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Citizen participation : its structure and distribution among various socio-economic groups Martin, Bo Roland 1973

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c V CITIZEN PARTICIPATION t ITS STRUCTURE AND DISTRIBUTION AMONG VARIOUS SOCIO-ECONOMIC GROUPS by BO ROLAND MARTIN A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the School of Community and Regional Planning We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1973' I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d b y t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . S c h o o l o f Community a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a A p r i l 30, 1973 i ABSTRACT Many i n s t i t u t i o n s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n a r e c u r r e n t l y e x p e r i e n c i n g g r o w i n g p r e s s u r e f r o m a f f e c t e d g r o u p s a n d i n d i v i d u a l s f o r i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e d e c i s i o n -m a k i n g p r o c e s s . T h i s a p p l i e s t o t h e f a m i l y , s c h o o l s , u n i v e r s i t i e s a n d t h e w h o l e b u s i n e s s w o r l d a s w e l l a s p o l i t i c s o f w h i c h p l a n n i n g i s a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t , p a r t i -c u l a r l y a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l . Two b a s i c a s p e c t s o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n were r e c o g n i z e d a n d assumed t o be d e s i r a b l e . F i r s t t h e r e a r e t h e i n t r i n s i c v a l u e s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t e r m s o f s e l f -r e a l i z a t i o n , i n t e g r a t i o n a n d s a t i s f a c t i o n a c c r u i n g t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . S e c o n d t h e r e i s t h e u s e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a means o f i n c r e a s i n g t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h o s e who a r e now p o w e r l e s s . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s t h e s i s was t o t r y t o f i n d p o l i c i e s w h i c h w o u l d r e s u l t i n a n i n c r e a s e i n m e a n i n g f u l p a r t i c i p a t i o n a s w e l l a s a more e q u i t a b l y d i s t r i b u t e d p a t t e r n o f i n v o l v e m e n t . T o i n v e s t i g a t e t h i s 1^8 p e o p l e were i n t e r v i e w e d i n o r d e r t o f i n d o u t t h e i r c u r r e n t i n -v o l v e m e n t i n p o l i t i c s a n d p l a n n i n g , a n d t h e i r a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s t h e p a r t i c i p a t o r y p r o c e s s . H a l f t h e s a m p l e was s e l e c t e d f r o m a n u p p e r c l a s s a r e a a n d t h e o t h e r h a l f f r o m a i i 1 a lower-middle class d i s t r i c t . I t was found that d i f f e r e n t p a r t i c i p a t o r y acts were not of a cumulative nature as has generally been assumed by most writers discussing the subject. The implications of t h i s i s that d i f f e r e n t people preferred varying types of p a r t i c i p a t o r y acts. V i r t u a l l y a l l p a r t i c i p a t o r y acts were found to be heavily dominated by people from the upper socio-economic status groups. In the measurements of p o t e n t i a l p a r t i -cipatory s k i l l s , the dominance of these groups was* even greater. However, a discernable d i s t i n c t i o n could be seen regarding the types of a c t i v i t i e s preferred, i n that the lower income people tended to p a r t i c i p a t e more under these conditions i 1) a s p e c i f i c and c l e a r l y defined issue i s involved 2) i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to his own i n t e r e s t s i s very c l e a r 3) i t i s l o c a l i n character and k) per-sonal contacts with the decision makers are involved but no s o c i a l b a r r i e r s has to be overcome. Based on the r e s u l t s of the f i e l d work i t was suggested that d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of the decision-making s t r u c t u r e ~ i s a necessary (but not s u f f i c i e n t ) condition for encouraging meaningful p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the average c i t i z e n . Other suggestions included increased use of attitude surveys, p l e b i s c i t e s and, f o r l o c a l issues, the frequent establishment of ad hoc groups that are small and very issue oriented. i i i TABLE OP CONTENTS A b s t r a c t . 1 1 Table of Contents -iv L i s t of Fig u r e s v i i L i s t of Tables v i i i Acknowledgment . . . . x CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION TO CITIZEN PARTICIPATION 1 A. H i s t o r i c a l Background 1 B. Current Trends b C. D e s i r a b i l i t y of C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n . 9 CHAPTER I I OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY OF THE RESEARCH 13 A. D e f i n t i o n s of Some Terms 13 B. Four B a s i c P o s t u l a t e s 1^-C. B a s i c O b j e c t i v e of Thesis 15 D. Hypothesis 19 E. L i m i t a t i o n s o f the F i e l d Work . . . . . 19 •F. Methodology of the Survey 20 a. S e l e c t i o n Procedures 20 b. I n t e r v i e w i n g Procedure . . . . 23 c. The Development o f I n d i c e s f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n . . 25 d. S t a t i s t i c a l Methods Used . . . 29 CHAPTER I I I REVIEW OF RELEVANT LITERATURE . . . . J2 A. Who P a r t i c i p a t e s ? 32 B. How Do They P a r t i c i p a t e ? . . . . . . . 36 a. V o t i n g . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 b. Campaigning 38 c. Communal Acts -^0 d. P e r s o n a l i z e d Contacts . . . . . C. Other Research F i n d i n g s k3 Do Weaknesses of E x i s t i n g Research . . . . k6 CHAPTER IV RESULTS OF THE FIELD WORK k8 A. Return Rates . . . . . . c 48 B. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Sampled Areas . 51 C. R e s u l t s of the Survey 5^ iv.l CHAPTER V DIFFERENCES IN PARTICIPATION RATES BETWEEN VARIOUS SOCIO-ECONOMIC GROUPS 55 CHAPTER VI DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE VARIOUS PARTICIPATORY ACTS . 6k A. Are P a r t i c i p a t o r y A c t s Cumulative?. . . 6k B. Who i s A c t i v e i n Each Type of A c t i v i t y ? 66 a. V o t i n g ?0 b. E l e c t o r a l Campaigning . . . . . 72 c. Attendance a t P o l i t i c a l Meetings 72 d. F i g h t i n g C i t y H a l l Ik e. P o l i t i c a l l y O r iented Organ-i z a t i o n s 75 f. N o n - p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s .,. 76 g. A l l Organizations . . . . . . . 76 h. Complaining t o C i t y H a l l . . . 77 i . Contacts w i t h P o l i t i c i a n s or Planners . . . . . 79 j . P e r s o n a l F r i e n d s h i p s 81 k. P r i v a t e P o l i t i c a l D i s c u s s i o n s . 81 1. D e s i r e t o become More I n v o l v e d 82 m. L e v e l o f F r u s t r a t i o n . . . . . 8^ n.. P o l i t i c a l Know-how . . . . . . 85 o. Information Index 87 C. Factors Conducive t o P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Low Status Groups . . . . . 87 CHAPTER VII ANALYSIS OF THE DISTRIBUTIONAL EFFECTS OF SOME PROPOSALS TO ENCOURAGE CITIZEN PARTICIPATION 92 A. A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g Bodies . 92 B. P u b l i c Hearings . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 C. R e g u l a r i z e d Contacts w i t h O r g a n i z a t i o n s 9k D. Reform of "the R e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l System 96 E. Neighbourhood Government . 98 F. L o c a l Area P l a n n i n g . 99 G. More and B e t t e r I n f o r m a t i o n . . . . . . 101 H. Community Development O f f i c e r s . . . . 102 I . P l e b i s c i t e s . . 103 J . A t t i t u d e Surveys . . . . . . . . . . . 105 K. Task Forces . . . 106 CHAPTER V I I I . SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS . . . . . 109 A. Summary of R e s u l t s . . . . . . . . . . 110 B. Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 a. General . 115 b. Regional or City-Wide Issues . 116 c. L o c a l Issues 121 C. Suggestion f o r F u r t h e r Research . . . . 125 BIBLIOGRAPHY . .... . . , . . . ..... . 127 v APPENDIX A INTRODUCTORY LETTER AND QUESTIONNAIRE . .'.' 133 APPENDIX B RESULTS OF THE INTERVIEW 139 APPENDIX C VALUES FOR KENDALL'S TAU 1^4 v i I LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Areas Surveyed i n a. West P o i n t Grey and b. East End 21 Figure 2 I l l u s t r a t i o n of a Case Where the C o r r e l a t i o n between two V a r i a b l e s i s Weak f o r each Area S e p a r a t e l y , But Quite Strong when they are Added Together.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 v i i LIST OF TABLES Table I Demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Surveyed areas.. . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Table I I Composition of the Comprehensive P a r t i c i p a t i o n Index 26 Table I I I Composition of the P o t e n t i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n Index . . . . < . . . . . 27 Table IV Composition of the Information Index . 28 Table V P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates Among va r i o u s Demographic groups . 33 Table VI Membership r a t e s i n various Types of Organizations from three D i f f e r e n t Surveys „ . . 42 Table V I I D i f f e r e n c e s Between a C l a s s Based P a r t y System and a Non-class Based One w i t h regards t o who P a r t i c i p a t e s 43 Table V I I I H y p o t h e t i c a l Courses o f a c t i o n t o In f l u e n c e Governments . . . . . . . . 45 Table IX R e s u l t s of the Sampling Procedures . • 49 Table X The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Education and Income i n the Two Sampled Areas . . . . . . . 53 Table XI Absolute Frequencies f o r Categories of Values f o r the Comprehensive and P o t e n t i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n I n d i c e s by L o c a t i o n . . . . . 56 Table XII Absolute Frequencies f o r the Comprehensive and P o t e n t i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d i c e s by Education and L o c a t i o n . . . . . . 56 Table X I I I Absolute Frequencies f o r the Compre-hensive and P o t e n t i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n I n d i c e s by Income and L o c a t i o n . . . . 58 v i i i Table XIV Some Values of K e n d a l l ' s Tau f o r the P a r t i c i p a t i o n I n d i c e s by L o c a t i o n and Socio-economic C h a r a c t e r t i c s 59 Table XV R e l a t i o n s h i p Between the Two areas and the P a r t i c i p a t i o n I n d i c e s as Education and Income i s h e l d constant 62 Table XVI D e s c r i p t i o n and R e s u l t s of the Various Guttman Scales Tested 65 Table XVII Tau Values D e s c r i b i n g the R e l a t i o n s h i p of SES and L o c a t i o n w i t h 15 Various P a r t i c i p a t o r y A c t s or Co n d i t i o n s f o r P a r t i c i p a t o r y Acts . . . 69 Table XVIII A c t u a l v o t e r Turnout i n Percentages i n the Sampled areas f o r the l a t e s t F e d e r a l , P r o v i n c i a l and M u n i c i p a l E l e c t i o n s 71 Table XIX R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Education and E l e c t o r a l Campaigning i n WPG 73 Table XX R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Education and Attendance of Meetings f o r the Whole Sample 73 Table XXI R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Income and F i g h t i n g f o r the Sample as a Whole . . 74 Table XXII R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Age and Member-sh i p i n P o l i t i c a l l y A c t i v e Organ-i z a t i o n s i n WPG 75 Table XXIII R e l a t i o n s h i p Between the very A c t i v e i n a l l Organizations w i t h Education and Income f o r the Whole Sample . . . 76 Table XXIV R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Complaints and Education i n EE 77 Table XXV R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Age and Complaints f o r the Whole Sample 78 Table XXVI R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Length of Residency and Complaints f o r the Sample as a Whole „, . 78 i x Table XXVII R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Age and Con-t a c t i n g a P u b l i c O f f i c i a l f o r the Whole Sample 80 Table XXVIII I n d i c a t o r s of Homogeneity of V o t i n g P a t t e r n s i n the 1972 L o c a l E l e c t i o n i n the Sampled Areas 83 Table "XXIX R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Age and l e v e l of F r u s t r a t i o n f o r ..the Sample as a Whole 85 Table ", XXX R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Education and P o l i t i c a l Know-how f o r the sample as a Whole 86 Table XXXI R e l a t i o n s h i p between SES Groups and P a r t i c i p a t o r y Acts De a l i n g w i t h S p e c i f i c i s s u e s and those of a more General Character 89 Table XXXII D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h C i t y H a l l i n each of the Two Surveyed Areas . . . . . . 112 x ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am indebted to Dr. R. W. C o l l i e r whose guidance and c r i t i c i s m s played an important r o l e i n the working of t h i s t h e s i s . I am also deeply indebted to my fellow class members and friends for making these two years enjoyable, stimulating and warm. x i CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION TO C I T I Z E N PARTICIPATION At H i s t o r i c a l B a c k g r o u n d The i d e a o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s c e r t a i n l y n o t l i m i t e d t o t h i s c e n t u r y . I n a n c i e n t G r e e c e a l l t h e f r e e men g a t h e r e d t o g e t h e r w h e n e v e r a d e c i s i o n h a d t o be made a n d i t was s e e n a s t h e d u t y o f a l l t o p a r t i c i p a t e . T h i s i d e a l has p e r h a p s b e e n more a d m i r e d i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n c u l t u r e t h a n anywhere e l s e ( A l m o n d & V e r b a , 1963). The New E n g l a n d Town M e e t i n g s were a s c l o s e t o t h e G r e e k o r i g i n a l s a s one c a n g e t . J a c k s o n i a n d e m o c r a c y i m p l i e d t h a t e a c h a n d e v e r y p e r s o n was e q u a l l y c a p a b l e o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , a n d t h e w h o l e l i b e r a l - d e m o c r a t i c p o l i t i c a l e t h o s t h a t i s d o m i n a n t i n N o r t h A m e r i c a empha-s i z e s t h e r i g h t a n d d u t y o f e v e r y a d u l t t o p a r t i c i p a t e a n d c o n t r i b u t e i n t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s ( A d r i a n , 1968). W i t h t h e i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n o f t h e 19th c e n t u r y , a t r a d i t i o n o f a v e r y b a s i c a n d p r o f o u n d b e l i e f i n t e c h n o -l o g y a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r t i s e was begun., The r e s u l t i n g h e a v y b i a s t o w a r d s r a t i o n a l i t y e m p h a s i z e d t h a t t h e r e was one s i n g l e s o l u t i o n t o e v e r y p r o b l e m t h a t w o u l d be b e s t f o r e v e r y b o d y , i n t h e l o n g r u n . Thus a l a r g e a r e a i n t h e p o l i t i c a l f i e l d was v a c a t e d b y t h e p o l i t i c i a n s . T h i s s e t 1 2 o f a t t i t u d e s was s e v e r e l y j o l t e d b y t h e D e p r e s s i o n o f t h e 30*s a n d has b e e n u n d e r i n c r e a s i n g a t t a c k s i n c e t h e b e g i n -n i n g o f t h e 60*s i n b o t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d i n C a n a d a . D u r i n g t h e l a t t e r h a l f o f t h e 19th a n d t h e b e -g i n n i n g o f t h i s c e n t u r y t h e r e was a phenomenon i n l o c a l p o l i t i c s , m a i n l y i n U.S. c i t i e s , t h a t has l e f t a n i m p r i n t on p e o p l e ' s minds up t o t h i s d a y . The l e g a c y c o n c e r n e d , m a c h i n e p o l i t i c s a n d i t s a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h c r i m e , v i o l e n c e , c o r r u p t i o n a n d i m m o r a l i t y . A l l a t t e m p t s t o i n c r e a s e p a r t i c i p a t i o n by. t h e l o w e r c l a s s e s has h a d t o c o n t e n d w i t h t h e a c c u s a t i o n t h a t i t w o u l d o n l y open t h e way f o r b o s s e s t o r e t u r n (Thompson, 1970). As a r e s u l t of. t h i s p a s t p e r i o d o f m a c h i n e p o l i t i c s , t h e a v e r a g e N o r t h A m e r i c a n s t i l l h o l d s s p o l i t i c i a n s a n d c i v i l s e r v a n t s a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l i n much l o w e r r e g a r d t h a n t h o s e a t t h e h i g h e r l e v e l s o f g o v e r n m e n t ( A d r i a n , 1968). . T h i s s i t u a t i o n has f r o m t i m e t o t i m e i n d u c e d g r o u p s i n t h e u p p e r - m i d d l e c l a s s e s t o s t a r t v a r i o u s r e f o r m move-ments t o c l e a n up l o c a l p o l i t i c s , u s u a l l y b y p u t t i n g a c i t y manager i n t h e most p o w e r f u l p o s i t i o n s o t h a t • p o l i t i c s w o u l d be k e p t o u t o f C i t y H a l l * . Hence t h i s a t m o s p h e r e e n c o u r a g e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n b y t h e u p p e r c l a s s e s , a n d t h e l a c k o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n b y t h e l o w e r - m i d d l e c l a s s e s was n o t w rong, s i n c e a f t e r a l l , t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n w o u l d o n l y make t h e r e a c h i n g o f t h e s i n g l e b e s t p o l i c y s l o w e r a n d more u n c e r t a i n ( B a n f i e l d & W i l s o n , I963). 1 3 Representative of t h i s philosophy was the view that planning should be divorced from p o l i t i c s whereever possible, and put under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of boards or commissions made up of 'responsible c i t i z e n s ' who were l i k e l y to s e t t l e a l l problems i n a smooth and r a t i o n a l manner (Adrian, 1968). I t was always assumed that the persons most suc-c e s s f u l i n private business were also those best f i t t e d to solve planning problems since e f f i c i e n c y and r a t i o n -a l i t y were seen as the most important ingredients i n both. Canada has had some modifying influences from B r i t a i n where the p o l i t i c i a n s and bureaucrats at the l o c a l l e v e l have a status that maybe even i s a l i t t l e b i t higher than at the n a t i o n a l l e v e l (Jackson, 1966). However, the dominant influence comes from the United States f o r very •natural geographer reasons, and t h i s i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the following quote1 Much of what has been c a l l e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the past has been a phenomenon of middle class groups. Canada has i t s Rotarians, i t s Kiwanis and other service clubs, i t s Chambers of Commerce, i t s Women's organizations, i t s Boy Scouts, i t s professional associations, i t s ratepayers and other s i m i l a r groups. (Head, 1971, p.15). I t i s by and large only since the f i f t i e s that Town Planning has been seen as having p o l i t i c a l content (Dane County, 1971). A high l e v e l of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with urban conditions has been voiced by an increasing number of groups i n so c i e t y . The p o l i t i c a l aspect of urban planning has now snowballed to the extent that l o c a l k p o l i t i c s i s sometime a l m o s t e q u a t e d w i t h p l a n n i n g . I t i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t h a t t h e new 1973 C o u n c i l i n V a n c o u v e r , w h i c h i s s a i d t o r e p r e s e n t a b a s i c c h a n g e i n a t t i t u d e s a t C i t y H a l l , saw as one o f i t s i m m e d i a t e p r i o r i t i e s t o r e p l a c e two d f i t s most i m p o r t a n t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , b o t h o f them town p l a n n e r s • B: C u r r e n t T r e n d s The p r e s s u r e s t h a t have c a u s e d t h e g r o w i n g demands f o r a p a r t i c i p a t o r y r o l e i n t h e l o c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s by a l m o s t a l l g r o u p s i n s o c i e t y , c a n be s a i d t o c o n s i s t o f e i g h t b a s i c e l e m e n t s w h i c h a l t h o u g h d e f i n i t e l y i n t e r r e l a t e d , a r e s t i l l c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e ! 1. The r i s i n g l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n . Many s t u d i e s r e g a r d i n g t h e c o r r e l a t e s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n has p o i n t e d t o e d u c a t i o n a s b e i n g t h e most i m p o r t a n t ( M i l b r a t h , 1965). As t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n i n c r e a s e s i t i s o n l y n a t u r a l t h a t he w i l l want t o p a r t i c i p a t e more. He w i l l f e e l b e t t e r p r e p a r e d , more c o n f i d e n t a n d l e s s i n t i -m i d a t e d b y e x p e r t s ( B a r b e r , 1969). 2. I n c r e a s i n g e x p o s u r e t o m e d i a . S i n c e a l m o s t e v e r y f a m i l y now has a d a i l y n e w s p a p e r , r a d i o a n d TV, e v e r y b o d y c a n f o l l o w what h a p p e n s on t h e p o l i t i c a l s c e n e c l o s e l y , a n d many a r e l i k e l y t o be s t i m u l a t e d , a n g r y o r w o r r i e d a n d g e n e r a l l y i n c r e a s e t h e i r p o l i t i c a l a w a r e n e s s . T h e y a r e a l s o more l i k e l y t o f o l l o w c l o s e l y some o t h e r a c t s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n s u c h a s d e m o n s t r a t i o n s a n a t h e r e b y 5 become s t i m u l a t e d . 3. I n c r e a s i n g l e i s u r e t i m e . The most commonly v o i c e d o b s t a c l e t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s t h a t l i t v t a k e s up t i m e a n d e a c h d a y has o n l y 2k h o u r s . T h i s a p p l i e s p a r t i c u l a r l y t o y o u n g f a m i l i e s who a r e a t t e m p t i n g t o r a i s e s m a l l c h i l d r e n a n d a t t h e same t i m e work a s much a s p o s s i b l e t o h e l p p a y o f f a new h o u s e . As t h e w o r k i n g week d e -c r e a s e s , d a y c a r e c e n t r e s become more common, a n d mecha-n i c a l a i d s s i m p l i f y most d a i l y t a s k s , more t i m e a n d e n e r g y w i l l be a v a i l a b l e f o r o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s ( L a n e , 1970). However, some i n n o v a t i o n s s u c h a s t h e 3-day, 36 h o u r week m i g h t a c t u a l l y d e c r e a s e t h e l e v e l o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n d e p e n d i n g on p e o p l e ' s r e a l p r i o r i t i e s , s i n c e p e o p l e m i g h t want t o t r a v e l more d u r i n g t h e f o u r f r e e d a y s . k. G r o w i n g i m p o r t a n c e o f g o v e r n m e n t i n a l l a s p e c t s o f l i f e . T h a t t h e d e c i s i o n s t a k e n b y t h e l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s a f f e c t t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n more a n d more i s o n l y p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n e d b y i n c r e a s i n g m e d i a c o v e r a g e . T h e r e i s no d o u b t t h a t a l l t h e g o v e r n m e n t s a r e e x p a n d i n g t h e i r s p h e r e s o f a c t i v i t y . Thus t h e r e i s more a t s t a k e f o r e v e r y b o d y i n t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s , a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y p e o p l e w i l l be more i n t e r e s t e d a n d demand a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x e r c i s e some i n f l u e n c e , i f f o r n o t h i n g e l s e , t o p r o t e c t t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s ( D i o n , 1968). 5. D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e a c t u a l d e c i s i o n s 1 r e a c h e d . As more a n d more p e o p l e a r e a f f e c t e d b y g o v e r n -m e n t a l d e c i s i o n s , a l s o more a n d more a r e l i k e l y t o be d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h them. The p r e s s u r e m i g h t be i n f a v o r o f s t a t u s quo, s u c h a s s t o p p i n g a f r e e w a y o r a n a p a r t m e n t d e v e l o p m e n t , o r i t m i g h t be i n f a v o r o f a p o s i t i v e c h a n g e , s u c h as a r a p i d t r a n s i t s y s t e m o r a f r e e w a y . T h i s i s a s e l f - r e i n f o r c i n g s p i r a l s i n c e t h e more p e o p l e h e a r a b o u t p a s t p r o t e s t , a n d e s p e c i a l l y i f t h e y have made a n i m p a c t , t h e l e s s a n y b o d y w i l l a c c e p t a n y g o v e r n m e n t a l d e c i s i o n s t h a t a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t them w i t h o u t f i g h t i n g b a c k . * A n o t h e r c a u s e o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e g o v e r n m e n t s i s c o n s t a n t l y r i s i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s . E v e r y b o d y has become a c c u s t o m e d d u r i n g t h e l a s t c o u p l e o f g e n e r a t i o n s t o a r a p i d l y r i s i n g m a t e r i a l s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g a n d now t h e s e s t a n d a r d s a r e a p p l i e d t o a l l a s p e c t s o f l i f e . 6. I n c r e a s i n g c o m p l e x i t y o f g o v e r n m e n t a l i n s t i l -• t u t i o n s . I n many p l a c e s , s u c h a s T o r o n t o a n d V a n c o u v e r , t h e r e a r e f o u r d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f g o v e r n m e n t s , i n a d d i t i o n t o w h i c h t h e r e a r e numerous B o a r d s a n d C o m m i t t e e s w i t h i n d e p e n d e n t j u r i s d i c t i o n s . Q u i t e n a t u r a l l y , t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n f i n d s t h i s l a b y r i n t h v e r y c o n f u s i n g , a n d a s a r e s u l t i t i s much more d i f f i c u l t f o r him t o i n f l u e n c e o r e v e n f o l l o w t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . C o u p l e d w i t h t h e p e r v a s i v e n e s s o f t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s , a f e e l i n g i s i n d u c e d t h a t many o f t h e i m p o r t a n t d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g somebody's l i f e , a r e made i n a v e r y r e m o t e a n d i m p e r s o n a l f a s h i o n . C o m m i t t e e on G o v e r n m e n t P r o d u c t i v i t y , 1972. C i t i z e n I n v o l v e m e n t , a w o r k i n g p a p e r , Queen's P r i n t e r „ T o r o n t o . H e n c e f o r t h t h i s w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o a s i C.O.G.P. 1972. 7 The d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h i s s t a t e o f a f f a i r s may t h e n l e a d t o a d e s i r e t o c hange t h e s t r u c t u r e i n o r d e r t o be a b l e t o s e e c l e a r l y who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r what, a n d t h e n be a b l e t o have some i n p u t i n t o t h e p r o c e s s i f t h a t i s d e s i r e d ( S h a l a l a , 1971). S i n c e a l s o n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l i n s t i t u t i o n s show a n i n c r e a s i n g c o m p l e x i t y , t h e g r o w i n g demands f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n c a n a l s o be b a s e d on a more g e n e r a l d e s i r e t o be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t y ( R i e d e l , 1972). I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e r e i s a n e e d t o b e -come a p a r t o f , r a t h e r t h a n t o be s u b j e c t t o s o c i e t y as a w h o l e . E x a m p l e s h e r e a r e many, i n c l u d i n g demands f o r p a r t i -c i p a t i o n i n s c h o o l s , u n i v e r s i t i e s a n d p l a c e s o f e m p l o y -ment . 7. The c o n t i n u i n g r a p i d r a t e o f c h a n g e , b o t h i n c u l t u r a l v a l u e s a n d m a t e r i a l s t a n d a r d s . As h o u s i n g , i n d u s t r y a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s c o n t i n u e t o e x p a n d , c h a n g e s i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a r e i n e v i t a b l e . P o l l u t i o n i n c r e a s e s a n d more a n d more u r b a n a r e a s a s w e l l a s r u r a l a r e a s become s u b j e c t t o p r e s s u r e s f o r c h a n g e . Thus a s i t u a t i o n o f r a p i d c h a n g e o c c u r s w h i c h c a n be i n t e r e s t i n g up t o a p q i n t , b u t b e y o n d t h a t i t i s b e w i l d e r i n g a n d a l i e n a t i n g , b e c a u s e i t i s i m p o s s i b l e f o r most p e o p l e t o k e e p up w i t h i t a l l . C o n s e q u e n t l y p e o p l e w i l l want t o r e g a i n some c o n t r o l o v e r t h e f o r c e s c a u s i n g t h e s e c h a n g e s ( T o f f l e r , 1970). 8. D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e v o t e as t h e o n l y means o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f 8 e l e c t i o n s s h o u l d n o t be downgraded t o o much, i t i s c l e a r t h a t i t i s v e r y l i m i t e d i n f l u e n c e . The t y p i c a l r a n g e o f c h o i c e s i s v e r y s m a l l a n d a s i m p l e ' y e s * o r 'no' e v e r y f o u r o r f i v e y e a r s i s a v e r y b l u n t i n s t r u m e n t i n d e e d . T h e r e i s a f e e l i n g t h a t a p e r s o n i s p r a c t i c a l l y f o r c e d t o u s e some o t h e r c h a n n e l i f he wants t o have some i n -f l u e n c e on a n y s p e c i f i c i s s u e (C.O.G.P., 1972). I n a l l o f t h e s e t r e n d s i t c a n be s e e n t h a t t h e r e a r e two b a s i c p u r p o s e s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l v e d ! The f i r s t i s s o c i a l i z a t i o n where t h e p r o c e s s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s e m p h a s i z e d more i n o r d e r t o c r e a t e a s e n s e o f c o n t r o l a n d d e c r e a s e t h e f e e l i n g s o f a l i e n a t i o n , anomie a n d r e m o t e n e s s f r o m t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s , w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e f a c i l i t a t e p e o p l e ' s s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n . The s e c o n d b a s i c p u r p o s e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s g o a l o r i e n t e d a n d i t c a n be e i t h e r i n f a v o r o f s t a t u s quo i n o r d e r t o p r o t e c t what we have a l r e a d y a c h i e v e d , o r i n f a v o r o f somecchange i n o r d e r t o c o r r e c t some o f t h e p e r c e i v e d wrongs a n d i n j u s t i c e s . The s o c i a l i z a t i o n a s p e c t i s more c o n c e r n e d w i t h r e a c t i o n s a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l , w h e r e a s t h e g o a l o r i e n -t a t i o n p u t s more e m p h a s i s on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s i n s o c i e t y . However, t h e r e i s u n q u e s -t i o n a b l y a n i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e b e t w e e n t h e s e two g r o u p s , a n d i t i s b a s i c a l l y t h i s i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t I want t o i n v e s t i g a t e i n t h i s t h e s i s . 9 Ct D e s i r a b i l i t y o f C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n The q u e s t i o n i s s o m e t i m e s a s k e d w h e t h e r a n i n -c r e a s e d l e v e l o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e d e c i s i o n -m a k i n g p r o c e s s i s d e i s r a b l e a t a l l . Some e x a m p l e s o f s u g g e s t e d d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f more c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t a r e c i t e d f i r s t a n d t h e n f o l l o w s a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e more a d v a n t a g e o u s c o n s e q u e n c e s o f more p a r t i c i p a t i o n . a . T h e r e i s n o t h i n g t o g u a r a n t e e t h e r e p r e s e n -t a t i v e n e s s o f p a r t i c i p a n t g r o u p s . Do t h e y s p e a k f o r anyone e x c e p t t h e m s e l v e s ? G e n e r a l l y t h e y h a v e a t e n d e n c y t o be g r o u p s l o b b y i n g f o r s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e s . C.O.G.P., 1972i Head, 1971). b . The i n t e r e s t s o f t h e , s i l e n t m a j o r i t y a n d o f t h e p u b l i c a s a w h o l e must be p r o t e c t e d . I n c r e a s e d a c t i -v i t i e s o f l o c a l p r e s s u r e g r o u p s a n d o f i n d i v i d u a l w o u l d make t h i s more d i f f i c u l t a n d w o u l d o n l y s e r v e , t o f r a g m e n t , s o c i e t y , t h e r e b y c r e a t i n g more b i t t e r n e s s , h o s t i l e f e e l i n g s a n d e n c o u r a g e s e l f i n t e r e s t . c . I f e v e r y b o d y becomes v e r y i n v o l v e d i n v p o l i t i c s , t e n s i o n s w i l l r i s e t h r o u g h o u t s o c i e t y , a l m o s t a l l a s p e c t s o f l i f e w i l l become p o l i t i c i z e d a n d p r e j u d i c e s w i l l s p r e a d . ( M i l b r a t h , 19651 pp.147-8). d. We l i v e i n a n i n c r e a s i n g l y c o m p l e x a n d i n t e r -r e l a t e d w o r l d where l o n g r a n g e p l a n n i n g i s n e c e s s a r y . The f o r c e s o f t e c h n o l o g y a r e now s o f a s t a n d p e r v a s i v e t h a t we c a n n o t a f f o r d t h e l u x u r y o f r e a c t i n g t o e v e n t s . We must c o n s t a n t l y a n t i c i p a t e a n d p l a n f o r t h e f u t u r e . 