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Problem of the early Eucharist : an historical examination of the Last Supper tradition and of the cultic… MacLean, James Forsythe 1973

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THE PROBLEM OF THE EARLY EUCHARIST: An H i s t o r i c a l E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e L a s t S u p p e r T r a d i t i o n and o f t h e C u l t i c M e a l i n P r i m i t i v e C h r i s t i a n i t y by JAMES F. MACLEAN B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1967 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f R e l i g i o u s S t u d i e s We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1973 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of R e l i g i o u s S t u d i e s The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date October 8, 1973 ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s to d e s c r i b e the c u l t i c meal of p r i m i t i v e C h r i s t i a n i t y and i t s r e l a t i o n to the L a s t Supper of Jesus. The f i r s t chapter seeks to determine what Jesus d i d and s a i d a t h i s Last Supper, and whether or not he intended to i n s t i t u t e a sacramental r i t e . An a n a l y s i s of the Last Supper accounts i n the New testament shows t h a t Mark con-t a i n s the most r e l i a b l e v e r s i o n of the bread s a y i n g , whereas the Pauline-Lucan source i s to be p r e f e r r e d f o r the wording of the cup s a y i n g ; the "command to repeat" i s however r e -j e c t e d . As f o r the vow of a b s t i n e n c e , the Marcan v e r s i o n i s accepted over the more e l a b o r a t e Lucan. Reasons are advanced f o r a t t r i b u t i n g these sayings to the h i s t o r i c a l J e s u s . I t i s argued that the h i s t o r i c a l context f o r Jesus' eu-c h a r i s t i c words was not some type of e s t a b l i s h e d Jewish r e l i -gious meal (e.g., Passover* kiddush) but r a t h e r an e s s e n t i a l element of Jesus' own m i n i s t r y , h i s r e g u l a r t a b l e f e l l o w s h i p . This chapter concludes by a f f i r m i n g t h a t at h i s Last Supper Jesus p a r a b o l i c a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d h i s impending death as a co-venant s a c r i f i c e which would b r i n g about the new e s c h a t o l o - , g i c a l o r d e r , and that he d i d not i n t e n d these p a r t i c u l a r words and gestures to be repeated. i i i The second chapter shows t h a t d u r i n g the g r e a t e r p a r t o f the New Testament p e r i o d there mas no general u n i f o r m i t y i n e u c h a r i s t i c p r a c t i c e and theology. The most p r i m i t i v e c u l -t i c meals were an outgrowth o f Jesus' r e g u l a r t a b l e f e l l o w -s h i p , were c h a r a c t e r i s e d by a mood o f e s c h a t o l o g i c a l j o y , and were riot d i r e c t l y connected with the Last Supper t r a d i t i o n or to a theology o f Jesus' death. Out of t h i s f i r s t type there developed two other b a s i c types: 1) a bread and f i s h type, i n which the dominant idea was e a t i n g with the r e s u r r e c t e d Lord, and which r e f e r r e d back to the m u l t i p l i c a t i o n m i r a c l e as the moment o f i t s i n s t i t u t i o n ; and 2) the c l a s s i c a l bread and wine type* which was regarded as an anamnesis o f Jesus' s a c r i -f i c i a l death, and which r e f e r r e d back to the Las t Supper as the moment of i t s i n s t i t u t i o n . By an examination of the ques-t i o n of the i n f l u e n c e of mystery r e l i g i o n s , and by an a n a l y s i s of the e u c h a r i s t i c t h e o l o g i e s of P a u l , the s y n o p t i c evange-, l i s t s , the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l r e d a c t o r of the f o u r t h g o s p e l , Igna-t i u s , and f i n a l l y J u s t i n , an attempt i s made to e x p l a i n the.. o r i g i n s , e v o l u t i o n , s t a n d a r i s a t i o n and eve n t u a l domination o f t h i s c l a s s i c a l type through the h e l l e n i s a t i o n , d e - e s c h a t o l o g i -s a t i o n and i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s a t i o n o f C h r i s t i a n t h e o logy. In a d d i t i o n to t h i s , a b r i e f account i s given of the development of e u c h a r i s t i c l i t u r g i c a l p rayers and of e u c h a r i s t i c m i n i s t r y . The study concludes with an appendix which seeks to demon-s t r a t e t h a t i n the New Testament and p a t r i s t i c p e r i o d s the eu-i v c h a r i s t was c o n c e i v e d o f n o t i n a r a t i o n a l way, but mytho-l o g i c a l l y , and t h a t the language o f the e a r l y e u c h a r i s t e x -h i b i t s the e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f m y t h o l o g i c a l thought ( m y t h i c a l n o t i o n s o f c a u s a l i t y , d e a t h , s y m b o l s , t i m e , and s p a c e ) which have been d e l i n e a t e d by p h e n o m e n o l o g i s t s o f myth. P r o f e s s o r and Head Department o f R e l i g i o u s S t u d i e s U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE INTRODUCTION 1 I . THE LAST SUPPER AND EUCHARISTIC ORIGINS 6 The E u c h a r i s t i n the Cont e x t o f E a r l y C h r i s t i a n Worship 9 J e s u s ' E u c h a r i s t i c Words: the T e x t u a l Data 13 What Type of Meal Was the L a s t Supper? 38 Notes t o Chapter I 67 I I . PRimiTIl/E EUCHARISTIC TYPES AND THEIR ASSIMILATION INTO THE SACRIFICIAL-SACRAWENTAL TYPE 80 The " B r e a k i n g of Bread" 81 The Formation and E a r l y Development o f the C l a s s i c a l Type 101 The Development o f the C l a s s i c a l Type i n Deutero-John and I g n a t i u s o f A n t i o c h 131 E u c h a r i s t i c L i t u r g y and E u c h a r i s t i c m i n i s t r y 150 Addendum: The E u c h a r i s t and the Temple Texts 164 Notes to Chapter I I 171 v i APPENDIX I : THE EUCHARIST AND MYTH 188 The L o g i c o f Myth 192 The E u c h a r i s t and the M y t h i c a l View o f C a u s a l i t y 197 The E u c h a r i s t and the M y t h i c a l View of Death 202 The E u c h a r i s t and the M y t h i c a l View o f Symbol 204 The E u c h a r i s t and the M y t h i c a l View o f Time 210 The E u c h a r i s t and the M y t h i c a l View o f Space 214 C o n c l u s i o n 218 Notes to Appendix I 222 APPENDIX I I : GREEK TEXTS OF THE LAST SUPPER AND MULTIPLICATION-MIRACLE ACCOUNTS IN THE NEW TESTAMENT 229 BIBLIOGRAPHY 232 \11» ABBREVIATIONS AB Anchor B i b l e ATANT Abhandlunqen zur Theoloqie des A l i e n und Neuen  Testaments BZ B i b l i s c h e Z e i t s c h r i f t CCSL Corpus Christianorum, S e r i e s Latinae CSEL Corpus Scriptorum E c c l e s i a s t i c o r u m Latinorum DBS D i c t i o n n a i r e de l a B i b l e , Supplement ESUI Ecumenical Studies i n Worship ET Expository Times FRLANT Forschunqen zur R e l i g i o n und L i t e r a t u r des Alten  und Neuen Testaments GCS Die qriech i s c h e n c h r i s t l i c h e n S c h r i f t s t e l l e r der  eraten d r e i Jahrhunderte HD H i s t o i r e des Doqmes IB The I n t e r p r e t e r ' s B i b l e JBL Journal of B i b l i c a l L i t e r a t u r e JTS Journal of Theo l o g i c a l Studies LC L e t t r e s Chretiennea LCC L i b r a r y of C h r i s t i a n C l a s s i c s LCL Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y NovT Novum Testamentum NTSt New Testament Studies PG Migne, P a t r o l o q i a Graeca PL ffligne, P a t r o l o q i a L a t i n a v i i i RB Revue Biblique RGG Die Religion in Geschichte und Geqenwart (3rd. ed., 1957ff.) SBT Studies i n B i b l i c a l Theology SC Sources Chretiennes SJT Scottish Journal of Theolooy TEP Textos Eucharisticos Primitives TU Texte und Untersuchunqen zur Geschichte der a l t c h r i s t l i c h e n L i t e r a t u r TUINT Theological Ulordbook of the New Testament ZNw* Z e i t s c h r i f t fuer die neutestamentliche wlssenschaf t ACKNOWLEDGMENT I wish to express my g r a t i t u d e to P r o f e s s o r W i l l i a m N i c h o l l s , Dr. Charles Anderson, and Dr. Hannah K a s s i s f o r t h e i r p a t i e n c e and c o n t i n u i n g i n t e r e s t while w a i t i n g f o r the completion of t h i s study, which was terminated c o n s i -derably l a t e r than o r i g i n a l l y planned, as we l l as f o r the h e l p f u l advice concerning c e r t a i n s e c t i o n s o f the t h e s i s . I wish a l s o to thank my wife E l e a n o r , George P a y e r l e , E i l e e n P a y e r l e , and Sharon Brown f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of the f i n a l t y p e s c r i p t . / INTRODUCTION The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s to d e s c r i b e the c u l t i c meal of the C h r i s t i a n community d u r i n g the f i r s t c e n t u r y , seeking thereby to account f o r the e x i s t e n c e of the c l a s s i -c a l type of e u c h a r i s t , the e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of which appear i n t h e i r developed form by the time of J u s t i n Martyr ( c . A.D. 150). The complexity of the t o p i c i s such t h a t our t h e s i s might have been e n t i t l e d , "The Problems of the E a r l y Eu-c h a r i s t . " Even a cursory examination of the m a t e r i a l would i n t r o d u c e such general questions as the i n f l u e n c e of the mys-te r y c u l t s on e a r l y C h r i s t i a n worship, or more s p e c i f i c ones such as the r e l a t i v e value of the d i f f e r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n n ar-r a t i v e s , or whether or not the Las t Supper was a Passover meal. For the purposes of t h i s t h e s i s , these v a r i o u s ques-t i o n s may be grouped i n t o three fundamental concerns: t h a t of the L a s t Supper and e u c h a r i s t i c o r i g i n s , t h a t of e a r l y eucha-r i s t i c "types" and the eventual a s s i m i l a t i o n of these types i n t o a p r e v a i l i n g s a c r i f i c i a l - s a c r a m e n t a l model, and th a t of the canons of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to be a p p l i e d to the somewhat m y s t i f y i n g language of e a r l y e u c h a r i s t i c theology and worship. These three problems determine the b a s i c s t r u c t u r e of the t h e s i s . 2 A s u p e r f i c i a l comparison of the Last Supper n a r r a t i v e s i n the New Testament with l a t e r d e s c r i p t i o n s of the e u c h a r i s -t i c c e l e b r a t i o n might suggest t h a t t h i s e c c l e s i a s t i c a l r i t e was " i n s t i t u t e d " by Jesus of Nazareth on the o c c a s i o n of the Last Supper. To t e s t the v a l i d i t y of such a c o n c l u s i o n , the \ r h i s t o r i a n must ask two q u e s t i o n s : 1) What was a c t u a l l y s a i d and done by Jesus a t the L a s t Supper and d i d he i n any sense in t e n d to i n s t i t u t e a sacramental r i t e ? and 2) What was the nature of the e a r l y c u l t i c meals, and how d i d they evolve i n t o the type of c e l e b r a t i o n t h a t was standard i n orthodox G e n t i l e C h r i s t i a n i t y by the mid-second century? The two chapters of t h i s t h e s i s are devoted r e s p e c t i v e l y to each of these q u e s t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , they o f f e r a b r i e f account of the development of e u c h a r i s t i c l i t u r g i c a l p r a y e r s and of eu-c h a r i s t i c m i n i s t r y . Appendix I, which d e a l s with a somewhat broader p e r i o d , attempts to provide a hermeneutical p r i n c i p l e f o r our reading of e a r l y e u c h a r i s t i c t e x t s . Our a n a l y s i s leads to the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s . F i r s t , a t Jesus* Last Supper he p a r a b o l i c a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d h i s im-pending death as a covenant s a c r i f i c e which would b r i n g about the new e s c h a t o l o g i c a l o r d e r ; h i s words and gestures are to be understood as the climax of h i s m i n i s t r y , and he d i d not i n t e n d them to be repeated. Secondly, d u r i n g the g r e a t e r p a r t of the New Testament p e r i o d there was no general u n i f o r m i t y i n e u c h a r i s t i c p r a c -3 t i c e and theology: the most p r i m i t i v e c u l t i c meals were an outgrowth of Jesus' r e g u l a r t a b l e - f e l l o w s h i p , and were not d i r e c t l y connected with the Last Supper t r a d i t i o n or to a theology of Jesus* death; out of t h i s f i r s t "type" (and e x i s t i n g a l o n g s i d e i t ) there developed two other b a s i c types (which i n turn had t h e i r own v a r i a n t s ) : 1) a bread and f i s h type, i n which the dominant idea was e a t i n g with the r e s u r -r e c t e d Lord, and which r e f e r r e d back to the m u l t i p l i c a t i o n m i r a c l e as the moment of i t s i n s t i t u t i o n , and 2) the c l a s s i -c a l bread and wine type, which was regarded as a proclamation or memorial of Jesus' s a c r i f i c i a l death, i n which the elements were o f f e r e d to the b e l i e v e r as the body and blood of C h r i s t , and which r e f e r r e d back to the Las t Supper as the moment of i t s i n s t i t u t i o n . An attempt i s made to e x p l a i n the o r i g i n s , e v o l u t i o n , s t a n d a r d i s a t i o n and eve n t u a l domination of t h i s c l a s s i c a l type through the H e l l e n i s a t i o n , d e - e s c h a t o l o g i s a t i o n and i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s a t i o n of C h r i s t i a n theology. To complete our d e s c r i p t i o n of the e a r l y e u c h a r i s t , a b r i e f examination i s made of e u c h a r i s t i c l i t u r g y and m i n i s t r y ( i . e . , of what prayers were s a i d a t the c e l e b r a t i o n , and who o f f i c i a t e d at i t ) . The e a r l y e u c h a r i s t i c l i t u r g i e s ( o f every type) are shown to have developed out of the Jewish berakoth or prayers of t h a n k s g i v i n g . The s e p a r a t i o n of the agape from the e u c h a r i s t , and i t s eventual s u p p r e s s i o n , are d i s c u s s e d . 4 I t i s shown how, with the emergence of a f o r m a l , s t r u c t u r e d m i n i s t r y i n the l a t t e r p a r t of the f i r s t and the beginning of the second c e n t u r y , the e u c h a r i s t i c c e l e b r a t i o n came to be pla c e d under t h i s m i n i s t r y , and i t i s po i n t e d out t h a t the c e l e b r a t i o n may i t s e l f have c o n t r i b u t e d to the formation of t h i s m i n i s t r y . This s e c t i o n concludes with an examination of the f i r s t complete d e s c r i p t i o n of the e u c h a r i s t i c l i t u r g y , which i s found i n J u s t i n ' s Apology. Our study concludes with an appendix which, c h r o n o l g i -c a l l y , i s much broader i n scope than the t h e s i s proper* but which i s n e v e r t h e l e s s p e r t i n e n t to the questions a l r e a d y d i s -cussed. I t seeks to demonstrate t h a t i n the New Testament and p a t r i s t i c p e r i o d s the e u c h a r i s t was conceived of not i n a r a t i o n a l way, but m y t h o l d g i c a l l y , and that the language of the e a r l y C h r i s t i a n e u c h a r i s t e x h i b i t s the e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s of my t h i c a l thought which have been d e l i n e a t e d by pheno-menologists of myth. In the t h e s i s proper, our method i s h i s t o r i c o - t e x t u a l , i . e . , an attempt i s made to r e c o n s t r u c t events and ideas of the past on the b a s i s of analyses of documentary d a t a . The method of the f i r s t Appendix i s r a t h e r d i f f e r e n t ; i t might be d e s c r i b e d as "comparative hermeneutical." I t seeks to demon-s t r a t e t h a t the canons of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a p p l i e d to our docu-ments are to be d e r i v e d from the p a t t e r n s of thought s t r u c t u r e which have been e x t r a c t e d from d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s . S p e c i f i -5 f i c a l l y i t i n t e n d s to show t h a t the conceptua l framework i n which e a r l y C h r i s t i a n s a r t i c u l a t e d the meaning of t h e i r c u l -t i c meals conforms to the c o n c e p t u a l framework which under-l i e s the e x p r e s s i o n of myth. c CHAPTER I THE LAST SUPPER AND EUCHARISTIC ORIGINS The i r o n y of C h r i s t i a n i t y , L o i s y once remarked, was that 1 Jesus preached the Kingdom, and the Church uias the r e s u l t . This aphorism s u c c i n c t l y i l l u s t r a t e s the question which w i l l be confronted i n t h i s chapter: what c o n n e c t i o n , i f any, can be e s t a b l i s h e d between the Last Supper of Jesus, the eschato-l o g i c a l prophet, and those sacramental r i t e s of e a r l y C h r i s -t i a n i t y which r e f e r r e d back to i t as t h e i r a e t i o l o g i c a l foun-dation? Or, to phrase the question another way, what d i d Jesus do and say at the Last Supper, and d i d he intend these a c t i o n s and sayings to be repeated by h i s f o l l o w e r s ? We can f u r n i s h an answer to t h i s q uestion only by a thorough compa-r a t i v e examination of the Supper n a r r a t i v e s i n the New T e s t a -ment. We hope thereby to be able to r e c o n s t r u c t , as accu-r a t e l y as the t e x t s w i l l permit, the most o r i g i n a l form of these n a r r a t i v e s . I t w i l l then be necessary to determine whether or not one can reasonably maintain that the words and a c t i o n s of the h i s t o r i c a l Jesus correspond s u b s t a n t i a l l y to what i s reported i n t h i s o r i g i n a l account. F i n a l l y , we must e s t a b l i s h whether or not the Last Supper must be placed i n the context of some s p e c i f i c type of Jewish r e l i g i o u s meal. Only 7 t h e n w i l l i t be p o s s i b l e t o s p e c u l a t e on t h e m e a n i n g t o J e s u s o f t h i s f i n a l meal w i t h h i s d i s c i p l e s . T h e o r e t i c a l l y , t h e r e mould seem t o be o n l y f o u r p o s s i b l e 2 e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h e o r i g i n o f t h e e u c h a r i s t and i t s r e l a t i o n t o t h e L a s t S u p p e r t r a d i t i o n : 1) That i t was an e n t i r e l y new r i t e e x p r e s s l y c r e a t e d by J e s u s , and b e q u e a t h e d by him t o t h e C h u r c h . T h i s v i e w was i m -p l i e d i n many t h e o l o g i c a l d o c u m e n t s p r i o r t o t h e r i s e o f c r i -t i c a l b i b l i c a l s c h o l a r s h i p , t h o u g h i t was n o t , as B o u y e r p o i n t s 3 o u t , t h e v i e w e x p r e s s e d by t h e F a t h e r s . T h i s o p i n i o n c a n n o t be a s c r i b e d t o any modern s t u d e n t s o f e a r l y C h r i s t i a n i t y , e v e n 4 i f fflasure a p p r o a c h e s i t . 2) T h a t i t was t h e c r e a t i o n o f H e l l e n i s t i c C h r i s t i a n i t y , and was p a t t e r n e d a f t e r t h e r i t e s o f t h e m y s t e r y c u l t s . A c-c o r d i n g t o t h i s t h e o r y , t h e New T e s t a m e n t a c c o u n t s o f t h e L a s t S u p p e r p r e s u p p o s e an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e f o o d consumed i n t h e r i t u a l w i t h a s a v i o u r g o d , and must t h e r e f o r e have been c r e a t e d t o e x p l a i n t h e r i t u a l p r a c t i c e . T h i s p r o p o s a l e n j o y e d some c u r r e n c y a r o u n d t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , and was 5 6 7 a c c e p t e d by P. G a r d n e r , E. R e u t e r s k i o e l d , A. L o i s y , and e s -g p e c i a l l y W. H e i t m u e l l e r . Among c o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c s i t i s g s u p p o r t e d o n l y by B u l t m a n n , a n d few modern s t u d i e s b o t h e r e v e n t o r e f u t e i t . The main d e s i d e r a t u m o f t h i s t h e s i s i s a s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i c a l a c c o u n t o f t h e o r i g i n and t r a n s m i s s i o n o f t h e e u c h a -r i s t i c words a t t r i b u t e d t o J e s u s . The most c o n v i n c i n g e v i d e n c e i n i t s f a v o u r , v i z . , p a r a l l e l s i n t h e M i t h r a i c s a c r a m e n t o f 8 b r e a d and m a t e r m i x e d m i t h w i n e , ca n be f o u n d o n l y i n d o c u -ments d a t i n g f r o m t h e s e c o n d c e n t u r y . M o r e o v e r , t h e d o m i n a n t c o n c e p t i o n i n t h e m y s t e r i e s f r o m w h i c h i t i s a l l e g e d t h e e a r l y e u c h a r i s t t o o k i t s b i r t h was one o f e a t i n g m l t h t h e g o d , r a t h e r t h a n e a t i n g t h a g o d . 1 0 3) That i t d e v e l o p e d o u t o f some c u r r e n t J e w i s h p r a c t i c e , s u c h a s a P a s s o v e r , K i d d u s h , o r H a b u r a h m e a l , t o w h i c h J e s u s gave a new m e a n i n g , t h u s p a v i n g t h e way f o r i t s a d o p t i o n a s a s p e c i f i c a l l y C h r i s t i a n r i t e . V a r i a n t s o f t h i s t h e o r y a r e m a i n -t a i n e d by p e r h a p s most modern c r i t i c s , and w i l l be e x a m i n e d i n d e t a i l b e l o w . I t s s u p p o r t e r s c o n t e n d t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e r e were c e r t a i n l y H e l l e n i s t i c i n f l u e n c e s on t h e d i f f u s i o n and d e v e l o p -ment o f t h e e u c h a r i s t , i t must " i n i t s b e g i n n i n g s a t l e a s t be 11 a c c o u n t e d f o r on p u r e l y J e w i s h p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s 1 ; " 4) Some s c h o l a r s have s u g g e s t e d a d o u b l e o r i g i n f o r t h e e u c h a r i s t , and e n v i s a g e more t h a n one t y p e o f e u c h a r i s t i n t h e e a r l i e s t p e r i o d . T h i s means t h a t on t h e one hand t h e e u c h a r i s -t i c m e a l s ( " b r e a k i n g o f t h e b r e a d " ) d e s c r i b e d i n A c t s d e v e l o p e d o u t o f J e s u s ' d a i l y f e l l o w s h i p w i t h h i s d i s c i p l e s , and t h a t on t h e o t h e r hand t h e e u c h a r i s t d e s c r i b e d i n 1 C o r i n t h i a n s 11, a m e m o r i a l o f J e s u s ' d e a t h , r e f e r s back t o t h e L a s t S u p p e r . T h i s v i e w i m p l i e s , o f c o u r s e , t h a t t h e e a r l i e s t e u c h a r i s t s were n o t i n d i r e c t l i n e r d e s c e n t t o t h e L a s t S u p p e r . I t s p r o b a b i l i t y t h e r e f o r e d e p e n d s on two t h i n g s : an e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e L a s t S u p p e r n a r r a t i v e s w h i c h d i s c r e d i t s t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f J e s u s ' 9 having enjoined h i s d i s c i p l e s to repeat h i s e u c h a r i s t i c words and a c t i o n s , and a demonstration of the e x i s t e n c e of more than one type of e u c h a r i s t i c meal i n the e a r l i e s t p e r i o d . The d i s -c u s s i o n i n t h i s f i r s t chapter of the Supper n a r r a t i v e s , and i n the second chapter of e u c h a r i s t i c types, w i l l show that t h i s view has much to commend i t s e l f . The E u c h a r i s t i n the Context of E a r l y C h r i s t i a n Worship The term £Vyj£KptCTCtQi. , " t h a n k s g i v i n g , " does not appear as 12 a d e s i g n a t i o n f o r the C h r i s t i a n c u l t i c meal before I g n a t i u s . I t i s d e r i v e d from berakah, the Jewish t h a n k s g i v i n g over meals out of which the e a r l y anaphora developed, and to which the r e f e r e n c e s to tlesus' having "given thanks" at the L a s t Supper (1 Coi 11:24; Lk. 22:19; lYlk. 14:23; Mt. 26:27) are probably an a l l u s i o n . A l l the a v a i l a b l e evidence i n d i c a t e s that the eucha-r i s t i c meal, i n some form or o t h e r , was the C h r i s t a i n communi-ty's c e n t r a l a c t of worship from i t s o u t s e t . In i t s nascent s t a g e s , of course, C h r i s t i a n i t y was a phenomenon of Judaism, and the f i r s t C h r i s t i a n s continued to p a r t i c i p a t e i n Jewish worship. I t i s g e n e r a l l y agreed t h a t Acts 2:22-47 gives a f a i r l y a ccurate i f somewhat i d e a l i s e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the wor-ship of the Jerusalem church. The author of t h i s passage r e -p o r t s that "they went as a body to the Temple every day but met i n t h e i r houses f o r the breaking of the bread" (v. 46). Along-s i d e the o f f i c i a l Jewish worship, then, these f i r s t C h r i s t i a n s 10 had t h e i r own d i s t i n c t i v e form of worship: a e u c h a r i s t i c meal. There are a l s o i n d i c a t i o n s of i n f o r m a l g atherings f o r prayer (Acts 1:12-14; 12:12). The s i t u a t i o n i n the P a u l i n e churches was more complex. While i n i t i a l l y , i t seems, the g e n t i l e C h r i s -t i a n s worshipped with the Jews (Acts 13:43f.; 14:1), the breach between the Synagogue and the Church soon made t h i s i m p o s s i b l e . In some cases the g e n t i l e C h r i s t i a n s secured t h e i r own p u b l i c p l a c e s f o r meeting, as at Ephesus (Acts 19:8-10), but probably 13 more o f t e n they combined the preaching of the word with eu-c h a r i s t i c s e r v i c e s i n the home, as at Troas (Acts 20:7-11). Apart from the i n i t i a t o r y r i t e of baptism, the New Testa-ment ( e s p e c i a l l y the P a u l i n e corpus) d e p i c t s a v a r i e t y of forms of worship which, i n a d d i t i o n to the e u c h a r i s t i c meal, occurred on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . Some of these were c h a r i s m a t i c and spon-taneous, l i k e the r e v e l a t i o n s , speaking i n tongues, i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n of tongues (1 Co. 14:26) and h e a l i n g (1 Co. 12:28; Jas. 5 : l 4 f f . ) ; other forms, l i k e psalms, hymns (1 Co. 14:26; C o l . 3: 16; Eph. 5:19) and doxologies (Rom. 1:25; 2 Co. 11:31; 2 Tim. 4:18; Eph. 1:3), were more f i x e d . I t was once commonly b e l i e v e d 14 ( a f t e r Weizsaecker and Lietzmann) t h a t these n o n - e u c h a r i s t i c forms of worhsip took place i n t h e i r own s e t t i n g , the s o - c a l l e d s e r v i c e of the word. Cullmann, however, has q u i t e c o n v i n c i n g l y argued a g a i n s t the p l a u s i b i l i t y of t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . He be-l i e v e s that Acts 2:42 and Acts 2 0 : 7 f f . (where prayers and teach-ing are connected with the breaking of the bread) i n d i c a t e 11 " t h a t as a r u l e there uias no g a t h e r i n g of the community with-out the breaking of bread and t h a t , even i f there had been a s e r v i c e which was e x c l u s i v e l y a s e r v i c e of the Word, i t would 1 5 have been i n any case an e x c e p t i o n . " Cullmann's reasoning i s that the c h a r i s m a t i c phenomena would s c a r c e l y have appeared i n the synagogue atmosphere of a pure word s e r v i c e , and were much more l i k e l y to have occurred i n a e u c h a r i s t i c context where the presence of the r i s e n C h r i s t was m y s t e r i o u s l y expe-1 6 r i e n c e d . The c o n c l u s i o n i s that the s e r v i c e d e s c r i b e d by 17 J u s t i n , i n which the proclamation of the word and the c e l e -b r a t i o n of the e u c h a r i s t are j o i n e d t o g e t h e r , i s not the r e -s u l t of the l a t e r f u s i o n of what were o r i g i n a l l y two d i s t i n c t s e r v i c e s . The e u c h a r i s t i c f e l l o w s h i p i s from the o u t s e t the fundamental c o n s t i t u e n t of C h r i s t i a n community l i f e . A word should be s a i d about the p r a c t i c e of Sunday wor-s h i p , which had e s t a b l i s h e d i t s e l f by the e a r l y second cen-18 t u r y . The observance of Sunday must have at f i r s t been only 19 supplemental to observance of the Sabbath, and i t i s impos-s i b l e to determine e x a c t l y when or how the change took p l a c e . There i s no reason to suspect the e x p l a n a t i o n of I g n a t i u s (Maqn. 9:1) and the author of the E p i s t l e of Barnabas (15:8), who both d e c l a r e that C h r i s t i a n s have supplanted the Sabbath with Sun-day because ( a c c o r d i n g to the t r a d i t i o n ) on that day the Lord had r i s e n . The New Testament, with the exception of the Apo-calypse (1:10), s u p p l i e s l i t t l e evidence f o r r e g u l a r Sunday 1 2 w o r s h i p . A c c o r d i n g t o A c t s (2:46), t h e e a r l i e s t b r e a k i n g o f t h e b r e a d was d a i l y . The r e f e r e n c e t o t h e T r o a s c e l e b r a t i o n h a v i n g o c c u r r e d "on t h e f i r s t day o f t h e week" ( A c t s 20:7) may h o w e v e r i n d i c a t e e m e r g e n t Sunday w o r s h i p i n t h e community o u t o f w h i c h t h e book o f A c t s i t s e l f came. No d e s c r i p t i o n o f w o r s h i p i n t h e p r i m i t i v e C h u r c h w o u l d be c o m p l e t e w i t h o u t t h e r e m i n d e r t h a t f o r t h e s e e a r l y C h r i s -t i a n s r e a l w o r s h i p was n o t t o be f o u n d i n e x t e r n a l p r a c t i c e s . R a t h e r , i t was t h e i r l i v i n g i n t h e w o r l d , t h e i r &COJUSIt£X w h i c h t h e y were t o p r e s e n t as "a l i v i n g s a c r i f i c e h o l y and a c c e p t a b l e t o God" and as " s p i r i t u a l w o r s h i p . " Human r e d e m p t i o n , t h e y be-l i e v e d , came n o t as t h e r e s u l t o f a p u r e l y s a c r e d o f f e r i n g , b u t f r o m J e s u s ' s u f f e r i n g i n a human, w o r l d l y s i t u a t i o n . " F o r t h e one o f whom t h e s e t h i n g s a r e s p o k e n b e l o n g e d t o a n o t h e r t r i b e , f r o m w h i c h no one has e v e r s e r v e d a t t h e a l t a r " ( H b . 7 : 1 3 ) . The b e l i e v i n g community i s now "a h o l y p r i e s t h o o d " ( 1 P t . 2: 5), f a i t h i s a " s a c r i f i c i a l o f f e r i n g ( P h i l . 2 : 1 7 ) , and a c t s o f l o v e a r e " t h e s a c r i f i c e t h a t God a c c e p t s and f i n d s p l e a s i n g " ( P h i l . 4 : 1 8 ) . As E . S c h i l l e b e e c k x r e m a r k s , T h i s s e c u l a r w o r s h i p was, so t o s p e a k , t h e n o v e l t y o f t h e New T e s t a m e n t , i n w h i c h a c r i t i c i s m o f t h e o l d J e w i s h s a c r i f i c e s and o f t h e O l d T e s t a m e n t d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n p r o f a n e a n d s s a c r a l , c l e a n and u n c l e a n , i s c l e a r l y d i s c e r n i b l e . The a t t e n t i o n o f t h e e a r l y C h r i s t i a n s was d i r e c t e d l e s s t o w a r d s t h e C h u r c h t h a n t o w a r d s t h e k i n g d o m o f God, i n w h i c h t h e w h o l e o f t h e c r e a t e d w o r l d was i n c l u d e d . 2 0 13 The e u c h a r i s t , t h e n , uias t h e c e l e b r a t i o n o f a s e c u l a r r e a l i t y , t h e r e d e m p t i o n o f t h e u i o r l d , i n t h e f o r m o f a com-mon m e a l . F o r t h i s r e a s o n t h e p r e - C o n s t a n t i n i a n C h r i s t i a n s uiere p r o u d t h a t t h e y had no c h u r c h b u i l d i n g s o r a l t a r s . The pagan c r i t i c C e l s u s c h a s t i s e d them: " Y o u r e y e s c a n n o t b e a r t e m p l e s , a l t a r s and i m a g e s o f God," and M i n u c i u s F e l i x , a l a t e s e c o n d c e n t u r y A p o l o g i s t , b o a s t e d , "We have no t e m p l e s 21 and no a l t a r s . " "An a b s e n c e o f ' r e l i g i o n , ' " s a y s S c h i l l e -b e e c k x , "uias t h e a s t o n i s h i n g t h i n g u i h i c h p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r u c k oo t h e p a g a n s u i i t h r e g a r d t o C h r i s t i a n i t y . " J e s u s ' E u c h a r i s t i c Words: t h e T e x t u a l D a t a I t i s c l e a r f r o m t h e Neui T e s t a m e n t t h a t a t l e a s t some c i r c l e s i n t h e e a r l y C h u r c h e s t a b l i s h e d a c o n n e c t i o n b e tween t h e f o c a l p o i n t o f t h e i r c o mmunity l i f e , t h e e u c h a r i s t i c g a -t h e r i n g , and t h e L a s t S u p p e r o f J e s u s . T h i s c a n be d i s c e r n e d f r o m t h e f o u r t e x t s u i h i c h r e p o r t J e s u s ' i n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e e u c h a r i s t : Mark 14:22-25, M a t t h e w 26:26-29, Luke 22:15-20, 23 and 1 C o r i n t h i a n s 11:23-26. We c a n d i s t i n g u i s h two t y p e s o f s a y i n g s i n e a c h o f t h e f i r s t t h r e e t e x t s : (1) an e s c h a t o -l o g i c a l vow o f a b s t i n e n c e (Mk. 14:25; Mt. 26:29; L k . 22:15-18) and (2) J e s u s ' words o f i n s t i t u t i o n - - o r r b e t t e r ? ; w o r d s o f i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n — u t t e r e d o v e r b r e a d and w i n e (Mk. 14:22-24; Mt. 26: 26-28; L k . 22 :19-20). O n l y t h e l a t t e r a p p e a r e x p l i c i t l y , i n P a u l . 14 The e s c h a t o l o g i c a l s a y i n g appears i n s u b s t a n t i a l l y the same form i n Mark ("Truly, I say to you, I s h a l l not d r i n k again of the f r u i t of the vine u n t i l that day when I d r i n k i t new i n the kingdom of G o d , " A y U ^ ifaxV OZL Ol)K£Zl OVjUrj TTxco CK cov y*cvrjjucico? O/V 0(MJT<f:>\OlJ £co<; Zr}$ rfju/pa? ctceixtrfg ozoiv aruto TTvvoo KOCIVOV £VZ7) /3cfO-2?i£70f COV OCOU ), and Matthew ("I t e l l you I s h a l l not drink again of t h i s f r u i t of the vine u n t i l that day when I d r i n k i t new with you i n my Father's kingdom," heju) de xSjuiv objurj iricoairfapzi CK zovzou^ ZOV £fVrf~ /u&zos z/)f auTT€>yoi) cats zrfr 7i/u£pois CKCivrjs ozay o/vtb mvcoJU€&' VJULVV Kotivov't.v Cfj fiatri>\£\<Ql ZOV TT&Tpo'f JULOV ) • In both cases the l o g i o n appears at the end of the p e r i c o p e , f o l l o w i n g d i r e c t l y on the words of i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n over the cup. Luke 22:18 i s a v a r i a n t of the same say i n g ("for I t e l l you t h a t from now on I s h a l l not d r i n k of the f r u i t of the vine u n t i l the kingdom of God comes,"ACJ*CO jitp v/iiv,ovyurj rrico arro zov %?uv ocrro zov pcvrfjimvos Zrj$ ajUTTcXou ecos oi> rj fioto-i?.cia zou Qeaw <?>>®rj ). In t h i s case, however, the s a y i n g does not a t t a c h i t s e l f to the words of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , but concludes a separate u n i t of t r a d i t i o n which precedes those words. This u n i t c o n t a i n s con-s i d e r a b l e m a t e r i a l p e c u l i a r to Luke: another e s c h a t o l o g i c a l s a y i n g ("I have e a r n e s t l y d e s i r e d to eat t h i s passover with you before I s u f f e r , " ITJl SUjUlQL CTTC&VyUrjaVf ZOUZO T O irdo-yoi fexffciv ju£&* wjLLtdv irpo zov juc rruQeiv Lk. 22:15), and, most s u r p r i s i n g l y , an a d d i t i o n a l c u p o v e r 15 which Jesus gives thanks, i n v i t e s h i s d i s c i p l e s to partake of ("Take t h i s and d i v i d e i t among y o u r s e l v e s " - - f\0(f3&Z£ ZOVCO KOI 6lCl/U£f>{a(XCC Ch OXVZOVf, Lk. 22:17), and vows to ab-s t a i n from. The words" of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n over the bread and cup ( f o r Luke: the second cup) f a l l n a t u r a l l y i n t o two groups, Mark/ Matthew and Luke/Paul. In Mark the bread s a y i n g reads, "Take; t h i s i s my body ," AfX/SCtt COVZO £(TCl\S ZO &USJLWL jUOU{ 14:22) , and the cup s a y i n g , " T h i s i s my blood of the covenant, which i s poured out f o r many,"COUCO CCTC2V ZO CHljU-OL jLlOl) Z^jz <£l£H&7)KT\S ZO €K%VVOjU£VOV VTTCp TW?ti£>\Kl4i24). Matthew repeats Mark almost verbatim, but there are a small number of s i g n i f i c a n t and c h i e f l y t h e o l o g i c a l l y motivated a d d i t i o n s or a l t e r a t i o n s : an i n v i t a t i o n to "eat" ( ( f id iYCtC) i s i n s e r t e d i n t o the f i r s t s a y i ng (26:26), " f o r the f o r g i v e n e s s of sins,"£2(~ CX<f>£0~ZV Cfyl&p-ZLCC\? i s added to the second s a y i n g , and i n v. 27 the n a r r a -t i v e s t y l e of Mark ("They a l l drank of it,"/<£XZ £JTlOV £J* dVCOV JTdVZC%) i s a l t e r e d to a d i r e c t q u o t a t i o n ("Drink of i t , a l l of you" fllCZC OCVZOV TTcivCCS ) • The Lucan and Pauline v e r s i o n s of the sayings are q u i t e d i f f e r e n t , and the former i s complicated by an important tex-t u a l v a r i a n t . The s o - c a l l e d s h o r t e r t e x t of Luke (Codex D) e l i m i n a t e s the second cup and reproduces only the bread s a y i n g , i n e x a c t l y the same form as Mark. A l l other Greek manuscripts 16 o f Luke have a b r e a d and a mine s a y i n g , and i n b o t h i n s t a n c e s t h e y a r e v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h e P a u l i n e f o r m u l a e . The b r e a d s a y i n g d i f f e r s f r o m Mark i n t h a t t h e y add an e x p l a n a t o r y p h r a s e and t h e "command t o r e p e a t " ( " T h i s i s my body u i h i c h i s f o r n_k.: g i v e n f o r i y o u . Do t h i s i n remembrance o f me," ZOVZO /XOV L k . 2 2 : 1 9 , 1 Co. 1 1 : 2 4 ) . The cup s a y i n g s d i f f e r f r o m Mark n o t m e r e l y by uiay o f a d d i t i o n , b u t i n e s s e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e . I n t h e L u c a n f o r m t h e r e i s a s e c o n d e x p l a n a t o r y p h r a s e ( " T h i s cup u i h i c h i s p o u r e d o u t f o r you i s t h e neui c o v e n a n t i n my b l o o d , " f o r m t h e r e i s a s e c o n d ^ c o m m a n d t o r e p e a t " ( " T h i s cup i s t h e neui c o v e n a n t i n my b l o o d ; do t h i s , as o f t e n as you d r i n k i t , We must a g r e e u i i t h M a c G r e g o r t h a t t h e i n t e n t i o n s o f t h e w r i t e r s o f t h e s e f o u r n a r r a t i v e s was t o d e s c r i b e n o t so much t h e L a s t S u p p e r o f J e s u s as t h e f i r s t e u c h a r i s t o f t h e C h u r c h . ^ 4 But we c a n n o t assume, as does D e l l i n g , t h a t t h e e a r l y C h r i s t i a n s w o u l d have been c a r e f u l t o a l i g n t h e i r e u c h a r i s t i c r i t u a l as 2 5 c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e t o J e s u s ' l a s t m e a l . A l l o f t h e a c c o u n t s d i s p l a y t h e p a r a l l e l i s m c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f l i t u r g i c a l p r a y e r : 17 i n Luke t h e p a r a l l e l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e two l o g i a i s more p r o -n o u n c e d t h a n i n P a u l , and a l t h o u g h Mark shows e v e n more sym-m e t r y , Matthew i l l u s t r a t e s t h e most a d v a n c e d s t a g e o f t h i s 2 fi t e n d e n c y . B e t z a s s e r t s t h a t r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h i s f a c t d o e s n o t mean i m p u g n i n g t h e e s s e n t i a l h i s t o r i c i t y o f t h e a c c o u n t s . He s u p p o r t s t h i s c l a i m w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t t h e e a r l y C h u r c h c o n -s c i o u s l y r e g a r d e d t h e e u c h a r i s t as a n a m n e s i s , and w o u l d n o t , 27 t h e r e f o r e , have d i s t o r t e d t h e s u b s t a n c e o f t h e t r a d i t i o n . T h e r e a r e , n e v e r t h e l e s s , c o n t r a d i c t i o n s b e t ween t h e a c -c o u n t s w h i c h may be o f d e c i s i v e i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e a t t e m p t t o r e c o n s t r u c t J e s u s ' e u c h a r i s t i c s a y i n g s and a c t i o n s . I f , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e s h o r t e r t e x t o f Luke were p r i m a r y , t h e a c c o u n t g i v e n t h e r e w o u l d be r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t i n P a u l , and we w o u l d have t o c h o o s e b etween one o r t h e o t h e r . M o r e -o v e r , e v e n i f t h i s d i f f i c u l t y were n o t p r e s e n t , we w o u l d be f a c e d w i t h o t h e r s : t h e e x p r e s s i o n "my b l o o d o f t h e c o v e n a n t , " f o r e x a m p l e , i n Mark ( v . 24) and t h e e x p r e s s i o n "my body w h i c h i s f o r you ,"jU<OX> Zo CTCO/LLCi ZO VTfCp V/XCVV , i n 1 C o r i n t h i a n s ( v . 2 4 ) , c a n n o t ( a s w i l l be shown l a t e r ) be r e t r a n s l a t e d i n t o A r a m a i c . T h i s f a c t a l o n e means t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l A r a m a i c f o r m o f t h e words o f i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n must have e i t h e r ( a ) i n c l u d e d o n l y t h e n o t i o n o f c o v e n a n t , i . e . , was e s s e n t i a l l y l i k e t h e P a u l i n e f o r m u l a w i t h -o u t t h e e x p r e s s i o n ZO VTTCP V/UU>%? : " T h i s i s my body; t h i s 18 cup i s t h e new c o v e n a n t i n my b l o o d , " o r ( b ) i n c l u d e d o n l y t h e n o t i o n o f a t o n e m e n t , i . e . , was e s s e n t i a l l y l i k e t h e fflarcan f o r -mula w i t h o u t Zr}<: <ftaOfff<yjf : " T a k e , t h i s i s my body ; t h i s i s my b l o o d , w h i c h i s p o u r e d o u t f o r m a n y . " ^ B e f o r e t h e r e c a n be any d i s c u s s i o n a b o u t t h e r e l a t i v e m e r i t s o f t h e s e a c c o u n t s i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o make a d e c i -s i o n i n f a v o u r o f e i t h e r t h e s h o r t e r o r t h e l o n g e r t e x t o f L u k e . B o t h o f t h e s e t e x t s a p p e a r p e c u l i a r when comp a r e d w i t h t h e o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n n a r r a t i v e s , t h e s h o r t e r b e c a u s e o f i t s c u p - b r e a d o r d e r and a b r u p t e n d i n g , and t h e l o n g e r b e c a u s e o f th e p r e s e n c e o f two c u p s . The s h o r t e r t e x t i s w i t n e s s e d by t h e i m p o r t a n t Codex B e z a e ( D ) , and by a few O l d L a t i n manu-29 s c r i p t s . The l o n g e r t e x t a p p e a r s i n a l l o t h e r G r e ek manu-s c r i p t s and a n c i e n t v e r s i o n s . The c h i e f d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h e l o n g e r t e x t i s t h a t i t i s h a r d t o i m a g i n e a s c r i b e h a v i n g a b -b r e v i a t e d i t by d e l e t i n g t h e s e c o n d r a t h e r t h a n t h e f i r s t c u p . F u r t h e r , d e f e n d e r s o f t h e s h o r t e r t e x t r e a s o n t h a t i t i s e a s i e r t o s u p p o s e a l a t e r i n t e r p o l a t i o n f r o m 1 C o r i n t h i a n s t h a n t o e x p l a i n how t h e t r a d i t i o n c o u l d o r i g i n a l l y h ave been t r a n s m i t t e d i n a f o r m u i h i c h m e n t i o n e d t h e g i v i n g o f t h e cup 30 t w i c e . The s h o r t e r t e x t was t h e r e f o r e a c c e p t e d by many 31 32 e a r l i e r s c h o l a r s , i n c l u d i n g L o i s y , L i e t z m a n n , and Mac-33 D o n a l d , and among more r e c e n t s c h o l a r s h a s had s u p p o r t e r s i n R.H. F u l l e r , 3 4 F.C. G r a n t , 3 5 and F.W. B e a r e . 3 6 The s h o r t e r 19 t e x t as i t s t a n d s , h o w e v e r , l e a v e s t h e b r e a d s a y i n g a s a mere i s o l a t e d f r a g m e n t w i t h no a p p a r e n t c o n n e c t i o n t o what p r e -37 38 c e d e s o r f o l l o w s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n W e l l h a u s e n , B. B u l t m a n n , 39 and H.N. B a t e have e x c i s e d v e r s e 19a as w e l l . T h i s s o l u t i o n i s p e r h a p s t h e l e a s t a c c e p t a b l e , s i n c e t h e r e i s no t e x t u a l e v i -d e n c e w h a t e v e r t o s u p p o r t i t , and s i n c e t h e r e a r e no o t h e r r e -f e r e n c e s t o t h e L a s t S u p p e r o r t h e e u c h a r i s t w h i c h do n o t men-t i o n b r e a d . The g r e a t e r number o f c o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c s r e j e c t t h e s h o r t e r t e x t on a c c o u n t o f i t s a w k w a r d n e s s and weak t e x t u a l s u p p o r t . We b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s j u s t i f i e d . B u t i f t h e l o n g e r t e x t i s a c c e p t e d as p r i m a r y , some e x p l a n a t i o n must be f u r n i s h e d f o r t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e s h o r t e r o n e . One s u c h e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t v s s . 19b-20 were d r o p p e d t o a v o i d t h e i n -/ 40 41' c o n s i s t e n c y o f h a v i n g two c u p s ( s o lYlacGregor, Schuermann 42 \ and S c h w e i z e r J . T h i s s o l u t i o n i s i m p r o b a b l e , t h o u g h , b e c a u s e i t i s s c a r c e l y c r e d i b l e t h a t t h e s e c o n d cup s h o u l d have been removed when i t w o u l d have r e s u l t e d i n t h e s u p p r e s s i o n o f J e s u s 1 i n s t i t u t i o n a l words o v e r t h e cup and t h e r e v e r s a l o f t h e n o r m a l o r d e r o f t h e e l e m e n t s . A c c o r d i n g t o a n o t h e r p r o p o s a l , a d v a n c e d 43 44 by G. K i l p a t r i c k and J . J e r e m i a s , t h e l a c u n a e o f t h e s h o r -t e r t e x t were i n t r o d u c e d a s p a r t o f t h e d i s c i p l i n a a r c a n i t o a v o i d p r o f a n a t i o n o f t h e e u c h a r i s t i c m y s t e r y . The o b v i o u s ob-j e c t i o n t o t h i s t h e s i s i s t h a t v s . 19a w o u l d a l s o have been 20 o m m i t t e d . A t h i r d s u g g e s t i o n has been o f f e r e d by A. H i g g i n s , uiho i n t e r p r e t s L u k e ' s f i r s t cup a s " n o n - e u c h a r i s t i c . " H i g g i n s b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e e v a n g e l i s t c o m b i n e d two L a s t S u p p e r t r a -d i t i o n s , one c o n s i s t i n g o f v s s . 1 5 - 1 9 a ; and t h e o t h e r c o n s i s -t i n g o f v s s . 1 9 a - 2 0 . The s h o r t e r t e x t , , h e r e a s o n s , was t h e work o f a c i r c l e w h i c h knew o n l y t h e n o n - l i t u r g i c a l L a s t Sup-p e r t r a d i t i o n f o u n d i n t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h e L u c a n n a r r a t i v e . T h i s e x p l a n a t i o n t o o l a c k s p l a u s i b i l i t y ; i t p r e s u p p o s e s t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n o f a L a s t S u p p e r t r a d i t i o n q u i t e i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t h e e u c h a r i s t i c l i t u r g y o v e r a p e r i o d o f d e c a d e s , s o m e t h i n g w h i c h i s r a t h e r u n l i k e l y . I t d o e s n o t , m o r e o v e r , a c c o u n t f o r t h e a p p a r e n t a w k w a r d n e s s o f t h e b r e a d - s a y i n g i n v . 1 9 a . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s l i k e l y ( a s w i l l be shown b e l o w ) t h a t L u k e ' s e s c h a t o l o g i c a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l s a y i n g s a r e drawn f r o m d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s , and we do have one l i t u r g i c a l w i t n e s s ( t h e D i d a c h e ) i n w h i c h t h e e m p h a s i s i s e s c h a t o l o g i c a l , t h e words o f i n s t i t u t i o n a b s e n t , and t h e p r a y e r o v e r t h e cup p r e c e d i n g t h a t o v e r t h e b r e a d . We s h o u l d l i k e t o p r o p o s e , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e a b b r e v i a t i o n o f t h e l o n g e r t e x t c a n be a t t r i b u t e d t o c e r -t a i n C h r i s t i a n s , p r o b a b l y o f t h e s e c o n d c e n t u r y , who u s e d a e u c h a r i s t i c l i t u r g y o f t h i s t y p e . There r e m a i n s t o be e x -p l a i n e d t h e a n o m a l y o f t h e two c u p s i n t h e o r i g i n a l L u c a n t e x t . Luke p r e s e n t e d t h e L a s t S u p p e r a s a P a s s o v e r m eal ( L k . 2 2 : 7 - 1 4 ) , and we c a n a c c e p t as r e a s o n a b l e (YlacGregor * s i n f e r e n c e t h a t Luke i n c l u d e d two c u p s i n o r d e r t o b r i n g t h e p r o c e d u r e o f t h e Sup-47 p e r more i n t o l i n e w i t h t h e P a s s o v e r r i t u a l . 21 The G o s p e l o f M a t t h e w , as we have s e e n , r e p r o d u c e s M a r k ' s S u p p e r n a r r a t i v e w i t h c e r t a i n a l t e r a t i o n s and a d d i t i o n s . We a r e l e f t , t h e n , w i t h t h r e e key r e p o r t s o f J e s u s ' e u c h a r i s t i c w o r d s : M a r k , t h e l o n g e r t e x t o f L u k e , and P a u l . Though t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e s e t e x t s a r e i r r e c o n c i l a b l e , e a c h has some f a c t o r s i n i t s f a v o u r : M a r k , s i m p l i c i t y ; L u k e , an e s c h a -t o l o g i c a l e m p h a s i s ; and 1 C o r i n t h i a n s , t h e e a r l i e s t d a t e . Our p r o b l e m i s t o c o n s t r u c t an as a u t h e n t i c a s p o s s i b l e v e r s i o n o f J e s u s ' s a y i n g s f r o m one o r more o f t h e s e s o u r c e s . I C o r i n t h i a n s 11:23-25 d e s e r v e s o u r i n i t i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n , s i n c e i t i s t h e o l d e s t e x t a n t a c c o u n t , w r i t t e n i n t h e s p r i n g o f 48 A.D. 54 o r 55. Any e v a l u a t i o n o f i t s r e l i a b i l i t y must b e g i n w i t h an a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e m e a n ing o f t h e o p e n i n g p h r a s e , " F o r I r e c e i v e d f r o m t h e L o r d what I a l s o d e l i v e r e d t o y o u . . . . " L o i s y b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e r e f e r e n c e must have been t o a p e r s o n a l r e v e l a t i o n o r v i s i o n i n w h i c h P a u l r e c e i v e d t h e a c c o u n t s o f 49 i n s t i t u t i o n . L i e t z m a n n and M a c D o n a l d b o t h a g r e e w i t h L o i s y on t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f v s . 2 3 , b u t d i f f e r f r o m hi m i n r e g a r d t o t h e s u p p o s e d c o n t e n t s o f t h e r e v e l a t i o n . M a c D o n a l d p o i n t s o u t t h a t P a u l c o u l d n o t h ave meant t h a t he r e c e i v e d t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e L a s t S u p p e r f r o m a r e v e l a t i o n : t h e M a r c a n a c c o u n t i n d i -c a t e s t h a t t h e s e were a l r e a d y p a r t o f an i n d e p e n d e n t t r a d i t i o n ( s e e b e l o w , (p. 35(E) . The r e v e l a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , d i s c l o s e d t o P a u l " t h a t i t was t h e e x a l t e d L o r d ' s w i l l t h a t t h e C h u r c h s h o u l d a d o p t t h e L a s t S u p p e r as t h e m o d el f o r h e r f u t u r e c e l e b r a t i o n 22 o f t h e rite."^° In o t h e r w o r d s , t h e c o r e o f t h e r e v e l a t i o n was "Do t h i s i n remembrance o f me."^ A c c o r d i n g t o L i e t z m a n n 52 and fflacDonald, who r e j e c t t h e l o n g e r t e x t o f L u k e , t h i s i n -t e r p r e t a t i o n e x p l a i n s why t h e i n j u n c t i o n t o r e p e a t a p p e a r s o n l y i n 1 C o r i n t h i a n s . L i e t z m a n n s u s p e c t s t h a t P a u l has been i n f l u e n c e d by t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y H e l l e n i s t i c p r a c t i c e o f h o l d i n g 53 f e a s t s i n memory o f t h e d e a d . C r i t i c s o f t h e s e v i e w s h a v e , on t h e w h o l e , r e s p o n d e d t o them w i t h two main o b j e c t i o n s : ( 1 ) a c o m p a r i s o n o f 1 Co. 11:23 w i t h o t h e r P a u l i n e m a t e r i a l makes i t u n l i k e l y t h a t P a u l was a l -l u d i n g t o a p r i v a t e r e v e l a t i o n , and ( 2 ) t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e e u -c h a r i s t i c f o r m u l a e , i n c l u d i n g t h e "command t o r e p e a t , " i s n o t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y P a u l i n e . H i g g i n s a r g u e s t h a t i f P a u l were r e f e r r i n g t o a d i r e c t and i m m e d i a t e d i s c l o s u r e , t h e p r e p o s i t i o n i n t h e p h r a s e " f r o m t h e L o r d " w o u l d more n a t u r a l l y be TT&pQi t h a n &TTO ( a s i n G a l . 1:12, TTOiph Oil>OpU)7Toi> , " f r o m man"). M o r e o v e r , we c a n s e e t h a t P a u l u s e s t h e same two v e r b s i n v. 23 ("I r e c e i v e d . . . what a l s o I d e l i v e r e d , " E-yu) y&p TTGip£A®k~ K&1 TToLpedcOKCH) a s he d o e s i n 1 Co. 15:3 ("I d e l i v e r e d . . . what a l s o I r e c e i v e d , " r\dp£OiVKCi -yoip...O TTaip£.\ a -^OV ) » uihere he i s u n q u e s t i o n a b l y s p e a k i n g o f a t r a d i t i o n w h i c h he i n h e r i t e d f r o m the C h u r c h . The t e r m " t h e L L o r d , " a s C u l l m a n n 55 has shown, o c c u p i e s t h e p l a c e o f " t r a d i t i o n " i n c e r t a i n P a u l i n e p a s s a g e s (1 Co. 7:10,25; 9:14; 1 Th. 4 : 1 5 ) . I n t h e s e i n s t a n c e s P a u l s e e s t h e h i s t o r i c a l J e s u s as t h e c h r o n o l o g i c a l s o u r c e o f t h e t r a d i t i o n , b u t t h e e x a l t e d L o r d as o p e r a t i v e i n i t s t r a n s -2 3 m i s s i o n . " Thus OiTfo ZOV KvplOV c a n mean a d i r e c t r e c e i v i n g f r o m t h e L o r d , w i t h o u t i t b e i n g n e c e s s a r y t o t h i n k o f a v i s i o n o r o f e x c l u d i n g m i d d l e members t h r o u g h whom t h e L o r d H i m s e l f i m p a r t s t h e p a r a d o s i s . " ^ 6 Numerous c r i t i c s have been s e n s i t i v e t o t h e g e n e r a l l y u n -P a u l i n e t e n o r o f t h e words o f i n s t i t u t i o n i n 1 C o r i n t h i a n s . A g a i n s t t h e t h e o r y t h a t t h e words "Do t h i s i n remembrance o f me" c o n s t i t u t e a d i s t i n c t i v e l y P a u l i n e a d d i t i o n , E. Lohmeyer e m p h s i s e s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e word GHV&pL%rr)0'i£ i s u s e d nowhere e l s e by P a u l , and t h a t t h e p a r a l l e l i s m o f v s s . 