UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Outdoor recreation planning in Alberta : appraisal of an information generation process Buholzer, William Arthur 1973

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1973_A8 B83.pdf [ 7.46MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0101369.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0101369-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0101369-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0101369-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0101369-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0101369-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0101369-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0101369-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0101369.ris

Full Text

C 0*' '• C  OUTDOOR RECREATION PLANNING APPRAISAL OF AN INFORMATION  IN ALBERTAt  GENERATION  PROCESS  by WILLIAM ARTHUR B.A., U n i v e r s i t y  BUHOLZER  of Alberta,  1970  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS MASTER  in  FOR THE DEGREE OF OF ARTS  the School o f  Community a n d R e g i o n a l  We  accept  to  the required  THE  this  thesis  Planning  as c o n f o r m i n g  standard  UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H April,  1973  COLUMBIA  In  presenting this  thesis i n partial  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced  f u l f i l m e n t of the  degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l it  freely  available  f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y .  I  make  further  agree t h a t permission f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s thesis of  f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d b y t h e Head  my D e p a r t m e n t  o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  I tis  understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s for  financial  written  School  g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  permission.  o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a April  30,  Columbia  1973  i  thesis my  ABSTRACT I t i s becoming a p p a r e n t t h a t some i s s u e s i n n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e management do n o t l e n d themselves t o t h e t e c h n i c a l , ' v a l u e - n e u t r a l ' approach t o d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g t h a t has o f t e n characterized  t h i s f u n c t i o n o f government.  One o f t h e s e  i s s u e s i s o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n , w h i c h has become a r e s o u r c e c  use  e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t t o such t r a d i t i o n a l uses as w a t e r  management, m i n e r a l  e x t r a c t i o n , and f o r e s t  C h o i c e s made w i t h r e s p e c t  harvesting.  t o r e c r e a t i o n a l use o f n a t u r a l  r e s o u r c e s i n e v i t a b l y r e f l e c t the p e r c e p t i o n s  and p r i o r i t i e s  o f those i n d i v i d u a l s who p a r t i c i p a t e i n making t h e c h o i c e s . Resource managers who make d e c i s i o n s about t h e use of n a t u r a l resources i n the 'public i n t e r e s t optimize,  5  must seek t o  t h a t i s , t o choose t h a t a l t e r n a t i v e c o u r s e o f a c t i o n  which y i e l d s the g r e a t e s t n e t b e n e f i t s : t o s o c i e t y . study purports  t o a s s e s s how w e l l t h e P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s  agency o f t h e P r o v i n c e  o f A l b e r t a generates  w h i c h can l e a d t o o p t i m a l management.  This  decisions  information  i n r e c r e a t i o n resource  A d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e g r o w i n g i m p o r t a n c e o f outdoor  r e c r e a t i o n a l use o f r e s o u r c e s ,  and o f t h e p u b l i c n a t u r e o f  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s  provided  by government  a g e n c i e s , precedes a b r i e f a n a l y s i s o f a number o f d e c i s i o n models.  The l a t t e r a n a l y s i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e g e n e r a t i o n  o f i n f o r m a t i o n about a l t e r n a t i v e c h o i c e s i s an  important  d e t e r m i n a n t o f the outcome o f the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  process.  A c c o r d i n g l y , a number o f c r i t e r i a are proposed w h i c h w i l l p e r m i t an e v a l u a t i o n o f the p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s agency's approach t o p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f o r d e c i s i o n s the management o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s  regarding i n the  province. The  p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s agency i s d e s c r i b e d i n terms  of i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e environment, i t s e v o l u t i o n s i n c e 1952,  and the o p e r a t i o n o f the i n f o r m a t i o n  p r o c e s s i n the agency.  Contextual  generation  i n f o r m a t i o n on  the  a t t i t u d e s o f p r o v i n c i a l r e s i d e n t s towards o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n i s drawn from a s u r v e y o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n b e h a v i o r perceptions in  and  c a r r i e d out i n the Peace R i v e r r e g i o n o f A l b e r t a  1972.  The  s t u d y c o n c l u d e s w i t h the e v a l u a t i o n o f the  agency's o p e r a t i o n i n terms o f the c r i t e r i a proposed i n the s t u d y ,  Por those a s p e c t s  of i n f o r m a t i o n  i n w h i c h the c r i t e r i a are not met, ment are o f f e r e d .  suggestions  earlier  generation f o r improve-  These i n c l u d e the d e f i n i t i o n , t h r o u g h  p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n , o f the agency's r o l e i n p r o v i d i n g a range of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r r e s i d e n t s o f , v i s i t o r s t o , the p r o v i n c e .  and  Secondly, i t i s suggested t h a t  the scope o f the agency's p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s s h o u l d be expanded so t h a t the p r o v i s i o n o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s can be c o n s i d e r e d  a problem o f s u p p l y as w e l l as demand; iii  i n f o r m a t i o n about the b e n e f i t s and c o s t s o f a l t e r n a t i v e uses o f r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s , and the b e n e f i t s and c o s t s of using resources that are s u i t a b l e f o r r e c r e a t i o n f o r o t h e r p u r p o s e s , would be g e n e r a t e d was  adopted.  i f such an approach  F i n a l l y , i t i s suggested  t h a t , i n order t o  a d e q u a t e l y r e f l e c t the f u l l range o f s o c i e t a l v a l u e s i n i t s d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s , the agency s h o u l d i n s t i t u t e a program o f c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the p u b l i c , whereby c i t i z e n s would p a r t i c i p a t e i n d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g such m a t t e r s as g e n e r a l p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n and major parks p r o j e c t s .  The a t t a c h m e n t o f a  permanent p u b l i c a d v i s o r y committee t o the o f f i c e o f the M i n i s t e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o v i n c i a l parks i s s u g g e s t e d medium through which A l b e r t a n s may t h e i r p r o v i n c i a l parks.  iv  as a  participate i n planning  TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract Table of Contents L i s t o f Tables L i s t of Figures . Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER I  i i v v i i viii ix  THE NATURE OF THE PROBLEM  Introduction Trends i n Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n . . . . . . . . . Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n : A M e r i t Good Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n : A P u b l i c Good Government Involvement i n Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n , Purpose o f t h e Study . . . . .  1 4 8 9 10 12  CHAPTER I I DECISION-MAKING AND INFORMATION GENERATION: ' FIVE CRITERIA P o l i t i c a l and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g . D e c i s i o n Models: S y n o p t i c R a t i o n a l i t y . . . . D e c i s i o n Models: S a t i s f i c i n g D e c i s i o n Models: I n c r e m e n t a l i s m . . The Role o f I n f o r m a t i o n C r i t e r i a f o r Information Generation . . . . . The O b j e c t i v e o f P u b l i c D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g i n Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n  15 21 24 26 27 29 3?  CHAPTER I I I ADMINISTRATION OF OUTDOOR RECREATION IN ALBERTA The A r r a y o f A g e n c i e s Some A g e n c i e s and T h e i r A c t i v i t i e s C o - o r d i n a t i o n o f Agencies Discussion  v  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  40 hZ 50 53  CHAPTER IV THE PROVINCIAL PARKS PLANNING PROCESS IN ALBERTA E v o l u t i o n o f t h e Parks System P e r s o n n e l and F i n a n c i n g Planning S e c t i o n Operations Public Participation A Case -in P o i n t : The W i l d e r n e s s Discussion  Areas . . . .  55' 59 62 6k 66 69  CHAPTER V A PROFILE OF ATTITUDES TOWARDS OUTDOOR RECREATION Peace R i v e r Region: Background I n f o r m a t i o n . 7k Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n F a c i l i t i e s i n the R e g i o n . 79 Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n B e h a v i o r and P r e f e r e n c e s : A Survey 80 Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n : P a r t i c i p a t i o n . . . . . . 86 Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n : A t t i t u d e s 100 Discussion 103 CHAPTER VI EVALUATION AND DISCUSSION Introduction C r i t e r i o n One C r i t e r i o n Two I C r i t e r i o n Three . . . . . . C r i t e r i o n Four C r i t e r i o n Five . . Discussion . . . . . . . . . ... 1. Goals F o r m u l a t i o n 2. The Scope o f P l a n n i n g 3. The R e f l e c t i o n o f S o c i e t a l V a l u e s i n Decisions . . . . . . . . k. Communication . . . . . . . 5. I m p l e m e n t a t i o n . . . . . REFERENCES  . . . . .  APPENDIX I PEACE RIVER REGIONAL PLANNING COMMISSION OUTDOOR RECREATION QUESTIONNAIRE  107 107 l l 113 115 119 120 121 12k 127 129 130 132 138  APPENDIX I I GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS, PEACE RIVER REGION, 1972 . . . 143  vi  L I S T OF Table Table  Table  I II  III  Administration in Alberta  TABLES o f Outdoor  Recreation 4l  C a p i t a l A p p r o p r i a t i o n s and E x p e n d i t u r e s f o r Wayside C a m p s i t e s , A l b e r t a Department o f Highways a n d T r a n s p o r t . . . . . . . . P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s i n A l b e r t a by Type  and 49  Class Table  Table  Table Table  Table  Table  Table  IV  V  VI VII  VIII  IX  X  44  Attendance at P r o v i n c i a l Parks, River Region.1964-1972  Peace  P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n A c t i v i t i e s , Peace R i v e r Region 1972  82 . . .  88  D e s i r e d P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n A c t i v i t i e s , Peace R i v e r Region 1972 . . .  93  Reasons f o r N o n - P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n A c t i v i t i e s , Peace R i v e r Region 1972  96  O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n V i s i t s R e p o r t e d by Respondents f o r P r e v i o u s Year, Peace R i v e r Region 1972  99  P r e f e r r e d C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n E n v i r o n m e n t s , Peace R i v e r Region, 1972  101  P r e f e r r e d V e h i c u l a r Access to Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n A r e a s , Peace R i v e r R e g i o n 1972  103  vii  L I S T OF Figure  Figure  Figure  1 2  3  FIGURES  T o t a l Attendance at P r o v i n c i a l A l b e r t a 1959-1971  Parks,  2  Province of Alberta: Highway N e t w o r k , N a t i o n a l and P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s and W i l d e r n e s s A r e a s , 1972 A l b e r t a P r o v i n c i a l Parks  Expenditures  1952-1972 Figure Figure  k 5  51  60  Province of A l b e r t a , Boundaries P l a n n i n g Commissions . . . . .  of Regional  Peace R i v e r Region: Highway N e t w o r k , P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s , C a m p s i t e s and R e c r e a t i o n A r e a s , 1972  viii  77  81  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I  consider  opportunity  of.working  whose a b i l i t y problems  and  the essence  management  of this  Supervisor,  A l b e r t a Department  study.  I also  o f the D i r e c t o r  Provincial  Planning  information  ix  of institutional  Parks  o f Lands and F o r e s t s ,  o f t h e Peace R i v e r R e g i o n a l i n supplying  had t h e  has b e e n o f g r e a t  the co-operation  the Parks Planning  Alberta,  t o have  P r o f e s s o r I r v i n g Fox,  i n the preparation  wish t o acknowledge  Division,  fortunate  with  to perceive  i n resource  assistance  and  myself  Commission,  f o r the study.  CHAPTER I THE  NATURE OF THE  PROBLEM  Introduction Outdoor r e c r e a t i o n has  become one  o f the most r a p i d l y  expanding p u r s u i t s i n the range o f a c t i v i t i e s engaged i n by w e s t e r n man  i n the l a t t e r h a l f o f the t w e n t i e t h  i n terms o f b o t h i t s p o p u l a r i t y and  century,  the p r o p o r t i o n  of t h e i r  r e s o u r c e s t h a t members o f s o c i e t y , c o l l e c t i v e l y and i n d i v i d u a l l y , are p r e p a r e d t o a l l o c a t e t o i t . c o m p i l e d by government a g e n c i e s on the use  Statistics of p u b l i c out-  door r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s g e n e r a l l y i l l u s t r a t e r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g a n n u a l numbers o f v i s i t s t o n a t i o n a l p a r k s , p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s , and  other types of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n areas.  T o t a l v i s i t s t o p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s i n A l b e r t a , f o r example, have i n c r e a s e d  s i x - f o l d s i n c e 1959  (see F i g u r e  the number o f p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s i n the p r o v i n c e from 24  ( 7 , 7 7 0 a c r e s ) i n 1952  t o 51  ( P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s D i v i s i o n , 1972b),  1),  while  has  increased  (140,095 a c r e s ) i n Such i n c r e a s e s  1972.  are  t y p i c a l of those experienced throughout North America. As  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n increases  in popularity, i t  becomes a r e s o u r c e use e q u a l l y l e g i t i m a t e t o the more t r a d i t i o n a l , consumptive uses o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . f o r e s t s were once f o r l o g g i n g and  Whereas  r i v e r s f o r damming, the  2  5000  4000  3000  2000  1000  o  (NI  -cr  \D  vO  \£>  CT\  CT\  en  vo  v£3  CT>  oo  o  vX>  P>.  <T\  C\  FIGURE 1 TOTAL ATTENDANCE AT PROVINCIAL PARKS ALBERTA 1959-1971 (Source:  Department o f Lands and F o r e s t s A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1972)  o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n p o t e n t i a l o f such r e s o u r c e s t o be c o n s i d e r e d resource  i s beginning  as an e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n  management d e c i s i o n s .  Such r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n  p r o j e c t s as A l b e r t a ' s F o o t h i l l s Resource A l l o c a t i o n S t u d y (Department o f Lands and F o r e s t s , 1971) have g i v e n r e c r e a t i o n p r i o r i t y equal t o that attached l o g g i n g , a g r i c u l t u r e , and o t h e r r e s o u r c e perhaps more e a s i l y j u s t i f i e d P r o v i n c i a l resource  outdoor  t o mining,  uses w h i c h a r e  economically.  management a g e n c i e s a r e i n v o l v e d  i n making d e c i s i o n s about t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f n a t u r a l for  resources  o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n , and t h e development o r non-development  of such resources resources  t o s e r v e u s e r demands.  t o provide  I n managing  the greatest net b e n e f i t s t o p r o v i n c i a l  r e s i d e n t s , such a g e n c i e s a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n p r o v i d i n g outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e b r o a d e s t p o s s i b l e range of users.  The d e c i s i o n s r e a c h e d by o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n  a g e n c i e s have i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e r e s i d e n t s o f any p a r t i c u l a r p r o v i n c e ,  f o r they determine, f i r s t o f a l l ,  the range o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t w i l l be i m m e d i a t e l y a v a i l a b l e i n the p r o v i n c e .  Long-range  d e c i s i o n s i n outdoor r e c r e a t i o n resources  planning  management may  have i m p o r t a n t e f f e c t s on the o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t w i l l be a v a i l a b l e t o future residents o f the province.  In addition,  the b e n e f i t s t h a t a c c r u e t o r e s i d e n t s o f t h e p r o v i n c e t h r o u g h t h e development o f a t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y may be a f f e c t e d by t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a range o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n opportunities.  k  Trends i n Outdoor  Recreation  A range o f f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e t o the g r o w i n g popu l a r i t y of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n . propulsive, permissive,  They may  be c a t e g o r i z e d  as  o r a t t r a c t i v e , depending on t h e  manner i n w h i c h t h e y i n f l u e n c e the i n d i v i d u a l . Propulsive planations  f a c t o r s a r e t h o s e w h i c h have t h e i r ex-  i n t h e f i e l d s o f s o c i o l o g y and p s y c h o l o g y ; t h e y  a r i s e from t h e n a t u r e o f t h e environment i n which i n c r e a s i n g numbers, and a g r o w i n g p r o p o r t i o n , o f p e o p l e i n the w e s t e r n world  are spending t h e i r n o n - l e i s u r e  time.  The  motivation  t o disengage h i m s e l f from h i s h a b i t u a l environment c o n s t i t u t e s a f o r c e w h i c h 'pushes* t h e r e c r e a t o r from a s t r u c t u r e d life  space he.wishes t o a v o i d t e m p o r a r i l y i n t o a r e c r e a t i o n a l  life  space i n w h i c h he a n t i c i p a t e s he can r e p l e n i s h h i s  adaptive  energies,  disengagement  ( D r i v e r and T o c h e r , 1970? p.l3)»  need n o t be from a p a r t i c u l a r l y  s p a c e , a l t h o u g h t h e outward-bound t r a f f i c  'urban'  from l a r g e  The life cities  on weekends a t t e s t s t h a t urban a r e a s do g e n e r a t e a l a r g e number o f r e c r e a t i o n t r i p s .  Indeed, i t i s not  t o i s o l a t e a g r e a t many f a c t o r s — t h e v a r i o u s onmental p o l l u t i o n , h i g h n o i s e  types o f e n v i r -  levels, visual pollution,  heavy t r a f f i c , bombardment o f the senses w i t h which t e n d t o d r i v e the u r b a n i t e l e i s u r e time.  difficult  information—  from the c i t y d u r i n g h i s  The i m p o r t a n t element o f the o u t d o o r r e c r e a -  t i o n a l - e x p e r i e n c e , however, i s the t r a n s i t i o n from s t r u c t u r e d environment t o random environment; t o a r e s t o r a t i v e e c o l o g i c a l s e t t i n g t h a t i s l e s s demanding, more p r e d i c t a b l e , l e s s  5 threatening. the  ( D r i v e r and  urbanite  thought  w o u l d p e r h a p s be  of residents  from i t a l l '  on  creates  of small  in fact,  o f the  a desire  relative to  escape  p.25).  Although  somewhat bemused a t c o u n t r y towns  t h e i r weekends by  s u c h b e h a v i o r may, perception  1970,  Tocher,  be  seeking  observed.  pressure  the  ' g e t t i n g away  the  countryside,  The  recreator's  of his  life  from s t r u c t u r e d  to  spaces  often  unstructured  environments. Permissive  f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g to the  of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i n c l u d e by  the  United  Commission  States  19.62) . . .  specific  (Owens, 1965;  f a c t o r s , which are nations,  are  as  the  Resources  other  more  MacDonald, 1970),  Rising  income  participation  rates  which i n v o l v e  an  areaSeveral  i n most w e s t e r n  mobiles, s k i s , p o p u l a r i t y as  l e v e l s are  i n those  and  use  of  disposable  l e i s u r e time  and  associated  with  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l  funds.  Those p u r s u i t s  increased activities which  o f e q u i p m e n t — - b o a t s , c a n o e s , snow-  associated  people are  outlay  of  are  status.  outlay  around the  included  availability  educational/occupational  form o f  Review  p o s i t i v e l y correlated with p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  income, m o b i l i t y ,  the  as  s t e a d i l y strengthening  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s ;  revolve  well  extensively  Resources  (Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n  Review C o m m i s s i o n , studies.  documented  Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n  1960's  i n the  those  escalation  able  peraphernalia—enjoy  increased  t o a f f o r d the  fee*  f o r equipment.  The  'entry  availability  time i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a l l r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s ,  in  of l e i s u r e and  the  6 progressive  shortening  of the  p e o p l e w i t h more d i s p o s a b l e devote to  outdoor  The important  work week t e n d s  t i m e w h i c h t h e y may  increasing  mobility  ramifications.  As  o f the  vehicle able  to  more r e a d i l y f r o m t h e i r s t r u c t u r e d  new  highway u t i l i z a t i o n  recreation  viously the  As  inaccessible  of recreators  helicopters,  abling  people  environments  others; and  float  to gain  to  access  to  activities.  The  popularity  of a c t i v i t i e s  desireable  image a s s o c i a t e d  that  Mobility  and  status  of  such  the  permit a strong  with  the  personal  greater  involves  a l l  sometimes  enremote  experiences. be  activities  cor-  but  not  managerial in  status  associated  themselves  i s perhaps  Francis  ease  satisfies  vehicles  seems t o  elements a s s o c i a t e d include  for  pre-  this  snowmobiles are  activities  that  to  p a r t i c i p a t e more o f t e n  question  postulated  open  demands  built  them.  diverse  in participation rates. five  to  some i n d i v i d u a l s , h a v i n g  positions,  two  encourages even  some o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a l  with c e r t a i n recreational  istics  and  automobile;  p l a n e s , and  i t appears t h a t  reflected  and  t r a v e l to  has  themselves  environment  f o r t h e i r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l  professional  certain  transport  environments;  temporarily  Educational/occupational related with  to  o w n e r s h i p becomes more  increases  recreational  modes o f t r a v e l o t h e r t h a n t h e as  choose  population  a r e a s grow, more r o a d s a r e  mobile population  numbers  provide  recreation.  w i d e s p r e a d , more p e o p l e a r e  spaces.  to  Christy  has  p o s i t i v e l y with  of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , activity,  character-  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with  the  the  image, a n a u d i e n c e  forable  and e f f i c i e n t  to appreciate  t h e i m a g e , and com-  use o f l e i s u r e t i m e .  1970,  (Christy,  p.99). Attractive creator  factors  a r e t h o s e w h i c h draw t h e r e -  t o t h e o u t d o o r e n v i r o n m e n t a n d e n c o u r a g e him t o  participate  i n pursuits  associated  In  to escaping  from h i s u s u a l  addition  mation, the r e c r e a t o r and  d i f f e r e n t types  wishes  restorative  function.  to  subdue t h e n a t u r a l  Despite  force  that  concept  appears  attractive are  related  forces,  a s more p e o p l e  to natural  Among t h e more a v i d at  times  processes  recreators  t o assume s p i r i t u a l  who p a r t i c i p a t e  only  i s 'refreshing'  attractive  factors  on o c c a s i o n  apply  themselves  ability  to p u l l  I t may be t h a t t h e viewpoint,  increase  desire  these  to learn  how  the outdoor experience  may o b s e r v e t h a t That  i s revealed  seems  those their  these  by t h e e t y m o l o g y renews t h e  o f p a r t i c i p a n t s , and equips  i n the l i f e - s p a c e s  i n day-to-day  they  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the  outdoor experience  and mental w e l l - b e i n g themselves  will  relaxing  i t under h i s  o r ' f e e l s good*.  experience  t h e word r e c r e a t e - - t h e  them t o s u s t a i n  serve a  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , while  are inherent  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l  physical  will  t o new  i n the environment.  occasionally  experience  of  access  o f the ecological-systems  o f 'spaceship earth',  of infor-  man's p r o f e s s e d  man b a c k i n t o harmony w i t h t h e l a n d .  the  environment.  sources  environment and b r i n g  a persuasive  growing p o p u l a r i t y  that  to gain  of information  or  control,  often  with  life.  t o which  they  8  The  significance  o f the nature  p e r m i s s i v e , and a t t r a c t i v e f a c t o r s recreation that  the  pertaining  i s that.they are a l l changing  the a c t i v e  steadily?  foreseeable  are that  future.  recreation  i s that  activities  threatens  i tw i l l  debasement, w h i l e  existing  the options  has  the terminology  for recreation  utilizations  from  ownership, o f land.  o f economics, outdoor  recreation  'merit good'.  Merit  by s o c i e t y b e -  the e n t i r e  society w i l l  benefit  i n d i v i d u a l s ' a v a i l i n g themselves  o f the good.  Basic  education provides  i s the t y p i c a l educational  doing are perceived accrue  to the e n t i r e  highly  educated.  benefits  stable  example  o f a m e r i t good;  opportunities t o be e x c e e d e d society  Because  of recreational  may.be r e g a r d e d adjusted,  that  with  Good  goods a r e t h o s e w h i c h a r e deemed d e s i r a b l e of a perception  areas  or developing  of private  some o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a  cause  t o do s o i n  ' c r i s i s ' i n outdoor  for reserving  s e t t l e m e n t , and o t h e r consumptive  A Merit  i s increasing  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n  new a r e a s a r e n a r r o w e d by t h e s p r e a d  Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n ;  t o outdoor  continue  The s o - c a l l e d  t h e g r o w i n g demand  propulsive,  i n such a d i r e c t i o n  demand f o r o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n  indications  In  o f these  because  the costs  by t h e b e n e f i t s  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l  to  i t s members.  that  experiences,  psychological  outdoor  recreation  as a m e r i t g o o d , on t h e g r o u n d s  if  o f so  o f i n d i v i d u a l s ' b e c o m i n g more  o f the l a r g e l y  and c h e e r f u l  government  society w i l l  experiences  I t i s appropriate  be more  are r e a d i l y that  that  a  well-  likely  available  the p r o v i s i o n  of  recreation or  services  subsystem  (like  be v i e w e d a s a s o c i a l e d u c a t i o n and h e a l t h  provides  i m p o r t a n t and n e c e s s a r y  system.  These  development It dividuals  inputs  system which  t o the t o t a l  social  the growth and  o f i n d i v i d u a l members o f s o c i e t y . i s o f some i m p o r t a n c e  would agree  merit goods. activities  services)  inputs  c a n h e l p promote  service  that  t o note that  not a l l i n -  a l l recreational a c t i v i t i e s are  F o r e x a m p l e , t h e more  w h i c h do n o t i n v o l v e  equipment-intensive  much p h y s i c a l  m o t o r b o a t i n g , may n o t be a s ' m e r i t o r i o u s '  effort,  i n t h e view o f  some i n d i v i d u a l s , a s o t h e r , more s t r e n u o u s a c t i v i t i e s as  like  such  hiking.  Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n ;  A Public  The  of 'public  kinds  concept  Good  o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n .  w h i c h , once s u p p l i e d , impossible purely detract  A public  i s equally  t o e x c l u d e anyone  public  good' a l s o  applies  g o o d i s a good  available  to a l l .  from t h e enjoyment  g o o d , a n d one man's c o n s u m p t i o n  from t h e a b i l i t y  goods a r e c o n t r a s t e d  with private  goods; u n i t s  may be p a r c e l l e d  g r a n t e d and can r e a l i z e such u n i t s .  (Brazer,  does n o t Public  o f the former  units  o f the  o u t among i n d i v i d u a l s who c a n be exclusive  rights  o f enjoyment o f  1970, p . 1 2 1 ) .  With the growing p o p u l a r i t y creational activities,  I ti s  of a  o f a n o t h e r t o consume i t .  c a n n o t be a s s i g n e d among i n d i v i d u a l s , w h i l e latter  t o some  private  o f many o u t d o o r r e -  enterprise  has t a k e n a  10 substantial  role  opportunities. of c e r t a i n levels  However, b e c a u s e  kinds  of  i n s o f a r as  and  by  to  recreation  may  begin  lities  i n the  will  from  to  transformation  public  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for  facilities.  The  'public  benefitted  by  goods', the  t o d a y , and  utilize  public  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n  the  facilities  such a  s u g g e s t e d as  are  consumption  detract  When p u b l i c  the  alloinsofar  recreation  of  the  ability  i s not  g o o d by of  become o v e r c r o w d e d  seems t o be  to  have  to  use  public  outdoor  faci-  been  a means o f d e t e r m i n i n g w h i c h members o f permitted  consume  indeed,  i n some  where l o t t e r i e s  purely  outdoor  good;  occurring  a  some i n -  others  resemble a p r i v a t e  United States,  be  various  charge.  g o o d , f o r the may  recreational  'merit* q u a l i t i e s  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n  However, p u b l i c  dividuals  the  and  n o n - r e s i d e n t s may  without  outdoor  government are  generations  of resources  facilities  it.  of  resources  provided  future  visitors  public  of  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s ,  recreational  opportunities  as  provision  o f g o v e r n m e n t have a c c e p t e d  providing  cation  i n the  the  recreation  facilities. Government I n o l v e m e n t A  complex h i e r a r c h y  recreation regional,  i n Outdoor  has and  allocation,  evolved local  facility  Recreation  of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r  i n Canada, w i t h n a t i o n a l ,  or m u n i c i p a l provision,  Council  of Resource M i n i s t e r s ,  various  levels  involvement and  maintenance.  1968).  o f g o v e r n m e n t has  in  The  been to  outdoor provincial,  land (Canadian  response  extend  the  at  11 compartmentalized the In  provision some c a s e s ,  lished  to deal  problems  approach  to administration  of recreational opportunities Cabinet  level  specifically  t o the p u b l i c .  d e p a r t m e n t s have b e e n  estab-  w i t h r e c r e a t i o n and r e l a t e d  ( f o r example, B r i t i s h  Recreation  to include  and C o n s e r v a t i o n ) ,  Columbia's Department o f while  i n other  cases,  ap-  pendages t o e x i s t i n g departments  have b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d t o  provide  that  those the  recreation  opportunities  are associated  with  departments' normal r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  ( f o r example,  P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n o f A l b e r t a ' s  Department o f  Lands and F o r e s t s ) , An is  important  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f such  the sharp d i s t i n c t i o n  between p o l i t i c s  which i s b a s i c  t o government o r g a n i z a t i o n  and  States,  the United  dividing civil  administrative  process  created  carry  out the functions  focal  point  administration  i n both  o r i g i n a t e d I n the development to free  from p a r t i s a n i n f l u e n c e s ,  which agencies  and  I n the Canadian context  s e r v i c e and the n e c e s s i t y  process The  line  departments  career  the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  (Hodgetts,  i960,  p,M±2).  came t o be r e g a r d e d a s one i n  by f o c a l assigned  point  decision-makers  or entrusted  t o them b y  decision-makers.  ment o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  adherence  has o f t e n  administrative subject  the  of a  With the i n c r e a s i n g s i z e and c o m p l e x i t y  istration  Canada  to this  p r i n c i p l e o f admin-  l e d to hierarchically-ordered  s t r u c t u r e s , i n a system  to p o l i t i c a l  o f govern-  o f graded  ranks  d i r e c t i o n by C a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s  heading  12 the v a r i o u s  departments.  A d d i t i o n a l impetus f o r t h i s k i n d o f a p p r o a c h , p a r t i c u l a r l y with respect resources,  i s provided  t o the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f n a t u r a l  by the dependence upon e x p e r t s w h i c h  has  c h a r a c t e r i z e d modern s o c i e t y .  