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Seaspace use and control : a case in the Gulf of Georgia Nelson, Christopher Douglas 1973

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SEASPACS USE AND CONTROL: A CASS IN THE GULF OF GEORGIA by CHRISTOPHER DOUGLAS KELSON B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a , 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT 'OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of GEOGRAPHY We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C0LUM3IA J u l y , 1973 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e a u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p urposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada ABSTRACT This study analyzes the development and growth of commercial, i n d u s t r i a l , and r e c r e a t i o n a l water-oriented a c t i v i t i e s i n the Gulf of Georgia from the t r a d i t i o n a l pre-Europeon roots of the eighteenth century through to the present. At the same time the development and implementation of l e g a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e measures invoked to manage t h i s c o a s t a l sea and re g u l a t e maritime f u n c t i o n a l users i s examined c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , and i n r e l a t i o n to the e f f e c t on patterns of water use. On the stre n g t h of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , i t was found that the Gulf of Georgia i s a dynamic seascape which has, over the years, performed as a geographical bond r a t h e r than a b a r r i e r to the development of the B r i t i s h Columbia c o a s t l a n d . Whereas i n the t r a d i t i o n a l seascape economically motivated water use p r a c t i c e s predominated, more r e c e n t l y the Gulf of Georgia has e x h i b i t e d almost equal use as a c u l t u r a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l area. Correspondingly, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n t r o l s and maritime r e g u l a t i o n s which followed c l o s e l y on the heels of p o l i t i c a l p a r t i t i o n i n g have from the outset tended to compliment economic uses of the marine environment. The development of domestic l e g i s l a t i o n geared to the dynamic maritime s i t u a t i o n s , to e f f e c t i v e m u l t i p l e use, and to the p r o t e c t i o n of more ae|fehe'.t\L'ei<* i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t i e s or to s e n s i t i v e ecological-oceanographic areas has been slow to m a t e r i a l i z e . I t was found that future demand f o r sea space by a wide range of users d i c t a t e s l e g a l c o n t r o l s and management p r a c t i c e s which cater to c u l t u r a l as w e l l as economic concerns. To a t t a i n t h i s goal more s t r i n -gent management programs must be a p p l i e d to the Gulf of Georgia which would e f f e c t i v e l y provide a range of a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r each f u n c t i o n a l a c t i v i t y while p r o t e c t i n g and maintaining the q u a l i t y of the marine environment at acceptable l e v e l s f o r a l l users. Seaspace zoning, marine t r a f f i c c o n t r o l systems, and marine parks are suggested as techniques which may be u s e f u l l y a p p l i e d to s u c c e s s f u l l y manage the Gulf of Georgia coastland environment. i v i x 12 TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABL'ES'S v i i LIST OF FiGUMS • *' v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER I THE NATURE OF A WATERUSE STUDY IN THE GULF OF GEORGIA. I n t r o d u c t i o n The S t u d y - S p a t i a l Components Chapter Annotation I I THE STUDY OF WATER USE IN THE GULF OF GEORGIA AS MARINE GEOGRAPHY Geographers and Their Commitment to Marine Studies Marine Geographic L i t e r a t u r e Marine Studies as Problems i n P o l i t i c a l Resource Geography The Nature of the Marine Environment The Dynamic Nature of Seaspace Use and Controls The Gulf of Georgia i n Context Competition Among Water-Oriented A c t i v i t i e s W i t h i n a F i n i t e Space Method of A n a l y s i s The Sources and C o l l e c t i o n of Research Information I I I THE PHYSICAL NATURE OF THE GULF OF GEORGIA COAST-LAND COMPLEX ' kl 28 S t r u c t u r a l Physiography and the Impact of the Pl e i s t o c e n e Epoch Oceanography P h y s i c a l Components B i o l o g i c a l Components Chapter Summary IV THE EMERGENCE OF VARIOUS WATER-ORIENTED ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE GULF OF GEORGIA HO 40 Marine O r i e n t a t i o n and T e r r i t o r i a l i t y of the North-west Coast Indian--An I d e n t i t y w i t h the Sea CHAPTER PAGE Europe E x p l o r a t i o n of the Northwest Coast The Fur Trade and the Post-Exploratory Period Indian L i f e s t y l e and the Impact of European Contact The Hudson's Bay Company and Water-borne Commerce, 1821-1883 The Steamship Corporations i n the Gulf of Georgia, 1883-1930 Coastal Trade, 1930-1972 A P r o v i n c i a l F e r r y System Commercial F i s h i n g i n the Gulf Government Management P o l i c i e s E a r l y R e c r e a t i o n a l Water Use i n the Gulf of Georgia P o l i t i c a l and Legal Controls of the Gulf of Georgia i n the H i s t o r i c a l Context F r o n t i e r to Colony The E a r l y F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l Context Chapter Summary V THE PRESENT COMPLEX: FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITIES WITHIN A FINITE SPACE 83 I n t r o d u c t i o n Commercial Shipping I n t e r n a t i o n a l Sea-borne Shipping The Port of Vancouver B. C. P i l o t a g e General Cargo Bulk Cargo Petroleum Cargo Coastwise Shipments I n d u s t r i a l Transfer Tug and Barge Operations Log Booms and Log Storage C o n s t r u c t i o n M a t e r i a l s Petroleum Products Passenger-Freight Service Commercial F i s h e r i e s Salmon Groundfish and Herring Marine Invertebrates Commercial F i s h i n g C r a f t Commercial F i s h i n g Closures Water-Oriented Recreation i n the Gulf of Georgia R e c r e a t i o n a l Boating Boat Ownership and Moorage Boating Patterns R e c r e a t i o n a l Foreshore A c t i v i t i e s Tourism and Marine Recreation The D i s p o s a l of Wastes i n the Gulf of Georgia v i CHAPTER PAGE Chapter Summary: Trends and Emerging Patterns of Water Use i n the Gulf of Georgia. VI MARINE CONTROLS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO CURRENT AND FUTURE FUNCTIONAL WATER USE IN THE GULF OF GEORGIA . 145 Canada's Role i n the Coastal Zone F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l Struggle f o r Tenure The R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of Government Agencies The E v o l u t i o n of L e g i s l a t i o n Germane to Offshore Areas Commercial F i s h e r i e s Commercial Shipping Water-Oriented Recreation Waste D i s p o s a l Assessment of E x i s t i n g L e g i s l a t i o n and Manage-ment Underwater Marine Parks and Conservation Areas Marine T r a f f i c C o n t r o l and Sea-Space Zoning Marine T r a f f i c C o n t r o l Zoning the Gulf of Georgia Conclusion: The Need f o r Purposeful Planning i n the Gulf of Georgia i V I I BIBLIOGRAPHY 192 v i i LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I A Summary of Domestic L e g i s l a t i o n 80 I I Export Tonnages f o r Selected Ports by P r i n c i p a l Commodity 87 I I I Vessels and Export Tonnages from Selected Ports , 88 IV P r o j e c t e d Trade Tonnages for Port of Vancouver, Roberts Bank, Lower Fraser River 90 V P a c i f i c Northwest Petroleum Demand 97 VI Vessel A r r i v a l s and T o t a l Coastwise Tonnage Handled f o r Selected Ports 99 VII Regional Petroleum Product Movements by Water 108 V I I I Gulf of Georgia Salmon Catch; 1971 114 IX Commercial Catches of Groundfish and H e r r i n g , 1971 118 X Commercial Catch of Prawns, Shrimps, Crabs, and Oysters, 1970 120 XI Boat-Ownership Rates 126 XII Number of Boats, 1966-1972 128 X I I I R e c r e a t i o n a l Boat Class and Value 129 XIV Dominant R e l a t i o n s h i p Between N a t i o n a l Goals and N a t i o n a l Marine I n t e r e s t s 148 v i i i LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1 Gulf of Georgia Study Region 8 2 Net Surface C i r c u l a t i o n 34 3 The Fraser River Plume 36 4 Gulf Ports and Vessel Routes 96 5 Log Storage Areas 104 6 Passenger-Freight Service 110 7 Major Concentrations of Salmon 117 8 Groundfish and Herring 119 9 Major Concentrations of Marine Invertebrates ..• 121 10 R e c r e a t i o n a l Boating F a c i l i t i e s 131 11 Marine Parks, Beaches and E c o l o g i c a l Reserves .. 137 12 S i g n i f i c a n t Ecological-Oceanographic Areas i n the Gulf of Georgia 177 i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Gratitude must be extended to every i n d i v i d u a l who gave a s s i s t a n c e i n the prep a r a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s . I am p a r t i c u l a r l y g r a t e f u l and indebted to Dr. J u l i a n Minghi f o r h i s e n t h u s i a s t i c encouragement and in v a l u a b l e advice from the i n c e p t i o n to the co n c l u s i o n of t h i s work. I must a l s o express my thanks to Dr. A. L. F a r l e y f o r h i s h e l p f u l comments on the e a r l y chapters, to Dr. W i l l i a m Ross for h i s suggestion f o r untangling the maze of maritime s t a t u t e law, and Dr. Marwyn Samuels f o r h i s i n v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e as a second reader. In a d d i t i o n , thanks are al s o expressed to Miss E r i c a Learoyd f o r her patience i n typing the o r i g i n a l d r a f t s of t h i s t h e s i s . Any e r r o r s which might appear i n t h i s t h e s i s , however, are the so l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the w r i t e r . Christopher Douglas Nelson V i c t o r i a , B. C. May, 1973. CHAPTER 1 THE NATURE OF A WATER USE STUDY IN THE GULF OF GEORGIA I n t r o d u c t i o n In 1970, the Port of Vancouver''" handled a record of 30,159 ,270 tons of import-export cargo, over 5 m i l l i o n tons more than the previous 2 year. Over the past decade, tonnager- of export cargo has increased over 122 per cent, from 12.1 m i l l i o n tons i n 1960 to 26.9 m i l l i o n tons 3 i n 1970. During t h i s same p e r i o d , i t has been estimated that p r i v a t e boat ownership f o r r e s i d e n t s of the Gulf of Georgia periphery has'e 4 r i s e n from approximately 40 per 1000 i n 1960 to 1000 by the end of the decade. ~* Greater n a t i o n a l economic growth and amenable world market con-f i n e ludes Roberts Bank Superport bulk loading t e r m i n a l . N a t i o n a l Harbours Board, Annual Report, 1970, Vancouver, 1971, p. 2. B. C. Department of Finance, B r i t i s h Columbia F i n a n c i a l and  Economic Review, T h i r t y - f i r s t E d i t i o n , V i c t o r i a , J u l y , 1971, p. 61. Kenneth C l a r k , The Formulation and A p p l i c a t i o n of a Marine  Recreation Planning Methodology: A Case Study of the Gulf Islands and  the San Juan I s l a n d s , M.A. Th e s i s , U.B.C., 1969, p. 8. W i l l i a m W o l f e r s t a n , D e s o l a t i o n Sofind, A R e c r e a t i o n a l Boating  Experience, M.A. Thesis, S.F.U., 1971, p. 1. 2 d i t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y the development of the Japanese market, i s l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the increase of maritime f o r e i g n trade through the ports of B r i t i s h Columbia. At the same time, i n t e r n a l f a c t o r s such as i n -creased p o p u l a t i o n , increased disposable income, and increased access-i b i l i t y to areas s u i t e d to marine r e c r e a t i o n account f o r higher boat ownership r a t e s and increased p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e c r e a t i o n a l 2 aspects of marine environments. Whereas i t may be d i f f i c u l t to recognize and to analyze d i v e r s e growth f a c t o r s f o r the above and various other water-oriented a c t i v i t i e s , i t i s e v i d e n t l y c l e a r that there i s an i d e n t i f i a b l e areal c o n c e n t r a t i o n 3 of a l l maritime a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the Gulf of Georgia. I t i s now becoming apparent that both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e commercial and l e i s u r e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s i f offshor e areas, manifested i n va r i o u s a c t i v e forms, are i n c r e a s i n g at an e v e r - a c c e l e r a t i n g r a t e . Since the Gulf of Georgia, as a c o a s t a l sea, i s a g e o g r a p h i c a l l y l i m i t e d area, i t See D. G. Kerfoot and W. G. Hardwick, Port of B r i t i s h Columbia,  Development and Trading P a t t e r n s , B. C. Geographical S e r i e s , No. 2, Vancouver, 1966. A. L. F e r r i s s e t . a l . , N a t i o n a l Recreation Survey: Outdoor  Recreation Resources Review Commission Study Report 19, Washington, 1962, pp. 23-26. The accepted geographical nomenclature f o r the r e g i o n under study appears somewhat changeable. The region was named i n honour of King George I I I by Captain Vancouver i n 1792. Cook's d e s i g n a t i o n "Gulg" was changed to " S t r a i t " by Captain Richards i n 1865, but i t continues to be known as a Gulf and occurs on various maps and charts i n a l t e r n a t e c o n f i r g u r a t i o n . A compromise s o l u t i o n may l i e i n the p r i n c i p l e that the e n t i r e Georgia Depression i s composed of a s e r i e s of s t r a i t s , R o s a r i o , Haro, Malaspina and Georgia, e t c . , which i n aggregate can be considered to comprise the Gulf of Georgia. 3 can be considered a r e a l l y f i n i t e . A l t e r n a t e l y , maritime a c t i v i t i e s i n c r e a s i n g e x p o n e n t i a l l y w i t h i n the G u l f , are annually consumptive of waterspace. Problems of maintaining a balanced management program s a t i s -f a c t o r y f o r users without detriment to the q u a l i t y of the marine e n v i r o n -ment become more pronounced. An i n t e r e s t i n g dilema has a r i s e n , the r e s o l u t i o n of which does not mesh w i t h b e n e f i t - c o s t management p r a c t i c e s . While the populace l i v i n g w i t h i n the southwestern c o a s t a l r e g i o n d e s i r e to preserve the beauty and r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s of the Gulf of Georgia, t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d i s i n some way d i r e c t l y dependent upon the fundamental u t i l i z a t i o n of i t s marine resources as w e l l as upon the v i t a l linkages i t provides r e g i o n a l l y or between western Canada and the r e s t of the world. I n p a r t i c u l a r , i n -c o n g r u i t i e s are no more acute than at the sea/land i n t e r f a c e or i n f o r e -shore areas where man as a t e r r e s t r i a l animal has t r a d i t i o n a l l y made h i s f i r s t and o f t e n , h i s most profound impact upon the marine environment.''' While i t i s recognized that foreshore areas possess a strong ae-sithe.t-ic a t t r a c t i o n f o r man and e x h i b i t a high e a r r i n g c a p a c i t y f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l 2 use, t h e i r strategic-economic s i g n i f i c a n c e cannot be overlooked. In the pas t , o f f s h o r e waters, foreshore waters, waterfront lands, and marine resources have g e n e r a l l y been a l l o c a t e d to various users on "'"Wesley Marx, The F r a i l Ocean, New York, 1967 , p. 25. 2 Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, Our Southwestern  Shores, New Westminster, September, 1968; and I . R. Church and D. S. Rubin, An E c o l o g i c a l Review of Our Southwestern Shores, Report f o r the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t , June, 1970, are examples of the "dual view-p o i n t " approach to the d i s p o s a l of the same waterfront lands and f o r e -shore areas. the b a s i s of supply and demand i n a f r e e market s i t u a t i o n . Commercial i n t e r e s t has h i s t o r i c a l l y been k i n g w i t h f i s h i n g and n a v i g a t i o n taking precedence. Often, i n the process, p o l l u t e d waters have been an undesir-able by-product. In t u r n , t h i s has f r e q u e n t l y led to the t e r m i n a t i o n of groups of a c t i v i t i e s which cannot t o l e r a t e serious d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n the q u a l i t y of the marine environment. More r e c e n t l y though, management of marine resources i s beginning to be based on a broader range of c r i t e r i a . ' ' ' P a r t l y due to a new e c o l o g i c a l consciousness and to a tremendous growth i n outdoor r e c r e a t i o n , s o c i e t y has expressed a more comprehensive a n x i e t y f o r environmental 2 p r o t e c t i o n "and i s questionning past and present management p r a c t i c e s . Suggestions are being made that i n many areas, waterfront lands or o f f -shore waters are p o t e n t i a l l y more valuable f o r s o c i a l r a t h e r than economic needs, and that s p e c i f i c areas should be preserved by governments f o r 3 t h e i r a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t y O.r; t h e i r p h y s i c a l / e c o l o g i c a l p e c u l i a r i t y . L e g i s l a t o r s , and u l t i m a t e l y resource managers and planners, are faced w i t h the task of a l l o c a t i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y scarce water and land resources among completing users. While the market place i s the Nathaniel Wollman, "The New Economics of Resources", Daedalus, V o l . 96, F a l l , 1967, pp. 1099-1114. 2 Timothy O'Riordan, "Towards a Strategy of P u b l i c Involvement", Perceptions and A t t i t u d e s i n Resources Management, W. R. D. Sewell and I. Burton (ed.) , Resource Paper No. 2, P o l i c y Research and Coordination Branch, Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, Ottawa, 1971, pp. 99-110. Jack Davis, A N a t i o n a l Underwater Park i n the Gulf of Georgia, Luncheon address to Hollyburn Gyro Club, Vancouver, June 5, 1971. 5 h i s t o r i c a l determinant of changing usage patterns of marine resources, patterns of wateruse are f u r t h e r i n f l u e n c e d from the p r o t r a c t e d impact 1 of government marine management p r a c t i c e s . Whereas management d e c i s i o n s , i n some cases, have been based upon such narrow economic c o n s t r a i n t s as cost per ton-mile or upon the a v a i l a b i l i t y of workers, contemporary water resource planning involves the assessment of more d i v e r s e f a c t o r s and of 2 q u a l i t a t i v e v a r i a b l e s . S u ccessful and balanced management of maritime areas e v e n t u a l l y r e q u i r e s e f f e c t i v e assessment of the r e l a t i v e value of a p a r t i c u l a r use and the d e s i g n a t i o n of some system of p r i o r i t i e s among widely diverse f u n c t i o n a l water uses. But to achieve t h i s goal f o r a realm the management of which becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y more complex v i s a v i s the growth of water-oriented a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r e s a more thorough understanding of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between human uses and the p h y s i c a l environment. Here then the p r e r e q u i s i t e i s the a v a i l a b i l i t y of a d e t a i l e d inventory on a l l aspects of human uses i n maritime areas. Comprehensive understanding must extend beyond knowledge gathered i n d e s c r i p t i v e oceanographic studies and i n e m p i r i c a l economic resource s t u d i e s , to encompass an assessment of s o c i o - c u l t u r a l impact ^"Richard Cooley, P o l i t i c s and Conservation, The Decline of the  Alaska Salmon, New York, 1963, p. 6; and R. W. S. Stewart and L. M. D i c k i e , Ad Mare, Canada Looks to the Sea, Science C o u n c i l of Canada, S p e c i a l Study No. 16, Ottawa, 1971, p. 18. E. J . Devine, "The Treatment of Incommensurables i n Cost-B e n e f i t A n a l y s i s " , Land Economics, V o l . 62, 1966, pp. 383-387. a s s o c i a t e d w i t h marine :regimes. Too long, p r i n c i p a l n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t and knowledge about the biosphere has c r y s t a l l i z e d around marine a c t i v i t i e s which present an economic r e t u r n . L i t t l e a t t e n t i o n has been paid to l e s s -e a s i l y q u a n t i f i a b l e , more a e s t h e t i c uses of seaspace, a f a c t o r which becomes most apparent a f t e r a d e t a i l e d examination of the development of past l e g i s l a t i o n a p p l i c a b l e to the management of domestic offshore areas. The S t u d y - - S p a t i a l Components Fundamentally, t h i s t h e s i s addresses i t s e l f to an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the Gulf of Georgia on two l e v e l s . F i r s t , the study c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y documents the extent and nature of changes i n patterns of wateruse i n the Gulf of Georgia from t r a d i t i o n a l a b o r i g i n a l beginnings through,to the present. Because of the s p a t i a l l y l i m i t e d water area of the G u l f , the t h e s i s may be viewed as an examination of the a l l o c a t i o n of a common property resource--seawater--amongst m u l t i p l e and competing users. Second, the development and growth of demand f o r t h i s resource by water-o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s , and t h e i r a r e a l l y consumptive, o f t e n incompatible nature are documented and analyzed i n r e l a t i o n to the establishment and change of a s s o c i a t e d f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y , l e g i s l a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e mechanisms w i t h i n the marine environment. This t h e s i s attempts to show that there has been a d i s t i n c t metamorphosis i n the a t t i t u d e and posture of government a u t h o r i t i e s over the years to ''"While i t may not n e c e s s a r i l y o f f e r a neat panacea f o r the di v e r s e problems c o n f r o n t i n g engineers, economists, or resource manager, a more h o l i s t i c approach would provide a broader perspective f o r data c o l l e c t i o n and a p p r a i s a l . 7 the management of the Gulf of Georgia, r e f l e c t e d f i r s t i n the maritime l e g i s l a t i o n and second, i n the changed water use patterns a f t e r the establishment of the l e g i s l a t i v e c o n t r o l . Whereas economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were the u n c o n d i t i o n a l m o tivating f a c t o r s i n the development and manage-ment of h i s t o r i c a l water u s e r s , the present m i l i e u f i n d s the p o s i t i o n of governments and correspondingly, of management p r a c t i c e s more s o p h i s t i c a t e d and o r i e n t a t e d toward concepts of m u l t i p l e use and the p r o t e c t i o n of the r i g h t s of i n d i v i d u a l users. The development and success of m u l t i p l e use marine management programs i s analyzed v i s a v i s the growth of demand by p r i n c i p a l f u n c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s and i n the l i g h t of e x i s t i n g and proposed p o l i c i e s and r e g u l a t i o n s . The Gulf of Georgia, (h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d synonomously as the study region) as a geographical r e g i o n , i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure I . Although the Gulf i s an i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o a s t a l sea i n which f u l l sovereignty has 1? been d i v i d e d between Canada and the United States since 1872 , t h i s t h e s i s i s concerned w i t h dynamic patterns of water use and of l e g i s l a t i o n as they e f f e c t the Canadian waters of the Gulf. While i t i s r e a l i z e d that the nature of the marine environment and problems of m u l t i p l e use are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t e i t h e r side of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l boundary, the problems of incommensurate date c o l l e c t e d by each country makes an i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n a much more complicated assignment and beyond the intended scope of t h i s t h e s i s . I t i s the i n t e n t i o n of the w r i t e r to be both d e s c r i p t i v e and pre-1872. R e a l l y since 1846, but f i n a l l y agreed upon a f t e r a r b i t r a t i o n i n FIGURE 1 THE GULF OF GEORGIA COASTLAND STUDY REGION 9 s c r i p t i v e i n t h i s t h e s i s . S t r u c t u r a l l y , i t can be d i v i d e d i n t o s e v e r a l component parts i n v o l v i n g a s u c c i n c t assessment of h i s t o r i c a l , economic, b i o l o g i c , geographic and p o l i t i c o - c u l t u r a l elements which have e x i s t e d and/or functioned w i t h i n a defined space. Viewed s y m b i o t i c a l l y , these elements form the p h y s i c a l and c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a l l a c t i v i t i e s i n the c o a s t a l sea. Chapter Annotation The e a r l y chapters of t h i s t h e s i s are e s s e n t i a l l y conceptual and g e n e r i c , and acknowledge the p a u c i t y of geographic l i t e r a t u r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the marine environment on e i t h e r the world or r e g i o n a l s c a l e . Chapter One s t a t e s the general hypothesis of the study and places i t w i t h i n the realm of environmental resource problems of contemporary human concern. Chapter One a l s o defines the p h y s i c a l a r e a l extent of the study. In Chapter Two, an attempt i s made to r e l a t e t h i s study to the e x i s t i n g geographical and p o l i t i c o - g e o g r a p h i c a l l i t e r a t u r e \ p e r t a i n i n g to seascape s t u d i e s . The lack of commitment by geographers and the dearth of published systematic marine geography are recognized i n r e l a t i o n to the p e c u l i a r nature of dynamic multi-dimensional use of space i n the aquatic environment. From the e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e which focused upon marine geography, s e v e r a l works contingent to t h i s study are examined i n terms of t h e i r methodological posituney, and t h e o r e t i c a l and sub-s t a n t i v e content. Since t h i s study i n v o l v e s i n f o r m a t i o n from s e v e r a l d i s c i p l i n e s , c o r r e l a t i v e s t u d i e s completed on a more l o c a l i z e d s c a l e are annotated and incorporated i n t o succeeding chapters where most a p p l i c a b l e . 10 A research approach and methodological s t r a t e g y are a l s o put forward i n Chapter Two, and s e v e r a l concepts and techniques from past academic c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the f i e l d are incorporated. An his t o r i c a l - d o c u m e n t a r y approach i s u t i l i z e d to i n v e s t i g a t e the problem, to r e c o n s t r u c t e a r l i e r patterns of seaspace use, and to comprehend the present geographical m i l i e u . Chapter Three presents a ge n e r a l i z e d account of the coastland physiography and the p h y s i c a l and b i o l o g i c a l oceanography of the r e g i o n considered necessary f o r a basic understanding of man-environment i n t e r -a c t i o n w i t h i n the Gulf. Chapter Four i s fundamentally an h i s t o r i c a l geographical statement which documents the development of various water-oriented a c t i v i t i e s i n the Gulf and i t s immediate periphery. Increasing water use i s examined c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y and i n c r e m e n t a l l y from n a t i v e indigenous perception of the c o a s t a l sea, through seawater as the medium of the e a r l y white e x p l o r e r s , to the development, over the l a s t century, of a l t e r n a t e water-o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , these includ e commercial s h i p p i n g , commercial f i s h i n g , and marine r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s w i t h the Gu l f . In a d d i t i o n , e a r l y j u r i s d i c t i o n a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n t r o l s are a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d i n r e l a t i o n to the development of h i s t o r i c a l water use pa t t e r n s . Chapter F i v e examines the current f u n c t i o n a l uses made of the Gulf marine environment and o u t l i n e s some of the problems which a r i s e from increased m u l t i p l e water use. This chapter i n v o l v e s an assessment of increased and compounded a r e a l demand made by various water-oriented a c t i v i t i e s on Gulf waterspace. As w e l l , the a c c r u a l pressure by water-11 space users i s i n v e s t i g a t e d i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the maintenance of acceptable standards of q u a l i t y f o r the marine environment. Chaper Six i n v e s t i g a t e s f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l posture toward domes-t i c o ffshore areas by examining agency j u r i s d i c t i o n , and water q u a l i t y c o n t r o l l e g i s l a t i o n i n f o r c e w i t h i n the Gulf of Georgia w i t h respect to present and future water use and c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y . The l i m i t a t i o n s of the e x i s t i n g p h y s i c a l and human systems and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , the inadequacy of f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n to cope w i t h future waterspace demand i s a l s o analyzed. Seaspace zoning i s suggested as a l t e r n a t i v e a i d f o r programs of greater m u l t i p l e purpose water use and management of the c o a s t a l sea. With a program of l i m i t e d seaspace zoning, and other a d m i n i s t r a t i v e mechanisms, changes i n e x i s t i n g l o c a t i o n -a l patterns f o r va r i o u s marine uses would r e s u l t which could help to ameliorate c o n f l i c t s between competing users and i n t u r n , may s a t i s f y a wider range of economic and s o c i a l goals. The general conclusions of t h i s t h e s i s are incorporated i n t o the summation of Chapter S i x . I n -cre a s i n g use made of the Gulf of Georgia accentuates the n e c e s s i t y f o r more coe r c i v e management i n domestic offsho r e areas to s u s t a i n the q u a l i t y of the marine environment at acceptable l e v e l s f o r a l l users. CHAPTER I I THE STUDY OF WATER USE IN THE GULF OF GEORGIA AS MARINE GEOGRAPHY Geographers and Their Commitment to Marine Studies Any good elementary school student can q u i c k l y r e l a t e that seven-tenths of the earth's surface i s covered w i t h water. Yet such a simple s t a t i s t i c r e a l l y d i d not have r e a l s i g n i f i c a n c e u n t i l man had v i r t u a l l y reshaped h a b i t a b l e areas of the other three-tenths i n order to accommodate h i s r a p i d l y expanding population.' In an academic c a p a c i t y , geographers have a l s o been t e r r e s t r i a l l y bound and t h e i r s tudies r e f l e c t an overwhelming preoccupation w i t h the inh a b i t e d and usable land surface. Since the f i e l d of geography i s at l e a s t i n part concerned w i t h d e s c r i b i n g and a n a l y s i n g the v a r i a b l e char-a c t e r of the g l o b a l s u r f a c e , i t seems strange that the hydrosphere should be v i r t u a l l y neglected. Studies by geographers of the marine environment and s h o r e l i n e areas are extremely r e l e v a n t to c o a s t a l r e s i d e n t s and are deserving of greater r e c o g n i t i o n and engagement. Although there has been almost exponential growth i n the marine sciences over the past twenty ye a r s , the p r o f e s s i o n has been most parsimonious i n i t s commitment to problems of e i t h e r the deep ocean or the c o a s t a l zone. Correspondingly, many of the aspects of the i n v e s t i g a -t i o n i n t o the nature of the marine environment i n v o l v e techniques and methods of a n a l y s i s which are eminently "geographical". The d i s c i p l i n e has, over the years demonstrated q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and e x p e r t i s e i n under-standing man-environment i n t e r a c t i o n s as w e l l as the co m p l e x i t i e s of 13 s p a t i a l a c t i v i t y p a t t e r n s . In ' p a r a l l e l , i t would seem then, that a great percentage of the st u d i e s whose s o l u t i o n s incorporate methodologies and techniques which appear endemic to geography, could i n v o l v e the a c t i v e c o l l a b o r a t i o n of the p r o f e s s i o n i n an h o l i s t i c approach w i t h other d i s c i p l i n e s such as oceanography, i n t e r n a t i o n a l marine law, marine resource economics, and marine park and r e c r e a t i o n a l planning."'' Marine Geographic L i t e r a t u r e Considerable work has been done by p h y s i c a l geographers concerning the zone of contact between the land and the sea and on the p h y s i c a l 2 nature of coasts and c o a s t a l landforms. A l s o , a number of geomorphol-3 o g i s t s have i n v e s t i g a t e d some aspects of p h y s i c a l oceanography. To date though, geographers have been considerably l e s s forthcoming i n t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n to the f i e l d of marine resource use and management. Never-t h e l e s s , geographical studies of commercial f i s h e r i e s i n v a r i o u s parts of ''"Association of American Geographers, C e n t r a l O f f i c e , Report of  the Task Force on Marine Resources and Their Management, (unpublished manuscript), 1970. A. S. F a l i k , "Maritime Geography and Oceanography, " P r o f e s s i o n a l  Geography, V o l . 18, 1966, pp. 283-286, and M. S. Dunbar, "A Sunge of Oceanographies," Geographical Review, V o l . 55, 1965, pp. 414-412. R. E. H a r r i s o n , "The F l o o r of the World Ocean" Map Supplement No. 2, Annals of the A s s o c i a t i o n of American Geographers, V o l . 51, 1961, p. 343; and J . T. M c G i l l , "Map of the Coastal Land forms of the World," Geographical Review, V o l . 48, 1958, pp. 402-408. 14 the world, while l i m i t e d i n q u a n t i t y have proven by t h e i r q u a l i t y that geographers possess the t a l e n t s and t r a i n i n g to make s i g n i f i c a n t con-t r i b u t i o n s to marine resource i n t e r e s t s . ^ Marine Studies as Problems i n P o l i t i c a l Resource Geography I t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y through t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n of resource u t i l i z a t i o n w i t h other aspects of the marine environment that geographers can make 2 some unique c o n t r i b u t i o n s to oceanographic l i t e r a t u r e . To date, however, t h i s type of study has been more o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n t e r n a t i o n a l r a t h e r than domestic jseaspaee;.. A n a l y s i s of p o l i t i c a l phenomena i n the c o a s t a l context has been l i m i t e d to the d e f i n i t i o n and d e l i m i t a t i o n of 3 4 boundaries. Boggs and Pearcy, f o r example, were p a r o c h i a l l y i nvolved w i t h the mechanical aspects of boundary demarcation and i n t e r n a t i o n a l law of the sea. This p r o v i n c i a l preoccupation w i t h narrower t e c h n i c a l problems of offshore ffiim'itfcss p e r s i s t e d i n p o l i t i c a l geography f o r a number of years. Few studies observed and c h a r a c t e r i z e d evidence of marine water use and corresponding p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l . ^Richard Cooley, P o l i t i c s and Conservation: The Decline of the  Alaskan Salmon, New York, 1963. J . V. Minghi, "The C o n f l i c t of Salmon F i s h i n g P o l i c i e s i n the North P a c i f i c , " P a c i f i c Viewpoint, V o l . 2, 1961, pp. 59-86. S. W. Boggs, "Problems of Water Boundary Definition.,, Median Lines and I n t e r n a t i o n a l Boundaries Through T e r r i t o r i a l Waters, "Geographical  Review, V o l . 27, 1937, pp. 445-456. G. E. Pearcy, "Geographical Aspects of the Law of the Sea," Annals of the A s s o c i a t i o n of American Geographers, V o l . 49, 1959, pp. 1-24. 15 Un f o r t u n a t e l y , the a c t u a l value of the c o a s t a l zone was long over-looked by p o l i t i c a l geographers: that i t a f f o r d s an opportunity to study the mutual i n t e r p l a y between human c o n t r o l s (manifested through s t a t u t e law) and the marine environment. Would i t not seem e q u a l l y important to analyze the events and elements which p r e c i p i t a t e d the offshore c l a i m rather than merely discuss such matters as the exact l o c a l i t y of a new l i m i t ? A sound piece of comprehensive geographical research demands a n a l y s i s of generic as w e l l as s t r u c t u r a l f a c t o r s . The end product must be a blend of the p h y s i c a l , c u l t u r a l , and l e g a l i s t i c elements. Un-f o r t u n a t e l y , few studies have moulded the p h y s i c a l and economic/cultural aspects of the marine environment i n t o an understanding of the i n c i p i e n t regimes of p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l . An e a r l y attempt at a broader understanding of the e n t i r e p e r s p e c t i v e , i n which offsho r e c o n t r o l s were viewed i n terms of offshore resource 1 u t i l i z a t i o n , was developed and enumerated by A. E. Moodie. More r e c e n t l y , marine geography and the r o l e of the geography p r o f e s s i o n i n c o a s t a l zone research and management has advanced consid e r a b l y concomitant w i t h Lewis 2 Alexander's The Offshore Geography of Northwestern Europe. I t i s perhaps the most profound c o n t r i b u t i o n devoted e n t i r e l y to i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the u t i l i z a t i o n of offshore n a t u r a l resources. In t h i s monograph, Alexander was i n t e r e s t e d i n the way *A. E. Moodie, "Marine Boundaries," The Changing World, W. G. East and A. E. Moodie, ed., London, 1956, pp. 942-959. Lewis Alexander, The Offshore Geography of North Western  Europe, A s s o c i a t i o n of American Geographers, Monograph No. 3, Chicago, 1963. n a t i o n a l adjacent seaspace i s organized both p o l i t i c a l l y and economically, and developed u s e f u l concepts and approaches which have u n i v e r s a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y . Alexander r e a l i z e d that the economic and p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s are c l o s e l y i n t e r r e l a t e d and both may be s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by the p h y s i c a l nature of the area, as w e l l as by the character of the surrounding areas. In order to organize and assess many of these d i s p a r a t e elements a s s o c i a t e d w i t h marginal sea areas, he proposed the term coastland to r e f e r to the e n t i r e complex"... which comprises, on one hand, the water, the seabed, and the s u b s o i l adjacent to the coast, and on the other the "1 mainland i t s e l f , together w i t h i s l a n d s or banks which l i e o f f s h o r e . By t r e a t i n g the coastland complex as a s i n g l e geographical u n i t , Logan a l s o noted that a u s e f u l approach has been forwarded i n which"... v a r i o u s sets of r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( p h y s i c a l , socio-economic, and p o l i t i c a l ) operating at various l e v e l s ( r e g i o n a l , n a t i o n a l , and i n t e r n a t i o n a l ) are 2 recognized as e x i s t i n g between the sea and the adjacent c o a s t a l lands." I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h i s u n i t a r y c o n s t r u c t i s an expanded d e r i v a t i o n of 3 the f o r e l a n d concept e a r l i e r developed by geographers concerned w i t h the a f f e c t of maritime and port a c t i v i t y on the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the ad-jacent c o a s t a l land p o r t i o n of space. '''Alexander , op. c i t . , p. 2. Roderick Logan, The Geography of Salmon F i s h i n g C o n f l i c t , The  Case of Noyes I s l a n d , M.A. Th e s i s , U.B.C, 1967 , p. 12. G. C. Weigend, "The Problem, of Hinterland, and Foreland as I l l u s t r a t e d by the Port of Hamburg, "Economic Geography, V o l . 32, 1956, pp. 1-16. In t u r n , three c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c o n t r o l s i n the c o a s t a l zone are of p a r t i c u l a r concern to the p o l i t i c a l geographer. F i r s t , the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of c o n t r o l s , t h e i r a r e a l e x t e n t , and the r e l a t i o n s h i p among the various zones deserves p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n . Second, a r e c o g n i t i o n of the b a s i s of the c o n t r o l - whether or not i t evolved from a r e a l or p o t e n t i a l s i t u a t i o n - i s understandably important. T h i r d , the establishment of c e r t a i n c o n t r o l s has d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t impact on the u t i l i z a t i o n of the environment and should be analyzed a c c o r d i n g l y . The Nature of the Marine Environment Alexander demonstrated that the marine environment d i f f e r e d from i t s t e r r e s t r i a l counterpart because of i t s three-dimensional nature, the m o b i l i t y of i t s resources, and by the f a c t that various forms of a c t i v i t y can be c a r r i e d on simultaneously i n any small area of the sea.''' P r i n c i p a l l y s i x zones of p o t e n t i a l use can be i d e n t i f i e d i n offshore areas. (1) the airspace above the sea (2) the surface of the sea (3) the water mass (4) the sea f l o o r (5) the s u b - s o i l below the sea f l o o r (6) the i n t e r - t i d a l zone Correspondingly, a c t i v i t i e s i n these zones range r e s p e c t i v e l y from: (a) f l i g h t s over water; "*"Lewis Alexander, "Geography and the Law of the Sea," Annals  A s s o c i a t i o n of American Geographers, V o l . 38, 1968, p. 177. 18 (b) commercial s h i p p i n g , commercial f i s h i n g , p u b l i c , p r i v a t e and m i l i t a r y c r u i s i n g and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s on the surface; to (c) resource e x p l o i t a t i o n and commercial sedentary a c t i v i t i e s i n the i n t e r - t i d a l zone, and i n the water-body, on, or below the s e a - f l o o r . The Dynamic Nature of Sea-space Use and Controls The offshore areas of any r e g i o n are i n a c o n t i n u a l s t a t e of change both p h y s i c a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y . C u l t u r a l change however a f f e c t s the patterns of human use of seaspacee at a much greater r a t e . The develop-ment of new f i s h i n g techniques, the opening of new shipping r o u t e s , the e x p l o r a t i o n and discovery of subsurface m i n e r a l s , or the increase of pop u l a t i o n and consequent i n t e n s i t y of use of the sea w i t h i n the coast-land r e g i o n , have profoundly i n f l u e n c e d the u t i l i z a t i o n of the resources of the offshore area. A c c o r d i n g l y , f o r many coastlands the use of the offshore area has been a dynamic, i n c r e a s i n g l y complex process. Trans-i t i o n i n the p r i o r i t y of uses and the increased i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y of man-i f o l d uses of the marine environment may prove e x i s t i n g c o n t r o l s to be t l i m i t e d , or r e s t r i c t e d , or simply obsolete. Derwent W h i t t l e s e y once wrote: "...Legal systems are images of the regions i n which they f u n c t i o n , sometimes f a i t h f u l and sometimes d i s t o r t e d . . . But because humanity occupies i t s h a b i t a t dynamically, laws tend to become outmoded. When t h i s occurs they are o c c a s i o n a l l y revoked, u s u a l l y they are given new meaning... Always there i s a l a g between the reason f o r change and i t s legal accomplishment." 1 p. 565. '''Derwent W h i t t l e s e y , The Ear t h and the S t a t e , New York, 1939 , 19 Jean Gottman''' noted that man organizes space f o r p o l i t i c a l purposes and that p o l i t i c a l p a r t i t i o n i n g of p h y s i c a l space r e s u l t s from access-i b i l i t y to that space. H i s t o r i c a l l y , expansion of human a c t i v i t i e s i n t o new environments brought w i t h i t the task of d e f i n i n g regimes of p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l to be exerci s e d i n those environments. While the process of the p o l i t i c i z a t i o n of the land surface i s v i r t u a l l y complete, the problems of a l l o c a t i n g sovereign c o n t r o l over offshore areas, i s s t i l l a complex, continu i n g dilemma. At the same time, w i t h i n the t e r r i t o r i a l sea l i m i t s of any s t a t e , the problem of j u r i s d i c t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y and i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n t r o l of n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s may supercede the i n t e n t i o n of i n t e r n a t i o n a l marine ( n a v i g a t i o n a l ) law. By themselves, marine law and n a v i g a t i o n a l " r u l e s of the road" are o f t e n of too general a nature, and are not designed to be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r dispensing of a u t h o r i t y f o r n a t i o n a l of r e g i o n a l s p e c i a l claims and c o n t r o l s . However, f o r many r e g i o n s , l i t t l e more than ciapoiJfilica'l or n a t i o n a l i s t i c a l l y "impersonal" n a v i g a t i o n a l law e x i s t s f o r g e n e r a l l y a d m i n i s t e r i n g the use of c o a s t a l sea-space. Because of the dynamic nature of f u n c t i o n a l water-oriented a c t i v i t i e s and of the corresponding a l l o c a t i o n of c o n t r o l s i n offshore areas to co n t a i n these uses, the r e g i o n a l example of the Gulf of Georgia can be analyzed to a s c e r t a i n (1) whether the e x i s t i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and c o n t r o l s r e f l e c t the i n t e r e s t s of the contemporary h i e r a r c h y of f u n c t i o n a l uses, (2) whether these eontriolsare adequate f o r the increased pressure Jean Gottman.,!,. "The. P o l i t i c a l P a r t i t i o n i n g of Our World: An Attempt at A n a l y s i s , " World P o l i t i c s , V o l . 4, 1952, pp. 512-519. 