d e f i n e d l e g a l l i m i t s , a stubborn r e f u s a l to i n t r o d u c e improvements such as p r o t e c t i v e fenders and over-head s h e l t e r s f o r conductors, and a g e n e r a l d i s r e g a r d f o r the c i t i z e n s ' comfort and convenience convinced Torontonians of the wisdom o f the N a t i o n a l i s t s ' p r o p o s a l . When the f r a n c h i s e e x p i r e d i n 1921, the r a t e p a y e r s voted to operate the road as a m u n i c i p a l e n t e r p r i s e . The conduct of the r a i l w a y bore out the l a t e r o b s e r v a t i o n of Jesse M i d d l e t o n t h a t "perhaps there i s no c i t y i n America where there i s a s t r o n g e r f e e l i n g i n f a v o u r of p u b l i c ownership than i n Toronto. The cause can be t r a c e d to the u n s a t i s f a c t o r y a t t i t u d e of v a r i o u s c o r p o r a t i o n s i n t h e i r d e a l i n g s w i t h the m u n i c i p a l i t y . " 6 0 As f o r the advocates of m u n i c i p a l ownership, though they were u n s u c c e s s f u l i n m a i n t a i n i n g the c i t y ' s c o n t r o l of the r a i l w a y , they d i d not l o o k upon the s i g n i n g of the c o n t r a c t as a d e f e a t . 131 They f e l t t h e i r a g i t a t i o n had r e s u l t e d i n the c i t y s e c u r i n g a more f a v o u r a b l e agreement. They had a l s o succeeded i n c r e a t i n g a u n i t e d r e f o r m o r g a n i z a t i o n , d e d i c a t e d t o a d v a n c i n g the cause o f p u b l i c o wnership. The i d e a o f r e g u l a t i n g a c i v i c f r a n c h i s e by l i s t i n g a s e t o f s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r i t s o p e r a t i o n by a p r i v a t e company r e p r e s e n t s a stage i n the development o f the p u b l i c ownership i d e a . W h i l e an improvement o v e r a system o f g r a n t i n g u n c o n d i t i o n a l f r a n c h i s e s , the c i t i z e n s o f To r o n t o were t o f i n d t h a t the enforcement Of the s e c o n d i t i o n s r e q u i r e d a c o n s t a n t r e s o r t t o the c o u r t s . The e x p e r i e n c e w i t h r e g u l a t e d monopoly r e p r e s e n t e d a h a l f - w a y house on the r o a d t o m u n i c i p a l o w n e r s h i p . T h i s g e n e r a l p a t t e r n was demonstrated i n the c i t y ' s d e a l i n g s w i t h the Consumers' Gas Company. The Company was f i r s t o r g a n i z e d i n 1847 when i t bought out the p l a n t o f t h a t a m b i t i o u s Toronto d e v e l o p e r , A l b e r t F u r n i s s . F o r t y y e a r s l a t e r , the Company s u c c e s s f u l l y a p p l i e d f o r the r i g h t t o i n c r e a s e i t s c a p i t a l s t o c k . T h i s power was g r a n t e d on the c o n d i t i o n r e q u e s t e d by T o r o n t o C i t y C o u n c i l t h a t a s p e c i f i e d i n c r e a s e i n p r o f i t s would be matched by a l o w e r i n g o f the p r i c e o f gas t o consumers. The Company g r a d u a l l y f e l l out o f p u b l i c f a v o u r as consumers f e l t t h a t the Company was m a n i p u l a t i n g i t s p r o f i t s t o p r e v e n t the r e s e r v e f u n d from r e a c h i n g the amount t h a t would r e q u i r e a r e d u c t i o n i n the p r i c e o f gas. These c h a r g e s came t o l i g h t when the Company, i n 1889, a p p l i e d t o C i t y C o u n c i l f o r power t o engage i n the p r o d u c t i o n o f e l e c t r i c a l e nergy. The r e q u e s t was s e n t on t o the F i r e and L i g h t 132 Committee. The committee chairman s t r o n g l y c r i t i c i z e d the Company f o r i t s high handed a t t i t u d e towards the c i t y and turned down the request . The Company r e p l i e d , " I t must be noted t h a t the l i m i t a t i o n of these two accounts - the ' r e s t ' account and the ' p l a n t , b u i l d i n g , and renewal fund' - was a p o i n t y i e l d e d by t h i s Company to the c i t y . . . and i t i s c e r t a i n l y very ungracious f o r aldermen to f i n d f a u l t w i t h t h a t which was c o n s i d e r e d by the 62 Company to be a l a r g e c o n c e s s i o n . " Having defended the Company's honour, the manager went on to suggest t h a t , i f the committee granted the req u e s t , the Company would see i t s way c l e a r to lo w e r i n g the p r i c e o f gas. C o u n c i l upheld the recommendation of i t s committee'and the request was turned down. No s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s o l u t i o n o f the reserve fund d i f f i c u l t y was a c h i e v e d and i n February, 1892, C i t y C o u n c i l a p p l i e d to the On t a r i o l e g i s l a t u r e f o r power to compel the Company to l i m i t a d d i t i o n s to i t s r e p a i r fund and apply the p r o f i t s towards a r e d u c t i o n i n gas p r i c e s . The Company n o t i f i e d C o u n c i l o f i t s d e s i r e to d i s c u s s t h i s p r o p o s a l . At a meeting between r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e s of the Company and the c i t y , i t was decided to apply to the c o u r t s f o r "an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the a c t of I887 so t h a t the re s e r v e fund and the r e p a i r s and renewals fund may be p r o p e r l y a d m i n i s t e r e d . T h i s a c t i o n proved i n e f f e c t i v e however, as the Company was ag a i n under f i r e f o r the same 'o f f e n c e ' two years l a t e r . Increased p r e s s u r e was a p p l i e d to the gas mains, r e s u l t i n g i n an i n c r e a s e d c o s t to the consumer. The Globe s t a t e d : The e x t r a t u r n of the v a l v e i s l i k e l y to c o s t the company more than i t i s worth to them, f o r the C i t y C o u n c i l has a t l a s t been compelled to take a c t i o n to f o r c e the company i n t o compliance 133 w i t h the law, and to prevent the gas monopoly from l a y i n g too heavy a hand on the people. 64 To meet t h i s continued o b s t i n a n c y on the p a r t of the Company, C i t y C o u n c i l s e t up a s p e c i a l committee to review the Company's f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n and determine i f any r e d u c t i o n s were i n o r d e r . The committee brought down i t s r e p o r t i n l a t e J u l y , and recommended t h a t C o u n c i l study the f e a s i b i l i t y o f managing i t s own e l e c t r i c l i g h t s e r v i c e i n an e f f o r t to f o r c e down the p r i c e 65 of gas. J The committee f e l t t h a t an announcement o f the c i t y ' s i n t e n t i o n to move i n the d i r e c t i o n o f m u n i c i p a l o p e r a t i o n of a l i g h t i n g p l a n t might prove s u f f i c i e n t to encourage the Company to comply w i t h C o u n c i l ' s r e q u e s t . A more d i r e c t c h a l l e n g e to the Company's monopoly was the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the C i t i z e n s ' Gas C o n t r o l Company i n t o Toronto i n the summer of 1894. T h i s Montreal based f i r m had the backing of s e v e r a l prominent Toronto businessmen and d u r i n g i t s f i r s t y ear and a h a l f of o p e r a t i o n was able to o f f e r i t s customers savings from twenty percent i n p r i v a t e houses to f o r t y p e r c e n t £>f\ i n l a r g e s t o r e s , churches, and warehouses. The a c t u a l impact o f the C i t i z e n s * Company i s d i f f i c u l t to assess but the mere y presence of a p o t e n t i a l r i v a l had a s a l u t a r y e f f e c t on Consumers* Gas, and, i n J u l y , 1896, they announced a twenty percent r e d u c t i o n 6? i n p r i c e . ' The presence of a second company was b e n e f i c i a l i n f o r c i n g the p r i c e of gas down, but the necessary d u p l i c a t i o n of gas mains and o t h e r equipment had i t s drawbacks. The p o s s i b i l i t y of continuous e x c a v a t i o n on c i t y s t r e e t s as the r i v a l companies i n s t a l l e d l i n e s and meters was a s e r i o u s p o s s i b i l i t y . Nor was 134 there a law to prevent the major company from d r a s t i c a l l y l o w e r i n g i t s p r i c e s to e l i m i n a t e a competitor, then simply r a i s i n g them a g a i n when t h a t company e i t h e r f o l d e d or was absorbed. C l e a r l y , the most d e s i r a b l e s i t u a t i o n was one company o p e r a t i n g i n the i n t e r e s t of the consumers. The f a i l u r e of the c i t y to get s a t i s f a c t i o n from the company prompted a p r i v a t e c i t i z e n , T. W. Johnston, to i n i t i a t e c o u r t proceedings a g a i n s t the Consumers' Gas Company. Johnston b e l i e v e d h i s gas b i l l e x c e s s i v e and attempted, through the c o u r t s to f o r c e the Company to reduce i t s r a t e s . C i t y C o u n c i l decided to a i d Johnston and a p p l i e d to the O n t a r i o Government f o r power to p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e . The World complained t h a t the Company was l o b b y i n g f o r the d e f e a t of Toronto's r e q u e s t . "The Consumers' Gas Company, a most t y r a n n i c a l and e x a s p e r a t i n g master,... t r i e s i t s utmost to prevent the people from ever g e t t i n g a h e a r i n g before the c o u r t s . . . and i t was o n l y through the c a s t i n g vote of the chairman of the P r i v a t e B i l l s Committee, t h a t the c i t y 68 was allowed to h e l p Mr. Johnston i n h i s s u i t . " In l a t e December, 1896, the C i t y A u d i t o r examined the Company's r e c o r d s and found t h a t i t had indeed manipulated i t s p r o f i t s to prevent the r e s e r v e fund from i n c r e a s i n g . He concluded t h a t the c i t i z e n s were l e g a l l y e n t i t l e d to a f u r t h e r r e d u c t i o n of over f o r t y cents 69 a thousand c u b i c f e e t . 7 T h i s s t i f f e n e d the c i t y ' s r e s o l v e and C o u n c i l decided to pursue the l e g a l b a t t l e w i t h the Company r i g h t up to the J u d i c i a l Committee of the P r i v y C o u n c i l . T h i s l e g a l b a t t l e r e p r e s e n t e d C o u n c i l ' s attempt to b r i n g t h i s one c o r p o r a t i o n i n t o l i n e d u r i n g the decade under d i s c u s s i o n The i m p r a c t i c a l i t y of having more than one gas company o p e r a t i n g 135 i n a c i t y , prompted the aldermen to t r y and force the Company to abide by the c o n d i t i o n s set out i n the 188? Act. During the 1890"s there was no thought given to having the c i t y move i n the d i r e c t i o n of a p u b l i c l y owned gas company. Aldermen and c i t i z e n s a l i k e were i n t e r e s t e d i n the prospects of e l e c t r i c a l power r a t h e r than gas and devoted t h e i r a t t e n t i o n to the c i t y c o n t r o l l i n g and managing a c i v i c l i g h t i n g p l a n t . With a p u b l i c l y owned p l a n t , the c i t y would possess a u s e f u l l e v e r to force the Gas Company i n t o a more competitive p o s i t i o n . C i v i c operation could produce d i r e c t as w e l l as i n d i r e c t b e n e f i t s . * * * * # While the c i t y had some c o n t r o l over the gas monopoly by r e s o r t i n g to the c o u r t s , i t was i n a l e s s secure p o s i t i o n when d e a l i n g w i t h the telephone monopoly. In-1891, two companies, B e l l Telephone and Toronto Telephone, were ap p l y i n g f o r the p r i v i l e g e of s u p p l y i n g telephone s e r v i c e to the c i t y . The Works Committee considered the two tenders and recommended tha t the B e l l o f f e r be accepted. The Telegram had some misgivings about 71 the clause g r a n t i n g e x c l u s i v e c o n t r o l to B e l l Telephone. These mis g i v i n g s were a l s o evident among s e v e r a l aldermen and C i t y C o u n c i l decided to r e f e r the r e p o r t back to the committee. A second o f f e r by B e l l Telephone was considered by C o u n c i l i n 72 June.' The aldermen voted