has  become i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d i n government; governmental  agencies are organized  The  r o l e of  professionals  p r i n c i p a l l y on the b a s i s o f spe-  c i a l i z a t i o n , w i t h d i v i s i o n s or departments e s t a b l i s h e d handle p a r t i c u l a r p r o c e s s e s or problems. p.24),  Thus, w h i l e p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s  (Sewell,  to  1971i  f i l t e r down t o  the  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e agency from the p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g body, the  ' t e c h n i c a l ' problems o f a d m i n i s t e r i n g  p o l i c i e s become the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the  those  .c  professional  s t a f f s w i t h i n each department, composed o f s p e c i a l i s t s i n that p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d . expert,  The  by b o t h the p u b l i c and  i n o t h e r f i e l d s , has Purpose o f the  t r a d i t i o n a l respect by those h a v i n g  for  the  expertise  tended t o r e i n f o r c e t h i s a p p r o a c h .  Study  Most o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n e r s i n Canada o p e r a t e w i t h i n such departments o r branches of government as have been d e s c r i b e d  above, and  hence e n j o y the advantages  s u f f e r the d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  structure,  whether f e d e r a l or p r o v i n c i a l , i n which t h e y are One  o f the most i m p o r t a n t t a s k s  aspirations regarding  I t seems e v i d e n t  placed.  f a c e d by o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n  a g e n c i e s i s t h a t of b e i n g r e s p o n s i v e t o p u b l i c and  and  perceptions  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s .  t h a t , w i t h i n the f o r e s e e a b l e  future,  the  13 use  of natural  come an  resources  i n c r e a s i n g l y popular  ment a g e n c i e s p l a y available ception o f the  t o the  particular Division  resources  f o r outdoor recreation?  some p e r members  i n t e r e s t e d i n , i s fundamental to  study w i l l  attempt  to determine  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n agency, the  of  the  performing the  Alberta  this  function.  Decisions  such  opportunities  that  cost  these  of using  residents are  resources  one  P r o v i n c i a l Parks Forests,  which are  made the  have i m p o r t a n t  i n terms o f the  a v a i l a b l e to  r o l e of p r o v i n c i a l parks  well  p a r k a c q u i s i t i o n and  of p r o v i n c i a l park s i t e s ,  for Alberta  how  D e p a r t m e n t o f L a n d s and  agency concerning  development  the  r o l e i n making  Govern-  allocation decisions. This  cations  important  public  p u b l i c are  within  an  be-  l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t y .  o f what o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s  resource  is  f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n w i l l  them, t h e  impli-  recreational opportunity  f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n , i n the  and  provincial tourist  industry. The  first  stage  of decision-making contexts, in  the  in this  i n the  legislative  t o d e t e r m i n e where r e s o u r c e  agency i n q u e s t i o n  are  o f a number o f d e c i s i o n m o d e l s components  of  determinants basis  evaluation  of t h i s  the  likely  and  i s an  administrative  management t o be  follows,  decisions  made.  An  to determine  d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s m i g h t be  of p o l i c i e s  r e s u l t i n g from  the  a n a l y s i s , a number o f c r i t e r i a  posed which w i l l  exploration  p e r m i t an  evaluation  o f the  analysis what  important  process. will  be  extent  On  the  proto  which  14 decision-makers people  o f the Province o f A l b e r t a ,  information courses  i n the p r o v i n c i a l  about  of action  management.  the b e n e f i t s i n outdoor  parks  agency, and the  are confronted with  and c o s t s o f a l t e r n a t i v e  recreation  resources  CHAPTER I I  DECISION-MAKING AND GENERATION,: Political  F I V E CRITERIA  and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e  It  was o b s e r v e d  INFORMATION  Decision-Making  i n the preceding  chapter  g o v e r n m e n t s have t a k e n a m a j o r r o l e i n p r o v i d i n g recreation by  opportunities„  As t h e d i v e r s i t y  t h e p u b l i c on g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s  o f a complex,, p l u r a l i s t administration lators  ing,  s o c i e t y , the concept  inadequacies.  w h i c h have b e e n t h o u g h t  political trative  expands i n t h e c o n t e x t  wherein p o l i c y decisions  serious  outdoor  o f demands made  of public  a r e made b y  and m e r e l y implemented by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ,  demonstrate  that  Negotiating  the e x c l u s i v e  legis-  begins to  and  bargain-  pursuits of  d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s , have become e v i d e n t  i n adminis-  d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g as w e l l . . Under a system  legislative  of representative  decision-making process  t o be a n e q u i t a b l e  one as l o n g  government, the  i s generally  as r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  perceived bears a  proportional relationship to population.  I t has b e e n  postulated  of representation,  t h a t , u n d e r optimum c o n d i t i o n s  the  u t i l i t y theory  the  marketplace a l s o a p p l i e s  Edwin H a e f e l e  that  lies  behind r a t i o n a l  t o the l e g i s l a t i v e  has shown t h a t , i n s o f a r as  15  behavior  in  process.  representative  16 government i n the  two-party system  i n the  is  policy decisions  o f l e g i s l a t u r e s are  c o n c e r n e d , the  same as  t h e y w o u l d be  legislature. units  and  i f a l l citizens  Haefele  w a r n s , however, t h a t  s p e c i a l bodies,  s u c h as  because  o f the  utility  river  defect  members.are n o t  elected representatives  their  are  decisions  legislative In directed the  c h e c k s and the  by  or  and  Hodgetts  responsiblity  of the  States,  State to  the  are  has  people;  o f the to  the  are  that  the  and  usual  1.9711 p . 3 5 0 - 3 6 7 ) . units  are  appointed are  in  of  i n Canada,  increasing state a c t i v i t y  heads  the  t o the  concept  by  turn  i n Canada, the  responsible  of Their  people  t h e m s e l v e s members o f  i s coming under s t r a i n  f a c t o r s as  commissions, deserving  administrative who  the  they possess.  G o v e r n o r s , who  directly  observed  are  (Haefele,  Cabinet  the  administrative  basin  subject  balances.  departments are  legislature,  of such  the  responsible  of Cabinet  J.E.  United  directly  members o f t h e  President  directly  not  States  participated in  w h i c h have d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s , mistrust  United  people.  ministerial because  i n the  nation. W h i l e the needs o f a permanent c a r e e r ( c i v i l ) s e r v i c e have c a l l e d f o r t h i s d i v i d i n g l i n e ( b e t w e e n p o l i t i c s and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) , the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b l e g o v e r n m e n t has r e q u i r e d a c l o s e i n t e g r a t i o n between a p p o i n t e d o f f i c e r and e l e c t e d p o l i t i c i a n . One m i g h t add t h a t t h e w e l f a r e a c t i v i t i e s upon w h i c h t h e modern s t a t e has b e e n f o r c e d t o embark have a l s o b r o u g h t t h e c i v i l s e r v i c e i n t o more i n t i m a t e and d i r e c t p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w i t h t h e populace at l a r g e . We have s o u g h t t o  affairs  17 r e s o l v e o u r p a r a d o x by t h r o w i n g up a s i n g l e b r i d g e between t h e two r e a l m s i n the form o f a r e s p o n s i b l e M i n i s t e r . That b r i d g e , i t would appear, i s o f t e n too f r a g i l e t o s u s t a i n the heavy t r a f f i c t h a t now moves a c r o s s i t . . . . I n c r e a s e d s t a t e a c t i v i t y has, o f c o u r s e , v a s t l y expanded the b u r e a u c r a c y . . . . As a c o n s e q u e n c e , t h e n o t i o n , still s u p p o r t e d by c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d o c t r i n e , t h a t one p o l i t i c a l h e a d c a n assume d i r e c t and i m m e d i a t e c h a r g e o v e r t h e s t a f f o f a d e p a r t m e n t numbered i n t h o u s a n d s , s t r a i n s t h e bounds o f r e a s o n and c e r t a i n l y t h e l i m i t s o f human e n d u r a n c e . (Hodgetts,  I960, p . k k Z - b J ) .  O n t a r i o ' s Committee investigating decisions the  need  Government  Productivity,  f o r c i t z e n involvement i n  a f f e c t i n g them* o b s e r v e d t h a t  elected  about  the  on  representative  the  political  remoteness  of  c a u s e s c o n c e r n among c i t i z e n s  t h e i r views b e i n g r e p r e s e n t e d  in  decisions.  The i n c r e a s i n g s i z e and c o m p l e x i t y o f i n s t i t u t i o n s have a l s o p l a c e d enormous b u r d e n s on t o p d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s . In e x a m i n i n g the r o l e o f t h e c a b i n e t minister, t h e Committee on G o v e r n m e n t P r o d u c t i v i t y c o n s i d e r e d the l a c k o f time f o r d e c i s i o n making t o be one o f h i s key p r o b l e m s . O b v i o u s l y , p o l i t i c i a n s can d e a l w i t h o n l y s o many i s s u e s a t one t i m e and c a n n o t p o s s i b l y c o n s i d e r a l l the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f each d e c i s i o n . Realizing this, i n d i v i d u a l s and g r o u p s o r g a n i z e t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e i r i n t e r e s t s are not overlooked. (Committee on Government P r o d u c t i v i t y , 1972, p . 1 2 ) . The  Committee  observes  further  o f g o v e r n m e n t b o d i e s and the  three  making i t  increasing  l e v e l s o f government  municipal), sibility  the  uncertainty  f o r the  may  decision,  t h a t , w i t h the p r o l i f e r a t i o n interdependency  (federal, provincial,  a r i s e as  t o who  l e t a l o n e who  bears  of  and  respon-  is actually  18 Indications make d e c i s i o n s are  that  regarding  administrative  units  do, i n f a c t ,  the a l l o c a t i o n o f p u b l i c  abundant i n the l i t e r a t u r e  on a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  t h e y a r e b a s e d on o b s e r v a t i o n s  o f the operation  contemporary Western p o l i t i c a l  culture.  has  observed  resources behavior;  o f the  H e r b e r t A. S i m o n  that: A g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c y may be d i r e c t e d simultaneously toward s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t o b j e c t i v e s . . . . E v e n when no c o n s c i o u s or d e l i b e r a t e i n t e g r a t i o n o f these goals t a k e s p l a c e i n d e c i s i o n , i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t an i n t e g r a t i o n g e n e r a l l y t a k e s place i n fact. A l t h o u g h i n making d e c i s i o n s f o r h i s agency, the r e c r e a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r may f a i l t o w e i g h t h e d i v e r s e a n d sometimes c o n f l i c t i n g o b j e c t i v e s a g a i n s t one a n o t h e r i n t e r m s of t h e i r r e l a t i v e importance, y e t h i s a c t u a l d e c i s i o n s , and t h e d i r e c t i o n which he g i v e s t o t h e p o l i c y o f h i s a g e n c y , w i l l amount i n p r a c t i c e t o a p a r t i c u l a r s e t o f w e i g h t s f o r t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s . , . . Hence, a l t h o u g h t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r may r e f u s e t h e t a s k , o r be u n a b l e t o p e r f o r m i t , o f c o n s c i o u s l y and d e l i b e r a t e l y i n t e g r a t i n g h i s s y s t e m o f o b j e c t i v e s , he c a n n o t a v o i d the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f h i s a c t u a l d e c i s i o n s , which achieve such a s y n t h e s i s i n f a c t . ( S i m o n , 1965, p . 5 7 ) .  The  activities  mental l e v e l s , often lative  of •lobbies  municipal,  d i r e c t e d a t the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e branches  exercise  a t the various  provincial,  o f government.  d i s c r e t i o n a r y power i s p r e s e n t the  1  This  and f e d e r a l , a r e as w e l l a s t h e l e g i s would i n d i c a t e t h a t  a t the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  o f which l o b b y i s t s seek t o i n f l u e n c e .  many g o v e r n m e n t d e p a r t m e n t s , ' t h e i m p e t u s legislation  ministers  In  legislation  responsible  some  level,  f o r changes i n  a n d f o r t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f new  come n o t f r o m t h e C a b i n e t  govern-  f o r the  19 departments but responsible This  from the  f o r the  w o u l d be  one  administrators,  day-to-day implementation  facet of administrative  i n w h i c h l o b b y i s t s m i g h t be In a paper prepared  the  ability  at  e f f e c t s o f the the  of p o l i c y .  decision-making  interested in participating. for Ontario's  Government P r o d u c t i v i t y , p o l i t i c a l sums up  those i n d i v i d u a l s  growth  administrative  Committee  scientist  F.C.  on  Thayer  of d i s c r e t i o n a r y cap-  level.  E x c i t i n g t h i n g s are happening i n admini s t r a t i o n , . . b e c a u s e t h i s i s where t h e a c t i o n i s ; c i t i z e n s . . . are a f f e c t e d by d e c i s i o n s made by administrators exercising their discretionary authority, and most c o n t a c t b e t w e e n c i t i z e n and g o v e r n m e n t i s a t t h a t p o i n t where a g e n c i e s do t h e i r b u s i n e s s . (Thayer, 1971, p.21). Administrative .to t h e the  study  have s u g g e s t e d a new  of American p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  traditional  agencies.  analysts  In  hierarchical structure  the  'public choice'  of  approach  which r e j e c t s  administrative  school,  p u b l i c a g e n c i e s are not viewed simply as b u r e a u c r a t i c u n i t s w h i c h p e r f o r m t h o s e s e r v i c e s w h i c h someone a t t h e t o p i n s t r u c t s them t o p e r f o r m . Rather, p u b l i c a g e n c i e s a r e v i e w e d as means for a l l o c a t i n g decision-making capa b i l i t i e s i n order to provide p u b l i c • g o o d s and s e r v i c e s r e s p o n s i v e t o the preferences of i n d i v i d u a l s i n d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l contexts. (Ostrom & Ostrom, 1971, P.207). Political setting that  are  leaders  the  stage  f o r the  administrative  administrative the  make t h e  operation  basic  structural decisions,  l e s s e r , incremental  i n nature.  organization of Canadian  seems t o  decisions  Such a p h i l o s o p h y describe  bureaucracies.  of  accurately  20  The r e c o g n i t i o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g c a p a b i l i t y has two i m p o r t a n t r a m i f i c a t i o n s i n s o f a r , a s ' agencies charged w i t h the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f outdoor r e creation  are concerned.  I f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a g e n c i e s do  e x e r c i s e d i s c r e t i o n i n a l l o c a t i n g resources w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s passed down from  legislative  d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s , then a p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s i s present a t the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l . or p r o f e s s  I f agencies a r e ,  t o be, responsive t o the preferences o f  i n d i v i d u a l s i n d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c o n t e x t s , then t h e p e r s o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g which precedes  the a r t i c u l a t i o n  o f any i n d i v i d u a l p r e f e r e n c e becomes a n o t h e r  important  d e t e r m i n a n t o f t h e output o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a g e n c i e s . I n s o f a r as t h e p r o v i s i o n o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s i s c o n c e r n e d , d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g may o c c u r a t three d i s t i n c t l e v e l s .  I n the f i r s t p l a c e ,  legislative  b o d i e s i m p l i c i t l y determine t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h  their  o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n may p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o t h e p u b l i c , by d e c i d i n g on t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f funds among t h e v a r i o u s government departments tax  competing  f o r the  dollar. W i t h i n t h e c o n s t r a i n t s o f t h e i r budget,  Cabinet  m i n i s t e r s together with t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f decide w h i c h programs w i l l be c a r r i e d o u t . These d e c i s i o n s may be i n f l u e n c e d t o a l a r g e degree by t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s proposed by t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n t h e agency, whose p e r c e p t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s may be r e f l e c t e d i n t h e c h o i c e s t h e y  provide.  21 At  t h e 'consumer' l e v e l ,  capability  i s exercised,  alternatives this the  level past,  only  ations  some  f o r e x a m p l e , when one o r more  are submitted  will  to public  be b r o u g h t i n t o p l a y  involvement  information  i s usually  of the d i f f i c u l t y expensive,  that  provided  of generating  sophisticated,  always  may be e x p l o i t e d  ficacy  of administrative  The  rationality  alternatives  influence and e f -  decisions. Rationality  by e c o n o m i s t s  o f economic  to explain  economic t h e o r y ,  a n d a b u y e r who  a n d who  these  o r c o m p r e h e n s i v e , model o f r a t i o n a l  to c l a s s i c a l  a seller  The p u r p o s e  of influences  t o , a n d how  i s r e l a t e d t o the concept  devised  an  processes,  t o ensure the l e g i t i m a c y  Synoptic  synoptic,  decision-making  i s an  to gain  be e x p l o r e d .  i s t o d e t e r m i n e what t y p e  points  Models:  In order  o f decision-making  decision-makers are susceptible  involve  because  decision-making a t the  by g o v e r n m e n t .  o f the nature  exercise  According  situ-  i n the p r o v i s i o n o f outdoor r e -  o f d e c i s i o n models w i l l  Decision  i n such  by g o v e r n m e n t , often  grows.  and a t the p u b l i c agency l e v e l ,  determinant  appreciation  of t h i s  more o f t e n a s demands  available to citizens  opportunities  a number  hearings;  information.  •consumer' l e v e l ,  creation  meetings and  i n governmental d e c i s i o n s  I t w o u l d seem, t h e n , t h a t  important  decision-making  o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , w h i l e n o t h e a v i l y used i n  for public The  •  market  market  has i n f o r m e d  behavior.  transactions himself  i s moving toward h i s g o a l s  of  i n such a  22 way  that,  least valued  to  possible  by  best  of scarce  The  effects, of  only  the  been s u g g e s t e d  decision-making marketplace;  i n the  the  legislative  steps  The  i n the  resources the  synoptic  political theory  represents  per  unit  of  are  as  a p p l i c a t i o n of A  typical  It  to in  of representative  decision-making.  ex-  transaction.  a r e n a as w e l l  an  the  model a p p l i e s  the  govern-  the  model,  outline of  decision-making process  i s as  the  follows:  a.  S p e c i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s e t o f known a c t i o n to achieve a g o a l .  b.  D e t e r m i n a t i o n f o r each o f the a c t i o n s of the s e t of a l l p o s s i b l e consequences of t h a t a c t i o n and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p r o b a b i l i t i e s ,  c.  Evaluation in light of the consequences  d.  D e r i v a t i o n o f the ' c o r r e c t ' a c t i o n t o adopted. ( S c h o e f f l e r , 1955. p.193).  steps  i s completely  to  To  problems,  begin with,  •sensible', i s often appreciated  only  i n the  like  a relative  context  extent  that  The  i s not  with-  p e r s o n s whose v a l u e  structures  may  judge each  but  i n d i v i d u a l s having d i f f e r i n g  actions  'beautiful'  as  What seems e m i n e n t l y r a t i o n a l t o  and  motivations  r a t i o n a l or values one  and  terra w h i c h may  of a s p e c i f i e d set  Two  other's  be  however.  'rational',  u s e d as  the  accomplished.  model o f r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  its practical  possible  o f one's v a l u e s o f e a c h o f each o f the a c t i o n s ,  method r e s u l t s i n r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s  synoptic  i s using  transactions  p a r t i e s to the  the  utility  synoptic  each of these  out  two  that  ment n o t e d e a r l i e r to  o f h i s k n o w l e d g e , he  input  output.  perienced has  the  be  of  values.  are  alike  irrational;  c a n n o t do  p e r s o n may  so.  seem n o t  so  23 to  another,  cause  the  values.  Assuming  f o r the  be  omission  of available  erroneous  on  sidered) , b l i n d l y  consequences  after  incomplete  natives  1955,  decisions fects.  that  i n the  who  the  i n pursuing  irrationally  and,  example.  o f man  h i s own  and  (Dror,  the  and  1968,  (based  value  alter-  (Schoeffler, experience  o r more o f t h e s e political the  con-  (adopted  theory  eighteenth  generated  with dewere  century  theories  capacity for acting raand  happiness.  however, t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s  use  or  facts  various  have had one  order  made i g -  or r a s h l y  self-interest  i n some c a s e s ,  rationally—through for  o f us  individuals  become a p p a r e n t ,  be  considered  available).  were p u r s u a d e d by  rationality  emphasized  has  be  to  In  illogically  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the  However, few  men  difficult  some o f t h e  action),  Western economic t h e o r y  tionally It  of the  same  other's  or p r e d i c t i o n s from the  t h a t were made w i t h o u t  d e v i s e d by belief  relevant facts),  o f a c t i o n t h a t may  p.l90)»  facts  (ignoring at least  affected an  very  d e c i s i o n s must n o t i n the  of a  a l l h o l d the  i n decision-making.  mistakes  deductions  be-  context  a l l judge e a c h  i t is s t i l l  rational,  (based  on  may  perfect rationality  norantly  i n the  moment t h a t we  objectively,  perfectly  action itself;but  evaluated  h e n c e , t h a t we  rationality  to  of the  set of  and,  achieve  because  a c t i o n i s being  different  values  not  may  behave  make d e c i s i o n s e x t r a -  of extra-sensory  p.15^).  do  perception,  2k The summarized  shortcomings by  an  b.  T h e . n e c e s s i t y o f examining each consequence o f each a l t e r n a t i v e . A systems view o f the w o r l d i m p l i e s t h a t t h i s e v a l u a t i o n i s imp o s s i b l e because every p o l i c y d e c i s i o n w i l l have t o o many c o n s e q u e n c e s f o r anyone t o evaluate i n t h e i r entire l i f e t i m e .  c.  The d i f f i c u l t y o f a n t i c i p a t i n g f u t u r e consequences i n the c o n t e x t o f r a p i d t e c h n o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l change.  d.  The p r o b l e m o f d e c i d i n g whose l i s t i n g o f v a l u e s w i l l be u s e d t o rank the r e l a t i v e d e s i r a b i l i t y of v a r i o u s consequences.  as  that synoptic decision-making  a description  o f how  One  theorists with  the  the  of a  rationality  habits,  and  and  extent  outcomes o f t h e  should  i s not decide.  dissatisfaction  'satisficing* is limited  by  his values  model.  rational-comprehensive  goal  course  the  of action) with (finding  model has  Since  the  been  indivi-  skills,  and  of purpose,  conceptions  must r e p l a c e t h e ::  of maximizing relatively  a course  of  h i s unconscious  o f h i s k n o w l e d g e , he  enough').  a man  synoptic decision-making  reflexes,  'satisficing'  how  d e c i d e s , and  Satisficing  o f the  suggestion  on  man  i s not  p.275J.  D e c i s i o n Models:  'good  include:  The d i f f i c u l t y o f t h i n k i n g o f and e v a l u a t i n g every a l t e r n a t i v e course of a c t i o n .  ( P r e s s m a n , 1970,  the  been  a.  e n t i r e l y worthy statement  dual's  s y n o p t i c model have  J e f f r e y Pressman; they  Pressman concluded accurate  o f the  (finding  modest g o a l  the  best  of  o f " a c t i o n which i s merely  25 According  to the s a t i s f i c i n g (1957)»  H e r b e r t A. Simon  of a s e t o f c r i t e r i a alternatives;  decisions  which  model p r o p o s e d by  a r e made i n t h e c o n t e x t  describes  minimally  the a l t e r n a t i v e s e l e c t e d  satisfactory  i s t h e f i r s t one  w h i c h meets o r e x c e e d s a l l t h e c r i t e r i a .  Decisions are  made t o meet t h e n e e d s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g situation, goals, it  after taking  resources,  the information  and a l t e r n a t i v e courses  i s f e a s i b l e f o r them t o a s s e m b l e .  ficing  model, w h i l e  rationality that  still  accepting  i s the highest  decision-makers  t h e y have of  i n t o account  found  do n o t l o o k  one t h a t  the i m p l i c a t i o n s  form  that  that  the search  consequences discovered indicated  comprehensive holds  f o r new a l t e r n a t i v e s a f t e r satisfactory.  decision-makers  f o rinformation  One  do n o t l o o k  and r e s o u r c e s ;  another  about a l t e r n a t i v e s and  i s t e r m i n a t e d when a mode o f o p e r a t i o n i s  that w i l l  satisfy  the objectives  that  seem t o be  i n the s i t u a t i o n .  The  satisficing  model i s n o t w i t h o u t  criticism  has b e e n l e v e l l e d  decisions  must be b e t t e r  decision-makers z a t i o n a l goals basis.of  that  o f problem s o l v i n g ,  beyond e x i s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l g o a l s is  of action  Hence, t h e s a t i s -  they consider  i s that  about  only  should  a portion  on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t  than  efficient  'good e n o u g h ' , a n d t h a t  n o t be c o n t e n t  wholesale,  its critics;  t o accept  organi-  or to formulate p o l i c i e s  o f the r e l e v a n t  on t h e  information.  26 D e c i s i o n Models: The  model o f d i s j o i n t e d  incrementalism  (1959) and B r a y b r o o k e  by L i n d b l o m takes  Incrementalism  satisficing  t o an  extreme.  method o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  always  that  limited,  decisions.  lification  degree  policies  capabilities  possess.  proposes  and  Time and  contends, sources  limitation  that  differ  f o r complex limited  of policy  simpcom-  i n .relatively  already i n effect,  and  of possible  by  of  money i s  a model o f s u c c e s s i v e  consequences  small  ignoring  policies,  as  v a l u e s a t t a c h e d t o the n e g l e c t e d  consequences.  The  incrementalist  the  model i n t h a t  that  i t rejects  change i n the  of decision-making  describes  actual than  m o d e l , and  so  from  decisions w i l l  to Lindblom,  has  resources.  the  gained  of consequences,  cause  constitutes  decision-making  either  that  pure Since  previous decisions  The  and  only'a small  decision-makers  this  satis-  for decision-making.  t o e v a l u a t e i n terms  s t a t u s quo,  from  the assumption  depart r a d i c a l l y  most p o l i c y  through*5  model' d i f f e r s  i s t h e b e s t method  are d i f f i c u l t  curately  rational-comprehensive  the  decisions  use  The  or i n c r e m e n t a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , wherein  possible  rationality  since  Lindblom  t h e method i s n o t w o r k a b l e  to those p o l i c i e s  important  ficing  do n o t  i s achieved through  from  w e l l as  so  Lindblom  comparisons,  parisons  men  (I963)  and  i s i m p o s s i b l e , Lindblom  b e c a u s e i t assumes i n t e l l e c t u a l information  proposed  tend  a more  to  overall  'muddle  effective  i n c r e m e n t a l model  b e h a v i o r much more  s y n o p t i c model o r t h e  ac-  satisficing  considerable popularity.  The  27 accelerating creates  rate  o f change t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s o u r s o c i e t y -  a climate  incrementalism;  favorable  Some c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  i n the context  innovation  The  i n Future  Lindblom's  theory  o f the p r o - i n e r t i a i n a l l human  and p o l i c y making."  "an  and a n t i -  organizations, 1964,  (Dror,  objective of this  b r i e f review  p.155).  of three  does, however, s e r v e  t o focus  crucial  of rationality  determinants  In the synoptic  a problem, c l a r i f y i n g goals,  The r e v i e w  a t t e n t i o n on some o f t h e  model, r a t i o n a l i t y  means t o a c h i e v e  decision  a n optimum s t r a t e g y w h i c h i s p o s s i b l e ,  f o r that matter, d e s i r a b l e , o f attainment.  tifying  Shock  Information  models i s n o t t o d e v i s e or  policy.  d i r e c t i o n w o u l d seem  by A l v i n T o f f l e r  forces prevalent  of  such  o f a s o c i e t y w h i c h i s c h a n g i n g as  reinforcement  administration  Role  policy  Y e h e z k e l D r o r has c a l l e d  ideological  The  u s e f u l i n determining  of overall  r a p i d l y as t h a t d e s c r i b e d (1970),  and c a u t i o u s  a t t h e same t i m e , , h o w e v e r , i t makes  models p r o g r e s s i v e l y l e s s  essential  to conservatism  in  decision-making.  i s achieved  and r a n k i n g  assessing  by i d e n -  goals,  the costs  listing  and b e n e f i t s  o f t h e a l t e r n a t i v e means, a n d s e l e c t i n g a p a c k a g e o f g o a l s and In  associated  policies  the s a t i s f i c i n g  which w i l l  alleviate  model, comprehensiveness  tempted} d e c i s i o n s a r e made on t h e b a s i s which i t i s f e a s i b l e Incrementalism  to c o l l e c t  the problem. i s nota t -  o f the information  under the  circumstances,  i s a r e j e c t i o n o f comprehensive  rationality  28 because  o f the  sufficient If cision the  and  costs  ( i n money and  information i t can  be  to reach  increases  as  the  tionality,  i t w o u l d seem t h a t  directly  information ship  r e l a t e d t o the on  the  soundness  t o both the  which the  i s concerned;  making o f e v e r y  the  who  The  more i n f o r m a t i o n  the  goals; the  and  the  choice  from, the  postulates to help which  can  how  acquire to vote  o f , and  i t enables  to  the  societal  possesses, eventual  information  form o p i n i o n s  information  them t o have s p e c i f i c  formation  i s u s e f u l to  with becitizens  preferences,  which i n t u r n i n f l u e n c e government p o l i c i e s  that  them. The the  agency.  A n t h o n y Downs  i n f l u e n c e government p o l i c y Political  choice  the w i d e r  political and  a  individual  his evaluation  that citizens  tween e l e c t i o n s . because  be  the  relation-  decision-  f o r meeting  a l t e r n a t i v e s proposed.  them d e c i d e  they  propose  more i n f o r m a t i o n  more s o u n d w i l l  the  a public  agency possesses,  range o f a l t e r n a t i v e s i t can  the  decision-making  i s faced with  among a l t e r n a t i v e p r o g r a m s p r o p o s e d by  of  This  i t i s a l s o r e l e v a n t to  individual  ra-  decisions  quantity  administrative  and  process  q u a l i t y of the  q u a l i t y and  de-  public  or s y n o p t i c ,  d e c i s i o n i s based.  the  of a  decision-making  model o f c o m p r e h e n s i v e ,  e x i s t s i n s o f a r as  process  the  hence i t s a c c e p t a b i l i t y  legislature,  compiling  a decision.  assumed t h a t  approaches  is  time) of  more i n f o r m a t i o n a c i t i z e n h a s , more i n f l u e n c e o v e r g o v e r n m e n t  affect  p o l i c y he i s l i k e l y t o e x e r c i s e . C o n v e r s e l y , t h e l e s s a c i t i z e n knows a b o u t p o l i c y a l t e r n a t i v e s , t h e more l i k e l y i t i s t h a t government w i l l i g n o r e him i n making d e c i s i o n s .  (Downs, 1 9 5 9 , p.2^9).  Criteria  f o r Information The  initial  s i t u a t i o n wherein tunities  chapter  of this  study  t h e demand f o r o u t d o o r  throughout  Administrative  Generation  the western  structures,  recreation  i s growing  earlier  deal with  t h e demands o f a c o m p l e x , p l u r a l i s t i c  outdoor  The i n t e n t  pose a s e t o f c r i t e r i a agencies  chapter, w i l l  o f g o a l s and a s p i r a t i o n s  recreation.  i n this  of this  provision  proposed  process, which w i l l  has  o f outdoor  criteria  recreation  deal with  collection,  of technical (Driver,  analysis,  p.197).  chapter  the achievement  with  The Planning  the s y s t e -  o r g a n i z a t i o n , and p r o c e s s i n g  While  most p l a n n e r s  decision-making".  the a d j e c t i v e ' t e c h n i c a l ' to accept  are a t least  this  roles,  involved  i n the i n f o r m a t i o n generation process; importance  with .  opportunities.  of t h e i r  of crucial  of  i s to pro-  concerned  concerned  c a u s e h e s i t a n c y among some p l a n n e r s  is  to  society  i n the sphere  permit  information to f a c i l i t a t e  1970,  be a t t e m p t i n g  information generation.  b e e n d e f i n e d as "an a c t i v i t y  matic  rapidly.  f o r the o p e r a t i o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  o f o p t i m a l d e c i s i o n s by d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s the  oppor-  t h e o p e r a t i o n o f w h i c h has b e e n  described  with a variety  i n this  world  has d e s c r i b e d a  because  definition  partially  "the nature  o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by p l a n n e r s  may  their  role  and the q u a l i t y  a n d t h e manner i n  30 which i t i s p r o v i d e d mining  what d e c i s i o n s w i l l  implemented". The generate one  plays a s i g n i f i c a n t  criteria  proposed  assume t h a t p u b l i c  o f which choices  to provide  i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e those  They a r e i n t e r e s t e d  i n the various  alter-  related  to achieve  o f the choice  a g i v e n g o a l , and o f each  i s of primary  agencies  may p r o v i d e  in  t h a t members o f t h e p u b l i c may form  influence  concern.  