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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The Indian urban slum : myth and reality Malhotra, Deshpal Singh 1972

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THE INDIAN URBAN SLUM: MYTH AND  REALITY  by  DESHPAL SINGH MALHOTRA B.Arch (Hons.), Indian Institute o f T e c h n o l o g y , I n d i a , 1967  A T H E S I S SUBMITTED  IN  THE REQUIREMENTS MASTER  PARTIAL  FULFILMENT OF  FOR THE DEGREE OF  OF ARCHITECTURE  in  the  School of  ARCHITECTURE  We a c c e p t t h i s required  thesis  as  conforming to  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H September,  1972"  COLUMBIA  the  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e I  f u r t h e r agree  that permission  I agree  that  f o r r e f e r e n c e and study.  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s  thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . of  this  thesis  It  i s understood that copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n  f o r f i n a n c i a l gain shall  written permission.  Department o f  /^&#IT&<z7cSA&  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada  Date  •§<30b&*  6^  Columbia  not be allowed without my  i ABSTRACT The population of India i s made up of an i n f i n i t e v a r i e t y of castes, r e l i g i o n s and language groups which have l i v e d side by side i n an i n t r i cate d i v i s i o n of labor f o r hundreds of years.  Many customs and much of  the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , h i s t o r i c a l l y i s o l a t e d from modern t e c h n o l o g i c a l and i n d u s t r i a l developments, have remained e s s e n t i a l l y unchanged.  Such deeply  embedded ideologies and patterns of r e l a t i o n s h i p and behaviour do not respond e a s i l y to change. The urban centers i n India are a study i n contrast between the o l d and the new, s u r v i v a l of the r u r a l past and innovations from the West. The vast majority of the inhabitants i n the c i t i e s are recent from r u r a l areas.  migrants  Although the r a t e of urbanization i s low, i t neverthe-  l e s s involves the movement of l a r g e numbers of people because of the high population base of the country.  I n 1971 the urban population was 108.8  m i l l i o n out of a t o t a l of 548 m i l l i o n .  I t has been estimated that i f the  present rate of rural-urban migration continues, m i l l i o n s more can be expected to be added to the already overcrowded urban areas. A r e s u l t of t h i s migration has been the continued growth of the urban slums which receive the bulk of in-migrants and provide them with the only a v a i l a b l e s h e l t e r . The migrant i s i l l - e q u i p p e d to define h i s r o l e i n the l a r g e l y a l i e n urban environment; he has responses to h i s o l d c u l t u r e of the v i l l a g e and c o n f l i c t s and tensions w i t h i n the new urban context.  For him i t i s not only a p h y s i c a l s u r v i v a l but also a s u r v i v a l  i n the l a r g e l y a l i e n socio-economic and c u l t u r a l environment. ment's neglect of these communities has l e d  The govern-  to t h e i r p h y s i c a l d e t e r i o r -  a t i o n and s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l stagnation with the r e s u l t that once a  ii migrant has moved i n t o the slum, he i s f o r c e d by c i r c u m s t a n c e s beyond h i s c o n t r o l to l i v e out the r e s t o f h i s urban l i f e T h i s study examines tion.  in i t .  the p r o c e s s and p a t t e r n s o f r u r a l - u r b a n m i g r a -  I t o u t l i n e s the s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l  effects  of  the urban environment on the m i g r a n t s and i l l u s t r a t e s t h e i r  inability  to  have any c o n t r o l over the environment i n which they must l i v e .  It  d e s c r i b e s the n a t u r e and problems o f the I n d i a n slum and p o i n t s out the inadequacy o f the e x i s t i n g government  concepts and p o l i c i e s to a m e l i o r a t e  t h i s s i t u a t i o n and the n e c e s s i t y of d e s i g n i n g the k i n d o f environment can It the  cope w i t h the h i g h p o p u l a t i o n and the s c a r c i t y o f economic  that  resources.  i s the c o n t e n t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s t h a t slums a r e an important f e a t u r e o f I n d i a n urban environment: they have p r o v i d e d the migrant w i t h the o n l y  a v a i l a b l e s h e l t e r ^ have f o s t e r e d group a s s o c i a t i o n s and have p r o v i d e d many of  the e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t s n e c e s s a r y f o r the a c c u l t u r a t i o n o f the r u r a l  migrant i n t o the urban environment.  I t i s the purpose o f t h i s study to  show t h a t i f the p h y s i c a l environment o f the slum can be r e v i t a l i z e d i t then has the p o t e n t i a l to s e r v e as a c u l t u r a l b r i d g e between the urban c e n t e r s and the t r a d i t i o n a l r u r a l h i n t e r l a n d . are  envisaged as communities which can  In o t h e r words, urban slums  f u n c t i o n as e c o l o g i c a l ,  sociological  and c u l t u r a l zones o f t r a n s i t i o n between the urban environment and the r u r a l areas. for  P r o p o s a l s a r e made f o r r e v i t a l i z i n g the slum environment and  c r e a t i n g a new o r g a n i c community f o r the f u t u r e migrants to the c i t i e s . There a r e seven b a s i c c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h i s study: the f i r s t  i s that  r u r a l - u r b a n m i g r a t i o n i s n o t o n l y an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , u r b a n i z a t i o n and economic development but a l s o a major means f o r a c h i e v i n g s o c i a l change.  The s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s between the urban  centers and the r u r a l areas can be bridged through the processes of the s h u t t l e and reverse patterns of migration. The second conclusion i s that under conditions of rapid modernizat i o n and urbanization, slums are f u n c t i o n a l and i n t h i s sense normal. The problem l i e s not i n the existence of these settlements but i n the f a c t that they are uncontrolled and that t h e i r forms are often d i s t o r t e d . The t h i r d conclusion i s that e x i s t i n g government p o l i c i e s on low-income housing and slum clearance are c l e a r l y inadequate to deal with the problem.  A l l p r e v a i l i n g ideas of slum clearance as a s o l u t i o n to the  problem should be abandoned. The fourth conclusion i s that any s o l u t i o n intended for the improve ment i n the standard of l i v i n g of the slum dwellers must be commensurate with the l i m i t e d economic resources  of the  country.  The f i f t h conclusion i s that any comprehensive program aimed at improving the environment of the slum must be based on the resources most r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e - the labor of the community dwellers themselves.  The  objective should be the encouragement and s t i m u l a t i o n of l o c a l community participation. The s i x t h conclusion i s that any housing program f o r the low income slum dwellers must b e n e f i t large numbers of people.  I t f o l l o w s , therefore  that f o r any slum housing program the t o t a l community l i v i n g environment i s the c r i t i c a l v a r i a b l e and NOT  the i n d i v i d u a l housing u n i t .  The seventh and f i n a l conclusion i s that a l l possible housing stock i n the slums must be preserved.  Government p o l i c i e s must be directed  towards expanding the t o t a l housing'stock and NOT housing with standard p u b l i c housing.  towards r e p l a c i n g slum  iv TABLE OF CONTENTS  CHAPTER I.  PAGE  PATTERNS OF RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION . . . . . .  1  Introduction  . . . . . .  1  Causes o f M i g r a t i o n  4  Scope o f M i g r a t i o n  .  7  Migration D i f f e r e n t i a l s  .  14  Patterns of Migration  .  Conclusions  . . . . . . . .  16  . . . . . . . . . . .  21  Notes t o Chapter I . . . . . II.  24  THE MIGRANT IN' THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . .-. . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . .  The C i t y and the Slum C u l t u r e o f the Slum  . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . .•  . . . . . . . . . .  Summary and Conclusions Notes to Chapter I I III.  . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .....  26 26 32 53 62 66  ANALYSIS OF PREVAILING CONCEPTS OF SLUM MANAGEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . • Introduction  .*. . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . .  The Government P o l i c y on P u b l i c Housing The Concept o f Slum Clearance  Greater  Opportunity  Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s Notes to Chapter I I I  8  68  . . . . . . . . . .  69  . . .  74  . . .-.  The Concept o f P r o v i d i n g W e l f a r e and  6  Services  f o r t h e Slum Dwellers -  . . . . . . .  80 84 89  V  CHAPTER IV.  PAGE  THE URBAN SLUM: CONTINUITY AND CHANGE . . . . . .  91  Introduction  91  Presuppositions f o r R e v i t a l i z i n g the Bustee Environment . . . . . . . . . . ... . . ... . . .  93  R e v i t a l i z i n g the Bustee Environment: Towards a New Organic P a t t e r n Urban V i l l a g e : A S h e l t e r Program the  Future Migrants  104  f o r \\  . . . . . . . .  ... . . . .  . . ... . . 117  Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s  124  Notes t o Chapter IV  127  BIBLIOGRAPHY  . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . ... . . . . .  /  128  vi  ILLUSTRATIONS  GRAPHS I.  P  The  P u b l i c Sector  Housing Gap  A  G  E  73  PLATES I. II.  III. IV.  T y p i c a l Katra.  T y p i c a l Bustee.  45  46  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  47  Individual .  48  M o t i a Khan  Delhi . .  Community S c h o o l .  . . . . . . . . . . .  49  Subjimandi  Delhi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  •. .  50  Commercial Land-Use i n a R e s i d e n t i a l Area.  VIII.  -.•  M o t i a Khan, D e l h i  Community Water Tap.  Bustee, VII.  M o t i a Khan, D e l h i  Lane as an E x t e n s i o n of the  Bustee, VI.  Delhi  I n t e r - m i x t u r e of Incompatible Land-Uses i n a T y p i c a l R e s i d e n t i a l Area. Jama M a s j i d , D e l h i .......  Housing U n i t . V.  Jama M a s j i d ,  Subjimandi Bustee,  Small S c a l e I n d u s t r y Area.  Delhi  . . . .  51  i n a Residential  A j m e r i Gate Bustee,  Delhi  . . . . . . .  52  SCHEMATICS 1.  Process and  Patterns  of M i g r a t i o n  2.  The  Migrant i n the Urban Environment  3.  The  Migrant i n the Urban Environment:  Pre-suppositions  the Bustee  30  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  P r o c e s s of A c c u l t u r a t i o n 4.  18  61  for Revitalizing  Environment  . .  5.  Housing C l u s t e r and Mohalla  6.  R e s i d e n t i a l U n i t and  . . . . . . . . . .  Neighborhood  -. •  . . . . . . . .  95 107  108  TABLES I.  Population  Growth and  f o r I n d i a , 1921-1976  Projections  ...  8  vii  TABLES II.  III.  PAGE P o p u l a t i o n Growth o f Major M e t r o p o l i t a n C i t i e s i n I n d i a During 1931-1971 . . . Estimated S i z e o f the Ten Major i n I n d i a i n the Year 2000  9  Cities 10  1 CHAPTER I PATTERNS OF RURAL - URBAN MIGRATION IN INDIA I.  INTRODUCTION  Urbanized s o c i e t i e s i n which a majority of the people l i v e crowded together i n towns and c i t i e s represent a new and fundamental step i n India's s o c i a l evolution.  Although c i t i e s themselves f i r s t appeared some  5500 years ago, at that time they were small and the overwhelming majority of the people l i v e d i n the surrounding  r u r a l areas.  The urban-  ized s o c i e t i e s of today not only have urban agglomerations of a s i z e never before attained but also have a high proportion of t h e i r population concentrated  i n such agglomerations.  The eleven l a r g e s t c i t i e s of India  contain 31.6 m i l l i o n people (as per the 1971 census) or approximately one-third the t o t a l urban population.  In a d d i t i o n , the population of  these urban centers i s growing at an extremely rapid r a t e . dense agglomerations comprising  The large and  the urban population involve a degree of  human contact and of s o c i a l complexity never before experienced i n the Indian  context. A discussion of urbanization i n India i s fundamentally a d i s c u s s i o n  of net r u r a l to urban migration.  An a n a l y s i s of the forces that u n d e r l i e  urbanization i s also an analysis of the migration s t i m u l a t i n g e f f e c t s of various demographic, economic and s o c i a l forces which are at work. Urbanization usually i s s a i d to be taking place when the proportion of t o t a l population that i s r e s i d i n g i n places defined as urban i s increasi n g , or when urban population i s growing at a f a s t e r rate than the average rate of growth f o r the country.  2 K.C. Zachariah-- p o i n t s out t h a t an a n a l y s i s o f a l l urban p o p u l a t i o n growth r e v e a l s t h a t i t has two components: (i)  (ii)  Reproductive change o r n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e s ; which i s t h e excess of b i r t h s over t h e deaths. In I n d i a today the r a t e o f r e p r o d u c t i v e change i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same i n t h e urban and r u r a l areas. I n f a c t , i n the c i t i e s death r a t e s may tend t o be lower than i n t h e r u r a l areas b u t b i r t h r a t e s a l s o tend t o be lower, so t h a t t h e r a t e o f growth o f p o p u l a t i o n o f urban and r u r a l areas from t h e p r o c e s s o f r e p r o d u c t i v e change i s roughly t h e same. Thus, v e r y l i t t l e u r b a n i z a t i o n can be s a i d to take p l a c e by t h e v i t a l p r o c e s s e s a l o n e . Net m i g r a t i o n o f people from t h e r u r a l t o the urban areas."*"  I t I s t h e purpose o f t h i s chapter t o i l l u s t r a t e t h a t s i n c e the p r o c e s s o f r e p r o d u c t i v e change i s n o t t h e mechanism f o r u r b a n i z a t i o n , r u r a l t o urban m i g r a t i o n i s by f a r t h e most important  component o f  u r b a n i z a t i o n i n I n d i a today. Although  the r a t e o f u r b a n i z a t i o n i n I n d i a i s one o f t h e lowest o f  any major country i n t h e w o r l d , i t n e v e r t h e l e s s i n v o l v e s t h e movement o f l a r g e numbers o f people because o f the v e r y h i g h p o p u l a t i o n base (548 m i l l i o n a c c o r d i n g t o the 1971 c e n s u s ) . percentage  A m i g r a t i o n o f even a s m a l l  o f t h i s enormous p o p u l a t i o n can mean t h e a d d i t i o n o f m i l l i o n s  o f people to the a l r e a d y overcrowded I n d i a n c i t i e s .  W i t h i n t h e urban  areas n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e i s t a k i n g p l a c e a t t h e r a t e o f 1.5-2.0 per cent per y e a r .  S i n c e t h e urban p o p u l a t i o n i n 1971 was estimated to be 108.8  m i l l i o n , the process o f r e p r o d u c t i v e change a t t h e ' p r e s e n t r a t e would mean the a d d i t i o n o f 80 m i l l i o n b i r t h s d u r i n g the next t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s at a time when the death r a t e i s d e c l i n i n g .  M i g r a t i o n i s expected t o  add m i l l i o n s more. U r b a n i z a t i o n i s a c r i t i c a l p r o c e s s i n t h e development o f modern India.  H i s t o r i c a l l y , a l l complex and advanced I n d i a n c i v i l i z a t i o n s have  3sprung from the c i t y , and i n the contemporary world urban l i f e i s the dynamic basis f o r most of the a c t i v i t i e s and processes that we associate with modernity and s o c i a l and economic progress.  Therefore, any system-  a t i c e f f o r t to transform the t r a d i t i o n a l Indian society i n t o a modern nation must envisage the development of the c i t i e s and modern urban societies. Urbanization i s also a profoundly d i s r u p t i v e process.  In nearly  a l l t r a n s i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s the e a r l y emergence of the urban centers has produced  a fundamental c l e a v a g e between the s e p a r a t e worlds of the more  modernized e l i t e s and the more t r a d i t i o n a l and village-based people.  In  the psychological sphere the r a p i d t r a n s i t i o n from the compact and intimate world of the v i l l a g e to the highly impersonal and anonymous world of the c i t y can leave people with deep personal i n s e c u r i t i e s . Thus, i n a multitude of ways urbanization can cause s o c i a l , economic and psychological d i v i s i o n s and tensions which, t r a n s l a t e d i n the p o l i t i c a l sense, can become sources of i n s t a b i l i t y and obstruct e f f e c t i v e nation building. Both the v i t a l r o l e of urbanization and i t s p o t e n t i a l l y d i s r u p t i v e consequences create enormous and perplexing problems f o r those formul a t i n g public p o l i c i e s .  The simple formula of a l l o c a t i n g more funds,  energy and resources may be appropriate f o r coping w i t h most problems of development, but no easy solutions are p o s s i b l e with respect to issues r e l a t e d to housing the r u r a l migrants i n the urban environment. Unfortunately, i t i s extremely d i f f i c u l t to achieve any s o r t of sound p o l i c i e s because there i s so l i t t l e accurate information and knowledge about both the dynamics of the urbanization process and the  4 motivations of the migrants who of p u b l i c concern.  s w e l l the c i t i e s and become the objects  The l a c k of r e l i a b l e knowledge has often l e d to con-  fused and contradictory impressions about the migrants.  P o l i c y makers  i n many instances view the new a r r i v a l s to the c i t y as r u s t i c s and simple souls who require l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n and few p u b l i c s e r v i c e s , and see them as an anonymous,-, a l i e n mass separate from the r e s t of the urban s o c i e t y . The current surge of people to the c i t i e s seems to be quite d i f ferent from the o l d s t y l e urbanization of B r i t i s h I n d i a , p a r t i c u l a r l y with r e f e r e n c e to the m i g r a n t s and t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s .  For example, the  contemporary stream flows with enormously l a r g e numbers of people; i t involves migrants coming i n t o the c i t i e s with new types of r e l a t i o n s h i p s , not j u s t as domestic servants but as p o t e n t i a l factory workers; not j u s t for an i n t e r i m period of time, but f o r permanent settlement. II. Who  CAUSES OF MIGRATION i s a migrant?  In ordinary parlance the word migration means  the movement of i n d i v i d u a l s or groups from one place of abode to another or from one country to another.  For the sake of c l a r i t y the i n t e r n a l  movement of peoples w i t h i n t h e i r own country from one region or place ( v i l l a g e , town or c i t y ) to another i s sometimes r e f e r r e d to as in-migration or i n t e r n a l migration.^  For the purposes of convenience we  w i l l speak of migration and other d e r i v a t i v e words to r e f e r to the i n t e r n a l migration of i n d i v i d u a l s or groups from one place or region to another. Very l i t t l e i s known about the f a c t o r s which impel residents of r u r a l areas to make t h e i r way into the c i t i e s .  There i s a great deal of  5 controversy as to whether they are "pushed" towards the urban areas because of circumstances over which they have no c o n t r o l or whether the compelling reason f o r moving to the urban areas i s the " p u l l " which the urban area exerts over those who l i v e elsewhere. The "push" versus " p u l l " controversy i s d i f f i c u l t to d i f f e r e n t i a t e . However, i t i s quite apparent that both the "push" and the " p u l l " f a c t o r s have a s i g n i f i c a n t impact upon the patterns of migration of the r u r a l population i n t o the urban areas.  Gerald Breese points out that among the  f a c t o r s which c o n s t i t u t e the "push" t h a t f o r c e s r u r a l r e s i d e n t s t o  migrate must be included the f o l l o w i n g : (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)  Overpopulation i n r u r a l areas which has i m p l i c a t i o n s i n terms of a v a i l a b l e food or opportunities f o r work. Too l i t t l e opportunity f o r securing land that can be worked upon to produce a l i v i n g . Reduced opportunities i n government and business which may not expand at a rate required by the increase i n r u r a l population. Among people whose f a m i l i a l bonds are loosening.  Among the f a c t o r s which c o n s t i t u t e the " p u l l " that encourages the r u r a l residents to migrate to urban areas must be included the f o l l o w i n g : (i)  The economic opportunities which are present i n the urban areas.  (ii)  The v a r i e t y of environments i n the target area.  (iii)  The d i v e r s i t y among people i n the target area.  (iv)  The reduction i n the cost of intervening obstacles, e.g. distance.-'  Breese  goes on to say that there may be a sense of r e l a t i v e d e p r i -  v a t i o n which a r i s e s i n r u r a l areas once the inhabitants recognize there are other, notably urban, areas where they might l i v e and presumably where l i v i n g standards are higher than those they are  that  accustomed to i n the v i l l a g e . has  to o f f e r and  R u r a l r e s i d e n t s want more o f what the c i t y  they view w i t h g r e a t i n t e r e s t  the r e p o r t e d l y h i g h e r  incomes and access to o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s i n the c i t y . interest  the g r e a t e r freedom from the r e s t r a i n t s  urban areas i r r e s p e c t i v e  They a l s o view w i t h  of the c a s t e system i n  of the f a c t t h a t these e x p e c t a t i o n s may  be  false. The  l u r e or " p u l l " of the " g r e a t " c i t y i s generated  experiences of l i f e  such as these and  partly  i n the c i t y , i r r e s p e c t i v e  from "feedbacks"  partly  from  about the b e n e f i t s  of t h e i r a t t a i n a b i l i t y .  Better  roads,  systems of communication, r e v e r s e m i g r a t i o n , government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s moving through the c o u n t r y s i d e and o t h e r s i m i l a r do w i t h and  the n a t u r e and q u a l i t y  the d i f f e r e n t i a l s o r t i n g  of feedback to r u r a l areas from the c i t y  out of c l a i m e d  Donald J . Bogue and K.C.  i n f l u e n c e s have much to  Zachariah  advantages.  i n t h e i r study on the p a t t e r n s  of m i g r a t i o n i n I n d i a come to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t : (i)  (ii)  R u r a l to urban m i g r a t i o n i n I n d i a i s not n e g l i g i b l e , v e r y widespread phenomenon.  but i s a  Streams of m i g r a n t s are f l o w i n g not o n l y towards the v e r y l a r g e s t c i t i e s but a l s o to hundreds of s m a l l e r s i z e and medium s i z e c i t i e s i n a l l r e g i o n s , except those a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d by p a r t i t i o n .  (iii)  Although o r i g i n a l l y t h i s m i g r a t i o n may have had some a s p e c t s of a p i o n e e r i n g movement, comprised predominantly of males, the 1941-51 decade w i t n e s s e d the removal to the c i t i e s of almost as many women as men.  (iv)  There i s l i t t l e evidence o f r e l u c t a n c e on the p a r t of the v i l l a g e r s to seek t h e i r f o r t u n e s i n the c i t y . In f a c t , the unemployment data suggest t h a t they crowd i n t o the c i t i e s l o o k i n g f o r work. Very p o s s i b l y , unemployment i n the c i t i e s r a t h e r than the r e s t r i c t i v e e f f e c t of c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n i n the v i l l a g e s , i s the major brake upon the r u r a l - urban m i g r a t i o n a t the present time.  (v)  T h i s upswing i n urbanward m i g r a t i o n p r o b a b l y  is a fairly  recent  7 phenomenon which began i n the l a t e 1930's. I t has now p r o gressed to a p o i n t where the r e s i d e n t s of almost every v i l l a g e have r e l a t i v e s or f e l l o w v i l l a g e r s l i v i n g i n at l e a s t one (and p o s s i b l y s e v e r a l ) of the major c i t i e s . Family and v i l l a g e t i e s a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y s t r o n g to c r e a t e an o b l i g a t i o n upon the s u c c e s s f u l migrant to h e l p sponsor new e n t r a n t s to the c i t y . With v i l l a g e r s becoming p r o g r e s s i v e l y more o r i e n t e d towards t h e new urbanized economy, and w i t h m i g r a t i o n channels f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d the n a t i o n seems to be a l l s e t t o e n t e r a phase o f unprecedented u r b a n i z a t i o n , a s s i s t e d by p r e v a i l i n g f a m i l y system and c u l t u r e r a t h e r than h i n d e r e d by i t . ' 7  III.  SCOPE OF MIGRATION  Although I n d i a ' s u r b a n i z a t i o n r a t e has been slow as compared to t h a t of such c o u n t r i e s as Japan and steady  the U n i t e d  i n c r e a s e i n I n d i a ' s urban p o p u l a t i o n .  S t a t e s , t h e r e has been a K i n g s l e y Davis b e l i e v e s  t h a t the slow growth r a t e has been the r e s u l t of a slow r a t e of i n d u s t r i a l and  economic growth i n I n d i a as a r e s u l t of B r i t i s h p o l i c y  r e s t r i c t i n g i n d u s t r i a l development i n the c o l o n i a l In 1921, lation;  i n 1941  past  the urban p o p u l a t i o n was 13.9  per c e n t ; i n 1951  per cent; or approximately  11.4 17.3  areas.  of  8  per cent o f the t o t a l popuper cent; and  in.1971  19.8  o n e - f i f t h of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of I n d i a .  As i n d u s t r i a l development i s a c c e l e r a t e d t h e r e a r e bound to be i n c r e a s e s i n the p o p u l a t i o n of the urban a r e a s .  Davis  relative  estimates  (Table I I I ) that by the year 2000, the percentage of the I n d i a n  popula-  t i o n l i v i n g i n c i t i e s of 20,000 or more i n h a b i t a n t s w i l l have r i s e n to 30.8  per cent, w i t h  21.2  per cent l i v i n g i n c i t i e s which have a  p o p u l a t i o n o f 100,000 or more. Urban growth has been p a r t i c u l a r l y great i n the l a r g e r c i t i e s t h i s trend w i l l  intensify.  I n d i a n c i t i e s had  T a b l e I I i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n 1941  populations  only  and  two  of more than a m i l l i o n i n h a b i t a n t s , i n  1951  TABLE I POPULATION GROWTH AND PROJECTIONS FOR INDIA YEAR  INDIA POPULATION ( m i l l i o n )  1921-1976 URBAN PERCENTAGE  1921  251  11.4  1931  279  12.1  1941  319  13.9  1951  361  17.3  1961  439  18.0  1971  548  19.8 (108.8 m i l l i o n )  625  20.3  PROJECTIONS 1976  Sources:  ( i ) 1961-Study  Group of the Planning  Commission  (Third Five Year Plan - Notes on Population and Employment, Table I , Column 4, p. 750). (ii)  1971 Census of India i n The Hindustan July 1, 1972.  Times  9  TABLE I I POPULATION GROWTH OF MAJOR METROPOLITAN CITIES IN INDIA.DURING 1931-1971 POPULATION (add 000)  NAME OF CITY 1931  1941  1951  1961  Calcutta Metropolitan District  2,485  4,054  5,253  6,575  12,250  Greater Bombay  1,303  1,695  2,839  4,152  5,970  1971  Delhi  447  696  1,437  2,344  3,647  Madras  647  777  1,460  1,729  3,170  Hyderabad  667  739  1,086  1,251  1,796  Ahmedabad  314  607  828  1,206  1,741  Bangalore  311  411  786  1,207  1,654  Kanpur  244  487  708  971  1,275  Lucknow  275  387  497  656  Poona  263  351  600  737  Nagpur  242  329  485  690  Sources:  aval.  not  1,135 not  avai  ( i ) Census of India 1931-1961 and Government of India M i n i s t r y of Health, Town and Country Planning "Population  Organization,  Growth and Urban and Regional  Background Paper contributed to the A s i a  Planning"  - A  Population  Conference - 1963. (ii)  1971 Census of India i n The Hindustan  Times, J u l y 1, 1972.  TABLE I I I ESTIMATED SIZE OF THE TEN MAJOR CITIES IN INDIA IN THE YEAR 2000 METROPOLIS  TYPE OF ESTIMATE OF POPULATION IN CITIES LOW  (in millions) HIGH  Calcutta  35.6  .66.6  Delhi  17.8  33.0  Bombay  11.9  22.0  Madras  8.9  16.5  Bangalore  7.1  13.2  Ahmedabad  5.9  11.0  Hyderabad  5.1  9.4  Kanpur  4.5  8.3  Poona  4.0  7.3  Nagpur  3.6  6.6  Source:  Kingsley Davis, "Urbanization i n I n d i a " i n India's Future,  (ed., Roy Turner).  Urban  11 there were f i v e .  In 1961 there were seven and by 1971 there were close  to eleven (Table I I I ) .  In 1951, seventy-seven c i t i e s had populations of  100,000 or more, and i n 1971, the number was one hundred and forty-two, thus representing an increase of over 50 per cent.  K.C.  Zachariah^ has  estimated that during the years 1936-71 the population of the ten l a r g est c i t i e s of India has increased more than four times. During the seventy-year  period 1901-1971 there has been, i n  general, an upward trend i n the volume and r a t e of migration to the c i t y accompanied by a downward trend i n the r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n of migration to the t o t a l i n t e r c e n s a l population growth.  The upward trend i n migra-  t i o n was interrupted by sharp downward swings during the depression years of 1930's and the 1950's.-^  These aberrations i n the o v e r a l l trend, i n -  asmuch as they are responses both to the " p u l l " of the c i t y and also to the "push" of the r u r a l areas, help to e x p l a i n the r e l a t i v e importance of the various f a c t o r s associated with migration. The decades of 1951-1961 and 1961-71 are of great importance from the point of view of migration of people from the r u r a l hinterlands to the c i t i e s .  K.C.  Zachariah"'"! points out that the i n t e r c e n s a l r a t e of  population increase i n India was up by eight percentage points during t h i s period; the density of population i n the r u r a l areas increased from 284 per square mile to 297; the l i t e r a c y l e v e l of the r u r a l population i n the age group f i f t e e n and over increased from 15 to 22 per cent; and that the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communication systems i n the country had improved enormously.  Moreoever, the f i r s t two Five Year Plans f o r the  s o c i a l and economic development of the country had met with a considerable measure of success and per c a p i t a income increased by nearly  one-fourth from Rs.266.00 i n 1951 to Rs.326.00 i n 1961.  A l l these changes  favor an increase i n r u r a l - urban migration, p a r t i c u l a r l y to the major cities.  The consensus among a u t h o r i t i e s on urbanization i n India seems  to be that the country i s i n the midst of tremendous urban population increase and that t h i s trend of r u r a l to urban migration i s expected to increase. Marshall B. Clinard- -^ i 1  n  h i s study points out that the expected  migration w i l l r e s u l t i n almost i n c a l c u l a b l e consequences f o r the c i t i e s . A staggering volume of new housing, water supply, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and urban employment w i l l be required.  