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Seaspace use and control : a case in the Gulf of Georgia Nelson, Christopher Douglas 1973

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SEASPACS USE AND CONTROL: A CASS IN THE GULF OF GEORGIA  by  CHRISTOPHER DOUGLAS KELSON B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a , 1970  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT 'OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Department of GEOGRAPHY  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C0LUM3IA July,  1973  In p r e s e n t i n g an the  this  thesis in partial  advanced degree at the Library  University  s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  f u l f i l m e n t of the  of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r extensive for by  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may his representatives.  be  thesis for financial  written  permission.  Department  g r a n t e d by  gain  of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a  the  Head o f my  Columbia  s h a l l not  be  that  thesis  Department  copying or  for  study.  copying of t h i s  I t i s understood that  of t h i s  reauirements  or  publication  allowed without  my  ABSTRACT  T h i s s t u d y a n a l y z e s the development and growth o f c o m m e r c i a l , i n d u s t r i a l , and r e c r e a t i o n a l w a t e r - o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s i n the G u l f of G e o r g i a from the t r a d i t i o n a l pre-Europeon r o o t s of the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y through t o the p r e s e n t .  A t the same time the development and  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of l e g a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e measures i n v o k e d t o manage t h i s c o a s t a l sea and r e g u l a t e m a r i t i m e f u n c t i o n a l u s e r s i s examined c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , and i n r e l a t i o n t o the e f f e c t on p a t t e r n s o f water u s e . On the s t r e n g t h o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , i t was found t h a t the G u l f of G e o r g i a i s a dynamic  seascape w h i c h h a s , over the y e a r s , performed  as a g e o g r a p h i c a l bond r a t h e r than a b a r r i e r t o the development B r i t i s h Columbia c o a s t l a n d .  Whereas i n the t r a d i t i o n a l  o f the  seascape  e c o n o m i c a l l y m o t i v a t e d water use p r a c t i c e s predominated, more r e c e n t l y the G u l f of G e o r g i a has e x h i b i t e d a l m o s t e q u a l use as a c u l t u r a l and recreational area. C o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n t r o l s and m a r i t i m e r e g u l a t i o n s w h i c h f o l l o w e d c l o s e l y on the h e e l s o f p o l i t i c a l p a r t i t i o n i n g have from the o u t s e t tended t o compliment economic uses of the marine The development  environment.  of domestic l e g i s l a t i o n geared t o the dynamic m a r i t i m e  s i t u a t i o n s , t o e f f e c t i v e m u l t i p l e u s e , and t o the p r o t e c t i o n o f more ae|fehe'.t\L'ei<* i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t i e s or t o s e n s i t i v e e c o l o g i c a l - o c e a n o g r a p h i c a r e a s has been slow t o m a t e r i a l i z e . I t was found t h a t f u t u r e demand f o r sea space by a wide range o f u s e r s d i c t a t e s l e g a l c o n t r o l s and management p r a c t i c e s w h i c h c a t e r t o c u l t u r a l as w e l l as economic c o n c e r n s .  To a t t a i n t h i s g o a l more s t r i n -  gent management programs must be a p p l i e d  t o the G u l f o f G e o r g i a w h i c h  would e f f e c t i v e l y p r o v i d e a range o f a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r each a c t i v i t y while protecting  functional  and m a i n t a i n i n g the q u a l i t y o f the marine  environment a t a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l s f o r a l l u s e r s .  Seaspace z o n i n g , marine  t r a f f i c c o n t r o l systems, and marine p a r k s a r e suggested as t e c h n i q u e s w h i c h may be u s e f u l l y a p p l i e d c o a s t l a n d environment.  t o s u c c e s s f u l l y manage the G u l f o f G e o r g i a  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT  i i  LIST OF TABL'ES'S  v i i  LIST OF F i G U M S • *'  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  ix  CHAPTER I  THE NATURE OF A WATERUSE STUDY IN THE GULF OF GEORGIA. Introduction The S t u d y - S p a t i a l Components Chapter A n n o t a t i o n  II  THE STUDY OF WATER USE IN THE GULF OF GEORGIA AS MARINE GEOGRAPHY  12  Geographers and T h e i r Commitment t o M a r i n e S t u d i e s M a r i n e Geographic L i t e r a t u r e M a r i n e S t u d i e s as Problems i n P o l i t i c a l Resource Geography The Nature o f the Marine Environment The Dynamic Nature o f Seaspace Use and C o n t r o l s The G u l f o f G e o r g i a i n C o n t e x t C o m p e t i t i o n Among W a t e r - O r i e n t e d A c t i v i t i e s W i t h i n a F i n i t e Space Method of A n a l y s i s The Sources and C o l l e c t i o n o f R e s e a r c h I n f o r m a t i o n III  THE PHYSICAL NATURE OF THE GULF OF GEORGIA COASTLAND COMPLEX  ' l 28 k  S t r u c t u r a l P h y s i o g r a p h y and the Impact o f the P l e i s t o c e n e Epoch Oceanography P h y s i c a l Components B i o l o g i c a l Components Chapter Summary IV  THE EMERGENCE OF VARIOUS WATER-ORIENTED WITHIN THE GULF OF GEORGIA  ACTIVITIES  M a r i n e O r i e n t a t i o n and T e r r i t o r i a l i t y o f the N o r t h west Coast I n d i a n - - A n I d e n t i t y w i t h the Sea  HO 40  CHAPTER  PAGE Europe E x p l o r a t i o n o f the Northwest Coast The F u r Trade and the P o s t - E x p l o r a t o r y P e r i o d I n d i a n L i f e s t y l e and the Impact o f European Contact The Hudson's Bay Company and Water-borne Commerce, 1821-1883 The Steamship C o r p o r a t i o n s i n the G u l f o f G e o r g i a , 1883-1930 C o a s t a l T r a d e , 1930-1972 A P r o v i n c i a l F e r r y System Commercial F i s h i n g i n the G u l f Government Management P o l i c i e s E a r l y R e c r e a t i o n a l Water Use i n the G u l f of Georgia P o l i t i c a l and L e g a l C o n t r o l s o f the G u l f o f Georgia i n the H i s t o r i c a l Context F r o n t i e r t o Colony The E a r l y F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l C o n t e x t Chapter Summary  V  THE PRESENT COMPLEX: FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITIES WITHIN A FINITE SPACE Introduction Commercial S h i p p i n g I n t e r n a t i o n a l Sea-borne S h i p p i n g The P o r t o f Vancouver B. C. P i l o t a g e General Cargo Bulk Cargo P e t r o l e u m Cargo C o a s t w i s e Shipments I n d u s t r i a l Transfer Tug and Barge O p e r a t i o n s Log Booms and Log Storage Construction Materials P e t r o l e u m Products Passenger-Freight Service Commercial F i s h e r i e s Salmon G r o u n d f i s h and H e r r i n g Marine I n v e r t e b r a t e s Commercial F i s h i n g C r a f t Commercial F i s h i n g C l o s u r e s W a t e r - O r i e n t e d R e c r e a t i o n i n the G u l f o f Georgia Recreational Boating Boat Ownership and Moorage Boating Patterns R e c r e a t i o n a l Foreshore A c t i v i t i e s T o u r i s m and Marine R e c r e a t i o n The D i s p o s a l o f Wastes i n the G u l f o f G e o r g i a  83  vi CHAPTER  PAGE Chapter Summary: Trends and Emerging P a t t e r n s of Water Use i n the G u l f o f G e o r g i a .  VI  MARINE CONTROLS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO CURRENT AND FUTURE FUNCTIONAL WATER USE IN THE GULF OF GEORGIA  . 145  Canada's Role i n the C o a s t a l Zone F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l S t r u g g l e f o r Tenure The R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f Government A g e n c i e s The E v o l u t i o n o f L e g i s l a t i o n Germane t o O f f s h o r e Areas Commercial F i s h e r i e s Commercial S h i p p i n g Water-Oriented R e c r e a t i o n Waste D i s p o s a l Assessment o f E x i s t i n g L e g i s l a t i o n and Management Underwater M a r i n e Parks and C o n s e r v a t i o n Areas M a r i n e T r a f f i c C o n t r o l and Sea-Space Zoning Marine T r a f f i c C o n t r o l Zoning the G u l f o f G e o r g i a C o n c l u s i o n : The Need f o r P u r p o s e f u l P l a n n i n g i n the G u l f o f G e o r g i a  i  VII  BIBLIOGRAPHY  192  vii  LIST OF TABLES TABLE I II III IV  V VI VII  PAGE A Summary of Domestic L e g i s l a t i o n E x p o r t Tonnages f o r S e l e c t e d P o r t s by Commodity  80 Principal  V e s s e l s and E x p o r t Tonnages from S e l e c t e d Ports  87 ,  P r o j e c t e d Trade Tonnages f o r P o r t of Vancouver, R o b e r t s Bank, Lower F r a s e r R i v e r  90  P a c i f i c Northwest P e t r o l e u m Demand  97  V e s s e l A r r i v a l s and T o t a l C o a s t w i s e Tonnage Handled f o r S e l e c t e d P o r t s R e g i o n a l P e t r o l e u m Product Movements by  99  Water VIII IX X  XI XII XIII XIV  88  G u l f of Georgia  108 Salmon C a t c h ;  1971  114  Commercial Catches of G r o u n d f i s h and H e r r i n g , 1971 Commercial C a t c h of Prawns, Shrimps, C r a b s ,  118  and O y s t e r s , 1970  120  Boat-Ownership Rates  126  Number of B o a t s , 1966-1972  128  R e c r e a t i o n a l Boat C l a s s and Value  129  Dominant R e l a t i o n s h i p Between N a t i o n a l Goals N a t i o n a l Marine I n t e r e s t s  and 148  viii  LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE  PAGE  1  G u l f o f G e o r g i a Study R e g i o n  8  2  Net S u r f a c e C i r c u l a t i o n  34  3  The F r a s e r R i v e r Plume  36  4  G u l f P o r t s and V e s s e l Routes  96  5  Log Storage Areas  104  6  Passenger-Freight Service  110  7  Major C o n c e n t r a t i o n s of Salmon  117  8  G r o u n d f i s h and H e r r i n g  119  9  Major C o n c e n t r a t i o n s of Marine I n v e r t e b r a t e s ..•  121  10  Recreational Boating F a c i l i t i e s  131  11  M a r i n e P a r k s , Beaches and E c o l o g i c a l  12  S i g n i f i c a n t E c o l o g i c a l - O c e a n o g r a p h i c Areas i n the G u l f of G e o r g i a  Reserves ..  137  177  ix  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  Gratitude  must be extended t o e v e r y i n d i v i d u a l who gave  i n the p r e p a r a t i o n  of this thesis.  assistance  I am p a r t i c u l a r l y g r a t e f u l and  i n d e b t e d t o Dr. J u l i a n M i n g h i f o r h i s e n t h u s i a s t i c encouragement and i n v a l u a b l e a d v i c e from the i n c e p t i o n t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n  o f t h i s work.  I  must a l s o e x p r e s s my thanks t o Dr. A. L. F a r l e y f o r h i s h e l p f u l comments on the e a r l y c h a p t e r s , t o Dr. W i l l i a m Ross f o r h i s s u g g e s t i o n f o r untangling  the maze of m a r i t i m e s t a t u t e l a w , and Dr. Marwyn Samuels f o r  his invaluable assistance  as a second r e a d e r .  I n a d d i t i o n , thanks a r e  a l s o expressed to Miss E r i c a Learoyd f o r her patience i n typing the o r i g i n a l d r a f t s of t h i s t h e s i s . Any e r r o r s w h i c h might appear i n t h i s t h e s i s , however, a r e t h e s o l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the w r i t e r .  Christopher  Douglas N e l s o n  V i c t o r i a , B. C.  May, 1973.  CHAPTER 1  THE NATURE OF A WATER USE STUDY IN THE GULF OF GEORGIA  Introduction  I n 1970, the P o r t of Vancouver''" handled of i m p o r t - e x p o r t  a r e c o r d o f 30,159 ,270 tons  c a r g o , over 5 m i l l i o n tons more than the p r e v i o u s  2 year.  Over the p a s t decade, tonnager-  o f e x p o r t cargo has i n c r e a s e d  over 122 per c e n t , from 12.1 m i l l i o n tons i n 1960 t o 26.9 m i l l i o n 3 i n 1970.  D u r i n g t h i s same p e r i o d , i t has been e s t i m a t e d  tons  that p r i v a t e  boat ownership f o r r e s i d e n t s of t h e G u l f of G e o r g i a p e r i p h e r y has'e 4 r i s e n from a p p r o x i m a t e l y  40 per 1000 i n 1960  t o 1000 by the end o f the  decade. ~*  Greater n a t i o n a l economic growth and amenable w o r l d market con-  f i n e ludes Roberts Bank Superport b u l k l o a d i n g t e r m i n a l . N a t i o n a l Harbours B o a r d , Annual R e p o r t , 1970, Vancouver, 1971, p. 2.  B. C. Department o f F i n a n c e , B r i t i s h Columbia F i n a n c i a l and Economic Review, T h i r t y - f i r s t E d i t i o n , V i c t o r i a , J u l y , 1971, p. 61.  Kenneth C l a r k , The F o r m u l a t i o n and A p p l i c a t i o n o f a Marine R e c r e a t i o n P l a n n i n g Methodology: A Case Study o f the G u l f I s l a n d s and the San Juan I s l a n d s , M.A. T h e s i s , U.B.C., 1969, p. 8.  W i l l i a m W o l f e r s t a n , D e s o l a t i o n Sofind, A R e c r e a t i o n a l B o a t i n g E x p e r i e n c e , M.A. T h e s i s , S.F.U., 1971, p. 1.  2 d i t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y the development o f the Japanese m a r k e t , i s l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the i n c r e a s e of m a r i t i m e f o r e i g n t r a d e through the p o r t s of B r i t i s h Columbia.  A t the same t i m e , i n t e r n a l f a c t o r s such as i n -  c r e a s e d p o p u l a t i o n , i n c r e a s e d d i s p o s a b l e income, and i n c r e a s e d  access-  i b i l i t y t o areas s u i t e d t o marine r e c r e a t i o n account f o r h i g h e r boat ownership r a t e s and i n c r e a s e d p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e c r e a t i o n a l 2 a s p e c t s of marine e n v i r o n m e n t s . Whereas i t may be d i f f i c u l t t o r e c o g n i z e and t o a n a l y z e  diverse  growth f a c t o r s f o r the above and v a r i o u s o t h e r w a t e r - o r i e n t e d  activities,  i t i s e v i d e n t l y c l e a r t h a t t h e r e i s an i d e n t i f i a b l e a r e a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n 3 of a l l m a r i t i m e a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the G u l f o f G e o r g i a . I t i s now becoming apparent t h a t b o t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e commercial and  l e i s u r e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s i f offshore areas, manifested  a c t i v e f o r m s , a r e i n c r e a s i n g a t an e v e r - a c c e l e r a t i n g r a t e .  i n various S i n c e the  G u l f of G e o r g i a , as a c o a s t a l s e a , i s a g e o g r a p h i c a l l y l i m i t e d a r e a , i t See D. G. K e r f o o t and W. G. Hardwick, P o r t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Development and T r a d i n g P a t t e r n s , B. C. G e o g r a p h i c a l S e r i e s , No. 2, Vancouver, 1966.  A. L. F e r r i s s e t . a l . , N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n Survey: Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n Resources Review Commission Study Report 19, Washington, 1962, pp. 23-26.  The accepted g e o g r a p h i c a l nomenclature f o r the r e g i o n under study appears somewhat changeable. The r e g i o n was named i n honour o f K i n g George I I I by C a p t a i n Vancouver i n 1792. Cook's d e s i g n a t i o n "Gulg" was changed t o " S t r a i t " by C a p t a i n R i c h a r d s i n 1865, b u t i t c o n t i n u e s t o be known as a G u l f and o c c u r s on v a r i o u s maps and c h a r t s i n a l t e r n a t e c o n f i r g u r a t i o n . A compromise s o l u t i o n may l i e i n the p r i n c i p l e t h a t the e n t i r e Georgia D e p r e s s i o n i s composed of a s e r i e s of s t r a i t s , R o s a r i o , Haro, M a l a s p i n a and G e o r g i a , e t c . , w h i c h i n aggregate can be c o n s i d e r e d t o comprise the G u l f of G e o r g i a .  3 can be c o n s i d e r e d a r e a l l y f i n i t e .  A l t e r n a t e l y , maritime  activities  i n c r e a s i n g e x p o n e n t i a l l y w i t h i n the G u l f , a r e a n n u a l l y consumptive of waterspace.  Problems  of m a i n t a i n i n g a b a l a n c e d management program s a t i s -  f a c t o r y f o r u s e r s w i t h o u t d e t r i m e n t to the q u a l i t y o f the marine e n v i r o n ment become more  pronounced.  An i n t e r e s t i n g d i l e m a has a r i s e n , the r e s o l u t i o n o f which does not mesh w i t h b e n e f i t - c o s t management p r a c t i c e s .  W h i l e the populace  living  w i t h i n the s o u t h w e s t e r n c o a s t a l r e g i o n d e s i r e t o p r e s e r v e the beauty and r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s of t h e G u l f o f G e o r g i a , t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d i s i n some way d i r e c t l y dependent upon the fundamental u t i l i z a t i o n of i t s marine r e s o u r c e s as w e l l as upon the v i t a l l i n k a g e s i t p r o v i d e s r e g i o n a l l y or between w e s t e r n Canada and the r e s t of the w o r l d .  In particular,i n -  c o n g r u i t i e s a r e no more acute than a t the s e a / l a n d i n t e r f a c e or i n f o r e shore a r e a s where man as a t e r r e s t r i a l a n i m a l has t r a d i t i o n a l l y made h i s f i r s t and o f t e n , h i s most profound impact upon the marine  environment.'''  W h i l e i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t f o r e s h o r e a r e a s possess a s t r o n g ae-sithe.t-ic a t t r a c t i o n f o r man and e x h i b i t a h i g h e a r r i n g c a p a c i t y f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l 2 u s e , t h e i r s t r a t e g i c - e c o n o m i c s i g n i f i c a n c e cannot be o v e r l o o k e d . I n the p a s t , o f f s h o r e w a t e r s , f o r e s h o r e w a t e r s , w a t e r f r o n t l a n d s , and marine r e s o u r c e s have g e n e r a l l y been a l l o c a t e d t o v a r i o u s u s e r s on  "'"Wesley Marx, The F r a i l Ocean, New Y o r k , 1967 , p. 25.  2 Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, Our Southwestern S h o r e s , New W e s t m i n s t e r , September, 1968; and I . R. Church and D. S. R u b i n , An E c o l o g i c a l Review o f Our Southwestern S h o r e s , Report f o r the G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , June, 1970, a r e examples of the " d u a l v i e w p o i n t " approach t o the d i s p o s a l of the same w a t e r f r o n t l a n d s and f o r e shore a r e a s .  the b a s i s of s u p p l y and demand i n a f r e e market s i t u a t i o n .  Commercial  i n t e r e s t has h i s t o r i c a l l y been k i n g w i t h f i s h i n g and n a v i g a t i o n t a k i n g precedence.  O f t e n , i n the p r o c e s s , p o l l u t e d w a t e r s have been an u n d e s i r -  a b l e by-product.  I n t u r n , t h i s has f r e q u e n t l y l e d t o the t e r m i n a t i o n of  groups of a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h cannot t o l e r a t e s e r i o u s d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n the q u a l i t y of the marine environment. More r e c e n t l y though, management o f marine r e s o u r c e s  i s beginning  to be based on a broader  range of c r i t e r i a . ' ' '  e c o l o g i c a l consciousness  and t o a tremendous growth i n outdoor r e c r e a t i o n ,  s o c i e t y has expressed  P a r t l y due t o a new  a more comprehensive a n x i e t y f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l 2  p r o t e c t i o n "and i s q u e s t i o n n i n g p a s t and p r e s e n t management p r a c t i c e s . Suggestions  a r e b e i n g made t h a t i n many a r e a s , w a t e r f r o n t l a n d s or o f f -  shore waters a r e p o t e n t i a l l y more v a l u a b l e f o r s o c i a l r a t h e r than economic needs, and t h a t s p e c i f i c areas s h o u l d be p r e s e r v e d by governments f o r 3 t h e i r a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t y O.r; t h e i r p h y s i c a l / e c o l o g i c a l p e c u l i a r i t y . L e g i s l a t o r s , and u l t i m a t e l y r e s o u r c e managers and p l a n n e r s , a r e f a c e d w i t h the t a s k of a l l o c a t i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y s c a r c e water and l a n d r e s o u r c e s among c o m p l e t i n g u s e r s .  W h i l e the market p l a c e i s the  N a t h a n i e l Wollman, "The New Economics of R e s o u r c e s " , D a e d a l u s , V o l . 96, F a l l , 1967, pp. 1099-1114.  2 Timothy O'Riordan, "Towards a S t r a t e g y of P u b l i c I n v o l v e m e n t " , P e r c e p t i o n s and A t t i t u d e s i n Resources Management, W. R. D. S e w e l l and I . B u r t o n (ed.) , Resource Paper No. 2, P o l i c y R e s e a r c h and C o o r d i n a t i o n B r a n c h , Department of Energy, Mines and R e s o u r c e s , Ottawa, 1971, pp. 99-110.  Jack D a v i s , A N a t i o n a l Underwater Park i n the G u l f o f G e o r g i a , Luncheon address t o H o l l y b u r n Gyro C l u b , Vancouver, June 5, 1971.  5 h i s t o r i c a l d e t e r m i n a n t of changing usage p a t t e r n s of marine r e s o u r c e s , p a t t e r n s of wateruse a r e f u r t h e r i n f l u e n c e d from the p r o t r a c t e d impact 1 of government marine management p r a c t i c e s . i n some c a s e s ,  Whereas management d e c i s i o n s ,  have been based upon such narrow economic  c o n s t r a i n t s as  c o s t per t o n - m i l e or upon the a v a i l a b i l i t y of w o r k e r s , contemporary water r e s o u r c e p l a n n i n g i n v o l v e s the assessment of more d i v e r s e f a c t o r s and of 2 qualitative variables.  S u c c e s s f u l and b a l a n c e d management of m a r i t i m e  areas e v e n t u a l l y r e q u i r e s e f f e c t i v e assessment of the r e l a t i v e v a l u e of a p a r t i c u l a r use and the d e s i g n a t i o n of some system of p r i o r i t i e s among w i d e l y d i v e r s e f u n c t i o n a l water u s e s . But t o a c h i e v e t h i s g o a l f o r a r e a l m the management of w h i c h becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y more complex v i s a v i s the growth of w a t e r - o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r e s a more thorough u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between human uses and the p h y s i c a l environment.  Here then the p r e r e q u i s i t e i s the  a v a i l a b i l i t y of a d e t a i l e d i n v e n t o r y on a l l a s p e c t s of human uses i n maritime areas.  Comprehensive  u n d e r s t a n d i n g must extend beyond  gathered i n d e s c r i p t i v e oceanographic s t u d i e s and i n e m p i r i c a l  knowledge economic  r e s o u r c e s t u d i e s , to encompass an assessment of s o c i o - c u l t u r a l impact ^"Richard C o o l e y , P o l i t i c s and C o n s e r v a t i o n , The D e c l i n e of the A l a s k a Salmon, New Y o r k , 1963, p. 6; and R. W. S. Stewart and L. M. D i c k i e , Ad Mare, Canada Looks to the Sea, S c i e n c e C o u n c i l of Canada, S p e c i a l Study No. 16, Ottawa, 1971, p. 18.  E. J . D e v i n e , "The Treatment of Incommensurables i n C o s t B e n e f i t A n a l y s i s " , Land Economics, V o l . 62, 1966, pp. 383-387.  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h marine :regimes.  Too l o n g , p r i n c i p a l n a t i o n a l  interest  and knowledge about the b i o s p h e r e has c r y s t a l l i z e d around marine w h i c h p r e s e n t an economic  return.  activities  L i t t l e a t t e n t i o n has been p a i d to l e s s -  e a s i l y q u a n t i f i a b l e , more a e s t h e t i c uses of seaspace, a f a c t o r w h i c h becomes most apparent a f t e r a d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n of the development  of  p a s t l e g i s l a t i o n a p p l i c a b l e to the management of domestic o f f s h o r e areas.  The S t u d y - - S p a t i a l Components F u n d a m e n t a l l y , t h i s t h e s i s addresses i t s e l f to an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the G u l f of G e o r g i a on two l e v e l s .  F i r s t , the s t u d y c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y  documents the e x t e n t and n a t u r e of changes i n p a t t e r n s of wateruse i n the G u l f of G e o r g i a from t r a d i t i o n a l a b o r i g i n a l b e g i n n i n g s t h r o u g h , t o the present. t h e s i s may  Because  of the s p a t i a l l y l i m i t e d water a r e a of the G u l f , the  be viewed as an e x a m i n a t i o n of the a l l o c a t i o n of a common  p r o p e r t y resource--seawater--amongst Second, the development  m u l t i p l e and competing u s e r s .  and growth o f demand f o r t h i s r e s o u r c e by w a t e r -  o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s , and t h e i r a r e a l l y consumptive, o f t e n i n c o m p a t i b l e n a t u r e a r e documented and a n a l y z e d i n r e l a t i o n to the e s t a b l i s h m e n t and change of a s s o c i a t e d f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n a l  authority,  l e g i s l a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e mechanisms w i t h i n the marine  environment.  T h i s t h e s i s attempts to show t h a t t h e r e has been a d i s t i n c t  metamorphosis  i n the a t t i t u d e and p o s t u r e of government a u t h o r i t i e s over the y e a r s to  ''"While i t may not n e c e s s a r i l y o f f e r a neat panacea f o r the d i v e r s e problems c o n f r o n t i n g e n g i n e e r s , e c o n o m i s t s , or r e s o u r c e manager, a more h o l i s t i c approach would p r o v i d e a broader p e r s p e c t i v e f o r d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and a p p r a i s a l .  7 the management o f the G u l f o f G e o r g i a , r e f l e c t e d f i r s t i n the m a r i t i m e l e g i s l a t i o n and second, i n the changed water use p a t t e r n s a f t e r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the l e g i s l a t i v e c o n t r o l . were the u n c o n d i t i o n a l  motivating factors  Whereas economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n the development and manage-  ment o f h i s t o r i c a l water u s e r s , the p r e s e n t m i l i e u f i n d s the p o s i t i o n o f governments and c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , of management p r a c t i c e s more and  orientated  toward concepts of m u l t i p l e  r i g h t s of i n d i v i d u a l users.  sophisticated  use and the p r o t e c t i o n  of the  The development and success of m u l t i p l e use  marine management programs i s a n a l y z e d v i s a v i s the growth of demand by p r i n c i p a l f u n c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s and i n the l i g h t o f e x i s t i n g and proposed p o l i c i e s and The  regulations.  Gulf of Georgia, (hereafter  r e g i o n ) as a g e o g r a p h i c a l r e g i o n ,  referred  synonomously as the s t u d y  i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure I .  the G u l f i s an i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o a s t a l  Although  sea i n which f u l l s o v e r e i g n t y has 1?  been d i v i d e d  between Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s s i n c e  1872 , t h i s  t h e s i s i s concerned w i t h dynamic p a t t e r n s of water use and o f l e g i s l a t i o n as  they e f f e c t the Canadian waters of the G u l f .  that  While i t i s r e a l i z e d  the n a t u r e of the marine environment and problems o f m u l t i p l e use  are n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t e i t h e r s i d e of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l boundary, the problems of incommensurate date c o l l e c t e d by each c o u n t r y makes an i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n a much more c o m p l i c a t e d assignment and beyond the i n t e n d e d scope of t h i s t h e s i s . I t i s the i n t e n t i o n of the w r i t e r  Really 1872.  since  t o be b o t h d e s c r i p t i v e and p r e -  1846, b u t f i n a l l y agreed upon a f t e r a r b i t r a t i o n i n  FIGURE 1  THE GULF OF GEORGIA COASTLAND STUDY REGION  9 scriptive i n this thesis.  S t r u c t u r a l l y , i t can be d i v i d e d i n t o s e v e r a l  component p a r t s i n v o l v i n g a s u c c i n c t assessment of h i s t o r i c a l , economic, b i o l o g i c , geographic and p o l i t i c o - c u l t u r a l elements which have e x i s t e d and/or f u n c t i o n e d w i t h i n a d e f i n e d space. elements  Viewed s y m b i o t i c a l l y ,  these  form the p h y s i c a l and c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  a l l a c t i v i t i e s i n the c o a s t a l sea.  Chapter  Annotation  The e a r l y c h a p t e r s of t h i s t h e s i s are e s s e n t i a l l y c o n c e p t u a l and g e n e r i c , and acknowledge the p a u c i t y of geographic  l i t e r a t u r e associated  w i t h the marine environment on e i t h e r the w o r l d or r e g i o n a l Chapter One  scale.  s t a t e s the g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s i s of the study and p l a c e s i t  w i t h i n the r e a l m of e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e s o u r c e problems of contemporary human c o n c e r n .  Chapter One  a l s o d e f i n e s the p h y s i c a l a r e a l e x t e n t of the  study. I n Chapter  Two,  an attempt  i s made to r e l a t e t h i s study to the  e x i s t i n g g e o g r a p h i c a l and p o l i t i c o - g e o g r a p h i c a l l i t e r a t u r e \ p e r t a i n i n g to seascape  studies.  The  l a c k of commitment by geographers  and the d e a r t h  of p u b l i s h e d s y s t e m a t i c marine geography are r e c o g n i z e d i n r e l a t i o n to the p e c u l i a r n a t u r e of dynamic m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l use of space i n the a q u a t i c environment.  From the e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e which f o c u s e d upon  marine geography, s e v e r a l works c o n t i n g e n t to t h i s study a r e examined i n terms of t h e i r m e t h o d o l o g i c a l posituney, and t h e o r e t i c a l and stantive content.  sub-  S i n c e t h i s s t u d y i n v o l v e s i n f o r m a t i o n from s e v e r a l  d i s c i p l i n e s , c o r r e l a t i v e s t u d i e s completed  on a more l o c a l i z e d s c a l e are  annotated and i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o s u c c e e d i n g c h a p t e r s where most a p p l i c a b l e .  10 A r e s e a r c h approach and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  s t r a t e g y a r e a l s o put forward  i n Chapter Two, and s e v e r a l concepts and t e c h n i q u e s c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the f i e l d a r e i n c o r p o r a t e d .  An  from p a s t academic  historical-documentary  approach i s u t i l i z e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e the problem, t o r e c o n s t r u c t p a t t e r n s of seaspace u s e , and t o comprehend the p r e s e n t  earlier  geographical  milieu. Chapter Three p r e s e n t s  a g e n e r a l i z e d account o f the c o a s t l a n d  p h y s i o g r a p h y and the p h y s i c a l and b i o l o g i c a l considered  oceanography o f the r e g i o n  necessary f o r a basic understanding  of man-environment  inter-  a c t i o n w i t h i n the G u l f . Chapter Four i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y  an h i s t o r i c a l g e o g r a p h i c a l  w h i c h documents the development of v a r i o u s w a t e r - o r i e n t e d the G u l f and i t s immediate p e r i p h e r y .  statement  activities in  I n c r e a s i n g water use i s examined  c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y and i n c r e m e n t a l l y from n a t i v e indigenous  perception of  the c o a s t a l s e a , through seawater as the medium o f the e a r l y w h i t e e x p l o r e r s , t o the development, over the l a s t c e n t u r y , o f a l t e r n a t e w a t e r oriented a c t i v i t i e s .  S p e c i f i c a l l y , these i n c l u d e commercial s h i p p i n g ,  commercial f i s h i n g , and marine r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s w i t h the G u l f . I n a d d i t i o n , e a r l y j u r i s d i c t i o n a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n t r o l s a r e a l s o investigated i n relation  t o the development of h i s t o r i c a l water use  patterns. Chapter F i v e examines the c u r r e n t f u n c t i o n a l uses made of the G u l f marine environment and o u t l i n e s some of the problems w h i c h a r i s e from i n c r e a s e d m u l t i p l e water u s e .  T h i s chapter  i n v o l v e s an assessment of  i n c r e a s e d and compounded a r e a l demand made by v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s on G u l f w a t e r s p a c e .  As w e l l ,  water-oriented  the a c c r u a l p r e s s u r e by w a t e r -  11 space u s e r s i s i n v e s t i g a t e d i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the maintenance o f acceptable  standards  of q u a l i t y f o r the marine environment.  Chaper S i x i n v e s t i g a t e s f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l p o s t u r e  toward domes-  t i c o f f s h o r e a r e a s by examining agency j u r i s d i c t i o n , and water  quality  c o n t r o l l e g i s l a t i o n i n f o r c e w i t h i n the G u l f o f G e o r g i a w i t h r e s p e c t to p r e s e n t and f u t u r e water use and c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y .  The l i m i t a t i o n s  of the e x i s t i n g p h y s i c a l and human systems and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , the inadequacy of f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n t o cope w i t h f u t u r e w a t e r s p a c e demand i s a l s o a n a l y z e d .  Seaspace z o n i n g i s suggested as  a l t e r n a t i v e a i d f o r programs of g r e a t e r m u l t i p l e purpose water use and management o f the c o a s t a l s e a . W i t h a program o f l i m i t e d seaspace z o n i n g , and o t h e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e mechanisms, changes i n e x i s t i n g  location-  a l p a t t e r n s f o r v a r i o u s marine uses would r e s u l t w h i c h c o u l d h e l p t o a m e l i o r a t e c o n f l i c t s between competing u s e r s and i n t u r n , may s a t i s f y a w i d e r range o f economic and s o c i a l g o a l s .  The g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s of  t h i s t h e s i s a r e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the summation o f Chapter S i x . I n c r e a s i n g use made o f the G u l f o f Georgia a c c e n t u a t e s  the n e c e s s i t y f o r  more c o e r c i v e management i n domestic o f f s h o r e areas t o s u s t a i n the q u a l i t y of the marine environment a t a c c e p t a b l e  levels f o r a l l users.  CHAPTER I I  THE STUDY OF WATER USE IN THE GULF OF GEORGIA AS MARINE GEOGRAPHY  Geographers and T h e i r Commitment t o M a r i n e S t u d i e s Any  good elementary  s c h o o l s t u d e n t c a n q u i c k l y r e l a t e t h a t seven-  t e n t h s o f the e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e i s covered w i t h w a t e r .  Y e t such a s i m p l e  s t a t i s t i c r e a l l y d i d n o t have r e a l s i g n i f i c a n c e u n t i l man had v i r t u a l l y reshaped h a b i t a b l e areas o f the o t h e r t h r e e - t e n t h s i n o r d e r t o accommodate h i s r a p i d l y expanding p o p u l a t i o n . ' I n an academic c a p a c i t y , geographers have a l s o been t e r r e s t r i a l l y bound and t h e i r s t u d i e s r e f l e c t an overwhelming p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h the i n h a b i t e d and u s a b l e l a n d s u r f a c e .  S i n c e the f i e l d o f geography i s a t  l e a s t i n p a r t concerned w i t h d e s c r i b i n g and a n a l y s i n g the v a r i a b l e c h a r a c t e r o f the g l o b a l s u r f a c e , i t seems s t r a n g e t h a t the hydrosphere be v i r t u a l l y n e g l e c t e d . and  should  S t u d i e s by geographers o f the marine environment  s h o r e l i n e areas a r e e x t r e m e l y r e l e v a n t t o c o a s t a l r e s i d e n t s and a r e  d e s e r v i n g o f g r e a t e r r e c o g n i t i o n and engagement. Although  t h e r e has been a l m o s t e x p o n e n t i a l growth i n the marine  s c i e n c e s over the p a s t twenty y e a r s , the p r o f e s s i o n has been most parsimonious  i n i t s commitment t o problems o f e i t h e r the deep ocean or  the c o a s t a l zone.  C o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , many o f the a s p e c t s o f the i n v e s t i g a -  t i o n i n t o the n a t u r e o f the marine environment i n v o l v e t e c h n i q u e s and methods o f a n a l y s i s which a r e e m i n e n t l y  "geographical".  The d i s c i p l i n e  h a s , over t h e y e a r s demonstrated q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and e x p e r t i s e i n unders t a n d i n g man-environment i n t e r a c t i o n s as w e l l as the c o m p l e x i t i e s o f  13 spatial a c t i v i t y patterns.  I n ' p a r a l l e l , i t would seem t h e n , t h a t a  g r e a t p e r c e n t a g e of the s t u d i e s whose s o l u t i o n s i n c o r p o r a t e m e t h o d o l o g i e s and t e c h n i q u e s w h i c h appear endemic t o geography, c o u l d i n v o l v e the a c t i v e c o l l a b o r a t i o n of the p r o f e s s i o n i n an h o l i s t i c approach w i t h o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s such as oceanography, i n t e r n a t i o n a l marine law, marine r e s o u r c e economics, and marine park and r e c r e a t i o n a l planning."''  M a r i n e Geographic L i t e r a t u r e C o n s i d e r a b l e work has been done by p h y s i c a l geographers c o n c e r n i n g the zone of c o n t a c t between the l a n d and the sea and on the p h y s i c a l 2 n a t u r e of c o a s t s and c o a s t a l l a n d f o r m s .  A l s o , a number of geomorphol3  o g i s t s have i n v e s t i g a t e d some a s p e c t s of p h y s i c a l oceanography.  To date  though, geographers have been c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s f o r t h c o m i n g i n t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n to the f i e l d of marine r e s o u r c e use and management.  Never-  t h e l e s s , g e o g r a p h i c a l s t u d i e s of commercial f i s h e r i e s i n v a r i o u s p a r t s of ''"Association of American Geographers, C e n t r a l O f f i c e , R e p o r t of the Task F o r c e on Marine Resources and T h e i r Management, ( u n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t ) , 1970.  A. S. F a l i k , " M a r i t i m e Geography and Oceanography, " P r o f e s s i o n a l Geography, V o l . 18, 1966, pp. 283-286, and M. S. Dunbar, "A Sunge of Oceanographies," G e o g r a p h i c a l Review, V o l . 55, 1965, pp. 414-412.  R. E. H a r r i s o n , "The F l o o r of the World Ocean" Map Supplement No. 2, A n n a l s of the A s s o c i a t i o n of American Geographers, V o l . 5 1 , 1961, p. 343; and J . T. M c G i l l , "Map of the C o a s t a l Land forms of the W o r l d , " G e o g r a p h i c a l Review, V o l . 48, 1958, pp. 402-408.  14 the w o r l d , w h i l e l i m i t e d i n q u a n t i t y have proven by t h e i r q u a l i t y t h a t geographers  possess  the t a l e n t s and t r a i n i n g to make s i g n i f i c a n t  t r i b u t i o n s to marine r e s o u r c e  Marine  con-  interests.^  S t u d i e s as Problems i n P o l i t i c a l Resource Geography  I t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y through t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n of r e s o u r c e w i t h o t h e r a s p e c t s of the marine environment t h a t geographers  utilization can make  2 some unique c o n t r i b u t i o n s to oceanographic  literature.  To d a t e , however,  t h i s type of study has been more o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n t e r n a t i o n a l r a t h e r than domestic  jseaspaee;..  A n a l y s i s of p o l i t i c a l phenomena i n the  c o a s t a l c o n t e x t has been l i m i t e d to the d e f i n i t i o n and d e l i m i t a t i o n of 3 boundaries.  Boggs  4 and P e a r c y ,  f o r example, were p a r o c h i a l l y i n v o l v e d  w i t h the m e c h a n i c a l a s p e c t s of boundary d e m a r c a t i o n and i n t e r n a t i o n a l of the sea.  T h i s p r o v i n c i a l p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h narrower  law  technical  problems of o f f s h o r e ffiim'itfcss p e r s i s t e d i n p o l i t i c a l geography f o r a number of y e a r s .  Few  s t u d i e s observed and c h a r a c t e r i z e d e v i d e n c e  marine water use and c o r r e s p o n d i n g p o l i t i c a l  of  control.  ^ R i c h a r d C o o l e y , P o l i t i c s and C o n s e r v a t i o n : A l a s k a n Salmon, New Y o r k , 1963.  The D e c l i n e of the  J . V. M i n g h i , "The C o n f l i c t of Salmon F i s h i n g P o l i c i e s i n the N o r t h P a c i f i c , " P a c i f i c V i e w p o i n t , V o l . 2, 1961, pp. 59-86.  S. W. Boggs, "Problems of Water Boundary D e f i n i t i o n . , , Median L i n e s and I n t e r n a t i o n a l Boundaries Through T e r r i t o r i a l W a t e r s , " G e o g r a p h i c a l Review, V o l . 27, 1937, pp. 445-456.  G. E. P e a r c y , " G e o g r a p h i c a l A s p e c t s of the Law of the Sea," A n n a l s of the A s s o c i a t i o n of American Geographers, V o l . 49, 1959, pp. 1-24.  15 U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the a c t u a l v a l u e of the c o a s t a l zone was l o o k e d by p o l i t i c a l geographers: the  long over-  t h a t i t a f f o r d s an o p p o r t u n i t y to s t u d y  mutual i n t e r p l a y between human c o n t r o l s ( m a n i f e s t e d through s t a t u t e  law) and the marine environment.  Would i t not seem e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t to  a n a l y z e the events and elements w h i c h p r e c i p i t a t e d the o f f s h o r e c l a i m r a t h e r than m e r e l y d i s c u s s such m a t t e r s as the e x a c t l o c a l i t y limit?  A sound p i e c e of comprehensive  new  g e o g r a p h i c a l r e s e a r c h demands  a n a l y s i s of g e n e r i c as w e l l as s t r u c t u r a l f a c t o r s . be a b l e n d of the p h y s i c a l , c u l t u r a l ,  of a  The end p r o d u c t must  and l e g a l i s t i c e l e m e n t s .  Un-  f o r t u n a t e l y , few s t u d i e s have moulded the p h y s i c a l and e c o n o m i c / c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s of the marine environment i n t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the i n c i p i e n t regimes of p o l i t i c a l  control.  An e a r l y attempt a t a broader u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the e n t i r e p e r s p e c t i v e , i n which o f f s h o r e c o n t r o l s were viewed i n terms of o f f s h o r e r e s o u r c e 1 u t i l i z a t i o n , was developed and enumerated  by A. E. Moodie.  More r e c e n t l y ,  marine geography and the r o l e of the geography p r o f e s s i o n i n c o a s t a l  zone  r e s e a r c h and management has advanced c o n s i d e r a b l y c o n c o m i t a n t w i t h L e w i s 2 A l e x a n d e r ' s The O f f s h o r e Geography of N o r t h w e s t e r n Europe. the  most profound c o n t r i b u t i o n devoted e n t i r e l y t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l  p o l i t i c a l problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the u t i l i z a t i o n resources. W.  I t i s perhaps  I n t h i s monograph, A l e x a n d e r was  of o f f s h o r e n a t u r a l  i n t e r e s t e d i n the way  *A. E. Moodie, "Marine B o u n d a r i e s , " The Changing W o r l d , G. E a s t and A. E. Moodie, ed., London, 1956, pp. 942-959.  Lewis A l e x a n d e r , The O f f s h o r e Geography of N o r t h Western Europe, A s s o c i a t i o n of American Geographers, Monograph No. 3, C h i c a g o , 1963.  n a t i o n a l adjacent  seaspace i s o r g a n i z e d b o t h p o l i t i c a l l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y ,  and developed u s e f u l concepts and approaches w h i c h have u n i v e r s a l applicability. A l e x a n d e r r e a l i z e d t h a t the economic and p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e c l o s e l y i n t e r r e l a t e d and b o t h may be s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by the p h y s i c a l n a t u r e o f the a r e a , as w e l l as by the c h a r a c t e r o f the s u r r o u n d i n g areas.  I n order t o o r g a n i z e and a s s e s s many o f these d i s p a r a t e elements  associated with marginal  sea a r e a s , he proposed the term c o a s t l a n d t o  r e f e r t o the e n t i r e complex"... w h i c h c o m p r i s e s , the seabed, and the s u b s o i l a d j a c e n t  on one hand, the w a t e r ,  t o the c o a s t , and on the o t h e r the "1  m a i n l a n d i t s e l f , t o g e t h e r w i t h i s l a n d s or banks w h i c h l i e o f f s h o r e . By t r e a t i n g the c o a s t l a n d complex as a s i n g l e g e o g r a p h i c a l u n i t , Logan a l s o noted t h a t a u s e f u l approach has been forwarded i n w h i c h " . . . v a r i o u s s e t s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( p h y s i c a l , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c , and p o l i t i c a l ) o p e r a t i n g a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s ( r e g i o n a l , n a t i o n a l , and i n t e r n a t i o n a l ) a r e 2 r e c o g n i z e d as e x i s t i n g between the sea and the a d j a c e n t c o a s t a l l a n d s . " I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h i s u n i t a r y c o n s t r u c t i s an expanded d e r i v a t i o n o f 3 the f o r e l a n d concept  e a r l i e r developed by geographers concerned w i t h  the a f f e c t o f m a r i t i m e and p o r t a c t i v i t y on the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the a d j a c e n t c o a s t a l l a n d p o r t i o n o f space. '''Alexander , op. c i t . , p. 2.  R o d e r i c k Logan, The Geography o f Salmon F i s h i n g C o n f l i c t , The Case o f Noyes I s l a n d , M.A. T h e s i s , U.B.C, 1967 , p. 12.  G. C. Weigend, "The Problem, o f H i n t e r l a n d , and F o r e l a n d as I l l u s t r a t e d by the P o r t o f Hamburg, "Economic Geography, V o l . 32, 1956, pp. 1-16.  I n t u r n , t h r e e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c o n t r o l s i n the c o a s t a l zone a r e of p a r t i c u l a r concern t o the p o l i t i c a l geographer.  F i r s t , the s p a t i a l  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c o n t r o l s , t h e i r a r e a l e x t e n t , and the r e l a t i o n s h i p among the v a r i o u s zones deserves  particular attention.  Second, a r e c o g n i t i o n  of the b a s i s o f the c o n t r o l - whether or n o t i t e v o l v e d from a r e a l or p o t e n t i a l s i t u a t i o n - i s understandably  important.  T h i r d , the  e s t a b l i s h m e n t of c e r t a i n c o n t r o l s has d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t impact on the u t i l i z a t i o n o f the environment and s h o u l d be a n a l y z e d a c c o r d i n g l y .  The Nature of the M a r i n e Environment Alexander  demonstrated t h a t the marine environment d i f f e r e d  i t s t e r r e s t r i a l c o u n t e r p a r t because of i t s t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l  from  nature,  the m o b i l i t y of i t s r e s o u r c e s , and by the f a c t t h a t v a r i o u s forms o f a c t i v i t y can be c a r r i e d on s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n any s m a l l a r e a o f the sea.''' P r i n c i p a l l y s i x zones o f p o t e n t i a l use c a n be i d e n t i f i e d i n offshore areas. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)  the the the the the the  a i r s p a c e above the sea s u r f a c e of the sea water mass sea f l o o r s u b - s o i l below the sea f l o o r i n t e r - t i d a l zone  C o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , a c t i v i t i e s i n these zones range r e s p e c t i v e l y from: (a)  f l i g h t s over  water;  "*"Lewis A l e x a n d e r , "Geography and the Law of the Sea," A n n a l s A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m e r i c a n Geographers, V o l . 38, 1968, p. 177.  18 (b) to  commercial s h i p p i n g , commercial f i s h i n g , p u b l i c , p r i v a t e and m i l i t a r y c r u i s i n g and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s on the s u r f a c e ; ( c ) r e s o u r c e e x p l o i t a t i o n and commercial s e d e n t a r y a c t i v i t i e s i n the i n t e r - t i d a l zone, and i n the water-body, o n , or below the s e a - f l o o r .  The The  Dynamic Nature o f Sea-space Use and C o n t r o l s  o f f s h o r e areas o f any r e g i o n a r e i n a c o n t i n u a l s t a t e o f change  b o t h p h y s i c a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y .  C u l t u r a l change however a f f e c t s the  p a t t e r n s o f human use o f seaspacee a t a much g r e a t e r r a t e . ment o f new f i s h i n g t e c h n i q u e s ,  The d e v e l o p -  the opening of new s h i p p i n g r o u t e s , the  e x p l o r a t i o n and d i s c o v e r y o f s u b s u r f a c e  m i n e r a l s , o r the i n c r e a s e o f  p o p u l a t i o n and consequent i n t e n s i t y o f use o f the sea w i t h i n the c o a s t land r e g i o n , have p r o f o u n d l y of the o f f s h o r e a r e a .  i n f l u e n c e d the u t i l i z a t i o n o f the r e s o u r c e s  A c c o r d i n g l y , f o r many c o a s t l a n d s  the use o f the  o f f s h o r e a r e a has been a dynamic, i n c r e a s i n g l y complex p r o c e s s .  Trans-  i t i o n i n the p r i o r i t y o f uses and the i n c r e a s e d i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f mani f o l d uses o f the marine environment may prove e x i s t i n g c o n t r o l s t o be t l i m i t e d , or r e s t r i c t e d , or s i m p l y  obsolete.  Derwent W h i t t l e s e y once w r o t e : " . . . L e g a l systems a r e images o f the r e g i o n s i n w h i c h they f u n c t i o n , sometimes f a i t h f u l and sometimes d i s t o r t e d . . . But because humanity o c c u p i e s i t s h a b i t a t d y n a m i c a l l y , laws tend t o become outmoded. When t h i s occurs they a r e o c c a s i o n a l l y r e v o k e d , u s u a l l y they a r e g i v e n new meaning... Always t h e r e i s a l a g between the r e a s o n f o r change and i t s l e g a l accomplishment." 1  '''Derwent W h i t t l e s e y , The E a r t h and the S t a t e , New Y o r k , 1939 , p. 565.  19 Jean Gottman''' noted t h a t man o r g a n i z e s space f o r p o l i t i c a l purposes and  t h a t p o l i t i c a l p a r t i t i o n i n g o f p h y s i c a l space r e s u l t s from a c c e s s -  i b i l i t y t o t h a t space.  H i s t o r i c a l l y , e x p a n s i o n o f human a c t i v i t i e s i n t o  new environments brought w i t h i t the task o f d e f i n i n g regimes o f p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l t o be e x e r c i s e d  i n those e n v i r o n m e n t s .  p o l i t i c i z a t i o n o f the land s u r f a c e of a l l o c a t i n g s o v e r e i g n continuing  W h i l e the p r o c e s s o f the  i s v i r t u a l l y c o m p l e t e , the problems  c o n t r o l over o f f s h o r e a r e a s , i s s t i l l a complex,  dilemma.  At the same t i m e , w i t h i n the t e r r i t o r i a l sea l i m i t s o f any s t a t e , the problem o f j u r i s d i c t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y and i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n t r o l o f n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s may supercede the i n t e n t i o n o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l marine ( n a v i g a t i o n a l ) law. By t h e m s e l v e s , marine law and n a v i g a t i o n a l of the r o a d " a r e o f t e n o f too g e n e r a l be r e s p o n s i b l e  for dispensing  s p e c i a l c l a i m s and c o n t r o l s .  a n a t u r e , and a r e n o t d e s i g n e d t o  of a u t h o r i t y f o r n a t i o n a l of r e g i o n a l However, f o r many r e g i o n s , l i t t l e more than  ciapoiJfilica'l o r n a t i o n a l i s t i c a l l y for generally administering  " i m p e r s o n a l " n a v i g a t i o n a l law e x i s t s  the use o f c o a s t a l sea-space.  Because o f the dynamic n a t u r e o f f u n c t i o n a l w a t e r - o r i e n t e d and  "rules  activities  of the c o r r e s p o n d i n g a l l o c a t i o n o f c o n t r o l s i n o f f s h o r e a r e a s t o  c o n t a i n these u s e s , the r e g i o n a l example of the G u l f o f G e o r g i a c a n be a n a l y z e d t o a s c e r t a i n (1) whether the e x i s t i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and controls reflect  the i n t e r e s t s of the contemporary h i e r a r c h y  of f u n c t i o n a l  u s e s , (2) whether these e o n t r i o l s a r e adequate f o r the i n c r e a s e d  pressure  Jean Gottman.,!,. "The. P o l i t i c a l P a r t i t i o n i n g of Our W o r l d : Attempt a t A n a l y s i s , " World P o l i t i c s , V o l . 4, 1952, pp. 512-519.  An  20 of use and (3) whether  these c o n t r o l s c o n t a i n c l a u s e s w h i c h w i l l  the marine environment a t a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l s f o r a l l  sustain  users.  