On t h e o t h e r  information for.public  government p o l i c y  formation  S u c h mechanisms a s p u b l i c h e a r i n g s of  citizens  quality  i n policy  formation;  ticipate  consumption, o p i n i o n s and directions.  institutionalize  the r o l e  h o w e v e r , t h e amount a n d  t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree  to citizens  their ability  will  t o par-  effectively. The  first  criterion  mation g e n e r a t i o n phase public  hand, p u b l i c  i n desired  of information that i s available  determine  alternative.  t o the c o s t s and e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f  policies  order  upon by-  may be made b y  consequences  Information  are c a l l e d  In  among p o l i c i e s  n a t i v e s which a r e a v a i l a b l e likely  agencies  of •clients*.  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and p l a n n e r s  decision-makers..  the  be  (Driver, 1970, p.199).  p o l i t i c a l , decision-makers basis  be made a n d how t h e y w i l l  i n f o r m a t i o n f o r two g r o u p s  case,  part i n deter-  agencies  their policies processes  should  the focus  of decision-making. have s p e c i f i e d  goals  a r e o r i e n t e d ; p l a n n i n g and  should  established  concerns  function i n relation  by p o l i t i c a l  To b e g i n towards  with,  which  decision-making  t o agency  decision-makers  o f the i n f o r -  goals,  t o guide  agency  31 policies and  and  and  commenting  by  programs w i l l  on  goals  clear,  rational  first  formulation  have n o t  suggested  and  management,  from a complex h i s t o r y faulty interpretations,  ( O ' R i o r d a n , 1971, concerns  information  formulated  i n v o l v i n g a l l groups  public opinion,  opportunism.  O'Riordan,  g e n e r a l l y been  debate  policy  well alternative  i n resource  u s u a l l y have e v o l v e d  criterion  how  meet s u c h g o a l s .  logical  of vaguely-expressed, political  generated about  deal with  formulation  observed that goals  concerned, but  and  Information  program d e c i s i o n s s h o u l d  policies  has  programs.  .  this  p.111).  matter of  The  goals  generation.  C r i t e r i o n One: Does t h e a g e n c y g e n e r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t p r o j e c t s and p r o g r a m s i n r e l a t i o n t o g o a l s e s t a b l i s h e d by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e p u b l i c through a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e process?  Another c r i t e r i o n information resources  generation  and  deals  process.  various is  i n t o account  components  necessary  the  the  of natural  'experts'  Forests  employ  and  the  human e l e m e n t ,  I n most  have b e e n d e l e g a t e d  management.  agricultural  approach,  government  government departments  For  o f A g r i c u l t u r e employ a g r o n o m i s t s and  L a n d s and  area  of  S5'stems i n t e r a c t i o n s b e t w e e n  -  f o r resource  to deal with  scope  that a h o l i s t i c  of the environment  specialized  respective  sibility  the  for successful planning.  jurisdictions, their  In  the  e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y management, i t i s  becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y apparent which takes  with  example,  use  planners  respon-  Departments  agricultural  problems, while land  the  with  economists  Departments and  of  foresters  32 and  Departments  and,  o f M i n e s a n d M i n e r a l s employ g e o l o g i s t s  i n A l b e r t a , petroleum  apparent  t h a t such  geologists.  a compartmentalized  failed  to deal with  inputs  o f e x p e r t i s e ( S e w e l l , 1971)  with  gested.  Multidisciplinary  comprehensive  holistic  pertaining  sug-  such (estab-  Peace-Athabasca D e l t a P r o j e c t a r e examples  (Peace-  o f t h e more  approach.  t o both  o f outdoor  demand  recreation planning i n Alberta,  f o r , and s u p p l y  recreation  the e f f e c t s  recreational  resources  information  o f , the e n t i r e  i n the province.  o f n o n - r e c r e a t i o n a l use o f s u i t -  r e s o u r c e s w o u l d be e x p l o r e d , a s w e l l as  c o s t s and b e n e f i t s o f u s i n g n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s w i t h  kinds  of potential,  interactions  f o r outdoor  o f the p r o v i n c i a l  highway network, w i t h and  management have b e e n  p l a n n i n g approach would generate  In a d d i t i o n ,  the  comprehensive  and U t i l i z a t i o n Committee  I n terms o f o u t d o o r  able  i t i s composed  teams a n d c o m m i t t e e s ,  D e l t a P r o j e c t , 1972)  Athabasca  range  Rather,  dealt  under the Environment C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t ) and the  intergovernmental  a  i s not  w h i c h c a n be  s y s t e m s , a n d more  to n a t u r a l resource  as A l b e r t a ' s C o n s e r v a t i o n lished  facets  o f each o t h e r .  o f a number o f i n t e r l o c k i n g approaches  and the approach i s b e i n g  on t h e g r o u n d s that., r e a l i t y  o f a number o f d i s c r e t e  independently  v i e w has o f t e n  t h e p r o b l e m s a t hand, d e s p i t e m a j o r  c h a l l e n g e d by t h e p u b l i c composed  I t has become  with  recreation. parks  the p r o v i n c i a l  the network o f outdoor  The  other  spatial  system w i t h the settlement pattern,  recreation  facilities  33 provided The  by o t h e r a g e n c i e s  p e r c e p t i o n o f outdoor  natural resources and  being  w o u l d a l s o be i n v e s t i g a t e d . r e c r e a t i o n a s a component  system, a f f e c t i n g  affected  approach suggested  other resource  of a users  b y them, i s t h e k e y t o t h e c o m p r e h e n s i v e here'.  This analysis  suggests:  C r i t e r i o n Two: Does t h e a g e n c y a p p r o a c h t h e p r o b l e m o f managing r e s o u r c e s f o r o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n i n a comprehensive f a s h i o n , t a k i n g i n t o account the e f f e c t s o f p o l i c i e s and p r o g r a m s on o t h e r a g e n c i e s a n d o t h e r components o f t h e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s e n v i r onment?  In an u n c e r t a i n w o r l d , acquire  only a limited  choices. time  Information  the costs  tunities are  i s limited  due t o t h e s h e e r  each s e t o f g o a l s  of this  working  making  working  agency's environment and  the advantages and disadvantages  associated with as  decision-makers  amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n b e f o r e  involved, i n analyzing'the  -assessing  rational  time  t h a t may be  and p o l i c i e s ,  as w e l l  i n terms o f l o s t  f o r work on o t h e r p r o j e c t s .  made a s t o t h e d u r a t i o n a n d f o c u s  generation  phase  o f decision-making;  deals with  the importance attached  generation  phase o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  Explicit  oppor-  decisions  o f the information the t h i r d  criterion  t o the i n f o r m a t i o n by t h e a g e n c y .  C r i t e r i o n Three: A r e r e s o u r c e s made a v a i l a b l e and u s e d e f f e c t i v e l y t o g e n e r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n about the c h o i c e s t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r meeting the agency's g o a l s ?  The  fourth criterion  for alternative  concerns  the range  o f the search  ways o f m e e t i n g a g e n c y g o a l s  and o b j e c t i v e s ,  3  and  the extent  t o which i n f o r m a t i o n  is  made a v a i l a b l e .  in  individual  all  Commenting  i s biased  to a particular for this  goes on t o d e s c r i b e process focus ledge,  i n order  (Downs, 1 9 5 9 1 p . 2 0 7 - 8 ) .  seek i n f o r m a t i o n  to minimize  the marginal  proper b i a s , that i s , i t should compatible information  with  the c i t i z e n ' s  yield  some i n t e r n a l  number o f c i t i z e n s  have t h e which i s  have  been  because o f be  well-focussed,  i n f o r m a t i o n , and  plurality.  f a c t o r s may i n t e r f e r e  o f such i n f o r m a t i o n  and t r a n s -  each b i t o f  s e l e c t e d by t h e c i t i z e n  contain  agency.  o f each b i t  information  I n a d d i t i o n , the system s h o u l d  Several  o f know-  personal  s e t of values;  adequate but n o t s u p e r f l u o u s  Downs  which  The s y s t e m s h o u l d  provide  the  cost  r e c e i v e d through the system w i l l  g e n e r a t e d by s o u r c e s their bias.  sources  a n d molds them i n t o a  a c q u i s i t i o n system.  he has  collection  E a c h s e l e c t s a few g a t e r h e r s  of information  information  sources  information  citizen  exposing  a t t e n t i o n on c e r t a i n r e l e v a n t a r e a s  of information. mitters  by s y s t e m a t i c a l l y  a personal  wherein c i t i z e n s  their  f a c t s t o pass  set of information  purpose.  that  because the r e p o r t e r  A t t h e same t i m e , t h e r a t i o n a l  keeps p r o p e r l y w e l l - i n f o r m e d  chosen  of information  A n t h o n y Downs s u g g e s t s  only a p o r t i o n o f the extant  to h i s audience.  himself  on t h e s e a l t e r n a t i v e s  on t h e r o l e  decision-making,  reporting of information  must s e l e c t on  .  u  with  the generation  by an a g e n c y , and t h e r e b y  l i m i t the  who may o b t a i n u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n  F o r example, i n f o r m a t i o n  generation  from  may have  35: high  political  overlapping agency. bility  costs  f o r an a g e n c y i f i t n e c e s s i t a t e s  i n t o the p e r c e i v e d  of another  The 'domain c o n c e n s u s ' a p p a r a t u s p r o v i d e s and r e d u c e s u n c e r t a i n t y w i t h i n government  c r a c i e s \ the j u r i s d i c t i o n exercise  As a r e s u l t  often cut o f f their or p o l i c i e s  that w i l l lished  disturbing  search  when t h e y  relief  the balance  and  those  the  agency's a f f a i r s .  administrators  about  problems,  p r o f o u n d change i n t h e i r until  they  from p e r c e i v e d  find  estab-  a solution  difficulties  t h a t e x i s t s among a g e n c y ,  without  legislators,  members o f t h e p u b l i c who i n v o l v e t h e m s e l v e s i n  remain even a f t e r o f i t s member's within  limitations,  and  d i s c o v e r a mode o f o p e r a t i o n  They s e a r c h  provide  may  recognized  f o r information  i n v o l v e the l e a s t  programs.  that w i l l  o f such  sta-  bureau-  w i t h i n which each agency  exclusive a u t h o r i t y i s mutually  respected.  goals  jurisdiction  Thus, i n e r a d i c a b l e ignorance  may  a n o r g a n i z a t i o n has i n v e s t e d a g r e a t  deal  t i m e a n d has r i s k e d o f f e n d i n g i n d i v i d u a l s  t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d i t s e n v i r o n m e n t by l o o k i n g  i n t o areas  that are p o l i t i c a l l y  sensitive.  (Sharkansky,  1972, p . 4 6 ) . That resource to represent decisions sources  the f u l l  managers t h e m s e l v e s may n o t be a b l e range  of societal  has b e e n s u g g e s t e d  geographer G i l b e r t  values  i n their  by numerous o b s e r v e r s .  F. White contends  Re-  that:  A t t h e h e a r t o f managing a n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e i s t h e manager's p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e r e s o u r c e and t h e c h o i c e s open t o him i n d e a l i n g w i t h it, (This i s ) a d e f i n i t i o n : natural r e s o u r c e s a r e t k a e n t o be c u l t u r a l l y d e f i n e d , d e c i s i o n s a r e r e g a r d e d a s c h o i c e s among  p e r c e i v e d a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r b r i n g i n g about change, and any c h o i c e persumes a view of the resource together w i t h preferences i n outcome and methods. (Vv'hite, 1966, p.105). To supplement t h e i r own p e r c e p t i o n s ,  resource  manage-  ment d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s g e n e r a l l y seek i n f o r m a t i o n from members of t h e i r s t a f f .  This procedure i s not without  i t s hazards,  as O'Riordan has n o t e d : The range o f a l t e r n a t i v e s w h i c h w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d depends t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n t upon t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e d e c i s i o n maker r e c e i v e s i n f o r m a t i o n about the p r o b l e m , t h e s o u r c e o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n (whether d i r e c t i v e o r i n d u c t i v e ) and h i s own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , t h a t i s , t h e use t o w h i c h he w i l l p u t t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n when making h i s c h o i c e . . . . I n t h e absence o f p e r s o n a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n (which o f t e n i s i m p o s s i b l e ) , the d e c i s i o n maker i s c o n f r o n t e d by a s e l e c t i v e l y d i r e c t e d form o f i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t a t i o n , w h i c h tends t o d i s t o r t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e problem and encourages t h e s e l e c t i o n o f c e r t a i n s t r a t e g i e s a t t h e .expense and even p o s s i b l e e x c l u s i o n o f o t h e r s . . . . There i s no doubt t h a t t h e i n f l u e n c e o f f o r c e s w h i c h e i t h e r i n h i b i t o r promote a wider evaluation of a l t e r n a t i v e s i s v i t a l i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e outcome o f t h e f i n a l decision. ( O ' R i o r d a n , 1971, p.114). The  relevance  o f O'Riordan's p o i n t i s t h a t t h e d e c i s i o n -  maker's c h o i c e may be t o some degree p r e d e t e r m i n e d by t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s p r e s e n t e d t o him by whatever s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n he u s e s .  There i s g r o w i n g i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e  p u b l i c i s n o t s a t i s f i e d t h a t t h e i r views a r e b e i n g quately represented personnel  ade-  t o d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s by t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l  who u s u a l l y a d v i s e  them.  O'Riordan p o i n t s o u t  t h a t " p o l i t i c a l and t e c h n i c a l judgments i n r e s o u r c e  manage-  ment a r e n o t i n f r e q u e n t l y based on f l i m s y assumptions as t o  37 what t h e that  p u b l i c wants and  i n s i t u a t i o n s where aims a r e  political  e x p e d i e n c y and  ( O ' R i o r d a n , 1971» the  should  generation  range  p.111).  be  The  I t i s no  vague and  wonder  ambiguous,  opportunism i s  fourth c r i t e r i o n  rife." deals  of information useful to c i t i z e n s  o f b i a s e s , ; and  selves  economic  get.  to decision-makers  aware o f t h e  range  who  of s o c i e t a l  may  with  with not  a  them-  values.  C r i t e r i o n Four: Does t h e a g e n c y p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s do so t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e f u l l range o f s o c i e t a l v a l u e s i s r e f l e c t e d i n the array of information generated?  Finally,  the  question  mation i s of c o n s i d e r a b l e accessible  t o the w i d e s t  m a t i o n w o u l d be degrees  compiled  of communication  importance. p o s s i b l e range and  of comprehensiveness  or i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h  time,  i n f o r m a t i o n would n o n e t h e l e s s c r i t e r i o n . p e r m i t s an  phase  of information  readily  of users,  through various essential  limited  be  infor-  infor-  made a v a i l a b l e i n v a r y i n g  summary s t a t e m e n t s w o u l d be  last  To  of  be  for  complete  media.  While  decision-makers background  a v a i l a b l e as w e l l .  e v a l u a t i o n o f the  The  communication  generation.  Criterion Five: Does t h e a g e n c y a c h i e v e a wide d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a range o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e use o f t h e w r i t t e n and s p o k e n media, p u b l i c meetings, h e a r i n g s , or o t h e r communication devices? The  Objective .. To  in  terms  of P u b l i c Decision-Making  this  point, decision-making  of i t s ' r a t i o n a l i t y ' ,  i n Outdoor has  been  Recreation  discussed  i t s 'soundness', w h i l e  the  38 ultimate  objective  cussed*  The  of decision-making  o v e r a l l goal  public  service  public  i n t e r e s t m i g h t be The  program in  or p r o j e c t  society  less  t h e sum  believes and  he  mental,  and  benefits  where  'social from  from  each  a  public each  individual in  individual  benefits,  project,  society  or p r o j e c t .  intended here,  include, social,  of e f f e c t s .  the maximization  minus t o t a l  i n the  the program or  the program  and  any  optimization'.  of the b e n e f i t s  other types  study w i l l  maximization' recreation  investigation maximizing  o f the  benefits  d i r e c t and i n outdoor  Costs  in environ-  'Social  o f the  c o s t s ) , as  'social  decision-making  analysis,  net  they  Data  process  are  the  recreation  the scope  and  decisions  permitting i n terms  a t t i t u d i n a l data  of t h i s study,is,  on  then,  outdoor  of  f o r the  of  w o u l d have  study.  an  study.  investigation  d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , and  of a larger  the  optimization'  available  including  with  i n d i r e c t (opportunity) costs,  more p r o p e r l y  the c o n t e x t  of  concerned  decision-making.  research  and  primarily  component  more d e t a i l e d  behavioral  be  t o A l b e r t a n s was  A more c o m p r e h e n s i v e  timizing  costs  as  dis-  above.  outdoor  of both  from  been  or executed  derives  receives  would i n v o l v e  (total  This  in  sum  i n the sense  political,  described  society  experiences  optimization'  'benefit  he  t o economic  benefits  described  o f a l l the c o s t s  benefits,  addition  i s designed  i s the  believes  not  of decision-making  or p r o j e c t  net benefit  has  The  oprequired  would role  recreation  t o p r o v i d e an  be of in  indicator  39 of  how  w e l l the  Division, of  has  maximized  the  the  Provincial  benefits perceived  by  Parks members  A l b e r t a s o c i e t y from i t s programs. The  a  agency i n q u e s t i o n ,  following chapters  framework w h e r e i n c r i t e r i a  p r o p o s e d a b o v e may uation.  First,  be  the  recreation planning the  Provincial  L a n d s and of  the  the  extent to  vincial  will the  be  parks  contextual  be  carried  discussed.  out In  proposed  be  above.  for  sitoutdoor  described.  Secondly,  d e s c r i b e d i n terms  o f the  planning  and  o f the  financing of  s e c t i o n , and  i n agency d e c i s i o n s . on  the a t t i t u d e s o f  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n  i n one the  evaluated  chapter,  process  the  Finally, pro-  and 1972  operation  i n the P r o v i n c i a l  i n terms o f the  the  experiences,  region of Alberta i n  final  of  evolution  of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n behavior  information generation  Division will  generation  o f the A l b e r t a Department  information  r e s u l t s of a survey  be  system, personnel  operation  establish  actual planning  in Alberta w i l l  r e s i d e n t s towards  perceptions  will  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e environment  of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n  provide  the  a p p l i e d i n an  Forests w i l l  agency, the  study  for information  Parks D i v i s i o n  provincial  of this  five  of  Parks  criteria  CHAPTER I I I  ADMINISTRATION  OF OUTDOOR RECREATION  IN  The  Array  ALBERTA  o f Agencies  Governmental response  in. Alberta  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s a compartmentalized array bility  for providing  public. actual  The t a b l e  has b e e n t o  o f agencies- w i t h  o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n  of Alberta.  Eight  separate  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i n the province.  i s a consideration  responsibility  f o r some a s p e c t  f o r some o t h e r  aspect  J  prevention  of p o l l u t i o n o f watercourses  enforces  regulations  p e r t a i n i n g t o the  a n d o f t h e atmosphere',  S i m i l a r l y , the P r o v i n c i a l Planning  size,  of Municipal  Affairs,  and shape o f p a r c e l s  40  affairs.  D i v i s i o n o f the  t o the use o f r e s e r v o i r s and s u r r o u n d i n g  location,  rather, r e -  o f the p r o v i n c e s  of Health  the Department  of  i n c i d e n t a l l y accompanying the  Department  by  provincial  None o f t h e d e p a r t m e n t s  Thus, the E n v i r o n m e n t a l H e a l t h  swimming.  t o the  administration  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n as i t s p r i m a r y c o n c e r n ;  creation  and  the r e s p o n s i -  recreational opportunities  government departments a r e r e s p o n s i b l e  has  organize  on t h e f o l l o w i n g page d e p i c t s t h e  organization  i n the ^ p r o v i n c e  t o t h e demand f o r  areas f o r A c t , administered  regulates the  of land reserved f o r  41  TABLE I ADMINISTRATION OF OUTDOOR RECREATION IN ALBERTA  Department  i  Agency  C u l t u r e , Youth, and Recreation  t  Recreation  Environment  :  Water Resources D i v i s i o n  s  Maintenance  j :  A l b e r t a Government Bureau  : : :  Alberta Forest Service F i s h and W i l d l i f e D i v i s i o n Lands D i v i s i o n P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n  : t  F i e l d Surveys Branch P r o v i n c i a l Planning Branch  Highways and Industry Lands  Transport  and T o u r i s m  and F o r e s t s  Municipal Provincial Health Source:  Affairs Secretary  : =: s  Canadian C o u n c i l  Branch  Branch Travel  C u l t u r a l Development Branch Museum a n d A r c h i v e s B r a n c h Environmental Health D i v i s i o n o f Resource M i n i s t e r s , 1 68. Q  public  parks  and r e c r e a t i o n  subdivided. suant for  a r e a s when l a n d i s l e g a l l y  R e g i o n a l and m u n i c i p a l p l a n s  drawn up p u r -  t o t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e P l a n n i n g A c t may p r o v i d e  the r e s e r v a t i o n  recreation sition  areas  of certain  public  Of  and T h e i r  the t h i r t e e n  t h r e e a r e most d i r e c t l y menting  outdoor  and p r o v i n c i a l  agencies  enumerated i n T a b l e  concerned  recreation  the P r o v i n c i a l Parks  policy  Division  both w i t h i n t h e Department Maintenance Branch  with a c t i v e l y  three  agencies The  quality  imple-  These i n c l u d e  and the A l b e r t a F o r e s t S e r v i c e ,  o f Lands and F o r e s t s , and the  description  o f Highways a n d  o f the a c t i v i t i e s  o f these•  follows.  Department  junction with  1,  i n the province v i a the  o f the Department  A brief  government.  Activities  p r o v i s i o n and development o f f a c i l i t i e s .  Transport.  parks,  and o t h e r r e s e r v e s , f o r f u t u r e a c q u i -  and development by l o c a l  Some A g e n c i e s  roadways,  o f Highways a n d T r a n s p o r t , i n c o n -  its.efforts  highway c o r r i d o r s  t o c o n s t r u c t and m a i n t a i n throughout  high  t h e p r o v i n c e , has  become i n v o l v e d i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d m a i n t e n a n c e o f wayside campsites Branch  along p r o v i n c i a l  o f the department develops  adjoining primary  and s e c o n d a r y  acquired  f o r such  purposes  location  f o r such  a facility  to  t h e highway c r o s s i n g  land  highways.  small parcels of land  h i g h w a y s , w h i c h have  by t h e department. borders  o f the r i v e r ,  f r o m w h i c h an u n u s u a l  The M a i n t e n a n c e  The  on a r i v e r b a n k  been  typical close  o r on a h e i g h t o f  view i s a f f o r d e d .  To d a t e ,  ^3 two  hundred  vided one  forty-four  throughout  usually  campsites  Alberta, ranging i n size  to seventy-nine  sites  of these  acres.  i n c l u d e one  Facilities  tables,  and  pit toilets,  well-maintained site crews.  Use  cleared  f r o m roadv/ay  and  free  of the  t o the  pro-  from  than  less  p r o v i d e d on  the  o r more w e a t h e r s h e l t e r s ,  or running water, p i c n i c f i r e w o o d s u p p l y , and  have b e e n  visited  fireplaces  a l l located  r e g u l a r l y by  facilities access  tent platforms,  i s seasonal  well  on  a  maintenance (snow i s n o t  t o the campsites  i n winter)  public.  Table I I i s a c o m p i l a t i o n of annual a p p r o p r i a t i o n s t o , and  expenditures  by,  the Department  o f Highways  Transport  f o r i t s wayside campsite  in  S u b s t a n t i a l amounts o f money were s p e n t  1957•  program i n the  e a r l y y e a r s , as  and  p r o g r a m , w h i c h was  begun  on  the m a j o r i t y o f the  the  facilities  were b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d ; i n r e c e n t y e a r s a n n u a l a p p r o p r i a t i o n s for  t h e p r o g r a m have l e v e l l e d  continue to fluctuate In addition Highways and receives and  to this  Transport  of access  p r o g r a m came, a b o u t of upgrading  recreation resources.  and  priorities  year.  program, the Department  f o r such  to p r o v i n c i a l  the Department's  roads The  of program  appropriations for construction  roads  through  provincial  year to  expenditures  'Roads t o P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s '  s u b s t a n t i a l annual  upgrading  lished  from  o f f , while  as g r i d  roads  P r o v i n c i a l Parks roads, based  t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f Highways and  parks.  The  overall  policy  and  Division  on p a r k  Transport  roads  user  to estabdemands,  undertook  44  TABLE I I C A P I T A L APPROPRIATIONS AND EXPENDITURES FOR WAYSIDE CAMPSITES ALBERTA DEPARTMENT OF HIGHWAYS & TRANSPORT  Capital Expenditures  F i s c a l Year Ending M a r c h 31,  Capital Appropriations  1958  160,000.00  45,280.23  1959  470,000.00  219,630.31  I960  550,000.00  311,394.00  1961  600,000.00  369,026.74  1962  350,000.00  264,807.44  1963  185,000.00  176,674.62  1964  5,000.00  6,011.79  1965  5,000.00  —  1966  25,000.00  14,919.93  1967  25,000.00  17,947.53  1968  50,000.00  37,992.12  1969  50,000.00  30,932.55  1970  50,000.00  12,585.45  1971  50,000.00  8,826.46  1972  50,000.00  49,978.34  Source:  Alberta  Public  Accounts,  1958  to  1972.  4  specific  projects  co-ordinated in  the  with  fiscal  million  in this other  year  5  s c h e d u l e as  road  s u c h work c o u l d  programs i n the  1966-67, a n n u a l a p p r o p r i a t i o n s  d o l l a r s were a l l o c a t e d t o t h e  P a r k s ' program;  area.  the  amount was  be  Beginning of  one  'Roads t o P r o v i n c i a l  increased  to  $1,100,000 f o r  1969-70 and t o $1,200,000 f o r t h e 1970-71 and 1971-72 f i s c a l years.  1967  (Alberta Public Accounts, The  Department  Alberta Forest o f L a n d s and  Forests,  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n areas province.  This  Service,  i n the  to  1972).  a division  d e v e l o p s and  of  maintains  forested portions  Department i s r e s p o n s i b l e  i n keeping with  tiple  the  p o l i c y , has  to construct provincial along  to blend pit  forests.  and  toilets,  of land  and  supervised  i t s mulService  the  the by  and  open t o  f o r e s t environment.  only  public.  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n  firewood,  these  travelling designed  tent  plat-  Since a c q u i s i t i o n  r e c r e a t i o n areas  developed;  use  is  Service  areas.  during has  the  are  seasonal  l a r g e r r e c r e a t i o n areas  a resident caretaker Alberta Forest  the  Weather s h e l t e r s ,  provided.  lightly The  and  the  locations  f a c i l i t i e s which are  a consideration,  large  T o . d a t e , the six  roads which are  d r i n k i n g water are  free to  manage-  Alberta Forest  agency s e l e c t s s c e n i c  tables, fireplaces,  i s not  generally  The  develops r u s t i c  i n with  f o r m s , and  the  f a c i l i t i e s f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n w i t h i n  f o r e s t r y trunk  public,  authorized  of  f o r the  ment o f Crown-owned f o r e s t s a n d , use  the  are  summer months'.  established  ninety-  46 The Department o f Lands and F o r e s t s i s a l s o sible  f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the P r o v i n c i a l Parks A c t  (Revised S t a t u t e s of A l b e r t a 1970 Wilderness Park A c t (R.S.A. 1970  c. 2 8 8 ) , the c. 392)  Areas A c t ( S t a t u t e s o f A l b e r t a 1971 The p r o v i n c i a l parks system 1932  respon-  c.  Willmore  and the Wilderness 114).  has i t s b e g i n n i n g i n  w i t h the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f Aspen Beach P r o v i n c i a l  i n south c e n t r a l A l b e r t a . brochure  A P r o v i n c i a l Parks  d e s c r i b e s the agency's purposes  as  Park  publicity  follows:  S i n c e t h a t time, i t has been the purpose o f p r o v i n c i a l parks to p r o v i d e a c t i v e and passive recreation i n a s e t t i n g of natural beauty f o r the p o p u l a t i o n o f the p r o v i n c e and i t s v i s i t o r s . The fundamental and important o b l i g a t i o n i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f parks i s to preserve from impairment a l l s i g n i f i c a n t o b j e c t s and f e a t u r e s of nature i n the park v/hile p r o v i d i n g the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r enjoyment of the park and i t s n a t u r a l r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s ( s i c ) and developments i n p e r p e t u i t y . ( P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n , 1972a). The Wilderness Areas A c t , which r e c e i v e d the assent o f the A l b e r t a l e g i s l a t u r e i n 1971,  l e d t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  o f three w i l d e r n e s s areas to the e a s t o f the N a t i o n a l Parks i n the Rocky Mountains.  Under the A c t , these areas  are p r o t e c t e d from a l l a c t i v i t i e s which would impair t h e i r n a t u r a l beauty and p r i m e v a l c h a r a c t e r .  No h u n t i n g ,  fishing  or o t h e r consumptive use o f r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s i s p e r m i t t e d , and t r a v e l i s r e s t r i c t e d to persons  on f o o t .  motorized v e h i c l e s , h o r s e s , or other pack animals  No  are  permitted. The Willmore Wilderness Park A c t , o r i g i n a l l y  passed  k? in  1959»  established  park t o the north  a large  . (1,775  square m i l e s )  of Jasper National  wilderness  Park.  The p a r k i s d e d i c a t e d t o t h e u s e o f t h e people o f A l b e r t a f o rt h e i r b e n e f i t , e d u c a t i o n and enjoyment, s u b j e c t t o t h i s A c t - a n d the r e g u l a t i o n s , and s h a l l , by t h e management, c o n s e r v a t i o n , a n d p r o t e c t i o n o f i t s n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s a n d by the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f i t s n a t u r a l beauty, be m a i n t a i n e d f o r t h e e n j o y m e n t o f future generations. (R.S.A. 1971 c . 392 s . 4 ) . The in  Willmore Wilderness represents the A l b e r t a  parks  system.  affect  the administration  within  the area  may i n c r e a s e Council. the  or decrease  did, i n fact,  the c o a l mining s i t e  boundaries.  A c t does n o t  o f the park, and the p r o v i n c i a l C a b i n e t the area  o f t h e park by  When t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f l a r g e  the C a b i n e t  Order-in-  coal deposits i n  f e a s i b l e i n the l a t e  decrease no l o n g e r  the area  1960's,  o f t h e park so  lay within  The r o l e o f t h e e n t i r e W i l l m o r e  Park i n the A l b e r t a by  The e n a b l i n g  a n d c o n t r o l o f mines a n d m i n e r a l s  p a r k became e c o n o m i c a l l y  that  somewhat o f a n a n o m a l y  park system i s p r e s e n t l y  the park wilderness  under  review  t h e p r o v i n c i a l government. Six  classes  o f parks are p r e s e n t l y  the  Alberta  the  parks a r e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d according 1.  2.  p r o v i n c i a l parks  represented  system, and w i t h i n  each  in class  t o purpose:  . Area s e t aside f o r the e x c l u s i v e purpose o f s c i e n t i f i c s t u d y and f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n pursuits. Area s e t aside f o r the primary purpose o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n .  48 3.  The  Area s e t a s i d e f o r the purpose o f m u l t i p l e use o f t h e r e s o u r c e s w i t h r e c r e a t i o n c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e o v e r a l l p i c t u r e as a co-ordinate land use. ( P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n , 1971).  s i x classes  ethnological, natural  recreation  comparison  system  to these  totalled  class  depends upon t h e p u r p o s e  their  survival  recreation  areas  comprise  recreation-oriented  o f outdoor  areas  for scientific  areas  recreation,  are protected i n order study.  and s p e c i a l i z e d  Natural  outdoor r e -  the m a j o r i t y o f A l b e r t a ' s  intensive  use p a r k s .  fees are charged  they are a v a i l a b l e .  