When the growth from migration i s  added to the n a t u r a l population increases the problem of accommodation i n Indian c i t i e s almost d e f i e s imagination.  The e f f e c t s of migration on  the ten major Indian c i t i e s are i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table I I I . Not only are the l a r g e r c i t i e s i n c r e a s i n g l y and dangerously of population increase w i l l continue.  overcrowded but the trend  The Bombay and C a l c u t t a connurba-  t i o n s combined now contain about 40 per cent of a l l Indian i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s ; however, such a degree of concentration does not n e c e s s a r i l y d i s t i n g u i s h India from the i n d u s t r i a l countries of the West.  What does  d i f f e r i s that the Indian c i t i e s l a c k even a f r a c t i o n of the economic resources of t h e i r Western counterparts to deal e f f e c t i v e l y with such a growth.  The biggest c i t i e s w i l l continue to grow r e l a t i v e l y ^rapidly and  w i l l continue to generate overcrowding and need an urgent comprehensive planned environment f o r the m i l l i o n s of low income f a m i l i e s .  According  to the estimates, Calcutta w i l l probably remain the l a r g e s t c i t y with sixteen to twenty m i l l i o n i n habitants by 1980 and between t h i r t y - s i x and s i x t y - s i x m i l l i o n by the year 2000.  The second l a r g e s t c i t y , D e l h i ,  w i l l have between eighteen and t h i r t y - t h r e e m i l l i o n people w i t h i n the next t h i r t y years (Table I I I ) . I t seems d i f f i c u l t to comprehend the impact of c i t i e s of such enormous population pressures, and i t should be remembered that no  country  with a projected population of one b i l l i o n by the year 2000 has  ever  experienced a t r a n s i t i o n from a v i l l a g e economy to an urban i n d u s t r i a l one.  I f India experiences the obvious i n d u s t r i a l development that the  population p r o j e c t i o n s imply and the economic plans envisage, there i s every l i k e l i h o o d that i t w i l l have c i t i e s of such tremendous populations. On the basis of the estimated one b i l l i o n population i n the year 2000, the p r i n c i p a l Indian c i t y of s i x t y - s i x m i l l i o n w i l l contain only 6.6 per cent of the t o t a l population, which i s a c t u a l l y a f a i r l y modest percentage f o r the premier c i t y of a l a r g e country.  There has been a  great deal of research done on the p o s s i b i l i t y of d e c e n t r a l i z i n g urban growth i n India to prevent people from concentrating i n the major urban centers.  D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n could be accomplished,  i n p a r t , by  developing  new i n d u s t r i a l towns and by l o c a t i n g new i n d u s t r i e s i n areas away from the major c i t i e s .  This procedure could siphon o f f a c e r t a i n percentage  of r u r a l migrants i f done on a s u f f i c i e n t l y large s c a l e . However, the p o t e n t i a l volume of migration to the c i t i e s i s so tremendous that the major urban centers can be expected to continue to increase t h e i r popul a t i o n s because of increased pressures on r u r a l a g r i c u l t u r a l land. Although improvements i n r u r a l l i f e and the development of small-scale i n d u s t r i e s might prevent some migration, the c o n s o l i d a t i o n of land h o l d ings and the mechanization more people to the c i t i e s .  of a g r i c u l t u r a l techniques might d r i v e even Any r e s t r i c t i o n s on such migrations seem to  14 be almost  IV.  The  i m p o s s i b l e under a democratic  framework.  MIGRATION DIFFERENTIALS  summary of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f urban migrant  residents  c o v e r s age, sex, e d u c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n , income, m o r b i d i t y and m o r t a l i t y , mental h e a l t h and f e r t i l i t y .  I n f o r m a t i o n about many o f these s u b j e c t s i s  r e l a t i v e l y s c a r c e and not u n i f o r m l y a v a i l a b l e so t h a t i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y to make c e r t a i n g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s from which s p e c i f i c i n s t a n c e s may depart to some e x t e n t . The migrants adults. 35  g e n e r a l l y i n c l u d e an excess o f a d o l e s c e n t s and young  About 43 per cent o f t h e migrants  a r e between t h e ages o f 20 and  (compared w i t h 24 p e r cent i n t h e a l l - I n d i a p o p u l a t i o n ) , and over 70  per cent a r e i n t h e working ages 15-59 (compared w i t h 53 p e r cent i n t h e a l l - I n d i a population)."' The  -4  sex c o m p o s i t i o n  males p e r 1000 females  o f migrants  i s almost  seems t o f a v o r males.  normal (1,045) between t h e ages  but i n c r e a s e d t o 2,367 between t h e ages 40 - 44.  o f t h e migrant  stream.  f a c t o r i n determin-  K.C. Zachariah"'-^ says  t h a t the g r e a t e r the d i s t a n c e t h e g r e a t e r the p r o p o r t i o n o f males. each age - sex group, the p r o p o r t i o n s i n g l e was found migrants  In  t o be l e s s among  than among non-migrants i n t h e m e t r o p o l i s but g r e a t e r than i n  the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n o f the S t a t e s o f o r i g i n . migrants  0-4  D i s t a n c e from t h e p l a c e  of o r i g i n t o the urban area seems to be an important i n g the sex composition  The r a t i o o f  The h i g h sex r a t i o among  i s due n o t o n l y t o h i g h r a t e s o f i n - m i g r a t i o n o f s i n g l e males as  compared to s i n g l e females  but a l s o t o . t h e m i g r a t i o n o f m a r r i e d males  unaccompanied by t h e i r wives and c h i l d r e n .  15 The  occupational  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e migrant p o p u l a t i o n a r e  i n t e r e s t i n g and s e r v e as s i g n i f i c a n t i n d i c a t o r s o f t h e r e l a t i v e a t t r a c tiveness  of l i f e  i n urban a r e a s .  Almost w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n t h e r u r a l  migrant comes t o the c i t y t o t a l l y unprepared t o compete s u c c e s s f u l l y i . e . above t h e day l a b o r e r r o l e - i n t h e urban s o c i e t y .  This  i s partly  because he l a c k s t h e s k i l l s and sometimes even t h e language as w e l l as ways o f the c i t y by which he can i n t r o d u c e t i v e a s p e c t s o f t h e l a b o r market. differences  himself  i n t o t h e more produc-  The m u l t i p l i c i t y o f urban  occupational  seems t o be i n c r e a s i n g .  Most migrants do not have any f i x e d " o c c u p a t i o n , " b u t work wherever they can get a j o b . marginal s e r v i c e s . force also includes  The m a r g i n a l l y  unemployable always g r a v i t a t e  I t should a l s o be p o i n t e d  toward  o u t t h a t t h e urban  labor  a f a i r l y s u b s t a n t i a l number o f c h i l d r e n who must be  counted on as a p a r t o f the l a b o r employed from time t o time.  f o r c e a l h t o u g h they a r e o n l y  I n a d d i t i o n , out o f n e c e s s i t y  partially  t o supplement  the meagre wages o f t h e i r husbands, t h e r e a r e a l s o a s u b s t a n t i a l number of women i n t h e l a b o r market. The  wages earned by t h e u n s k i l l e d migrants a r e extremely low and  b a r e l y permit a s u b s i s t e n c e l e v e l o f l i v i n g .  Even t h e t o t a l  income i s not enough t o support i t w i t h a l l i t s o b l i g a t i o n s environment.  There a r e v e r y great  f o r c e of the c i t y .  i n an urban  income d i f f e r e n t i a l s i n t h e l a b o r  The r a t i o o f p r o f e s s i o n a l  t o i n d u s t r i a l workers'  income, f o r example, may be 15 o r 20 t o 1, o r even g r e a t e r . important t o remember t h a t most o f the migrants a r e common rather  family  than i n d u s t r i a l workers and, t h e r e f o r e ,  I t i s also laborers  t h e r e i s even a g r e a t e r  income d i f f e r e n t i a l between p r o f e s s i o n a l and l a b o r e r  occupations;  I A U n i t e d Nation's r e p o r t " ^ on the w o r l d s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n  p o i n t s out  t h a t s i c k n e s s and death are s u b j e c t s about which not much i s known. is  c l e a r , however, t h a t m e d i c a l f a c i l i t i e s  s t a n t i a l impact  in  on the r e d u c t i o n o f death r a t e s p a r t i c u l a r l y  in  comparison to  M o r t a l i t y , i n o t h e r words, i s g e n e r a l l y lower i n urban areas  r u r a l areas.  Data on l e n g t h o f l i f e and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p  r a t e s are v e r y hard to f i n d ; however, i t i s to be expected g e n e r a l l y low n u t r i t i v e d i e t  high l e v e l of h e a l t h .  to that  than  illness the  and a v e r y d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d environment  which migrants tend t o l i v e a r e not conducive  of  It  i n urban areas have had a sub-  to r u r a l and remote areas where m e d i c a l f a c i l i t i e s a r e not l i k e l y exist.  6  in  to the maintenance of a  In a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r impact on the g e n e r a l h e a l t h  the urban p o p u l a t i o n , these c o n d i t i o n s f r e q u e n t l y have a n o t i c e a b l e  e f f e c t on the mental h e a l t h o f the migrant out e a r l i e r the b i r t h r a t e s are f a i r l y urban  similar  As has been p o i n t e d  i n both the r u r a l  and  areas.  V.  PATTERNS OF MIGRATION  Very l i t t l e i s known about urban a r e a s . first  resident.  the p a t t e r n s o f m i g r a t i o n from r u r a l t o  There i s some evidence t o suggest  t h a t m i g r a t i o n occurs  from r u r a l or v i l l a g e areas to s m a l l towns and then to the b i g g e r  towns and c i t i e s .  However, t h e r e i s a l s o c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n f l i c t i n g  evi-  dence which i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s g r a d u a l s t e p - b y - s t e p m i g r a t i o n may take p l a c e , but r a t h e r t h a t r u r a l migrants may bigger  move s t r a i g h t  not  to the  cities. It  a l s o appears  that there i s a c e r t a i n  t i o n , " composed o f people who  amount o f " f l o a t i n g  migra-  wander from one c i t y t o another, d e s p e r a t e l y  t r y i n g to make a p l a c e f o r themselves i n an urban environment.  M.  B.  18 Deshmukh  noted  the migrants  i n h i s study on D e l h i t h a t no l e s s than 65 per cent of  had  attempted to f i n d s u i t a b l e employment i n s i x t o  fifteen  o t h e r towns b e f o r e coming to D e l h i . S e l e c t i v e m i g r a t i o n , i n terms of the e d u c a t i o n of the migrant, i s also intriguing. Although the evidence i s l i m i t e d , t h e r e are i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t the r e l a t i v e l y h i g h e r educated numbers.  I f taken from another  r u r a l i n h a b i t a n t s move i n l a r g e r  p o i n t of view, i t might be i m p l i e d , as  19 W i l b e r t E. Moore who  has  i n d i c a t e d , t h a t perhaps i t i s the r u r a l  "misfits"  f i n d themselves i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h r u r a l s o c i e t y and t h e r e f o r e are  i m p e l l e d to move to the urban a r e a s .  O b v i o u s l y the use of the word  " m i s f i t " does not n e c e s s a r i l y imply anyone w i t h i n f e r i o r  intelligence,  but r a t h e r " m i s f i t s " r e f e r to i n d i v i d u a l s who  and  environment i n which to e x p l o r e t h e i r own  seek a new  p o t e n t i a l i t i e s and  different capabilities.  For g e n e r a l purposes o f a n a l y s i s and p o l i c y p l a n n i n g i t i s u s e f u l to d i s t i n g u i s h f o u r d i s t i n c t i v e p a t t e r n s of m i g r a t i o n and urban growth w i t h i n the I n d i a n c o n t e x t .  (Schematic  1).  The most common and w e l l known i s the shuttle-pattern  common to  extended f a m i l i e s i n which t h e r e i s a f a i r l y widespread and movement back and areas.  f o r t h between f a m i l y e s t a b l i s h m e n t s  constant  i n r u r a l and  The movement i s f r e q u e n t l y h i g h l y s e a s o n a l f o l l o w i n g the  c u l t u r a l c y c l e and c o n s i s t s l a r g e l y o f a b l e - b o d i e d males. a t i o n s , both the urban and  urban  agri-  In such  situ-  r u r a l areas show a remarkable a b s o r p t i v e  c a p a c i t y , as even the most sudden and severe i n f l u x e s of p o p u l a t i o n are e a s i l y handled institution.  and w i t h v e r y l i t t l e demand b e i n g made on t h e p u b l i c The  f a m i l y t i e s seem to be a b l e to p r o v i d e the  necessary  support.  In such s i t u a t i o n s , the t r a d i t i o n of sharing f a c i l i t i e s proved 20  to be extremely u s e f u l . Another pattern i s of -isolated  individuals  moving more or l e s s  permanently i n t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y and s o c i a l l y a l i e n urban s e t t i n g s . i s l i k e l y to have far-reaching and dangerous consequences,  This  whether the  people are p r i m a r i l y "pushed" o f f the land or " p u l l e d " to the c i t y the r e s u l t i s a sense of rootlessness.  Therefore, the fear i s that urbaniz-  a t i o n b u i l t on such patterns of d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n lacks f i r m foundations and i s not l i k e l y to develop i n t o a c r e a t i v e urban c u l t u r e .  This i s  p a r t i c u l a r l y true i f the rate of population increase i n the c i t y i s not r e l a t e d to an increase i n the economy.  This i s to say that i f people  coming i n t o the c i t i e s i n search of a b e t t e r existence cannot f i n d the s a t i s f a c t i o n of being s u i t a b l y employed they are l i k e l y i n time to turn 21 to a n t i - s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s i n order to f i n d a sense of belonging. A t h i r d pattern of urban migration i s based upon communal  groupings  i n which people of a common ethnic, r e l i g i o u s , or r e g i o n a l background move together i n t o the c i t i e s .  Often such people assume that they w i l l  be p e r i o d i c a l l y returning to t h e i r r u r a l o r i g i n s (as i n the s h u t t l e p a t t e r n ) , but i n f a c t , the movement tends to be permanent and most t i e s with the o l d l o c a t i o n s w i l l be broken.  Such groups tend to c l i n g t o -  gether i n the urban s e t t i n g ; and committed to mutual support, they often appear to present a united front i n opposition to the r e s t of the urban s o c i•e t-y . 22 S o c i a l l y , t h i s communal pattern of migration might appear to perpetuate devisive tendencies, yet often these a n x i e t i e s are excessive based upon a myth rather than a r e a l i t y .  and  In f a c t , aggressive p o l i c i e s  designed to break up such communal associations may drive these minority groups i n t o greater h o s t i l i t y towards the urban s o c i e t y .  It calls for  t r u l y wise statesmanship to be able to measure the point at which communal groupings become more than an a s s o c i a t i o n of human beings seeking.the s e c u r i t y of c o l l e c t i v e i d e n t i t y and become a threat to the l a r g e r community. The phenomenon of reverse  migration,  that i s , when the migrant  returns to h i s ancestral v i l l a g e , i s extremely i n t e r e s t i n g . With the e x c e p t i o n of  cases  where there might be an attempt to m i g r a t e f o r a short  period of time the evidence seems to suggest that the primary goal of the r u r a l inhabitants i s to return to t h e i r a n c e s t r a l v i l l a g e s i n the l a t e r years of t h e i r l i v e s .  The evidence seems to i n d i c a t e that there i s very  l i t t l e reverse migration i n the age group 12 - 40.  Although the exact  figures are not a v a i l a b l e , the percentage of people i n the age group 40 and above returning to t h e i r ancestral v i l l a g e s i s comparatively higher. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to i n t e r p r e t the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s pattern because a v a i l a b l e figures include the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s : (i) (ii) (iii)  (iv) (v)  (vi)  V i s i t o r s to the c i t y . Government workers and others on t r a n s f e r of s e r v i c e . I n d u s t r i a l workers and u n s k i l l e d laborers returning to t h e i r ancestral v i l l a g e s a f t e r t e n - f i f t e e n years of work i n the c i t y to take up the c u l t i v a t i o n of ancestral lands. Retired government workers going "home." Low income workers who decide to send t h e i r wives and c h i l d r e n back to the v i l l a g e so that t h e i r c h i l d r e n can be brought up i n the cheaper and t r a d i t i o n a l environment of the v i l l a g e . Those migrants who came to the c i t y looking f o r work but f a i l e d to f i n d s u i t a b l e employment.^3  The s i g n i f i c a n c e of these patterns of migration i s that they remind  21 us  that  no u n i f o r m o r  the problems  of  urbanization.  quite different need  approaches,  t o be c l a s s i f i e d  VI.  ation,  to  generation  rural  city  areas  by  of  not  population.  of  signs  stable  only  new i d e a s  supply  and o f and  of  for  handling  development  call  even d i s o r d e r l y  urban  authorities  of  for  growth  development.  and c u s t o m s  f a i r wages,  from a m i s p l a c e d  fear  o f what may a p p e a r understanding  of  to  of  this  c a n r e t a r d and i n h i b i t  may a l s o become is  and  a fertile  these  to his  of  books  t h e bus  of  and  and  the he  and  piped  water  from  i n which the sentiments u r b a n and i n d u s t r i a l  for  can  observe  p o p u l a t i o n movement  or  the  the needs  The r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n  and p o l i t i c a l  the  organiz-  and n e w s p a p e r s ,  service,  takes  the factory,  trade union  O f t e n , h o w e v e r , we  social  spread  workers  village,  the convenience of of  can be of  a  ground  between v i l l a g e s  the d i s c i p l i n e  b e u n r e a s o n e d mass m o b i l i t y  the c o n d i t i o n s  industrializ-  Return migration  goes back  p a t t e r n of  the p o s s i b l e  of  between the m i g r a n t s  and g i r l s . life.  it  movements  the u s e f u l n e s s  t o u r b a n ways o f  part  setting  the advantages  the b i c y c l e and  to break  -  and h y g i e n e ,  c h i l d r e n , both boys  trying  shuttle  but  changes,  migration.  time a migrant  electricity,  be exposed  The u r b a n  many c o n t a c t s  on h e a l t h  the cinema,  education of  families  of  of  an i n t e g r a l  economic  the r e g u l a r  Every  a job with  ation,  and  the process  provide the basis  concept  thus  is  social  w i t h h i m some u r b a n i d e a s  radio  to  change.  social  r e t i r e m e n t and  rural  a threat  all  patterns  u r b a n i z a t i o n and economic d e v e l o p m e n t ,  the  after  Different  and n o t  migration  instrument o f  major  as  can be advanced  CONCLUSIONS  Rural-urban  for  generalized policy  either  consequences incorrect  basic  growth.  to  extended  22 Policywise the p o l i t i c a l problems of migration c a l l f o r two of a c t i v i t i e s .  types  There are, f i r s t of a l l , problems r e l a t e d to p u b l i c admin-  i s t r a t i o n and the need to provide s o c i a l services and s h e l t e r f o r the crowded populations.  There i s , secondly, the i n h e r e n t l y p o l i t i c a l problem  of providing such populations with a sense of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the l a r g e r policy.  I t i s important to d i s t i n g u i s h the l i m i t s and u t i l i t i e s of each  of these aspects of p o l i c y . Modern governmental bureaucratic i n s t i t u t i o n s have emerged to cope with the problems of r i s i n g urban populations, and c e r t a i n l y every department of government has a r o l e to play i n dealing with the s w e l l i n g of urban populations i n a t r a n s i t i o n a l s o c i e t y . Unfortunately there are no easy s o l u t i o n s to such problems, and the compelling need i s only f o r governments to r e a l i z e t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and t r y p a t i e n t l y to carry out e f f e c t i v e programs to the best of t h e i r a b i l i t i e s and i n l i n e w i t h t h e i r l i m i t e d resources.  There i s a fundamental need f o r the s w e l l i n g  populations to be given new channels of p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n so that they may come to f e e l that the n a t i o n a l p o l i c y i s responsive to t h e i r needs, a s p i r a t i o n s and a n x i e t i e s . With reference to the s p e c i f i c problems of urban growth, i t appears that some of the patterns of migration contain w i t h i n them some s t a b i l i z ing elements that should be respected during the d i f f i c u l t phase of the t r a n s i t i o n a l period.  In both the s h u t t l e pattern and the communal one,  mechanisms e x i s t f o r reducing s t r a i n , and the task f o r the  policymakers  should be one of devising ways to permit the degree of parochialism necessary for preserving the sense of community to be maintained while at the same time exposing to people new opportunities and new patterns of  23 loyality. The inducted  problem i s thus e s s e n t i a l l y one i n t o a new  o f a s s i s t i n g people as they  s o c i e t y so t h a t they can  as c o n s t r u c t i v e c i t i z e n s and  not  emerge from the  frustrated subjects.  are  experience  To b r i n g  large  numbers of people i n t o urban l i f e always means i n d u c t i n g them i n t o some form o f p o l i t i c s . c o n s t r u c t i v e and  The  question  i s o n l y whether they w i l l  l e g i t i m a t e form of p o l i t i c s or whether they w i l l become  an a n t i - s o c i a l f o r c e .  L u c i a n Pye  says t h a t h i s t o r i c a l l y the  of a l l modern i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s has i n d u c t i n g the urban p o p u l a t i o n  involved  left  t e n s i o n and  on the p o l i t y which w i l l be  e f f e c t i v e operation  gap  a constant  of the p o l i t i c a l and  between the e s t a b l i s h e d u r b a n i t e  which i s so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of any a process i n which t h i s gap  the  c i t i z e n r y ; but  c o n f l i c t then permanent s c a r s can  Thus, the phenomenon of u r b a n i z a t i o n ous  I f the process  damaging consequences  r a p i d l y g a i n i n b e n e f i t s o f an enlarged  process i s marred by  experience  the c r i t i c a l i s s u e of  i n t o the p o l i t i c a l system.  can be c a r r i e d out without a l i e n a t i o n and p o l i t y can  t u r n to some  be  source o f t r o u b l e f o r the  cultural can and  i f the  process.  e i t h e r i n c r e a s e the dangerthe newly a r r i v e d migrant,  t r a n s i t i o n a l s o c i e t y , or i t can become  i s g r e a t l y reduced.  For the l a t t e r  pattern  to o c c u r i t i s e s s e n t i a l f o r the a u t h o r i t i e s to demonstrate t h a t they f u l l y appreciate  the problems, the sentiments, and  i n c l i n a t i o n s o f the new  urban masses.  even the  parochial  24. CHAPTER  K.  I.  C.  PATTERNS  OF RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION IN  Z a c h a r i a h , " U r b a n i z a t i o n and M i g r a t i o n e d . , Roy T u r n e r , 1962, p . 4 3 .  INDIA  in  India,"  India's  in  Urban Future, 2  The Hindustan  Times, J u l y 1, 1972, p. 1.  3 Urbanization  Gerald  Breese,  Jal  Bulsara,  in Newly Developing  1966, p . 75.  Countries,  4 F.  ^Breese,  ^Ibid.,  p.  Problems of Rapid Urbanization  1964, p . 25.  in India,  81.  p. 8 1 .  ^Zachariah,  p.  45.  g Kingsley  Davis,  Urban Future, 9 Zachariah, "^Davis,  "Urbanization  e d . , R.  p.  p.  Turner,  in  India:  Past  and F u t u r e , "  46.  16.  "'"•he. C . Z a c h a r i a h ,  "Bombay M i g r a t i o n S t u d y : A P i l o t A n a l y s i s t o a n A s i a n M e t r o p o l i s , " i n - The-. City in Newly Developing G e r a l d B r e e s e , . 1969, p. 361.  tion ed.,  India's  in  1962, p . 1 1 .  of  Migra-  Countries,  12 Marshal  B.  Clinard,  Slums and Community  Development,  1966, p . 71.  13'  Ibid.,  p . 72.  14 Z a c h a r i a h , "Bombay M i g r a t i o n e d . , B r e e s e , p . 364.  Countries, 15 ' Il)id., 16  Wibert  Study,"  in  The City  in Newly  p . 165. E.  Moore,  i z a t i o n and Society, "^United Nations  "Industrialization eds.,  ,and  B.  F.  Hoselitz  Department  of  Economics  Social  Change,"  a n d W. E .  Moore,  and S o c i a l  the World Social Situation, 1961, p p . 135-136. 18 B r e e s e , Urbanization in Newly Developing Countries, 19 Moore,  Developing  p.  in  Affairs,  p;  Industrial-  1965, p . 332. Report  83.  333.  20 L u c i a n W. P y e , " T h e P o l i t i c a l D e v e l o p m e n t P r o c e s s , " i n The City B r e e s e , p. 402.  Implications  of  Urbanization  in Newly Developing  Countries,  and t h e ed.,  on  Ibid.  p. 402.  Ibid.  p. 403.  AL  3  22  3  23  Z a c h a r i a h , "Bombay Migration Study Countries, ed., Breese, p. 363.  Developing 24  P y e , p. 405.  i n The City  in- Newly  26  CHAPTER I I THE MIGRANT IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT I  INTRODUCTION  In studying the r u r a l migrants i n the urban environment, i t must be remembered that they have migrated to the c i t i e s from an a n c e s t r a l v i l l a g e which has i t s own h i g h l y developed c u l t u r e , much of which they carry t o the  c i t y with them no matter how intensely they may attempt to r e j e c t i t .  They come to the urban areas w i t h an overlay of r u r a l t r i b a l t r a d i t i o n s and established ways of doing things, l o y a l t y and o b l i g a t i o n patterns, economic arrangements and systems of constraints i n channels of communication which do not r e a d i l y d i e i n the urban context. The migrant i s unequipped to define h i s r o l e i n the l a r g e l y a l i e n urban environment.  He has responses to h i s o l d c u l t u r e and c o n f l i c t s and  tensions w i t h i n the urban context.  For him i t i s not only a p h y s i c a l  s u r v i v a l but also a s u r v i v a l i n the l a r g e l y a l i e n socio-economic and c u l t u r a l environment.  He cannot e a s i l y detach himself from h i s r u r a l  background and yet he i s provided -with few c r i t e r i a t o decide what aspects of  the new c u l t u r e he should embrace and what he should r e j e c t , what he  should refashion and r a t i o n a l i z e as the new way, and what aspects of h i s past l i f e and p r a c t i c e s he should e i t h e r preserve or push into the background.  These c o n f l i c t s a r i s e p a r t l y from a necessary rate of change  from a r u r a l to an urban way of l i f e : a kind of compulsive conversion on which he has to pay a very high p r i c e .  As w i l l be shown l a t e r i n t h i s  chapter, t h i s compulsive conversion has negative and a n t i - s o c i a l r e s u l t s ,  t h e r e b e i n g evidence t h a t with higher rates  the  related  t e n s i o n s and  s t r a i n s are  associated  of a l c o h o l i s m , crime, j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y and  mental  disorders."'' Mere p h y s i c a l  presence i n the  urban environment does not  imply an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n urban l i f e w e l l be  i n the  t a c t and  c i t y but  not  s o c i a l l y involved  h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the  l i m i t e d , e s p e c i a l l y i n the  - a migrant may  in i t .  established  necessarily  His  very  sphere of  u r b a n i t e may  be  extremely  e a r l y stages of h i s r e s i d e n c e i n the  T h i s a r i s e s p a r t l y from h i s u n f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the urban way  con-  city.  of  life.  Furthermore, h i s e x p e r i e n c e - or l a c k of i t - h i s d r e s s , h i s language h i s customs may w i t h whom he "own  e f f e c t i v e l y cut him  o f f from the  i s l i k e l y to come i n c o n t a c t .  k i n d " i n the  urban a r e a s t i l l  further  His  r e s t of urban  to p a r t l y s e l f - i m p o s e d s e g r e g a t i o n t h a t d e r i v e s from the many p e o p l e around him  Often the  r e s i d e n t i a l s o r t i n g out  f a c t that  The  The  the  is  inherently  clustering  i n - f e e l i n g of these groups may  s p e c i a l i z e d and  phenomenon of " r u r a l t r a n s p l a n t s "  of  emergence of  w i t h the  become so  society  at  great  large  origin-related institutions. or the  s u r v i v a l of  certain  r u r a l customs and  t r a d i t i o n s i s f a i r l y common; indeed, i t i s o f t e n  r u r a l transplants  which i n s u l a t e  urban environment.  the  people from a p a r t i c u l a r t r i b e ,  t h a t because of t h e i r f r u s t r a t i o n i n d e a l i n g develop t h e i r own  and  o r i g i n s l e a d s to the  s e t t l e m e n t s populated almost e n t i r e l y by  they may  lead  have come from d i f f e r e n t t r i b e s , d i f f e r e n t geo-  peoples from d i f f e r e n t backgrounds and  t r a d i t i o n or d i s t r i c t .  his  T h i s may  g r a p h i c areas or d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l backgrounds of which he suspicious.  society  tendency to seek out  r e s t r i c t s him.  and  these  the newly a r r i v e d migrant a g a i n s t h i s  Perhaps the most overwhelming phenomenon of a l l  new  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the r u r a l migrants i s the subsistence l e v e l of l i v i n g to which they are exposed and from which they are u n l i k e l y to escape even a f t e r a long period of residence i n the c i t y .  This grossly low l e v e l of  subsistence urbanization may be so close to the subsistence l e v e l of l i v i n g i n the r u r a l a g r i c u l t u r a l economy that the only d i f f e r e n c e may one of l o c a t i o n .  be  One d e f i n i t e a l t e r n a t i v e to t h i s urban subsistence  condition i s f o r the r u r a l inhabitants not to migrate to the c i t i e s ; an a l t e r n a t i v e that seems to be generally unacceptable to them. prospects  The  future  for the migrants seem to be that i f the present migration  trend  continues the conditions w i l l get much worse before they s t a r t to improve. A high degree of p h y s i c a l urbanization - i n terms of where people l i v e i s quite l i k e l y to be characterized by a low degree of s o c i a l urbanizat i o n , i n the sense of providing s o c i a l amenities Nevertheless,  f o r an urban way of l i f e .  