The G u l f o f G e o r g i a i n C o n t e x t The G u l f o f G e o r g i a , the p h y s i c a l l i m i t s o f w h i c h a r e demarcated i n F i g u r e 1, has been s e l e c t e d f o r e x p l i c i t e x a m i n a t i o n f o r s e v e r a l s u c c i n c t reasons. F i r s t , the h i g h degree o f homogeneity f o r Canada's most temperate i n l a n d sea environment p r o v i d e s a w o r k a b l e r e g i o n a l u n i t .  Whereas the  n o r t h e r n and e a s t e r n Canadian c o a s t s s u f f e r h a r s h a n n u a l c o n d i t i o n s which o f t e n r e s u l t i n the w i n t e r c e s s a t i o n o f water-borne a c t i v i t i e s , i n the G u l f o f G e o r g i a , p r i n c i p a l u s e r s f u n c t i o n i n v a r i o u s c a p a c i t i e s the y e a r round.  Coupled w i t h t h i s s i t u a t i o n , i s a n u c l e a t e d c o a s t a l p o p u l a t i o n  w i t h ease o f a c c e s s t o the marine e n v i r o n m e n t , and a r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h i s environment of b o t h an economic and s o c i a l n a t u r e .  I n the most g e n e r a l  terms, t h i s r e g i o n a l u n i t a f f o r d s an i m p o r t a n t o p p o r t u n i t y t o s t u d y a contemporary, s o c i a l l y r e l e v a n t problem; the d i v i s i o n o f a f i n i t e water space among s e v e r a l competing and i n c r e a s i n g u s e r s .  Fortunately,  f o r t h i s s t u d y , w h i l e the n a t u r e or the i n t e n s i t y o f use f o r a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y may a l t e r over t i m e , the a c t u a l t e m p o r a l span o f o r g a n i z e d use i s r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t and s u f f i c i e n t l y documented.  C o m p e t i t i o n Among W a t e r - O r i e n t e d A c t i v i t i e s W i t h i n a F i n i t e Space To a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , i t i s the growth o f demand f o r seaspace and the r e a l and p o t e n t i a l i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f some g r o u p i n g s o f f u n c t i o n a l and/ or s i m u l t a n e o u s a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h engenders t h i s s t u d y .  W h i l e an aware-  21 ness of the m u l t i - l e v e l of u t i l i z a t i o n of the marine environment i s mandatory i n seaspace s t u d i e s , f o r most i n t e n t s and  p u r p o s e s , and  for  the a r e a under i n v e s t i g a t i o n , v a r i e d a c t i v i t i e s o r i g i n a t i n g a t the water surface  or i n the i n t e r - t i d a l zone c o n s t i t u t e the g r e a t e s t  correspondingly,  concern,  and  spawn the most c o n f l i c t .  W i t h i n the study r e g i o n  t h e r e are s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n s where  several  a c t i v i t i e s c o i n c i d e , some of w h i c h are c o - e x i s t e n t , c o n g e s t i v e or mutually discordant.  A c t i v i t i e s of a a r e a l l y c o m p e t i t i v e  commercial s h i p p i n g , commercial f i s h i n g , and from the s u r f a c e  n a t u r e such as  r e c r e a t i o n a l use  operate  of the water mass.  Most e x p l i c i t l y , each f u n c t i o n a l a c t i v i t y can be b r o k e n down i n t o the p r i n c i p a l c o m p e t i t o r s .  Commercial s h i p p i n g  n a t i o n a l sea-borne s h i p p i n g  ( f o r e i g n t r a d e ) , and  ( i n d u s t r i a l t r a n s f e r s and  freight-passenger  i s divided into i n t e r c o a s t w i s e movements  service).''"  Similarly,  commercial f i s h i n g i s b r o k e n i n t o s e c t i o n i n terms of the  commercially  e x p l o i t a b l e s p e c i e s , and  i n t o such  recreational a c t i v i t y i s divided  groups as r e c r e a t i o n a l b o a t i n g and I t i s recognized that while  other foreshore a c t i v i t i e s .  these a c t i v i t i e s may  be c a r r i e d  w i t h o u t apparent s e a s o n a l i n c o n g r u i t i e s or i n s e m i - i s o l a t e d  and  w a t e r " l o c a l i t i e s , user d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n or i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y may where areas of h i g h i n t e n s i t y use Resulting  of two  or more f u n c t i o n s  f r i c t i o n i n such a s i t u a t i o n i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e .  problems of the p h y s i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s of Horseshoe Bay  For d e f i n i t i o n of c a t e g o r i e s  see  on "back-  result  coincide. The  recent  in satisfying  f o o t n o t e 1, page  85.  22 b o t h r e c r e a t i o n a l c r a f t and  f e r r y t r a f f i c are t e s t i m o n y  of waterspace i n c o m p a t a b i l i t y .  Thus, w h i l e frequency  t o t h i s form  and  i n t e n s i t y of  water t r a f f i c i n m u l t i p l e use zones produces c o n g e s t i o n , i t a l s o i n troduces  the p r o b a b i l i t y of the f o r c e d e x c l u s i o n of a f u n c t i o n a l a c t i v i t y ,  or more s e r i o u s l y , i n c r e a s e s the l i k e l i h o o d of c o l l i s i o n w i t h a s s o c i a t e d p e r i l s of l i f e - p r o p e r t y damage or e c o l o g i c a l c a l a m i t y .  Method of A n a l y s i s Hardwick noted t h a t the c o a s t a l r e g i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia f a c i l i t a t e s g e o g r a p h i c research.''' analysed  I n a p h y s i c a l sense, i t can be d e s c r i b e d  and  i n terms of p r o d i g i o u s f i s h e r y cor f o r e s t r y r e s o u r c e s , o r , on  the  other hand i n a f u n c t i o n a l s e n s e , " . . . i t comprises an i n t r i c a t e network of 2 c i r c u l a t i o n s l i n k i n g p e r i p h e r a l places with a v i a b l e core."  Although  d i f f i c u l t , a study of the c h r o n o l o g i c a l sequence of change of water and a s s o c i a t e d c i r c u l a t i o n i s more e l e m e n t a l w i t h i n the G u l f of than might be expected from other r e g i o n s .  The  t h a t the r o o t s of most commercial w a t e r - o r i e n t e d  use  Georgia  reason i s p r i m a r i l y activities originate in  the f r o n t i e r economy w h i c h e x i s t e d l e s s than one hundred y e a r s ago.  In  many p a r t s of the w o r l d , e x t e n s i v e occupance of a r e g i o n f r u s t r a t e s and o f t e n i n h i b i t s any study of the process  of change.  On the c o n t r a r y , f o r  c o a s t a l B r i t i s h Columbia, t h i s has not been the case as the recency  of s e t t l e m e n t and  facilited this  the p r o m u l g a t i o n  relative  of two dominant i n d u s t r i e s have  study.  . Witter Hardwick, The Geography of the F o r e s t I n d u s t r y of C o a s t a l B r i t i s h Columbia , Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n of Geographers, B. C. D i v i s i o n , O c c a s i o n a l Papers i n Geography, No. 5, 1963.  2  I b i d . , p.  2.  23 E s s e n t i a l l y , i n Chapter Four and F i v e , an h i s t o r i c a l approach i s u t i l i z e d t o r e c o n s t r u c t the p a s t p a t t e r n s of sea-space use w i t h i n the G u l f of G e o r g i a .  P r e v i o u s l y , i t was demonstrated t h a t t h e r e i s a genuine  l a c k of p o l i t i c o - g e o g r a p h i c a l marine l i t e r a t u r e , w h i c h documented the growth of t e r r i t o r i a l o f f s h o r e laws  and r e g u l a t i o n s t h r o u g h an a n a l y s i s  of m u l t i p l e w a t e r - o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s .  However, t h i s method p r i m a r i l y a  g e o g r a p h i c approach t o the marine environment viewed as a " c u l t u r a l seascape" o f f e r s a s t r a t e g y f o r a n a l y z i n g a c c e s s i o n t o the p r e s e n t geographical m i l i e u . Movement i n t o the marine environment and consequent i n t r o d u c t i o n of water-borne a c t i v i t i e s a r e more than the mere r e s u l t of s u p p l y and demand market economics. o r i e n t a t i o n of those who  They a r e a l s o , i n p a r t , due t o the marine l i v e w i t h i n the c o a s t l a n d r e g i o n .  Malstrom, i n  h i s t r e a t i s e on n o r t h w e s t e r n Norway, wrote of marine o r i e n t a t i o n d e s i g n a t i n g i t as i n t e r e s t and/or dependence upon the sea.''' Moreover, w i t h i n the G u l f of G e o r g i a , marine o r i e n t a t i o n i s dichotomous.  I n t e r e s t may  acknowledged i n b e h a v i o u r a l i s t terms w h e r e i n the marine environment e x h i b i t s h i g h e s o t e r i c a p p e a l or i d e n t i t y and produces a range of p r e v a i l i n g a t t i t u d e s toward v a r i o u s uses of o f f s h o r e a r e a s .  Inversely,  dependence may be d e f i n e d as an economic concept s i n c e c e r t a i n c o a s t a l people d e r i v e t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y from performance w i t h i n the G u l f .  V. M a l s t r o m , M a r i n e O r i e n t a t i o n i n Norway: An Assesment of the R o l e of the Sea i n the L i f e of the C o u n t r y , M i d d l e b u r y , Vermont, 1963.  be  24 The Sources and C o l l e c t i o n o f Research I n f o r m a t i o n S i n c e l o c a t i o n a l f a c t o r s f o r a l l water-borne a c t i v i t i e s a r e based on p a r t i c u l a r p h y s i c a l s i t e and s i t u a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t h e r e i s a wide s p a t i a l d i s p e r s a l throughout the e n t i r e r e g i o n .  The c o l l e c t i o n o f  s y s t e m a t i c d a t a mandatory t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f comprehensive  analytic  maps i s d i f f i c u l t f o r i n d i v i d u a l commercial or r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e r s . P r i v a t e companies, who r e l y h e a v i l y on c o a s t a l water l i n k a g e s , a r e o f t e n r e t i c e n t t o s u r r e n d e r p r o d u c t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n s i n c e many c o n s i d e r i t t o be c o n f i d e n t i a l .  F e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l a g e n c i e s who g a t h e r s t a t i s t i c s  on e x p o r t t r a d e tonnages, i n d u s t r i a l t r a n s f e r tonnages, or f i s h e r i e s e f f o r t and c a t c h do so i n aggregated form ( e . g . F i s h e r y S t a t i s t i c a l  Zone).  Seldom i s d a t a a v a i l a b l e f o r commercial and i n d u s t r i a l c i r c u l a t i o n s , and s a l t water use i n any but a p r o v i n c i a l c o n t e x t .  R e g i o n a l d a t a were  c o l l e c t e d from the F i s h e r i e s Research Board o f Canada p u b l i c a t i o n s , S t a t i s t i c s Canada, F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l S t a t u t e s , as w e l l as from v a r i o u s j o u r n a l s o u r c e s , p r o f e s s i o n a l works, and government r e p o r t s and documents.  W r i t t e n and p e r s o n a l i n q u i r y t o a number o f i n f o r m e d s o u r c e s  provided r e l i a b l e , r e p l i c a b l e  information.  In p a r t i c u l a r , f i v e studies with s i m i l a r regional d i s p o s i t i o n to t h i s s t u d y have a i d e d i n the c o n c e p t u a l d e s i g n o f the r e s e a r c h as w e l l as b e i n g p r a c t i c a l d a t a s o u r c e s f o r v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f the marine  environment.  The f i r s t , Norman Hacking's t h e s i s e n t i t l e d E a r l y Marine H i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h Columbia,''' a l t h o u g h w r i t t e n i n 1934, p r o v i d e s an i n d e p t h account  Norman H a c k i n g , E a r l y Marine H i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , B.A. T h e s i s , U.B.C, Vancouver, 1934.  25 of the development of commercial s h i p p i n g e n t e r p r i s e a l o n g the Canadian west c o a s t . i t was  A l t h o u g h i t does not d e a l w i t h the G u l f of G e o r g i a , per  se,  p o s s i b l e t o e x t r a c t e x p l i c i t i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n  of h i s t o r i c a l water use p a t t e r n s w i t h i n the study  region.  Three r e p o r t s , commissioned by v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s of the f e d e r a l government to p r i v a t e c o n s u l t i n g a g e n c i e s , comprehensive u n d e r s t a n d i n g nature  provided  the w r i t e r w i t h a  of the i n t e r r e l a t e d o c e a n o g r a p h i c and b i o l o g i c  of the marine e n v i r o n m e n t , i n a d d i t i o n to p r o v i d i n g a w e a l t h  i n f o r m a t i o n on p a r t i c u l a r human a c t i v i t i e s i n t h i s environment.  of  In  1966,  a f t e r much c o n c e r n over the p a u c i t y of r e l i a b l e d a t a on r e c r e a t i o n a l b o a t i n g r e l a t e d to i t s magnitude and economic i m p o r t a n c e , the f e d e r a l Department: of P u b l i c Works commissioned N. D. Lea and A s s o c i a t e s undertake a d e t a i l e d study of the e x t e n t of boat ownership and  to  boat-  o r i e n t e d marine recreation.''' An A n a l y s i s of R e c r e a t i o n a l B o a t i n g  i n the  S t r a i t of G e o r g i a A r e a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , attempted to i d e n t i f y the number, t y p e , and i n the G u l f , and  s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n a l c r a f t and i n a d d i t i o n assessed  a c t i v i t i e s on the r e g i o n .  total  facilities  the economic impact of these  A l t h o u g h these b a s i c d a t a are e i g h t y e a r s o l d ,  r e c r e a t i o n a l p r o j e c t i o n s f o r the most p a r t are r e l i a b l e and have cons e q u e n t l y been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n more r e c e n t government and academic s t u d i e s . Howard P a i s h and A s s o c i a t e s was  r e t a i n e d by the N a t i o n a l and  P a r k s Branch to s t u d y , on a c o n c e p t u a l e s t a b l i s h i n g one  b a s i s , the p o s s i b i l i t y  or more m a r i n e - o r i e n t e d  Historic  of  N a t i o n a l P a r k s i n Canada and  in  . , , ,1?N.. P.. Lea, and A s s o c i a t e s L i m i t e d , An A n a l y s i s of R e c r e a t i o n a l B o a t i n g i n the S t r a i t of G e o r g i a A r e a , B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of P u b l i c Works, Ottawa, 1966.  26 p a r t i c u l a r , the f e a s i b i l i t y o f a marine park dependent upon v a r i o u s n a t u r a l h i s t o r y themes f o r the G u l f o f G e o r g i a .  The r e p o r t e n t i t l e d A Theme Study  of the Marine Environment o f the S t r a i t s Between Vancouver I s l a n d and t h e B r i t i s h Columbia Mainland,"'" w h i c h has y e t t o be p u b l i c l y r e l e a s e d , was found t o be o v e r l y e c o l o g i c a l and l a c k e d a p r a g m a t i c commitment t o problems such as t h e inadequacy o f f e d e r a l a g e n c i e s t o r e g u l a t e marine a c t i v i t i e s , or the o b s o l e s c e n c e of p a r o c h i a l park p l a n n i n g p o l i c y r e a p p l i e d t o marine environments.  P a i s h was a l s o r e t a i n e d by the Department o f the Environment  to a s s e s s and e v a l u a t e  the socio-economic i m p l i c a t i o n s on the marine  environment o f o i l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and p o s s i b l e o i l s p i l l s i n the Southw e s t e r n Vancouver I s l a n d / J u a n  de F u c a / S t r a i t o f G e o r g i a r e g i o n .  The 2  second r e g i o n a l r e p o r t e n t i t l e d t h e West Coast O i l T h r e a t i n P e r s p e c t i v e , of t h r e e volumes w i t h maps and s c e n a r i o s , c o l a t e s the i d e a s o f s e v e r a l f e d e r a l agencies.  I t i s i n p a r t , a r e w r i t e o f the e a r l i e r r e p o r t  an e f f o r t has been made t o a s s e s s  the v a l u e  although  i n monetary terms o f each o f  the p h y s i c a l elements and human a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h c o - e x i s t and would be a d v e r s e l y e f f e c t e d by o i l p o l l u t i o n o f the sea.  W i t h i n the d e f i n i t i o n  of the c o n t r a c t , P a i s h o u t l i n e s a g e n e r a l i z e d c o n t i n g e n c y in  plan for action  the event o f a s p i l l , b u t does n o t attempt t o a t t a c h blame nor suggest  p o l i c i e s t o cope w i t h the p o l i t i c a l and l e g a l a s p e c t s  o f an o i l s p i l l .  1 Howard P a i s h and A s s o c i a t e s L t d . , A Theme Study o f the Marine Environment o f t h e S t r a i t s Between Vancouver I s l a n d and the B r i t i s h Columbia M a i n l a n d , N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c P a r k s B r a n c h , Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n Development, Vancouver, 1970.  Howard P a i s h and A s s o c i a t e s L t d . , The West Coast O i l T h r e a t i n P e r s p e c t i v e , Department o f the E n v i r o n m e n t , Vancouver, A p r i l , 1972.  27 W i l l i a m Ross i n h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n e n t i t l e d O i l P o l l u t i o n as a Developi n g I n t e r n a t i o n a l Problem, A Study of the Puget Sound and S t r a i t of G e o r g i a Regions o f Washington and B r i t i s h Columbia,  examines  the t h r e a t  and government response t o p o t e n t i a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l l u t i o n i n c i d e n t s w i t h i n the s t u d y r e g i o n .  A l t h o u g h i t i s t o t a l l y concerned w i t h the  p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l a s p e c t s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l o i l p o l l u t i o n , i t i s a competent p i e c e of g e o g r a p h i c a l r e s e a r c h w h i c h p r o v i d e d an e x c e l l e n t m e t h o d o l o g i c a l base f o r t h i s  thesis.  Due t o the r e g i o n a l f o c u s o f t h i s s t u d y and t o the i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p h y s i c a l n a t u r e o f the marine environment and the human a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h a r e s p a t i a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d t h e r e u p o n , i t was deemed n e c e s s a r y t o i n c l u d e a s e c t i o n on the b i o l o g i c - o c e a n o g r a p h i c phenomena of the G u l f r e g i o n .  The f o l l o w i n g s h o r t Chapter o u t l i n e s these p a r t i c u l a r  p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n t r i c a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the method and arrangement  of a l l economic and s o c i a l uses o f the c o a s t l a n d  complex.  1 > • • • • W i l l i a m , Ross.,, O i l P o l l u t i o n , as. a, Developing, I n t e r n a t i o n a l Problem, A. Study, of the. Puget, Sound and S t r a i t of G e o r g i a Regions o f Washington and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Phd. D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, S e a t t l e , 1972.  28  CHAPTER I I I  THE PHYSICAL NATURE OF THE GULF OF GEORGIA COASTLAND COMPLEX  S t r u c t u r a l P h y s i o g r a p h y and the Impact o f the P l e i s t o c e n e Epoch E x t e n d i n g over two hundred m i l e s and c o v e r i n g an a r e a o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2200 square m i l e s , the G u l f o f G e o r g i a l i e s between the mountains o f Vancouver  I s l a n d and the m a i n l a n d c o a s t a l mountains.  The G u l f o f G e o r g i a ,  or G e o r g i a D e p r e s s i o n , i s s t r u c t u r a l l y p a r t o f the P a c i f i c Coast  Trough,  d a t i n g from the Cretaceous p e r i o d , w h i c h extends from the G u l f o f C a l i f o r n i a t o Cook I n l e t , A l a s k a , a p p e a r i n g i n a s e r i e s o f submerged, l o n g i t u d i n a l b a s i n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia.'''  Both the G e o r g i a D e p r e s s i o n  and s u r r o u n d i n g l o w l a n d r e g i o n s have e x p e r i e n c e d t e c t o n i c and g l a c i a l a c t i v i t y and e v i d e n c e can be r e a d i l y found t o demonstrate  this  The D e p r e s s i o n , a l t h o u g h s t r u c t u r a l i n o r i g i n has been by i c e - e r o s i o n .  overdeepened  D u r i n g the P l e i s t o c e n e Epoch, C o r d i l l e r a n i c e poured  westward from m a i n l a n d mountains Vancouver  fact.  and tongues o f i c e f l o w e d eastward  from  I s l a n d Ranges, c o a l e s c e d i n the S t r a i t o f G e o r g i a t o form a  g l a c i e r w h i c h then f l o w e d woutheastward.  T h i s phenomenon r e p e a t e d  its-  s e l f s e v e r a l times d u r i n g the P l e i s t o c e n e , each time r e a r r a n g i n g the general physiography.  L o w - l y i n g r o c k s u r f a c e s were s c o u r e d , shaped and  s t r i p p e d o f weathered m a t e r i a l w h i l e elsewhere g l a c i a l m a t e r i a l s were  i J,., H., Day,,, L. Earsfcetiand D. G. L a i r d , S o i l Survey o f Southeast Vancouver I s l a n d and G u l f I s l a n d s , B. C , Report No. 6, Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , V i c t o r i a , 1959, p. 15.  29 d e p o s i t e d i n t i l l and outwash p l a i n s o f moraines o f w h i c h S a v o r y , James and Harwood I s l a n d s a r e :remanents. A l t h o u g h g l a c i a t i o n w i t h i n the r e g i o n was i n t e n s i v e , the G u l f was not as d e e p l y gouged d u r i n g the P l e i s t o c e n e as some of the a d j a c e n t mainland f j o r d s .  The submarine r e l i e f o f most of the G u l f i s much l e s s  a b r u p t than n e i g h b o u r i n g c o a s t a l i n l e t s .  The g r e a t e s t depth o f over  240 fathoms, i s found near the e a s t e r n c o a s t o f G a b r i o l i a  Island,  a l t h o u g h the r e g i o n a l average i s about o n l y 30 fathoms. A t the h e i g h t o f a g l a c i a l epi/sode, the G u l f and ]per.ip[her.afl', lowl a n d was depressed by the tremendous w e i g h t o f o v e r l y i n g i c e which i n s e v e r a l p l a c e s was over f i v e thousand f e e t thick.''"  With c l i m a t i c  a m e l i o r a t i o n and g l a c i a l r e t r e a t , l o w l a n d s were i n u n d a t e d by the sea u n t i l the depressed l a n d s l o w l y rebounded  and i s l a n d s re-emerged  to  r e a c h what i s thought t o be a g e n e r a l s t a t e o f e q u i l i b r i u m between l a n d 2 and sea l e s s than 11,000 y e a r s ago. Because o f the r e l a t i v e l y y o u t h f u l age o f the l a n d s c a p e , much o f the p r e s e n t s h o r e l i n e i s rugged and c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n many p l a c e s by wave-cut c l i f f s , s t e e p p r o m o n t o r i e s , and o f f s h o r e r o c k s and i s l a n d s Behind t h i s , a c o a s t a l p l a i n has d e v e l o p e d , u n d e r l a i n by g r a n i t i c r o c k s but covered i n most p l a c e s w i t h overburden o f g l a c i a l o r i g i n .  Known  ''"J. E. A r m s t r o n g , D. R. C r a n d e l l , and D. J . E a s t e r b r o o k , and J . B. N o b l e , "Late P l e i s t o c e n e S t r a t i g r a p h y and Chronology i n South Western B r i t i s h Columbia and N o r t h w e s t e r n Washington, " B u l l e t i n o f the G e o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y o f Canada, V o l . 76, pp. 321.  S t u a r t H o l l a n d , Landforms o f B r i t i s h Columbia: A P h y s i o g r a p h i c O u t l i n e , B u l l e t i n No. 48, B. C. Department o f Mines and P e t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s , 1965, p. 113.  30 as the Nanaimo Lowland where i t o c c u r s on the e a s t c o a s t o f Vancouver I s l a n d and  the G e o r g i a Lowland on the m a i n l a n d c o a s t , i t extends from  sea l e v e l to an e l e v a t i o n of a p p r o x i m a t e l y  500  f e e t and ranges i n w i d t h  from l e s s than one m i l e to f i f t e e n m i l e s . The F r a s e r L o w l a n d , i s a t r i a n g u l a r e x t e n s i o n of the G e o r g i a Lowl a n d , however i t d i f f e r s g e o m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y  s i n c e i t i s an a r e a  r i v e r i n e d e p o s i t i o n a l r a t h e r than e r o s i o n a l o r i g i n .  of  T h i s a r e a has  a  complex geomorphic h i s t o r y and e x h i b i t s a c l a s s i c a l d e l t a i c f l o o d p l a i n which i s b u i l d i n g seaward i n t o the G u l f a t the r a t e o f about 28 f e e t 1 a  year. These c o a s t a l p l a i n s r e p r e s e n t  the g r e a t e s t p e r c e n t a g e of h a b i t -  a b l e l a n d w i t h i n the G u l f r e g i o n and p r e s e n t l y support a p o p u l a t i o n of about 1.5 m i l l i o n .  A f a i r p r o p o r t i o n o f the populace l i v i n g w i t h i n t h i s  l o w l a n d accrue a l i v e l i h o o d or r e c r e a t e w i t h i n the G u l f of  Georgia.  However l i t t l e can be s a i d about the impact of man's a c t i v i t i e s upon the G u l f ' s marine environment w i t h o u t and  some u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of the p r o p e r t i e s  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h a t environment. Oceanography To examine and d e t a i l the complex oceanography of the G u l f of  Georgia  i s a t a s k of g r e a t e r magnitude and beyond the scope of t h i s  I n s t e a d , what i s needed i s a s y n o p t i c account of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  thesis. of  Hf. H. Mathews and, f.., P,. Shepard, " S e d i m e n t a t i o n of the F r a s e r R i v e r D e l t a , " American A s s o c i a t i o n Petroleum. Geology, V o l . 46, 1962, p. 1416.  p h y s i c a l and b i l o g i c a l oceanography deemed n e c e s s a r y  to a g e n e r a l under-  s t a n d i n g of w a t e r - o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s of p a s t and p r e s e n t  environments.  More s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e to p a s t marine r e s e a r c h or contemporary oceano g r a p h i c study and p h y s i c a l or b i o l o g i c p r o p o r t i e s of the G u l f of a r e put forward where a p p r o p r i a t e i n l a t e r  Georgi  chapters.  P h y s i c a l Components G e o g r a p h i c a l l y p r o t e c t e d from P a c i f i c storms w h i c h b a t t e r the west c o a s t of Vancouver I s l a n d , the G u l f of G e o r g i a  i s a 200 m i l e , sausage  shaped, i s l a n d d o t t e d sea r a n g i n g from 12 to 35 m i l e s i n w i d t h and  dis-  p l a y i n g a p e r s o n a l i t y u n i q u e l y d i f f e r e n t from the deep ocean environment I n s u l a r i t y from P a c i f i c Ocean i s a c h i e v e d by i s l a n d c l u s t e r s w h i c h guard' n o r t h e r l y and  s o u t h e r l y a p p r o a c h e s , b u f f e r weather p a t t e r n s , and  con-  s t r i c t t i d a l flow. The m i l d c l i m a t e i s perhaps the most d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e of the region.  The G u l f r e g i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by m i l d , humid w i n t e r s  warm summers w i t h an annual mean a i r temperature of 50°F. winds are s o u t h w e s t e r l y and s o u t h e a s t e r l y i n l a t e f a l l ,  and  Prevailing  winter  and e a r l y s p r i n g w h i l e the r e s t of the year winds are g e n e r a l l y 2 from the west and n o r t h w e s t .  However, i t s h o u l d be noted  so s h o r t a d i s t a n c e as ten to twenty m i l e s , winds may  that w i t h i n  be of e n t i r e l y  '''J. P. T u l l y , " C l i m a t e i n the C o a s t a l Seas of B r i t i s h Columbia P r o g r e s s R e p o r t s , F i s h e r i e s Research Board of Canada, P a c i f i c Coast S t a t i o n s , No. 90, March, 1952, p. 17. ' ~  2  Ibid.  32  d i f f e r e n t v e l o c i t y and  direction.  On the other hand, f o r the marine environment t h e r e a r e wide v a r i a t i o n s i n water t e m p e r a t u r e , s a l i n i t y and c l a r i t y , and i n the i n t e n s i t y of t i d a l a c t i v i t y throughout the r e g i o n .  S t u d i e s of s u r f a c e water  temperatures have shown marked d i f f e r e n c e s summer to w i n t e r , from 0°C.  i n estuarine regions  to as h i g h as 40°C.  ranging  ( P e n d r a l l Sound). "*"  G e n e r a l l y , water c l a r i t y and s a l i n i t y a r e g r e a t e r a t the G u l f ' s p o l a r approaches, andare s u b j e c t t o f l u c t u a t i o n s of n o n - s a l i n e  run-off,  p r i n c i p a l l y from the F r a s e r R i v e r which comprises 807 of the f r e s h water o  i n p u t to the G u l f .  C l e a r e r , more s a l i n e w a t e r s a r e found on the  south-  w e s t e r n s i d e of the G u l f w h i l e the e a s t e r n margin i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by o s c i l l a t i o n s of the F r a s e r R i v e r plume ( F i g . I I ) . T h i s l a r g e r f r e s h water c o n t r i b u t i o n lowers temperature and s a l i n i t y f o r many m i l e s n o r t h  and  2 south of the r i v e r mouth. Much l e s s f l u s h i n g and water i n t e r c h a n g e  occurs  i n the S t r a i t s  than  i n the open P a c i f i c s i n c e the many i s l a n d s c r e a t e p h y s i c a l r e s t r i c t i o n s to water movement and m i x i n g w h i c h h e l p s nature  of t h i s c o a s t a l environment.  to perpetuate t h e " i n s i d e - o u t s i d e " T i d a l f l u c t u a t i o n s a r e not  pronounced  "'"Go L. P i c h a r d , and D. C. McLeod, " S e a s o n a l V a r i a t i o n s o f Temperature and S a l i n i t y of Surface Waters of B r i t i s h Columbia C o a s t , " J o u r n a l of F i s h e r i e s Research Board of Canada, V o l . 10, June, 1953, p. 129.  J . P. T u l l e y and A. S. Dodimead, " P r o p e r t i e s of the Water i n the S t r a i t of G e o r g i a , B r i t i s h Columbia, and I n f l u e n c i n g F a c t o r s , " J o u r n a l o f the F i s h e r i e s Research Board of Canada, V o l . 14, J u l y , 1957, p. 241.  33 r a n g i n g from 15 t o 20 feet.''"  While  the n e t s u r f a c e c i r c u l a t i o n i s n o t  2 c o m p l e t e l y known, o v e r a l l c u r r e n t p a t t e r n i s c o u n t e r c l o c k w i s e ( F i g . 2 ) . Having  i t s o r i g i n i n the bottom waters  o f Juan de Fuca S t r a i t and p a s s -  i n g through Puget Sound, the sea water under goes heavy m i x i n g w i t h F r a s e r R i v e r n o n - s a l i n e a l o n g the e a s t e r n p e r i m e t e r o f the San Juan and Gulf I s l a n d s .  The f l o w p a t t e r n c o n t i n u e s northwestward a l o n g the e a s t e r n  s i d e of G e o r g i a S t r a i t t o D i s c o v e r y Passage where i t mixes w i t h Johnstone S t r a i t w a t e r s , then t u r n s south p r o c e e d i n g a l o n g the e a s t c o a s t o f Vancouver I s l a n d and out through Juan de Fuca S t r a i t . speed f l u c t u a t e s from 4-8 knots  Surface c u r r e n t  ( T r i a l I s l a n d ) i n the south t o 14 k n o t s  ( D i s c o v e r y Passage) i n the n o r t h , however c i r c u l a t i o n a t a l l depths i s  3 not u n i f o r m .  One month's movement a t the s u r f a c e may be e q u i v a l e n t t o  one y e a r ' s movement a l o n g the bottom, an i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n when a s s e s s i n g the c a p a b i l i t y o f the G u l f waters  t o a s s i m i l a t e domestic  sewage  and waste p r o d u c t s . B i o l o g i c a l Components Bordered  by r e g i o n s o f rugged s u r f a c e and submarine topography the  G u l f of G e o r g i a as an i n l a n d sea e x h i b i t s g r e a t b i o l o g i c and a e s t h e t i c  ^Canada, Department o f T r a n s p o r t , T i d a l T a b l e s - P a c i f i c C o a s t , 1972, Ottawa, 1971.  2 Church and R u b i n , op. c i t . , p. 8.  3  =  , , H., H e r l i n y e a u x . and V-. Giovanda.,. Some, Qceanographic, F e a t u r e s o f the I n s i d e Passage Between Vancouver I s l a n d and the M a i n l a n d o f B r i t i s h Columbia, T e c h n i c a l Report No. 142, F i s h e r i e s Research Board o f Canada, Nanaimo, 1969.  35 diversity.  I n c o n t r a s t t o the much h a r s h e r marine c l i m a t e s found on the  n a t i o n ' s e a s t e r n and A r c t i c c o a s t s , the moderate c o n d i t i o n s o f the r e g i o n promote a broad range of marine p l a n t s and a n i m a l s , n o t comparable t o any s h o r e l i n e found i n Canada.  B i o l o g i c a l d i v e r s i t y o f the G u l f i s r e p r e s -  ented by the c a p a b i l i t y o f the i n l a n d sea t o s u p p o r t over 1100 s p e c i e s of h i g h e r  l i f e forms:  197 s p e c i e s o f f i s h , 110 s p e c i e s o f marine b i r d s ,  16 s p e c i e s of mammals, 500 s p e c i e s o f marine i n v e r t e b r a t e s and 300 s p e c i e s of marine a l g a e . The  b i o l o g i c a l r i c h n e s s o f the r e g i o n i s l a r g e l y the r e s u l t o f the  m o d e r a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l components w i t h i n the system.  T i d a l c u r r e n t s and  a c o o l M e d i t e r r a n e a n - M a r i n e c l i m a t e , c o u p l e d w i t h a l a r g e f r e s h water c o n t r i b u t i o n a r e the s i g n i f i c a n t m o d i f y i n g  factors.  I t has been found  t h a t the p r o d u c t i v i t y o f the marine h a b i t a t i s h e a v i l y predominated by 2 the f l o w o f fresin.water from the F r a s e r R i v e r .  Legare  f i r s t noted  that  the o v e r l a y e r i n g o f seawater w i t h b r a c k i s h water imparted a s t a b i l i t y o f water t o the S t r a i t s w h i c h a s s u r e s organisms f o r l a r g e r marine  the abundant p r o d u c t i o n o f food  animals.  An a n a l y s i s o f the n a t u r e  and p r o d u c t i v i t y o f the F r a s e r R i v e r plume  (See F i g u r e 3) has r e c e i v e d s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n i n an h o l i s t i c  1  five-year  P a i s h ( 1 9 7 0 ) , op. c i t . , p. 11.  2 Joseph L e g a r e , "The Q u a l i t a t i v e and Q u a n t i t a t i v e D i s t r i b u t i o n of P l a n k t o n i n the S t r a i t o f Georgia, i n R e l a t i o n to. c e r t a i n Oceanographic F a c t o r s , " J o u r n a l o f F i s h e r i e s Research Board o f Canada. V o l . 14, September, 1957, pp. 521-552.  FIGURE 3  THE FRASER RIVER PLUME  oceanographic  study o f the G u l f of G e o r g i a - c u r r e n t l y i n p r o g r e s s by the  F i s h e r i e s Research Board o f Canada."'"  I t has been found t h a t the most  p r o d u c t i v e u n i t a r e a i n the G u l f i s a 500 square m i l e a r e a s u r r o u n d i n g the plume, i n t h a t the n u t r i e n t s a l t s , n i t r a t e s , s i l i c a , and phosphates n e c e s s a r y f o r the s u c c e s s i o n o f p h y t o p l a n k t o n and z o o p l a n k t o n , key 2 organisms i n the t o t a l marine food c h a i n , a r e c a r r i e d down by the r i v e r . The plume s u s t a i n s l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f z o o p l a n k t o n ( s e v e r a l tons per a c r e ) as w e l l as b e i n g a n u r s e r y a r e a f o r many s p e c i e s of c o m m e r c i a l l y important f i s h . M a r i n e l i f e , l i k e t e r r e s t r i a l l i f e , i s dependent upon p h o t o s y n t h e t i c p r o c e s s w h i c h , i n the a q u a t i c e n v i r o n m e n t , i s most pronounced and v i g o r o u s in  s h a l l o w and e s t u a r i n e w a t e r s .  t i d a l exchange throughout particularly region.  T h i s p r o c e s s , c o u p l e d w i t h the l a r g e  the G u l f i s i n s t r u m e n t a l i n c a u s i n g a r i m o f  h i g h b i o l o g i c p r o d u c t i o n a l o n g the s h o r e l i n e o f the e n t i r e  T h i s r e s u l t s e i t h e r i n the p e r p e t u a t i o n o f l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f  T . R. P a r s o n s , "The P r o d u c t i v i t y o f the S t r a i t o f G e o r g i a , " F i s h e r i e s o f Canada, V o l . 23, May-June, 1971, p. 11. 1  2 R. J . L e b r a s s e u r , W. E. B a r r a c l o u g h , 0. D. Kennedy, and T. R. P a r s o n s , " P r o d u c t i o n S t u d i e s i n the S t r a i t , of. G e o r g i a : P a r t I I I , O b s e r v a t i o n s on the F r a s e r R i v e r Pllumeie"," J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l M a r i n e B i o l o g y and E c o l o g y , V o l . 3, 1969, pp. 51-61.  Parsons, l o c - c i t . ;  38 marine f l o r a  ( p r i n c i p a l l y seaweeds, k e l p s , fungus and e e l grass)"*" or i n  shallow, protected  or e s t u a r i n e w a t e r s , i n the p r o d u c t i o n  o f abundant  2 q u a n t i t i e s of microscopic  photoplanton.  These i n t u r n s u p p o r t  commercially  e x p l o i t a b l e beds o f o y s t e r s , clams and o t h e r m o l l u s c s and  crustaceons.  A l t h o u g h seawater i s n a t u r a l l y e u t h r o p i c , r e s i d e n t fauna  have e v o l v e d  and keep marine p l a n t p o p u l a t i o n s  i n some form o f c o n t r o l .  O c c a s i o n a l l y :however, t h i s e q u i l i b r i u m has been u p s e t and n a t u r a l blooms 3  of a l g a e have o c c u r r e d  i n p a r t i c u l a r l o c a l e s w i t h i n the S t r a i t s .  Chapter Summary W h i l e o c e a n o g r a p h i c s t u d i e s a r e f a r from b e i n g recognized  completed, i t i s  t h a t more i s known about the p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s ( t i d e s , c u r r e n t s ,  e t c . ) o f the G u l f o f G e o r g i a than i s known about t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s o f marine •'•Eel g r a s s , f o r example, p r o v i d e s a s i t e f o r h e r r i n g spawning, s u p p o r t s a wide v a r i e t y o f i n v e r t e b r a t e s and i s food f o r b l a n k b r a n t and o t h e r sea b i r d s . Some s p e c i e s o f k e l p a r e the l a r g e s t i n the w o r l d and may s u p p o r t a c o n s i d e r a b l e commercial h a r v e s t i n the f u t u r e . 2 R. F. S c a g e l , M a r i n e P l a n t Resources o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , B u l l e t i n 127, Ottawa:,ll>9,'61search Board of Canada, Oi_Lawa, 1961.  Where a bloom o c c u r s i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o m o l l u s c c o l o n i e s , a n o n - e d i b l e poisonous c o n d i t i o n ensues i n the s h e l l f i s h more commonly known by i t s d i s t i n c t i v e c o l o u r as " r e d - t i d e . "  39 life  o r the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two. Because the p h y s i c a l and  b i o l o g i c a l systems a r e so c l o s e l y i n t e r - r e l a t e d , many o f the i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n s f a c i n g marine b i o l o g i s t s must go unanswered u n t i l the p h y s i c a l oceanography i s s u f f i c i e n t l y u n d e r s t o o d .  A t the same t i m e , marine  b i o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h has shown a s t r o n g e r emphasis on i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f marine fauna than f l o r a .  Fauna s t u d i e s i n the c o a s t a l w a t e r s o f B r i t i s h  Columbia have been p r i m a r i l y specy s p e c i f i c , w i t h the c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f r e s e a r c h u n d e r s t a n d a b l y upon the P a c i f i c salmon, the dominant commercial species.  To.a l e s s e r e x t e n t , t h e r e e x i s t s e n q u i r i e s about the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of other commercially e x p l o i t a b l e species of g r o u n d f i s h , s h e l l f i s h and c r u s t a c e a n s .  However, l i t t l e  i s p r e s e n t l y known about the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between marine p l a n t s and a n i m a l s b u t even l e s s i s unders t o o d about the e f f e c t o f man's a c t i v i t i e s upon the t o t a l marine system.  40 CHAPTER IV  THE EMERGENCE OF VARIOUS WATER-ORIENTED ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE GULF OF GEORGIA  "...and as t o the m a r i t i m e h i s t o r y a t our d o o r s t e p , B r i t i s h Columbia i n i t s e n t i r e t y , s h o u l d be g r a t e f u l , f o r o f the sea we have e x i s t e d and p r o s p e r e d throughout our s h o r t h i s t o r y . And o f the sea we w i l l progress." C h a r l e s M. D e f e i u x  A l t h o u g h Defeiux's comment may seem an o v e r l y s i m p l i s t i c e x p l a n a t i o n , his  sentiment remains v a l i d .  The marine environment has l o n g been the  c o r e o f r e g i o n a l p r o s p e r i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  D e f e i u x ' s statement i s  n o t t r i t e e x a g g e r a t i o n when examined i n p e r s p e c t i v e .  The w e a l t h o f  a d j a c e n t c o a s t a l seas i s not m e r e l y measured by p r o d i g i o u s f i s h e r i e s , b u t i s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s the most i m p o r t a n t o f which i s the f o r t u i t o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p o f a p r o t e c t e d , p e r v a s i v e c o a s t a l sea and the ease o f movement i t p r o v i d e d f o r the s e t t l e m e n t and l i v e l i h o o d o f c o a s t land peoples.  Marine O r i e n t a t i o n and T e r r i t o r i a l i t y o f t h e Northwest Coast I n d i a n - An I d e n t i t y w i t h the Sea. A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s have demonstrated of  t h a t the n a t i v e I n d i a n s  c o a s t a l B r i t i s h Columbia possessed a c u l t u r e s h a r p l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  41 from i n t e r i o r tribes.''" I n d i a n s belonged  F u n d a m e n t a l l y , many s m a l l but n u c l e a t e d bands of  t o t h r e e d i s t i n c t t r i b a l groups who  o c c u p i e d the  c o a s t a l m a r g i n of the P r o v i n c e and, p e r s i s t to the p r e s e n t day.  western These  t r i b e s are the K w a k i u t l of the n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia c o a s t and  the  Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s , the Haida of the P a c i f i c west c o a s t of Vancouver I s l a n d , and the Coast S a l i s h of the G u l f of G e o r g i a and  Puget  2 Sound r e g i o n . C e n t u r i e s b e f o r e the f i r s t Europeon e x p l o r e r s v e n t u r e d upon the c o a s t , these t r i b e s had developed v i g o r o u s c u l t u r e s a l o n g the narrow coastlands.  The w e a l t h and dependable s u p p l y of p r o d u c t s from the s e a ,  the s t r a n d and the i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t f o r e s t f r i n g e have n o r m a l l y been aacTduc'edl as the key to the e c o l o g i c a l and c u l t u r a l success of  northwest  coast Indian c i v i l i z a t i o n . The predominant t r i b e i n o c c u p a t i o n of the G u l f r e g i o n , the  Coast  S a l i s h , possessed a s o c i e t y b u i l t upon the ample s u p p l y of i n e x h a u s t i b l e marine r e s o u r c e s which c o u l d be o b t a i n e d w i t h o u t an e x c e s s i v e e x p e n d i t u r e of  time or l a b o u r .  I n a p r i m i t i v e and t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e - s t y l e , the n a t i v e  assumed the r o l e of the f i s h e r m a n and s h o r e l i n e h u n t e r - g a t h e r e r . the aqueous environment was  Always  the p r i n c i p a l p r o v i d e r .  "'"Ruth B e n d e d i c t , "The Northwest Coast of A m e r i c a , " P a t t e r n s of C u l t u r e , B o s t o n , 1959, pp. 173-222.  H. C. T a y l o r J r . , " A b o r i g i n a l P o p u l a t i o n of the Lower N o r t h west C o a s t , " P a c i f i c Northwest Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 54, No. 4, 1963.  42 Other than an i m a g i n a t i v e and f u n c t i o n a l u t i l i z a t i o n ; . . o f a d j a c e n t c o a s t a l woods, l a n d r e s o u r c e s assumed a much l e s s prominent r o l e . p r a c t i c e was a s i g n i f i c a n t and d i s t i n g u i s h i n g t r a i t i n c o a s t cultures.  This  Indian  F i r e - h a l l o w e d l o g canoes were u t i l i z e d as a medium o f r e g u l a r  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , work, or f r e q u e n t l y , w a r f a r e .  F o r the n a t i v e c o a s t a l  d w e l l e r , the s e a , i t s moods, and i t s n a t u r a l p r o p e r t i e s had d e c i s i v e and o f t e n d e t e r m i n i s t i c i n f l u e n c e . I n d i a n s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s r e f l e c t e d the marine o r i e n t a t i o n o f c i v i l i z a t i o n as v i l l a g e s were always l o c a t e d on waterways.  W h i l e the  range of marine f o o d s t u f f s was l a r g e , n a t i v e impact was f e l t most i n t e n s i v e l y around salmon p r o d u c i n g  streams and r i v e r s .  ents o f once f l o u r i s h i n g i n d i g e n o u s  P e r s i s t e n t reman-  communities can s t i l l be found  around t h e mouths o f many G u l f of G e o r g i a  t r i b u t a r i e s such as the F r a s e r ,  Cowichan, C a p i l a n o or Qualicum Rivers.''" There has always e x i s t e d a s t r o n g i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p of the c o a s t I n d i a n , the s e a , and the salmon.  I n few p l a c e s a l o n g the n o r t h P a c i f i c  l i t t o r a l i s the a s s o c i a t i o n more pronounced than i n the G u l f o f G e o r g i a . Analogous w i t h the m o b i l i t y of the salmon, the m a r i t i m e n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n was h i g h l y v e r s a t i l e , m i g r a t i n g s e a s o n a l l y from one r e s o u r c e another.  s i t e to  Movement was c o i n c i d e n t upon a n n u a l marine e v e n t s , most  p a r t i c u l a r l y on the y e a r l y n a t u r a l m i g r a t i o n o f the salmon. upon the c o a s t a l sea i s m a n i f e s t e d  Dependence  most d i s t i n c l y by t h e r e l i a n c e upon  the salmon more than any other a q u a t i c form.  West c o a s t I n d i a n a r t  v i v i d l y demonstrates e s o t e r i c n a t i v e i d e n t i t y w i t h the c o n s p i c u o u s fauna  ''"Percy G l a d s t o n e , " N a t i v e Indians, and. the. F i s h i n g . I n d u s t r y , of B r i t i s h Columbia," Canadian J o u r n a l o f Economics and P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , V o l . 19, 1953, pp. 20-34.  43 of the c o a s t l a n d environment.  N a t i v e a r t form p o r t r a y s an  intricate  p h y s i c a l and s p i r i t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the I n d i a n and the  sea.^  U n l i k e most N o r t h A m e r i c a n I n d i a n s whose a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s i n c u r r e d h u n t i n g p r i v i l e g e s over t e r r e s t r i a l r e g i o n s , t e r r i t o r & l i t y of the west c o a s t n a t i v e i n c l u d e d c l a i m s to h u n t i n g r i g h t s on l a n d , but most i m p e r a t i v e l y i n the marine environment.  The abundant r e s o u r c e s of the  shore and s e a , a l t h o u g h e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e to a m a r i t i m e p e o p l e , were not n e c e s s a r i l y r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o a l l i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y . "...the annual r u n of Eulachon or c a n d l e f i s h , the s e a bottom h a l i b u t grounds, f r u i t f u l b e r r y patches and clamming f l a t s , a l l belonged t o someone. Not o n l y whole communities or bands, but a l s o i n d i v i d u a l s h e l d t h e i r own h e r e d i t a r y t i t l e s to such r e s o u r c e s i t e s , i n c l o s e c o n n e c t i o n w i t h i n h e r i t e d names, songs, and ceremonial prerogatives."2 T r i b a l t e r r i t o r i a l i t y was  o f t e n more a m a t t e r  of m u t u a l l y  acceptable  s u b s c r i b e d boundaries w i t h a f l e x i b i l i t y dependent upon the s t r e n g t h of the t r i b a l bands to e n f o r c e s o v e r e i g n r i g h t s over h u n t i n g and domains.  fishing  S i m i l a r l y , f o r most i n s h o r e l o c a l i t i e s , areas were s u b j e c t t o  j u r i s d i c t i o n of c e r t a i n bands and/or to i n d i v i d u a l p r o p r i e t a r y s h i p . Claims were handed down p a t r i m o n i a l l y or sometimes g r a n t e d i n e x t r a v a g a n t potlatches.  I d e a l r i v e r mouth p r o p e r t y , where anadromous f i s h swarmed  e v e r y f a l l always e x h i b i t e d h i g h r e l a t i v e v a l u e and c r e a t e d f o r the owner  ^"Erna Gunther, Northwest Coast I n d i a n A r t , S e a t t l e ,  1962.  2 P h i l i p L. Wagner, "The, P e r s i s t e n c e , of N a t i v e S e t t l e m e n t i n C o a s t a l B r i t i s h Columbia,". Peoples, of. the L i v i n g Land: The Geography o f C u l t u r a l D i v e r s i t y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , J . V. M i n g h i ( e d . ) , Vancouver, 1972, p. 18-19.  44 g r e a t w e a l t h and s t a t u s .  A demonstrated  through s u c c e s s f u l p o t l a t c h e s was  show of f o r c e or w e a l t h  accrued  the u s u a l method f o r a c q u i r i n g and  m a i n t a i n i n g l a n d l o r d s h i p over c h o i c e c o a s t l a n d a r e a s . D e s p i t e the complex a b o r i g i n a l p o l i t i c a l p a r t i t i o n i n g and  territorality,  west c o a s t I n d i a n s were soon d i s u a d e d of t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l c l a i m s t o c o a s t l a n d r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n the h a l f c e n t u r y a f t e r the appearance of the Europeon e x p l o r e r s and  first  traders.  Europeon E x p l o r a t i o n o f the Northwest Coast B r i t i s h and S p a n i s h e x p l o r e r s o f the 18th Century who  ventured north  a l o n g the P a c i f i c c o a s t were i n s e a r c h of the f a b l e d Northwesttt  Passage,  a l l e g e d l y d i s c o v e r e d but not t r a n s e c t e d by A p o s t o l o s V a l d t e r i a n o s ( o t h e r wise known as Juan de Fuca) i n 1592.  De F u c a , a Greek p i l o t i n the  s e r v i c e of S p a i n , c l a i m e d t o have found the l e g e n d a r y S t r a i t of A n i a n i n 47° N o r t h , twenty  to t h i r t y m i l e s i n w i d t h i n t o which he s a i l e d f o r  twenty d a y s , p a s s i n g numerous i s l a n d s and i r r e g u l a r c o a s t l i n e b e f o r e r e t u r n i n g to A c a p u l c o . ^ Disagreement by h i s t o r i a n s c o n c e r n i n g the c r e d i b i l i t y of the d i s c o v e r y i s c o m p l i c a t e d by a l a c k of genuine h i s t o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n and  the c o u n t -  l e s s i n c r e d i b l e y a r n s of m y t h i c a l voyages through the m y t h i c a l s t r a i t . W h i l e i t i s not known how  f a s t Juan de Fuca s a i l e d , or i n w h i c h  direc-  t i o n he e n t e r e d the S t r a i t which bears h i s name, i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t he may  have wandered i n t o the G u l f o f G e o r g i a and c o n s e q u e n t l y  circum-  "*"A.. J.. F a r l e y , "Fact, and, Fancy, in. Mapping, Northwest. America . t o 1800," Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n of Geographers, O c c a s i o n a l P a p e r s , No. 3, May, 1962, p. 4.  45 n a v i g a t e d Vancouver For  Island.'''  the next one hundred and f i f t y y e a r s , the n o r t h w e s t c o a s t was  v i r t u a l l y n e g l e c t e d by Europeons.  I n t e r e s t was r e k i n d l e d by the B r i t i s h  A d m i r a l t y i n 1745 when i t p o s t e d a p r i z e o f £20,000 f o r the a c c r e d i t e d 2 d i s c o v e r y o f the Northwest Passage.  Concomitantly,  Spanish i n f l u e n c e  was r a d i a t i n g northward a l o n g the P a c i f i c c o a s t from Mexico and R u s s i a n e x p l o r a t i o n was e x t e n d i n g from S i b e r i a southeastward and down the A l a s k a n 3 coast.  However water-borne a c t i v i t y w i t h i n the G u l f o f G e o r g i a remained  a t r a d i t i o n a l r e a l m o f the n a t i v e u n t i l the a r r i v a l o f the f u r t r a d e r s . The F u r Trade and the P o s t - E x p l o r a t o r y P e r i o d C a p t a i n Cook, i n an e f f o r t  t o f i n d the passage and a s s e r t B r i t i s h  s o v e r e i g n t y over attempted S p a n i s h d o m i n a t i o n i n n o r t h w e s t A m e r i c a , 4 v i s i t e d Nootka Sound i n 1778.  A l t h o u g h he saw and named Cape  he d i d n o t d e t e c t the e n t r a n c e t o Juan de Fuca S t r a i t . of Cook's n a r r a t i v e and accompanying economic  Flattery,  The p u b l i c a t i o n  c h a r t s i n 1780 aroused  Europeon  i n t e r e s t s as the f u r t r a d e p o t e n t i a l o f the n o r t h w e s t c o a s t was 1  J . P. V a l l a n c e , Untrodden Ways, V i c t o r i a , 1958, p. 100.  Glyndwr W i l l i a m s , The B r i t i s h Search f o r the Northwest i n the E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y , London, 1962, p. 108.  F. A. G o l d e r , R u s s i a n E x p a n s i o n on the P a c i f i c C l e v e l a n d , 1914.  V a l l a n c e , op. c i t . , p. 101.  Passage  1641-1850,  46 q u i c k l y r e a l i z e d by s a i l o r s , statesmen and  entrepreneurs.  "The f u r of these animals ( s e a - o t t e r s ) . . . i s c e r t a i n l y s o f t e r and f i n e r than t h a t of any o t h e r s we know o f ; and t h e r e f o r e , the d i s c o v e r y of t h i s p a r t of the cont i n e n t of N o r t h A m e r i c a , where so v a l u a b l e an a r t i c l e of commerce may be met w i t h cannot be a matter of i n difference."! An A s i a n market f o r s e a - o t t e r f u r s was  impetus f o r the appearance of an  armada of B r i t i s h , Spanish and American f u r - t r a d i n g v e s s e l s on the c o a s t . Over the next twenty y e a r s f u r - t r a d i n g v e s s e l s operated on the c o a s t , many of w h i c h p r o b a b l y p e n e t r a t e d the s c o r e s o f i n l e t s and bays.  