20 of use and (3) whether these c o n t r o l s c o n t a i n clauses which w i l l s u s t a i n the marine environment at acceptable l e v e l s f o r a l l users. The Gulf of Georgia i n Context The Gulf of Georgia, the p h y s i c a l l i m i t s of which are demarcated i n Figure 1, has been s e l e c t e d f o r e x p l i c i t e x a m i n a t i o n f o r s e v e r a l s u c c i n c t reasons. F i r s t , the high degree of homogeneity f o r Canada's most temperate i n l a n d sea environment provides a workable r e g i o n a l u n i t . Whereas the northern and eastern Canadian coasts s u f f e r harsh annual c o n d i t i o n s which o f t e n r e s u l t i n the winter c e s s a t i o n of water-borne a c t i v i t i e s , i n the Gulf of Georgia, p r i n c i p a l users f u n c t i o n i n various c a p a c i t i e s the year round. Coupled w i t h t h i s s i t u a t i o n , i s a nucleated c o a s t a l p o p u l a t i o n w i t h ease of access to the marine environment, and a r e l a t i o n s h i p to t h i s environment of both an economic and s o c i a l nature. In the most general terms, t h i s r e g i o n a l u n i t a f f o r d s an important opportunity to study a contemporary, s o c i a l l y r e l e v a n t problem; the d i v i s i o n of a f i n i t e water space among s e v e r a l competing and i n c r e a s i n g users. Fortunately, f o r t h i s study, while the nature or the i n t e n s i t y of use f o r a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y may a l t e r over time, the a c t u a l temporal span of organized use i s r e l a t i v e l y short and s u f f i c i e n t l y documented. Competition Among Water-Oriented A c t i v i t i e s W i t h i n a F i n i t e Space To a c e r t a i n e x tent, i t i s the growth of demand f o r seaspace and the r e a l and p o t e n t i a l i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y of some groupings of f u n c t i o n a l and/ or simultaneous a c t i v i t i e s which engenders t h i s study. While an aware-21 ness of the m u l t i - l e v e l of u t i l i z a t i o n of the marine environment i s mandatory i n seaspace s t u d i e s , f o r most i n t e n t s and purposes, and f o r the area under i n v e s t i g a t i o n , v a r i e d a c t i v i t i e s o r i g i n a t i n g at the water surface or i n the i n t e r - t i d a l zone c o n s t i t u t e the g r e a t e s t concern, and correspondingly, spawn the most c o n f l i c t . W i t h i n the study r e g i o n there are s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n s where s e v e r a l a c t i v i t i e s c o i n c i d e , some of which are c o - e x i s t e n t , congestive or mutually d i s c o r d a n t . A c t i v i t i e s of a a r e a l l y competitive nature such as commercial s h i p p i n g , commercial f i s h i n g , and r e c r e a t i o n a l use operate from the surface of the water mass. Most e x p l i c i t l y , each f u n c t i o n a l a c t i v i t y can be broken down i n t o the p r i n c i p a l competitors. Commercial shipping i s d i v i d e d i n t o i n t e r -n a t i o n a l sea-borne shipping ( f o r e i g n t r a d e ) , and coastwise movements ( i n d u s t r i a l t r a n s f e r s and freight-passenger service).''" S i m i l a r l y , commercial f i s h i n g i s broken i n t o s e c t i o n i n terms of the commercially e x p l o i t a b l e s p e c i e s , and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y i s d i v i d e d i n t o such groups as r e c r e a t i o n a l boating and other foreshore a c t i v i t i e s . I t i s recognized that w h i l e these a c t i v i t i e s may be c a r r i e d on without apparent seasonal i n c o n g r u i t i e s or i n s e m i - i s o l a t e d and "back-water" l o c a l i t i e s , user d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n or i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y may r e s u l t where areas of high i n t e n s i t y use of two or more f u n c t i o n s c o i n c i d e . R e s u l t i n g f r i c t i o n i n such a s i t u a t i o n i s understandable. The recent problems of the p h y s i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s of Horseshoe Bay i n s a t i s f y i n g For d e f i n i t i o n of c a t e g o r i e s see footnote 1, page 85. 22 both r e c r e a t i o n a l c r a f t and f e r r y t r a f f i c are testimony to t h i s form of waterspace i n c o m p a t a b i l i t y . Thus, w h i l e frequency and i n t e n s i t y of water t r a f f i c i n m u l t i p l e use zones produces congestion, i t a l s o i n -troduces the p r o b a b i l i t y of the forced e x c l u s i o n of a f u n c t i o n a l a c t i v i t y , or more s e r i o u s l y , increases the l i k e l i h o o d of c o l l i s i o n w i t h a s s o c i a t e d p e r i l s of l i f e - p r o p e r t y damage or e c o l o g i c a l c a l a m i t y . Method of A n a l y s i s Hardwick noted that the c o a s t a l r e g i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia f a c i l i t a t e s geographic research.''' In a p h y s i c a l sense, i t can be described and analysed i n terms of prodigious f i s h e r y cor f o r e s t r y resources, o r , on the other hand i n a f u n c t i o n a l s e n s e , " . . . i t comprises an i n t r i c a t e network of 2 c i r c u l a t i o n s l i n k i n g p e r i p h e r a l places w i t h a v i a b l e core." Although d i f f i c u l t , a study of the c h r o n o l o g i c a l sequence of change of water use and a s s o c i a t e d c i r c u l a t i o n i s more elemental w i t h i n the Gulf of Georgia than might be expected from other r e g i o n s . The reason i s p r i m a r i l y that the roots of most commercial water-oriented a c t i v i t i e s o r i g i n a t e i n the f r o n t i e r economy which e x i s t e d l e s s than one hundred years ago. In many parts of the w o r l d , extensive occupance of a r e g i o n f r u s t r a t e s and o f t e n i n h i b i t s any study of the process of change. On the c o n t r a r y , f o r c o a s t a l B r i t i s h Columbia, t h i s has not been the case as the r e l a t i v e recency of settlement and the promulgation of two dominant i n d u s t r i e s have f a c i l i t e d t h i s study. . Witter Hardwick, The Geography of the Forest Industry of Coastal B r i t i s h Columbia, Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n of Geographers, B. C. D i v i s i o n , Occasional Papers i n Geography, No. 5, 1963. 2 I b i d . , p. 2. 23 E s s e n t i a l l y , i n Chapter Four and F i v e , an h i s t o r i c a l approach i s u t i l i z e d to r e c o n s t r u c t the past patterns of sea-space use w i t h i n the Gulf of Georgia. P r e v i o u s l y , i t was demonstrated that there i s a genuine lack of p o l i t i c o - g e o g r a p h i c a l marine l i t e r a t u r e , which documented the growth of t e r r i t o r i a l offshore laws and r e g u l a t i o n s through an a n a l y s i s of m u l t i p l e water-oriented a c t i v i t i e s . However, t h i s method p r i m a r i l y a geographic approach to the marine environment viewed as a " c u l t u r a l seascape" o f f e r s a str a t e g y f o r a n a l y z i n g accession to the present geographical m i l i e u . Movement i n t o the marine environment and consequent i n t r o d u c t i o n of water-borne a c t i v i t i e s are more than the mere r e s u l t of supply and demand market economics. They are a l s o , i n p a r t , due to the marine  o r i e n t a t i o n of those who l i v e w i t h i n the coastland r e g i o n . Malstrom, i n h i s t r e a t i s e on northwestern Norway, wrote of marine o r i e n t a t i o n designa-t i n g i t as i n t e r e s t and/or dependence upon the sea.''' Moreover, w i t h i n the Gulf of Georgia, marine o r i e n t a t i o n i s dichotomous. I n t e r e s t may be acknowledged i n b e h a v i o u r a l i s t terms wherein the marine environment e x h i b i t s high e s o t e r i c appeal or i d e n t i t y and produces a range of pre-v a i l i n g a t t i t u d e s toward various uses of offsho r e areas. I n v e r s e l y , dependence may be defined as an economic concept since c e r t a i n c o a s t a l people derive t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y from performance w i t h i n the Gulf. V. Malstrom, Marine O r i e n t a t i o n i n Norway: An Assesment of  the Role of the Sea i n the L i f e of the Country, Middlebury, Vermont, 1963. 24 The Sources and C o l l e c t i o n of Research Information Since l o c a t i o n a l f a c t o r s f o r a l l water-borne a c t i v i t i e s are based on p a r t i c u l a r p h y s i c a l s i t e and s i t u a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , there i s a wide s p a t i a l d i s p e r s a l throughout the e n t i r e r e g i o n . The c o l l e c t i o n of systematic data mandatory to the c o n s t r u c t i o n of comprehensive a n a l y t i c maps i s d i f f i c u l t f o r i n d i v i d u a l commercial or r e c r e a t i o n a l users. P r i v a t e companies, who r e l y h e a v i l y on c o a s t a l water l i n k a g e s , are ofte n r e t i c e n t to surrender production i n f o r m a t i o n since many consider i t to be c o n f i d e n t i a l . Federal and p r o v i n c i a l agencies who gather s t a t i s t i c s on export trade tonnages, i n d u s t r i a l t r a n s f e r tonnages, or f i s h e r i e s e f f o r t and catch do so i n aggregated form (e.g. F i s h e r y S t a t i s t i c a l Zone). Seldom i s data a v a i l a b l e f o r commercial and i n d u s t r i a l c i r c u l a t i o n s , and s a l t water use i n any but a p r o v i n c i a l context. Regional data were c o l l e c t e d from the F i s h e r i e s Research Board of Canada p u b l i c a t i o n s , S t a t i s t i c s Canada, Federal and P r o v i n c i a l S t a t u t e s , as w e l l as from v a r i o u s j o u r n a l sources, p r o f e s s i o n a l works, and government r e p o r t s and documents. W r i t t e n and personal i n q u i r y to a number of informed sources provided r e l i a b l e , r e p l i c a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n . In p a r t i c u l a r , f i v e s t u d i e s w i t h s i m i l a r r e g i o n a l d i s p o s i t i o n to t h i s study have aided i n the conceptual design of the research as w e l l as being p r a c t i c a l data sources f o r various aspects of the marine environment. The f i r s t , Norman Hacking's t h e s i s e n t i t l e d E a r l y Marine H i s t o r y of  B r i t i s h Columbia,''' although w r i t t e n i n 1934, provides an indepth account Norman Hacking, E a r l y Marine H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia, B.A. Th e s i s , U.B.C, Vancouver, 1934. 25 of the development of commercial shipping e n t e r p r i s e along the Canadian west coast. Although i t does not deal w i t h the Gulf of Georgia, per se, i t was p o s s i b l e to e x t r a c t e x p l i c i t i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of h i s t o r i c a l water use patterns w i t h i n the study r e g i o n . Three r e p o r t s , commissioned by various agencies of the f e d e r a l government to p r i v a t e c o n s u l t i n g agencies, provided the w r i t e r w i t h a comprehensive understanding of the i n t e r r e l a t e d oceanographic and b i o l o g i c nature of the marine environment, i n a d d i t i o n to p r o v i d i n g a wealth of i n f o r m a t i o n on p a r t i c u l a r human a c t i v i t i e s i n t h i s environment. In 1966, a f t e r much concern over the p a u c i t y of r e l i a b l e data on r e c r e a t i o n a l boating r e l a t e d to i t s magnitude and economic importance, the f e d e r a l Department: of P u b l i c Works commissioned N. D. Lea and Associates to undertake a d e t a i l e d study of the extent of boat ownership and boat-o r i e n t e d marine recreation.''' An A n a l y s i s of R e c r e a t i o n a l Boating i n the  S t r a i t of Georgia Area, B r i t i s h Columbia, attempted to i d e n t i f y the t o t a l number, type, and s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n a l c r a f t and f a c i l i t i e s i n the G u l f , and i n a d d i t i o n assessed the economic impact of these a c t i v i t i e s on the r e g i o n . Although these b a s i c data are e i g h t years o l d , r e c r e a t i o n a l p r o j e c t i o n s f o r the most pa r t are r e l i a b l e and have con-sequently been incorporated i n more recent government and academic s t u d i e s . Howard P a i s h and Associates was r e t a i n e d by the N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Parks Branch to study, on a conceptual b a s i s , the p o s s i b i l i t y of e s t a b l i s h i n g one or more marine-oriented N a t i o n a l Parks i n Canada and i n . , , ,1?N.. P.. Lea, and Associates L i m i t e d , An A n a l y s i s of R e c r e a t i o n a l  Boating i n the S t r a i t of Georgia Area, B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of P u b l i c Works, Ottawa, 1966. 26 p a r t i c u l a r , the f e a s i b i l i t y of a marine park dependent upon various n a t u r a l h i s t o r y themes f o r the Gulf of Georgia. The rep o r t e n t i t l e d A Theme Study  of the Marine Environment of the S t r a i t s Between Vancouver I s l a n d and the B r i t i s h Columbia Mainland,"'" which has yet to be p u b l i c l y r e l e a s e d , was found to be o v e r l y e c o l o g i c a l and lacked a pragmatic commitment to problems such as the inadequacy of f e d e r a l agencies to r e g u l a t e marine a c t i v i t i e s , or the obsolescence of p a r o c h i a l park planning p o l i c y r e a p p l i e d to marine environments. Paish was a l s o r e t a i n e d by the Department of the Environment to assess and evaluate the socio-economic i m p l i c a t i o n s on the marine environment of o i l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and p o s s i b l e o i l s p i l l s i n the South-western Vancouver Island/Juan de F u c a / S t r a i t of Georgia r e g i o n . The 2 second r e g i o n a l r e p o r t e n t i t l e d the West Coast O i l Threat i n P e r s p e c t i v e , of three volumes w i t h maps and s c e n a r i o s , c o l a t e s the ideas of s e v e r a l f e d e r a l agencies. I t i s i n p a r t , a r e w r i t e of the e a r l i e r r e p o r t although an e f f o r t has been made to assess the value i n monetary terms of each of the p h y s i c a l elements and human a c t i v i t i e s which c o - e x i s t and would be adversely e f f e c t e d by o i l p o l l u t i o n of the sea. W i t h i n the d e f i n i t i o n of the c o n t r a c t , P a i s h o u t l i n e s a gen e r a l i z e d contingency p l a n f o r a c t i o n i n the event of a s p i l l , but does not attempt to a t t a c h blame nor suggest p o l i c i e s to cope w i t h the p o l i t i c a l and l e g a l aspects of an o i l s p i l l . 1 Howard P a i s h and Assoc i a t e s L t d . , A Theme Study of the Marine  Environment of the S t r a i t s Between Vancouver I s l a n d and the B r i t i s h  Columbia Mainland, N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Parks Branch, Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development, Vancouver, 1970. Howard P a i s h and As s o c i a t e s L t d . , The West Coast O i l Threat i n P e r s p e c t i v e , Department of the Environment, Vancouver, A p r i l , 1972. 27 W i l l i a m Ross i n h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n e n t i t l e d O i l P o l l u t i o n as a Develop- ing I n t e r n a t i o n a l Problem, A Study of the Puget Sound and S t r a i t of  Georgia Regions of Washington and B r i t i s h Columbia, examines the threat and government response to p o t e n t i a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l l u t i o n i n c i d e n t s w i t h i n the study r e g i o n . Although i t i s t o t a l l y concerned w i t h the p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l aspects of i n t e r n a t i o n a l o i l p o l l u t i o n , i t i s a competent piece of geographical research which provided an e x c e l l e n t methodological base f o r t h i s t h e s i s . Due to the r e g i o n a l focus of t h i s study and to the intimate r e l a t i o n -ship between the p h y s i c a l nature of the marine environment and the human a c t i v i t i e s which are s p a t i a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d thereupon, i t was deemed necessary to include a s e c t i o n on the biologic-oceanographic phenomena of the Gulf r e g i o n . The f o l l o w i n g short Chapter o u t l i n e s these p a r t i c u l a r p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n t r i c a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the method and arrangement of a l l economic and s o c i a l uses of the coastland complex. 1 > • • • • Will i a m , Ross.,, O i l P o l l u t i o n , as. a, Developing, I n t e r n a t i o n a l Problem, A. Study, of the. Puget, Sound and S t r a i t of Georgia Regions of Washington and B r i t i s h Columbia, Phd. D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, S e a t t l e , 1972. 28 CHAPTER I I I THE PHYSICAL NATURE OF THE GULF OF GEORGIA COASTLAND COMPLEX S t r u c t u r a l Physiography and the Impact of the P l e i s t o c e n e Epoch Extending over two hundred miles and covering an area of approximately 2200 square m i l e s , the Gulf of Georgia l i e s between the mountains of Vancouver I s l a n d and the mainland c o a s t a l mountains. The Gulf of Georgia, or Georgia Depression, i s s t r u c t u r a l l y part of the P a c i f i c Coast Trough, d a t i n g from the Cretaceous p e r i o d , which extends from the Gulf of C a l i f o r n i a to Cook I n l e t , A l a s k a , appearing i n a s e r i e s of submerged, l o n g i t u d i n a l basins i n B r i t i s h Columbia.''' Both the Georgia Depression and surrounding lowland regions have experienced t e c t o n i c and g l a c i a l a c t i v i t y and evidence can be r e a d i l y found to demonstrate t h i s f a c t . The Depression, although s t r u c t u r a l i n o r i g i n has been overdeepened by i c e - e r o s i o n . During the P l e i s t o c e n e Epoch, C o r d i l l e r a n i c e poured westward from mainland mountains and tongues of i c e flowed eastward from Vancouver I s l a n d Ranges, coalesced i n the S t r a i t of Georgia to form a g l a c i e r which then flowed woutheastward. This phenomenon repeated i t s -s e l f s e v e r a l times during the P l e i s t o c e n e , each time r e a r r a n g i n g the general physiography. Low-lying rock surfaces were scoured, shaped and s t r i p p e d of weathered m a t e r i a l w h i l e elsewhere g l a c i a l m a t e r i a l s were i J,., H., Day,,, L. Earsfcetiand D. G. L a i r d , S o i l Survey of Southeast Vancouver I s l a n d and Gulf I s l a n d s , B. C , Report No. 6, Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , V i c t o r i a , 1959, p. 15. 29 deposited i n t i l l and outwash p l a i n s of moraines of which Savory, James and Harwood Islands are :remanents. Although g l a c i a t i o n w i t h i n the re g i o n was i n t e n s i v e , the Gulf was not as deeply gouged during the P l e i s t o c e n e as some of the adjacent mainland f j o r d s . The submarine r e l i e f of most of the Gulf i s much l e s s abrupt than neighbouring c o a s t a l i n l e t s . The greatest depth of over 240 fathoms, i s found near the eastern coast of G a b r i o l i a I s l a n d , although the r e g i o n a l average i s about only 30 fathoms. At the height of a g l a c i a l epi/sode, the Gulf and ]per.ip[her.afl', low-land was depressed by the tremendous weight of o v e r l y i n g i c e which i n se v e r a l places was over f i v e thousand f e e t thick.''" With c l i m a t i c a m e l i o r a t i o n and g l a c i a l r e t r e a t , lowlands were inundated by the sea u n t i l the depressed land slowly rebounded and i s l a n d s re-emerged to reach what i s thought to be a general s t a t e of e q u i l i b r i u m between land 2 and sea l e s s than 11,000 years ago. Because of the r e l a t i v e l y y o u t h f u l age of the landscape, much of the present s h o r e l i n e i s rugged and c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n many places by wave-cut c l i f f s , steep promontories, and offshore rocks and i s l a n d s Behind t h i s , a c o a s t a l p l a i n has developed, u n d e r l a i n by g r a n i t i c rocks but covered i n most places w i t h overburden of g l a c i a l o r i g i n . Known ''"J. E. Armstrong, D. R. C r a n d e l l , and D. J . Easterbrook, and J . B. Noble, "Late P l e i s t o c e n e S t r a t i g r a p h y and Chronology i n South Western B r i t i s h Columbia and Northwestern Washington, " B u l l e t i n of the Ge o l o g i c a l Society of Canada, V o l . 76, pp. 321. Stuart H o l l a n d , Landforms of B r i t i s h Columbia: A Physiographic O u t l i n e , B u l l e t i n No. 48, B. C. Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources, 1965, p. 113. 30 as the Nanaimo Lowland where i t occurs on the east coast of Vancouver I s l a n d and the Georgia Lowland on the mainland coast, i t extends from sea l e v e l to an e l e v a t i o n of approximately 500 f e e t and ranges i n width from l e s s than one mile to f i f t e e n m i l e s . The Fraser Lowland, i s a t r i a n g u l a r extension of the Georgia Low-lan d , however i t d i f f e r s geomorphologically since i t i s an area of r i v e r i n e d e p o s i t i o n a l r a t h e r than e r o s i o n a l o r i g i n . This area has a complex geomorphic h i s t o r y and e x h i b i t s a c l a s s i c a l d e l t a i c f l o o d p l a i n which i s b u i l d i n g seaward i n t o the Gulf at the r a t e of about 28 f e e t 1 a year. These c o a s t a l p l a i n s represent the greatest percentage of h a b i t -able land w i t h i n the Gulf r e g i o n and p r e s e n t l y support a p o p u l a t i o n of about 1.5 m i l l i o n . A f a i r p r o p o r t i o n of the populace l i v i n g w i t h i n t h i s lowland accrue a l i v e l i h o o d or r e c r e a t e w i t h i n the Gulf of Georgia. However l i t t l e can be s a i d about the impact of man's a c t i v i t i e s upon the Gulf's marine environment without some understanding of the p r o p e r t i e s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of that environment. Oceanography To examine and d e t a i l the complex oceanography of the Gulf of Georgia i s a task of greater magnitude and beyond the scope of t h i s t h e s i s . Instead, what i s needed i s a synoptic account of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Hf. H. Mathews and, f.., P,. Shepard, "Sedimentation of the Fraser River D e l t a , " American A s s o c i a t i o n Petroleum. Geology, V o l . 46, 1962, p. 1416. p h y s i c a l and b i l o g i c a l oceanography deemed necessary to a general under-standing of water-oriented a c t i v i t i e s of past and present environments. More s p e c i f i c reference to past marine research or contemporary ocean-ographic study and p h y s i c a l or b i o l o g i c p r o p o r t i e s of the Gulf of Georgi are put forward where appropriate i n l a t e r chapters. P h y s i c a l Components Geographically protected from P a c i f i c storms which b a t t e r the west coast of Vancouver I s l a n d , the Gulf of Georgia i s a 200 m i l e , sausage shaped, i s l a n d dotted sea ranging from 12 to 35 miles i n width and d i s -p l a y i n g a p e r s o n a l i t y uniquely d i f f e r e n t from the deep ocean environment I n s u l a r i t y from P a c i f i c Ocean i s achieved by i s l a n d c l u s t e r s which guard' n o r t h e r l y and s o u t h e r l y approaches, b u f f e r weather p a t t e r n s , and con-s t r i c t t i d a l flow. The m i l d c l i m a t e i s perhaps the most d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e of the r e g i o n . The Gulf r e g i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by m i l d , humid winters and warm summers w i t h an annual mean a i r temperature of 50°F. P r e v a i l i n g winds are southwesterly and s o u t h e a s t e r l y i n l a t e f a l l , winter and e a r l y s p r i n g while the r e s t of the year winds are g e n e r a l l y 2 from the west and northwest. However, i t should be noted that w i t h i n so short a distance as ten to twenty m i l e s , winds may be of e n t i r e l y '''J. P. T u l l y , "Climate i n the Coastal Seas of B r i t i s h Columbia Progress Reports, F i s h e r i e s Research Board of Canada, P a c i f i c Coast S t a t i o n s , No. 90, March, 1952, p. 17. ' ~ 2 I b i d . 32 d i f f e r e n t v e l o c i t y and d i r e c t i o n . On the other hand, f o r the marine environment there are wide v a r i a -t i o n s i n water temperature, s a l i n i t y and c l a r i t y , and i n the i n t e n s i t y of t i d a l a c t i v i t y throughout the r e g i o n . Studies of surface water temperatures have shown marked d i f f e r e n c e s summer to w i n t e r , ranging from 0°C. i n estuarine regions to as high as 40°C. ( P e n d r a l l Sound). "*" Ge n e r a l l y , water c l a r i t y and s a l i n i t y are greater at the Gu l f ' s polar approaches, andare subject to f l u c t u a t i o n s of non-saline r u n - o f f , p r i n c i p a l l y from the Fraser River which comprises 807o of the f r e s h water input to the Gulf. C l e a r e r , more s a l i n e waters are found on the south-western side of the Gulf while the eastern margin i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by o s c i l l a t i o n s of the Fraser River plume ( F i g . I I ) . This l a r g e r f r e s h water c o n t r i b u t i o n lowers temperature and s a l i n i t y f o r many miles north and 2 south of the r i v e r mouth. Much l e s s f l u s h i n g and water interchange occurs i n the S t r a i t s than i n the open P a c i f i c since the many i s l a n d s create p h y s i c a l r e s t r i c t i o n s to water movement and mixing which helps to perpetuate t h e " i n s i d e - o u t s i d e " nature of t h i s c o a s t a l environment. T i d a l f l u c t u a t i o n s are not pronounced "'"Go L. P i c h a r d , and D. C. McLeod, "Seasonal V a r i a t i o n s of Temperature and S a l i n i t y of Surface Waters of B r i t i s h Columbia Coast," Journal of F i s h e r i e s Research Board of Canada, V o l . 10, June, 1953, p. 129. J . P. T u l l e y and A. S. Dodimead, " P r o p e r t i e s of the Water i n the S t r a i t of Georgia, B r i t i s h Columbia, and I n f l u e n c i n g F a c t o r s , " Journal of  the F i s h e r i e s Research Board of Canada, V o l . 14, J u l y , 1957, p. 241. 33 ranging from 15 to 20 feet.''" While the net surface c i r c u l a t i o n i s not 2 completely known, o v e r a l l current p a t t e r n i s counterclockwise ( F i g . 2). Having i t s o r i g i n i n the bottom waters of Juan de Fuca S t r a i t and pass-ing through Puget Sound, the sea water under goes heavy mixing w i t h Fraser River non-saline along the eastern perimeter of the San Juan and Gulf I s l a n d s . The flow p a t t e r n continues northwestward along the eastern side of Georgia S t r a i t to Discovery Passage where i t mixes w i t h Johnstone S t r a i t waters, then turns south proceeding along the east coast of Vancouver I s l a n d and out through Juan de Fuca S t r a i t . Surface current speed f l u c t u a t e s from 4-8 knots ( T r i a l I s l a n d ) i n the south to 14 knots (Discovery Passage) i n the n o r t h , however c i r c u l a t i o n at a l l depths i s 3 not uniform. One month's movement at the surface may be equivalent to one year's movement along the bottom, an important c o n s i d e r a t i o n when assessing the c a p a b i l i t y of the Gulf waters to a s s i m i l a t e domestic sewage and waste products. B i o l o g i c a l Components Bordered by regions of rugged surface and submarine topography the Gulf of Georgia as an i n l a n d sea e x h i b i t s great b i o l o g i c and a e s t h e t i c ^Canada, Department of Transport, T i d a l T a b l e s - P a c i f i c Coast,  1972, Ottawa, 1971. 2 Church and Rubin, op. c i t . , p. 8. 3 = , , H., Herlinyeaux. and V-. Giovanda.,. Some, Qceanographic, Features of  the Inside Passage Between Vancouver I s l a n d and the Mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia, Technical Report No. 142, F i s h e r i e s Research Board of Canada, Nanaimo, 1969. 35 d i v e r s i t y . In co n t r a s t to the much harsher marine cl i m a t e s found on the nation's eastern and A r c t i c c o a s t s , the moderate c o n d i t i o n s of the r e g i o n promote a broad range of marine p l a n t s and animals, not comparable to any s h o r e l i n e found i n Canada. B i o l o g i c a l d i v e r s i t y of the Gulf i s re p r e s -ented by the c a p a b i l i t y of the i n l a n d sea to support over 1100 species of higher l i f e forms: 197 species of f i s h , 110 species of marine b i r d s , 16 species of mammals, 500 species of marine i n v e r t e b r a t e s and 300 species of marine algae. The b i o l o g i c a l r i c h n e s s of the re g i o n i s l a r g e l y the r e s u l t of the moderation of p h y s i c a l components w i t h i n the system. T i d a l currents and a c o o l Mediterranean-Marine c l i m a t e , coupled w i t h a large f r e s h water c o n t r i b u t i o n are the s i g n i f i c a n t modifying f a c t o r s . I t has been found that the p r o d u c t i v i t y of the marine h a b i t a t i s h e a v i l y predominated by 2 the flow of fresin.water from the Fraser R i v e r . Legare f i r s t noted that the o v e r l a y e r i n g of seawater w i t h b r a c k i s h water imparted a s t a b i l i t y of water to the S t r a i t s which assures the abundant production of food organisms for l a r g e r marine animals. An a n a l y s i s of the nature and p r o d u c t i v i t y of the Fraser River plume (See Figure 3) has received s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n i n an h o l i s t i c f i v e - y e a r 1 P a i s h (1970), op. c i t . , p. 11. 2 Joseph Legare, "The Q u a l i t a t i v e and Q u a n t i t a t i v e D i s t r i b u t i o n of Plankton i n the S t r a i t of Georgia, i n R e l a t i o n to. c e r t a i n Oceanographic F a c t o r s , " Journal of F i s h e r i e s Research Board of Canada. V o l . 14, September, 1957, pp. 521-552. FIGURE 3 THE FRASER RIVER PLUME oceanographic study of the Gulf of Georgia - c u r r e n t l y i n progress by the F i s h e r i e s Research Board of Canada."'" I t has been found that the most productive u n i t area i n the Gulf i s a 500 square mile area surrounding the plume, i n that the n u t r i e n t s a l t s , n i t r a t e s , s i l i c a , and phosphates necessary f o r the succession of phytoplankton and zooplankton, key 2 organisms i n the t o t a l marine food c h a i n , are c a r r i e d down by the r i v e r . The plume s u s t a i n s large q u a n t i t i e s of zooplankton ( s e v e r a l tons per acre) as w e l l as being a nursery area f o r many species of commercially important f i s h . Marine l i f e , l i k e t e r r e s t r i a l l i f e , i s dependent upon photosynthetic process which, i n the aquatic environment, i s most pronounced and vigorous i n shallow and e s t u a r i n e waters. This process, coupled w i t h the large t i d a l exchange throughout the Gulf i s instrumental i n causing a r i m of p a r t i c u l a r l y high b i o l o g i c production along the s h o r e l i n e of the e n t i r e r e g i o n . This r e s u l t s e i t h e r i n the perpetuation of large q u a n t i t i e s of 1T. R. Parsons, "The P r o d u c t i v i t y of the S t r a i t of Georgia," F i s h e r i e s of Canada, V o l . 23, May-June, 1971, p. 11. 2 R. J . Lebrasseur, W. E. Barraclough, 0. D. Kennedy, and T. R. Parsons, "Production Studies i n the S t r a i t , of. Georgia: P a r t I I I , Observations on the Fraser River Pllumeie"," Journal of Experimental  Marine B i o l o g y and Ecology, V o l . 3, 1969, pp. 51-61. Parsons, l ; o c - c i t . 38 marine f l o r a ( p r i n c i p a l l y seaweeds, k e l p s , fungus and e e l grass)"*" or i n shallow, protected or e s t u a r i n e waters, i n the production of abundant 2 q u a n t i t i e s of microscopic photoplanton. These i n t u r n support commercially e x p l o i t a b l e beds of o y s t e r s , clams and other molluscs and crustaceons. Although seawater i s n a t u r a l l y e u t h r o p i c , r e s i d e n t fauna have evolved and keep marine p l a n t populations i n some form of c o n t r o l . O c c a s i o n a l l y :however, t h i s e q u i l i b r i u m has been upset and n a t u r a l blooms 3 of algae have occurred i n p a r t i c u l a r l o c a l e s w i t h i n the S t r a i t s . Chapter Summary While oceanographic s t u d i e s are f a r from being completed, i t i s recognized that more i s known about the p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s ( t i d e s , c u r r e n t s , e t c . ) of the Gulf of Georgia than i s known about the co m p l e x i t i e s of marine •'•Eel grass, f o r example, provides a s i t e f o r h e r r i n g spawning, supports a wide v a r i e t y of i n v e r t e b r a t e s and i s food f o r blank brant and other sea b i r d s . Some species of kelp are the l a r g e s t i n the world and may support a considerable commercial harvest i n the f u t u r e . 2 R. F. Scagel, Marine P l a n t Resources of B r i t i s h Columbia, B u l l e t i n 127, Ottawa:,ll>9,'61search Board of Canada, Oi_Lawa, 1961. Where a bloom occurs i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to mollusc c o l o n i e s , a non-edible poisonous c o n d i t i o n ensues i n the s h e l l f i s h more commonly known by i t s d i s t i n c t i v e colour as " r e d - t i d e . " 39 l i f e or the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two. Because the p h y s i c a l and b i o l o g i c a l systems are so c l o s e l y i n t e r - r e l a t e d , many of the important questions f a c i n g marine b i o l o g i s t s must go unanswered u n t i l the p h y s i c a l oceanography i s s u f f i c i e n t l y understood. At the same time, marine b i o l o g i c a l research has shown a stronger emphasis on i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of marine fauna than f l o r a . Fauna st u d i e s i n the c o a s t a l waters of B r i t i s h Columbia have been p r i m a r i l y specy s p e c i f i c , w i t h the co n c e n t r a t i o n of research understandably upon the P a c i f i c salmon, the dominant commercial species. To.a l e s s e r e x tent, there e x i s t s e n q u i r i e s about the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of other commercially e x p l o i t a b l e species of gr o u n d f i s h , s h e l l f i s h and crustaceans. However, l i t t l e i s p r e s e n t l y known about the r e l a t i o n s h i p between marine p l a n t s and animals but even l e s s i s under-stood about the e f f e c t of man's a c t i v i t i e s upon the t o t a l marine system. 40 CHAPTER IV THE EMERGENCE OF VARIOUS WATER-ORIENTED ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE GULF OF GEORGIA "...and as to the maritime h i s t o r y at our doorstep, B r i t i s h Columbia i n i t s e n t i r e t y , should be g r a t e -f u l , f o r of the sea we have e x i s t e d and prospered throughout our short h i s t o r y . And of the sea we w i l l progress." Charles M. Defeiux Although Defeiux's comment may seem an o v e r l y s i m p l i s t i c e x p l a n a t i o n , h i s sentiment remains v a l i d . The marine environment has long been the core of r e g i o n a l p r o s p e r i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Defeiux's statement i s not t r i t e exaggeration when examined i n p e r s p e c t i v e . The wealth of adjacent c o a s t a l seas i s not merely measured by prodigious f i s h e r i e s , but i s a combination of p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s the most important of which i s the f o r t u i t o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p of a p r o t e c t e d , pervasive c o a s t a l sea and the ease of movement i t provided f o r the settlement and l i v e l i h o o d of coast-land peoples. Marine O r i e n t a t i o n and T e r r i t o r i a l i t y of the Northwest Coast Indian - An  I d e n t i t y w i t h the Sea. A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l studies have demonstrated that the n a t i v e Indians of c o a s t a l B r i t i s h Columbia possessed a c u l t u r e sharply d i f f e r e n t i a t e d 41 from i n t e r i o r tribes.''" Fundamentally, many small but nucleated bands of Indians belonged to three d i s t i n c t t r i b a l groups who occupied the western c o a s t a l margin of the Province and, p e r s i s t to the present day. These t r i b e s are the K w a k i u t l of the northern B r i t i s h Columbia coast and the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s , the Haida of the P a c i f i c west coast of Vancouver I s l a n d , and the Coast S a l i s h of the Gulf of Georgia and Puget 2 Sound r e g i o n . Centuries before the f i r s t Europeon e x p l o r e r s ventured upon the coast, these t r i b e s had developed vigorous c u l t u r e s along the narrow coastlands. The wealth and dependable supply of products from the sea, the strand and the immediately adjacent f o r e s t f r i n g e have normally been aacTduc'edl as the key to the e c o l o g i c a l and c u l t u r a l success of northwest coast Indian c i v i l i z a t i o n . The predominant t r i b e i n occupation of the Gulf r e g i o n , the Coast S a l i s h , possessed a s o c i e t y b u i l t upon the ample supply of i n e x h a u s t i b l e marine resources which could be obtained without an excessive expenditure of time or labour. In a p r i m i t i v e and t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e - s t y l e , the n a t i v e assumed the r o l e of the fisherman and s h o r e l i n e hunter-gatherer. Always the aqueous environment was the p r i n c i p a l p r o v i d e r . "'"Ruth Bendedict, "The Northwest Coast of America, "Patterns of  C u l t u r e , Boston, 1959, pp. 173-222. H. C. Taylor J r . , " A b o r i g i n a l P o p u l a t i o n of the Lower North-west Coast," P a c i f i c Northwest Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 54, No. 4, 1963. 42 Other than an imaginative and f u n c t i o n a l u t i l i z a t i o n ; . . of adjacent c o a s t a l woods, land resources assumed a much l e s s prominent r o l e . This p r a c t i c e was a s i g n i f i c a n t and d i s t i n g u i s h i n g t r a i t i n coast Indian c u l t u r e s . F i r e - h a l l o w e d l o g canoes were u t i l i z e d as a medium of regu l a r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , work, or f r e q u e n t l y , warfare. For the n a t i v e c o a s t a l d w e l l e r , the sea, i t s moods, and i t s n a t u r a l p r o p e r t i e s had d e c i s i v e and o f t e n d e t e r m i n i s t i c i n f l u e n c e . Indian settlement patterns r e f l e c t e d the marine o r i e n t a t i o n of c i v i l i z a t i o n as v i l l a g e s were always located on waterways. While the range of marine f o o d s t u f f s was l a r g e , n a t i v e impact was f e l t most i n -t e n s i v e l y around salmon producing streams and r i v e r s . P e r s i s t e n t reman-ents of once f l o u r i s h i n g indigenous communities can s t i l l be found around the mouths of many Gulf of Georgia t r i b u t a r i e s such as the F r a s e r , Cowichan, Capilano or Qualicum Rivers.''" There has always e x i s t e d a strong i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p of the coast I n d i a n , the sea, and the salmon. In few places along the north P a c i f i c l i t t o r a l i s the a s s o c i a t i o n more pronounced than i n the Gulf of Georgia. Analogous w i t h the m o b i l i t y of the salmon, the maritime n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n was h i g h l y v e r s a t i l e , m i g r a t i n g s e a s o n a l l y from one resource s i t e to another. Movement was c o i n c i d e n t upon annual marine events, most p a r t i c u l a r l y on the y e a r l y n a t u r a l m i g r a t i o n of the salmon. Dependence upon the c o a s t a l sea i s manifested most d i s t i n c l y by the r e l i a n c e upon the salmon more than any other aquatic form. West coast Indian a r t v i v i d l y demonstrates e s o t e r i c n a t i v e i d e n t i t y w i t h the conspicuous fauna ''"Percy Gladstone, "Native Indians, and. the. F i s h i n g . Industry, of B r i t i s h Columbia," Canadian Journal of Economics and P o l i t i c a l Science, V o l . 19, 1953, pp. 20-34. 43 of the coastland environment. Native a r t form portrays an i n t r i c a t e p h y s i c a l and s p i r i t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Indian and the sea.^ U n l i k e most North American Indians whose a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s i n -curred hunting p r i v i l e g e s over t e r r e s t r i a l r e g i o n s , t e r r i t o r & l i t y of the west coast n a t i v e included claims to hunting r i g h t s on l a n d , but most i m p e r a t i v e l y i n the marine environment. The abundant resources of the shore and sea, although e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e to a maritime people, were not n e c e s s a r i l y r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e to a l l i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y . "...the annual run of Eulachon or c a n d l e f i s h , the sea-bottom h a l i b u t grounds, f r u i t f u l berry patches and clamming f l a t s , a l l belonged to someone. Not only whole communities or bands, but a l s o i n d i v i d u a l s held t h e i r own h e r e d i t a r y t i t l e s to such resource s i t e s , i n cl o s e connection w i t h i n h e r i t e d names, songs, and ceremonial prerogatives."2 T r i b a l t e r r i t o r i a l i t y was o f t e n more a matter of mutually acceptable subscribed boundaries w i t h a f l e x i b i l i t y dependent upon the s t r e n g t h of the t r i b a l bands to enforce sovereign r i g h t s over hunting and f i s h i n g domains. S i m i l a r l y , f o r most inshore l o c a l i t i e s , areas were subject to j u r i s d i c t i o n of c e r t a i n bands and/or to i n d i v i d u a l p r o p r i e t a r y s h i p . Claims were handed down p a t r i m o n i a l l y or sometimes granted i n extravagant p o t l a t c h e s . I d e a l r i v e r mouth property, where anadromous f i s h swarmed every f a l l always e x h i b i t e d high r e l a t i v e value and created f o r the owner ^"Erna Gunther, Northwest Coast Indian A r t , S e a t t l e , 1962. 2 P h i l i p L. Wagner, "The, Persistence, of Native Settlement i n Coastal B r i t i s h Columbia,". Peoples, of. the L i v i n g Land: The Geography  of C u l t u r a l D i v e r s i t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia, J . V. Minghi ( e d . ) , Vancouver, 1972, p. 18-19. 44 great wealth and s t a t u s . A demonstrated show of f o r c e or wealth accrued through s u c c e s s f u l p o t l a t c h e s was the usual method f o r a c q u i r i n g and maintaining l a n d l o r d s h i p over choice coastland areas. Despite the complex a b o r i g i n a l p o l i t i c a l p a r t i t i o n i n g and t e r r i t o r a l i t y , west coast Indians were soon disuaded of t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l claims to coast-land resources w i t h i n the h a l f century a f t e r the appearance of the f i r s t Europeon e x p l o r e r s and t r a d e r s . Europeon E x p l o r a t i o n of the Northwest Coast B r i t i s h and Spanish e x p l o r e r s of the 18th Century who ventured north along the P a c i f i c coast were i n search of the f a b l e d Northwesttt Passage, a l l e g e d l y discovered but not transected by Apostolos V a l d t e r i a n o s (other-wise known as Juan de Fuca) i n 1592. De Fuca, a Greek p i l o t i n the s e r v i c e of Spain, claimed to have found the legendary S t r a i t of Anian i n 47° North, twenty to t h i r t y m i l e s i n width i n t o which he s a i l e d f o r twenty days, passing numerous i s l a n d s and i r r e g u l a r c o a s t l i n e before r e t u r n i n g to Acapulco.^ Disagreement by h i s t o r i a n s concerning the c r e d i b i l i t y of the d i s c o v e r y i s complicated by a lack of genuine h i s t o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n and the count-l e s s i n c r e d i b l e yarns of m y t h i c a l voyages through the m y t h i c a l s t r a i t . While i t i s not known how f a s t Juan de Fuca s a i l e d , or i n which d i r e c -t i o n he entered the S t r a i t which bears h i s name, i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e that he may have wandered i n t o the Gulf of Georgia and consequently circum-"*"A.. J.. F a r l e y , "Fact, and, Fancy, in. Mapping, Northwest. America . to 1800," Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n of Geographers, Occasional Papers, No. 3, May, 1962, p. 4. 45 navigated Vancouver Island.''' For the next one hundred and f i f t y years, the northwest coast was v i r t u a l l y neglected by Europeons. I n t e r e s t was r e k i n d l e d by the B r i t i s h A d miralty i n 1745 when i t posted a p r i z e of £20,000 f o r the a c c r e d i t e d 2 discov e r y of the Northwest Passage. Concomitantly, Spanish i n f l u e n c e was r a d i a t i n g northward along the P a c i f i c coast from Mexico and Russian e x p l o r a t i o n was extending from S i b e r i a southeastward and down the Alaskan 3 coast. However water-borne a c t i v i t y w i t h i n the Gulf of Georgia remained a t r a d i t i o n a l realm of the native u n t i l the a r r i v a l of the f u r t r a d e r s . The Fur Trade and the Pos t - E x p l o r a t o r y Period Captain Cook, i n an e f f o r t to f i n d the passage and a s s e r t B r i t i s h sovereignty over attempted Spanish domination i n northwest America, 4 v i s i t e d Nootka Sound i n 1778. Although he saw and named Cape F l a t t e r y , he d i d not detect the entrance to Juan de Fuca S t r a i t . The p u b l i c a t i o n of Cook's n a r r a t i v e and accompanying charts i n 1780 aroused Europeon economic i n t e r e s t s as the fur trade p o t e n t i a l of the northwest coast was 1 J . P. V a l l a n c e , Untrodden Ways, V i c t o r i a , 1958, p. 100. Glyndwr W i l l i a m s , The B r i t i s h Search f o r the Northwest Passage  i n the Eighteenth Century, London, 1962, p. 108. F. A. Golder, Russian Expansion on the P a c i f i c 1641-1850, Cleveland, 1914. V a l l a n c e , op. c i t . , p. 101. 46 q u i c k l y r e a l i z e d by s a i l o r s , statesmen and entrepreneurs. "The f u r of these animals ( s e a - o t t e r s ) . . . i s c e r t a i n l y s o f t e r and f i n e r than that of any others we know of; and t h e r e f o r e , the d i s c o v e r y of t h i s part of the con-t i n e n t of North America, where so v a l u a b l e an a r t i c l e of commerce may be met w i t h cannot be a matter of i n -d i f f e r e n c e . " ! An A s i a n market f o r sea-otter f u r s was impetus f o r the appearance of an armada of B r i t i s h , Spanish and American f u r - t r a d i n g v e s s e l s on the coast. Over the next twenty years f u r - t r a d i n g v e s s e l s operated on the c o a s t , many of which probably penetrated the scores of i n l e t s and bays. Records of t h e i r e x p l o r a t i o n s , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , are v i r t u a l l y undocumented. Continued sovereignty icorfflHrc'.fcs evolved from f u r - t r a d i n g operations and spawned s e v e r a l northwesterly expeditions a f t e r Cook's departure. Galiano and Valdes, under the Spanish f l a g , s a i l e d from southern C a l i f o r n i a i n 1792 to survey i n t e r i o r c o a s t a l waters and penetrated the S t r a i t of 2 Juan de Fuca and the southern Gulf of Georgia as f a r as P o i n t Grey. Although the q u a l i t y of the mapping was r i g o r o u s and s u b s t a n t i a l , the l i m i t e d extent of t h e i r e x p l o r a t i o n s and the published r e s u l t s of t h e i r e f f o r t s d i d not completely preclude the p o s s i b i l i t y of an i n t e r o c e a n i c passage. However, the same year the A d m i r a l t y dispatched Captain George ^Captian James Cook and John K i n g , A Voyage to the P a c i f i c Ocean, V o l . I I , London, 1780, p. 296. Henry;R. Wagner, The Cartography of the Northwest Coast of  America to the Year . 1800, V o l . I , ^Ber-keUey,, 1937. 47 Vancouver to r e a s s e r t B r i t i s h s u z e r a i n t y on the northwest coast. Van-couver c a r r i e d e x p l i c i t i n s t r u c t i o n s to "to r e c e i v e back, i n form, a r e s t i t u t i o n of the t e r r -i t o r i e s on which the Spaniards had s e i z e d , and a l s o to o make an accurate survey of the coast., from the 30 of North L a t i t u d e northwestward towards Cook's r i v e r ; and f u r t h e r , to o b t a i n every p o s s i b l e i n f o r m a t i o n that could be c o l l e c t e d r e s p e c t i n g the n a t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l s t a t e of the country."1 E v e n t u a l l y , by n a v i g a t i n g the maze of i n t r i c a t e channels d i v i d i n g the i s l a n d s from the mainland, Vancouver circumnavigated the major i s l a n d which bears h i s name and re f u t e d the myth of the imaginary S t r a i t of Anian once and f o r a l l . Vancouver repossessed B r i t i s h t e r r i t o r i a l claims 2 and charted the coast w i t h great e x a c t i t u d e . However, f i n a l n e g o t i a t i o n s between the B r i t i s h and Spanish l e d to u l t i m a t e Spanish abandonment of the northwest coast over which the two Europeon powers almost clashed. While these p o l i t i c a l events were o c c u r r i n g , the f u r trade had not languished but had increased i n magnitude. In 1791 there had been 12 3 tr a d i n g v e s s e l s working on the coast, 21 i n 1792 and 23 i n 1794. Sea-o t t e r skins were a v a r i c i o u s l y gathered at various Indian communities, many from around the Gulf p e r i p h e r y , and i n t u r n , s o l d to Cantonese merchants i n China. Because the Napoleonic wars had caused a temporary ^ F a r l e y , op. c i t . , p. 10. 