10 Increased p a r t i c i p a t i o n would render t h i s very d i f f i c u l t , since everything would become very unpredictable and subject to the whims of the people, (C.O.G.P., 1972, pp.18-19). e. Those groups already i n f l u e n t i a l would only become more powerful simply because they possess a l l the tools to influence the government such as money, s e l f -confidence, a r t i c u l a t e n e s s , information, p o l i t i c a l s k i l l s , personal connections etc.. f. A measure of apathy i s e s s e n t i a l f o r the s t a b i l i t y of the p o l i t i c a l system, because i t must serve as a cushion against the a c t i v i t i e s of highly motivated partisans. (Thompson, 1970, pp.67-68). g. Non-participation i s a sign of s a t i s f a c t i o n , why then t r y to a r t i f i c i a l l y increase discontent? (Thompson, 1970, p.64). h. Increased p a r t i c i p a t i o n would mean more power to the i l l - i n f o r m e d , e a s i l y mislead, a u t h o r i t a r i a n masses, thereby endangering the s u r v i v a l of democracy. i . Most people simply do not want to p a r t i c i p a t e beyond the act of voting, so why force them? (Riedel, 1972). Among the advantages of public p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the following are the most commonly mentioned! a. More p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s the only way f o r the disadvantaged groups i n society to improve t h e i r l o t , both by pressuring f o r a better deal and through s e l f education 11 t h r o u g h t h e p a r t i c i p a t o r y p r o c e s s . ( B u r k e , 1968). b. I m p r o v e d s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n t h r o u g h p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r a l l members o f s o c i e t y b e c a u s e o f i n -c r e a s e d a w a r e n e s s o f one's s u r r o u n d i n g s , i n t e r e s t s a n d t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e w h o l e p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m ( B u r k e , 1968). c . More p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l mean more i n t e g r a t i o n o f s o c i e t y . O n l y t h r o u g h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e d e c i s i o n -m a k i n g p r o c e s s w i l l p r o p l e l e a r n t o c o n s i d e r t h e c o n s e -q u e n c e s o f t h e i r own a c t i o n s f o r o t h e r p e o p l e . I f g i v e n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y \ ; : p e o p l e w i l l a c t r e s p o n s i b l y , w h e r e a s l a c k o f power a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o s t e r s e l f i s h a n d i r r e s p o n -s i b l e a t t i t u d e s . (C.O.G.P., 1972; Thompson, 1970). d. I n c r e a s e d a t t a c h m e n t t o t h e w h o l e p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m when one f e e l s more l i k e a p a r t o f i t a n d c a p a b l e o f i n f l u e n c i n g i t , r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g o u t s i d e o f i t a n d m e r e l y s u b j e c t t o i t s c a p r i s c i o u s a c t i o n s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n a c t s h e r e s o m e t i m e s a s a s a f e t y v a l v e . I n my o p i n i o n , t h e two most p e r s u a s i v e a r g u m e n t s i n f a v o r o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p o l i t i c s a n d p l a n n i n g , a r e b e s t i l l u s t r a t e d b y t h e f o l l o w i n g q u o t e s : P a r t i c i p a t i o n b r o a d e n s t h e i n t e l l e c t b y e x p o s i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o new a n d c h a l -l e n g i n g i d e a s a n d t o d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s a n d g r o u p s o f p e o p l e . P a r t i c i p a t i o n e n h a n c e s a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e l f e s t e e m , i n t h a t o t h e r s ^respond t o h i s n e e d s a n d d e s i r e s . S e l f e s t e e m a l s o may be e n -h a n c e d b y p e r c e i v i n g t h e t a n g i b l e r e s u l t s o f one's c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o a d e c i s i o n . P a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o m o t e s i n d e p e n d e n c e by e n a b l i n g e a c h i n d i v i d u a l t o j u d g e what i s b e s t f o r h i m o r h e r . 12 P a r t i c i p a t i o n c h a l l e n g e s t h e i n i t i a t i v e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l . I t p r o m o t e s s e l f e x p r e s s i o n b y e n c o u r a g i n g more p e o p l e t o 'do t h e i r own t h i n g ' . P a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o m o t e s a f e e l i n g o f f e l l o w s h i p a n d a s e n s e o f community w i t h o t h e r s , a n d t h u s h e l p s t o f u l f i l l a b a s i c human n e e d . (C.O.G.P., 1972, pp.22-23). I n t h e n e x t q u o t e H e r b e r t Gans r e l a t e s t h e i d e a o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o p a r k p l a n n i n g , s t a t i n g j I t i s n o t t h e p a r k a l o n e b u t t h e f u n c t i o n s a n d m e a n i n g s w h i c h t h e p a r k has f o r t h e p e o p l e who a r e e x p o s e d t o i t t h a t a f f e c t t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o r n o n - a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e p l a n n e r ' s a i m s . The p a r k p r o p o s e d b y t h e p l a n n e r i s o n l y a p o t e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t ; t h e s o c i a l s y s t e m a n d c u l t u r e o f t h e p e o p l e who w i l l u s e i t d e t e r m i n e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e p a r k becomes a n e f f e c t i v e e n v i r -onment. ( G a n s , 1968, p.6). I n o t h e r w o r d s , p l a n s c a n n o t be made f o r p e o p l e , t h e y must be made w i t h them. The p r o b l e m o f w h e t h e r i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s d e s i r a b l e o r n o t , i s u l t i m a t e l y a v a l u e judgement a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e q u e s t i o n c a n n o t be a n s w e r e d p u r e l y b y r a -t i o n a l a r g u m e n t s . However, i t w i l l be a ssumed h e r e t h a t on t h e w h o l e more p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t i s d e s i r a b l e , b u t a t t h e same t i m e t h e e a r l i e r e n u m e r a t e d p o s s i b l e d i s a d v a n -t a g e s s h o u l d i n t r o d u c e a n o t e o f c a u t i o n . CHAPTER I I OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY OF THE RESEARCH A. D e f i n i t i o n s o f Some Terms C i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n a n d p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l be u s e d i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y a n d w i l l n o t i n d i c a t e a n y d i f f e r e n c e i n n u a n c e . B o t h t e r m s w i l l r e f e r t o a n y b e h a v i o r whose i n t e n t i o n o r a c t u a l r e s u l t i s t o i n f l u e n c e t h e d e c i s i o n s a r r i v e d a t b y t h e p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m . F o r t h e p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m I w i l l u s e a d e f i n i t i o n t h a t f i r s t was u s e d b y D a h l i "A p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m i s a n y c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n o f human r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t i n v o l v e s , t o a s i g n i f i c a n t e x t e n t , power, r u l e , o r a u t h o r i t y . " ( D a h l , 1963, p.6). Thus t h e " p o l i t i c s " o f c o r p o r a t i o n s , s p o r t , f a m i l y , c h u r c h e s , u n i v e r s i t i e s , e t c . , w o u l d f a l l o u t s i d e t h e s p h e r e o f t h e p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m . M a j o r g r o u p s i n s o c i e t y i s a t e r m t h a t i s d i f -f i c u l t t o d e f i n e . T h e r e a r e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c g r o u p s , g e o -g r a p h i c a l l y b a s e d g r o u p s , g r o u p s b a s e d on t y p e o f o c c u p a -t i o n , age g r o u p s , g r o u p s b a s e d on a n y common i n t e r e s t e t c . e t c . . However, many o f t h e s e t e n d t o c o i n c i d e ; i n p a r t i c u l a r , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c , o c c u p a t i o n a l a n d i n t e r e s t g r o u p s a l l have a t e n d e n c y t o f a l l w i t h i n r e l a t i v e l y c l e a r l y 13 14 d e f i n a b l e g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a s a n d c a n t h u s be t r e a t e d , a l t h o u g h w i t h some l o s s o f f i n e r d i f f e r e n c e s , a s one s i n g l e t y p e o f g r o u p . B. F o u r B a s i c P o s t u l a t e s P o s t u l a t e It T h e r e i s a n i r r e v e r s i b l e t r e n d t o w a r d s i n c r e a s e d p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l o c a l p o l i t i c s a n d p l a n n i n g . More a n d more p e o p l e w i l l r e f u s e t o a c c e p t t h a t i t i s o n l y e v e r y s e c o n d o r f o u r t h y e a r a t t h e b a l l o t box t h a t t h e y c a n have a n i n p u t i n t o t h e p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . P o s t u l a t e 2« The g r o u p s i n s o c i e t y t h a t p a r t i c i p a t e more t h a n o t h e r s i n t h e wh o l e p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m , w i l l a l s o be t h e ones t h a t w i l l b e n e f i t t h e most f r o m t h e d e c i s i o n s made b y t h i s p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m . P o s t u l a t e 3t I t i s d e s i r a b l e t h a t t h e p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e o f a l l m a j o r g r o u p s i n s o c i e t y s h o u l d d i f f e r a s l i t t l e a s p o s s i b l e . P o s t u l a t e 4« I t i s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e de f a c t o i n f l u e n c e o f a l l m a j o r g r o u p s i n s o c i e t y i s r e a s o n a b l y s i m i l a r . I t i s t h e r e f o r e n o t enough t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e e x i s t s f o r e v e r y -b o d y s i n c e t h a t w o u l d n o t t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h a t t h e g r o u p s ' r e s o u r c e s f o r u n d e r t a k i n g p a r t i c i p a t o r y a c t s v a r y t r e m e n d o u s l y . 15 C. B a s i c O b j e c t i v e o f T h e s i s T h i s t h e s i s d e a l s b y a n d l a r g e w i t h t h e d i s t r i b u -t i o n a l s i d e o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p o l i t i c s a n d p l a n -n i n g . I t i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e b a l a n c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w s , r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , a t t e n t i o n , a n d t h u s power a n d i n f l u e n c e , among t h e m a j o r g r o u p s i n s o c i e t y . The r e a s o n f o r t h i s c o n c e r n w i t h t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n a l s i d e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s t h a t t h e c u r r e n t t r e n d s t h a t I d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r I do n o t a p p l y e q u a l l y w e l l t o a l l g r o u p s i n s o c i e t y . A f e e l i n g o f s e l f c o n f i d e n c e a n d e f f i c a c y i s g e n e r a l l y r e q u i r e d t o some e x t e n t t o g e t a p e r s o n t o t a k e t h e s t e p f r o m a d e s i r e t o p a r t i c i p a t e t o a c t u a l l y do s o m e t h i n g a b o u t a p o l i t i c a l p r o b l e m t h a t i s b o t h e r i n g o r f r u s t r a t i n g h i m . T h i s f e e l i n g i s c e r t a i n l y n o t e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d i n s o c i e t y . T h e r e f o r e -i t c o u l d be a r g u e d t h a t i t i s o n l y w i t h i n t h e a l r e a d y p o w e r f u l g r o u p s , s u c h a s t h e h i g h l y e d u c a t e d u p p e r m i d d l e i ncome c l a s s , t h a t a h i g h e r l e v e l o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s d e v e l o p i n g , w h e r e a s f o r o t h e r g r o u p s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n s t a y s a t a r e l a t i v e l y l o w l e v e l . T h e r e i s t h e n t h e d a n g e r t h a t b e c a u s e o f t h e ab o v e m e n t i o n e d t r e n d s , f r u s t r a t i o n s c o n -t i n u e t o b u i l d up i n t o p e r i o d i c o u t b u r s t s , w h i c h , i f n o t v i o l e n t , w i l l most l i k e l y be v e r y n e g a t i v e a n d g e n e r a l l y d e s t r u c t i v e t o t h e w h o l e p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e s e r e s u l t s w o u l d i n c r e a s e most p e o p l e ' s f e e l i n g s o f a l i e n a t i o n , n o t o n l y f r o m i n s t i t u t i o n s b u t a l s o f r o m o t h e r g r o u p s o f p e o p l e , a n d i n g e n e r a l , t h e h a r m o n i o u s d e v e l o p m e n t o f s o c i e t y w o u l d be i m p e d e d . 16 I n my f i e l d work I have u s e d i n t e r v i e w s t o i n -v e s t i g a t e t h e s t r u c t u r e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a h i g h l y e d u c a t e d , h i g h income a r e a a s o p p o s e d t o t h a t o f an:.area w i t h r e l a t i v e l y low l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n a n d i n c o m e . The r e a s o n f o r u s i n g i n t e r v i e w s was t o he a b l e t o d e t e r m i n e more e x a c t l y how much a p e r s o n p a r t i c i p a t e d , s i n c e o n l y t h r o u g h t i n t e r v i e w s i s i t p o s s i b l e t o a s k t h e f o l l o w up q u e s t i o n s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e x t e n t o f a p a r t i c i p a t o r y a c t and t o p i c k up o t h e r l e a d s g i v e n i n some a n s w e r s . A c o m p r e h e n s i v e i n d e x i s c a l c u l a t e d t h a t a d d s up t h e v a r i o u s p a r t i c i p a t o r y a c t s t h a t a p e r s o n has e n g a g e d i n , w i t h t h e w e i g h t a t t a c h e d t o e a c h a c t d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e i n f l u e n c e t h a t t h a t a c t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y w i e l d s . T h i s i n d e x t h e n r e v e a l s how p o w e r f u l a n d i n f l u e n t i a l e a c h • o f t h e two a r e a s a r e . I f t h e d i f f e r e n c e i s s u b s t a n t i a l , i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t one o f t h e two g r o u p s i s d i s p r o p o r -t i o n a t e l y p o w e r f u l , a n d i t w i l l t h e n be i n v e s t i g a t e d what c a n be done by t h e g o v e r n m e n t t o i n c r e a s e t h e p a r t i c i p a t o r y i n p u t f r o m t h i s n o n - i n f l u e n t i a l g r o u p . T h i s w i l l be a t t e m p t e d b y l o o k i n g a t t h e d i s a g g r e g a t e d d a t a f r o m t h e i n t e r v i e w s on how t h e f r e q u e n c y o f t h e v a r i o u s p a r t i c i p a t o r y a c t s v a r i e s b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s . I f t h e r e i s a n y p a r t i c u l a r a c t t h a t a p p e a r s t o be r e l a t i v e l y common i n t h e a r e a w i t h o t h e r w i s e low p a r t i c i p a t i o n , i t w o u l d seem l o g i c a l t o d i r e c t l y e n c o u r a g e t h i s a c t a n d t o g e n e r a l l y a c c o r d i t w i t h g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e . 17 In the interviews an attempt was also made to probe a l i t t l e deepen:into the respondent's attitudes and b e l i e f s with regards to l o c a l p o l i t i c s and planning. The primary reason for t h i s was to evaluate the l i k e l y fate of various proposed schemes of encouraging c i t i z e n p a r t i -c i p a t i o n or incorporating i t i n t o the governmental structure. Thus the various groups' p o t e n t i a l with respect to d i f f e r e n t p a r t i c i p a t o r y acts was estimated.' Lester Milbrath (1968) has suggested the following hierarchy with regards to p a r t i c i p a t o r y acts: Exposing oneself to p o l i t i c a l s t i m u l i — V o t i n g — D i s c u s s i n g p o l i t i c s — Wearing a campaign button or a bumper s t i c k e r — C o n t a c t i n g a public o f f i c i a l or p o l i t i c i a n — G i v i n g money to a c a n d i d a t e — Attending a p o l i t i c a l rally—Campaigning for a c a n d i d a t e — Being an active member.in a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y — H o l d i n g p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e yourself. I t i s the contention of t h i s t h e s i s , that although there might be some c o r r e l a t i o n between these a c t s , there are s i g n i f i c a n t independent aspects to most of them, i n that various people prefer d i f f e r e n t acts of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Milbrath's hierarchy i s a somewhat misleading s i m p l i f i c a t i o n since i t leaves out the p a r t i c i p a t o r y acts that do not r e a l l y f i t i n . What about membership and a c t i v i t i e s i n organizations that are p o l i t i c i z e d to varying degrees? What about demonstrations, p e t i t i o n s and various committees and boards? In a d d i t i o n , the categories i n the hierarchy also hide a l o t of v a r i a t i o n s i n that the acts are anything 18 b u t s t a n d a r d i z e d . F o r e x a m p l e , a s h o r t a n d s i m p l e l e t t e r t o t h e Mayor o f V a n c o u v e r i s c e r t a i n t o have l e s s i n f l u e n c e t h a n a n h o u r l o n g p e r s o n a l v i s i t b y a n o l d f r i e n d o f t h e M a y o r . S i m i l a r l y , p a s s i v e a t t e n d a n c e a t a r a l l y i s q u i t e l i k e l y much l e s s i n f l u e n t i a l t h a n i n t e l l i g e n t a n d p e r -s i s t e n t p r i v a t e d i s c u s s i o n s o f p o l i t i c s b y someone who t r i e s t o p e r s u a d e o t h e r s . The r e a s o n s f o r p e o p l e ' s p r e f e r e n c e s f o r d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f p a r t i c i p a t o r y a c t s a r e b a s i c a l l y t h r e e . The f i r s t i s t h a t t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n t c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e -v a r i o u s a c t s , s u c h a s t i m e , money a n d e n e r g y , a n d t h e s e c o s t s a r e v a l u e d a t v a r y i n g } r a t e s e b y t h e d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s i n s o c i e t y . A w e a l t h y b u s i n e s s m a n m i g h t c o n t r i b u t e some money t o a c a n d i d a t e q u i t e w i l l i n g l y , b u t r e f u s e t o g i v e a n y o f h i s own t i m e b e c a u s e t h a t i s what he i s s h o r t o f . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , a n u n e m p l o y e d p e r s o n m i g h t do t h e e x a c t o p p o s i t e . The s e c o n d r e a s o n i s t h a t t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s v a r y w i t h t h e p a r t i c i p a t o r y a c t . Some o f them r e q u i r e e l o -q u e n c e , some a l o t o f s o c i a l i z i n g , some a r e y v e r y ^ e o n s p i c u o u s a c t s , w h i l e o t h e r demand c o o p e r a t i v e work a n d a c o n t i n u o u s commitment. S i n c e p e o p l e have v a r y i n g s k i l l s a n d p r e -f e r e n c e s , i t i s o n l y n a t u r a l f o r them t o c h o o s e a c t s o f d i f f e r e n t n a t u r e . The l a s t b a s i c r e a s o n i s t h a t some a c t s o f p a r t i -i c i p a t i o n a r e more s u i t e d f o r c e r t a i n g o a l s a n d b e n e f i t s t h a n o t h e r s . T hus t h e c h o i c e o f a c t i o n i s s t r o n g l y 1'9 i n f l u e n c e d b y w h e t h e r y o u r g o a l i s a g e n e r a l s h i f t i n p o l i c y , a s p e c i f i c d e c i s i o n on a s i n g l e i s s u e , o r a p e r s o n a l b e n e f i t . D. H y p o t h e s e s 1. P e o p l e i n t h e l o w e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c g r o u p s p a r t i c i p a t e l e s s i n p o l i t i c s a n d p l a n n i n g t h a n t h o s e i n t h e u p p e r c l a s s e s . 2. P e o p l e i n t h e l o w e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c g r o u p s have l e s s p o t e n t i a l f o r more p a r t i c i p a t o r y a c t s t h a n t h o s e i n t h e u p p e r g r o u p s . 3. P a r t i c i p a t o r y a c t s do n o t t e n d t o be c u m u l a t i v e . k. P e o p l e i n d i f f e r e n t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c g r o u p s t e n d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n d i f f e r e n t ways a n d u s e s e p a r a t e c h a n n e l s t o i n f l u e n c e t h e l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t . E . L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e F i e l d Work B e c a u s e o f t h e l i m i t e d amount o f t i m e a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s t h e s i s , two s h o r t - c u t s have b e e n n e c e s s a r y . As a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d , o n l y two a r e a s were s e l e c t e d , a n d o n l y 7k p e r s o n s were i n t e r v i e w e d i n e a c h . T h e r e f o r e , a n d b e -c a u s e o f t h e s c o p e a n d c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e t o p i c a n d t h e number o f g r o u p s i n s o c i e t y , t h e ' c o n c l u s i o n s * a r e r e a l l y more l i k e s u g g e s t i o n s a n d h i n t s r e g a r d i n g where t h e t r u e r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e . T h i s p i e c e o f work w o u l d t h e n be s i m i l a r t o a p i l o t s t u d y f o r a l a r g e r s u r v e y . However, t h e m e t h o d o l o g y a n d g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n o f r e s e a r c h a n d t h e t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h i s t h e s i s w i l l s t i l l h o p e -f u l l y c o n t r i b u t e s o m e t h i n g t o t h e body o f k n o w l e d g e . 20 There are also c e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s i n the scope of the interviews. Certain questions were less rewarding than others and a few omissions were unfortunate. S i m i l a r l y , there may have been too much reliance on an open ended discussion which made coding more d i f f i c u l t and also the comparison between the two areas s l i g h t l y more uncertain. Nevertheless, the importance of these l i m i t a t i o n s should not be exaggerated, because the general r e s u l t s s t i l l seem quite s i g n i f i c a n t and r e l i a b l e . F. Methodology of the Survey a. S e l e c t i o n Procedures Two areas were selected; Census D i s t r i c t 18 i n West Point Grey and a combination of D i s t r i c t s 12 and 13 'in the East End. The area sampled i n West Point Grey a c t u a l l y consisted of two parts. The f i r s t one Lis bordered by Blanca, 2nd, Tolmie, 1st, Sasamat, 2nd, Bellevue, Sasamat, and 7th. The second h a l f i s delimited by Blanca, 14th, Tolmie, 13th, Sasamat, and 16th. In the East.End, the sampled area was bordered by Commercial Drive, 5th, V i c t o r i a Drive, 4th, P e n t i c t i o n , East Broadway, Garden Drive, 8th, Semlin, and East "oo Broadway. (Shown on following page). The reasons behind s e l e c t i n g these two areas were that both consisted almost e x c l u s i v e l y of s i n g l e family homes, they had r e l a t i v e l y s i m i l a r age and sex structures, most of the homes were owner-occupied and neither of the 21 FIGURE 1 AREAS SURVEYED IN-A. WEST POINT GREY AND B. EAST END two areas appeared to have any extraordinary features, which.iotherwise could have in v a l i d a t e d the comparison. Table I gives the exact figures f o r these variables from the l a t e s t a v a i l a b l e census data. I t should be noted that Census D i s t r i c t 13 also includes a s u b s t a n t i a l amount of apartment and commercial areas, and only a small part of i t s sing l e family homes area i s included i n the survey. S i m i l a r l y , D i s t r i c t 18 contains a few apartment blocks outside of the survey. An a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g the choice of these two areas was that neither had experienced any major c r i s i s r ecently, which otherwise would have made the two areas very unsuitable for comparisons. 22 TABLE I DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SURVEYED AREAS Per cent Per cent of of single Per cent Schooling, 1961 •Census family of owner T o t a l D i s t r i c t homes, occupancy, population, Elementary Some Number 1966 1966 I 9 6 6 only University 12 8 9 . 4 8 3 . 5 6476 3 3 . 8 1.2.3 13 3 6 . 2 3 ^ . 3 7554 3 6 . 1 2 . 3 18 7 2 . 4 6 0 . 6 5244 1 1 . 6 2 7 . 5 Per cent of Occupations, 1961 Average Per cent of Census family;. Age ;Structure . , o l 9 6 l".l Managerial Primary D i s t r i c t income, and Craftsmen Number 1961:; 6-14 1 5 - 3 4 35-64 64- Pro f e s s i o n a l laborer 122 4866 2 6 . 8 2 7 . 4 3 5 . 3 1 0 . 1 1 0 . 7 5 2 . 3 13 4270 2 5 . 1 3 0 . 8 3 3 . 7 1 0 . 3 7 . 8 5 4 . 9 18 7185 2 7 . 4 2 2 . 2 3 5 . 4 1 3 . 0 4 4 . 9 1 2 . 3 In order to s e l e c t the persons to be interviewed, the p r o v i n c i a l voting l i s t s were used and a number of p o l l s were selected that were known from personal observation to consist e x c l u s i v e l y of single family homes (disregarding i l l e g a l s u i t e s ) . Then, once more using the voting l i s t s 9 every tenth name i n each of the p o l l s was selected f o r contact. The reason f o r the considerably larger area i n the East End was that the much higher r e f u s a l rate there necessitated a.larger sample i n order to get a s u f f i c i e n t number of interviews. 23 The p r o v i n c i a l v o t i n g l i s t h ad b e e n c o m p i l e d s l i g h t l y more t h a n h a l f a y e a r b e f o r e t h e f i e l d work was c o n d u c t e d . T h e r e f o r e a p e r s o n who moved i n t o t h e a r e a i n b e t w e e n t h e s e d a t e s was e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e s a m p l e , b u t i f he r e p l a c e d someone t h a t was s e l e c t e d , b u t c o n s e q u e n t l y was u n a v i l a b l e , t h e new r e s i d e n t w o u l d be a s k e d f o r a n i n t e r v i e w i n s t e a d . The o n l y b i a s i n t r o d u c e d i s i n t h e f o r m o f e x c l u s i o n o f n o n - C a n a d i a n c i t i z e n s , b u t s i n c e many o f them a r e s t i l l i n c l u d e d i n t h e v o t e r s * l i s t , t h i s b i a s i s v e r y m i n i m a l . b . I n t e r v i e w i n g P r o c e d u r e S i n c e t h e t o p i c o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s i s f a i r l y g e n -e r a l a n d c o n s i d e r e d t o be s e n s i t i v e b y some p e o p l e , i t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t a m a i l e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e w o u l d g e t a v e r y p o o r r e s p o n s e r a t e , e v e n i f some f o l l o w up was u s e d . I n o r d e r t o g e t a s few r e f u s a l s a s p o s s i b l e , a n i n t r o d u c t o r y l e t t e r e x p l a i n i n g t h e n a t u r e a n d p u r p o s e o f t h e i n t e r v i e w was g i v e n t o e a c h s p e c i f i c p e r s o n t h e d a y b e f o r e t h e i n t e r -v i e w . The p u r p o s e o f k e e p i n g t h e t i m i n g t h a t c l o s e was t h a t o t h e r w i s e p e o p l e t e n d t o f o r g e t t h e l e t t e r . A c o p y o f t h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y l e t t e r a p p e a r s i n A p p e n d i x A. When t h e p e r s o n t h a t t h e l e t t e r was a d d r e s s e d t o was no l o n g e r l i v i n g t h e r e , a n i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e p e r s o n who a n s w e r e d t h e d o o r was r e q u e s t e d i n s t e a d . However, t h e v e r y h i g h r e f u s a l r a t e t h a t r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e s e a t t e m p t s i n d i c a t e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y l e t t e r . 24 ./he;i When a p e r s o n was n o t a t home a t t h e f i r s t a t t e m p t t o i n t e r v i e w him, a t l e a s t one c a l l - h a c k was made t h e n e x t a f t e r n o o n o r e v e n i n g . I f he s t i l l c o u l d n o t he r e a c h e d o r he r e f u s e d , t h e s a m p l e area.was s i m p l y : e n l a r g e d i n o r d e r t o g e t 74 a c t u a l i n t e r v i e w s . The f a c t t h a t a n i n t r o d u c t o r y l e t t e r was n e c e s s a r y d e c r e a s e d t h e f l e x i b i l i t y s i n c e i t meant t h a t i t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o s i m p l y go n e x t d o o r i f someone r e f u s e d o r was u n a v a i l a b l e . The a c t u a l i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e t h a t was u s e d c a n be s e e n i n A p p e n d i x A. I t s h o u l d be e m p h a s i z e d t h a t c o n s i d e r -a b l e f l e x i b i l i t y was e x e r c i s e d i n t h e o r d e r o f t h e q u e s t i o n s . D u r i n g many i n t e r v i e w s s i d e - t r a c k s were e n t e r e d i n t o d e -p e n d i n g on what h i n t s a n d l e a d s t h e r e s p o n d e n t p r o v i d e d . I n g e n e r a l , a t t e m p t s were made t o make t h e i n t e r v i e w i n t o as much o f a c o n v e r s a t i o n a s p o s s i b l e i n o r d e r t o p u t b o t h p e r s o n s p r e s e n t a t e a s e a n d t o g e t a s c o m p l e t e a n d t r u t h f u l i n f o r m a t i o n a s p o s s i b l e . The p r o b l e m o f h o n e s t y i n a n s w e r s was p r o b a b l y more i m p o r t a n t i n t h e s e i n t e r v i e w s t h a n i n most s u r v e y s s i n c e p e o p l e o f t e n f e e l t h a t t h e y • s h o u l d ' a n d o u g h t t o p a r t i c i p a t e more t h a n t h e y do. T h e r e f o r e i t was n e c e s s a r y t o t a k e p a i n s t o a v o i d t h a t a n y r e s p o n d e n t h a d t o a n s w e r n e g a t i v e l y t o a l o n g s t r i n g o f q u e s t i o n s s i n c e t h a t w o u l d make him f e e l u n c o m f o r t a b l e a n d he m i g h t t h e n a n s w e r p o s i t i v e l y j u s t f o r t h e s a k e o f a n s w e r i n g p o s i t i v e l y . D e p e n d i n g on t h e i n t e r e s t a n d a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t , t h e i n t e r v i e w s c o u l d l a s t f r o m t e n m i n u t e s 25 and up t o an hour, but they were g e n e r a l l y around 20-25 minutes l o n g . A t the end o f each i n t e r v i e w the respondent was g i v e n a c a r d on which he was asked t o mark down which age, e d u c a t i o n and income c a t e g o r i e s he f i t t e d i n t o . T h i s procedure was f o r the b e n e f i t o f those who f e e l embarrassed to g i v e t h a t k i n d o f i n f o r m a t i o n s t r a i g h t t o your f a c e . A copy o f t h i s c a r d i s a l s o i n Appendix A. c. The Development o f I n d i c e s f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n There a r e b a s i c a l l y t h r e e i n d i c e s t h a t I have developed f o r the purposes o f t h i s a n a l y s i s i a compre-hensive p a r t i c i p a t i o n index (CPARINDX), a p o t e n t i a l p a r t i -c i p a t i o n index (PPARINDX), and an i n f o r m a t i o n index (INFOINDX), The system o f weights f o r these t h r e e i s d e p i c t e d i n Tables I I , I I I and IV on the f o l l o w i n g pages. I t s h o u l d "os o I t s h o u l d be emphasized f i r s t o f a l l t h a t the exact weights g i v e n t o each q u e s t i o n i s q u i t e s u b j e c t i v e . I t i s m a i n l y the r e s u l t o f my own o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g the p o l i t i c a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f each o f the p a r t i c i p a t o r y a c t s , even though a number of people have been c o n s u l t e d . I t i s t h e r e f o r e easy t o q u e s t i o n the s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s o f the scheme, but i t should r a t h e r be seen as an a p p r o x i m a t i o n t h a t comes r e a s o n a b l y c l o s e t o the t r u t h i n the f i n a l . aggregate. D u r i n g the l i t e r a t u r e review n o t h i n g s i m i l a r t o these somewhat complex i n d i c e s was encountered. The o n l y o t h e r i n d i c e s are o f a v e r y simple c h a r a c t e r such as the one suggested by A l f o r d and S c o b i e (1968) where o n l y 26 TABLE II COMPOSITION OF THE COMPREHENSIVE PARTICIPATION INDEX Activity-Points f o r the Comprehensive P a r t i c i p a t i o n Index Voting i n the l a s t three twice municipal elections . . Home associated or c i v i c groups P o l i t i c a l clubs E l e c t o r a l campaigning Federally? P r o v i n c i a l l y ? Municipally? 