r e - s o c i a l i z a t i o n of the migrant i s required f o r what  i s e s s e n t i a l l y a new way of l i f e .  Generally, t h i s w i l l proceed d i f f e r -  e n t i a l l y i n terms of rate of change of s p e c i f i c urban p r a c t i c e s . migrant may,  The  f o r example, accept c e r t a i n urban r e l a t i o n s h i p s but  retain his beliefs i n certain t r i b a l traditions.  The differences i n the  a c c e p t a b i l i t y of c e r t a i n urban p r a c t i c e s and customs may d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s and c o n f l i c t s w i t h i n him. t r i b a l r e s t r a i n t s he may  still  lead to s t r a i n s ,  Free from the v i l l a g e and  also appear to have a good opportunity to escape  the s o c i a l and caste s t r a t i f i c a t i o n s of h i s a n c e s t r a l v i l l a g e .  However,  there i s the danger that the f a m i l i a r r u r a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n may be  replaced  by a form of urban s t r a t i f i c a t i o n which i s a complex product of urbanization and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . As has been pointed out i n the previous chapter, India today i s  29 experiencing  a movement o f p o p u l a t i o n  from t h e r u r a l areas t o the urban  c e n t e r s which i n sheer volume i s without p a r a l l e l i n i t s h i s t o r y . r e s u l t o f t h i s process o f u r b a n i z a t i o n has been the continued the slum p o p u l a t i o n concentrated bustees  (slums).  growth o f  due t o the fact, t h a t most i n t e r n a l m i g r a t i o n  i n the slums.  The I n d i a n  has been  c i t i e s have always had t h e i r  They r e c e i v e the b u l k o f i n - m i g r a n t s  w i t h the o n l y a v a i l a b l e s h e l t e r .  A  and p r o v i d e  them  The reasons vfor t h i s a r e p r i m a r i l y  economic but beyond t h a t they a r e s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l ; t h e migrant without any  resources  i n the a l i e n urban environment has a b e t t e r chance o f f i n d -  i n g a means o f l i v e l i h o o d and the way o f l i f e he i s accustomed t o i n t h e slum, r a t h e r than anywhere e l s e i n the c i t y even i f he c o u l d a f f o r d t h e rent.  The prime f u n c t i o n o f the slum i s t h e r e f o r e a c o n s t a n t ,  r e l a t i v e s i z e and d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s o f c h a r a c t e r  are v a r i a b l e s .  s i z e i s a consequence o f the volume o f i n - m i g r a t i o n assimilation.  Distinctiveness of character,  but t h e Relative  and the r a t e o f  the degree t o which t h e slum  d i f f e r s i n c u l t u r e and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e from the c i t y , whose o f f s p r i n g i t i s , v a r i e s i n r e l a t i o n t o the c u l t u r a l a l i e n n e s s o f the migrant. The urbanite  d i f f e r e n c e i n c u l t u r a l l e v e l and type between t h e e s t a b l i s h e d and the e x - v i l l a g e r j u s t a r r i v e d i n the c i t y i s so great  the r a t e o f a s s i m i l a t i o n and a c c u l t u r a t i o n i s extremely low.  that  The r e s u l t  i s t h a t the c a p a c i t y and the c a p a b i l i t y o f i n s t i t u t i o n s and a g e n c i e s o f c o n t r o l and s e r v i c e have f a l l e n f u r t h e r and f u r t h e r behind the need, r e f l e c t i n g a c o n d i t i o n o f s a t u r a t i o n and i n c i p i e n t breakdown.  T h i s has  aggravated the a l r e a d y s e v e r e problem o f heavy i n f l u x t o the p o i n t i n some i n s t a n c e s  the aggregate s i z e o f the s o c i a l l y u n i n t e g r a t e d  i s now c l o s e t o the s i z e o f the c i t y p r o p e r .  that slums  (Schematic 2 ) .  r  30;  31. This chapter i s concerned with the causes and consequences of t h i s serious phenomenon: the overburdening of the r e g u l a t i v e and a s s i m i l a t i v e . i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the urban centers by excessive growth of the slums and the problems t h i s poses to the orderly and e f f e c t i v e accomplishment of nation b u i l d i n g .  W i l l the c i t i e s be able to s t a b i l i z e and manage the  flow of in-migrants from the t r a d i t i o n a l h i n t e r l a n d s , and integrate them c i v i c a l l y , bring them into the body p o l i t i c f a s t enough to keep pace? w i l l the present tense s i t u a t i o n grow worse?  Or  Although the slums are  characterized by p h y s i c a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n and decay, and a severe lack of s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s , they are an important feature of the Indian urban environment.  In p a r t i c u l a r , they have provided the migrant  with cheap s h e l t e r , have fostered group associations and have provided many of the e s s e n t i a l ingredients necessary f o r the a c c u l t u r a t i o n of the r u r a l migrant i n the urban environment.  However, the government's neglect  of these communities has l e d to t h e i r p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l stagnation.  The r e s u l t i s that once a migrant has moved i n t o the slum he i s  forced by circumstances beyond h i s c o n t r o l to l i v e out the rest of h i s urban l i f e i n i t .  I t i s the purpose of t h i s study to show that i f the  slum environment can be r e v i t a l i z e d , i t then has the p o t e n t i a l to serve as a c u l t u r a l bridge between the urban centers and the t r a d i t i o n a l r u r a l hinterland.  In other words, urban slums are envisaged as communities  which can function as e c o l o g i c a l , s o c i o l o g i c a l and c u l t u r a l zones of t r a n s i t i o n between the urban environment and the r u r a l areas.  I n order to  c l a r i f y the problem i t w i l l be u s e f u l to set f o r t h a p r o v i s i o n a l explana t i o n of why the slums e x i s t and assume the character they have, and how the a c c u l t u r a t i v e process works i n them.  Charles Abrams says,  32 Slum l i f e i s not always the symbol o f r e t r o g r e s s i o n . I t may i n f a c t be the f i r s t advance from homelessness i n t o s h e l t e r , o r the way s t a t i o n on the road from a b j e c t p o v e r t y to hope. The slum e x i s t s because no n a t i o n i s a b l e to produce adequate housing at a c o s t t h a t the workers can a f f o r d . I t i s the s h e l t e r t h a t the i n d u s t r i a l age p r o v i d e s f o r i t s rank and file. 2  The  d i s c u s s i o n i s o r g a n i z e d i n two  sections.  The  first  examines the  n e g a t i v e aspects o f the slum, a n a l y z i n g i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the c i t y d e s c r i b i n g i t s s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . d e a l s w i t h the p o s i t i v e a s p e c t s of slum l i f e , group a s s o c i a t i o n s and  II  THE  CITY AND  The second s e c t i o n  examining the c u l t u r e ,  the  the process of a c c u l t u r a t i o n .  THE  SLUM  The widespread b e l i e f t h a t I n d i a n s o c i e t y i s predominantly and a g r i c u l t u r a l , has  and  i n f a c t minimized  the important  and  t h a t I n d i a n c i t i e s have p l a y e d i n the past and a r e s t i l l  rural  essential  role  p l a y i n g today.  Indeed, f o u r - f i f t h s of I n d i a ' s p o p u l a t i o n r e s i d e s i n i t s h a l f a m i l l i o n v i l l a g e s , yet the country should no l o n g e r be r e f e r r e d villages."  The p r e c e d i n g chapter has i l l u s t r a t e d  I n d i a n c i t i e s are huge m e t r o p o l i t a n c e n t e r s . to  The  to as a " n a t i o n o f  t h a t s e v e r a l o f the Indian metropolis  be a massive urban c e n t e r of government, c u l t u r e , economic and  activity.  I t stands, however, as a s o r t of s o c i o l o g i c a l and  i s l a n d w i t h i n a t r a d i t i o n a l subsistence-minded c i t i e s of I n d i a have become the important  tends  social  cultural  rural hinterland.  c e n t e r s of technology  The  and i n  them must l i e the c o u n t r y ' s hope f o r the f u t u r e .  They are the c o r e of  the c o u n t r y ' s commercial and  the s t r e n g t h of i t s  i n d u s t r i a l power and  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n and communication systems. an important  They have p l a y e d  r o l e i n b r e a k i n g away from t r a d i t i o n bound s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s  33 and  most o f the modernizing processes have r a d i a t e d from them.  and  s o c i a l reform movements have l a r g e l y o r i g i n a t e d i n the c i t i e s and  spread throughout the c o u n t r y .  Indian  Political  c i t i e s can be expected to p l a y  even more dynamic r o l e i n the f u t u r e i n the s o c i a l , economic and transformation The  o f the  then an  political  country.  slum comes i n t o e x i s t e n c e  and  continues  to e x i s t because i t  meets c e r t a i n needs: the migrants from the pre-urban h i n t e r l a n d need a p l a c e to l i v e , and the b e s t  the c i t y needs them f o r t h e i r l a b o r .  chance of p u t t i n g up  p e r t y not h i s own  and  - on l a n d not  The migrant  keeping a sub-standard d w e l l i n g on  i n use  e i t h e r w i t h i n the c i t y or  i t , waste l a n d , l a n d h e l d f o r s p e c u l a t i o n or p u b l i c l y h e l d l a n d for  some p a r t i c u l a r purpose to be r e a l i z e d i n the f u t u r e .  g e o g r a p h i c a l l y w i t h i n the c i t y but the l o c a l governments do not  consider  l i h o o d from the c i t y but and  c u l t u r a l l i f e ; he  outside acquired  Such lands  e l e c t r i c a l power.  to the l a n d i t stands on; he  The under  gains h i s  live-  i s excluded from f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i t s s o c i a l  i s a c i t i z e n of the c i t y y e t he i s denied the  r i g h t s of c i t i z e n s h i p .  are  i t f e a s i b l e to i n c l u d e them i n the  y e t he i s not, he owns h i s d w e l l i n g  common law but he l a c k s t i t l e  pro-  f u n c t i o n a l l y they are o u t s i d e i t s i n c e  p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s network: water, sewerage and migrant i s a home owner and  has  In a d d i t i o n , s i n c e he  i s v e r y o f t e n an  full  illegal  tenant, he i s i n an extremely poor p o s i t i o n to demand h i s r i g h t s .  He i s ,  t h e r e f o r e , f o r c e d to keep h i s c u l t u r a l r o o t s i n h i s a n c e s t r a l v i l l a g e . He  i s an example of a " m a r g i n a l man":  s e p a r a t e s o c i a l and  c u l t u r a l orders  he has and  existence  i s f u l l y and  i n each o f  finally  two  involved i n  neither. The  l o c a l government, w i t h i t s l a c k of economic r e s o u r c e s ,  is  34 i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y underequipped to react to t h i s s i t u a t i o n .  Its officials  are often confused and demoralized and l a c k the w i l l to act while the migrants are sucked i n t o the vacuum, as i t were, and improvise t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n a l s o l u t i o n s . They put up shacks on unused land, and  own  little  by l i t t l e by aggregation, the shacks c o n s t i t u t e settlements and the settlements c o n s t i t u t e communities with t h e i r own sub-culture and s o c i a l order. The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the existence of the slums i n t h e i r present form must be shared by the l a n d l o r d s , the tenants and the community at l a r g e : the landlords because of t h e i r i n d i f f e r e n c e to the poverty of the migrants and t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s to p r o f i t from the overcrowding;  the  tenants because they are too poor, too ignorant or too i n d i f f e r e n t to maintain t h e i r dwellings properly, and the community at large because i t permits the slums to p e r s i s t and develop i n t h e i r present form. Social  and Physical  Characteristics  of- the  Slum  Slums have a long h i s t o r y i n India and the s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l conditions of the Indian slum are generally considered the worst and _most extensive of any country i n the world today.  Although India i s a l a r g e ,  heterogenous country whose d i v e r s i t y o f t e n makes g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s d i f f i c u l t , slum conditions can s t i l l be characterized i n general terms.  The s t r e e t s ,  lanes and open drains i n t y p i c a l slum areas are f i l t h y and people sleep as many as s i x to twelve i n a room, shack or hovel.  The Indian slum,  however, i s f a r more complex than the mere aggregate of these a p p a l l i n g p h y s i c a l surroundings.  S o c i o l o g i c a l l y i t i s a way of l i f e , a sub-culture  with i t s own set of norms and values.  Rates of disease, chronic i l l n e s s  and i n f a n t m o r t a l i t y remain high, and there i s l i t t l e knowledge of health  35 and  s a n i t a t i o n , n u t r i t i o n and c h i l d c a r e .  and  c u l t u r a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s a r e almost e n t i r e l y l a c k i n g  except those p r o v i d e d bling.  high  by such commercial e n t e r p r i s e s as movies and gam-  Most slum d w e l l e r s  futility  I l l i t e r a c y i s extremely  a r e a p a t h e t i c and s u f f e r a great  i n d e a l i n g w i t h the " o u t s i d e w o r l d . "  sense o f  They have l i t t l e  community  p r i d e o r even consensus and they o f t e n blame t h e l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s f o r their plight.  They have become a n t a g o n i s t i c towards t h e m u n i c i p a l  p e r s o n n e l and seldom co-operate w i t h them i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o improve e i t h e r t h e i r immediate area o r t h e c i t y as a whole. Non-Conforming  Land Use Patterns.  slums does h o t seem t o have any o r g a n i c impression  The p h y s i c a l growth o f t h e I n d i a n p a t t e r n and v i s u a l l y g i v e s t h e  o f a conglomeration o f s t r u c t u r e s o f v a r y i n g  shape, s i z e and  c o n s t r u c t i o n , c r i s s - c r o s s e d throughout by an i r r e g u l a r s t r e e t p a t t e r n . There i s no o r d e r l y arrangement a c c o r d i n g  t o which s t r u c t u r e s f o r d i f -  f e r e n t uses have been segregated i n d i f f e r e n t a r e a s . intermixture  Indiscriminate  o f uses i s such a common f e a t u r e t h a t t h e r e a r e no areas  which may be now c a l l e d p u r e l y r e s i d e n t i a l neighbourhoods. tenements a r e o f t e n a l s o t h e c e n t e r  The o l d e r  o f t h e commercial a c t i v i t y o f the  c i t y and, consequently, shops o f a l l types and s i z e s a r e found spread a l l over t h e a r e a .  The ground f l o o r o f s t r u c t u r e s a b u t t i n g the main s t r e e t s  are i n v a r i a b l y f l a n k e d by shops, commercial u n i t s and i n d u s t r i e s . ( P l a t e VI). An  examination o f t h e Walled C i t y a r e a o f O l d D e l h i g i v e s a good  i n d i c a t i o n of the inter-mixture r e s i d e n t i a l area. acres,  of various  incompatible  l a n d uses i n a  The Walled C i t y , a p h y s i c a l l y compact a r e a o f 1240  i s bounded by t h e r i v e r Jamuna, t h e o l d c i t y w a l l and a s t e e l band  of r a i l w a y s .  I t was b u i l t i n 1648 to accommodate about 60,000 p e o p l e .  36 In 1961, the same area had 420,000 people.  The gross r e s i d e n t i a l density  has a r i s e n to 350 persons per acre and there are several areas here where the d e n s i t i e s are as high as 500 persons per acre.  43 per cent of the  structures are put to n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l uses, and a large percentage of these uses are incompatible with any r e s i d e n t i a l neighbourhood.  Trades  l i k e l e a t h e r tanning, pottery, slaughtering of animals, keeping animals such as milch c a t t l e , tonga horses, donkeys and p i g s , and a host of other trades are conducted r i g h t i n the heart of the neighbourhood  resulting i n  unhygenic l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s . Out of a t o t a l of 1240 acres the land use pattern i s as f o l l o w s : R e s i d e n t i a l Use 43.11% 534.58 acres Roads and Streets 25.14% 311.79 acres P u b l i c and Semi-Public F a c i l i t i e s 8.62% 106.91 acres Commercial Use 10.50% 130.19 acres I n d u s t r i a l Use 3.91% 48.49 acres Government Use l e s s than 1% Open Spaces 5.20% (less than 0.17 acre for 1000 p o p u l a t i o n ) Density  in the Slums.  3  I t has been estimated that the slum popula-  t i o n s i n the l a r g e Indian c i t i e s run from 7 per cent to a high of 60 per cent of the t o t a l population of the c i t y .  I f , however, the slum areas  were to be defined by Western standards the percentage of slum dwellers would be f a r greater.  I t has a l s o been estimated that three-fourths of the  population of the c i t y of C a l c u t t a proper l i v e i n overcrowded tenements and slum quarters.^ A study group of the Bombay municipal government reported at l e a s t 144 slum areas i n the city.-* Indian slum dwellers l i v e under conditions of extreme population densities.  For example, the 1951 average population density was 136,536  per square mile i n D e l h i , 77,300 i n C a l c u t t a , 38,834 i n Ahmedabad, and  37 25,579 i n G r e a t e r  Bombay.  London county and  11,318 f o r G r e a t e r  1956,  16,721 f o r New  These f i g u r e s can be compared to 27,308 f o r London i n 1956,  York C i t y i n 1950  and  These d i f f e r e n c e s are f a r g r e a t e r i f we w i t h i n some of the I n d i a n slum a r e a s :  27,000 f o r P a r i s i n  15,830 f o r Chicago i n  1956.  are to c o n s i d e r the d e n s i t i e s  i n three of Delhi's eighteen  wards  the d e n s i t i e s are more than 400,000 to the square m i l e , another f o u r wards have d e n s i t i e s i n excess of 275,000, and  o n l y f i v e of the wards  have d e n s i t i e s l e s s than 100,000.  In comparison, Manhattan Borough had  the h i g h e s t  York C i t y i n 1956,  density  (76,156) i n New  D e l h i ' s average d e n s i t y was borough i n New  York C i t y .  nearly twice  which means t h a t  the most densely  These h i g h d e n s i t i e s occur  populated  d e s p i t e the absence  of t a l l b u i l d i n g s s i n c e most of the people l i v e i n b u i l d i n g s which t h r e e or f o u r s t o r y walkups.  I f an average of 2.5  p e o p l e to a room i s an  index of overcrowding, f o r example, then more than 90 per cent of population  are  the  of Bombay l i v e i n overcrowded c o n d i t i o n s . ^  Housing  Conditions.  R u r a l m i g r a n t s , on r e a c h i n g  i n g f o r s h e l t e r , are faced w i t h  two  the c i t y and  a l t e r n a t i v e s : e i t h e r they can  look-  seek  accommodation i n the o l d e r tenements of the c i t y where space i s at a premium (and o f t e n u n a v a i l a b l e ) , or they can move i n t o a community of squatters  and  shanty town d w e l l e r s  t h a t have sprung up on vacant p u b l i c  or p r i v a t e l a n d . The normally  o l d e r tenements or katras constructed  s i n g l e entrances.  are s m a l l , s i n g l e room s t r u c t u r e s ,  i n rows w i t h i n l a r g e c o u r t y a r d s  Many of the D e l h i katras  Muslim homes which were dark and  or e n c l o s u r e s  were o r i g i n a l l y p a r t s of o l d  dingy because they were o r i g i n a l l y  s t r u c t e d f o r s e c u r i t y against depredations  having  o f robbers and  con-  s e c u r i t y of  the  38 womenfolk.  Such p r o t e c t i o n was  p r o v i d e d by b u i l d i n g the w a l l s w i t h o n l y  a s i n g l e entrance and no windows.  ( P l a t e s I and I I ) .  The m u l t i s t o r i e d b u i l d i n g s i n the Bombay slums are c a l l e d  chawls  and they o f t e n house as many as e i g h t y f a m i l i e s or more a p i e c e .  In many  of t h e i r one-room tenement c u b i c l e s they get no s u n l i g h t and even a t midday the rooms are dark.  More than seven people, sometimes as many as  or t h r e e r e l a t e d f a m i l i e s , l i v e i n one room. f a m i l i e s whose l i v e s c e n t e r around  For the twenty o r  a s i n g l e a i r s h a f t t h e r e may  two l a t r i n e s and a few taps o f c o l d running water.  Cooking  two  thirty be one  or  i s done on a  b r a z i e r on the f l o o r o f the c u b i c l e and o f t e n without the b e n e f i t o f a chimney.  The doors and windows a r e d i l a p i d a t e d , the p l a s t e r has  from the w a l l s (many of which have never been whitewashed), and  dropped the  g e n e r a l odor and s q u a l o r o f the s t a i r c a s e s makes these b u i l d i n g s  extremely  unhealthy. Bustees  a r e u s u a l l y t h i c k c l u s t e r s o f s m a l l , d i l a p i d a t e d mud  huts,  o f t e n w i t h r o o f s and w i t h w a l l s made o f s c r a p s o f wood, gunny sacks, s c r a p metal or other waste m a t e r i a l s .  Located i n r a t h e r open areas of the  c i t y o r away from the c i t y c e n t e r , u s u a l l y on u n a u t h o r i z e d l a n d , they a r e o f two  t y p e s : jhompries,  made o f wood and straw.  huts made o f stone and wood, and jhuggies, In c i t i e s l i k e Kanpur, they are c a l l e d  and are b u i l t w i t h i n compounds o r e n c l o s i n g w a l l s .  ahatas  These s m a l l , dingy  rooms are u s u a l l y overcrowded w i t h as many as e i g h t t o t e n persons i n them.  ( P l a t e s I I I , IV, V and  living  VIII).  In-the southern c i t i e s o f I n d i a such as Madras, Madurai, slums a r e - c a l l e d oheris,  huts  These u s u a l l y c o n s i s t o f mud  and  Cochin,  and thatched huts  s i m i l a r to those of the v i l l a g e s o r as b u i l t o f o l d k e r o s e n e - t i n p l a t e s .  39 The it  average hut i s approximately e i g h t by s i x f e e t and p o o r l y  constructed;  e a s i l y c o l l a p s e s i n r a i n storms and admits almost no l i g h t , and i n a l l  cases does not have t h e minimum b a s i c s a n i t a r y Pavement d w e l l e r s  facilities.  a l s o abound i n many I n d i a n  cities.  I t has been  estimated t h a t C a l c u t t a , where the s i t u a t i o n i s the worst, has s e v e r a l hundred thousand pavement d w e l l e r s ,  c o n s i s t i n g mainly o f f a m i l i e s , many  of whose members have been born and r e a r e d eat, s l e e p and d i e on the s t r e e t s .  on t h e s i d e w a l k s .  They cook,  Some o f these f a m i l i e s l i v e  because they cannot a f f o r d housing o f any s o r t , o t h e r s  l i v e t h e r e because  they want t o be near t h e i r p l a c e o f employment and thus save tion costs.  During t h e day t h e i r meagre p o s s e s s i o n s  there  transporta-  may be s t o r e d w i t h  nearby people, but a t n i g h t f a l l t h e sidewalks become a l i v e w i t h hundreds of c o o k i n g f i r e s and s l e e p i n g people r o l l e d up l i k e mummies l y i n g  beside  the b u i l d i n g s . Problems  of Sanitation  in the Indian  Slum.  have c a l l e d the slums o f I n d i a the f i l t h i e s t t h e r e a r e very  In fact,  problems o f c l e a n l i n e s s .  The  slums are, however, g e n e r a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by open d r a i n s and  stagnant water because o f poor g r a d i e n t s . few  i n the world.  observers  few slums anywhere t h a t a r e g e n e r a l l y c l e a n s i n c e the v e r y  n a t u r e o f l i v i n g i n such areas p r e s e n t s Indian  Some c r i t i c a l  a v a i l a b l e containers  Refuse i s everywhere and the  a r e seldom p r o p e r l y used.  More o f t e n t r a s h ,  garbage and r e f u s e a r e shoved i n t o the open d r a i n s o r l e f t on the s t r e e t s . The  municipal  sweepers may even dump r e f u s e i n the d r a i n s and the c h i l d r e n  u s u a l l y use them as l a t r i n e s .  Whereas i n d i v i d u a l d w e l l i n g s ,  even i n the  worst slum areas, may be w e l l swept and c l e a n , a sense o f c l e a n l i n e s s i s seldom extended beyond t h e l i m i t s o f the i n d i v i d u a l d w e l l i n g .  40 Some of the factors that account f o r the unsanitary conditions  are  c i t i z e n apathy, the poor s a n i t a t i o n p r a c t i c e s of v i l l a g e I n d i a , i n s u f f i c i e n t l a t r i n e s , drains and trash bins and r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s . The general a t t i t u d e of the slum dwellers i s that e i t h e r the munic i p a l government or the landlord i s responsible f o r the p r o v i s i o n and maintenance of l a t r i n e s , d r a i n s , trash bins and water taps.  There i s  l i t t l e sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r taking proper care of the few p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s that might e x i s t i n the neighbourhood.  Most Indian f a m i l i e s  i n s i s t upon the c l e a n l i n e s s of t h e i r own brass cooking u t e n s i l s and upon the c l e a n l i n e s s of t h e i r personal l i v i n g quarters, yet they appear to think l i t t l e of adding to the general disorder i n t h e i r streets and a l l e y s . Gandhi once characterized the v i l l a g e s as "dung heaps": "Instead having graceful hamlets d o t t i n g the land, we have dung heaps.""^  of  Few  v i l l a g e residents use l a t r i n e s , p r e f e r r i n g the open f i e l d s near t h e i r homes.  People are prejudiced against l a t r i n e s because others use them  and because they are a source of caste p o l l u t i o n . Attitudes towards human feces are intense, h i g h l y charged and negative.  Gradual changes i n envi-  ronmental s a n i t a t i o n p r a c t i c e s are being brought about i n the v i l l a g e s through various r u r a l community-development programs and they w i l l  un-  doubtedly improve the s a n i t a t i o n p r a c t i c e s of future r u r a l migrants to the cities.  Progress has not been great enough to a l t e r the s i t u a t i o n suf-  f i c i e n t l y and to a f f e c t m a t e r i a l l y the pattern of l i v i n g that r u r a l migrants bring with them to the urban environment. Religious b e l i e f s and a t t i t u d e s also play important r o l e s i n the problem of s a n i t a t i o n .  Stray c a t t l e wander through the slum lanes  and  e f f e c t i v e action i s often barred by p u b l i c sentiments of c h a r i t y and  41 tolerance towards animals, p a r t i c u l a r l y c a t t l e . . For centuries, r e l i g i o n has exhibited concern f o r c l e a n l i n e s s , p u r i t y and avoidance of p o l l u t i o n . However, t h i s concern has l a r g e l y involved r i t u a l rather than b i o l o g i c a l pollution.  A pious housewife may make sure that no d i r t from the s t r e e t  i s brought into her kitchen on the sandals of family members, but she may be impervious to the contaminated d r i n k i n g water i n the water jug or the f l i e s that swarm over her food.  Although the i n d i v i d u a l may bathe d a i l y  before h i s morning prayers or before going to the temple, he i s seldom bothered by the unsanitary conditions around the t y p i c a l temple. For centuries i t has been customary f o r a municipal or p r i v a t e l y h i r e d sweeper to clean the c i t y streets once or twice every day.. However, the use of such a sweeper system accounts f o r many inadequacies i n the sanitation practices.  The system diminishes community r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  since the residents f e e l that a l l trash w i l l be removed sooner or l a t e r . The problem, however, i s that few sweepers'are assigned to the slum and the r e s u l t i s that the trash i s seldom cleared. One c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r here i s the absence of s u f f i c i e n t l a t r i n e s and proper drains.  Approximately two-thirds of the slums of the c i t y of  Kanpur have no community l a t r i n e f a c i l i t i e s , one l a t r i n e being used by an average of eighteen people."'""'" Two-thirds of the slums of the c i t y of Agra have no drainage system and an average of eighty people use a s i n g l e latrine.  In most of the slums of Delhi there are e i t h e r no l a t r i n e s or  they are i n s u f f i c i e n t .  Out of 1,724 katras  surveyed, 27 per cent, housing 12  33 per cent of the population, had no l a t r i n e s .  Not only are these  f a c i l i t i e s inadequate in.areas where people l i v e , but few are a v a i l a b l e to pedestrians i n many areas.  No receptacles are provided f o r trash and  consequently most o f the garbage i s thrown on the s t r e e t s o r i n the open drains. Outdoor lers'  Community Living.  The inhuman d e n s i t i e s i n t h e slum dwel-  s h e l t e r a r e o f t e n r e l i e v e d by the space o u t s i d e , b u t too o f t e n t h e  o n l y space o u t s i d e i s a narrow r u t t e d path t h a t must p r o v i d e room f o r t h e movement'of people, the c a r r y i n g o f f o f waste and r a i n water, c o o k i n g , p e d d l i n g one's wares, and sometimes space f o r d r a f t animals as w e l l . Where s t r e e t s a r e paved and a l i t t l e wider, however, they have assumed some o f the f u n c t i o n s t h a t the home u n i t l a c k s .  I n the I n d i a n slum the  s t r e e t i s o f t e n the mass d i n i n g room f o r the f a m i l y and the p l a c e where one gets h i s oxygen amid t h e m i s c e l l a n e o u s odors o f c u l i n a r y Wastage of Water. urban community.  activity.  Water i s an extremely p r e c i o u s commodity i n any  I n most I n d i a n c i t i e s  i t s importance  i s m a g n i f i e d by  g e n e r a l l y s h o r t s u p p l i e s , inadequate d i s t r i b u t i o n t o people i n the slum areas and f r e q u e n t c o n t a m i n a t i o n .  The f i l t e r i n g o f water i s an expensive  u n d e r t a k i n g i n . I n d i a and i s o f t e n one o f the l a r g e s t items o f a m u n i c i p a l budget.  I n order t o conserve f i l t e r e d  water, the supply i s o f t e n  restricted. P u b l i c water taps a r e t h e c h i e f s o u r c e o f water f o r d r i n k i n g and b a t h i n g i n the slum a r e a s . o n e - t h i r d o f the katras  I n one survey o f D e l h i i t was r e v e a l e d t h a t  had no water taps and the water had t o be c a r r i e d  some d i s t a n c e from p u b l i c h y d r a n t s .  The common water taps were shared by  an average o f e i g h t f a m i l i e s o r f o r t y p e o p l e . even worse w i t h 16 o f 61 bustees  In bus tees  h a v i n g no water t a p s .  t h e s i t u a t i o n was  I n the remaining  45, approximately 134 people used each t a p , w i t h as many as 500 people utilizing  s i n g l e taps i n some a r e a s .  (Plate V).  43 D e s p i t e acute shortages and wasted i n the slums. g a l l o n s each day,  or about 15 per  a l s o be  to keep them running c o n s t a n t l y .  plugged open by  In most I n d i a n  process.  reasons f o r t h i s seems to be  created  f r e q u e n t l y becomes contaminated i n the  flow i s o f t e n stopped d u r i n g  i n the p i p e s and  weak j o i n t s of the p i p e s .  