2 George Goodwin, Vancouver: A L i f e , London, 1930, p. 28. Norman Hacking, E a r l y Marine H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia, B.A. Honours T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1934, p. 16. 48 d i v e r s i o n of B r i t i s h ships to Europeon theatres of o p e r a t i o n , American traders were at f i r s t the most a c t i v e on the coast. Sometimes a s i n g l e ship c o l l e c t e d as many as 6,000 skin s on a voyage. As l a t e as 1800 Begg subsequently noted, " . . . f i f t e e n United States v e s s e l s were engaged t r a d i n g on the west coast but only one was B r i t i s h . During t h i s year the American v e s s e l s brought 18,000 skin s to China."2 But the Boston traders were to pay the p r i c e f o r t h e i r r a p a c i t y w i t h i n the decade. The American p o s i t i o n i n the f u r trade had been a l l but c o n s o l i d a t e d w i t h the establishment of F o r t A s t o r i a by the P a c i f i c Fur Company but the p r o f i t a b l e returns which had been r e a l i z e d i n the f i r s t few years soon dwindled along w i t h the n a t u r a l supply of s e a - o t t e r s and other v a l u a b l e animals. By 1815, three companies were t r a d i n g w i t h i n the r e g i o n . The Hudson's Bay Company and the American P a c i f i c Fur Company operated under 3 l e g a l c h a r t e r s from t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c o u n t r i e s . The t h i r d , the e n e r g e t i c Montreal-based Northwest Company, dominated the c o a s t a l f u r trade f o r s e v e r a l years although i n none of the v a r i o u s forms i n which i t e x i s t e d 4 d i d t h i s company ever r e c e i v e a c h a r t e r . Despite the p a r t i t i o n i n g and '''Norman Hacking, E a r l y Marine H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia, B.A. Honours Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1934, p. 15. Alexander Begg, H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Toronto, 1894, p. 85. 3 Harold Innes, The Fur Trade i n Canada, New Haven, 1962. 4. G. C. Davidson, The Northwest Company, Berkeley, 1918, p. 37. 49 franchisement of t e r r i t o r y f o r t r a d i n g p r i v i l e g e s , no where d i d the y e a r l y f u r quotas match the take of previous years."*" While the c o l l e c t i o n of f u r s d e c l i n e d , a greater d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of a c t i v i t y , both t e r r e s t r i a l and marine-oriented, was ensuing as the century progressed. As the d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n increased i n subsequent years the r e g i o n was to become more s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t economically and p o l i t i c a l l y , w i t h profound a f f e c t s f o r a b o r i g i n a l s o c i e t y . Indian L i f e s t y l e and the Impact of Europeon Contact While i t i s d i f f i c u l t to enter i n t o d e t a i l on Indian u t i l i z a t i o n and resource e x p l o i t a t i o n of the Gulf of Georgia s u f f i c e i t to say that the p r i n c i p a l r o l e of the n a t i v e was that of an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t i n a l l aspects of the n a t u r a l coastland environment. In terms of n a t i v e Indian marine o r i e n t a t i o n , the sea was the genre de v i e . E s s e n t i a l l y , t h i s was due to marine p r o d u c t i v i t y and the case of movement w i t h i n the s h e l t e r e d marine environment. These were p r o p e r t i e s not ubiquitous to the adjacent rugged and r e l a t i v e l y unproductive f o r e s t e d landscape. More than i n a p h y s i c a l sense, almost i n p a r a l l e l w i t h that of n a t i v e P o l y n e s i a , the northwest coast indigenous l i f e s t y l e embraced the sea as a s p i r i t u a l as w e l l as m a t e r i a l p r o v i d e r . However, the harmonious man-environment r e l a t i o n s h i p and the acknowledged t e r r i t o r a l i t y of the Indian changed d r a s t i c a l l y w i t h the Hacking, op. c i t , p. 16 50 a r r i v a l of the f i r s t white explorers.''" No overt conquest occurred. Various Europeon e x p l o r e r s appeared upon the coast and simply annexed s p e c i f i c domains r u d i m e n t a r i l y f o r t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e n a t i o n s . In essence the n a t i v e s were considered almost a pa r t of the n a t u r a l resources of the new t e r r i t o r y much l i k e the f i s h , f u r s or mineral wealth. They were to give up f o r t h w i t h the products of t h e i r labour and i n turn they were disposed of t h e i r a b o r i g i n a l claims to c o a s t a l lands and t h e i r monopoly on c o a s t a l resources disapated a p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y . In r e t u r n , they exhanged the products of an a b o r i g i n a l l i f e s t y l e f o r C h r i s t i a n i t y , 2 dise a s e , a l c o h o l , and Europeon m a t e r i a l i s m . The a s s i m i l a t i o n of the Indian w i t h the coastland environment i s an a s s o c i a t i o n that successive white immigrants have never had the a b i l i t y nor f e l t the n e c e s s i t y to r e a l i z e . Indian i d e n t i t y was i n t e g r a l i n the n a t u r a l coastland system whereas the white man o f t e n worked against i t . Pre-Europeon Indian c i v i l i z a t i o n , w h i l e a r e a l l y e x t e n s i v e , was n e i t h e r demographically large nor t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y o r i e n t e d . Moreover, any d r a s t i c imbalance i n the n a t u r a l systems had been n u l l i f i e d or precluded by the unconscious and i n t r i n s i c environmental awareness of the n a t i v e . Successive a r r i v a l s of e x p l o r e r s , traders and s e t t l e r s whose i d e n t i t y and i n f l u e n c e was f o r the most part from the " o u t s i d e " , were to r e l y on "*"Duff W i l s o n , The Indian H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia, V o l . I , The Impact of the White Man, P r o v i n c i a l Museum Memoir No. 5, V i c t o r i a , 1964. F. E. L a v i o l e t t e , The Struggle f o r S u r v i v a l : Indian Cultures  and the P r o t e s t a n t E t h i c i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Toronto, 1961. 51 long u m b i l i c a l supply and trade routes f o r a number of years. In most cases they upset the e q u i l i b r i u m i n the n a t u r a l systems by t h e i r i n -creased number and by an environmental ignorance i n s h o r t - s i g h t e d resource h a r v e s t i n g p r a c t i c e s . For awhile Europeon a t t i t u d e s overruled Indian mores. The f u r trade i n the beginning promoted f e v e r i s h a c t i v i t y i n the n a t i v e c o a s t a l communit-i e s . However, the i n s a t i a b l e d e s i r e f o r p r o s p e r i t y from goods bartered f o r f u r s made the Indian more demoralized and untrustworthy and introduced greater i n t e r t r i b a l aggression. Because the fur trade was the major form of Europeon c o n t a c t , " I t exerted powerful e f f e c t s upon the e v o l u t i o n of the n a t i v e s o c i e t i e s and c u l t u r e s , and brought about a n e a r l y c a t a s t r o p h i c l o s s of n a t i v e l i v e s , but d i d not lead to the disappearance or c u l t u r a l d i s i n t e g r a -t i o n of the l o c a l people."1 From these e a r l y maritime episodes s e v e r a l r e l a t e d t e c h n o l o g i c a l developments and important monopolistic regimes can be i d e n t i f i e d which a l t e r e d the nineteenth Century Gulf seascape. The Hudson's Bay Company and Water-borne Commerce, 1821-1883. The amalgamation of the-Northwest Company and the Hudson's Bay Company i n 1821 began a new era of marine progress and development on the P a c i f i c coast. Because of the i n s i d i o u s and treacherous nature of the P a c i f i c c o a s t , i t was soon r e a l i z e d that s a i l i n g v e s s e l s were danger-ously inadequate f o r maintaining r e g u l a r , dependable s e r v i c e . By 1834, the steam packet "Royal W i l l i a m " had crossed the A t l a n t i c Wagner, op. c i t . , p. 20. proving the worth of steam-powered v e s s e l s i n deep-sea s e r v i c e . Thus, i t was not s u r p r i s i n g that the new Hudson's Bay Company i n a b i d to increase f l e x i b i l i t y and to help ameliorate some of the omnipresent c o a s t a l hazards, ordered a steamship f o r northwest s e r v i c e . The f i r s t , the steamer "Beaver" a r r i v e d at F o r t Vancouver on the. Columbia River i n e a r l y 1836 and was i n coast s e r v i c e by the summer c a r r y i n g m a t e r i a l s northward to company s t a t i o n s along the coast (Forts Langley, McLoughlin, St i k e e n , and Tako).''" In communion w i t h other rigged v e s s e l s i n company s e r v i c e an e f f e c t i v e monopoly was e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n a few years which a l s o aided i n the promotion of greater B r i t i s h sovereignty. By t a k i n g a maritime advantage over i t s opponents, 'the Company s u c c e s s f u l l y destroyed competition by American and Russian traders on the Northwest 2 Coast i n the 1820's and 1830's.' In an e f f o r t to make the t r a d i n g posts l e s s dependent upon d i s t a n t sources of supply f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l n e c e s s i t i e s , the Company encouraged farming at F o r t Vancouver, and F o r t N i s q u a l l y at the head of Puget Sound. A water-borne r e g i o n a l trade i n f o o d - s t u f f s f l o u r i s h e d , p r i n c i p a l l y from the Puget's Sound A g r i c u l t u r a l Company at F o r t N i s q u a l l y to other n 3 p e r i p h e r a l posts along the c o a s t a l shore. "*"Charles W. MacCain, H i s t o r y of S.S. Beaver, Vancouver, 1894, p. 36, 2 Barry M. Gough, The Royal Navy and the Northwest Coast of North America, 1810-1914, Vancouver, 1971, p. 52. J . S. G a l b r a i t h , "The E a r l y H i s t o r y of the Puget's Sound A g r i -c u l t u r a l Co., 1838-1843," Oregon H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 15, 1954, pp. 234-259. 53 However, by 1843, the Hudson's Bay Company's pervasive claims to the resources of the coastland were beginning to wane. The i n c r e a s i n g pressure of American settlement between the Columbia R i v e r and Puget Sound had forced the Company to seek a new depot f o r c o a s t a l operations. Because of i t s geographical circumstance, the harbour of Camosun at the southern end of Vancouver I s l a n d was s e l e c t e d and a f t e r much d e l i b e r a t i o n F o r t V i c t o r i a was e s t a b l i s h e d . "*" The s i g n i n g of the Oregon Treaty i n 1846 put an end to Anglo-American condominium of the Columbia River (or Oregon) T e r r i t o r y . In essence, the Treaty emphasized the b a s i c c o n f l i c t of i n t e r e s t between settlement and the fur trade. The United S t a t e s , under the terms of the Treaty had r e c e i v e d the arable lands of the Columbian Paloose and the B r i t i s h the rugged t e r r i t o r i e s of the f u r - t r a d i n g domain. Gough noted t h a t ; "The boundary, t h e r e f o r e , was i n a very r e a l sense an extension of the i n t e r e s t s of the two n a t i o n s : the United States i n h e r i t e d a g r i c u l t u r a l lands s u i t a b l e f o r settlement, and B r i t a i n r e t a i n e d a ^ f u r - t r a d i n g area w i t h a d i s t i n c t maritime c h a r a c t e r . " The Hudson's Bay Company was forced to r e l i n q u i s h c o n t r o l of F o r t Vancouver and monopolistic trade r i g h t s were revocated on a l l lands south of the 49th P a r a l l e l . In t u r n , F o r t V i c t o r i a w i t h adjacent small but a r a b l e ' lands, became the l o g i s t i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e centre f o r company operations on the northwest coast. Supply ships now s a i l e d to the F o r t '''Kay W. Lamb, "The Founding of F o r t V i c t o r i a , " B r i t i s h Columbia  H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 8, A p r i l 1943, pp. 71-92. Gough, op. c i t . , p. 84. 54 d i r e c t l y from England. Settlement of the r e g i o n d i d not however d i s p l a c e the f u r trade as q u i c k l y as i n the Oregon T e r r i t o r y . P r e s e n t l y a sea-board colony of Vancouver I s l a n d evolved and a trade i n f i s h , lumber and c o a l was to develop as the fur trade d e c l i n e d . While f o r some time c o a l was know to e x i s t on Vancouver I s l a n d , not u n t i l 1849 d i d the Hudson's Bay Company see f i t to combine mining w i t h 2 i t s f u r trade operations. Rapid settlement of the a r a b l e lands of C a l -i f o r n i a and Oregon T e r r i t o r y i n the United States created a need f o r c e r t a i n raw m a t e r i a l s and was impetus f o r greater i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o a s t a l t r a d e , e s p e c i a l l y i n resource commodities. In 1853, the f i r s t f u l l cargo of c o a l was shipped from Nanaimo to San F r a n c i s c o , an American port which was to be the major d e s t i n a t i o n of export commodities u n t i l the completion of the 3 Canadian P a c i f i c Railway to the coast i n 1887. The growing s c a r c i t y of prime f u r s d i r e c t e d the company to e x p l o i t not only mineral resources, but a l s o the abundance of the sea. While Nanaimo was becoming the conspicuous c o a l i n g s t a t i o n of the northwest c o a s t , F o r t Langley on the Fraser was assuming a more prominent p o s i t i o n as ^"Charles Forbes, Vancouver I s l a n d , I t s Resources and C a p a b i l i t i e s , as a Colony, C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , V i c t o r i a , 1862. 2 John H. Kemble, "Coal from the Northwest Coast, 1848-1850," B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 2, A p r i l , 1938, pp. 123-130. George M. Schuthe, Canadian Shipping i n the B r i t i s h Columbia  Coasting Trade, M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1950., p. 6. 55 producer of cured salmon. By 1850, 2000 b a r r e l s of s a l t e d Fraser River salmon could be packed i n a season. The Hudson's Bay Company j e a l o u s l y guarded i t s commercial monopoly and f o r e s t a l l e d most l o c a l competition n e a r l y a decade a f t e r the form-a t i o n of the Colony of Vancouver I s l a n d i n 1849. Despite company p o l i c y that discouraged immigration and settlement, the new Governor, S i r James Douglas, encouraged p r i v a t e land and marine concerns w h i l e strengthening 2 B r i t i s h i n t e r e s t s on the northwest coast. The Company had p e r s c i e n c e , i n s p i t e of B r i t i s h A dmiralty s c e p t i c i s m to place the steam screw v e s s e l 3 " O t t e r " i n c o a s t a l s e r v i c e i n 1852. L i k e the "Beaver" i t proved i t s worth i n f o l l o w i n g years on t r i p s south from F o r t V i c t o r i a and F o r t Langley to San F r a n c i s c o w i t h consignments of produce, s a l t e d f i s h , lumber and c o a l . The e x i s t i n g comfortable order came to an abrupt end w i t h the Gold Rush on the Fraser River i n 1858. Several American ships again appeared on the coast, landing thousands of f e v e r i s h gold-seekers at V i c t o r i a whence they procured any t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a v a i l a b l e - steamer, sloop or canoe - i n t h e i r eagerness to reach Hope and the g o l d f i e l d s . S h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r , the Royal grant to the Hudson's Bay Company was not renewed as an a n t i - l a i s s e z - f a i r e e f f o r t was made to a s s e r t greater B r i t i s h C o l o n i a l c o n t r o l over lands and precious resources p r e v i o u s l y the sole ''"Ibid,,, p . 7 . 2 Walter N. Sage, S i r James Douglas and B r i t i s h Columbia, Toronto, 1930, p. 47. J . S. G a l b r a i t h , The Hudson's Bay Co. 1821-1869, V o l . 1, Berkeley, 1957, p. 107. 56 preserve of the Company. American v e s s e l s had been temporarily l i c e n c e d to supplement e x i s t i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s as the "O t t e r " and "Beaver" were simply unequal to the i n f l u x of t h i r t y thousand miners.^ As the excitement on the Fraser subsided and American steamers w i t h -drew, i t was o v e r t l y obvious that many small entrepreneurs had done extremely w e l l i n the maintenance and s e r v i c i n g of the i n t e r i o r mining communities. Disenfranchisement of the Hudson's Bay Company had meant the d i s s o l u t i o n of i t s t r a d i n g monopoly and d i v i s i o n of some of i t s assets among F o r t V i c t o r i a and New Westminster businessmen. Subsequently, maritime e n t e r p r i z e , f o r many years the p r i n c i p a l domain of the Company, was now shared w i t h other p r o f i t minded concerns, p a r t i c u l a r l y the 2 B r i t i s h Columbia and V i c t o r i a Steam N a v i g a t i o n Company. While many of the miners had departed w i t h the d e c l i n e of the gold -f i e l d s , a percentage remained to t r y t h e i r hand at the e x p l o i t a t i o n of the p l e n t i f u l resources of the coast and the i n t e r i o r . Gradually the popul a t i o n increased at the various " e c o l o g i c a l niche p o i n t s " around the perimeter of the Gulf of Georgia. Ephemeral communities were acknowledged by the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p r o p e r t i e s possessed; c o a l from Nanaimo, lumber from Burrard I n l e t , or salmon from the Fraser's t r i f u c a t e d mouth. Correspondingly, a n c i l l a r y s e r v i c e s developed which l i n k e d p e r i p h e r a l settlement f i r s t to intermodal p o i n t s and from there to the outside world. Because of the coastland's ruggedness where p o s s i b l e white settlement, Walter N. Sage, "The Gold Colony of B r i t i s h Columbia", Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review, V o l . 2, 1921, pp. 340-359. Schuthe, op. c i t . , p. 9. l i k e i t s n a t i v e counterpart, u s u a l l y assumed waterfront l o c a t i o n . V i c t o r i a and New Westminster became the c h i e f d i s t r i b u t i o n a l centres of the re g i o n and the 1860's witnessed aggressive competition f o r passenger and f r e i g h t s e r v i c e on the V i c t o r i a to Fraser River runs as w e l l as other r e g i o n a l d i s t r i b u t a r y linkages north and south. L o c a l shipping e n t e r p r i z e had become c l o s e l y a l i g n e d w i t h the e x p l o i t a t i o n of f o r e s t resources i n the same decade, demanding v e s s e l s not only f o r towing d u t i e s but a l s o f o r supplying the conspicuous sawmills. To a l e s s e r e x t e n t , the c o a l mines were expanding production and securing v e s s e l s to serve t h e i r c o a s t a l shipping needs. As the years passed the n e c e s s i t y and the f l e x i b i l i t y of shipping increased. Many v e s s e l s which d i d appear on the coast were worked continuously and were o f t e n made adaptable to be r e a d i l y employable i n a multitude of ta s k s . Some ships appeared f u r t i v e l y upon the northwest coast, others began and ended t h e i r days there. Because ship r e p a i r f a c i l i t i e s were at f i r s t l a c k i n g i n northern P a c i f i c •waiters many ships were o f t e n worked long past the time of mandatory r e f i t . An agent's r e p o r t bears witness to the vigorous employment of the C o l o n i a l government steamer " S i r James Douglas". "The v e s s e l under the B r i t i s h Columbia Government was badly used. She had been running f o r some hears out of r e p a i r , eachyears adding to the ul t i m a t e expense of p l a c i n g her i n good order, u n t i l f i n a l l y by the breaking of her shaf t she was rendered i n her then present c o n d i t i o n useless f o r any s e r v i c e . " ! Canada, Department of Marine and F i s h e r i e s , Seventh Annual  Report f o r the F i s c a l Year ended 30th June, 1874, Ottawa, 1875, p. 21. 58 Many v e s s e l s which began prominent and i l l u s t r i o u s careers and which managed to s k i r t d e s t r u c t i o n on the treacherous l i t t o r a l , ended t h e i r s e r v i c e i n a v a r i e t y of r o l e s - as t o w b o a t s , c o l l i e r s , barges or break-waters . During the pe r i o d 1858-1880, many marine operators of dubious character appeared i n the c o a s t a l trade but few of the business enter-p r i z e s succeeded w i t h any degree of l o n g e v i t y and even l e s s could be e s t a b l i s h e d permanently.''' A f t e r 1875 s e v e r a l passenger-freight l i n e s appeared which maintained a semblance of r e g u l a r routes and scheduled s a i l i n g s . Of these, as example, the East Coast L i n e , operated out of 2 V i c t o r i a and served Nanaimo and Comox. Another l e s s domestic o r g a n i z a t i o n , the B r i t i s h Columbia Merchants Line placed s e v e r a l ships on the V i c t o r i a -Nanaimo - New Westminster run and operated c o l l i e r s i n the Nanaimo -3 San F r a n c i s c o c o a l trade. Since the u n i f i c a t i o n of the Crown Colony i n 1858, B r i t i s h Columbia had depended upon ships to span the waters between V i c t o r i a , the pro-claimed seat of government, and the settlement of the mainland r e g i o n . The Crown Colony had entered i n t o union w i t h the new Dominion .of Canada i n 1871, p a r t i a l l y on the promise of t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l connection 1 Norman McLeod, " B r i t i s h Columbia's Pioneer N a v i g a t o r s , " Sea  Lore, V o l . 1, Sept., 1935, pp. 55-57. 2 Schuthe, op. c i t . , p. 17. 3 I b i d . , p. 18. 59 from Eastern Canada to a western terminus at Esquimalt. I t was envisioned that Vancouver I s l a n d could be connected to the mainland w i t h r a i l by b r i d g i n g some of the narrower passages at the northeastern end of the I s l a n d . However, t h i s t o t a l r a i l l i n k never m a t e r i a l i z e d and the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway was to chose a t e r m i n a l p o i n t on Burrard I n l e t . Dreams of a r a i l c r o s s i n g at Bute I n l e t continued u n s u c c e s s f u l l y f o r a number of years and I s l a n d e r s were to depend t o t a l l y f o r almost a century on water-borne commerce augmented only a f t e r World War I I by scheduled a i r connection. The Steamship Corporations i n the Gulf of Georgia; 1883-1930. Water-borne commerce i n the Gulf of Georgia from the outset was f r e q u e n t l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the mismanagement of cargo and the i r r e g u l a r i t y of s e r v i c e . F F r e i g h t r a t e ( p r i c e ) f i x i n g and unscrupulous c o e r c i o n among companies had been rampant. Many mergers ensued, the most s i g n i f i c a n t of which was the formation i n 1883 of the Canadian P a c i f i c N avigation Company from the amalgamation of the Pioneer L i n e w i t h the maritime arm of the Hudson's Bay Company. This business venture had placed ten c o a s t a l v e s s e l s under one "house" f l a g and made V i c t o r i a home port f o r a s e r v i c e which included the Fraser River run, the east coast of Vancouver I s l a n d , route as w e l l as other e x t e r i o r P a c i f i c ports both north and south.^ Despite:the continued development of l o g g i n g , mining, commercial Norman Hacking, "Steamboat Days, 1870-1883, B r i t i s h Columbia  H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 2, A p r i l , 1947, p. 110. 60 " f i s h i n g and s u b s i d i a r y i n d u s t r i e s c r e a t i n g a need f o r shipping s e r v i c e s that encouraged the formation of r e l a t i v e l y small f r e i g h t i n g companies, p r i m a r i l y three companies emerged to capture a large percentage of the a v a i l a b l e market and to dominate c o a s t a l trade f o r a number of years. These companies, formed by innumerable mergers and reappearing f r e q u e n t l y under d i f f e r e n t name or owner were the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway ( B r i t i s h Columbia Coast Steamship S e r v i c e ) , the Union Steamship Company of B r i t i s h Columbia, and the Canadian N a t i o n a l Steamship Company. The l a r g e s t , the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway's wholly owned s u b s i d i a r y the B r i t i s h Columbia Coast Steamship Service was formed i n 1901 by the Union of the p r i v a t e l y owned V i c t o r i a based Canadian P a c i f i c N a v i g a t i o n Company and Canadian P a c i f i c i n t e r e s t s . " ^ Up u n t i l t h i s time the former had taken advantage of the t r a f f i c created by the completion of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway to Burrard I n l e t i n 1887 by e s t a b l i s h i n g r e g u l a r steamship s e r v i c e to the new port of Vancouver, soon to be Canada's 2 P a c i f i c gateway. With an incremental overland flow of people and cargo, more modern v e s s e l s had been pressed i n t o s e r v i c e to meet the demand on the Vancouver-Victoria run and the new i n c r e a s i n g l y important r o u t e , the Vancouver-Seattle run. As the new t r i a n g l e s e r v i c e assumed greater s i g n i f i c a n c e w i t h other i n d i v i d u a l entrepreneurs e n t e r i n g i n t o the t r a d e , the lower Fraser R i v e r ports of New Westminster, Fraser ' M i l l l s , A n n i e v i l l e , and Steveston began to assume l e s s importance. L i k e w i s e , the i n f l u x of '''Schuthe, op. c i t . , p. 21. Leah Stevens, "The Rise of the Port of Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia," Economic Geography, V o l . 12, Jan., 1936, p. 63. immigrant a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n t o the Cowichan V a l l e y , Nanaimo-Comox Low-land and onto the Gulf Islands soon n e c e s s i t a t e d connection to r e g u l a r steamer s e r v i c e . The Canadian P a c i f i c r e a l i z i n g the p r o f i t that was being made from the transshipment of i t s r a i l e d commodities, succeeded i n purchasing the e n t i r e Canadian P a c i f i c N a v i g a t i o n Company f l e e t . From the outset of t h i s new venture, the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway undertook 1 a progressive p o l i c y of expanding and modernizing the B. C. Coast Steamship f l e e t of over f i f t e e n v e s s e l s . I t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c Clyde b u i l t , b l a c k , white and yellow " P r i n c e s s " v e s s e l s soon became commonplace along the i n l a n d coast. Between 1910 and the outbreak of the F i r s t World War, s i x more passenger ships were purchased and pressed i n t o s e r v i c e connecting mainland and i s l a n d points."'' Such a move r e f l e c t e d the o p t i m i s t i c outlook that accompanied the burgeoning growth of B r i t i s h Columbia p o p u l a t i o n , resource i n d u s t r i e s , and emerging t o u r i s t trade. The second l a r g e s t marine c o r p o r a t i o n a c t i v e on the coast p r i o r to World War I was the Union Steamship Company of B r i t i s h Columbia. The Union Company, incorporated i n 1899 was founded on the ]pr<of:iftaML7llL±yy of the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y and was a c t i v e f o r a number of years c h i e f l y under con t r a c t to f o r e s t camps and mining communities throughout the Gulf 2 reg i o n . Except f o r a f l o u r i s h of a c t i v i t y t r a n s p o r t i n g men and m a t e r i a l s to the Yukon-Klondike g o l d f i e l d s soon a f t e r i n c o r p o r a t i o n , the company ^"Frank Bowen, The H i s t o r y of the Canadian P a c i f i c L i n e , London, 1928, p. 87. 2 I b i d . , p. 36. 62 played a l o g i s t i c a l r o l e and fundamentally provided an i n l a n d coast cargo s e r v i c e w i t h a compliment of never more than ten v e s s e l s . Not u n t i l the apex of immigrant settlement d i d the l i n e enter b r i e f l y i n t o the passenger trad e , however competition f o r routes w i t h companies experienced i n l o c a l passenger s e r v i c e soon proved the venture uneconomic. This l i n e was eventuality bought out by the Canadian P a c i f i c i n 1938.^ The t h i r d company, Canadian N a t i o n a l Steamships ( P a c i f i c Coast Service) was the maritime appendage of the Crown-owned Canadian N a t i o n a l Railway formerly the Grand Trunk Railway whose P a c i f i c terminus was e s t a b l i s h e d at P r i n c e Rupert i n 1914. I t was the duty of the steamship company to provide r e g u l a r steamer s e r v i c e from P r i n c e Rupert to the populated centers of the lower mainland Gulf of Georgia-Puget Sound r e g i o n . While c a r r y i n g considerable cargo annually p a l a t i a l Canadian N a t i o n a l " P r i n c e " v e s s e l s gave the Canadian P a c i f i c i t s most vigorous competition i n the coast passenger t r a d e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the w e l l - t r a v e l l e d t r i a n g l e s e r v i c e . Coastal Trade, 1930-1972. ComVe*i'.li'.i!oni i n f r e i g h t and passenger s e r v i c e f o r various ports of c a l l throughout Puget Sound and; the Gulf r e g i o n continued r a t h e r unabated u n t i l the stock market crash of 1929. The repercussions of the Depression were f e l t almost immediately by business and the general p u b l i c a l i k e . Soon, many marginal concerns succumbed to unfavourable economic c o n d i t i o n s and declare bankruptcy. Competition between the l a r g e r owners themselves, ^C. E. S t o c k d i l l , "The B. C. Coastal S e r v i c e , Some H i s t o r i c a l Facts and F i g u r e s . " Canadian P a c i f i c S t a f f B u l l e t i n , Dec. 5, 1940, p. 12. 63 t r a d i t i o n a l l y c a r r i e d on w i t h c o l o u r f u l v i g o u r , tended to disappear i n l i g h t of d i s a s t r o u s market c o n d i t i o n s . Stronger companies simply absorbed t h e i r weaker r i v a l s i n the s t r u g g l e f o r s u r v i v a l . But the end of the Depression saw l i t t l e change. No sooner had economic c o n d i t i o n s brightened than competition from other media of tr a n s p o r t s e r i o u s l y began to threaten the exi s t e n c e of many routes and correspondingly that of se v e r a l companies. The threat of road, r a i l and l a t e r , a i r to water t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of passengers and f r e i g h t , became very r e a l to v a r i o u s shipping concerns. One by one, r e g i o n a l c a r r i e r s began to lose the b a t t l e to other forms of tr a n s p o r t . The f i r s t to succumb i n 1905 had been steamer operations from V i c t o r i a along the east coast of Vancouver I s l a n d , a f t e r l o s i n g the str u g g l e w i t h the f a s t e r Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway. I n a p r o v e r b i a l sense the w r i t i n g was on the w a l l f o r water c a r r i e r s faced w i t h competition from f a s t e r land connections or more adaptable tran s p o r t methods. I t i s then understandable that the more e f f i c i e n t tugboat operations and auto-f e r r y systems, s u i t a b l e i n protected waters and adaptable i n the extension of new t e r r e s t r i a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a l complexes, have emerged over the l a s t decade to dominate the Gulf trade i n passengers and f r e i g h t . A f t e r the Second World War the automobile profoundly a f f e c t e d the u t i l i t y of the c o a s t a l steamship and the o p e r a t i o n a l behaviour of a l l the companies engaged i n the e x c u r s i o n i s t trade. Some v e s s e l s had hap-hazardly been modified to c a r r y both f r e i g h t trucks and automobiles, as a resounding annual t o u r i s t trade was i n c r e a s i n g p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y . A f t e r examing the record of c o a s t a l s h i p p i n g , few p r i v a t e i n v e s t o r s were '''Will Lawson, P a c i f i c Steamers, Glasgow, 1927, p. 58. 64 prepared to r i s k the heavy c a p i t a l investment i n s h i p s , wharves, f r e i g h t sheds, and passenger terminals needed f o r modern passenger-cargo s e r v i c e . As a r e s u l t steamship operations had come almost completely under the c o n t r o l of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway. Only Canadian Steamships remained outside the Canadian P a c i f i c o r b i t . However, i t was evident that the Canadian P a c i f i c , w i t h a s e r v i c e designed f o r more l e i s u r e l y days, was unequal to the task of gross and f a s t movements between Gulf p o r t s . The requirements f o r water t r a v e l i n the Province were not being met. Changing needs d i d not produce a chang-in g p a t t e r n . Gulf c o a s t a l f e r r i e s f o r the most part continued to be the "Clyde-side" minature l i n e r s , capable of c r o s s i n g the North A t l a n t i c but unsuited to the f a s t turn-around, auto-oriented system. I t became i n c r e a s i n g l y obvious that t h i s i n f l e x i b l e f e r r y system was w o e f u l l y inadequate f o r the movement of t r u c k s , buses and autos. But the major Canadian shipping companies of the time had not accepted the challenge to r e t o o l w i t h the appropriate s c h u t t l e s e r v i c e v e s s e l s . Only to'ne shipping company had made an e f f o r t to move w i t h the times and had employed double-ended f e r r i e s . Black B a l l F e r r i e s L i m i t e d whose parent company was the Puget Sound Navigation Company had b u i l d up a s e r v i c e between Nanaimo and Horseshoe Bay but t h i s system was at peak user p e r i o d s , being g r e a t l y over taxed. A P r o v i n c i a l F e r r y System A f t e r s e v e r a l inconvenient labour disputes i n 1958, the consequences of which had been the i s o l a t i o n of Vancouver I s l a n d , the P r o v i n c i a l govern-ment " p r o v i n c i a l i z e d " the Black B a l l Line's Gulf f e r r i e s f o r an i n t e r i m p e r i o d . For the f i r s t time the P r o v i n c i a l Government had entered the 65 f e r r y business, a l b e i t not as an owner. S h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r the Government approached both Canadian P a c i f i c and Black B a l l to f i n d i f they were i n t e r e s t e d i n meeting the expanding needs. As they were not, Premier Bennett announced, w i t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ineuendo, that the P r o v i n c i a l Government would e s t a b l i s h i t s own f e r r y s e r v i c e between Saanich Peninsula and the lower mainland as soon as p o s s i b l e on the promise t h a t , "The Government of B r i t i s h Columbia i s determined that i n f u t u r e , f e r r y connections between Vancouver I s l a n d and the mainland s h a l l not be subject e i t h e r to the whim of union p o l i c y nor to the i n d i f f e r e n c e of f e d e r a l agencies."1 In June 1960, the Dogwood f l e e t began s e r v i c e : a twelve m i l l i o n d o l l a r f e r r y system which at commencement of operations included tfcwo new f e r r i e s and two t e r m i n a l s , one at Swartz Bay and the other at the causeway t e r m i n a l at Tsawwassen. By 1961, the Government had decided that the Province was i n the f e r r y business e n t i r e l y and pruchased the e n t i r e Black B a l l f l e e t f o r a negotiated p r i c e of $6,690,000.''" A l l Black B a l l v e s s e l s were h u r r i e d l y repainted i n 1962 i n the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c white and blue of the p u b l i c f l e e t and new routes included the Horseshoe Bay-Nanaimo route as w e l l as Horseshoe Bay-Langdale run on Howe Sound and E a r l e ' s Cove to S a l t e r y Bay on J e r v i s I n l e t . As new v e s s e l s s l i d down the ways and were pressed i n t o s e r v i c e , the older v e s s e l s of the o r i g i n a l Black B a l l f l e e t were put on-to shorter runs or went i n t o r e s e r v e . The Government a l s o purchased the Gulf Islands F e r r y Company i n 1961 '''H. L. Cadieux and G. G r i f f i t h s , The Dogwood F l e e t , V i c t o r i a , 1967, p. 7. Cadieux, op. c i t . , p. 29. 66 f o r $249,823 and provided r e g u l a r s e r v i c e to most of the Islands w i t h new vessels.''' By 1971, 23 ships under the P r o v i n c i a l f l a g served 23 ports around the Gulf. To keep up w i t h the demand which has increased 15% annually since the s e r v i c e began, more ships have been put i n t o s e r v i c e and 2 m o d i f i c a t i o n s to e x i s t i n g v e s s e l s undertaken. The " s t r e t c h i n g " of a l l motor v e s s e l s on the Vancouver I s l a n d to the mainland run by the a d d i t i o n of a n i n e t y f o o t s e c t i o n has increased the c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y of these f e r r i e s from 125 to 200 c a r s . Comprehensive maps of c o a s t a l f e r r y a c t i v i t y i n the Gulf r e g i o n are included i n the f o l l o w i n g chapter. Many f e r r i e s now p l y the bays and channels which were once the sole preserve of commercial fisherman. Commercial F i s h i n g i n the Gulf L i k e other f u n c t i o n a l waterway uses, commercial f i s h i n g has transformed i n method and i n t e n s i t y since i t s i n c e p t i o n i n the post f u r - t r a d e p e r i o d . G e n e r a l l y , i t has d i v e r s i f i e d i n terms of the number of species commercially e x p l o i t e d , but d e c l i n e d i n t o t a l tonnage caught. The B r i t i s h Columbia commercial f i s h e r y which had i t s o r i g i n at the mouths of Gulf of Georgia t r i b u t a r i e s , has been subject at various times to tremendous o v e r f i s h i n g , poor management p r a c t i c e s , innumerable f i s h catch l i m i t a t i o n s , v a r y i n g 3 seasonal r e g u l a t i o n s , and countless f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y d i s p u t e s . 1-v- ^ Gaileux e t . a l . , l o c . c i t . 2 B r i t i s h Columbia, F i n a n c i a l and Economic Review, Department of Finance, T h i r t y - f i r s t E d i t i o n , V i c t o r i a , J u l y 1971. For an exhaustive account see C i c e l y Lyons, Salmon, Our H e r i t a g e , Vancouver, 1969. 67 But the s t o r y of e a r l y f i s h e r y e x p l o i t a t i o n i n the Gulf of Georgia, and f o r that matter, f o r the North P a c i f i c c o a s t , i s the s t o r y of a s i n g l e s p e c i e s , Oncorhynchus, the anadromonous salmon. The existence of the species w i t h i t s tender and t a s t y f l e s h was known from the outset of B r i t i s h e x p l o r a t i o n of the coast. Coastal i n d i g e n t s , who revered the salmon i n much the same way as the P r a i r i e t r i b e s had the b u f f a l o , were soon encouraged to enter i n t o p r o f i t a b l e c o n t r a c t w i t h the white traders and annually harvested the crop from t h e i r s t r a t e g i c a b o r i g i n a l r i v e r -mouth l o c a t i o n s . Because of i t s p a r t i c u l a r f l a v o u r and firmness, the sockeye(Oncorhynchus nerka) s h o r t l y became the most sought a f t e r commercial species. Since the Fraser River was the p r i n c i p a l sockeye spawning stream on the coast, f i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s were centered on the Fraser's lower reaches, broad e s t u a r y , and shallow approaches. In the beginning, the i n d u s t r y was h i g h l y seasonal and labour i n -tensive employing n a t i v e Indians and l a t e r , immigrant Chinese, i n a v a r i e t y of r o l e s . The f i r s t s a l t e r y appeared on the Fraser River i n 1864 and the f i r s t commercial cannery u t i l i z i n g h e r m e t i c a l l y sealed cans was e s t a b l i s h e d at A n n i e v i l l e i n 1870.''' The canning process, pioneered by salmon canners on the Sacramento R i v e r , proved extremely adaptable f o r u n i f o r m i l y s i z e d salmon and soon, processing f a c i l i t e s crowded the banks of the Fraser R i v e r . Completion of the t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l w a y had f o r a time given greater impetus to expansion since i t afforded greater access to the large eastern markets of Canada and the United States;, as w e l l as those overseas. Cold storage p l a n t s f o r handling salmon appeared on the Fraser's lower reaches J . Lawrence,. An H i s t o r i c a l , Account of the E a r l y Salmon Canning  Industry i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1870-1900, M.A. T h e s i s , U.B.C. , Vancouver, 1951, p. 12. 68 i n 1887 and wee augmented by r a i l w a y r e f r i g e r a t o r cars by 1892. By 1900, f i f t y canneries of various s i z e operated along the channel banks of the lower Fraser River from New Westminster to the t r i f u c t e d mouth. However, many e x t r a - n a t i o n a l elements as w e l l as c e r t a i n i n t e r n a l f a c t o r s began to d e t r i m e n t a l l y a f f e c t the i n d u s t r y . With R u s s i a , Japan, and the United States e s t a b l i s h e d i n the canning business at the turn of the century, i t was not s u r p r i s i n g that the cumulative e f f e c t was a d e c l i n e of canned salmon w i t h world over-production. F a l l i n g p r i c e s and r i s i n g labour costs caused many small unmechanized u n i t s to go bankrupt, 2 many others were forced to amalgamate to remain s o l v e n t . In the f i r s t decade of t h i s century many i n t e r n a l t e c h n o l o g i c a l developments a l t e r e d f i s h i n g methods and heretofore s t a t i c catchment-3 processing s i t e s . The implementation of the gasol i n e engine i n small c r a f t modernized the f l e e t and permitted the fisherman to venture f u r t h e r a f i e l d i n f a s t e r , more mobile v e s s e l s . F i s h i n g c r a f t which had, f o r the most p a r t , confined t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s to the Fraser River estuary could now, o f t e n w i t h a i d of c o l d storage equipment, c r u i s e to spread a l a b y r i n t h i n e jungle of nets at the mouths of other salmon spawning streams around the Gulf or i n t e r c e p t annual r e t u r n i n g runs at approaches mile s from n a t a l ^"Gordon Strong, The Salmon Canning Industry of B r i t i s h Columbia, M.A. Th e s i s , U.B.C, Vancouver, 1934, p. 32. 2 . . Royal Commission on Canada's Economic Prospects, The Commercial F i s h e r i e s of Canada, Department of F i s h e r i e s and the F i s h e r i e s Research Board of Canada, Ottawa, September, 1956, p. 4. C. Hansen, The E f f e c t of Technology on the B. C. F i s h i n g Industry, unpublished research paper, U.B.C, 1964. 69 r i v e r s . Since the exact time of a r r i v a l of r e t u r n i n g spawners d i f f e r s from stream to stream and from species to s p e c i e s , a longer f i s h i n g season and more d i v e r s i f i e d catch ensued. While sockeye remained the backbone of the i n d u s t r y , other salmonoids such as Chinook (0. tschawytscha) Coho (0. k i s u t c h ) , Pink (0. gorbuscha), and Chum (0. k e t a ) , began to be harvested i n i n c r e a s i n g numbers throughout the Gulf of Georgia a n n u a l l y . Other species of groundfish and h e r r i n g , p l e n t i f u l i n Gulf waters, could a l s o be s o l d l o c a l l y or frozen and shipped to markets outside the r e g i o n . Mechanization i n the processing of f i s h a l t e r e d both the t r a d i t i o n a l methods and the r e s i d e n t n e s t i n g p a t t e r n of the i n d u s t r y . The i n t r o d u c t i o n of the " i r o n chink" i n 1906, together w i t h other e f f i c i e n t innovations by those canneries which could a f f o r d the c a p i t a l investment, profoundly i n -creased commercial production.''" Now s e v e r a l mechanized p l a n t s along the Fraser could produce as much as had f o r t y smaller c a n n e r i e s , and a period of d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n to other p l e n t i f u l r i v e r mouth l o c a t i o n s f o l l o w e d . F i s h i n g c r a f t which operated from p e r i p h e r a l c o a s t a l c a n n e r i e s , u s u a l l y on a lease or c o n t r a c t b a s i s , now p l i e d most of the bays and i n l e t s of the Gulf. With the use of i c e as a b a c t e r i o s t a t , f i s h i n g c r a f t extended t h e i r former day use c a p a b i l i t i e s and could stay at sea f o r up to two weeks at a time. With the maximum e f f o r t which was being expended i n h a r v e s t i n g the salmon, i t was not long before the huge runs of the l a t e 1890's began to show serious signs of d e c l i n e . A v a r i c i o u s o v e r - f i s h i n g i n the f i r s t decade of t h i s century, together w i t h a d i s a s t r o u s rock s l i d e which blocked the Fraser at H e l l ' s Canyon i n 1913 e c l i p s i n g one annual run, decimated f i s h 1Hugh M c K e r v i l l , The Salmon People, Sidney, 1967, p. 46. 70 populations from which the resource, as y e t , has only recovered 50 per cent of i t s pre-1913 level.''' R e a l i z i n g at the e l e v e t h hour that at hand was e x t i n c t i o n of what had been formerly thought of as "an inexhaustable 2 resource a f f o r d i n g room f o r hundreds of p a r t i c i p e n t s , " government o f f i c i a l s h a s t i l y began to enact f i s h e r y conservation measures. As a r e s u l t , the concentrated e f f o r t that had been p r e v i o u s l y expended at the Fraser mouth was now d i s t r i b u t e d northward to other t r i b u t a r y streams along the B r i t i s h Columbia l i t t o r a l . Government Management P o l i c i e s In an e f f o r t to maintain a sustained y i e l d , n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l conservation measures by f i s h e r i e s agencies have continued unabated from 3 the n i n e t e e n - t h i r t i e s to present. F i s h traps and f i s h w i e r s , which at one time had b r i s t l e d w e l l out to sea from around the Gulf shore, p a r t i c -u l a r l y at Po i n t Roberts and along much of the Whatcom Country s h o r e l i n e , were e v e n t u a l l y c u r t a i l e d by f e d e r a l and s t a t e agencies on both sides of 4 the border. Conservation measures c o i n c i d e n t upon f i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s were b i l a t e r a l l y agreed upon and included " f i s h catch and sea area r e s t r i c t i o n s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , these p r a c t i c e s sometimes had a p a r a d o x i c a l e f f e c t on an 1 Norman Pearson, op. c i t . , p. 17. 2 M c K e r v i l l , op. c i t . , p. 36. 3James C r u t c h f i e l d and. G i u l i o Pontecorvo, The P a c i f i c Salmon  F i s h e r i e s : A Study i n I r r a t i o n a l Conservation, B a l t i m o r e , 1969, Lyons, op. c i t . , p. 440. i n d u s t r y which was s u f f e r i n g economic i l l s from too many fishermen and processing p l a n t s and not enough f i s h . With u n c o n t r o l l e d entry i n t o the i n d u s t r y and no l i m i t s set f o r the number of fishermen, the p o t e n t i a l value of the f i s h e r y was d i s s i p a t e d through excessive pressure on the resource base.