Records  of t h e i r e x p l o r a t i o n s , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , are v i r t u a l l y undocumented. Continued  s o v e r e i g n t y icorfflHrc'.fcs e v o l v e d from f u r - t r a d i n g o p e r a t i o n s  and spawned s e v e r a l n o r t h w e s t e r l y e x p e d i t i o n s a f t e r Cook's d e p a r t u r e . G a l i a n o and V a l d e s , under the S p a n i s h f l a g , s a i l e d from s o u t h e r n i n 1792  California  to survey i n t e r i o r c o a s t a l waters and p e n e t r a t e d the S t r a i t of 2  Juan de Fuca and Although  the s o u t h e r n G u l f of G e o r g i a as f a r as P o i n t Grey.  the q u a l i t y of the mapping was  l i m i t e d e x t e n t of t h e i r e x p l o r a t i o n s and  r i g o r o u s and s u b s t a n t i a l , the the p u b l i s h e d r e s u l t s of t h e i r  e f f o r t s d i d not c o m p l e t e l y p r e c l u d e the p o s s i b i l i t y of an i n t e r o c e a n i c passage. However, the same year the A d m i r a l t y d i s p a t c h e d C a p t a i n George  ^ C a p t i a n James Cook and John K i n g , A Voyage to the P a c i f i c Ocean, V o l . I I , London, 1780, p. 296.  Henry;R. Wagner, The Cartography of the Northwest Coast of America to the Year . 1800, V o l . I , ^Ber-keUey,, 1937.  47 Vancouver  t o r e a s s e r t B r i t i s h s u z e r a i n t y on the n o r t h w e s t c o a s t .  Van-  couver c a r r i e d e x p l i c i t i n s t r u c t i o n s t o "to r e c e i v e back, i n f o r m , a r e s t i t u t i o n o f the t e r r i t o r i e s on w h i c h the S p a n i a r d s had s e i z e d , and a l s o t o o make an a c c u r a t e s u r v e y o f the coast., from the 30 o f N o r t h L a t i t u d e northwestward towards Cook's r i v e r ; and f u r t h e r , to obtain every p o s s i b l e information that c o u l d be c o l l e c t e d r e s p e c t i n g the n a t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l s t a t e o f the c o u n t r y . " 1 E v e n t u a l l y , by n a v i g a t i n g the maze o f i n t r i c a t e the  i s l a n d s from the m a i n l a n d , Vancouver  channels d i v i d i n g  c i r c u m n a v i g a t e d the major  island  w h i c h bears h i s name and r e f u t e d the myth o f the i m a g i n a r y S t r a i t o f A n i a n once and f o r a l l . Vancouver  repossessed B r i t i s h t e r r i t o r i a l claims 2  and c h a r t e d the c o a s t w i t h g r e a t e x a c t i t u d e .  However, f i n a l  negotiations  between the B r i t i s h and S p a n i s h l e d t o u l t i m a t e S p a n i s h abandonment o f the  n o r t h w e s t c o a s t over w h i c h the two Europeon powers a l m o s t c l a s h e d . W h i l e these p o l i t i c a l e v e n t s were o c c u r r i n g , the f u r t r a d e had n o t l a n g u i s h e d b u t had i n c r e a s e d i n magnitude. I n 1791 t h e r e had been 12 3 t r a d i n g v e s s e l s w o r k i n g on the c o a s t , 21 i n 1792 and 23 i n 1794.  Sea-  o t t e r s k i n s were a v a r i c i o u s l y g a t h e r e d a t v a r i o u s I n d i a n communities, many from around the G u l f p e r i p h e r y , and i n t u r n , s o l d t o Cantonese merchants  i n China.  Because  the N a p o l e o n i c wars had caused a temporary  ^ F a r l e y , op. c i t . , p. 10.  2 George Goodwin, Vancouver:  A L i f e , London, 1930, p. 28.  Norman H a c k i n g , E a r l y M a r i n e H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , B.A. Honours T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1934, p. 16.  48 d i v e r s i o n of B r i t i s h s h i p s to Europeon t h e a t r e s of o p e r a t i o n , A m e r i c a n t r a d e r s were a t f i r s t the most a c t i v e on the c o a s t .  Sometimes a s i n g l e  s h i p c o l l e c t e d as many as 6,000 s k i n s on a voyage.  As l a t e as  1800  Begg s u b s e q u e n t l y n o t e d , " . . . f i f t e e n U n i t e d S t a t e s v e s s e l s were engaged t r a d i n g on the west c o a s t but o n l y one was B r i t i s h . During t h i s year the A m e r i c a n v e s s e l s brought 18,000 s k i n s t o China."2 But  the B o s t o n t r a d e r s were to pay  the decade.  the p r i c e f o r t h e i r r a p a c i t y w i t h i n  The American p o s i t i o n i n the f u r t r a d e had been a l l but  c o n s o l i d a t e d w i t h the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  of F o r t A s t o r i a by the P a c i f i c  Fur  Company but the p r o f i t a b l e r e t u r n s w h i c h had been r e a l i z e d i n the  first  few y e a r s soon d w i n d l e d a l o n g w i t h the n a t u r a l s u p p l y of s e a - o t t e r s other v a l u a b l e By 1815, Hudson's Bay  and  animals. t h r e e companies were t r a d i n g w i t h i n the r e g i o n .  Company and  The  the American P a c i f i c Fur Company o p e r a t e d under 3  l e g a l c h a r t e r s from t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c o u n t r i e s .  The  t h i r d , the  energetic  M o n t r e a l - b a s e d Northwest Company, dominated the c o a s t a l f u r t r a d e f o r several years although did  B.A.  i n none of the v a r i o u s forms i n w h i c h i t e x i s t e d 4 t h i s company ever r e c e i v e a c h a r t e r . D e s p i t e the p a r t i t i o n i n g and '''Norman H a c k i n g , E a r l y Marine H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Honours T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1934, p. 15.  A l e x a n d e r Begg, H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia , T o r o n t o , p.  1894,  85.  3 Harold  I n n e s , The  Fur Trade i n Canada, New  Haven,  1962.  4. G. C. D a v i d s o n , The Northwest Company, B e r k e l e y , 1918,  p.  37.  49 franchisement  of t e r r i t o r y f o r t r a d i n g p r i v i l e g e s , no where d i d the y e a r l y  f u r quotas match the take of p r e v i o u s  years."*"  W h i l e the c o l l e c t i o n of f u r s d e c l i n e d , a g r e a t e r d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of a c t i v i t y , b o t h t e r r e s t r i a l and m a r i n e - o r i e n t e d , was century progressed. the r e g i o n was  As  ensuing  as  the  the d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n i n c r e a s e d i n subsequent y e a r s  t o become more s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t e c o n o m i c a l l y and  politically,  w i t h profound a f f e c t s f o r a b o r i g i n a l s o c i e t y .  I n d i a n L i f e s t y l e and  the Impact of Europeon  Contact  W h i l e i t i s d i f f i c u l t to e n t e r i n t o d e t a i l on I n d i a n u t i l i z a t i o n r e s o u r c e e x p l o i t a t i o n of the G u l f of G e o r g i a p r i n c i p a l r o l e of the n a t i v e was aspects  due  to marine p r o d u c t i v i t y and  marine environment.  s u f f i c e i t to say t h a t the  t h a t of an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t i n a l l  of the n a t u r a l c o a s t l a n d environment.  marine o r i e n t a t i o n , the sea was  and  I n terms o f n a t i v e I n d i a n  the genre de v i e .  Essentially, this  was  the case o f movement w i t h i n the s h e l t e r e d  These were p r o p e r t i e s not u b i q u i t o u s t o the  rugged and r e l a t i v e l y u n p r o d u c t i v e  adjacent  f o r e s t e d l a n d s c a p e . More than i n a  p h y s i c a l s e n s e , a l m o s t i n p a r a l l e l w i t h t h a t of n a t i v e P o l y n e s i a , the northwest coast indigenous  l i f e s t y l e embraced the sea as a s p i r i t u a l  w e l l as m a t e r i a l p r o v i d e r . However, the harmonious man-environment r e l a t i o n s h i p and  the  acknowledged t e r r i t o r a l i t y of the I n d i a n changed d r a s t i c a l l y w i t h  H a c k i n g , op. c i t , p.  16  the  as  50 a r r i v a l o f the f i r s t w h i t e explorers.''"  No o v e r t conquest  occurred.  V a r i o u s Europeon e x p l o r e r s appeared upon t h e c o a s t and s i m p l y annexed s p e c i f i c domains r u d i m e n t a r i l y f o r t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e n a t i o n s . the n a t i v e s were c o n s i d e r e d  almost a p a r t o f the n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s o f  the new t e r r i t o r y much l i k e the f i s h , f u r s or m i n e r a l w e a l t h . to g i v e up f o r t h w i t h the p r o d u c t s disposed  I n essence  They were  o f t h e i r l a b o u r and i n t u r n they were  o f t h e i r a b o r i g i n a l c l a i m s t o c o a s t a l lands and t h e i r monopoly  on c o a s t a l r e s o u r c e s d i s a p a t e d a p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y . exhanged the p r o d u c t s  I n r e t u r n , they  o f an a b o r i g i n a l l i f e s t y l e f o r C h r i s t i a n i t y , 2  d i s e a s e , a l c o h o l , and Europeon m a t e r i a l i s m . The  a s s i m i l a t i o n o f the I n d i a n w i t h the c o a s t l a n d environment i s an  a s s o c i a t i o n that successive white nor f e l t the n e c e s s i t y t o r e a l i z e .  immigrants have never had the a b i l i t y I n d i a n i d e n t i t y was i n t e g r a l i n the  n a t u r a l c o a s t l a n d system whereas the w h i t e man o f t e n worked a g a i n s t i t . Pre-Europeon I n d i a n c i v i l i z a t i o n , w h i l e a r e a l l y e x t e n s i v e , was n e i t h e r demographically  l a r g e nor t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y o r i e n t e d .  Moreover, any  d r a s t i c imbalance i n the n a t u r a l systems had been n u l l i f i e d o r p r e c l u d e d by t h e u n c o n s c i o u s and i n t r i n s i c e n v i r o n m e n t a l Successive  awareness o f the n a t i v e .  a r r i v a l s o f e x p l o r e r s , t r a d e r s and s e t t l e r s whose i d e n t i t y  and  i n f l u e n c e was f o r the most p a r t from the " o u t s i d e " , were t o r e l y on  The  "*"Duff W i l s o n , The I n d i a n H i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V o l . I , Impact o f the White Man, P r o v i n c i a l Museum Memoir No. 5, V i c t o r i a , 1964.  and  F. E. L a v i o l e t t e , The S t r u g g l e f o r S u r v i v a l : I n d i a n C u l t u r e s the P r o t e s t a n t E t h i c i n B r i t i s h Columbia, T o r o n t o , 1961.  51 l o n g u m b i l i c a l s u p p l y and t r a d e r o u t e s f o r a number of y e a r s .  I n most  cases they u p s e t the e q u i l i b r i u m i n the n a t u r a l systems by t h e i r i n c r e a s e d number and by an e n v i r o n m e n t a l  ignorance  i n short-sighted resource  harvesting practices. For a w h i l e Europeon a t t i t u d e s o v e r r u l e d I n d i a n mores.  The  f u r trade  i n the b e g i n n i n g promoted f e v e r i s h a c t i v i t y i n the n a t i v e c o a s t a l communities.  However, the i n s a t i a b l e d e s i r e f o r p r o s p e r i t y from goods b a r t e r e d f o r  f u r s made the I n d i a n more d e m o r a l i z e d greater i n t e r t r i b a l aggression.  and u n t r u s t w o r t h y  and  Because the f u r t r a d e was  introduced the major  form of Europeon c o n t a c t , " I t e x e r t e d p o w e r f u l e f f e c t s upon the e v o l u t i o n of the n a t i v e s o c i e t i e s and c u l t u r e s , and brought about a n e a r l y c a t a s t r o p h i c l o s s of n a t i v e l i v e s , but d i d not l e a d t o the disappearance or c u l t u r a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the l o c a l people."1 From these e a r l y m a r i t i m e  episodes  several related technological  developments and i m p o r t a n t m o n o p o l i s t i c regimes can be i d e n t i f i e d w h i c h a l t e r e d the n i n e t e e n t h Century  G u l f seascape.  The Hudson's Bay Company and Water-borne Commerce, 1821-1883. The amalgamation of the-Northwest Company and Company i n 1821  began a new  the P a c i f i c c o a s t .  o u s l y inadequate By 1834,  Bay  e r a of marine p r o g r e s s and development on  Because of the i n s i d i o u s and  the P a c i f i c c o a s t , i t was  the Hudson's  treacherous nature  of  soon r e a l i z e d t h a t s a i l i n g v e s s e l s were danger-  f o r m a i n t a i n i n g r e g u l a r , dependable s e r v i c e .  the steam packet  Wagner, op. c i t . , p.  "Royal W i l l i a m " had c r o s s e d the A t l a n t i c  20.  proving i t was  the w o r t h of steam-powered v e s s e l s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the new  increase  f l e x i b i l i t y and  i n deep-sea s e r v i c e .  Hudson's Bay  to h e l p a m e l i o r a t e  Thus,  Company i n a b i d to  some of the  omnipresent  c o a s t a l h a z a r d s , o r d e r e d a steamship f o r n o r t h w e s t s e r v i c e .  The  first,  the steamer "Beaver" a r r i v e d a t F o r t Vancouver on the. Columbia R i v e r e a r l y 1836  and was  i n c o a s t s e r v i c e by the summer c a r r y i n g  in  materials  northward t o company s t a t i o n s a l o n g the c o a s t ( F o r t s L a n g l e y , M c L o u g h l i n , S t i k e e n , and Tako).''"  I n communion w i t h o t h e r r i g g e d v e s s e l s  s e r v i c e an e f f e c t i v e monopoly was a l s o aided  i n company  e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n a few y e a r s w h i c h  i n the p r o m o t i o n of g r e a t e r  B r i t i s h sovereignty.  By  taking  a m a r i t i m e advantage over i t s opponents, 'the Company s u c c e s s f u l l y destroyed competition  by A m e r i c a n and R u s s i a n t r a d e r s on the Northwest 2  Coast i n the 1820's and  1830's.'  I n an e f f o r t to make the t r a d i n g p o s t s l e s s dependent upon d i s t a n t s o u r c e s of s u p p l y f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l n e c e s s i t i e s , the Company encouraged f a r m i n g a t F o r t Vancouver, and  F o r t N i s q u a l l y a t the head of Puget Sound.  A water-borne r e g i o n a l t r a d e i n f o o d - s t u f f s f l o u r i s h e d , p r i n c i p a l l y from the Puget's Sound A g r i c u l t u r a l Company a t F o r t N i s q u a l l y to o t h e r n  3 p e r i p h e r a l p o s t s a l o n g the c o a s t a l s h o r e . "*"Charles W.  MacCain, H i s t o r y of S.S.  Beaver, Vancouver, 1894,  p.  2 B a r r y M. Gough, The R o y a l Navy and A m e r i c a , 1810-1914, Vancouver, 1971, p. 52.  J. c u l t u r a l Co., pp. 234-259.  the Northwest Coast of N o r t h  S. G a l b r a i t h , "The E a r l y H i s t o r y of the Puget's Sound A g r i 1838-1843," Oregon H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 15, 1954,  36,  53 However, by 1843,  the Hudson's Bay Company's p e r v a s i v e c l a i m s to the  r e s o u r c e s of the c o a s t l a n d were b e g i n n i n g  t o wane.  The i n c r e a s i n g  p r e s s u r e of American s e t t l e m e n t between the Columbia R i v e r and Sound had  f o r c e d the Company to seek a new  Puget  depot f o r c o a s t a l o p e r a t i o n s .  Because of i t s g e o g r a p h i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e , the harbour of Camosun s o u t h e r n end of Vancouver I s l a n d was F o r t V i c t o r i a was The  at  the  s e l e c t e d and a f t e r much d e l i b e r a t i o n  e s t a b l i s h e d . "*"  s i g n i n g of the Oregon T r e a t y i n 1846  put an end  to Anglo-American  condominium of the Columbia R i v e r (or Oregon) T e r r i t o r y .  In  essence,  the T r e a t y emphasized the b a s i c c o n f l i c t of i n t e r e s t between s e t t l e m e n t and  the f u r t r a d e .  The U n i t e d S t a t e s , under the terms of the T r e a t y  r e c e i v e d the a r a b l e lands of the Columbian P a l o o s e and rugged t e r r i t o r i e s of the f u r - t r a d i n g domain.  the B r i t i s h  Gough noted  had  the  that;  "The boundary, t h e r e f o r e , was i n a v e r y r e a l sense an e x t e n s i o n of the i n t e r e s t s of the two n a t i o n s : the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n h e r i t e d a g r i c u l t u r a l lands s u i t a b l e f o r s e t t l e m e n t , and B r i t a i n r e t a i n e d a ^ f u r - t r a d i n g area w i t h a d i s t i n c t maritime c h a r a c t e r . " The Hudson's Bay Company was  f o r c e d to r e l i n q u i s h c o n t r o l of F o r t Vancouver  and m o n o p o l i s t i c t r a d e r i g h t s were r e v o c a t e d on a l l l a n d s s o u t h o f 49th P a r a l l e l .  the  I n t u r n , F o r t V i c t o r i a w i t h a d j a c e n t s m a l l but a r a b l e '  l a n d s , became the l o g i s t i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r e f o r company o p e r a t i o n s on the n o r t h w e s t c o a s t .  Supply  s h i p s now  s a i l e d to the F o r t  '''Kay W. Lamb, "The Founding of F o r t V i c t o r i a , " B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 8, A p r i l 1943, pp. 71-92.  Gough, op. c i t . , p.  84.  54 d i r e c t l y from E n g l a n d .  S e t t l e m e n t of the r e g i o n d i d not however d i s p l a c e  the f u r t r a d e as q u i c k l y as i n the Oregon T e r r i t o r y .  P r e s e n t l y a sea-  board c o l o n y of Vancouver I s l a n d e v o l v e d and a t r a d e i n f i s h , lumber and c o a l was t o d e v e l o p as the f u r t r a d e d e c l i n e d . W h i l e f o r some time c o a l was know t o e x i s t on Vancouver I s l a n d , not u n t i l 1849 d i d the Hudson's Bay Company see f i t  to combine m i n i n g w i t h  2 i t s f u r trade operations.  R a p i d s e t t l e m e n t of the a r a b l e l a n d s of C a l -  i f o r n i a and Oregon T e r r i t o r y i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s c r e a t e d a need f o r c e r t a i n raw m a t e r i a l s and was impetus f o r g r e a t e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o a s t a l t r a d e , e s p e c i a l l y i n r e s o u r c e commodities.  I n 1853, the f i r s t f u l l cargo of c o a l  was s h i p p e d from Nanaimo t o San F r a n c i s c o , an  American p o r t w h i c h was  to  be the major d e s t i n a t i o n of e x p o r t commodities u n t i l the c o m p l e t i o n o f the 3 Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y t o the c o a s t i n 1887. The  growing s c a r c i t y of prime f u r s d i r e c t e d the company t o e x p l o i t  not o n l y m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s , but a l s o the abundance of the s e a . Nanaimo was becoming  While  the c o n s p i c u o u s c o a l i n g s t a t i o n of the n o r t h w e s t c o a s t ,  F o r t L a n g l e y on the F r a s e r was assuming a more prominent p o s i t i o n as ^"Charles F o r b e s , Vancouver I s l a n d , I t s Resources and as a C o l o n y , C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , V i c t o r i a , 1862.  Capabilities,  2 John H. Kemble, " C o a l from the Northwest C o a s t , 1848-1850," B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 2, A p r i l , 1938, pp. 123-130.  George M. Schuthe, Canadian S h i p p i n g i n the B r i t i s h Columbia C o a s t i n g T r a d e , M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1950., p. 6.  55 producer  of cured salmon.  By 1850,  2000 b a r r e l s of s a l t e d F r a s e r R i v e r  salmon c o u l d be packed i n a season. The Hudson's Bay Company j e a l o u s l y guarded i t s commercial monopoly and f o r e s t a l l e d most l o c a l c o m p e t i t i o n n e a r l y a decade a f t e r the forma t i o n of the Colony of Vancouver I s l a n d i n 1849. that discouraged  i m m i g r a t i o n and  D e s p i t e company p o l i c y  s e t t l e m e n t , the new  G o v e r n o r , S i r James  D o u g l a s , encouraged p r i v a t e l a n d and marine concerns w h i l e  strengthening  2 B r i t i s h i n t e r e s t s on the n o r t h w e s t c o a s t .  The  Company had  perscience,  i n s p i t e of B r i t i s h A d m i r a l t y s c e p t i c i s m to p l a c e the steam screw v e s s e l 3 " O t t e r " i n c o a s t a l s e r v i c e i n 1852.  L i k e the "Beaver" i t proved i t s w o r t h  i n f o l l o w i n g y e a r s on t r i p s s o u t h from F o r t V i c t o r i a and F o r t L a n g l e y San F r a n c i s c o w i t h consignments of p r o d u c e , s a l t e d f i s h , lumber and The e x i s t i n g c o m f o r t a b l e  o r d e r came t o an abrupt end w i t h the  Rush on the F r a s e r R i v e r i n 1858.  coal. Gold  S e v e r a l American s h i p s a g a i n appeared  on the c o a s t , l a n d i n g thousands o f f e v e r i s h g o l d - s e e k e r s whence they p r o c u r e d  to  at V i c t o r i a  any t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a v a i l a b l e - steamer, s l o o p or  canoe - i n t h e i r eagerness to r e a c h Hope and  the g o l d f i e l d s .  t h e r e a f t e r , the R o y a l g r a n t to the Hudson's Bay Company was as an a n t i - l a i s s e z - f a i r e e f f o r t was made to a s s e r t g r e a t e r  Shortly not renewed  British  C o l o n i a l c o n t r o l over l a n d s and p r e c i o u s r e s o u r c e s p r e v i o u s l y the s o l e  ''"Ibid,,, p . 7 .  2 1930,  p.  W a l t e r N. Sage, S i r James Douglas and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 47.  J . S. G a l b r a i t h , The Hudson's Bay Co. 1821-1869, V o l . 1, B e r k e l e y , 1957, p. 107.  Toronto,  56 p r e s e r v e o f the Company.  American v e s s e l s had been t e m p o r a r i l y  licenced  to supplement e x i s t i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s as the " O t t e r " and "Beaver" were s i m p l y unequal t o the i n f l u x o f t h i r t y thousand m i n e r s . ^ As the e x c i t e m e n t on the F r a s e r s u b s i d e d and A m e r i c a n steamers w i t h drew, i t was o v e r t l y o b v i o u s t h a t many s m a l l e n t r e p r e n e u r s had done e x t r e m e l y w e l l i n the maintenance and s e r v i c i n g o f the i n t e r i o r m i n i n g communities.  D i s e n f r a n c h i s e m e n t o f the Hudson's Bay Company had meant  the d i s s o l u t i o n o f i t s t r a d i n g monopoly and d i v i s i o n o f some o f i t s a s s e t s among F o r t V i c t o r i a and New Westminster businessmen.  Subsequently,  m a r i t i m e e n t e r p r i z e , f o r many y e a r s the p r i n c i p a l domain o f the Company, was now shared w i t h o t h e r p r o f i t minded c o n c e r n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the 2 B r i t i s h Columbia and V i c t o r i a Steam N a v i g a t i o n Company. W h i l e many o f the m i n e r s had d e p a r t e d w i t h the d e c l i n e o f the g o l d f i e l d s , a p e r c e n t a g e remained t o t r y t h e i r hand a t the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the p l e n t i f u l r e s o u r c e s o f the c o a s t and the i n t e r i o r .  G r a d u a l l y the  p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d a t the v a r i o u s " e c o l o g i c a l n i c h e p o i n t s " around the p e r i m e t e r o f the G u l f o f G e o r g i a .  Ephemeral communities were  acknowledged  by the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p r o p e r t i e s p o s s e s s e d ; c o a l from Nanaimo, lumber  from  B u r r a r d I n l e t , or salmon from the F r a s e r ' s t r i f u c a t e d mouth. C o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , a n c i l l a r y s e r v i c e s developed w h i c h l i n k e d  peripheral  s e t t l e m e n t f i r s t t o i n t e r m o d a l p o i n t s and from t h e r e t o the o u t s i d e w o r l d . Because of the c o a s t l a n d ' s ruggedness where p o s s i b l e w h i t e s e t t l e m e n t ,  W a l t e r N. Sage, "The Gold Colony o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " , Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review, V o l . 2, 1921, pp. 340-359.  Schuthe, op. c i t . , p. 9.  l i k e i t s n a t i v e c o u n t e r p a r t , u s u a l l y assumed w a t e r f r o n t l o c a t i o n .  Victoria  and New Westminster became the c h i e f d i s t r i b u t i o n a l c e n t r e s of the r e g i o n and  the 1860's w i t n e s s e d  a g g r e s s i v e c o m p e t i t i o n f o r passenger and f r e i g h t  s e r v i c e on the V i c t o r i a t o F r a s e r R i v e r runs as w e l l as o t h e r r e g i o n a l d i s t r i b u t a r y l i n k a g e s n o r t h and s o u t h . L o c a l s h i p p i n g e n t e r p r i z e had become c l o s e l y a l i g n e d w i t h the e x p l o i t a t i o n of f o r e s t resources  i n the same decade, demanding v e s s e l s  not o n l y f o r towing d u t i e s b u t a l s o f o r s u p p l y i n g the c o n s p i c u o u s s a w m i l l s . To a l e s s e r e x t e n t , the c o a l mines were expanding p r o d u c t i o n and s e c u r i n g v e s s e l s t o s e r v e t h e i r c o a s t a l s h i p p i n g needs.  As the y e a r s passed the  n e c e s s i t y and the f l e x i b i l i t y o f s h i p p i n g i n c r e a s e d . did  Many v e s s e l s w h i c h  appear on the c o a s t were worked c o n t i n u o u s l y and were o f t e n made  adaptable  t o be r e a d i l y employable i n a m u l t i t u d e o f t a s k s .  Some s h i p s  appeared f u r t i v e l y upon the n o r t h w e s t c o a s t , o t h e r s began and ended t h e i r days t h e r e .  Because s h i p r e p a i r f a c i l i t i e s were a t f i r s t l a c k i n g i n  n o r t h e r n P a c i f i c •waiters many s h i p s were o f t e n worked l o n g p a s t the time of mandatory r e f i t .  An agent's r e p o r t b e a r s w i t n e s s  t o the v i g o r o u s  employment o f t h e C o l o n i a l government steamer " S i r James Douglas". "The v e s s e l under the B r i t i s h Columbia Government was b a d l y used. She had been r u n n i n g f o r some h e a r s o u t o f r e p a i r , e a c h y e a r s a d d i n g t o the u l t i m a t e expense o f p l a c i n g h e r i n good o r d e r , u n t i l f i n a l l y by the b r e a k i n g o f h e r s h a f t she was rendered i n h e r then p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n u s e l e s s f o r any s e r v i c e . " !  Canada, Department o f M a r i n e and F i s h e r i e s , Seventh Annual Report f o r the F i s c a l Year ended 3 0 t h June, 1874, Ottawa, 1875, p. 21.  58 Many v e s s e l s w h i c h began prominent and i l l u s t r i o u s c a r e e r s and w h i c h managed t o s k i r t d e s t r u c t i o n on the t r e a c h e r o u s l i t t o r a l , ended t h e i r s e r v i c e i n a v a r i e t y o f r o l e s - as t o w b o a t s , c o l l i e r s , barges o r b r e a k waters . D u r i n g the p e r i o d 1858-1880, many marine o p e r a t o r s o f dubious c h a r a c t e r appeared i n the c o a s t a l t r a d e b u t few o f the b u s i n e s s e n t e r p r i z e s succeeded w i t h any degree o f l o n g e v i t y and even l e s s c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d permanently.'''  A f t e r 1875 s e v e r a l p a s s e n g e r - f r e i g h t  lines  appeared w h i c h m a i n t a i n e d a semblance o f r e g u l a r r o u t e s and s c h e d u l e d sailings.  Of t h e s e , as example, the E a s t Coast L i n e , o p e r a t e d out o f 2  V i c t o r i a and s e r v e d Nanaimo and Comox. the  Another l e s s domestic o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  B r i t i s h Columbia Merchants L i n e p l a c e d s e v e r a l s h i p s on the V i c t o r i a -  Nanaimo - New Westminster r u n and o p e r a t e d c o l l i e r s i n the Nanaimo 3 San F r a n c i s c o c o a l t r a d e . S i n c e the u n i f i c a t i o n o f the Crown Colony i n 1858, B r i t i s h  Columbia  had depended upon s h i p s t o span the w a t e r s between V i c t o r i a , the p r o c l a i m e d s e a t o f government,  and the s e t t l e m e n t o f the m a i n l a n d r e g i o n .  The Crown Colony had e n t e r e d i n t o u n i o n w i t h the new Dominion .of Canada i n 1871, p a r t i a l l y on the promise o f t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l c o n n e c t i o n 1 Norman McLeod, " B r i t i s h Columbia's P i o n e e r N a v i g a t o r s , " Sea L o r e , V o l . 1, S e p t . , 1935, pp. 55-57.  2 Schuthe, op. c i t . , p. 17.  3  I b i d . , p. 18.  59 from E a s t e r n Canada to a w e s t e r n  terminus a t E s q u i m a l t .  t h a t Vancouver I s l a n d c o u l d be connected  I t was  envisioned  to the mainland w i t h r a i l  by  b r i d g i n g some of the narrower passages a t the n o r t h e a s t e r n end of the Island.  However, t h i s t o t a l r a i l  P a c i f i c R a i l w a y was  l i n k never m a t e r i a l i z e d and the Canadian  to chose a t e r m i n a l p o i n t on B u r r a r d I n l e t .  Dreams of  a r a i l c r o s s i n g a t Bute I n l e t c o n t i n u e d u n s u c c e s s f u l l y f o r a number of y e a r s and I s l a n d e r s were t o depend t o t a l l y f o r almost a c e n t u r y on borne commerce augmented o n l y a f t e r World War  water-  I I by s c h e d u l e d a i r  connection.  The Steamship C o r p o r a t i o n s i n the G u l f o f G e o r g i a ; 1883-1930. Water-borne commerce i n the G u l f of G e o r g i a from the o u t s e t f r e q u e n t l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the mismanagement o f cargo and the of s e r v i c e . F F r e i g h t r a t e ( p r i c e ) f i x i n g and u n s c r u p u l o u s companies had been rampant. which was  was  irregularity  c o e r c i o n among  Many mergers ensued, the most s i g n i f i c a n t  the f o r m a t i o n i n 1883  of  of the Canadian P a c i f i c N a v i g a t i o n Company  from the amalgamation of the P i o n e e r L i n e w i t h the m a r i t i m e arm of the Hudson's Bay Company. v e s s e l s under one  T h i s b u s i n e s s v e n t u r e had p l a c e d t e n c o a s t a l  "house" f l a g and made V i c t o r i a home p o r t f o r a s e r v i c e  w h i c h i n c l u d e d the F r a s e r R i v e r r u n , the e a s t c o a s t of Vancouver I s l a n d , r o u t e as w e l l as o t h e r e x t e r i o r P a c i f i c p o r t s b o t h n o r t h and  south.^  D e s p i t e : t h e c o n t i n u e d development of l o g g i n g , m i n i n g , commercial  Norman H a c k i n g , "Steamboat Days, 1870-1883, B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 2, A p r i l , 1947, p. 110.  60 " f i s h i n g and  s u b s i d i a r y i n d u s t r i e s c r e a t i n g a need f o r s h i p p i n g s e r v i c e s  t h a t encouraged the f o r m a t i o n of r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l f r e i g h t i n g companies, p r i m a r i l y t h r e e companies emerged t o c a p t u r e a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e of the a v a i l a b l e market and  t o dominate c o a s t a l t r a d e f o r a number of y e a r s .  These companies, formed by innumerable mergers and r e a p p e a r i n g f r e q u e n t l y under d i f f e r e n t name or owner were the Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y  (British  Columbia Coast Steamship S e r v i c e ) , the U n i o n Steamship Company of B r i t i s h Columbia, and The  the Canadian N a t i o n a l Steamship Company.  l a r g e s t , the Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y ' s w h o l l y owned s u b s i d i a r y  the B r i t i s h Columbia Coast Steamship S e r v i c e was  formed i n 1901  Union of the p r i v a t e l y owned V i c t o r i a based Canadian P a c i f i c Company and Canadian P a c i f i c i n t e r e s t s . " ^ had  by  the  Navigation  Up u n t i l t h i s time the former  taken advantage o f the t r a f f i c c r e a t e d by the c o m p l e t i o n o f the  Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y  to B u r r a r d I n l e t i n 1887  steamship s e r v i c e to the new  by e s t a b l i s h i n g r e g u l a r  p o r t of Vancouver, soon to be Canada's  2 P a c i f i c gateway.  W i t h an i n c r e m e n t a l o v e r l a n d f l o w of people and  more modern v e s s e l s had been p r e s s e d the V a n c o u v e r - V i c t o r i a r u n and Vancouver-Seattle  run.  i n t o s e r v i c e to meet the demand on  the new  As the new  i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t r o u t e , the  t r i a n g l e s e r v i c e assumed g r e a t e r  s i g n i f i c a n c e w i t h other i n d i v i d u a l entrepreneurs the lower F r a s e r R i v e r p o r t s o f New and  e n t e r i n g i n t o the t r a d e ,  Westminster, Fraser ' M i l l s , A n n i e v i l l e ,  S t e v e s t o n began t o assume l e s s importance.  '''Schuthe, op. c i t . , p.  cargo,  l  L i k e w i s e , the i n f l u x of  21.  Leah S t e v e n s , "The R i s e of the P o r t of Vancouver, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " Economic Geography, V o l . 12, J a n . , 1936, p. 63.  immigrant a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n t o the Cowichan V a l l e y , Nanaimo-Comox Lowl a n d and onto the G u l f I s l a n d s soon n e c e s s i t a t e d c o n n e c t i o n t o r e g u l a r steamer  service.  The Canadian P a c i f i c r e a l i z i n g t h e p r o f i t t h a t was b e i n g made from the t r a n s s h i p m e n t o f i t s r a i l e d c o m m o d i t i e s , succeeded i n p u r c h a s i n g the e n t i r e Canadian P a c i f i c N a v i g a t i o n Company f l e e t .  From the o u t s e t of  t h i s new v e n t u r e , the Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y undertook a p r o g r e s s i v e 1  p o l i c y o f expanding and m o d e r n i z i n g the B. C. Coast Steamship f l e e t of over f i f t e e n v e s s e l s .  I t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c C l y d e b u i l t , b l a c k , w h i t e and  y e l l o w " P r i n c e s s " v e s s e l s soon became commonplace a l o n g the i n l a n d c o a s t . Between 1910 and the o u t b r e a k o f the F i r s t World War, s i x more passenger s h i p s were purchased and p r e s s e d i n t o s e r v i c e c o n n e c t i n g m a i n l a n d and i s l a n d points."''  Such a move r e f l e c t e d the o p t i m i s t i c o u t l o o k t h a t  accompanied the b u r g e o n i n g growth o f B r i t i s h Columbia p o p u l a t i o n , r e s o u r c e i n d u s t r i e s , and emerging t o u r i s t  trade.  The second l a r g e s t marine c o r p o r a t i o n a c t i v e on the c o a s t p r i o r t o World War I was the Union Steamship Company of B r i t i s h Columbia.  The  Union Company, i n c o r p o r a t e d i n 1899 was founded on the ]pr<of:iftaML7llL±yy of the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y and was a c t i v e f o r a number o f y e a r s c h i e f l y under c o n t r a c t t o f o r e s t camps and m i n i n g communities throughout t h e G u l f 2 region. Except f o r a f l o u r i s h of a c t i v i t y t r a n s p o r t i n g men and m a t e r i a l s t o the Y u k o n - K l o n d i k e g o l d f i e l d s soon a f t e r i n c o r p o r a t i o n , the company ^"Frank Bowen, The H i s t o r y o f t h e Canadian P a c i f i c L i n e , London, 1928, p. 87.  2  I b i d . , p. 36.  62 p l a y e d a l o g i s t i c a l r o l e and f u n d a m e n t a l l y p r o v i d e d an i n l a n d c o a s t s e r v i c e w i t h a compliment of never more than t e n v e s s e l s .  cargo  Not u n t i l the  apex of immigrant s e t t l e m e n t d i d the l i n e e n t e r b r i e f l y i n t o the passenger t r a d e , however c o m p e t i t i o n f o r r o u t e s w i t h companies e x p e r i e n c e d  in local  passenger s e r v i c e soon proved  was  the v e n t u r e uneconomic.  This l i n e  e v e n t u a l i t y bought out by the Canadian P a c i f i c i n 1938.^ The was  t h i r d company, Canadian N a t i o n a l Steamships ( P a c i f i c Coast S e r v i c e )  the m a r i t i m e  appendage of the Crown-owned Canadian N a t i o n a l R a i l w a y  f o r m e r l y the Grand Trunk R a i l w a y whose P a c i f i c terminus was e s t a b l i s h e d a t P r i n c e Rupert i n 1914.  I t was  the duty of the steamship  company t o  p r o v i d e r e g u l a r steamer s e r v i c e from P r i n c e Rupert to the p o p u l a t e d of the lower mainland  G u l f of Georgia-Puget  Sound r e g i o n .  centers  While c a r r y i n g  c o n s i d e r a b l e cargo a n n u a l l y p a l a t i a l Canadian N a t i o n a l " P r i n c e " v e s s e l s gave the Canadian P a c i f i c i t s most v i g o r o u s c o m p e t i t i o n i n the c o a s t passenger t r a d e , p a r t i c u l a r l y  i n the w e l l - t r a v e l l e d t r i a n g l e  service.  C o a s t a l T r a d e , 1930-1972. ComVe*i'.li'.i!oni i n f r e i g h t and passenger s e r v i c e f o r v a r i o u s p o r t s of throughout  call  Puget Sound and; the G u l f r e g i o n c o n t i n u e d r a t h e r unabated u n t i l  the s t o c k market c r a s h of 1929.  The r e p e r c u s s i o n s of the D e p r e s s i o n were  f e l t almost i m m e d i a t e l y by b u s i n e s s and the g e n e r a l p u b l i c a l i k e . many m a r g i n a l concerns declare bankruptcy.  Soon,  succumbed t o u n f a v o u r a b l e economic c o n d i t i o n s and  C o m p e t i t i o n between the l a r g e r owners  themselves,  ^C. E. S t o c k d i l l , "The B. C. C o a s t a l S e r v i c e , Some H i s t o r i c a l F a c t s and F i g u r e s . " Canadian P a c i f i c S t a f f B u l l e t i n , Dec. 5, 1940, p. 12.  63 t r a d i t i o n a l l y c a r r i e d on w i t h c o l o u r f u l v i g o u r , tended l i g h t o f d i s a s t r o u s market c o n d i t i o n s . absorbed  to disappear i n  S t r o n g e r companies s i m p l y  t h e i r weaker r i v a l s i n t h e s t r u g g l e f o r s u r v i v a l .  of the D e p r e s s i o n saw l i t t l e change.  But the end  No sooner had economic c o n d i t i o n s  b r i g h t e n e d than c o m p e t i t i o n from o t h e r media o f t r a n s p o r t s e r i o u s l y began to  t h r e a t e n the e x i s t e n c e o f many r o u t e s and c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y t h a t o f  s e v e r a l companies. The  t h r e a t o f r o a d , r a i l and l a t e r , a i r t o water t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f  passengers  and f r e i g h t , became v e r y r e a l t o v a r i o u s s h i p p i n g c o n c e r n s .  One by one, r e g i o n a l c a r r i e r s began t o l o s e t h e b a t t l e t o o t h e r forms o f transport.  The f i r s t t o succumb i n 1905 had been steamer o p e r a t i o n s  from V i c t o r i a a l o n g t h e e a s t c o a s t o f Vancouver I s l a n d , a f t e r l o s i n g t h e s t r u g g l e w i t h the f a s t e r E s q u i m a l t and Nanaimo R a i l w a y .  In a proverbial  sense the w r i t i n g was on t h e w a l l f o r water c a r r i e r s f a c e d w i t h c o m p e t i t i o n from f a s t e r l a n d c o n n e c t i o n s o r more a d a p t a b l e then u n d e r s t a n d a b l e  t r a n s p o r t methods.  It is  t h a t the more e f f i c i e n t tugboat o p e r a t i o n s and a u t o -  f e r r y systems, s u i t a b l e i n p r o t e c t e d waters and a d a p t a b l e i n t h e e x t e n s i o n o f new t e r r e s t r i a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a l complexes, have emerged over the l a s t decade t o dominate the G u l f t r a d e i n passengers A f t e r the Second World War the automobile u t i l i t y o f the c o a s t a l steamship  and f r e i g h t . profoundly a f f e c t e d the  and the o p e r a t i o n a l b e h a v i o u r  the companies engaged i n t h e e x c u r s i o n i s t t r a d e .  of a l l  Some v e s s e l s had hap-  h a z a r d l y been m o d i f i e d to c a r r y both f r e i g h t t r u c k s and a u t o m o b i l e s , as a r e s o u n d i n g annual t o u r i s t t r a d e was i n c r e a s i n g p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y . examing the r e c o r d o f c o a s t a l s h i p p i n g , few p r i v a t e i n v e s t o r s were  '''Will Lawson, P a c i f i c Steamers, Glasgow, 1927, p. 58.  After  64 prepared  to r i s k the heavy c a p i t a l investment i n s h i p s , wharves, f r e i g h t  sheds, and passenger t e r m i n a l s needed f o r modern passenger-cargo s e r v i c e . As a r e s u l t steamship o p e r a t i o n s had come almost c o m p l e t e l y under the c o n t r o l of the Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y . remained o u t s i d e the Canadian P a c i f i c However, i t was designed  orbit.  e v i d e n t t h a t the Canadian P a c i f i c , w i t h a s e r v i c e  f o r more l e i s u r e l y d a y s , was  f a s t movements between G u l f p o r t s . the P r o v i n c e were not b e i n g met. ing pattern.  Only Canadian Steamships  unequal to the t a s k of gross  The  and  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r water t r a v e l i n  Changing needs d i d not produce a chang-  G u l f c o a s t a l f e r r i e s f o r the most p a r t c o n t i n u e d  " C l y d e - s i d e " m i n a t u r e l i n e r s , capable u n s u i t e d to the f a s t t u r n - a r o u n d ,  to be  the  of c r o s s i n g the N o r t h A t l a n t i c  but  auto-oriented  system.  I t became i n c r e a s i n g l y obvious t h a t t h i s i n f l e x i b l e f e r r y system w o e f u l l y inadequate f o r the movement of t r u c k s , buses and a u t o s . major Canadian s h i p p i n g companies of the time had not accepted  to'ne s h i p p i n g company had made an e f f o r t to move w i t h the times and  company was  But the  the  c h a l l e n g e to r e t o o l w i t h the a p p r o p r i a t e s c h u t t l e s e r v i c e v e s s e l s .  employed double-ended f e r r i e s .  was  Only had  B l a c k B a l l F e r r i e s L i m i t e d whose p a r e n t  the Puget Sound N a v i g a t i o n Company had b u i l d up a s e r v i c e  between Nanaimo and Horseshoe Bay but t h i s system was b e i n g g r e a t l y over  a t peak user  periods,  taxed.  A P r o v i n c i a l F e r r y System A f t e r several inconvenient  l a b o u r d i s p u t e s i n 1958,  the consequences  o f w h i c h had been the i s o l a t i o n of Vancouver I s l a n d , the P r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n ment " p r o v i n c i a l i z e d " the B l a c k B a l l L i n e ' s G u l f f e r r i e s f o r an i n t e r i m period.  For the f i r s t time the P r o v i n c i a l Government had e n t e r e d  the  65 f e r r y b u s i n e s s , a l b e i t not as an owner. approached  S h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r the Government  b o t h Canadian P a c i f i c and B l a c k B a l l t o f i n d i f they were  i n t e r e s t e d i n meeting  the expanding needs.  As they were n o t , Premier  Bennett announced, w i t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ineuendo, t h a t the P r o v i n c i a l Government would e s t a b l i s h i t s own f e r r y s e r v i c e between S a a n i c h P e n i n s u l a and the lower mainland as soon as p o s s i b l e on the promise  that,  "The Government of B r i t i s h Columbia i s determined t h a t i n f u t u r e , f e r r y c o n n e c t i o n s between Vancouver I s l a n d and the mainland s h a l l not be s u b j e c t e i t h e r t o the whim of u n i o n p o l i c y nor t o the i n d i f f e r e n c e o f f e d e r a l agencies."1 I n June 1960, the Dogwood f l e e t began s e r v i c e :  a twelve m i l l i o n  f e r r y system which a t commencement of o p e r a t i o n s i n c l u d e d tfcwo new  dollar ferries  and two t e r m i n a l s , one a t Swartz Bay and the o t h e r a t the causeway t e r m i n a l a t Tsawwassen. By 1961, the Government had d e c i d e d t h a t the P r o v i n c e was i n the f e r r y b u s i n e s s e n t i r e l y and pruchased n e g o t i a t e d p r i c e o f $6,690,000.''"  the e n t i r e B l a c k B a l l f l e e t f o r a  A l l B l a c k B a l l v e s s e l s were h u r r i e d l y  r e p a i n t e d i n 1962 i n the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c w h i t e and b l u e of the p u b l i c f l e e t and new r o u t e s i n c l u d e d the Horseshoe Bay-Nanaimo r o u t e as w e l l as Horseshoe Bay-Langdale on J e r v i s I n l e t .  r u n on Howe Sound and E a r l e ' s Cove t o S a l t e r y Bay  As new v e s s e l s s l i d down the ways and were p r e s s e d  into  s e r v i c e , the o l d e r v e s s e l s o f the o r i g i n a l B l a c k B a l l f l e e t were put onto s h o r t e r runs or went i n t o r e s e r v e . The Government a l s o purchased  the G u l f I s l a n d s F e r r y Company i n 1961  '''H. L. Cadieux and G. G r i f f i t h s , The Dogwood F l e e t , V i c t o r i a , 1967, p. 7.  C a d i e u x , op. c i t . , p. 29.  66 f o r $249,823 and p r o v i d e d r e g u l a r s e r v i c e t o most of the I s l a n d s w i t h new  vessels.'''  By 1971,  around the G u l f .  23 s h i p s under the P r o v i n c i a l f l a g served 23  To keep up w i t h the demand which has  increased  ports  15%  a n n u a l l y s i n c e the s e r v i c e began, more s h i p s have been put i n t o s e r v i c e and 2 m o d i f i c a t i o n s to e x i s t i n g v e s s e l s u n d e r t a k e n .  The  " s t r e t c h i n g " of a l l  motor v e s s e l s on the Vancouver I s l a n d t o the m a i n l a n d r u n by the a d d i t i o n of a n i n e t y f o o t s e c t i o n has f e r r i e s from 125  to 200  i n c r e a s e d the c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y of  these  cars.  Comprehensive maps of c o a s t a l f e r r y a c t i v i t y i n the G u l f r e g i o n are i n c l u d e d i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r .  Many f e r r i e s now  c h a n n e l s w h i c h were once the s o l e p r e s e r v e  p l y the bays  of commercial  Commercial F i s h i n g i n the  fisherman.  Gulf  L i k e o t h e r f u n c t i o n a l waterway u s e s , commercial f i s h i n g has i n method and  and  transformed  i n t e n s i t y s i n c e i t s i n c e p t i o n i n the p o s t f u r - t r a d e p e r i o d .  G e n e r a l l y , i t has d i v e r s i f i e d i n terms of the number of s p e c i e s e x p l o i t e d , but d e c l i n e d i n t o t a l tonnage caught. commercial f i s h e r y w h i c h had  The  commercially  B r i t i s h Columbia  i t s o r i g i n a t the mouths of G u l f o f  Georgia  t r i b u t a r i e s , has been s u b j e c t a t v a r i o u s times t o tremendous o v e r f i s h i n g , poor management p r a c t i c e s , innumerable f i s h c a t c h l i m i t a t i o n s , v a r y i n g 3 s e a s o n a l r e g u l a t i o n s , and c o u n t l e s s f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y d i s p u t e s .  1-v- ^ Gaileux et. a l . , l o c . c i t . 2 B r i t i s h Columbia, F i n a n c i a l and Economic Review, Department of F i n a n c e , T h i r t y - f i r s t E d i t i o n , V i c t o r i a , J u l y 1971. For an e x h a u s t i v e account see C i c e l y L y o n s , Salmon, Our H e r i t a g e , Vancouver, 1969.  67 But the s t o r y of e a r l y f i s h e r y e x p l o i t a t i o n i n the G u l f of G e o r g i a , for  and  t h a t m a t t e r , f o r the N o r t h P a c i f i c c o a s t , i s the s t o r y of a s i n g l e  s p e c i e s , Oncorhynchus, the anadromonous salmon. s p e c i e s w i t h i t s tender and  t a s t y f l e s h was  B r i t i s h e x p l o r a t i o n o f the c o a s t . salmon i n much the same way  The e x i s t e n c e of  known from the o u t s e t of  C o a s t a l i n d i g e n t s , who  as the P r a i r i e t r i b e s had  revered  mouth l o c a t i o n s .  the  the b u f f a l o , were  soon encouraged t o e n t e r i n t o p r o f i t a b l e c o n t r a c t w i t h the w h i t e and a n n u a l l y h a r v e s t e d  the  traders  the crop from t h e i r s t r a t e g i c a b o r i g i n a l r i v e r -  Because of i t s p a r t i c u l a r f l a v o u r and  firmness,  the  sockeye(Oncorhynchus n e r k a ) s h o r t l y became the most sought a f t e r commercial species.  S i n c e the F r a s e r R i v e r was  the p r i n c i p a l sockeye spawning stream  on the c o a s t , f i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s were c e n t e r e d broad e s t u a r y , and  t e n s i v e employing n a t i v e I n d i a n s and The  h i g h l y s e a s o n a l and  labour i n -  l a t e r , immigrant C h i n e s e ,  in a variety  f i r s t s a l t e r y appeared on the F r a s e r R i v e r i n 1864  f i r s t commercial cannery u t i l i z i n g h e r m e t i c a l l y s e a l e d cans was a t A n n i e v i l l e i n 1870.'''  The c a n n i n g  process, pioneered  on the Sacramento R i v e r , proved e x t r e m e l y salmon and  reaches,  s h a l l o w approaches.  I n the b e g i n n i n g , the i n d u s t r y was  of r o l e s .  on the F r a s e r ' s lower  adaptable  and  the  established  by salmon canners  for uniformily sized  soon, p r o c e s s i n g f a c i l i t e s crowded the banks of the F r a s e r R i v e r .  C o m p l e t i o n of the t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l w a y had f o r a time g i v e n g r e a t e r impetus to e x p a n s i o n s i n c e i t a f f o r d e d g r e a t e r access markets of Canada and  t o the l a r g e e a s t e r n  the U n i t e d States;, as w e l l as those o v e r s e a s .  s t o r a g e p l a n t s f o r h a n d l i n g salmon appeared on the F r a s e r ' s lower  Cold  reaches  J . Lawrence,. An H i s t o r i c a l , Account o f the E a r l y Salmon Canning I n d u s t r y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1870-1900, M.A. T h e s i s , U.B.C. , Vancouver, 1951, p. 12.  68 i n 1887 and wee augmented by r a i l w a y r e f r i g e r a t o r c a r s by 1892. By 1900, f i f t y c a n n e r i e s  o f v a r i o u s s i z e operated  a l o n g the c h a n n e l  banks o f the lower F r a s e r R i v e r from New Westminster t o the t r i f u c t e d mouth.  However, many e x t r a - n a t i o n a l elements as w e l l as c e r t a i n i n t e r n a l  f a c t o r s began t o d e t r i m e n t a l l y a f f e c t the i n d u s t r y . and  W i t h R u s s i a , Japan,  the U n i t e d S t a t e s e s t a b l i s h e d i n the canning b u s i n e s s a t the t u r n  of the c e n t u r y , i t was n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the c u m u l a t i v e d e c l i n e o f canned salmon w i t h w o r l d o v e r - p r o d u c t i o n .  e f f e c t was a  F a l l i n g p r i c e s and  r i s i n g l a b o u r c o s t s caused many s m a l l unmechanized u n i t s t o go b a n k r u p t , 2 many o t h e r s were f o r c e d t o amalgamate t o r e m a i n s o l v e n t . I n the f i r s t decade o f t h i s c e n t u r y many i n t e r n a l t e c h n o l o g i c a l developments a l t e r e d f i s h i n g methods and h e r e t o f o r e s t a t i c catchment3 processing s i t e s .  The i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  o f the g a s o l i n e engine i n s m a l l  c r a f t modernized the f l e e t and p e r m i t t e d a f i e l d i n f a s t e r , more m o b i l e v e s s e l s .  the f i s h e r m a n  to venture  F i s h i n g c r a f t w h i c h had,  further f o r the  most p a r t , c o n f i n e d t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s t o the F r a s e r R i v e r e s t u a r y c o u l d now, o f t e n w i t h a i d o f c o l d s t o r a g e equipment, c r u i s e t o spread a l a b y r i n t h i n e j u n g l e o f n e t s a t the mouths o f o t h e r salmon spawning streams around the G u l f o r i n t e r c e p t annual r e t u r n i n g runs a t approaches m i l e s from n a t a l ^"Gordon S t r o n g , The Salmon Canning I n d u s t r y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , M.A. T h e s i s , U.B.C, Vancouver, 1934, p. 32.  2 .. R o y a l Commission on Canada's Economic P r o s p e c t s , The Commercial F i s h e r i e s o f Canada, Department o f F i s h e r i e s and the F i s h e r i e s Research Board o f Canada, Ottawa, September, 1956, p. 4.  unpublished  C. Hansen, The E f f e c t o f Technology on the B. C. F i s h i n g I n d u s t r y , r e s e a r c h p a p e r , U.B.C, 1964.  69 rivers.  S i n c e the e x a c t time of a r r i v a l of r e t u r n i n g spawners d i f f e r s  from stream to stream and  from s p e c i e s to s p e c i e s , a l o n g e r f i s h i n g  and more d i v e r s i f i e d c a t c h ensued.  season  W h i l e sockeye remained the backbone o f  the i n d u s t r y , o t h e r salmonoids such as Chinook (0. t s c h a w y t s c h a ) Coho (0. k i s u t c h ) , P i n k ( 0 . g o r b u s c h a ) ,  and  Chum ( 0 . k e t a ) , began to be  i n i n c r e a s i n g numbers throughout the G u l f o f Georgia a n n u a l l y .  harvested  Other  s p e c i e s of g r o u n d f i s h and h e r r i n g , p l e n t i f u l i n G u l f w a t e r s , c o u l d a l s o be s o l d l o c a l l y or f r o z e n and Mechanization methods and  shipped  to markets o u t s i d e the r e g i o n .  i n the p r o c e s s i n g o f f i s h a l t e r e d b o t h the  the r e s i d e n t n e s t i n g p a t t e r n of the i n d u s t r y .  o f the " i r o n c h i n k " i n 1906,  traditional  The i n t r o d u c t i o n  together w i t h other e f f i c i e n t innovations  those c a n n e r i e s w h i c h c o u l d a f f o r d the c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t , c r e a s e d commercial production.''"  Now  F r a s e r c o u l d produce as much as had  by  profoundly i n -  s e v e r a l mechanized p l a n t s a l o n g  the  f o r t y s m a l l e r c a n n e r i e s , and a p e r i o d  of d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n to o t h e r p l e n t i f u l r i v e r mouth l o c a t i o n s f o l l o w e d . F i s h i n g c r a f t w h i c h operated  from p e r i p h e r a l c o a s t a l c a n n e r i e s , u s u a l l y  on a l e a s e or c o n t r a c t b a s i s , now Gulf.  p l i e d most o f the bays and  i n l e t s of  W i t h the use of i c e as a b a c t e r i o s t a t , f i s h i n g c r a f t extended  the  their  former day use c a p a b i l i t i e s and c o u l d s t a y a t sea f o r up t o two weeks a t a time. W i t h the maximum e f f o r t w h i c h was salmon, i t was  b e i n g expended i n h a r v e s t i n g  not l o n g b e f o r e the huge runs of the l a t e 1890's began t o  show s e r i o u s s i g n s of d e c l i n e .  