fee i s  provincial  f o r connections  Playgrounds  forty-five  An e n t r a n c e  i n a l l but the s m a l l e r , undeveloped  additional  f o r which  Thus, the p r o v i n c e ' s f o u r w i l d e r n e s s  the twenty-six h i s t o r i c a l  where  In addition  e x t e n t o f development or p r e s e r v a t i o n o f the  while  and  and t y p e .  i n 1971.  a r e managed f o r t h e p u r p o s e  charged  pro-  of Alberta's provincial  d e f i n e d above.  areas  creation  to  and park  I I I , by c l a s s  73,241 a c r e s  i t ..-has b e e n a c q u i r e d .  environment  was  L a n d s A c t (R.S.A. 1970 c . 2 9 7 ) f o r o u t d o o r  areas w i t h i n each  to ensure  outdoor  Conference  recreation  areas;  l a n d r e s e r v e s d e s i g n a t e d by O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l  under the P u b l i c  The  natural  specialized  Parks  The components  types a r e those  parks,  recreation  o f outdoor  a r e shown i n T a b l e  three park  unique  historic,  This c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  by t h e F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l  grams a c r o s s C a n a d a .  The  areas;  a r e a s ; and parkways.  facilitate  parks  include wilderness areas;  or a r c h a e o l o g i c a l areas;  environment  recreation devised  o f parks  parks,  to u t i l i t i e s  for children,  outdoor  49  TABLE I I I  PROVINCIAL PARKS IN ALBERTA BY TYPE AND CLASS  Park  Class  Park  1  Wilderness areas  2  Type  3  4/1.588,346  historic ethnological archaeological areas  26/203  unique natural areas  9/83.369  natural environment recreation areas  16/52,725  specialized outdoor recreation areas  27/8,143 1/253  parkways Note: (in  Number o f F a r k s p r e c e d e s acres) follows diagonal. Source:  P r o v i n c i a l Parks  diagonal;  Division,  area  1971.  o f parks  50 lighting,  s h e l t e r s , t a b l e s , f i r e p l a c e s and  water, t o i l e t s , concessions, the  swimming and  and  standard  full-time  parks are  available in  on  any  always  A  visitor's  o p e n , and  from a r o u n d  the  launching  end  time  stay  September, weather p e r m i t t i n g .  four  large wilderness  parks are  shown on  Co-ordination  of  a r e a s and  Figure  2  a l l part  limit  of  fourteen  are  generally  t o L a b o u r Day  The  weekend  locations of  Alberta's  forty-five provincial  following.  Agencies  A number o f a r r a n g e m e n t s have been made t o provincial creation.  government e f f o r t s -Within  recreation  recreation, For  the  the  i n the  Department  province  access  to the  re-  Forests,  a  from  interest in  of mutual  concern.  of a p r o v i n c i a l park i n  the  w o u l d e n t a i l . d i s c u s s i o n s between  P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s D i v i s i o n and  concerning  o f L a n d s and  problems  co-ordinate  of outdoor  d e p a r t m e n t w h i c h have an  establishment  zone o f t h e  field  c o n s i s t i n g of representatives  meets t o d i s c u s s  example, the  forest  the  committee  agencies within  of  i n a p r o v i n c i a l park.  facilities o f May  running  facilities,  p a r k wardens are  park development.  days i s i m p o s e d The  boat  firewood,  park,  the  fire  Alberta  Forest  r e g u l a t i o n s , and  Service, similar  considerations. At  a somewhat b r o a d e r  C o m m i t t e e was  composed  the  Alberta  e s t a b l i s h e d i n I968 to co-ordinate  door r e c r e a t i o n matters is  level,  i n the  of senior c i v i l  province.  servants  The  Recreation. a l l out-  Committee  representing  the  PROVINCE OF ALBERTAs HIGHWAY NETWORK, NATIONAL AND PROVINCIAL PARKS AND WILDERNESS AREAS, 19?2 (Source: A l b e r t a V i s i t o r s G u i d e , 1972)  52 Department and  o f Lands and F o r e s t s ; Highways; C u l t u r e , Y o u t h ,  Recreation;  others.  and  'task  recommendations  studied  The  Lake L o u i s e  lished  proposal  i s another  representatives  of Provincial  Informal Division occurs  o f other  of his where  i s concerned.  o f Highways a n d T r a n s p o r t  priorities  Parks often  made t o t h e f o r m e r f o r t h e  Where t h e r e q u e s t suitable  may be r e f e r r e d  concerns  a  for provincial t o the Department  f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n as a p o t e n t i a l  f o r a wayside campsite.  regarding  the a c t i v i t i e s  which i s n o t considered  o f Highways a n d T r a n s p o r t  with  The  communication between t h e P r o v i n c i a l  park s t a t u s , the request  site  i n the province.  r e c r e a t i o n resources  o f parks.  1970  i s a member o f t h e c o m m i t t e e ,  respect to requests  establishment  estab-  includes  government departments  and the Department  with  resource  Parks  to co-ordinate  use o f outdoor  on t h a t i s s u e .  o f departments concerned  Director  the  National  A c t (R.S.A.  c o - o r d i n a t i n g body, w h i c h  from a range  those  force  and U t i l i z a t i o n Committee,  management a n d p l a n n i n g  agency w i t h  task  p o i n t o f v i e w , a n d recommended  resource  i s expected  issues  f o rBanff  under the Environment C o n s e r v a t i o n  125)  and  on s p e c i f i c  t o the p r o v i n c i a l Cabinet  Conservation  exchange  f o r c e s ' t o i n v e s t i g a t e a n d make  t o the Cabinet  from the p r o v i n c e ' s policy  an i n f o r m a t i o n  F o r example, a committee  the V i l l a g e  appropriate  c,  forms  problem areas.  Park  and Tourism; A g r i c u l t u r e ; and  T h i s body i s p r i m a r i l y  group, which policy  Industry  Consultation also  f o r the Department  occurs  o f Highways and  53 Transport  'Roads t o P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s '  program.  Discussion While the  province  the  administration  o f . A l b e r t a w o u l d seem f r o m T a b l e  somewhat d i s p e r s e d , respect  to the  the  the  o f the  Alberta Forest  Division  o f the Each  providing  bulk  p r o v i s i o n of  Maintenance Branch and  are  and  'sideline'  rationale  to  behind  Department  Alberta Forest principal  their  from  a pragmatic  Service  i s the province  managing t h e Albertans, creation  usual  one.  The  which i s not  a g e n c y has  Transport  i n the  seen  has  of  different  a  'domain*  and  r e s p e c t i v e l y , as The  i n outdoor r e c r e a t i o n are  with  capable  of  a minimum the  Alberta  province:  best  main-  of  approach Forest  that  portion In  i n t e r e s t s of  f i t to include  a  in  forest recreation  a v a i l a b l e for settlement.  i n i t s management p o l i c y .  o f Highways and  and  c f the  zone' o f the  f o r e s t resource  the  from a  responsibilities;  domain  the Transport,  problem  o f Highways  organizations  their  'green  the  responsibilities.  involvement  their  in  Forests,  Service  such r e c r e a t i o n a l resources  departure  o f the  o f L a n d s and  S i m i l a r l y , e a c h has  the  their  p r i m a r i l y that  taining  is  the  by  with  P r o v i n c i a l Parks  Highway c a m p s i t e s  provided  be  o f Highways and  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s  Transport  is  i s centred  agencies approaches  which i t operates.  a  facilities  and  I to  responsibility  Department  Department  o f the  o f the  Service  management p e r s p e c t i v e .  areas  of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i n  outdoor  S i m i l a r l y , the  functional role in  re-  Department the  54 provision  o f wayside  secondary  highways  be  m a i n t a i n e d by highway m a i n t e n a n c e  easily  line  structure  Such f a c i l i t i e s  as they a r e w i t h i n departments,  to r e f l e c t  strategies  i n the p r o v i s i o n  tunities.  Undoubtedly,  o f outdoor  their  o n l y agency  for  outdoor  recreation  Parks  facility  charged with  i n the p r o v i n c e .  Division's  provision  approach  i s inevitably  With  two com-  environment, to outdoor r e modified.  t h e i n f o r m a t i o n g e n e r a t i o n phase  making i n t h e agency.  on  responsibility  next chapter d i s c u s s e s the o p e r a t i o n o f t h i s specifically  oppor-  D i v i s i o n , which i s  agencies i n i t s administrative  Provincial  creation  specifically  management  e x i s t e n c e has a n e f f e c t  the  recreation  the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  somewhat d i f f e r e n t  o p e r a t i o n o f the P r o v i n c i a l Parks  the  crews i n t h e  t h e s e two a g e n c i e s  the  plementary  can  duties.  o f two l a r g e  c a n be e x p e c t e d  a d j o i n i n g p r i m a r y and  i n the p r o v i n c e .  o f t h e i r normal Positioned  campsites  agency,  The and  of decision-  CHAPTER IV THE  Evolution  o f the Parks  As vincial  PROVINCIAL PARKS PLANNING IN ALBERTA  istration  of provincial  that  previously,  i n A l b e r t a was e s t a b l i s h e d  responsibility since  System  has b e e n m e n t i o n e d  park  PROCESS  parks  prior  o f the A l b e r t a  department  roads, the p r o v i n c i a l  i n 193 . 2  t o 1951  Department  was a l s o  the f i r s t  of Public  o f Lands and F o r e s t s , a total  acreage  following  1951,  of  and  was t r a n s f e r r e d  by t h e D i s t r i c t  During  t h e r e was r e l a t i v e l y system,  When  t o the Department  t h e r e were t w e n t y - f o u r  7,770 a c r e s .  the p r o v i n c i a l parks  Works;  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the province's  p a r k s were m a i n t a i n e d  f o r parks  The a d m i n -  was t h e  Road E n g i n e e r s w i t h a v e r y s m a l l s u p p l y o f f u n d s . responsibility  pro-  parks  the years  little  with immediately  development i n  due t o a s h o r t a g e  o f funds  personnel. Many o f t h e p a r k s  local  outdoor  clusively  by l o c a l  responsibility Forests, worked  recreation  had o r i g i n a l l y  a r e a s , a n d were p a t r o n i z e d e x -  residents.  f o r parks  been d e v e l o p e d as  F o l l o w i n g the t r a n s f e r o f  t o the Department  l o c a l A d v i s o r y Committees  i n a volunteer capacity  55  o f L a n d s and  f o r each  t o prepare  provincial  park  estimates, contract  56 work p r o g r a m s , and About with to  a shift  obtain volunteer  this  time,  i n the  had  i n c r e a s e d p u b l i c a w a r e n e s s o f , and At  wealth  t o the  flow  due  provincial available and  the  the  of petroleum  acquisition  maintenance c a p a b i l i t y , entire  natural area  range  resource  and  into  maintaining  growth o f s t a f f  the  pre-planning parks  outlining notes  attractive  d i d not  prove  o f improvements  history  use  with province  i n , the  had  into  the  made more  f o r parks.  funds parks  The  c o n s t r u c t i o n and  p o i n t where i t was  i t f o r the  system.  the  an  i n the  i n the p r o v i n c i a l  developed  to the  local  coupled  interest  of services necessary  the  the  time  royalties  o f some.new s i t e s  Division  local  increasing provincial  i n 19^9  f o r development programs  P r o v i n c i a l Parks  the  same t i m e ,  treasury beginning  together  abandonment o f t h e  i n highway t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e s  parks.  programs.  from p u r e l y  Additional leisure  provincial  to  of patronage  p a r t i a l l y n o n - l o c a l l e d t o the  improvements  f o r park  i n c r e a s e d park patronage  nature  A d v i s o r y Committees.  labour  providing  f o r a d a p t i n g a-;,  outdoor  recreation  of v i s i t o r s .  sufficient or the  A P r o v i n c i a l Parks  However,  to allow  for  staging of additions Division  report  o f park development i n A l b e r t a  that The t r e m e n d o u s u p s u r g e i n p a t r o n a g e r e q u i r e d an i n c r e a s e i n s u p e r v i s i o n as w e l l as an added n e e d f o r f a c i l i t i e s . However, t h e g r o w t h o f s t a f f p e r s o n n e l was n o t s u f f i c i e n t to a l l o w f o r p r e - p l a n n i n g o f improvements, buy m e r e l y p l a n n i n g a p p r o v e d i m p r o v e m e n t s f o r w h i c h money was a p p r o p r i a t e d . ( P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s D i v i s i o n , 1972b).  •  57 The size  has  expansion  o f the  been a c c o m p l i s h e d  park system to  under the  "to 1971.  o f the  The  D i r e c t o r and  m e n t - o f a p a r k was local  natural  resource  where no  In  f o r the  significant planning  to plan  array  1971,  be  able  resource  section  o f the  of parks  senior  to i n i t i a t e  which would i n c l u d e park  l o c a t i o n s and  p a r k s and the on  i n the  With  needs This by  The  the  the  t o make t h e door  l o c a t i o n as  and  future  established  e x i s t e d , and  the  r e s u l t of t h i s  change i n the  policy  classes  of  government  a g e n c y hope  r o l e f o r the about  to  agency, prospective  for additional provincial would c o n t r a s t previous  'given'  and  l o c a t i o n more d e s i r a b l e  recreation.  for  significant  present  information  park a l l o c a t i o n , which c o n s i s t e d park's  establish-  support  a  o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s and  generating  facilities.  the  a  P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n  a more a g g r e s s i v e  the  this  p a r k t o p r o d u c e an a t t r a c t i v e  administrators  role necessitated  the  words, the  from  Supervisor  T h u s , p a r k s were o f t e n  i n Table I I I .  the  of  natural  improvements  illustrated in  other  enjoyment  of Albertans.  o f the  the  Parks Planning  more a means o f c u l t i v a t i n g  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n environment. is  power i n A l b e r t a  g o v e r n m e n t member, t h a n p r e s e r v i n g  generations  was  the  t o work t o w a r d s a s y s t e m w i t h  park i n every constituency.  task  of  P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s D i v i s i o n have o b s e r v e d t h a t  g o v e r n m e n t ' s p o l i c y was  the  the  present  stewardship  S o c i a l C r e d i t government, which h e l d 1935  its  sharply  with  government's p o l i c y  entirely planning and  of  taking  improvements  accessible  for  out-  58 P r o v i n c i a l parks p o l i c y with respect ment a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n informal  o f parks  set of guidelines  park a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  has c o n s i s t e d  used w i t h i n  officers  system.  within  Legislature  1967.  mitted phrased  Although  the e n t i r e  The  i n the  o f Lands and F o r e s t s  restricted.  that  they are govern-  F o r example, t h e p o l i c y  " t r u n k highways p a s s i n g t h r o u g h  an i n t r u s i o n " .  statement  and t a b l e d  the o p e r a t i o n o f other  a park and d e s i g n e d f o r through represent  developed  embodied i n t h e s t a t e m e n t ,  ment a g e n c i e s i s r a r e l y specifies  a f f e c t the  g o v e r n m e n t i s t h e r e b y com-  i n s u c h a manner t h a t  statement  might  o f p a r k s p o l i c y was  by t h e M i n i s t e r  t o the p o l i c i e s  by  and p l a n n e r s , b u t n o t b i n d i n g  the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n ,  Alberta in  A statement  o f an  the D i v i s i o n  o t h e r g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s whose p o l i c i e s parks  t o t h e manage-  or commercial  traffic  ( P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n ,  goes on t o s a y t h a t  the o n l y grounds  1967).  on w h i c h  s u c h a h i g h w a y c a n be a c c e p t e d i n a p a r k  i s i f i t i s of  sufficient  o f park  can no  importance  be j u s t i f i e d . effect  continued  Such a m i l d  administrators  Alberta  the parks  statement  decisions;  t o be l o c a t e d w i t h i n  more s t r o n g l y - w o r d e d  to protect  the s a c r i f i c e  on h i g h w a y r o u t i n g  Parks D i v i s i o n that  that  system  of policy highways  provincial  parks.  are presently  legislation  values  will  d u r i n g t h e 1973  has had  have Provincial  o f the o p i n i o n be i n t r o d u c e d session  o f the  legislature. According  sibilities  t o t h e 1967  o f the D i v i s i o n  policy  are to:  statement,  the respon-  59 1.  E s t a b l i s h n e e d o f p o p u l a t i o n p r e s e n t and f o r park r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s .  2.  A s s e s s the r e c r e a t i o n a l of locations.  3.  Recommend r e s e r v a t i o n s able park land.  . 4.  resource  future  potential  or a c q u i s i t i o n  of  suit-  E s t a b l i s h , d e v e l o p , and manage p a r k s t o meet needs o f the p o p u l a t i o n w h i l e e n s u r i n g t h a t i m p a i r m e n t o f p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s does n o t d e s t r o y those f e a t u r e s f o r f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s . ( P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s D i v i s i o n , 196?).  P e r s o n n e l and F i n a n c i n g As  the A l b e r t a  provincial  P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n  parks  system  acquired additional  manage t h e v a r i o u s p a r k s and I n 1952  the p e r s o n n e l o f the parks  included  a parks  supervisor  In  p a r k wardens w o r k i n g that  i m a t e l y $48,000. $1  million  In  1972  By  1965  a n n u a l l y and  the parks  system  was  total  forty-eight  Parks Figure  The  Division  approx-  spending  permanent  over employees.  o p e r a t e d by a p e r m a n e n t  growth of annual over the p e r i o d  year t o t a l l e d  e x p e n d i t u r e s o f the  and  park.  e x p e n d i t u r e s were  of eighty-seven; expenditures i n that million.  division  provincial  t h e D i v i s i o n was had  p l a n the  t o a d m i n i s t e r the system,  i n the l a r g e s t  y e a r the d i v i s i o n ' s  personnel to  t o a d m i n i s t e r and  system.  two  grew, t h e  staff $2.9  Provincial  1952-1972 i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n  3. The  S u p e r v i s o r of Parks  P l a n n i n g , who  P a r k s S u p e r v i s o r i n 1952,  noted  the P a r k i n s o n i a n tendency  to d i v e r s i f y  ary appropriations  t o the agency  that  was  the agency  grew.  and The  the  has f o l l o w e d  e x p a n d as Parks  budget-'  Division  60  ' $10,000,000  H $1,000,000  o  '  i  w  $100,000  '  #  1955  I960  1965  1970  FIGURE 3 ALBERTA PROVINCIAL PARKS EXPENDITURES 1 9 5 2 - 1 9 7 2 (SourceJ Department o f Lands and F o r e s t s A n n u a l R e p o r t s )  61 has  become e n t i r e l y  and  facilities  used  i n parks  i n parks,  Parks  other  Division  p l a n n e r s , and the  a parks  Historically,  planning  planning  research  political  into  an  s u p e r v i s o r who  s e c t i o n has  The  process.  The  of p a r k s — a  on  the  annual  three  has 1952.  in  been concerned  the  was  site  the had  Division  is  been  and  the  major d e p a r t u r e one  from  which r e q u i r e s a  p a r t o f the operation  roles  planning  of  different  team.  o f the Parks  Division  is is  ahead o f time  on  1973  may  of p r o v i n c i a l  f o r the  plans  are  s y s t e m by  on  basis of anticipated  visitors. parks,  According  plans  are  o p e r a t i o n o f the D i v i s i o n  provisional,  t o the  fixed through  in  some u n f o r e s e e n  time,  and  project.  this  1974;  case,  present  early  demand t h a t f u n d s In  cal-  demands  however, i n . t h a t c h a n g e s i n  d i s r u p t them a t any  spent  the  the  previous  culated  Director  chosen  beginning,  i n advance; r e q u i r e d f u n d i n g  parks  with  production  s e v e r a l years  the  parks  been  planned  on  a  a s m a l l s t a f f component i n v o l v e d i n  planning a c t i v i t i e s , orientation  Provincial  engineer,  f u t u r e p a r k l o c a t i o n s and  kinds  o f the  t a s k most o f t e n a s s i g n e d  however, t o d e v e l o p  various  architect,  f o r park development a f t e r the  constructing  improvements.  since i t s establishment  the  d e s i g n work; t h e  through  d e s i g n i n g and  machinery  presently includes a h o r t i c u l t u r a l i s t ,  division  of plans  e q u i p m e n t and  professional planning s t a f f  geographer, a landscape  with  i n c o n s t r u c t i n g roads  maintaining  m a i n t e n a n c e , and  p a r k b u i l d i n g s and The  self-sufficient  these priorities be  budgetted  62 programs a r e Planning  delayed  Section  until  later  years.  Operations  Under the  policy  o f the p r e v i o u s  provincial  government, t h e . p l a n n i n g  s e c t i o n o f the P r o v i n c i a l  D i v i s i o n was  with  preoccupied  ments t o e x i s t i n g the  location  a political provide  parks  or the  o f w h i c h was level.  Parks  plans  development  determined planners  by  f o r improve-  o f new  1  a v a i l a b l e , nor were t h e y information.  activity  d e c i s i o n s made a t  were n o t  t o be  Thus,  carried  exclusively political While collected  the  suitable  provided with  requested  sites the  ' p l a n n i n g ' was  out a t the  agency p e r s o n n e l , w h i l e  funds  to  p e r c e i v e d as  site-specific  m a t i o n has  system developed, through  level  some d a t a  patronage  competing  Capability  Parks  the  their  by  the  1960's and  carried early  Division's planning  more a c q u a i n t e d  with  an  surveys  the  what  carried  While  planning  such  provincial  staff  infordue  to  time.  Canada Land I n v e n t o r y Inventory  by  was  system i s s e r v i n g , t h i s  been a n a l y s e d  demands on  The  u s e f u l i n determining  visitors  not  an  process.  from p a r k u s e r s  r e s i d e n t s and  generate  o v e r - a l l s y s t e m p l a n n i n g was  parks  i n f o r m a t i o n w o u l d be  late  to  t h a t were  o u t as a p a r t o f n o r m a l r e g i s t r a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s .  the  parks,  i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e p a t t e r n o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n  demand i n t h e p r o v i n c e , o r on  such  generating  Parks  out  Outdoor  Recreation  throughout  Canada  1970's has s t a f f an  given  the  opportunity  r e c r e a t i o n resources  during  Provincial t o become o f the  entire  63 province. ment, t h e section  With  financial  agency a s s i g n e d  to participate  extreme n o r t h e a s t e r n in  parks  i n the  p o r t i o n o f the  through  local  directed  of land  be  by  of a l l requests  that  parks  assembly,  for  in locally-used • judgment  f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n , the  agency  has  to prepare  more a c u t e  a summary o f s u c h  will  as  parks  i n terms  facilities  such  shortages.  three-pronged  approach  The  i n g c a p a c i t y and  their  assessed  t h a t has  the  under the S o c i a l C r e d i t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . being  system  of a  describes  in-  are  parks  information  developed  parks  the  o f park  of Parks Planning  effort  useful  requests.  are a v a i l a b l e f o r development  to a l l e v i a t e  Supervisor  provide  shortages  what r e s o u r c e s  existing  agency.  suit-  have b e e n and  crementally  of  o f the  t o where t h e  to r a t i o n a l i z i n g  aspect  indicator  as  research  assessed  government, g e n e r a l l y  a valid  i s anticipated that this  present  this  P e r c e i v i n g t h a t the  It  The  on  legislature  of p r o v i n c i a l  i t s staff  provincial  was  the  program r e c e n t l y undertaken  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n areas.  ability  base  provincial  residents.may  planning  to s u s t a i n outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l  members o f t h e  establishment  of l o c a l  province  section i s a compilation  have b e e n made t o t h e  f e d e r a l govern-  A l l but  i s p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e t o the  Another research the, p l a n n i n g  the  inventory.  Hence, a good d a t a  planning  from  some members o f t h e  terms o f i t s ' c a p a b i l i t y  activities.  the  assistance  i n terms o f t h e i r  annual v i s i t a t i o n s  a view t o e s t a b l i s h i n g d a i l y  carry-  statistics,  c a p a c i t i e s f o r each park  with and  6k thereby  a v o i d i n g overuse  vironment. creation  Secondly,  potential  and d e t e r i o r a t i o n  areas  o f the park en-  o f the province with  are being  identified  with  establishing  recreation reserves  Act,  f u r t h e r l e a s e s a n d encumbrances  so t h a t  exploration recreation areas  will  where r e c r e a t i o n c a p a b i l i t y  be  able  The for  o f the agency's be  1972-73,  year  d e s c r i b e d as long-range  estimates five  on a c t i v i t i e s  planning  studies.  that,  percent which  This  could  amounts  Participation The  participation  Division  planning  requests  have b e e n made  citizen their  Parks  $150,000.  to approximately Public  will  recreation potential  approximately  b u d g e t was s p e n t  capability  uses a r e p r o p o s e d .  Director of Provincial  the f i s c a l  those  so t h a t the D i v i s i o n  outdoor  when o t h e r , p e r h a p s c o n f l i c t i n g ,  Thirdly,  i s the foremost  catalogued  t o comment on t h e i r  f o r mineral  uses d e t r i m e n t a l t o  n o t be a l l o w e d .  of the land, are being  a view t o  under the P u b l i c Lands  and e x t r a c t i o n o r o t h e r values  high r e -  groups  levels,  has been n e g l i g i b l e over  for provincial  own l o c a l  been made  o f the p u b l i c i n P r o v i n c i a l  areas.  the years parks  interests.  by i n d i v i d u a l s and  t o be e s t a b l i s h e d i n  political  lobbies seeking  and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  sympathy  for their  T h e s e g r o u p s a r e d e s c r i b e d by t h e D i r e c t o r o f  P r o v i n c i a l Parks "financial''  Many  I n a d d i t i o n , r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s have  t o the agency, a t both  by v a r i o u s  to date.  Parks  i n terms  interests  o f two g e n e r a l  types:  and t h e " l e g i t i m a t e  the  outdoor  65 recreation" as  interests.  Tourist Associations,  travel  trailer  policy  to coincide  The  industry  "legitimate  fish  with  their  their  i n outdoor  public  culation  i n parks  i n land.  proposals  wilderness  decisions  decision  I f t h e agency  prices  proposals  speculators.  decisions  the land  the matter  parks  the land  o f spe-  reaction to i n various w i l l be  i n question,  This  i n question  and d e v e l o p a p a r k .  location are not discussed  leaking  because  o f the p o s s i -  and becoming a v a i l a b l e  consideration  w h i c h may i n v o l v e  when t h e l a n d appear  the involvement o f  the informaion  Commissions  o f such i n f o r m a t i o n  land  the D i r e c t o r o f  seeks p u b l i c  purchase  for.park  with Regional Planning  groups  from t h e g o v e r n m e n t i f t h e  i s made t o a c q u i r e  Similarly,  bility  that  concerns  i t i s anticipated that  demand h i g h e r  groups,  recreation.  f o r not seeking  u s e d by i n d i v i d u a l s who w i l l  applies  privately-owned  t o those  land;  however,  i s crown-owned, i t does n o t  t o be r e l e v a n t . Despite  the  o f view.  t o the achievement  f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g or e n l a r g i n g  locations,  to  include  lead  most -important r e a s o n  P r o v i n c i a l Parks gives  and  changes i n parks  p a r t i c u l a r point  outdoor r e c r e a t o r s "  objectives  groups  o f Commerce a n d t h e  have r e q u e s t e d  p o l i c y changes t h a t w i l l  The  the  Chambers  category, such  a n d game a s s o c i a t i o n s , a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t  seeking of  I n the f i r s t  Director  cipation  the danger o f s p e c u l a t i o n  o f P r o v i n c i a l Parks  i n such d e c i s i o n s  will  feels that  i n land, public  however parti-  i n e v i t a b l y be demanded.  The  66 activist and  o f academic groups i n u n i v e r s i t i e s ,  o f young p r o f e s s i o n a l s  already in  orientation  disrupting  and o t h e r groups i n s o c i e t y i s  the t r a d i t i o n a l  the parks agency.  He  foresees  o f making  the need  body,  perhaps the agency  hired  f o r the purpose, t o p r e p a r e p l a n n i n g  public  participation  Calgary.  The  decision  have n o t b e e n a b l e Director  to u t i l i z e  o f the D i v i s i o n  provisions c . 125) province  urban  A Case  residing  will  the  large  i n the c i t i e s  who  the parks system to t h i s reported  an a d v i s o r y  be h o l d i n g p u b l i c  concerning  establish  and  that  body  the n a t u r e  time.  the Environment  appointed  under  o f the Environment C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t  i n Point:  The W i l d e r n e s s  earlier  and F o r e s t s  (Statutes  (R.S.A.  hearings throughout o f development  o f these  administers  of Alberta  the A l b e r t a  evolution  1971  the Department  of  the W i l d e r n e s s Areas A c t  c . 11.4) u n d e r w h i c h  three  Wilder-  o f J a s p e r and B a n f f N a t i o n a l P a r k s  Rocky M o u n t a i n s have  o f these  illustrative  Areas  chapter noted that  ness Areas to the e a s t in  o f Edmonton  to  public  parks.  An Lands  group  towards  decision  i s an a t t e m p t t o s e r v e  residents  Conservation Authority,  the  planning  documents f o r  i n the agency's p o l i c y  parks i n the c i t i e s  number o f p r o v i n c i a l  1970  f o r some  or a c o n s u l t i n g  i s apparent i n the r e c e n t  major p r o v i n c i a l  the  decisions  consumption. A m a j o r change  The  itself,  way  been e s t a b l i s h e d .  The  three Wilderness Areas i s perhaps  o f t h e manner i n w h i c h d e c i s i o n s  have  been made  67 in Alberta  with  respect  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n In Forests an and  was  the  to a l l o c a t i n g resources  early  advised  l°60's  by  the  opportunities  sheep p o p u l a t i o n s threatened Alberta  by  local  on  the  Department  Alberta  and  J a s p e r and effects'  i n the  at  I t was  the  be  goat populations the  same t i m e  by  the  Parks  (R.S.A. 1970  under c.  Goat W i l d e r n e s s  297  The  buffer  land  shown on In  areas,  in  the  Figure order  land  the  o f the  as-  to  protect  Included  Ghost R i v e r  approximate  in  question  Forests exact  as  legal  p a s s e d by  Public  the  acti-  Lands  were the  Siffleur  Act White  Wilderness  Wilderness  l o c a t i o n of  Order-  these  (59 areas  2 w h i c h a p p e a r s i n C h a p t e r I I I , page to p r o t e c t  these p r o v i s i o n a l  51»  wilderness  p r o v i n c i a l government bought back a l l m i n e r a l  exploration the  (e)i).  the  in  zones p r o t e c t i n  areas  their  o f the  square m i l e s ) ,  s q u a r e m i l e s ) and The  8  being  'neighborhood  o f L a n d s and  i n 1965;  authority  s.  (172  square - m i l e s ) .  and  the  and  from o i l e x p l o r a t i o n  d e s c r i p t i o n s were s p e c i f i e d i n r e g u l a t i o n s in-Council,  hunting  that goat  established  from the  Minister areas  quality  activities  t o a c t as  of such e x p l o r a t i o n .  p r o v i s i o n a l wilderness  is  Game A s s o c i a t i o n ,  recommendation  areas  and  R o c k y M o u n t a i n s were  o i l exploration  Banff National  were d e s i g n a t e d  (159  o f Lands  F i s h and  province,  eastern  that wilderness  s h e e p and  vities,  the  adjacent  foothills.  sociation  provide  opportunities.  i n t e r e s t group concerned w i t h p r e s e r v i n g fishing  to  leases,  i n question,  and or  other  d i s p o s i t i o n s and  exchanged  them f o r  interests  equivalent  68 leases  in similar  areas  areas'were indeed 1973,  licensed  goats  i n the In  Areas  elsewhere.  provisional  hunters  were p e r m i t t e d  Areas  wilderness  a r e a s , and  was  appointed  Wilderness  under the  o f any  to study  recommend  most s u i t a b l e  purpose  sheep  and  areas.  t h e r e o f w o u l d be  the  until  passed  the  t o w h i c h an A d v i s o r y Committee  Wilderness  Areas  to take  the A l b e r t a l e g i s l a t u r e  Act, pursuant  'wilderness  i s evident i n that,  three wilderness 1971,  That.these  Wilderness  on  the p r o v i s i o n a l .  t o the C a b i n e t which p o r t i o n s for establishment  1971  Wildernes  Act.  Areas  as  permanent  This Act also  specified  t h a t m i g h t be e s t a b l i s h e d :  Whereas t h e c o n t i n u i n g e x p a n s i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t and s e t t l e m e n t i n A l b e r t a w i l l l e a v e p r o g r e s s i v e l y fewer areas i n t h e i r n a t u r a l state of wilderness? and Whereas i t i s i n t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t t h a t c e r t a i n a r e a s o f A l b e r t a be p r o t e c t e d and managed f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f p r e s e r v i n g t h e i r n a t u r a l b e a u t y and p r i m e v a l c h a r a c t e r and i n f l u e n c e and s a f e g u a r d i n g them from i m p a i r m e n t and i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t and from o c c u p a t i o n by man o t h e r t h a n as a v i s i t o r who does n o t r e m a i n ; and Whereas t o c a r r y o u t t h o s e p u r p o s e s i t i s d e s i r a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h and m a i n t a i n c e r t a i n a r e a s as w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s f o r t h e b e n e f i t and e n j o y m e n t o f t h e p r e s e n t and f u t u r e generations. . . . (Statutes.: of A l b e r t a 1971 c 1 1 4 ) . Disposition  by  i n Wilderness  t h e Crown o f any Areas,  such  as  e s t a t e or i n t e r e s t  leases, mineral r i g h t s ,  management a g r e e m e n t s , i s m a d e . u n l a w f u l by larly,  hunting,  are p r o h i b i t e d  t r a p p i n g , and from  i n land  travelling  fishing  are  the A c t ;  or  forest  simi-  p r o h i b i t e d , persons  i n Wilderness  Areas  except  69 on  f o o t , and  in  emergencies  safety  of  are not permitted to land  involving  fires  or the  health  and  A c t t o amend t h e W i l d e r n e s s A r e a s A c t came  on. J a n u a r y  1,  A d v i s o r y Committee  1973.  