'Attended at l e a s t on p o l i t i c a l meeting i n 1972 Contacted a p o l i t i c i a n by l e t t e r ? by phone? by v i s i t ? Contacted a planner? Attempts to persuade others i n private p o l i -t i c a l discussions Ever fought C i t y H a l l over a s p e c i f i c issue? Ever complained to C i t y Hall? or more Member i n Somewhat one or more acti v e ; Very active yes Once Once Once Once Yes Once Yes Member i n Somewhat Very one or active active more Yes Yes Yes More than once More than once More than once More than once More than once 27 TABLE I I I COMPOSITION OF THE POTENTIAL PARTICIPATION INDEX A c t i v i t y P o i n t s f o r t h e P o t e n t i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n I n d e x Work r e l a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s Somewhat a c t i v e V e r y a c t i v e S o c i a l a n d C u l t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s A c q u a i n t a n c e s o r f r i e n d -s h i p s w i t h a p o l i t i c i a n o r a c i t y p l a n n e r How w o u l d y o u f i g h t C i t y H a l l ? Somewhat V e r y a c t i v e a c t i v e A c q u a i n -t a n c e One method More t h a n m e n t i o n e d one method m e n t i o n e d F r i e n d B e t t e r i n f o r m a t i o n m e n t i o n e d Yes A d e s i r e t o p a r t i c i p a t e more was m e n t i o n e d I n f o r m a t i o n I n d e x v a l u e 2-4 Yes 5-8 9 o r more 28 TABLE IV COMPOSITION OF THE INFORMATION INDEX A c t i v i t y -P o i n t s f o r the I n f o r m a t i o n Index 1 2 4 6 8 P r i v a t e d i s c u s s i o n s o f p o l i t i c s Heard o f the Town P l a n n i n g Commission O p i n i o n about the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department S u b j e c t i v e s S c a l e o f l e v e l o f i n f o r m a t i o n and p o l i t i c a l awareness O f t e n P e r s u a d i n g others Yes Yes q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g v o t i n g , attendance a t meetings, i n t e r e s t 'and l e v e l o f i n f o r m a t i o n were asked and the range o f the index was o n l y from zero t o f o u r . I n another study, where the in d e x was o n l y s l i g h t l y more complex, the q u e s t i o n s asked by Woodward and Ropen (1950) d e a l t w i t h v o t i n g , campaigning, d i s c u s s i o n o f p o l i t i c s , memberships i n . v o l -u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , and c o n t a c t i n g p o l i t i c i a n s , and t h e r e the p a r t i c i p a t i o n index c o u l d v a r y between zero and twelve. The r e a s o n f o r the c o m p l e x i t y o f the i n d i c e s o f t h i s study i s t h a t through the i n t e r v i e w s f a i r l y d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the exte n t o f any p a r t i c i p a t o r y a c t c o u l d be r e t r i e v e d . F o r example, s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s c o u l d be asked t o f i n d out what k i n d o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n the respondent was a member o f and how a c t i v e he r e a l l y was 2 9 in i t . To ignore this detailed information would seem like an undue waste. The comprehensive participation index measures the p o l i t i c a l influence exercised by each particular person through his own actions. The very low weight given to voting is because of the unrel i a b i l i t y of this figure since many more people said that they voted than could possibly have been the case. The potential participation index measures a person's latent capabilities to take part in the p o l i t i c a l decision-making process and influence i t . Therefore i t measures things like his level of information, his organ-izational s k i l l s which are approximated by his a c t i v i t i e s i n non-political organizations and whether he personally knows any in f l u e n t i a l people. The information'1 index estimates the respondent's level of p o l i t i c a l information. Its largest part consists of a subjective evaluation regarding the respondent's general grasp of issues and knowledge about the current p o l i t i c a l situation. Again, this procedure i s open to attack, but i t i s my sincere opinion that each interview got quite close torthe truth with regards to the respondent's p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s . d. S t a t i s t i c a l Methods Used The results of the interviews were coded and put on computer cards and subsequently a l l the analysis was 30 done on t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c o m p u t e r (IBM 360) u s i n g t h e S t a t i s t i c a l P a c k a g e f o r S o c i a l S c i e n c e s (SPSS) w h i c h was d e v e l o p e d d u r i n g t h e s i x t i e s b y Norman H. N i e , D a l e H. B e n t a n d C. H a d l a i H u l l ( N i e e t a l , 1 9 7 0 ) . The a b s o l u t e f r e q u e n c i e s , means a n d c r o s s t a b u -l a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d i n t h e o r d i n a r y way. S i n c e t h e d a t a g a t h e r e d t h r o u g h t h e i n t e r v i e w s were o r d i n a l i n c h a r -a c t e r a n d d i d n o t u s u a l l y a p p r o x i m a t e n o r m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s , t h e P e a r s o n c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t c o u l d n o t be u s e d . I n s t e a d t h e n o n - p a r a m e t r i c K e n d a l l ' s t a u was u s e d t o c o r -r e l a t e two v a r i a b l e s w i t h e a c h o t h e r . K e n d a l l ' s t a u was p r e f e r r e d t o Spearman's c o e f f i c i e n t b e c a u s e t h e c a t e g o r i e s i n t h i s s u r v e y were u s u a l l y r e l a t i v e l y few a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e number o f t i e s was o f t e n l a r g e ( N i e e t a l , 1 9 7 0 ) . The l a r g e r r e l i a b i l i t y a n d g e n e r a l s u p e r i o r i t y o f K e n d a l l . l s t a u o v e r Spearman's c o e f f i c i e n t i s now g e n e r a l l y a c k n o w l e d g e d (Hayes, 1 9 6 5 . p . 6 5 2 ) . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d h e r e t h a t t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f K e n d a l l ' s t a u i s n o t e x a c t l y t h e same a s f o r a c o r -r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t . The t a u d o e s n o t measure t h e s t r e n g t h o f a l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p . R a t h e r , i t m e a s u r e s t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e two v a r i a b l e s a r e m o n o t o n o u s l y i n c r e a s i n g o r d e c r e a s i n g t o g e t h e r . T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n must be made b e c a u s e one i s d e a l i n g h e r e w i t h r a n k e d d a t a a n d n o t c o n s t a n t i n t e r v a l d a t a . ( H a y e s , 1 9 ^ 5 ) . The l e v e l s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e i n o t e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e d e r i v e d c o e f f i c i e n t s were d e r i v e d f r o m t h e SPSS p r o g r a m . 31 Guttman scales were used to determine the scal-a b i l i t y of the various participatory acts, and also i n this case the SPSS was used. Guttman scales test the pos-s i b i l i t y that the variables included i n i t are cumulative, which would then imply that the items composing i t can be ordered by degree of d i f f i c u l t y , and that respondents that reply positively to a d i f f i c u l t item w i l l always reply positively to a less d i f f i c u l t item (Nie et a l , 1970, p.197). In essence, then, the Guttman scale analysis in the SPSS counts the number of deviations or "errors" from this ideal pattern, and via a number of standardized coefficients i t i s possible to determine whether or not the items do indeed form a Guttman scale and therefore?are cumulative (Nie et a l , 1970, pp.196-99). The measure t 6 indicate this closeness of f i t i s the "coefficient of sca l a b i l i t y " , whose values can vary between zero and one, and should be well above .6 before the scale can be said to be cumulative (Nie et a l , 1970, pp.200-201). CHAPTER I I I REVIEW OF RELEVANT LITERATURE D u r i n g t h e l a s t t wo d e c a d e s a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s h a s a c c u m u l a t e d a n d t h i s t h e s i s w i l l n o t a t t e m p t t o g i v e a n y t h i n g c l o s e t o a n e x h a u s t i v e a c c o u n t o f t h i s w e a l t h o f m a t e r i a l . I t w i l l , h o w e v e r , b r i e f l y r e p o r t t h e m a j o r f i n d i n g s o f t h e s e s t u d i e s i n o r d e r t o g i v e a n i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e c u r r e n t l e v e l o f k n o w l e d g e . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h o s e v/ho p a r t i c i p a t e w i l l be d i s c u s s e d f i r s t , a n d s u b s e q u e n t l y t h e v a r i o u s ways i n w h i c h t h e y p a r t i c i p a t e w i l l be d e a l t w i t h . A. Who P a r t i c i p a t e s ? T h e r e i s n o t ;much c o n t r o v e r s y l e f t r e g a r d i n g who a r e t h e ones t h a t p a r t i c i p a t e t h e m o s t . T a b l e V g i v e s a n i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e i r d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The d a t a i n T a b l e V was a s s e m b l e d o v e r 20 y e a r s a g o f r o m a n a t i o n a l s a m p l e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f o v e r 8 , 0 0 0 a d u l t s . H o w e v e r , more r e c e n t s t u d i e s show v e r y l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e a n d t h e m a j o r t r e n d s a r e t h e same r e g a r d -l e s s o f w h e t h e r t h e r e s e a r c h was done i n C a n a d a ( v a n L o o n , 1970$ C u r t i s , . 1971» M e i s e l , 1966) o r i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ( Z i m m e r , 1970j M i l b r a t h , 1965» Amond & V e r b a , 1963? L a n e , 32 33 TABLE V PARTICIPATION RATES AMONG VARIOUS DEMOGRAPHIC GROUPS Per cent of Per cent of P o l i t i c a l l y P o l i t i c a l l y Active Inactive Sex Men 32 68 Women 26 74 Economic l e v e l A l e v e l 69 31 B l e v e l 50 50 C l e v e l 30 70 D l e v e l 12 88 Education College 52 48 High School 26 74 Grade School 16 84 Occupation Executives & Profe s s i o n a l 63 37 Laborers 20 80 Age 21 - 34 22 78 3 5 - &9 30 70 50 and more 29 71 Source 1 Woodward and Roper, 1 9 5 0 , p.8 7 7 . 1 9 5 9 i Scott, J r . , 1 9 5 7 i Axelrod, 1 9 5 6 ) . With regards to the less frequently included char-a c t e r i s t i c s the research done i s sometimes contradictory. Lester Milbrath,( 1 9 6 5 ) reports that length of residence i s usually p o s i t i v e l y correlated with p a r t i c i p a t i o n , but i n some surveys no such r e l a t i o n s h i p i s found (Scott, J r . , 1 9 5 7 ) . ' 34 I n t h e c a s e o f s u b u r b a n a r e a s v e r s u s c e n t r a l c i t i e s t h e r e s e a r c h i s q u i t e c o n t r a d i c t o r y . I n a r e c e n t s u r v e y o f F l i n t , M i c h i g a n , Zimmer (1970) f o u n d t h a t kjfo o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e c e n t r a l c i t y b e l o n g e d t o a t l e a s t one v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n , w h e r e a s o n l y Z% d i d s o i n t h e s u b u r b a n s a m p l e . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e r e m a i n e d e v e n when a l l d e m o g r a p h i c f a c t o r s were h e l d c o n s t a n t . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d , h owever, t h a t a v e r y n a r r o w d e f i n i t i o n o f o r g a n -i z a t i o n was u s e d w h i c h e x c l u d e d a l l t r a d e u n i o n s , r e l i g i o u s b o d i e s , c h u r c h r e l a t e d g r o u p s a n d P T A ' s . W e n d e l l B e l l (1956) on t h e o t h e r h a n d , f o u n d t h a t t h e r i c h s u b u r b s had much h i g h e r membership r a t e s t h a n t h e w e l l t o do a p a r t -ment a r e a s , w h e r e a s t h e r e was no d i f f e r e n c e f o r t h e p o o r a r e a s . O t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s have f o u n d a much h i g h e r p a r t i -c i p a t i o n r a t e g e n e r a l l y i n t h e s u b u r b a n a r e a s ( G r e e r , 1956| M i l b r a t h , 1965). The most p e r s i s t e n t a n d p e r s u a s i v e f i n d i n g i n t h i s c o n t e x t seems t o be t h a t a homogenous a r e a has much h i g h e r r a t e s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n b e c a u s e t h e r e p e o p l e a r e s u b j e c t t o f e w e r c r o s s p r e s s u r e s , g r o u p i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n a n d norms a r e s t r e n g t h e n e d , a n d p e r s o n a l com-m u n i c a t i o n s a r e f a c i l i t a t e d ( M i l b r a t h , 19^5f p.131). However, g e n e r a l l y t h e d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o n s t i t u t e a r a t h e r i n c o m p l e t e a n d h a p h a z a r d s e t o f v a r i a b l e s f o r d e s c r i b i n g a n d e x p l a i n i n g p e o p l e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n p a t t e r n s . A more c o m p l e t e a n d s y s t e m a t i c way o f d o i n g t h i s i s t o g i v e t h e p e r s o n ' s p o s i t i o n i n t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e a n d a n example o f how t h i s c a n be done has b e e n g i v e n b y 35 t h e u s e o f a t y p o l o g y i n t r o d u c e d by P a u l B u r s t e i n (1972). He u s e s f o u r b a s i c t y p e s o f v a r i a b l e s w h i c h c a n l o c a t e a p e r s o n q u i t e c o m p l e t e l y a s he moves t h r o u g h t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e d u r i n g h i s l i f e s p a n . The f i r s t t y p e i s t h e i n v o l u n t a r y a t t r i b u t e s t h a t a r e a s c r i b e d t o him s u c h a s s e x , a g e , r a c e , e t h n i c i t y a n d p a r e n t a l s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . The s e c o n d t y p e i s t h e q u a s i - v o l u n t a r y a t t r i b u t e s s u c h as f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a n d s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d , s i n c e t h e s e a r e l a r g e l y d e t e r m i n e d by t h e a b o v e m e n t i o n e d a s c r i b e d a t t r i b u t e s . The t h i r d s e t o f v a r i a b l e s i s t h e v o l u n t a r y a t t r i b u t e s w h i c h r e f e r s t o t h e f o r m a l r o l e s t h a t t h e p e r s o n o c c u p i e s d u r i n g a d u l t h o o d . T h e s e i n c l u d e o c c u p a t i o n , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m e m b e r s h i p s , e t c . , The f o u r t h a n d f i n a l c a t e g o r y o f v a r i a b l e s i s t h e v o l u n t a r y b e h a v i o r s a n d i t r e l a t e s t o t h e v a r i o u s s o c i a l n e t w o r k s t h e p e r s o n b e l o n g s to<> I n c l u d e d h e r e a r e f r i e n d -s h i p s , i n f o r m a t i o n a n d i n f l u e n c e f l o w s a n d l e i s u r e a c t i -v i t i e s . T h e s e f o u r . d i f f e r e n t d i m e n s i o n s d e s c r i b e f a i r l y c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y where a p e r s o n s t a n d s i n t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e a n d what s o c i a l f o r c e s he i s s u b j e c t t o . From t h i s one c a n t h e n d e r i v e how p e o p l e r e l a t e t o t h e w h o l e p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s t y p o l o g y h e r e i s t o i l l u s t r a t e t t h e c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a n d i n f l u e n c e s . The d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e o f t e n c l o s e l y c o r r e l a t e d t o t h e l e v e l 36 of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , but i t i s the a t t i t u d e s , b e l i e f s and personality t r a i t s that determine p a r t i c i p a t i o n , A person does not p a r t i c i p a t e because he has a u n i v e r s i t y education, but with that educational l e v e l , he i s more l i k e l y to have a higher sense of e f f i c a c y , more information, more p o l i t i c a l s k i l l s and more confidence i n himself, than a person with only grade school education, although the r e l a t i o n s h i p between education and these attitudes i s f a r from perfect. I t i s thus the possession of these attitudes that has the c l o s e s t c o r r e l a t i o n to p a r t i c i p a t o r y acts (Milbrath, 1965). B. How Do They P a r t i c i p a t e ? In a recent study, Verba, Nie and Kim,(1971) found that the various acts of p a r t i c i p a t i o n n a t u r a l l y tended 1 to f a l l i nto four separate groups with very high cor-r e l a t i o n s within them but much lower between them. The four categories are voting, campaigning, communal acts and personalized contacts. This grouping turned out to be v a l i d i n a l l f i v e countries studied: United States, India, Japan, Nigeria and A u s t r i a . The conditions that lead to p a r t i c i p a t i o n d i f f e r for each of these modes, since they require varying amounts of i n i t i a t i v e , s o c i a l i z i n g , and whether they y i e l d general or p a r t i c u l a r i z e d b e n e f i t s . a. Voting This requires the l e a s t amount of i n i t i a t i v e , requires no s o c i a l i z i n g , i s secret and y i e l d s only general 37 b e n e f i t s . The i m p o r t a n c e v o t i n g o c c u p i e s i n p e o p l e ' s minds c a n be e s t i m a t e d f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t o v e r 77$ o f a C a n a d i a n sample o f 8 , 0 0 0 a d u l t s a g r e e d w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t • v o t i n g i s t h e o n l y way t h a t p e o p l e l i k e me c a n have a n y s a y a b o u t how t h e g o v e r n m e n t r u n s t h i n g s ' ( M e i s e l , 1 9 6 6 , p.2k), I t i s t h e most common a n d w i d e l y a c c e p t e d p a r t i -c i p a t o r y a c t , a n d s i n c e i t has e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e d a t a , i t has a l s o b e e n s u b j e c t t o q u i t e e x t e n s i v e a n a l y s i s . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y , o n l y t h e t u r n o u t i s r e l e v a n t , n o t t h e d i r e c t i o n a n d p r e f e r e n c e s o f t h e v o t e s c a s t t I t i s c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e t u r n o u t p e r c e n t a g e v a r i e s w i t h t h e d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a much t h e same way a s most a c t s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n d o e s i men v o t e more t h a n women, m i d d l e -a g e d p e o p l e v o t e more t h a n t h e y o u n g a n d t h e o l d , a n d t u r n o u t i s p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h e d u c a t i o n a n d income (Scammon, 1 9 6 7 ) . I t i s a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t u r n o u t i s h i g h e s t f o r n a t i o n a l e l e c t i o n s , l o w e r f o r p r o v i n c i a l , a n d l o w e s t a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l . A s t u d y o f a s e c t i o n o f T o r o n t o i n t h e l a t e 6 0's c o n f i r m e d t h a t v o t i n g t u r n o u t i s much l o w e r i n a low s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s a r e a t h a n a h i g h s t a t u s d i s t r i c t . I n t h i s c a s e , f o r a l o c a l e l e c t i o n , t h e t u r n o u t r a t e was 2 0 . 3 $ v e r s u s kl% f o r t h e n e i g h b o r i n g h i g h i n c o m e a r e a (Head, 1 9 7 0 , p . 1 0 3 ) . 38 b. C a m p a i g n i n g T h i s r e q u i r e s more i n i t i a t i v e , v a r y i n g amounts o f s o c i a l i z i n g , i s v e r y c o n s p i c u o u s a n d y i e l d s g e n e r a l i z e d b e n e f i t s . V e r b a , N i e a n d Kim (1971) i n c l u d e s t h e f o l l o w i n g t y p e s o f a c t i v i t i e s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y a n d f o u n d t h e s e p o r t i o n s o f t h e i r U n i t e d S t a t e s ' s a m ple t o have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n eachs P e r s u a d i n g o t h e r s how t o v o t e 28 E v e r w o r k e d f o r a p a r t y 26 A t t e n d e d p o l i t i c a l r a l l i e s 19 C o n t r i b u t e d money i n a p o l i t i c a l c a m p a i g n 13 Member o f a p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n 8 Woodward a n d R o p e r ( 1950) g o t t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s f r o m t h e i r s u r v e y , w i t h t h e f i g u r e d e n o t i n g t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t o t a l s a m p le a n s w e r i n g e a c h q u e s t i o n p o s i t i v e l y ! Worked f o r t h e e l e c t i o n o f a p o l i t i c a l c a n d i d a t e i n t h e l a s t f o u r y e a r s 111 C o n t r i b u t e d money t o a p a r t y o r c a n d i d a t e i n t h e l a s t f o u r y e a r s 7 D i s c u s s e s p u b l i c i s s u e s f r e q u e n t l y a n d u s u a l l y t r i e s t o c o n v i n c e t h e o t h e r s he i s r i g h t 6 The l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e a b o v e r e s u l t s p o i n t s o u t t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e e x a c t f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n s a s k e d , b u t t h e y a l s o g i v e some i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e p o r t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n t h a t c a m p a i g n s a c t i v e l y „ 40 c. Communal A c t s T h i s r e f e r s g e n e r a l l y t o p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n s taken through v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s . They r e q u i r e some i n i t i -a t i v e , a hig h degree o f s o c i a l i z i n g , are f a i r l y conspicuous and can y i e l d both g e n e r a l and p a r t i c u l a r i z e d b e n e f i t s . The exact l i m i t s o f what o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o i n c l u d e and whether or not t o i n c l u d e p a s s i v e members o f these a s s o c i a t i o n s v a r y from survey t o survey. Verba, Nie and Kim (1971) found t h a t 32$ were " A c t i v e members o f organ-i z a t i o n s engaged i n community a c t i v i t i e s " , w h i l e Woodward and Roper (1950) r e p o r t e d t h a t 31$ belongs t o one or more o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t takes a stand on some p u b l i c i s s u e s . What Verba e x a c t l y means by 'community a c t i v i t i e s ' i s not very c l e a r s i n c e w i t h some s t r e t c h i n g t h i s c o u l d i n l c u d e ' v i r t u a l l y a l l v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s . I n 1968, James C u r t i s (1971) took a n a t i o n a l sample o f about 3»000 a d u l t Canadians and found t h a t 64$ belonged to a t l e a s t one o r g a n i z a t i o n and 36$ t o two or more. However, he i n c l u d e d memberships i n trade unions and profeS' s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s where membership i s o f t e n compulsory w i t h a g i v e n o c c u p a t i o n . M e i s e l , ( 1966) u s i n g a s i m i l a r d e f i n i t i o n , o b t a i n e d the f i g u r e 57$ membership r a t i o . A study by B e l l and Force (1956) i n San F r a n s i c o used an e q u a l l y i n c l u s i v e d e f i n i t i o n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s and found t h a t membership i n a t l e a s t one v a r i e d from 93$ i n a h i g h income s i n g l e f a m i l y home a r e a , t o 76$ i n a low income apartment zone. Even i f the survey was l i m i t e d 41 to a d u l t men and t o an urban a r e a , the f i g u r e f o r the low income apartment area seems remarkably h i g h . However, when f r e q u e n t attendance a t meetings i s i n v e s t i g a t e d , the f i g u r e s drop d r a s t i c a l l y . Another i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g i n t h i s study was t h a t both membership and attendance a t meetings were s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r i n the h i g h income areas even when the d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n and income was accounted f o r ( B e l l and F o r c e , 1 9 5 6 , p . 3 1 ) « A suggested e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t the type o f area b r i n g s w i t h i t c e r t a i n p r e s s u r e s , and t h i s i n f l u e n c e s ; . a l l the people who l i v e t h e r e t o a c t i n c e r t a i n ways so as t o conform to the m a j o r i t y . In the study o f the Don D i s t r i c t i n Toronto, a low income a r e a , i t was found t h a t even when the i n c l u s i v e d e f i n i t i o n o f v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s was used, the member-s h i p r a t e s v a r i e d between o n l y 10$ and 60% (Head, 1 9 7 0 , p. 1 0 8 ) . To d e s c r i b e the v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t people belong t o I have combined t h r e e s u r v e y s i n t o T a b l e V I . One was done i n 1969 i n D e t r o i t and sampled 1 , 0 1 3 white males, the second i n 19^7 i n a s m a l l town i n New E n g l a n d where both men and women were s e l e c t e d , and the t h i r d r e p r e s e n t s a U n i t e d S t a t e s n a t i o n a l sample o f 970 a d u l t s taken i n 1 9 6 1 . The f i g u r e i n T a b l e VI o f % f o r membership i n p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s appears to be the same f o r Canada too (Meise-U 1 9 6 6 ) . 42 TABLE V I MEMBERSHIP RATES IN VARIOUS TYPES OF ORGANIZATIONS FROM THREE DIFFERENT SURVEYS New U n i t e d Type o f O r g a n i z a t i o n D e t r o i t E n g l a n d S t a t e s F r a t e r n a l a n d l o d g e s . . . . 2 2 . 7 18 .0 13 3 9 . 3 2.4 14 C h u r c h c o n n e c t e d g r o u p s . . 1 9 . 1 1 9 . 3 19 15.8 9.4 -Y o u t h s e r v i c i n g g r o u p s . . . 8 .3 -5 . 5 _# 15 B u s i n e s s o r c i v i c g r o u p s . . 9 . 6 1 0 . 7 N e i g h b o r h o o d i m p o r v e m e n t . . 1 0 . 9 -1 6 . 6 9 . 1 -P r o f e s s i o n a l g r o u p s . . . . 13 .9 4 . 6 5 . 5 4 - 3 9 . 1 *The New E n g l a n d s t u d y h a d t h e somewhat p e c u l i a r g r o u p i n g c a l l e d ' M i l i t a r y , p o l i t i c a l o r p a t r i o t i c ' f o r w h i c h t h e f i g u r e was 5%, S o u r c e s : J o h n C. S c o t t , J r . , 1957» p.3 2 4 ; E d w a r d 0 . Laumann a n d D a v i d R. S e g a l , 1 9 7 1 , P« 4 7 ; G.A. A l m o n d a n d S i d n e y V e r b a , 1 9 6 3 , p . 3 0 2 . d. P e r s o n a l i z e d C o n t a c t s T h i s a c t r e q u i r e s a l o t o f i n i t i a t i v e , l i t t l e s o c i a l i z i n g , i s v e r y i n c o n s p i c u o u s a n d y i e l d s p a r t i c u ^ l a r i z e d b e n e f i t s . I n one s t u d y i t was f o u n d t h a t 20% o f the- s a m p l e ha d e v e r c o n t a c t e d l o c a l - o f f i c i a l s a n d 10% h a d c o n t a c t e d e x t r a - l o c a l o f f i c i a l s ( V e r b a , N i e a n d Kim, 1 9 7 1 . p . 2 0 ) . A n o t h e r s t u d y f o u n d t h a t 13% h a d w r i t t e n o r t a l k e d t o a p u b l i c o f f i c i a l a t l e a s t once d u r i n g t h e p r e c e d i n g y e a r , w h i l e 7% had done t h i s a t l e a s t t w i c e (Woodward a n d R o p e r , 1 9 5 0 , p . 8 7 4 ) . 43 R o b e r t L a n e d e t e c t e d some d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n l e t t e r - w r i t i n g a n d p e r s o n a l v i s i t s , i n t h a t t h e f o r m e r was done more f r e q u e n t l y by t h e u p p e r c l a s s e s , w h e r e a s t h e l a t t e r was e x c l u s i v e l y done by p e o p l e w i t h a h i g h s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s ( L a n e , 1 9 5 9 ) . C. O t h e r R e s e a r c h F i n d i n g s S t e i n R okkan ( 1970) has done a n i n t e r e s t i n g s t u d y on p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Norway. He f o u n d t h a t i n v o l v e -ment was i n f l u e n c e d by s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s i n a v e r y d i f f e r e n t manner where t h e r e i s a c l a s s b a s e d p a r t y s y s t e m . H i s r e s u l t s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n T a b l e V I I . TABLE V I I DIFFERENCES BETWEEN A CLASS BASED PARTY SYSTEM AND A NON-CLASS BASED ONE WITH REGARDS TO WHO PARTICIPATES Number o f ti P e r c e n t o f p e r s o n s s a m p l e d A c t i v e s / Norway S o c i a l i s t v o t e r s M a n u a l w o r k e r s 363 30 S a l a r i e d , s e l f - e m p l o y e d 105 20 N o n - s o c i a l i s t v o t e r s M a n u a l w o r k e r s 98 21 S a l a r i e d , s e l f - e m p l o y e d 214 30 U n i t e d S t a t e s D e m o c r a t s M a n u a l w o r k e r s 358 14 •White c o l l a r 1 232 19 R e p u b l i c a n s M a n u a l w o r k e r s 197 10 . »White c o l l a r ' 186 30 S o u r c e t S t e i n R o k k a n , 1 9 7 0 , p. 3 8 9 . 44 A survey of the Italian Socialist Party has come up with the interesting conclusion thatj " . . . p a r t i c i -pation i s more crucial as a means to p o l i t i c a l competence for the poorly educated than for the better educated" (Barnes, 1966, p.348). Similarly the correlation between participation and p o l i t i c a l knowledge, and between par t i -cipation and sense of efficacy i s much stronger for people with a low level of education than for those with lots of schooling (Barnes, 1966). The reason for this would presumably be that education and participation both can be seen as means to achieve p o l i t i c a l competence and a sense of efficacy, so that those with only one of the two factors, education and participation, must rely much more heavily on that single factor to achieve the above mentioned attributes. In the survey by Almond and Verba ( I 9 6 3 ) , the question was asked what they would do to try to influence the decision on a specific issue by the local and national governments respectively. Table VIII gives the results in percentages of the 970 respondents. Among those who said that they would enlist the aid of others, practically a l l said that for influencing bothllocal and national governments they would use informal groups such as p o l i t i c a l parties, trade unions, professional associations or churches (Almond and Verba, 1963) . Particularly i n the United States there has been quite a lot of activ i t y from the federal government to 45 TABLE V I I I HYPOTHETICAL COURSES OF ACTION TO INFLUENCE GOVERNMENTS L o c a l G o vernment N a t i o n a l ; ; G o vernment T r y t o e n l i s t A c t a l o n e Do n o t h i n g o r a i d don' o f o t h e r s t know 59 18 23 32 42 26 S o u r c e : G.A. A l m o n d a n d S i d n e y V e r b a , I963, pp,191~ a n d 2 0 3 . e n c o u r a g e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h i s has m a n i n l y b e e n t h r o u g h t h e Community A c t i o n P r o g r a m a n d M o d e l C i t i e s , w h i c h s t a r t e d i n 1964 a n d 1966 r e s p e c t i v e l y . A l a r g e number o f r e s i d e n t s * c o m m i t t e e s , a d v i s o r y b o a r d s , e t c . , has b e e n c r e a t e d , b u t t h e i r s t r e n g t h , power a n d r e s p o n -s i b i l i t i e s v a r y t r e m e n d o u s l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ( H a l l m a n , 1972). T h e r e i s a l o t o f s k e p t i c i s m a b o u t f e d e r a l l y f i n a n c e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n : " O f f i c i a l l y s p o n s o r e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n t e n d s t o be c o - o p t a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . " ( R i e d e l , 1972, p.212). On t h e o t h e r h a n d , o t h e r w r i t e r s l o o k a t i t more p o s i t i v e l y a n d e m p h a s i z e t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t c a n e n c o u r a g e p a r t i c i p a t i o n b y t h o s e who o t h e r w i s e w o u l d t e n d t o be l e f t o u t . C o n s e q u e n t l y : I t i s q u i t e p r o p e r f o r t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t t o t a k e p o s i t i v e a c t i o n t h a t . e n a b l e s c i t i z e n s t o become more f u l l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e g o v e r n -m e n t a l p r o c e s s e s a n d t o engage i n s e l f - h e l p a c t i v i t i e s . ( H a l l m a n , 1972, p.426). 