24 and 25 i n d i -57 c a t e s a l i t u r g i c a l s o u r c e . Schuermann has l i s t e d s e v e n o t h e r f e a t u r e s o f t h e p e r i c o p e w h i c h a r e a t y p i c a l o f P a u l ' s s t y l e : ( 1 ) t h e p a r t i c i p l e £V^oip7ffZtj(Jclf, w h i c h P a u l n o r m a l l y u s e s w i t h t h e d a t i v e , b u t w h i c h h e r e i s u s e d a b s o l u t e l y ; ( 2 ) t h e p h r a s e K&l CtTTCV , w h i c h he does n o t use e l s e w h e r e t o i n -t r o d u c e a q u o t a t i o n ; (3).a> (TiOjUOi , o t h e r w i s e u s e d by P a u l o n l y t o r e f e r t o t h e community ( w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f 1 Co. 10; 16 , w h i c h i s a e u c h a r i s t i c p a s s a g e ) ; jUCtd w i t h t h e i n f i n i -t i v e , and t h e word I V , f o u n d o n l y h e r e i n t h e P a u l i n e c o r p u s ; ( 5 ) (X>Or€*>\>%U)<; K&it an i n d i c a t i o n o f l i t u r g i c a l s t y l e ; ( 6 ) t h e c o n c e p t o f new c o v e n a n t , w h i c h P a u l d o e s n o t e l s e w h e r e c o n n e c t w i t h t h e d e a t h o f C h r i s t and ( 7 ) t h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f " b l o o d " w i t h t h e c o v e n a n t r a t h e r t h a n w i t h c u l t i c s a c r i f i c e , a s u s u a l i n P a u l . ^ 8 We may c o n c l u d e , t h e n , t h a t P a u l ' s a c c o u n t o f t h e L a s t S u p p e r , i n c l u d i n g t h e i n j u n c t i o n t o r e p e a t , i s an e d i t e d v e r -24 s i o n o f a p r e - P a u l i n e l i t u r g i c a l s o u r c e . Does t h i s mean t h a t o f t h e t h r e e r e p o r t s o f J e s u s * uiords o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n P a u l ' s i s t h e most o r i g i n a l ? A number o f a u t h o r i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g B e h m , ^ D i x , ^ and L e e n h a r d t b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s i s t h e c a s e . I n f a v o u r o f t h i s h y p o t h e s i s a r e a number o f d i f f i c u l t i e s c o n -n e c t e d w i t h t h e cup s a y i n g i n Mar k . M a r k ' s cup s a y i h i g a p p e a r s t o have been made p a r a l l e l t o t h e b r e a d s a y i n g , as a r e s u l t o f t h e l i t u r g i c a l t e n d e n c y t o s y m m e t r y . I t seems a l s o t o have been a s s i m i l a t e d t o Ex. 2 4 : 8 , " B e h o l d t h e b l o o d o f t h e c o v e n a n t C O w h i c h t h e L o r d has made w i t h y o u . " P a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t i s th e f a c t t h a t t h e Mar c a n e x p r e s s i o n TO CiijUOi jLLOu Trjg Jl®i&rfl<7j£ c a n n o t be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o A r a m a i c , s i n c e A r a m a i c d oes n o t a l l o w 63 t h e c o n s t r u c t c a s e t o t a k e a p r o n o m i n a l s u f f i x . B ut t h i s may i n d i c a t e t h a t o n l y t h e g e n i t i v a l p h r a s e " o f t h e c o v e n a n t " i s 64 s e c o n d a r y , and t h e o b j e c t i o n c a n be a p p l i e d w i t h e q u a l f o r c e t o P a u l ' s juov... to aco/xa ro vrrep ujuCJ1 c o . n : 2 4 ) . A l l t h i n g s c o n s i d e r e d , i t i s n o t l i k e l y t h a t t h e p r e s e n t f o r m o f t h e P a u l i n e t e x t more a c c u r a t e l y r e p r o d u c e s J e s u s ' words than t h e o t h e r w i t n e s s e s . I t i s b e s t u n d e r s t o o d a s a " R a b b i n i s a t i o n o f t h e t r a d i t i o n . " 6 6 We have s e e n a l r e a d y t h a t t h e L u c a n words o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a r e s i m i l a r i n s t r u c t u r e and c o n t e n t t o P a u l ' s , and we may won-d e r t h e r e f o r e w h e t h e r Luke has b o r r o w e d d i r e c t l y f r o m P a u l , o r w h e t h e r , g i v e n t h a t P a u l has r e w o r k e d an e x i s t i n g l i t u r g i c a l s o u r c e , Luke has drawn f r o m t h e same s o u r c e . W h i l e i t i s p o s -25 s i b l e that the t h i r d e v a n g e l i s t was a companion of P a u l , and was acquainted with the e u c h a r i s t i c p r a c t i c e of the P a u l i n e churches, a number of c o n s i d e r a t i o n s m i l i t a t e a g a i n s t Luke 22:19-20 having been d e r i v e d from 1 Co. 11:24f. I f t h i s were the case, we should not have expected Luke to suppress the second "command to repeat." Furthermore, i n s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s where Luke d i f f e r s from P a u l , the changes cannot be a t t r i b u t e d to Luke's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t y l e . KdX . U)0~ct%JZ(22:20) i s c o n t r a r y to the Lucan word order (Luke p l a c e s A3dr a f t e r -ward, as i n 20:31; c f . 5:10,33; 10:32; 2 2 : 3 6 ) , 6 7 and i t i s not usual f o r Luke to omit the copula (22:20) or use £jUO$ i n the a t t r i b u t i v e sense, as i n CV z£> ayu&Zri (22:20) . 5 8 The i n -ference i s that Luke has used the p r e - P a u l i n e l i t u r g i c a l source (or a very s i m i l a r one), and i n the cases c i t e d , where Luke d i f f e r s from P a u l , Luke i s to be p r e f e r r e d . On the other hand, the phrase "which i s poured out f o r you" (Lk. 22:20) i s not found i n 1 Co. 11:25, and must depend on l*lk. 14:24. 6 9 These o b s e r v a t i o n s might suggest that the o l d e s t a t t a i n -a ble form ( U r b e r i c h t ) of the words of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , i f not to be found i n 1 Co. 11:24ff., i s preserved i n Lk. 22:19f., i f we d i s c o u n t two c o r r e c t i o n s which are presumably Luke's {'AC'^COV f o r Ken cilTCV i n v. 19a, and the a d d i t i o n TO VtTcp V/A£OV t s £K^VWqU£VOIS i n v. 20b) and one which Luke has found i n h i s ver« s i o n of the source (the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of UfCfjXVCtJf i n v. 20a). 26 70 71 S u c h i s t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f J . B e t z and H. S c h u e r m a n n . B e t z c o n j e c t u r e s t h a t t h e s o u r c e uias d e r i v e d f r o m an e a r l y A n t i o -c hene l i t u r g y , and t h a t i t o r i g i n a t e d i n P a l e s t i n e i n t h e m i d -72 f o r t i e s . ( T h i s i s n o t a l t o g e t h e r i m p r o b a b l e , and f o r l a c k o f a b e t t e r t e r m , we s h a l l d e s i g n a t e t h i s s o u r c e as " A n t i o -c h e n e " ) . I n t h i s A n t i o c h e n e s o u r c e t h e p a r a l l e l p r e d i c a t e s a r e body and c o v e n a n t , w h i l e i n Mark t h e y a r e body and b l o o d . The f o r m e r , B e t z b e l i e v e s , i s an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e e a r l i e r S u f f e r i n g S e r v a n t c h r i s t o l o g y , w h e r e a s t h e l a t t e r r e p r e s e n t s a s h i f t t o t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f C h r i s t ' s d e a t h a s a J e w i s h c u l t i c 73 s a c r i f i c e . A s u b s t a n t i a l p r o p o r t i o n o f s c h o l a r s , h o w e v e r , b e l i e v e t h a t t h e M a r c a n r e p o r t i s more r e l i a b l e b e c a u s e o f i t s numerous / a, • 74 u . . 75 _ , 76 . . . 77 A r a m a i s m s ( s o J e r e m i a s , H i g g i n s , T a y l o r , L i e t z m a n n , 78 79 80 F u l l e r , G a u g l e r , and C l a r k ) . J e r e m i a s , who has i n v e s -t i g a t e d t h e q u e s t i o n most t h o r o u g h l y , d e t e c t s no f e w e r o t h a n t w e n t y - t h r e e S e m i t i s m s i n t h e whole M a r c a n a c c o u n t ( i . e . , i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s e t t i n g , t h e words o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and t h e vow o f a b s t i n e n c e ) . Among t h e more i m p o r t a n t w h i c h a r e p e c u l i a r t o Mark a r e : t h e r e p e t i t i o n o f K&1 i n 14:22-24 , A&f$>^V ( 1 4 : 2 3 ) , w h i c h d e s i g n a t e s t h e e l e v a t i o n o f t h e cup b e f o r e be-n e d i c t i o n , TTOA^&V w i t h o u t t h e a r t i c l e , m e a n i n g " a l l " ( 1 4 : 2 4 ) , and tfyU^V ( 1 4 : 2 5 ) . I f t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s p r o v e t h e p r i o -r i t y o f Mark and i f , as we have shown, t h e e x p r e s s i o n " o f t h e c o v e n a n t " (fflk. 14:24) must be s e c o n d a r y , t h e n t h e e a r l i e s t a t -27 t a i n a b l e f o r m o f t h e words o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w o u l d b e , " T h i s i s my body; t h i s i s my b l o o d w h i c h i s p o u r e d o u t f o r many." I n t h i s c a s e t h e c o n c e p t o f c o v e n a n t w o u l d be a b s e n t , t h e p a -r a l l e l p r e d i c a t e s w o u l d be body ( p r o b a b l y = A r a m a i c b i s r a ) and b l o o d , and t h e p r e d o m i n a t i n g i d e a w o u l d be t h a t o f c u l t i c s a c r i f i c e . A g a i n s t t h i s c o n c l u s i o n we c a n a d v a n c e t h e a r g u m e n t t h a t t h e A ramaisms i n M a r k ' s a c c o u n t e s t a b l i s h n o t h i n g b e c a u s e t h e y 81 o c c u r t h r o u g h o u t t h e g o s p e l . Even more p e r s u a s i v e i s K i l -m a r t i n ' s o b j e c t i o n : "The p r e s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e number o f S e m i t i s m s w o u l d be d r a s t i c a l l y r e d u c e d t h r o u g h t h e c o n s t a n t use o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l a c c o u n t i n a H e l l e n i s t i c m i l i e u i s u n d e r -mined by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e P a u l i n e f o r m u l a t i o n , w r i t t e n a b o u t 8 2 t e n y e a r s b e f o r e L u k e , has f e w e r ' S e m i t i s m s ' t h a n L u k e . " I n a s s e s s i n g t h e v a l u e o f M a r k , t h e d e c i s i v e q u e s t i o n i s , as S c h w e i -z e r o b e r v e s , how c o u l d t h e p a r a l l e l i s m o f t h e M a r c a n s a y i n g s have been u p s e t i n f a v o u r o f t h e n o n - p a r a l l e l s t r u c t u r e i n F o r t h i s v e r y r e a s o n we may c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e words o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o v e r t h e cup s a y i n g a r e more o r i g i n a l i n t h e " A n t i o c h e n e " a c c o u n t t h a n i n M a r k ' s . But we c a n n o t be r e a d i l y s u r e t h a t t h e same i s t r u e f o r t h e b r e a d s a y i n g , w h i c h i n t h e A n t i o c h e n e s o u r c e has t h e a d d i t i o n " . . . w h i c h i s £givenj f o r y o u ; Do t h i s i n remembrance o f me." T h e r e i s no r e a s o n t o s u p -P u l ? 83 p o s e t h a t t h e word i s n o t an a d d i t i o n o f L u k e ' s , 28 a n d , as uie have s e e n , t h e P a u l i n e w o r d i n g o f t h i s VJT£p - c l a u s e c a n n o t be r e n d e r e d i n A r a m a i c . I n a d d i t i o n , i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t t o i m a g i n e t h e VflCp - c l a u s e and t h e words "Do t h i s i n remembrance o f me" h a v i n g been d e l e t e d f r o m t h e M a r c a n s o u r c e i f t h e y f o r m e d p a r t o f t h e o r i g i n a l L a s t S u p p e r t r a d i t i o n . I t i s much e a s i e r t o s u r m i s e t h a t t h e y o r i g i n a t e d i n a l i t u r g i c a l c o n t e x t where t h e e u c h a r i s t i c m e al was c o n s c i o u s l y c o n n e c t e d t o t h e L a s t S u p p e r . B e n o i t ' s o f t - r e p e a t e d e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e o m i s s i o n o f t h e i n j u n c t i o n t o r e p e a t i n M a r k , "On ne r e c i t e pas / 84 une r u b r i q u e , on l ' e x e c u t e , " h a r d l y s e t t l e s t h e q u e s t i o n . 85 86 Even i f , as J e r e m i a s and D i x b e l i e v e , t h e s a y i n g n e e d n o t be i n t e r p r e t e d a s a r e q u e s t t o r e p e a t t h e L a s t S u p p e r r i t u a l as a new f o r m o f w o r s h i p , we w o u l d n e e d more e v i d e n c e t o e s t a b l i s h c o n c l u s i v e l y t h a t i t goes back t o J e s u s . The most p l a u s i b l e s o l u t i o n i s t h a t t h e words o v e r t h e b r e a d have been more c a r e -f u l l y p r e s e r v e d i n t h e f o r m r e c o r d e d by M a r k . Our a n a l y s i s o f t h e two b a s i c v e r s i o n s o f t h e words o f i n -t e r p r e t a t i o n ( i . e . , t h e l i t u r g i c a l s o u r c e u s e d by P a u l and Luke, and t h a t u s e d by> Mark) t h u s y i e l d s t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t : t h e e a r l i e s t a t t a i n a b l e f o r m o f t h e b r e a d s a y i n g i s t h a t f o u n d i n Mark; t h e e a r l i e s t a t t a i n a b l e f o r m o f t h e cup s a y i n g i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t f o u n d i n L u k e , minus a number o f a d d i t i o n s o r c o r r e c -t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g t h e PTfSp - c l a u s e ( c f . our r e c o n s t r u c t i o n be-l o w , p . 33 ) . 29 T h e r e r e m a i n s t o be d i s c u s s e d J e s u s ' e s c h a t o l o g i c a l vow o f a b s t i n e n c e , w h i c h a p p e a r s i n a t w o f o l d f o r m i n Luke ( 2 2 : 1 5 -16) and a s a s i n g l e s a y i n g i n Mark ( 1 4 : 2 5 ) . The vow d o e s n o t a p p e a r a t a l l i n 1 C o r i n t h i a n s 1 1 , a f a c t w h i c h m i g h t l e a d us t o c a l l i n t o q u e s t i o n i t s a u t h e n t i c i t y . The A n t i o c h e n e s o u r c e , h o w e v e r , f r o m w h i c h P a u l drew h i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l n a r r a t i v e , i n -c l u d e d o n l y t h e words o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . A l m o s t a l l s c h o l a r s a g r e e t h a t L k . 22:15-18 i s "an i n d e p e n d e n t u n i t o f t r a d i t i o n , s e l f - c o n t a i n e d and i n t e r n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t . " 8 7 The p r o b l e m o f t h e e s c h a t o l o g i c a l vow c a n t h e r e f o r e be r e d u c e d t o t h r e e q u e s t i o n s : ( 1 ) w h e t h e r i t c o n s i s t e d o f one o r two s a y i n g s ; ( 2 ) w h e t h e r i t p r e c e d e d o r f o l l o w e d t h e words o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ; and ( 3 ) w h e t h e r Mark o r Luke r e p o r t s t h e more o r i g i n a l f o r m o f t h e " f r u i t o f t h e v i n e " s a y i n g . To a l a r g e e x t e n t o u r a n s w e r s t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s w i l l d e -pend on o u r e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f L k . 2 2 : 1 5 - 1 8 . 88 89 A c c o r d i n g t o t h e v i e w a d o p t e d by L i e t z m a n n , M a c D o n a l d , Be-90 91 n o i t , and D i b e l i u s , t h i s p a s s a g e c o n s t i t u t e s a l i t e r a r y c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e t h i r d e v a n g e l i s t i n w h i c h Mark 14:25 has been t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e m e a l , and t o w h i c h a p a r a l l e l e s c h a t o l o g i c a l s a y i n g r e f e r r i n g t o t h e m eal as a w h o l e h a s been a d d e d . T h e r e w o u l d t h u s have o r i g i n a l l y been o n l y one e s c h a t o l o g i c a l s a y i n g , v e r y s i m i l a r t o M a r k ' s v e r s i o n i n w o r d -i n g and p l a c e d i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e words o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n 92 o v e r t h e c u p . B u t o t h e r a u t h o r i t i e s , s u c h a s M a c G r e g o r , 30 93 94 95 96 J e r e m i a s , H i g g i n s , C l a r k , and S c h u e r m a n n , a r e i n c l i n e d t o f a v o u r t h e w i t n e s s o f L u k e , a t l e a s t w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e f i r s t two o f t h e t h r e e q u e s t i o n s f o r m u l a t e d a b o v e . M a c G r e g o r b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e e s c h a t o l o g i c a l s a y i n g c o u l d n o t a t f i r s t h a ve been a t -t a c h e d t o t h e " c o v e n a n t c u p , " b e c a u s e i t s s y m b o l i s m was o f q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t o r d e r . The o t h e r c r i t i c s m e n t i o n e d h e r e a l l p o i n t t o t h e f a c t t h a t Luke a l m o s t n e v e r t r a n s p o s e s t h e fflarcan o r d e r o f e v e n t s , and f a r f r o m c r e a t i n g p a r a l l e l c o n s t r u c t i o n s , he t e n d s t o e l i m i n a t e them when he f i n d s them i n h i s s o u r c e s . T h i s , t h e y b e l i e v e , i n d i c a t e s t h a t L u k e i s d r a w i n g f r o m an i n d e p e n d e n t , n o n - l i t u r g i c a l t r a d i t i o n o f c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t r i n s i c v a l u e . S c h u -ermann e v e n p r o p o s e s t h a t Mk. 14:25 i s s e c o n d a r y t o t h e L u c a n 97 v e r s i o n o f t h e s a y i n g , a l t h o u g h J e r e m i a s , H i g g i n s , and C l a r k a r e p r o b a b l y c o r r e c t i n p r e f e r r i n g t h e l e s s h e a v i l y g r a e c i s e d w o r d i n g o f M a r k . I t must be c o n c e d e d t h a t t h e a r g u m e n t s i n f a v o u r o f a p r e - L u c a n s o u r c e f o r t h e t w o f o l d vow a r e more c o n -v i n c i n g t h a n t h e a p r i o r i c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a d v a n c e d by t h o s e who go b e l i e v e t h a t L k . 22:15-18 i s w h o l l y d e p e n d e n t on Mk. 1 4 : 2 5 . S e v e r a l o f t h e c r i t i c s who a c c e p t t h e t w o f o l d f o r m o f t h e vow o f a b s t i n e n c e a s p r e - L u c a n d e t e c t a c e r t a i n i n c o n s i s t e n c y b etween t h e s e s a y i n g s and t h e w o rds o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . L o i s y b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e l a t t e r c o n s t i t u t e "a h i g h l y d i s t i n c t a f t e r -t h o u g h t i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e G o s p e l c a t e c h e s i s , " and t h a t J e s u s ' o r i g i n a l s a y i n g o v e r t h e bre'ad was s o m e t h i n g c l o s e t o L k . 22:16 ("I s h a l l n o t e a t i t u n t i l i t i s f u l f i l l e d i n t h e 99 k i n g d o m o f G o d " ) . M a c G r e g o r , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , r e j e c t s 31 o n l y t h e " c o v e n a n t c u p " and i t s s a y i n g , on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t J e s u s c o u l d n o t have e n j o i n e d t h e d r i n k i n g o f b l o o d , and t h a t t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a c c o u n t s c o n c e r n t h e " c o v e n a n t c u p . " ' ' 0 0 The o r i g i n a l L a s t S u p p e r n a r -r a t i v e m o u l d , a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s v i e w , be v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l 101 w i t h t h e s h o r t e r t e x t o f L u k e . S c h w e i z e r f e e l s t h a t L k . 2 2 :15-18,28-30 r e p r e s e n t s t h e same t r a d i t i o n o f t h e L o r d ' s S u p p e r a s J n . 1 3-16, a t r a d i t i o n w h i c h p o r t r a y s t h e S u p p e r s o l e l y i n t e r m s o f J e s u s ' s e r v i n g and o f t h e e s c h a t o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , w i t h o u t any r e f e r e n c e t o t h e w o rds o f i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , he b e l i e v e s t h a t t h i s t r a d i t i o n c o u l d have had i t s o r i g i n s i n a J e w i s h - C h r i s t i a n g r o u p w h i c h s t i l l c e l e b r a t e d t h e P a s s o v e r ( c f . L k . 2 2 : 1 5 ) , and t h a t t h e P a u l i n e a c c o u n t o f t h e L a s t S u p p e r i s p r o b a b l y a more o r l e s s g e n u i n e . 102 r e p o r t . These t h e o r i e s r e s t on t h e r a t h e r u n w a r r a n t e d a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e a u t h e n t i c i t y o f t h e e s c h a t o l o g i c a l vow i s i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e a u t h e n t i c i t y o f one o r b o t h o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l s a y -i n g s . F u r t h e r m o r e , e a c h o f t h e t h e o r i e s w o u l d be c o n s i d e r a b l y weakened i f L k . 22:15-18 were n o t p r i o r t o Mk. 1 4 : 2 5 . W h i l e , as we have s a i d , t h e L u c a n v e r s i o n o f t h e vow o f a b s t i n e n c e p r o b a b l y r e l i e s on a p r e v i o u s t r a d i t i o n , t h i s d o e s n o t i n i t -s e l f p r o v e t h e o r i g i n a l i t y o f L k . 22:15 ( t h e vow t o a b s t a i n f r o m t h e P a s s o v e r ) . Q u i t e t o t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e a b s e n c e o f t h e s a y i n g i n Mark impugns i t s o r i g i n a l i t y , s i n c e t h e r e i s no a d e -q u a t e r e a s o n why i t s h o u l d have been s u p p r e s s e d t h e r e . The 32 s a y i n g i s b e s t u n d e r s t o o d a s h a v i n g o r i g i n a t e d i n t h e p r e -L u c a n o r a l t r a d i t i o n , p e r h a p s t o r e i n f o r c e t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f J e s u s ' L a s t S u p p e r as a P a s s o v e r m e a l . We have s e e n a l r e a d y t h a t t h i s c o n c e p t i o n may have l e d t o t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e 1 03 f i r s t cup i n L u k e , and t h a t t h e L u c a n w o r d i n g o f t h e " f r u i t o f t h e v i n e " s a y i n g i s more h e a v i l y g r a e c i s e d t h a n t h e M a r c a n . We may t h e r e f o r e c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e s i n g l e e s c h a t o l o g i c a l s a y -i n g i n Mark ( w i t h o u t K&WOV , t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f w h i c h w o u l d be u n u s u a l i n A r a m a i c , and w h i c h may t h u s be c o u n t e d as an e d i -t o r i a l a d d i t i o n ) ^ ^ i s t h e more o r i g i n a l f o r m o f t h e vow, and t h a t i t was p r o b a b l y u t t e r e d by J e s u s o v e r t h e same cup as t h e words o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . ' " ^ We c a n now s u m m a r i s e t h e r e s u l t s o f o u r s e a r c h f o r t h e e a r l i e s t a t t a i n a b l e f o r m o f J e s u s ' e u c h a r i s t i c w o r d s . W i t h r e g a r d t o J e s u s ' words o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o v e r t h e b r e a d and t h e w i n e , we have d i s c e r n e d two b a s i c t r a d i t i o n s : M a r k , and t h e " A n -t i o c h e n e " s o u r c e u s e d by P a u l and L u k e . We have f o u n d t h a t t h e b r e a d s a y i n g i s more a c c u r a t e l y r e p r o d u c e d i n M a r k , b e c a u s e Mark w o u l d n o t have e x c i s e d t h e a d d i t i o n a l words f o u n d i n t h e A n t i o c h e n e t e x t . Y e t f o r t h e cup s a y i n g we have p r e f e r r e d t h e A n t i o c h e n e v e r s i o n , b e c a u s e i t does n o t e x h i b i t t h e l i t u r g i c a l s ymmetry o f t h e cup s a y i n g i n M a r k . F i n a l l y , w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e e s c h a t o l o g i c a l vow o f a b s t i n e n c e , we have s u g g e s t e d t h a t a l t h o u g h Luke i s d e p e n d e n t on an e a r l i e r s o u r c e , M a r k ' s f o r m o f t h e s a y i n g i s more o r i g i n a l . We t h e r e f o r e a r r i v e a t t h e 33 f o l l o w i n g r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e e a r l i e s t a t t a i n a b l e f o r m o f J e s u s 1 words a t t h e L a s t S u p p e r : R e c o n s t r u c t e d Form Summary o f Re a s o n s ToVtO <faClV ZO &U>M& JUOV. A t t e s t e d i n a l l a c c o u n t s ; s i m -p l e s t f o r m i n Ma r k . T h i s i s my body . — v  / c lOVZO^ZO TTOZlipiOV^T} / " C o v e n a n t " i n c l u d e d b e c a u s e i t d>l@*@tji<T] -\z£b etifitdTl i s m e n t i o n e d i n a l l a c c o u n t s ; /UOV, *" "new" o m i t t e d b e c a u s e i t i s n o t T h i s cup i s t h e c o v e n a n t f o u n d i n Mark. The P a u l i n e -i n my b l o o d . L u c a n c o n s t r u c t i o n i s p r e f e r r e d t o t h e M a r c a n , b e c a u s e M a r k ' s p h r a s e " b l o o d o f t h e c o v e n a n t " c a n n o t be r e t r a n s l a t e d i n t o A r a -m a i c , and b e c a u s e t h e Ma r c a n f o r m o f t h e s a y i n g i n d i c a t e s t h e t e n -d e n c y t o l i t u r g i c a l p a r a l l e l i s m . AjU>)%/ ACyto VjLLIV, OZl, M a r k ' s w o r d i n g i s more S e m i t i c OVKCTC OV jUrf rtCuy £K t h a n L u k e ' s . L u k e ' s " P a s s o v e r Ctn) j ^ v - ^ ^ r o f r>]C < • vow" i s o m i t t e d , b e c a u s e i t i s y&/uTT<f A o r > ccos r-*;*- rj/UC/xt$ e a s i e r t o s u p p o s e c e r t a i n C h r i s -fKSlVlfg o t a v £%uro JT fvu>^ t i a n s ' h a v i n g c r e a t e d i t t h a n t t o £V C77 jOacrzACic* Toxs &SOX». s u p p o s e M a r k ' s h a v i n g e l i m i n a t e d i t . T r u l y , I s a y t o y o u , I s h a l l n o t d r i n k a g a i n o f the f r u i t o f t h e v i n e u n t i l t h a t day when I d r i n k i t i n t h e k i n g d o m o f God. We s h a l l n o t h e r e a t t e m p t t o r e t r a n s l a t e o u r r e c o n s t r u c -t i o n o f t h e s e s a y i n g s i n t o A r a m a i c . We h a v e , on t h e one h a n d , a l r e a d y t a k e n a c c o u n t o f t h e A r a m a i c when i t has been a p e r -t i n e n t f a c t o r i n e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e e a r l i e s t a t t a i n a b l e f o r m o f 34 t h e s a y i n g s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , n o t h i n g mould be t h e r e b y a d d e d t o o u r k n o w l e d g e o f t h e i r c o n t e n t . Can we be j u s t i f i e d i n b e l i e v i n g t h a t t h e s e s a y i n g s were u t t e r e d i n some e s s e n t i a l l y s i m i l a r f o r m by t h e h i s t o r i c a l J e s u s ? C e r t a i n c o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c s , s u c h as Bornkamm, c o n -t e n d t h a t any r e f e r e n c e t o t h e c o v e n a n t must be a t t r i b u t e d t o " t h e c r e a t i v e f a i t h o f t h e w o r s h i p p i n g c o mmunity . . . w h i c h i n t e r p r e t s J e s u s ' d e a t h r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y a s t h e r e d e m p t i o n o f m a n k i n d . " ' ' 0 6 B u t t h e r e seems t o be l i t t l e d o u b t t h a t J e s u s i n some way c o n n e c t e d t h e c o m i n g o f t h e Kingdom o f God w i t h h i s p r o c l a m a t i o n o f i t , and we c a n n o t e x c l u d e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t J e s u s a v a i l e d h i m s e l f o f t h e n o t i o n o f c o v e n a n t t o e x p r e s s t h i s c o n n e c t i o n . IM. P e r r i n , i n h i s r e c e n t s t u d y o f t h e t e a c h -i n g o f J e s u s , s u m m a r i s e s J e s u s * message i n t h i s way: " J e s u s t a u g h t t h e same t h i n g b o t h by p r o c l a m a t i o n and by s i m i l e : t h e d e c i s i v e a c t i v i t y o f God as k i n g i s now t o be e x p e r i e n c e d by 1 07 men c o n f r o n t e d by h i s m i n i s t r y i n word and d e e d . " I t i s t r u e t h a t t h e c o v e n a n t m o t i f i s f o u n d o n l y i n J e s u s ' e u c h a r i s -t i c w o r d s , b u t we must n o t r e j e c t i t on p u r e l y a p r i o r i g r o u n d s . G i v e n t h e f a c t t h a t J e s u s c o n n e c t e d t h e c o m i n g o f t h e Kingdom w i t h h i s p r o c l a m a t i o n o f i t , i t i s n o t i m p o s s i b l e t h a t , i n t h e c r i s i s o f h i s i m p e n d i n g d e a t h , J e s u s c o u l d have had r e c o u r s e t o t h e n o t i o n o f c o v e n a n t . 35 P o s s i b i l i t y does n o t , o f c o u r s e , i m p l y p r o b a b i l i t y . I f uie w i s h t o a f f i r m t h a t t h e e u c h a r i s t i c s a y i n g s go b a c k t o t h e h i s t o r i c a l J e s u s , uie must show t h a t t h i s i s t h e most p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e i r o r i g i n . I n f a v o u r o f t h e a u t h e n t i c i t y o f J e s u s * e u c h a r i s t i c s a y -i n g s i s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y meet t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e two b a s i c c r i t e r i a u s e d by g o s p e l c r i t i c s t o a s c e r t a i n t h e i p s i s -s i m a vox o f J e s u s , t h e " c r i t e r i o n o f m u l t i p l e a t t e s t a t i o n " and t h e " c r i t e r i o n o f d i s s i m i l a r i t y . " The f i r s t c r i t e r i o n c o n s t i -t u t e s a p r o p o s a l t o a c c e p t a s a u t h e n t i c " m a t e r i a l w h i c h i s a t -t e s t e d i n a l l , o r m o s t , o f t h e s o u r c e s w h i c h ca n be d i s c e r n e d 108 b e h i n d t h e s y n o p t i c g o s p e l s . " Some s c h o l a r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y 1 09 T.W. S a n s o n , b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s i s t h e most v a l u a b l e c r i t e r i o n f o r d e t e r m i n i n g J e s u s ' a c t u a l w o r d s , b u t P e r r i n has p o i n t e d o u t t h a t i t s u s e f u l n e s s i s somewhat r e s t r i c t e d , s i n c e a u n i t o f t h e t r a d i t i o n may have m u l t i p l e a t t e s t a t i o n o n l y b e c a u s e o f t h e 110 r o l e p l a y e d by i t i n e a r l y P a l e s t i n i a n C h r i s t i a n i t y . The c r i t e r i o n , n e v e r t h e l e s s , i s u n d o u b t e d l y h e l p f u l i n e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e o l d e r s t r a t a o f t h e t r a d i t i o n , and may t h e r e f o r e b e / v a l u -a b l e when u s e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e c r i t e r i o n o f d i s s i m i -l a r i t y . I t has been shown a l r e a d y t h a t t h e New T e s t a m e n t v e r -s i o n s o f t h e words o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a r e d e p e n d e n t upon two e a r l i e r s o u r c e s , t h a t u s e d by Mark and t h a t u s e d by P a u l and L u k e . S i n c e t h e f o r m e r , w i t h i t s o m i s s i o n o f t h e i n j u n c t i o n t o r e p e a t , c o u l d n o t have been a r e d a c t i o n o f t h e A n t i o c h e n e s o u r c e , t h e r e must have been two i n d e p e n d e n t t r a d i t i o n s o f t h e s a y i n g s 36 by t h e t i m e 1 C o r i n t h i a n s was w r i t t e n ( c . A.D. 5 5 ) . T h e r e a r e p r o b a b l y no o t h e r s a y i n g s o f J e s u s i n w h i c h we c a n f i n d a s p e -c i f i c d o u b l e a t t e s t a t i o n a t s u c h an e a r l y d a t e . S i m i l a r l y , we have s e e n t h a t t h e r e w e r e , i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d , two p r e - s y n o p t i c t r a d i t i o n s o f t h e e s c h a t o l o g i c a l s a y i n g s , t h e p r e - M a r c a n and t h e p r e - L u c a n . We may c o n c l u d e , t h e n , t h a t J e s u s ' e u c h a r i s t i c words b e l o n g t o t h e e a r l i e r s t r a t a o f t h e s y n o p t i c t r a d i t i o n . The c r i t e r i o n o f d i s s i m i l a r i t y i s somewhat more r i g o r o u s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s c r i t e r i o n , a s a y i n g a t t r i b u t e d t o J e s u s must be d i s c r e d i t e d i f a p l a u s i b l e o r i g i n c a n be f o u n d f o r i t i n t h e p r a c t i c e o f t h e e a r l y C h u r c h o r i n c o n t e m p o r a r y J u d a i s m . As B u i t m a n n f o r m u l a t e s t h e c r i t e r i o n , We c a n o n l y c o u n t on p o s s e s s i n g a g e n u i n e s i m i -l i t u d e o f J e s u s w h e r e , on t h e one h a n d , e x p r e s s i o n i s g i v e n t o t h e c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n J e w i s h m o r a l i t y and p i e t y and t h e d i s t i n c t i v e e s c h a t o l o g i c a l tem-p e r w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i s e d t h e p r e a c h i n g o f J e s u s ; and where on t h e o t h e r hand we f i n d no s p e c i f i -c a l l y C h r i s t i a n f e a t u r e s . ' 1 W i t h r e g a r d t o J e s u s ' vow o f a b s t i n e n c e , i t i s h a r d t o c o n c e i v e o f a c a t e c h e t i c a l o r l i t u r g i c a l S i t z im L e b e n o u t o f w h i c h i t c o u l d have been c r e a t e d . Even t h o s e c r i t i c s who, l i k e L o i s y , r e j e c t t h e words o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , a r e i n c l i n e d t o f a v o u r t h e a u t h e n t i c i t y o f t h e vow. There w o u l d seem t o be as much r e a s o n t o a c c e p t t h i s a s any o t h e r o f J e s u s ' s a y i n g s . C o n c e r n i n g t h e words o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , we have f o u n d t h a t l i t u r g y p r o v i d e d a medium f o r t h e i r t r a n s m i s s i o n , b u t t h i s d o e s n o t mean t h a t a 3 7 l i t u r g i c a l s i t u a t i o n was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r o r i g i n . I f t h i s were t h e c a s e , we s h o u l d have t o i m a g i n e a r a t h e r h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d s a c r a m e n t a l t h e o l o g y i n t h e f i r s t d e c a d e s o f C h r i s -t i a n i t y , f o r t h e r e a r e no o t h e r e a r l y C h r i s t i a n m o t i f s w h i c h c o u l d a c c o u n t f o r t h e i r o r i g i n . Our r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e words o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n has e l i m i n a t e d t h o s e e l e m e n t s w h i c h c a n be a c c o u n t e d f o r s t r i c t l y on t h e b a s i s o f C h r i s t i a n w o r -s h i p o r c a t e c h e s i s , and t h e r e i s n o t h i n g i n i t w h i c h c o u l d have been b o r r o w e d by the C h u r c h f r o m J u d a i s m . A S i t z im L e ben J e s u , v i z . , J e s u s ' L a s t S u p p e r b e f o r e h i s d e a t h , p r o -v i d e s a more p l a u s i b l e o r i g i n f o r t h e words o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h a n w o u l d a S i t z im L eben E c c l e s i a e . F i n a l l y , o u r r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e e a r l i e s t a t t a i n a b l e f o r m o f J e s u s ' e u c h a r i s t i c w o rds c o n t a i n s some p o s i t i v e i n d i -c a t i o n s o f t h e i p s i s s i m a vox o f J e s u s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e i n t r o -d u c t i o n o f t h e vow o f a b s t i n e n c e , "Amen I s a y t o you , . . ." i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i d i o m o f J e s u s : i n J u d a i s m t h e word "Amen" was u s e d o n l y t o a s s e n t t d a p r a y e r . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e words o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e a s i m i l i t u d e o r p a r a b o l i c e x p r e s -s i o n , and t h i s manner o f s p e a k i n g i s , i n t h e words o f J e r e m i a s , 1 1 2 "an e x p r e s s p e c u l i a r i t y o f J e s u s . " The c u m u l a t i v e w e i g h t o f t h e e v i d e n c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t we c a n a f f i r m w i t h r e a s o n a b l e c e r -t a i n t y t h e a u t h e n t i c i t y o f J e s u s ' e u c h a r i s t i c s a y i n g s . 38 What Type o f M e a l Was t h e L a s t S u p p e r ? I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t J e s u s ' e u c h a r i s t i c words were n o t u t t e r e d i n i s o l a t i o n : t h e y were s a i d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a m e a l , and were a c c o m p a n i e d by s p e c i f i c a c t i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h e e a t i n g o f t h a t m e a l . There i s no r e a s o n t o d o u b t t h e u n a n i m o u s a f f i r m a t i o n o f t h e t r a d i t i o n t h a t t h i s meal was h e l d by J e s u s w i t h h i s d i s c i p l e s s h o r t l y b e f o r e h i s d e a t h . I n d e e d , i t i s s c a r c e l y p o s s i b l e t o i m a g i n e any o t h e r s i t u -a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e s a y i n g s w o u l d make s e n s e . B u t i t i s a q u e s t i o n o f p r i m a r y i m p o r t a n c e f o r o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s e words w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e S u p p e r was somei-j p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f J e w i s h r e l i g i o u s m e a l , and e s p e c i a l l y w h e t h e r o r n o t i t was a P a s s o v e r s u p p e r . I f t h e L a s t S u p p e r were a P a s s o v e r , t h e n t h e words o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w o u l d p r o b a b l y have been an e l a b o r a t i o n on t h e P a s c h a l h a q q a d a h . I f on t h e o t h e r hand i t were n o t , we s h o u l d wonder w h e t h e r t h e L a s t S u p p e r was some o t h e r s o r t o f s o l e m n r e l i g i o u s m e a l , and i f o u r k n o w l e d g e o f s u c h a meal c o u l d t h r o w l i g h t on J e s u s ' e u c h a r i s t i c w o r d s . S e v e r a l n o n - P a s c h a l t y p e s o f m e a l s , u s u a l l y v a r i e t i e s o f t h e k i d d u s h ( f e a s t day s a n c t i f i c a t i o n ) o r h a b u r a h ( f e l l o w s h i p o f f r i e n d s ) r e p a s t s , have been s u g g e s t e d . There has been much d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n J e s u s ' L a s t S u p p e r and t h e a n n u a l P a s s o v e r m e a l , b u t i t has n o t y e t y i e l d e d any d e f i n i t i v e c o n s e n s u s . C r i t i c a l s c h o l a r -39 s h i p i n t h e f i r s t f o u r d e c a d e s o f t h i s c e n t u r y uias i n c l i n e d t o t h e v i e w t h a t t h e L a s t S u p p e r uias n o t a P a s s o v e r m e a l , b u t s i n c e t h e n t h e uiork o f J . J e r e m i a s has r a i s e d a s t r o n g d i s -s e n t i n g v o i c e . The p r o b l e m h e r e i s n o t s i m p l y one o f t h e r e l i -a b i l i t y o f t h e s o u r c e s , b u t t h a t o f tuio c o n f l i c t i n g c h r o n o l o -g i e s f o u n d i n t h e New T e s t a m e n t i t s e l f . W h i l e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e w i t n e s s o f t h e s y n o p t i c s t h e L a s t S u p p e r was i n d e e d a P a s s o v e r meal ( M k . 1 4 : 1 2 f f . ; P i t . 2 6 : 1 7 f f . ; L k . 22:7ff.)» t h e F o u r t h E v a n g e l i s t d e p i c t s t h e e v e n t s o f P a s s i o n Week i n s u c h a way t h a t P a s s o v e r f a l l s on t h e n e x t d a y , J e s u s ' c r u c i f i c t i o n c o i n -c i d i n g w i t h t h e s l a u g h t e r o f t h e P a s c h a l l a m b s ( J n . 1 3 : 1 f f ; ; 1 8 : 2 8 ; 1 9 : 1 4 ; 1 9 : 3 1 , 4 2 ) . The P a u l i n e i n s t i t u t i o n n a r r a t i v e makes no r e f e r e n c e t o t h e L a s t S u p p e r as a P a s s o v e r , and P a u l ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f C h r i s t as " o u r P a s s o v e r " (1 Co. 5:7) has been u s e d by d e f e n d e r s o f b o t h c h r o n o l o g i e s . Those who s u p p o r t t h e J o h a n n i n e c h r o n o l o g y b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s a l l u s i o n o f P a u l ' s i m -p l i e s t h a t J e s u s was s a c r i f i c e d on t h e Day o f P r e p a r a r t i o n . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h o s e who a c c e p t t h e s y n o p t i c v i e w c a n c l a i m t h a t P a u l ' s a n a l o g y goes back t o J e s u s h i m s e l f , i . e . , t h a t J e s u s , d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e P a s c h a l m e a l , i n t e r p r e t e d h i s 113 d e a t h as t h e P a s c h a l s a c r i f i c e . Much o f t h e d e b a t e on t h i s q u e s t i o n has c e n t e r e d on t h e c o n s i s t e n c y o r i n c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h h t h e P a s s o v e r r i t u a l o f c e r -t a i n d e t a i l s w h i c h t h e G o s p e l s r e p o r t i n t h e i r a c c o u n t s o f t h e 40 e v e n t s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e L a s t S u p p e r . Among t h o s e f a c t o r s w h i c h have been b r o u g h t a g a i n s t t h e P a s c h a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e L a s t S u p p e r a r e t h e f o l l o w i n g : 1) The word u s e d f o r b r e a d i n Mk . 14:22 p a r . i s n o t aty\>jU£i, t h e n o r m a l word f o r u n l e a v e n e d b r e a d , b u t efpZ'OZ , w h i c h u s u a l l y 114 d e s i g n a t e s l e a v e n e d b r e a d . 2) A c c o r d i n g t o some a u t h o r i t i e s , e v e n i n t h e t i m e o f J e s u s i n d i v i d u a l c u p s were u s e d i n t h e P a s s o v e r r i t u a l ; y e t t h e New T e s t a m e n t i n d i c a t e s t h a t a s i n g l e common cup was u s e d a t t h e 115 L a s t S u p p e r . 3) As a r u l e women p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e P a s s o v e r m e a l , y e t by a l l a c c o u n t s o n l y J e s u s and t h e Twelve were p r e s e n t a t t h e . c 116 L a s t S u p p e r . 4) The s y n o p t i c a c c o u n t s o f t h e S u p p e r l a c k any s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e t o t h e p e c u l i a r f e a t u r e s o f t h e P a s s o v e r r i t u a l . T h ere i s no m e n t i o n o f t h e P a s c h a l l a m b , o r o f t h e b i t t e r h e r b s ; n o r i s t h e r e any a l l u s i o n t o t h e l i b e r a t i o n o f t h e P e o p l e f r o m 117 E g y p t . 5) There a p p e a r s t o be a c o n t r a d i c t i o n b e t ween Mk. 1 4 : 1 f . ( a n d p a r . Mt. 2 6 : 1 - 5 ) , w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t J e s u s was n o t t o be a r r e s t e d " d u r i n g t h e f e a s t , " CV £7) CopZTj , and t h e c h r o n o -l o g y r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e r e s t o f t h e Ma r c a n P a s s i o n n a r r a t i v e . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e l a t t e r , J e s u s was a r r e s t e d i n t h e c o u r s e o f 118 t h e f e a s t , a f t e r t h e P a s s o v e r S u p p e r . 6) F i n a l l y , t h e r e a r e a number o f i n c i d e n t s r e p o r t e d i n Mk. 14:17-15:47 w h i c h , i t i s a l l e g e d , c o u l d n o t p o s s i b l y have 41 t a k e n p l a c e on t h e f i r s t day o f t h e f e a s t o f U n l e a v e n e d B r e a d . These i n c l u d e : J e s u s ' l e a v i n g J e r u s a l e m f o r Gesthemane d u r i n g P a s s o v e r n i g h t , t h e m e e t i n g o f t h e S a n h e d r i n and t h e condem-n a t i o n o f J e s u s d u r i n g t h i s n i g h t , t h e b e a r i n g o f arms by t h e t e m p l e g u a r d s and J e s u s ' d i s c i p l e s , t h e e x e c u t i o n o f J e s u s on t h e h i g h f e a s t d a y , t h e p u r c h a s e o f l i n e n by J o s e p h o f A r i m a -t h e a , and t h e t a k i n g down and b u r i a l o f J e s u s ' b o d y . A l t h o u g h n o t a l l o f t h e s e o b j e c t i o n s a r e o f e q u a l f o r c e , t h o r o u g h and s y s t e m a t i c r e p l i e s have been g i v e n t o them by two o f t h e most a r d e n t d e f e n d e r s o f a P a s c h a l L a s t S u p p e r , J . J e r e -m i a s and A . J . B . H i g g i n s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e two s c h o l a r s , t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s m e n t i o n e d above c a n be d i s c a r d e d i n l i g h t o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s : 1) T h e r e a r e numerous i n s t a n c e s i n t h e LXX, P h i l o , and J o s e p h u s where t h e s h e w b r e a d and o t h e r t y p e s o f u n l e a v e n e d V 1 1 9 b r e a d a r e d e s i g n a t e d as &f>iZO£ . 2) From t h e s e c o n d c e n t u r y A.D. o n w a r d s , t h e r e a r e i n R a b b i n i c s o u r c e s h y g i e n i c o b j e c t i o n s t o t h e p r a c t i c e o f d r i n k -i n g f r o m a s i n g l e c u p . These v e r y o b j e c t i o n s p o i n t t o t h e f a c t t h a t i t was n o t u n u s u a l f o r a common cup t o be u s e d a t 120 t h e P a s s o v e r i n t h e t i m e o f J e s u s . 3) One must n o t , i n J e r e m i a s ' v i e w , assume " t h a t t h e women m e n t i o n e d i n Mark 1 5 : 4 0 ; Luke 23:49,55 were e x c l u d e d ; i n E a s t e r n t e x t s t h e a r g u m e n t f r o m s i l e n c e i s i n a d m i s s a b l e i n 121 s u c h c a s e s . " The e v a n g e l i c a l e m p h a s i s on t h e Twelve i s , 42 he a r g u e s , an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t o n l y a s m a l l , i n t i m a t e c i r c l e o f J e s u s ' f o l l o w e r s was p r e s e n t a t t h e S u p p e r , and i s t h e r e f o r e 122 e v i d e n c e o f t h e P a s c h a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h e m e a l . 4) The f o u r t h o b j e c t i o n - - t h e a b s e n c e o f any r e f e r e n c e t o t h e most i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e s o f t h e P a s c h a l m e a l - - i s p e r h a p s t h e most f o r m i d a b l e . B u t J e r e m i a s and H i g g i n s a r g u e t h a t t h i s f a c t c a u s e s a p r o b l e m o n l y i f one e x p e c t s torn f i n d a v e r b a t i m r e p o r t o f t h e L a s t S u p p e r i n t h e g o s p e l n a r r a t i v e s . S i n c e t h e s e n a r -r a t i v e s a r e n o t an a t t e m p t t o g i v e a c o m p l e t e h i s t o r i c a l d e s -c r i p t i o n o f t h e e v e n t , b u t o n l y p o r t r a y t h o s e p a r t s o f i t w h i c h were c o n s t i t u t i v e f o r t h e e u c h a r i s t i c c e l e b r a t i o n o f t h e e a r l y 123 C h u r c h , t h e o m i s s i o n o f c e r t a i n d e t a i l s i s q u i t e u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . . <• • 5) The word topct] c a n mean f e s t a l " a s s e m b l y " o r " c r o w d , " as i t d o e s i n J o h n 7:11, " t h e y were l o o k i n g f o r h i m a t t h e f e a s t j^ V ZT\ COpZtj J •" Thus t h e e x p r e s s i o n ju^f CVZ.?} COpZ'V) i n Mk. 14:1 c a n be r e n d e r e d , " n o t i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e f e s t a l c r o w d , " i . e . , i n s e c r e t . T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w o u l d remove t h e 124 d i s c r e p a n c y i n t h e M a r c a n c h r o n o l o g y . 6) I t i s a r g u e d t h a t e a c h o f t h e i n c i d e n t s w h i c h s u p p o s e d l y c o u l d n o t have t a k e n p l a c e d u r i n g a f e a s t day was, u n d e r t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , e n t i r e l y p o s s i b l e . As f o r J e s u s ' d e p a r t u r e t o Gesthemane d u r i n g t h e n i g h t , i t i s c l a i m e d t h a t G e s t h e m a n e , a t t h e w e s t e r n f o o t o f t h e Mount o f O l i v e s , "was r e c k o n e d w i t h i n t h e c o n f i n e s o f t h e c i t y f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e P a s s o v e r . " 1 2 ^ 43 The t r i a l and e x e c u t i o n o f J e s u s d u r i n g t h e f e a s t i s e x p l a i n e d by r e f e r e n c e t o a R a b b i n i c s t a t e m e n t u i h i c h d e c r e e s t h a t f a l s e 12 6 p r o p h e t s a r e t o be t r i e d and e x e c u t e d even d u r i n g a f e a s t . F u r t h e r , i t i s p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e b e a r i n g o f arms on t h e Sab-b a t h o r o t h e r f e a s t day uias p e r m i t t e d by an e a r l i e r h a l a k a h 127 w h i c h uias i n f o r c e a t t h e t i m e o f J e s u s . F i n a l l y , i n c a s e s o f n e e d , b u r i a l and t h e p u r c h a s e o f m a t e r i a l s f o r b u r i a l 128 were p e r m i t t e d on a f e a s t d a y . Those uiho s u p p o r t t h e v i e w t h a t t h e L a s t S u p p e r uias a P a s s o v e r (who, i n a d d i t i o n t o J e r e m i a s and H i g g i n s , i n c l u d e 129 130 131 132 B i l l e r b e c k , E. G a u g l e r , J . K l a u s n e r , M. T h u r i a n , 133 134 135 |Yl. de l a T a i l l e , A. J a u b e r t , and l\l. Hook ) have a l s o a d v a n c e d a number o f p o s i t i v e a r g u m e n t s i n d e f e n c e o f t h e i r t h e s i s . They b e l i e v e t h a t t h e s y n o p t i c t r a d i t i o n , and e v e n , i n some c a s e s , t h e J o h a n n i n e , has p r e s e r v e d r e m i n s c e n c e s o f c e r t a i n d e t a i l s u i h i c h p r o v e t h a t t h e L a s t S u p p e r was a P a s s o v e r m e a l . The most i m p o r t a n t a r g u m e n t s a d d u c e d i n f a v o u r o f t h i s v i e w a r e a s f o l l o w s : 1) A c c o r d i n g t o b o t h t h e s y n o p t i c s (Mk. 14:13 p a r . , 14:26 p a r . ) and J o h n ( 1 8 : 1 ) , t h e L a s t S u p p e r t o o k p l a c e i n J e r u s a l e m . At a t i m e when t h e c i t y i t s e l f w o u l d have been c r o w d e d w i t h p i l g r i m s , i t i s "by no means a m a t t e r of c o u r s e " t h a t t h i s s h o u l d have been t h e c a s e . The s y n o p t i c g o s p e l s r e p o r t t h a t d u r i n g h i s s t a y i n J e r u s a l e m J e s u s r e g u l a r l y l e f t t h e h o l y c i t y i n t h e e v e n i n g (Mk. 11:11 p a r . ; 1 1 : 1 9 ; 14:3 p a r . ; L k . 2 1 : 3 7 ; 44 2 2 : 3 9 ) . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i t uias l a i d down t h a t t h e P a s c h a l 136 lamb had t o be e a t e n w i t h i n t h e g a t e s o f J e r u s a l e m . 2) The L a s t S u p p e r t o o k p l a c e i n t h e e v e n i n g and e x -t e n d e d i n t o t h e n i g h t (Wlk. 1 4 : 1 7 ; 14:30 p a r . ; J n 1 3 : 3 0 ; 1 Co. 1 1 : 2 3 ) . U s u a l l y t h e main m e a l o f t h e day was t a k e n i n t h e l a t e a f t e r n o o n , b u t i t was o b l i g a t o r y f o r t h e P a s s o v e r s u p p e r t o 1 37 t a k e p l a c e a t n i g h t . 3) The s y n o p t i c s and J o h n a l s o a g r e e t h a t J e s u s and h i s d i s c i p l e s r e c l i n e d a t t h e L a s t S u p p e r (Mk. 1 4 : 1 8 ; Mt. 2 6 : 2 0 ; L k . 2 2 : 1 4 ; J n . 13:12 , 2 3 , 2 5 ) . J e r e m i a s s t a t e s f l a t l y : " I t i s a b s o l u t e l y i m p o s s i b l e t h a t J e s u s and h i s d i s c i p l e s s h o u l d have r e c l i n e d a t t a b l e f o r t h e i r o r d i n a r y m e a l s " ( i t a l i c s h i s ) . E x -c e p t f o r t h e P a s s o v e r — w h e n Jews r e c l i n e d as a s i g n o f t h e i r 138 l i b e r t y — t h e J e w i s h c u s t o m i n J e s u s ' t i m e was t o s i t f o r m e a l s . 4) The d r i n k i n g o f wi n e a t t h e meal i s a f u r t h e r i n d i -c a t i o n o f i t s P a s c h a l c h a r a c t e r , s i n c e , a c c o r d i n g t o J e r e m i a s , wine was d r u n k o n l y on f e s t i v e o c c a s i o n s . M o r e o v e r , r e d w i n e was d r u n k a t t h e P a s s o v e r , and J e s u s ' c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e wi n e 139 w i t h h i s b l o o d s u g g e s t s t h a t i t must have been r e d . 5) The t r a d i t i o n r e p o r t s t h a t J e s u s b r o k e b r e a d d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e meal (-Mk. 14:22 p a r . ) , w h e r e a s o r d i n a r y m e a l s began w i t h t h e b r e a k i n g o f b r e a d . The P a s s o v e r s u p p e r was t h e o n l y meal o f t h e y e a r i n w h i c h t h e s e r v i n g o f a d i s h p r e c e d e d t h e b r e a k i n g o f b r e a d . ' ' 4 0 6) The g o s p e l s s a y t h a t t h e L a s t S u p p e r c o n c l u d e d w i t h t h e s i n g i n g o f a hymn (Mk. 1 4 : 2 6 ; Mt. 2 6 : 3 0 ) . T h i s must be a 45 r e f e r e n c e t o . t h e P a s s o v e r h a l l e l , s u n g a t t h e c l o s e o f t h e . 141 m e a l . 7) A f t e r t h e m e a l , J e s u s d i d n o t r e t u r n t o B e t h a n y , as he had t h e p r e v i o u s n i g h t s (H)k. 11 :11 f . ; mt, 2 1 : 1 7 ) , b u t s t a y e d u i i t h i n t h e a r e a o f J e r u s a l e m (;|Y)k. 14:26 p a r . ; 14:32 p a r . ) . A c c o r d i n g t o c o n t e m p o r a r y r e g u l a t i o n s , p i l g r i m s had 1 42 t o s p e n d t h e n i g h t o f P a s s o v e r i n t h e h o l y c i t y . 8) One f i n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s f o r J e r e m i a s " o f a b s o -l u t e l y d e c i s i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e , " and " t h e c o n v i n c i n g a r g u m e n t f o r t h e p a s c h a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h e L a s t S u p p e r . " T h i s i s n o t h i n g o t h e r t h a n J e s u s ' s p e a k i n g t h e uiords o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o v e r t h e b r e a d and m i n e . T h i s " a l t o g e t h e r e x t r a o r d i n a r y manner o f a n -n o u n c i n g h i s p a s s i o n " c a n be u n d e r s t o o d o n l y i n l i g h t o f t h e f a c t t h a t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f c e r t a i n e l e m e n t s o f t h e meal i s a 1 43 f i x e d p a r t o f t h e P a s s o v e r r i t u a l . I f t h e s e a r g u m e n t s mere a c c e p t e d as c o n v i n c i n g , t h e n uie s h o u l d n a t u r a l l y t u r n t o P a s c h a l c o n c e p t i o n s i n o r d e r t o d i s -c e r n t h e m e a n i n g o f J e s u s ' e u c h a r i s t i c u i o r d s . An e x a m p l e o f a r i g o r o u s l y P a s c h a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s e s a y i n g s i s t h a t p r e s e n t e d by A . J . B . H i g g i n s . F o r H i g g i n s t h e vow o f a b s t i n e n c e s i m p l y e x p r e s s e s J e s u s ' l o o k i n g f o r w a r d t o t h e t i m e when t h e 144 P a s s o v e r p r o m i s e s o f j o y and r e d e m p t i o n w o u l d be f u l f i l l e d . The words o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w e r e , he b e l i e v e s , p r o m p t e d by t h e P a s s o v e r h a q q a d a h , and i n f a c t by them J e s u s c ompared h i m s e l f 14 5 t o t h e P a s s o v e r l a m b . The two s a y i n g s " T h i s i s my body" 46 and " T h i s i s my b l o o d w h i c h i s p o u r e d o u t f o r many" mere i n t e r p o l a t i o n s i n t o t h e P a s s o v e r r i t u a l a t two v i t a l p o i n t s : a t t h e e a t i n g o f u n l e a v e n e d b r e a d w h i c h began t h e c e n t r a l p o r t i o n o f t h e m e a l , and a t t h e t h i r d P a s s o v e r cup w h i c h c o n -147 e l u d e d t h i s p o r t i o n . T h i s w r i t e r a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t J e s u s ' s a y i n g s may have been i n t e n d e d t o e v o k e t h e n o t i o n o f t h e s c a p e g o a t , b e c a u s e i t was p o s s i b l e t o use a g o a t i n s t e a d o f a lamb a t P a s s o v e r . He p o i n t s t o t h e f a c t t h a t 1 P e t e r ( 1 : 1 8 - 2 0 ) a s s o c i a t e s t h e s c a p e g o a t w i t h t h e P a s s o v e r lamb when d e s c r i b -i n g t h e a t o n i n g work o f C h r i s t , and m a i n t a i n s t h a t the a s s o c i a -1 48 t i o n m i g h t have o r i g i n a t e d w i t h J e s u s . T hrough t h e words o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , t h e n , J e s u s r e f e r s t o h i s i m p e n d i n g d e a t h a s t h e t r u e P a s c h a l s a c r i f i c e , and p e r h a p s makes a c o m p a r i s o n b e -tween h i s d e a t h and t h e a t o n i n g d e a t h o f t h e s c a p e g o a t . The word " i s " i n t h e s e s a y i n g s , w h i c h w o u l d have been o n l y i m p l i e d i n A r a m a i c , must s i g n i f y "means," o r " r e p r e s e n t s . " "The d i s -c i p l e s a t t h e L a s t S u p p e r a r e n o t t o be r e g a r d e d a s e a t i n g ( s y m b o l i c a l l y ) t h e f l e s h o f C h r i s t i n p a r t a k i n g o f t h e b r e a d , and as d r i n k i n g h i s b l o o d i n t a k i n g t h e w i n e , b u t as remem-149 b e r i n g h i s s a c r i f i c i a l a c t . " The b r e a d and w i n e , i n o t h e r w o r d s , s e r v e a f u n c t i o n s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e P a s c h a l lamb: j u s t as t h e l a t t e r r e p r e s e n t e d t h e d e a t h o f t h e lambs i n E g y p t w i t h o u t any i n h e r e n t e f f i c a c y o f t h e i r own, so do t h e b r e a d 1 SO and wine r e p r e s e n t t h e a t o n i n g d e a t h o f C h r i s t . ' When, f i -47 n a l l y , J e s u s s a y s "Do t h i s i n remembrance o f me" ( a s a y i n g u i h i c h H i g g i n s r e g a r d s as a u t h e n t i c ) , he i s a s k i n g t o be r e -1 51 membered a n n u a l l y i n t h e P a s s o v e r . J . J e r e m i a s ' e x e g e s i s o f J e s u s ' e u c h a r i s t i c uiords i s s i m i l a r , t h o u g h someuihat l e s s c o n j e c t u r a l . T h i s a u t h o r , uiho a l s o h o l d s t o t h e p r i o r i t y o f M a r k , r e c o n s t r u c t s J e s u s ' w ords o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as den b i s r i and den i d m i i n A r a m a i c , o r z e h b e s a r i and z e h dami i n Hebrew. J e s u s t h u s has d e l i b e r -a t e l y c h o s e n t h e l a n g u a g e o f c u l t i c s a c r i f i c e i n u s i n g t h e p a r a l l e l p r e d i c a t e s " f l e s h " and " b l o o d . " By p a r a b o l i c a l l y c o m p a r i n g h i m s e l f t o t h e b r o k e n b r e a d and t h e r e d w i n e , J e s u s s p e a k s o f h i m s e l f as t h e s a c r i f i c i a l , e s c h a t o l o g i c a l P a s c h a l 1 52 l a m b . T h i s i s a s t a t e m e n t a b o u t t h e s a v i n g power o f h i s d e a t h : i t i s a v i c a r i o u s d e a t h u i h i c h w i l l b r i n g a b o u t t h e f i n a l d e l i v e r a n c e . F u r t h e r , J e s u s s p e a k s o f h i s d e a t h as a d e a t h ZO tkXVVVOJXCVOV VtTCp 1ToX\u>V. The word TtoWfiv i s a r e f e -r e n c e t o t h e r a b b i m o f I s a i a h 5 3 , u i h i c h i n p r e - C h r i s t i a n Jew-i s h e x e g e s i s (1 E noch 4 6 : 4 f . ; Wisdom o f Solomon 5:1-23) i s u n d e r s t o o d as t h e G e n t i l e s and t h e g o d l e s s among t h e Jews and t h e G e n t i l e s . By t h i s p h r a s e , t h e n , J e s u s c l a i m s t o be t h e S u f f e r i n g S e r v a n t o f I s a i a h , who o f f e r s h i s l i f e a s an a t o n e -1 53 ment f o r t h e s i n s o f t h e p e o p l e s o f t h e w o r l d . T h e r e a r e t h e r e f o r e t h r e e f u n d a m e n t a l m o t i f s i n J e s u s ' e u c h a r i s t i c w o r d s : P a s s o v e r , c u l t i c s a c r i f i c e , and t h e S u f f e r i n g S e r v a n t . 