the P u b l i c  On  terms  the  three  into  o f the provis-  d e s i g n e d by O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l u n d e r  L a n d s A c t i n 1965  under the  the recommendation  on W i l d e r n e s s A r e a s ,  i o n a l wilderness areas  Areas  forest  except  persons. An  effect  aircraft  were d e s i g n e d as  o f the  1971  Wilderness  Wilderness Areas  Act.  Discussion There Parks  Division  strong night rose  from  thirty  question that  recreation  to user pressures.  per cent  1970  resources with a overtrailers  in provincial  records are  i n t e n t s and  Provincial  •camping',' i n  t o 1971  f e e s a r e c h a n g e d and  the  F o r example,  p e r c e n t and  from  o v e r n i g h t camping  trailers  parks  available. has  risen  20,000 u n i t s i n 1961 t o o v e r 170,000 i n 1971. o f L a n d s and  response,  electricity,  the  vehicles  provincial  or  demand",  F o r e s t s Annual  range  and  grows.  (CH.  parks  Similarly,  Division  parks  of holiday  as  Report, trailer  sewage d i s p o s a l  in provincial  P r o v i n c i a l Parks to  full  water,  made a v a i l a b l e such  little  developed  camping r o s e e i g h t  (Department In  has  orientation  where c a m p i n g Total  seems t o be  connections—  the p o p u l a r i t y  f o r upgrading  p.80).  facilities--have  the p r i o r i t i e s  "were b a s i c a l l y  1972,  of  of access  made on use  of  the roads  pressure  H a r v i e , P e r s o n a l Communication,  1973)'  been  70 In vincial goal  one s e n s e ,  parks—one  two i n e v e r y  to serve  t h e p a s t method  i n every  constituency, with  constituency—does  a l l areas  scarce;  scape.  like  are not d i s t r i b u t e d  to continue  land i n the southeast  outdoor  the b o r e a l  r e c r e a t i o n a l areas  I t i s not suggested  are  be m u t u a l l y  or should  merits'and  i t s role  Most i m p o r t a n t l y , to a v a i l a b l e  r e c r e a t i o n resources  i n attempts  consider-  t o improve con-  t h a t t h e two a p p r o a c h e s  e x c l u s i v e ; r a t h e r , e a c h has i t s  i n an outdoor  the Parks  resources  pressures  close to large population  centrations.  forest  I f provincial  t o the p u b l i c , while  sums o f money w o u l d be s p e n t  and flow  Few l a k e s a n d r i v e r s  t o be a l l o c a t e d where u s e r  w o u l d n e v e r be made a v a i l a b l e  marginal  the l a n d -  a large concentration  few d e s i r a b l e l o c a t i o n s f o r p a r k s . were  over  distribution  o f the p r o v i n c e , and t o the n o r t h ,  were g r e a t e s t , some o f t h e b e s t  able  uneven  R i v e r system.  b r e a k t h e monotony o f t h e p r a i r i e portion  evenly  a r e a where m o u n t a i n s t r e a m s r i s e  eastward t o the Nelson  parks  other n a t u r a l resources,  recreation resources, with  the f o o t h i l l s  offers  From t h e p o i n t o f v i e w  I n f a c t , A l b e r t a has a v e r y  of outdoor in  they  the next  however, t h e a p p r o a c h i s q u e s t i o n a b l e .  Outdoor r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s , are  pro-  demonstrate a d e s i r e  o f the p r o v i n c e .  of natural resources,  of providing  recreation planning  Division  r a t h e r than  should  being  process.  be g u i d i n g  guided  users  by u s e r  demands. In  terms  g i v e n a narrow  of planning,  interpretation  the D i v i s i o n to the r o l e  seems t o have  of i t s planning  .  71 section. as  The  a means o f  natural  a g e n c y was  d i s t r i b u t i n g the  resource  province. scarcity  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  the  criterion  of  throughout  derived  residents  the  and  the  parks w i l l The  be  of  the  be,  and  The  the  d e v e l o p e d and  the  has  how  of  As. a d d i t i o n a l  incremental basis;  that  the  role  of  t o any  considered  resources  in  money became and  appear as i n the  has  t h e i r D i v i s i o n and  s i g n i f i c a n t departures  to  from p a s t  Alberta  areas  i f policy  formulation policy  have been u n s u r e  reluctant  role  new  been t r e a t e d p e r h a p s  administrators  resources.  avail-  acquired  i n f o r m a l i t y w i t h , which the,-  Division  Division's  services  i t does n o t  were made and  of. the  deciding  P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n ' s  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n  The  deter-  statement,  the  on  statement  policy  develop outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l  D i v i s i o n a d d e d new  policies.  have  have  to  the  o f new  have  Provincial  able,  evaluations  expend-  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the  been e x p a n s i o n i s t .  an  to  facilities  agency i t s e l f  general,  evolution  and  what  s h o u l d be  the  the  former  latter  indicated  in  s u c h as  parks system  1967  In  the  took second p l a c e  P a r k s D i v i s i o n , s p e c i f i e d i n the  w h e r e , when, and  of  water r e s o u r c e s  park users.  parks w i l l  provided.  that  from  d i s t r i b u t i o n of parks  r e a l planners  p o l i t i c i a n s and  mined how  land  government  the- p r o v i n c e .  d e c i d e d where t h e  be  benefits  such resources  equitable  Thus, the  will  Social Credit  Under such p o l i c y , c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f good r e c r e a t i o n a l  been t h e  the  r o y a l t i e s among t h e  the  itures  u s e d by  commit policy.  indicates of  the  themselves  72 The  Wilderness  areas  case  Department's p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g vague.  There appears  servation  the  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n  other  has b e e n  f o r the pre-  than the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s  F i s h a n d Game A s s o c i a t i o n ,  and perhaps  judgment o f d e p a r t m e n t a l e m p l o y e e s who were f a m i l i a r  with  the areas  drive  only  i n question.  The a r e a s a r e s e v e r a l  from t h e l a r g e s t p o p u l a t i o n  province,  y e t the r e s t r i c t i o n s  concentrations  placed  on t h e i r  t h e most a g i l e , w e l l - e q u i p p e d A l b e r t a n s  their  clearly  P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n ' s  include  recreation resources three  hours'  i n the use a l l o w  t o enjoy  amenities. The  and  that the  t o have been no i m p e t u s  o f these areas  made by t h e A l b e r t a  indicates  the assessment  i n the province  o f the need  for  wilderness  and the s u i t a b i l i t y  of natural  f o r such use, y e t the d e c i s i o n  wilderness  Forests  committee.  on t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n  a g e n c y were i n v o l v e d  legislature  to e s t a b l i s h the  a r e a s was made by t h e M i n i s t e r  No r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  The  responsibilities  i n this  o f Lands  o f an independent  o f the p r o v i n c i a l parks committee.  e l e c t i o n o f a new m a j o r i t y has marked a t u r n i n g  point  i n the A l b e r t a i n many a r e a s o f  government, i n c l u d i n g the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n . planners  anticipate that  ideas  w h i c h t h e y have b e e n  u n d e r t h e f o r m e r M i n i s t e r w i l l . b e more r e a d i l y by  advisory  a new M i n i s t e r who i s n o t a c c u s t o m e d The new M i n i s t e r  Farks developing  received  t o an e s t a b l i s h e d  operating  procedure.  i s already  well-  respected  b y h i s s t a f f a n d has i n t e n s i v e l y q u e s t i o n e d h i s  .  73 administrators  as  evaluation  r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f the  presently new  and  the  the  proceeding  Minister.  only  to  To  "Why?" o f p a s t p o l i c i e s .  i s evidence  of  been c o l l e c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , parks  s y s t e m has This  information meet t h e  study  about  needs  o f the  of  of a survey  in  While  entire  region  be  the  Peace R i v e r  range  of perceptions  imate  those  of  the  the  policy  is  the  section  has  planning  generation  of  well  of  Alberta  P r o v i n c i a l Parks  to  visitors  for  any  serve to  the  the  have e x p r e s s e d  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n  residents  and  i s p r o v i d e d , - i t i s assumed  Region's r e s i d e n t s about  behavior  rather as  a  description  Region of the  to  out-  next chapter,  especially suited  as  of  available  through a  of  p r o v i n c e , but  p r o v i n c i a l population,  the  In  Peace R i v e r  facilities  i n the  of  i n terms o f  provided  p r o v i n c e , w i t h every park that that  the  of r e c r e a t i o n a l  i n the  i t i s not  to provide  particular  actual  of Alberta  opportunities.  c a r r i e d out  Division  and  the- a l t e r n a t i v e s w h i c h a r e  attitudes 1972.  planning  i s concerned with  t h e s e needs w i l l  results  attitude  that  begun.  of residents  door r e c r e a t i o n a l profile  not  parks system  the  d a t e , however, t h e  The  the  entire  which  province.  a  approx-  CHAPTER V A PROFILE OF-ATTITUDES TOWARDS OUTDOOR RECREATION Peace R i v e r Region;  Background I n f o r m a t i o n  The Peace R i v e r r e g i o n , as i t i s . t r a d i t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d , comprises  a vast s t r e t c h  o f aspen p a r k l a n d l y i n g  t o the e a s t o f the Rocky Mountains i n the d r a i n a g e  basin  o f the Peace R i v e r ; p o l i t i c a l l y , the r e g i o n i s d i v i d e d by the 120th m e r i d i a n o f l o n g i t u d e , w h i c h forms the n o r t h e r n p o r t i o n o f the A l b e r t a - B r i t i s h Columbia boundary.  To  the west o f the r e g i o n i s bounded by the wooded rough l a n d s approaching  the f o o t h i l l s o f the R o c k i e s ; t o the n o r t h  lies  an u n i n h a b i t e d expanse o f muskeg and spruce f o r e s t ; and on the s o u t h and e a s t t h e r e i s a wide b e l t o f t e r r i t o r y , p a r t l y rough and t i m b e r e d and p a r t l y low and swampy, about one hundred m i l e s w i d e , s e p a r a t i n g the r e g i o n from the n o r t h e r n fringe  o f the Canadian p r a i r i e .  Travelling  up the Peace  R i v e r on h i s o v e r l a n d journey t o the P a c i f i c Ocean i n 1 7 9 2 - 9 3 , A l e x a n d e r Mackenzie was one o f the f i r s t w h i t e men t o view the broad expanses o f p r a i r i e , broken by b l u f f s o f p o p l a r and w i l l o w , t h a t s t r e t c h e d back from the edges o f the Peace R i v e r v a l l e y .  T r a d i n g p o s t s were soon e s t a b l i s h e d  a l o n g the r i v e r , and by the l a t e 1800's a few a g r i c u l t u r a l experiments  had i n d i c a t e d  t h a t the s o i l o f the Peace R i v e r 74  75 a r e a was  unusually  would p e r m i t despite  the  the  fertile  and  cultivation  t h a t the  o f a wide v a r i e t y  r e l a t i v e l y short annual  The  movement o f a g r i c u l t u r a l  d e p e n d e n t , however, on an  increasing  d e n s i t y and  of  o f the  these  century  expansion  extermal  brought  during  the  closer  nineteenth  to world  encountering  the  cultural barrier  area  t o the n o r t h  of forests,  of  the  single  r e g i o n was  r e g i o n was  collect  increasing potentially  the  the  entry  o f the  a number o f b r a n c h agricultural  population. a r a b l e 15.6  By  1966,  over  million  acres  with  considerable physiographic  island" Its  southeast,  and  By  rail,  and  had  been a  development 1916 by  the the  nine-  constructed rapidly  five million  of  o f l a n d i n the  the region  ( N o r t h e r n A l b e r t a Development  I968, p . 1 8 ) .  the  i n the  p r o d u c e d by  Council,  to  l a y a wide  marshes,  railway.  lines  crops  wet  event  w i t h Edmonton by  were u n d e r c u l t i v a t i o n .  the  low  agri-  frontier.  most i m p o r t a n t  connected  teen-thirties to  agricultural  Beyond  markets;  on  edge o f t h e  o f Edmonton.  r o u g h l a n d s , and  b e y o n d t h a t , t h e new The  the  southern  settlement  t h r u s t of population turned northward towards  the  i n the  the westward  foothills,  the  factor:  l a t t e r p a r t o f the  the Peace R i v e r a r e a  crops  into  of settlement Rapid  days  period.  settlers  three p r a i r i e provinces.  provinces  of  frost-free  r e g i o n was  areas  l o n g summer  Throughout  the  years  of  settlement,  transportation  the Peace R i v e r r e g i o n remained a  i n the w i l d e r n e s s .  (Dawson and  Murchie,  s e t t l e r s , r e p r e s e n t i n g a wide v a r i e t y  barriers "cultural  193^,  of ethnic  p.15).  backgrounds,  ?6 experienced  a marked d e g r e e  distinctive  sense o f i d e n t i t y  certain  amount o f c u l t u r a l  extent  o f the  traditional  region  i s shown on F i g u r e  northwestern corner in  t h a t p o r t i o n o f the lies  4,  as  the  settled  tain  very  area  I t should  chapter  i s concerned  Peace R i v e r  agricultural  the  a  a  approximate  province.  this  t o the  region  a g r i c u l t u r a l l y - b a s e d Peace  B r i t i s h Columbia;  Peace R i v e r a r e a  acquired  The  w i t h i n A l b e r t a , the n a t u r a l r e g i o n  westward i n t o  and  w h i c h gave t h e  homogeneity.  o f the  mind t h a t , a l t h o u g h  of i s o l a t i o n ,  in  the  be  borne  with  region  in fact  residents  River  that  extends  o f the  B.C.  east  o f the  Rocky M o u n t a i n s  main-  c l o s e e c o n o m i c and  social  ties  Alberta  with  their  neighbours. The for  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p u r p o s e s by  Municipal the  Affairs  boundaries  province. the  Peace R i v e r r e g i o n  i t has  i n Figure  regional planning area  delineated  4,  seven r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g  Encompassing approximately  agricultural  been  the A l b e r t a D e p a r t m e n t  i s also depicted  o f the  Peace R i v e r  tional  as  as w e l l as  w h i c h shows  areas  in  85,000 s q u a r e  area  includes  the  of  the  miles,  the  tradi-  large tracts  of  r  uninhabited  territory  t o the  s o u r c e . e x p l o r a t i o n and areas  e a s t , and  south.  e x t r a c t i o n o c c u r r i n g i n the  Regional  within  Planning As  new  Peace R i v e r  the  region  Commission,  residents with region  thus d e f i n e d .  1973»  Re-  latter  p r e s e n t l y exceeds a g r i c u l t u r e i n annual d o l l a r  of production  the  north,  (Peace  value River  P»37).  urban backgrounds migrate  f o r employment  i n these  to  activities,  a  77  50  100 m i l e s  Settled PRRPC ERPC BRRPC RDRFC CRPC MHRPC ORRPC  Area  Peace R i v e r R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission Edmonton R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission Battle River Regional P l a n n i n g Commission Red D e e r R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g 'Commission Calgary Regional Planning Commission Medicine Hat Regional Planning Commission Oldman R i v e r R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission FIGURE 4  PROVINCE OF ALBERTA, BOUNDARIES OF REGIONAL PLANNING (Sources T a s k F o r c e on U r b a n i z a t i o n a n d t h e F u t u r e ,  COMMISSIONS 1971)  0  78 new component  i s being  mosaic.  While  hitherto  uninhabited  activity, in  The  current  87,355;  during  l o c a t i o n s close to the s i t e  the p e r i o d  population  of agricultural  communities  of less  Affairs,  t h a n 1,000 1972).  o f the t r a d i t i o n a l  Because  province  o f A l b e r t a , which i s i t s e l f  from an a g r i c u l t u r a l  from r u r a l  t o urban  social  region, role  administered area  residents to  a microcosm o f the e n t i r e  days o f p i o n e e r i n g  life.  a tran-  economy  a  i n the Peace significant  Many o f t h e p a r k s c u r r e n t l y  beginnings  i n the e f f o r t s  occasions  what l e i s u r e  time  life-style  areas  involved a lake  their  beach, and c l e a r e d areas horse  of early  area  outdoor s e t t i n g s i n which  on s p e c i a l  baseball,  experiencing  to a resource-based  to establish pleasant  chosen  resource-  by t h e A l b e r t a P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s D i v i s i o n i n  had t h e i r  socialize  (Department  o f the r e g i o n ' s  o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n has p l a y e d  i n community  area i s  life.  From t h e e a r l i e s t River  along  a n d t h e a s s o c i a t e d mix o f p o p -  the r e g i o n represents  the  residence  on farms o r  residents.  ulation,  sition  lives  a g r a r i a n a n d t h e modern  based economic a c t i v i t i e s ,  and  of resource  expansion.  o f the r e g i o n a l planning  e x a c t l y h a l f o f the p o p u l a t i o n  of Municipal  .  have been e s t a b l i s h e d i n  t h e l o n g - e s t a b l i s h e d s e r v i c e towns w h i c h grew up railways  mix  some c o m m u n i t i e s  population  many o f t h e new r e s i d e n t s a r e t a k i n g up  the  in  added t o t h e r e g i o n a l  and h o l i d a y s , and spend afforded.  U s u a l l y the  o r s t r e a m , perhaps a sandy  f o r p i c n i c s and s p o r t s  r a c i n g , and t h e l i k e .  In time,  eventsvolunteer  79 m a i n t e n a n c e work was being by  on  visitors  o f the in  placed  unable  these  from  areas  outside  maintaining  the  new  At  recreation  a growing p o p u l a t i o n  r e g i o n , and  the  present  region land;  as  assistance  Highways and locations  i n the  time, seven p r o v i n c i a l  provide  i n the  approximately  P r o v i n c i a l Parks  parks  in  5,600 a c r e s  of  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n areas. undeveloped at  Transport  throughout  this  One  time.  parks  region provide  in an  areas parks of  twenty-six additional  220  secondary  Thirteen Alberta Forest Service:.recreation  dispersed  the  traditional  the  r e c r e a t i o n needs  are  u s e d e x t e n s i v e l y by  them p a s s i n g  throughout  the  agricultural  through  elsewhere.  region's area.  In  f o r e s t s , which  summer v i s i t o r s ,  the A  region  sample  the  the  31$  f r o m the  States  surround  facilities  majority  sightseeing tours  of t o u r i s t s  highways d u r i n g United  on  areas  addition,to serving  of r e g i o n a l r e s i d e n t s , these  region's were  are  o f the  Department  wayside campsites  the  the  classification  I I I , Chapter I I I , these  are  route  and  Region  o f r e c r e a t i o n a l l a n d a d j o i n i n g p r i m a r y and  highways.  sought  e i t h e r n a t u r a l environment r e c r e a t i o n  or s p e c i a l i z e d completely  and  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n areas  Facilities  s y s t e m shown i n T a b l e classified  demands  ones.  the  Peace R i v e r  en  the  existing  Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n  acres  by  the  p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s p a r k s a g e n c y was  developing  is  t o keep pace w i t h  summer o f 1972  travelling  of or . on  the  indicated that  of America, while  an a d d i t i o n a l  80  33%  were  from p r o v i n c e s  Regional  other  than A l b e r t a .  1972b),  P l a n n i n g Commission,  were t r a v e l l i n g The  t o or  from  i n f o r m a l use  o f crown-owned l a n d i n t h e  the  present  such  relieved as  less be  i n these  The recreation  to p u b l i c  approximate  areas  and  on F i g u r e  It  has  t h a t the  more p e o p l e  eight  areas.  they  provincial  relative  to  are  spending  become may  parks,  the shown  i n the  first  more l e i s u r e  One  o f the  A  Survey  chapter  of  IV  parks  time  in  outdoor  manifestations  While  r e p o r t s attendance i n the  of  to C e n t e n n i a l Year t r a v e l  re-  at s i x  fluctuations  large figures  throughout  i n c r e a s e d annual  this  de-  Peace R i v e r r e g i o n over  violent  ( f o r example, the  this  recreation i s for  i n c r e a s e d patronage a t outdoor  Table  period.  towards  Preferences:  c u r r e n t t r e n d i n outdoor  provincial  year  and  been observed  t o be  have o c c u r r e d  trend  resource  access.  l o c a t i o n s o f the  Behavior  i s seen i n the  veloped  to  developed  i n some c a s e s  r e g i o n a l planning area  recreational pursuits.  creation  areas,  has  5.  Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n  thesis  and  highway campsites  highway network i n the  on  However, as  uninhabited use  region  activities  pressure  parks.  desirable for recreational  closed entirely  trend  some o f t h e  provincial  development proceeds  tourists  Alaska.  d i s p e r s e d , or e x t e n s i v e , r e c r e a t i o n a l  facilities  River  Many o f t h e s e  for  time  (Peace  in  park attendance  attendance  f o r 19&7  C a n a d a ) , an  an  due  overall  i s evident.  J5.0 m i l e s P r o v i n c i a l Parks» P I Lac C a r d i n a l Moonshine Lake O'Brien Park S a s k a t o o n Lake Williamson Park Winagami Lake Alberta Forest Service Recreation Area Department o f Highways and T r a n s p o r t Campsite P r i m a r y Highways FIGURE 5 PEACE RIVER REGION: HIGHWAY NETWORK, PROVINCIAL PARKS, CAMPSITES AND RECREATION AREAS, 1972 (Source: A t l a s o f A l b e r t a , 19^9)  TABLE IV ATTENDANCE AT PROVINCIAL PARKS PEACE RIVER REGION 1 9 6 4 - 1 9 7 2 1964  1965  1966  1967  1968  1969  1970  1971  1971  14,261  23,910  34,208  43,361  34,969  33,159  18,564  26,737  24,662  9,299  25,218  26,536  31,366  25,536  25,216  40,464  60,719 117,380  O'Brien Park  20,220  3^,370  36,665  32,775  28,310  42,165  41,875  64,953  Saskatoon Lake  22,129  64,885  59,445 115,131  61,014  90,596  94,075  80,781 1 0 9 , 5 8 5  Williamson  31,186  82,029  96,099 135,936  92,596  97,618  84,585  81,999  85,000**  34,774  69,444  69,165  79,069  71,689  48,335  65,299  67,160  Park Lac  Cardinal  Moonshine Lake  Park  Winagami Lake  86,175  11,474*  1 3 1 , 8 6 9 2 9 9 , 8 5 6 3 2 2 , 1 1 8 4 4 4 , 7 4 4 3 2 1 , 4 9 4 3 6 0 , 4 4 3 3 2 7 , 8 9 8 380,488 4 1 5 , 2 6 1 *Park open May and June o n l y . ••Estimated. Source:  A l b e r t a Department o f Lands and F o r e s t s .  83 The established 276),  c.  Peace R i v e r under the  guide for  the  area's  Planning  Alberta Planning  i s responsible  regional planning  Regional  area  for studying and  preparing  development.  and  visitors  will  the  behavior  and  planning  area  1972.  sample  A  research  if a  later  date.  collected cent  A  i n this  total  (age,  of residence  sex,  o f 645  The  by  both amenities  general  summer  is  are  summarized  of  attached  staff called purpose  of  interview  on  the  immediately  household  to  f o l l o w i n g day office  or, at  questionnaires  were  a n i n e t y - f i v e per  characteristics  region,  study  interviewed;  survey  Commission's  completed  Peace R i v e r  status)  demand  regional  m a r i t a l s t a t u s , a n n u a l income,  i n the  occupational  t o the  the  manner, r e p r e s e n t i n g  response r a t e .  sample  and  were m a i l e d  to  region's  o f the  f o r members o f t h e  R e s p o n s e s were c o l l e c t e d  incomplete,  the  e i t h e r c o n d u c t e d an  questionnaires  complete.  the  s e l e c t e d and  each s e l e c t e d respondent, e x p l a i n e d  or l e f t  as  used i n the  Members o f t h e  and  of i t s  the  region  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i n the  questionnaire  questionnaire,  resources  Commission undertook to  o f r e s i d e n t s was  as A p p e n d i x I .  1970,  (R.S.A.  r e g i o n a l plans  a t t i t u d e s of residents  towards  a copy o f the  the  i n the  increase  become more w e l l - k n o w n , t h e  Act  A n t i c i p a t i n g that  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l resources  residents  Commission,  of  length  educational i n tables  the  status,  in  Appendix I I . Although Alberta's lack  the  a u t h o r i t y and  the  Regional resources  Planning necessary  Commissions to e s t a b l i s h  84 outdoor r e c r e a t i o n public  reserves  facilities,  when l a n d  is legally  to which subsequently passes the  land  is situated.  designate  r u r a l land  l a n d when r e g i o n a l may  be  reserved  provincial  undertook region  that  as  regional  plans  are  for later  the  regarding  needs  or  or p r o t e c t i o n  thereby  plans,  should r e f e r to  residents  goals  are  rationale policy  of  behind using  survey  f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n  broader range  w o u l d be  likely  of perceptions  part The  o f the  f o r managing the  t h e i r perception  the  regional  concerned, rather  formulate plans basis  the  to  the  acquire  space.  f o r outdoor on  the  of  survey approach to  R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission.  developing regional  latter  requirements, q u a n t i t a t i v e l y  residents  orientations  out-  Commission  and  of regional  as  this  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n ,  River  a  either local  residents  implies  the  land  the  of a household  two  recreational  Regional Planning  t h e i r future  may  t h i s way,  q u a l i t a t i v e l y , f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n use  or  w i t h a view t o  space  and  In  a c q u i s i t i o n by  attitudes  in'which  of  of  the  title  Commissions  open s p a c e  I t was  designate  the  municipality  prepared.  Peace R i v e r  to survey  The the  the  subdivided,  government, f o r d e v e l o p m e n t  some i n d i c a t o r s and  to  empowered t o  A d d i t i o n a l l y , the  door r e c r e a t i o n a l space. function  they are  of  recreational o f the  first  Peace  i s that,  planning  region  assess  where  agency attitudes  than allow  "experts'  regional  environment  the  data  public  to on  interest.  i n formulating  The  regional  i s that  such information  about  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n  t o emerge i f e l e c t e d  in  representatives  reflects  or  than  85 p l a n n e r s were  formulating  Another issue group in  f o r which  province live  In addition  many v i s i t o r s  are also  adjacent  by  t h e use o f those  o f an e x t e n s i v e  resources.  a l t e r n a t i v e form  region  users.  degree  and the  In addition,  resources.  who  areas which are developed affected  the growth  which i s viewed as a  on d e c i s i o n s  f o r the region, made a b o u t t h e u s e  The r e s i d e n t s  o f the Peace  have, i n t h i s s e n s e , t h e l a r g e s t i n t e r e s t i n  a l l o c a t i o n and development  for  outdoor  of resources  i n the region  recreation.  The  i n c l u s i o n o f data  and a t t i t u d e s  planning  the region  o f development  the  havior  who u s e s u c h  However, t h e p e o p l e  tourist industry,  to a large  residents  f o r e x a m p l e , a r e most s e r i o u s l y  of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n River  to local  t o outdoor r e c r e a t i o n  p r o v i n c i a l parks,  depends  the d e f i n i t i o n o f the r e f e r e n t  from o u t s i d e  regular  as  viable  concerns  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l resources a r e provided  the region.  resources,  policy i n isolation.  process  on o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n b e -  i n t h i s study  i n Alberta  o f the P r o v i n c i a l Parks  i s n o t meant t o i m p l y  that the  P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s D i v i s i o n has a n o b l i g a t i o n t o p r o v i d e facilities  i n each r e g i o n  suited  t o t h e needs  policy  i s that  all  residents  Alberta. acquire cial  every  o f the province  of local  residents.  P r o v i n c i a l parks  developed  i s meant t o s e r v e  facility  o f the province,  Since  general  and develop  particularly  as w e l l  as v i s i t o r s t o  p r o v i n c i a l revenues  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n  parks, such a p o l i c y i s e q u i t a b l e .  a r e used t o  resources  as  provin-  86 The following  towards  by a g r o u p  While  o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d on t h e  pages o f t h i s  of attitudes held  purpose  chapter i s to describe  outdoor  recreation  of Albertans l i v i n g  i t i s n o t assumed t h a t  experiences that are  i n one p a r t i c u l a r  these r e s i d e n t s  of a l l A l b e r t a n s , i t i s proposed  that  that  might  the range  which ofa t -  be- d i s c o v e r e d i f t h e e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n  o f t h e p r o v i n c e was t o be s u r v e y e d . the P r o v i n c i a l Parks range  region.  are representative  the a t t i t u d e s  they expressed i n the survey approximate titudes  the range  Division  Thereby,  i n providing  of information with respect  the success o f  an a p p r o p r i a t e  to c h o i c e s f o r meeting  r e c r e a t i o n a l n e e d s may be a s s e s s e d .  Outdoor  Recreation;  Participation  A s t a n d a r d component recreation  t o be a n a l a g o u s that  i n recreational activities to s t a t i s t i c s  i s , the degree  an e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e i r certain  problems  to the Canadian  taken  people p a r t i c i p a t e i s activity.  There are  have b e e n p o i n t e d  R e c r e a t i o n Demand S t u d y  Parks  Branch,  Department  Knetsch points  'demand' a n d ' c o n s u m p t i o n ' ,  recreational  are often  i n h i s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s as a d v i s o r  Outdoor  and N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s . between  t o which  w i t h the analogy, which  and H i s t o r i c  Statistics  on demand i n t h e e c o n o m i c  demand f o r t h a t  o u t by J a c k L . K n e t s c h  National  o f outdoor  i s t h e measurement o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  on p a r t i c i p a t i o n  sense;  o f many s t u d i e s  activities.  o f the of Indian  out the d i f f e r e n c e  or p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  Use o r a t t e n d a n c e f i g u r e s a r e i n c o r r e c t l y c a l l e d demand, i n s t e a d o f b e i n g i n t e r p r e t e d as c o n s u m p t i o n o r t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f b o t h demand, w h i c h c e r t a i n l y e x i s t s , and s u p p l y of o p p o r t u n i t i e s , which a l s o e x i s t s . The amount o f r e c r e a t i o n demand v a r i e s w i t h t h e number o f f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e , t h e r e b y making some q u a n t i t a t i v e e s t i m a t e o f t h i s dependence n e c e s s a r y f o r s e n s i b l e p l a n n i n g . (Knetsch, 1967, p.6). Recognizing  this  difficulty,  the  R i v e r R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n who the  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n  which would g i v e were i n t e r e s t e d  survey  indications i n taking  s t a f f of  were i n v o l v e d  attempted  to e l i c i t  o f what a c t i v i t i e s  part  i n , as  which they a c t u a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e d  the  v / e l l as  because  Peace  in  responses respondents  those i n  facilities  were  available. Respondents list  of  those  the  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n  q u e s t i o n n a i r e were g i v e n activities  i n which they p a r t i c i p a t e .  available if  to  the  o f a d d i n g any  asked  A l t h o u g h the  activities  respondent p a r t i c i p a t e d  and  not  o r was  to  percentage is  The  list  included  of respondents r e p o r t i n g  included  i n Table  Picnicking, emerged as in  the  in  early that  played  large  be  of the  participation in  sightseeing,  and  recreational  to the of  questionnaire the  driving  activities  participate.  Peace R i v e r r e g i o n  i n the  community  life  of  the  .  An  revealed  have a l w a y s b e e n m a j o r s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s roles  each,  V.  s o c i o l o g i c a l study picnics  list  parti-  together with  most common o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a l  which respondents  was  i n the  interested  of a c t i v i t i e s ,  identify  option  c i p a t i n g , none were a d d e d i n s u f f i c i e n t number t o significance.  a  area.  which These  88 TABLE V  PARTICIPATION IN OUTDOOR A C T I V I T I E S PEACE RIVER REGION 1972  Activity  "  %  Participating  picnicking sightseeing. . recreational driving . . . v i s i t i n g h i s t o r i c areas . . . . . . . fishing swimming . . • • hiking bicycling toboganning . . . . . . t e n t camping . . . . . . . hunting . . . . . . . . . t r a i l e r camping . snowmobiling horseback r i d i n g motorboating . . . . . . . . . . . . . viewing, photographing w i l d l i f e . . . c o l l e c t i n g rocks, a r t i f a c t s viewing, photographing p l a n t l i f e . . . golfing motorcycling snowshoeing . canoeing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . downhill skiing waterskiing cross-country skiing . . . . . . . . . sailing . . . . . scuba/skin diving . . . . . . . . . . 0  Sources  affairs  were l a r g e community  a n d n e i g h b o u r s who enjoy  travelled  picnics,  1934,  p.227).  are long-standing  Planning  attended  considerable  c o m p a n i o n s h i p and a meal  and M u r c h i e , seeing  Peace R i v e r R e g i o n a l C o m m i s s i o n , 1972b.  88,2 77.7 71.3 56.9 56.9 55-3 49.0 48.1 46.8 42.5 42.0 37.2 33• 5 32.9 31*2 27.0 24.7 18.8 18.0 16.7 14.3 13.6 11.8 9.9 3»3 2.3 1.6  by  distances  i n the o u t d o o r s .  Recreational driving  Sunday  afternoon  friends to  (Dawson and  pastimes  sight-  i n the  89 r e g i o n , where a w i d e v a r i e t y  of scenery  acter  together with  from season t o season,  network o f good r o a d s ,  encourages  door r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y , and  no  equipment  other  Visiting the  next  with  approximately  cipation may  than  the  seem an  unusual  among t h e  per  The  activity  cent  be  found  trading  posts  .constructed fur  i n the  f o r an  early  roads,  of suitable  p e r h a p s , the  this  activity.  