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Outdoor recreation planning in Alberta : appraisal of an information generation process Buholzer, William Arthur 1973

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C 0*' ''• C OUTDOOR RECREATION PLANNING IN ALBERTAt APPRAISAL OF AN INFORMATION GENERATION PROCESS by WILLIAM ARTHUR BUHOLZER B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1973 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Vancouver 8, Canada A p r i l 30 , 1973 i ABSTRACT I t i s becoming apparent that some i s s u e s i n n a t u r a l resource management do not lend themselves to the t e c h n i c a l , ' v a l u e - n e u t r a l ' approach to decision-making that has ofte n c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h i s f u n c t i o n of government. One of these is s u e s i s outdoor r e c r e a t i o n , which has become a resource c use e q u a l l y important t o such t r a d i t i o n a l uses as water management, mineral e x t r a c t i o n , and f o r e s t h a r v e s t i n g . Choices made w i t h respect to r e c r e a t i o n a l use of n a t u r a l resources i n e v i t a b l y r e f l e c t the perceptions and p r i o r i t i e s of those i n d i v i d u a l s who p a r t i c i p a t e i n making the ch o i c e s . Resource managers who make d e c i s i o n s about the use of n a t u r a l resources i n the 'p u b l i c i n t e r e s t 5 must seek to op t i m i z e , t h a t i s , to choose th a t a l t e r n a t i v e course of a c t i o n which y i e l d s the g r e a t e s t net b e n e f i t s : to s o c i e t y . This study purports to assess how w e l l the P r o v i n c i a l Parks agency of the Province of A l b e r t a generates i n f o r m a t i o n which can lead to optimal d e c i s i o n s i n r e c r e a t i o n resource management. A d i s c u s s i o n of the growing importance of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l use of resources, and of the p u b l i c nature of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s provided by government agencies, precedes a b r i e f a n a l y s i s of a number o f d e c i s i o n models. The l a t t e r a n a l y s i s suggests that the generation of i n f o r m a t i o n about a l t e r n a t i v e choices i s an important determinant of the outcome of the decision-making process. A c c o r d i n g l y , a number of c r i t e r i a are proposed which w i l l permit an e v a l u a t i o n of the p r o v i n c i a l parks agency's approach to p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f o r d e c i s i o n s regarding the management of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n resources i n the p r o v i n c e . The p r o v i n c i a l parks agency i s described i n terms of i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e environment, i t s e v o l u t i o n s i n c e 1952, and the o p e r a t i o n of the i n f o r m a t i o n generation process i n the agency. Contextual i n f o r m a t i o n on the a t t i t u d e s of p r o v i n c i a l r e s i d e n t s towards outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i s drawn from a survey of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n behavior and perceptions c a r r i e d out i n the Peace R i v e r r e g i o n of A l b e r t a i n 1972. The study concludes w i t h the e v a l u a t i o n of the agency's operation i n terms of the c r i t e r i a proposed e a r l i e r i n the study, Por those aspects of i n f o r m a t i o n generation i n which the c r i t e r i a are not met, suggestions f o r improve-ment are o f f e r e d . These i n c l u d e the d e f i n i t i o n , through p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n , of the agency's r o l e i n p r o v i d i n g a range of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r r e s i d e n t s o f , and v i s i t o r s t o , the province. Secondly, i t i s suggested t h a t the scope of the agency's planning process should be expanded so t h a t the p r o v i s i o n of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s can be considered a problem of supply as w e l l as demand; i i i i n f o r m a t i o n about the b e n e f i t s and c o s t s of a l t e r n a t i v e uses of r e c r e a t i o n a l resources, and the b e n e f i t s and costs of using resources that are s u i t a b l e f o r r e c r e a t i o n f o r other purposes, would be generated i f such an approach was adopted. F i n a l l y , i t i s suggested t h a t , i n order t o adequately r e f l e c t the f u l l range of s o c i e t a l values i n i t s d e c i s i o n process, the agency should i n s t i t u t e a program of c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the p u b l i c , whereby c i t i z e n s would p a r t i -c i p a t e i n d e c i s i o n s regarding such matters as general p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n and major parks p r o j e c t s . The attachment of a permanent p u b l i c a d v i s o r y committee to the o f f i c e of the M i n i s t e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o v i n c i a l parks i s suggested as a medium through which Albertans may p a r t i c i p a t e i n planning t h e i r p r o v i n c i a l parks. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i Table of Contents v L i s t of Tables v i i L i s t of Figures . v i i i Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . i x CHAPTER I THE NATURE OF THE PROBLEM I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Trends i n Outdoor Recreation . . . . . . . . . 4 Outdoor Recreation: A M e r i t Good 8 Outdoor Recreation: A P u b l i c Good 9 Government Involvement i n Outdoor Recreat i o n , 10 Purpose of the Study . . . . . 12 CHAPTER I I DECISION-MAKING AND INFORMATION GENERATION: ' FIVE CRITERIA P o l i t i c a l and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Decision-Making . 15 D e c i s i o n Models: Synoptic R a t i o n a l i t y . . . . 21 D e c i s i o n Models: S a t i s f i c i n g 24 D e c i s i o n Models: Incrementalism . . 26 The Role of Information 27 C r i t e r i a f o r Information Generation . . . . . 29 The Objective of P u b l i c Decision-Making i n Outdoor Recreation 3? CHAPTER I I I ADMINISTRATION OF OUTDOOR RECREATION IN ALBERTA The Array of Agencies . . . . . 40 Some Agencies and Th e i r A c t i v i t i e s . . . . . . hZ C o - o r d i n a t i o n of Agencies . . . . . 50 D i s c u s s i o n 53 v CHAPTER IV THE PROVINCIAL PARKS PLANNING PROCESS IN ALBERTA E v o l u t i o n of the Parks System 55' Personnel and Financing 59 P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n Operations 62 P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n 6k A Case -in P o i n t : The Wilderness Areas . . . . 66 Di s c u s s i o n 69 CHAPTER V A PROFILE OF ATTITUDES TOWARDS OUTDOOR RECREATION Peace R i v e r Region: Background Information . 7k Outdoor Recreation F a c i l i t i e s i n the Region . 79 Outdoor Recreation Behavior and Preferences: A Survey 80 Outdoor Recreation: P a r t i c i p a t i o n . . . . . . 86 Outdoor Recreation: A t t i t u d e s 100 Di s c u s s i o n 103 CHAPTER VI EVALUATION AND DISCUSSION I n t r o d u c t i o n 107 C r i t e r i o n One 107 C r i t e r i o n Two I l l C r i t e r i o n Three . . . . . . 113 C r i t e r i o n Four 115 C r i t e r i o n Five . . 119 Di s c u s s i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 1. Goals Formulation 121 2. The Scope of Pla n n i n g 12k 3 . The R e f l e c t i o n of S o c i e t a l Values i n Decisions . . . . . . . . 127 k. Communication . . . . . . . 129 5. Implementation . . . . . 130 REFERENCES . . . . . 132 APPENDIX I PEACE RIVER REGIONAL PLANNING COMMISSION OUTDOOR RECREATION QUESTIONNAIRE 138 APPENDIX I I GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS, PEACE RIVER REGION, 1972 . . . 143 v i LIST OF TABLES Table I A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n i n A l b e r t a 4 l Table I I C a p i t a l A p p r o p r i a t i o n s and E x p e n d i t u r e s f o r Wayside Campsites, A l b e r t a Department of Highways and T r a n s p o r t . . . . . . . . 4 4 Table I I I P r o v i n c i a l Parks i n A l b e r t a by Type and C l a s s 4 9 Table IV Attendance a t P r o v i n c i a l Parks, Peace R i v e r Region. 1 9 6 4 - 1 9 7 2 82 Table V P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n A c t i v i t i e s , Peace R i v e r Region 1 9 7 2 . . . 88 Table VI D e s i r e d P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n A c t i v i t i e s , Peace R i v e r Region 1 9 7 2 . . . 93 Table VII Reasons f o r N o n - P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n A c t i v i t i e s , Peace R i v e r Region 1 9 7 2 96 Table V I I I Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n V i s i t s Reported by Respondents f o r P r e v i o u s Year, Peace R i v e r Region 1 9 7 2 99 Table IX P r e f e r r e d C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n Environments, Peace R i v e r Region, 1 9 7 2 101 Table X P r e f e r r e d V e h i c u l a r Access to Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n Areas, Peace R i v e r Region 1 9 7 2 103 v i i LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e 1 T o t a l Attendance a t P r o v i n c i a l Parks, A l b e r t a 1959-1971 2 F i g u r e 2 P r o v i n c e of A l b e r t a : Highway Network, N a t i o n a l and P r o v i n c i a l Parks and Wilderness Areas, 1972 51 F i g u r e 3 A l b e r t a P r o v i n c i a l Parks E x p e n d i t u r e s 1952-1972 60 F i g u r e k P r o v i n c e of A l b e r t a , Boundaries of R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commissions . . . . . 77 F i g u r e 5 Peace R i v e r Region: Highway Network, P r o v i n c i a l Parks, Campsites and R e c r e a t i o n Areas, 1972 81 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I c o n s i d e r myself f o r t u n a t e to have had the o p p o r t u n i t y of.working w i t h P r o f e s s o r I r v i n g Fox, whose a b i l i t y to p e r c e i v e the essence o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l problems i n resource management has been o f g r e a t a s s i s t a n c e i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s study. I a l s o wish t o acknowledge the c o - o p e r a t i o n o f the D i r e c t o r and the Parks P l a n n i n g S u p e r v i s o r , P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n , A l b e r t a Department of Lands and F o r e s t s , and o f the Peace R i v e r R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission, A l b e r t a , i n s u p p l y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the study. i x CHAPTER I THE NATURE OF THE PROBLEM I n t r o d u c t i o n Outdoor r e c r e a t i o n has become one of the most r a p i d l y expanding p u r s u i t s i n the range of a c t i v i t i e s engaged i n by western man i n the l a t t e r h a l f of the t w e n t i e t h century, i n terms of both i t s p o p u l a r i t y and the p r o p o r t i o n of t h e i r resources t h a t members of s o c i e t y , c o l l e c t i v e l y and i n -d i v i d u a l l y , are prepared to a l l o c a t e to i t . S t a t i s t i c s compiled by government agencies on the use of p u b l i c out-door r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s g e n e r a l l y i l l u s t r a t e r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g annual numbers of v i s i t s to n a t i o n a l parks, p r o v i n c i a l parks, and other types of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n areas. T o t a l v i s i t s t o p r o v i n c i a l parks i n A l b e r t a , f o r example, have in c r e a s e d s i x - f o l d s i n c e 1959 (see Figure 1 ) , w h i l e the number of p r o v i n c i a l parks i n the province has i n c r e a s e d from 24 (7,770 acres) i n 1952 to 51 (140 ,095 acres) i n 1972. ( P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n , 1972b), Such increa s e s are t y p i c a l of those experienced throughout North America. As outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i n c r e a s e s i n p o p u l a r i t y , i t becomes a resource use e q u a l l y l e g i t i m a t e to the more t r a d i t i o n a l , consumptive uses of n a t u r a l resources. Whereas f o r e s t s were once f o r l o g g i n g and r i v e r s f o r damming, the 2 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 o (NI -cr vo oo o \ D vO \£> v£3 vX> P>. CT\ CT\ en CT> <T\ C\ FIGURE 1 TOTAL ATTENDANCE AT PROVINCIAL PARKS ALBERTA 1959-1971 (Source: Department of Lands and Forests Annual Report, 1972) outdoor r e c r e a t i o n p o t e n t i a l of such resources i s beginning t o be considered as an e q u a l l y important c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n resource management d e c i s i o n s . Such resource a l l o c a t i o n p r o j e c t s as A l b e r t a ' s F o o t h i l l s Resource A l l o c a t i o n Study (Department of Lands and F o r e s t s , 1971) have given outdoor r e c r e a t i o n p r i o r i t y equal t o tha t attached t o mining, l o g g i n g , a g r i c u l t u r e , and other resource uses which are perhaps more e a s i l y j u s t i f i e d economically. P r o v i n c i a l resource management agencies are i n v o l v e d i n making d e c i s i o n s about the a l l o c a t i o n of n a t u r a l resources f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n , and the development or non-development of such resources t o serve user demands. In managing resources t o provide the gr e a t e s t net b e n e f i t s to p r o v i n c i a l r e s i d e n t s , such agencies are i n t e r e s t e d i n p r o v i d i n g outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the broadest p o s s i b l e range of users. The d e c i s i o n s reached by outdoor r e c r e a t i o n agencies have important i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the r e s i d e n t s of any p a r t i c u l a r p r o v i n c e , f o r they determine, f i r s t of a l l , the range of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t w i l l be immediately a v a i l a b l e i n the province. Long-range planning d e c i s i o n s i n outdoor r e c r e a t i o n resources management may have important e f f e c t s on the o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t w i l l be a v a i l a b l e t o future r e s i d e n t s of the province. In a d d i t i o n , the b e n e f i t s that accrue t o r e s i d e n t s of the province through the development of a t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y may be a f f e c t e d by the a v a i l a b i l i t y of a range of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s . k Trends i n Outdoor Recreation A range of f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e to the growing pop-u l a r i t y of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n . They may be c a t e g o r i z e d as p r o p u l s i v e , p e r m i s s i v e , or a t t r a c t i v e , depending on the manner i n which they i n f l u e n c e the i n d i v i d u a l . P r o p u l s i v e f a c t o r s are those which have t h e i r ex-p l a n a t i o n s i n the f i e l d s of s o c i o l o g y and psychology; they a r i s e from the nature of the environment i n which i n c r e a s i n g numbers, and a growing p r o p o r t i o n , of people i n the western world are spending t h e i r n o n - l e i s u r e time. The m o t i v a t i o n to disengage h i m s e l f from h i s h a b i t u a l environment c o n s t i -t u t e s a fo r c e which 'pushes* the r e c r e a t o r from a s t r u c t u r e d l i f e space he.wishes to a v o i d t e m p o r a r i l y i n t o a r e c r e a t i o n a l l i f e space i n which he a n t i c i p a t e s he can r e p l e n i s h h i s adaptive e n e r g i e s , ( D r i v e r and Tocher, 1970? p.l3)» The disengagement need not be from a p a r t i c u l a r l y 'urban' l i f e space, although the outward-bound t r a f f i c from la r g e c i t i e s on weekends a t t e s t s t h a t urban areas do generate a la r g e number of r e c r e a t i o n t r i p s . Indeed, i t i s not d i f f i c u l t to i s o l a t e a great many f a c t o r s — t h e v a r i o u s types of e n v i r -onmental p o l l u t i o n , high noise l e v e l s , v i s u a l p o l l u t i o n , heavy t r a f f i c , bombardment of the senses w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n — which tend to d r i v e the urbanite from the c i t y during h i s l e i s u r e time. The important element of the outdoor r e c r e a -t i o n a l - e x p e r i e n c e , however, i s the t r a n s i t i o n from s t r u c t u r e d environment to random environment; t o a r e s t o r a t i v e ecolog-i c a l s e t t i n g t h a t i s l e s s demanding, more p r e d i c t a b l e , l e s s 5 t h r e a t e n i n g . ( D r i v e r and Tocher, 1970, p.2 5 ) . Although the u r b a n i t e would perhaps be somewhat bemused a t the thought o f r e s i d e n t s o f s m a l l c o u n t r y towns ' g e t t i n g away from i t a l l ' on t h e i r weekends by s e e k i n g the c o u n t r y s i d e , such b e h a v i o r may, i n f a c t , be observed. The recreator's p e r c e p t i o n of the r e l a t i v e p r e s s u r e o f h i s l i f e spaces o f t e n c r e a t e s a d e s i r e t o escape from s t r u c t u r e d to u n s t r u c t u r e d environments. P e r m i s s i v e f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g to the e s c a l a t i o n o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i n c l u d e those documented e x t e n s i v e l y by the U n i t e d S t a t e s Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n Resources Review Commission i n the 1960's (Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n Resources Review Commission, 19.62) . . . as w e l l as other more a r e a -s p e c i f i c s t u d i e s . (Owens, 1965; MacDonald, 1970), S e v e r a l f a c t o r s , which are s t e a d i l y s t r e n g t h e n i n g i n most western n a t i o n s , are p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s ; i n c l u d e d are d i s p o s a b l e income, m o b i l i t y , the a v a i l a b i l i t y of l e i s u r e time and e d u c a t i o n a l / o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s . R i s i n g income l e v e l s are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s i n those outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s which i n v o l v e an o u t l a y o f funds. Those p u r s u i t s which r e v o l v e around the use o f equipment—-boats, canoes, snow-mobiles, s k i s , and a s s o c i a t e d p e r a p h e r n a l i a — e n j o y i n c r e a s e d p o p u l a r i t y as people are a b l e to a f f o r d the 'entry fee* i n the form o f o u t l a y f o r equipment. The a v a i l a b i l i t y of l e i s u r e time i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a l l r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , and the 6 p r o g r e s s i v e s h o r t e n i n g of the work week tends to p r o v i d e people w i t h more d i s p o s a b l e time which they may choose to devote t o outdoor r e c r e a t i o n . The i n c r e a s i n g m o b i l i t y o f the p o p u l a t i o n has two important r a m i f i c a t i o n s . As v e h i c l e ownership becomes more widespread, more people are a b l e t o t r a n s p o r t themselves more r e a d i l y from t h e i r s t r u c t u r e d environment to open spaces. As highway u t i l i z a t i o n i n c r e a s e s and demands f o r new r e c r e a t i o n areas grow, more roads are b u i l t t o p r e -v i o u s l y i n a c c e s s i b l e r e c r e a t i o n a l environments; t h i s s a t i s f i e s the mobile p o p u l a t i o n t e m p o r a r i l y and encourages even g r e a t e r numbers o f r e c r e a t o r s t o t r a v e l to them. M o b i l i t y i n v o l v e s modes o f t r a v e l other than the automobile; such v e h i c l e s as h e l i c o p t e r s , f l o a t p l a n e s , and snowmobiles are a l l en-a b l i n g people t o g a i n access to d i v e r s e and sometimes remote environments f o r t h e i r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s . E d u c a t i o n a l / o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s seems to be c o r -r e l a t e d w i t h some outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s but not o t h e r s ; i t appears t h a t some i n d i v i d u a l s , having managerial and p r o f e s s i o n a l p o s i t i o n s , p a r t i c i p a t e more o f t e n i n c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s . The q u e s t i o n of the s t a t u s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c e r t a i n r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s themselves i s perhaps r e f l e c t e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s . F r a n c i s C h r i s t y has p o s t u l a t e d t h a t f i v e elements a s s o c i a t e d p o s i t i v e l y w i t h the p o p u l a r i t y o f a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e ease of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , d e s i r e a b l e image a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the a c t i v i t y , c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s t h a t permit a s t r o n g p e r s o n a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the image, an audience t o a p p r e c i a t e the image, and com-f o r a b l e and e f f i c i e n t use o f l e i s u r e time. ( C h r i s t y , 1970, p.9 9 ) . A t t r a c t i v e f a c t o r s are those which draw the r e -c r e a t o r to the outdoor environment and encourage him to p a r t i c i p a t e i n p u r s u i t s a s s o c i a t e d with t h a t environment. In a d d i t i o n to esca p i n g from h i s u s u a l sources o f i n f o r -mation, the r e c r e a t o r o f t e n wishes t o g a i n access to new and d i f f e r e n t types of i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t w i l l serve a r e l a x i n g or r e s t o r a t i v e f u n c t i o n . D e s p i t e man's p r o f e s s e d a b i l i t y t o subdue the n a t u r a l environment and b r i n g i t under h i s c o n t r o l , a p e r s u a s i v e f o r c e appears on o c c a s i o n to p u l l man back i n t o harmony wi t h the l a n d . I t may be t h a t the growing p o p u l a r i t y o f the e c o l o g i c a l - s y s t e m s viewpoint, the concept o f 'spaceship e a r t h ' , w i l l i n c r e a s e these a t t r a c t i v e f o r c e s , as more people d e s i r e t o l e a r n how they are r e l a t e d to n a t u r a l processes i n the environment. Among the more a v i d r e c r e a t o r s the outdoor experience seems a t times t o assume s p i r i t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , w h i l e those who p a r t i c i p a t e only o c c a s i o n a l l y may observe t h a t t h e i r experience i s ' r e f r e s h i n g ' or ' f e e l s good*. That these a t t r a c t i v e f a c t o r s are i n h e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l experience i s r e v e a l e d by the etymology of the word r e c r e a t e - - t h e outdoor experience renews the p h y s i c a l and mental w e l l - b e i n g o f p a r t i c i p a n t s , and equips them to s u s t a i n themselves i n the l i f e - s p a c e s to which they a p p l y themselves i n day-to-day l i f e . 8 The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the nature o f these p r o p u l s i v e , p e r m i s s i v e , and a t t r a c t i v e f a c t o r s p e r t a i n i n g to outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i s t h a t . t h e y are a l l changing i n such a d i r e c t i o n t h a t the a c t i v e demand f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i s i n c r e a s i n g s t e a d i l y ? i n d i c a t i o n s are t h a t i t w i l l c o ntinue t o do so i n the f o r e s e e a b l e f u t u r e . The s o - c a l l e d ' c r i s i s ' i n outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i s t h a t the growing demand f o r r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s t h r e a t e n s e x i s t i n g outdoor r e c r e a t i o n areas w i t h debasement, while the options f o r r e s e r v i n g or d e v e l o p i n g new areas are narrowed by the spread o f p r i v a t e ownership, s e t t l e m e n t , and other consumptive u t i l i z a t i o n s o f l a n d . Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n ; A M e r i t Good In the terminology o f economics, outdoor r e c r e a t i o n has some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a 'merit good'. M e r i t goods are those which are deemed d e s i r a b l e by s o c i e t y be-cause o f a p e r c e p t i o n t h a t the e n t i r e s o c i e t y w i l l b e n e f i t from i n d i v i d u a l s ' a v a i l i n g themselves of the good. B a s i c e d u c a t i o n i s the t y p i c a l example o f a me r i t good; government p r o v i d e s e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s because the c o s t s o f so doing are p e r c e i v e d to be exceeded by the b e n e f i t s t h a t accrue to the e n t i r e s o c i e t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s ' becoming more h i g h l y educated. Because of the l a r g e l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l b e n e f i t s o f r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s , outdoor r e c r e a t i o n may.be regarded as a me r i t good, on the grounds t h a t a w e l l -a d j u s t e d , s t a b l e and c h e e r f u l s o c i e t y w i l l be more l i k e l y i f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l experiences are r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e to i t s members. I t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t h a t the p r o v i s i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s be viewed as a s o c i a l s e r v i c e system or subsystem ( l i k e e d u c a t i o n and h e a l t h s e r v i c e s ) which p r o v i d e s important and nec e s s a r y i n p u t s t o the t o t a l s o c i a l system. These i n p u t s can help promote the growth and development of i n d i v i d u a l members of s o c i e t y . I t i s of some importance to note t h a t not a l l i n -d i v i d u a l s would agree t h a t a l l r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s are merit goods. For example, the more equipment-intensive a c t i v i t i e s which do not i n v o l v e much p h y s i c a l e f f o r t , l i k e motorboating, may not be as ' m e r i t o r i o u s ' i n the view of some i n d i v i d u a l s , as o t h e r , more strenuous a c t i v i t i e s such as h i k i n g . Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n ; A P u b l i c Good The concept of ' p u b l i c good' a l s o a p p l i e s to some kinds o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n . A p u b l i c good i s a good which, once s u p p l i e d , i s e q u a l l y a v a i l a b l e t o a l l . I t i s im p o s s i b l e t o exclude anyone from the enjoyment of a p u r e l y p u b l i c good, and one man's consumption does not d e t r a c t from the a b i l i t y o f another to consume i t . P u b l i c goods are c o n t r a s t e d w i t h p r i v a t e goods; u n i t s o f the former cannot be a s s i g n e d among i n d i v i d u a l s , w h ile u n i t s o f the l a t t e r may be p a r c e l l e d out among i n d i v i d u a l s who can be granted and can r e a l i z e e x c l u s i v e r i g h t s o f enjoyment o f such u n i t s . ( B r a z e r , 1970, p.121). With the growing p o p u l a r i t y o f many outdoor r e -c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e has taken a 10 s u b s t a n t i a l r o l e i n the p r o v i s i o n of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . However, because of the 'merit* q u a l i t i e s o f c e r t a i n kinds o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f government have accepted the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r o v i d i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s and f a c i l i t i e s . The o p p o r t u n i t i e s p r o v i d e d by government are ' p u b l i c goods', i n s o f a r as f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s are b e n e f i t t e d by the a l l o -c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s to outdoor r e c r e a t i o n today, and i n s o f a r as v i s i t o r s and n o n - r e s i d e n t s may u t i l i z e p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s w ithout charge. However, p u b l i c outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i s not a p u r e l y p u b l i c good, f o r the consumption o f the good by some i n -d i v i d u a l s may d e t r a c t from the a b i l i t y o f others to consume i t . When p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s become overcrowded outdoor r e c r e a t i o n may begin to resemble a p r i v a t e good; indeed, such a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n seems to be o c c u r r i n g i n some f a c i -l i t i e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , where l o t t e r i e s have been suggested as a means o f d e t e r m i n i n g which members o f the p u b l i c w i l l be p e r m i t t e d to use p u b l i c outdoor r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . Government Inolvement i n Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n A complex h i e r a r c h y of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n has e volved i n Canada, w i t h n a t i o n a l , p r o v i n c i a l , r e g i o n a l , and l o c a l or m u n i c i p a l involvement i n l a n d a l l o c a t i o n , f a c i l i t y p r o v i s i o n , and maintenance. (Canadian C o u n c i l of Resource M i n i s t e r s , 1968) . The response a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s of government has been to extend the 11 compartmentalized approach to a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o i n c l u d e the p r o v i s i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o the p u b l i c . In some ca s e s , C a b i n e t l e v e l departments have been e s t a b -l i s h e d t o d e a l s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h r e c r e a t i o n and r e l a t e d problems ( f o r example, B r i t i s h Columbia's Department o f R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n ) , w hile i n other c a s e s , ap-pendages t o e x i s t i n g departments have been e s t a b l i s h e d to pr o v i d e r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h those departments' normal r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ( f o r example, the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n o f A l b e r t a ' s Department of Lands and F o r e s t s ) , An important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f such departments i s the sharp d i s t i n c t i o n between p o l i t i c s and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n which i s b a s i c to government o r g a n i z a t i o n i n both Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s , In the Canadian c o n t e x t the d i v i d i n g l i n e o r i g i n a t e d I n the development o f a c a r e e r c i v i l s e r v i c e and the n e c e s s i t y to f r e e the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e process from p a r t i s a n i n f l u e n c e s , (Hodgetts, i 9 6 0 , p,M±2). The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e process came to be regarded as one i n which agencies c r e a t e d by f o c a l p o i n t decision-makers c a r r y out the f u n c t i o n s a s s i g n e d or e n t r u s t e d t o them by f o c a l p o i n t decision-makers. With the i n c r e a s i n g s i z e and complexity o f govern-ment o r g a n i z a t i o n , adherence t o t h i s p r i n c i p l e o f admin-i s t r a t i o n has o f t e n l e d to h i e r a r c h i c a l l y - o r d e r e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s , i n a system o f graded ranks s u b j e c t to p o l i t i c a l d i r e c t i o n by Cabinet m i n i s t e r s heading 12 the v a r i o u s departments. A d d i t i o n a l impetus f o r t h i s k i n d of approach, p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h respect to the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of n a t u r a l resources, i s provided by the dependence upon experts which has c h a r a c t e r i z e d modern s o c i e t y . The r o l e of p r o f e s s i o n a l s has become i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d i n government; governmental agencies are organized p r i n c i p a l l y on the b a s i s of spe-c i a l i z a t i o n , w i t h d i v i s i o n s or departments e s t a b l i s h e d to handle p a r t i c u l a r processes or problems. ( S e w e l l , 1971i p.24), Thus, whi l e p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s f i l t e r down to the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e agency from the p o l i t i c a l decision-making body, the ' t e c h n i c a l ' problems of a d m i n i s t e r i n g those .c p o l i c i e s become the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f s w i t h i n each department, composed of s p e c i a l i s t s i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d . The t r a d i t i o n a l respect f o r the expert, by both the p u b l i c and by those having e x p e r t i s e i n other f i e l d s , has tended to r e i n f o r c e t h i s approach. Purpose of the Study Most outdoor r e c r e a t i o n planners i n Canada operate w i t h i