external  t h a t , due  Lack of  the day,  impurities  can be  sucked i n through relationships  the  unsanitary  Poor slum housing i s i n v a r i a b l y a s e v e r e l a c k of community s e r v i c e s .  Along w i t h the p h y s i c a l d i l a p i d a t i o n , the parks and are of poor q u a l i t y and  open spaces a r e at  i n s h o r t s u p p l y and  p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s are e i t h e r inadequate or t o t a l l y l a c k i n g . are u s u a l l y i l l i t e r a t e . e d u c a t i o n programs and  Although there  They o f t e n a s s o c i a t e  pre-school  Slum  other dwellers  i s a great need f o r mass a d u l t  little  been the urban slum d w e l l e r ' s  l a c k of  economic advantage w i t h l e a r n i n g  In a d d i t i o n to the problems of a d u l t i l l i t e r a c y ,  facilities  a  f a c i l i t i e s are o f t e n a v a i l a b l e , a major drawback  to e f f e c t i v e l i t e r a c y campaigns has  read and w r i t e .  the  residents.  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h poor f a c i l i t i e s and  desire.  delivery  a vacuum i s thereby  T h i s problem i l l u s t r a t e s the  Community F a c i l i t i e s .  premium, the s c h o o l s  be  to the s h o r t a g e of  between a pure water s u p p l y , the wastage o f water and p r a c t i c e s of the slum  residents  c i t i e s the water i s pure upon l e a v i n g  p l a n t but  water, the  the slum  turned  In e i t h e r case the water seems to  the f i l t e r i n g The  are  cent of the t o t a l s u p p l y , are wasted  P u b l i c water taps are e i t h e r not p r o p e r l y  or are l e f t open; they may  wasted i n c e s s a n t l y .  c o s t s , l a r g e amounts o f water  In D e l h i , f o r example, an estimated t h i r t e e n m i l l i o n  through c a r e l e s s n e s s . off  high  to  few  are a v a i l a b l e f o r the c h i l d r e n i n these a r e a s .  These c o n d i t i o n s have l e d N i r m a l Bose to say  t h a t the "slums i n I n d i a  are  44 c h a o t i c a l l y occupied, unsystematically developed, generally neglected, over-populated and crowded with i l l - r e p a i r e d and neglected s t r u c t u r e s , i n s u f f i c i e n t l y equipped with proper communications and p h y s i c a l comforts, and inadequately supplied w i t h s o c i a l services and welfare agencies to deal with the 'needs' and the s o c i a l problems of the f a m i l i e s who are 'victims' of the b i o l o g i c a l , psychological and s o c i a l consequences of the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l environment of the slum.""'"  4  Lack of Recreational  Facilities.  The constant pressure of poverty  and poor l i v i n g conditions along with the added pressures of montonous jobs makes r e c r e a t i o n a l o u t l e t s even more important i n the Indian slums."^ Such a need, however, has not been recognized by the a u t h o r i t i e s , p a r t l y because of the f a i l u r e to comprehend the importance of t h i s human need. The absence of adequate open space and the l i m i t e d experience of the community i n assuming i n i t i a t i v e f o r organizing r e c r e a t i o n a l programs has l e d to the d e c l i n e i n enthusiasm f o r pursuing even those t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s of the v i l l a g e such as dance and music. Young c h i l d r e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y those of school age, seem to s u f f e r most from the l a c k of these f a c i l i t i e s . aimlessly looking f o r something to do.  Hundreds of c h i l d r e n roam about Some parks and organized r e c r e -  a t i o n do e x i s t but they are often i n a c c e s s i b l e to the slum c h i l d r e n and t h e i r l i m i t e d equipment i s often i n d i s r e p a i r .  Studies have shown that  the men of the slum spend money that they c a n . i l l a f f o r d on frequent attendance at movies or on gambling."''^ Deviant  Behaviour.  As i n other c o u n t r i e s , deviant behaviour such as  j u v e n i l e delinquency, crime, p r o s t i t u t i o n , p r o f e s s i o n a l begging, and the use of a l c o h o l and drugs i s also associated with the Indian slums."'"  7  COMMUNITY WATER TAP - MOTIA KHAN BUSTEE, DELHI  COMMERCIAL LAND-USE IN A RESIDENTIAL AREA - SUBJIMANDI  BUSTEE, DELHI  53  However, these problems are not as serious as they are i n the Western slums; i n f a c t , studies of the Indian slum i n d i c a t e that poverty alone does not explain deviant behaviour i n slum communities.  In the Indian  c i t i e s , the family, and to a c e r t a i n extent the caste system, operate as a s o c i a l c o n t r o l over such behaviour.  I t i s questionable whether such  controls w i l l continue to be e f f e c t i v e i n the face of increasing urbaniza t i o n , i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and a urban way of l i f e .  One can, however,  expect r i s i n g rates of deviant behaviour i n Indian c i t i e s , and i n p a r t i c u l a r , i n the slum areas. Ill  CULTURE OF THE SLUM  Culture may be defined as a system of symbols and meanings f o r norma t i v e conduct and having three d i s t i n c t p r o p e r t i e s : i t i s transmittable, i t i s learned and i t i s shared.  The slum has a c u l t u r e of i t s own and  t h i s c u l t u r e i s a way of l i f e d i s t i n c t from the c u l t u r e of the c i t y . This learned way of l i f e i s passed along from generation to generation with i t s own r a t i o n a l e , structure and defence mechanisms, which provide the  means to continue i n s p i t e of d i f f i c u l t i e s and deprivations  encountered by the inhabitants of the slum. The c u l t u r e of the slum a f f e c t s every facet of the l i f e of the slum dwellers.  I t i s l a r g e l y a synthesis of the " c u l t u r e of poverty." The  overwhelming majority of the slum dwellers are of the lower c l a s s and l i v e at the poverty l e v e l .  The c u l t u r e of the slum has a number of char-  a c t e r i s t i c s and may vary only i n degree and d e t a i l from one slum to another, from one ethnic group to another and from c i t y to c i t y .  Every  i n d i v i d u a l i n the slum i s influenced to a d i f f e r e n t degree by the general  54 slum c u l t u r e . L i f e i n the slum i s t y p i c a l l y gregarious and l a r g e l y centered i n the immediate area where are found f r i e n d s , shops and p o s s i b l e c r e d i t .  There  i s l i t t l e privacy, and noise and confusion seldom abate; l i f e , however, has a c e r t a i n spontaneity and behaviour i s unrestrained.  Throughout the  slum there i s the generalized s u s p i c i o n of the "outside world," which includes governments and p o l i t i c i a n s , welfare groups and the upper and middle c l a s s e s .  Slum dwellers often f a i l to adequately u t i l i z e p u b l i c and  p r i v a t e agencies such as the health department, schools and even the p o l i c e . Very often these agencies are feared as p o s s i b l e dangerous sources of interference i n everyday l i v i n g . Unemployment, underemployment and low wages are the r u l e i n the slums.  There i s a constant struggle f o r economic s u r v i v a l .  Work patterns  are l i k e l y to be i r r e g u l a r , and the l a c k of steady employment o f t e n cont r i b u t e s to unstable family patterns.  There i s almost a complete absence  of savings or even of the desire to save, and there i s l i t t l e a b i l i t y to plan f o r the future.  Food reserves are often non-existent, personal pos-  sessions are frequently pawned and l o c a l money lenders constantly v i s i t e d . Any treatment of the slum s o l e l y as a product of poverty, however, i s f a r too simple.  "Poverty" i s both an absolute and r e l a t i v e term.  In a n r  absolute sense i t means the l a c k of resources f o r s p e c i f i c needs; i n a r e l a t i v e sense i t r e f e r s to the extent of these resources i n comparison to what other i n d i v i d u a l s i n the s o c i e t y might seem to have. The s o c i a l aberration among the poor of the slums as w e l l as t h e i r apathy i s a product of t h e i r being the poorest rather than of t h e i r being "poor," and t h e i r a l i e n a t i o n , apathy and withdrawal from the general  55 society appear to be maximized under urban slum conditions.  In r u r a l  areas the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t s of poverty are counterbalanced by stronger t r a d i t i o n s and group t i e s .  In areas of extensive urbanization and indus-  t r i a l i z a t i o n , where t r a d i t i o n a l and primary group t i e s are weakening, the lack of power and status among the poor, p a r t i c u l a r l y those i n the slums, i s much greater. Commenting on the a t t i t u d e of s o c i e t y at large towards the slum dwellers, Clinard says: A slum a l s o has an image i n the eyes of the l a r g e r urban community; there i s a s o c i e t a l r e a c t i o n to the slum dweller. The non-slum dwellers often associate the p h y s i c a l appearance and d i f f i c u l t l i v i n g conditions of the slum with the b e l i e f i n the " n a t u r a l i n f e r i o r i t y " of those who l i v e i n i t . I t i s a common b e l i e f that since a slum i s i n f e r i o r to the r e s t of the c i t y , those people who l i v e i n the slum must also be i n f e r i o r to the r e s t of the people of the c i t y . This r e a c t i o n has important consequences i n the s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n of slum dwellers and t h e i r exclusion from p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n urban society. The slum dwellers l a c k an e f f e c t i v e means of communication w i t h the "outside world" because of t h e i r apathy, l a c k of experience i n communicating w i t h o u t s i d e r s , and t h e i r own powerlessness to make t h e i r voices heard. Thus the common denominator of the slum i s i t s submerged aspect and i t s detachment from the c i t y as a whole. ...The l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n often becomes the "ambassador to the outside world" and one who often t r i e s to 18  manipulate i t f o r h i s own b e n e f i t . In any community there i s a d i s t i n c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between i t s p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and i t s c u l t u r e i n that a d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n the p h y s i c a l environment produces a correspondingly negative e f f e c t i n i t s culture.  The government's f a i l u r e to understand the c u l t u r e and f u n c t i o n  of the slum has l e d to o f f i c i a l p o l i c i e s of neglect.  The r e s u l t has been  the p h y s i c a l decay and the c u l t u r a l stagnation of these communities.  Con-  sequently, once a migrant moves i n t o the slum, he i s a s s i m i l a t e d into the general slum c u l t u r e and cannot escape i t to become an urbanite.  It i s  the contention of t h i s study that i f the p h y s i c a l environment of the slum can be r e v i t a l i z e d , then the slum can emerge as a dynamic force w i t h i t s  56 own i d e n t i t y w i t h i n the general c u l t u r e of the c i t y .  The slum can thus  function as a zone of t r a n s i t i o n between the cultures of the c i t y and  the  village. The  Process  culture.  of Acculturation.  Acculturation  i s the t a k i n g on  of  I t i s an e v o l u t i o n a l r y process, i f we understand by that term a  patterned and i r r e v e r s i b l e movement from one mode of existence to another. Every i n d i v i d u a l has to l e a r n new r o l e s from time to time as h i s s t a t u s , a c t i v i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s and the expectations others have of him change. The learning of new r o l e s of the sort not envisaged i n one's native h e r i tage, and therefore, not patterned, c a l l s f o r acquiring new modes of t h i n k i n g , f e e l i n g and experiencing. function it  as a sociological  is a place  rural  hinterland  to the  for  coping  social  order.  city  with  - with and  CAN  with  it to enter  is- successful  values  c u l t u r a l zone of transition,  where acculturation  w i l l pass through process  and  To say that the slum can be made to  the  occur:  the migrant  the wrong kit  of  city  urbanite  the right  eventually  as a new skills, finding  is to say arrives  "cultural  habits, a secure  from  the  baggage"  and  - only i f attitudes place  that  the  and  in the  urban  This hypothesis hinges on the assumption that the stagnant  p h y s i c a l environment of the slum can be r e v i t a l i z e d . r e v i t a l i z a t i o n w i l l be discussed i n l a t e r chapters.  The process of The purpose of t h i s  chapter i s only to show that the slum has a p o t e n t i a l f o r providing the necessary ingredients f o r the a c c u l t u r a t i v e process and how  this  a c c u l t u r a t i v e process works. The  Role of Mediating  Groups in- the. Transitional  Stages.  The  indiv-  i d u a l i s made to f i t and i s able to l i v e s u c c e s s f u l l y i n s o c i e t y through 19 p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the l i f e of a group. As he moves from early childhood  towards adulthood and the end of moral and economic dependency he learns the r o l e s appropriate to h i s changing age, status and destined l i f e activity.  In the course of doing so he becomes encultured,  that i s , he  takes on the c u l t u r e of the community i n t o which he was born and i n which, i t i s taken f o r granted, he w i l l remain.  S o c i a l pressures to  l e a r n to do the " r i g h t " things and develop the " r i g h t " understanding of what they mean makes i t s e l f f e l t through the actual r e a l _ group i n which he p a r t i c i p a t e s .  Acculturation,  on the other hand, i s the g i v i n g up of  an o l d c u l t u r e and the t a k i n g on of a new  one.  It i s not the purpose of t h i s thesis to go i n t o the d e t a i l about the types of mediating groups.  However, i t i s e s s e n t i a l that we  under-  stand that the mediating group i s no l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t as the s i n g l e most important agency of a c c u l t u r a t i o n f o r the adult who has migrated to the c i t y than i t i s f o r the c h i l d during the process of e n c u l t u r a t i o n i n the v i l l a g e of h i s b i r t h .  Moreover, i n both cases i t assumes a somewhat d i f -  ferent character at successive stages of the process: the i d e a l movement i s from small intimate family-type groups towards l a r g e r , impersonal and interest-based a s s o c i a t i o n s . ^ 2  A f u n c t i o n a l mediating group w i t h i n the slum can serve to b r i n g the newly a r r i v e d migrant d i r e c t l y i n t o the o r b i t of urban l i f e .  The advan-  tage i n such a s i t u a t i o n i s that there i s s t i l l enough looseness i n the i n s t i t u t i o n a l linkage these formations provide between the slum and the c i t y proper to permit the i n d i v i d u a l some freedom to maneuver i n terms of r o l e playing and moral commitments.  The group cannot function without  becoming i n some measure a part of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l f a b r i c of the c i t y , whether t h i s be the r e s u l t of urban i n s t i t u t i o n s "reaching i n " to the  slum as i n the case of sports clubs, mutual a i d s o c i e t i e s e t c . , or of "reaching out" by an indigenous slum group formation such as neighbourhood improvement a s s o c i a t i o n s . The Role  x  of Meliorative  Institutions  and Agencies.  A modernizing  society develops formally established i n s t i t u t i o n s necessary f o r s o c i a l c o n t r o l and f o r the r e a l i z a t i o n of welfare o b j e c t i v e s , i n the broad sense of the term, as the need becomes apparent and the means necessary to meet i t become a v a i l a b l e . T y p i c a l l y , the e a r l i e r ones are the product of p r i v a t e p h i l a n t h r o p i c enterprise rather than government.  Schools,  dispen-  s a r i e s , h o s p i t a l s , asylums, monastries, meeting h a l l s and places of worship are the more obvious examples.  Welfare i n s t i t u t i o n s began, and  to a considerable extent s t i l l remain, i n what we have become accustomed to c a l l the p r i v a t e sector.  Control i n s t i t u t i o n s l i k e law courts, the  p o l i c e and the m i l i t a r y have been i n the p u b l i c sector. c o n t r o l i n s t i t u t i o n s are formally m e l i o r a t i v e . s o c i a l i z i n g and a c c u l t u r a t i n g mission.  Both welfare and  Moreoever, both have a  We.have to determine t h e i r e f f e c t  on the slum and see how t h e i r r o l e i n the a c c u l t u r a t i v e process compares with that of the mediating groups discussed e a r l i e r .  The question i s  extremely hard to answer because government p o l i c y and the government's w i l l and a b i l i t y to carry out i t s p o l i c y i s such a large f a c t o r and v a r i e s so g r e a t l y from s i t u a t i o n to s i t u a t i o n .  However, i t i s p o s s i b l e  to make some t e n t a t i v e observations. The migrant i n the urban environment discovers that the r e l a t i v e l y bureaucratic non-discriminatory  administration of j u s t i c e and enforcement  of law can be j u s t as onerous as the p a r t i s a n - p o l i t i c i z e d mode he f l e d from i n the v i l l a g e : there are more laws to break and l e s s chances of  59 pleading extenuating circumstances or bringing pressure to bear f o r l e n iency.  At the same time the valued amenities of urban l i f e such as  education, material comfort and medical care are t a n t a l i z i n g l y near, although j u s t about impossible to reach and  use.  The slum creates a v i s i b l e need f o r b u r e a u c r a t i c a l l y organized, m e l i o r a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s and agencies because of the concentration of 22 people with s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l needs.  However, the p h y s i c a l character-  i s t i c s of the slum - t y p i c a l l y e i t h e r a jumble of older tenements or ^  "^j  squatters huts along narrow pedestrian paths, without even the most elementary f a c i l i t i e s and u t i l i t i e s - make i t extremely d i f f i c u l t f o r such agencies to do  anything f o r the i n h a b i t a n t s .  I n d i v i d u a l s are not easy  to locate because of the high density and, very o f t e n , because they do not want to be located. outsiders.  Government o f f i c i a l s appear to them as h o s t i l e  The r e s u l t has been that the government has neglected these  communities and there are no l e g i t i m a t e p r i v a t e organizations to help the people. One may  conclude here that the sheer concentration of people's  needs, which favors r a t i o n a l i z e d , m e l i o r a t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n , i s l a r g e l y n e u t r a l i z e d by the slum's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c disorder and i t s suspicious a t t i t u d e towards the outsiders and the government o f f i c i a l s .  I f bureau-  c r a t i c procedure i s f r u s t r a t e d i t w i l l seem u n l i k e l y that m e l i o r a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s can play a very s i g n i f i c a n t a c c u l t u r a t i v e r o l e . t h i s i s a t e n t a t i v e conclusion.  In r e a l i t y the outcome may depend on the  nature and a t t i t u d e of the government. improvement may  However,  A government bent on t o t a l  find,, the s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and p h y s i c a l disorder of the  slum to be a d i s t i n c t advantage i f i t had a program with mass appeal and  the n e c e s s a r y  framework to c a r r y i t out.  p e o p l e would f i r s t  The  content of i t s work w i t h  i n c l u d e the encouragement of l o c a l community  a t i o n and s e l f - a s s i s t a n c e o r g a n i z a t i o n and  then, o n l y i n the l a t e r  the p r o v i s i o n of w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s and a g e n c i e s . t h a t a s i t u a t i o n which i s extremely bureaucracy  particip-  difficult  stages,  The important p o i n t i s  f o r an o r d i n a r y w e l f a r e  to d e a l w i t h e f f e c t i v e l y i n a d e v e l o p i n g country l i k e I n d i a ,  can be h i g h l y f a v o r a b l e ground to c u l t i v a t e from the s t a n d p o i n t of  23 e s t a b l i s h i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h grass r o o t s anchorage.  Patterns  of Individual  Response  to Acculturative  Change.  Mediating  groups and m e l i o r a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e p o s i t i v e l y a c c u l t u r a t i v e i f they work.  They can p u l l and push the migrant  him w i t h a zone of t r a n s i t i o n .  settle  in, be "processed"  "finished"  into  the urban  In the  embody may  ideal  the slum thus p r o v i d i n g  slum the new migrant  would  over a period  of time and then finally  environment.  However, t h i s i s a s i m p l i f i e d  d e s c r i p t i o n of an i d e a l p a t t e r n . i n any g i v e n s i t u a t i o n .  through  emerge  A c t u a l p a t t e r n s are much more complex  The a c c u l t u r a t i v e mechanisms they are l i k e l y  v a r y not o n l y i n form, r e f l e c t i n g the need to adapt  to l o c a l  c i r c u m s t a n c e s , but a l s o i n f u n c t i o n a l adequacy: in-some slums most might s u c c e s s f u l l y graduate  and  people  s p e e d i l y move out of the slum "onwards  and upwards" i n t o the c i t y proper, w h i l e i n o t h e r s they might n o t .  The  former p a t t e r n makes f o r a h e a l t h y and h o p e f u l c l i m a t e by p r o v i d i n g models f o r those s t i l l  s t r u g g l i n g , and making room f o r newcomers.  o t h e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s , as i s the case i n I n d i a n c i t i e s today,  r e l a t i v e l y r a p i d r a t e of i n - m i g r a t i o n .  In  there i s  r e l a t i v e l y no movement up and out of the slum w h i l e t h e r e i s s t i l l  s p r i n g up and  to  In such s i t u a t i o n s new  a  slums  the o l d e r ones s t a g n a t e ; the e f f e c t on the r e s i d e n t s i s  61  5*  -a:  5' <  "IT  i i •;? Z • | VA <  v—  5  ;•; ::  •a  62 l i k e l y to be the growth of d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t and f r u s t r a t i o n such as anger, apathy and t o t a l withdrawl from the rest of urban s o c i e t y . I f the slum environment can be r e v i t a l i z e d and the a c c u l t u r a t i v e process be successful then the migrant can be expected to l e a r n , f i r s t l y , a new and d i f f e r e n t d i s c i p l i n e of interpersonal r e l a t i o n s : how to accept r e l a t i v e l y impersonal a u t h o r i t y , how to r e l a t e to another person as a source of convenience and how to s o c i a l i z e with neighbors or work mates who are v i r t u a l strangers. kind of s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e .  Secondly, he would l e a r n a new and d i f f e r e n t This means b u i l d i n g i n t o the s e l f d i s t i n c t i v e l y  urban standards of conduct and the values and a t t i t u d e s that v a l i d a t e them. The new urbanite would thus become time conscious and l e a r n to value r e l i a b i l i t y ; he would become money-conscious and value t h r i f t ; and, i n becoming self-conscious, he would value i n d i v i d u a l i s m and e t h i c a l u n i versalism.  T h i r d l y , he would l e a r n a marketable s k i l l , some sort of  "know-how" - even common labor involves "knowing how to work" - that makes i t economically as w e l l as p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y possible to sever h i s t i e s with the v i l l a g e . IV  F i n a l l y , he would take on a new i d e n t i t y . (Schematic 3 ) .  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  I t i s seen that the Indian c i t y i s r e l a t i v e l y "westernized" while i t s hinterland remains t r a d i t i o n a l and p r e c a p i t a l i s t i c .  This s i t u a t i o n  gives r i s e to the condition of dual s o c i a l structures and c u l t u r e s .  The  v i l l a g e r ' s need for sustenance, s e c u r i t y , services and urban amenities has pushed him and p u l l e d him to the c i t y where he tends to s e t t l e e i t h e r as a squatter i n the slum shanty towns that r i n g the c i t y or i n the older more established slum communities.  63 Unless the process of u r b a n i z a t i o n there a r e r e a l and and  the new  can be  reversed,  and  immediate a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r the m i l l i o n s of m i g r a n t s  born i n the slums, i t cannot be s a i d that urban  even i f i t i s a n a r c h i c , settlements.  unless  should  not  exist.  Obviously  settlement,  t h e r e must be  People must l i v e somewhere - except f o r those that  l i t e r a l l y prepared to l i v e out  i n the open and  on the s t r e e t s .  b a s i c c o n c l u s i o n of t h i s c h a p t e r i s t h a t i t i s the u n c o n t r o l l e d t o r t e d n a t u r e of the urban slum s e t t l e m e n t s I n d i a , and  not  the e x i s t e n c e  many p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l and  o f the slums themselves.  and  the dis-  their  c u l t u r a l d e f i c i e n c e s , slums have performed  urban settlement  Yet  For the  the f i r s t  econ-  base i n the  from the government's p o i n t  i s a very  their  f o s t e r i n g group a s s o c i -  r u r a l migrants they have p r o v i d e d  c i t y at the lowest p o s s i b l e p r i c e s .  when t h e r e are no  Thus  In s p i t e o f  a t i o n s f o r the lowest income groups i n the urban s o c i e t y .  view, u n c o n t r o l l e d  are  t h a t i s the main problem f o r  primary f u n c t i o n of p r o v i d i n g cheap s h e l t e r and  omically deprived  urban  of  s e r i o u s phenomenon even  s e r i o u s or immediate consequences f o r the  inhabitants.  T h i s type o f a haphazard development p o i n t s out  the l i m i t a t i o n s i n the  e x i s t i n g government machinery f o r p l a n n i n g ,  reduces the p r o p o r t i o n  and  urban p h y s i c a l growth t h a t can be e f f e c t i v e l y i n f l u e n c e d by the ment - t h a t p a r t which i s c a r r i e d out  govern-  legally within a technical  i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework to accommodate a s i t u a t i o n o f slow s o c i a l  and and  economic change. That these s e t t l e m e n t s  are n e c e s s a r y and  are bound to p e r s i s t as  long as no r e a s o n a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s are a v a i l a b l e f o r those whom they serve,  i s undeniable.  these settlements  The  p h y s i c a l planning  and  development problems  c r e a t e f o r t h e i r i n h a b i t a n t s and  the c i t y , and  which  of  64 are due to extreme overcrowding, can have serious s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic consequences - both p h y s i c a l disorder and disease undoubtedly contribute to c i t y overheads and reduced p r o d u c t i v i t y .  The many reasons  f o r the existence of these settlements make i t i n e v i t a b l e that they w i l l continue to e x i s t i n an economically as long as the poor remain poor.  impoverished country l i k e I n d i a , f o r  Government p o l i c i e s of neglect, on the  other hand, have contributed towards the p h y s i c a l and c u l t u r a l stagnation of these communities.  I t i s the contention of t h i s t h e s i s that the slums  should not be eradicated but should be made l i v a b l e . A theme basic to the a n a l y s i s that ought to be r e i t e r a t e d here i s : under conditions  functional,  of. rapid  and in this  modernization  sense' normal.  and urbanization,  slums are  This does not mean that slums are  d e s i r a b l e any more than the f a c t that human m o r t a l i t y i s f u n c t i o n a l and normal makes i t d e s i r a b l e ; i t does mean that the absence of slums indicates e i t h e r that l i t t l e or no urbanization i s going on, or else there i s a t o t a l i t a r i a n regime i n power - perhaps both. The p o s i t i v e feature of the Indian slums i s t h e i r c u l t u r e and t h e i r p o t e n t i a l to serve as a c u l t u r a l bridge between the urban centers and the traditional rural hinterland.  I b e l i e v e that i f the slum environment can  be r e v i t a l i z e d then these communities can function as s o c i o l o g i c a l , ecol o g i c a l and c u l t u r a l zones of t r a n s i t i o n .  I f the a c c u l t u r a t i v e process  works, mediating groups and associations w i l l spontaneously take root and form a rough evolutionary s e r i e s of a c c u l t u r a t i v e stages.  E f f o r t s at  m e l i o r a t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n by formal i n s t i t u t i o n s of government and of p r i v a t e agencies close to the government may or may not show some success i n a f f e c t i n g the process depending on how e f f e c t i v e they are i n m o b i l i z i n g  participation.  The i n d i v i d u a l  ative  by  challenge  This w i l l  permit  environment  Beyond acculturative  for  that,  being  d e s t r o y e d by  face  a one-way  is  clues  to  culture shape.  to  to  feeling  and  assimilated  he can be encouraged  will  there is affect  street.  the  being  towards  the rear  to  to  change must c o n t i n u e and i n s t i t u t i o n a l  question  the  accultur-  behaving.  into  the  urban  leave  the  slum  but  transformed.  its in  forms  it  is  in  It  the slum, of  the  is  cannot  its  to  The s e a r c h it  the Urbaniz-  but  surely  role  as  continue with  under p r e s s u r e  for  how  slowly  enacting  own i d e n t i t y .  of  the n a t i o n .  Traditional society  the West; find  larger  the c h a r a c t e r of  the Westernized c i t y ,  itself  fixed gazing  even l o o k  to be g r a d u a l l y  that  however,  process  is  it  thinking,  respond  newcomers.  ation  destroyer  new ways o f  the migrant  and c u l t u r e s o  a n d make way  not  learning  c a n be e x p e c t e d t o  look for  the  its  within, these  must be t h e r e ,  that  f u t u r e can be e x p e c t e d t o  take  the  CHAPTER I I .  THE MIGRANT IN  ^Wilbert  ization p.  E. Moore,  and Society,  THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT  "Industrialization eds.,  B.  343. 2  F.  Man's Struggle  C h a r l e s Abrams, p . 5.  1964, 3  D e l h i Development A u t h o r i t y ,  and S o c i a l  Change,"  H o s e l i t z and W i l b e r t  for Shelter Master  Plan  E.  in  Moore,  Industrial-  1965,  in an Urbanizing  World,  1959,  for Delhi,  p.  7.2."  4 N i r m a l K. ^Ministry  India,  S.  of Works,  A Social  Housing  Survey,  and S u p p l y ,  1957, p . 16.  ^Mpore, 7  Calcutta:  Bose,  p.  1968,  p.  40.  The Problems  of Housing  in  223.  Population  M. Mamoria,  and Family  Planning  1963,  in India,  p.  158.  Q W i l l i a m and P a u l P a d d o c k ,  M.  K.  