to accept t h i s o f f e r on the c o n d i t i o n t h a t the g i r l s employed by the Company be p a i d not l e s s than $6.00 a week and work not more than nine hours per day, and only one Sunday every three months. The Toronto Trades and Labour C o u n c i l sent a r e s o l u t i o n to C i t y C o u n c i l thanking the aldermen f o r t h e i r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the i n t e r e s t s of working g i r l s . T h e i r 136 c o n g r a t u l a t i o n s proved to be premature, as the Pre s i d e n t of the B e l l Telephone Company wrote to C i t y C o u n c i l that unless the clause on hours and wages was removed, the Company would refuse to s i g n the agreement. This ultimatum was accepted by C o u n c i l and the agreement was f i n a l i z e d i n l a t e J u l y , 1891. The reluctance of the aldermen to press f o r the d e s i r e d clause i s open to s e v e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . P o s s i b l y they were engrossed i n the s t r e e t r a i l w a y a f f a i r and were unable to s u s t a i n any e f f o r t on the cl a u s e . A l s o , the c o n t r a c t o f f e r was f i n a n c i a l l y p r o f i t a b l e f o r the c i t y and the aldermen may not have been disposed to haggle over a s p e c i f i c a t i o n which was not i n p r a c t i c e i n other communities under c o n t r a c t w i t h B e l l . P o s s i b l y , the p o i n t was r a i s e d f o r i t s ' p u b l i c i t y ' value, the aldermen having no i n t e n t i o n of p r e s s i n g f o r the d e s i r e d clause i f the Company remained o b s t i n a t e . Whatever the reason, no f u r t h e r mention of the telephone business was recorded u n t i l the Company's co n t r a c t came up f o r renewal f i v e years l a t e r . In May, 1896, a s p e c i a l committee on telephone s e r v i c e reported to the newly appointed Board of C o n t r o l , t h a t the B e l l Telephone Company requested an u n s p e c i f i e d increase i n r a t e s and a removal of the f i v e percent payment to the c i t y . 7 3 The committee recommended tha t "the Board of C o n t r o l a d v e r t i s e f o r tenders f o r telephone s e r v i c e f o r the c i t y of Toronto w i t h nh, tenders o u t l i n i n g s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . " ' The c i t y and the Company once again were at loggerheads only t h i s time the question was money, not working c o n d i t i o n s f o r employees. The advertisement f o r tenders y i e l d e d d i s a p p o i n t i n g r e s u l t s ' - 7 and the f r a n c h i s e e x p i r e d w i t h -out any agreement being reached, the aldermen r e f u s i n g to s i g n 13? a c o n t r a c t w i t h the company a l l o w i n g f o r i n c r e a s e d r a t e s . In March, 1 8 9 7 , C o u n c i l c a r r i e d i t s case to the Railway 7 6 Committee of the P r i v y C o u n c i l . A d e l e g a t i o n of aldermen appeared before the Railway Committee, i n what the S t a r d e s c r i b e d as a "war to the death w i t h the B e l l Company." 7 7 They r e p o r t e d back to C i t y C o u n c i l t h a t the meeting was u n s u c c e s s f u l as the Railway Committee appeared to have accepted the p o s i t i o n o f the Company. The p e r s i s t e n c e o f the B e l l Company prompted the a l d e r -men to p e t i t i o n the O n t a r i o government f o r the necessary power to enable the c i t y to operate i t s own telephone system, and thus break the 'oppressive* monopoly enjoyed by the B e l l Telephone Company. U n l i k e the Gas Company, once the f e d e r a l government approved an i n c r e a s e i n r a t e s , there was no p o s s i b i l i t y o f the c i t y a p p l y i n g to the c o u r t s to o b t a i n more reasonable terms. Nor was the a p p r o v a l of such an i n c r e a s e an i d l e p o s s i b i l i t y . C i t y C o u n c i l ' s s p e c i a l committee on the telephone q u e s t i o n noted: They have an immense c a p i t a l s t o c k i n the hands of v e r y i n f l u e n t i a l s t o c k h o l d e r s and are thus enabled to b r i n g g r e a t pressure and i n f l u e n c e to bear, and we are informed t h a t g r e a t i n f l u e n c e and pressure i s being brought to bear i n t h e i r f a v o u r . 78 I t was a l s o d i f f i c u l t to induce o t h e r companies to p r o v i d e telephone s e r v i c e i n the c i t y . "The experience o f Peterborough and o t h e r p l a c e s , where c o m p e t i t i o n has been t r i e d and f a i l e d , by reason o f the B e l l Telephone Company r e d u c i n g t h e i r p r i c e s to r u i nous r a t e s , which t h e i r g r e a t f i n a n c i a l s t r e n g t h enables them to do, has made i t d i f f i c u l t to induce c a p i t a l i s t s to undertake such an e n t e r p r i s e . " 7 9 138 Such a c o n d i t i o n seemed an i d e a l case f o r i n t r o d u c i n g m u n i c i p a l ownership. An i r r e s p o n s i b l e monopoly independent of m u n i c i p a l r e g u l a t i o n c o u l d o n l y be matched by a p u b l i c l y owned telephone s e r v i c e , operated a t c o s t i n the i n t e r e s t s of c i t i z e n s . Yet there were o b j e c t i o n s to such a c t i o n , d e s p i t e i t s a t t r a c t i v e -ness. D u p l i c a t i o n was e v e n t l e s s d e s i r a b l e i n the case o f telephone equipment, as i t threatened to t u r n the c i t y i n t o a massive ta n g l e of w i r e s , c a b l e s , and p o l e s . A l s o , the d i f f i c u l t y o f a r r a n g i n g c o - o p e r a t i o n between two r i v a l companies f u r t h e r i n h i b i t e d the p o s s i b i l i t y of such a c t i o n . In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n c i d e n t , Toronto, d e s p i t e i t s d e s i r e to c o n s i d e r m u n i c i p a l ownership, had to content i t s e l f - as d i d o t h e r communities i n Canada - w i t h matching the Company's powerful lobby a t Ottawa i n o r d e r to keep p r i c e s i n l i n e . * a # it it A somewhat d i f f e r e n t aspect of the m u n i c i p a l ownership q u e s t i o n was the e f f o r t of Alderman D. Lamb to i n t r o d u c e a 80 " m u n i c i p a l insurance bureau;" T h i s p r o p o s a l r e p r e s e n t e d a response to the complaints of p o l i c y h o l d e r s t h a t insurance 81 r a t e s charged by Toronto companies were e x c e s s i v e . I t was f e l t t h a t the companies had combined to form a ' r i n g ' to m a i n t a i n Op h i g h p r i c e s . In 189 k, a t the f i r s t meeting of the new C o u n c i l , a r e s o l u t i o n p r o t e s t i n g the h i g h insurance r a t e s was presented and a d e l e g a t i o n of aldermen appointed to meet wit h r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e s of the f i r e i nsurance u n d e r w r i t e r s . At t h i s meeting, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the c i t y argued t h a t " c o n s i d e r i n g the f a v o u r a b l e c l a s s of r i s k s i n Toronto, the f i r s t c l a s s f i r e p l a n t , the e f f i c i e n t f i r e b r i g a d e , d i l i g e n t p o l i c e f o r c e , and an e x c e l l e n t 139 water supply a t high p r e s s u r e , the r a t e s were f u l l y 25 per c e n t too h i g h . " 8 3 The insurance companies r e p l i e d t h a t r a t e s i n the c i t y were lower than i n c i t i e s s i m i l a r to Toronto, and no f u r t h e r r e d u c t i o n was p o s s i b l e u n l e s s the c i t y improved i t s f i r e -f i g h t i n g equipment. The e f f e c t o f t h i s r e p l y was a hardening o f the p o s i t i o n s of the two a n t a g o n i s t s , which hindered the p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e i r r e a c h i n g a compromise. I t a l s o served to i n c r e a s e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n a scheme which Alderman Lamb had under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Lamb c h a i r e d a committee which had been s t u d y i n g the q u e s t i o n o f insurance r a t e s . From the f i g u r e s which the chairman had been able to secure, i t appeared t h a t c u r r e n t r a t e s i n the c i t y were e x c e s s i v e . On J u l y 4, 1 8 9 4 , a s p e c i a l meeting of the committee was h e l d to c o n s i d e r a r e p o r t d r a f t e d by the chairman. The contents o f the r e p o r t , as the Globe r e p o r t e d i t , were " r a d i c a l i n the 'extreme". A f t e r d e t a i l i n g the v a r i o u s c o s t s and charges l e v i e d by the unscrupulous f i r e under-w r i t e r s , the r e p o r t went on to propose t h a t the c i t y a p ply to On t a r i o government f o r power to i n t r o d u c e a m u n i c i p a l bureau of 8 4 i n s u r a n c e . I t was the i n t e n t i o n o f the chairman to have the bureau r e p l a c e p r i v a t e companies i n the are a of f i r e insurance and, there was no c o n s i d e r a t i o n g i v e n to compensation. The r e p o r t was sent on f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n by C i t y C o u n c i l . Alderman Hallam c o n g r a t u l a t e d Lamb on h i s p r o p o s a l n o t i n g t h a t " t h i s was one step i n the s o c i a l i s t i c development of the time and there seemed to be no good reason to doubt t h a t the c i t y c o u l d operate such a scheme as the L e g i s l a t u r e c o u l d be induced to consent t o . " 8 ^ The C o u n c i l adopted the r e p o r t and sent i t to the c i t y ' s L e g i s l a t i v e Committee. The M u n i c i p a l World, somewhat o p t i m i s t i c a l l y , 140 commented t h a t " i t i s f a r from b e i n g s e t t l e d t h a t the L e g i s l a t u r e w i l l t u r n a deaf ear to the p e t i t i o n . On the c o n t r a r y , there 86 i s an e x c e l l e n t p r o s p e c t t h a t i t w i l l be granted." Despite t h i s a c t i o n by C o u n c i l , the u n d e r w r i t e r s remained calm. When e a r l y the next year, a dramatic s e r i e s o f f i r e s broke o u t 8 7 , the i n a b i l i t y o f the f i r e company to c o n t a i n the damage g r e a t l y weakened the c i t y ' s case. Lamb was not dis c o u r a g e d by t h i s setback. He s e t out to reduce the c i t y ' s l i a b i l i t y i n the event of a calamitous f i r e by i n t e r e s t i n g o t h e r c i t i e s i n the p l a n . He f e l t t h a t a system of l o c a l bureaus o p e r a t i n g under one c e n t r a l bureau would h e l p spread p o s s i b l e r i s k s and reduce the danger of heavy payments f o r any one c i t y , w h i l e s t i l l g u aranteeing more reasonable r a t e s . The support which Lamb r e c e i v e d from C i t y C o u n c i l , i s i n d i c a t i v e o f the aldermen's w i l l i n g n e s s to s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r the p r i n c i p l e s of c i v i c ownership. Faced w i t h a combine i n the insurance b u s i n e s s , members ofClCity C o u n c i l were prepared to have Toronto operate i t s own insurance s e r v i c e s . In t h i s i n s t a n c e , they had the support of a l a r g e s e c t i o n of the business community who f e l t insurance r a t e s were e x c e s s i v e , and supported a p u b l i c scheme because i t h e l d out the p r o s p e c t of more reasonable r a t e s . In March, 1896, C o u n c i l a p p l i e d f o r power to s e t up the d e s i r e d m u n i c i p a l insurance bureau. The C i t y S o l i c i t o r , r e p o r t i n g t o C o u n c i l i n A p r i l , informed the aldermen t h a t the c i t y ' s r equest had f a i l e d to r e c e i v e the support of the P r i v a t e B i l l s Committee. On those occasions when the advocates o f m u n i c i p a l o p e r a t i o n o f p u b l i c f r a n c h i s e s were able to o b t a i n p u b l i c support f o r a s p e c i f i c p l a n , they were o f t e n f r u s t r a t e d by i n a c t i o n o f 141 the p r o v i n c i a l government. The m u n i c i p a l ownership