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An appraisal of ungulate habitats in the ashnola resource management unit Scheffler, Eike Gerhard 1972

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AN APPRAISAL OF UNGULATE HABITATS IN THE ASHNOLA RESOURCE MANAGEMENT UNIT by EIKE GERHARD SCHEFFLER B.S.A. , Un i ve r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in the Department of PLANT SCIENCE We accept th i s thes is as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January, 1972 In present ing th i s thes is in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ive rs i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make i t f r ee l y a va i l ab l e for reference and study. I fu r ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thes is for s cho la r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representa t i ves . It is understood that copying or pub l i c a t i on of th i s thes is for f i n a n c i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion. Department of The Un i ve r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date i ABSTRACT The four major eco log i ca l v a r i a b l e s , s o i l s , c l ima te , vege-ta t ion and fauna, were studied from May 1966 to November 1967 and again for a short period in 1969 on important C a l i f o r n i a bighorn sheep {Ovis canadensis califomiana Douglas) ranges in the Ashnola reg ion . Emphasis in th is i nves t iga t ion was placed on completing the bas ic extens ive resource inventory as well as on i n i t i a t i n g experimental range r e h a b i l i t a t i o n prac t i ces for future management of c r i t i c a l forage resources on the winter ranges. * The s o i l s inventory was based p r imar i l y on the survey recent ly completed for the Canada Department of Ag r i cu l t u r e (Green, in pr in t ) f o r the Pr inceton map sheet. Ext rapo la t ion fo r the eastern ha l f of the study area was accomplished with the use of a i r photos and some add i t i ona l ground surveys. The c l i m a t i c fac tors measured were: a i r and s o i l tempera-tu re , p r e c i p i t a t i o n , snow depth and evaporat ion. This was done by e s t a b l i s h i n g two summer c l i m a t i c t ransects and one snow depth t ransec t . These t ransects were a 11 i t ud ina l l y spaced along ava i l ab l e access roads. The vegetat ion ana l ys i s was conducted with the use of s i t e s p e c i f i c species l i s t s , point quadrat and l ine t ransects and a i r photos. Both the hab i ta t and s o i l type maps were constructed from ava i l ab l e a i r photo coverage and ground surveys. Ungulate d i s t r i b u t i o n s were mapped from ground observa t ions , a e r i a l he l i cop te r surveys and previous repor t s . Range rejuvenat ion experiments, using large exc losu res , f e r t i l i z a t i o n and reseeding, were conducted concurrent ly v/ith the inventory. Five s i t e s were chosen for these r e h a b i l i t a t i o n t r i a l s . i i S o i l s in the study area vary from Brown and Dark Brown to A lp ine Dys t r i c B run i so l s . The mid-grasslands occur predominantly on Chernozem!c, the Rego Dark Gray to Orth ic Black s o i l s . Related in large measure to the physiography of the reg ion , large areas have non-product ive s o i l s , ta lus slopes and sheer rocks; vegetat ive product ion is extremely l imi ted on such s i t e s . A l t i t ude and exposure g rea t l y a f f e c t the temperature and p r e c i p i t a t i o n regime with in the area. At low a l t i t u d e s the moisture supply l i m i t s p r o d u c t i v i t y . Summer evaporat ion is . very high on exposed low grassland s lopes . With r i s i n g e leva t ion the p r e c i p i t a t i o n genera l l y increases , and evaporat ion and mean temperatures decrease. Exposure grea t l y a f f e c t s the ove ra l l c l i m a t i c regime. Th is is r e f l e c t ed in the va r i ab l e vegetat ive cover and p roduc t i v i t y . C l imat i c change, va r i ab l e between years , caused cons iderable f l u c t u a t i o n in forage product ion between years . Vegetat ive zonation is c l e a r l y recognizable in the area . The zones and thus habitat types are a 11 i t ud ina l l y de l im i t ed . F i r e , logging and ungulate grazing have caused much d is turbance . Reseeding was not very s u c c e s s f u l , e s p e c i a l l y on s tab le p lant communities on Juniper and South Slope. F e r t i l i z a t i o n had cons iderab le e f f e c t on forage product ion on a l l s i t e s . Standing crop increases , as measured by a s ing le annual c l i p p i n g during late Ju ly , were sustained for at least three years on the Poa sp, and Agropyron spiaatum s i t e s . Excluding ungulates from the f i v e fenced s i t e s resu l ted in changes in species composi t ion, plant v igor and increased forage product ion . Some progress ive trends towards cl imax were recognized on at least two s i t e s i i i in 1969. Cl imat i c f a c t o r s , p r imar i l y temperature and moisture supply , 'g raz ing h i s to ry and s o i l s , a l l contr ibuted to loca l and annual v a r i a b i l i t y in forage y i e l d s . Pe r iod ic p ro tec t ion of important grasslands from use and f e r t i l i z a t i o n of some slopes show promis as management t o o l s . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT i TABLE OF CONTENTS . iv LIST OF TABLES v i i LIST OF FIGURES . ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . x i I . INTRODUCTION . . . . 1 1 . 1 Background • • 1 1.2 Locat ion of Study Area 2 I I . HABITAT INVENTORY 5 2.1 Physiography, Geology and So i l s 5 2.1.1 Physiography 5 2 .1 .2 Geology 7 2 .1 . 3 Slope 9 2 .1 . 4 Soi Is . . . . . . . . 10 (a) Methods . . . . . . . . 17 (b) S p e c i f i c so i l types and the i r desc r ip t i ons . 18 2 .1 . 5 E f f e c t s of the Physical Environment upon the Range Complex 25 2.2 CI imate 29 2.2.1 Methods and Mater ia l s 35 (a) P r e c i p i t a t i o n 36 (b) Evaporation 37 (c) Temperature .- . 37 2 . 2 . 2 Results 39 V CHAPTER PAGE (a) P r e c i p i t a t i o n . . . . 39 (b) Evaporation 42 (c) Temperature . 47 2 . 2 . 3 D iscuss ion 50 (a) P r e c i p i t a t i o n 50 (b) Evaporation 52 (c) Temperature 53 2 . 2 . 4 Interact ion of Climate with other Habitat Var i ab les 54 2.3 F lora 61 2.3.1 Methods • • 62 2 . 3 . 2 Habitat Types 65 (a) Pinus ponderosa Zone . 67 (b) Pseudotsuga menziesii Zone . . 68 (c) Abies lasiocarpa Zone . 7h (d) A lp ine Zone 77 2 . 3 . 3 Map Cover Types 80 2 . 3 . 4 Ungulate Use and Range Condi t ion 83 2 .3-5 Results 86 (a) P roduc t i v i t y of representat ive habi tat types 86 (b) Trend studies 89 (c) Point Quadrat t ransects 93 2 . 3 . 6 D iscuss ion 93 CHAPTER PAGE 2.k Fauna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 0 2.4.1 W i l d l i f e Present . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 2.4.2 Ungulate Numbers and Range Use 103 2.5 Human A c t i v i t i e s . . 107 2.5.1 Logging 107 2.5.2 Recreat ional Use 108 2.5.3 Ranching 109 2.5.4 Miscel laneous . HO 2.5.5 E f f e c t s of Human A c t i v i t i e s Upon the Grazing Synd rome I l l III. HABITAT AMELIORATION 113 3.1 Potent ia l Opportuni t ies . . 116 3.2 Methods for Intensive T r i a l s . . 121 3.2.1 Exclosures 121 3.2.2 A r t i f i c i a l Rehab i l i t a t i on ]2k 3.3 Results 126 3.3-1 I966 Exclosures . . . . 128 3.3.2 F e r t i l i z a t i o n . . . . . . 132 3.3.3 Seeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 3.4 D iscuss ion Hi IV. SUMMARY . . V. LITERATURE CITED . 152 VI . APPENDICES 161 LIST OF TABLES Table No. Page 1. Summer d i s t r i but ion of ra i nfa11 , mean a i r temperature and average d a i l y evaporat ion for four representat ive s i t e s (1967) w i th in the study area 30 2. P r e c i p i t a t i o n e f f ec t i veness (P/E) r a t ios for three s ta t ions in the v i c i n i t y of the study area 43 3. Monthly and annual, to ta l p r e c i p i t a t i o n for 1966, 1967; snowfall 1965/66 and 1966/67, and long term averages 44 4. Mean a i r temperature for recording in te rva l s and so i l temperatures at date of reading in degrees Fahrenheit for two transects (summer of 1967) 46 5. Monthly and annual mean temperatures and some long term averages for several s ta t ions in southern B r i t i s h Columbia 49 6. Average 1967 forage y i e l d s for se lected s i t e s in the Ashnola Basin 57 7- Habitat types, the i r v e r t i c a l and hor izonta l d i s t r i b u t i o n and slope c lasses for the Ashnola resource management area 8] 8. 1967 and 1969 loop-frequency data from Crater trend t ransect 90 9. 1967 and I969 loop-frequency data from Meausette Creek range trend t ransect 91 10. 1967 and 1969 loop-frequency data from Starvat ion range trend transect 92 11. Mean percent ground cover , frequency and cover x frequency indices for 1 .Crater exc losure 94 12. Mean percent ground cover , frequency and cover x frequency indices for 2 .Crater exc losure s i t e 95 13- Mean percent ground cover , frequency and cover x frequency indices for South Slope exc losure si te for 1967 96 V Table No. Page 14. Mean percent ground cover , frequency and cover x frequency indices for Juniper exc losure 97 15. Ground cover changes fo l lowing seven years of p ro tec t ion from grazing 127 16. S i te y i e l d comparisons for the year 1966-67 129 17. Ava i l ab l e forage ( lb ./acre) on the four major s i t e s a f t e r one growing season (1967) fo l lowing f e r t i l i z e r treatment and two kinds of ungulate exc losures 130 18. Some miscel laneous y i e l d comparisons (in lb ./acre ) for p lo t s wi th in the study area c l ipped in 1967 134 LIST OF FIGURES Figure No. Page 1. Locat ion of the study area wi th in the province of B r i t i s h Co 1umb i a 3 2. An Or th ic Dark Gray (Chernozem) s o i l p r o f i l e near 2.Crater exc losure 21 3. A Rego Dark Gray (Chernozemic) so i l on South Slope 21 4. An Or th ic Black so i l on a south-facing grassland slope 23 5. A Black Chernozemic s o i l on Crater Mountain 23 6. A roadcut so i l p r o f i l e in the subalpine zone showing the appearance of vo l can i c ash c lose to the surface . 24 7. An a lp ine ta lus slope above a be l t of a lp ine grassland 2k 8. Evaporation for the two v e r t i c a l Ashnola t ransects (June 7 - October 3 , 1967) 31 9. P r e c i p i t a t i o n for the two v e r t i c a l Ashnola t ransects (June 7 - October 3 , 1967) 31 10. Evaporimeter assembly using copper conta iner as rese rvo i r 38 11. D i s t r i b u t i o n of annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n at var ious locat ions k0 12. P r e c i p i t a t i o n e f f ec t i veness (P/E) r a t i os at four s ta t ions in the study area k] 13. Monthly p r e c i p i t a t i o n e f f ec t i veness r a t i os for three s ta t ions 41 14. Trends in forage y i e lds with changing e leva t ion on some open grasslands in the study area 56 15. Snow depth along the Paul Creek transect (1966-67) and some other nearby s ta t ions 59 16. Vegetat ive appearance of Starvat ion Slope in the spr ing of 1967 114 Spring carryover on the lower Juniper Slope r idge Juniper exclosures a f t e r one winter and two summers pro tec t ion South Slope a f t e r f a l l c a t t l e grazing in October, 1967 A t yp i ca l experimental p lo t layout - the Agropyron spicatum s i t e on South Slope A f e r t i l i z e d p l o t , on l e f t , in a Poa sp. community on Juniper S lope, as compared to an u n f e r t i l i z e d one Response of Poa sp. stand to ni trogen f e r t i l i z e r wi th in the Juniper exclosure ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS It is a great pleasure to acknowledge the ass i s tance and . advice received while conducting th is i n ves t i ga t i on . To a l l i nd i v idua l s and i n s t i t u t i o n s who contr ibuted I wish to express my s incere app rec i a t i on . The f i e l d work of the project was f i n a n c i a l l y supported by the B.C. F ish and W i l d l i f e Branch and the Departments of Plant Science and Zoology, Un i ve r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Laboratory f a c i 1 i t i e s and o f f i c e space were provided by the Department of Plant Sc ience, Un i ve r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. In the l a te r phases of th is study, while the author was employed by the A lber ta government, the A lber ta F ish and W i l d l i f e D i v i s i on provided some f a c i l i t i e s and technica l a ss i s t ance . I am deeply indebted to Dr. V. C. Br ink, P ro fessor , Department of Plant Sc ience, Dr. P. J . Bandy, Head of Research D i v i s i o n , B.C. F i sh and W i l d l i f e Branch, and Dr. Ian McTaggart Cowan, Dean of Graduate Studies for suggesting and d i r e c t i n g th is study. Messrs. T. M. Lord and A. J . Green and Drs. A. McLean, A. L. Van Ryswyk and J . C. Wi lcox, a l l Research O f f i c e r s , Canada Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , made va luable cont r ibu t ions to the sect ions on s o i l s , vegetat ion and c l imate . Mr. D. Spa ld ing, a Regional W i l d l i f e B i o l o g i s t , and other members of the F ish and W i l d l i f e Branch made va luable suggestions at some time dur ing the course of th i s i n ves t i ga t i on . Mark Quaedvlieg g rea t l y and con t inu -ously a ss i s t ed with the f i e l d work during the two years of 1966 and 1967-Technical and s e c r e t a r i a l ass is tance with the preparat ion of the maps, f igures and manuscript was provided by the A lber ta Department of Lands and Fores ts . The h o s p i t a l i t y and ass is tance rendered by the Quaedvlieg f am i l i e s of the Barr ington Ranch, Keremeos, throughout the study are g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged. My w i f e , Jane, not only ass i s t ed with ed i t i ng and advice but a l so endured without compla int , whi le the project was in i t s var ious stages of complet ion. To these people, and many others who contr ibuted in one way or another to th is study, I am deeply indebted. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background This study was conducted with a twofold purpose in mind. A h o l i s t i c approach to range management, s t a r t i ng with a q u a l i t a t i v e and quan t i t a t i ve appra isa l of the resources, was badly needed for th is area. An i n t e n s i f i e d inventory of the major habitat va r i ab les with in the ecosystem, physiography, s o i l s , c l imate , vege ta t ion , fauna and human a c t i v i t i e s comprised the f i r s t part of th i s i n ves t i ga t i on . The ob jec t i ve was to study the r e l a t i v e importance and in te rac t ions of these habitat f a c t o r s . In conjunct ion with th i s basic eva lua t ion , a f i r s t attempt at range improvement by a r t i f i c i a l means was made. It was deemed essen t i a l to i n i t i a t e experimental steps to amel iorate e x i s t i n g range condi t ions on c r i t i c a l winter ing s lopes . Since no simple so lu t ion to the problem of range overuse and resource dep le t ion e x i s t s , the concurrent experiments on r e h a b i l i t a t i o n were considered necessary and t imely . Several e a r l i e r s tud ies , notably those by Blood (1961) and Demarchi (1965) have shown that the p roduc t i v i t y of c e r t a i n Ashnola Basin grass lands , of card ina l importance to bighorn sheep, Rocky Mountain mule deer and domestic s tock, had dec l ined as a r esu l t of excessive use and improper management. Retrogression appeared to be most ser ious on ranges support ing the C a l i f o r n i a bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis califovniana Douglas)^ and the mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus Rafinesque) in winter . Nomenclature of-mammals a f t e r Cowan and Guiget (1965) 2 C a l i f o r n i a bighorn sheep, once roaming over large areas both south and north of the 49th p a r a l l e l , occupy a very r e s t r i c t e d range, today. The Ashnola Basin harbours a remnant populat ion of between 350 to 400 animals. Ca t t l e - bighorn - and deer grazing in te rac t ions are not new in th i s reg ion ; over many decades un t i l well a f t e r World War II domestic sheep and horses were a lso u t i l i z i n g most of these grass lands . Concern for the surv iva l of the bighorns prompted a ser ies of concentrated s tudies to be conducted in the a rea ; th i s is the th i rd one. Data prev ious ly co l l e c t ed was of a h igh ly l o c a l i z e d and s p e c i f i c nature. No attempt at ex t rapo la t ion was made by e a r l i e r researchers . The present study incorporated e x i s t i n g information in order to complete the inventory of the range ecosystem in the area . It is hoped that th i s study contr ibutes to a better under-standing of the e x i s t i n g grazing regime and to future land-use planning in the area. An integrated approach for the a l l o c a t i o n of a va i l ab l e resources should be pos s i b l e . 1.2 Locat ion of Study Area The study area , in the extreme south of centra l B r i t i s h Columbia (F ig . I), is part of an extensive and h ighly va r i ab l e drainage bas in . The 49th p a r a l l e l of l a t i t ude was taken as the southern boundary and the Simi1kameen River as the northern boundary. The Paul Creek ranges to the west were p a r t i a l l y inc luded. The mountains proximal to the Cathedral Lakes, west to Lakeview Creek, were l ikewise inc luded, being summer ranges for sheep, deer and c a t t l e . The eastern boundary 3 Figure 1. Locat ion of the Study Area wi th in the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia approximately fo l lows the height of land from the Similkameen River south over Snowy Mountain to the United States border. It crosses the headwaters of Bar r ington, Hunter, Susap, Coulthard and Snehumption Creeks. An ou t l i n e of the study area is shown on a large sca le base map in the back envelope. The in tens ive part of the pro ject was conducted on the lower watershed of the Ashnola R iver , 4 to 15 miles from i t s conf luence with the Similkameen River . In winter , bighorn and deer are r e s t r i c t e d p r imar i l y to th i s part of the tota l bas in . In summer, the sheep and deer are h igh ly d i spersed . Records are a va i l ab l e of s ight ings 10 mi les south of the Canadian border (Spald ing, personal communications). Ca t t l e permits extend somewhat outs ide the s p e c i f i c boundaries. Human a c t i v i t i e s and c l i m a t i c cond i t i ons , however, severe ly r e s t r i c t bighorn d i spe r sa l s except for short per iods of time. In winter the sheep are concentrated on.the major study slopes such as South, Juniper and Starvat ion Slopes and on Crater Mountain. 5. II. HABITAT INVENTORY 2.1 Physiography, Geology and So i l s 2.1.1 Phys i ography The Ashnola study area (base map in Appendix No. 9) f a l l s into the zone of topographic t r ans i t i on between the Thompson Plateau to the north and the Okanagan Range to the south, the l a t t e r being in both B r i t i s h Columbia and Washington (Rice, I960), as one of three d i v i s i o n s of the Cascade Mountains. The Thompson Plateau is a part of the larger Inter ior Plateau system (Brink and Fars tad , 1949). The boundary between these two ad jo in ing physiographic regions is a r b i t r a r y . The plateau r i ses gradua l l y southward with p rogress i ve l y higher summits and increas ing d i s sec t i on of i t s sur face . "Nowhere is the change from plateau to mountains abrupt , but ra ther , there is a blending of f ea tu res " (Green, unpublished manuscript , 1968). The plane to surface r a t i o of upland to va l l e y is about three to one in th i s p a r t i c u l a r reg ion . The uplands represent large r o l l i n g p la ins vary ing in e l eva t ion from 4,000 to 6,000 f ee t . They are transected by deep va l l e y trenches with usua l l y steep-sided shoulders . The tota l r e l i e f drops from 8,500 feet for some of the mountains near the Washington border to about 1,400 feet in the Similkameen Va l l e y . The l a t t e r v a l l e y provides the main drainage channel for the en t i r e reg ion. Holland (1964) in fe rs that the mountains of the region o r ig ina ted from the d i s s e c t i o n of a late T e r t i a r y eros ion sur face . C ra te r , Haystack, Lakeview, and Snowy Mountains represent "monadnocks" on an elevated T e r t i a r y eros ion surface of low r e l i e f . The serrated peaks and r idges 6 show the e f f e c t s of intense a lp ine g l a c i a t i o n . Cirque basins are p a r t i c u l a r l y not i ceab le on north and northeast fac ing upper e l eva t ion s lopes . Frost weathered areas of l a te r o r i g i n are evident near Joe Lake and Crater peak. These are not re la ted to ear l y g l a c i a t i o n . During the P le is tocene the Co rd i l l e r an ice sheet covered th is area to at least the 8,000 foot l e v e l ; rounded r idge backs and dome-shaped mountain tops between 6,000 and 7,000 feet r e su l t ed . The major v a l l e y s , many of them hanging v a l l e y s , were for an extended per iod f i l l e d with i c e ; evidence is provided today in truncated spurs , mountain tarns and scoured rock sur faces . No g l a c i e r s or g l a c i e r e t s are found in the area today, although they occur commonly in mountainous t e r ra in of lower e l eva t ion to the west and to the east . Recent physiographic h i s to ry of the area w i th in the Pr inceton map sheet, which includes a large por t ion of the study a rea , according to Rice (I960) can be explained in f i v e s teps : 1. " E ros ion in p re-g lac i a l time of the land surface to i that of a mature, gent ly undulat ing p l a i n ; 2. E leva t ion of the region and rejuvenat ion of the dra inage; 3. Ac t i ve eros ion by rejuvenated streams, r e su l t i ng i n . the deepening of the main va l l e ys but ceasing before a l l the plateau surface was a f f e c t e d ; h. Ice-age, consequent d i s l o c a t i o n of the dra inage, ovet— deepening of some of the va l l e ys and incomplete f i l l i n g of o the rs ; 5. Re-establishment of the drainage with ac t i ve eros ion 7 of the bottoms of c e r t a i n v a l l e y s , and the development, in p l aces , of pos t-g lac ia l canyons. " In the Ashnola region some of the -lower si opes and f l o o r s of the main va l l e ys d i sp l ay terrace formations that represent o ld r i v e r f lood p l a ins and a l l u v i a l fans , but, ne i ther of these are extensive (Blood, 1961). In genera l , the topography above and below the 4,500 foot level is very d i f f e r e n t . Above, the h i l l s are r o l l i n g with gent le slopes and broad va11eys. Below, the slopes are steep, many c l i f f - l i k e , and the va l l e y s are deeply i n c i s ed . 2.1.2 Geology Green (unpubl ished, 1967), in a note on the g l a c i a l geology of the Pr inceton map sheet, states that there were two d i s t i n c t stages of g l a c i a t i o n during the P le i s tocene . The f i r s t one covered a l l the peaks of the area . The second per iod l a id ice over the area to the 6,800 foot contour. Genera l ly speaking the g l a c i a l t i l l takes the con f igu ra t i on of the under ly ing bedrock, in which r o l l i n g to steep slopes commonly p r e v a i l , but in some places i t may be molded into a se r i es of elongated r idges and troughs p a r a l l e l i n g the l as t ac t i ve ice movement. In the v i c i n i t y of Crater Mountain and the West Fork of the Ashnola River good examples of the fo l lowing phenomena re la ted to the g l a c i a l geology of the area e x i s t : s t r i a e , meltwater channels , strand l ines of g l a c i a l i c e , deep d r i f t s , land s l i d e s and rock g l a c i e r s (Green, I967, unpubl ished) . The geology of the area is rather complex as a resu l t of the many fac to rs and events that played a part in the formation of the 8 Thompson P la teau, the t r a n s i t i o n zone and the Okanagan Range sur face . Pa leozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary and vo lcan ic rocks, s t rongly fo lded and metamorphosed, are intruded by g r a n i t i c ba tho l i t h s . These g r a n i t i c rocks arose during the great p lu ton i c in t rus ion which commenced in Ju rass i c t imes. F la t l y ing or gent ly d ipping ea r l y T e r t i a r y lavas obscure large areas of o lder rocks and are r e f l e c ted by s tep- l i ke slopes and large unbroken plateau areas. Extensive areas o f t i l l , outwash and l acus t r ine depos i ts occur as an almost continuous mantle over the va l l e ys and on the lower and middle e l eva t ion ranges. The present su r face , the re fo re , conforms only p a r t i a l l y with the under ly ing rocks. As far as the Ashnola drainage system proper is concerned, arable s o i l s are p r a c t i c a l l y nonexistent . Post g l a c i a l aeo l i an a c t i v i t y and antecedent stream cu t t i ng have r ed i s t r i bu ted so i l mater ia ls at the higher e l e va t i ons . In a d d i t i o n , vo l can i c ash has l a id a mantle over some of the higher s lopes (Van Ryswyk, 1969). There has been eros ion and redepos i t ion of a l l these mate r i a l s . This accounts, at least in pa r t , for the great v a r i a b i l i t y in the so i l parent mate r i a l s . Present major streams have cut through most of the g l a c i a l depos i ts to seek a drainage f l o o r on bedrock. Steep, sheer-rock and ta lus slopes preva i l along the i r s ides r i s i n g up to 2,000 feet from the v a l l e y f l o o r . T r ibu ta ry streams have channels inc ised into g l a c i a l d r i f t depos i t s . Cutt ing through these deep depos i ts exposed s t r a t i f i e d mater ia ls of t i l l , outwash and l acus t r ine mater ia l s in v e r t i c a l sequence. Continued eros ion of the en t i r e landscape has made poss ib le t ranspor ta t ion and depos i t ion of a wide range of rock mater ia l s in var ious p a r t i c l e s ize aggregates to compose the a l l u v i a l s o i l s of the recent f lood 9 p l a i n s . 2.1.3 Slope Slope plays a key ro le in vegetat ional and ungulate d i s t r i b u -t i ons . Where the slope exceeds about 50 per cent , the s o i l s are not well developed or s tab le enough to support much more than a sparse fo res t with l i t t l e understory . Ca t t l e use decreases d ramat i ca l l y on slopes greater than 15 per cent . Cook (1966) found at least 21 f ac tors that inf luenced c a t t l e u t i l i z a t i o n and a l l o f which were i n t e r a c t i ng . Together , however, they accounted for less than 55 per cent of the v a r i a b i l i t y in use; degree of slope was a foremost fac tor but i t alone could not be used as a r e l i a b l e index for p red i c t i ng use. Cook (op. c i t . ) a l so stated that no simple-measure of slope adequately evaluated the inf luence of gradient upon u t i l i z a t i o n of rough topography. Sheep and deer are not inf luenced to the same extent by the degree of s lope . In fac t Demarchi (1965) found that deer use increases on grasslands with increas ing degree of steepness. The lower slopes out of the main v a l l e y s , the Similkameen and Ashnola, are extremely steep and are interrupted by benches only o c ca s i ona l l y . If aspect , so i l and exposure are s u i t a b l e , benches are grass-covered and serve as winter ranges for wi ld ungulates. The steeper and nor ther l y fac ing port ions of these v a l l e y slopes are almost always timbered and less va luable and access ib l e to ungulates, e s p e c i a l l y during the snow months. A c l o s e , inverse r e l a t i onsh ip ex i s t s between success ion , range cond i t ion and the degree of s lope . Segments of some slopes that are in 10 poorest c o n d i t i o n , besides being read i l y a c c e s s i b l e , are a lso r e l a t i v e l y level to only moderately r o l l i n g . The port ions of South S lope, Jun iper , S ta rva t ion , F l a t i r o n , and those grasslands along the lower Ashnola River and on Crater Mountain, which have a slope gradient of less than 15 per cent , support serai vegetat ion and are se r i ous l y depleted and eroded. The steeper the s lope , the less the chance that i t is over-u t i l i z e d and depleted. However, th i s does not apply to any of the subalpine and a lp ine ranges. These, together with some of the less access ib l e and/or steeper grass lands , are r e l a t i v e l y unmodified by domestic stock. 2.].k Soi Is Unfor tunate ly , the so i l survey for the Ashnola River Basin is s t i l l incomplete. Various studies have summarized data from d i f f e r e n t parts of the general region but the area east of 120° longitude south and west of the main Similkameen Va l l ey is s t i l l unmapped, and only sketchy, pre l iminary s o i l s data are a v a i l a b l e . The B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Ag r i cu l t u re is present ly surveying and mapping the remaining port ions of the Keremeos map sheet, 82E/4W in the National Topographic Map Ser ies (G. Runka, personal communications). E a r l i e r reports by Sprout and Ke l ley (1961), and Green et a l . (1963) descr ibe the s o i l s and lands of the lower e leva t ions of the Similkameen Va l l e y . Van Ryswyk (1969) reports on a de t a i l ed inves t iga t ion of a lp ine and subalpine s o i l s of the Lakeview Mountain area. These mountain s o i l s are probably qu i te representat ive of the area surrounding . i t . Green and Lord (in p r in t ) surveyed the Pr inceton map sheet area. This included the port ion of th i s study area west of 120 long i tude . Demarchi (1956), Harper (19^9) and. McLean (1969) did some s o i l s work at least for the s i t e s they were immediately concerned wi th , both with in the study area and in the general geographic reg ion . It was hoped that by the end of th is p a r t i c u l a r i nves t iga t ion a uniform s o i l s map for the area under cons idera t ion could have been produced. T h i s , however, must now await the completion of two of the above mentioned survey repor ts . At least seven d i f f e r e n t parent mater ia ls were i d e n t i f i e d in the area. These may be recognized as g l a c i a l t i l l , g l a c i a l outwash, a l l uv ium, col 1uvium-a11uviurn, b a s a l t i c rock, organic deposi ts and vo l can i c ash (Green and Lord, in p r i n t , and Van Ryswyk, 1969). These mater ia ls are widely and i r r e g u l a r l y arranged. Topography and r e l i e f , g l a c i a l move-ments, and pos t-g lac i a l water and aeo l i an movements a l l cont r ibuted to the i r present day d i s t r i b u t i o n . Vo lcan ic a c t i v i t y south of the 49th p a r a l l e l (S tar r , 1967) resul ted in the depos i t ion of an often interrupted mantle of ash over large areas at least at higher e l e va t i ons . Erosion and pos t-g lac i a l redepos i t ion of a l l the mater ia ls a l so added to the complex p i c t u r e . Only very few high peaks escaped the last P le i s tocene g l a c i a t i o n . These show much f r o s t weathering, but l i t t l e actual s o i l can usua l l y be found above 7,000 feet a l t i t u d e . The s o i l s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and desc r i p t i ons fo l low that of the National So i l Survey Committee of Canada (1968) as re la ted by T. M. Lord and A. J . Green, Research O f f i c e r s , Research S t a t i on , Canada Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. 12 Green (personal communications) has d iv ided the s o i l s of the western ha l f of the study area into f i v e major groups depending upon the parent mater ia ls from which they were der i ved . Evidence of other s o i l types is not a va i l ab l e at th is t ime. Once the eastern ha l f of the area has been mapped, poss ib l y more so i l groups and/or s o i l types may become known. At present only tentat ive ex t rapo la t ion can be suggested from the l i t t l e s o i l s work that was done east of the Ashnola River by others (Sprout and Ke l l ey , 1961; Demarchi, 1965; Harper, 1969; Lord, personal communications; and McLean, 1969). Group A (of the f i v e groups re fer red to above) includes a l l the s o i l s developed on morainal g rave l s . It is separated into two sub-groups, depending upon whether the s o i l s developed on g l a c i a l t i l l or undivided g l a c i a l t i l l and co l luv ium. The B group contains a l l the s o i l s developed on g l a c i a l outwash depos i t s . C group s o i l s have developed on a l l u v i a l depos i t s . D group s o i l s are of organic o r i g i n while the E s o i l s developed on miscel laneous depos i t s . A l l the var ious s o i l s and the i r groupings are descr ibed in Appendix k. -Both McLean (I969) and Green (personal communications) re la ted the var ious s o i l se r i es and s o i l types to e x i s t i n g habi ta t types and plant a s soc i a t i ons . The former fol lowed the o lder (1965) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system whereas the l a t t e r used the most recent ly adopted (1968) nomen-c l a tu re for these s o i l s . A b r i e f l i s t i n g of the l o c a l l y e x i s t i n g habi ta t types and the i r corresponding s o i l s fo l lows . This compi lat ion was adapted from the works of the above mentioned i nves t i ga to r s . The Artemisia tvidentata zone, the e l e v a t i o n a l l y lowest and least abundant zone in the study a rea , is developed p r imar i l y on Brown s o i l s . i 13 The only representat ive habitat type that was d e f i n i t e l y i d e n t i f i e d by th i s inves t iga tor occurs on shal low, g r a v e l l y , and sandy Rego Brown s o i l s . It is the Artemisia tridentata - Stipa comata a s s o c i a t i o n . In the Pinus ponderosa zone, represented by fragmented port ions of the Pinus ponderosa - Agropyron spicatum habi tat type, Dark Brown s o i l s predominate. These are mostly sandy to g rave l l y loams. These Brown to Dark Brown s o i l s , according to Sprout and Kel ley (1961), developed under a r i d to semi-arid c l i m a t i c cond i t ions assoc iated with natural grasslands or savannah. They are found mainly along the lower v a l l e y slopes from Hedley to the Internat ional Border. The Pseudotsuga menziesii zone represents an extensive se r i es with in the study area . It includes the major grassland winter ing slopes for b ighorns. A v a r i e t y of s o i l s and habitat types can be found wi th in th is zone. The Pseudotsuga menziesii - Agropyron spicatum habi tat type usua l l y occurs on eroded Regosol ic s o i l s (McLean, 19&9) on steep s lopes . The s o i l s are mostly well d ra ined , rap id l y permeable and are usua l l y sandy loam to loam in texture . Lord (personal communications) and Sprout and Kel ley (1961) c l a s s i f i e d the s o i l s wi th in th i s habitat type as Rego Dark Brown. Lord and Green (in p r in t ) placed them into the i r Steepland (see legend) type and wi th in th i s mapping complex they included both Regosol ic and Chernozemic s o i l s on va r i ab l e depos i t s . The next highest plant a s s o c i a t i o n , the Pseudotsuga menziesii -Calamagrostis rubescens habi tat type, is qu i te extensive in the study area. In terms of s o i l s McLean (1969) found both Gray Wooded and Degraded Eu t r i c Bruniso ls (Cutanic Podzo Regosols) in th i s habi tat type. 14 '. Green and Lord (op. c i t . ) found these Bruniso ls as well as Or th ic Dark Gray and Or th ic Black s o i l s to be assoc ia ted with th is plant community. These s o i l s are c h i e f l y loams to sandy loams, well drained and permeable. G ran i t i c bedrock in t rus ions were found throughout th i s habitat type. The Festuca iddhoensis - Eriogonum heracleoides community represents another important habitat type for bighorn sheep and mule deer. This a ssoc i a t i on occurs on parts of both South and Juniper S lopes. The s o i l s are usua l l y Black Chernozems or more p r e c i s e l y Or th ic Black, Rego Black, Or th ic Dark Gray to Rego Dark Gray (Demarchi, 1965). They are sandy loams to loams, f a i r l y product ive and have developed on g l a c i a l t i l l as well as col 1uvia 1-a 11uvia 1 mate r i a l s . The Abies lasiocarpa zone represents the highest timber be l t in the area. Subalpine and a lp ine meadows border on i t s upper edge and the Pseudotsuga zone meets i t below. Demarchi (op. c i t . ) found a s i t e with Rego Dark Gray s o i l s at th i s a l t i t u d e and wi th in th i s zone. McLean (op. c i t . ) recognized several habi tat types wi th in th i s Abies lasiocarpa zone. Green and Lord (personal communications) recognized Or th i c A lp ine Dys t r i c B run i so l s , Mini Humo-Ferric Podzols , Degraded Dys t r i c B run i so l s , Or th ic and Rego Black s o i l s and those of McLean (I969), correspond well to these. For a d i s t r i b u t i o n of these s o i l s the reader is re fer red to the map in Appendix No. 9. No attempt was made in th i s study to i den t i f y and c l e a r l y separate the var ious habi tat types wi th in th i s zone. One a s s o c i -a t ion that was d e f i n i t e l y recognized, and the s o i l s i d e n t i f i e d , is the Artemisia t r i d e n t a t a var . vaseyana - Calamagrostis rubescens type. The s o i l s are d e f i n i t e l y of a Chernozemic nature and were Orth ic Black to Rego Black (Lord, personal communications). 15 The a lp ine zone is well represented in th i s area . Green (in p r in t ) recognized one dominant so i l type, Or th ic A lp ine Dys t r i c B run i so l . Several other so i l types were found to be assoc iated with i t . These are Orth ic Regosols, Cumulic Regosols, Rego Humic G l e y so l s , Or th ic Humo-Ferric Podzols and Gleyed A lp ine Dys t r i c B run i so l s . Van Ryswyk (1969) studied the s o i l s of the Lakeview Mountain complex in d e t a i l . The reader is re fe r red to that study for a more ref ined des c r i p t i on and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of t yp i ca l a lp ine s o i l s in the area. In genera l , Van Ryswyk (op. c i t . ) found three main so i l groups in the a lp ine zone. The Podzol s o i l s were assoc ia ted with stands of Carex spp. - Arotostaphylos uva ursi, Carex sp. - Lupinus sp. - Phyllodoee empetriformis, and Salix sp. - Carex sp. communities. These s i t e s were of ten found to be excess i ve l y moist and poor ly dra ined . The Discontinuous Ash A lp ine Brown s o i l s of Van Ryswyk 1s were usua l l y found on poor ly vegetated a lp ine tundra s i t e s . A mixture of f o rb s , sedges, grasses and rushes could be found on these s o i l s , wherever vegetat ion was e s t ab l i shed . Assoc iated with these a lp ine s o i l s , both Van Ryswyk and Green (personal communications) i d e n t i f i e d a land type that is composed p r imar i l y of rock outcrops , ta lus s lopes , scree depos i t s , rock headwalls and sheer rocky peaks. Th is type a lso occurs a 11 i tudinal1y above and below the a lp ine zone. Green (in p r in t ) separated out another land type, a l ready re fer red to above, the Steepland. This type was found at almost a l l e leva t ions in the area . It is usua l l y composed of complex Regosol ic and Chernozemic or 'Regosolic and B run i so l i c s o i l s on va r i ab l e depos i t s . These map un i ts were found on very steep to extremely steep va l l e y and mountain slopes and eroding escarpments. 