46 The 1969 Report of the Committee on Public P a r t i -c i p a t i o n i n Planning i n Great B r i t a i n puts the respon-s i b i l i t y of i n i t i a t i v e squarely on the government: ". . . ' the i n i t i a t i v e i n creating opportunities f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l normally come from the l o c a l planning authority." (Skeffington, 1969» p.11). The report also emphasizes the importance of i n v o l v i n g the non-joiners and the i n -a r t i c u l a t e (Skeffington, 1 9 6 9 ) . D. Weaknesses of E x i s t i n g Research Very often surveys seems to have put an excessive emphasis on voting and simple membership i n a l l kinds of organizations. Only sometimes i s a simple d i s t i n c t i o n made between active and passive members and very seldom has there been any attempts made to correlate each s p e c i f i c type of p a r t i c i p a t o r y act with d i f f e r e n t groups of people or demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n a l aspects of both current and p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a t o r y acts have not been investigated very extensively. Neither has there been an analysis of any possible governmental programs designed to accomodate, incorporate or encourage public p a r t i c i p a t i o n , with regards to how e f f e c t i v e they might be and who w i l l be encouraged to p a r t i c i p a t e by i t . There i s als;o a g l a r i n g lack of studies on public p a r t i c i p a t i o n with s p e c i f i c a t t e ntion given to planning issues. Another f i e l d where there i s a dearth of material i s the whole Canadian scene, unless one wants to take for 47 granted t h a t the s i t u a t i o n here p a r a l l e l s t h a t of the United S t a t e s . I t i s g e n e r a l l y t o these areas t h a t I w i l l d i r e c t the r e s t of t h i s t h e s i s . CHAPTER IV RESULTS OF THE F I E L D WORK The i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d d u r i n g t h r e e c o n -s e c u t i v e weeks a t t h e e n d o f J a n u a r y i n 1973i a n d t h e y were a l l done b y t h e a u t h o r t o e l i m i n a t e a n y b i a s b e t w e e n t h e two a r e a s . T h i s c h a p t e r o u t l i n e s t h e d i r e c t r e s u l t s o f t h e f i e l d work w h e r e a s t h e f o l l o w i n g two c o n t a i n s t h e d i s c u s s i o n a n d a n a l y s i s w i t h r e g a r d s t o t h e f o u r n h y p o t h e s i s . A. R e t u r n R a t e s S i n c e t h i s s t u d y d e a l s w i t h t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n a l s i d e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f a h i g h r e t u r n r a t e was deemed t o be v e r y i m p o r t a n t . A t t h e same t i m e t h e t o p i c c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d t o be t o u c h y o r s e n s i t i v e b y some p e o p l e w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t t h i s h i g h r e t u r n r a t e m i g h t be d i f f i c u l t t o a c h i e v e . The a c t u a l p r o c e d u r e u s e d f o r t h e i n t e r v i e w s was d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r I I a n d t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e I X . I n t h i s T a b l e , a s w e l l a s i n t h e r e m a i n i n g p a r t d f t h e t h e s i s , t h e s a m p l e d a r e a i n West P o i n t G r e y i s d e n o t e d by WPG, a n d t h e s e l e c t e d p a r t o f t h e E a s t E n d by E E . 48 49 TABLE IX RESULTS OF THE SAMPLING PROCEDURES WPG EE T o t a l Population 1 , 0 2 3 1,627 2,650 Sample size 101 165 266 Interviews 74 74 148 Refusals 15 70 85 Not home 12 21 33 In the case of the 'Not home' category only those cases were included where no answer was received even a f t e r two call-backs. I f t h i s method of call-backs had not been used, i t could be speculated that a downward bias f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n rates would have re s u l t e d . The reason f o r t h i s would be thatt there i s the p o s s i b i l i t y that people who often cannot be found at home are more active i n s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and other organizations than those who are home most of the time. The s t i l l s u b s t a n t i a l number of people that could not be contacted should introduce a note of caution i n that the p a r t i c i p a t i o n rates might have been increased i f these people could have been included i n the survey. In WPG the people who refused interviews gave the impression that they did not p a r t i c i p a t e much at a l l i n p o l i t i c s or planning. They seemed to f e e l q u i l t y about i t and consequently feared that the interview would just be an embarrassment f o r them. Sometimes the reason f o r r e -fusals was the same i n the EE, but often they were here 50 based on e i t h e r a f e e l i n g o f d i s t r u s t or h o s t i l i t y towards u n i v e r s i t y students s u r v e y i n g them once a g a i n , t h a t the i n t e r v i e w e r was r e a l l y a salesman i n d i s g u i s e o r , most o f t e n , t h a t i t would be a waste o f t h e i r time. G e n e r a l l y , however, the people who r e f u s e d i n t e r -views might be assumed to have a below average p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e , and t h i s would con s e q u e n t l y tend t o d i m i n i s h or even r e v e r s e the downward b i a s i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the sample by the 'Not home' c a t e g o r y . I t c o u l d be suggested t h a t the h i g h r e f u s a l r a t e i n the EE r e f l e c t s d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l v a l u e s i n t h a t t h e r e i s more d i s t r u s t - ; o f a u n i v e r s i t y s tudent doing a survey s i n c e t h i s i s p e r c e i v e d t o be more a l i e n t o the area than i t i s i n an a f f l u e n t area such as WPG which i n - . a d d i t i o n i s l o c a t e d c l o s e > ,to the u n i v e r s i t y . Another f a c t o r might be t h a t d i s t r i c t s i n the EE are much more heterogenous than areas such as WPG, because t h e r e are many d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n a l i t i e s , c u l t u r a l v a l u e s , p o l i t i c a l b e l i e f s and o p i n i o n s i n the former a r e a s . T h e r e f o r e there i s a p o t e n t i a l f o r a l o t . o f c o n f l i c t s and arguments between nei g h b o u r s . Hence, i n o r d e r to p r e s e r v e the neighbourhood peace, p o l i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s are o f t e n a v o i d e d except w i t h people t h a t you are q u i t e sure w i l l agree w i t h you. The sample i n EE i n c l u d e d Chinese, I t a l i a n and Y u g o s l a v i a n people whereas o n l y one or two i n the WPG sample appeared t o have a background o u t s i d e o f the E n g l i s h speaking Western World. 51 B. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Sampled. Areas N e i t h e r o f the two areas had had a v e r y l a r g e i s s u e d u r i n g the l a s t few y e a r s , but both have had a number o f s m a l l e r ones. These i n c l u d e d , i n a v e r y rough r a n k i n g , o f p e r c e i v e d importance, the f o l l o w i n g f o r W P G J i l l e g a l s u i t e s , any o t h e r non-conforming use, Sasamat Ravine, the proposed s t r a i g h t e n i n g o f N o r t h West Marine D r i v e and the i n s t a l l a t i o n o f curbs and s i d e w a l k s . F o r EE, the f o l l o w i n g appeared to be o f most c o n c e r n i vandalism, the i n s t a l l a t i o n o f curbs a n d j s i d e w a l k s , c o n d i t i o n o f the l a n e s and McSpadden Park. The e x i s t e n c e o f i l l e g a l s u i t e s i n EE appeared t o cause v e r y l i t t l e c o ncern. T h e r e f o r e both areas appeared t o have had a r e l a t i v e l y s i m i l a r amount o f i s s u e s and i f WPG seemed t o have been more s t i r r e d up over them than EE, i t might be because they were more ready t o take a c t i o n . Consequently, the e x t e r n a l inducements and p r o v o c a t i o n s can a t l e a s t be s a i d t o have been not too d i s s i m i l a r , which i s a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n before an attempt can be made t o compare the p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s and s t r u c t u r e i n the two a r e a s . I f t h e r e had been one or more p e r v a s i v e i s s u e s i n e x i s t e n c e or an excess o f o u t s i d e p r o v o c a t i o n , i t i s v e r y l i k e l y t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n would have been i n f l a t e d and d i s t o r t e d beyond the o r d i n a r y . I t i s , however, c l e a r t h a t no such unusual circumstances were i n e x i s t e n c e i n these two a r e a s . With regards t o e x i s t i n g l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h e r e was one important d i f f e r e n c e between the two a r e a s . T h i s 52 . i s t h a t WPG h a d a r e l a t i v e l y a c t i v e Homeowners' A s s o c i a t i o n w h i c h 14 o f t h e ?4 p e o p l e i n t e r v i e w e d i n t h a t a r e a were members o f . The o t h e r a r e a had no s i m i l a r l o c a l l y b a s e d o r g a n i z a t i o n t w h i c h c a n n o t s i m p l y be e x p l a i n e d b y i n s t a b i l i t y a n d s h o r t t e r m r e s i d e n c y , b e c a u s e 85$ o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i n E E h a d l i v e d i n t h e i r c u r r e n t h o u s e f o r a t l e a s t f o u r y e a r s , w h e r e a s t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g f i g u r e f o r WPG was o n l y 68. However, p a r t o f t h e e x p l a n a t i o n m i g h t v e r y w e l l a g a i n l i e i n t h e much g r e a t e r c u l t u r a l h o m o g e n e i t y o f WPG as o p p o s e d t o t h e q u i t e l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e s i n v a l u e s b e t w e e n p e o p l e w i t h C h i n e s e , I t a l i a n , E a s t , E u r o p e a n a n d C a n a d i a n b a c k g r o u n d s . I n t e r m s o f t h e d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r o f t h e s a m p l e , some d i f f e r e n c e s were i n e v i t a b l y e n c o u n t e r e d e v e n t h o u g h , as s t a t e d i n C h a p t e r I I , t h e a r e a s a r e q u i t e s i m i l a r i n t e r m s o f a g e , s e x , s i z e o f h o u s e h o l d a n d r a t e o f owner o c c u p a n c y . The s a m ple drawn i n E E a s c o m pared t o t h a t i n WPG was f o u n d t o be s l i g h t l y o l d e r , t o have somewhat s m a l l e r f a m i l i e s , a n d t o have a few more men t h a n women. However, u s i n g t h e c h i - s q u a r e t e s t , none o f t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 95$ l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . One p e r h a p s s u r p r i s i n g d i f f e r e n c e t h a t was f o u n d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t was t h a t t h e a v e r a g e l e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c e i n t h e EE was c o n s i d e r a b l y l o n g e r t h a n t h a t i n WPG. However, i f one t a k e s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t s e v e r a l n e w l y a r r i v e d s t u d e n t s were f o u n d i n t h e WPG s a m p l e , t h e d i f f e r e n c e 53 between the f a m i l i e s i n the two areas p r a c t i c a l l y d i s -appears. Quite p r e d i c t a b l y , l a r g e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found between the two areas w i t h regards t o education and income. These r e s u l t s are des c r i b e d i n Table X and i t should be pointed out t h a t the chi-square v a l u e s , both w i t h three degrees of freedom, were much higher f o r education than f o r income, 40 .05 and 2 3 . 9 8 r e s p e c t i v e l y , which would i n d i c a t e t h a t the two samples d i f f e r e d much more i n terms of l e v e l o f education than w i t h regards t o income• TABLE X THE DISTRIBUTION OF EDUCATION AND INCOME IN THE TWO SAMPLED AREAS 1 WPG EE Education i n years 1 Less than 7 0 14 7 - 9 12 24 10-12 22 28 More than 13 40 8 Income i n d o l l a r s : Less than 6 , 0 0 0 0 8 6 , 0 0 0 - 8,999 11 22 9 ,000-11,999 ~ 20 27 More than 1 2 , 0 0 0 43 17 Again, a l a r g e p a r t of the e x p l a n a t i o n t o t h i s d i f f e r e n c e between education and income i s t h a t s e v e r a l h i g h l y education but r e l a t i v e l y poor students i n WPG were i n t e r v i e w e d . Therefore i t can be s a i d t h a t reasonably balanced samples w i t h regards t o sex, age, household s i z e and 54 l e n g t h of residence were obtained, whereas the expected d i f f e r e n c e s f o r education and income c l e a r l y showed up, C. R e s u l t s of the Survey The r e s u l t s of the i n t e r v i e w s , i n terms of the abso l u t e frequencies i n both areas f o r each q u e s t i o n can be found i n Appendix B, I n the f o l l o w i n g two chapters the f o u r hypothesis are discussed and attempts are made to v e r i f y them. Chapter V discusses the v a r i a t i o n s of a c t u a l and p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n both between the two sampled areas as w e l l as w i t h i n each of them. Chapter VI deals f i r s t w i t h the problem of whether or not p a r t i c i p a t o r y a c t s are cumulative and then goes i n t o some d e t a i l i n d e s c r i b i n g each of the v a r i o u s p a r t i c i p a t o r y a c t s w i t h regards to what groups of people tend t o take an a c t i v e p a r t i n each. 1 CHAPTER V DIFFERENCES IN PARTICIPATION RATES BETWEEN VARIOUS SOCIO-ECONOMIC GROUPS I n t h i s c h a p t e r t h e f i r s t two h y p o t h e s i s a r e i n v e s t i g a t e d a n d p r o v e n , t h e r e b y s h o w i n g t h a t b o t h a c t u a l a n d p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s much l a r g e r i n g r o u p s w i t h a h i g h s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . However, n o t a l l t h e v a r -i a t i o n s a r e e x p l a i n e d b y t h i s f a c t o r , a n d i t a p p e a r s a s i f t h e a r e a s b y t h e m s e l v e s have a c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e upon t h e e x t e n t o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The c o m p r e h e n s i v e a n d p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d i c e s w e r e c a l c u l a t e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n i n t h i s s u r v e y as o u t l i n e d i n C h a p t e r I I . The c a l c u l a t e d v a l u e s f o r K e n d a l l ' s t a u w i t h r e g a r d s t o l o c a t i o n were . 2 7 0 5 f o r CPARINDX a n d . 3 2 0 2 f o r PPARINDX, b o t h o f w h i c h a r e s i g n i f i c a n t b y a w i d e m a r g i n a t t h e 99$ l e v e l . The s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n d i c a t e d by t h e s e h i g h t a u v a l u e s c a n be v e r y c l e a r l y s e e n i n T a b l e X I , where t h e p r e d o m i n a n c e o f WPG i n t h e t h r e e h i g h e s t c a t e g o r i e s s t a n d s o u t s t a r k l y f o r b o t h i n d i c e s . T a b l e X I I d e s c r i b e s how t h e i n d i c e s v a r y w i t h e d u c a t i o n i n t h e two a r e a s s e p a r a t e l y . The r e l a t e d v a l u e s 55 56 TABLE XI ABSOLUTE FREQUENCIES FOR CATEGORIES OF VALUES FOR THE COMPREHENSIVE AND POTENTIAL PARTICIPATION INDICES BY LOCATION Scores on the i n d i c e s WPG EE CPARINDX 0 - 2 28 54 (Comprehensive P a r t i c i - 3 - 6 20 13 p a t i o n Index) 7-11 * 14 4 12-18 6 3 19- 6 0 PPARINDX 0 - 2 11 37 ( P o t e n t i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n 3 - 5 23 19 Index) 6 - 8 29 12 9-11 9 4 1 2 - 2 2 TABLE X I I ABSOLUTE FREQUENCIES FOR THE COMPREHENSIVE AND POTENTIAL PARTICIPATION INDICES BY EDUCATION AND LOCATION Scores Education i n years on the WPG EE i n d i c e s -9 9-12 12- -9 9-12 12 CPARINDX 0- 2 6 9 13 33 18 3 3 - 6 5 5 10 4 6 3 7-H 1 5 8 1 2 1 12-18 0 3 3 .0 2 1 19- 0 0 6 0 0 0 PPARINDX 0- 2 4 1 6 26 9 2 3 - 5 4 10 9 9 9 1 6 - 8 4 10 15 2 8 2 9-11 0 1 8 1 2 1 12- 0 0 2 0 0 2 57 o f K e n d a l l ' s t a u f o r e d u c a t i o n were s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 95$ l e v e l , b u t n o t a t t h e 99$ l e v e l f o r CPARINDX, w h e r e a s f o r PPARINDX t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s were c l e a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n b o t h a r e a s , a n d i t was p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g i n E E . I t i s c l e a r f r o m t h i s t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s i s much s t r o n g e r w i t h p o t e n t i a l p a r t i -c i p a t i o n t h a n w i t h a c t u a l p a r t i c i p a t o r y a c t s . The v e r y c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n a n d e d u c a t i o n - i n t h e E E i s a l s o i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e T a b l e . I n a d d i t i o n i t c a n be s e e n , t h a t a l t h o u g h 50 o u t o f t h e 148 p e r s o n s i n t e r v i e w e d h a d l e s s t h a n n i n e y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n , none o f t h e f i f t e e n w i t h i n t h e two h i g h e s t c a t e g o r i e s o f CPARINDX were i n t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l c a t e g o r y , a n d o n l y one o u t o f s e v e n t e e n f o r PPARINDX, w h i c h w o u l d t h e n i n d i c a t e a n a l m o s t c o m p l e t e p r e d o m i n a n c e o f t h e w e l l - e d u c a t e d among t h e h i g h e s t p a r t i c i p a n t s . T a b l e X I I I i s s i m i l a r t o t h e p r e v i o u s T a b l e e x c e p t t h a t i t i s r e l a t e d t o income i n s t e a d o f e d u c a t i o n . The v a l u e s o f K e n d a l l ' s t a u f o r income e x h i b i t e d much t h e same p a t t e r n as i n t h e c a s e o f e d u c a t i o n i n t h a t o n l y f o r PPARINDX wase t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 99$ l e v e l . However, o n l y t h r e e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s p a s s e d t h e t e s t a t t h e 95$ l e v e l , b e c a u s e t h e a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n a c t u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n a n d income p r o v e d t o be v e r y weak w i t h i n WPG. As i n t h e c a s e : o f e d u c a t i o n , t h e r e i s a l m o s t a t o t a l a b s e n c e o f t h o s e b e l d n i g i n g t o t h e l o w e s t income g r o u p s f r o m t h e two h i g h e s t c a t e g o r i e s , b o t h w i t h r e g a r d s 58 to a c t u a l and to p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . TABLE X I I I ABSOLUTE FREQUENCIES FOR THE COMPREHENSIVE AND POTENTIAL PARTICIPATION INDICES BY INCOME AND LOCATION Scores Income i n d o l l a r s on the WPG EE i n d i c e s -8 , 9 9 9 9-11 , 9 9 9 12,000- -8 , 9 9 9 9-11 , 9 9 9 12,000-CPARINDX 0- 2 8 16 26 18 10 3 - 6 8 8 2 6 5 7-11 2 3 9 2 • 2 0 12-18 1 0 5 0 1 2 19- 0 1 5 0 0 0 PPARINDX 0- 2 1 5 5 22 12 3 3 - 5 7 6 10 5 10 6- 8 3 7 19 3 3 6 9-11 0 2 7 0 2 2 12- 0 0 2 0 0 2 I n order t o summarize the above d i s c u s s i o n , Table XIV l i s t s a l l the r e l e v a n t values o f K e n d a l l ' s t a u , i n d i c a t i n g the v a r i o u s s t r e n g t h of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the d i f f e r e n t v a r i a b l e s . I t should be emphasized t h a t these values on t a u give a more r e l i a b l e i n d i c a t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n -s h i p between a p a i r of v a r i a b l e s . The reason f o r t h i s i s that i n the Tables c a t e g o r i e s o f v a r y i n g s i z e s are used and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of values w i t h i n each category might vary c o n s i d e r a b l y . The Tables are only put i n t o give some idea of the s i z e and s t r e n g t h of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s s i n c e the tau i s mainly an a b s t r a c t f i g u r e w i t h no obvious or d i r e c t r e l a t i o n t o r e a l i t y . 59 TABLE XIV SOME VALUES OF KENDALL'S TAU FOR THE PARTICIPATION INDICES BY LOCATION AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS CPARINDX PPARINDX WPG EE T o t a l WPG EE T o t a l Age .1244 .0732 .0709 -.0104 -.2429 - .1372 Sex - . 0 8 2 0 - . 0 0 9 5 --.0657 .0578 - . 0 3 8 7 - . 0 0 7 2 Family s i z e .0580 -.0877 .0149 -.0162 .1403 .0866 Length o f . I 8 3 6 0.0411 residence .2271 .0493 .1180 -.2388 L o c a t i o n — — .2705 — — .3202 Education .1625 .1330 .2503 .2153 .4310 .4068 Income .0785 .1531 .1806 .2268 .4043 0 ? 3 ? SES .1501 .1439 .2418 .2690 .4822 .4539 When the sample, s i z e i s : 148;, the , minimum -value v o f u the tau t o i n d i c a t e a r e l a t i o n s h i p a t the 99$ s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l i s approximately .1296, and when the number of cases i s 74 the corresponding value i s . I 8 3 6 . At the 95$ s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l these values are .0910 and .1305 r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n order to c l e a r l y p o i n t out the r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t are s i g n i -f i c a n t a t the 99$ l e v e l , these values have been u n d e r l i n e d i n the Table. One f a c t t h a t might be s t a r t l i n g a t f i r s t i s t h a t f o r many p a i r s of v a r i a b l e s the value of tau i s l a r g e r f o r the whole sample than f o r each of the two separate areas. The e x p l a n a t i o n of t h i s phenomenon i s t h a t the areas have 60 very d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of education and income. A hypothe-t i c a l example i s d e p i c t e d i n F i g u r e 3» where each dot represents an i n d i v i d u a l and h i s combination of v o t i n g frequency and l e v e l of education. I t i s seen t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between v o t i n g and education w i t h i n each of the two areas are very weak or even n o n - e x i s t a n t , whereas when the two areas are combined, a c l e a r p o s i t i v e assoc-i a t i o n i s obvious. FIGURE 2 ILLUSTRATION OF A CASE WHERE THE CORRELATION BETWEEN TWO VARIABLES IS WEAK FOR EACH AREA SEPARATELY, BUT QUITE STRONG WHEN THEY ARE ADDED TOGETHER V o t i n g frequency ;^ v- Area B % -/Area A L e v e l of education Returning t o Table XIV, i t should be s a i d t h a t w i t h regards to age a p o s i t i v e c o e f f i c i e n t means t h a t age and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c r e a s e together. The only r e l a t i o n -s h i p t h a t i s s i g n i f i c a n t here i s t h a t younger people tend to have a higher p o t e n t i a l f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n EE. N e i t h e r sex nor s i z e of household appears t o have any s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p to any of the i n d i c e s . Length of residence however, appears t o have a s t r a n g e l y reverse 61 a s s o c i a t i o n i n t h e two a r e a s . I n WPG t h e r e i s a s i g n i -f i c a n t p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p b etween l e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c y an d a c t u a l a n d p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I n E E , on t h e o t h e r hand, t h e r e i s a n o p p o s i t e ; r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h i s c l e a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t f o r p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . F o r WPG a l a r g e p a r t o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p c a n p r o b a b l y be e x -p l a i n e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t a number o f p o l i t i c a l l y i n a c t i v e a n d n e w l y a r r i v e d s t u d e n t s were i n t e r v i e w e d a n d t h a t t h e r e i s a r e l a t i v e l y s t r o n g Homeowners' A s s o c i a t i o n t h a t p r e s u m a b l y w o u l d have m a i n l y t h e l o n g - t e r m r e s i d e n t s as i t s ; members. I n t h e c a s e o f E E , i t i s v e r y l i k e l y t h a t t h e r e i s a c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h age a n d w i t h l e n g t h o f r e -s i d e n c e s i n c e i t w o u l d a p p e a r n a t u r a l t h a t i t i s t h e y o u n g e r p e o p l e who have t h e s h o r t e r r e s i d e n c y . I t i s c l e a r l y s e e n f r o m T a b l e XIV t h a t t h e a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n a c t u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n on t h e one h a n d a n d e d u c a t i o n a n d i ncome on "he o t h e r f o r e a c h a r e a i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 99$ l e v e l . However, a t t h e 95$ l e v e l , a l l t h e s e c o e f f i c i e n t s become s i g n i f i c a n t e x c e p t t h a t b e t w e e n income a n d a c t u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n WPG. I n a d d i t i o n , f o r t h e s a m p l e as a w h o l e , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n CPARINDX a n d e d u c a t i o n a n d income i s c l e a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 99$ l e v e l . F o r p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h e t a u v a l u e s a r e much s t r o n g e r a n d a l l t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 99$ l e v e l . E s p e c i a l l y i n E E t h e r e i s a v e r y s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s a n d p o t e n t i a l 62 f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . To i l l u s t r a t e t h a t there c e r t a i n l y appears to be a d i f f e r e n c e between the two areas even when education and income i s h e l d constant, Table XV r e l a t e s three l e v e l s of a c t u a l and p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n to three e d u c a t i o n a l and income c a t e g o r i e s f o r each of the two sampled areas. TABLE XV RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE TWO AREAS AND THE PARTICIPATION INDICES AS EDUCATION AND INCOME IS HELD CONSTANT 6 - 9 10- •12 133or more WPG EE WPG EE WPG EE Years of Education CPARINDX Low 6 20 9 18 13 3 Medium 5 3 5 6 10 3 High 1 1 8 17 2 PPARINDX Low 16 1 9 6 2 Medium 6 10 9 9 1 High 2 11 10 25 5 Income i n thousands of d o l l a r s CPARINDX Low 20 8 18 16 10 Medium k 0 8 6 8 5 High 3 2 k 3 19 2 PPARINDX Low 1 17 5 12 5 3 Medium 7 2 6 10 10 High 3 3 9 5 28 10 Thereforey.. since- bothoactual* a r i d d p o t e n t i a l ; p a r t i -i c i p a t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e r i n WPG than i n EE by a wide margin, i t can be s a i d t h a t both i n d i c e s are higher 63 i n the s e l e c t e d upper-middle income area. These i n d i c e s a l s o vary p o s i t i v e l y w i t h socio-economic s t a t u s w i t h i n the two sampled areas, but the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s much stronger i n the low s t a t u s area than i n the more a f f l u e n t one. This would then conclude the v e r i f i c a t i o n of the f i r s t and second hypothesis. CHAPTER VI DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE VARIOUS PARTICIPATORY ACTS The t h i r d hypothesis d e a l t w i t h the q u e s t i o n of whether or not p a r t i c i p a t o r y a c t s are cumulative i n nature and. t h i s i s i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the f i r s t p a r t of t h i s chapter. Since i t i s shown t h a t they hy and l a r g e are not cumulative, the i m p l i c a t i o n " i s t h a t d i f f e r e n t people are a c t i v e i n the var i o u s modes of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . This i s then examined i n the remainder of the chapter i n order t o t r y to f i n d out what groups t y p i c a l l y are the most a c t i v e i n each o f the p a r t i c i p a t o r y a c t s , and what common c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s there are among those a c t s most popular w i t h the people t h a t have a low socio-economic s t a t u s . A. Are P a r t i c i p a t o r y A c t s Cumulative? I n order t o answer t h i s q u e s t i o n , and thereby t o examine the t h i r d h y p o t h e s i s , 23 d i f f e r e n t combinations of p a r t i c i p a t o r y a c t s were t e s t e d i n order t o see how w e l l they would f i t i n t o a Guttman s c a l e . Table XVI de s c r i b e s what combination of v a r i a b l e s was used f o r each s c a l e , what p a r t o f the p o p u l a t i o n was used and the c o e f f i c i e n t of s c a l a b i l i t y f o r each. As was discussed a t the end o f Chapter I I , t h i s c o e f f i c i e n t should be w e l l over .60 i f one should be able t o say t h a t t h i s s p e c i f i c combination 64 65 o f v a r i a b l e s c o n s t i t u t e d a c u m u l a t i v e s c a l e . TABLE XVI DESCRIPTION AND RESULTS OF THE VARIOUS GUTTMAN SCALES TESTED. C o e f f i c i e n t o f P o p u l a t i o n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 S c a l a b i l i -P0LPAR1 WPG X X X X X X .4245 P0LPAR2 E E X X — - X X X — — X — .3827 P0LPAR3 T o t a l X X — — X X X — — X — .4182 P0LPAR4 WPG — X — X X — X - X - X .3699 P0LPAR5 E E — X — X X - X - X — X *5556 POLPAR6 T o t a l — X - X X X - X - X .4582 P0LPAR7 WPG — X - X X - X X X — X .3956 POLPAR8 E E - X - X X - X X X — X . 3 6 9 2 P0LPAR9 T o t a l — X - X X - X X X - X . 3 9 3 8 P0LPAR10 WPG — X X X X - X - X - X . 3 9 1 8 P0LPAR11 E E — X X X X - ' X - X — X .5327 P0LPAR12 T o t a l - X X X X - X - X — X .4577 POLPAR13 T o t a l - X - X X X X - X - - .3755 P0LPAR14 T o t a l X - — — — X X - — X — .5280 P0LPAR15 T o t a l — X - X X X X X X — - .3043 POLPAR16 T o t a l - X X X X X X - X - - .3566 POLPAR17 T o t a l - X - X X - X - X X - .4318 POLPAR18 T o t a l — . X X - - - X - X — ' X .5024 P0LPAR19 T o t a l - X - X - - X - X - X .5305 P0LPAR20 T o t a l X - - X - - X - X — X .5686 P0LPAR21 T o t a l X - -> X - X — - X X - • .4579 P0LPAR22 T o t a l X - — X — - X X - — X .5311 POLPAR 23 T o t a l X - - X - X - X - X - .4064 1 A c t i v e i n p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s 2 E l e c t o r a l c a m p a i g n i n g 3 F i g h t i n g C i t y H a l l 4 M e m b e r s h i p i n p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s 5 A t t e n d a n c e a t p o l i t i c a l m e e t i n g s 6 P e r s u a d i n g o t h e r s i n p r i v a t e p o l i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s 7 C o n t a c t i n g l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s 8 C o m p l a i n i n g t o C i t y H a l l 9 M e m b e r s h i p i n n o n - p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s 10 V o t i n g 11 F r e q u e n c y o f p r i v a t e p o l i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s 66 The f i r s t three and P 0 L P A R 1 4 were a l l very c l o s e l y patterned a f t e r M i l b r a t h ' s suggested h i e r a r c h y of p a r t i c i -patory a c t s ( M i l b r a t h , 1 9 6 5 ) . Each s c a l e t h a t was run on the S P S S program a l s o produced a l l the i n t e r - v a r i a b l e c o r -r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s and these were then used to s e l e c t and combine the v a r i a b l e s i n another way f o r the next run i n order t o be able to improve the f i t t o a p e r f e c t Guttman s c a l e . However, as i s very obvious from j u s t l o o k i n g a t the Table, no s c a l e was very c l o s e t o t h e i l i m i t of . 6 0 . The highest value t h a t was achieved was . 