n such departments or branches of government as have been described above, and hence enjoy the advantages and s u f f e r the disadvantages of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e , whether f e d e r a l or p r o v i n c i a l , i n which they are placed. One of the most important tasks faced by outdoor r e c r e a t i o n agencies i s t h a t of being responsive to p u b l i c perceptions and a s p i r a t i o n s regarding outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l experiences. I t seems evident t h a t , w i t h i n the foreseeable f u t u r e , the 13 use o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n w i l l be-come an i n c r e a s i n g l y p o p u l a r l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t y . Govern-ment agencies p l a y an important r o l e i n making re s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o the p u b l i c f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n ? some per-c e p t i o n of what outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l experiences members of the p u b l i c are i n t e r e s t e d i n , i s fundamental to such re s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s . T h i s study w i l l attempt to determine how w e l l one p a r t i c u l a r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n agency, the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n of the A l b e r t a Department o f Lands and F o r e s t s , i s p e r f o r m i n g t h i s f u n c t i o n . D e c i s i o n s which are made w i t h i n the agency c o n c e r n i n g park a c q u i s i t i o n and the development of p r o v i n c i a l park s i t e s , have important i m p l i -c a t i o n s f o r A l b e r t a r e s i d e n t s i n terms o f the r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t are a v a i l a b l e to them, the o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t o f u s i n g these r e s o u r c e s f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n , and the r o l e o f p r o v i n c i a l parks i n the p r o v i n c i a l t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y . The f i r s t stage i n t h i s e v a l u a t i o n i s an e x p l o r a t i o n of decision-making i n the l e g i s l a t i v e and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n t e x t s , to determine where resource management d e c i s i o n s i n the agency i n q u e s t i o n are l i k e l y to be made. An a n a l y s i s o f a number of d e c i s i o n models f o l l o w s , to determine what components of the decision-making process might be important determinants o f p o l i c i e s r e s u l t i n g from the p r o c e s s . On the b a s i s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s , a number of c r i t e r i a w i l l be pro-posed which w i l l permit an e v a l u a t i o n o f the e x t e n t to which 14 decision-makers i n the p r o v i n c i a l parks agency, and the people o f the P r o v i n c e o f A l b e r t a , are c o n f r o n t e d w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n about the b e n e f i t s and c o s t s of a l t e r n a t i v e courses o f a c t i o n i n outdoor r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s management. CHAPTER I I DECISION-MAKING AND INFORMATION GENERATION,: FIVE CRITERIA P o l i t i c a l and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Decision-Making I t was observed i n the p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r t h a t governments have taken a major r o l e i n p r o v i d i n g outdoor r e c r e a t i o n opportunities„ As the d i v e r s i t y o f demands made by the p u b l i c on government agencies expands i n the co n t e x t of a complex,, p l u r a l i s t s o c i e t y , the concept o f p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n wherein p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s are made by l e g i s -l a t o r s and merely implemented by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , begins to demonstrate s e r i o u s i n a d e q u a c i e s . N e g o t i a t i n g and b a r g a i n -i n g , which have been thought the e x c l u s i v e p u r s u i t s o f p o l i t i c a l d ecision-makers, have become e v i d e n t i n adminis-t r a t i v e d ecision-making as w e l l . . Under a system of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e government, the l e g i s l a t i v e d ecision-making process i s g e n e r a l l y p e r c e i v e d t o be an e q u i t a b l e one as long as r e p r e s e n t a t i o n bears a p r o p o r t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o p o p u l a t i o n . I t has been p o s t u l a t e d t h a t , under optimum c o n d i t i o n s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , the u t i l i t y t h e o r y t h a t l i e s behind r a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r i n the marketplace a l s o a p p l i e s t o the l e g i s l a t i v e p r o c e s s . Edwin H a e f e l e has shown t h a t , i n s o f a r as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e 15 16 government i n the two-party system i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s i s concerned, the p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s o f l e g i s l a t u r e s are the same as they would be i f a l l c i t i z e n s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the l e g i s l a t u r e . Haefele warns, however, t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s and s p e c i a l b o d i e s , such as r i v e r b a s i n commissions, which have decision-making c a p a b i l i t i e s , are d e s e r v i n g o f m i s t r u s t because of the u t i l i t y d e f e c t they po s s e s s . T h e i r members.are not e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the people and t h e i r d e c i s i o n s are not d i r e c t l y s u b j e c t to the u s u a l l e g i s l a t i v e checks and b a l a n c e s . ( H a e f e l e , 1.9711 p.350-367) . In the U n i t e d S t a t e s , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s are d i r e c t e d by members o f the C a b i n e t who are appointed by the P r e s i d e n t or the S t a t e Governors, who are i n t u r n d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e to the people; i n Canada, the heads of C a b i n e t departments are themselves members o f the l e g i s l a t u r e , and are d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e t o the people. J.E. Hodgetts has observed t h a t the concept o f m i n i s t e r i a l r e s p o n s i b l i t y i s coming under s t r a i n i n Canada, because o f such f a c t o r s as i n c r e a s i n g s t a t e a c t i v i t y i n the a f f a i r s of the n a t i o n . While the needs of a permanent c a r e e r ( c i v i l ) s e r v i c e have c a l l e d f o r t h i s d i v i d i n g l i n e (between p o l i t i c s and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) , the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b l e government has r e q u i r e d a c l o s e i n t e g r a t i o n between appointed o f f i c e r and e l e c t e d p o l i t i c i a n . One might add t h a t the w e l f a r e a c t i v i t i e s upon which the modern s t a t e has been f o r c e d to embark have a l s o brought the c i v i l s e r v i c e i n t o more i n t i m a t e and d i r e c t p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w i t h the populace a t l a r g e . We have sought to 17 r e s o l v e our paradox by throwing up a s i n g l e b r i d g e between the two realms i n the form o f a r e s p o n s i b l e M i n i s t e r . That b r i d g e , i t would appear, i s o f t e n too f r a g i l e t o s u s t a i n the heavy t r a f f i c t h a t now moves a c r o s s i t . . . . I n c r e a s e d s t a t e a c t i v i t y has, of c o u r s e , v a s t l y expanded the bureaucracy. . . . As a consequence, the n o t i o n , s t i l l s u pported by c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d o c t r i n e , t h a t one p o l i t i c a l head can assume d i r e c t and immediate charge over the s t a f f o f a department numbered i n thousands, s t r a i n s the bounds o f reason and c e r t a i n l y the l i m i t s of human endurance. (Hodgetts, I960, p.kkZ-bJ). O n t a r i o ' s Committee on Government P r o d u c t i v i t y , i n v e s t i g a t i n g the need f o r c i t z e n involvement i n p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g them* observed t h a t the remoteness of the e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e causes concern among c i t i z e n s about t h e i r views b e i n g r e p r e s e n t e d i n d e c i s i o n s . The i n c r e a s i n g s i z e and c omplexity of i n s t i t u t i o n s have a l s o p l a c e d enormous burdens on top decision-makers. In examining the r o l e o f the c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r , the Committee on Government P r o d u c t i v i t y c o n s i d e r e d the l a c k of time f o r d e c i s i o n making to be one of h i s key problems. O b v i o u s l y , p o l i t i c i a n s can d e a l w i t h only so many i s s u e s a t one time and cannot p o s s i b l y c o n s i d e r a l l the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f each d e c i s i o n . R e a l i z i n g t h i s , i n -d i v i d u a l s and groups or g a n i z e to ensure t h a t t h e i r i n t e r e s t s are not o v erlooked. (Committee on Government P r o d u c t i v i t y , 1972, p . 1 2 ) . The Committee observes f u r t h e r t h a t , w i t h the p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f government bodies and the i n c r e a s i n g interdependency of the three l e v e l s o f government ( f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l , and m u n i c i p a l ) , u n c e r t a i n t y may a r i s e as to who bears respon-s i b i l i t y f o r the d e c i s i o n , l e t alone who i s a c t u a l l y making i t 18 I n d i c a t i o n s t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s do, i n f a c t , make d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the a l l o c a t i o n o f p u b l i c r e s o u r c e s are abundant i n the l i t e r a t u r e on a d m i n i s t r a t i v e behavior; they are based on o b s e r v a t i o n s o f the o p e r a t i o n o f the contemporary Western p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e . H erbert A. Simon has observed t h a t : A governmental agency may be d i r e c t e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y toward s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t o b j e c t i v e s . . . . Even when no con s c i o u s or d e l i b e r a t e i n t e g r a t i o n o f these g o a l s takes p l a c e i n d e c i s i o n , i t should be noted t h a t an i n t e g r a t i o n g e n e r a l l y takes p l a c e i n f a c t . Although i n making d e c i s i o n s f o r h i s agency, the r e c r e a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r may f a i l t o weigh the d i v e r s e and sometimes c o n f l i c t i n g o b j e c t i v e s a g a i n s t one another i n terms of t h e i r r e l a t i v e importance, y e t h i s a c t u a l d e c i s i o n s , and the d i r e c t i o n which he g i v e s t o the p o l i c y o f h i s agency, w i l l amount i n p r a c t i c e t o a p a r t i c u l a r s e t o f weights f o r these o b j e c t i v e s . , . . Hence, alth o u g h the a d m i n i s t r a t o r may r e f u s e the t a s k , or be unable t o perform i t , o f c o n s c i o u s l y and d e l i b e r a t e l y i n t e g r a t i n g h i s system o f o b j e c t i v e s , he cannot a v o i d the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f h i s a c t u a l d e c i s i o n s , which achieve such a s y n t h e s i s i n f a c t . (Simon, 1965, p.57). The a c t i v i t i e s o f • l o b b i e s 1 a t the v a r i o u s govern-mental l e v e l s , m u n i c i p a l , p r o v i n c i a l , and f e d e r a l , are o f t e n d i r e c t e d a t the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e as w e l l as the l e g i s -l a t i v e branches o f government. T h i s would i n d i c a t e t h a t some d i s c r e t i o n a r y power i s pr e s e n t a t the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l , the e x e r c i s e of which l o b b y i s t s seek t o i n f l u e n c e . In many government departments,' the impetus f o r changes i n l e g i s l a t i o n and f o r the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f new l e g i s l a t i o n come not from the Cab i n e t m i n i s t e r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the 19 departments but from the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , those i n d i v i d u a l s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the day-to-day implementation of p o l i c y . T h i s would be one f a c e t o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e decision-making i n which l o b b y i s t s might be i n t e r e s t e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g . In a paper prepared f o r O n t a r i o ' s Committee on Government P r o d u c t i v i t y , p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t F.C. Thayer sums up the e f f e c t s of the growth of d i s c r e t i o n a r y cap-a b i l i t y a t the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l . E x c i t i n g t h i n g s are happening i n admin-i s t r a t i o n , . . because t h i s i s where the a c t i o n i s ; c i t i z e n s . . . are a f f e c t e d by d e c i s i o n s made by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s e x e r c i s i n g t h e i r d i s c r e t i o n a r y a u t h o r i t y , and most c o n t a c t between c i t i z e n and government i s a t t h a t p o i n t where agencies do t h e i r b u s i n e s s . (Thayer, 1 9 7 1 , p . 2 1 ) . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e a n a l y s t s have suggested a new approach .to the study o f American p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n which r e j e c t s the t r a d i t i o n a l h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a g e n c i e s . I n the ' p u b l i c c h o i c e ' s c h o o l , p u b l i c agencies are not viewed simply as b u r e a u c r a t i c u n i t s which perform those s e r v i c e s which someone at the top i n s t r u c t s them to perform. Rather, p u b l i c agencies are viewed as means f o r a l l o c a t i n g decision-making cap-a b i l i t i e s i n order to p r o v i d e p u b l i c • goods and s e r v i c e s r e s p o n s i v e to the p r e f e r e n c e s of i n d i v i d u a l s i n d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c o n t e x t s . (Ostrom & Ostrom, 1 9 7 1 , P. 2 0 7 ) . P o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s make the b a s i c s t r u c t u r a l d e c i s i o n s , s e t t i n g the stage f o r the l e s s e r , i n c r e m e n t a l d e c i s i o n s t h a t are a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n n a t u r e . Such a p h i l o s o p h y o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n seems to d e s c r i b e a c c u r a t e l y the o p e r a t i o n o f Canadian b u r e a u c r a c i e s . 20 The r e c o g n i t i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e decision-making c a p a b i l i t y has two important r a m i f i c a t i o n s i n s o f a r , a s ' agencies charged w i t h the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of outdoor r e -c r e a t i o n are concerned. I f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e agencies do ex e r c i s e d i s c r e t i o n i n a l l o c a t i n g resources w i t h i n the context of p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s passed down from l e g i s l a t i v e decision-makers, then a p o l i t i c a l decision-making process i s present a t the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l . I f agencies a r e , or profess to be, responsive to the preferences of i n d i v i d u a l s i n d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c o n t e x t s , then the per-s o n a l decision-making which precedes the a r t i c u l a t i o n of any i n d i v i d u a l preference becomes another important determinant of the output of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e agencies. I n s o f a r as the p r o v i s i o n of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n opportunities i s concerned, decision-making may occur a t three d i s t i n c t l e v e l s . I n the f i r s t p l a c e , l e g i s l a t i v e bodies i m p l i c i t l y determine the extent to which t h e i r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n may provide o p p o r t u n i t i e s to the p u b l i c , by d e c i d i n g on the a l l o c a t i o n of funds among the various government departments competing f o r the tax d o l l a r . W i t h i n the c o n s t r a i n t s of t h e i r budget, Cabinet m i n i s t e r s together w i t h t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f decide which programs w i l l be c a r r i e d out. These d e c i s i o n s may be i n f l u e n c e d to a larg e degree by the a l t e r n a t i v e s proposed by the p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n the agency, whose perceptions and a t t i t u d e s may be r e f l e c t e d i n the choices they p r o v i d e . 21 • At the 'consumer' l e v e l , some decision-making c a p a b i l i t y i s e x e r c i s e d , f o r example, when one or more a l t e r n a t i v e s are submitted t o p u b l i c meetings and h e a r i n g s ; t h i s l e v e l o f decis i o n - m a k i n g , w h i l e not h e a v i l y used i n the p a s t , w i l l be brought i n t o p l a y more o f t e n as demands f o r p u b l i c involvement i n governmental d e c i s i o n s grows. The o n l y i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o c i t i z e n s i n such s i t u -a t i o n s i s u s u a l l y t h a t p r o v i d e d by government, because of the d i f f i c u l t y o f g e n e r a t i n g o f t e n s o p h i s t i c a t e d , always expensive, i n f o r m a t i o n . I t would seem, then, t h a t decision-making a t the •consumer' l e v e l , and a t the p u b l i c agency l e v e l , i s an important determinant i n the p r o v i s i o n o f outdoor r e -c r e a t i o n opportunities by government. In order t o g a i n an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the nature o f decision-making p r o c e s s e s , a number o f d e c i s i o n models w i l l be e x p l o r e d . The purpose o f t h i s e x e r c i s e i s t o determine what type o f i n f l u e n c e s decision-makers are s u s c e p t i b l e t o , and how these i n f l u e n c e p o i n t s may be e x p l o i t e d t o ensure the l e g i t i m a c y and e f -f i c a c y o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s . D e c i s i o n Models: S y n o p t i c R a t i o n a l i t y The s y n o p t i c , or comprehensive, model o f r a t i o n a l d ecision-making i s r e l a t e d t o the concept o f economic r a t i o n a l i t y d e v i s e d by economists t o e x p l a i n market b e h a v i o r . A c c o r d i n g t o c l a s s i c a l economic t h e o r y , market t r a n s a c t i o n s i n v o l v e a s e l l e r and a buyer who has informed h i m s e l f o f a l t e r n a t i v e s and who i s moving toward h i s go a l s i n such a 22 way t h a t , t o the best of h i s knowledge, he i s u s i n g the l e a s t p o s s i b l e i n p u t o f s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s per u n i t o f valued output. The e f f e c t s , o f the t r a n s a c t i o n s are ex-p e r i e n c e d by o n l y the two p a r t i e s to the t r a n s a c t i o n . I t has been suggested t h a t the s y n o p t i c model a p p l i e s t o d ecision-making i n the p o l i t i c a l arena as w e l l as i n the marketplace; the u t i l i t y t h e o r y of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e govern-ment noted e a r l i e r r e p r e s e n t s an a p p l i c a t i o n o f the model, t o l e g i s l a t i v e d e c ision-making. A t y p i c a l o u t l i n e o f the steps i n the s y n o p t i c decision-making process i s as f o l l o w s : a. S p e c i f i c a t i o n of the s e t o f known p o s s i b l e a c t i o n to a c h ieve a g o a l . b. D e t e r m i n a t i o n f o r each o f the a c t i o n s of the s e t o f a l l p o s s i b l e consequences o f t h a t a c t i o n and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p r o b a b i l i t i e s , c. E v a l u a t i o n i n l i g h t of one's valu e s o f each of the consequences of each of the a c t i o n s , d. D e r i v a t i o n o f the ' c o r r e c t ' a c t i o n t o be adopted. ( S c h o e f f l e r , 1955. p.193). The method r e s u l t s i n r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s to the extent t h a t each o f these steps i s c o m pletely accomplished. The s y n o p t i c model of r a t i o n a l decision-making i s not w i t h -out i t s p r a c t i c a l problems, however. To begin w i t h , ' r a t i o n a l ' , l i k e ' b e a u t i f u l ' and •sensible', i s o f t e n used as a r e l a t i v e terra which may be a p p r e c i a t e d o n l y i n the c o n t e x t of a s p e c i f i e d s e t o f v a l u e s . Two persons whose value s t r u c t u r e s and m o t i v a t i o n s are a l i k e may judge each other's a c t i o n s as r a t i o n a l or i r r a t i o n a l ; but i n d i v i d u a l s having d i f f e r i n g values cannot do so. What seems eminently r a t i o n a l to one person may seem not so 23 t o another, not because of the a c t i o n i t s e l f ; b u t be-cause the a c t i o n i s being e v a l u a t e d i n the context o f a d i f f e r e n t s e t of v a l u e s . Assuming f o r the moment t h a t we a l l h o l d the same val u e s and, hence, t h a t we may a l l judge each other's r a t i o n a l i t y o b j e c t i v e l y , i t i s s t i l l v e r y d i f f i c u l t to a c h i e v e p e r f e c t r a t i o n a l i t y i n decision-making. I n order to be p e r f e c t l y r a t i o n a l , d e c i s i o n s must not be made i g -n o r a n t l y (based on mistakes i n the f a c t s c o n s i d e r e d or omission o f a v a i l a b l e r e l e v a n t f a c t s ) , i l l o g i c a l l y (based on erroneous deductions or p r e d i c t i o n s from the f a c t s con-s i d e r e d ) , b l i n d l y ( i g n o r i n g a t l e a s t some o f the value a f f e c t e d consequences of the a c t i o n ) , or r a s h l y (adopted a f t e r an incomplete c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the v a r i o u s a l t e r -n a t i v e s o f a c t i o n t h a t may be a v a i l a b l e ) . ( S c h o e f f l e r , 1955, p . l90)» However, few of us have had experience w i t h d e c i s i o n s t h a t were made without one or more of these de-f e c t s . Western economic t h e o r y and p o l i t i c a l t heory were d e v i s e d by men who were pursuaded by the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y b e l i e f i n the r a t i o n a l i t y of man and generated t h e o r i e s t h a t emphasized the i n d i v i d u a l s c a p a c i t y f o r a c t i n g r a -t i o n a l l y i n p u r s u i n g h i s own s e l f - i n t e r e s t and happiness. I t has become apparent, however, t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s do behave i r r a t i o n a l l y and, i n some cas e s , may make d e c i s i o n s e x t r a -r a t i o n a l l y — t h r o u g h the use of e x t r a - s e n s o r y p e r c e p t i o n , f o r example. (Dror, 1968, p.15^). 2k The shortcomings o f the s y n o p t i c model have been summarized by J e f f r e y Pressman; they i n c l u d e : a. The d i f f i c u l t y o f t h i n k i n g o f and e v a l u a t i n g every a l t e r n a t i v e course o f a c t i o n . b. T h e . n e c e s s i t y o f examining each consequence o f each a l t e r n a t i v e . A systems view o f the world i m p l i e s t h a t t h i s e v a l u a t i o n i s im-p o s s i b l e because every p o l i c y d e c i s i o n w i l l have too many consequences f o r anyone to e v a l u a t e i n t h e i r e n t i r e l i f e t i m e . c. The d i f f i c u l t y o f a n t i c i p a t i n g f u t u r e consequences i n the c o n t e x t of r a p i d t e c h n o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l change. d. The problem of d e c i d i n g whose l i s t i n g o f values w i l l be used t o rank the r e l a t i v e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f v a r i o u s consequences. Pressman concluded t h a t s y n o p t i c decision-making i s not a c c u r a t e as a d e s c r i p t i o n of how man d e c i d e s , and i s not an e n t i r e l y worthy statement on how a man s h o u l d d e c i d e . (Pressman, 1970, p.275J. D e c i s i o n Models: S a t i s f i c i n g One of the outcomes of the d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e o r i s t s w i t h the s y n o p t i c decision-making model has been the s u g g e s t i o n of a ' s a t i s f i c i n g * model. S i n c e the i n d i v i -d ual's r a t i o n a l i t y i s l i m i t e d by h i s unconscious s k i l l s , h a b i t s , and r e f l e x e s , h i s values and conceptions of purpose, and the extent o f h i s knowledge, he must r e p l a c e the :: r a t i o n a l - c o m p r e h e n s i v e g o a l of maximizing ( f i n d i n g the best course of a c t i o n ) w i t h the r e l a t i v e l y modest g o a l o f ' s a t i s f i c i n g ' ( f i n d i n g a course o f " a c t i o n which i s merely 'good enough'). 25 A c c o r d i n g to the s a t i s f i c i n g model proposed by Herbert A. Simon ( 1 9 5 7 )» d e c i s i o n s are made i n the con t e x t of a s e t o f c r i t e r i a which d e s c r i b e s m i n i m a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y a l t e r n a t i v e s ; the a l t e r n a t i v e s e l e c t e d i s the f i r s t one which meets or exceeds a l l the c r i t e r i a . D e c i s i o n s are made t o meet the needs o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a decision-making s i t u a t i o n , a f t e r t a k i n g i n t o account the i n f o r m a t i o n about g o a l s , r e s o u r c e s , and a l t e r n a t i v e courses o f a c t i o n t h a t i t i s f e a s i b l e f o r them to assemble. Hence, the s a t i s -f i c i n g model, w h i l e s t i l l a c c e p t i n g t h a t comprehensive r a t i o n a l i t y i s the h i g h e s t form o f problem s o l v i n g , holds t h a t decision-makers do not look f o r new a l t e r n a t i v e s a f t e r they have found one t h a t they c o n s i d e r s a t i s f a c t o r y . One of the i m p l i c a t i o n s i s t h a t decision-makers do not look beyond e x i s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l g o a l s and r e s o u r c e s ; another i s t h a t the s e a r c h f o r i n f o r m a t i o n about a l t e r n a t i v e s and consequences i s terminated when a mode o f o p e r a t i o n i s d i s c o v e r e d t h a t w i l l s a t i s f y the o b j e c t i v e s t h a t seem t o be i n d i c a t e d i n the s i t u a t i o n . The s a t i s f i c i n g model i s not without i t s c r i t i c s ; c r i t i c i s m has been l e v e l l e d on the grounds t h a t e f f i c i e n t d e c i s i o n s must be b e t t e r than 'good enough', and t h a t decision-makers s h o u l d not be content t o accept o r g a n i -z a t i o n a l g o a l s w holesale, or to formulate p o l i c i e s on the b a s i s . o f o n l y a p o r t i o n o f the r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n . 26 D e c i s i o n Models: Incrementalism The model of d i s j o i n t e d i n c r e m e n t a l i s m proposed by Lindblom (1959) and Braybrooke and Lindblom (I963) takes s a t i s f i c i n g to an extreme. The r a t i o n a l - c o m p r e h e n s i v e method o f decision-making i s i m p o s s i b l e , Lindblom contends, because i t assumes i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a b i l i t i e s and sources of i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t men do not possess. Time and money i s always l i m i t e d , so the method i s not workable f o r complex d e c i s i o n s . Lindblom proposes a model o f s u c c e s s i v e l i m i t e d comparisons, or i n c r e m e n t a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , wherein simp-l i f i c a t i o n i s a c h i e v e d through l i m i t a t i o n o f p o l i c y com-p a r i s o n s t o those p o l i c i e s t h a t d i f f e r i n . r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l degree from p o l i c i e s a l r e a d y i n e f f e c t , and by i g n o r i n g important p o s s i b l e consequences of p o s s i b l e p o l i c i e s , as w e l l as the values a t t a c h e d to the n e g l e c t e d consequences. The i n c r e m e n t a l i s t model' d i f f e r s from the s a t i s -f i c i n g model i n t h a t i t r e j e c t s the assumption t h a t pure r a t i o n a l i t y i s the b e s t method f o r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . S i n c e d e c i s i o n s t h a t depart r a d i c a l l y from p r e v i o u s d e c i s i o n s are d i f f i c u l t t o e v a l u a t e i n terms of consequences, and s i n c e most p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s w i l l cause o n l y ' a s m a l l o v e r a l l change i n the s t a t u s quo, decision-makers tend to 'muddle through*5 to Lindblom, t h i s c o n s t i t u t e s a more e f f e c t i v e use o f decision-making r e s o u r c e s . The i n c r e m e n t a l model d e s c r i b e s a c t u a l decision-making b e h a v i o r much more ac-c u r a t e l y than e i t h e r the s y n o p t i c model or the s a t i s f i c i n g model, and so has gained c o n s i d e r a b l e p o p u l a r i t y . The 27 a c c e l e r a t i n g r a t e o f change t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s our society-c r e a t e s a c l i m a t e f a v o r a b l e to c o n s e r v a t i s m and c a u t i o u s i n c r e m e n t a l i s m ; a t the same time,,however, i t makes such models p r o g r e s s i v e l y l e s s u s e f u l i n determining p o l i c y . Some c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f o v e r a l l p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n would seem e s s e n t i a l i n the co n t e x t o f a s o c i e t y which i s changing as r a p i d l y as t h a t d e s c r i b e d by A l v i n T o f f l e r i n Future Shock ( 1 9 7 0 ) , Yehezkel Dror has c a l l e d Lindblom's th e o r y "an i d e o l o g i c a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t o f the p r o - i n e r t i a and a n t i -i n n o v a t i o n f o r c e s p r e v a l e n t i n a l l human o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and p o l i c y making." (Dror, 1 9 6 4 , p. 1 5 5 ) . The Role o f I n f o r m a t i o n The o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s b r i e f review of three d e c i s i o n models i s not to devise an optimum s t r a t e g y which i s p o s s i b l e , or f o r t h a t matter, d e s i r a b l e , o f attainment. The review does, however, serve t o focus a t t e n t i o n on some o f the c r u c i a l determinants of r a t i o n a l i t y i n decision-making. In the s y n o p t i c model, r a t i o n a l i t y i s achieved by i d e n -t i f y i n g a problem, c l a r i f y i n g and r a n k i n g g o a l s , l i s t i n g means t o achieve g o a l s , a s s e s s i n g the c o s t s and b e n e f i t s of the a l t e r n a t i v e means, and s e l e c t i n g a package of go a l s and a s s o c i a t e d p o l i c i e s which w i l l a l l e v i a t e the problem. In the s a t i s f i c i n g model, comprehensiveness i s not a t -tempted} d e c i s i o n s are made on the b a s i s o f the i n f o r m a t i o n which i t i s f e a s i b l e to c o l l e c t under the ci r c u m s t a n c e s , Incrementalism i s a r e j e c t i o n o f comprehensive r a t i o n a l i t y 28 because of the c o s t s ( i n money and time) of c o m p i l i n g s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n to r e a c h a d e c i s i o n . I f i t can be assumed t h a t the soundness o f a de-c i s i o n and hence i t s a c c e p t a b i l i t y t o both the p u b l i c and the l e g i s l a t u r e , i n c r e a s e s as the decision-making process approaches the model of comprehensive, or s y n o p t i c , r a -t i o n a l i t y , i t would seem t h a t the q u a l i t y of the d e c i s i o n s i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y o f the i n f o r m a t i o n on which the d e c i s i o n i s based. T h i s r e l a t i o n -s h i p e x i s t s i n s o f a r as the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e decision-making process i s concerned; i t i s a l s o r e l e v a n t to the d e c i s i o n -making o f every i n d i v i d u a l who i s faced w i t h a c h o i c e among a l t e r n a t i v e programs proposed by a p u b l i c agency. The more i n f o r m a t i o n the agency po s s e s s e s , the wider the range o f a l t e r n a t i v e s i t can propose f o r meeting s o c i e t a l g o a l s ; and the more i n f o r m a t i o n the i n d i v i d u a l p o s s e s s e s , the more sound w i l l be h i s e v a l u a t i o n o f , and e v e n t u a l c h o i c e from, the a l t e r n a t i v e s proposed. Anthony Downs p o s t u l a t e s t h a t c i t i z e n s a c q u i r e p o l i t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n to h e l p them decide how to vote and to form o p i n i o n s w i t h which they can i n f l u e n c e government p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n be-tween e l e c t i o n s . P o l i t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s u s e f u l to c i t i z e n s because i t enables them to have s p e c i f i c p r e f e r e n c e s , which i n t u r n i n f l u e n c e government p o l i c i e s t h a t a f f e c t them. The more i n f o r m a t i o n a c i t i z e n has, the more i n f l u e n c e over government p o l i c y he i s l i k e l y to e x e r c i s e . C o n v e r s e l y , the l e s s a c i t i z e n knows about p o l i c y a l t e r n a t i v e s , the more l i k e l y i t i s t h a t government w i l l i g n o r e him i n making d e c i s i o n s . (Downs, 1 9 5 9 , p.2^9). C r i t e r i a f o r I n f o r m a t i o n G e n e r a t i o n The i n i t i a l c h a p t e r o f t h i s study has d e s c r i b e d a s i t u a t i o n wherein the demand f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n oppor-t u n i t i e s throughout the western world i s growing r a p i d l y . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s , the o p e r a t i o n o f which has been d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r , w i l l be attempting t o d e a l w i t h the demands of a complex, p l u r a l i s t i c s o c i e t y w i t h a v a r i e t y o f g o a l s and a s p i r a t i o n s i n the sphere o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n . The i n t e n t o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s to pro-pose a s e t o f c r i t e r i a f o r the o p e r a t i o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e agencies i n t h i s p r o c e s s , which w i l l permit the achievement o f o p t i m a l d e c i s i o n s by decision-makers concerned w i t h . the p r o v i s i o n o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The proposed c r i t e r i a d e a l w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n g e n e r a t i o n . P l a n n i n g has been d e f i n e d as "an a c t i v i t y concerned w i t h the s y s t e -matic c o l l e c t i o n , a n a l y s i s , o r g a n i z a t i o n , and p r o c e s s i n g o f t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n to f a c i l i t a t e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g " . ( D r i v e r , 1 9 7 0 , p . 1 9 7 ) . While the a d j e c t i v e ' t e c h n i c a l ' may cause h e s i t a n c y among some plan n e r s to ac c e p t t h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e i r r o l e s , most planners are a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y i n v o l v e d i n the i n f o r m a t i o n g e n e r a t i o n p r o c e s s ; t h e i r r o l e i s o f c r u c i a l importance because "the nature and the q u a l i t y o f the i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by plan n e r s and the manner i n 3 0 which i t i s p r o v i d e d p l a y s a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t i n d e t e r -mining what d e c i s i o n s w i l l be made and how they w i l l be implemented". ( D r i v e r , 1 9 7 0 , p . 1 9 9 ) . The c r i t e r i a proposed assume t h a t p u b l i c agencies generate i n f o r m a t i o n f o r two groups of • c l i e n t s * . I n one case, a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and plan n e r s are c a l l e d upon by-p o l i t i c a l , decision-makers to p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on the b a s i s o f which c h o i c e s among p o l i c i e s may be made by those decision-makers.. They are i n t e r e s t e d i n the v a r i o u s a l t e r -n a t i v e s which are a v a i l a b l e to achieve a g i v e n g o a l , and the l i k e l y consequences o f the c h o i c e o f each a l t e r n a t i v e . I n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d to the c o s t s and e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p o l i c i e s i s of primary concern. On the other hand, p u b l i c agencies may p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r . p u b l i c consumption, i n order t h a t members of the p u b l i c may form o p i n i o n s and i n f l u e n c e government p o l i c y f ormation i n d e s i r e d d i r e c t i o n s . Such mechanisms as p u b l i c hearings i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e the r o l e o f c i t i z e n s i n p o l i c y formation; however, the amount and q u a l i t y o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s a v a i l a b l e t o c i t i z e n s w i l l determine t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree t h e i r a b i l i t y t o par-t i c i p a t e e f f e c t i v e l y . The f i r s t c r i t e r i o n concerns the focus o f the i n f o r -mation g e n e r a t i o n phase of decision-making. To begin w i t h , p u b l i c agencies s h o u l d have s p e c i f i e d g o als towards which t h e i r p o l i c i e s are o r i e n t e d ; p l a n n i n g and decision-making processes should f u n c t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to agency g o a l s , e s t a b l i s h e d by p o l i t i c a l decision-makers to guide agency 31 . p o l i c i e s and programs. I n f o r m a t i o n generated about p o l i c y and program d e c i s i o n s s h o u l d d e a l with how w e l l a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c i e s and programs w i l l meet such g o a l s . O'Riordan, commenting on goals f o r m u l a t i o n i n r e s o u r c e management, has observed t h a t goals have not g e n e r a l l y been formulated by c l e a r , r a t i o n a l l o g i c a l debate i n v o l v i n g a l l groups concerned, but u s u a l l y have ev o l v e d from a complex h i s t o r y o f vaguely-expressed, p u b l i c o p i n i o n , f a u l t y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , and p o l i t i c a l opportunism. (O'Riordan, 1971, p.111). The f i r s t c r i t e r i o n suggested concerns t h i s matter o f goals f o r m u l a t i o n and i n f o r m a t i o n g e n e r a t i o n . C r i t e r i o n One: Does the agency generate i n f o r -mation about p r o j e c t s and programs i n r e l a t i o n t o g o a l s e s t a b l i s h e d by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the p u b l i c through a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p r o c e s s ? Another c r i t e r i o n d e a l s w i t h the scope o f the i n f o r m a t i o n g e n e r a t i o n p r o c e s s . In the area o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s and environmental q u a l i t y management, i t i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y apparent t h a t a h o l i s t i c approach, which takes i n t o account the S5'stems i n t e r a c t i o n s between v a r i o u s components of the -environment and the human element, i s n e c e s s a r y f o r s u c c e s s f u l p l a n n i n g . In most government j u r i s d i c t i o n s , s p e c i a l i z e d government departments w i t h t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e 'experts' have been d e l e g a t e d the respon-s i b i l i t y f o r r e s o u r c e management. For example, Departments o f A g r i c u l t u r e employ agronomists and a g r i c u l t u r a l economists to d e a l w i t h a g r i c u l t u r a l problems, while Departments o f Lands and F o r e s t s employ lan d use planners and f o r e s t e r s 32 and Departments of Mines and M i n e r a l s employ g e o l o g i s t s and, i n A l b e r t a , petroleum g e o l o g i s t s . I t has become apparent t h a t such a compartmentalized view has o f t e n f a i l e d t o d e a l w i t h the problems a t hand, d e s p i t e major i n p u t s o f e x p e r t i s e ( S e w e l l , 1971) and the approach i s being c h a l l e n g e d by the p u b l i c on the grounds that., r e a l i t y i s not composed o f a number of d i s c r e t e f a c e t s which can be d e a l t w i t h i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f each o t h e r . Rather, i t i s composed o f a number o f i n t e r l o c k i n g systems, and more comprehensive approaches t o n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e management have been sug-g e s t e d . M u l t i d i s c i p l i n a r y teams and committees, such as A l b e r t a ' s C o n s e r v a t i o n and U t i l i z a t i o n Committee ( e s t a b -l i s h e d under the Environment C o n s e r v a t i o n Act) and the in t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l Peace-Athabasca D e l t a P r o j e c t (Peace-Athabasca D e l t a P r o j e c t , 1972) are examples of the more comprehensive approach. I n terms o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g i n A l b e r t a , a h o l i s t i c p l a n n i n g approach would generate i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o both demand f o r , and su p p l y o f , the e n t i r e range o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s i n the p r o v i n c e . I n a d d i t i o n , the e f f e c t s o f n o n - r e c r e a t i o n a l use o f s u i t -a ble r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s would be e x p l o r e d , as w e l l as the c o s t s and b e n e f i t s o f u s i n g n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s w i t h other kinds o f p o t e n t i a l , f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n . The s p a t i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s o f the p r o v i n c i a l parks system w i t h the highway network, w i t h the p r o v i n c i a l s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n , and w i t h the network of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s 33 p r o v i d e d by other agencies would a l s o be i n v e s t i g a t e d . The p e r c e p t i o n o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n as a component of a n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s system, a f f e c t i n g other r e s o u r c e users and being a f f e c t e d by them, i s the key to the comprehensive approach suggested here'. T h i s a n a l y s i s suggests: C r i t e r i o n Two: Does the agency approach the problem o f managing r e s o u r c e s f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i n a comprehensive f a s h i o n , t a k i n g i n t o account the e f f e c t s o f p o l i c i e s and programs on other agencies and other components o f the n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s e n v i r -onment? In an u n c e r t a i n w o r l d , r a t i o n a l decision-makers a c q u i r e o n l y a l i m i t e d amount of i n f o r m a t i o n b e f o r e making c h o i c e s . I n f o r m a t i o n i s l i m i t e d due to the sheer working time involved, i n a n a l y z i n g ' t h e agency's environment and -assessing the advantages and disadvantages t h a t may be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each s e t of go a l s and p o l i c i e s , as w e l l as the c o s t s o f t h i s working time i n terms o f l o s t oppor-t u n i t i e s f o r work on other p r o j e c t s . E x p l i c i t d e c i s i o n s are made as to the d u r a t i o n and focus o f the i n f o r m a t i o n g e n e r a t i o n phase o f decision-making; the t h i r d c r i t e r i o n d e a l s w i t h the importance a t t a c h e d to the i n f o r m a t i o n g e n e r a t i o n phase o f decision-making by the agency. C r i t e r i o n Three: Are r e s o u r c e s made a v a i l a b l e and used e f f e c t i v e l y t o generate i n f o r m a t i o n about the c h o i c e s t h a t are a v a i l a b l e f o r meeting the agency's g o a l s ? The f o u r t h c r i t e r i o n concerns the range of the se a r c h f o r a l t e r n a t i v e ways of meeting agency goals and o b j e c t i v e s , 3 u . and the extent t o which i n f o r m a t i o n on these a l t e r n a t i v e s i s made a v a i l a b l e . Commenting on the r o l e o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n i n d i v i d u a l decision-making, Anthony Downs suggests t h a t a l l r e p o r t i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n i s b i a s e d because the r e p o r t e r must s e l e c t o n l y a p o r t i o n o f the extant f a c t s to pass on t o h i s audience. At the same time, the r a t i o n a l c i t i z e n keeps p r o p e r l y w e l l - i n f o r m e d by s y s t e m a t i c a l l y exposing h i m s e l f to a p a r t i c u l a r s e t of i n f o r m a t i o n sources he has chosen f o r t h i s purpose. (Downs, 1959 1 p.207-8). Downs goes on to d e s c r i b e a p e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t i o n process wherein c i t i z e n s seek i n f o r m a t i o n sources which focus t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on c e r t a i n r e l e v a n t areas o f know-ledge, i n order to minimize the marginal c o s t o f each b i t o f i n f o r m a t i o n . Each s e l e c t s a few ga t e r h e r s and t r a n s -m i t t e r s o f i n f o r m a t i o n and molds them i n t o a p e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n a c q u i s i t i o n system. The system s h o u l d have the proper b i a s , t h a t i s , i t sho u l d y i e l d i n f o r m a t i o n which i s compatible w i t h the c i t i z e n ' s s e t of v a l u e s ; each b i t o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d through the system w i l l have been generated by sources s e l e c t e d by the c i t i z e n because o f t h e i r b i a s . I n a d d i t i o n , the system s h o u l d be w e l l - f o c u s s e d , p r o v i d e adequate but not s u p e r f l u o u s i n f o r m a t i o n , and c o n t a i n some i n t e r n a l p l u r a l i t y . S e v e r a l f a c t o r s may i n t e r f e r e w i t h the g e n e r a t i o n o f such i n f o r m a t i o n by an agency, and thereby l i m i t the number of c i t i z e n s who may o b t a i n u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n from the agency. For example, i n f o r m a t i o n g e n e r a t i o n may have 3 5 : h i g h p o l i t i c a l c o s t s f o r an agency i f i t n e c e s s i t a t e s o v e r l a p p i n g i n t o the p e r c e i v e d j u r i s d i c t i o n o f another agency. The 'domain concensus' apparatus p r o v i d e s s t a -b i l i t y and reduces u n c e r t a i n t y w i t h i n government bureau-c r a c i e s \ the j u r i s d i c t i o n w i t h i n which each agency may e x e r c i s e e x c l u s i v e a u t h o r i t y i s mutually r e c o g n i z e d and r e s p e c t e d . As a r e s u l t o f such l i m i t a t i o n s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s o f t e n c u t o f f t h e i r s e arch f o r i n f o r m a t i o n about problems, goals or p o l i c i e s when they d i s c o v e r a mode of o p e r a t i o n t h a t w i l l i n v o l v e the l e a s t profound change i n t h e i r e s t a b -l i s h e d programs. They s e a r c h u n t i l they f i n d a s o l u t i o n t h a t w i l l p r o v i d e r e l i e f from p e r c e i v e d d i f f i c u l t i e s without d i s t u r b i n g the balance t h a t e x i s t s among agency, l e g i s l a t o r s , and those members of the p u b l i c who i n v o l v e themselves i n the agency's a f f a i r s . Thus, i n e r a d i c a b l e ignorance may remain even a f t e r an o r g a n i z a t i o n has i n v e s t e d a g r e a t d e a l of i t s member's time and has r i s k e d o f f e n d i n g i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n and i t s environment by l o o k i n g i n t o areas t h a t are p o l i t i c a l l y s e n s i t i v e . (Sharkansky, 1972, p.46). That r e s o u r c e managers themselves may not be able to r e p r e s e n t the f u l l range o f s o c i e t a l values i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n s has been suggested by numerous o b s e r v e r s . Re-sources geographer G i l b e r t F. White contends t h a t : At the h e a r t o f managing a n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e i s the manager's p e r c e p t i o n o f the resource and the c h o i c e s open to him i n d e a l i n g w i t h i t , ( T h i s i s ) a d e f i n i t i o n : n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s are tkaen t o be c u l t u r a l l y d e f i n e d , d e c i s i o n s are regarded as c h o i c e s among perceived a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r b r i n g i n g about change, and any choice persumes a view of the resource together w i t h preferences i n outcome and methods. (Vv'hite, 1966, p. 1 0 5 ) . To supplement t h e i r own p e r c e p t i o n s , resource manage-ment decision-makers g e n e r a l l y seek i n f o r m a t i o n from members of t h e i r s t a f f . This procedure i s not without i t s hazards, as O'Riordan has noted: The range of a l t e r n a t i v e s which w i l l be considered depends to a considerable extent upon the manner i n which the d e c i s i o n maker r e c e i v e s i n f o r m a t i o n about the problem, the source of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n (whether d i r e c t i v e or i n d u c t i v e ) and h i s own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , t h a t i s , the use t o which he w i l l put t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n when making h i s ch o i c e . . . . In the absence of personal i n v e s t i g a t i o n (which o f t e n i s i m p o s s i b l e ) , the d e c i s i o n -maker i s confronted by a s e l e c t i v e l y d i r e c t e d form of i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t a t i o n , which tends to d i s t o r t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the problem and encourages the s e l e c t i o n of c e r t a i n s t r a t e g i e s at the .expense and even p o s s i b l e e x c l u s i o n of others. . . . There i s no doubt th a t the i n f l u e n c e of forces which e i t h e r i n h i b i t or promote a wider e v a l u a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s i s v i t a l i n determining the outcome of the f i n a l d e c i s i o n . (O'Riordan, 1971, p.114). The relevance of O'Riordan's p o i n t i s th a t the d e c i s i o n -maker's choice may be to some degree predetermined by the a l t e r n a t i v e s presented to him by whatever sources of in f o r m a t i o n he uses. There i s growing i n d i c a t i o n that the p u b l i c i s not s a t i s f i e d t h a t t h e i r views are being ade-quat e l y represented to decision-makers by the p r o f e s s i o n a l personnel who u s u a l l y advise them. O'Riordan p o i n t s out that " p o l i t i c a l and t e c h n i c a l judgments i n resource manage-ment are not i n f r e q u e n t l y based on f l i m s y assumptions as to 37 what the p u b l i c wants and should g e t . I t i s no wonder t h a t i n s i t u a t i o n s where aims are vague and ambiguous, p o l i t i c a l expediency and economic opportunism i s r i f e . " (O'Riordan, 1971» p.111). The f o u r t h c r i t e r i o n deals w i t h the g e n e r a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n u s e f u l t o c i t i z e n s w i t h a range of biases,; and to decision-makers who may not them-s e l v e s be aware of the range o f s o c i e t a l v a l u e s . C r i t e r i o n Four: Does the agency p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s do so to the extent t h a t the f u l l range o f s o c i e t a l v a l u e s i s r e f l e c t e d i n the a r r a y of i n f o r m a t i o n generated? F i n a l l y , the q u e s t i o n of communication of i n f o r -mation i s of c o n s i d e r a b l e importance. To be r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e t o the widest p o s s i b l e range of u s e r s , i n f o r -mation would be compiled and made a v a i l a b l e i n v a r y i n g degrees of comprehensiveness through v a r i o u s media. While summary statements would be e s s e n t i a l f o r decision-makers or i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h l i m i t e d time, complete background i n f o r m a t i o n would nonetheless be a v a i l a b l e as w e l l . The l a s t c r i t e r i o n . p e r m i t s an e v a l u a t i o n o f the communication phase of i n f o r m a t i o n g e n e r a t i o n . C r i t e r i o n F i v e : Does the agency achieve a wide d i s t r i b u t i o n of a range of i n f o r m a t i o n through the use of the w r i t t e n and spoken media, p u b l i c meetings, h e a r i n g s , or other communication d e v i c e s ? The O b j e c t i v e of P u b l i c Decision-Making i n Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n .. To t h i s p o i n t , decision-making has been d i s c u s s e d i n terms of i t s ' r a t i o n a l i t y ' , i t s 'soundness', while the 38 u l t i m a t e o b j e c t i v e of decision-making has not been d i s -cussed* The o v e r a l l g o a l of decision-making where any p u b l i c s e r v i c e or p r o j e c t i s designed or executed i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t might be d e s c r i b e d as ' s o c i a l o p t i m i z a t i o n ' . The net b e n e f i t s o c i e t y d e r i v e s from a p u b l i c program or p r o j e c t i s the sum of the b e n e f i t s each i n d i v i d u a l i n s o c i e t y b e l i e v e s he r e c e i v e s from the program or p r o j e c t , l e s s the sum of a l l the c o s t s each i n d i v i d u a l i n s o c i e t y b e l i e v e s he experiences from the program or p r o j e c t . Costs and b e n e f i t s , i n the sense i n t e n d e d here, i n c l u d e , i n a d d i t i o n t o economic c o s t s and b e n e f i t s , s o c i a l , e n v i r o n -mental, p o l i t i c a l , and other types of e f f e c t s . ' S o c i a l o p t i m i z a t i o n ' would i n v o l v e the maximization o f the net b e n e f i t s ( t o t a l b e n e f i t s minus t o t a l c o s t s ) , as they are d e s c r i b e d above. T h i s study w i l l be p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h the ' b e n e f i t maximization' component o f ' s o c i a l o p t i m i z a t i o n ' i n outdoor r e c r e a t i o n d e cision-making. Data p e r m i t t i n g an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the decision-making process i n terms of maximizing b e n e f i t s to A l b e r t a n s was a v a i l a b l e f o r the study. A more comprehensive a n a l y s i s , i n c l u d i n g the i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f both d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t ( o p p o r t u n i t y ) c o s t s , of op-t i m i z i n g i n outdoor r e c r e a t i o n d e c i s i o n s would have r e q u i r e d more d e t a i l e d r e s e a r c h and data c o l l e c t i o n , and would be more p r o p e r l y the scope o f a l a r g e r study. The r o l e o f b e h a v i o r a l and a t t i t u d i n a l data on outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i n the c o n t e x t of t h i s s t u d y , i s , then, to p r o v i d e an i n d i c a t o r 39 o f how w e l l the agency i n q u e s t i o n , the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n , has maximized the b e n e f i t s p e r c e i v e d by members of A l b e r t a s o c i e t y from i t s programs. The f o l l o w i n g chapters o f t h i s study w i l l e s t a b l i s h a framework wherein c r i t e r i a f o r i n f o r m a t i o n g e n e r a t i o n proposed above may be a p p l i e d i n an a c t u a l p l a n n i n g s i t -u a t i o n . F i r s t , the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e environment f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g i n A l b e r t a w i l l be d e s c r i b e d . Secondly, the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n o f the A l b e r t a Department o f Lands and F o r e s t s w i l l be d e s c r i b e d i n terms o f the e v o l u t i o n of the p r o v i n c i a l parks system, p e r s o n n e l and f i n a n c i n g o f the agency, the o p e r a t i o n of the p l a n n i n g s e c t i o n , and the e x t e n t of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n agency d e c i s i o n s . F i n a l l y , to p r o v i d e c o n t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n on the a t t i t u d e s o f p r o -v i n c i a l r e s i d e n t s towards outdoor r e c r e a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e s , the r e s u l t s o f a survey o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n behavior and p e r c e p t i o n s c a r r i e d out i n one r e g i o n o f A l b e r t a i n 1972 w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . In the f i n a l c h a p t e r , the o p e r a t i o n of the i n f o r m a t i o n g e n e r a t i o n process i n the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n w i l l be e v a l u a t e d i n terms o f the f i v e c r i t e r i a proposed above. CHAPTER I I I ADMINISTRATION OF OUTDOOR RECREATION IN ALBERTA The A r r a y o f Agencies Governmental response i n . A l b e r t a t o the demand f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s has been t o organize a compartmentalized a r r a y o f agencies- w i t h the r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y f o r p r o v i d i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o the p u b l i c . The t a b l e on the f o l l o w i n g page d e p i c t s the a c t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n the ^ p r o v i n c e o f A l b e r t a . E i g h t separate p r o v i n c i a l government departments are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r some asp e c t o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i n the p r o v i n c e . None o f the departments has outdoor r e c r e a t i o n as i t s primary concern; r a t h e r , r e -c r e a t i o n i s a c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n c i d e n t a l l y accompanying the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r some other aspect o f the p r o v i n c e J s a f f a i r s . Thus, the Environmental H e a l t h D i v i s i o n o f the Department o f H e a l t h e n f o r c e s r e g u l a t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o the p r e v e n t i o n o f p o l l u t i o n o f watercourses and o f the atmosphere', and to the use of r e s e r v o i r s and sur r o u n d i n g areas f o r swimming. S i m i l a r l y , the P r o v i n c i a l P l a n n i n g A c t , a d m i n i s t e r e d by the Department o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , r e g u l a t e s the l o c a t i o n , s i z e , and shape of p a r c e l s o f l a n d r e s e r v e d f o r 40 4 1 TABLE I ADMINISTRATION IN OF OUTDOOR RECREATION ALBERTA Department i Agency C u l t u r e , Youth, and R e c r e a t i o n t R e c r e a t i o n Branch Environment : Water Resources D i v i s i o n Highways and T r a n s p o r t s Maintenance Branch I n d u s t r y and Tourism j A l b e r t a Government T r a v e l : Bureau Lands and F o r e s t s : A l b e r t a F o r e s t S e r v i c e : F i s h and W i l d l i f e D i v i s i o n : Lands D i v i s i o n P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s : F i e l d Surveys Branch t P r o v i n c i a l P l a n n i n g Branch P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y : C u l t u r a l Development Branch =: Museum and A r c h i v e s Branch H e a l t h s Environmental H e a l t h D i v i s i o n Source: Canadian C o u n c i l o f Resource M i n i s t e r s , 1 Q68. p u b l i c parks and r e c r e a t i o n areas when land i s l e g a l l y s u b d i v i d e d . R e g i o n a l and m u n i c i p a l plans drawn up pur-suant t o the p r o v i s i o n s o f the P l a n n i n g A c t may p r o v i d e f o r the r e s e r v a t i o n o f c e r t a i n p u b l i c roadways, parks, r e c r e a t i o n areas and other r e s e r v e s , f o r f u t u r e a c q u i -s i t i o n and development by l o c a l and p r o v i n c i a l government. Some Agencies and T h e i r A c t i v i t i e s Of the t h i r t e e n agencies enumerated i n Table 1, three are most d i r e c t l y concerned w i t h a c t i v e l y imple-menting outdoor r e c r e a t i o n p o l i c y i n the p r o v i n c e v i a the p r o v i s i o n and development o f f a c i l i t i e s . These i n c l u d e the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n and the A l b e r t a F o r e s t S e r v i c e , both w i t h i n the Department o f Lands and F o r e s t s , and the Maintenance Branch o f the Department o f Highways and T r a n s p o r t . A b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f the a c t i v i t i e s o f these• three agencies f o l l o w s . The Department o f Highways and T r a n s p o r t , i n con-j u n c t i o n w i t h i t s . e f f o r t s to c o n s t r u c t and ma i n t a i n h i g h q u a l i t y highway c o r r i d o r s throughout the p r o v i n c e , has become i n v o l v e d i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance of wayside campsites a l o n g p r o v i n c i a l highways. The Maintenance Branch o f the department develops s m a l l p a r c e l s o f l a n d a d j o i n i n g primary and secondary highways, which have been a c q u i r e d f o r such purposes by the department. The t y p i c a l l o c a t i o n f o r such a f a c i l i t y borders on a r i v e r b a n k c l o s e to the highway c r o s s i n g o f the r i v e r , or on a he i g h t o f l a n d from which an unusual view i s a f f o r d e d . To date, ^3 two hundred f o r t y - f o u r o f these campsites have been pro-v i d e d throughout A l b e r t a , r a n g i n g i n s i z e from l e s s than one to seventy-nine a c r e s . F a c i l i t i e s p r o v i d e d on the s i t e s u s u a l l y i n c l u d e one or more weather s h e l t e r s , w e l l or running water, p i c n i c t a b l e s , t e n t p l a t f o r m s , f i r e p l a c e s and firewood s u p p l y , and p i t t o i l e t s , a l l l o c a t e d on a w e l l - m a i n t a i n e d s i t e v i s i t e d r e g u l a r l y by maintenance crews. Use of the f a c i l i t i e s i s s e a s o n a l (snow i s not c l e a r e d from roadv/ay access t o the campsites i n w i n t e r ) and f r e e t o the p u b l i c . T able I I i s a c o m p i l a t i o n o f annual a p p r o p r i a t i o n s t o , and expenditures by, the Department o f Highways and T r a n s p o r t f o r i t s wayside campsite program, which was begun i n 1957• S u b s t a n t i a l amounts of money were spent on the program i n the e a r l y y e a r s , as the m a j o r i t y of the f a c i l i t i e s were being c o n s t r u c t e d ; i n r e c e n t years annual a p p r o p r i a t i o n s f o r the program have l e v e l l e d o f f , w h i l e expenditures continue to f l u c t u a t e from year to y e a r . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s program, the Department of Highways and T r a n s p o r t 'Roads to P r o v i n c i a l Parks' program r e c e i v e s s u b s t a n t i a l annual a p p r o p r i a t i o n s f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n and upgrading of access roads to p r o v i n c i a l parks. The program came, about through the Department's o v e r a l l p o l i c y of upgrading p r o v i n c i a l roads as g r i d roads and roads to r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s . The P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n e s t a b -l i s h e d p r i o r i t i e s f o r such roads, based on park user demands, and the Department o f Highways and T r a n s p o r t undertook 44 TABLE I I CAPITAL APPROPRIATIONS AND EXPENDITURES FOR WAYSIDE CAMPSITES ALBERTA DEPARTMENT OF HIGHWAYS & TRANSPORT F i s c a l Year Ending March 31, C a p i t a l A p p r o p r i a t i o n s C a p i t a l E x p e n ditures 1958 160,000.00 45,280.23 1959 470,000.00 219,630.31 I960 550,000.00 311,394.00 1961 600,000.00 369,026.74 1962 350,000.00 264,807.44 1963 185,000.00 176,674.62 1964 5,000.00 6,011.79 1965 5,000.00 — 1966 25,000.00 14,919.93 1967 25,000.00 17,947.53 1968 50,000.00 37,992.12 1969 50,000.00 30,932.55 1970 50,000.00 12,585.45 1971 50,000.00 8,826.46 1972 50,000.00 49,978.34 Source: A l b e r t a P u b l i c Accounts, 1958 t o 1972. 4 5 s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s i n t h i s schedule as such work c o u l d be c o - o r d i n a t e d w i t h other road programs i n the a r e a . Beginning i n the f i s c a l year 1966-67, annual a p p r o p r i a t i o n s of one m i l l i o n d o l l a r s were a l l o c a t e d to the 'Roads to P r o v i n c i a l Parks' program; the amount was i n c r e a s e d to $1,100,000 f o r 1969-70 and to $1,200,000 f o r the 1970-71 and 1971-72 f i s c a l y e a r s . ( A l b e r t a P u b l i c Accounts, 1967 to 1972). The A l b e r t a F o r e s t S e r v i c e , a d i v i s i o n of the Department o f Lands and F o r e s t s , develops and maintains outdoor r e c r e a t i o n areas i n the f o r e s t e d p o r t i o n s of the p r o v i n c e . T h i s Department i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the manage-ment of Crown-owned f o r e s t s and, i n keeping w i t h i t s mul-t i p l e use p o l i c y , has a u t h o r i z e d the A l b e r t a F o r e s t S e r v i c e to c o n s t r u c t f a c i l i t i e s f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l f o r e s t s . The agency s e l e c t s s c e n i c l o c a t i o n s a l o n g f o r e s t r y trunk roads which are open to the t r a v e l l i n g p u b l i c , and develops r u s t i c f a c i l i t i e s which are designed to b l e n d i n w i t h the f o r e s t environment. Weather s h e l t e r s , p i t t o i l e t s , t a b l e s , f i r e p l a c e s , and firewood, t e n t p l a t -forms, and d r i n k i n g water are p r o v i d e d . S i n c e a c q u i s i t i o n o f l a n d i s not a c o n s i d e r a t i o n , these r e c r e a t i o n areas are g e n e r a l l y l a r g e and only l i g h t l y developed; use i s s e a s o n a l and f r e e to the p u b l i c . The l a r g e r r e c r e a t i o n areas are s u p e r v i s e d by a r e s i d e n t c a r e t a k e r d u r i n g the summer months'. To.date, the A l b e r t a F o r e s t S e r v i c e has e s t a b l i s h e d n i n e t y -s i x outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s . 