campaign d i d not experience a p r o g r e s s i o n from success to success w i t h p u b l i c support i n c r e a s i n g with each s u c c e s s f u l i l l u s t r a t i o n o f m u n i c i p a l o p e r a t i o n . T h i s reform movement was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s e r i e s of advances and r e t r e a t s w i t h the c i t i z e n s g r a d u a l l y d e v e l o p i n g an awareness of the b e n e f i t s of p u b l i c ownership. * * * * * Another important area where C o u n c i l and a l a r g e body of p u b l i c o p i n i o n engaged i n a d i s c u s s i o n of m u n i c i p a l o p e r a t i o n was the q u e s t i o n of e l e c t r i c a l power. The Toronto E l e c t r i c L i g h t Company f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d the o r g a n i z e d p r o d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f e l e c t r i c i t y i n t o Toronto w i t h the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of an arc l i g h t i n g p l a n t i n 1883. The Company's o p e r a t i o n s were c o n f i n e d e x c l u s i v e l y to the s t r e e t and commercial arc l i g h t i n g b u s i n e s s . A f t e r s a t i s f y i n g C i t y C o u n c i l asM;he f e a s i b i l i t y of such a system, the Company r e c e i v e d a c o n t r a c t to l i g h t s e v e r a l s t r e e t c o r n e r s . In 1890, the c i t y renewed the c o n t r a c t f o r f i v e y e a r s , the f r a n c h i s e to terminate i n I895. In I889, another company i n t e r e s t e d i n e l e c t r i c a l p r o d u c t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d i n Toronto. F. N i c h o l l s succeeded i n i n t e r e s t i n g s e v e r a l prominent Toronto c a p i t a l i s t s i n the p o s s i b i l i t y of s u p p l y i n g e l e c t r i c i t y to Toronto manufacturers. The f o l l o w i n g year, the s y n d i c a t e o r g a n i z e d the Toronto Incandescent E l e c t r i c L i g h t Company to supply a l i g h t i n g s e r v i c e to Toronto o f f i c e s and s t o r e s . When the c i t y ' s c o n t r a c t w i t h the Toronto E l e c t r i c L i g h t Company approached t e r m i n a t i o n , t h a t Company prepared to tender a g a i n f o r t h i s l u c r a t i v e f r a n c h i s e . The tprospect of a v i g o r o u s debate when the c i t y ' s l i g h t i n g c o n t r a c t f e l l due, was 142 reminiscent of the b a t t l e waged over the s t r e e t r a i l w a y f r a n c h i s e . S e v e r a l competing companies were i n t e r e s t e d i n the c o n t r a c t . 9 There was a l s o a body of p u b l i c o p i n i o n i n favour of having the c i t y do i t s own l i g h t i n g . The p o s s i b i l i t y of the c i t y managing i t s own e l e c t r i c l i g h t i n g was f i r s t r a i s e d at a meeting of the N a t i o n a l i s t s held i n 1892. In a d i s c u s s i o n on the f u n c t i o n s of c i v i c government, the members mentioned the p o s s i b i l i t y of the c i t y engaging i n the production of e l e c t r i c i t y . However, no a c t i o n was taken on the proposal. The question was r a i s e d again at the 1894 May Day r a l l y of the S o c i a l i s t League when a p e t i t i o n was drawn up and forwarded to C o u n c i l c a l l i n g on the c i t y to 89 run i t s own l i g h t i n g p l a n t . The Trades and Labour C o u n c i l , at a meeting h e l d i n June, 1894, passed a r e s o l u t i o n requesting C i t y C o u n c i l to e s t a b l i s h a m u n i c i p a l e l e c t r i c l i g h t system. The c i t y ' s newspapers a l s o took up the question of municipal management. The Telegram i n February, 1894, had suggested the c i t y give m u n i c i p a l operation a t r y . "Toronto might do worse than experiment w i t h a task of s t r e e t l i g h t i n g by e l e c t r i c i t y . " 9 0 Alderman Lamb, i n h i s enthusiasm f o r p u b l i c c o n t r o l , suggested t h a t C o u n c i l look i n t o the f e a s i b i l i t y of such a p r o p o s a l . The C i t y Engineer prepared a lengthy r e p o r t comparing r e l a t i v e eosts between c i t i e s w i t h p r i v a t e l i g h t i n g and those operating t h e i r own p l a n t s . No recommendation was i n c l u d e d i n the r e p o r t but the engineer d i d p o i n t out t h a t " i n going over these records, g i v i n g the cost per l i g h t per annum, there seems to be a very considerable margin i n favour of municipal p l a n t s as compared 91 w i t h those owned by p r i v a t e companies or c o r p o r a t i o n s . " 7 Reaction to t h i s r e p o r t was mixed. The World b e l i e v e d the 143 r e p o r t "unequivocally s e t t l e d the q u e s t i o n i n favour of a m u n i c i p a l l i g h t i n g p l a n t . The prospect of cheap e l e c t r i c a l s e r v i c e would he a "boon to the consumers and would force the 92 gas company i n t o d e a l i n g f a i r l y w i t h the p u b l i c . " 7 The Globe was l e s s e n t h u s i a s t i c . Even i f the engineer's f i g u r e s were u n a s s a i l a b l e , the j o u r n a l f e l t there were other c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which suggested c a u t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t a r a p i d advance " i n our knowledge of the mysterious element 93 might render a c i v i c p l a n t u s e l e s s . " 7 V One prominent Torontonian had f i r m l y s e t t l e d h i s mind on the q u e s t i o n . H. P. Dwight, a l a r g e i n v e s t o r i n the Incandescent Company, and i t s f i r s t v i c e -p r e s i d e n t remarked t h a t , "the proposal to e s t a b l i s h a municipal e l e c t r i c l i g h t i n g p l a n t and s e r v i c e i n Toronto v i r t u a l l y means 9' the c o n f i s c a t i o n of the property of the E l e c t r i c L i g h t Company."7 The b l u s t e r i n g s of a suspect observer d i d not deter the aldermen from c o n s i d e r i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y of the c i t y operating i t s own l i g h t i n g p l a n t . At a meeting of the Executive Committee, the aldermen adopted a r e p o r t c a l l i n g f o r " l i g h t i n g tenders by & August 1 s t , and tenders f o r a c i v i c p l a n t by September 1 s t , to be accepted i f the l i g h t i n g tenders are considered too high." 9-* Such a d e c i s i o n represented a more progressive a t t i t u d e than that of the C o u n c i l of 1891. Then, a m a j o r i t y of aldermen accepted the^premise t h a t a p r i v a t e company could best operate the s t r e e t r a i l w a y f r a n c h i s e . With the l i g h t i n g c o n t r a c t , the p r i v a t e companies had to prove t h a t they could produce a cheap, e f f i c i e n t s e r v i c e , otherwise the c i t y would do i t s own l i g h t i n g . During the summer doldrums, no a c t i v e campaign was organized by the supporters of p u b l i c ownership. The ranks of reform groups had been d i v i d e d f o l l o w i n g the g r e a t b a t t l e over the s t r e e t r a i l w a y , and there was no u n i t e d a s s o c i a t i o n to pre s s i t s c o l l e c t i v e viewpoint on C i t y C o u n c i l . Nor d i d the c i t y have a f u n c t i o n i n g c i v i c p l a n t which p a r t i s a n s c o u l d r a l l y round and p r o t e c t from the machinations of greedy c o r p o r a t i o n s . U n t i l the tenders were p u b l i s h e d there were no f i r m f i g u r e s to f i x upon. E a r l y i n September, 1894, the f i g u r e s from the t e n d e r i n g companies were p u b l i s h e d . The r e s u l t s were d i s a p p o i n t i n g f o r advocates of m u n i c i p a l ownership. The o f f e r o f the Toronto E l e c t r i c L i g h t Company was $2.25 per l i g h t below the f i g u r e f o r which E. K e a t i n g , the C i t y E ngineer s a i d the c i t y c o u l d produce l i g h t . The World t r i e d to draw some comfort from the r e s u l t s . The p o s s i b i l i t y o f the c i t y e n t e r i n g the l i g h t i n g b usiness had prompted the Toronto E l e c t r i c Company to g r e a t l y reduce i t s p r i c e from t h a t which had e x i s t e d under the o l d c o n t r a c t . The l e s s o n was a u s e f u l one f o r i t demonstrated t h a t "as l o n g as the two e l e c t r i c companies have the f i e l d to themselves, j u s t so l o n g w i l l we have to pay through the nose f o r a l l our 96 e l e c t r i c a l s e r v i c e s . " The Globe was j u b i l a n t , c l a i m i n g t h a t i t s p o l i c y o f c a l l i n g f o r tenders r a t h e r than the c i t y moving d i r e c t l y i n t o the l i g h t i n g b usiness had been e n t i r e l y v i n -d i c a t e d . 9 7 T h e M a i l commented t h a t "the course Toronto should pursue i n t h i s matter w i l l r e a d i l y p r e s e n t i t s e l f to those who giv e i t t h e i r unbiased c o n s i d e r a t i o n . . . Toronto ought to take the lowest o f f e r now a v a i l a b l e f o r a reasonably s h o r t term of 98 y e a r s . " 7 The paper d i d not r e j e c t the i d e a o f a c i v i c p l a n t out of hand, but f e l t the c i t y s hould w a i t and see i f t e c h n o l o g i c a l developments f u r t h e r reduced the c o s t o f e l e c t r i c l i g h t i n g . 145 E a r l y i n October, d i s c u s s i o n on the q u e s t i o n took a dramatic t u r n when charges of b r i b e r y i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the l i g h t i n g c o n t r a c t , were presented to C i t y C o u n c i l . The a l d e r -men responded by s e t t i n g up a j u d i c i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n . D u r i n g the h e a r i n g s , evidence was brought to l i g h t i m p l i c a t i n g s e v e r a l aldermen i n c o r r u p t d e a l i n g s w i t h companies t e n d e r i n g f o r the l i g h t i n g c o n t r a c t . The f i n d i n g s of Judge McDougall r e v e a l e d a s t a r t l i n g p r a c t i c e by which companies t e n d e r i n g f o r c o n t r a c t s w i t h the c i t y , were approached by aldermen r e q u e s t i n g money and o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n r e t u r n f o r votes f a v o u r a b l e to t h e i r tender. The evidence of c o l l u s i o n between c o r p o r a t i o n s and c e r t a i n aldermen delayed any f u r t h e r a c t i o n on the s t r e e t l i g h t i n g c o n t r a c t . D u r i n g the f o l l o w i n g m u n i c i p a l c o n t e s t , the e l e c t o r s devoted t h e i r e n e r g i e s to r e t u r n i n g s t r a i g h t , honest, men to C o u n c i l , and the i s s u e of p u b l i c ownership s l i p p e d t e m p o r a r i l y i n t o the background. The debate was renewed again i n January, 1895, when George Bertram, p r e s i d e n t of the Bertram Engine Works Company, d i r e c t e d an open l e t t e r t o C o u n c i l , reminding the members t h a t he had tendered f o r the c o n t r a c t to supply the c i t y w i t h the necessary l i g h t i n g p l a n t and urged them to c o n s i d e r the scheme recommended QQ by the C i t y E n g i n e e r . 