5 6 8 6 , which s t i l l i s c l e a r l y below the minimum s i g n i f i c a n t v a l u e . I n nine cases these c o e f f i c i e n t s of s c a l a b i l i t y were as low as between . 3 and . 4 , which thereby i n d i c a t e s t h a t there i s -hardly any degree of cumulativeness among the v a r i a b l e s a t a l l . Hence, t h i s would tend t o prove t h a t the v a r i o u s p a r t i c i p a t o r y acts are not cumulative i n nature to any s i g n i f i c a n t e x t e n t . B. Who i s A c t i v e i n Each Type of A c t i v i t y ? The f o u r t h hypothesis s t a t e d that people i n d i f f e r e n t socio-economic s t a t u s groups p a r t i c i p a t e i n d i f f e r e n t ways and have a v a r y i n g p o t e n t i a l f o r p a r t i c i p a t o r y a c t s . I n order t o t e s t t h i s hypothesis lf> v a r i a b l e s were s e l e c t e d and d e f i n e d , i n order t o represent the v a r i o u s p a r t i c i p a t o r y a c t s t h a t the respondents had engaged i n , or which i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r d e s i r e and c a p a b i l i t y f o r f u t u r e 67 p a r t i c i p a t o r y a c t s . The s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s are the f o l l o w i n g : VOTING Number of times t h a t the respondent voted i n the l a s t three m u n i c i p a l e l e c t i o n s . CAMP E l e c t o r a l campaigning by the respondent to help a p a r t y or a candidate i n any of the e l e c t i o n s of 1 9 7 2 . MEET P o l i t i c a l meetings or r a l l i e s t h a t the respondent went'.to dur i n g the 1972 e l e c t i o n campaigns. FIGHT Whether or not the respondent had a c t u a l l y done something t o t r y to get the m u n i c i p a l government t o change t h e i r mind on a s p e c i f i c i s s u e . POLORGS Membership and i n t e n s i t y o f a c t i v i t y i n p o l i -t i c a l c l u b s , c i v i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s or home r e l a t e d groups such as a Homewoners* A s s o c i a t i o n . . NPOLORGS Membership and i n t e n s i t y of a c t i v i t y i n non-p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as wo r k - r e l a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s or s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l groups. TOTORGS A d d i t i o n of a l l the respondent's scores f o r each, of the va r i o u s o r i g i n a l groups of organ-i z a t i o n s . COMPLAIN Whether or not the respondent had complained about anything t o C i t y H a l l During the l a s t couple of years. CONTACTS A c t u a l c o n t a c t i n g o f p o l i t i c i a n s or c i t y planners by respondent, whether by l e t t e r , phone or pe r s o n a l v i s i t . 68 FRIENDS Whether or not the respondent was acquainted w i t h , or a pe r s o n a l f r i e n d , o f , a l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n or a m u n i c i p a l planner. TALKPOLI Whether or not the respondent o f t e n discussed l o c a l p o l i t i c s w i t h f r i e n d s and f a m i l y and i f he then sometimes t r i e d t o persuade the othe r s . DESIRE Whether or not the respondent during the i n t e r -view expressed a d e s i r e f o r more i n f o r m a t i o n on l o c a l i s s u e s , or wanted to p a r t i c i p a t e more h i m s e l f but d i d not know how t o become i n v o l v e d . FRUSTCC L e v e l of f r u s t r a t i o n and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the d e c i s i o n s of C i t y C o u n c i l , POLK-H " P o l i t i c a l know-how'? measuring how w e l l the respondent knew what t o do i f he would want t o , or f e l t f o r c e d t o , i n f l u e n c e C i t y H a l l . INFOINDX The Inf o r m a t i o n Index i s a measure t o estimate the respondent's ge n e r a l awareness and knowledge of the l o c a l p o l i t i c a l scene as d e f i n e d i n Chapter I I , Table IV. Values f o r K e n d a l l ' s t a u were then c a l c u l a t e d f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between each of these v a r i a b l e s and age, sex, education, income, socio-economic s t a t u s (SES), house-hold s i z e and l e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c e . This s e t of tau values was c a l c u l a t e d f o r each of the two areas and then f o r the whole sample. These values f o r SES and l o c a t i o n appear i n Table X V I I , whereas the remaining values are found i n Appendix C. This Table i s c r u c i a l , and i t w i l l be r e f e r r e d . 69 f r e q u e n t l y i n the f o l l o w i n g pages. TABLE XVII TAU VALUES DESCRIBING THE RELATIONSHIP OF SES AND LOCATION WITH 15 VARIOUS PARTICIPATORY ACTS OR CONDITIONS FOR PARTICIPATORY ACTS Socio-economic s t a t u s WPG EE T o t a l L o c a t i o n VOTING . 1973 - . 0 7 9 3 . 0 9 3 8 . 0 7 0 7 CAMP . 1 0 8 7 . 2 1 3 3 . 2 5 3 6 . 3 2 0 0 MEET . 2 2 5 2 . 3 7 3 2 . 3 7 2 4 . 2 9 8 3 FIGHT - . 0 7 2 5 .1118 . 1216 . 2 7 6 0 POLORGS . 2 3 4 7 . 2 2 5 4 . 3 0 6 8 . 3 0 0 8 NPOLORGS . 1 9 6 3 . 3 0 7 0 . 3 2 5 5 . 2 3 5 3 TOTORGS . 2 5 3 7 . 3 5 7 0 . 3 6 0 4 . 2 5 9 3 COMPLAIN . 0 9 2 3 - . 3 3 5 3 - . 1 8 9 0 - . 1 7 7 6 CONTACTS . 1319 . 1714 . 2 2 3 4 . 2 4 2 9 FRIENDS . 2 2 6 6 . 1 0 9 7 ,2186 .1685 TALKPOLI . 0 9 4 9 . 3 8 0 1 . 2 9 4 7 . 1 9 8 1 DESIRE . 0 7 9 6 . 3 5 2 2 .2477 .1473 FRUSTCC . 0 5 4 6 . 2 5 3 8 . 1 2 3 2 . 0 1 6 2 POLK-H .2864 .4880 . 4 5 0 2 . 2 9 0 6 INFOINDX . . 2 1 9 1 . 4 2 5 7 . 4 0 5 3 . 2 8 3 0 I n the next few pages each of these 15 v a r i a b l e s are discussed w i t h regards t o t h e i r v a r i a t i o n and a s s o c i -a t i o n w i t h each of the independent v a r i a b l e s . S e v e r a l cross t a b u l a t i o n s w i l l d e scribe r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t h i s s e c t i o n , but i t should be made c l e a r t h a t unless the d i s t r i b u t i o n i s extremely skewed, the tau value provides a much b e t t e r i n d i c a t o r of the closeness of the a s s o c i a t i o n between any two v a r i a b l e s , s i n c e i n order t o make the Tables c l e a r , a l a r g e amount of aggregation o f c a t e g o r i e s have been made, w h i l e the o r i g i n a l data i n i t s more d e t a i l e d form was used f o r the d e r i v a t i o n o f the tau v a l u e s . 70 a. VOTING The average voter turnout for the l a s t three l o c a l elections as stated by the respondents was 45•7$ i n WPG and 40.0$ i n EE. However, there are several reasons why one should be c a r e f u l i n i n t e r p r e t i n g these f i g u r e s . F i r s t , most people have a f e e l i n g that i t i s t h e i r duty to vote and w i l l therefore sometimes say that they did vote even when t h i s was not the case; secondly, some people obviously had d i f f i c u l t i e s remembering a l l three of the l a s t municipal e l e c t i o n s ! and t h i r d l y , which appeared to be most important, many people had d i f f i c u l t i e s i n keeping the l o c a l elections apart from the federal and p r o v i n c i a l ones, and they therefore tended to overstate t h e i r voting record. Table XVIII gives the true voter turnout i n per-centages for the l a t e s t f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and municipal e l e c t i o n s . In the case of the p r o v i n c i a l elections the area i n the Table i s i d e n t i c a l to the sampled area. For the municipal and federal e l e c t i o n s , however, the values i n the Table r e f e r to somewhat larger areas than WPG and EE, but the differences are r e l a t i v e l y minor and i t can be assumed that.the figures are not s u b s t a n t i a l l y a f f e c t e d by t h i s s i t u a t i o n . The voter turnout for the l o c a l e l e c t i o n i s defined as the percentage of a l l registered voters that cast b a l l o t s for the mayoralty e l e c t i o n . I t would thus seem l i k e the figures of the survey greatly overestimated the turnout i n EE. As was mentioned . 71 TABLE XVIII ACTUAL VOTER TURNOUT IN PERCENTAGES IN THE SAMPLED AREAS FOR THE LATEST FEDERAL, PROVINCIAL AND 1 MUNICIPAL ELECTIONS Fe d e r a l P r o v i n c i a l M u n i c i p a l e l e c t i o n s e l e c t i o n s e l e c t i o n s 1968 1972 1969 1972 1970 1972 WPG 81 86 57 63 65 49 EE 66 65 53 59 37 25 i n Chapter I I , i t was t h i s a n t i c i p a t e d u n r e l a b i l i t y of r e -ported v o t i n g t h a t caused the very low weight given t o i t i n the comprehensive p a r t i c i p a t i o n index. Another con-sequence was t h a t the a c t u a l f i g u r e s on v o t e r turnout i n the l a s t m u n i c i p a l e l e c t i o n were used to c a l c u l a t e a value on K e n d a l l ' s tau r e l a t i n g v o t i n g t o l o c a t i o n . I t turned out t o "be .2398 which i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t the 99$ l e v e l and i t i s a much higher f i g u r e than .0707 which was the value d e r i v e d from the sample. From Table XVIII i t can a l s o be seen t h a t the v o t e r turnout i n the 1972 m u n i c i p a l e l e c t i o n was almost twice as b i g i n WPG as i n EE. I n order t o f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e the w i d e l y v a r y i n g turnout r a t i o s between areas w i t h d i f -f e r e n t socio-economic s t a t u s i t can be s a i d t h a t i n the 1972 m u n i c i p a l e l e c t i o n the Northern p a r t of the Grandview Woodlands ar e a , which has one of the lowest average incomes i n the C i t y , had a turnout of 14.7$, whereas i n South-west Marine D r i v e , one of the w e a l t h i e s t areas, 54$ of the 72 registered voters went to the p o l l s , which i s almost four times l a r g e r ! In Table XVII i t can be seen that voting was just barely s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to SES i n WPG, but not at a l l i n EE. A much stronger r e l a t i o n s h i p i s however "found with age or length of residence as the independent v a r i a b l e s . In both areas sampled, the voter turnout grew as age and length of residence increased, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n WPG t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p was very strong. However, as discussed above, these figures and associations are not too r e l i a b l e . b. CAMP—Electoral Campaigning This i s an a c t i v i t y that appears to be almost non-existant i n the EE sample. Only two persons i n i t had helped a candidate during the 1972 e l e c t i o n campaigns, whereas i n WPG 19 people had been a c t i v e . According to Table XVII, * the-:campaign vworkers Lin WPG did not appear to have any p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p to SES. However, a r e l a t i v e l y strong r e l a t i o n s h i p was found with education which i s depicted i n Table XIX. When t h i s Table i s considered together with the v i r t u a l absence of e l e c t o r a l campaigning i n EE sample, the very strong dominance of the well-educated i n t h i s p a r t i c i p a t o r y act i s s t r i k i n g . c. MEET—Attendance at P o l i t i c a l Meetings 29 people i n WPG and 9 i n EE reported going to at l e a s t one p o l i t i c a l meeting during 1 9 7 2 . Although the 73 TABLE XIX RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EDUCATION AND ELECTORAL CAMPAIGNING IN WPG Years of Education 9 or l e s s 10-12 13 or more E l e c t o r a l No 12 16 27 campaigning? Yes 0 6 13 a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h SES was c l e a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n both areas as can be seen i n Table X V I I , the c l o s e s t r e l a t i o n s h i p was again w i t h education, which Table XX describes f o r the sample as a whole. TABLE XX RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EDUCATION AND ATTENDANCE OF MEETINGS FOR THE WHOLE SAMPLE Years of Education 9 or l e s s 10-12 13 or more Attendance of tNo 48 39 23 at; l e a s t one meeting d u r i n g Yes 2 11 25 1972? Education's tau value here of . 4 0 1 5 f o r the sample as a whole was the second highest achieved. With regards to income the a s s o c i a t i o n t o t a l l y disappeared i n WPG, and i n EE there were so few people going t o a meeting t h a t i t makes the c o r r e l a t i o n almost meaningless. I t might be i n -t e r e s t i n g t o note, however, t h a t none of the 30 persons 74 i n EE earning l e s s than $9»000 a year went t o a meeting, wh i l e s i x out o f the eleven people i n WPG i n t h a t income category had gone to a t l e a s t one meeting. d. F I G H T — F i g h t i n g C i t y H a l l More than three times as many people i n WPG (25 as opposed t o 8) had a c t u a l l y fought over a l o c a l p o l i t i c a l i s s u e during the l a s t couple of years. There was no c l e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h i s v a r i a b l e and e i t h e r of SES, education, income or any of the other independent v a r i a b l e s . Therefore the only s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n i s w i t h l o c a t i o n . Table XXI describes the very even d i s t r i b u t i o n of those who have fought among the v a r i o u s income c l a s s e s . TABLE XXI RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INCOME AND FIGHTING FOR THE SAMPLE AS A WHOLE Income i n thousands o f d o l l a r s l e s s - t h a n -9/ 9-12 More than 12 Have ever fought no 31 38 46 over a l o c a l i s s u e Yes 10 9 14 The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s would seem to be t h a t none of the examined independent v a r i a b l e s i s very important i n i n f l u e n c i n g the amount of f i g h t i n g done. Therefore the r e l a t i v e l y poor and the r e l a t i v e l y p o o r l y educated^ person i s as l i k e l y to t r y t o stop and reverse a m u n i c i p a l p r o p o s a l as a person i n the upper groups. 75 e. P O L O R G S — P o l i t i c a l l y o r i e n t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s Once more WPG had s l i g h t l y more than three times as many people a c t i v e i n t h i s r e spect as EE. The numbers here were 28 f o r WPG and 9 f o r EE. There i s a r e l a t i v e l y s t r o n g a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h SES, which i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the c l e a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t t au values i n Table XVII. With regards t o age, Table XXII p o i n t s out t h a t i n WPG there i s the middle aged people who are the most a c t i v e i n various p o l i t i c a l l y o r i e n t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s . TABLE XXII RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGE AND MEMBERSHIP IN POLITICALLY ACTIVE ORGANIZATIONS IN WPG Age i n Years Less than 30 More than 60 30-60 At l e a s t a member of No 26 20 a p o l i t i c a l l y a c t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n . Yes 10 18 The r e l a t i o n s h i p d e p i c t e d i n the above Table i s , however, only ,3ust .barely s i g n i f i c a n t a t the 95$ l e v e l . Very weak or non - e x i s t a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were found w i t h the remaining independent v a r i a b l e s . Therefore the only s t r o n g a s s o c i a t i o n o f t h i s v a r i a b l e i s w i t h socio-economic s t a t u s and l o c a t i o n . 76 f . N P O L O R G S — N o n - p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s Of t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i n WPG, 50 were a t . 1 l e a s t a member o f a n o n - p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , whereas i n EE, 3^ p e o p l e came i n under t h i s h e a d i n g . The t a u v a l u e f o r l o c a t i o n i s t h u s s m a l l e r here t h a n i t was f o r t h e p r e v i o u s p a r t i c i p a t o r y a c t s , but i t i s s t i l l c l e a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h SES i s s i g n i f i c a n t everywhere b u t p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g f o r t h e EE sample, t h e r e a s o n b e i n g t h a t t h e " v e r y v a c t i v e " i n t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s were a l m o s t a l l i n t h e h i g h e s t e d u c a t i o n a l and income c a t e g o r i e s f o r th e EE, whereas t h e s e p e o p l e were much more e v e n l y d i s -t r i b u t e d i n t h e c a s e o f WPG. g. T 0 T 0 R G S — A l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s T h i s v a r i a b l e i s t h e r e s u l t o f s i m p l e a d d i t i o n o f the o r i g i n a l s c o r e s f o r each o f t h e groups o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and i t shows s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h SES and l o c a t i o n . The extreme c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f the " v e r y a c t i v e " c a t e g o r y among t h e h i g h e s t e d u c a t i o n a l and income groups i s d e p i c t e d i n T a b l e X X I I I . TABLE X X I I I RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE VERY ACTIVE IN ALL ORGANIZATIONS WITH EDUCATION AND INCOME FOR THE WHOLE SAMPLE E d u c a t i o n i n Income i n thou*?m Years sands o f d o l l a r s L e s s 13 o r L e s s 12 o r t h a n 13 r more t h a n 12 more V e r y a c t i v e i n No 87 25 78 34 o r g a n i z a t i o n s ? Yes 13 23 10 26 77 I t w o u l d t h e r e f o r e be t r u e t o s a y t h a t i n t h e s a m p l e d a r e a s , t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y i s v e r y h e a v i l y d o m i n a t e d by t h o s e w i t h a h i g h l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n , a h i g h i n c o m e , o r b o t h . h. C O M P L A I N — C o m p l a i n i n g t o C i t y H a l l T h i s was t h e s o l e a c t i v i t y i n w h i c h E E e x c e e d e d WPG. 38 p e o p l e i n t h e f o r m e r a r e a h a d c o m p l a i n e d a t l e a s t once t o somebody i n C i t y H a l l d u r i n g t h e l a s t c o u p l e o f y e a r s , w h i l e o n l y 25 h a d done s o i n WPG. T h i s d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e two a r e a s i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 99$ l e v e l . I n WPG t h e r e i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p t o S E S , b u t i n E E t h e r e i s a v e r y s t r o n g n e g a t i v e one w h i c h means t h a t i t i s t h o s e w i t h a low e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l a n d income w i t h i n E E t h a t c o m p l a i n t h e most, a n d t h i s i s i l l u s t r a t e d b y T A b l e XXIV. TABLE XXIV RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMPLAINTS AND EDUCATION IN E E E d u c a t i o n L e s s t h a n 9 i n Y e a r s More t h a n 9 E v e r c o m p l a i n e d t o C i t y H a l l No Yes 13 25 23 13 C o m p l a i n t s a r e a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age a s T a b l e XXV d e s c r i b e s f o r t h e s a m p l e a s a w h o l e . T h e r e a r e v e r y weak a n d i n s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h s e x a n d h o u s e h o l d s i z e , b u t w i t h l e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c e 7 8 TABLE XXV RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGE AND COMPLAINTS FOR THE WHOLE SAMPLE Age i n Y e a r s L e s s t h a n 4 5 4 5 o r more E v e r c o m p l a i n e d No 4 9 36 t o C i t y H a l l Yes 1 8 4 5 t h e r e i s vac-strong p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n w h i c h T a b l e XXVI i l l u m i n a t e s . I t w o u l d a l m o s t seem t o be a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o be a l o n g - t i m e r e s i d e n t b e f o r e one c o m p l a i n s , a n d t h i s f a c t i s p r o b a b l y t h e c a u s e b e h i n d t h e p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h a g e . TABLE XXVI 'RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LENGTH OF RESIDENCY AND COMPLAINTS FOR THE SAMPLE AS A WHOLE L e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c y i n Y e a r s L e s s t h a n 4 More t h a n 4 E v e r c o m p l a i n e d No 30 55 t o C i t y H a l l Yes 5 58 I t w o u l d t h u s seem t o be m a i n l y t h e o l d e r more l o n g t e r m r e s i d e n t s t h a t c o m p l a i n most o f t e n t o C i t y H a l l . T he f a c t t h a t t h e s e g r o u p s have a b e l o w a v e r a g e l e v e l o f e d -u c a t i o n a p p e a r s n o t t o s t o p them f r o m c o n t a c t i n g t h e m u n i c i p a l g o v e r n m e n t t o make a c o m p l a i n t . 79 Then there i s the problem that some areas have more things to complain about. This might have had some impor-tance i n causing the greater amount of complaints i n EE. However, t h i s fact should not be over emphasized because the standards that the people i n the two areas are used to and expect are very d i f f e r e n t . Thus, a l e v e l of l o c a l road maintenance that would cause no surprise and l i t t l e d i s -s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the EE, could very w e l l arouse the people i n WPG. Both of the areas are quite small and compact, but there s t i l l appears to be an inverse r e l a t i o n s h i p be-, tween socio-economic status and complaining to C i t y H a l l within each of the two samples. Therefore, the i n d i c a t i o n s are quite c l e a r that the lower status people tend to com- 1 p l a i n more d i r e c t l y to C i t y H a l l than those i n the higher groups, who might use other methods. i . CONTACTS—Contacts with P o l i t i c i a n s or Planners 32 persons i n WPG and 16 i n EE sai d that they had contacted a l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n or a municipal planner during the l a s t couple of years e i t h e r by phone, l e t t e r or personal v i s i t . In the EE the l e t t e r was the most common way, whereas i n WPG i t was the personal v i s i t . This could"; be explained by the suggestion that generally l e t t e r - w r i t i n g does not involve any s o c i a l i z i n g at a l l , whereas that i s inev i t a b l e i n the case of a personal v i s i t . Since very few p o l i t i c i a n s and c i t y planners come from, or belong to, the lower socio-economic groups, a personal v i s i t would involve overcoming a s o c i a l b a r r i e r f o r most persons from EE. 80 As many as eleven people i n the WPG sample had contacted a c i t y planner during the l a s t couple of years while not a single person had done so i n the other area. This i s quite a s t a r t l i n g difference even though the absolute figures are quite small and somewhat u n r e l i a b l e . The r e l a t i o n s h i p with SES within each of the two areas i s not s i g n i f i c a n t at the 99$ l e v e l , but for the sample as a whole i t i s c l e a r l y so as seen i n Table XVII. Again t h i s would point out the fa c t that people i n the same socio-economic group tend to p a r t i c i p a t e more i f they l i v e i n WPG rather than i n EE. For example, s i x out of the twelve persons i n WPG with less than nine years of education have contacted a p o l i t i c i a n or c i t y planner within the l a s t couple of years, whereas only f i v e out of the 38 i n that category i n the EE sample had done so. TABLE XXVII RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGE AND CONTACTING A PUBLIC OFFICIAL FOR THE WHOLE SAMPLE Age i n Years Less than 30 More than 60 3 0 - 6 0 Contacted a p o l i t i c i a n No 50 50 or a planner during 34 l a s t couple of years Jea 14 Table XXVII, above, describes the r e l a t i o n s h i p found i n the whole sample between age and contacting. 81 The r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t h i s Table i s just barely s i g n i f i c a n t at the 99$ l e v e l , and i t shows therefore that contacting a p o l i t i c i a n or a c i t y planner i s more common among the middle aged people than among the very young and the very old. j . FRIENDS—Personal Friendships As many as 18 persons i n the WPG sample said that they personally knew a c i v i c p o l i t i c i a n whereas only four s a i d the same i n EE. However, i n the l a t t e r area nine were acquainted with one while i n WPG t h i s figure was only four. This variable was s i g n i f i c a n t l y associated with;;;SES only i n WPG, where they also tended to be older and more long-term residents. I t could be speculated that one of the reasons for i these r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s that most p o l i t i c i a n s l i v e i n the wealthier areas such as WPG and therefore t h e i r neighbours get to know them more e a s i l y . One of the most popular of the current aldermen, Harry Rankin, l i v e s only h a l f a mile from the sampled area EE, and aqlot of people i n that area i d e n t i f y with him and f e e l that they are at l e a s t acquainted with him. Almost a l l of the people i n EE who sai d that they were acquainted with, or personally knew, a p o l i t i c i a n , s a i d that i t was Rankin that they were r e f e r r i n g to. k. TALKPOLI—Private p o l i t i c a l Discussions More than twice as many people (20 as opposed to 82 14) i n E E s a i d t h a t t h e y d i d n o t g e n e r a l l y d i s c u s s l o c a l p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s w i t h f r i e n d s o r f a m i l y . I t was p o i n t e d o u t e a r l i e r t h a t EE was a much more h e t e r o g e n o u s a r e a t h a n WPG, a n d t h i s seems t o have b e e n o f c o n s i d e r a b l y i m p o r t a n c e h e r e b e c a u s e a l o t o f p e o p l e i n t h e E E s a i d t h a t t h e r e a s o n why t h e y d i d n o t d i s c u s s l o c a l p o l i t i c s more was t h a t t h e y were a f r a i d t h a t i f t h e y d i d s o , t h e y w o u l d g e t i n t o , u n p l e a s a n t a r g u m e n t s w i t h t h e i r f r i e n d s a n d n e i g h b o u r s . I t c o u l d be f u r t h e r s p e c u l a t e d t h a t i n WPG t h e r e i s much more h o m o g e n e i t y a n d a g r e e m e n t on b a s i c v a l u e s a t l e a s t as f a r a s l o c a l p o l i t i c s g o e s . T h e s e s u g g e s t i o n s a r e r e i n f o r c e d b y T a b l e X X V I I I w h i c h g i v e s t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t o t a l v o t e s c a s t f o r a l d e r m e n i n t h e 1972 e l e c t i o n t h a t was r e c e i v e d b y t h e t e n c a n d i d a t e s t h a t g o t t h e most v o t e s i n e a c h o f t h e s e p a r a t e p o l l s . As a f u r t h e r i n d i c a t o r o f h o m o g e n e i t y i n t h e a r e a s , t h i s T a b l e i n c l u d e s t h e p e r -c e n t a g e o f v o t e s t h a t H a r r y R a n k i n g o t , w h i c h shows t h a t a l t h o u g h he h a d a s t r o n g p e r s o n a l f o l l o w i n g i n E E , t h e a c t u a l p e r c e n t a g e o f v o t e s he g o t was e v e n a l i t t l e b i t h i g h e r i n WPG. T h i s l a s t s e t t o f f i g u r e s s h o u l d n o t h o w e v e r be o v e r e m p h a s i z e d b e c a u s e o f t h e g e n e r a l l y much g r e a t e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f v o t e s i n WPG w h i c h meant t h a t R a n k i n was n o t t h e l e a d i n g c a n d i d a t e t h e r e , w h e r e a s he s t i l l r e c e i v e d many more v o t e s t h a n anyone e l s e i n E E . 1. D E S I R E — D e s i r e t o Become More I n v o l v e d T wenty p e o p l e i n WPG a n d e l e v e n i n E E e x p r e s s e d a d e s i r e t o e i t h e r g e t more a n d b e t t e r i n f o r m a t i o n o r t o 83 TABLE XXVIII INDICATORS OF HOMOGENEITY OF VOTING PATTERNS IN THE 1972 LOCAL ELECTION IN THE SAMPLED AREAS Percentage of Percentage of b a l l o t s P o l l i n g votes f o r top c a s t i n c l u d i n g a vote D i s t r i c t ten candidates f o r Harry Rankin WPG 77 58.8 60.4 81 55.7 57.5 EE 23A 41.8 45.4 23B 44.3 54.5 39 39.6 55.I p a r t i c i p a t e i n the process more themselves. Perhaps too much emphasis should not be placed on t h i s v a r i a b l e be-cause i t was not r e l a t e d t o a s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n , but i n -stead depended on the respondent t o venture f o r t h w i t h s t a t i n g t h i s d e s i r e on h i s own. A b i a s c o u l d have been intro d u c e d here s i n c e o f t e n the s e l e c t e d persons i n WPG were more t r u s t i n g and comfortable i n the i n t e r v i e w s than were those i n EE. Attempts were made t o get each r e -spondent to make some s o r t of statement r e g a r d i n g h i s p o s i t i o n i n t h i s r e s p e c t , but i t i s s t i l l q u i t e l i k e l y t h a t people's d e s i r e f o r more i n f o r m a t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n was underestimated i n EE. Therefore the d i f f e r e n c e be-tween the two areas should be decreased or maybe even t o t a l l y e l i m i n a t e d . I n WPG t h i s s t a t e d d e s i r e was t o t a l l y u n r e l a t e d to SES, whi l e i n EE there was a s t r o n g p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n -s h i p . Although l e s s than h a l f the sample i n EE had more 8 4 t h a n n i n e y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n , a l l e l e v e n t h a t e x p r e s s e d t h i s d e s i r e f o r more i n f o r m a t i o n a n d p a r t i c i p a t i o n h e -l o n g e d t o t h i s h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l c a t e g o r y . m. ' F R U S T C C — L e v e l o f F r u s t r a t i o n T h e r e was v i r t u a l l y no d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e two s a m p l e d a r e a s i n t h i s r e s p e c t , w h i c h w o u l d t h e n i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e l e v e l o f f r u s t r a t i o n a n d d i s c o n t e n t w i t h t h e m u n i c i p a l g o v e r n m e n t i s r e l a t i v e l y e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d t h r o u g h t h e v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e c i t y . O n l y i n E E was t h e r e a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h SES, a n d t h e r e t h e l e v e l o f f r u s t r a t i o n i n c r e a s e d as SES g o t h i g h e r v a l u e s . T o g e t h e r w i t h t h e v e r y s t r o n g a s s o c i a t i o n o f DESIRE w i t h S E S , t h i s w o u l d seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t i t i s t h e w e a l t h i e r a n d more w e l l - e d u c a t e d p a r t o f i t h e low income a r e a t h a t want t o p a r t i c i p a t e more a n d i s most d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n . The p e o p l e w i t h a low v a l u e f o r S E S , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , e x p r e s s l i t t l e d e s i r e f o r a l a r g e r i n p u t a n d t h e y e v e n a p p e a r t o be l e s s d i s s a t i s f i e d t h a n o t h e r g r o u p s . T a b l e XXIX i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t i s t h e age g r o u p 3 0-44 t h a t most o f t e n e x p r e s s e s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n a n d f r u s -t r a t i o n . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s c l e a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 99$ l e v e l . T h a t t h e p e o p l e b e t w e e n t h e a g e s o f 30 a n d 4 4 w o u l d be more f r u s t r a t e d t h a n t h e y o u n g ones m i g h t a p p e a r s u r p r i s i n g a t f i r s t . However, i t i s q u i t e l i k e l y r e l a t e d 8 5 TABLE XXIX RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGE AND L E V E L OF FRUSTRATION FOR THE SAMPLE AS A WHOLE Age i n Y e a r s or 3 L e s s -More6C t h a n 3 0 3 0 - 4 4 4 5 - 5 9 t h a n 6 0 A h i g h l e v e l o f No 2 3 10 3 2 22 f r u s t r a t i o n w i t h l o c a l Yes 14 20 22 5 p o l i t i c s t o t h e f a c t t h a t many y o u n g c o u p l e s a r e t o o b u s y w i t h work, home a n d f a m i l y t o have a n y t i m e l e f t o v e r f o r p o l i t i c s . I t i s o n l y when t h e s e t h i n g s have s e t t l e d down t h a t t h e s e p e o p l e c a n have t h e t i m e a v a i l a b l e f o r i n v o l v e -ments i n p o l i t i c s a n d t o k e e p up w i t h t h e news. T h i s w o u l d a p p e a r t o be s u b s t a n t i a t e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t ^ r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n l a r g e h o u s e h o l d s a n d l e v e l s f r u s t r a t i o n s , s i n c e t h e s m a l l h o u s e h o l d s w o u l d p r i m a r i l y b y t h e v e r y y o u n g a n d t h e v e r y o l d . An i n d i c a t o r t h a t t h e l e v e l o f f r u s t r a t i o n i n E E was p e r h a p s u n d e r e s t i m a t e d was t h e f a c t t h a t i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r t h e y h a d e v e r f o u g h t C i t y H a l l o v e r a n y s p e c i f i c i s s u e , t h e a n s w e r t h a t t h e r e was no u s e i n t r y i n g t o f i g h t was g i v e n b y 3 5 p e o p l e i n E E b u t o n l y b y 1 6 i n WPG. n . P O L K - H — P o l i t i c a l Know-how T h i s was a v a r i a b l e t h a t was q u i t e s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d 86 to WPG, and there was an even stronger r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h SES. As a matter of f a c t , the tau value d e s c r i b i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h i s v a r i a b l e and SES i n EE was the highest t h a t was encountered i n the whole survey a t . 