A v a r i c i o u s o v e r - f i s h i n g i n the f i r s t decade  of t h i s c e n t u r y , t o g e t h e r w i t h a d i s a s t r o u s r o c k s l i d e w h i c h b l o c k e d F r a s e r a t H e l l ' s Canyon i n 1913  1  the  Hugh M c K e r v i l l , The  eclipsing  one a n n u a l r u n , decimated  Salmon P e o p l e , S i d n e y ,  1967,  p.  46.  the fish  70 p o p u l a t i o n s from w h i c h the r e s o u r c e , as y e t , has o n l y r e c o v e r e d of i t s pre-1913 level.'''  50 per c e n t  R e a l i z i n g a t the e l e v e t h hour t h a t a t hand was  e x t i n c t i o n of what had been f o r m e r l y thought o f as "an  inexhaustable 2  r e s o u r c e a f f o r d i n g room f o r hundreds o f p a r t i c i p e n t s , " government o f f i c i a l s h a s t i l y began t o enact f i s h e r y c o n s e r v a t i o n measures. concentrated  As a r e s u l t , the  e f f o r t t h a t had been p r e v i o u s l y expended a t the F r a s e r mouth  was now d i s t r i b u t e d northward t o other t r i b u t a r y streams a l o n g the B r i t i s h Columbia  littoral.  Government Management P o l i c i e s I n an e f f o r t t o m a i n t a i n a s u s t a i n e d y i e l d , n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n s e r v a t i o n measures by f i s h e r i e s a g e n c i e s  have c o n t i n u e d unabated from  3 the n i n e t e e n - t h i r t i e s t o p r e s e n t .  F i s h t r a p s and f i s h w i e r s , w h i c h a t  one time had b r i s t l e d w e l l out t o sea from around the G u l f s h o r e ,  partic-  u l a r l y a t P o i n t R o b e r t s and a l o n g much of the Whatcom Country s h o r e l i n e , were e v e n t u a l l y c u r t a i l e d by f e d e r a l and s t a t e a g e n c i e s  on b o t h s i d e s of  4 the b o r d e r .  C o n s e r v a t i o n measures c o i n c i d e n t upon f i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s were  b i l a t e r a l l y agreed upon and i n c l u d e d " f i s h c a t c h and sea a r e a  restrictions.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , these p r a c t i c e s sometimes had a p a r a d o x i c a l e f f e c t on an 1 Norman P e a r s o n , op. c i t . , p. 17. 2 M c K e r v i l l , op. c i t . , p. 36.  Fisheries:  3James C r u t c h f i e l d and. G i u l i o P o n t e c o r v o , The P a c i f i c Salmon A Study i n I r r a t i o n a l C o n s e r v a t i o n , B a l t i m o r e , 1969,  L y o n s , op. c i t . , p. 440.  i n d u s t r y w h i c h was  s u f f e r i n g economic i l l s  p r o c e s s i n g p l a n t s and not enough f i s h .  from too many f i s h e r m e n  With uncontrolled entry into  i n d u s t r y and no l i m i t s s e t f o r the number of f i s h e r m e n , v a l u e of the f i s h e r y was resource  and the  the p o t e n t i a l  d i s s i p a t e d through e x c e s s i v e p r e s s u r e on  the  base.^  S i n c e World War  I I , e x e r t i n g e v e r y e f f o r t to maximize p r o f i t i n a  c o m p e t i t i v e s i t u a t i o n , the s o p h i s t i c a t i o n o f P a c i f i c c o a s t salmon f i s h e r y has i n c r e a s e d tremendously. s i n c e 1945  Investment per man  i n the i n d u s t r y has  trippled  r e p r e s e n t i n g an i n c r e a s e i n c r a f t s i z e , r a n g e , and power, as 2  w e l l as e l e c t r o n i c n a v i g a t i o n a l and f i s h i n g d e t e c t i n g d e v i c e s . ponsible agencies  i n b o t h Canada and  Res-  the U n i t e d S t a t e s have more r e c e n t l y  r e a l i z e d t h a t i n order to maximize the b e n e f i t of marine r e s o u r c e s ,  the  o b j e c t must be t o h a r v e s t the y i e l d of f i s h w i t h minimum i n p u t s of  labour  and c a p i t a l i n the forms of boats and g e a r , a l l o w i n g these r e s o u r c e s  to 3  be as f u l l y and e f f i c i e n t l y employed as t e c h n i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s The  will  allow.  system of l i c e n c e r e g u l a t i o n whereby s u b s i d i z e d i n e f f i c i e n t  fishermen  cannot p a r t i c i p a t e i n h a r v e s t i n g the r e s o u r c e a t the expense o f  taxpayers  and p o t e n t i a l l y e f f i c i e n t f i s h e r m e n  i s an o b v i o u s f i r s t s t e p i n r e d u c i n g  the  ''"This problem was not brought to n a t i o n a l a t t e n t i o n u n t i l 1960 a t w h i c h time Dr. S o l S i n c l a i r t a b l e d a paper i n the House o f Commons on L i c e n c e l i m i t a t i o n s as a method of economic f i s h e r i e s management on the P a c i f i c c o a s t .  2 R o y a l Commission on Canada's Economic P r o s p e c t s , op. c i t . , p.  P e t e r P e a r s e , " P u b l i c Management and Mismanagement of N a t u r a l Resources i n Canada," Queen's Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 73, 1966, p. 53.  8.  s i z e o f an over-extended f l e e t and toward b u i l d i n g a h e a l t h i e r The  industry.  f u r t h e r m e c h a n i z a t i o n o f t h e i n d u s t r y , w h i l e i t has p e r m i t t e d  f i s h e r m e n t o v e n t u r e f a r t h e r from home p o r t , has prompted a c o n c o m i t a n t c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f the f i s h processing  i n d u s t r y a t P r i n c e Rupert i n t h e  n o r t h , and on the F r a s e r Main Arm i n the s o u t h .  While only a small  per-  centage o f t o t a l commercial salmon f i s h i n g a c t i v i t y i s c e n t e r e d on the F r a s e r mouth, t h e r i v e r ' s lower reaches p r o v i d e moorage f o r over 65 p e r c e n t o f 2 the commercial c r a f t r e g i s t e r e d i n t h e p r o v i n c e . P r e s e n t f i s h i n g p r a c t i c e s and d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f s p e c i e s i n greater  d e t a i l i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r .  are outlined  The i n t e n s i t y o f f i s h i n g  a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n t h e G u l f i s , i n terms o f the number c r a f t and f i s h e r m e n , a m i c r o - o p e r a t i o n t o d a y , however t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f f i s h i n g methods and the s c i e n t i f i c knowledge a t t h e d i s p o s a l o f t h e f i s h e r m e n negates the n u m e r i c a l strength  of h i s  forerunners.  Early Recreational  Water Use i n the G u l f o f G e o r g i a  E a r l i e r sections and  o f t h i s c h a p t e r have o u t l i n e d a c t i v i t i e s , communities,  p r i v a t e companies around t h e G u l f o f G e o r g i a which s t r u g g l e d  successful  to e s t a b l i s h  f i s h i n g , l u m b e r i n g , m i n i n g , and t r a d i n g i n d u s t r i e s i n the n i n e -  teenth century.  Some o f the a c t i v i t i e s and commercial e n t e r p r i z e s  proved  ''"A L i c e n c e C o n t r o l Program was i n t r o d u c e d by the M i n i s t e r o f the Department o f F i s h e r i e s i n Nov. 1968. Over 650 f i s h i n g v e s s e l s d i d n o t have t h e i r l i c e n c e s renewed i n 1969 because they c o u l d n o t meet minimum c a t c h r e q u i r e m e n t s . See Robert F l e t c h e r , " C o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y o f L i m i t i n g t h e number o f F i s h e r m e n i n a (Commercial Fishery," The F i s h e r i e s : Problems i n Resource Management, U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington, S e a t t l e , 1965.  2 C. D. N e l s o n , An A n a l y s i s , o f R e c r e a t i o n a l B o a t i n g and B o a t i n g F a c i l i t i e s on t h e Lower F r a s e r - P i t t R i v e r , Westwater Research C e n t e r , Vancouver, Oct., 1972, p. 18.  73 h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l , o t h e r s were doomed t o f a i l u r e almost from t h e i r tion.  incep-  I n p a r a l l e l w i t h most f r o n t i e r economies, s i n g u l a r c o m p e t i t i o n f o r  a p l e n t i f u l n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e a t hand o f t e n produces a h a n d f u l on i n d i v i d u a l s who a c h i e v e g r e a t w e a l t h and prominence and who i n t u r n , w i t h the permanence o f the r e s o u r c e b a s e , b e g i n t o b u i l d and govern the f r o n t i e r . Many such people s e t t l e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia. b u s i n e s s empires from h a r v e s t i n g had  Some had b u i l t  the r e s o u r c e s o f sea and s h o r e , and o t h e r s  f a i r e d w e l l from m o n o p o l i s t i c a l l y p r o v i d i n g  s e r v i c e s t o s c a t t e r e d r e s o u r c e communities. w i t h i n the r e g i o n they c r e a t e d e f f o r t t o s u s t a i n an a f f l u e n t  small  the e s s e n t i a l t r a d e and  Settling with their families  and i m p o r t e d the d e s i r e d  l u x u r i e s i n an  lifestyle.  B e f o r e the t u r n o f the c e n t u r y , e x q u i s i t e homes a s s o c i a t e d s u c c e s s f u l e n t r e p r e n e u r e s o f s e a , l a n d and r a i l up i n the w e a l t h i e r  sections  w i t h the  i n t e r e s t s began t o s p r i n g  o f V i c t o r i a and Vancouver.  The permanence o f  s e t t l e m e n t i n c e r t a i n communities r e s u l t e d i n the p r o v i s i o n o f l e i s u r e - t i m e f a c i l i t i e s such as g o l f c o u r s e s or s o c c e r p i t c h e s , and the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f c u l t u r a l as w e l l as r e c r e a t i o n a l c l u b s . a c t i v i t i e s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s assets  o f the r e g i o n  I n p a r t i c u l a r , outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l  w h i c h complimented the b o u n t i f u l  increased  i n popularity  natural  t h r o u g h t the upper and  m i d d l e c l a s s e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n the l a t e V i c t o r i a n E r a . W h i l e i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o document, growing u r b a n i z a t i o n  o f the pop-  u l a t i o n i n n o d a l r e g i o n s o f V i c t o r i a , Nanaimo and Vancouver, c o u p l e d increased  wages and i n c r e a s e d  engage i n a g r e a t e r  l e i s u r e time, permitted coastland  range o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s .  form o f a c t i v i t y c a n p r o b a b l y be t r a c e d Vancouverites, ringed  with  people t o  The f i r s t  overt  t o the summer c o t t a g e s w h i c h , f o r  the shores o f B u r r a r d  I n l e t - I n d i a n Arm, or f o r  V i c t o r i a n s , crowded the shores o f Cadboro and Cordova Bay.  A t the same t i m e ,  74 new  r e c r e a t i o n a l power and  s a i l c r a f t began t o p l y the i n l e t s and  of the G u l f , compounded a n n u a l l y i n number and  cruising distance  channels afield.  Yacht c l u b s and b o a t i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s were formed to compliment the growing 1 use of the G u l f of G e o r g i a A f t e r World War accolades way  I , may  for boat-oriented recreation. a r e a s around the G u l f had begun to r e c e i v e  f o r t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r r e c r e a t i o n a l p r o p e r t i e s i n much the same  p l e n t i f u l salmon streams had r e c e i v e d c o n s p i c u o u s a t t e n t i o n from  commercial f i s h e r m e n s e v e r a l decades p r e v i o u s . C o t t a g i n g zones a l o n g the G u l f ' s e a s t e r n shore appeared by 1930 around Tsawwassen P e n i n s u l a , a t P o i n t R o b e r t s and White Rock, on Jiowen I s l a n d , and a l o n g the  Sechelt  2 Peninsula.  On the w e s t e r n s i d e of the G u l f , Saanich  Bay were b e g i n n i n g paradise.  I n l e t and  t o r e c e i v e w o r l d w i d e a c c l a i m as a s p o r t s  Cowichan  fisherman's  Summer c a b i n s and permanent r e s i d e n c e s were l o c a t e d a l o n g  s h o r e l i n e of most of the a c c e s s i b l e S a a n i c h P e n i n s u l a as w e l l as  the  along  the sandy shore o f Vancouver I s l a n d ' s ceas;tfc c-oa=stt from P a r k s v i l l e t o Comox. :  The  G u l f and  San Juan I s l a n d s remained p r e d o m i n e n t l y  Second W o r l d War, I s l a n d s and  rural u n t i l after  a t w h i c h time t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d a c c e s s i b i l i t y ,  the  the  f o r e s h o r e s began to r e c e i v e g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n because of  their  broad r e c r e a t i o n a l a s s e t s and p a s t o r a l charm. Over the p a s t t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s , s e v e r a l developments have c o n s i d e r -  ^The R o y a l V i c t o r i a Yacht C l u b , formed i n 1882, i s the o l d e s t p r i v a t e b o a t i n g a s s o c i a t i o n on the n o r t h w e s t P a c i f i c C o a s t .  C. C a m p b e l l , An A n a l y s i s o f S h o r e l a n d Use and C a p a b i l i t y f o r C o t t a g i n g i n the Georgia Lowland of B r i t i s h Columbia , Canada Land I n v e n t o r y , A.R.D.A., Vancouver, 1967.  ably increased p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n marine-oriented recreation. n o l o g i c a l developments  Marine t e c h -  such as the mass p r o d u c t i o n o f r e l i a b l e outboard  motors and b o a t s o f f i b r e - g l a s s c o n s t r u c t i o n , have made s m a l l p l e a s u r e c r a f t a v a i l a b l e a t moderate c o s t .  Coupled w i t h the development  i n boat  m a n u f a c t u r e , g r e a t e r a u t o m o b i l e ownership and an i n c r e a s e i n p r o v i n c i a l road c o n s t r u c t i o n , had made p r e v i o u s l y s e c l u d e d areas a c c e s s i b l e t o t r a i l e r e d boat owners.  Auto and boat ownership w h i c h had h e r e t o f o r e been  p r i n c i p a l l y the p r e s e r v e o f the w e a l t h i e r c l a s s e s became more commonplace i n the m i d d l e and lower income groups.  S p o r t s f i s h e r m e n now had the  a b i l i t y t o j o i n commercial f i s h e r m e n on s t r a t e g i c f i s h i n g grounds a t p o i n t s a l o n g the e a s t and west G u l f c o a s t or a d j a c e n t t o the F r a s e r mouth.  However,  the a b i l i t y t o p e n e t r a t e the c o a s t a l f j o r d s or s c a t t e r e d passages and bays brought them i n t o disagreement w i t h commercial f i s h e r m e n and w i t h n a t i v e s who a f t e r many y e a r s of m o n o p o l i s t i c r u l e , viewed the a r r i v a l o f r e c r e a t i o n a l c r a f t as an encroachment  upon t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l  livehood.  The r e c r e a t i o n a l magnetism o f the G u l f of G e o r g i a was soon t o be f e l t o u t s i d e o f the t h r e e major p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r e s of the r e g i o n .  In increasing  numbers, t o u r i s t s from the P r a i r i e s and the U n i t e d S t a t e s began t o stream i n t o the c o a s t l a n d a n n u a l l y .  Some came w i t h t h e i r boats on t r a i l e r s , many  more w i t h o u t b o a t s came w i t h a d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o a n g l e f o r salmon, and a l l came t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n some form of r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y which encompassed the sea or s h o r e .  V i c t o r i a , Cowichan Bay, Q u a l i c u m , P a r k s v i l l e , Campbell  R i v e r , and Vancouver a r e t y p i c a l o f c o a s t a l communities w h i c h have t a k e n advantage o f the p o s i t i v e c o m b i n a t i o n o f beauty and p r o d u c t i v i t y o f the c o a s t a l sea t o promote s u c c e s s f u l l y an i m p o r t a n t v i s i t o r t r a d e .  Rec-  r e a t i o n a l a s s e t s and the drawing power of the c o a s t l a n d environment p l a y a l a r g e p a r t i n making t'our.ismltike t h i r d most i m p o r t a n t d o l l a r - e a r n i n g i n -  d u s t r y i n B r i t i s h Columbia behind f o r e s t r y and m i n i n g . importance  The  current  of r e c r e a t i o n a l water use i n the G u l f r e g i o n , and i t s r e l a t i o n  to o t h e r f u n c t i o n a l u s e s , i s i n v e s t i g a t e d more t h o r o u g h l y i n Chapter  P o l i t i c a l and L e g a l C o n t r o l s of the G u l f of i n the H i s t o r i c a l C o n t e x t .  F r o n t i e r to  Georgia  Colony  P r e c e e d i n g s e c t i o n s have o u t l i n e d the importance vironment  V.  of the marine en-  and the v a r i e t y of r o l e s i t p l a y e d i n the l i v e s of c o a s t l a n d  i n d i g e n o u s r e s i d e n t s and e a r l y w h i t e s e t t l e r s .  Y e t , w h i l e commonly en-  gaged i n marine a c t i v i t i e s i n the G u l f r e g i o n , each c u l t u r a l group p r a c t i c e d d i f f e r e n t methods of use and management of the resource.''" c o n t e x t r e s o u r c e use was  I n the n a t i v e  s u b s i s t e n c e - o r i e n t e d and t e r r i t o r a l i t y and  the  c o n t r o l of marine r e s o u r c e s were the d e c l a r e d r i g h t of t r i b a l groups, i n some c a s e s , of i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l i e s . European o p e r a t e d under a m o n a r c h i a l a r e a a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , investment externally controlled.  or  The p r o f i t - m i n d e d e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y  system i n w h i c h p o l i t i c a l  c a p i t a l , m a r k e t s , and  control,  t a r i f f s were most o f t e n  I n t h i s c a s e , c o a s t l a n d t e r r i t o r y and  t h u s , marine  r e s o u r c e s f a i l e d to r e s i d e i n t o t a l p r o p r i e t y of the groups or i n d i v i d u a l , claimants.  E a r l y a d v e n t u r e r s merely h e l d c h a r t e r e d t i t l e to l a n d or r e -  sources w h i c h were p a r t of a l a r g e r t e r r i t o r y annexed, but l o o s e l y  contoll-  ed, by the d i s t a n t mother c o u n t r y .  Moreover, i n f r o n t i e r r e g i o n s  ism had spawned a h a s t y demarcation  of t e r r i t o r y s h o r t l y a f t e r a f r a n t i c  '''Here, r e s o u r c e means a l l the u s a b l e p r o p e r t i e s possessed water body: f i s h and s e a f o o d , n a v i g a t i o n , communication, e t c .  imperial-  by  the  77 r u s h f o r r e s o u r c e s p o i l s began."''  I n c o a s t a l B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , as the  y e a r s went by a f t e r o r i g i n a l d i s c o v e r y , t h i s p r o c e s s of d e m a r c a t i o n c o n t i n u e d but w i t h g r e a t e r p r e c i s i o n concomitant upon the s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of s u r v e y t e c h n i q u e s . B r i t i s h Columbia had been f i n a l l y  put under B r i t i s h s o v e r e i g n c o n t r o l  by 1792 w h i c h v e s t e d supreme a u t h o r i t y f o r a l l c l a i m s t o r e g i o n a l  lands,  w a t e r s , and anadromous r e s o u r c e s i n the hands of the E n g l i s h Crown. S h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r , B r i t a i n honoured an e a r l i e r agreement by e x t e n d i n g the t r a d i n g c h a r t e r of the Hudson's Bay Company to the w e s t e r n margin of B r i t i s h t e r r i t o r y i n N o r t h America w h i c h , i n t h i s c a s e , was Vancouver  Island.  the w e s t e r n shore of  W i t h the a r r i v a l o f more permanent s e t t l e m e n t and the  r e l e n t l e s s n o r t h w e s t e r l y movement of American i n f l u e n c e i n t o what was thought t o be B r i t i s h Domain, i t was f e l t t h a t the Hudson's Bay Company, i n i t s f u r t r a d i n g c a p a c i t y , c o u l d not guarantee t h a t the P a c i f i c would r e m a i n f i r m l y arid r e s o u r c e s was  i n B r i t i s h hands.  Northwest  Inadequate c o n t r o l of r e g i o n a l l a n d s  the major r e a s o n f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of more f o r m a l i z e d  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n w h i c h Vancouver  I s l a n d and the a d j a c e n t m a i n l a n d each  '''M. W. M i k e s e l l , "Comparative S t u d i e s i n F r o n t i e r H i s t o r y , " A n n a l s A s s o c i a t i o n of American Geographers, V o l . 50, March, 1960, pp. 62-74.  2 The term " w a t e r s " was a p p l i e d most d i r e c t l y t o s e m i - e n c l o s e d bays and i n l e t s over w h i c h B r i t a i n m a i n t a i n e d t o t a l s u z e r a i n t y . However, a t t h i s time i n B r i t i s h h i s t o r y , B r i t a i n f o l l o w e d a p o l i c y of mare l i b r u m by w h i c h the sea was thought t o be h e l d i n common t h r e e m i l e s d i s t a n t from s o v e r e i g n s h o r e . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to d e c i d e whether B r i t i s h c l a i m s to ownership of Juan de Fuca S t r a i t would have s t o o d up i n e a r l y i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o u r t s had the i s s u e been t e s t e d a t t h i s t i m e . On the o t h e r hand, s o v e r e i g n c o n t r o l over the G u l f of G e o r g i a was never i n q u e s t i o n f o r the G u l f q u a l i f i e s as an e n c l o s e d water s i n c e none of i t s approaches i s g r e a t e r than t h r e e m i l e s i n width.  78 received  colonial status.  As e x t e n s i o n s of B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l a f f a i r s , the r e g i o n a l  colonies  q u i c k l y r e a p p l i e d E n g l i s h common law f o r c i v i l a u t h o r i t y , as w e l l as f o r d e f i n i n g seaward t e r r i t o r i a l waters. wholly for  space and m a r i t i m e n a v i g a t i o n  But not a l l E n g l i s h l a w s , h a s t i l y and  i n coastal  i m p r e c i s e l y a p p l i e d , were  s u i t a b l e t o the P a c i f i c c o a s t s i t u a t i o n . Whereas m a r i t i m e codes  the conduct of d o m e s t i c and  f o r e i g n v e s s e l s i n t e r r i t o r i a l waters  had  u n i v e r s a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y , o t h e r s w h i c h e v o l v e d from i n t e r n a t i o n a l d i s p u t e s over homeland s e d e n t a r y f i s h i n g p r a c t i c e s had  l i t t l e , i f any,  r e l a t i o n to  m o b i l e anadromous P a c i f i c s a l m o n o i d s .  As a r e s u l t , o l d r e g u l a t i o n s  to be amended and,  l e g i s l a t i o n d r a f t e d and  over the y e a r s , new  had  invoked  to  compensate f o r the n a t u r e of r e g i o n a l p e c u l a r i t i e s . The maintenance of s o v e r e i g n had  been e n t r u s t e d  representative  a u t h o r i t y i n c o a s t a l B r i t i s h Columbia  to the R o y a l Navy whose presence on the c o a s t as  of the Crown and  g u a r d i a n of c i v i l a u t h o r i t y was  f e l t for  2 many decades. c o l o n i a l and  W i t h the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the c o l o n i e s , c o n t r o l of a l l civil  i n t e r e s t s was  Governor of the c o l o n y . one  The  placed  i n the hands of the  appointed  p r i n c i p l e duty of the R o y a l Navy then became  s o l e l y of d e f e n c e , p r o t e c t i n g s o v e r e i g n  t e r r i t o r y , while c o l o n i a l  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n q u c k l y assumed the r o l e of t r u s t e e of lands and  resources.  '''Roderick Logan, " P a r t i n g the Waters-Canadian S t y l e , " G e o g r a p h i c a l Approaches to Canadian P r o b l e m s , R. L o u i s G e n t i l c o r e ( e d . ) , T o r o n t o , 1971, p. 200.  Gough, l o c . c i t .  79 The  Early Federal-Provincial The  Context  Colony of B r i t i s h Columbia a c h i e v e d p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u s by  the C o n f e d e r a t i o n of Canada i n 1871  and  terms of the B r i t i s h N o r t h America A c t .  i n d o i n g s o , consented to  o r d e r and  the  T h i s "much m a l i g n e d document"'''  d e s i g n a t e d the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of each U'egiistlastivee body. government under S e c t i o n 91 has  joining  The  federal  the r i g h t to make laws f o r the peace,  good government of Canada; power over t r a d e , commerce, n a v i g a t i o n ,  s h i p p i n g , c r i m i n a l law, c o n n e c t i n g works and c a n a l s , and  s e a c o a s t and  i n l a n d f i s h e r i e s ; and  c o n t r o l over  u n d e r t a k i n g s such as i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l r a i l w a y s ,  pipelines.  C o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , under S e c t i o n 92,  the p r o v i n c i a l  governments have c o n t r o l of p u b l i c lands of the p r o v i n c e ( s e a s h o r e s above low watermark) and p r o p e r t y and  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r l o c a l works and  c i v i l r i g h t s i n the p r o v i n c e ;  and  undertakings;  a l l m a t t e r s of l o c a l  or  2 p r i v a t e n a t u r e w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e .  W h i l e r e s i d u a l power seems to r e s t  w i t h the f e d e r a l government, an e n i g m a t i c s i t u a t i o n has the f e d e r a l government has vironment w h i l e  a r i s e n i n which  j u r i s d i c t i o n over the t e r r i t o r i a l marine  the p r o v i n c i a l r e a l m c o n t r o l s a l l a c c e s s to the  J u s t as the e x p l o i t a t i o n of the marine environment had meal and  en-  sea.  been p i e c e -  u n s y s t e m a t i c i n the e a r l y p o s t - c o l o n i a l s t a g e s , the development  of m a r i t i m e l e g i s l a t i o n and f e d e r a l and  p r o v i n c i a l context, Logan, op.  91-95," The  r e s o u r c e management c o n t r o l s , i n b o t h  c i t . , p.  had  o c c u r r e d i n r a t h e r an; ad-hoc  the fashion.  199.  W. R. Lederman, ed. ,. "The B r i t i s h N o r t h America A c t , 1867 , S e c t i o n s C o u r t s and the Canadian C o n s t i t u t i o n , T o r o n t o , 1964, pp. 13-18.  80 T e r r i t o r i a l w a t e r s i n Canada have not been s u b j e c t l e g i s l a t i o n , and  to a preponderance of  those laws w h i c h have been implemented have u s u a l l y  e v o l v e d from s i t u a t i o n s t h a t w a r r a n t e d government a c t i o n i n the interest. Pacific  Canadian government e f f o r t s to e s t a b l i s h the  public  International  Salmon F i s h e r i e s Commission, or pass the T e r r i t o r i a l Sea  F i s h i n g Zone A c t of 1964  profess  of the f e d e r a l government.  and  to the heavy i n t e r n a t i o n a l o b l i g a t i o n s  However, these laws have o n l y  r e l e v a n c e to i n l a n d w a t e r s such as the Gulf of G e o r g i a .  generalized S i n c e the  study  r e g i o n f a l l s w h o l l y w i t h i n Canadian t e r r i t o r i a l w a t e r s , i t i s l a r g e l y through domestic l e g i s l a t i o n of f e d e r a l and  t h a t G u l f w a t e r s are c o n t r o l l e d .  p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h has  a l t e r e d usage  A summary patterns  and management p r a c t i c e s i n the G u l f of G e o r g i a over the p a s t one y e a r s i s p r e s e n t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g  TABLE 1 year  table.  A SUMMARY OF RELEVANT DOMESTIC LEGISLATION statue  1867  B r i t i s h North America Act  1868:  Fisheries  1871  B r i t i s h Columbia j o i n s C o n f e d e r a t i o n  1886  N a v i g a b l e Waters P r o t e c t i o n  1917  Migratory B i r d s Convention Act  1928  Canada Customs A c t  1934  Canada S h i p p i n g Act  Act Act  a.  Code of N a v i g a t i o n  b.  Small Vessel Regulations  1952  Admiralty  1960  B. C. P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l  1964  Territorial  1967  B. C. P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l  1970  Canada Water Act  P r a c t i c e s and 1962  Act sea and  Act  F i s h i n g Zone A c t Act  Procedures  hundred  81 D u r i n g t h e l a s t . c e n t u r y , t h e f e d e r a l government has been unders t a n d a b l y more a c t i v e than t h e p r o v i n c i a l government i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of G u l f w a t e r s . agencies  However, the a b i l i t y o f l e g a l mechanisms and government  t o cope w i t h dynamic problems o f m u l t i p l e water use and t h e  d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f the marine environment w i l l be examined v i s - a - v i s  present  t r e n d s o f marine a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n t h e G u l f o f G e o r g i a .  Chapter Summary T h i s c h a p t e r has o u t l i n e d the h i s t o r i c a l development o f v a r i o u s human f u n c t i o n a l water uses made o f t h e G u l f o f G e o r g i a ,  From a b o r i g i n a l  times,  the G u l f has a c t e d as a g e o g r a p h i c a l bond r a t h e r than a b a r r i e r t o the commercial and p o l i t i c a l development o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  An e f f o r t has  been made t o p r e s e n t c o n c i s e l y the n a t u r e o f i n c r e a s e d demand p l a c e d upon the n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t , and t o emphasize the dominant r o l e cthetlGulCf p l a y e d i n t h e development of e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia.  11 1  I t s s h e l t e r e d waters  p r o v i d e d a cheap and p e r v a s i v e water highway i n an age o f few roads and fewer r a i l w a y s , t y i n g t o g e t h e r t h e s e a t o f government, the more p o p u l a t e d commercial c e n t e r s o f the lower m a i n l a n d , m i n e r a l communities o f the c o a s t l a n d .  and the s c a t t e r e d f i s h , lumber and  I t s n a v i g a b l e w a t e r s and deep bays  p r o v i d e d the deep-sea f o r e i g n t r a d e o u t l e t f o r P r a i r i e g r a i n and w e s t e r n wood p r o d u c t s  t o a l l p a r t s o f the w o r l d .  f o r t h an a n n u a l  I t s p r o d u c t i v e w a t e r s gave  s i l v e r bonanza o f salmon as w e l l as an abundance o f o t h e r  s p e c i e s o f f i s h , c r u s t a c e o n s and ih^e"ritefefaa'Be%> f i s h e r m a n and l a t e r , f o r t h e s p o r t s a n g l e r . i n g scenery  pvmW&h, ati-'aerstthe£tiifeh<afe:dc 1  a  t  f i r s t f o r the commercial  And, i t s p i c t u r e s q u e and changcm¥iuV^^^rc^Wfc%v(t^v^±^^nt  f o r t h e r e s i d e n t o f the c o a s t l a n d , as w e l l as a f e a t u r e d a t t r a c t i o n f o r  82 recreationalist  and t o u r i s t  alike.  T h i s c h a p t e r , w h i l e n e c e s s a r i l y d e s c r i b i n g the compounded development of t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , has a l s o p r e s e n t e d the metamorphosis  i n water-  borne a c t i v i t i e s and usage p a t t e r n s i n the G u l f w h i c h r e s u l t e d from a c o m b i n a t i o n of problems of e x t e r n a l w o r l d market i n f l u e n c e s , t e c h n o l o g i c a l developments, and changes i n a d j a c e n t l a n d and r e s o u r c e p r a c t i c e s .  An  e v o l u t i o n o f water-borne a c t i v i t i e s has ensued w h i c h has broadened the range o f f u n c t i o n a l uses and r e p e a t e d l y r e s e t the f o c u s of p r i n c i p a l activity.  The i n c r e m e n t a l n a t u r e of c e r t a i n s p a t i a l l y consumptive water  u s e s , c o u p l e d w i t h the i n c o m p a t a b i l i t y o f some of these elements w i t h one a n o t h e r , has c o m p l i c a t e d the r e s p o n s i b l e management of the marine e n v i r o n ment and the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f a wide range of economic and s o c i a l demands. The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r demonstrates t h a t the contemporary seascape i s n o t an a r e a of s i n g u l a r r e s o u r c e use but an a r e a w h i c h has e v o l v e d t o become a m u l t i f a c e t e d environment r e f l e c t i n g s t r o n g c u l t u r a l as w e l l as economic values.  83  CHAPTER V  THE PRESENT COMPLEX:  FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITIES WITHIN A FINITE SPACE  Introduction C u r r e n t f u n c t i o n a l uses made o f the G u l f o f G e o r g i a i n c l u d e a combina t i o n o f p r a c t i c e s of b o t h an economic and s o c i a l n a t u r e .  While a l l  i n h a b i t a n t s w i t h i n the c o a s t l a n d a r e i n some way a f f e c t e d by the n a t u r e o f the  G u l f , many a r e d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h j u x t a p o s e d w a t e r -  o r i e n t e d i n d u s t r i a l , c o m m e r c i a l , and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s .  Many o f  these a c t i v i t i e s a r e unequal i n a n n u a l d u r a t i o n , d i f f e r i n s p a t i a l and e x h i b i t l i t t l e a f f i n i t y i n i n t e n t and purpose.  intensity  I n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r  an e f f o r t was made t o p r e s e n t i m p o r t a n t e v e n t s w h i c h shaped p r e s e n t usage patterns.  I t must be r e a l i z e d , however, t h a t the n a t u r a l environment i s  c o n s t a n t l y b e i n g m o d i f i e d by these a c t i v i t i e s .  Each major f u n c t i o n a l use  i s acknowledged below t o g e t h e r w i t h the growth and impact o f t h a t i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t y on t h e n a t u r a l environment.  A g e n e r a l assessment o f t h e p r e s e n t  t r e n d o f a c t i v i t i e s , and the growth and d i s t r i b u t i o n of a s s o c i a t e d l e g i s l a t i o n e n a c t e d by f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments  f o l l o w the  inventory of f u n c t i o n a l uses. U n t i l r e c e n t l y , l i t t l e p u b l i s h e d i n f o r m a t i o n on the s y s t e m a t i c a s p e c t s of  the G u l f o f G e o r g i a e x i s t e d .  Concern over the l a c k o f r e s o u r c e i n f o r m -  a t i o n s p u r r e d Environment Canada t o u n d e r t a k e a program w h i c h i s i n v e s t i g a t i n g v a r i o u s f a c e t s w h i c h a f f e c t i n l a n d sea water u s e . I n 1971, the S c h o o l of  Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g a t U.B.C. was commissioned t o produce  a s e r i e s o f maps w h i c h would b r i n g t o g e t h e r i n c a r t o g r a p h i c form p h y s i c a l ,  84 economic, s o c i a l , and p o l i t i c a l v a r i a b l e s t h a t i n some way a f f e c t sea water and f r e s h water use i n the G u l f o f Georgia-Puget Sound c o a s t l a n d region.  The e x t e n s i v e w a l l map produced, i s i n e f f e c t , a one-page a t l a s .  The advantages o f h a v i n g much o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n on a s i n g l e sheet a r e t h a t i t p o r t r a y s the l i n k a g e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v a r i o u s f a c t o r s w h i c h can be more r e a d i l y a p p r e c i a t e d .  The map can a l s o be r e a d i l y  employed t o i d e n t i f y a r e a s o f c o n f l i c t and a r e a s worthy o f f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n and d e t a i l e d study. Some o f the d a t a i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r  and used i n the  d e s c r i p t i o n o f c u r r e n t water use o f the G u l f o f G e o r g i a have been borrowed from t h i s c a r t o g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n .  Other i n f o r m a t i o n has been o b t a i n e d  from v a r i o u s f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l a g e n c i e s which m a i n t a i n some a u t h o r i t y i n Gulf waters.  The d i f f i c u l t y  i n o b t a i n i n g p h y s i c a l , economic, and  s o c i a l d a t a p e r t a i n i n g t o a l l a s p e c t s o f the marine environment o n l y r e a f i r m s the n e c e s s i t y t o r e - a j u s t government mechanisms w h i c h would d e c r e a s e c o n f l i c t i n g bureaucracies  and m i n i s t r y o v e r l a p w h i l e imaiLfnltai'ningbsttiriong  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e power i n G u l f w a t e r s .  The r e s u l t o f segmented  respons-  i b i l i t y among a number o f a g e n c i e s , many o f w h i c h pursued i n d i v i d u a l p o l i c y g o a l s , has been u n o r g a n i z e d  and i n c o n s i s t e n t d a t a .  Data were o f t e n  i n an unusable form because they l a c k e d s i m i l a r s p a t i a l d e f i n i t i o n from agency t o agency or were d i f f i c u l t t o i n t e r p r e t and t o use f o r c o m p a r a t i v e purposes s i n c e they were based on crude amalgamations o f i n c o m p l e t e d e f i n i t i o n s of basic c r i t e r i a .  Data p e r t a i n i n g t o the a n n o t a t e d f u n c t i o n a l  uses o f t e n need c o n s i d e r a b l e m a n i p u l a t i o n b e f o r e they can be  presented.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , no agency w h i c h extends r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n t o G u l f w a t e r s uses the G u l f o f G e o r g i a as a u n i t a r e a f o r measurement. uses have been d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r broad d i v i s i o n s : -  A l l functional  commercial s h i p p i n g ,  85 r e c r e a t i o n , and waste d i s p o s a l , and i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t i e s of s i g n i f i c a n c e r e c e i v e g r e a t e r s c r u t i n y under these c a t e g o r i e s .  Commercial S h i p p i n g A l t h o u g h the o r i g i n a l f u n c t i o n a l u s e , commercial  s h i p p i n g i n the G u l f  of G e o r g i a i s s t i l l one of the most i m p o r t a n t water u s e s .  In  1970,  Canadian G u l f p o r t s loaded and unloaded over 62 m i l l i o n tons of deep-sea and c o a s t w i s e c a r g o , r e p r e s e n t i n g an average a n n u a l i n c r e a s e of 5.4 cent.'''  per  W h i l e f i g u r e s f o r the average v a l u e of cargo a r e a v a i l a b l e , the  t o t a l v a l u e of commercial  s h i p p i n g i s d i f f i c u l t to a s s e s s .  The  total  tonnage handled a t G u l f p o r t s i s an a g g r e g a t i o n s o f two components; 2 i n t e r n a t i o n a l sea-borne  t r a d e and c o a s t w i s e shipments.  Each of these  components i s r e p r e s e n t e d by d r a f t of d i f f e r e n t s i z e and type which frequent Gulf waters.  Channels and r o u t e s used by c a r r i e r s of each  group,  a l o n g w i t h the d e p a r t u r e and d e s t i n a t i o n p o i n t s , are o u t l i n e d i n F i g u r e 4. Economics and S t a t i s t i c s B r a n c h , P a c i f i c Coast P o r t s of N o r t h A m e r i c a , Department of I n d u s t r i a l Development, Trade and Commerce, V i c t o r i a , 1970, p. 4.  2 S t a t i s t i c s Canada d e f i n e s the term " i n t e r n a t i o n a l sea-borne s h i p p i n g " as those v e s s e l s c l a s s e d as b e i n g i n f o r e i g n s e r v i c e when: (1) the v e s s e l a r r i v e s or d e p a r t s f o r a f o r e i g n p o r t (2)  a cargo i s loaded and unloaded f o r a f o r e i g n p o r t  (3)  the r e g i s t r y of the v e s s e l i s o t h e r than Canadian and a v e s s e l i s c l a s s i f i e d as b e i n g i n ' c o a s t w i s e ' s e r v i c e when (i) (ii)  the s h i p i s of Canadian r e g i s t r y and s a i l s between two Canadian p o r t s and l o a d s and unloads no f o r e i g n f r e i g h t i t i s of f o r e i g n r e g i s t r y but i s g r a n t e d a w a i v e r to engage i n c o a s t w i s e s e r v i c e .  86 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Sea-borne S h i p p i n g Canada's g r o s s n a t i o n a l p r o d u c t , w h i c h has more than doubled d u r i n g the l a s t decade, i s l a r g e l y the r e s u l t of the n a t i o n ' s two-ocean t r a d i n g position.  D u r i n g the same p e r i o d , f o r e i g n t r a d e has almost  tripled.  Canadians today e n j o y one of h i g h e s t s t a n d a r d s of l i v i n g because  Canada  i s the s i x t h most i m p o r t a n t t r a d i n g n a t i o n : and the f o u r t h g r e a t e s t exporting nation. Emerging  i n d u s t r i a l n a t i o n s of the P a c i f i c Rim w i l l l i k e l y have the  b i g g e s t s i n g l e impact on w o r l d t r a d e p a t t e r n s f o r the r e s t of t h i s c e n t u r y and Canada i s w e l l s i t u a t e d to engage i n a l a r g e share o f these a c t i v i t i e s . W h i l e some 70 p e r c e n t of t r a d e i s w i t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the  development  of Japan, i n p a r t i c u l a r , as a major i n d u s t r i a l t r a d i n g n a t i o n has  stimulated  a s u b s t a n t i a l growth i n t r a d e volume and i s f o r e s h a d o w i n g o f f u t u r e demands. A r e c e n t r e p o r t of the Canadian T r a n s p o r t Commission p r o j e c t s a f i v e - f o l d i n c r e a s e i n b u l k commodity f o r e i g n t r a d e and a t w o - f o l d i n c r e a s e i n nonb u l k g e n e r a l cargo f o r e i g n t r a d e a t w e s t e r n Canadian p o r t s by 1995.  This  i n c r e a s e w i l l have a d r a m a t i c impact on w e s t e r n t e r m i n a l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those of the G u l f of G e o r g i a where r e c e n t marine c o n s t r u c t i o n  (wharves,  d o c k s , b u l k l o a d i n g f a c i l i t i e s ) s u p p o r t s the £grcow.ing importance of w a t e r borne f o r e i g n commerce.  A l t h o u g h the a c t u a l number of f o r e i g n s a i l i n g s  from G u l f of G e o r g i a p o r t s has decreased s l i g h t l y over the p a s t decade, volume of cargo e x p o r t e d have i n c r e a s e d over 120 p e r c e n t from  10.2  2 m i l l i o n tons i n 1960 to 24.6 tons i n 1970.  T h i s i s i n l a r g e p a r t due to  ^ H e n d l i h Menzies and A s s o c i a t e s " , Canadian Merchant M a r i n e : A n a l y s i s of Economic P o t e n t i a l , Report to the Canadian T r a n s p o r t Commission, D e c , 1970, p. 76. 2 Economics  and S t a t i s t i c s B r a n c h , op. c i t . , p. 4.  87 an i n c r e a s e i n f o r e i g n v e s s e l s i z e and a s h i f t t o g r e a t e r e x p o r t o f b u l k commodities.  Over 80 p e r c e n t o f w e s t e r n Canadian e x p o r t t r a d e i s p r e s e n t l y  handled by G u l f p o r t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y Vancouver, where deep-sea cargoes have i n c r e a s e d from 5.5 t o 17 m i l l i o n tons s i n c e I960.''"  loaded  Foreign export  t r a d e tonnage exceeds import t r a d e a n n u a l l y by about 400 p e r c e n t .  There  i s a l s o a marked d i f f e r e n c e between imported and e x p o r t e d commodities i n tonnage and v a l u e .  E x p o r t commodities  both  were made up p r i m a r i l y o f h i g h -  b u l k , l o w - v a l u e per u n i t volume, raw and semi-processed m a t e r i a l s , such as lumber, wheat and m i n e r a l p r o d u c t s , w h i l e imports were p r i m a r i l y manufactured  goods.  The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows the 1971 tonnage o f two  p r i n c i p a l e x p o r t commodities  f o r t h r e e s e l e c t e d p o r t s o f the G u l f .  TABLE I I  EXPORT TONNAGES FOR SELECTED PORTS BY PRINCIPAL COMMODITY  Nanaimo  Lumber 577,282 Pulp 326,173  tons tons  Lumber 463,343 Pulp 165,027  tons tons  New Westminster Vancouver  Wheat Coal  5,062,535 tons 5,991,682 tons  A l t h o u g h t h e p o r t o f the G u l f o f G e o r g i a i s the l a r g e s t e x p o r t e r on the P a c i f i c Coast o f N o r t h A m e r i c a , the r e l i a n c e on b u l k commodities f l e c t e d i n t h e average per t o n v>alue o f c a r g o .  Canadian e x p o r t s  about $76 per t o n w h i l e American e x p o r t commodities  average  made up o f l a r g e r  21 lEciohomics and S t a t i s t i c s B r a n c h , l o c . c i t .  is re-  88 p r o p o r t i o n of manufactured goods average about $89 per ton."^  The t o t a l  tonnage v a l u e of cargo minus c a r r i e r shipped from G u l f p o r t s i n 1970, 2 exceeded  1.6 b i l l i o n d o l l a r s .  harbour f a c i l i t i e s  An i n d i c a t i o n of the r o l e of deep-sea  i n f o s t e r i n g e x p o r t shipments i s suggested by the f a c t  t h a t over 67 p e r c e n t of B r i t i s h Columbia's  t o t a l e x p o r t s were t r a n s p o r t e d  3 by w a t e r . The number and tonnage o f v e s s e l s engaged i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l  sea-borne  e x p o r t t r a d e f o r s e l e c t e d G u l f p o r t s i n 1971 i n c l u d e d i n the f o l l o w i n g table. TABLE I I I  VESSELS AND EXPORT TONNAGES FROM SELECTED PORTS  Port  Vessels  E x p o r t Tonnage  Campbell R i v e r  298  2,807,542  New Westminster  338  1,448,906  Powell River  212  616,959  3,854  16,121,829  Vancouver Source:  S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 54-0002, J a n u a r y , 1972.  1 Economics  2  and S t a t i s t i c s B r a n c h , op. c i t . , p. 5,  Ibid.  3 P r o v i n c i a l Economics of e x p o r t s by o t h e r means were $243,853,000, by r a i l $162,406,000, by road $ 15 ,666 ,000 by a i r $339,627,000 by p i p e l i n e  and S t a t i s t i c s Branch r e p o r t e d the v a l u e  89 The  P o r t of Vancouver By f a r the l a r g e s t p o r t w i t h i n the G u l f i s the p o r t of Vancouver.  B u r r a r d I n l e t f a c i l i t i e s h a n d l e the l a r g e s t d r y cargo volume on the west c o a s t of the c o n t i n e n t .  The p o r t e x p o r t s cargo w h i c h r e f l e c t i t s p o s i t i o n  as a major o u t l e t f o r p r a i r i e g r a i n s as w e l l as B r i t i s h Columbia p r o d u c t s . In  1970,  l e a d i n g e x p o r t s i n o r d e r of tonnage were:  potash and f e r t i l i z e r s ,  wheat, c o a l , lumber,  s u l p h u r , b a r l e y , pulpwood, r a p e s e e d ,  and  pulp.^  The p o r t i s geared to handle g e n e r a l cargo as w e l l as b u l k commodities and w i l l soon have l a r g e c o n t a i n e r f a c i l i t i e s  to accommodate t h i s r e v o l u t i o n a r y  method of l a n d - s e a t r a n s p o r t .  The p o r t of Vancouver loaded n e a r l y 17 m i l l i o n  tons of f o r e i g n t r a d e i n 1970,  and  i s c u r r e n t l y e n j o y i n g a 6.5  percent i n -  2 crease i n tonnage per y e a r .  However, t h i s t r e n d cannot c o n t i n u e f o r  Vancouver i f programs to improve a n t i q u a t e d f a c i l i t i e s a r e not  imposed.  A l s o , the l a c k of l a n d s p a c e , the h i g h c o s t of back-up l a n d , around the perimeter  of B u r r a r d I n l e t a l o n g w i t h the s h a l l o w n e s s  channel approaches f o r c e s p o r t d e v e l o p e r s new  of the i n l e t  and  to l o o k elsewhere f o r s i t e s f o r  f a c i l i t i e s w h i c h can accommodate the l a r g e s t s h i p .  More than  likely,  the lower F r a s e r R i v e r w i l l b e g i n t o p l a y a l a r g e r r o l e as a deep-sea p o r t '''National Harbours B o a r d , Annual R e p o r t ,  2  1970,  Economics and S t a t i s t i c s B r a n c h , op. c i t . , p.  Ottawa, 1971, p.  *  18.  3.  3 I n a d d i t i o n , the development of the p o r t of Vancouver i s f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by the r e c e n t c o n f l i c t i n g p o l i c i e s and p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t s of the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board and c i v i c governments c o n c e r n i n g the B u r r a r d Inlet Shoreline.  90 f o r Vancouver.  R o b e r t s Bank S u p e r p o r t , i s a l s o a consequence o f the s p a t i a l  l i m i t a t i o n s of B u r r a r d I n l e t s i t e s .  T h i s s h i f t away from the o l d e r B u r r a r d  I n l e t f a c i l i t i e s t o those a l o n g t h e s o u t h w e s t e r n shores and t h e g r e a t e r r e l i a n c e on b u l k commodities i s documented  i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e of t r a d e ,  p r o j e c t i o n s f o r the p o r t of Vancouver.  TABLE IV  TRADE PROJECTIONS :FOR PORT OF VANCOUVER AND FRASER RIVER  1  ( m i l l i o n s o f s h o r t tons ) Cargo Type  1975 P o r t of  Vancouver  1985  a  b Fraser River  P o r t o f Van.  Fraser River  G e n e r a l Cargo Outbound  3.7  1.2  4.9  1.4  Inbound  1.7  .1  2.7  .2  Total  5.4  1.3  7.6  1.6  23.4  1.7  35.8  2.7  1.6  .2  2.4  25.0  1.9  38.2  3.1  30.4  3.2  45.8  4.7  Coastal  15.0  5.5  25.0  7.0  Grand T o t a l  45.4  70.8  11.7  Bulk Cargo Outbound Inbound Total Deepsea  Total  a  i n c l u d e s R o b e r t s Bank  b  i n c l u d e s N o r t h Arm F r a s e r  8.7  .4  B. C. P i l o t a g e A l l f o r e i g n bottoms which e n t e r Canadian t e r r i t o r i a l w a t e r s a r e  Adapted from B r i t i s h Columbia R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l , R e p o r t s f o r N a t i o n a l Harbours B o a r d , Vancouver, A p r i l and December, 1967, ( u n p u b l i s h e d ) .  required organized  t o r e g i s t e r w i t h the B r i t i s h Columbia P i l o t a g e , r e c e n t l y r e as a crown company o f M a s t e r M a r i n e r s ,  of Transport.''"  of the f e d e r a l M i n i s t r y  About 85 p e r c e n t o f a l l f o r e i g n v e s s e l s bound f o r G u l f  of G e o r g i a p o r t s steam down Juan de Fuca and e n t e r  the G u l f from i t s  2 s o u t h e r n approaches.  Each f o r e i g n t r a d i n g v e s s e l w h i l e  i n Canadian  w a t e r s i s now r e q u i r e d  t o o b t a i n the s e r v i c e s o f an e x p e r i e n c e d marine  p i l o t s t a t i o n e d a t V i c t o r i a t o n a v i g a t e the dangerous t i d a l w a t e r s of the i n n e r c o a s t .  The use of t h i s s e r v i c e i s mandatory and the charge i s  d e s i g n a t e d by a s l i d i n g s c a l e based on the f o r e i g n v e s s e l ' s d r a f t , tonnage, 3 cargo v a l u e and number o f m i l e s  t r a v e l l e d i n Canadian w a t e r s .  of the p l e t h o r a o f r e e f s , s h o a l s and i s l a n d s w h i c h i n h i b i t f o r e i g n v e s s e l s . u s u a l l y enter v i a Juan de Fuca S t r a i t .  Because  access,  the G u l f by way o f Haro and R o s a r i o  To the n o r t h , f o r e i g n v e s s e l s e n t e r i n g  Strait the G u l f  from Queen C h a r l o t t e Sound use D i s c o v e r y Passage almost e x c l u s i v e l y . Haro S t r a i t h a n d l e s the g r e a t e s t p e r c e n t a g e of marine t r a f f i c  although  marine p i l o t s a r e a t t h e i r own d i s c r e t i o n t o choose any c h a n n e l deemed adequate f o r the v e s s e l f o r which they a r e under c o n t r a c t .  While a  i s k e p t on the number of f o r e i g n v e s s e l s e n t e r i n g Canadian w a t e r s  ledger  annually,  "'"C. H. L i t t l e , " P i l o t a g e i n Canada", Canadian G e o g r a p h i c a l J o u r n a l , V o l . 85, O c t o b e r , 1972, p. 130.  P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , C a p t a i n N e w e l l , Queens Harbour M a s t e r , V i c t o r i a , B. C , May 12, 1972.  3  Ibid.  no c u m u l a t i v e r e c o r d s a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r the s i z e o f each v e s s e l , n a t u r e o f i n d i v i d u a l c a r g o , c r u i s i n g time or course w h i l e It-he f o r e i g n v e s s e l i s i n t e r r i t o r i a l waters. Over 4,600 f o r e i g n bottoms engaged i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e d e p a r t e d from p r i n c i p a l Canadian p o r t s i n the study r e g i o n i n 1 9 7 1 .  1  Generally,  i n t e r n a t i o n a l deep-sea s h i p p i n g a c t i v e i n the G u l f can be d i v i d e d i n t o a t y p o l o g y based upon c a r g o - g e n e r a l c a r g o , b u l k c a r g o , and c r u d e - o i l c a r g o .  G e n e r a l Cargo G e n e r a l cargo commodities n a t i o n a l sea-borne  comprise a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t of the i n t e r -  t r a d e handled a t G u l f p o r t s .  S i n c e Western Canada  l a c k s a c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f secondary m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r y , e x p o r t goods a r e l a r g e l y made up o f semi-processed  r e s o u r c e commodities  p r o d u c t s ; c h i e f l y lumber, p u l p and n e w s p r i n t .  such as woods  I n t u r n , manufactured  such as a u t o m o b i l e s , e l e c t r i c a l goods, s t e e l shapes, and household comprise a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of import c a r g o e s .  goods goods  Vancouver i s the p r i n c i p a l  G u l f p o r t f o r import goods and f u n c t i o n s as a d i s t r i b u t i o n c e n t e r f o r a l l r e g i o n a l commodities.  Vancouver p r e s e n t l y handles n e a r l y a l l o f t h e  c o n t a i n e r i z e d cargo f o r the G u l f r e g i o n .  However, the p o r t has f a l l e n  behind Puget Sound p o r t s because o f inadequate f a c i l i t i e s .  Recent p r o -  p o s a l s t o improve and b u i l d s deep-sea c o n t a i n e r f a c i l i t i e s have been made for  Vancouver, t h e lower F r a s e r R i v e r , Squamish and Roberts Bank.  The  importance o f c o n t a i n e r i z a t i o n and i t s r e p e r c u s s i o n s on s h i p p i n g has  "^Personal i n t e r v i e w , C a p t a i n C o v i n g t o n , Company o f Master M a r i n e r s , Vancouver, B. C , March 22, 1972. I n f o r m a t i o n was e x t r a c t e d from the M i n i s t r y o f T r a n s p o r t A n n u a l , 1972.  