16 A g r i c u l t u r a l l y speaking, none of the s o i l s in the area of the extant winter ranges, except those of the Similkameen Va l l ey " l ow lands " , are very product ive . In terms of the Canada Land Inventory, (Lord and Runka, personal communications) they are a l l rated poor to very poor for intens ive a g r i c u l t u r e . The rock iness , steep topography and the absence of adequate moisture and s o i l s cont r ibute to the a rea ' s l imi ted product ive p o t e n t i a l . Nonetheless, as far as domestic and wi ld ungulates are concerned, the product ion of forage on the nat ive grasslands is qu i te s u b s t a n t i a l . Most of the access ib l e g rass -lands in the area rece ive some use, at least during the summer months. Some of the c r i t i c a l ranges were grazed the year round during the study pe r iod . There appeared to be a substant ia l d i f f e r ence in forage product ion for the var ious e x i s t i n g plant communities. The bas ic forage p roduc t i v i t y of each s i t e appeared to be cor re l a ted with the dominant so i l type. McLean (1969) found the Festuca - Eriogonum plant a ssoc i a t i on to be the highest y i e l d i n g . The average standing crop of forage for f i v e years of sampling was 1,63^ l b . per ac re . The under ly ing s o i l s were usua l l y Chernozemic. Low y i e l d i ng plant assoc i a t ions were the dry Artemisia - Stipa and the forested Pseudotsuga - Agropyron, and Pseudotsuga - Calamagrostis habitat types with average y i e lds per acre of 385, 417 and 539 l b . r e spec t i ve l y . The Artemisia - Stipa community was found on g rave l l y and sandy Rego Brown s o i l s . The two Pseudotsuga habi tat types occurred on a v a r i e t y of s o i l s . These range from eroded Regosols to Gray Wooded and Cutanic Podso Regosols ( fo l lowing McLean's, 1969 nomenclature). I 17 None of these are as well developed and product ive s o i l s as the Black Chernozems. In genera l , wi th in the study area only the Similkameen Va l l ey lowland s o i l s are su i t ab l e for intens ive ag r i cu l t u r e (Sprout and Ke l l ey , I960- The rest of the area is comprised of complex so i l un i t s that vary a l l the way from rock wal ls and ta lus slopes to f a i r l y product ive grassland s o i l s , the Black Chernozems. Topography, s o i l s and c l imate a l l impose severe l im i t a t i ons on plant p roduc t i v i t y . Extensive grazing and l imi ted timber harvests are the only f e a s ib l e recommended e x p l o i t a t i v e uses of the vegetat ion of the area. The product ion of wi ld ungulates complements th i s use regime. 2.1.4 (a) Methods In general the s o i l types de l ineated and descr ibed for the study area were derived from previous reports (Sprout and Ke l l ey , 1961; McLean, 1969; Green and Lord, in p r i n t ; Van Ryswyk, I969). At each s p e c i f i c s i t e s o i l p i t s were excavated. The s o i l s were c l a s s i f i e d and the p r o f i l e s descr ibed as per the National So i l Survey Committee of Canada (1968). T. M. Lord and A. J . Green, both s o i l s pedo log i s t s , ass i s ted with t h i s . The s o i l s were de l ineated on a base map where p o s s i b l e , using two previous s o i l surveys (Sprout and Ke l l ey , 1961, and Green and Lord , in p r i n t ) , and adapting the i r un i ts to the d i f f e r e n t map sca le . The ex t rapo la t ion to the area east of 120° longitude was accomplished with the ass is tance of T. M. Lord and the use of a i r photos and a sketchmaster. Th is unsurveyed por t ion is mapped only t en t a t i v e l y . The land types were de l imi ted using topographic features and plant communities as gu ide l ines for boundaries (Lord and McLean, 1969). Only 18 broad map un i ts are o u t l i n e d . To ind icate the tenta t i ve nature of th i s work the un i t boundaries for the land types are presented as dashed " l i nes on ly . Accurate s o i l s mapping for th i s unsurveyed area w i l l have . to await the completion of the actual so i l survey (Runka, personal communications). 2.1.4 (b) Spec i f i c So i l Types and the i r Descr ip t ions Deta i led habi tat and vegetat ional inves t iga t ions were conducted at f i ve s p e c i f i c l o ca t i ons . Three of these were on the Crater Mountain and two on the F l a t i r o n s i t e . A l l were s i tuated on open, low to mid-grassland slopes s ince these are the key to ungulate s u r v i v a l . The s o i l s for these f i v e s i t e s are descr ibed here. Other s p e c i f i c s o i l s wi th in the study area were prev ious l y e laborated upon (Demarchi, 1965; Green and Lord, in p r i n t ; Harper, 1969; McLean, 1969; and Sprout and Ke l l ey , 1961). Exclosure S i te Number 1 This s i t e is located at an e leva t ion of 4,900 feet on a south, southeast fac ing steep grassland s lope . The serai plant community is dominated by Poa sp. and Stipa columbiana but of course many other g rass , forb and shrub species occur on or near the s i t e . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y an Artemisia tridentata var . vaseyana p lant community was i d e n t i f i e d nearby. Forage product ion , fo l lowing exc lus ion of ungulate graz ing fo r two seasons, averaged 1,750 l b . per acre in 1967-The s o i l s on th is p a r t i c u l a r grassland range var ied from Orth ic to Rego Black and they have been included in the Nickel P late so i l s e r i e s . They are developed on steep, high e leva t ion c o l l u v i a l s lopes , mostly on souther ly exposures. The Orth ic Black s o i l s are usua l l y loam textured 19 and are of a moderately coarse to very coarse nature. The weakly, ca lcareous parent mater ia ls include vo l can i c ash, co l luv ium and g l a c i a l t i l l depos i t s . For a de ta i l ed desc r i p t i on of an Orth ic Black so i l the reader is re fer red to Demarchi (1965). The Rego B lacks, which A. J . Green (personal communications) a l so found on th i s s lope , have-a s1 ight1y d i f f e r e n t so i l p r o f i l e and a t yp ica l s i t e was descr ibed by the above surveyors as fo l l ows : The land-form was mountainous on a high r e l i e f steep s lope . The parent mater ia l was co l luv ium and the bedrock belongs to the Bradshaw format ion. As far as s o i l horizons are concerned, the l i t t e r layer is p r a c t i c a l l y non-ex i s t en t . The Ah horizon extends from 0 to 5 inches, the ACI horizon from 5 to 9 inches and the AC2 from 9 to 19 inches. There was no B hor izon. The C horizons are c lassed as II C, from 19 to 36 inches in depth, and III C, from 36 to at least 53 inches, which implies that the above s o i l s developed from a parent mater ia l not re la ted to the predominant C horizon mate r i a l s . The e x i s t i n g s o i l p r o f i l e showed that two types of C mater ia ls ex is ted in v e r t i c a l l y separated recognizable hor izons . Thus not only d id the p r o f i l e exh ib i t a l i t h o l o g i c a l d i s c o n t i n u i t y but a l so two non-ident ica l under ly ing mater ia ls were found in the C hor izons . The so i l was found to be well drained and rap id l y permeable. The texture of the A horizons was loam with the Ah being strong and coarse ly granular in s t ruc tu re . The II C horizon was predominantly gravel loam in texture and s ing le gra in in s t r u c tu r e , while the III C was found to be c lay loam with a s t ruc ture c lassed as strong and medium subangular blocky. Demarchi (1965) descr ibed another Rego Black so i l p r o f i l e on F l a t i r on Mountain. 20 Exclosure S i t e Number 2 (Figure 2) This s i t e , a bench at 3 ,800 feet a l t i t u d e , faces south south-, west and has a mean slope of 5 per cent. It i s not a large grassed area but i t i s t y p i c a l of the area. The predominant veg e t a t i o n i s a sub-climax Poa secunda - Koeleria c r i s t a t a community. A v a r i e t y of grasses, f o r b s , shrubs and cryptogams was found on t h i s s i t e . Current p r o d u c t i v i t y was estimated to be 1,247 l b . per acre. The s o i l , an O r t h i c Dark Gray, developed on y e l l o w i s h brown loam-textured t i l l . The p r o f i l e has a 3 inch loam Ah h o r i z o n , 2 inches of loam Ahe, and a B horizon of w e l l developed subangular blocky s t r u c t u r e . The parent m a t e r i a l of t h i s s o i l was derived from weathered g r a n o d i o r i t e and mica s c h i s t . The s o i l a s s o c i a t e s of t h i s type were found to be O r t h i c Black and Degraded E u t r i c B r u n i s o l . The parent m a t e r i a l s were moderately coarse t e x t u r e d , weakly calcareous c o l l u v i a l and g l a c i a l t i l l d e p o s i t s . Demarchi (op c i t . ) found several s i t e s that had O r t h i c Dark Gray s o i l s on F l a t i r o n Mountain. Exclosure S i t e Number 3 The ex c l o s u r e was located on a small bench along the lower Ashnola River at an a l t i t u d e of 2 ,000 f e e t and was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of lower p a r t s of the study area. Small, grassland benches of moderate to steep r e l i e f are r e l a t i v e l y common along the lower watercourse. They are u s u a l l y surrounded by steeper slopes with a predominantly Pseudotsuga menziesii - pinus ponderosa - Agropyron spicatum pi ant community cover. Rock outcrops f r e q u e n t l y l i m i t the extent of these benches. The product-i v i t y on t h i s s i t e was very low, and was estimated to be 2 5 0 ' l b . per acre. Figure 3- A Rego Dark Gray (Chernozemic) so i l on South Slope. Note the shallow Ah ho r i zon , indicated by hor izonta l kn i f e (photo: V. C. Brink) 22 The v e g e t a t i o n was l a r g e l y composed of Poa secunda, Bromus tectontm, Danthonia sp. and various f o r b s . The s o i l at t h i s s i t e was a Rego Dark Brown with a p r o f i l e having a 3 inch sandy loam Ah h o r i z o n , and a h inch weakly developed AB or Bj horizon grading i n t o a g r a v e l l y sandy loam C horizon w i t h lime at 30 inches. McLean (1969) described s i m i l a r s o i l s in h i s study. Exclosure S i t e Number k (Figure 4) Demarchi (1965) and Harper (1969) described the s o i l s of Juniper Slope in d e t a i l . The s i t e chosen here had an e l e v a t i o n of 5,500 f e e t , an aspect of southeast and a slope of 15 per cent. The grassland v e g e t a t i o n i s predominated by three species of Poa} p r i m a r i l y Poa pratensis. Many other grasses and forbs were i d e n t i f i e d at t h i s l o c a t i o n . The forage y i e l d estimate f o r the s i t e was 1,393 l b . per acre. The s o i l at t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s i t e was found to be O r t h i c Black, developed on basal t i l l and c o l l u v i a l - a l l u v i a ! m a t e r i a l s of r i d g e and swale landforms. This suggests that the s o i l s on Juniper are not uniform, n e i t h e r are the p l a n t communities, and both Demarchi (op. c i t . ) and Harper (op. c i t . ) v e r i f i e d t h i s f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r slope. Harper found O r t h i c Black and O r t h i c Dark Gray s o i l s on h i s s i t e s . Exclosure S i t e Number 5 (Figure 3) This s i t e i s on the upper west end of South Slope on a hO per cent slope grassland f a c i n g south southeast at an a l t i t u d e of 5,200 f e e t . The p l a n t community i s s t i l l in a climax stand of Agropyron spicatum and Festuca idahoensis w i t h Koeleria c r i s t a t a 3 Artemisia f r i g i d a and other herbaceous p l a n t s being b a r e l y present. The forage product ion Figure k. An Or th i c Black s o i l on a south-fac ing grass land slope F igure 5- A Black Chernozemic s o i l on Crater Mountain h o Figure 6. A roadcut s o i l p r o f i l e in the subalpine zone showing the appearance of v o l c a n i c ash c l o s e to the surface 25 a f t e r one year of p ro tec t ion from grazing was estimated to be only 606 lb . per ac re . : The s o i l is a course textured Rego Dark Gray of the Ashnola s e r i e s . Demarchi (1965) descr ibed the p r o f i l e and chemical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s at a t yp i ca l l o c a t i on . T. M. Lord (personal communications) gave the fo l lowing s o i l de s c r i p t i on of a t yp i ca l Rego Dark Gray s o i l from the general v i c i n i t y of the exc losure s i t e on South Slope. The general landform is steep upland; the s lope is k$ per cent ; the parent mater ia l was found to be micaceous co l luv ium on green andesi te and quartz-mica s ch i s t bedrock. The formation is Bradshaw. The p r o f i l e is composed of an Ah horizon of 0 to 6 inch depth with a textura l c l ass of g rave l l y sandy loam and with a loose s t ruc tu r e , a BC hor izon extending 6 to 10 inches with a texture of cobbly very f i ne s i l t loam to s i l t loam and a s t ruc tu re of subangular blocky nature , and three C hor izons . The C extends from 10 to 16 inches and is composed of g r i t t y loam. The II C horizon extends from 16 inches downward and i ts texture is cobbly loamy sand. A CK hor izon was located at 48 inches of depth and was composed of f ree l ime. A limy coat ing was a l so found on stones below 16 inches. The II C horizons again ind icate that they are a d i f f e r e n t mater ia l than the above C hor izon . It can be seen, the re fo re , that even among the Chernozemic s o i l s descr ibed above, there are many va r i a t i ons in texture , s t ruc ture and depth and i t is th is whole p r o f i l e that inf luences the vegetat ion composit ion and p roduc t i v i t y at each s i t e . 2 . 1 . 5 E f f ec t s of the Physical Environment upon the Range Complex In conjunct ion with c l ima te , the phys ica l environmental f a c t o r s , 26 such as physiography, geology, dra inage, s lope and s o i l s , played an important, complex .role in the e x i s t i n g ecosystems wi th in the Ashnola River Bas in . It is not poss ib le to look at any one ind iv idua l f a c t o r , be i t b i o t i c , c l i m a t i c or b i o - p h y s i c a l , to develop some meaningful observat ions and r e s u l t s . The e x i s t i n g complex physiography, e s p e c i a l l y s ince the study area f a l l s into a topographic t r a n s i t i o n zone, cont inuously modif ies the p r e v a i l i n g c l imate of the area . A l l the b io-phys ica l va r i ab les interacted to produce the d i f f e r e n t s o i l s . The ove ra l l vegetal and faunal p roduc t i v i t y in turn is dependent upon the c l imate and the phys ica l and b i o t i c resources. A l l these h igh ly va r i ab l e fac tors played an evo lu t ionary ro le as well as having a contemporary s i g n i f i c a n c e in terms of forage and timber product ion , plant succession and animal d i s t r i b u t i o n . The physiography of the region c e r t a i n l y presents many ba r r i e r s and i r r e g u l a r i t i e s in terms of c l ima te , so i 1 s , vegetat ive cover and grazing regime. A r e l a t i v e l y small percentage of low grass lands , a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a l l y large acreage of steep slopes and r o l l i n g uplands, large subalpine and a lp ine grasslands and only r e l a t i v e l y few unvegetated rock faces and mountain peaks are the outcome. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of ungulates , both domestic and w i l d , that resu l ted because of the many p h y s i c a l , c l i m a t i c and edaphic ba r r i e r s and r e s t r i c t i o n s r e f l e c t s the complex nature of the area . Weir (1955) gave an account of the e f f e c t s of rough topography, such as occurs in the Ashnola River Bas in , on loca l c l imate and, in t u rn , on land uses such as ranching and g raz ing . Brayshaw (1965) a l so commented 27 on the e f f e c t s that local v a r i a t i ons in topographic and edaphic cond i t ions which in turn modify the inf luences of the macro-cl imate, had on primary p lant success ion . It is implied that the natural vegetat ion in i t s mature s t a te , in dynamic equ i l i b r ium with a h igh ly va r i ab l e tota l environment, is better descr ibed as a mosaic of topographic , edaphic, as well as c l i m a t i c cl imax a s s o c i a t i o n s , r e f l e c t i n g a pattern o f habi tat f a c t o r s . Starr (1967), who worked in the Okanagan Highlands jus t south of the study a rea , s i m i l a r i l y observed that " the d i v e r s i t y of aspect o f f e r e d , the v a r i a t i o n in kind and d i s t r i b u t i o n of so i l ma te r i a l s , and the l o c a l l y changeable c l imate have favoured the development of a complex mosaic of vege ta t i on " . Several s lopes in the Ashnola reg ion , p a r t i c u l a r l y Juniper and Starvat ion S lopes, demonstrate the e f f e c t that habitat f ac to rs have upon loca l p lant communities. Juniper Slope is composed of a mosaic of at least four p lant communities, depending upon e l e v a t i o n , moisture regime and dra inage, so i l type, aspect , and micro-c l imate . The physiographic h i s t o r y , e s p e c i a l l y the g l a c i a t i o n s and i n t e r g l a c i a l time pe r iods , g rea t l y inf luenced the development o f s o i l s . So i l s in turn l a rge l y contro l plant development and success ion , and con -sequently animal use. Cl imate in i t s own r ight imposed i t s cont ro l over a l l the phys ica l and b i o l o g i c a l va r i ab les and processes. Slope together with aspect and a l t i t u d e g rea t l y modif ies the e f f e c t of c l imate and s o i l s upon a range. Slope a l so g rea t l y in f luences the d i s t r i b u t i o n of graz ing animals on rangelands. Th is is very not iceabl in the Ashnola Basin. Large steep areas are not used by any ungulates. The u t i l i z a t i o n of the var ious grass lands by the d i f f e r e n t c l asses o f 28 ungulates grea t l y depends upon the steepness of the s lope . Ca t t l e tend to prefer the more level a reas ; deer u t i l i z e a wide range of s lopes; , while bighorn sheep prefer the steeper ranges (Demarchi, 1965). The s o i l s , themselves products of many p h y s i c a l , c l i m a t i c and b i o t i c processes , are s u r p r i s i n g l y well co r re la ted with e x i s t i n g plant communities on a broad sca le (Lord and McLean, 1969)- Researchers in Colorado (Johnson and C l i n e , 1965) c l a s s i f y i n g the mountain s o i l s of that s t a t e , found that "Great So i l Groups can be predic ted r e l a t i v e to v e r t i c a l zonat ion , s lope , aspect or type of vege ta t i on " . Ce r t a in l y vegetat ion in genera l , and p r o d u c t i v i t y , are c l o s e l y l inked to the s o i l s of an area. In the Ashnola Basin the complex phys ica l geography, together with the s c a r c i t y of good product ive s o i l s and the sever i t y of the loca l c l ima te , resu l ted in Canada Land Inventory ra t ings of poor to very poor (s ix and seven) for ag r i cu l t u r e (Lord and Runka, personal communications). This means that the ranges should not be managed or are not even su i t ab l e for intens ive g raz ing . As far as wi ld ungulates are concerned the Canada Land Inventory ra t ings would be much h igher , at least for the a va i l ab l e grasslands and open timber ranges. In summary i t can be said that plant and animal d i s t r i b u t i o n s respond sharply to exposure, e l e v a t i o n , s lope , q u a l i t y and depth of s o i l , c l imate and combinations of the above f a c t o r s . A l l of these have to be considered when d i scuss ing the study area because a l l of them manifest the i r inf luence to qu i te a degree. The area is complex, not only in terms of i t s physiography, geology and c l ima te , but a l so in i t s f l o r a and fauna. 29 2.2 Climate C l imate , va r i ab le as i t may be in mountainous t e r r a i n , is probably the primary fac tor determining range forage product ion . A l t i t u d e and exposure, in add i t ion to l a t i t u d e , p r eva i l i ng winds and cont inenta1 i t y , l a rge l y inf luence the c l imate of an area such as the study area represents (Peat t ie , 1936; F inch , 1957; Trewartha, 1968). A l t i t u d e above sea level not only causes a somewhat i r r egu l a r p lant zonation but a l so a s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of environmental f a c to rs (Daubenmire, 1943). Exposure, by i t s con t r as t s , exaggerates or modif ies the quan t i t a t i ve e f f e c t s or changes with a l t i t u d e (Peat t ie , op. c i t . ) . Vegetat ive zonat ion , even though s i m i l a r i l y occur r ing with increas ing l a t i t u d e , is d e f i n i t e l y more apparent in mountainous reg ions . Th is is due to pronounced c l i m a t i c changes that are caused by rapid changes in a l t i t u d e ( B l i s s , 1956). In genera l , p r e c i p i t a t i o n ( inc lud ing snowfal l ) increases with increas ing e leva t ion (Figure 9), reaching a maximum probably in the spruce - f i r zone or upper Douglas f i r zone (Daubenmire, op. c i t . ) , and then decreases aga in . Mean temperatures conversely decrease up the slopes (Table 1). Great departures from th i s norm are very common in a physiographica11y complex region such as the Ashnola Basin. Th is is demonstrated by the va r i e t y and d i spe rs ion of plant communities that occur in of ten i l l - d e f i n e d a l t i t u d i n a l be l ts in the area . Evaporation and potent ia l evapot ransp i ra t ion fo l low an equa l l y va r i ab l e pattern in mountains (Figure 8). Often potent i a l evaporat ion at high e leva t ions is a c t u a l l y greater than p r e c i p i t a t i o n . According to Daubenmire (1943) evaporat ion is c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y low in the fo res t 30 Table 1. Summer d i s t r i b u t i o n of r a i n f a l l , mean a i r temperature and average d a i l y evaporation f o r four representative s i t e s (19&7) w i t h i n the study area. Recording Crater I Crater IV Paul Creek I Paul Creek IV Interva1s T967 Pptn. Temp. Evap. Pptn. Temp. Evap. Pptn. Temp. Evap. Pptn. Temp. Evap. (mean) (mean) (mean) (mean) Hay 4-1. May 14 0.18" 59°F 0.19" 0.75" 46°F 0.16" 0.41" - 0.22" - - -Hay 14- -2. May 26 * 65 0.30 * 50 O.38 * - 0.37 - - -May 26-3. June 7 0.29 64 0.30 O.58 51 0.28 1.00 - 0.33 -June 7" 4. June 15 0.42 68 0.32 1.06 56 0.27 0.42 66 0.37 1-16 54 0.17 June 15" ' 5. June 22 1.12 77 0.42 1.92 62 0.40 1.43 70 0.47 1.56 59 0.28 June 22-6. June 28 0.13 70 0.30 0.98 57 0.27 0.34 64 0.39 1.52 53 0.17 June 28-7. J u l y 5 * 75 0.53 * 58 0^45 * - 0.42 * - 0.28 J u l y 5-8. J u l y 12 * 72 0.41 * 61 0.30 * 63 0.42 0.07 59 0.28 J u l y 12-9. J u l y 17 * 75 0.58 * 67 0.54 * 74 0.51 * 57 0.31 J u l y 17-10. J u l y 24 0.09 75 0.24 * 63 0.22 0.30 70 0.41 0.85 59 0.23 J u l y 24-11. J u l y 30 * 78 0.43 * 66 0.37 * 75 0.65 * 59 0.43 J u l y 30-12. Aug. 7 0.14 77 0.24 1.32 66 0.18 0.16 78 0.33 0.43 59 0.25 Aug. 7" 13. Aug. -24 * 80 0.29 * 69 0.21 * 83 0.40 0.04 56 0.31 Aug. 24- " 14. Seot. 2 * 78 0.32 * 69 0.19 * 79 0.3*1 0.02 63 0.29 Sept. 2-15- Sept. 10 0.04 71 0.14 * 64 0.13 * 72 0.26 0.09 60 0.21 Sept. 10-16. Oct. 3 O.87 69 0.10 0.72 59 0.07 0.89 67 0.17 1.30 66 0.16 NOTE: 'oata Unavailable . .-. 2 Ko Measurable P r e c i p i t a t i o n 4 2 . 7 3 4 . 3 Paul Creek Crater Mountain 36.0' 3 2 . 0 • • 2 9 . 0 . 2 9 • 2 7 . 6 2 6 . 6 • I I I f r I I I I |' I i I I • I I I I | l I I I I I I I' I | I I i I I M I I | I I I I I I I I 111 l I I I *' i o o o o o o Station altitude in feet above sea level Figure 8 . EVAPORATION FOR THE TWO VERTICAL ASHNOLA TRANSECTS JUNE 7 " OCTOBER 3, 1967 7 . 0 Paul Creek Crater Mountain -3 . 5 3 . 4 3 . 7 3 . 8 * 1 2.8 1 1 1 1 1 r - T T T r ' 1 1 1 1 1 1' 2 . 9 • i — n i l II T"i r i i h r T T r r r T i i 1 1 M i l l I'TTT' 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 o o o o o o o o o o O O o o o C N n ^ »n o Station altitude in feet above sea level F ig . 9 . PRECIPITATION FOR THE TWO VERTICAL ASHNOLA TRANSECTS JUNE 7 " OCTOBER 3, 1967 zones (Douglas f i r and spruce- f i r communities). It increases both above and below, as is a l so indicated in the resu l t s of th i s i n v e s t i -ga t ion . Wind a l so plays a major f ac to r in evaporat ion in the study area . S lope, l i ke exposure, g rea t l y inf luences many c l i m a t i c va r i ab les such as snow cover , i n s o l a t i o n , temperature and evaporat ion (Weaver and Clements, 1938). O v e r a l l , according to Daubenmire (op. c i t . ) , "topography accounts for most of the dev ia t ions from the ideal a l t i t u d i n a l gradient in c l ima te , and from the ideal sequence of vegetat iona l zones which in turn depend upon c l i m a t e " . In the Ashnola River Bas in, Harper (1969) found that , on the ranges he was s tudy ing, mean temperature con t ro l l ed the commencement of spr ing growth. A mean of kl degrees Fahrenheit appeared to be the " t r i g g e r i n g " temperature for spr ing growth. However, a va i l ab l e s o i l moisture l imi ted annual forage product ion by terminat ing the growth per iod ea r l y in summer (before the end of J u l y ) . Ambient a i r and so i l temper-atures remain favourable for growth un t i l ea r l y f a l l . Only in years when e f f e c t i v e moisture cond i t ions improve before unfavourable temperatures commence, does a f a l l growth period occur . This was observed in 1966. Cont inenta 1 i t y , a l t i t u d i n a l and exposural changes, and proximity to both the P a c i f i c Coast and the warmer Okanagan V a l l e y , a l l in te rac t in forming a complex c l i m a t i c regime in the Ashnola Basin. Both Chapman (1952) and Kraj ina (1965) point to the complexity of the c l imate and vegetat ion in the general reg ion. Using Koppen's system of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n for c l ima te , as modif ied by Kraj ina (op. c i t . ) , the study area f a l l s into the fo l lowing ca tegor i es : 33 1. A BSk middle l a t i t u d e steppe type predominates in the Similkameen V a l l e y from the i n t e r n a t i o n a l boundary to j u s t west of Hedley. K r a j i n a describes t h i s as the "Ponderosa Pine - Bunchgrass" b i o g e o c l i m a t i c zone f a l l i n g i n t o the " C o r d i l l e r a n c o l d steppe and Savanna f o r e s t " region. This i s a dry, c o n t i n e n t a l , c o l d , semi-arid c l i m a t e where evaporation and lack of p r e c i p i t a t i o n o f t e n r e s u l t in a period of summer drought (P/E <1 ) . 2. The lower p a r t s of the Ashnola V a l l e y , up to 5,000 f e e t on south-and west-facing slopes (500 to 1,000 f e e t lower on other s l o p e s ) , f a l l i n t o the Dfb c l a s s (a microthermal sub-humid c o n t i n e n t a l c l i m a t e ) . K r a j i n a named t h i s the " I n t e r i o r Douglas F i r " zone w i t h i n the Canadian C o r d i l l e r a n f o r e s t region. 3. A Dfc c l a s s , (migrotherma1 subalpine c o l d humid), b i o g e o c l i m a t i c a l 1 y the "Englemann Spruce - Subalpine F i r " zone w i t h i n the Canadian Cordi 1 1eran Suba1pine f o r e s t r e g i o n , describes the p o r t i o n s of the study area between 4,000 and 7,000 f e e t depending upon aspect. 4. Above t h i s region a 1 1 i t u d i n a l 1 y an ET c l i m a t e , ( a l p i n e or pol a r c o n t i n e n t a l c o l d tundra) i s a p p l i e d to the " A l p i n e Tundra" area. N a t u r a l l y , because of the complexity of the topography, these c l i m a t i c groupings and v e g e t a t i v e zones are only broadly a p p l i c a b l e . Looking at the i n t e r s p e r s i o n of v e g e t a t i v e h a b i t a t types the c l i m a t i c v a r i a b i l i t y i s s t r i k i n g . Exposure plays a key r o l e in determining the "micro" - c l i m a t e o f a p a r t i c u l a r slope at almost any e l e v a t i o n . It appears that in ascending the slopes temperature sets the upper l i m i t f o r a p a r t i c u l a r p l a n t community; at lower e l e v a t i o n s moisture becomes s t r o n g l y l i m i t i n g in the d i s t r i b u t i o n of p l a n t s . Dryness and exposure, 34 so va r i ab l e in th is Bas in , probably account for the lack of tree cover on many exposed r idges and grassland s lopes . Loca l l y dominant t r ees , Pseudotsuga menziesii, Pieea engelmanii, and Abies lasiooarpa are absent from these open ranges. Thus, topographic fac tors not only complicate the c l i m a t i c p i c tu re but probably i n d i r e c t l y ensure the continued ex is tence of the major ungulates in the area by prov id ing the essen t i a l grassland ecosystem. Even though only 150 mi les from the P a c i f i c Ocean, two mountain ranges on the west h igh ly modify a maritime in f luence . The Columbia Range in the east acts as a ba r r i e r for polar cont inenta l a i r from the Great P l a i ns . No such northern orographic sh ie ld e x i s t s . Frequent midwinter invasions of co ld a i r from the Yukon high pressure center occur , e s p e c i a l l y at higher e l e va t i ons . Va l l ey c louds often help to amel iorate the winter temperatures in the region (Weir, 1955). The Okanagan Trench to the east al lows for pe r i od i c invasions of t rop i ca l cont inenta l a i r , p a r t i c u l a r l y in summer, in the.main va l l e ys (Similkameen and Ashnola ) . Genera l ly the v a l l e y s run north and south. P reva i l i ng a i r movements, being eastward from the P a c i f i c across the gra in of the mountains, leave many wester ly slopes moister than eas te r l y fac ing ones. Higher ranges have a c l imate somewhat independent of the surrounding p la teau . The ba r r i e r s mentioned prev ious ly lose the i r inf luence there. Habitat se l ec t i on and a v a i l a b i l i t y for both deer and bighorn sheep is genera l l y inf luenced by loca l weather cond i t i ons . Th is is obv ious ly true during c r i t i c a l w inters . A primary ob jec t i ve of th i s part of the i nves t i ga t i on was to demonstrate the inf luence of a l t i t u d e and exposure (aspect) upon I 35 some se lected c l i m a t i c v a r i ab l e s . F lo ra l and faunal p roduc t i v i t y in turn i s , of course , c l o s e l y re la ted to the local and regional c l ima te . 2.2.1 Methods and Mater ia l s Ambient a i r and so i l temperatures, r a i n f a l l and evaporat ion were measured dur ing the summers of 1966 and 1967. Snow cover on an a l t i t u d i n a l t ransect was measured in the winter of 1966/67• Eight c l i m a t i c s ta t ions were located at regular i n t e r va l s along two separate road t ransec ts . Adjacent s ta t ions were spaced not only in d i s t ance , but a l so in e l e va t i on . The f i r s t t r ansec t , with four s t a t i o n s , fol lowed the Ashnola River from i t s conf luence with the Similkameen River to an uppermost s ta t ion on Crater Mountain at an e leva t ion of 4 ,800 feet above sea l e v e l . The other t ransect was located along the Paul Creek Road from i t s point of departure in the Similkameen Va l l ey to a top s t a t i on at 6 ,300 feet on Lost Horse Mountain. The snow cover t ransect was a l so es tab l i shed along the l a t t e r road with s ta t ions approximately 500 feet apart in a l t i t u d e . (For a de s c r i p t i on of s i t e s please re fe r to Appendix 3 . ) Even though i t would have been extremely d e s i r a b l e , l imi t- , a t ions in time and equipment did not a l low for the establ ishment of other s t a t i ons . A complete summer-operated s t a t i on included a weekly recording thermograph, two evaporimeters that required serv ice every 10 days to 2 weeks, a so i l thermister that could be read with a telethermometer,. and two s imple , open ra in gauges. Records were kept on a weekly b a s i s , as f a r as th i s was pos s i b l e . A snow cover s ta t ion cons is ted of two 36 7 foot steel s takes , arranged in p a i r s , with 6 inch in te r va l s marked o f f in d i f f e r e n t co lours on each stake. ' Add i t iona l meteorologica l information was a va i l ab l e from s ta t ions in contiguous va l l e ys and from nearby mountains (Keremeos, Hedley, Cawston, Nickel P l a te , Mount Kobau and O l i v e r ) . 2.2.1 (a) P r e c i p i t a t i o n The gauges for measuring r a i n f a l l , two at each s t a t i o n , were developed for th is type of pro ject by Mr. D. Ma r sha l l , ARDA c l imat-o l o g i s t at V i c t o r i a , B. C. These raingauges were anchored on the ground by means of the i r three pointed " l e g s " and a layer of coal o i l in each prevented evaporat ion. P r e c i p i t a t i o n , l i k e a l l other c l i m a t i c measure-ments, was recorded at weekly i n t e r v a l s , or as of ten as p o s s i b l e . The snow cover (the gauges were prev ious ly descr ibed) along the v e r t i c a l t ransect towards Lost Horse Mountain, was measured p e r i o d i c a l l y during the winter of 1966/67• Readings of depth of snow on the ground were taken by the microwave s ta t ion operators s t a r t i ng with the f i r s t snowfall in the autumn of 1966 and cont inu ing to the end of that winter . Unfortunate ly road cond i t ions did not a l low for any r egu l a r i t y in observat ions . A standard snow course (Water Invest igat ions Branch, B. C. Department of Lands, Fo res t s , and Water Resources, 1965) has been in ex is tence s ince I960 on Lost Horse Mountain and the records are a v a i l a b l e . P r e c i p i t a t i on e f f e c t i v enes s , a measure of the moisture budget of a s i t e , was not d i r e c t l y determined. The P/E (p rec ip i t a t ion/evapor -at ion) r a t i o , however, was ca l cu l a ted for the s ta t ions at hand using 37 pptn. ( in . ) / temp. (°F-10)j 1-0/9 Thornthwaite 1 s formula where P/E = 115 (Van Ryswyk et a l . , 1966 ) . This r a t i o gives some ind i ca t i on of the p r e c i p i t a t i o n e f f ec t i veness for the per iod under i n ve s t i ga t i on . 2.2.1 (b) Evaporation At each c l i m a t i c s ta t ion s i t e , two carborundum block evapor i-meters using a 22 per cent methanol so lu t ion (Wilcox, 1967) were set up (Figure 10). These evaporimeters were placed k feet above the ground. Operation was continued from Ju ly to October in I966 and from May to October in 1967. Serv i c ing and/or c lean ing was ca r r i ed out as prescr ibed by Wilcox (op., c i t . ) each time readings were taken. 2.2.1 (c) Temperatures (Air and So i l ) At seven of the e ight s t a t i o n s , d a i l y records of a i r temperatures were obta ined. Instruments were not a va i l ab l e un t i l August of I966. One tempscribe thermograph, c a l i b r a t ed and corrected p e r i o d i c a l l y with a laboratory thermometer, was suspended k feet above the ground and in the shade, at each s i t e . This technique na tu ra l l y led to only crude temper-ature records , e s p e c i a l l y s ince "Stevenson screens" were not a v a i l a b l e . Soi l temperatures, using thermisters buried to a depth of 50 cent imeters , were obtained during the summer of 1967 each time the sta t ions were v i s i t e d . It was assumed that d iurna l v a r i a t i ons were minimal at th i s so i l depth (T. M. Lord, personal communications). Actual readings were taken with a telethermometer. ' Harper (I969) a l so measured some c l i m a t i c va r i ab les on se lected slopes in the Ashnola Basin in 1967 and 1968. The ARDA Inventory Committee in B r i t i s h Columbia is gathering c l i m a t i c data for the general region (Brink and Wilcox, personal communications). Figure 10- E V A P O R I M E T E R A S S E M B L Y US ING C O P P E R C O N T A I N E R AS R E S E R V O I R A . E V A P O R I M E T E R ; B, C O P P E R C O N T A I N E R : C , G L A S S S H I E L D . (Adapted from Wilcox, 1967) 39 2.2.2 Results 2.2.2 (a) P r e c i p i t a t i o n Total r a i n f a l l , as measured along the two c l ima t i c t ransects during the summers of 1966 and 1967, d e f i n i t e l y increased with a l t i t u d e . Keremeos and the v a l l e y bottom s ta t ions received only about ha l f the summer p r e c i p i t a t i o n of the Crater IV and Paul Creek IV s i t e s . This fac t is v e r i f i e d by studying long term means from Keremeos at 1,410 feet . above sea level and Nickel P late Mountain at 5,800 feet above sea level (Figure 11). The former has an annual average p r e c i p i t a t i o n of only 10.16 inches while the l a t t e r ' s mean is 23-58 inches. Old Glory Mountain at 7,700 feet above sea l e v e l , a mountain east of the study area with records for qui te a number of years , has a long term mean of 29-52 inches (B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , 1965)-Individual r a i n s , however, of ten v a r i e d . ' l o c a l l y . For example, during the period of September 10 to October 3, 1967, Crater I recorded a r a i n f a l l of 0.87 inches. During the same per iod the three higher Crater Mountain s t a t i o n s , as well as some of the Paul Creek s t a t i o n s , received cons iderab ly less r a i n . Crater II, III and IV received only 0.57, 0.61 and 0.72 inches, r e spec t i ve l y . These and other records during the per iod of i n v e s t i g a t i o n , serve to i l l u s t r a t e the ex is tence of i r r e g u l a r , l o c a l i z ed moisture regimes independent of simple a l t i t u d i n a l i n f luences . P r e c i p i t a t i o n e f f e c t i v e n e s s , as measured by the P/E r a t i o , sub-s t a n t i a l l y increased with a l t i t u d e . Both Crater IV and Paul Creek IV show much higher ra t ios than the corresponding va l l e y bottom s ta t ions (Figure 12). Nickel P late compares s i m i l a r i l y with both Keremeos and Hedley. It is < UJ • f / / / • Hedley Long Term (17001 B Nickel' Plate (5800' ) • Old Glory (77001) \Z2 Keremeos (14001) Long Term Means Jan - Feb Mar Apr May.