7 He informed C o u n c i l t h a t a r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f v a r i o u s c o s t s enabled him to make a b e t t e r o f f e r to the c i t y than t h a t of the Toronto E l e c t r i c L i g h t Company. The c l a i m of Bertram was g i v e n support by E n g i n e e r K e a t i n g , i n a r e p o r t p resented to C i t y C o u n c i l . "Mr. Bertram's o f f e r f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the p l a n t i s c e e r t a i n l y ^ a i r i i o s t f a v o u r a b l e one f o r the c i t y . . . I t h i n k i t i s i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t s t h a t h i s o f f e r f o r the 146 c o n s t r u c t i o n of the p l a n t should be a c c e p t e d . " * 0 0 A c t i n g on the C i t y E n g i n e e r ' s f i n d i n g s , the F i r e and L i g h t Committee recommended t h a t C o u n c i l seek a vote of the r a t e p a y e r s on a s a l e of cilsy debentures to r a i s e the funds n e c e s s a r y to e r e c t a m u n i c i p a l 101 l i g h t i n g p l a n t . The aldermen gave t h e i r a p p r o v a l , and a t t e n t i o n s h i f t e d from c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the tenders to the outcome of the by-law v o t e . The d e c i s i o n by C o u n c i l was a l s o the s i g n a l f o r a renewal of the c i v i c l i g h t i n g q u e s t i o n i n the c i t y ' s p r e s s . The World con t i n u e d i t s support f o r a l i g h t i n g p l a n t , a r g u i n g t h a t the scheme was now even more d e s i r a b l e s i n c e i t guaranteed a lower p r i c e , as w e l l as the break-up of monopolies i n the c i t y . The paper roundl y c r i t i c i z e d those j o u r n a l s which opposed the scheme. The Globe was charged w i t h p r o t e c t i n g the i n t e r e s t s of p u b l i s h e r J a f f r a y , a s t o c k - h o l d e r i n the Incandescent L i g h t Company. The M a i l was even more soundly r o a s t e d . The paper had been making 102 c a u t i o u s o v e r t u r e s towards c i v i c management , but a f t e r i t s merger wi t h the Empire i t g r a d u a l l y l o s t sympathy f o r the cause. The M a i l and Empire i s p r e p a r i n g to f l o p - has a l r e a d y f l o p p e d on t h i s q u e s t i o n . . . The more the M a i l  and Empire now argues a g a i n s t the c i t y l i g h t i n g p l a n t , the more w i l l the c i t i z e n s be d i s p o s e d to i n s t a l l i t , because i t i s p l a i n as day t h a t the paper has succumbed to the pressure of the f r i e n d s of the company t h a t wants the c o n t r a c t . ^ The Toronto S t a r advocated the m u n i c i p a l p l a n t as a means of b r e a k i n g a s e c r e t agreement which i t f e l t e x i s t e d between the two e l e c t r i c companies. The movement to e s t a b l i s h a c i v i c p l a n t . . . i s a b a t t l e to break up the e l e c t r i c l i g h t combine. The two companies now i n the f i e l d have an understanding by which one agrees not to tender the c i t y ' s l i g h t i n g i f the o t h e r w i l l not compete i n the manufacture of incandescent l i g h t . 104 147 The q u e s t i o n was a l s o a i r e d a t a p u b l i c meeting org a n i z e d by the Trades and Labour C o u n c i l , to c o n s i d e r the q u e s t i o n . The r e s o l u t i o n up f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n , "That i n the o p i n i o n o f t h i s meeting, i t would be i n the best i n t e r e s t s of the c i t y , t h a t a c i v i c e l e c t r i c l i g h t p l a n t be e s t a b l i s h e d as soon as the p r e s e n t c o n t r a c t w i t h the Toronto E l e c t r i c L i g h t Company i s terminated" was g i v e n a rough h a n d l i n g by the crowd. One speaker warned the audience t h a t : the a d d i t i o n o f $ 2 5 0 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 to the c i t y ' s funded debt was a very grave matter. There was no s a y i n g t h a t i n f i v e o r t e n years e l e c t r i c l i g h t s might be down to $ 5 . 0 0 , and, anyway, i t would be unwise to e r e c t another c i v i c department. 105 A counter r e s o l u t i o n p r o p o s i n g t h a t the c i t y accept the o f f e r from the Toronto E l e c t r i c L i g h t Company was put and c a r r i e d by a l a r g e m a j o r i t y . The meeting was an i n d i c a t i o n o f a p e r v a s i v e mood among the r a t e p a y e r s not to add to the c i t y ' s burden of debt. The day before the vote, the Telegram l i s t e d t h i r t y - t h r e e reasons why the c i t i z e n s should support the by-law, but they f a i l e d to convince the r a t e p a y e r s . The by-law was defeated by an overwhelming m a j o r i t y . * 0 6 The World had a s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the outcome. "The by-law was de f e a t e d by the work and money of the i n t e r e s t e d companies, and not by any p u b l i c r e v u l s i o n a g a i n s t c i v i c 107 c o n t r o l . " ' The S t a r t r a c e d the d e f e a t to other causes as w e l l . " I t was the p r e j u d i c e of the people a g a i n s t i n c r e a s i n g the debt and the money and the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the Toronto E l e c t r i c L i g h t Company." 1 0 8 In the face of t h i s r e j e c t i o n o f the c i v i c p l a n t scheme, C o u n c i l accepted the tender o f the Toronto L i g h t Company. The 148 Telegram had some c o n s o l i n g words f o r those supporters o f the c i v i c l i g h t i n g p l a n t , "The p r i n c i p a l i s sound and i t s advocates f i v e years hence can renew the f i g h t f o r the a d d i t i o n of e l e c t r i c l i g h t i n g to the works and s e r v i c e s which the c i t y c o n t r o l s . " * 0 9 Events were to show t h a t b a r e l y f i v e months would el a p s e before the a g i t a t i o n was renewed. The immediate cause f o r the renewed i n t e r e s t i n the l i g h t i n g q u e s t i o n , was the i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the two l i g h t companies were pr o p o s i n g an amalgamation. On January 17, 1896, the World c a r r i e d a s t o r y on "The Proposed E l e c t r i c Monopoly," and urged C i t y C o u n c i l to be w a t c h f u l of the c i t y ' s i n t e r e s t s . The two companies pursued n e g o t i a t i o n s , and on January 23, completed the 110 merger. With the temporary set-back of the movement f o r m u n i c i p a l ownership f o l l o w i n g the r a t e p a y e r vote, the World argued t h a t a s t r i c t r e g u l a t i o n of the new company, somewhat al o n g the l i n e s of the agreement w i t h the Consumers' Gas Company - o n l y more c l e a r l y d e f i n e d - would be i n the c i t y ' s i n t e r e s t . However, the new company was unresponsive to such requests from C i t y C o u n c i l , - a n d the c i t y a p p l i e d to the c o u r t s to have the 111 merger d e c l a r e d i l l e g a l . The c i t y a l s o got i n v o l v e d i n a disagreement w i t h the E l e c t r i c L i g h t Company over the q u a l i t y of l i g h t i n g which i t was p r o v i d i n g . In August, I896, the F i r e and L i g h t Committee r e -commended t h a t "payment of the Toronto E l e c t r i c L i g h t Company be w i t h h e l d owing to complaints about the q u a l i t y o f l i g h t i n g , 112 u n t i l i t i s t e s t e d . " The outcome of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n c i d e n t was not recorded, but i t does serve as an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the Company's d i s r e g a r d f o r the i n t e r e s t s of the p u b l i c . 149 T h i s a t t i t u d e on the p a r t of the Company d i d much to hasten the growth of o p i n i o n i n favour of a p u b l i c l y owned e l e c t r i c a l p l a n t i n the c i t y . The q u e s t i o n came up a g a i n f o r d i s c u s s i o n when C o u n c i l was d e c i d i n g what l i g h t i n g system to 113 implement i n the new c i t y h a l l . J The World warned the aldermen t h a t the Company would supply the necessary c u r r e n t even a t below c o s t , to prevent the c i t y from undertaking the o p e r a t i o n as an experiment. The paper went on to suggest t h a t a r e d u c t i o n i n the p r i c e o f f e r e d to the c i t y would be made up by an i n c r e a s e i n the p r i c e charged to p r i v a t e consumers. The v e r y r e a l p o s s i b i l i t y of high c o s t s f o r e l e c t r i c a l power posed a d i r e c t t h r e a t to Toronto's commercial p r o s p e r i t y . The c i t y ' s a t t r a c t i v e -ness to manufacturers depended, i n p a r t , on a cheap source of e l e c t r i c a l power, and a m u n i c i p a l l i g h t i n g p l a n t would help make Toronto a f a v o u r a b l e l o c a t i o n f o r f a c t o r i e s . The C o u n c i l members deci d e d t h a t the p u b l i c should be g i v e n another o p p o r t u n i t y to vote on the i s s u e of the c i t y l i g h t i n g i t s own s t r e e t s and b u i l d i n g s and, a t a meeting i n October, 1897, passed a motion to put the q u e s t i o n of c i v i c l i g h t i n g to a p u b l i c v o t e . In o r d e r to g i v e the v o t e r s updated i n f o r m a t i o n on the whole q u e s t i o n , the C i t y E n gineer was requested to prepare another r e p o r t on the probable c o s t of e r e c t i n g a c i v i c l i g h t i n g p l a n t . The C o u n c i l ' s d e c i s i o n brought a q u a l i f i e d a p p r o v a l from the Globe. Noting t h a t "there seems to be a very c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the charges of the company", the paper went on to suggest t h a t , " i f the people d e s i r e to assume the f u n c t i o n of s u p p l y i n g l i g h t and power to the p r i v a t e 150 u s e r , they should... make an o f f e r to buy out the e x i s t i n g 114 company a t a p r i c e to be f i x e d by a r b i t r a t i o n . " The World s c o f f e d a t t h i s 'conversion'of the Globe to the p u b l i c ownership i d e a , c h a r g i n g t h a t the i d e a of ^ s u p p l y i n g energy to p r i v a t e con-* sumers had been r a i s e d by the paper to confuse the i s s u e . The World b e l i e v e d t h a t the e x i s t e n c e of a c i v i c p l a n t s u p p l y i n g e l e c t r i c i t y f o r c i v i c needs would be a powerful enough l e v e r to keep the E l e c t r i c L i g h t Company c o m p e t i t i v e . As f o r the i d e a o f 'vested r i g h t s ' which the Globe had claimed f o r the Company, the 115 paper r e j e c t e d i t out of hand, J c l a i m i n g t h a t the Globe had become "the mouthpiece of monopolists; i t has ceased to be e i t h e r l i b e r a l or p r o g r e s s i v e , or to have any genuine i n t e r e s t i n the modern movement f o r b e t t e r government." In l a t e November, 1897, E n g i n e e r K e a t i n g submitted h i s r e p o r t , showing t h a t the c i t y c o u l d l i g h t i t s s t r e e t s by the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a c i v i c p l a n t a t an annual s a v i n g o f $ 5 , 1 0 0 . 0 0 . The Mayor c a l l e d a s p e c i a l meeting of C o u n c i l to c o n s i d e r the r e p o r t . The urgency of the i s s u e was becoming apparent i n the i n c r e a s e d a t t e n t i o n p a i d to Toronto's need f o r e l e c t r i c a l power: Cheap power i s a s i n e qua non f o r the success of Toronto as a manufacturing c e n t r e . I f the supply of power i s to be c o n s t r i c t e d and expensive, i t w i l l c e r t a i n l y be an o b s t a c l e i n the way of p r o s p e c t i v e manufacturing s e t t l e r s . We want to have power and l i g h t here as cheaply as they can be o b t a i n e d . 