46 The Department of Lands and Forests i s also respon-s i b l e for the administration of the P r o v i n c i a l Parks Act (Revised Statutes of Alberta 1970 c. 288), the Willmore Wilderness Park Act (R.S.A. 1970 c. 392) and the Wilderness Areas Act (Statutes of Alberta 1971 c. 114). The p r o v i n c i a l parks system has i t s beginning i n 1932 with the establishment of Aspen Beach P r o v i n c i a l Park i n south c e n t r a l Alberta. A P r o v i n c i a l Parks p u b l i c i t y brochure describes the agency's purposes as follows: Since that time, i t has been the purpose of p r o v i n c i a l parks to provide active and passive recreation i n a s e t t i n g of natural beauty for the population of the province and i t s v i s i t o r s . The fundamental and important obligation i n the administration of parks i s to preserve from impairment a l l s i g n i f i c a n t objects and features of nature i n the park v/hile providing the opportunities for enjoyment of the park and i t s natural r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s ( s i c ) and developments i n perpetuity. ( P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n , 1972a). The Wilderness Areas Act, which received the assent of the Alberta l e g i s l a t u r e i n 1971, led to the establishment of three wilderness areas to the east of the National Parks i n the Rocky Mountains. Under the Act, these areas are protected from a l l a c t i v i t i e s which would impair t h e i r natural beauty and primeval character. No hunting, f i s h i n g or other consumptive use of recr e a t i o n a l resources i s permitted, and t r a v e l i s r e s t r i c t e d to persons on foot. No motorized vehicles, horses, or other pack animals are permitted. The Willmore Wilderness Park Act, o r i g i n a l l y passed k? . i n 1959» e s t a b l i s h e d a l a r g e ( 1 , 7 7 5 square m i l e s ) w i l d e r n e s s park to the n o r t h o f Jas p e r N a t i o n a l Park. The park i s d e d i c a t e d to the use of the people o f A l b e r t a f o r t h e i r b e n e f i t , e d u c a t i o n and enjoyment, s u b j e c t to t h i s Act-and the r e g u l a t i o n s , and s h a l l , by the management, c o n s e r v a t i o n , and pro-t e c t i o n o f i t s n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s and by the p r e s e r v a t i o n of i t s n a t u r a l beauty, be maintained f o r the enjoyment o f f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s . (R.S.A. 1971 c. 392 s. 4 ) . The Willmore Wilderness r e p r e s e n t s somewhat o f an anomaly i n the A l b e r t a parks system. The e n a b l i n g A c t does not a f f e c t the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and c o n t r o l o f mines and min e r a l s w i t h i n the area o f the park, and the p r o v i n c i a l C a b i n e t may i n c r e a s e or decrease the area o f the park by O r d e r - i n -C o u n c i l . When the development o f l a r g e c o a l d e p o s i t s i n the park became e c o n o m i c a l l y f e a s i b l e i n the l a t e 1960's, the C a b i n e t d i d , i n f a c t , decrease the area o f the park so tha t the c o a l mining s i t e no lon g e r l a y w i t h i n the park boundaries. The r o l e o f the e n t i r e Willmore w i l d e r n e s s Park i n the A l b e r t a park system i s p r e s e n t l y under review by the p r o v i n c i a l government. S i x c l a s s e s o f parks are p r e s e n t l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n the A l b e r t a p r o v i n c i a l parks system, and w i t h i n each c l a s s the parks are d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o purpose: 1. . Area s e t a s i d e f o r the e x c l u s i v e purpose o f s c i e n t i f i c study and f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n p u r s u i t s . 2 . Area s e t a s i d e f o r the primary purpose o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n . 48 3. Area s e t a s i d e f o r the purpose of m u l t i p l e use o f the re s o u r c e s with r e c r e a t i o n c o n s i d e r e d i n the o v e r a l l p i c t u r e as a c o - o r d i n a t e l a n d use. ( P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n , 1971). The s i x c l a s s e s o f parks i n c l u d e w i l d e r n e s s areas; h i s t o r i c , e t h n o l o g i c a l , or a r c h a e o l o g i c a l areas; unique n a t u r a l areas; n a t u r a l environment r e c r e a t i o n areas; s p e c i a l i z e d outdoor r e c r e a t i o n areas; and parkways. T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was d e v i s e d by the F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l Parks Conference t o f a c i l i t a t e comparison o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n and park pro-grams a c r o s s Canada. The components o f A l b e r t a ' s p r o v i n c i a l parks system are shown i n Table I I I , by c l a s s and type. The three park types are those d e f i n e d above. I n a d d i t i o n t o these p a r k s , l a n d r e s e r v e s d e s i g n a t e d by O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l under the P u b l i c Lands A c t (R.S.A. 1970 c. 297) f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n t o t a l l e d 73,241 a c r e s i n 1971. The e x t e n t o f development or p r e s e r v a t i o n of the areas w i t h i n each c l a s s depends upon the purpose f o r which i t ..-has been a c q u i r e d . Thus, the p r o v i n c e ' s f o u r w i l d e r n e s s areas are managed f o r the purpose o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n , w h i le the twenty-six h i s t o r i c a l areas are p r o t e c t e d i n order to ensure t h e i r s u r v i v a l f o r s c i e n t i f i c study. N a t u r a l environment r e c r e a t i o n areas and s p e c i a l i z e d outdoor r e -c r e a t i o n areas comprise the m a j o r i t y o f A l b e r t a ' s f o r t y - f i v e r e c r e a t i o n - o r i e n t e d i n t e n s i v e use parks. An entrance fee i s charged i n a l l but the s m a l l e r , undeveloped p r o v i n c i a l p arks, and a d d i t i o n a l fees are charged f o r connections t o u t i l i t i e s where they are a v a i l a b l e . Playgrounds f o r c h i l d r e n , outdoor 49 TABLE I I I PROVINCIAL PARKS BY TYPE AND IN ALBERTA CLASS Park C l a s s 1 Park Type 2 3 Wilderness areas 4/1.588,346 h i s t o r i c e t h n o l o g i c a l a r c h a e o l o g i c a l areas 26/203 unique n a t u r a l areas 9/83.369 n a t u r a l environment r e c r e a t i o n areas 16/52,725 s p e c i a l i z e d outdoor r e c r e a t i o n areas 27/8,143 parkways 1/253 Note: Number o f Farks precedes d i a g o n a l ; area of parks ( i n a c r e s ) f o l l o w s d i a g o n a l . Source: P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n , 1971. 50 l i g h t i n g , s h e l t e r s , t a b l e s , f i r e p l a c e s and firewood, running water, t o i l e t s , swimming and boat l a u n c h i n g f a c i l i t i e s , c o n c e s s i o n s , and f u l l - t i m e park wardens are a l l p a r t o f the s t a n d a r d park development. A time l i m i t o f f o u r t e e n days i s imposed on any v i s i t o r ' s s t a y i n a p r o v i n c i a l park. The parks are always open, and f a c i l i t i e s are g e n e r a l l y a v a i l a b l e from around the end of May to Labour Day weekend i n September, weather p e r m i t t i n g . The l o c a t i o n s o f A l b e r t a ' s f o u r l a r g e w i l d e r n e s s areas and f o r t y - f i v e p r o v i n c i a l parks are shown on F i g u r e 2 f o l l o w i n g . C o - o r d i n a t i o n o f Agencies A number o f arrangements have been made to c o - o r d i n a t e p r o v i n c i a l government e f f o r t s i n the f i e l d o f outdoor r e -c r e a t i o n . - W i t h i n the Department of Lands and F o r e s t s , a r e c r e a t i o n committee c o n s i s t i n g o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from agencies w i t h i n the department which have an i n t e r e s t i n r e c r e a t i o n , meets to d i s c u s s problems of mutual concern. For example, the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a p r o v i n c i a l park i n the f o r e s t zone o f the p r o v i n c e would e n t a i l . d i s c u s s i o n s between the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n and the A l b e r t a F o r e s t S e r v i c e , c o n c e r n i n g access to the park, f i r e r e g u l a t i o n s , and s i m i l a r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . At a somewhat broader l e v e l , the A l b e r t a Recreation. Committee was e s t a b l i s h e d i n I 9 6 8 to c o - o r d i n a t e a l l out-door r e c r e a t i o n matters i n the p r o v i n c e . The Committee i s composed of s e n i o r c i v i l s e r v a n t s r e p r e s e n t i n g the PROVINCE OF ALBERTAs HIGHWAY NETWORK, NATIONAL AND PROVINCIAL PARKS AND WILDERNESS AREAS, 19?2 (Source: A l b e r t a V i s i t o r s Guide, 1972) 52 Department o f Lands and F o r e s t s ; Highways; C u l t u r e , Youth, and R e c r e a t i o n ; I n d u s t r y and Tourism; A g r i c u l t u r e ; and o t h e r s . T h i s body i s p r i m a r i l y an i n f o r m a t i o n exchange group, which forms 'task f o r c e s ' to i n v e s t i g a t e and make p o l i c y recommendations to the C a b i n e t on s p e c i f i c i s s u e s and problem a r e a s . For example, a committee task f o r c e s t u d i e d the V i l l a g e Lake L o u i s e p r o p o s a l f o r B a n f f N a t i o n a l Park from the p r o v i n c e ' s p o i n t o f view, and recommended a p p r o p r i a t e p o l i c y t o the p r o v i n c i a l C a b i n e t on t h a t i s s u e . The C o n s e r v a t i o n and U t i l i z a t i o n Committee, e s t a b -l i s h e d under the Environment C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t (R.S.A. 1970 c, 125) i s another c o - o r d i n a t i n g body, which i n c l u d e s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from a range o f departments concerned w i t h resource management and p l a n n i n g i n the p r o v i n c e . The D i r e c t o r o f P r o v i n c i a l Parks i s a member o f the committee, and i s expected to c o - o r d i n a t e the a c t i v i t i e s o f h i s agency wi t h those o f other government departments where the use o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s i s concerned. I n f o r m a l communication between the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n and the Department of Highways and T r a n s p o r t o f t e n occurs w i t h r e s p e c t to re q u e s t s made to the former f o r the es t a b l i s h m e n t o f parks. Where the request concerns a reso u r c e which i s not c o n s i d e r e d s u i t a b l e f o r p r o v i n c i a l park s t a t u s , the request may be r e f e r r e d t o the Department of Highways and T r a n s p o r t f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n as a p o t e n t i a l s i t e f o r a wayside campsite. C o n s u l t a t i o n a l s o occurs r e g a r d i n g p r i o r i t i e s f o r the Department of Highways and 53 T r a n s p o r t 'Roads to P r o v i n c i a l Parks' program. D i s c u s s i o n While the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i n the p r o v i n c e o f . A l b e r t a would seem from Table I to be somewhat d i s p e r s e d , the bulk of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i t h r e s p e c t to the p r o v i s i o n of f a c i l i t i e s i s c e n t r e d i n the Maintenance Branch o f the Department o f Highways and T r a n s p o r t , and the A l b e r t a F o r e s t S e r v i c e and P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n o f the Department of Lands and F o r e s t s , Each o f the agencies approaches the problem o f p r o v i d i n g outdoor r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s from a d i f f e r e n t management p e r s p e c t i v e . S i m i l a r l y , each has a 'domain* i n which i t o p e r a t e s . Highway campsites and f o r e s t r e c r e a t i o n areas are p r o v i d e d by the Department o f Highways and T r a n s p o r t and the A l b e r t a F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e s p e c t i v e l y , as a ' s i d e l i n e ' t o t h e i r p r i n c i p a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The r a t i o n a l e behind t h e i r involvement i n outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i s p r i m a r i l y t h a t t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s are capable of main-t a i n i n g such r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s with a minimum o f departure from t h e i r u s u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ; the approach i s a pragmatic one. The domain c f the A l b e r t a F o r e s t S e r v i c e i s the 'green zone' of the p r o v i n c e : t h a t p o r t i o n of the p r o v i n c e which i s not a v a i l a b l e f o r s e t t l e m e n t . In managing the f o r e s t resource i n the best i n t e r e s t s of A l b e r t a n s , the agency has seen f i t to i n c l u d e outdoor r e -c r e a t i o n i n i t s management p o l i c y . S i m i l a r l y , the Department o f Highways and T r a n s p o r t has a f u n c t i o n a l r o l e i n the 5 4 p r o v i s i o n o f wayside campsites a d j o i n i n g primary and secondary highways i n the p r o v i n c e . Such f a c i l i t i e s can be e a s i l y maintained by highway maintenance crews i n the l i n e o f t h e i r normal d u t i e s . P o s i t i o n e d as they are w i t h i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e o f two l a r g e departments, these two agencies can be expected to r e f l e c t somewhat d i f f e r e n t management s t r a t e g i e s i n the p r o v i s i o n o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n oppor-t u n i t i e s . Undoubtedly, t h e i r e x i s t e n c e has an e f f e c t on the o p e r a t i o n o f the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n , which i s the only agency s p e c i f i c a l l y charged w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i n the p r o v i n c e . With two com-plementary agencies i n i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e environment, the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n ' s approach to outdoor r e -c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t y p r o v i s i o n i s i n e v i t a b l y m o d i f i e d . The next c h a p t e r d i s c u s s e s the o p e r a t i o n o f t h i s agency, and s p e c i f i c a l l y the i n f o r m a t i o n g e n e r a t i o n phase o f d e c i s i o n -making i n the agency. CHAPTER IV THE PROVINCIAL PARKS PLANNING PROCESS IN ALBERTA E v o l u t i o n o f the Parks System As has been mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , the f i r s t pro-v i n c i a l park i n A l b e r t a was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1932. The admin-i s t r a t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l parks p r i o r t o 1951 was the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the A l b e r t a Department o f P u b l i c Works; s i n c e t h a t department was a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p r o v i n c e ' s roads, the p r o v i n c i a l parks were maintained by the D i s t r i c t Road Engineers w i t h a very s m a l l supply o f funds. When r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r parks was t r a n s f e r r e d to the Department of Lands and F o r e s t s , there were twenty-four parks w i t h a t o t a l acreage o f 7,770 a c r e s . During the years immediately f o l l o w i n g 1951, there was r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e development i n the p r o v i n c i a l parks system, due to a shortage o f funds and p e r s o n n e l . Many of the parks had o r i g i n a l l y been developed as l o c a l outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s , and were p a t r o n i z e d ex-c l u s i v e l y by l o c a l r e s i d e n t s . F o l l o w i n g the t r a n s f e r o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r parks to the Department of Lands and F o r e s t s , l o c a l A d v i s o r y Committees f o r each p r o v i n c i a l park worked i n a v o l u n t e e r c a p a c i t y to prepare e s t i m a t e s , c o n t r a c t 55 56 work programs, and o b t a i n v o l u n t e e r l a b o u r f o r park programs. About t h i s time, i n c r e a s e d park patronage together w i t h a s h i f t i n the nature of patronage from p u r e l y l o c a l to p a r t i a l l y n o n - l o c a l l e d to the abandonment o f the l o c a l A d v i s o r y Committees. A d d i t i o n a l l e i s u r e time coupled w i t h improvements i n highway t r a n s p o r t a t i o n routes i n the p r o v i n c e had i n c r e a s e d p u b l i c awareness o f , and i n t e r e s t i n , the p r o v i n c i a l parks. At the same time, i n c r e a s i n g p r o v i n c i a l wealth due t o the flow of petroleum r o y a l t i e s i n t o the p r o v i n c i a l t r e a s u r y b e g i n n i n g i n 19^9 had made more funds a v a i l a b l e f o r development programs i n the p r o v i n c i a l parks and the a c q u i s i t i o n of some.new s i t e s f o r p a r k s . The P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n developed c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance c a p a b i l i t y , to the p o i n t where i t was p r o v i d i n g the e n t i r e range o f s e r v i c e s n e c e s s a r y f o r a d a p t i n g a-;, n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e i n t o an a t t r a c t i v e outdoor r e c r e a t i o n area and m a i n t a i n i n g i t f o r the use of v i s i t o r s . However, the growth o f s t a f f d i d not prove s u f f i c i e n t to a l l o w f o r the p r e - p l a n n i n g o f improvements or the s t a g i n g o f a d d i t i o n s to the parks system. A P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n r e p o r t o u t l i n i n g the h i s t o r y o f park development i n A l b e r t a notes t h a t The tremendous upsurge i n patronage r e q u i r e d an i n c r e a s e i n s u p e r v i s i o n as w e l l as an • added need f o r f a c i l i t i e s . However, the growth of s t a f f p e r s o n n e l was not s u f f i c i e n t to a l l o w f o r p r e - p l a n n i n g o f improvements, buy merely p l a n n i n g approved improvements f o r which money was a p p r o p r i a t e d . ( P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n , 1972b). 57 The expansion o f the park system to i t s p r e s e n t s i z e has been accomplished under the stewardship of the S o c i a l C r e d i t government, which h e l d power i n A l b e r t a from 1935 "to 1971. The D i r e c t o r and the Parks P l a n n i n g S u p e r v i s o r of the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n have observed t h a t t h i s government's p o l i c y was to work towards a system w i t h a park i n every c o n s t i t u e n c y . I n other words, the e s t a b l i s h -ment-of a park was more a means of c u l t i v a t i n g support f o r the l o c a l government member, than p r e s e r v i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e f o r the enjoyment o f the p r e s e n t and f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s of A l b e r t a n s . Thus, parks were o f t e n e s t a b l i s h e d where no s i g n i f i c a n t n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e e x i s t e d , and the t a s k o f the p l a n n i n g s e c t i o n o f the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n was to p l a n improvements i n the park to produce an a t t r a c t i v e outdoor r e c r e a t i o n environment. The r e s u l t o f t h i s p o l i c y i s the a r r a y of parks o f d i f f e r e n t types and c l a s s e s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table I I I . With the change of government i n 1971, the s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n the agency hope to be a b l e to i n i t i a t e a more a g g r e s s i v e r o l e f o r the agency, which would i n c l u d e g e n e r a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about p r o s p e c t i v e park l o c a t i o n s and the needs f o r a d d i t i o n a l p r o v i n c i a l parks and f a c i l i t i e s . T h i s would c o n t r a s t s h a r p l y w i t h the r o l e n e c e s s i t a t e d by the p r e v i o u s government's p o l i c y on park a l l o c a t i o n , which c o n s i s t e d e n t i r e l y of t a k i n g the park's l o c a t i o n as 'given' and p l a n n i n g improvements to make the l o c a t i o n more d e s i r a b l e and a c c e s s i b l e f o r out-door r e c r e a t i o n . 58 P r o v i n c i a l parks p o l i c y w i t h r e s p e c t to the manage-ment and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f parks has c o n s i s t e d o f an i n f o r m a l s e t o f g u i d e l i n e s used w i t h i n the D i v i s i o n by park a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r s and p l a n n e r s , but not b i n d i n g o t h e r government agencies whose p o l i c i e s might a f f e c t the parks system. A statement o f parks p o l i c y was developed w i t h i n the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n , and t a b l e d i n the A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t u r e by the M i n i s t e r o f Lands and F o r e s t s i n 1967. Although the e n t i r e government i s thereby com-mi t t e d t o the p o l i c i e s embodied i n the statement, they are phrased i n such a manner t h a t the o p e r a t i o n of other govern-ment agencies i s r a r e l y r e s t r i c t e d . For example, the p o l i c y statement s p e c i f i e s t h a t "trunk highways p a s s i n g through a park and designed f o r through or commercial t r a f f i c r e p r e s e n t an i n t r u s i o n " . ( P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n , 1967). The statement goes on to say t h a t the only grounds on which such a highway can be accepted i n a park i s i f i t i s o f s u f f i c i e n t importance t h a t the s a c r i f i c e o f park values can be j u s t i f i e d . Such a m i l d statement of p o l i c y has had no e f f e c t on highway r o u t i n g d e c i s i o n s ; highways have c o n t i n u e d t o be l o c a t e d w i t h i n p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s . P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s are p r e s e n t l y o f the o p i n i o n t h a t more strongly-worded l e g i s l a t i o n w i l l be i n t r o d u c e d to p r o t e c t the parks system d u r i n g the 1973 s e s s i o n o f the A l b e r t a l e g i s l a t u r e . A c c o r d i n g to the 1967 p o l i c y statement, the respon-s i b i l i t i e s o f the D i v i s i o n are to: 59 1. E s t a b l i s h need o f p o p u l a t i o n p r e s e n t and f u t u r e f o r park r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . 2. Assess the r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e p o t e n t i a l o f l o c a t i o n s . 3. Recommend r e s e r v a t i o n s or a c q u i s i t i o n of s u i t -a b l e park l a n d . . 4. E s t a b l i s h , develop, and manage parks to meet needs o f the p o p u l a t i o n while e n s u r i n g t h a t impairment of p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s does not d e s t r o y those f e a t u r e s f o r f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s . ( P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n , 196?). P e r s o n n e l and F i n a n c i n g As the A l b e r t a p r o v i n c i a l parks system grew, the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n a c q u i r e d a d d i t i o n a l p e r s o n n e l to manage the v a r i o u s parks and t o a d m i n i s t e r and p l a n the system. I n 1952 the p e r s o n n e l o f the parks d i v i s i o n i n c l u d e d a parks s u p e r v i s o r t o a d m i n i s t e r the system, and two park wardens working i n the l a r g e s t p r o v i n c i a l park. In t h a t year the d i v i s i o n ' s t o t a l e xpenditures were approx-i m a t e l y $48,000. By 1965 the D i v i s i o n was spending over $1 m i l l i o n a n n u a l l y and had f o r t y - e i g h t permanent employees. In 1972 the parks system was operated by a permanent s t a f f o f e i g h t y - s e v e n ; expenditures i n t h a t year t o t a l l e d $2.9 m i l l i o n . The growth of annual expenditures o f the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n over the p e r i o d 1952-1972 i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 3. The S u p e r v i s o r o f Parks P l a n n i n g , who was the Parks S u p e r v i s o r i n 1952, noted t h a t the agency has f o l l o w e d the P a r k i n s o n i a n tendency to d i v e r s i f y and expand as budget-' a r y a p p r o p r i a t i o n s to the agency grew. The Parks D i v i s i o n 60 1955 I960 1965 FIGURE 3 1970 H o ' w ' i # ' $10,000,000 $1,000,000 $100,000 ALBERTA PROVINCIAL PARKS EXPENDITURES 1952-1972 (SourceJ Department of Lands and Forests Annual Reports) 61 has become e n t i r e l y s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t i n c o n s t r u c t i n g roads and f a c i l i t i e s i n parks, m a i n t a i n i n g equipment and machinery used i n parks maintenance, and d e s i g n i n g and c o n s t r u c t i n g park b u i l d i n g s and other improvements. The p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g s t a f f of the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n p r e s e n t l y i n c l u d e s a h o r t i c u l t u r a l i s t , a geographer, a landscape a r c h i t e c t , an engineer, three parks p l a n n e r s , and a parks p l a n n i n g s u p e r v i s o r who has been w i t h the d i v i s i o n s i n c e i t s e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n 1 9 5 2 . H i s t o r i c a l l y , the p l a n n i n g s e c t i o n has been concerned w i t h design work; the task most o f t e n a s s i g n e d was the p r o d u c t i o n o f plans f o r park development a f t e r the s i t e had been chosen through the p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s . The D i v i s i o n i s b e g i n n i n g , however, to develop a s m a l l s t a f f component i n v o l v e d i n r e s e a r c h i n t o f u t u r e park l o c a t i o n s and the r o l e s o f the v a r i o u s kinds o f p a r k s — a major departure from p r e v i o u s p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s , and one which r e q u i r e s a d i f f e r e n t o r i e n t a t i o n on the p a r t o f the p l a n n i n g team. The annual o p e r a t i o n of the Parks D i v i s i o n i s planned s e v e r a l years i n advance; r e q u i r e d funding i s c a l -c u l a t e d ahead of time on the b a s i s o f a n t i c i p a t e d demands on the parks system by v i s i t o r s . A c c o r d i n g to the p r e s e n t D i r e c t o r o f p r o v i n c i a l parks, p l a n s are f i x e d i n e a r l y 1973 f o r the o p e r a t i o n of the D i v i s i o n through 1974; these plans are p r o v i s i o n a l , however, i n . t h a t changes i n p r i o r i t i e s may d i s r u p t them a t any time, and demand t h a t funds be spent on some unforeseen p r o j e c t . I n t h i s case, budgetted 62 programs are delayed u n t i l l a t e r y e a r s . P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n Operations Under the p o l i c y o f the p r e v i o u s p r o v i n c i a l government, t h e . p l a n n i n g s e c t i o n o f the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n was p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h g e n e r a t i n g plans f o r improve-ments to e x i s t i n g parks or the development of new parks, the l o c a t i o n o f which was determined by d e c i s i o n s made a t a p o l i t i c a l l e v e l . Parks p l a n n e r s were not r e q u e s t e d to p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on the p a t t e r n of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n demand i n the 1 p r o v i n c e , or on s u i t a b l e s i t e s t h a t were a v a i l a b l e , nor were they p r o v i d e d w i t h the funds to generate such i n f o r m a t i o n . Thus, 'planning' was p e r c e i v e d as an a c t i v i t y t o be c a r r i e d out a t the s i t e - s p e c i f i c l e v e l by agency p e r s o n n e l , while o v e r - a l l system p l a n n i n g was an e x c l u s i v e l y p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s . While the parks system developed, some data was c o l l e c t e d from park users through patronage surveys c a r r i e d out as a p a r t o f normal r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures. While such i n f o r m a t i o n would be u s e f u l i n d e t e r m i n i n g what p r o v i n c i a l r e s i d e n t s and v i s i t o r s the system i s s e r v i n g , t h i s i n f o r -mation has not been a n a l y s e d by the p l a n n i n g s t a f f due to competing demands on t h e i r time. The Canada Land Inventory Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n C a p a b i l i t y I n v e n t o r y c a r r i e d out throughout Canada d u r i n g the l a t e 1960's and e a r l y 1970's has g i v e n the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n ' s p l a n n i n g s t a f f an o p p o r t u n i t y to become more a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s of the e n t i r e 63 p r o v i n c e . With f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e from the f e d e r a l govern-ment, the agency a s s i g n e d some members o f the p l a n n i n g s e c t i o n t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the i n v e n t o r y . A l l but the extreme n o r t h e a s t e r n p o r t i o n o f the p r o v i n c e was a s s e s s e d i n terms o f i t s ' c a p a b i l i t y t o s u s t a i n outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . Hence, a good data base on t h i s aspect of parks p l a n n i n g i s p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e to the agency. Another r e s e a r c h program r e c e n t l y undertaken by the, p l a n n i n g s e c t i o n i s a c o m p i l a t i o n o f a l l requests t h a t have been made to the p r o v i n c i a l government, g e n e r a l l y through l o c a l members o f the l e g i s l a t u r e assembly, f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of p r o v i n c i a l parks i n l o c a l l y - u s e d • outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s . P e r c e i v i n g t h a t the judgment of l o c a l residents.may be a v a l i d i n d i c a t o r o f the s u i t -a b i l i t y of l a n d f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n , the agency has d i r e c t e d i t s s t a f f t o prepare a summary of such r e q u e s t s . I t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h i s w i l l p r o v i d e u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n as to where the more acute shortages o f park f a c i l i t i e s have been and what r e s o u r c e s are a v a i l a b l e f o r development as p r o v i n c i a l parks to a l l e v i a t e such s h o r t a g e s . The S u p e r v i s o r o f Parks P l a n n i n g d e s c r i b e s the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h e f f o r t i n terms o f a three-pronged approach t o r a t i o n a l i z i n g the parks system t h a t has developed i n -c r e m e n t a l l y under the S o c i a l C r e d i t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The e x i s t i n g parks are being a s s e s s e d i n terms o f t h e i r c a r r y -i n g c a p a c i t y and t h e i r annual v i s i t a t i o n s s t a t i s t i c s , w i t h a view to e s t a b l i s h i n g d a i l y c a p a c i t i e s f o r each park and 6k thereby a v o i d i n g overuse and d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f the park en-vironment. Secondly, areas o f the pr o v i n c e w i t h h i g h r e -c r e a t i o n p o t e n t i a l are being i d e n t i f i e d w i t h a view to e s t a b l i s h i n g r e c r e a t i o n r e s e r v e s under the P u b l i c Lands A c t , so t h a t f u r t h e r l e a s e s and encumbrances f o r m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n and e x t r a c t i o n or other uses d e t r i m e n t a l to r e c r e a t i o n values w i l l not be al l o w e d . T h i r d l y , those areas where r e c r e a t i o n c a p a b i l i t y i s the foremost c a p a b i l i t y of the l a n d , are being catalogued so t h a t the D i v i s i o n w i l l be a b l e to comment on t h e i r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n p o t e n t i a l when o t h e r , perhaps c o n f l i c t i n g , uses are proposed. The D i r e c t o r o f P r o v i n c i a l Parks estimates t h a t , f o r the f i s c a l year 1 9 7 2 - 7 3 , approximately f i v e p e r c e n t o f the agency's budget was spent