4 8 8 0 , The r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h education i s de p i c t e d i n Table XXX where the great dominance o f the well-educated i s c l e a r l y shown. TABLE XXX RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EDUCATION AND POLITICAL KNOW-HOW FOR THE SAMPLE AS A WHOLE Years of Education Less than 9 10-12 13 or more A high l e v e l of No 43 31 18 p o l i t i c a l know-how Yes 7 19 30 I n EE there seems t o be a r e l a t i v e l y s t r o n g r e l a t i o n -s h i p between t h i s v a r i a b l e and younger people which might l a r g e l y be caused by the f a c t t h a t the younger people i n EE are much more h i g h l y educated than, the o l d e r ones. S i m i l a r l y , the s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p i n EE between s h o r t r e s i d e n c y and high l e v e l s of p o l i t i c a l knowledge was probably caused by the f a c t t h a t s h o r t r e s i d e n c y means lower age and t h e r e f o r e a higher e d u c a t i o n a l standard which then causes a high l e v e l of p o l i t i c a l knowledge. Thus p o l i t i c a l know-how appearedtto be more c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d t o education than to anything e l s e . 87 o. I N F O I N D X — I n f o r m a t i o n I n d e x T h e r e i s a r e l a t i v e l y s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n WPG a n d t h e I n f o r m a t i o n I n d e x , a n d a l s o when t h i s I n d e x was r e l a t e d t o SES a s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n was f o u n d t h a t was p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g i n E E . The s t r e n g t h o f t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s c a n be g r a s p e d by l o o k i n g b a c k a t T a b l e X V I I . No s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h age was f o u n d , a l t h o u g h i t a p p e a r e d a s i f y o u n g e r p e o p l e i n E E t e n d e d t o have a h i g h e r l e v e l o f p o l i t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n . C. F a c t o r s C o n d u c i v e t o P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Low S t a t u s G r o u p s A r a t h e r c o m p l e x s i t u a t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e f o u n d when t h e f i f t e e n v a r i a b l e s a r e e x a m i n e d . However, c e r t a i n p a t t e r n s become d i s c e r n i b l e a t c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n . F i r s t o f a l l , t h e v a r i a b l e s d e s c r i b i n g p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n f a l l q u i t e n a t u r a l l y i n t o two g r o u p s . T h o s e d e s c r i b i n g w i l l i n g n e s s t o p a r t i c i p a t e a n d t h o s e i n d i c a t i n g t h e c a p a b i l i t y t o do s o a n d be r e s o n a b l y e f f e c t i v e . The f i r s t g r o u p w o u l d t h e n c o n s i s t o f t h e two v a r i a b l e s d e s c r i b i n g t h e d e s i r e t o p a r t i c i p a t e a n d t h e l e v e l o f f r u s t r a t i o n a t C i t y H a l l , w h i c h , a s was d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l e a r l i e r , were r a t h e r w e a k l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h SES a n d l o c a t i o n . I t was e v e n q u e s t i o n e d w h e t h e r i n r e a l i t y a n y d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d a t a l l . A more c o n s i s t e n t r e l a t i o n -s h i p was f o u n d w i t h age i n t h a t t h e y o u n g e r g r o u p s t e n d e d t o be more f r u s t r a t e d a n d have a g r e a t e r w i l l i n g n e s s t o 88 become i n v o l v e d i n t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s . The s e c o n d g r o u p , w h i c h d e a l s w i t h t h e c a p a b i l i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e e f f e c t i v e l y , c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e v a r i a b l e s . The f i r s t i s a c t i v i t i e s i n n o n - p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , d e s c r i b i n g a r e s p o n d e n t ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s k i l l s a n d e n e r g y t h a t have n o t y e t b e e n p u t t o p o l i t i c a l u s e . S e c o n d l y t h e r e i s p o l i t i c a l know-how, w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h e r e s p o n -d e n t ' s k n o w l e d g e o f how t o go a b o u t g e t t i n g i n v o l v e d a n d be e f f e c t i v e i n t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s . F i n a l l y t h e r e i s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n d e x w h i c h e s t i m a t e s a p e r s o n ' s l e v e l o f i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e c u r r e n t p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n . A s c a n be s e e n i n T a b l e X V I I on page 69, t h e t a u v a l u e s r e l a t i n g t h e s e t h r e e v a r i a b l e s t o SES a r e a l l e x t r e m e l y h i g h . T h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e c o n s i d e r a b l y more u n e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d w i t h i n e a c h o f t h e two a r e a s t h a n b e t w e e n them, e v e n t h o u g h t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n WPG a n d E E i s s i g n i f i c a n t b y a w i d e m a r g i n t o p . A q u i t e c l e a r p a t t e r n i s d i s c e r n i b l e f o r a c t u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . P a r t i c i p a t o r y a c t s t h a t a r e on a more p e r s o n a l l e v e l a n d c l e a r l y f o c u s e s on a s p e c i f i c i s s u e seems t o have g r e a t e r r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c y b o t h i n E E a n d i n t h e l o w e r SES g r o u p s g e n e r a l l y t h a n o t h e r a c t s . A t t h e o t h e r e n d o f t h i s s u g g e s t e d d i m e n s i o n w o u l d be t h e a c t s t h a t d e a l w i t h more g e n e r a l , a b s t r a c t o r i d e o l o g i c a l i s s u e s a n d t h e y a r e a l s o u s u a l l y o f a more permanent' c h a r a c t e r . T a b l e XXXI g i v e s t h e t a u v a l u e s f o r some v a r i a b l e s t h a t a r e a t t h e two e x t r e m e s o f t h i s d i m e n s i o n . I f t h i s i s a 89 v a l i d d i s t i n c t i o n , the tau values should he much lower i n the " S p e c i f i c and P e r s o n a l " category than i n the other. TABLE XXXI RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SES GROUPS AND PARTICIPATORY ACTS DEALING WITH SPECIFIC ISSUES AND THOSE OF A MORE GENERAL CHARACTER Tau values SES L o c a t i o n S p e c i f i c and P e r s o n a l - . 1 7 7 6 . 2 7 6 0 . 2 4 2 9 . 1 6 8 5 General and Permanent . 3 2 0 0 . 2 9 8 3 . 3 0 0 8 Apart from COMPLAIN, the d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups appears weak a t f i r s t s i g h t . However, when one looks more c l o s e l y a t each v a r i a b l e the d i s t i n c t i o n becomes c l e a r e r . The v a r i a b l e FIGHT i n c l u d e s f o r WPG many a c t i o n s taken by the Homeowners' A s s o c i a t i o n . However, i t s a c t i o n s have more s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n c l u d e d i n the other, the "General and Permanent", end o f the dimension. With regards t o CONTACTS, there are d i f f e r e n c e s between the various modes of c o n t a c t i n g a p o l i t i c i a n . This i s q u i t e l i k e l y due to the f a c t t h a t most of the l o c a l 90 p o l i t i c i a n s as w e l l as the c i t y planners come from the upper middle c l a s s areas of the c i t y . The r e s u l t i s t h a t there i s a s o c i a l b a r r i e r t h a t has t o be overcome by persons from the poorer areas of the c i t y t o go and per-s o n a l l y v i s i t these people i n C i t y H a l l . I n the case of l e t t e r w r i t i n g , on the other hand, these s o c i a l b a r r i e r s are more or l e s s e l i m i n a t e d and the tau value r e l a t i n g i t w i t h l o c a t i o n then decreases t o .1286 which i s not a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t the 99$ l e v e l . The v a r i a b l e FRIEND i s i n f l u e n c e d i n a somewhat s i m i l a r f a s h i o n . Since most of the l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s and c i t y planners l i v e i n the w e a l t h i e r r a r e a s , t h e i r f r i e n d s are then a l s o more l i k e l y to come from these p a r t s of the c i t y . I n f a c t , i t i s q u i t e remarkable t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e ,is not l a r g e r , and i t can be speculated t h a t t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s the r e s u l t of a d e s i r e and tendency among people i n the lower socio-economic groups and areas to be proud of these personal acquaintances and value them as an important route t o involvement and i n f l u e n c e . Each respondent was a l s o asked how he would f i g h t i f he was s u f f i c i e n t l y upset over an i s s u e . I n EE over 26$ of the suggestions d e a l t w i t h p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s , whereas the corresponding f i g u r e f o r WPG was a l i t t l e l e s s than 14$. When the people who had a c t u a l l y fought over an is s u e were asked how they had gone about t h i s , seven out of the e i g h t i n EE s a i d t h a t they had d i r e c t l y contacted 91 some p o l i t i c i a n , whereas t h a t was the method used hy no more than four out of the 25 i n WPG. I n another q u e s t i o n the respondents were asked i f they were mostly i n t e r e s t e d i n l o c a l or c i t y - w i d e i s s u e s , to which 26 i n EE and 1? i n WPG s a i d t h a t i t was the i s s u e s i n t h e i r own neighbourhood t h a t concerned them the most. A l l these f a c t o r s would then r e i n f o r c e the sug-g e s t i o n t h a t there i s a tendency f o r people i n lower socio-economic groups or areas to he more i n c l i n e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e when the a c t i n v o l v e s c l o s e person-to-person r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i s c l e a r l y o r i e n t e d t o a s p e c i f i c i s s u e , when t h i s i s s u e i s of c l e a r relevance t o t h e i r own pe r s o n a l l i v e s , and the a c t i s not too s o c i a l l y uncomfortable. To summarize the d i s c u s s i o n of the f o u r t h hypothesis i t can be s a i d t h a t there are c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t some types of p a r t i c i p a t o r y a c t s tend to a t t r a c t the lower, as opposed t o the hi g h e r , socio-economic groups more than o t h e r s . However, i t has not been p o s s i b l e to give a d e f i n i t e s t a t i s t i c a l p roof of t h i s suggested s i t u a t i o n . 1 CHAPTER VII • ANALYSIS OF THE DISTRIBUTIONAL EFFECTS OF SOME PROPOSALS TO ENCOURAGE CITIZEN PARTICIPATION I n t h i s c h a p t e r a number o f v a r i o u s p r o p o s a l s t o encourage c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n has been a n a l y z e d i n the l i g h t o f the f i n d i n g s o f the survey. I t s h o u l d be emphasized t h a t o n l y the p a r t i c i p a t o r y a s pects o f the s u g g e s t i o n s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . To a n a l y z e i n f u l l d e t a i l a l l t h e i r consequences would be much beyond the scope o f t h i s t h e s i s . Throughout the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n the d i s t i n c t i o n between the two b a s i c purposes o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h a t was mentioned i n Chapter I , w i l l be u s e f u l t o keep i n mind. On the onecr hand t h e r e i s the g o a l o f a c h i e v i n g a balance o f power between the v a r i o u s groups i n s o c i e t y which gen-e r a l l y means t o i n c r e a s e the i n f l u e n c e o f the lower s o c i o -economic groups, and on the other hand there i s the g o a l o f g e t t i n g as many people as p o s s i b l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e f o r involvement's own sake i n terms o f s e l f - e d u c a t i o n and p e r -s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n . A. A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g Bodies T h i s i s the o l d e s t and most t r a d i t i o n a l form of 92 93 c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g process. Many muni-c i p a l i t i e s have now some s o r t of "Planning Commission" where u s u a l l y the most outstanding and s u c c e s s f u l people i n p r o f e s s i o n a l l i f e or i n the business world are appointed by the p o l i t i c i a n s to s erve, w i t h the j u s t i f i c a t i o n t h a t they are s a i d t o be the most r e s p o n s i b l e , knowledgeable and perhaps even the community l e a d e r s . I n a recent program i n Texas by the Department of Community A f f a i r s (1972) to p l a n the development of s m a l l communities, t h e i r only way of s a t i s f y i n g the demand f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n was to i n s t i t u t e c i t i z e n s * committees which b a s i c a l l y c o n s i s t e d of the l o c a l businessmen. The power and i n f l u e n c e t h a t was given t o each of these com-mi tees depended on how w e l l they were considered t o be working by the program l e a d e r s . I t i s thus seen t h a t the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n A d v i s o r y Committees tend to be l i m i t e d t o the very knowledgeable and the wealthy people. V i r t u a l l y a l l the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s type of p a r t i c i p a t i o n tends to discourage i n v o l v e -ment of lower c l a s s people. The primary reasons being t h a t these committees and boards are u s u a l l y o f a very general c h a r a c t e r , permanent or semi-permanent, not very w e l l p u b l i c i z e d , and a s u b s t a n t i a l s o c i a l b a r r i e r would have to be overcome by anyone from outside the s o c i a l e l i t e . r B. P u b l i c Hearings Quite o f t e n p u b l i c hearings are r e q u i r e d by s t a t u t o r y 94 laws before a p l a n or a zoning change can come i n t o e f f e c t . This compulsion t o hold p u b l i c hearings has o f t e n had t h e r r e s u l t t h a t the pl a n n i n g agency or p o l i t i c a l body merely goes through the r e q u i r e d motions without any des i r e or w i l l to make i t i n t o anmeaningful experience. ( F u l t o n , 1971, p.5). Whatever the a t t i t u d e of the p u b l i c body, p u b l i c hearings have many severe drawbacks; they provide f o r no dia l o g u e , they encourage c o n f r o n t a t i o n and negative p a r t i c i p a t i o n s i n c e a l t e r n a t i v e s are u s u a l l y not pr o v i d e d , they t y p i c a l l y occur too l a t e i n the plan n i n g process t o be able t o have any meaningful impact on the b a s i c d i r e c t i o n and assumptions of the p l a n or p r o p o s a l , and they u s u a l l y l a c k any k i n d of follow- u p . I t i s t h e r e f o r e obvious t h a t a p u b l i c hearing has not been a very good way of channeling meaningful p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I t does, however, have some b e n e f i c i a l s i d e s i n terms of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , by the lower income people, i n t h a t i t deals w i t h a very s p e c i f i c i s s u e and has no permanency whatsoever. On the other hand there i s no personal contact w i t h the p o l i t i c i a n s or planners and t h i s c o u l d be p a r t of the reason f o r the c y n i c i s m t h a t was found everywhere towards p u b l i c hearings i n the i n t e r v i e w s done f o r t h i s study. C. Re g u l a r i z e d Contacts w i t h Organizations This c o u l d occur e i t h e r i n a formal or i n f o r m a l way, 95 but the procedure would be t h a t e i t h e r r u l e s or customs would govern c o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h the various v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s . As has been suggested by the Bureau of M u n i c i p a l Research (.1970) t h i s c o u l d a l s o occur through r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the o r g a n i z a t i o n s concerned on C o u n c i l Committees when problems and i s s u e s a f f e c t i n g them are d e a l t w i t h . The Bureau of M u n i c i p a l Research ( 1970) has a l s o pointed out t h a t p o l i t i c i a n s are t y p i c a l l y very s c e p t i c a l about the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s of these v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s and t h i s problem of l e g i t i m a c y makes i t probably a d v i s a b l e f o r the c o n s u l t a t i o n s tobe i n f o r m a l and based on customs to a l l o w f o r f l e x i b i l i t y . I t i s consequently extremely important to somehow t r y to assess^the s i z e and i n t e n s i t y •of support t h a t these groups have i n the community. The survey t h a t was done f o r t h i s t h e s i s showed very c l e a r l y t h a t membership i n p o l i t i c a l l y o r i e n t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s was much more common i n the upper-middle income a r e a , and i t was a l s o very h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d to socio-economic s t a t u s w i t h i n each of the two areas. Furthermore, i t was found t h a t those very a c t i v e i n these kinds of o r g a n i z a t i o n s were almost e x c l u s i v e l y from the highest socio-economic group. E s p e c i a l l y i n the low-income area, t h i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n was found to be remarkably s t r o n g . The reason i s q u i t e l i k e l y t h a t being a c t i v e i n t h i s k i n d of an a s s o c i a t i o n means to be committed to a s e t of g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s r a t h e r than s p e c i f i c i s s u e s , t o make long-term commitments of time 96 and e f f o r t , and to become a conspicuous and well-known r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n and a l l t h a t i t stands f o r . Hence, w i t h regards to the two b a s i c purposes of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the value of t h i s approach i s concentrated i n terms of the achievement of g o a l s r a t h e r than any ed u c a t i o n a l or other b e n e f i t s a c c r u i n g t o i n d i v i d u a l s from the process. R e i n f o r c i n g t h i s emphasis on goals i s : -the f a c t t h a t i n order to f u n c t i o n e f f i c i e n t l y , most or g a n i z a t i o n s have only a s m a l l group of people who are the a c t i v e and p o l i t i c a l l y s k i l l f u l members. D. Reform of the R e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l System The i n t r o d u c t i o n of a ward system i n Vancouver would i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d mean a l o t i n terms of i n c r e a s i n g the power of the poorer p a r t s of the C i t y . Since the s i z e of the wards would be determined by p o p u l a t i o n , the e f f e c t of the much lower turnout i n the low income areas would be e l i m i n a t e d . However, i n terms of a c t u a l l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the e f f e c t would probably be much s m a l l e r , but i t would s t i l l be an improvement. Since the e l e c t o r a l campaigns would be more l o c a l l y and p e r s o n a l l y o r i e n t e d , d e a l i n g w i t h i s s u e s c l o s e r t o people's homes, i t i s q u i t e l i k e l y t h a t i n t e r e s t and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the e l e c t i o n s would increase s u b s t a n t i a l l y among the lower s t a t u s people. Winnipeg introduced a u n i f i e d government f o r the whole m e t r o p o l i t a n area i n 1 9 7 2 , c o n s i s t i n g of 50 aldermen 97 e l e c t e d from wards, w i t h an average p o p u l a t i o n of 10,000 people. There i s a c l e a r t r a d e - o f f here between e f f i c i e n c y of government, which would improveIwith a s m a l l c o u n c i l , and a c c e s s i b i l i t y and contact w i t h the p u b l i c . The l a t t e r i s the reason f o r t h i s u nusually l a r g e c o u n c i l , and t o f u r t h e r encourage p a r t i c i p a t i o n , a system of t h i r t e e n community committees were s e t up to provide f o r some degree of l o c a l autonomy, a s t a f f e d s i t e o f f i c e , r e g u l a r meetings between c o u n c i l l o r s and c i t i z e n s , and i n f o r m a t i o n f a c i l i t a t o r between C i t y C o u n c i l and the p u b l i c (Vancouver Sun, 1973). Assuming t h a t there i s no gerrymandering i n v o l v e d but th a t the ward boundaries f o l l o w community boundaries reasonably w e l l , t h i s i s a very worthwhile approach. Small , wards of around 10,000 people, w i t h only around h a l f of t h a t being r e g i s t e r e d v o t e r s , mean t h a t c l o s e p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s are p o s s i b l e between the alderman and h i s c o n s t i t u e n t s . The community committees provide a r e g u l a r meeting whose time and place should soon become common knowledge. At the annual general, meeting of such a committee, a s m a l l r e s i d e n t s ' a d v i s o r y group i s e l e c t e d and t h i s group subsequently meets much more f r e q u e n t l y and a c t s l i k e an executive committee. There a r e , however, a l s o some disadvantages i n terms o f t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n a l e f f e c t of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . This i s p r i m a r i l y due t o the important r o l e played by the r e s i d e n t s ' a d v i s o r y group which runs the danger of becoming s i m i l a r t o the above discussed A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g Bodies, s i n c e they both have a g e n e r a l , a d v i s o r y and permanent c h a r a c t e r . Then there i s a l s o the 98 r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e c o n s t i t u e n c y of each community, committee, sin c e there i s only one f o r every 40,000 people. E. Neighbourhood Government This i s a f r e q u e n t l y suggested s o l u t i o n t o the problem of the i n c r e a s i n g distance and a l i e n a t i o n between mun i c i p a l governments and the people ( K o t l e r , 19^9» NDP, 1969; S h a l a l a , 1971). I t i s g e n e r a l l y taken to mean the c r e a t i o n of another l e v e l of government under the m u n i c i p a l or m e t r o p o l i t a n l e v e l , w i t h t h i s new u n i t having independent powers over whatever i s d e f i n e d as i s s u e s of mainly l o c a l concern. C r u c i a l i n g r e d i e n t s are here t h a t there are l o c a l e l e c t i o n s , the l o c a l u n i t has a s u b s t a n t i a l amount of independent powers and there i s a region-wide tax base. I t i s thus c l e a r t h a t these schemes i n v o l v e at l e a s t some r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of power and resources i n f a vor of the lower c l a s e areas who w i l l g a i n a measure of c o n t r o l over t h e i r own p a r t s of the C i t y . I n terms of i t s e f f e c t on the d i s t r i b u t i o n of p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s , i t i s very l i k e l y t o be p o s i t i v e . The primary reason f o r t h i s i s t h a t the governmental u n i t w i l l be much s m a l l and t h e r e f o r e the amount of p e r s o n a l contacts w i l l i n c rease and the i s s u e s w i l l be more s p e c i f i c and c l o s e r t o everybody's homes. I t should be emphasized, however, t h a t simple d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of the government does not a u t o m a t i c a l l y s o l v e a l l the problems. I t was found i n the survey done f o r t h i s t h e s i s t h a t the a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n l o c a l 99 p o l i t i c s i n t h e p o o r e r a r e a s c o n s t i t u t e d a v e r y n a r r o w e l i t e g r o u p a n d t h e y t e n d e d t o a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y come f r o m t h e s m a l l h i g h l y e d u c a t e d g r o u p i n t h e s e low s o c i o -e c o n o m i c s t a t u s a r e a s . The p o s s i b i l i t y t h e n e x i s t s t h a t i t w o u l d be t h i s t i n y e l i t e g r o u p t h a t w o u l d t a k e c o n t r o l o f t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d g o v e r n m e n t an d v i r t u a l l y no i n c r e a s e i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n w o u l d o c c u r f o r o t h e r . p e o p l e . The p o i n t i s t h e n t h a t d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n a l o n e i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y s u f f i c i e n t t o n o t i c e a b l y i n c r e a s e t h e l e v e l o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Among t h e f a c t o r s t h a t s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e s t h e c o n d u c i v e -n e s s t o w i d e s p r e a d i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e d e c e n t r a l i z e d g o v e r n -ment a r e t h e s i z e o f t h e u n i t s , t h e i r powers a n d i n d e p e n -d e n c e , t h e f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e u n i t s a n d t h e p e r -s o n a l i t i e s i n v o l v e d i n e a c h o f them. G e n e r a l l y , however, a d e c e n t r a l i z e d g o v e r n m e n t does p r o v i d e a f r amework w i t h i n w h i c h i t i s much e a s i e r t o e n c o u r a g e a n d s o l i c i t w i d e s p r e a d p a r t i c i p a t i o n b y a l l g r o u p s . F. L o c a l A r e a P l a n n i n g • T h i s t y p e o f p r o p o s a l s r e f e r more s p e c i f i c a l l y t o t h e d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n s . One p r o b l e m i s t h e n , however, w h e t h e r o r n o t p l a n n i n g a n d p o l i t i c a l f u n c t i o n s c a n be s e p a r a t e d i n t h i s manner w i t h p l a n n i n g o p e r a t i n g l o c a l l y a n d t h e p o l i t i c i a n s a t t h e c i t y - w i d e l e v e l . I t w o u l d seem l i k e t h e r e w o u l d be a b u i l t - i n s o u r c e o f c o n -f l i c t b e t w e e n t h e two. D i s r e g a r d i n g t h e p r a c t i c a l a n d p o l i t i c a l d i f f i c u l -t i e s , d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f t h e p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n s w o u l d 100 l a r g e l y have s i m i l a r e f f e c t s on p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a decen-t r a l i z a t i o n of the m u n i c i p a l government. The adminis-t r a t o r s , i f not the f i n a l decision-makers, would be much c l o s e r a t hand, pers o n a l contacts would t h e r e f o r e be g r e a t l y f a c i l i t a t e d , and the i s s u e s would be of a more l o c a l c h a r a c t e r and e a s i e r to grasp for|the o r d i n a r y person. L o c a l area p l a n n i n g can, however, mean many d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s , such as a simple i n f o r m a t i o n l i a s o n between the l o c a l area and C i t y H a l l , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of c e n t r a l l y drawn up p l a n s , independent l o c a l p l a n n i n g or p r o v i s i o n of s t a f f f o r l o c a l groups to do t h e i r own plan n i n g . The p e r s o n a l i t i e s of the people i n v o l v e d i n t h i s scheme are tremendously important. I f they regard them-se l v e s as b a s i c a l l y i n f o r m a t i o n gatherers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , .they are not l i k e l y to be able t o induce much more wide-spread p a r t i c i p a t i o n . However, i f they have some independent powers, or i f they are p a r t i c i p a t o r y i n c l i n e d , involvement by the o r d i n a r y people i s much more l i k e l y t o be g r e a t l y s t i m u l a t e d . I n the s p r i n g of 1973» Vancouver's P l a n n i n g Depart-ment drew up a prop o s a l f o r the establishment o f l o c a l area planning ( C i t y of Vancouver, 1973)• However, i t i s a r a t h e r modest pro p o s a l t h a t only i n c l u d e s a " C i t i z e n s A d v i s o r y Group" which i s e s t a b l i s h e d by the l o c a l area p l a n n i n g team, and can only give advice r e g a r d i n g the l o c a l plans t o the planning team. 101 Although a measure of l o c a l autonomy has been added and a t t e n t i o n t o l o c a l i s s u e s w i l l i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d be i n c r e a s e d , any improvements i n terms of evenly d i s -t r i b u t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n would appear to be up t o d i s c r e t i o n of , and i n d i v i d u a l e f f o r t s by, the persons working i n the l o c a l p l a n n i n g team. There i s a l s o the danger t h a t the C i t i z e n s A d v i s o r y Group w i l l only c o n s i s t of those already a c t i v e , who, as has been p o i n t e d out e a r l i e r , belong t o the s m a l l h i g h l y educated group i n these lower income areas. G. More and B e t t e r I n f o r m a t i o n This i s a f a c t o r t h a t should be an ;essentia1 rt p a r t of any program to encourage c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I t o f t e n tends to be taken f o r granted and s i n c e nobody argues a g a i n s t i t , i t i s sometimes not even mentioned i n proposals f o r , and d i s c u s s i o n s o f , i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n such as i n the p u b l i c a t i o n s by S h a l a l a (1971) and K o t l e r (1969). The great importance of the d i s s e m i n a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n stems from the f a c t t h a t the unequal l e v e l s of knowledge and understanding of i s s u e s i s an important p a r t of the reasons f o r the very wide i n e q u a l i t i e s i n terms of p a r t i c i p a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e between d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of s o c i e t y . Widespread, good, and e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e i n f o r m a t i o n about p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s would t h e r e f o r e go a long way towards decreasing these i n e q u a l i t i e s . 102 I t can be suggested t h a t there are three e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t s i n "good" i n f o r m a t i o n : 1. the language must be simple, 2 , more than one a l t e r n a t i v e must be presented, and 3» "the b a s i c i s s u e s plus a l l consequences, negative as w e l l as p o s i t i v e ones, must be c l e a r l y o u t l i n e d and pointed out. The t h i r d i n g r e d i e n t introduces a severe problem s i n c e C i t y H a l l would then be l i t e r a l l y i n v i t i n g o p p o s i t i o n and controversy. Quite l i k e l y there would then be, as there always has been, a-tendency f o r the m u n i c i -p a l i t y t o a v o i d t r o u b l e as much as p o s s i b l e , w i t h the subsequent unfortunate consequences f o r the q u a l i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n . Thomas Reiner (1971) has suggested a govern-mentally financed s e r v i c e u n i t f o r approximately every 5 0 , 0 0 0 people whose main task would be t o i n t e r p r e t and comment on,proposals made by the various p u b l i c agencies. The problem again would, however, seem to be t h a t i n f o r -mation alon e , without any other p o l i c i e s to create oppor-t u n i t i e s f o r involvement, can not do very much i n terms of making p a r t i c i p a t i o n more widespread. H. Community Development O f f i c e r s This i s a proposal made by a B r i t i s h Government Committee s p e c i f i c a l l y t o i n c r e a s e the i n f l u e n c e and power of lower c l a s s people and those g e n e r a l l y who u s u a l l y are n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s ( S k e f f i n g t o n , 19^9, pp . 