- June July - Aug Sept - Oct Nov Dec F i gu re II DISTRIBUTION OF ANNUAL PRECIPITATION AT VARIOUS LOCATIONS 1 4! 3 — i 2 — o 01 CRATER I 1 I I I I I I I I I I | I J ! > 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11121314 1516 CRATER EZ • i , i i i i i i i i i i . i i 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 '0 11 ,2 1314 1516 PAUL CREEK I / PAUL CREEK IE 1 i i 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 12 13141516 I i | I I I I I • I i I I f 1 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 1213141516 Recording Period Recording Period Recording Period Recording Period Figure 12. PRECIPITATION EFFECTIVENESS (P/E) RATIOS AT FOUR STATIONS IN THE STUDY AREA 30—i o 20-H O or UJ \ 10 I FEB JUNE 1 1 SEPT OCT 1 DEC (I) N i c k e l P l a t e (Long Term Means) 10 -9 -8 7 H 6 5 — 4 -3 -2 -1 — 0 • \ \ -I 1 r — I 1 r F M A M J J - i 1 — I — i r A S O N D Incomplete record - i — i — i — i — r M A M ) J "I ! 1 1 1 A S O N D (2) Medley (1967) (3) Keremeos (1967) Figure 13. MONTHLY PRECIPITATION EFFECTIVENESS RATIOS FOR THREE STATIONS 42 in t e res t i ng to note that the P/E r a t i os in Hedley are usua l l y higher than in Keremeos (Table 2 and Figure 13)- The former is located west o f the l a t t e r . Mean temperatures are invar i ab ly lower and p r e c i p i t a t i o n higher in Hed1ey. In 1967, for the en t i r e a rea , p r e c i p i t a t i o n peaks dur ing the summer occurred in June and late September. From the long term records for nearby s ta t ions (Table 3 ) , June is the wettest summer month. Snowfall and snow cover data are l imi ted for the immediate reg ion. Snowfall appears to fo l low a pattern s im i l a r to that of r a i n ; i t increases with increas ing a l t i t u d e . December and January record the highest snowfall (B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , 1967)-The va l l e y bottoms and low exposed grassland slopes are usua l l y snow f ree most of the winter . In 1966/67, the snow cover was usua l l y less than 15 inches up to an e leva t ion of 4,500 feet in open exposed areas , p a r t i c u l a r l y those fac ing south. In the same winter snow cover of more than 10 inches pers i s ted from November un t i l at least A p r i l at a l t i t u d e s above 5,000 fee t . Only very exposed south-facing r idges were blown f ree of snow for part of that winter at higher e l e va t i ons . Under timber canopies the depth of snow was cons i s t en t l y higher than on open slopes and pers i s ted longer a f t e r winter . 2.2.2 (b) Evaporation , 'Evaporation l i k e p r e c i p i t a t i o n var ies with a l t i t u d e and aspect . Water losses due to evaporat ion , and therefore evapo t ransp i r a t i on , were very high on exposed ranges at lower e l e va t i ons . Evaporat ion, during the summers of 1966 and 1967 at l e as t , decreased with increas ing a l t i t u d e . 43 Table 2. P r e c i p i t a t i o n e f f e c t i v e n e s s (P/E) r a t i o s f o r three s t a t i o n s in the v i c i n i t y of the study area Recording Period Stat ions mber Date Keremeos - 1967 Hedley - 1967 N i c k e l P l a t e - Long term mens (1410' elev.) (1800' elev.) (5800 1 elev.) I January 2.63 2.93 30. 18 2 February 0.44 1.67 16.34 3 March 1.70 1.60 9.57 4 Apri 1 0.75 2.03 10.33 5 May 0 .72 1.86 7-64 6 June 1.69 1 .90 6.73 7 J u l y 0.20 0.33 3 . 10 8 August " 0 .09 2.76 9 September 0. 10 0.36 2 .87 10 October 2.06 4.36 4 .98 11 November 0 .72 2.51 10 .08 12 December 9-90 6.47 17.46 - No measureable p r e c i p i t a t i o n Table 3. Monthly and annual to ta l p r e c i p i t a t i o n for 1966,1967; snowfall 1965/66 and I966/67, and long term averages ( inches) . (Data from B.C. Dept. of A g r i c u l t u r e , 1967) Wi nter Jan. Feb. March Apr i 1 May June Jul y Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Ann. Snowfa 1 Hedley 1966 M M 0. 1 0.5 0.5 0.6 2.6 0.8 1 .0 .7 .1.3 1.8 M M (1720') 1967 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.9 1 . 1 1.4 0.3 0. 1 0.3 2.0 0.8 1.2 10.0 29. 1 (30 y r . ) Average 1. 1 0.7 0.6 0.6 1. 1 1.3 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 10.7 29.9 Keremeos 1966 1.1 0.1 0.3 0.2 0. 1 0.3 1.4 0.8 0.8 0.5 1.3 1.6 8.6 24.8 (1410' ) 1967 0.8 0.2 0.7 0.4 0.5 1.3 0.2 T 0. 1 1.1 0.3 2.2 8.1 15.4 (30 y r . ) Average 1.1 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.9 1.3 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 1.0 1 .0 10.2 26.0 Mt. Kobau 1966 M M M M M 0.9 1.6 1.5 2.1 1.1 2.4 3.8 M M (6100') 1967 2.7 1.2 2.6 2.2 1.3 1.9 0.3 0. 1 M 2.0 1.2 5.0 M 165.2 Nickel P late * (L .T . ) 2. 1 1.9 1.6 2.4 2.7 2.8 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.6 1.9 2.2 23.6 145.5 (5800') Apex 1966 3.4 2.8 2.5 1.7 M 2.0 3.6 1.0 1.4 2.8 M M M M (6100") Old Glory * ( L .T . ) 2.9 2.6 2.6 2.0 2. 1 3.3 1.5 1.8 1.9 2.6 2.2 2.7 28.3 212.4 (7700') " L . T . - Long Term Average Mi ss i ng h5 There were a l so substant ia l d i f f e rences for s im i l a r per iods between 1966 and 1967- For the months of August and September, 1966 had higher evaporat ion rates than those for the same months in 1967- Harper (1969) recorded greater evaporat ion rates for the summer of 1967 than for 1968. This substant ia tes the fact that evaporat ion , and therefore evapo- . t r a n s p i r a t i o n , can vary between years . When apply ing Wi lcox 's conversion fac to r of .36 in c a l c u l a t i n g evapotransp i ra t ion rates from recorded evaporat ion data (1967 personal correspondence) , i t was found that evapotransp i ra t ion g rea t l y exceeded r a i n f a l l during the summer months. Th is was even true for the high a l t i t u d e s t a t i o n s . In the summer of 1967, p r e c i p i t a t i o n at Paul Creek IV, 6,500 feet above sea l e v e l , amounted to only 7-04 inches. Evaporation during the same period was 29.21 inches. The l a t t e r is equiva lent to about 10.5 inches of evapot ransp i ra t ion . Values for Crater IV during the same per iod were 7-33 inches of ra in and 37.11 inches of evapora t ion , equiva lent to 13-3 inches of evapot ransp i ra t ion . Unfortunate ly no year-round data for the water budget in the area were a va i l ab l e fo r comparison. However, during periods for which f i e l d records were taken, the water d e f i c i t c e r t a i n l y appeared to be much lower at high e leva t ions than at va l l e y bottom s i t e s . Tables 1 and k show the va r i ab l e nature over time and space of the three main c l i m a t i c fac tors as they were measured in the study area . There are obvious p a r a l l e l trends between temperature and evaporat ion over the summer of 1967. Evaporation and moisture from p r e c i p i t a t i o n are inverse ly co r r e l a t ed . Harper 's data (1969) provided more subs tan t i a t ing i Table 4. Mean a i r temperatures for recording Intervals and s o i l temperatures at date of reading in degrees Fahrenheit for two transects (summer of 1967) Recording CRATER I CRATER II CRATER III CRATER IV PAUL CK. 1 PAUL CK. II PAUL CK.I I I PAUL CK.IV Intervals A i r Soi 1 Ai r Soi 1 Ai r Soi 1 Air Soi1(NE)(SE) Ai r Soi 1 Air Soi 1 Ai r Soi 1 Ai r Soi 1 1. May 4 May 14 59 44.6 46.4 50 50.0 48.2 47 41. 42. 0 8 46 41.0 39.2 41.0 44.6 46.4 49 42. 44, ,8' ,6 * 32.0 * 32.0 2. May 14 May 26 65 46.4 50.0 59 48.2 55.4 52 42. 48. .8 .2 50 39.2 42.8 41.0 46.4 A 46.4 50.0 57 44. 48. .6 ,2 * 32.0 46.4 32.0 3. May 26 June .7 64 50.0 53-6 59 55.4 59.0 55 48. 51. 2 8 51 42.8 46.4 46.4 51.8 * 50.0 55.4 73 48. 51. .2 .8 * ' 46.4 . 44.6 * 32.0 32.0 4. June 7 June 15 68 53.6 55.4 62 59.0 60.8 60 51. 53. ,8 6 56 46.4 48.2 51.8 53-6 66 55.4 57.2 71 51. 55. .8 ,4 * 44.6 46.4 54 32.0 35.6 5. June 15 June 22 77 55.4 66.2 66 60.8 62.6 66 53. 55. .6 .4 62 48.2 51.8 53-6 55.4 70 57.2 66.2 79 55. 60. ,4 .8 * 46.4 53.6 59 35.6 51.8 6. June 22 June 28 70 66.2 66.2 i * 62.6 69.8 59 55. 62. .4 .6 57 51.8 57.2 55.4 60.8 64 66.2 66.2 * 60, 60, .8 .8 53.6 55.4 53 51.8 46.4 7. June 28 July 5 75 66.2 66 69.8 • 66 62. .6 58 57.2 60.8 * 66.2 * 60, .8 * 55.4 * 46.4 8. J u l y 5 July 12 72 68.0 69 75.2 62 66. .2 61 59.0 66.2 69 69.8 77 62. .6 57.2 59 48.2 9. July 12 July 17 75 68.0 74 75.2 69 66.2 67 59.0 66.2 69.8 75 62 .6 * 57-2 57 48.2 July 17 - - - - z - -10. July 24 75 69.8 70 77.0 66 66 :2 63 59.0 66.2 70 69.8 69 62 .6 * 59.0 59 50.0 1). July 24 July 30 78 69.8 69.8 72 77.0 77.0 64 66.2 66.2 . 66 59.0 59.0 66.2 66.2 75 69.8. 72 62 62 .6 .6 * 59.0 59 50.0 12. July 30 Aug. 7 77 69.8 69.8 73 77.0 77.0 65 66.2 66.2 66 59.0 59.0 66.2 66.2 78 66.2 66 62 62 .6 .6 * 62.6 59 51.8 13. Aug. 7 Aug. -24 80 69.8 75 77.0 79 66.2 69 59.0 66.2 83 66.2 75 62. .6 * 62.6 56 51.8 14. Aug. 24 Sept. 2 78 75.2 75 78.8 73 69 .8 69 62.6 71.6 79 75.2 69 73 .4 * 66.2 63 53.6 15. Sept. 2 Sept. 10 71 75.2 75.2 68 78.8 70 69.8 64 62.6 71.6 72 75.2 64 73 .4 * 66.2 60 53.6 16. Sept. 10 Oct. 3 69 75.2 75.2 68 66.2 66 59 .0 59 53.6 60.8 67 62.6 62 60.8 53.6 66 44.6 NOTE: Not measured Soli temperatures taken at a depth of 20" or 50 cm. h7 evidence. When comparing r a i n f a l l for the month of August in 1967 and I968 at his Agropyron spicatum s i t e , he found,that r a i n f a l l was subs t an t i a l l y higher in I968 than in 1967- Converse ly , evaporat ion in 1967 exceeded that of the same month in 1968. The e f f e c t of exposure and aspect on evaporat ion was shown at the Paul Creek I and Crater II s i t e s . Readings at both were genera l l y higher than at the a 11itudina11y lower and less exposed s t a t i o n s . In f a c t , the Paul Creek I data for the season of 1967 ind icated that evapor-a t ion there exceeded that of any other s t a t i on by at least 10 inches. Harper (op. c i t . ) , showed s im i l a r r esu l t s when comparing his s ta t ions in terms of aspect and exposure. In genera l , evaporat ion rates in the Similkameen Va l l ey were higher than those in the Ashnola Va l l ey proper. Wilcox (personal communications) recorded evaporat ion rates for the Okanagan Va l l ey that were even higher than those for the Similkameen. 2.2.2 (c) Temperature (Air and So i l ) Mean temperatures for both a i r and so i l showed a f a i r l y regular downward trend with increas ing a l t i t u d e . So i l temperatures at the Crater II s ta t ion were the except ion . Aspect , exposure and poss ib l y s o i l type, probably account for th i s phenomenon where the mean summer so i l temperature at a 20 inch depth was 3 degrees Fahrenheit higher than at a s ta t ion 1,100 feet lower. This d i f f e r ence was cons is tent for most of the summer of 1967• There was a l so a 3 degrees d i f f e rence in mean soi1 temperature, between the two s i t e s at the Crater IV c l i m a t i c s t a t i o n . Here, one . • .' 48 thermister was located on a slope fac ing southeast . The second loca t ion for the s o i l probe faced northeast at the same a l t i t u d e . The r e su l t i ng -difference was s t r i k i n g . From the 1967 and long term records the average a i r temperatures increased from west to east in the Similkameen Va l l ey (Table 5). V a r i -a t ions occurred f requent ly during periods for which records are a v a i l a b l e . Changes of great amplitude were not uncommon both in terms of time and space, h o r i z o n t a l l y and a l t i t u d i n a l l y (also Harper, 1969). Mean temper-a tu res , for example, at Paul Creek II were of ten higher than those at Paul Creek I. Temperature lapse rates (Konrad, 1944) for the area were found to be qu i te va r i ab l e for the summers of 1966 and 1967. Taking temperature means for the two t r ansec t s , a lapse rate of 3.3 degrees Fahrenheit per 1,000 feet e l eva t ion was ca l cu la ted when comparing Crater I with Crater IV, Paul Creek I with Paul Creek IV and Crater I with Paul Creek IV. On comparing adjacent s t a t i o n s , however, lapse rates vary ing from 2.8 to 4.5 degrees per 1,000 feet a l t i t u d e were recorded. These f i gu res were only app l i cab l e to the summers of 1966 and 1967-Soi l temperature changes during the 1967 summer fol lowed a f a i r l y regular pa t te rn . D i f ferences between s ta t ions were less va r i ab l e than those of atmospheric temperatures. Changes between consecut ive pe r iod i c so i l temperature readings for each s t a t i on indicated a steady r i se over most of the summer and then a dec l ine a f t e r September. Exact times when these rose or dec l ined were not a v a i l a b l e . On September 2, 1967 a l l s ta t ions recorded the highest readings for that summer. The Table 5. Monthly and annual mean temperatures and some long term averages for several s ta t ions in southern B r i t i s h Columbia (Data from B. C. Dept. of A g r i c u l t u r e , 1966 and 1967)-Jan. Feb. March Apri 1 May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Annu; Hedley 1966 M M 41 47 56 60 65 65 61 46 36 32 M (1720') 1967 29 37 38 44 55 66 69 73 64 48 35 26 49 (30 y r . ) Average 23 29 38 hi 56 61 68 66 59 47 34 27 46 Keremeos 1966 27 37 43 51 60 63 68 69 65 50 40 36 51 (14101) 1967 34 40 41 hi 58 68 72 76 68 51 39 30 52 (30 y r . ) Average 26 31 41 51 59 64 71 69 62 50 36 30 49 Apex Mountain 1966 17 20 39 h) 38 42 49 50 46 32 M M M . (6100') Nickel P late * (L .T . ) 17 21 25 31 41 46 54 53 46 37 27 22 35 (5800') Mt. Kobau 1966 M M M M M 45 52 54 52 34 26 22 M (6100') 1967 20 23 21 28 39 51 55 62 M 34 26 18 M Old Glory Mountain * (L .T . ) 12 14 16 24 34 39 49 47 40 30 19 15 28 (77001) * L .T . - Long Term Average M - Mi ssi ng 50 l as t reading on October 3 of that year a lready indicated a so i l temper-ature dec l ine of from 9 to 12 degrees, depending upon the s i t e . On Crater 1 no dec l ine was recorded. 2 . 2 . 3 D iscuss ion Measurements of c l i m a t i c f ac to rs are l im i ted and h igh ly in termi t tent in th i s area. Climate is an uncontro l Iab le va r i ab l e of tremendous in f luence . Wide va r i a t i ons in p r e c i p i t a t i o n , temperature, wind, sunshine and other c l i m a t i c fac tors are common between years as well as between locat ions (Kendrew and Kerr , 1955; and Trewartha, 1968). The e f f e c t s of c l imate upon the tota l range ecosystem with in a complex, mountainous, topographic t r a n s i t i o n zone such as charac te r i zes th i s reg ion , appear to be h igh ly pronounced. 2 . 2 . 3 (a) P r e c i p i t a t i o n Average r a i n f a l l over the two summers increased markedly with a r i s e in a l t i t u d e but during any number of s p e c i f i c per iods the quant i ty of ra in var ied h igh ly and i r r e g u l a r l y between s i t e s . Convective type of p r e c i p i t a t i o n is common in mountainous t e r r a i n , e s p e c i a l l y in summer. Often a heavy r a i n f a l l could be recorded at one or more adjacent s t a t i o n s , yet other near-by s i t e s at e i the r higher or lower locat ions received l i t t l e or no p r e c i p i t a t i o n . A uniform or f ixed p r e c i p i t a t i o n gradient with increas ing e leva t ion was not observed. It would be va luable to compare the frequency and in tens i t y of the p r e c i p i t a t i o n between a l t i t u d -inal 1 y spaced s i tes . The p r e c i p i t a t i o n e f f ec t i veness r a t i o takes into cons idera t ion 51 both temperature and p r e c i p i t a t i o n . It is a measure of the actual moisture that is u t i l i z a b l e by the vegetat ion fo l lowing a per iod of r a i n . It does not d i r e c t l y re l a te to the moisture budget at a s i t e because the P/E r a t i o is not c a l cu l ab l e for per iods without p r e c i p i -t a t i o n . The P/E r a t i o , more c l e a r l y than e i the r p r e c i p i t a t i o n or evaporat ion a lone, demonstrates a p rogress i ve l y moister c l imate up mountain s lopes . This is amply v e r i f i e d by the vegetat ive zonat ion . Van Ryswyk (1966) a l so indicated that the P/E r a t i o was a bet ter d i s t i n g u i s h i n g feature of c l imate than e i t he r temperature or p r e c i p i -ta t ion a lone. Snow cover and probably snowfall (the l a t t e r was not measured during th is inves t iga t ion ) showed a s im i l a r a l t i t u d i n a l g rad ient . It can be assumed that local topography and re la ted fac tors caused winter p r e c i p i t a t i o n to vary between s i t e s , independent of a l t i t u d i n a l changes. Snow depth, even though i t genera l l y increased with a r i se in e l e v a t i o n , var ied between s i t e s as well as between observat ion dates . Vegetat ive cover , aspect , exposure, steepness of the t e r r a in and a l t i t u d e seemed to in teract here. While a l t i t u d i n a l r i ses appeared to resu l t in increas ing snowfa l l , accumulated depths often depended upon the degree of exposure, the aspect of the s i t e and the degree of overstory she l t e r i ng of the s t a t i o n . General ly speaking, south-fac ing , widely exposed, t ree less slopes had a r e l a t i v e l y lower average snow cover and parts- of these same slopes were mostly bare of snow for most of the I966/67 w inter . Natura l l y these snowless or low snow areas were heav i l y frequented by sheep and deer during that winter . G i l be r t (1970) and Loveless (1967) 52 reported s im i l a r r e su l t s fo r mule deer in Colorado. ; Not only d id an increase in a l t i t u d e resu l t in higher snow-f a l l s and snow depths on the ground, but the decreasing mean temperatures caused the snow cover per iod to be prolonged at higher e l e va t i ons . Thus, r i s i n g a l t i t u d e had a doubly detr imental e f f e c t on winter forage a v a i l -a b i l i t y to ungulates. For a d i scuss ion on snow and i t s e f f e c t s on ungulates the reader is re fer red to Edwards (1956), Formozov (1946), G i l b e r t , et a l . (1970), Loveless (1967), Nasimovich (1955) and P ru i t t (1966). Each of the aforementioned references ind icates how d i f f e r e n t ungulate species are accommodated during winters in areas where snowfall can be or is a l i m i t i n g f a c to r . Sheep and deer are h igh ly s ens i t i v e to deep snow. They are usua l l y forced to migrate i f i t exceeds 20 to 24 inches. Long term p r e c i p i t a t i o n records show that v a r i a b i l i t y ex i s t s not only between s i t e s and with in years but a l so between years . Harper (1969) recorded substant ia l d i f f e rences between the years of 1967 and 1968. The few e x i s t i n g . v a l l e y bottom s ta t ions ind ica te that pe r i od i c droughts and/or snowless winters occur at least on lower a l t i t u d e ranges. 2.2.3 (b) Evaporation Records of the evaporat ive power of the atmosphere were not p rev ious ly a va i l ab l e for the study area. According to the Canada Land Inventory Report Number 3 (1966) the region is s i tua ted in a be l t of high potent ia l evapot ransp i ra t ion . The author ' s l im i ted data seemed to ind icate th i s as we l l . Evaporation and therefore evapo t ransp i r a t i on , i f one accepts Wi lcox 's conversion fac to r of O.36, were s u b s t a n t i a l l y higher over the summer per iods than r a i n f a l l . 53 The c l i m a t e on exposed low a l t i t u d e slopes i s a r i d . The a v a i l a b l e moisture increases w i t h a r i s e in e l e v a t i o n . Less exposed : more n o r t h e r l y f a c i n g slopes accentuate t h i s increase in moisture. The a v a i l a b l e evaporation records c l e a r l y show these trends. From the a v a i l a b l e data i t appeared that evaporation showed even more pronounced v a r i a t i o n s between s i t e s and periods than e i t h e r p r e c i p i t a t i o n or temperature. Actual evaporation depends upon more v a r i a b l e s than the other two f a c t o r s (Trewartha, 1968). Local complex v a r i a t i o n s between a i r and surface temperatures, a i r motion, vapor pressure d e f i c i t s , and a v a i l a b l e moisture supply e x i s t and these a l l a f f e c t evaporation and in turn e v a p o t r a n s p i r a t i o n . It appears that low a l t i t u d e exposed south-facing slopes experience an acute moisture shortage during extended periods of most summers, p a r t i c u l a r l y during J u l y and August. R a i n f a l l i s l i m i t e d during most summers. It i s not p l e n t i f u l at any time. Evapotranspirat ion i s high and most of the low and mid-grassland v e g e t a t i o n undergoes a period of summer dormancy in t h i s region (Harper, 1969). Vegetation at higher a l t i t u d e s and on s h e l t e r e d moister s i t e s does not e x h i b i t t h i s dormancy. 2.2.3 (c) Temperature Ambient a i r temperature data are a v a i l a b l e f o r a few s t a t i o n s in the v i c i n i t y of the study area (B. C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Climate of B r i t i s h Columbia, Annual Report f o r 1966 and 1967; Temperature and P r e c i p i t a t i o n Tables f o r B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967; J . D. Wilcox, personal communications). No s o i l temperatures were p r e v i o u s l y a v a i l a b l e . 54 A i r temperature records for the study area showed great v a r i a b i l i t y over short per iods of time as well as d i s tance . Th is phenomenon is c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of mountainous regions (Conrad, 1944; Odum, 1959) and has great s i g n i f i c a n c e in terms of loca l ecosystems. In con t r a s t , s o i l temperatures at the 20 inch depth were more s tab le and a l t i t u d i n a l trends were less v a r i a b l e . The Ju l y , January and annual mean temperatures, for the towns of Hedley and Keremeos and the abandoned s i t e on Nickel P l a te , ind ica te a trend towards a warmer c l imate from west to east and a coo l ing trend up the mountains. The growing season data for the Similkameen Va l l ey (Canada Land Inventory Report Number 3, 1966) show that the a g r i c u l t u r a l areas in th i s v a l l e y experience between 3,500 and 4,000 degree-days above 42 degrees Fahrenheit and have a mean f r o s t - f r ee per iod of about 140 days As one moves away from the main va l l e y these f igures are no longer a p p l i c a b l e , but from e x i s t i n g data i t can be deduced that the growing season is sharply reduced at higher e l e va t i ons . The temperature lapse rates simply emphasize the rapid changes that occur with a l t i t u d e over very short hor izonta l d i s tances . The v a r i a b i 1 i t y between d i f f e r e n t s i t e s corroborates the fac t that a l t i t u d e is not the only f ac to r in f luenc ing temperature regimes. \ 2.2.4 Interact ion of Climate with other Habitat Var iab les In an evo lu t ionary sense c l imate played a key ro le in the formation of s o i l s , the development of c e r t a i n plant communities and the ex is tence of faunal species in any ecosystem. In add i t i on to c l imate many other phys ica l and b io l og i c a l f ac tors l im i t the p roduc t i v i t y of 55 such ecosystems (Odum, 1959). Forage product ion on semi-arid to a r id ranges is s i g n i f i c a n t l y co r re l a t ed with the a v a i l a b i l i t y of moisture ( B l a i s d e l l , 1958; Sneva and Hyder, 1962). Cur r ie and Peterson (1966) found that on Agropyron cristatum ranges, s p e c i f i c growing season p r e c i p i t a t i o n patterns accounted for 87 per cent or more of the v a r i a t i on in forage y i e l d s . Harper (I969) found that on his study s i t e s in the Ashnola Bas in, moisture l im i ted the extent of the annual growth per iod whi le temperature determined the onset of growth in the sp r ing . In other words, i t was the lack of moisture that caused the annual ly observed mid-summer dormancy. This dormancy was not observed on higher subalpine and a lp ine ranges. The data accumulated during the course of th i s study show that p r e c i p i t a t i o n increased with a r i s e in a l t i t u d e while evaporat ion and temperature decreased. It can, the re fo re , be concluded that on higher ranges temperature takes over as the l i m i t i n g fac to r to forage product -i v i t y . Temperature not only l im i t s p roduc t i v i t y at high a l t i t u d e s but i t a l so sets the upper l im i t to vegetat ive growth (Daubenmire, 1959 and 1968). Climate inf luences not only the vegetat ive p roduc t i v i t y of an area but i t i n d i r e c t l y a f f e c t s the d i s t r i b u t i o n and p roduc t i v i t y of animal spec ies . In th i s study a rea , p a r t i c u l a r l y on winter ranges for bighorn sheep .and mu1e deer , the product ion of forage and in turn the range ca r ry ing capac i ty are r e l a t i v e l y low (Blood, 1961; Demarchi, 1965; Harper, 1969; McLean, 1969; and Smith, E. R., i960). F igure \k and Table 6 show r e l a t i v e forage y i e l d data for the years 1963, 1966 and 1967. 56 1 4 00-1 300-1 2 00-1 1 00-.J 0 0 0 -9 00-(0 c o Q. 800 — 600-500-4 0 0 -3 0 0 -^ 1966 • 1963 (Demarchi ) UJ < _ i o z I CO < or UJ o _l 0 • / / / / ' o rr 4 or CO 0 / / / / / / / / / / / / or UJ Q_ UJ o Q UJ 0-o X H O CO / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / • / / / / / / / 5 U J > UJ < _J PI / / / t / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / f / / / / / / / / • 3 000 4000 6000 ALTITUDE ( FEET ) Figure 14. TRENDS IN FORAGE YIELDS WITH CHANGING ELEVATION ON SOME OPEN GRASSLANDS IN THE STUDY AREA Table 6. Average 1967 forage y i e l d s f o r s e l e c t e d s i t e s in the Ashnola Basin Location and A l t i t u d e 1. Lakev i ew Area a) Subalpine meadow (dry phase) 6500' b) Wet subalpine meadow on Lakeview Mountain 2. South Slope 5000' 3. Crater Mountain 4000' 4. Crat e r Mountain 5500' 5. Dune's Hi 11 2000' 6. Similkameen V a l l e y near Paul Creek 1600' Community Type grassland grassland - sedge Agropyron spicatum - Artemisia frigida Poa secunda - Koeleria cristata Poa sp. - Stipa columbiana Stipa comata - Danthonia sp. Agropyron spicatum - Bromus tectorum 1 2 Y i e l d s per Acre ( l b . / a c r e ) 1221 1450 606 1247 1750 354 214 NOTE: Means c a l c u l a t e d from 10, im c l i p samples per s i t e vn 58 In add i t i on to the general e f f e c t that c l imate has on both the vegetat ion and ungulates , one p a r t i c u l a r v a r i a b l e , snow, creates fur ther d i f f i c u l t i e s for big game spec ies . Snowfa l l , accumulated depth, con t i nu i t y of snow cover , texture of the snow, and r e l a t i v e c rus t iness a l l in te rac t in c o n t r o l l i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n and surv iva l of ungulates at least during severe winters . The Ashnola Basin c e r t a i n l y presents no except ion . Bighorn and mule deer here are g rea t l y dependent upon the p r e va i l i ng winter c l i m a t i c regime. Excessive snow cover severe ly r e s t r i c t s the a v a i l a b i l i t y of forage to these ungulates. F i f t een to 18 inches of snow appear to represent the upper to lerance l im i t for deer. Bighorn, with the i r shorter l egs , probably are even more r e s t r i c t e d by depth of snow. Edwards (1956) postu la tes that snow depth may be the primary cause of a number of f ac tors observed in winter mor t a l i t y of ungulates. The r e s t r i c t i v e inf luence of snow often r esu l t s in excess ive use of small por t ions of the tota l range, e s p e c i a l l y during severe w inters . Snow, the re fo re , can i n d i r e c t l y cont r ibute to l o ca l i z ed range de t e r i o r a t i on and forage dep l e t i on . Th is in turn lowers the ca r ry ing capac i ty on these c r i t i c a l winter ing s lopes . In the Ashnola area snow seldom reaches a depth of over 12 inches on exposed slopes below 6,000 feet (F ig . 15; B lood, 1961; and Harper, 1969). On less exposed, tree covered, nor ther l y- fac ing and high a l t i t u d e ranges, snow cover can be much greater and th is of ten l as t s fo r long per iods o f time during most winters . These slopes become unava i lb le to sheep and deer during most per iods of inclement weather. Ranges a va i l ab l e to wi ld ungulates during severe winters are not extensive in th i s area , expec i a l l y s ince the lower grass land slopes 59 N O V E M B E R D E C E M B E R J A N U A R Y F E B R U A R Y M A R C H • A P R I L M A Y J U N E R E C O R D I N G P E R I O D . Figure 15. SNOW DEPTH ALONG THE PAUL CREEK TRANSECT (1966-67) AND SOME OTHER NEAR BY STATIONS 60 in the Similkameen Va l l ey are u t i l i z e d for more intens ive a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes. P roduc t i v i t y on the remaining winter ing slopes is b a s i c a l l y l imi ted by the lack o f a va i l ab l e moisture. U t i l i z a t i o n of these ranges was almost year round during the per iod of th i s i n ves t i ga t i on . A re t rogress i ve t rend, away from climax plant communities, on these ranges could c e r t a i n l y be a t t r i bu ted to th i s heavy use by a l l g razers . Brayshaw (1965), Daubenmire and Daubenmire (1968) , Kraj ina (1965) and McLean (1969) a l l record some observat ions with regard to the inf luence of c l imate on vegetat ive d i s t r i b u t i o n patterns in the Southern In ter ior of B r i t i s h Columbia and adjacent Washington. Cl imate is at least p a r t i a l l y respons ib le for the a l t i t u d i n a l zonation of the vegeta t ion . Wide loca l v a r i a t i ons in topographic and edaphic cond i t i ons , however, modify th i s macrocl imat ic e f f e c t on the vegeta t ion . In the Ashnola Basin temperature, a va i l ab l e moisture and snow cover are the three most s i g n i f -icant va r i ab les as far as vegetat ion and ungulates are concerned. 61 2.3 F lo ra For the purpose of th i s d i s s e r t a t i o n d i s t i n c t habi tat types and plant assoc i a t ions are assumed to e x i s t . This fo l lows McLean (1969) and Daubenmire (I968). Habitat types are considered the fundamental eco log i ca l u n i t s , each being descr ibed in terms of i t s probable cl imax composit ion in regard to canopy and understory p lant spec ies . Whittaker (1962) agrees that " c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by dominance is inherent ly no less subject ive than other approaches" . In such a h igh ly d issected orographic region as the Ashnola Bas in , i t is d i f f i c u l t to de l im i t and def ine plant communities. On the map and in th i s desc r i p t i on only the major vegetat ive components of the area are mentioned. It was found to be impossible to pattern the vegetat ion on i t s smal lest un i ts or provide the reader with complete species composit ion l i s t s . Relevant information is extensive on the vegetat ive zones and plant communities in the semi-arid ranges of southern B r i t i s h Columbia and adjacent Washington and Idaho (Blood, I96I; Brayshaw, 1955 and 1965; Daubenmire, 1942, 1943, 1952 and 1968; Demarchi, 1965; Harper, 1969; Kra j ina , 1959 and 1965; McLean, 1969; Rowe, 1959; Sp i l sbury and T i s d a l e , 1944; T i s d a l e , 1947; T i sda l e and McLean, 1957). Only B lood, Demarchi , . Harper and McLean worked in the immediate v i c i n i t y of the Ashnola Bas in. As far as bighorn sheep ranges are concerned, such workers as Buechner (I960), Sugden (1961), Smith, D. R. (i960) and Honess and Frost (1942) have descr ibed t yp i ca l vegetat ion pat te rns . 62 2.3.1 Methods Several general and s p e c i f i c techniques were used during the course of th i s inves t iga t ion to desc r ibe , de l im i t and def ine habi ta t types. For the .non-forested plant communities, among them the a lp ine communities, on ranges not studied i n t ens i v e l y , general t ransects and ocu lar s i t e ra t ings were made. Species composit ion and r e l a t i v e abundance, range c o n d i t i o n , use, ocu lar trend est imates (by presence and absence of increaser , invader and decreaser spec i e s ) , s igns of so i l e ros ion and absence of plant cover and l i t t e r were recorded. Th is part of the f i e l d inves t iga t ions helped immensely in l a te r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of habi tat types and boundaries on a i r photos. Assoc ia t ions with in these habitat types as well as the composit ion of the synusia involved have been i d e n t i f i e d from general t ransects and s i t e inspec t ions . Approximately seventy subalpine and a lp ine g rass land , tundra and fo res t s i t e s were v i s i t e d . About 15 mi les of general t ransects were run in the two f i e l d seasons. Demarchi (1965) es tab l i shed several s im i l a r t ransects on key winter ranges. In 1967, three c l u s t e r s of permanently marked t r ansec t s , using the modif ied Parker 3-step method (Parker,, 1954; Hutchings and Holmgren, 1959), with a tota l length of 1,400 f ee t , were e s t ab l i shed . Two s lopes , h i s t o r i c a l l y rece i v ing heavy ungulate use, were se l ec ted . On Crater Mountain, near Meausette Creek, two 300 foot t ransects were marked in a s t ra igh t l i n e , perpendicu lar to the contours , on a Poa secunda-Stipa columbiana grass land community. Ident ica l readings were again taken in 1969. Abundance of feca l p e l l e t s , general range c o n d i t i o n , u t i l i z a t i o n 63 of herbs, v i g o r and height of i n d i c a t o r species such as Artemisia frigida, Poa sp. and Stipa sp., were noted q u a l i t a t i v e l y in a d d i t i o n to the loop " h i t s " (Parker, op. c i t . ) at every foot marker; the l a t t e r record g i v e s a measurement of frequency. Eight 100 foot t r a n s e c t s were s i m i l a r i t y e s t a b l i s h e d on S t a r v a t i o n Slope, t h i s being a range that received almost continuous annual grazing and appeared to be in poor subclimax c o n d i t i o n . These two slopes were s e l e c t e d f o r trend s t u d i e s because of t h e i r known importance as sheep and deer winter and e a r l y s p r i n g ranges as w e l l as t h e i r extremely heavy summer u t i l i z a t i o n . In c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h rejuvenation t r i a l s (discussed in a subsequent se c t i o n ) f i v e s i t e s were s e l e c t e d f o r i n t e n s i v e work and permanent point quadrat t r a n s e c t s were e s t a b l i s h e d . These p l o t s were located at Dune's H i l l , Juniper Slope, South Slope and two grasslands on C r a t e r Mountain (see base map, Appendix 9). On each s i t e a t o t a l of 72 p l o t s were sampled to measure species abundance, per cent ground cover, and frequency. One hundred po i n t h i t s , 1 inch a p a r t , were recorded per p l o t . Composition, frequency and trends can be measured t h i s way. In a d d i t i o n , height, v i g o r and y i e l d measurements were taken in l a t e J u l y . This technique (Brown, 1954; National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council Publ. 890, 1962) was chosen over" c h a r t i n g to give sampling u n i f o r m i t y between s i t e s . Point quadrat t r a n s e c t s were found to be f a s t e r in execution than c h a r t i n g . By c a l c u l a t i n g the cover x frequency index (Buechner, I960) another measure of the o v e r a l l abundance of a given species was obtained. The number of p l o t s per s i t e as w e l l as the number of p o i n t s recorded per p l o t permit r e l a t i v e comparisons between s i t e s . 64 Within each of seven exc losure p lo ts es tab l i shed by Blood in I960, a one hundred point quadrat t ransect was run. Even though the p lo ts are small and the techniques employed in i960 and l a te r in 1967 are not comparable, some of the e f f e c t s of p ro tec t ion from grazing can be shown. Both McLean (1969) and Harper (1969) made quan t i t a t i ve and q u a l i t a t i v e measurements of the habi ta t types and plant a ssoc i a t i ons they were i n ves t i ga t i ng . McLean's (op. c i t . ) s i t e ra t ings are usefu l in comparing r e l a t i v e p roduc t i v i t y between p a r t i c u l a r ranges and hab i ta t types. Harper (op. c i t . ) in four communities, made more intens ive p roduc t i v i t y measurements and s i t e eva luat ions by forage samplings over a per iod of two years . The rangeland or cover type map de l im i t s twelve habi tat un i t s on the basis of e x i s t i n g plant communities, land use such as logg ing , f i r e h i s t o r y , t he i r value to ungulates (escape t e r r a i n ) , t he i r e l eva t iona l range and exposure. They are habitat types in the broadest u t i l i t a r i a n sense, analogous to those descr ibed by Smith (1954), Harr is and Joy (1960) in "Manual of Photographic I n te rp re ta t ion " and Loveless (1967). Techniques of mapping fo l low those of Klichler (1967) but are less e labora te . Several rangeland types were subdiv ided. Rock outc rops , ta lus slopes and c l i f f t e r r a i n were put into the same general category but a subd iv i s ion was. made on the basis of whether the area was used by ungulates or not. The main timber types were a l so separated into sub-categor ies , depending upon the overstory crown cover or logging h i s t o r y . Areas having tree crown c losures in excess of 50 per cent produce l i t t l e forage for 65 ungulates. Logged areas and more open timber types, usua l l y mature types in th i s a rea , produce both browse and herbaceous forage of value to both sheep and deer. Ex t rapo la t ions from known habi tat types to unknown areas were made using a va i l ab l e ae r i a l photographs, taken for the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Lands, Forests and Water Resources in 1966. A sketchmaster was then employed to t rans fe r the habi tat un i t s from the a i r photos to a base map. An intermediate p ro jec t ion step was a l so used to accommodate changes in sca le on the photos and between photos and the base map. Such sca le changes become s i g n i f i c a n t in mountainous t e r ra in (Avery, 1962). The sketchmaster e l iminates most major v a r i a t i ons and adjusts a l l un i t s to the same sca l e . A simple polar planimeter was used on the f i n a l map to determine acreages fo r each u n i t . D i sc re te . community boundaries are shown on the map. In r e a l i t y a l l boundaries between habi tat types are only more or less d i s c r e t e . These map un i t s are somewhat analogous to S p i l s b u r y ' s (1963) f o res t s i t e types. At th i s sca le and at th i s point in the Ashnola Basin s t u d i e s , i t is not poss ib le to de l im i t actual p lant a ssoc i a t i ons or a s soc i e s . For example, on the ground on Juniper Slope at least four e a s i l y de l imi ted plant communities can be recognized but on the map these had to be grouped into one un i t due to s ca l e . 