on a c t i v i t i e s which c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as long-range p l a n n i n g s t u d i e s . T h i s amounts to approximately $ 1 5 0 , 0 0 0 . P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n The p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the p u b l i c i n P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n p l a n n i n g has been n e g l i g i b l e to date. Many req u e s t s have been made over the years by i n d i v i d u a l s and c i t i z e n groups f o r p r o v i n c i a l parks t o be e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e i r own l o c a l a r e a s . In a d d i t i o n , r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s have been made to the agency, a t both p o l i t i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l s , by v a r i o u s l o b b i e s s e e k i n g sympathy f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . These groups are d e s c r i b e d by the D i r e c t o r o f P r o v i n c i a l Parks i n terms of two g e n e r a l types: the " f i n a n c i a l ' ' i n t e r e s t s and the " l e g i t i m a t e outdoor 65 r e c r e a t i o n " i n t e r e s t s . In the f i r s t c a t e g o r y , such groups as T o u r i s t A s s o c i a t i o n s , Chambers of Commerce and the t r a v e l t r a i l e r i n d u s t r y have requested changes i n parks p o l i c y to c o i n c i d e with t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t o f view. The " l e g i t i m a t e outdoor r e c r e a t o r s " i n c l u d e w i l d e r n e s s groups, f i s h and game a s s o c i a t i o n s , and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t groups see k i n g p o l i c y changes t h a t w i l l l e a d to the achievement o f t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s i n outdoor r e c r e a t i o n . The most -important reason t h a t the D i r e c t o r o f P r o v i n c i a l Parks g i v e s f o r not seek i n g the involvement o f the p u b l i c i n parks d e c i s i o n s concerns the matter o f spe-c u l a t i o n i n l a n d . I f the agency seeks p u b l i c r e a c t i o n to pr o p o s a l s f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g or e n l a r g i n g parks i n v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n s , i t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t the i n f o r m a i o n w i l l be used by i n d i v i d u a l s who w i l l purchase the land i n q u e s t i o n , and demand higher p r i c e s from the government i f the d e c i s i o n i s made to a c q u i r e the l a n d and develop a park. S i m i l a r l y , p r o p o s a l s f o r . p a r k l o c a t i o n are not d i s c u s s e d w i t h R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commissions because of the p o s s i -b i l i t y o f such i n f o r m a t i o n l e a k i n g and becoming a v a i l a b l e to l a n d s p e c u l a t o r s . T h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n a p p l i e s to those d e c i s i o n s which may i n v o l v e p r i v a t e l y - o w n e d land; however, when the land i n q u e s t i o n i s crown-owned, i t does not appear to be r e l e v a n t . D e s p i t e the danger o f s p e c u l a t i o n i n l a n d , however the D i r e c t o r o f P r o v i n c i a l Parks f e e l s t h a t p u b l i c p a r t i -c i p a t i o n i n such d e c i s i o n s w i l l i n e v i t a b l y be demanded. The 66 a c t i v i s t o r i e n t a t i o n of academic groups i n u n i v e r s i t i e s , and of young p r o f e s s i o n a l s and other groups i n s o c i e t y i s a l r e a d y d i s r u p t i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l way of making d e c i s i o n s i n the parks agency. He f o r e s e e s the need f o r some p l a n n i n g body, perhaps the agency i t s e l f , or a c o n s u l t i n g group h i r e d f o r the purpose, to prepare p l a n n i n g documents f o r p u b l i c consumption. A major change i n the agency's p o l i c y towards p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s apparent i n the r e c e n t d e c i s i o n to e s t a b l i s h major p r o v i n c i a l parks i n the c i t i e s o f Edmonton and C a l g a r y . The d e c i s i o n i s an attempt to serve the l a r g e number of p r o v i n c i a l r e s i d e n t s r e s i d i n g i n the c i t i e s who have not been able t o u t i l i z e the parks system to t h i s time. The D i r e c t o r o f the D i v i s i o n r e p o r t e d t h a t the Environment C o n s e r v a t i o n A u t h o r i t y , an a d v i s o r y body appointed under the p r o v i s i o n s of the Environment C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t (R.S.A. 1970 c. 125) w i l l be h o l d i n g p u b l i c hearings throughout the p r o v i n c e c o n c e r n i n g the nature of development o f these urban p a r k s . A Case i n P o i n t : The Wilderness Areas An e a r l i e r chapter noted t h a t the Department o f Lands and F o r e s t s a d m i n i s t e r s the Wilderness Areas A c t ( S t a t u t e s of A l b e r t a 1971 c. 11.4) under which three W i l d e r -ness Areas to the e a s t of Jasper and B a n f f N a t i o n a l Parks i n the A l b e r t a Rocky Mountains have been e s t a b l i s h e d . The e v o l u t i o n of these three Wilderness Areas i s perhaps i l l u s t r a t i v e o f the manner i n which d e c i s i o n s have been made 67 i n A l b e r t a with r e s p e c t to a l l o c a t i n g r e s o u r c e s to p r o v i d e outdoor r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s . In the e a r l y l°60's the Department o f Lands and F o r e s t s was a d v i s e d by the A l b e r t a F i s h and Game A s s o c i a t i o n , an i n t e r e s t group concerned w i t h p r e s e r v i n g q u a l i t y h u nting and f i s h i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n the p r o v i n c e , t h a t goat and sheep p o p u l a t i o n s on the e a s t e r n Rocky Mountains were being threatened by a d j a c e n t o i l e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i n the A l b e r t a f o o t h i l l s . I t was the recommendation of the as-s o c i a t i o n t h a t w i l d e r n e s s areas be e s t a b l i s h e d to p r o t e c t l o c a l sheep and goat p o p u l a t i o n s from o i l e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i -v i t i e s , and a t the same time to a c t as b u f f e r zones p r o t e c t i n J a s p e r and B a n f f N a t i o n a l Parks from the 'neighborhood e f f e c t s ' of such e x p l o r a t i o n . The l a n d areas i n q u e s t i o n were de s i g n a t e d by the M i n i s t e r of Lands and F o r e s t s as p r o v i s i o n a l w i l d e r n e s s areas i n 1965; t h e i r exact l e g a l d e s c r i p t i o n s were s p e c i f i e d i n r e g u l a t i o n s passed by Order-i n - C o u n c i l , under the a u t h o r i t y o f the P u b l i c Lands A c t (R.S.A. 1970 c. 297 s. 8 ( e ) i ) . I n c l u d e d were the White Goat Wilderness (172 square m i l e s ) , the S i f f l e u r Wilderness (159 square miles) and the Ghost R i v e r Wilderness (59 square - m i l e s ) . The approximate l o c a t i o n of these areas i s shown on F i g u r e 2 which appears i n Chapter I I I , page 51» In order to p r o t e c t these p r o v i s i o n a l w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s , the p r o v i n c i a l government bought back a l l m i n e r a l and e x p l o r a t i o n l e a s e s , and other d i s p o s i t i o n s and i n t e r e s t s i n the l a n d i n q u e s t i o n , or exchanged them f o r e q u i v a l e n t 68 l e a s e s i n s i m i l a r areas elsewhere. That.these 'wilderness areas'were indeed p r o v i s i o n a l i s e v i d e n t i n t h a t , u n t i l 1 9 7 3 , l i c e n s e d hunters were p e r m i t t e d to take sheep and goats i n the three w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s . In 1971, the A l b e r t a l e g i s l a t u r e passed the Wildernes Areas A c t , pursuant to which an A d v i s o r y Committee on Wilderness Areas was appointed to study the p r o v i s i o n a l . w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s , and recommend to the C a b i n e t which p o r t i o n s t h e r e o f would be most s u i t a b l e f o r e s t a b l i s h m e n t as permanent Wilde r n e s s Areas under the 1971 A c t . T h i s A c t a l s o s p e c i f i e d the purpose of any Wilderness Areas t h a t might be e s t a b l i s h e d : Whereas the c o n t i n u i n g expansion of i n d u s t r i a l development and s e t t l e m e n t i n A l b e r t a w i l l leave p r o g r e s s i v e l y fewer areas i n t h e i r n a t u r a l s t a t e of w i l d e r n e s s ? and Whereas i t i s i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t t h a t c e r t a i n areas of A l b e r t a be p r o t e c t e d and managed f o r the purpose of p r e s e r v i n g t h e i r n a t u r a l beauty and p r i m e v a l c h a r a c t e r and i n f l u e n c e and s a f e g u a r d i n g them from impairment and i n d u s t r i a l development and from o c c u p a t i o n by man other than as a v i s i t o r who does not remain; and Whereas to c a r r y out those purposes i t i s d e s i r a b l e to e s t a b l i s h and maintain c e r t a i n areas as w i l d e r n e s s areas f o r the b e n e f i t and enjoyment of the present and f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s . . . . (Statutes.: of A l b e r t a 1971 c 114). D i s p o s i t i o n by the Crown of any e s t a t e or i n t e r e s t i n l a n d i n Wilderness Areas, such as l e a s e s , m i n e r a l r i g h t s , or f o r e s t management agreements, i s made.unlawful by the A c t ; s i m i -l a r l y , h u nting, t r a p p i n g , and f i s h i n g are p r o h i b i t e d , persons are p r o h i b i t e d from t r a v e l l i n g i n Wilderness Areas except 69 on f o o t , and a i r c r a f t are not p e r m i t t e d to l a n d except i n emergencies i n v o l v i n g f o r e s t f i r e s or the h e a l t h and s a f e t y o f persons. An A c t to amend the Wilderness Areas A c t came i n t o e f f e c t on. January 1, 1973. On the recommendation of the A d v i s o r y Committee on Wilderness Areas, the three p r o v i s -i o n a l w i l d e r n e s s areas designed by O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l under the P u b l i c Lands A c t i n 1965 were designed as Wilderness Areas under the terms o f the 1971 Wilderness Areas A c t . D i s c u s s i o n There seems to be l i t t l e q u e s t i o n t h a t the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n has developed r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s w i t h a s t r o n g o r i e n t a t i o n t o user p r e s s u r e s . For example, over-n i g h t camping rose e i g h t per cent and •camping',' i n t r a i l e r s rose t h i r t y per cent from 1970 to 1971 i n p r o v i n c i a l parks where camping fees are changed and r e c o r d s are a v a i l a b l e . T o t a l o v e r n i g h t camping i n t e n t s and t r a i l e r s has r i s e n from 20,000 u n i t s i n 1961 to over 170,000 i n 1971. (Department of Lands and F o r e s t s Annual Report, 1972, p.80). In response, the f u l l range o f h o l i d a y t r a i l e r c o n n e c t i o n s — e l e c t r i c i t y , water, and sewage d i s p o s a l f a c i l i t i e s - - h a v e been made a v a i l a b l e i n p r o v i n c i a l parks as the p o p u l a r i t y o f such v e h i c l e s grows. S i m i l a r l y , the p r i o r i t i e s o f the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n f o r upgrading o f access roads to p r o v i n c i a l parks "were b a s i c a l l y made on use p r e s s u r e or demand", ( C H . H a r v i e , P e r s o n a l Communication, 1973)' 70 In one sense, the past method of p r o v i d i n g pro-v i n c i a l p a r k s — o n e i n every c o n s t i t u e n c y , with the next g o a l two i n every c o n s t i t u e n c y — d o e s demonstrate a d e s i r e to serve a l l areas o f the p r o v i n c e . From the p o i n t o f view o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , however, the approach i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . Outdoor r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s , l i k e other n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , are s c a r c e ; they are not d i s t r i b u t e d e v e n l y over the l a n d -scape. I n f a c t , A l b e r t a has a very uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s , w i t h a l a r g e c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n the f o o t h i l l s area where mountain streams r i s e and flow eastward to the Nelson R i v e r system. Few la k e s and r i v e r s break the monotony of the p r a i r i e l a n d i n the southeast p o r t i o n o f the p r o v i n c e , and to the n o r t h , the b o r e a l f o r e s t o f f e r s few d e s i r a b l e l o c a t i o n s f o r pa r k s . I f p r o v i n c i a l parks were to continue t o be a l l o c a t e d where user p r e s s u r e s were g r e a t e s t , some o f the best outdoor r e c r e a t i o n resources would never be made a v a i l a b l e to the p u b l i c , w h ile c o n s i d e r -a b l e sums o f money would be spent i n attempts to improve marginal r e c r e a t i o n a l areas c l o s e to l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n con-c e n t r a t i o n s . I t i s not suggested t h a t the two approaches are or should be mutually e x c l u s i v e ; r a t h e r , each has i t s merits'and i t s r o l e i n an outdoor r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . Most i m p o r t a n t l y , the Parks D i v i s i o n s hould be g u i d i n g users to a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s r a t h e r than being guided by user demands. In terms of p l a n n i n g , the D i v i s i o n seems to have g i v e n a narrow i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to the r o l e o f i t s p l a n n i n g 71 . s e c t i o n . The agency was used by the S o c i a l C r e d i t government as a means of d i s t r i b u t i n g the b e n e f i t s d e r i v e d from n a t u r a l r e source r o y a l t i e s among the r e s i d e n t s of the p r o v i n c e . Under such p o l i c y , c o n s i d e r a t i o n s such as the s c a r c i t y o f good r e c r e a t i o n a l l a n d and water r e s o u r c e s and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of such r e s o u r c e s took second p l a c e to the c r i t e r i o n of e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n of parks expend-i t u r e s throughout the- p r o v i n c e . Thus, the r e a l planners of the parks system have been the p o l i t i c i a n s and the park u s e r s . The former have deci d e d where the parks w i l l be, and the l a t t e r have d e t e r -mined how the parks w i l l be developed and what f a c i l i t i e s w i l l be p r o v i d e d . The r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n , s p e c i f i e d i n the 1967 p o l i c y statement, i n d i c a t e d t h a t the agency i t s e l f s h ould be d e c i d i n g where, when, and how to develop outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s . In g e n e r a l , the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n ' s r o l e i n the e v o l u t i o n of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n resources i n A l b e r t a has been e x p a n s i o n i s t . As. a d d i t i o n a l money became a v a i l -a b l e , the D i v i s i o n added new s e r v i c e s and a c q u i r e d new areas on an i n c r e m e n t a l b a s i s ; i t does not appear as i f p o l i c y e v a l u a t i o n s were made and c o n s i d e r e d i n the f o r m u l a t i o n o f new p o l i c i e s . The i n f o r m a l i t y with, which the,- p o l i c y statement of. the D i v i s i o n has been t r e a t e d perhaps i n d i c a t e s t h a t the D i v i s i o n ' s a d m i n i s t r a t o r s have been unsure o f the r o l e of t h e i r D i v i s i o n and r e l u c t a n t to commit themselves to any s i g n i f i c a n t departures from past p o l i c y . 72 The Wilderness areas case i n d i c a t e s t h a t the Department's p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g outdoor r e c r e a t i o n has been vague. There appears to have been no impetus f o r the pre-s e r v a t i o n o f these areas other than the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s made by the A l b e r t a F i s h and Game A s s o c i a t i o n , and perhaps the judgment o f departmental employees who were f a m i l i a r w i t h the areas i n q u e s t i o n . The areas are s e v e r a l hours' d r i v e from the l a r g e s t p o p u l a t i o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n the p r o v i n c e , yet the r e s t r i c t i o n s p l a c e d on t h e i r use all o w o n l y the most a g i l e , w e l l - e q u i p p e d A l b e r t a n s to enjoy t h e i r a m e n i t i e s . The P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s c l e a r l y i n c l u d e the assessment of the need f o r w i l d e r n e s s r e c r e a t i o n i n the p r o v i n c e and the s u i t a b i l i t y o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s f o r such use, y e t the d e c i s i o n to e s t a b l i s h the three w i l d e r n e s s areas was made by the M i n i s t e r o f Lands and F o r e s t s on the recommendation of an independent a d v i s o r y committee. No r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the p r o v i n c i a l parks agency were i n v o l v e d i n t h i s committee. The e l e c t i o n o f a new m a j o r i t y i n the A l b e r t a l e g i s l a t u r e has marked a t u r n i n g p o i n t i n many areas o f government, i n c l u d i n g the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n . Farks p l a n n e r s a n t i c i p a t e t h a t i d e a s which they have been d e v e l o p i n g under the former M i n i s t e r w i l l . b e more r e a d i l y r e c e i v e d by a new M i n i s t e r who i s not accustomed to an e s t a b l i s h e d o p e r a t i n g procedure. The new M i n i s t e r i s a l r e a d y w e l l -r e s p e c t e d by h i s s t a f f and has i n t e n s i v e l y q u e s t i o n e d his 73 . a d m i n i s t r a t o r s as to the "Why?" o f past p o l i c i e s . The e v a l u a t i o n and r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of the parks system t h a t i s p r e s e n t l y p r o c e e d i n g i s evidence of the a t t i t u d e of the new M i n i s t e r . To date, however, the p l a n n i n g s e c t i o n has only been c o l l e c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , and a c t u a l p l a n n i n g of the parks system has not begun. T h i s study i s concerned w i t h the g e n e r a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n about the- a l t e r n a t i v e s which are a v a i l a b l e to meet the needs o f r e s i d e n t s o f A l b e r t a i n terms o f out-door r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . I n the next c h a p t e r , a p r o f i l e o f these needs w i l l be p r o v i d e d through a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the r e s u l t s o f a survey of r e c r e a t i o n a l b ehavior and a t t i t u d e s c a r r i e d out i n the Peace R i v e r Region o f A l b e r t a i n 1972. While i t i s not the p o l i c y of the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n to p r o v i d e f a c i l i t i e s e s p e c i a l l y s u i t e d f o r any p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n i n the p r o v i n c e , but r a t h e r to serve the e n t i r e p r o v i n c i a l p o p u l a t i o n , as w e l l as v i s i t o r s t o the p r o v i n c e , w i t h every park t h a t i s provided,- i t i s assumed t h a t the Peace R i v e r Region's r e s i d e n t s have expressed a range o f p e r c e p t i o n s about outdoor r e c r e a t i o n which approx-imate those of the r e s i d e n t s of the e n t i r e p r o v i n c e . CHAPTER V A PROFILE OF-ATTITUDES TOWARDS OUTDOOR RECREATION Peace R i v e r Region; Background Information The Peace R i v e r r e g i o n , as i t i s . t r a d i t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d , comprises a vast s t r e t c h of aspen parkland l y i n g to the east of the Rocky Mountains i n the drainage b a s i n of the Peace R i v e r ; p o l i t i c a l l y , the r e g i o n i s d i v i d e d by the 120th meridian of l o n g i t u d e , which forms the northern p o r t i o n of the A l b e r t a - B r i t i s h Columbia boundary. To the west of the r e g i o n i s bounded by the wooded rough lands approaching the f o o t h i l l s of the Rockies; to the n o r t h l i e s an uninhabited expanse of muskeg and spruce f o r e s t ; and on the south and east there i s a wide b e l t of t e r r i t o r y , p a r t l y rough and timbered and p a r t l y low and swampy, about one hundred miles wide, s e p a r a t i n g the r e g i o n from the northern f r i n g e of the Canadian p r a i r i e . T r a v e l l i n g up the Peace R i v e r on h i s overland journey to the P a c i f i c Ocean i n 1792 - 9 3 , Alexander Mackenzie was one of the f i r s t white men to view the broad expanses of p r a i r i e , broken by b l u f f s of poplar and w i l l o w , that s t r e t c h e d back from the edges of the Peace R i v e r v a l l e y . Trading posts were soon e s t a b l i s h e d along the r i v e r , and by the l a t e 1800's a few a g r i c u l t u r a l experiments had i n d i c a t e d t h a t the s o i l of the Peace R i v e r 74 75 area was u n u s u a l l y f e r t i l e and t h a t the long summer days would permit the c u l t i v a t i o n of a wide v a r i e t y of crops d e s p i t e the r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t annual f r o s t - f r e e p e r i o d . The movement o f a g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e r s i n t o the r e g i o n was dependent, however, on an extermal f a c t o r : the i n c r e a s i n g d e n s i t y and expansion of s e t t l e m e n t i n the southern areas o f the three p r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s . Rapid s e t t l e m e n t o f these p r o v i n c e s d u r i n g the l a t t e r p a r t o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y brought the Peace R i v e r area c l o s e r t o world markets; the westward t h r u s t of p o p u l a t i o n turned northward on e n c o u n t e r i n g the f o o t h i l l s , towards the edge o f the a g r i -c u l t u r a l area to the n o r t h o f Edmonton. Beyond l a y a wide b a r r i e r of f o r e s t s , rough l a n d s , and low wet marshes, and beyond t h a t , the new a g r i c u l t u r a l f r o n t i e r . The s i n g l e most important event i n the development of the r e g i o n was the e n t r y of the r a i l w a y . By 1916 the r e g i o n was connected w i t h Edmonton by r a i l , and by the n i n e -t e e n - t h i r t i e s a number o f branch l i n e s had been c o n s t r u c t e d to c o l l e c t the a g r i c u l t u r a l crops produced by a r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n . By 1966, over f i v e m i l l i o n o f the p o t e n t i a l l y a r a b l e 15.6 m i l l i o n a c r e s of l a n d i n the r e g i o n were under c u l t i v a t i o n . (Northern A l b e r t a Development C o u n c i l , I968, p.18). Throughout the years of s e t t l e m e n t , w i t h the c o n s i d e r a b l e p h y s i o g r a p h i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n b a r r i e r s to the s o u t h e a s t , the Peace R i v e r r e g i o n remained a " c u l t u r a l i s l a n d " i n the w i l d e r n e s s . (Dawson and Murchie, 193^, p.15). I t s s e t t l e r s , r e p r e s e n t i n g a wide v a r i e t y of e t h n i c backgrounds, ?6 e x p e r i e n c e d a marked degree o f i s o l a t i o n , and a c q u i r e d a d i s t i n c t i v e sense o f i d e n t i t y which gave the r e g i o n a c e r t a i n amount of c u l t u r a l homogeneity. The approximate ext e n t of the t r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l l y - b a s e d Peace R i v e r r e g i o n i s shown on F i g u r e 4, as the s e t t l e d area i n the northwestern c o r n e r o f the p r o v i n c e . I t should be borne i n mind t h a t , although t h i s chapter i s concerned w i t h t h a t p o r t i o n o f the Peace R i v e r a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g i o n t h a t l i e s w i t h i n A l b e r t a , the n a t u r a l r e g i o n i n f a c t extends westward i n t o B r i t i s h Columbia; the r e s i d e n t s of the B.C. Peace R i v e r area to the e a s t of the Rocky Mountains main-t a i n very c l o s e economic and s o c i a l t i e s with t h e i r A l b e r t a neighbours. The Peace R i v e r r e g i o n as i t has been d e l i n e a t e d f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e purposes by the A l b e r t a Department o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s i s a l s o d e p i c t e d i n F i g u r e 4, which shows the boundaries of the seven r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g areas i n the p r o v i n c e . Encompassing approximately 85,000 square m i l e s , the Peace R i v e r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g area i n c l u d e s the t r a d i -t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l area as w e l l as the l a r g e t r a c t s of r u n i n h a b i t e d t e r r i t o r y t o the n o r t h , e a s t , and south. Re-source . e x p l o r a t i o n and e x t r a c t i o n o c c u r r i n g i n the l a t t e r areas p r e s e n t l y exceeds a g r i c u l t u r e i n annual d o l l a r value o f p r o d u c t i o n w i t h i n the r e g i o n thus d e f i n e d . (Peace R i v e r R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission, 1973» P» 3 7 ) . As new r e s i d e n t s w i t h urban backgrounds migrate to the Peace R i v e r r e g i o n f o r employment i n these a c t i v i t i e s , a 77 50 100 m i l e s S e t t l e d Area PRRPC Peace R i v e r R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission ERPC Edmonton R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission BRRPC B a t t l e R i v e r R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission RDRFC Red Deer R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g 'Commission CRPC C a l g a r y R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission MHRPC Medicine Hat R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission ORRPC Oldman R i v e r R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission FIGURE 4 PROVINCE OF ALBERTA, BOUNDARIES OF REGIONAL PLANNING COMMISSIONS (Sources Task Force on U r b a n i z a t i o n and the F u t u r e , 1971) 0 78 new component i s being added t o the r e g i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n mosaic. While some communities have been e s t a b l i s h e d i n h i t h e r t o u n i n h a b i t e d l o c a t i o n s c l o s e to the s i t e o f res o u r c e a c t i v i t y , many o f the new r e s i d e n t s are t a k i n g up r e s i d e n c e i n the l o n g - e s t a b l i s h e d s e r v i c e towns which grew up alo n g the r a i l w a y s d u r i n g the p e r i o d o f a g r i c u l t u r a l expansion. The c u r r e n t p o p u l a t i o n o f the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g area i s 87,355; e x a c t l y h a l f o f the p o p u l a t i o n l i v e s on farms or i n communities o f l e s s than 1,000 r e s i d e n t s . (Department o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , 1972). Because of the r e g i o n ' s mix o f the t r a d i t i o n a l a g r a r i a n and the modern r e s o u r c e -based economic a c t i v i t i e s , and the a s s o c i a t e d mix o f pop-u l a t i o n , the r e g i o n r e p r e s e n t s a microcosm o f the e n t i r e . p r o v i n c e o f A l b e r t a , which i s i t s e l f e x p e r i e n c i n g a t r a n -s i t i o n from an a g r i c u l t u r a l t o a resource-based economy and from r u r a l to urban l i f e . From the e a r l i e s t days o f p i o n e e r i n g i n the Peace R i v e r r e g i o n , outdoor r e c r e a t i o n has p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i a l r o l e i n community l i f e . Many o f the parks c u r r e n t l y a d m i n i s t e r e d by the A l b e r t a P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n i n the area had t h e i r beginnings i n the e f f o r t s o f e a r l y area r e s i d e n t s to e s t a b l i s h p l e a s a n t outdoor s e t t i n g s i n which to s o c i a l i z e on s p e c i a l o c casions and h o l i d a y s , and spend what l e i s u r e time t h e i r l i f e - s t y l e a f f o r d e d . U s u a l l y the areas chosen i n v o l v e d a lake or stream, perhaps a sandy beach, and c l e a r e d areas f o r p i c n i c s and s p o r t s e v e n t s -b a s e b a l l , horse r a c i n g , and the l i k e . In time, v o l u n t e e r 79 maintenance work was unable to keep pace wi t h the demands being p l a c e d on these areas by a growing p o p u l a t i o n and by v i s i t o r s from o u t s i d e the r e g i o n , and the a s s i s t a n c e o f the p r o v i n c i a l government's parks agency was sought i n m a i n t a i n i n g the e x i s t i n g outdoor r e c r e a t i o n areas and d e v e l o p i n g new ones. Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n F a c i l i t i e s i n the Region A t the p r e s e n t time, seven p r o v i n c i a l parks i n the Peace R i v e r r e g i o n p r o v i d e approximately 5,600 acres o f r e c r e a t i o n l a n d; i n the P r o v i n c i a l Parks c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system shown i n Table I I I , Chapter I I I , these parks are c l a s s i f i e d as e i t h e r n a t u r a l environment r e c r e a t i o n areas or s p e c i a l i z e d outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s . One o f the parks i s c o m p letely undeveloped a t t h i s time. Department of Highways and T r a n s p o r t wayside campsites i n twenty-six l o c a t i o n s throughout the r e g i o n p r o v i d e an a d d i t i o n a l 220 a c r e s of r e c r e a t i o n a l l a n d a d j o i n i n g primary and secondary highways. T h i r t e e n A l b e r t a F o r e s t S e r v i c e : . r e c r e a t i o n areas are d i s p e r s e d throughout the r e g i o n ' s f o r e s t s , which surround the t r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a . In a d d i t i o n , t o s e r v i n g the r e c r e a t i o n needs of r e g i o n a l r e s i d e n t s , these f a c i l i t i e s are used e x t e n s i v e l y by summer v i s i t o r s , the m a j o r i t y of them p a s s i n g through the r e g i o n on s i g h t s e e i n g t o u r s or . en route elsewhere. A sample of t o u r i s t s t r a v e l l i n g on the r e g i o n ' s highways d u r i n g the summer of 1972 i n d i c a t e d t h a t 31$ were from the U n i t e d S t a t e s of America, while an a d d i t i o n a l 8 0 33% were from p r o v i n c e s other than A l b e r t a . (Peace R i v e r R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission, 1972b), Many o f these t o u r i s t s were t r a v e l l i n g to or from A l a s k a . The i n f o r m a l use of crown-owned l a n d i n the r e g i o n f o r d i s p e r s e d , or e x t e n s i v e , r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s has to the p r e s e n t time r e l i e v e d some of the pressure on developed f a c i l i t i e s such as p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s . However, as r e s o u r c e development proceeds i n these u n i n h a b i t e d a r e a s , they become l e s s d e s i r a b l e f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l use and i n some cases may be c l o s e d e n t i r e l y to p u b l i c a c c e s s . The approximate l o c a t i o n s o f the p r o v i n c i a l p arks, r e c r e a t i o n areas and highway campsites r e l a t i v e to the highway network i n the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g area are shown on F i g u r e 5. Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n Behavior and P r e f e r e n c e s : A Survey I t has been observed i n the f i r s t c h a pter o f t h i s t h e s i s t h a t the c u r r e n t t r e n d i n outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i s f o r more people to be spending more l e i s u r e time i n outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s . One o f the m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h i s t r e n d i s seen i n the i n c r e a s e d patronage a t outdoor r e -c r e a t i o n a r e a s . Table IV r e p o r t s attendance a t s i x de-veloped p r o v i n c i a l parks i n the Peace R i v e r r e g i o n over an e i g h t year p e r i o d . While v i o l e n t f l u c t u a t i o n s i n attendance have o c c u r r e d ( f o r example, the l a r g e f i g u r e s f o r 19&7 due to C e n t e n n i a l Year t r a v e l throughout Canada) , an o v e r a l l t r e n d towards i n c r e a s e d annual park attendance i s e v i d e n t . J5.0 miles FIGURE 5 P r o v i n c i a l Parks» PI Lac C a r d i n a l Moonshine Lake O'Brien Park Saskatoon Lake Williamson Park Winagami Lake A l b e r t a Forest S e r v i c e R e c r e a t i o n Area Department of Highways and Transport Campsite Primary Highways PEACE RIVER REGION: HIGHWAY NETWORK, PROVINCIAL PARKS, CAMPSITES AND RECREATION AREAS, 1972 (Source: A t l a s of A l b e r t a , 19^9) TABLE IV ATTENDANCE AT PROVINCIAL PARKS PEACE RIVER REGION 1 9 6 4 - 1 9 7 2 Park 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1971 Lac Cardinal 14,261 2 3 , 9 1 0 3 4 , 2 0 8 4 3 , 3 6 1 3 4 , 9 6 9 3 3 , 1 5 9 1 8 , 5 6 4 2 6 , 7 3 7 2 4 , 6 6 2 Moonshine Lake 9 , 2 9 9 2 5 , 2 1 8 2 6 , 5 3 6 3 1 , 3 6 6 2 5 , 5 3 6 2 5 , 2 1 6 40,464 6 0 , 7 1 9 1 1 7 , 3 8 0 O'Brien Park 2 0 , 2 2 0 3 ^ , 3 7 0 3 6 , 6 6 5 3 2 , 7 7 5 2 8 , 3 1 0 4 2 , 1 6 5 41,875 64,953 1 1 , 4 7 4 * Saskatoon Lake 2 2 , 1 2 9 64,885 5 9 , 4 4 5 115 ,131 61,014 9 0 , 5 9 6 9 4 , 0 7 5 80,781 1 0 9 , 5 8 5 Williamson Park 3 1 , 1 8 6 8 2 , 0 2 9 9 6 , 0 9 9 1 3 5 , 9 3 6 9 2 , 5 9 6 9 7 , 6 1 8 84,585 8 1 , 9 9 9 8 5 , 0 0 0 * * Winagami Lake 3 4 , 7 7 4 6 9 , 4 4 4 6 9 , 1 6 5 8 6 , 1 7 5 7 9 , 0 6 9 7 1 , 6 8 9 48,335 6 5 , 2 9 9 6 7 , 1 6 0 1 3 1 , 8 6 9 2 9 9 , 8 5 6 3 2 2 , 1 1 8 4 4 4 , 7 4 4 3 2 1 , 4 9 4 3 6 0 , 4 4 3 3 2 7 , 8 9 8 380,488 4 1 5 , 2 6 1 *Park open May and June only. ••Estimated. Source: Alberta Department of Lands and Forests. 