The  swimming  the  y o u n g as  low  fur  century,  i H u d s o n s Bay  Company associated  region: The  lakes  i n the  wagon high the  wide  region  cost of p a r t i c i p a t i n g o f the  fifty-five  r a t e i n swimming i s d i f f i c u l t the  interest  eighteenth  sample r e f l e c t s  s t r e a m s and  question  does n o t  f r o m swimming i n a r t i f i c i a l  s e v e n swimming p o o l s  larger  as  i n the  of which i s u s u a l l y c l a s s i f i e d  There are  areas  homesteads.  interpretation  inherent ambiguity:  outdoor  i n the  parti-  of h i s t o r i c  of h i s t o r i c a l  late  are  respondents,  o f more r e c e n t age  early  relatively  cent p a r t i c i p a t i o n  the  and  ability,  i n c l u d e abandoned  activities  of s p o r t f i s h i n g  and,  latter  sites  agricultural  distribution  o f an  area  by N o r t h w e s t Company and  stopping-places  incidence  These  d a t i n g back t o the  t r a d e r s , as w e l l as  with  in  area.  out-  swimming  recording  visiting  P e a c e R i v e r r e g i o n , y e t many s i t e s may  extensive  special  f i s h i n g , and  activities  i n each a c t i v i t y .  char-  family car.  areas,  fifty-five  an  in  inexpensive  i t r e q u i r e s no  historic  most p o p u l a r  this  changing  as an  l o c a t e d throughout  per  because distinguish  pools, urban  in  the  activity. the  s e r v i c e c e n t e r s , a t which a good d e a l  of  region  90 the r e p o r t e d swimming i s p r o b a b l y done. region's lakes are s u i t a b l e a q u a t i c p l a n t s and The and  of the .  f o r b a t h i n g because o f a l g a e ,  the l a c k of sandy  shores.  n e x t group o f a c t i v i t i e s , w i t h between  f i f t y per cent p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e p o r t e d i n the  includes hiking, bicycling, B i c y c l i n g and  toboganning  of respondents, of respondents  49.0,  42.5  demonstrate  and  42.0  y e a r s o f age  H i k i n g , t e n t i n g , and  and  sample,  outdoor  and  30.2  hunting. 46.8  per  cent  participated in hunting, with  per cent of respondents  a significant  of respondents  w e r e r e c o r d e d by 48.1  over twenty  forty  t o b o g a n n i r i g , t e n t i n g , and  r e s p e c t i v e l y , w h i l e 29.5  these a c t i v i t i e s .  all  Few  participating,  o r i e n t a t i o n on t h e p a r t  to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  These a c t i v i t i e s  are  r e l a t i v e l y i n e x p e n s i v e i n t e r m s o f t h e minimum e q u i p -  ment n e c e s s a r y  f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n , which  the r e l a t i v e l y  high rates of p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  r e g i o n has  may  b e e n known s i n c e t h e t i m e i t was  explain The  partially  Peace R i v e r  inhabited  s o l e l y by I n d i a n s f o r t h e a b u n d a n c e o f b i g game a n d b i r d s , as w e l l as m i g r a t o r y b i r d s a t c e r t a i n  upland  times o f the  year. I n c r e a s i n g e x p e n s e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n seems t o  be  c o r r e l a t e d n e g a t i v e l y w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s i n the Peace R i v e r r e g i o n , a l t h o u g h t h i s investigated s t a t i s t i c a l l y .  r e l a t i o n s h i p was  not  Four a c t i v i t i e s which  are  o r i e n t e d t o c e r t a i n t y p e s o f e q u i p m e n t have  participation  r a t e s c l u s t e r e d a t approximately t h i r t y - t h r e e per trailer  camping, snowmobiling,  horseback  riding  cent:  and  91 motorboating. winters  I t should  be n o t e d t h a t , w i t h the l o n g  and heavy s n o w f a l l t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e r e g i o n ,  many r e s i d e n t s — f o r example, farmers and  trappers—use  snowmobiles i n t h e i r work as v / e l l as f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e . Horseback r i d i n g may l i k e w i s e be e x p e c t e d t o be a common a c t i v i t y i n a t r a d i t i o n a l l y a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a , where horses may be used as work a n i m a l s i n r a n c h i n g recreational riding.  as w e l l as f o r  ' T r a i l e r camping' i n t h i s  question  i n c l u d e s t h e use o f b o t h h o l i d a y t r a i l e r s and t h e c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s e x p e n s i v e ' t e n t t r a i l e r s ' , as w e l l as camper u n i t s mounted on s m a l l t r u c k s . Three e s s e n t i a l l y non-consumptive a c t i v i t i e s the p r e c e d i n g  follow  equipment-oriented p u r s u i t s i n p o p u l a r i t y :  c o l l e c t i n g a r t i f a c t s and r o c k s , and v i e w i n g and p h o t o g r a p h i n g w i l d l i f e and p l a n t l i f e . sample 24,7  Twenty-seven p e r c e n t o f t h e  p a r t i c i p a t e i n w i l d l i f e viewing  and p h o t o g r a p h y ,  p e r c e n t c o l l e c t a r t i f a c t s and r o c k s , and 18.8 p e r  cent p a r t i c i p a t e i n p l a r i t l i f e viewing  and p h o t o g r a p h i n g .  F o l l o w i n g t h i s group, a s e r i e s o f a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v i n g equipment and some degree o f s k i l l had p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s among t h e r e s p o n d e n t s r a n g i n g to eighteen  per cent.  from a p p r o x i m a t e l y t e n  Golfing, motorcycling,  snowshoeing,  c a n o e i n g , d o w n h i l l s k i i n g , and w a t e r s k i i n g , have p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s i n t h i s ranget a number o f f a c t o r s , i n c l u d i n g t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f f a c i l i t i e s , the c o s t o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and  t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f n e c e s s a r y s k i l l s c o u l d a l l account  i n p a r t f o r t h e r e l a t i v e l y low p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s i n  92 addition  t o t h e more r e s t r i c t e d  vities  may  have.  diving  have n e g l i g i b l e  appeal which these  Cross-country skiing, participation  rates.  c o n v e n i e n t , s u i t a b l e w a t e r b o d i e s may of p a r t i c i p a t i n g mentioned while  i n the  the  permitted  speeds  necessary  i n a l l lakes.  underwater  is  restricts  modes o f t r a v e l largely  travel  respondents  contains age (4-31  are  who  the  lack  example,  their  lakes are  of suitable  examples  recreational,  but  recreational  t o the  to i d e n t i f y but  q u e s t i o n on  activities  terrain skiing  of  and  activities  necessary Although means  value  they of  may  i n which they  r e p o r t s the  activity;  the  of respondents•over  expressed a desire  participation  i n w h i c h t h e y w o u l d be  T a b l e VI  f o r each  the percentages  frequently  popularity.  section  responses  not  Snowshoeing, c a n o e i n g ,  their  participate  respondents)  expense  most a r e u n d e s i r a b l e f o r  interesting  time n o t  in participating.  of p o s i t i v e  and  The  became a v a i l a b l e ,  not p r e s e n t l y ested  For  d i s c o n t i n u e d when more e f f i c i e n t  A second  of  activities  i n the Peace R i v e r r e g i o n .  eventually revive  asked  of  the e x t e n t t o which a l p i n e  skiing  w h i c h were a t one  lack  f o r w a t e r s k i i n g are  sailing,  i n the r e g i o n .  cross-country  were  groups  Similarly,  exploration.  possible  The  scuba  i s a l l o w e d i n n e a r l y a l l l a k e s i n the  too s m a l l to permit  similarly  two  and  compound t h e  f o r Peace R i v e r a r e a r e s i d e n t s .  motorboating  region,  last  sailing,  acti-  to p a r t i c i p a t e  w h i l e the second  do  inter-  frequency first 20  column  years  i n each  of  activity  contains equivalent  93 TABLE VI • DESIRED PARTICIPATION IN OUTDOOR RECREATION ACTIVITIES FEACE RIVER REGION 1972 f Activity  Over 20 Years Wishing to Participate  -motorboating . . . . . . . . waterskiing . canoeing . sailing snovvmobiling . . . . . . . . t r a i l e r camping downhill s k i i n g . . . . . . horseback r i d i n g golfing . . o . o . . » . . v i e w i n g , photographing wildlife scuba/skin diving ...... swimming . v i e w i n g , photographing plant l i f e cross-country s k i i n g . . . . fishing snows hoe i n g bicycling t e n t camping . . motorcycling . . . . . . . . hiking v i s i t i n g h i s t o r i c areas . . hunting toboganning, s l e d d i n g . . . c o l l e c t i n g a r t i f a c t s , rocks recreational driving . . . . sightseeing picnicking Sources  statistics  % o f T o t a l Sample V/ishing t o Participate  21.8 17.^ 17.2 16.5 15.8 15.5 14.4 14,4 14.2  27.0  14.2 12.5 12,3  16.7 24.7  10.9 10,7 8.6 8.4 8.4 7.9 7.2 6.3 5-3 4.6 4.2 3.7 1.9 1.9 1.9  29.9  25.6 24.3 20.0 16.1 20.8 18.4  18.3  14.0  13.2  14.0 10.2 14.0  6.7  12.1 14.0  6.5  7.6 6.8 4.0  •4.3 3.3 3.1 2.3  Peace R i v e r R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission, 1972b. f o r the e n t i r e sample  (645 r e s p o n d e n t s ) .  The  younger respondents demonstrated what might be c o n s i d e r e d over-enthusiastic  responses when p r e s e n t e d w i t h t h i s  gitq u e s t i o n , as t h e r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c y for  a l lactivities  higher  f o r the  except  total  rank  percentage  the  activities.  the in  than  sample  f o r the  i s used,  of respondents The  list  decreasing positive inverse  o f the l i s t  decreasing positive  VI r e p r e s e n t what m i g h t  the  of a c t i v i t i e s responses.  activities  investigate  participate to state  be  called  i n Table  demand' f o r e a c h  are i n t e r e s t e d d o i n g so  further  the d e s i r e  i n certain activities, the r e a s o n  i n which  of s m a l l p r i n t e d  a desire  in  f o r some  factor  to participate  respondents  o p p o r t u n i t y was  was  i n each expressed.  to respondents  bearing a different  were i n s t r u c t e d  to choose  by means possible  t h e most  p r e v e n t i n g t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the  i n question. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.  the  of  for non-participation  c a r d s , each  respondents  significant activity  figures  'latent  A number o f r e a s o n s were s u g g e s t e d  reason;  in  another.  To  activity  of decreas-  arranged i n T a b l e V  The  but a r e p r e s e n t e d from  given  sample.  responses, represents e s s e n t i a l l y  participating or  are  o f a c t i v i t i e s ,. a r r a n g e d a c c o r d i n g  number o f p e o p l e who  to  'adult'  wishing to p a r t i c i p a t e  activity—the  reason  responses  toboganning  i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same o r d e r i n terms  ing  to  b i c y c l i n g and  sample  Nevertheless, whichever  of p o s i t i v e  The  reasons  s u g g e s t e d were as  too expensive no t i m e no c o n v e n i e n t f a c i l i t i e s f a c i l i t i e s are overcrowded d o n ' t know how c h i l d r e n a r e t o o young d o n ' t have e q u i p m e n t family interests d i f f e r  follows!  95 These reasons exception  fall  of reasons three  participation yond t h e  i n t o two  are  general and  essentially  immediate  scope  f o u r , the personal  of planning  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n resources affluence  categories.  and  emerge as  factors  the  consumption  and  be-  development  facilities.  the  inhibiting  i n nature  grows, i n c r e a s i n g p r o p o r t i o n s  demand' may  With  of  However,  of t h i s  as  'latent  of r e c r e a t i o n a l exper-  iences , The are  convenience  directly  under the  and  capacity  c o n t r o l of agencies  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s the  facilities  natural be  i n question  resources.  For  i n the  are  not  example, a l a k e  sibility  i f there  of providing The  activity,  reasons given  i n terms  the  reason; f o r not  are  summarized  high  the  o f the  are  no  by  desired  many o f t h o s e  i n which  c i p a t e w o u l d be  quite  percentage  The  in  popular  activities  shows, t h e  o f equipment n e c e s s a r y seventeen  or  pos-  out  gave  activity, which  h a v e , as  rated  has  ' l a t e n t demand'.  were i t n o t  the  In  i s no  o f r e s p o n d e n t s who  fewer r e s p o n d e n t s  As  activities.  VII  low  factor. lack  Table  provision  f o r n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n each  VII.  rated  could  facilities.  i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n among r e s p o n d e n t s VI,  there  that  upon  region  participating i n a desired  i n Table  shown i n T a b l e  dependent  access  for  providing  i n the  lakes,  however,  responsible  region,  totally  made more a c c e s s i b l e t o a d e g r e e  improvement, but  of f a c i l i t i e s ,  been  Conversely,  actually partif o r some  most p e r v a s i v e  factor is  to p a r t i c i p a t e i n  of twenty-seven  inhibiting  these  activities,  TABLE V I I REASONS FOR NON-PARTICIPATION IN DESIRED ACTIVITIES, PEACE RIVER REGION 1972 Reason i c o  P,  <M co O  U  ActiVitV  <D «  CD -P CO XlrH+> S 3 G 3 13 CD  I  d)  > -H CO G CD O f t O X  G 0) > G  CO  CO  a) <u  -ri +> -H O r - l ( D O - P n S G O O r l O CD Kj  iH +> *0 «rl <D r H I X J - P H n H j ^ S - ? O C U O G O S «J>(H O G O  a < «a H a EH g - H ^ faoo Qt«i a Motorboating 91 9.9 5.5 11.0 2.2 3.3 Canoeing 73 5.5 8.2 6.8 5.5 Waterskling 72 6 . 9 26.4 2.8 22.2 Sailing 70 4.3 5.7 21.4 1.4 4.3 Snowmobiling 65 2 3 . 1 T r a i l e r camping 64 14.1 3.1 3.1 1.6 — Downhill s k i i n g 6 0 13.3 1 0 . 0 2 3 . 3 18.3 Golfing 59 1 5 . 3 2 8 . 8 1 1 . 9 6.8 Horseback r i d i n g 56 1.8 1 0 . 7 1 6 . 1 1.8 Viewing, photographing w i l d l i f e 55 9.1 30.9 3.6 3.6 Swimming 52 9 . 6 36.5 5 . 8 46.2 Scuba/skin d i v i n g 5 1 13.7 7.8 23.5 13.7 Cross-country s k i i n g „. 42 2.4 26.2 , 9 . 5 2 . 4 19.0 Viewing photographing p l a n t l i f e 4l 9.8 31.7 4.9 Snowshoeing 35 20.0 11.4 Bicycling 33 18.2 6.1 Fishing 32 6.2 28.1 28.1 Tent camping 30 20.0 3.3 6.7 Motorcycling 30 2 0 . 0 3 . 3 6.7 Hiking 24 54.2 8.3 V i s i t i n g h i s t o r i c areas . . . . 21 14.3 4 7 . 6 9.5 4.8 Hunting 17 47.1 5.9 5.9 Toboganning, s l e d d i n g 15 13.3 4 0 . 0 C o l l e c t i n g a r t i f a c t s , rocks . . 13 61.5 23.1 Sightseeing 7 28.6 71.4 Picnicking 7 57.1 14.3 Recreational driving . . . . . . 7 28.6 42.9 Source: Peace R i v e r R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission, l y r ^ b .  hO G  -P G  u >io  £  G  o  o o  E-t  2.2  CI) >  ft  K  TH  a  1  W  65.9 74.0  40.3  1.7 3.4 7.1  1.9. 4.8 2.9 6.1 6.2 6.7  20.8 9.5 17.6 6.7  62.9 70.8 78.1 31.7 30.5 62.5 52.7  39.2 33.3 53.7 65.7 66.7 21.9 60.0 66.7 4.2 4.8 33.3  14.3 14.3  to  -p CO  f>> a)u  CD •H CD < w S -P <M  H ft  1.4 6.2 1.7 3.4  2.0 2.4  3.0 9.4 3.0 3.0 12.5 9.5 5.9 6.7  15.4 14.3 14.3  vo  97 and  seventeen  out  of the n i n e t e e n a c t i v i t i e s  latent  demand, t h i s  as  one  the  In with for to  low  f a c t o r was  m e n t i o n e d most f r e q u e n t l y  preventing participation those  latent  activities  near  engage i n t h e  that  activity.  o u t l a y are  i n so d o i n g ,  do  the  On  bottom o f T a b l e  hadn't  few  expenditures  u n l e s s they cannot  o t h e r hand, a c t i v i t i e s  find  requiring  i n d o i n g s o ; most r e s p o n d e n t s  participation As usually  as  had  the  reason  been n o t e d  and who  in  to planning.  earlier,  time  w h i c h p l a n n e r s w o u l d be  the convenience  and  It  is significant  expensive  of  facilities,  fact,  then,  interested  rarely  the p r i n c i p a l in facilities  r e g i o n w o u l d be convenient  was  the  the  facilities.  of  equipment c o s t s a r e  the r a t h e r l a r g e  'latent  i s of considerable  reasons  interested  capacity of  fourth reason,  im-  concern  facilities.  overcrcwdedness  m e n t i o n e d by r e s p o n d e n t s . cause  f o r concern  resources  one,  In  for planners  i n the Peace R i v e r  c o n c e r n i n g the absence  This reason  not  for non-participation  immediately  and  third  those  outdoor  the c a r r y i n g  that  to  of  activities The  are  for non-participation.  recreation planning, although  portance  little  gave t h e c o s t  c o n s i d e r e d t o be w i t h i n t h e p u r v i e w  demand' f o r e x p e n s i v e  time  I t w o u l d seem t h a t , g e n e r a l l y  e q u i p m e n t a r e e n g a g e d i n by a s m a l l e r p r o p o r t i o n o f interested  VII,  m e n t i o n e d most o f t e n  e n g a g e d i n by most r e s p o n d e n t s  interested so.  activity.  the respondent  speaking, a c t i v i t i e s - r e q u i r i n g capital  i n the  the  demand, t h e r e a s o n  n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n was  highest i n  appears  on T a b l e  of VII  98  in  connection  with  twenty-two a c t i v i t i e s .  I t seems  f o r many p o t e n t i a l r e c r e a t o r s i n t h e r e g i o n , convenient  facilities  does p r e v e n t  that,  the l a c k o f  participation  i n certain  activities. L a t e r i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t o name f i v e the  past  twelve  possible Table by  specific months  ported, the  o f the types question.  region.  4 3 . 8 per cent  r e g i o n and n e a r l y t h i r t y Table  VIII  and o u t s i d e  illustrates  campsites side  facilities  trunk  roads.  which  claimed  w i t h i n the  of a l l v i s i t s  to a considerable  Department  i s t h a t no  reported.  region;  this  on p r o v i n c i a l  extent.  respondents  o f Highways and  be u s e d by l o c a l  u s e d by t r a v e l l e r s  parks,  of visits  or A l b e r t a Forest S e r v i c e  may  destinations  f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n , both  observation  the Peace R i v e r  within  t h a t many r e s p o n d e n t s u s e  the r e g i o n ,  interesting  mentioned v i s i t i n g  number  per cent  undeveloped, n a t u r a l areas  Another  mentioned  Of a l l the v i s i t s r e -  The most p o p u l a r  o f the t o t a l  during  received.  of visits  t h e r e g i o n were t h e p r o v i n c i a l  within  were  aksed  Out o f a  o v e r s i x t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t were d e s t i n a t i o n s  Peace R i v e r  within  had v i s i t e d  1,591  responses,  i s a summary  respondents to t h i s  which they  f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n .  of 3.225  total  VIII  places  r e s p o n d e n t s were  Transport  r e c r e a t i o n areas  indicates that  p e o p l e more  out-  these  than they are  highways and f o r e s t r y  TABLE V I I I OUTDOOR RECREATION V I S I T S REPORTED BY RESPONDENTS POR PREVIOUS YEAR, PEACE RIVER REGION 1972 T o t a l Number of Responses  Percent of Responses  Type o f V i s i t  Number L o c a t e d i n Peace R i v e r Region  Percent of Responses i n Peace R i v e r Region  p r o v i n c i a l park  474  29.9  442  43.8  n a t u r a l areas (Undeveloped)  355  22.3  242  24.0  p r i v a t e outdoor recreation f a c i l i t y  162  10.2  72  7.1  large  151  9.5  0  0.0  130  8.2  0  0.0  Department o f Highways campsite  90  5.6  90  8.9  Alberta Forest Service r e c r e a t i o n area  85  5.3  85  8.4  municipal park  65  4.1  31  d r i v i n g no s p e c i f i c destination  56  3.5  24  2.4  urban  23  1.4  23  2.3  1591  100.0  1009  100.0  city  n a t i o n a l park  facility  Source:  Peace R i v e r R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission, 1 9 7 2 b .  100 Outdoor  Recreation! The  second  Attitudes  major  P l a n n i n g Commission's assess  the attitudes  creation  f o c u s o f t h e Peace R i v e r R e g i o n a l  outdoor  recreation  o f respondents  environments.  towards  outdoor  recreation  t h e y most p r e f e r r e d areas. Table  to this  IX; they i n d i c a t e  demonstrated  that,  appears  or  less  istic,  a natural  prefer the  or natural  respondents  prefer  some f o r m  o f t h e degree  environments question groups  i s raised;  within  conveniences  o f man-made  o f development  character-  per cent  facility in  Thus, the  of natural  recreation  the m a j o r i t y o f respondents environments,  t h e sample a r e i n t e r e s t e d and s p e c i a l i z e d  attractiveness  a n d i n more  up t o f i f t y p e r c e n t o f  environment.  seem t o f a v o u r n a t u r a l  o f the n a t u r a l  with  i n the respondents'  although seventy-five  conjunction with the n a t u r a l question  a beach,  As r e g a r d s t h e l a t t e r  state,  over  environments.  o f a body o f w a t e r  grass c o v e r , perhaps  t o the question:  a wild  characteristics  conceived o f the i d e a l  t h e r e i s some i n c o n s i s t e n c y  reaction  recreation  i n outdoor r e c r e a t i o n  state.  which  on t h e w h o l e , t h e r e s p o n d e n t s  t h a t most r e s p o n d e n t s  trees,  t o name t h o s e  q u e s t i o n a r e summarized i n  o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a r e a i n terms associated  be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  choice o f outdoor  a preference for natural  man-made e m b e l l i s h m e n t s It  could  a r e a s , and asked  i n their  The r e s p o n s e s  outdoor r e -  R e s p o n d e n t s were g i v e n a l i s t o f  n a t u r a l a n d man-made r e s o u r c e s w h i c h of  s u r v e y was t o  facilities area.  while  to this certain  i n one o r a s e t o f t o enhance t h e  101 TABLE IX  PREFERRED CHARACTERISTICS IN OUTDOOR RECREATION ENVIRONMENTS PEACE RIVER REGION 1972  Characteristics  % o f Respondents  lakes  o  outstanding streams trees,  natural features  89.0  or r i v e r s grass  beaches wild  90.5  88.8  cover  88.5  . . . .  . . . . . . . . . .  86.2  or n a t u r a l s t a t e  historic  or c u l t u r a l  water, t o i l e t s ,  sites  . . .  electricity,  boat docks, launching telephone  75• 3  ramps  64.7  showers  50.5  .  4-7.8  . . . . .  concessions  . . . . . . .  . . . .  42.3  . . . . .  3^.4  33«8  stores ski  facilities  rental  accommodations  Source:  1972b.  or developed  Planning  i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,  opportunity-to  Peace R i v e r  28.2  Peace R i v e r R e g i o n a l  Later the  29.0  name up t o f i v e  r e g i o n which they  would  Commission,  r e s p o n d e n t s were specific like  areas  t o see  f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l use.  given  i n the  reserved  A total  of  717 l o c a t i o n s were named, o u t o f t h e p o s s i b l e 3,225 r e s p o n s e s  102 that  c o u l d have been c o l l e c t e d  five  areas.  Fifty-five  were s u g g e s t e d understood and  i n terms  the  o f the areas  per cent  o f p r e s e r v a t i o n , w h i c h was  t o mean p r o t e c t i o n f r o m r e s o u r c e s t o cause a d i m i n u t i o n  under-  uses which would  o f the r e c r e a t i o n a l  value o f  area.  acteristics type  o f outdoor  o f access  travelling requested access grade  r e c r e a t i o n areas  t o outdoor t o rank,  i n order  (gravel) roads,  roads  h i g h grade  ranked  the four types  and  'low g r a d e a c c e s s '  'no a c c e s s '  last.  o f access  'partial  if  the respondents' p e r c e p t i o n s  able  group, comprising  who r a n k e d  'partial  access' thus  access' third, appears  r e c r e a t i o n areas  were t o be u s e d a s p o l i c y  areas.  twenty-three  access'  Responses  i n the order  of accessibility  be a m a j o r p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r o u t d o o r  i n p r o v i d i n g such  at a l l .  X , i n d i c a t e t h a t most  to  guidelines  reaching the  t h a t i s 'high grade  second,  Ease  ( p a v e d ) r o a d s , low  access  i n Table  while  four types o f  only p a r t i a l l y  w h i c h t h e y were p r e s e n t e d ,  first,  the  R e s p o n d e n t s were  of preference,  q u e s t i o n , summarized  respondents  concerned  recreation areas.  to r e c r e a t i o n areas:  this  on p r e f e r r e d c h a r -  t h a t was most p r e f e r r e d b y r e s p o n d e n t s  r e c r e a t i o n a r e a , a n d no a u t o m o b i l e  in  respondents  forty-five  Another s e c t i o n o f the question  to  mentioned  o f development, which  The r e m a i n i n g  were m e n t i o n e d i n terms  tend  per cent  named  t o connote the p r o v i s i o n o f v e h i c u l a r access  some f a c i l i t i e s .  stood  had e a c h r e s p o n d e n t  There  i s a notice-  per cent  o f the sample,  a n d 'no v e h i c u l a r a c c e s s '  first  103 in  their  ranked  preference  'high grade'  orders, while and  'low  over n i n e t e e n  grade'  a sizeable  m i n o r i t y of respondents  recreation  environments  t o be  roads  per  last.  Thus,  prefer their  beyond the  reach  cent  outdoor of  the  automobile,  TABLE X  PREFERRED VEHICULAR ACCESS TO OUTDOOR RECREATION AREAS PEACE RIVER REGION 1972 (per cent of respondents).  Type o f  Rank High  Grade  Low  -  Access  Grade  Partial  None  1  58.9  18.5  13.4  10.2  2  1.6.1  61.4  16.5  6.4  3  9.8  68.3  5.0  4  15.2  4.4  1.8  78.4  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0  .  15.7  Note: T a b l e does n o t sum t o 100 p e r h o r i z o n t a l l y due t o r o u n d i n g o f f . Source:  Peace R i v e r R e g i o n a l C o m m i s s i o n , 1972b.  cent  Planning  Discussion One in  most s i g n i f i c a n t  the Peace R i v e r R e g i o n a l  of outdoor the  o f the  recreational  r e s i d e n t s o f the  p o i n t s brought  P l a n n i n g Commission's  behavior  and  attitudes  r e g i o n a l planning area are  unanimous i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s  out  -  survey  i s that far  o f what c o n s t i t u t e s  from the  104 most d e s i r a b l e to  be c l e a r  concensus  acteristics with  trees  outdoor  recreational  experience.  a s t o some o f t h e d e s i r a b l e  o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n  some man-made f a c i l i t i e s  i n addition  f e a t u r e s — r u n n i n g water,  toilets,  of  respondents  concessions,  f o r boat  skifacilities,  Similarly,  vehicle, outdoor  launching.  natural  respondents  and s h o w e r s —  The m a j o r i t y  facilities  recreation  features.  were d i v i d e d areas.  on t h e q u e s t i o n  While  minority are oriented area that  as s t o r e s ,  accommodations i n  the m a j o r i t y  t o be a b l e t o r e a c h o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a sizeable  prefer  natural  electricity  and r e n t a l  access to outdoor r e c r e a t i o n  preferred  features, are  t o these  p r e f e r n o t t o have s u c h  conjunction with desirable  of  char-  Up t o o n e - h a l f o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s  as w e l l a s f a c i l i t i e s  seems  a r e a s — b o d i e s o f water,  and g r a s s c o v e r and o t h e r n a t u r a l  widely preferred.  There  cannot  a r e a s by  t o the kind o f  be r e a c h e d b y a u t o -  mobile . R e s p o n d e n t s t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e v/ere in,  and p a r t i c i p a t e d  provincial of  parks  Alberta.  i n , the kind  interested  of activities  have b e e n d e v e l o p e d  Inexpensive a c t i v i t i e s  throughout  f o r which the province  a r e most p o p u l a r , a n d  participation  gradually  participating  d e c r e a s e and expense  participation  i s , however, v e r y h i g h f o r some o f t h e e x -  pensive a c t i v i t i e s ,  d e c r e a s e s as o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r  which  increases.  may have some a u r a  Desired  of prestige  c o n n e c t e d w i t h them i n t h e c o n t e x t o f P e a c e R i v e r r e g i o n society.  Motorboating, waterskiing, canoeing,  sailing,  105 snowmobiling, and  golfing  wished of  trailering,  head  were v i s i t s the  the l i s t  to participate  the outdoor  and s k i i n g ,  horseback  of activities  i n which  b u t d i d n o t do s o .  recreation  riding, people  A large  proportion  experiences reported i n the survey  to provincial  parks, both w i t h i n  and o u t s i d e  Peace R i v e r r e g i o n . The  cates  that  information presented i n this the range  of attitudes  chapter  indi-  concerning outdoor r e -  c r e a t i o n among t h e P e a c e R i v e r r e g i o n r e s p o n d e n t s a n d , presumably, broad. in  among r e s i d e n t s  The k i n d  o f the Province o f A l b e r t a , i s  of information that  t h e s u r v e y does n o t a p p e a r  present  i n the p r o v i n c i a l  implications  has b e e n  t o have b e e n u s e d  nature the  o f park  location  needs o f r e c r e a t o r s  and development  the parks  about  but t h i s  existing  facilities,  is  of a different  of  people already v i s i t i n g could  facilities,  not  lead since  existing  decisions  has i n  Surveys  t o ask people questions type  of information  n a t u r e because- i t c o n c e r n s the parks.  This  the a t t i t u d e s type  of infor-  t o the p e r p e t u a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g those p o t e n t i a l  facilities  be s u r v e y e d , a n d w i l l  sidered.  facili-  t h e p r o v i n c e i n mind; however, t h e p e c u l i a r  have b e e n c o n d u c t e d w i t h i n  like  The  o f g a t h e r i n g such i n f o r m a t i o n i s t h a t  p a s t p r e c l u d e d such a p l a n n i n g approach.  mation  t o the  parks p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s .  t i e s w o u l d be p l a n n e d w i t h t h e s p e c i f i c throughout  generated  will  r e c r e a t o r s who do n o t  n o t be i n t h e p a r k s ,  n o t have t h e i r  As w e l l a s i n v e s t i g a t i n g  types o f  attitudes  the nature  will con-  of recreation  106 demand t h r o u g h o u t tigate  the p r o v i n c e , the agency might  the e f f e c t s  tunities, patterns  o f the supply  specifically  of recreational  provincial  parks,  invesoppor-  on t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n  o f nearby r e s i d e n t s . I n p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e b e n e f i t s and  costs  o f m e e t i n g t h e needs  outdoor  recreation  agency should attitudes outdoor  of provincial  o p p o r t u n i t i e s , the p r o v i n c i a l  be t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t  t h a t seems t o e x i s t  recreational  trusting  user needs. this  policy  study,  satisfy  The i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h i s  the e n t i r e  P r o v i n c i a l Parks quacies  The p o l i c y  i n the past  i n the next  appear, suggestions  be a s s e s s e d  range o f  suggests  chapter  information generation process Division will  recreation  the widest  chapter  of  regarding  one k i n d o f o u t d o o r  that i t w i l l  i s not e f f e c t i v e ;  parks  the d i v e r s i t y  i n the province  experiences.  seems t o have b e e n t o p r o v i d e facility,  residents for  o f the o f the  a n d , where  f o r improvements w i l l  that  inade-  be made.  CHAPTER  EVALUATION AND  VI  DISCUSSION  Introduction The  second chapter  of information of c r i t e r i a terms  i n decision-making  f o r the  Division  operation  has  n e e d s and  o f the  most i m p o r t a n t  i n f o r m a t i o n , and  or s h o u l d  be,  consideration  intended  is  being  to  The  r e s t s on outputs  the  Parks  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n user  the  group  contention  o f the  planning  information  decision-makers,  interested public. proposed  have that process  to which  for  the  The a p p l i c a t i o n  i n Chapter II to  degree  are,  administrative  o f the A l b e r t a P r o v i n c i a l Parks  i n d i c a t e the  carried  Criterion  goals  and  administrative envir-  particular  of p o l i t i c a l  process  is  the  role  in  that outdoor r e c r e a t i o n planners  set of c r i t e r i a  planning  The  involved i n generating  decision-makers o f the  study  the  e s t a b l i s h e d a number  o f the A l b e r t a P r o v i n c i a l  a t t i t u d e s o f one The  explored  o f government a g e n c i e s  b e e n d i s c u s s e d , and  been a s s e s s e d .  is  operation  study and  of information generation.  onment and  one  of t h i s  this  the Division function  out.  One first  criterion  concerns  w i t h i n w h i c h p r o g r a m s and "  107  the  context  p r o j e c t s are  of  agency  planned.  108 Does t h e a g e n c y g e n e r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t p r o j e c t s and p r o g r a m s i n r e l a t i o n t o a s e t o f g o a l s e s t a b l i s h e d by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the p u b l i c through a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p r o c e s s ? In on  the  o f the  information  t h a t has  P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n ' s planning  appears in  light  the  that p o l i c y  questions  have n o t  manner s u g g e s t e d a b o v e .  been  According  been  collected  function, i t approached  t o the  Alberta  P a r k s P o l i c y Statement t a b l e d i n t h e A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t u r e , the  responsibilities  the  to:  E s t a b l i s h need of p o p u l a t i o n p r e s e n t f o r park r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s .  2.  A s s e s s the r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e of l o c a t i o n s .  3.  Recommend r e s e r v a t i o n o r a c q u i s i t i o n s u i t a b l e park land.  4.  E s t a b l i s h , d e v e l o p , and manage p a r k s t o meet needs o f the p o p u l a t i o n w h i l e e n s u r i n g t h a t i m p a i r m e n t o f p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s dees n o t d e s t r o y those f e a t u r e s f o r f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s , ( P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s D i v i s i o n , I967). s t a t e m e n t was  t i m e , the absence  lation,  D i v i s i o n are  1.  