^ Since World War I I , e x e r t i n g every e f f o r t to maximize p r o f i t i n a competitive s i t u a t i o n , the s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of P a c i f i c coast salmon f i s h e r y has increased tremendously. Investment per man i n the i n d u s t r y has t r i p p l e d since 1945 r e p r e s e n t i n g an increase i n c r a f t s i z e , range, and power, as 2 w e l l as e l e c t r o n i c n a v i g a t i o n a l and f i s h i n g d e t e c t i n g devices. Res-ponsible agencies i n both Canada and the United States have more r e c e n t l y r e a l i z e d that i n order to maximize the b e n e f i t of marine resources, the object must be to harvest the y i e l d of f i s h w i t h minimum inputs of labour and c a p i t a l i n the forms of boats and gear, a l l o w i n g these resources to 3 be as f u l l y and e f f i c i e n t l y employed as t e c h n i c a l circumstances w i l l a l l o w . The system of l i c e n c e r e g u l a t i o n whereby s u b s i d i z e d i n e f f i c i e n t fishermen cannot p a r t i c i p a t e i n h a r v e s t i n g the resource at the expense of taxpayers and p o t e n t i a l l y e f f i c i e n t fishermen i s an obvious f i r s t step i n reducing the ''"This problem was not brought to n a t i o n a l a t t e n t i o n u n t i l 1960 at which time Dr. Sol S i n c l a i r tabled a paper i n the House of Commons on Licence l i m i t a t i o n s as a method of economic f i s h e r i e s management on the P a c i f i c coast. 2 Royal Commission on Canada's Economic Prospects, op. c i t . , p. 8. Peter Pearse, " P u b l i c Management and Mismanagement of N a t u r a l Resources i n Canada," Queen's Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 73, 1966, p. 53. s i z e of an over-extended f l e e t and toward b u i l d i n g a h e a l t h i e r i n d u s t r y . The f u r t h e r mechanization of the i n d u s t r y , while i t has permitted fishermen to venture f a r t h e r from home p o r t , has prompted a concomitant c o n s o l i d a t i o n of the f i s h processing i n d u s t r y at Prin c e Rupert i n the no r t h , and on the Fraser Main Arm i n the south. While only a small per-centage of t o t a l commercial salmon f i s h i n g a c t i v i t y i s centered on the Fraser mouth, the r i v e r ' s lower reaches provide moorage f o r over 65 percent of 2 the commercial c r a f t r e g i s t e r e d i n the province. Present f i s h i n g p r a c t i c e s and d i s t r i b u t i o n s of species are o u t l i n e d i n greater d e t a i l i n the f o l l o w i n g chapter. The i n t e n s i t y of f i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the Gulf i s , i n terms of the number c r a f t and fishermen, a micro-operation today, however the e f f i c i e n c y of f i s h i n g methods and the s c i e n t i f i c knowledge at the d i s p o s a l of the fishermen negates the numerical strength of h i s forerunners. E a r l y R e c r e a t i o n a l Water Use i n the Gulf of Georgia E a r l i e r s e c t i o n s of t h i s chapter have o u t l i n e d a c t i v i t i e s , communities, and p r i v a t e companies around the Gulf of Georgia which st r u g g l e d to e s t a b l i s h s u c c e s s f u l f i s h i n g , lumbering, mining, and t r a d i n g i n d u s t r i e s i n the nine-teenth century. Some of the a c t i v i t i e s and commercial e n t e r p r i z e s proved ''"A Licence C o n t r o l Program was introduced by the M i n i s t e r of the Department of F i s h e r i e s i n Nov. 1968. Over 650 f i s h i n g v e s s e l s d i d not have t h e i r l i c e n c e s renewed i n 1969 because they could not meet minimum catch requirements. See Robert F l e t c h e r , " C o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y of L i m i t i n g the number of Fishermen i n a (Commercial Fishery," The F i s h e r i e s : Problems i n Resource Management, U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, S e a t t l e , 1965. 2 C. D. Nelson, An Anal y s i s , of R e c r e a t i o n a l Boating and Boating F a c i l i t i e s on the Lower F r a s e r - P i t t R i v e r , Westwater Research Center, Vancouver, Oct., 1972, p. 18. 73 h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l , others were doomed to f a i l u r e almost from t h e i r incep-t i o n . In p a r a l l e l w i t h most f r o n t i e r economies, s i n g u l a r competition f o r a p l e n t i f u l n a t u r a l resource at hand o f t e n produces a handful on i n d i v i d -u a ls who achieve great wealth and prominence and who i n t u r n , w i t h the permanence of the resource base, begin to b u i l d and govern the f r o n t i e r . Many such people s e t t l e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Some had b u i l t small business empires from h a r v e s t i n g the resources of sea and shore, and others had f a i r e d w e l l from m o n o p o l i s t i c a l l y p r o v i d i n g the e s s e n t i a l trade and s e r v i c e s to s c a t t e r e d resource communities. S e t t l i n g w i t h t h e i r f a m i l i e s w i t h i n the r e g i o n they created and imported the de s i r e d l u x u r i e s i n an e f f o r t to s u s t a i n an a f f l u e n t l i f e s t y l e . Before the turn of the century, e x q u i s i t e homes as s o c i a t e d w i t h the su c c e s s f u l entrepreneures of sea, land and r a i l i n t e r e s t s began to sp r i n g up i n the w e a l t h i e r s e c t i o n s of V i c t o r i a and Vancouver. The permanence of settlement i n c e r t a i n communities r e s u l t e d i n the p r o v i s i o n of l e i s u r e - t i m e f a c i l i t i e s such as g o l f courses or soccer p i t c h e s , and the o r g a n i z a t i o n of c u l t u r a l as w e l l as r e c r e a t i o n a l c l u b s . In p a r t i c u l a r , outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s which complimented the b o u n t i f u l n a t u r a l assets of the re g i o n increased i n p o p u l a r i t y throught the upper and middle c l a s s e s of B r i t i s h Columbia i n the l a t e V i c t o r i a n E ra. While i t i s d i f f i c u l t to document, growing u r b a n i z a t i o n of the pop-u l a t i o n i n nodal regions of V i c t o r i a , Nanaimo and Vancouver, coupled w i t h increased wages and increased l e i s u r e time, permitted coastland people to engage i n a greater range of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s . The f i r s t overt form of a c t i v i t y can probably be traced to the summer cottages which, f o r Vancouverites, r i n g e d the shores of Burrard I n l e t - I n d i a n Arm, or f o r V i c t o r i a n s , crowded the shores of Cadboro and Cordova Bay. At the same time, 74 new r e c r e a t i o n a l power and s a i l c r a f t began to p l y the i n l e t s and channels of the G u l f , compounded annually i n number and c r u i s i n g d i s t ance a f i e l d . Yacht clubs and boating a s s o c i a t i o n s were formed to compliment the growing 1 use of the Gulf of Georgia f o r boat-oriented r e c r e a t i o n . A f t e r World War I , may areas around the Gulf had begun to r e c e i v e accolades f o r t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r r e c r e a t i o n a l p r o p e r t i e s i n much the same way p l e n t i f u l salmon streams had r e c e i v e d conspicuous a t t e n t i o n from commercial fishermen s e v e r a l decades previous. Cottaging zones along the G u l f ' s eastern shore appeared by 1930 around Tsawwassen P e n i n s u l a , at P o i n t Roberts and White Rock, on Jiowen I s l a n d , and along the Sechelt 2 Peninsula. On the western side of the G u l f , Saanich I n l e t and Cowichan Bay were beginning to r e c e i v e worldwide a c c l a i m as a sports fisherman's paradise. Summer cabins and permanent residences were located along the s h o r e l i n e of most of the a c c e s s i b l e Saanich Peninsula as w e l l as along the sandy shore of Vancouver Island's cea:s;tfc c-oa=stt from P a r k s v i l l e to Comox. The Gulf and San Juan Islands remained predominently r u r a l u n t i l a f t e r the Second World War, at which time through increased a c c e s s i b i l i t y , the Islands and foreshores began to r e c e i v e greater a t t e n t i o n because of t h e i r broad r e c r e a t i o n a l assets and p a s t o r a l charm. Over the past twenty-five years, s e v e r a l developments have c o n s i d e r -^The Royal V i c t o r i a Yacht Club, formed i n 1882, i s the o l d e s t p r i v a t e boating a s s o c i a t i o n on the northwest P a c i f i c Coast. C. Campbell, An A n a l y s i s of Shoreland Use and C a p a b i l i t y f o r  Cottaging i n the Georgia Lowland of B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada Land Inventory, A.R.D.A., Vancouver, 1967. ably increased p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n marine-oriented r e c r e a t i o n . Marine tech-n o l o g i c a l developments such as the mass production of r e l i a b l e outboard motors and boats of f i b r e - g l a s s c o n s t r u c t i o n , have made small pleasure c r a f t a v a i l a b l e at moderate cos t . Coupled w i t h the development i n boat manufacture, greater automobile ownership and an increase i n p r o v i n c i a l road c o n s t r u c t i o n , had made p r e v i o u s l y secluded areas a c c e s s i b l e to t r a i l e r e d boat owners. Auto and boat ownership which had heretofore been p r i n c i p a l l y the preserve of the w e a l t h i e r c l a s s e s became more commonplace i n the middle and lower income groups. Sports fishermen now had the a b i l i t y to j o i n commercial fishermen on s t r a t e g i c f i s h i n g grounds at points along the east and west Gulf coast or adjacent to the Fraser mouth. However, the a b i l i t y to penetrate the c o a s t a l f j o r d s or sc a t t e r e d passages and bays brought them i n t o disagreement w i t h commercial fishermen and w i t h n a t i v e s who a f t e r many years of monopolistic r u l e , viewed the a r r i v a l of r e c r e a t i o n a l c r a f t as an encroachment upon t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l l i v ehood. The r e c r e a t i o n a l magnetism of the Gulf of Georgia was soon to be f e l t outside of the three major population centres of the r e g i o n . In i n c r e a s i n g numbers, t o u r i s t s from the P r a i r i e s and the United States began to stream i n t o the coastland annually. Some came w i t h t h e i r boats on t r a i l e r s , many more without boats came w i t h a determination to angle f o r salmon, and a l l came to p a r t i c i p a t e i n some form of r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y which encompassed the sea or shore. V i c t o r i a , Cowichan Bay, Qualicum, P a r k s v i l l e , Campbell R i v e r , and Vancouver are t y p i c a l of c o a s t a l communities which have taken advantage of the p o s i t i v e combination of beauty and p r o d u c t i v i t y of the c o a s t a l sea to promote s u c c e s s f u l l y an important v i s i t o r trade. Rec-r e a t i o n a l assets and the drawing power of the coastland environment play a large part i n making t'our.ismltike t h i r d most important d o l l a r - e a r n i n g i n -dustry i n B r i t i s h Columbia behind f o r e s t r y and mining. The current importance of r e c r e a t i o n a l water use i n the Gulf r e g i o n , and i t s r e l a t i o n to other f u n c t i o n a l uses, i s i n v e s t i g a t e d more thoroughly i n Chapter V. P o l i t i c a l and Legal Controls of the Gulf of Georgia  i n the H i s t o r i c a l Context. F r o n t i e r to Colony Preceeding s e c t i o n s have o u t l i n e d the importance of the marine en-vironment and the v a r i e t y of r o l e s i t played i n the l i v e s of coastland indigenous r e s i d e n t s and e a r l y white s e t t l e r s . Yet, while commonly en-gaged i n marine a c t i v i t i e s i n the Gulf r e g i o n , each c u l t u r a l group p r a c t i c e d d i f f e r e n t methods of use and management of the resource.''" In the n a t i v e context resource use was s u b s i s t e n c e - o r i e n t e d and t e r r i t o r a l i t y and the c o n t r o l of marine resources were the declared r i g h t of t r i b a l groups, or i n some cases, of i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l i e s . The profit-minded eighteenth century European operated under a monarchial system i n which p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l , area a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , investment c a p i t a l , markets, and t a r i f f s were most o f t e n e x t e r n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d . In t h i s case, coastland t e r r i t o r y and thus, marine resources f a i l e d to r e s i d e i n t o t a l p r o p r i e t y of the groups or i n d i v i d u a l , c laimants. E a r l y adventurers merely held chartered t i t l e to land or r e -sources which were part of a l a r g e r t e r r i t o r y annexed, but l o o s e l y c o n t o l l -ed, by the d i s t a n t mother country. Moreover, i n f r o n t i e r regions i m p e r i a l -ism had spawned a hasty demarcation of t e r r i t o r y s h o r t l y a f t e r a f r a n t i c '''Here, resource means a l l the usable p r o p e r t i e s possessed by the water body: f i s h and seafood, n a v i g a t i o n , communication, e t c . 77 rush f o r resource s p o i l s began."'' In c o a s t a l B r i t i s h Columbia, as the years went by a f t e r o r i g i n a l d i s c o v e r y , t h i s process of demarcation continued but w i t h greater p r e c i s i o n concomitant upon the s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of survey techniques. B r i t i s h Columbia had been f i n a l l y put under B r i t i s h sovereign c o n t r o l by 1792 which vested supreme a u t h o r i t y f o r a l l claims to r e g i o n a l lands, waters, and anadromous resources i n the hands of the E n g l i s h Crown. S h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r , B r i t a i n honoured an e a r l i e r agreement by extending the t r a d i n g charter of the Hudson's Bay Company to the western margin of B r i t i s h t e r r i t o r y i n North America which, i n t h i s case, was the western shore of Vancouver I s l a n d . With the a r r i v a l of more permanent settlement and the r e l e n t l e s s northwesterly movement of American i n f l u e n c e i n t o what was thought to be B r i t i s h Domain, i t was f e l t that the Hudson's Bay Company, i n i t s f u r t r a d i n g c a p a c i t y , could not guarantee that the P a c i f i c Northwest would remain f i r m l y i n B r i t i s h hands. Inadequate c o n t r o l of r e g i o n a l lands arid resources was the major reason f o r the establishment of more fo r m a l i z e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n which Vancouver I s l a n d and the adjacent mainland each '''M. W. M i k e s e l l , "Comparative Studies i n F r o n t i e r H i s t o r y , " Annals  A s s o c i a t i o n of American Geographers, V o l . 50, March, 1960, pp. 62-74. 2 The term "waters" was a p p l i e d most d i r e c t l y to semi-enclosed bays and i n l e t s over which B r i t a i n maintained t o t a l s u z e r a i n t y . However, at t h i s time i n B r i t i s h h i s t o r y , B r i t a i n followed a p o l i c y of mare lib r u m by which the sea was thought to be held i n common three m i l e s d i s t a n t from sovereign shore. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to decide whether B r i t i s h claims to ownership of Juan de Fuca S t r a i t would have stood up i n e a r l y i n t e r n a t i o n a l courts had the issue been tested at t h i s time. On the other hand, sovereign c o n t r o l over the Gulf of Georgia was never i n question f o r the Gulf q u a l i f i e s as an enclosed water since none of i t s approaches i s greater than three m i l e s i n width. 78 r e c e i v e d c o l o n i a l s t a t u s . As extensions of B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l a f f a i r s , the r e g i o n a l c o l o n i e s q u i c k l y r e a p p l i e d E n g l i s h common law f o r c i v i l a u t h o r i t y , as w e l l as f o r d e f i n i n g seaward t e r r i t o r i a l space and maritime n a v i g a t i o n i n c o a s t a l waters. But not a l l E n g l i s h laws, h a s t i l y and i m p r e c i s e l y a p p l i e d , were wholly s u i t a b l e to the P a c i f i c coast s i t u a t i o n . Whereas maritime codes for the conduct of domestic and f o r e i g n v e s s e l s i n t e r r i t o r i a l waters had u n i v e r s a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y , others which evolved from i n t e r n a t i o n a l disputes over homeland sedentary f i s h i n g p r a c t i c e s had l i t t l e , i f any, r e l a t i o n to mobile anadromous P a c i f i c salmonoids. As a r e s u l t , o l d r e g u l a t i o n s had to be amended and, over the years, new l e g i s l a t i o n d r a f t e d and invoked to compensate f o r the nature of r e g i o n a l p e c u l a r i t i e s . The maintenance of sovereign a u t h o r i t y i n c o a s t a l B r i t i s h Columbia had been entrusted to the Royal Navy whose presence on the coast as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the Crown and guardian of c i v i l a u t h o r i t y was f e l t f o r 2 many decades. With the establishment of the c o l o n i e s , c o n t r o l of a l l c o l o n i a l and c i v i l i n t e r e s t s was placed i n the hands of the appointed Governor of the colony. The p r i n c i p l e duty of the Royal Navy then became one s o l e l y of defence, p r o t e c t i n g sovereign t e r r i t o r y , w h i l e c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n quckly assumed the r o l e of t r u s t e e of lands and resources. '''Roderick Logan, " P a r t i n g the Waters-Canadian S t y l e , " Geographical  Approaches to Canadian Problems, R. Louis G e n t i l c o r e ( e d . ) , Toronto, 1971, p. 200. Gough, l o c . c i t . 79 The E a r l y F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l Context The Colony of B r i t i s h Columbia achieved p r o v i n c i a l status by j o i n i n g the Confederation of Canada i n 1871 and i n doing so, consented to the terms of the B r i t i s h North America Act. This "much maligned document"''' designated the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of each U'egiistlastivee body. The f e d e r a l government under Section 91 has the r i g h t to make laws f o r the peace, order and good government of Canada; power over tra d e , commerce, n a v i g a t i o n , s h i p p i n g , c r i m i n a l law, seacoast and i n l a n d f i s h e r i e s ; and c o n t r o l over connecting works and undertakings such as i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l r a i l w a y s , c a n a l s , and p i p e l i n e s . Correspondingly, under Secti o n 92, the p r o v i n c i a l governments have c o n t r o l of p u b l i c lands of the province (seashores above low watermark) and the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r l o c a l works and undertakings; property and c i v i l r i g h t s i n the province; and a l l matters of l o c a l or 2 p r i v a t e nature w i t h i n the province. While r e s i d u a l power seems to r e s t w i t h the f e d e r a l government, an enigmatic s i t u a t i o n has a r i s e n i n which the f e d e r a l government has j u r i s d i c t i o n over the t e r r i t o r i a l marine en-vironment while the p r o v i n c i a l realm c o n t r o l s a l l access to the sea. Just as the e x p l o i t a t i o n of the marine environment had been p i e c e -meal and unsystematic i n the e a r l y p o s t - c o l o n i a l stages, the development of maritime l e g i s l a t i o n and resource management c o n t r o l s , i n both the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l context, had occurred i n rather an; ad-hoc f a s h i o n . Logan, op. c i t . , p. 199. W. R. Lederman, ed. ,. "The B r i t i s h North America A c t , 1867 , Sections 91-95," The Courts and the Canadian C o n s t i t u t i o n , Toronto, 1964, pp. 13-18. 80 T e r r i t o r i a l waters i n Canada have not been subject to a preponderance of l e g i s l a t i o n , and those laws which have been implemented have u s u a l l y evolved from s i t u a t i o n s that warranted government a c t i o n i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . Canadian government e f f o r t s to e s t a b l i s h the I n t e r n a t i o n a l P a c i f i c Salmon F i s h e r i e s Commission, or pass the T e r r i t o r i a l Sea and F i s h i n g Zone Act of 1964 profess to the heavy i n t e r n a t i o n a l o b l i g a t i o n s of the f e d e r a l government. However, these laws have only g e n e r a l i z e d relevance to i n l a n d waters such as the Gulf of Georgia. Since the study r e g i o n f a l l s w holly w i t h i n Canadian t e r r i t o r i a l waters, i t i s l a r g e l y through domestic l e g i s l a t i o n that Gulf waters are c o n t r o l l e d . A summary of f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n which has a l t e r e d usage patterns and management p r a c t i c e s i n the Gulf of Georgia over the past one hundred years i s presented i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e . TABLE 1 A SUMMARY OF RELEVANT DOMESTIC LEGISLATION year statue 1867 B r i t i s h North America Act 1868: F i s h e r i e s Act 1871 B r i t i s h Columbia j o i n s Confederation 1886 Navigable Waters P r o t e c t i o n Act 1917 Migratory B i r d s Convention Act 1928 Canada Customs Act 1934 Canada Shipping Act a. Code of N a v i g a t i o n P r a c t i c e s and Procedures b. Small Vessel Regulations 1962 1952 Admiralty Act 1960 B. C. P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Act 1964 T e r r i t o r i a l sea and F i s h i n g Zone Act 1967 B. C. P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Act 1970 Canada Water Act 81 During the l a s t . c e n t u r y , the f e d e r a l government has been under-standably more a c t i v e than the p r o v i n c i a l government i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Gulf waters. However, the a b i l i t y of l e g a l mechanisms and government agencies to cope w i t h dynamic problems of m u l t i p l e water use and the d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the marine environment w i l l be examined v i s - a - v i s present trends of marine a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the Gulf of Georgia. Chapter Summary This chapter has o u t l i n e d the h i s t o r i c a l development of various human f u n c t i o n a l water uses made of the Gulf of Georgia, From a b o r i g i n a l times, the Gulf has acted as a geographical bond rather than a b a r r i e r to the commercial and p o l i t i c a l development of B r i t i s h Columbia. An e f f o r t has been made to present c o n c i s e l y the nature of increased demand placed upon the n a t u r a l environment, and to emphasize the dominant r o l e cthetlGulCf11 1 played i n the development of e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia. I t s s h e l t e r e d waters provided a cheap and pervasive water highway i n an age of few roads and fewer r a i l w a y s , t y i n g together the seat of government, the more populated commercial centers of the lower mainland, and the s c a t t e r e d f i s h , lumber and mineral communities of the coa s t l a n d . I t s navigable waters and deep bays provided the deep-sea f o r e i g n trade o u t l e t f o r P r a i r i e g r a i n and western wood products to a l l parts of the world. I t s productive waters gave f o r t h an annual s i l v e r bonanza of salmon as w e l l as an abundance of other species of f i s h , crustaceons and ih^e"ritefefaa'Be%> a t f i r s t f o r the commercial fisherman and l a t e r , f o r the sports angler. And, i t s picturesque and chang-in g scenery pvmW&h, ati1-'aerstthe£tiifeh<afe:dc cm¥iuV^^^rc^Wfc%v(t^v^±^^nt f o r the r e s i d e n t of the c o a s t l a n d , as w e l l as a featured a t t r a c t i o n f o r 82 r e c r e a t i o n a l i s t and t o u r i s t a l i k e . This chapter, while n e c e s s a r i l y d e s c r i b i n g the compounded development of t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , has a l s o presented the metamorphosis i n water-borne a c t i v i t i e s and usage patterns i n the Gulf which r e s u l t e d from a combination of problems of e x t e r n a l world market i n f l u e n c e s , t e c h n o l o g i c a l developments, and changes i n adjacent land and resource p r a c t i c e s . An e v o l u t i o n of water-borne a c t i v i t i e s has ensued which has broadened the range of f u n c t i o n a l uses and repeatedly r e s e t the focus of p r i n c i p a l a c t i v i t y . The incremental nature of c e r t a i n s p a t i a l l y consumptive water uses, coupled w i t h the i n c o m p a t a b i l i t y of some of these elements w i t h one another, has complicated the r e s p o n s i b l e management of the marine en v i r o n -ment and the s a t i s f a c t i o n of a wide range of economic and s o c i a l demands. The f o l l o w i n g chapter demonstrates that the contemporary seascape i s not an area of s i n g u l a r resource use but an area which has evolved to become a m u l t i f a c e t e d environment r e f l e c t i n g strong c u l t u r a l as w e l l as economic values. 83 CHAPTER V THE PRESENT COMPLEX: FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITIES WITHIN A FINITE SPACE  I n t r o d u c t i o n Current f u n c t i o n a l uses made of the Gulf of Georgia i n c l u d e a combin-a t i o n of p r a c t i c e s of both an economic and s o c i a l nature. While a l l i n h a b i t a n t s w i t h i n the coastland are i n some way a f f e c t e d by the nature of the G u l f , many are d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h juxtaposed water-o r i e n t e d i n d u s t r i a l , commercial, and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . Many of these a c t i v i t i e s are unequal i n annual d u r a t i o n , d i f f e r i n s p a t i a l i n t e n s i t y and e x h i b i t l i t t l e a f f i n i t y i n i n t e n t and purpose. In the previous chapter an e f f o r t was made to present important events which shaped present usage p a t t e r n s . I t must be r e a l i z e d , however, that the n a t u r a l environment i s co n s t a n t l y being modified by these a c t i v i t i e s . Each major f u n c t i o n a l use i s acknowledged below together w i t h the growth and impact of that i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t y on the n a t u r a l environment. A general assessment of the present trend of a c t i v i t i e s , and the growth and d i s t r i b u t i o n of a s s o c i a t e d l e g i s l a t i o n enacted by f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments f o l l o w the inventory of f u n c t i o n a l uses. U n t i l r e c e n t l y , l i t t l e published i n f o r m a t i o n on the systematic aspects of the Gulf of Georgia e x i s t e d . Concern over the lack of resource inform-a t i o n spurred Environment Canada to undertake a program which i s i n v e s t i g a -t i n g v a r i ous f a c e t s which a f f e c t i n l a n d sea water use. In 1971, the School of Community and Regional Planning a t U.B.C. was commissioned to produce a s e r i e s of maps which would b r i n g together i n cartographic form p h y s i c a l , 84 economic, s o c i a l , and p o l i t i c a l v a r i a b l e s that i n some way a f f e c t sea water and f r e s h water use i n the Gulf of Georgia-Puget Sound coastland r e g i o n . The extensive w a l l map produced, i s i n e f f e c t , a one-page a t l a s . The advantages of having much of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n on a s i n g l e sheet are that i t portrays the linkages and r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v a r i o u s f a c t o r s which can be more r e a d i l y appreciated. The map can a l s o be r e a d i l y employed to i d e n t i f y areas of c o n f l i c t and areas worthy of f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n and d e t a i l e d study. Some of the data incorporated i n t h i s chapter and used i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of current water use of the Gulf of Georgia have been borrowed from t h i s cartographic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . Other i n f o r m a t i o n has been obtained from v a r i o u s f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l agencies which maintain some a u t h o r i t y i n Gulf waters. The d i f f i c u l t y i n o b t a i n i n g p h y s i c a l , economic, and s o c i a l data p e r t a i n i n g to a l l aspects of the marine environment only r e -afirms the n e c e s s i t y to r e - a j u s t government mechanisms which would decrease c o n f l i c t i n g bureaucracies and m i n i s t r y overlap while imaiLfnltai'ningbsttiriong a d m i n i s t r a t i v e power i n Gulf waters. The r e s u l t of segmented respons-i b i l i t y among a number of agencies, many of which pursued i n d i v i d u a l p o l i c y g o a l s , has been unorganized and i n c o n s i s t e n t data. Data were o f t e n i n an unusable form because they lacked s i m i l a r s p a t i a l d e f i n i t i o n from agency to agency or were d i f f i c u l t to i n t e r p r e t and to use f o r comparative purposes since they were based on crude amalgamations of incomplete d e f i n i t i o n s of b a s i c c r i t e r i a . Data p e r t a i n i n g to the annotated f u n c t i o n a l uses o f t e n need considerable manipulation before they can be presented. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , no agency which extends r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n t o Gulf waters uses the Gulf of Georgia as a u n i t area f o r measurement. A l l f u n c t i o n a l uses have been d i v i d e d i n t o four broad d i v i s i o n s : - commercial s h i p p i n g , 85 r e c r e a t i o n , and waste d i s p o s a l , and i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t i e s of s i g n i f i c a n c e r e c e i v e greater s c r u t i n y under these c a t e g o r i e s . Commercial Shipping Although the o r i g i n a l f u n c t i o n a l use, commercial shipping i n the Gulf of Georgia i s s t i l l one of the most important water uses. In 1970, Canadian Gulf ports loaded and unloaded over 62 m i l l i o n tons of deep-sea and coastwise cargo, representing an average annual increase of 5.4 per cent.''' While f i g u r e s f o r the average value of cargo are a v a i l a b l e , the t o t a l value of commercial shipping i s d i f f i c u l t to assess. The t o t a l tonnage handled at Gulf ports i s an aggregations of two components; 2 i n t e r n a t i o n a l sea-borne trade and coastwise shipments. Each of these components i s represented by d r a f t of d i f f e r e n t s i z e and type which frequent Gulf waters. Channels and routes used by c a r r i e r s of each group, along w i t h the departure and d e s t i n a t i o n p o i n t s , are o u t l i n e d i n Figure 4. Economics and S t a t i s t i c s Branch, P a c i f i c Coast Ports of North America, Department of I n d u s t r i a l Development, Trade and Commerce, V i c t o r i a , 1970, p. 4. 2 S t a t i s t i c s Canada defines the term " i n t e r n a t i o n a l sea-borne s h i p p i n g " as those v e s s e l s classed as being i n f o r e i g n s e r v i c e when: (1) the v e s s e l a r r i v e s or departs f o r a f o r e i g n port (2) a cargo i s loaded and unloaded f o r a f o r e i g n port (3) the r e g i s t r y of the v e s s e l i s other than Canadian and a v e s s e l i s c l a s s i f i e d as being in'coastwise' s e r v i c e when ( i ) the ship i s of Canadian r e g i s t r y and s a i l s between two Canadian ports and loads and unloads no f o r e i g n f r e i g h t ( i i ) i t i s of f o r e i g n r e g i s t r y but i s granted a waiver to engage i n coastwise s e r v i c e . 86 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Sea-borne Shipping Canada's gross n a t i o n a l product, which has more than doubled during the l a s t decade, i s l a r g e l y the r e s u l t of the nation's two-ocean t r a d i n g p o s i t i o n . During the same p e r i o d , f o r e i g n trade has almost t r i p l e d . Canadians today enjoy one of highest standards of l i v i n g because Canada i s the s i x t h most important t r a d i n g nation: and the f o u r t h greatest exporting n a t i o n . Emerging i n d u s t r i a l nations of the P a c i f i c Rim w i l l l i k e l y have the biggest s i n g l e impact on world trade patterns f o r the r e s t of t h i s century and Canada i s w e l l s i t u a t e d to engage i n a large share of these a c t i v i t i e s . While some 70 percent of trade i s w i t h the United S t a t e s , the development of Japan, i n p a r t i c u l a r , as a major i n d u s t r i a l t r a d i n g n a t i o n has stimulated a s u b s t a n t i a l growth i n trade volume and i s foreshadowing of future demands. A recent r e p o r t of the Canadian Transport Commission p r o j e c t s a f i v e - f o l d increase i n bulk commodity f o r e i g n trade and a two-fold increase i n non-bulk general cargo f o r e i g n trade at western Canadian ports by 1995. This increase w i l l have a dramatic impact on western t e r m i n a l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those of the Gulf of Georgia where recent marine c o n s t r u c t i o n (wharves, docks, bulk loading f a c i l i t i e s ) supports the £grcow.ing importance of water-borne f o r e i g n commerce. Although the a c t u a l number of f o r e i g n s a i l i n g s from Gulf of Georgia ports has decreased s l i g h t l y over the past decade, volume of cargo exported have increased over 120 percent from 10.2 2 m i l l i o n tons i n 1960 to 24.6 tons i n 1970. This i s i n large part due to ^Hendlih Menzies and Associates", Canadian Merchant Marine: A n a l y s i s  of Economic P o t e n t i a l , Report to the Canadian Transport Commission, D e c , 1970, p. 76. 2 Economics and S t a t i s t i c s Branch, op. c i t . , p. 4. 87 an increase i n f o r e i g n v e s s e l s i z e and a s h i f t to greater export of bulk commodities. Over 80 percent of western Canadian export trade i s p r e s e n t l y handled by Gulf p o r t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y Vancouver, where deep-sea cargoes loaded have increased from 5.5 to 17 m i l l i o n tons since I960.''" Foreign export trade tonnage exceeds import trade annually by about 400 percent. There i s a l s o a marked d i f f e r e n c e between imported and exported commodities both i n tonnage and value . Export commodities were made up p r i m a r i l y of h i g h -b u l k , low-value per u n i t volume, raw and semi-processed m a t e r i a l s , such as lumber, wheat and mineral products, while imports were p r i m a r i l y manufactured goods. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows the 1971 tonnage of two p r i n c i p a l export commodities f o r three s e l e c t e d ports of the Gulf. TABLE I I EXPORT TONNAGES FOR Nanaimo Lumber 577,282 tons Pulp 326,173 tons SELECTED PORTS BY PRINCIPAL COMMODITY New Westminster Lumber 463,343 tons Pulp 165,027 tons Vancouver Wheat 5,062,535 tons Coal 5,991,682 tons Although the port of the Gulf of Georgia i s the l a r g e s t exporter on the P a c i f i c Coast of North America, the r e l i a n c e on bulk commodities i s r e -f l e c t e d i n the average per ton v>alue of cargo. Canadian exports average about $76 per ton while American export commodities made up of l a r g e r 21 lEciohomics and S t a t i s t i c s Branch, l o c . c i t . 88 p r o p o r t i o n of manufactured goods average about $89 per ton."^ The t o t a l tonnage value of cargo minus c a r r i e r shipped from Gulf ports i n 1970, 2 exceeded 1.6 b i l l i o n d o l l a r s . An i n d i c a t i o n of the r o l e of deep-sea harbour f a c i l i t i e s i n f o s t e r i n g export shipments i s suggested by the f a c t that over 67 percent of B r i t i s h Columbia's t o t a l exports were transported 3 by water. The number and tonnage of v e s s e l s engaged i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l sea-borne export trade f o r sel e c t e d Gulf ports i n 1971 included i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e . TABLE I I I VESSELS AND EXPORT TONNAGES FROM SELECTED PORTS Port Vessels Export Tonnage Campbell River 298 2,807,542 New Westminster 338 1,448,906 Powell R i v e r 212 616,959 Vancouver 3,854 16,121,829 Source: S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 54-0002, January, 1972. 1 Economics and S t a t i s t i c s Branch, op. c i t . , p. 5, 2 I b i d . 3 P r o v i n c i a l Economics and S t a t i s t i c s Branch reported the value of exports by other means were $243,853,000, by r a i l $162,406,000, by road $ 15 ,666 ,000 by a i r $339,627,000 by p i p e l i n e 89 The Port of Vancouver By f a r the l a r g e s t port w i t h i n the Gulf i s the port of Vancouver. Burrard I n l e t f a c i l i t i e s handle the l a r g e s t dry cargo volume on the west coast of the c o n t i n e n t . The port exports cargo which r e f l e c t i t s p o s i t i o n as a major o u t l e t f o r p r a i r i e grains as w e l l as B r i t i s h Columbia products. In 1970, leading exports i n order of tonnage were: wheat, c o a l , lumber, potash and f e r t i l i z e r s , sulphur, b a r l e y , pulpwood, rapeseed, and pulp.^ The port i s geared to handle general cargo as w e l l as bulk commodities and w i l l soon have large container f a c i l i t i e s to accommodate t h i s r e v o l u t i o n a r y method of land-sea t r a n s p o r t . The port of Vancouver loaded n e a r l y 17 m i l l i o n tons of f o r e i g n trade i n 1970, and i s c u r r e n t l y enjoying a 6.5 percent i n -2 crease i n tonnage per year. However, t h i s trend cannot continue f o r Vancouver i f programs to improve antiquated f a c i l i t i e s are not imposed. A l s o , the lack of land space, the high cost of back-up l a n d , around the perimeter of Burrard I n l e t along w i t h the shallowness of the i n l e t and channel approaches fo r c e s port developers to look elsewhere f o r s i t e s f o r new f a c i l i t i e s which can accommodate the l a r g e s t s h i p . More than l i k e l y , the lower Fraser River w i l l begin to p l a y a l a r g e r r o l e as a deep-sea port '''National Harbours Board, Annual Report, 1970, Ottawa, 1971, p. 18. 2 * Economics and S t a t i s t i c s Branch, op. c i t . , p. 3. 3 In a d d i t i o n , the development of the port of Vancouver i s f u r t h e r complicated by the recent c o n f l i c t i n g p o l i c i e s and p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t s of the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board and c i v i c governments concerning the Burrard I n l e t S h o r e l i n e . 90 fo r Vancouver. Roberts Bank Superport, i s a l s o a consequence of the s p a t i a l l i m i t a t i o n s of Burrard I n l e t s i t e s . This s h i f t away from the older Burrard I n l e t f a c i l i t i e s to those along the southwestern shores and the greater r e l i a n c e on bulk commodities i s documented i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e of trade, p r o j e c t i o n s f o r the port of Vancouver. TABLE IV TRADE PROJECTIONS : FOR PORT OF VANCOUVER AND FRASER RIVER 1 ( m i l l i o n s of short tons ) Cargo Type 1975 1985 Port of Vancouver a b Fraser River Port of Van. Fraser River General Cargo Outbound 3.7 1.2 4.9 1.4 Inbound 1.7 .1 2.7 .2 T o t a l 5.4 1.3 7.6 1.6 Bulk Cargo Outbound 23.4 1.7 35.8 2.7 Inbound 1.6 .2 2.4 .4 T o t a l 25.0 1.9 38.2 3.1 Deepsea T o t a l 30.4 3.2 45.8 4.7 Coastal 15.0 5.5 25.0 7.0 Grand T o t a l 45.4 8.7 70.8 11.7 a inc l u d e s Roberts Bank b inc l u d e s North Arm Fraser B. C. P i l o t a g e A l l f o r e i g n bottoms which enter Canadian t e r r i t o r i a l waters are Adapted from B r i t i s h Columbia Research C o u n c i l , Reports f o r  N a t i o n a l Harbours Board, Vancouver, A p r i l and December, 1967, (unpublished). r e q u i r e d to r e g i s t e r w i t h the B r i t i s h Columbia P i l o t a g e , r e c e n t l y r e -organized as a crown company of Master Mariners, of the f e d e r a l M i n i s t r y of Transport.''" About 85 percent of a l l f o r e i g n v e s s e l s bound f o r Gulf of Georgia ports steam down Juan de Fuca and enter the Gulf from i t s 2 southern approaches. Each f o r e i g n t r a d i n g v e s s e l w h i l e i n Canadian waters i s now r e q u i r e d to o b t a i n the s e r v i c e s of an experienced marine p i l o t s t a t i o n e d at V i c t o r i a to navigate the dangerous t i d a l waters of the inner coast. The use of t h i s s e r v i c e i s mandatory and the charge i s designated by a s l i d i n g s c a l e based on the f o r e i g n v e s s e l ' s d r a f t , tonnage, 3 cargo value and number of miles t r a v e l l e d i n Canadian waters. Because of the p l e t h o r a of r e e f s , shoals and i s l a n d s which i n h i b i t access, f o r e i g n v e s s e l s . u s u a l l y enter the Gulf by way of Haro and Rosario S t r a i t v i a Juan de Fuca S t r a i t . To the n o r t h , f o r e i g n v e s s e l s e n t e r i n g the Gulf from Queen C h a r l o t t e Sound use Discovery Passage almost e x c l u s i v e l y . Haro S t r a i t handles the great e s t percentage of marine t r a f f i c although marine p i l o t s are at t h e i r own d i s c r e t i o n to choose any channel deemed adequate f o r the v e s s e l f o r which they are under c o n t r a c t . While a ledger i s kept on the number of f o r e i g n v e s s e l s e n t e r i n g Canadian waters a n n u a l l y , "'"C. H. L i t t l e , " P i l o t a g e i n Canada", Canadian Geographical  J o u r n a l , V o l . 85, October, 1972, p. 130. Personal i n t e r v i e w , Captain Newell, Queens Harbour Master, V i c t o r i a , B. C , May 12, 1972. 3 I b i d . no cumulative records are a v a i l a b l e f o r the s i z e of each v e s s e l , nature of i n d i v i d u a l cargo, c r u i s i n g time or course while It-he f o r e i g n v e s s e l i s i n t e r r i t o r i a l waters. Over 4,600 f o r e i g n bottoms engaged i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l trade departed from p r i n c i p a l Canadian ports i n the study r e g i o n i n 1971. 1 G e n e r a l l y , i n t e r n a t i o n a l deep-sea shipping a c t i v e i n the Gulf can be d i v i d e d i n t o a typology based upon cargo-general cargo, bulk cargo, and c r u d e - o i l cargo. General Cargo General cargo commodities comprise a s i g n i f i c a n t part of the i n t e r -n a t i o n a l sea-borne trade handled at Gulf p o r t s . Since Western Canada lacks a co n c e n t r a t i o n of secondary manufacturing i n d u s t r y , export goods are l a r g e l y made up of semi-processed resource commodities such as woods products; c h i e f l y lumber, pulp and newsprint. In t u r n , manufactured goods such as automobiles, e l e c t r i c a l goods, s t e e l shapes, and household goods comprise a large p r o p o r t i o n of import cargoes. Vancouver i s the p r i n c i p a l Gulf port f o r import goods and fu n c t i o n s as a d i s t r i b u t i o n center f o r a l l r e g i o n a l commodities. Vancouver p r e s e n t l y handles n e a r l y a l l of the co n t a i n e r i z e d cargo f o r the Gulf r e g i o n . However, the port has f a l l e n behind Puget Sound ports because of inadequate f a c i l i t i e s . Recent pro-posals to improve and b u i l d s deep-sea container f a c i l i t i e s have been made for Vancouver, the lower Fraser R i v e r , Squamish and Roberts Bank. The importance of c o n t a i n e r i z a t i o n and i t s repercussions on shipping has "^Personal i n t e r v i e w , Captain Covington, Company of Master Ma r i n e r s , Vancouver, B. C , March 22, 1972. Information was ex t r a c t e d from the M i n i s t r y of Transport Annual, 1972. 93 r e c e n t l y been emphasized by a study i n the United States which determined that about 82 percent of a l l United States f o r e i g n trade could be c o n t a i n e r i z e d and only s i x t y container berths would be r e q u i r e d to handle the r e s u l t i n g containers f o r a l l the United S t a t e s . In p a r a l l e l , any e f f i c i e n t system which could decrease c o s t s , number of s h i p s , and v a l u a b l e harbour land devoured by contemporary handling methods without decreas-ing the annual tonnage and value of trade to the port community would be most b e n e f i c i a l to the community and immediate environment. At present, uncontainerized general cargoes are widely d i f f u s e d at points throughout the Gulf. Export goods are l a r g e l y the products of the s c a t t e r e d lumber and pulp and paper m i l l s located along lesser-used channels ( C r o f t o n , Port M e l l o n , Ladysmith, Powell River --see Figure 4. General cargo v e s s e l s are u s u a l l y of smaller s i z e than the bulk c a r r i e r s which are becoming more frequent i n Gulf waters , however, the d e c e n t r a l i z e d nature of t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n s o f t e n n e c e s s i t a t e s steaming through s h e l t e r e d but p h y s i c a l l y c o n s t r i c t e d and conjested waterways. Bulk Cargo Rapidly expanding overseas e x p o r t s , the expanding d i v e r s i t y of b u l k -product shipments, and the increased u t i l i z a t i o n of large deep-sea bulk cargo s h i p s , have emphasized the need f o r enlarged deep-sea bulk handling terminals f o r B r i t i s h Columbia's resource producing economy. The movement of bulk commodity f a c i l i t i e s away from crowded urban harbours i s l a r g e l y due to t h e i r low-value, b u l k y , land-comsumptive nature as w e l l as to problems of dust, smell or u n s i g h t l i n e s s that can u s u a l l y be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h these 94 products.^ A l l terminals are c a p i t a l - i n t e n s i v e , f u c t i o n i n g e n t i r e l y i n an export c a p a c i t y and cargoes are made up p r i m a r i l y of mineral products although f e r t i l i z e r s , wheat, and petroleum products can o f t e n be handled at bulk terminal f a c i l i t i e s i n much the same way c o a l and i r o n ore are p r e s e n t l y managed. P u b l i c nuisance and environmental problems of bulk product s t o c k p i l i n g can be p a r t i a l l y overcome by covering or hosing down p i l e s . Figure 4 shows bulk loading f a c i l i t i e s at s e v e r a l points around the Gulf of Georgia, These are l o c a t e d at B r i t a n n i a Beach (copper), Texada I s l a n d ( i r o n ore and l i m e s t o n e ) , Burrard I n l e t ( c o a l , f e r t i l i z e r , potash, s a l t ) , Bamberton ( l i m e s t o n e ) , Hatch Point (copper), Roberts Bank ( c o a l ) , and under c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n Howe Sound ( c o a l ) . The l a r g e s t of Gulf bulk t e r m i n a l s , Roberts Bank Superport, has a c a p a b i l i t y at t h i s stage, to load 2 8 m i l l i o n tons of c o a l annually. Despite an encroachment upon the v a l u a b l e w i l d l i f e domains of Vancouver's southwestern shores, the s i t e of the Superport i n an exposed l o c a t i o n i s of l i t t l e consequence to other water uses. Generally t h i s i s one of the more p o s i t i v e aspects of bulk terminals i n that they can be located i n more remote and exposed areas. The l a r g e r 3 ships which frequent them w i l l not have to enter already conjested harbours ''"Here again, the u n p l e s a n t r i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h bulk loading f a c i l i t i e s f o r c o a l have been a recent m u n i c i p a l issue i n North Vancouver. 