83 The Peace R i v e r R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission, e s t a b l i s h e d under the A l b e r t a P l a n n i n g A c t (R.S.A. 1970, c. 2 7 6 ) , i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s t u d y i n g the r e s o u r c e s of i t s r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g area and p r e p a r i n g r e g i o n a l plans to guide the area's development. A n t i c i p a t i n g t h a t the demand f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s i n the r e g i o n by both r e s i d e n t s and v i s i t o r s w i l l i n c r e a s e as the r e g i o n ' s amenities become more well-known, the Commission undertook to study the b e h a v i o r and a t t i t u d e s o f r e s i d e n t s of the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g area towards outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i n the summer o f 1972. A sample of r e s i d e n t s was s e l e c t e d and i n t e r v i e w e d ; a copy o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e used i n the survey i s a t t a c h e d as Appendix I . Members of the r e s e a r c h s t a f f c a l l e d on each s e l e c t e d respondent, e x p l a i n e d the purpose o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and e i t h e r conducted an i n t e r v i e w immediately or l e f t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s f o r members of the household to complete. Responses were c o l l e c t e d the f o l l o w i n g day o r , i f incomplete, were ma i l e d to the Commission's o f f i c e a t a l a t e r date. A t o t a l o f 645 completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were c o l l e c t e d i n t h i s manner, r e p r e s e n t i n g a n i n e t y - f i v e per cent response r a t e . The g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the sample (age, sex, m a r i t a l s t a t u s , annual income, l e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c e i n the Peace R i v e r r e g i o n , e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s , and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s ) are summarized i n t a b l e s i n Appendix I I . Although A l b e r t a ' s R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commissions l a c k the a u t h o r i t y and the r e s o u r c e s n e c e s s a r y to e s t a b l i s h 84 outdoor r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , they are empowered to designate p u b l i c r e s e r v e s when land i s l e g a l l y s u b d i v i d e d , the t i t l e t o which subsequently passes to the m u n i c i p a l i t y in'which the l a n d i s s i t u a t e d . A d d i t i o n a l l y , the Commissions may d esignate r u r a l l a n d as r e g i o n a l open space or r e c r e a t i o n a l l a n d when r e g i o n a l plans are prepared. I n t h i s way, l a n d may be r e s e r v e d f o r l a t e r a c q u i s i t i o n by e i t h e r l o c a l or p r o v i n c i a l government, f o r development or p r o t e c t i o n as out-door r e c r e a t i o n a l space. I t was w i t h a view to t h i s l a t t e r f u n c t i o n t h a t the Peace R i v e r R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission undertook to survey the a t t i t u d e s o f the r e s i d e n t s of the r e g i o n r e g a r d i n g outdoor r e c r e a t i o n , and thereby to a c q u i r e some i n d i c a t o r s o f t h e i r f u t u r e requirements, q u a n t i t a t i v e l y and q u a l i t a t i v e l y , f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n space. The use o f a household survey approach to assess the needs o f r e g i o n a l r e s i d e n t s f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l space i m p l i e s two o r i e n t a t i o n s on the p a r t of the Peace R i v e r R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission. The f i r s t i s t h a t , i n d e v e l o p i n g r e g i o n a l p l a n s , the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g agency s h o u l d r e f e r to the r e s i d e n t s o f the r e g i o n where a t t i t u d e s and goals are concerned, r a t h e r than a l l o w "experts' to formulate plans f o r managing the r e g i o n a l environment on the b a s i s o f t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . The r a t i o n a l e b e h i n d u s i n g survey data i n f o r m u l a t i n g r e g i o n a l p o l i c y f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i s t h a t such i n f o r m a t i o n r e f l e c t s a broader range of p e r c e p t i o n s about outdoor r e c r e a t i o n than would be l i k e l y to emerge i f e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s or 8 5 planners were f o r m u l a t i n g p o l i c y i n i s o l a t i o n . Another i s s u e concerns the d e f i n i t i o n o f the r e f e r e n t group f o r which outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s are p r o v i d e d i n the r e g i o n . In a d d i t i o n to l o c a l r e s i d e n t s who use such r e s o u r c e s , many v i s i t o r s from o u t s i d e the r e g i o n and the pr o v i n c e are a l s o r e g u l a r u s e r s . However, the people who l i v e a d j a c e n t t o outdoor r e c r e a t i o n areas which are developed as p r o v i n c i a l parks, f o r example, are most s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d by the use o f those r e s o u r c e s . In a d d i t i o n , the growth o f an e x t e n s i v e t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y , which i s viewed as a v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e form o f development f o r the r e g i o n , depends to a l a r g e degree on d e c i s i o n s made about the use o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s . The r e s i d e n t s o f the Peace R i v e r r e g i o n have, i n t h i s sense, the l a r g e s t i n t e r e s t i n the a l l o c a t i o n and development of r e s o u r c e s i n the r e g i o n f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n . The i n c l u s i o n o f data on outdoor r e c r e a t i o n be-h a v i o r and a t t i t u d e s i n t h i s study o f the P r o v i n c i a l Parks p l a n n i n g process i n A l b e r t a i s not meant to imply t h a t the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n has an o b l i g a t i o n t o p r o v i d e f a c i l i t i e s i n each r e g i o n o f the p r o v i n c e p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t e d t o the needs of l o c a l r e s i d e n t s . P r o v i n c i a l parks p o l i c y i s t h a t every f a c i l i t y developed i s meant t o serve a l l r e s i d e n t s o f the p r o v i n c e , as w e l l as v i s i t o r s to A l b e r t a . S i n c e g e n e r a l p r o v i n c i a l revenues are used to a c q u i r e and develop outdoor r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s as p r o v i n -c i a l p a rks, such a p o l i c y i s e q u i t a b l e . 86 The purpose of the i n f o r m a t i o n presented on the f o l l o w i n g pages of t h i s c h apter i s to d e s c r i b e the range o f a t t i t u d e s towards outdoor r e c r e a t i o n experiences t h a t are he l d by a group of A l b e r t a n s l i v i n g i n one p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n . While i t i s not assumed t h a t these r e s i d e n t s are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a l l A l b e r t a n s , i t i s proposed t h a t the a t t i t u d e s which they expressed i n the survey approximate the range of a t -t i t u d e s t h a t might be- d i s c o v e r e d i f the e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n o f the p r o v i n c e was to be surveyed. Thereby, the success of the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n i n p r o v i d i n g an a p p r o p r i a t e range o f i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t to c h o i c e s f o r meeting r e c r e a t i o n a l needs may be a s s e s s e d . Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n ; P a r t i c i p a t i o n A standard component o f many s t u d i e s o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i s the measurement o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n . S t a t i s t i c s on p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s are o f t e n taken to be analagous to s t a t i s t i c s on demand i n the economic sense; t h a t i s , the degree to which people p a r t i c i p a t e i s an e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e i r demand f o r t h a t a c t i v i t y . There are c e r t a i n problems w i t h the analogy, which have been p o i n t e d out by Jack L. Knetsch i n h i s recommendations as a d v i s o r to the Canadian Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n Demand Study o f the N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c Parks Branch, Department o f I n d i a n and Northern A f f a i r s . Knetsch p o i n t s out the d i f f e r e n c e between 'demand' and 'consumption', or p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . Use or attendance f i g u r e s are i n c o r r e c t l y c a l l e d demand, i n s t e a d of being i n t e r p r e t e d as consumption or the i n t e r a c t i o n of both demand, which c e r t a i n l y e x i s t s , and s upply of o p p o r t u n i t i e s , which a l s o e x i s t s . The amount o f r e c r e a t i o n demand v a r i e s w i t h the number o f f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e , thereby making some q u a n t i t a t i v e estimate of t h i s dependence n e c e s s a r y f o r s e n s i b l e p l a n n i n g . (Knetsch, 1 9 6 7 , p.6 ) . R e c o g n i z i n g t h i s d i f f i c u l t y , the s t a f f o f the Peace R i v e r R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission who were i n v o l v e d i n the outdoor r e c r e a t i o n survey attempted to e l i c i t responses which would g i v e i n d i c a t i o n s o f what a c t i v i t i e s respondents were i n t e r e s t e d i n t a k i n g p a r t i n , as v/ell as those i n which they a c t u a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e d because f a c i l i t i e s were a v a i l a b l e . Respondents to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were g i v e n a l i s t o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s and asked to i d e n t i f y those i n which they p a r t i c i p a t e . A l t h o u g h the o p t i o n was a v a i l a b l e of adding any a c t i v i t i e s not i n c l u d e d i n the l i s t i f the respondent p a r t i c i p a t e d or was i n t e r e s t e d i n p a r t i -c i p a t i n g , none were added i n s u f f i c i e n t number to be o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . The l i s t o f a c t i v i t i e s , t o gether w i t h the percentage o f respondents r e p o r t i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n each, i s i n c l u d e d i n Table V. P i c n i c k i n g , s i g h t s e e i n g , and r e c r e a t i o n a l d r i v i n g emerged as the most common outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . i n which respondents to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e p a r t i c i p a t e . An e a r l y s o c i o l o g i c a l study of the Peace R i v e r r e g i o n r e v e a l e d t h a t p i c n i c s have always been major s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s which p l a y e d l a r g e r o l e s i n the community l i f e o f the a r e a . These 88 TABLE V PARTICIPATION IN OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES PEACE RIVER REGION 1972 A c t i v i t y " % P a r t i c i p a t i n g p i c n i c k i n g 8 8 , 2 s i g h t s e e i n g . . 77.7 r e c r e a t i o n a l d r i v i n g . . . 71.3 v i s i t i n g h i s t o r i c areas . . . . . . . 5 6 . 9 f i s h i n g 5 6 . 9 swimming . . • 0 • 55-3 h i k i n g 4 9 . 0 b i c y c l i n g 48.1 toboganning . . . . . . 4 6 . 8 t e n t camping . . . . . . . 4 2 . 5 h u n t i n g . . . . . . . . . 4 2 . 0 t r a i l e r camping . 37.2 snowmobiling 33• 5 horseback r i d i n g 32 .9 motorboating . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31*2 viewing, photographing w i l d l i f e . . . 27 .0 c o l l e c t i n g r o c k s , a r t i f a c t s 24.7 viewing, photographing p l a n t l i f e . . . 1 8 . 8 g o l f i n g 1 8 . 0 m o t o r c y c l i n g 1 6 .7 snowshoeing . 14.3 canoeing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 .6 d o w n h i l l s k i i n g 1 1 . 8 w a t e r s k i i n g 9 . 9 c r o s s - c o u n t r y s k i i n g . . . . . . . . . 3»3 s a i l i n g . . . . . 2.3 s c u b a / s k i n d i v i n g . . . . . . . . . . 1.6 Sources Peace R i v e r R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission, 1972b. a f f a i r s were l a r g e community p i c n i c s , attended by f r i e n d s and neighbours who t r a v e l l e d c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e s to enjoy companionship and a meal i n the outdoors. (Dawson and Murchie, 1934, p.227). R e c r e a t i o n a l d r i v i n g and s i g h t -s e e i n g are l o n g - s t a n d i n g Sunday a f t e r n o o n pastimes i n the 89 r e g i o n , where a wide v a r i e t y o f scenery changing i n char-a c t e r from season to season, t o g e t h e r w i t h an e x t e n s i v e network o f good roads, encourages t h i s i n e x p e n s i v e out-door r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y , i t r e q u i r e s no s p e c i a l a b i l i t y , and no equipment other than the f a m i l y c a r . V i s i t i n g h i s t o r i c a r e a s , f i s h i n g , and swimming are the next most popu l a r a c t i v i t i e s among the respondents, w i t h approximately f i f t y - f i v e per cent r e c o r d i n g p a r t i -c i p a t i o n i n each a c t i v i t y . The v i s i t i n g o f h i s t o r i c areas may seem an unusual a c t i v i t y f o r an area as young as the Peace R i v e r r e g i o n , y e t many s i t e s o f h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t may be found i n the a r e a . These i n c l u d e abandoned f u r t r a d i n g posts d a t i n g back to the l a t e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , . c o n s t r u c t e d by Northwest Company and iHudsons Bay Company f u r t r a d e r s , as w e l l as s i t e s o f more r e c e n t age a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e a r l y a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s i n the r e g i o n : wagon roads, s t o p p i n g - p l a c e s and e a r l y homesteads. The h i g h i n c i d e n c e o f s p o r t f i s h i n g i n the sample r e f l e c t s the wide d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s u i t a b l e streams and lakes i n the r e g i o n and, perhaps, the r e l a t i v e l y low c o s t o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s a c t i v i t y . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the f i f t y - f i v e per cent p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e i n swimming i s d i f f i c u l t because of an i n h e r e n t ambiguity: the q u e s t i o n does not d i s t i n g u i s h outdoor swimming from swimming i n a r t i f i c i a l p o o l s , the l a t t e r o f which i s u s u a l l y c l a s s i f i e d as an urban a c t i v i t y . There are seven swimming pools l o c a t e d throughout the r e g i o n i n the l a r g e r s e r v i c e c e n t e r s , a t which a good d e a l o f 90 the r e p o r t e d swimming i s p r o b a b l y done. Few o f the . r e g i o n ' s l a k e s a r e s u i t a b l e f o r b a t h i n g because o f a l g a e , a q u a t i c p l a n t s and the l a c k o f sandy s h o r e s . The n e x t group o f a c t i v i t i e s , w i t h between f o r t y and f i f t y p e r c e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e p o r t e d i n the sample, i n c l u d e s h i k i n g , b i c y c l i n g , t o b o g a n n i r i g , t e n t i n g , and h u n t i n g . B i c y c l i n g and t o b o g a n n i n g were r e c o r d e d by 48.1 and 46.8 o f r e s p o n d e n t s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , w h i l e 29.5 and 30.2 per c e n t o f r e s p o n d e n t s over twenty y e a r s o f age p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s . H i k i n g , t e n t i n g , and h u n t i n g , w i t h 49.0, 42.5 and 42.0 p e r c e n t o f r e s p o n d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g , demonstrate a s i g n i f i c a n t o u t d o o r o r i e n t a t i o n on the p a r t o f r e s p o n d e n t s t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . These a c t i v i t i e s a r e a l l r e l a t i v e l y i n e x p e n s i v e i n terms o f the minimum e q u i p -ment n e c e s s a r y f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n , w h i c h may e x p l a i n p a r t i a l l y t he r e l a t i v e l y h i g h r a t e s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The Peace R i v e r r e g i o n has been known s i n c e the time i t was i n h a b i t e d s o l e l y by I n d i a n s f o r the abundance o f b i g game and u p l a n d b i r d s , as w e l l as m i g r a t o r y b i r d s a t c e r t a i n times o f the y e a r . I n c r e a s i n g expense o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n seems t o be c o r r e l a t e d n e g a t i v e l y w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s i n the Peace R i v e r r e g i o n , a l t h o u g h t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p was n o t i n v e s t i g a t e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y . F our a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h a r e o r i e n t e d t o c e r t a i n t y p e s o f equipment have p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s c l u s t e r e d a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h i r t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t : t r a i l e r camping, s n o w m o b i l i n g , horseback r i d i n g and 91 motorboating. I t should be noted t h a t , w i t h the long winters and heavy s n o w f a l l t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e the r e g i o n , many r e s i d e n t s — f o r example, farmers and t r a p p e r s — u s e snowmobiles i n t h e i r work as v / e l l as f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l use. Horseback r i d i n g may l i k e w i s e be expected to be a common a c t i v i t y i n a t r a d i t i o n a l l y a g r i c u l t u r a l area, where horses may be used as work animals i n ranching as w e l l as f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l r i d i n g . ' T r a i l e r camping' i n t h i s question i n c l u d e s the use of both h o l i d a y t r a i l e r s and the co n s i d e r -a b l y l e s s expensive 'tent t r a i l e r s ' , as w e l l as camper u n i t s mounted on s m a l l t r u c k s . Three e s s e n t i a l l y non-consumptive a c t i v i t i e s f o l l o w the preceding equipment-oriented p u r s u i t s i n p o p u l a r i t y : c o l l e c t i n g a r t i f a c t s and r o c k s , and viewing and photographing w i l d l i f e and p l a n t l i f e . Twenty-seven per cent of the sample p a r t i c i p a t e i n w i l d l i f e viewing and photography, 24,7 per cent c o l l e c t a r t i f a c t s and ro c k s , and 18.8 per cent p a r t i c i p a t e i n p l a r i t l i f e viewing and photographing. F o l l o w i n g t h i s group, a s e r i e s of a c t i v i t i e s i n -v o l v i n g equipment and some degree of s k i l l had p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s among the respondents ranging from approximately ten to eighteen per cent. G o l f i n g , m o t o r c y c l i n g , snowshoeing, canoeing, d o w n h i l l s k i i n g , and w a t e r s k i i n g , have p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s i n t h i s range t a number of f a c t o r s , i n c l u d i n g the a v a i l a b i l i t y of f a c i l i t i e s , the cos t of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and the a c q u i s i t i o n of necessary s k i l l s could a l l account i n p a r t f o r the r e l a t i v e l y low p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s i n 92 a d d i t i o n t o the more r e s t r i c t e d appeal which these a c t i -v i t i e s may have. C r o s s - c o u n t r y s k i i n g , s a i l i n g , and scuba d i v i n g have n e g l i g i b l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s . The l a c k o f c o n v e n i e n t , s u i t a b l e water bodies may compound the expense o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the l a s t two groups o f a c t i v i t i e s mentioned f o r Peace R i v e r area r e s i d e n t s . For example, w h i l e motorboating i s a l l o w e d i n n e a r l y a l l l a k e s i n the r e g i o n , the speeds n e c e s s a r y f o r w a t e r s k i i n g are not p e r m i t t e d i n a l l l a k e s . S i m i l a r l y , the lakes are f r e q u e n t l y too s m a l l t o permit s a i l i n g , and most are u n d e s i r a b l e f o r underwater e x p l o r a t i o n . The l a c k o f s u i t a b l e t e r r a i n s i m i l a r l y r e s t r i c t s the extent to which a l p i n e s k i i n g i s p o s s i b l e i n the r e g i o n . Snowshoeing, canoeing, and c r o s s - c o u n t r y s k i i n g are i n t e r e s t i n g examples of a c t i v i t i e s which were a t one time not r e c r e a t i o n a l , but n e c e s s a r y modes o f t r a v e l i n the Peace R i v e r r e g i o n . Although they were l a r g e l y d i s c o n t i n u e d when more e f f i c i e n t means of t r a v e l became a v a i l a b l e , t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n a l value may e v e n t u a l l y r e v i v e t h e i r p o p u l a r i t y . A second s e c t i o n t o the q u e s t i o n on p a r t i c i p a t i o n asked respondents to i d e n t i f y a c t i v i t i e s i n which they do not p r e s e n t l y p a r t i c i p a t e but i n which they would be i n t e r -e s t e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g . Table VI r e p o r t s the frequency o f p o s i t i v e responses f o r each a c t i v i t y ; the f i r s t column c o n t a i n s the percentages o f respondents•over 20 years of age who expressed a d e s i r e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n each a c t i v i t y (4-31 respondents) while the second c o n t a i n s e q u i v a l e n t 93 TABLE VI • DESIRED PARTICIPATION IN OUTDOOR RECREATION ACTIVITIES FEACE RIVER REGION 1972 f Over 20 Years % of Total Sample Wishing to V/ishing to A c t i v i t y P a r t i c i p a t e P a r t i c i p a t e -motorboating . . . . . . . . 21.8 waterskiing . 17.^ canoeing . 17.2 s a i l i n g 16.5 snovvmobiling . . . . . . . . 15.8 t r a i l e r camping 15.5 downhill s k i i n g . . . . . . 14.4 horseback r i d i n g 14,4 g o l f i n g . . o . o . . » . . 14.2 viewing, photographing w i l d l i f e 14.2 scuba/skin diving . . . . . . 12.5 swimming . 12,3 viewing, photographing plant l i f e 10.9 cross-country s k i i n g . . . . 10,7 f i s h i n g 8.6 snows hoe ing 8.4 b i c y c l i n g 8.4 tent camping . . 7.9 motorcycling . . . . . . . . 7.2 hiking 6.3 v i s i t i n g h i s t o r i c areas . . 5-3 hunting 4.6 toboganning, sledding . . . 4.2 c o l l e c t i n g a r t i f a c t s , rocks 3.7 r e c r e a t i o n a l d r i v i n g . . . . 1.9 sightseeing 1.9 pic n i c k i n g 1.9 27.0 29.9 25.6 24.3 20.0 16.1 20.8 18.4 18.3 16.7 24.7 14.0 13.2 14.0 10.2 14.0 6.7 12.1 14.0 6.5 7.6 6.8 4.0 •4.3 3.3 3.1 2 .3 Sources Peace River Regional Planning Commission, 1972b. s t a t i s t i c s for the entire sample (645 respondents). The younger respondents demonstrated what might be considered over-enthusiastic responses when presented with t h i s git-q u e s t i o n , as the r e l a t i v e frequency of p o s i t i v e responses f o r a l l a c t i v i t i e s except b i c y c l i n g and toboganning are hi g h e r f o r the t o t a l sample than f o r the ' a d u l t ' sample. N e v e r t h e l e s s , whichever sample i s used, the a c t i v i t i e s rank i n approximately the same order i n terms of decreas-i n g percentage o f respondents w i s h i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the a c t i v i t i e s . The l i s t o f a c t i v i t i e s ,. arranged a c c o r d i n g to d e c r e a s i n g p o s i t i v e responses, r e p r e s e n t s e s s e n t i a l l y the i n v e r s e of the l i s t o f a c t i v i t i e s arranged i n Table V i n d e c r e a s i n g p o s i t i v e responses. The f i g u r e s i n Table VI r e p r e s e n t what might be c a l l e d ' l a t e n t demand' f o r each a c t i v i t y — t h e number of people who are i n t e r e s t e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g but are p r e s e n t e d from doing so f o r some reason or another. To i n v e s t i g a t e f u r t h e r the d e s i r e of respondents to p a r t i c i p a t e i n c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s , the o p p o r t u n i t y was g i v e n t o s t a t e the reason f o r n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n each a c t i v i t y i n which a d e s i r e t o p a r t i c i p a t e was expressed. A number o f reasons were suggested to respondents by means of s m a l l p r i n t e d c a r d s , each b e a r i n g a d i f f e r e n t p o s s i b l e reason; respondents were i n s t r u c t e d to choose the most s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r p r e v e n t i n g t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the a c t i v i t y i n q u e s t i o n . The reasons suggested were as f o l l o w s ! 1. too expensive 2 . no time 3. no convenient f a c i l i t i e s 4. f a c i l i t i e s are overcrowded 5. don't know how 6. c h i l d r e n are too young 7. don't have equipment 8. f a m i l y i n t e r e s t s d i f f e r 95 These reasons f a l l i n t o two g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s . With the e x c e p t i o n of reasons three and f o u r , the f a c t o r s i n h i b i t i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n are e s s e n t i a l l y p e r s o n a l i n nature and be-yond the immediate scope o f p l a n n i n g the development of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s and f a c i l i t i e s . However, as a f f l u e n c e grows, i n c r e a s i n g p r o p o r t i o n s of t h i s ' l a t e n t demand' may emerge as consumption of r e c r e a t i o n a l exper-i e n c e s , The convenience and c a p a c i t y o f f a c i l i t i e s , however, are d i r e c t l y under the c o n t r o l of agencies r e s p o n s i b l e f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s i n the r e g i o n , p r o v i d i n g t h a t the f a c i l i t i e s i n q u e s t i o n are not t o t a l l y dependent upon n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . For example, a lake i n the r e g i o n c o u l d be made more a c c e s s i b l e to a degree by access p r o v i s i o n or improvement, but i f there are no l a k e s , there i s no pos-s i b i l i t y o f p r o v i d i n g the d e s i r e d f a c i l i t i e s . The reasons g i v e n f o r n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n each a c t i v i t y , i n terms o f the percentage of respondents who gave the reason; f o r not p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a d e s i r e d a c t i v i t y , are summarized i n Table V I I . The a c t i v i t i e s which r a t e d h i g h i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n among respondents have, as has been shown i n Table VI, r a t e d low i n ' l a t e n t demand'. C o n v e r s e l y , many of those i n which fewer respondents a c t u a l l y p a r t i -c i p a t e would be q u i t e p o p u l a r were i t not f o r some i n h i b i t i n g f a c t o r . As Table VII shows, the most p e r v a s i v e f a c t o r i s the l a c k o f equipment ne c e s s a r y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n these a c t i v i t i e s . In seventeen out o f twenty-seven a c t i v i t i e s , TABLE V I I REASONS FOR NON-PARTICIPATION IN DESIRED ACTIVITIES, PEACE RIVER REGION 1972 G u o hO G o >i o o E-t CI) > -P G £ TH a1 ft K W to -p CO f>> a) •H CD <w S -P <M H ft Reason i c o P, I CO CO <M co d) G a) <u O <D > 0) -ri iH « -H > +> +> *0 U CO G -H «rl <D CD -P CO G O r - l r H I X J - P A c t i V i t V X l r H + > CD ( D O - P n H n H j ^ S - ? S 3 G O f t S G O O C U O G O S 3 13 CD O X O r l O CD Kj « J > ( H O G O a < «a H a E H g - H ^  faoo Qt«i a Motorboating 9 1 9 . 9 5 . 5 1 1 . 0 2 . 2 3 . 3 Canoeing 73 5 . 5 8 . 2 6 . 8 - 5 . 5 W a t e r s k l i n g 72 - 6 . 9 26 .4 2 . 8 2 2 . 2 S a i l i n g 70 4 .3 5 . 7 2 1 . 4 1 .4 4 . 3 Snowmobiling 65 2 3 . 1 T r a i l e r camping 64 14.1 3 . 1 3 . 1 1 .6 — Downhill s k i i n g 60 13.3 1 0 . 0 2 3 . 3 - 1 8 . 3 G o l f i n g 59 1 5 . 3 2 8 . 8 1 1 . 9 - 6 . 8 Horseback r i d i n g 56 1 .8 1 0 . 7 1 6 . 1 - 1 . 8 Viewing, photographing w i l d l i f e 55 9 . 1 3 0 . 9 3 . 6 - 3 . 6 Swimming 52 - 9 . 6 36.5 5 . 8 46 .2 Scuba/skin d i v i n g 51 13.7 7 . 8 2 3 . 5 - 13.7 Cross-country s k i i n g „. 42 2 . 4 2 6 . 2 , 9 . 5 2 . 4 19 .0 Viewing photographing p l a n t l i f e 4 l 9 . 8 3 1 . 7 4 . 9 Snowshoeing 35 - 2 0 . 0 - - 1 1 . 4 B i c y c l i n g 33 - 1 8 . 2 6 . 1 F i s h i n g 32 6 . 2 2 8 . 1 2 8 . 1 Tent camping 30 - 2 0 . 0 3 . 3 6 . 7 M o t o r c y c l i n g 30 2 0 . 0 3 . 3 6 . 7 H i k i n g 24 - 5 4 . 2 8 . 3 -V i s i t i n g h i s t o r i c areas . . . . 21 14.3 4 7 . 6 9 . 5 4 .8 Hunting 17 - 47.1 5 . 9 - 5 . 9 Toboganning, s l e d d i n g 15 - 13.3 40 .0 C o l l e c t i n g a r t i f a c t s , rocks . . 13 6 1 . 5 2 3 . 1 S i g h t s e e i n g 7 2 8 . 6 7 1 . 4 -P i c n i c k i n g 7 - 5 7 . 1 - 14 .3 R e c r e a t i o n a l d r i v i n g . . . . . . 7 2 8 . 6 4 2 . 9 -Source: Peace R i v e r Regional Planning Commission, lyr^b. u CD 2 . 2 1 .7 3 . 4 7 . 1 1 . 9 . 4 . 8 2 . 9 6 . 1 6 . 2 6 . 7 2 0 . 8 9 . 5 1 7 . 6 6 . 7 6 5 . 9 7 4 . 0 40 .3 6 2 . 9 7 0 . 8 7 8 . 1 3 1 . 7 3 0 . 5 6 2 . 5 5 2 . 7 3 9 . 2 3 3 . 3 5 3 . 7 6 5 . 7 6 6 . 7 2 1 . 9 6 0 . 0 6 6 . 7 4 . 2 4 . 8 3 3 . 3 14.3 14.3 1 . 4 6 . 2 1 .7 3 . 4 2 . 0 2 . 4 3.0 9.4 3.0 3.0 12.5 9.5 5.9 6 . 7 15.4 14.3 14.3 vo 97 and seventeen out of the n i n e t e e n a c t i v i t i e s h i g h e s t i n l a t e n t demand, t h i s f a c t o r was mentioned most f r e q u e n t l y as the one p r e v e n t i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the a c t i v i t y . In those a c t i v i t i e s near the bottom of Table V I I , w i t h low l a t e n t demand, the reason mentioned most o f t e n f o r n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n was t h a t the respondent hadn't time to engage i n the a c t i v i t y . I t would seem t h a t , g e n e r a l l y speaking, a c t i v i t i e s - r e q u i r i n g few expenditures and l i t t l e c a p i t a l o u t l a y are engaged i n by most respondents who are i n t e r e s t e d i n so doing, unless they cannot f i n d time to do so. On the other hand, a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r i n g expensive equipment are engaged i n by a s m a l l e r p r o p o r t i o n o f those i n t e r e s t e d i n doing so; most respondents gave the c o s t o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n as the reason f o r n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n . As had been noted e a r l i e r , equipment c o s t s are not u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d to be w i t h i n the purview of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g , a l t h o u g h the r a t h e r l a r g e ' l a t e n t demand' f o r expensive a c t i v i t i e s i s of c o n s i d e r a b l e im-portance t o p l a n n i n g . The reasons f o r n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n which planners would be immediately i n t e r e s t e d concern the convenience and the c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y o f f a c i l i t i e s . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t the f o u r t h reason, overcrcwdedness of f a c i l i t i e s , was r a r e l y mentioned by respondents. I n f a c t , then, the p r i n c i p a l cause f o r concern f o r p l a n n e r s i n t e r e s t e d i n f a c i l i t i e s and r e s o u r c e s i n the Peace R i v e r r e g i o n would be the t h i r d one, c o n c e r n i n g the absence of convenient f a c i l i t i e s . T h i s reason appears on Table VII 9 8 i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h twenty-two a c t i v i t i e s . I t seems t h a t , f o r many p o t e n t i a l r e c r e a t o r s i n the r e g i o n , the l a c k o f convenient f a c i l i t i e s does prevent p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s . L a t e r i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , respondents were aksed to name f i v e s p e c i f i c p l a c e s which they had v i s i t e d d u r i n g the p a s t twelve months f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n . Out of a p o s s i b l e t o t a l o f 3 . 