Bharat  of My Dreams, 1963,  India  Gandhi,  "'"'''Ministry o f 1 2  1964,  Nations,  p.  119.  p . 120.  (ibid.,  9  1 0  Hungry  Works,  Housing  Sewak S a m a j ,  and S u p p l y ,  p.  134.  op.  cit.,  The Slums of Delhi,  1958,  p.  p.  15.  30.  p. 28.  Ibid.,  13  14 Bose,  p.  60. " C o m m u n i t y O r g a n i z a t i o n i n U r b a n A r e a s , " i n Towards a G o v e r n m e n t o f I n d i a P u b l i c a t i o n , 1961, p p . 79-80.  -*-^B. H . M e h t a ,  S e l f - R e l i a n t Economy,  16 A. 1 7  Shankar  Juvenile  S.  Hortense  A Study  in. Urban Sociology,  1957,  pp.  Juvenile Vagrancy: A Socio-Ecological in the Cities of Kanpur and Lucknow, 1963.  B.  Clinard,  Slums and Community Development,  Powdermaker,  Coppertown:  1966,  1962,  Changing .Africa,  157 & 161. Study of  Srivastava,  Vagrants  18 Marshall 1 9  Delhi:  Bopegamage,  p.  p.  14.  116.  20 Kenneth L i t t l e , 2 l  R e i n h a r d Bendix,  West African Nation  22 Powdermaker,  p.  120.  Urbanization,  Building  1965,  and Citizenship,  p.  64.  1964,  p.  5ff.  67 'Philip Selznick, The Organizational  Weapon, 1962,  p.  72.  68  CHAPTER I I I ANALYSIS OF PREVAILING CONCEPTS OF SLUM MANAGEMENT I  INTRODUCTION.  Over the years many groups of r u r a l migrants have l i v e d i n the slums; few have l e f t while the vast majority have stayed on. The slums of Indian c i t i e s have not only p e r s i s t e d f o r many years but have grown i n s i z e and new slums are being constantly formed. preceding  I t was observed i n the  chapters that t h e i r formation i s a self-perpetuating process:  they are e i t h e r replenished from w i t h i n or established through migration from outside the c i t y .  Several t r a d i t i o n a l approaches have been developed  and applied to deal with t h i s problem.  Some p o l i c y makers have advocated  the p o l i c y of destroying the slums, t e a r i n g them down p h y s i c a l l y , erasing t h e i r houses and shacks.  Others b e l i e v e that the p r o v i s i o n of welfare  services to the inhabitants of the slums i s the i d e a l way to b r i n g about changes and solve the problem.  S t i l l others stress the importance of  providing greater economic opportunities to the slum dwellers. The basic premise of the various approaches proposed so f a r by the d e c i s i o n makers has been to regard the slum p r i m a r i l y as a p h y s i c a l problem.  The proponents of these approaches assume that by providing a  new p h y s i c a l environment f o r the slum dwellers, the problems confronting the slums w i l l automatically disappear.  Although these various approaches  appear on the surface to be sound, and have been applied i n many c i t i e s over the years, they have serious l i m i t a t i o n s as s o l u t i o n s e i t h e r alone or together, to the problems of the slum.  The basic shortcoming of these  69 approaches  has  aspects  slum l i f e .  of  of  been t h e i r  the c u l t u r e of  Furthermore,  the  failure  T h e r e seems slum and  authorities  fail  ing  with  the only  c h a p t e r has  shelter  to  This  u n d e r t a k e n by  the government  the in  chapter  s l u m p r o b l e m and spite  continued  II  of to  resist  ing  at  are  still  108.8  chapter  an u n u s u a l l y  the  to  agencies  the y e a r s ,  change  understanding  in  rural  the c i t y . in  it.  physically  impoverished  I n d i a n slum  the v a r i o u s  through  little  e v e n t h e most  mig-  The p r e c e d -  the  urban  traditional  approaches  towards  the  solution  of  will  b e shown  that  their deficiencies.  pace  extremely high.  place at million  the r a t e  1971  It  I n d i a n slums have  generally  them.  ration  from the r u r a l  25 y e a r s  of  low incomes  the vast  The p r e s e n t under  four  Bousing  Within of  at  areas  sheer magnitude for  the  that  although  total  the urban areas  natural  approximately  a t i m e when t h e d e a t h r a t e is  e x p e c t e d to  majority  schemes.  figures  1.5-2.0 p e r c e n t p e r y e a r .  the urban p o p u l a t i o n ,  Government  urbanization  population  u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n means  the next  Industrial  indicated  fast  during  mainly  that  positive  THE GOVERNMENT POLICY ON P U B L I C HOUSING  The f i r s t  taking  efforts  of  and o t h e r  these approaches  important  acculturation within  they can a f f o r d  analyses  indicates  of  the economically  the r o l e  environment.,  the  to be s u r p r i s i n g l y  realize  that  illustrated  consider  the process  d e c a y e d s l u m s do i n d e e d p r o v i d e rants  to  of  of  this  add m i l l i o n s  there is urban  India public  Maximum f u n d s  is  of  not  urban  increase  This  India is  on top  80 m i l l i o n is  occur-  of  births  declining.  more.  the  Mig-  Besides  the a d d i t i o n a l  problem  population.  housing  provision  have been a l l o c a t e d  the  falls for  the  Scheme w h e r e t h e maximum a l l o w a b l e r e n t i s Rs.36 p e r  of  70 m o n t h and ent  the income l i m i t a t i o n  amount  o f money h a s  maximum a l l o w a b l e annual  income o f  Economically serves  which  is  range  of  with  monthly  an i n i t i a l Rs.  of  of  Rs.  on h o u s i n g 33;5  250 c r o r e s  ($178.5  The Government  cent. for  the t o t a l  government  consisting people of The  the  of  total  various  State  Central  Government  the  project. for  explicit 60 p e r  ($286)  of  has  serves  equival-  the  investment  Rs.3,000  with  and but  maximum  Income Housing  people i n  the  allowable  Slum Clearance  The  Middle  the  An  Income Scheme w h e r e  had l e s s  income o f  Finally,  the annual  Scheme  income  of  for  the  cent of  of  cent  by  for  for  example,  even under  of  1.7  providing the  lat-  available  and  grants.  each  to  Plan  the  transfer  t h e same  the  p r o j e c t and  implementing cannot  pro-  are a l l o t t e d for  a particular  a  constant  loans  schemes  from  However,  schemes,  Commission  in  to  t o make h o u s i n g  the d i f f e r e n t  project, Central  housing  a combimation of  detailed control  of  consisted  designed  States  the households  25 p e r  has  the Planning  Government,  the  policy  programs  is  one s a n c t i o n e d  Plan  the Fourth P l a n .  a n d some s o c i a l  incomes  exercises  the F i r s t  remained a r e l a t i v e l y  India's  to  in  f u n d has  by  approval  million)  each F i v e Year P l a n  in  Governments given  in  million)  available  The S t a t e  per year.  ($23.9  employees  a variety  funds  The f u n d  allocated  Plan  l o w and m i d d l e  period.  ual  Rs.6,000.  Scheme  per year.  p e r month and  have i n c r e a s e d  crores  per  to  Rs.25.  t h e Low  Rs.27  fixed at  Housing  Rs.4,200  for  at  on a l o a n b a s i s ,  of  ter  aside  a maximum a n n u a l  percentage  housing  is  at  Rs.6,000-15,000.  Expenditures  posed  tenant  rent  essentially  set  been set  Weaker Section  families  allowable  been set  r e n t has the  is  the  individfunds  scheme,  without  authority. i n urban India  the households  earn less  earn less  t h a n Rs.  than Rs.  2,000  1,000  71 annually.  I f i t can be assumed t h a t households a t these income l e v e l s  cannot a f f o r d more than 15 per cent of t h e i r income f o r r e n t , then monthly r e n t a l s of not more than Rs. T h i s low present  10  ($1.50) should  rent paying capacity precludes  and  f o r them.  of the amount of  or the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of the p r o j e c t .  a massive urban p o p u l a t i o n  considered  these f a m i l i e s from u t i l i z i n g  Government of I n d i a schemes r e g a r d l e s s  provided  be  the extremely low  Against  the  subsidy  the background o f  incomes i t i s not  sur-  p r i s i n g t h a t the p u b l i c housing programs have been t o t a l l y inadequate i n d e a l i n g w i t h the problem. The  v a r i o u s programs r e l y on s u b s i d i e s o f between 60-70 per  the r e n t f o r each housing u n i t . to rehouse slum f a m i l i e s was  The  cent  problem o f massive s u b s i d i e s  graphically illustrated  of  required  i n a paper by  o Stanislaw he  Wellisz.  U s i n g f i g u r e s on  concluded t h a t the s u b s i d y  the average income o f a slum  required  to rehouse one  amount to Rs.680 per y e a r f o r a 60 y e a r p e r i o d .  slum f a m i l y would  T h i s means a t o t a l  of $700 m i l l i o n to rehouse the slum f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n C a l c u t t a . more i n t e r e s t i n g i s W e l l i s z ' s c o n c l u s i o n about who subsidy.  He  p o i n t s out  l a r g e l y on the p o o r e s t  t h a t because of i n d i r e c t families.  Over o n e - h a l f  family,  subsidy  Even  a c t u a l l y pays f o r t h i s taxes the burden  of the subsidy  falls  for this  type of housing comes from f a m i l i e s w i t h monthly incomes of l e s s than Rs.150 ($20).  In s h o r t , the poorest  burden of housing those f o r t u n a t e  f a m i l i e s are c a l l e d upon to bear  few who  the  l i v e i n the p u b l i c housing  projects. Accepting  the maximum a l l o w a b l e  income group served  and  annual income as the c e i l i n g of  e s t a b l i s h i n g a f l o o r by assuming t h a t a f a m i l y  a f f o r d 15 per cent of i t s annual income as r e n t , i t i s p o s s i b l e to  the can  72 d i s t r i b u t e the percentage o f funds s a n c t i o n e d f o r housing among the income d i s t r i b u t i o n o f urban households.  When t h i s curve i s compared to  the one o f income d i s t r i b u t i o n o f urban households be seen t h a t the b u l k o f p u b l i c investment  i s made to b e n e f i t the upper  25 per cent o f the income' groups o f the c o u n t r y . 75 p e r cent o f urban households  (see Graph I ) , i t can  For most o f t h e lower  there i s i n s i g n i f i c a n t b e n e f i t .  Naturally  t h e r e a r e i s o l a t e d examples where f a m i l i e s w i t h an annual income o f l e s s than Rs.2,000 a r e housed i n some o f t h e p u b l i c housing p r o j e c t s , but t h e s e are r e a l l y exceptions. investment  I t should be noted here t h a t even though the f u l l  o f housing funds i s a s s i g n e d t o the p o p u l a t i o n w i t h incomes  between Rs.2,000-15,000 i t s t i l l  falls  f a r s h o r t o f the t o t a l need.  How-  ever, t h i s i s i n c i d e n t a l t o the main p o i n t o f the graph which i s t o unders c o r e the need f o r a new housing program t h a t w i l l be d i r e c t e d the lowest income'groups i n urban There i s a need f o r complete  India. r e t h i n k i n g , l e a d i n g to a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n  o f the government's r o l e i n h o u s i n g . l i s h i n g procedures  towards  More emphasis i s r e q u i r e d on e s t a b -  of. p u b l i c o r p r i v a t e f i n a n c i n g so t h a t f a m i l i e s w i t h  steady incomes can secure housing o u t s i d e the government programs.  There  i s a need to improve the d e s i g n s and c o n s t r u c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s , t o conserve s c a r c e m a t e r i a l s , r e w r i t e b u i l d i n g codes, i n t r o d u c e a c o n s t r u c t i v e t a x p o l i c y , e s t a b l i s h v i a b l e s a v i n g s i n s t i t u t i o n s , and i n c r e a s e t h e d e n s i t y o f new r e s i d e n t i a l areas w i t h i n the urban c e n t e r s .  A l l these f a c t o r s , as  v i t a l as they a r e , do n o t p r o v i d e a s o l u t i o n f o r the f a m i l i e s i n the slums.  There can be no s o l u t i o n f o r t h i s group u n t i l  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the problem  there i s a r e a l i s t i c  f a c t o r s o f p o p u l a t i o n , per c a p i t a income and  the l a c k o f government r e s o u r c e s .  74 III  THE CONCEPT OF SLUM CLEARANCE  There have been numerous o b s t a c l e s  t h a t have impeded p r o g r e s s i n  d e a l i n g w i t h the problems o f t h e slums i n urban I n d i a . enormous extent  o f the problem, the gap between s h e l t e r c o s t and n a t i o n a l  finance l i m i t a t i o n s , lack of savings, ing  They i n c l u d e the  absence o f a w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d  i n d u s t r y , l a c k o f c o n t r o l over l a n d v a l u e s ,  build-  l a n d s p e c u l a t i o n , and the  t r a n s f e r o f the p u b l i c housing u n i t s t o p r i v a t e owners.  Problems o f f i n -  ance a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t because o f i n s u f f i c i e n t c a p i t a l f o r h o u s i n g , l a c k o f mortgages and c o - o p e r a t i v e Many experts  programs.  and d e c i s i o n makers t h i n k t h a t the obvious remedy f o r  the slums i s t h e i r p h y s i c a l d e s t r u c t i o n . conclusions  savings  of the'previous  However, i t i s obvious from the  c h a p t e r t h a t t h i s would s o l v e n o t h i n g and  would, i n f a c t , l e a d to s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s on the r u i n s o f the o l d slums. Proponents o f the p h y s i c a l d e s t r u c t i o n o f slums argue t h a t they p l a n to b u i l d new and s u i t a b l e h o u s i n g f a c i l i t i e s t o r e p l a c e t h e o l d e r The  l o g i c o f such a program and i t s f e a s i b i l i t y  settlements.  need c a r e f u l examination  because o f f o u r main d i f f i c u l t i e s : the immensity o f the p h y s i c a l problems i n terms o f l i m i t e d government r e s o u r c e s , urbanization,  the f a c t t h a t the m a j o r i t y  not be a t t r i b u t e d t o p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s the d e s t r u c t i o n o f the p r e s e n t  the l i k e l i h o o d o f i n c r e a s i n g o f the problems o f the slum canalone,  and f i n a l l y , the f a c t  housing s t o c k i n the slums w i l l a l s o  the d e s t r u c t i o n o f the p o s i t i v e human a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t a l r e a d y the  that  involve  exist i n  area. The  Report o f the A d v i s o r y  Committee on Slum C l e a r a n c e ,  by the Govern-  ment o f I n d i a , estimated t h a t as many as 60% o f t h e p e o p l e i n the l a r g e Indian  cities  l i v e i n p h y s i c a l l y poor c o n d i t i o n s  t h a t can be c l a s s i f i e d  as  75 slums and,  i n a d d i t i o n , 1.5  m i l l i o n 'houses i n I n d i a n c i t i e s are u n f i t  for  3 human h a b i t a t i o n w i t h o u t s u b s t a n t i a l improvements. demand f o r urban h o u s i n g has been estimated present  The b a c k l o g  of  at nearly 5 m i l l i o n .  the  At  the  r a t e of urban growth, t o t a l slum c l e a r a n c e would r e q u i r e 115  years  4 and  expenditures  equal  o n l y the estimated  to at l e a s t two  n a t i o n a l F i v e Year P l a n s .  increase i n population  f o r the f i v e years  ending  the c o s t of p r o v i d i n g housing f o r t h i s i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n , present  conservative  Taking  at  the  f i g u r e of Rs. 2,500 per u n i t , would amount to  2,880 c r o r e r s ($5.76 b i l l i o n ) . " '  I f the c o s t o f l a n d were a l s o to  1966,  Rs. be  i n c l u d e d , a t o t a l f i g u r e of Rs.3,500 c r o r e s would not be d i s p u t e d .  In  r e l a t i o n to these f i g u r e s , the t o t a l housing development o u t l a y f o r the T h i r d F i v e Year P l a n was one-half  the a l l o t m e n t  o n l y Rs.1,000 c r o r e s - an amount which was  for a l l social services.  p l a t e d housing would c o n s i s t of o n l y one design.  or two  only  Furthermore, the contemroom u n i t s of  simple  I t i s important to note here that housing of the type the Western  t r a i n e d observers  c o n s i d e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of good and  decent l i v i n g would  be a v a i l a b l e to o n l y a s m a l l f r a c t i o n o f the people who  must l i v e i n the  6 c i t i e s of I n d i a . L i t t l e h e l p towards a c h i e v i n g adequate low c o s t housing can expected from the p r i v a t e i n v e s t o r s who slum housing p r i o r to World War  II.  provided  The  be  n e a r l y a l l the low  private investor  cost  formerly  r e c e i v e d a f a i r l y good r e t u r n on h i s investment even w i t h the low  rents.  The  In most  reasons f o r t h i s were the low  l a b o u r and  construction costs.  c a s e s , however, the b u i l d i n g s were o f an extremely sub-standard being  l a r g e l y devoid  of the n e c e s s a r y  Today, v e r y few,  i f any  nature,  facilities.  of the p r i v a t e i n v e s t o r s a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n  76 providing of  housing  for  the slum d w e l l e r s  not  the  t o make  room tenement sum t h a t total 100  is  is  ($14)  r e t u r n on h i s  the investment. Rs.26  beyond  income o f  income g r o u p s .  a n d t h e m i g r a n t s means  expect a reasonable  unwilling  low  ($3.75)  t h e means  more  per month,  than  that  The p r i v a t e for  the migrant  50% o f  the p r i v a t e  investment  p e r month;  of  The low r e n t p a y i n g  -  he i s ,  r e n t a l of two  and  rooms  10% o f  investor  an average Rs.41  does  the households  can-  therefore, one  ($5.75),  the slum d w e l l e r s .  the urban households  and i n o n l y  capacity  not  a  The  7  exceed  is  the  in  Calcutta,  Rs.  income  g greater  than Rs.300 p e r month.  investment annual In  of  return,  comparison  the  approximately would it  monthly  average  the p r i v a t e  in  is  out  that,  Rs.8,400  ($1200)  per  tenement u n i t ,  be p o i n t e d out  Calcutta  Rs.7  investor  points  require approximately  should  slum d w e l l e r s  Park  is  ($1).  cannot  only  It  is  Rs.350  that  ($50)  rent  the average  Rs.l4($2),  while  q u i t e obvious  be e x p e c t e d to a c c e p t  with  per  monthly in  such a low  a  5%  annum. rent  Delhi  from these  an  of  the  figures  that  r e t u r n on  his  investment. It able  in  is  difficult  sufficient available  to b e l i e v e t h a t  sums t o  of  any  of  h y d r o e l e c t r i c power, defenses.  diverted  for  grams, getting  Large  9  of  iron pipes, increasing  the housing worse  steel mills, amounts  the i m p o r t a t i o n of  and c a s t Because  r e b u i l d the  of  in  than b e t t e r .  foreign  has  large the  such  factories  as  spite has  in  of  and to  be iron  materials.  new h o u s i n g  actual  been observed  amounts  corrugated  construction  avail-  development  exchange would have  and i n  Indian c i t i e s  for  plants,  supplies  and o t h e r  It  since  government  fertilizer  urbanization  situations  rather  the  building  cement,  e x c h a n g e w o u l d b e made  Indian c i t i e s  money a r e a l l o c a t e d b y  military  sheets  foreign  that  fact  pro-  been  although  the  percentage of  urban growth  still  resulted in  fact,  together with  the migrants resources total  and  great  recent years  increases  in  has  the slum d w e l l e r s , to  urban population of households  not been r a p i d ,  t h e number o f  the l i m i t e d government  have been a b l e  t h e number o f  in  means  cope w i t h  and  was  the housing  12.8 m i l l i o n .  8.9  m i l l i o n new d w e l l i n g  units,  5.96  units.  tially great  correct, for, as  it  dwellings so  that  problem.  It  was  i n meeting  the urban housing earlier. likely  some o f  to  the c i t i e s , becomes  problems  in  to  The i n h a b i t a n t s '  inadequacies  costs  was  of  and that  deficit  and, with of  3  to be  substan-  twice  as  million  than  the  12-16  Indian  the large  furnishing  urban  decrease,  approximately  confronting  the problems  total  5.5  increase rather  needs,  the  approximately  turned out  shortage  the problems  scale  adequate  imperative.  t h e Government o f  inability  to  r e l u c t a n c e to be r e l o c a t e d from a r e a s  economic d i s l o c a t i o n  1951,  I n d i a p o i n t e d out  that  i m p l e m e n t i n g s l u m c l e a r a n c e and r e l o c a t i o n p r o -  grams w e r e t h e s l u m d w e l l e r s '  programs.  private  i n 1957  the  of  the c o n s t r u c t i o n of  The s h o r t a g e  increasingly  The T h i r d F i v e Y e a r P l a n o f  their  e s t i m a t e has  immediate housing  i n slum areas  t h e two m a j o r  Even w i t h  a r e now f a c e d w i t h a d e f i c i t o f  These a r e  predicted migration housing  This  a g a i n e s t i m a t e d as  million units.  In  estimated  t h e r e would be a d e f i c i e n c y of  i n 1961  the planners  planners  million.  had been t e n years  was  the poverty  61.9 m i l l i o n o c c u p i e d 10.3 m i l l i o n houses  would be about  m i l l i o n housing  This  n e i t h e r p u b l i c nor  b y 1 9 6 1 , when t h e r e w o u l d b e 78 m i l l i o n u r b a n r e s i d e n t s , i n housing  has  new u r b a n i t e s .  resources, that  it  as  pay  selected for  dissatisfaction higher  even s u b s i d i z e d  arises,  slum  first,  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n expenses,  o f most u r b a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m s ,  and  the  rents  and  clearance from  such  from  loss  of  some  78 m a r g i n a l employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t can be found i n the slum. ondly r e l o c a t i o n programs have grave consequences  i n the d i s r u p t i o n o f  community r e l a t i o n s h i p s and group t i e s among the slum d w e l l e r s . a r e rehoused i n a manner t h a t f a i l s  Sec-  When they  to take t h e s e c r i t e r i a i n t o account,  the r e s u l t i n g d i s r u p t i o n s can have s e v e r e s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l The slum d w e l l e r w i l l u s u a l l y attempt  consequences.  to f l e e from a p u b l i c r e h o u s i n g  scheme and attempt to f i n d " f a m i l i a r " accommodation i n some o t h e r slum i n the c i t y . Housing p r o j e c t s a r e b u i l t because o f the n e c e s s i t y of p r o v i d i n g s h e l t e r f o r people who a u t h o r i t i e s who  would  o t h e r w i s e not have adequate s h e l t e r , but the  b u i l d them always have the a d d i t i o n a l hope t h a t the con-  s t r u c t i o n o f these p r o j e c t s w i l l a l s o improve the g e n e r a l l i f e s t y l e and l i v i n g conditions.  However, i n I n d i a n c i t i e s ,  p r o j e c t s can have tremendous i m p l i c a t i o n s . houses  to apartment  the move to such h o u s i n g  I t means moving from s m a l l  b u i l d i n g s , from wooden o r mud  c o n s t r u c t i o n to masonry,  from s q u a t t e r s ' r i g h t s t o tenancy, from s h i f t i n g day by day to planned administration. C h a r l e s Abrams says t h a t a l l p r e v a i l i n g i d e a s o f w h o l e s a l e slum c l e a r a n c e must be abandoned and t h a t new s h e l t e r problem.  i d e a s be developed to s o l v e the  "The p r o v i s i o n o f b a r e e s s e n t i a l s may  world's sad but o n l y r e a s o n a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e . enormity of the problem, however, t h e r e may  Once we  have to be the  understand the  be ways of d e a l i n g w i t h i t .  I t i s o n l y when hope i s g i v e n up and eyes a r e c l o s e d t o r e a l i t y t h a t the 13 c r i s i s becomes i n e v i t a b l e . "  Problems  o f r e l o c a t i o n and the l a c k o f  r e s o u r c e s do not mean the slums o f I n d i a n c i t i e s m u s t - e x i s t f o r e v e r i n t h e i r p r e s e n t form.  Rather, i t i s suggested t h a t the chances f o r t h e i r  79 complete e l i m i n a t i o n are indeed remote.  Commenting on the plans being  developed f o r Calcutta through the C a l c u t t a Metropolitan Organization (CMPO), Bose points out that " f o r the same gross expenditures  that might  rehouse 7000 of the slum i n h a b i t a n t s , i t i s estimated that the  present 14  bustees  can be made more habitable f o r at l e a s t 70,000 people."  In add-  i t i o n to t h i s , properly organized, motivated and guided, the people i n the bustees  can make s u b s t a n t i a l improvements i n the p h y s i c a l conditions  of t h e i r environment.  P h y s i c a l improvements i n slums can consist of  r e p a i r i n g houses, both i n s i d e and outside, paving lanes and open drains and providing better water supply, s a n i t a r y f a c i l i t i e s and e l e c t r i c i t y i n the communities.  Abrams says that "without a program that acknowledges  the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of the slums, c o s t l y permanent and unimprovable slum formations w i l l be the  product.""^  Abrams has also suggested that a r e a l i s t i c plan f o r the improvements i n slum housing must proceed i n two stages.  The f i r s t would minimize slum  clearance and allow f o r dense occupancy and increased r e l i a n c e on s e l f - h e l p through savings and mortgage mechanisms, improved l o c a l production of b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s , and b e t t e r suburban t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to b r i n g workers i n t o the c i t y , thus somewhat r e l i e v i n g the housing pressures.  The second  stage, to be reached i n the d i s t a n t f u t u r e , would involve improving general standard of l i v i n g and economic development.  In the f i r s t  the stage,  slums would have to be accepted as a t r a n s i t i o n a l phase of urban indust r i a l change i n the face of unavoidable mass r u r a l to urban migration. The slums could then be guided i n t h e i r development.  Cheap land i n l e s s  densely populated parts of the c i t y could be acquired and planned i n such a way that the houses could be improved and expanded over the years.  As  80 Abrams says, a "planned slum i s b e t t e r than an unplanned slum when i t 16 consists of separate s h e l t e r s that are i n d i v i d u a l l y owned." IV  THE CONCEPT OF PROVIDING WELFARE SERVICES AND GREATER ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY FOR THE SLUM DWELLERS  Despite the enormity of t h e i r slum problems, most Indian c i t i e s today have continued to r e l y mainly upon s o c i a l welfare centers to bring about changes and improvements among the masses i n the slums by providing services of various types.  S o c i a l welfare services give the slum dwellers  the f e e l i n g something i s being done f o r them and make both the government and the d e c i s i o n makers more secure about t h e i r e f f o r t s to improve l i f e f o r the poor.  Closer i n s p e c t i o n , however, r a i s e s serious questions both  about the philosophy.behind them and t h e i r a b i l i t y to solve complex urban problems on a broader and more permanent b a s i s . T h e o r e t i c a l l y , the p r o v i s i o n of such services i s supposed  to.change  the slum by exposing the slum dwellers to a d i f f e r e n t set of norms and values.  T y p i c a l l y , centers such as rooms or separate b u i l d i n g s might be  provided i n the neighbourhood where services l i k e sewing, h a n d i c r a f t s , and l i t e r a c y classes as w e l l as occasional c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s are o f f e r e d . The area served by such centers i s seldom c a r e f u l l y defined.  Space and  fund l i m i t a t i o n s , however, make i t impossible f o r such centers to serve more than a f r a c t i o n of the residents i n what i s often a very large area. The s t a f f u s u a l l y consists of a few p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l workers and a number of volunteers, most of whom do not l i v e i n the area they serve. These volunteers, and even some of the p r o f e s s i o n a l workers, are usually from a higher s o c i a l class w i t h more economic advantages, and are almost  81 without area.  e x c e p t i o n much b e t t e r educated than the t y p i c a l r e s i d e n t of  the  The p o l i c y boards of the d e c i s i o n makers g e n e r a l l y c o n s i s t of  people who  r e s i d e o u t s i d e the a r e a , a l t h o u g h  p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the r e s i d e n t s o f the a r e a .  t h e r e i s sometimes  token  C l i n a r d gives t h i s  example  to i l l u s t r a t e the inadequacy o f w e l f a r e c e n t e r s as a s o l u t i o n f o r the I n d i a n slum problem: Two c e n t e r s served an area of t e x t i l e workers' ehawXs housing some 200,000 persons. One had a c r e c h e f o r 50 c h i l d r e n , another f o r 100, both groups b e i n g neat and c l e a n and s u p e r v i s e d by experienced teachers. The a r e a , however, must have at l e a s t 25,000 c h i l d r e n under the age o f seven who were not i n s c h o o l . Nearby was the o n l y r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r i n the a r e a , c o n s i s t i n g o f one r a t h e r l o n g and l a r g e room and f o u r s m a l l e r ones. The d a i l y attendance was from 200-600 persons, the women p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a sewing group o f 30, the men p l a c i n g on two ping-pong t a b l e s and u s i n g two w r e s t l i n g platforms. T h i s attendance i s a s m a l l percentage of the 200,000 people i n the a r e a and m^st o f them come from areas immediately a d j a c e n t to the c e n t e r . Very o f t e n s t a f f members, p a r t i c u l a r l y the v o l u n t e e r s , a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n "doing something f o r the u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d . " tends to c r e a t e dependence among the people r a t h e r than to develop t h e i r own  problems.  cities.  The  i t s staff  p a r t to work out s o l u t i o n s t o  While a c c e p t i n g the s e r v i c e s from the c e n t e r ,  e x p l o i t a t i v e a t t i t u d e , seeking  s e l l i n g them.  on the c e n t e r and  a d e s i r e on t h e i r own  r e s i d e n t s o f t e n r e s e n t having  from as many sources  Such an approach o f t e n  to depend upon o t h e r s or they develop f r e e s e r v i c e s and  as p o s s i b l e and  even s u p p l i e s of  o f t e n , i n the case of the  an  food  latter,  T h i s p r a c t i c e i s p a r t i c u l a r l y common i n the l a r g e r I n d i a n s t a f f s of the w e l f a r e c e n t e r s hope to change the way  of  o f the slum d w e l l e r s through the l i m i t e d t r a i n i n g they can p r o v i d e through examples and c e n t e r people  the  exhortations.  Gans has  suggested  t h a t the  and  welfare  are " m i s s i o n a r i e s , " i n t h a t they want the r e s i d e n t s of  a r e a to adopt t h e i r own  behaviour  and v a l u e s .  18  life  the  Because o f the m i d d l e and  82 upper c l a s s o r i g i n s and  the p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g of most members of  the  w e l f a r e c e n t e r s t a f f s , i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r them to share the p e r s p e c t i v e s of  the people they work w i t h .  