1 6 - 1 7 ) . The work of t h i s o f f i c e r i s seen to have three main f a c e t s : 1 . t o 103 provide i n f o r m a t i o n to l o c a l r e s i d e n t s , 2. t o r e c e i v e and t r a n s m i t l o c a l r e a c t i o n s , and 3. t o help organize new groups t h a t l a t e r can look a f t e r the i n t e r e s t s of the area themselves. Quite o b v i o u s l y , there i s a st r o n g source of poten-t i a l c o n f l i c t i n t h a t t h i s o f f i c e r i s employed by the l o c a l government! but he might end up encouraging people to f i g h t C i t y H a l l most of the time, i n which case h i s futur e employment w i l l come i n q u e s t i o n . Another pos-s i b i l i t y i s t h a t he w i l l simply be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the mun i c i p a l government, and t h e r e f o r e viewed as a salesman f o r i t s p o l i c i e s . A l l t h i s p o i n t s a t the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of having a m u n i c i p a l employee as a community o r g a n i z e r . H i s only u s e f u l f u n c t i o n would then be t h a t of an i n f o r -mation t r a n s m i t t o r between C i t y H a l l and the l o c a l r e s i d e n t s . I . P l e b i s c i t e s T h e o r e t i c a l l y , the use of p l e b i s c i t e s should e l i m i n a t e a l l i n e q u a l i t i e s , because then the p r i n c i p l e of one man one vote would r u l e , assuming t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s such as land owners versus tenants are e l i m i n a t e d . However, as. was i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r , i t would appear t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e between v o t e r turnout r a t e s among upper and lower income people i n c r e a s e as the scope of the e l e c t i o n decreases. On the other hand, i n a p l e b i c i t e the i s s u e would be very s p e c i f i c and c l e a r l y r e l a t e d t o an obvious problem, which then probably would tend t o in c r e a s e the i n t e r e s t i n the lower income areas. 104 More widespread use of l o c a l i z e d p l e b i s c i t e s i s a p o s s i b i l i t y f o r i s s u e s t h a t are c l e a r l y l o c a l , but to i n a formal way draw the a c t u a l borders of the impact area of a proposal i s very d i f f i c u l t and bound t o cause d i s -s a t i s f a c t i o n and controversy. Thomas Reiner (1971) has discussed the p o s s i b i l i t y of a s s i g n i n g weights to views and votes of var i o u s groups depending on t h e i r s i z e and the s t r e n g t h of the impact of the proposal on them. To t r y to de r i v e such weights f o r each pr o p o s a l and get them g e n e r a l l y accepted by most people would be an enormous task t h a t c o u l d only be done i n theory and never i n p r a c t i c e . P l e b i s c i t e s have many advantages i n t h a t v o t i n g i s an accepted way of p a r t i c i p a t i n g , everybody knows howwt6 do i t , and no other p a r t i c i p a t o r y a c t can have so •many people t a k i n g p a r t . To i l l u s t r a t e the unique p o s i t i o n t h a t v o t i n g occupies c u r r e n t l y , i t can be mentioned t h a t over 75$ o f a n a t i o n wide Canadian sample i n 19&5 agreed w i t h the statement t h a t "Voting i s the only way tha t people l i k e me can have a say i n how the government runs t h i n g s . " ( M e i s e l , 1966, p.24). There are problems, however, and one of them i s the f o r m a l i t y o f ^ l e b i s c i t e s , which means t h a t s t r i c t borders would have t o be drawn f o r any l o c a l i z e d referendum and few i s s u e s are so b i g as to j u s t i f y c i t y - w i d e p l e b i s c i t e s . Another disadvantage i s t h a t J . i t provides f o r no other p a r t i c i p a t i o n beyond a simple "yes" or "no". This can, how-ever, be j u s t i f i e d i n some cases as the clima x of a long 105 process where manyoother ways of i n v o l v i n g people were explored, but no s o l u t i o n was found t h a t was acceptable to a l l . J . A t t i t u d e Surveys This g e n e r a l l y means t a k i n g a random sample of people and then i n t e r v i e w them or ask them to f i l l out a q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n order t o f i n d out t h e i r thoughts and opinions on a number of i s s u e s . Although r e f u s a l r a t e s are higher among low income people, t h a t can e a s i l y be taken i n t o account: by i n i t i a l l y s e l e c t i n g more persons from the poorer p a r t s of the C i t y . I t i s a l s o very l i k e l y t h a t i f a t t i t u d e surveys were done by the decision-makers r a t h e r than by academics, the r e f u s a l r a t e s would decrease d r a s t i c a l l y . One danger t h a t must not be neglected i s t h a t those w i t h w e l l thought out and a r t i c u l a t e d opinions are fewer i n the low s t a t u s area which might p o s s i b l y mean t h a t t h e i r views w i l l be ignored or c l a s s i f i e d as "don't know". Consequently the exact procedures f o r the survey are very important. S i m i l a r l y , i f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e survey i s t o be-come a r e g u l a r feature;:of l o c a l government, say once every year, the exact f o r m u l a t i o n of questions can l e a d to a l o t of d isputes andobe accused o f being l e a d i n g and u n f a i r . This should not, however, be an insurmountable problem. Often these a t t i t u d e surveys only r e s u l t i n a one-way flow o f i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h l i t t l e d i s c u s s i o n or feedback. However, some q u i t e i n n o v a t i v e surveys have been done where 106 elaborate systems of i n t e r v i e w s , group-meetings and f o l l o w -up were i n c l u d e d (Dane County, 1971 ; F u l t o n , 1 9 7 1 ; Berger, 1 9 7 D . I n terms of the process b e n e f i t s , these more ambi-t i o u s programs appear more advantageous i n t h a t they most l i k e l y a c t i v a t e and s t i m u l a t e a l o t of people who would otherwise be n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s . At the same time these programs do provide f o r d i a l o g u e , d i s s e m i n a t i o n of i n f o r -mation, and feed-back. With regards t o the achievement of g o a l s , however, there i s a s e r i o u s danger than i n d i v i d u a l persons, p a r t i c u l a r l y those t h a t are not very w e l l educated, w i l l very e a s i l y be persuaded and change t h e i r views when confronted by the c i t y ' s p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r t i s e answering a l l the questions smoothly. This c o u l d then d e t e r i o r a t e i n t o s e r i o u s c o o p t a t i o n o f the respondents. The only r e s u l t would then be b i t t e r n e s s , because a f t e r the i n i t i a l s a t i s f a c t i o n they would c o n s i d e r themselves cheated and l e d behind the l i g h t by the c i t y people. Since very o f t e n there i s a s t r o n g tendency among respondents t o want to please i n t e r v i e w e r s (Laponce, 1 9 6 9 , P . . 2 4 ), i t appears as i f only the q u e s t i o n n a i r e survey could be r e a l l y unbiased. As mentioned above, the mailed q u e s t i o n n a i r e has a number of shortcomings, but i t can s t i l l be an important p a r t of a wider p a r t i c i p a t o r y program. K. Task Forces These would be s p e c i a l groups of a temporary 107 c h a r a c t e r l o o k i n g i n t o s p e c i f i c problems. A good example here are the P o l i c y Committees t h a t are to be e s t a b l i s h e d during the s p r i n g of 1973 under the auspices of Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t ' s L i v a b l e Region program. U n f o r t u n a t e l y these committees appear t o have many s i m i l a r i t i e s to the p r e v i o u s l y discussed A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g Bodies. Even though they are open f o r anybody to j o i n , they are not very w e l l p u b l i c i z e d . Furthermore, i n the o f f i c i a l o u t l i n e d e s c r i b i n g these P o l i c y Committees the d e s i r a b i l i t y of having a l a r g e number of knowledgeable pro f e s s i o n a l s and p o l i t i c i a n s i n c l u d e d i s emphasized, whereas a balanced r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a l l groups i n the c i t y i s not even mentioned (Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t , 1 9 7 3 ) . The f a c t t h a t there are supposed t o be rep r e s e n t a -t i v e s from a l l l e v e l s of government plus p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r t i s e , would appear t o mean t h a t most of the d i s c u s s i o n s would c i r c l e around these two groups, w h i l e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the p u b l i c , e s p e c i a l l y i f they come from a poor are a , are l i k e l y t o f e e l i n t i m i d a t e d and be l e f t o u tside during the d i s c u s s i o n s . The composition of these committees would t h e r e f o r e tend t o e r e c t s o c i a l b a r r i e r s t h a t would have t o be overcome by people from lower c l a s s areas before they can p a r t i c i p a t e e f f e c t i v e l y . The c h a r a c t e r o f task forces such as these committees a l s o tend to discourage any spontaneous p a r t i c p a t i o n by anybody but the"most, well-educated s i n c e they d e a l w i t h 108 r e l a t i v e l y general;/ problem areas which the group members are supposed t o take a comprehensive and r e g i o n a l look a t , plus the f a c t t h a t a r e l a t i v e l y s u b s t a n t i a l and).long-term time commitment i s asked f o r . CHAPTER V I I I SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS I n Canadian s o c i e t y today there are a la r g e number of pressures generating the i n c r e a s i n g demands f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the governmental processes. I t was found t h a t among the most important werei a s h i f t i n b a s i c values? a growing r o l e of the government i n everybody's l i v e s , i n c r e a s i n g l e v e l s of education and exposure t o media, p l u s the i n c r e a s i n g complexity of governmental i n s t i t u t i o n s . I t was suggested t h a t there were two b a s i c purposes f o r encouraging and s o l i c i t i n g more widespread involvement of the average c i t i z e n . The f i r s t r e l a t e t o the achievement of c e r t a i n goals and the a c t u a l r e s u l t s of the governmental decision-making process i n terms of p o l i c y output. The second one r e f e r s more t o the process i t s e l f and the i n t r i n s i c value of p a r t i c i p a t i o n as the important c o n s i d e r a t i o n . I t argues f o r the d e s i r a b i l i t y of having as many people i n v o l v e d as i s p o s s i b l e because o f the b e n e f i t s a c c r u i n g to each p a r t i c i p a n t i n terms of education, self-development, acceptance o f p o l i c y output, a f e e l i n g of c o n t r o l over h i s environment, and gen e r a l s a t i s f a c t i o n . When the a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e was reviewed i t was 109 110. f o u n d t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e r e was a l o t o f m a t e r i a l o u t l i n i n g how p e o p l e i n t h e g r o u p s w i t h a l o w e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s p a r t i c i p a t e l e s s t h a n o t h e r s , t h e r e was v e r y l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i n b e t w e e n t h e v a r i o u s p a r t i c i p a t o r y a c t s . I t was a l s o g e n e r a l l y a s s u m e d t h a t t h e y w e r e o f a c u m u l a t i v e n a t u r e . A g a p i n g h o l e was f o u n d i n t e r m s o f r e s e a r c h a n d d i s c u s s i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e Canadian s c e n e , a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y t h i s was t h e c a s e f o r W e s t e r n Canada. The f o l l o w i n g f o u r h y p o t h e s e s w e r e t h e n g e n e r a t e d : 1. P e o p l e i n l o w e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c g r o u p s p a r t i -c i p a t e l e s s i n p o l i t i c s a n d p l a n n i n g t h a n do t h o s e i n t h e u p p e r c l a s s e s . 2. P e o p l e i n t h e l o w e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c g r o u p s h a v e l e s s p o t e n t i a l f o r most p a r t i c i p a t o r y a c t s t h a n do t h o s e i n t h e u p p e r g r o u p s . 3. P a r t i c i p a t o r y a c t s do n o t t e n d t o be cumu-l a t i v e i n c h a r a c t e r . 4. P e o p l e i n d i f f e r e n t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c g r o u p s t e n d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n d i f f e r e n t ways a n d u s e s e p a r a t e c h a n n e l s t o i n f l u e n c e t h e l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t . A. Summary o f R e s u l t s The f i r s t t wo h y p o t h e s e s w e r e c o n c l u s i v e l y p r o v e n f o r t h e two a r e a s s u r v e y e d i n V a n c b u v e r . T h e r e b y i t was shown t h a t t h e r e c l e a r l y i s a much l o w e r r a t e o f a c t u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , a s w e l l a s p o t e n t i a l f o r t h e s e a c t s , i n b o t h t h e l o w e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s a r e a a s o p p o s e d t o t h e u p p e r s t a t u s a r e a , a n d i n t h e l o w e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c g r o u p s w i t h i n e a c h o f t h e s e two a r e a s . I n a d d i t i o n i t was n o t e d t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s a n d p a r t i c i p a t i o n was much s t r o n g e r i n t h e p o o r e r a r e a , t h e r e b y i m p l y i n g t h a t i n v o l v e m e n t was much more u n e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d I l l there than w i t h i n the w e a l t h i e r a rea. The t h i r d hypothesis was a l s o proven, w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t the d i f f e r e n t p a r t i c i p a t o r y a c t s c o u l d not be s a i d to be cumulative and f i t i n t o a Guttman s c a l e . The i m p l i c a t i o n of t h i s i s t h a t d i f f e r e n t people tend to p a r t i c i p a t e i n v a r y i n g ways, and tha t there i s not simply a one dimensional s c a l e of p a r t i c i p a t o r y a c t s of v a r y i n g i n t e n s i t y and d i f f i c u l t y . Subsequently the f o u r t h hypothesis was i n v e s t i g a t e d i n order t o f i n d out who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n each s p e c i f i c p a r t i c i p a t o r y a c t , s i n c e thepprevious hypothesis had shown t h a t there was t h i s d i f f e r e n c e between the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the various a c t s . The f i n d i n g s showed, however, t h a t apart from complaining t o C i t y H a l l and, t o some e x t e n t , •voting, the predominance of the upper socio-economic s t a t u s groups was c o n s i s t e n t l y s i g n i f i c a n t by a wide margin. Thus i t was c l e a r t h a t a l l the d i f f e r e n t p a r t i c i p a t o r y a c t s th a t c o u l d be f u r t h e r emphasized i n the f u t u r e were s t r o n g l y dominated by the upper s t a t u s groups. T h e p p o t e n t i a l f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n these a c t s was even more s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d t o socio-economic s t a t u s , thereby h i n t i n g at the danger tha t a s ^ p a r t i c i p a t i o n becomes more widespread, the people w i t h a high p o t e n t i a l score w i l l become more a c t i v e and th e r e f o r e make the p a r t i c i p a n t s even more unequally d i s -t r i b u t e d among the s o c i a l c l a s s e s of the c i t y . At c l o s e r examination, however, a d i f f e r e n c e be-tween the p a r t i c i p a t o r y p a t t e r n s of the lower c l a s s e s as 112 opposed to the upper c l a s s e s was p e r c e i v e d . I t appears as i f those w i t h a lower socio-economic s t a t u s tended to he more w i l l i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e when the a c t d e a l t w i t h a s p e c i f i c and c l e a r l y d e f i n e d i s s u e , when the r e l a t i o n -s h i p between t h i s i s s u e and h i s own i n t e r e s t was very c l e a r , when there was ; d i r e c t p e r s o n a l contact w i t h the decision-maker, and when there was no n e c e s s i t y t o overcome any s o c i a l b a r r i e r s i n terms of c l o s e p e r s o n a l contact w i t h people from the highest socio-economic s t a t u s groups. I t was a l s o found t h a t the s t a t e d l e v e l of d i s -s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the m u n i c i p a l government was r e l a t i v e l y equal i n the two areas and g e n e r a l l y not r e l a t e d to s o c i o -economic s t a t u s . Table XXXII i l l u s t r a t e s an important d i f f e r e n c e between the two areas w i t h regards t o people's f e e l i n g s of p o l i t i c a l e f f i c a c y . TABLE XXXII DISSATISFACTION WITH CITY HALL IN EACH OF THE TWO SURVEYED AREAS WestcPoint Grey East End Question: Have you Yes 25 8 ever fought C i t y H a l l No reason t o 33 31 over any s p e c i f i c i s s u e ? No use to 16 35 From t h i s Table i t can be seen t h a t an equal number of people i n the two areas were d i s s a t i s f i e d , but 113 t h a t three times as many persons i n WPG had a c t u a l l y thought i t worthwhile t o t r y to i n f l u e n c e the m u n i c i p a l government when they were d i s c o n t e n t . The normative c o n c l u s i o n from t h i s s i t u a t i o n would appear t o be t o make i t more worthwhile and e a s i e r f o r people i n the lower socio-economic groups t o i n f l u e n c e the c i v i c government and thereby to heigthen t h e i r sense of p o l i t i c a l e f f i c a c y . However, from the d i s c u s s i o n r e g a r d i n g the f o u r t h hypothesis i t appeared t o be a v i r t u a l i m p o s s i b i l i t y t o encourage any of the e x i s t i n g modes of p a r t i c i p a t i o n and a t the same time get a more equal d i s t r i b u t i o n of p a r t i -c i p a n t s among the various groups i n s o c i e t y . I t thus seemed t o be i n c o n c e i v a b l y f o r people i n the lower s o c i o -economic s t a t u s groups t o be able t o compete w i t h those i n the upper groups on equal terms, without u s u a l l y coming out a t the sh o r t end of the s t i c k . A s u b s t a n t i a l number of proposals to in c r e a s e p a r t i c i p a t i o n has been suggested by va r i o u s people, and some of these were i n v e s t i g a t e d w i t h regards to t h e i r e f f e c t on the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f power and of p a r t i c i p a t o r y a c t s . I t was found t h a t none of the proposals by i t s e l f was s u f f i c e n t to n o t i c e a b l y i n c r e a s e p a r t i c i p a t i o n without a t the same time cause a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of power i n favour of the well-educated and those already powerful. Most proposals appeared merely to t r y t o s a t i s f y those who most v o c i f e r o u s l y demand an i n c r e a s e d r o l e i n the decision-making process, which i n e f f e c t are the people 114 who a l r e a d y are the a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n one way or another. Only a few p r o p o s a l s , such as a t t i t u d e surveys, appeared to more a c t i v e l y seek out what the o r d i n a r y person's views a r e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y the p r e v i o u s l y discussed two b a s i c purposes of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n came very o f t e n i n c o n f l i c t w i t h each other. Under the c u r r e n t system of l o c a l govern-ment, i t appeared l i k e l y t h a t the best way to i n c r e a s e the power of the lower socio-economic s t a t u s groups i s to encourage and help t h e i r v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s i n t o be-coming str o n g e r and more e f f e c t i v e by p r o v i d i n g them w i t h resources, both m a t e r i a l and p e r s o n a l , and by r e g u l a r i z i n g contacts and c o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h them. However, t h i s would not i n c r e a s e the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the average person s i n c e ' i t would mainly give more powers to those a l r e a d y a c t i v e i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s , who, as was found i n the survey, belong to the s m a l l group of well-educated people i n these lower s t a t u s areas. Sometimes involvement through o r g a n i z a t i o n s i a l s o have a tendency to i n c r e a s e r a t h e r than e l i m i n a t e a l i e n a t i o n , b i t t e r n e s s and h o s t i l i t y between the v a r i o u s groups i n s o c i e t y . The reason f o r t h i s would be t h a t the demarcation l i n e between "us?3!:and "them" becomes f u r t h e r c l a r i f i e d and r e i n f o r c e d , and no i n t e r a c t i o n , except a t the very top l e v e l , i s encouraged between members of the various i n t e r e s t groups. On the other hand, there are some p a r t i c i p a t o r y a c t s that tend to encourage involvement of people not ) 115 p r e v i o u s l y i n v o l v e d and t h a t provides f o r more i n t e r -p e r s o n a l contact between people from d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t groups and w i t h d i f f e r i n g outlook on the b a s i c i s s u e s . This would t h e r e f o r e be more p e r s o n a l l y rewarding i n terms of education, s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n , understanding of o t h e r s , e t c . . However, these modes of p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t e n tend to r e i n f o r c e and even in c r e a s e the d i f f e r e n c e i n power and i n f l u e n c e t h a t e x i s t s between the upper and lower socio-economic s t a t u s groups. The reason f o r t h i s i s p r i m a r i l y t h a t i n s m a l l groups, the people t h a t are h i g h l y educated, s o c i a l l y c o n f i d e n t and a r t i c u l a t e tend to impose t h e i r w i l l on the others e i t h e r by persuading them or by i n t i m i d a t i n g them which can be done e i t h e r c o n s c i o u s l y or unconsciously. Therefore i t would seem as i f none of the o l d e r and e s t a b l i s h e d modes of p a r t i c i p a t i o n c o u l d y i e l d the d e s i r e d r e s u l t s both i n terms of achievement of an improved balance of power and inv-terms of a more widespread p a r t i -c i p a t i o n . Hence, e i t h e r a new form of p a r t i c i p a t i o n would have to be devised, or a combination of a number of the above mentioned proposals would have to be arranged i n order t o s a t i s f y both of the two g o a l s . B. Recommendations a. General ; I t i s extremely important t h a t p o l i t i c i a n s and planners do not simply " s i t back and l i s t e n " m o r e c c a r e f u l l y 116 to what the people say, hut r a t h e r they must go out a c t i v e l y i n t o the communities, e s t a b l i s h channels of communications, disseminate i n f o r m a t i o n , and s o l i c i t r e a c t i o n s and opinions from a l l the major groups i n s o c i e t y . The b a s i c reason f o r t h i s r a t h e r elementary but c r u c i a l recommendation i s tha t what i s c u r r e n t l y s a i d by vari o u s o p i n i o n leaders and then taken t o be the op i n i o n of a l l the people, i s very much dependent upon the r e -sources and s k i l l s possessed by the v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s of s o c i e t y . Therefore i t i s h e a v i l y b i a s e d i n favour of the alr e a d y powerful groups. That the above recommendation i s necessary i s e x e m p l i f i e d by a statement made by one of Vancouver's c u r r e n t alderment You i n the community must r a i s e the i s s u e s you want t o d e a l w i t h . C o u n c i l ' s Committees are always open to c i t i z e n d e l e g a t i o n s — a l l they have t o do i s w r i t e or telephone to get nn the agenda of a meeting,. We assume you w i l l come when you want t o discuss i s s u e s . (Vancouver Sun, March 6, 1973, P.9). This quote i l l u s t r a t e s q u i t e w e l l the tendency of many people t o s t i l l put a l l the r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p a r t i c i -p a t i o n on the p u b l i c w h i l e they themselves can be content to s i t back and l i s t e n , thereby i g n o r i n g the i n e q u a l i t i e s i n terms of re s o u r c e s , i n f o r m a t i o n , l e a d e r s h i p , e t c . , b. Regional or City-Wide Issues I t was found i n t t h e f i e l d work done f o r t h i s t h e s i s t h a t people i n the lower socio-economic groups 117 tended to complain more t o C i t y H a l l than d i d those from the.'tipper groups. Complaints was the only a c t i v i t y f o r which the above r e l a t i o n s h i p was t r u e . I n order t o inc r e a s e e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n by lower s t a t u s people t h i s a c t i v i t y c o u l d then be f u r t h e r emphasized by means such as the c r e a t i o n of an Ombudsman O f f i c e , whose purpose would be t o help people cut through b u r e a u c r a t i c r ed tape and make the whole m u n i c i p a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n more a c c e s s i b l e to the average person. By thereby encouraging feedback, the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e machinery would l i k e l y a l s o be made more e f f i c i e n t , a l e r t and responsive. Because of the c r u c i a l importance ofppossession of i n f o r m a t i o n , great s t r e s s must be put on producing i t i n simple l a y language a t the var i o u s stages of the pl a n n i n g •process, and then d i s t r i b u t e i t w i d e l y t o a l l the a f f e c t e d p a r t i e s . A l l the major a l t e r n a t i v e s must be considered and both the b e n e f i c i a l and the more unfortunate consequences must be c l e a r l y d e s c r i b e d . I n a d d i t i o n , i t i s extremely important t h a t the b a s i c i s s u e s i n v o l v e d are d i r e c t l y and p r o v o c a t i v e l y p o i n t e d out. The most important f a c t o r here i s t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n should not be i n the shape of a g l o s s y pamphlet which simply advocates the a l t e r n a t i v e p r e f e r r e d by C i t y H a l l , w h i l e suppressing the negative e f f e c t s and the b a s i c i s s u e s t h a t are i n v o l v e d , The problem i s then how t h i s can p o s s i b l y be achieved s i n c e i t would be next t o impossible f o r the 118 c i t y bureaucracy to argue f o r the v a r i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e s w i t h equal persuasiveness. One p o s s i b i l i t y i s f o r the c i t y to d i v i d e up an i n f o r m a t i o n pamphlet i n t o , say, four p a r t s , where the f i r s t s e c t i o n c o n s i s t s of an i n i t i a l d e s c r i p t i o n of the s i t u a t i o n and the problem a t hand. Each of the f o l l o w i n g three p a r t s would then be produced by a chosen i n t e r e s t group', and care should be g i v e n to ensuring t h a t the range of these i n t e r e s t groups are as wide as p o s s i b l e . Funds, m a t e r i a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r t i s e should then be provided f o r these groups duri n g the p r o d u c t i o n p e r i o d of t h i s pamphlet. I t i s a l s o a n t i -c i p a t e d t h a t each group's p r e s e n t a t i o n w i l l i n c l u d e a c r i t i c i s m of the other competing a l t e r n a t i v e s . The c i t y p l anning department would then f u n c t i o n as a resource f o r •the three groups w h i l e the a l t e r n a t i v e s are drawn up. The number of times t h a t such an i n f o r m a t i o n pamphlet should be produced f o r an i s s u e can only be d e t e r -mined f o r each s p e c i f i c case s e p a r a t e l y . However, the most important c o n s i d e r a t i o n here i s to have a f i r s t pamphlet very e a r l y i n the process both i n order to decide b a s i c d i r e c t i o n s and to awaken i n t e r e s t and awareness of the i s s u e . With regards to i n f o r m a t i o n i t should a l s o be s a i d t h a t the c i t y p l a n n i n g departments should be more open to the p u b l i c and give more emphasis to t h e i r s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n by p r o v i d i n g more i n f o r m a t i o n t o the g e n e r a l p u b l i c wherever i t i s needed and p o s s i b l e . 