2.3-2 Habi tat Types Five e l e v a t i o n a l l y and c l i m a t i c a l l y con t ro l l ed vegetat iona l zones occur in the Ashnola Basin. McLean (1969) c l a s s i f i e d them and d iv ided each into habitat types. Unfortunate ly most of the cl imax plant 66 communities, the assoc i a t i ons of McLean (op. c i t . ) and Daubenmire (1968), are d i f f i c u l t to f ind and iden t i f y in th i s reg ion. Ex i s t i ng land use p rac t i ces and grazing pressures have resu l ted in d r a s t i c vegetat iona l changes over large acreages wi th in the study area. Extensive f i r e s and logging of mature timber stands, as shown on the cover type map, have fur ther modif ied cl imax communities. The Artemisia tridentata and the Pinus ponderosa zones are represented only on the northern and eastern f r inges of the study area . These two zones show the greatest signs of d is turbance . The Pseudotsuga menziesii zone is very extensive and probably of greatest value to a l l ungulates. Ca t t l e and horses u t i l i z e open timber stands and grass lands with in th is zone for sp r i ng , summer and f a l l pasture. Deer and bighorn l a rge l y depend upon key ranges wi th in these zones for winter and spr ing forage and cover . The Abies lasiocarpa and the A lp ine zones are well represented on the upper Plateau and mountain peaks. They are u t i l i z e d mainly from midsummer to late f a l l by a l l ungulates. I The Artemisia tridentata zone is conf ined to remnant stands on a l l u v i a l fans and r i ve r terraces between Keremeos and the 49th p a r a l l e l . It is of l i t t l e value to bighorns but deer, both whi te-ta i led and mule deer, use the a l f a l f a f i e l d s and orchards es tab l i shed in th i s zone. The one habitat type representat ive of th i s zone that enters the study area is the Artemisia tridentata - Stipa comata a s s o c i a t i o n . The Artemisia -Stipa a s soc i a t i on ex i s t s on the lower benches and terraces fac ing north and northeast in the Similkameen Va l l e y . Very few climax s i t e s could be located. The dominant species are Artemisia tridentata, Stipa comata. 67 Poa secunda, and Phlox longifotia. On Indian Reserve land near the Paul Creek road s e r a i species i n c l u d i n g Sporobolus cryptandrusy Bromus •tectorum, and Chrysothamnus dvacunculoides predominate. Heavy gr a z i n g has probably caused the d e p l e t i o n . (For species l i s t s of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e communities both w i t h i n t h i s as wel l as a l l other zones and h a b i t a t types see Appendix 8.) 2.3-2 (a) Pinus ponderosa Zone This s e r i e s i s not well represented in the Ashnola Basin. An abrupt change in dominance, (observed by Daubenmire (1952) in Washington and Idaho) that supposedly separates the Pinus zone from the Pseudotsuga s e r i e s i s not evident here. I s o l a t e d Pinus ponderosa trees can be found f o r miles up in t o the Ashnola V a l l e y even though the dominant v e g e t a t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Douglas f i r zone. In the study area the Pinus zone appears above the Artemisia zone in the Similkameen V a l l e y and the Ashnola d e l t a area, but on i t s upper l i m i t i t i n t e g r a t e s w i t h and i s di s p l a c e d by the Pseudotsuga menziesii - Agropyron spicatum community. In the study area, few stands can be found where Pinus ponderosa i s the sol e dominant t r e e . Douglas f i r trees are u s u a l l y present. McLean (1969) o f t e n found that a b e l t of grassland separates the Pinus from the Pseudotsuga zone but t h i s i s not evident in the Ashnola Basin. K r a j i n a (1965) c l a s s i f i e d t h i s Pinus ponderosa zone as the ponderosa pine subzone of the ponderosa pine - bunchgrass zone. Brayshaw (1965)' considers t h i s zone as "a zone of overlap or i n t e r f u s i o n of the f o r e s t and steppe formation between which i t l i e s " . This d e s c r i b e s the s i t u -a t i o n in the Ashnola Basin. 68 The Pinus ponderosa - Agropyron spicatum a s s o c i a t i o n forms a c l i m a t i c c l i m a x (McLean, op. c i t . ) on r i v e r t e r r a c e s a l o n g t h e S i m i l k a m e e n R i v e r above the Artemisia - Stipa h a b i t a t t y p e . Agropyron has been l a r g e l y e l i m i n a t e d (see A p p e n d i x 8) by a g r i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s , e s p e c i a l l y t h r o u g h heavy g r a z i n g . Chrysothamnus dracunculoides> Bromus tectorum, Sporobolus cryptandrus and Stipa spp. a r e dominant. Even though s m a l l f r a g m e n t s o f o t h e r a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e Pinus zone were r e c o g n i z e d and many o f the s p e c i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Pinus - Festuca and Artemisia - Festuca h a b i t a t t y p e s o f McLean (op. c i t . ) were i d e n t i f i e d no o t h e r h a b i t a t t y p e b e l o n g i n g t o t h i s s e r i e s i s b e l i e v e d t o o c c u r i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . Festuca idahoensis i s c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c a l l y a b s e n t a t l o w e r e l e v a t i o n s . 2.3.2 (b) Pseudotsuga menziesii Zone T h i s s e r i e s l i e s between t h e open s a v a n n a - l i k e f o r e s t o f the S i m i l k a m e e n V a l l e y and t h e dense Abies lasiocarpa f o r e s t s o f h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s . Most o f the g r a s s l a n d r a n g e s , c r i t i c a l f o r b i g h o r n sheep s u r v i v a l , o c c u r as t o p o - e d a p h i c c o m m u n i t i e s on s o u t h - f a c i n g s l o p e s w i t h i n t h i s zone. As i n most o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e Pseudotsuga zone r e p r e s e n t s the main f o r e s t g r a z i n g a r e a and a l s o p r o d u c e s most o f t h e t i m b e r i n the A s h n o l a B a s i n . L a r g e s t a n d s o f Pseudotsuga have been burned i n the p a s t and Pinus contorta s t a n d s , ( t h e most common s e r a i t r e e ) e x t e n d o v e r most o f the b u r n s . As shown by the c o v e r t y p e map, t h i s zone e x t e n d s from about 2,500 f e e t t o about 6,500 f e e t i n e l e v a t i o n , d e p e n d i n g upon a s p e c t and e x p o s u r e . On n o r t h - f a c i n g and l e s s exposed s l o p e s , i t e x t e n d s lower 69 and on exposed as w e l l as south-facing slopes i t extends somewhat higher. A great v a r i a t i o n of crown c l o s u r e e x i s t s between, as w e l l ' a s w i t h i n Pseudotsuga stands. Most of the more open stands, as w e l l as the grasslands w i t h i n the zone, provide s i g n i f i c a n t q u a n t i t i e s of forage. Young stands f o l l o w i n g f i r e are p r a c t i c a l l y impenetrable. Associated w i t h the climax t r e e , Pseudotsuga menziesii, are such species as Pinus ponderosa (lower edge o n l y ) , Pinus oontorta, and Populus tremuloides along creek beds. The Populus species occur s p o r a d i c a l l y in homogeneous stands on exposed s i t e s along the Paul Creek road, on S t a r v a t i o n Slope and on s o u t h - f a c i n g slopes a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the mid-grasslands of Crater Mountain. The Pseudotsuga menziesii - Agropyron spicatum h a b i t a t type, occurs on both sides of the lower Ashnola V a l l e y up to an e l e v a t i o n of about 3,500 f e e t . Some Pinus ponderosa are i n t e r s p e r s e d at lower e l e v a t i o n s . Crown c l o s u r e s are g e n e r a l l y l e s s than 50 per cent and the dominant ground cover of Agropyron spicatum, [Calamagrostis rubescens being c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y absent), Koeleria c r i s t a t a and A c h i l l e a lanulosa provides good forage f o r a l l grazers at varying times of the year. Deer and sheep use t h i s h a b i t a t type e a r l y in s p r i n g . Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a and Philadelphus lewisii are the main t a l l shrubs found in depressions and more shaded areas. Lower growing shrubs such as Artemisia f r i g i d a , Ribes sp., Chrysothamnus dracunculoides, and Opuntia sp. are patchy in occurrence. The "Dune's H i l l " s i t e s e l e c t e d f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s t u d i e s is w i t h i n t h i s h a b i t a t type. Here, as on most a c c e s s i b l e , g e n t l e r , low mountain f o r e s t s lopes, the climax forage species have been l a r g e l y 70 removed by graz ing . Invaders such as Danthonia sp. , Plantago purshii, Balsamorhiza sagittata, Vevbasoum thapsus, Stipa columbiana and mosses • -are common in the sera i vegeta t ion . However, most of the area covered by the Pseudotsuga - Agropyron habi tat type is too steep and rough fo r grazing by domestic animals. It is thus mostly in a cl imax s t a t e , except where i t has been recent ly burned. The Pseudotsuga menziesii - Festuca idahoensis habi ta t type descr ibed by McLean (1969) was not found in th i s area . The cha rac te r -i s t i c co-dominant Festuca idahoensis (Demarchi, 1965) and a l l other ground-cover species such as Calamagrostis rubescens, Koeleria c r i s t a t a , Antennaria spp . , Fragaria virginiana, Agropyron spicatum, and Astragalus sp. t yp i ca l for th i s a s s o c i a t i o n , were found between 2,500 and 4,000 feet under Pseudotsuga menziesii canopies. Pinus ponderosa as well as Festuca idahoensis were only r a re l y present , the l a t t e r mainly on grass lands . Most of the Pseudotsuga zone was c l a s s i f i e d as a Pseudotsuga -Calamagrostis habi tat type. It is bel ieved that , in th i s study a rea , only the Pseudotsuga-Agropyron and the Pseudotsuga-Calamagrdstis types can be c l e a r l y d i s t ingu i shed by the presence and/or absence of the co-dominant grass spec ies . Festuca idahoensis is c e r t a i n l y present in the l a t t e r a s s o c i a t i o n . Brayshaw (1955), descr ibes a Pseudotsuga-Agropyron assoc i a t i on only for the southern i n t e r i o r dry be l t . Th is does not include Festuca idahoensis. The Pseudotsuga menziesii - Calamagrostis rubescens a s soc i a t i on is the most prevalent habitat type wi th in the Pseudotsuga zone and on the cover type map i t appears as the mid-montane f o r e s t . Demarchi (1965) 71 described part of i t , the grasslands, in d e t a i l . Most of the key bighorn w i n t e r i n g ranges occur w i t h i n t h i s type. The s i t e s s e l e c t e d f o r r e h a b i l i -t a t ion work in t h i s i nvest i gat ion mostly f a l 1 wi t h i n i t as wel1. Timber stands in t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n are l a r g e l y in good to e x c e l l e n t (climax) c o n d i t i o n , even though they have r e l a t i v e l y open crown coverage and c o n t a i n large volumes of forage f o r ungulates. The reason f o r t h i s probably l i e s in the f a c t that the grassland understory i s predominantly Calamagvostis rubescens, a species of only l i m i t e d p a l a t -a b i l i t y and preference to c a t t l e and sheep; deer and c a t t l e seem to use i t e a r l y in s p r i n g . Large areas w i t h i n t h i s h a b i t a t type were burned at one time (see map f o r dates) and are l a r g e l y unused by ungulates. They have l i t t l e herbaceous understory, and i f used are mainly used f o r cover". They are today covered wit h dense stands of Pinus oontorta. As McLean s t a t e s , even though the e l e v a t i o n a l range of t h i s h a b i t a t type i s p r i m a r i l y between 3,000 and 4,500 f e e t , i t can extend downward to almost 2,000 feet on n o r t h - f a c i n g slopes and upward to the Abies lasiocarpa zone on south-facing ones to a maximum of 6,000 f e e t . Besides Pseudotsuga menziesii, the-climax dominant tree s p e c i e s , Pinus oontorta, a f t e r f i r e , Populus tremuloides, on deeper r i c h e r s o i l s , and Picea engelmanni, at higher e l e v a t i o n s , are present. . The shrub synusia includes Rosa sp., Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Shepherdia canadensis, sometimes Pachistima myrsinites, Juniperus communis, Lonicera utahensis, and Vaccinium sp. The dominant grass species i s Calamagrostis rubescens. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c forbs are Arnica Cordifolia, Carex sp., Astragalus sp., Fragaria virginiana, Aster sp., Vicia americana, and Lupinus sp. For a more complete l i s t i n g see McLean (I969). Poa pratensis and Verbascum 72 thapsus have invaded l o c a l l y , e s p e c i a l l y along the edges towards the grasslands. A f t e r l o g g i n g , Agropyron spicatum and Koeleria c r i s t a t a - increased s u b s t a n t i a l l y at lower e l e v a t i o n s whi1e Calamagrostis rubescens d i d l i k e w i s e at higher e l e v a t i o n s . A f t e r f i r e , Shepherdia canadensia and Lonicera utahensis tend to increase together w i t h a t h i c k regeneration of Pinus contorta. Several other observers have recognized t h i s p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n elsewhere. (Brayshaw, 1955 and l l l i n g w o r t h and A r l i d g e , I960; Daubenmire and Daubenmire, 1968; McLean and Holland, 1958; T i s d a l e and McLean, 1957). Based on the e l e v a t i o n a l ranges of i n d i c a t o r species and s o i l moisture, McLean (1969) recognized several phases of t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n but no e f f o r t , was made to separate them or even i d e n t i f y them in t h i s study. The Festuca idahoensis - Eriogonum heracleoides h a b i t a t type forms the major bighorn winter range in t h i s Basin. South Slope, Juniper Slope, S t a r v a t i o n Slope, R e l i c t Slope, F l a t i r o n Slope, and several mid-grasslands on Crater Mountain and along Paul Creek are p r i m a r i l y composed of t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n , even though large areas have long ago l o s t t h e i r climax p l a n t cover. Most south-facing benches and t e r r a c e s between 3,500 and 6,500 feet probably were covered at one time by t h i s topo-edaphic climax. On one slope of Crater Mountain, i t merges d i r e c t l y w i t h the subalpine and a l p i n e v e g e t a t i o n . Neither shrubs nor trees are s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t o r s to t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n . Populus tremuloides occurs in some draws on moist, r i c h s o i l . Eriogonum heracleoides and Rosa woodsii are the only shrubs g e n e r a l l y present in climax stands. Artemisia frigida,. Artemisia tridentata and Chrysothamnus dracunculoides have invaded wherever heavy 73 grazing has occur red . Unfor tunate ly , few cl imax s i t e s can be found. Only areas too steep for domestic l i v es tock and l i t t l e frequented by wi ld ungulates show the p r i s t i n e , vegetat ive cover . Poa pratensis at a l l e leva t ions has replaced much of the cl imax Festuca-Eriogonum-Agropyron cover . On some s i t e s , such as near the Juniper exc losure or on F l a t i r o n Slope ( s i tes are shown on base map), the dense Poa sp. sod-grass cover has completely replaced the bunchgrass communities. Species such as Poa secunda, Stipa columbiana and Stipa richardsoni, Verbascum thapsus and many annuals or winter annuals such as Collinsia parvif lora, Bromus tectorwn, and Lepidium densiflorum have increased dramat i ca l l y on some s lopes . Grazing succession has near ly e l iminated the Festuca l o c a l l y . Other species such as Agropyron spicatum, Lupinus sericeus and Eriogonum heracleoides have decreased in quant i t y . Such species as Agropyron trachycaulum, Anemone multifida, Potentilla sp. and Geranium viscossissimum are present, in the Poa communities but are lack ing from the Festuca-Eriogonum a s s o c i a t i o n . The Poa community most l i k e l y represents a grazing cl imax (Demarchi, 1965)-Most of the winter ing ranges a re , the re fo re , now covered by a mosaic of plant communities vary ing with e l e v a t i o n , r e l a t i v e s lope , moisture regime, so i l type and both past and present grazing pressures . Juniper Slope represents a c l a s s i c case in po in t . Four d i f f e r e n t communities can be recognized. On one, Artemisia frigida, Oxytropis campestris and Astragalus sp. are abundant. The community on the exposed r idges receives heavy year round g raz ing . Some of the depressions and swales d i sp l ay a community composed of many species such as Stipa s p . , Poa s p . , Agropyron s p . , Koeleria cristata and var ious f o r b s , such as 74 Geranium visaossissiman and Potentilla sp. The Poa sp. sod-grass community has been mentioned above. It occupies the more mesic side of the slope with b e t t e r s o i l s . At the bottom, on steeper p a r t s of the slope and above 6 ,000 f e e t , the probable climax communities of Agropyron-Festuca and Agropyron-Koeleria can be recognized. Demarchi (1965) describes a s i m i l a r mosaic, somewhat more slope and e l e v a t i o n a l l y d e l i m i t e d , on South Slope. Permanently marked t r a n s e c t s both on Crater Mountain and on S t a r v a t i o n Slope (see e a r l i e r d e s c r i p t i o n s of these t r a n s e c t s ) s i m i l a r i l y t r a v e r s e such elevationa 1 1y separated bands of p l a n t communities. These are a l l on slopes that received heavy grazing pressures. Annuals, such as the vigorous invader Bromus tectorum, play an important r o l e in many of these s e r a i communities. T i s d a l e (19^7) describes a community s i m i l a r to t h i s where Festuca scabrella i s the indigenous species and not Festuca idahoensis as i t i s in the Ashnola community. Most of the mid-grasslands d e l i m i t e d on the cover type map belong to t h i s Festuca-Eriogonum h a b i t a t type, even though many of them are not climax. 2.3-2 (c) Abies lasiocarpa Zone The Abies zone extends from the upper mid-grasslands, the Festuca-Eriogonum a s s o c i a t i o n , and the Pseudotsuga-Calamagrostis h a b i t a t type to t i m b e r l i n e . E l e v a t i o n a l l y , i t l i e s from about 5 ,000 f e e t on n o r t h - f a c i n g slopes to about 7 ,000 f e e t where a krummholz or other ecotone separates i t from the a l p i n e grasslands and tundra.. Besides Abies lasiocarpa (the climax t r e e ) , Picea engelmanni. 75 Pinus contorta and sometimes Pseudotsuga menziesii can be prominent. . McLean (19^9) re fe rs to the l a t t e r species as s e r a i , but i t may be that Picea engelmanni is a l so a cl imax tree under ce r t a in cond i t i ons . Pinus albicaulis and Pinus oontovta are both found near the t imber l i ne . The former of ten grows in a creeping krummholz pos i t i on at these high a l t i t u d e s . Larix l y a l l i is l o c a l l y common at t imber l ine and is found in pure stands at e leva t ions of 7,200 feet on Lakeview and Haystack Mounta ins . K ra j i na ' s (1965) Engelmann spruce-suba1pine f i r zone, part of the Canadian Co rd i l l e r an subalpine fo res t reg ion , is therefore a better des ignat ion for th i s zone for the Ashnola a rea . Engelmann spruce is c e r t a i n l y a dominant species in most subalpine timber stands. The subalpine zone descr ibed here is depicted as such on the cover type map. It is sometimes d i f f i c u l t , however, to separate the Pseudotsuga from the Abies zone on a i r photos. E leva t iona l d i s t i n c t i o n s alone were used when the types could not be separated otherwise. Besides the tree species commonly found in th i s zone, Vaaoinium scoparium is the dominant shrub and Calamagrostis rubescens the most common herb. Lupinus s p . , Linnaea borealis, Pyrola secunda, Carex concinnoides, Arnica cordifolia and Pachistima myrsinites are genera l l y present . The var ious subalpine fo res t assoc ia t ions were not de l imi ted in th is inves t iga t ion as the Abies zone is not very extensive in the Ashnola Basin. McLean (1969) separated the zone into var ious hab i ta t types, some of which were s p l i t into phases depending on the p r e v a i l i n g moisture regime. He bel ieved that stands conta in ing Ledum glandulosum 76 and Rhododendron albiflorum occur too s p o r a d i c a l l y on moist shaded s i t e s to rank as a s s o c i a t i o n s or even phases of other h a b i t a t types. McLean (op. c i t . ) recognizes an Abies lasiocarpa - Vaacinium saoparium h a b i t a t type w i t h two a d d i t i o n a l moisture phases. The Calamagrostis rubesoens phase occurs in d r i e r s i t e s than e i t h e r of the other two. The main h a b i t a t type, Abies-Vaccinium, does not c o n t a i n Calamagrostis rubesoens. It occurs u s u a l l y above the Calamagrostis phase between 5,500 and 6,500 f e e t . It i s u s u a l l y n e a r l y impenetrable f o r ungulates. Most of the "1 l b . " cover type f a l l s i n t o t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n . The uppermost phase of the Abies-Vaccinium a s s o c i a t i o n i s the Phyllodoce empetriformis phase, o c c u r r i n g as a climax between 6,500 f e e t and timber-l i n e . This i s the krummholz b e l t , rather open stands of Pioea engelmanni, Abies lasiocarpa, Pinus contorta and o f t e n Pinus albicaulis. Vaccinium sp. and Phyllodoce empetriformis dominate the shrub l a y e r . Forbs such as Arnica latifolia, Lupinus sp., Valeriana sitchensis, and grasses such as Poa alpinum, Festuca sp. and Danthonia sp. are present. The ecotone above the Abies zone i s i n t e r e s t i n g . F i r e and c l i m a t e probably both i n t e r a c t e d to form the i s l a n d s of krummholz between the meadows of su'balpine-alpine grasslands. It i s ex t e n s i v e in some areas, w h i l e in others i t can hardly be i n d e n t i f i e d . This i s an important region f o r ungulates. Summer use by deer, sheep and c a t t l e i s e x t e n s i v e . It appears that the ranges are g e n e r a l l y in good c o n d i t i o n but not enough work has been done to evaluate succession and c o n d i t i o n trends in t h i s ecotone. Wherever p o s s i b l e the ecotone was i n d i c a t e d on the map. McLean recognizes another h a b i t a t type, the Abies lasiocarpa 77 Pachistima myrsinites h a b i t a t type. The Cornus canadensis phase described by him e x i s t s l o c a l l y in the Ashnola Basin. Cornus-moss types described by A r l i d g e (i960) and l l l i n g w o r t h and A r l i d g e (1960) are very s i m i l a r to t h i s h a b i t a t type. Another h a b i t a t type u s u a l l y occurs as part of a l a r g e r grassland on south-f a c i n g slopes at about 6,000 f e e t e l e v a t i o n . It i s the Artemisia t r i d e n t a t a var. vaseyana - Calamagrostis rubescens a s s o c i a t i o n . Areas where i t occurs, such as Joe Camp Ridge, C r a t e r Mountain, along Lakeview Creek, Susap Creek and southeast of Joe Lake, are dominated by Artemisia t r i d e n t a t a var. vaseyana. Many other species of both f o r e s t and grassland zones occur here. Tree cover i s non-existent. Festuca idahoensis, Agropyron sp., Carex sp., Koeleria cristata, A c h i l l e a lanulosa, Agoseris sp. and others can be found in a d d i t i o n to the u s u a l l y common Calamagrostis rubescens. They are in d i c a t e d on the map where they were c l e a r l y recognized and large enough in extent to be meaningful. 2.3.2 (d) A l p i n e Zone Above the subalpine ecotone and krummholz b e l t at a p p r o x i -mately 7,000 to 7,200 f e e t , depending upon aspect and exposure, a l p i n e grasslands and tundra are q u i t e e x t e n s i v e . Three b a s i c d i v i s i o n s ( t h e i r e c o l o g i c a l and taxonomic s t a t u s was not e s t a b l i s h e d ) were examined i n d e t a i l . The a l p i n e t u r f s or gr a s s l a n d s , as they are named on the cover type map, are composed of predominantly grass or g r a s s - l i k e s p e c i e s , even though f o r b s , mosses and l i c h e n s are present. Festuca ovina, Phleum alpinum, Poa alpinum, Trisetum spicatum, Calamagrostis purpurescens, 78 Koeleria cristata, and Poa rupicola are t yp ica l grass species of th i s tu r f community. Sedges present are Carex albonigra, Carex nardina, Carex scirpoidea and o thers . Several members of the genus Juncus were i d e n t i f i e d - Juncus drummondii and Juncus parryii are two. There are many species of forbs in the a lp ine zone (Appendix 8). The most common members of the grasslands are Antennaria alpina, Penstemon procerus, Silene acaulis, Luzula spicata, Erigeron s p . , Potentilla s p . , Arenaria formosa, Castilleja miniata, Senecio spp . , Lupinus s p . , and Arnica rydbergii. These a lp ine grass lands are genera l l y covered by continuous tur f vegetat ion and some so i l development has occurred as evidenced by an Ah horizon of two to four inches in depth. They are u t i l i z e d extens ive ly by a l l ungulates. Most of them are in good to exce l l en t cond i t ion because they are extensive and the per iod of use is shor t . A lp ine tundra usua l l y occurs above the a lp ine grassland community although there are except ions . The tundra is usua l l y found on areas of minimal so i l development on high exposed r i dges , and areas where the exposed rock surface is qu i te extens ive . The a lp ine tundra is an area of low snow accumulat ion, due to i t s exposure and aspect , and therefore is d r i e r than the grassland communities. It is genera l l y the highest continuous plant community, i . e . , the p lants do not merely ex i s t in crags and she l tered crevasses among the rocks. •Mosses and l i chens , both f o l i o s e as well as c rus tose , form an in tegra l part of the a lp ine tundra cover ing rocks as well as inter-rock spaces. Coarse rock fragments cover the in ter-p lant spaces. Typ ica l a lp ine 79 tundra s i t e s can be found on Haystacks and Snowy Mountains. Most other peaks have some a lp ine tundra areas jus t below the sheer rock faces and rubble f i e l d s . Crater Mountain, however, has l i t t l e tundra in the sense used here. Its peak is almost e n t i r e l y covered with vo l can i c ash (Van Ryswyk, personal communication) r e su l t i ng in s o i l s which support true grass lands . Tundra vegetat ion is composed of a mixture of l i chens , f o rb s , grasses , sedges, Phyllodoce, Salix s p . , Avctostaphylos uva-ursi and Dryas s p . , Sedum sp. and Cassiope mertensiana. The species l i s t e d for the a lp ine grassland community are usua l l y present l o c a l l y . The absence of continuous t u r f , however, genera l l y d i s t i ngu i shes tundra from grass lands . The former a l so supports a r e l a t i v e l y larger propor t ion of f o rb s , l i chens and mosses rather than grass spec ies . Some cha rac te r -i s t i c species usua l l y not found in grass land communities are Dryas hookeriana, Polemonium sp.-, Salix nivalis, Lupinus lyalli, Penstemon procerus, Sedum roseum, and Silene acaulis. In add i t i on to these genera l l y extensive a lp ine communities, small patches of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Juniperus scopularum as wel1 as Phyllodooe empetriformis can be found in the subalpine ecotone and a lp ine zone. These "pa tches " are usua l l y too small to be mapped. The th i rd plant community that occurs both in the Abies lasiocarpa as well as the a lp ine zones is the Salix-Betula community. This community of ten extends into the upper habi tat types of the Pseudotsuga menziesii zone. This muskeg or swamp cover type has a high water tab le . A shrub stratum is usua l l y present . Sedges and 80 rushes are u s u a l l y part of the understory. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c species vary depending upon e l e v a t i o n and moisture regime. S a l i x sp. i s u s u a l l y abundant and Betula glandulosa o f t e n forms part of the community. Grasses such as Poa and Deschampsia sp. are o f t e n present. P e d i c u l a r i s bracteosa, Valeriana sitchensis, Arnica sp., and many other forbs can be found in t h i s community. Sometimes the bogs may have an open tree o v e r s t o r y of Picea engelmanni, but \ commonly the trees are l i m i t e d to the f r i n g e s . Wet meadows are a l s o found along creek courses, around l a k e s , near n a t u r a l springs and in l a r g e r depressions. They are u s u a l l y not very extensive in the a l p i n e zone but are q u i t e prominent in subalpine areas such as the headwaters of Lakeview, Juniper and Ewart Creeks. Large areas in the a l p i n e zone, such as the peaks of most of the mountains, are rocky c l i f f s and t a l u s slopes. L i k e the a l p i n e tundra some of these c l i f f s and t a l u s slopes are u t i l i z e d by bighorns. Mountain goats, on the few peaks where they are s t i l l s u r v i v i n g , f r e q u e n t l y use these tundra ranges and a s s o c i a t e d c l i f f s and s l i d e s as favoured h a b i t a t during summer and f a l l . Some of the rock faces are too steep f o r a l l ungulates. 2.3.3 Map Cover Types A t o t a l of s i x t e e n cover types and sub-types were depic t e d on the f i n a l map. They are f u r t h e r d e s c r i b e d , i n c l u d i n g approximate acreages, e l e v a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s and slope c l a s s e s , in Table 7. As p r e v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d , these rangeland types are not d e l i m i t e d on the basis of taxonomic plant r e l a t i o n s h i p s . They are 81 TABLE* 7 HABITAT TYPES, THEIR VERTICAL ANO HORIZONTAL DISTRIBUTION AND SLOPE CLASSES FOR THE ASHNOLA RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AREA (As Shown on the Map In A p p e n d i x 9) 1 2 HABITAT TYPES APPROXIMATE ACREAGE VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION SLOPE CLASSES (1) Low g r a s s 1ands 2140 a c r e s 1000' - 3000' c - f (2) Mid g r a s s l a n d s 3590 a c r e s 2 5 0 0 ' - 6000' C - 9 (3) S u b a l p i n e g r a s s l a n d s 1430 a c r e s 6000' - 7000* e - 9 (4) S u b a l p i n e e c o t o n e 370 a c r e s 6500" - 7000' e - 9 (5) S u b a l p i n e and a l p i n e m u s k e g s , swamps and wet meadows 2245 a c r e s 5500' - 7500' d - e (6) A l p i n e g r a s s l a n d s 6545 a c r e s 7000' - 8200' c - 9 (7) A l p i n e t u n d r a 2950 a c r e s 7500' - 8500' d - 9 (8) Upper and lower r o c k y c l i f f s , r e e f s and s i i d e s 1000' - 8600' 9 - h a. e s c a p e t e r r a i n and some use 15470 a c r e s 9 - h b. t o o s t e e p and l i t t l e u t i l i z a t i o n 10490 a c r e s h TOTAL 25960 a c r e s (9) Low Montane F o r e s t s 1940 a c r e s 1000' - 3000' c - 9 a. semi open .£60% crown c o v e r b. none c. none (10) Mid Montane F o r e s t s 2500' - 6000' a. semi-open<60% crown c o v e r 3240 a c r e s e 9 b. d e n s e s t a n d s >60% crown . c o v e r 32900 a c r e s - "'• e - 9 c. l o g g e d a r e a s 3050 a c r e s e - f TOTAL 39190 a c r e s (11) S u b a l p i n e F o r e s t s 5500' - 7000' a. s e m i - o p e n 60% crown c o v e r 7950 a c r e s e - 9 b. d e n s e s t a n d s 60% crown c o v e r 22460 a c r e s e - 9 TOTAL 30410 a c r e s (12) B u r n s and young Pinus Contorta s t a n d s 30150 a c r e s a l l a l t i t u d e s c - h NOTE: A c r e a g e s a r e t a k e n f r o m c o v e r map E l e v a t i o n a l r a n g e s a r e a p p r o x i m a t e Symbol a. b. c. d. f. SLOPE CLASSES AND TOPOGRAPHY G r a d i e n t 0.0 0.5 2.0 5.0 0.5* 2.0% 5.0% 9.0* 9.0 -15.0% 15.0 -30.0J o. 30.0 -60.OS h . o v e r 60.0$ T o t a l A c r e a g e o f S t u d y A r e a Shown on Map: 148,183 A c r e s D e s c r i p t i o n n e a r l y l e v e l t o f l a t v e r y g e n t l y s l o p i n g and u n d u l a t i n g g e n t l y s l o p i n g m o d e r a t e l y s l o p i n g and p a r t l y r o l I i n g s t r o n g l y s l o p i n g and m o d e r a t e l y r o l I I n g s t e e p l y s l o p i n g and s t r o n g l y r o l 1 I n g v e r y s t e e p l y s l o p i n g e x t r e m e l y s l o p i n g t o u n s t a b l e 82 genera l l y part of the prev ious ly descr ibed habi tat types or vegetat ion zones. The low grasslands belong to the Pinus-Agropyron habi ta t type.. Artemisia tridentata and a va r i e t y of annuals and shor t- l i ved perennia ls cons t i t u t e the p r i n c i p l e cover today. The lower montane fo res ts are p a r t i a l l y in the Pseudotsuga-Agropyron and p a r t i a l l y in the Pinus-Agropyron habi ta t type. Mixed stands of Pinus ponderosa and Pseudotsuga menziessii are the rule at lower a l t i t u d e s in th i s reg ion . The mid-grasslands f a l l wi th in the Pseudotsuga zone, p r ima r i l y the Festuca Eriogonum habi tat type. Climax stands of the Agropyron-Koeleria-Festuca communities can be found on steep port ions of R e l i c t , S tarvat ion and South S lopes. The mid-montane f o r e s t s , a l l w i th in the Pseudotsuga zone, are separable into three habitat types, the Pseudotsuga-Agropyron, Pseudotsuga-Festuca, and the Pseudotsuga-Calamagrostis, o f which the th i rd is widespread. This mid-montane fo res t cover type is d iv ided into three sub-types, depending upon crown c losure and logging h i s to r y . On the logged areas Calamagrostis qu i ck l y regenerates and increases in dens i t y , even though such invaders as Epilobium s p . , J Verbascum thapsus, Bromus tectorum and many annuals have a l so been es tab l i shed there. Forest regenerat ion, usua l l y to Pinus contorta and Pseudotsuga menziessii, on these d is turbed ranges is usua l l y slow. At lower a l t i t u d e s some Pinus ponderosa a l so reappears. The subalpine grass lands and ecotonal areas belong to a v a r i e t y of habi ta t types. They are a l l w i th in the Abies lasiocarpa zone. The subalpine f o r e s t s , w i th in the same zone, are qu i te extens ive . Two ca t ego r i e s , depending upon r e l a t i v e tree crown c l o s u r e , have been de l im i t ed . The subalpine and a lp ine muskegs, swamps and wet meadows 83 as a habi ta t type, extend from the upper Pseudotsuga to the a lp ine zone. The a lp ine grassland and tundra cover types belong to the a lp ine zone. Rocky r ee f s , c l i f f s and s l i des occur at p r a c t i c a l l y a l l e l e va t i ons , even though the physiography of th i s area resu l t s in a preponderance of th i s habitat type along the v a l l e y slopes and in the highest a lp ine reg ion. The burns were de l imi ted on a general ocu lar b a s i s , both on the ground and on a i r photos. They occurred at near ly a l l e l eva t ions and encompass many plant communities. No major burns were recognizable the a lp ine zone. They are p r imar i l y regenerat ing with Pinus contorta. Other serai as well as cl imax species are " r e i n vad ing " these burns depending upon the f i r e h i s t o r y , l oca t ion and stage of secondary success ion. 2 . 3 . 4 Ungulate use and Range Condit ion The u t i l i z a t i o n by both domestic and wi ld ungulates of the var ious habi tat types var ies g rea t l y . Much of the low grassland i s . cu l t i v a t ed and i r r i g a t ed today. Some c a t t l e and deer use was observed on some of these ranges. Areas s t i l l used exc l u s i v e l y as range for l i ves tock are l a rge l y in poor cond i t i on . Examples are the grass lands between the Ashnola River and the Paul Creek Road south of the Similkameen River . The lower montane f o r e s t s , because of t he i r open canopy, support good bunchgrass .stands. They are of ten not u t i l i z e d by c a t t l e because of the i r steepness. Sheep and deer graze and browse wi th in th is habitat type p r imar i l y during late winter and ea r l y sp r i ng . Climax Agropyron-Koeleria stands are common. Exceptions are the r e l a t i v e l y level Ashnola de l t a area and the r i v e r benches. Here 1 84 increaser and invader species predominate such as Stipa comata, Danthonia sp. , Opuntia sp. , Chrysothamnus dvacunouloid.es, Bvomus • tectovum and Vevbascum thapsus. Ter rac ing and loca l so i l e ros ion signs are usua l l y ev ident . Most of the mid-grasslands, where they are a ccess ib l e to a l l g raze rs , have a l so los t the i r cl imax plant cover . The a c cess ib l e vegetat ion on these slopes is s e r a i . A mosaic of plant communities covers these ranges, depending upon e l e v a t i on , aspect , r e l a t i v e u t i l i z -a t ion and moisture regime. Heavy year-round use areas were found on F l a t i r o n , S ta rva t ion , Juniper and some Crater Mountain S lopes. Ungulates freguented these areas , at least i n t e rm i t t en t l y , most of the year. The mid-montane f o r e s t s , at s im i l a r a l t i t u d e s as the mid-grass lands , provide some grazing for deer and c a t t l e . Sheep were seldom observed using these timber hab i t a t s , except as escape t e r r a i n or t rave l routes. The understory , usua l l y composed of Calamagvostis, some Agvopyvon and some shrubs, is genera l l y c l imax. Calamagvostis is of l imi ted p a l a t a b i l i t y to most ungulates and is grazed only very l i g h t l y . Logged Pseudotsuga f o res t types provide some forage to ...domestic stock and wi ld g raze rs , because not only Calamagvostis regener-a tes . C a t t l e , deer and sheep f requent ly were observed u t i l i z i n g the logged areas on Crater Mountain. Subalpine f o r e s t s , grasslands and ecotonal ranges are grazed, where a c c e s s i b l e , by a l l ungulates but only for the short summer and autumn per iods . Many areas are not a va i l ab l e because they are " i s o l a t e d " from other types by dense stands of timber and/or rock c l i f f s . Deep 85 snow e l iminates most ungulate use during most winter and spr ing per iods . The ove ra l l use of these ranges is l i g h t . Climax plant communities are the rule rather than the except ion in th i s zone, except where f i r e s have i n t e r f e r ed . The wet meadow and muskeg habitat type, being not extensive in th i s reg ion , receives sporadic use by c a t t l e and deer. Th is depends upon the loca t ion of such areas. No evidence of vegetat ive composit ion changes due to graz ing were observed. The a lp ine grass lands rece ive some use by a l l grazers during the short summer and f a l l pe r iod . Large areas , however, are not or have not been made access ib l e to c a t t l e . Tundra is p r ima r i l y bighorn sheep range but deer use the tundra o c c a s i o n a l l y . Both grassland and tundra ranges have received l i t t l e intens ive use. Evidence of vegetat ive changes were very seldom found. The c l i f f , rock.and s l i d e areas var ied in terms of the i r use -fu lness to ungulates. Domestic l i v es tock did not genera l l y frequent these s lopes . Some of th i s broken t e r r a i n is very important for bighorns and deer. i t serves as escape area. Some of the lower rocky, steep slopes act as lambing grounds. Combinations of grass lands and escape t e r r a i n are prefer red bighorn sheep ranges at a l l e l e va t i ons . The sheep of ten feed on the sparse herbaceous and shrubby vegetat ion on such escape areas. Many rocky slopes are t o t a l l y i n a c ces s i b l e , unstable and too steep for any ungulates. Goats seem to be able to ex i s t on the steepest t e r r a i n , even more so than sheep. These unava i lab le rock faces are found at vary ing a l t i t u d e s but they predominate in the high a lp ine reg ion. Vegetat ion is p r a c t i c a l l y non-existent on these rocky s lopes . 