Too  o f t e n t h i s type of " w e l f a r e work"  appears to i n v o l v e a p a r t i c u l a r channel  through which the w e a l t h i e r  people,  p a r t i c u l a r l y women, are a b l e to a c h i e v e a s p e c i a l s t a t u s or even p o l i t i c a l prestige. behaviour  There i s a l s o a tendency among t h e s e people to a t t r i b u t e and  poor housing,  the way and  of l i f e  the  of the slum d w e l l e r t o economic d e p r i v a t i o n ,  the absence of i n d i v i d u a l  initiative.  In g e n e r a l , w e l f a r e programs i n v o l v e i n d i v i d u a l s , consequently, e f f e c t on the t o t a l community may  be n e g l i g i b l e .  s t a f f s a r e aware of t h i s problem and  Some w e l f a r e  t r y to o r g a n i z e c l e a n up  the  center campaigns,  u s u a l l y w i t h the h e l p o f o u t s i d e youth v o l u n t e e r s , to help improve  sani-  tation.  These campaigns are seldom s u c c e s s f u l as improvements u s u a l l y do  not l a s t  long.  of  Such e f f o r t s g e n e r a l l y f a i l  l o c a l residents i n self-help efforts.  to adequately  Unless a group approach i s made,  the e f f e c t s of such programs have no permanence. o r g a n i z a t i o n of the c e n t e r , c r e d i t  Because of the p e c u l i a r  f o r any accomplishment o f t e n goes to  the s t a f f , whereas f a i l u r e s a r e a t t r i b u t e d to the people's Another u n f o r t u n a t e  i n v o l v e groups  apathy.  element w i t h the s o c i a l - w e l f a r e c e n t e r s i s t h e i r  connection, e i t h e r d i r e c t or i n d i r e c t , with p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s * is  t h a t people o f opposing  p o l i t i c a l b e l i e f s may  the c e n t e r and i t s f o r t u n e s may  not be prepared  f l u c t u a t e w i t h p o l i t i c a l change.  The to  T h i s statement  use  It i s ,  t h e r e f o r e , u n r e a l i s t i c to hope t h a t c o n v e n t i o n a l l y o r i e n t e d c e n t e r s s u c c e s s f u l l y c r e a t e ' a n impact  result  can  on the l a r g e - s c a l e problems o f the slums.  does not imply t h a t c e n t e r s s h o u l d be a b o l i s h e d , but r a t h e r ,  t h e i r approach should be re-examined and r e i n v i g o r a t e d w i t h new  and b e t t e r  83 techniques to stimulate s e l f - h e l p , f u l l neighbourhood p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and indigenous leadership among the r e s i d e n t s . Many of the Indian d e c i s i o n makers b e l i e v e that by providing increased economic opportunities to the slum dwellers they w i l l move out of the slum.  There.is widespread b e l i e f that as each group r i s e s on the  economic scale i t becomes acculturated to the general values of the l a r g e r s o c i e t y and many of i t s members w i l l move out of the slum.  There i s no  question that measures to b r i n g about improved economic conditions w i l l of great value to the slum dwellers.  be  These include adequate wages, guar-  anteed minimum wages, a c c e s s i b l e and inexpensive c r e d i t , programs to t r a i n and r e t r a i n youths and a d u l t s , improved s o c i a l s e c u r i t y and p u b l i c • assistance.  1 9  The f a c t that the slum has continued  to e x i s t to s o c i a l i z e and  a c c u l t u r a t e new migrants, however, has often escaped the a t t e n t i o n of those who  take t h i s approach, as has the f a c t that the many problems of  the slum cannot be a t t r i b u t e d e n t i r e l y to economic d e p r i v a t i o n .  A l l these  programs are important but there seems to be too much emphasis on p r o v i d ing greater economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s .  The assumption that most people w i l l  automatically grasp such opportunities i s indeed questionable.  The  per  c a p i t a costs of such programs, even with government support, are l i k e l y to be d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y high f o r the r e s u l t s achieved i n any given area.  At  most, with the l i m i t e d government resources, a r e l a t i v e l y small proportion of people can be reached, and meanwhile there are continued additions to the areas through n a t u r a l increase and r u r a l to urban migration.  Unless  the slum way of l i f e i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r e d , there i s l i k e l y to be l i m i t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n and a high drop-out rate f o r such programs.  The  84 b a s i c problem i s n o t the a c q u i s i t i o n o f s k i l l s by a few b u t a f f e c t i n g changes i n the way o f l i f e o f the m a j o r i t y o f the slum d w e l l e r s . I t i s a l s o q u e s t i o n a b l e whether o r n o t the s o - c a l l e d s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l aspects o f urban p o v e r t y —  apathy,  n i n g , and h o s t i l i t y t o o u t s i d e a g e n c i e s — poverty alone.  powerlessness,  lack of plan-  can be d i r e c t l y a t t r i b u t e d t o  A g i v e n l e v e l o f income does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y produce  c e r t a i n consequences i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l a t t i t u d e s .  I n f a c t , subgroups among  the urban poor may d i s p l a y r e a c t i o n s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from the p s y c h o l o g i c a l aspects of poverty.  F o r example, v e r y low income f a m i l i e s may have h i g h  l e v e l s o f a s p i r a t i o n ; l e a d e r s w i t h h i g h l e v e l s o f m o t i v a t i o n may be found among the poor;  lower middle c l a s s f a m i l i e s w i t h h i g h a s p i r a t i o n s may  a c t u a l l y have lower incomes than do many poor groups r e c e i v i n g economic a i d and o t h e r b e n e f i t s ; and, i n f l u e n t i a l i n t e l l e c t u a l l e a d e r s i n I n d i a o f t e n r e c e i v e v e r y low incomes.  D e s p i t e r u r a l improvement programs, one  can assume c o n t i n u e d l a r g e s c a l e m i g r a t i o n to c i t i e s and the slums.  This  m i g r a t i o n means t h a t j o b t r a i n i n g o f slum d w e l l e r s w i l l p r e s e n t a c o n s t a n t problem but w i l l cultural  V  i t s e l f not m a t e r i a l l y a l t e r the slum as a s o c i a l and  system.  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS.  The b a s i c premise  o f the p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r was t h a t i f the p r o c e s s e s  t h a t produce autonomous slum s e t t l e m e n t s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y normal processes of urban growth then i t f o l l o w s t h a t autonomous urban s e t t l e m e n t s a r e both the product o f and the v e h i c l e f o r a c t i v i t i e s which a r e e s s e n t i a l i n the process of u r b a n i z a t i o n .  I t w i l l be u s e f u l to once a g a i n i d e n t i f y the  f u n c t i o n s these s e t t l e m e n t s perform f o r t h e i r i n h a b i t a n t s .  These a r e  n a t u r a l l y the f u n c t i o n s of any d w e l l i n g environment. address  - i t g i v e s an i n d i v i d u a l o r a f a m i l y a p l a c e i n s o c i e t y ,  t h e r e f o r e , an i d e n t i t y .  and  The d w e l l i n g p r o v i d e s l o c a t i o n - however l o n g o r  s h o r t the p e r i o d of r e s i d e n c e - and w i t h o u t exist.  The d w e l l i n g i s an  a l o c a t i o n the d w e l l i n g cannot  But i f the d w e l l i n g cannot be o c c u p i e d f o r the minimum p e r i o d  r e q u i r e d o r , i f t h e r e i s no tenure, i t i s u s e l e s s as a d w e l l i n g . c o u r s e , the d w e l l i n g must p r o v i d e a minimum degree of s h e l t e r .  And  of  The  demands f o r r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n i n the c i t y f o r low income groups v a r y g r e a t l y w i t h the s o c i a l and who  economic s i t u a t i o n o f the i n h a b i t a n t : t h o s e  cannot a f f o r d to commute l o n g d i s t a n c e s , and  cally  impoverished  those who  a r e economi-  and must spend every f r e e hour l o o k i n g f o r a j o b , must  l i v e near t h e i r sources of employment.  I t t h e r e f o r e f o l l o w s t h a t the v e r y  poor o r u n s k i l l e d or c a s u a l l y employed w i t h v e r y low and  i n s e c u r e incomes,  must be f r e e to change t h e i r r e s i d e n c e a t v e r y s h o r t n o t i c e i n o r d e r to follow jobs — t h e  c o n s t r u c t i o n l a b o r e r ' s next j o b may  s i d e of the c i t y .  The  d e c i s i o n makers have f a i l e d  be on the o t h e r  to r e a l i z e t h a t  groups need accommodation at v e r y low c o s t and w i t h i n w a l k i n g t h e i r sources of employment and  l i v e l i h o o d and  these  d i s t a n c e of  they must have the freedom  to g i v e up t h e i r h a b i t a t a t v e r y s h o r t n o t i c e . As was  i n d i c a t e d i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , the i n n e r - c i t y tenements  and  the slums of the v e r y poor, and  do,  i n f a c t , perform  inhabitants.  the p e r i p h e r a l s q u a t t e r  settlements  the p r i n c i p a l f u n c t i o n s demanded of them by  their  So, i n s p i t e of t h e i r many drawbacks, they can a c t as  forward-moving v e h i c l e s of s o c i a l and  c u l t u r a l change.  On  the o t h e r hand,  many p u b l i c l y f i n a n c e d housing p r o j e c t s , i n s p i t e of t h e i r improved physi c a l c o n d i t i o n s , a c t i n the o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n .  By d i s l o c a t i n g the  low  86 income groups from t h e i r s e t t l e m e n t s - by d i v o r c i n g them from t h e i r opport u n i t i e s and by l o a d i n g the wage earners w i t h a mortgage, the c o n v e n t i o n a l p r o j e c t s a c t more o f t e n as b a r r i e r s r a t h e r than as v e h i c l e s f o r s o c i a l improvement. The problem here i s not the p h y s i c a l aspect o f the s e t t l e m e n t . is  the s e t t l e r and h i s community.  What i s important  between the i n h a b i t a n t and h i s h a b i t a t . its  literal  i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p  The word "environment" i s used i n  sense o f " s u r r o u n d i n g s " - a concept  out r e f e r e n c e t o t h a t which i s surrounded. are n o t the c o n v e n t i o n a l v a l u e s based  It  t h a t has no meaning w i t h -  The v a l u e s assumed, t h e r e f o r e ,  on q u a l i t a t i v e m a t e r i a l s t a n d a r d s .  A m a t e r i a l l y "poor" house may be b e t t e r than a m a t e r i a l l y "good" one ( i . e . one b u i l t a c c o r d i n g t o h i g h m a t e r i a l s t a n d a r d s ) i n a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n . instance:,  For  t h e same tenement c o u r t w i t h one room d w e l l i n g s may be adequate  f o r t h e v e r y poor young c o u p l e , r e c e n t l y a r r i v e d from a v i l l a g e t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d i n the c i t y , b u t extremely  to seek  demoralizing f o r a larger  f a m i l y t h a t has been r e s i d i n g i n the c i t y f o r some time. Autonomous urban slum s e t t l e m e n t i s the product o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e between the n a t u r e o f the p o p u l a r demand f o r d w e l l i n g s and those s u p p l i e d by t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l s o c i e t y .  The f o c u s o f t h i s problem - t h e l o s s o f  i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n t r o l over the urban s e t t l e m e n t s and i t s consequences - i s p r i m a r i l y i n s t i t u t i o n a l and o n l y secondly a by-product  of poverty.  I  argue t h a t the v a l u e s and t h e p r i o r i t i e s o f t h e d e c i s i o n makers have not been compatible w i t h the needs o f the m a j o r i t y o f the urban s o c i e t y , i . e . the low income groups. f o r the f u l f i l l m e n t  P o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s and the i n s t i t u t i o n a l  framework  of these v a l u e s and p r i o r i t i e s a r e too o f t e n geared to  o n l y one s e c t o r o f the urban s o c i e t y  ( t h e r e l a t i v e l y wealthy  m i n o r i t y ) and  a r e e c o n o m i c a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y u n a c c e p t a b l e to t h e remainder who f o u r - f i f t h s o f the urban p o p u l a t i o n .  comprise  I t i s argued that the l o s s o f c o n t r o l  over urban s e t t l e m e n t s - as d i s t i n c t  from the d e f i c i t o f s t a n d a r d modern  housing u n i t s - i s t h e consequence o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l maladjustments  which,  of c o u r s e , a r e p a r t l y due t o erroneous b e l i e f s and s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s o f the d e c i s i o n makers.  But w h i l e the h o u s i n g u n i t d e f i c i t  i s only  indirec-  t l y an i n s t i t u t i o n a l problem, the extremely bad p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n o f the environment i n which the poor o f the I n d i a n c i t i e s l i v e i s c e r t a i n l y made worse by i n s t i t u t i o n a l demands and f a i l u r e s .  Guided v e r y o f t e n by  erron-  eous n o t i o n s of slum c l e a r a n c e and the p r o h i b i t i o n of any form o f b u i l d i n g not c o n s i d e r e d to be "modern" enough f o r the I n d i a n c i t y ,  official  p o l i c i e s have f r e q u e n t l y c o n t r i b u t e d d i r e c t l y t o the worsening o f the housing c o n d i t i o n s and to the d i r e c t encouragement haphazard development  o f s q u a t t i n g and  f o r the masses.  The i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n t r o l o f urban s e t t l e m e n t must depend encouragement  upon the  and support o f p o p u l a r i n i t i a t i v e through the government  s e r v i c i n g of l o c a l resources.  I t i s e c o n o m i c a l l y i m p r a c t i c a l f o r the  government to i n s i s t on development  procedures and p o l i c i e s based on the  e x p e r i e n c e s o f Western c o u n t r i e s w i t h t h e i r developed economies. c o s t s o f such development  The  a r e f a r g r e a t e r than the people can a f f o r d w h i l e  S t a t e s u b s i d i e s on a s u f f i c i e n t s c a l e a r e out o f the q u e s t i o n .  The b a s i c  needs and e s s e n t i a l f u n c t i o n s o f a s h e l t e r f o r the r u r a l migrants i n urban a r e a s a r e s e r v e d much more s u c c e s s f u l l y by the more t r a d i t i o n a l and o r g a n i c forms o f autonomous s e t t l e m e n t which f o l l o w t r a d i t i o n a l procedures w i t h regards to b u i l d i n g t e c h n i q u e s and p h y s i c a l development.  The  c l u s i o n seems t o be i n e s c a p a b l e : i f governments  urban  are to c o n t r o l  con-  settlement and development, procedures and p o l i c i e s must be based on the nature of l o c a l demand.  A l t e r n a t i v e l y , i t i s impossible to obtain the  c o n t r i b u t i o n of the mass of the people on whose c o l l e c t i v e resources the development of the Indian c i t i e s rests..  I t should be stressed that govern-  ment, e s p e c i a l l y since i t does not possess or c o n t r o l the resources needed f o r environmental development should not attempt to substitute  for  l o c a l d i r e c t i o n a c t i o n - but should support i t - i n ways that b r i n g i t i n t o the i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework of the country.  89 CHAPTER I I I .  ANALYSIS OF P R E V A I L I N G CONCEPTS  " ' ' L e l a n d S.  Housing as Social 1966, p. 13.  Overhead  Burns,  Land Economics,  OF SLUM  MANAGEMENT  Capital.  Essays  in - Urban  2 Stanislaw Evaluation"  H.  Wellisz,  (unpublished  Organization, Government  of  Richard  Issue," L.  " C e n t r a l i z a t i o n and A l t e r n a t e  Meier,  of  India's  in  India's  in  ^Ministry  and G o a l s , "  in  Urban Future,  "Relations  of  Urban Future,  Works,  Housing  Technology  to  of  Decentraliz-  223.  the Design of  Very  Large  229-307.  e d . , T u r n e r , pp.  and S u p p l y ,  Forms  e d . , T u r n e r , p.  The Problems of. Housing in  1957, p . 7.  India,  ^Richard  L.  West B e n g a l ,  9  Economic  Committee on Slum  "The Future of Indian C i t i e s : Issues e d . , Roy T u r n e r , 1962, p . 418.  Chaudhuri,  A Key  Cities,"  ed.,  An  Planning  Urban Future,  ^Sachin ation:  The Report of the Advisory  India,  1964, p . 5.  ^Asoka Mehta,  India's  Slum C l e a r a n c e P o l i c y :  Calcutta Metropolitan  1967).  Jan.,  3 Clearance,  "India's paper,  Park,  with  T u r n e r , p. J o h n P.  of  "^Government  Attention  to  to  L o c a l and S t a t e  Calcutta,"  Government:  India's  in  Urban  Future,  338.  Quiet  Lewis,  "^Ministry  "The Urban C h a l l e n g e  Special  Works, of  Crisis  Housing  Third  India,  in-India,  1964.  and S u p p l y ,  Five  op cit.,  p.  1961,  Year Plan,  10.  p.  687.  12 H.  S.  Dhillon,  Dynamics  in  a Bustee  -  A Study  Report of the Seminar on Urban Community  Leadership," p.  "Group  of  Groups  and  Development, 1964,  128. 13 Charles  1964, 1 4  p.  Abrams,  Nirmal  K.  Charles  Ibid.,  16  Herbert  Bose,  Abrams,  for Shelter  in an Urbanizing  World,  Calcutta: p.  A Social  Survey,  1968,  p.  64.  252.  253.  "^Marshall 1 8  Man's Struggle  54.  B.  Clinard,  J . Gans,  Slums and Community  The Urban Villagers,  Development,  1962,  Chapter  1966,  7.  p.  102.  90 'David Hunter, The Slum; Challenge  and Response,  1968, pp. 143-170.  91 CHAPTER IV THE URBAN SLUM: CONTINUITY AND CHANGE I  INTRODUCTION\  Local a u t h o r i t i e s i n urban slum areas have been unable to provide even the basic f a c i l i t i e s f o r the vast majority of t h e i r i n h a b i t a n t s . Accommodations are l i m i t e d , r e s i d e n t i a l areas are congested, there are great health hazards, and there i s a high percentage of urban i l l i t e r a c y . Recreational f a c i l i t i e s are minimal or completely l a c k i n g , and poverty and unemployment haunt the people.  Municipal governments and voluntary  organizations, always l i m i t e d i n funds and competent personnel, are unable to cope with the problems that confront them i n the face of r a p i d and chaotic growth of the slums. The country faces the task of b r i n g i n g about tremendous b a s i c changes i n the economy through r a p i d i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , increased a g r i c u l t u r a l production, and r e s t r i c t i o n s on population growth; while simultaneously providing greater economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s , increased housing, and p h y s i c a l amenities f o r the urbanites.  Considering India's l i m i t e d economic  resources such vast and b a s i c changes cannot be brought about i n a short time.  In the meantime and c e r t a i n l y f o r many years to come the people of  the slums must have s u b s t a n t i a l l y improved l i v i n g conditions. I t has been observed from the preceding chapter that the reasons for the poor performance of Indian planners i n t h e i r treatment of the urban slum has been t h e i r r e l i a n c e on three apparently' reasonable but as yet unworkable assumptions which, to a greater or l e s s e r extent, have been  imported  from the concepts and h o u s i n g programs of the Western c o u n t r i e s .  They a r e : (i) (ii)  Slums must be  cleared,  The i n d i v i d u a l housing u n i t i s the b a s i c v a r i a b l e i n any  housing  program. (iii)  The government must s u b s i d i z e the low-cost housing program. These assumptions  are r e f l e c t e d i n a s t r o n g l y s t a t e d e d i t o r i a l i n  the J o u r n a l of the I n d i a n I n s t i t u t e o f Town P l a n n e r s . The b a s i c standards i n h o u s i n g and p l a n n i n g a r e a r r i v e d a t not o n l y from c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f c o s t but a l s o from c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f c r e a t i n g the d e s i r a b l e s o c i o l o g i c a l and p h y s i c a l environment necessary f o r the h e a l t h y growth o f i n d i v i d u a l s and the community. Such standards have been e s t a b l i s h e d by many committees and t e c h n i c a l m i s s i o n s . The Environmental Hygiene Committee recommended a two room house as the minimum f o r a f a m i l y . The U. N. T e c h n i c a l M i s s i o n on Housing, the l a t e r Seminar and Conference on Housing and Town P l a n n i n g , and o t h e r r e p o r t s p u b l i s h e d by n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s concerned w i t h h o u s i n g and town p l a n n i n g a l l recommended the two room house w i t h adequate s a n i t a r y and o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s as the b a r e s t minimum i f the normal a s p i r a t i o n s o f h e a l t h y l i v i n g are to be achieved.... These standards cannot be lowered, whatever be the community, whatever be the economic s i t u a t i o n i n the c o u n t r y . Substandard housing i s but a step towards slums. D e l i b e r a t e substandard housing w i l l d e f e a t the v e r y purpose o f h o u s i n g as i t w i l l l e a d to the c r e a t i o n o f f u t u r e slums. The b a s i c s t a n d a r d must be adhered t o a t a l l c o s t s . The opposing p o s i t i o n i s s t a t e d by C h a r l e s Abrams who  suggests  that  f o r a c o u n t r y w i t h l i m i t e d economic r e s o u r c e s : ... a l l p r e v a i l i n g i d e a s o f w h o l e s a l e slum c l e a r a n c e and the b u i l d i n g of c o s t l y h o u s i n g must be abandoned and t h a t some f r e s h t h i n k i n g must be brought to bear on the s h e l t e r program. The p r o v i s i o n o f the bare e s s e n t i a l s may have t o be the world's sad but o n l y r e a s o n a b l e a l t e r native. Once we understand the enormity of the problem, however, t h e r e may be ways of d e a l i n g w i t h i t . I t i s o n l y when hope i s g i v e n up and eyes are c l o s e d to r e a l i t y t h a t the c r i s i s becomes i n e v i t a b l e .  It is the contention policy  of this  that does not take into  thesis  consideration  that any decision the limited  on a  resources  housing of the  93 country  and bases its assumptions  would in effect, subsequent entire  condemn millions  generation  development  program  but for the millions  in  growth  misery  to result  for the immediate  not only  of this  and a delay  must therefore  for the future  the density  and the limited  unit,  the be  changes not for a few  Any such plan  of the problems,  of the urban population,  A solution  in substantial  present.  housing  and would undoubtedly  of the country.  of slum dwellers,  terms of the enormity  on the individual  of urban slum dwellers  to continued  found, one that is likely  important,  solely  must- be and the  financial  but more realistic rapid  resources  available.  II  PRESUPPOSITIONS FOR REVITALIZING THE BUSTEE ENVIRONMENT.  In t h i s c h a p t e r , the o b j e c t i v e w i l l be t o b r i d g e t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l gap between t h e p o s i t i o n t a k e n by t h e I n d i a n p l a n n e r s and t h a t o f C h a r l e s Abrams by s u g g e s t i n g t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n t h e r a p i d and d r a m a t i c improvement i n t h e s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g o f t h e urban slum d w e l l e r s as sought by t h e s o c i a l l y concerned w h i l e a t t h e same time r e c o g n i z i n g t h e t i g h t c o n s t r a i n t s imposed by t h e e c o n o m i s t s .  The h y p o t h e s i s h i n g e s on a b r e a k -  t h r o u g h c r e a t e d by no l o n g e r t h i n k i n g o f t h e h o u s i n g problem i n terms o f the  individual lives.  R e c o g n i z i n g t h e s u b s t a n t i a l e v i d e n c e t h a t under no  c i r c u m s t a n c e s can a l l t h e slums be e r a d i c a t e d , i t becomes o b v i o u s t h a t i f a s o l u t i o n i s t o be found i t must be based on an e n t i r e l y new s e t o f assumptions. (i) (ii)  These a r e :  The encouragement and s t i m u l a t i o n o f l o c a l community p a r t i c i p a t i o n , The t o t a l community l i v i n g environment i s t h e c r i t i c a l v a r i a b l e -  not t h e i n d i v i d u a l h o u s i n g u n i t . -  94 (iii)  The e x i s t i n g housing stock, even i n the slums, must be preserved.  (iv)  Minimum adequate standards of l i v i n g f o r the slum residents must  be commensurate with the a v a i l a b l e economic resources. So enormous are the problems of the slums, so l i m i t e d the resources, and so urgent the time f a c t o r that some immediate s o l u t i o n has to be found to deal with the s i t u a t i o n .  With r a p i d l y increasing urbanization, govern-  ment and welfare agencies alone cannot be expected to meet the s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l needs of the slums.  The cost of any comprehensive program f o r  slum clearance, improved l i v i n g conditions, and the p r o v i s i o n of addit i o n a l c i v i c f a c i l i t i e s w i l l require resources f a r greater than the government can hope to r a i s e .  I t i s apparent that large scale slum c l e a r -  ance or improvement programs are beyond the capacity of the government at the present time.  (Schematic 4 ) .  I t i s proposed, therefore, to design a r e a l i s t i c approach to the problem; to attempt changes l a r g e l y through the resources most r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e - the labor of the many community dwellers themselves and the l i m i t e d f i n a n c i a l resources of the government. l a t e local self-assisting  community participation  I n other words to stimu-  and provide f i n a n c i a l assistance f o r  programs to solve the problems of the slum and enable the  residents to develop a sense of c i v i c consqiousness. The concept of community p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s based on the nature of slum l i f e and the problems i t presents. F i r s t , i t i s assumed that s o c i a l change can be accomplished most e f f e c t i v e l y where people l i v e , that i s , i n the lanes, bustees and a l l e y s of the c i t i e s , and secondly, that such s o c i a l change can best be achieved by working w i t h groups of people rather than with i n d i v i d u a l s .  Most urban slum f a m i l i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the  96 women and c h i l d r e n , l i v e most o f t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s i n the l i m i t e d a r e a o f t h e i r neighbourhood. be encouraged thought  I f s o c i a l change i n the a t t i t u d e s o f the people  can  w i t h i n these areas then a c e r t a i n c o n t i n u i t y i n p a t t e r n s o f  can be e s t a b l i s h e d .  Slum l i f e  i s l a r g e l y a product o f group p r a c -  t i c e s , so that any change must come from w i t h i n the group.  The  people's  d e s i r e f o r change must precede any development program and permanent change w i l l o n l y o c c u r when the community r e a l i z e s the need f o r change and develops the c a p a c i t y f o r making changes. The growth o f the I n d i a n c i t y has produced  a complexity of s o c i a l  r e l a t i o n s h i p s which a r e a l i e n to the r u r a l migrant. life  Urbanism as a way  of  tends t o be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by e x t e n s i v e c o n f l i c t s o f norms and v a l u e s ,  by i n c r e a s e d m o b i l i t y o f the people, by emphasis on m a t e r i a l goods and i n d i v i d u a l i s m , and by marked d e c l i n e i n e f f e c t i v e communication between the government and the p e o p l e . istics  C l i n a r d p o i n t s out t h a t these c h a r a c t e r -  are g e n e r a l l y p r o d u c t s f i r s t l y o f s i z e , which as the number o f  i n h a b i t a n t s i n c r e a s e s beyond a c e r t a i n l i m i t b r i n g s about  changes i n  people's r e l a t i o n s h i p s and i n the n a t u r e of the community; s e c o n d l y , the g r e a t h e t e r o g e n i e t y of the c i t y i s i n p a r t a product o f the m i g r a t i o n o f many people of d i v e r s e backgrounds and o r i g i n s .  4  As a r e s u l t o f  this  h e t e r o g e n i e t y t h e r e are few common norms and v a l u e s and i n d i v i d u a l s a r e c o n f r o n t e d w i t h c o n f l i c t i n g standards o f b e h a v i o u r . accustomed to c e r t a i n r u l e s and p a t t e r n s may i d i t y of urban c o n t r o l s and s t a n d a r d s . opens up a new  way  of l i f e  called  R u r a l migrants  become s k e p t i c a l of the v a l -  In g e n e r a l , the move to the  "urbanism" which i s q u i t e d i s t i n c t  t h a t of the more t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e  city from  life."*  A p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the r a p i d l y expanding  urban  areas  97  has b een the ever i n c r e a s i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f s o c i e t y and the i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n o f the p e o p l e .  I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n can.be seen i n  the scope o f governmental and non-governmental  s e r v i c e s i n the c i t y , a l l  o f w h i c h have been the i n e v i t a b l e r e s u l t s o f the presence o f l a r g e numbers o f p e o p l e c o n c e n t r a t e d i n p a r t i c u l a r a r e a s of the c i t y .  Govern-  ments have grown l a r g e r , t h e r e a r e more s p e c i a l i s t s t o t a k e c a r e o f the v a r i e d s e r v i c e s w h i l e the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l i n the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s has d e c r e a s e d .  O f t e n t h e l i n e s o f communication between  t h e c i t y o f f i c i a l s and the p e o p l e a r e n o n - e x i s t e n t ; c o n s e q u e n t l y , they cease t o f e e l p e r s o n a l l y i n v o l v e d and have no c o n t r o l over t h e i r community environment.  7  Thus, b o t h the r u r a l m i g r a n t s and the o l d e r r e s i d e n t s  become b e w i l d e r e d by the i m p e r s o n a l i t y o f the c i t y and the l o c a l authorities. I t i s the c o n t e n t i o n here t h a t some way needs t o be found by w h i c h the newly a r r i v e d r u r a l m i g r a n t s l i v i n g i n . the slums can develop a sense o f u n i t y and community w i t h i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f the c i t y .  The  solution  l i e s i n an approach t o community p a r t i c i p a t i o n and s e l f - a s s i s t a n c e .  Paul  Y l v i s a k e r p o i n t s out t h a t " t h e urban s o c i a l o r d e r cannot be p e r f e c t e d by c l e v e r m a n i p u l a t i o n , no m a t t e r how w e l l t r a i n e d o r by eager p h i l a n t h r o p i s t s w o r k i n g from above and from the o u t s i d e .  The toughest problem i s  t h a t o f g e n e r a t i n g i n d i g e n o u s l e a d e r s h i p and the s p i r i t of s e l f - a s s i s t Q  ance."  