117 I f m u n i c i p a l ownership would produce such r e s u l t s , than l e t the c i t i e s adopt such a course of a c t i o n . The c o u n c i l decided to have the q u e s t i o n put to a vote by the c i t i z e n s . M u n i c i p a l management was thus no l o n g e r the preserve of ' f a d d i s t s and dreamers' as had been argued d u r i n g the s t r e e t 151 r a i l w a y debate. The p r o s p e r i t y of Toronto's manufacturers was p r e d i c a t e d on a cheap supply of e l e c t r i c a l energy. The i n t e r e s t of manufacturers i n the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f m u n i c i p a l ownership i n d i c a t e t h a t , among those businessmen who r e q u i r e d a cheap supply o f e l e c t r i c a l energy f o r the s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n o f t h e i r b u s i n e s s , there was no d o c t r i n a i r e o p p o s i t i o n to the c i t y o p e r a t i n g a m u n i c i p a l ;'plant. Some businessmen j u s t i f i e d p u b l i c ownership on the grounds t h a t i t prevented monopolies and pr e s e r v e d an e q u i t a b l e p r i c e system. Others regarded c i v i c govern-ment as bus i n e s s s t r a i g h t and simple and, as l o n g as i t operated on sound, e f f i c i e n t , b usiness p r i n c i p l e s , there c o u l d be no argument about c o n f i n i n g i t s f u n c t i o n . T h e i r support f o r the campaign gave added weight and r e s p e c t a b i l i t y to the p u b l i c ownership movement. Durin g the middle years of the decade, the advocates of p u b l i c ownership had c a l l e d on the c i t y to produce and d i s t r i b u t e i t s own e l e c t r i c i t y by b u i l d i n g a c i v i c l i g h t i n g p l a n t . However, i n the l a t e r months of 1897, a d i s c e r n a b l e s h i f t i n emphasis became n o t i c e a b l e . The World, as the l e a d i n g organ i n the b a t t l e f o r p u b l i c ownership, gave an i n d i c a t i o n o f the new d i r e c t i o n which the debate would u l t i m a t e l y take. On December 16, 1897, the paper p u b l i s h e d a l e n g t h y e d i t o r i a l on "The S i t u a t i o n In Regard To Niagara F a l l s Power." The a r t i c l e d i s c u s s e d the development of e l e c t r i c a l power by h a r n e s s i n g the mighty F a l l s , and the p o s s i b i l i t y o f d i s t r i b u t i n g t h i s power to surrounding communities. The paper concluded: "The time has a r r i v e d f o r 1 1 8 Toronto to takeitfp t h i s q u e s t i o n i n r e a l e a r n e s t . " The i d e a o f t r a n s m i t t i n g e l e c t r i c a l power over l o n g d i s t a n c e s 152 was s t i l l a t h e o r e t i c a l p o s s i b i l i t y , and there remained a number of t e c h n i c a l problems to s o l v e , before such a scheme could be f e a s i b l e . The debate w i t h i n C o u n c i l thus continued t o revolve around the a d v i s a b i l i t y of e s t a b l i s h i n g a c i v i c l i g h t i n g p l a n t . The by-law a u t h o r i z i n g C o u n c i l to c o n s t r u c t a muni c i p a l p l a n t had to be returned to the S o l i c i t o r ' s o f f i c e , because of f a u l t y wording, and d i d not come before the r a t e -payers at the e l e c t i o n . However, the question d i d emerge as an issue i n the mun i c i p a l campaign of 1898, and Mayor Shaw, as an advocate of the c i t y doing i t s own l i g h t i n g , was returned to the mayor's c h a i r . The C o u n c i l re-appointed the s p e c i a l committee i n q u i r i n g i n t o the cost f a c t o r s df a mun i c i p a l p l a n t . C o u n c i l a l s o took a f i r s t step towards an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of a Niagara F a l l s p r o j e c t . In A p r i l , 1898, the aldermen took a t r i p to the F a l l s to i n s p e c t the generation of e l e c t r i c power by the Canadian Niagara Power Company. The World was encouraged by t h i s s tep, and attempted to show th a t the d i s t r i b u t i o n of energy would be a step i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n : The a g i t a t i o n i n favour of e s t a b l i s h i n g a c i v i c e l e c t r i c p l a n t has i t s o r i g i n i n a widespread d e s i r e among manufacturers and other consumers of e l e c t r i c a l c u r r e n t to break up the monopoly... i f the c i t y were to e r e c t poles of i t s own f o r l i g h t i n g the s t r e e t s and thereby c o n t r o l the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the c u r r e n t , we would secure immediate r e l i e f from the monopoly. I t i s i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the current alone, t h a t makes a monopoly p o s s i b l e . 119 The prospect of the c i t y p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the supply of e l e c t r i c a l power e i t h e r through a m u n i c i p a l l y owned p l a n t or through the d i s t r i b u t i o n of power from Niagara F a l l s , brought a response from the Toronto E l e c t r i c L i g h t Company. To help 153 f o r e s t a l l the c i t y e r e c t i n g i t s own l i g h t i n g p l a n t , the Company announced a r e d u c t i o n i n i t s schedule of r a t e s . Through a d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p r i c i n g system, the company was able to p r e s e n t the c i t y a c o m p e t i t i v e o f f e r , w h ile m a i n t a i n i n g the h i g h p r i c e s charged to o t h e r consumers. Another course of a c t i o n adopted by the Company was to seek, w i t h the c o - o p e r a t i o n of o t h e r companies, l e g i s l a t i v e p r o t e c t i o n f o r t h e i r investment. The whole i s s u e of p u b l i c versus p r i v a t e p r o d u c t i o n of e l e c t r i c a l energy and the q u e s t i o n of compensation was r a i s e d a t the June, 1898, meeting of the Canadian E l e c t r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n . The A s s o c i a t i o n had appointed a L e g i s l a t i v e Committee, to w a i t on the O n t a r i o government and o b t a i n l e g i s l a t i v e p r o t e c t i o n f o r investments i n p r i v a t e power companies. The committee r e p o r t e d t h a t the government's M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s Committee debated t h e i r p r o p o s a l and recommended t h a t i t be allowed to stand over f o r another year, adding t h a t the g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n of the d i s c u s s i o n was encouraging. The committee's main o b j e c t i o n was d i r e c t e d a t those m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t h a t " d e s t r o y w i t h p u b l i c funds, and w i t h -out p u b l i c n e c e s s i t y or advantage, the value o f p r o p e r t y of those c i t i z e n s who were encouraged to i n v e s t t h e i r p r i v a t e means 120 i n the e n t e r p r i s e . " As a s o l u t i o n f o r t h i s d i f f i c u l t y , the committee recommended t h a t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n t e n t on s u p p l y i n g e l e c t r i c a l power to t h e i r c i t i z e n s , be compelled to f i r s t buy out the p l a n t of e x i s t i n g p r i v a t e companies. Such a remedy, the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the A s s o c i a t i o n argued, was both f a i r and r e asonable: I t i s eminently j u s t and imposes no h a r d s h i p on the m u n i c i p a l i t y ! nay, r a t h e r i t b e n e f i t s them because i t tends to e x t i n g u i s h r i v a l r y to themselves, which r i v a l r y might render 154 municipal operation of these works, u n p r o f i t a b l e . 121 With the announced reductions i n p r i c e and the p o s s i b i l i t y of having to pay the Toronto E l e c t r i c L i g h t Company compensation, the scheme f o r a c i v i c l i g h t i n g p l a n t was l e s s favourably r e c e i v e d . In October, the Board of C o n t r o l reached the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t i t would be unadvisable f o r the c i t y to engage i n ruinous competition i n the l i g h t i n g of the c i t y ' s s t r e e t s and b u i l d i n g s . The coup de grace to the whole i d e a was the d i s a p p o i n t i n g r e s u l t s of the tenders f o r b u i l d i n g a municipal p l a n t . No tenders had been r e c e i v e d from a Canadian company and, of those submitted, s e v e r a l were found to be incomplete, o f f e r i n g to do only p a r t 122 of the work or l a c k i n g the necessary guarantee. The defeat of the p r o j e c t was the s i g n a l f o r a regrouping of those supporting municipal ownership. The new d i r e c t i o n f o r the advocates had been o u t l i n e d by the World. The World had pointed out t h a t i t was i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n r a t h e r than i n the production of e l e c t r i c i t y t h a t the c i t y could best secure reasonable r a t e s . With the announcement, i n November, 1898, t h a t e l e c t r i c a l c u r r e n t had s u c c e s s f u l l y been t r a n s m i t t e d from Niagara F a l l s to 123 Hamilton , the success of such a scheme seemed assured. Working i n co-operation w i t h other i n t e r e s t e d communities, Toronto was s u c c e s s f u l i n o b t a i n i n g 'public power' f o r i t s c i t i z e n s . The b a t t l e f o r the establishment of a c i v i c p l a n t , though i t proved u n s u c c e s s f u l , had served to galvanize p u b l i c o p i n i o n on the issue of the c i t y ' s government p r o v i d i n g f o r the energy requirements of Toronto. * * * * * 155 The c i t i z e n s * d e t e r i n a t i o n , towards the end of the decade, to r e t a i n f o r c i v i c management those f u n c t i o n s which the c i t y c ould p r a c t i c a l l y perform, was demonstrated by the defeat of a scheme to place the c o n t r o l of the c i t y ' s water supply i n the hands of a p r i v a t e c o r p o r a t i o n . The h i s t o r y of the company lobbying f o r the f r a n c h i s e i s a complicated a f f a i r , i t being at one time or another a ship canal scheme, a power scheme, and a water g r a v i t a t i o n scheme. In 1893, C o u n c i l s e t up a committee to study the p o s s i b i l i t y of supplying the c i t y w i t h water from Lake Simcoe by a g r a v i t a t i o n scheme. In November, the committee, expanding on i t s mandate, recommended to C o u n c i l t h a t the c i t y s i g n an agreement w i t h the 124 Toronto Aqueduct Company f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a ship canal from Georgian Bay to Lake Ontario v i a Lake Simcoe and the Humber R i v e r , f o r the p r o v i s i o n of water from Lake Simcoe, and f o r the production of hydro e l e c t r i c power from the proposed Humber Dam scheme. A d r a f t agreement was prepared but C o u n c i l , q u e s t i o n i n g the l e g a l i t y of the Company, d i d not authorize any agreement. The s p e c u l a t i v e nature of the Company was confirmed e a r l y the f o l l o w i n g year when the C i t y ' s S o l i c i t o r , W. R. Meredith, commented t h a t , "The Toronto Aquaduct Company has not yet been incorporated and therefore has no l e g a l existence and cannot enter any agreement that would be bi n d i n g upon the Company 125 when inc o r p o r a t e d . " J In October,. 1894, J . D. Edgar, on behalf of the now i n -corporated Georgian Bay Ship Canal and Power Aquaduct Company, informed C o u n c i l that the Company had s c a l e d down i t s proposals, and o f f e r e d to supply the c i t y w i t h water. A second d r a f t 156 p r o p o s a l was p r e p a r e d by the s p e c i a l committee, but a g a i n C o u n c i l d i d n o t r a t i f y an agreement. E a r l y i n 1896, the Company made a n o t h e r appearance b e f o r e C o u n c i l , ^ p e t i t i o n i n g f o r the r i g h t t o meet the c i t y ' s w a t e r r e q u i r e m e n t s by a g r a v i t a t i o n scheme from Lake Simcoe. The p r a c t i c a b i l i t y o f such a scheme had been s e r i o u s l y q u e s t i o n e d by an E n g l i s h e n g i n e e r i n g e x p e r t , James Mansergh, engaged by the c i t y t o i n q u i r e i n t o the whole q u e s t i o n o f T o r o n t o ' s w a t e r s u p p l y . The Company r e f u t e d the o b j e c t i o n s t o the scheme, d e c l a r i n g Lake S i n c o e t o be a p u r e r source o f w a t e r t h a n Lake O n t a r i o and the g r a v i t a t i o n scheme t o be a cheaper p r o p o s a l t h a n the c i t y ' s system o f i n t a k e p i p e s , pumps, and f i l t e r s . W h i l e the f e a s i b i l i t y o f the p r o p o s a l may have been a s u b j e c t f o r d e b a t e , the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f the Company's o f f e r was a d i f f e r e n t m a t t e r . The s p e c u l a t i v e n a t u r e o f the Company and the b o l d p r o p o s a l o f t a k i n g the c i t y ' s w a t e r s u p p l y and s u r r e n d e r i n g i t t o a p r i v a t e c o r p o r a t i o n brought a f i r m and u n e q u i v o c a l r e p l y from Alderman W. Hubbard, T o r o n t o ' s f i r s t negro alderman. I n a c l e a r e n u n c i a t i o n o f the b a s i c premise u n d e r l y i n g the m u n i c i p a l ownership movement, the alderman d e c l a r e d : The m u n i c i p a l ownership o f p u b l i c f r a n c h i s e s i s now the r e c o g n i z e d p o l i c y i n G r e a t B r i t a i n , Canada, and the U n i t e d S t a t e s and i t i s the d e l i b e r a t e o p i n i o n o f t h i s C o u n c i l t h a t the con-t i n u a n c e o f the m u n i c i p a l ownership and o p e r a t i o n o f the waterworks system and the u n r e s t r i c t e d c o n t r o l o f a l l s o u r c e s o f w a t e r s u p p l y are d e s i r a b l e and a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y i n the f i n a n c i a l i n t e r e s t s o f the c o r p o r a t i o n , and... the h e a l t h , c o m f o r t , and c onvenience and g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t s o f the c i t i z e n s w i l l be b e s t promoted by such m u n i c i p a l o w n e r s h i p , o p e r a t i o n and c o n t r o l . 