119 I t i s now a r e l a t i v e l y w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d f a c t t h a t i n e q u a l i t i e s between the var i o u s socio-economic s t a t u s groups i n terms of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c r e a s e r a p i d l y as i s s u e s and problems become of a more gene r a l nature. People i n low s t a t u s areas sometimes c o n s i d e r these i s s u e s to be of l e s s concern t o them si n c e t h e i r e f f e c t i s more i n d i r e c t . Regional i s s u e s a l s o tend t o be more complex s i n c e they are more f a r - r e a c h i n g and the sets of i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s and interdependencies are more i n t r i c a t e . Because of these r e a s o n s , y p a r t i c i p a t i o n ' t h r o u g h group meetings, or even o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , are more l i k e l y t o only a t t r a c t upper c l a s s people and groups. The more d i r e c t ways of s o l i c i t i n g opinions and inputs such as a t t i t u d e surveys and p l e b i s c i t e s would t h e r e f o r e be necessary. I t i s probably necessary t o reserve p l e b e s c i t e s f o r only the very l a r g e and c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s , because of i t s s i m p l i c i t y and f o r m a l i t y , plus the f a c t t h a t i i f i t i s used too o f t e n the turnout r a t e would i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d drop f a s t e r i n the lower s t a t u s areas. The p l e b i s c i t e i s , however, a very u s e f u l t o o l because of i t s u n i v e r s a l acceptance, the equal weight given t o each i n d i v i d u a l ' s views, and i t s a b i l i t y t o en-courage people to f i n d out the f a c t s about an i s s u e . The d i f f e r e n c e i n turnout r a t e s between lower and upper s t a t u s areas c o u l d p o s s i b l y become s m a l l e r i n p l e b i s c i t e s than i n general e l e c t i o n s , because i n the former the i s s u e i s so much more s t r a i g h t forward and t h e r r e s u l t of the vote i s 120 c l e a r l y d e c i s i v e . The advantages of mailed out q u e s t i o n n a i r e s over p l e b i s c i t e s are p r i m a r i l y t h a t they are r e l a t i v e l y easy and, inexpensive to c a r r y out, and the questions can penetrate much deeper i n t o each person's opinions than a formal vote ever can. The problem of low turnout r a t e s . i n some areas can be e l i m i n a t e d by sending out more qu e s t i o n n a i r e s t o these areas, or the answers r e c e i v e d could be g e t t i n g e x t r a w e i g h t i n g . There are s e v e r a l advantages of mailed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s over other forms of a t t i t u d e surveys. This i n c l u d e s t h a t the b i a s r e s u l t i n g from the d e s i r e t o please an i n t e r v i e w e r or group l e a d e r i s e l i m i n a t e d , the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s are cheap, and the respondents are given more time t o t h i n k over the questions 'and would t h e r e f o r e be more l i k e l y t o give w e l l thought out answers. The main disadvantage of a t t i t u d e surveys i s of course t h a t they only a f f e c t some people, and those most i n t e r e s t e d i n the i s s u e are no more l i k e l y t o be i n c l u d e d than those who are t o t a l l y u n i n t e r e s t e d and i g n o r a n t . This might cause some resentment, but the very i n t e r e s t e d people can s t i l l be a c t i v e i n terms of advocating t h e i r stands, disseminate i n f o r m a t i o n or propaganda, h o l d meetings, w r i t e l e t t e r s , and do pe r s o n a l canvassing. The i n c r e a s e d r e l i a n c e on a t t i t u d e surveys would remove much of the b i a s i n favour of the well-educated upper s t a t u s groups who are much more i n t e r e s t e d i n r e g i o n a l i s s u e s . T h e i r h i g h l e v e l o f 1 2 1 i n t e r e s t i s a r e s u l t of t h e i r - a b i l i t y to see the importance of these r e g i o n a l i s s u e s to t h e i r p e r s o n a l l i v e s , and t h e i r p o l i t i c a l s k i l l s become more c r u c i a l when the problems are more a b s t r a c t , complex and i d e o l o g i c a l i n nature. A disadvantage of t h i s type of survey i s t h a t i t does not provide f o r any k i n d of feedback or f o l l o w - u p , and i t s only e d u c a t i o n a l value i s i n i t s inducement t o l e a r n about the i s s u e s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n caused by the f a c t t h a t each person might be asked about h i s opinions on the matter i n some d e t a i l . c. L o c a l Issues Even in. a t t i t u d e surveys i t i s i m p o s s i b l e f o r lower s t a t u s groups t o achieve complete e q u a l i t y i n terms of i n f l u e n c e , because the campaigns w i l l be dominated by upper income people and the most w e l l - a r t i c u l a t e d views w i l l be presented by the most well-educated group. I t would t h e r e f o r e seem as i f the d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of decision-making would be the only p o s s i b i l i t y f o r the low socio-economic s t a t u s areas t o escape the p e r v a s i v e i n f l u e n c e of the well-educated, high income areas. Through the establishment of some k i n d of n e i g h -bourhood government, s m a l l e r areas can make t h e i r own d e c i s i o n s on i s s u e s and matters t h a t mainly a f f e c t only t h e i r l o c a l a rea. The advantages and disadvantages of neighbourhood government were discussed i n some d e t a i l i n the previous 122 chapter hut a few notes should be added here. One i s t h a t i t i s a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h i s l o c a l u n i t gets a s u b s t a n t i a l amount of independent powers. I f i t i s regarded by the people i n the area as more of a d i s c u s s i o n group, many people w i l l c o n s i d e r i t a waste of time to be a c t i v e i n i t or t o go to i t s meetings. Incorder t o maximize p a r t i c i p a t i o n by a l l i n d i -v i d u a l s , wherever they are on the socio-economic s t a t u s s c a l e , the l o c a l u n i t s should be as s m a l l as p o s s i b l e . Only then can there be an increase i n the amounts of per-s o n a l contacts between the p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s and the gen-e r a l p u b l i c i. This closeness i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important f o r the involvement of low income people as was shown e a r l i e r from the survey done. . I t must be s t a t e d a g a i n , however, t h a t some p a r t i -c i p a t o r y problems remain even a f t e r the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a system such as neighbourhood government. The power of these l o c a l u n i t s might be completely dominated by a s m a l l group of well-educated people who might, but a l s o might not, make d e c i s i o n s i n accordance w i t h the i n t e r e s t s of the m a j o r i t y of the people under i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n . There would then be very l i t t l e i n c r e a s e i n the p a r t i c i p a t i o n among the o r d i n a r y persons apart from an improved access-i b i l i t y of the decision-makers. Thus some added features are necessary to make the d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f l o c a l govern-ment a more worthwhile process and t o j u s t i f y the a l l o c a t i o n of more f u n c t i o n s t o the l o c a l u n i t i n s p i t e of p o s s i b l e 123 l o s s e s i n terms of economies of s c a l e . One feature could be the establishment of ad hoc committees t o look i n t o v arious s p e c i f i c i s s u e s and come up w i t h some suggested s o l u t i o n s . C a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n should be p a i d to the exact composition of these committees so t h a t they do not resemble the p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g Bodies. Therefore the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r t i s e and p o l i t i c i a n s should be kept to a bare minimum, while the i n c l u s i o n of members of a l l the v a r i o u s a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t groups should be s c r u p u l o u s l y s o l i c i t e d . G e n e r a l l y these committees should be open t o anybody t o j o i n and w e l l p u b l i c i z e d , w h i l e a t the same time s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n can be given to encourage p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n them by groups t h a t o f t e n tend t o be . l e f t out. These committees s h a l l only make recommendations, because the neighbourhood government must r e t a i n the u l t i m a t e decision-making power. Increased use of a t t i t u d e surveys and p l e b i s c i t e s c o uld be another feature a l s o a t the l o c a l l e v e l . By and lar g e the same advantages and disadvantages as were discussed a t the r e g i o n a l l e v e l a p p l i e s here t o o , and need no f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n beyond the statement t h a t probably l e s s emphasis can be put on them here. The reason f o r t h i s would be t h a t a t the l o c a l l e v e l , as compared t o the regional, there i s a g r e a t e r a v a i l a b i l i t y of other means of p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h a t can be more rewarding i n terms of dialogue and development of p a r t i c i p a t o r y 124 s k i l l s , without a t the same time give too much i n c r e a s e d power to the h i g h s t a t u s groups. .Further d i v i s i o n of the area i n c l u d e d i n each l o c a l u n i t i n t o s m a l l areas of perhaps only a couple of thousand people each, c o u l d then be another p o s s i b i l i t y . The amount of powers, i f any, t h a t such a sub u n i t would have, v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y depending on the c h a r a c t e r of the area. G e n e r a l l y , i t should have more power and independence the more unique, d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e and i s o l a t e d " i t is» but t h i s i s most p r o f i t a b l y l e f t up t o each i n -d i v i d u a l neighbourhood government to decide. Meetings of the l o c a l government should be h e l d at a r e g u l a r place and a t r e g u l a r time i n t e r v a l s , so t h a t i t becomes well-known and e s t a b l i s h e d among a l l the people. I n order t o a t t r a c t many people and t o make them want t o s t a y and come back the next time, v a r i o u s t e c h -niques should be used to make these meetings as e n j o y a b l e , i n t e r e s t i n g and rewarding as p o s s i b l e f o r everybody. An e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r the l o c a l p lanner, i s a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e of the p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s towards c i t i z e n s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the decision-making, A s e r i o u s e f f o r t by the l o c a l planner must be made r i g h t from the beginning to e s t a b l i s h c r e d a b i l i t y , t r u s t , and a network of i n t e r e s t e d c i t i z e n s who can help them keep i n contact w i t h a l l the v a r i o u s p a r t s of the community. 125 C. Suggestions f o r F u r t h e r Research The main t h r u s t ofjthis t h e s i s has been t o show t h a t there are very s e r i o u s problems i n v o l v e d w i t h i n c r e a s i n g p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p o l i t i c a l and pl a n n i n g processes. However, s i n c e time and other resources were l i m i t e d the number of people a c t u a l l y i n t e r v i e w e d f o r the survey had to be r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l . Another study w i t h a s u b s t a n t i a l l y l a r g e r sample c o u l d be j u s t i f i e d due t o the many c o m p l e x i t i e s i n s o c i e t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n terms of s o c i a l groupings and l o c a l area i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . With a l a r g e r sample i t would not be necessary t o make so many o v e r - s i m p l i f i c a t i o n s , and i t would a l s o be p o s s i b l e to use f a c t o r a n a l y s i s i n order t o f i n d out i n more d e t a i l and w i t h g r e a t e r c e r -t a i n t y who the p a r t i c i p a n t s tend to be i n the va r i o u s types of p a r t i c i p a t o r y a c t s . Probably the most s o r e l y needed re s e a r c h i s i n terms of a comprehensive study i n t o the e f f e c t s and con-sequences of the i n t r o d u c t i o n of some of the designs t o encourage p a r t i c i p a t i o n such as neighbourhood government, a d v i s o r y committees, a t t i t u d e surveys, e t c . . This would be i n terms of t h e i r p o l i t i c a l f e a s i b i l i t y , and t h e i r e f f e c t s on the c o o r d i n a t i o n of the are a s , a l l i n a d d i t i o n to the d i s t r i b u t i o n a l e f f e c t s on p a r t i c i p a t i o n . However, i n a f i e l d such as t h i s where the behavior and a t t i t u d e s of the h i g h l y u n p r e d i c t a b l e human being i s at the focus, r e s e a r c h and s t u d i e s can only go so f a r . 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Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t , P l a n n i n g Department. 129 Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t , 1973* P o l i c y Committees—  Membership and Terms of Reference. Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t , P l a n n i n g Department. Greer, S., 1956. "Urbanism Reconsidered: A Comparative Study of L o c a l Areas i n A M e t r o p o l i s . " American  S o c i o l o g i c a l Review. Volume 2 1 , No. 1, pp.19-25. Hallman, H.W., 1972. " F e d e r a l l y Financed C i t i z e n P a r t i c i -p a t i o n " . P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Review. S p e c i a l I s s u e , pp.421-427. Hanson, R., 1971. New Towns: Laboratory f o r Democracy. New York: The Twentieth Century Fund. Hays, W.L., 1965. S t a t i s t i c s f o r P s y c h o l o g i s t s . New York: H o l t , Rinehard and Winston. Head, W.A., 1970. The Don D i s t r i c t Study. The S o c i a l P l a n n i n g C o u n c i l of M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto, Toronto. Head, W.A., 1971. "The Ideology and P r a c t i c e of C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n . " C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n : Canada. James A. Draper, ed. Toronto: New P r e s s , pp.14 -30. Jackson, W.E., 1966. The S t r u c t u r e of L o c a l Government i n  England and Wales. F i f t h E d i t i o n , London: Longmans. Jacobs, JD.E,, 1971. "The Annex Ratepayers' A s s o c i a t i o n : C i t i z e n s ' E f f o r t s t o E x e r c i s e S o c i a l Choice i n T h e i r Urban Environment," C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n : Canada. James A. Draper, ed. Toronto: New P r e s s , pp.288-306. K o b l e r , M., I969. Neighbourhood Government. New York: The B o b b s - M e r r i l l Company. Lane, R.E., 1959. P o l i t i c a l L i f e . The Free Press of Glencoe. Lane, R.E., 1970. " S o c i a l C l a s s and P o l i t i c a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n . " P o l i t i c s and S o c i e t y . E r i c A. N o r d l i n g e r , ed. -Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , pp.142-155. ^ Laponce, J.A., I 9 6 9 . People vs. P o l i t i c s . Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s . Laumann, E.O. and S e g a l , D.R., 1971. "Status I n c o n s i s t e n c y and E t h n o - r e l i g i o u s Group Membership as Determinants of S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n and P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e s . " American J o u r n a l of S o c i o l o g y . Volume 77, No, 1, pp.36-61, 130 May, J.V., 1 9 7 1 , C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n , A Review of the L i t e r a t u r e Exchange B i b l i o g r a p h y 2 1 0 - 2 1 1 . Congress of P l a n n i n g L i b r a r i a n s . M e i s e l , J . et a l , 1 9 6 6 . The 1 9 6 5 Canadian N a t i o n a l E l e c t i o n  Study. I n t e r - U n i v e r s i t y Consortium f o r P o l i t i c a l Research. Michigan: Ann Arbor. M i l b r a t h , L.W., 1 9 6 5 . P o l i t i c a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n . Chicago: Rand McNally and Company. Maynihan, D.P., I 9 6 7 . "Urban C o n d i t i o n s : General." The Annals of the American Academy of P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l S cience. Volume 3 7 1 . pp. 1 5 9 - 1 7 7 . Murphy, W. and Tanenhous, Y,, I 9 6 8 . ' I 9 6 6 E l e c t i o n Study. Survey Research Centre. I n t e r - U n i v e r s i t y Consortium f o r P o l i t i c a l Research. Michigan: Ann Arbor. Myrdal, G., I 9 6 7 . Beyond the Welfare S t a t e . New York: Bantam Books. New Democratic P a r t y , 1 9 6 9 . Program f o r Toronto Area M u n i c i p a l E l e c t i o n s . N i e , N.H., et a l , 1 9 7 0 . S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l S c i e nces. New York: McGraw-Hill. Pols b y , N.W., I 9 6 3 . Community Power and P o l i t i c a l Theory. New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . Reiner, T.A., 1 9 7 1 . Research on C o n f l i c t i n L o c a t i o n a l  D e c i s i o n s . U n i v e r s i t y of P e n n s y l v a n i a , The Wharton School of Finance and Commerce, P h i l a d e l p h i a . R i e d e l , J.A., 1 9 7 2 . " C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n : Myths and R e a l i t i e s . " P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Review. Volume 3 3 , No. 3 . pp. 2 1 1 - 2 2 0 . Robinson, J.P., et a l , 1 9 6 8 . Measures of P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e s . Survey Research Centre. I n s t i t u t e f o r S o c i a l Research. U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan. Ann Arbor. Rokkan, S., 1 9 7 0 . C i t i z e n s , E l e c t i o n s , P a r t i e s . New I ' York: David McKay Company. Scammon, R.M., 1 9 6 7 . " E l e c t o r a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n . " The Annals of the American Academy of P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l Science. Volume 3 7 1 . pp. 5 9 - 7 1 . 131 S c o t t , J . C , J r . , 1 9 5 7 . "Membership and P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Vo l u n t a r y A s s o c i a t i o n s . " American S o c i o l o g i c a l  Review. Volume 2 2 , No. 3 . pp.3 1 5 - 3 2 6 , Seeman, M,, et a l . Community and C o n t r o l i n a M e t r o p o l i t a n  S e t t i n g . Los Angeles: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a . S h a l a l a , D.E., 1 9 7 1 . Neighbourhood Governance. New York: Jewish Committee, 165 East 56 S t r e e t . S k e f f i n g t o n , A.M., I969. People and P l a n n i n g . M i n i s t r y of Housing and L o c a l Government. London: Her Majesty's S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e . S t a r r s , C. and Stewart, G., 1 9 7 1 . Gone Today and Here  Tomorrow.. A working paper prepared f o r the Committee on Government P r o d u c t i v i t y . Toronto: Queen's P r i n t e r . Stenberg, C.W., 1 9 7 2 . " C i t i z e n s and the A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S t a t e : From P a r t i c i p a t i o n t o Power". P u b l i c  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Review. Volume 3 2 , No. 3« pp.190-198. Texas, Department of Community A f f a i r s , 1 9 7 2 . A Methodo-logy Report on the Small Communities Development  Program. Thayer, F.C., 1 9 7 1 . P a r t i c i p a t i o n and L i b e r a l Democratic  Government. A working paper prepared f o r the Committee on Government P r o d u c t i v i t y . Toronto: Queen's P r i n t e r . Thompson, D.F., 1 9 7 0 . The Democratic C i t i z e n . Cambridge: U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . T o f f I e r , A., 1 9 7 0 , Future Shock. New York: Random House. Van Loon, R., 1 9 7 0 . " P o l i t i c a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Canada: The 1965 E l e c t i o n . " Canadian J o u r n a l of P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e . Volume 3 . No. 3 . pp.3 7 6 - 3 9 9 . Vancouver Sun, 1 9 7 3 . February 1 2 , p.9 and March 2 0 , p.18. Verba, S., I 9 6 7 . "Democratic P a r t i c i p a t i o n " The Annals of the American Academy of P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l S c i e n c e . Volume 3 7 3 , pp.5 3 - 7 8 . Verba, S; N i e , N.H. and Kim, Jae-On, 1 9 7 1 . The Modes of  Democratic P a r t i c i p a t i o n : A C r o s s - N a t i o n a l  Comparison. B e v e r l y H i l l s , C a l i f o r n i a : Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s . 132 Wellman, B., 1971. "Who Needs Neighbourhoods." C i t i z e n  P a r t i c i p a t i o n : Canada. James A. Draper, ed. Toronto: New P r e s s . Woodward, J.L. and Roper, E., 1950. " P o l i t i c a l A c t i v i t y of American C i t i z e n s . " American P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e Review. Volume 44, No. 4. pp.872-885. Zimmer, B.G. and Hawley, A.H., 1970. "The S i g n i f i c a n c e o f Membership i n A s s o c i a t i o n s . " Urban S o c i o l o g y . Fuad B o a l i and J.S. V a n d i v e r , ed. New York: A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s . pp.213-222. i APPENDIX A INTRODUCTORY LETTER AND QUESTIONNAIRE 134 THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Vancouver 8, Canada School of Community & Regional P l a n n i n g Dear Vancouver Resident. My name i s Bo M a r t i n and I am from - the School of P l a n n i n g at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. This survey i s p a r t of my work towards a Master's degree and i t s b a s i c purpose i s t o b e t t e r understand the democratic process i n p o l i t i c s and p l a n n i n g , and t o suggest ways of improving i t . You have been s e l e c t e d as p a r t of a random sample and I w i l l knock on your door t o ask f o r an i n t e r v i e w sometime tomorrow afternoon or evening. This i n t e r v i e w w i l l be very s h o r t . I t w i l l probably l a s t only around 10 minutes, and i t does not i n v o l v e any questions on your p e r s o n a l p o l i t i c a l p r e f e r e n c e s , such as who you voted f o r e t c . N e v e r t h e l e s s , I promise you complete c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . Your name w i l l not be attached to your answers s i n c e that would have no .purpose f o r the survey. I w i l l be d e l i g h t e d to send you a fre e p e r s o n a l copy of our survey once the r e s u l t s are analyzed. J u s t t e l l me you would l i k e one when I come to your door and I w i l l see t o the r e s t . With many thanks f o r your c o o p e r a t i o n , I am S i n c e r e l y yours Bo M a r t i n Graduate Student Dr. R.W. C o l l i e r A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r , School Community and Regional P l a n n i n g 135 QUESTIONNAIRE 1. F i r s t I'd l i k e t o ask you how many people there are i n t h i s household? 2. How long have you l i v e d i n t h i s home? 3. Did you get an opportunity to vote i n l a s t December's c i v i c e l e c t i o n ? What about the one before t h a t , i n 1970? Can you remember the one i n 1968? 4. Can you t e l l me i f you belong t o any o r g a n i z a t i o n s , such as trade unions, p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , s o c i a l clubs and so on? ( i f necessary) What about home owners' a s s o c i a t i o n , community o r g a n i z a t i o n s , p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , e t h n i c groups, f r a t e r n i t i e s and so on? (go back to each of the o r g a n i z a t i o n s mentioned) Could you t e l l me very roughly how much time you spend on i t ? Does i t every get i n v o l v e d i n , or take a stand on p u b l i c i s s u e s ? 5. During l a s t yearns e l e c t i o n campaigns, d i d you c o n t r i b u t e money or time to any of the candidates or p a r t i e s ? ( i f so) Was i t f o r the f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l or c i v i c e l e c t i o n ? 6. Would you say that you o f t e n discussed p o l i t i c s w i t h f r i e n d s or people you work w i t h , before the e l e c t i o n s we've justhhad? ( i f so) Did you ever t r y to convince people t o vote f o r the candidate you were favouring? 7. Do you remember i f you attended any " a l l candidates 136 meetings" or some other k i n d of p o l i t i c a l r a l l i e s d u r i n g l a s t i y e a r ? ( i f so) Was i t f o r the f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l or c i v i c e l e c t i o n ? 8. During the l a s t couple of years, have you contacted a m u n i c i p a l p o l i t i c i a n a t a l l ? ( i f so) How d i d you contact him, v i a l e t t e r , telephone or pe r s o n a l v i s i t , and how many times? 9. Do you p e r s o n a l l y know any of the l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s ? 1 0 . From where do you get most of your i n f o r m a t i o n on l o c a l p o l i t i c s ? As you might remember from my l e t t e r , I'm a plan n i n g student and I'm t h e r e f o r e very i n t e r e s t e d i n how much planners are i n touch w i t h the community. 1 1 . Have you ever had occasion to get i n touch w i t h the plann i n g department at C i t y H a l l about anything? ( i f so) What was t h i s about? 1 2 . Have you ever been t o a p u b l i c hearing? 1 3 . Have you ever been contacted by a planner? ( i f so) How? 14. What would you say i s the c h a r a c t e r of the c i t y p l a n n i n g department now? Would you say t h a t i t i s dominated by p o l i t i c i a n s , p r o f e s s i o n a l v a l u e s , developers or the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t ? 1 5 . What do you t h i n k the c h a r a c t e r of the c i t y p l a n n i n g department should be? 1 6 . Are you aware of the ex i s t a n c e of any a d v i s o r y committees d e a l i n g w i t h p l a n n i n g matters such as the Town P l a n n i n g ' Commission? Do you t h i n k t h a t such bodies ( e x p l a i n i f necessary) are u s e f u l and b e n e f i c i a l ? Do you t h i n k i t would be worth your time to be i n -volved i n a c i t i z e n ' s body of t h a t type? Would you p r e f e r to be i n v o l v e d i n a committee t h a t d e a l t mainly w i t h l o c a l matters or w i t h c i t y - w i d e ones? 17. G e n e r a l l y , are you more i n t e r e s t e d i n l o c a l i s s u e s as opposed to c i t y - w i d e or r e g i o n a l ones? 18. During the past couple of years, have you o f t e n got upset or f r u s t r a t e d by d e c i s i o n s made by the Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l ? ( i f so) Were you upset enough to t r y to get them to change t h e i r minds? ( i f so) What d i d you do? 19. What about the C i t y p l a n n i n g department, were you more or l e s s upset or f r u s t r a t e d by i t than by C i t y C o u n c i l ? 20. What would you y o u r s e l f do i f you wanted to i n f l u e n c e the d e c i s i o n on a p l a n n i n g i s s u e t h a t you f e l t s t r o n g l y about? ( i f h e s i t a t i n g ) Suppose t h a t a zoning change i n the area where you l i v e was proposed i n order to permit a development th a t i n your o p i n i o n would cause a s e r i o u s d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n the area's q u a l i t y of e n v i r -onment. Would you c o n s i d e r i t worth your time to t r y t o f i g h t i t ? ( i f so) What would be the best way? 21. Have you ever complained about anything t o anybody i n C i t y H a l l during the l a s t couple of years? 138 I wonder now i f you would mind f i l l i n g out the f o l l o w i n g questions: (separate piece of paper) I n which of the f o l l o w i n g age groups do you f i t i n ? Less than 3 ° 4 5 - 4 4 ..... More than 60 How many years of formal s c h o o l i n g have you had? Please check the appropriate category. Less than 7 years ..... 7 * 9 years ..... 10 - 12 years More than 12 years I n which of the f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s does the y e a r l y income of your household f a l l ? (before taxes) Less than 6 , 0 0 0 . . . . . 6 , 0 0 0 - 8 , 9 9 9 9 9 , 0 0 0 - 1 1 , 9 9 9 More than 1 2 , 0 0 0 APPENDIX B RESULTS OF THE INTERVIEWS 140 West P o i n t Grey East End AGE Under 30 30 - 44 45 - 59 Over 60 SEX' Female Male YEARS OF EDUCATION Under 7 7 - 9 10 - 12 Over 12 HOUSEHOLD INCOME Under 6 , 0 0 0 6 - 9 , 0 0 0 9 - 1 2 , 0 0 0 Over 1 2 , 0 0 0 NUMBER OF PERSONS IN HOUSEHOLD 1 2 3 - 4 Over 4 NUMBER OF YEARS IN HOME Under 1 1 - 4 Over 4 VOTING IN LAST THREE MUNICIPAL .ELECTIONS 0 1 2 3 WORK-RELATED ORGANIZATIONS Not a member Passive member R e l a t i v e l y a c t i v e member Very a c t i v e member HOME-ASSOCIATED ORGANIZATIONS Not a member Passive member R e l a t i v e l y a c t i v e member Very A c t i v e member CIVIC GROUPS Not a member Passive member R e l a t i v e l y a c t i v e member Very a c t i v e member 23 14 24 13 37 37 0 12 22 40 0 11 20 43 22 15 33 24 14 9 51 10 13 29 22 53 4 12 5 60 5 5 4 58 0 5 11 14 16 30 14 31 43 14 24 28 8 8 22 27 17 0 21 34 19 2 10 62 21 12 15 26 49 16 5 4 74 0 0 0 68 0 5 1 141 POLITICAL CLUBS West P o i n t Grey East End Not a member 62 71 P a s s i v e member 3 0 R e l a t i v e l y a c t i v e member 5 2 Very a c t i v e member 4 1 SOCIAL AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS Not a member 29 40 Passive member 3 4 R e l a t i v e l y a c t i v e member 29 25 Very a c t i v e member 13 5 CAMPAIGNING FOR FEDERAL ELECTION? ..... . Nc 65 73 Yes 9 1 CAMPAIGNING FOR PROVINCIAL ELECTION? No 65 72 Yes 9 2 CAMPAIGNING FOR MUNICIPAL ELECTION? No 67 73 Yes 7 1 ATTENDANCE AT FEDERAL ELECTION MEETING No 63 72 Yes 11 2 ATTENDANCE AT PROVINCIAL ELECTION MEETING No 57 72 Yes 17 2 ATTENDANCE AT MUNICIPAL ELECTION MEETING No 59 66 Yes 15 8 CONTACTING MUNICIPAL POLITICIAN VIA LETTER Never 54 63 Once 11 8 Often 9 3 CONTACTING MUNICIPAL POLITICIAN VIA PHONE Never 61 70 Once 9 4 Often 4 0 CONTACTING MUNICIPAL POLITICIAN VIA PERSONAL VISIT Never 50 68 Once 16 5 Often 8 1 CONTACTING A CITY PLANNER REGARDING PERMITS No 60 68 Yes 14 6 CONTACTING A CITY PLANNER FOR OTHER PURPOSE No 63 74 Yes 11 0 PRIVATE DISCUSSIONS OF POLITICS Seldom 14 29 Often 33 27 Persuading others 27 18 142 West P o i n t Grey: East End PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS WITH ANY LOCAL POLITICIANS None 52 61 Acquaintance 4 9 F r i e n d s h i p 18 4 INFORMATION SOURCE Friends 0 0 Talk shows 3 11 Radio and T.V. 13 21 Newspaper 58 42 ATTENDANCE AT A PUBLIC HEARING No 72 74 Yes 2 0 CURRENT ORIENTATION OF PLANNING DEPARTMENT* Don't Know 11 24 P o l i t i c i a n s 25 14 Developers 40 45 P u b l i c at l a r g e 2 1 P r o f e s s i o n a l values 17 3 MOST DESIRABLE ORIENTATION OF PLANNING DEPARTMENT* Don't know 6 17 P o l i t i c i a n s 24 9 Developers 0 0 P u b l i c a t l a r g e 36 39 P r o f e s s i o n a l values 30 27 HEARD OF THE TOWN PLANNING COMMISSION No 31 57 Yes 43 17 IN FAVOUR OF THAT TYPE OF BODY No 16 27 Yes 58 47 WILLING TO SERVE ON SUCH A BODY No 61 72 Yes 13 2 FRUSTRATED BY CITY COUNCIL No 13 11 A l i t t l e 29 34 Yes 32 29 MORE OR LESS FRUSTRATED BY PLANNING DEPARTMENT THAN BY COUNCIL No d i f f e r e n c e 57 65 Less 15 7 More 2 2 *More than one answer c o u l d be given by each respondent. 143 West P o i n t Grey East End EVER FOUGHT CITY HALL No reason t o 33 31 No use 16 35 Through o r g a n i z a t i o n s 8 0 Through p e t i t i o n s 10 1 Through personal contacts 4 7 Through demonstrations 3 0 HOW WOULD YOU FIGHT CITY HALL* No use 4 23 Through o r g a n i z a t i o n s 73 37 Through p e t i t i o n s 32 15 Through per s o n a l contacts 19 22 Through demonstrations 13 10 COMPLAINED DURING LAST COULD OF YEARS No 49 36 Yes 25 38 SUBJECTIVE LEVEL OF INFORMATION Very low 19 33 Low 25 28 F a i r 21 13 High 6 0 Very High 3 0 BETTER INFORMATION DESIRED Not mentioned 62 67 Mentioned 12 7 MORE PARTICIPATION DESIRED Not mentioned 62 68 Mentioned 12 6 C a l c u l a t e d values f o r the Comprehensive P a r t i c i p a t i o n Index 0 - 2 28 54 3 - 6 20 13 7 - H 14 4 1 2 - 1 8 6 3 1 9 - 2 6 6 0 C a l c u l a t e d values f o r the P o t e n t i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n Index 0 - 2 11 37 3 - 5 23 19 6 - 8 29 12 9 - 1 1 9 4 12 - 15 2 2 *More than one answer c o u l d be given by each respondent. APPENDIX C VALUES FOR KENDALL'S TAU 144 145 Dependent V a r i a b l e * WPG Independent AGE . EE T o t a l V a r i a b l e SEX** WPG EE T o t a l VOTING .4247 .2794 .3357 -.0876 -.1330 -.1198 CAMP -.0421 -.0281 -.0649 -.0889 .1410 -.0492 MEET -.0801 -.1596 -.1263 -.0602 .0646 -.0285 FIGHT -.0268 -.0118 -.0408 .0857 .0572 .0924 POLORGS .1090 -.2425 -.0482 -.0357 -.0100 -.0405 NPOLORGS .0772 -.0894 -.0242 .0976 .1286 .0874 TOTORGS .1150 -.1531 -.0495 .0117 .1499 .0492 COMPLAIN .2119 .3233 .2804 -.0857 -.0592 -.0563 CONTACTS ..3123 -.0200 .1489 -.0622 -.0859 -.0883 FRIENDS .1570 -.0165 .0661 .1209 .0257 .0627 TALKPOLI -.1079 -.0784 -.1060 -.1195 .0977 -.0172 DESIRE -.1407 -,.2133 -.1883 .0400 -.0935 -.0254 FRUSTCC -.1422 -.1894 -.1635 -.0410 -.0541 -.0488 POLK-H -.0434 -.2910 -.1831 -.0337 -.0438 -.0545 INFOINDX .0095 -.1305 -.0884 -.0787 .0741 -.0229 *The meaning of these v a r i a b l e s are ex p l a i n e d i n Chapter V I . **A p o s i t i v e t au value means here t h a t men are more a c t i v e i n the s p e c i f i c type of p a r t i c i p a t o r y a c t , whereas a negative value i n d i c a t e s t h a t women are the more a c t i v e ones. 1 146 Independent V a r i a b l e Dependent EDUCATION INCOME V a r i a b l e WPG EE T o t a l WPG EE T o t a l VOTING .0464 - . 0 6 4 6 . 0 3 8 3 . 2 3 9 3 - . 0 4 3 8 . 1296 CAMP .1988 . 1835 . 3 0 5 3 -.0402 .2141 .1457 MEET . 3 0 6 7 . 3 3 6 1 . 4 0 1 5 . 0 8 6 4 .3512 . 2 6 4 8 FIGHT .1149 . 0 8 1 3 . 2 1 2 1 - . 2 1 1 7 . 0 9 2 5 .0133 POLORGS .1681 .2743 . 2 9 9 4 . 2 2 3 7 . 1073 . 2 4 7 0 NPOLORGS . 1616 .2156 . 2 5 7 8 .1613 . 3 3 5 3 . 3 3 6 1 TOTORGS . 1916 .2801 . 3 0 6 0 . 2 3 4 6 . . 3 4 5 2 . 3 4 0 8 COMPLAIN -.0454 - . 3 3 3 7 - . 2 5 2 5 . 1 5 0 8 - . 2 3 7 3 - . 0 9 8 5 CONTACTS - . 0 0 6 0 . 2 2 0 7 .1808 . 2 1 0 6 . 0 8 0 9 .2224 FRIENDS .1494 . 1566 . 2 0 2 2 . 2 3 5 8 . 0 5 0 3 . 1935 TALKPOLI .1181 . 2 6 8 0 . 2 5 4 3 . 0 5 7 3 . 3 7 7 8 .2802 DESIRE . 0 9 1 7 . 3 5 8 7 . 2 5 0 5 .0180 . 2 7 0 6 .1884 FRUSTCC . 0 1 9 1 . 1723 . 0 7 5 9 . 0 7 6 5 . 2 5 8 3 .1488 POLK-H . 2 4 1 8 . 4 6 2 9 . 4 2 6 6 . 2 5 4 5 . 3 7 9 6 . 3 7 5 5 INFOINDX . 1 3 7 4 . 3 6 8 3 . 3 4 7 3 .2282 . 3 6 3 4 . 3 6 9 0 147 Independent V a r i a b l e Dependent S i z e of Household Length of Residence V a r i a b l e WPG EE. T o t a l WPG EE T o t a l VOTING - . 0 9 8 0 - . 0 3 1 2 - . 0 5 7 1 .5541 • 3553 .4204 CAMP . 0 6 0 0 . 0 0 7 9 . 0 5 9 9 . 0 1 9 1 - . 1 4 7 2 -.0845 MEET .1439 - . 1 4 1 5 . 0 5 5 6 . 0 1 5 6 - . 2 6 3 3 fe.1137 FIGHT- - . 0 6 6 2 - . 0 6 7 4 - . 0 8 3 4 .0048 - . 0 3 7 8 . 0 3 6 3 POLORGS . 0 8 5 3 - . 0 4 3 5 . 0 6 9 4 . 1782 - . 1 5 8 5 .0240 NPOLORGS - . 1 3 6 1 .1546 .0110 . 0 2 5 2 - . 1 7 0 8 - . 0 9 0 5 TOTORGS -.0477 . 1136 . 0 4 8 3 . 1342 - . 2 1 9 8 - . 0 5 2 6 COMPLAIN - . 0 8 7 1 - . 1 3 8 6 - . 1 2 3 5 . 2 1 0 9 .3756 . 3 0 1 5 CONTACTS -.0845 - . 0 0 7 6 - . 0 2 1 6 . 3 8 6 7 . 0 6 8 7 . 2 3 3 7 FRIENDS - . 1 0 9 8 - . 2 6 2 5 - . 1 5 6 0 . 2 8 2 5 - . 1 6 2 1 . 0 9 9 3 TALKPOLI . 1 6 3 0 - . 0 2 2 5 . 0 7 9 7 . 0 6 4 0 -.1898 - . 0 7 0 9 DESIRE . 1 0 6 9 . 2459 . 1 7 8 8 . 1436 - . 1 3 5 7 . 0 1 2 0 FRUSTCC . 1 4 9 8 .1757 . 1 6 4 6 . 0 7 0 2 - . 0 7 8 6 .0148 POLK-H . . 1 0 7 4 .1545 .1510 . 1 3 6 4 - . 2 0 7 9 -.0493 INFOINDX . 0 2 8 7 . 0 3 8 4 . 0 5 3 2 .1677 - . 1 4 7 2 - . 0 1 5 8 

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