This that  o f the  P r o v i n c i a l Parks Act  vided  f o r the  their  purpose. In  objectives.  establishment  the  i n 1967;  absence  The  of e x p l i c i t  goals,  previous  enabling c.  d i d not  the  s y s t e m i n A l b e r t a seems t o have d e v e l o p e d  in  incremental  way;  recreational  areas  whelmed w i t h  the  i t has  managed by  demands on  the  citizen  in  legis-  71)  pro-  specify  since  o f t e n been used t o local  to  provincial  parks an  of  operating  (R.S.A. 1964  o f parks but  future  potential  P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s D i v i s i o n was  of s p e c i f i e d  the  formulated  and  groups  1932  'rescue* over-  r e c r e a t i o n a l resource  and  109 the  expense  of maintaining  has  b e e n u s e d as a d e v i c e  o f p u b l i c revenues  i t .  I n a d d i t i o n , the system  for distributing  from r e s o u r c e  royalties  the b e n e f i t s throughout the  Province.  As a r e s u l t ,  a diverse array  areas  'fallen  the l a p ' o f the P r o v i n c i a l  have  into  o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n Parks  Division. The parks  p a t t e r n o f development o f the A l b e r t a  system  from i t s b e g i n n i n g  seems t o r e f l e c t  the type  i n 1932  t o the present  opinion, faulty  opportunism. cribed the  policy  facilities patronage  o f these  analyses.  the Parkinsonian  provided  more  tendency—it  facilities  wardens  i n the parks,  •more o f t h e s a m e ' — w i t h o u t  o f park  to the  took over  i n the parks,  more  developed i t s  staff,  and g e n e r a l l y  placed  provided  e v a l u a t i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s  programs. The  to  and  4) t h e D i v i s i o n  own m a i n t e n a n c e , c o n s t r u c t i o n , a n d p l a n n i n g year-round  includes  As p a r k  i n c r e a s e d and budgetary a p p r o p r i a t i o n s  followed  des-  which  and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t  i n c r e a s e d r e g u l a r l y (see Figure  of past  of goals  qualitative  Division  parks,  political  o f 19&?  needs, both  and r e s o u r c e s ,  on t h e b a s i s  the kind  statement  analysis of provincial  quantitative,  vaguely-expressed  i n t r e p r e t a t i o n s , and  I t does n o t r e f l e c t  i n the parks  time  o f g o a l - s e t t i n g d e s c r i b e d by  O'Riordan and r e f e r r e d t o i n C h a p t e r I I : public  provincial  case  illustrate  o f the wilderness  the absence  areas  of c l e a r l y  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i n the province.  i n A l b e r t a seems  understood  goals f o r  The g o v e r n m e n t  seems  110 to. have had a g e n e r a l p e r c e p t i o n o f the need f o r s u c h a r e a s , y e t the t h r e e f o o t h i l l s w i l d e r n e s s e s remained i n a p r o v i s i o n a l s t a t e f o r e i g h t y e a r s , during which d e c i d e d l y non-wilderness  a c t i v i t i e s occurred w i t h i n t h e i r  boundaries,  b e f o r e the government d e c i d e d t h e i r s t a t u s p e r m a n e n t l y . A c e r t a i n amount o f p o l i t i c a l expediency  seems e v i d e n t from  the f a c t t h a t t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f one i n t e r e s t group was s u f f i c i e n t t o r e s u l t - i n t h e r e s e r v a t i o n o f n e a r l y 400 square miles of r e s o u r c e - r i c h land.  Y e t t h e l o c a t i o n o f these  a r e a s i s v e r y remote and a c c e s s  i s difficult, resulting i n  the use o f t h e w i l d e r n e s s by o n l y a l i m i t e d number o f Albertans. I n c o n f r o n t i n g decision-makers  and members o f t h e  p u b l i c w i t h t h e advantages and d i s a d v a n t a g e s  of alternative  p o l i c i e s , parks p l a n n e r s i n the agency s h o u l d be a b l e t o demonstrate how w e l l t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s meet t h e agency's goals.  S i n c e t h e agency's g o a l s have been vague t h r o u g h o u t  most o f i t s '  h i s t o r y , t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f such i n f o r m a t i o n  has n o t been p o s s i b l e .  The f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e 1967 p o l i c y  s t a t e m e n t r e p r e s e n t s a t l e a s t a r e c o g n i t i o n o f some o f t h e i s s u e s i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g outdoor r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s ; however, t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e p o l i c y was  taken  s e r i o u s l y by t h e government, o r t h a t p a r k s p l a n n e r s  began  t o generate  the k i n d o f i n f o r m a t i o n e n v i s i o n e d i n t h e p o l i c y  statement.  D e c i s i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e l o c a t i o n o f new  parks o r the expansion  o f e x i s t i n g parks c o n t i n u e d t o  be based on u s e r p r e s s u r e s and the c r i t e r i o n o f e q u i t a b l e  Ill geographic The  role  system in  distribution  of parks  o f the p r o v i n c i a l  parks  of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n  the p r o v i n c e remained  Criterion  throughout system  the p r o v i n c e .  i n the  facilities  and  overall  user perceptions  undefined.  Two  The  second  P r o v i n c i a l Parks  criterion  Division's  of information r e l a t i n g  d e a l s w i t h the scope approach  t o agency  o f the  t o the g e n e r a t i o n  decisions.  Does t h e a g e n c y a p p r o a c h t h e p r o b l e m o f managing r e s o u r c e s f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i n a comprehensive f a s h i o n , t a k i n g i n t o account the e f f e c t s o f p o l i c i e s , a n d p r o g r a m s o f o t h e r a g e n c i e s and o t h e r components o f t h e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s e n v i r o n m e n t ? The  i n f o r m a t i c o n presented i n Chapter  P r o v i n c i a l Parks w i t h the  of outdoor  a supply side  steadily  indicates  been c o n c e r n e d  recreation  opportunities  budgetary  increasing  appropriations  has,  While  are being spent  to p o p u l a t i o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n s , are not  developed  or even  use  or s e r i o u s l y  orderly,  extraction,  i m p a i r the  the need  logging  effectively  recreation  Commenting  of  f o r parks, a P r o v i n c i a l Parks  lands  on  outdoor  may  and  future-oriented  of such a r e a s . future  above,  being  o f t h e s e r e s o u r c e s , s u c h as  o r m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n and destroy  however,  Provincial  not c l o s e  Alternate  The  areas, at present inaccessible  a c q u i r e d i n an  the  totally  amounts i n t h e manner o u t l i n e d  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n  manner.  that  almost  of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n .  as w e l l as a demand s i d e .  Parks D i v i s i o n  prime  has  'demand' component  provision  in  Division  IV  f o r the  potential  acquisition Division  Paper  112 notes  that  "Whereas crown l a n d s  easy to  obtain  virtual  impossibility". The  problem  opportunities suitable able  to  the  public  scarce  for  must be the  water made  members o f s o c i e t y .  of concern  of  the  P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n  local  or not  The  area which  m a g n i t u d e and  demand f o r o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n s i t e s that  are  available  conflicting  demands on  information  on  these  P l a n n i n g S t a f f and  best  to  statement  Division  vital  allocate public  o f the  problem, the  includes  nature  itself of  the  funds are  all  by  alter-  independent  funds.  While  in the  the  relevant?  the  importance  Parks consultants determining 19&7  policy  P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n recognizes  Division's  activities  have n o t  in  provin-  f o r d e v e l o p m e n t , and  s u p p l e m e n t e d by of  proper.,  finds  resources,  subjects,,provided  n e c e s s a r y , w o u l d be  The  net  t o assume t h e r e s o n s i b i l i t y  recreation  difficulty.  avail-  greatest  the  native  how  and  to  financial  if  (land  use) that  recreational  accrue  managing a  cial  t h i s today i s a  outdoor  resources  i n s u c h a way  much more t h a n w h e t h e r  relatively  ( P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s D i v i s i o n , 1972b).  of providing  i s that  p a s t were  purposes,  f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l  benefits area  for recreation  i n the  i n the  this  past  addressed i t . Present indicate The;parks  a  research  substantial i n the  shift  system are  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n anywhere i n t h e  thrusts  i n the  D i v i s i o n seem  i n parks p o l i c y being assessed  p o t e n t i a l and  province with  carrying  unusually  f o r the  to future.  i n terms o f capacity;  high  their  areas  recreation  113 potential  are being  'frozen*  alienation  o f the  recreation  capability  t o d e v e l o p an province. adoption in  the  to prevent  l a n d , and data  the Canada Land  new  Division  other  Inventory  recreational  planning orientation  o f a comprehensive  criterion  or  f o r the p r o v i n c e i s b e i n g  i n v e n t o r y o f prime  The  lease  approach,  s t a t e d above.  intends to perform  a r e enumerated i n the Parks  land  i n the  seems t o i m p l y  i t s responsibilities statement  Parks as  quoted  a somewhat more c o m p r e h e n s i v e  approach  to decisions  develop parks  than  been  throughout  Criterion  most  adopted  o f the D i v i s i o n ' s  has  they earlier, to  customary  history.  Three  The  third  of importance planning  must be  the  which i s suggested  I f the P r o v i n c i a l  Policy  used  concerns  the r e l a t i v e  a t t a c h e d t o the P r o v i n c i a l Parks  function,  allocated  criterion  as  e v i d e n c e d by  degree  Division's  the budgetary  resources  to i t .  A r e r e s o u r c e s made a v a i l a b l e and u s e d e f f e c t i v e l y to generate i n f o r m a t i o n about the c h o i c e s t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r meeting the agency's goals? The cated budget  that has  Director  approximately  consideration million,  five  been a l l o c a t e d  w h i c h c o u l d be  $3  o f the P r o v i n c i a l Parks per c e n t o f the  i n recent years to  d e s c r i b e d as of policy  Division agency's  activities  g e n e r a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the  makers.  the agency would  indi-  thus  With be  $150,000 on i t s p l a n n i n g o p e r a t i o n s .  a budget spending These  of nearly approximately  include  the  114 Canada Land I n v e n t o r y r e c r e a t i o n c a p a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s p r o g r a m , a s s e s s m e n t and reserves for  i n the  p a r k use  of the studies  are  planning  mation  other  has  and  inspection  o f the  political  although  has  not  useful  influence  programs  formulated, within  information  on  the  it  i s s e r v i n g , and  by  the  origin  would  how  to process  i t lies  unused  the  division.  this  tell  o f an to  the  f a c t o r s as  judgment.  Yet  i n survey  the  general  resource  the  are  sense  and  and  example, from a  communities  return  resources  visits  t h a t would  have n o t  be  been a l l o c a t e d ,  records.  state  particular  absolute  of information  is  amount,  reasonable;  o f knowledge a b o u t  b a s e w o u l d be  I t i s known t h a t n e a r l y  were made t o A l b e r t a ' s  this  derived  judge w h e t h e r any  generation  natural  For  agency which  a g e n c y ' s b u d g e t , o r any  the  infor-  been c o l l e c t e d o v e r  information  to  planning  made,  visitors,  many p a r k v i s i t s  is difficult  User  the  amount o f  decisions  of parks  same i n d i v i d u a l s .  province's a  agency's  in a practical  administrative  number o f y e a r s and  allocated  members  f o r long-range planning,  m o t o r v e h i c l e r e g i s t r a t i o n s , has  such  the  been u t i l i z e d  does n o t  proportion  o r by  proposed  representatives.  been a s s e m b l i n g a c o n s i d e r a b l e  It  land  division.  appears t h a t ,  information  and  of  a l s o u n d e r t a k e n i n p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s by  t h a t w o u l d be  required  of e x i s t i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l  government a g e n c i e s  through t h e i r  section It  staff  province,  by  public  inspection  five  p r o v i n c i a l parks  important million  during  the  in  the such  visits fiscal  115 year  1971-1972 ( D e p a r t m e n t o f L a n d s and F o r e s t s , 1972)  that  many o f t h e s e  It  i s anticipated that  important visitors million ness by  visitors  role  the  $39  i n 1971;  million (Kates,  province  system  tourism  i n Alberta's  spent  o f the  that  ment s h o u l d  be  diversified  the  framework o f t h e  Non-resident  i s undoubtedly  parks.  Consultants  its tourist of the  planning  policy  and  p.12).  spent  policy  ineffective  priority  on  Criterion  this  enhanced advising  in  19^7  creating a  developlarge  on  Regardless  information use  within  country". of  the  generation  of those  w h i c h have b e e n made a v a i l a b l e f o r g e n e r a t i n g t h a t the  attractive-  recreational  n a t u r a l b e a u t y o f the  amount o f money b e i n g  suggests  $60  of r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s  P e a t & M a r w i c k , 1967,  d e c i s i o n s , the  p l a y an i n c r e a s i n g l y  the  by  spectrum  province.  P e a t & W a r w i c k , 1972)  to tourists  achieved  the  and  "coordination  and  will  outside  economy.  of p r o v i n c i a l  recommended  from  i n A l b e r t a i n 1966,  t h e A l b e r t a g o v e r n m e n t on  (Kates,  were  for  resources information  P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n places phase o f  and  low  decision-making.  Four  Does t h e a g e n c y p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f o r o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s do s o t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t the f u l l range o f s o c i e t a l v a l u e s i s r e f l e c t e d i n the a r r a y o f i n f o r m a t i o n g e n e r a t e d ? The  P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n ,  Service  and  the  Alberta  are  a l l involved  opportunities  Department  o f Highways and  i n providing  to A l b e r t a n s .  the  The  Alberta  Forest  Transport  in  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l  P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n  116 has  a c l e a r mandate, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e 1967  ment,  activities,  recreational primary  while  facilities  the other  resource  With d i f f e r e n t  management  responsible  than  f o r a l l outdoor  meets t h i s  professional  the r o l e  accepted  that resource  the f u l l  cisions.  Commenting  the  question  range  on t h i s  values  cannot  i n their  f o r them.  n o t be a d e q u a t e l y  values  in their  o p i n i o n o f what  raised  others  t h e p u b l i c wants o r what  (O'Riordan,  suggest  1971,  that resource  r e p r e s e n t i n g the f u l l  decisions.  de-  t o which the p r o f e s s i o n a l resource  p.111).  managers  s e n t l y making d e c i s i o n s w i t h i n the P r o v i n c i a l Parks may  Division  management  q u e s t i o n , O ' R i o r d a n has  a n d h i s o p i n i o n o f what  S u c h comments  was  I t i s becoming a w e l l -  of societal  o f the extent  he t h i n k s i s g o o d  agency  of attitudes of  managers t h e m s e l v e s  manager i s i n f l u e n c e d by h i s own think,  i f a single  managers i n r e s o u r c e  becomes an i s s u e .  represent  opportunties  w e l l the P r o v i n c i a l Parks  decision-making thesis  agencies  r e c r e a t i o n i n the p r o v i n c e .  criterion,  resource  o b j e c t i v e s and  of recreational  w o u l d be a v a i l a b l e  I n e v a l u a t i n g how itself  are p r o v i d i n g  p e r s p e c t i v e s , the  he p r o v i d i n g a w i d e r r a n g e Albertans  two a g e n c i e s  i n a capacity peripheral to their  r.esonsibilities.  different  to  state-  t o meet t h e n e e d s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n f o r p a r k recrea^.'.  tional  may  policy  range  preDivision  of societal  The i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n  Chapter  V on t h e a t t i t u d e s o f P e a c e R i v e r r e g i o n r e s i d e n t s  appears  t o bear  out t h i s  suggestion.  117 . The  P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n  vided a standard of  the  by  The  to c e r t a i n  been a tendency i n the ad  infinitum  crease  Division  increasing their  attractiveness  i n the  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t y  population*.  facilities  has  i n an  kinds  past  has  to allow  'improved*  the  cooperation  the  o f Highways and  Department  upgrade v e h i c l e a c c e s s  to a l l p r o v i n c i a l  opportunities interested  assumes t h a t a l l p r o v i n c i a l  i n the  segment  agency p r o f e s s e s the  assumption  terms the is  Transport  parks  and  approach to p r o v i d i n g outdoor r e c r e a t i o n  same k i n d  of t h e i r  o f the  preferences The  by and  population.  the  are  total  r e s i d e n t s are  That  this  information  assumption  on  are  the  population,  similar  in  basic  is  to  fallacious  i n Chapter  V.  Peace R i v e r R e g i o n a l clearly  o f t h e i r n e e d s and  serve  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n  a t t i t u d e s presented t o the  to  Since  o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n n e e d s must be  Commission's q u e s t i o n n a i r e  recreation.  designed  needs o f the  that provincial  respondents  group i n terms  is a policy  province's  t o meet t h e  agency's approach. suggested  residents  o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a l ex-  perience , or, a l t e r n a t i v e l y , one  worked i n  make them more a v a i l a b l e t o a l l p r o v i n c i a l r e s i d e n t s . S u c h an  only  1972b).  (Provincial.Parks Division, has  thereby  continue  a n n u a l in-?,,  Parks D i v i s i o n  to  has  development t o  In a d d i t i o n , the with  their  "There  steadily  pro-  'meet n e e d s  hence  of v i s i t o r s .  e n d e a v o r t o accommodate  in visitations."  to  steadily  c a p a c i t y and  past  not  a  perceptions  Many r e s i d e n t s a p p e a r t o be  Planning  homogeneous in  outdoor  oriented to  the  118  kind  of f a c i l i t y  agency,  being  Many o f t h e  which the  with all  highest  to  are  the  visits, of  'latent  pattern  Nearly  of p a r t i c i p a t i o n  thirty  tion  resources.  rated in  'partial  priority  area. Parks to  favoured  The  preferences  serve  the  staff, There of  and  L a n d s and  particular data.  s y s t e m has  of  to t h e i r  to  the  planned  throughout  and  the  last  F o r e s t s have e v e r  recreation  Provincial attempting  twenty  designed  by  l e n g t h o f the  that decision-makers  recrea-  first  idealized  have b e e n the  developing  respondents  managers i n t h e  over  been  recreation.  'no'vehicular access'  interest  evidence  'supply*  parks  survey  parks  responses  of the  provincial  per cent  reported that they  uniform  i s no  effect  are  recreational  o f the respondents  resource  by p r o v i d i n g f a c i l i t i e s  o f the  'improvements' t o outdoor  a c c e s s ' and  public  fishing,  activities  r e s i d e n t s have been  i n terms o f a c c e s s  Division  to  provincial  r e g a r d i n g outdoor  Twenty-three  However, t h e  the  of past  r e v e a l e d i n the  the p r o v i n c i a l  man-made  cent  emergence o f t h e  A maximum o f f i f t y p e r c e n t survey  per  destination  growing i n A l b e r t a , p r o v i n c i a l and  those  picnicking,  f o r w h i c h most  parks.  i n f l u e n c e s the  attitudes  are  In a d d i t i o n ,  o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n the  However, as  new  activities  Parks  demand' i n t h e P e a c e R i v e r r e g i o n  were p r o v i n c i a l  undoubtedly  the P r o v i n c i a l  dedicated:  camping.  t o name t h e  recreational  are  activities  suitable.  request  parks  and  water-oriented  parks  most p o p u l a r  provincial  swimming, h i k i n g ,  p r o v i d e d by  i n the  been p r e s e n t e d  years  their  own  province. Department  with  the  119 idea  that  respect the  a range  to  basis  of values  e x i s t s i n the  o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n , and of  only  one  set  that  of values  province  decisions  fail  to  with made  on  reflect  this diversity. Criterion  Five  The of  fifth  criterion  has  to  do  with  communication  information. Does t h e a g e n c y a c h i e v e a w i d e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a r a n g e o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e use c f t h e w r i t t e n and s p o k e n m e d i a , p u b l i c m e e t i n g s , h e a r i n g s , or other communication devices? It  collected planning agency has  on  the  attempted  The seminating  information  o f the  d i r e c t i o n only:  to to  disseminate the  information  may  privately-owned  lead  to  to  the  land  to  l a n d which the  to,  on  the  For the  i n t e r e s t that  to c u r t a i l  site  of,  the  agency  relating  to  dis-  that  such  i f i t involves considering  T h u s , i t i s deemed  speculation  those  (of  developmental plans should i n land  be  for  kept adjacent  parks.  broad p o l i c y questions  P r o v i n c i a l Parks  The  seems t o be  or p o t e n t i a l p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s  i n order  been  in  practice  Division is  public  or  this  speculation  t o be  secret  flow  upward.  public)  f o r park development.  existing  does  information  for purchase i n the  has  public.  p r i n c i p a l objection information  that  P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n '  that, what i n f o r m a t i o n  i n one  decisions  from the  operation  process  flows  not  policy  i s evident  D i v i s i o n or  s u c h as  the  the  policies  role i t  of  should  120 follow, time.  public  discussion  The D i r e c t o r  discussion w i l l public, able it  and t h a t  very  little  t o the present  o f the D i v i s i o n a n t i c i p a t e s that  such  be demanded by a n i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t e r e s t e d information  by t h e a g e n c y  seems f a i r  has n o t o c c u r r e d  will  have t o be made  on s u c h q u e s t i o n s . .  t o say that  the p u b l i c  to information  avail-  At present,  has b e e n  however,  exposed  g e n e r a t e d by t h e P r o v i n c i a l  Parks Division,about.agency  programs and p o l i c y .  Discussion The of t h i s  criteria  w h i c h were p r o p o s e d  study and a p p l i e d  t o the operation  P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s D i v i s i o n were b a s e d idealistic process.  of a p o l i t i c a l  has  n o t met t h e c r i t e r i a  not  i n a static  decision-making  party  been d e s c r i b e d well.  information government  as  p o s i t i o n a t the present  generation  i n Alberta  of the p r o v i n c i a l parks i n providing  whose  approach  'managerial',  The a g e n c y i s , however,  t o be m o v i n g i n d i r e c t i o n s s u g g e s t e d  Division  admittedly  N o t s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h e a g e n c y , w h i c h has d e v e l o p e d  t o g o v e r n m e n t has o f t e n  in  o f the A l b e r t a  on a n  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the public  under t h e i n f l u e n c e  the  i n Chapter I I  criteria.  has p r o m p t e d  t i m e , and appears  t o be d e s i r a b l e by The r e c e n t a  change  re-evaluation  system, and o f t h e r o l e o f t h e  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l  for  Albertans.  I t i s an a p p r o p r i a t e  for  changes  has  been e x a m i n e d i n t h i s  i n the information  time  generation  study.  opportunities t o make  suggestions  process  that  . •  121 The in  A l b e r t a P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n  resource  management, w h i c h has been a p t l y d e s c r i b e d as  a decision-making the  process  where o p t i m a l  manner, t i m i n g , and a l l o c a t i o n  given the  time.  (O'Riordan, 1971,  p.109).  second p a r t which w i l l , optimal  will  and i n s t i -  Arising  from  part  be made  of this i n the  i n t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e w r i t e r , make  s o l u t i o n s i n outdoor r e c r e a t i o n resources  ment more l i k e l y Division.  of attainment  The s u g g e s t i o n s  the g e n e r a t i o n  i n the P r o v i n c i a l  disadvantages  manageParks  are concerned p r i m a r i l y with  o f i n f o r m a t i o n which w i l l  makers a n d members  o f the p u b l i c with and advantages,  confront decision-  the c o s t s and b e n e f i t s ,  of a l t e r n a t i v e resource  management s t r a t e g i e s . 1.  Goals  Formulation  The setting in  relation  of goal-  o f a g e n c y p r o g r a m s and p r o j e c t s  goals.  p r o v i n c i a l .residents with  agencies  in  t o these  concerns the matter  The P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s  has a mandate t o d e t e r m i n e , a n d s e r v e ,  facilities.  The  suggestion  and the p l a n n i n g  presently of  first  -  c u l t u r e a t any  e v a l u a t i o n which c o n s t i t u t e s the f i r s t of suggestions  regarding  uses a r e  social,  framework a f f o r d e d by any g i v e n  C h a p t e r , a number  the  solutions  of resource  sought w i t h i n the economic, p o l i t i c a l , tutional  i s involved  respect  A t t h e same t i m e ,  P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n  the needs  t o park r e c r e a t i o n  certain  a r e engaged i n s u p p l y i n g  Division  other  recreation  provincial facilities.  i s a l s o becoming  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f non-park r e c r e a t i o n a l  involved facilities,  122  namely, w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s , e s t a b l i s h e d under s e p a r a t e legislation. On the b a s i s o f the p r o f i l e o f p e r c e p t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s towards outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a r t i c u l a t e d by r e spondents t o t h e Peace R i v e r R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission's s u r v e y , t h e r e appears t o be a demand f o r a d i v e r s e a r r a y o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n areas and f a c i l i t i e s  i n the p r o v i n c e ,  r a n g i n g from remote w i l d e r n e s s areas t o i n t e n s i v e l y - u s e d parks c l o s e t o l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n s .  The  p r e s e n t p o l i c i e s o f the P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s D i v i s i o n do n o t meet t h i s range o f demands 5 the agency i s p r o v i d i n g one type o f f a c i l i t y , whose c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e o b v i o u s l y p o p u l a r w i t h p r o v i n c i a l r e s i d e n t s y e t do n o t a p p e a l t o a l l residents.  The D i v i s i o n ' s p r a c t i c e o f c a r r y i n g out u s e r  s u r v e y s i n p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s can o n l y p e r p e t u a t e  the k i n d  o f f a c i l i t i e s t h a t a l r e a d y e x i s t , i n c o n t r a s t t o householdtype s u r v e y s w h i c h would g a t h e r the views o f a l l r e s i d e n t s , i n c l u d i n g those whose needs i n outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a r e n o t c u r r e n t l y b e i n g met. There a r e a number o f methods t h a t c o u l d be used by t h e agency t o d e v e l o p g o a l s which would more e x p l i c i t l y r e f l e c t a v/ider range o f u s e r p r e f e r e n c e s .  A 'white paper'  on outdoor r e c r e a t i o n and t h e r o l e o f the P r o v i n c i a l  Parks  D i v i s i o n c o u l d be p r e p a r e d and c i r c u l a t e d throughout the p r o v i n c e , p r e p a r a t o r y t o a l e g i s l a t i v e debate and d i r e c t i o n o f agency p o l i c y .  Alternatively  t  political  the D i v i s i o n  c o u l d use i t s e x i s t i n g p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t , which i s s u f f i c i e n  123 broad  to  encompass  the  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n hold  public  opinions  on  Alberta  restrict  discover  the  the  role  how  of  p r o v i n c e , and amount o f  order  should  to  the  while  the  three  advisory public  the  parks  advisory the  the  to  to  perceive  to  the  environment.  Department  has  participation  o f Lands of a  Minister  matters p e r t a i n i n g  and  public  o f Lands  a number o f  of such committees  Wilderness Areas Act  to  and forepro-  from time  o f L a n d s and  provisional wilderness committee  provided  on  Minister of  the  Forests  on  areas.  A  should  have t h e  policy  issues,  for  i s desirous public,  and  policy  the  on  of  large  of a d d i t i o n a l reporting  to  regarding  p r o v i n c i a l parks  function or  to  conservation  o f a W i l d e r n e s s A r e a s A d v i s o r y Committee  Minister  views  national  should attempt  ongoing p u b l i c  committee  outdoor  recreational  province  the  of  Environment Conservation Act  appointment  hearings  where the on  on  the  p a r k s and  for  in this  and  gather  which tend  establishment  investigate  establishment advise  facilitate  in Alberta;  issues,  the  to  area  factors  available  of  of  fulfilling.  large  consider  S u c h an  time, to  land  be  the  Forests.:  f o r the  province  the  range  a starting point,  formulation,  committee  runners  entire  i n s o f a r as  other  residents  advisory  vides  the  to  p r o v i n c i a l parks  agency g p a l  Forests  as  p r o v i n c i a l parks agency  the  their  the  agency should  i s c o n c e r n e d , due  The  In in  throughout  the  purposes.  role  hearings  i n the  of  opportunities,  i s i n a unique p o s i t i o n  recreation parks  provision  its  holding projects information findings  124 t o the M i n i s t e r .  Such a committee s h o u l d  be viewed  not  as a r e p l a c e m e n t f o r m i n i s t e r i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the operation  of h i s department, but r a t h e r as a means o f  strengthening  the  'bridge'  ( H o d g e t t s , i960, p.442) between  the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e agency w h i c h c a r r i e s out government p o l i c y , and  the e l e c t o r a t e who  government s e r v i c e s . unable t o p r o v i d e  are the consumers o f  C a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s have o f t e n been  t h i s bridge  e f f e c t i v e l y , due  t o competing  demands on t h e i r time 5 a p u b l i c a d v i s o r y committee would h e l p t o b r i n g the g o a l s  o f c i t i z e n s and  of the  adminis-  t r a t i v e agency i n t o c l o s e r harmony. 2.  The  Scope o f  Planning  A second s u g g e s t i o n  concerns the scope o f  the  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s as i t i s p r e s e n t l y c o n s t i t u t e d i n the P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s D i v i s i o n .  By  con-  c e n t r a t i n g on the e x p a n s i o n o f e x i s t i n g p a r k s t o meet g r o w i n g a n n u a l patronage i n p a s t y e a r s , the P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s D i v i s i o n has  l o s t , by d e f a u l t , many o p t i o n s  of future a c q u i s i t i o n o f - r e c r e a t i o n a l land. o f the D i v i s i o n remarked i n a p e r s o n a l  The  interview  i n terms Director that  o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a c q u i r i n g a d d i t i o n a l park l a n d i n the province  are now  s u r f a c e and  s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d , because o f  subsurface leases for mineral  extensive  exploration  and e x t r a c t i o n , f o r e s t management agreements, the  large  a r e a o f N a t i o n a l P a r k s i n the p r o v i n c e , a b o r i g i n a l c l a i m s t o the l a n d , and  the o v e r a l l l a c k of s u i t a b l e s i t e s i n  the b o r e a l f o r e s t and p r a i r i e zones o f the p r o v i n c e .  Hence,  125 any  large  will  parks  t o be e s t a b l i s h e d  be i n t e g r a t e d  door r e c r e a t i o n uses  resource  will  process  ment o f r e s o u r c e s more o p t i o n s available  the problem  as a p r o b l e m  f o r developing  a t the present  The  out-  use c o - o r d i n a t e d w i t h  I f the A l b e r t a  had approached  i n the future  management a r e a s , where  be a l a n d  o f the landscape.  i n Alberta  parks  planning  of recreational  o f s u p p l y as w e l l  recreational  other  develop-  a s demand,  a r e a s m i g h t be  time.  Canada Land I n v e n t o r y r e c r e a t i o n  capability  s u r v e y , i n w h i c h members o f t h e D i v i s i o n ' s  planning  have p a r t i c i p a t e d  p r o v i d e s an  excellent  throughout  s t a r t i n g point  i t s duration,  f o r a comprehensive  managing o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n  resources  Similarly,  the r e a p p r a i s a l  provincial  parks system w i t h a view  logical a  carrying  definite reorientation,  aspects  o f outdoor Assuming  range  has  been s u g g e s t e d  that  required parks  t o s u p p l y as w e l l  earlier  of  parks.  section,  o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l  have b e e n p r o v i d e d  areas w i l l  other recreators  as demand  also  who  to assess  needs i n the p r o v i n c e , as  i n this  demand, i t m i g h t be d i s c o v e r e d accessible  eco-  represents  t h e D i v i s i o n does a t t e m p t  t o meet t h e s e n e e d s .  