93 r e c e n t l y been emphasized by a study i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s w h i c h determined t h a t about 82 p e r c e n t of a l l U n i t e d S t a t e s f o r e i g n t r a d e c o u l d be c o n t a i n e r i z e d and o n l y s i x t y c o n t a i n e r b e r t h s would be r e q u i r e d to handle the r e s u l t i n g c o n t a i n e r s f o r a l l the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  In p a r a l l e l ,  e f f i c i e n t system w h i c h c o u l d decrease c o s t s , number of s h i p s , and harbour l a n d devoured by contemporary h a n d l i n g methods w i t h o u t i n g the annual  any valuable  decreas-  tonnage and v a l u e of t r a d e to the p o r t community would be  most b e n e f i c i a l to the community and  immediate environment.  A t p r e s e n t , u n c o n t a i n e r i z e d g e n e r a l cargoes a r e w i d e l y d i f f u s e d a t p o i n t s throughout the G u l f .  E x p o r t goods are l a r g e l y the p r o d u c t s  of the  s c a t t e r e d lumber and p u l p and paper m i l l s l o c a t e d a l o n g l e s s e r - u s e d channels  ( C r o f t o n , Port Mellon, Ladysmith,  P o w e l l R i v e r --see F i g u r e  General cargo v e s s e l s are u s u a l l y of s m a l l e r s i z e than the b u l k  4.  carriers  w h i c h are becoming more f r e q u e n t i n G u l f waters , however, the d e c e n t r a l i z e d n a t u r e of t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n s o f t e n n e c e s s i t a t e s steaming through s h e l t e r e d but p h y s i c a l l y c o n s t r i c t e d and c o n j e s t e d waterways.  Bulk Cargo R a p i d l y expanding overseas product  shipments, and  e x p o r t s , the expanding d i v e r s i t y of b u l k -  the i n c r e a s e d u t i l i z a t i o n of l a r g e deep-sea b u l k  cargo s h i p s , have emphasized the need f o r e n l a r g e d deep-sea b u l k h a n d l i n g t e r m i n a l s f o r B r i t i s h Columbia's r e s o u r c e p r o d u c i n g economy.  The movement  of b u l k commodity f a c i l i t i e s away from crowded urban harbours i s l a r g e l y due  to t h e i r l o w - v a l u e , b u l k y , land-comsumptive n a t u r e as w e l l as t o problems  of d u s t , s m e l l or u n s i g h t l i n e s s t h a t can u s u a l l y be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  these  94 products.^  A l l t e r m i n a l s are c a p i t a l - i n t e n s i v e , f u c t i o n i n g e n t i r e l y i n  an e x p o r t c a p a c i t y and although  cargoes are made up p r i m a r i l y of m i n e r a l  products  f e r t i l i z e r s , wheat, and p e t r o l e u m p r o d u c t s can o f t e n be handled  at bulk terminal f a c i l i t i e s p r e s e n t l y managed.  i n much the same way  c o a l and  i r o n ore  are  P u b l i c n u i s a n c e and e n v i r o n m e n t a l problems of b u l k  p r o d u c t s t o c k p i l i n g can be p a r t i a l l y overcome by c o v e r i n g or h o s i n g down piles. F i g u r e 4 shows b u l k l o a d i n g f a c i l i t i e s a t s e v e r a l p o i n t s around G u l f of G e o r g i a ,  the  These are l o c a t e d a t B r i t a n n i a Beach ( c o p p e r ) , Texada  I s l a n d ( i r o n ore and  limestone), Burrard I n l e t ( c o a l , f e r t i l i z e r ,  potash,  s a l t ) , Bamberton ( l i m e s t o n e ) , Hatch P o i n t ( c o p p e r ) , R o b e r t s Bank ( c o a l ) , and under c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n Howe Sound ( c o a l ) . t e r m i n a l s , Roberts Bank S u p e r p o r t ,  The  l a r g e s t of G u l f  bulk  has a c a p a b i l i t y a t t h i s s t a g e , to l o a d  2 8 m i l l i o n tons of c o a l a n n u a l l y .  D e s p i t e an encroachment upon the  w i l d l i f e domains of Vancouver's s o u t h w e s t e r n s h o r e s ,  the s i t e of  valuable  the  Superport i n an exposed l o c a t i o n i s of l i t t l e consequence to other water u s e s . G e n e r a l l y t h i s i s one of the more p o s i t i v e a s p e c t s of b u l k t e r m i n a l s i n t h a t they can be l o c a t e d i n more remote and exposed a r e a s . 3 s h i p s which f r e q u e n t  The  them w i l l not have to e n t e r a l r e a d y c o n j e s t e d  larger harbours  ''"Here a g a i n , the u n p l e s a n t r i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b u l k l o a d i n g f a c i l i t i e s f o r c o a l have been a r e c e n t m u n i c i p a l i s s u e i n N o r t h Vancouver.  2 B. C. Department of F i n a n c e , F i n a n c i a l and Economic Review, T h i r t y - S e c o n d E d i t i o n , V i c t o r i a , J u l y , 1972, p. 62.  The 60,000  DWT.  average s i z e of v e s s e l l o a d i n g a t Roberts Bank i s about  w h i c h i n t u r n reduces the chance of c o l l i s i o n or groundings i n c o n s t r i c t e d passages.  Sea r o u t e s f r e q u e n t e d by b u l k c a r r i e r s a r e a l s o shown i n  F i g u r e 4.  P e t r o l e u m Cargo S i n c e t h e r e a r e no ground s o u r c e s of crude p e t r o l e u m i n c o a s t a l B r i t i s h Columbia, or i n the S t a t e s of Washington and Oregon, a s p e c i f i e d volume n e c e s s a r y t o s a t i s f y the f u e l demands of the P a c i f i c must be i m p o r t e d .  Northwest  P r i o r t o 1954, a l l crude o i l f o r r e f i n e r i e s w i t h i n the  r e g i o n had t o be imported e i t h e r by r a i l or t a n k e r , p r i m a r i l y from Californian o i l fields.  W i t h the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the Trans Mountain P i p e -  l i n e , ocean shipments ceased as the crude o i l demands i n the P a c i f i c Northwest were met by crude o i l f r om A l b e r t a f i e l d s .  T h i s p i p e l i n e has  a p r e s e n t c a p a c i t y of about 380,000 b a r r e l s per day, and s e r v e s f o u r c o a s t a l r e f i n e r i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia (102,000 b p d ) , and f o u r r e f i n e r i e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s (240,000 bpd).''"  The N a t i o n a l Energy Board has made  a p e t r o l e u m p r o d u c t demand f o r e c a s t f o r B r i t i s h Columbia which i s shown 2 i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e .  E s t i m a t e s f o r Washington and Oregon S t a t e s a r e  based on p r e s e n t p i p e l i n e through-puts and on the a n n u a l p e t r o l e u m demand 3 growth r a t e of 3.2 p e r c e n t .  ^Howard Paish-.and A s s o c i a t e s , The West Coast O i l T h r e a t i n P e r s p e c t i v e , Report f o r Environment Canada, Vancouver, A p r i l , 1972, p. 50.  2 Canada, N a t i o n a l Energy B o a r d , Energy Supply and Demand i n Canada and E x p o r t Demand f o r Canadian Energy, 1966-1990, Ottawa, p. 174. 3 P a i s h , op. c i t . , p. 50.  96  FIGURE k  PRINCIPAL PORTS AND VESSEL ROUTES IN THE GULF OF GEORGIA  97 TABLE V  PACIFIC NORTHWEST PETROLEUM DEMAND  Year  B r i t i s h Columbia  Washington & Oregon  1975  148,000 bpd.  262,000 bpd.  410,000 bpd.  1980  179,000 bpd.  307,000 bpd.  486,000 bpd.  1985  220,000 bpd.  359,000 bpd.  579,000 bpd.  1990  254,000 bpd.  420,000 bpd.  674,000 bpd.  Total  The Trans-Mountain p i p e l i n e c o u l d expand i t s p i p e l i n e c a p a c i t y t o 600,000 bpd. and g i v e n no r e s t r i c t i o n on the i m p o r t a t i o n o f Canadian crude i n t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s , i s c a p a b l e o f meeting the demand i n the P a c i f i c Northwest f o r the next f i f t e e n years.''' However, the d i s c o v e r y o f a l a r g e f i e l d o f crude o i l a t Prudhoe Bay on A l a s k a ' s A r c t i c N o r t h s l o p e has changed t h i s s i t u a t i o n d r a m a t i c a l l y . S t a r t i n g l a t e i n 1972, o i l t a n k e r s o f 120,000 tons (854,000 b l . ) - - t h e s i z e 2 of the infamous T o r r e y Canyon-'-will be t r a v e l l i n g from the P a c i f i c  through  Juan de Fuca and R o s a r i o S t r a i t t o the r e c e n t l y c o n s t r u c t e d r e f i n e r y a t C h e r r y P o i n t a t a r a t e o f about one p e r month.  This r a t e w i l l increase to  about one v e s s e l e v e r y f i v e o f s i x days w i t h i n two y e a r s and an i n c r e a s e i n tanker s i z e o f up t o 500,000 t o n s .  While  these v e s s e l s can make the  passage from A l a s k a t o Washington S t a t e r e f i n e r i e s w i t h o u t e n t e r i n g Canadian w a t e r s , r e f e r e n c e t o an e a r l i e r map o f t i d e and c u r r e n t f l o w shows '''Paish, op. c i t . , p. 50.  2 The ininvfambusm T o r r e y Canyon w h i c h s p i l l e d 118,000 tons o f crude o i l a f t e r s t r i k i n g Seven Stones Reef o f f t h e C o r n i s h c o a s t o f England i n March, 1967, was t h e f i r s t s u p e r t a n k e r t o a c c i d e n t l y disgonge i t s e n t i r e cargo i n a c o a s t a l r e g i o n r e s u l t i n g diniadjamage aomca ceojl'dssaklscale.  98 t h a t any a c c i d e n t a l s p i l l i n U n i t e d Columbia s h o r e s .  The  S t a t e s waters c o u l d soon f o u l  British  ocean t r a n s p o r t of crude o i l to r e f i n e r i e s around  the G u l f of Georgia-Puget Sound shore o f f e r s the g r e a t e s t e n v i r o n m e n t a l t h r e a t t o the e n t i r e r e g i o n . u t i o n and  Various aspects  of the impact of o i l p o l l -  l e g i s l a t i o n f o r c o n t r o l and c o n t i n g e n c y  c l e a n - u p are examined  i n Chapter V I I .  C o a s t w i s e Shipments Because of the rugged c o a s t a l t e r r a i n and p r o h i b i t i v e l y e x p e n s i v e land r o u t e s , p e r i p h e r a l resource  over-  communities were t r a d i t i o n a l l y l i n k e d t o  c e n t r a l i z e d d i s t r i b u t i o n p o i n t s by water a r t e r i e s .  O f t e n , water  transport  i s s t i l l not o n l y the cheapest and most e f f i c i e n t method to move goods, w u i t e f r e q u e n t l y , i t i s the o n l y way a l o n g the i n t e r i o r c o a s t l i n e . B r i t i s h Columbia has  The  to s e r v i c e s c a t t e r e d  nature  settlements  of i n d u s t r i e s i n c o a s t a l  f o r c e d the e v o l u t i o n of water t r a n s p o r t a t i o n methods  unique not o n l y f o r t h e i r o r i g i n a l i t y , but f o r the tremendous s c a l e of their application.  The  pioneers  of water t r a n s p o r t on t h i s c o a s t have  conducted a c o n t i n u i n g program of i n n o v a t i o n and a d a p t a t i o n t h a t  has  r i a s e d the c o a s t a l s h i p p i n g i n d u s t r y from an a n c i l l a r y a c t i v i t y of e a r l y l o g g i n g and m i n i n g o p e r a t i o n s , to a l e a d i n g p o s i t i o n i n the v i n c i a l economy.  the pro-  W i t h n e c e s s i t y the mother of i n v e n t i o n , the p e c u l i a r -  i t i e s of r e g i o n a l r e s o u r c e  i n d u s t r i e s and  the r e q u i r e m e n t s of  tidewater  ''"At p r e s e n t , some crude o i l has been e x p o r t e d from Trans-Mountain's deep-sea b e r t h i n B u r r a r d I n l e t to o i l d e f i c i t a r e a s i n C a l i f o r n i a , however, these shipments are s p o r a d i c r a r e l y e x c e e d i n g two s a i l i n g s a month, or t o t a l l i n g more than 300,000 b a r r e l s of c r u d e .  99 s e t t l e m e n t engendered s p e c i a l types of v e s s e l s adapted t o the r o l e of t r a n s p o r t i n g raw and  s i m i - p r o c e s s e d m a t e r i a l s from e x t r a c t i o n s i t e to  1 processing plant. V e s s e l s i n c o a s t w i s e s e r v i c e i n G u l f w a t e r s are employed i n a number of r o l e s from i n d u s t r i a l to f r e i g h t - p a s s e n g e r s e r v i c e . i n displacement  W h i l e much s m a l l e r  tonnage, the v a r i e t y of c o a s t a l v e s s e l s f a r outnumber  f o r e i g n v e s s e l a r r i v a l s i n t e r r i t o r i a l waters.  W i t h the e x c e p t i o n of  the  p o r t of Vancouver, c o a s t w i s e shipments from G u l f p o r t s r i v a l tonnage of import-export  i n t e r n a t i o n a l sea-borne t r a d e .  a r r i v a l s and  tonnages of c o a s t w i s e  TABLE VI  VESSEL ARRIVALS AND SELECTED PORTS  Port  The  following table indicates  shipping at s e v e r a l Gulf ports i n  TOTAL COASTWISE TONNAGE HANDLED  Vessels  T o t a l Tonnage  Campbell R i v e r  1,263  706,207  Nanaimo  1,267  713,131  New  2,225  Westminster  Powell River  1,628  Vancouver  8,582  Sources:-  1971.  FOR  1,407,444 988,552 5,764,610  S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 54-0002, J a n u a r y ,  1972.  Since many of the c o a s t a l c a r r i e r s a r e i n t e g r a t e d to t e r r e s t r i a l t r a n s p o r t systems, i n d i v i d u a l p o r t turnaround  time a t d e p a r t u r e  and  d e s t i n a t i o n i s reduced p e r m i t t i n g c o a s t a l v e s s e l s more time a t sea.  The  '''An e a r l y attempt a t a g e o g r a p h i c a l a n a l y s i s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between G u l f of G e o r g i a c a r r i e r s and r e g i o n a l p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s was put f o r w a r d by Brooke C o r n w a l l , " G e o g r a p h i c a l R e l a t i o n s h i p of Types of S h i p p i n g i n B. C. C o a s t a l W a t e r s , " G e o g r a p h i c a l B u l l e t i n , No. 4, 1954, pp. 4-13.  100 f r e q u e n c y and number o f c o a s t a l v e s s e l s  i n G u l f Waters has,  i n some  c a s e s , caused an unwarrented c o n t i n u e d p r e - e m t i o n of w a t e r s p a c e . round o p e r a t i o n  by some c a r r i e r s has r e s u l t e d i n a s i n g l e purpose  a p p r o p r i a t i o n of commonly f r e q u e n t e d r o u t e s . w i l l be d i s c u s s e d water  Year-  concurrently  Problems of t h i s n a t u r e  as they p e r t a i n to i n d i v i d u a l c o a s t a l  users. J u s t as v e s s e l s  so are cargoes and  employed i n c o a s t w i s e s e r v i c e are many and  destinations.  be d i v i d e d i n t o c a t e g o r i e s :  (a)  For s i m p l i c i t y , c o a s t a l shipments  area to processing  (b) those i n v o l v i n g the movement of g e n e r a l  f r e i g h t and  facilities passengers.  as movements of  p r i m a r y r e s o u r c e s from e x t r a c t i o n s i t e t o r e g i o n a l p r o c e s s i n g and  innovative  s p e c i a l i z e d c r a f t and industry.  and  Transfer  I n d u s t r i a l t r a n s f e r s can be most commonly d e f i n e d  Ingenuity  can  those i n v o l v i n g the t r a n s f e r of crude  r e s o u r c e commodities from p r o d u c t i o n  Industrial  varied,  complex.  t e c h n o l o g y i s m a n i f e s t e d most a p p a r e n t l y  t e c h n i q u e s u t i l i z e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r the  I t i s not an e x a g g e r a t i o n to s t a t e t h a t w i t h o u t the  i n the forest  total  r e s o u r c e s of the v a r i e t y of c o a s t w i s e c a r r i e r s , the major woods i n d u s t r i e s of c o a s t a l B r i t i s h Columbia would be v i r t u a l l y p a r a l y z e d .  Not  only  the  f o r e s t i n d u s t r y r e l i e s h e a v i l y on r e g i o n a l water t r a n s p o r t , o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s are e q u a l l y dependent.  Over the y e a r s , c o a s t a l v e s s e l s have  been adapted to s e r v i c e these v a r i o u s l o a d i n g c o a s t a l steamer has  industries.  W h i l e the  side-  p r a c t i c a l l y d i s a p p e a r e d from c o a s t a l  industrial  ^By d e f i n i t i o n , t h i s would i n c l u d e commercial f i s h i n g and p r o c e s s i n g , however, these w i l l be t r e a t e d i n a s e p a r a t e s u b s e c t i o n t h i s chapter.  fish of  101 t r a n s f e r s , the i n t e r - r e g i o n a l movement of cargo has i n c r e a s e d .  Tug  and  barge o p e r a t i o n s have, over the l a s t twenty y e a r s , c a p t u r e d the m a j o r i t y of r e s o u r c e p r o d u c t shipments and v i r t u a l l y a l l i n d u s t r i a l f o r e s t  Tug and Barge  transfer  Operations  Steam towboats had appeared  i n B r i t i s h Columbia w a t e r s  originally  t o a i d the e a r l y s q u a r e - r i g g e d s h i p s i n manoeuvering through t i d a l  rips  1 and narrow passages.  I n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h i s d u t y , steam tugs began  to engage i n l o g towing a c t i v i t i e s .  Movements which o r i g i n a l l y saw tug  and f l a t boom or Davis R a f t t r a n s f e r of l o g s to p r o c e s s i n g m i l l , have been augmented by a g r e a t e r u t i l i z a t i o n of l a r g e l o g scows and most 2 r e c e n t l y , s e l f - l o a d i n g , self-dumping barges. Tug and barge o p e r a t i o n s are w e l l s u i t e d to s h e l t e r e d i n l a n d waters f o r a number of r e a s o n s .  P r i m a r i l y , the v e r s a t i l i t y of the tug and  the  economics of i t s o p e r a t i o n are i m p r e s s i v e when compared t o o t h e r water carriers.  T h i s i s m a i n l y due to p r a c t i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as the  r e l a t i v e l y low c a p i t a l investment of f l o a t i n g equipment, the s m a l l s i z e of crew to man  the v e s s e l s , and the f l e x i b i l i t y p o s s i b l e by v i r t u e of the  f a c t t h a t the cargo c a r r i e r i s s e p a r a b l e from i t s p r o p u l s i o n u n i t . Moreover,  the s i m p l i c t y of tugs and scows, arid t h e i r a d a p t a b i l i t y and  absence of a u x i l i a r y machinery  or equipment, h e l p t o d e f r a y o p e r a t i o n a l  ''"Island Tug and Barge Company, Ocean Highway, V i c t o r i a , 1967 , p.  Seaspan's " I s l a n d Y a r d e r " can s e l f - l o a d i n excess of m i l l i o n f e e t of l o g s (10,500}tons) i n 18 h o u r s .  2.75  102 and maintenance c o s t s . remaining  Because the t u g i s r e l i e v e d of t h e n e c e s s i t y of  i n harbour w h i l e barges a r e b e i n g loaded or d i s c h a g e d , the  v e s s e l can be employed f o r a g r e a t e r p e r i o d o f time and a t a number of tasks.  Such competetive  advantages of t u g and barge o p e r a t i o n s have  c o n t i n u a l l y l e d t o the d i s p l a c e m e n t  o f s e l f - p r o p e l l e d c o a s t e r s engaged i n  b u l k cargo t r a n s f e r from p o i n t s around the G u l f . designed  G u l f tugs and barges a r e  and c o n s t r u c t e d t o be employed i n s p e c i a l i z e d t a s k s w h i c h i n c l u d e  the movement o f c h e m i c a l s , s t r u c t u r a l p r o d u c t s , n e w s p r i n t , wood p u l p , r a i l c a r s , c o n s t r u c t i o n equipment or p e t r o l e u m W i t h i n the G u l f of G e o r g i a by towboats a r e wood p r o d u c t s  products.^  the t h r e e major i n d u s t r i a l cargoes moved  ( l o g s , wood-chips), c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s  ( l i m e s t o n e , sand and g r a v e l , cement), and p e t r o l e u m  products  (diesel  fuel,  gasoline).  Log Booms and Log Storage O b v i o u s l y , water o f f e r s the cheapest t r a n s p o r t and h a n d l i n g medium f o r regional forest industries.  Hardwick's comprehensive t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a l  maps of p r o d u c t i o n and consumption of the c o a s t a l f o r e s t i n d u s t r i e s i n 1962 demonstrated t h e r e l i a n c e p l a c e d on water l i n k a g e s and t u g o p e r a t i o n s 2 f o r the e f f i c i e n t maintenance of these i n d u s t r i a l l i n k a g e s .  The growth  of c o a s t w i s e shipments i n the G u l f o f G e o r g i a i s i n p a r t due t o the l o c a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of the wood's i n d u s t r y and most i m p e r a t i v e l y on the  '''Island Tug and Barge Company, op. c i t . , p. 41.  Hardwick, op. c i t . , p. 16.  103 f o r t u i t o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p of a c c e s s i b l e f o r e s t s and  s h e l t e r e d sea.  V a r i o u s methods i n v o l v i n g r a f t s , scows, and barges a r e used to move rough l o g s from p r o d u c t i o n areas t o s t o r a g e s i t e s and p r o c e s s i n g p l a n t s . W h i l e s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i n l o g t r a n s p o r t has i n c r e a s e d , a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f the l o g s are s t i l l moved i n s e c t i o n e d l o g booms. F i g u r e 5 shows the u b i q u i t y o f l o g s t o r a g e areas i n G u l f o f waters.  Georgia  Most s h e l t e r e d s h o r e l i n e s and b a y s , e s p e c i a l l y those a d j a c e n t  lumber and p u l p m i l l s , are u t i l i z e d a t c e r t a i n times f o r l o g s o r t i n g storage.  Few  areas have been exempted and o f t e n , l a r g e bays and  to  and  inlets  are e n t i r e l y e n c l o s e d by l o g booms. I n p a r t i c u l a r , a l o n g the lower F r a s e r - P i t t R i v e r t h e r e i s a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n between w a t e r f r o n t i n d u s t r i e s and  the u t i l i z a t i o n o f the n a t u r a l  t r a n s p o r t - s t o r a g e network a t t h e i r d o o r s t e p .  Most of the a v a i l a b l e f o r e -  shore a r e a s are r e s e r v e d by l e a s e f o r s t o c k p i l i n g l o g s t o be i n j e s t e d by numerous s a w m i l l s , plywood m i l l s and p o l e m i l l s .  Because water depths  need not be e x c e s s i v e , a tremendous amount of f o r e s h o r e acreage has s e t a s i d e t o meet r e g i o n a l needs.  The  by  lower F r a s e r - P i t t R i v e r  has a r e s e r v e d s t o r a g e c a p a c i t y of over 3,300 a c r e s alone.'''  been  foreshore  As w e l l , l a r g e  r e s e r v a t i o n s f o r l o g s t o r a g e occur i n Nanaimo Harbour, and i n Howe Sound around Gambier I s l a n d .  The v a l u e of l o g s i n water s t o r a g e i n the G u l f ,  b o t h a t p r o c e s s i n g s i t e s , and i n booms p r i o r to r e a c h i n g market, was a t e d i n October 1971,  estim-  to be $54,485,800 from a volume of 768,130,000 board f t .  '''Forward, W a t e r f r o n t Land Use i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver B. G e o g r a p h i c a l B r a n c h , Paper #41, Ottawa, 1968, p. 14.  P a i s h , op. c i t . , p.  238.  C,  104  FIGURE 5  LOG STORAGE AREAS IN THE GULF OF GEORGIA  105 T i d a l s t o r a g e a r e a s w h i c h a r e a n n u a l l y drawn down i n w i n t e r and s p r i n g a r e b u i l t up d u r i n g the summer. and w i l l a p p r o x i m a t e l y  This p r o c e s s may f l u c t u a t e from year  be f o r t y p e r c e n t  t o year  o f the t o t a l a t the low p e r i o d i n  l a t e s p r i n g t o a h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n l a t e summer. T h i s l a t e summer c o n c e n t r a t i o n and the booming a c t i v i t y w h i c h accompanies i t can o f t e n c o n f l i c t w i t h o t h e r f o r e s h o r e u s e s .  On the t i d a l  reaches o f the F r a s e r , booming grounds o f t e n p r o h i b i t s h o r e l i n e access f o r the r i v e r b o a t e r o r the f o r e s h o r e r e c r e a t i o n a l i s t . a l o n g the w e s t e r n shore o f Howe Sound.  S i m i l a r problems  I n more u r b a n i z e d a r e a s ,  occur  foreshore  l o g booming a c t i v i t i e s can have a d e v a l u a t i n g e f f e c t on r e s i d e n t i a l w a t e r front properties. and  inconvenience Although  Waterfront  r e s i d e n t s o f t e n c o m p l a i n o f the u n s i g h t l i n e s s  o f l a r g e booming g r o u n d s .  1  B r i t i s h Columbia beaches a r e famous f o r t h e i r abundance o f  g n a r l e d d r i f t w o o d , some o f t h i s wood, w h i c h i s a consequence o f f o r e s t product  t r a n s f e r , c a n have a d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t on the n a t u r a l environment.  Despite  the o b v i o u s h a z a r d  o f f l o a t i n g d e b r i s w h i c h b r e a k s l o o s e from booms 2  i n t r a n s i t and i n c r e a s e s the chance o f s e r i o u s damage t o s m a l l e r  craft,  wood c h i p s , sawdust and c h e m i c a l l y t r e a t e d wood wastes w h i c h a r e blown from open scows a t sea or a r e s t r i p p e d from l o g s i n booming grounds c a n , ^ I n 1967, Deep Cove r e s i d e n t s who complained o f t h e d i f f i c u l t y of access and boat moorage a d j a c e n t t h e i r w a t e r f r o n t p r o p e r t i e s were e v e n t u a l l y compensated by a decrease i n the number o f l o g booms moored i n the bay.  2 H y d r o f o i l f e r r y s e r v i c e from V i c t o r i a t o S e a t t l e w h i c h began i n the summer of 1969, ceased the same year l a r g e l y due t o the i n c i d e n c e o f damage t o the s h i p ' s f o i l s caused by f l o a t i n g d e b r i s .  106 a f t e r becoming w a t e r l o g g e d and h a v i n g  sunk t o the b o t t o m , have d e l e t e r i o u s  and  l e t h a l e f f e c t s on c e r t a i n marine s p e c i e s o f bottom f e e d e r s .  log  t r a n s p o r t and booming grounds a r e e s s e n t i a l t o the h e a l t h y  While  1  continua-  t i o n of the p r o v i n c e ' s l e a d i n g i n d u s t r y , p a r t i a l s o l u t i o n s t o some o f these problems may be i n c u r r e d by two approaches.  F i r s t , a g r e a t e r use  of barges and scows f o r moving rough l o g s should d e c r e a s e the number of l o g s l o s t i n shipment.  Second, m u l t i - p u r p o s e  management of s t o r a g e  areas  and c o n s c i e n t i o u s c o n t r o l of r e s i d u e wastes from m i l l i n g o p e r a t i o n s would h e l p d e c r e a s e the amount of f l o a t i n g or submerged d e b r i s i n t i d a l and  channels  s h a l l o w bays.  Construction Materials C o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s , handled almost e n t i r e l y by t u g and barge o p e r a t i o n s i n the G u l f of G e o r g i a , a r e made up p r i m a r i l y o f i n d u s t r i a l m i n e r a l s and v a r i o u s forms o f c o n s t r u c t i o n a g g r e g a t e s . from v a r i o u s sources  Since  shipments  a r e s p o r a d i c and c a r r i e d by a h o s t o f towing  companies, a c t u a l movement f i g u r e s a r e n o t known.  However, i t i s thought  t h a t i n d u s t r i a l t r a n s f e r s of sand arid g r a v e l , c o n c r e t e , l i m e r o c k , and cement r i v a l the tonnages of f o r e s t t r a n s f e r s .  G e n e r a l l y , movements a r e  p i e c e m e a l and o n l y a few e x t r a c t i o n s i t e s m a i n t a i n any n o t a b l e of shipment.  frequency  These s i t e s a r e r e l a t e d p r i m a r i l y t o c o n s t r u c t i o n demands  of the u r b a n i z e d  southern  ( l i m e s t o n e ) , Texada.Island  shores of the G u l f and i n c l u d e Bamberton ( l i m e s t o n e ) , P o w e l l R i v e r (sand and g r a v e l ) ,  Squamish (sand and g r a v e l ) , B u r r a r d I n l e t (cement, sand and g r a v e l ,  "'"Various s p e c i e s o f c r u s t a c e o n s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y s u c c e p t a b l e t o f i b r o u s wood m a t e r i a l s becoming lodged i n t h e r e s p i r a t o r y systems.  107 Marpole ( c o n c r e t e , cement, sand and g r a v e l ) , F r a s e r South Arm (cement, prefabricated concrete  forms).  As the p o p u l a t i o n mushrooms, a g e n e r a l i n c r e a s e i n demand f o r b u i l d i n g aggregates  w i l l ensue w h i c h w i l l d e p l e t e e x i s t i n g s o u r c e s .  Thus the f i r s t  r e s u l t w i l l be a d e c l i n e i n p r o d u c t i o n areas c l o s e t o the c e n t r e s o f population.  P r o d u c t i o n w i l l have t o be m a i n t a i n e d by new p i t s which w i l l  become p r o g r e s s i v e l y JfainbheraTaway.  Petroleum  Products  R o s s , i n h i s t h e s i s on i n t e r n a t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f o i l p o l l u t i o n i n Puget Sound and S t r a i t of G e o r g i a , found t h a t i d e n t i f y i n g the f r e q u e n c y and 2 volume of r e g i o n a l o i l p r o d u c t movements was an e x t r e m e l y c o m p l i c a t e d Recent bad p u b l i c i t y has made o i l companies u n c o o p e r a t i v e quantity data.  Coastwise  task.  i n releasing  shipments and t h e r e g i o n a l s u p p l y of o i l p r o d u c t s  o r i g i n a t e from p e t r o l e u m r e f i n e r i e s a t the head of B u r r a r d I n l e t .  Refined  o i l p r o d u c t s a r e moved from r e f i n e r i e s by v a r i o u s r o u t e s t o Vancouver I s l a n d and o t h e r p o i n t s a l o n g the i n t e r i o r c o a s t . Canadian o i l and towing companies m a i n t a i n e d  I n 1971, the v a r i o u s  22 barges and f o u r t a n k e r s  w i t h a t o t a l c a r r y i n g c a p t a c i t y o f 9,560,000 g a l l o n s , the b u l k of w h i c h 3 o p e r a t e e n t i r e l y i n the c o a s t w i s e p e t r o l e u m  t r a d e south of Johnstone  Strait.  1 Ross, l o c . c i t . ,2R o s s , op. c i t . , p. 10 2Ship movement i n f o r m a t i o n can a l s o be m i s l e a d i n g s i n c e empty barges or t a n k e r s a r e o f t e n r e c o r d e d i n the same manner as those c a r r y i n g f u l l c a r g o e s .  108 The  capacity  o f each vessel- v a r i e s from a few thousand b a r r e l s up t o  40,000 b a r r e l s . W i t h p a r t i a l c o o p e r a t i o n from the major o i l companies, P a i s h these f i g u r e s somewhat and found t h a t Sea Span I n t e r n a t i o n a l ,  refined  formerly  I s l a n d Tug and Barge Company, and the major towing company o f the r e g i o n , moves about 25 p e r c e n t o f a l l o i l p r o d u c t s i n the study area.''"  I n 1971,  t h i s amounted t o 2,770 b a r r e l s o f o i l p r o d u c t s i n Vancover harbour and 3,260,000 b a r r e l s o u t s i d e  Burrard  Inlet.  I t was t h e r e f o r e  13 m i l l i o n b a r r e l s o f o i l p r o d u c t s a r e t r a n s p o r t e d w i t h i n the G u l f r e g i o n o u t s i d e  of B u r r a r d  annually  estimated by water  Inlet.  U n l e s s new r e f i n e r i e s or p r o d u c t p i p e l i n e s a r e c o n s t r u c t e d  to serve  Vancouver I s l a n d , r e g i o n a l o i l p r o d u c t movements through the G u l f increase  proportionately  t o meet p e t r o l e u m p r o d u c t demand.  marine t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f o i l p r o d u c t s w i l l i n c r e a s e Energy Board p r o j e c t i o n s  TABLE V I I  t o the f o l l o w i n g  that  will  Thus, t h e  i n r e l a t i o n to National  levels.  REGIONAL PETROLEUM PRODUCT MOVEMENTS BY WATER IN THE GULF OF GEORGIA  Year  Capacity  1971  13 m i l l i o n  barrels  1975  20 m i l l i o n  barrels  1980  24 m i l l i o n  barrels  1985  30 m i l l i o n  barrels  1990  34 m i l l i o n  barrels  P a i s h , op. c i t . , p. 58.  109 The  t r a n s f e r of r e f i n e d o i l p r o d u c t s a c r o s s  the b o r d e r i s n e g l i g i b l e  as r e f i n e r i e s i n b o t h c o u n t r i e s supply n e a r l y a l l the domestic needs. There i s , a l t h o u g h ,  some through movement of o i l p r o d u c t s from Puget Sound  sources t o p o i n t s a l o n g the A l a s k a n Panhandle, however, t h i s has averaged more than 65,000 b a r r e l s Oil  annually.  seldom  1  p r o d u c t s shipped w i t h i n the G u l f are v a r i e d and  of bunker o i l , g a s o l i n e , a v i a t i o n f u e l , d i e s e l o i l , and  include quantities fuel o i l .  The  flow  of r e g i o n a l o i l p r o d u c t shipments i s p o t e n t i a l l y more t h r e a t e n i n g to the environment than crude o i l ^shipments s i n c e the number of v e s s e l s i s g r e a t e r and  the cargo i s much more t o x i c .  Passenger-Freight A t one  Service  stage i n the h i s t o r y of c o a s t a l B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , v e s s e l s  employed i n p a s s e n g e r - f r e i g h t  s e r v i c e f a r outnumbered a l l other  c a r r i e r s w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of commercial f i s h i n g c r a f t .  commercial  However, the  i n a b i l i t y of s i d e l o a d i n g v e s s e l s to compete w i t h more e f f i c i e n t methods of cargo h a n d l i n g and a u t o - o r i e n t e d  passengers brought about a l a r g e - s c a l e  d i s a p p e a r e n c e of many of these t r a d i t i o n a l c r a f t . r e g i o n a l t r a n s f e r of b u l k cargoes has been c a p t u r e d  Whereas most of by tug and  the  barge  o p e r a t i o n s , n e a r l y a l l of the g e n e r a l f r e i g h t has been d i v e r t e d to f a s t automobile f e r r i e s .  Goods produced or d i s t r i b u t e d from lower m a i n l a n d  p o i n t s and d e s t i n e d f o r Vancouver I s l a n d or Sunshine Coast c e n t e r s u s u a l l y t r u c k t r a i l e r e d aboard r e g u l a r p u b l i c and p r i v a t e f e r r i e s .  are Ship-  ments w h i c h a r r i v e a t lower m a i n l a n d p o i n t s by r a i l can u s u a l l y r e a c h Vancouver I s l a n d by means of r e g u l a r r a i l barge and  "*"Ross , op. c i t . , p.  11.  train ferry  connections.  110  FIGURE 6  PASSENGER - FREIGHT SERVICE IN THE GULF OF GEORGIA  Ill Three f e r r y companies p r e s e n t l y operate  i n G u l f of Georgia  waters.  They are Washington S t a t e F e r r i e s , Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y , and  the  l a r g e s t , B r i t i s h Columbia F e r r y A u t h o r i t y .  F i g u r e 6 i l l u s t r a t e s the  routes  and p o r t s of c a l l of a l l f e r r y o p e r a t i o n s .  F e r r y o p e r a t i o n s are more  f r e q u e n t i n peak summer p e r i o d s . S e v e r a l a r e a s of i n t e n s i f i e d water use can be i d e n t i f i e d i n w h i c h f e r r y o p e r a t i o n s and  other water u s e r s , because of c o n s t r u c t e d  ways are f r e q u e n t l y i n c l o s e c o n t a c t .  passage-  I n p a r t i c u l a r , Swartz B a y - P i e r s  Island,  A c t i v e P a s s , D e p a r t u r e Bay, and Horsehoe Bay, a r e h i g h - u s e zones where c o n j e s t i o n can o f t e n o c c u r . are i n v e s t i g a t e d i n Chapter  Problems of i n c o m p a t a b i l i t y i n these  zones  6.  Commercial F i s h e r i e s The  commercial f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y of the G u l f of Georgia  i s characterized  by a d i v e r s i f i e d c a t c h and a m u l t i p l i c i t y of v e s s e l s of v a r y i n g l e n g t h , tonnage and  type of operation.''"  I n a d d i t i o n , there are v a r i a t i o n s i n the  f i s h i n g e f f o r t per v e s s e l , the a v a i l a b i l i t y of f i s h i n any s p e c i f i c or i n any p a r t i c u l a r y e a r , and s p e c i e s of f i s h .  the p r i c e s p a i d to f i s h e r m e n  area  for different  These f a c t o r s , a l o n g w i t h government management p r a c t i c e s ,  l e a d a wide v a r i a b i l i t y i n v e s s e l l a n d i n g s and  fishermen's  earnings.  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of o n l y the most r e c e n t f i s h e r y s t a t i s t i c s and r e g u l a t i o n s may  not be i n d i c a t i v e of the o v e r a l l s t a t e of the G u l f ' s commercial  f i s h e r y s i n c e the r e s o u r c e  i s dynamic by n a t u r e about w h i c h t h e r e i s s t i l l  much to be known.  ''"The study r e g i o n i n c l u d e s n e a r l y a l l s p e c i e s of f i s h and i n v e r t e b r a t e s found i n P a c i f i c Coast tempearait'eirl'atiiittudBslf Phowevie-Tj/eonl.y '• v. about a dozen types are of commercial i m p o r t a n c e .  To summarize a s o p h i s t i c a t e d and h i g h l y r e g u l a t e d r e s o u r c e such as commercial f i s h e r i e s i s a c o m p l i c a t e d information considered  important  t a s k and  thus, only that  to the theme of t h i s study i s i n c o r p o r a t e d .  T h i s s e c t i o n o u t l i n e s the number of commercial f i s h i n g c r a f t , commercially  e x p l o i t a b l e s p e c i e s , harvested  v a l u e of the G u l f of Georgia  industry  fishery.  tonnage, and  Data p r e s e n t e d  the  the wholesale  has been s u p p l i e d  by the F i s h e r i e s S e r v i c e and F i s h e r i e s Research Board of the Department of the Environment who  report catch s t a t i s t i c s  r e p r e s e n t i n g the Canadian  f i s h i n g e f f o r t f o r B r i t i s h Columbia by s t a t i s t i c a l of G e o r g i a  zones.  W h i l e the  Gulf  i s not t r e a t e d as a s i n g l e s t a t i s t i c a l u n i t , a r e l i a b l e  approximation  of t o t a l f i s h i n g e f f o r t i n the study r e g i o n can be made by  t o t a l l i n g d a t a from the n i n e s t a t i s t i c a l  zones i n t o w h i c h the G u l f  has  been d i v i d e d . C a u t i o n must be e x e r c i s e d i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of much o f t h i s d a t a i n any e f f o r t to e s t a b l i s h a d o l l a r v a l u e f o r the G u l f f i s h e r y because of the e x t r a - r e g i o n a l m o b i l i t y of most of the f i s h e r m e n and many s p e c i e s of fish.  Anadromous s p e c i e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , w h i c h o r i g i n a t e i n r e g i o n a l  t r i b u t a r i e s and r e a r i n G u l f e s t u a r i n e waters are caught by Canadians and non-nationals  i n t e r r i t o r i a l and w e s t e r n P a c i f i c w a t e r s .  Because the  movements of these f i s h do not conform to p r e s c r i b e d p o l i t i c a l  territory,  the p o t e n t i a l v a l u e of the f i s h e r y i s t r a n s f e r a b l e from r e g i o n to r e g i o n depending upon the method and resources  Hence, the salmon  cannot be viewed as a s t a t i c e n t i t y as can an i n l a n d  f i s h e r y based upon s e d e n t a r y  fish.  freshwater  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of c a t c h f i g u r e s and  T h e s e s t a t i s t i c a l zones are 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 28, the F r a s e r R i v e r e s t u a r y 29B and 29C. 1  and  t i m i n g of c a p t u r e .  29A,  113 g r o s s r e t u r n s t o f i s h e r m e n may v a l u e of the marine r e s o u r c e s .  be an understatement of the a c t u a l For example,  the  salmon  -  commercial  catch i n B r i t i s h  Columbia had a w h o l e s a l e v a l u e i n 1970 o f over $99.6 million.'''  The F r a s e r  R i v e r f i s h e r y , the w o r l d ' s most i m p o r t a n t salmon s t r e a m , r e p r e s e n t e d over 2 o n e - h a l f of t h i s t o t a l c a t c h or s l i g h t l y more than $50 m i l l i o n .  W h i l e the  g r e a t e s t percentage of commercial f i s h e r m e n r e s i d e i n the lower m a i n l a n d , o n l y a s m a l l p o r t i o n of the t o t a l salmon c a t c h i s made i n G u l f w a t e r s d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t i t has l o n g been t a k e n as a x i o m a t i c among f i s h e r i e s b i o l o g i s t s t h a t salmon s h o u l d be removed as c l o s e to t h e i r n a t a l streams as 3 p o s s i b l e f o r optimum management e f f i c i e n c y . The G u l f of G e o r g i a , w h i l e s u s t a i n i n g a commercial f i s h e r y  based  p r i m a r i l y upon the salmon, s u p p o r t s the commercial h a r v e s t i n g of groundf i s h and o t h e r seafood r e s o u r c e s .  L i s t e d below a r e the c o m m e r c i a l l y  e x p l o i t e d s p e c i e s and t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n s throughout the G u l f r e g i o n . Salmon I n terms of f i s h i n g e f f o r t , tonnage c a u g h t , and g r o s s r e t u r n s t o  Economics B r a n c h , F i s h e r i e s S e r v i c e , F i s h e r i e s S t a t i s t i c s f o r B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of the E n v i r o n m e n t , Vancouver, 1971. The _ i n c r e a s e i n v a l u e of the B. C. Salmon c a t c h from the 1960 t o t a l of 35.9 m i l l i o n i s r e f l e c t e d by the l a r g e i n c r e a s e i n per pound w h o l e s a l e p r i c e of salmon r a t h e r than i n an i n c r e a s e i n tonnage of salmon caught i n the l a s t decade.  P e a r s o n , op. c i t . , p. 17.  R i c h a r d Van C l e v e and R a l p h W. Johnson, Management of the High Sea F i s h e r i e s of the N o r t h e a s t e r n P a c i f i c , U n i v e r s i t y of Washington Publ i c a t i o n s i n F i s h e r i e s , V o l . 2, November, 1963, p. 18. T h i s p r o c e d u r e , a l o n g w i t h l i c e n c e l i m i t a t i o n , would h e l p to b r i n g about much-needed economic r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of a c u r r e n t l y o v e r c a p i t a l i z e d and overmanned i n d u s t r y . A l t h o u g h u n l i k e l y , such an a c t i o n would decrease the number of f i s h i n g c r a f t and s p a t i a l l y c o n c e n t r a t e them a t s t r a t e g i c r i v e r mouths such as the F r a s e r .  114 f i s h e r m e n , f i v e s p e c i e s o f salmon a r e the m a i n s t a y o f commercial a c t i v i t y . I n order of commercial v a l u e , the G u l f salmon c a t c h i s made up o f s o c k e y e , c h i n o o k , coho, p i n k , and chum.  The chinook salmon i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y  d i f f e r e n t from the o t h e r s p e c i e s i n t h a t i t i s f i s h e d ;the e'nti-r.e-. y e a r , w h i l e the o t h e r anadromous s p e c i e s a r e caught from May u n t i l December. U n l i k e the h i g h l y m o b i l e s o c k e y e , coho and p i n k salmon, the Chinook i s more d o m i c i l i a r y and i n f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r s i n l a r g e s c h o o l s t e n d i n g to 2 remain i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o n a t a l streams.  Chinook a r e u s u a l l y t a k e n  on the t r o l l i n G u l f w a t e r s whereas sockeye, the major f i s h to the F r a s e r , must be taken i n g i l l n e t s and a r e seldom t a k e n on t r o l l e d l i n e s .  The  g r o s s r e t u r n s t o f i s h e r m e n w h i c h a r e r e c o r d e d by s a l e s s l i p r e c e i p t s have been t a b u l a t e d by the F i s h e r i e s S e r v i c e and the t o t a l s , 1968-1971 a r e i n c l u d e d i n the f o l l o w i n g TABLE V I I I Year  table.  GULF OF GEORGIA SALMON CATCH:: 1968-1971 T o t a l Landed Weight  Wholesale Landed V a l u e  1968  26,572,200  $15,093,100  1969  32,475,500  $23,830,400  1970  34,826,000  $22,408,700  1971  59,155,700  $43,737,700  Average  38,257,350  $26,267,500  Source:  Adapted from P a i s h , p. 207.  ^ P a i s h found t h a t the landed v a l u e of salmon w i t h i n the s t u d y r e g i o n i s over f i v e times the landed v a l u e of a l l o t h e r commercial f i s h and invertebrates.  D. J . M i l n e , The Chinook and..Coho Salmon F i s h e r i e s of B. C., B u l l e t i n 142, F i s h e r i e s Research Board o f Canada, Ottawa, 1963, p. 46.  115 The  g r e a t e s t w e i g h t and v a l u e o f salmon p e r u n i t a r e a comes from  commercial f i s h e r i e s o p e r a t i o n s a t the mouth and e s t u a r y o f the F r a s e r R i v e r . The c a t c h from s t a t i s t i c a l zone 29A, 29B and 29C i s taken almost e n t i r e l y by g i l l n e t t e r s whose r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t season l a s t s o n l y from J u l y u n t i l October.  The r e l a t i v e -importance o f the salmon f i s h e r y i n  t h i s zone, a l o n g w i t h the o f f s h o r e f i s h e r y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h F r a s e r R i v e r , i s f u r t h e r enhanced i f t h e f u t u r e p o t e n t i a l f o r i n c r e a s e d salmon p r o d u c t i o n i s considered.  A recent f i s h e r i e s r e p o r t , which i n v e s t i g a t e s aspects of  improvements t o the F r a s e r f o r spawning salmon, i n d i c a t e s the p o t e n t i a l landed v a l u e of commercial sockeye i s n e a r l y t h r e e times  the p r e s e n t  value,  w h i l e f o r p i n k s , the p o t e n t i a l v a l u e i s e i g h t times g r e a t e r than t h e present value for Fraser River s t o c k s .  1  I n a d d i t i o n t o the F r a s e r , many o t h e r G u l f t r i b u t a r i e s - t h e Cowichan, Squamish, Nanaimo, Qualicum and Comox--are a l s o i m p o r t a n t but on a more l i m i t e d s c a l e .  salmon p r o d u c e r s  Some o f these salmon streams a r e more famous  and a r e p o t e n t i a l l y more v a l u a b l e f o r a d j a c e n t  s p o r t f i s h e r y than f o r the  2 commercial v a l u e of t h e salmon. Major c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f c o m m e r c i a l l y a r e o u t l i n e d i n F i g u r e 7.  e x p l o i t a b l e salmon s p e c i e s  W i t h r e f e r e n c e t o F i g u r e 7, a s t r o n g  coincidence  between commercial and s p o r t s f i s h i n g a r e a s i s e v i d e n t , e s p e c i a l l y i n more sheltered  waters.  ^ F i s h e r i e s S e r v i c e and I n t e r n a t i o n a l P a c i f i c Salmon F i s h e r i e s Commission, F i s h e r i e s Problems R e l a t e d t o Moran Dam on the F r a s e r R i v e r , Department o f the Environment, Vancouver, A u g u s t , 1971. A t p r e s e n t , i t has been e s t i m a t e d t h a t Canadian f i s h e r m e n c a t c h over h a l f o f t h e F r a s e r s t o c k s , 85 p e r c e n t of w h i c h r e - e n t e r the G u l f o f G e o r g i a v i a Juan de Fuca S t r a i t . 2 The Department o f the Environment has r e c e n t l y embarked upon a program o f h a t c h e r y development f o r f i v e G u l f o f G e o r g i a t r i b u t a r y streams. The b e n e f i t s o f t h e h a t c h e r y program f o r t h e commercial f i s h e r y i s n o t t h e p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e , b u t r a t h e r the-program i s i n t e n d e d t o i n c r e a s e the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f chinook and coho salmon f o r s p o r t s a n g l e r s .  116  G r o u n d f i s h and H e r r i n g A l t h o u g h o f much l e s s importance than the salmon f i s h e r y , the r e g i o n supports a t r a w l and l i n e f i s h e r y based upon v a r i o u s s p e c i e s of commercial g r o u n d f i s h and h e r r i n g .  W i t h a few e x c e p t i o n s , commercial s t o c k s of  h a l i b u t , l i n g c o d , grey c o d , and lemon s o l e i n h a b i t i n g the Canadian w a t e r s of the G u l f a r e independent of those i n a d j a c e n t w a t e r s and hence, the f i s h e r y can be managed as a more or l e s s s e l f - c o n t a i n e d unit.''"  General  g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a s have been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r most s p e c i e s a f t e r an ext e n s i v e program of t a g g i n g over the l a s t twenty y e a r s .  Investigations  have shown t h a t m i g r a t i o n s of g r o u n d f i s h a r e not e x t e n s i v e but o f t e n r e l a t e 2  p a r t i a l l y t o the movement of h e r r i n g .  Landings of t r a w l e d g r o u n d f i s h  from the G u l f amount t o about 6 m i l l i o n pounds a n n u a l l y which r e p r e s e n t s 3  r o u g h l y one q u a r t e r of the t o t a l B r i t i s h Columbia t r a w l and l i n e  fishery.  T a b l e I X below shows the 1 9 7 0 t o t a l s f o r commercial g r o u n d f i s h and h e r r i n g from G u l f w a t e r s .  Total catch wholesale  v a l u e of  $1,424,200  in  1970  1  C. R. F o r r e s t e r and K. S. K e t c h e n , A Review o f the S t r a i t of G e o r g i a T r a w l F i s h e r y , B u l l e t i n 1 3 9 , F i s h e r i e s R e s e a r c h Board of Canada, Vancouver, 1 9 6 3 , p. 1 6 .  2i  K. S. K e t c h e n and C. R. F o r r e s t e r , " M i g r a t i o n s of the Lemon S o l e i n the S t r a i t of G e o r g i a , " P r o g r e s s R e p o r t s of the P a c i f i c S t a t i o n s , F i s h e r i e s R e s e a r c h Board of Canada, No. 1 0 4 , November, 1 9 5 5 , p. 1 1 .  F o r r e s t e r and K e t c h e n , op. c i t . , p. 5 .  117  FIGURE 7  MAJOR CONCENTRATIONS OF SALMON IN THE GULF OF GEORGIA  118 represents  l i t t l e change over the l a s t few years d e s p i t e the r e g i o n a l growth  in population.  TABLE I X Fish  COMMERCIAL CATCHES OF GROUNDFISH AND HERRING, 1970. T o t a l Landed Weight ( l b s ,• )  Landed Value  W h o l e s a l e Value  362,300  $121,232  $162,300  L i n g Cod  2,502,200  $278,800  $526,600  Grey Cod  2,107,000  $165,510  $330,700  Lemon Sole  1,246,800  $ 79,630  $203,400  Herring  2,300,000  $ 80,700  $201,200  Total  8,519,300  $725,872  $1,424,200  Halibut  H e r r i n g c a t c h e s however, have not remained c o n s t a n t and have f l u c t u a t e d 2 w i d e l y over the p a s t few y e a r s . particularly  f o r carnivorous  H e r r i n g a r e v i t a l t o the marine food  chain.  salmon, and i n terms o f sheer biomass, a r e 3  the dominant f i s h s p e c i e s o f t h e r e g i o n .  Although  the h e r r i n g f i s h e r y was  c l o s e d f o r the r e d u c t i o n i n d u s t r y ( f i s h m e a l , f e r t i l i z e r s ) d u r i n g the 1967-1968 s e a s o n , a l i m i t e d  f i s h e r y f o r b a i t and food purposes has  continued,  ''"Fisheries S e r v i c e , l o c . c i t .  2 F. H. C. T a y l o r , L i f e H i s t o r y and P r e s e n t S t a t u s of B r i t i s h Columbia H e r r i n g S t o c k s , B u l l e t i n , 143, F i s h e r i e s R e s e a r c h Board of Canada, 1964. ^W. E. B a r r a c l o u g h , "Occurrence of L a r v e l H e r r i n g i n the S t r a i t of G e o r g i a During 1966," J o u r n a l of F i s h e r i e s R e s e a r c h Board of Canada, V o l . 24, 1967.  119  FIGURE 8  GROUNDFISH AND HERRING IN THE GULF OF GEORGIA  120 most r e c e n t l y under an expanded quota system. Figure 8 presents  the major c o n c e n t r a t i o n s ' o f g r o u n d f i s h and h e r r i n g  i n G u l f w a t e r s and shows t h a t the f i s h a r e most p r o d i g i o u s a d j a c e n t t o the F r a s e r R i v e r mouth and a l o n g the e a s t c o a s t of Vancouver I s l a n d .  Marine I n v e r t e b r a t e s Marine i n v e r t e b r a t e s a r e e x t e n s i v e i n s p e c i e s and a r e d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the study r e g i o n .  W h i l e a l l of these organisms have h i g h  e c o l o g i c a l and a e s t h e t i c v a l u e , o n l y about f i v e have d i r e c t commercial importance.  F i g u r e 9 i l l u s t r a t e s the c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f prawns,  dungeness c r a b s , and o y s t e r s .  G e n e r a l l y , o y s t e r s a r e found i n the  i n t e r t i d a l zone, most o f t e n a l o n g the more p r o t e c t e d s h o r e s . s h r i m p , prawn and crab grounds a r e a d j a c e n t River.  shrimps,  Important  to the mouth of the F r a s e r  The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows c a t c h and v a l u e i n the study r e g i o n i n  TABLE X  COMMERCIAL CATCH OF PRAWNS, SHRIMPS, CRABS AND OYSTERS; 1970.  Invertebrate  T o t a l Landed Weight ( l b s . )  Landed V a l u e  Wholesale Value  Prawns ) ) Shrimps)  968,600  $261,820  Crabs  982,300  $176,340  $356,100  Oysters  Not  $512,000  $575,000  $950,160  $1,466,100  known  Total  1Fisheries Service, loc. c i t .  \  $535,000  121  FIGURE 9  MAJOR CONCENTRATIONS OF MARINE INVERTEBRATES IN THE GULF OF GEORGIA  122 Commercial F i s h i n g C r a f t The  study r e g i o n i s w i n t e r or home p o r t f o r over 70 p e r c e n t  of  the  p r o v i n c i a l f i s h i n g f l e e t w h i c h , i n 1971,  numbered over 5,000 c r a f t w i t h  an a s s e s s e d  However, w h i l e v e s s e l owners  v a l u e of over $68 m i l l i o n .  1  c a l l G u l f p o r t s home, o n l y a s m a l l f r a c t i o n of the f l e e t a c t u a l l y f i s h e s Gulf waters. ing  C r a f t w h i c h do f i s h G u l f w a t e r s v a r y i n type and  upon s p e c i e s c o m m e r c i a l l y  sought.  Also, l i t t l e  gear depend-  t r a n s i t i o n by  fishermen  from s p e c i e s to s p e c i e s occurs s i n c e c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t i n s p e c i a l gear warrants u n d i v e r s i f i e d e n t e r p r i z e . Salmon f i s h i n g i s l i m i t e d to g i l l - n e t t i n g of s o c k e y e , chum and pink concentrated  a t the F r a s e r s mouth and 1  t o t r o l l i n g f o r coho and  chinook a t s e v e r a l s t r a t e g i c p o i n t s throughout the G u l f . known how  many g i l l - n e t f i s h e r m e n  f i s h o n l y the F r a s e r e s t u a r y on a  y e a r l y b a s i s , i t has been e s t i m a t e d fiftavti:about one t r o l l e ' r s are r e s i d e n t to the G u l f .  W h i l e i t i s not  t o two hundred commercial  The m a j o r i t y of g r o u n d f i s h a r e  taken  by t r a w l from mid-October to mid-February w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of l i n g  cod,  p r a c t i c a l l y a l l o f w h i c h a r e taken by h a n d l i n e or by salmon t r o l l e r s  from  March 1 to November 30.  Commercial F i s h i n g C l o s u r e s Regulations  f o r commercial f i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s are numerous and  often location s p e c i f i c .  A r e a c l o s u r e s and gear r e s t r i c t i o n s a r e  are invoked  by the F i s h e r i e s S e r v i c e through the F i s h e r i e s A c t f o r i n f r e q u e n t p e r i o d s , w i t h the n a t u r e and d u r a t i o n of the r e s t r i c t i o n s s u b j e c t to change.  For  ''"Adapted from P a i s h (p. 234), t h i s t o t a l w i l l f u r t h e r d e c r e a s e w i t h the e f f e c t s of the F i s h e r i e s S e r v i c e L i c e n c e C o n t r o l Program.  