2 B. C. Department of Finance, F i n a n c i a l and Economic Review, Thirty-Second E d i t i o n , V i c t o r i a , J u l y , 1972, p. 62. The average s i z e of v e s s e l loading at Roberts Bank i s about 60,000 DWT. which i n turn reduces the chance of c o l l i s i o n or groundings i n c o n s t r i c t e d passages. Sea routes frequented by bulk c a r r i e r s are a l s o shown i n Figure 4. Petroleum Cargo Since there are no ground sources of crude petroleum i n c o a s t a l B r i t i s h Columbia, or i n the States of Washington and Oregon, a s p e c i f i e d volume necessary to s a t i s f y the f u e l demands of the P a c i f i c Northwest must be imported. P r i o r to 1954, a l l crude o i l f o r r e f i n e r i e s w i t h i n the r e g i o n had to be imported e i t h e r by r a i l or tanker, p r i m a r i l y from C a l i f o r n i a n o i l f i e l d s . With the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the Trans Mountain Pipe-l i n e , ocean shipments ceased as the crude o i l demands i n the P a c i f i c Northwest were met by crude o i l f r om A l b e r t a f i e l d s . This p i p e l i n e has a present c a p a c i t y of about 380,000 b a r r e l s per day, and serves four c o a s t a l r e f i n e r i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia (102,000 bpd), and four r e f i n e r i e s i n the United States (240,000 bpd).''" The N a t i o n a l Energy Board has made a petroleum product demand f o r e c a s t f o r B r i t i s h Columbia which i s shown 2 i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e . Estimates f o r Washington and Oregon States are based on present p i p e l i n e through-puts and on the annual petroleum demand 3 growth r a t e of 3.2 percent. ^Howard Paish-.and A s s o c i a t e s , The West Coast O i l Threat i n  P e r s p e c t i v e , Report f o r Environment Canada, Vancouver, A p r i l , 1972, p. 50. 2 Canada, N a t i o n a l Energy Board, Energy Supply and Demand i n  Canada and Export Demand f o r Canadian Energy, 1966-1990, Ottawa, p. 174. 3 P a i s h , op. c i t . , p. 50. 96 FIGURE k PRINCIPAL PORTS AND VESSEL ROUTES IN THE GULF OF GEORGIA 97 TABLE V PACIFIC NORTHWEST PETROLEUM DEMAND To t a l Year B r i t i s h Columbia Washington & Oregon 1975 148,000 bpd. 262,000 bpd. 410,000 bpd. 1980 179,000 bpd. 307,000 bpd. 486,000 bpd. 1985 220,000 bpd. 359,000 bpd. 579,000 bpd. 1990 254,000 bpd. 420,000 bpd. 674,000 bpd. The Trans-Mountain p i p e l i n e could expand i t s p i p e l i n e c a p a c i t y to 600,000 bpd. and given no r e s t r i c t i o n on the impo r t a t i o n of Canadian crude i n t o the United S t a t e s , i s capable of meeting the demand i n the P a c i f i c Northwest f o r the next f i f t e e n years.''' However, the disco v e r y of a large f i e l d of crude o i l at Prudhoe Bay on Alaska's A r c t i c North slope has changed t h i s s i t u a t i o n d r a m a t i c a l l y . S t a r t i n g l a t e i n 1972, o i l tankers of 120,000 tons (854,000 b l . ) - - t h e s i z e 2 of the infamous Torrey Canyon-'-will be t r a v e l l i n g from the P a c i f i c through Juan de Fuca and Rosario S t r a i t to the r e c e n t l y constructed r e f i n e r y at Cherry Point at a r a t e of about one per month. This r a t e w i l l increase to about one v e s s e l every f i v e of s i x days w i t h i n two years and an increase i n tanker s i z e of up to 500,000 tons. While these v e s s e l s can make the passage from Alaska to Washington State r e f i n e r i e s without e n t e r i n g Canadian waters, reference to an e a r l i e r map of t i d e and current flow shows '''Paish, op. c i t . , p. 50. 2 The ininvfambusm Torrey Canyon which s p i l l e d 118,000 tons of crude o i l a f t e r s t r i k i n g Seven Stones Reef o f f the Cornish coast of England i n March, 1967, was the f i r s t supertanker to a c c i d e n t l y disgonge i t s e n t i r e cargo i n a c o a s t a l r e g i o n r e s u l t i n g diniadjamage aomca ceojl'dssaklscale. 98 that any a c c i d e n t a l s p i l l i n United States waters could soon f o u l B r i t i s h Columbia shores. The ocean transport of crude o i l to r e f i n e r i e s around the Gulf of Georgia-Puget Sound shore o f f e r s the g r e a t e s t environmental th r e a t to the e n t i r e r e g i o n . Various aspects of the impact of o i l p o l l -u t i o n and l e g i s l a t i o n f o r c o n t r o l and contingency clean-up are examined i n Chapter V I I . Coastwise Shipments Because of the rugged c o a s t a l t e r r a i n and p r o h i b i t i v e l y expensive over-land r o u t e s , p e r i p h e r a l resource communities were t r a d i t i o n a l l y l i n k e d to c e n t r a l i z e d d i s t r i b u t i o n points by water a r t e r i e s . Often, water transport i s s t i l l not only the cheapest and most e f f i c i e n t method to move goods, wuite f r e q u e n t l y , i t i s the only way to s e r v i c e s c a t t e r e d settlements along the i n t e r i o r c o a s t l i n e . The nature of i n d u s t r i e s i n c o a s t a l B r i t i s h Columbia has forced the e v o l u t i o n of water t r a n s p o r t a t i o n methods unique not only f o r t h e i r o r i g i n a l i t y , but f o r the tremendous sca l e of t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n . The pioneers of water transport on t h i s coast have conducted a c o n t i n u i n g program of i n n o v a t i o n and adaptation that has r i a s e d the c o a s t a l shipping i n d u s t r y from an a n c i l l a r y a c t i v i t y of the e a r l y logging and mining operations, to a l e a d i n g p o s i t i o n i n the pro-v i n c i a l economy. With n e c e s s i t y the mother of i n v e n t i o n , the p e c u l i a r -i t i e s of r e g i o n a l resource i n d u s t r i e s and the requirements of tidewater ''"At present, some crude o i l has been exported from Trans-Mountain's deep-sea berth i n Burrard I n l e t to o i l d e f i c i t areas i n C a l i f o r n i a , however, these shipments are sporadic r a r e l y exceeding two s a i l i n g s a month, or t o t a l l i n g more than 300,000 b a r r e l s of crude. 99 settlement engendered s p e c i a l types of v e s s e l s adapted to the r o l e of t r a n s p o r t i n g raw and simi-processed m a t e r i a l s from e x t r a c t i o n s i t e to 1 processing p l a n t . Vessels i n coastwise s e r v i c e i n Gulf waters are employed i n a number of r o l e s from i n d u s t r i a l to freight-passenger s e r v i c e . While much smaller i n displacement tonnage, the v a r i e t y of c o a s t a l v e s s e l s f a r outnumber f o r e i g n v e s s e l a r r i v a l s i n t e r r i t o r i a l waters. With the exception of the port of Vancouver, coastwise shipments from Gulf ports r i v a l tonnage of import-export i n t e r n a t i o n a l sea-borne trade. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e i n d i c a t e s a r r i v a l s and tonnages of coastwise shipping at s e v e r a l Gulf ports i n 1971. TABLE VI VESSEL ARRIVALS AND TOTAL COASTWISE TONNAGE HANDLED FOR SELECTED PORTS Port Vessels T o t a l Tonnage Campbell River 1,263 706,207 Nanaimo 1,267 713,131 New Westminster 2,225 1,407,444 Powell River 1,628 988,552 Vancouver 8,582 5,764,610 Sources:- S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 54-0002, January, 1972. Since many of the c o a s t a l c a r r i e r s are i n t e g r a t e d to t e r r e s t r i a l t r a n s p o r t systems, i n d i v i d u a l port turnaround time at departure and d e s t i n a t i o n i s reduced p e r m i t t i n g c o a s t a l v e s s e l s more time at sea. The '''An e a r l y attempt at a geographical a n a l y s i s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Gulf of Georgia c a r r i e r s and r e g i o n a l p h y s i c a l resources was put forward by Brooke Cornwall, "Geographical R e l a t i o n s h i p of Types of Shipping i n B. C. Coastal Waters," Geographical B u l l e t i n , No. 4, 1954, pp. 4-13. 100 frequency and number of c o a s t a l v e s s e l s i n Gulf Waters has, i n some cases, caused an unwarrented continued pre-emtion of waterspace. Year-round operation by some c a r r i e r s has r e s u l t e d i n a s i n g l e purpose a p p r o p r i a t i o n of commonly frequented routes. Problems of t h i s nature w i l l be discussed c o n c u r r e n t l y as they p e r t a i n to i n d i v i d u a l c o a s t a l water users. Just as v e s s e l s employed i n coastwise s e r v i c e are many and v a r i e d , so are cargoes and d e s t i n a t i o n s . For s i m p l i c i t y , c o a s t a l shipments can be d i v i d e d i n t o c a t e g o r i e s : (a) those i n v o l v i n g the t r a n s f e r of crude resource commodities from production area to processing f a c i l i t i e s and (b) those i n v o l v i n g the movement of general f r e i g h t and passengers. I n d u s t r i a l Transfer I n d u s t r i a l t r a n s f e r s can be most commonly defined as movements of primary resources from e x t r a c t i o n s i t e to r e g i o n a l processing complex. Ingenuity and i n n o v a t i v e technology i s manifested most apparently i n the s p e c i a l i z e d c r a f t and techniques u t i l i z e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y . I t i s not an exaggeration to s t a t e that without the t o t a l resources of the v a r i e t y of coastwise c a r r i e r s , the major woods i n d u s t r i e s of c o a s t a l B r i t i s h Columbia would be v i r t u a l l y paralyzed. Not only the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y r e l i e s h e a v i l y on r e g i o n a l water t r a n s p o r t , other i n d u s t r i e s are e q u a l l y dependent. Over the years, c o a s t a l v e s s e l s have been adapted to s e r v i c e these various i n d u s t r i e s . While the s i d e -loading c o a s t a l steamer has p r a c t i c a l l y disappeared from c o a s t a l i n d u s t r i a l ^By d e f i n i t i o n , t h i s would include commercial f i s h i n g and f i s h p r o c e s s i n g , however, these w i l l be t r e a t e d i n a separate subsection of t h i s chapter. 101 t r a n s f e r s , the i n t e r - r e g i o n a l movement of cargo has increased. Tug and barge operations have, over the l a s t twenty years, captured the m a j o r i t y of resource product shipments and v i r t u a l l y a l l i n d u s t r i a l f o r e s t t r a n s f e r Tug and Barge Operations Steam towboats had appeared i n B r i t i s h Columbia waters o r i g i n a l l y to a i d the e a r l y square-rigged ships i n manoeuvering through t i d a l r i p s 1 and narrow passages. In conjunction w i t h t h i s duty, steam tugs began to engage i n l o g towing a c t i v i t i e s . Movements which o r i g i n a l l y saw tug and f l a t boom or Davis Raft t r a n s f e r of logs to processing m i l l , have been augmented by a greater u t i l i z a t i o n of large log scows and most 2 r e c e n t l y , s e l f - l o a d i n g , self-dumping barges. Tug and barge operations are w e l l s u i t e d to s h e l t e r e d i n l a n d waters f o r a number of reasons. P r i m a r i l y , the v e r s a t i l i t y of the tug and the economics of i t s operation are impressive when compared to other water c a r r i e r s . This i s mainly due to p r a c t i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as the r e l a t i v e l y low c a p i t a l investment of f l o a t i n g equipment, the small s i z e of crew to man the v e s s e l s , and the f l e x i b i l i t y p o s s i b l e by v i r t u e of the f a c t that the cargo c a r r i e r i s separable from i t s p r o p u l s i o n u n i t . Moreover, the s i m p l i c t y of tugs and scows, arid t h e i r a d a p t a b i l i t y and absence of a u x i l i a r y machinery or equipment, help to defray o p e r a t i o n a l ''"Island Tug and Barge Company, Ocean Highway, V i c t o r i a , 1967 , p. Seaspan's " I s l a n d Yarder" can s e l f - l o a d i n excess of 2.75 m i l l i o n f e e t of logs (10,500}tons) i n 18 hours. 102 and maintenance c o s t s . Because the tug i s r e l i e v e d of the n e c e s s i t y of remaining i n harbour while barges are being loaded or dischaged, the v e s s e l can be employed f o r a greater period of time and at a number of tasks. Such competetive advantages of tug and barge operations have c o n t i n u a l l y l e d to the displacement of s e l f - p r o p e l l e d coasters engaged i n bulk cargo t r a n s f e r from p o i n t s around the Gu l f . Gulf tugs and barges are designed and constructed to be employed i n s p e c i a l i z e d tasks which includ e the movement of chemicals, s t r u c t u r a l products, newsprint, wood pu l p , r a i l c a r s , c o n s t r u c t i o n equipment or petroleum products.^ W i t h i n the Gulf of Georgia the three major i n d u s t r i a l cargoes moved by towboats are wood products ( l o g s , wood-chips), c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s (limestone, sand and g r a v e l , cement), and petroleum products ( d i e s e l f u e l , g a s o l i n e ) . Log Booms and Log Storage Obviously, water o f f e r s the cheapest transport and handling medium f o r r e g i o n a l f o r e s t i n d u s t r i e s . Hardwick's comprehensive t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a l maps of production and consumption of the c o a s t a l f o r e s t i n d u s t r i e s i n 1962 demonstrated the r e l i a n c e placed on water linkages and tug operations 2 f o r the e f f i c i e n t maintenance of these i n d u s t r i a l l i n k a g e s . The growth of coastwise shipments i n the Gulf of Georgia i s i n part due to the l o c a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of the wood's i n d u s t r y and most i m p e r a t i v e l y on the '''Island Tug and Barge Company, op. c i t . , p. 41. Hardwick, op. c i t . , p. 16. 103 f o r t u i t o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p of a c c e s s i b l e f o r e s t s and s h e l t e r e d sea. Various methods i n v o l v i n g r a f t s , scows, and barges are used to move rough logs from production areas to storage s i t e s and processing p l a n t s . While s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i n log t r a n sp o r t has i n c r e a s e d , a large p r o p o r t i o n of the logs are s t i l l moved i n sectioned l o g booms. Figure 5 shows the u b i q u i t y of log storage areas i n Gulf of Georgia waters. Most s h e l t e r e d s h o r e l i n e s and bays, e s p e c i a l l y those adjacent to lumber and pulp m i l l s , are u t i l i z e d at c e r t a i n times f o r l o g s o r t i n g and storage. Few areas have been exempted and o f t e n , large bays and i n l e t s are e n t i r e l y enclosed by l o g booms. In p a r t i c u l a r , along the lower F r a s e r - P i t t River there i s a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n between waterfront i n d u s t r i e s and the u t i l i z a t i o n of the n a t u r a l transport-storage network at t h e i r doorstep. Most of the a v a i l a b l e f o r e -shore areas are reserved by lease f o r s t o c k p i l i n g logs to be i n j e s t e d by by numerous saw m i l l s , plywood m i l l s and pole m i l l s . Because water depths need not be e x c e s s i v e , a tremendous amount of foreshore acreage has been set aside to meet r e g i o n a l needs. The lower F r a s e r - P i t t River foreshore has a reserved storage c a p a c i t y of over 3,300 acres alone.''' As w e l l , l a rge r e s e r v a t i o n s f o r l o g storage occur i n Nanaimo Harbour, and i n Howe Sound around Gambier I s l a n d . The value of logs i n water storage i n the G u l f , both at processing s i t e s , and i n booms p r i o r to reaching market, was estim-ated i n October 1971, to be $54,485,800 from a volume of 768,130,000 board f t . '''Forward, Waterfront Land Use i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver B. C , Geographical Branch, Paper #41, Ottawa, 1968, p. 14. P a i s h , op. c i t . , p. 238. 104 FIGURE 5 LOG STORAGE AREAS IN THE GULF OF GEORGIA 105 T i d a l storage areas which are annually drawn down i n winter and s p r i n g are b u i l t up during the summer. This process may f l u c t u a t e from year to year and w i l l approximately be f o r t y percent of the t o t a l at the low pe r i o d i n l a t e s p r i n g to a high c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n l a t e summer. This l a t e summer co n c e n t r a t i o n and the booming a c t i v i t y which accompanies i t can o f t e n c o n f l i c t w i t h other foreshore uses. On the t i d a l reaches of the F r a s e r , booming grounds o f t e n p r o h i b i t s h o r e l i n e access f o r the r i v e r boater or the foreshore r e c r e a t i o n a l i s t . S i m i l a r problems occur along the western shore of Howe Sound. In more urbanized areas, foreshore log booming a c t i v i t i e s can have a devaluating e f f e c t on r e s i d e n t i a l water-f r o n t p r o p e r t i e s . Waterfront r e s i d e n t s o f t e n complain of the u n s i g h t l i n e s s and inconvenience of large booming grounds. 1 Although B r i t i s h Columbia beaches are famous f o r t h e i r abundance of gnarled d r i f t w o o d , some of t h i s wood, which i s a consequence of f o r e s t product t r a n s f e r , can have a d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t on the n a t u r a l environment. Despite the obvious hazard of f l o a t i n g d e b r i s which breaks loose from booms 2 i n t r a n s i t and increases the chance of serious damage to smaller c r a f t , wood c h i p s , sawdust and ch e m i c a l l y t r e a t e d wood wastes which are blown from open scows at sea or are s t r i p p e d from logs i n booming grounds can, ^In 1967, Deep Cove r e s i d e n t s who complained of the d i f f i c u l t y of access and boat moorage adjacent t h e i r waterfront p r o p e r t i e s were e v e n t u a l l y compensated by a decrease i n the number of l o g booms moored i n the bay. 2 H y d r o f o i l f e r r y s e r v i c e from V i c t o r i a to S e a t t l e which began i n the summer of 1969, ceased the same year l a r g e l y due to the incidence of damage to the ship's f o i l s caused by f l o a t i n g d e b r i s . 106 a f t e r becoming waterlogged and having sunk to the bottom, have d e l e t e r i o u s and l e t h a l e f f e c t s on c e r t a i n marine species of bottom f e e d e r s . 1 While log t r a n s p o r t and booming grounds are e s s e n t i a l to the healthy continua-t i o n of the province's l e a d i n g i n d u s t r y , p a r t i a l s o l u t i o n s to some of these problems may be in c u r r e d by two approaches. F i r s t , a greater use of barges and scows f o r moving rough logs should decrease the number of logs l o s t i n shipment. Second, multi-purpose management of storage areas and c o n s c i e n t i o u s c o n t r o l of residue wastes from m i l l i n g operations would help decrease the amount of f l o a t i n g or submerged debris i n t i d a l channels and shallow bays. Co n s t r u c t i o n M a t e r i a l s C o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s , handled almost e n t i r e l y by tug and barge operations i n the Gulf of Georgia, are made up p r i m a r i l y of i n d u s t r i a l minerals and va r i o u s forms of c o n s t r u c t i o n aggregates. Since shipments from various sources are sporadic and c a r r i e d by a host of towing companies, a c t u a l movement f i g u r e s are not known. However, i t i s thought that i n d u s t r i a l t r a n s f e r s of sand arid g r a v e l , concrete, limerock, and cement r i v a l the tonnages of f o r e s t t r a n s f e r s . G e n e r a l l y , movements are piecemeal and only a few e x t r a c t i o n s i t e s maintain any notable frequency of shipment. These s i t e s are r e l a t e d p r i m a r i l y to c o n s t r u c t i o n demands of the urbanized southern shores of the Gulf and in c l u d e Bamberton ( l i m e s t o n e ) , Texada.Island ( l i m e s t o n e ) , Powell River (sand and g r a v e l ) , Squamish (sand and g r a v e l ) , Burrard I n l e t (cement, sand and g r a v e l , "'"Various species of crustaceons are p a r t i c u l a r l y succeptable to f i b r o u s wood m a t e r i a l s becoming lodged i n the r e s p i r a t o r y systems. 107 Marpole (concrete, cement, sand and g r a v e l ) , Fraser South Arm (cement, p r e f a b r i c a t e d concrete forms). As the po p u l a t i o n mushrooms, a general increase i n demand f o r b u i l d i n g aggregates w i l l ensue which w i l l deplete e x i s t i n g sources. Thus the f i r s t r e s u l t w i l l be a d e c l i n e i n production areas c l o s e to the centres of po p u l a t i o n . Production w i l l have to be maintained by new p i t s which w i l l become p r o g r e s s i v e l y JfainbheraTaway. Petroleum Products Ross, i n h i s t h e s i s on i n t e r n a t i o n a l aspects of o i l p o l l u t i o n i n Puget Sound and S t r a i t of Georgia, found that i d e n t i f y i n g the frequency and 2 volume of r e g i o n a l o i l product movements was an extremely complicated task. Recent bad p u b l i c i t y has made o i l companies uncooperative i n r e l e a s i n g q u a n t i t y data. Coastwise shipments and the r e g i o n a l supply of o i l products o r i g i n a t e from petroleum r e f i n e r i e s at the head of Burrard I n l e t . Refined o i l products are moved from r e f i n e r i e s by various routes to Vancouver I s l a n d and other points along the i n t e r i o r coast. In 1971, the various Canadian o i l and towing companies maintained 22 barges and four tankers w i t h a t o t a l c a r r y i n g c a p t a c i t y of 9,560,000 g a l l o n s , the bulk of which 3 operate e n t i r e l y i n the coastwise petroleum trade south of Johnstone S t r a i t . 1 Ross, l o c . c i t . ,2 2Ship movement i n f o r m a t i o n can a l s o be misl e a d i n g s i n c e empty barges or tankers are o f t e n recorded i n the same manner as those c a r r y i n g f u l l cargoes. Ross, op. c i t . , p. 10 108 The c a p a c i t y of each vessel- v a r i e s from a few thousand b a r r e l s up to 40,000 b a r r e l s . With p a r t i a l cooperation from the major o i l companies, Paish r e f i n e d these f i g u r e s somewhat and found that Sea Span I n t e r n a t i o n a l , formerly I s l a n d Tug and Barge Company, and the major towing company of the r e g i o n , moves about 25 percent of a l l o i l products i n the study area.''" In 1971, t h i s amounted to 2,770 b a r r e l s of o i l products i n Vancover harbour and 3,260,000 b a r r e l s outside Burrard I n l e t . I t was there f o r e estimated that 13 m i l l i o n b a r r e l s of o i l products are transported annually by water w i t h i n the Gulf r e g i o n outside of Burrard I n l e t . Unless new r e f i n e r i e s or product p i p e l i n e s are constructed to serve Vancouver I s l a n d , r e g i o n a l o i l product movements through the Gulf w i l l increase p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y to meet petroleum product demand. Thus, the marine t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of o i l products w i l l increase i n r e l a t i o n to N a t i o n a l Energy Board p r o j e c t i o n s to the f o l l o w i n g l e v e l s . TABLE V I I REGIONAL PETROLEUM PRODUCT MOVEMENTS BY WATER IN THE GULF OF GEORGIA Year Capacity 1971 13 m i l l i o n b a r r e l s 1975 20 m i l l i o n b a r r e l s 1980 24 m i l l i o n b a r r e l s 1985 30 m i l l i o n b a r r e l s 1990 34 m i l l i o n b a r r e l s P a i s h , op. c i t . , p. 58. 109 The t r a n s f e r of r e f i n e d o i l products across the border i s n e g l i g i b l e as r e f i n e r i e s i n both c o u n t r i e s supply n e a r l y a l l the domestic needs. There i s , although, some through movement of o i l products from Puget Sound sources to points along the Alaskan Panhandle, however, t h i s has seldom averaged more than 65,000 b a r r e l s a n n u a l l y . 1 O i l products shipped w i t h i n the Gulf are v a r i e d and i n c l u d e q u a n t i t i e s of bunker o i l , g a s o l i n e , a v i a t i o n f u e l , d i e s e l o i l , and f u e l o i l . The flow of r e g i o n a l o i l product shipments i s p o t e n t i a l l y more threatening to the environment than crude o i l ^shipments since the number of v e s s e l s i s greater and the cargo i s much more t o x i c . Passenger-Freight Service At one stage i n the h i s t o r y of c o a s t a l B r i t i s h Columbia, v e s s e l s employed i n passenger-freight s e r v i c e f a r outnumbered a l l other commercial c a r r i e r s w i t h the exception of commercial f i s h i n g c r a f t . However, the i n a b i l i t y of side loading v e s s e l s to compete w i t h more e f f i c i e n t methods of cargo handling and auto-oriented passengers brought about a l a r g e - s c a l e disappearence of many of these t r a d i t i o n a l c r a f t . Whereas most of the r e g i o n a l t r a n s f e r of bulk cargoes has been captured by tug and barge ope r a t i o n s , n e a r l y a l l of the general f r e i g h t has been d i v e r t e d to f a s t automobile f e r r i e s . Goods produced or d i s t r i b u t e d from lower mainland points and destined f o r Vancouver I s l a n d or Sunshine Coast centers are u s u a l l y truck t r a i l e r e d aboard r e g u l a r p u b l i c and p r i v a t e f e r r i e s . Ship-ments which a r r i v e at lower mainland points by r a i l can u s u a l l y reach Vancouver I s l a n d by means of r e g u l a r r a i l barge and t r a i n f e r r y connections. "*"Ross , op. c i t . , p. 11. 110 FIGURE 6 PASSENGER - FREIGHT SERVICE IN THE GULF OF GEORGIA I l l Three f e r r y companies p r e s e n t l y operate i n Gulf of Georgia waters. They are Washington State F e r r i e s , Canadian P a c i f i c Railway, and the l a r g e s t , B r i t i s h Columbia Fe r r y A u t h o r i t y . Figure 6 i l l u s t r a t e s the routes and ports of c a l l of a l l f e r r y operations. F e r r y operations are more frequent i n peak summer per i o d s . Several areas of i n t e n s i f i e d water use can be i d e n t i f i e d i n which f e r r y operations and other water us e r s , because of constructed passage-ways are f r e q u e n t l y i n c l o s e contact. In p a r t i c u l a r , Swartz Bay-Piers I s l a n d , A c t i v e Pass, Departure Bay, and Horsehoe Bay, are high-use zones where c o n j e s t i o n can o f t e n occur. Problems of i n c o m p a t a b i l i t y i n these zones are i n v e s t i g a t e d i n Chapter 6. Commercial F i s h e r i e s The commercial f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y of the Gulf of Georgia i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a d i v e r s i f i e d catch and a m u l t i p l i c i t y of v e s s e l s of v a r y i n g l e n g t h , tonnage and type of operation.''" In a d d i t i o n , there are v a r i a t i o n s i n the f i s h i n g e f f o r t per v e s s e l , the a v a i l a b i l i t y of f i s h i n any s p e c i f i c area or i n any p a r t i c u l a r year, and the p r i c e s paid to fishermen f o r d i f f e r e n t species of f i s h . These f a c t o r s , along w i t h government management p r a c t i c e s , lead a wide v a r i a b i l i t y i n v e s s e l landings and fishermen's earnings. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of only the most recent f i s h e r y s t a t i s t i c s and r e g u l a t i o n s may not be i n d i c a t i v e of the o v e r a l l s t a t e of the Gulf's commercial f i s h e r y since the resource i s dynamic by nature about which there i s s t i l l much to be known. ''"The study r e g i o n includes n e a r l y a l l species of f i s h and i n -v e r t e b r a t e s found i n P a c i f i c Coast tempearait'eirl'atiiittudBslf Phowevie-Tj/eonl.y '• v. about a dozen types are of commercial importance. To summarize a s o p h i s t i c a t e d and h i g h l y regulated resource i n d u s t r y such as commercial f i s h e r i e s i s a complicated task and thus, only that i n f o r m a t i o n considered important to the theme of t h i s study i s incorporated. This s e c t i o n o u t l i n e s the number of commercial f i s h i n g c r a f t , the commercially e x p l o i t a b l e s p e c i e s , harvested tonnage, and the wholesale value of the Gulf of Georgia f i s h e r y . Data presented has been supplied by the F i s h e r i e s Service and F i s h e r i e s Research Board of the Department of the Environment who r e p o r t catch s t a t i s t i c s r e p r e s e n t i n g the Canadian f i s h i n g e f f o r t f o r B r i t i s h Columbia by s t a t i s t i c a l zones. While the Gulf of Georgia i s not treated as a s i n g l e s t a t i s t i c a l u n i t , a r e l i a b l e approximation of t o t a l f i s h i n g e f f o r t i n the study r e g i o n can be made by t o t a l l i n g data from the nine s t a t i s t i c a l zones i n t o which the Gulf has been d i v i d e d . Caution must be ex e r c i s e d i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of much of t h i s data i n any e f f o r t to e s t a b l i s h a d o l l a r value f o r the Gulf f i s h e r y because of the e x t r a - r e g i o n a l m o b i l i t y of most of the fishermen and many species of f i s h . Anadromous s p e c i e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , which o r i g i n a t e i n r e g i o n a l t r i b u t a r i e s and rear i n Gulf e s t u a r i n e waters are caught by Canadians and non-nationals i n t e r r i t o r i a l and western P a c i f i c waters. Because the movements of these f i s h do not conform to p r e s c r i b e d p o l i t i c a l t e r r i t o r y , the p o t e n t i a l value of the f i s h e r y i s t r a n s f e r a b l e from r e g i o n to region depending upon the method and timing of capture. Hence, the salmon resources cannot be viewed as a s t a t i c e n t i t y as can an i n l a n d freshwater f i s h e r y based upon sedentary f i s h . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of catch f i g u r e s and 1These s t a t i s t i c a l zones are 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 28, 29A, and the Fraser River estuary 29B and 29C. 113 gross returns to fishermen may be an understatement of the a c t u a l commercial value of the marine resources. For example, the salmon- catch i n B r i t i s h Columbia had a wholesale value i n 1970 of over $99.6 million.''' The Fraser River f i s h e r y , the world's most important salmon stream, represented over 2 one-half of t h i s t o t a l catch or s l i g h t l y more than $50 m i l l i o n . While the greatest percentage of commercial fishermen r e s i d e i n the lower mainland, only a small p o r t i o n of the t o t a l salmon catch i s made i n Gulf waters despite the f a c t that i t has long been taken as axiomatic among f i s h e r i e s b i o l o g i s t s that salmon should be removed as cl o s e to t h e i r n a t a l streams as 3 p o s s i b l e f o r optimum management e f f i c i e n c y . The Gulf of Georgia, while s u s t a i n i n g a commercial f i s h e r y based p r i m a r i l y upon the salmon, supports the commercial h a r v e s t i n g of ground-f i s h and other seafood resources. L i s t e d below are the commercially e x p l o i t e d species and t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n s throughout the Gulf r e g i o n . Salmon In terms of f i s h i n g e f f o r t , tonnage caught, and gross returns to Economics Branch, F i s h e r i e s S e r v i c e , F i s h e r i e s S t a t i s t i c s f o r  B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of the Environment, Vancouver, 1971. The _ increase i n value of the B. C. Salmon catch from the 1960 t o t a l of 35.9 m i l l i o n i s r e f l e c t e d by the large increase i n per pound wholesale p r i c e of salmon r a t h e r than i n an increase i n tonnage of salmon caught i n the l a s t decade. Pearson, op. c i t . , p. 17. Richard Van Cleve and Ralph W. Johnson, Management of the High  Sea F i s h e r i e s of the Northeastern P a c i f i c , U n i v e r s i t y of Washington Pub-l i c a t i o n s i n F i s h e r i e s , V o l . 2, November, 1963, p. 18. This procedure, along w i t h l i c e n c e l i m i t a t i o n , would help to b r i n g about much-needed economic r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of a c u r r e n t l y o v e r c a p i t a l i z e d and overmanned i n d u s t r y . Although u n l i k e l y , such an a c t i o n would decrease the number of f i s h i n g c r a f t and s p a t i a l l y concentrate them at s t r a t e g i c r i v e r mouths such as the F r a s e r . 114 fishermen, f i v e species of salmon are the mainstay of commercial a c t i v i t y . In order of commercial v a l u e , the Gulf salmon catch i s made up of sockeye, chinook, coho, p i n k , and chum. The chinook salmon i s fundamentally d i f f e r e n t from the other species i n that i t i s f i s h e d ;the e'nti-r.e-. year, while the other anadromous species are caught from May u n t i l December. Unl i k e the h i g h l y mobile sockeye, coho and pink salmon, the Chinook i s more d o m i c i l i a r y and i n f r e q u e n t l y occurs i n large schools tending to 2 remain i n clo s e p r o x i m i t y to n a t a l streams. Chinook are u s u a l l y taken on the t r o l l i n Gulf waters whereas sockeye, the major f i s h to the F r a s e r , must be taken i n g i l l nets and are seldom taken on t r o l l e d l i n e s . The gross returns to fishermen which are recorded by sales s l i p r e c e i p t s have been tabulated by the F i s h e r i e s Service and the t o t a l s , 1968-1971 are i n -cluded i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e . TABLE V I I I GULF OF GEORGIA SALMON CATCH: : 1968-1971 Year T o t a l Landed Weight Wholesale Landed Value 1968 26,572,200 $15,093,100 1969 32,475,500 $23,830,400 1970 34,826,000 $22,408,700 1971 59,155,700 $43,737,700 Average Source: 38,257,350 Adapted from P a i s h , p. 207. $26,267,500 ^Paish found that the landed value of salmon w i t h i n the study region i s over f i v e times the landed value of a l l other commercial f i s h and i n v e r t e b r a t e s . D. J . M i l n e , The Chinook and..Coho Salmon F i s h e r i e s of B. C., B u l l e t i n 142, F i s h e r i e s Research Board of Canada, Ottawa, 1963, p. 46. 115 The greatest weight and value of salmon per u n i t area comes from commercial f i s h e r i e s operations at the mouth and estuary of the Fraser R i v e r . The catch from s t a t i s t i c a l zone 29A, 29B and 29C i s taken almost e n t i r e l y by g i l l n e t t e r s whose r e l a t i v e l y short season l a s t s only from J u l y u n t i l October. The r e l a t i v e -importance of the salmon f i s h e r y i n t h i s zone, along w i t h the offshore f i s h e r y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Fraser R i v e r , i s f u r t h e r enhanced i f the future p o t e n t i a l f o r increased salmon production i s considered. A recent f i s h e r i e s r e p o r t , which i n v e s t i g a t e s aspects of improvements to the Fraser f o r spawning salmon, i n d i c a t e s the p o t e n t i a l landed value of commercial sockeye i s n e a r l y three times the present value, while f o r p i n k s , the p o t e n t i a l value i s eigh t times greater than the present value for Fraser River s t o c k s . 1 In a d d i t i o n to the F r a s e r , many other Gulf t r i b u t a r i e s - t h e Cowichan, Squamish, Nanaimo, Qualicum and Comox--are a l s o important salmon producers but on a more l i m i t e d s c a l e . Some of these salmon streams are more famous and are p o t e n t i a l l y more valu a b l e f o r adjacent sport f i s h e r y than f o r the 2 commercial value of the salmon. Major concentrations of commercially e x p l o i t a b l e salmon species are o u t l i n e d i n Figure 7. With reference to Figure 7, a strong coincidence between commercial and sports f i s h i n g areas i s ev i d e n t , e s p e c i a l l y i n more sh e l t e r e d waters. ^ F i s h e r i e s Service and I n t e r n a t i o n a l P a c i f i c Salmon F i s h e r i e s Commission, F i s h e r i e s Problems Related to Moran Dam on the Fraser R i v e r , Department of the Environment, Vancouver, August, 1971. At present, i t has been estimated that Canadian fishermen catch over h a l f of the Fraser s t o c k s , 85 percent of which re-enter the Gulf of Georgia v i a Juan de Fuca S t r a i t . 2 The Department of the Environment has r e c e n t l y embarked upon a program of hatchery development f o r f i v e Gulf of Georgia t r i b u t a r y streams. The b e n e f i t s of the hatchery program f o r the commercial f i s h e r y i s not the primary o b j e c t i v e , but r a t h e r the-program i s intended to increase the a v a i l a b i l i t y of chinook and coho salmon f o r sports a n g l e r s . 1 1 6 Groundfish and Herring Although of much l e s s importance than the salmon f i s h e r y , the r e g i o n supports a t r a w l and l i n e f i s h e r y based upon va r i o u s species of commercial groundfish and h e r r i n g . With a few exceptions, commercial stocks of h a l i b u t , l i n g cod, grey cod, and lemon sole i n h a b i t i n g the Canadian waters of the Gulf are independent of those i n adjacent waters and hence, the f i s h e r y can be managed as a more or l e s s s e l f - c o n t a i n e d unit.''" General geographical areas have been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r most species a f t e r an ex-tensive program of tagging over the l a s t twenty years. I n v e s t i g a t i o n s have shown that migrations of groundfish are not extensive but o f t e n r e l a t e 2 p a r t i a l l y to the movement of h e r r i n g . Landings of trawled groundfish from the Gulf amount to about 6 m i l l i o n pounds annually which represents 3 roughly one quarter of the t o t a l B r i t i s h Columbia t r a w l and l i n e f i s h e r y . Table IX below shows the 1 9 7 0 t o t a l s f o r commercial groundfish and h e r r i n g from Gulf waters. T o t a l catch wholesale value of $ 1 , 4 2 4 , 2 0 0 i n 1 9 7 0 1 C. R. F o r r e s t e r and K. S. Ketchen, A Review of the S t r a i t of  Georgia Trawl F i s h e r y , B u l l e t i n 1 3 9 , F i s h e r i e s Research Board of Canada, Vancouver, 1 9 6 3 , p. 1 6 . 2i K. S. Ketchen and C. R. F o r r e s t e r , "Migrations of the Lemon Sole i n the S t r a i t of Georgia," Progress Reports of the P a c i f i c S t a t i o n s , F i s h e r i e s Research Board of Canada, No. 1 0 4 , November, 1 9 5 5 , p. 1 1 . F o r r e s t e r and Ketchen, op. c i t . , p. 5 . 117 FIGURE 7 MAJOR CONCENTRATIONS OF SALMON IN THE GULF OF GEORGIA 118 represents l i t t l e change over the l a s t few years despite the r e g i o n a l growth i n p o p u l a t i o n . TABLE IX COMMERCIAL CATCHES OF GROUNDFISH AND HERRING, 1970. F i s h T o t a l Landed Weight ( l b s , • ) Landed Value Wholesale Value H a l i b u t 362,300 $121,232 $162,300 Li n g Cod 2,502,200 $278,800 $526,600 Grey Cod 2,107,000 $165,510 $330,700 Lemon Sole 1,246,800 $ 79,630 $203,400 Herring 2,300,000 $ 80,700 $201,200 T o t a l 8,519,300 $725,872 $1,424,200 Herring catches however, have not remained constant and have f l u c t u a t e d 2 widely over the past few years. Herring are v i t a l to the marine food chain. p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r carnivorous salmon, and i n terms of sheer biomass, are 3 the dominant f i s h species of the r e g i o n . Although the h e r r i n g f i s h e r y was closed f o r the r e d u c t i o n i n d u s t r y ( f i s h meal, f e r t i l i z e r s ) during the 1967-1968 season, a l i m i t e d f i s h e r y f o r b a i t and food purposes has continued, ''"Fisheries S e r v i c e , l o c . c i t . 2 F. H. C. T a y l o r , L i f e H i s t o r y and Present Status of B r i t i s h  Columbia Herring Stocks, B u l l e t i n , 143, F i s h e r i e s Research Board of Canada, 1964. W^. E. Barraclough, "Occurrence of L a r v e l H e r r i n g i n the S t r a i t of Georgia During 1966," Journal of F i s h e r i e s Research Board of Canada, V o l . 24, 1967. 119 FIGURE 8 GROUNDFISH AND HERRING IN THE GULF OF GEORGIA 120 most r e c e n t l y under an expanded quota system. Figure 8 presents the major concentrations' of groundfish and h e r r i n g i n Gulf waters and shows that the f i s h are most prodigious adjacent to the Fraser River mouth and along the east coast of Vancouver I s l a n d . Marine Invertebrates Marine i n v e r t e b r a t e s are extensive i n species and are d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the study r e g i o n . While a l l of these organisms have high e c o l o g i c a l and a e s t h e t i c v a l u e , only about f i v e have d i r e c t commercial importance. Figure 9 i l l u s t r a t e s the concentrations of prawns, shrimps, dungeness crabs, and o y s t e r s . G e n e r a l l y , oysters are found i n the i n t e r t i d a l zone, most o f t e n along the more protected shores. Important shrimp, prawn and crab grounds are adjacent to the mouth of the Fraser R i v e r . The f o l l o w i n g table shows catch and value i n the study r e g i o n i n TABLE X COMMERCIAL CATCH OF PRAWNS, SHRIMPS, CRABS AND OYSTERS; 1970. Invertebrate T o t a l Landed Weight ( l b s . ) Landed Value Wholesale Value Prawns ) ) 968,600 $261,820 \ $535,000 Shrimps) Crabs 982,300 $176,340 $356,100 Oysters Not known $512,000 $575,000 T o t a l $950,160 $1,466,100 1-F i s h e r i e s S e r v i c e , l o c . c i t . 121 FIGURE 9 MAJOR CONCENTRATIONS OF MARINE INVERTEBRATES IN THE GULF OF GEORGIA 122 Commercial F i s h i n g C r a f t The study r e g i o n i s winter or home port f o r over 70 percent of the p r o v i n c i a l f i s h i n g f l e e t which, i n 1971, numbered over 5,000 c r a f t w i t h an assessed value of over $68 m i l l i o n . 1 However, while v e s s e l owners c a l l Gulf ports home, only a small f r a c t i o n of the f l e e t a c t u a l l y f i s h e s Gulf waters. C r a f t which do f i s h Gulf waters vary i n type and gear depend-ing upon species commercially sought. A l s o , l i t t l e t r a n s i t i o n by fishermen from species to species occurs since c a p i t a l investment i n s p e c i a l gear warrants u n d i v e r s i f i e d e n t e r p r i z e . Salmon f i s h i n g i s l i m i t e d to g i l l - n e t t i n g of sockeye, chum and pink concentrated at the F r a s e r 1 s mouth and to t r o l l i n g f o r coho and chinook at s e v e r a l s t r a t e g i c p o i n t s throughout the Gulf. While i t i s not known how many g i l l - n e t fishermen f i s h only the Fraser estuary on a y e a r l y b a s i s , i t has been estimated fiftavti:about one to two hundred commercial t r o l l e ' r s are r e s i d e n t to the Gulf. The m a j o r i t y of groundfish are taken by t r a w l from mid-October to mid-February w i t h the exception of l i n g cod, p r a c t i c a l l y a l l of which are taken by handline or by salmon t r o l l e r s from March 1 to November 30. Commercial F i s h i n g Closures Regulations for commercial f i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s are numerous and are o f t e n l o c a t i o n s p e c i f i c . Area c l o s u r e s and gear r e s t r i c t i o n s are invoked by the F i s h e r i e s Service through the F i s h e r i e s Act f o r infrequent p e r i o d s , w i t h the nature and d u r a t i o n of the r e s t r i c t i o n s subject to change. For ''"Adapted from Paish (p. 234), t h i s t o t a l w i l l f u r t h e r decrease w i t h the e f f e c t s of the F i s h e r i e s Service Licence C o n t r o l Program. 123 t h i s reason, l i s t i n g current but p e r i o d i c area closures and f i s h i n g r e g u l a t i o n s per se i s not that v a l u a b l e to the study because of the dynamic nature of these c o n t r o l s . However, what i s important i s that a precedent has been set whereby p o r t i o n s of seaspace are r e s t r i c t e d to other users. Management p r a c t i c e s of t h i s nature may apply to c e r t a i n areas on a permanent or semi-annual b a s i s . Saanich I n l e t , f o r example, while once an u n r e s t r i c t e d t e r r i t o r i a l seaspace?,, i s now a sports a n g l i n g preserve and out of bounds f o r a l l commercial f i s h i n g a c t i v i t y . ^ The root of these seaspacee. r e s t r i c t i o n s was l a r g e l y based upon programs f o r conserving 2 vulnerable species and maintaining them at economically a t t r a c t i v e l e v e l s . However, i n more recent cases, the importance of the waters f o r another competing use, sports f i s h i n g , has played a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n the establishment of new r e g u l a t i o n s . Water-Oriented Recreation Over the past two decades, governments at a l l l e v e l s have been hard-pressed to provide a f u l l range of o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n . The steady growth and u r b a n i z a t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n coupled w i t h increased disposable income and l e i s u r e time, b e t t e r h e a l t h , education, and technology are a few of the f a c t o r s which m u l t i p l y the demand placed on present ''"Failure to conform to these r e g u l a t i o n s can mean s t i f f f i n e s and the c o n f i s c a t i o n of boat and gear. These r e s t r i c t i o n s are most s t r i n g e n t however a l l commercial species have s i z e , quota, r e g u l a t i o n s . f o r salmon season and f i s h e r i e s , f i s h i n g area 124 1 r e c r e a t i o n a l resources. A mamouth study completed by the United States Outdoor Recreation Resources Commission i n 1963 i l l u s t r a t e d that r e c r e a t i o n i n general had grown 60 percent from 1950 to 1960, and f o r e c a s t an increase 2 i n outdoor r e c r e a t i o n of over 80 percent from 1960 to 1976. The same study estimated that t o t a l per c a p i t a l e i s u r e time would increase 2\ times from 3 1950 to 2000. Clawson s u b s t a n t i a t e d these statements and showed that w h i le f i v e percent of l e i s u r e time i s p r e s e n t l y spent on outdoor r e c r e a t i o n , by the year 2000 t h i s percentage may increase to ten percent, which coupled w i t h population p r e d i c t i o n s f o r that date, w i l l increase pressure on e x i s t i n g outdoor r e c r e a t i o n resources by about f o r t y times over present 4 demands. Thus, the a v a i l a b i l i t y of more l e i s u r e time, together w i t h the d e s i r e to enjoy i t and money to s a t i s f y t h i s d e s i r e , a l l i n d i c a t e an urgemtrequitement to expand our r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p u r t u n i t i e s . The complexrdnm of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i n the study r e g i o n w i l l be no exception from the North. American s i t u a t i o n . I f at a l l , estimates of i n -''"Lloyd Brooks, "Demand f o r Recreation Space i n Canada," Regional  and Resource Planning i n Canada, Ralph Kruger, ed., Toronto, 1970, pp. 225-236. A. L. F e r r i s et a l . , N a t i o n a l Recreation Survey, Outdoor  Recreation Resources Review Commission Study Report 19, Washington, 1962, p. 5. 3 I b i d . Marion Clawson and Jack L. Knetsch, Economics of Outdoor Recre-a t i o n , Baltimore, 1966, pp. 25-26. 