2 2 5 responses, 1 ,591 were r e c e i v e d . Table V I I I i s a summary of the types o f v i s i t s mentioned by respondents t o t h i s q u e s t i o n . Of a l l the v i s i t s r e -p o r t e d , over s i x t y - t h r e e per cent were d e s t i n a t i o n s w i t h i n the Peace R i v e r r e g i o n . The most popular d e s t i n a t i o n s w i t h i n the r e g i o n were the p r o v i n c i a l parks, which claimed 4 3 . 8 per cent o f the t o t a l number o f v i s i t s w i t h i n the r e g i o n and n e a r l y t h i r t y per cent o f a l l v i s i t s r e p o r t e d . Table V I I I i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t many respondents use undeveloped, n a t u r a l areas f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n , both w i t h i n and o u t s i d e the r e g i o n , to a c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n t . Another i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n i s t h a t no respondents mentioned v i s i t i n g Department of Highways and T r a n s p o r t campsites or A l b e r t a F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n areas out-s i d e the Peace R i v e r r e g i o n ; t h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t these f a c i l i t i e s may be used by l o c a l people more than they are used by t r a v e l l e r s on p r o v i n c i a l highways and f o r e s t r y trunk roads. TABLE V I I I OUTDOOR RECREATION VISITS REPORTED BY RESPONDENTS POR PREVIOUS YEAR, PEACE RIVER REGION 1972 Type of V i s i t T o t a l Number of Responses Percent of Responses Number Located i n Peace R i v e r Region Percent of Responses i n Peace R i v e r Region p r o v i n c i a l park 474 2 9 . 9 442 4 3 . 8 n a t u r a l areas (Undeveloped) 355 2 2 . 3 242 2 4 . 0 p r i v a t e outdoor r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t y 162 1 0 . 2 72 7 . 1 l a r g e c i t y 151 9 . 5 0 0 . 0 n a t i o n a l park 130 8 . 2 0 0 . 0 Department of Highways campsite 9 0 5 . 6 9 0 8 . 9 A l b e r t a F orest S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n area 85 5 . 3 85 8 . 4 m u n i c i p a l park 65 4 . 1 31 d r i v i n g no s p e c i f i c d e s t i n a t i o n 56 3 . 5 24 2 . 4 urban f a c i l i t y 23 1 .4 23 2 . 3 1591 1 0 0 . 0 1009 1 0 0 . 0 Source: Peace R i v e r Regional Planning Commission, 1 9 7 2 b . 100 Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n ! A t t i t u d e s The second major focus o f the Peace R i v e r R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission's outdoor r e c r e a t i o n survey was to assess the a t t i t u d e s o f respondents towards outdoor r e -c r e a t i o n environments. Respondents were gi v e n a l i s t o f n a t u r a l and man-made re s o u r c e s which c o u l d be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s , and asked to name those which they most p r e f e r r e d i n t h e i r c h o i c e o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s . The responses t o t h i s q u e s t i o n are summarized i n Table IX; they i n d i c a t e t h a t , on the whole, the respondents demonstrated a p r e f e r e n c e f o r n a t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s over man-made embellishments i n outdoor r e c r e a t i o n environments. I t appears t h a t most respondents c o n c e i v e d o f the i d e a l outdoor r e c r e a t i o n area i n terms o f a body o f water w i t h a s s o c i a t e d t r e e s , grass c o v e r , perhaps a beach, and i n more or l e s s a n a t u r a l s t a t e . As regards the l a t t e r c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c , t h e r e i s some i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n the respondents' r e a c t i o n t o the q u e s t i o n : a l t h o u g h s e v e n t y - f i v e per cent p r e f e r a w i l d or n a t u r a l s t a t e , up t o f i f t y per cent o f the respondents p r e f e r some form o f man-made f a c i l i t y i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the n a t u r a l environment. Thus, the q u e s t i o n o f the degree o f development o f n a t u r a l r e c r e a t i o n environments i s r a i s e d ; the m a j o r i t y o f respondents t o t h i s q u e s t i o n seem t o favour n a t u r a l environments, w h i l e c e r t a i n groups w i t h i n the sample are i n t e r e s t e d i n one or a s e t o f conveniences and s p e c i a l i z e d f a c i l i t i e s t o enhance the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f the n a t u r a l a r e a . 101 TABLE IX PREFERRED CHARACTERISTICS IN OUTDOOR RECREATION ENVIRONMENTS PEACE RIVER REGION 1972 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s % o f Respondents la k e s o 90.5 o u t s t a n d i n g n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s 89.0 streams or r i v e r s 88.8 t r e e s , grass cover 88.5 beaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86.2 w i l d or n a t u r a l s t a t e 75• 3 h i s t o r i c or c u l t u r a l s i t e s . . . 64.7 water, t o i l e t s , e l e c t r i c i t y , showers 50.5 boat docks, l a u n c h i n g ramps . 4-7.8 telephone . . . . . . . . . 42.3 co n c e s s i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . 3^.4 s t o r e s 33«8 s k i f a c i l i t i e s 29.0 r e n t a l accommodations 28.2 Source: Peace R i v e r R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission, 1972b. L a t e r i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , respondents were g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y - t o name up to f i v e s p e c i f i c areas i n the Peace R i v e r r e g i o n which they would l i k e t o see r e s e r v e d or developed f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l use. A t o t a l o f 717 l o c a t i o n s were named, out o f the p o s s i b l e 3,225 responses 102 t h a t c o u l d have been c o l l e c t e d had each respondent named f i v e a r e a s . F i f t y - f i v e per cent o f the areas mentioned were suggested i n terms of development, which respondents understood t o connote the p r o v i s i o n of v e h i c u l a r access and some f a c i l i t i e s . The remaining f o r t y - f i v e per cent were mentioned i n terms of p r e s e r v a t i o n , which was under-stood to mean p r o t e c t i o n from r e s o u r c e s uses which would tend t o cause a d i m i n u t i o n o f the r e c r e a t i o n a l value o f the a r e a . Another s e c t i o n o f the q u e s t i o n on p r e f e r r e d char-a c t e r i s t i c s o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n areas concerned the type o f access t h a t was most p r e f e r r e d by respondents while t r a v e l l i n g t o outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s . Respondents were reque s t e d t o rank, i n order o f p r e f e r e n c e , f o u r types o f access t o r e c r e a t i o n areas: h i g h grade (paved) roads, low grade ( g r a v e l ) roads, roads only p a r t i a l l y r e a c h i n g the r e c r e a t i o n a r e a , and no automobile access a t a l l . Responses to t h i s q u e s t i o n , summarized i n Table X , i n d i c a t e t h a t most respondents ranked the f o u r types o f access i n the order i n which they were pre s e n t e d , t h a t i s 'high grade a c c e s s ' f i r s t , 'low grade a c c e s s ' second, ' p a r t i a l a c c e s s ' t h i r d , and 'no a c c e s s ' l a s t . Ease o f a c c e s s i b i l i t y thus appears to be a major p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n areas i f the respondents' p e r c e p t i o n s were to be used as p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s i n p r o v i d i n g such a r e a s . There i s a n o t i c e -a b l e group, comprising twenty-three per cent o f the sample, who ranked ' p a r t i a l a c c e s s ' and 'no v e h i c u l a r a c c e s s ' f i r s t 103 i n t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e o r d e r s , w h i l e over n i n e t e e n per cent ranked 'high grade' and 'low grade' roads l a s t . Thus, a s i z e a b l e m i n o r i t y of respondents p r e f e r t h e i r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n environments to be beyond the reach of the automobile, TABLE X PREFERRED VEHICULAR ACCESS TO -OUTDOOR RECREATION AREAS PEACE RIVER REGION 1972 (per cent o f respondents). Rank Type o f Access High Grade Low Grade P a r t i a l None 1 58.9 18.5 13.4 10.2 2 1.6.1 61.4 16.5 6.4 3 9.8 . 15.7 68.3 5.0 4 15.2 4.4 1.8 78.4 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Note: Table does not sum t o 100 per cent h o r i z o n t a l l y due to rounding o f f . Source: Peace R i v e r R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission, 1972b. D i s c u s s i o n One o f the most s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t s brought out -i n the Peace R i v e r R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission's survey of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l behavior and a t t i t u d e s i s t h a t the r e s i d e n t s of the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g area are f a r from unanimous i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f what c o n s t i t u t e s the 104 most d e s i r a b l e outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . There seems to be c l e a r concensus as to some of the d e s i r a b l e char-a c t e r i s t i c s of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s — b o d i e s o f water, w i t h t r e e s and grass cover and other n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s , are w i d e l y p r e f e r r e d . Up t o o n e - h a l f o f the respondents p r e f e r some man-made f a c i l i t i e s i n a d d i t i o n t o these n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s — r u n n i n g water, t o i l e t s , e l e c t r i c i t y and s h o w e r s — as w e l l as f a c i l i t i e s f o r boat l a u n c h i n g . The m a j o r i t y of respondents p r e f e r not to have such f a c i l i t i e s as s t o r e s , c o n c e s s i o n s , s k i f a c i l i t i e s , and r e n t a l accommodations i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e s i r a b l e n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s . S i m i l a r l y , respondents were d i v i d e d on the q u e s t i o n of access to outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s . While the m a j o r i t y p r e f e r r e d t o be ab l e t o r e a c h outdoor r e c r e a t i o n areas by v e h i c l e , a s i z e a b l e m i n o r i t y are o r i e n t e d t o the k i n d o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n area t h a t cannot be reached by auto-mobile . Respondents t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e v/ere i n t e r e s t e d i n , and p a r t i c i p a t e d i n , the k i n d o f a c t i v i t i e s f o r which p r o v i n c i a l parks have been developed throughout the p r o v i n c e of A l b e r t a . Inexpensive a c t i v i t i e s are most p o p u l a r , and p a r t i c i p a t i o n g r a d u a l l y decreases as o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g decrease and expense i n c r e a s e s . D e s i r e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s , however, very high f o r some o f the ex-pensive a c t i v i t i e s , which may have some aura o f p r e s t i g e connected with them i n the context o f Peace R i v e r r e g i o n s o c i e t y . Motorboating, w a t e r s k i i n g , canoeing, s a i l i n g , 105 snowmobiling, t r a i l e r i n g , and s k i i n g , horseback r i d i n g , and g o l f i n g head the l i s t o f a c t i v i t i e s i n which people wished t o p a r t i c i p a t e but d i d not do so. A l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the outdoor r e c r e a t i o n e x periences r e p o r t e d i n the survey were v i s i t s t o p r o v i n c i a l parks, both w i t h i n and o u t s i d e the Peace R i v e r r e g i o n . The i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h apter i n d i -c a t e s t h a t the range o f a t t i t u d e s c o n c e r n i n g outdoor r e -c r e a t i o n among the Peace R i v e r r e g i o n respondents and, presumably, among r e s i d e n t s o f the P r o v i n c e o f A l b e r t a , i s broad. The k i n d of i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t has been generated i n the survey does not appear to have been used t o the pre s e n t i n the p r o v i n c i a l parks p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f g a t h e r i n g such i n f o r m a t i o n i s t h a t f a c i l i -t i e s would be planned w i t h the s p e c i f i c needs o f r e c r e a t o r s throughout the p r o v i n c e i n mind; however, the p e c u l i a r nature o f park l o c a t i o n and development d e c i s i o n s has i n the p a s t p r e c l u d e d such a p l a n n i n g approach. Surveys have been conducted w i t h i n the parks t o ask people q u e s t i o n s about e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s , but t h i s type o f i n f o r m a t i o n i s o f a d i f f e r e n t nature because- i t concerns the a t t i t u d e s of people a l r e a d y v i s i t i n g the parks. T h i s type o f i n f o r -mation c o u l d l e a d t o the p e r p e t u a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g types o f f a c i l i t i e s , s i n c e those p o t e n t i a l r e c r e a t o r s who do not l i k e e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s w i l l not be i n the parks, w i l l not be surveyed, and w i l l not have t h e i r a t t i t u d e s con-s i d e r e d . As w e l l as i n v e s t i g a t i n g the nature of r e c r e a t i o n 106 demand throughout the p r o v i n c e , the agency might i n v e s -t i g a t e the e f f e c t s o f the supply o f r e c r e a t i o n a l oppor-t u n i t i e s , s p e c i f i c a l l y p r o v i n c i a l parks, on the p a r t i c i p a t i o n p a t t e r n s o f nearby r e s i d e n t s . I n p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about the b e n e f i t s and c o s t s o f meeting the needs o f p r o v i n c i a l r e s i d e n t s f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s , the p r o v i n c i a l parks agency should be t a k i n g i n t o account the d i v e r s i t y o f a t t i t u d e s t h a t seems to e x i s t i n the p r o v i n c e r e g a r d i n g outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s . The p o l i c y i n the p a s t seems t o have been t o p r o v i d e one k i n d of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t y , t r u s t i n g t h a t i t w i l l s a t i s f y the widest range of user needs. The i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h i s chapter suggests t h a t t h i s p o l i c y i s not e f f e c t i v e ; i n the next chapter o f the study, the e n t i r e i n f o r m a t i o n g e n e r a t i o n process o f the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n w i l l be a s s e s s e d and, where inad e -quacies appear, suggestions f o r improvements w i l l be made. CHAPTER VI EVALUATION AND DISCUSSION I n t r o d u c t i o n The second c h a p t e r of t h i s study e x p l o r e d the r o l e of i n f o r m a t i o n i n decision-making and e s t a b l i s h e d a number of c r i t e r i a f o r the o p e r a t i o n o f government agencies i n terms of i n f o r m a t i o n g e n e r a t i o n . The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e n v i r -onment and o p e r a t i o n of the A l b e r t a P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n has been d i s c u s s e d , and the outdoor r e c r e a t i o n needs and a t t i t u d e s of one p a r t i c u l a r user group have been a s s e s s e d . The study r e s t s on the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t one o f the most important outputs of the p l a n n i n g process i s i n f o r m a t i o n , and t h a t outdoor r e c r e a t i o n planners a r e , or s h o u l d be, i n v o l v e d i n g e n e r a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of p o l i t i c a l d e cision-makers, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e decision-makers and the i n t e r e s t e d p u b l i c . The a p p l i c a t i o n o f the s e t o f c r i t e r i a proposed i n Chapter I I t o the p l a n n i n g process o f the A l b e r t a P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n i s i n t e n d ed to i n d i c a t e the degree to which t h i s f u n c t i o n i s being c a r r i e d out. C r i t e r i o n One The f i r s t c r i t e r i o n concerns the c o n t e x t o f agency goals w i t h i n which programs and p r o j e c t s are planned. " 1 0 7 108 Does the agency generate i n f o r m a t i o n about p r o j e c t s and programs i n r e l a t i o n to a s e t of goals e s t a b l i s h e d by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the p u b l i c through a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e process? In l i g h t of the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t has been c o l l e c t e d on the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n ' s p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n , i t appears t h a t p o l i c y q u e s t i o n s have not been approached i n the manner suggested above. A c c o r d i n g to the A l b e r t a Parks P o l i c y Statement t a b l e d i n the A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t u r e , the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f the D i v i s i o n are to: 1. E s t a b l i s h need of p o p u l a t i o n p r e s e n t and f u t u r e f o r park r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . 2. Assess the r e c r e a t i o n a l resource p o t e n t i a l o f l o c a t i o n s . 3. Recommend r e s e r v a t i o n or a c q u i s i t i o n o f s u i t a b l e park l a n d . 4. E s t a b l i s h , develop, and manage parks to meet needs of the p o p u l a t i o n w h i l e e n s u r i n g t h a t impairment o f p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s dees not d e s t r o y those f e a t u r e s f o r f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s , ( P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n , I967). T h i s statement was formulated i n 1967; p r e v i o u s to t h a t time, the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n was o p e r a t i n g i n the absence o f s p e c i f i e d o b j e c t i v e s . The e n a b l i n g l e g i s -l a t i o n , the P r o v i n c i a l Parks A c t (R.S.A. 1964 c. 71) pro-v i d e d f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of parks but d i d not s p e c i f y t h e i r purpose. In the absence o f e x p l i c i t g o a l s , the p r o v i n c i a l parks system i n A l b e r t a seems to have developed s i n c e 1932 i n an i n c r e m e n t a l way; i t has o f t e n been used to 'rescue* r e c r e a t i o n a l areas managed by l o c a l c i t i z e n groups over-whelmed w i t h the demands on the r e c r e a t i o n a l resource and 109 the expense of m a i n t a i n i n g i t . In a d d i t i o n , the system has been used as a device f o r d i s t r i b u t i n g the b e n e f i t s o f p u b l i c revenues from resource r o y a l t i e s throughout the P r o v i n c e . As a r e s u l t , a d i v e r s e a r r a y o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n areas have ' f a l l e n i n t o the l a p ' o f the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n . The p a t t e r n o f development of the A l b e r t a p r o v i n c i a l parks system from i t s b e g i n n i n g i n 1932 to the presen t time seems to r e f l e c t the type o f g o a l - s e t t i n g d e s c r i b e d by O'Riordan and r e f e r r e d to i n Chapter I I : vaguely-expressed p u b l i c o p i n i o n , f a u l t y i n t r e p r e t a t i o n s , and p o l i t i c a l opportunism. I t does not r e f l e c t the k i n d o f goals des-c r i b e d i n the parks p o l i c y statement o f 19&? which i n c l u d e s the a n a l y s i s o f p r o v i n c i a l needs, both q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e , and r e s o u r c e s , and the development o f park f a c i l i t i e s on the b a s i s o f these a n a l y s e s . As park patronage i n c r e a s e d and budgetary a p p r o p r i a t i o n s to the D i v i s i o n i n c r e a s e d r e g u l a r l y (see F i g u r e 4) the D i v i s i o n f o l l o w e d the P a r k i n s o n i a n t e n d e n c y — i t took over more parks, p r o v i d e d more f a c i l i t i e s i n the pa r k s , developed i t s own maintenance, c o n s t r u c t i o n , and p l a n n i n g s t a f f , p l a c e d year-round wardens i n the parks, and g e n e r a l l y p r o v i d e d •more o f the same'—without e v a l u a t i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of p a s t programs. The case o f the w i l d e r n e s s areas i n A l b e r t a seems to i l l u s t r a t e the absence of c l e a r l y understood g o a l s f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i n the p r o v i n c e . The government seems 110 to. have had a general perception of the need f o r such areas, yet the three f o o t h i l l s wildernesses remained i n a pro-v i s i o n a l s t a t e f o r e i g h t years, during which de c i d e d l y non-wilderness a c t i v i t i e s occurred w i t h i n t h e i r boundaries, before the government decided t h e i r s t a t u s permanently. A c e r t a i n amount of p o l i t i c a l expediency seems evident from the f a c t t h a t the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of one i n t e r e s t group was s u f f i c i e n t to r e s u l t - i n the r e s e r v a t i o n of n e a r l y 400 square miles of r e s o u r c e - r i c h l a n d . Yet the l o c a t i o n of these areas i s very remote and access i s d i f f i c u l t , r e s u l t i n g i n the use of the wilderness by only a l i m i t e d number of A l b e r t a n s . I n c o n f r o n t i n g decision-makers and members of the p u b l i c w i t h the advantages and disadvantages of a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c i e s , parks planners i n the agency should be able to demonstrate how w e l l the a l t e r n a t i v e s meet the agency's g o a l s . Since the agency's goals have been vague throughout most of i t s ' h i s t o r y , the generation of such i n f o r m a t i o n has not been p o s s i b l e . The fo r m u l a t i o n of the 1967 p o l i c y statement represents at l e a s t a r e c o g n i t i o n of some of the iss u e s i n v o l v e d i n planning outdoor r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s ; however, there i s no i n d i c a t i o n that the p o l i c y was taken s e r i o u s l y by the government, or t h a t parks planners began to generate the ki n d of i n f o r m a t i o n envisioned i n the p o l i c y statement. Decisions p e r t a i n i n g to the l o c a t i o n of new parks or the expansion of e x i s t i n g parks continued to be based on user pressures and the c r i t e r i o n of e q u i t a b l e I l l geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n o f parks throughout the p r o v i n c e . The r o l e of the p r o v i n c i a l parks system i n the o v e r a l l system o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and user p e r c e p t i o n s i n the p r o v i n c e remained u n d e f i n e d . C r i t e r i o n Two The second c r i t e r i o n deals w i t h the scope o f the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n ' s approach to the g e n e r a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o agency d e c i s i o n s . Does the agency approach the problem of managing r e s o u r c e s f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i n a comprehensive f a s h i o n , t a k i n g i n t o account the e f f e c t s o f p o l i c i e s , a n d programs of other agencies and other components o f the n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s environment? The i n f o r m a t i c o n p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter IV i n d i c a t e s t h a t the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n has been concerned almost t o t a l l y w i t h the 'demand' component o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n . The p r o v i s i o n of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n opportunities has, however, a s u p p l y s i d e as w e l l as a demand s i d e . While P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n budgetary a p p r o p r i a t i o n s are b e i n g spent i n s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s i n g amounts i n the manner o u t l i n e d above, prime outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s , a t p r e s e n t i n a c c e s s i b l e and not c l o s e to p o p u l a t i o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n s , are not being developed or even a c q u i r e d i n an o r d e r l y , f u t u r e - o r i e n t e d manner. A l t e r n a t e use of these r e s o u r c e s , such as l o g g i n g or m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n and e x t r a c t i o n , may e f f e c t i v e l y d e s t r o y or s e r i o u s l y i m pair the outdoor r e c r e a t i o n p o t e n t i a l of such a r e a s . Commenting on the need f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n of f u t u r e lands f o r parks, a P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n Paper 112 notes t h a t "Whereas crown lands i n the past were r e l a t i v e l y easy to o b t a i n f o r r e c r e a t i o n purposes, t h i s today i s a v i r t u a l i m p o s s i b i l i t y " . ( P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n , 1972b). The problem of p r o v i d i n g outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l opportunities i s t h a t s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s ( l a n d and water s u i t a b l e f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l use) must be made a v a i l -a b l e to the p u b l i c i n such a way t h a t the g r e a t e s t net b e n e f i t s accrue to the members o f s o c i e t y . The proper., area of concern of the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n i n c l u d e s much more than whether or not to assume the r e s o n s i b i l i t y f o r managing a l o c a l r e c r e a t i o n area which f i n d s i t s e l f i n f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t y . The magnitude and nature of p r o v i n -c i a l demand f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s , the a l t e r -n a t i v e s i t e s t h a t are a v a i l a b l e f o r development, and the c o n f l i c t i n g demands on D i v i s i o n funds are a l l r e l e v a n t ? i n f o r m a t i o n on these s u b j e c t s , , p r o v i d e d by the Parks P l a n n i n g S t a f f and supplemented by independent c o n s u l t a n t s i f n e c e s s a r y , would be of v i t a l importance i n determining how b e s t t o a l l o c a t e p u b l i c funds. While the 19&7 p o l i c y statement o f the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n r e c o g n i z e s t h i s problem, the D i v i s i o n ' s a c t i v i t i e s have not i n the p a s t addressed i t . P r e s e n t r e s e a r c h t h r u s t s i n the D i v i s i o n seem to i n d i c a t e a s u b s t a n t i a l s h i f t i n parks p o l i c y f o r the f u t u r e . The;parks i n the system are being a s s e s s e d i n terms o f t h e i r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n p o t e n t i a l and c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y ; areas anywhere i n the p r o v i n c e with u n u s u a l l y high r e c r e a t i o n 113 p o t e n t i a l are being 'frozen* to prevent l e a s e or other a l i e n a t i o n o f the l a n d , and the Canada Land Inventory r e c r e a t i o n c a p a b i l i t y data f o r the p r o v i n c e i s being used to develop an i n v e n t o r y of prime r e c r e a t i o n a l l a n d i n the p r o v i n c e . The new p l a n n i n g o r i e n t a t i o n seems to imply the a d o p t i o n o f a comprehensive approach, which i s suggested i n the c r i t e r i o n s t a t e d above. I f the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n i n t e n d s t o perform i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as they are enumerated i n the Parks P o l i c y statement quoted e a r l i e r , a somewhat more comprehensive approach t o d e c i s i o n s t o develop parks must be adopted than has been customary throughout most of the D i v i s i o n ' s h i s t o r y . C r i t e r i o n Three The t h i r d c r i t e r i o n concerns the r e l a t i v e degree o f importance a t t a c h e d to the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n ' s p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n , as evidenced by the budgetary r e s o u r c e s a l l o c a t e d t o i t . Are r e s o u r c e s made a v a i l a b l e and used e f f e c t i v e l y t o generate i n f o r m a t i o n about the c h o i c e s t h a t are a v a i l a b l e f o r meeting the agency's g o a l s ? The D i r e c t o r of the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n i n d i -c a t e d t h a t approximately f i v e per cent o f the agency's budget has been a l l o c a t e d i n r e c e n t years to a c t i v i t i e s which c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as g e n e r a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f p o l i c y makers. With a budget o f n e a r l y $3 m i l l i o n , the agency would thus be spending approximately $150,000 on i t s p l a n n i n g o p e r a t i o n s . These i n c l u d e the 114 Canada Land Inventory r e c r e a t i o n c a p a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s program, assessment and i n s p e c t i o n o f e x i s t i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s e r v e s i n the p r o v i n c e , and i n s p e c t i o n of l a n d proposed f o r park use by other government agencies or by members of the p u b l i c through t h e i r p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . User s t u d i e s are a l s o undertaken i n p r o v i n c i a l parks by the p l a n n i n g s e c t i o n of the d i v i s i o n . I t appears t h a t , a l t h o u g h the agency's p l a n n i n g s t a f f has been assembling a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of i n f o r -mation t h a t would be u s e f u l f o r long-range p l a n n i n g , t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n has not been u t i l i z e d i n a p r a c t i c a l sense and does not i n f l u e n c e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s made, and programs formulated, w i t h i n the d i v i s i o n . For example, i n f o r m a t i o n on the o r i g i n o f parks v i s i t o r s , d e r i v e d from motor v e h i c l e r e g i s t r a t i o n s , has been c o l l e c t e d over a number o f years and would t e l l the agency which communities i t i s s e r v i n g , and how many park v i s i t s are r e t u r n v i s i t s by the same i n d i v i d u a l s . Yet the r e s o u r c e s t h a t would be r e q u i r e d to process t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n have not been a l l o c a t e d , and i t l i e s unused i n survey r e c o r d s . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o judge whether any p a r t i c u l a r p r o p o r t i o n of an agency's budget, or any a b s o l u t e amount, a l l o c a t e d to the g e n e r a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n i s reasonable; such f a c t o r s as the g e n e r a l s t a t e of knowledge about the p r o v i n c e ' s n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e base would be important i n such a judgment. I t i s known t h a t n e a r l y f i v e m i l l i o n v i s i t s were made to A l b e r t a ' s p r o v i n c i a l parks d u r i n g the f i s c a l 115 year 1971-1972 (Department o f Lands and F o r e s t s , 1972) and t h a t many of these v i s i t o r s were from o u t s i d e the p r o v i n c e . I t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t o u r i s m w i l l p l a y an i n c r e a s i n g l y important r o l e i n A l b e r t a ' s economy. Non-resident v i s i t o r s spent $39 m i l l i o n i n A l b e r t a i n 1966, and $60 m i l l i o n i n 1971; (Kates, Peat & Warwick, 1972) the a t t r a c t i v e -ness o f the p r o v i n c e t o t o u r i s t s i s undoubtedly enhanced by the system of p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s. C o n s u l t a n t s a d v i s i n g the A l b e r t a government on i t s t o u r i s t p o l i c y i n 19^7 recommended t h a t " c o o r d i n a t i o n of the r e c r e a t i o n a l develop-ment should be a c h i e v e d by p l a n n i n g and c r e a t i n g a l a r g e and d i v e r s i f i e d spectrum o f r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the framework o f the n a t u r a l beauty o f the c o u n t r y " . (Kates, Peat & Marwick, 1967, p.12). Regardless o f the amount o f money being spent on i n f o r m a t i o n g e n e r a t i o n f o r p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s , the i n e f f e c t i v e use of those r e s o u r c e s which have been made a v a i l a b l e f o r g e n e r a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n suggests t h a t the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n p l a c e s low p r i o r i t y on t h i s phase o f decision-making. C r i t e r i o n Four Does the agency p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s do so to the extent t h a t the f u l l range of s o c i e t a l values i s r e f l e c t e d i n the a r r a y of i n f o r m a t i o n generated? The P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n , the A l b e r t a F o r e s t S e r v i c e and the Department o f Highways and T r a n s p o r t i n A l b e r t a are a l l i n v o l v e d i n p r o v i d i n g outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s to A l b e r t a n s . The P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n 116 has a c l e a r mandate, a c c o r d i n g to the 1967 p o l i c y s t a t e -ment, to meet the needs of the p o p u l a t i o n f o r park recrea^.'