127 W i t h t h i s stamp o f d i s a p p r o v a l on the scheme, the p r o p o s a l t o 157 s u r r e n d e r the c i t y ' s water supply to a p r i v a t e company was f i r m l y r e j e c t e d and was not c o n s i d e r e d by C o u n c i l a g a i n . The advancement of the p u b l i c ownership i d e a , from the debate on the s t r e e t r a i l w a y , through to the d e c i s i o n to have the c i t y engage i n s u p p l y i n g e l e c t r i c i t y , f o l l o w s a g e n e r a l p a t t e r n . The p r a c t i c e of l e a s i n g out c i t y f r a n c h i s e s on the b a s i s of a s e t of s p e c i f i c a t i o n s had proven u n s u c c e s s f u l . The l e g a l b a t t l e s waged w i t h the Consumers' Gas Company, the Toronto S t r e e t Railway Company, and the Toronto E l e c t r i c L i g h t Company turned c i t i z e n s away from m u n i c i p a l c o n t r o l by c o n t r a c t and towards m u n i c i p a l ownership by c i v i c o p e r a t i o n . Yet, t h i s s h i f t i n p u b l i c o p i n i o n was by no means a s t r a i g h t -forward advance towards the g o a l of m u n i c i p a l ownership of c i v i c f r a n c h i s e s . The success of a p a r t i c u l a r scheme depended on a f a v o u r a b l e combination of s e v e r a l f a c t o r s : g e n e r a l p u b l i c support, e s p e c i a l l y among the b u s i n e s s community, a w i l l i n g n e s s on the p a r t of C i t y C o u n c i l to promote the p r o p o s a l , the concurrence of the p r o v i n c i a l government, and a determined r e s i s t a n c e by the p r i v a t e concern to modify i t s p r i c e s , were a l l r e q u i r e d f o r the implementation of a s p e c i f i c p l a n of m u n i c i p a l o p e r a t i o n . The d i f f i c u l t y of a c h i e v i n g t h i s combination i s evidenced by the i n a b i l i t y of the supporters of m u n i c i p a l ownership to s u c c e s s f u l l y c a r r y through a programme of c i v i c o p e r a t i o n d u r i n g the 1 8 9 0 's, whether i t was i n p r o v i d i n g s t r e e t c a r s e r v i c e , f i r e i n s u r a n c e , or e l e c t r i c a l c u r r e n t . T h i s f a i l u r e to put i n t o p r a c t i c e a programme of m u n i c i p a l ownership does not i n d i c a t e a r e j e c t i o n of the m u n i c i p a l owner-s h i p i d e a . As e a r l y as 1891, there was a group of d e d i c a t e d 158 s u p p o r t e r s of m u n i c i p a l ownership a c t i v e l y campaigning f o r r e t e n t i o n of the s t r e e t r a i l w a y f r a n c h i s e . The by-law vote o f 1895, r e p r e s e n t s only a temporary set-back, as c i t i z e n s hesitated, on i n c r e a s i n g the c i t y ' s indebtedness. F o l l o w i n g the vote, the m u n i c i p a l ownership campaign was able to draw support and r e s p e c t a b i l i t y from concerned businessmen r e q u i r i n g inexpensive s e r v i c e s , such as e l e c t r i c i t y , f o r expansion and growth. There was a l s o a growing d e t e r m i n a t i o n by C i t y C o u n c i l not to surrender m u n i c i p a l f r a n c h i s e s f o r p r i v a t e e x p l o i t a t i o n , but to operate them as m u n i c i p a l works. The development of a p r a c t i c a l scheme f o r c i v i c o p e r a t i o n , such as an insurance bureau, and l a t e r a system of d i s t r i b u t i n g e l e c t r i c a l power, enabled c i t i z e n s to f i x t h e i r a t t e n t i o n and support on a f e a s i b l e p r o p o s a l . Thus, by the end of the decade, the emerging consensus which brought t o g e t h e r the n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n s , put the p u b l i c ownership q u e s t i o n d i r e c t l y to the f o r e as an urgent m u n i c i p a l requirement. 159 NOTES F o r an a n a l y s i s o f the s o c i a l s e t t i n g i n which th e s e ' C a p t a i n s o f I n d u s t r y ' f u n c t i o n e d , see C. A7. H a l l , " E l e c t r i c a l U t i l i t i e s i n O n t a r i o Under P r i v a t e Ownership, 1890-1914", ( U n p u b l i s h e d Ph. D. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , 1968). 2 L. H. P u r s l e y , ' S t r e e t R a i l w a y s o f Toronto,1861-1921," I n t e r u r b a n s , 1 6 , N o . 2 ( 1 9 5 8 ) . p.7. 3 J On May 1, 1890, the Telegram r a n a f u l l page a r t i c l e on " S e n a t o r S m i t h ' s G o l d Mine"? Telegram r e p o r t e r s had been t a b u l a t i n g the p a s s enger l o a d d u r i n g the p r e v i o u s month and, from t h i s d a t a , a l o n g w i t h the Company's statement of a s s e t s and l i a b i l i t i e s , the paper c a l c u l a t e d t h a t the f r a n c h i s e earned f o r i t s two p r i n c i p a l owners, " p r o f i t s t o t a l l i n g $272 , 5 3 2.00 and a s i x p e r c e n t d i v i d e n d . " M i n u t e s of C i t y C o u n c i l , 1890, p.22. 5 I n a l e t t e r t o the Telegram. March 5, 1890, Macdonald warned the c i t i z e n s t h a t , " I f Alderman G i l l e s p i e i m a g i n e s f o r one moment t h a t h i s e l e c t i o n as c hairman i s an e v i d e n c e o f the c o n f i d e n c e and r e s p e c t o f the 'Gang* which i n f l u e n c e s the C o u n c i l , he i s l a y i n g a f l a t t e r i n g u n c t i o n on h i s s o u l t h a t i s n o t w a r r a n t e d . I t i s s i m p l y an e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e y t h e y t h i n k t h e y can handle him e a s i e r than t h e y can me." Macdonald b e l i e v e d a c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t was b e i n g made by a p o w e r f u l l o b b y (unnamed) t o i n f l u e n c e C o u n c i l i n i t s d e l i b e r a t i o n on the s t r e e t r a i l w a y f r a n c h i s e . 6 G l o b e . A p r i l 17, 1890. ' L a bour had g i v e n some tho u g h t t o t h e q u e s t i o n , b u t had n o t f o r m u l a t e d a d e f i n i t e p l a n . The T o r o n t o Trades and L a b o u r C o u n c i l , i n p r e p a r i n g a l i s t o f q u e s t i o n s t o be s u b m i t t e d t o the a l d e r m a n i c c a n d i d a t e s i n the m u n i c i p a l e l e c t i o n o f 1890, came out i n f a v o u r of the c i t y r e t a i n i n g c o n t r o l o f the f r a n c h i s e - though how the r a i l w a y was t o be managed was n o t mentioned. 8 News, June 19, 1890. 9 I b i d . , • ' 1 0 The f i n a l v o t e was 5,385 Yeas and o n l y 427 Nays. M i n u t e s o f C i t y C o u n c i l , 1890, Appendix A , p.1,462. 1 1 M a i l , March 20-21, 1890. 12 D ' A l t o n McCarthy, a prominent P r o t e s t a n t and member o f the E q u a l R i g h t s A s s o c i a t i o n , d i d n o t l e t r e l i g -i o u s p r e j u d i c e s s t a n d i n the way o f b u s i n e s s d e a l i n g s w i t h the n o t e d I r i s h C a t h o l i c S e n a t o r , Frank S m i t h . 160 1/3-"city v a l u a t o r s were refused entrance to the company's s t a b l e s and the a u d i t o r s were unable to ins p e c t the company's records. A court order was obtained, p e r m i t t i n g entrance to the s t a b l e s , but no order was made as to the books and i n v o i c e s . " Globe, October 21,1890. l i + Globe, June 24, 1890. 1 5 M a i l , October 6, 1890. 1 6 Telegram, October 11, 1890. 17 ' The N a t i o n a l i s t A s s o c i a t i o n was formed i n Toronto i n 1890 by a group of B e l l a m i t e reformers who b e l i e v e d i n ' n a t i o n a l i s m * , the c o n t r o l of the means of production and d i s t r i b u t i o n by the s t a t e , as a cure f o r the country's s o c i a l and economic i l l s . 1 8 Telegram, December 2, I89O. 1 9 I b i d . 20 For a d i s c u s s i o n of the growing s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of labour's ideology, as i t moved beyond immediate needs such as hours and wages, to a c r i t i c a l examination of broader i s s u e s , see F. W. Watt, "The N a t i o n a l P o l i c y , Workingmen, and P r o l e t a r i a n Ideas i n V i c t o r i a n Canada," Canadian  H i s t o r i c a l Review,40,No.1(1950). 21 Labour Advocate, December 26, 1890. pp World. December 24, 1890. 23 J The aldermen got involved i n d i s c u s s i n g the plan of c i v i c reform proposed by McDougall and d i d not come back to the question of a p u b l i c vote, see Chapter I I I , PP.73-74. 24 Minutes of C i t y C o u n c i l , 1890, Appendix A , P.2.J.319. 2 5 I b i d . , 1891, Appendix A , p.10. *° World. January 23, 1891. 2 7 Telegram, February 2, 1891. 2 8 M a i l , March 13, 1891. 29 7 "The reason why p l u t o c r a t s and p r o f i t mongers oppose the c i t y t a k i n g over the road i s not f a r to seek 161 i t i s because they r e a l i z e that the operation of p u b l i c s e r v i c e s i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t s by the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the people i s the t h i n end of the wedge of n a t i o n a l i s m . I t i s the p r i n c i p l e u n d e r l y i n g the a g i t a t i o n that they dread. A l l t h e i r a c q u i s i t i v e i n s t i n c t s and s e l f i s h f e a r s are aroused by the thought t h a t when once the people get habituated to the i d e a , t h a t whatever can be done by the peoples' r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s b e t t e r , cheaper, and more s a t i s f a c t o r i l y than i t can be done by p r i v a t e monopolists ought to be so done, t h e i r investments, monopolies, and s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e s w i l l be i n danger... And t h e r e f o r e , p u r e l y as a matter of c l a s s i n t e r e s t and to continue unimpaired t h e i r power of sweating labour and drawing l a r g e p r o f i t s f o r very s l i g h t s e r v i c e s , the Board of Trade and the e n t i r e caste of sweaters, profit-mongers, schemers and c a t e r p i l l a r s on the l e a f w i l l n a t u r a l l y and i n s t i n c t i v e l y oppose c i v i c c o n t r o l and come to the rescue of beleagured monopoly." Labour Advocate, March 13, 1891. 30 J A. Hepburn spoke on " C i v i c S e r v i c e s " , G. Howell spoke on "Monopolies and M u n i c i p a l S e r v i c e s " , and i n an e f f o r t to a t t r a c t the i n t e r e s t of women i n the campaign, addressed a group of l a d i e s on "Why Women Should Be Bellamy N a t i o n a l i s t s " . 31 y " P u b l i c Ownership of P u b l i c S e r v i c e s " , an address d e l i v e r e d by A. Hepburn to the N a t i o n a l i s t A s s o c i a t i o n . Labour Advocate, March 20, 1891. 3 2 M a i l , March k, 1891. 3 3 World, A p r i l 9, 1891. ^ Globe, January 31. 1891. 35 Minutes of C i t y C o u n c i l , 1891, Appendix A , p.235. 