125 creases i n outdoor r e c r e a t i o n as they apply to the Gulf region may be con-s e r v a t i v e . Over sev.enty percent of the p r o v i n c i a l population c u r r e n t l y r e s i d e s w i t h i n the coastland study r e g i o n and f o r e c a s t s r e v e a l that 1 population w i l l increase to over two m i l l i o n by 1980. While not a l l of these people w i l l be a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n some overt form of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y , a growing number of the p o p u l a t i o n , plus the annual i n f l u x of t o u r i s t s , w i l l be a f f e c t e d , to v a r y i n g degree, by changes i n the r e c r e a t i o n a l and a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t y of the marine environment. The O.R.R.R.C. reports demonstrated that water-oriented r e c r e a t i o n was by f a r the most popular form of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y . Water bodies, s a l t or f r e s h , d i s p l a y a unique e s o t e r i c a t t r a c t i o n f o r the r e c r e a t i o n a l i s t , unmatched by other n a t u r a l forms and which unhindered, can support a broad spectrum of a c t i v i t i e s . For the study-region, r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s can be d i v i d e d i n t o two groups (1) those which are conspicuous water surface a c t i v i t i e s such as pleasure c r u i s i n g , s a i l i n g and sports f i s h i n g and (2) those which are o f t e n l e s s conspicuous f o r e -shore and i n t e r - t i d a l zone a c t i v i t i e s such as swimming, d i v i n g , sun-b a t h i n g , p i c n i c i n g , w i l d f o w l o b s e r v a t i o n , and beach combing. Despite t h e i r seasonal magnitude, p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s and a r e a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s among various r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s are not g e n e r a l l y well-known and are de-serving of greater a t t e n t i o n . Nonetheless, both d i v i s i o n s of marine r e c r e a t i o n are comprehensively analyzed below i n terms of t h e i r present posture, i n t e n s i t y , and future d i r e c t i o n s . "^B. C. Department of I n d u s t r i a l Development, Trade and Commerce, Forecast of P o p u l a t i o n Growth i n B r i t i s h Columbia to 2000, V i c t o r i a , 1971. 126 R e c r e a t i o n a l Boating i n the Gulf of Georgia  Boat-ownership and Moorage R e c r e a t i o n a l boating and boat-ownership i n any r e g i o n are r e l a t e d to c e r t a i n p h y s i c a l and human c o n s t r a i n t s . P h y s i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s i n c l u d e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as c l i m a t e , length of boating season, a c c e s s i b i l i t y and uniqueness of c r u i s i n g area. S o c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s i n c l u d e s e v e r a l s o c i o -economic f a c t o r s such as popu l a t i o n d e n s i t y , disposable income, and changes i n boat c o n s t r u c t i o n and r e l a t e d boating technology. These f a c t o r s i n t e r -r e l a t e i n a complicated f a s h i o n the outcome of which are r e g i o n a l boat-ownership rates c o n s i d e r a b l y higher than the n a t i o n a l average. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e i l l u s t r a t e s the d i f f e r e n c e i n boat-ownership ra t e s f o r se l e c t e d areas. TABLE XI BOAT-OWNERSHIP RATES Selected Area Boats per 1000 Popu l a t i o n 1 Canada 25.0 2 United States 40.8 3 Ontario 35.0 4 New Brunswick 13.0 5 Nova S c o t i a 20.0 6 Quebec 10.0 7 C a l i f o r n i a 16.5 8 Puget Sound 95.0 9 B r i t i s h Columbia 46.0 10 Gulf of Georgia 53.0 a. Vancouver 45.0 b. V i c t o r i a 72.0 Table X I I - continued Selected Area 127 Boats per 1000 Popu l a t i o n c. Nanaimo 100.0 d. Campbell River 99.0 e. Powell River 124.0 f. Gibson's Landing 164.0 Comox 300.0>" Table Sources: Areas 1^7; K. B. C l a r k , A, Marine Recreation Planning Methodology:  A Case Study of the Gulf Islands and the San Juan I s l a n d s , M. A. T h e s i s , U.B.C. , 1969 , p. 8. Area 8; Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Pleasure  Boating Study Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters of the State of Washington, Olympia, 1969, p. 26. Area 9, 10 a. - g.; N. D. Lea and A s s o c i a t e s , A n a l y s i s on R e c r e a t i o n a l  Boating i n the S t r a i t of Georgia Area, B r i t i s h Columbia, Dept. of P u b l i c Works, Vancouver, 1966, p. 27. While the re g i o n possesses a population d i s t r i b u t i o n of a nodal nature w i t h some of the highest wage earners i n Canada, boat-ownership r a t e s are more l i k e l y r e f l e c t e d by the pro x i m i t y of s h e l t e r e d waters and the a c c e s s i b i l i t y to areas most s u i t e d to marine r e c r e a t i o n . The d i v e r s i t y of boating opportunity and the a t t r a c t i v e c o a s t a l scenery afforded by the reg i o n are probably the key v a r i a b l e s i n the high r e c r e a t i o n a l boating value of the Gulf of Georgia. An exhaustive inventory of boat-ownership, types of boating f a c i l i t i e s and boat-oriented r e c r e a t i o n , along w i t h p r o j e c t i o n s of fu t u r e growth and economic impact of r e c r e a t i o n a l boating a c t i v i t i e s i n the Gulf of Georgia, was completed f o r the Department of P u b l i c Works by N. D. Lea and A s s o c i a t e s i n 1966. Lea's survey i n d i c a t e d that there were 60,900 128 pleasure boat-owning households i n the r e g i o n who owned some 72,000 boats and by 1976 t h i s number would increase to 106,800 c r a f t (61 boats per 1000).''" For p r e d i c t i v e purposes, Lea found that p o p u l a t i o n and disposable income were the most p r a c t i c a l and r e l i a b l e parameters from which to base proj e c t e d boat-ownership t o t a l s . More r e c e n t l y , P a i s h , i n attempting to update e a r l i e r r e c r e a t i o n a l boating i n f o r m a t i o n , corroborated Lea's estimates and found that, a compound growth f a c t o r of 5.3 percent appeared 2 c o n s i s t e n t l y r e p l i c a b l e w i t h these p r o j e c t i o n s . Therefore i n 1972, i t was estimated that there were 83,755 r e c r e a t i o n a l boats i n the study r e g i o n . 3 This has been disaggregated by area i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e . TABLE X I I NUMBER OF BOATS: 1966, 1972. Area 1966 P r e d i c t e d 1972. Sooke P a r k s v i l l e Nanaimo Ladysmith Duncan Campbell River 1,090 460 2,700 700 2,500 1,070 1,486 627 3,639 954 3,408 1,459 (continued on Page 127) '''N. D. Lea, op. c i t . , pp. 46-48. This r e p o r t included a survey of r e c r e a t i o n a l boating f a c i l i t i e s i n V ictoria-Sooke area which i s not included w i t h i n the bounds of t h i s study however, since most of these boaters have the a b i l i t y and oftentimes frequent Gulf waters, these f i g u r e s have not been deleted from Lea's t o t a l s included below. P a i s h , op. c i t . , p. 225. Adapted from P a i s h , op. c i t . , p. 226. 129 Area 1966 P r e d i c t e d 1972 Comox 4,800 6,581 Squamish 2,300 3,135 Powell River 1,600 2,206 V i c t o r i a 10,000 13,710 Burrard Peninsula 22,700 31,838 North Shore 4,100 5,557 Fraser V a l l e y 2,700 3,681 South Shore 4,180 5,475 T o t a l 60,900 83,755 The estimated 1972 value of r e c r e a t i o n a l c r a f t was obtained from market value i n f o r m a t i o n and in t e r v i e w s of i n d i v i d u a l boat owners. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e i s an e s t i m a t i o n of the value of the f l e e t by p r i n c i p a l boat c l a s s e s f o r the Gulf r e g i o n based upon percentage of type and average s i z e of each c l a s s as reported by L e a . 1 TABLE X I I I RECREATIONAL BOAT CLASS AND VALUE Boat Class % of Boat Pop u l a t i o n Estimated T o t a l Number Est. Average Value T o t a l Value S a i l b o a t 2.7 2,261 $ 728 $ 1,646,008 S a i l b o a t w i t h a u x i l i a r y 3.8 3,183 11,058 35,197,614 Outboard 50.3 42,129 1,786 75,242,394 Inboard 11.2 9,381 14,116 132,422,196 Hand-operated and other 32.0 .26,801 . 200 5 ,360,200 T o t a l 100.0 83,755 $249,868,412 Lea, op. c i t . , p. 25, and p. 50. 130 Studies of marinas and moorage f a c i l i t i e s are more numerous f o r the Gulf r e g i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y on a more l o c a l i z e d s c a l e . Paish set the r e -placement value of e x i s t i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l moorage i n the study r e g i o n i n 1972.at $49 million,"'" a f i g u r e which was a r r i v e d at a f t e r updating data 2 put forward f i r s t by Lea, and l a t e r by Hendlin Menzies. Concern over the increase i n r e c r e a t i o n a l boating and the p r o v i s i o n of moorage space r e s u l t e d i n an a n a l y s i s of f e d e r a l government f a c i l i t i e s on the west coast 3 4 by T. G. How i n 1967. How's report found the steady increase i n pleasure c r a f t had created overcrowding and c o n j e s t i o n at e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s and that government wharves which r e c e i v e d s i g n i f i c a n t use during any or part of the year should be maintained and more economically managed under the 5 terms of the N a t i o n a l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n A c t . To aggregate t o t a l s from t h i s "'"Paish, op. c i t . , p. 228. 2 Hendlin Menzies and As s o c i a t e s L t d . , The Economic P o t e n t i a l of the West Coast F i s h e r i e s to 1980, Report f o r the Department of F i s h e r i e s and F o r e s t r y , Vancouver, 1971, (unpublished). 3 Personal communication w i t h Cmdr. Charles Brooks, Harbours and Wharves .AA'dmi-riics:tr'a^ori,, Ma«r'iin'e">- SfeWiicW,, MftUiS'l&s^ oT&" T&Ws^pWft,, V/i'CtTor'ia, June 19, 1972. 4 T. G. How, A Report on the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Small-Boat Harbours  on the West Coast. Department of Transport, Vancouver, 1967. Among other t h i n g s , the Act declares that each mode of t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n so f a r as p r a c t i c a b l e , should bear a f a i r p r o p o r t i o n of the r e a l costs of the resources and s e r v i c e s provided at p u b l i c expense. Since nominal fees were being charged f o r p u b l i c boating f a c i l i t i e s , consider-a t i o n was to be given to the degree to which i t was f e a s i b l e to provide adequate management i n the l i g h t of use made of each f a c i l i t y and the w i l l i n g n e s s of those using them to c o n t r i b u t e to t h e i r c o s t . 131 survey and from surveys of p r i v a t e f a c i l i t i e s i n order to a c c u r a t e l y estimate the number of moored c r a f t or berthage spaces i s a d i f f i c u l t task since v e s s e l s i z e o b v i o u s l y i n f l u e n c e s the number of c r a f t which can be accommodated at any boating f a c i l i t y . Estimates f o r Greater Vancouver show that onl>y about 8 percent of a l l pleasure boat-owning households use water moorage. Applying t h i s f i g u r e to Gulf boat t o t a l s would mean that there were approximately 10,500 r e c r e a t i o n a l c r a f t accommodated at Gulf 2 f a c i l i t i e s . Figure 10 i s a r e g i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n a l boat-ing f a c i l i t i e s and tends to r e f l e c t areas where more of the boating a c t i v i t i e s occur. Major concentrations of r e c r e a t i o n a l boating f a c i l i t i e s occur i n the Vancouver-Howe Sound area, at points along the Sunshine Coast, i n the Campbell R i v e r - D e s o l a t i o n Sound area, at Nanaimo, along the Saanich P e n i n s u l a , and i n the Gulf I s l a n d s . The f e d e r a l s t u d i e s , along w i t h s e v e r a l smaller i n q u i r i e s completed 3 4 by p r i v a t e c o n s u l t i n g companies and municipal planning agencies have ''"Nelson, op. c i t . , p. 26. This f i g u r e c o r r e l a t e s f a i r l y w e l l w i t h Paish's t o t a l of 12,796 which a l s o included combined pleasure and f i s h i n g c r a f t . A ssociated Engineering Services L t d . , and Swan Wooster Engin-ee r i n g L t d . , P r e l i m i n a r y F e a s i b i l i t y Study of the Proposed Tsawwassen Marina  Development, Vancouver, January, 1966; and Swan Wooster Engineering L t d . , A Proposed Small C r a f t Marina at Ladner, B. C. M u n i c i p a l i t y of D e l t a , Ladner, 1970. John K. Decker, Economic Outlook of P o i n t Roberts and E f f e c t s of  a Proposed Harbour, Whatcom County Planning Commission, Bellingham, 1965; and Vancouver C i t y Planning Department, Proposed Marina Development f o r Spanish  Banks-Point Grey Area, 1964, (unpublished). 131a FIGURE 10 RECREATIONAL BOATING FACILITIES IN THE GULF OF GEORGIA 132 provided a wealth of i n f o r m a t i o n on the nature and operation of r e c r e a t i o n -a l boating f a c i l i t i e s i n the Gulf r e g i o n . In g e n e r a l , these studies have proven that w i t h i n the study area: (1) There i s a steady increase i n r e g i o n a l boat ownership which has r e s u l t e d i n a c o n s i s t e n t and growing demand f o r wet and dry berthage, and a n c i l l a r y marine s e r v i c e s . (2) There i s a s c a r c i t y of n a t u r a l l y s h e l t e r e d harbours, p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to the populated centers of Vancouver and V i c t o r i a . (3) Moorage occupancy ra t e s vary summer to winter and can be a f f e c t e d by the degree of s h e l t e r o f f e r e d at a p a r t i c u l a r f a c i l i t y . (4) Moorage charges f l u c t u a t e r e g i o n a l l y and are i n f l u e n c e d by a. the s i z e of c r a f t b. the range of a v a i l a b l e s e r v i c e s c. the p e c u l i a r i t i e s of boating f a c i l i t y s i t e , e.g. degree of s h e l t e r , distance away from populated c e n t r e , p r o x i m i t y to favoured marine r e c r e a t i o n . (5) While boating f a c i l i t i e s range i n , s i z e from s e v e r a l c r a f t to marinas of over 1,500 c r a f t , there i s an increase i n member-ship at new and e x i s t i n g s a i l i n g c l u b s , and yacht and powerboat a s s o c i a t i o n s which operate from these f a c i l i t i e s . Boating Patterns The temperate climate of the Gulf of Georgia permits the longest r e c r e a t i o n a l boating season i n Canada. The Canadian Yachting A s s o c i a t i o n defined the boating season as that part of the year when 90 percent of 133 1 the boating a c t i v i t i e s occur. The boating season a l s o tends to correspond to that part of the year when d a i l y temperatures exceed 50°F 2 which, f o r the study r e g i o n , amounts to over 200 days annually. Clark found that 47 percent of the boating days occurred i n J u l y and August, a 3 f i g u r e which r e s u l t e d from greater summer and v a c a t i o n a c t i v i t y . RecY^ta^on 1 days f o r boaters were d i v i d e d among a number of a c t i v i t i e s such as c r u i s i n g , r a c i n g , w a t e r - s k i i n g , f i s h i n g and s a i l i n g . P a i s h , reworking Lea's data, c a l c u l a t e d that there was an average of 50 outings per year per boat, and that through m u l t i u s e , the average number of r e c r e a t i o m d a y s per boat was 170 days. Assuming no n o t i c e a b l e change i n boat usage p a t t e r n s , t h i s f i g u r e was m u l t i p l i e d by the estimated boat t o t a l of 83,755 which r e s u l t e d i n a t o t a l of 14.3 m i l l i o n r e c r e a t i o n ''"Personnal communication with Tony P a i g e r , Commodore,, Ladner Yacht Club, August 24, 1972. 2 Lea, op. c i t . , p. 9, 3 C l a r k , op. c i t . , p. 170. 4 Recreation day i s defined as one person u t i l i z i n g a boat for a part of one day. Mu l t i u s e i n t h i s sense means more than one person per boat and c a l c u l a t e d by P a i s h , to be an average of 3.41 persons ( r e c r e a t i o n days) per boat day. 6 P a i s h , op. c i t . , p. 240. 134 boating days per year f o r the G u l f . 1 I n t u i t i v e l y these f i g u r e s seem somewhat high and are the r e s u l t of a survey of marina-oriented boat owners. Although a w e a l t h i e r and more p a r t i c i p a t o r y segment of the boating f r a t e r n i t y , they represent l e s s than 10 percent of the f l e e t , the greater m a j o r i t y of which are t r a i l e r e d to and from a launching s i t e . This t o t a l i s a l s o not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y of g r e a t e s t magnitude, the sports f i s h e r y , where the nature of a c t i v i t y has wider socio 2 economic appeal, and where the average number of persons per boat i s l e s s . This counter argument i s f u r t h e r corroborated by the F i s h e r i e s Service who p u b l i s h salmon sports f i s h i n g catch s t a t i s t i c s f o r the Gulf of Georgia which show that the e f f o r t of sports fishermen i n Gulf waters i n 1970 amounted to over 340,000 f i s h and s l i g h t l y over 2.0 m i l l i o n s a l t water angle 3 r e c r e a t i o n a l boating days. With r e c r e a t i o n a l c r u i s i n g considered to be the second major boating a c t i v i t y a f t e r a n g l i n g i n the study r e g i o n , i t became more apparent that Paish's t o t a l of 14.3 m i l l i o n r e c r e a t i o n days i s somewhat high and that a f i g u r e i n the neighbourhood of 5-7 m i l l i o n 4 r e c r e a t i o n a l boating days per year would be more p r a c t i c a l . Refinement 1 .IRa.i'sh, op. c i t . *~W. R. D. S e w e l l , and J . Rostron, R e c r e a t i o n a l F i s h i n g E v a l u a t i o n Department of F i s h e r i e s and F o r e s t r y , Ottawa, February, 1970, p. 88. F i s h e r i e s S e r v i c e , P a c i f i c Region, Salmon Sport f i s h i n g Catch  S t a t i s t i c s f o r the T i d a l Waters of B. C , 1970, Vancouver, 1971, p. 5, ( r e v i s e d t o t a l s ) . This assumption based on Lea, Sewell, and the P a c i f i c Northwest River Basins Commission, Puget Sound Task Force, Puget Sound and Adjacent  Waters Comprehensive Water and Related Land Resources Study, Summary Report Vancouver, Washington, 1971. 135 of these estimates can only be obtained with the c o l l e c t i o n of data on a l l aspects of r e c r e a t i o n a l boating a c t i v i t i e s . Increased boat ownership and boating a c t i v i t y has created i n t e n s i f i e d use at and near moorage areas i n English Bay, Swartz Bay, Horsehoe Bay, Oak Bay, and Departure Bay during spring and summer periods. The f l e x i b i l i t y of private r e c r e a t i o n a l c r a f t has prompted the Parks Branch of the p r o v i n c i a l government to maintain an active program of shoreline a c q u i s i t i o n within p r i n c i p a l c r u i s i n g areas. FiguEeJll i l l u s t r a t e s e x i s t i n g and proposed marine parks, as well as e c o l o g i c a l reserves frequented by sports fishermen and r e c r e a t i o n a l s a i l i n g c r a f t . Recreational Foreshore A c t i v i t i e s There are over 2,400 miles of shoreline i n the study region which o f f e r a v e r i t a b l e "pandora's box" of d i v e r s i f i e d r e c r e a t i o n a l opportunity to both the boat-oriented and shore-oriented r e c r e a t i o n a l i s t . The i n t e r - t i d a l foreshore arouses the most natural c u r i o s i t y about the marine environment and i t i s i n t h i s zone that thel%ulik tdfe t l ^ the sea engaging i n a range of a c t i v i t i e s which include swimming, sun bathing, d i v i n g , p i c n i c i n g , sight-seeing, f i s h i n g , hunting, beachcombing and nature study. Some of the predominant r e c r e a t i o n a l beach areas are also i l l u s t r a t e d by Figure 11. It i s estimated that over one h a l f of the t o t a l shoreline can be •Classified as r e c r e a t i o n a l beach which can be defined as any gently sloping i n t e r t i d a l area ranging i n composition from fine sand to coarse gravel and intermixed boulders. On a warm summer day, beach areas w i l l e a s i l y outdraw a l l other outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . At the same time, beach-oriented re c r e a t i o n can sustain a remarkably high carrying capacity 136 1 without severe depradation to the q u a l i t y of the resource. The po p u l a t i o n of the study r e g i o n i s indeed fortunate that most of the best beach areas are i n the southern s e c t i o n s of the G u l f , many of which are r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e and i n p u b l i c ownership. But while the q u a l i t y of foreshore v a r i e s , the supply of p u b l i c s h o r e l i n e r e l a t i v e to the growth of po p u l a t i o n i s r a p i d l y decreasing. A study by the Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board showed that the amount of p u b l i c beach frontage f e e t per thousand po p u l a t i o n had decreased f o r Greater Vancouver from 100 fe e t i n 1941, to l e s s than 70 f e e t by 1965. Based on the O.R.R.R.C., the recommended standard of 88 feet/thousand persons means the a c q u i s i t i o n of another twenty mi l e s of beach w i t h i n the lower mainland to supplement the 14.6 miles 2 pr e s e n t l y set aside f o r r e c r e a t i o n . Another study of the Gulf Islands demonstrated that waterfront lands p r e v i o u s l y thought to be cheap and i s o l a t e d have quadrupled i n value over the l a s t twenty years. Only 3 per cent or s l i g h t l y over 6\ w a t e r f r o n t m i l e s are p r e s e n t l y i n p u b l i c ownership, 3 the r e s t are p r i v a t e l y a l i e n a t e d predominantly i n a r e c r e a t i o n a l c a p a c i t y . While crude estimates have b'een put forward f o r the t o t a l number of '''As an i n d i c a t i o n , the Vancouver Parks Board estimates that n e a r l y 4 m i l l i o n r e c r e a t i o n days of use take place on the beaches of Stanley Park annually. Lower .,'Main.l'ahdR Regional? PaL'anhijigifBoard jv;W'a;teibf non&.;L-ahds; in"'.the Lower Mainland Region, Technical Reprorit., New Westminster, 1966, p. 34. C a p i t a l Regional D i s t r i c t , Gulf Islands Study, V i c t o r i a , 1970, p. 18. 137 FIGURE 11 MARINE PARKS, BEACHES, AND ECOLOGICAL RESERVES IN THE GULF OF GEORGIA 138 r e g i o n a l beach days or foreshore o u t i n g s , 1 the r e l i a b i l i t y of these estimates i s questionable i n the'long run, and p a r t i c u l a r l y when these p r o j e c t i o n s have been e x t r a p o l a t e d from sub-regional studies and a p p l i e d to the Gulf i n i t s e n t i r e l y . These data can only be considered as s h o r t -run i n d i c a t o r s since the qu a n t i t y of foreshore r e c r e a t i o n i n which people p a r t i c i p a t e i s p a r t l y dependent on the o p p o r t u n i t i e s and continued q u a l i t y of a v a i l a b l e a t t r a c t i o n s . Future p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n foreshore nature study i s i n part r e l a t e d to the changing perogatives of s o c i e t y but dependent upon the adaptation and endurance of the appreciable f l o r a and fauna to 2 changing environmental c o n d i t i o n s . I n c r e a s i n g demand f o r s h o r e l i n e and foreshore r e c r e a t i o n a l space w i l l probably r e s u l t i n c o n f l i c t over the des i g n a t i o n of use f o r waterfront 3 land r a t h e r than increase d i s s e n t i o n among commercial sea space: users. However, the great e s t p o t e n t i a l damage to r e c r e a t i o n a l foreshores can be inc u r r e d by o i l p o l l u t i o n from commercial shipping t r a f f i c . While the cost of a d i s r u p t i o n to the commercial f i s h e r y can be comprehensively evaluated, estimations of secondary e f f e c t s such as the p e r i o d i c l o s s of r e c r e a t i o n a l b e n e f i t s to r e s i d e n t s and d o l l a r - s p e n d i n g t o u r i s t s through reductions i n the q u a l i t y of the " r e c r e a t i o n a l package" are extremely 1 P a i s h , (p,40) estimated a t o t a l of 15,000,000 i n d i v i d u a l r e c r e a t i o n a l foreshore days w i t h i n the study r e g i o n a n n u a l l y . 2 L. R u s s e l l , and H. P a i s h , Waterfowl Populations and Outdoor  Recreation Opportunity on the Fraser Delta Foreshores, B. C. Wildfowl F e d e r a t i o n , Vancouver, June, 1968. I n c o n g r u i t i e s a l s o occur between foreshore a c t i v i t i e s where r e c r e a t i o n a l i s t s engage i n sports f i s h i n g and w a t e r - s k i i n g w i t h a c o n s t r i c t e d area. 139 d i f f i c u l t to assess. Most a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i n the offshore,-, and i n t e r t i d a l zones caters p r i m a r i l y to the mechanics of an i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t y without documentation of the q u a l i t y - a p p e a l of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to other aspects of the coastland environment. R e c r e a t i o n a l u s e r s , i n t u r n , who are too f r e q u e n t l y confined to s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s o f t e n take f o r granted the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s c e n i c / a e s t h e t i c and marine resources. Tourism and Marine Recreation Probably the greatest drawing card of the coastland environment i s i t s a e s t h e t i c and scenic d i v e r s i t y , e s p e c i a l l y f o r f i r s t - t i m e v i s i t o r s . However, t h i s f a c t i s not w e l l represented i n the l i t e r a t u r e which deals w i t h the a r r i v a l of f o r e i g n v i s i t o r s to Canadian waters, t h e i r s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s , and economic assessments of t h e i r v a c a t i o n expenditures. There are f i g u r e s which r e l a t e that 8,150 f o r e i g n r e c r e a t i o n a l c r a f t c l e a r e d Canadian Customs ports i n the Gulf i n 1969, and increase of n e a r l y 200 percent from the 1959 t o t a l of 3295. 1 There are a l s o government studies which i n d i c a t e the f o r e i g n v i s i t o r s to Canadian waters engage i n much the same r e c r e a t i o n a l 2 a c t i v i t i e s a v a i l a b l e to coastland r e s i d e n t s . But there has been l i t t l e or no e x p l o r a t i o n of the importance of the a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t y of the marine environment or of places such as Saanich I n l e t , the Gulf I s l a n d s , and Howe ''"William S i n c l a i r , The P a r t i c i p a t i o n by United States Residents  i n the West Coast T i d a l Sport F i s h e r y , F i s h e r i e s S e r v i c e , Economics Branch, Vancouver, 1969, p. 8. A preponderance of studies have d e a l t w i t h boat-oriented v i s i t o r s engaged i n the saltwater sports f i s h e r y of Gulf waters. 140 Sound, to the t o t a l r e c r e a t i o n a l v a c a t i o n experience. Recently, an academic work assessing the c r u i s i n g experience f o r boaters to D e s o l a t i o n Sound has shone some l i g h t on formerly neglected r e c r e a t i o n a l q u a l i t y -1 experience aspects. I t seems unfortunate that s o c i e t y must wait u n t i l the q u a l i t y of the r e c r e a t i o n a l experience d e t e r i o r a t e s before the c r i s i s i s acknowledged, studies i n t o problems are commissioned, and steps to ameliorate the d e t e r i o r a t i n g s i t u a t i o n are taken. To prevent t h i s from becoming a r e a l i t y , a greater understanding of the important parameters which u n d e r l i e the marine r e c r e a t i o n a l experience need to be i d e n t i f i e d and these parameters are s u i t a b l y appreciated and incorporated i n t o marine management as w e l l as r e c r e a t i o n a l planning p o l i c i e s . The D i s p o s a l of Wastes i n the Gulf of Georgia For more than a hundred ye a r s , the Gulf of Georgia has been a r e c e p t a c l e f o r a host of domestic and i n d u s t r i a l wastes. During t h i s p e r i o d , the general concensus of opinion by both the engineer and the general p u b l i c was that the sea could handle the task, cheaply and e f f i c i e n t l y . Ocean o u t f a l l s f o r storm d r a i n s , domestic dewage,and untreated wastes which occur adjacent to a l l coastland communities and i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s are a r e s u l t of t h i s way of t h i n k i n g . With the exception of s e v e r a l tidewater i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s which are r e q u i r e d by law to remove harmful i m p u r i t i e s from t h e i r o u t f a l l wastes, there are no sewage systems e n t e r i n g the Gulf B i l l W o l f e r s t a n , D e s o l a t i o n Sound, A R e c r e a t i o n a l Boating  Experience, M.A. T h e s i s , S.F.U., 1971. 141 which have more than primary treatment of wastes. Greater p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t i e s and increased i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s have increased the incidence of p o l l u t i o n of the adjacent hydrosphere and have l e d , a f t e r growing s c i e n t i f i c and p u b l i c concern, to a gradual r e a p p r a i s a l of waste d i s p o s a l p r a c t i c e s . Studies completed by personnel of the F i s h e r i e s Research Board of Canada f o r the Gulf r e g i o n have centred p r i m a r i l y upon the e f f e c t s of the movement and bi o d e g r a t i o n of domestic sewage^and pulp and paper m i l l 2 wastes on the marine environment. G e n e r a l l y , i t has been found that the a b i l i t y of the Gulf's marine environment to a s s i m i l a t e the wastes depend l a r g e l y on the nature and magnitude of the waste and the p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the p a r t i c u l a r marine environment i n t o which the wastes are being discharged. At present, large volumes of domestic sewage are being released only thousands of feet from r e c r e a t i o n a l shores adjacent V i c t o r i a and south Vancouver. In the l a t t e r case, t h i s i s i n an area which e a r l i e r s e c t i o n s of t h i s chapter have a l s o shown to be h i g h l y produc-t i v e f o r j u v e n i l e salmon and groundfish. In both cases where large amounts of unchlorinated sewage are being r e l e a s e d , the f a t e of the b a c t e r i a and 3 v i r u s e s i n nearshore areas i s not w e l l understood. Waldichuk noted that 1 S . Tabata, e t . a l . , Current V e l o c i t i e s i n the v i c i n i t y of the  Greater Vancouver Sewerage and Drainage D i s t r i c t O u t f a l l , Report f o r the G.V.S.D.D., 1968; and C. J . Keenan e t . a l . , Current Observations i n Cordova  Bay and P r e d i c t i o n s on Sewage D i s p o s a l , F i s h e r i e s Research Board of Canada, Manuscript Report No. 197, 1966. 2 M. Waldichuk, "Marine Aspects of Pulp M i l l P o l l u t i o n , " Canadian  Pulp and Paper Industry , V o l . 15, 1962, pp. 36-40, 42-45. G. T. Orlob, " V i a b i l i t y of Sewage B a c t e r i a i n Sea Water," Sewage and I n d u s t r i a l Wastes, V o l . 28, 1956, pp. 1147-1167. 142 only when sewage e f f l u e n t i s taken through t e r t i a r y treatment and i n d u s t r i a l wastes are f u l l y t reated can i t be s a i d that there i s no r i s k to n a t u r a l waters.^ Uncontrolled waste d i s p o s a l i n the marine environment o f f e r s one of the most serious t h r e a t s to the continuance of s e v e r a l competing a c t i v i t i e s and w i l l only be brought under c o n t r o l by s t r i c t e r l e g i s l a t i o n f o r a l l p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d . The contemporary argument*, that the p r o h i b i t i v e costs of c o n s t r u c t i n g treatment f a c i l i t i e s exceeds the f i n a n c i a l resources of municipal governments looses much c r e d i b i l i t y when i t i s estimated what these p l a n t s w i l l cost i n another ten years of i n f l a t i o n a r y b u i l d i n g c o s t s . At the same time, i t i s a l s o much ieiasri'.e-r and much l e s s c o s t l y to develop a sound plan f o r the e l i m i n a t i o n of domestic and 2 i n d u s t r i a l wastes, than i t i s to t r y to c o r r e c t p o l l u t e d waters. Chapter Summary: Trends and Emerging Patterns of Water Use i n the Gulf of Georgia The preceeding s e c t i o n s of t h i s chapter have o u t l i n e d the present patterns of water use i n the Gulf of Georgia. I t was the i n t e n t of the author to o u t l i n e comprehensively the nature of each f u n c t i o n a l use through a d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s which brought f o r t h those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t i e s which were considered to be p o t e n t i a l l y damaging to the marine environment, s p a t i a l l y consumptive of c o n s t r i c t e d waterways, or obviously incongruous w i t h other sea-s^pace^. and waterfront users. The emphasis placed upon each a c t i v i t y was r e l a t e d to i t s magnitude ra t h e r ''"M. Waldichuk, " P o l l u t i o n i n Coastal Waters of B r i t i s h Columbia," P a c i f i c Progress Reports, No. 114, F i s h e r i e s Research Board of Canada, 1962, pp. 13-18. M. Waldichuk, "Waste D i s p o s a l i n R e l a t i o n to the P h y s i c a l Environment--Oceanographic Aspects," S y e s i s , V o l . 1, December, 1968, p. 25. 143 than from an assumed value judgement of i t s o v e r a l l p r i o r i t y i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h other f u n c t i o n a l uses. Thus, i f a statement favouring any i n d i v i d u a l or group of f u n c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i s made, i t i s the r e s u l t of a systematic measurement of current a c t i v i t i e s i n accordance w i t h f u t u r e p r o j e c t i o n s . To t h i s end, f i v e g e n e r a l i z e d conclusions concerning the present and f u t u r e s t a t e of water use of the study r e g i o n can be put forward. (1) There has been a c o n s i s t e n t increase i n demand f o r the m u l t i p l e use of water resources of the study r e g i o n by a l l f u n c t i o n a l users. (2) During the next twenty ye a r s , economic and s o c i a l trends determined f o r the coastland point to commercial shipping and marine r e c r e a t i o n as the l a r g e s t s i n g l e consumers of waterspace w i t h i n the study r e g i o n . (3) The most dominant v i s i b l e form of a c t i v i t y and the a c t i v i t y i n which p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l be the g r e a t e s t w i l l be w i t h i n the broad realm of marine r e c r e a t i o n . (4) No matter how s t r i n g e n t l y c o n t r o l l e d , increased use by a l l f u n c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s w i l l cause greater s t r e s s on the n a t u r a l systems of the marine environment. (5) There i s an increased s o c i a l awareness of environmental problems, and a growing d e s i r e to preserve the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y aspects of the r e g i o n a l coastland. While the f i r s t three observations are p r i m a r i l y g e n e r a l i z e d demand statements f o r increased water use i n the G u l f , the l a t t e r two represent the outcome of t h i s increased a c t i v i t y . In c o n t r a s t to Chapter IV, there appears to be a d e f i n i t e swing away from a sea space?, w i t h p r i m a r i l y an economic purpose to one which incorporates cumulative s o c i a l d e f i n i t i o n . 144 This i s i n part due to the outward movement of commercial f i s h i n g c r a f t but more so to the increased p o p u l a t i o n of coastland c e n t r e s . With more people and a greater input of technology, a c c e s s i b i l i t y to the re g i o n has increased which, i n t u r n , has decreased the temporal components of i n t e r n a l marine c i r c u l a t i o n s . I n a sense, the Gulf of Georgia i s annually de-creasin g i n s i z e since users such as r e c r e a t i o n a l i s t s now have the a b i l i t y to venture f u r t h e r a f i e l d . While f o r many years, commercial users have been considered the p r o v e r b i a l bugaboo of c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s , more a t t e n t i o n i s being paid to the i n c r e a s i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l users who crowd the marine environment, and who, by t h e i r sheer numbers, o f f e r a new threat to the standards of q r a a l i t y of the resource. Environmental management which most e f f i c i e n t l y s a t i s f i e s a l l users can only be e f f e c t i v e through p u b l i c support, the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of r a t i o n a l c o n t r o l s , and the development of b e t t e r p r a c t i c e s and l e g i s l a -t i o n . But to accomplish t h i s goal r e q u i r e s a s u c c i n c t assessment of the st a t e of present f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e s and muni c i p a l c o n t r o l s a p p l i c a b l e to the marine environment and complimentary to these problems. The f o l l o w i n g chapter i n v e s t i g a t e s the r e l e v a n t l e g i s l a t i o n to f i n d : tiif3>ith;ha:s been developed merely to s u i t the i d i o s y n c r a c i e s of i n d i v i d u a l users or whether s t a t u t e s p e r t i n e n t to the Gulf e x h i b i t clauses which permit and encourage m u l t i p l e use, or make s p e c i a l d i s p e n s a t i o n f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of the marine environment 145 CHAPTER VI MARINE CONTROLS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO CURRENT AND FUTURE FUNCTIONAL  WATER USE IN THE GULF OF GEORGIA "For i t so f a l l out That what we have we p r i z e not to the worth Whiles we enjoy i t ; but being lacked and l o s t Why then we rack the v a l u e , then we f i n d The v i r t u e , that possession would show us Whiles i t was ours." W i l l i a m Shakespeare Much Ado About Nothing Canada i s exceedingly fortunate to be cradled by three oceans. How-ever, the munificence of o f f s h o r e areas and the major r o l e they play i n the f u l f i l m e n t of n a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s have yet to be e n t i r e l y appreciated. Our t r u s t e e s h i p of t e r r e s t r i a l spaces leaves much to be d e s i r e d . While i t i s s t i l l i n a p o s i t i v e s t a t e , a concerted e f f o r t i s needed on the part of the p u b l i c , i n d u s t r y and government to ensure that avaricous use and mismanagement does not s p i l l over to the marine environment where the resource i s more e a s i l y t a r n ished and l e s s e a s i l y reclaimed. Canada's Role i n the Coastal Zone The i n c r e a s i n g awareness of the o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e i n the marine environment has t h r u s t a new challenge upon Canadians to meet the domestic 146 and i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of being a maritime n a t i o n . As Canada becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y i n v o l v e d w i t h the seas o f f her coast, the r e s p o n s i b i l -i t i e s of managers at a l l l e v e l s of government and a l s o a t the l e v e l of the p r i v a t e land and water manager v i s - a - v i s Canadian needs i n offshore areas w i l l m u l t i p l y . H i s t o r i c a l l y , n a t i o n a l posture i n the c o a s t a l zone toward resources development, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , r e c r e a t i o n , waste d i s p o s a l , and other uses of the maritime areas has been myopic, r e f l e c t i n g i n d i v i d u a l p o l i c y f o c i and programs aims which o f t e n worked to jeopardize the c o n t i n u a t i o n of other f u n c t i o n s . The common property r i g h t of each user to u t i l i z e the n a t u r a l system, plus the segmentation of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y between government agencies, meant that the marine environment was seldom viewed or managed h o l i s t i c a l l y , nor d i d the economic and c u l t u r a l b e n e f i t s accrue to the n a t i o n on the whole. Commensurate w i t h the terms of the C o n s t i t u t i o n , the o p p o r t u n i t i e s provided by the c o a s t a l seas are the b i r t h r i g h t of a l l who l i v e w i t h i n the federated s t a t e rather than simply those who make d i r e c t contact w i t h the sea. Although i t appears that the f e d e r a l government has obtained p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l of the offshore areas, a more u t i l i t a r i a n outlook i n which p u b l i c as w e l l as p r i v a t e sector s a t i s f a c t i o n would be the end product of govern-ment a c t i o n was slow to m a t e r i a l i z e . For in s t a n c e , i t was not u n t i l Canada f i n a l l y promulgated the T e r r i t o r i a l Sea and F i s h i n g Zone Act i n 1964 extending sovereign i n t e r e s t s from three to twelve miles out to sea, that the f e d e r a l government took a f i r m stand i n the i n t e r e s t s of a l l Canadians. For those i n the shipping community, t h i s c o n s t i t u t e d an act of chauvinism of a resource thought to be held i n common. But i n r e a l i t y , t h i s c o n t r o l i s an a c t i o n of r a t i o n a l management of a common property resource which 147 has proven to be the property of a l l but the r e s p o n s i b l i l i t y of none. 1 The tragedy of common property d o c t r i n e i s that competition f o r the use of the marine environment has o f t e n l e d to a s i t u a t i o n where users are locked i n t o a system of " f o u l i n g t h e i r own nest", so long as they behave as independent and intemperant free-enter p r i z e s . In p a r a l l e l , p r i n c i p l e s of l a i s s e z - f a i r e would only succeed jin compounding the o v e r f i s h i n g of anadromous f i s h , or the discharge"of domestic wastes. Since the waters cannot be fenced as i n the concept of p r i v a t e property, c o n t r o l must be achieved by an e p i c y c l i c means of coer c i v e s t a t u t o r y law, augmented by r e g i o n a l l y s e n s i t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e mechanisms. The law, f r e q u e n t l y behind the times, w i l l r e q u i r e constant remoulding and elaborate s t i t c h i n g to adapt to the dynamic marine user patterns and to s u s t a i n balanced development programs f o r the offshore areas. These programs of marine environment c o n t r o l are complicated by divergent i n t e r e s t s i n the sea as w e l l as by the continued f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l s t r u g g l e f o r j u r i s d i c t i o n , p r o f i t , and tenure i n offshore areas. A recent f e d e r a l study set f o r t h Canada's m u l t i f a c e t e d i n t e r e s t i n i t s o f f s h o r e areas and recommended that a systems approach i s r e q u i r e d f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of m u l t i p l e uses of the marine environment, i n any ''"William Ross, "The Management of I n t e r n a t i o n a l Common Property Resources," Geographical Review, V o l . 61, J u l y , 1971, pp. 325-338. Garre t t Hardin, "The Tragedy of the Commons", Science, V o l . 162, December 13, 1968, pp. 1243-1248. 148 e f f o r t to optimize the b e n e f i t s to a l l . " * " I n t e r e s t i n g l y , Stewart and D i c k i e o u t l i n e d a s e r i e s of goals of n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t i n the seas which i s c l o s e l y interwoven w i t h the p r i n c i p a l n a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s as o u t l i n e d 2 by the Science C o u n c i l of Canada. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between both st u d i e s i s revealed i n Table XIV. While the l a t t e r study s y s t e m a t i c a l l y rated each a s p i r a t i o n i n order of importance, Stewart and D i c k i e made no attempt to assess the p r i o r i t y of importance of each of the marine i n t e r e s t s . TABLE XIV DOMINANT RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN NATIONAL GOALS AND NATIONAL MARINE INTERESTS N a t i o n a l Goals N a t i o n a l Marine Goals 1 N a t i o n a l p r o s p e r i t y 2 Health 3 Education 4 Freedom, S e c u r i t y , Unity 5 L e i s u r e and Personal Development 6 World Peace 7 Maintenance of a High Q u a l i t y E n v i r -onment Marine Resources Recreation Sovereignty and Defence Tr a n s p o r t a t i o n Determination of Weather and Climate Waste D i s p o s i t o r y Challenge f o r Technology Challenge f o r Knowledge and C u l t u r a l I n s p i r a t i o n I n t e r n a t i o n a l O b l i g a t i o n R. W. Stewart, and L. M. D i c k i e , Ad Mare: Canada Looks to the Sea, Science C o u n c i l of Canada, S p e c i a l Study No. 16, Ottawa, 1971. Science C o u n c i l of Canada, Towards a N a t i o n a l Science P o l i c y f o r  Canada, Report No. 4, Ottawa, October, 1968. 149 The Gulf of Georgia i s i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y recognized to be an i n t e r n a l water of Canada, e n t i r e l y w i t h i n the sovereign t e r r i t o r i a l sea. As an i n t e r n a l water, the range of n a t i o n a l marine i n t e r e s t s c o i n c i d e n t i n t h i s zone, as defined by Stewart and D i c k i e , are more domestic and l e s s i n t e r -n a t i o n a l i n o r i e n t a t i o n . That i s , u n l i k e the c o n t i n e n t a l s h e l f and waters superadjacent to the s h e l f , i n l a n d waters of the Gulf are not an area which r e q u i r e s sovereign p r o t e c t i o n of the armed f o r c e s , of dominant importance i n determining weather and c l i m a t e , nor an area where Canada must c a r r y out i n t e r n a t i o n a l o b l i g a t i o n s . These a c t i v i t i e s and t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s c a r r i e d out seaward of the semi-enclosed Gulf. With the exception of maintaining i n t e r n a t i o n a l f o r e i g n shipping routes , a c t i v i t i e s analyzed i n the preceeding chapter are e n t i r e l y domestic i n scope and a p p l i c a t i o n . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of these f u n c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s has been a thorny;.issue because of the p o l a r i z e d d i s p o s i t i o n of f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t y i n o f f s h o r e areas. F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l Struggle f o r Tenure Over the past one hundred ye a r s , n e i t h e r f e d e r a l nor p r o v i n c i a l govern-ments have seen f i t to recognize the other's c l a i m to j u r i s d i c t i o n i n the Gulf of G e o r g i a . 1 On the s t r e n g t h of a recent d e c i s i o n by the Supreme Court of Canada,Reference Re: Offshore M i n e r a l Rights of B r i t i s h Columbia, i t appears that the pendulum has swing i n favour of Canada since the f e d e r a l government has been granted f u l l j u r i s d i c t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r a l l waters seaward of "ordinary low water mark" and Gerard V. La F o r e s t , N a t u r a l Resources and P u b l i c Property Under the Canadian C o n s t i t u t i o n , Toronto, 1969, pp. 85-107. 150 outside of "harbours, bays, e s t u a r i e s and other s i m i l a r i n l a n d waters.""'" But the term " i n l a n d waters" has been the key word of contention upon which the p r o v i n c i a l government has based a s p e c i f i c case that the Gulf of Georgia q u a l i f i e s as an i n l a n d water and thus, comes under p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . The issue was f u r t h e r complicated by the magnanimous proposal put forward i n 1968 by the f e d e r a l government i n M i n e r a l Resource A d m i n i s t r a t i o n l i n e s . O s t e n s i b l y , the f e d e r a l government has agreed to share the r o y a l t i e s from offshore mineral resource d i s c o v e r i e s on a f i f t y - f i f t y b a s i s w i t h the adjacent province. Shoreward of these l i n e s the f e d e r a l government has conceeded that the provinces have complete c o n t r o l over mineral resources and revenues. Concomitantly, the sinuous Canadian c o a s t l i n e has been e n t i r e l y demarcated with-the-exception of "the A r c t i c proper which Ottawa c o n s i d e r s s o l e property and beyond the 2 pale of the provinces." The catographic p r e s e n t a t i o n of the admin-i s t r a t i o n l i n e s completed by the Department of Energy, Mines and Resource i l l u s t r a t e s that the northern and western portions of the G u l f , i n c l u d i n g the Gulf I s l a n d s , are considered w i t h i n f e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n w h i l e most of the eastern side of the G u l f , from the southern t i p of Texada I s l a n d to the i n t e r n a t i o n a l border, are under p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . I n t e r e s t -i n g l y , f e d e r a l government claims i n the Gulf were l a r g e l y r e l a t e d to over 15 m i l l i o n acres of o i l e x p l o r a t i o n permits issued by Ottawa to S h e l l O i l Company. ^1. L. Head, "The Canadian Offshore M i n e r a l Reference," U n i v e r s i t y  of Toronto Law J o u r n a l , V o l . 