48 I n J e r e m i a s 1 e s t i m a t i o n , J e s u s ' words " a r e n o t o n l y 1 54 p a r a b l e and i n s t r u c t i o n . " F o r , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e Jew-i s h t h o u g h t o f t h e t i m e , t h e t a b l e f e l l o w s h i p i s c o n s t i -t u t e d by t h e r i t e o f t h e b r e a k i n g o f t h e b r e a d , and e a c h o f t h o s e who e a t t h e b r e a d t h e r e b y become r e c i p i e n t s o f t h e b l e s s i n g . When, t h e r e f o r e , J e s u s g i v e s h i s d i s c i p l e s t h e b r e a d and w i n e , "by e a t i n g and d r i n k i n g he g i v e s them 1 SS a s h a r e i n t h e a t o n i n g power o f h i s d e a t h . " J U Through t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s g i f t , t h e d i s c i p l e s become t h e redeemed community o f t h e e s c h a t o l o g i c a l e r a . Thus J e s u s ' e u c h a r i s t i c s a y i n g s and a c t i o n s have an e s c h a t o l o g i c a l s i g -n i f i c a n c e : "As r e c i p i e n t s o f J e s u s ' g i f t t h e d i s c i p l e s a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e new p e o p l e o f God" ( j e r e m i a s * itah 156 157 l i e s ) . H owever, as we have s e e n , J e r e m i a s does n o t i n t e r p r e t t h e s a y i n g "Do t h i s . . ." as a command t o r e p e a t J e s u s ' words and a c t i o n s o r as t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f a new r i t e . He b e l i e v e s , r a t h e r , t h a t t h e e a r l i e s t e u c h a r i s t i c m e a l s grew o u t o f J e s u s ' r e g u l a r t a b l e f e l l o w s h i p w i t h h i s d i s c i p l e s . These i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f H i g g i n s and J e r e m i a s , w h i l e n o t d e v o i d o f v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t s , a r e e n c u m b e r e d w i t h c e r -t a i n f o r m i d a b l e d i f f i c u l t i e s . One s u c h d i f f i c u l t y i s t h e l a c k o f r i g o u r w i t h w h i c h t h e y make use o f t h e " c r i t e r i o n o f d i s s i m i l a r i t y . " I s i t n o t p o s s i b l e , o r e v e n l i k e l y , t h a t t h e S u f f e r i n g S e r v a n t m o t i f f o u n d i n t h e words o f i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n s h o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C h r i s t o l o g i c a l c o n c e p t i o n s 49 o f e a r l y C h r i s t i a n i t y ? And c a n n o t t h e same be s a i d f o r t h e n o t i o n o f J e s u s a s t h e P a s c h a l lamb o r s c a p e g o a t ? B o t h o f t h e s e a u t h o r s ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , m o r e o v e r , p r e s u p p o s e t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e a r g u m e n t s p r o p o s e d t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t t h e L a s t S u p p e r uias a P a s s o v e r m e a l . Y e t a c r i t i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e a r g u m e n t s u i i l l e x p o s e s e r i o u s d e f i c i e n c i e s i n them. As N. C l a r k has p o i n t e d o u t , t h e a n s w e r s g i v e n by J e r e m i a s and H i g g i n s t o t h e o b j e c t i o n s t o t h e t h e s i s o f a P a s c h a l L a s t S u p p e r a r e n o t as c o n c l u s i v e as t h e y m i g h t a t f i r s t a p -p e a r . F o r e x a m p l e , J e r e m i a s ' e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e p h r a s e /LIT) CV £TJ tOptfl a s meaning " n o t i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e f e s t a l 1 59 c r o w d " i s " c o n j e c t u r a l i n t h e e x t r e m e . " H a r d l y more s u c -c e s s f u l i s t h e a t t e m p t t o e x p l a i n t h e e v a n g e l i c a l o m i s s i o n o f any r e f e r e n c e t o t h e P a s s o v e r lamb o r c e n t r a l P a s c h a l c o n c e p -t i o n s . I s i t l i k e l y t h a t t h e t r a d i t i o n w o u l d p r e s e r v e p e r i -p h e r a l i n d i c a t i o n s o f a P a s c h a l m eal and a t t h e same t i m e a l l o w t h e most i m p o r t a n t i n d i c a t i o n s t o f a l l i n t o o b l i v i o n ? Nor a r e t h e p o s i t i v e a r g u m e n t s p r o p o s e d by J e r e m i a s and H i g -g i n s much more p e r s u a s i v e . Such t h i n g s a s t h e t i m e and p l a c e o f t h e L a s t S u p p e r , t h e b r e a k i n g o f b r e a d and d r i n k i n g o f r e d win e d u r i n g t h e m e a l , and t h e s i n g i n g o f a hymn, a r e i n h a r -mony w i t h t h e P a s s o v e r r i t u a l , b u t n o t e x c l u s i v e t o i t . F u r -1 fiO t h e r m o r e , as C.W. Dugmore has shown, J e r e m i a s ' c l a i m t h a t i t was n o t c u s t o m a r y i n J e s u s * t i m e t o r e c l i n e a t o r d i n a r y m e a l s i s f a l s e . Y e t t h e s e a r g u m e n t s a r e s u s c e p t i b l e t o e v e n 50 more d a m a g i n g c r i t i c i s m : i f uie mere t o c o n c e d e t h a t t h e d e -t a i l s c i t e d p o i n t t o a P a s c h a l m e a l , uihat e v i d e n c e i s t h e r e f o r t h e a u t h e n t i c i t y o f t h e s e d e t a i l s t h e m s e l v e s ? S i n c e t h e S y n o p t i c e v a n g e l i s t s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e L a s t S u p p e r uias a P a s s o v e r m e a l , t h o s e f e a t u r e s o f t h e i r a c c o u n t s uthich a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h i s v i e w c o u l d v e r y w e l l have been added i n t h e e d i t o r i a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e e v e n t . A number o f o t h e r s c h o l a r s have a t t e m p t e d t o r e s o l v e t h e i s s u e t h r o u g h r e c o n c i l i n g t h e S y n o p t i c and J o h a n n i n e c h r o n o -l g i e s . Thus B i l l e r b e c k p r o p o s e s t h a t , due t o d i s p u t e s a b o u t t h e d a t e o f t h e new moon, t h e P h a r i s e e s r e c k o n e d P a s s o v e r a day e a r l i e r t h a n t h e o f f i c i a l d a t e d e t e r m i n e d by t h e S a d d u -c e e s . J e s u s , i n t h i s v i e w , c e l e b r a t e d t h e P h a r i s a i c P a s s o v e r , w h e r e a s t h e a c c o u n t o f t h e f o u r t h e v a n g e l i s t f o l l o w e d t h e o f -1 61 f i c i a l c h r o n o l o g y . B u t t h i s t h e o r y i s h i g h l y c o n j e c t u r a l , 1 62 and w o u l d seem t o r a i s e more d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a n i t s o l v e s . The most c e l e b r a t e d a t t e m p t t o r e c o n c i l e t h e J o h a n n i n e and s y n o p t i c c h r o n o l o g i e s i n r e c e n t t i m e s i s t o be f o u n d i n A. 1 fiT J a u b e r t ' s book, The D a te o f t h e L a s t S u p p e r . M i s s J a u b e r t b a s e s h e r t h e s i s on t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a s o l a r c a l e n d a r f o u n d i n t h e Book o f J u b i l e e s . T h i s c a l e n d a r g i v e s l i t u r g i c a l r e f e r e n c e s t o S u n d a y s , Wednesdays and F r i d a y s , and p r e s c r i b e s t h a t P a s s o v e r must a l w a y s f a l l on a W e d n e s d a y . ' 0 The a u t h o r b e l i e v e s t h a t t r a c e s o f t h i s c a l e n d a r have s u r v i v e d i n a p a t r i s t i c t r a d i t i o n 51 r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e D i d a s c a l i a , E p i p h a n i u s , and V i c t o r o f P o e t o v i o . T h i s t r a d i t i o n p l a c e s t h e L a s t S u p p e r on Tuesday n i g h t o f H o l y Week, and s e t s a s i d e S u n d a y , Wednesday and F r i -165 day f o r f a s t i n g . M i s s J a u b e r t s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s t r a d i t i o n p r e s e r v e s an a u t h e n t i c r e m i n s i c e n c e , and t h a t J e s u s and h i s f o l l o w e r s u s e d t h e J u b i l e e s c a l e n d a r . The a p p a r e n t c o n f l i c t 166 i n c h r o n o l o g y s t e m s f r o m J o h n ' s use o f t h e o f f i c i a l c a l e n d a r . D e s p i t e i t s i n g e n u i t y , t h i s t h e o r y must a l s o be r e j e c t e d a s s i m p l y i m a g i n a t i v e c o n j e c t u r e . J e r e m i a s i s p r o b a b l y r i g h t i n h i s a s s e r t i o n t h a t t h e c h r o n o l o g y i n J a u b e r t ' s p a t r i s t i c s o u r c e s i s " s e c o n d a r y , and has d e v e l o p e d o u t o f t h e f a s t i n g 1 67 p r a x i s . " P. B e n o i t o b j e c t s t h a t J a u b e r t has a d v a n c e d no v a l i d r e a s o n why J e s u s and h i s a p o s t l e s s h o u l d have u s e d t h e 168 J u b i l e e s c a l e n d a r . F i n a l l y , G. Ogg has a r g u e d t h a t t h e s u p e r i m p o s i n g o f t h e p a t r i s t i c c h r o n o l o g y on P a s s i o n Week c a n s e r v e l i t t l e p u r p o s e u n l e s s i t c a n be p r o v e d t h a t Tuesday i n 1 69 P a s s i o n Week f e l l on IMisan 1 4 t h i n t h a t c a l e n d a r . W i t h r e g a r d t o t h i s w h o l e q u e s t i o n , a number o f a u t h o r i -170 171 t i e s i n c l u d i n g F. L e e n h a r d t , V. T a y l o r , and E. K i l m a r -172 t i n , a r e o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t i t i s q u i t e i m m a t e r i a l w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e L a s t S u p p e r f e l l on t h e o f f i c i a l d a t e o f P a s s o v e r , s i n c e i n any c a s e t h e p r o x i m i t y o f t h e f e a s t w o u l d r e n d e r J e s u s ' e u c h a r i s t i c words s u s c e p t i b l e t o a P a s c h a l i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n . These a u t h o r i t i e s t h u s s e e k t o a v o i d a l t o g e t h e r t h e c o m p l e x q u e s t i o n o f c h r o n o l o g y . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , one c o u l d 52 e q u a l l y w e l l a r g u e t h a t e v e n i f t h e L a s t S u p p e r were an o f -f i c i a l P a s s o v e r , J e s u s c o u l d have g i v e n t h e meal an e n t i r e l y 1 73 neui m e a n i n g , d e v o i d o f t r a d i t i o n a l P a s c h a l c o n c e p t i o n s . Y e t i t w o u l d s u r e l y make a d i f f e r e n c e t o o u r e x e g e s i s o f J e s u s ' e u c h a r i s t i c s a y i n g s i f , f o r e x a m p l e , a P a s c h a l lamb uias p r e s e n t a t t h e S u p p e r . The p r o b l e m o f w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e S u p p e r was an o f f i c i a l P a s s o v e r c a n n o t , t h e n , be so e a s i l y a v o i d e d . . When a l l t h e e v i d e n c e i s c o n s i d e r e d , i t w o u l d seem t h a t we c a n n o t t u r n t o t h e P a s s o v e r meal t o d i s c e r n t h e m e a n i n g o f J e s u s ' s a y i n g s a t t h e L a s t S u p p e r . I t i s most p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e L a s t S u p p e r §soa P a s s o v e r goes back t o t h e t h e o l o g y o f t h e s y n o p t i c e v a n g e l i s t s and t h e C h r i s t i a n 174 g r o u p s b e h i n d them. Among t h o s e s c h o l a r s who a g r e e t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o p o s t u l a t e a P a s c h a l L a s t S u p p e r , many have a t t e m p t e d t o p r o -p o s e some a l t e r n a t i v e t y p e o f J e w i s h meal w h i c h J e s u s c o u l d h ave c e l e b r a t e d w i t h t h e a p o s t l e s s h o r t l y b e f o r e h i s d e a t h . The t y p e s o f m e a l s w h i c h have been p r o p o s e d a r e as f o l l o w s : 1) A K i d d u s h m e a l . T h i s t h e o r y was f i r s t a d v a n c e d by G. 175 176 Box, and was l a t e r t a k e n up by W. O e s t e r l y , G. MacGre-i 17 118 ^ g o r , and W. F r e r e . The word k i d d u s h means " s a n c t i f i -c a t i o n , " and i t r e f e r s t o t h e w e e k l y b l e s s i n g by u i h i c h a Jew-i s h f a m i l y u s h e r e d i n and s a n c t i f i e d t h e S a b b a t h . On F r i d a y e v e n i n g t h e b l e s s i n g was s a i d o v e r a cup o f wine by t h e head 53 o f t h e h o u s e h o l d , a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e m e a l . Those who a c c e p t t h e k i d d u s h t h e o r y b e l i e v e t h a t i n t h e c a s e o f t h e L a s t S u p p e r t h e b l e s s i n g was a d v a n c e d t w e n t y - f o u r h o u r s , and was u s e d t o s a n c t i f y t h e P a s s o v e r . lYlacGregor s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n l a t e r c o n f u s e d t h i s " P a s s o v e r k i d d u s h " w i t h t h e P a s s o v e r m e a l i t s e l f , and t h a t t h i s c o n f u s i o n r e s u l t e d i n t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n between t h e s y n o p t i c and J o h a n n i n e c h r o n o -. . 179 l o g i e s . One o f t h e a r g u m e n t s f o r t h e k i d d u s h h y p o t h e s i s , f i r s t 1 80 p u t / f o r w a r d by O e s t e r l y , i s t h a t t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n p a r a l -l e l s b etween t h e k i d d u s h r i t e and J e s u s ' f a r e w e l l d i s c o u r s e r e -p o r t e d i n J o h n . The a l l e g e d p a r a l l e l s i n c l u d e : an a l l u s i o n t o c r e a t i o n ( J n . 1 7 : 4 f . ) , t h e b l e s s i n g o v e r t h e w i n e ( j n . 1 5 : 1 , 8 , 1 6 ) , a r e f e r e n c e t o t h e n o t i o n o f e l e c t i o n ( J n . 1 3 : 1 8 ; 1 5 : 1 6 , 1 9 ) , and e x p r e s s i o n s o f j o y ( J n . 1 5 : 1 1 ; 1 6 : 2 2 ; 17:13) and f r e e -dom ( J n . 15:15) . I f t h e v i e w t h a t t h e L a s t S u p p e r was a P a s s o v e r m e a l i l a c k s p e r s u a s i v e e v i d e n c e , t h i s i s a l l t h e more t r u e f o r t h e t h e s i s t h a t t h e S u p p e r was a " k i d d u s h m e a l . " The p a r a l l e l s drawn be-tween t h e k i d d u s h r i t e and t h e f a r e w e l l d i s c o u r s e , t e n u o u s a s t h e y a r e , h a r d l y p r o v e a n y t h i n g . At t h e most t h e y m i g h t i n d i -c a t e t h a t t h e a u t h o r ( o r a u t h o r s ) o f t h e J o h a n n i n e d i s c o u r s e was i n f l u e n c e d by t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e k i d d u s h p r a y e r . I n a d -d i t i o n t o t h i s , t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e k i d d u s h b l e s s i n g 181 c o u l d t a k e p l a c e a t any t i m e o t h e r t h a n F r i d a y e v e n i n g . One 54 f i n a l o b j e c t i o n t o t h e t h e o r y i s t h a t t h e v e r y n o t i o n o f a " k i d d u s h m e a l " i s f a l s e . The k i d d u s h uias s i m p l y a S a b b a t h 1 82 b l e s s i n g , and i n no s e n s e a s p e c i a l t y p e o f m e a l . /% 183 2) A h a b u r a h m e a l . T h i s i s a s u g g e s t i o n o f L i e t z m a n n ' s , 184 185 s u b s e q u e n t l y a d o p t e d by A. W a c D o n a l d , F. C i r l o t , J . O u l -186 187 /\ t o n , and G. D i x . A h a b u r a h uias a b r o t h e r h o o d o f f r i e n d s ( h a b e r i m ) d e v o t e d t o t h e p u r s u i t o f p i e t y . L i e t z m a n n b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e s e h a b u r o t h u i o u l d have g a t h e r e d , when t h e y f e l t t h e n e e d , b u t on a f a i r l y r e g u l a r b a s i s , t o c e l e b r a t e common, s o -lemn r e l i g i o u s m e a l s . The L a s t S u p p e r was t h u s t h e f i n a l one i n a s e r i e s w h i c h J e s u s had s h a r e d w i t h h i s h a b u r a h , t h e a p o s t l e s , and t h e e a r l i e s t e u c h a r i s t s were s i m p l y a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h i s f e l l o w s h i p . T h i s t h e o r y i s u n d o u b t e d l y c o r r e c t i n s t r e s s i n g t h a t t h e L a s t S u p p e r was n o t an i s o l a t e d phenomenon, b u t p a r t o f t h e r e g u l a r t a b l e f e l l o w s h i p w h i c h J e s u s and h i s f o l l o w e r s s h a r e d . I t i s a l s o l i k e l y t h a t t h e e a r l i e s t e u c h a r i s t i c m e a l s grew o u t o f t h i s f e l l o w s h i p . At t h e same t i m e , i t i s v e r y q u e s t i o n a b l e w h e t h e r t h e r e i s any a d v a n t a g e t o i n v o k i n g t h e n o t i o n o f t h e h a b u r a h b o r t h e r h o o d t o e x p l a i n t h i s t a b l e f e l l o w s h i p . The i d e a o f a s p e c i a l meal o f r e l i g i o u s s o l e m n i t y , c e l e b r a t e d by t h e s e b r o t h e r h o o d s , i s , i n J e r e m i a s ' w o r d s , "an ad hoc c o n j e c t u r e f o r 1 R R w h i c h t h e r e i s a b s o l u t e l y no e v i d e n c e . " The o n l y i n f o r m a -t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e e x i s t e n c e and p r a c t i c e s o f t h e h a b u r o t h comes f r o m t h e B a b y l o n i a n T a l m u d , and i t s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e 55 main a i m o f t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s was s t r i c t o b s e r v a n c e o f t h e Law.'' 8^ The m e a l s i n w h i c h t h e s e h a b u r o t h p a r t i c i p a t e d were e x c l u s i v e l y d u t y m e a l s , s u c h as t h o s e h e l d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h 190 c i r c u m c i s i o n s , e n g a g e m e n t s , w e d d i n g s , and f u n e r a l s . 3) A J e w i s h m y s t e r y m e a l . G. K i l p a t r i c k has s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e J e w i s h t r a c t J o s e p h and A s e n e t h , w h i c h he d a t e s be-tween 100 and 30 B.C., t h r o w s l i g h t on t h e q u e s t i o n r j o f t h e L a s t 191 S u p p e r and e u c h a r i s t i c . o r i g i n s . He c o n t e n d s t h a t t h e c l a i m t h a t t h e L a s t S u p p e r was a P a s s o v e r r e s t s l a r g e l y oh t h e e l i -m i n a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e s ( s u c h as t h e k i d d u s h o r habu_r_ah) , and t h a t t h e r e f e r e n c e s i n t h i s t r a c t t o " t h e b r e a d o f l i f e " a n d " t h e cup o f b l e s s i n g " o r "cup o f i m m o r t a l i t y " a t t e s t t o t h e e x i s t e n c e o f m y s t e r y - t y p e m e a l s i n J u d a i s m . " T h e r e i s , " he s a y s , " e v i d e n c e f o r t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a J e w i s h r e l i g i o u s m e a l q u i t e d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e P a s s o v e r , and s u f f i c i e n t l y s i m i l a r t o t h e L a s t S u p p e r f o r t h e s e two t o have a common o r i g i n i n d e -192 p e n d e n t o f t h e P a s s o v e r . " On e x a m i n a t i o n , t h i s t h e o r y d o es n o t seem t o be any more h e l p f u l t h a n t h e o t h e r s . Even i f J o s e p h and A s e n e t h does p o i n t t o t h e e x i s t e n c e o f p r e - C h r i s t i a n J e w i s h " m y s t e r y " m e a l s ( t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e d o u b t t h a t t h e document s h o u l d be d a t e d s o e a r l y ) , t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s a r e n o t s o much w i t h t h e L a s t S u p p e r as w i t h t h e l a t e r C h r i s t i a n e u c h a r i s t . K i l p a t r i c k , m o r e o v e r , b a s e s h i s t h e o r y on an u n w a r r a n t e d p r e s u p p o s i t i o n , v i z . , t h a t i f t h e L a s t S u p p e r was n o t a P a s s o v e r meal i t must have been some o t h e r t y p e o f J e w i s h r e l i g i o u s m e a l . 56 I t d o e s a p p e a r t h a t a l l a t t e m p t s t o f i n d a s p e c i f i c J e w i s h r i t e w i t h w h i c h J e s u s ' L a s t S u p p e r c a n be i d e n t i f i e d have f a i l e d . The c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h i s f a c t i s t h a t we must t u r n t o t h e i n n e r s t r u c t u r e o f J e s u s ' m i n i s t r y i n o r d e r t o d i s c e r n t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h a t S u p p e r t o J e s u s . We b e l i e v e t h a t t h e p r o p e r c o n t e x t o f t h e L a s t S u p p e r i s n o t any c o n t e m p o r a r y J e w i s h r i t e , b u t an e s s e n t i a l c o n s t i t u -e n t o f J e s u s ' own m i n i s t r y , v i z . , a r e g u l a r t a b l e - f e l l o w s h i p . I n a r e c e n t s t u d y o f t h e t e a c h i n g o f J e s u s , IM. P e r r i n has s o u g h t t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t J e s u s ' t a b l e - f e l l o w s h i p w i t h t a x -c o l l e c t o r s and s i n n e r s was t h e c e n t r a l f e a t u r e o f h i s m i n i s -t r y . P e r r i n f i n d s i n t h e f a c t o f t h e C r o s s i t s e l f e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s t h e s i s . He a r g u e s t h a t t o make s e n s e o f t h e t r i a l and e x e c u t i o n o f J e s u s , we must p o s i t a f a c t o r i n t h e m i n i s -t r y o f J e s u s w h i c h gave g r a v e o f f e n c e t o t h e J e w i s h a u t h o r i -t i e s , and he s u g g e s t s t h a t J e s u s ' w e l c o m i n g o f o u t c a s t s i n t o a r e g u l a r t a b l e - f e l l o w s h i p , i n t h e name o f t h e Kingdom o f God, 193 c o n s t i t u t e d s u c h a f a c t o r . F u r t h e r e v i d e n c e i s f o u n d i n t h e c u l t i c m e a l s o f e a r l y C h r i s t i a n i t y , w h i c h , P e r r i n p o i n t s o u t , e x i s t e d b e f o r e t h e r e was a s p e c i f i c a l l y C h r i s t i a n t h e o -l o g y t o g i v e them m e a n i n g . The L a s t S u p p e r i t s e l f c a n n o t have been t h e o r i g i n o f t h e s e communal m e a l s , b e c a u s e t h e r e i s e v e r y i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e t h e o l o g i c a l e m p h a s i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e L a s t S u p p e r was n o t p r e s e n t i n t h e C h r i s t i a n c u l t i c m e a l s a t 194 t h e o u t s e t . The most r e a s o n a b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e s e m e a l s 57 i s t h a t t h e y a r e a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f a r e g u l a r p r a c t i c e o f t h e 195 m i n i s t r y o f J e s u s . P e r r i n b e l i e v e s t h a t we c a n f i n d i n t h e g o s p e l s a g l i m p s e o f t h i s f e l l o w s h i p . In Mt. 11:19 J e s u s i s d e s c r i b e d a s ?.a g l u t t o n and a d r u n k a r d , a f r i e n d o f t a x c o l l e c t o r s and s i n -n e r s . " T h i s p h r a s e i s a S e m i t i c p a r a l l e l i s m i m p l y i n g a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p b etween e a c h o f i t s two t e r m s : t h e f i r s t r e f e r s t o J e s u s * h a b i t o f h o l d i n g a t a b l e - f e l l o w s h i p , and t h e s e c o n d t o t h e p e o p l e w i t h whom he h e l d i t . The words " g l u t t o n , " " d r u n -k a r d , " and " f r i e n d " s u g g e s t t h a t t h e f e l l o w s h i p was h e l d i n an 196 a t m o s p h e r e o f j o y . A n o t h e r l o g i o n w h i c h s h e d s l i g h t on t h e me a n i n g o f t h e f e l l o w s h i p t o J e s u s i s Mt. 8:11: " I t e l l y o u , many w i l l come f r o m e a s t and w e s t and s i t a t t a b l e w i t h A b r a -ham, I s a a c and J a c o b i n t h e k i n g d o m o f h e a v e n . " P e r r i n c o n -t e n d s t h a t J e s u s ' t a b l e - f e l l o w s h i p i s an a p t s e t t i n g f o r t h i s s a y i n g , and t h a t i t i s an a u t h e n t i c l o g i o n o f J e s u s . T h i s s a y i n g i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t ; a l l u d i n g t o t h e f i g u r e o f t h e m e s s i -a n i c b a n q u e t , " i t t e l l s us t h a t t h e f e l l o w s h i p was an a n t i c i -1 Q7 p a t i o n o f t h a t t o be e x p e c t e d i n t h e k i n g d o m . " " The t a b l e - f e l l o w s h i p was t h u s an a c t e d p a r a b l e t h r o u g h w h i c h J e s u s r a d i c a l l y c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n t h e p a t i o t i s m p i e t y , and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . I t i s e n t i r e l y p r o b a b l e t h a t much o f J e s u s ' p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g t o h i s d i s c i p l e s , i n c l u d i n g t h e L o r d ' s P r a y e r , t o o k p l a c e i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h i s 58 f e l l o w s h i p . The v i v i d n e s s o f t h e memory o f t h e p r e -E a s t e r f e l l o w s h i p p r o v i d e d t h e p a t t e r n f o r t h e s e n s e o f f e l -l o w s h i p between t h e e a r l i e s t C h r i s t i a n s and t h e i r r i s e n 199 l o r d , and i n f a c t t h e e a r l i e s t e u c h a r i s t i c m e a l s were s i m p l y t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h i s t a b l e - f e l l o w s h i p . T h e r e i s a s e n s e , t h e n i n w h i c h we c a n s a y t h a t t h e e u -c h a r i s t was p r i o r t o t h e L a s t S u p p e r , r a t h e r t h a n v i c e v e r s a . I t i s u n n e c e s s a r y t o t u r n , as K. Kuhn h a s , ^ ^ t o t h e r i t u a l m e a l s o f t h e Qumran community i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e r e g u -l a r c u l t i c m e a l s o f e a r l y C h r i s t i a n i t y . I t was J e s u s h i m s e l f who r e g a r d e d h i s t a b l e - f e l l o w s h i p as a f o r e t a s t e o f t h e m e s s i -a n i c b a n q u e t . The L a s t S u p p e r was t h u s f o r J e s u s ( e v e n i f , i n t h i s c a s e , o n l y h i s d i s c i p l e s were p r e s e n t ) t h e l a s t i n a s e r i e s o f m e a l s w h i c h f o r h i m s i g n a l e d t h e c o m i n g o f t h e K i n g -dom o f God. The L a s t S u p p e r was n o t t h e o n l y one o f t h e s e m e a l s w h i c h a c q u i r e d a s p e c i a l p r o m i n e n c e . One o t h e r m e a l - - t h e f e e d i n g o f b r e a d and f i s h e s t o t h e m u l t i t u d e — s t a n d s o u t i n t h e e v a n g e l i -c a l t r a d i t i o n . The s e e m i n g l y " s a c r a m e n t a l " n a t u r e o f t h i s m eal has been r e c o g n i s e d by c o m m e n t a t o r s f o r some t i m e . F o r e x a m p l e , A l b e r t S c h w e i t z e r w r o t e : The f e e d i n g o f t h e m u l t i t u d e was more t h a n a l o v e -f e a s t , a f e l l o w s h i p m e a l . I t was f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f J e s u s a s a c r a m e n t o f s a l v a t i o n , . . .a v e i l e d e s c h a t o l o g i c a l s a c r a m e n t . . . . T h i s m e al must have been t r a n s f o r m e d by t r a d i t i o n i n t o a m i r a c l e , a r e s u l t w h i c h may have been i n p a r t due t o t h e r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e wonders o f t h e M e s s i a n i c f e a s t w h i c h were d o u b t l e s s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e p r a y e r s , n o t t o s p e a k o f t h e e s c h a t o l o g i c a l e n t h u s i a s m w h i c h t h e n p r e v a i l e d u n i v e r s a l l y .201 59 I n a s i m i l a r v e i n , D.E. Nineham d e s c r i b e s t h e e v e n t as ...an a n t i c i p a t i o n , more o r l e s s s a c r a m e n t a l i n c h a r a c t e r , o f t h e M e s s i a n i c B a n q u e t , d e -s i g n e d t o c o m m u n i c a t e J e s u s ' c o n v i c t i o n t h a t he uias t h e one uihom men w o u l d s o o n s e e p r e s i -d i n g o v e r t h e M e s s i a n i c B a n q u e t , and p e r h a p s a l s o t o c o n s e c r a t e t h o s e who s h a r e d t h e f o o d as p a r t a k e r s i n t h e c o m i n g m e s s i a n i c f e a s t , and t o g i v e them a g u a r a n t e e t h a t t h e y who had s h a r e d h i s t a b l e i n t h e t i m e o f h i s o b -s c u r i t y would a l s o s h a r e i t i n t h e t i m e o f h i s g l o r y . 2 0 2 W h i l e J e s u s may n o t have been s o c e r t a i n o f h i s r o l e i n t h e m e s s i a n i c d r a m a , i t does seem l i k e l y t h a t he s p o k e o f t h e meal i n t e r m s o f t h e m e s s i a n i c f e a s t . F.W. B e a r e a g r e e s " t h a t we must e n t e r t a i n t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t u n d e r n e a t h t h e m i r a c l e s t o r y t h e r e may l a y a n o n - m i r a c u l o u s a c c o u n t o f a r i t u a l m e a l , c o n c e i v e d o f as a s y m b o l and f o r e t a s t e o f t h e M e s s i a n i c B a n -q u e t . " 2 0 3 What has been s a i d o f t h e f e e d i n g o f t h e m u l t i t u d e c a n , i n l i g h t o f P e r r i n ' s c o n c l u s i o n s , be s a i d o f J e s u s ' t a b l e -f e l l o w s h i p g e n e r a l l y : i t i s a " s a c r a m e n t " o f t h e c o m i n g e s c h a -t o l o g i c a l r e d e m p t i o n . F u r t h e r e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s c a n be f o u n d i n t h e L o r d ' s P r a y e r , u i h i c h , as we have r e m a r k e d , p r o b a b l y had i t s s e t t i n g i n t h e t a b l e - f e l l o w s h i p . The f o u r t h p e t i t i o n o f TjflW ZO K&@ 7JjU£f>Gll> i n L u k e . The most p l a u s i b l e r e n d e r i n g y / o f t h e word CfTlOVVlOS , u i h i c h a p p e a r s o n l y h e r e i n G r e e k , i s " f o r t h e f u t u r e , " o r " o f t h e morrow. I I 204 I f t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n 60 i s c o r r e c t , then Jesus i s d e s c r i b i n g the bread eaten i n the t a b l e - f e l l o u i s h i p as e s c h a t o l o g i c a l bread, bread of the heavenly banquet. The meals which Jesus shares with the p u b l i c a n s , s i n -n e r s , and h i s d i s c i p l e s are a true a n t i c i p a t i o n of the f e a s t i n the Kingdom of God. We t h e r e f o r e a r r i v e at the p o i n t where we can p i c t u r e the s e t t i n g of the Last Supper: Jesus, aware that he i s about to be betrayed and executed, i s gathered f o r the l a s t time with h i s c l o s e s t d i s c i p l e s to share i n that t a b l e - f e l l o w s h i p which has been a t the very centre of h i s m i n i s t r y , and which he r e -gards as the f o r e t a s t e of the messianic banquet. But, as w® have seen, Jesus b e l i e v e d t h a t the advent of the Kingdom was somehow connected with h i s proclamation of i t . One t h i n g we can be c e r t a i n o f , says Bornkamm, i s that "Jesus c e l e b r a t e s the Supper with h i s d i s c i p l e s i n the e x p e c t a t i o n of the ap-2 D R proaching kingdom of God and of h i s p a r t i n g from them." u Faced with a desperate s i t u a t i o n , Jesus turns to a r a d i c a l so-l u t i o n : i t w i l l be through h i s death that the e s c h a t o l o g i c a l covenant w i l l be r a t i f i e d . The accounts of the Last Supper i n d i c a t e that i t f o l -lowed the r e g u l a r p a t t e r n of a formal Jewish meal: b l e s s i n g and d i s t r i b u t i o n of bread a t the beginning, f o l l o w e d by the meal i t s e l f , with a solemn b l e s s i n g over the wine at the con-2 06 e l u s i o n . S i n c e , t h e r e f o r e , the bread and cup sayings were o r i g i n a l l y separated by an e n t i r e meal, each was a s e l f -207 contained u n i t and must be i n t e r p r e t e d as such. 61 At t h i s L a s t S u p p e r , J e s u s c o m b i n e d s y m b o l i c g e s t u r e s w i t h s y m b o l i c w o r d s . The e v a n g e l i c a l t r a d i t i o n a t t e s t s t h a t p a r a -b o l i c a c t i o n s a s w e l l as p a r a b o l i c s a y i n g s and s t o r i e s were n o t uncommon i n J e s u s ' m i n i s t r y : i n a d d i t i o n t o h i s e x t e n s i o n o f h o s p i t a l i t y t o o u t c a s t s , r e f e r e n c e c a n be made t o h i s h e a l i n g s , r e j e c t i o n o f f a s t i n g (Mk. 2 : 1 9 f . , p a r . ) , and h i s s e t t i n g a c h i l d 206 i n t h e m i d s t o f h i s d i s c i p l e s . A t t i m e s J e s u s a l s o made use o f some m a t e r i a l o b j e c t as t h e p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e f o r a p a r a -b o l i c u t t e r a n c e , as when he c u r s e d t h e f i g t r e e (Mik. 1 1 : 1 3 f . ) . B e a r i n g t h i s i n m i n d , we may now e x a m i n e e a c h o f J e s u s ' t h r e e e u c h a r i s t i c s a y i n g s , i n t h e i r e a r l i e s t a t t a i n a b l e f o r m ; a s we have p r e v i o u s l y r e c o n s t r u c t e d them. 1 ) T h i s i s my bod y . S i n c e J e s u s u t t e r e d t h i s s a y i n g a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e m e a l , when t h e b r e a d was b l e s s e d and b r o -k e n , i t s m e a n i n g c a n n o t be d i s c e r n e d by c o n s i d e r i n g i t i n c o n -n e c t i o n w i t h t h e cup s a y i n g . The words aiOjitX and OLIJLiSK a r e n o t , t h e r e f o r e , c o r r e l a t i v e s t o g e t h e r r e f e r r i n g t o t h e w h o l e p e r s o n 209 o f J e s u s , n o r c o u l d t h e y be t h e component t e r m s o f t h e l a n -guage o f c u l t i c s a c r i f i c e . Most p r o b a b l y , t h e n , t h e A r a m a i c word u n d e r l y i n g t h e Greek oitijusx i s quph' a , t h e n o r m a l word f o r "body," r a t h e r t h a n b i s r ' a , " f l e s h . " I f t h e A r a m a i c t e r m had been " f l e s h , " i t w o u l d be q u i t e i n e x p l i c a b l e why t h e Greek t r a n s l a t o r s h o u l d have c h o s e n t h e word "body," w h i c h was n o t 210 n o r m a l l y c o m b i n e d w i t h " b l o o d . " 62 The uiord " t h i s " r e f e r s t o t h e b r o k e n b r e a d . I t i s u n -l i k e l y t h a t i t m i g h t r e f e r a l s o t o t h e a c t i o n o f b r e a k i n g t h e b r e a d , s i n c e t h e s a y i n g uias u t t e r e d a f t e r t h e b r e a k i n g , a t t h e 211 d i s t r i b u t i o n . The word " i s , " a b o u t u i h i c h t h e r e has been s o much c o n t r o v e r s y , mould p r o b a b l y n o t have been e x p r e s s e d i n A r a m a i c . The l o g i o n i s b e s t u n d e r s t o o d as a r s i m p l e p a r a b o l i c a n a -l o g y . J e s u s s p e a k s o f t h e b r o k e n b r e a d as h i s b o d y , t h e r e b y a n n o u n c i n g h i s P a s s i o n t o t h e d i s c i p l e s . I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t , i n d i s t r i b u t i n g t h e b r o k e n b r e a d t o h i s d i s c i p l e s , J e s u s i s a s k i n g them t o s h a r e u i i t h h i m i n h i s s u f f e r i n g s . And s i n c e J e s u s had i n t h e L o r d ' s P r a y e r s p o k e n o f t h e b r e a d s h a r e d i n t h e t a b l e - f e l l o u i s h i p as t h e b r e a d o f t h e e s c h a t o l o g i c a l b a n q u e t , t h e r e may a l s o be a h i n t i n t h i s s a y i n g o f J e s u s * b e l i e f t h a t h i s d e a t h mould b r i n g a b o u t t h e K i n g d o m . But t h e r e i s n o t h i n g i n t h e s a y i n g m h i c h demands a s a c r i f i c i a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ; s t i l l 212 213 214 l e s s i s t h e r e , as S c h w e i t z e r , S c h u e r m a n n , and B e t z b e l i e v e , a r e f e r e n c e t o t h e S u f f e r i n g S e r v a n t . I t i s t r u e t h a t t h e S u f f e r i n g S e r v a n t m o t i f may be p r e s e n t i n t h e l a t e r New T e s t a m e n t f o r m u l a t i o n s o f t h e words o f i n s t i t u t i o n , b u t t h a t m o t i f i s u n d o u b t e d l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e S e r v a n t c h r i s t o l o g y o f e a r l y C h r i s t i a n i t y . 2) T h i s cup i s t h e c o v e n a n t i n my b l o o d . T h i s s a y i n g i s p e r h a p s more d i f f i c u l t t h a n t h e p r e v i o u s o n e , s i n c e t h e c o v e n a n t theme i s n o t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f J e s u s ' p r o c l a m a t i o n . N e v e r t h e -6 3 l e s s , the e s c h a t o l o g i c a l redemption to come uias d e s c r i b e d i n terms of a neui covenant i n Jeremiah ( 3 1 : 3 1 f f . ) . The n o t i o n i s i n no may a l i e n to the t e a c h i n g of Jesus, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n vieui of the n o n - l e g a l i s t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of covenant i n J e r e -miah. The uiord "covenant" i n t h i s s a y i n g can be regarded as synonymous uiith the coming of the Kingdom of God. I t might a l s o have here the connotation,"which the uiord has i n profane Greek l i t e r a t u r e , of a l a s t w i l l or testament. The word "cup," i n a d d i t i o n to r e f e r r i n g to i t s contents (wine), i s a symbol of s u f f e r i n g (Mk. 10:38; 14:36; Jn. 18:11). The use of the word "blood" here could not have been intended to evoke the n o t i o n of c u l t i c s a c r i f i c i a l blood, s i n c e i t i s not p a r a l l e l e d with " f l e s h . " Blood, however, was i n Hebrew thought conceived of as the e s s e n t i a l substance of l i f e (Lev. 7:11,14; Deut. 12:23; c f . Ez. 35:6; Mt. 27:4), and i t n a t u r a l -l y b r i n g s to mind the idea of shedding blood, or death. Jesus, then, by p a r a b o l i c a l l y using the (probably red) wine and the symbol of the cup, t e l l s h i s d i s c i p l e s that h i s death w i l l b r i n g about the e s c h a t o l o g i c a l covenant. We must, at t h i s p o i n t , bear i n mind an important d i s t i n c -t i o n : "a s a c r i f i c e o f f e r e d at the c o n c l u s i o n of a covenant i s a very d i f f e r e n t t h i n g from a s a c r i f i c e of p r o p i t i a t i o n . I t has nothing to do with the c a n c e l l i n g of s i n s , but i s only an a c t c o n f i r m i n g the compact." ' Jesus' s a y i n g i s thus to be 64 u n d e r s t o o d i n l i g h t o f E x o d us 24:8-11, where t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e c o v e n a n t i s a c c o m p a n i e d by a b l o o d s a c r i f i c e and a h e a v e n l y m e a l : And Moses t o o k t h e b l o o d and t h r e w i t upon t h e p e o p l e , and s a i d , " B e h o l d t h e b l o o d o f t h e c o v e -n a n t w h i c h Yahweh has made w i t h you i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h a l l t h e s e w o r d s . " Then Moses and A a r o n , Na-d a b , and A b i h u , and s e v e n t y o f t h e e l d e r s o f I s -r a e l went up , and t h e y saw t h e God o f I s r a e l ; and t h e r e was u n d e r h i s f e e t as i t were a pavement o f s a p p h i r e s t o n e , l i k e t h e v e r y h e a v e n f o r c l e a r -n e s s . A n d . . . t h e y b e h e l d God, and a t e and d r a n k . V iewed i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h i s p a s s a g e , t h e cup s a y i n g a f f i r m s t h a t J e s u s ' m i s s i o n w i l l n o t be a f a i l u r e b e c a u s e o f h i s d e a t h , b u t r a t h e r t h a t h i s d e a t h w i l l be t h e c o v e n a n t s a c r i f i c e w h i c h w i l l b r i n g i n t o o p e r a t i o n t h e f i n a l e s c h a t o l o g i c a l d rama. In t h e c a s e o f t h e c u p , J e s u s ' a c t o f d i s t r i b u t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t . We s h o u l d be r e m i n d e d , t h o u g h , , t h a t i t i s v e r y u n l i k e l y t h a t J e s u s was a s k i n g h i s d i s c i p l e s t o i n some s e n s e d r i n k h i s " b l o o d . " S u c h an i d e a w o u l d have been q u i t e r e p u g n a n t t o a Jew, a n d , as K l a u s n e r s a y s , " e v e n i f i t was meant s y m b o l i c a l l y , c o u l d o n l y have a r o u s e d h o r r o r i n t h e minds o f J e s u s ' d i s c i p l e s . " 2 ' ' 0 I t was r a t h e r t h e a c t i o n o f g i v i n g t h a t had i m p o r t a n t s y m b o l i c v a l u e . Schuermann p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e g i v i n g o f a s i n g l e cup f o r a l l t h o s e p r e s e n t t o 217 p a r t a k e o f was c o n t r a r y t o t h e u s u a l c u s t o m . J e s u s ' g e s -t u r e h e l p s us u n d e r s t a n d h i s w o r d s : i t shows t h a t he " p r o f f e r e d 65 e s c h a t o l o g i c a l s a l v a t i o n as t h e f r u i t o f h i s d e a t h , and by d o i n g so a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d i t s y m b o l i c a l l y . " 2 " ^ 3 ) T r u l y , I_ s a y t o y o u , I_ s h a l l n o t d r i n k a g a i n o f t h e  f r u i t o f t h e v i n e u n t i l t h a t day when 1_ d r i n k i t i n t h e  k i n g d o m o f God. T h i s s a y i n g s h o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d as a s e q u e l t o t h e p r e v i o u s o n e . H a v i n g s t a t e d , t h r o u g h p a r a b o l i c w ordoand a c t i o n , t h a t h i s d e a t h w i l l b r i n g a b o u t t h e K i n g d o m , J e s u s t e l l s h i s d i s c i p l e s t h a t he w i l l n o t a g a i n s h a r e w i t h them i n t h e t a b l e f e l l o w s h i p u n t i l t h e t i m e o f t h e t r u e m e s s i a n i c b a n q u e t . t o you . . ." has g i v e n r i s e t o t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s a y i n g as a "vow" o f a b s t i n e n c e . J e s u s ' s t a t e m e n t , i n d e e d , b r i n g s t o mind t h e M a z i r i t e vow o f a b s t i n e n c e , and l i k e t h e l a t t e r may be an a f f i r m a t i o n o f t o t a l c o n s e c r a t i o n t o God. A vow was a l s o u s e d t o ; , i n d i c a t e an i r r e v o c a b l e d e c i s i o n , as i n A c t s 2 3 : 1 2 , when P a u l ' s J e w i s h o p p o n e n t s ftmade a vow n o t t o e a t o r d r i n k u n t i l t h e y had k i l l e d P a u l . " F i n a l l y , a vow o f a b s t i n e n c e o r f a s t i n g was u s e d t o g i v e p r a y e r a s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s ( P s . 6 1 : 5 ; 2 Sam. 1 2 : 1 6 ; (Vlt. 1 7 : 2 1 ; Mk. 9:29; L k . 2:37; A c t s 1 4 : 2 3 ; 1 3 : 219 2 f . ) . J e s u s ' vow may t h e r e f o r e be i n t e r p r e t e d as a s t a t e -ment o f h i s d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o u n d e r t a k e s u f f e r i n g and d e a t h f o r t h e s a k e o f t h e K i n g d o m , and as an e m p h a t i c r e p e t i t i o n o f h i s p l e a , "may y o u r k i n g d o m come." J e s u s w i l l n o t a g a i n p a r t a k e i n t h e t a b l e - f e l l o w s h i p , w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n h i s i m p e n d i n g d e a t h , u n t i l he p a r t a k e s i n t h e Kingdom u i h i c h t h a t d e a t h w i l l b r i n g a b o u t . The s o l e m n e m p h a t i c i n t r o d u c t i o n , " T r u l y I s a y 66 J e s u s ' t h r e e e u c h a r i s t i c s a y i n g s a r e p e r f e c t l y c o m p r e h e n -s i b l e i n t h e c o n t e x t o f h i s m i n i s t r y , a m i n i s t r y w h i c h p r o -c l a i m e d t h e c o m i n g o f t h e Kingdom o f God t h r o u g h p a r a b l e and p a r a b o l i c a c t i o n , a m i n i s t r y w h i c h J e s u s b e l i e v e d was i n s t r u -m e n t a l i n t h e f i n a l , e s c h a t o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s , and i n t h e c o n -t e x t o f t h e d e s p e r a t e s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e y were u t t e r e d . G i v e n t h e i n e v i t a b l e emotion and dramaKwhich muist have accom-p a n i e d J e s u s ' l a s t m e e t i n g w i t h h i s d i s c i p l e s i n t h a t f e l l o w -s h i p w h i c h had been a t t h e v e r y c o r e o f h i s a c t i v i t y , a n d w h i c h he had c o n s i d e r e d as an a n t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e K i n g d o m , t h e y b e -come e v e n e a s i e r t o u n d e r s t a n d . T here was n o t h i n g J e s u s s a i d o r d i d a t t h i s L a s t S u p p e r w h i c h c o u l d be c o n s t r u e d as a r e q u e s t t o r e p e a t h i s a c t i o n s . J e s u s ' s a y i n g s and a c t i o n s were a r e s p o n s e t o a s p e c i f i c c o n -c r e t e s i t u a t i o n , and t h o u g h t h e y were p r e s e r v e d by t h e t r a d i -t i o n and l a t e r became c e n t r a l i n t h e c h u r c h ' s w o r s h i p , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o i m a g i n e any r e a s o n why he s h o u l d want them r e -p e a t e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e t a b l e - f e l l o w s h i p d i d n o t end w i t h J e s u s ' d e a t h . To t h e s u b s e q u e n t h i s t o r y o f t h a t f e l l o w s h i p , and t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e C h r i s t i a n c u l t , we now t u r n . 47 NOTES TO CHAPTER I 1. Reported i n Rosemary Ruether, The Church Against  I t s e l f (London: Sheed and Ward, 1967), p. 51. 2. The term " e u c h a r i s t , " as w i l l be seen i n the second chapter, i s somewhat problematic f o r the New Testament p e r i o d . I t w i l l be used i n t h i s t h e s i s to d e s c r i b e a sacred meal, or p a r t of a sacred meal, where one or more elements are i s o l a t e d and charged with symbolic s i g n i f i c a n c e . I t i s to be d i s t i n -guished from "agape," which r e f e r s to an a c t u a l d i n n e r . The ex p r e s s i o n "Lord's Supper" i s avoided as a generic term, s i n c e i t i s not at a l l c l e a r that f o r Paul the Lord's Supper was synonymous with what we have d e f i n e d as the e u c h a r i s t . 3. Louis Bouyer, R i t e and Man (London: Burns and Oates, 1963) , p. 64. 4. Eugene Masure, The C h r i s t i a n S a c r i f i c e (New York: P . J . Kennedy, 1943), pp. 1 9 1 f f . , e s p e c i a l l y p. 195; The S a c r i -f i c e of the M y s t i c a l Body (London: Burns and Oates, 1954j^ p. 135f. 5. The O r i g i n of the Lord's Supper (London: 1893). 6. Die Enstehunq der Speisesakramente ( H e i l d e l b e r g : 1912). 7. Les mysteres pa'iens et l e mystere C h r e t i e n ( P a r i s : 1911). See J . Coppens, " E u c h a r i s t i e , " DBS, II (1928), c o l s . 1163f. 8 » Taufe und Abendmahl b e i Paulus (G o e t t i n g e n : 1903). See Stephen N e i l l , The I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the New Testament 1861-1961 (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966) p. 159f. 9. Rudolf Bultmann, H i s t o r y of the Synoptic T r a d i t i o n (Oxford: B a s i l B l a c k w e l l , 1963) , p. 265f.; Theology of the  New Testament, I (New York: S c r i b n e r ' s , 1951) , p . 146f. 10. G.H.C. MacGregor, E u c h a r i s t i c O r i g i n s (London: James C l a r k , 1928), pp. 27-29. As we s h a l l see below i n chap-t e r two, the n o t i o n of e a t i n g with C h r i s t d i d indeed e x i s t i n p r i m i t i v e C h r i s t i a n i t y , but i t was not a s s o c i a t e d with the Last Supper t r a d i t i o n . 11. I b i d . , p. 32 . 68 12 . Smyrn. 6:2. 13. A.B. MacDonald, C h r i s t i a n Worship i n t h e P r i m i t i v e  C h u rch ( E d i n b u r g h : T. and T. C l a r k , 1 9 3 4 ) , p . 63. 14. C. von W e i z s a e c k e r , The A p o s t o l i c Age o f the C h r i s -t i a n C h u r c h , I I ( L o n d o n : W i l l i a m s and N o r g a t e , T899), pp. 2 5 4 f f . j H. L i e t z m a n n , A H i s t o r y o f t h e E a r l y C h u r c h , I ( C l e v e l a n d : M e r i d i a n Books, 1961) , PP. 1 4 7 f f . 15. O s c a r C u l l m a n n , E a r l y C h r i s t i a n Worship ( L o n d o n : SCM, 1 9 5 3 ) , p . 29. G. D e H i n g i s r e p l y t o C u l l m a n n , i n Worship i n the  New T e s t a m e n t ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : W e s t m i n s t e r P r e s s , 1962) , p . 147, t h a t A c t s 2 0 : 7 f f . r e f e r s o n l y t o Sunday w o r s h i p , and t h a t t h e r e was p r o b a b l y s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e two s e r v i c e s on o t h e r d a y s , i s n o t f o u n d e d on any s u b s t a n t i a l e v i d e n c e . 16. L o c . c i t . 17. A p o l . 1:67. 18. Apoc. 1:10; I g n a t i u s , Maqn. 9:1; D i d . 14:1; Ep_. B a r n . 15:8. 19. L. D u c h e s n e , C h r i s t i a n W o r s h i p : I t s O r i g i n and E v o l u -t i o n ( L o n d o n : S.P.C.K., 1920) , p . 47. 20. E . S c h i l l e b e e c k x , " S e c u l a r Worship and Church L i t u r g y , " i n God t h e F u t u r e o f Man (New Y o r k : Sheed and Ward, 1 9 6 8 ) , p. 101 . 2 1 . C i t e d , i b i d . , p. 100. 22. L o c . c i t . 23. See A p p e n d i x I I , t e x t s A, B, C, and D. 24. 0p_. c i t . , p . 50. 25. 0p_. c i t . , p . 145. 26. C f . J . B e t z , D i e E u c h a r i s t i e i n d e r Z e i t d e r q r i e c h i -s c h e n l / a e t e r , I ( F r e i b u r g : H e r d e r , 19557, PP • 4-11; A.J.B. H i g g i n s , The L o r d ' s Supper i n t h e New Testament ( L o n d o n : SCM, 1 9 5 2 ) , p . 17. 27. B e t z , l o c . c i t . On t h e n o t i o n o f a n a m n e s i s , s e e below, pp. 122, 1 2 8 f . , 1 4 8 f . , and 210-214. 69 28. E. Schweizer, "Abendmahl im Neuen Testament," RGG, I (1957), c o l . 13. 29. a, d, f f , i, and 1_. Tuio other OL mss. (b and e) have the s h o r t e r t e x t i n the f o l l o w i n g arrangement: v s s . 15, 16, 19a, 17, 18 ( i . e . , the bread-cup order i s r e s t o r e d ) . 30. F.W. Beare, The E a r l i e s t Records of Jesus (Oxford: B a s i l B l a c k w e l l , 1964), p. 226. 31. The O r i g i n s of the New Testament (E.T., New York: U n i v e r s i t y Books, 1962J, p. 165. 32. Mass and Lord's Supper (E.T., Leiden: B r i l l , 1 9 5 3 — ) , pp. 175f. 33. 0p_. c i _ t . , p. 142. 34. The M i s s i o n and Achievement of Jesus (London: SCM, 1956), p. 67f. 35. An I n t r o d u c t i o n to New Testament Thought ( N a s h v i l l e : Abingdon Cokesbury, 1950), p. 285. 36. Loc. c i t . 37. See MacGregor, op_. c i t . , p. 54. 38. H i s t o r y of the Synoptic T r a d i t i o n , p. 266. 39. "The 'Shorter Text' of S t . Luke XXII 15-20," JTS 38 (1927), p. 367f. 40. 0p_. c i t . , p. 54. 41. H. Schuermann, "Lk. 22:19b-20 a l s u r s p r u e n g l i c h e Textue-b e r l i e f e r u n g , " B i b l i c a 32 (1951), pp. 3 6 4 f f . 42. E. Schweizer, The Lord's Supper a c c o r d i n g to the New  Testament ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : F o r t r e s s P r e s s , 1967), p. 19. 43. "Luke XXII 19b-20," JTS 47 (1946), pp. 49-56. 44. The E u c h a r i s t i c Words of Jesus ( t h i r d e d i t i o n ; London: SCM, 196677~p. 158f. 45. H i g g i n s , op_. c i t . , p. 39. 46. I b i d . , p. 40. 47. 0p_. c i t . , p. 54. 70 48. P. Fein e , J . Behm, Ul. Kuemmel, I n t r o d u c t i o n to the New Testament ( N a s h v i l l e : Abingdon, 1966) , p . 205. 49. The B i r t h of the C h r i s t i a n R e l i g i o n (E.T., New York: U n i v e r s i t y Books, 1962) , p. 244f. 50. 0p_. c i t . , p. 144. 51. So Lietzmann, Mass and L o r d 1 s Supper, p. 208. 52. Mass and Lord's Supper, p. 175f.; C h r i s t i a n Worship i n the P r i m i t i v e Church, p. 142. 53. 0p_. c i t . , p. 182. 54. 0p_. c i t . , p. 25. 55. " ' K y r i o s ' as D e s i g n a t i o n f o r the Oral T r a d i t i o n c oncerning Jesus ( P a r a d o s i s and K y r i o s ) , " SJT 3 (1050), pp. 180-197. 56. I b i d . , p. 189. Cf. E. K i l m a r t i n , The E u c h a r i s t i n the  P r i m i t i v e Church (Englewood C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1965), p. 31. 57. "Vom u r c h r i s t l i c k e n Abendmahl," Theoloqische Rundschau 9 (1937), p. I83 f . 58. H. Schuermann, Q u e l l e n k r i t i s c h e Untersuchunq des l u k a n i -schen Abendmahlsberichtes Lk. x x i i . 7-38, II (Meunster: Aschen-d o r f f s c h e Uerlagsbuchhandlung, 1953), pp. 7-14. 59. J . Behm, " KMCO ,» TWNT, I I I (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1965) , p. 731 . 60. G. Dix, The Shape of the L i t u r g y , (Westminster: Dacre P r e s s , 1945), p. 65. 61. F . J . Leenhardt, Le Sacrement de l a Sain t e Cene (Neu-c h a t e l : Delachaux et NestTe% 1948) , pp. 5 l f f . 62. I b i d . , p. 53; Behm, l o c . c i t . 63. G. Dalman, Jesus-Jeshua (E.T., London: SfcP.C.K., 1929), pp. 160ff.; H i g g i n s , op_. c i t . , p. 32f.; Schweizer, a r t . c i t . , c o l . 13. Jeremias at f i r s t agreed (op_. c i t . , second e d i t i o n , 1955, p. 134), but i n the most recent e d i t i o n of The E u c h a r i s t i c  Words of Jesus (1966) he has changed h i s p o s i t i o n on the grounds t h a t the " p r e s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t the sequence of words i n Greek must have been a l s o t h a t of the S e m i t i c o r i g i n a l " i s unfounded (p. 194). He suggests that the Aramaic was adam keyami, "my covenant blood" (So J . Guenther, "Das Becherwort Jesu ,*' Theo-71 l o g i e und G l a u b e A5/1 f1955J , pp. 4 7 - 4 9 ) . T h e r e i s no ex-p lanat ion , h o w e v e r , o f how o r why t h e t r a n s p o s i t i o n o c c u r r e d i n G r e e k . J.A. E m e r t o n , "The A r a m a i c u n d e r l y i n g Z& CITM^C JXOV, ZTtf 6ldGr)i<m i n Mk. x i v . 24," JTS n . s . 6 ( 1 9 5 5 ) , pp. 2 3 8 -2 4 0 , c i t e s t r i e u s e o f t h e p r o n o m i n a l s u f f i x f o l l o w e d by t h e g e n i t i v e i n t h e S y r i a c v e r s i o n o f t h e P s s . B u t , as J e r e m i a s p o i n t s o u t (op_. c i t . , p. 193) t h e S y r i a c t r a n s l a t o r s o f t h e NT d i d n o t a v a i l t h e m s e l v e s o f t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n . On t h e b a l a n c e , t h e w e i g h t o f e v i d e n c e i s i n f a v o u r o f t h o s e who c o n s i d e r t h e t r a n s l a t i o n i m p o s s i b l e . 6 4 . H i g g i n s , p. 3 3 . 6 5 . D a l m a n , op_. c i t . , p. I 4 4 f . ; H i g g i n s , p. 2 9 ; S c h w e i z e r , a r t . c i t . , c o l . 1 3 . 6 6 . UI.D. D a v i e s , P a u l and R a b b i n i c J u d a i s m ( L o n d o n : S.P.C.K., 1 9 5 5 ) , p. 2 4 9 . 6 7 . J e r e m i a s , op_. c i t . , p. 1 5 4 . 6 8 . S c h u e r m a n n , op_. c i t . , I I , pp. 3 5 f f . 6 9 . M a c G r e g o r , op_. c i t . , p. 58; J e r e m i a s , op_. c i t . , p. 1 7 2 . ^70. 0p_. c i t . , 1/1, pp. 1 5 - 2 6 ; I l / 1 , p. 1 8 . B e t z r e a d s bnep 7TO7<\LO\? i n 1 9 b , on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t i t i s more S e m i t i c t h a n t>n<£p 71 . 0p_. c i t . , I I , p. 1 3 1 f . 7 2 . 0p_. c i t . , I I / 1 , p. 1 7 . 7 3 . I b i d . , pp. 3 6 , 1 3 1 f f . 7 4 » PJ2* £ll»» PP» 1 6 4 - 1 8 4 . 7 5 . 0p_. c i t . , pp. 2 8 - 3 4 . 7 6 . V. T a y l o r , The G o s p e l A c c o r d i n g t o Mark ( L o n d o n : Mac-m i l l a n , 1 9 6 6 ) , pp. 5 4 3 - 5 4 7 . 7 7 . 0£. c i t . , pp. 1 7 8 f f . 7 8 . 0p_. c i t . , p. 6 7 . 7 9 . E. G a u g l e r , Das Abendmahl im Neuen T e s t a m e n t ( B a s l e : M a j e r , 1 9 4 3 ) , p. 1 7 . 72 80. N. C l a r k , An Approach to the Theology of the S a c r a -ments (London: SCM, 1956), p. 37f. 81. IM. Hook, The E u c h a r i s t i n the Neui Testament (London: The Epuiorth P r e s s , 1964) , p. 51. 82. Qp_. c i t . , p. 32. 83. A r t . c i t . , c o l . 13. 84. P. B e n o i t , "Le r e c i t de l a C^ne dans Lc. XXII, 15-20," RB 48 (1939) , p. 386. 85. Jeremias b e l i e v e s that t h i s s a y i n g , while not p a r t of the e a r l i e s t form of the Lord's Supper n a r r a t i v e (which f o r him i s to be found i n Mk.), i s "an e a r l y , s p e c i a l t r a d i t i o n which found a place only i n the Antiochene branch of the t r a d i t i o n " (op. c i t . , p. 238). His i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the s a y i n g as mean-ing "Do t h i s t h a t God may remember me" (op_. c i t . , pp. 2 4 4 f f . ) has not r e c e i v e d s c h o l a r l y consensus ( c f . K i l m a r t i n , op_. c i t . , p. 69). 86. Dix (op_. c i t . , p. 67f.) contends that i n s a y i n g "Do t h i s . . . " Jesus was not r e f e r r i n g to the breaking of the bread and the d r i n k i n g of the wine, because Jesus' d i s c i p l e s would continue to do t h i s anyway as p a r t of t h e i r haburah f e l l o w -s h i p . What Jesus was a s k i n g , i n D i x 1 o p i n i o n , was f o r h i s d i s c i p l e s to remember him i n t h e i r f u t u r e f e l l o w s h i p meals. 