36 J C i t y C o u n c i l adopted a recommendation from the S t r e e t Railway Committee thatt "There be no i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h the present management of the Railway but that the management of the Railway be l e f t i n the hands of Mr. Gunn and the o f f i c i a l s formerly employed by the company, wit h C i t y Engineer Jennings together with the chairman of the committee and the Mayor - the purchasing of s u p p l i e s , engaging and d i s c h a r g i n g of men, to remain as when t h i s C o u n c i l took over the s t r e e t r a i l w a y . " World, May 21, 1891. 3 7 Labour Advocate, May 2 9 , 1891. 3 8 Globe, A p r i l 20, 1891. 3 9 World, May 2 5 , 1891. *° I b i d . 162 41 The New Nation, June 13, 1891. 42 The M a i l , i n a June 24, e d i t o r i a l s t a t e d that "the undertaking i s now on the down grade and i t w i l l continue to go down h i l l u n t i l i t i s put beyond the reach of the i n e f f e c t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n at C i t y H a l l . " J . Gunn, the manager appointed by the c i t y , r e p l i e d i n a l e t t e r the f o l l o w i n g day, " I have not since e n t e r i n g the c i t y employ, been i n t e r f e r r e d with i n the management of the road e i t h e r by the Mayor or by any Member of C o u n c i l . . . as to the road being on the downgrade, the statement i s a b s o l u t e l y j w i t h o u t foundation." ^ The Canadian Engineer,3,No.1Q.(1895). p.265. 44 The companies i n t e r e s t e d i n the r a i l w a y f r a n c h i s e i n c l u d e d ! the K i e l y , Mackenzie, and Eventt syndi c a t e , the Kerr-Brock syndi c a t e , and the M i l l e r Brothers syndicate. A f o u r t h company, the Toronto C i t y Passenger Railway Company, which W. H. Howland had organized, withdrew from the b i d d i n g . Telegram, June 26, 1891. 46 I b i d . 47 The C e n t r a l S o c i a l Reform Committee represented the Toronto Trades and Labour C o u n c i l , The Knights of Lab-our, the Womens* Enfranchisement A s s o c i a t i o n , the E i g h t Hour League, the S i n g l e Tax A s s o c i a t i o n , and the N a t i o n a l i s t A s s o c i a t i o n . The issue of the s t r e e t r a i l w a y served as a c a t a l y s t f o r a combined e f f o r t by these v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s - the f i r s t such e f f o r t undertaken i n Toronto. 48 Labour Advocate, J u l y 10, 1891. ^ 9 At a meeting of the S t r e e t Railway Committee i n A p r i l , the C i t y Engineer had suggested to the members the a d v i s a b i l i t y of municipal ownership, but h i s suggestion was not considered by the committee. Telegram, A p r i l 25, 1891. 5 0 Telegram, June 13, 1891. Those v o t i n g f o r the r e s o l u t i o n included: W. Gibbs, J . J o l l i f f e , C. Smal l , W. B e l l , E. Hewitt, J . V e r r a l , J . L e s l i e , and W. H a l l . Those v o t i n g against the r e s o l u t i o n i n c l u d e d Mayor C l a r l e , R. Score, J . Hallam, W. A t k i n s o n , J . Orr, J . Shaw, and A. McDougall. Of those supporting a 163 the r e s o l u t i o n , Alderman Hewitt was l a t e r found g u i l t y of corrupt conduct with one of the tendering companies and Alderman V e r r a l was found to have engaged i n improper conduct i n seeking to buy shares i n one of the tendering companies. Report of H i s Honour Judge McDougall, i n the Matter of the C i v i c I n v e s t i g a t i o n , Minutes of C i t y  C o u n c i l , 1 8 9 5 , Appendix C , pp . 6 1 9 - 6 3 8 . Labour Advocate, J u l y 1 0 , 1891. 5 3 I h i d . , J u l y 24, 1891. Minutes of C i t y C o u n c i l , l 8 9 1 , p . 2 5 . News. J u l y 2 2 , 1891. Globe, August 4, 1 8 9 1 . 54 55 56 5 7 M a i l , August 6 , 1891. 5 8 J . Middleton, p.342. 59 A. Shaw, an American student of municipal government, described the c o n t r a c t as "the most complete and s a t i s f a c t o r y municipal f r a n c h i s e that has ever been granted i n America." A. Shaw, "Toronto as a M u n i c i p a l Object Lesson," Review of Reviews.8.(1894). p.170. 6 0 J . Middleton, p.257. 61 "Any surplus of net p r o f i t from any source whatever, i n c l u d i n g premiums on s a l e s of stock, a f t e r the r e s t or reserve fund s h a l l have been e s t a b l i s h e d and maintained as a f o r e s a i d , remaining at the c l o s e of any f i s c a l year of the Sompany, a f t e r payment of the fees of the P r e s i d e n t , V i c e - P r e s i d e n t , and D i r e c t o r s of the Company, not exceeding i n a l l $9,000.00 per annum, a f t e r payment of dividends at the r a t e of 10 per cent on the pai d up c a p i t a l stock and the establishment and maintenance of the s a i d reserve fund and p r o v i d i n g f o r the s a i d p l a n t and b u i l d i n g s renewal fund s h a l l be c a r r i e d to a s p e c i a l account to be known as the s p e c i a l surplus account, i s equal to f i v e cents per 1,000 cubic f e e t on the q u a n t i t y of gas s o l d during the preceding year, the p r i c e of gas s h a l l be reduced f o r the then current year a t l e a s t f i v e cents per 1,000 cubic f e e t to a l l consumers.' Globe, A p r i l 12, 1894. 6 2 Telegram, June 4, 1 8 8 9 . 6 3 Globe, March 17, 1892. ^ I h i d . , A p r i l 12, 1894. 164 6 ^ Minutes of C i t y C o u n c i l , 1894, Appendix A , p.381. 66 67 68 69 70 World, March 13, I896. Telegram, J u l y 6, I896. World, March 13, I896. Globe. December 21, 1896. The ratepayers i n 1901 voted to have the c i t y purchase the Gas Company, but a c t i o n on t h i s was delayed and the c i t y f i n a l l y reached an agreement wi t h the company regarding a s l i d i n g s cale of r a t e s . For a b r i e f review of the subsequent h i s t o r y of the gas qu e s t i o n , see, Middleton, p.3 6 3 . 71 ' "The clause t h a t terminates the monopoly a t the end of f i v e years i s not a l t o g e t h e r s a t i s f a c t o r y . The main s t r e e t s w i l l be ashpalted by th a t time so that i t w i l l be almost impossible f o r a new company to l a y underground w i r e s . These changes w i l l a l l tend to discourage competition and, i n view of t h i s c o n t ing-ency, the c i t y should reserve the r i g h t to e i t h e r cancel or renew the e x c l u s i v e p r i v i l e g e s of the B e l l Telephone Company, a t the end of every f i v e years." Telegram, May 9, 1891. 72 ' The terms of the con t r a c t were: an e x c l u s i v e f r a n c h i s e f o r f i v e years, the c i t y to r e c e i v e f i v e percent of gross r e c i e p t s of the B e l l Company, the l a t t e r to provide s u i t a b l e c o n s t r u c t i o n and equipment. Minutes of  C i t y C o u n c i l , 1 8 9 1 , Appendix A , p.252. The new agreem-ent i n c l u d e d the previous s p e c i f i c a t i o n s p l u s some a d d i t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s regarding the maximum charge f o r p u t t i n g phone s e r v i c e i n homes and business establishments. Minutes of C i t y C o u n c i l , 1891, p . 1 9 8 . 7 3 Minutes of C i t y C o u n c i l , I896, p.248. ? / + I b i d . 75 { J "The B e l l Telephone Company f r a n c h i s e e x p i r e s on September 1 5 , and w i t h i t e x p i r e s the f i v e percent of the Telephone Company's revenue which has heretofore been pai d to the c i t y . . . The company have refused to continue the payment to the c i t y of f i v e percent of t h e i r r e c i e p t s . Some time ago a committee of C i t y C o u n c i l was appointed to c a l l f o r tenders f o r the telephone system, but the r e s u l t was only one tender... I t looks as though the company w i l l get the f r a n c h i s e on i t s own terms." World, September 4, I 8 9 6 . 7 ^ The B e l l Telephone Company had been incorporated by f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n and was therefore under f e d e r a l 165 j u r i s d i c t i o n . 7 7 S t a r , March 30, 1897. Minutes of C i t y C o u n c i l , 1897, Appendix A , I b i d . 78 p.277. 79 On Alderman David Lamb seemed an unLikely candidate to introduce such a scheme. "To the student of economics there i s much that i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n t h i s debate. I t shows how the t i d e i s running when a s t a i d o l d Tory l i k e Alderman Lamb proposes a p r o j e c t under which the c i t y would insure a l l b u i l d i n g s w i t h i n the l i m i t s and charge the cost i n the tax b i l l . Here i s a departure from the i n d i v i d u a l i s m of a generation ago t h a t Alderman Lamb himself could hardly have thought p o s s i b l e . " Globe, J u l y 5, 1894. For a d i s c u s s i o n of the progressive s t r a i n i n Conservativism, see C. W, Humphries, "The Sources of Ontario 'Progressive' Conservatism," Canadian H i s t o r i c a l  A s s o c i a t i o n H i s t o r i c a l Papers,(196?), and S. Wise, "Upper Canada and the Conservative T r a d i t i o n , " Ontario  History,59.No.3,(1967) . 81 A re p o r t prepared f o r C o u n c i l showed that over a per i o d of ei g h t years, "the average l o s s from f i r e i n Toronto was $227,344.00 and that a f t e r meeting a l l l o s s e s , the insurance companies had a p r o f i t of $717,309. 00." Dividends were ranging from ten to seventy percent. R. Donald, "Municipal F i r e Insurance," The Contemporary  Review,68,(1895), p.844. 8 ? A s p e c i a l committee of C i t y C o u n c i l reported that " a f t e r a most c a r e f u l and mature c o n s i d e r a t i o n , we can only come to one con c l u s i o n : t h a t the f o r t y d i f f e r e n t insurance companies doing business i n the C i t y of Toronto have u n i t e d i n a closed c o r p o r a t i o n , 'The Underwriters', i n which they have a combination to c o n t r o l the f i r e insurance f o r t h e i r own gain and p r o f i t . " Minutes of C i t y  C o u n c i l , 1894, Appendix A , p.357. For a d i s c u s s i o n of the movement towards 'combines' i n business, labour, and p r o f e s s i o n a l groups, see M. B l i s s , "The P r o t e c t i v e Impulse: An Approach to the S o c i a l H i s t o r y of O l i v e r Mowat's Ontario,"^:in O l i v e r Mowat's Ontario, ed. D. Swainson, (Toronto: Macmillan Company of Canada, 1972). 8 3 R. Donald, p.844. 84 The bureau was to " c o n s i s t of three commissioners two to be appointed by the C i t y C o u n c i l , and one by the Board of Trade who w i l l appoint a manager, i n s p e c t o r s , t r e a s u r e r , c h i e f accountant, and such other s t a f f as may be necessary. That t h i s commission have power to assess 166 a l l buildings f o r insurance on merchandise, stock, machinery .furniture, etc. That the commission w i l l have charge of the f i r e brigade. That debentures be issued to the extent of one m i l l i o n d o l l a r s to be sold and invested i n other negotiable s e c u r i t i e s , f o r a reserve fund to meet extraordinary losses. " Minutes of  G i t y Council, 1894, Appendix fi. , p . 3 6 0 . 8 5 Globe, J u l y 18, 1894. 86 Municipal World, 4,(1894), p.116. 87 Toronto had enjoyed " a notable immunity from f i r e s f o r some years; but a f t e r the scheme was produced, there was a series of drastic outbreaks. The coincidence was more than remarkable, and the e f f e c t was to throw d i s c r e d i t on the municipal scheme. There was talk of incendiarism, and several persons were arrested, but no convictions were obtained." R. Donald, p.846. 88 Tenders were received from the Toronto Street Railway Company, the Toronto E l e c t r i c Light Company and the Consumers* Gas Company. Minutes of C i t y Council, 1894, Appendix A , p.540. 8 9 Globe, May 2, 1894. 9 0 Telegram. February 21, 1894. 