18, 1968, p. 131. R. Logan, "Mineral Resource A d m i n i s t r a t i o n L i n e s , " P r o f e s s i o n a l  Geographer, V o l . 23, A p r i l , 1971, pp. 160-163. 151 However, a f t e r a c o n f l i c t over the i s s u i n g of e x p l o r a t i o n permits fo r the same area by both f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s , the M i n i s t e r of F i s h e r i e s , Jack Davis, announced that no more permits would be issued and that the f e d e r a l government would use i t s C o n s t i t u t i o n a l powers i n t e r r i t o r i a l seas to h a l t o i l e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the Gulf w i t h new amendments to the F i s h e r i e s Act i n 1971. Davis stated that "the combination of property and r e c r e a t i o n a l values i n the S t r a i t of Georgia i s so great that i t s p o s s i b l e contamination w i t h o i l could not be count-enanced."''" The p r o v i n c i a l government acrimoniously countered w i t h c o n j e c t u r a l proposals to d r i l l l a t e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n holes from land based r i g s i n the Gulf Islands to p o s s i b l e o i l bearing s t r a t a beneath Gulf waters. At present though, there i s no a c t i v e " w i l d c a t t i n g " w i t h i n the Gulf coastland and there seems l i t t l e l i k e l i h o o d i n the immediate f u t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n 2 l i g h t of recent adverse p u b l i c i t y on o i l d r i l l i n g a c t i v i t i e s . But while the question of foreshore e x p l o r a t i o n i n Gulf waters i s perhaps beyond d i s c u s s i o n , there appears to be no c o n c l u s i o n to the mineral r i g h t s dispute f o r the remaining coast. Moreover, the question of j u r i s d i c t i o n a l competence i n the Gulf remains open. I t g e n e r a l l y appears that the basis of the argument between f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s has c r y s t a l l i z e d around the issue of c o n s t i t u t -i o n a l i t y and w i l l not be, reso"lved\;wilth'out a reformation of the B.N.A. Act "Jack Davis Forbids Seismic E x p l o r a t i o n i n Georgia S t r a i t , " Department of F i s h e r i e s , P a c i f i c Region, Vancouver, May 1, 1970, (press r e l e a s e ) . Government and p u b l i c a v e r s i o n to offshore o i l r i g s has spawned from recent d i s a s t r o u s contaminations from o i l w e l l leakages i n foreshore areas seaward of Santa Barbara, C a l i f o r n i a . 152 U n t i l then, competitive f e d e r a l i s m w i l l keep each l e v e l of government i n p u r s u i t of the l a r g e r share of the marine resource p i e . The p r o v i n c i a l government expresses the r i t u a l complaint that Ottawa i s attempting to usurp p r o v i n c i a l autonomy and has taken the stand that the province deserves the l a r g e s t share of p r o f i t s . At the same time, V i c t o r i a has been r e l -uctant to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the costs of management of the marine environment using the terms of the C o n s t i t u t i o n to s u i t i t s p a r t i c u l a r momentary 1 posture. The R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of Government Agencies The f e d e r a l government has been the most a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t i n the management of offshore areas. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n i n Gulf waters can be d i v i d e d among va r i o u s agencies. The M i n i s t r y of Transport has the most sweeping powers i n offs h o r e areas and i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the r e g u l a t i o n of marine a c t i v i t i e s and s e r v i c e s , aids to n a v i g a t i o n , modern communications systems, and maintains, w i t h the Department of N a t i o n a l Defence, a search and rescue s e r v i c e f o r overdue or missing a i r c r a f t and v e s s e l s . The Transport M i n i s t r y shares w i t h the Department of P u b l i c Works r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r channel dredging, and w i t h Hydrographic S e r v i c e s , f o r up-to-date marine c h a r t s . The Department of P u b l i c Works i s the agent f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance of wharves and channels and i n conjunction w i t h the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board, plays an important part i n ^Ross found t h i s was e s p e c i a l l y true f o r problems r e l a t e d to the prevention and cleanup of west coast o i l s p i l l s i n that p r o v i n c i a l author-i t i e s were adamently unite d i n t h e i r stand against o i l s p i l l s but were r e t i c e n t to r e l e a s e any monies to be used f o r the s t o c k p i l i n g of cleanup m a t e r i a l s , d e l e g a t i n g the task as a f e d e r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 153 the development and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of major Gulf harbours- The Department of the Environment, proclaimed i n June, 1971, i s an amalgamation of the F i s h e r i e s S e r v i c e , Lands, Forest and W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e , A'tmospherici Environmental S e r v i c e , and Water Management S e r v i c e , and i s concerned w i t h the husbanding of renewable resources w i t h a mandate f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of the biosphere. As an "umbrella" agency, Environment Canada i s the f i r s t government bureau to recognize the coastland as an environmental (land-sea) u n i t , i n c o n t r a s t to preceeding agencies who traded j u r i s d i c t i o n and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s at the water's edge. There are no p r o v i n c i a l government agencies which maintain regulated a u t h o r i t y f o r the waterbody of the Gulf of Georgia. Only two branches of p r o v i n c i a l departments enforce a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e g u l a t i o n s , and these r e l a t e to land ( s h o r e l i n e ) rather than foreshore a c t i v i t i e s . The Department of Health Services c a r r i e s out seasonal v i g i l a n c e of p u b l i c beaches to assure that water q u a l i t y standards are acceptable f o r safe body contact r e c r e a t i o n , and i n a d d i t i o n works w i t h the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Board i n the enforcement of environmental q u a l i t y standards l a i d down i n the B r i t i s h Columbia P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Act. The Department of Recreation and Conservation maintains s h o r e l i n e marine parks i n the Gulf and w i t h the Department of Lands, F o r e s t s , and Water Resources, aid s i n the c o n t i n u i n gnprcpgrammeVof a c q u i s i t i o n of n a t u r a l h i s t o r y s i t e s and e c o l o g i c a l r e s e r v e s , e i g h t of which are w i t h i n the study r e g i o n . To a l e s s e r e x t e n t , the B. C. W i l d l i f e Service has a working l i a s o n w i t h i t s f e d e r a l couterpart i n Environment;; ' Canada to p r o t e c t coastland w i l d f o w l resources p r i n c i p a l l y through the migratory B i r d s Regulation Act. 154 The E v o l u t i o n of L e g i s l a t i o n Germane to Offshore Areas Since Confederation, coastland r e s i d e n t s have witnessed the p r o c l a -mation of domestic and i n t e r n a t i o n a l agreement by Canada i n the name of sovereign i n t e r e s t s , f o r the c o n t r o l and management of marine resources and maritime a c t i v i t i e s , and most r e c e n t l y , f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of the coasta environment. In some cases, t h i s has involved the d r a f t i n g of e n t i r e l y new l e g i s l a t i o n w h i l e i n othe r s , i t has re q u i r e d only the d e l e t i o n of obsolescent clauses and resharpening of amendments to match dynamic mari-time a c t i v i t i e s . Federal l e g i s l a t i o n has been passed regarding s h i p p i n g , navigable waters, f i s h e r i e s , migratory b i r d s , n a t i o n a l harbours, and small c r a f t operations i n c o a s t a l areas which are a l l items over which the f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t y i s deemed to have concurrent j u r i s d i c t i o n . P r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n i s l i m i t e d to environmental c o n t r o l r e g u l a t i o n s which are designed to p r o t e c t marine areas against p o l l u t i o n o r i g i n a t i n g from land sources. N a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t i n offshore areas i n e a r l i e r days was p r i m a r i l y a matter of economics and o r i g i n a l l e g i s l a t i o n tended to compliment marine business a c t i v i t i e s . Marine resources were of t e n r e f e r r e d to as inexhaust-able or the marine environment as i n d e s t r u c t a b l e and only a few f a r - s i g h t e d pieces of l e g i s l a t i o n made passing reference to the acknowledgement of environmental q u a l i t y p r a c t i c e s . As the years passed, many of the s t a t u t e s had s e c t i o n s added which could be a p p l i e d to environmental c o n t r o l , but these s e c t i o n s were always treated as i n c i d e n t a l features to more item-s p e c i f i c l e g i s l a t i o n . No l e g i s l a t i o n has been passed w i t h the sole purpose of d e t e r r i n g and preventing marine environmental d e t e r i o r a t i o n . 155 A f t e r the much-publicized events of 1969 and 1970,^ the f e d e r a l response to the management of offsho r e areas took an about face w i t h the passage of the A r c t i c Waters P o l l u t i o n Prevention A c t , the amendment of the Canadian Shipping A c t , the announcement of Regional Task Force f o r environmental c o n t r o l , and a N a t i o n a l Contingency Plan to be put i n t o e f f e c t i n the event of a major s p i l l . This response represented a metamorphosis of o p i n i o n on the part of f e d e r a l agencies which had formerly thought of offsho r e areas i n economic terms and had f i r m l y adhered to narrower t e r r i t o r i a l claims and concepts of freedom of the sea. Along w i t h these new amendments and item s p e c i f i c l e g i s l a t i o n , are a number of Canadian laws and i n t e r n a t i o n a l codes which have u n i v e r s a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y to a l l users of Gulf of Georgia waters. Since t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n i s not developed w i t h r e g i o n a l i n t e r e s t s i n mind, i t tends to be g e n e r a l l y impersonal, more i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n tone, and loses e f f e c t i v e -2 ness i n coping w i t h r e g i o n a l problems and l o c a l p r i o r i t i e s . F i r s t , standards f o r the operation of Canadian r e g i s t e r e d v e s s e l s on the high seas and t e r r i t o r i a l waters or f o r e i g n v e s s e l s i n Canadian waters The new f e d e r a l answer to environmental p r o t e c t i o n was l a r g e l y spurred on by the passage of the Humble O i l Super-tanker Manhattan through sovereign A r c t i c waters i n 1969, and by the s i n k i n g of the infamous tanker Arrow i n Chedabucto Bay i n 1970. Ross noted that n a t i o n a l p r i d e , concern over Canadian sovereignty i n the A r c t i c a r c h i p e l a g o , and p r e s e r v a t i o n i s t sentiment over the e c o l o g i c a l f r a g i l i t y of the area a l l s t imulated the en-actment of s t i f f e r environmental c o n t r o l l e g i s l a t i o n f o r A r c t i c foreshores A l l users of Canada's t e r r i t o r i a l waters are subject to the C r i m i n a l Code of Canada and can be charged a c c o r d i n g l y under the terms of the Code on summary c o n v i c t i o n f o r a c t i v i t i e s which have i n f l i c t e d i n j u r y , property damage, or inconvenience to other users. 156 1 are set f o r t h i n Code of Navigation P r a c t i c e s and Procedures pursuant to the Canada Shipping Act of 1934. P r i o r to t h i s date, marine operation A, of v e s s e l s followed according to E n g l i s h Codes of Admiralty. This code proclaims a r a t i o n a l n a v i g a t i o n a l code f o r the e t h i c a l conduct of v e s s e l s based upon an i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y recognized marine " r u l e s of the road" procedure. Canadian Courts of Admiralty were not e s t a b l i s h e d u n t i l the 2 proclamation of the Admiralty Act i n 1952. However, the Canadian s t a t u t e o f f e r s much the same j u r i s d i c t i o n a l powers as e a r l i e r E n g l i s h Admiralty Rules and i s based on the accepted d o c t r i n e that "each ship master i s to conform to a standard of conduct e s t a b l i s h e d by reference to the common p r a c t i c e of prudent masters under such c o n d i t i o n s , and that he (the master) 3 must p r o t e c t others against unreasonable r i s k . " However, o p e r a t i o n a l r u l e s of the Code do not d i f f e r from i n t e r n a t i o n a l codes which s t a t e the expected conduct of v e s s e l s moving through c o n s t r i c t e d waters or the r i g h t of innocent passage. In t h i s sense, the Code i s simply a marine handbook analogous w i t h an auto d r i v e r ' s manual. In d e s i g n a t i n g v e s s e l p r i o r i t i e s and marine right-of-way, the Code recognizes the p o t e n t i a l problem of m u l t i p l e use of waterspace but approaches the problem i n the most s i m p l i s t i c terms. The marine environment i s s i n g u l a r l y viewed as a highway w i t h l i t t l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n given to other more sedentary f u n c t i o n a l uses which have ''"To be followed by persons on board ships i n order to ensure safe n a v i g a t i o n . 2 Canada, Parliament, S t a t u t e s , 1952, Chapter 1. Edward C. Mayers, Admiralty Law and P r a c t i c e i n Canada, Toronto, 1916, p. 111. 157 come about through the p e c u l a r i t i e s of r e g i o n a l nature. Moreover, f o r i n f r a c t i o n s to the r u l e s , offenders may appear i n Courts of Admiralty which can then only apply common law remedies of t r e s p a s s , nuisance, and negligence to compensate the i n t e r e s t s of claimants who might s u s t a i n i n j u r y or property damage i n the event of a marine accident i n the study region."'" The Navigable Waters P r o t e c t i o n Act i s another a r t i c l e of f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n which can be a p p l i e d to the maintenance of the status quo of the study r e g i o n . Under Section 18, amended i n 1968, t h i s Act can be employed to c o n t r o l aspects of water p o l l u t i o n but i n i t s e n t i r e t y , i t 2 concentrates p r i m a r i l y upon p h y s i c a l o b s t r u c t i o n s i n navigable waters. Administered by the Minstry of Transport, i t i s most e a s i l y invoked against 3 persons d i s c h a r g i n g " r u b b i s h " i n t o water courses which may i n t e r f e r e w i t h n a v i g a t i o n channels, or f o r the removal of grounded or sunken v e s s e l s which obstruct marine a r t e r i e s . A l s o , i t can be employed to r e g u l a t e the d i s t r i b u t i o n of l o g booms which encroach upon navigable waterways. Recent amendments to the Act f i n d those persons contravening any s e c t i o n l i a b l e , on summary c o n v i c t i o n , to a f i n e increased from $500 to an amount not ''"The a b i l i t y of Admiralty Law to meet r e g i o n a l requirements i n off s h o r e areas i s f u r t h e r discouraged by antiquated clauses which can excuse masters, shipowners, and cargo owners from l i a b i l i t y f o r marine accidents which are nebulously deemed the r e s u l t of an "Act of God". In t r u t h , c o u r t - a c t i o n s i n Canadian Courts of Admiralty regarding marine mishaps are not w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . Ross noted that Admiralty Law o f f e r e d no precedent f o r securing compensation f o r a l l v i c t i m s d i r e c t l y and i n -d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by the contamination of the sea and shore by o i l . Canada, Parliament, S t a t u t e s , 1968-1969, Chapter 15, S e c t i o n 18. Here "rubbish" i s meant to denote m a t e r i a l s such as concrete, e a r t h , and refuse which would sink to the bottom and cause a p h y s i c a l hazard and o b s t r u c t i o n to n a v i g a t i o n . 158 exceeding $5000.''" As i t stands, t h i s i s a f u n c t i o n a l piece of l e g i s l a t i o n but i t lacks broader u t i l i t y i n a p p l i c a t i o n to problems of chemical water p o l l u t i o n or the dumping of refuse i n t o waterspaces not considered a c t i v e f o r marine n a v i g a t i o n . The f i e r c e l y debated Canada Water A c t , proclaimed i n 1969, deals pre-dominantly w i t h the management of freshwater, and no d i r e c t reference to the r e g u l a t i o n of the marine environment can be found. Nevertheless, the pa u c i t y of marine court cases which u t i l i z e d the p r o v i s i o n s of the Statute may be only r e l a t e d to the infancy of the Act since i t would appear that there i s some p r o p i n q u i t y between aspects of water q u a l i t y management i n the f r e s h and sa l t w a t e r context. S e c t i o n 8, o u t l i n i n g P o l l u t i o n of Waters 2 notes that the a d d i t i o n of any "waste" to a watercourse i s a v i o l a t i o n of the Act and i s punishable on summary c o n v i c t i o n by a f i n e not exceeding 3 $5000 w i t h a d d i t i o n a l f i n e s f o r c o n t i n u i n g offences. However, while the terms of the Canada Water Act are more i n c l u s i v e and may be a p p l i e d to marine environmental problems on a broader s c a l e , great r e l i a n c e has been plcaed on the a b i l i t y of f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments to con-summate j o i n t agreements, to designate water q u a l i t y areas, and to ''"Canada, Parliament, S t a t u t e s , 1968-1969 , Chapter 15, Se c t i o n 14. 2 "Wastes" are defined i n the Canada Water Act as "any part or process of degradation and a l t e r n a t i o n of the q u a l i t y of the waters to an extent that i s d e t r i m e n t a l to t h e i r use by man or by an animal, f i s h , or pl a n t that i s u s e f u l to man." Canada, Parliament, S t a t u t e s , 1969-1970, Chapter 52, Sec t i o n 28. 159 e s t a b l i s h water q u a l i t y standards. Here again, the a p p l i c a t i o n of the Water Act may become bogged down on j u r i s d i c t i o n a l and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i s s u e s . U n t i l t h i s dilemna i s r e s o l v e d , other l e g i s l a t i o n which has r e l i a b l e precedent f o r f e d e r a l or p r o v i n c i a l agencies and which exceeds the Water Act's saltwater management c a p a b i l i t i e s w i l l be employed. While the s t a t u t e s reviewed above have ^ blfanke.li-iapp'Ui'c'atton-ito Cthe Gulf or d i s p l a y s e c t i o n s which are redundant w i t h other a c t s , i t i s worthy of note that these laws can be invoked f o r the r e g u l a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t i e s i n c o njunction w i t h the f o l l o w i n g f u n c t i o n s p e c i f i c l e g i s l a t i o n , most of which possesses w e l l - d e f i n e d s p a t i a l a p p l i c a t i o n . Commercial F i s h e r i e s The F i s h e r i e s Act of 1868, one of the f i r s t laws enacted by the Canadian Parliament, i s the o l d e s t a r t i c l e of l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the adminis-t r a t i o n of the Gulf. Despite i t s age and narrowly designed domestic func-t i o n , from i n c e p t i o n , i t has not been b l i n k e r e d to the problems of p o l l u t e d waters or to the existence of other waterspace users. One of the most fr e q u e n t l y amended pieces of l e g i s l a t i o n , the Act i s v a l i d f o r a l l n a t i o n a l waters of Canada to the outer boundary of the Canadian F i s h i n g Zone pro-claimed i n 1964. For Gulf waters, the appropriate s e c t i o n s of the F i s h e r i e s Act apply p r i m a r i l y to the r e g u l a t i o n of f i s h i n g c r a f t , f i s h i n g apparatus, and f i s h i n g p r a c t i c e s , as w e l l as to aspects of f i s h e r y management as out-l i n e d i n the preceeding chapter. Since the F i s h e r i e s Act was intended to p r o t e c t f i s h and the f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y , i t would be senseless to condemn i t f o r not being a wholesale c o n t r o l l e r of water p o l l u t i o n or marine environmental d e t e r i o r a t i o n . But f o r t u n a t e l y the b i o l o g i c a l nature of the subject has p r e c i p i t a t e d a c e r t a i n amount of e c o l o g i c a l c o n t r o l paramount to the annual harvest of the resource. 160 For example, Se c t i o n 14 of the o r i g i n a l Act p r o h i b i t e d the dumping of d e l e t e r i o u s substances i n t o sovereign waters where f i s h management was c a r r i e d on. 1 Amendments of 1886, 1894, 1895, 1906, 1914, 1927, 1932 and 1952 expanded the d e s c r i p t i o n of p r o h i b i t e d substances and increased the 2 p e n a l t i e s f o r the v i o l a t i o n of the p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l s e c t i o n s of the Act. In 1961, the F i s h e r i e s Act was f u r t h e r r e v i s e d and provided the Governor-i n - C o u n c i l greater r e g u l a t o r y power and a u t h o r i t y to deem any substance 3 which adversely a f f e c t e d f i s h h a b i t a t or f i s h i n g p r a c t i c e s as d e l e t e r i o u s . The 1970 Parliament strengthened the environment c o n t r o l s e c t i o n s by c o n s o l i d a t i n g the penalty f o r the discharge of harmful wastes and by i n -creasin g the pen a l t y , on summary c o n v i c t i o n , to a f i n e not exceeding $5000. 4 From i t s o r i g i n , the F i s h e r i e s Act has a l s o recognized the m u l t i p l e use of c o a s t a l waters, but as w i t h p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l , i n a l i m i t e d and ofte n biased sense. Section 22 notes that "no f i s h i n g apparatus s h a l l 1Canada, Parliament, S t a t u t e s , 1868, Chapter 60, Section 14. 2 Canada, Parliament, S t a t u t e s , 1886, Chapter 95; 1894, Chapter 51; 1895, Chapter 27; 1906, Chapter 54, Revised S t a t u t e s ; • 1914, Chapter 8; 1927, Chapter 27, Revised S t a t u t e s ; 1932, Chapter 42; 1952, Chapter 119, Revised  S t a t u t e s . 3 Canada, Parliament, S t a t u t e s , 1960-1961, Chapter 13. Canada, Parliament, S t a t u t e s , 1969-1970, Chapter 63, Section 3. 161 obstruct n a v i g a t i o n " and that "no v e s s e l s s h a l l wantonly destroy n e t s " or fishermen's equipment " l a w f u l l y set".''" S e c t i o n 24 r e q u i r e s fishermen to maintain "two-thirds the width of a ( c o a s t a l ) channel... open at a l l times" 2 f o r the passage of other v e s s e l s . At the same time, the Governor-in-C o u n c i l has been given sweeping powers to make any r e g u l a t i o n s f o r f i s h i n g -c r a f t and fishermen deemed necessary f o r the proper management and c o n t r o l of sea-coast f i s h e r i e s . However, the pragmatic a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s l a t t e r statement to the r e s t r i c t i o n of other competitive a c t i v i t i e s i n s p e c i f i c o ffshore areas i s , as y e t , l a r g e l y untested and remains a moot p o i n t . Management of offshore f i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s and area r e s t r i c t i o n s to f- ..-cgear/soK e'r!a-fit:.nghave7e been l e f t to the d i s c r e t i o n of the M i n i s t e r who has taken hold steps over the l a s t decade to r e s t r i c t and/or appropriate large t r a c t s of seaspace to commercial and sports fishermen. Moreover, on the strength of recent F i s h e r i e s l e g i s l a t i o n used to c u r t a i l o i l d r i l l i n g e x p l o r a t i o n s i n the G u l f , greater c r e d i b i l i t y can be given to the argument that inshore environments may be e v e n t u a l l y r e s t r i c t e d to s p e c i f i c users through more thorough l e g i s l a t i o n which acknowledges c e r t a i n r e g i o n a l p r i o r i t i e s . I f the Gulf i s to be managed w i t h economic, s o c i a l , and environmental motivations i n mind, l e g i s l a t i o n which governs s i n g u l a r a c t i v i t i e s such as commercial f i s h i n g should only assume a degree of redundancy w i t h other l e g i s l a t i o n where matters of p r e s e r v a t i o n of the Canada, Parliament, Revised S t a t u t e s , 1970, Chapter 14, S e c t i o n 22. Canada, Parliament, Revised S t a t u t e s , 1970, Chapter 14, Section 24. Canada, Parliament, Revised S t a t u t e s , 1970, Chapter 14, Secti o n 34. 162 marine environment are at stake. The F i s h e r i e s Act contains s e c t i o n s , a l b e i t d e c i d e d l y general, which leave room f o r the refinement of management p r a c t i c e s and the i n s e r t i o n of more s t r i n g e n t c o n t r o l as the need a r i s e s . However, the a b i l i t y of t h i s piece of l e g i s l a t i o n to come to g r i p e s w i t h f u t u r e management problems i s i n no small part a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t s r e l a t i o n -ship to other laws c o i n c i d e n t w i t h i n the Gulf of Georgia. Commercial Shipping O r i g i n a l l y passed i n 1934,''"the Canada Shipping Act re g u l a t e s the r e g i s t e r i n g and l i c e n c i n g of v e s s e l s and o f f i c e r s , p i l o t a g e , ship and cargo s a f e t y i n s p e c t i o n s , n a v i g a t i o n a i d s , p u b l i c harbours, and the co a s t i n g t r a d e , as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g f o r the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of water p o l l u t i o n , s h i pping ca s u a l t i e s and sea c o l l i s i o n s which occur w i t h i n t e r r i t o r i a l offshore areas. P r i n c i p a l l y , the Act a p p l i e s to the r e g u l a t i o n and conduct of a l l commer-c i a l v e s s e l s operating i n the Gulf and has, since 1962, governed the conduct 2 of p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n a l c r a f t . The Shipping A c t , u n t i l two years ago, was s u b s t a n t i a l l y l i m i t e d to the implementation of i n t e r n a t i o n a l agreement and was devoid of clauses which might otherwise be c a l l e d n a t i o n a l i s t i c p r i v i l e g e s such as the u l t i m a t e r i g h t to d i c t a t e the conduct of v e s s e l s i n Canadian waters. During the period 1934-1965, the Act r e f l e c t e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l convention and f i n e s were 1 Canada, Parlimanent, S t a t u t e s , 1934, Chapter 44. "Small Vessel R e g u l a t i o n s " , Canada Gazette, Part 11, Volume 96 ( 9 ) , May 9, 1962. 163 held to a minimum f o r i n f r a c t i o n s of the s p e c i f i c s e c t i o n s of the A c t . 1 The pervasiveness of tfe Shipping Act makes i t one of the best pieces of l e g i s l a t i o n f or the management of the c o a s t a l marine environment. Despite the i n t e r n a t i o n a l tone, the Act contains s e v e r a l s e c t i o n s extremely p e r t i n e n t to t h i s study. Part 9 of the A c t , which deals w i t h N a v i g a t i o n and C o l l i s i o n Regulations f o r i n l a n d waters, gives the Governor-in-Council power to i n s t i t u t e r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s f o r c o l l i s i o n prevention and "may provide f o r the p r o h i b i t i n g or l i m i t i n g of n a v i g a t i o n on any part of the waters of Canada, i n the i n t e r e s t s of p u b l i c s a f e t y or of promoting or ensuring the e f f e c t i v e r e g u l a t i o n of such waters i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t or. f o r the p r o t e c t i o n or convenience of the p u b l i c , of v e s s e l s not exceeding 2 f i f t e e n tons gross tonnage." The key phrase here would have to be the "convenience of the p u b l i c " which i m p l i e s the r e c o g n i t i o n of other equable water users. But i t seems strange that t h i s s e c t i o n which has been i n -corporated " i n the p u b l i c i n t e r s t " , and f o r p u b l i c s a f e t y , should be l i m i t e d to only those v e s s e l s which domolt exceed f i f t e e n tons. I f c o l l i s i o n prevention i s the p r i n c i p a l tenet of t h i s part of the A c t , i t would appear that v e s s e l s exceeding f i f t e e n tons werelequably^oifnnot more l i a b l e to c o n s t i t u t e a danger to other c r a f t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n c o n s t r i c t e d waters. In essence, these r e g u l a t i o n s apply only to seaspace r e s t r i c t i o n s of large f i s h i n g c r a f t , v e s s e l s i n coastwise s e r v i c e such as tugs h a u l i n g log booms or barges, and l a r g e r p r i v a t e pleasure c r a f t . A l s o , s e c t i o n s i n t h i s part '''During t h i s p e r i o d , a c o n v i c t i o n on v i o l a t i o n of any s e c t i o n of the Act meant a p u n i t i v e f i n e not exceeding $500. In 1965, t h i s meagre amount was brought i n t o touch w i t h contemporary costs and the Act was amended to a maximum f i n e not exceeding $5000. Canada, Parliament, Revised S t a t u t e s , 1970, Chapter 9, Secti o n 635 ( 3 ) . 164 of the Act are s i n g u l a r l y a p p l i e d to p u b l i c s a f e t y and do not take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n other important aspects of the problem of i n c o m p a t a b i l i t y among simultaneous seaspace users such as the d e p l e t i o n of marine resources and marine e c o l o g i c a l - c u l t u r a l values that would accrue through overcrowding or frequent d i s r u p t i o n of the marine h a b i t a t . P u b l i c apprehension about the p o s s i b l e d i s a s t r o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s of the increased and u n c o n t r o l l e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of crude o i l and petroleum products o f f Canadian coasts has moved the f e d e r a l government to a c t i o n and has r e s u l t e d i n strong amendments to the a n t i - p o l l u t i o n s e c t i o n s of the Act i n 1969. That year, Parliament endorsed the M i n i s t e r of Transport w i t h d i s c r e a t i o n a r y power to remove or destroy any v e s s e l sunk or grounded i n Canadian waters which "(1) i s p o l l u t i n g or i s l i k e l y to p o l l u t e any Canadian waters, (2) c o n s t i t u t e s or i s l i k e l y to c o n s t i t u t e a.danger to waterfowl or marine l i f e , or (3) i s damaging or i s l i k e l y to damage c o a s t a l property or i s i n t e r f e r i n g or i s l i k e l y to i n t e r f e r e w i t h the enjoyment thereof..."''' In 1971, S e c t i o n 19 of the Act was repealed and replaced w i t h an extensive s e c t i o n which now provided Canada w i t h some of the s t r i c t e s t 2 domestic o i l p o l l u t i o n laws f o r the marine environment. Among other t h i n g s , the M i n i s t e r has been given power to reg u l a t e shipping through 3 c e r t i f i c a t i o n of v e s s e l s c a r r y i n g p o l l u t a n t s i n bulk to meet minimum 1Canada, Parliament, S t a t u t e s , 1968-1969, Chapter 53, S e c t i o n 24. 2 Canada, Parliament, S t a t u t e s , 1970-1971, Chapter 27. " P o l l u t a n t s i n bulk" are recognized to be any m a t e r i a l harmful to the marine environment c a r r i e d on board a ship as cargo or otherwise. 165 Canadian standards, and to e s t a b l i s h more s t r i n g e n t r u l e s f o r the operation of f o r e i g n and domestic v e s s e l s c a r r y i n g p o l l u t a n t s through Canadian waters.''" P o l l u t i o n prevention o f f i c e r s have been appointed to board s h i p s , to enforce the r e g u l a t i o n s of the A c t , and a l s o to i n v e s t i g a t e a l l i n c i d e n t s of p o l l u t i o n of the sea. However, the most important point i n the new r e g -u l a t i o n s concerns the determination of l i a b i l i t y and the assessment of r e s t i t u t i o n f o r claimants i n the event of a mishap at sea. P e n a l t i e s f o r a marine accident which causes any environmental damage can now be i n -curred against the ship and cargo owner w i t h or without f a u l t or p r i v i t y on the part of e i t h e r . P r e v i o u s l y , o i l companies had gained almost t o t a l p r o t e c t i o n by c h a r t e r i n g o i l tankers from f o r e i g n shipowners who used a s p i n - o f f of l i m i t e d l i a b i l i t y companies together w i t h " f l a g s of convenience" to s h e l t e r t h e i r assets from the reach of the c o u r t s . L i a b i l i t y i s now l i m i t e d to 2000 gold francs (134 d o l l a r s ) ; f o r each ton of the ship or a maximum of 210,000,000 gold francs (14 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s ) whichever i s l e s s , 2 f o r marine accidents without f a u l t to the ship or cargo owner. There i s u n l i m i t e d l i a b i l i t y i f the mishap i s tie f a u l t of ship d e sign, the master, or the cargo owner, at which time a l l claims may be sued f o r i n A d m i r a l t y "*"A11 s h i p s ' s u l l a g e and dunnage p r e v i o u s l y dumped outside harbour l i m i t s i s now c o n t a i n e r i z e d alongside while the ship i s i n port and d i s -posed of on land. Dunn and Hargrave, op. c i t . , p. 163. Using t h i s standard, a 120,000 ton supertanker of the c l a s s to be used on the Valdez-Puget Sound route would produce a l i m i t a t i o n fund of about 8 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . 166 Court. Chapter 27 of the Act extends j u r i s d i c t i o n over domestic and f o r e i g n v e s s e l s who p o l l u t e t e r r i t o r i a l waters south of the s i x t i e h t p a r a l l e l , and v e s s e l operations i n waters north of the s i x t i e t h p a r a l l e l , 2 not regulated by the A r c t i c Waters P o l l u t i o n Prevention Act. Although these amendments to the Canada Shipping Act provide a more equable d i s t r i b u t i o n of l i a b i l i t y and compensation for claimants than previous f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n , they are wholly inadequate i n compensating persons s u f f e r i n g i n d i r e c t damages. A l s o , as domestic l e g i s l a t i o n , the Act cannot be imposed upon f o r e i g n v e s s e l heading f o r f o r e i g n ports unless these v e s s e l s pass through Canadian waters and t h i s cannot be a p p l i e d to the t i d a l p o l l u t i o n of Canadian waters from i n c i d e n t s that occur i n 3 sovereign waters of the United S t a t e s . Moreover, the recent amendments are\almost e n t i r e l y concerned w i t h contingency procedures invoked a f t e r an o i l s p i l l w i t h v i r t u a l l y no emphasis put upon various aspects of prevention of marine a c c i d e n t s . Nevertheless, despite these weaknesses, i t i s a A Maritime P o l l u t i o n Claims Fund i s provided by the Act to compensate p o l l u t i o n v i c t i m s by a tax of up to f i f t e e n cents a ton l e v i e d on imported o i l . Expected to y i e l d 3 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s a n n u a l l y , t h i s fund can be tapped where ships causing no f a u l t s p i l l s exceed 14 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s damage, or more l i k e l y , where p o l l u t e r s cannot be i d e n t i f i e d . This Act a p p l i e s to Canadian waters north of the s i x t i e t h p a r a l l e l and e s t a b l i s h e s a c o n t r o l zone extending 100 m i l e s o f f s h o r e . I t provides for the d e s i g n a t i o n of t r a f f i c lanes and imposes absolute l i a b i l i t y on ship and cargo owners f o r cleanup costs and t h i r d party losses a f t e r an o i l s p i l l . Canada's l e g a l e f f o r t s to h a l t the movement of supertankers shipping Alaskan crude and bound f o r r e f i n e r i e s i n the southernCGulf _.o:f Georgia and Puget Sound are l7arigeU\y regulated :• by the f a c t that these v e s s e l s can d e l i v e r t h e i r cargoes without e n t e r i n g Canadian waters. 167 a p o s i t i v e step toward the r a t i o n a l management of the G u l f , through s t r i c t e r c o n t r o l of p o t e n t i a l l y dangerous commercial shipping a c t i v i t i e s . I t assumes even greater s i g n i f i c a n c e when the increased coastwise trade pro-j e c t i o n s f o r petroleum products are considered. Water-Oriented Recreation In c o n t r a s t to the r e g u l a t i o n of other f u n c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , r e c -r e a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s , u n t i l r e c e n t l y , have been l o o s e l y c o n t r o l l e d . Only since 1962 have a l l r e c r e a t i o n a l c r a f t operating i n Canadian waters been subject to the procedures l a i d down i n Small Vessel Regulations pursuant to the Canada Shipping A c t . 1 These r u l e s , which are u s u a l l y enforced by the R.C.M.P. or the Canadian Coast Guard, are concerned w i t h the l i c e n s i n g of ve s s e l s (by s i z e and horsepower) as w e l l as w i t h s a f e t y precautions f o r the operation of r e c r e a t i o n a l c r a f t . P r i o r to 1972, the r e g u l a t i o n s were p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h boating s a f e t y where r u l e s were based upon a recognized standard of prudent conduct on the part of i n d i v i d u a l boaters. Only s e c t i o n 69, which forbade r e c r e a t i o n a l c r a f t to anchor or obstruct channels or f a i r w a y s , made a general attempt to a v a i l pleasure boaters of the n e c e s s i t y of acknowledging the presence of other f u n c t i o n a l users. The magnitude of r e c r e a t i o n a l c r a f t i n the Gulf and t h e i r p o s i t i o n v i s a v i s other f u n c t i o n a l uses forced the M i n i s t e r of Transport, Donald Jamieson, to announce new small c r a f t r e g u l a t i o n s i n June, 1972. In an e f f o r t to o b t a i n a greater degree of c o n t r o l of pleasure boat o p e r a t i o n s , the amendments made i t p o s s i b l e f o r speed l i m i t s to be imposed on designated Canada, Order i n C o u n c i l , A p r i l 19, 1962, No. P. C , 1962-592. 168 waters, and f o r the use of c e r t a i n waters to be r e s t r i c t e d to s p e c i f i e d types of r e c r e a t i o n a l c r a f t . Prompted by the success of F i s h e r i e s programs f o r the seasonal r e s e r v a t i o n of s p e c i f i e d offshore f i s h i n g areas e x c l u s i v e l y f o r sports a n g l e r s , the M i n i s t e r now has power to p r o h i b i t the entry of a l l boats i n t o designated waters. As y e t , the Transport M i n i s t r y has not assigned these new r e g u l a t i o n s to any s e c t o r , although area-use studies f o r Burrard I n l e t and s e v e r a l other subregions i n the Gulf are soon to be commissioned. P r o v i s i o n s have been made fo r a p r i v a t e a p p l i c a t i o n f o r the enactment of the r e s t r i c t i o n s to boat operations on a l o c a l waterway and may be submitted through the p r o v i n c i a l Department of Recreation and Conservation which has been granted the r i g h t of approval. As a j o i n t f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l e f f o r t , these r e g u l a t i o n s w i l l help to c o n t r o l some of the p u b l i c nuisance problems as s o c i a t e d w i t h boaters such as n o i s e , speed and wash, and s h o r e l i n e e r o s i o n , i n a d d i t i o n to l e s s e n i n g the danger to swimmers and l a r g e r c r a f t . I r r e s p o n s i b l e boaters contravening any of these new p r o v i s i o n s are l i a b l e , i f c o n v i c t e d , to a f i n e not exceeding $500. In a d d i t i o n , new small c r a f t rescue s e r v i c e s were a l s o announced f o r the summer of 1972 to compliment e x i s t i n g search and rescue s e r v i c e s based i n Vancouver. Recognizing the need f o r r a p i d inshore rescue c r a f t , p a r t -i c u l a r l y i n areas of high summer pleasure c r a f t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s , s e v e r a l f a s t 18 foot rescue boats were based at Mayne I s l a n d f o r A c t i v e Pass and surrounding waters, at E n g l i s h Bay, and at V i c t o r i a . These new r e g u l a t i o n s are testimony to the r e a l i z a t i o n that r e c r e a t i o n a l water users have been l a r g e l y u n c o n t r o l l e d and deserving of t i g h t e r management, not only f o r the s a f e t y of p r i v a t e boaters, but for the s a f e t y and convenience of other waterway and foreshore users. As y e t , Small Vessel Regulations are devoid 169 of any clauses which r e f e r to the discharge of wastes and p o l l u t a n t s i n t o waterways and r e l i a n c e has been placed upon the r e s p o n s i b l e boater to keep a t i d y yard. However, the increase i n the number of r e c r e a t i o n a l c r a f t i n Gulf waters increases the problem of contamination by chemical and nonbiodegradable wastes, the s o l u t i o n of which cannot be l e f t s o l e l y to the conscienciousness of the i n d i v i d u a l boater.^ O s t e n s i b l y , c o n t r o l s over beach and t i d a l foreshore a c t i v i t i e s , i n c o n t r a s t to the r e g u l a t i o n of pleasure c r a f t , are f o r the most p a r t , admin-i s t e r e d by p r o v i n c i a l and municipal a u t h o r i t i e s . The Migratory B i r d s Convention A c t , f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of waterfowl, i s the only piece of f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n which can be used f o r marine p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l of 2 s p e c i f i e d s h o r e l i n e and foreshore areas above high water mark. Below high water mark i t i s redundant w i t h environmental c o n t r o l s e c t i o n s of more powerful f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n . P u b l i c beaches which occur w i t h i n organized corporate m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are subject to a wide range of l o c a l r e g u l a t i o n s , a l l of which are concerned w i t h water q u a l i t y standards and none of which deal w i t h any aspect of overcrowding. In the summer, a l l p u b l i c beaches i n the study r e g i o n are r e g u l a r l y inspected by o f f i c e r s of the P r o v i n c i a l "^Studies of s e v e r a l h e a v i l y used lakes i n Canada and the United States have proven that r e c r e a t i o n a l c r a f t are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r a p i d entro-p h i c a t i o n of the l a k e s . Constant use by two c y c l e outboard motors d i s -charging l u b r i c a t i n g o i l through exhausts spreads a t h i n l a y e r of s u f f o c a t i n g o i l upon the water surface. One of the few i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r e a t i e s which recognizes that common property resources do not respect p o l i t i c a l boundaries, the Act f o r w b i d s the flow of wastes i n t o waters frequented by migratory waterfowl. Maximum f i n e s of $300 f o r v i o l a t i o n of t h i s s e c t i o n have not increased since 1921. 170 Health S e r v i c e , and i n some cases, by municipal h e a l t h o f f i c e r s f o r con-tamination. Closures of beaches has r e s u l t e d where foreshore areas do not meet minimum acceptable s a f e t y standards. When the offender can be i d e n t i f i e d , charges can be l a i d under the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Act of 1967, but more o f t e n than not, the offender i s the upshore m u n i c i p a l i t y and i t s domestic sewage system. Waste Di s p o s a l The Gulf of Georgia has long been a handy junkyard and convenient d i l u t i o n pond f o r the p e r n i c i o u s p r o d u c t i v i t y of an i n d u s t r i a l and urban s o c i e t y . The a b i l i t y of the " f e d e r a l " sea to d i g e s t domestic and i n d u s t r i a l t a i l i n g s from " p r o v i n c i a l " l a n d sources i s p r e s e n t l y regulated by j o i n t p r o v i n c i a l - m u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t y . In 1956, a dispute over the discharge of sewage e f f l u e n t prompted the l e g i s l a t u r e to promulgate the f i r s t P o l l u t i o n 1 C o n t r o l A c t . The Act delegates the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Board f o r i s s u i n g permits a f t e r d e s i g n a t i n g standards of water q u a l i t y and e f f l u e n t d i s -charge i n a d d i t i o n to determing what p r o p e r t i e s of water s h a l l c o n s t i t u t e a p o l l u t e d c o n d i t i o n . O r i g i n a l l y , the Board r e l i e d upon the p r o v i n c i a l Health Services Department to enforce the Act which i n d i c a t e d that the Act was designed to deal w i t h water p o l l u t i o n r e s u l t i n g from sewage o u t f a l l s . In e f f o r t s to b r i n g the l e g i s l a t i o n i n t o l i n e w i t h contemporary s i t u a t i o n s , amendments of 1965 saw the i n c l u s i o n of s e c t i o n s to c o n t r o l i n d u s t r i a l wastes and the t r a n s f e r of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n to the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l B r i t i s h Columbia, L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, S t a t u t e s , 1956, Chapter 36. 171 A f f a i r s who appointed an independent s t a f f to i n v e s t i g a t e a l l v i o l a t i o n s . ^ Repealed i n 1967, the new P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Act perpetuates the respons-i b i l i t i e s of the former but provides f o r a D i r e c t o r of P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i s s u i n g discharge permits w i t h respect to the 2 c o n d i t i o n s of the A c t . A f t e r amendments i n 1968, the Act was f u r t h e r strengthened by clauses which a b s o l u t e l y p r o h i b i t e d waste discharge i n t o any water body without a permit and e s t a b l i s h e d a penalty of up to $1000 3 f o r a convicted p o l l u t e r . The P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t , although r e s t r i c t i v e , i s the only p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e which has any bearing on the management of water q u a l i t y i n the Gulf of Georgia. Greater co-operation w i t h f e d e r a l agencies w i l l increase the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h i s a r t i c l e of l e g i s l a t i o n which should shelve the notorious myth that the sea i s the carefree garburator of the noxious and the obnoxious. Assessment of E x i s t i n g L e g i s l a t i o n and Management N a t i o n a l concern f o r the q u a l i t y of the biosphere i s e s s e n t i a l l y a 1 B r i t i s h Columbia, L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, S t a t u t e s , 1956, Chapter 36. 