86 Burns are of va r i ab l e value to ungulates in the a rea , depending upon the type and dens i ty of regenerat ing vegetat ion and the age of the stands. In some burns l i t t l e s o i l cover remained a f t e r f i r e and/or subsequent per iods of e ros ion . Vegetat ion in these areas is l i m i t e d . C a t t l e , deer and bighorns use the access ib l e burns where both browse and herbaceous vegetat ion are usua l l y a v a i l a b l e . Animal use patterns are thus determined by several v a r i a b l e s . S lope, a c c e s s i b i l i t y and vegetat ive cover are important l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s . In winter , snow depth is superimposed as an important l i m i t i n g v a r i a b l e . As fa r as the r e l a t i v e abundance of the cover types is concerned, Table 7 provides a summary. The genera l l y poor cond i t ion pf the winter ing slopes has been documented (Demarchi, 1965)• The great v a r i a b i l i t y in forage product ion that can ex i s t between slopes as well as between years on such semi-arid ranges (Daubenmire, 1956 and 1957; Harper, 1969; Rogler and Hass, 1947; Sneva and Hyder, 1962) fu r ther emphasizes the need for s u f f i c i e n t su i tab le winter range fo r the wi ld ungulates in the Ashnola Basin. 2.3-5 Results 2 . 3 . 5 (a) P roduc t i v i t y of Representat ive Habitat Types According to McLean (1969), the highest fo rage-y ie ld ing plant a ssoc i a t i on in the Similkameen Va l l ey was the Festuoa-Eviogonum habi tat type, y i e l d i n g an average of 1,634 pounds per acre . The Artemisia-Agropyron (372 pounds per a c re ) , and the Pseudotsuga-Agvopyvon (417 pounds per acre) are s u b s t a n t i a l l y lower producing a s soc i a t i ons . . McLean (op. c i t . ) cons iders the Abies-Paehistima-Covnus habi ta t 87 type as being best su i ted fo r f o r e s t r y , with s i t e indices ranging from 107 to 111. The Abies-vaceiniwn and Pseudotsuga-Calamagrostis habi tat types are respec t i ve l y next in p r o d u c t i v i t y ; these two types have not been logged heav i l y in th is study area . The Pseudotsuga zone has provided most of the saw timber on Crater Mountain. The Pseudotsuga-Agropyron and Abies-Vaccinium-Phyllodoce assoc ia t ions are poorest in terms of fo res t s i t e i nd i ces . The former is on the dry end of the a l t i t u d i n a l c l i m a t i c gradient and the l a t t e r experiences the lowest mean temperatures, being highest a l t i t u d i n a l l y of a l l the timber types. Some representat ive standing forage crop values for the low, middle and subalpine grassland communities obtained during 1963 (Demarchi, 1965), 1967 and 1968, (Harper, 1969) and 1966 and 1967 ( th is study) serve to i l l u s t r a t e the large v a r i a b i l i t y that e x i s t s . These " y i e l d s " , they are not true y i e l d s because they represent only one c l i p p i n g date , a l so show that sera i communities may ou t y i e ld cl imax stands. South Slope as a whole, composed of several c l imax and sera i communities, produced about 700 pounds of oven dr ied forage per acre in 1963 and about 900 pounds per acre in 1966. In 1967 the s lope y i e lded approximately 1,050 pounds of oven dr ied forage per ac re . In 1966 on the upper South Slope cl imax community, the average y i e l d amounted to 1,295 pounds per ac re . This compares favourably with Harper 's (1969) y i e l d s of 1,223 and 1,028 pounds per acre in 1967 and 1968, r e spec t i v e l y . Unfortunately the c l i p p i n g resu l t s are not d i r e c t l y comparable between years of sampling. Neither the c l i p p i n g dates are 88 i d e n t i c a l , nor are the s t a t i s t i c a l treatments and sample s i zes used to test each yea r ' s r e s u l t s . The Poa pratensis community on Juniper Slope averaged 1,393 pounds per acre in 1966 and 1967, and 1,623 pounds per acre in 1967 alone (Harper, 1969). In 1968 the y i e l d for th is p a r t i c u l a r community was 1,377 pounds per acre . A cl imax stand of Pseudotsuga-Calamagrostis produced 698 and k06 pounds per acre in 1967 and 1968, r e spec t i v e l y . The d i f f e rences between years may be a t t r i bu ted to changes in the moisture regime (Harper, op. c i t . ) . Some other product ion values from d i f f e r e n t slopes and communities co l l e c t ed and assembled fo r th i s study are given in Table 6. These p roduc t i v i t y values ind ica te y i e l d s are highest on g r a s s -lands p o t e n t i a l l y belonging to the Festuca-Eriogonum habi ta t type. Forage y i e lds under open timber canopies can a l so be subs tant ia l but they are usua l l y well below those of the mid and subalpine grasslands (Harper, 1969; McLean, I 9 6 9 ) . In general terms, i t was shown that low grasslands produce less forage than the Eriogonum-Festuca habi ta t types. These l a t t e r produce, or are capable of producing, between 1,200 and 1,800 pounds of forage per ac re . McLean's C1969) fo res t s i t e indices fo r t yp i ca l timber stands (a measure of p roduc t i v i t y ) show that the upper Pseudotsuga and lower Abies lasiocarpa stands are rated h ighest . P roduc t i v i t y tapers o f f at higher and lower a l t i t u d e s . Moisture regime and growing season temperatures are presumably respons ib le fo r th is phenomenon. Many sera i ranges, by v i r t ue of the i r species composit ion are " h a n d i -capped" in terms of the i r p roduc t i v i t y . In contrast to most sera i 89 range which are composed p r i m a r i l y . o f annuals, b i e n n i a l s and s h o r t -l i v e d p e r e n n i a l s , climax ranges u s u a l l y c o n s i s t of p e r s i s t e n t p e r e n n i a l s . 2.3-5 (b) Trend Studies The Crater Mountain and S t a r v a t i o n Slope trend t r a n s e c t s were examined in 1967 and 1969• The data are presented in Tables 8 , 9 and 10. In examining these loop-frequency values (Hutchings and Holmgren, 1959), i t was observed that these s p e c i f i c ranges chosen f o r t h i s trend study are in poor c o n d i t i o n . P r o d u c t i v i t y i s l i m i t e d and climax species are e i t h e r absent or low in frequency. Such climax dominants as Eriogonum heracleoides, Agropyron spicatum, and Koeleria cristata are present as small or young p l a n t s . A l l three s i t e s show the appearance of i n c r e a s e r and invader species such as Chrysothamnus dracunculoides, Stipa columbiana and Balsamorhiza sagittata. In g e n e r a l , the ranges in d e t e r i o r a t e d c o n d i t i o n are composed of mosaics of p l a n t communities. The species composition as w e l l as the r e l a t i v e abundance of species v a r i e s c o n s t a n t l y . None of the u n i f o r m i t y of climax stands i s shown on e i t h e r the Crater Mountain range or the S t a r v a t i o n Slope. I n d i c a t o r s of good to e x c e l l e n t range such as healthy vigorous plant specimens, a c o n s i s t e n t l i t t e r cover, low number of s p e c i e s , t a l l productive stands, absence of e r o s i o n channels and sheet e r o s i o n and r e l a t i v e l y constant high y i e l d s , " are missing on these ranges. In comparing the 1969 w i t h the T967 data i t can only be s a i d that the p r o d u c t i v i t y and f l o r i s t i c composition on these two p a r t i c u l a r slopes has changed in a progressive d i r e c t i o n ( c a t t l e use was e l i m i n a t e d in I968). The change in frequency of some i n d i c a t o r species such as 90 Table 8. 1967 and 1969 Loop-frequency data from Crater trend transect (300 1 Parker 3 _step permanent transect) 1967 1969 Hits % Frequency Hits % Frequency Grasses: Poa seaunda 31 (10£) 52 (17%) Agropyron spicatum 36 (123;) 26 (09%) Koeleria cristata 56 (19%) 23 (08%) Stipa columbiana (some richardsoni) 78 (26%) 63 ^ (21%) Poa ampla and Poa pratensis 7 (02%) 2 (01%) Forbs: Astragalus serotinus 17 (06%) 26 (09%) Achillea millefolium 17 (06%) 9 (03%) Lupinus sericeus 12 (04%) 20 (07%) Arenaria sp. 12 (04%) 7 (02%) Balsamorhiza sagittata 6 (20%) 52 (17%) Shrubs: Artemisia frigida 19 (06%) 8 (03%) Bare Ground 17 (06%) 15 (05%) L i t t e r 3 (01%) 15 (05%) Rock 5~~' • (02%) 6 (02%) Other Species present but not Abundant: Eriogonum heracleoides Aster sp. Castilleja miniata Festuca idahoensis Arabis holboellii Erigeron sp. Calamagrostis rubescens Allium sp. Rhinanthus sp. Chrysothamnus sp. Opuntia sp. Moss Taraxacum officinale 91 Table 9. 1967 and 1969 Loop-frequency data from Meausette Creek range trend t ransect (300 1 Parker 3 _ s tep permanent t ransect ) 1967 Hits % Frequency 1969 Hits % Frequency Grasses: Poa secunda 76 (25%)" 73 (lk%) Agropyron spicatum kO (13*)' 30 (10%) Koeleria c r i s t a t a kl (]k%) 15 (05%) Stipa columbiana 18 (06%) 8 (03%) Forbs: Astragalus serotinus 18 (06%) 35 (12%) A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m 6 (on) 11 (ok%) Shrubs: Artemisia f r i g i d a ko (13*)- 31 (102) Bare k6 (.5%) 39 (13%) L i t t e r 21 (07%) k8 (]6%) Rock 18 (06%) 16 (05%) Other Species of Less  Than 5 H i t s : Erigeron sp. Eriogonum heracleoides Chrysothamnus sp. Balsamorhiza s a g i t t a t a Poa pratensis Opuntia sp. Aster sp. Lupinus sericeus Stipa richardsoni P o t e n t i l l a sp. Carex sp. Lomatium macrocarpa 92 T a b l e 10. 1967 and 1969 L o o p - f r e q u e n c y d a t a from S t a r v a t i o n range t r e n d t r a n s e c t (8001 P a r k e r 3 _ s t e p permanent t r a n s e c t ) H i t s 1967 % F requency H i t s 1969 % F r e q u e n c y G r a s s e s : Poa secunda 87 ( i n ) 81 (10%) Poa pratensis 161 (20%) 128 (16%) Agropyron spicatum 7 ( o n ) 17 (02%) Koeleria c r i s t a t a 32 (0k%) 61 (08%) Stipa sp. 203 (25%) 138 (17%) F o r b s : Achillea millefolium 67 (08%) ' V (02%) Aster sp. ]kh (18%) h7 (06%) S h r u b s : Artemisia f r i g i d a 86 (11%) (06%) Bare Ground 96 (12%) 168 (21%) L i t t e r 26 (03%) 113 (14*) -Rock 15 (02%) 5 (.6%) Other S p e c i e s P r e s e n t but not Abundant: Moss Astragalus serotinus Antennaria sp. Arabis h o l b o e l l i i Tragopogon dubius Verbascum thapsus Chrysothamnus sp. P o t e n t i l l a sp. Lupinus sericeus C a s t i l l e j a sp. Geum sp. Geranium viscossissimum Opuntia sp. C o l l i n s i a sp. Lepidium sp. Eriogonum heracleoides Fragaria sp. Bromus tectorum Oxytropis campestris Agrostis sp. Allium sp. Erigeron sp. Lappula sp. Agoseris glauca\ Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e 93 Agropyron spicatum, Koeleria c r i s t a t a , Stipa columbiana and Artemisia frigida tend to ind ica te a trend upward (Tables 8 , 9 and 10). 2.3-5 (c) Point Quadrat Transects The data , compiled for a l l the treatment s i t e s plus the exc losures es tab l i shed by Blood in 1960 are summarized in Tables 11, 12, 13, 14 and Appendix 7- Some general observat ions can be recorded here. On the South Slope s i t e the mean height of the vegetat ion increased, Agropyron from k cm to 10 cm and Koeleria from 8 cm to 12 cm, from 1967 to 1969- The v igor of plants genera l l y has improved and more plants in the reproduct ive phase were observed in 19&9-Agropyron spicatum p lants were mainly vegetat ive in 1967- In 1969, ten or more seed heads per plant were common on the contro l (non-fenced) p l o t s . Agropyron spicatum, which was bare ly present in 1967 on the 2.Crater s i t e , had increased to 10 per cent ground cover . Other common cl imax species have a l so increased in abundance. Stipa columbiana appears to be d isappear ing and other bunchgrasses are becoming more abundant (Table 14). On the 1.Crater s i t e and on Juniper Slope the exc lus ion of c a t t l e has resu l ted in increased v i g o r , height and quant i ty of product ion . S p e c i f i c changes could not be shown over the short time span. As far as species composit ion and abundance is concerned, there were no detectab le changes yet a t t r i b u t a b l e to the lessened grazing pressure a lone. 2.3.6 Pi scuss ion Many fac tors have interacted in the evo lu t ion and maintenance of the e x i s t i n g complex grazing regime wi th in the Ashnola Bas in . C l imate , 94 Table l i . Mean per cent ground cover , frequency and cover X frequency indices for 1.Crater exc losure (1967 point quadrat data) % Ground Cover % Frequency C X F Grasses: Poa sp. Bvomus tectorum Stipa spp. Koeleria cristata Agropyron spicatum Forbs: Achillea millefolium Artemisia frigida Astragalus serotinus Verbascum thapsus Aster sp. Eriogonum Taraxacum officinale Cirsium sp. Erigeron sp. Annuals: Ephemerals Rock Bare 5.0% 1.4% T1 T T 3.0% 2.6% 1.3% T T T T T T Li t t e r 18.7% 31.7% 28.4% 82% h2% 18% 8% 6% 76% 65% 43% 17% 13% 9% 32% 7% 7% 42% 410 59 ^18 =="8 228 169 56 =-17 ^13 =-9 =-32 ^ - 7 ~ 7 •42 Y i e l d s : (Mean c a t t l e and tota l exc losure on l y , no f e r t i l i z e r ) = Veg. Hts. : Poa secunda 6 - 8 cm Stipa columbiana 35 - 40 cm Agropyron spicatum 35 ~ 40 cm Poa pratense 30 cm Artemisia frigida 40 - 45 cm 1750 l b . per acre T = less than 1% ground cover . "Catt le and tota l exc losure y i e l d s were combined to increase sample s i z e . This was poss ib le because no ungulate use had occurred that growing season in e i t he r exc losure type p r i o r to c l i p p i n g ( th is a l so app l ies to succeeding t ab l e s ) . 95 Table 12. Mean per cent ground cover , frequency and cover X frequency indices fo r 2.Crater exc losure s i t e (1967 point quadrat data) % Ground Cover % Frequency C X F Grasses: Poa secunda 6% 92% 552 Koeleria 5% • 83% 415 Agropyron spicatum 3% .61% 183 Stipa columbiana T' 28% > 28 Festuca idahoensis T 8% .> 8 Forbs: Arenaria sp. 2% 50% 100 Antennaria sp. T 42% ~> 42 Erigeron sp. T 11% 7 11 Calochortus apiculatus T 6% 7 6 Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e T 6% 7 6 Astragalus serotinus T 8% ~ 8 Balsomorhiza sagittata T -31% 731 Eriogonum heracleoides T 3% 7 3 C a s t i l l e j a spp. T 8% ^ 8 Allium sp. T 3% 7 3 Aster sp . T 3% ^3 Agoseris glauca T 3% ^ 3 A c h i l l e a millefolium T 3% y3 Mosses 8% 50% 400 Bare 55% Rock 1% L i t t e r 13% Y i e l d s : (Mean produced for c a t t l e and tota l exc losure , no f e r t i l i z e r ) = 1247 pounds per acre Veg. H t s . : (Cat t le and tota l exc losure on l y , no f e r t i l i z e r ) Koeleria 10 cm Poa secunda 6 - 8 cm Agropyron spicatum 30 cm T = less than 1% ground cover . 96 Table 13. Mean per cent ground cover , frequency and cover X frequency indices for South Slope exclosure s i t e for 1967 (point quadrat data) % Ground Cover % Frequency C X F Grasses: Agropyron spicatum 4.8% 82% 392 Koeleria c r i s t a t a 8.3% 93% 772 Poa sp. 0.8% 24% 19 Bromus tectorum 0.6% 14% 8 Festuca idahoensis T' 6% > 6 Stipa sp. Q T 15% ~? 15 Forbs: Erigeron sp. T 14% • "7 14 Eriogonum heracleoides T 8% ^ 8 Verbascum thapsus T 15% ^15 A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m T 22% *^ 22 Antennaria sp. T 17% ^ 17 Cirsium sp. T 11% 711 Oxytropis campestris T 3% ^ 3 i4s7t2°<2c7aZiis serotinus T 4% 7 4 Lupinus sericeus . • T 4% ^ 4 Artemisia f r i g i d a 7-0% 100% 700 Annuals: Ephemerals T 32% Mosses T 3% Bare 57-7% L i t t e r 2.4% Rock 14.5% Y i e l d s : (Mean for c a t t l e and to ta l exc losure , no f e r t i l i z e r ) = 606 pounds per acre Veg. H t s . : (Cat t le and to ta l exclosures only) Koeleria 12 - 15 cm Agropyron spicatum 35 cm Artemisia f r i g i d a 30 - 35 cm '•T = less than 1% ground cover 97 Table 14. Mean per cent ground cover, frequency and cover X frequency i n d i c e s f o r Juniper e x c l o s u r e (1967 point quadrat data) % Ground Cover % Frequency CXF Grasses: Poa sp. Koeleria c r i s t a t a Stipa sp. Agropyron sp. Forbs: P o t e n t i l l a sp. Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e Artemisia f r i g i d a A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m Antennaria sp. Annua 1: Ephemerals Rock  Bare L i t t e r 25.2% 6.5% 3.3% 0.7% 1.2% T1 T T T . T T 10.9% 47.8% 99% 93% 75% 31% 49% 22% 7% 10% 7% 29% 2496 604 248 22 59 ^ 2 2 ^ 7 5" 10 ^ 7 29 P r o d u c t i v i t y : (Mean f o r t o t a l and c a t t l e e x c l o s u r e , no f e r t i l i z e r ) = 1393 pounds per acre Veg. Hts.: ( C a t t l e and t o t a l e x c l o s u r e s , not f e r t i l i z e d ) Poa pratense 20 - 30 cm Koeleria c r i s t a t a 15 - 20 cm Agropyron spicatum 25 - 30 cm T = l e s s than 1% ground cover 98 physiography, s o i l s and b i o t i c f ac tors a l l are important v a r i ab l e s wi th in the ecosystem. Climate is probably the s ing le most i n f l u e n t i a l v a r i ab l e in terms o f p roduc t i v i t y as well as annual v a r i a t i o n in forage product ion . According to Daubenmire (1956) p r e c i p i t a t i o n and temperature are the main f ac to rs that determine phytogeographic d i s t r i b u t i o n s . The va r i a t i ons in y i e l d between years as well as between e l e v a t i o n a l l y d i f f e r e n t slopes ind icates the c lose r e l a t i onsh ip between c l imate and vegetat ive p r o d u c t i v i t y . The lower grasslands with year-round l imi ted moisture suppl ies were grea t l y outy ie lded by the Festuca-Eriogonum habi tat types. At higher a l t i t u d e s moisture suppl ies were improved but temperature was l i m i t i n g the growth per iod and, the re fo re , the ove ra l l p r o d u c t i v i t y . Harper (1969) a l so reported the inf luence of moisture and temperature on the growing season, temperature prov id ing the threshold to growth and moisture l i m i t i n g the extent of the season at h is study s i t e s . Grazing h i s to ry a l so s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f fec ted the mean y i e l d s on the var ious grassland s lopes . The trend da ta , as well as the exc losure t r i a l s es tab l i shed in I960 and 1966, demonstrated genera l l y that a reduct ion in grazing pressure resu l ted in species frequency and composit ion changes as well as corresponding changes in forage y i e l d s . A f a i r l y c lose c o r r e l a t i o n between ce r t a i n so i l se r ies and vegetat ion zones is reported elsewhere in th i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . Daubenmire (1952) and McLean (1969) pointed out , however, that cons is tent vegetat ion-so i l co r r e l a t i ons often are i n va l i d when cons ider ing smal ler taxonomic u n i t s . In th i s area-several d i f f e r e n t s o i l s are found under s i m i l a r vegetat ive communities and v i ce versa . 99 Grassland s o i l s and plant communities are replaced by fo res t s o i l s and communities as ' a l t i t ude and, cor responding ly , moisture increases . At very high e leva t ions c l ima te , p r ima r i l y temperature and moisture , and s o i l s again r e f l e c t the grassland nature of the habi tat types (McLean and Hol land, 1958). An in te res t ing obse rva t ion , the contro l of ungulate use by the plant composit ion of a habi tat type, can be v e r i f i e d from the study area (McLean, 1969). Very l i t t l e graz ing use could be observed on the f a i r l y extensive Calamagrostis rubesoens stands. None of the ungulates seemed to f i nd th i s species too pa la tab le at any time of the year. These pine grass communities were mostly in c l imax, except where logging or f i r e had been a f a c to r . The ex is tence of the var ious plant assoc i a t ions and zones in the Ashnola Basin must be j u s t i f i e d on a mu l t i - fac to r bas i s . A l l the habi tat va r i ab les have interacted to some degree (Brayshaw, 1956). As fa r as s p e c i f i c range trends and plant success ional developments are concerned, the trend t ransec ts , point-quadrat t ransects and ungulate exc losures should y i e l d some data in the fu tu re . For the purposes of th i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , as yet no conc lus ive r esu l t s can be reported. The elapsed time span between the i n i t i a t i o n and completion of the study was too short to a l low for proper eva luat ion of the data . 100 l.k Fauna General Methods and Discussion The emphasis in this project was placed on the entire grazing complex. Data on population dynamics of sheep were available from Blood (1961) and Demarchi (1965) as well as from continuing records that are being kept by the Fish and W i l d l i f e Branch (Spalding, I966-I967 and personal communications). Morrison (M.Sc. in preparation) and Spalding (op. c i t . ) have been studying the ecology of the resident mule deer (Odoooileus hemionus hemionus). Whenever possible, records of sheep and deer observations were made and these are included in this report. Hunting and natural mortality data are available from the check station operated each f a l l and from previous authors' reports. Recent c a t t l e and horse stocking rates in the area are f a i r l y well documented from B r i t i s h Columbia Forest Service grazing records (see Appendix 5 ) and f i e l d inspections. Only on Indian reserves are there v i r t u a l l y no controls placed on stocking rates for domestic ungulates. Additional use by horses for recreational pursuits has not been accurately evaluated. However, i t is quite extensive, especially during the f a l l hunting season. Another researcher (Maynard, M.Sc. in preparation) is studying the hitherto unknown influence of the invertebrate fauna, mainly grass-hoppers, on the grazing complex. During peak years of the grasshopper's c y c l e , forage losses to these insects appear to be extensive. Rodents, numerous on some heavily grazed s i t e s and l o c a l l y deleterious to the range, have been studied in this area by G. Barr (Brink, personal communications). 101 F i e l d work fo r th is project was completed in 1967• A map showing general d i s t r i b u t i o n and migratory patterns and seasonal concentrat ion areas of c a t t l e , sheep and deer at the time of th i s i nves t iga t ion has been produced (Appendix 9 ). Grazing permi ts , domestic stock numbers and use for the region are a l so documented (Append ix 5 ). Many changes in land tenure occurred subsequent to th i s i n ves t i ga t i on . A Bighorn Sheep Management Reserve was created on 35,000 acres of prime sheep range wi th in the Ashnola Bas in , inc lud ing the formerly p r i va te lands on Crater Mountain. Ca t t l e were removed from th i s reserve for the time being. A Class " A " park was es tab l i shed on 18,000 acres surrounding the Cathedral Lakes. Most e x p l o i t i v e resource uses were disa l lowed wi th in th i s park. An access road was b u i l t from the Ashnola River road to the Cathedral Lakes proper. A l l s tocking permits in the Basin other than those d iscussed above are unaf fec ted . A new grazing permit has been issued on some subalpine grasslands along Wall Creek. Some winter and several summer ranges are wi th in Indian Reserves where domestic stock grazing is s t i l l " u n r e s t r i c t e d " . 2.4.1 W i Id l i f e Present The ove ra l l ungulate use p i c tu re has changed over the l as t 20 years . Today domestic sheep no longer summer on the high grass lands as they did during some e a r l i e r years . Horse use is r e s t r i c t e d to the permit areas as well as to such recreat iona l endeavours as hunting and f i s h i n g . Ranges near such popular camping and f i s h i n g lakes as Joe, 102 Haystacks and Cathedral Lakes are being heav i l y grazed by horses . The area is r i ch in w i l d l i f e . Many of the b i rds are t rans ient or only occas iona l v i s i t o r s . Besides the many indigenous passer ine and other non-game b i r d s , huntable populat ions of blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus),' spruce grouse (Canaahites canadensis), and wh i te- ta i l ed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurus) inhabit th i s reg ion . Chukar par t r idge (Alectoris graeca), C a l i f o r n i a quai l (Lophortyx californicus) and r ing- > necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) have been' introduced in southern B r i t i s h Columbia and are l o c a l l y abundant in su i t ab l e habi ta t along the Similkameen River . Ducks, and geese, though not abundant by any means, are found along the water courses. F i s h , mostly Kamloops Trout , are found not only in the two major r i ve rs but a l so in the larger a lp ine lakes , where they were a r t i f i c i a l l y e s t ab l i shed . Four w i ld ungulate species present ly frequent at least part of the study area . Bighorns and mule deer are preva lent ; goats (Oreamnus americanus americanus) were once common among the more rugged c l i f f s and outcrops along the Similkameen and Ashnola Rivers as well as on some higher ranges. In f a c t , north of the Similkameen where they have been protected for some t ime, mountain goats are s t i l l t h r i v i n g . Moose (Alces alces) are only occas iona l l y seen on or near Lost Horse Mountain. Small mammals, such as rodents and carnivorous fur bearers are common. Chipmunks (Eutamias amoenus), two species of ground s q u i r r e l s (Spermophilus columbianus and Spermophilus saturatus), red s q u i r r e l s (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), ye l l ow-be l l i ed marmots (Marmota f l a v i v e n t r i s ) , hoary marmots Au tho r i t i e s for s c i e n t i f i c names are given in Appendix 2. 103 (Marmots caligata), vary ing hare (Lepus americanus) and others are common. Some of these smal ler mammals are d e f i n i t e l y competitors fo r the forage resources. On re t rogress ing range s i t e s local ground squ i r r e l and marmot populat ions do cons iderab le damage. They have co lon ized some en t i r e slopes such as the Juniper grass lands . Black bear (Ursus amerioanus), cougar (Felis oonoolor), lynx (Lynx oanddensis), bobcat (Lynx rufus), coyote (Canis latrans), and other carn ivores are present . According to Blood ( 1 9 6 1 ) , Sugden (1961), Buechner (1960 ) and Hornocker ( 1 9 7 0 ) , these predators do not normally contro l the ungulate prey popula t ions . Predator populat ions are kept r e l a t i v e l y low in th is area by t rappers , ranchers, and former ly , even F ish and W i l d l i f e personnel . 2 . 4 . 2 Ungulate Numbers and Range Use The numbers of domestic stock grazing the var ious permit areas are summarized in Appendix 5 • The use of the Indian Reserves is not inc luded. Recreat ional horse use is experienced during summer and f a l l . Between 200 and 300 hunters v i s i t the area annua l l y . Ranchers, f ishermen, government personne l , and others t rave l on horseback through th is area . E. R. Smith (i960) estimated a minimum horse use of 171 days at Joe Lake alone that year . That represents only a f r a c t i o n of the tota l and very l i k e l y horse grazing pressure over the en t i r e area has increased s ince I960. The general area received at least 5,881 Animal Unit Months (A.U.M.) use by domestic stock alone in 1967 ( inc lud ing horses ) . About 400 bighorns occupied the Ashnola Basin in 1967- Spalding (personal 104 communications), in 1967 d e f i n i t e l y recorded a known populat ion of 311 animals . In June of 1967, the author made a r e s t r i c t e d ground count over only part of the area and wi th in several hours counted 51 rams, 35 of which were legal (3/4 cur l horns or b e t t e r ) ; 47 ewes; (2 years and o l d e r ) ; 11 lambs and 14 y e a r l i n g s ; plus 19 deer. Th is count was r e s t r i c t e d to South Slope and Joe Camp Ridge a lone. A few days l a t e r in June, on South S lope, 107 ewes, 49 lambs, 34 yea r l ings and 7 rams were counted. The 51 rams had l e f t the spring-winter ranges by then. Knowing the whereabouts of at least three other bands t o t a l l i n g approximately 50 to 75 sheep on Crater Mountain and along Paul Creek at that time the ove ra l l estimate of 400 sheep in the area was obta ined. Spalding (1966-67) estimated 370 animals one year and o lde r . Tota l mule deer numbers for the area are unknown. While th i s study was in progress , mule deer were abundant. Herds of up to 50 animals were f requent ly seen on Crater Mountain and Juniper Slopes in spr ing and on the slopes above Corral Creek in mid-July. Deer popu-l a t ion est imates by Morrison (M. Sc. in preparat ion) and Spalding (personal communications) show that deer are at least as numerous as bighorn in the Basin. Deer make extensive use of the low montane, mid-montane and subalpine open fo res t ranges. In the summer and ea r l y f a l l months, they are d i s t r i b u t e d p r ima r i l y on the subalpine and a lp ine ranges. Small groups are then seen on almost every slope and mountain. Only during spr ing do they graze in tens i ve l y on open grasslands in d i r e c t spa t i a l and forage competit ion with sheep and c a t t l e . Goat d i s t r i b u t i o n in the study area is present ly very r e s t r i c t e d . They ex i s t only in i so la ted sma11 herds on "K" Mountain, along the 105 Ashnola River c l i f f s , near Cathedral Lakes and on White Mountain. The to ta l goat populat ion south of the Similkameen probably does not exceed 100 animals . , Sheep and deer, seasonal ly migrate with the p r e va i l i ng forage and c l i m a t i c cond i t i ons . Sheep winter on exposed snow-free r idges and grasslands p r imar i l y wi th in the Douglas F i r Zone. Deer winter on the f r inges of the mid-grasslands or in open mature timber stands o f the same zone. Often in ea r l y spr ing both sheep and deer descend into the va l l e y s to areas that show ea r l y new growth. As spr ing vegetat ive growth advances up the grass lands , sheep and deer move with i t . Dur ing , summer and ea r l y f a l l , deer and sheep frequent high sub-alpine and a lp ine ranges, but they are a l so seen on lower s lopes . During the summers of 1966 and 1967, up to 80 sheep and often a dozen deer were observed on the South Slope and Crater Mountain winter ranges. Wild ungulates thus s i g n i f i c a n t l y contr ibuted to summer grazing of at least some of the low and mid-grasslands. Blood (1961) observed that ram summer ranges were qu i te separate from the ewe, yea r l i ng and lamb ranges. In f a c t , the two groups were reputed to use opposi te sides of the general Basin area . The author found evidence to the cont rary . Large bands of ewes and young age c l asses were f requent ly observed in the v i c i n i t y of Joe Lake, Hairy Lake and on the slopes above Nuby Lake. Rams were of ten not fa r removed although they usua l l y occupied higher more inaccess ib l e parts of the areas. Deer occurred on c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y less rugged, more gent ly s lop ing grass lands . In summer, they were qu i te segregated from the sheep. While sheep prefer red the high a lp ine tundra areas near 106 good escape t e r r a i n of c l i f f s , deer stayed p r ima r i l y on the true grass lands usua l l y near open timber or burns. Ca t t l e d isperse widely from the i r re lease s i t e s in sp r i ng . T r a i l i n g by range r ide rs was employed by the ranchers to move the c a t t l e into higher ranges dur ing mid-summer. D r i f t fences p a r t i a l l y prevented the i r return to lower slopes during th i s per iod but c a t t l e were observed grazing on low and mid-grasslands a l l summer long in 1966 and 1967. In la te f a l l , weather and t r a i l i n g e f fec ted the reverse movement for domestic stock. Ca t t l e and horse use in the Ashnola Va l l ey was v i r t u a l l y non-existent during the winter months. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the three major ungulate species where known, is shown on the map in Appendix 9 . Exact acreages and ranges used were not determined for any of the grazers . Overlap is extensive at a l l t imes. 107 2.5 Human Act iv i t ies Despite increasing•mu1 t ip ie land use and road developments, large areas o f the Ashnola Basin have remained p r a c t i c a l l y a w i lderness . Travel away from the narrow d i r t roads can only be accomplished by h e l i c o p t e r s , horses and/or on foo t . The main access to the region is provided by a Forest ry road along the Ashnola R iver . It extends about 35 mi les along the R i ve r ' s West Fork. Another branch ends at the conf luence of Ewart Creek with the West Fork. Several s ide roads lead o f f th i s main one. The recent ly b u i l t jeep t r a i l to the Cathedral Lakes s t a r t s along the West Fork. Crater Mountain has two areas c r i s s c rossed with logging roads and skid t r a i l s . One jeep t r a i l reaches the summit and al lows for easy access to the a lp ine meadows there. Several other roads up the West Fork have been b u i l t recent ly to accommodate logging a c t i v i t i e s . A serv ice road fo l lows Paul Creek to the Lost Horse Mountain summit. 2.5.1 Logging Logging present l y is not very extens ive . Most of the areas having good saw logs are too remote or e l se they have been logged p rev ious l y . A l l the logging s i t e s are mapped on the vegetat ive habitat-cover map (Appendix 9 ) . Some recent timber operat ions occurred jus t east of the study area along Roberts Creek. In 1966, logs were s t i l l being cut on some then pr i va te land on Crater Mountain. Some t imber ' is being harvested along the West Fork jus t west of the study a rea . In genera l , the areas shown as logged on the cover map are regenerat ing and qu i te va luable to deer , sheep and domestic stock for at least part 108 of the year. From Cartwright (1970) i t appears that logging operat ions w i l l be expanded in the fu tu re . Recent f i r e s have been few. A l l o ld f i r e s are ind icated on the hab i ta t type map. Two spot f i r e s occurred on Crater Mountain in 1965 ( B r i t i s h Columbia Forest Serv ice Records) and one small f i r e was fought near Joe Lake in 1966. Some grasslands present ly heav i ly grazed by ungulates are being slowly los t due to the regenerat ion of lodgepole p ine , Engelmann spruce and Douglas f i r . Th is is c l e a r l y evident from a i r photos, ground checks and rancher comments (R. Quaedvl ieg, personal communication). 2.5.2 Recreat ional Use Hunt ing, f i s h i n g , trapping and other rec rea t iona l use of the Ashnola area is increas ing r ap id l y . At least two ac t i ve t r ap l i ne s are being maintained today. The economic and b i o l o g i c a l po ten t i a l of the w i l d l i f e resource fo r recreat ion and trapping is unknown. Many man-days are being spent in the study area and adjacent region in the pursu i t of bighorn sheep, deer and grouse. Formerly, goats were a l so hunted local]y. Cougar, black bear and b i rd game, such as blue grouse, F r a n k l i n ' s grouse, ptarmigan and chukar, are reasonably abundant during some years. In eleven years , un t i l 1965, a minimum of 1,016 sheep hunters have enjoyed th i s w i l d l i f e resource in a tota l of 64 season days harvest ing at least 83 legal 3/4 cur l rams. Deer hun t ing , has never been eva luated. F ish ing has been popular both fo r res idents as well as v i s i t o r s . Jordan (I966) re fe rs to th is in his report on the Cathedral Lakes. 109 Cartwright (1970) again d iscusses i t in context with other rec rea t iona l pursu i t s in the area . It is a well known fact that the value of the Cathedral Lakes as a resort s i t e is g rea t l y enhanced by the f i s h i n g potent ia l in the lakes (C lark , personal communication). The recent ly es tab l i shed Class " A " Park and the pr i va te resort being operated wi th in i t c e r t a i n l y demonstrates that l akes , streams and other natural a t t r a c t i ons can be success fu l l y exp lo i t ed . For the h i ke r , photographer, rock hound, fisherman and even the hunter, th i s a rea , l i k e the en t i r e Ashnola Bas in , o f f e r s qua l i t y rec rea t iona l oppo r tun i t i e s . Scenic spots of spec ia l a t t r a c t i o n in the region are Joe Lake, Cathedral Lakes, Haystack Mountain and Lakes, Lakeview Mountain, Nuby Lake and Corral Creek. No estimate of the hours of rec rea t ion that is being der ived by a l l user c lasses is a v a i l a b l e . A large por t ion of the en t i r e area has fo r tuna te l y not been "opened up" and only determined outdoorsmen reach some of these gem-like areas. 2.5,3 Ranching Ca t t l e have been grazing the ranges s ince the la te 19th Century. Domestic sheep and horses were a l so graz ing on these ranges ea r l y t h i s century. These sheep, once u t i l i z i n g large a lp ine meadows a l l across the Ashnola Bas in , have been removed s ince the la te 1940's. Horses s t i l l graze the Indian Reserves and some other range a l lo tments . The terraces and a l l u v i a l fans , as well as the de l ta formed by the conf luence of the Ashnola and Similkameen R i ve rs , along the main Similkameen Va l l ey are pa r t l y used for intens ive ag r i cu l t u r e today. I r r i ga t i on has made the growing of f r u i t and hay h igh ly p r o f i t a b l e . 