9 1 Minutes of C i t y Council, 1894, Appendix A , p.3 3 0 . The C i t y Engineer l i s t e d four reasons why c i t i e s could do t h e i r own l i g h t i n g cheaper! (1) In the construction of a municipal station, the municipality saves the p r o f i t that a private company would of course expect to make. (2) A c i t y i s generally i n a position to borrow money at a lower rate of i n t e r e s t than a private company. (3) Most of the plants owned by private companies i n the large c i t i e s were put i n some years ago when the cost of e l e c t r i c a l appliances was greater than i t i s today. (4) In the construction of a private plant, c a p i t a l i s t s .9 w i l l not r i s k investing money unless they are assureddof 1: receiving good dividends, while a l l the municipality requires i s a s u f f i c i e n t return to pay the cost of running, including i n t e r e s t on the outlay, with a margin f o r renewals. 9 2 World, May 28, 1894. 9 3 Globe, June 28, 1894. 9 ^ Telegram, June 9, 1894. Dwight went on to say, "the Company now furnishing e l e c t r i c l i g h t s on the street, have expended nearly h a l f a m i l l i o n d o l l a r s i n t h e i r 167 p l a n t , b e l i e v i n g , as they had a p e r f e c t r i g h t to do, t h a t when the present c o n t r a c t e x p i r e s , and would have to be renewed, they would a t l e a s t have a f i g h t i n g chance to secure i t , but i n s t e a d of t h a t some i n d i v i d u a l s down a t C i t y H a l l , have conceived the i d e a of the c i t y doing i t s own l i g h t i n g , and they do not even propose to purchase the v a l u a b l e p l a n t t h a t w i l l o t h e r -wise be v i r t u a l l y destroyed, o r g i v e the company a chance to tender aga i n f o r the work." F o r a d i s c u s s i o n of the beleagured businessman, see M. B l i s s , "Dyspepsia of the Mind": The Canadian Businessman and H i s Enemies," i n Canadian Business H i s t o r y , S e l e c t e d S t u d i e s , 1497-19_Z1, ed. D. Macmillan, (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1972). 95 Minutes of C i t y C o u n c i l . 1894, Appendix A-, p.372. 96 World, September 19, 1894. 9 7 Glooe September 16, 1894. M a i l September 21, 1894. 98 7 7 "There should be no d i f f i c u l t y on the p a r t of the C i t y C o u n c i l d e c i d i n g to assume c o n t r o l o f the c i t y ' s l i g h t i n g . . . the time has now come when t h i s c i t y from past experience, w i l l h e n c e f o r t h r e f u s e to grant any more f r a n c h i s e s , but w i l l keep s t e a d i l y i n view the f a c t t h a t p u b l i c ownership of such n e c e s s i t i e s as l i g h t and water must be adm i n i s t e r e d , f i r s t and l a s t , f o r the b e n e f i t of the p u b l i c , i n s t e a d of com p e l l i n g the people to pay i n c r e a s i n g t r i b u t e to p r i v a t e c o r p o r a t i o n s . " M a i l , January 22, 1895. 1 0 0 World, February 20, 1895. 1 01 Minutes of C i t y C o u n c i l . 1895, Appendix A , p.80. 102 There i s a s t r o n g tendency a g a i n s t the d i s p o s a l of p u b l i c f r a n c h i s e s to p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . . . The c i t y has no wish to a l l o w p r i v a t e companies, f r a n c h i s e s t h a t i t can work p e r f e c t l y w e l l on i t s own account." M a r i , January 22, 1895. 1 0 3 World. March 30, 1894. S t a r , March 26, 1895. 1 0 5 Telegram, A p r i l 4, 1895. The meaning of the $5.00 was not mentioned by the speaker. 1 0 6 The r e s u l t of the vote was 817 Yeas and 4,510 Nays. M a i l and Empire. June 3, 1895. 1 6 0 1 0 7 World, June 3, 1895. 1 0 8 S t a r , June 4, 1895. 1 0 9 Telegram, June 3, 1895. 110 F o r a review of the d e t a i l s of the merger, see the Telegram, January 23, 1896. I l l "In the l i t i g a t i o n t h a t f o l l o w e d amalgamation w i t h the Incandescent L i g h t Company, judgement i n f a v o u r of the Toronto E l e c t r i c L i g h t Company was f i n a l l y upheld when i n 1906, the P r i v y C o u n c i l r e f u s e d the C i t y leave to appeal from the adverse d e c i s i o n of the Court of Appeal." C. H a l l , " P r i v a t e U t i l i t i e s " , p.55. 112 Minutes of C i t y C o u n c i l , I896, Appendix A , p.501. 113 J The c o n t r a c t e v e n t u a l l y went to the Toronto E l e c t r i c L i g h t Company. The Company was opposed to d e l a y i n s i g n i n g the agreement while the c i t y d e l i b e r a t e d on the p o s s i b i l i t y of a m u n i c i p a l p l a n t , and used d i r e t h r e a t s to bend the c i t y ' s w i l l . I t threatened to cut o f f the power to the b u i l d i n g the day the new Governor G e n e r a l , L o r d Minto was to open the new c i v i c b u i l d i n g , and thus leave the r o y a l entourage i n the dark. Telegram, l l k Globe, October 27, 1897. "Supposing the L e g i s l a t u r e gave the Consumers' Gas Company power to go i n t o the e l e c t r i c l i g h t b u s i n e s s , or supposing the S t r e e t Railway Company o f f e r e d to supply e l e c t r i c l i g h t f o r the s t r e e t s and m u n i c i p a l b u i l d i n g s f o r l e s s than the Toronto Company, would e i t h e r the Gas Company or the Railway Company take over Toronto E l e c t r i c Company'at a p r i c e to be f i x e d by a r b i t r a t i o n ' ? Not much! N e i t h e r should the c i t y . " World, October 28, 1897. 1 1 6 I b i d . 1 1 7 M a i l , December 15, 1897. 1 1 8 World, December 16, 1897. 1 1 9 I b i d . , June 22, I898. 1 2 0 Globe, June 30, I898. 1 2 1 I b i d . A Minutes of C i t y C o u n c i l , I898, Appendix A , P.? k7. 1 2 3 World, November 15, 1898. 12& * The company was made up of a number of prominent Torontoniansj J . L, Hughes, E, A. Macdonald, and ex-Mayor Boswell. 1 2 5 Minutes of C i t y Council, 1894, Appendix A p. 94. 1 2 6 Globe. October 19, I896. 170 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION An examination of Toronto's attempt to respond to p r e s s i n g i s s u e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t s s t a t u s as a major urban c e n t r e , has p r o v i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y of o b s e r v i n g an important Canadian community a d j u s t i n g to i t s 'coming of age' a t the end of the c e n t u r y . The e f f o r t s of the v a r i o u s groups and a s s o c i a t i o n s who were concerned w i t h each of these i s s u e s , were d i s c u s s e d from the vantage p o i n t of m o t i v a t i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and the success which they a c h i e v e d . I t was shown t h a t i n each of the i s s u e s presented, the c i t i z e n s succeeded i n a c h i e v i n g o n l y a p a r t i a l v i c t o r y . In the case of r e l i e f f o r the poor circumstances a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the L a u r i e r boom helped to r e l i e v e the problem which concerned c i t i z e n s were attempting to s o l v e . The campaign f o r a reformed system of m u n i c i p a l government achieved a l i m i t e d success w i t h the c r e a t i o n of a Board of Administration< However, t h i s was q u i c k l y r e p l a c e d by a somewhat d i f f e r e n t system imposed on Toronto by the d i c t a t e s of the p r o v i n c i a l government. On the q u e s t i o n of m u n i c i p a l ownership, the advocates o f c i v i c o p e r a t i o n o f c i v i c f r a n c h i s e s f a i l e d d u r i n g the p e r i o d s t u d i e d to produce a f u n c t i o n i n g system of m u n i c i p a l o p e r a t i o n of b a s i c s e r v i c e s , such as gas, t r a n s i t , and e l e c t r i c a l power. Th i s c o n c l u s i o n r a i s e s the l e g i t i m a t e q u e s t i o n , was the decade one of ' f a i l u r e s to respond' to those p r e s s i n g needs which were e v i d e n t d u r i n g the p e r i o d s t u d i e d ? The answer to t h i s i s d e c i d e d l y noi I f h i s t o r i c a l events were judged on the success which they achieved, then any disappointments which preceded 1?1 t h a t success would "be v i r t u a l l y i g n o r e d . The set-backs which c i t i z e n s i n t e r e s t e d i n these q u e s t i o n s experienced were onl y temporary d e f e a t s . Though they d i d not achieve the u l t i m a t e g o a l s which they s e t f o r themselves, d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , they d i d succeed i n drawing p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n to the i s s u e s , broadening support f o r a p r o g r e s s i v e a t t i t u d e to these q u e s t i o n s , and l a y i n g the b a s i s f o r f u t u r e a c t i o n . Those c i t i z e n s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the campaign to i n t r o d u c e a r e g u l a r system of r e l i e f f o r the poor of the c i t y e s t a b l i s h e d a f i r m f o u n d a t i o n f o r a r a t i o n a l , p r o f e s s i o n a l approach to s o c i a l w e l f a r e , as symbolized i n the N a t i o n a l Conference on C h a r i t i e s and C o r r e c t i o n s . The advocates of m u n i c i p a l reform had focused p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n on the need f o r a d i v i s i o n o f l e g i s l a t i v e and ex e c u t i v e f u n c t i o n s . The i n t e r e s t which they generated among the p u b l i c c o n t r i b u t e d to the i n t r o d u c t i o n of an improved system of a d m i n i s t e r i n g l o c a l a f f a i r s . Both the reforms they promoted and the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t which they aroused prevented Toronto from f a l l i n g under the c o n t r o l o f powerful c o r p o r a t e and p o l i t i c a l r i n g s as oc c u r r e d i n the Un i t e d S t a t e s . The campaign f o r m u n i c i p a l ownership d u r i n g the 1890*s was a key f a c t o r i n e d u c a t i n g p u b l i c o p i n i o n on the advantages of p u b l i c ownership. T h i s s o l i d base of p u b l i c support i n favour of m u n i c i p a l ownership was e v i d e n t when p u b l i c hydro was l a t e r i n t r o d u c e d i n t o Toronto through the a c t i o n s o f the p r o g r e s s i v e m i n i s t r y of S i r James Whitney. There was e v i d e n t among the three t o p i c s d i s c u s s e d , a g e n e r a l approach towards reform i s s u e s . The d e s i r e to i n i t i a t e a r a t i o n a l , s c i e n t i f i c , b u s i n e s s - l i k e s o l u t i o n , i s a common theme which i s e v i d e n t i n a l l of the three i s s u e s d i s c u s s e d . I t i s p r e s e n t i n the campaign to reform the c i t y ' s government to i n i t i a t e m u n i c i p a l ownership and even i n the campaign to s t r e a m l i n e the c i t y ' s system of r e l i e f . T h i s ' p r o g r e s s i v e ' s t r a i n i n Canadian reform movements should not be s u r p r i s i n g . I t formed an e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t i n the American reform • movement and i t s e x i s t e n c e i n Canada i n d i c a t e s t h a t those concerned c i t i z e n s who attempted to respond to the needs of the new urban s o c i e t y were o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n a North American framework i n t h e i r response to p r e s s i n g reform q u e s t i o n s . BIBLIOGRAPHY 173 BIBLIOGRAPHY Manuscript Sources 1) P u b l i c A r c h i ves of CanadaJ S i r J . J . Abbott Papers. S i r M. Bowell Papers. S i r W. L a u r i e r Papers. S i r J . A. Macdonald Papers. F. W. Maclean Papers. Minutes of Toronto Trades and Labour C o u n c i l , 1890-1900. S i r John Thompson Papers. P h i l l i p s Thompson Papers, ( c o n s i s t s of one l e t t e r ) S i r C. Tupper Papers. J . S. W i l l i s o n Papers. These papers were read s e l e c t i v e l y f o r i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the c i t y of T o r o n t o 1 8 9 0 - 1 8 9 9 . 2) Toronto C i t y Archives* Minutes of Proceedings of the C o u n c i l of the Corporation of the C i t y of Toronto, 1890-1899. Newspapers The Brotherhood Era. 1895-1896. The Canada's Farmers' Sun Weekly. 1892-1897. The Canadian Engineer. 1893-1899. The D a i l y M a i l and Empire. 1895-1899. The Evening News. 1890-1891. The Evening Telegram. 1890-1899. 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