87. Beare, op_. c i t . , p. 225. 88. 0p_. c i t . , p. 175f. 89. 0p_. c i t . , p. 142.. 90. A r t . c i t . , p. 380. 91. M. D i b e l i u s , From T r a d i t i o n to Gospel (London: Ivor Nicholson and Watson, 1934), p. 210. 92. 0p_. c i t . , p. 61 . 93. 0p_. c i t . , pp. 160-164. 94. 0p_. c i t . , p. 42. 95. 0p_ c i t . , p. 40. 96. 0£ c i t . , I, passim. 97. 0p_. c i t . , I, pp. 42-45. 73 9 8 . J e r e m i a s , op_. c i t . , p p . 9 6 - 1 0 0 . 9 9 . The O r i g i n s o f t h e New T e s t a m e n t , p . 1 0 1 . 1 0 0 . 0p_. c i t . , p p . 6 5 f f . 1 0 1 . I n r e p l y t o M a c G r e g o r • s a r g u m e n t s , uie have a l r e a d y shown t h a t t h e s h o r t e r t e x t o f Luke i s s e c o n d a r y , and t h a t o r i g i n a l l y t h e p a r a l l e l p r e d i c a t e s were n o t body and b l o o d , b u t body and c o v e n a n t . See a b o v e , p p . p p . 1 8 f f . and 2 8 . 1 0 2 . A r t . c i t . , c o l s . 1 4 - 1 6 . 1 0 3 . See a b o v e , p . 2 0 . 10 4 . J e r e m i a s , op_. e x t . , p. 1 8 4 . 1 0 5 . The q u e s t i o n o f houi many c u p s were u s e d a t t h e L a s t S u p p e r i s o f c o u r s e c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e L a s t S u p p e r was P a s s o v e r . I t w i l l be shown b e l o w t h a t t h e r e i s no d e c i s i v e e v i d e n c e t h a t t h i s was t h e c a s e . 1 0 6 . G. Bornkamm, J e s u s o f N a z a r e t h (New Y o r k : H a r p e r and Row, 1 9 6 6 ) , p. 161 . 1 0 7 . N. P e r r i n , R e d i s c o v e r i n g t h e T e a c h i n g o f J e s u s (New Y o r k : H a r p e r and Row, 1967) , p. 8 2 . I t a l i c s m i n e . 1 0 8 . I b i d . , p . 4 5 . 1 0 9 . T.W. Manson, The T e a c h i n g o f J e s u s ( C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r -s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 5 ) , p. 1 0 f . 1 1 0 . 0p_. c i t . , p. 4 6 . 1 1 1 . H i s t o r y o f t h e S y n o p t i c T r a d i t i o n , p. 2 0 5 . 1 1 2 . 0p_. c i _ t . , p . 2 0 2 . 1 1 3 . E . g . , J e r e m i a s , op_. c i t . , p p . 5 9 f . , 2 2 2 f . ; H i g g i n s , o p . c i t . , p . 6 5 . M a c G r e g o r a r g u e s on t h e c o n t r a r y (p_p_. c i t . , p . 157) t h a t when P a u l s e e k s an O l d T e s t a m e n t t y p e t o t h e e u -c h a r i s t , he f i n d s i t n o t i n t h e P a s s o v e r b u t i n t h e d i s t r i b u -t i o n o f manna i n t h e d e s e r t , ( 1 Co. 1 0 : 3 ) . 1 1 4 . M a c G r e g o r , op_. c i t . , p. 3 9 . 1 1 5 . G.H. B o x , "The J e w i s h A n t e c e d e n t s o f t h e E u c h a r i s t , " JTS 3 ( 1 9 0 3 ) , p. 3 5 9 ; M a c G r e g o r , op_. c i t . , p. 4 1 . 1 1 6 . E. S c h w e i z e r , op_. c i t . , p . 3 0 f . 74 117. Bornkamm, op_. c i t . , p . 161. 118. D i b e l i u s , op_. c i t . , p . 191; Theo P r e i s s , L i f e i n  C h r i s t ( L o n d o n : SCM, 1 9 5 4 ) , p . 82. 119. J e r e m i a s , op_. c i t . , pp. 6 3 f f . ; H i g g i n s , op_. c i t . , p.17. 120. J e r e m i a s , p . 6 9 f . ; H i g g i n s , l o c . c i t . 121. 0p_. c i t . , p . 46. 122. I b i d . , p. 4 7 . 123. J e r e m i a s , p . 6 6 f . ; H i g g i n s , p . 19. 124. J e r e m i a s , p . 7 1 f . ; H i g g i n s , p . 18. 125. H i g g i n s , p . 18; J e r e m i a s , p . 75; so Dalman, op_. c i t . , pp. 93-95. 126. Tos. Sanh. 11 :7 ( 4 3 2 : 1 ) , R. A k i b a . J e r e m i a s , p p - 7 8 f . ; H i g g i n s , l o c . c i t . 127. Shab. 6:4. J e r e m i a s , p . 7 5 f . ; H i g g i n s , l o c . c i t . ; Dalman, p . 9 6 f . 128. Shab. 151; Tos. Shab. 17:13. J e r e m i a s , p . 77; H i g g i n s , p . 19. 129. Kommentar zum IMeuen T e s t a m e n t I I ( M u n i c h : Oskar Beck, 1924) , pp. 847-853. 130. Das Abendmahl im IMeuen Testament ( B a s l e : M a j e r , 1943) . 131. J e s u s o f N a z a r e t h ( t r a n s . H. Danby, New Y o r k : M a c M i l l a n , 1925) , p . 328. 132. The E u c h a r i s t i c M e m o r i a l , II ( L o n d o n : L u t t e r w o r t h P r e s s , 196TT7 p . 5 1 f . 133. The M y s t e r y o f F a i t h (New Y ork: Sheed and Ward, 1 9 4 0 ) , p . 7 8 f . 134. The Date o f t h e L a s t Supper ( S t a t e n I s l a n d : A l b a House, 1 9 6 5 ) . 135. 0p_. c i t . , p . 30. 136. J e r e m i a s , p . 4 2 f . 137. I b i d . , pp, . 4 4 f f .; H i g g i n s , p . 20. 75 138. Jeremias, p. 48f.; H i g g i n s , l o c . c i t . 139. Jeremias, pp. 5 0 f f . ; H i g g i n s , p. 21. 140. Jeremias, p. 49f. 141. I b i d . , p. 54f.; H i g g i n s , l o c . c i t . 142. Jeremias, p. 55; H i g g i n s , l o c . c i t . 143. Jeremias, pp. 5 5 f f . ; H i g g i n s , l o c . c i t . 144. 0p_. c i t . , p. 47f. Higgins c i t e s R. Joshua ben Hananiah's exegesis of Ex. 12:42 ( c . A.D. 90; M e k h i l t a Ex. 12: 42) i n which the d e l i v e r a n c e from Egypt was i n t e r p r e t e d as the p r e f i g u r a t i o n of an even g r e a t e r redemption to come. 145. Ibid;., p. 50. 146. Biggins, p_p_. c i t . , pp. 28-34. 147. I b i d . , p. 52. 148. I b i d . , p. 50f. 149. I b i d . , p. 52. 150. I b i d . , p. 53. 151. I b i d . , p. 55. 152. 0p_. c i t . , pp. 2 2 1 f f . 153. I b i d . , pp. 2 2 6 f f . 154. I b i d . , p. 231. 155. I b i d . , p. 233. 156. I b i d . , p. 237. 157. I b i d . , pp. 238, 2 4 4 f f . See above, n. 85. 158. I b i d . , p. 66. 159. 0p_. c i t . , p. 42. 160. "The Study of the O r i g i n s of the E u c h a r i s t , " i n G.D. Cuming, ed., Studi e s i n Church H i s t o r y , II (London: Nelson, 1965), p. 6 f . 7 6 161. S t r a c k - B i l l e r b e c k , op_. c i t . , I I , pp. 846-8. 162. Dugmore, a r t , c i t . , p . 5. 163. The Date o f the L a s t S u p p e r , t r a n s . I . R a f f e r t y ( S t a t e n I s l a n d : A l b a House, 1965) . 164. I b i d . , pp. 15-66. 165. I b i d . , p p . 69-91. 166. I b i d . , p p. 95-121 . 167. JTS 10 ( 1 9 5 9 ) , pp. 131-133. 168. RB 64 ( 1 9 5 8 ) , pp. 590-594. 169. NovT 3 ( 1 9 5 9 ) , pp. 149-160. 170. 0p_. c i t M pp. 3 1 f f . 171 . J e s u s and H i s S a c r i f i c e ( L o n d o n : M a c M i l l a n and Co., 19 5 5 ) , pp. 180-183. 172. 0p_. c i t . , p . 44. 173. E . S c h w e i z e r , The L o r d 1 s Supper a c c o r d i n g to the New T e s t a m e n t , p . 3 1 f . ; L. B o u y e r , E u c h a r i s t ( t r a n s . C.U. Q u i n n , N o t r e Dame: U n i v e r s i t y o f N o t r e Dame P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 ) , p . 9 9 . 174. Bornkamm, op_. c i t . , p . 162. 175. A r t . c i t . . pp. 357-369. 176. UI.0.E. O e s t e r l y , The J e w i s h B a c k g r o u n d o f t h e C h r i s -t i a n L i t u r g y ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 2 5 ) , pp. 1 6 7 f f . 177. 0p_. c i t . , pp. 4 4 f f . ; p . 2 2 0 f . 178. The Anaphora ( L o n d o n : S.P.C.K., 1 9 3 8 ) , p . 7 f . 179. 0p_. c _ i t . , p . 47. 180. 0p_. c i t . , pp. I 8 4 f f . 181. N. C l a r k , OJD. c i t . , p . 44; H i g g i n s , op_. c i t . , p . 15; J e r e m i i s , op_. c i t . , p . 2 9 . 182. J e r e m i a s , OJD. c i t . , p . 2 7 f . 77 183. Op_. c i t . , p . 181 . 184. Op_. c i t . , p . I 3 5 f . 185. The E a r l y E u c h a r i s t ( L o n d o n : S.P.C.K., 1 9 3 9 ) , pp. I 5 f . , 44, 156. 186. H o l y Communion and H o l y S p i r i t ( L o n d o n : S.P.C.K., 1951) , pp. 9 f f . 187. 0p_. c i t . , pp. 5 0 f f . 188. 0p_. c i t . , p . 30. 189. N. C l a r k , op. c i t . , p . 47; Dugmore, a r t . c i t . , p . 9. 190. J e r e m i a s , p . 30; H i g g i n s , p . 1 5 f . 191. "The L a s t S u p p e r , " ET 64 ( 1 9 5 2 - 1 9 5 3 ) , pp. 4-8. How-e v e r , C.F.D. Moule, Worship i n t h e (Mew T e s t a m e n t ( L o n d o n : L u t -t e r w o r t h , 1 9 6 1 ) , p . 23, s t a t e s "one would need e x t r e m e l y c o n -v i n c i n g e v i d e n c e t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t t h e s t o r y has n o t been worked o v e r by some C h r i s t i a n hand, o r composed by someone a t l e a s t a c q u a i n t e d w i t h C h r i s t i a n i t y . " 192. A r t . cit., p. 7. 193. 0p_. c i t . , p . 1 0 2 f . 194. I b i d . , p . 104. 195. I b i d . , p . 1 0 4 f . 196. I b i d . , p . 1 0 5 f . 197. I b i d . , p . 106. 198. I b i d . , p . 108. 199. I b i d . , p . 107. 200. "The L o r d ' s Supper and t h e Communal Meal a t Qumran," i n K. S t e n d a h l , e d . , The S c r o l l s and t h e New T e s t a m e n t (New Yo r k : H a r p e r , 1 9 5 7 ) , pp. 65-93. 201. The Quest o f t h e H i s t o r i c a l J e s u s (New Y o r k : mac-millan , 19647, pp. 377, 3 7 9 f . 78 202. Mark ( P e l i c a n G o s p e l C ommentaries, 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 178. 2 0 3 . 0p_. c i t . , p. 127. 204. R.E. Brown, "The P a t e r N o s t e r as an E s c h a t o l o g i c a l P r a y e r , " i n New T e stament E s s a y s (New Y ork: D o u b l e d a y , 1 9 6 8 ) , pp. 3 0 3 f f . ; c f . A. S c w e i t z e r , The M y s t i c i s m o f P a u l t h e A p o s t l e (New Y o r k : S e a b u r y , 1 9 6 8 ) , p. 240. 205. 0p_. c i t . , p. 160. 206. K i l m a r t i n , op_. c i t . , p. 37. 207. S c h w e i z e r , a r t , c i t . , c o l . 14. 208. J . J e r e m i a s , The P a r a b l e s o f J e s u s ( L o n d o n : SCM, 1963), p. 2 2 7 f . 2 0 9 . N. Hook, gp_. c i t . , p. 64. T h i s i s t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f J . B o n s i r v e n , T h e o l o g y o f t h e New T e s t a m e n t ( L o n d o n : Burns and O a t e s , 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 81. 2 1 0 . S c h w e i z e r , op_. c i t . , p. 14. 211. H i g g i n s , op_. c i t . , p. 51. 212. A. S c h w e i t z e r , The Kingdom o f God and P r i m i t i v e  C h r i s t i a n i t y ( L o n d o n : Adam, C h a r l e s , and B l a c k , 1 9 6 8 ) , pp. 1 2 2 f f . 213. 0p_. c i t . , II, pp. 9 5 f f . 214. 0p_. c i t . , pp. 1 3 1 f f . 215. A. S c h w e i t z e r , The Kingdom o f God and P r i m i t i v e  C h r i s t i a n i t y , p. 127. 216. 0p_. c i t . , p. 329. 217. H. Schuermann, " J e s u s ' Words i n t h e L i g h t o f h i s A c t i o n s a t t h e L a s t S u p p e r , " C o n c i l i u m 40 ( 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 125; and "Das W e i t e r l e b e n d e r Sache J e s u im n a c h o e s t e r l i c h e n H e r r e n -mahl," BZ 16:1 ( 1 9 7 2 ) , p. 6. 218. H. Schuermann, a r t . c i t . ( C o n c i l i u m 4 0 ) , p. 130; c f . E . K i l m a r t i n , "The L a s t Supper and E a r l i e s t E u c h a r i s t s o f the C h u r c h , " C o n c i l i u m 40 ( 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 4 1 . Norman A. Beck, "The L a s t Supper as an e f f i c a c i o u s s y m b o l i c a c t , " JBL 89:2 ( 1 9 7 0 ) , pp. 192-198, s p e a k s i n s i m i l a r terms a b o u t J e s u s * s a y i n g o v e r the b r e a d . He r e j e c t s , however, the a u t h e n t i c i t y o f the cup s a y i n g , on a c c o u n t o f the d i f f i c u l t y o f e n v i s a g i n g G a l i l e a n 7 9 Jews d r i n k i n g wine t h a t had been l a b e l e d as b l o o d , the r e f e -r e n c e s t o " b r e a k i n g o f b r e a d " i n A c t s , " t h e d i s t i n c t i v e l y t h e o l o g i c a l n a t u r e o f t h e cup f o r m u l a compared t o t h e s i m p l i -c i t y o f t h e words o v e r t h e b r e a d , " and f i n a l l y on a c c o u n t o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e l o n g e r t e x t o f Luke ( p . 1 9 6 ) . Our a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e s e o b j e c t i o n s w i l l be o b v i o u s from what has p r e c e d e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . 219. IV!. T h u r i a n , op_. c i t . , p . 68. $0 CHAPTER I I P R I M I T I V E EUCHARISTIC TYPES AND THEIR ASSIMILATION INTO THE SACRIFICIAL-SACRAMENTAL TYPE The r e a r e i n t h e Neui T e s t a m e n t o n l y tuio d o c u m e n t s i n u i h i c h uie f i n d an e x p l i c i t d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e C h r i s t i a n c u l t i c m e a l , t h e A c t s o f t h e A p o s t l e s and P a u l ' s f i r s t l e t t e r t o t h e C o r i n t h i a n s . We have i n a d d i t i o n numerous t e x t s u i h i c h may c o n t a i n a l l u s i o n s t o t h e e u c h a r i s t i c p r a c t i c e and f a i t h o f e a r l y C h r i s t i a n i t y . Such t e x t s i n c l u d e t h e L a s t S u p p e r n a r -r a t i v e s , t h e F e e d i n g o f t h e M u l t i t u d e n a r r a t i v e s , t h e R e s u r -r e c t i o n - m e a l s t o r i e s i n Luke 24 and J o h n 2 1 , and t h e d e s c r i p -t i o n o f t h e H e a v e n l y L i t u r g y i n t h e A p o c a l y p s e . Our t a s k a t t h i s p o i n t i s t o c o n s t r u c t f r o m t h i s v a r i e t y o f s o u r c e s some s o r t o f c o h e r e n t p i c t u r e o f t h e C h r i s t i a n t a b l e f e l l o w s h i p i n i t s e a r l i e s t s t a g e s . We s h a l l t h e n be p r e p a r e d t o d i s c u s s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b etween t h i s e a r l y f e l l o w s h i p and t h a t t y p e o f c e l e b r a t i o n u i h i c h one n o r m a l l y a s s o c i a t e s w i t h t h e word " e u -c h a r i s t . " The l a t t e r , s t a n d a r d f r o m a t l e a s t t h e end o f t h e s e c o n d c e n t u r y o n , c o n s i s t s o f a s a c r a m e n t a l l i t u r g y w h i c h i s r e g a r d e d as b e i n g i n some s e n s e a s a c r i f i c e , and i n w h i c h t h e e l e m e n t s o f b r e a d and w i n e a r e b e l i e v e d t o be i n some s e n s e c o n v e r t e d i n t o t h e body and b l o o d o f C h r i s t . 81 The " B r e a k i n g o f B r e a d " Two t e x t s f r o m t h e book o f A c t s f u r n i s h us w i t h b r i e f , a l l u s i v e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e c u l t i c meal i n t h e e a r l i e s t p e r i o d o f C h r i s t i a n i t y : A c t s 2:42. And t h e y d e v o t e d t h e m s e l v e s t o t h e a p o s t l e s ' t e a c h i n g and f e l l o w s h i p , t o t h e b r e a k i n g o f b r e a d and t h e p r a y e r s . A c t s 2 : 4 6 f . And day by d a y , a t t e n d i n g t h e t e m p l e t o g e t h e r and b r e a k i n g b r e a d i n t h e i r homes, t h e y p a r t o o k o f f o o d w i t h g l a d and g e n e r o u s h e a r t s , p r a i s i n g God and h a v i n g f a v o u r w i t h a l l t h e p e o p l e . The s e t t i n g f o r t h e s e r e f e r e n c e s i s t h e e a r l y J e r u s a l e m com-m u n i t y o f J e w i s h C h r i s t i a n s , and t h e r e i s a g e n e r a l s c h o l a r l y c o n s e n s u s t h a t t h e t r a d i t i o n p r e s e r v e d h e r e by t h e a u t h o r o f A c t s i s r e l i a b l e . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e "we" s o u r c e o f A c t s d e s -c r i b e s two i n c i d e n t s where P a u l b r e a k s b r e a d , a t T r o a s ( A c t s 2 0:7-12) and on t h e s h i p t o Rome ( A c t s 2 7 : 3 3 - 3 6 ) . But f o r t h e p r e s e n t we a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e e u c h a r i s t i c m e al i n i t s e a r l i e s t s t a g e . What s t r i k e s us i m m e d i a t e l y i s t h e p r i m a f a c i e d i f f e r e n c e b etween t h e s e e a r l y e u c h a r i s t s d e s c r i b e d i n A c t s 2 on t h e one h a n d , and t h e L a s t S u p p e r and t h e e u c h a r i s t d e s c r i b e d i n 1 Co-r i n t h i a n s on t h e o t h e r . I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e r e i s no m e n t i o n o f t h e c u p , w h i c h i s s o c e n t r a l t o b o t h t h e L a s t S u p p e r and P a u l ' s e u c h a r i s t , and t h e r e i s n o t h i n g w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e was any c o n n e c t i o n made between t h e s e e a r l y c u l t i c m e a l s and t h e d e a t h o f C h r i s t . 82 I t i s p o s s i b l e , o f c o u r s e , t h a t t h e t e r m " b r e a k i n g o f b r e a d " i s s i m p l y a p a r s p r o t o t o f o r t h e t y p e o f e u c h a r i s t i c c e l e b r a t i o n d e s c r i b e d by P a u l . T h i s mould seem t o be t h e most p l a u s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f o r t h o s e who h o l d t o t h e a u t h e n -t i c i t y o f t h e command t o r e p e a t and b e l i e v e t h a t t h e e a r l i e s t e u c h a r i s t s a r e i n d i r e c t l i n e a r d e s c e n t f r o m t h e L a s t S u p p e r . T h i s v i e u i i s f o r t i f i e d by t h e f a c t t h a t i n t h e tuio p a s s a g e s i n A c t s where P a u l " b r e a k s b r e a d " t h e r e i s no m e n t i o n o f t h e cup o r o f t h e d e a t h o f C h r i s t . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , we have s e e n i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r t h a t t h e e a r l i e s t c u l t i c m e a l s i n t h e c h u r c h were an o u t g r o w t h o f J e s u s 1 t a b l e f e l l o w s h i p w i t h t h e p u b l i c a n s , s i n n e r s , and h i s d i s c i p l e s , and t h a t t h e r e i s no r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t J e s u s e x p e c t e d h i s f o l l o w e r s t o r e p e a t t h e p r o c e d u r e o f t h e L a s t S u p p e r . A number o f a u t h o r i t i e s , n o t a b l y L i e t z m a n n , have a r g u e d t h a t m a t e r i a l s f r o m a much l a t e r p e r i o d c a n t h r o w l i g h t on t h i s q u e s t i o n o f t h e p r i m i t i v e " b r e a k i n g o f b r e a d . " L i e t z -mann's method i s t o work b a c k w a r d f r o m t h e d e v e l o p e d l i t u r g i e s o f t h e p a t r i s t i c p e r i o d . He t r a c e s t h e W e s t e r n l i t u r g i e s back t o t h e a n a p h o r a o f H i p p o l y t u s , i n w h i c h t h e r e i s an e m p h a s i s on r e d e m p t i o n and a m e m o r i a l o f J e s u s ' s a c r i f i c e , and i n w h i c h t h e words o f i n s t i t u t i o n a p p e a r q u i t e n a t u r a l l y . The E a s t e r n l i t u r g i e s , h o w e v e r , he shows t o be r e a r r a n g e m e n t s o r r e v i s i o n s o f t h e A p o s t o l i c C o n s t i t u t i o n s , w h i c h , i n t u r n , s h a r e s a b a s i c s t r u c t u r e w i t h t h e E g y p t i a n r i t e o f S e r a p i o n . The p r i m i t i v e 83 E g y p t i a n r i t e , when d i s e n g a g e d f r o m t h e l a t e r e l a b o r a t i o n s i n t h e e u c h o l o g y o f S e r a p i o n , e x h i b i t s an e s c h a t o l o g i c a l em-p h a s i s and l a c k s b o t h t h e words o f i n s t i t u t i o n and t h e e l e m e n t o f a n a m n e s i s . I t i s t h u s r e l a t e d t o t h e t y p e o f e u c h a r i s t i c p r a y e r f o u n d i n t h e D i d a c h e . The D i d a c h e , i t w i l l be remem-b e r e d , p l a c e s t h e cup b e f o r e t h e b r e a d , i n c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n t o b o t h t h e P a u l i n e and H i p p o l y t o - R o m a n p r a c t i c e . " T h u s , " c o n c l u d e s L i e t z m a n n , "we have h e r e a t y p e o f t h e L o r d ' s S u p p e r w i t h no r e f e r e n c e t o t h e t r a d i t i o n e x t a n t i n Mark and P a u l . " 2 I n t h e D i d a c h e , t h e p r a y e r s o v e r t h e b r e a d a r e c e n t r a l . The cup p o r t i o n o f t h e c e l e b r a t i o n a p p e a r s t o have been added w i t h o u t y e t b e i n g t h o r o u g h l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e l i t u r g y . T h i s i s an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e l i t u r g i c a l t r a d i t i o n a n t e c e -d e n t t o t h e D i d a c h e may have c o n s i s t e d o f a c e l e b r a t i o n w i t h b r e a d o n l y . M o r e o v e r , t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l p a s s a g e s i n t h e a p o -c r y p h a l w r i t i n g s w h i c h d e s c r i b e e u c h a r i s t s w i t h o n l y one e l e -ment, b r e a d ( A c t s o f Thomas 2 9 ; 3 7 ; 4 9 f . ; A c t s o f J o h n 85; A c t s o f P e t e r , V e r c e l l i e MS, 5; a l s o C l e m . Horn. 1 4 ) . 4 W h i l e t h e s e s e c o n d and t h i r d c e n t u r y a c c o u n t s a r e l e g e n d a r y , t h e y may be a c c e p t e d as w i t n e s s e s t o t h e p o p u l a r p r a c t i c e o f t h e i r t i m e i n a t l e a s t some C h r i s t i a n c i r c l e s . B e i n g c o n t r a r y t o t h e o f f i c i a l p r a c t i c e o f o r t h o d o x , G e n t i l e C h r i s t i a n i t y , t h e y may be r e g a r d e d a s "a r e a l d e p o s i t o f v e r y a n c i e n t t r a d i t i o n s whose t e s t i m o n y h o l d s up w e l l . " 5 We must, t h e r e f o r e , i n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i m p o r t o f t h e " b r e a k i n g o f b r e a d " i n A c t s 2, b e a r i n mind two i m p o r t a n t 84 f a c t s : on t h e one hand t h e r e i s no p o s i t i v e e v i d e n c e w h a t -e v e r t h a t t h i s c e l e b r a t i o n uias a m e m o r i a l o f J e s u s ' d e a t h , o r made use o f t h e c u p , and on t h e o t h e r hand t h e r e i s a l a t e r tradition o f e u c h a r i s t i c m e a l s c e l e b r a t e d s u b una  s p e c i e , w i t h o u t e i t h e r words o f i n s t i t u t i o n o r a n a m n e s i s . These two f a c t s w o u l d seem t o i m p l y t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a t y p e o f e u c h a r i s t i c m e al q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t d e s -c r i b e d by P a u l i n 1 C o r i n t h i a n s , a t y p e w h i c h was u s e d by t h e e a r l i e s t J e w i s h C h r i s t i a n s and w h i c h s u r v i v e d f o r some t i m e , e s p e c i a l l y i n E g y p t , an a r e a n o t p r o s e l y t i s e d by P a u l . The word " t y p e , " when u s e d i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e e a r l y e u c h a -r i s t , s h o u l d n o t be c o n f u s e d w i t h t h e word " r i t e . " The l a t t e r s u g g e s t s s i m p l y a l i t u r g i c a l v a r i a n t o f a s p e c i f i c e u c h a r i s t i c p a t t e r n , w h i l e " t y p e " i s u s e d t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e tween c u l t i c m e a l s w h i c h d i f f e r i n f u n d a m e n t a l ^ s t r u c t u r e and t h e o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . What were t h e e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s f i r s t t y p e ? To b e g i n w i t h , we c a n be c e r t a i n t h a t t h e c e l e b r a t i o n i n c l u d e d t h e c o n s u m p t i o n o f an a c t u a l m e al ( c f . " f o o d , " A c t s 2:46). A t t h e same t i m e , t h e r e c a n be l i t t l e d o u b t t h a t t h e r i t e o f b r e a k i n g b r e a d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e meal a c q u i r e d a s p e c i a l i m p o r t a n c e , and was r e g a r d e d as t h e c e n t r a l p a r t o f t h e c u l t i c m e a l . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n c a n be d e d u c e d f r o m t h r e e f a c t s : f i r s t , t h e e x p r e s s i o n " b r e a k i n g o f b r e a d " was n e v e r u s e d i n J e w i s h s o u r c e s b e f o r e t h e New T e s t a m e n t t o d e n o t e a w h o l e m e a l ; u s e c o n d , i n t h e l a t e r e v o l u t i o n o f t h i s t y p e 85 ( a s a t t e s t e d i n t h e a p o c h r y p h a l a c t s ) t h e r i t e c o n s i s t e d o f a b r e a d e u c h a r i s t a l o n e , w i t h o u t t h e m e a l ; and f i n a l l y , t h e e a r l y C h r i s t i a n a n a p h o r a s c a n be c o n s i d e r e d a d e v e l o p m e n t o f 7 t h e p r a y e r o f t h a n k s g i v i n g o v e r t h e b r e a d . S i n c e t h i s f i r s t t y p e o f e u c h a r i s t d e v e l o p e d o u t o f J e s u s ' r e g u l a r t a b l e -f e l l o u i s h i p ( c o n s i s t i n g o f o r d i n a r y m e a l s ) , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o s a y a t what e x a c t p o i n t t h e e l e m e n t o f b r e a d a c q u i r e d t h i s s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . I n any c a s e , i t was q u i t e e a r l y , and may have i n p a r t been due t o J e s u s ' own d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e b r e a d o f t h e t a b l e - f e l l o w s h i p a s t h e e s c h a t o l o g i c a l b r e a d o f th e K i n g d o m . As i n t h e p r a y e r s o f t h e D i d a c h e , t h e d o m i n a n t mood i n t h i s e a r l y b r e a k i n g o f b r e a d was one o f e s c h a t o l o g i c a l j o y . T h i s c a n be d i s c e r n e d f r o m A c t s 2:46, " b r e a k i n g b r e a d a t home, t h e y t o o k t h e i r f o o d w i t h r e j o i c i n g " (cv otycOi^ldCtCi ) . The word oiyaTCWaens d e n o t e d t h e j o y e x p e r i e n c e d i n t h e h o p e f u l e x p e c t a t i o n o f t h e r e t u r n o f t h e L o r d and t h e c o m i n g o f t h e Kin g d o m : 1 P e t . 4:13. . . . t h a t you may a l s o r e j o i c e w i t h e x c e e d i n g j o y (ffiPtyZC l&tfa>SsSl&jiL£\>o-v ) when h i s g l o r y i s r e v e a l e d . J u d e 2 4 . ... b e f o r e y t h e p r e s e n c e o f h i s g l o r y w i t h r e j o i c i n g (Iv hyc%S>iXOt(X£.X ). A p o c . 1 9 : 7 . L e t us be g l a d and r e j o i c e (<iyptWi£)U£y()c and g i v e h o n o u r t o h i m , f o r t h e m a r r i a g e o f t h e lamb i s come. 8 6 The same c o n c e p t i o n i s f o u n d i n t h e A r a m a i c l i t u r g i c a l f o r -mula marana' t h a 1 ("Our L o r d c o r n e l " ) , w h i c h i s p r e s e r v e d i n 1 Co. 16:22 and D i d a c h e 1 0 : 6 , and i n Greek t r a n s l a t i o n i n A p o c . 2 2 : 2 0 . I t i s s o m e t i m e s s t a t e d t h a t t h e s e e a r l i e s t e u c h a r i s t s were c o n s i d e r e d by t h e i r p a r t i c i p a n t s a s m e a l s w i t h t h e r i s e n C h r i s t . T h i s t h e o r y i s a t t r a c t i v e , f o r i t w o u l d p r o -v i d e a l i n k b e t w e e n t h e t a b l e - f e l l o w s h i p o f J e s u s and t h e l a t e r n o t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n c e o f C h r i s t i n t h e e l e m e n t s . Un-f o r t u n a t e l y , h o w e v e r , t h e r e i s a b s o l u t e l y no e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e p a s s a g e s a d d u c e d as e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s t h e s i s b e l o n g t b a t h e e a r l i e r s t r a t a o f t h e t r a d i t i o n . As Dodd h a s p o i n t e d o u t , t h e r e s u r r e c t i o n - m e a l s t o r i e s i n Luke 24 have a l l t h e q a p p e a r a n c e o f a h i g h l y - p o l i s h e d l i t e r a r y c o m p o s i t i o n . The e a r l i e s t s t a t e m e n t o f t h e r e s u r r e c t i o n a p p e a r a n c e s (1 Co. 1 5 : 5-8) "makes no m e n t i o n o f a n y t h i n g l i k e t h i s s t o r y and has no p l a c e f o r i t , " 1 0 and Mark and M a t t h e w know n o t h i n g o f r e s u r -r e c t i o n - m e a l s . S i m i l a r o b j e c t i o n s w e i g h a g a i n s t an e a r l y d a t e f o r t h e r e l e v a n t p h r a s e i n A c t s 10:41 ("to us . . . who a t e and d r a n k w i t h h i m a f t e r he r o s e f r o m t h e d e a d " ) . P a r t o f a s o p h i s t i c a t e d and s t y l i s e d s p e e c h a t t r i b u t e d t o P e t e r , t h i s p h r a s e may e v e n have an a n t i - d o c e t i c i n t e n t . J o h n 2 1 , w h i c h c o n t a i n s a r e s u r r e c t i o n - m e a l s t o r y , i s r e g a r d e d by most a u t h o r i t i e s a s an a p p e n d i x t o t h e o r i g i n a l g o s p e l , and i s l a t e t o s a y t h e l e a s t . The o t h e r p e r t i n e n t t e x t , A p o c . 3:20 ( " I f anyone h e a r s my v o i c e and o p e n s t h e d o o r , I w i l l come i n 87 t o him and e a t w i t h h i m , and he w i t h me") i s l i k e w i s e t o o l a t e t o be a p p l i e d t o t h e e a r l i e s t e u c h a r i s t i c m e a l s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e s e t e x t s do p o i n t t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e e u c h a r i s t q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t f o u n d i n 1 C o r i n -t h i a n s . T h i s l e a d s us t o c o n s i d e r a n o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y : t h a t t h e r e was a t h i r d " t y p e " o f e u c h a r i s t , r e l a t e d t o and g r o w i n g o u t o f t h e " b r e a k i n g o f b r e a d , " b u t i n w h i c h t h e d o m i n a n t c o n c e p t i o n was t h a t o f s h a r i n g a meal w i t h t h e r e s u r r e c t e d C h r i s t . T h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t t h i s m e a l u s u a l l y c o n s i s t e d 11 o f b r e a d and f i s h , and t h a t t h o s e who c e l e b r a t e d . i t l o o k e d back t o t h e f e e d i n g o f t h e m u l t i t u d e a s t h e moment o f i t s " i n s t i t u t i o n . " The b a s i s o f o u r a r g u m e n t i s t h e l o n g - e s t a b l i s h e d a x i o m o f g o s p e l c r i t i c i s m t h a t e a c h e v a n g e l i c a l p e r i c o p e has a p a r -t i c u l a r e c c l e s i a s t i c a l S i t z im L e b e n . As r e c e n t T r a d i t i o n s -q e s c h i c h t e s t u d i e s have shown, s u c h a S i t z im Leben n e e d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y be t h a t o f t h e c o m p i l e r o f an i n d i v i d u a l g o s p e l , b u t may b e l o n g i n t h e o r a l o r w r i t t e n t r a d i t i o n a n t e c e d e n t t o t h e c o m p i l a t i o n o f t h a t g o s p e l . I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t t h e l i t u r g y o f a c e r t a i n c o mmunity m i g h t i t s e l f have been t h e l i f e - s i t u a -t i o n f o r some p a s s a g e s . I f t h i s i s t r u e , i t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o r e c o n s t r u c t t h e o u t l i n e s o f t h e w o r s h i p o f t h e s e c o m m u n i t i e s t h r o u g h a f o r m - c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e l e v a n t t e x t s . D.IYl. S t a n l e y has shown t h a t t h e r e a r e f o u r d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f l i t u r g i c a l i n f l u e n c e on t h e g o s p e l n a r r a t i v e s : 88 1. The p r a c t i c e o f l i t u r g i c a l r e c i t a l , e v i d e n t i n t h e p a s s i o n n a r r a t i v e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n John.'* -2. The i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f l i t u r g i c a l f o r m u l a e i n t o t h e g o s p e l n a r r a t i v e s . An o b v i o u s i n s t a n c e i s Mt. 2 8 : 1 9 , "Go, t h e r e f o r e , and make d i s c i p l e s o f a l l n a t i o n s , b a p t i z i n g them i n t h e name o f t h e F a t h e r and o f t h e Son and o f t h e H o l y 1 3 S p i r i t . " Uie h ave e n c o u n t e r e d t h e same phenomenon i n o u r s t u d y o f a l l f o u r ^ i n s t i t u t i o n n a r r a t i v e s . 3. The e f f e c t o f c u l t i c o b s e r v a n c e s on t h e u i r i t i n g - u p o f c e r t a i n e p i s o d e s . S t a n l e y f e e l s t h a t he c a n d e t e c t r e -f l e c t i o n s o f l i t u r g i c a l p r a c t i c e i n a number o f s t o r i e s a b o u t J e s u s . F o r e x a m p l e , two h e a l i n g a c c o u n t s , Mk. 7:31-37 ( c u r e o f a d e a f man) and Mk. 8:22-26 ( c u r e o f a b l i n d man), seem t o e x h i b i t a c e r t a i n r i t u a l p a t t e r n . I n b o t h c a s e s J e s u s a p p l i e s h i s hand and some o f h i s own s a l i v a t o t h e p a t i e n t , and i n t h e f i r s t c a s e he u t t e r s t h e f o r m u l a " E p h p h a t h a . " 1 A 4. The i n f l u e n c e o f t h e I s r a e l i t e l i t u r g i c a l c y c l e . I n t h e a c c o u n t s o f J e s u s ' t r a n s f i g u r a t i o n t h e r e a p p e a r t o be r e -f e r e n c e s t o t h e F e a s t o f T a b e r n a c l e s , and t h e r e i s some i n d i -c a t i o n t h a t t h e w h o l e f r a m e w o r k o f t h e f o u r t h g o s p e l i s s t r u c -1 5 t u r e d a r o u n d t h e I s r a e l i t e f e a s t c y c l e . I f t h e r e were i n f a c t e a r l y C h r i s t i a n e u c h a r i s t s a t w h i c h b r e a d and f i s h were consumed, t h e n t h e t r a c e s l e f t i n t h e g o s -p e l s w o u l d be o f t h e s e c o n d and t h i r d t y p e s s u g g e s t e d by S t a n l e y . I t may be t h a t t h e c o n j u n c t i o n o f b r e a d and f i s h i n M a t t h e w 7 : 9 f . i s an e x a m p l e o f s u c h a t r a c e : 89 Or what man, i f h i s s o n a s k s h i m f o r b r e a d , m i l l g i v e him a s t o n e ? Or i f he a s k s f o r a f i s h w i l l g i v e h i m a s e r p e n t ? T h i s e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e t e x t w o u l d be e v e n more p l a u s i b l e i f t h e o r i g i n a l f o r m o f t h e s a y i n g i n c l u d e d o n l y a r e f e r e n c e t o t h e f i s h and s e r p e n t . T h a t s u c h was t h e c a s e i s s u g g e s t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t o n l y t h e " f i s h " s a y i n g a p p e a r s i n b o t h M a t t h e w and i n t h e a c c e p t e d r e a d i n g o f t h e L u c a n p a r a l l e l ( 1 1 : 1 0 f . ) , and t h a t m o r e o v e r i n t h i s l a t t e r t e x t i t i s t h e " f i s h " s a y i n g w h i c h p r e c e d e s t h e s a y i n g w h i c h m e n t i o n s an e g g . Thus i f t h e o r i g i n a l l o g i o n r e f e r r e d o n l y t o t h e f i s h , t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e " b r e a d " s a y i n g i m m e d i a t e l y b e f o r e i t c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d by t h e i n f l u e n c e o f a l i t u r g i c a l r i t e i n w h i c h b r e a d and f i s h were consumed ( i n t h a t o r d e r ) . Of g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e f o r o u r a r g u m e n t a r e t h e a c c o u n t s o f t h e m u l t i p l i c a t i o n o f t h e l o a v e s and f i s h e s ( t w o e a c h i n Mark and M a t t h e w , one e a c h i n Luke and J o h n ) . The s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e o f t h e s e n a r r a t i v e s i s t h e i r s i m i l a r i t y t o t h e s y n o p -t i c a c c o u n t s o f t h e L a s t S u p p e r ( s e e A p p e n d i x ) . The same r i t u a l p a t t e r n a p p e a r s t h r o u g h o u t : J e s u s t a k e s (^tf/*0*x\fiO) t h e b r e a d , s a y s a b l e s s i n g o v e r i t (Mk. 6 : 4 l f . , Mt. I 4 : 1 9 f . , L k . 9: 1 6 f . , Mk. I 4 : 2 2 f . , Mt. 2 6 : 2 6 f .: £1/A0|*&» ; Mk. 8 : 6 f f . , Mt. 1 5 : 3 6 f . , J n . 6 : 1 1 f . , Lk. 2 2 : 1 9 f . , 1 Co. 11 : 2 3 f . : ev\^pl<rz£09 ), b r e a k s i t , and d i s t r i b u t e s i t . I n Mk. 6 : 4 1 f . , Mk. 8 : 6 f f . , J n . 6 : 1 1 f . , Mk. I 4 : 2 2 f . , Mt. 2 6 : 2 6 f . , Lk 2 2 : l 9 f . , and 1 Co. 1 1 : 2 3 f . i t i s s p e c i f i e d t h a t J e s u s a l s o b l e s s e s and d i s t r i b u t e s t h e s e c o n d e l e m e n t — f i s h o r w i n e . 90 We have a l r e a d y n o t e d i n o u r e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e L a s t S u p p e r t r a d i t i o n t h a t t h i s s o r t o f l a n g u a g e i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f l i t u r g i c a l f o r m u l a e . How t h e n i s i t s p r e s e n c e i n t h e m u l t i p l i c a t i o n n a r r a t i v e s t o be a c c o u n t e d f o r ? The a c c e p t e d v i e w i s s t a t e d by R. Brown: "The most p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t t h e w o r d i n g o f t h e m u l t i p l i c a t i o n a c c o u n t s i s c o l o u r e d by t h e e u c h a r i s t i c l i t u r g i e s f a m i l i a r t o t h e v a r i o u s communi-t i e s . " 1 6 T h i s v i e w p r e s u p p o s e s t h a t t h e e u c h a r i s t i c l i t u r g i e s were o f t h e f a m i l i a r b r e a d and w i n e t y p e , and t h a t t h e r e f o r e o n l y t h e L a s t S u p p e r t r a d i t i o n s c o u l d r e v e a l t h e a c t u a l l i t u r -g i c a l p r a c t i c e o f t h e c o m m u n i t i e s i n w h i c h t h e s e s t o r i e s were p a s s e d down. The r e a s o n i n g i s q u i t e s i m p l e : i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e t r a d i t i o n , t h e L a s t S u p p e r n a r r a t i v e s i n c o r p o r a t e d t h e l i t u r g i c a l f o r m u l a e o f t h e w o r s h i p p i n g c o m m u n i t y , and a t t h e same t i m e t h e s e f o r m u l a e c o l o u r e d t h e s t o r i e s o f t h e m u l t i p l i -c a t i o n o f l o a v e s and f i s h e s . H o wever, i t h a s a l r e a d y been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e b r e a d and w i n e t y p e o f e u c h a r i s t was n o t u n i v e r s a l . T h i s t h e r e f o r e u n d e r m i n e s t h e p r e s u p p o s i t i o n o f t h o s e who b e l i e v e t h a t t h e s e e m i n g l y l i t u r g i c a l l a n g u a g e o f t h e m u l t i p l i c a t i o n n a r r a t i v e s must have been drawn f r o m a " L a s t S u p p e r " t y p e o f e u c h a r i s t i c c e l e b r a t i o n . I t must be s t r e s s e d : t h e r e i s no more r e a s o n t o s u p p o s e t h a t t h e L a s t S u p p e r n a r r a t i v e s have i n f l u e n c e d t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e M u l t i p l i c a t i o n n a r r a t i v e s t h a n v i c e v e r s a . More p r e c i s e l y , t h e r e i s no r e a s o n t o d o u b t t h a t e a c h s t o r y has i t s own l i t u r g i c a l S i t z im L e b e n . 91 I t i s p o s s i b l e , t h e n , t h a t t h e s t o r i e s o f t h e meal o f b r e a d and f i s h e s a l s o r e f l e c t t h e a c t u a l w o r h s i p o f c e r t a i n C h r i s t i a n c o m m u n i t i e s . The f a c t t h a t t h e s y n o p t i c t r a d i t i o n r e p o r t s t h e m u l t i p l i c a t i o n s t o r y i n v t w o v a r i a n t j r e d a c t i o n s — t h e f e e d i n g o f t h e f i v e t h o u s a n d and t h e f e e d i n g o f t h e f o u r t h o u s a n d - - a t t e s t s t o i t s i m p o r t a n c e i n e a r l y C h r i s t i a n i t y . The i n c l u s i o n o f two v a r i a n t s o f a meal o f b r e a d and f i s h r e q u i r e s e x p l a n a t i o n . C o u l d i t be t h a t t h e f i r s t n a r r a t i v e ( f e e d i n g o f f i v e t h o u s a n d w i t h f i v e l o a v e s , w i t h t w e l v e b a s -k e t s l e f t o v e r — w h i c h may s y m b o l i z e t h e t w e l v e t r i b e s ) i s t h e p r o d u c t o f a J e w i s h - C h r i s t i a n c o m m u n i t y u s i n g b r e a d and f i s h e u c h a r i s t s , and t h a t t h e s e c o n d n a r r a t i v e ( f e e d i n g o f f o u r t h o u s a n d w i t h s e v e n l o a v e s , w i t h s e v e n b a s k e t s l e f t o v e r 17 - - w h i c h c o u l d p e r h a p s s y m b o l i z e t h e s e v e n t y g e n t i l e n a t i o n s ) r e p r e s e n t s a r e v i s i o n u n d e r t a k e n by g e n t i l e C h r i s t i a n s who a d o p t e d t h e same p r a c t i c e ? I t i s n o t e w o r t h y i n t h i s c o n n e c -t i o n t h a t t h e word f o r b a s k e t i n t h e f i r s t a c c o u n t {Kofavos lYlk. 6:43) d e n o t e s a d i s t i n c t i v e l y J e w i s h t y p e o f b a s k e t , w h e r e a s t h e t e r m &trt>pl$ i n t h e s e c o n d a c c o u n t (MK. 8:8) r e f e r s t o an o r d i n a r y f i s h b a s k e t . The s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e m u l t i p l i c a t i o n n a r r a t i v e s a r e r e f l e c t i o n s o f a c t u a l l i t u r g i c a l p r a c t i c e moves f r o m t h e r e a l m o f p o s s i b i l i t y t o t h a t o f p r o b a b i l i t y when t h e y a r e c o n s i d e r e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e r e s u r r e c t i o m - m e a l n a r r a t i v e s i n Luke 24 and J o h n 21. There i s , as we have s e e n , i n A p o c . 3:20 a p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e n o t i o n t h a t t h e e u c h a r i s t c o n s i s t e d o f 92 s u p p i n g w i t h t h e L o r d . The r e s u r r e c t i o n a c c o u n t s i n Luke and t h e a p p e n d i x t o J o h n p r e s e n t e v i d e n c e t h a t t h o s e m e a l s i n w h i c h C h r i s t i a n s b e l i e v e d t h e y were e a t i n g w i t h C h r i s t were p r i m a r i l y m e a l s o f b r e a d and f i s h : When he was a t t a b l e w i t h them, he t o o k t h e b r e a d and b l e s s e d and b r o k e i t , and gave i t t o them. And t h e i r e y e s were opened and t h e y r e c o g n i s e d h i m ; and he v a n i s h e d o u t o f t h e i r s i g h t . . . . And t h e y r o s e t h a t same h o u r and r e t u r n e d t o J e r u s a l e m ; and t h e y f o u n d t h e e l e v e n g a t h e r e d t o g e t h e r and t h o s e who were w i t h them.... Then t h e y t o l d what had h a p -pened on t h e r o a d , and how he was known t o them i n t h e b r e a k i n g o f t h e b r e a d . As t h e y were s a y i n g t h i s , J e s u s h i m s e l f s t o o d among them.... And w h i l e t h e y s t i l l d i s b e l i e v e d f o r j o y , and w o n d e r e d , he s a i d t o them, "Have you a n y t h i n g h e r e t o e a t ? " They gave h i m a p i e c e o f b r o i l e d f i s h , and he t o o k i t and a t e b e f o r e them. ( L k . 2 4 : 3 0 f . , 3 3 , 3 6 , 41-43) When t h e y g o t o u t on l a n d , t h e y saw a c h a r -c o a l f i r e t h e r e , w i t h a f i s h l y i n g on; i t , and b r e a d . J e s u s s a i d t o them, " B r i n g some f i s h t h a t you have j u s t c a u g h t . " . . . J e s u s s a i d t o them, "Come and have b r e a k f a s t . " None o f t h e d i s c i p l e s d a r e d a s k h i m , "Who a r e y o u ? " They knew i t was t h e L o r d . J e s u s came and t o o k t h e b r e a d and gave i t t o t h e m , and s o w i t h t h e f i s h . ( J n . 21 :9 f ., 1 2 f . ) In b o t h i n s t a n c e s t h e r e i s a r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e f a m i l i a r l i t u r -g i c a l p a t t e r n f o u n d i n t h e s t o r i e s o f f e e d i n g t h e m u l t i t u d e ( i n Luke " t o o k . . . b l e s s e d . . . b r o k e . . . g a v e , " i n J o h n 21 " t o o k . . . g a v e . . . and so w i t h t h e f i s h , " c f . J n . 6:11, "he d i s t r i b u t e d them t o t h o s e who were s e a t e d , and s o a l s o w i t h t h e f i s h . " ) I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t i n t h e New T e s -t a m e n t t h i s l i t u r g i c a l p a t t e r n a p p e a r s i n e i g h t a c c o u n t s 93 where b r e a d and f i s h a r e m e n t i o n e d , as o p p o s e d t o o n l y f o u r where t h e e l e m e n t s a r e b r e a d and w i n e . The u s e o f f i s h as a component o f c e r t a i n c u l t i c m e a l s w o u l d have been q u i t e a p p r o p r i a t e i n e a r l y C h r i s t i a n i t y . E. Goodenough's s u r v e y o f R a b b i n i c l i t e r a t u r e has d i s c l o s e d t h a t i n P a l e s t i n i a n J u d a i s m t h e d e f e a t and p h y s i c a l c o n -s u m p t i o n o f t h e g r e a t f i s h L e v i a t h a n was e x p e c t e d i n t h e 1 B m e s s i a n i c e r a . F i s h was a l s o a s y m b o l o f t h e r e s u r r e c t i o n 1 9 o f t h e d e a d . Thus i t w o u l d have been q u i t e n a t u r a l f o r e a r l y C h r i s t i a n s t o consume f i s h i n a meal t h e y b e l i e v e d t o be s h a r i n g w i t h t h e i r r e s u r r e c t e d L o r d . Goodenough i s a l s o o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e S a b b a t h e v e n i n g m e a l , t h e c e n a p u r a , was " p r e - e m i n e n t l y a f i s h m e a l , " and t h a t i t may have been a 20 s y m b o l i c p r e f i g u r a t i o n o f t h e m e s s i a n i c age t o come. I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e s y n o p t i c e v a n -g e l i s t s were t h e m s e l v e s f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e p r a c t i c e o f b r e a d and f i s h e u c h a r i s t s . I t c o u l d be t h a t t h e m u l t i p l i c a t i o n and r e s u r r e c t i o n - m e a l s t o r i e s a c q u i r e d t h e i r p r e s e n t f o r m a t an e a r l i e r p o i n t i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e t r a d i t i o n . The s i t u a -t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n f u s i n g i n t h e c a s e o f L u k e - A c t s , where t r a c e s o f a l l t h r e e o f t h e e u c h a r i s t i c t y p e s we have d i s c e r n e d have s u r v i v e d . I n t h e c a s e o f J o h n , h o w e v e r , a r e a s o n a b l e a r g u m e n t c a n be a d v a n c e d t h a t t h e b r e a d and f i s h c u l t i c m e a l was t h e o n l y one known t o t h e e v a n g e l i s t and t h e t r a d i t i o n b e h i n d h i m . To b e g i n w i t h , t h e F o u r t h G o s p e l p r e s e n t s an o b v i o u s d i f f i c u l t y 94 f o r t h e t r a d i t i o n a l v i e w t h a t t h e r e was o n l y one t y p e o f e u -c h a r i s t i c s e r v i c e i n t h e p r i m i t i v e c h u r c h , v i z . , t h e a b s e n c e o f an i n s t i t u t i o n n a r r a t i v e i n J o h n ' s a c c o u n t o f t h e L a s t S u p p e r . M o r e o v e r , u n l e s s we c o u l d e s t a b l i s h on t h e b a s i s o f some o t h e r e v i d e n c e t h a t J o h n was f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e b r e a d and 21 22 w i n e e u c h a r i s t , we c o u l d n o t f o l l o w C u l l m a n n and B a r r e t t and o t h e r s i n f i n d i n g s y m b o l i c r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s t y p e i n s u c h p a s s a g e s a s t h e m a r r i a g e a t Cana ( j n . 2 : 1 - 1 1 ) , t h e c l e a n s i n g o f t h e Temple ( j n . 2:13-22) where C u l l m a n n f i n d s an a l l u s i o n t o J e s u s ' e u c h a r i s t i c b o d y ) , and t h e a l l e g o r y o f t h e v i n e ( J n . 1 5 : 1 - 8 ) . S i m i l a r l y , we w o u l d have t o be s u s p i c i o u s o f t h e a u t h e n t i c i t y o f t h a t one p a s s a g e i n w h i c h v i r t u a l l y a l l c r i t i c s d e t e c t a s y m b o l i c r e f e r e n c e t o t h i s t y p e : t h e i s s u e o f b l o o d and w a t e r f r o m t h e wound i n J e s u s ' s i d e ( J n . 19:34) . T h e r e r e m a i n s i n J o h n o n l y one t e x t w i t h an a p p a r e n t a l l u s i o n t o t h e " P a u l i n e " t y p e o f e u c h a r i s t : J o h n 6:51-58. 2 3 24 2 R T h e r e i s , h o w e v e r , a s B u l t m a n n , Bornkamm, and L o h s e have r e c o g n i s e d , good r e a s o n t o c a l l i n t o q u e s t i o n t h e a u t h e n t i c i t y o f t h i s p a s s a g e . The c h i e f d i f f i c u l t y i s t h a t t h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e B r e a d o f L i f e d i s c o u r s e i s i n c o n g r u o u s w i t h t h e p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n ( 6 : 3 5 - 5 0 ) , w h i c h i n t u r n seems t o be more c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c a l l y J o h a n n i n e . I n t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h e d i s c o u r s e , t h e r e i s no r e f e r e n c e t o " f l e s h " o r " b l o o d " ; t h e theme h e r e i s s a p i -e n t i a l r a t h e r t h a n e u c h a r i s t i c . The " b r e a d o f l i f e " i s C h r i s t , 95 as the heavenly messenger sent by the Father, and the funda-mental response to Jesus' p r e s e n t a t i o n of h i m s e l f as "bread" i s to be b e l i e f (6:35,36,40,47). The use of the uiord "bread" here i s r e m i n i s c e n t of i t s use as a symbol f o r wisdom i n Pro-t a t i o n of the bread of l i f e i s confirmed by John 6:27, "Do not labour f o r the food uihich p e r i s h e s , but f o r the food uihich endures to e t e r n a l l i f e . " In a d d i t i o n , as Bornkmann has 27 shown, John 6:60ff. r e f e r s back to v s s . 35-50 r a t h e r than v s s . 51-58. Here the themes are b e l i e f (64), coming to Jesus (65), and the words of e t e r n a l l i f e ( 68). John 6:63 ("It i s the s p i r i t t h a t gives l i f e , the f l e s h i s of no a v a i l ; the uiords that I have spoken to you are s p i r i t and l i f e " ) stands i n con-t r a d i c t i o n to 6:51-58. The n a t u r a l c o n c l u s i o n i s that John 6: 51-58, with i t s emphasis on e a t i n g the f l e s h and d r i n k i n g the 2 8 blood of C h r i s t , i s the i n s e r t i o n of a l a t e r r e d a c t o r . It i s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y that there was no c u l t i c meal i n the C h r i s t i a n c i r c l e from which the f o u r t h gospel emanated, and we may suppose that the " s i g n " ( J n . 6:14) of the f e e d i n g of the multitude p o i n t s to a bread and f i s h type. There are s e v e r a l f e a t u r e s of the Johannine m u l t i p l i c a t i o n n a r r a t i v e which have p a r a l l e l s i n the Didache and uihich might, t h e r e -f o r e , be echoes of a e u c h a r i s t i c l i t u r g y . For i n s t a n c e , John's phrase "When they had enough" (u?c 61 0>£n}\rj(r6hl<FClV ) , i s verbs 9:5 and S i r a c h 15:3. 26 This n o n - e u c h a r i s t i c i n t e r p r e -96 s i m i l a r to the beginning of the t h a n k s g i v i n g , immediately a f t e r the prayer of the bread, i n Didache 1 0 : 1 : " A f t e r you have had % v 29 enough" (MfCflf 6t lfA.TlA7)0Qr}vat) • Perhaps an even more s t r i k i n g p a r a l l e l i s that between John 6 :12 , "Gather up the y fragments KAOi(T/LCOt l e f t over, that nothing may be l o s t , " and p a r t s of the Didache's prayer over the bread which read, "Concerning the fragmented bread KyScxcr/U£* , 'We give you thanks, our Father . . . . As t h i s fragmented bread was s c a t t e r e d upon the mountains and became one, so l e t your church be gathered up from the four corners of the e a r t h i n t o your kingdom.'" In a d d i t i o n to using the words S'OJf&plO'^eco , 0~VV@iyco, and KySOiO/Xd , the Johannine m u l t i p l i c a t i o n n a r r a -t i v e s t a t e s that the meal took p l a c e on a mountain ( J n . 6 : 3 ) , 30 and makes re f e r e n c e to the n o t i o n of Jesus as king ( 6 : 1 5 ) . Another i n t e r e s t i n g p o s s i b i l i t y concerns the s t o r y of Jesus walking on the water, which i n a l l three v e r s i o n s (Mk. 6:45-52 ; Hit. 1 4 : 2 2 - 3 3 ; Jn. 16-21) i s placed immediately a f t e r the m u l t i p l i c a t i o n n a r r a t i v e . This p e r i c o p e (which i s probably 31 presented i n a more o r i g i n a l form by John) has a l l the appear-ances of a p o s t - r e s u r r e c t i o n a l s t o r y : Jesus' body i s not con-f i n e d to the normal e x i g e n c i e s of space and time, and there i s an emphasis on Jesus' calming the f e a r of h i s d i s c i p l e s when they e v i d e n t l y do not recognise him. I f the o r i g i n a l form of t h i s s t o r y was indeed of the p o s t - r e s u r r e c t i o n a l genre, the t r a n s p o s i t i o n of i t to i t s present place i n the t r a d i t i o n might 97 have been due t o an a s s o c i a t i o n b e t ween t h e b r e a d and f i s h m e a l and t h e r e s u r r e c t i o n a l C h r i s t o p h a n y . J o h n 6 and 21 a t t e s t t o t h e p r e s e n c e o f b r e a d and f i s h e u c h a r i s t s i n t h e l a t e f i r s t c e n t u r y . T h i s t y p e o f e u c h a r i s t may have p e r s i s t e d w e l l i n t o t h e s e c o n d c e n t u r y , a l t h o u g h s u p -p l a n t e d by t h e P a u l i n e u s a g e i n t h o s e c o m m u n i t i e s w h i c h were b e g i n n i n g t o e n f o r c e o r g a n i s a t i o n a l and l i t u r g i c a l u n i t y . I g n a t i u s o f A n t i o c h h i n t s t h a t he m i g h t be aware o f more t h a n one t y p e o f e u c h a r i s t . When he c a u t i o n s t h e P h i l a d e l p h i a n s t o use o n l y "one e u c h a r i s t , " he may have i n mind n o t s i m p l y a s e p a r a t e c e l e b r a t i o n , b u t t h e u s e o f a s e p a r a t e t y p e o f meal by c e r t a i n C h r i s t i a n s . T h i s may be why he s t r e s s e s s o f o r c e -f u l l y , " F o r t h e r e i s one f l e s h o f o u r L o r d , J e s u s C h r i s t , and one cup o f h i s b l o o d t h a t makes us o n e , and one a l t a r " ( P h i l . 4 : 1 ) . S i n c e he nowhere s p e c i f i e s t h a t t h e " c u p " c o n t a i n s w i n e , he c o u l d n o t have had i n mind e u c h a r i s t s w h i c h u s e d some o t h e r l i q u i d . I f he were p o l e m i c i s i n g a g a i n s t some o t h e r " t y p e s " o f e u c h a r i s t , i t must have been one i n w h i c h s o l i d f o o d o n l y was consumed. I t i s w e l l known t h a t f r o m t h e l a t e s e c o n d c e n t u r y t h e f i s h a p p e a r e d as a s y m b o l f o r C h r i s t . An e a r l y e x a m p l e i s f u r n i s h e d by T e r t u l l i a n : "We l i t t l e f i s h , l i k e o u r F i s h J e s u s C h r i s t , were b o r n i n t h e w a t e r , and o n l y by l i v i n g i n t h e 32 33 w a t e r a r e we s a v e d " (De b a p t . 1 ) . C l e m e n t o f A l e x a n d r i a and O r i g e n 3 4 a r e a l s o f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e s y m b o l i s m o f t h e f i s h . 98 The o r i g i n of t h i s symbolism cannot, as many C h r i s t i a n s s i n c e 3 5 Qptatus (De. schism. Donat. 3:2) have supposed, be found i n the Greek a c r o s t i c f o r "Jesus C h r i s t , Son of God, S a v i o u r " : 3 6 the a c r o s t i c i t s e l f presupposes the symbol. I f the hypo-t h e s i s of a e u c h a r i s t i c meal u s i n g f i s h i s c o r r e c t ^ there can be no doubt that here l i e s the source of the symbol. I t would a l s o lead us to c o n s i d e r whether the appearance of f i s h i n c e r t a i n e a r l y C h r i s t i a n a r c h a e o l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l s i s i n f a c t , as has been g e n e r a l l y thought, merely symbolic. Two i n s c r i p -t i o n s , u s u a l l y dated from around the end of the second century, a l l u d e to the consumption of sacred f i s h . The f i r s t , the E p i -taph of P e c t o r i o s , found i n a cemetery at Antum, e v i d e n t l y d e s c r i b e s baptism and a meal of f i s h : 0 race d i v i n e of the c e l e s t i a l F i s h , Guard your heart pure among men, f o r you have r e c e i v e d An immortal source of wondrous water. And so, My f r i e n d , warm your s o u l i n the e v e r l a s t i n g waters Of copious wisdom. Take the honey-sweet food That the Saviour gives h i s holy ones. Sate Your hunger, h o l d i n g the f i s h i n your hands. Lord and S a v i o u r , feed us then, 1 beg, With t h i s f i s h . We beg you, L i g h t of the deceased, May my mother sleep i n peace. Aschandios, f a t h e r So dear to my h e a r t , together with my sweet mother And my b r o t h e r s , remember ^ 7 P e c t o r i o s i n the peace of the F i s h . The f i r s t f i v e l i n e s of t h i s poem form the a c r o s t i c IXOT'C • The second monument, the Abercios I n s c r i p t i o n , c o n t a i n s r e f e r -ences to f i s h , wine, and bread: 99 The f a i t h l e d me ev/eruihere; e v e r y w h e r e I t o f f e r e d me as f o o d a f i s h f r o m t h e s p r i n g , L a r g e and p u r e , c a u g h t by a p u r e v i r g i n . And s h e c o n s t a n t l y g i v e s i t t o h e r own d e a r ones To e a t . She h a s an e x c e l l e n t w i n e To d r i n k , w h i c h she o f f e r s w i t h t h e b r e a d . C. V o g e l p o i n t s o u t t h a t " I t i s h e r e a q u e s t i o n o f two t y p e s o f meal . . . . I t w o u l d do v i o l e n c e t o t h e t e x t t o s u p p o s e 39 t h a t i t i s a m a t t e r o f one and t h e same m e a l . " The m e n t i o n o f b r e a d and wi n e i s an o b v i o u s a l l u s i o n t o t h e c l a s s i c a l t y p e o f e u c h a r i s t u s i n g t h o s e e l e m e n t s , and " i t w o u l d u n d u l y s i m p l i f y m a t t e r s t o s u p p o s e t h a t t h e f i s h m e a l i s a s i m p l e f i g u r e f o r t h e t r a d i t i o n a l e u c h a r i s t i c m e a l : t h e t e x t f o r c e s us t o a d m i t two t y p e s o f m e a l , one as " r e a l ' as t h e o t h e r . " 4 ^ T h e r e i s one f u r t h e r f u n e r a r y i n s c r i p t i o n d a t i n g f r o m t h e same p e r i o d , t h a t o f L i c i n i a A m i a s , f o u n d on t h e V a t i c a n H i l l . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e image o f two f i s h s e p a r a t e d by an a n c h o r , i t c o n t a i n s t h e words IX©TC Z A N T G N , " t h e f i s h o f t h e l i v i n g . " V o g e l b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e m e a n i n g o f t h i s t e x t i s " f i s h o f t h e 41 C h r i s t i a n s . " These i n s c r i p t i o n s , t h e n , f u r n i s h us w i t h e v i d e n c e o f t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f a c u l t i c f i s h m e a l w e l l a f t e r t h e New T e s t a m e n t p e r i o d . I n t h i s c a s e , i t i s most l i k e l y a q u e s t i o n o f t h e r e -f r i q e r i u m , o r s a c r e d f u n e r a r y m e a l . The same c o n c l u s i o n may be r e a c h e d c o n e r n i n g t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f f i s h i n e a r l y C h r i s -t i a n a r t , o f w h i c h one o f t h e f i r s t e x a m p l e s i s t h e L a s t S u p p e r ( ? ) s c e n e f r o m t h e c a t a c o m b o f C a l l i s t u s i n Rome, s h o w i n g J e s u s 100 and h i s a p o s t l e s c o n s u m i n g b r e a d and f i s h r a t h e r t h a n b r e a d 42 and m i n e . F o r some t i m e a r c h a e o l o g i s t s had a t t e m p t e d t o c l a s s i f y s u c h s e c e n e s as r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f v a r y i n g t y p e s : f u n e r a r y m e a l s , t h e h e a v e n l y b a n q u e t , t h e m u l t i p l i c a t i o n o f t h e l o a v e s and f i s h e s , and t h e e u c h a r i s t ( o f u i h i c h t h e f i s h \ 43 was a s u p p o s e d s y m b o l ) . V o g e l , h o w e v e r , p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e c u r r e n t t r e n d among C h r i s t i a n a r c h a e o l o g i s t s i s t o s e e i n t h e s e v a r i o u s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s t h e d e p i c t i n g o f an a c t u a l m e a l : " I n r e a l i t y , i t seems, t h e meal s c e n e s i n c i m e t e r i a l i c o n o g r a p h y a r e a l l r e a l i s t i c ( i . e . , n o n - s y m b o l i c ) r e p r e s e n -t a t i o n s o f r e f r i g e r i a o r f u n e r e a l b a n q u e t s , c e l e b r a t e d down h e r e by t h e l i v i n g , and n o t i n t h e n e x t w o r l d by t h e b l e s s e d . The c u m u l a t i v e e v i d e n c e o f t h e p e r i n e n t New T e s t a m e n t and e p i g r a p h i c a l d a t a t h u s l e a d s us t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e " P a u l i n e " b r e a d and w i n e t y p e o f e u c h a r i s t and t h e b r e a d - o n l y t y p e d i s t i n g u i s h e d by L i e t z m a n n , t h e r e e x -i s t e d i n e a r l y C h r i s t i a n i t y a t h i r d t y p e o f e u c h a r i s t i c m e a l , c o n s i s t i n g o f b r e a d and f i s h . T h i s t y p e no d o u b t grew o u t o f t h e p r i m i t i v e " b r e a k i n g o f br e a d s " 5 ( i n w h i c h t h e meal s e c t i o n w o u l d p r o b a b l y have s o m e t i m e s c o n s i s t e d o f f i s h ) , and was c o n c e i v e d o f as a meal w i t h & t h e r i s e n C h r i s t . As t h e b r e a d and w i n e t y p e l o o k e d back t o t h e L a s t S u p p e r a s i t s " i n s t i -t u t i o n , " so t h i s t y p e l o o k e d back t o J e s u s ' f e e d i n g o f t h e m u l t i t u d e ( t r a n s f o r m e d by t r a d i t i o n i n t o a m i r a c l e ) . D u r i n g 101 t h e s e c o n d c e n t u r y , t h i s t y p e uias e i t h e r s u p p r e s s e d and r e -p l a c e d by t h e e u c h a r i s t i c model commended by t h e A p o s t l e , a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o the Agape, o r , as t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e v i -dence a p p e a r s t o s u g g e s t , i n c e r t a i n c i r c l e s t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a f u n e r a r y meal uihich e x i s t e d s i d e by s i d e w i t h th e c l a s s i c a l t y p e o f e u c h a r i s t . These f u n e r a r y meals mould have been the n a t u r a l o u t g r o w t h o f a r i t e i n w h i c h t h e d o m i n a n t i d e a was t h a t o f e a t i n g w i t h t h e r e s u r r e c t e d L o r d , and i n -deed s u c h a c o n c e p t i o n may w e l l have p e r s i s t e d i n them. The F o r m a t i o n and E a r l y D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e C l a s s i c a l Type Our i n v e s t i g a t i o n s t o t h i s p o i n t have l e d us t o d i s t i n -g u i s h t h r e e t y p e s o f e u c h a r i s t i c meals i n t h e f i r s t C h r i s t i a n c e n t u r y . The e a r l i e s t , the " b r e a k i n g o f t h e b r e a d " i n t h e p r i m i t i v e J e r u s a l e m community was a d i r e c t d e s c e n d a n t o f J e s u s 1 r e g u l a r t a b l e - f e l l o w s h i p , and was c e l e b r a t e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h an a c t u a l m e a l . I t wassan e x p r e s s i o n o f communion among the f i r s t C h r i s t i a n s , and i t s d o m i n a n t theme was one o f e s c h a -t o l o g i c a l j o y i n t h e hope o f an imminent r e t u r n o f t h e L o r d . Out o f i t d e v e l o p e d a s e c o n d t y p e , w hich r e f l e c t e d a more a d -v a n c e d s t a g e i n t h e C h u r c h ' s s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s . N o r m a l l y c o n s i s t i n g o f a meal o f b r e a d and f i s h , i t s c e l e b r a n t s b e l i e v e d t h e m s e l v e s t o be s h a r i n g t h e meal w i t h t h e r e s u r r e c t e d C h r i s t , and f o u n d a d o m i n i c a l f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e i r r i t e i n t h e m u l t i -p l i c a t i o n o f t h e l o a v e s and f i s h e s . N e i t h e r o f t h e s e r i t e s , we have f o u n d , was r e l a t e d t o J e s u s * L a s t S u p p e r o r t o a 102 t h e o l o g y o f J e s u s ' d e a t h . H a v i n g d i g r e s s e d somewhat i n o r d e r t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e s e two t y p e s o f e a r l y e u c h a r i s t i c m e a l s , we must now r e t u r n t o t h e L a s t S u p p e r t r a d i t i o n and t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c l a s s i c a l o r " P a u l i n e " e u c h a r i s t i c t y p e i I n t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r we have f o u n d t h a t w h i l e J e s u s d i d n o t i n t e n d t o i n s t i t u t e any r i t e a t h i s L a s t S u p p e r , i t seems t h a t b e f o r e P a u l t h e r e was a l i t u r g y ( a t t e s t e d i n a t l e a s t two t r a d i t i o n s ) 4 ^ w h i c h was r e g a r d e d as b e i n g i n some s e n s e a r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e L a s t Sup-p e r . B r e a d and a cup o f w i n e ( o r p o s s i b l y w a t e r ) c o n s t i t u t e d t h e s p e c i a l e l e m e n t s ; o v e r them were r e p e a t e d J e s u s ' words o f i n s t i t u t i o n . S i n c e , as we have s e e n , e a r l y J e w i s h C h r i s t i a n i t y c e l e -b r a t e d a " b r e a k i n g o f t h e b r e a d " t y p e e u c h a r i s t , we may s u p -pose w i t h B u l t m a n n ^ 0 t h a t h i s L a s t S u p p e r t y p e o r i g i n a t e d i n p r e - P a u l i n e H e l l e n i s t i c C h r i s t i a n i t y . U s i n g Mark and t h e An-t i o c h e n e l i t u r g y a s o u r s o u r c e s , we c a n d i s t i n g u i s h f i v e t h e o -47 l o g i c a l m o t i f s i n t h i s p r e - P a u l i n e H e l l e n i s t i c e u c h a r i s t . F i r s t , t h e r e a r e t h e words " o f t h e c o v e n a n t , " w h i c h i n t e r p r e t J e s u s ' d e a t h as t h e s a c r i f i c e upon w h i c h t h e new c o v e n a n t i s f o u n d e d . I t h a s been shown above t h a t t h i s c o n c e p t i o n may be r e a s o n a b l y a t t r i b u t e d t o J e s u s h i m s e l f . The d o c t r i n e o f a c o v e n a n t s a c r i f i c e i s e s s e n t i a l l y e s c h a t o l o g i c a l : t h e i d e a i s t h a t j u s t as Yahweh's f i r s t c o v e n a n t w i t h I s r a e l was r a t i f i e d by a b l o o d y s a c r i f i c e ( E x . 2 4 : 8 - 1 1 ) , s o t h e new c o v e n a n t , t h e new e s c h a t o l o g i c a l o r d e r ( J e r . 3 1 : 3 1 f f . ) , i s b r o u g h t i n t o 103 b e i n g t h r o u g h the d e a t h o f C h r i s t . S e c o n d l y , t h e r e i s the d o c t r i n e o f e x p i a t o r y s a c r i f i c e f o r s i n s , r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e words " f o r you" (1 Co. 11:24) o r " p o u r e d o u t f o r many" (flflk. 1 4 : 2 4 ) . There a r e a l l u s i o n s h e r e t o b o t h t h e c u l t i c s a c r i -f i c e s o f p r o p i t i a t i o n i n the O l d T e s t a m e n t , and t o the S u f -f e r i n g S e r v a n t m o t i f . The body and b l o o d o f C h r i s t have been o f f e r e d as a s a c r i f i c e t o a t o n e f o r man's s i n ; C h r i s t i s t h e S u f f e r i n g S e r v a n t who f r e e l y gave h i m s e l f f o r t h e m u l t i t u d e . T h i r d l y , t h e r e i s what Bultmann c a l l s t h e " s a c r a m e n t a l i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n o f t h e a c t , " i . e . , t h e i d e a t h a t t h e b r e a d and wine a r e o f f e r e d t o t h e p a r t a k e r s o f the meal as t h e body and b l o o d o f J e s u s . T h i s n o t i o n was a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y p r e - P a u l i n e ; i n f a c t , B u ltmann, who does n o t a c c e p t t h a t the L a s t S u p p e r t r a -d i t i o n goes back t o J e s u s , b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e i d e a o f communion i n t h e body and b l o o d o f C h r i s t was the o r i g i n a l and d o m i n a n t 48 e u c h a r i s t i c m o t i f . The r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n i n 1 Co. 10:16 s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s c o n c e p t i o n was w e l l known t o P a u l ' s r e a d e r s and G o g u e l c o n t e n d s t h a t even t h e r h y t h m i c f o r m o f t h e v e r s e 50 i n d i c a t e s a l i t u r g i c a l f o r m u l a : The cup o f b l e s s i n g which we b l e s s , i s i t n o t a p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the b l o o d o f C h r i s t ? The b r e a d which we b r e a k , i s i t n o t a p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e body o f C h r i s t ? To t h e s e t h r e e m o t i f s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by Bultmann we may add a n o t h e r : t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e e s c h a t o l o g i c a l vow o f a b s t i -104 n e n c e i n t h e t h r e e s y n o p t i c g o s p e l s , a s w e l l a s P a u l ' s d e -c l a r a t i o n t h a t t h e e u c h a r i s t i c c e l e b r a t i o n p r o c l a i m s t h e L o r d ' s d e a t h " u n t i l he comes" (1 Co. 1 1 : 2 6 ) , i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e c e l e b r a t i o n uias c o n s i d e r e d an a n t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e m e s s i -a n i c b a n q u e t . F i n a l l y , i n t h e A n t i o c h e n e l i t u r g y a s p e c i -f i c a l l y a e t i o l o g i c a l m o t i f uias i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e f o r m o f t h e i n j u n c t i o n t o r e p e a t . T h i s i n j u n c t i o n g i v e s a f o r m a l v a l i d i t y 51 t o t h e c u l t i c a c t i o n : i t i s noui a f o r m o f s a c r e d l a u i , and t h r o u g h i t t h e s a v i n g a c t o f C h r i s t i s made p r e s e n t by a n a -m n e s i s . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e m o t i f s u i h i c h have been d i s c e r n e d f r o m t h e i n s t i t u t i o n n a r r a t i v e s , a n o t h e r a s p e c t o f t h i s p r i m i t i v e c l a s s i c a l t y p e e u c h a r i s t may be d e t e r m i n e d f r o m an e x a m i n a t i o n o f a d i f f e r e n t l i t u r g i c a l f o r m u l a , n a m e l y t h e M a r a n t h a . The p r e s e n c e o f t h i s f o r m u l a i n t h e l i t u r g y o f t h e D i d a c h e ( 1 0 : 6 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t e v e n i n t h e p e r i o d uie a r e c o n s i d e r i n g noui i t b e l o n g e d t o t h e e u c h a r i s t i c c e l e b r a t i o n . The f a c t t h a t t h e e x p r e s s i o n i s A r a m a i c i s p r o o f o f i t s a n t i q u i t y , a n d , as was 52 n o t e d i n t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r , i t was o r i g i n -a l l y u s e d i n i t h e e a r l i e s t c o n t i n u a t i o n o f J e s u s ' t a b l e -f e l l o w s h i p , i n w h i c h t h e d i s c i p l e s c o n f i d e n t l y e x p e c t e d t h e i m m i n e n t r e t u r n o f t h e L o r d . H owever, P a u l ' s c i t a t i o n o f t h e same f o r m u l a (1 r;Co. 16:22) a t t e s t s t o t h e f a c t t h a t i t was c a r r i e d o v e r i n t o t h e " s a c r a m e n t a l " c e l e b r a t i o n s o f H e l l e n i s -t i c C h r i s t i a n i t y . I t s v e r y p r e s e n c e i n t h e s e c e l e b r a t i o n s i s 1 0 5 an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t h e r e t h e f o r m u l a s h o u l d n o t be i n t e r -53 p r e t e d i n a p u r e l y f u t u r i s t i c - e s c h a t o l o g i c a l s e n s e , and t h a t i t i s a s o r t o f p r o t o - e p i c l e s i s , i n v o k i n g t h e p r e s e n c e 54 o f t h e L o r d i n t h e m e a l . The i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e o f t h i s i n v o c a t i o n i s t h a t i n a l l t h r e e i n s t a n c e s o f i t s a p p e a r a n c e i n e a r l y C h r i s t i a n l i t e r a t u r e (1 Co. 1 6 : 2 2 ; A p o c . 22 :20; D i d . 10:6) i t i s i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d e d by an a n a t h e m a t i s a t i o n o f o r c a l l t o r e p e n t a n c e o f u n f a i t h f u l C h r i s t i a n s . T h i s f a c t l e a d s us t o d educe t h e p r e s e n c e o f a f u r t h e r t h e o l o g i c a l m o t i f i n t h e p r e - P a u l i n e H e l l e n i s t i c e u c h a r i s t ; t h a t o f C h r i s t ' s j u d g e -ment. I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e r e uias a t r a n s i t i o n f r o m t h e c o n -c e p t i o n o f C h r i s t ' s f u t u r e j u d g e m e n t a t t h e p a r o u s i a , a c o n -c e p t i o n t o u i h i c h e x p r e s s i o n uias g i v e n i n t h e e a r l i e s t b r e a k -i n g o f t h e b r e a d r i t e , t o t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f C h r i s t ' s p r e s e n t j u d g e m e n t o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e e u c h a r i s t i c m e a l . T h i s t r a n s i t i o n mould have o c c u r r e d w i t h t h e c a r r y i n g o v e r o f t h e Anathema-IYlaranatha f o r m u l a e f r o m t h e e a r l i e r , e s c h a t o l o g i c a l l y -o r i e n t e d b r e a d f e l l o w s h i p t o t h e H e l l e n i s t i c r i t e u i h i c h was c o n c e i v e d o f as a communion w i t h t h e L o r d . T h i s p r o c e s s c o n -s t i t u t e s an i m p o r t a n t l i n k b e t w een t h e e a r l i e s t c u l t i c m e a l s and t h e e u c h a r i s t o f P a u l , f o r whom t h e e u c h a r i s t was an o c -c a s i o n o f j u d g e m e n t (1 Co. 1 1 : 2 8 - 3 0 ; t h i s a s p e c t o f P a u l ' s t h e o l o g y i s d i s c u s s e d b e l o w ) . One f u r t h e r o b s e r v a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e e u c h a r i s t i c r i t e i n h e r i t e d , by P a u l i s a p p r o p r i a t e a t t h i s p o i n t . I n a r e c e n t 106 a r t i c l e , H. Schuermann has p o i n t e d o u t t h a t i n s p i t e o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n i d e a s a t t h e v e r b a l l e v e l b etween J e s u s ' L a s t S u p p e r and t h e e a r l y C h r i s t i a n e u c h a r i s t , t h e r e i s a f u n d a -56 m e n t a l u n i t y o f c o n c e p t i o n a t t h e l e v e l o f a c t i o n . The t w o -f o l d a c t i o n o f o f f e r i n g t h e b r e a d and t h e c u p - - w h i c h was w i t h -o u t p a r a l l e l i n c o n t e m p o r a r y J e w i s h c u s t o m i n s o f a r as t h i s a c t i o n was a c c o m p a n i e d by words o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and i n s o f a r as a s i n g l e cup was s h a r e d by a l l p r e s e n t — s i g n i f i e d a t b o t h t h e L a s t S u p p e r and i n t h e l a t e r e u c h a r i s t i c m e a l s t h e o f f e r -57 i n g o f a g i f t o f b l e s s i n g ( S e q e n s q a b e ) ; i n b o t h c a s e s t h i s b l e s s i n g c a n be u n d e r s t o o d as a p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e new e s -c h a t o l o g i c a l o r d e r . 5 8 We t h u s have b e f o r e A.D. 55 o r 56 an e s t a b l i s h e d r i t e i n w h i c h we f i n d t h e e s s e n t i a l e l e m e n t s o f t h e " c l a s s i c a l " t y p e o f e u c h a r i s t i c c e l e b r a t i o n . T h i s r i t e i s v e r y d i f f e r e n t f r o m e i t h e r o f t h e f i r s t two t y p e s w h i c h we have e x a m i n e d . I t d oes s h a r e w i t h t h e b r e a d and f i s h t y p e a n o t i o n o f communion w i t h C h r i s t , t o b u t t h i s i s c o n c e i v e d o f i n a v e r y d i f f e r e n t way. A t t h e same t i m e , i t t o o must have d e v e l o p e d o u t o f t h e o r i g i -n a l b r e a k i n g o f t h e b r e a d . Our p r o b l e m a t t h i s p o i n t i s t o d e t e r m i n e how t h i s o r i g i n a l c e l e b r a t i o n was t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a r i t e w h i c h was c l o s e l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h J e s u s ' d e a t h and w h i c h o f f e r e d i t s p a r t i c i p a n t s communion i n t h e body and b l o o d o f C h r i s t . To c o n f r o n t t h i s p r o b l e m , we must c o n s i d e r t h e d i f f i c u l t and c o m p l i c a t e d q u e s t i o n o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f G r e e k m y s t e r y 107 r e l i g i o n s on t h e s a c r a m e n t a l t h e o l o g y o f e a r l y H e l l e n i s t i c 59 C h r i s t i a n i t y . T h e r e a r e some, l i k e A l b e r t S c h w e i t z e r , mho b e l i e v e t h a t t h e t y p e o f c e l e b r a t i o n u i h i c h P a u l t o o k o v e r f r o m p r i m i t i v e C h r i s t i a n i t y uias e s s e n t i a l l y an e s c h a t o l o g i c a l m e a l , t h o r o u g h l y J e u i i s h i n i t s c o n c e p t i o n s and d e v o i d o f H e l -l e n i s t i c i n f l u e n c e . Houiever, uihen one e x a m i n e s t h e t h e o l o g i -c a l m o t i f s o f t h i s c e l e b r a t i o n , and c o n t r a s t s them w i t h t h e d o m i n a n t mood o f t h e J u d a e o - C h r i s t i a n b r e a k i n g o f t h e b r e a d r i t e , i t seems i m p o s s i b l e t o deny t h e i r a f f i n i t y u i i t h t h e mys-t e r i e s . " I n H e l l e n i s t i c C h r i s t i a n i t y t h e L o r d ' s S u p p e r , l i k e b a p t i s m , i s u n d e r s t o o d as a s a c r a m e n t i n t h e s e n s e o f t h e mys-t e r y r e l i g i o n s ^ " a r g u e s B u l t m a n n . 6 ^ P a u l h i m s e l f h i n t s t h a t he i s auiare o f t h i s a f f i n i t y , by h i s use o f t h e e x p r e s s i o n " t h e t a b l e o f t h e L o r d , " a H e l l e n i s t i c t e r m f o r c u l t i c b a n -q u e t s , and by t h e uiay i n u i h i c h he c o n t r a s t s t h e cup and t a b l e 61 o f t h e L o r d w i t h h e a t h e n s a c r i f i c i a l m e a l s (1 Co. 1 0 : 2 1 ) . The t e r m " m y s t e r y r e l i g i o n s " r e f e r s t o t h o s e Greek r e l i * g i o u s f e l l o w s h i p s u i h i c h were c h a r a c t e r i s e d by s e c r e t r i t e s o f i n i t i a t i o n and s a c r e d m e a l s i n u i h i c h t h e f a i t h f u l c o m m u n i c a t e d w i t h t h e d e i t y . Odo C a s e l d e f i n e s them t h u s : M y s t e r i o n , o r more u s u a l l y t h e p l u r a l m y s t e r i a , i s t h e Greek d e s i g n a t i o n f o r t h e a n c i e n t H e l l e n i c and l a t e r H e l l e n i s t i c s e c r e t c u l t s w h i c h a r e u n l i k e t h e c u l t s o f t h e P o l i s ; t h e y g i v e t o t h e w o r s h i p p e r s o f a g o d , who have been s p e c i a l l y i n i t i a t e d and t h e r e -by j o i n e d t o t h e g o d , a c l o s e r and more p e r s o n a l u n i o n w i t h h i m ; t h i s u n i o n r e a c h e s b e y o n d d e a t h and p r o m i s e s a happy e x i s t e n c e i n t h e n e x t w o r l d . 108 I n c l a s s i c a l G r e e c e , t h e b e s t known m y s t e r i e s a r e t h o s e o f D e meter and P e r s e p h o n e c e l e b r a t e d a t E l e u s i s . I n t h e H e l l e n -i s t i c p e r i o d t h e y were c h i e f l y o f e a s t e r n o r i g i n , c o m i n g f r o m A n a t o l i a ( C y b e l e - A t t i s ) , E g y p t ( I s i s - O s i r i s ) , S y r i a ( A p h r o -d i t e - A d o n i s ) , and P e r s i a ( M i t h r a s ) . W h i l e t h e m y t h o l o g i c a l b a s i s o f t h e s e m y s t e r i e s d i f f e r e d , e a c h o f them had a s a c r e d meal ( i n t h e c u l t o f M i t h r a s , t h e p r i e s t u t t e r e d a f o r m u l a o v e r a p i e c e o f b r e a d and a cup o f w a t e r ; i n t h a t o f O s i r i s , t h e f a i t h f u l a t e and d r a n k O s i r i s i n t h e f o r m o f b r e a d and 63 w a t e r ) . I n t h e r i t e s o f C y b e l e and A t t i s t h e i n i t i a t e was b e l i e v e d t o be r e b o r n t h r o u g h b a p t i s m i n t h e b l o o d o f a b u l l ( t a u r o b o l i u m ) o r ram ( c r i o b o l i u m ) . The p u r p o s e o f t h e s e i n -i t i a t o r y r i t e s and s a c r e d m e a l s was t o renew t h e b e l i e v e r and b r i n g him i n t o a m y s t i c u n i o n w i t h t h e d e i t y . Through t h e s a c r e d r i t u a l t h e p r i m o r d i a l s a v i n g deed o f t h e god was b e l i e v e d t o be made p r e s e n t ; t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n , by p e r f o r m i n g t h e r i t e , t o o k p a r t i n t h e s a v i n g a c t and t h e r e b y won s a l -v ation.° 4 "The members o f t h e c u l t p r e s e n t a g a i n i n a r i t u a l , s y m b o l i c f a s h i o n , t h a t p r i m e v a l a c t ; i n h o l y words and r i t e s o f p r i e s t and f a i t h f u l t h e r e a l i t y i s t h e r e once more. The c e l e b r a n t community i s u n i t e d i n t h e d e e p e s t f a s h i o n w i t h t h e 65 L o r d t h e y w o r s h i p . " Many o f t h e s e m y s t e r y r i t e s c e l e b r a t e d a r e d e m p t i o n p r o f -f e r e d by a d y i n g and r e s u r r e c t i n g g o d . As an e x a m p l e , we c a n 109 c i t e t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s o f L u c i a n (De_ Pea S y r i a 6) c o n c e r n i n g t h e A p h r o d i t e c u l t : And I saw i n 8yblos a g r e a t s h r i n e o f t h e A p h r o -d i t e o f B y b l o s i n w h i c h t h e y a l s o c a r r y o u t t h e O r g i a o f A d o n i s . F o r t h e y s a y t h a t t h e d o w n f a l l o f A d o n i s was b r o u g h t a b o u t i n t h e i r l a n d by t h e w i l d b o a r . I n memory o f h i s s u f f e r i n g t h e y s t r i k e t h e m s e l v e s e a c h ^ y e a r and mourn. They c a r r y o u t t h e m y s t e r i e s (bpy*l&- ) and t h e y c a r r y o u t g r e a t m o u r n i n g f e a s t s t h r o u g h o u t t h e l a n d . B u t when t h e y have s t r u c k t h e m s e l v e s enough and have wept enough t h e y s a c r i f i c e t o A d o n i s ; f i r s t a s a c r i f i c e o f t h e d e a d , as t o one who i s d e a d ; t h e n , on t h e n e x t d a y , t h e y r e c i t e t h e myth t h a t he i s a l i v e , and t h e y s e n d h i m up i n t o t h e a i r . I n s u c h a r i t e , j u s t as i n t h e b r e a d and cup t y p e e u c h a r i s t o f H e l l e n i s t i c C h r i s t i a n i t y , t h e r e i s an e m p h a s i s on t h e r e d e e m i n g e f f i c a c y o f t h e god's d e a t h . "The K y r i o s o f a m y s t e r y i s a god who h a s e n t e r e d i n t o human m i s e r y and s t r u g g l e , has made h i s a p p e a r a n c e on e a r t h ( e p i p h a n y ) and f o u g h t h e r e , s u f f e r e d , e v e n been d e f e a t e d ; t h e w h o l e s o r r o w o f m a n k i n d i n p a i n i s b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r i n a m o u r n i n g f o r t h e god who must d i e . " 6 7 From e v e n t h i s c u r s o r y g l a n c e a t t h e i d e a s and r i t e s o f t h e m y s t e r y r e l i g i o n s , i t w i l l be o b v i o u s t h a t t h e r e a r e many s t r i k i n g p a r a l l e l s w i t h e a r l y H e l l e n i s t i c and P a u l i n e C h r i s -t i a n i t y , and i n p a r t i c u l a r w i t h t h e e u c h a r i s i t i c c e l e b r a t i o n t a k e n o v e r by P a u l f r o m t h e e a r l i e r G e n t i l e c h u r c h . The q u e s t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n C h r i s t i a n i t y and t h e mys-t e r i e s i s n o t , as we have s a i d , s i m p l e , and i t i s n o t w i t h i n 110 t h e s c o p e o f t h i s e s s a y t o d i s c u s s i t i n g r e a t d e t a i l . A t one t i m e R i c h a r d R e i t z e n s t e i n c o u l d c o n f i d e n t l y p r o c l a i m t h a t he had f o u n d t h e s o u r c e o f C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e i n t h e I r a n i a n m y s t e r i e s , and W i l h e l m B o u s s e t c o u l d f i n d i n t h e m y s t e r i e s ' c u l t i c i m i t a t i o n o f t h e d e a t h and r e s u r r e c t i o n o f t h e god t h e b a s i s f o r t h e P a u l i n e d o c t r i n e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e d e a t h and r e s u r r e c t i o n o f C h r i s t . F o r a number o f r e a s o n s , few s c h o l a r s t o d a y w o u l d h o l d t o a d i r e c t g e n e t i c d e p e n d e n c e o f e a r l y C h r i s t i a n i t y upon t h e m y s t e r y r e l i g i o n s . I n t h e c a s e o f t h e e u c h a r i s t , we have s e e n i n t h e f i r s t c h a p -t e r t h a t t h e e u c h a r i s t and t h e L a s t S u p p e r t r a d i t i o n c o u l d n o t , as b e l i e v e d by H e i t m u e l l e r and o t h e r s , h ave been c r e a t e d by H e l l e n i s t i c C h r i s t i a n i t y o u t o f p r e - e x i s t e n t mys-t e r y c o n c e p t i o n s . Some s c h o l a r s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e i n f l u e n c e d by t h e B a r t h i a n n o t i o n o f t h e i n c o m p a r a b l e n a t u r e o f t h e Gos-p e l , go s o f a r as t o deny any i n f l u e n c e o f t h e m y s t e r i e s on t h e p r i m i t i v e C h r i s t i a n m e s s a g e . They s t r e s s t h a t C h r i s t i a n -i t y , u n l i k e t h e m y s t e r i e s , d e r i v e s f r o m a s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i c a l p e r s o n n a g e , and t h e y c o n t e n d t h a t one c a n a d e q u a t e l y e x p l a i n t h e t h e o l o g y o f e a r l y C h r i s t i a n i t y — i t s d o c t r i n e s o f t h e r e s u r r e c t i o n , o f r e d e m p t i o n , and e v e n o f t h e s a c r a m e n t s — i n t e r m s o f J e w i s h c a t e g o r i e s , and w i t h o u t r e c o u r s e t o G r e e k m y s t e r i e s . A d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h i s t h a t o f A r t h u r D a r b y Mock, who r e j e c t s a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t ween e a r l y C h r i s t i a n i t y and t h e 111 m y s t e r i e s on t h e g r o u n d s o f l i n g u i s t i c e v i d e n c e . He f i n d s t h a t t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c v o c a b u l a r y o f t h e m y s t e r y r i t e s — XCACCt] ( i n i t i a t i o n ) , JULVCO) ( i n i t i a t e ) , /UVCTXijplOV ( m y s t e r y ) --do n o t f o r m p a r t o f t h e l a n g u a g e o f e a r l y C h r i s t i a n i t y , a t l e a s t i n t h e s e n s e u i h i c h t h e s e words had i n t h e m y s t e r i e s . J o h n u s e s none o f t h e s e w o r d s ; P a u l n e v e r u s e s ZtAtZT] ; he u s e s jUVtk) o n l y once t o d e s c r i b e what l i f e had t a u g h t him ( P h i l . 4 : 1 2 ) , and t h o u g h he u s e s /L4,V(TCr]/>lOV o f t e n , i t i s o n l y i n t h e LXX s e n s e o f " s e c r e t . " 6 ^ W i t h r e s p e c t t o C h r i s -t i a n w o r s h i p , Nock a r g u e s t h a t i t s v o c a b u l a r y , words s u c h as 70 " b l e s s i n g " and " t h a n k s g i v i n g , " a r e t y p i c a l l y J e w i s h . Nock r e c o g n i s e d t h a t " t h e E u c h a r i s t r e g a r d e d a s t h e a c t u a l i s a t i o n o f a s o t e r i o l o g i c a l drama i s i n a l i n e w i t h c o n t e m p o r a r y mys-t e r i e s , " y e t he does n o t b e l i e v e t h a t i t i s . t h e c a s e o f one i n f l u e n c i n g t h e o t h e r , b u t r a t h e r "one o f t h e c l e a r e s t c a s e s 71 o f c o n v e r g e n t r e l i g i o u s d e v e l o p m e n t . " N e v e r t h e l e s s , we must r e c o g n i s e t h a t m y s t e r y c o n c e p t i o n s r e p r e s e n t s o m e t h i n g more t h a n s i m p l e t e c h n i c a l v o c a b u l a r y , and t h a t t h e m y s t e r y r e l i g i o n s may have p r o v i d e d f o r e a r l y G e n t i l e C h r i s t i a n i t y a k i n d o f s p i r i t u a l a t m o s p h e r e w h i c h may h ave made p o s s i b l e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f C h r i s t i a n i d e a s i n a c e r t a i n d i r e c t i o n . T h i s i m p l i e s n o t s o much a s i m p l e b o r -r o w i n g o f m y s t e r y c o n c e p t i o n s as;:an u n c o n s c i o u s a s s i m i l a t i o n o f t h e t y p e o f r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e p r e s e n t e d by t h e m y s t e r i e s . T h i s i s t h e p o s i t i o n o f Odo C a s e l and h i s d i s c i p l e s among t h e 112 monks o f M a r i a L a a c h . A r g u i n g f r o m a t h e o l o g i c a l p o i n t o f v i e w , C a s e l b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e m y s t e r i e s f u r n i s h e d a p r o v i -d e n t i a l f o r e s h a d o w i n g o f C h r i s t i a n i t y . A l t h o u g h , he s a y s , C h r i s t i a n i t y h a s r e j e c t e d t h e s e h e a t h e n m y s t e r i e s b e c a u s e o f God's u n i q u e r e v e l a t i o n i n C h r i s t , " a t t h e same t i m e i t has u s e d t h e i r l a n g u a g e i n o r d e r t o c l a r i f y f o r t h e f a i t h f u l t h e e s s e n c e o f r e v e l a t i o n and t h e r e l i g i o n o f t h e n e x t w o r l d , and e s p e c i a l l y t h e i n t e r i o r m e a n i n g o f i t s own r i t u a l and w o r s h i p w h i c h makes p r e s e n t and p e r m i t s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n 72 God's s a v i n g work i n C h r i s t . " F o r C h r i s t i a n i t y , t h e f u n d a -m e n t a l m y s t e r y i s t h a t o f C h r i s t h i m s e l f , a s i s s u g g e s t e d by P a u l i n 1 Co. 2:1: "When I came t o y o u , b r e t h e r e n , I d i d n o t come p r o c l a i m i n g t o you t h e m y s t e r y o f God i n l o f t y w o rds o r w i sdom. F o r I d e c i d e d t o know n o t h i n g among you e x c e p t J e s u s 73 C h r i s t and h i m c r u c i f i e d . " And i t i s i n t h e m y s t e r y o f w o r s h i p t h a t t h i s f i r s t and f u n d a m e n t a l m y s t e r y i s c o n t i n u -a l l y made p r e s e n t t o t h e c ommunity o f b e l i e v e r s . 7 4 An a d m i s s i o n o f some k i n d o f i n f l u e n c e o f t h e G r e ek mys-t e r i e s upon e a r l y C h r i s t i a n i t y must be q u a l i f i e d by t h e r e c o g -n i t i o n o f two f a c t o r s . The f i r s t i s t h a t t h e m y s t e r i e s were p r o b a b l y n o t t h e o n l y f o r m o f H e l l e n i s t i c r e l i g i o u s e x p r e s s i o n w h i c h e x e r c i s e d an i n f l u e n c e upon e a r l y G r e e k C h r i s t i a n i t y . B u l t m a n n and Kaesemann m a i n t a i n t h a t an e a r l y f o r m o f G n o s t i c i s m w i t h a h e a v e n l y r e d e e m e r myth a l s o e x e r c i s e d a d e c i s i v e i n f l u e n c e on t h e t h e o l o g y o f p r i m i t i v e C h r i s t i a n i t y . 7 113 The s e c o n d i s t h a t one must d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n t h e t y p e o f i n f l u e n c e e x e r c i s e d by t h e m y s t e r i e s on t h e C h r i s t i a n i t y o f t h e New T e s t a m e n t p e r i o d and t h a t t y p e w h i c h a p p e a r s i n a l a t e r p e r i o d . Hugo Rah n e r d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h r e e s t a g e s i n t h i s 7 R p r o c e s s . F i r s t , i n t h e New T e s t a m e n t p e r i o d and e s p e c i a l l y w i t h P a u l , t h e r e was an u n c o n s c i o u s a s s i m i l a t i o n o f c e r t a i n m y s t e r y c o n c e p t i o n s ; y e t C h r i s t i a n i t y r e m a i n e d q u i t e a d i f -f e r e n t s o r t o f r e l i g i o u s phenomenon, s t i l l s t r o n g l y e s c h a t o -l o g i c a l and e x p r e s s i n g i t s e l f c h i e f l y w i t h i n a f r a m e w o r k o f J e w i s h i d e a s . Then i n t h e s e c o n d and t h i r d c e n t u r i e s , when t h e m y s t e r i e s themselv/es t o o k on a n e o - P l a t o n i c c h a r a c t e r , we f i n d on t h e one hand a C h r i s t i a n p o l e m i c a g a i n s t m y s t e r i e s , and on t h e o t h e r hand t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f m y s t e r y - r e l i g i o n v o -c a b u l a r y ( s u c h as juviTCfJpiOV and s a c r a m e n t u m ) t o C h r i s t i a n w o r s h i p . F i n a l l y , i n t h e f o u r t h and f i f t h c e n t u r i e s , when t h e pagan m y s t e r i e s were d r a w i n g t o an end and had c e a s e d t o be a s e r i o u s t h r e a t t o C h r i s t i a n i t y , one f i n d s i n t h e c h u r c h t h e f u l l a p p l i c a t i o n o f what R a h n e r c a l l s "a mannered m y s t e r y t e r -79 m i n o l o g y , " a s w e l l as s u c h m y s t e r y p r a c t i c e s as t h e d i s c i -p l i n a a r c a n i . " I t was," Nock o b s e r v e s , "a m a t t e r o f d i p l o m a t i c and p a e d o g o g i c t e c h n i q u e , and i n v o l v e d a f a i r l y c o n s c i o u s e f -f o r t . " 8 0 The e a r l y h i s t o r y o f t h e c l a s s i c a l t y p e o f e u c h a r i s t c a n be u n d e r s t o o d a s an e l e m e n t i n t h e g r a d u a l p r o c e s s o f t h e H e l -l e n i s a t i o n and d e - e s c h a t o l o g i s a t i o n o f t h e t h e o l o g y and p r a c t i c e 114 o f t h e p r i m i t i v e C h r i s t i a n C h u r c h . An i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n t h i s p r o c e s s was t h e i n f l u e n c e , e v e n i f a t f i r s t o n l y i n d i r e c t , o f t h e G r e ek m y s t e r y r e l i g i o n s . There can be l i t t l e d o u b t t h a t t h i s f a c t o r was d e c i s i v e i n t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e J u d a e o -C h r i s t i a n b r e a k i n g o f t h e b r e a d i n t o t h e H e l l e n i s t i c C h r i s t i a n r i t e w h i c h a c t u a l i s e d t h e C h r i s t i a n s o t e r i o l o g i c a l drama and w h i c h b r o u g h t t h e b e l i e v e r s i n t o a d i r e c t communion w i t h t h e i r L o r d . E a r l y G e n t i l e C h r i s t i a n i t y had i n h e r i t e d b o t h t h e f e l l o w -s h i p m e al and t h e o r a l t r a d i t i o n c o n c e r n i n g J e s u s ' L a s t S u p p e r . W i t h t h e a i d o f t h o s e m y s t e r y c o n c e p t i o n s w h i c h f o r m e d p a r t o f t h e common c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e o f t h e H e l l e n i s t i c w o r l d , i t was a s i m p l e m a t t e r t o c o m b i n e t h e s e two t r a d i t i o n s and t h e r e b y c r e a t e t h e s a c r a m e n t a l c e l e b r a t i o n w h i c h was t o become t h e b a s i c e u c h a r i s t i c m o d e l . N a t u r a l l y , m y s t e r y c o n c e p t i o n s were n o t t h e o n l y o n e s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t . F o r e a r l y C h r i s t i a n s — G r e e k a s w e l l a s J e w i s h — t h e O l d T e s t a m e n t s e r v e d as a s o u r c e - b o o k f r o m w h i c h t h e y c o u l d draw what t h e y b e l i e v e d t o be d i v i n e l y r e v e a l e d i d e a s t o i n t e r p r e t t h e s a v i n g a c t o f C h r i s t . Thus t h e m o t i f s o f c u l t i c s a c r i f i c e , o f t h e S u f f e r i n g S e r v a n t , a n d , by t h e t i m e o f t h e s y n o p t i c g o s p e l s , o f t h e P a s s o v e r , c o u l d e a s i l y be i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e e u c h a r i s -t i c c e l e b r a t i o n . Thus t h e t y p e o f e u c h a r i s t w h i c h P a u l t o o k o v e r f r o m t h e H e l l e n i s t i c c h u r c h was a l r e a d y , i n a s e n s e , a " m y s t e r y . " 115 P a u l ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s a c r e d meal can be v i e w e d as an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n t h e l i g h t o f h i s own v i e w o f t h e s a l v a t i o n 81 o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e s a c r a m e n t w h i c h he i n h e r i t e d . On t h e one h a n d , P a u l a s s i m i l a t e d f r o m t h e H e l l e n i s t i c c h u r c h b o t h t h e e u c h a r i s t i c c e l e b r a t i o n ( s p e c i f i c a l l y , i n t h e f o r m o f t h a t A n t i o c h e n e l i t u r g y w h i c h was a l s o u s e d by L u k e ) and t h e c o n -c e p t i o n o f i t as a s a c r a m e n t w h i c h e f f e c t s communion w i t h t h e c r u c i f i e d and r i s e n C h r i s t . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , as Kaesemann has p o i n t e d o u t , " a l m o s t t h e w h o l e o f P a u l ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e p r i m i t i v e e u c h a r i s t i c t r a d i t i o n b e a r s t h e mark o f t h e f a c t t h a t he h a s a d o p t e d and a d a p t e d t h e g n o s t i c myth o f an 82 A r c h e t y p a l Man who i s a l s o t h e Redeemer." Thus P a u l c l o s e l y 8 3 r e l a t e s t h e e u c h a r i s t i c body o f C h r i s t t o t h e m y s t i c a l body o f C h r i s t , as w e l l as t o t h e p r o c l a m a t i o n o f t h e G o s p e l as a p r e s e n t r e a l i t y . P a u l s p e a k s o f t h e e u c h a r i s t on o n l y two o c c a s i o n s , i n c h a p t e r t e n and i n c h a p t e r e l e v e n o f 1 C o r i n t h i a n s . I n c h a p -t e r t e n P a u l a l l u d e s t o t h e s a c r a m e n t s o f b a p t i s m and t h e e u -c h a r i s t i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n o f C h r i s t i a n e t h i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I n t h e f i r s t t h i r t e e n v e r s e s o f t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e A p o s t l e i s a t t e m p t i n g t o c o r r e c t any f a l s e c o n f i d e n c e 84 w h i c h m i g h t a r i s e o u t o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e s e s a c r a m e n t s . T h i s he d o e s by r e f e r e n c e t o t h e f a t e o f t h e u n f a i t h f u l I s r a e l i t e s a t t h e t i m e o f t h e E x o d u s : 116 I want you t o know, b r e t h e r e n , t h a t o u r f a t h e r s were a l l , u n d e r t h e c l o u d , and a l l p a s s e d t h r o u g h t h e s e a , and a l l a t e t h e same s p i r i t u a l f o o d and d r a n k t h e same s p i r i t u a l d r i n k . F o r t h e y d r a n k f r o m t h e s p i r i t u a l r o c k w h i c h f o l l o w e d them, and t h e r o c k was C h r i s t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , w i t h most o f them God was n o t p l e a s e d , f o r t h e y were o v e r -t h r o w n i n t h e w i l d e r n e s s (1 Co. 1 0 : 1 - 5 ) . In t h i s p a s s a g e , P a u l i s s e e k i n g t o e s t a b l i s h n o t m e r e l y t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s , b u t t h e i d e n t i t y o f t h e o l d and t h e new s a v i n g e v e n t s : i t i s C h r i s t h i m s e l f w h i c h was t h e r o c k a c -85 c o m p a n y i n g t h e w a n d e r i n g s o f t h e J e w s . The p a s s i n g t h r o u g h t h e Red Sea and j o u r n e y i n g b e n e a t h t h e p i l l a r o f c l o u d c o r -r e s p o n d s t o b a p t i s m ; t h e e a t i n g o f manna and d r i n k i n g o f t h e w a t e r o f t h e r o c k t o t h e e u c h a r i s t . As t h e I s r a e l i t e s were t h e c h o s e n p e o p l e who were c a l l e d t o t a k e p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e P r o m i s e d L a n d , so C h r i s t i a n s a r e now t h o s e "upon whom t h e end o f t h e a g e s has come" (1 Co. 1 0 : 1 1 ) , t h o s e who a r e t h e h e i r s o f t h e m e s s i a n i c k i n g d o m . P a u l ' s p u r p o s e i n t h u s p o r t r a y i n g I s r a e l as t h e f i r s t r e c i p i e n t o f t h e C h r i s t i a n s a c r a m e n t s was t o r e f u t e t h e o p i n i o n o f c e r t a i n C o r i n t h i a n s t h a t t h e i r s a c r a -ments were i n t h e m s e l v e s a g u a r a n t e e o f s a l v a t i o n : i f t h o s e who were b a p t i s e d i n t h e c l o u d and t h e s e a , who consumed t h e f i r s t s p i r i t u a l f o o d and d r i n k , were n o t s e c u r e f r o m p u n i s h -ment, n e i t h e r a r e t h o s e i n t h e c h u r c h who r e c e i v e b a p t i s m and p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e e u c h a r i s t i c m e a l . The s o u r c e o f t h e C o r i n -t h i a n m i s c o n c e p t i o n was, a s Kaesemann p o i n t s o u t , t h e H e l l e n -i s t i c ( G n o s t i c ) v i e w o f TWLV/** as a h e a v e n l y s u b s t a n c e w h i c h 117 c a n i n v a d e man's e a r t h l y n a t u r e ( &<xp^ ) and r e c a p t u r e him f o r t h e h e a v e n l y w o r l d . Y e t P a u l h i m s e l f makes use o f t h i s same c o n c e p t i o n o f TTV£VjUOi t o e x p o u n d h i s own s a c r a m e n t a l d o c t r i n e . Human e x -i s t e n c e i s n o t f o r h i m a u t o n o m o u s ; r a t h e r i t i s d e t e r m i n e d by i t s i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e u n i v e r s e , and i s t h e o b j e c t o f s t r i f e 87 between t h e e a r t h l y and h e a v e n l y p o w e r s . W i t h i n t h e c o n -t e x t o f t h i s a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l v i e w , t h e d i v i n e TfV£VfiA<* i s f o r P a u l " t h e s u b s t a n c e o f r e s u r r e c t i o n c o r p o r e a l i t y and t h e d i -88 m e n s i o n i n w h i c h t h e R i s e n One e x i s t s . " T h u s , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Kaesemann, t h e m e a n i n g o f many p a s s s a g e s where P a u l s p e a k s o f C h r i s t " i n u s " o r us " i n C h r i s t y i s t h a t C h r i s t e n t e r s i n t o us a s TtVCVjUAt , w h i l e we a r e mem-89 b e r s o f C h r i s t as h i s bod y . F o r P a u l , b o t h b a p t i s m and t h e e u c h a r i s t a r e means by w h i c h we a r e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e body o f C h r i s t , and b o t h a r e t h e work o f t h e one S p i r i t . I n 1 Co. 12:13 P a u l d e c l a r e s t h a t "by one S p i r i t we were a l l b a p t i s e d i n t o one body," and i n t h e p a s s a g e c i t e d a b o v e t h e same c o n -c e p t i o n o f S p i r i t i s a p p l i e d t o t h e e u c h a r i s t . H ere fipu>jUO( TrVSjLMXVLK-OV and TTOjUd TTV£VM^ZLlCOV m e a n f o o d a n d d r i n ( < 90 w h i c h c o n v e y TTVCV^id . B u t f o r P a u l , u n l i k e t h e C o r i n t h i a n e n t h u s i a s t s , t h i s d o e s n o t r e s u l t i n any a u t o m a t i c s a l v a t i o n ; r a t h e r i t g i v e s man t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e new l i f e p r o v i d e d by C h r i s t . 118 I n t h e s e c o n d p a r t o f c h a p t e r t e n ( v s s . 1 4 - 2 2 ) , P a u l moves on t o warn t h e C o r i n t h i a n s a g a i n s t t h e w o r s h i p o f i d o l s . He r e c a l l s t o h i s r e a d e r s two a c k n o w l e d g e d f a c t s : t h a t t h e e u c h a r i s t i c cup and b r e a d a r e a p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e b l o o d and body o f C h r i s t , and t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n h e a t h e n c u l t i c m e a l s i n v o l v e s a f e l l o w s h i p w i t h d e v i l s . To u n d e r s t a n d P a u l ' s a r g u m e n t h e r e , we must r e a l i s e t h a t f o r h i m pagan gods were n o t m e r e l y c r e a t i o n s o f men's i m a g i n a -91 t i o n , b u t were a c t u a l demons. I n t h e pagan s a c r i f i c i a l r i t u a l t o w h i c h P a u l i s r e f e r r i n g , t h e f l e s h o f t h e s l a i n a n i m a l was d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e p a r t s a f t e r h a v i n g been o f -f e r e d t o t h e g o d . One p a r t was b u r n t on t h e a l t a r , and was s u p p o s e d t o be e a t e n by t h e g o d . The s e c o n d p a r t was g i v e n t o t h e t e m p l e , and i f t h e t e m p l e d i d n o t need i t , i t c o u l d be s o l d i n t h e m a r k e t . The t h i r d p a r t b e l o n g e d t o t h e p e r -s o n who p r o v i d e d t h e o f f e r i n g , t o be u s e d by h i m f o r a meal w h i c h t o o k p l a c e a t t h e a t a b l e o f t h e god i n t h e t e m p l e . By means o f t h i s m e a l , t h e h o s t and h i s g u e s t s e n t e r e d i n t o 92 communion w i t h t h e g o d . W i t h r e g a r d t o meat s o l d i n t h e m a r k e t , P a u l s a y s s i m p l y t h a t t h e C h r i s t i a n s h o u l d n o t b o t h e r h i m s e l f e n q u i r i n g as t o w h e t h e r i t has been s a c r i f i c e d ( 1 0 : 2 5 ) . B u t w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e c u l t i c m e a l , he s t a t e s q u i t e f l a t l y , "You c a n n o t d r i n k t h e cup o f t h e L o r d and t h e cup o f demons; you c a n n o t p a r t a k e o f t h e t a b l e o f t h e L o r d and t h e t a b l e o f demons" ( 1 0 : 2 0 f . ) . 119 We have s e e n a l r e a d y how P a u l ' s c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e e u -c h a r i s t i c cup and t a b l e w i t h H e l l e n i s t i c s a c r i f i c i a l meals t h r o w s l i g h t on t h e meaning o f t h e f o r m u l a e KOWCOVZOi VOW mjUaZOf and KOlVU)Vm TOIJ Otojuatzas ZO& KplcrcoGi ( 1 0 : 1 6 ) , and t h a t t h e i d e a , and p e r h a p s even t h e f o r m u l a e t h e m s e l v e s , were i n h e r i t e d f r o m t h e p r e - P a u l i n e H e l l e n i s t i c c h u r c h . I t i s , m o r e o v e r , i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e i n t h i s v e r s e t h e e m p h a s i s p l a c e d on t h e b l e s s i n g o f t h e cup ("the cup o f b l e s s i n g w h i c h we b l e s s " ) and t h e b r e a k i n g o f t h e b r e a d ("the b r e a d which we b r e a k " ) : i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e b l e s s i n g o f the cup and the b r e a k i n g o f t h e b r e a d g i v e t o t h e e l e m e n t s o f t h e meal t h e i r s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r . G o g u e l comments: " I t would be p r e m a t u r e t o t a l k h e r e o f a c o n s e c r a t i o n o f t h e e l e m e n t s , b u t t h e i d e a • •X i s h e r e i n e mbryo."* J In t h e f o l l o w i n g v e r s e , t h e r e i s a t r a n s i t i o n f r o m a c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e body o f C h r i s t i n w h i c h we a r e p a r t i c i p a n t s t o a c o n c e p t i o n o f the body o f C h r i s t w h i c h we o u r s e l v e s c o n -s t i t u t e , and t o make t h i s t r a n s i t i o n , P a u l r e v e r s e s t h e n o r m a l 94 o r d e r o f t h e b r e a d and t h e cup i n v . 16. I t i s i n v e r s e 17 t h a t P a u l ' s t h o u g h t a d v a n c e s upon t h e e u c h a r i s t i c t h e o l o g y w h i c h he i n h e r i t e d . He d e c l a r e s , " B e c a u s e t h e r e i s one b r e a d , we who a r e many a r e one body, f o r we a l l p a r t a k e o f t h e one body." There i s a c l e a r p a r a l l e l between t h i s v e r s e and 1 Co. 12:13, " F o r by one S p i r i t we were a l l b a p t i s e d i n t o one body." A l i k e power i s p r e d i c a t e d o f t h e "one S p i r i t " and t h e "one 120 b r e a d . " I n d e e d , as has been r e m a r k e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h v e r s e 1 0 : 3 , t h e e u c h a r i s t i c f o o d and d r i n k i t s e l f c o n v e y s JTVSOjUct . I t i s t h u s p r e c i s e l y by g i v i n g h i m s e l f t o us a s HiWyiict , t h a t C h r i s t , t h e A r c h e t y p a l Man, g a t h e r s us t o g e t h e r and i n c o r p o r a t e s us i n t o h i s body.^° The s e c o n d p a s s a g e where P a u l s p e a k s o f t h e e u c h a r i s t i s 1 Co. 1 1 : 1 7 - 3 4 . The A p o s t l e ' s p r i m a r y c o n c e r n i n t h i s p a s -s a g e i s t o r e b u k e t h e C o r i n t h i a n C h r i s t i a n s f o r t h e i r u n c h a r i -t a b l e c o n d u c t a t t h e c ommunity m e a l s . The t e r m " L o r d ' s S u p -p e r " ( 1 1 : 2 0 ) , w h i c h P a u l u u s e s t o d e s c r i b e t h e s e m e a l s , e v i -d e n t l y r e f e r s t o a s i n g l e c o m m u n i t y f e a s t , c o m p r i s i n g b o t h what w i l l l a t e r be c a l l e d t h e " a g a p e " and t h e " e u c h a r i s t " ( c f . 11:24).= I n f a c t i t i s l i k e l y t h a t i n t h e C o r i n t h i a n c e l e -b r a t i o n t h e " e u c h a r i s t i c " e l e m e n t s ( i . e . , t h e b r e a d and t h e cup) were s e p a r a t e d by t h e meal p r o p e r . The words " a f t e r s u p -p e r " ( 1 1 : 2 5 ) , w r i t t e n i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e c u p , s u g g e s t t h a t i t was d i s t r i b u t e d a f t e r t h e m e a l . We may t h e r e f o r e c o n j e c t u r e t h a t t h e r i t e o p e n e d w i t h t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e b r e a d , was f o l l o w e d by t h e c o n s u m p t i o n o f t h e " a g a p e , " and was c o n c l u d e d 97 w i t h t h e b l e s s i n g and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e c u p . I t seems P a u l d e s i r e d t o m i n i m i z e t h e a c t u a l meal ( 1 0 : 2 2 , "Do you n o t have y o u r own! h o u s e s t o e a t and d r i n k i n ? " and 1 0 : 3 4 , " i f any one i s h u n g r y , l e t him e a t a t home"), t h o u g h i t i s n o t l i k e l y , 98 a s D e l l i n g b e l i e v e s , t h a t he w i s h e d t o f o r b i d a l l e a t i n g and d r i n k i n g a p a r t f r o m t h e b r e a d and c u p . The " a g a p e " was 121 n o t t o be a r e a l d i n n e r t o s a t i s f y h u n g e r , b u t r a t h e r a r i t u a l t a b l e f e l l o w s h i p . We m i g h t p o i n t (crat t h a t P a u l n o -where s p e c i f i e s t h a t t h e cup c o n t a i n e d w i n e , and t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e i n t h e l i g h t o f Ro. 14:21 ( " i t i s r i g h t n o t t o e a t meat o r d r i n k w i n e o r do a n y t h i n g t h a t makes y o u r b r o t h e r s t u m b l e " ) , and o f t h e p r a c t i c e o f b r e a d and w a t e r e u c h a r i s t s 99 by t h e fflarcionites and o t h e r s e c o n d c e n t u r y g r o u p s , t h a t P a u l p r e f e r r e d t h e use o f w a t e r i n t h e c u p . I d e a l l y , t h i s " L o r d ' s S u p p e r " ( t h e name i n d i c a t e s an e v e n i n g m e a l ) 1 0 0 was s u p p o s e d t o b e g i n when a l l were p r e s e n t , and t h e f o o d was t o be s h a r e d i n common. B u t a p p a r e n t l y t h e r i c h C h r i s t i a n s ( 1 0 : 2 2 b ) were i n c o n s i d e r a t e t o w a r d s t h e p o o r e r o n e s , and s t a r t e d b e f o r e t h e o t h e r s ( 1 0 : 2 1 , 3 4 ) . I n s t e a d o f b e i n g t h e common, s o l e m n c e l e b r a t i o n w h i c h P a u l d e s i r e d , t h e S u p p e r had d e g e n e r a t e d i n t o a number o f p r i v a t e p a r t i e s . I t i s a g a i n s t t h i s b a c k g r o u n d t h a t P a u l q u o t e s and comments upon J e s u s ' words o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Kaesemann has drawn a t t e n t i o n t o t h e number o f l e g a l t e r m s w h i c h a p p e a r i n t h i s p a s s a g e : CVVSppgcr&ai (11 :27) , <*Vfc*ipu>S ,/ / 1 n? (11 :27) , and CVO\Of (11 :27) , and 6w9rji<7) ( 1 1 : 2 5 ) . " H e r e , " Kaesemann s a y s , " t h e r e i s b e i n g handed on t o t h e community an o b l i g a t o r y f o r m u l a o f s a c r e d l a w , t h e u n i m p e a c h a b l e v a l i d i t y o f u i h i c h c o r r e s p o n d s t o i t s c o n t e n t and t o t h e s a c r e d n a t u r e o f 103 t h e a c t i o n s e t i n m o t i o n by t h i s c o n t e n t . " The s a c r a m e n t i s no l o n g e r p r i m a r i l y an a n t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e e s c h a t o l o g i c a l 122 banquet, but r a t h e r an ordinance t i e d to the time of the church, 1 04 i . e . , from the death of C h r i s t to the p a r o u s i a . The c e l e -b r a t i o n of the Lord's 5uppe r--and i n p a r t i c u l a r the "eucha-r i s t i c " p a r t s , the b l e s s i n g and consumption of the bread and the c u p — b r i n g s present here and noui C h r i s t i n h i s redeeming death, and thereby brings the b e l i e v e r s i n t o communion uiith t h e i r K y r i o s . The e u c h a r i s t i s a "remembrance" (10:24, 25) of the Cross, conceived of not as a simple remembering, but r a t h e r as " o b j e c t i v e l y r e c a l l i n g the past so that i t i s again present 105 and' living 1!;'" Behm e x p l a i n s that the e a r l y C h r i s t i a n s com-memorate not merely i n such s o r t t h a t they simply remember, but, r a t h e r i n accordance with the a c t i v e sense of htV&/L4VTj(TL$ . The making present by the l a t e r com-munity of the Lord who i n s t i t u t e d the Supper, and who put a new <Sx&&>JKYi i n t o e f f e c t by h i s death, i s the goal and content of t h e i r a c t i o n , i n which they repeat what was done by Jesus and h i s D i s c i p l e s on the eve of h i s c r u c i f i x i o n . 