that  to establishing  f o r each park u n i t  o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n  a variety  o f the  recreation.  that  the  approach to  i n the province.  o f t h e components  capacities  staff  While  i t i s likely  resources w i l l  the i n t e n s i v e  i n the past w i l l that  be r e q u i r e d  day-use  still  more r e m o t e ,  be  be i n  less  t o meet t h e n e e d s  have n o t b e e n u s i n g  the p r o v i n c i a l  126 Once s u c h parks  planners'  resources with generate  i n f o r m a t i o n has been a s s e m b l e d , t h e  task w i l l  be t o compare  the estimated  i n f o r m a t i o n about  of u s i n g the resources  range  the a v a i l a b l e  o f user  demands a n d  the advantages and  for recreation.  disadvantages  In l i g h t  o f the  intensity  o f m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n i n some r e g i o n s  o f the  province,  f o r e x a m p l e , i t may be e x p e n s i v e  potentially  m i n e r a l - r i c h land t o outdoor  information  should  consideration and  be p r e p a r e d  forest  f o r the  i n the Department  o f the p u b l i c .  Such  o f Lands  Similarly,  when  management a g r e e m e n t s a n d o t h e r d i s p o s i t i o n s o f  crown l a n d a r e p r o p o s e d P r o v i n c i a l Parks with  recreation.  a n d made a v a i l a b l e  o f decision-makers  F o r e s t s a n d members  to allocate  by g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s , t h e  Division's  planners  the resources necessary  recreation  sites  i n such  arrangements b e f o r e It  such  i s suggested  s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d  to evaluate p o t e n t i a l  areas  and propose  alienations  outdoor  multiple-use  occur.  t h a t no s u b s t a n t i a l  changes a r e  required  i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p  o f the P r o v i n c i a l  Division  t o t h e A l b e r t a F o r e s t S e r v i c e and t h e Department  o f Highways and T r a n s p o r t , which p r o v i d e and  campsites  sibilities. can  respectively  The e f f i c i e n c y w i t h w h i c h  be m a i n t a i n e d  probably  by t h e p e r s o n n e l  recreation  their these  o f these  major  outdoor  Division.  areas  respon-  facilities two  agencies  e x c e e d s a n y b e n e f i t s t h a t c o u l d be d e r i v e d  centralizing Parks  along with  Parks  from  r e c r e a i o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n the P r o v i n c i a l  C o - o r d i n a t i o n among t h e a g e n c i e s  with  respect  12? to the l o c a t i o n o f the f a c i l i t i e s 3.  The R e f l e c t i o n o f S o c i e t a l V a l u e s An  criterion concerns the on  important discussed  suggestion,  information  held  o f a range  consultations  with  agency g o a l s  t o meet p r o v i n c i a l n e e d s .  in  of societal  and p o l i c i e s  the p u b l i c  i s neatly  for Ontario's  values i n  should  summarized  Committee  should with  been be  respect  and f a c i l i t i e s  required  I n a d d i t i o n , however, i t i s s u g become more d i r e c t l y  the parks planning- p r o c e s s .  gestion  chapter,  I t has a l r e a d y  the p u b l i c  the outdoor r e c r e a t i o n resources  that  to the f i f t h  g e n e r a t e d by t h e P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s D i v i s i o n  t o formulate  gested  i n Decisions  section of this  p o l i c y and program a l t e r n a t i v e s . that  continue.  pertaining  i n the f i r s t  the r e f l e c t i o n  suggested  to  should  The r e a s o n  forthis  i n a working paper  involved sug-  prepared  on G o v e r n m e n t P r o d u c t i v i t y :  People are r e j e c t i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l respect of expertise or p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m . Some argue t h a t t h e p e o p l e a f f e c t e d by a problem are the r e a l experts. Others q u e s t i o n the n o t i o n t h a t e x p e r t i s e i s somehow n e u t r a l , objective, or value-free. The p o i n t made h e r e i s t h a t u n d e r l y i n g a n y s e t o f recommend a t i o n s a d v a n c e d by an e x p e r t a r e a s e t o f v a l u e j u d g e m e n t s , a n d t h a t s u c h judgements a r e no b e t t e r o r w o r s e t h a n t h o s e o f n o n experts. (Committee on Government  Productivity,  1972).  P e o p l e a r e n o t as c o n f i d e n t the  democratic  of t h e i r  views  process w i l l  as t h e y  level  through the seemingly  i n Canada.  that  r e s u l t i n the representation tangled  b u r e a u c r a c y w h i c h has grown i n t h e p r o v i n c e s federal  once were  web o f and a t the  They a r e a l s o m i s t r u s t f u l o f the  128 professionals with are  who  give advice  the w e l l - f o u n d e d inevitably  their  participation process  The  design  their  inputs  variable  decision-making  Foundation's  be  r e p o r t on t h e  a study  stage  made.  The  unit  1972,  i n Canada, such and  the  Third  and  t o a d o p t i o n , and  s h o u l d be  appointed  completed  p.12).  as  develops  results  i n no  i s presented  and  generated  the p u b l i c  will  because c i t i z e n s  of p u b l i c  not  hearings  Lake  Louise  demonstrate  a fait  accompli,  of c i t i z e n  or p o l i c i e s .  It is  that,  a  t o meet s u c h agree  do  Unless  not  with agree  citizen  resistance,  the  from partially  the p l a n i t s e l f with  energy  suggested  by p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n i s o l a t i o n  because they  formulated.  major  commments, a c o n f r o n t a t i o n s i t -  plans  continue do  with  for  Conservation  to V i l l a g e  a large expenditure  positive  that plans  was  pertaining  plan, for their  uation  partially  (The  be  citizens  f o r each  Recent examples  those  should  available  that a  Crossing of Burrard Inlet,  when t h e p u b l i c  it  participation  o f the N a t i o n a l Park System.  Foundation,  public  f u t u r e o f the American N a t i o n a l  be  a d v i s o r y committee  itself;  Conservation  prepared  comment p r i o r  in  a t which  plans  public  public  decision-making  P a r k S y s t e m recommends t h a t m a j o r p a r k with public  with  provided.  i s the are  along  for including  i n the  r e c r e a t i o n w o u l d be  crucial  into  values  o f a mechanism  however, some g u i d e l i n e s c a n One  own  a t a number o f l e v e l s  i n outdoor  decision-makers,  argument t h a t t h e s e p r o f e s s i o n a l s  articulating  advice.  to p o l i t i c a l  and  method by  participation  which  i s included  129 in  parks  will  planning  he  the  the  problem  Director  reason that planning  of land  speculation,  o f P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s as  citizens  decisions,  matters.  had  not  the  obviously  I t i s suggested  specific  substance  do  involve  as  'freezes'  private  parcels  that  resistance  o f crown l a n d could  be  w h i c h was  the  most  cause  only  could  and  of  f o r land not  important  some  speculation,  be  related  such l e g a l  'options the  to  planning  general  S e c o n d l y , where  of land,  u s e d by  to  mentioned  i n parks  discussions  land  to  discussions devices  purchase'  agency to prevent  r e c r e a t i o n a l land  for speculative  by  the  private i n -  gains.  Communication The  Director  o f the  nizes  that Albertans  in  planning  the  eventually, the by  of  parcels  of desirable  dividuals  applies  of p o l i c y i s s u e s .  specific  land  purchase  4.  such  been i n c l u d e d  p a r k s p o l i c y w o u l d s e l d o m be since  process,  met. The  by  throughout  public the  information on  p r o d u c e and  bution will  planning  s o o n be  will  have t o be  issues.  or  must be  of this  kind  borne  This  groups  expects  will  be  effort  on  done  an  to  either  form engaged  for public  i n mind t h a t  that,  communicated  through a p r i v a t e  of information  a conscious  demanding t o p a r t i c i p a t e  p a r k s y s t e m , and  distribute information  require  Certain  of t h e i r  agency i t s e l f  It  will  P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n recog-  consumption. .  equitable  distri-  throughout A l b e r t a the  part  o f s o c i e t y have more a c c e s s  o f the to  to  such  society  agency. information,  130 and  a g r e a t e r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the value  than  others.  only c e r t a i n  Depending  on how i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d ,  g r o u p s may be a b l e  t o take  Those which a r e a l r e a d y a t t u n e d and  An a g e n c y s e e k i n g  articulating  their  values  a number o f d e g r e e s t h a t a l l segments this  groups  of sophistication.  o f the p u b l i c must  actively  In order  t o ensure  o f A l b e r t a s o c i e t y may be i n c l u d e d  process,  resources  m i g h t be p r o v i d e d  o f people  t o enable  them t o h i r e  suggest  c h a n g e s , a n d make comments.  their  to certain own e x p e r t s ,  the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f proposals,  Implementation To  o p e r a t i o n a l i z e the suggestions  s e c t i o n w o u l d be a r e l a t i v e l y  easy  matter  made i n t h i s f o r an agency  s m a l l a n d a s young a s t h e A l b e r t a P r o v i n c i a l  Division, policy  particularly  a t the present  r e - e v a l u a t i o n s a r e underway.  important  suggestion  establishment making. and  infor-  by p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n  them u n d e r s t a n d  as  process  t o new  and p r e f e r e n c e s  to help  5.  of i t .  to the p o l i t i c a l  the p a r t i c i p a t i o n  seek a l l c l a s s e s o f p e o p l e ,  in  advantage  i t s o p e r a t i o n may have g r e a t e s t a c c e s s  mation. in  of. i n f o r m a t i o n ,  t o base  of a policy  Assessments  policies  that this  study  time  when m a j o r  Perhaps  t h e most  can j u s t i f y  e v a l u a t i o n phase  Parks  i s the  of decision-  o f the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f past d e c i s i o n s  are invaluable bits  o f i n f o r m a t i o n on w h i c h  f u t u r e d e c i s i o n s , y e t t h e a g e n c y does n o t p r e s e n t l y  have s u c h  a f e e d b a c k mechanism o p e r a t i n g i n i t s p l a n n i n g  process.  Specifically,  e v a l u a t i o n o f any p o l i c i e s  designed  131 . to  include c i t i z e n  by  t h e a g e n c y w o u l d be  and  p a r t i c i p a t i o n w h i c h m i g h t be  adopted  valuable i n determining  the  c o s t s such  a policy  has  had,  and  sirable  directions  f o r changes i n the  may  the b e n e f i t s  suggest  de-  policies.  0  The in  this  only disadvantage  s e c t i o n are  likely  which the  will  seem more i n e f f e c t i v e  because  o f the n e c e s s i t y o f c a r e f u l inputs into  the  Against  the  lation,  however, must be  creased support result As  from  l o n g as  citizens  cations  of those  may  be  process possible  felt  citizen  accept  by  inclusion  process. policy  formu-  citizens  and  the the i n -  which are  participation  likely  they w i l l  accept  d e c i s i o n s , even though t h e i r the p o l i c y  Concensus i s p o s s i b l e  of decision-making, r e s p e c t to the  embodies  the own  e v e n t h o u g h i t may o f the  reached impli-  objectives  i n the  with respect to  results  to  i n the d e c i s i o n s .  t h a t d e c i s i o n s have b e e n  process,  consistent with  with  e v a l u a t i o n and  inefficient  planning  to a c t ,  measured the b e n e f i t s o f  potency  meaningful  a legitimate  decisions.  slower  f o r government p o l i c i e s  through  not  and  decision-making  costs of seemingly  increased p o l i t i c a l  made  t o have i s t h a t t h e p a r k s  process  of c i t i z e n  suggestions  not  the be  process.  REFERENCES  Alberta.  D e p a r t m e n t o f L a n d s a n d F o r e s t s , 1952 t o 1972. A n n u a l R e p o r t . Edmontons The Queen's P r i n t e r .  Alberta.  D e p a r t m e n t o f L a n d s a n d F o r e s t s , 1971. Foothills R e s o u r c e A l l o c a t i o n S t u d y . Edmontons Department o f Lands and F o r e s t s .  Alberta.  Department o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , Statistics. Edmontons Department Affairs.  Alberta.  Human R e s o u r c e s D e v e l o p m e n t A u t h o r i t y , 1969. The B - 1 5 P l a n s An O u t l i n e f o r R u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t i n A l b e r t a ' s Census D i v i s i o n 1 5 . Edmontons Human Resources Development A u t h o r i t y .  Alberta.  L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y , 1970. Revised Statutes of A l b e r t a . C h a p t e r 125 The E n v i r o n m e n t C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t . C h a p t e r 276 The P l a n n i n g A c t . C h a p t e r 288 The P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s A c t . C h a p t e r 297 The P u b l i c L a n d s A c t . • C h a p t e r 392 The W i l l m o r e W i l d e r n e s s P a r k A c t .  Alberta.  L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y , 1971. Statutes Alberta. C h a p t e r 114 The W i l d e r n e s s A r e a s A c t .  Alberta.  N o r t h e r n A l b e r t a D e v e l o p m e n t C o u n c i l , 1965. The Changing Frontier,(Addresses a t the Changing F r o n t i e r C o n f e r e n c e , Peace R i v e r , A l b e r t a ) . Edmontons N o r t h e r n A l b e r t a Development C o u n c i l .  Alberta.  N o r t h e r n A l b e r t a D e v e l o p m e n t C o u n c i l , 1968. Report on t h e L a n d , I n d u s t r i e s , a n d R e l a t e d F a c t o r s i n the Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t , A l b e r t a . Edmontons N o r t h e r n A l b e r t a Development C o u n c i l .  Alberta.  P r o v i n e i a l F a r k s D i v i s i o n , 1967. "Parks P o l i c y " . Edmontons Department o f Lands and F o r e s t s .  Alberta.  P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s D i v i s i o n , 1971. "Classification of A l b e r t a Farks". Edmontons Department o f Lands and F o r e s t s .  132  1972. Population of Municipal  of  133 Alberta.  P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s D i v i s i o n , 1972a. " A l b e r t a ' s P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s " . Edmonton: Queen's P r i n t e r .  Alberta.  P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s D i v i s i o n , 1972b. " H i s t o r y of P a r k Development i n A l b e r t a " . Edmonton: Department o f Lands and F o r e s t s .  Alberta.  Task F o r c e on U r b a n i z a t i o n and the F u t u r e , 1971. The Role of R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g . Edmonton: Task F o r c e on U r b a n i z a t i o n and the F u t u r e .  Alberta.  T r e a s u r y Department, 1958 t o 1972. Accounts of the P r o v i n c e o f A l b e r t a . The-Queen's P r i n t e r .  Public Edmonton:  B r a z e r , Harvey E., 1970. "Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n as a P u b l i c Good and Some Problems o f Financing ,' . Elements • o f Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n P l a n n i n g . E d i t e d by B.L. D r i v e r . Ann A r b o r : The U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n . 1  :  B r o o k s , L l o y d , 1961. "The F o r c e s S h a p i n g Demand f o r R e c r e a t i o n Space i n Canada". Resources f o r Tomorrow C o n f e r e n c e Background P a p e r s . Volume I I . Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r . Buchanan, J.M. , 1968.' The Demand and S u p p l y o f P u b l i c Goods. C h i c a g o : Rand M c N a l l y and Company. B u r t o n , Thomas L., ed., 1970. R e c r e a t i o n R e s e a r c h and P l a n n i n g . London: George A l l e n and Unwin L i m i t e d . B u r t o n , Thomas L., 1972. N a t u r a l Resource P o l i c y i n Canada. T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t L i m i t e d . C a l d w e l l , L y n t o n K., 1970. " A u t h o r i t y and R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r E n v i r o n m e n t a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n " . A n n a l s o f the A m e r i c a n Academy o f P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l S c i e n c e . Volume 389. C a n a d i a n C o u n c i l of Resource M i n i s t e r s , I 9 6 8 . The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n i n Canada. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r . C h r i s t y , F r a n c i s T., 1970. "Elements of Mass Demand f o r Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n R e s o u r c e s " . Elements o f Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n P l a n n i n g . E d i t e d by B.L. D r i v e r . Ann A r b o r : The u n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n . C l a w s o n , M a r i o n and K n e t s c h , Jack L., 1966. o f Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n . B a l t i m o r e : Hopkins P r e s s .  Economics Johns  134 Dawson, C.A. and M u r c h i e , R.W., 1934. The S e t t l e m e n t o f the Peace R i v e r C o u n t r y . Volume 6 o f C a n a d i a n F r o n t i e r s of Settlement. E d i t e d by W.A. M a c k i n t o s h and W.L.G. J o e r g . Toronto: M a c m i l l a n Company o f Canada L i m i t e d . Doern, G. Bruce and A u c o i n , P e t e r , 1971. The S t r u c t u r e s o f P o l i c y - M a k i n g i n Canada. Toronto: Macmillan Company o f Canada L i m i t e d . Downs, A., 1959t An Economic Theory o f Democracy. York: Harper and Row I n c o r p o r a t e d .  New  D r i n k w a t e r , T.A., D i r e c t o r o f P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s , A l b e r t a Department o f Lands and F o r e s t s . F e b r u a r y 23, 1973. P e r s o n a l I n t e r v i e w . . D r i v e r , B.L., 1970. "Some Thoughts on P l a n n i n g , The P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s and R e l a t e d D e c i s i o n P r o c e s s e s " . Elements o f Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n F l a n n i n g . E d i t e d by B.L. D r i v e r . Ann A r b o r : The U n i v e r s i t y o f Michigan. D r i v e r , B.L. and T o c h e r , S. R o s s , 1970. "Towards a Behavioral Interpretation of Recreational Engagements, w i t h I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r P l a n n i n g " . Elements o f Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n P l a n n i n g . E d i t e d by B.L. D r i v e r . Ann A r b o r : The U n i v e r s i t y o f Michigan. D r o r , Y., 1964. " M u d d l i n g T h r o u g h — ' S c i e n c e ' o r I n e r t i a ? " P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Review. Volume XXIV. D r o r , Y., 1968. P u b l i c P o l i c y m a k i n g Reexamined. F r a n c i s c o : C h a n d l e r P u b l i s h i n g Company.  San  H a e f e l e , Edwin T., 1971. "A U t i l i t y Theory o f Repres e n t a t i v e Government." American Economic Review. Volume L X I Number 3. H a r d i n , G a r r e t t , 1968. Volume 162.  "Tragedy o f t h e Commons."  Science.  H a r v i e , C.H., P a r k s P l a n n i n g S u p e r v i s o r , A l b e r t a Department o f Lands and F o r e s t s . F e b r u a r y 23, 1973. Personal Interview. H a r v i e , C.H., P a r k s P l a n n i n g S u p e r v i s o r , A l b e r t a Department o f Lands and F o r e s t s . A p r i l 11, 1973' P e r s o n a l communication.  135 H o d g e t t s , J . E . , I960. "The C i v i l S e r v i c e and P o l i c y F o r m a t i o n . " Canadian P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n : A Book o f R e a d i n g s . E d i t e d by J.E. Hodgetts and D.C. C o r b e t t . T o r o n t o : M a c m i l l a n Company o f Canada. K a t e s , P e a t , Marwick and Company, 1967. Survey and A n a l y s i s o f Non-Resident T r a v e l . Edmonton: Department o f I n d u s t r y and Development, P r o v i n c e o f A l b e r t a . K a t e s , P e a t , Marwick and Company, 1970. T o u r i s m and R e c r e a t i o n i n O n t a r i o : Concepts o f a Systems Model Framework. T o r o n t o : Committee on t h e Tourism and Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n P l a n S t u d y , P r o v i n c e of O n t a r i o . K a t e s , P e a t , Marwick and Company, 1972. S u r v e y and A n a l y s i s o f R e s i d e n t and Non-Resident T r a v e l . Edmonton: Department o f I n d u s t r y and Commerce, F r o v i n c e o f Alberta. Kernaghan, W.D.K. and W i l l m s , A.M., 1968. P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n Canada: S e l e c t e d R e a d i n g s . T o r o n t o : Methuen Publications. Kernaghan, W.D.K., 1969. B u r e a u c r a c y i n Canadian Government. T o r o n t o : Methuen P u b l i c a t i o n s . K n e t s c h , J a c k L., 1967. "A D e s i g n f o r A s s e s s i n g Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n Demand i n Canada." Ottawa: National and H i s t o r i c P a r k s B r a n c h , Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n Development. L i n d b l o m , C.E., 1959. "The S c i e n c e o f M u d d l i n g Through." P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Review. Volume X I X . L i n d b l o m , C.E. and B r a y b r o o k e , D., 1963. A S t r a t e g y o f D e c i s i o n . New York: The F r e e P r e s s o f G l e n c o e . MacDonald, D.G., 1970. "Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n on G a l i a n o Island: F a c t o r s Which I n f l u e n c e P a r t i c i p a t i o n . " U n p u b l i s h e d M.Sc. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. MacGregor, James G., 1972. Hurtig Publishers.  A History of Alberta.  Edmonton:  Munn, W.D., P a r k s Geographer, A l b e r t a Department o f Lands and F o r e s t s , F e b r u a r y 23, 1973. P e r s o n a l I n t e r v i e w . O l s o n , Mancur J r . , 1965. The L o g i c o f C o l l e c t i v e A c t i o n . Cambridge, M a s s a c h u s e t t s : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s .  136  Ontario.  Committee on Government P r o d u c t i v i t y , 1972. C i t i z e n I n v o l v e m e n t . T o r o n t o : Queen's P r i n t e r .  O'Riordan, T., 1971. P e r s p e c t i v e s London: P i o n L i m i t e d .  on Resource Management.  Ostrom, V. and Ostrom, E. , 1971. '-'Public C h o i c e : A Different Approach t o the Study o f P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . " P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Review. Volume X X X I , Number 2. Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n Resources Review Commission, 1962. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n : Factors a f f e c t i n g Demand Among American A d u l t s . Study R e p o r t 20. W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.: Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n Resources Review Commission. Owens, G.P., 1965. " F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g Demand f o r Outdoor Recreation." U n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y . P e a c e - A t h a b a s c a D e l t a P r o j e c t Group, 1972. The PeaceA t h a b a s c a D e l t a : A C a n a d i a n R e s o u r c e . Summary R e p o r t . Edmonton: P e a c e - A t h a b a s c a D e l t a P r o j e c t . Peace R i v e r R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission, 1971. C e n t r a l P l a c e s i n t h e Peace R i v e r R e g i o n o f A l b e r t a . Grande Prairie: Peace R i v e r R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission. Peace R i v e r R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission, 1972a. P e o p l e : o f 'the Peace: T h e i r G o a l s and' Ob j e c t i v e s . Grande P r a i r i e : Peace R i v e r R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission. Peace R i v e r R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission, 1972b. Data from Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n S u r v e y .  Unpublished  Peace R i v e r R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission, 1973• An Economic Base S t u d y o f t h e Peace R i v e r R e g i o n o f A l b e r t a . Grande P r a i r i e : Peace R i v e r R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission. Pressman, J e f f r e y L., 1970. " D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g and P u b l i c Policy: The P e r i l s and P o s s i b i l i t i e s o f F r a g m e n t a t i o n , " Elements o f Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n P l a n n i n g . Edited by B.L. D r i v e r . .Ann A r b o r : The U n i v e r s i t y o f Michigan. R o b i n s o n , I r a M. 1970. "The Peace R i v e r R e g i o n . " R e g i o n a l ' and Resource P l a n n i n g i n Canada. E d i t e d by R.R. K r u e g e r , P.O. S a r g e n t , A. de V o s , N. P e a r s o n . T o r o n t o : H o l t , R i n e h a r t , and W i n s t o n o f Canada Limited. f  13? Ross,  C h a r l e s R., 1970. " P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n and D e c i s i o n Making." Urban P l a n n i n g i n T r a n s i t i o n . Edited by E r n e s t E r b e r . New Y o r k : Grossman P u b l i s h e r s .  S c h o e f f l e r , S., 1955• Massachusetts:  The F a i l u r e o f E c o n o m i c s . Cambridge, Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press.  S e w e l l , W.R. D e r r i c k , 1971. " E n v i r o n m e n t a l P e r c e p t i o n s and A t t i t u d e s o f E n g i n e e r s and P u b l i c H e a l t h O f f i c i a l s . " E n v i r o n m e n t and B e h a v i o r . Volume I I I . S h a r k a n s k y , I . , 1972. Public Administration: M a k i n g i n Government A g e n c i e s . Second Chicago: Markham P u b l i s h i n g Company. S i m o n , H e r b e r t A., New Y o r k :  PolicyEdition.  1957. M o d e l s o f Man. Second E d i t i o n . J o h n W i l e y and Sons I n c o r p o r a t e d .  S i m o n , H e r b e r t A., 1965. Administrative Behavior. Second Edition. New Y o r k : The F r e e P r e s s o f G l e n c o e . S t a r r s , C a t h e r i n e and S t e w a r t , G a i l , 1972. "Gone T o d a y and H e r e Tomorrow: Issues Surrounding the Future of C i t i z e n Involvement." Toronto: Queen's P r i n t e r . Thayer, The  F r e d e r i c k C., 1972. " P a r t i c i p a t i o n and L i b e r a l D e m o c r a t i c Government." Toronto: Queen's P r i n t e r .  C o n s e r v a t i o n F o u n d a t i o n , 1972. Future. W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.i Foundation.  N a t i o n a l Parks f o r the The C o n s e r v a t i o n  T h o r s e l l , J.W., 1971. "Wilderness Recreation U s e r s — T h e i r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , M o t i v a t i o n s and O p i n i o n s : A Study o f Three B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s . " U n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. Toffler,  A l v i n , 1970. F u t u r e Shock. House I n c o r p o r a t e d .  New  York:  T r a v e l A l b e r t a , 1972. A l b e r t a V i s i t o r s Guide Edmonton: D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d u s t r y and Province of Alberta.  Random  1972. Commerce,  U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , 1969* Atlas of Alberta . University of Alberta Press.  Edmonton:  W h i t e , G.F., 1966. " F o r m a t i o n and. R o l e o f P u b l i c A t t i t u d e s . " E n v i r o n m e n t a l Q u a l i t y i n a G r o w i n g Economy. Edited by H e n r y J a r r e t t . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.  APPENDIX I  PEACE RIVER REGIONAL PLANNING OUTDOOR RECREATION  138  COMMISSION  QUESTIONNAIRE  139 FART I :  1.  GENERAL  AGE:  25-34, 35-44 45-5^1 55-64 65-691  0- 4 5- S_ 10-14 15-19" 20-24"  70 and over_ Female  Male  2.  SEX:  3.  MARITAL STATUS:  4.  HOUSEHOLD INCOME:  5.  LENGTH OF RESIDENCE IN THE  6.  PREVIOUS F L A C E OF RESIDENCE OUTSIDE REGION:  7.  EDUCATION:  Single Married Divorced Separated_ Widowed  0- 1000 1- 3000" 3- 6000" 6- 9000" 9-12000" 12-15000" o v e r 15000" REGION:  under 1 1- 3 4- 6 7- 9 10-15 16-25 26-40 41-65  year years] years_ years_ years] years_ years] years "life"  number o f y e a r s Elementary Junior High Senior High University Vocational  completed  140 8.  WORK A C T I V I T Y : Student Housewife Agriculture Forestry F i s h i n g and T r a p p i n g Mines, Q u a r r i e s , O i l Wells Manufacturing Industries Construction T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , Communication Other U t i l i t i e s Trade Finance, Insurance, Real Estate Community B u s i n e s s - P e r s o n a l S e r v i c e Industries P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and D e f e n c e Unemployed and s e e k i n g work R e t i r e d o r D r o p p e d Out  9.  NUMBER OF DEPENDENTS: • age g r o u p  male  0- 4 5- 9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-69 10.  70 a n d o v e r VEHICLES AVAILABLE FOR  ______  RECREATION:  Snowmobiles Motorcycles Trucks Cars Campers T r a i l e r (including tent 4 V/heel D r i v e v e h i c l e s All-Terrain vehicles Aircraft Bicycles Boats Canoes Other (please s p e c i f y )  trailers)  141 PART l i s  BEHAVIORAL AND  ATTITUDINAL  1. Below i s a l i s t o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . In c o l u m n A, p l a c e a c h e c k b e s i d e t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s you t a k e p a r t i n . I n c o l u m n B, p l a c e a c h e c k b e s i d e t h o s e w h i c h you w o u l d l i k e t o t a k e p a r t i n . I n c o l u m n C, n o t e t h e r e a s o n t h a t you do n o t t a k e p a r t i n e a c h a c t i v i t y c h e c k e d i n c o l u m n B b u t n o t i n c o l u m n A. A l i s t of suggested reasons i s provided. do participate Hunting Fishing . Picnicking Waterskiing Scuba or s k i n d i v i n g Motorboating Canoeing Sailing Swimming Downhill skiing Cross-country skiing Snowshoeing Sightseeing Recreational driving Bicycling Motorcycling Snowmobiling Hiking Tent camping • T r a i l e r camping Viewing, photographing plant l i f e Viewing, photographing wildlife Horseback r i d i n g Toboganning or s l e d d i n g V i s i t i n g h i s t o r i c areas Golfing C o l l e c t i n g a r t i f a c t s , rocks Accommodations cottaging p r i v a t e home rental t e n t camping t r a i l e r camping  would l i k e to  r e a s o n f o r non.participation  . .  •  •  142 What c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e most p r e f e r r e d by choice of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n areas?  you  i n your yes  (a)  natural, historical  and  cultural  no  resources  w i l d or n a t u r a l s t a t e lakes beaches streams or r i v e r s t r e e and g r a s s c o v e r outstanding natural features ( w a t e r f a l l s , mountains, etc) h i s t o r i c a l or c u l t u r a l s i t e s (b)  man-made  resources  water, t o i l e t s , e l e c t r i c i t y , stores concessions r e n t a l accommodations b o a t d o c k s , ramps telephone ski facilities (c)  l o c a t i o n and  showers  access  rank i n order  of preference:  high grade roads low g r a d e r o a d s p a r t i a l a c c e s s by auto no  access  by  auto  p r e f e r r e d d i s t a n c e from s e t t l e m e n t ( m i l e s ) maximum t r a v e l t i m e f r o m home: f o r day o u t i n g s f o r weekends for vacation 3.  L i s t t h e f i v e s p e c i f i c p l a c e s you went d u r i n g t h e p a s t y e a r f o r o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n w h i c h you e n j o y e d most, and the d u r a t i o n of your s t a y a t each p l a c e . place  4.  hrs. hrs. hrs.  What s p e c i f i c a r e a ( s ) r e s e r v e d or d e v e l o p e d  length  i n t h e r e g i o n w o u l d you f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l use?  of  like  visit  to  see  APPENDIX I I GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS PEACE RIVER REGION, 1972.  143  144 TABLE I  AGE OF RESPONDENTS PEACE RIVER REGION, 1972  Age  Category  10-14  Per cent o f Respondents  22.1  142  15-19  72 39 154 100 69 44 15  20-24  25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64  65-69 70 no  Number o f Respondents  plus response  11.2 6.0 23.9 15.5 10.7 6.8  8  2  2.3 1.2 0.3  645  100.0  TABLE I I SEX OF RESPONDENTS PEACE RIVER REGION, 1972  Number o f Respondents  Sex  Per cent o f Respondents  Ma l e  330  51.2  Female  313  48.5  2  0.3  no  response  645  100.0.  145 TABLE I I I MARITAL STATUS OF RESPONDENTS PEACE RIVER REGION, 1972 M a r i t a l Status  single married divorced separated widowed no r e s p o n s e  Number o f Respondents  Per c e n t o f Respondents  235 382 4 6 12 6  36.4 59.2 0.6 0.9 1.9 0.9  645  100.0  TABLE IV ANNUAL INCOME OF RESPONDENTS PEACE RIVER REGION, 1972 Income C a t e g o r y  0- 1000 1- 3000 3- 6000 6- 9000 9-12000 12-15000 15000 p l u s no r e s p o n s e  Number o f Respondents  Per c e n t o f Respondents  19 68 127 133 104 45 57 82  4.5 10.5 19.7 20,6 16.2 7.0 8.8 12.7  645  100.0  146 TABLE V RESPONDENTS' LENGTH OF RESIDENCE IN PEACE RIVER REGION, 1972 Number o f - Y e a r s  under 1 1- 3 4- 6 7- 9  10-15 16-25 26-40 41-65 life no r e s p o n s e  Number o f Respondents  Per c e n t o f Respondents 6.7  43 68 43 37  10.5  265  6.7 5.7 9.8 6.4 7.0 5.9 41.1  645  100.0  63  41 45 38  0.3  2  TABLE'VI EDUCATION OF RESPONDENTS PEACE RIVER REGION, 1972 Education  p a r t i a l elementary complete e l e m e n t a r y p a r t i a l junior high complete j u n i o r h i g h p a r t i a l senior high complete s e n i o r h i g h partial university complete u n i v e r s i t y p a r t i a l vocational complete v o c a t i o n a l no response  Number o f Respondents 60 57 99 94  Per c e n t o f Respondents  13  9.3 8.8 15.3 14.6 14.3 20.5 2.6 5.4 1.9 5.3 2.0  645  100.0  92 132  17 35 12 34  147  TABLE V I I  -OCCUPATION.. OF...RESPONDENTS PEACE RIVER REGION, 1972  Occupation  Number o f Respondents  Per cent o f Respondents  203  31.5  student housewife agriculture forestry fishing, trapping mines, q u a r r i e s , o i l w e l l s manufacturing i n d u s t r i e s construction t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , communication other u t i l i t i e s trade finance, insurance, r e a l estate community b u s i n e s s , p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , defence unemployed r e t i r e d or dropped out no r e s p o n s e  166 65  7  1 16 4  10.1  1.1  0.2  2.5  29  0.6 4.5  9 7  1.4 1.1  16  11 59  20 5  '  25.7  2.5  1.7  9.1  3.1 0.8  22  __  3.4  645  100.0  0.8  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0101369/manifest

Comment

Related Items