110 2 .5-4 Mi seel laneous Mining exp lora t ion has been ac t i ve p e r i o d i c a l l y in the a rea . Claim stakes from var ious time periods can be found along creek beds and on higher ranges. A recent f l u r r y of a c t i v i t y occurred whi le the author was in the study area. Even winter he l i cop te r surveys were ca r r i ed out in the name of mineral exp lo r a t i on . According to Cartwright (1970) present mineral f i nds and future potent ia l for e x p l o i t a t i o n is l im i t ed . H i s t o r i c a l l y , some small p lacer claims were worked in the Ashnola Basin and adjacent areas. Ce r t a in l y prospectors have combed these ranges from several d i r e c t i o n s . The P rov inc i a l Government, the Federal Government and the . Un i ve rs i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia have shown great in te res t in th is a rea , through the i r var ious departments. It has been surveyed by Parks people (Lyons, 1 9 4 1 ) , g e o l o g i s t s , ae r i a l photographers, w i l d l i f e managers (Cowan, 1 9 5 0 - 5 5 ; T ay l o r , 1954-62; Sugden, 1961; B lood, 1 9 6 1 ; Demarchi, 1965 ; Spa ld ing , personal communication; Harper, 1969), and Forestry personnel . Ae r i a l surveys and fo res t cover mapping pro jec ts have been c a r r i ed out . Timber c ru i se r s reconnoitered the area again in 1968 and 1969 to assess the Ashnola Bas in ' s timber p o t e n t i a l . The i r cover type map is j us t present ly being completed. So i l surveyors , from both the B r i t i s h Columbia.and the Federal Governments have worked in the area (Sprout and K e l l y , I96I;.Green et a l . , 1963 ; Lord and Green, in p ress ; Van Ryswyk, 1969)- The Canada Land Inventory is being conducted and/or scheduled soon for Forestry and A g r i c u l t u r e . It cannot be sa id that the area is not well used. Local f i s h and game c lubs have b u i l t camp grounds on the i r own i n i t i a t i v e along the main I l l road and members of these clubs f i r s t c a r r i ed l i v e f i s h into the a lp ine lakes in t i n cans in the 1930 1 s. 2.5.5 E f f ec t s of Human A c t i v i t i e s Upon the Grazing Syndrome What impact d iverse human a c t i v i t i e s had, are having, or w i l l have in future on the range resources is d i f f i c u l t to determine. Bighorn sheep numbers were dec l i n i ng un t i l the late 1940's (Blood, 1961). Recently through harvest r e s t r i c t i o n s , range eva lua t ions , the ser ies of i nves t iga t ions ca r r i ed out by the Un i ve r s i t y in conjunct ion with the B r i t i s h Columbia F ish and W i l d l i f e Branch and other resource or iented agenc ies , and pub l i c awareness and pressures , the populat ion s i ze of both deer and bighorn sheep has been s t a b i l i z e d to some extent . From a l l reports (a survey was made in 1969 of the exc losure s i t e s es tab l i shed in conjunct ion with th i s study) the ranges are recover ing . The point quadrat and trend data (see sect ions on vegetat ion and range improvement) show th i s recovery of c r i t i c a l ranges and plant communities. Since 1968, 350 cows and ca lves have been removed from key sheep winter ranges. Hunting and recreat iona l a c t i v i t i e s w i l l and are increas ing in the reg ion. The Cathedral Lakes Resort people accommodate about kOO persons on the i r premises alone each year (Carwright, 1970). The c rea t ion of the Park and the pr i va te resort has brought new, not necessa r i l y d e s i r a b l e , momentum to the area. The ecology is f r a g i l e and is a l ready su f f e r i ng along Quin isco and Joe Lakes, due to human d is turbances . Increasing demands for rec rea t iona l opportun i ty and s i t e s and a r e l a t i v e l y low potent ia l p roduc t i v i t y in the Ashnola Basin must be c a r e f u l l y balanced i f the f r a g i l e ecosystem is to surv ive in 112 a funct iona l form. Most of the study area is s t i l l r e l a t i v e l y undis turbed. At least i t can be c lassed as a p r im i t i v e area. Recent developments in the Ashnola Resource Management Area , i f one may c a l l i t tha t , have c l e a r l y shown how use p r i o r i t i e s can qu i ck l y change, how so-ca l led mu l t ip l e resource use and planning can become s i n g l e , or at least p r i o r i t y use, due to pub l i c pressure and e a r l i e r "mismanagement", and how r e l a t i v e economic and eco log i ca l values are reversed in importance, at least l o c a l l y . 113 III. HABITAT AMELIORATION Human in ter ference in th i s region has occurred for some time (Blood, 1961; Car twr ight , 1970; Jordan, 1966 and Smith, E.R., i 9 6 0 ) . This w i l l probably continue in the fu tu re . Accept ing r e a l i t y , th i s part of the s tudy, c a r r i ed on concurrent ly with the inventory, was deemed to be essen t i a l to inves t igate several poss ib le means of improving some of the low and mid-grasslands that were known to be in only f a i r to poor range cond i t ion (Blood, op. c i t . ; Demarchi, 1965; and Figures 16, 17, 18 and 19). In a d d i t i o n , there is a growing demand for more in tens ive land use in th i s area. It takes cons iderab le time for resu l t s of hab i ta t improvement to become apparent in th is semi-arid environment and, the re fo re , in order for anyone to i n i t i a t e a management plan in the f u tu re , some experimental evidence and l o c a l l y tested data must be a v a i l a b l e . Range r e h a b i l i t a t i o n experiments have been conducted elsewhere (Mason and M i l t imore , 1964 and 1969; Plummer, 1968). Of in te res t to the Ashnola River Basin is the work conducted by Brown and Martinson (1959 and 1967). These researchers attempted to re-estab 1ish Purshia tridentata and other browse species on o v e r - u t i l i z e d dryland ranges. The p a r t i c u l a r area re fer red to in the i r study is 20 miles south of the study area on a Washington State game range, the S in l ahek in . They reported only l imi ted success . The so lu t ions to the local problems wi th in the Ashnola Basin apparent ly l i e in bet ter management of the grazers and e f f e c t i v e hab i ta t improvement. Both methods showed promise in other s im i l a r s i t ua t i ons 114 Figure 16. Vegetat ive appearance of S tarvat ion Slope in the spr ing of 1967. Note bare so i l areas and Chrysothamus dvaounculoides d i s p e r s i o n . I ~*K Figure 17- Spring carryover on the lower Juniper Slope r idge . Note the c lose graz ing by ungulates , ( A p r i l , 1967) 115 Figure 19- South Slope a f t e r f a l l c a t t l e graz ing in October, 1967. Note carryover ins ide and outs ide of exc losures . 116 (Anderson, 1967; Hooper et a l . , 1969; and Hormay and Talbot,.1961). Test ing some techniques was thought necessary fo r such slopes as Juniper S lope, South Slope and some ranges on Crater Mountain. 3.1 Potent ia l Oppor tun i t ies Several bas ic premises may apply here as well as on other s im i l a r semi-arid mountain ranges in the i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia. Climax plant communities are not necessa r i l y the most product ive nor the most des i r ab le communities for future integrated land-use p r a c t i c e s . Clements and Shel ford (1939) stated that both plant and animal product ion is greater in a subclimax (or sera i ) success ional stage than in c l imax, except poss ib l y for grass lands . Odum (1959) a l so supported the theory that to ta l p roduc t i v i t y does not necessa r i l y increase with success ion . Intra- and i n t e r s p e c i f i c plant compet i t ion , in the absence of graz ing or some other d i s turbance , often have adverse e f f e c t s upon p r o d u c t i v i t y . Removing some of the annual forage residue by grazing or burning may increase herbage product ion . The case for burning can c e r t a i n l y be made in a stand of timber that was formerly su i t ab l e winter range but that has grown up and in success ion has removed, replaced or made unava i lab le most graz ing and browse p lants . . Year round u t i l i z a t i o n of the winter ing slopes that present ly produce l imi ted forage for only four to s ix months annua l l y , is not the answer to the loca l problems e x i s t i n g in the Ashnola Va l l e y . Many techniques have been t r i ed on other ranges to meet de t e r i o r a t i ng cond i t ions and/or improve the p roduc t i v i t y of va luable components o f 117 the habi ta t types. There are numerous p o s s i b i l i t i e s . . Plummer (1968) wrote a book on res to r ing w i l d l i f e ranges; Brown and Manderey (1962) discuss p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Such techniques as exc losures , ro ta t ion and deferred g raz ing , burning, logg ing , reseeding, f e r t i l i z i n g , bu i l d ing t r a i l s , improving watering holes and s a l t i n g spots , chemical herb ic ide and pes t i c i de a p p l i c a t i o n s , shrub p l an t i ng , tree c l e a r i n g , i r r i g a t i n g , breaking and reseeding and/or f e r t i l i z a t i o n , pe r i od i c p r o t e c t i o n , winter feeding and several other methods have been t r i ed and are recommended where f e a s i b l e . Each technique must be considered and tested l o c a l l y . For the area under cons idera t ion most of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s are not f e a s i b l e in terms of t ime, expense and eco log i ca l s i t u a t i o n s . Tes t ing of some, in add i t ion to the ones t r i ed here, is recommended. Ce r t a i n l y o the r s , such as pe r i od i c p r o t e c t i o n , proper ro ta t ion and deferred g r az i ng , opening of a va i l ab l e but present ly inaccess ib le ranges by t r a i l con -s t r u c t i o n , water impoundment and sa l t d i s t r i b u t i o n , and a l so d r i f t fencing are obv ious ly workable and commendable means of range r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . They need l i t t l e tes t ing but simply require implementation. A look at the ava i l ab l e l i t e r a t u r e reveals that many methods have been f i e l d tested in North America on nat ive ranges. Seeding, f e r t i l i z a t i o n , chemical spraying of herb ic ides and pes t i c i des and var ious types of res t- ro ta t ions are the most f requent ly recommended techniques. Hormay and Talbot (1961) and Anderson (1967) have found a rest-ro ta t ion grazing regime, res t ing parts of the ava i Iab le range for e i t he r per iods o f each year or d i scont inu ing use of c e r t a i n areas in succeeding years , to be most su i t ab le for bunchgrass reg ions . Apparent ly th i s system increased and provided a more dependable forage supply. Any 118 harmful e f f e c t s of in tens ive graz ing are e l iminated by a l lowing p lants to regain v igor and produce seed during rest pe r iods . In a d d i t i o n , short in tens ive use per iods are less harmful , r e su l t i ng in more uniform use and less s e l e c t i v e e l im ina t ion of decreaser spec ies . Th is system could e a s i l y be i n s t i t u t e d fo r c a t t l e in the Ashnola Basin. A minimum of d r i f t fencing and annual t r a i l i n g would be requ i red . Chemical treatment of undes i rab le forbs and shrubs, using 2,4-D and 2 ,4 ,5~T has been used succes s fu l l y by Laycock and P h i l l i p s (1968). The e l im ina t i on of shrubs and forbs inva r i ab l y resu l ted in an increase in grass product ion and a va i l ab l e range acreages. N ichols and McMurphy (1969) app l ied 2,4-D and Nitrogen f e r t i l i z e r together . They showed that these two compounds acted together and increased range product ion s u b s t a n t i a l l y for at least three years fo l low ing treatment. Control of the less des i r ab le forbs and shrubs, such as Chrysothamnus, Balsamorhiza, Artemisia sp. and Verbascum c e r t a i n l y would reduce i n t e r s p e c i f i c compet i t ion for mois ture , nu t r i en ts and space on a number of,-si opes in the Ashnola area . These less pa la tab le and more successfu l invaders are dominating many sheep ranges. Mechanical contro l o f these species appears unfeas ib le due to the coarse topography. P lant ing of Purshia tridentata, Prunus sp. and other h igh ly des i r ab l e range shrubs has been t r i ed with vary ing success in Washington (Brown and Mart inson, 1959) and other a reas . The expense and e f f o r t outweighed the bene f i t s . Should the need for winter forage increase , other techniques such as seeding f a l l rye and winter feeding have been proven to be more successfu l fo r deer and sheep r e spec t i v e l y . F e r t i l i z a t i o n appears to have been tested succes s fu l l y under 119 a va r i e t y of range cond i t i ons . At least one reference (Hooper et a l . , 1969) mentions the economic value of using ni t rogen on s t r a t eg i c ranges to e f f e c t better l i ves tock d i s t r i b u t i o n . They found that together with herd ing, s a l t i n g , and water development th i s element can be a useful tool in range management from a d i s t r i b u t i o n standpoint a lone. Nitrogen appears to have been the most e f f e c t i v e element for f e r t i l i z a t i o n . Nitrogen f e r t i l i z e r increased forage product ion , improved plant root development, lengthened the growing per iod and, the re fo re , the graz ing season, improved forage qua l i t y and p a l a t a b i l i t y and sometimes these r esu l t s pe rs i s ted fo r s ix years (Burz la f f et a l . , 1968; Conrad et a l . , 1966; Drawe and Box, 1969; Hubbard and Mason, 1967; Lorenz and Rogler , 1967; Mason and M i l t imore , 1964 and 1969; and Mi l t imore et a l . , 1962). Some spectacular successes could be c i t ed here in favour of n i t rogen f e r t i l i z e r . Mason and M i l t imore , (1969) reported tota l y i e l d increases in three to four years of up to 1,400 pounds of dry matter per ac re . These researchers at Summerland, (Mason and M i l t imore , op. c i t . ) a l so reported that response to n i t rogen has been h igh ly v a r i ab l e in Southern B r i t i s h Columbia. Some areas show v i r t u a l l y no response while others produce s u b s t a n t i a l l y increased forage y i e lds for several years . Wilson et a l . (1966), using ammonium su lphate , recorded a re t rogress ion in range c o n d i t i o n . Agropyron spicatum decreased 50 per cent and Bromus teotorum increased by 400 to 600 per cent and th i s occurred regard less of i n i t i a l bunchgrass dens i t y . Reseeding of nat ive ranges has worked in some instances . Branson (1969) reported that he success fu l l y reseeded semi-arid g r a s s -lands by using a cover crop or mulch to prepare the seed bed. He a l so 120 appl ied 2,4-D and 2 ,4 ,5~T to remove compet i t ion from weeds. Hull (1966) found that seeding depth and time of seeding are important. In his t r i a l s f a l l seeding was most e f f e c t i v e in terms of emergence and surv i va l of smooth brome and intermediate wheat grass . Burning and logg ing , although success fu l l y executed in many areas , should not be recommended to rejuvenate ranges in the Ashnola Va l l ey unless they are conducted proper ly and fol lowed by reseeding and f e r t i l i z a t i o n . Most natural burns developed into dense Pinus contorta stands with very l i t t l e deciduous browse or pa la tab le forage being produced at any time. On bunchgrass ranges f i r e is reputed to be detr imental to Agropyron spioatum as well as Festuca idahoensis. Logging, unless immediately fol lowed by reseeding, may often resu l t in a dense growth o f'Calamagrostis rubesoens. Th is is only moderately u t i l i z e d by deer and sheep and c e r t a i n l y is not a pre fer red d i e t of c a t t l e . Object ives ' . . Several bas ic ob jec t i ves can be def ined for th i s sec t ion of the t he s i s . To assess potent ia 1 p roduc t ! v i t y r e su l t i ng from range improve-ment p r a c t i c e s , reseeding and f e r t i l i z a t i o n was high in p r i o r i t y . Another ob jec t i ve was to study var ious l eve l s of p ro tec t ion from grazing and assess the inf luence of no grazing upon range cond i t i ons , p lant cover ana" vegetat ive p r o d u c t i v i t y . The th i rd ob jec t i ve was to determine a v a i l a b i l i t y of forage to wi ld ungulates and c a t t l e under present and improved cond i t i ons . In the short per iod that these experiments were a c tua l l y monitored i t was not poss ib le to f u l l y answer a l l these ques t ions , but some good ind i ca t ions could be obta ined. 121 3.2 Methods for Intensive T r i a l s At the time of th i s inves t iga t ion no ser ious thought was given to removing one or a l l g razers . Reducing numbers of deer could , prove to be f r u i t f u l i f the emphasis of management is to be on sheep p roduc t i v i t y a lone. It has not been c l e a r l y es tab l i shed that compet i t ion between the indigenous species is in tens ive . Rodent and inver tebrate contro l in l o c a l i z ed areas are p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Rodents seem to pre fer d is turbed s i t e s . Insects such as grasshoppers c e r t a i n l y do play an important ro le in some years in removing pa la tab le forage. No attempt was made here, however, to a l l e v i a t e e i t he r of these problems. Other methods that could poss ib l y be tested in th i s area were examined, but i t was concluded that most of them e i the r d id not need t e s t i n g ' o r e l se the response would be long term and no su i t ab l e r esu l t s would be obtained fo r the purpose of th i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . Reseeding, f e r t i l i z a t i o n and var ious types of ungulate exc losures were found to be the most obvious choices for th i s study. A l l three techniques were tested s ing l y and in combination. The exact methods and r esu l t s are d iscussed in th i s sec t ion of the t he s i s . 3.2.1 Exclosures The exc losures b u i l t in i960 were sampled again in 1967- Two 2 1/2 m c l i p samples (measuring the standing crop) were taken in la te Ju ly from ins ide as well as from an area immediately surrounding the p l o t s . Grazing was not r e s t r i c t e d outs ide of the exc losu res . * Large exc losures were erected on four s i t e s in the study area ; in I966. S i tes were se lected to represent a d iverse range of p lant 122 communities. At these locat ions (for d e t a i l s of these exc losures see Figure 20 and Appendix 6) two adjacent 50 foot by 100 foot exc losures were b u i l t . One excluded a l l ungulate g r a z i e r s ; the other only domestic stock. A th i rd contro l area was a l so located and de l imi ted nearby. Permanently marked t ransects of the point quadrat type were es tab l i shed in B lood's I960 exc losures (where these were s t i l l useab le ) , immediately outs ide these, and on the four s i t e s se lected in 1966 for the purpose of th i s i n ves t i ga t i on . One hundred points (Brown, 1954; and #890 NAS-NRC, 1962) were recorded per p lot on each s i t e . Product ion and height measurements were taken along these t r ansec t s . Th is was done only once in l a te summer a f t e r growth had p r a c t i c a l l y ceased for the year. The "Dune's H i l l " exc losure was es tab l i shed in 1967- Th i s f i f t h s i t e is smal ler and i t s main funct ion was to record range trends as well as to test Russian wi ld rye and strawberry c lover under th i s semi-arid c l imate . The ove ra l l purpose of these exc losures is to observe changes, both q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e , in the var ious plant communities due to pro tec t ion from graz ing . The f i v e plant communities under cons ide r -a t ion were: 1. Poa secunda-Koeleria cristata-Balsamorhiza sagittata (sera i ) 2. Agropyron spicatum-Artemisia f r i g i d a ; 3. Poa sp. sodgrass; 4. Stipa sp.-Poa pratensis; 5. Stipa comata-Danthonia sp. UNGULATES EXCLUDED CATTLE EXCLUDED 5' + v e s l o p e West 20' 1 x 5 3x4 2 x 5 3 x 4 2x5 1 x 4 2 x 4 1 x 5 3 x 5 2 x 4 3 x 5 1 x 4 2x5 3x4 2 x 4 3 x 5 1 x 5 1 x 4 1 x 4 2 x 5 3 x 5 2 x 4 3 x 4 1 x 5 To"1 2 x 4 1 x 5 3 x 5 3 x 4 3 x 5 3 x 4 1 x 4 2 x 5 1 x 4 2 x 5 2 x 4 1 x 5 1 x 5 2 x 4 1 x 4 1 x 5 3 x 5 1 x 4 3 x 5 3 x 4 2 x 5 3 x 4 2 x 4 2 x 5 50' Aspect : S.S.W. S lope: Steep - 45% E l e va t i on : 5100' So i l type: Rego Dark Gray 3 exc losure types 3 treatments/exclosure 4 b locks/exclosure Y i e ld - lb ./acre S ize of Individual P lots = 10' x 10' Figure 20. A t yp i ca l experimental p lo t layout . The Agropyron spicatum site on South Slope NO UNGULATE EXCLUSION 3 x 5 1 x 4 2 x 4 1 x 5 2 x 5 3x4 1 x 4 2 x 5 1 x 5 2x4 3 x 5 3 x 4 3x4 2 x 5 2x5 2 x 4 1 x 4 3 x 5 1 x 5 3x4 2 x 4 1 x 5 3 x 5 1 x 4 East < 40' » Treatments: 200 l b . f e r t i l i z e r / a c r e (67 l b . N) 20 lb . seed/acre (Crested Wheatgrass) Symbols Crested Wheatgrass . . . 1 Crested Wheatgrass and worked . . . . . . . . . 2 Native (control ) . . . . 3 Fert i1 izer . . . . . . .4 No Fer t i1 i zer . . . . .5 Each s i t e was chosen to represent a r e l a t i v e l y uniform stand wi th in important plant communities in the Ashnola Bas in . . 3 . 2 . 2 A r t i f i c i a l Rehab i l i t a t i on In conjunct ion with the exc losure experiments on the same f i v e s i t e s , reseeding and f e r t i l i z e r t r i a l s were conducted. F igure 20 and Appendix 6 show the layout and treatments at each s i t e . To tes t var ious seeding dates in terms of germinat ion, emergence and s u r v i v a l , the 2 .Crater s i t e was se lected and f a l l , winter (on snow) and ea r l y spr ing seeding was attempted. F e r t i l i z e r (nitrogen) was a l so app l i ed then. The seed used in these experiments was app l ied at 20 pounds per acre . A mixture of crested and Whitmar Wheatgrass was seeded by hand without any add i t i ona l treatment. F e r t i l i z e r , ammonium n i t r a t e , ( 3 3 . 5 - 0 - 0 ) was app l ied at 200 pounds per acre . Th is Is equiva lent to 67 pounds of n i t rogen per acre . These rates and types of treatment are recommended by the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Ag r i cu l t u r e as standard fo r Southern In ter ior B r i t i s h Columbia dryland ranges (McLean, personal communication). Crested wheatgrass (Agropyron oristatum) has been recommended and tested by the Canada Department of A g r i c u l t u r e Research Stat ion at Kamloops (McLean, personal communication). Th is grass , according to Smoliak (1968) is an exce l l en t producer on semi-a r i d ranges. It can withstand heavy graz ing and is u t i l i z e d qu i te well by domestic sheep and c a t t l e at least during the ea r l y part of the growing season. A small subalpine f e r t i l i z e r t r i a l had been set up by 125 Van Ryswyk ( C D . A . Research S t a t i on , Kamloops) in 1965. Only h is p lo ts treated with ni t rogen were resampled by th i s inves t iga to r in I967. Van Ryswyk (personal communication) found l i t t l e de f i c i ency o f other nu t r i en t s . Other major mineral elements such as phosphorus and potassium produced no detectab le r e su l t s on these p l o t s . Another small seeding and f e r t i l i z e r t r i a l was set up in 1967 on a low grassland range (e levat ion 2,100 feet) to attempt to grow Russian wi ld rye grass and strawberry c lover under these extremely dry and poor so i l cond i t i ons . It was thought that i f these, or re la ted species could be qu i ck l y e s t a b l i s h e d , they could p o t e n t i a l l y provide emergency winter forage. The major seeding and f e r t i l i z e r t r i a l s were run on the South S lope, Juniper Slope and 1.Crater Mountain s i t e s (map in Appendix 9)• Rates of app l i c a t i on and type of seed were the same as those descr ibed above. Blocks and treatments were randomized as shown in Appendix 6, to a l low fo r s t a t i s t i c a l treatment of the r e s u l t s . Comparisons were made between s i t e s , between f e r t i l i z e d and n o n - f e r t i l i z e d p l o t s , between types of p r o t e c t i o n , between seeded and non-seeded p l o t s . Y i e l d , species composit ion by per cent ground cover using one 100 point quadrat t ransect per p l o t , and height measurements were taken. Since i t was poss ib l e to v i s i t the s i t e again in 1969, range responses over some extended time were noted and trends were measured - natural trends and those r e su l t i ng from treatments. The y i e l d data was s t a t i s t i c a l l y analyzed using the student " t " test f o r sample means (Snedecor, 1956; and Steele and T o r r i e , i960). A Duncan's New Mu l t ip l e Range test was run to examine the v a r i a b i l i t y between s i t e s (LeClerg et a l . , 1962). The 1969 data was simply tabu la ted . 126 Not enough samples were col 1ected that year. Results of the I969 i n spec t i on , even though not part of th is i n v e s t i g a t i o n , are recorded in the appropr ia te sec t i on . Ground cover data were a l so recorded in 1969 wherever a re-examination was deemed va luab le . Germination and surv iva l counts were made in 1967 and I969. It was very d i f f i c u l t to recognize young seedl ings in 1967. McLean (personal communication) and others have stated that germination and seed l ing establ ishment under these semi-arid cond i t ions can take up to f i v e years . 3.3 Results The resu l t s presented in th i s sect ion are at best p re l im ina ry and ten ta t i ve . They mostly represent only one yea r ' s observat ion fo l lowing treatment. The add i t i ona l data obtained while resampling in 1969 substant iated and c l a r i f i e d some of the pre l iminary f i n d i n g s . Some of the data from the I960 exc losures are summarized in Table 15 and Appendix 7. Results were qu i te incons is tent for the s t i l l e x i s t i n g s i t e s . On e s s e n t i a l l y cl imax ranges such as ex is ted on Crater Mountain, the impact of the exc losures was n e g l i g i b l e . The species composit ion and dominance va lues , as measured in 1967, are s im i l a r ins ide and outs ide of the exc losures . The p lo ts on S tarvat ion and South S lope, however, showed that seven years of p ro tec t ion has resu l ted in increases in frequency o f occurrence fo r the cl imax species Agropyron spicatum and Koeleria cristata. Artemisia frigida a l so increased in frequency on the Starvat ion Slope s i t e ins ide the exc losure . Other species such as Stipa columbiana, Bromus tectorum and Poa secunda appear to be disappear ing in the absence of g raz ing . The ove ra l l dens i ty and 127 Tabic IS GROUND COVER CHANCES FOLLOUINC SEVEN YEARS OF PROTECTION FROM CRAZING (As Measured In 1967 by Point Transects) Inside X Ground Cover Outside Z Ground Cover Inside X Ground Cover Outside X Ground Cover STARVATION SLOPE (Blood's Plot fl) BLOOD'S EXCLOSURE #9 Grasses Agropyron spicatum Koeleria c r i s t a t a Stipa columbiana Poa sp. Forbs A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m Eriogonum heracleoides Aster sp. Tragopogan sp. Lupinus sericeus Cirsium v u l g a r i s Others 11 3 15 4 T T 17 Agropyron spicatum Bromus tcctorum Koeleria c r i s t a t a Lupinus scrlceus Eriogonum heracleoides Achi1 lea mi Ilefollum Aster sp. Al11um cernuum II 6 Artemisia f r i g i d a Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e Chrysothamnus dracunculoides Oxytropis campestris Bare Ground X Living Plants Y i e l d : (gm/m2) Agropyron spfcatun Leaf Height Koeleria c r i s t a t a Leaf Height SOUTH SLOPE (Blood's Plot #6) Grasses Agropyron spicatum Koeleria . c r i s t a t a Stipa columbiana Poa secunda Forbs A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m Eriogonum heracleoides Lupinus Arabis h o l b o e l l l i Antennaria sp. Artemisia f r i g i d a Cryptogams and Kosses Bare Ground % L i v i n g Plants Y i e l d : (gm/m2) Agropyron spicatum. Leaf Height Koeleria c r i s t a t a Leaf Height 20 30 59 216 10" t" 17 2 4 I 35 28 38 U9 20" 6" T T T T 60 T 27 52 2" 2". 2 10 18 2 T T 26 46 32 96 r i" Artemisia f r i g i d a Bare Ground % L i v i n g Plants a ^ Y i e l d : (gm/m ). 30 40 30 286 72 1 28 154 A^roDyron cpicatum Leaf Hoig.it IS" 14" Koeleria c r i s t a t a Leaf Height 12 " 10" A d d i t i o n a l Species Found Outside but not Inside Exclosure: Phacelia sp Amsinckia r e t r o r s a , Balsamorhiza s a g i t t a t a , Arabis h o l b o e l l l i , C a s t i l l e j sp. BLOOD'S EXCLOSURE l\0 Grasses Agropyron spicatum Koeleria c r i s t a t a Festuca Idahoensis Astragalus serotinus A l I i um cernuum Phacc 11a sp. C a s t i l l e j a sp. Agoscris glauca Erigeron sp. Eriogonum heracleoides Others Shrubs Artemisia f r i g i d a Bare Ground L i t t e r % L i v i n g Plants Y i e l d : (gro/m2) Agropyron spicatum l e a f Height Koeleria c r i s t a t a Leaf Height 10 3 3 T 30 23 18 239 16" 10" T 48 26 17 193 14" 12" NOTE: trace (presence Is less than'21 of total hits) 128 heights of l i v i n g p l a n t s increased as d i d the y i e l d s . The percentage of bare ground decreased under p r o t e c t i o n as d i d the l i t t e r l a y e r . Only these four s i t e s show any c o n s i s t e n t r e s u l t s . The v a r i a b i l i t y that e x i s t s on the other three remaining s i t e s i s great. Not even y i e l d increases were c o n s i s t e n t in the absence of grazing use. One s i t e on South Slope showed y i e l d s o u t s i d e that were higher than those i n s i d e the ex c l o s u r e . Fencing or p r o t e c t i o n from g r a z i n g , e s p e c i a l l y on h e a v i l y u t i l i z e d s l o p e s , had a notable e f f e c t in conserving forage f o r wi n t e r consumption. This observation was s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the c l i p p i n g s from the l a r g e r r e c e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d e x c l o s u r e s i t e s . The 1967 y i e l d data f o r the seven small exclosures must be tre a t e d w i t h some c a u t i o n . The 2 sample s i z e per s i t e i s very small (a t o t a l of four 1/2 m samples). Appendix 7 shows the I960 and 1967 data in comparison. The exc l o s u r e s appear to concentrate animal use around them. This was v e r i f i e d by f e c a l droppings and trampling evidence. 3.3.1 1966 Exclosures Tables 16 and 17 show the r e s u l t s of sampling in c a t t l e and t o t a l e x c l o s u r e s and the c o n t r o l areas on the four s i t e s having l a r g e exclosures on them. These y i e l d s show the i n f l u e n c e of d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of p r o t e c t i o n from grazing alone. Production and ca r r y - o v e r on a l l s i t e s v a r i e d g r e a t l y depending upon ba s i c p r o d u c t i v i t y , g r a z i n g pressures, successional stage, and edaphic as we l l as c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s . For example, the mean y i e l d s on the n o n - f e r t i 1 i z e d p l o t s on the 1.Crater s i t e show that e x c l u d i n g ungulates has not r e s u l t e d i n a s i g n i f i c a n t Table 16. S i te y i e l d comparisons fo r the Year 1966-67 ( in lb./acre) Increase in Y i e l d  A t t r i b u t a b l e to Fert i1i zer Poa S i t e Poa secunda-Stipa S i t e Poa-Koeleria S i te Agropyron S i t e Juniper Slope 1.Crater Mt. 2.Crater Mt. F l a t i r o n Mt. (South Slope) Y i e l d wi th  Fert i1i zer (A)^ mean (B + C) 3677 3284 2200 1001 Y ie ld wi thout  Fert i1i zer (B)* mean 1393 1750 1247 606 (C) = A-B 2284 1534 953 395 NOTE: ^Mean y i e l d s from exclosures (A) non-ungulate use and (B) no c a t t l e use Table 17. Ava i l ab l e forage ( lb./acre) on the four major s i t e s a f te r one growing season (1967) fo l lowing f e r t i l i z e r treatment and two kinds of ungulate exc losures . Type of Poa S i te Agropyron S i te Poa-Koeleria S i te Poa-Stipa S i te Exclosure (5500') Juniper Slope (5100' ) South Slope (3800 1 ) 2 .Crater (4900') 1 .Crater Fer t . No Fer t . Fe r t . No Fer t . Fer t . No Fer t . Fe r t . No Fert Excluding al1 Ungulates Exclud ing Cat t l e No Exc lus ion 3 7 3 8 0 ) 3616 ( , ) 506 1244 ( 1 ) 1542 ( 1 ) 517 1025 ( , ) 9 7 7 ( 2 ) 832 575<" 6 3 7 ( 2 ) 460 2467 0 ) 1933 ( 1 ) 846 1363 0 ) 1131 ( 1 ) 446 2 3 7 2 ( D 4197 0 ) 2568 1338° ) 2163 0 ) 1457 • (1) S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r ence at 95% conf idence level using student " t " test (2) S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e rence at 80% conf idence level using student " t " test NOTE: Comparing p lo t y i e l d s fo r c a t t l e and tota l exclosures only on a l l s i t e s , there was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r ence in mean y i e l d s between f e r t i l i z e d and u n f e r t i l i z e d p lo ts (95% l e v e l ) . 131 change in p r o d u c t i v i t y . This i s c e r t a i n l y not t y p i c a l f o r the other exclosures (the 19&9 data was analogous). By 19&7 the p r o d u c t i v i t y on the s i t e s had increased both i n s i d e and o u t s i d e the exclosures over the e a r l i e r y i e l d s . V a r i a b i l i t y between s i t e s and w i t h i n the exclosures i s s t i l l q u i t e evident. On a l l the e x c l o s u r e s i t e s , those e s t a b l i s h e d in I960 and 1966, c e r t a i n general observations can be recorded. The p l a n t compos-i t i o n changed with p r o t e c t i o n on those s i t e s that have b e t t e r s o i l s . The other s i t e s d i d not show any such changes. Native climax bunch-grasses gained in prominence w i t h i n the exclosures (except on Juniper • Slope). As f a r as frequency, per cent ground cover and p l a n t v i g o r was concerned, Poa pratensis, the s u c c e s s f u l a l i e n invader, appears to have replaced the climax species e n t i r e l y on the Juniper s i t e . It behaved l i k e the indigenous climax species. One i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t of e x c l o s u r e s , e s p e c i a l l y v i s i b l e on Juniper and South Slopes, concerns the reproductive phase of p l a n t s and the phenology. P r o t e c t i o n from gr a z i n g appears to favour the sexual reproductive c y c l e . Mean numbers of f l o w e r i n g s t a l k s doubled in the f i r s t year.under p r o t e c t i o n f o r Agropyron spicatum, Koeleria cristata, Festuca idahoensis, Poa sp. and Artemisia f r i g i d a . This f o l l o w s the p a t t e r n described by Julander (I968). He observed that herbage and flower production was reduced by simulated harvest of p l a n t s . Excessive grazing suppresses sexual reproduction. P r o t e c t i o n a l s o r e s u l t e d in an advancement of the annual development, sometimes as much as two weeks. Some other observations on the e x c l o s u r e s i t e s and the indigenous p l a n t communities p e r t i n e n t to t h i s study are as f o l l o w s : w i t h i n the 132 . J u n i p e r S l o p e e x c l o s u r e s , a t l e a s t i n 1969, the s e x u a l r e p r o d u c t i v e phase had a l m o s t e n t i r e l y d i s a p p e a r e d . The Poa pratensis community w i t h an e x t r e m e l y dense ground c o v e r appeared t o be "sod bound". On a t l e a s t two o f the f i v e s i t e s such i n v a d e r and i n c r e a s e r s p e c i e s as Bromus teatomm, Stipa sp. and C o l l i n s i a p a r v i f l o r a a r e d i s a p p e a r i n g f o l l o w i n g p r o t e c t i o n from g r a z i n g . P r o t e c t i o n " e n c o u r a g e s " s u c c e s s i o n towards c l i m a x v e g e t a t i o n . 3 . 3 . 2 F e r t i 1 i z a t i o n The s u b a l p i n e f e r t i l i z e r t r i a l ( e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1965) showed y i e l d r e s p o n s e s o n l y t o n i t r o g e n ( T a b l e 18). The s t u d e n t " t " t e s t p r o v e d t h i s i n c r e a s e d y i e l d t o be h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the 95 p e r c e n t c o n f i d e n c e l e v e l (2,400 pounds p e r a c r e v e r s u s 1,130 pounds per a c r e ) . No s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n p l a n t c o m p o s i t i o n c o u l d be o b s e r v e d on t h e s e f e r t i 1 i z e d p l o t s . T a b l e s 16 and 18 b e s t d e m o n s t r a t e the e f f e c t f e r t i l i z e r had, a f t e r o n l y t h e 1967 g r o w i n g s e a s o n , upon t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y o f d i f f e r e n t m i d - g r a s s l a n d c o m m u n i t i e s . The y i e l d i n c r e a s e s on a l l s i t e s a r e h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t ( o f t e n t h e y i e l d s were d o u b l e d by u s i n g 67 pounds o f n i t r o g e n per a c r e ) . The bu n c h g r a s s v e g e t a t i o n responded l e a s t and s l o w e s t . The Kentucky B l u e g r a s s s i t e showed the most s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s ( F i g u r e s 21 and 22). By u s i n g Duncan's New M u l t i p l e Range T e s t i t was seen t h a t t h e r e was an i n n a t e o r b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e i n the p r o d u c t i v i t y between a t l e a s t two o f t h e s e f i v e s i t e s . N i t r o g e n f e r t i l i z e r q u a n t i t a t i v e l y r e i n f o r c e d t h i s v a r i a t i o n . W i t h f e r t i l i z e r t he f o u r 1966 s i t e s p roduced s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r y i e l d s than the c o n t r o l s i n I967. The Figure 22. Response of Poa sp. stand to n i t rogen f e r t i l i z e r wi th in the Juniper exc losure . Note the lush appearance wi th in treated p l o t s . Table 18. Some miscel laneous y i e l d comparisons (in lb ./acre) fo r p lo ts w i th in the study area c l ipped in 1967 Ni trogen Fert?1ized No F e r t i 1 i z e r A lp ine S i t e (7200 1) Lakeview Mountain 2266 (l) 1221 (l) . Inside < Outside Exclosures Es tab l i shed in I960 (Total of a l l p lo ts ) 2329 (0 1184 (1) N? trogen Fe r t i1 ized No Fert ?1izer Mean Y ie lds for 1966 Es tab l i shed Exclosures (Total Exclosures only) 2400 (1) 1130 (l) (1) S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r ence at 35% confidence level using student " t " tes t 135 f e r t i l i z e r responses were s i t e s p e c i f i c . Whether species composition, s o i l v a r i a b i l i t y , d i f f e r e n c e s in moisture regimes, or some other innate f a c t o r or a combination of these cause t h i s v a r i a b i l i t y in b a s i c y i e l d and f e r t i 1 i z e r response, remains to be determined. Nitrogen had the g r e a t e s t e f f e c t on the sodgrass s i t e (Poa sp.). Observations on a l l the t r i a l s show that shallow rooted annuals, sod-forming grasses and s h o r t - l i v e d p e r e n n i a l s respond f i r s t to n i t r o g e n . The deep-rooted bunchgrasses respond more slo w l y . Some reports in the l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e they may respond very l i t t l e even over longer periods of time. An extension of the growing (green) season by f e r t i l i z e r was g e n e r a l l y observed. F e r t i l i z e r response at a l l s i t e s was not o n l y u n i v e r s a l but i t was sometimes a l s o r a p i d . Eight weeks a f t e r a p p l i c a t i o n in the f a l l of 1966 on the 2 . C r a t e r s i t e , growth of Poa secunda and Stipa sp. had resumed on these p l o t s . F e r t i l i z e d p l o t s greened up f i r s t that f a l l and p l a n t s grew b e t t e r and l a r g e r on them than on other non-treated p l o t s . C a t t l e appeared to p r e f e r f e r t i l i z e d p l o t s over those without a p p l i e d n i t r o g e n . Grazing pressure on f e r t i l i z e d c o n t r o l areas was heavier than on c o n t r o l p l o t s without n i t r o g e n . This seems to suggest, what Hooper et a l . (1969) discussed in economic terms, that g r a z i n g pressures can be l o c a l l y s h i f t e d by s e l e c t i v e l y f e r t i l i z i n g . 