123 t h i s r e a s o n , l i s t i n g c u r r e n t but p e r i o d i c a r e a c l o s u r e s and  fishing  r e g u l a t i o n s per se i s not t h a t v a l u a b l e t o the study because of the dynamic n a t u r e of these c o n t r o l s .  However, what i s i m p o r t a n t i s t h a t a  precedent has been s e t whereby p o r t i o n s of seaspace are r e s t r i c t e d t o o t h e r users.  Management p r a c t i c e s of t h i s n a t u r e may  a permanent or semi-annual b a s i s . an u n r e s t r i c t e d t e r r i t o r i a l  on  Saanich I n l e t , f o r example, w h i l e once  seaspace?,, i s now  and out of bounds f o r a l l commercial seaspacee. r e s t r i c t i o n s was  a p p l y t o c e r t a i n areas  a sports a n g l i n g preserve  fishing activity.^  The r o o t of these  l a r g e l y based upon programs f o r c o n s e r v i n g 2  v u l n e r a b l e s p e c i e s and m a i n t a i n i n g them a t e c o n o m i c a l l y a t t r a c t i v e  levels.  However, i n more r e c e n t c a s e s , the importance of the waters f o r another competing  use, s p o r t s f i s h i n g , has p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n the  e s t a b l i s h m e n t of new  regulations.  Water-Oriented R e c r e a t i o n Over the p a s t two decades, governments a t a l l l e v e l s have been h a r d p r e s s e d t o p r o v i d e a f u l l range of o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r outdoor The  recreation.  s t e a d y growth and u r b a n i z a t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n coupled w i t h i n c r e a s e d  d i s p o s a b l e income and l e i s u r e t i m e , b e t t e r h e a l t h , e d u c a t i o n , and  technology  are a few of the f a c t o r s which m u l t i p l y the demand p l a c e d on p r e s e n t  ''"Failure to conform to these r e g u l a t i o n s can mean s t i f f and the c o n f i s c a t i o n of boat and gear.  fines  These r e s t r i c t i o n s are most s t r i n g e n t f o r salmon f i s h e r i e s , however a l l commercial s p e c i e s have s i z e , q u o t a , season and f i s h i n g a r e a regulations.  124 1 recreational resources.  A mamouth s t u d y completed by the U n i t e d S t a t e s  Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n Resources Commission i n 1963 i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t r e c r e a t i o n i n g e n e r a l had grown 60 p e r c e n t from 1950 t o 1960, and f o r e c a s t an i n c r e a s e 2 i n outdoor r e c r e a t i o n o f over 80 p e r c e n t from 1960 t o 1976.  The same s t u d y  e s t i m a t e d t h a t t o t a l per c a p i t a l e i s u r e time would i n c r e a s e 2\ times from 3 1950 t o 2000.  Clawson s u b s t a n t i a t e d these statements and showed t h a t w h i l e  f i v e p e r c e n t of l e i s u r e time i s p r e s e n t l y spent on outdoor r e c r e a t i o n , by the  year 2000 t h i s percentage may i n c r e a s e t o t e n p e r c e n t , w h i c h c o u p l e d  w i t h population p r e d i c t i o n s f o r that date, w i l l  i n c r e a s e p r e s s u r e on  e x i s t i n g outdoor r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s by about f o r t y times over p r e s e n t 4 demands.  Thus, the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f more l e i s u r e t i m e , t o g e t h e r w i t h the  d e s i r e t o e n j o y i t and money t o s a t i s f y t h i s d e s i r e , a l l i n d i c a t e an urgemtrequitement  t o expand our r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p u r t u n i t i e s .  The complexrdnm of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i n the s t u d y r e g i o n w i l l be no e x c e p t i o n from the North. American s i t u a t i o n .  I f at a l l , estimates of i n -  ''"Lloyd B r o o k s , "Demand f o r R e c r e a t i o n Space i n Canada," R e g i o n a l and Resource P l a n n i n g i n Canada, R a l p h K r u g e r , e d . , T o r o n t o , 1970, pp. 225-236.  A. L. F e r r i s e t a l . , N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n Survey, Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n Resources Review Commission Study Report 19, Washington, 1962, p. 5.  3  Ibid.  M a r i o n Clawson and Jack L. K n e t s c h , Economics a t i o n , B a l t i m o r e , 1966, pp. 25-26.  o f Outdoor  Recre-  125 c r e a s e s i n outdoor r e c r e a t i o n as they a p p l y t o the G u l f r e g i o n may be conservative.  Over sev.enty p e r c e n t of the p r o v i n c i a l p o p u l a t i o n c u r r e n t l y  r e s i d e s w i t h i n the c o a s t l a n d s t u d y r e g i o n and f o r e c a s t s r e v e a l t h a t 1 population w i l l  i n c r e a s e t o over two m i l l i o n by 1980.  W h i l e not a l l of  these people w i l l be a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n some o v e r t form of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y , a growing number of the p o p u l a t i o n , p l u s the a n n u a l i n f l u x of t o u r i s t s , w i l l be a f f e c t e d , t o v a r y i n g d e g r e e , by changes r e c r e a t i o n a l and a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t y of the marine  i n the  environment.  The O.R.R.R.C. r e p o r t s demonstrated t h a t w a t e r - o r i e n t e d r e c r e a t i o n was by f a r the most p o p u l a r form of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y .  Water  b o d i e s , s a l t or f r e s h , d i s p l a y a unique e s o t e r i c a t t r a c t i o n f o r the r e c r e a t i o n a l i s t , unmatched by o t h e r n a t u r a l forms and w h i c h u n h i n d e r e d , can support a broad spectrum of a c t i v i t i e s .  For the s t u d y - r e g i o n ,  r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s can be d i v i d e d i n t o two groups  (1) those which are  conspicuous water s u r f a c e a c t i v i t i e s such as p l e a s u r e c r u i s i n g ,  sailing  and s p o r t s f i s h i n g and (2) those which a r e o f t e n l e s s c o n s p i c u o u s f o r e shore and i n t e r - t i d a l zone a c t i v i t i e s such as swimming, d i v i n g , sunb a t h i n g , p i c n i c i n g , w i l d f o w l o b s e r v a t i o n , and beach combing.  Despite t h e i r  s e a s o n a l magnitude, p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s and a r e a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s among v a r i o u s r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s are not g e n e r a l l y well-known and a r e des e r v i n g of g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n .  N o n e t h e l e s s , b o t h d i v i s i o n s of marine  r e c r e a t i o n a r e c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y a n a l y z e d below i n terms of t h e i r p r e s e n t p o s t u r e , i n t e n s i t y , and f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n s .  ^"B. C. Department of I n d u s t r i a l Development, Trade and Commerce, F o r e c a s t of P o p u l a t i o n Growth i n B r i t i s h Columbia to 2000, V i c t o r i a , 1971.  126 Recreational  Boating  i n the G u l f o f G e o r g i a  Boat-ownership and Moorage Recreational  boating  and boat-ownership i n any r e g i o n a r e r e l a t e d t o  c e r t a i n p h y s i c a l and human c o n s t r a i n t s .  Physical constraints  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as c l i m a t e , l e n g t h of b o a t i n g and uniqueness o f c r u i s i n g a r e a .  include  season, a c c e s s i b i l i t y  Social constraints include several  economic f a c t o r s such as p o p u l a t i o n  density, disposable  i n boat c o n s t r u c t i o n and r e l a t e d b o a t i n g  technology.  socio-  income, and changes  These f a c t o r s  inter-  r e l a t e i n a c o m p l i c a t e d f a s h i o n the outcome of w h i c h a r e r e g i o n a l b o a t ownership r a t e s c o n s i d e r a b l y  higher  than the n a t i o n a l average.  The  f o l l o w i n g t a b l e i l l u s t r a t e s the d i f f e r e n c e i n boat-ownership r a t e s f o r selected  areas.  TABLE X I  BOAT-OWNERSHIP RATES  Selected Area  Boats per 1000 P o p u l a t i o n  1  Canada  2  United  3  Ontario  35.0  4  New Brunswick  13.0  5  Nova S c o t i a  20.0  6  Quebec  10.0  7  California  16.5  8  Puget Sound  95.0  9  British  46.0  10  25.0 States  Columbia  40.8  Gulf of Georgia  53.0  a.  Vancouver  45.0  b.  Victoria  72.0  Table X I I - c o n t i n u e d Selected Area  127 Boats per 1000 P o p u l a t i o n  c.  Nanaimo  100.0  d.  Campbell R i v e r  e.  Powell River  124.0  f.  Gibson's  164.0  99.0  Landing  Comox Table  300.0>"  Sources:  A r e a s 1^7; K. B. C l a r k , A, Marine R e c r e a t i o n P l a n n i n g Methodology: A Case Study o f the G u l f I s l a n d s and the San Juan I s l a n d s , M. A. T h e s i s , U.B.C. , 1969 , p. 8. A r e a 8; Washington S t a t e Parks and R e c r e a t i o n Commission, P l e a s u r e B o a t i n g Study Puget Sound and A d j a c e n t Waters o f the S t a t e o f Washington, Olympia, 1969, p. 26. A r e a 9, 10 a. - g.; N. D. Lea and A s s o c i a t e s , A n a l y s i s on R e c r e a t i o n a l B o a t i n g i n the S t r a i t of G e o r g i a A r e a , B r i t i s h Columbia , Dept. o f P u b l i c Works, Vancouver, 1966, p. 27.  W h i l e the r e g i o n possesses  a population d i s t r i b u t i o n of a nodal  w i t h some o f the h i g h e s t wage e a r n e r s  nature  i n Canada, boat-ownership r a t e s a r e  more l i k e l y r e f l e c t e d by the p r o x i m i t y o f s h e l t e r e d w a t e r s and the a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o areas most s u i t e d t o marine r e c r e a t i o n .  The d i v e r s i t y of  b o a t i n g o p p o r t u n i t y and the a t t r a c t i v e c o a s t a l s c e n e r y a f f o r d e d by the region are probably  the key v a r i a b l e s i n the h i g h r e c r e a t i o n a l b o a t i n g  v a l u e o f the G u l f o f G e o r g i a . An e x h a u s t i v e i n v e n t o r y o f b o a t - o w n e r s h i p , types o f b o a t i n g  facilities  and b o a t - o r i e n t e d r e c r e a t i o n , a l o n g w i t h p r o j e c t i o n s o f f u t u r e growth and economic impact o f r e c r e a t i o n a l b o a t i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n the G u l f o f G e o r g i a , was completed f o r the Department of P u b l i c Works by N. D. L e a and A s s o c i a t e s i n 1966. Lea's survey i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e were 60,900  128 p l e a s u r e boat-owning households i n the r e g i o n who and by 1976 1000).''"  owned some 72,000 boats  t h i s number would i n c r e a s e to 106,800 c r a f t (61 boats  For p r e d i c t i v e p u r p o s e s , Lea found t h a t p o p u l a t i o n and  per  disposable  income were the most p r a c t i c a l and r e l i a b l e parameters from w h i c h to base p r o j e c t e d boat-ownership  totals.  More r e c e n t l y , P a i s h , i n a t t e m p t i n g  to update e a r l i e r r e c r e a t i o n a l b o a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , c o r r o b o r a t e d Lea's e s t i m a t e s and found  that, a compound growth f a c t o r of 5.3  2 c o n s i s t e n t l y r e p l i c a b l e w i t h these p r o j e c t i o n s . was  p e r c e n t appeared  T h e r e f o r e i n 1972, i t  e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e r e were 83,755 r e c r e a t i o n a l boats i n the study r e g i o n . 3  T h i s has been d i s a g g r e g a t e d by a r e a i n the f o l l o w i n g  TABLE X I I  NUMBER OF BOATS:  Area  1966,  1972.  1966  Sooke Parksville Nanaimo  Predicted  1,090  1,486  460  627  2,700  Ladysmith  table.  1972.  3,639  700  954  Duncan  2,500  3,408  Campbell R i v e r  1,070  1,459 ( c o n t i n u e d on Page  127)  '''N. D. L e a , op. c i t . , pp. 46-48. T h i s r e p o r t i n c l u d e d a s u r v e y of r e c r e a t i o n a l b o a t i n g f a c i l i t i e s i n V i c t o r i a - S o o k e a r e a w h i c h i s not i n c l u d e d w i t h i n the bounds o f t h i s study however, s i n c e most of these b o a t e r s have the a b i l i t y and o f t e n t i m e s f r e q u e n t G u l f w a t e r s , these f i g u r e s have not been d e l e t e d from Lea's t o t a l s i n c l u d e d below.  P a i s h , op. c i t . , p.  225.  Adapted from P a i s h , op. c i t . , p.  226.  129 Area  1966  Comox  4,800  6,581  Squamish  2,300  3,135  Powell River  1,600  2,206  10,000  13,710  22,700  31,838  4,100  5,557  Fraser V a l l e y  2,700  3,681  South Shore  4,180  5,475  60,900  83,755  Victoria Burrard North  Peninsula  Shore  Total  The e s t i m a t e d  P r e d i c t e d 1972  1972 v a l u e o f r e c r e a t i o n a l c r a f t was o b t a i n e d  from  market v a l u e i n f o r m a t i o n and i n t e r v i e w s of i n d i v i d u a l boat owners.  The  f o l l o w i n g t a b l e i s an e s t i m a t i o n of the v a l u e o f the f l e e t by p r i n c i p a l boat c l a s s e s f o r the G u l f r e g i o n based upon p e r c e n t a g e o f type and average s i z e of each c l a s s as r e p o r t e d by L e a .  TABLE X I I I  1  RECREATIONAL BOAT CLASS AND VALUE % o f Boat Population  Boat C l a s s  Estimated T o t a l Number  E s t . Average Value  Sailboat  2.7  2,261  Sailboat with auxiliary  3.8  3,183  11,058  35,197,614  Outboard  50.3  42,129  1,786  75,242,394  Inboard  11.2  9,381  14,116  132,422,196  Hand-operated and other  32.0  .26,801  . 200  5 ,360,200  100.0  83,755  Total  L e a , op. c i t . , p. 25, and p. 50.  $  728  Total Value $  1,646,008  $249,868,412  130 S t u d i e s o f marinas and moorage f a c i l i t i e s a r e more numerous f o r t h e G u l f r e g i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y on a more l o c a l i z e d s c a l e .  P a i s h s e t the r e -  placement v a l u e o f e x i s t i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l moorage i n the study r e g i o n i n 1972.at $49 million,"'" a f i g u r e w h i c h was a r r i v e d a t a f t e r u p d a t i n g  data  2 put forward  f i r s t by L e a , and l a t e r by H e n d l i n M e n z i e s .  Concern over  the i n c r e a s e i n r e c r e a t i o n a l b o a t i n g and the p r o v i s i o n o f moorage space r e s u l t e d i n an a n a l y s i s o f f e d e r a l government f a c i l i t i e s on t h e west c o a s t 3 4 by T. G. How i n 1967.  How's r e p o r t found the steady i n c r e a s e i n p l e a s u r e  c r a f t had c r e a t e d o v e r c r o w d i n g and c o n j e s t i o n a t e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s and t h a t government wharves w h i c h r e c e i v e d s i g n i f i c a n t use d u r i n g any or p a r t of t h e year should be m a i n t a i n e d  and more e c o n o m i c a l l y managed under the 5 terms o f the N a t i o n a l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n A c t . To aggregate t o t a l s from t h i s "'"Paish, op. c i t . , p. 228.  2 H e n d l i n Menzies and A s s o c i a t e s L t d . , The Economic P o t e n t i a l o f the West Coast F i s h e r i e s t o 1980, Report f o r the Department o f F i s h e r i e s and F o r e s t r y , Vancouver, 1971, ( u n p u b l i s h e d ) . 3 P e r s o n a l communication w i t h Cmdr. C h a r l e s B r o o k s , Harbours and Wharves . A'dmi-rii s:tr'a^ori,, Ma«r'iin'e"- SfeWiicW,, MftUiS'l&s^ oT&" T&Ws^pWft,, V/i'CtTor'ia, June 19, 1972. A  c  >  4 T. G. How, A Report on the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f S m a l l - B o a t Harbours on the West C o a s t . Department o f T r a n s p o r t , Vancouver, 1967.  Among o t h e r t h i n g s , the A c t d e c l a r e s t h a t each mode o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n so f a r as p r a c t i c a b l e , s h o u l d bear a f a i r p r o p o r t i o n o f the r e a l c o s t s o f the r e s o u r c e s and s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d a t p u b l i c expense. Since nominal f e e s were b e i n g charged f o r p u b l i c b o a t i n g f a c i l i t i e s , c o n s i d e r a t i o n was t o be g i v e n t o the degree t o w h i c h i t was f e a s i b l e t o p r o v i d e adequate management i n the l i g h t o f use made o f each f a c i l i t y and the w i l l i n g n e s s o f those u s i n g them t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e i r c o s t .  131 survey and from surveys of p r i v a t e f a c i l i t i e s  i n order t o a c c u r a t e l y  e s t i m a t e the number of moored c r a f t or berthage spaces i s a d i f f i c u l t s i n c e v e s s e l s i z e o b v i o u s l y i n f l u e n c e s the number of c r a f t which can accommodated a t any b o a t i n g f a c i l i t y .  Estimates  be  f o r G r e a t e r Vancouver  show t h a t onl>y about 8 p e r c e n t of a l l p l e a s u r e boat-owning households water moorage.  task  use  A p p l y i n g t h i s f i g u r e to G u l f boat t o t a l s would mean t h a t  t h e r e were a p p r o x i m a t e l y  10,500 r e c r e a t i o n a l c r a f t accommodated a t G u l f  2 facilities. ing  F i g u r e 10 i s a r e g i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n a l boat-  f a c i l i t i e s and  a c t i v i t i e s occur.  tends to r e f l e c t areas where more of the b o a t i n g Major c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f r e c r e a t i o n a l b o a t i n g  facilities  occur i n the Vancouver-Howe Sound a r e a , a t p o i n t s a l o n g the Sunshine i n the Campbell R i v e r - D e s o l a t i o n Sound a r e a , a t Nanaimo, a l o n g the P e n i n s u l a , and  Coast,  Saanich  i n the G u l f I s l a n d s .  The  f e d e r a l s t u d i e s , a l o n g w i t h s e v e r a l s m a l l e r i n q u i r i e s completed 3 4 by p r i v a t e c o n s u l t i n g companies and m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s have  ''"Nelson, op. c i t . , p.  26.  T h i s f i g u r e c o r r e l a t e s f a i r l y w e l l w i t h P a i s h ' s t o t a l of 12,796 which a l s o i n c l u d e d combined p l e a s u r e and f i s h i n g c r a f t .  A s s o c i a t e d E n g i n e e r i n g S e r v i c e s L t d . , and Swan Wooster E n g i n e e r i n g L t d . , P r e l i m i n a r y F e a s i b i l i t y Study o f the Proposed Tsawwassen M a r i n a Development, Vancouver, J a n u a r y , 1966; and Swan Wooster E n g i n e e r i n g L t d . , A Proposed S m a l l C r a f t M a r i n a a t L a d n e r , B. C. M u n i c i p a l i t y of D e l t a , L a d n e r , 1970.  John K. Decker, Economic Outlook of P o i n t Roberts and E f f e c t s of a Proposed Harbour, Whatcom County P l a n n i n g Commission, B e l l i n g h a m , 1965; and Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g Department, Proposed Marina Development f o r S p a n i s h B a n k s - P o i n t Grey A r e a , 1964, ( u n p u b l i s h e d ) .  131a  FIGURE 10  RECREATIONAL BOATING FACILITIES IN THE GULF OF GEORGIA  132 p r o v i d e d a w e a l t h of i n f o r m a t i o n on the n a t u r e and o p e r a t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n a l boating f a c i l i t i e s  i n the G u l f r e g i o n .  proven t h a t w i t h i n the study (1)  I n g e n e r a l , these s t u d i e s have  area:  There i s a steady i n c r e a s e i n r e g i o n a l boat ownership w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n a c o n s i s t e n t and growing demand f o r wet berthage,  (2)  There i s a s c a r c i t y of n a t u r a l l y s h e l t e r e d h a r b o u r s ,  and  Victoria.  Moorage occupancy r a t e s v a r y summer to w i n t e r and can be a f f e c t e d  a.  the s i z e of c r a f t  b.  the range of a v a i l a b l e s e r v i c e s  c.  the p e c u l i a r i t i e s of b o a t i n g f a c i l i t y  to  s i t e , e.g.  While boating f a c i l i t i e s  s h i p a t new  centre, proximity  range i n , s i z e from s e v e r a l c r a f t  to  c r a f t , t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s e i n member-  and e x i s t i n g s a i l i n g c l u b s , and y a c h t and  a s s o c i a t i o n s w h i c h operate  The  degree  f a v o u r e d marine r e c r e a t i o n .  marinas of over 1,500  Boating  facility.  Moorage charges f l u c t u a t e r e g i o n a l l y and are i n f l u e n c e d by  of s h e l t e r , d i s t a n c e away from p o p u l a t e d  (5)  particularly  c e n t e r s of Vancouver  by the degree of s h e l t e r o f f e r e d a t a p a r t i c u l a r (4)  dry  and a n c i l l a r y marine s e r v i c e s .  w i t h i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o the p o p u l a t e d  (3)  and  has  from these  powerboat  facilities.  Patterns temperate c l i m a t e of the G u l f of G e o r g i a  r e c r e a t i o n a l b o a t i n g season i n Canada.  The  permits  the  longest  Canadian Y a c h t i n g A s s o c i a t i o n  d e f i n e d the b o a t i n g season as t h a t p a r t of the year when 90 p e r c e n t  of  133 the b o a t i n g a c t i v i t i e s o c c u r .  1  The b o a t i n g season a l s o tends t o  c o r r e s p o n d t o t h a t p a r t o f the year when d a i l y temperatures exceed 50°F 2 w h i c h , f o r the s t u d y r e g i o n , amounts t o over 200 days a n n u a l l y .  Clark  found t h a t 47 p e r c e n t o f the b o a t i n g days o c c u r r e d i n J u l y and A u g u s t , a 3 f i g u r e which r e s u l t e d from g r e a t e r summer and v a c a t i o n a c t i v i t y . RecY^ta^on  1  days f  o  r  b o a t e r s were d i v i d e d among a number of a c t i v i t i e s  such as c r u i s i n g , r a c i n g , w a t e r - s k i i n g , f i s h i n g and s a i l i n g . P a i s h , r e w o r k i n g Lea's d a t a , c a l c u l a t e d t h a t t h e r e was an average of 50 o u t i n g s per year per b o a t , and t h a t through m u l t i u s e , the average number o f r e c r e a t i o m d a y s per boat was 170 days.  Assuming no n o t i c e a b l e  change i n boat usage p a t t e r n s , t h i s f i g u r e was m u l t i p l i e d by the e s t i m a t e d boat t o t a l o f 83,755 which r e s u l t e d i n a t o t a l o f 14.3 m i l l i o n r e c r e a t i o n  ''"Personnal communication w i t h Tony P a i g e r , Commodore,, Ladner Yacht C l u b , August 24, 1972.  2 L e a , op. c i t . , p. 9,  3 C l a r k , op. c i t . , p. 170.  4 R e c r e a t i o n day i s d e f i n e d as one p e r s o n u t i l i z i n g a boat f o r a p a r t o f one day.  M u l t i u s e i n t h i s sense means more than one p e r s o n per boat and c a l c u l a t e d by P a i s h , t o be an average of 3.41 persons ( r e c r e a t i o n days) per boat day.  6 P a i s h , op. c i t . , p. 240.  134 b o a t i n g days per year f o r the G u l f .  1  I n t u i t i v e l y these f i g u r e s seem  somewhat h i g h and are the r e s u l t of a survey of m a r i n a - o r i e n t e d owners.  boat  A l t h o u g h a w e a l t h i e r and more p a r t i c i p a t o r y segment of the  f r a t e r n i t y , they r e p r e s e n t  l e s s than 10 p e r c e n t  m a j o r i t y of w h i c h are t r a i l e r e d to and  of the f l e e t , the  from a l a u n c h i n g  site.  i s a l s o not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y of magnitude, the s p o r t s f i s h e r y , where the n a t u r e  boating  greater  This  total  greatest  of a c t i v i t y has wider s o c i o 2  economic a p p e a l , and where the average number of persons per boat i s l e s s . T h i s counter  argument i s f u r t h e r c o r r o b o r a t e d  by the F i s h e r i e s S e r v i c e  who  p u b l i s h salmon s p o r t s f i s h i n g c a t c h s t a t i s t i c s f o r the G u l f of G e o r g i a w h i c h show t h a t the e f f o r t of s p o r t s f i s h e r m e n amounted t o over 340,000 f i s h and 3 r e c r e a t i o n a l b o a t i n g days.  i n G u l f waters i n  s l i g h t l y over 2.0  1970  m i l l i o n s a l t w a t e r angle  With r e c r e a t i o n a l c r u i s i n g considered  t o be  the second major b o a t i n g a c t i v i t y a f t e r a n g l i n g i n the study r e g i o n , i t became more apparent t h a t P a i s h ' s i s somewhat h i g h and  t o t a l of 14.3  m i l l i o n r e c r e a t i o n days  t h a t a f i g u r e i n the neighbourhood of 5-7 4  r e c r e a t i o n a l b o a t i n g days per year would be more p r a c t i c a l .  million  Refinement  1 *~W. R. D. S e w e l l , and J . R o s t r o n , R e c r e a t i o n a l F i s h i n g E v a l u a t i o n t . F o r e s t r y , Ottawa, F e b r u a r y , 1970, p. 88. Department .IRa.i'sh, of F i s h eop. r i e cs iand  F i s h e r i e s S e r v i c e , P a c i f i c R e g i o n , Salmon Sport f i s h i n g C a t c h S t a t i s t i c s f o r the T i d a l Waters of B. C , 1970, Vancouver, 1971, p. 5, (revised t o t a l s ) .  T h i s assumption based on L e a , S e w e l l , and the P a c i f i c Northwest R i v e r B a s i n s Commission, Puget Sound Task F o r c e , Puget Sound and A d j a c e n t Waters Comprehensive Water and R e l a t e d Land Resources S t u d y , Summary Report Vancouver, Washington, 1971.  135 of these e s t i m a t e s can o n l y be o b t a i n e d w i t h the c o l l e c t i o n of data all  aspects of r e c r e a t i o n a l b o a t i n g  activities.  Increased boat ownership and b o a t i n g a c t i v i t y has c r e a t e d use a t and near moorage areas i n E n g l i s h Bay, Oak  Bay,  and Departure  Bay d u r i n g s p r i n g and  of p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n a l c r a f t has  on  Swartz Bay,  intensified  Horsehoe  summer p e r i o d s .  The  Bay, flexibility  prompted the Parks Branch of the  p r o v i n c i a l government to m a i n t a i n an a c t i v e program of s h o r e l i n e a c q u i s i t i o n w i t h i n p r i n c i p a l c r u i s i n g areas.  F i g u E e J l l i l l u s t r a t e s e x i s t i n g and  marine p a r k s , as w e l l as e c o l o g i c a l r e s e r v e s frequented by s p o r t s and r e c r e a t i o n a l s a i l i n g  R e c r e a t i o n a l Foreshore  proposed  fishermen  craft.  Activities  There are over 2,400 m i l e s of s h o r e l i n e i n the study r e g i o n which o f f e r a veritable  "pandora's box"  the b o a t - o r i e n t e d and f o r e s h o r e arouses and  of d i v e r s i f i e d r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y to both  shore-oriented r e c r e a t i o n a l i s t .  The  inter-tidal  the most n a t u r a l c u r i o s i t y about the marine environment  i t i s i n t h i s zone t h a t thel%ulik tdfe t l ^  the sea engaging  i n a range of a c t i v i t i e s which i n c l u d e swimming, sun  b a t h i n g , d i v i n g , p i c n i c i n g , s i g h t - s e e i n g , f i s h i n g , h u n t i n g , beachcombing and nature study.  Some of the predominant r e c r e a t i o n a l beach areas  a l s o i l l u s t r a t e d by F i g u r e I t i s estimated  11.  t h a t over one h a l f of the t o t a l  s h o r e l i n e can  • C l a s s i f i e d as r e c r e a t i o n a l beach which can be d e f i n e d as any s l o p i n g i n t e r t i d a l a r e a r a n g i n g i n c o m p o s i t i o n from g r a v e l and  are  intermixed boulders.  e a s i l y outdraw a l l other outdoor  f i n e sand  gently to coarse  On a warm summer day, beach areas recreational a c t i v i t i e s .  b e a c h - o r i e n t e d r e c r e a t i o n can s u s t a i n a remarkably  be  will  At the same time,  high carrying capacity  136 w i t h o u t severe d e p r a d a t i o n t o the q u a l i t y of the r e s o u r c e .  1  The p o p u l a t i o n  of the study r e g i o n i s indeed f o r t u n a t e t h a t most of the b e s t beach a r e a s are i n the s o u t h e r n s e c t i o n s o f the G u l f , many o f which a r e r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e and i n p u b l i c ownership.  But w h i l e the q u a l i t y of f o r e s h o r e  v a r i e s , the s u p p l y o f p u b l i c s h o r e l i n e r e l a t i v e t o the growth o f p o p u l a t i o n is r a p i d l y decreasing.  A study by the Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g  Board showed t h a t the amount of p u b l i c beach f r o n t a g e f e e t per thousand p o p u l a t i o n had decreased  f o r G r e a t e r Vancouver from 100 f e e t i n 1941, t o  l e s s than 70 f e e t by 1965.  Based on the O.R.R.R.C., the recommended  s t a n d a r d o f 88 f e e t / t h o u s a n d persons means the a c q u i s i t i o n of another m i l e s o f beach w i t h i n the lower mainland  twenty  t o supplement the 14.6 m i l e s  2 presently set aside f o r r e c r e a t i o n . demonstrated  Another  s t u d y o f the G u l f I s l a n d s  t h a t w a t e r f r o n t lands p r e v i o u s l y thought  i s o l a t e d have quadrupled  t o be cheap and  i n v a l u e over the l a s t twenty y e a r s .  Only 3 per  cent or s l i g h t l y over 6\ w a t e r f r o n t m i l e s a r e p r e s e n t l y i n p u b l i c the r e s t a r e p r i v a t e l y a l i e n a t e d p r e d o m i n a n t l y  ownership, 3  i na recreational capacity.  W h i l e crude e s t i m a t e s have b'een put f o r w a r d f o r the t o t a l number o f '''As an i n d i c a t i o n , the Vancouver Parks Board e s t i m a t e s t h a t n e a r l y 4 m i l l i o n r e c r e a t i o n days of use take p l a c e on the beaches of S t a n l e y Park annually.  Lower .,'Main.l'ahdR Regional? PaL'anhijigifBoard jv;W'a;teibf non&.;L-ahds in"'.the Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n , T e c h n i c a l Reprorit., New W e s t m i n s t e r , 1966, p. 34. ;  C a p i t a l R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , G u l f I s l a n d s Study, V i c t o r i a , 1970, p. 18.  137  FIGURE 11  MARINE PARKS, BEACHES, AND ECOLOGICAL RESERVES IN THE GULF OF GEORGIA  138 r e g i o n a l beach days or f o r e s h o r e o u t i n g s , estimates  i s questionable  1  the r e l i a b i l i t y  o f these  i n the'long r u n , and p a r t i c u l a r l y when these  p r o j e c t i o n s have been e x t r a p o l a t e d from s u b - r e g i o n a l s t u d i e s and a p p l i e d to  the G u l f i n i t s e n t i r e l y .  These d a t a c a n o n l y be c o n s i d e r e d  as s h o r t -  run i n d i c a t o r s s i n c e the q u a n t i t y of f o r e s h o r e r e c r e a t i o n i n which people p a r t i c i p a t e i s p a r t l y dependent on the o p p o r t u n i t i e s and c o n t i n u e d of a v a i l a b l e a t t r a c t i o n s .  Future p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n foreshore nature  quality study  i s i n p a r t r e l a t e d t o the changing p e r o g a t i v e s of s o c i e t y but dependent upon the a d a p t a t i o n and endurance o f the a p p r e c i a b l e f l o r a and fauna t o 2  changing e n v i r o n m e n t a l  conditions.  I n c r e a s i n g demand f o r s h o r e l i n e and f o r e s h o r e r e c r e a t i o n a l space w i l l p r o b a b l y r e s u l t i n c o n f l i c t over the d e s i g n a t i o n o f use f o r w a t e r f r o n t 3 l a n d r a t h e r than i n c r e a s e d i s s e n t i o n among commercial sea space: u s e r s . However, the g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l damage t o r e c r e a t i o n a l f o r e s h o r e s can be i n c u r r e d by o i l p o l l u t i o n from commercial s h i p p i n g t r a f f i c .  W h i l e the  c o s t o f a d i s r u p t i o n t o the commercial f i s h e r y c a n be c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y e v a l u a t e d , e s t i m a t i o n s o f secondary e f f e c t s such as the p e r i o d i c l o s s o f r e c r e a t i o n a l b e n e f i t s t o r e s i d e n t s and d o l l a r - s p e n d i n g t o u r i s t s  through  r e d u c t i o n s i n the q u a l i t y o f the " r e c r e a t i o n a l package" a r e e x t r e m e l y P a i s h , (p,40) e s t i m a t e d a t o t a l o f 15,000,000 i n d i v i d u a l r e c r e a t i o n a l f o r e s h o r e days w i t h i n the study r e g i o n a n n u a l l y . 1  2  L. R u s s e l l , and H. P a i s h , W a t e r f o w l P o p u l a t i o n s and Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n O p p o r t u n i t y on the F r a s e r D e l t a F o r e s h o r e s , B. C. W i l d f o w l F e d e r a t i o n , Vancouver, June, 1968.  I n c o n g r u i t i e s a l s o occur between f o r e s h o r e a c t i v i t i e s where r e c r e a t i o n a l i s t s engage i n s p o r t s f i s h i n g and w a t e r - s k i i n g w i t h a c o n s t r i c t e d area.  139 d i f f i c u l t to assess.  Most a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s  i n the offshore,-, and i n t e r t i d a l zones c a t e r s p r i m a r i l y t o the mechanics of an i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t y w i t h o u t documentation of the q u a l i t y - a p p e a l of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o o t h e r a s p e c t s c o a s t l a n d environment.  of the  R e c r e a t i o n a l u s e r s , i n t u r n , who a r e t o o f r e q u e n t l y  c o n f i n e d t o s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s o f t e n take f o r g r a n t e d between s c e n i c / a e s t h e t i c and marine  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  resources.  Tourism and Marine R e c r e a t i o n Probably  the g r e a t e s t drawing c a r d of t h e c o a s t l a n d environment i s i t s  a e s t h e t i c and s c e n i c d i v e r s i t y , e s p e c i a l l y f o r f i r s t - t i m e v i s i t o r s . t h i s f a c t i s not w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d  However,  i n the l i t e r a t u r e which d e a l s w i t h the  a r r i v a l o f f o r e i g n v i s i t o r s t o Canadian w a t e r s ,  their spatial  and economic assessments o f t h e i r v a c a t i o n e x p e n d i t u r e s .  distributions,  There a r e f i g u r e s  w h i c h r e l a t e t h a t 8,150 f o r e i g n r e c r e a t i o n a l c r a f t c l e a r e d Canadian Customs p o r t s i n the G u l f i n 1969, and i n c r e a s e o f n e a r l y 200 p e r c e n t t o t a l of 3295.  1  There a r e a l s o government  from the 1959  s t u d i e s w h i c h i n d i c a t e the  f o r e i g n v i s i t o r s t o Canadian w a t e r s engage i n much the same r e c r e a t i o n a l 2 a c t i v i t i e s a v a i l a b l e to coastland r e s i d e n t s .  But t h e r e has been  little  or no e x p l o r a t i o n o f the importance o f the a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t y o f the marine environment or o f p l a c e s such as S a a n i c h  I n l e t , the G u l f I s l a n d s , and Howe  ''"William S i n c l a i r , The P a r t i c i p a t i o n by U n i t e d S t a t e s R e s i d e n t s i n the West Coast T i d a l Sport F i s h e r y , F i s h e r i e s S e r v i c e , Economics B r a n c h , Vancouver, 1969, p. 8.  A preponderance o f s t u d i e s have d e a l t w i t h b o a t - o r i e n t e d v i s i t o r s engaged i n the s a l t w a t e r s p o r t s f i s h e r y of G u l f w a t e r s .  140 Sound, to the t o t a l r e c r e a t i o n a l v a c a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e .  R e c e n t l y , an  academic work a s s e s s i n g the c r u i s i n g e x p e r i e n c e f o r b o a t e r s to D e s o l a t i o n Sound has shone some l i g h t on f o r m e r l y n e g l e c t e d r e c r e a t i o n a l  quality-  1 experience  aspects.  I t seems u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t s o c i e t y must w a i t u n t i l the q u a l i t y of the r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e d e t e r i o r a t e s b e f o r e the c r i s i s i s acknowledged, s t u d i e s i n t o problems are commissioned, and s t e p s to a m e l i o r a t e d e t e r i o r a t i n g s i t u a t i o n are t a k e n . a greater understanding  To prevent  the  t h i s from becoming a r e a l i t y ,  of the i m p o r t a n t parameters which u n d e r l i e the  marine r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e need to be i d e n t i f i e d and are s u i t a b l y a p p r e c i a t e d and  these parameters  i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o marine management as w e l l  as r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s . The D i s p o s a l of Wastes i n the G u l f of  Georgia  For more than a hundred y e a r s , the G u l f of Georgia has been a r e c e p t a c l e f o r a h o s t of domestic  and  i n d u s t r i a l wastes.  the g e n e r a l concensus of o p i n i o n by both the engineer and p u b l i c was  t h a t the sea c o u l d handle  the t a s k , c h e a p l y and  Ocean o u t f a l l s f o r storm d r a i n s , domestic  of t h i n k i n g .  the g e n e r a l efficiently.  dewage,and u n t r e a t e d wastes  which occur a d j a c e n t to a l l c o a s t l a n d communities and a r e s u l t of t h i s way  During t h i s p e r i o d ,  industrial sites  are  W i t h the e x c e p t i o n of s e v e r a l t i d e w a t e r  i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s which are r e q u i r e d by law to remove h a r m f u l i m p u r i t i e s from t h e i r o u t f a l l w a s t e s , t h e r e are no sewage systems e n t e r i n g the G u l f  B i l l W o l f e r s t a n , D e s o l a t i o n Sound, A R e c r e a t i o n a l B o a t i n g E x p e r i e n c e , M.A. T h e s i s , S.F.U., 1971.  141 w h i c h have more than p r i m a r y t r e a t m e n t o f w a s t e s .  Greater population  d e n s i t i e s and i n c r e a s e d i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s have i n c r e a s e d the i n c i d e n c e of p o l l u t i o n of the a d j a c e n t hydrosphere and have l e d , a f t e r growing s c i e n t i f i c and p u b l i c c o n c e r n , t o a g r a d u a l r e a p p r a i s a l o f waste  disposal  practices. S t u d i e s completed by p e r s o n n e l o f the F i s h e r i e s Research Board o f Canada f o r the G u l f r e g i o n have c e n t r e d p r i m a r i l y upon the e f f e c t s o f the movement and b i o d e g r a t i o n o f domestic sewage^and p u l p and paper m i l l 2 wastes on the marine environment.  G e n e r a l l y , i t has been found t h a t t h e  a b i l i t y o f the G u l f ' s marine environment t o a s s i m i l a t e the wastes depend l a r g e l y on t h e n a t u r e and magnitude  of the waste and the p h y s i c a l  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the p a r t i c u l a r marine environment i n t o w h i c h the wastes a r e b e i n g d i s c h a r g e d . A t p r e s e n t , l a r g e volumes o f domestic sewage a r e b e i n g r e l e a s e d o n l y thousands o f f e e t from r e c r e a t i o n a l s h o r e s a d j a c e n t V i c t o r i a and south Vancouver.  I n the l a t t e r c a s e , t h i s i s i n an a r e a  w h i c h e a r l i e r s e c t i o n s o f t h i s c h a p t e r have a l s o shown t o be h i g h l y product i v e f o r j u v e n i l e salmon and g r o u n d f i s h .  I n b o t h cases where l a r g e amounts  of u n c h l o r i n a t e d sewage a r e b e i n g r e l e a s e d , the f a t e o f the b a c t e r i a and 3 v i r u s e s i n nearshore areas i s not w e l l understood. Waldichuk noted t h a t S . T a b a t a , e t . a l . , C u r r e n t V e l o c i t i e s i n the v i c i n i t y o f t h e G r e a t e r Vancouver Sewerage and Drainage D i s t r i c t O u t f a l l , Report f o r the G.V.S.D.D., 1968; and C. J . Keenan e t . a l . , C u r r e n t O b s e r v a t i o n s i n Cordova Bay and P r e d i c t i o n s on Sewage D i s p o s a l , F i s h e r i e s Research Board o f Canada, M a n u s c r i p t Report No. 197, 1966. 1  2 M. W a l d i c h u k , "Marine A s p e c t s o f P u l p M i l l P o l l u t i o n , " P u l p and Paper I n d u s t r y , V o l . 15, 1962, pp. 36-40, 42-45.  Canadian  G. T. O r l o b , " V i a b i l i t y o f Sewage B a c t e r i a i n Sea Water," Sewage and I n d u s t r i a l Wastes, V o l . 28, 1956, pp. 1147-1167.  142 o n l y when sewage e f f l u e n t i s taken through t e r t i a r y t r e a t m e n t and i n d u s t r i a l wastes a r e f u l l y t r e a t e d can i t be s a i d t h a t t h e r e i s no r i s k to n a t u r a l waters.^  U n c o n t r o l l e d waste d i s p o s a l i n the marine  environment  o f f e r s one o f the most s e r i o u s t h r e a t s t o the c o n t i n u a n c e o f s e v e r a l competing a c t i v i t i e s and w i l l o n l y be brought under c o n t r o l by s t r i c t e r l e g i s l a t i o n for a l l parties involved.  The contemporary  argument*, t h a t the  p r o h i b i t i v e c o s t s o f c o n s t r u c t i n g treatment f a c i l i t i e s exceeds  the f i n a n c i a l  r e s o u r c e s o f m u n i c i p a l governments l o o s e s much c r e d i b i l i t y when i t i s e s t i m a t e d what these p l a n t s w i l l c o s t i n another t e n y e a r s o f i n f l a t i o n a r y building costs.  A t the same t i m e , i t i s a l s o much ieiasri'.e-r and much l e s s  c o s t l y t o develop a sound p l a n f o r the e l i m i n a t i o n o f domestic and 2 i n d u s t r i a l w a s t e s , than i t i s t o t r y t o c o r r e c t p o l l u t e d w a t e r s .  Chapter Summary:  Trends and Emerging  P a t t e r n s o f Water Use i n the G u l f o f  Georgia The p r e c e e d i n g s e c t i o n s o f t h i s c h a p t e r have o u t l i n e d the p r e s e n t p a t t e r n s o f water use i n the G u l f of G e o r g i a .  I t was the i n t e n t o f the  a u t h o r t o o u t l i n e c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y the n a t u r e o f each f u n c t i o n a l use through a d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s w h i c h brought f o r t h those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t i e s which were c o n s i d e r e d t o be p o t e n t i a l l y damaging t o the marine environment, s p a t i a l l y consumptive  o f c o n s t r i c t e d waterways, or  o b v i o u s l y i n c o n g r u o u s w i t h o t h e r sea-s^pace^. and w a t e r f r o n t u s e r s .  The  emphasis p l a c e d upon each a c t i v i t y was r e l a t e d t o i t s magnitude r a t h e r  ''"M. W a l d i c h u k , " P o l l u t i o n i n C o a s t a l Waters o f B r i t i s h Columbia," P a c i f i c P r o g r e s s R e p o r t s , No. 114, F i s h e r i e s Research Board o f Canada, 1962, pp. 13-18.  M. W a l d i c h u k , "Waste D i s p o s a l i n R e l a t i o n t o the P h y s i c a l Environment--Oceanographic A s p e c t s , " S y e s i s , V o l . 1, December, 1968, p. 25.  143 than from an assumed v a l u e judgement o f i t s o v e r a l l p r i o r i t y i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h other f u n c t i o n a l uses.  Thus, i f a statement f a v o u r i n g any  individual  or group of f u n c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i s made, i t i s the r e s u l t of a  systematic  measurement of c u r r e n t a c t i v i t i e s i n accordance w i t h f u t u r e p r o j e c t i o n s . To t h i s end, f i v e g e n e r a l i z e d c o n c l u s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g f u t u r e s t a t e of water use of the study r e g i o n can be put (1)  the p r e s e n t  and  forward.  There has been a c o n s i s t e n t i n c r e a s e i n demand f o r the m u l t i p l e use of water r e s o u r c e s  of the study r e g i o n by a l l f u n c t i o n a l  users. (2)  During  the next twenty y e a r s , economic and  social  trends  determined f o r the c o a s t l a n d p o i n t to commercial s h i p p i n g  and  marine r e c r e a t i o n as the l a r g e s t s i n g l e consumers of w a t e r s p a c e w i t h i n the study r e g i o n . (3)  The most dominant v i s i b l e form of a c t i v i t y and  the a c t i v i t y i n  which p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l be the g r e a t e s t w i l l be w i t h i n the broad r e a l m of marine r e c r e a t i o n . (4)  No matter how  s t r i n g e n t l y c o n t r o l l e d , i n c r e a s e d use by a l l  f u n c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s w i l l cause g r e a t e r s t r e s s on the n a t u r a l systems of the marine environment. (5)  There i s an i n c r e a s e d s o c i a l awareness of e n v i r o n m e n t a l and a growing d e s i r e to p r e s e r v e  problems,  the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y  aspects  of the r e g i o n a l c o a s t l a n d . W h i l e the f i r s t t h r e e o b s e r v a t i o n s are p r i m a r i l y g e n e r a l i z e d demand statements f o r i n c r e a s e d water use  i n the G u l f , the l a t t e r two  the outcome of t h i s i n c r e a s e d a c t i v i t y .  represent  I n c o n t r a s t to Chapter I V ,  there  appears to be a d e f i n i t e swing away from a sea space?, w i t h p r i m a r i l y an economic purpose to one w h i c h i n c o r p o r a t e s c u m u l a t i v e  social  definition.  144 T h i s i s i n p a r t due t o the outward movement o f commercial f i s h i n g c r a f t but more so t o the i n c r e a s e d people and a g r e a t e r increased  population  of coastland  centres.  W i t h more  i n p u t o f t e c h n o l o g y , a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the r e g i o n has  w h i c h , i n t u r n , has d e c r e a s e d the temporal components o f i n t e r n a l  marine c i r c u l a t i o n s . creasing  I n a s e n s e , the G u l f o f G e o r g i a i s a n n u a l l y de-  i n s i z e s i n c e u s e r s such as r e c r e a t i o n a l i s t s now have the a b i l i t y  to v e n t u r e f u r t h e r  afield.  W h i l e f o r many y e a r s , commercial u s e r s have been c o n s i d e r e d the p r o v e r b i a l bugaboo o f c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s , more a t t e n t i o n i s b e i n g p a i d t o the i n c r e a s i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e r s who crowd the marine e n v i r o n m e n t , and who, by t h e i r sheer numbers, o f f e r a new t h r e a t t o the s t a n d a r d s o f q r a a l i t y of the r e s o u r c e .  E n v i r o n m e n t a l management w h i c h most e f f i c i e n t l y  satisfies  a l l u s e r s c a n o n l y be e f f e c t i v e through p u b l i c s u p p o r t , the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of r a t i o n a l c o n t r o l s , and the development o f b e t t e r p r a c t i c e s and l e g i s l a tion.  But t o a c c o m p l i s h t h i s g o a l r e q u i r e s a s u c c i n c t assessment o f the  s t a t e o f p r e s e n t f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e s and m u n i c i p a l applicable The  controls  t o the marine environment and complimentary t o these problems.  f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r i n v e s t i g a t e s the r e l e v a n t  l e g i s l a t i o n to f i n d :  tiif3>ith;ha s been developed m e r e l y t o s u i t the i d i o s y n c r a c i e s o f i n d i v i d u a l :  u s e r s or whether s t a t u t e s p e r t i n e n t  t o the G u l f e x h i b i t c l a u s e s  p e r m i t and encourage m u l t i p l e u s e , or make s p e c i a l d i s p e n s a t i o n p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e marine environment  which f o r the  145  CHAPTER VI  MARINE CONTROLS AND  THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO CURRENT AND  WATER USE "For i t so f a l l  IN THE  FUTURE FUNCTIONAL  GULF OF GEORGIA  out  That what we have we p r i z e not to the w o r t h W h i l e s we Why  enjoy i t ; but b e i n g l a c k e d and  then we r a c k the v a l u e , then we  lost  find  The v i r t u e , t h a t p o s s e s s i o n would show us W h i l e s i t was  ours." W i l l i a m Shakespeare Much Ado About N o t h i n g  Canada i s e x c e e d i n g l y e v e r , the m u n i f i c e n c e  f o r t u n a t e to be c r a d l e d by t h r e e oceans.  of o f f s h o r e areas and  the major r o l e they p l a y i n  the f u l f i l m e n t of n a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s have y e t to be e n t i r e l y Our  appreciated.  t r u s t e e s h i p of t e r r e s t r i a l spaces l e a v e s much to be d e s i r e d .  it is s t i l l  i n a p o s i t i v e s t a t e , a concerted  How-  While  e f f o r t i s needed on the p a r t  of the p u b l i c , i n d u s t r y and government to ensure t h a t a v a r i c o u s use  and  mismanagement does not s p i l l over to the marine environment where the resource  i s more e a s i l y t a r n i s h e d and  less easily  reclaimed.  Canada's Role i n the C o a s t a l Zone  The  i n c r e a s i n g awareness of the o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e i n the marine  environment has  t h r u s t a new  c h a l l e n g e upon Canadians to meet the domestic  146 and  i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of being a maritime n a t i o n .  becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e seas o f f her c o a s t ,  As Canada  the r e s p o n s i b i l -  i t i e s o f managers a t a l l l e v e l s o f government and a l s o a t the l e v e l o f the p r i v a t e land and water manager v i s - a - v i s Canadian needs i n o f f s h o r e areas w i l l  multiply.  H i s t o r i c a l l y , n a t i o n a l p o s t u r e i n t h e c o a s t a l zone toward r e s o u r c e s development, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , r e c r e a t i o n , waste d i s p o s a l , and o t h e r uses o f the m a r i t i m e areas has been myopic, r e f l e c t i n g i n d i v i d u a l p o l i c y f o c i and programs aims w h i c h o f t e n worked t o j e o p a r d i z e functions.  the c o n t i n u a t i o n  of other  The common p r o p e r t y r i g h t o f each user t o u t i l i z e the n a t u r a l  system, p l u s  the s e g m e n t a t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y between government a g e n c i e s ,  meant t h a t the marine environment was seldom viewed or managed h o l i s t i c a l l y , nor  d i d t h e economic and c u l t u r a l b e n e f i t s a c c r u e t o t h e n a t i o n on the  whole.  Commensurate w i t h the terms of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , the o p p o r t u n i t i e s  p r o v i d e d by t h e c o a s t a l seas a r e t h e b i r t h r i g h t o f a l l who l i v e w i t h i n the federated sea.  state rather  than s i m p l y those who make d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h the  A l t h o u g h i t appears t h a t the f e d e r a l government has o b t a i n e d  c o n t r o l o f the o f f s h o r e  political  a r e a s , a more u t i l i t a r i a n o u t l o o k i n w h i c h p u b l i c  as w e l l as p r i v a t e s e c t o r  s a t i s f a c t i o n would be the end p r o d u c t of g o v e r n -  ment a c t i o n was slow t o m a t e r i a l i z e .  For instance,  i t was n o t u n t i l Canada  f i n a l l y promulgated the T e r r i t o r i a l Sea and F i s h i n g Zone A c t i n 1964 e x t e n d i n g s o v e r e i g n i n t e r e s t s from t h r e e t o t w e l v e m i l e s o u t t o s e a ,  that  the f e d e r a l government took a f i r m stand i n the i n t e r e s t s of a l l Canadians. For  those i n the s h i p p i n g  community, t h i s c o n s t i t u t e d an a c t o f c h a u v i n i s m  of a r e s o u r c e thought t o be h e l d i n common.  But i n r e a l i t y , t h i s c o n t r o l  i s an a c t i o n o f r a t i o n a l management o f a common p r o p e r t y r e s o u r c e w h i c h  147 has proven t o be t h e p r o p e r t y o f a l l b u t the r e s p o n s i b l i l i t y o f n o n e . The  1  tragedy o f common p r o p e r t y d o c t r i n e i s t h a t c o m p e t i t i o n f o r the use  of the marine environment has o f t e n l e d t o a s i t u a t i o n where u s e r s a r e l o c k e d i n t o a system o f " f o u l i n g t h e i r own n e s t " , so l o n g as they behave as independent and intemperant free-enter p r i z e s .  In p a r a l l e l ,  principles  of l a i s s e z - f a i r e would o n l y succeed j i n compounding the o v e r f i s h i n g o f anadromous f i s h , or the d i s c h a r g e " o f domestic wastes. cannot be fenced as i n the concept  S i n c e the waters  o f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y , c o n t r o l must be  a c h i e v e d by an e p i c y c l i c means o f c o e r c i v e s t a t u t o r y law, augmented by r e g i o n a l l y s e n s i t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e mechanisms.  The law, f r e q u e n t l y  behind t h e t i m e s , w i l l r e q u i r e c o n s t a n t remoulding  and e l a b o r a t e s t i t c h i n g  to adapt t o the dynamic marine user p a t t e r n s and t o s u s t a i n b a l a n c e d development programs f o r the o f f s h o r e a r e a s .  These programs o f marine  environment c o n t r o l a r e c o m p l i c a t e d by d i v e r g e n t i n t e r e s t s i n the sea as w e l l as by the c o n t i n u e d f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l s t r u g g l e f o r j u r i s d i c t i o n , p r o f i t , and tenure i n o f f s h o r e a r e a s . A r e c e n t f e d e r a l study s e t f o r t h Canada's m u l t i f a c e t e d i n t e r e s t i n i t s o f f s h o r e areas and recommended t h a t a systems approach i s r e q u i r e d f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f m u l t i p l e uses o f the marine e n v i r o n m e n t , i n any  ''"William R o s s , "The Management o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l Common P r o p e r t y R e s o u r c e s , " G e o g r a p h i c a l Review, V o l . 6 1 , J u l y , 1971, pp. 325-338.  G a r r e t t H a r d i n , "The Tragedy o f the Commons", S c i e n c e , V o l . 162, December 13, 1968, pp. 1243-1248.  148 e f f o r t to o p t i m i z e  the b e n e f i t s to a l l . " * "  I n t e r e s t i n g l y , Stewart  and  D i c k i e o u t l i n e d a s e r i e s of g o a l s of n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t i n the seas w h i c h i s c l o s e l y interwoven w i t h the p r i n c i p a l n a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s as o u t l i n e d 2 by the S c i e n c e C o u n c i l of Canada. i s revealed  i n Table XIV.  