0 6 In t h i s sense, one can speak of a " r e a l presence" of C h r i s t i n the e u c h a r i s t , and i t i s i n t h i s context that we must under-stand the meaning of the words of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f o r P a u l . There i s a c l e a r connection between these sayings and the making present of C h r i s t — t h e e a t i n g of the bread and the d r i n k -i:ng of the cup i s a proclamation of the Lord's death (10:26). Thus t h i s presence i s i n some way mediated by the elements 1 07 themselves. Here the body and blood of C h r i s t and the death of C h r i s t are one and the same. The words of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t e l l e x a c t l y what the elements are f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the 123 c e l e b r a t i o n — t h e s a c r i f i c e d body o f C h r i s t and t h e c o v e n a n t i n h i s b l o o d . And i t i s t h i s body and b l o o d w h i c h i s p r o -f a n e d i n t h e u n w o r t h y c o n s u m p t i o n o f t h e b r e a d and cup ( 1 0 : 2 7 ) . I t i s p o i n t l e s s t o a s k w h e t h e r f o r P a u l ( a n d o t h e r e a r l y C h r i s t i a n s ) t h e e u c h a r i s t i c p r e s e n c e i s l i t e r a l o r sym-b o l i c , s i n c e f o r P a u l , and i n a n t i q u i t y g e n e r a l l y , t h a t w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s a c t u a l l y b r i n g s t h e p r e s e n c e o f what i s r e p r e s e n t e d and m e d i a t e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i t . T h i s " m y t h o l o g i c a l " c h a r a c -t e r o f t h e e a r l y u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f e u c h a r i s t i c p r e s e n c e w i l l be f u r t h e r e x p l o r e d i n t h e a p p e n d i x . I t w i l l be n o t i c e d t h a t words o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n t h e l i t u r g y c i t e d by P a u l p r e s e n t us w i t h two d i f f e r e n t b u t r e l a t e d c o n c e p t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e b r e a d f o r m u l a , t h e s a c r a m e n t a l g i f t i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e c r u c i f i e d body o f C h r i s t ( i . e . , t h e d e a t h o f C h r i s t ) , and a c c o r d i n g t o t h e cup f o r m u l a , i t i s a p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e "new c o v e n a n t . " The word KttlVOf i n t h e l a t t e r s a y i n g i s t o be u n d e r s t o o d e s c h a t o l o g i c a l l y , as 108 r e f e r r i n g t o t h a t w h i c h i s f i n a l . The "new c o v e n a n t " h e r e means C h r i s t ' s a c t u a l i s i n g o f t h e e s c h a t o l o g i c a l o r d e r , h i s 109 m a k i n g i t an a l r e a d y p r e s e n t r e a l i t y . The c o n n e c t i o n b e -tween t h e two s a y i n g s i s t h a t t h e d e a t h o f J e s u s e s t a b l i s h e s t h e new c o v e n a n t . The e u c h a r i s t i c cup m e d i a t e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e new d i v i n e o r d e r b e c a u s e i t m e d i a t e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e d e a t h o f C h r i s t ("the c o v e n a n t ijn my b l o o d " ) , on w h i c h 124 t h i s o r d e r i s f o u n d e d . "The e u c h a r i s t g i v e s s a l v a t i o n h e r e and noui by p u t t i n g b e l i e v e r s i n communion u i i t h C h r i s t and m a k i n g them members o f h i s b o d y , b e i n g s uiho h e n c e f o r t h b e l o n g t o t h e w o r l d o f S p i r i t . " 1 1 0 A f t e r h a v i n g warned t h e C o r i n t h i a n c C h r i s t i a n s a g a i n s t u n -w o r t h y r e c e p t i o n o f t h e e u c h a r i s t i c e l e m e n t s , P a u l goes on t o a d m o n i s h h i s C o r i n t h i a n r e a d e r s t h u s : L e t a man e x a m i n e h i m s e l f , and s o e a t o f t h e b r e a d and d r i n k o f t h e c u p . F o r any one who e a t s and d r i n k s w i t h o u t d i s c e r n i n g t h e body e a t s and d r i n k s j u d g e m e n t upon h i m s e l f . That i s why many o f you a r e weak and i l l , and some have f a l l e n a s l e e p ( 1 1 : 2 8 - 3 0 ) . T h i s t e x t , and p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e p h r a s e jufj OictKpxViOV To COOJULS*. ( v . 2 9 ) , has been much d i s p u t e d . Does t h e word "body" i n t h e words " w i t h o u t d i s c e r n i n g t h e body" r e f e r t o t h e e u c h a r i s t i c body o r t o t h e body o f C h r i s t as t h e c h u r c h ? The n o r m a l P a u l i n e m e a n i n g o f t h e t e r m body o f C h r i s t i s i n d e e d t h e C h r i s -t i a n c o m m u n i t y . The f a c t t h a t t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e p a s s a g e as a whole i s d i s o r d e r i n t h e c h u r c h , and t h e f a c t t h a t P a u l s p e a k s o n l y o f d i s c e r n i n g t h e "body" and n o t " t h e body and b l o o d , " l e a d many a u t h o r i t i e s t o b e l i e v e t h a t P a u l must have h e r e i n 111 mind t h e c h u r c h . I f t h i s were t h e c a s e , t h e n e a t i n g and d r i n k i n g w i t h o u t d i s c e r n i n g t h e body w o u l d r e f e r t o c o n d u c t a t t h e L o r d ' s S u p p e r a r i s i n g o u t oJF a f a i l u r e t o r e c o g n i s e t h e 112 c h u r c h f o r what i t i s , and t h e j u d g e m e n t i n f l i c t e d upon t h e u n w o r t h y i n v.30 w o u l d n o t a t a l l be c o n n e c t e d w i t h any power 125 i n t h e e l e m e n t s t h e m s e l v e s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , one c o u l d a r g u e t h a t t h e words " w i t h o u t d i s c e r n i n g t h e body" must b e f u n -d e r s t o o d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e two p r e v i o u s v e r s e s , and t h e r e f o r e 114 must r e f e r t o t h e s a c r a m e n t a l e l e m e n t o f t h e b r e a d . I t w o u l d t h u s be t h e s a c r a m e n t a l body o f C h r i s t w h i c h moves us 11 t o j u d g e o u r s e l v e s , and b r i n g s upon us t h e j u d g e m e n t o f God. Y e t i n i n t e r p r e t i n g t h i s t e x t , we must b e a r i n mind t h a t f o r P a u l t h e r e a r e n o t two b o d i e s o f C h r i s t . P a u l s a y s , " F o r j u s t a s t h e body i s one and has many members, and a l l t h e members o f t h e b o d y , t h o u g h many a r e one b o d y , s o i t i s w i t h C h r i s t " (1 Co. 1 2 : 1 2 ) , and " B e c a u s e t h e r e i s one b r e a d w h i c h i s t h e body o f C h r i s t , we who a r e many a r e one body" ( 1 0 : 1 7 ) . F o r P a u l , t h e body w h i c h i s g i v e n t o us i n t h e e u c h a r i s t i s t h a t same body w h i c h we o u r s e l v e s a r e , and by e a t i n g t h e body o f C h r i s t we become i t . We do n o t t h e n , i n 1 0 : 2 9 , have t o s e t up an o p p o s i t i o n b e t w e e n t h e e u c h a r i s t i c and the m y s t i c a l body o f C h r i s t . " W i t h o u t d i s c e r n i n g t h e body" means f a i l i n g t o r e -c o g n i s e t h a t c o r p o r e a l s e l f - m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f C h r i s t t h r o u g h w h i c h me a r e c o n s t i t u t e d a s h i s b o d y . T h i s d o e s n o t mean, h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e e u c h a r i s t i c e l e m e n t s c o n t a i n some m a g i c a l p r o p e r t y w h i c h a v e r t s t h e s i c k n e s s and d e a t h r e f e r r e d t o i n v. 3 0 : The a p o s t l e d o e s not...mean t o i m p l y t h a t t h e w o r t h y r e c e p t i o n o f t h e E u c h a r i s t p r e v e n t s 126 s i c k n e s s and d e a t h . He i s s i m p l y o b s e r v i n g t h a t t h e s e e m i n g l y uncommon e x p e r i e n c e o f s i c k n e s s and d e a t h o u g h t t o be a t t r i b u t e d t o a v i s i b l e j u d g e m e n t o f God on t h e u n w o r t h y r e c e p t i o n o f t h e E u c h a r i s t . F o r t h e u n w o r t h y , t h e E u c h a r i s t b e-comes a m e d i c i n e o f d e a t h i n t h e s e n s e t h a t ±t becomes t h e o c c a s i o n o f t h e j u d g e m e n t o f God. I t i s p o s s i b l e now t o s u m m a r i s e t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c l a s s i c a l t y p e o f e u c h a r i s t a s f o r m u l a t e d i n t h e t h o u g h t o f P a u l . The e u c h a r i s t f o r P a u l , as f o r t h e p r e - P a u l i n e H e l l e n -i s t i c c h u r c h , was a " m y s t e r y " t y p e o f s a c r a m e n t i n s t i t u t e d by C h r i s t t o b r i n g b e l i e v e r s i n t o d i r e c t communion w i t h h i m d u r i n g " t h e t i m e o f t h e c h u r c h . " I n t h i s s a c r a m e n t t h e s a c r i -f i c e o f C h r i s t i s made p r e s e n t . C h r i s t o f f e r s h i m s e l f — h i s - ; r e d e e m i n g body and b l o o d — t o t h e b e l i e v e r s a s lT\>£Xt/uci . Through t h i s o f f e r i n g t h e b e l i e v e r s a r e g i v e n t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a new l i f e i n t h e e s c h a t o l o g i c a l o r d e r , and t h r o u g h i t t h e y a r e c o n s t i t u t e d a s t h e m y s t i c a l body o f C h r i s t . B u t t h i s s a c -r a m e n t i s by no means an a u t o m a t i c g u a r a n t e e o f s a l v a t i o n , and u n c h a r i t a b l e c o n d u c t i s a p r o f a m a t i o n o f t h e body o f C h r i s t — t h e one body o f C h r i s t w h i c h i s m a n i f e s t e d b o t h i n t h e e u c h a r i s -t i c c e l e b r a t i o n and as t h e co m m u n i t y i t s e l f - - a n d p r o v o k e s t h e j u d g e m e n t o f God. A f t e r P a u l ' s f i r s t l e t t e r t o t h e C o r i n t h i a n s , t h e n e x t s o u r c e s w h i c h we have c o n c e r n i n g t h e c l a s s i c a l t y p e o f e u c h a -r i s t a r e t h e L a s t S u p p e r n a r r a t i v e s i n t h e s y n o p t i c g o s p e l s . These n a r r a t i v e s do n o t r e v e a l any s t a r t l i n g a d v a n c e o v e r t h e e u c h a r i s t i c t h e o l o g y o f P a u l , and i n d e e d t h e y l a c k t h e i n d i v i -127 d u a l i t y and s u b t l e t y o f t h e A p o s t l e ' s t h o u g h t . They r e p r e -s e n t r a t h e r an a c c e n t u a t i o n o f c e r t a i n themes i n t h e H e l l e n -i s t i c e u c h a r i s t w h i c h e x i s t e d a l r e a d y b e f o r e P a u l . As we have n o t e d i n t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s s e c t i o n , t h i s p r e - P a u l i n e e u c h a r i s t o f t h e c l a s s i c a l t y p e a l r e a d y c o n t a i n e d t h e c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c themes o f c o v e n a n t , e x p i a t o r y s a c r i f i c e , communion, and i n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e r i t e by C h r i s t . The most s t r i k i n g d e -v e l o p m e n t e v i d e n t i n t h e s y n o p t i c e v a n g e l i s t s i s t h e s t r e s s on t h e i d e a o f a t o n e m e n t , a phenomenon w h i c h c a n be i n t e r -p r e t e d as a s t e p i n t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e d o c t r i n e o f e u c h a r i s -t i c s a c r i f i c e . L u k e , who r e p r o d u c e s a v a r i a n t o f t h e l i t u r g y u s e d by P a u l , has t h e words " g i v e n f o r y o u " and " w h i c h i s p o u r e d o u t f o r y o u " a dded t o t h e b r e a d and cup s a y i n g s ( 2 2 : 1 9 f . ) . I n Mark (who i s h e r e f o l l o w e d by M a t t h e w ) t h e cup s a y i n g i s b r o u g h t i n t o l i n e w i t h t h e b r e a d s a v i n g , t h u s em-p h a s i s i n g t h e n o t i o n o f c u l t i c s a c r i f i c e by m a k i n g "body" and " b l o o d " p a r a l l e l p r e d i c a t e s . I n M a r k , t h e b l o o d " i s p o u r e d o u t f o r many f o r t h e f o r g i v e n e s s o f s i n s " ( 2 6 : 2 8 ) . F u r t h e r , a l l t h r e e s y n o p t i c s p o r t r a y t h e L a s t .Supper as a P a s s o v e r m e al (Mk. I 4 : 1 2 f f . ; Mt. 2 6 : 1 7 f f . ; L k . 2 2 : 7 f f . ) , t h e r e b y s u g -g e s t i n g t h a t t h e body and b l o o d o f f e r e d i n t h e e u c h a r i s t r e -p l a c e t h e p a s c a l l a m b . To be s u r e , t h e L a s t S u p p e r a c c o u n t s o f e a c h g o s p e l r e f l e c t t o some d e g r e e t h e p a r t i c u l a r t h e o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e 128 o f i t s e v a n g e l i s t ( o r o f t h e c o mmunity w h i c h he r e p r e s e n t s ) , and t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e r n s a r e n o t w i t h o u t i m p o r t a n c e f o r t h e l a t e r h i s t o r y o f t h i s e u c h a r i s t i c t y p e . Thus M a t t h e w , w h i c h has been d e s c r i b e d as t h e " e c c l e s i a s t i c a l g o s p e l , " em-p h a s i s e s t h a t J e s u s gave t h e b r e a d " t o t h e d i s c i p l e s " ( a s o p -p o s e d t o a s i m p l e "them" i n Mark; Mt. 2 6 : 2 6 , Mk. 1 4 : 2 2 ) . The n o t i o n o f t h e e u c h a r i s t a s a c o r p o r a t e a c t f o u n d e d by C h r i s t ' s command i s a c c e n t u a t e d by M a t t h e w ' s c h a n g i n g o f M a r k ' s " t h e y a l l d r a n k o f i t " ( 1 4 : 2 3 ) t o t h e i m p e r a t i v e " D r i n k o f i t , a l l o f y o u " ( M t . 2 6 : 2 7 ) , and by h i s a d d i t i o n o f " w i t h y o u " t o t h e vow o f a b s t i n e n c e ( 2 6 : 2 9 ) . M o r e o v e r , M a t t h e w ' s i m p o r t a n t a d -d i t i o n o f " f o r t h e f o r g i v e n e s s o f s i n s " t o t h e cup s a y i n g a l s o has an e c c l e s i o l o g i c a l s i g n i g i c a n c e : f o r M a t t h e w , t h e a u t h o -r i t y t o f o r g i v e s i n s had become t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e com-m u n i t y — t h i s most p r o b a b l y i s t h e p o i n t he w i s h e s t o make i n t h e s t o r y o f t h e f o r g i v i n g and h e a l i n g o f t h e p a r a l y t i c ( M t . 117 9 : 2 - 8 ) . Thus u n t i l t h e c o m i n g o f t h e p a r o u s i a t h e e u c h a -r i s t i s c e l e b r a t e d s o t h a t men may be f r e e d f r o m t h e i r s i n s . L u k e ' s L a s t S u p p e r n a r r a t i v e i s p e r h a p s e v e n more r e -v e a l i n g o f t h e t h e o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e a u t h o r t h a n t h o s e o f t h e o t h e r two s y n o p t i c e v a n g e l i s t s . As Voobus has p o i n t e d o u t , Luke i s t h e o n l y s y n o p t i c e v a n g e l i s t who r e a l l y i n t e g r a t e s o r g a n i c a l l y t h e L a s t S u p p e r a c c o u n t i n t o t h e l a r g e r 118 l i t e r a r y s t r u c t u r e o f t h e p a s s i o n n a r r a t i v e . H i s a d d i t i o n s t o and a l t e r a t i o n s o f t h e t r a d i t i o n w h i c h he r e c e i v e d a r e i n d i -129 c a t i v e o f h i s t h e o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n , and i n p a r t i c u l a r h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f s a c r e d h i s t o r y . T h i s c o n c e p t i o n , u i h i c h h a s 119 been e x p l o r e d i n t h e w e l l - k n o w n work o f Hans C o n z e l m a n n , was L u k e ' s r e s p o n s e t o t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e d e l a y o f t h e p a r -o u s i a and t h e c o n t i n u i n g e x i s t e n c e o f t h e c h u r c h ; i t was marked by an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f human h i s t o r y b e i n g d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s t a g e s , t h a t o f " t h e l a w and t h e p r o p h e t s . . . u n t i l J o h n " ( L k . 1 6 : 1 6 ) , t h a t o f J e s u s ' m i n i s t r y , and t h a t o f t h e p e r i o d f r o m t h e a s c e n s i o n t o t h e p a r o u s i a ("the t i m e o f t h e c h u r c h " ) . W h i l e , as was r e m a r k e d i n o u r f i r s t c h a p -t e r , t h e t w o f o l d f o r m o f t h e vow o f a b s t i n e n c e was i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y drawn f r o m a p r e - L u c a n s o u r c e , t h e r e a r e n e v e r -t h e l e s s i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t t h i s s o u r c e has been r e t o u c h e d by Luke t o b>ring i t i n t o l i n e w i t h n h i s own t h e o l o g i c a l c o n v i c -t i o n s . Thus i n t h e vow c o n c e r n i n g t h e c u p , where Mark ( f o l -l o w e d q u i t e c l o s e l y by M a t t h e w ) has J e s u s r e n o u n c i n g t h e f r u i t o f t h e v i n e " u n t i l t h a t day when I d r i n k i t new i n t h e k i n g d o m o f God" (Mk. 1 4 : 2 5 ; c f . Mt. 2 6 : 2 9 ) , L u k e ' s w o r d i n g i s " u n t i l t h e k i n g d o m o f God comes" ( L k . 2 2 : 1 8 ) , a f o r m u l a w h i c h e m p h a s i s e s t h e p e r i o d o f w a i t i n g b e t w e e n t h e end o f J e s u s ' m i n i s t r y and t h e p a r o u s i a . S i m i l a r l y , i n Luke 22:27-30 ( w h i c h i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f L u k e ' s L a s t S u p p e r n a r r a t i v e ) , t h e p r e s e n t r o l e o f t h e d i s -c i p l e s , who may be h e r e u n d e r s t o o d a s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e c h u r c h , on t h e one hand l o o k s back t o t h e m i n i s t r y o f J e s u s ( v . 2 8 : 130 "You a r e t h o s e who have c o n t i n u e d w i t h me i n my t r i a l s " ) and on t h e o t h e r hand l o o k s f o r w a r d t o t h e e s c h a t o l o g i c a l b a n q u e t and j u d g e m e n t a t t h e t i m e o f t h e p a r o u s i a ( v . 3 0 ) . F o r t h o s e who a r e p r e s e n t l y s i t t i n g a t t a b l e ( v . 27)--we may s u p p o s e h e r e t h a t L u k e has i n mind t h e community c e l e b r a t i n g t h e e u -c h a r i s t - - J e s u s i s s a i d t o " a p p o i n t " ( v . 29) a k i n g d o m , o r make a c o v e n a n t (SlcLriBrjjUl ) • F u r t h e r m o r e , L u k e ' s c h o i c e o f t h e A n t i o c h e n e l i t u r g i c a l s o u r c e o v e r Mark f o r h i s f o r m o f t h e words o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was no d o u b t m o t i v a t e d by t h e same c o n -c e p t i o n o f s a c r e d h i s t o r y : t h e command "Do t h i s i n remembrance o f me" ( L k . 22:19) a u t h e n t i c a t e d t h e c e l e b r a t i o n o f t h e e u c h a -r i s t i c meal d u r i n g t h e i n t e r i m p e r i o d o f t h e c h u r c h . I t i s c e r t a i n l y w i t h i n t h i s same c o n t e x t t h a t we must c o n s i d e r L u k e ' s r e p o r t s o f s a c r e d m e a l s i n p r i m i t i v e C h r i s -120 t i a n i t y . F o r L u k e , t h e b r e a k i n g o f t h e b r e a d ( A c t s 2 : 4 2, 46; 2 0 : 7 , 1 1 ; 27:35) was a r i t e c e l e b r a t e d i n t h e t i m e when t h e S p i r i t had been g i v e n t o t h e community w h i c h was a w a i t i n g t h e c o n s u m m a t i o n ( c f . A c t s 1 : 6 f f . ; 2 : 1 f f . ) . I n t h i s r e s p e c t , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e L u k e ' s r e p o r t t h a t P a u l , i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r h i s c o n v e r s i o n , "was b a p t i s e d and t o o k f o o d and was s t r e n g t h e n e d " ( A c t s 9 : 1 9 ) . The r e f e r e n c e t o t a k i n g f o o d i s d o u b t l e s s f o r t h e e v a n g e l i s t an a l l u s i o n t o t h e e u c h a r i s t ; e l s e w h e r e t h i s e x p r e s -s i o n i s c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e b r e a k i n g o f t h e b r e a d ( A c t s 2:46, 2 7 : 3 6 ) . S u c h i s p r o b a b l y a l s o t h e c a s e i n L u k e ' s s t o r y o f t h e c o n v e r s i o n o f P a u l ' s and S i l a s ' g a o l e r : a meal f o l l o w s i m m e d i -a t e l y upon t h e b a p t i s m o f t h e g a o l e r and h i s f a m i l y ( A c t s 16: 131 3 4 ) . The s a c r e d meal i s t h u s f o r Luke c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o bap-t i s m ( c f . a l s o A c t s 2 : 4 1 f . ) ; t h e tuio r i t e s a r e t h e c o n t i -n u i n g s i g n s o f f a i t h ( c f . A c t s 1 6 : 3 1 f . ) and o f t h e p r e s e n c e o f C h r i s t ( L k . 2 4 : 3 5 , A c t s 2:38) a f t e r h i s a s c e n s i o n and d u r i n g t h e r e i g n o f t h e S p i r i t i n t h e community ( A c t s 1:5; 2 :38; 9:17) . The D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e C l a s s i c a l Type o f E u c h a r i s t i n  D e u t e r o - J o h n and I q n a t i u s o f A n t i o c h Touiard t h e c l o s e o f t h e New T e s t a m e n t p e r i o d t h e t h e o -l o g y o f t h e e u c h a r i s t o f t h e c l a s s i c a l t y p e u n d e r w e n t a f u r -t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t w h i c h was t o be o f d e c i s i v e i m p o r t a n c e f o r t h e f u t u r e o f e u c h a r i s t i c t h e o l o g y . T h i s d e v e l o p m e n t i s sum-m a r i s e d i n I g n a t i u s ' d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s a c r a m e n t as " t h e m e d i c i n e o f i m m o r t a l i t y " ( E p h . 2 0 : 2 ) , and i t may be i n t e r -p r e t e d as t h e r e s u l t o f t h e i n c r e a s i n g H e l l e n i s a t i o n and d e -e s c h a t o l o g i s a t i o n o f t h e C h r i s t i a n f a i t h . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e n o t i o n o f a communal p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e body and b l o o d o f C h r i s t , t h e r e was now a d d e d an e m p h a s i s on t h e e u c h a r i s t as a g u a r a n t e e o f s a l v a t i o n f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l . T h i s a s p e c t o f e u c h a r i s t i c t h e o l o g y was t o be r e i n f o r c e d by an i n c r e a s i n g a c c e n t u a t i o n o f t h e s a c r i f i c i a l m o t i f : i n b o t h J o h n 6 and I g -n a t i u s t h e e u c h a r i s t i c b r e a d i s d e s i g n a t e d as t h e " f l e s h " o f C h r i s t , a t e r m w h i c h , when u s e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h " b l o o d , " i s e s s e n t i a l l y s a c r i f i c i a l . T h i s t r e n d does n o t r e p r e s e n t a c o n t r a d i c t i o n o f t h e e a r l i e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e e u c h a r i s t , b u t r a t h e r a d e v e l o p -1 3 2 ment o u t o f i t . We have s e e n t h a t f o r P a u l t h e e u c h a r i s t i c c e l e b r a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e d a s h a r i n g i n C h r i s t ' s r e s u r r e c t i o n 121 f o r m o f b e i n g , a n o t i o n u i h i c h uias a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i d e a o f t h e e u c h a r i s t as an a n t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e m e s s i a n i c 122 b a n q u e t . However, w i t h t h e c o n t i n u i n g d e l a y o f t h e p a r -o u s i a , t h i s p r i m i t i v e e s c h a t o l o g i c a l s e n s e o f i m m i n e n c e gave way t o t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e e u c h a r i s t as a p r e s e n t g u a r a n -t e e f o r t h e f u t u r e r e s u r r e c t i o n . We s h o u l d n o t e h e r e t h a t t h i s new e m p h a s i s i s c l o s e l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h a s h i f t i n c h r i s t o l o g i c a l and s o t e r i o l o g i c a l t h e o r y , a s h i f t w h i c h may a l s o be r e l a t e d t o a l e s s e n i n g i n t e r e s t i n e s c h a t o l o g y and t o t h e f u r t h e r b o r r o w i n g o f H e l -l e n i s t i c i d e a s . I n an e a r l i e r p e r i o d , C h r i s t was s e e n as l i v i n g w i t h i n t h e c h u r c h i t s e l f , and h i s p r e s e n c e was c o n -s i d e r e d a s t h e power w h i c h s u s t a i n s i t s members. I t i s t h u s t h a t P a u l s p e a k s o f t h e C h r i s t i a n l i f e as a l i f e " i n C h r i s t " and t h e t h e F o u r t h E v a n g e l i s t s p e a k s o f an " a b i d i n g i n C h r i s t , " a r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h f o r him i s a n a l o g o u s t o t h a t e x i s t i n g b e-tween t h e v i n e and i t s b r a n c h e s . But we f i n d w i t h i n t h e New T e s t a m e n t i t s e l f t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f a new t e n d e n c y , n a m e l y t o p l a c e C h r i s t i n t h e t r a n s c e n d e n t a l s p h e r e . T h i s t e n d e n c y i s c l e a r i n s u c h c r e d a l f o r m u l a t i o n s as "who has gone i n t o h e a v e n , and i s a t t h e r i g h t hadn o f God, w i t h a n g e l s , a u t h o -r i t i e s , and p o w e r s s u b j e c t t o h i m " (1 P e t . 5 : 2 2 ) , and "we have s u c h a h i g h p r i e s t , one who i s s e a t e d a t t h e r i g h t hand o f t h e t h r o n e o f t h e M a j e s t y i n h e a v e n " (Hb. 8 : 1 ) . 1 2 3 S u c h 133 a c o n c e p t i o n gave r i s e t o t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e a p o t h e o s i s w h i c h C h r i s t had g a i n e d t h r o u g h h i s d e a t h and r e s u r r e c t i o n c o u l d be t r a n s f e r r e d t o i n d i v i d u a l b e l i e v e r s by means o f 124 s a c r a m e n t a l m e d i a t i o n , i . e . , t h a t t h e s a c r a m e n t c o u l d s e r v e as a b r i d g e between t h e b e l i e v e r and t h e t r a n s c e n d e n t w o r l d . A t t h e same t i m e , t h e D e u t e r o - J o h a n n i n e and I g n a t i a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e e u c h a r i s t r e p r e s e n t s an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s a c r a m e n t i n t e r m s o f t h e L o g o s t h e o r y . The u s e o f t h e word &&p% by t h e s e a u t h o r s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e e u -c h a r i s t i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e y u n d e r s t a n d i t i n t e r m s o f t h e H e l -l e n i s t i c d o c t r i n e o f r e d e m p t i o n as a u n i f i c a t i o n o f f l e s h and s p i r i t {SVCOOli C&pKIVy] ZC Kdl TrveVjU&ZrKV] » I g n a t i u s , Ad 12 5 lYiagn. 1 3 : 2 ) . Thus i n t h e e u c h a r i s t i c c e l e b r a t i o n t h e r e i s a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h a t u n i o n o f L o g o s - S p i r i t and m a t t e r w h i c h 126 began w i t h C h r i s t . T h i s t h e o r y u l t i m a t e l y l e d t o t h e r e -p l a c e m e n t o f t h e p r a y e r f o r t h e r e t u r n o f C h r i s t by t h e e p i -c l e s i s p r a y e r f o r t h e L o g o s - S p i r i t t o d e s c e n d and u n i t e i t -127 s e l f w i t h t h e e l e m e n t s . Uie s h a l l t u r n now t o e x a m i n e more c l o s e l y t h e e u c h a r i s -t i c t h e o l o g y p r e s e n t e d i n J o h n 6. E a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r we have a r g u e d t h a t t h e F o u r t h E v a n g e l i s t h i m s e l f was n o t f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e c l a s s i c a l b r e a d and wi n e t y p e o f e u c h a r i s t , b u t i n -s t e a d w i t h a r a t h e r d i f f e r e n t s o r t o f c u l t i c m e a l i n w h i c h 134 b r e a d and f i s h were consumed. Few s c h o l a r s , h o w e v e r , have made t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n , and most o f them have assumed t h e e s s e n t i a l i n t e g r i t y and u n i t y o f t h e G o s p e l . W i t h t h i s a s -s u m p t i o n , e x e g e t e s have m e t i c u l o u s l y s e a r c h e d i n J o h n f o r s y m b o l i c a l l u s i o n s t o t h e c l a s s i c a l e u c h a r i s t . The r e s u l t o f t h e s e l a b o u r s has been a e u c h a r i s t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s u c h p a s s a g e s a s t h e m a r r i a g e a t C a n a , t h e c l e a n s i n g o f t h e T emple, t h e a l l e g o r y o f t h e v i n e , and C h r i s t ' s w a s h i n g o f 128 t h e d i s c i p l e s ' f e e t . The same a s s u m p t i o n has l e d t o c o n s i d e r a b l e c o m p l i c a t i o n i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e B r e a d o f L i f e d i s c o u r s e i n J o h n 6. The a p p a r e n t c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n t h e d i s c o u r s e were a l r e a d y n o t e d by C l e m e n t o f A l e x a n d r i a and O r i g e n , who m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e w h o l e o f t h e d i s c o u r s e r e f e r r e d t o t h e n o u r i s h m e n t o f man's s o u l w i t h t h e word o f C h r i s t . T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was r e v i v e d i n t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y by t h e P r o t e s t a n t R e f o r m e r s and by C a j e t a n (who u s e d i t i n o r d e r t o d e f e n d communion u n d e r . 129 one k i n d ) . R. Brown has d i s t i n g u i s h e d f i v e t h e o r i e s c o n -c e r n i n g t h e m e a n i n g and c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e d i s c o u r s e w h i c h have a t t r a c t e d modern s c h o l a r s : 1) T h a t t h e w h o l e d i s c o u r s e ( j n . 6:35-59) r e f e r s t o t h e r e v e l a t i o n i n J e s u s and h i s t e a c h i n g ( G o d e t , W e i s s , B o r n h a u e -s e r , Q d e b e r g , S c h l a t t e r ) . 2) T h a t o n l y t h e f i r s t p a r t ( v s s . 35-50 o r 35-51a) has t h i s " s a p i e n t i a l " theme, v s s . 5 1 (b ) i-58 r e f e r r i n g t o t h e e u -135 c h a r i s t i c f l e s h o f J e s u s ( L a g r a n g e , S c h w e i z e r , Menoud, W o l l a t , M u s s n e r , B u l t m a n n , Dodd, B a r r e t t ) . 3) T hat t h e w h o l e d i s c o u r s e r e f e r s t o t h e e u c h a r i s t i c b r e a d ( L o i s y , T o g a c , C u l l m a n n , van den B u s s c h e ) . 4) That t h e whole r e f e r s t o b o t h C h r i s t ' s r e v e l a t i o n and t h e e u c h a r i s t ( L e o n - D u f o u r ) . 5) That t h e f i r s t p a r t r e f e r s p r i m a r i l y t o r e v e l a t i o n , and s e c o n d a r i l y t o t h e e u c h a r i s t ; t h e s e c o n d p a r t t o t h e e u -1 30 c h a r i s t o n l y ( F e u i l l e t , R. B r o w n ) . Uie have a r g u e d a b o v e f o r t h e s e c o n d t h e o r y , on t h e g r o u n d s o f c e r t a i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n s b e t ween t h e f i r s t and s e c o n d p a r t s o f th e d i s c o u r s e and b e c a u s e o f o u r a n a l y s i s o f o t h e r J o h a n n i n e t e x t s w h i c h p o i n t t o a d i f f e r e n t t y p e o f e u c h a r i s t i c m e al t h a n 1 31 t h a t r e f e r r e d t o i n J n . 6:51b-58. I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e r e a s o n s , we may, w i t h B u l t m a n n , p o i n t o u t t h a t t h e n o t i o n o f t h e " m e d i c i n e o f i m m o r t a l i t y " f o u n d i n J n . 6:51b-58 i s i n c o n -s i s t e n t w i t h J o h n ' s r e a l i s e d e s c h a t o l o g y , and t h a t t h e o f f e n c e w h i c h t h e Jews a r e s a i d t o t a k e a t J e s u s ' o f f e r o f h i s f l e s h and b l o o d i s o f q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t s o r t t h a n t h e s k a n d a l a w h i c h a r i s e s f r o m t h e p e c u l i a r J o h a n n i n e d u a l i s m , w h i c h i s m i s s i n g 132 h e r e . The s e c o n d p a r t o f t h e B r e a d o f L i f e d i s c o u r s e i s , t h e n , i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y an i n s e r t i o n by a l e t e r e c c l e s i a s t i c a l r e -133 d a c t o r , p r o b a b l y f r o m t h e e a r l y s e c o n d c e n t u r y , f T h i s r e d a c -136 t o r f o u n d i n t h e J o h a n n i n e d i s c o u r s e a c o n v e n i e n t model f o r an e x p o s i t i o n o f h i s e u c h a r i s t i c t h e o l o g y , a t h e o l o g y u i h i c h uias s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f I g n a t i u s , and u i h i c h , as uie have r e m a r k e d , r e f l e c t e d d i f f e r e n t c h r i s t o l o g i c a l and s o t e r i o -l o g i c a l c o n c e p t i o n s t h a n t h o s e o f J o h n . The t y p e o f e u c h a r i s t i c c e l e b r a t i o n r e f e r r e d t o i n t h i s p a s s a g e i s e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same t y p e a s t h a t r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e P a u l i n e and s y n o p t i c i n s t i t u t i o n n a r r a t i v e s . Y e t t h i s o b -s e r v a t i o n r e v e a l s i m m e d i a t e l y a s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e : i t i s n o t an i n s t i t u t i o n n a r r a t i v e , and i t i s n o t i n s e r t e d i n t o t h e c o n -t e x t o f t h e L a s t S u p p e r . I t may w e l l be t h a t i n t h e c e l e b r a -t i o n u i h i c h t h e r e d a c t o r h e r e had i n mind t h e uiords o f i n s t i -t u t i o n were r e c i t e d i n some f o r m c l o s e t o t h e P a u l i n e - s y n o p t i c f o r m u l a e — J n . 6:51, "The b r e a d t h a t I s h a l l g i v e i s my f l e s h f o r t h e l i f e o f t h e w o r l d , " r e s e m b l e s t h e L u c a n f o r m u l a " T h i s i s my body w h i c h i s g i v e n f o r y o u , " and c o u l d be a r e w o r k i n g o f s u c h a f o r m u l a — b u t t h e r e d a c t o r has no i n t e r e s t i n r e l a t i n g t h e c e l e b r a t i o n back t o t h e L a s t S u p p e r . The r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s t h a t he has no c o n c e r n f o r t h e h i s t o r i c a l J e s u s ; what c o n c e r n s him i s t h e r e d e m p t i v e power o f J e s u s * d e a t h . The g i f t o f i m m o r t a l i t y was won t h r o u g h C h r i s t ' s d e a t h , and t h u s t h e means o f c o m m u n i c a t i n g t h i s g i f t , t h e s a c r a m e n t s , a r e a l s o f o u n d e d on t h i s d e a t h . T h i s i d e a i s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e r e -p o r t o f b l o o d and w a t e r c o m i n g f r o m J e s u s ' s i d e ( J n . 1 9 : 3 4 b ) . 137 Here b l o o d and m a t e r have a d i f f e r e n t m e a n i n g t h a n i n t h e more p r o p e r l y J o h a n n i n e p a s s a g e 1 J n . 5:6, where t h e w a t e r and b l o o d d e n o t e p o i n t s o f t i m e i n C h r i s t ' s m i n i s t r y ( h i s b a p t i s m and d e a t h ) and a r e o f p r i m a r i l y a n t i - d o c e t i c i n t e n t , a f f i r m i n g t h a t C h r i s t came " n o t o n l y w i t h w a t e r , b u t w i t h w a t e r and b l o o d , " 1 34 i . e . , t h a t he s u f f e r e d a r e a l d e a t h . J n . 19:34b i s t h e r e -f o r e d o u b t l e s s l y an a d d i t i o n o f t h e same e c c l e s i a s t i c a l r e d a c -t o r who i n s e r t e d J n . 6:51b-58 and J n . 3:5 ( " T r u l y , t r u l y , I s a y t o y o u , u n l e s s one i s b o r n o f w a t e r and t h e S p i r i t , he c a n n o t e n t e r t h e Kingdom o f G o d " ) , a n d , as B u l t m a n n s a y s , " I t s m e a n ing ca n h a r d l y be o t h e r t h a n t h a t i n J e s u s ' d e a t h on t h e c r o s s , t h e s a c r a m e n t s o f b a p t i s m and t h e L o r d ' s S u p p e r have 135 t h e i r f o u n d a t i o n . " S u c h , i n d e e d , was t h e way i n w h i c h t h e 136 F a t h e r s i n t e r p r e t e d t h i s t e x t . The a u t h o r o f J n . 6:51b-59 d o e s n o t t h e n s e e t h e e u c h a -r i s t as a n a m n e s i s so much as a c h a n n e l t h r o u g h w h i c h " e t e r n a l l i f e " i s b e s t o w e d , a m e d i a t o r y r i t e f o u n d e d on J e s u s ' d e a t h . The i m p o r t a n c e o f J e s u s ' d e a t h i s i m p l i e d i n t h e v e r y v o c a b u -l a r y w h i c h t h e r e d a c t o r c h o o s e s . As Dodd p o i n t s o u t , " t h e e x p r e s s i o n OOVVdV ZT\V CdpKOi . . . 6:52 c a n h a r d l y f a i l t o s u g g e s t t h e i d e a o f d e a t h . And t h e e x p r e s s i o n TltVCW ZO QLXJUOL 6:54 ,56 , a g a i n , c a n h a r d l y f a i l t o s u g g e s t s h e d b l o o d , and t h e r e f o r e v i o l e n t d e a t h . " 1 3 ' ' ' The t e r m s V&p% and cOjuSi a r e c o r r e l a t i v e s w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e Hebrew t e r m s b a s a r and dam, t o g e t h e r c o n s t i t u t i n g t h e m a t e r i a l o f s a c r i f i c e ( F z . 39: 138 1 7 ) . The e u c h a r i s t i c b r e a d i s J e s u s ' f l e s h i)Tl£p . . . ( v . 5 1 ) , i . e . , J e s u s ' f l e s h a s a s a c r i f i c e o f f e r e d f o r t h e redemp-t i o n o f man. The u s e o f t h e word <5^y?^ h a s a l s o c h r i s t o l o g i c a l c o n -n o t a t i o n s . The c h r i s t o l o g y u n d e r l y i n g t h i s p a s s a g e i s t h e same a s t h a t o f t h e p r o l o g u e o f J o h n : t h e r e d e e m e r came as a union o f AoyO* and C*p% . The f u n c t i o n o f t h e e u c h a r i s t i s t o p e r p e t u a t e t h i s r e d e e m i n g u n i o n f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e b e -l i e v e r . Thus t h o s e who r e j e c t t h e i n c a r n a t i o n - - t h e " J e w s " o f v. 52 as w e l l as D o c e t i c s ( c f . t h e use o f t h e word &cip^ i n th e p r o b a b l y a n t i - d o c e t i c t e x t 1 J n . 4:2: " E v e r y s p i r i t t h a t a c k n o w l e d g e s J e s u s C h r i s t come i n t h e f l e s h i s o f G o d " ) — a r e 1 38 s c a n d a l i s e d by t h e e u c h a r i s t . The r e d a c t o r ' s r e s p o n s e t o t h i s s k a n d a l o n i s t o a f f i r m i n u n c o n d i t i o n a l t e r m s t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e e u c h a r i s t i c f l e s h and b l o o d . He s t r e s s e s t h a t p a r t a k i n g o f t h e e u c h a r i s t i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o s a l v a t i o n ( v . 53) and t h a t C h r i s t ' s f l e s h and b l o o d c o n s t i t u t e r e a l f o o d and d r i n k ( v . 5 5 ) . The a u t h o r o f t h i s p a s s a g e p u t s p a r t i c u l a r e m p h a s i s on t h e m a t e r i a l a s p e c t o f t h e e u c h a r i s t ; t h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y c l e a r i n h i s c h o i c e o f th e verbTpwyCW, w h i c h means t o m a s t i c a t e o r chew t o p i e c e s , i n v s s . 5 4 , 56, and 57. He r e p e a t e d l y c o n n e c t s t h e consump-t i o n o f t h e e u c h a r i s t i c e l e l m e n t s w i t h s a l v a t i o n : v s s . 5 3 , 54, 56, 5 7 , 58. I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t w h e r e a s i n v . 51b i t i s a q u e s t i o n o f t h e s a l v a t i o n o f m a n k i n d , i n t h e r e s t o f t h e p a s s a g e t h e p r i n c i p a l c o n c e r n i s t h e s a l v a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l 139 b e l i e v e r s . I n t h e New T e s t a m e n t w r i t i n g s , t h i s e m p h a s i s on t h e e f f i c a c y o f t h e e u c h a r i s t f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s u n i q u e t o D e u t e r o - J o h n . The s a l v a t i o n w h i c h i s o f f e r e d t h e b e l i e v e r i n t h e e u -c h a r i s t i s t h e same s a l v a t i o n w h i c h C h r i s t o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h h i s d e a t h : e t e r n a l l i f e ( v . 5 8 ) , s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e r e s u r r e c t i o n o f t h e body ( v . 5 4 ) . I t i s t h u s a s a l v a t i o n w h i c h w i l l be f u l l y r e a l i s e d o n l y i n t h e f u t u r e , on " t h e l a s t d a y " ( v . 54). I n t h i s r e p s e c t t h e e s c h a t o l o g y o f t h e r e d a c t o r d i f f e r s f r o m t h a t o f t h e e v a n g e l i s t p r o p e r . To be s u r e , t h e b e l i e v e r i s a l r e a d y a s s u r e d o f h i s s a l v a t i o n — h e "has e t e r n a l l i f e " — b u t t h i s o n l y i n s o f a r as he i s p r o m i s e d t h e g i f t o f r e s u r r e c t i o n . The e u c h a r i s t n e v e r t h e l e s s i s a p r e s e n t communion between t h e b e l i e v e r and t h e L o r d : t h e r e d a c t o r b o r r o w s t h e J o h a n n i n e n o t i o n o f " a b i d i n g " {il£V£lV ) i n t h e L o r d , w h i c h J o h n u s e s t o d e s c r i b e t h e i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t ween t h e b e l i e v e r and C h r i s t t h e r e v e a l e r ( J n . I 5 : 4 f . ; 1 7 : 2 1 - 2 3 ) , and a p p l i e s i t t o t h e s a c r a m e n t a l communion. The i n t i m a c y o f t h i s s a c r a m e n t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i s c ompared t o t h e i n t i m a c y s h a r e d between C h r i s t and t h e F a t h e r ( v . 5 7 ) . The e u c h a r i s t i s t h u s b o t h a g u a r a n -t e e o f t h e f u t u r e s a l v a t i o n and an a n t i c i p a t i o n o f i t t h r o u g h t h e communion o f t h e L o r d and t h e b e l i e v e r . I n o u r g e n e r a l r e m a r k s on t h e e u c h a r i s t i c t h e o l o g y r e p ~ r e s e n t e d by D e u t e r o - J o h n and I g n a t i u s , we have s u g g e s t e d t h a t the p a r t i c u l a r f e a t u r e s o f t h i s t h e o l o g y were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h 140 e s c h a t o l o g i c a l and c h r i s t o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s : t h e s a c r a m e n t i s r e l a t e d t o t h e f u t u r e r e s u r r e c t i o n , and i t i s a means o f b r i d g i n g t h e gap between C h r i s t i n h e a v en and t h e b e l i e v e r s on e a r t h . We s h o u l d l i k e t o s u g g e s t now t h a t t h i s l a t t e r a s s o c i a t i o n i s made1 e x p l i c i t by t h e e c c l e s i a s t i c a l r e d a c t o r h i m s e l f . I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t a f t e r t h e r e d a c t o r had i n s e r t e d 6:51b-58 he c o n s i d e r e d J n . 6 : 6 0 f . ( " T h i s i s a h a r d s a y i n g " — " D o you t a k e o f f e n c e a t t h i s ? " ) as r e f e r r i n g back t o h i s i n s e r t i o n , and n o t t o t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h e d i s c o u r s e . M o r e o v e r , i f one t a k e s J o h n 6 as i t o r i g i n a l l y s t o o d , v. 62 ("Then what i f you s e e t h e Son o f man a s c e n d i n g where he was b e f o r e " ) seems r a t h e r i r r e l e v a n t t o t h e g e n e r a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e p a s s a g e . One c a n , h o w e v e r , r e l a t e i t t h e o l o g i c a l l y t o v. 58 ( " T h i s i s t h e b r e a d w h i c h came down f r o m h e a v e n " ) : t h e b r e a d t h a t "comes down" f r o m h e a v e n i s t h e f l e s h o f h i m who has a s c e n d e d . I n t h i s c a s e we c o u l d p a r a p h r a s e v. 62 as f o l l o w s : do you n o t b e l i e v e t h a t i f C h r i s t has a s c e n d e d t h a t he w o u l d p r o v i d e f o r h i s f o l l o w e r s by g i v i n g them h i s f l e s h , t h e b r e a d f r o m h e a v e n ? I f t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s c o r r e c t , t h e n we must a t t r i b u t e v . 62 as w e l l t o t h e r e d a c t o r . Such a h y p o t h e s i s i s r e i n f o r c e d by what seems t o be a s i m i l a r a d d i t i o n i n J o h n 3. I n t h e v e r s e s f o l l o w i n g t h e b a p t i s m a l t e x t J n . 3:5 ( w h i c h we, f o l l o w -i n g B u l t m a n n , have a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e r e d a c t o r , a l o n g w i t h t h e two o t h e r s a c r a m e n t a l t e x t s o f t h e G o s p e l , 6 : 5 l b - 5 8 and 19:34b) 141 uie f i n d t h e s t a t e m e n t , "Wo one has a s c e n d e d i n t o h e a v e n b u t he who d e s c e n d e d f r o m h e a v e n , t h e Son o f man" ( 3 : 1 3 ) . The s e n t e n c e a p p e a r s q u i t e p a r e n t h e t i c a l , a n d , r e m a r k a b l y , i s i n t h e p e r f e c t t e n s e . I n a d d i n g v . 3:5, t h e r e d a c t o r c l e a r l y i n t e n d e d t o t r a n s f o r m t h e uihole d i a l o g u e w i t h IMicodemus i n t o a b a p t i s m a l t e x t . Thus 3:13 was p r o b a b l y a l s o an a d d i t i o n , and an e l a b o r a t i o n o f v . 14 m o t i v a t e d by t h e r e d a c t o r s s o t e r i o l o g i c a l - s a c r a m e n t a l t h e o r y . To s u m m a r i s e o u r a r g u -ment h e r e , we p r o p o s e t h a t t h e e c c l e s i a s t i c a l r e d a c t o r v i e w e d t h e s a c r a m e n t s o f b a p t i s m and t h e e u c h a r i s t as r i t e s o f m e d i -a t i o n between C h r i s t a s c e n d e d i n t o h e a v e n and t h e b e l i e v e r on e a r t h , and he made t h i s p o i n t by i n s e r t i n g t h e a s c e n s i o n - t e x t s v s s . 3:13 and 6:32 i n t o t h e d i a l o g u e s ^ w h i c h f o l l o w e d h i s s a c -r a m e n t a l a d d i t i o n s t o J o h n . We c a n s e e , t h e n , t h a t D e u t e r o - J o h n p r e s e n t s a r a t h e r s p e c i a l f o r m o f t h e t h e o l o g y o f t h e c l a s s i c a l t y p e e u c h a r i s t . The e u c h a r i s t i s d e t a c h e d f r o m t h e L a s t S u p p e r t r a d i t i o n and made d e p e n d e n t e x c l u s i v e l y on J e s u s ' d e a t h . Y e t i t i s n o t a " m e m o r i a l " o f t h i s d e a t h so much as an a c t u a l i s a t i o n o f i t s r e d e m p t i v e p o w e r . The c o v e n a n t m o t i f i s a b s e n t , and g i v e s way t o an a c c e n t u a t i o n on t h e s a v i n g power o f J e s u s ' s a c r i f i -c i a l f l e s h f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l . The communion a s p e c t o f t h e r i t e i s g i v e n a much g r e a t e r p l a c e t h a n i n P a u l o r t h e s y n o p -t i c s . The e u c h a r i s t , t o g e t h e r w i t h b a p t i s m , i s s e e n as a s a c r a m e n t a l a c t w h i c h b r i n g s t h e b e l i e v e r i n t o u n i o n w i t h t h e 142 C h r i s t mho has a s c e n d e d i n t o h e a v e n , and as a means o f com-m u n i c a t i n g t o t h e b e l i e v e r t h e f l e s h o f C h r i s t u i h i c h m i l l g u a r a n t e e h i s oum r e s u r r e c t i o n on t h e L a s t Day. We have s e e n t h a t f r o m t h e o u t s e t t h e c l a s s i c a l t y p e o f e u c h a r i s t uias a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a t h e o l o g y o f s a c r i f i c e . To-wards t h e end o f t h e f i r s t c e n t u r y , i t seems t h a t t h e c e l e -b r a t i o n i t s e l f came t o be d e s i g n a t e d as a s a c r i f i c e , and com-p a r e d t o t h e s a c r i f i c i a l r i t e s o f t h e o l d c o v e n a n t . A p p a r e n t l y s u c h uias n o t t h e c a s e a t an e a r l i e r t i m e : t h e a u t h o r o f Hebrews ( c . A.D. 8 0 - 9 0 ) 1 4 0 i n h i s whole d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p r i e s t h o o d and s a c r i f i c e o f C h r i s t and t h e i r s u p e r i o r i t y o v e r t h o s e o f t h e o l d c o v e n a n t , nowhere r e f e r s e x p l i c i t l y t o t h e e u c h a r i s t . 141 142 There i s no r e a s o n t o s u p p o s e , as do B e t z and S a n d v i k , t h a t b e h i n d t h i s d i s c u s s i o n t h e r e l i e s a e u c h a r i s t i c S i t z im L e b e n ; on t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e n o t a b l e a b s e n c e o f any e u c h a r i s t i c a l l u s i o n s i n Hebrews l e a d s us t o wonder i f t h e a u t h o r was e v e n f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e c l a s s i c a l t y p e c e l e b r a t i o n . C e r t a i n l y t h e " a l t a r " o f Hb. 13:10 does n o t r e f e r t o a e u c h a r i s t i c a l t a r ; i t i s t h e s a c r i f i c i a l s y s t e m as i n Hb. 7:13. F o r t h e a u t h o r o f t h i s F p i s t l e , t h e C h r i s t i a n s a c r i f i c e i s p r a i s e , b e l i e f , and c h a r i t y (Hb. 1 3 : 1 5 f . ) . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t C l e m e n t o f Rome ( c . A.D. 96) has t h e e u c h a r i s t i c c e l e b r a t i o n i n mind when he s p e a k s o f s a c r i f i c i a l r i t e s . C l e m e n t d e c l a r e s : 143 He commanded us t o c e l e b r a t e s a c r i f i c e s {ifpov-<f>opei$) and s e r v i c e s {^%Z01>pyid<; ) , and t h a t i t s h o u l d n o t be t h o u g h t l e s s l y o r d i s o r d e r l y , b u t a t f i x e d t i m e s and h o u r s . He has h i m s e l f f i x e d by h i s supreme ..mil 1 t h e p l a c e s and p e r -s o n s uihom he d e s i r e s f o r t h e s e c e l e b r a t i o n s , i n o r d e r t h a t a l l t h i n g s may be done p i o u s l y a c c o r d i n g t o h i s good p l e a s u r e , and be a c c e p -t a b l e t o h i s w i l l (1 Clem. 4 0 : 2 f . ) . 1 4 3 Commenting on Clement's c h o i c e o f t h e word TrpOnJ^opa , G o g u e l w r i t e s : I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s u p p o s e i t t o be a s y m b o l i c d e s i g n a t i o n f o r p r a y e r s , t o u n d e r s t a n d how, i n f a c t , o f f e r i n g s w h i c h a r e p u r e l y s p i r i t u a l c o u l d be made s u b j e c t t o t h e e x a c t r e g u l a t i o n s o f w h i c h C l e m e n t i s s p e a k i n g w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e L e v i t i c a l c u l t . I t c a n o n l y be h e r e a q u e s -t i o n o f s a c r i f i c e , and t h a t s a c r i f i c e c a n n o t be a n y t h i n g e l s e b u t t h e e u c h a r i s t . 4 4 Thus we may s u p p o s e t h a t a t t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y , i n c e r -t a i n c i r c l e s a t l e a s t , t h e e u c h a r i s t i c c e l e b r a t i o n was s e e n a s a s a c r i f i c i a l r i t e a n a l o g o u s t o t h o s e o f t h e O l d T e s t a m e n t . T h i s i d e a i s c e r t a i n l y p r e s e n t i n t h e e u c h a r i s t i c t h e o -l o g y o f I g n a t i u s o f A n t i o c h , e v e n i f he does n o t l a b e l t h e s a c r a m e n t p r e c i s e l y a s a " s a c r i f i c e . " Uie c a n n o t i n t e r p r e t i n any o t h e r way I g n a t i u s ' r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e e u c h a r i s t i c Ovxy• ZtfptOV f " a l t a r " o r " s a n c t u a r y " (Ep_h. 5:2 ; 1 4 5 P h i l . 1 4 6 T r a l 1. . 147 7 : 2 ) . T h e r e a r e , f u r t h e r m o r e , d e f i n i t e s a c r i f i c i a l i m p l i -c a t i o n s i n I g n a t i u s ' e x c l u s i v e c h o i c e o f t h e word O&p!^ o v e r &bJjU€l a s a d e s i g n a t i o n f o r t h e s a c r a m e n t a l b r e a d . 144 H e r e , as e l s e w h e r e , I g n a t i u s ' t h e o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t s a r e v e r y c l o s e t o t h o s e o f t h e J o h a n n i n e r e d a c t o r . L i k e t h e l a t t e r , he nowhere r e f e r s t o t h e L a s t S u p p e r o r t o J e s u s * words o f i n s t i t u t i o n . Y e t he does c o n n e c t t h e s a c r a m e n t t o J e s u s ' d e a t h : " t h e e u c h a r i s t i s t h e f l e s h o f o u r S a v i o u r J e s u s C h r i s t who s u f f e r e d f o r o u r s i n s " ( S m y r n . 7 : 1 ) . I t i s l i k e w i s e t h e f l e s h o f h i m " w h i c h t h e F a t h e r r a i s e d up by h i s g o o d n e s s " ( l o c . c i t . . ) , and t h e means by w h i c h t h i s a c t o f g l o r i f i c a t i o n i s t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e b e l i e v e r : t h e e u c h a -r i s t i s "the m e d i c i n e o f immortality £ ^ ^ / a « * / < 0 » > OiQdVOiO, t h e a n t i d o t e t h a t we s h o u l d n o t d i e , b u t l i v e f o r e v e r i n J e s u s C h r i s t " ( E p h . 2 0 : 2 ) . T h u s t h o s e ( D o c e t i c s ) who a b -s t a i n f r o m t h e e u c h a r i s t w o u l d do b e t t e r t o "have l o v e " ( h e r e p r o b a b l y a s y m b o l f o r t h e e u c h a r i s t o r t h e e u c h a r i s t i c b l o o d , as i n Smyrn. 8:2 , 1 5 0 T r a i 1. 8 : 1 , 1 5 1 R o m . 7 : 3 1 5 2 ) , s o t h a t 1 53 " t h e y a l s o m i g h t a t t a i n t o t h e r e s u r r e c t i o n " ( S m y r n . 7 : 1 ) . J u s t as f o r D e u t e r o - J o h n t h e s a c r a m e n t a l b r e a d i s t h e " b r e a d o f h e a v e n , " f o r I g n a t i u s i t i s " t h e b r e a d o f God" (Rom. 7 : 3 ) ; 1 5 4 t h e e l e m e n t s c o n s t i t u t e an " i n c o r r u p t i b l e " f o o d ( l o c . c i t . ) which c o n v e y t o t h e b e l i e v e r on e a r t h t h e r e s u r r e c t i o n - s u b s t a n c e w h i c h C h r i s t p o s s e s s e s i n h e a v e n . As i n J n . 6:56, t h e p a r t a k i n g o f t h e s e e l e m e n t s l e a d s t o an i n t i m a t e u n i o n (tVOCTi^ , P h i l a d . 4, Smyrn. 7 : 1 ) 1 5 5 w i t h C h r i s t . M o r e o v e r , l i k e t h e J o h a n n i n e r e d a c t o r , I g n a t i u s i m p l i e s a l o g i c a l c o n n e c t i o n between t h e i n c a r n a t i o n and t h e e u c h a r i s t : 145 he m e n t i o n s t h a t c e r t a i n h e r e t i c s , w i t h o u t any d o u b t D o c e t i c s 1 56 who deny t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e i n c a r n a t i o n , a b s t a i n f r o m t h e e u c h a r i s t b e c a u s e t h e y do n o t c o n f e s s t h a t i t i s t h e f l e s h o f 1 57 C h r i s t ( S m y r n . 7 : 1 ) . The i d e a u n d e r l y i n g t h i s s t a t e m e n t i s t h a t t h e e u c h a r i s t i s a p e r p e t u a t i o n o f t h e i n c a r n a t i o n . We c a n s e e , t h e n , t h a t t h e e u c h a r i s t i c t h e o l o g y o f I g n a t i u s , e v e n i f i t i s p r e s e n t e d i n a v e r y d i f f e r e n t way f r o m t h a t o f J n . 6:51b-58 ( I g n a t i u s d o e s n o t d i s c u s s t h e e u c h a r i s t a t any l e n g t h , b u t makes b r i e f a l l u s i o n s t o i t when d i s c u s s i n g o t h e r t h i n g s ) , c o n t a i n s s u b s t a n t i a l l y t h e same i d e a s . The c e l e -b r a t i o n i s r e n d e r e d a h i s t o r i c a l ; t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f i t a s a r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e L a s t S u p p e r and an a n a m n e s i s o f t h e C r o s s y i e l d s t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g w h i c h e m p h a s i s e s t h e communion a s -p e c t ; t h e e u c h a r i s t i s e s p e c i a l l y an o f f e r i n g t o t h e b e l i e v e r o f t h e s a c r i f i c i a l f l e s h o f t h e i n c a r n a t e L o r d a s a g u a r a n t e e f o r h i s f u t u r e r e s u r r e c t i o n . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , I g n a t i u s i s l e s s p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l b e l i e v e r t h a n D e u t e r o - J o h n . I n d e e d , p e r h a p s more t h a n any p r e v i o u s w r i t e r , he s t r e s s e s t h e r e l a t i o n b e t ween t h e s a c r a m e n t and t h e e c c l e s i a l c o m m u n i t y . The e u c h a r i s t i s f o r him b o t h a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e C h u r c h ' s u n i t y , and t h e means o f r e a l i s i n g i t . He u r g e s t h e E p h e s i a n s t o g a t h e r more f r e -q u e n t l y f o r t h e e u c h a r i s t , so t h a t i n t h e u n i t y o f t h e i r f a i t h " t h e p o w e r s o f S a t a n " may be d e s t r o y e d ( E p h . 1 3 : 1 ) . 1 5 8 I g n a t i u s c a n n o t c o n c e i v e o f t h e e u c h a r i s t o u t s i d e o f t h e o f f i c i a l s t r u c -146 t u r e s o f t h e c h u r c h . He strongly a f f i r m s t h a t t h e r e i s o n l y 1 59 one e u c h a r i s t ( E p h . 2 0 : 2 , P h i l . 4 : 1 ) , and r e p e a t e d l y c o n -n e c t s i t u i i t h t h e b i s h o p s , p r e s b y t e r s , and d e a c o n s ( E p h . 2 0 : 2 , 1 60 T r a i l . 7:2, P h i l . 4 : 1 , Smyrn. 8 : 1 ) . The e u c h a r i s t i s o n l y v a l i d when c e l e b r a t e d by t h e b i s h o p o r by someone whom he a p p o i n t s ( S m y r n . 8 : 1 ) . Hence t h e e c c l e s i o l o g i c a l d i m e n s i o n o f o f t h e e u c h a r i s t , i m p o r t a n t f o r P a u l , i s t a k e n up by I g n a t i u s and i n t e g r a t e d i n t o h i s t h e o l o g y o f e c c l e s i a s t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s and a u t h o r i t i e s . I g n a t i u s i s t h u s an i m p o r t a n t w i t n e s s t o t h e i n c r e a s i n g s t a n d a r d i s a t i o n o f e u c h a r i s t i c f a i t h and p r a c t i c e . ( I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n t h i s r e s p e c t t o n o t e t h a t he i s t h e f i r s t t o use t h e d e s i g n a t i o n SV^CtpWtKX as a t e c h n i c a l t e r m t o d e s -r l 161 P h i l . 4 : 1 , Smyrn. 