The g o a l i s t o speed up the p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l change  w i t h i n the slum communities and a t the same time to a f f e c t l a r g e numbers of p e o p l e . Urban community p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f f e r s two fundamental i d e a l s : the development  o f e f f e c t i v e community f e e l i n g w i t h i n an urban c o n t e x t and  98 the development of a concept of s e l f - a s s i s t a n c e , c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n and i n d i v i d u a l i n i t i a t i v e i n seeking community changes.  In other words,  t h i s approach l i e s d i r e c t l y with the slum dwellers; i t i s e s s e n t i a l that t h e i r apathy and i n d i f f e r e n c e be overcome so that they can be made aware of t h e i r own human resources. The ingredients of a community p a r t i c i p a t i o n program are the people, the government and voluntary resources a v a i l a b l e to stimulate s e l f - a s s i s t ance, and the community organizers necessary to encourage indigenous leadership and to t r a n s l a t e t h e i r problems i n such a way t h a t they can be adequately interpreted by the governmental agencies. I n t h i s sense, community p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a c o l l e c t i v e i n i t i a t i v e of the people l i v i n g i n the same community.  I t also involves the support of t h e i r e f f o r t s through  services "rendered to them by a higher l e v e l of government.  I t involves  democratic a c t i o n , s t r e s s i n g c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , s e l f - a s s i s t a n c e , and self-determination through group a c t i o n i n meeting the problems posed by the urban environment and an a l i e n way of l i f e . I t i s e s s e n t i a l that people become involved i n responsible a c t i o n directed towards s o l v i n g mutual problems.  Such p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a process  through which c i t i z e n s can have a say i n the government decisions a f f e c t ing t h e i r l i v e s and t h e i r environment.  Obviously t h i s approach i s based  on the assumption that the community has the capacity to deal with i t s own problems.  We must accept the premise that even i n the most h e l p l e s s  slums and among the most apathetic residents t h e i r l a t e n t s k i l l s can be harnessed to a l t e r and improve t h e i r environment. The four main objectives of an urban community p a r t i c i p a t i o n program applicable to the slum environment are development of community f e e l i n g ,  99 encouragement of s e l f - a s s i s t a n c e , development of indigenous leadership, and co-operation between the people and the government i n the use of essential services.  The f i r s t requires the c r e a t i o n of e f f e c t i v e commun-  i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r the purpose of bringing i n t o urban l i f e some of the organization that unites people i n the v i l l a g e s and the l a r g e r family u n i t s of the r u r a l areas.  Such t e r r i t o r i a l units would tend to induce  neighborliness, to decrease the i s o l a t i o n of urban l i v i n g , and to make p o s s i b l e the development of progressive community a c t i o n .  The e s t a b l i s h -  ment of e f f e c t i v e community r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s important since the t i e s that bind people together i n the v i l l a g e s often weaken or disappear i n the urban context.  Ethnic, r e g i o n a l , t r i b a l , caste and even family t i e s often  become less meaningful and i n most cases no new t i e s develop to replace the older ones.  People may l i v e i n close p h y s i c a l proximity and yet not  c o n s t i t u t e a community.  Asoka Mehta points out that "while" family t i e s  and caste l o y a l t i e s have proved remarkably r e s i s t a n t to urban influences and have p a r t i a l l y compensated against the anonymity and i n d i f f e r e n c e of the urban environment, i t w i l l be u s e f u l to seek leverages of change i n the s o l i d a r i t y of small neighbourhood groups and groups with l i n g u i s t i c a f f i n i t i e s - s o c i a l cohesions that appear to be s i g n i f i c a n t . " The second goal i s the s t i m u l a t i o n of s e l f - a s s i s t a n c e and a c t i v e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n urban a f f a i r s among the slum residents.  As a  form of s o c i a l and economic development, such a program must use s e l f - h e l p w i t h t e c h n i c a l assistance from the outside to implement i t .  As many of  the needs are only vaguely f e l t and as the conditions of the slum are often accepted, the objective should be to help people r e a l i z e t h e i r needs i n ways that w i l l r e s u l t i n the attainment of desired goals.  Permanent  100 improvement i n slum l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s cannot be a c h i e v e d by a l a r g e l y a p a t h e t i c c o l l e c t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s ; the people must d e s i r e change and be prepared to e x e r c i s e t h e i r own p r o j e c t s and programs It  i n i t i a t i v e i n p l a n n i n g and c a r r y i n g out  to meet t h e i r own  needs.  i s a common assumption t h a t the slum r e s i d e n t s w i l l move up the  s o c i a l s c a l e merely by r e c e i v i n g economic and e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s from o u t s i d e sources of power.  Yet i t i s t h i s v e r y dependence on o t h e r s  t h a t l e a d s to apathy, f u r t h e r dependence and f a i l u r e t o develop n e c e s s a r y economic  and e d u c a t i o n a l s k i l l s .  T h i s dependence over a p e r i o d o f time  becomes embedded and i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d i n the h a b i t s , t r a d i t i o n s  and  o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the slum. T h i r d l y , w i t h o u t some sense o f community f e e l i n g i n a heterogenous area i t i s d i f f i c u l t  to promote i d e a s o f s e l f - a s s i s t a n c e .  hand, improvement o f the community environment i t s e l f ,  On the o t h e r  comes through r e c o g -  n i t i o n o f the need f o r change and c i t i z e n c o - o p e r a t i o n i n such a c t i v i t i e s as b u i l d i n g community washrooms, l a t r i n e s , r e p a i r i n g houses, p a v i n g l a n e s , k e e p i n g t h e i r environment c l e a n , m a i n t a i n i n g s c h o o l s . a n d community ces  and d e a l i n g w i t h d e v i a n t b e h a v i o r .  servi-  The p e o p l e themselves need to be  i n v o l v e d i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h e i r needs, the s e l e c t i o n of p r i o r i t i e s and the c a r r y i n g out o f v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s .  To s u c c e s s f u l l y b r i n g about  change, p o t e n t i a l i n d i g e n o u s l e a d e r s h i p i n l o c a l areas needs t o be i d e n t i f i e d and encouraged. bility  Such l e a d e r s h i p can then c a r r y d i r e c t  f o r i n i t i a t i n g change w i t h i n the community. F i n a l l y , the n a t u r e o f slum l i f e makes i t d i f f i c u l t  improve t h e i r p a t t e r n s of l i f e the  responsi-  f o r p e o p l e to  and t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g environment w i t h o u t  a i d o f governmental a g e n c i e s .  I t i s obvious t h a t the community  effort  101 would require some sort of f i n a n c i a l and t e c h n i c a l assistance i n programs such as s a n i t a t i o n , public health, education and r e c r e a t i o n .  A program of  s e l f - a s s i s t a n c e alone cannot provide a s a t i s f a c t o r y s u b s t i t u t e f o r these e s s e n t i a l services.  I t can, however, by creating a f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n -  ship with the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s not only help to f i l l the gap i n many e s s e n t i a l services but also make more meaningful the proper use of these services by the p u b l i c .  "Urban community p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s , therefore,  concerned not only with s t i m u l a t i n g c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n and  self-assist-  ing schemes but i n helping to mobilize public voluntary services i n a s s o c i a t i o n with the people's own e f f o r t s . " ' ^ Charles Abrams has suggested that there are many p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r such an approach to slum housing p a r t i c u l a r l y when the migrant comes from a r u r a l background where things have been t r a d i t i o n a l l y done on a voluntary assistance  basis.^  The emphasis on most research and experimentation with the problems of low cost housing has been with the i n d i v i d u a l housing u n i t .  In the  warm climate of India, where l i v i n g i s l a r g e l y done i n the outside p u b l i c spaces of the neighbourhood, the stress on the i n d i v i d u a l housing unit as a c r i t i c a l v a r i a b l e i s misplaced.  Since the p u b l i c spaces are l a r g e l y an  extension of the i n d i v i d u a l house the total  community environment  should  be the c r i t i c a l v a r i a b l e . I suggest that there i s a housing threshold: a point along the income d i s t r i b u t i o n curve below which i t i s not f e a s i b l e to provide standard housing, e i t h e r p u b l i c l y or p r i v a t e l y , on a massive scale commensurate w i t h the needs at any reasonable set of minimum standards. threshold may  The housing  f l u c t u a t e among the various c i t i e s , but at some point, the  mass of low income people to be served, the costs of housing i n any form,  x  102 the administrative mechanism -required, and the shortage of permanent b u i l d i n g materials a v a i l a b l e , a l l combine to e s t a b l i s h the lower l i m i t below which standard housing cannot be made a v a i l a b l e to the low income people on a widespread b a s i s . I f the concept of a housing threshold i s to be recognized i n the development of a t o t a l program f o r s h e l t e r , i t w i l l be possible to maximize the amount of return from the investment of a housing rupee by concentrating on environmental improvement programs f o r the low income groups and e s t a b l i s h i n g mechanisms such as savings i n s t i t u t i o n s , housing co-operatives, s e l f - h e l p housing programs f o r those who can be a s s i s t e d at a reasonable cost to cross the housing threshold.  Subsidized housing  programs, more the equivalent of p u b l i c housing now being b u i l t i n many of the economically advanced countries, becomes p r a c t i c a l only f o r those people who are higher up on the income d i s t r i b u t i o n curve but not yet prepared to command standard housing i n the p r i v a t e market. The r e a l problem, therefore, i s not the i n d i v i d u a l housing u n i t no matter how humble, but the uncontrolled human wastes, the p o l l u t e d stagnant waters which do not d r a i n away, the inadequate water supply, the dark u n l i t and unpaved lanes, the l i t t e r and the f i l t h , the lack of community s e r v i c e s , the lack of open spaces, and the s o c i a l and l e g a l problems involved with squatting.  The t o t a l community l i v i n g  environment  i s the c r i t i c a l v a r i a b l e and any housing program below the housing threshold should e s s e n t i a l l y be a t o t a l community development program and not j u s t a series of unrelated i n d i v i d u a l housing p r o j e c t s . As long as Indian c i t i e s are faced w i t h r a p i d l y increasing demand for s h e l t e r , coming on top of a very large e x i s t i n g housing d e f i c i t , i t  103 must be r e c o g n i z e d t h a t p r i o r i t y must be g i v e n to expanding housing  supply.  the  total  T h i s means u n d e r t a k i n g slum c l e a r a n c e programs o n l y when  t h e r e i s a c l e a r and important reuse o f the l a n d r e q u i r e d .  I t must be  r e s o l v e d t h a t no slum c l e a r a n c e should be undertaken when the o n l y i s t o r e p l a c e slum housing w i t h s t a n d a r d h o u s i n g .  purpose  Such p r o j e c t s do not  add housing u n i t s t o the t o t a l s u p p l y , y e t take s u b s t a n t i a l amount o f p u b l i c r e s o u r c e s , both f i n a n c i a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , which c o u l d be o t h e r w i s e used  to p r o v i d e much needed environmental improvements f o r the  neighbourhoods so as to b e n e f i t the m a j o r i t y o f slum d w e l l e r s . aimed at p r o v i d i n g housing f o r the f u t u r e migrants discussed l a t e r i n this  A program  to the c i t y i s  chapter.  There i s c o n s t a n t debate about what standards s h o u l d be a p p l i e d i n housing p r o j e c t s f o r the low income groups.  The debate  c e n t e r s on the  i n d i v i d u a l or minimum housing u n i t and the c o n c l u s i o n s reached g e n e r a l l y r e s u l t i n recommending standards f a r too h i g h to permit a program a t a s c a l e massive  enough to meet the b a s i c needs o f a v e r y h i g h p o p u l a t i o n .  There w i l l never be a program capable o f s o l v i n g the housing problem i f it  i s c o n s t r a i n e d by standards meant o n l y f o r the i n d i v i d u a l h o u s i n g  unit.  T h i s i s not to say t h a t standards f o r housing, which i n f a c t , r e p r e s e n t r e a s o n a b l e g o a l s by which to measure the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a g i v e n h o u s i n g program should not be developed.  Such standards should o n l y be  used,  however, a f t e r c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the means a v a i l a b l e f o r a c h i e v i n g them. The t e s t o f any proposed  s o l u t i o n to the low income s h e l t e r program  w i l l be whether or not i t i s capable o f massive  a p p l i c a t i o n to meet the  b a s i c needs of the m a j o r i t y o f the low income groups.  There i s l i t t l e  v a l u e i n i n v e s t i n g s u b s t a n t i a l p u b l i c r e s o u r c e s i n any program t h a t  104 b e n e f i t s only a f r a c t i o n a l percentage of p e o p l e below the housing hold.  As has  serves  to c a l l on other  for  been p o i n t e d  out  low  i n e a r l i e r c h a p t e r s such a s o l u t i o n o n l y  income groups to pay,  the b e n e f i t s given to the f o r t u n a t e  to f a l l  even b e f o r e  i t begins and  few.  •program  the available  the more h o u s i n g u n i t s t h a t are  Ill  for the low income  economic  through i n d i r e c t  migrants  taxes,  Such an approach i s bound  under such a program the more u n f a i r i t becomes.  shelter  thres-  built  I t i s proposed t h a t  should  be commensurate  any  with  resources.  REVITALIZING THE  BUSTEE ENVIRONMENT: TOWARDS A NEW  ORGANIC  PATTERN.  On  the b a s i s of the f o u r assumptions t h a t have been d i s c u s s e d ,  concept envisages a p o s i t i v e a c t i o n f o r a c h i e v i n g b e t t e r l i v i n g for  the m a j o r i t y  ific is  of the urban slum d w e l l e r s  and  conditions  the broader and more spec-  g o a l of i n t e g r a t i n g these communities w i t h the c i t y p r o p e r .  to e n e r g i s e  and  this  r e v i t a l i z e the bustee environment by  Its  aim  injecting into i t  such elements t h a t are n e c e s s a r y f o r i t s p r o p e r f u n c t i o n i n g as a v i a b l e community w i t h i n the c i t y . p a t t e r n of p o p u l a t i o n  The  p r o c e s s u l t i m a t e l y i n v o l v e s the whole  d i s t r i b u t i o n and  the f u n c t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n  t h e s e communities w i t h i n a w e l l planned and city.  Such a concept should  i n harmony w i t h a l l other but  structure  activities.  a major s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l  i n v o l v i n g the people, t h e i r ways o f l i f e  the a s p i r a t i o n s of the community.  the  take p l a c e i n environments conducive to  thus, not merely a p h y s i c a l o p e r a t i o n , economic one,  l a y o u t of  endeavour to shape the community  so t h a t a l l human a c t i v i t i e s may t h e i r proper f u n c t i o n i n g and  co-ordinated  of  and  It i s and  encompassing  I t i s much more comprehensive than  105 slum c l e a r a n c e and i m p l i e s the c o r r e c t i o n of the mistakes of the past and focuses a t t e n t i o n on the r e v i t a l i z i n g o f the p h y s i c a l l y and  socially  deteriorated areas. To e v o l v e a w e l l i n t e g r a t e d new i n t o the changed  community p a t t e r n t h a t would f i t  l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s of the new  age and  democratic growth i s v i t a l i n p l a n n i n g f o r a new  promote'genuine  environment.  Such a  broad aim cannot be r e a l i z e d merely through the p r o v i s i o n o f s h e l t e r . S h e l t e r r e p r e s e n t s only one of many community f u n c t i o n s .  Full  consider-  a t i o n s o f an " o r g a n i c community" as an i n d i s p e n s a b l e framework has to precede any housing development. ate  Without i t even new  housing may  r a p i d l y i n t o b l i g h t e d areas and become burdensome wastes.  degener-  Without a  b a s i c medium o f c o h e s i o n o f common c i v i c i n t e r e s t and l o y a l t y , the p r o s p e c t s of improved s o c i a l c o n t a c t s , which o r i g i n a l l y made urban d e s i r a b l e now make i t hazardous. t h e i r own or the  life  The s o c i a l i n i t i a t i v e of the p e o p l e and  l i f e has to f l o u r i s h a t a l o c a l l e v e l , v i z . , the neighbourhood  r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a and g r a d u a l l y r e a c h out i n t o the wider r e g i o n , v i z . c i t y or m e t r o p o l i s .  Thus t h i s concept h o l d s the main hope o f a  compromise between the b a s i c human needs and the m a t e r i a l requirements o f the  p r e s e n t age. The concept envisages a complete urban complex, which i s the e n t i r e  c i t y or m e t r o p o l i s , c o m p r i s i n g a number o f r e l a t i v e l y  self-contained  communities, which have a t the lowest t i e r a "housing c l u s t e r . "  This  corresponds to the t r a d i t i o n a l "mohalla," and which, i n f a c t , i s found i n i t s most rudimentary form i n almost a l l I n d i a n c i t i e s and towns.  The  t r a d i t i o n a l "mohallas" were h o u s i n g c l u s t e r s which were o f t e n grouped around a s t r e e t , s m a l l a l l e y o r some s o r t o f an open c o u r t , and  though  106 d e f i c i e n t i n many b a s i c community f a c i l i t i e s , fraternity.  s e r v e d t o propogate a l o c a l  I t i s proposed t h a t the b a s i s o f any p l a n n i n g p o l i c y s h o u l d  be to t r y and a c h i e v e t h e g o a l s o f i d e a l "mohallas" w i t h i n the b u s t e e s . These "mohallas" c o m p r i s i n g 150-200 f a m i l i e s each, can once a g a i n form the  b a s i c s m a l l e s t u n i t thus promoting the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i n t i m a t e  personal family contacts.  Mohallas grouped t o g e t h e r around some f o c a l  p o i n t such as a s m a l l primary s c h o o l o r some convenience shops and some s o r t o f open space can form, what may be c a l l e d , a " r e s i d e n t i a l c o n t a i n i n g a p o p u l a t i o n o f between 3,500-5,000.  unit"  A group o f these u n i t s  w i l l u l t i m a t e l y form a complete neighbourhood w i t h a h i g h s c h o o l , a community h a l l and adequate neighbourhood shopping as the f o c i i . c e l l u l a r p a t t e r n , the neighbourhood a r e a would and would  In t h i s  form the " p l a n n i n g module"  g e n e r a l l y r e p r e s e n t the s i z e o f t h e now e x i s t i n g b u s t e e .  It  would be a s e l f c o n t a i n e d community t h a t i s bounded by s t r e e t s but not p i e r c e d by them. It  (Schematics 5 and 6 ) .  i s the purpose o f t h i s c h a p t e r t o e x p l o r e a program  improvement o f the environment o f the b u s t e e .  f o r the  As has a l r e a d y been  stated,  the  s a l i e n t f e a t u r e o f t h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s t h a t bustees cannot and s h o u l d  not  be c l e a r e d i n the near f o r e s e e a b l e f u t u r e and, t h e r e f o r e , v e r y sub-  s t a n t i a l improvements  i n the s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g o f the b u s t e e d w e l l e r s  must be a c h i e v e d w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s o f the e x i s t i n g bustees and w i t h i n the of  f i n a n c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s s e t by the economists by u t i l i z i n g the concept community  participation.  The g o a l o f such a program i s the r e v i t a l i z i n g o f the b l i g h t e d neighbourhoods where slum c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l .  These areas can be  converted i n t o h e a l t h y neighbourhoods by j u d i c i o u s p l a n n i n g , i . e . by  107  109 providing e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s , by r e g u l a t i n g the density of the area, by removing d i l a p i d a t e d structures that are-hazardous and cannot be revived, by reorganizing s t r e e t and lane patterns, by providing more open spaces, parks and playgrounds, by removing incompatible land uses which have a b l i g h t i n g e f f e c t on the appropriate uses on land and the i n h a b i t a n t s . Once such a goal has been achieved, i t w i l l be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the l o c a l municipal a u t h o r i t i e s to provide p r o t e c t i o n to (these communities against undesirable elements such as squatting on open land and the i n f i l t r a t i o n of incompatible and c o n f l i c t i n g land uses. The Process of Change Once the problem areas have been i d e n t i f i e d i n the c i t y , c e r t a i n comprehensive p o l i c y decisions have to be made as to the nature of the measures to be taken f o r the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of these areas.  These w i l l  have to be influenced by the enormity of problems, f i n a n c i a l , p h y s i c a l , and human.  One of the b a s i c assumptions has been that there w i l l be no  mass scale demolition of structures i n these areas.  Instead, i t i s hoped  that systematic weeding out of noxious i n d u s t r i e s and incompatible w i l l reduce congestion to some extent.  trades  Each year a large number of houses  e i t h e r c o l l a p s e or are demolished by the municipal a u t h o r i t i e s on the basis that they are unsafe f o r human h a b i t a t i o n .  These s t r u c t u r e s should  not be allowed to be r e b u i l t by t h e i r owners, but instead, the land should be acquired f o r community f a c i l i t i e s .  The Delhi Municipal A u t h o r i t i e s  recommend a density of no more than 250 people per acre i n these neighbourhoods.  For a population i n each neighbourhood a r r i v e d at on the basis  of such a recommendation every e f f o r t should be made to provide  schools,  open spaces, health centers and other f a c i l i t i e s on the basis of l o c a l  110 community p a r t i c i p a t i o n . R e a l i z i n g that i f space and density standards f o r new  communities  are adopted, i t would be extremely d i f f i c u l t to open up the e x i s t i n g b u i l t up areas without i n v o l v i n g a large scale d i s l o c a t i o n of the populat i o n , i t i s proposed to lower the space standards f o r community f a c i l i t i e s . Playgrounds w i l l have to be smaller, and so too w i l l l o c a l parks and other open spaces. At present, t r a f f i c conditions are deplorable and the r i g h t of way A s t r e e t s are inadequate to cope w i t h the t r a f f i c generated by high r e s i d e n t i a l density and intense commercial and small scale i n d u s t r i a l uses. I t . i s proposed to work out a system of t r a f f i c s t r e e t s and pedestrian ways r e s u l t i n g only i n the minimum demolition of b u i l d i n g s . Non-conforming  land uses have to be c o n t r o l l e d and incompatible  i n d u s t r i e s gradually weeded out from the r e s i d e n t i a l areas.  I t i s recog-  n i z e d , however, that t h i s process must be l a r g e l y governed by the f a c t that there should be minimum amount of d i s l o c a t i o n of production and. the i n d u s t r i e s should not be put to undue hardship.  Such i n d u s t r i e s should  be s h i f t e d from t h e i r present l o c a t i o n i n the heart of the r e s i d e n t i a l areas to i n d u s t r i a l areas earmarked i n the Master Plans f o r the c i t i e s . Since the government i s f i n a n c i a l l y incapable<gf^making improvements i n the p h y s i c a l environment a v a i l a b l e to.the slum dweller, i t - i s imperative to secure the w i l l i n g consent, co-operation,.and p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the bustee dwellers themselves, to the maximum extent p o s s i b l e , i n the implementation of the program of ..bustee improvement.  I t has been pointed  out that community p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s the only e f f e c t i v e and v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e a v a i l a b l e to achieve through i n d i v i d u a l response and c o l l e c t i v e  Ill r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the bustee dwellers, the most e f f e c t i v e use and maintenance of the p h y s i c a l improvements i n s t a l l e d .  The concept of Bustee Improve-  ment recognizes that bustees cannot be cleared i n the near foreseeable future, but very s u b s t a n t i a l improvements can be made at very reasonable cost.  The f o l l o w i n g are the p h y s i c a l , educational, r e c r e a t i o n a l and  c u l t u r a l improvements proposed: Concerted e f f o r t s must be made to encourage the bustee dwellers to formulate a s e l f - a s s i s t a n c e scheme to improve the p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n of t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l housing u n i t s .  S e l f - a s s i s t i n g e f f o r t s can be extremely  successful because of the simple design and construction of the s t r u c t u r e s the majority of the tenements are constructed of mud and b r i c k .  A start  can be made by r e p a i r i n g the e x t e r i o r of the homes by f i l l i n g i n b r i c k s and rubble that have f a l l e n out and r e p l a s t e r i n g the w a l l s w i t h mud a f t e r which they can be whitewashed.  I t i s proposed that t h i s procedure w i l l  give the residents an inexpensive s t a r t towards more s u b s t a n t i a l improvements that can be made with governmental a i d i n terms of construction materials.  Such a program that u t i l i z e s l o c a l co-operative labor on the  one hand and governmental f i n a n c i a l assistance on the other, can considerably improve the p h y s i c a l appearance of the neighbourhood and i n s t i l l i n the residents a sense of pride and c i v i c consciousness. I t i s e s s e n t i a l to provide an adequate water system f o r the supply of clean and safe water f o r the d a i l y needs of the bustee r e s i d e n t s . I t ' i s proposed that whereever p o s s i b l e , tube w e l l s should be used f o r t h i s purpose and the t y p i c a l system should include tube w e l l s , pump houses, c h l o r i n a t i o n r e s e r v o i r s and the necessary d i s t r i b u t i o n system.  The l o c a l  government should be responsible f o r providing a l l the necessary equipment  112 and m a t e r i a l s w h i l e the l o c a l r e s i d e n t s should be encouraged to provide the required labor. Minimum adequate standards w i l l have to be adopted f o r community water taps and baths. a v a i l a b l e resources.  These standards must be commensurate with the A reasonable standard can be the p r o v i s i o n of one  water tap f o r every 100 persons and two baths f o r 100 persons, located i n such a way so as to be convenient f o r a l l r e s i d e n t s .  The design of the  f i x t u r e s should be extremely simple so as t o minimize t h e i r  maintenance.  The strong t r a d i t i o n a l background of the r e s i d e n t s suggests that complete privacy be afforded i n the community baths.  I t i s assumed that bath taps  w i l l also be used f o r the supply of water, thus the e f f e c t i v e water tap standard w i l l be one water point per 33 persons. Perhaps the greatest threat to the health of the residents of the bustees i s the complete l a c k of proper s a n i t a r y f a c i l i t i e s .  I t . i s pro-  posed that the municipal governments should immediately undertake.the construction of reasonable s a n i t a r y sewer systems i n c l u d i n g the necessary sewers and other appurtenances.  The l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s can once again  employ the labor of the l o c a l r e s i d e n t s . I t i s proposed that a standard be established of at l e a s t four water c l o s e t s per 100 people t o provide f o r the basic needs of the community. I t -should be pointed out, here that t h i s would only be a t e n t a t i v e standard and could vary from one community to another; i t should, however, provide reasonable basis f o r further estimation i f and when the resources of the l o c a l government permit an expansion of the system.  These f a c i l i t i e s  should be located so as to provide maximum a c c e s s i b i l i t y to the r e s i d e n t s . Inadequate or often non-existent storm drainage f a c i l i t i e s i n the  113 bustees have r e s u l t e d i n p e r p e t u a l l y stagnant open d r a i n s t h a t a r e c h r o n i c a l l y unsanitary authorities.  and a r e o f constant  concern t o the l o c a l  The s i t u a t i o n i s e s p e c i a l l y c r i t i c a l d u r i n g  health the monsoons  when the d r a i n s o v e r f l o w and r e s u l t i n the f l o o d i n g o f the neighbourhood. It  i s suggested t h a t these d e f i c i e n c i e s c o u l d be c o r r e c t e d  extent  i f the l o c a l government would p r o v i d e  resources inlets.  the n e c e s s a r y  to a large material  f o r an adequate storm d r a i n a g e system w i t h a l l t h e n e c e s s a r y There i s no doubt t h a t the l o c a l r e s i d e n t s c o u l d be encouraged  to p r o v i d e  the r e q u i r e d  labor.  Narrow w i n d i n g l a n e s and a l l e y s , e i t h e r unpaved o r i n extremely poor c o n d i t i o n c h a r a c t e r i z e most b u s t e e s and c o n s t i t u t e a major problem the monsoons when they a r e o f t e n c o m p l e t e l y washed o u t .  These  during  conditions  have e x i s t e d f o r y e a r s w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t the r e s i d e n t s have been f o r c e d to accept them f o r what they a r e . encouraged t o o r g a n i z e necessary resources neighbourhood.  I t i s proposed t h a t t h e r e s i d e n t s be  a s e l f - a s s i s t a n c e program and be p r o v i d e d  with the  t o pave and r e p a i r the l a n e s and a l l e y s i n t h e i r  These l a n e s  serve  an important f u n c t i o n n o t o n l y f o r  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n w i t h i n the community b u t a l s o form an e x t e n s i o n  of the  i n d i v i d u a l house and a r e the b a s i s o f outdoor community l i v i n g .  