The  r e l a t i o n s h i p between b o t h  studies  W h i l e the l a t t e r s t u d y s y s t e m a t i c a l l y r a t e d  each a s p i r a t i o n i n order of i m p o r t a n c e , Stewart and  D i c k i e made no  attempt  to a s s e s s the p r i o r i t y of importance of each of the marine i n t e r e s t s . TABLE XIV National  DOMINANT RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN NATIONAL GOALS AND MARINE INTERESTS Goals  NATIONAL  N a t i o n a l Marine Goals  1  National  prosperity  2  Health  Recreation  3  Education  S o v e r e i g n t y and  4  Freedom, S e c u r i t y , Unity  Transportation  5  L e i s u r e and Development  D e t e r m i n a t i o n of Weather Climate  6  World Peace  Waste D i s p o s i t o r y  7  Maintenance of a High Q u a l i t y E n v i r onment  Challenge f o r Technology  Personal  M a r i n e Resources  Defence  C h a l l e n g e f o r Knowledge Cultural Inspiration International  Sea,  and  and  Obligation  R. W. S t e w a r t , and L. M. D i c k i e , Ad Mare: Canada Looks to S c i e n c e C o u n c i l of Canada, S p e c i a l Study No. 16, Ottawa, 1971.  S c i e n c e C o u n c i l of Canada, Towards a N a t i o n a l Canada, Report No. 4, Ottawa, O c t o b e r , 1968.  the  Science P o l i c y f o r  149 The  G u l f of G e o r g i a i s i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y r e c o g n i z e d to be an i n t e r n a l  water of Canada, e n t i r e l y w i t h i n the s o v e r e i g n t e r r i t o r i a l  sea.  As  i n t e r n a l w a t e r , the range of n a t i o n a l marine i n t e r e s t s c o i n c i d e n t zone, as d e f i n e d  by S t e w a r t and  national i n orientation.  D i c k i e , are more domestic and  requires  in this  less i n t e r -  That i s , u n l i k e the c o n t i n e n t a l s h e l f and  s u p e r a d j a c e n t to the s h e l f , i n l a n d w a t e r s of the  an  waters  G u l f are not an a r e a w h i c h  s o v e r e i g n p r o t e c t i o n of the armed f o r c e s , of dominant importance  i n d e t e r m i n i n g weather and  c l i m a t e , nor  out i n t e r n a t i o n a l o b l i g a t i o n s . i s c a r r i e d out maintaining  an a r e a where Canada must c a r r y  These a c t i v i t i e s and  seaward of the s e m i - e n c l o s e d G u l f .  i n t e r n a t i o n a l foreign shipping  their  administration  W i t h the e x c e p t i o n of  routes , a c t i v i t i e s analyzed i n  the p r e c e e d i n g c h a p t e r are e n t i r e l y domestic i n scope and  application.  Administration  thorny;.issue  of these f u n c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s has  been a  because of the p o l a r i z e d d i s p o s i t i o n of f e d e r a l and i n offshore  provincial authority  areas.  F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l Struggle Over the p a s t one  f o r Tenure  hundred y e a r s , n e i t h e r  f e d e r a l nor p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n -  ments have seen f i t to r e c o g n i z e the o t h e r ' s c l a i m to j u r i s d i c t i o n i n the G u l f of G e o r g i a .  1  On  the s t r e n g t h  C o u r t of Canada,Reference Re:  of a r e c e n t d e c i s i o n by the Supreme  O f f s h o r e M i n e r a l R i g h t s of  Columbia, i t appears t h a t the pendulum has s i n c e the f e d e r a l government has  British  swing i n f a v o u r of Canada  been g r a n t e d f u l l  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r a l l w a t e r s seaward of " o r d i n a r y  jurisdictional low water mark" and  Gerard V. La F o r e s t , N a t u r a l Resources and P u b l i c P r o p e r t y Under the Canadian C o n s t i t u t i o n , T o r o n t o , 1969, pp. 85-107.  150 o u t s i d e of " h a r b o u r s , b a y s , e s t u a r i e s and other s i m i l a r i n l a n d waters.""'" But the term " i n l a n d w a t e r s " has been the key word of c o n t e n t i o n upon w h i c h the p r o v i n c i a l government has based a s p e c i f i c case t h a t the G u l f of G e o r g i a q u a l i f i e s as an i n l a n d water and jurisdiction.  The  i s s u e was  p r o p o s a l put forward i n 1968 Administration lines.  t h u s , comes under p r o v i n c i a l  f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by the magnanimous by the f e d e r a l government i n M i n e r a l Resource  O s t e n s i b l y , the f e d e r a l government has agreed t o  share the r o y a l t i e s from o f f s h o r e m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e d i s c o v e r i e s on a f i f t y - f i f t y b a s i s w i t h the a d j a c e n t p r o v i n c e .  Shoreward o f these  lines  the f e d e r a l government has conceeded t h a t the p r o v i n c e s have complete c o n t r o l over m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s and revenues.  Concomitantly,  the  sinuous  Canadian c o a s t l i n e has been e n t i r e l y demarcated w i t h - t h e - e x c e p t i o n of "the A r c t i c proper which Ottawa c o n s i d e r s s o l e p r o p e r t y and beyond the 2 p a l e of the p r o v i n c e s . "  The  c a t o g r a p h i c p r e s e n t a t i o n of the admin-  i s t r a t i o n l i n e s completed by the Department of E n e r g y , Mines and  Resource  i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t the n o r t h e r n and w e s t e r n p o r t i o n s of the G u l f , i n c l u d i n g the G u l f I s l a n d s , are c o n s i d e r e d w i t h i n f e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n w h i l e most of the e a s t e r n s i d e of the G u l f , from the s o u t h e r n t i p of Texada I s l a n d to  the i n t e r n a t i o n a l b o r d e r , are under p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n .  Interest-  i n g l y , f e d e r a l government c l a i m s i n the G u l f were l a r g e l y r e l a t e d to over 15 m i l l i o n a c r e s of o i l e x p l o r a t i o n p e r m i t s i s s u e d by Ottawa to S h e l l O i l Company. ^1. L. Head, "The Canadian O f f s h o r e M i n e r a l R e f e r e n c e , " U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Law J o u r n a l , V o l . 18, 1968, p. 131.  R. Logan, " M i n e r a l Resource A d m i n i s t r a t i o n L i n e s , " P r o f e s s i o n a l Geographer, V o l . 23, A p r i l , 1971, pp. 160-163.  151 However, a f t e r a c o n f l i c t over the i s s u i n g of e x p l o r a t i o n p e r m i t s for  the same a r e a by b o t h f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s , the M i n i s t e r  of F i s h e r i e s , Jack D a v i s , announced t h a t no more p e r m i t s would be i s s u e d and  t h a t the f e d e r a l government would use i t s C o n s t i t u t i o n a l powers i n  territorial  seas t o h a l t o i l e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the G u l f w i t h  new amendments t o the F i s h e r i e s A c t i n 1971. combination  proposals  s t a t e d t h a t "the  o f p r o p e r t y and r e c r e a t i o n a l v a l u e s i n the S t r a i t of G e o r g i a  i s so g r e a t t h a t i t s p o s s i b l e c o n t a m i n a t i o n enanced."''"  Davis  w i t h o i l c o u l d n o t be c o u n t -  The p r o v i n c i a l government a c r i m o n i o u s l y countered to d r i l l  with conjectural  l a t e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n h o l e s from land based r i g s i n the  G u l f I s l a n d s t o p o s s i b l e o i l b e a r i n g s t r a t a beneath G u l f w a t e r s .  At  present  coastland  and  though, there i s no a c t i v e " w i l d c a t t i n g " w i t h i n the G u l f  t h e r e seems l i t t l e  l i k e l i h o o d i n the immediate f u t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n 2  l i g h t of r e c e n t adverse p u b l i c i t y on o i l d r i l l i n g a c t i v i t i e s .  But w h i l e  the q u e s t i o n of f o r e s h o r e e x p l o r a t i o n i n G u l f w a t e r s i s perhaps beyond d i s c u s s i o n , t h e r e appears t o be no c o n c l u s i o n t o the m i n e r a l d i s p u t e f o r the r e m a i n i n g  coast.  rights  Moreover, the q u e s t i o n of j u r i s d i c t i o n a l  competence i n the G u l f remains open. I t g e n e r a l l y appears t h a t the b a s i s of the argument between f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s has c r y s t a l l i z e d around the i s s u e of c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y and w i l l n o t be, reso"lved\;wilth'out a r e f o r m a t i o n o f the B.N.A. A c t "Jack Davis F o r b i d s S e i s m i c E x p l o r a t i o n i n Georgia S t r a i t , " Department of F i s h e r i e s , P a c i f i c R e g i o n , Vancouver, May 1, 1970, ( p r e s s release) .  Government and p u b l i c a v e r s i o n t o o f f s h o r e o i l r i g s has spawned from r e c e n t d i s a s t r o u s c o n t a m i n a t i o n s from o i l w e l l leakages i n f o r e s h o r e a r e a s seaward of Santa B a r b a r a , C a l i f o r n i a .  152 U n t i l t h e n , c o m p e t i t i v e f e d e r a l i s m w i l l keep each l e v e l of government i n p u r s u i t of the l a r g e r share of the marine r e s o u r c e p i e . government expresses  the r i t u a l c o m p l a i n t  usurp p r o v i n c i a l autonomy and has the l a r g e s t share of p r o f i t s .  The  provincial  t h a t Ottawa i s a t t e m p t i n g  taken the stand t h a t the p r o v i n c e  to deserves  A t the same t i m e , V i c t o r i a has been r e l -  u c t a n t to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the c o s t s of management o f the marine environment u s i n g the terms of the C o n s t i t u t i o n to s u i t i t s p a r t i c u l a r momentary 1 posture.  The  R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of Government A g e n c i e s The  f e d e r a l government has been the most a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t i n the  management of o f f s h o r e a r e a s .  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n i n  G u l f w a t e r s can be d i v i d e d among v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s . has  the most sweeping powers i n o f f s h o r e areas and  r e g u l a t i o n of marine a c t i v i t i e s and  The  M i n i s t r y of  Transport  i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the  s e r v i c e s , a i d s t o n a v i g a t i o n , modern  communications systems, and m a i n t a i n s , w i t h the Department of N a t i o n a l Defence, a s e a r c h and rescue vessels.  The  s e r v i c e f o r overdue or m i s s i n g a i r c r a f t  and  T r a n s p o r t M i n i s t r y shares w i t h the Department of P u b l i c Works  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r channel  d r e d g i n g , and w i t h H y d r o g r a p h i c S e r v i c e s , f o r  up-to-date marine c h a r t s .  The  for  Department of P u b l i c Works i s the agent  the c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance of wharves and c h a n n e l s and  c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board, p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t  ^Ross found t h i s was p r e v e n t i o n and cleanup of west i t i e s were adamently u n i t e d i n r e t i c e n t t o r e l e a s e any monies m a t e r i a l s , d e l e g a t i n g the t a s k  in part i n  e s p e c i a l l y t r u e f o r problems r e l a t e d to the coast o i l s p i l l s i n that p r o v i n c i a l authort h e i r stand a g a i n s t o i l s p i l l s but were t o be used f o r the s t o c k p i l i n g of cleanup as a f e d e r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  153 the development and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of major G u l f h a r b o u r s of the Environment, p r o c l a i m e d  i n June, 1971,  The  Department  i s an amalgamation of  the  F i s h e r i e s S e r v i c e , Lands, F o r e s t and W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e , A'tmospherici E n v i r o n m e n t a l S e r v i c e , and Water Management S e r v i c e , and the husbanding of renewable r e s o u r c e s of the b i o s p h e r e .  As an " u m b r e l l a "  f i r s t government bureau to r e c o g n i z e  w i t h a mandate f o r the  protection  agency, Environment Canada i s the the c o a s t l a n d  as an e n v i r o n m e n t a l  ( l a n d - s e a ) u n i t , i n c o n t r a s t to p r e c e e d i n g a g e n c i e s who and  i s concerned w i t h  traded  jurisdiction  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a t the w a t e r ' s edge. There are no p r o v i n c i a l government a g e n c i e s w h i c h m a i n t a i n  a u t h o r i t y f o r the waterbody o f the G u l f of G e o r g i a . p r o v i n c i a l departments e n f o r c e  H e a l t h S e r v i c e s c a r r i e s out s e a s o n a l  activities.  The  these r e l a t e  Department of  v i g i l a n c e of p u b l i c beaches to a s s u r e  t h a t water q u a l i t y s t a n d a r d s are a c c e p t a b l e and  Only two branches of  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e g u l a t i o n s , and  to l a n d ( s h o r e l i n e ) r a t h e r than f o r e s h o r e  regulated  f o r s a f e body c o n t a c t  recreation,  i n a d d i t i o n works w i t h the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Board i n the enforcement  of e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y s t a n d a r d s l a i d down i n the B r i t i s h Columbia P o l l u t i o n Control Act.  The  Department of R e c r e a t i o n  and  Conservation  m a i n t a i n s s h o r e l i n e marine parks i n the G u l f and w i t h the Department of Lands, F o r e s t s , and Water R e s o u r c e s , a i d s i n the c o n t i n u i n gnprcpgrammeVof a c q u i s i t i o n of n a t u r a l h i s t o r y s i t e s and w h i c h are w i t h i n the study r e g i o n .  ecological reserves, eight  To a l e s s e r e x t e n t , the B. C.  S e r v i c e has a w o r k i n g l i a s o n w i t h i t s f e d e r a l c o u t e r p a r t Canada to p r o t e c t c o a s t l a n d w i l d f o w l r e s o u r c e s migratory  Birds Regulation  Act.  of  Wildlife  i n Environment;; '  p r i n c i p a l l y through the  154 The E v o l u t i o n o f L e g i s l a t i o n Germane t o O f f s h o r e Areas S i n c e C o n f e d e r a t i o n , c o a s t l a n d r e s i d e n t s have w i t n e s s e d  the p r o c l a -  m a t i o n of domestic and i n t e r n a t i o n a l agreement by Canada i n the name o f s o v e r e i g n i n t e r e s t s , f o r the c o n t r o l and management of marine and m a r i t i m e environment.  resources  a c t i v i t i e s , and most r e c e n t l y , f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of the c o a s t a I n some c a s e s , t h i s has i n v o l v e d the d r a f t i n g of e n t i r e l y  new l e g i s l a t i o n w h i l e i n o t h e r s , i t has r e q u i r e d o n l y the d e l e t i o n of o b s o l e s c e n t c l a u s e s and r e s h a r p e n i n g time a c t i v i t i e s .  o f amendments t o match dynamic m a r i -  F e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n has been passed r e g a r d i n g s h i p p i n g ,  n a v i g a b l e w a t e r s , f i s h e r i e s , m i g r a t o r y b i r d s , n a t i o n a l h a r b o u r s , and s m a l l c r a f t o p e r a t i o n s i n c o a s t a l areas w h i c h a r e a l l items over which the f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t y i s deemed t o have c o n c u r r e n t l e g i s l a t i o n i s l i m i t e d to environmental designed  jurisdiction.  Provincial  c o n t r o l r e g u l a t i o n s which a r e  t o p r o t e c t marine areas a g a i n s t p o l l u t i o n o r i g i n a t i n g from l a n d  sources. N a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t i n o f f s h o r e areas i n e a r l i e r days was p r i m a r i l y a matter  of economics and o r i g i n a l l e g i s l a t i o n tended t o compliment marine  business a c t i v i t i e s .  Marine r e s o u r c e s were o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as i n e x h a u s t -  a b l e or the marine environment as i n d e s t r u c t a b l e and o n l y a few f a r - s i g h t e d p i e c e s o f l e g i s l a t i o n made p a s s i n g r e f e r e n c e t o t h e acknowledgement of environmental had  q u a l i t y p r a c t i c e s . As the years p a s s e d , many o f the s t a t u t e s  s e c t i o n s added w h i c h c o u l d be a p p l i e d t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l  c o n t r o l , but  these s e c t i o n s were always t r e a t e d as i n c i d e n t a l f e a t u r e s t o more i t e m specific legislation.  No l e g i s l a t i o n has been passed w i t h the s o l e purpose  of d e t e r r i n g and p r e v e n t i n g marine e n v i r o n m e n t a l  deterioration.  155 A f t e r the m u c h - p u b l i c i z e d e v e n t s of 1969 and 1970,^ the f e d e r a l response to the management of o f f s h o r e a r e a s took an about f a c e w i t h the passage of the A r c t i c Waters P o l l u t i o n P r e v e n t i o n A c t , the amendment of the  Canadian S h i p p i n g A c t , the announcement of R e g i o n a l Task F o r c e f o r  e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n t r o l , and a N a t i o n a l C o n t i n g e n c y P l a n t o be put i n t o e f f e c t i n the event of a major s p i l l . metamorphosis  T h i s response r e p r e s e n t e d a  of o p i n i o n on the p a r t of f e d e r a l a g e n c i e s which had f o r m e r l y  thought of o f f s h o r e areas i n economic  terms and had f i r m l y adhered to  narrower t e r r i t o r i a l c l a i m s and concepts of freedom of the sea. A l o n g w i t h these new amendments and i t e m s p e c i f i c l e g i s l a t i o n , a r e a number of Canadian laws and i n t e r n a t i o n a l codes which have u n i v e r s a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y to a l l u s e r s of G u l f of G e o r g i a w a t e r s .  Since t h i s  l e g i s l a t i o n i s n o t developed w i t h r e g i o n a l i n t e r e s t s i n mind, i t tends to be g e n e r a l l y i m p e r s o n a l , more i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n t o n e , and l o s e s e f f e c t i v e 2 ness i n c o p i n g w i t h r e g i o n a l problems and l o c a l First, the  priorities.  s t a n d a r d s f o r the o p e r a t i o n of Canadian r e g i s t e r e d v e s s e l s on  h i g h seas and t e r r i t o r i a l waters or f o r e i g n v e s s e l s i n Canadian w a t e r s  The new f e d e r a l answer to e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n was l a r g e l y s p u r r e d on by the passage of the Humble O i l Super-tanker Manhattan through s o v e r e i g n A r c t i c w a t e r s i n 1969, and by the s i n k i n g of the infamous t a n k e r Arrow i n Chedabucto Bay i n 1970. Ross noted t h a t n a t i o n a l p r i d e , c o n c e r n over Canadian s o v e r e i g n t y i n the A r c t i c a r c h i p e l a g o , and p r e s e r v a t i o n i s t s e n t i m e n t over the e c o l o g i c a l f r a g i l i t y of the a r e a a l l s t i m u l a t e d the enactment of s t i f f e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n t r o l l e g i s l a t i o n f o r A r c t i c f o r e s h o r e s  A l l u s e r s of Canada's t e r r i t o r i a l w a t e r s a r e s u b j e c t to the C r i m i n a l Code of Canada and can be charged a c c o r d i n g l y under the terms of the Code on summary c o n v i c t i o n f o r a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h have i n f l i c t e d i n j u r y , p r o p e r t y damage, or i n c o n v e n i e n c e to o t h e r u s e r s .  156 1 are s e t f o r t h i n Code of N a v i g a t i o n P r a c t i c e s and P r o c e d u r e s p u r s u a n t t o the Canada S h i p p i n g A c t of 1934.  P r i o r t o t h i s d a t e , marine o p e r a t i o n A,  of v e s s e l s f o l l o w e d a c c o r d i n g t o E n g l i s h Codes of A d m i r a l t y .  This  code  p r o c l a i m s a r a t i o n a l n a v i g a t i o n a l code f o r the e t h i c a l conduct of v e s s e l s based upon an i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y r e c o g n i z e d marine " r u l e s of the r o a d " procedure.  Canadian C o u r t s of A d m i r a l t y were not e s t a b l i s h e d u n t i l the 2  p r o c l a m a t i o n of the A d m i r a l t y A c t i n 1952.  However, the Canadian s t a t u t e  o f f e r s much the same j u r i s d i c t i o n a l powers as e a r l i e r E n g l i s h A d m i r a l t y R u l e s and i s based on the a c c e p t e d d o c t r i n e t h a t "each s h i p master i s t o conform t o a s t a n d a r d of conduct e s t a b l i s h e d by r e f e r e n c e to the common p r a c t i c e of prudent masters under such c o n d i t i o n s , and t h a t he ( t h e m a s t e r ) 3 must p r o t e c t o t h e r s a g a i n s t u n r e a s o n a b l e r i s k . "  However, o p e r a t i o n a l r u l e s  o f the Code do not d i f f e r from i n t e r n a t i o n a l codes w h i c h s t a t e the expected conduct of v e s s e l s moving through c o n s t r i c t e d w a t e r s or the r i g h t of i n n o c e n t passage.  I n t h i s s e n s e , the Code i s s i m p l y a marine handbook  analogous w i t h an auto d r i v e r ' s manual.  In designating vessel p r i o r i t i e s  and marine r i g h t - o f - w a y , the Code r e c o g n i z e s the p o t e n t i a l problem of m u l t i p l e use of waterspace but approaches the problem i n the most s i m p l i s t i c terms.  The marine environment i s s i n g u l a r l y viewed as a highway w i t h  c o n s i d e r a t i o n g i v e n to o t h e r more sedentary  little  f u n c t i o n a l uses which have  ''"To be f o l l o w e d by persons on board s h i p s i n o r d e r to ensure s a f e navigation.  2 Canada, P a r l i a m e n t , S t a t u t e s , 1952, Chapter 1.  Edward C. Mayers, A d m i r a l t y Law and P r a c t i c e i n Canada, T o r o n t o , 1916, p. 111.  157 come about through the p e c u l a r i t i e s of r e g i o n a l n a t u r e . i n f r a c t i o n s to the r u l e s , o f f e n d e r s may  Moreover, f o r  appear i n C o u r t s of A d m i r a l t y  can then o n l y a p p l y common law remedies of t r e s p a s s , n u i s a n c e , negligence  t o compensate the i n t e r e s t s of c l a i m a n t s who  which  and  might s u s t a i n i n j u r y  or p r o p e r t y damage i n the event of a marine a c c i d e n t i n the study region."'" The  Navigable  Waters P r o t e c t i o n A c t i s another a r t i c l e of f e d e r a l  l e g i s l a t i o n which can be a p p l i e d t o the maintenance of the s t a t u s quo the study r e g i o n .  Under S e c t i o n 18, amended i n 1968,  employed to c o n t r o l a s p e c t s  t h i s A c t can  of  be  of water p o l l u t i o n but i n i t s e n t i r e t y , i t 2  concentrates  p r i m a r i l y upon p h y s i c a l o b s t r u c t i o n s i n n a v i g a b l e  Administered  by the M i n s t r y of T r a n s p o r t ,  waters.  i t i s most e a s i l y invoked  against  3 persons d i s c h a r g i n g " r u b b i s h " n a v i g a t i o n channels,  i n t o water c o u r s e s which may  interfere with  or f o r the removal of grounded or sunken v e s s e l s w h i c h  o b s t r u c t marine a r t e r i e s .  A l s o , i t can be employed to r e g u l a t e  the  d i s t r i b u t i o n of l o g booms which encroach upon n a v i g a b l e waterways. amendments to the A c t f i n d those persons c o n t r a v e n i n g  any  Recent  section l i a b l e ,  on summary c o n v i c t i o n , to a f i n e i n c r e a s e d from $500 to an amount not ''"The a b i l i t y of A d m i r a l t y Law t o meet r e g i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s i n o f f s h o r e areas i s f u r t h e r d i s c o u r a g e d by a n t i q u a t e d c l a u s e s which can excuse m a s t e r s , s h i p o w n e r s , and cargo owners from l i a b i l i t y f o r marine a c c i d e n t s which are n e b u l o u s l y deemed the r e s u l t of an "Act of God". In t r u t h , c o u r t - a c t i o n s i n Canadian C o u r t s of A d m i r a l t y r e g a r d i n g marine mishaps are not w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . Ross noted t h a t A d m i r a l t y Law o f f e r e d no p r e c e d e n t f o r s e c u r i n g compensation f o r a l l v i c t i m s d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by the c o n t a m i n a t i o n of the sea and shore by o i l .  Canada, P a r l i a m e n t ,  S t a t u t e s , 1968-1969, Chapter 15, S e c t i o n  Here " r u b b i s h " i s meant to denote m a t e r i a l s such as c o n c r e t e , e a r t h , and r e f u s e w h i c h would s i n k to the bottom and cause a p h y s i c a l h a z a r d and o b s t r u c t i o n t o n a v i g a t i o n .  18.  158 exceeding  $5000.''"  As i t s t a n d s , t h i s i s a f u n c t i o n a l p i e c e o f l e g i s l a t i o n  but i t l a c k s broader  u t i l i t y i n a p p l i c a t i o n t o problems of c h e m i c a l water  p o l l u t i o n or the dumping o f r e f u s e i n t o w a t e r s p a c e s n o t c o n s i d e r e d a c t i v e f o r marine n a v i g a t i o n . The  f i e r c e l y debated Canada Water A c t , p r o c l a i m e d  dominantly  i n 1969, d e a l s p r e -  w i t h the management of f r e s h w a t e r , and no d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e t o  the r e g u l a t i o n o f the marine environment can be found.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , the  p a u c i t y o f marine c o u r t cases which u t i l i z e d the p r o v i s i o n s o f the S t a t u t e may be o n l y r e l a t e d t o the i n f a n c y o f the A c t s i n c e i t would appear t h a t t h e r e i s some p r o p i n q u i t y between a s p e c t s o f water q u a l i t y management i n the f r e s h and s a l t w a t e r c o n t e x t .  S e c t i o n 8, o u t l i n i n g P o l l u t i o n o f Waters 2  notes  t h a t the a d d i t i o n o f any "waste"  to a watercourse  i s a v i o l a t i o n of  the A c t and i s p u n i s h a b l e on summary c o n v i c t i o n by a f i n e n o t e x c e e d i n g 3 $5000 w i t h a d d i t i o n a l f i n e s f o r c o n t i n u i n g o f f e n c e s .  However, w h i l e the  terms of the Canada Water A c t a r e more i n c l u s i v e and may be a p p l i e d t o marine e n v i r o n m e n t a l  problems on a broader  s c a l e , g r e a t r e l i a n c e has  been p l c a e d on the a b i l i t y of f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments t o consummate j o i n t agreements, t o d e s i g n a t e water q u a l i t y a r e a s , and t o  ''"Canada, P a r l i a m e n t , S t a t u t e s , 1968-1969 , Chapter 15, S e c t i o n 14.  2 "Wastes" a r e d e f i n e d i n the Canada Water A c t as "any p a r t or p r o c e s s o f d e g r a d a t i o n and a l t e r n a t i o n o f the q u a l i t y o f the w a t e r s t o an e x t e n t t h a t i s d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e i r use by man or by an a n i m a l , f i s h , or p l a n t t h a t i s u s e f u l t o man." Canada, P a r l i a m e n t , S t a t u t e s , 1969-1970, Chapter 52, S e c t i o n 28.  159 e s t a b l i s h water q u a l i t y s t a n d a r d s . A c t may  Here a g a i n , the a p p l i c a t i o n of the Water  become bogged down on j u r i s d i c t i o n a l and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i s s u e s .  U n t i l t h i s dilemna i s r e s o l v e d , o t h e r l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h has precedent  reliable  f o r f e d e r a l or p r o v i n c i a l a g e n c i e s and which exceeds the Water  A c t ' s s a l t w a t e r management c a p a b i l i t i e s w i l l be employed. While  the s t a t u t e s reviewed above have ^blfanke.li-iapp'Ui'c'atton-ito Cthe G u l f or  d i s p l a y s e c t i o n s w h i c h are redundant w i t h o t h e r a c t s , i t i s worthy of note t h a t these laws can be invoked f o r the r e g u l a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l  activities  i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the f o l l o w i n g f u n c t i o n s p e c i f i c l e g i s l a t i o n , most o f w h i c h possesses w e l l - d e f i n e d s p a t i a l  application.  Commercial F i s h e r i e s The F i s h e r i e s Act of 1868,  one of the f i r s t laws enacted by  the  Canadian P a r l i a m e n t , i s the o l d e s t a r t i c l e of l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the t r a t i o n of the G u l f .  adminis-  D e s p i t e i t s age and n a r r o w l y designed domestic  func-  t i o n , from i n c e p t i o n , i t has not been b l i n k e r e d t o the problems of p o l l u t e d waters or to the e x i s t e n c e of o t h e r w a t e r s p a c e u s e r s .  One  of the most  f r e q u e n t l y amended p i e c e s of l e g i s l a t i o n , the A c t i s v a l i d f o r a l l n a t i o n a l waters  of Canada t o the o u t e r boundary of the Canadian F i s h i n g Zone p r o -  c l a i m e d i n 1964.  For G u l f w a t e r s , the a p p r o p r i a t e s e c t i o n s of the F i s h e r i e s  A c t a p p l y p r i m a r i l y t o the r e g u l a t i o n o f f i s h i n g c r a f t , f i s h i n g  apparatus,  and f i s h i n g p r a c t i c e s , as w e l l as t o a s p e c t s of f i s h e r y management as l i n e d i n the p r e c e e d i n g  out-  chapter.  S i n c e the F i s h e r i e s A c t was  i n t e n d e d t o p r o t e c t f i s h and the f i s h i n g  i n d u s t r y , i t would be s e n s e l e s s to condemn i t f o r not b e i n g a w h o l e s a l e c o n t r o l l e r of water p o l l u t i o n or marine e n v i r o n m e n t a l  deterioration.  But  f o r t u n a t e l y the b i o l o g i c a l n a t u r e of the s u b j e c t has p r e c i p i t a t e d a c e r t a i n amount of e c o l o g i c a l c o n t r o l paramount to the annual h a r v e s t of the r e s o u r c e .  160  For example, S e c t i o n 14 of the o r i g i n a l A c t p r o h i b i t e d the dumping of d e l e t e r i o u s substances i n t o s o v e r e i g n carried on.  1  w a t e r s where f i s h management was  Amendments of 1886, 1894, 1895, 1906, 1914, 1927, 1932 and  1952 expanded the d e s c r i p t i o n o f p r o h i b i t e d substances and i n c r e a s e d the 2 p e n a l t i e s f o r the v i o l a t i o n of the p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l s e c t i o n s o f the A c t . I n 1961, the F i s h e r i e s A c t was f u r t h e r r e v i s e d and p r o v i d e d in-Council greater  the Governor-  r e g u l a t o r y power and a u t h o r i t y t o deem any substance 3  which adversely  a f f e c t e d f i s h h a b i t a t or f i s h i n g p r a c t i c e s as d e l e t e r i o u s .  The 1970 P a r l i a m e n t s t r e n g t h e n e d the environment c o n t r o l s e c t i o n s by c o n s o l i d a t i n g the p e n a l t y creasing $5000.  f o r the d i s c h a r g e of h a r m f u l wastes and by i n -  the p e n a l t y , on summary c o n v i c t i o n , t o a f i n e n o t e x c e e d i n g  4  From i t s o r i g i n , the F i s h e r i e s A c t has a l s o r e c o g n i z e d  the m u l t i p l e  use of c o a s t a l w a t e r s , b u t as w i t h p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l , i n a l i m i t e d and often biased 1  sense.  S e c t i o n 22 notes t h a t "no f i s h i n g a p p a r a t u s  Canada, Parliament,  shall  S t a t u t e s , 1868, Chapter 60, S e c t i o n 14.  2 Canada, P a r l i a m e n t , S t a t u t e s , 1886, Chapter 95; 1894, Chapter 51; 1895, Chapter 27; 1906, Chapter 54, R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s ; • 1914, Chapter 8; 1927, Chapter 27, R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s ; 1932, Chapter 42; 1952, Chapter 119, R e v i s e d Statutes. 3 Canada, P a r l i a m e n t ,  Canada, P a r l i a m e n t ,  S t a t u t e s , 1960-1961, Chapter 13.  S t a t u t e s , 1969-1970, Chapter 63, S e c t i o n 3.  161 o b s t r u c t n a v i g a t i o n " and t h a t "no v e s s e l s s h a l l wantonly fishermen's  equipment " l a w f u l l y  set".''"  d e s t r o y n e t s " or  S e c t i o n 24 r e q u i r e s f i s h e r m e n t o  m a i n t a i n " t w o - t h i r d s the w i d t h of a ( c o a s t a l ) c h a n n e l . . . open a t a l l t i m e s " 2 f o r the passage of o t h e r v e s s e l s .  A t the same t i m e , the G o v e r n o r - i n -  C o u n c i l has been g i v e n sweeping powers t o make any r e g u l a t i o n s f o r f i s h i n g c r a f t and f i s h e r m e n deemed n e c e s s a r y f o r the proper management and c o n t r o l of s e a - c o a s t f i s h e r i e s . statement  However, the pragmatic  a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s  latter  t o the r e s t r i c t i o n of o t h e r c o m p e t i t i v e a c t i v i t i e s i n s p e c i f i c  o f f s h o r e areas i s , as y e t , l a r g e l y  u n t e s t e d and remains a moot p o i n t .  Management of o f f s h o r e f i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s and a r e a r e s t r i c t i o n s cgear/soK e'r!a-fit .nghave e been l e f t t o the d i s c r e t i o n :  7  t o - ..f  o f the M i n i s t e r who has  taken h o l d s t e p s over the l a s t decade t o r e s t r i c t and/or a p p r o p r i a t e l a r g e tracts  of seaspace t o commercial and s p o r t s f i s h e r m e n .  Moreover, on the  s t r e n g t h o f r e c e n t F i s h e r i e s l e g i s l a t i o n used t o c u r t a i l o i l d r i l l i n g e x p l o r a t i o n s i n the G u l f , g r e a t e r c r e d i b i l i t y c a n be g i v e n t o the argument t h a t i n s h o r e environments may be e v e n t u a l l y r e s t r i c t e d through more thorough priorities.  to s p e c i f i c  users  l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h acknowledges c e r t a i n r e g i o n a l  I f the G u l f i s t o be managed w i t h economic, s o c i a l , and  e n v i r o n m e n t a l m o t i v a t i o n s i n mind, l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h governs s i n g u l a r a c t i v i t i e s such as commercial f i s h i n g  s h o u l d o n l y assume a degree o f  redundancy w i t h o t h e r l e g i s l a t i o n where m a t t e r s of p r e s e r v a t i o n o f the  Canada, P a r l i a m e n t , R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s , 1970, Chapter  14, S e c t i o n 22.  Canada, P a r l i a m e n t , R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s , 1970, Chapter  14, S e c t i o n 24.  Canada, P a r l i a m e n t , R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s , 1970, Chapter  14, S e c t i o n 34.  162 marine environment a r e a t s t a k e .  The F i s h e r i e s A c t c o n t a i n s  sections,  a l b e i t d e c i d e d l y g e n e r a l , w h i c h l e a v e room f o r the r e f i n e m e n t o f management p r a c t i c e s and the i n s e r t i o n o f more s t r i n g e n t c o n t r o l as the need a r i s e s . However, the a b i l i t y o f t h i s p i e c e o f l e g i s l a t i o n t o come t o g r i p e s w i t h f u t u r e management problems i s i n no s m a l l p a r t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o other  Commercial  laws c o i n c i d e n t w i t h i n the G u l f o f G e o r g i a .  Shipping  O r i g i n a l l y passed i n 1934,''"the Canada S h i p p i n g A c t r e g u l a t e s the r e g i s t e r i n g and l i c e n c i n g of v e s s e l s and o f f i c e r s , p i l o t a g e , s h i p and cargo s a f e t y i n s p e c t i o n s , n a v i g a t i o n a i d s , p u b l i c h a r b o u r s , and the c o a s t i n g as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g f o r the i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f water p o l l u t i o n ,  trade,  shipping  c a s u a l t i e s and sea c o l l i s i o n s which occur w i t h i n t e r r i t o r i a l o f f s h o r e  areas.  P r i n c i p a l l y , the A c t a p p l i e s to the r e g u l a t i o n and conduct o f a l l commerc i a l v e s s e l s o p e r a t i n g i n the G u l f and h a s , s i n c e 1962, governed the conduct 2 of p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n a l c r a f t . The  S h i p p i n g A c t , u n t i l two y e a r s ago, was s u b s t a n t i a l l y l i m i t e d t o  the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l agreement and was d e v o i d w h i c h might o t h e r w i s e  of c l a u s e s  be c a l l e d n a t i o n a l i s t i c p r i v i l e g e s such as the u l t i m a t e  r i g h t t o d i c t a t e the conduct o f v e s s e l s i n Canadian w a t e r s .  D u r i n g the  p e r i o d 1934-1965, the A c t r e f l e c t e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n  and f i n e s were  1 Canada, P a r l i m a n e n t ,  S t a t u t e s , 1934, Chapter 44.  "Small V e s s e l R e g u l a t i o n s " , Canada G a z e t t e , P a r t 11, Volume ( 9 ) , May 9, 1962.  96  163 h e l d t o a minimum f o r i n f r a c t i o n s of the s p e c i f i c s e c t i o n s o f the A c t . The p e r v a s i v e n e s s  of tfe S h i p p i n g A c t makes i t one o f the b e s t  1  pieces  of l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the management o f the c o a s t a l marine environment. Despite  the i n t e r n a t i o n a l t o n e , the A c t c o n t a i n s  p e r t i n e n t to t h i s study. C o l l i s i o n Regulations  several sections extremely  P a r t 9 of the A c t , which d e a l s w i t h N a v i g a t i o n and  f o r i n l a n d w a t e r s , g i v e s the  Governor-in-Council  power t o i n s t i t u t e r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s f o r c o l l i s i o n p r e v e n t i o n and "may p r o v i d e  f o r the p r o h i b i t i n g or l i m i t i n g of n a v i g a t i o n on any p a r t of  the w a t e r s of Canada, i n the i n t e r e s t s of p u b l i c s a f e t y or of promoting or ensuring  the e f f e c t i v e r e g u l a t i o n o f such w a t e r s i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t or.  f o r the p r o t e c t i o n or convenience o f the p u b l i c , of v e s s e l s n o t e x c e e d i n g 2 f i f t e e n tons g r o s s tonnage."  The key phrase here would have t o be the  "convenience o f the p u b l i c " w h i c h i m p l i e s the r e c o g n i t i o n o f o t h e r water u s e r s . corporated  But i t seems strange  t h a t t h i s s e c t i o n w h i c h has been i n -  " i n the p u b l i c i n t e r s t " , and f o r p u b l i c s a f e t y , should  l i m i t e d t o o n l y those v e s s e l s which domolt exceed f i f t e e n t o n s . c o l l i s i o n prevention  equable  be  If  i s the p r i n c i p a l t e n e t of t h i s p a r t o f the A c t , i t  would appear t h a t v e s s e l s e x c e e d i n g f i f t e e n tons w e r e l e q u a b l y ^ o i f n n o t  more  to c o n s t i t u t e a danger t o o t h e r c r a f t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n c o n s t r i c t e d w a t e r s . I n e s s e n c e , these r e g u l a t i o n s a p p l y o n l y to seaspace r e s t r i c t i o n s o f l a r g e f i s h i n g c r a f t , v e s s e l s i n coastwise  s e r v i c e such as tugs h a u l i n g l o g booms  or b a r g e s , and l a r g e r p r i v a t e p l e a s u r e  craft.  Also, sections i n this  part  '''During t h i s p e r i o d , a c o n v i c t i o n on v i o l a t i o n o f any s e c t i o n of the A c t meant a p u n i t i v e f i n e n o t e x c e e d i n g $500. I n 1965, t h i s meagre amount was brought i n t o touch w i t h contemporary c o s t s and the A c t was amended t o a maximum f i n e n o t e x c e e d i n g $5000.  Canada, P a r l i a m e n t , 635 ( 3 ) .  R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s , 1970, Chapter 9, S e c t i o n  liable  164 of the A c t are s i n g u l a r l y a p p l i e d to p u b l i c s a f e t y and do not c o n s i d e r a t i o n other  i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s of the problem of  among s i m u l t a n e o u s s e a s p a c e resources  incompatability  u s e r s such as the d e p l e t i o n of marine  and marine e c o l o g i c a l - c u l t u r a l v a l u e s  o v e r c r o w d i n g or f r e q u e n t  take i n t o  t h a t would a c c r u e through  d i s r u p t i o n of the marine h a b i t a t .  P u b l i c a p p r e h e n s i o n about the p o s s i b l e d i s a s t r o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s of i n c r e a s e d and u n c o n t r o l l e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of crude o i l and  the  petroleum  p r o d u c t s o f f Canadian c o a s t s has moved the f e d e r a l government t o a c t i o n and has r e s u l t e d i n s t r o n g amendments t o the a n t i - p o l l u t i o n s e c t i o n s of A c t i n 1969.  That y e a r , P a r l i a m e n t  the  endorsed the M i n i s t e r of T r a n s p o r t w i t h  d i s c r e a t i o n a r y power t o remove or d e s t r o y any v e s s e l sunk or grounded i n Canadian w a t e r s w h i c h "(1) i s p o l l u t i n g or i s l i k e l y to p o l l u t e  any  Canadian w a t e r s , (2) c o n s t i t u t e s or i s l i k e l y to c o n s t i t u t e a.danger t o w a t e r f o w l or marine l i f e , or (3) i s damaging or i s l i k e l y to damage c o a s t a l property  or i s i n t e r f e r i n g or i s l i k e l y t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h the enjoyment  thereof..."''' an e x t e n s i v e  I n 1971,  S e c t i o n 19 of the A c t was  s e c t i o n w h i c h now  provided  repealed  and r e p l a c e d  Canada w i t h some of the  with  strictest  2 domestic o i l p o l l u t i o n laws f o r the marine environment.  Among o t h e r  t h i n g s , the M i n i s t e r has been g i v e n power to r e g u l a t e s h i p p i n g certification  1  through  3 o f v e s s e l s c a r r y i n g p o l l u t a n t s i n b u l k to meet minimum  Canada, Parliament,  S t a t u t e s , 1968-1969, Chapter 53, S e c t i o n  24.  2 Canada, P a r l i a m e n t ,  S t a t u t e s , 1970-1971, Chapter  27.  " P o l l u t a n t s i n b u l k " are r e c o g n i z e d to be any m a t e r i a l h a r m f u l to the marine environment c a r r i e d on board a s h i p as cargo or o t h e r w i s e .  165 Canadian s t a n d a r d s ,  and  to e s t a b l i s h more s t r i n g e n t r u l e s f o r the  operation  of f o r e i g n and domestic v e s s e l s c a r r y i n g p o l l u t a n t s through Canadian waters.''"  P o l l u t i o n prevention  to e n f o r c e  o f f i c e r s have been a p p o i n t e d t o board s h i p s ,  the r e g u l a t i o n s of the A c t , and  of p o l l u t i o n of the sea.  However, the most i m p o r t a n t p o i n t i n the new  u l a t i o n s concerns the d e t e r m i n a t i o n r e s t i t u t i o n for claimants  a l s o to i n v e s t i g a t e a l l i n c i d e n t s  of l i a b i l i t y and  the assessment of  i n the event of a mishap a t sea.  Penalties for  a marine a c c i d e n t w h i c h causes any e n v i r o n m e n t a l damage can now c u r r e d a g a i n s t the s h i p and the p a r t of e i t h e r .  P r e v i o u s l y , o i l companies had  gained almost t o t a l  from f o r e i g n shipowners who  l i a b i l i t y companies t o g e t h e r  used a  w i t h " f l a g s of c o n v e n i e n c e "  to s h e l t e r t h e i r a s s e t s from the r e a c h of the c o u r t s . limited  be i n -  cargo owner w i t h or w i t h o u t f a u l t or p r i v i t y on  p r o t e c t i o n by c h a r t e r i n g o i l t a n k e r s s p i n - o f f of l i m i t e d  reg-  Liability is  now  to 2000 g o l d f r a n c s (134 d o l l a r s ) ; f o r each ton of the s h i p or a  maximum of 210,000,000 g o l d f r a n c s  (14 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s ) w h i c h e v e r i s l e s s , 2  f o r marine a c c i d e n t s w i t h o u t f a u l t to the s h i p or cargo owner. unlimited l i a b i l i t y  There i s  i f the mishap i s t i e f a u l t of s h i p d e s i g n , the m a s t e r ,  or the cargo owner, a t w h i c h time a l l c l a i m s may  be sued f o r i n A d m i r a l t y  "*"A11 s h i p s ' s u l l a g e and dunnage p r e v i o u s l y dumped o u t s i d e l i m i t s i s now c o n t a i n e r i z e d a l o n g s i d e w h i l e the s h i p i s i n p o r t and posed of on l a n d .  harbour dis-  Dunn and H a r g r a v e , op. c i t . , p. 163. U s i n g t h i s s t a n d a r d , a 120,000 ton s u p e r t a n k e r of the c l a s s to be used on the V a l d e z - P u g e t Sound r o u t e would produce a l i m i t a t i o n fund of about 8 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s .  166 Court.  Chapter 27 of the A c t extends j u r i s d i c t i o n over domestic and  f o r e i g n v e s s e l s who  p o l l u t e t e r r i t o r i a l w a t e r s s o u t h of the s i x t i e h t  p a r a l l e l , and v e s s e l o p e r a t i o n s i n w a t e r s n o r t h of the s i x t i e t h  parallel,  2 n o t r e g u l a t e d by the A r c t i c Waters P o l l u t i o n P r e v e n t i o n A c t . A l t h o u g h these amendments to the Canada S h i p p i n g A c t p r o v i d e a more equable d i s t r i b u t i o n of l i a b i l i t y and compensation f o r c l a i m a n t s than p r e v i o u s f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n , they a r e w h o l l y inadequate i n compensating persons s u f f e r i n g i n d i r e c t damages. Act  A l s o , as domestic l e g i s l a t i o n , the  cannot be imposed upon f o r e i g n v e s s e l h e a d i n g f o r f o r e i g n p o r t s u n l e s s  these v e s s e l s pass through Canadian waters and t h i s cannot be a p p l i e d t o the  t i d a l p o l l u t i o n of Canadian w a t e r s from i n c i d e n t s t h a t o c c u r i n 3  s o v e r e i g n w a t e r s of the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  Moreover, the r e c e n t amendments  a r e \ a l m o s t e n t i r e l y concerned w i t h c o n t i n g e n c y p r o c e d u r e s i n v o k e d a f t e r  an  o i l s p i l l w i t h v i r t u a l l y no emphasis put upon v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of p r e v e n t i o n of marine a c c i d e n t s .  N e v e r t h e l e s s , d e s p i t e these weaknesses, i t i s a  A M a r i t i m e P o l l u t i o n Claims Fund i s p r o v i d e d by the A c t to compensate p o l l u t i o n v i c t i m s by a t a x of up t o f i f t e e n c e n t s a t o n l e v i e d on imported o i l . Expected t o y i e l d 3 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s a n n u a l l y , t h i s fund can be tapped where s h i p s c a u s i n g no f a u l t s p i l l s exceed 14 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s damage, or more l i k e l y , where p o l l u t e r s cannot be i d e n t i f i e d .  T h i s A c t a p p l i e s to Canadian w a t e r s n o r t h of the s i x t i e t h p a r a l l e l and e s t a b l i s h e s a c o n t r o l zone e x t e n d i n g 100 m i l e s o f f s h o r e . I t p r o v i d e s f o r the d e s i g n a t i o n of t r a f f i c l a n e s and imposes a b s o l u t e l i a b i l i t y on s h i p and cargo owners f o r c l e a n u p c o s t s and t h i r d p a r t y l o s s e s a f t e r an o i l s p i l l .  Canada's l e g a l e f f o r t s to h a l t the movement o f s u p e r t a n k e r s s h i p p i n g A l a s k a n crude and bound f o r r e f i n e r i e s i n the southernCGulf _.of G e o r g i a and Puget Sound a r e l arigeU\y r e g u l a t e d :• by the f a c t t h a t these v e s s e l s can d e l i v e r t h e i r cargoes w i t h o u t e n t e r i n g Canadian w a t e r s . :  7  167 a p o s i t i v e s t e p toward the r a t i o n a l management o f the G u l f , through s t r i c t e r c o n t r o l o f p o t e n t i a l l y dangerous commercial s h i p p i n g a c t i v i t i e s .  It  assumes even g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e when the i n c r e a s e d c o a s t w i s e t r a d e p r o j e c t i o n s f o r petroleum products are considered.  Water-Oriented Recreation I n c o n t r a s t t o the r e g u l a t i o n o f o t h e r f u n c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s , u n t i l r e c e n t l y , have been l o o s e l y c o n t r o l l e d .  Only  s i n c e 1962 have a l l r e c r e a t i o n a l c r a f t o p e r a t i n g i n Canadian w a t e r s been s u b j e c t t o the procedures l a i d down i n S m a l l V e s s e l R e g u l a t i o n s p u r s u a n t t o the Canada S h i p p i n g A c t .  1  These r u l e s , w h i c h a r e u s u a l l y e n f o r c e d by the  R.C.M.P. or the Canadian Coast Guard, a r e concerned w i t h the l i c e n s i n g o f v e s s e l s (by s i z e and horsepower) as w e l l as w i t h s a f e t y p r e c a u t i o n s f o r the o p e r a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l c r a f t .  P r i o r t o 1972, t h e r e g u l a t i o n s were  p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h b o a t i n g s a f e t y where r u l e s were based upon a r e c o g n i z e d s t a n d a r d of prudent conduct on the p a r t o f i n d i v i d u a l  boaters.  Only s e c t i o n 69, w h i c h forbade r e c r e a t i o n a l c r a f t t o anchor or o b s t r u c t c h a n n e l s or f a i r w a y s , made a g e n e r a l attempt t o a v a i l p l e a s u r e b o a t e r s o f the n e c e s s i t y o f acknowledging the presence o f o t h e r f u n c t i o n a l u s e r s . The magnitude  o f r e c r e a t i o n a l c r a f t i n the G u l f and t h e i r  position  v i s a v i s o t h e r f u n c t i o n a l uses f o r c e d the M i n i s t e r o f T r a n s p o r t ,  Donald  Jamieson, t o announce new s m a l l c r a f t r e g u l a t i o n s i n June, 1972.  I n an  e f f o r t t o o b t a i n a g r e a t e r degree o f c o n t r o l o f p l e a s u r e boat o p e r a t i o n s , the amendments made i t p o s s i b l e f o r speed l i m i t s t o be imposed on d e s i g n a t e d  Canada, Order i n C o u n c i l , A p r i l 19, 1962, No. P. C ,  1962-592.  168 w a t e r s , and  f o r the use  of c e r t a i n w a t e r s to be r e s t r i c t e d to s p e c i f i e d  types of r e c r e a t i o n a l c r a f t . programs f o r the s e a s o n a l  Prompted by the s u c c e s s of F i s h e r i e s  r e s e r v a t i o n of s p e c i f i e d o f f s h o r e f i s h i n g areas  e x c l u s i v e l y f o r s p o r t s a n g l e r s , the M i n i s t e r now the e n t r y of a l l b o a t s i n t o d e s i g n a t e d M i n i s t r y has not a s s i g n e d  these new  area-use s t u d i e s f o r B u r r a r d  power to p r o h i b i t  As y e t , the  r e g u l a t i o n s t o any  I n l e t and  G u l f are soon to be commissioned.  waters.  has  s e v e r a l other  Transport  sector, although  s u b r e g i o n s i n the  P r o v i s i o n s have been made f o r a p r i v a t e  a p p l i c a t i o n f o r the enactment of the r e s t r i c t i o n s to boat o p e r a t i o n s l o c a l waterway and may Recreation  and  on a  be s u b m i t t e d through the p r o v i n c i a l Department of  Conservation  w h i c h has been g r a n t e d the r i g h t of  approval.  As a j o i n t f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l e f f o r t , these r e g u l a t i o n s w i l l h e l p t o c o n t r o l some of the p u b l i c n u i s a n c e problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b o a t e r s such as speed and wash, and t o swimmers and these new  noise,  s h o r e l i n e e r o s i o n , i n a d d i t i o n to l e s s e n i n g the danger  larger craft.  I r r e s p o n s i b l e boaters contravening  p r o v i s i o n s are l i a b l e , i f c o n v i c t e d , t o a f i n e not  any  of  exceeding  $500. I n a d d i t i o n , new the summer of 1972 i n Vancouver.  s m a l l c r a f t r e s c u e s e r v i c e s were a l s o announced f o r  t o compliment e x i s t i n g s e a r c h and r e s c u e s e r v i c e s based  Recognizing  the need f o r r a p i d i n s h o r e r e s c u e c r a f t , p a r t -  i c u l a r l y i n areas of h i g h summer p l e a s u r e  c r a f t concentrations,  several  f a s t 18 f o o t r e s c u e boats were based a t Mayne I s l a n d f o r A c t i v e Pass surrounding  w a t e r s , a t E n g l i s h Bay,  and a t V i c t o r i a .  These new  and  regulations  are t e s t i m o n y to the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t r e c r e a t i o n a l water u s e r s have been l a r g e l y u n c o n t r o l l e d and  deserving  of t i g h t e r management, not o n l y f o r  s a f e t y of p r i v a t e b o a t e r s , but f o r the s a f e t y and waterway and  foreshore  users.  convenience of  As y e t , S m a l l V e s s e l R e g u l a t i o n s  the  other are  devoid  169 of any c l a u s e s w h i c h r e f e r to the d i s c h a r g e of wastes and p o l l u t a n t s i n t o waterways and r e l i a n c e has been p l a c e d upon the r e s p o n s i b l e boater keep a t i d y y a r d .  to  However, the i n c r e a s e i n the number of r e c r e a t i o n a l  c r a f t i n G u l f w a t e r s i n c r e a s e s the problem of c o n t a m i n a t i o n by  chemical  and n o n b i o d e g r a d a b l e w a s t e s , the s o l u t i o n of w h i c h cannot be l e f t t o the c o n s c i e n c i o u s n e s s  of the i n d i v i d u a l  O s t e n s i b l y , c o n t r o l s over beach and  solely  boater.^  t i d a l foreshore a c t i v i t i e s , i n  c o n t r a s t to the r e g u l a t i o n of p l e a s u r e c r a f t , are f o r the most p a r t , admini s t e r e d by p r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t i e s . Convention  The M i g r a t o r y B i r d s  A c t , f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of w a t e r f o w l , i s the o n l y p i e c e of  f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h can be used f o r marine p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l of 2 s p e c i f i e d s h o r e l i n e and  f o r e s h o r e a r e a s above h i g h water mark.  h i g h water mark i t i s redundant w i t h e n v i r o n m e n t a l powerful f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n .  