7:1, 8 :1 J , t h o u g h J / 162 i t seems t h a t he a l s o u s e s t h e t e r m AydlTTj s y n o n y m o u s l y ) . To be s u r e , t h e g e n e r a l u n i f o r m i t y o f t h i s f a i t h and p r a c t i c e was n o t y e t a t t a i n e d . I g n a t i u s h i m s e l f , w i t h D e u t e r o - J o h n , p r e s e n t s a e u c h a r i s t i c t h e o l o g y w h i c h i s somewhat d e v i a n t f r o m t h e main s t r e a m o f t h e c l a s s i c a l t y p e , and t h e v e r y f a c t t h a t he i s so i n s i s t e n t on t h e r e b e i n g "one e u c h a r i s t " s u g g e s t s t h a t i n some c i r c l e s a l t o g e t h e r d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f c u l t i c m e a l s were b e i n g c e l e b r a t e d . The D i d a c h e , a s e c o n d c e n t u r y document b u t p r o b a b l y w r i t t e n a f t e r t h e t i m e o f I g n a t i u s , o f f e r s us a e u c h a r i s t i c l i t u r g y , w h i c h , e v e n i f i t u s e s b r e a d and w i n e , c l e a r l y b e l o n g s t o a d i f f e r e n t e u c h a r i s t i c t r a d i t i o n t h a n t h e c l a s s i c a l t y p e . 14? 1 63 In t h e e u c h a r i s t i c p r a y e r o f t h e D i d a c h e t h e d i s t i n c -t i v e m o t i f s o f t h i s l a t t e r t y p e a r e m i s s i n g ; i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e r e i s no r e f e r e n c e w h a t e v e r t o t h e d e a t h o f C h r i s t n o r t o 1 64 communion i n h i s body and b l o o d . I t i s t r u e t h a t t h e e l e -ments a r e r e g a r d e d as " s p i r i t u a l f o o d and d r i n k " ( 1 0 : 3 ) , and must be g i v e n o n l y t o t h e b a p t i s e d ; t h e y a r e " h o l y , " n o t 1 fifi t o be g i v e n t o t h e " d o g s " ( M t . 7:6) ( 9 : 5 ) . Y e t t h i s i s o n l y b e c a u s e t h e y a r e c r e a t e d t h i n g s u i h i c h have been s e t 167 a s i d e f o r t h e c u l t i c meal ( 1 0 : 3 ) , and n o t b e c a u s e t h e y a r e 1 68 i n any way i d e n t i f i e d w i t h C h r i s t ' s body and b l o o d . The e u c h a r i s t i c b r e a d i s r a t h e r a s y m b o l f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f 1 69 t h e m e s s i a n i c k i n g d o m t o t h e ends o f t h e e a r t h ( 9 : 4 ) . The e u c h a r i s t h e r e i s e s s e n t i a l l y CVftdLpiCCXQ i n t h e l i t e r a l s e n s e : 170 t h a n k s g i v i n g f o r c r e a t i o n ( 1 0 : 3 ) , f o r God's r e v e l a t i o n i n C h r i s t ( 9 : 2 , 3 ; 1 0 : 2 ) , 1 7 1 f o r t h e m i g h t i n e s s o f God ( 1 0 : 4 ) . 1 7 2 I t i s a common p r a y e r t h a t t h e c h u r c h may be g a t h e r e d i n t o t h e 17 3 k i n g d o m ( 9 : 4 ; 1 0 : 5 ) . T h i s l a t t e r m o t i f i s i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e e s c h a t o l o g i c a l t e n o r o f t h e l i t u r g y , an a s p e c t u i h i c h comes t o t h e f o r e a t t h e end o f c h a p t e r 10: " L e t g r a c e come and l e t t h i s w o r l d p a s s away . . . M a r a n a t h a " ( 1 0 : 6 ) . 1 7 4 I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h e D i d a c h e d e s c r i b e s t h e e u c h a r i s t a s a s a c r i f i c e (&IWUX , 14: . 175 3) , b u t t h i s s a c r i f i c e has n o t h i n g t o do w i t h t h a t o f t h e 176 C r o s s . The e m p h a s i s on a " p u r e s a c r i f i c e " ( l o c . c i t . ) and t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e c o n f e s s i o n o f s i n s makes t h e o f f e r i n g 177 p u r e ( 1 4 : 1 ) i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s a c r i f i c e c o n s i s t s o f t h e p r a i s e and t h a n k s g i v i n g t h a t f l o w f r o m a h o l y l i f e . 148 I n s h o r t , t h e e u c h a r i s t o f t h e D i d a c h e i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a t y p e w h i c h d i d n o t u n d e r g o t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n w h i c h c r e a t e d t h e " c l a s s i c a l " t y p e e x e m p l i f i e d i n P a u l , t h e S y n o p -t i c G o s p e l s , D e u t e r o - J o h n and I g n a t i u s . I t s t h e o l o g y i s more c o n s e r v a t i v e , and i t must be u n d e r s t o o d a s b e l o n g i n g t o a e u -c h a r i s t i c t r a d i t i o n w h i c h d e v e l o p e d o u t o f t h e o r i g i n a l " b r e a k -i n g o f t h e b r e a d " r i t e , q u i t e i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t h e p a r a l l e l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c l a s s i c a l t y p e . I n d e e d , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s l i t u r g y was t h e p r o p e r t y o f a s e c t o f J e w i s h C h r i s t i a n s , 178 p r o b a b l y l i v i n g i n E g y p t . The s u r v i v a l o f t y p e s o t h e r t h a n t h e c l a s s i c a l was, how-e v e r , b e c o m i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y r a r e i n t h e s e c o n d c e n t u r y . The c l a s s i c a l t y p e o f e u c h a r i s t was t h e c e n t r a l a c t e o f w o r s h i p i n m a i n s t r e a m " o r t h o d o x " C h r i s t i a n i t y , and we may c o n s i d e r t h a t by t h e t i m e o f J u s t i n t h i s t y p e a c h i e v e d i t s c o m p l e t i o n . That i s t o s a y , by t h i s t i m e t h e r e e x i s t e d w i t h i n o r t h o d o x C h r i s -t i a n i t y a g e n e r a l u n i f o r m i t y o f e u c h a r i s t i c f a i t h and p r a c -t i c e : t h e P a u l i n e - S y n o p t i c and D e u t e r o - J o h a n n i n e - I g n a t i a n p e r -s p e c t i v e s were s y n t h e s i s e d ; t h e e u c h a r i s t was s e e n a s a s a c r i -f i c i a l r i t e i n s t i t u t e d by J e s u s a t t h e L a s t S u p p e r , and a s b o t h an a n a m n e s i s o f t h e C r o s s and communion i n t h e body and b l o o d o f C h r i s t o f f e r e d f o r t h e s a l v a t i o n o f t h e b e l i e v e r . The s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f J u s t i m ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e e u c h a -179 r i s t i s t h e d o c t r i n e o f t h e i n c a r n a t i o n o f t h e L o g o s . The e u c h a r i s t i s f o r t h i s a u t h o r an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e i n c a r n a t i o n : 149 F o r we do n o t r e c e i v e t h e s e t h i n g s as common b r e a d o r common d r i n k ; b u t a s J e s u s C h r i s t o u r S a v i o r b e i n g i n c a r n a t e by God's word t o o k f l e s h and b l o o d f o r o u r s a l v a t i o n , so a l s o we have been t a u g h t t h a t t h e f o o d c o n s e c r a t e d {CVftXpx&zriOci&clV) by t h e word o f p r a y e r u i h i c h comes f r o m h i m , f r o m u i h i c h o u r f l e s h and b l o o d a r e n o u r i s h e d by t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , i s t h e f l e s h and b l o o d o f t h a t i n c a r n a t e J e s u s (1 A p o l . 6 6 ) . ° T h i s p a s a g e i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n s e v e r a l r e s p e c t s . I t i s , f i r s t o f a l l , a w i t n e s s t o t h e e m e r g e n t d o c t r i n e o f t h e c o n s e c r a t i o n o f t h e e l e m e n t s . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t makes e x p l i c i t t h e c o n n e c -t i o n b e t ween t h e e u c h a r i s t and t h e i n c a r n a t i o n i m p l i e d i n D e u t e r o - J o h n and I g n a t i u s . L i k e t h e s e l a t t e r t w o , J u s t i n h e r e s p e a k s o f t h e e u c h a r i s t i c &£p}* . B u t i n what f o l l o w s i m m e d i -a t e l y , t h e l i n k s a r e r a t h e r w i t h t h e P a u l i n e - S y n o p t i c c o n c e p -t i o n o f t h e c l a s s i c a l t y p e : t h e s a c r a m e n t was "commanded" by J e s u s ( i . e . , i n s t i t u t e d a t h i s L a s t S u p p e r ) a s an a n a m n e s i s ; t h e words o f i n s t i t u t i o n d e s i g n a t e t h e e l e m e n t s a s C h r i s t ' s CTCV/X& and CdjUd . I n a d d i t i o n , J u s t i n e x h i b i t s a more d e v e l o p e d t h e o l o g y o f e u c h a r i s t i c s a c r i f i c e t h a n any p r e v i o u s w r i t e r . The e u c h a r i s t 1 R1 i s t h e a c t u a l i s a t i o n ( a n a m n e s i s ) o f t h e C r o s s u i h i c h r e p l a c e s t h e b l o o d y s a c r i f i c e s o f t h e O l d C o v e n a n t . J u s t i n s p e a k s o f t h e " s a c r i f i c e s [&VCTicXl^ w h i c h ^ C h r i s t i a n s J o f f e r a s an anamne-1 R 2 s i s o f t h e P a s s i o n " ( D i a l . 1 1 7 : 3 ) ; God no l o n g e r a c c e p t s •> \ \. t h e s a c r i f i c e s o f f e r e d i n J e r u s a l e m : now t h e s e " £V%&\ KOft £VffXplO~C(jCll . . • a r e t h e o n l y s a c r i f i c e s u i h i c h a r e p e r f e c t and 183 a c c e p t a b l e t o God" ( D i a l . 1 1 7 : 2 ) . The e u c h a r i s t i s t h e r e a l i -150 s a t i o n o f t h e p r o p h e c y o f M a l a c h i ( 1 : 1 0 - 1 2 ) f o r a p u r e o b l a -t i o n ( D i a l . 4 1 : 2 - 3 ; 1 8 4 1 1 7 - . 1 - 2 1 8 5 ) . B e a r i n g i n mind t h a t J u s t i n uias a t t e m p t i n g t o g i v e an a c c o u n t o f t h e C h r i s t i a n f a i t h f o r t h e pagan r e a d e r , uie may s u p p o s e t h a t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e e u c h a r i s t r e f l e c t s t h e common C h r i s t i a n b e l i e f o f h i s p e r i o d . W i t h J u s t i n , t h e n , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i s c l a s s i c a l t y p e i s c o m p l e t e , and o u r a t t e m p t t o c h a r t i t s o r i g i n s and e v o l u t i o n f r o m J e s u s ' t a b l e - f e l l o w s h i p and t h e L a s t S u p p e r t r a d i t i o n may come t o a c l o s e . W i t h i n o r t h o d o x C h r i s t i a n i t y , t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e e u c h a r i s t a t -t e s t e d t o by J u s t i n w i l l h e n c e f o r t h be p r e s u p p o s e d , and t h e e u c h a r i s t i c t h e o l o g y o f t h e l a t e r F a t h e r s w i l l be r e f l e c t i o n and e l a b o r a t i o n on t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g . E u c h a r i s t i c L i t u r g y and E u c h a r i s t i c M i n i s t r y In t h e p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n s o f t h i s c h a p t e r we have d i s -t i n g u i s h e d t h r e e t y p e s o f e u c h a r i s t i c m e a l s i n p r i m i t i v e C h r i s -t i a n i t y and have shown how one o f t h e s e e s t a b l i s h e d i t s e l f i n o r t h o d o x G e n t i l e C h r i s t i a n i t y and e v o l v e d i n t o t h a t s a c r a -m e n t a l r i t e w h i c h was t o be t h e c u l t i c meal o f t h e p a t r i s t i c and m e d i a e v a l c h u r c h . Thus f a r o u r o b s e r v a t i o n s have been c o n -c e r n e d p r i n c i p a l l y w i t h e u c h a r i s t i c " f a i t h , " i . e . , how e a r l y C h r i s t i a n s u n d e r s t o o d t h e i r s a c r e d m e a l , and i n p a r t i c u l a r how t h e y i n t e r p r e t e d t h e L a s t S u p p e r t r a d i t i o n e x a m i n e d i n t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r . We w i s h now t o d i s c u s s b r i e f l y ( s i n c e t h e s o u r c e s a t o u r d i s p o s a l p r o v i d e us w i t h m a t e r i a l f o r o n l y 151 b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n ) e u c h a r i s t i c " p r a c t i c e , " i . e . , t h e p r a y e r s t h a t mere s a i d a t t h e c e l e b r a t i o n , and who o f f i c i a t e d a t i t , d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d u d d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The e a r l i e s t c u l t i c m e a l s o f C h r i s t i a n i t y m ere, as has been shown, a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f J e s u s ' r e g u l a r t a b l e - f e l l o u i s h i p . These f i r s t e u c h a r i s t s c o n s i s t e d o f a r e a l m e a l , t h o u g h a t a v e r y e a r l y p o i n t i n t h e i r h i s t o r y t h e b r e a k i n g o f t h e b r e a d came t o be d i s t i n g u i s h e d as t h e most s a c r e d p a r t o f t h i s 186 m e a l . I t must be remembered t h a t t h e s e m e a l s d i d n o t c o n -s t i t u t e f o r t h e f i r s t C h r i s t i a n s f o r m a l p u b l i c u i o r s h i p : f o r t h i s t h e y c o n t i n u e d t o w o r s h i p a s J e w s . The e u c h a r i s t was s i m p l y a g a t h e r i n g o f C h r i s t i a n s t o s h a r e a meal i n a b e l i e v e r ' s home ( A c t s 2:4-6). L i k e a l l J e w i s h m e a l s , t h e s e were accom-p a n i e d by p r a y e r s o f t h a n k s g i v i n g ( b e r a k ' o t h ) , p a r t i c u l a r l y when t h e b r e a d was b r o k e n a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e m e a l . N e i t h e r t h e M i s h n a h n o r t h e T o s e f t a h p r e s e r v e s t h e c o m p l e t e t e x t o f t h e s e J e w i s h t h a n k s g i v i n g p r a y e r s f o r m e a l s , t h o u g h f r o m a l l u -s i o n s w h i c h t h e y make we may presume t h a t t h e y were s u b s t a n -1 87 t i a l l y t h e same p r a y e r s s t i l l i n use t o d a y . The t h r e e m e a l b e r a k o t h u s e d i n f i r s t c e n t u r y P a l e s t i n e g i v e us some i d e a o f what t h e e a r l i e s t e u c h a r i s t i c p r a y e r s must have been l i k e . These p r a y e r s were d o u b t l e s s e x t e m p o r a n e o u s , b u t f o l l o w i n g a s e t p a t t e r n e s t a b l i s h e d by J e w i s h c u s t o m . In t h e f i r s t meal b e r a k a h , p r a i s e i s g i v e n t o God f o r t h e 1 R R f o o d w h i c h i s g i v e n t o man and t o a l l c r e a t u r e s . The same 152 theme a p p e a r s i n D i d . 1 0 : 2 . I n t h e s e c o n d , t h a n k s g i v i n g i s g i v e n f o r t h e P r o m i s e d L a n d , f o r t h e c o v e n a n t , and f o r t h e T o r a h , i n s h o r t , f o r t h e g r e a t e v e n t s o f t h e h i s t o r y o f 190 s a l v a t i o n . The D i d a c h e p r e s e n t s a c h r i s t i a n i s e d p a r a l l e l o f t h i s m o t i f i n t h e f o r m o f t h a n k s g i v i n g f o r r e v e l a t i o n and 191 r e d e m p t i o n i n C h r i s t ( 9 : 2 - 3 ; 1 0 : 2 ) . The t h i r d p e t i t i o n a s k s f o r t h e L o r d ' s mercy upon I s r a e l and i m p l o r e s God t o 192 e s t a b l i s h h i s m e s s i a n i c k i n g d o m . T h i s e s c h a t o l o g i c a l theme p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e e u c h a r i s t o f t h e D i d a c h e ( 9 : 4 ; 193 1 0 : 5 - 6 ) . These J e w i s h t a b l e p r a y e r s , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e s u r v i v a l o f t h e i r d o m i n a n t i d e a s i n t h e D i d a c h e ( w h i c h b e l o n g s t o t h e e u c h a r i s t i c t r a d i t i o n e m a n a t i n g f r o m t h e e a r l i e s t " b r e a k i n g o f t h e b r e a d " ) show us what t h e g e n e r a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e e a r l i e s t e u c h a r i s t i c p r a y e r s must have b e e n . The e m p h a s i s was on t h a n k s g i v i n g f o r c r e a t i o n ( a n d f o r f o o d i n p a r t i c u l a r ) , f o r r e d e m p t i o n , and on t h e f i n a l c o m i n g o f t h e k i n g d o m . F o r t h e e a r l y C h r i s t i a n s , o f c o u r s e , t h e s e p r a y e r s o f t h a n k s g i v i n g w o u l d have been r e w o r k e d i n s u c h a way as t o g i v e a c e n t r a l p l a c e t o t h e i r f a i t h i n t h e r e d e m p t i v e a c t a c c o m p l i s h e d i n C h r i s t . The g r e a t t h a n k s g i v i n g t e x t s C o l . 1:3-23 and E p h . 1: 3-2:10 g i v e us some i n d i c a t i o n o f how t h e berak6*th w o u l d have been c h r i s t i a n i s e d . Who w o u l d have p r e s i d e d o v e r t h e s e e a r l i e s t e u c h a r i s t i c m e a l s ? The New T e s t a m e n t i t s e l f c o n t a i n s no e v i d e n c e w h i c h w o u l d p e r m i t a c l e a r a n s w e r t o t h i s q u e s t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o 153 J e w i s h c u s t o m , one man b r o k e t h e b r e a d and r e c i t e d t h e b e r a -kah on b e h a l f o f t h o s e p r e s e n t : t h i s uias n o r m a l l y t h e f a t h e r 194 o f t h e h o u s e h o l d . We may c o n j e c t u r e t h a t i f an a p o s t l e were p r e s e n t a t t h e c u l t i c meal he mould be i n v i t e d t o p r e -195 s i d e ; o t h e r w i s e we may presume t h a t t h e h o s t w o u l d b r e a k t h e b r e a d and r e c i t e t h e p r a y e r s . Out o f t h e s e e a r l i e s t C h r i s t i a n m e a l s t h e r e d e v e l o p e d t h e two l a t e r e u c h a r i s t i c t y p e s w h i c h we have d i s t i n g u i s h e d , t h e b r e a d and f i s h t y p e and t h e c l a s s i c a l b r e a d and w i n e t y p e . In b o t h caseis t h e l i t u r g i c a l p r a y e r s must have c o n t i n u e d t o be m o d e l l e d on t h e J e w i s h b e r a k o t h . T h i s i s i n d i c a t e d by t h e e m p h a s i s on t h a n k s g i v i n g ( o r b l e s s i n g ) i n t h e l i t u r g i c a l s o u r c e s w h i c h u n d e r l i e t h e New T e s t a m e n t a c c o u n t s o f t h e L a s t S u p p e r , t h e m i r a c l e o f t h e l o a v e s and f i s h e s , and t h e r e s u r -r e c t i o n m e a l s , a s w e l l a s by t h e f a c t t h a t l a t e r ( I g n a t i u s ) t h e c u l t i c meal i s c a l l e d CV^dpicrcjO.. However, i n b o t h c a s e s a s p e c i f i c a e t i o l o g i c a l n a r r a t i v e was i n s e r t e d . I n t h e b r e a d and f i s h t y p e , t h i s n a r r a t i v e w o u l d have r e s e m b l e d Mk. 6:41-42 o r Mk. 8:6-8; i n t h e b r e a d and w i n e t y p e i t w o u l d have been some f o r m o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a c c o u n t s p r e s e r v e d by P a u l and t h e s y n o p t i c e v a n g e l i s t s . These l i t u r g i c a l n a r r a t i v e s - - w h i c h 196 no d o u b t a p p e a r e d w i t h i n t h e f i r s t two d e c a d e s o f C h r i s t i a n i t y --were c o n s t r u c t e d o u t o f r e c o l l e c t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g two s p e c i a l m e a l s o f J e s u s ' t a b l e f e l l o w s h i p , r e c o l l e c t i o n s w h i c h had been p r e s e r v e d i n t h e e a r l i e s t s t a g e s o f t h e t r a d i t i o n c o n c e r n i n g 197 J e s u s . 154 By t h e v e r y n a t u r e o f t h e e l e m e n t s u s e d , t h e b r e a d and t h e f i s h t y p e m a i n t a i n e d t h e c h a r a c t e r o f a r e a l m e a l . I n t h e b r e a d and cup t y p e , h o w e v e r , t h e r e was a g r a d u a l d i s e n -gagement o f t h e s a c r e d e l e m e n t s f r o m t h e meal p r o p e r . The c e l e b r a t i o n i n C o r i n t h - - a n d p r e s u m a b l y i n t h e o t h e r c h u r c h e s f o u n d e d d u r i n g t h e P a u l i n e m i s s i o n s — a p p a r e n t l y o p e ned w i t h t h e p r a y e r s a t t h e b r e a k i n g o f t h e b r e a d ( i n c l u d i n g t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a c c o u n t ) , c o n t i n u e d w i t h an a c t u a l b u t r a t h e r f o r m a l i s e d m e a l , and was c o n c l u d e d w i t h t h e b l e s s i n g ( i n c l u d i n g t h e s e c o n d p a r t o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a c c o u n t ) 198 and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e c u p . Such a l s o was t h e p a t t e r n o f t h e A n t i o c h e n e l i t u r g y t a k e n o v e r by L u k e . I n M a r k , h o w e v e r , f o l l o w e d by M a t t h e w , t h e i n s t i t u t i o n n a r r a t i v e s seem t o be drawn f r o m a l i t u r g y i n w h i c h t h e b r e a d and cup s a y i n g s were no l o n g e r s e p a r a t e d by a m e a l . T h i s i s i n d i c a t e d by t h e a b -s e n c e o f t h e r u b r i c " a f t e r s u p p e r " (1 Co. 1 1 : 2 5 ; L k . 22:20) 199 and by t h e p a r a l l e l i s m o f t h e b r e a d and cup s a y i n g s . I n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , t h e meal p r o p e r had s i m p l y been d r o p p e d , p e r -haps b e c a u s e o f a b u s e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t . Thus i n t h e l a t t e r h a l f o f t h e f i r s t c e n t u r y l i t u r g i e s w h i c h r e t a i n e d t h e o r d i -n a r y meal e x i s t e d s i d e by s i d e w i t h t h o s e w h i c h had d r o p p e d i t . The D e u t e r o - J o h a n n i n e r e d a c t o r , w i t h h i s e m p h a s i s on com-munion i n J e s u s ' f l e s h and b l o o d , p r o b a b l y knows a l i t u r g y w i t h o u t a r e a l m e a l . I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o s a y w h e t h e r t h e t e r m agape o r " l o v e f e a s t , " w h i c h i s u s e d by I g n a t i u s s y n o n y m o u s l y 155 w i t h " e u c h a r i s t " t o d e s i g n a t e t h e c u l t i c m e a l , r e f e r r e d t o a c e l e b r a t i o n u i h i c h i n c l u d e d t h e c o n s u m p t i o n o f f o o d o t h e r t h a n t h e e l e m e n t s . However, I g n a t i u s ' s i l e n c e c o n c e r n i n g a r e a l meal s u g g e s t s t h a t i t was n o t p r e s e n t . The use o f t h e t e r m agape by l a t e r w r i t e r s ( C l e m e n t o f A l e x a n d r i a , S t r o m . 3: 2; T e r t u l l i a n , A p o l . 39) i n r e f e r e n c e t o a common o r d i n a r y meal o f C h r i s t i a n s d o e s n o t mean t h a t t h e word had t h i s s e n s e a c e n t u r y e a r l i e r . S i m i l a r l y , we c a n n o t d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e " l o v e f e a s t s " ( t h e u s u a l r e n d e r i n g o f C^J,(%IT€\1C ) o f Jude 12 i n c l u d e d s u c h a m e a l . N e i t h e r J u s t i n n o r I r e n a e u s know t h e a g a p e , b u t i t does a p p e a r l a t e r i n C l e m e n t o f A l e x a n d r i a , T e r -201 t u l l i a n , H i p p o l y t u s , and C y p r i a n . We may s u p p o s e h e r e t h i s common meal i s a s u r v i v a l o f t h e a c t u a l m e al w h i c h was e a r l i e r c o n j o i n e d t o t h e e u c h a r i s t , and w h i c h had p e r s i s t e d i n c e r t a i n c i r c l e s ( p e r h a p s i n A l e x a n d r i a , f o r e x a m p l e ) t h r o u g h t h e s e c o n d c e n t u r y . The D i d a c h e 1 0 : 1 , " B u t a f t e r you a r e s a t i s f i e d w i t h 202 f o o d , t h u s g i v e t h a n k s " ) a p p a r e n t l y p r o v i d e s f o r s u c h a me a l a f t e r t h e b l e s s i n g o f t h e c u p a a n d b r e a d and b e f o r e t h e f i n a l p r a y e r s o f t h a n k s g i v i n g . The r e m a r k s o f P l i n y (Ep_. 10: 96) t o T r a j a n , A.D. 1 1 2 , i m p l y t h e c o n s u m p t i o n o f a s u b s t a n t i a l m e a l , b u t t h e r e p r e s s i v e m e a s u r e s a g a i n s t C h r i s t i a n a s s e m b l i e s t o w h i c h he a t t e s t s may have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f s u c h a meal i n most C h r i s t i a n c o m m u n i t i e s . W i t h t h e emergence o f a f o r m a l , s t r u c t u r e d m i n i s t r y i n t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e f i r s t and t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s e c o n d c e n -156 t u r y , t h e e u c h a r i s t i c c e l e b r a t i o n came t o be p l a c e d u n d e r t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h i s m i n i s t r y . The New T e s t a m e n t nowhere s p e a k s o f a e u c h a r i s t i c m i n i s t r y ; i n e a r l y G e n t i l e C h r i s t i a n i t y , as i n e a r l y J e w i s h C h r i s t i a n i t y , t h e meal uias p r o b a b l y p r e s i d e d o v e r by t h e h o s t , o r by an e m i n e n t p e r s o n a l i t y i f p r e s e n t ( e . g . P a u l , i n A c t s 2 0 : 1 1 ) . When t h e l o c a l C h r i s t i a n c o m m u n i t i e s d e -v e l o p e d c o l l e g e s o f e l d e r s , m o d e l l e d on t h o s e o f t h e s y n a g o g u e , t h e s e e l d e r s w o u l d have been n a t u r a l h o s t s f o r t h e e u c h a r i s t i c m e a l . The e u c h a r i s t was so o n c o n s i d e r e d t h e p r e r o g a t i v e o f t h e o f f i c i a l m i n i s t r y , w h i c h was, i n C l e m e n t o f Rome a t l e a s t , com-p a r e d t o t h e p r i e s t l y m i n i s t r y o f t h e O l d T e s t a m e n t : He h a s h i m s e l f f i x e d by h i s supreme w i l l . . . t h e p e r s o n s whom he d e s i r e s f o r t h e s e c e l e b r a t i o n s . . . . F o r t o t h e H i g h P r i e s t h i s p r o p e r m i n i s -t r a t i o n s a r e a l l o t t e d , and t o t h e p r i e s t s t h e p r o p e r p l a c e has been a p p o i n t e d , and on L e v i t e s t h e i r p r o p e r s e r v i c e s have been i m p o s e d . The lay m a n i s bound by t h e o r d i n a n c e s f o r t h e l a i t y (1 C l e m . 4 0 : 3 , 5 ) . Z 0 3 I n t h o s e c o m m u n i t i e s w h i c h by t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y had d e -v e l o p e d a m o n a r c h i c a l e p i s c o p a t e ( i n S y r i a , A s i a M i n o r ) > t h e b i s h o p was e s t a b l i s h e d a s t h e e u c h a r i s t i c c e l e b r a n t p a r e x c e l -l e n c e . I n d e e d , D i x may be r i g h t i n s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e d e v e l o p -ment o f t h e e p i s c o p a t e was i t s e l f i n f l u e n c e d by t h e e u c h a r i s t i c w o r s h i p : t h e t r a d i t i o n ( i n h e r i t e d f r o m J u d a i s m ) o f h a v i n g a s i n g l e l e a d e r p r e s i d e o v e r t h e common meal on b e h a l f o f t h o s e p r e s e n t may have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e emergence o f t h e e p i s c o p a l 157 o f f i c e , w h i c h f r o m t h e o u t s e t ( c f . I g n a t i u s ) was c o n n e c t e d t o t h e e u c h a r i s t i c c e l e b r a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , t h e d i a c o n a t e may hav/e grown o u t o f t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e a t t e n d a n t s who i n J e w i s h m e a l s a s s i s t e d t h e l e a d e r . ^ 0 4 The v i s i o n o f t h e h e a v e n l y l i t u r g y i n t h e A p o c a l y p s e ( 4 f f . ) g i v e s us a g l i m p s e o f e u c h a r i s t i c w o r s h i p i n A s i a M i n o r a t t h e end o f t h e f i r s t c e n t u r y ; i t s e r v e s " t o show us what t h e r e a l e a r t h l y l i t u r g y i s , o r s h o u l d be made t o be 5*" 2 1-' 6 The v i s i o n — i n s p i t e o f i t s p r e c i s e l y a p o c a l y p t i c c h a r a c t e r — h a s a s a model c o n t e m p o r a r y e u c h a r i s t i c w o r s h i p . I n A p o c . 3:20, t h e w r i t e r has C h r i s t i n v i t i n g t h e b e l i e v e r f o r a m e a l : "Be-h o l d , I s t a n d a t t h e d o o r and k n o c k ; i f a n y o n e h e a r s my v o i c e and o pens t h e d o o r , I w i l l come i n t o h i m and e a t w i t h h i m , and he w i t h me." The w r i t e r t h e n f i n d s an open d o o r i n h e a v e n and i s i n v i t e d t o w i t n e s s t h e h e a v e n l y l l i t u r g y ( 4 : 1 ) . He s e e s t w e n t y - f o u r e l d e r s g r o u p e d a r o u n d t h e t h r o n e o f God ( 4 : 4 ) . T h i s image w i t h o u t any d o u b t c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e e a r t h l y l i t u r g y o f t h o s e c o m m u n i t i e s w h i c h had d e v e l o p e d a m o n a r c h i c a l e p i s c o p a t e : t h e p r e b y t e r i u m g r o u p e d a r o u n d t h e b i s h o p who p r e -s i d e d o v e r t h e e u c h a r i s t i c c e l e b r a t i o n . S e v e r a l t e x t s o f t h e A p o c a l y p s e seem t o be d i r e c t b o r r o w i n g s o r d e l i b e r a t e i m i t a t i o n s o f t h i s l i t u r g y : H o l y , h o l y , h o l y , i s t h e L o r d God A l m i g h t y , who was and i s and i s t o come ( 4 : 8 ) . 158 Worthy a r t t h o u , o u r L o r d and God, t o r e c e i v e g l o r y and h o n o u r and p o w e r , f o r t h o u d i d s t c r e a t e a l l t h i n g s , and by t h y m i l l t h e y e x i s t e d and were c r e a t e d ( 4 : 1 1 ) . We g i v e t h a n k s t o t h e e , L o r d God A l m i g h t y , who a r t and who w a s t , t h a t t h o u h a s t t a k e n t h y g r e a t power and begun t o r e i g n ( 1 1 : 7 ) . F e a r God and g i v e him g l o r y , f o r t h e h o u r o f h i s j u d g e m e n t has come; and w o r s h i p h i m who made h e a v e n and e a r t h , t h e s e a and t h e f o u n t a i n s o f w a t e r ( 1 4 : 7 ) . G r e a t and w o n d e r f u l a r e t h y d e e d s , 0 L o r d God t h e A l m i g h t y , J u s t and t r u e a r e t h y ways, Q K i n g o f t h e Ages ( 1 5 : 3 ) . Come, L o r d J e s u s l ( 2 2 : 2 0 ) 2 0 6 I g n a t i u s o f A n t i o c h i s a f u r t h e r w i t n e s s t o t h e c e l e b r a -t i o n o f t h e e u c h a r i s t by a m o n a r c h i c a l b i s h o p , w i t h t h e p r o -b a b l e a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e e l d e r s and d e a c o n s . He d e c l a r e s t h a t a e u c h a r i s t i s v a l i d o n l y when c e l e b r a t e d "by t h e b i s h o p , o r 2 07 by one whom he a p p o i n t s " ( S m y r n . 8 : 1 ) . The "one e u c h a r i s t " i s c o n n e c t e d t o " t h e one b i s h o p w i t h t h e p r e s b y t e r y and t h e d e a c o n s " ( P h i l . 4 ) , 2 0 8 a s i s t h e " s a n c t u a r y " ( T r a i l . 7 : 2 ) . 2 0 9 Such was t h e c a s e i n S y r i a and A s i a M i n o r , b u t t h i s p r a c t i c e was n o t u n i f o r m . F o r C l e m e n t o f Rome t h e r e seems t o be a t w o -f o l d m i n i s t r y o f " b i s h o p s and d e a c o n s " (1 C l e m . 4 2 : 5 ) , 2 1 0 and t h e b i s h o p s seem t o be i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h e Trp£crjSvC£^>OX ( 4 4 : 4 f . ) . These p r e s b y t e r - b i s h o p s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e e u -c h a r i s t i c c e l e b r a t i o n ( l o c . c i t . : . . . COV$ ®(JU£JUTTCU}£ tfoii 0<JIU)Z ^pO0-tVejKQVm<; zk Scbpa ) , t h o u g h t h e d e a c o n s ( t h e 1 5 9 " L e v i t e s " o f 4 0 : 5 ? ) no d o u b t have a l s o a l i t u r g i c a l r o l e . T h ere a p p e a r s t o have been a s i m i l a r a r r a n g e m e n t i n t h e A l e x -a n d r i a n c i r c l e f o r w h i c h t h e D i d a c h e uias i n t e n d e d . A f t e r s p e a k i n g o f t h e Sunday e u c h a r i s t , t h e D i d a c h e c o n t i n u e s i m -m e d i a t e l y : " A p p o i n t t h e r e f o r e f o r y o u r s e l v e s b i s h o p s and d e a -c o n s " ( D i d . 5 1 : 1 ) . B u t t h e D i d a c h e a t t e s t s a l s o t o an i t i n e r a n t , c h a r i s m a t i c m i n i s t r y o f " a p o s t l e s and p r o p h e t s " 213 ( D i d . 1 1 ) . These have t h e r i g h t t o c e l e b r a t e t h e e u c h a r i s t , and a r e n o t as bound t o t h e e s t a b l i s h e d c u s t o m o a s a r e t h e l o c a l , o f f i c i a l m i n i s t e r s ("But s u f f e r t h e p r o p h e t s t o h o l d e u c h a r i s t a s t h e y u i i l l , " D i d . 1 0 : 7 ) . 2 1 4 The f i r s t c o m p l e t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e e u c h a r i s t i c c e l e b r a -t i o n u i h i c h has come doum t o us i s t o be f o u n d i n t h e F i r s t Apo-l o g y o f J u s t i n . I t g i v e s us a p i c t u r e o f w o r s h i p i n Rome c . A.D. 1 5 0 , y e t i t i s g e n e r a l enough t o be v a l i d f o r o t h e r C h r i s -t i a n c e n t r e s ( J u s t i n had t r a v e l l e d e x t e n s i v e l y i n t h e E m p i r e ) . J u s t i n g i v e s two b r i e f a c c o u n t s o f t h e l i t u r g y , one i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e c e l e b r a t i o n w h i c h f o l l o w e d i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e b a p t i s m o f a c o n v e r t , and t h e o t h e r i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e r e g u l a r Sunday c e l e b r a t i o n . The f i r s t b e g i n s t h u s : We, a f t e r t h u s w a s h i n g t h e one who has been c o n -v i n c e d and s i g n i f i e d h i s a s s e n t , l e a d him t o t h o s e who a r e c a l l e d b r e t h r e n where t h e y a r e a s s e m b l e d . They t h e n e a r n e s t l y o f f e r common p r a y e r s f o r them-s e l v e s and t h e one who has been i l l u m i n a t e d and a l l o t h e r s e v e r y w h e r e . . . . On f i n i s h i n g t h e p r a y e r s we g r e e t e a c h o t h e r w i t h a k i s s ( I A p o l . 65) 160 Here t h e r e a r e tuio p r e p a r a t o r y a c t s . F i r s t , t h e r e i s t h e common p r a y e r o f t h e " b r e t h r e n . " T h i s i s t h e " P r a y e r o f t h e F a i t h f u l " i n u i h i c h o n l y t h e b a p t i s e d a r e p e r m i t t e d t o p a r t i -c i p a t e ; i t i s t h u s f o r t h e n e o p h y t e t h e f i r s t t i m e t h a t he i s a l l o w e d t o s a y t h i s p r a y e r w i t h t h e f a i t h f u l . S e c o n d l y , t h e r e i s t h e K i s s o f P e a c e ; i t a p p e a r s h e r e a s a s e a l on t h e common 216 p r a y e r w h i c h h a s p r e c e d e d i t . J u s t i n ' s s e c o n d a c c o u n t , t h a t o f t h e Sunday e u c h a r i s t , b e g i n s w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e l i t u r g y o f t h e word w h i c h p r e -c e d e d t h e P r a y e r o f t h e F a i t h f u l and t h e e u c h a r i s t i c p r a y e r : And on t h e day c a l l e d Sunday t h e r e i s a m e e t i n g i n one p l a c e o f t h o s e who l i v e i n t h e c i t i e s o r t h e c o u n t r y , and t h e memoirs o f t h e a p o s t l e s o r t h e w r i t i n g s o f t h e p r o p h e t s a r e r e a d a s l o n g a s t i m e p e r m i t s . When t h e r e a d e r has f i n i s h e d , t h e p r e s i d e n t i n a d i s c o u r s e u r g e s and i n v i t e s us t o t h e i m i t a t i o n o f t h e s e n o b l e t h i n g s . Then we a l l s t a n d up t o g e t h e r and o f f e r p r a y e r s ( I A p o l . 6 7 ) . 2 1 7 The r e g u l a r Sunday s e r v i c e t h u s b e g i n s w i t h l e s s o n s f r o m t h e O l d T e s t a m e n t ( T f l O'Vy^pcijU/UOlZQl. ZU)\) TrpO<f>T}CU>V)21 8 and t h e g o s p e l s CCOt SfflOjUVf]/iLOVSlfaolZCi 'ZXOV odTOOTOP^^V ) . The r e a d i n g c o n t i n u e s "as l o n g as t i m e p e r m i t s , " w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h e s y s t e m o f l e c t i o c o n t i n u a r a t h e r t h a n one o f i n d e p e n d e n t 219 s e l e c t e d p a s s a g e s . These r e a d i n g s a r e f o l l o w e d by a h o m i l y / f r o m t h e " p r e s i d e n t . " J u s t i n d o e s n o t i d e n t i f y t h i s TTfO£azt*>S a s t h e b i s h o p ; we may assume i f t h e r e was a m o n a r c h i c a l b i s h o p i n Rome a t t h i s t i m e , he w o u l d have p r e s i d e d o v e r t h e e u c h a r i s t . 161 I n c a s e s o f m e e t i n g s by s m a l l groups, the " p r e s i d e n t " mould p r o b a b l y have been a p r e s b y t e r . 2 2 0 B o t h o f J u s t i n ' s a c c o u n t s t h e n d e s c r i b e t h e e u c h a r i s t i c p r a y e r : Then t h e b r e a d and a cup o f w a t e r and m i x e d w i n e a r e b r o u g h t t o t h e p r e s i d e n t o f t h e b r e t h r e n and h e , t a k i n g them, s e n d s up p r a i s e and g l o r y t o t h e F a t h e r o f t h e u n i v e r s e t h r o u g h t h e name o f t h e Son and o f t h e H o l y S p i r i t , and o f f e r s t h a n k s g i v i n g a t some l e n g t h t h a t we have been deemed w o r t h y t o r e -c e i v e t h e s e t h i n g s f r o m h i m . When he has f i n i s h e d t h e p r a y e r s and t h e t h a n k s g i v i n g , t h e w h o l e c o n g r e -. g a t i o n p r e s e n t a s s e n t s , s a y i n g , " A m e n W h e n t h e p r e s i d e n t has g i v e n t h a n k s and t h e w h o l e c o n g r e g a -t i o n has a s s e n t e d , t h o s e whom we c a l l d e a c o n s g i v e t o e a c h o f t h o s e p r e s e n t a p o r t i o n o f t h e c o n s e -c r a t e d b r e a d and w i n e and w a t e r , and t h e y t a k e i t t o t h e a b s e n t ( I A p o l . 65) . ' And, as s a i d b e f o r e , when we have f i n i s h e d t h e p r a y e r , b r e a d i s b r o u g h t , and wine and w a t e r , and t h e p r e s i d e n t s imilarly s e n d s up p r a y e r s and t h a n k s g i v i n g s t o t h e b e s t o f h i s a b i l i t y , and t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n a s s e n t s , s a y i n g t h e Amen; t h e d i s t r i -b u t i o n , and r e c e p t i o n o f t h e c o n s e c r a t e d TelementsJ by e a c h o n e , t a k e s p l a c e and t h e y a r e s e n t t o t h e a b s e n t by t h e d e a c o n s . Those who prosper, and who so w i s h , c o n t r i b u t e , e a c h one as much as he c h o o s e s t o . What i s c o l l e c t e d i s d e p o s i t e d w i t h t h e p r e s i -d e n t , and he t a k e s c a r e o f o r p h a n s and w i d o w s , and t h o s e who a r e i n want on a c c o u n t o f s i c k n e s s o r any o t h e r c a u s e . . . ( I A p o l . 67) . 2 2 2 The e u c h a r i s t p r o p e r t h e r e f o r e b e g i n s w i t h a b r i n g i n g o f t h e g i f t s t o t h e c e l e b r a n t , p r o b a b l y by t h e d e a c o n s . T h i s i s t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e l a t e r o f f e r t o r y r i t e , b u t J u s t i n p l a c e s no s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s on i t . The r e f e r e n c e i n t h e f i r s t a c c o u n t t o a UpoZTjpxOV VcfcXtO? K&l KpCLJUQLTO$ i s somewhat p u z z l i n g : 162 i t seems t o mean t h a t two s e p a r a t e c u p s were u s e d , one c o n -t a i n i n g w a t e r and one c o n t a i n i n g w i n e and w a t e r m i x e d . A c e r t a i n c o n f u s i o n i n t h e m a n u s c r i p t t r a d i t i o n l e d H a r n a c k t o p o s t u l a t e t h a t f o r J u s t i n t h e e l e m e n t s were s i m p l y b r e a d and O O *7 w a t e r , and a l t h o u g h t h i s i s n o t i m p o s s i b l e ( b r e a d and w a t e r were u s e d by c e r t a i n s e c o n d c e n t u r y g r o u p s , and p e r h a p s e v e n 224 22 5 i n New T e s t a m e n t t i m e s ) , Jungmann's e x p l a n a t i o n t h a t t h e cup o f w a t e r was a s p e c i a l cup t o be g i v e n t o t h e n e o p h y t e as a t o k e n o f h i s i n t e r i o r c l e a n s i n g i s s i m p l e r and more c o n v i n -c i n g . A f t e r t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e g i f t s , t h e c e l e b r a n t p r o -c e e d s i m m e d i a t e l y w i t h t h e e u c h a r i s t i c p r a y e r , w h i c h i s e x t e m -p o r a n e o u s {ocftj 6vVOkjLL\$ dVZCp » c . 6 7 ) . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n Rome t h e r e were n o t y e t f i x e d l i t u r g i c a l t e x t s , and t h a t t h e c e l e b r a n t s i m p l y i m p r o v i s e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h a c e r t a i n e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n . J u s t i n ' s e m p h a s i s on t h e t h a n k s g i v i n g c h a r a c t e r o f t h e c e l e b r a n t ' s u t t e r a n c e s s u g g e s t s a c o n t i n u a -t i o n o f t h e themes o f t h e b e r a k o t h . The r e f e r e n c e t o t h e / c/ H&Crp Tun? OACOV ( c . 65) i m p l i e s t h a t t h a n k s g i v i n g was g i v e n f o r c r e a t i o n . O t h e r themes w h i c h may have a p p e a r e d i n t h e i m -p r o v i s e d a n a p h o r a c a n be d i s c e r n e d f r o m a c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n J u s t i n ' s r e m a r k s and t h e a n a p h o r a o f H i p p o l y t u s , a Roman l i t u r -2 27 gy f r o m a h a l f a c e n t u r y l a t e r ( A p o s t . T r a d . 1 : 4 ) . J u s t i n ' s r e f e r e n c e t o " t h a n k s g i v i n g . . . t h a t we have been deemed w o r t h y t o r e c e i v e t h e s e t h i n g s f r o m h i m " ( c . 65) i s i n harmony w i t h t h e 163 f i r s t p a r t o f H i p p o l y t u s ' c a n o n , i n u i h i c h t h a n k s g i v i n g i s g i v e n f o r t h e i n c a r n a t i o n and r e d e m p t i o n . The q u o t a t i o n o f t h e uiords o f i n s t i t u t i o n i n J u s t i n ' s e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e e u c h a -r i s t u i h i c h i s i n s e r t e d betuieen t h e tuio d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e l i t u r g y ( c . 66) shoui t h a t f o r h i m t h e s e f o r m e d p a r t o f t h e a n a p h o r a . I n H i p p o l y t u s an a n a m n e s i s o f C h r i s t ' s d e a t h and r e s u r r e c t i o n f o l l o u i s s i m m e d i a t e l y upon t h e uiords o f i n s t i t u -t i o n . T h e r e uias d o u b t l e s s s u c h a p r a y e r i n t h e e x t e m p o r a -n e o u s c a n o n d e s c r i b e d by J u s t i n : t h i s p r a y e r i s p r o b a b l y a t t h e b a s i s o f J u s t i n ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e e u c h a r i s t a s a m e m o r i a l o f t h e P a s s i o n ( D i a l . 1 1 7 : 3 ) . 2 2 8 F i n a l l y , J u s t i n ' s r e f e r e n c e t o t h e H o l y S p i r i t ( c . 65) may be an a l l u s i o n t o t h e i n v o c a t i o n o f t h e H o l y S p i r i t u i h i c h f o l l o w s t h e a n a m n e s i s i n t h e c a n o n o f H i p p o l y t u s . I n any e v e n t , t h e s e m o t i f s a p p e a r i n s u b s e q u e n t l i t u r g i e s , b o t h e a s t e r n and w e s t e r n , and we may s u p -p o s e t h e y r e f l e c t t h e g e n e r a l c o n t e n t o f e u c h a r i s t i c p r a y e r s i n t h e l a t t e r h a l f o f t h e s e c o n d c e n t u r y . The l i t u r g y c o n c l u d e s w i t h a s o l e m n "Amen," by u i h i c h t h e a s s e m b l y e x p r e s s e s i t s a s s e n t t o t h e p r a y e r o f t h e c e l e b r a n t . Then communion i s d i s t r i b u t e d by t h e d e a c o n s . A f t e r t h i s an o f f e r i n g i s t a k e n f o r t h o s e who a r e i n need ( c . 6 7 ) . P o r t i o n s o f t h e c o n s e c r a t e d e l e m e n t s a r e t a k e n t o t h e a b s e n t by t h e d e a c o n s ; J u s t i n i s t h e f i r s t w i t n e s s t o t h i s p r a c t i c e . W i t h t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n by J u s t i n o f t h e l i t u r g y i n t h e m i d -s e c o n d c e n t u r y we may c o n c l u d e o u r o u t l i n e o f t h e e a r l y d e v e l o p -164 ment o f e u c h a r i s t i c w o r s h i p . As t h e main f e a t u r e s o f " c l a s s i -c a l " e u c h a r i s t i c t h e o l o g y had a c h i e v e d t h e i r e v o l u t i o n by t h e t i m e o f J u s t i n , s o had t h e e u c h a r i s t i c l i t u r g y a t t a i n e d t h e f u n d a m e n t a l s t r u c t u r e u i h i c h uias t o be c a n o n i s e d i n t h e f o r m a l l i t u r g i c a l t e x t s o f t h e p a t r i s t i c p e r i o d . Addendum: The E u c h a r i s t and t h e Temple T e x t s M e n t i o n s h o u l d be made o f an i m p o r t a n t r e c e n t s t u d y o f 229 p r i m i t i v e e u c h a r i s t i c t h e o l o g y by B j ^ r n S a n d v i k i n u i h i c h t h e a u t h o r d e v e l o p s a t h e s i s c o n c e r n i n g t h e p r i m i t i v e e u c h a r i s t u i h i c h , a l t h o u g h n o t e n t i r e l y i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n w i t h t h e v i e w s o u t l i n e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g p a g e s o f t h i s c h a p t e r , i s n o t t o us c o n v i n c i n g . The m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r o c e d u r e o f t h i s work i s i n t e r e s t i n g , s i n c e i t t a k e s as i t s p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e n o t t h e L a s t S u p p e r n a r r a t i v e s n o r any o t h e r e x p l i c i t r e f e r e n c e s t o c u l t i c m e a l s i n t h e New T e s t a m e n t , b u t r a t h e r t h e two A r a m a i c f o r m u l a e f o u n d i n t h e D i d a c h e . The a u t h o r a t t e m p t s t o show t h a t t h e s e f o r m u -l a e a r e c o n n e c t e d w i t h a s e t o f i d e a s i n t h e New T e s t a m e n t which c o n s t i t u t e an i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t o f t h e e a r l y C h r i s t i a n u n d e r -s t a n d i n g o f t h e e u c h a r i s t . B u t u n l i k e t h e a n a l y s i s w h i c h we have p r e s e n t e d , t h a t o f S a n d v i k f a i l s t o d i s t i n g u i s h d i f f e r e n t e u c h a r i s t i c t y p e s i n t h e p e r i o d u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n , and t h e a u t h o r f i n d s t h e same m o t i f s i n a l a r g e v a r i e t y o f s o u r c e s , i n c l u d i n g P a u l , H e b r e w s , t h e s y n o p t i c g o s p e l s , J o h n , and t h e D i d a c h e . 165 The a u t h o r b e g i n s h i s t h e s i s u i i t h t h e o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t t h e f o r m u l a Hosanna i n D i d . 10:6 must, l i k e M a r a n a t h a , u l t i -230 m a t e l y be d e r i v e d f r o m t h e e a r l i e s t e u c h a r i s t i c l i t u r g i e s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , i t i s a f r e e c i t a t i o n o f P s . 1 1 8 : 2 5 , and s e r v e s a s a " c o l l e c t i v e a c c l a m a t i o n , a c a l l t o a s s e m b l y , " p r e -c e d i n g i n t h e l i t u r g y t h e i n v i t a t i o n , a n a t h e m a , and M a r a n a t h a f o r m u l a e . The e u c h a r i s t i c c e l e b r a t i o n t h u s c o n s t i t u t e s t h e S i t z im Leben u i h i c h f u r n i s h e d t h i s f o r m u l a :t "0 , t h e e v a n g e l i s t s i n t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e s t o r y o f J e s u s ' t r i u m p h a l e n t r y i n t o J e r u s a l e m , and u i h i c h a l s o s t a n d s b e h i n d t h e Greek t r a n s -2 32 l a t i o n o f t h e f o r m u l a i n Apoc. 7:10. These o b s e r v a t i o n s l e a d S a n d v i k t o p o s t u l a t e t h a t P s . 1 1 8 , a H a l l e l p s a l m , had been t a k e n o v e r by t h e e a r l y c h u r c h a s a e u c h a r i s t i c l i t u r -g i c a l hymn, and he i n f a c t i d e n t i f i e s t h e hymn r e f e r r e d t o i n 233 t h e L a s t S u p p e r a c c o u n t s a s t h i s p s a l m . A d v a n c i n g f r o m t h i s h y p o t h e s i s , t h e a u t h o r d e v e l o p s t h e c e n t r a l t h e s i s o f h i s b o o k , n a m e l y t h a t t h e Temple theme i n t h i s p s a l m i s c o n s t i t u -t i v e o f t h e e u c h a r i s t i c t h e o l o g y o f t h e p r i m i t i v e c h u r c h . The key t o t h i s theme i s t o be f o u n d i n t h e e x p r e s s i o n " t h e r e j e c t e d s t o n e " o f P s . 1 1 8 : 2 2 , u i h i c h S a n d v i k b e l i e v e s t h e e a r l y C h r i s t i a n c ommunity a s s o c i a t e d u i i t h t h e n o t i o n o f t h e c h u r c h as t h e Neui Temple. T h u s , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a u t h o r , t h e c i t a t i o n o f P s . 118:22 a t t h e end o f t h e p a r a b l e o f t h e T e n a n t s i n t h e V i n e y a r d (Mk. 12:1-2 and p a r . ) d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t t h e 166 m e a n i n g o f t h i s p a r a b l e i s t h a t C h r i s t i s t h e c o r n e r s t o n e o f 234 t h e Ne ui Temple w h i c h r e p l a c e s t h e b i d . He f i n d s , m o r e o v e r , a l i n k b e t w e e n t h i s p a r a b l e and t h e e u c h a r i s t i c p r a y e r s o f D i d . 1-10, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e v i n e image o f D i d . 9:2, w h i c h he 235 i n t e r p r e t s as a l s o b e i n g a s y m b o l f o r t h e T e m p l e . These o b s e r v a t i o n s , i t i s c o n c l u d e d , a r e e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e e u c h a r i s t was c o n s i d e r e d by e a r l y C h r i s t i a n s a s r e p l a c i n g t h e c u l t o f t h e O l d T e m p l e , and a s b e i n g i n i t s e l f t h e c u l t o f , and t h e p r i m a r y means o f c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e New T emple, i . e . , t h e c h u r c h . S a n d v i k b e l i e v e s t h a t he c a n f i n d t r a c e s o f a c l o s e a s s o -c i a t i o n b e t w e e n t h i s " T e m p l e - c o m p l e x " and t h e e u c h a r i s t i c c e -l e b r a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e New T e s t a m e n t . Thus i n 1 P e t . 2:4-8 t h e c i t a t i o n o f P s . 118:22 f o l l o w s upon a r e f e r e n c e t o t h e o f f e r i n g o f " s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e s " by t h o s e who a r e " l i k e l i v i n g s t o n e £toJ be. . . b u i l t i n t o a s p i r i t u a l h o u s e ; " t h e a u t h o r i n t e r p r e t s t h e s e " s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e s " a s t h e o f f e r i n g s 236 o f p r a i s e i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e e u c h a r i s t i c c e l e b r a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , a e u c h a r i s t i c b a c k g r o u n d f o r f o u r P a u l i n e "Temple t e x t s " i s s u g g e s t e d . The j u d g e m e n t m o t i f i n 1 Co. 3 : 16-17, i t i s a r g u e d , i s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e same e u c h a r i s t i c l i t u r g i c a l e l e -ment as t h a t o f 1 Co. 1 6 : 2 2 , and t h e p o i n t o f t h e t e x t i s t h a t C h r i s t i a n s must work t o w a r d s t h e b u i l d i n g - u p o f t h e c o mmunity as t h e New Temple i n o r d e r n o t t o i n c u r t h e j u d g e m e n t o f God 2 37 i n t h e e u c h a r i s t i c c e l e b r a t i o n . 1 Co. 6:19-20 i s a s s o -c i a t e d w i t h t h e e u c h a r i s t , b e c a u s e , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a u t h o r , 167 P a u l ' s c o n c e p t of, t h e c o l l e c t i v e body a s t h e Temple i s d e t e r -m i n a t i v e f o r h i s s t a t e m e n t s h e r e c o n c e r n i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l b o d y , and b e c a u s e " i n t e r v e n t i o n s a g a i n s t u n c h a s t i t y mere o f t e n 2 38 a p a r t o f t h e e u c h a r i s t i c p a r a e n e s i s . " The T e m p l e - t e x t o f 2 Co. 16-18 i s c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e e u c h a r i s t on a c c o u n t o f i t s c l o s e p a r a l l e l i s m w i t h 1 Co. 1 0 : l 4 f f . , an e x p l i c i t y l e u c h a -239 r i s t i c s t e x t . F i n a l l y , E p h . 2:20-22 i s s a i d t o r e v e a l a e u -c h a r i s t i c b a s i s t h r o u g h i t s e m p h a s i s on t h e s o t e r i o l o g i c a l work o f C h r i s t and t h r o u g h t h e p r e c e d i n g a l l u s i o n s t o h i s b l o o d ( v . 13) and t o "one body" ( v . 1 6 ) . 2 4 0 The a u t h o r ' s c o n -c l u s i o n i s t h a t P a u l u s e s n o t o n l y t h e c o n c e p t o f " body," b u t a l s o t h a t o f " t e m p l e , " i n o r d e r t o r e l a t e t h e e u c h a r i s t t o t h e c h u r c h . S a n d v i k f i n d s a s i m i l a r t h e o l o g i c a l l i n k i n t h e e p i s t l e t o t h e H e b r e w s . A l t h o u g h t h e s y m b o l o f t h e Temple s e r v e s a d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n i n t h i s b o o k — t h e community i s n o t i t s e l f t h e Temple, r a t h e r t h r o u g h i t s w o r s h i p i t e n t e r s i n t o t h e h e a v e n l y Temple — t h e r e i s s t i l l a c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e Temple and t h e e u c h a r i s t . I n Heb. 1 0 : 1 9 f f . , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e way i n t o t h e s a n c t u a r y i s o p ened by t h e " f l e s h " ( v . 20) and " b l o o d " ( v . 19) o f J e s u s ; t h e s e a r e i n t e r p r e t e d a s a l l u s i o n s t o 241 t h e e u c h a r i s t . I n Heb. 12:18-29 t h e Temple-theme i s a l l u d e d t o i n d i r e c t l y by t h e e x p r e s s i o n s "IYlount Z i o n , " " t h e c i t y o f t h e l i v i n g God," and " t h e h e a v e n l y J e r u s a l e m " ( v . 2 2 ) . The r e f e -r e n c e t o t h e " a s s e m b l y " ( v . 23) i s an i n d i c a t i o n , our a u t h o r 168 b e l i e v e s , t h a t t h e w h o l e p a s s a g e i s "a d e s c r i p t i o n o f p r i m i -t i v e C h r i s t i a n w o r s h i p . " The j u d g e m e n t m o t i f , w h i c h he a s s o -c i a t e s w i t h t h e Temple theme i n t h e " e u c h a r i s t i c p a r a e n e s i s , " 242 i s d o m i n a n t ( v s s . 2 3 , 2 5 f f . ) . I n t h e G o s p e l o f J o h n , t h e Temple t e x t J n 2:21 i s i n t e r -p r e t e d i n t h e l i g h t o f J n . 14:2 and 1 4 : 2 3 , n o t a b l y b e c a u s e o f t h e s i m i l a r i t y b etween t h e words /uovrj ( a b o d e , r e l a t e d t o t h e /LlSX/SlV o f 6:56) u s e d i n t h e s e two v e r s e s and t h e word v'dOi ( d w e l l i n g , t e m p l e ) u s e d i n 2 : 2 1 . S a n d v i k a s s e r t s t h a t t h e r e -f e r e n c e t o t h e " t e m p l e o f h i s body" i s t h u s an a l l u s i o n t o t h e n o t i o n o f C h r i s t i a n s l i v i n g i n C h r i s t . M o r e o v e r , t h e same t h e o l o g y i s e x p r e s s e d i n t h e d i s c o u r s e o f t h e v i n e - b r a n c h ( J n . 1 5 : 1 f f . ) , t h e v i n e b r a n c h b e i n g a s y m b o l o f t h e Temple ( a s i n D i d . 9 : 2 ) . The c o n n e c t i o n o f t h i s s e t o f s y m b o l s w i t h t h e e u c h a r i s t i s e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h t h e c l a i m t h a t i t i s " o b v i o u s " t h a t r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e c o m i n g o f C h r i s t i n J n . 14 ( v s s . 3,18, 2 3,28) " c o n c e r n above a l l t h e c o m i n g o f J e s u s i n t h e c h u r c h 243 and e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e e u c h a r i s t . " The e u c h a r i s t i c b a s i s o f t h e v i n e - b r a n c h d i s c o u r s e i s p o s t u l a t e d on a c c o u n t o f t h e s i m i l a r i t y b e t w een J n . 15:4 and J n . 6:56, and b e c a u s e o f t h e use o f t h e s y m b o l o f t h e v i n e i n t h e e u c h a r i s t i c p r a y e r o f 244 t h e D i d a c h e . The a u t h o r b r i e f l y t r e a t s a number o f o t h e r t e x t s , n a m e l y Apoc. 3:12 and 7 : 9 f f . , 2 4 5 1 C l e m . 4 8 : 2 f . , 2 4 6 s e v e r a l p a s s a g e s 169 i n I g n a t i u s (Ep_h. 5:2; T r a i l . 7:2; lYlaqn. 7:2; P i l a d . 4,7; 2 *7 2 4 8 Eph. 15:3), and B a r n . 1 6 : 9 , i n a s i m i l a r manner, a t t e m p t -i n g t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e same f u n d a m e n t a l mo-t i f . I n a c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r S a n d v i k a s s e r t s t h e use o f t h e Temple as a s y m b o l f o r t h e community i s w i t h o u t p a r a l l e l i n c o n t e m p o r a r y l i t e r a t u r e , and s u g g e s t s t h a t i t o r i g i n a t e s w i t h J e s u s h i m s e l f . The o r i g i n a l i t y o f t h i s work l i e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e a u t h o r has a t t e m p t e d t o l a y b a r e an i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t o f p r i -m i t i v e e u c h a r i s t i c t h e o l o g y by t h e a n a l y s i s o f a h o s t o f t e x t s w h i c h have n o t t r a d i t i o n a l l y been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e e u c h a r i s t . I t s c h i e f w e a k n e s s i s t h e p r e s u p p o s e d u n i t y o f e u c h a r i s t i c f a i t h and p r a c t i c e o v e r t h e w h o l e o f t h e New T e s t a m e n t and p o s t -A p o s t o l i c p e r i o d s . W h i l e one must g i v e c r e d i t t o t h e a u t h o r f o r b u i l d i n g up a r a t h e r n e a t s y s t e m , one has a t t h e same t i m e t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t i t i s a b i t t o o c o h e r e n t , and t h a t t h e a u -t h o r has i m p o s e d h i g h l y s p e c u l a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s on a l a r g e number o f t e x t s s o t h a t t h e y w i l l s u p p o r t h i s t h e s i s . W h i l e t h e a u t h o r i s no d o u b t r i g h t i n h i s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t Hosanna was a p r i m i t i v e l i t u r g i c a l f o r m u l a , and t h a t a s s u c h was u t i -l i s e d i n t h e s t o r y o f J e s u s ' e n t r y i n t o J e r u s a l e m and i n Apoc. 7:10, t h i s i s i n i t s e l f by no means p r o o f t h a t t h e w h o l e o f P s . 