2 B r i t i s h Columbia, L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, S t a t u t e s , 1967 , Chapter 34. B r i t i s h Columbia, L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, S t a t u t e s , 1968, Chapter 38, S e c t i o n 20A. feature of the 1970's. F a r - s i g h t e d p u b l i c decision-makers and a growing number of enlightened p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s have become genuinely aware that past management p r a c t i c e s and marine l e g i s l a t i o n may be obsolescent and inadequate to s u s t a i n the marine environment at acceptable l e v e l s of q u a l i t y . P u b l i c and government concern has focused upon a n x i e t y over the p o s s i b l e damages i n f l e c t e d by a major o i l s p i l l i n t e r r i t o r i a l waters , and amendments to the e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n r e f l e c t a preoccupation w i t h t h i s r a t h e r narrow portent. Although Canada now has some of the best domestic o i l p o l l u t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n , these laws are s t i l l o v e r l y concerned w i t h outmoded sanctions p o r t r a y i n g a l i m i t a t i o n of l i a b i l i t y f o r t h i r d 2 party claimants. Ross noted that attachment of g u i l t or penal s a n c t i o n s , while o f t e n s a t i s f y i n g to the p u b l i c mind, i s an u n f a i r s u b s t i t u t e f o r the e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n of the s o c i a l , e c o l o g i c a l , and economic costs i n -3 curred when o i l i s s p i l l e d . At the same time, there has been an almost unhealthy f i x a t i o n w i t h what a c t i o n s should be taken a f t e r o i l p o l l u t i o n has taken p l a c e , rather than an e q u a l l y concerted e f f o r t to e s t a b l i s h '''This has been prompted by the p u b l i c i t y and accolade given such people as Jacques Cousteau, Rachel Carson (The Sea Around Us), and Wesley Marx (The F r a i l Ocean). Dunn and Hargrave went so f a r as to say that the s t a t e of the law, as i t now e x i s t s i n Canada, i s completely inadequate to p r o t e c t and compensate a l l i n d i v i d u a l s who have suff e r e d damage as a r e s u l t of o i l p o l l u t i o n . 3 Ross, op. c i t . , p. 81. Ross stated that n a t i o n a l and subnational i n s t i t u t i o n s seem f r a c t u r e d and incapable of i n t e r n a l i z i n g the e x t e r n a l i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a major o i l s p i l l . 173 r e g u l a t i o n s which would help prevent the l i k e l i h o o d of a s p i l l i n the f i r s t p l a c e . The most dangerous offender to the p r e s e r v a t i o n of the marine environment — the o i l tanker--should be more r i g i d l y c o n t r o l l e d while i n Canadian waters. Concrete laws should be enacted to r e q u i r e tankers, or f o r that matter any ships c a r r y i n g environmentally dangerous cargoes, to l i m i t speed and maintain constant fairways and p o s i t i o n deemed necessary f o r safe conduct i n i n t e r n a l waters. Controls f o r environmental p r o t e c t i o n should not be l i m i t e d to chemical p o l l u t a n t s which s p o i l waterways a f t e r marine shpping a c c i d e n t s , but should be extended to encompass a c t i o n s which degrade the q u a l i t y and value of the marine environment through the a d d i t i o n of s o l i d wastes. For i n s t a n c e , r e g u l a t i o n s are u n s p e c i f i c regarding the dumping of discarded m i l i t a r y amunition i n offshore deeps or the i n f i l l i n g of s h o r e l i n e or e s t u a r i n e areas by land developers. This has been due to the water's edge segmentation of f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n o f f s h o r e areas. Moreover, p r i o r to 1971, management of the m u l t i t u d i n a l nature of the marine environment was unequally shared among the f e d e r a l departments of P u b l i c Works, Transport, Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development, Fisheries/..Wild-l i f e , Water Management S e r v i c e , and E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s . The establishment of the Department of the Environment has reduced the number of r e g u l a t o r y bodies a c t i v e i n the Gulf and h o p e f u l l y , represents the end of resource develop-ment programs which consider s o c i a l costs and b e n e f i t s i n the narrowest economic sense. At present, there i s no bureau i n Environment Canada charged e x p l i c i t l y w i t h the management of the marine environment or a c t i n g as a c l e a r i n g house f o r development programs i n o f f s h o r e , s h o r e l i n e , or 174 1 estuarine areas. Only since 1972, have any p o l i c i e s been put forward w i t h d i r e c t respect to m u l t i p l e use. Amendments to the Small Vessel Regulations demonstrate a r e a s s e r t i o n of government posture towards the greater r e g u l a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s which can be a ppuBdi.rc annoyance or present a p o t e n t i a l danger. The new reserved waterspace p o l i c y , r e s u l t i n g from i n -creased pleasure boating a c t i v i t y , supercedes p a r o c h i a l and outdated procedure which simply determined conduct of small c r a f t by starboard rdigJrtoofwway, or the r e c o g n i t i o n of s a i l over powered c r a f t . The r e s e r v a -t i o n of Gulf seaspaeee should not be p u r e l y l i m i t e d to r e c r e a t i o n a l c r a f t . Obviously, c o n f l i c t i s more prevalent between d i f f e r e n t forms of water-or i e n t e d r e c r e a t i o n . The marine environment may a l s o be adversely a f f e c t e d i n the long run by u n c o n t r o l l e d overcrowding but the g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l hazard to the sports angler or the water s k i i n g e n t h u s i a s t i s the r e c r e a t i o n a l e c l i p s e which would occur i n the aftermath of an o i l s p i l l . O i l d r i l l i n g i n Gulf waters was forbidden on the grounds that the p o t e n t i a l problems of offs h o r e w e l l s were incompatable w i t h r e c r e a t i o n a l v a l u e s . In view of t h i s , a l l methods of p r a c t i c a l prevention assume greater importance, p a r t i c u l a r l y those which keep dangerous p o l l u t e r s apart from important r e c r e a t i o n a l and e c o l o g i c a l areas. The concept of r e s t r i c t i n g areas to c e r t a i n users shows that government r e a l i z e s that sane management d i c t a t e s programs which cater to the r i g h t s of the broadest range of users and that i n d i v i d u a l p o l i c i e s formulated f o r i n d i v i d u a l user goals should not be ''"When d e t a i l e d information i s r e q u i r e d by government on the e c o l o g i c a l or s o c i a l impact of proposed developments, or p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s inooffshofeoareas?japrivatetcoiisultingeagencies have been r e t a i n e d f o r the task. 175 allowed to work to the detriment of a l l other users. Underwater Marine Parks and Conservation Areas. Marine b i o l o g i s t s t and oceanographers have p u b l i c l y announced that the Gulf of Georgia i s the most prodigious and d i v e r s i f i e d o f f s h o r e area i n Canada, but has begun to concede to the compounded e f f e c t of man's c a r e l e s s -ness and n e g l e c t . 1 To a r r e s t t h i s d e t e r i o r a t i o n and to i n d i t i a t e a proper course of marine management, i n v o l v e s two methods. F i r s t , what might be r e f e r r e d to as the e x i s t i n g "shoot from the hip approach", t a i l o r e d tp s a t i s f y short term economic or s o c i a l needs, continues w i t h the hope that i t w i l l b r i n g about o r d e r l y development without f u r t h e r r e d u c t i o n i n the q u a l i t y of the marine environment. The second approach would i n v o l v e a more r e v o l u t i o n a r y means of management i n which economic and s o c i a l needs and a s p i r a t i o n s are considered w i t h i n the coastland framework. The out-come of t h i s approach would be the adoption of a r e g i o n a l marine plan which acknowledged designated p r i o r i t i e s of marine uses by area. As y e t , no such d e t a i l e d p o l i c y e x i s t s , although i t appears that much of the l e g a l machinery necessary f o r implementing a s y s t e m a t i c a l l y determined set of marine p r i o r i t i e s i s present. Nonetheless, one point i s e v i d e n t l y c l e a r , and that i s that the f e d e r a l departments are almost unanimous i n the op i n i o n that e c o l o g i c a l - c u l t u r a l values have higher p r i o r i t y than economic-commercial values f o r Gulf waters. Since 1970, s e v e r a l sources i n the f e d e r a l government have c o n j e c t -u r a l l y spoken of bestowing N a t i o n a l Park status on the Gulf of Georgia. T. R. Parsons, "Bases- of Resource Management: Oceanography," Environmental Management Seminar, Centre f o r Continuing Education, U.B.C. October 26-27, 1970. The f i r s t i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c overtones were expressed by F i s h e r i e s M i n i s t e r Jack Davis when he envisioned a s e r i e s of n a t i o n a l underwater parks "which would preserve f o r p e r p e t u i t y the scenic and e c o l o g i c a l wonderland of the Gulf."''" However, such an opportunity i s not without c o m p l i c a t i o n , and almost three years a f t e r the pronouncements, only the f i r s t foundation-a l steps have been taken toward a c h i e v i n g the g o a l . U n l i k e the enactment of the P a c i f i c Rim N a t i o n a l Park, the establishment of a major park system f o r the Gulf i s complicated by the nature of the importance and scale of t r a d i t i o n a l water use p r a c t i c e s . A l s o , the development of a n a t i o n a l park below high water mark has brought about c e r t a i n l e g a l 2 questions which do not mesh w i t h p a r o c h i a l park planning p o l i c y . Never-t h e l e s s , some of the fundamental questions f a c i n g the i n i t i a t i o n of the program have been answered. F i r s t , by means of a meaningful methodology which a p p l i e d n a t u r a l h i s t o r y themes based on oceanographical and e c o l o g i c a l phenomena, i t was p o s s i b l e to i d e n t i f y key conservation areas. Seymour, Dodd, and Fa l s e Narrows; A c t i v e , Boundary, P o r l i e r , and Ga b r i o l a Passes; the Fraser River estuary and d e l t a ; and Ga b r i o l a and J e r v i s Deeps; were s p e c i f i c Gulf areas earmarked by Paish f o r t h e i r oceanographic and/or ''"Jack Davis, A N a t i o n a l Underwater Park i n the Gulf of Georgia, Luncheon address to the Holiy b u r n Gyro Club, North Vancouver, June 5, 1970, (mimeographed). Not a new i d e a , the concept was mooted at the World Conference on Marine Parks held i n S e a t t l e i n 1962. Underwater parks p r e s e n t l y e x i s t i n F l o r i d a , C a l i f o r n i a , A u s t r a l i a and Japan. N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Parks Branch, N a t i o n a l Parks Planning  Manual, Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development, Ottawa, 1971. 177 FIGURE 12 SIGN IFICANT ECOLOGICAL-OCEANOGRAPHICAL AREAS IN THE GULF OF GEORGIA 178 e c o l o g i c appeal ^(See Figure 12). In a d d i t i o n , c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of Gulf f i s h e r i e s , marine i n v e r t e b r a t e s , and ocean waterfowl were a l s o i d e n t i f i e d f o r i n c l u s i o n i n conservation areas. ^ These water areas are to be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h p h y s i o g r a p h i c a l and e c o l o g i c a l features which occur i n s h o r e l i n e areas above high water mark. Included here are wind and water e r o s i o n a l phenomena such as the Malaspina G a l l e r i e s on G a b r i o l a I s l a n d as w e l l as other l i t t o r a l s p i t s , lagoons, and v a r i e d g l a c i a l c l i f f s which appear throughout the Gulf. Although new underwater marine parks r e q u i r e a reassessment of N a t i o n a l Park p o l i c y and r e s p e c t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n , they o f f e r a new dimension to the contemporary N a t i o n a l Park s e r i e s . The enfranchisement of parts of the study region f o r a marine park i s the most p o s i t i v e method of safeguarding the q u a l i t y of the marine environment. I t represents a complete r e v e r s a l from the e a r l i e r and entrenched focus of wateruse a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r Gulf waters. The exprop-r i a t i o n of the conservation areas i d e n t i f i e d by Paish as w e l l as areas which possess other prime use p r i o r i t y i s now p o s s i b l e under the r e v i s i o n s to the Canada Shipping Act. Sea-s:pace> r e s t r i c t i o n s a l l o w the p a r t i a l sub-v e r s i o n of commercial water users i n the i n t e r e s t s of r e c r e a t i o n and wilderness values. But u n l i k e other n a t i o n a l parks which p r o h i b i t any commercial a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n t h e i r preserves, the importance of commercial water a c t i v i t i e s to coastland r e s i d e n t s and Canada at large demands s u f f i c i e n t p r o v i s i o n s f o r the perpetuation of commercial l i n k a g e s . Park s i z e becomes a c r i t i c a l s u r v i v a l f a c t o r . I f conservation areas are too small and too s c a t t e r e d , t h e i r marine communities may not be on a large Howard P a i s h and Associates L i m i t e d , A Theme Study of the Marine Environment of the S t r a i t s Between Vancouver I s l a n d and the B r i t i s h Columbia Mainland, Vancouver , 1970. 179 enough sca l e to be r e s i l i a n t against p e r i o d i c contamination or. over-t a x a t i o n of neighbouring non-park water areas. The success of the conser-v a t i o n program hinges upon the a b i l i t y to keep apart a c t i v i t i e s which may cause mutual i n t e r f e r e n c e . Wherever p o s s i b l e b u f f e r zones w i l l have to be created between conservation areas and other incompatible users. In the 1972 study of o i l s p i l l impact, P a i s h , w i t h the use of a numerical index, i d e n t i f i e d areas of r e l a t i v e v u l n e r a b i l i t y based upon catego r i e s of commercial, r e c r e a t i o n a l and a e s t h e t i c - i n t a n g i b l e importance. 1 Superimposing a square g r i d w i t h approximately 100 square s t a t u t e miles to each square, i t was p o s s i b l e to assess where o i l s p i l l s would have the highest adverse e f f e c t s . Greatest damage would be i n c u r r e d i n the Gulf I s l a n d s , i n the Fraser's t r i f u c a t e d eeis:tuar.y/, at the mouth of Howe Sound, i n Malaspina S t r a i t , i n the Discovery Passage-Redonda I s l a n d s - D e s o l a t i o n Sound r e g i o n , and i n the Vancouver I s l a n d foreshore area from Cape Lazo to the Ballenas I s l a n d s , (see Figure 12). I n t e r e s t i n g l y , these areas are g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the conservation areas. While there are infrequent c l o s u r e s to commercial f i s h i n g c r a f t i n these areas, there are no r e s t i c t i o n s to commercial s h i p p i n g . In many cases, the passage of commercial c a r r i e r s through these areas can be avoided and the danger of contamination to the most s e n s i t i v e areas reduced by the r e r o u t i n g of v e s s e l s through l e s s v u l n e r a b l e waters. In the pas t , commercial routes through Gulf waters have been d i c t a t e d by components of time and of d i s t a n c e . However, the f r a g i l i t y of c e r t a i n marine areas makes s a i l i n g time of l i t t l e importance. The B r i t i s h Columbia P i l o t , the •""Paish, (1972), op. c i t . , p. 123. 180 handbook of c o a s t a l n a v i g a t i o n , c a l l s the entrance to the Gulf of Georgia dangerous and deserving of cautious seamanship. But despi t e the elaborate n a v i g a t i o n equipment on ship and shore, ships continue to go aground and c o l l i d e i n treacherous Gulf waters. While p r e d i c t i o n s of the number of future marine accidents are tenuous at best,''" the f a c t that misfortunes w i l l occur and that a p r o p o r t i o n of these w i l l cause e c o l o g i c a l damage w i t h i n the study r e g i o n i s i n e v i t a b l e . Marine T r a f f i c C o n t r o l and SSeaspace Zoning The review of r e l e v a n t s t a t u t e s and codes has shown that recent en-vironmental amendments have f o s t e r e d ex post f a c t o p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l . Contingency procedures and r e p a r a t i o n s , while s o r e l y r e q u i r e d i n a s i t u a t i o n where wholly inadequate p r o t e c t i o n had p r e v i o u s l y e x i s t e d , need to be augmented w i t h more programs which attend to the root of the problem. An equal amount of e f f o r t and f i s c a l expenditure should be put toward develop-ing procedures which w i l l reduce the l i k e l i h o o d of a p o t e n t i a l large or small s c a l e marine i n c i d e n t . A p o c a l y p t i c computer p r e d i c t i o n s of s l i c k -2 3 encrusted s h o r e l i n e s and doomsday v i s i o n s of mutated marine ecosystems ^Honeywell Marine System Centre, i n a study of a proposed automated marine t r a f f i c a d v i s o r y system, p r e d i c t e d that there would be 2-4 major marine c o l l i s i o n s i n Puget Sound alone i n the next ten years. 2 David A b l e t t , "Computer L i s t s C o l l i s i o n Chances," Vancouver Sun, F r i d a y , March 19, 1971, p. 13. P. S. G a l s t o f f , O i l P o l l u t i o n i n Coastal Waters, W i l d l i f e R e s t o r a t i o n and Conservation A s s o c i a t i o n , S e a t t l e , 1970. 181 may lose some of t h e i r i n e v i t a b i l i t y through the a p p l i c a t i o n of techniques which regul a t e marine t r a f f i c or reserve zones of seaspaeef.' The r a p i d i t y of recent amendments i n maritime l e g i s l a t i o n , and the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e power wielded by f e d e r a l agencies, are encouraging signs that these two programmes may not be d i f f i c u l t to implement. Marine T r a f f i c C o n t r o l Even w i t h the i n c l u s i o n of mandatory r e g u l a t i o n s designed to increase ship c o n t r o l , the recent amendments to the Canada Shipping Act have not dynamically a l t e r e d the movement of v e s s e l s through Gulf waters. Compulsory co n d i t i o n s now r e q u i r e a l l f o r e i g n ships to c a r r y a marine p i l o t who is. encouraged to proceed at reduced speed and to rep o r t p e r i o d i c p o s i t i o n and course. In a d d i t i o n , ships c a r r y i n g p o l l u t a n t s are r e q u i r e d to meet M i n i s t r y of Transport standards f o r the c o n d i t i o n of h u l l s , machinery, and n a v i g a t i o n a l equipment. For domestic and f o r e i g n v e s s e l s c a r r y i n g p o l l u t -ants i n c o a s t a l waters, r e g u l a t i o n s should be supplemented w i t h clauses which r e q u i r e v e s s e l s to c a r r y and maintain p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l equipment such as container booms, emergency pumps, and absorbent peat moss f o r q u i c k l y a t t a c k i n g s p i l l s . The system of Canadian n a v i g a t i o n markers, based on the antiquated E n g l i s h code f o r the convenience of s a i l i n g v e s s e l s e n t e r i n g ports against the mainstream of the f l o o d t i d e , has r e c e n t l y been a l t e r e d to match r e v -'''D. E. Newman, " O i l P o l l u t i o n Booms--The Probable L i m i t s of F l o a t i n g B a r r i e r s to Prevent the Spread of O i l on Water," Journal of the  I n s t i t u t e of Petroleum, V o l . 52, 1971, pp. 223-236; and Arthur L i t t l e Incorporated, O i l S p i l l T r e a t i n g Agents, S e l e c t i o n Based on Environmental  F a c t o r s , Report f o r the I n s t i t u t e of Petroleum, 1970. 182 i s e d North American standards. These n a v i g a t i o n a l markers could be augmented by a system of compulsory shipping f a i r w a y s , together w i t h a system of shore-based radar and t r a f f i c c o n t r o l . Analogous to methods of a i r t r a f f i c c o n t r o l , p o s i t i v e c o n t r o l f o r a l l shipping has been success-f u l l y i n s t i t u t e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y i n the E n g l i s h Channel, and d o m e s t i c a l l y i n the Gulf of Mexico. Honeywell has devised a s i m i l a r system f o r the American side of Juan de Fuca S t r a i t and the Puget Sound r e g i o n and has made overtures to the Federal government to design a marine a d v i s o r y system fo r Canadian c o a s t a l waters. To date, however, Ottawa has been r e t i c e n t to . 2 implement the p l a n . Lack of i n t e r e s t can be l a r g e l y a t t r i b u t e d to the i n i t i a l i n s t a l l t i o n cost of the programme. However, the s h o r t - r u n , b e n e f i t -cost t h i n k i n g put forward by opponents to the a d v i s o r y system, p a r a l l e l s the contemporary p a r a d o x i c a l p o s i t i o n taken against the c o n s t r u c t i o n of sewage treatment f a c i l i t i e s . Increased waste loading and p o l l u t e d shore-l i n e s have revealed that the simpler ocean o u t f a l l arguments are f a l l a c i o u s . A recent hopeful s i g n that the f e d e r a l government may be l o o k i n g i n a more l o g i c a l d i r e c t i o n , f o l l o w s on the heels of marine t r a f f i c - c o n t r o l c o r r i d o r s incorporated i n the A r c t i c Waters P o l l u t i o n Prevention Act of 1970, and by ''"See H. Gary Knight, "Shipping Safety Fairways: C o n f l i c t Amel-o i r a t i o n i n the Gulf of Mexico," Journal of Maritime Law and Commerce, V o l . 1, 1969, pp. 1-24, f o r a survey of t h i s concept. D. E. Wentzel and D. L y t l e , Automated Marine T r a f f i c Advisory  Systems, Their Need and Implementation, Honeywell Marine Systems Centre, S e a t t l e , 1971. I n t e r n a t i o n a l i n scope and a p p l i c a t i o n , the c o n t r o l system would r e g u l a t e a l l ship movements from the P a c i f i c keeping v e s s e l s i n c o r r i d o r s and i n spaced i n t e r v a l s a f t e r e n t e r i n g the c o n t r o l p a t t e r n o f f Swiftsure Bank. 183 the announcement of a Marine Na v i g a t i o n Information Service f o r the waters of B r i t i s h Columbia.''' In the l a t t e r case, a l l v e s s e l s w i t h V.H.F. r a d i o -telephones are encouraged to p a r t i c i p a t e by t r a n s m i t t i n g b a s i c n a v i g a t i o n a l info r m a t i o n at designated c o a s t a l points and monitoring assigned frequencies to l e a r n the p o s i t i o n and intended movements of a l l other v e s s e l s i n a given 2 s e c t o r . Another o p t i m i s t i c development f o r the b e n e f i c i a l c o n t r o l of v e s s e l s operating i n Gulf waters i s contained i n the F i f t h Annual Report of the 3 Canadian Transport Commission. S i m i l a r to the Jones Act of the United S t a t e s , one of the p r i n c i p a l recommendations endorsed by the environmentally conscious Commission, was that coastwise t r a f f i c between Canadian ports be 4 reserved f o r Canadian f l a g v e s s e l s . A second suggestion, based upon the consensus of the H e d l i n Menzies 1 Merchant Marine Study, saw a p o t e n t i a l net b e n e f i t i n government a s s i s t e d development of a p r i v a t e f l e e t of large bulk c a r r i e r s i n the 100,000 ton c l a s s to handle bulk i r o n ore, c o a l , or crude ^"New West Coast Marine Na v i g a t i o n Service to Become E f f e c t i v e J u l y 1," Notices to Mariners, M i n i s t r y of Transport, Vancouver, June 9, 1972. This i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e may soon be mandatory f o r a l l v e s s e l s over 100 gross tons, and tugs w i t h tows. Canadian Transport Commission, F i f t h Annual Report f o r 1971, Ottawa, 1972, p. 11. The e x i s t i n g system allows any Commonwealth v e s s e l or f o r e i g n v e s s e l which has obtained a waiver to p a r t i c i p a t e i n coastwise s e r v i c e . 184 o i l cargoes. I f o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d , these developments present an obvious improvement i n scheduled management of offshore? areas, since more adequate c o n t r o l can be exerc i s e d over domestic cargo owners and Canadian v e s s e l s w i t h Canadian o f f i c e r s f a m i l i a r w i t h c o a s t a l waters. Zoning the Gulf of Georgia Just as marine t r a f f i c c o r r i d o r s and shore-based n a v i g a t i o n a l systems w i l l help to minimize the l i k e l i h o o d of marine mishaps, zoning w i l l a i d i n the p r o t e c t i o n of subregional p e c u l i a r i t i e s and i n the i n t e r e s t s of i n d i v -i d u a l users. The Department of N a t i o n a l Defence has, f o r a number of year s , reserved the r i g h t to clo s e areas i n the t e r r i t o r i a l sea f o r m i l i t a r y purposes. I t i s strange that some other forms of systematic zoning of water areas should long be a c o n t r o v e r s i a l t o p i c w i t h i n the M i n i s t r y of Transport, and only now should show signs of m a t e r i a l i z i n g . Increased a d m i n i s t r a t i v e power of the Department of the Environment, and i t s p r o j e c t e d underwater park s e r i e s have been instrumental i n developing programs which o u t l i n e the r e s e r v a t i o n of seaspace. Nevertheless, t h i s program i s s t i l l not without argument. The c h i e f counter-argument has been based on the fear that o f f s h o r e 1 areas w i l l become top-heavy and c l u t t e r e d w i t h l e g a l encumbrances. Just as too many t r a f f i c l i g h t s can impede the flow of automobile t r a f f i c , comparatively, i t i s debated that too many maritime r e s t r i c t i o n s may s u f f o c a t e the i n t e r e s t s of waterspace users. However, an i n t e r e s t i n g precedent e x i s t s which may prove to be the necessary t e s t case to r e s o l v e the question. •""Personal i n t e r v i e w w i t h Captain John W i l l i a m s , Supervisor, A u x i l i a r y V e s s e l s , Esquimalt, B. C , March 6, 1973. 185 Airspace over Canadian t e r r i t o r y has been zoned and c o r r i d o r e d f o r s e v e r a l decades f o r the p r o t e c t i o n and r e g u l a t i o n of a i r c r a f t i n f l i g h t and f o r the sa f e t y of the p u b l i c on the ground.''' This accepted p r a c t i c e , which i s most prevalent i n conjested high-use areas, above populated c e n t r e s , and around major a i r p o r t s , has not measureably detracted from the p r o v e r b i a l " w i l d 2 blue yonder" appeal of airspace and airspace a c t i v i t i e s . Instead, i t has brought s t e r n but r a t i o n a l c o n t r o l to an unfenceable t e r r i t o r y while recompensing the common property r i g h t s of i n d i v i d u a l users. D e l i m i t a t i o n of a water spaces inventory f o r the Gulf s t i l l awaits the documentation of p r e r e q u i s i t e i n f o r m a t i o n . Valuable i n s i g h t i s provided by a i r s p a c e r e g u l a t i o n s which show that e f f e c t i v e m u l t i p l e use can only come about through zoning programmes which consider a s u f f i c i e n t range of a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r a l l users. Zoning need not be so narrowly defined that the Gulf i s p a r c e l l e d o f f to s i n g l e users by the sea-acre, but should e x h i b i t a r a t i o n a l tenet that areas demonstrating a l o c a l i z e d p r i o r i t y deserve to be protected from uncomplimentary a c t i v i t i e s which may be u s e f u l l y accommodated elsewhere. A zoning program f o r the Gulf of Georgia r e l i e s on two c o n d i t i o n s : the d e s i g n a t i o n of p r i o r i t i e s and the mumbe'r of a v a i l a b l e p h y s i c a l a l t e r -n a t i v e s . The f e d e r a l governments acknowledgement of the Gulf ' s primary '''While aspects of s a f e t y c o n s t i t u t e the un d e r l y i n g reason f o r airspace zoning, a i r s p a c e r e s t r i c t i o n s a l s o e x i s t f o r n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y and environment c o n t r o l ( a i r p o l l u t i o n , noise p o l l u t i o n , migratory b i r d p r o t e c t i o n ) . Commercial and m i l i t a r y airspace i s co n c l u s i v e upwards of 14,000 above sea l e v e l . 186 e c o l o g i c a l - c u l t u r a l f u n c t i o n has set the precedent f o r the d e s i g n a t i o n of p r i o r i t y . Respecting t h i s stance, i t should be p o s s i b l e i n f u t u r e , to analyze amalgamated data and come to comprehensive conculusion on the de s i g n a t i o n of c e r t a i n sub-regional waterspaces. However, while i t i s p o s s i b l e , i t i s not any easy task. This h o l i s t i c p l an w i l l r e q u i r e a systems approach to a s s i m i l a t e such unrelated things as the s e a s o n a l i t y and d i u r n a l nature of c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s and marine fauna, the i r r e g u l a r i t y of commercial a c t i v i t i e s , d a i l y t i d a l c o n d i t i o n s , water depths and channel approaches, and p u b l i c perceptions or l e i s u r e v alues. For example, at presenttthe c r e a t i o n of zoned areas i s suspect f o r lack of sound data on commercial ship, movements or a thorough understanding of a t t i t u d e s of r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e r s . 1 Without these fundamental data, comprehensive plans are l i m i t e d to the h y p o t h e t i c a l . Nonetheless, examination of a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n and thejposition of key c o n s e r v a t i o n - r e c r e a t i o n areas tends to show that commercial routes could be l i m i t e d to Haro Strait-Boundary Pass and Rosario S t r a i t . These two passages o f f e r the l e a s t r e l a t i v e e c o l o g i c a l hazard, are the f a r t h e s t removed from f r a g i l e marine h a b i t a t s , and lessen the frequency of contact between commercial and r e c r e a t i o n a l c r a f t . At the same time, there appears no n e c e s s i t y f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l sea-borne t r a f f i c bound f o r the port of Vancouver, to frequent c o n s t r i c t e d 2 Gulf I s l a n d passages, or the truncated maze of channels a t the Gulf's ''"No amalgamated records are kept of i n d i v i d u a l r o u t e s , courses and cargoes of a l l commercial v e s s e l s passing through Gulf waters. In narrow A c t i v e Pass,, the, p r o v i n c i a l f e r r y Queen of V i c t o r i a and the Soviet f r e i g h t e r Sergey Yesenin c o l l i d e d on August 2, 1970, k i l l i n g three f e r r y passengers and touching o f f a l e n g t h l y l e g a l hearing. 187 northern approaches.''' But zoning should not be intended to administer only f o r e i g n v e s s e l movements. I t may a l s o be e f f e c t i v e l y used f o r the management of coast-wise t r a n s f e r s . L o c a t i o n a l examples e x i s t where p r o v i n c i a l f e r r y oper-a t i o n s have p a r t i a l l y e x propriated (or misexpropriated, which ever the case may be) routes i n the Gulf. At present, there i s not s p a t i a l dispen-s a t i o n extended to commercial water users outside of that granted through storage permits f o r log booming. Zoning could be invoked to d e l i m i t v e s s e l c o r r i d o r s and r e g u l a t e booming operations. Forms of zoning may a l s o be implemented f o r environmental p r o t e c t i o n i n a d d i t i o n to the t r u s t e e s h i p of convervation areas. Areas which are most susceptable to degradation from the a d d i t i o n of domestic wastes can be i d e n t i f i e d , and 2 unreated waste o u t f a l l s i n t o these sectors can be p r o h i b i t e d . However laudable, the a b i l i t y of marine t r a f f i c c o n t r o l systems and s i n g l e and m u l t i p l e use zoning requirements to pr o p e r l y manage offshore areas i s as s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to current maritime s t a t u t e s . With the implementation of these programmes, governments could b r i n g c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s i n t o harmony and r e a f f i r m the u t i l i t y of o r d e r l y On January 25, 1973, The I r i s h S t a r d u s t , bound f o r Port M e l l o n , struck a reef o f f Cormorant I s l a n d i n the Gulf s northern approaches, and s p i l l e d over 100,000 g a l l o n s of bunker o i l . 2 Even on cursory examination, i t would appear that two major o u t f a l l areas, Cordova Bay and Sturgeon Bank, are h i g h l y u n s u i t a b l e f o r the input of domestic wastes on the grounds of poor water c i r c u l a t i o n of the former and b i o l o g i c a l p r o d u c t i v i t y of the l a t t e r . 188 shared use. Conclusion: The Need f o r Purposeful Planning i n the Gulf of Georgia This study has analyzed the growth of water use and the development of water use c o n t r o l s i n the Gulf of Georgia. I t has demonstrated that the Gulf has been the c a t a l y s t f o r the perpetuation of trade and commerce l i n k a g e s , the e x p l o i t a t i o n of l i v i n g sea resources, and the s a t i s f a c t i o n of s o c i a l and a e s t h e t i c p u r s u i t s . In s h o r t , the Gulf has functioned as the j u g u l a r of B r i t i s h Columbia's i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y and l e i s u r e time i n t e r e s t . Over the l a s t one hundred years, the steady-state n a t u r a l systems of the Gulf have been modified at an i n c r e a s i n g r a t e by dynamic economic and c u l t u r a l demands placed upon the marine environment. At the same time there has a l s o been a d i s t i n c t i v e change i n the a t t i t u d e of governments and the marine o r i e n t a t i o n of coastland r e s i d e n t s . At f i r s t , economic reward was the p u r i t a n a r b i t e r of Gulf a c t i v i t y w i t h commerce and f i s h i n g r e i g n i n g f o r the longest p e r i o d . R e c r e a t i o n a l elements of water use appeared only a f t e r the nucleated growth of a f f l u e n t p o p u l a t i o n centres. Although maintaining the balance of j u r i s d i c t i o n a l power i n the Gulf since Confederation, the f e d e r a l government, from the o u t s e t , e x e r c i s e d comfortable r e s t r a i n t . Federal posture toward the management of domestic c o a s t a l waters and marine resources was o s t e n s i b l y a l i g n e d w i t h the idea of res communis. O r i g i n a l l y , t h i s l a i s s e z - f a i r e shared-use concept was found to be somewhat s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g since there were few p a r t i c i p a n t s and p l e n t y of room. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the p r e - r e q u i s i t e s — a m p l e space and abundant resources-broke down under the pressures of compounded growth and o v e r l y e f f i c i e n t t echnologies. L i m i t e d r e g u l a t o r y c o n t r o l , increased 189 p a r t i c i p a t i o n and e f f o r t , and freedom of movement fo r a l l u s e r s , r e s u l t e d i n an o v e r t a x a t i o n of the resource base. Only the h a r d i e s t of a c t i v i t i e s have not f e l t the e f f e c t s of some form of d i m i n i s h i n g returns.''' Yet, while the c o n d i t i o n of the study r e g i o n i s f a r from the d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n marine resources experienced i n the North Sea, or the degeneration of water q u a l i t y reached i n Lake E r i e , t h i s study has repeated that p a t h e t i c s e r i a l of p o l i t i c a l apathy p r e v a i l i n g u n t i l c r i s i s proportions are reached. This was most apparent i n f i s h e r i e s conservation p r a c t i c e s invoked a f t e r severe decimation of the f i s h e r y had taken place. P o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l amendments to maritime s t a t u t e s which r e g u l a t e waterborne commerce, commercial f i s h e r i e s , and waste d i s p o s a l , tend to prove that a measurable amount of impaired environmental q u a l i t y i s a p r e - r e q u i s i t e of l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i o n . But d e s p i t e t r a d i t i o n a l i n e r t i a , l a t e l y , there have been o p t i m i s t i c signs that c o n s c i e n t i o u s energy i s being d i r e c t e d toward water p o l l u t i o n abatement, and the r e g u l a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n a h o l i s t i c environmental context. The same a n t i - p o l l u t i o n and environmental e t h i c s which have forged new contingency procedures are alsio r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the reassessment of the value of the Gulf of Georgia as a m u l t i f a c e t e d water-space. P o l i t i c a l d i s p o s i t i o n and p o l i c y from a l l l e v e l s of government i n the 1970's r e f l e c t s an environmental bias i n which e c o l o g i c a l - c u l t u r a l values have begun to r e c e i v e primary c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Current empathy f o r the marine environment w i l l l i k e l y lead to more "^Too many examples e x i s t of other c o a s t a l areas where the v u l g a r i t y or_ extreme Inc^ompatabilit^y^ of- c e r t a i n users, begets, c o n t r o l . WorMng* fc'b c t l i e ^ t t e t r l n r a 1 ! ^ act rivWies', sewage"'districts have been remarkably s u c c e s s f u l i n applying t h i s method to water use. 190 s t r i n g e n t environmental c o n t r o l i n Gulf waters. In an e f f o r t to keep abreast of voguish environmental movements, however, corresponding manage-ment p o l i c i e s and programmes developed f o r maritime areas have o f t e n sur-passed the adequacy of a v a i l a b l e knowledge and data on the i n c i p i e n t impact of man's d e c i s i o n s i n offshor e areas. An enigmatic s i t u a t i o n has a r i s e n i n which the basis of formulated p o l i c i e s i s i n t u i t i v e but not f a c t u a l . An i n c r e a s i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y faces s c i e n t i s t s and s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s to II it provide i n t e r p r e t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n on the e c o l o g i c a l f a l l - o u t of human ac t i o n s i n offshor e areas. This i n f o r m a t i o n i s s o r e l y needed f o r the p o r t f o l i o s of l e g i s l a t i v e and p r i v a t e sector d e c i s i o n makers. In some cases, s k i l l e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s have been c a l l e d upon to do "window d r e s s i n g " impact st u d i e s a f t e r the commencement of development programs. In ot h e r s , slowness i n presenting conclusions has l e f t researchers i n the r o l e of being l i t t l e more that h i s t o r i a n s f o r documenting environmental d e t e r i o r -a t i o n . While f a r from complete, Canadian i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n offshor e areas are hindered by a lack of money but not e x p e r t i z e . Rather than r e l y i n g e x c l u s i v e l y on oceanographic researchers f o r the p r o v i s i o n of comprehensive i n f o r m a t i o n , problems such as the p r o t e c t i o n of the marine environment, the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n and r e g u l a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s , and the t r a n s f e r of p u b l i c preferences i n t o p u b l i c p o l i c y , o f f e r s a d i v e r s i f e d , m u l t i d i s c i p l i n -ary f i e l d of study. Many of these problems appear endemic to geographical methodology, but i t i s up to geographers to become in v o l v e d w i t h i n q u i r y beyond t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r e s t r i a l c o n f i n e s . As thorough as f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e s and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e g u l a t i o n s appear to be, they w i l l not be able to cope w i t h a l l f u t u r e incremental maritime a c t i v i t i e s . The p r o t e c t i o n of the Gulf of Georgia 1 9 1 at acceptable l e v e l s f o r a l l users w i l l not only demand frequent amend-ment to r e g i o n a l l y i n s e n s i t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n , but w i l l r e q u i r e the a d d i t i o n of more s o p h i s t i c a t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e procedures such as forms of conser-v a t i o n r e s e r v a t i o n , water^space zoning, marine t r a f f i c c o n t r o l networks, and the balanced development of s h o r e l i n e areas. In order that e f f e c t i v e m u l t i p l e use and q u a l i t y l e v e l s are event-u a l l y maintained, co-operation i s needed between l e v e l s of government, research i n s t i t u t i o n s , i n d u s t r y , and the p u b l i c . This study has i l l u s -t r a t e d the tragedy of common property d o c t r i n e s and the f o l l y of endowning technology w i t h an eye to only one s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t . Users cannot e f f e c t -i v e l y balance t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s , they must be pro p e r l y r e g u l a t e d . The challenge then i s c l e a r : i t i s p o l i t i c a l . I t may only r e q u i r e a co n s o l i d a t e d stance by a l l agencies which p r e s e n t l y share some j u r i s d i c t i o n a l respons-i b i l i t y i n the G u l f , or i t may r e q u i r e a fundamental r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n of the C o n s t i t u t i o n to provide one agency w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e power over a l l a c t i v i t i e s i n offshore areas. Government, as the only p o s s i b l e property holder i n an environment which r e q u i r e s shared use, can no longer remain p a s s i v e , and must accept i t s r o l e as r e g u l a t o r of domestic offsho r e areas. 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Conference Proceedings, Vancouver, October 26-27, 1970. United Fishermen and A l l i e d Workers Union. Canadian F i s h e r i e s Development. F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l Conference on F i s h e r i e s Development, January 20, 1964. Wa l t e r s , C a r l . The Development of an Aquatic Ecosystems Model. I n t e r -I n s t i t u t i o n a l Planning Simulator, Study Report #3, Vancouver, 1970. Wentzel,, D. E. , and L y t l e , , D.. Automated Marine T r a f f i c Advisory Systems,  Their Need and Implementation. Honeywell Marine Systems Center, S e a t t l e , 1971. 203 MANUSCRIPT SOURCES PUBLISHED Campbell, C. K. An A n a l y s i s of Shoreland Use and C a p a b i l i t y f o r Cottag- in g i n the Georgia Lowland or B r i t i s h Columbia. Canada Land Inventory, Project: 16014, Vancouver, 1967. Clawson, Marion. Methods of Measuring the Demand f o r and Value of Outdoor  Recreation. Resource f o r the Future Reprint No. 10, Washington, 1959. Forward, Charles. Waterfront Land Use i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver, B. C. Geographical Branch, Paper #41, Ottawa, 1968. Hardwick, Walter. The Geography of the Forest Industry of Coas t a l B r i t i s h  Columbia. Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n of Geographers, Occasional Paper, No. 5, 1963. K e r f o o t , D. E. and Hardwick, W. G. Port of B r i t i s h Columbia, Development and Trading P a t t e r n s . B r i t i s h Columbia Geographical S e r i e s , Vancouver, 1966. Se w e l l , W. R. D. arid Burton, Ian, ed. Perceptions and A t t i t u d e s i n Resource  Management. P o l i c y Research and Co-ordination Branch, Ottawa, 1971. Sew e l l , W. R. D., and Rostron, J . R e c r e a t i o n a l F i s h i n g E v a l u a t i o n . Department of F i s h e r i e s and F o r e s t r y , Ottawa, February, 1970. UNPUBLISHED Argue, Alexander, W. A Study, of Factors E f f e c t i n g E x p l o i t a t i o n of P a c i f i c  Salmon i n the Canadian Gauntlet of Juan de Fuca. M.Sc. Th e s i s , U.B.C., 1970. C l a r k , Kenneth,Barry. The Formulation and A p p l i c a t i o n of a Marine Recreation, Planning. Methodology: A Case Study of the Gulf Islands  and San Juan I s l a n d s . M.A. Thesis, U.B.C, 1969. Cornwall,, I . H. B. Geographical Study of the Port of Vancouver i n R e l a t i o n  to i t s Geographical H i n t e r l a n d . M.A. Th e s i s , U.B.C, 1952. Doyle, Henry. The Rise and F a l l of the P a c i f i c Salmon F i s h e r i e s . M.A. Thesis , U.B.C., 1955. Gladstone, Percy. I n d u s t r i a l Disputes i n Commercial F i s h e r i e s of B r i t i s h  Columbia. B.A, Th e s i s , U'iB.C, 1934. Hacking, Norman. E a r l y Marine H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia. B.A. T h e s i s , U.B.C., 1934. 204 Hansen, C. The E f f e c t of Technology on the B r i t i s h Columbia F i s h i n g  Industry. Research Paper, U.B.C, 1964. Lawrence, J . An H i s t o r i c a l Account of the.Early Salmon Canning Industry i n  B r i t i s h Columbia, 1870-1890. M.A. Thesis, U.B.C, 1951. Logan, Roderick. The Geography of Salmon F i s h i n g C o n f l i c t s : The Case of  Noyes I s l a n d . M.A. Thesis, U.B.C, 1967. Nelson, C. D. An A n a l y s i s of R e c r e a t i o n a l Boating and Boating F a c i l i t i e s  of the Lower F r a s e r - P i t t R i v e r . Westwater Research Center, U.B.C. October, 1972. Schuthe, G. M. Canadian Shipping i n the B r i t i s h Columbia Coastal Trade. M.A. Thesis, U.B.C, 1951. Strong, Gordon. The Salmon Canning Industry i n B r i t i s h Columbia. B.A. Thesis, U.B.C., 1934. T h o r s e l l , J . W. Wilderness Recreation Users - Their C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , M o t i v a t i o n s and Opinions. A Study of Three B r i t i s h Columbia Parks. Phd. Thesis, U.B.C, 1971. W o l f e r s t a n , W. D e s o l a t i o n Sound, A R e c r e a t i o n a l Boating Experience. M.A. T h e s i s , S.F.U., 1971. NEWSPAPERS AND NEWS PERIODICALS A b l e t t , Dave. "Computer L i s t s C o l l i s i o n Chances," Vancouver Sun. F r i d a y , March 19, 1971, 13. Hacking, Norman. "Huge Tankers to Range our Coast", Vancouver Province, F r i d a y , November 27, 1970, 25. "Keeping on the S t r a i t Narrow", The Economist. V o l . 57, October 9, 1971, 26. P e l l , C l a i r b o r n e . "The Oceans: Man's Last Great Resource," Saturday  Review. V o l . 52, October 11, 1959, 19-21, 62-63. PUBLIC ADDRESSES Davis, Jack, M i n i s t e r of the Environment. A N a t i o n a l Underwater Park i n  the Gulf of Georgia. Luncheon address to the H o l l y b u r n Gyro Club, North Vancouver, June 5, 1971. 205 PERSONAL COMMUNICATION Brooks, C h a r l e s , Commander, Harbours and Wharves A d m i n i s t r a t o r , Marine S e r v i c e s , Department of Transport, V i c t o r i a . L e t t e r to the w r i t e r , June 19, 1972. Covington, Captain, Company of Master Mariners, Vancouver. Interview w i t h the w r i t e r i n Vancouver, March 22, 1972. Newell, Captain, Queens Harbourmaster, V i c t o r i a . Interview w i t h the w r i t e r i n V i c t o r i a , May 12, 1972. Pa i g e r , Tony, Commodore, Ladner Yacht Club. Interview w i t h the w r i t e r i n Vancouver, August 24, 1972. W i l l i a m s , -John Supervisor A u x i l i a r y V e s s e l s , Base Operations Harbourmaster, Canadian Forces Base, Esquimalt. Interview w i t h the w r i t e r at Dockyard, C.F.B. Esquimalt, March 6, 1973. 

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