Below  c o n t r o l s e c t i o n s of more  P u b l i c beaches w h i c h occur w i t h i n o r g a n i z e d  c o r p o r a t e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a r e s u b j e c t to a wide range of l o c a l r e g u l a t i o n s , a l l of which a r e concerned w i t h water q u a l i t y standards d e a l w i t h any a s p e c t of o v e r c r o w d i n g .  and none of which  I n the summer, a l l p u b l i c beaches  i n the study r e g i o n a r e r e g u l a r l y i n s p e c t e d by o f f i c e r s of the P r o v i n c i a l "^Studies o f s e v e r a l h e a v i l y used l a k e s i n Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s have proven t h a t r e c r e a t i o n a l c r a f t a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r a p i d e n t r o p h i c a t i o n of the l a k e s . Constant use by two c y c l e outboard motors d i s c h a r g i n g l u b r i c a t i n g o i l through exhausts spreads a t h i n l a y e r of s u f f o c a t i n g o i l upon the water s u r f a c e .  One of the few i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r e a t i e s w h i c h r e c o g n i z e s t h a t common p r o p e r t y r e s o u r c e s do not r e s p e c t p o l i t i c a l b o u n d a r i e s , the A c t f o r b i d s the f l o w o f wastes i n t o w a t e r s f r e q u e n t e d by m i g r a t o r y w a t e r f o w l . Maximum f i n e s of $300 f o r v i o l a t i o n of t h i s s e c t i o n have not i n c r e a s e d s i n c e 1921. w  170 H e a l t h S e r v i c e , and tamination.  i n some c a s e s , by m u n i c i p a l h e a l t h o f f i c e r s f o r con-  C l o s u r e s of beaches has r e s u l t e d where f o r e s h o r e a r e a s do  meet minimum a c c e p t a b l e  s a f e t y standards.  When the o f f e n d e r can  not  be  i d e n t i f i e d , charges can be l a i d under the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t of  1967,  but more o f t e n than n o t , the o f f e n d e r i s the upshore m u n i c i p a l i t y and i t s domestic sewage s y s t e m .  Waste D i s p o s a l The  G u l f of G e o r g i a has  long been a handy j u n k y a r d and  convenient  d i l u t i o n pond f o r the p e r n i c i o u s p r o d u c t i v i t y of an i n d u s t r i a l and society.  The  urban  a b i l i t y of the " f e d e r a l " sea to d i g e s t d o m e s t i c and  t a i l i n g s from " p r o v i n c i a l " l a n d sources provincial-municipal authority.  i s p r e s e n t l y r e g u l a t e d by  I n 1956,  industrial joint  a d i s p u t e over the d i s c h a r g e  sewage e f f l u e n t prompted the l e g i s l a t u r e to promulgate the f i r s t  of  Pollution  1 Control Act.  The A c t d e l e g a t e s  the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Board f o r i s s u i n g  p e r m i t s a f t e r d e s i g n a t i n g standards  of water q u a l i t y and e f f l u e n t d i s -  charge i n a d d i t i o n to d e t e r m i n g what p r o p e r t i e s of water s h a l l c o n s t i t u t e a polluted condition.  O r i g i n a l l y , the Board r e l i e d upon the  H e a l t h S e r v i c e s Department to e n f o r c e was  designed  provincial  the A c t w h i c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t the  Act  to d e a l w i t h water p o l l u t i o n r e s u l t i n g from sewage o u t f a l l s .  I n e f f o r t s to b r i n g the l e g i s l a t i o n i n t o l i n e w i t h contemporary s i t u a t i o n s , amendments of 1965 wastes and  saw  the i n c l u s i o n of s e c t i o n s to c o n t r o l i n d u s t r i a l  the t r a n s f e r of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n to the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l  B r i t i s h Columbia, L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, S t a t u t e s , Chapter  36.  1956,  171 A f f a i r s who  appointed  Repealed i n 1967,  an independent s t a f f to i n v e s t i g a t e a l l v i o l a t i o n s . ^  the new  P o l l u t i o n Control Act perpetuates  i b i l i t i e s of the former but p r o v i d e s who  the r e s p o n s -  f o r a D i r e c t o r of P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l  i s responsible for i s s u i n g discharge  permits w i t h respect  to the  2 c o n d i t i o n s of the A c t . strengthened  A f t e r amendments i n 1968,  the A c t was  further  by c l a u s e s w h i c h a b s o l u t e l y p r o h i b i t e d waste d i s c h a r g e  any water body w i t h o u t  into  a p e r m i t and e s t a b l i s h e d a p e n a l t y of up to $1000 3  for a convicted p o l l u t e r .  The  P o l l u t i o n Control A c t , although  restrictive,  i s the o n l y p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e w h i c h has any b e a r i n g on the management of water q u a l i t y i n the G u l f of G e o r g i a .  Greater  co-operation with federal  a g e n c i e s w i l l i n c r e a s e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h i s a r t i c l e of which s h o u l d garburator  s h e l v e the n o t o r i o u s myth t h a t the sea i s the  of the n o x i o u s and  legislation carefree  the o b n o x i o u s .  Assessment of E x i s t i n g L e g i s l a t i o n and Management N a t i o n a l c o n c e r n f o r the q u a l i t y of the b i o s p h e r e  is essentially a  1 B r i t i s h Columbia, L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, S t a t u t e s , Chapter  1956,  36.  2 B r i t i s h Columbia, L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, S t a t u t e s , 1967 , Chapter  34.  B r i t i s h Columbia, L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, S t a t u t e s , Chapter 38, S e c t i o n 20A.  1968,  f e a t u r e of the 1970's.  F a r - s i g h t e d p u b l i c d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s and a growing  number of e n l i g h t e n e d p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s have become g e n u i n e l y p a s t management p r a c t i c e s and marine l e g i s l a t i o n may  be o b s o l e s c e n t  inadequate to s u s t a i n the marine environment a t a c c e p t a b l e quality.  P u b l i c and government c o n c e r n has  focused  aware t h a t and  l e v e l s of  upon a n x i e t y over  the  p o s s i b l e damages i n f l e c t e d by a major o i l s p i l l i n t e r r i t o r i a l waters , and  amendments to the e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n r e f l e c t a p r e o c c u p a t i o n  t h i s r a t h e r narrow p o r t e n t .  A l t h o u g h Canada now  has  some of the  domestic o i l p o l l u t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n , these laws are s t i l l  with best  o v e r l y concerned  w i t h outmoded s a n c t i o n s p o r t r a y i n g a l i m i t a t i o n of l i a b i l i t y f o r t h i r d 2 party claimants.  Ross noted t h a t attachment of g u i l t or p e n a l  sanctions,  w h i l e o f t e n s a t i s f y i n g to the p u b l i c mind, i s an u n f a i r s u b s t i t u t e f o r the e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n of the s o c i a l , e c o l o g i c a l , and economic c o s t s i n 3 c u r r e d when o i l i s s p i l l e d .  A t the same t i m e , there has been an almost  u n h e a l t h y f i x a t i o n w i t h what a c t i o n s should be t a k e n a f t e r o i l p o l l u t i o n has  taken p l a c e , r a t h e r than an e q u a l l y c o n c e r t e d  e f f o r t to e s t a b l i s h  '''This has been prompted by the p u b l i c i t y and a c c o l a d e g i v e n such people as Jacques Cousteau, R a c h e l Carson (The Sea Around U s ) , and Wesley Marx (The F r a i l Ocean).  Dunn and Hargrave went so f a r as to say t h a t the s t a t e of the law, as i t now e x i s t s i n Canada, i s c o m p l e t e l y inadequate to p r o t e c t and compensate a l l i n d i v i d u a l s who have s u f f e r e d damage as a r e s u l t of o i l pollution.  3 Ross, op. c i t . , p. 81. Ross s t a t e d t h a t n a t i o n a l and s u b n a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s seem f r a c t u r e d and i n c a p a b l e of i n t e r n a l i z i n g the e x t e r n a l i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a major o i l s p i l l .  173 r e g u l a t i o n s w h i c h would h e l p prevent f i r s t place.  the l i k e l i h o o d of a s p i l l i n the  The most dangerous o f f e n d e r to the p r e s e r v a t i o n of the  marine environment — the o i l t a n k e r - - s h o u l d be more r i g i d l y  controlled  w h i l e i n Canadian w a t e r s .  to r e q u i r e  Concrete  laws s h o u l d be enacted  t a n k e r s , or f o r t h a t matter any s h i p s c a r r y i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y dangerous c a r g o e s , to l i m i t speed and m a i n t a i n c o n s t a n t f a i r w a y s and deemed n e c e s s a r y f o r s a f e conduct i n i n t e r n a l Controls f o r environmental  position  waters.  p r o t e c t i o n s h o u l d not be l i m i t e d to  c h e m i c a l p o l l u t a n t s which s p o i l waterways a f t e r marine shpping a c c i d e n t s , but s h o u l d be extended to encompass a c t i o n s which degrade the q u a l i t y  and  v a l u e of the marine environment through the a d d i t i o n of s o l i d wastes.  For  i n s t a n c e , r e g u l a t i o n s are u n s p e c i f i c r e g a r d i n g the dumping of d i s c a r d e d m i l i t a r y a m u n i t i o n i n o f f s h o r e deeps or the i n f i l l i n g of s h o r e l i n e or e s t u a r i n e areas by l a n d d e v e l o p e r s . segmentation  T h i s has been due  to the water's  edge  of f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n o f f s h o r e a r e a s .  Moreover, p r i o r to 1971, management of the m u l t i t u d i n a l n a t u r e of the marine environment was  u n e q u a l l y shared among the f e d e r a l departments of P u b l i c  Works, T r a n s p o r t , I n d i a n A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n Development, F i s h e r i e s / . . W i l d l i f e , Water Management S e r v i c e , and E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s . the Department of the Environment has reduced  The e s t a b l i s h m e n t of  the number of r e g u l a t o r y b o d i e s  a c t i v e i n the G u l f and h o p e f u l l y , r e p r e s e n t s the end of r e s o u r c e ment programs w h i c h c o n s i d e r s o c i a l c o s t s and b e n e f i t s i n the economic sense. charged  develop-  narrowest  A t p r e s e n t , t h e r e i s no bureau i n Environment Canada  e x p l i c i t l y w i t h the management of the marine environment or a c t i n g  as a c l e a r i n g house f o r development programs i n o f f s h o r e , s h o r e l i n e , or  174 estuarine  areas.  1  Only s i n c e 1972,  have any p o l i c i e s been put forward w i t h d i r e c t  r e s p e c t to m u l t i p l e use.  Amendments to the S m a l l V e s s e l  demonstrate a r e a s s e r t i o n of government p o s t u r e  Regulations  towards the  greater  r e g u l a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h can be a ppuBdi.rc annoyance or p r e s e n t p o t e n t i a l danger. creased  The  new  r e s e r v e d waterspace p o l i c y , r e s u l t i n g from i n -  p l e a s u r e b o a t i n g a c t i v i t y , supercedes p a r o c h i a l and  procedure w h i c h s i m p l y determined conduct of s m a l l c r a f t by rdigJrtoofwway,  a  or the r e c o g n i t i o n of s a i l over powered c r a f t .  outdated starboard The  reserva-  t i o n of G u l f seaspaeee s h o u l d not be p u r e l y l i m i t e d to r e c r e a t i o n a l c r a f t . Obviously,  c o n f l i c t i s more p r e v a l e n t between d i f f e r e n t forms of w a t e r -  oriented recreation.  The marine environment may  a l s o be a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d  i n the l o n g r u n by u n c o n t r o l l e d o v e r c r o w d i n g but the g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l h a z a r d to the s p o r t s a n g l e r or the water s k i i n g e n t h u s i a s t i s the r e c r e a t i o n a l e c l i p s e w h i c h would occur i n the a f t e r m a t h Oil drilling  i n G u l f w a t e r s was  of an o i l s p i l l .  f o r b i d d e n on the grounds t h a t the p o t e n t i a l  problems of o f f s h o r e w e l l s were incompatable w i t h r e c r e a t i o n a l v a l u e s . view of t h i s , a l l methods of p r a c t i c a l p r e v e n t i o n assume g r e a t e r p a r t i c u l a r l y those w h i c h keep dangerous p o l l u t e r s a p a r t from r e c r e a t i o n a l and e c o l o g i c a l a r e a s . c e r t a i n users  The  In  importance,  important  concept of r e s t r i c t i n g areas t o  shows t h a t government r e a l i z e s t h a t sane management d i c t a t e s  programs w h i c h c a t e r t o the r i g h t s of the b r o a d e s t range of u s e r s and i n d i v i d u a l p o l i c i e s formulated  f o r i n d i v i d u a l user g o a l s should not  that be  ''"When d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d by government on the e c o l o g i c a l or s o c i a l impact of proposed developments, or p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s i n o o f f s h o f e o a r e a s ? j a p r i v a t e t c o i i s u l t i n g e a g e n c i e s have been r e t a i n e d f o r the task.  175 a l l o w e d t o work t o the d e t r i m e n t of a l l o t h e r u s e r s .  Underwater Marine Parks and C o n s e r v a t i o n A r e a s . Marine b i o l o g i s t s t and oceanographers have p u b l i c l y announced t h a t the G u l f of G e o r g i a i s the most p r o d i g i o u s and d i v e r s i f i e d o f f s h o r e a r e a i n Canada, but has begun t o concede ness and n e g l e c t .  1  to the compounded e f f e c t of man's c a r e l e s s -  To a r r e s t t h i s d e t e r i o r a t i o n and t o i n d i t i a t e a p r o p e r  course of marine management, i n v o l v e s two methods.  F i r s t , what might be  r e f e r r e d to as the e x i s t i n g "shoot from the h i p a p p r o a c h " , t a i l o r e d t p s a t i s f y s h o r t term economic or s o c i a l needs, c o n t i n u e s w i t h the hope t h a t i t w i l l b r i n g about o r d e r l y development w i t h o u t f u r t h e r r e d u c t i o n i n the q u a l i t y of the marine environment.  The second approach would i n v o l v e a  more r e v o l u t i o n a r y means of management i n w h i c h economic and s o c i a l needs and a s p i r a t i o n s a r e c o n s i d e r e d w i t h i n the c o a s t l a n d framework.  The o u t -  come of t h i s approach would be the a d o p t i o n of a r e g i o n a l marine w h i c h acknowledged  d e s i g n a t e d p r i o r i t i e s of marine uses by a r e a .  plan As y e t ,  no such d e t a i l e d p o l i c y e x i s t s , a l t h o u g h i t appears t h a t much of the l e g a l machinery n e c e s s a r y f o r implementing a s y s t e m a t i c a l l y determined s e t of marine p r i o r i t i e s i s p r e s e n t .  N o n e t h e l e s s , one p o i n t i s e v i d e n t l y  clear,  and t h a t i s t h a t the f e d e r a l departments a r e almost unanimous i n the o p i n i o n t h a t e c o l o g i c a l - c u l t u r a l v a l u e s have h i g h e r p r i o r i t y than economiccommercial v a l u e s f o r G u l f w a t e r s . S i n c e 1970, s e v e r a l sources i n the f e d e r a l government have c o n j e c t u r a l l y spoken of b e s t o w i n g N a t i o n a l Park s t a t u s on the G u l f of G e o r g i a .  T. R. P a r s o n s , "Bases- of Resource Management: Oceanography," E n v i r o n m e n t a l Management Seminar, Centre f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n , U.B.C. October 26-27, 1970.  The f i r s t i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c o v e r t o n e s were e x p r e s s e d by F i s h e r i e s M i n i s t e r Jack D a v i s when he e n v i s i o n e d a s e r i e s o f n a t i o n a l underwater p a r k s "which would p r e s e r v e f o r p e r p e t u i t y the s c e n i c and e c o l o g i c a l wonderland of  the Gulf."''"  However, such an o p p o r t u n i t y i s not w i t h o u t c o m p l i c a t i o n ,  and almost t h r e e y e a r s a f t e r the pronouncements,  o n l y the f i r s t f o u n d a t i o n -  a l s t e p s have been t a k e n toward a c h i e v i n g the g o a l . of  U n l i k e the enactment  the P a c i f i c Rim N a t i o n a l P a r k , the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a major park  system f o r the G u l f i s c o m p l i c a t e d by the n a t u r e o f the importance and s c a l e o f t r a d i t i o n a l water use p r a c t i c e s .  A l s o , the development  n a t i o n a l park below h i g h water mark has brought about c e r t a i n  of a  legal 2  q u e s t i o n s w h i c h do n o t mesh w i t h p a r o c h i a l park p l a n n i n g p o l i c y .  Never-  t h e l e s s , some o f the fundamental q u e s t i o n s f a c i n g the i n i t i a t i o n o f the program have been answered.  F i r s t , by means o f a m e a n i n g f u l methodology  w h i c h a p p l i e d n a t u r a l h i s t o r y themes based on o c e a n o g r a p h i c a l and e c o l o g i c a l phenomena, i t was p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y key c o n s e r v a t i o n a r e a s .  Seymour,  Dodd, and F a l s e Narrows; A c t i v e , Boundary, P o r l i e r , and G a b r i o l a P a s s e s ; the  F r a s e r R i v e r e s t u a r y and d e l t a ; and G a b r i o l a and J e r v i s Deeps; were  s p e c i f i c G u l f a r e a s earmarked by P a i s h f o r t h e i r o c e a n o g r a p h i c and/or  ''"Jack D a v i s , A N a t i o n a l Underwater Park i n the G u l f o f G e o r g i a , Luncheon address to the H o l i y b u r n Gyro C l u b , N o r t h Vancouver, June 5, 1970, (mimeographed). Not a new i d e a , the concept was mooted a t the World Conference on Marine P a r k s h e l d i n S e a t t l e i n 1962. Underwater p a r k s p r e s e n t l y e x i s t i n F l o r i d a , C a l i f o r n i a , A u s t r a l i a and Japan.  N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c P a r k s B r a n c h , N a t i o n a l P a r k s P l a n n i n g Manual, Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n Development, Ottawa, 1971.  177  FIGURE 12  SIGN IFICANT ECOLOGICAL-OCEANOGRAPHICAL AREAS IN THE GULF OF GEORGIA  178 e c o l o g i c a p p e a l ^(See F i g u r e 1 2 ) .  I n a d d i t i o n , c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of G u l f  f i s h e r i e s , marine i n v e r t e b r a t e s , and ocean w a t e r f o w l were a l s o for  identified  i n c l u s i o n i n c o n s e r v a t i o n a r e a s . ^ These water a r e a s a r e t o be  correlated  w i t h p h y s i o g r a p h i c a l and e c o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s w h i c h occur i n s h o r e l i n e a r e a s above h i g h water mark.  I n c l u d e d here a r e wind and water e r o s i o n a l phenomena  such as the M a l a s p i n a G a l l e r i e s on G a b r i o l a I s l a n d as w e l l as o t h e r  littoral  s p i t s , l a g o o n s , and v a r i e d g l a c i a l c l i f f s w h i c h appear throughout the G u l f . A l t h o u g h new underwater marine p a r k s r e q u i r e a reassessment of N a t i o n a l Park p o l i c y and r e s p e c t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n , they o f f e r a new d i m e n s i o n t o the contemporary N a t i o n a l Park s e r i e s . The e n f r a n c h i s e m e n t of p a r t s of the s t u d y r e g i o n f o r a marine park i s the most p o s i t i v e method of s a f e g u a r d i n g the q u a l i t y of the marine environment.  I t r e p r e s e n t s a complete r e v e r s a l from the e a r l i e r  entrenched f o c u s of wateruse a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r G u l f w a t e r s .  and  The  exprop-  r i a t i o n of the c o n s e r v a t i o n a r e a s i d e n t i f i e d by P a i s h as w e l l as a r e a s w h i c h possess o t h e r prime use p r i o r i t y i s now p o s s i b l e under the r e v i s i o n s to  the Canada S h i p p i n g A c t .  Sea-s pace> r e s t r i c t i o n s a l l o w the p a r t i a l :  sub-  v e r s i o n of commercial water u s e r s i n the i n t e r e s t s of r e c r e a t i o n and wilderness values.  But u n l i k e o t h e r n a t i o n a l p a r k s w h i c h p r o h i b i t  any  commercial a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n t h e i r p r e s e r v e s , the importance of commercial water a c t i v i t i e s to c o a s t l a n d r e s i d e n t s and Canada a t l a r g e demands s u f f i c i e n t p r o v i s i o n s f o r the p e r p e t u a t i o n of commercial l i n k a g e s . s i z e becomes a c r i t i c a l s u r v i v a l f a c t o r .  Park  I f c o n s e r v a t i o n a r e a s a r e too  s m a l l and too s c a t t e r e d , t h e i r marine communities may n o t be on a l a r g e  Howard P a i s h and A s s o c i a t e s L i m i t e d , A Theme Study of the M a r i n e Environment of the S t r a i t s Between Vancouver I s l a n d and the B r i t i s h Columbia M a i n l a n d , Vancouver , 1970.  179 enough s c a l e t o be r e s i l i a n t a g a i n s t p e r i o d i c c o n t a m i n a t i o n or. o v e r t a x a t i o n o f n e i g h b o u r i n g non-park water a r e a s .  The success o f the c o n s e r -  v a t i o n program h i n g e s upon the a b i l i t y t o keep a p a r t a c t i v i t i e s which may cause mutual i n t e r f e r e n c e .  Wherever p o s s i b l e b u f f e r zones w i l l have t o be  c r e a t e d between c o n s e r v a t i o n areas and o t h e r i n c o m p a t i b l e u s e r s . I n the 1972 s t u d y o f o i l s p i l l i m p a c t , P a i s h , w i t h the use o f a n u m e r i c a l i n d e x , i d e n t i f i e d areas o f r e l a t i v e v u l n e r a b i l i t y based upon c a t e g o r i e s o f c o m m e r c i a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l and a e s t h e t i c - i n t a n g i b l e Superimposing  importance.  1  a square g r i d w i t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y 100 square s t a t u t e m i l e s  to each square, i t was p o s s i b l e t o a s s e s s where o i l s p i l l s would have the h i g h e s t adverse e f f e c t s .  G r e a t e s t damage would be i n c u r r e d i n the G u l f  I s l a n d s , i n the F r a s e r ' s t r i f u c a t e d eeis:tuar.y/, a t the mouth o f Howe Sound, i n M a l a s p i n a S t r a i t , i n the D i s c o v e r y Passage-Redonda I s l a n d s - D e s o l a t i o n Sound r e g i o n , and i n the Vancouver I s l a n d f o r e s h o r e a r e a from Cape Lazo to the B a l l e n a s I s l a n d s , (see F i g u r e 1 2 ) .  I n t e r e s t i n g l y , these a r e a s a r e  g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the c o n s e r v a t i o n a r e a s . W h i l e t h e r e a r e i n f r e q u e n t c l o s u r e s t o commercial these a r e a s , t h e r e a r e no r e s t i c t i o n s t o commercial the passage o f commercial  fishing craft i n  shipping.  I n many c a s e s ,  c a r r i e r s through these a r e a s c a n be a v o i d e d and  the danger o f c o n t a m i n a t i o n t o the most s e n s i t i v e areas reduced by the r e r o u t i n g o f v e s s e l s through l e s s v u l n e r a b l e w a t e r s . commercial  I n the p a s t ,  r o u t e s through G u l f waters have been d i c t a t e d by components o f  time and o f d i s t a n c e .  However, the f r a g i l i t y of c e r t a i n marine a r e a s  makes s a i l i n g time o f l i t t l e  importance.  The B r i t i s h Columbia P i l o t , the  •""Paish, (1972), op. c i t . , p. 123.  180 handbook o f c o a s t a l n a v i g a t i o n , c a l l s the e n t r a n c e t o the G u l f of G e o r g i a dangerous and d e s e r v i n g o f c a u t i o u s seamanship. n a v i g a t i o n equipment on s h i p and s h o r e , c o l l i d e i n treacherous  Gulf waters.  But d e s p i t e the e l a b o r a t e  ships continue  t o go aground and  W h i l e p r e d i c t i o n s o f the number o f  f u t u r e marine a c c i d e n t s a r e tenuous a t best,''" the f a c t t h a t  misfortunes  w i l l occur and t h a t a p r o p o r t i o n o f these w i l l cause e c o l o g i c a l damage w i t h i n the study r e g i o n i s i n e v i t a b l e .  Marine T r a f f i c C o n t r o l and SSeaspace Zoning The r e v i e w o f r e l e v a n t s t a t u t e s and codes has shown t h a t r e c e n t environmental  amendments have f o s t e r e d ex p o s t f a c t o p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l .  C o n t i n g e n c y procedures and r e p a r a t i o n s , w h i l e s o r e l y r e q u i r e d i n a s i t u a t i o n where w h o l l y inadequate p r o t e c t i o n had p r e v i o u s l y e x i s t e d , need t o be augmented w i t h more programs which a t t e n d t o the r o o t o f the problem. e q u a l amount of e f f o r t and f i s c a l ing  expenditure  An  s h o u l d be put toward d e v e l o p -  procedures w h i c h w i l l reduce the l i k e l i h o o d of a p o t e n t i a l l a r g e or  s m a l l s c a l e marine i n c i d e n t . encrusted  A p o c a l y p t i c computer p r e d i c t i o n s o f s l i c k -  2 3 s h o r e l i n e s and doomsday v i s i o n s o f mutated marine ecosystems  ^Honeywell M a r i n e System C e n t r e , i n a study o f a proposed automated marine t r a f f i c a d v i s o r y system, p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e r e would be 2-4 major marine c o l l i s i o n s i n Puget Sound a l o n e i n the next t e n y e a r s .  2 David A b l e t t , "Computer L i s t s C o l l i s i o n Chances," Vancouver Sun, F r i d a y , March 19, 1971, p. 13.  P. S. G a l s t o f f , O i l P o l l u t i o n i n C o a s t a l W a t e r s , W i l d l i f e R e s t o r a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , S e a t t l e , 1970.  181 may l o s e some of t h e i r i n e v i t a b i l i t y t h r o u g h the a p p l i c a t i o n of t e c h n i q u e s w h i c h r e g u l a t e marine t r a f f i c or r e s e r v e of r e c e n t  zones o f seaspaeef.'  The r a p i d i t y  amendments i n m a r i t i m e l e g i s l a t i o n , and the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e power  w i e l d e d by f e d e r a l a g e n c i e s , a r e e n c o u r a g i n g s i g n s t h a t these two programmes may n o t be d i f f i c u l t  Marine T r a f f i c  t o implement.  Control  Even w i t h the i n c l u s i o n o f mandatory r e g u l a t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o i n c r e a s e s h i p c o n t r o l , the r e c e n t dynamically  amendments t o the Canada S h i p p i n g A c t have n o t  a l t e r e d the movement of v e s s e l s  through G u l f w a t e r s .  Compulsory  c o n d i t i o n s now r e q u i r e a l l f o r e i g n s h i p s t o c a r r y a marine p i l o t who i s . encouraged t o proceed a t reduced speed and t o r e p o r t p e r i o d i c p o s i t i o n and  course.  I n a d d i t i o n , ships c a r r y i n g p o l l u t a n t s are required  t o meet  M i n i s t r y of T r a n s p o r t s t a n d a r d s f o r t h e c o n d i t i o n o f h u l l s , m a c h i n e r y , and n a v i g a t i o n a l equipment.  F o r domestic and f o r e i g n v e s s e l s c a r r y i n g p o l l u t -  ants i n c o a s t a l waters, r e g u l a t i o n s  s h o u l d be supplemented w i t h  clauses  w h i c h r e q u i r e v e s s e l s t o c a r r y and m a i n t a i n p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l equipment such as c o n t a i n e r  booms, emergency pumps, and a b s o r b e n t peat moss f o r  quickly attacking  spills.  The  system o f Canadian n a v i g a t i o n m a r k e r s , based on the a n t i q u a t e d  E n g l i s h code f o r the convenience o f s a i l i n g v e s s e l s e n t e r i n g p o r t s  against  the mainstream of the f l o o d t i d e , has r e c e n t l y been a l t e r e d t o match r e v -  '''D. E. Newman, " O i l P o l l u t i o n Booms--The P r o b a b l e L i m i t s o f F l o a t i n g B a r r i e r s t o P r e v e n t the Spread o f O i l on Water," J o u r n a l o f the I n s t i t u t e o f P e t r o l e u m , V o l . 52, 1971, pp. 223-236; and A r t h u r L i t t l e I n c o r p o r a t e d , O i l S p i l l T r e a t i n g A g e n t s , S e l e c t i o n Based on E n v i r o n m e n t a l F a c t o r s , Report f o r the I n s t i t u t e o f P e t r o l e u m , 1970.  182 i s e d N o r t h American s t a n d a r d s .  These n a v i g a t i o n a l markers c o u l d  be  augmented by a system of compulsory s h i p p i n g f a i r w a y s , t o g e t h e r w i t h a system of shore-based r a d a r and  traffic control.  Analogous to methods of  a i r t r a f f i c c o n t r o l , p o s i t i v e c o n t r o l f o r a l l s h i p p i n g has been f u l l y i n s t i t u t e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y i n the E n g l i s h C h a n n e l , and i n the G u l f of M e x i c o .  success-  domestically  Honeywell has d e v i s e d a s i m i l a r system f o r the  American s i d e of Juan de Fuca S t r a i t and  the Puget Sound r e g i o n and  has  made o v e r t u r e s to the F e d e r a l government to d e s i g n a marine a d v i s o r y system f o r Canadian c o a s t a l w a t e r s .  To d a t e , however, Ottawa has been r e t i c e n t to  . 2 implement the p l a n .  Lack of i n t e r e s t can be l a r g e l y a t t r i b u t e d to the  i n i t i a l i n s t a l l t i o n c o s t of the programme.  However, the s h o r t - r u n , b e n e f i t -  c o s t t h i n k i n g put forward by opponents t o the a d v i s o r y system, p a r a l l e l s the contemporary p a r a d o x i c a l p o s i t i o n taken a g a i n s t the c o n s t r u c t i o n of sewage treatment  facilities.  I n c r e a s e d waste l o a d i n g and p o l l u t e d shore-  l i n e s have r e v e a l e d t h a t the s i m p l e r ocean o u t f a l l arguments are A r e c e n t h o p e f u l s i g n t h a t the f e d e r a l government may  fallacious.  be l o o k i n g i n a more  l o g i c a l d i r e c t i o n , f o l l o w s on the h e e l s of marine t r a f f i c - c o n t r o l c o r r i d o r s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the A r c t i c Waters P o l l u t i o n P r e v e n t i o n A c t of 1970,  and  by  ''"See H. Gary K n i g h t , " S h i p p i n g S a f e t y F a i r w a y s : C o n f l i c t Amelo i r a t i o n i n the G u l f of M e x i c o , " J o u r n a l of M a r i t i m e Law and Commerce, V o l . 1, 1969, pp. 1-24, f o r a survey of t h i s c o n c e p t .  D. E. W e n t z e l and D. L y t l e , Automated M a r i n e T r a f f i c A d v i s o r y Systems, T h e i r Need and I m p l e m e n t a t i o n , Honeywell M a r i n e Systems C e n t r e , S e a t t l e , 1971. I n t e r n a t i o n a l i n scope and a p p l i c a t i o n , the c o n t r o l system would r e g u l a t e a l l s h i p movements from the P a c i f i c k e e p i n g v e s s e l s i n c o r r i d o r s and i n spaced i n t e r v a l s a f t e r e n t e r i n g the c o n t r o l p a t t e r n o f f S w i f t s u r e Bank.  183 the announcement of a M a r i n e N a v i g a t i o n I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e f o r the w a t e r s of B r i t i s h Columbia.''' telephones  I n the l a t t e r c a s e , a l l v e s s e l s w i t h V.H.F. r a d i o -  are encouraged t o p a r t i c i p a t e by t r a n s m i t t i n g b a s i c n a v i g a t i o n a l  information at designated  c o a s t a l p o i n t s and m o n i t o r i n g a s s i g n e d  frequencies  to l e a r n the p o s i t i o n and  i n t e n d e d movements of a l l o t h e r v e s s e l s i n a g i v e n  2 sector. Another o p t i m i s t i c development f o r the b e n e f i c i a l c o n t r o l of v e s s e l s o p e r a t i n g i n G u l f w a t e r s i s c o n t a i n e d i n the F i f t h A n n u a l Report of the 3 Canadian T r a n s p o r t Commission.  S i m i l a r to the Jones A c t of the U n i t e d  S t a t e s , one of the p r i n c i p a l recommendations endorsed by the c o n s c i o u s Commission, was  that coastwise 4  r e s e r v e d f o r Canadian f l a g v e s s e l s . consensus of the H e d l i n M e n z i e s  1  environmentally  t r a f f i c between Canadian p o r t s be  A second s u g g e s t i o n , based upon the  Merchant Marine Study , saw a p o t e n t i a l net  b e n e f i t i n government a s s i s t e d development of a p r i v a t e f l e e t o f l a r g e b u l k c a r r i e r s i n the 100,000 t o n c l a s s to handle b u l k i r o n o r e , c o a l , or crude ^"New West Coast Marine N a v i g a t i o n S e r v i c e t o Become E f f e c t i v e J u l y 1," N o t i c e s to M a r i n e r s , M i n i s t r y of T r a n s p o r t , Vancouver, June 9, 1972.  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e may soon be mandatory f o r a l l v e s s e l s over 100 g r o s s t o n s , and tugs w i t h tows.  Canadian T r a n s p o r t Commission, F i f t h Annual Report f o r Ottawa, 1972, p. 11.  1971,  The e x i s t i n g system a l l o w s any Commonwealth v e s s e l or f o r e i g n v e s s e l w h i c h has o b t a i n e d a w a i v e r to p a r t i c i p a t e i n c o a s t w i s e s e r v i c e .  184 o i l cargoes.  I f o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d , these developments p r e s e n t an o b v i o u s  improvement i n scheduled  management of o f f s h o r e ? a r e a s , s i n c e more adequate  c o n t r o l c a n be e x e r c i s e d over domestic cargo owners and Canadian v e s s e l s w i t h Canadian o f f i c e r s f a m i l i a r w i t h c o a s t a l w a t e r s .  Zoning the G u l f of G e o r g i a J u s t as marine t r a f f i c c o r r i d o r s and shore-based n a v i g a t i o n a l systems w i l l h e l p t o m i n i m i z e the l i k e l i h o o d of marine m i s h a p s , z o n i n g w i l l a i d i n the p r o t e c t i o n of s u b r e g i o n a l p e c u l i a r i t i e s and i n the i n t e r e s t s o f i n d i v i d u a l users. reserved purposes.  The Department of N a t i o n a l Defence h a s , f o r a number of y e a r s ,  the r i g h t t o c l o s e areas i n the t e r r i t o r i a l I t i s strange  areas s h o u l d  sea f o r m i l i t a r y  t h a t some o t h e r forms of s y s t e m a t i c z o n i n g of water  l o n g be a c o n t r o v e r s i a l t o p i c w i t h i n the M i n i s t r y o f T r a n s p o r t ,  and o n l y now s h o u l d show s i g n s of m a t e r i a l i z i n g .  Increased a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  power of the Department of the E n v i r o n m e n t , and i t s p r o j e c t e d underwater park s e r i e s have been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n d e v e l o p i n g programs w h i c h o u t l i n e the r e s e r v a t i o n o f seaspace.  Nevertheless,  t h i s program i s s t i l l n o t w i t h o u t  argument. The  c h i e f counter-argument has been based on the f e a r t h a t o f f s h o r e 1  a r e a s w i l l become top-heavy and c l u t t e r e d w i t h l e g a l encumbrances. J u s t as too many t r a f f i c comparatively,  l i g h t s can impede the f l o w o f a u t o m o b i l e  traffic,  i t i s debated t h a t too many m a r i t i m e r e s t r i c t i o n s may s u f f o c a t e  the i n t e r e s t s of waterspace u s e r s .  However, an i n t e r e s t i n g p r e c e d e n t e x i s t s  w h i c h may prove t o be the n e c e s s a r y  t e s t case t o r e s o l v e the q u e s t i o n .  •""Personal i n t e r v i e w w i t h C a p t a i n John W i l l i a m s , S u p e r v i s o r , A u x i l i a r y V e s s e l s , E s q u i m a l t , B. C , March 6, 1973.  185 A i r s p a c e over Canadian t e r r i t o r y has been zoned and c o r r i d o r e d f o r s e v e r a l decades f o r the p r o t e c t i o n and r e g u l a t i o n o f a i r c r a f t i n f l i g h t and f o r t h e s a f e t y o f t h e p u b l i c on t h e ground.'''  T h i s accepted  p r a c t i c e , w h i c h i s most  p r e v a l e n t i n c o n j e s t e d h i g h - u s e a r e a s , above p o p u l a t e d  c e n t r e s , and around  major a i r p o r t s , has n o t measureably d e t r a c t e d from t h e p r o v e r b i a l " w i l d 2 b l u e yonder" appeal o f a i r s p a c e and a i r s p a c e a c t i v i t i e s . brought s t e r n b u t r a t i o n a l c o n t r o l t o an unfenceable  I n s t e a d , i t has  t e r r i t o r y while  recompensing the common p r o p e r t y r i g h t s o f i n d i v i d u a l u s e r s . D e l i m i t a t i o n o f a water spaces i n v e n t o r y f o r t h e G u l f s t i l l a w a i t s the documentation o f p r e r e q u i s i t e i n f o r m a t i o n .  Valuable i n s i g h t i s provided  by a i r s p a c e r e g u l a t i o n s which show t h a t e f f e c t i v e m u l t i p l e use can o n l y come about through z o n i n g programmes w h i c h c o n s i d e r a s u f f i c i e n t range o f a l t e r n a t i v e s for a l l users.  Zoning need n o t be so n a r r o w l y d e f i n e d t h a t the  G u l f i s p a r c e l l e d o f f t o s i n g l e u s e r s by the s e a - a c r e , b u t should e x h i b i t a r a t i o n a l t e n e t t h a t areas d e m o n s t r a t i n g  a l o c a l i z e d p r i o r i t y deserve t o be  p r o t e c t e d from uncomplimentary a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h may be u s e f u l l y accommodated elsewhere. A z o n i n g program f o r the G u l f o f G e o r g i a r e l i e s on two c o n d i t i o n s : the d e s i g n a t i o n o f p r i o r i t i e s and the mumbe'r o f a v a i l a b l e p h y s i c a l a l t e r natives.  The f e d e r a l governments acknowledgement o f t h e G u l f ' s  primary  '''While a s p e c t s o f s a f e t y c o n s t i t u t e t h e u n d e r l y i n g r e a s o n f o r a i r s p a c e z o n i n g , a i r s p a c e r e s t r i c t i o n s a l s o e x i s t f o r n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y and environment c o n t r o l ( a i r p o l l u t i o n , n o i s e p o l l u t i o n , m i g r a t o r y b i r d protection).  Commercial and m i l i t a r y a i r s p a c e i s c o n c l u s i v e upwards o f 14,000 above s e a l e v e l .  186 e c o l o g i c a l - c u l t u r a l f u n c t i o n has s e t the p r e c e d e n t f o r the d e s i g n a t i o n o f priority.  Respecting  t h i s s t a n c e , i t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e i n f u t u r e , t o  a n a l y z e amalgamated d a t a and come t o comprehensive c o n c u l u s i o n on the d e s i g n a t i o n of c e r t a i n s u b - r e g i o n a l w a t e r s p a c e s . p o s s i b l e , i t i s n o t any easy t a s k .  However, w h i l e i t i s  This h o l i s t i c plan w i l l r e q u i r e a  systems approach t o a s s i m i l a t e such u n r e l a t e d t h i n g s as the s e a s o n a l i t y and d i u r n a l n a t u r e of c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s and marine f a u n a , the i r r e g u l a r i t y of commercial a c t i v i t i e s , d a i l y t i d a l c o n d i t i o n s , water depths and channel a p p r o a c h e s , and p u b l i c p e r c e p t i o n s or l e i s u r e v a l u e s . p r e s e n t t t h e c r e a t i o n of zoned a r e a s i s suspect  f o r l a c k o f sound d a t a on  commercial ship, movements o r a thorough u n d e r s t a n d i n g recreational users.  1  F o r example, a t  o f a t t i t u d e s of  Without these fundamental d a t a , comprehensive p l a n s  are l i m i t e d t o the h y p o t h e t i c a l .  Nonetheless,  examination  of a v a i l a b l e  i n f o r m a t i o n and t h e j p o s i t i o n o f key c o n s e r v a t i o n - r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s tends to show t h a t commercial r o u t e s c o u l d be l i m i t e d t o Haro Pass and R o s a r i o S t r a i t .  Strait-Boundary  These two passages o f f e r the l e a s t r e l a t i v e  e c o l o g i c a l h a z a r d , a r e the f a r t h e s t removed from f r a g i l e marine h a b i t a t s , and  l e s s e n the frequency  craft.  of c o n t a c t between commercial and r e c r e a t i o n a l  A t the same t i m e , t h e r e appears no n e c e s s i t y f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l sea-  borne t r a f f i c bound f o r the p o r t of Vancouver, t o f r e q u e n t c o n s t r i c t e d 2 Gulf I s l a n d passages,  or the t r u n c a t e d maze of c h a n n e l s a t the G u l f ' s  ''"No amalgamated r e c o r d s a r e k e p t o f i n d i v i d u a l r o u t e s , courses and cargoes of a l l commercial v e s s e l s p a s s i n g through G u l f w a t e r s .  I n narrow A c t i v e Pass,, the, p r o v i n c i a l f e r r y Queen o f V i c t o r i a and the S o v i e t f r e i g h t e r Sergey Y e s e n i n c o l l i d e d on August 2, 1970, k i l l i n g t h r e e f e r r y passengers and t o u c h i n g o f f a l e n g t h l y l e g a l h e a r i n g .  187 n o r t h e r n approaches.''' But z o n i n g s h o u l d n o t be i n t e n d e d t o a d m i n i s t e r o n l y f o r e i g n v e s s e l movements.  I t may a l s o be e f f e c t i v e l y used f o r the management o f c o a s t -  wise t r a n s f e r s .  L o c a t i o n a l examples e x i s t where p r o v i n c i a l f e r r y  oper-  a t i o n s have p a r t i a l l y e x p r o p r i a t e d ( o r m i s e x p r o p r i a t e d , w h i c h ever the case may be) r o u t e s i n the G u l f .  At present, there i s not s p a t i a l dispen-  s a t i o n extended t o commercial water u s e r s o u t s i d e of t h a t granted s t o r a g e p e r m i t s f o r l o g booming.  Zoning c o u l d be i n v o k e d t o d e l i m i t  v e s s e l c o r r i d o r s and r e g u l a t e booming o p e r a t i o n s . a l s o be implemented f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l t r u s t e e s h i p of c o n v e r v a t i o n areas.  through  Forms o f z o n i n g may  p r o t e c t i o n i n a d d i t i o n t o the  A r e a s w h i c h a r e most s u s c e p t a b l e t o  d e g r a d a t i o n from the a d d i t i o n o f domestic wastes can be i d e n t i f i e d , and 2 unreated waste o u t f a l l s i n t o these s e c t o r s can be p r o h i b i t e d . However l a u d a b l e , the a b i l i t y o f marine t r a f f i c c o n t r o l systems and s i n g l e and m u l t i p l e use z o n i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s  t o p r o p e r l y manage o f f s h o r e  areas i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o c u r r e n t m a r i t i m e s t a t u t e s . W i t h the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  o f these programmes, governments c o u l d b r i n g  c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s i n t o harmony and r e a f f i r m the u t i l i t y o f o r d e r l y On January 25, 1973, The I r i s h S t a r d u s t , bound f o r P o r t M e l l o n , s t r u c k a r e e f o f f Cormorant I s l a n d i n the G u l f s n o r t h e r n a p p r o a c h e s , and s p i l l e d over 100,000 g a l l o n s o f bunker o i l .  2 Even on c u r s o r y e x a m i n a t i o n , i t would appear t h a t two major o u t f a l l a r e a s , Cordova Bay and Sturgeon Bank, a r e h i g h l y u n s u i t a b l e f o r the i n p u t o f domestic wastes on the grounds of poor water c i r c u l a t i o n o f the former and b i o l o g i c a l p r o d u c t i v i t y o f the l a t t e r .  188 shared  use.  Conclusion:  The Need f o r P u r p o s e f u l P l a n n i n g i n the G u l f of  T h i s study has a n a l y z e d  the growth of water use and  of water use c o n t r o l s i n the G u l f of G e o r g i a .  Georgia  the development  I t has demonstrated t h a t  the G u l f has been the c a t a l y s t f o r the p e r p e t u a t i o n of t r a d e and commerce l i n k a g e s , the e x p l o i t a t i o n of l i v i n g sea r e s o u r c e s , and of s o c i a l and a e s t h e t i c p u r s u i t s .  the  satisfaction  I n s h o r t , the G u l f has f u n c t i o n e d as  the j u g u l a r of B r i t i s h Columbia's i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y and  leisure  time  interest. Over the l a s t one hundred y e a r s , the s t e a d y - s t a t e n a t u r a l systems of the G u l f have been m o d i f i e d a t an i n c r e a s i n g r a t e by dynamic economic and c u l t u r a l demands p l a c e d upon the marine environment.  A t the same time  t h e r e has a l s o been a d i s t i n c t i v e change i n the a t t i t u d e of governments and the marine o r i e n t a t i o n of c o a s t l a n d r e s i d e n t s . was  At f i r s t , economic reward  the p u r i t a n a r b i t e r of G u l f a c t i v i t y w i t h commerce and f i s h i n g r e i g n i n g  f o r the l o n g e s t p e r i o d .  R e c r e a t i o n a l elements of water use appeared o n l y  a f t e r the n u c l e a t e d growth of a f f l u e n t p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r e s . A l t h o u g h m a i n t a i n i n g the b a l a n c e  of j u r i s d i c t i o n a l power i n the G u l f  s i n c e C o n f e d e r a t i o n , the f e d e r a l government, from the o u t s e t , e x e r c i s e d comfortable r e s t r a i n t .  Federal posture  c o a s t a l w a t e r s and marine r e s o u r c e s was of r e s communis.  toward the management of d o m e s t i c o s t e n s i b l y a l i g n e d w i t h the i d e a  O r i g i n a l l y , t h i s l a i s s e z - f a i r e shared-use concept  was  found t o be somewhat s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g s i n c e t h e r e were few p a r t i c i p a n t s and p l e n t y of room.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the p r e - r e q u i s i t e s — a m p l e space and  abundant r e s o u r c e s - b r o k e  down under the p r e s s u r e s of compounded growth  and o v e r l y e f f i c i e n t t e c h n o l o g i e s .  Limited regulatory c o n t r o l , increased  189 p a r t i c i p a t i o n and e f f o r t , and  freedom of movement f o r a l l u s e r s , r e s u l t e d  i n an o v e r t a x a t i o n of the r e s o u r c e  base.  Only the h a r d i e s t of  activities  have not f e l t the e f f e c t s of some form of d i m i n i s h i n g returns.'''  Yet,  w h i l e the c o n d i t i o n of the s t u d y r e g i o n i s f a r from the d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n marine r e s o u r c e s  e x p e r i e n c e d i n the N o r t h Sea, or the d e g e n e r a t i o n of water  q u a l i t y reached i n Lake E r i e , t h i s study has r e p e a t e d t h a t p a t h e t i c of p o l i t i c a l apathy p r e v a i l i n g u n t i l c r i s i s p r o p o r t i o n s was  most apparent i n f i s h e r i e s c o n s e r v a t i o n  d e c i m a t i o n of the f i s h e r y had  taken p l a c e .  serial  are r e a c h e d .  This  p r a c t i c e s invoked a f t e r s e v e r e P o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l amendments  to m a r i t i m e s t a t u t e s w h i c h r e g u l a t e waterborne commerce, commercial f i s h e r i e s , and waste d i s p o s a l , tend to prove t h a t a measurable amount of impaired  e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y i s a p r e - r e q u i s i t e of l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i o n .  But d e s p i t e t r a d i t i o n a l i n e r t i a , l a t e l y , t h e r e have been o p t i m i s t i c signs that conscientious abatement, and  energy i s b e i n g d i r e c t e d toward water p o l l u t i o n  the r e g u l a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n a h o l i s t i c  environmental context.  The  which have f o r g e d new  same a n t i - p o l l u t i o n and  environmental e t h i c s  c o n t i n g e n c y p r o c e d u r e s are alsio r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r the  reassessment of the v a l u e of the G u l f of G e o r g i a as a m u l t i f a c e t e d w a t e r space.  P o l i t i c a l d i s p o s i t i o n and p o l i c y from a l l l e v e l s of government i n  the 1970's r e f l e c t s an e n v i r o n m e n t a l b i a s i n which e c o l o g i c a l - c u l t u r a l v a l u e s have begun to r e c e i v e p r i m a r y  consideration.  C u r r e n t empathy f o r the marine environment w i l l l i k e l y l e a d to more  ^"Too many examples e x i s t of other c o a s t a l a r e a s where the v u l g a r i t y or_ extreme Inc^ompatabilit^y^ of- c e r t a i n users, begets, c o n t r o l . WorMng*fc'bt l i e ^ t t e t r l n r a ! ^ a c t i v W i e s ' , s e w a g e " ' d i s t r i c t s have been r e m a r k a b l y s u c c e s s f u l i n a p p l y i n g t h i s method t o water use. c  1  r  190 s t r i n g e n t environmental c o n t r o l i n Gulf waters. abreast  I n an e f f o r t t o keep  o f v o g u i s h e n v i r o n m e n t a l movements, however, c o r r e s p o n d i n g manage-  ment p o l i c i e s and programmes developed f o r m a r i t i m e a r e a s have o f t e n  sur-  passed the adequacy of a v a i l a b l e knowledge and d a t a on the i n c i p i e n t impact of man's d e c i s i o n s i n o f f s h o r e a r e a s . i n w h i c h the b a s i s of f o r m u l a t e d  An e n i g m a t i c  s i t u a t i o n has a r i s e n  p o l i c i e s i s i n t u i t i v e but n o t f a c t u a l .  An i n c r e a s i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f a c e s s c i e n t i s t s and s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s t o it  II  provide  i n t e r p r e t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n on the e c o l o g i c a l f a l l - o u t of human  actions i n offshore areas.  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s s o r e l y needed f o r the  p o r t f o l i o s of l e g i s l a t i v e and p r i v a t e s e c t o r d e c i s i o n makers.  I n some  c a s e s , s k i l l e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s have been c a l l e d upon t o do "window d r e s s i n g " impact s t u d i e s a f t e r the commencement o f development programs. slowness i n p r e s e n t i n g being  conclusions  has l e f t r e s e a r c h e r s  In others,  i n the r o l e o f  l i t t l e more t h a t h i s t o r i a n s f o r documenting e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e t e r i o r -  ation.  W h i l e f a r from c o m p l e t e , Canadian i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n o f f s h o r e  are h i n d e r e d  by a l a c k o f money but n o t e x p e r t i z e .  e x c l u s i v e l y on o c e a n o g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h e r s  areas  Rather than r e l y i n g  f o r the p r o v i s i o n o f comprehensive  i n f o r m a t i o n , problems such as the p r o t e c t i o n of the marine e n v i r o n m e n t , the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n and r e g u l a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s , and the t r a n s f e r of p u b l i c preferences ary f i e l d of study.  into public policy, offers a diversifed, m u l t i d i s c i p l i n Many of these problems appear endemic t o g e o g r a p h i c a l  methodology, but i t i s up t o geographers t o become i n v o l v e d w i t h i n q u i r y beyond t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r e s t r i a l As  confines.  thorough as f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e s and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  r e g u l a t i o n s appear t o be, they w i l l n o t be a b l e t o cope w i t h a l l f u t u r e incremental  maritime a c t i v i t i e s .  The p r o t e c t i o n of the G u l f of G e o r g i a  191  at acceptable  l e v e l s f o r a l l u s e r s w i l l n o t o n l y demand f r e q u e n t  amend-  ment t o r e g i o n a l l y i n s e n s i t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n , b u t w i l l r e q u i r e the a d d i t i o n of more s o p h i s t i c a t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e d u r e s such as forms of c o n s e r v a t i o n r e s e r v a t i o n , water^space z o n i n g , marine t r a f f i c and  the b a l a n c e d development o f s h o r e l i n e  c o n t r o l networks,  areas.  I n order t h a t e f f e c t i v e m u l t i p l e use and q u a l i t y l e v e l s a r e e v e n t u a l l y maintained,  co-operation  i s needed between l e v e l s of government,  r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t i o n s , i n d u s t r y , and the p u b l i c . t r a t e d the tragedy technology  T h i s study has i l l u s -  o f common p r o p e r t y d o c t r i n e s and the f o l l y of endowning  w i t h an eye t o o n l y one s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t .  Users cannot e f f e c t -  i v e l y b a l a n c e t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s , they must be p r o p e r l y r e g u l a t e d . challenge  then i s c l e a r :  i ti s political.  The  I t may o n l y r e q u i r e a c o n s o l i d a t e d  stance by a l l a g e n c i e s w h i c h p r e s e n t l y share some j u r i s d i c t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the G u l f , or i t may r e q u i r e a fundamental r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the C o n s t i t u t i o n t o p r o v i d e one agency w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e power over a l l a c t i v i t i e s i n offshore areas. holder  Government, as the o n l y p o s s i b l e  property  i n an environment w h i c h r e q u i r e s shared u s e , c a n no l o n g e r  remain  p a s s i v e , and must a c c e p t i t s r o l e as r e g u l a t o r o f domestic o f f s h o r e The  sooner, and the more r i g o r o u s l y government p r e p a r e s f o r t h i s demanding  r o l e , the more l i k e l y ing,  areas.  i t w i l l be t o f i n d i t s e l f i n the b u s i n e s s  r a t h e r than s a l v a g i n g , a unique c o a s t a l environment.  of maintain-  192  BIBLIOGRAPHY Books  A l e x a n d e r , Lewis M., ed.  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