3.3-3 Seed i ng The reseeding t r i a l s showed l i t t l e success a f t e r one growing season. Limited s o i l moisture caused slow germination and apparently 136 low surv iva l of seed l ings . The 1969 observat ions are c e r t a i n l y not any more conc lus i ve . Reseeding has not been very successfu l on any of the s i t e s . The catch of new species was not extens ive . Russian wi ld ryegrass seems to have taken on a l imi ted bas is on the Dune's H i l l s i t e in 1969- Strawberry c lover was nowhere ev ident . No inocu la t ion or s c a r i f i c a t i o n of the legume seeds had been attempted, however. Neither on South Slope nor on the Juniper s i t e could any p o s i t i v e response be detected for the reseeding t r i a l even in 1969. On the 2.Crater s i t e some new seedl ings were found in June of I967, e s p e c i a l l y on f a l l and winter seeded p l o t s , but these had disappeared by the f a l l of that year. In 1969 no new es tab l i shed p lants could be located . On the 1.Crater s i t e crested wheatgrass showed a reasonable catch in 1969 in a l l three types of p l o t s , three to s ix clumps per 100 square foot p l o t . Th is is somewhat unexpla inab le , s ince th i s s i t e appears to have the poorest s o i l . It a l so showed the lowest p lant dens i ty and poorest range cond i t ion in I967. A v a i l a b i l i t y of space may have something to do with th i s encouraging r e s u l t . Why did s im i l a r r esu l t s now show up on the South Slope? The l a t t e r slope was in only fa i r to poor cond i t i o n with a low plant dens i ty (Table I 1). Trend Some more s i t e s p e c i f i c r esu l t s can be reported here. The 1967 and I969 data show the resu l t s as fa r as range trends due to protec t ion and/or f e r t i1 i z e r treatment are concerned. Species composit ion per cent ground cover and p roduc t i v i t y changes are c e r t a i n l y ev ident . Only the South Slope and 2.Crater p lo ts were examined in de t a i l in 1969• 137 The 1.Crater s i t e showed an unexplainable v a r i a b i l i t y between exc losures . It appeared that in the three years s ince the establ ishment of the t r i a l s three separate and d i f f e r e n t communities had developed on th i s s i t e . This was not apparent in 1966 and 1967. Crested wheatgrass was evident on a l l seeded p l o t s . Undesirable species such as Astragalus serotinus, Eriogonum heracleoides, Circium s p . , Achillea lanulosa, Poa secunda and others were common in the communities. Th is range w i l l probably revert to an Agropyron spicatum, Koeleria c r i s t a t a , Eriogonum heracleoides c l imax. Only future observat ions and trend eva luat ions w i l l reveal the actual succession or t rend. The en t i r e range appears to have recovered s ince 1966 and 1967• Th is was evident from the extensive sexual reproduct ive phase recorded for most spec ies . Large Agropyron spicatum, Poa pratensis, Artemisia frigida and Stipa columbiana p lants could be found, each having a healthy number of seedheads. The Juniper s i t e had changed 1 i t t l e in terms of species compos-i t i o n or ground cover. No obvious range trends could be recorded. L i t t e r because of i t s extreme predominance, d id not a l low for the running of meaningful t r ansec ts . Bare ground as such seemed to be non-existent . A reduct ion of seed product ion of the Poa sp. p lants on the protected p lo t s was noted in 1969- F e r t i l i z e r response was s t i l l not i ceab le in 1969 in terms of he ight , volume and co lour of vegetat ion on a l l three types of p l o t s , c a t t l e , to ta l and c o n t r o l . The f e r t i l i z e d p lo t s showed s i g n i f i -can t l y higher y i e l d s , at the 95 per cent conf idence l e v e l , than non-f e r t i l i z e d p l o t s . A l s o , desp i te the removal of c a t t l e in 1968 and 1969, there was a s i g n i f i c a n t y i e l d d i f f e r e n c e , again at the 95 per cent l e v e l , between the tota l exc losure (the n o n - f e r t i l i z e d p lo ts ) and the cont ro l 138 p l o t s . This was a l so manifested in terms of vegetat ive height d i f f e r e n c e s . Apparent ly , the extra protec t ion from grazing had advanced the growth somewhat. Species composit ion and/or frequency changes could hot be detected yet . In 1969 the 2.Crater exc losure s i t e s showed some in te res t i ng r e s u l t s . A r t i f i c i a l reseeding success was n i l . Agropyron spicatum had es tab l i shed i t s e l f na tu ra l l y over the en t i r e s i t e , where in I966 only i so la ted bunches or small p lants could be found. The f e r t i l i z e r response on th is s i t e appears to have waned a f t e r three years . No c l i p samples were taken but the v i sua l examination revealed no cons is tent d i f f e rence between f e r t i l i z e d and n o n - f e r t i l i z e d p lo ts in terms of product ion . Species composit ion and ground cover data demonstrate there has been a general increase in Agropyron spicatum, Koeleria cristata and Poa s p . , l i t t e r and per cent l i v i n g p l an t s . This seems to be most pronounced on the f e r t i l i z e d p l o t s . No s i g n i f i c a n t changes in species va r i e t y or trends could be observed on th i s s i t e . The ove ra l l p roduc t i v i t y of the s i t e , e s p e c i a l l y under tota l p r o t e c t i o n , had increased s ince c a t t l e were removed. Protect ion from graz ing caused a s l i g h t s h i f t in species abundance three years a f t e r the exc losu res 1 establ ishment on th is s i t e . Festuca idahoensis and Agropyron spicatum were co-dominant with the Poa sp. and Stipa sp. in 1969. Balsamorhiza sagittata appears to be "outcompeted" by the perennia l grasses . These trends were c e r t a i n l y not observable in I966 or I967. S imi la r trends are indicated on other 2.Crater s l opes , when comparing the loop-frequency resu l t s of 1967 and 1969-The Dune's H i l l s i t e was only v i s u a l l y inspected in 19&9-139 Russian wi ld ryegrass p lants had es tab l i shed themselves as i so la ted specimens. They were reproducing and had a v igorous appearance. P rotec t ion from grazing had st imulated product ion on th i s s i t e . The species composit ion had not changed v i s i b l y . No other responses were observable . Th is appears to be a poor s i t e in terms of moisture and so i 1 s . The South Slope p l o t s , es tab l i shed in 1966, showed encouraging r esu l t s in terms of range t rends, c o n d i t i o n , succession and p roduc t i v i t y The f e r t i l i z e r response in 1 9 6 9 , comparing the tota l exc losure p lo t s with the n o n - f e r t i l i z e d c o n t r o l s , showed that with or without p ro tec t ion from grazing there was a s i g n i f i c a n t (at the 95 per cent conf idence leve l ) d i f f e rence in y i e l d that can be a t t r i bu ted to n i t rogen a lone. This i s - s im i l a r to the 1967 r e s u l t s . The f e r t i 1 i z e r response is thus h ighly r e s i d u a l . Excluding a l l ungulate grazers fo r three years has 2 resu l ted in a s i g n i f i c a n t y i e l d increase. The mean y i e l d s for 1/2 m c l i p p lo ts (using the mean of 10 samples), are 1 1 0 . 7 , 6 3 . 5 and 2 3 . 0 grams for the tota l exc losure f e r t i l i z e d , to ta l exc losure n o n - f e r t i l i z e d and n o n - f e r t i l i z e d contro l p lo ts r espec t i ve l y ( s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t at the 95 per cent l e v e l ) . Height and species abundance measurements a l so ind ica te th i s response d i f f e r ence in p roduc t i v i t y fo l lowing protec t ion from grazing and app l i c a t i on of f e r t i l i z e r . The cl imax spec ies , Agropyron spicatum, Koeleria cristata, Festuca idahoensis and Eriogonum heracleoides, appear to be reinvading th i s s i t e . The cont ro l s i t e has come back mainly in Artemisia frigida, which, i n c i d e n t a l l y , showed a substant ia l response to f e r t i l i z e r . F e r t i 1 i z e d p lo t s demonstrated that the recovery of Agropyron, for example, has been 140 a s s i s t e d by n i t r o g e n a p p l i c a t i o n . Reproduction as w e l l as plant s i z e show t h i s trend. A f t e r three years, as on the Juniper s i t e , the , f e r t i l i z e d p l o t s can e a s i l y be recognized v i s u a l l y . The species composition l i s t i n d i c a t e s that no species have disappeared as yet. In the e x c l o s u r e s , however, the ephemerals and annuals, are only present as i n c i d e n t a l s . The succession i s leading towards climax stands. The e n t i r e South Slope seems to be recovering f o l l o w i n g the t e r m i n a t i o n of heavy u t i l i z a t i o n by domestic stock. As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , reseeding f a i l e d on t h i s dry, exposed ridge s i t e . Pro-t e c t i o n p r a c t i c e s and f e r t i l i z a t i o n were at l e a s t p a r t i a l l y s u c c e s s f u l . s As a f i n a l o bservation i t can be stated that the " b a s i c " p r o d u c t i v i t y as w e l l as the response to f e r t i l i z e r in 1967 was s i g n i f i -c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t between s i t e s . One season f o l l o w i n g treatment, the Poa s i t e on Juniper Slope o u t - y i e l d e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y ( r e g a r d l e s s of f e r t i l i z e r ) , the Agropyron s i t e on South Slope. The y i e l d on the Juniper s i t e i s a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than that of the Poa-Stipa s i t e on C r a t e r Mountain. The 1. and 2.Crater s i t e s both s i g n i f i c a n t l y o u t - y i e l d e d South Slope i n 1967- The 1. and 2.Crater s i t e s are q u i t e s i m i l a r when compared to each other. Thus,.there appears to have been three l e v e l s of p r o d u c t i v i t y in 1967, Juniper being at the top of the s c a l e and South Slope at the bottom. The two Crater s i t e s are i n t e r -mediate. Dune's H i l l was not compared w i t h any of the others because of s i z e , purpose of t h i s e x c l o s u r e , date of establishment and e l e v a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e . It appears to be w e l l below a l l the other s i t e s i n terms of p r o d u c t i v i t y . These d i f f e r e n c e s between s i t e s were accentuated using n i t r o g e n f e r t i l i z e r . 3.h Di scussion The I960 exc l o s u r e p l o t s i n d i c a t e d only general trends when p r o t e c t i o n from grazing i s affo r d e d an area. No c o n s i s t e n t r e s u l t s were noted. Most of the fences had been removed or were in. poor c o n d i t i o n in 1966. The data from the four best preserved p l o t s i s c o n t r a d i c t o r y a t best. The data from the exclo s u r e p l o t s e s t a b l i s h e d in 1966 again demonstrates that great v a r i a b i l i t y in response e x i s t e d to the treatment in terms of species composition and y i e l d . This v a r i a t i o n occurred between s i t e s as w e l l as between years. The d i f f e r e n c e s between years, according to Brink and McLean (personal communications) and Harper (19&9)> are a d i r e c t f u n c t i o n of moisture regime v a r i a t i o n s i n the area. A l l the f e r t i l i z e r t r i a l s showed some responses to N i t r o g e n , but the e f f e c t s were not uniform in terms of the r e s u l t i n g standing crop and time of response. It depended upon the type of s o i l and/or p l a n t community involved. 1 As f a r as best seeding time i s concerned, the f o l l o w i n g observ-a t i o n s are presented from the 2.Crater s i t e t r i a l . Most f a l l seeded grass specimens were i n the two to three l e a f stage by June of the f o l l o w i n g year. The sp r i n g seeded young p l a n t s had bare l y emerged by the advance of the dry season. "Burning up" of young se e d l i n g s was observed on a l l p l o t s on the 2.Crater s i t e . T h i s caused almost a t o t a l l o s s of the seedlings that were counted in June. By 1969 no evidence of r e c e n t l y seeded species was found on t h i s s i t e . Probably seedbed prepar-a t i o n plus a cover crop or mulch would lead to b e t t e r success. This appears to be h i g h l y i m p r a c t i c a l as wel l as expensive in t h i s area. 142 In genera l , f r o s t heaving, e r o s i on , b i r d s , " b u r n i n g " , lack of germination or seedl ing surv iva l seem to a l l cont r ibute to the ove ra l l negative r e su l t s from seeding. Whether f e r t i l i z a t i o n a f fec ted the seeding experiment cannot be determined. P lots rece iv ing no f e r t i l i z e r showed s im i l a r r esu l t s to those that d i d . Several means of range improvement are poss ib le in such a mountainous semi-arid environment as the Ashnola Basin represents . Economic f e a s i b i l i t y was not tested for any of these. Whether such human in ter fe rence is des i r ab le on nat ive ranges, or to what degree, deserves p r i o r ph i l osoph i ca l cons ide ra t i on . Under the circumstances that ex is ted when th i s study was i n i t i a t e d i t was bel ieved to be adv isab le to exper imenta l ly test some r e h a b i l i t a t i o n techniques. If an intens ive r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program should ever become necessary, f e r t i l i z a t i o n of c e r t a i n ranges shows promise. The r esu l t s i nd i ca t e , however, that a blanket ni trogen a p p l i c a t i o n would not on ly be expensive but probably not too f r u i t f u l . Cer ta in ranges appear to respond only minimal ly to f e r t i l i z e r . Reseeding needs fur ther t es t ing using more e laborate methods and intens ive exper imentat ion, before any conc lus ive statements can be advanced. Such d r a s t i c and c e r t a i n l y expensive and i n t ens i ve , as well as unpopular measures as winter f eed ing , browse p l a n t i n g , f a l l crop seeding or ungulate populat ion level manipulat ions may not need to be considered as long as the l eve ls of u t i l i z a t i o n and land management are not i n t e n s i f i e d . Under present ly es tab l i shed p r i o r i t i e s , changes in the above are not predic ted for the immediate fu tu re . The c r i t i c a l winter ranges (essent ia l in deep snow years) are 143 hot s u f f i c i e n t in themselves any longer due to the encroachment o f . . . c i v i l i z a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i f heavy domestic stock grazing is permit ted. Under the graz ing regime that ex is ted in 1965 to 1967 such in tens ive as well as extensive r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and rejuvenat ion p rac t i ces as were d iscussed above seem to be very a t t r a c t i v e and c e r t a i n l y could be incorporated in a management p lan . The e f f e c t upon the range complex of f e r t i l i z a t i o n , better animal d i s t r i b u t i o n , grazing ro ta t ion and/or short-term pro tec t ion c e r t a i n l y is b e n e f i c i a l . These p rac t i ces can a id in contro l 1ing e ros i on , improving range cond i t i ons , increas ing long-term forage y i e l d s and advancing the success ion . Such success ion a l t e r i n g p rac t i ces as logg ing , burning and/or in tens ive graz ing have been shown e i the r to be detr imental to the grazing complex or are not recommended u n i v e r s a l l y un t i l proper care is taken that the des i red resu l t s are a c t u a l l y achieved. Under the now e x i s t i n g grazing regime ( p r i o r i t i e s are bighorn sheep and mule deer ) , probably no amel iora t i ve recommendations w i l l become necessary in the near fu tu re . The grassland ranges are responding favourably to the reduct ion in grazing pressures . On some ranges and c e r t a i n l y fo r a few plant communities, having domestic stock harvest a v a i l a b l e , surplus forage may improve p roduc t i v i t y and des i r ab l e range cond i t i ons . Artemisia frigida, present ly high in the bighorns ' winter d i e t , may disappear in the absence of g raz ing . The d e s i r a b i l i t y of th i s species in the future d i e t s o f C a l i f o r n i a bighorn sheep is not known. Damage to range and w i l d l i f e popu la t ions , ( i f the l a t t e r re ta in the p r i o r i t y des ignat ion) should be the only c r i t e r i a for res tor ing ranges or excluding domestic stock from using the Ashnola Bas in . . 144 IV. SUMMARY 1. A study of the four major habitat f a c t o r s , s o i l s , c l ima te , f l o r a and fauna was conducted in the Ashnola River Basin from May, 1966 to October, 1967- Concurrent ly some experiments with range r e h a b i l i -t a t ion were i n i t i a t e d on some bighorn sheep winter ing ranges. 2. Information on the physiography, geology and s o i l s was gathered from var ious reports (Green et a l . , 1963; Green and Lord , in p r i n t ; Ho l land, 1964; R ice , I960). The so i l survey was conducted by Green and Lord (in p r i n t ) . Ex t rapo la t ion to the area east of 120° longitude was accomplished with the ass is tance of the pedo log is ts mentioned above, Runka (personal communications), and the use of a e r i a l photographs. So i l s in the area ranged from Brown s o i l s to the Dys t r i c B run i so l s . Local v a r i a t i on in so i l types is extens ive . 3. The c l imate of the area was invest igated in terms of r a i n f a l l , snow cover , temperature and evaporat ion. Instruments to measure these va r i ab les were spaced along two a l t i t u d i n a l road t ransec ts . Records were kept for two summers and snow-data was compiled along the Paul Creek road leading to a micro wave s ta t ion fo r the winter of 1966 to 1967. . The resu l t s showed that summer p r e c i p i t a t i o n increased subs t an t i a l l y with a l t i t u d e . Long term means from Keremeos and Nickel P late Mountain demonstrated that annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n more than doubled with an e leva t iona l r i s e of about 4,500 f e e t . P r e c i p i t a t i o n e f f e c t i v e n e s s , as measured by the P/E r a t i o (Van Ryswyk et a l . , 1966) showed s im i l a r trends in the study area with increas ing a l t i t u d e . There a l so appears 145 to be an increase in the p r e c i p i t a t i o n e f f e c t i v e n e s s when moving from east to west, as shown by comparison of the Keremeos w i t h the Hedley data. Local v a r i a t i o n s between s i t e s f o r p a r t i c u l a r r a i n f a l l s are the r u l e rather than the exception. I n d i v i d u a l records were made of r a i n f a l l s that drppped more moisture at lower e l e v a t i o n s than at higher e l e v a t i o n s w i t h i n the same general area. The d i r e c t i o n of p a r t i c u l a r v a l l e y s may have played a dominant part in d i s t r i b u t i n g p r e c i p i t a t i o n . Snow cover on the ground, as measured p e r i o d i c a l l y along a v e r t i c a l t r a n s e c t , not only increased a 1 1 i t u d i n a l l y but i t a l s o v a r i e d g r e a t l y between s i t e s as w e l l as periods of record. Exposure and v e g e t a t i v e cover type play the major r o l e here. On s o u t h e r l y f a c i n g grassland slopes and exposed ridges the snow depths were c o n s i s t e n t l y lower than on those w i t h n o r t h e r l y aspects and/or slopes covered w i t h t i mbe r. For the periods f o r which evaporation data are a v a i l a b l e , evaporation v a r i e d somewhat with aspect but in general i t was highest at low e l e v a t i o n s i t e s . Using the conversion f a c t o r of .36 (Wilcox, personal communications) e v a p o t r a n s p i r a t i o n g r e a t l y exceeded r a i n f a l l over the two summer periods (the conversion f a c t o r was e x p e r i m e n t a l l y derived at the Summerland Research S t a t i o n , using a v a r i e t y of evaporimeters). Mean temperatures, both a i r and s o i l , decreased w i t h r i s i n g a l t i t u d e s . The i n f l u e n c e of aspect on s o i l temperatures was demonstrated at the C r a t e r IV c l i m a t i c s i t e . The southeast f a c i n g t h e r m i s t e r ' s 146 readings were cons i s t en t l y 3 ° F higher than those of the northeast f ac ing one ' s . Va r i a t ions in local temperatures, incons is tent v/ith the normal decreases with r i s i n g e l e va t i ons , were f requent . Temperature changes of great amplitude were not uncommon, both in terms of time and space, h o r i z o n t a l l y and a 11 i tud ina11y . The temperature lapse rates (Conrad, 1944) again demonstrate th i s loca l v a r i a b i l i t y . 4. The f l o r a of the area was descr ibed by two methods. F i r s t , habi ta t types (McLean, 1969) were e laborated upon, in terms of species composi t ion, as they occurred wi th in the e x i s t i n g vegetat ion zones. For the purpose of the range map, twelve broad cover types were de l im i ted on the basis of dominant vege ta t ion , physiography, a l t i t u d i n a l range and such fac tors as f i r e and logging h i s t o r y , and value to ungulates . The f i e l d inves t iga t ions included plant species c o l l e c t i o n s , ocu lar s i t e rat ings and a i r photo in te rp re ta t ion fo r areas not v i s i t e d on the ground. Range cond i t ion and trend studies were conducted concurrent ly using permanently marked t r ansec t s , both the point quadrat and modif ied Parker 3 _ s t e p type (Brown, 1954 ; Hutchings and Holmgren, 1959)-Five vegetat iona l zones, the Artemisia tridentata, Pinus -ponderosa, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Abies lasiocarpa and a lp ine zones, occur wi th in the study area . The Artemisia tridentata se r i es is not well represented in th i s p a r t i c u l a r area . It is represented by only one habi ta t type, the Artemisia tridentata-Stipa comata a s s o c i a t i o n . The Pinus ponderosa zone a l so occurs on ly :marg ina l l y in the Ashnola Va l l e y . ; It is f a i r l y well represented in the Similkameen Va l l e y . A Pinus ponderosa-Agropyron spicatum habi ta t type was i d e n t i f i e d on low r i v e r 147 .terraces. The Pseudotsuga menziesii zone includes most of the w i n t e r i n g slopes f o r bighorns and extends from about 2,500 f e e t to about 6,500 f e e t . Within t h i s zone several prominant h a b i t a t types are being described f o r the Ashnola Basin. These are the Pseudotsuga menziesii-Agropyron spicatum, the Pseudotsuga menziesii-Calamagrostis • rubesoens, and the Festuca idahoensis-Eriogonum heracleoides types.. Large communities w i t h i n t h i s as w e l l as lower e l e v a t i o n zones are no longer climax. F i r e , l o gging, grazing and other land use p r a c t i c e s have c o n t r i b u t e d to the maintenance of these s e r a i stands. The Abies lasiocarpa and a l p i n e zones are composed of a v a r i e t y of h a b i t a t types and/or plant communities. No separation or d e l i m i t a t i o n of h a b i t a t types was attempted f o r these zones. No evidence of s e r i o u s range r e t r o g r e s s i o n was documented f o r these. One separate h a b i t a t type was recognized on s o u t h - f a c i n g slopes at about 6,000 f e e t e l e v a t i o n . This i s the Artemisia t r i d e n t a t a var. vaseyana a s s o c i a t i o n . Evidence of the e x i s t e n c e of t h i s community was found at various l o c a t i o n s . The range cover types, s i x t e e n in t o t a l , i n c l u d i n g sub-types, are depicted on the base map. Another map was prepared showing the o v e r - l a p p i n g use of the area by the three major ungulate s p e c i e s . The low and mid-grasslands r e c e i v e the heaviest use by a l l ungulates, w i t h the w i n t e r ranges being grazed almost on a year-round b a s i s . The sub-a l p i n e and a l p i n e ranges and most f o r e s t communities re c e i v e 1 i t t l e general use, except l o c a l l y . The general c o n d i t i o n s and s u c c e s s i o n a l range trends show the e x i s t i n g problem areas, the low and mid-grasslands that are s u i t a b l e f o r w i n t e r i n g wiId ungulates. Y i e l d s t u d i e s conducted on some major slopes showed that the 148 Festuea-Eriogonum habi tat type outy ie lded a l l other communities. McLean (T969) substant iated th is p rev ious l y . Large y i e l d va r i a t i ons ex i s t even on the same s lope. Between years v a r i a b i l i t y is even more s i g n i f i c a n t and is re la ted to annual moisture regimes. The Crater and Starvat ion Slopes examined in de ta i l to document range cond i t ions and t rends , show that these s p e c i f i c g r a s s -lands are in poor, re t rogress i ve cond i t i on . P roduc t i v i t y is low. Climax dominants are e i t he r absent or low in frequency. In 1969, a progress ive trend was noted. Domestic stock grazing had been e l iminated for two years at that time. The exc losure s i t e s a l so showed a p rogres -s ive trend in cond i t ion and y i e l d once p ro tec t ion from ungulate use was a f forded the communities. Th is trend was by no means uniform between s i t e s . A l l these t ransects and exc losures must be examined p e r i o d i c a l l y . Over the short time span th i s inves t iga tor had the opportuni ty to spend in the study a rea , only pre l iminary cond i t i on and trend analyses could be performed. 5. Experimental range r e h a b i l i t a t i o n studies were i n i t i a t e d on f i v e s i t e s in the Ashnola Basin. A l l s i t e s were on c r i t i c a l winter ranges wi th in the Pseudotsuga zone. The e f f e c t s of var ious l e ve l s o f p ro tec t ion from g raz ing , reseeding and f e r t i l i z a t i o n were tested on these f i v e plant communities. Exclosures e l im ina t ing c a t t l e graz ing alone and others e l im ina t ing a l l ungulate use were es tab l i shed in 1966. Permanently marked point quadrat t ransects were run to c o l l e c t quan t i t a t i v e as well as q u a l i t a t i v e data on the indigenous plant communities. The f e r t i l i z e r app l ied was ammonium n i t r a t e ( 3 3 . 5 " 0 - 0 ) at 67 l b . of n i t rogen per acre . Agropyron cristatum was se lected as the '. experimental grass species for reseeding at a rate of 20 lb . per ac re . Observations on y i e l d changes due to the appl ied n i t rogen , on emergence and surv i va l of c rested wheatgrass p lants and on changes in species composit ion were recorded both in 1967 and 1969. The exc losures es tab l i shed by Blood (1961) were a l so r e-v i s i t ed and where deemed f e a s i b l e , point quadrat t ransects were e s t ab l i shed . From th i s ser ies of t r ansec t s , i t can be reported that on cl imax ranges the impact of the exc losures was n e g l i g i b l e . On heav i l y u t i l i z e d slopes such as S tarvat ion and South S lope, seven years of p ro tec t ion from grazing has resu l ted in frequency of occurrence increases for the cl imax species such as Agropyron spicatum and Koeleria cristata. Increaser and serai species have decreased in frequency in the absence of g raz ing . General y i e l d increases were a l so noted in the I960 exclosures over the outs ide contro l areas. The sample s i ze and number of p lo t s were very sma l l , however, to present any s i g n i f i c a n t t es tab le resu I ts . Data from the much larger exc losures b u i l t in I966 show that species composit ion and p roduc t i v i t y vary ex tens i ve l y between s i t e s . P rotect ion from grazing resu l ted in progress ive trends towards c l imax, except on Juniper Slope where the Poa sp. stand remained s t a t i c in composi t ion. Poa pratensis is a successfu l a l i e n invader, rep lac ing the cl imax bunchgrasses. E l iminat ion of grazing obv ious ly favoured the sexua l l y reproduct ive phase for the grassland spec ies . It a l so resu l ted in an advanced phenology ins ide the exc losures as compared to the unprotected contro l areas . 150 6. Observat ions of bighorn sheep and other ungulates, as well as other animals , were made as part of th i s study of the ecosystem. Some records of actual populat ion numbers were taken. The bighorn sheep were estimated to number about hOQ in 1967. D i s t r i b u t i o n of the major ungulate species is shown on the accompanying map. 7. H i s t o r i c as well as contemporary human a c t i v i t i e s were documented. Logging, recreat iona l a c t i v i t i e s , ranching and mining are the main opera t ions . Economical ly , even though th i s was not assessed, these a c t i v i t i e s are a l l important to the reg ion . 8. Using ni t rogen f e r t i l i z e r in the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n t r i a l s , the y i e l d s on a l l s i t e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y increased even in the f i r s t year. The cl imax bunchgrass communities responded least and slowest, whi le the Kentucky Bluegrass s i t e showed the most promising r e s u l t s . These data were tested using a student " t " t e s t . Using Duncan's New Mu l t i p l e Range Tes t , i t was seen that there was an innate or bas ic d i f f e r ence in p roduc t i v i t y between at least two s i t e s . F e r t i l i z e r response re in forced these y i e l d va r i a t i ons between s i t e s . Response to n i t rogen was s t i l l ev ident in 1969 on three of the f i v e s i t e s . 9. Reseeding was found to be unsuccessful on a l l but one s i t e , even in 1969. On the 1.Crater Mountain s i t e , at 4,900 feet a l t i t u d e , crested wheatgrass showed a reasonable level of establ ishment on a l l types of p l o t s , three to s ix bunches per 100 square foot p l o t s . The reason fo r th i s success is not e a s i l y apparent. On other s i t e s such as South Slope and 2.Crater, seedl ing emergence was observed in-1966 and 1967 but no es tab l i shed crested or Whitmar wheatgrass p lants were observed in 1969. The Dune's H i l l s i t e showed a few es tab l i shed Russian 151 wi ld ryegrass p lants in 1969, but no c lover was observed. From the experiments conducted during th i s study, reseeding showed l i t t l e promise. • 10. P rotec t ion from grazing by c a t t l e resu l ted in substant ia l increases in spr ing carryover of forage. Tota l p ro tec t ion from ungulates substant ia ted th i s trend even fu r the r . 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No. 21 (a p u b l i c a t i o n of The W i l d l i f e S o c i e t y ) . Hubbard, W.A. 1955. The grasses of B r i t i s h Columbia. Hndbk. No. 9 . Prov. Mus. ( V i c t o r i a , B.C.). 156 Hubbard, W.A., and J.L. Mason. 1967- Residual e f f e c t s of ammonium n i t r a t e and ammonium phosphate on some native ranges of B r i t i s h Columbia. J . Range Mgt. 20(1):1 -15. H u l l , A.C. J r . 1966. Emergence and survival of intermediate wheatgrass and smooth brome seeded on a mountain range. J . Range Mgt. 19(5)L279-283. Hutchings, Selar S. and Ralph C. Holmgren. 1959. Interpretation of loop-frequency data as a necessary measure of plant cover. Ecology 40(4): 668-677-' l l l i n g w o r t h , K. and J.W.C. A r l i d g e . I960. Interim report on some fore s t s i t e types in lodgepole pine and spruce-alpine f i r stands. . - ' -> Johnson, D.D. and A.J. C l i n e . 1965• Colorado mountain s o i l s . Colorado Agr. Exp. Sta. S c i . Ser. No. 996. Jordan, M.A. I966. An evaluation of a unit of land for park use. B.Sc. Thesis. Dept. of Zoology, U.B.C. Julander, 0. 1968. E f f e c t of c l i p p i n g s on herbage and flower s t a l k production of three summer range f o r b s . J . Range Mgt. 21(2):74-79. Kendrew, W.G. and D. Kerr. 1955. The climate of B r i t i s h Columbia and the Yukon T e r r i t o r y . Queen's P r i n t e r . (Ottawa). K r a j i n a , V.J. 1959- B i o - c l i m a t i c zones. No. 1. U.B.C. Botany S e r i e s . . 1965. Ecology of western north America. V o l . 1. Dept. of ,Botany, U.B.C. Konrad, V. 1944. Methods in climatology. Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press. (Cambridge, Mass.). Kuchler, A.W. 1967. Vegetation mapping. Ronald Press Co. (N.Y.). Laycock. William A. and Thomas A. P h i l l i p s . 1968. The long-term e f f e c t s of 2,4-D on lanceleaf rabbitbrush and associated species. J . Range Mgt. 21(2):90-95. LeClerg, E.L., W.H. Leonard, and A.J. Clark. 1962. F i e l d plot technique. 2nd. E d i t i o n . Burgess Publ. Co. Lord, T.M. and A. McLean. 1969• A e r i a l photo i n t e r p r e t a t i o n on B r i t i s h Columbia rangelands. J . Range Mgt. 22(1) :3~9. Lorenz, Russel J . and George A. Rogler. 1967- Grazing and f e r t i l i z a t i o n a f f e c t s root development of range grasses. J . Range Mgt. 20 (3):129-132. 157 Love less , C M . 1967- Eco log ica l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a mule deer winter range. Tech. B u l l . No. 20. Colorado Game, F ish and Parks Dept. Dungerson Press (Denver). Lyons, C P . 1941. A reconnaissance of the Cathedral Lakes area . Report recommending park status to the B r i t i s h Columbia P rov inc i a l Parks Branch ( V i c t o r i a ) . Mason, J . L . and J . E . Mi l t imore . 1964. Increase in y i e l d and pro te in count of nat ive Agropyron spicatum from ni trogen f e r t i l i z a t i o n J . Range Mgt. 17(2):145-147. Mason, J . L . and J . E . M i l t imore , 1969-Yield increases from ni t rogen on nat ive range in Southern B r i t i s h Columbia. J . Range Mgt. 22 (2):128-131 -McLean, A l a s t a i r and W.D. Hol land. 1958. Vegetat ion zones and the i r r e l a t i onsh ip to the s o i l s and c l imate of the upper Columbia v a l l e y . Can. J . Plant S c i . 38:328-345. McLean, A. 1969. Plant communities of the Similkameen Va l l e y , B r i t i s h Columbia and the i r r e l a t i onsh ip to s o i l s . Ph.D. Thes i s . Washington State Un i ve r s i t y . M i l t imore , J . E . , J . L . Mason, and C.B.W. Rogers. 1962. Increase in seed product ion from ni trogen f e r t i l i z a t i o n of nat ive beardless wheatgrass. Can. J . Plant S c i . 42:359-364. Moss, E.H. 1959. F lora of A l b e r t a , Un i ve rs i t y of Toronto Press , Toronto. Nasimovitch, A.A. 1955. The ro le of snow cover cond i t ions in the l i f e of ungulates in the U.S.S.R. Unedited t r ans l a t i on fo r C.W.S. T rans l a t i on Serv i ce , Dept-of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development. National Academy of Sciences - National Research Counc i l . 1962. Range research - bas ic problems and techniques. Publ . No. 890 (Washington, D.C. ) . National Soi l Survey. 1965. Report of the 6th. meeting of the nat iona l so i l survey committee of Canada. Can. Exp. Farm, Can. Dept. Agr. (Ottawa). National Soi l Survey. I968. Report of the 9th. meeting of the nat iona l s o i l survey committee of Canada. Can. Exp. Farm, Can. Dept. Agr. (Ottawa). N i cho l s , James T. and Wi l f red E. McMurphy. 1969- Range recovery and product ion as inf luenced by n i t rogen and 2,4-D treatments. J . Range Mgt. 22(2):116-119 158 Odum, Eugene P. 1959- Fundamentals of ecology. 2nd. e d i t i o n . W.B. Saunders Co. (London). Parker, Kenneth W. 1954. App l i c a t i on of ecology in the determinat ion of range cond i t ion and t rend. J . Range Mgt. 7(1): 14-23. Pea t t i e , R. 1936. Mountain geography, a c r i t i q u e and f i e l d study. Harvard Un i ve r s i t y Press. Plummer, A.P. 1968. Restor ing big-game range in Utah. Publ . No. 68-3. Utah D i v i s i on of F ish and Game. P r u i t t , W.O. 1966. Some eco log i ca l aspects of snow. Symposium on ecology of sub-arc t i c reg ions , (mimeo.). c Rice , H.M.A. i960. Geology and mineral depos i ts of the Pr inceton map-area , B r i t i s h Columbia. Geol . Surv . , Canada Memoir No. 243. Rogler , G.A. and H.J. Haas. 1947. Range product ion as re la ted to s o i l moisture and p r e c i p i t a t i o n on the northern Great P l a i n s . J . Amer. Soc. Agron. 39=378-389. Rowe, J . S . 1959- Forest regions of Canada. B u l l . No. 123. Can. Dept. Northern A f f a i r s and Natural Resources (Ottawa). Smith, A .D. i960. A technique for studying forage removal by game and l i v e s tock . J . Range Mgt. 13(3): 151-152. Smith, Dwight R. 1954. The bighorn sheep in Idaho, i t s s t a tus , l i f e h i s t o r y , and management. W i l d l . B u l l . No. 1. Idaho Dept. of F ish and Game (Boise, Idaho). Smith, E.R. i960. Report to the Chief Fores ter , (mimeo.). Grazing D i v i s i o n , B.C. Forest Serv ice . ( V i c t o r i a ) . Smoliak, S. 1968. Studies on nat ive range, crested wheatgrass, and Russian wi ldrye pastures . J . Range Mgt. 2l(l):47"50. -Snedecor, G.W. 1956. S t a t i s t i c a l methods. Iowa State Col lege Press. (Ames, Iowa). Sneva, Forrest A. and Donald N. Hyder. 1962. Est imat ing herbage product ion on semi-arid rangelands in the inter-mountain reg ion. J . Range Mgt. 15 (2):88-93. Spa ld ing , D.J. 1966-67• Monthly reports to B r i t i s h Columbia F i sh and W i l d l i f e Branch (unpubl . ) . (V i c to r i a ) Sp i l sbury , R.H. and E.W. T i s d a l e . 1944. So i l -p lan t r e l a t i onsh ips and v e r t i c a l zonation in the southern i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia. Sc i . . Agr. 24 (9):395"436. 