It i s  e s s e n t i a l , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t they be paved and c o n s t a n t l y m a i n t a i n e d by the  community. Bustees i n the I n d i a n c i t i e s have always had c o n s i s t e n t l y poor  s t r e e t l i g h t i n g systems. teristic  of bustee l i f e  Because o f the outdoor community l i v i n g i t i s important t o p r o v i d e  an adequate s t r e e t  l i g h t i n g system f o r the s a f e t y and convenience o f the r e s i d e n t s . proposed t h a t the c i t y p r o v i d e  charac-  It i s  s t r e e t l i g h t i n g a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s and  114 at a l l important lane i n t e r s e c t i o n s w i t h i n the bustee. Various'other p h y s i c a l improvements to the bustee environment can be c a r r i e d out by the residents on a s e l f - a s s i s t i n g b a s i s , these include the p r o v i s i o n of dust b i n s , the making and i n s t a l l a t i o n of name plates f o r houses and s t r e e t numbers to give the residents a sense of i d e n t i t y , c l e a r i n g space f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , construction of reading rooms, and the e r e c t i o n of b u l l e t i n boards. discussed  Some of these programs w i l l be  later.  I t i s e s s e n t i a l that improvements be made, i n the environmental s a n i t a t i o n p r a c t i c e s of the community.  I t i s a complex and d i f f i c u l t task t o  change the o l d s a n i t a t i o n p r a c t i c e s of the people who have been accustomed to l i v i n g i n poor and unsanitary conditions.  They have learned to accept  these conditions and f o r them i t i s now a way of l i f e .  I t i s hoped that  community p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the various programs d i r e c t e d at the improvement of the bustee environment w i l l serve to encourage the general standards of c l e a n l i n e s s of the community.  The c i t y must compliment t h i s by  providing a regular and e f f i c i e n t garbage c o l l e c t i o n s e r v i c e .  Residents  should be encouraged to organize voluntary clean-up campaigns to remove accumulated refuse and d e b r i s .  Environmental s a n i t a t i o n p r a c t i c e s can  also be changed when an a t t i t u d e of censure can be developed against the transgressors w i t h i n the community. I t i s proposed that bustee dwellers be encouraged t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n and carry out community programs i n the f i e l d of education which would include adult l i t e r a c y c l a s s e s , schools f o r young c h i l d r e n , l i b r a r i e s , reading rooms, b i r t h c o n t r o l programs and organized, d i s c u s s i o n groups dealing with the problems of the community and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p with the  115 l o c a l government and o t h e r communities *  Some o f these programs a r e  d i s c u s s e d below: Illiteracy  i s a widespread phenomenon i n the bustees  u l a r l y h i g h among the women.  and  is partic-  I t i s proposed t h a t v o l u n t a r y groups be  o r g a n i z e d w i t h i n the community to encourage more a d u l t s to l e a r n how read and w r i t e .  P a r t time t e a c h e r s can be engaged w i t h the l o c a l  govern-  ment p a y i n g f o r t h i s s e r v i c e a l o n g w i t h a l l . the o t h e r expenses l i k e books, notebooks and b l a c k b o a r d s .  to-  pencils,  C l a s s e s .can.be o r g a n i z e d i n l a n e s  and  c o u r t y a r d s w i t h i n the community so as to encourage maximum a d u l t participation. Because of the overcrowded c o n d i t i o n s i n the' bustees  i t has not been  always p o s s i b l e f o r l o c a l c i t y a u t h o r i t i e s to p r o v i d e adequate p r e - s c h o o l and primary  school f a c i l i t i e s  f o r the c h i l d r e n of the bustee  dwellers.  Even when f a c i l i t i e s a r e a v a i l a b l e , the e d u c a t i o n o f . b u s t e e c h i l d r e n p r e s e n t e d d i f f i c u l t i e s as p a r e n t s see l i t t l e advantage i n s e e i n g c h i l d r e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y the g i r l s ,  going to s c h o o l s .  has  their  They q u e s t i o n the  v a l u e o f e d u c a t i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n when they would r a t h e r have them work and  g a i n some f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r the f a m i l y . In the absence of adequate s c h o o l s , i t i s proposed t h a t the  local  a u t h o r i t i e s p r o v i d e the m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s f o r s e t t i n g up the s c h o o l s i n these communities.  The' c i t y should r e c r u i t the t e a c h e r s from the commun-  i t y and a l s o p r o v i d e the i n i t i a l  expenses f o r s e t t i n g up the s c h o o l s .  r e s i d e n t s s h o u l d be encouraged to b u i l d the f a c i l i t i e s participation. e r a c y and  These s c h o o l s can f u r n i s h the necessary  elementary  through  to r e p l a c e t h e i r i d l e n e s s .  community  training i n  s u b j e c t matter and a f f o r d the c h i l d r e n an  The  lit-  alternative  S i n c e few bustee d w e l l e r s a r e a b l e t o read, the l o c a l have not  felt  the need t o p r o v i d e l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s  authorities  f o r them.  The  few  t h a t can read cannot a f f o r d the l u x u r y of p u r c h a s i n g books or even the d a i l y newspaper and w i t h any  the few c h i l d r e n t h a t do go to s c h o o l a r e not  f a c i l i t i e s where they may  read o r s t u d y .  I t i s proposed t h a t  s e v e r a l r e a d i n g rooms can be p r o v i d e d e i t h e r by b u i l d i n g simple on vacant  spaces  The  c i t y s h o u l d a l s o p r o v i d e the  necessary  f u r n i t u r e w h i l e the r e s i d e n t s can s u b s c r i b e f o r newspapers and M o b i l e l i b r a r i e s can b e . s e t up by the c i t y and The  shelters  or the c i t y c o u l d r e n t a vacant b u i l d i n g from the com-  munity f o r t h i s purpose.  communities.  provided  r e g u l a r l y s e r v i c e these  r e a d i n g rooms s h o u l d be equipped  v i s i o n p r o v i d e d f o r by the l o c a l government.  magazines.  w i t h r a d i o s and  Residents  tele-  can a l s o be  encouraged to p a r t i c i p a t e i n d i s c u s s i o n groups on a p p r o p r i a t e s u b j e c t s depending on community  interests.  R e c r e a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s p a r t , l o c a t e d away from areas where bustee ities  i n the c i t y a r e , f o r the most dwellers reside.  a r e , t h e r e f o r e , used by o n l y a s m a l l percentage  These f a c i l -  of the  p o p u l a t i o n most of whom a r e i n the h i g h e r income group and who these f a c i l i t i e s .  Parks, playgrounds  p r o v i d e d by the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s and and  and  l i v e near  community c e n t e r s need to be  community o r g a n i z e d  c u l t u r a l programs need to be encouraged.  a t i o n a l and  city's,  recreational  Community o r g a n i z e d r e c r e -  c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s r e p r e s e n t means of d e v e l o p i n g , s u s t a i n i n g  and i n c r e a s i n g the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the people of the a r e a . hope t h a t such programs w i l l a l s o enable the people w i t h each o t h e r through  to get  acquainted  common p a r t i c i p a t i o n and h e l p b r i d g e the  ences among them based on r e l i g i o n , r e g i o n and c a s t e .  It i s  differ-  Indigenous s i n g i n g  117 groups can be encouraged to perform f o r the community and c u l t u r a l > programs of music, dance and drama can also be arranged.  Most bustees .  are inhabited by heterogenous groups from d i f f e r e n t regions and each group has i t s own unique c u l t u r a l background.  C u l t u r a l programs i n v o l v i n g these  diverse groups can a f f o r d opportunities f o r " c u l t u r a l t r a n s f e r " between them and a l s o enhance the s o c i a l l i f e of the community at l a r g e . A s a l i e n t feature of t h i s concept i s that wherever bustees are s i t u ated on p r i v a t e land the landowners' i n t e r e s t should,be purchased by a combination of bonds and cash, so that the land w i l l become an urban Zand bank f o r the future development of the c i t y .  As clearance of the bustees  becomes f i n a n c i a l l y possible or when important new uses must be s i t e d w i t h i n the c i t y , land w i l l be a v a i l a b l e , and the p r o f i t s from the reuse of the land w i l l accrue to the community. It i s not proposed to d i s t u r b the r i g h t s of the bustee tenants who w i l l then pay ground rents to the government.  The basis of any compensa-  t i o n to the landowners' w i l l depend obviously on various f a c t o r s ;  It is  proposed that the compensation be set at a c e r t a i n percentage of the annual rent received by the•landlords.  I t i s expected that they w i l l not object  since t h i s c a p i t a l w i l l fetch them a f a r better return than what they are r e c e i v i n g at the present. IV  URBAN VILLAGE: A SHELTER PROGRAM FOR THE FUTURE MIGRANTS.  In the face of increased r u r a l to urban migration, i f uncontrolled slum formation i s to be prevented i n the f u t u r e , i t w i l l be necessary to devise a program to provide adequate cheap s h e l t e r f o r the migrants. a program cannot look'to large government subsidies to meet i t s  Such  118 requirements shelter. migrants The  but must r e l y on the people  T h i s means t h a t housing  o f the type now  for their  b e i n g b u i l t by  must form the e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t i n any mass housing  own  the program.  funds a v a i l a b l e from the government should be a l l o c a t e d to p r o v i d i n g  an urban environment where the migrants t r a d i t i o n a l d w e l l i n g and of  themselves to pay  life.  to put up  their  thereby be g r a d u a l l y i n t r o d u c e d to an. urban  way  Such a program c a l l s f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n of l a r g e l a n d areas  p r o v i d e p r o j e c t s i t e s and  to  the i n s t a l l a t i o n of the e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s and  community f a c i l i t i e s n e c e s s a r y It  can be a l l o w e d  f o r a decent  i s proposed t h a t t h i s low-cost  and  healthy  life.  s h e l t e r program be a  logical  e x t e n s i o n of the Bustee Improvement Programs t h a t have a l r e a d y been d i s cussed  f o r the e x i s t i n g slum a r e a s .  The  same k i n d s of s e r v i c e s and  f a c i l i t i e s w i l l be p r o v i d e d a t the same s t a n d a r d s .  In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e  would be an o v e r - a l l development p l a n f o r each a r e a which would l a y out the communities i n r e l a t i o n to the proposed Master P l a n of the  city.  These areas would then be e q u i v a l e n t to the improved bustees w i t h perhaps b e t t e r community f a c i l i t i e s  and  f a r s u p e r i o r t o the slum accommodations  which a r e " p r e s e n t l y the o n l y a l t e r n a t i v e f o r the The u l t i m a t e I n d i a n m e g a l o p o l i s of  migrants.  i s c o n c e i v e d as p o s s e s s i n g thousands  r e l a t i v e l y autonomous communities r e p r e s e n t i n g s c o r e s of s u b - c u l t u r e s  which a r e , n e v e r t h e l e s s , o n l y way urban c u l t u r e .  s t a t i o n s on the road to a  T h e r e f o r e , the "urban v i l l a g e " i s seen as a l o c a l e f o r  e d u c a t i o n , a p l a c e where the t a s k s o f s u b s i s t e n c e a r e met, i s c o n t i n u a l l y drawn to the w o r l d of technology and new e x i s t o u t s i d e the community The  cosmopolitan  concept  and a t t e n t i o n  s o c i a l roles that  itself.  of community p a r t i c i p a t i o n and  s e l f - a s s i s t a n c e or  the  119 " l e a r n i n g by reasonable capital  doing"  process,  for  technique'in a very  required for  poor  a formula  g r a n t s when a n d w h e r e i t  is  developing country.  that would  needed.  and b u i l d  their  The r o l e o f  not  far  are  learning  special  different  in  task i s  of  an o r d e r too  to  of  the planner  great  contributions'of be r e a d y  from that  is  than  and l a b o r , find  quantity  families  fit  religious  never a v a i l a b l e  the c i t y  center or  a club  planners  must have a l a n d  assembly  of  difficulty allow  land with  on r e d o u b l i n g that  i n blocks legal  a metropolis it  in  to  of  In  as  best  as  a focus  to  acquisition  that  l a r g e .enough  to  his  tasks  practice,  the  attempt  process  must be i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d  as  as  individually  so  profitable.  that  sub-culture.  t h a t would  accommodate  Planners  local must  t h e outcomes  in  suf-  form  encourage  the  a community.  motive,  to  to  keep  recognize  but  the  socially  i n s t i t u t i o n has  The  slowly  a d e c a d e and  are  a  Therefore,  a r e coming  the p r o f i t  No.such  When  agency  to  the course of  c a n be overcome by  the  respective  area  decades.  to  community  double  subsequent  The'  Land  t h e y p r o c e e d much t o o  in  students  employing  is. that  its  is  assistance.  their  policy  framework  and d e v e l o p m e n t  t h e y c a n and l a t e r of  must  overwhelming.  a new i m m i g r a n t  present  areas  reshaping  procedures  these d i f f i c u l t i e s  well  a planning  immi-  presentations.  be too  of Acquiring  and c o n t i g u i t y .  into  this  self-organization  some means  The Process  ficient  in  in  most the  the  from r u r a l  development  t h a t would not  to be h a n d l e d by  capital  almost  from formal  the  have  for  own'skills  "planning"  in presenting  and s c a l e  i n t e r v e n e and  Land i s  up t h e i r  is  not  provide housing  a t e a c h e r who r e c o g n i z e s  more, f r o m e a c h . o t h e r  skill  community the  environment.  India'will  These migrants  c r e a t e t h e i r own f a c i l i t i e s , physical  a new c o m m u n i t y  been  useful  120 encountered i n the documentation on I n d i a , but been done elsewhere i n the w o r l d  some v a r i a n t s on what  ( p a r t i c u l a r l y I s r a e l and  has  Japan) appear  to be f e a s i b l e . Once the b o u n d a r i e s of a proposed urban v i l l a g e on the f r i n g e s o f the c i t y have been surveyed a " l a n d t r u s t " c o r p o r a t i o n t i c a l l y declared.  Each p r e s e n t  should  owner w i l l get a share of the s t o c k  p o r t i o n a l to the amount o f d e v e l o p a b l e l a n d he c o n t r i b u t e s . trust w i l l  be automa-  i n s t a l l the aqueduct, storm sewers, and  The  pro-  land  s t r e e t alignments  using  l o c a l l a b o r a t g o i n g r a t e s , thus many farmers g a i n e x t r a income as workers. When the l a n d i s occupied  the t r u s t pays the o r i g i n a l a g r i c u l t u r i s t s at a  v a l u e halfway between a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d and ment c o s t s . in  The  l a n d t r u s t then r e a s s i g n s  urban l a n d l e s s the  the l a n d to immigrant f a m i l i e s  convenient l o t s i z e s on l o n g term l e a s e s .  The  l o t s i z e and  of the l e a s e w i l l depend on the s i z e o f the f a m i l y and o f the "panchayat" or the new the l e a s o r s become the new  community government.  stockholders.  As  w i t h g u t t e r s , sewers, p a v i n g , water supply, ing As  i n s t a l l e d , the i n c r e a s e d  value  develop-  the  the  length  recommendations  Both government  and  the l a n d ' i s f u r t h e r developed e l e c t r i c i t y , and  o f the l a n d a c c r u e s to the  street  lightn-  community.  l o n g as the l a n d t r u s t owes money to the S t a t e , the S t a t e w i l l have a  d i r e c t o r on hand to review the procedures.. to m e t r o p o l i t a n  core,  again  among the o l d l e a s o r s and urban v i l l a g e s to be formation  I f the l a n d i s l a t e r  the p r o f i t s can be d i s t r i b u t e d , t h i s  the new  community members.  converted time  S i n c e the v e r y  formed are most l i k e l y to b e n e f i t from f u r t h e r t r a n s -  a generation  or so l a t e r , much l e s s r i s k i s e n t a i l e d i n . t h e  a c q u i s i t i o n of e x p e r i e n c e t h a t would enable the l a n d t r u s t s to f i l l desired function.  1  first  The  important'feature  the  about t h i s procedure i s t h a t  '  •  121  l e a s e s and c o n t r a c t s can have terms s e t so t h a t urban development i s not h e l d back, and w i n d f a l l p r o f i t s are averaged r  people can make modest g a i n s .  Developing The b a s i c assumption  out so t h a t l a r g e numbers o f .  the Urban  o f the concept  these areas w i l l p r o v i d e temporary  Village. f o r an urban v i l l a g e i s t h a t  accommodation.  t h a t t h e r e i s n o t h i n g so permanent as temporary of moving people - p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l known.  housing.  The  difficulty  as used i n t h i s program  i n t h a t i t assumes occupancy o f up t o 15-20  A l l houses w i l l be b u i l t  on a s e l f - a s s i s t i n g b a s i s employing  m a t e r i a l s and t e c h n i q u e s .  said  low income people - from t h e i r homes i s  However, the concept o f "temporary"  i s somewhat d i f f e r e n t  I t -has o f t e n been  years.  traditional  The government w i l l p r o v i d e the f i n a n c i n g f o r  the m a t e r i a l s and the f i n a n c i a l arrangements w i l l be such t h a t the u n i t s a r e c o m p l e t e l y amortized a t the end o f the time p e r i o d when i t i s proposed, to r e p l a c e these s t r u c t u r e s e i t h e r f o r new o t h e r use as determined assumption  by the Master P l a n .  housing p r o j e c t s o r f o r some T h i s program i s based on  the  o f an.on-going.development program b u i l d i n g upwards of 40,000  u n i t s per y e a r .  This w i l l  insure a constant supply of r e l o c a t i o n housing  always w i t h i n a s h o r t d i s t a n c e o f the e x i s t i n g  h o u s i n g , which might be  e l i m i n a t e d f o r o t h e r h i g h e r economic u s e s . B a s i c to the concept, and u n d e r l y i n g the need f o r housing of type t o be temporary, city.  i s the assumption  this  o f the continuous growth o f the  The s i t e s s e l e c t e d f o r temporary  housing areas w i l l be on l a n d s at'  the f r i n g e s o f the c i t y , which i n 15-20  y e a r s w i l l be r e q u i r e d f o r perman-  ent c o n s t r u c t i o n of i n d u s t r y or o t h e r types o f h o u s i n g .  The  necessary  roads and u t i l i t i e s can be i n s t a l l e d i n advance, as a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d and  122 then c o n v e r t e d to permanent uses l a t e r on. v i l l a g e can The  thus expand i n a l o g i c a l and  land required  development  residents of,the  urban  then be r e l o c a t e d to a s i m i l a r f a c i l i t y a s h o r t d i s t a n c e away.  c i t y can  systematic  The  economical p a t t e r n - the  urban  f o r permanent c o n s t r u c t i o n coming i n t o the market i n a  and  organized  p r o c e s s i n the l o c a t i o n s r e q u i r e d b y , t h e o v e r - a l l  plan.  I f temporary occupancy of l a n d on.the urban f r i n g e by housing, followed  by  the use  low-cost  of the l a n d f o r permanent urban c o n s t r u c t i o n , C'  can be made to work, many problems o f the c i t y r e l a t e d to the.growth dynamics can be s o l v e d .  At the moment, the  p r o l i f e r a t i n g i n t o a new  r i n g of slums t h a t t h r e a t e n  f u t u r e growth.  f r i n g e o f the c i t y i s r a p i d l y  In the absence of e n f o r c e a b l e  to choke the  p o l i c e powers and  city's  in  the  f a c e of the overwhelming need f o r s h e l t e r space, the c i t y stands powerless to c o n t r o l t h i s growth.  Low-income housing p r o j e c t s can o n l y be  success-  f u l i n areas where l a n d c o s t s are'low enough to p e r m i t such p r o j e c t s . i n t r o d u c i n g the i d e a of temporary use are s o l v e d .  The  c o n t r o l l e d and  of urban f r i n g e l a n d both problems  development, which i s g o i n g on r e g a r d l e s s , becomes  the l o c a t i o n i s c l o s e enough to be a t t r a c t i v e .  Another advantage of the the o p p o r t u n i t y age  of funds and  concept o f low-cost temporary h o u s i n g i s  of b u i l d i n g at h i g h e r the p r e s s u r e s  standards l a t e r on.  The  great  w e l l produce f u t u r e slums.  the I n d i a n  concrete.  that  Housing of the type which i s b u i l t  today w i t h a l i f e expectancy of at l e a s t s i x t y y e a r s , f u t u r e c i t y i n b r i c k and  short-  of the problem have combined to produce  s o - c a l l e d minimum standards f o r permanent h o u s i n g t h a t are so low they may  By -  s e t s the  form of  I t i s not unreasonable to expect  c i t y of the t w e n t y - f i r s t century  can be a v a s t l y b e t t e r  the  that  place  123 t o l i v e : b i r t h c o n t r o l can become e f f e c t i v e , a l t e r n a t i v e p l a c e s o f r u r a l - u r b a n m i g r a t i o n developed; and new  the n a t i o n a l economy g r e a t l y  c o n s t r u c t i o n technology become a v a i l a b l e .  strengthened;  To postpone as much as  p o s s i b l e the commitment o f l a r g e areas o f urban space to forms o f d e v e l o p ment t h a t may  prove t o t a l l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y i n the f u t u r e seems l o g i c a l  and  a p p r o p r i a t e a t t h i s s t a g e i n I n d i a ' s development. The l a n d a c q u i r e d under such a program would form an urban l a n d bank of g r e a t v a l u e i n a s s i s t i n g the e v e n t u a l renewal ahead.  The b e s t t h a t can be done today may  but i f temporary  o f the c i t y i n the y e a r s  be u n a c c e p t a b l e i n the  housing communities a r e b u i l t and  the l a n d brought  p u b l i c c o n t r o l , the r e n e w a b i l i t y of the c i t y i s a s s u r e d , and  to temporary  the o r g a n i z e d expansion o f the c i t y i s the demonstrated  under  eventual  permanent c o n s t r u c t i o n can be i n tune w i t h the c o n d i t i o n s o f the The obvious d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h i s approach  future,  future.  housing  and  r e l u c t a n c e o f the  government to take the n e c e s s a r y a c t i o n s r e q u i r e d to r e l o c a t e  families.  T h i s problem, i n the end, must be f a c e d i f p r o g r e s s o f any s o r t i s t o be made. The  Development p r o g r e s s throughout  h i s t o r y has. never been p a i n l e s s .  l e s s r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e the more p a i n f u l the t r a n s i t i o n o f development  has been f o r the p e o p l e .  There i s no s u b s t i t u t e f o r the r i g o r o u s p u r s u i t  of the development program. implement i t s e l f .  The  No p l a n , no matter how  promising, w i l l  f i n a l t e s t o f p r o g r e s s w i l l be whether o r not  ever the  d i f f i c u l t d e c i s i o n s are made t h a t w i l l permit an a g g r e s s i v e management o f the program.  124: V  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS.  There i s a s u b s t a n t i a l body o f l i t e r a t u r e t h a t has been  developed  over t h e y e a r s on the g e n e r a l s u b j e c t o f "Who a r e the slum d w e l l e r s ? " Y e t , the r e s u l t s o f t h e s e s t u d i e s have n o t been s u c c e s s f u l l y i n t o the d e s i g n of t h e housing p r o j e c t s . grams have been c r i t i c i z e d  translated  The p r e s e n t slum c l e a r a n c e p r o -  i n this report f o r t h e i r lack of a d a p t a b i l i t y  of t h e r e a l needs o f t h e slum d w e l l e r s .  The low-cost temporary  urban  s e t t l e m e n t concept o f t h e Urban V i l l a g e o f f e r s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o c o r r e c t some o f these  failings.  The types o f s h e l t e r proposed  here r e p r e s e n t s a g e n e r a l c o n t i n u a t i o n  of the t r a d i t i o n a l forms o f housing t o which the migrants a r e accustomed. The b u s t e e h u t w i t h i t s c o n f i n e d p h y s i c a l space d e f i n e s one l e v e l o f s o c i a l space i n t h e slum area - i t s e t s the p a t t e r n o f n e i g h b o r i n g .  Even  i n cases where t h e r e a r e d i s t i n c t r e l i g i o u s d i f f e r e n c e s , the p r o x i m i t y o f l i v i n g areas seems t o s t i m u l a t e i n t e g r a t i o n .  This close proximity i s not  p o s s i b l e i n the d e s i g n o f f o u r - s t o r y walk-up s t r u c t u r e s b u i l t by t h e government t o r e p l a c e slum  housing.  The o n e - s t o r y s t r u c t u r e i s a l s o g e n e r a l l y p r e f e r r e d -by t h e b u s t e e residents.  I t r e p r e s e n t s the t r a d i t i o n a l and f a m i l i a r form o f h o u s i n g  and has the p r a c t i c a l advantage o f immediate a c c e s s to t h e open areas where so much o f t h e b u s t e e d w e l l e r s ' time i s spent i n b o t h work and l e i sure.  The f a c t t h a t the s t r u c t u r e s proposed  f o r the Urban V i l l a g e  will  be t r a d i t i o n a l and, t h e r e f o r e , p r o v i d e a v e r y f l e x i b l e arrangement f o r i n t e r i o r space, i s another s u b s t a n t i a l advantage over t h e permanent housing projects.  Bustee d w e l l e r s , because o f t h e i r low incomes and m a r g i n a l  standards o f l i v i n g , need t o make the maximum use o f t h e i r l i v i n g  space.  125: Permanent apartments a l l o w no s i z e s , and  adjustment to the v e r y wide range of  incomes of the slum d w e l l e r s .  The  however, would have complete f l e x i b i l i t y ,  proposed temporary s h e l t e r s ,  they would permit the  ment of workshops, home i n d u s t r i e s , , s c h o o l s , w i t h i n the p r o j e c t a r e a s .  family  and  develop-  s a n i t a r y animal s h e l t e r s  They w i l l permit a f a m i l y to a c q u i r e as much  space as t h e i r income can p e r m i t .  This f l e x i b i l i t y  i s p o s s i b l e because of  the n a t u r e of the t r a d i t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s to be p r o v i d e d  and.the b a s i c  t h a t the management of the a r e a w i l l be i n the hands of the "panchayat" t h e r e b y m i n i m i z i n g the number o f r u l e s and  fact  community  regulations  that  accompany government p r o j e c t s . The occupied  p r o c e s s whereby a p a r t i c u l a r Urban V i l l a g e becomes developed requires c a r e f u l planning.  c i t y comes alone and He and  At p r e s e n t ,  the new  l e a v e s h i s f a m i l y i n the v i l l a g e u n t i l he  the  is settled.  goes to f r i e n d s , u s u a l l y from the same v i l l a g e , i n a p a r t i c u l a r b u s t e e stays.with  them.  I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t these new  not be immediately a t t r a c t e d to the Urban V i l l a g e . b u s t e e r e s i d e n t s who may  migrant to  The  migrants might  very  a l s o be r e l u c t a n t to move to a new  more r e c e n t  long  term  have l i v e d more than 20 y e a r s • i n a p a r t i c u l a r b u s t e e location.  I t seems t h a t i n the  b e g i n n i n g the p e o p l e most l i k e l y to be a t t r a c t e d to the new  areas are  r e s i d e n t s of the b u s t e e - those t h a t have been i n the  from one-ten y e a r s and  are somewhat s e t t l e d but  s t i l l have not  permanent attachments to the b u s t e e where they are  areas by  do  extensive  p u b l i c i t y and by  to the s i t e s to see  the  city  established  located.  I n the b e g i n n i n g i t might be n e c e s s a r y to a t t r a c t p e o p l e to the  out  and  new  t a k i n g groups of p o t e n t i a l f a m i l i e s  the a r e a s f o r themselves.  An  organized  t h i s w i l l be n e c e s s a r y on the p a r t o f the government 0  effort  organization  to  126 responsible settlement  f o r the p r o j e c t .  Once the s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r  i s established i t w i l l  o f the p a r t i c u l a r  tend to be s e l f - p e r p e t u a t i n g , as new  migrants w i l l then come t o s t a y w i t h those r e s i d e n t s a l r e a d y j e c t area.  Once a g a i n ,  i n the p r o -  the f l e x i b i l i t y o f t h e p h y s i c a l p l a n o f the Urban  V i l l a g e s makes accommodations o f t h e s e f u t u r e r e s i d e n t s much e a s i e r than would be the c a s e w i t h permanent s t r u c t u r e s . T h i s study was undertaken w i t h the view-to u n d e r s t a n d i n g the enormi t y o f the problems o f the urban slum and i t s i n h a b i t a n t s . migration  i s l e a d i n g t o the f o r m a t i o n  Rural-urban  o f new bustees every day and i t i s  imperative  t h a t immediate a c t i o n be undertaken t o a l l e v i a t e t h e l i v i n g  conditions  i n these communities.  The concepts t h a t have been proposed i n  t h i s r e p o r t may appear humble, b u t f o r t h e r e s i d e n t s o f t h e b u s t e e s i n g i n every b a s i c n e c e s s i t y these p r o p o s a l s between d i s e a s e  and h e a l t h y  living.  lack-  can mean the d i f f e r e n c e  I n d i a n d e c i s i o n makers must f a c e t h e  h a r s h economic r e a l i t i e s and abandon Western concepts o f p r o v i d i n g  sterile  p u b l i c housing p r o j e c t s t h a t b e n e f i t o n l y a f r a c t i o n o f t h e slum p o p u l a t i o n ; i n s t e a d they must r e a l i z e t h a t t h e o n l y hope i s the p r o v i s i o n o f the e n v i r o n m e n t a l improvements f o r the many; i n the f i e l d dwellers  the f u t i l i t y  o f past  i s w e l l documented.  Among the many p r o f e s s i o n a l s  low-cost h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s f o r the slum  In a country with l i m i t e d  resources,  e n v i r o n m e n t a l improvement programs a l o n g w i t h s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and recreational opportunities  o f f e r the o n l y r e a s o n a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e .  127 CHAPTER IV.  THE URBAN SLUM: CONTINUITY AND CHANGE  ^Journal of the Indian 1955, p. 1.  Institute  of Town Planners,  2 Charles Abrams, Man's Struggle 1964, p. 54.  for Shelter  ."Editorial," July, .  in an Urbanizing  World,  o  Nels Anderson, The Urban Community: A' World Perspective, ^Marshal B. C l i n a r d , Sociology  of Deviant  ^ P h i l i p M. Hauser, Urbanization  in Asia  Behaviour,  1959, p . 21.  1963, p. 113.  and the Far East,  1957, p. 60.  ^ C l i n a r d , p. 116.  ^ S c o t t Greer,  The Emerging  City:  Myth and Reality,  P a u l N. 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