118 was u s e d as a e u c h a r i s t i c hymn. Once t h i s f o u n d a t i o n f o r S a n d v i k ' s t h e s i s i s c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n , s o i s h i s e u c h a r i s -170 t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e New T e s t a m e n t T e m p l e - t e x t s . I t i s t o s a y t h e l e a s t a d u b i o u s p r o c e d u r e t o d e t e c t e u c h a r i s t i c a l -l u s i o n s i n any r e f e r e n c e t o "body" o r " b l o o d . " A t t i m e s t h e a u t h o r ' s c r i t e r i a f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e e u c h a r i s t i c b a s i s o f a t e x t a r e so g e n e r a l t h a t t h e y c e a s e t o have any v a l i d i t y , a s , f o r e x a m p l e , when s p e a k i n g o f E p h . 2:20-22 he d e c l a r e s , "The c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n b e t ween c h r i s t o l o g y and e c c l e s i o l o g y h e r e ? A Q b e t r a y s t h e e u c h a r i s t i c b a c k g r o u n d . " ^ M o r e o v e r , h i s e x p l a -n a t i o n f o r t h e l a c k o f any s p e c i f i c s t a t e m e n t i n t h e New Tes -t a m e n t t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t t h e e u c h a r i s t c o n s t i t u t e s t h e com-m u n i t y a s t h e Temple, n a m e l y t h a t f o r t h e r e a d e r o f e a r l y C h r i s t i a n l i t e r a t u r e t h e n o t i o n f o r m e d p a r t o f h i s e l e m e n t a r y 2 50 i n s t r u c t i o n , and t h e r e f o r e n e e d e d o n l y t o be a l l u d e d t o , i s h a r d l y s a t i s f a c t o r y . I n c o n c l u s i o n , we do n o t f e e l t h e a u t h o r has s u c c e e d e d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e e c c l e s i o -l o g i c a l Temple i d e a f o r o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p r i m i t i v e E u c h a r i s t . / 7 / NOTES TO CHAPTER I I I . Mass and L o r d ' s S u p p e r , c h a p t e r s I - X I 1 1 . 2 . I b i d . , p. 1 9 3 . 3. M a c D o n a l d , C h r i s t i a n W o r s h i p i n t h e P r i m i t i v e  C h u r c h , p. 1 3 1 . 4. T e x t s i n L i e t z m a n n , op_. c i t . , p p . 196-202 . 5. A. l/oobus, "The E u c h a r i s t i n t h e A n c i e n t C h u r c h , " i n H.T. Lehmann, e d . , M e a n i n g and P r a c t i c e o f t h e L o r d ' s S u p p e r ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : M u h l e n b u r g P r e s s , 1961) , p. 4 4 . 6. H i g g i n s , The L o r d 1 s S u p p e r i n t h e Neui T e s t a m e n t , p. 56. 7. C f . b e l o u i , pp. 1 6 2 f f . 8. 0. C u l l m a n n , "The M e a n i n g o f t h e L o r d ' s S u p p e r i n P r i m i t i v e C h r i s t i a n i t y , " i n E s s a y s on t h e L o r d 1 s S u p p e r ( L o n d o n : L u t t e r u i o r t h , 1 9 5 8 ) , p p . 9 f f . 9. C H . Dodd, "The A p p e a r a n c e s o f t h e R i s e n C h r i s t : An E s s a y i n Form C r i t i c i s m o f t h e G o s p e l s , " i n S t u d i e s i n t h e  G o s p e l s : E s s a y s i n Memory o f R.H. L i g h t f o o t ( O x f o r d : B l a c k u i e l l , 1 9 5 5 ) , p p . 1 3 - 1 4 . 1 0 . F.W. B e a r e , The E a r l i e s t R e c o r d s o f J e s u s , p. 244 . As G o g u e l (The P r i m i t i v e C h u r c h , p. 340) p o i n t s o u t : " I t must be added t h a t P a u l r e c e i v e d t h e t r a d i t i o n o f t h e r e s u r r e c t i o n a p p e a r a n c e s f r o m J e r u s a l e m , and t h e r e f o r e i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o c o n c e i v e houi, i f he d e p ended upon J e r u s a l e m f o r t h e s t o r i e s o f t h e r e s u r r e c t i o n a p p e a r a n c e , he d i d n o t depend i n any way upon t h e same s o u r c e f o r i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e e u c h a r i s t i c r i t e as b e i n g c o n n e c t e d w i t h them." II. The e x i s t e n c e o f c u l t i c m e a l s u s i n g f i s h o r b r e a d and f i s h i n p r i m i t i v e C h r i s t i a n i t y i s a l s o a c k n o w l e d g e d by C. l/ogel, "Le r e p a s s a c r e au p o i s s o n , " i n E u c h a r i s t i e s d ' O r i e n t e t d'Oc-c i d e n t ( P a r i s : C e r f , 1 9 7 0 ) , I , p p . 8 3 - 1 1 6 . M. V o g e l , whose a r t i c l e i s c h i e f l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h f i s h s y m b o l i s m i n J u d a i s m and t h e l a t e r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e f o r C h r i s t i a n f u n e r a r y m e a l s , d o e s n o t p r e s e n t a d e t a i l e d c a s e f o r t h e e x i s t e n c e o f s u c h m e a l s i n t h e New T e s t a m e n t p e r i o d . W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e m u l t i p l i c a t i o n n a r r a t i v e s and p o s t - R e s u r r e c t i o n m e al a c c o u n t s , he i s c o n t e n t 172 t o s a y , " T h e s e m e a l s a r e n o t r e p o r t e d ; i n a p u r e l y n a r r a t i v e o r d e s c r i p t i v e f a s h i o n , b u t i n ? a s t e r e o t y p e d and r i t u a l f o r -m u l a t i o n . These a r e n o t e p i s o d i c a c t i o n s o r a n e c d o t e s , b u t c u l t i c a c t i o n s " ( i b i d ., p. BB) . 1 2 . " L i t u r g i c a l I n f l u e n c e s on t h e F o r m a t i o n o f t h e G o s p e l s , " i n The A p o s t o l i c C h u r c h i n t h e New Testament'' ( W e s t -m i n s t e r , M a r y l a n d : Newman P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 ) , p p . 1 2 3 f f . 1 3 . I b i d . , p p . 1 2 5 f f . 1 4 . I b i d . , p p . 1 2 7 f f . 1 5 . I b i d . , p p . 1 3 4 f f . 1 6 . R. Brown, The G o s p e l a c c o r d i n g t o J o h n , AB 29 ( G a r d e n C i t y : D o u b l e d a y , 1966) , p. 2 4 7 . T h i s c o n v e n t i o n a l i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n i s c o n t e s t e d by G.H. B o o b y e r , "The E u c h a r i s t i c I n t e r -p r e t a t i o n o f t h e M i r a c l e s o f t h e L o a v e s i n S t . M a r k ' s G o s p e l , " JTS n . s . 3 ( 1 9 5 2 ) , p p . 1 6 1 - 1 7 1 , on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t s i m i l a r v o c a b u l a r y i s f o u n d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h o t h e r m e a l s i n t h e N.T. w h i c h have no c l e a r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e e u c h a r i s t , and t h a t J e s u s ' manner o f p r o c e e d i n g s i m p l y c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h a t o f any p i o u s J e w i s h h o u s e h o l d head p r e s i d i n g o v e r m e a l s . H owever, P . J . A c h t e m e i e r , "The O r i g i n and F u n c t i o n o f t h e p r e - M a r c a n M i r a c l e C a t e n a e , " JBL 91:3 ( 1 9 7 2 ) , p p . 1 9 8 - 2 2 1 , p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e v o c a b u l a r y o f t h e m u l t i p l i c a t i o n a c c o u n t s i s i n f a c t more t e c h -n i c a l l y e u c h a r i s t i c t h a n B o o b y e r ' s a n a l y s i s w o u l d s u g g e s t ( p . 207) . A c h t e m e i e r ' s a r t i c l e p r e s e n t s c o n c l u s i o n s w h i c h a r e l a r g e l y c o m p a t i b l e w i t h o u r own a n a l y s i s . F o l l o w i n g B. van I e r s e l , " D i e w u n d e r b a r e S p e i s u n g und das Abendmahl i n d e r s y n o p t i s c h e T r a d i t i o n , " NovT 7 ( 1 9 6 4 - 6 5 ) , p p . 1 6 7 - 9 4 , he a g r e e s t h a t t h e s e e m i n g l y e u c h a r i s t i c v o c a b u l a r y o f t h e p a s s a g e s i n q u e s t i o n d o e s n o t r e p r e s e n t a b o r r o w i n g f r o m t h e L a s t S u p p e r t r a d i t i o n , b u t goes back t o a d i f f e r e n t v l i t u r g i c a l s o u r c e . The m u l t i p l i -c a t i o n n a r r a t i v e s , he a r g u e s , b e l o n g t o two p r e - M a r c a n m i r a c l e c a t e n a e w h i c h were u s e d i n e u c h a r i s t i c c e l e b r a t i o n s by g r o u p s o f C h r i s t i a n s who had a s p e c i a l Moses C h r i s t o l o g y , u n d e r -s t a n d i n g C h r i s t a s a 0£iaf CiVrjp . The m i r a c l e s o f t h e s e c a t e n a e a r e o f an e p i p h a n i c c h a r a c t e r , and t h e communal meal r e p r e s e n t s an e p i p h a n y o f t h e g l o r i f i e d J e s u s . However, A c h t e m e i e r i d e n t i f i e s t h e s e m e a l s w i t h t h e " b r e a d -o n l y " e u c h a r i s t s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by L i e t z m a n n . I n f a c t , he s u g -g e s t s ( p p . 219 - 2 2 0 ) t h a t Mark a d d e d t h e f i s h e l e m e n t i n o r d e r t o d e - e m p h a s i s e t h e e u c h a r i s t i c n a t u r e o f t h e m e a l s . H i s a r g u m e n t h e r e p r e s u p p o s e s t h a t f i s h c o u l d n o t have been a e u c h a r i s t i c e l e m e n t . 1 7 . D.E. N i n e h a m , M a r k , p. 2 0 7 f . 173 1 8 . E.R. Goodenough, J e w i s h S y m b o l s i n t h e Greco-Roman  P e r i o d (New Y o r k : P a n t h e o n , 1 9 5 6 ) , I V , p p . 3 5 f f . See a l s o C. V o g e l , a r t . c i t . , p p . 1 0 4 - 1 1 3 . 1 9 . Goodenough, op_. c i t . , p p . 4 7 f f . 2 0 . I b i d . , p. 4 5 . Goodenough b e l i e v e s ( p . 52F.) t h a t t h e e a r l i e s t e u c h a r i s t s c o n s i s t e d o f b r e a d , w i n e , and f i s h , b u t t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t a l l t h r e e e l e m e n t s were e v e r u s e d t o g e t h e r , o r t h a t f i s h was an e s s e n t i a l e u c h a r i s t i c e l e m e n t i n t h e e a r l i e s t s t a g e s . 2 1 . E a r l y C h r i s t i a n W o r s h i p ( L o n d o n : SCM, 1 9 5 3 ) , p p . 6 6 -7 4 , 1 1 0 - 1 1 6 . 2 2 . C K . B a r r e t t , The G o s p e l a c c o r d i n g t o J o h n ( L o n d o n : S . P . C K . , 1958) , p p . 6 9 f f . 2 3 . Das E v a n g e l i u m d e s J o h a n n e s ( G o e t t i n g e n : Vandenhock und R u p r e c h t , 1 0 t h e d . , 1964) , p p . 1 7 4 - 1 7 7 . 2 4 . G. Bornkamm, " D i e e u c h a r i s t i c h e Rede im J o h a n n e s -E v a n g e l i u m , " ZNW 47 ( 1 9 5 6 ) , p p . 1 6 1 - 1 6 9 . 2 5 . E. L o h s e , "Wort und S a k r a m e n t im J o h a n n e s - E v a n g e l i u m , " NTSt 7 ( 1 9 6 0 ) , p p . 1 1 7 f f . 2 6 . R. Brown, op_. c i t . . , p. 2 7 3 . 2 7 . A r t . c i t . , p a s s i m . 2 8 . Raymond Brown, op_. c i t . , p p . 2 8 7 f f . , and "The E u c h a -r i s t and B a p t i s m i n J o h n , " i n New T e s t a m e n t E s s a y s (New Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y Image, 1 9 6 8 ) , p p . 1 2 0 f f . , a t t e m p t s t o r e s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m p r e s e n t e d by t h i s d a t a t h r o u g h t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t J o h n 6:51-58 r e p r e s e n t s m a t e r i a l d i s p l a c e d f r o m an o r i g i n a l J o h a n n i n e L a s t S u p p e r n a r r a t i v e and r e m o d e l e d on t h e p a t t e r n o f t h e B r e a d o f L i f e d i s c o u r s e . I t i s d i f f i c u l t , h o w e v e r , t o i m a g i n e t h a t a r e d a c t o r w o u l d a t t e m p t t o o b l i t e r a t e o r i g n o r e t h e t r a d i t i o n o f J e s u s ' h a v i n g i n s t i t u t e d t h e e u c h a r i s t a t t h e L a s t S u p p e r i n o r d e r t o b r i n g i t i n t o a p a s s a g e where i t i s n o t i c e a b l y o u t o f p l a c e . 2 9 . Brown, op_. c i t . , p. 2 4 8 . 3 0 . L o c . c i t . 3 1 . The s y n o p t i c a c c o u n t s a r e s h o r t e r , and i n them t h e e l e m e n t o f wonder i s more p r o n o u n c e d ( B r o w n , i b i d . , p. 2 5 3 ) . 3 2 . PL I , 1 3 0 6 ; CCSL I , p. 2 7 7 . 174 3 3 . P a e d . , 3:59:2, PG 8, 6 3 3 ; GC5 Clemens A l e x a n d r i n u s I , p. 2 7 0 . 3 4 . I n l Y l a t t h . Horn. 1 3 : 1 0 , PG 1 3 , 1 1 2 0 . 3 5 . PL 11 , 991 . 3 6 . C. \/o g e l , a r t . c i t . , p . 9 5 f . 3 7 . J . S o l a n o , e d . , T e x t o s e u c a r i s t i c o s p r i m i t i v o s ( M a d r i d : BAC, 1 9 5 4 ) , I , p p . 8 5 , 8 7 ; i l l u s t r a t i o n , p . 8 6 . 3 8 . TEP I , 84; i l l u s t r a t i o n , p . 8 6 . 3 9 . A r t . e x t . , p. 9 7 . 4 0 . I b i d . , p . 9 8 . 41 . I b i d . , p . 9 9 . 4 2 . I l l u s t r a t i o n , TEP I , p . 1 0 8 . 4 3 . S e e , e . g . , J . Baum, " S y m b o l i c R e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e E u c h a r i s t , " i n J . C a m p b e l l , e d . , Pagan and C h r i s t i a n M y s t e r i e s (New Y o r k : H a r p e r T o r c h b o o k s , 1963) , p p . 70-82 . 4 4 . A r t , c i t . , p. 1 1 4 f . 4 5 . See a b o v e , p p . 3 2 f f . 4 6 . T h e o l o g y o f t h e New T e s t a m e n t , I , p. 1 4 6 . 4 7 . C f . B u l t m a n n , l o c . c i t . 4 8 . I b i d . , I , p. 1 4 7 . 4 9 . K i l m a r t i n , op_. c i t . , p . 7 9 ; c f . E. Kaesemann, "The P a u l i n e D o c t r i n e o f t h e L o r d ' s S u p p e r , " i n E s s a y s on New  T e s t a m e n t Themes ( L o n d o n : SCM, 1 9 6 4 ) , p . 1 0 9 . 5 0 . M. G o g u e l , op_. c i t . , p . 3 3 6 . 5 1 . C f . Kaesemann, a r t . c i t . , p . 1 2 1 . 5 2 . See a b o v e , p. 8 5 . 5 3 . F o r t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , s e e e s p e c i a l l y F. Hahn, C h r i s t o l i g i s c h e H o h e i t s t i t e l ( G o e t t i n g e n : V a n d e n h o e c k und R u p r e c h t , 1963) , p p . 1 0 4 f f . 175 54. C f . Bj0rn S a n d v i k , Das Kommen des H e r r n beim Aben-dmahl im Neuen Testament ( Z u r i c h ; Z w i n g l i V e r l a g , 1970) , pp. 1 3 f f , 35. 55. "Das U l e i t e r l e b e n d e r Sache J e s u im n a c h o e s t e r l i c h e n H e r r e n m a h l , " BZ 16:1 ( 1 9 7 2 ) , pp. 1-23. 56. I b i d . . p . 6; c f . a l s o " J e s u s ' Words i n t h e L i g h t o f h i s A c t i o n s a t t h e L a s t S u p p e r , " C o n c i l i u m 40 ( 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 125. 57. "Das W e i t e r l e b e n . . .," p . 9. 58. The d a t e o f 1 C o r i n t h i a n s a c c o r d i n g t o J . L . P r i c e , I n t e r p r e t i n g t h e Neui Testament (New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t , and W i n s t o n , 1 9 6 1 ) , p . 36u~. S i m i l a r l y , C T . C r a i g , "1 C o r i n t h i a n s , " IB X ; ; ( N a s h v i l l e : A b i n g d o n - C o k e s b u r y , 1 9 5 3 ) , p . 13; F e i n e , Behm, Kuemmel, I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e New T e s t a m e n t , p . 205. 59. The M y s t i c i s m o f P a u l t h e A p o s t l e (New Y o r k : S e a b u r y P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 ) , j>p. 2 5 b f f . S c h w e i t z e r b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e t e r m KVPI&KOS? (ScimsosJ came from t h e f a c t t h a t t h e meal was c e l e b r a t e d i n t h e e x p e c t a t i o n o f t h e coming o f t h e L o r d , and t h a t the t y p o l o g y e x p r e s s e d i n 1 Co. 10:1-12 d i s c l o s e s an e s -c h a t o l o g i c a l c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e s a c r a m e n t s g o v e r n e d by t h e Hebrew view o f God's a c t s i n h i s t o r y . T h i s c o n c e p t i o n , he m a i n t a i n s , s h a r p l y c o n t r a s t s P a u l ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s a c r a -ments f r o m a H e l l e n i s t i c o ne. 60. T h e o l o g y o f t h e New T e s t a m e n t , I , p . 148. ., 61. I b i d . ; M a c Gregor, op., c i t . , p . 1 6 2 f . 62. The M y s t e r y o f C h r i s t i a n Worship ( W e s t m i n s t e r : New-man P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 ) , p . 98. 63. Voobus, a r t , c i t . , p . 60; E.0. James, C o m p a r a t i v e  R e l i g i o n ( L o n d o n : Methuen, 1 9 6 1 ) , p . 247. We do n o t w i s h t o s u g g e s t t h a t e a r l y H e l l e n i s t i c C h r i s t i a n i t y b o r r o w e d d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e s e r i t e s - - i n d e e d , t h e t e x t u a l e v i d e n c e f o r them i s f r o m somewhat l a t e r t h a n t h e New T e s t a m e n t p e r i o d . 64. C a s e l , op_. c i t . , p . 54. 65. I b i d . , p . 53. 66. C i t e d i b i d . , p . 134. 67. I b i d . , p . 53. 68. Qn t h i s p r o b l e m , s e e H. R a h n e r , "The C h r i s t i a n Mys-t e r y and t h e Pagan M y s t e r i e s , " i n J . C a m p b e l l , e d . , Pagan and  C h r i s t i a n M y s t e r i e s (New York: H a r p e r T o r c h b o o k s , 1 9 6 3 ) , pp. 146-210. 176 69. A.D. Nock, E a r l y G e n t i l e C h r i s t i a n i t y and i t s H e l l e n -i s t i c B a c k g r o u n d (New Y o r k : H a r p e r T o r c h b o o k s , 1 9 6 4 ) , p . 132. 70. I b i d . , p. 134. 71. I b i d . , p . 72. 72. 0p_. c i t . , p . 98. 73. C a s e l ( i b i d . , p . 9 9 ) , p o i n t s o u t , f o l l o w i n g N e s t l e , t h a t / u V f f t y f p i o v > i s t h e p r e f e r r e d r e a d i n g i n t h i s p a s s a g e . 74. I b i d . . p . 100. 7 5 • T h e o l o g y o f t h e New T e s t a m e n t , I , pp. 164-183; P r i -m i t i v e C h r i s t i a n i t y ( C l e v e l a n d : M e r i d i a n B o o k s , 1 9 6 2 ) , pp. 162-T7TI 76. Kaesemann, a r t , c i t . , p . 109. 77. I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t G n o s t i c i s m was a s y n -c r e t i s t i c phenomenon, and p r o b a b l y i n c l u d e d J e w i s h e l e m e n t s f r o m t h e o u t s e t ( c f . L i e t z m a n n , A H i s t o r y o f t h e E a r l y C h u r c h , I , p . 2 7 6 ) . " 78. A r t . c i t . , p . 1 6 2 f . 79. I b i d . , p . 163. 80. 0p_. c i t . , p . 1 4 2 f , 8 1 . B u l t m a n n , T h e o l o g y o f t h e New T e s t a m e n t , I , p . 313. 82. Kaesemann, a r t , c i t . , p 109. 83. Uie use t h i s t e r m , f o r l a c k o f a b e t t e r one, t o d i s -t i n g u i s h t h e body o f C h r i s t as t h e C h u r c h f r o m t h e h i s t o r i c a l , g l o r i f i e d , o r e u c h a r i s t i c body o f C h r i s t . Uie r e c o g n i s e , o f c o u r s e , t h a t t h e t e r m i s n o t P a u l i n e , and we do n o t w i s h t o i m p l y any o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s t h e t e r m m i g h t have i n t r a d i -t i o n a l ( e s p e c i a l l y Roman C a t h o l i c ) t h e o l o g y . 84. A. S c h w e i t z e r , op_. c i t . , p i 260; K i l m a r t i n , op_. c i t . , p. 75; .Kaesemann, a r t , c i t . , pp. 1 1 3 f f . 8 5 . Kaesemann, a r t c i t . . p . 114. 86. I b i d . , p . 1 l 6 f . 8 7 . I b i d . , p . 117. 177 88. I b i d . , p. 1 1 7 f . Bultmann, on the o t h e r hand, tends t o m i n i m i z e the s u b s t a n t i a l a s p e c t o f P a u l ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f TTVCVM** (Theology o f the New Testament, I , p. 3 3 4 ) . As f a r as P a u l ' s s a c r a m e n t a l t h e o l o g y i s c o n c e r n e d , the d i f f e r e n c e s between the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f Bultmann and Kaesemann are n o t r e a l l y c r u c i a l , though ne do b e l i e v e t h a t Kaesemann's view makes t h i s t h e o l o g y more i n t e l l i g i b l e . 89. A r t . c i t . , p. 1 1 4 f . 90. I b i d . , p. 113. 9 1 . Goguel, The P r i m i t i v e Church, p. 331. 92. I b i d . , p. 337. 93. I b i d . . p. 338. 94. K i l m a r t i n , op_. c i t . , p. 80; Kaesemann, a r t , c i t . , p. 110. 95. K i l m a r t i n , op_. c i t . , p. 81. 96. Kaesemann, a r t , c i t . , p. 113. MacGregor's remarkable a s s e r t i o n t h a t the word "body" i n 10:17 i s a " p a r e n t h e s i s , i f not a c t u a l l y an i n t e r p o l a t i o n " (op_. c i t . , p. 1 6 9 ) , and h i s con-c l u s i o n t h a t the e u c h a r i s t i c body i s n o t r e l a t e d t o the m y s t i -c a l body, are e n t i r e l y w i t h o u t f o u n d a t i o n . 97. fflacDonald, pp. c i t . , p. 157; Goguel, op_. c i t . , p. 334. The view t h a t the whole e u c h a r i s t i c p a r t o f the meal f o l l o w e d the a g a p i s t i c p a r t i s s h a r e d w i t h K i l m a r t i n ( o p . c i t . . p. 8 5 ) , Schuermann ( a r t , c i t . , p. 1 2 0 ) , and o t h e r s . 98. D e l l i n g , op_. c i t . . p. 141. 99. Bread and water was used by M a r c i o n i t e s ( E p i p h i a n u s , Haeres. 1 3 : 3 ) , E b i o n i t e s ( I r e n a e u s , Adv. h a e r . 5:1-3) E n c r a -t i t e s (Clement o f A l e x a n d r i a , Paedaq. 2:2:32; Strom. 1:19:96), J u d a e o - C h r i s t i a n G n o s t i c s ( E p i p h i a n u s , Haeres. 3 0 : 1 6 ) , and l a t e r ( C y p r i a n , Ep_. 6 3 ) , by the " A q u a r i i . " I g n a t i u s , l i k e P a u l , does not s p e c i f y the c o n t e n t s o f the cup. 100. Goguel, op_. c i t . , p. 334. 101. A c c o r d i n g t o Kaesemann, "t h e acknowledged term i n a n t i q u i t y f o r the o f f i c i a l a s s e m b l i n g o f the demos" ( a r t . c i t . , p. 1 1 9 ) . 102. Weaning here a decree o r o r d i n a n c e ( i b i d . , p. 1 2 0 ) . 178 103. I b i d . , p. 121. 104. I b i d . , p. 122. 1 0 5 « The Theoloov o f S t . P a u l ( O x f o r d : B a s i l B l a c k w e l l , 1 9 6 4 ) , p. V T a . 106. J . Behm, "oltfOijUMiais t" i n K i t t e l , op. c i t . , I , p. 349. ' 107. C f . C u l l m a n n , a r t , c i t . , p. 1 9 f . 108. Kaesemann, a r t , c i t . , p. 128. 109. L o c . c i t . 110. 0p_. c i t . , p. 340. 111. See, e.g., H i g g i n s , op_. c i t . , p. 72. 112. L o c . c i t . 113. I b i d . , p. 73. 114. Kaesemann, a r t , c i t . , p. 127. 115. L o c . c i t . 116. K i l m a r t i n , op_. c i t . . p. 89. 117. On t h i s q u e s t i o n see K.W. I r w i n , "The Supper Text i n the Gospel o f S a i n t Matthew," Dunwoodie Review 11 ( 1 9 7 1 ) , pp. 170-184. 118. A. Voobus, " K r i t i s c h e Beobachtungen ueber d i e l u k a -n i s c h e D a r s t e l l u n g des Herrenmahls," ZNUI 61 ( 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 106. 119. H. Conzelmann, The Theoloov o f S t . Luke (London: Faber and F a b e r , 1 9 6 0 ) . 120. C f . B. T r e m e l , "La F r a c t i o n du p a i n dans l e s A c t e s des A p S t r e s , " LumlSre e t V i e 94 ( 1 9 6 9 ) , pp. 8 4 f f . 121. S c h w e i t z e r , The M y s t i c i s m o f P a u l the A p o s t l e . p. 279, comments: " I n i n t e r p r e t i n g B a p t i s m and the 1 L o r o r r s M e a l 1 by the m y s t i c a l b e i n g - i n - C h r i s t , P a u l a t t r i b u t e s t o them i m p l i c i t e the power o f b r i n g i n g about the r e s u r r e c t i o n a t the r e t u r n o f the L o r d . " 179 122. Martin Werner, The Formation of Christian Dogma (Boston: Beacon Press, 1957), p. 185. 123. On this conception and i t s relation to eucharistic theology, see A. Voobus, "the Eucharist in the Ancient Church," p. 55. 124. Cf. Werner, op_. c i t . , p. 193. 125. Schweitzer, op_. c i t . . p. 274f. 126. Ibid., p. 275. 127. Werner, op_. ext., p. 187. 128. See above, p. 94. 129. The Council of Trent (Sess. xxi, Chapt. 1) decreed that the passage "may be understood according to the various interpretations of the holy fathers and doctors." 130. See R. Brown, John, p. 272. 131. Each of the other four theories becomes untenable once i t is admitted that the second part of the discourse is an addition: taken independently, Jn. 6:5lb-58 can be inter-preted only eucharistically, and once this passage is disen-gaged, the remainder of the discourse can be given a eucha-r i s t i c meaning only with great d i f f i c u l t y . We say this only by way of c l a r i f i c a t i o n , since, of course, the claim that the second part is an insertion depends to a great extent on the recognition of i t s eucharistic character. 132. Bultmann, Theology of the New Testament. II, p. 59. Cf. Higgins, p. 87, Goguel, p. 353. 133. R. Brown, op_. c i t . , pp. 285ff., recognises that vss. 6:51-68 constitute an insertion, but maintains nevertheless that i t was originally Johannine. He finds in the passage typically Johannine vocabulary: " l e t me firmly assure you" (vs. S3), "eternal l i f e " (vs. 54), "to feed," "to remain" (vs. 56). He suggests therefore "that we have here two d i f -ferent .forms of a discourse on the bread of l i f e , both Johan-nine, but stemming from different stages of the Johannine preaching" (p. 286). His explanation is that the passage was originally located in the Last Supper scene, but that a later redactor inserted i t in i t s present position. Such an expla-nation does not, however, adequately account for the differences between the passage and the rest of John. See also above, note 28. 180 134. B u l t m a n n , TNT, I I , p . 54. 135. B u l t m a n n , J o h a n n e s - E v a n q e l i u m , p . 525. 136. See b e l o w , Appendix 1, pp. 197-201. 137. C.H. Dodd, The I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e F o u r t h G o s p e l ( C a m b r i d g e : U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 3 ) , p . 339. 138. The a n t i - D o c e t i c i m p o r t o f t h e word cr<xp%* h e r e i s e m p h a s i s e d by C u l l m a n n , E a r l y C h r i s t i a n W o r s h i p , p . 9 9 f . , H i g g i n s , op_. c i t . , p . 82, WacGregor, op_. e x t . , p . 234. C f . Brown, op_. c i t . , p . 2 9 1 . 139. B u l t m a n n , J o h a n n e s - E v a n q e l i u m , p . 1 7 5 f . The r e d a c -t o r has a l s o added r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e f u t u r e r e s u r r e c t i o n a t o t h e r p o i n t s i n t h e b r e a d o f l i f e d i s c o u r s e : 6:39, 40, 44 ( i b i d . . p . 1 6 2 ) . 140. Feine-Behm-Kuemmel, op_. c i t . , p . 282. 141. 0p_. c i t . , 1/1, pp. 3 1 f f . 142. 0p_. c i t . , pp. 1 0 1 f f . 143. K. L a k e , The A p o s t o l i c F a t h e r s (LCL 24) ( L o n d o n : Urn. Heinemann, 1 9 1 2 ) , p . 7 6 f . 144. Op. c i t . , p . 356. 145. I b i d . , P. 1 7 8 f . 146. I b i d . , P. 2 4 2 f . 147. I b i d . , P. 2 1 8 f . 148. I b i d . , P. 2 4 4 f . 149. I b i d . , p . 1 9 4 f . 150. I b i d . , P. 2 6 0 f . 151 . I b i d . , p . 2 1 8 f . 152. I b i d . , p . 2 3 4 f . 153. I b i d . , P. 2 4 4 f . 154. I b i d . , P. 2 3 4 f . 181 155. I b i d . , pp. 2 4 2 f f . 156. See e s p e c i a l l y E p h . 7, i b i d . , p . I 8 0 f . 157. I b i d . , p . 2 4 4 f . 1 5 8 » I b i d . . p . 1 8 6 f . 159. I b i d . , p . 1 9 4 f . 160. I b i d . . pp. 1 9 4 f . , 2 l 8 f . , 2 4 2 f . , 2 6 0 f . 161. I b i d . , pp. 242-245; 258-261. 162. I b i d . . pp. 2 6 0 f . , 2 1 8 f . , 2 3 4 f . 163. I . e . , c h a p t e r s 9 and 10. The t h e s i s o f P. Drews, " U n t e r s u c h u n g e n z u r D i d a c h e , " ZNW 5 ( 1 9 0 4 ) , p . 76, D i x , o p . c i t . , pp. 9 0 f f . , and J . - P . A u d e t , La D i d a c h e ( P a r i s : G a b a l d a , 1 9 5 8 ) , a c c o r d i n g t o w h i c h c h a p t e r s 9 and 10 a r e p r a y e r s f o r an "agape," and t h a t t h i s d o e s n o t c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e " e u c h a -r i s t " o f c h a p t e r 14, i s s u p p o r t e d by few s c h o l a r s ^ t o d a y . I t i s u n t e n a b l e b e c a u s e the t e c h n i c a l t e r m c^oiptcrzxoi i s u s e d i n b o t h c h a p t e r 9 and c h a p t e r 14, and b e c a u s e t h e r i t e o f c h a p t e r s 9-10 i s c l e a r l y t h e c u l t i c meal t h a t f o l l o w s bap-t i s m , as i n a l l c h u r c h o r d e r s and l i t u r g i c a l p r a c t i c e . C f . L i e t z m a n n , op_. c i t . , p . 189. 164. C f . L i e t z m a n n , op_. c i t . , p . 193. 165. L a k e , 0 £ . c i t . , p . 3 2 4 f . 166. I b i d . , p . 3 2 2 f . 167. I b i d . , p . 3 2 4 f . 168. J . de U i a t t e v i l l e , Le S a c r i f i c e dans l e s t e x t e s e u -c h a r i s t i q u e s des p r e m i e r s s i e c l e s ( N e u c h a t e l : D e l a c h a u x e t N i e s t i e " , 1 9 6 6 ) , p . 30, c l a i m s t h a t t h e r e f e r e n c e t o " s p i r i t u a l f o o d and d r i n k " i n D i d . 10:3 i n d i c a t e s t h a t " t h e men who c o u l d r e c i t e s u c h p r a y e r s as t h o s e i n c h a p t e r s 9 and 10 were c o n -v i n c e d t h a t t h e y were r e c e i v i n g u n d e r t h e f o r m o f b r e a d and wine t h e body and b l o o d o f t h e L o r d . " T h i s c l a i m i s e n t i r e l y w i t h o u t f o u n d a t i o n . 169. L a k e , p . 3 2 2 f . 170. I b i d . , p . 3 2 4 f . 182 171. I b i d . , pp. 3 2 2 f f . 172. I b i d . , pp. 3 2 4 f f . L i e t z m a n n * s a s s e r t i o n (op_. c i t . , p . 1 9 1 f . ) t h a t t h e s e p r a y e r s a r e t o be i n t e r p r e t e d " s a c r a m e n -t a l l y , " i . e . , t h a t t h e y i m p l y t h a t God's p r e s e n c e i s communi-c a t e d i n a s p e c i a l way t h r o u g h t h e e l e m e n t s , i s n o t s u p p o r t e d by t h e t e x t . The " d w e l l i n g i n o u r h e a r t s " o f t h e " H o l y Name" (10:2) i s s o m e t h i n g t h a t has a l r e a d y been a c c o m p l i s h e d " t h r o u g h J e s u s t h y c h i l d , " i . e . , t h r o u g h the o r i g i n a l redemp-t i v e a c t , and i s nowhere c o n n e c t e d t o the a c t u a l e a t i n g o r d r i n k i n g o f t h e e l e m e n t s . L i e t z m a n n ' s b e l i e f t h a t t h e t h a n k s -g i v i n g f o r " i m m o r t a l i t y " (10:2) i m p l i e s a d o c t r i n e o f t h e " m e d i c i n e o f i m m o r t a l i t y " i s u n j u s t i f i e d f o r t h e same r e a s o n . 173. I b i d . , pp. 3 2 2 f . ; 3 2 4 f . 174. I b i d . , p . 3 2 4 f . 175. I b i d . , p . 3 3 0 f . 176. As c l a i m s de U i a t t e v i l l e , op_. c i t . , p . 34. 177. L a k e , l o c . c i t . 178. The J e w i s h c h a r a c t e r o f t h e e u c h a r i s t i c p r a y e r s o f th e D i d a c h e i s shown by Ul. R o r d o f , " L e s p r i e r e s e u c h a r i s t i q u e s de l a D i d a c h e , " i n E u c h a r i s t i e s d ' O r i e n t e t d ' O c c i d e n t ( P a r i s : C e r f , 1970) I , p p . 65-82. C.C. R i c h a r d s o n , E a r l y C h r i s t i a n  F a t h e r s (LCC I ) , p . 162, p o i n t s o u t t h a t the t r e a t i s e on t h e "Two Ways" ( D i d . 1-5) was p e r h a p s o r i g i n a l l y a J e w i s h c a t e -c h i s m . The D i d a c h e ' s c i t a t i o n o f B a r n a b a s , w h i c h comes f r o m A l e x a n d r i a , t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e "Two Ways" i n t o t h e A p o s t o l i c C h u r c h O r d e r , f r o m t h e same l o c a l i t y , and the e s t e e m i n w h i c h t h e D i d a c h e was h e l d i n E g y p t up t o t h e f o u r t h c e n -t u r y , a l l s u g g e s t A l e x a n d r i a as t h e p l a c e o f o r i g i n f o r t h e D i d a c h e ( i b i d . . p . 163s). 179. G o g u e l , op_. c i t . , p . 361. 180. TEP I , p . 62; E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n , R i c h a r d s o n , o p . c i t . , p . 286• 181. On s a c r i f i c e a s a n a m n e s i s , s e e b e l o w , A p p e n d i x 1, pp. 210-214. 182. TEP I , p . 67. 183 183. Loc. c i t . 184. Ibid.. I, p. 65f. 185. Ibid.. I, p. 66f. 186. See above, p. 84f. 187. L. Bouyer, Eucharist: Theoloqy and Spirituality of  the Eucharistic Prayer (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1968), p. 82. 188. Text loc. c i t . 189. Lake, op_. c i t . . p. 324f. 190. Bouyer, loc. c i t . 191. Lake, p. 322f. 192. Bouyer, loc. c i t . 193. Lake, pp. 322ff. 194. Berakoth, Toaefta 5:6; G. Dix, "The ministry in the Early Church" in K.E. Kirk, ed., The Apostolic ministry (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1946), p. 245. 195. C.F.D. Woule, op_. c i t . . p. 29. 196. Uie have shown above that different forms of the institution narrative liturgies existed already before Paul, and that by the time of Mark there existed already special Jewish-Christian and Gentile-Christian forms of the multipli-cation-narrative liturgy. 197. Although, according to the position we have main-tained in the preceding pacts of this thesis, the earliest cultic meals did not contain the aetiological liturgies nor the theological conceptions which grew out of them, we may presume that the f i r s t eucharistic meals provided at least partially an occasion for the transmission of these recol-lections. When, for example, the f i r s t Christians celebrated their Passover meal, some mention was doubtlessly made of Jesus' Last Supper with his disciples. Similarly, when fish was consumed at the main meal accompanying the "breaking of the bread," i t would have been natural to recollect Jesus' distribution of the loaves and fishes. 184 198. See above, pp. 120-121. 199. Cf. ffloule, op_. c i t . , p. 34. 200. See above, notes 150, 151, 152. 201. See Cirlot, og.. c i t . . pp. 29ff. 202. Lake, op_. c i t . . p. 322f. 203. Ibid., pp. 76ff. 204. Dix, art, c i t . , p. 245f. 205. A. Feuillet, The Apocalypse (trans. T.E. Crane, Staten Island: Alba House, 1965), p. 87. 206. The use of l i t u r g i c a l formulae by the author of the Apocapypse should not however be exaggerated. Feuillet (ibid., p. 85) and Cullmann (Early Christian Worship, p. 21) are pro-bably wrong in interpreting Apoc. 5:9, 12, 13; 12:10-12; 19: 1-2, 6f. as "the oldest of a l l Christian songs" (Cullmann), traditional Christian l i t u r g i c a l hymns incorporated by John into his Apocalypse. As Kuemmel (Feine-Behm-Kuemmel, op_. c i t . , p. 326) points out, i t was heavenly (and apocalyptic) worship which John was describing, and the structure and wording of the work i s determined not so much by the earthly liturgy as by the author's own preoccupations, viz., "the sequence of the expected eschatological events and presumably also the vision-ary experience of the author." 207. Lake, op_. c i t . , p. 260f. 208. Ibid. t P« 242f. 209. Ibid. » P. 218f. 210. Lake, op * c i t . , p• 80f. 211. Ibid. , p. 84f. 212. Ibid. » P. 330f. 213. Ibid. t PP . 324ff. 214. Ibid. » P. 324f. 2 < , 5» TEP I, p. 61; trans. Richardson, Early Christian  Fathers (LCC I), p. 285f. 185 216. J.A. Jungmann, The Early Lituroy (trans. F.A. Brun-ner, Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1959), p. 41. 217. TEP I, p. 63; Richardson, p. 287. 218. Cf. Jungmann, op., c i t . , p. 42. 219. Loc. c i t . 220. The meeting of small, relatively independent groups of Christians in Rome is implied by the response which Justin is reported to have given the prefect Rusticus on being asked where Christians assemble: "I live above one Martinus, at the Timiotinian Bath...I am unaware of any other meeting than his" (Acta S. Justi n l l et soclorum 1:2:45). 221. TEP I, p. 61f.; trans. Richardson, p. 286. 222. See note 217. 223. Brot und U/asser, die eucharistische Elemente bei  Justin, TU 7,2 (Leipzig: J.C. Hinrich, 1891). Harnack's basic arguments are: 1) Justin comments on the blessing of Judah (Gen. 49:9-12) five times (Dial. 52, 54, 63, 76; I Apol. 54) without, any allusion to the eucharist; 2) the expression TTporrjpzoV Vd&ros Kp^M^^vos is peculiar (especi-ally i f only one cup is meant) and is missing in the Codex  Ottobianus (a reading which Harnack accepts); 3) Justin draws a parallel between the eucharist and the Mithraic banquet in which bread and water aj^ e consumed (I Apol. 66). Harnack con-cludes that the word oivo* in I Apol. 65:5, 67:5 is a gloss. A. Juelicher, however, has shown that Irenaeus, Cle-ment of Alexandria, Hippolytus, and Origen also cite the blessing of Judah without connecting i t with the eucharist ("Zur Geschichte der Abendmahlsfeier in der aeltesten Kirche," in Theoloqische Abhandlunqen ^Freiburg: 1892/7, p. 218). He does not believe that the words Koti K/Oa^oizios can be legitimately suppressed, and explains their omission in the Codex Ottobianus as the result of the inadvertence of a copyist^who was misled Jby the similarity of the endings in the words ixfaros and K/xXyLtaroi ( i b i d . , p. 221). Goguel points out (op., c i t . , p. 360) that Justin's parallel between the Christian eucharist and the Mithraic rite is only a gene-ral analogy which does not necessarily apply to ever detai l . 224. See above, p. 121. 225. Qp_. c i t . , p. 41. 186 226. Cf. fflacDonald, op_. ext., p. 165. 227. KS;X. Funk, Didascalia et Constitutiones Aposto-lorum I (Paderborn: Schoenig, 1905), pp. 98ff. 228. Seesabove, note 182. 229. Das Kommen des Herrn beim Abendmahl im Neuen Testa-ment, 1970 (see above, note 54). 230. Ibid., p. 37. 231. Ibid., p. 39. 232. Ibid., pp. 40-43. 233. Ibid., pp. 44-49. 234. Ibid., p. 56. 235. Ibid., p. 61f. 236. Ibid., p. 67. 237. Ibid.. pp. 77-81. 238. IJbid., p. 99: "...dass das Einschreiten gegen Un-zucht oft ein Teil der Abendmahlsparaenese i s t , deutet darauf hin, dass das Herrenmahl auch fuer diesen Tempeltext den Hintergrund bildet." 239. Ibid., pp. 83-85. 240. Ibid.. pp. 85-91. 241. Ibid., pp. 101-107. 242. Ibid., p. 107f. 243. Ibid., p. 122: "Dass es vor allem urn Kommen Jesu in der Kirche und besonders in der Eucharistie geht, wird aus der Tatsache ersxchtlich." 244. Ibid., pp. 119-125. 245. Ibid., pp. 114-117. 246. Ibid., pp. 127-131. 187 247. Ibid., pp. 131-134. 2«8. Ibid.. pp. 134-136. ... 2 4 9 • i b i d . . P. 99: "Die enge Verbindung Christoloqie-Ekklesiologie verraet hier den eucharistischen Mintergrund." 250. Ibid., p. 151. / f8S APPENDIX I THE EUCHARIST AND MYTH I n t r o d u c t i o n We u i i s h i n t h i s a p p e n d i x t o r a i s e a g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n a b o u t t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e e u c h a r i s t i n t h e e a r l y c h u r c h . T h i s q u e s t i o n c o n c e r n s o u r a p p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e mode o f t h o u g h t u i h i c h u n d e r l i e s t h e t e x t s a t o u r d i s p o s a l . I t i s o u r c o n v i c t i o n t h a t uie c a n c o n s i s t e n t l y d i s c e r n i n t h e s e t e x t s one s p e c i f i c e x p r e s s i o n o f human t h o u g h t , n a m e l y t h e m y t h o l o g i c a l . We s h a l l a r g u e t h a t t h e l i t u r g y and t h e o l o g y o f t h e e u c h a r i s t , i n t h e v a r y i n g f o r m s i n u i h i c h i t m a n i f e s t e d i t s e l f d u r i n g t h e Neui T e s -t a m e n t and p a t r i s t i c p e r i o d s , e x h i b i t e d t h e e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s o f m y t h o p o e i c a c t i o n ( r i t u a l ) and t h o u g h t , r e s p e c -t i v e l y . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e e u c h a r i s t o f t h i s p e r i o d may n o t be i n t e r p r e t e d , w i t h o u t d i s t o r t i o n , i n c a t e g o r i e s drawn f r o m r e f l e c t i o n o f a r a t i o n a l i s t i c o r p h i l o s o p h i c a l n a t u r e . We may s p e a k o f t h e e a r l y e u c h a r i s t as a " r i t e , " n o t i n t h e s t e r i l e s e n s e o f t h e r e p e t i t i o n o f r i g i d f o r m s , b u t i n t h e d y n a m i c s e n s e o f t h e s y m b o l i c a c t i n g o u t o f f u n d a m e n t a l v a l u e s , t h e c e l e b r a t e d s h a r i n g o f b a s i c c o n v i c t i o n s by a g r o u p o f men and women bound t o g e t h e r i n a common f e l l o w s h i p . When s u c h a r i t u a l a c t i o n i s p r o j e c t e d t o t h e p l a n e o f l a n g u a g e , f r e e l y and s p o n t a n e o u s l y , and w i t h o u t t h e i n t e r j e c t i o n o f c a t e g o r i e s 189 f o r e i g n t o i t s s t r u c t u r e , myth i s c r e a t e d . There may a p p e a r t o b e , p r i m a f a c i e , some d i f f i c u l t y i n g i v i n g t o t h e e u c h a r i s t a myth and r i t u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Uie a r e a c c u s t o m e d , f o r one t h i n g , t o v i e w i n g myths as t h e s y m b o l i c p a r a d i g m o f some f o r m o f n a t u r a l c hange ( s u c h as t h e r h y t h m o f t h e s e a s o n s o r t h e d a i l y p a s s a g e o f t h e l u m i n a r i e s ) o r as t h e o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e c o n c e r n s and c o n f l i c t s o f d a i l y l i f e ( t h e s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t n a t u r e , s e x u a l and b l o o d r e l a t i o n s h i p s , e t c . ) . Y e t t h e e u c h a r i s t i s q u i t e c l e a r l y r o o t e d i n h i s t o r y . I t a p p e a r s t o be h i s t o r i c a l i n b o t h o r i g i n and m e a n i n g . B o t h o f t h e s e c o n d two e u c h a r i s t i c t y p e s uie have d i s t i n g u i s h e d were b e l i e v e d t o have been " i n s t i t u t e d " by J e s u s on a s p e c i f i c h i s -t o r i c a l o c c a s i o n , and t h e " c l a s s i c a l " t y p e uias b e l i e v e d t o be t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i c a l e v e n , v i z . , t h e C r o s s . T h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u l d n o t , h o w e v e r , c o n s t i t u t e a d e c i s i v e o b j e c t i o n t o o u r t h e s i s . W h i l e i t i s common t o p l a c e myth and h i s t o r y i n c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n , i t i s n o n e t h e l e s s p o s -s i b l e f o r a h i s t o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n o r e v e n t o be g i v e n a r a d i -c a l l y m y t h o l o g i s e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . T h i s o c c u r r e d , f o r e x a m p l e , i n p o s t - e x i l i c J u d a i s m , when t h e e s s e n t i a l l y p o l i t i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l e s c h a t o l o g y o f t h e e a r l i e r p r o p h e t s was m y t h o l o g i s e d i n t o a p o c a l y p t i c . We m i g h t t a k e n o t e h e r e o f C a s s i r e r ' s com= ment t h a t " t h e r e i s no n a t u r a l phenomenon and no phenomenon o f human l i f e t h a t i s n o t c a p a b l e o f a m y t h i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and w h i c h d oes n o t c a l l f o r s u c h an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . " 190 A second apparent d i f f i c u l t y i s that myths are t y p i c a l l y the common property of an independent c u l t u r a l u n i t or s o c i e t y such as a Melanesian t r i b e , Ancient Egypt, Greece or I n d i a , and a c t as an embracing arch of symbols e x p r e s s i n g the funda-mental concerns of the whole s o c i e t y . Yet e a r l y C h r i s t i a n i t y uias n e i t h e r c o n f i n e d to a s i n g l e c u l t u r e , nor uias i t the p a r t i -c u l a r r e l i g i o n of any c u l t u r e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e to speak of myth, i n the sense of a c e r t a i n type of human reasoning, w i t h i n the context of e a r l y C h r i s t i a n i t y . New Tes-tament exegetes have done so f o r a centu r y , and the form c r i -t i c s have succeeded i n i s o l a t i n g myth as one l i t e r a r y genre of the New Testament. I t would be a mistake, then, to c o n f i n e our understanding of my thv.solely to the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of n a t u r a l phenomena i n a p r i m i t i v e or a n c i e n t c u l t u r e . Rather we sh o u l d , f o l l o w i n g the a n a l y s i s of such s c h o l a r s as Cas s i r e r E a n d Malinow-s k i , recognise i t as a c e r t a i n form of human exp r e s s i o n d i s t i n -guished by a p a r t i c u l a r " p r e - r a t i o n a l " mode of a r t i c u l a t i o n . C h r i s t i a n theology has always p r i z e d the e u c h a r i s t as the sacrament of u n i t y , and has taught that t h i s u n i t y i s a conse-quence of some form of encounter with C h r i s t i n the c e l e b r a t i o n of the c u l t i c a c t . Yet i t was not u n t i l the C a r o l i n g i a n p e r i o d that there was any systematic attempt to r a t i o n a l i z e the mode of C h r i s t ' s e u c h a r i s t i c presence. I t i s ture that there were t h e o l o g i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s of the e u c h a r i s t , and i t i s even true that the language of elemental change appears as e a r l y as Jus-t i n , but there was no sys t e m a t i c attempt to evaluate p h i l o s o -191 p h i c a l l y t h e l a n g u a g e o f e u c h a r i s t i c t h e o l o g y and w o r s h i p . S i n c e t h e n i n t h c e n t u r y , h o w e v e r , and t h e d i s a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n R a d b e r t u s and R a t r a m n u s on w h e t h e r o r n o t C h r i s t was p r e s e n t i n v e r i t a t e a f t e r t h e c o n s e c r a t i o n , i t has been one o f t h e most v i g o r o u s l y d e b a t e d p r o b l e m s o f C h r i s t i a n t h e o l o g y . The t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e f o r t h i s d i s c u s s i o n have c o n s i s t e n t l y been a c o n t r a s t b e tween t h e f i g u r a t i v e o r s y m b o l i c and t h e r e a l i s -t i c . R i g h t down t o t h e p r e s e n t day t h e r e have been c e r t a i n s c h o l a r s who have t r i e d t o show t h a t t h e New T e s t a m e n t w r i t e r s o r t h e F a t h e r s h e l d e i t h e r a " r e a l i s t i c " o r a " f i g u r a t i v e " u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e e u c h a r i s t . C e r t a i n l y i t i s p o s s i b l e t o c i t e p a t r i s t i c t e x t s , e v e n f r o m t h e same w r i t e r , f a v o u r a b l e t o b o t h v i e w s . But i f o u r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e m a t e r i a l i s c o r -r e c t , i t i s i n a d m i s s a b l e t o a p p l y t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r c a t e g o r i e s t o t h e b i b l i c a l and p a t r i s t i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g s o f t h i s s a c r a m e n t . F o r i f t h e l o g i c o f e a r l y e u c h a r i s t i c t h e o l o g y i s m y t h o p o e i c , t h e n any d i s t i n c t i o n b e t ween f i g u r e o r image and r e a l i t y i s e x t r a n e o u s t o i t s i n t e l l e c t u a l p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s . To show t h a t t h i s i s i n d e e d t h e c a s e , i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y f o r us t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t t h e l a n g u a g e w h i c h e a r l y C h r i s t i a n i t y u s e d i n r e f e r e n c e t o i t s s a c r e d meal i s i n some way c o m p a r a b l e t o t h a t o f p r i m i t i v e and c l a s s i c a l m y t h o l o g i e s . Our method w i l l n o t be t o make d i r e c t c o m p a r i s o n s , b u t r a t h e r t o t a k e as o u r p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e t h e r e s u l t s o f s t u d i e s by p h e n o m e n o l o -g i s t s o f m y t h , and t h e n t o show t h a t t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e e a r l y 192 C h r i s t i a n e u c h a r i s t e x h i b i t s those e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of mythical thought d e l i n e a t e d i n these s t u d i e s . The L o g i c of Myth For the purposes of t h i s appendix uie s h a l l use the term "myth" to designate a p r e - s c i e n t i f i c and p r e - p h i l o s o p h i c a l form of e x p r e s s i o n through uihich the human mind a r t i c u l a t e s i t s most fundamental v a l u e s , and uihich i t r e c i t e s through r i t u a l a c t i o n . Uie do not, of course, accept any of those o l d e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of myth uihich mould reduce the phenomenon to a s i n g l e n a t u r a l p r i n c i p l e , whether s o l a r , l u n a r , seasonal or m e t e o r o l o g i c a l . Nor do uie accept Mircea E l i a d e ' s premise that a l l mythriis essen-t i a l l y a e t i o l o g i c a l , and that the r e a l i t y that myth expresses 3 i s the f a c t uihich i t e x p l a i n s . Myth i s r a t h e r the f o r m u l a t i o n of c e r t a i n b a s i c c o n v i c t i o n s about the meaning of human l i f e . Malinowski w r i t e s : Myth f u l f i l l s i n p r i m i t i v e c u l t u r e an i n d i s p e n -sable f u n c t i o n : i t expresses, enhances, and c o d i -f i e s b e l i e f ; i t safeguards and enforces m o r a l i t y ; i t vouches f o r the e f f i c i e n c y of r i t u a l and con-t a i n s p r a c t i c a l r u l e s f o r the guidance of man. Myth i s thus a v i t a l i n g r e d i e n t of human c i v i l i -z a t i o n ; i t i s not an i d l e t a l e but a hard-worked a c t i v e f o r c e ; i t i s not an i n t e l l e c t u a l e x p l a n a t i o n or an a r t i s t i c imagery, but a pragmatic c h a r t e r of p r i m i t i v e f a i t h and moral wisdom.'* Malinowski found the a e t i o l o g i c a l theory of myth qu i t e f o r e i g n to the experience of h i s Melanesian s u b j e c t s . "They do not want," he says, "to ' e x p l a i n , ' to make ' i n t e l l i g i b l e ' anything uihich happens i n t h e i r myths—above a l l not an a b s t r a c t i d e a . " 5 193 M y t h , t h e n , i s p a r t i c u l a r i s e d n o t so much by i t s c o n t e n t as by i t s l o g i c . I t s method o f r e a s o n i n g i s s u i g e n e r i s , and i t c a n n o t , t h e r e f o r e , a s S c h e l l i n g o b s e r v e d a l r e a d y i n t h e l a s t c e n t u r y , be i n t e r p r e t e d a l l e g o r i c a l l y . I t i s , as C a s s i r e r o b s e r v e s , an autonomous f o r m o f t h e human s p i r i t , w h i c h must be e v a l u a t e d on i t s own t e r m s . Whether o r n o t we c a n c o n s i d e r 6 7 myth as " t r u e " ( F r a n k f o r t , E l i a d e ) , o r as an u n c o n s c i o u s f i c -8 9 t i o n ( C a s s i r e r ) , o r , as i n t h e v i e w o f E r i c h D a r d e l , as n e i t h e r t r u e n o r f a l s e , i s n o t a q u e s t i o n w h i c h we s h a l l d e c i d e h e r e . What i s o f g r e a t e r c o n c e r n t o us a r e t h e p a r t i c u l a r i t i e s o f m y t h i c a l l a n g u a g e and a c t i o n , t h e d e t e r m i n a t i v e f e a t u r e s o f m y t h i c a l a r t i c u l a t i o n . I n t h e s e c o n d volume o f h i s P h i l o s o p h y  o f S y m b o l i c F o r m s , C a s s i r e r ' s p r i m a r y a i m i s t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e s h a r p l y t h e l o g i c o f myth f r o m s c i e n t i f i c , e m p i r i c a l , o r p h i l o -s o p h i c a l l o g i c . I n a more c o n c i s e f o r m , H e n r i and H.A. F r a n k -f o r t have u n d e r t a k e n a s i m i l a r s t u d y i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o 10 B e f o r e P h i l o s o p h y . The e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n m y t h i c a l and n o n - m y t h i c a l l o g i c c a n be s u m m a r i s e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e -ment by C a s s i r e r : ...a mere g l a n c e a t t h e f a c t s o f m y t h i c a l c o n s c i o u s -n e s s shows t h a t i t knows n o t h i n g o f c e r t a i n d i s t i n c -t i o n s w h i c h seem a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y t o e m p i r i c a l -s c i e n t i f i c t h i n k i n g . Above a l l , i t l a c k s any f i x e d d i v i d i n g l i n e b etween mere " r e p r e s e n t a t i o n " and " r e a l " p e r c e p t i o n , b e t w e e n w i s h and f u l f i l l m e n t , b e t w e e n image and t h i n g . 1 ' 194 M y t h i c a l t h i n k i n g , C a s s i r e r a r g u e s , l a c k s t h e c a t e g o r y o f t h e i d e a l . O r , a s v a n d e r L e e u u i s a y s , i t " c o n s t i t u t e s t h e m o s t 1 2 e x t r e m e a n t i t h e s i s c o n c e i v a b l e t o p u r e t h e o r y . " I n o r d e r t o a p p r e h e n d a s y m b o l , m y t h i c a l t h i n k i n g m u s t t r a n s p o s e i t i n t o s o m e t h i n g s u b s t a n t i a l . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e i n t h e c a s e o f m y t h i c a l a c t i o n . B u t t h i s d o e s n o t mean t h a t t h e m y t h i c a l m i n d i s s i m p l y i n c a p a b l e o f m a k i n g t h e m o s t e l e m e n t a r y o b s e r v a t i o n s a b o u t t h e w o r l d ; i t m e a n s , r a t h e r , t h a t i n m y t h c e r t a i n t h i n g s a r e c h a r g e d w i t h s i g n i f i c a n c e , a n d t h a t t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e i s n o t d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f r o m t h e t h i n g . S u z a n n e L a n g e r , i n c o m m e n t i n g o n M a o r i l u n a r m y t h o l o g y , p u t s t h e m a t t e r t h i s w a y : The s a v a g e d o e s n o t , i n h i s i n n o c e n c e , " t h i n k " t h e moon i s a woman b e c a u s e h e c a n n o t t e l l t h e d i f f e r e n c e ; he " t h i n k s " i t i s a r o u n d f i r e , a s h i n i n g d i s k ; b u t  he s e e s Woman i n i t , a n d n a m e s i t Woman , a n d a l l i t s a c t s a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t i n t e r e s t h i m a r e t h o s e u i h i c h c a r r y o u t t h a t s i g n i f i c a n c e . ' ' 3 The E g y p t o l o g i s t R u d o l f A n t h e s m a k e s a s i m i l a r o b s e r v a t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o E g y p t i a n m y t h o l o g y : A ( J m y t h o l o g i c a l ] s y m b o l i s a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f a h u m a n a t t e m p t t o make a n e l e m e n t o f t h e d i v i n e w o r l d c o n c e i v a b l e i n h u m a n t e r m s , t h a t i s , i n t e r m s o f l o g i c a n d s e n s u o u s p e r c e p t i o n , a l t h o u g h t h e s e d o n o t n e c e s s a r i l y c o n f o r m w i t h t h e l a w s o f n a t u r e . I 4 T h e f u n d a m e n t a l mode o f t h e m y t h i c a l a p p r e h e n s i o n o f r e a l i t y , i . e . , n o n - d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n a n d s u b s t a n t i a l i s a t i o n , o p e -r a t e s i n a n u m b e r o f d i f f e r e n t s p h e r e s o f c o n c e p t i o n , i n c l u d i n g 195 s p a c e , t i m e , and c a u s a l i t y . I n e a c h o f t h e s e s p h e r e s , a c o n c e p t u a l e v a l u a t i o n i s made, n o t by any o b j e c t i v e m e a s u r e -1 5 ment, b u t by an e m o t i o n a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f v a l u e s . I n e a c h t h e f u n d a m e n t a l c o n t r a s t i s n o t b e t w e e n l a r g e o r s m a l l , b e t ween r e a l o r u n r e a l , b u t b e t ween s a c r e d and p r o f a n e . As C a s s i r e r w r i t e s , The m y t h i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s a r r i v e s a t an a r t i c u -l a t i o n o f s p a c e and t i m e n o t by s t a b i l i s i n g t h e f l u c t u a t i o n o f s e n s u o u s phenomena b u t by i n t r o -d u c i n g i t s s p e c i f i c o p p o s i t i o n - - t h e o p p o s i t i o n o f s a c r e d and p r o f a n e - - i n t o s p a t i a l and t e m p o r a l r e a l i t y . 1 ° W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f c a u s a l i t y , a l l i n t e r p r e t e r s a g r e e t h a t t h e m y t h o p o e i c mind seems t o e x p l a i n s o m e t h i n g , and t h a t i t d o e s s o w i t h a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f a p p r o a c h e s . W h i l e em-p i r i c a l t h i n k i n g p o s i t s a r e l a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c c a u s e s t o s p e c i f i c e f f e c t s , m y t h i c a l t h i n k i n g , where i t r a i s e s t h e q u e s -t i o n o f o r i g i n s , has a f r e e s e l e c t i o n o f c a u s e s and e f f e c t s a t i t s d i s p o s a l . R u d o l f A n t h e s p o i n t s o u t t h a t i n E g y p t , f o r e x a m p l e , ". . . a s i n g l e e n t i t y o f what we have c a l l e d t h e d i -v i n e w o r l d c a n be c o n c e i v e d i n v a r i o u s i n c o m p a t i b l e c o n c e p t s 17 by t h e same t h e o l o g i a n s . " ' T h i s m y t h o p o e i c mode o f a p p r e h e n s i o n i s a p p l i e d n o t o n l y t o s p a c e , t i m e , and c a