159 Sp i l sbury , R.H. 1963. A co-operat ive study of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of fo res t land. Paper presented at 2nd. North American Forest So i l s conference. Aug. 26-30 (Corval1 i s , . O r e . ) . Sprout, P.N. and C C . Ke l l y . 1961. Soi l survey of the Similkameen River Va l l ey - Hedley to the 45th. p a r a l l e l . I nterim report S t a r r , W.A. 1967• So i l t ransects in the Okanagan highlands of northeastern Washington, Wash. State Univ. (Pullman, Wash.). S tee le , R.G.D. and J . H . T o r r i e . i960. P r i n c i p l e s and procedures of s t a t i s t i c s . McGraw-Hill Book Co. (N.Y. ) . Sugden, Lawson G. 1961. The C a l i f o r n i a bighorn in B r i t i s h Columbia with p a r t i c u l a r reference to the Churn Creek herd. B.C. Dept. of Recreation and Conservation Pub. ( V i c t o r i a ) . Tay l o r , E.W. 1954-62. Monthly reports to the B.C. F ish and Game Branch (unpub l . ) ( V i c to r i a ) . T i s d a l e , E.W. 1947. The grasslands of the southern i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia. E c o l . 28:346-382. , and A. McLean. 1957- The Douglas f i r zone of southern B r i t i s h Columbia. E co l . Mono. 27(3):247-266. Trewartha, G.T. I968. An in t roduct ion to c l imate . 4th. E d i t i o n . McGraw-Hill Book Co. (Toronto). Van Ryswyk, A . L . , A l a s t a i r McLean, and L.S. Marchand. I966. The c l ima te , nat ive vege ta t ion , and s o i l s of some grasslands at d i f f e r e n t e leva t ions in B r i t i s h Columbia. Can. J . Plant S c i . 46:35-49. Van Ryswyk, A . L . 1969. Forest and a lp ine s o i l s of south-central B r i t i s h Columbia. Ph.D. (Soi1s) Thes i s . Washington State Univ. Pullman, Washington. I89 pp. Water Invest igat ions Branch, Water Resources Serv ice . 1965. Summary of snow survey measurements in B r i t i s h Columbia. Dept. of Lands, Fores ts , and Water Resources. (V i c to r i a ) . Weaver, John E. and F reder i c E. Clements. 1938. Plant ecology. McGraw-Hill Book Co. (Toronto). Weir, Thomas R. 1955. Ranching in the southern i n t e r i o r plateau of B r i t i s h Columbia. Memoir No. 4. Geographical Branch, Canada Dept. of Mines and Technica l Surveys. Whittaker, Robert H. 1962. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of natural communities. Bot. Rev. 28(1):1-161. 160 Wilcox, J . C . 1967- A simple evaporimeter for use in co ld areas. Water Resources Research 3(2): 433-436. Wi l l i ams , A.B. 1925. Game t r a i l s in B r i t i s h Columbia. Charles F r i b n e r ' s Sons (N.Y. ) . 360 pp. Wi lson, A . M . , G.A. H a r r i s , and D.H. Gates. 1966. F e r t i l i z a t i o n of mixed cheatgrass - bluebunch wheatgrass stands. J . Range Mgt. 19(3): 134-137. 161 APPENDIX 1 SCIENTIFIC AND COMMON NAMES AND AUTHORITIES FOR PLANT SPECIES MENTIONED IN TEXT References inc lude : Davis (1952), Hitchcock (1950), Hitchcock et a l . (1955, 1959, 1961, 1964, 1969), Hubbard (1955), and Moss (1959). Where c o n f l i c t s arose , Hitchcock et a l . (1955, 1959, 1961, 1964, 1969) was taken as the au tho r i t y . 162 GRASSES AND GRASS-LIKE PLANTS Agropyron spicatum (Pursh) Sc r ibn . & Smith Agropyron trachycaulum var . unilaterale (Cassidy) Bromus tectorum L. Calamgrostis purpurascens R.Br. Calamagrostis rubescens Buckl . Danthonia intermedia Vasey Deschampsia sp. Festuca idahoensis Elmer Festuca ovina L. Festuca scabrella To r r . Koeleria c r i s t a t a (L.) Pers. Fhleum alpinum L. Poa alpina L. Poa ampla Merr. Poa compressa L. Poa pratensis L. Poa rupicola Nash. Poa secunda P r e s l . Sporobolus cryptandrus (Torr . ) A. Gray Stipa columbiana Macoun Stipa comata T r i n . & Rupr. Stipa richardsonii L ink. Trisetum spicatum (L) R icht . Bluebunch Wheatgrass Malte. Slender Wheatgrass Downy Chess Purple Reed Grass Pine Grass Timber Oat Grass Ha i r Grass Bluebunch Fescue Sheep Fescue Rough Fescue June Grass Mountain Timothy A lp ine Bluegrass Big Bluegrass Canada Bluegrass Kentucky Bluegrass BIue Grass Sandberg Bluegrass Sand Dropseed Columbia Needlegrass Needle and Thread Richardson Needle Grass Spike Tr isetum 163 Carex albo-nigra Mack. Carex concinnoides Mack. . Carex nardina F r i es Carex scirpoidea Michx. Juncus drummondii E. Meyer Luzula spicata (L) DC. HERBACEOUS PLANTS Achillea millefolium L. var . lanulosa Nutt. Agoseris glauca (Pursh) Raf. Anemone multifida Po i r . Antennaria alpina (L) Gaertn. Antennaria sp. L. Arenaria formosa F i s c h . Arnica cordifolia Hook. Arnica rydbergii Greene Artemisia frigida WI1 Id. Aster sp. L. Astragalus striatus Nutt. Balsamorhiza sagittata (Pursh) Nutt. Castilleja miniata Dougl. Cirsium sp. (L) Collinsia parviflora Dougl. Comus canadensis L. Dry as hookeriana- Juz. Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Rush Wood Rush Common Yarrow Fa 1se Dandelion Cut-leaved Anemone Pussy-toes Pussy-toes Sandwort Heart-leaved Arn ica Pasture Sage Aster Mi lk Vetch Balsam-root Common Red Indian Paintbrush Canada T h i s t l e Blue-eyed Mary Bunchberry Whi te Dryad 164 Erigeron sp. Fleabane Eriogonum heracleoides Nutt. Umbrella Plant Fragaria virginiana Duchesne Wi Id Strawberry Geranium viscosissimum F i s ch . & Mey . St icky Purple Geranium Ledum glandulosum Nutt. Flandular Labrador Tea Lepidium densiflorum Schrad Common Peppergrass Linnaea borealis L. var . americana (Forbes) Rahd. Tw i n f1 owe r Lupinus sericeus Pursh Perennial Lupine Lupinus sp. L. Lupine Opuntia sp. L. P r i c k l y Pear Cactus Oxytropis campestris ( l) DC. Late Yellow Loco-weed Pedicularis bracteosa Benth. Lousewort Penstemon procerus Dougl. Slender Blue Beard-tongue Phlox a l y s s i f o l i a Greene Blue Phlox Plantago purshii R. & S. P lanta in Polemonium sp. L. Jacob's Ladder Pyrola secunda L. One-sided Wintergreen Sedum rosea (L) Scop. Rose-root Senecio sp. L. Ragwort Silene acaulis L. Moss Champion Valeriana sitchensis Bong Va le r i an Verbascum thapsus L. Common Mul le in Vicia americana Muhl. Wild Vetch 165 TREES AND SHRUBS Abies lasiocarpa (Hook) Nutt. Alp ine F i r Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a Nutt. Saskatoon-berry Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L) Spreng. Common Bearberry Artemisia tridentata Nutt. Sagebrush Betula glandulosa Michx. Dwarf B i rch Cassiope mertensiana (Bong) D. Don Whi te Mtn. Heather Chrysothamnus sp. Nutt. Rabbitbrush Juniperus scopulorum Sarg. Rocky Mtn. Juniper Juniperus communis L. Ground Juniper Larix l y a l l i i P a r i . Alp ine Larch Lonicera utahensis S. Wats. Red Twin-berry Pachystima myrsinites (Pursh) Raf. Mountain Lover Philadelphus l e w i s i i Pursh Mock Orange Phyllodoce empetriformis (Smith) D. Don Red or Purple Heather Picea engelmannii Parry Engelmann Spruce Picea glauca (Moench) Voss White Spruce Pinus a l b i c a u l i s Engelm. Whi te-bark Pine Pinus contorta Loudon var . l a t i f o l i a Engelm. Lodgepole Pine Pinus ponderosa Dougl. Western Yellow Pine Populus tremuloides Michx. Trembli ng Aspen P o t e n t i l l a sp. L. Cinquefo i l Prunus sp. L. Pincherry Pseudosuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco Douglas F i r Rhododendron albiflorum Hook. White-flowered Rhododendron 166 Ribes sp.. L. Rosa woodsii L i nd1. Salix n i v a l i s Hook. Salix sp. L. Shepherdia canadensis (l) Nutt. Vaccinium scoparium L ieberg Vaccinium sp. L. Currant Common WiId Rose Wi1 low W i11ow Canada Buffa lo-berry Grouseberry Huckelberry 167 APPENDIX 2 SCIENTIFIC AND COMMON NAMES AND AUTHORITIES FOR SOME MAMMALS AND BIRDS MENTIONED IN TEXT References inc lude : Cowan, and Guiguet (1965), and Godfrey (1966). 168 MAMMALS AND BIRDS Aloes aloes Peterson : Canis latvans Say Spermophilus oolumbianus (Ord) Spermophilus saturatus (Rhoads) Euarctos amevieanus Pa l las Eutamias amoenus (Al len) Felis concolov Kerr Lepus amevieanus Erxleben Lynx canadensis Kerr Lynx rufus (Schreber) Marmota caligata (Eschscholtz) Mavmota flaviventris (Bangs) Odocoileus hemionus hemionus (Rafinesque) Oveamnos amevieanus ( B l a i n v i l l e ) Ovis canadensis califovniana Douglas Tamiasciuvus hudsonicus (Erxleben) Alectovis gvaeca (Meisner) Canachites canadensis L . Lophovtyx californicus (Shaw) Dendragapus obscurus (Say) Lagopus leucurus (Richardson) Phasianus colchicus L . Moose Coyote Columbian Groundsquirre l Cascade mantled Groundsquirre l Black Bear Bu f f -be l l i ed Chipmunk Cougar Varying Hare Canada Lynx Bobcat Hoary Marmot Ye l low-be l l i ed Marmot Rocky Mtn. Mule Deer Mountain Goat C a l i f o r n i a Bighorn Sheep Red Squ i r re l Chukar Par t r idge Spruce Grouse C a l i f o r n i a Quai1 Blue Grouse White-ta i led Ptarmigan Ring-neck Pheasant 169 APPENDIX 3 MISCELLANEOUS CLIMATIC DATA FOR THE ASHNOLA BASIN 170 APPENDIX 3 SITE DESCRIPTIONS FOR CLIMATIC STATIONS IN ASHNOLA STUDY AREA ESTABLISHED AUGUST 6, 1966 - OPERATED FOR PART OF TWO SUMMERS Stat ion E levat ion Plant So i l No. & Aspect Assoc ia t ion Type Genera 1 Locat ion % Slope &' Habitat Type Crater I 1500' North Pinus ponderosa Pseudotsuga menziesii Agropyron spicatum Orth ic Regosol sha11ow profi1e over g l a c i a l t i l l open narrow va l l e y in de l t a of Ashnola £ S imi1kameen Rivers flat-open t imber Crater I I 2600' North-east Crater III 3900' South-east Pseudotsuga menziesii Agropyron spicatum Poa secunda Balsamorhiza sagittata Koeleria cristata Dark Brown Dark Gray G l a c i a l T i l l 2.Crater Road, in Ashnola proper 2. Crater Road f i r s t open bench open t imber 5% open (bench) grass land Crater IV 4800' South-east Pseudotsuga menziesii Calamagrostis rubescens Orth ic Black 2.Crater road near upper logging 20% 1 semi-exposed open timber Paul Creek 2000' I North Pseudotsuga . menziesii Agropyron spicatum Dark Brown on esker r idge along Paul Creek Road over looki ng Simi1kameen Va l l ey 30% steep S exposed Paul Creek 3800' II South-east Paul Creek 5900' I I I South-ea s t Balsamorhiza sagittata Koeleria cristata Poa secunda Poa pratensis Pinus Contorta Orth ic Black on g l a c i a l t i l l & outwash sandy loam sandy loam Degraded Dystr ic Brun i sol big open slope up Paul Creek Road Paul Creek Road, above grass lands 20% open grass land 30% wel 1 she l tered Paul Creek 6500' IV North Pinus contorta Rock-Degraded Dys t r i c Bruni sol exposed peak of Lost Horse Mountai n exposed r idge NOTE: So i l s from Green and Lord (1970, in p r in t ) 171 6 0 — 5 0 — < 4 0 — CC UJ CC ZD < CC 2 0 -K E R E M E O S 1 4 ' 0 N I C K E L P L A T E 5 8 0 0 . • > » 6 O L D Gd-ORY 7 7 0 0 i'-«'2 0 — 1 1 1 1 j 1 1 1 1 j 1 1 1 1 j 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i — p — 1 1 1 1 j—t—1 i—j-1 2 3 NOTE: P R E C I P I T A T I O N ( I N C H E S ) Numbers r e f e r to months" o f the yea r APPENDIX 3 TEMPERATURE - MOISTURE CLIMATOGRAPHS FOR FOUR STATIONS HAVING LONG TERM RECORDS-IN SOUTHERN BRITISH COLUMBIA 172 APPENDIX 3 PRECIPITATION EFFECTIVENESS (P/E) RATIOS FOR FOUR REPRESENTATIVE STATIONS WITHIN THE STUDY AREA Recording Period, Number Date 1967 May 4-1 May 14 May 14-2 May 26 May 26-3 June 7 June 7" 4 June 15 June 15~ 5 June 22 June 22-6 June 28 June 28-7 July 5 July 5-8 July 12 July 12-9 July 17 July 17-10 July 24 July 24-11 July 30 July 30-12 Aug. 7 Aug. 7-13 Aug. 24 Aug. 24-14 Sept. 2 Sept 10-16 Oct. 3 Crater I Stations Crater IV Paul Creek I Paul Creek IV 1500' a . s . i . 4800' a . s . i . 2000' a . s . i . 6500' a.s.i 0.23 0.35 0.48 1.22 0.13 0.08 0.12 Sept. 2-15 Sept. 10 0.03 1.56 1.01 1.74 2.94 1.56 1.79 0.50 1.81 0.41 0.32 0.14 2.02 2.50 2.80 0.08 1.27 1.06 1.06 1.13 0.60 0.05 0.02 0.10 1.76 *e!ther p r e c i p i t a t i o n was negligible or temperature data was unavailable NOTE: P/E =115 frptn. (in.) / temp. (°F - 10)J 10/9 173 APPENDIX 4 KNOWN SOIL TYPES IN THE WEST HALF OF THE ASHNOLA RIVER BASIN. . APPENDIX t THE SOIL SCRIES AND SOIL TYPES IN THE WEST MAIF Of TNE ASIiNCLA KIVH BASIN (Adtptcd from Gr.en, In print) 174 SOIL SEMES, SOIL CATENA Oft LANO TYPE Name SOILS Dominant Soil Type Othar Soli Types PARENT MATERIAL ANO SURFACE EXPRESSION A. SOILS DEVELOPED ON rlORAtNAL GRAVELS 1. Soils developed on Glacial Ti11 LAM AN Larcan*sandy?loam- CahtM sandy loam. Volcanic Hoover moderately coarse textured weakly ca 1 careousshal low less than'vfc feet) glacial t i l l upon steep and very steep mountain slopes of high and moderate relief with southern exposure.' 2. Soils developed on Undivided Glacial T i l l and Co 11 uv I urn (Happed largely by air photo, interpretatIon) ALLEYNE Alleyne sandy loam Degraded Eutrlc Brunlsol Alleyne sandy loam Degraded Eutrlc Brunlsol Oarcy sandy loam Orthic Dark Gray Moderately coarse textured, weakly calcareous materials that Include colluvial and glacial t i l l deposits upon steep and very steep escarpment and valley slopes of high and moderate relief. As above but confined to valley slopes of high relief and southern exposure. Apex gravel ley sandy loam Orthic Alpine Dystric Brunt sol Lakevlew sandy loam Orthic Regosol Big Buck sandy loam Cumul Ic Regosol Qulnescoe sandy loam Rego Humic Gleysol Moderately coarse and very coarse textured acid, undivided materials that Include volcanic ash, colluvtum and glacial t i l l deposits upon steeply and very steeply sloping mountain ridges and slopes of moderate and low relief. MNNEVIEft Bonnevler sandy loam Nlcorrten .sandy loam Moderately coarse and very coarse textured, acid Orthic Alpine Dystric Orthic Humo-ferric materiaIs that Include g 1 ac1 a 1 t i l l , colluvlum Brunlsol Podzol and aeoltan depos its upon steep and very steeply Qulnescoe sandy loam Rego Kumlc Gleysol sloping mountain and low re l l e f . ridges and slopes of moderate Chuwanten sandy loam CIeyed Alpine Dystric Brunlsol Lawless sandy loam Mini Humo-Ferrlc Podzol Lawless sandy loam Mini Humo-Ferrlc Podzol Skalst sandy loam LI Chic Mini Humo-Ferrlc Podzol NIcomen sandy loam Orthic Homo-Ferric Podzol Errls sandy loam Rego Humic Gleysol Moderately coarse and very coarse textured acid materials that include colluvial and glacial t i l l deposits upon steep and very steep mountain slopes of high and moderate re l i e f . Moderately coarse textured acid materials upon gentle and moderate slopes of low and moderate re l i e f . Nickel Plate sandy loam E l l i s sandy loam Moderately coarse and very coarse textured, weakly Orthic Black Llthlc Orthic Black calcareous materials that Include volcanic ash colluvial and glacial t i l l deposits upen steep and very steep mountain slopes of high and moderate relief with southern exposure. WIIBERT Uilbert sandy loam'- Bankelr sandy loam Moderately coarse textured acid materials that Degraded Oystrlc Brunlsol Llthlc OrthJc.Eutric Include glacial t i l l and colluvial deposits upon Brunlsol strongiy and steeply sloping upland and valley slopes and abraded rock ridges. B. SOILS DEVELOPED ON GLACIAL OUTWASH DEPOSITS Pasayten gravelly sandy loam Mini Humo-Ferrlc Podzol Hennlng gravelly loamy sand Orthic Oystrlc Brunlsol Moderately coarse and very coarse acid outwash deposits upon gently and moderately sloping deltas and kame terraces. WHIPSAW Vhlpsaw gravelly sandy Asp gravelly loamy Moderately coarse and very coarse textured, weakly lota tand calcareous outwash deposits upon deltas and kame Orthic Eutrlc Brunlsol Degraded Eutrlc terraces often hummocky and kettled. Brunlsol C. SOILS DEVELOPED ON ALLUVIAL DEPOSITS ILTCOOLA Mapping complex of Regosollc soils on very coarse textured recent alluvial deposits. D. SOILS DEVELOPED ON ORGANIC DEPOSITS EWART Terrlc Heslsol peat Deep, semi-decomposed vegetative material that Ewart peat , c | d > Typic Meslsol E. SOILS DEVELOPED ON MISCELLANEOUS DEPOSITS ROCK A land type composed of rock outcrop and talus and scree deposits. STEEP LAND A napping complex of Regosollc and Chernozemic soils on variable depos'ts on very steep and extremely Steep valley slopes and eroding escarpments. c r A wpplng complex of Regosollc and Brunisollc soils on.variable deposits on very steep — •nd extremely steep mountain slopes and escarpments. APPENDIX 5 RECENT KNOWN STOCKING RATES FOR CATTLE AND HORSES WITHIN THE ASHNOLA BASIN 176 APPENDIX 5 RECENT KNOWN STOCKING RATES FOR CATTLE AND HORSES WITHIN-THE ASHNOLA BASIN" ( D a t a from G r a z i n g D i v i s i o n , B. C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e , and D e m a r c h i , 1965) 1966° 1967 I. 10 c a t t l e May I t o J u l y 31 n o r t h o f I n d i a n R e s e r v e #13 on west s i d e o f SirolIkameen R i v e r . 2. 7 h o r s e s Hay 15 t o S e p t . 30 a l o n g s o u t h s i d e o f A s h n o l a R i v e r from L a k e v i e w C r e e k t o L o t 911s, a l s o v i c i n i t y o f C a t h e d r a l L a k e s . 3. 150 c a t t l e Hay 1 t o O c t . 31 e a s t o f A s h n o l a R i v e r and on J u n i p e r and J o e Lake r a n g e . 195 c a t t l e May 1 t o O c t . 31 on C r a t e r M o u n t a i n , p e r m i t t e e was E. 6 M. C a t t l e Co. ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 225 A.U.M.'s on p r i v a t e l a n d ) . 5. 75 c a t t l e May 9 . t o J u l y 9 west o f A s h n o l a I n d i a n R e s e r v e #10. P e r m i t t e e Is R. D e n n i s . Some on p r i v a t e l a n d . same p e r i o d and Same number o f s t o c k , a r e a as In 1965. P e r m i t same as 1965. Ranch s o l d . New p e r m i t t e e C h r i s t a Ranch L t d . , R.R. I, C a w s t o n , B.C., d e t a i l s o f p e r m i t a s i n 1965. Ranch s o l d . New p e r m i t t e e C h r i s t a Ranch L t d . , C a w s t o n , B.C.; d e t a i l s o f t h e p e r m i t same as i n 1965. Same as In 1965. B c e c r o f t no l o n g e r i n t e r e s t e d . P e r m i t I s s u e d t o Wm. Cope l a n d , K e r e m e o s , B.C.: 25 c a t t l e May 20 t o A u g u s t 20 o v e r the same a r e a as p e r m i t t e d to B e e c r o f t . P e r m i t same as 1965, b u t o p e r a t i o n now named C a t h e d r a l L a k e s R e s o r t L t d . , 1333 B a l f o u r S t . , P e n t i c t o n , B.C. Ranch s o l d a g a i n . New p e r m i t t e e Rimson Equipment L t d . , R.R. 1, C a w s t o n , B.C., d e t a i l s o f p e r m i t a s In 1966. L e a s e t e r m i n a t e d , 1968. Ranch s o l d a g a i n . New p e r m i t t e e R i m s o n ' E q u i p m e n t L t d . D e t a i l s o f p e r m i t same as i n 1965. N o t e : l e a s e t e r m i n a t e d i n 1968. P r i v a t e l a n d on C r a t e r M o u n t a i n p u r c h a s e d by t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government f o r F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r a n c h . Same as In 1965. 6. 200 c a t t l e May 9 t o J u l y 9, l o t s 2860 and 2861 a t the n o r t h f o r k o f Paul C r e e k , some on p r i v a t e l a n d . 7. 75 c a t t l e (same h e r d as In #5), J u l y 20 t o O c t . 20, w a t e r s h e d o f Paul C r e e k west and s o u t h o f I n d i a n R e s e r v e No. I OA. 8. 200 c a t t l e (same h e r d as i n #6), J u l y 20 t o O c t . 20. F l a t Top M o u n t a i n and A s h n o l a w a t e r s h e d a b o v e I k w a d l i C r e e k . 9. 10 c a t t l e May 1 t o May 3 1 , a l s o O c t . 1 t o O c t . 31 w e s t s i d e o f S i m i l k a m e e n R i v e r , s u r r o u n d e d by I.P.'s. 3, 4 and 13 and i n c l u d i n g L o t 1 4 73s, S.D.Y.D. 10. 5 c a t t l e May I t o O c t . 31 n o r t h s i d e of "K" M o u n t a i n . 11. 2 h o r s e s May 1 t o O c t . 3 1 , between C o l l i n s C r e e k and We b s t e r C r e e k e a s t of A s h n o l a R i v e r . 12. 30 c a t t l e June 1 t o S e p t . 30 n o r t h of I.R. #13-13. 68 c a t t l e and 10 h o r s e s May 1 t o O c t . 31 s o u t h w e s t o f Susap C r e e k . \k. 85 c a t t l e J u l y 1 t o O c t . 15 Twin B u t t c s and Red M o u n t a i n , between Ewart C r e e k and A s h n o l a R i v e r , a l s o 10 h o r s e s J u l y I t o O c t . 3' In H a y s t a c k L a k e s a r e a . 15. 206 c a t t l e and 10 h o r s e s May I t o Oct'. 31, s o u t h o f J u n i p e r ' a n d R o b e r t s C r e e k s and west o f I.R's 7 and 8. Same as In 1965. Same as In 1965. Same as In I965. Same a s In 1965. 7 c a t t l e , d a t e s a nd a r e a as i n T965-Same as In 1965. Same as In 1965. 70 c a t t l e and 5 h o r s e s , same d a t e s and a r e a as i n I965. 85 c a t t l e and 6 h o r s e s , a r e a s and d a t e s as in I965. 205 c a t t l e and 10 h o r s e s , a r e a s and d a t e s as In I965. Same as In 1965. Same as tn I 9 6 5 . Same as In 1965. Same as In 1965. 6 c a t t l e d a t e s and a r e a as i n 1965. Same as In 1965. Same as In I965. Same as In I966. 98 c a t t l e and 6 h o r s e s , a r e a s and d a t e s as In 1965. 208 c a t t l e and 10 h o r s e s d a t e s as In 1965. A new p e r m i t was I s s u e d on W a l l C r e e k t o W. C o p e l a n d In 1968, d e t a i l s n o t known. NOTE: f o r l o c a t i o n o f g r a z i n g p e r m i t s , s o n base map ( A p p e n d i x 9 ) APPENDIX 6 FIELD PLOT DESIGNS OF THE FOUR STUDY SITES (SOUTH SLOPE INCLUDED AS FIG. 20) NOT SHOWN IN THESIS TEST. TREATMENTS WERE RANDOMIZED, THE NUMBERS REFER TO THE TREATMENTS APPLIED IN EACH PLOT. STIPA - DANTHONIA SERAL COMMUNITY DUNC'S HILL (LOWER ASHNOLA VALLEY) West +ve slope South o - 3 " C O N T R O L Russian Strawberry Ni trogen Wild Rye CI over Ni trogen and Seed North 60' East Aspect : E.S.E. Slope : 20% Es t ab l i shed : Spring 1967 E l e va t i on : 2000' Seed = 20 lb ./acre F e r t i1 i z e r = (33-5 Soi l Type = Rego Dark Brown i l -0-0) at 200 l b . F/acre =67 lb . N (NH^NO^) oo POA SITE (SOD GRASS) JUNIPER SLOPE UNGULATES EXCLUDED CATTLE EXCLUDED +ve slope West 20' 3 x 4 2 x 4 1 x 4 1 x 4 2 x 5 3 x 5 2 x 5 1 x 5 3 x 5 1 x 5 3 x 4 2 x 4 1 x 5 3 x 4 2 x 5 2 x 4 1 x 4 3 x 4 2 x 4 3 x 5 1 x 4 1 x 5 3 x 5 2 x 5 3 x 5 1 x 4 2 x 5 3 x 4 1 x 5 3 x 4 3 x 5 1 x 4 2 x 4 2 x 5 J x 5 2 x 4 3 x 4 3 x 5 3 x 5 2 x 4 2 x 4 1 x 5 2 x 5 3 x 4 1 x 4 2 x 5 1 x 5 1 x 4 50,' 50' Aspect : S .S.E. Slope: Gently s lop ing - 5-10% E l eva t i on : 5600' Soi l Type: Or th i c Black S i l t E s t ab l i shed : Summer 1966 3 exc losure types 3 treatments/exclosure k b locks/exc losure Y i e ld - lb ./acre S ize of Individual P lots = 10' x 10' NO UNGULATE EXCLUSIONS 3 x 4 3 x 5 2 x 5 3 x 4 1 x 4 1 x 5 1 x 5 2 x 4 2 x 5 2 x 4 3 x 5 1 x 4 3 x 5 1 x 4 3 x 4 1 x 5 1 x 5 2 x 4 2 x 4 3 x 5 2 x 5 3 x 4 1 x 4 2 x 5 Treatments: 40' East 200 lb . f e r t i l i z e r / a c r e (67 l b . N) 20 lb . seed/acre (Crested Wheatgrass) Symbols: Crested Wheatgrass . . . . . . . 1 Crested Wheatgrass and worked 2 Nat ive (control ) .. . . . . . . . . 3 Fert i 1 i zer . . . . 4 No f e r t i 1 i z e r . . . . . . . . . . 5 STIPA-POA SITE 1 . CRATER ROAD UNGULATES EXCLUDED o o +ve s lope * y k 2 0 ' 5' 3 x 5 2 x 4 2 x 5 3 x 4 1 x 5 3 x 4 1 x 4 1 x 5 2 x 5 1 x 4 3 x 5 2 x 4 3 x 4 1 x 5 3 x 4 2 x 5 1 x 4 3 x 5 2 x 4 3 x 5 2 x 5 2 x 4 1 x 5 1 x 4 2 0 ' CATTLE EXCLUDED 2x4 1 x 5 1 x 4 1 x 5 3x5 3x4 2x5 2x4 1 x 4 2 x 5 3x5 3x4 3 x 5 3x4 2x5 1 x 5 1 x 4 2x5 1 x 4 3x4 2 x 4 3 x 5 1 x 5 2 x 4 5 0 ' 5 0 ' Aspect: S.S.E. Slope: Steep - 50% E l e v a t i o n : 4 9 0 0 ' S o i l Type: Rego Black "7 3 e x c l o s u r e types 3 treatments/exclosure 4 b l o c k s / e x c l o s u r e Y i e l d - l b . / a c r e S i z e of I n d i v i d u a l P l o t s = 10 ' x 10 2 x 4 2 x 5 1 x 5 3 x 4 3 x 4 1 x 5 2 x 5 1 x 4 1 x 4 3 x 5 3 x 5 2 x 4 1 x 5 3 x 4 1 x 4 2 x 5 2 x 4 3 x 4 3 x 5 1 x 5 2 x 5 1 x 4 2 x 4 3 x 5 40 ' E s t a b l i s h e d : Summer 1966 Treatments: 200 l b . f e r t i l i z e r / a c r e (67 l b . N) 20 l b . seed/acre (Crested Wheatgrass , Symbols: Crested Wheatgrass . . . . . . . . 1 Crested Wheatgrass and worked . . 2 Native ( c o n t r o l ) 3 F e r t i 1 i z e r . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 No f e r t i 1 i z e r • • • • '. 5 POA SP. - BALSAMORHIZA SAGITTATA SERAL COMMUNITY 2. CRATER ROAD Ca t t l e excluded East slope 2 S C F S and F C F S S and F / V C S F S and F I Ungulates excluded S andfc-F C S F S and F F S S and F C Spr i ng 1967 Wi nter 1966/67 (on snow) Fal 1 1966 No Ungulate exc us 1ons S and |r F West May I967 C s F S and F •Feb. 1967 (on snow) S C s F and ( Sept F 1966 <- 50 ' -X- 50 ' Aspect : S.S.W. S lope: Level to 5% E l eva t i on : 38OO 1 Soi l type: Or th ic Dark Gray E s t ab l i shed : Summer 1966 Seeded: Fa l l 1966 Winter 1966/67 Spring 1967 Plots are 10' x 10' C = Control S = Seed F = Fert i1i zer (NH, N0 3) 20 l b . seed/acre mixed (Crested Wheatgrass and Whitmar Wheatgrass) F = (33.5-0-0) at 67 lb . N/acre co 182 APPENDIX 7 D. BLOOD'S I960 EXCLOSURES RESAMPLED 183 c o t -X CD CO Ul CC X =3 CO UJ o _ J o 1 - " X < UJ 1 -Ul ; LU X UJ 1-> cc m. o o cc u . VO Ui c n :> . — , •— o a) v_ u — X a TO. — z \ Q Ul O JQ X UJ cr . — CO Q_ C3 •—* a. _ l < 1 - CC ca z UJ < Ui > H o o co cc >- Ul Ul CC a. cc < u . CJ o Ul co 2 < O CC CO o t c CC a z < o o B a r e ground I960 C a r r y o v e r 1967 C a r r y o v e r H e i g h t o f A r t e m i s i a f r i g i d a H e i g h t o f K o e | e r t a H e i g h t o f A g r o p y r o n sp i catum % L i v i ng p l a n t s Litter Cryptogams Shrubs Forbs Poa s p p . Bromus t e c t o r u m St i pa columbI ana K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a A g r o p y r o n s p i c a t u m ** LTV O c n .—> LA vO O ' CM o CO CM vO CM 3- rA CM CA r-~. -3-CM r-. -a- L A LA r-. O LA -3- CM IA vO vO -3- r-~ OA VO — CO CM CA "~ CO r^ CM O I-. r~» -3- • „ CM CO CO *— VO Ol CO CO CA cr \ o-> cn -3" -3- r~ LA CA O o .—. vO —^ CM —» r-. CM ~ Cb J - o CO - T CM CM CM Co CM CO Cb Cb Cb CM o O CM 6b 1 o Cb Cb Cb O o O O CM CM CM CM CM o CM -3- vO o r~ vO -3- vO -3" CM CM Cb 1 O o o CM o J -CA -3" CM CM CM CA CA CM cK1 . LA O CM CO CO CM vO «o LA CM rA CM CA CM CM 1— rA O O LA CO vo LA CM vO rA -T CM CM -3" -3" CA CM CO »- O CM O CA t - - T CM -a- CA r ~ t - 1 - 1- t -IA LA CM 1- t- LA -3" LA LA J " co .CD 1 - 1 - CM 1 1 1 r - 1 - t - — 1 - 1 - (- 1 1 C0 CO CO CO •— o VI L> CO 3 c 3 c LA +J CA -3- 1 1 4J <a rA t -~— . — Ul O — 1 1 CO o CD JZ <u sz u . CO u . ca TJ xy cn 1 - h- vO CM o vo - 3 - rA vO H -3" -3" CM IA a CA *— •— ~^ 1— • V ', <U &> <u a . <u D XI CX m •a o u 11 XI 1) TJ «— o "Ct •— •o •— CO •— CO CO 1 — CO CO X, •— CO AJ CO CO LO 4-> CO 4-* .— CO c 3 c 3 X c 3 C 3 CO XJ C «— o JZ *— o 4-1 •— O -— o c 3 o 4-1 D u u O 3 - 3 - o vO (U cn '01 o CO I-I 4-> O (0 CO 10 ra — > t. V. L_ <u o CJ CO 3 «-l a o CO 3 _ l CM APPENDIX 7 FALL FORAGE CARRYOVER FOR EXCLOSURES ESTABLISHED IN I960 (LB./ACRE) I960 1967 No. Inside Fenced Area Open Inside Fenced Area Open 1 302 57 1912 460 4 637 147 6797 1777 6 824 255 " 1487 784 7 868 720 1522 496 8 871 831 956 832 9 392 161 2531 1365 10 841 777 21098 17098 Mean Y i e l d s : 676 421 Mean Y i e l d s : 2329 1184 C O 185 APPENDIX 8 PLANT SPECIES LISTS FOR VARIOUS STUDY SITES APPENDIX 8. SPECIES LISTS FOR THE FIVE REJUVENATION STUDY SITES South Slope 5200' sl o p e : 35% aspect: SSE Juniper Slope 5500' slope: 15% aspect: SE 2. Crater 3800' aspect: slope: SSW 5% grasses: Agropyron spicatum Koeleria c r i s t a t a Festuca idahoensis Poa sp. Stipa columbiana Bromus tectorum grasses: Poa pratensis Poa ampla Poa secunda Agropyron spicatum and • trachycaulum Stipa columbiana Koeleria c r i s t a t a grasses: Poa secunda Koeleria c r i s t a t a Stipa columbiana Agropyron spicatum Festuca idahoensis f o r b s : A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m Antennaria sp. Eriogonum heracleoides Erigeron sp. Arabis h o l b o e l l i i C a s t i l l e j a miniata Astragalus serotinus Allium cernuum Lupinus sericeus P o t e n t i l l a sp. Verbascum thapsus f o r b s : A c h i l l e a Anemone Antennaria rosea Arabis h o l b o e l l i i Aster campestris Draba nemorosa Erigeron sp. Penstemon sp. Eriogonum heracleoides Geranium viscosissimum P o t e n t i l l a . f o r b s : Antennaria sp. Balsamorhiza s a g i t t a t a A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m Draba sp. Arenaria formosa Erigeron sp. Eriogonum heracleoides Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e Astragalus serotinus Allium sp. Calochortus macrocarpus APPENDIX 8. SPECIES LISTS FOR THE FIVE REJUVENATION STUDY SITES (Contd.) South S l o p e J u n i p e r S l o p e 2. C r a t e r 5200' s l o p e : 35% 5500' s l o p e : 15% 3800' s l o p e : 5% a s p e c t : SSE a s p e c t : SE a s p e c t : SSW f o r b s : Cirsium sp. f o r b s : Taraxacum officinale f o r b s : Castilleja s p . Lappuld sp. Verbascum thapsus Arenaria s p . Lewisia rediviva Tellima parviflora Lupinus sp. Fragaria glauca Aster sp. Amsinckia retrorsa Arabis holboellii Allium cernuum Agoseris glauca Phacelia linearis Tragopogon sp. Delphinium sp. Lewisia rediviva Delphinium sp. s h r u b s : Artemisia frigida s h r u b s : Artemisia frigida s h r u b s : Chrysothamnus sp. Cryptogams: Mosses ( p a t c h y ) Selaginella sp. Dune's H i l l 1 . C r a t e r Road 2000' s l o p e : 15% 4900' s l o p e : 50% a s p e c t : E a s t a s p e c t : SSE g r a s s e s : Poa secunda g r a s s e s : Poa secunda Bromus tectorum Poa pratensis Stipa comata• Poa ampla Danthonia sp. Bromus tectorum Artistida longiseta Agropyron spicatum Sporobolus cryptandrus Stipa columbiana Stipa columbiana Koeleria cristata APPENDIX 8. SPECIES LISTS FOR THE FIVE REJUVENATION STUDY SITES (Contd.) Dune's H i l l 2000' aspect : s l ope : \5% East fo rbs : Taraxacum officinale Antennaria sp. Opuntia fragilis Tragopogon pratensis Verbascum thapsus Achillea millefolium Calochortus macrocarpus Plantago s p . . Erigeron sp. Oxytropis campestris shrubs: Chrysothamnus nauseosus Cryptogams: Moss (patchy) 1. Crater Road 4900' aspect : s l o D e : SSE' 50% f o rbs : Achillea millefolium Astragalus serotinus Aster sp. Taraxacum A.goseris sp. Arabis holboellii Eriogonum heracleoides; Fragaria glauca Amsinkia retrorsa Phacelia linearis Erigeron Cirsium sp. Allium sp. Verbascum thapsus Balsamorhiza sagittata Lupinus sp. shrubs: . Artemisia frigida Artemisia tridentata Rosa sp. 189 APPENDIX 8 1.CRATER EXCLOSURE - SPECIES LIST *Achillea millefolium ^Artemisia frigida ^Taraxacum officinale ^Astragalus serotinus *Poa secunda °Amsinckia retrorsa °Collinsia sp . *Viola sp.. 5*Arabis holboelli AAgoseris glauca °Bromus tectorum *Allium sp. +Verbascum thapsus *Koeleria cristata *Agropyron spicatum ^Eriogonum heracleoides ^Campanula sp. *Fragaria glauca *Poa compressa ^Lichens *Aster sp . *+Cirsium sp . *Tragopogon pratensis *Artemisia tridentata *Calochortus macrocarpus *Castilleja *Erigeron sp. ^Potentilla sp . *Carex sp . ATrifolium repens *Festuca brachyphylla ^Balsamorhiza sagittata *Stipa columbiana *Lupinus sericeus *Tellimd parviflora *Poa sp . *Carex sp. LEGEND: perennlal = annual or ephemeral + = b ienn ia l 190 APPENDIX 8 2.CRATER EXCLOSURE - SPECIES LIST *Poa secunda * S e l a g i n e l l a *Koeleria c r i s t a t a *Festuca idahoensis *Achillea m i l l e f o l i u m *Arenaria sp. *Stipa columbiana *Antennaria. sp. ^Astragalus serotinus ^Eriogonum herac leo-ides *castilleja ^Balsamorhiza s a g i t t a t a ^Delphinium b i c o l o r *Erigeron compositus ^Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e *Agropyron spicatum *Lewisia r e d i v i v a *Agoseris glauca *Aster sp. *Lupinus sericeus *Allium sp. *Koeleria c r i s t a t a *Caloehortus apiculatus *+Arabis h o l b o e l l i i *L ichens ^Penstemon sp. *Dodecatheon sp. *Geum triflorum *Poa pratensis LEGEND: * = perennial 0 = annual or ephemeral + = b i e n n i a l 191 APPENDIX 8 JUNIPER EXCLOSURE SITE - SPECIES LIST *Poa pratensis *Myosotis alpestris *Agropyron trachycaulum *Poa secunda ^Agropyron spicatum *Antennaria rosea ^Achillea millefolium *Viola sp. ^Taraxacum officinale °Bromus tectorum ^Geranium viscosissimum *Poa ampla °Callinsia sp. °Capsella bursa-pastoris *Koeleria cristata °Amaranthus retroflexus ^Potentilla gracilis °Brassica sp. *Aster campestris ^Mosses *Zygadenus venenosus *Pentstemon procerus *Stipa columbiana * Campanula sp. ^Artemisia frigida *Lupinus sericeus +Verbascum thapsus ; . ^Delphinium bicolor *°Arabis holboeilii *Eriogonum heracleoides *Fragaria glauca *Oxytropis campestris LEGEND: *Trifolium repens * = perennial °*Arenaria sp. ° = annual"or ephemoral *Carex sp. + = b ienn ia l *Tragopogon pratensis • *Tetlima parviflora 192 APPENDIX 8 SOUTH SLOPE (1967) " SPECIES LIST *Artemisia frigida 0 Collinsia *Koeleria oristata ^Festuca idahoensis *Poa secunda *Carex sp. ^Agropyron spicatum *Arenaria ^Erigeron pumitis *Oxytropis ^Eriogonum heracleoides *Agoseris glauca ^Lupinus sericeus *Tragopogon *Stipa columbiana *Fragaria *Poa pratensis *Allium cernuum *°Arabis Holboeilii ^Taraxacum ^Antennaria rosea *Lewisia rediviva °Bromus tectorum ^Astragalus serotinus ^Achillea millefolium 0 *Lepidium +Verbascum thapsus ^Potentilla +*Cirsium *Senecio °Lappula *Selaginella *Pentstemon LEGEND: • * - perennial 0 = annual or ephemeral + = b ienn ia l 193 APPENDIX 8 DUNC'S HILL - SPECIES LIST *Poa secunda *Selaginella °Bromus tectorum *Stipa columbiana *Opuntia fragilis ^Taraxacum *Antennaria *Erigeron Lappula *Chrysothamnus nauseosus *Oxytropis *Poa pratensis *Stipa comata *Tragopogon porrifolius +Verbascum thapsus *Companula *Danthonia spicata LEGEND: * = perennia l ° - annual or ephemeral + = b ienn ia l YIELDS: (Year Protect ion) = 354 pounds per acre VEG. HTS.: Koeleria 6 - 8 cm Stipa sp. 10 - 15 cm Poa pratensis 8 - 1.2 cm Danthonia sp. 12 cm \3h APPENDIX 8 PARTIAL SPECIES LIST FOR TYPICAL CLIMAX COMMUNITIES WITHIN THE STUDY AREA Haystack Mountain (8000' - Tundra) A lp ine Grassland (7000' - Joe Lake Area) Grasses Poa rupioola Forbs Dry as hookeriana Penstemon procerous Fragaria sp. Seneoio sp. Silene aoaulis Sedum roseum Erigeron sp. Arenaria formosa Polemonium pulcherrimum Shrubs Salix sp. Sedge Carex sp. Cryptogams Mosses and 1ichens Grasses Koeleria cristata Festuca brachyphylla Poa sp. Trisetum spicatum Bromus vulgaris Phleum alpinum Danthonia intermedia Calamagrostis purpurescens Forbs Joe Camp Ridge (CIimax Grasslands) Senecio sp. Lupinus lyallii Arenaria sp. Silene acaulis Potentilla sp. Oxytropis campestris Castillega sp. Penstemon sp. Saxifraga sp. Antennaria rosea Erigeron sp. Solidago sp. Luzula sp. Sedge Carex sp. Rush Juncus sp. • Starvat ion Slope (Climax Mid-grasslands) Grasses Grasses Agropyron spicatum Agropyron spicatum Festuca idahoensis Koeleria cristata . Koeleria cristata ' Poa sp. Calamagrostis rubesoens Poa sp. Stipa columbiana 195 APPENDIX 8 PARTIAL SPECIES LIST FOR TYPICAL CLIMAX COMMUNITIES WITHIN THE STUDY AREA (Cont 'd. ) Joe Camp Ridge (Climax Grasslands) S tarvat ion Slope (Climax Mid-grasslands) Forbs Forbs Lupinus seviceus Castilleja miniata Erigeron corymbosus Oxytropis oampestris Taraxacum officinale Achillea millefolium Agoseris glauca Arabis sp. Astragalus serotinus Achillea millefolium Arabis holboellii Lupinus sericeus Eriogonum heracleoides Shrubs Juniperus sp. Artemisia frigida Pseudotsuga menziesii Antennaria rosea Zygadenus venenosus Silene douglasii Eriogonum heracleoides Lomatium macrocarpum Shrubs Artemisia frigida Rosa sp. Artemisia tridentata Lower Ashnola Climax Mid-grasslands Serai Community ( F l a t i r on Slope Mid-grasslands) Grasses Grasses Agropyron spicatum Koeleria cristata Poa sp. Stipa columbiana Bromus tectorum Poa pratensis Poa secunda Stipa columbiana Koeleria cristata Agropyron spicatum Festuca idahoensis Bromus tectorum Forbs Forbs Tragopogon pratensis Agoseris glauca Balsamorhiza sagittata Silene douglasii Achillea millefolium Geranium viscossissimum ' Aster sp. Verbascum thapsus 196 APPENDIX 8 PARTIAL SPECIES LIST FOR TYPICAL CLIMAX COMMUNITIES WITHIN THE STUDY AREA (Cont 'd . ) Lower Ashnola Climax Mid-grasslands Serai Community ( F l a t i ron Slope Mid-grasslands) Forbs Castilleja sp. Astragalus serotinus Achillea millefolium Calochortus macrocarpus Shrubs Artemisia frigida Forbs Erigeron corymbosus Castilleja miniata Amsinckia retrorsa Arabis holboelli Arenaria formosa Antennaria sp. Lupinus sericeus Oxytropis campestris Fragaria glauca Taraxacum officinale Penstemon procercus Shrubs Artemisia frigida Chrysothamnus sp. Rosa sp. APPENDIX 9 TOPOGRAPHIC BASE, HABITAT TYPE, SOILS AND ANIMAL DISTRIBUTION MAPS FOR THE STUDY AREA WITHIN THE ASHNOLA RIVER BASIN 49° 15' -A S H N O L A RESOURCE M A N A G E M E N T A R E A SIMILKAMEEN DISTRICT BRITISH COLUMBIA S C A L E 1:50,000 CONTOUR I N T E R V A L 5 0 0 F E E T U N G U L A T E DISTRIBUTION AT T H E T I M E  THIS STUDY WAS IN PROGRESS  (196,5 - 1 9 6 7 ) DEER DOMESTIC STOCK BIGHORN SHEEP (SUMMER DISTRIBUTION) BIGHORN SHEEP KEY WINTER RANGES NOTE : | BOUNDARIES ARE NOT M E A N T I TO BE E X A C T . KEREMEOS 49°00 120° 15* I20°00 A S H N O L A RESOURCE M A N A G E M E N T A R E A S I M I L K A M E E N D I S T R I C T B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A S C A L E 1 : 5 0 , 0 0 0 C O N T O U R I N T E R V A L 5 0 0 F E E T K E R E M E O S CANADA UNITED STATES I20"00 49 ° 15' ASHNOLA R E S O U R C E M A N A G E M E N T A R E A SIMILKAMEEN DISTRICT BRITISH COLUMBIA S C A L E 1 : 5 0 , 0 0 0 CONTOUR INTERVAL 5 0 0 F E E T HABITAT TYPES LOW GRASSLANDS MID GRASSLANDS SUB-ALPINE GRASSLANDS SUB-ALPINE ECOTONE SUB-ALPINE AND ALPINE MUSKEGS, BOGS, SWAMPS AND WET MEADOWS ALPINE GRASSLANDS ALPINE TUNDRA UPPER AND LOWER ROCKY REEFS, CLIFFS AND SLIDES a) ESCAPE TERRAIN - SOME USE b) LITTLE VALUE - TOO STEEP a INACCESSIBLE LOW MONTANE FORESTS a) SEMI-OPEN WITH GRASSLAND UNDERSTORY b) DENSE STANDS C) LOGGED AREAS MID MONTANE FORESTS a) SEMI-OPEN UTILIZED BY UNGULATES b) DENSE STANDS C) LOGGED AREAS SUB-ALPINE FORESTS a) SEMI-OPEN b) DENSE STANDS BURNED OVER AREAS AND YOUNG PINUS CONTORTA STANDS (YEAR OF BURN SHOWN WHERE KNOWN) PI - PINUS CONTORTA F - PSEUDOTUGA MENZIESI S - PICEA ENGELMANNI A - ASPEN Lt - TAMARACK - LARCH 49°00' 120° I5« I20°00 UNITED STATES T 49° 00 II9°40 ASHNOLA RESOURCE M A N A G E M E N T A R E A SIMILKAMEEN DISTRICT BRITISH COLUMBIA 0° ,00' S C A L E 1:50,000 CONTOUR INTERVAL 500 F E E T SOIL TYPES MAP SYMBOL SOIL SERIES NAME LARCAN ALLEYNE APEX BONNEVIER LAWLESS DOMINANT SOIL T Y P E ORTHIC BLACK DEGRADED EUTRIC BRUNISOL ORTHIC ALPINE DYSTRIC BRUNISOL ORTHIC ALPINE DYSTRIC BRUNISOL MINI HUMO-FERRIC PODZOL MAP SYMBOL :EW. NICKEL PLATE ORTHIC BLACK DEGRADED DYSTRIC BRUNISOL MINI HUMO-FERRIC PODZOL SOIL SERIES NAME WHIPS AW ILTCOOLA EWART STEMWINDER SUSAP ROCK STEEPLAND KEREMEOS DOMINANT SOIL T Y P E ORTHIC EUTRIC BRUNISOL REGOSOLIC MAPPING COMPLEX TYPIC MESISOL REGO DARK BROWN ORTHIC REGOSOL ROCK OUTCROP,TALUS AND SCREE MAPPING COMPLEX OF REGOSOLIC AND CHERNOZEMIC SOILS ON STEEP SLOPES SLOPE CLASSES MAP SYMBOL a b c d e f g h GRADIENT 0 - 0.5% 0.5 - 2.0% 2.0- 5.0% 5.0- 9.0% 9.0- 15.0% 15.0- 30.0% 30.0-60.0% over - 60.0% 8o <V to Si O * o Q o o o o cA 8 8 ° /to o g ' ai o o o r o CANADA I UNITED STATES I20°00 4 9 ° 0 0 I I 9 ° 4 0 ' AREA WEST OF I 2 0° 0 0 ' LONGITUDE SOIL SURVEY COMPLETED AREA EAST OF 12 0°00 ' LONGITUDE WAS MAPPED BY EXTRAPOLATION FROM AIR PHOTOS (NOT FINAL SURVEY BOUNDARIES OR SOIL TYPES DESIGNATIONS). 

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