. t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , w h i le the other two agencies are p r o v i d i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s i n a c a p a c i t y p e r i p h e r a l t o t h e i r primary r . e s o n s i b i l i t i e s . With d i f f e r e n t o b j e c t i v e s and d i f f e r e n t r e source management p e r s p e c t i v e s , the agencies may he p r o v i d i n g a wider range o f r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n t i e s to A l b e r t a n s than would be a v a i l a b l e i f a s i n g l e agency was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i n the p r o v i n c e . I n e v a l u a t i n g how w e l l the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n i t s e l f meets t h i s c r i t e r i o n , the r o l e o f a t t i t u d e s of p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s o u r c e managers i n resource management decision-making becomes an i s s u e . I t i s becoming a w e l l -accepted t h e s i s t h a t r e s o u r c e managers themselves cannot r e p r e s e n t the f u l l range of s o c i e t a l values i n t h e i r de-c i s i o n s . Commenting on t h i s q u e s t i o n , O'Riordan has r a i s e d the q u e s t i o n o f the ext e n t t o which the p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s o u r c e manager i s i n f l u e n c e d by h i s own o p i n i o n of what others t h i n k , and h i s o p i n i o n o f what the p u b l i c wants or what he t h i n k s i s good f o r them. (O'Riordan, 1971, p.111). Such comments suggest t h a t resource managers p r e -s e n t l y making d e c i s i o n s w i t h i n the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n may not be adequately r e p r e s e n t i n g the f u l l range of s o c i e t a l v a l u e s i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n s . The i n f o r m a t i o n presented i n Chapter V on the a t t i t u d e s of Peace R i v e r r e g i o n r e s i d e n t s appears to bear out t h i s s u g g e s t i o n . 117 . The P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n has i n the past pro-v i d e d a standard outdoor r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t y to 'meet needs of the p o p u l a t i o n * . The D i v i s i o n has s t e a d i l y 'improved* f a c i l i t i e s by i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r c a p a c i t y and hence t h e i r a t t r a c t i v e n e s s t o c e r t a i n kinds o f v i s i t o r s . "There has been a tendency i n the p a s t to a l l o w development to continue ad i n f i n i t u m i n an endeavor to accommodate the annual in-?,, crease i n v i s i t a t i o n s . " ( P r o v i n c i a l . P a r k s D i v i s i o n , 1972b). In a d d i t i o n , the Parks D i v i s i o n has s t e a d i l y worked i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h the Department o f Highways and T r a n s p o r t to upgrade v e h i c l e access to a l l p r o v i n c i a l parks and thereby make them more a v a i l a b l e to a l l p r o v i n c i a l r e s i d e n t s . Such an approach to p r o v i d i n g outdoor r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s assumes t h a t a l l p r o v i n c i a l r e s i d e n t s are i n t e r e s t e d i n the same k i n d of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l ex-p e r i e n c e , o r , a l t e r n a t i v e l y , i s a p o l i c y designed t o serve only one segment of the p r o v i n c e ' s p o p u l a t i o n . S i n c e the agency p r o f e s s e s to meet the needs o f the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n , the assumption t h a t p r o v i n c i a l r e s i d e n t s are s i m i l a r i n terms o f t h e i r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n needs must be b a s i c to the agency's approach. That t h i s assumption i s f a l l a c i o u s i s suggested by the i n f o r m a t i o n on outdoor r e c r e a t i o n p r e f e r e n c e s and a t t i t u d e s presented i n Chapter V. The respondents to the Peace R i v e r R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission's q u e s t i o n n a i r e are c l e a r l y not a homogeneous group i n terms of t h e i r needs and p e r c e p t i o n s i n outdoor r e c r e a t i o n . Many r e s i d e n t s appear to be o r i e n t e d to the 1 1 8 k i n d of f a c i l i t y being p r o v i d e d by the P r o v i n c i a l Parks agency, Many o f the most popu l a r a c t i v i t i e s are those to which the p r o v i n c i a l parks are d e d i c a t e d : p i c n i c k i n g , f i s h i n g , swimming, h i k i n g , and camping. In a d d i t i o n , the a c t i v i t i e s w i t h h i g h e s t ' l a t e n t demand' i n the Peace R i v e r r e g i o n are a l l w a t e r - o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s f o r which most p r o v i n c i a l parks are s u i t a b l e . N e a r l y t h i r t y per cent o f the responses t o the r equest t o name the d e s t i n a t i o n o f p a s t r e c r e a t i o n a l v i s i t s , were p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s . The e f f e c t of the 'supply* of r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n the p r o v i n c i a l parks undoubtedly i n f l u e n c e s the emergence of the p a r t i c u l a r p a t t e r n of p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e v e a l e d i n the survey data. However, as the p r o v i n c i a l parks system has been growing i n A l b e r t a , p r o v i n c i a l r e s i d e n t s have been d e v e l o p i n g new a t t i t u d e s and p r e f e r e n c e s r e g a r d i n g outdoor r e c r e a t i o n . A maximum o f f i f t y per cent o f the respondents to the survey favoured man-made 'improvements' to outdoor r e c r e a -t i o n r e s o u r c e s . Twenty-three per cent of respondents r a t e d ' p a r t i a l a c c e s s ' and ' n o ' v e h i c u l a r a c c e s s ' f i r s t i n p r i o r i t y i n terms o f access to t h e i r i d e a l i z e d r e c r e a t i o n a r e a . However, the resource managers i n the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n r e p o r t e d t h a t they have been attempting to serve the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t over the l a s t twenty years by p r o v i d i n g f a c i l i t i e s planned and designed by t h e i r own s t a f f , and uniform throughout the l e n g t h o f the p r o v i n c e . There i s no evidence t h a t decision-makers i n the Department of Lands and F o r e s t s have ever been pr e s e n t e d with the 119 i d e a t h a t a range o f values e x i s t s i n the p r o v i n c e with r e s p e c t to outdoor r e c r e a t i o n , and t h a t d e c i s i o n s made on the b a s i s of o n l y one s e t of values f a i l t o r e f l e c t t h i s d i v e r s i t y . C r i t e r i o n F i v e The f i f t h c r i t e r i o n has to do w i t h communication o f i n f o r m a t i o n . Does the agency achieve a wide d i s t r i b u t i o n of a range of i n f o r m a t i o n through the use c f the w r i t t e n and spoken media, p u b l i c meetings, h e a r i n g s , or other communication d e v i c e s ? I t i s e v i d e n t from the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t has been c o l l e c t e d on the o p e r a t i o n of the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n ' p l a n n i n g process that, what i n f o r m a t i o n does flow i n the agency flows i n one d i r e c t i o n only: upward. The agency has not attempted to disseminate i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s to the p u b l i c . The p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t i o n to t h i s p r a c t i c e ( o f d i s -s e m inating i n f o r m a t i o n to the p u b l i c ) seems to be t h a t such i n f o r m a t i o n may l e a d to land s p e c u l a t i o n i f i t i n v o l v e s p r i v a t e l y - o w n e d la n d which the D i v i s i o n i s c o n s i d e r i n g f o r purchase f o r park development. Thus, i t i s deemed to be i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t t h a t developmental plans f o r e x i s t i n g or p o t e n t i a l p r o v i n c i a l parks should be kept s e c r e t i n order to c u r t a i l s p e c u l a t i o n i n land a d j a c e n t t o , or on the s i t e o f , those parks. For broad p o l i c y q u e s t i o n s such as the r o l e of the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n or the p o l i c i e s i t should 120 f o l l o w , p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n has not occur r e d t o the pr e s e n t time. The D i r e c t o r of the D i v i s i o n a n t i c i p a t e s t h a t such d i s c u s s i o n w i l l be demanded by an i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t e r e s t e d p u b l i c , and t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l have t o be made a v a i l -a ble by the agency on such q u e s t i o n s . . At p r e s e n t , however, i t seems f a i r t o say t h a t the p u b l i c has been exposed very l i t t l e to i n f o r m a t i o n generated by the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n , a b o u t . a g e n c y programs and p o l i c y . D i s c u s s i o n The c r i t e r i a which were proposed i n Chapter I I of t h i s study and a p p l i e d t o the o p e r a t i o n o f the A l b e r t a P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n were based on an a d m i t t e d l y i d e a l i s t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the p u b l i c decision-making p r o c e s s . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , the agency, which has developed under the i n f l u e n c e o f a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y whose approach to government has o f t e n been d e s c r i b e d as 'managerial', has not met the c r i t e r i a w e l l . The agency i s , however, not i n a s t a t i c p o s i t i o n a t the present time, and appears to be moving i n d i r e c t i o n s suggested t o be d e s i r a b l e by the i n f o r m a t i o n g e n e r a t i o n c r i t e r i a . The r e c e n t change i n government i n A l b e r t a has prompted a r e - e v a l u a t i o n o f the p r o v i n c i a l parks system, and of the r o l e o f the D i v i s i o n i n p r o v i d i n g outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r A l b e r t a n s . I t i s an a p p r o p r i a t e time to make suggestions f o r changes i n the i n f o r m a t i o n g e n e r a t i o n process t h a t has been examined i n t h i s study. 121 . • The A l b e r t a P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n i s i n v o l v e d i n r e s o u r c e management, which has been a p t l y d e s c r i b e d as a decision-making process where optimal s o l u t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the manner, t i m i n g , and a l l o c a t i o n o f resource uses are sought w i t h i n the economic, p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , and i n s t i - -t u t i o n a l framework a f f o r d e d by any g i v e n c u l t u r e a t any g i v e n time. (O'Riordan, 1 9 7 1 , p. 1 0 9 ) . A r i s i n g from the e v a l u a t i o n which c o n s t i t u t e s the f i r s t p a r t o f t h i s Chapter, a number of suggestions w i l l be made i n the second p a r t which w i l l , i n the o p i n i o n o f the w r i t e r , make opt i m a l s o l u t i o n s i n outdoor r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s manage-ment more l i k e l y o f attainment i n the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n . The suggestions are concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h the g e n e r a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n which w i l l c o n f r o n t d e c i s i o n -makers and members o f the p u b l i c w i t h the c o s t s and b e n e f i t s , the disadvantages and advantages, of a l t e r n a t i v e resource management s t r a t e g i e s . 1. Goals F o r m u l a t i o n The f i r s t s u g g e s t i o n concerns the matter of g o a l -s e t t i n g and the p l a n n i n g o f agency programs and p r o j e c t s i n r e l a t i o n t o these g o a l s . The P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n p r e s e n t l y has a mandate to determine, and s e r v e , the needs of p r o v i n c i a l . residents w i t h r e s p e c t t o park r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . At the same time, c e r t a i n other p r o v i n c i a l agencies are engaged i n s u p p l y i n g r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . The P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n i s a l s o becoming i n v o l v e d i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of non-park r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , 122 namely, wilderness areas, e s t a b l i s h e d under separate l e g i s l a t i o n . On the basi s of the p r o f i l e of perceptions and a t t i t u d e s towards outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a r t i c u l a t e d by r e -spondents to the Peace R i v e r Regional P l a n n i n g Commission's survey, there appears to be a demand f o r a d i v e r s e array of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n areas and f a c i l i t i e s i n the p r o v i n c e , ranging from remote wilderness areas to i n t e n s i v e l y - u s e d parks c l o s e to large p o p u l a t i o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n s . The present p o l i c i e s of the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n do not meet t h i s range of demands 5 the agency i s p r o v i d i n g one type of f a c i l i t y , whose c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are obviously popular w i t h p r o v i n c i a l r e s i d e n t s yet do not appeal to a l l r e s i d e n t s . The D i v i s i o n ' s p r a c t i c e of c a r r y i n g out user surveys i n p r o v i n c i a l parks can only perpetuate the k i n d of f a c i l i t i e s t h a t already e x i s t , i n c o n t r a s t to household-type surveys which would gather the views of a l l r e s i d e n t s , i n c l u d i n g those whose needs i n outdoor r e c r e a t i o n are not c u r r e n t l y being met. There are a number of methods that could be used by the agency to develop goals which would more e x p l i c i t l y r e f l e c t a v/ider range of user preferences. A 'white paper' on outdoor r e c r e a t i o n and the r o l e of the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n c ould be prepared and c i r c u l a t e d throughout the pro v i n c e , preparatory to a l e g i s l a t i v e debate and p o l i t i c a l d i r e c t i o n of agency p o l i c y . A l t e r n a t i v e l y t the D i v i s i o n c o uld use i t s e x i s t i n g p o l i c y statement, which i s s u f f i c i e n 123 broad to encompass the p r o v i s i o n of the e n t i r e range of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s , as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t , and h o l d p u b l i c hearings throughout the p r o v i n c e to gather o p i n i o n s on the r o l e the agency should be f u l f i l l i n g . A l b e r t a i s i n a unique p o s i t i o n i n s o f a r as parks and outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i s concerned, due t o the l a r g e area of n a t i o n a l parks i n the p r o v i n c e , and other f a c t o r s which tend to r e s t r i c t the amount of l a n d a v a i l a b l e f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes. The p r o v i n c i a l parks agency should attempt to d i s c o v e r how the r e s i d e n t s of the p r o v i n c e p e r c e i v e the r o l e o f t h e i r p r o v i n c i a l parks i n t h i s environment. In order to f a c i l i t a t e ongoing p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n agency g p a l f o r m u l a t i o n , the Department of Lands and F o r e s t s should c o n s i d e r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a p u b l i c a d v i s o r y committee on parks to the M i n i s t e r of Lands and F o r e s t s . : Such an a d v i s o r y committee has a number of f o r e -runners i n A l b e r t a ; the Environment C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t p r o-v i d e s f o r the appointment of such committees from time to time, to i n v e s t i g a t e matters p e r t a i n i n g to c o n s e r v a t i o n i s s u e s , w h ile the Wilderness Areas Act p r o v i d e d f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a Wilderness Areas A d v i s o r y Committee to a d v i s e the M i n i s t e r of Lands and F o r e s t s on p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g the three p r o v i s i o n a l w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s . A p r o v i n c i a l parks a d v i s o r y committee should have the f u n c t i o n of h o l d i n g p u b l i c hearings on p o l i c y i s s u e s , or on l a r g e p r o j e c t s where the M i n i s t e r i s d e s i r o u s of a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on the views o f the p u b l i c , and r e p o r t i n g i t s f i n d i n g s 124 to the M i n i s t e r . Such a committee should be viewed not as a replacement f o r m i n i s t e r i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the operation of h i s department, but r a t h e r as a means of strengthening the 'bridge' (Hodgetts, i960, p.442) between the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e agency which c a r r i e s out government p o l i c y , and the e l e c t o r a t e who are the consumers of government s e r v i c e s . Cabinet m i n i s t e r s have oft e n been unable to provide t h i s bridge e f f e c t i v e l y , due to competing demands on t h e i r time 5 a p u b l i c a d v i s o r y committee would help to b r i n g the goals of c i t i z e n s and of the adminis-t r a t i v e agency i n t o c l o s e r harmony. 2. The Scope of Planning A second suggestion concerns the scope of the outdoor r e c r e a t i o n planning process as i t i s p r e s e n t l y c o n s t i t u t e d i n the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n . By con-c e n t r a t i n g on the expansion of e x i s t i n g parks to meet growing annual patronage i n past years, the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n has l o s t , by d e f a u l t , many options i n terms of future a c q u i s i t i o n o f - r e c r e a t i o n a l l a n d . The D i r e c t o r of the D i v i s i o n remarked i n a personal i n t e r v i e w that o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a c q u i r i n g a d d i t i o n a l park land i n the province are now s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d , because of extensive surface and subsurface leases f o r mineral e x p l o r a t i o n and e x t r a c t i o n , f o r e s t management agreements, the l a r g e area of N a t i o n a l Parks i n the p r o v i n c e , a b o r i g i n a l claims to the l a n d , and the o v e r a l l l a c k of s u i t a b l e s i t e s i n the b o r e a l f o r e s t and p r a i r i e zones of the province. Hence, 125 any l a r g e parks to be e s t a b l i s h e d i n A l b e r t a i n the f u t u r e w i l l be i n t e g r a t e d resource management a r e a s , where out-door r e c r e a t i o n w i l l be a land use c o - o r d i n a t e d w i t h other uses of the landscape. I f the A l b e r t a parks p l a n n i n g process had approached the problem o f r e c r e a t i o n a l develop-ment of re s o u r c e s as a problem of supply as w e l l as demand, more options f o r d e v e l o p i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l areas might be a v a i l a b l e a t the prese n t time. The Canada Land Inventory r e c r e a t i o n c a p a b i l i t y survey, i n which members of the D i v i s i o n ' s p l a n n i n g s t a f f have p a r t i c i p a t e d throughout i t s d u r a t i o n , p r o v i d e s an e x c e l l e n t s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r a comprehensive approach to managing outdoor r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s i n the p r o v i n c e . S i m i l a r l y , the r e a p p r a i s a l o f the components o f the p r o v i n c i a l parks system w i t h a view to e s t a b l i s h i n g eco-l o g i c a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t i e s f o r each park u n i t r e p r e s e n t s a d e f i n i t e r e o r i e n t a t i o n , to supply as w e l l as demand aspe c t s of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n . Assuming t h a t the D i v i s i o n does attempt to assess the range of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n needs i n the p r o v i n c e , as has been suggested e a r l i e r i n t h i s s e c t i o n , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t a v a r i e t y o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s w i l l be r e q u i r e d to meet these needs. While the i n t e n s i v e day-use parks t h a t have been p r o v i d e d i n the p a s t w i l l s t i l l be i n demand, i t might be d i s c o v e r e d t h a t more remote, l e s s a c c e s s i b l e areas w i l l a l s o be r e q u i r e d to meet the needs of other r e c r e a t o r s who have not been u s i n g the p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s . 126 Once such i n f o r m a t i o n has been assembled, the parks p l a n n e r s ' task w i l l be to compare the a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s w i t h the estimated range o f user demands and generate i n f o r m a t i o n about the advantages and disadvantages of u s i n g the re s o u r c e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n . In l i g h t o f the i n t e n s i t y o f m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n i n some r e g i o n s o f the p r o v i n c e , f o r example, i t may be expensive to a l l o c a t e p o t e n t i a l l y m i n e r a l - r i c h l a n d t o outdoor r e c r e a t i o n . Such i n f o r m a t i o n should be prepared and made a v a i l a b l e f o r the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f decision-makers i n the Department o f Lands and F o r e s t s and members of the p u b l i c . S i m i l a r l y , when f o r e s t management agreements and other d i s p o s i t i o n s o f crown lan d are proposed by government a g e n c i e s , the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n ' s planners s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d w i t h the r e s o u r c e s necessary to e v a l u a t e p o t e n t i a l outdoor r e c r e a t i o n s i t e s i n such areas and propose m u l t i p l e - u s e arrangements b e f o r e such a l i e n a t i o n s occur. I t i s suggested t h a t no s u b s t a n t i a l changes are r e q u i r e d i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n t o the A l b e r t a F o r e s t S e r v i c e and the Department o f Highways and T r a n s p o r t , which p r o v i d e r e c r e a t i o n areas and campsites r e s p e c t i v e l y a l o n g w i t h t h e i r major respon-s i b i l i t i e s . The e f f i c i e n c y w i t h which these f a c i l i t i e s can be maintained by the p e r s o n n e l o f these two agencies p r o b a b l y exceeds any b e n e f i t s t h a t c o u l d be d e r i v e d from c e n t r a l i z i n g outdoor r e c r e a i o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n . C o - o r d i n a t i o n among the agencies w i t h r e s p e c t 12? to the l o c a t i o n of the f a c i l i t i e s should c o n t i n u e . 3. The R e f l e c t i o n o f S o c i e t a l Values i n D e c i s i o n s An important s u g g e s t i o n , p e r t a i n i n g to the f i f t h c r i t e r i o n d i s c u s s e d i n the f i r s t s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r , concerns the r e f l e c t i o n o f a range o f s o c i e t a l values i n the i n f o r m a t i o n generated by the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n on p o l i c y and program a l t e r n a t i v e s . I t has a l r e a d y been suggested t h a t c o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h the p u b l i c s h o u l d be h e l d t o formulate agency g o a l s and p o l i c i e s w i t h r e s p e c t to the outdoor r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s and f a c i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d to meet p r o v i n c i a l needs. I n a d d i t i o n , however, i t i s sug-gested t h a t the p u b l i c s h o u l d become more d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n the parks planning- p r o c e s s . The reason f o r t h i s sug-g e s t i o n i s n e a t l y summarized i n a working paper prepared f o r O n t a r i o ' s Committee on Government P r o d u c t i v i t y : People are r e j e c t i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l r e s p e c t of e x p e r t i s e or p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m . Some argue t h a t the people a f f e c t e d by a problem are the r e a l e x p e r t s . Others q u e s t i o n the n o t i o n t h a t e x p e r t i s e i s somehow n e u t r a l , o b j e c t i v e , or v a l u e - f r e e . The p o i n t made here i s t h a t u n d e r l y i n g any s e t of recommen-da t i o n s advanced by an expert are a s e t of value judgements, and t h a t such judgements are no b e t t e r or worse than those o f non-e x p e r t s . (Committee on Government P r o d u c t i v i t y , 1972). People are not as c o n f i d e n t as they once were t h a t the democratic process w i l l r e s u l t i n the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e i r views through the seemingly t a n g l e d web o f bureaucracy which has grown i n the p r o v i n c e s and a t the f e d e r a l l e v e l i n Canada. They are a l s o m i s t r u s t f u l o f the 128 p r o f e s s i o n a l s who g i v e a d v i c e to p o l i t i c a l d ecision-makers, w i t h the w e l l - f o u n d e d argument t h a t these p r o f e s s i o n a l s are i n e v i t a b l y a r t i c u l a t i n g t h e i r own values a l o n g w i t h t h e i r a d v i c e . The d e s i g n of a mechanism f o r i n c l u d i n g p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n a t a number of l e v e l s i n the decision-making process i n outdoor r e c r e a t i o n would be a study i n i t s e l f ; however, some g u i d e l i n e s can be p r o v i d e d . One c r u c i a l v a r i a b l e i s the stage a t which p u b l i c i n p u t s i n t o decision-making are made. The C o n s e r v a t i o n Foundation's r e p o r t on the f u t u r e of the American N a t i o n a l Park System recommends t h a t major park plans s h o u l d be prepared w i t h p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and be a v a i l a b l e f o r p u b l i c comment p r i o r to a d o p t i o n , and t h a t a c i t i z e n s a d v i s o r y committee s h o u l d be a p p o i n t e d f o r each major u n i t of the N a t i o n a l Park System. (The C o n s e r v a t i o n Foundation, 1972, p.12). Recent examples of p u b l i c hearings i n Canada, such as those p e r t a i n i n g to V i l l a g e Lake L o u i s e and the T h i r d C r o s s i n g o f B u r r a r d I n l e t , demonstrate t h a t , when the p u b l i c i s presented w i t h a f a i t a c c o m p l i , a completed p l a n , f o r t h e i r commments, a c o n f r o n t a t i o n s i t -u a t i o n develops and a l a r g e expenditure of c i t i z e n energy r e s u l t s i n no p o s i t i v e plans or p o l i c i e s . I t i s suggested t h a t plans generated by p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n i s o l a t i o n from the p u b l i c w i l l continue to meet such r e s i s t a n c e , p a r t i a l l y because c i t i z e n s do not agree w i t h the p l a n i t s e l f and p a r t i a l l y because they do not agree w i t h the method by which i t was f o r m u l a t e d . Unless c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s i n c l u d e d 1 2 9 i n parks p l a n n i n g throughout the p r o c e s s , such r e s i s t a n c e w i l l he met. The problem of l a n d s p e c u l a t i o n , which was mentioned by the D i r e c t o r of P r o v i n c i a l Parks as the most important reason t h a t c i t i z e n s had not been i n c l u d e d i n parks p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s , o b v i o u s l y a p p l i e s to only some p l a n n i n g matters. I t i s suggested t h a t d i s c u s s i o n s o f g e n e r a l parks p o l i c y would seldom be cause f o r l a n d s p e c u l a t i o n , s i n c e s p e c i f i c p a r c e l s o f l a n d c o u l d not be r e l a t e d to the substance of p o l i c y i s s u e s . Secondly, where d i s c u s s i o n s do i n v o l v e s p e c i f i c p a r c e l s of l a n d , such l e g a l d e v i c e s as ' f r e e z e s ' of crown land and 'options to purchase' p r i v a t e l a n d c o u l d be used by the agency to prevent the purchase o f d e s i r a b l e r e c r e a t i o n a l l a n d by p r i v a t e i n -d i v i d u a l s f o r s p e c u l a t i v e g a i n s . 4. Communication The D i r e c t o r of the P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n r e c o g -n i z e s t h a t A l b e r t a n s w i l l soon be demanding to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p l a n n i n g o f t h e i r park system, and expects t h a t , e v e n t u a l l y , i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l have to be communicated to the p u b l i c on p l a n n i n g i s s u e s . T h i s w i l l be done e i t h e r by the agency i t s e l f or through a p r i v a t e form engaged to produce and d i s t r i b u t e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r p u b l i c consumption. . I t must be borne i n mind t h a t an e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i -b u t i o n o f t h i s k i n d of i n f o r m a t i o n throughout A l b e r t a s o c i e t y w i l l r e q u i r e a c onscious e f f o r t on the p a r t o f the agency. C e r t a i n groups of s o c i e t y have more access to such i n f o r m a t i o n , 130 and a g r e a t e r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the value of. i n f o r m a t i o n , than o t h e r s . Depending on how i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d , o n l y c e r t a i n groups may be abl e t o take advantage of i t . Those which are a l r e a d y attuned to the p o l i t i c a l p r ocess and i t s o p e r a t i o n may have g r e a t e s t access to new i n f o r -mation. An agency se e k i n g the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the p u b l i c i n a r t i c u l a t i n g t h e i r values and p r e f e r e n c e s must a c t i v e l y seek a l l c l a s s e s o f people, by p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n a number o f degrees o f s o p h i s t i c a t i o n . In order t o ensure t h a t a l l segments o f A l b e r t a s o c i e t y may be i n c l u d e d i n t h i s p r o c e s s , r e s o u r c e s might be p r o v i d e d t o c e r t a i n groups o f people to enable them to h i r e t h e i r own e x p e r t s , to h e l p them understand the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f p r o p o s a l s , suggest changes, and make comments. 5. Implementation To o p e r a t i o n a l i z e the suggestions made i n t h i s s e c t i o n would be a r e l a t i v e l y easy matter f o r an agency as s m a l l and as young as the A l b e r t a P r o v i n c i a l Parks D i v i s i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y a t the pr e s e n t time when major p o l i c y r e - e v a l u a t i o n s are underway. Perhaps the most important s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h i s study can j u s t i f y i s the es t a b l i s h m e n t o f a p o l i c y e v a l u a t i o n phase of d e c i s i o n -making. Assessments of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f past d e c i s i o n s and p o l i c i e s are i n v a l u a b l e b i t s o f i n f o r m a t i o n on which to base f u t u r e d e c i s i o n s , yet the agency does not p r e s e n t l y have such a feedback mechanism o p e r a t i n g i n i t s p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , e v a l u a t i o n o f any p o l i c i e s designed 131 . to i n c l u d e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n which might be adopted by the agency would be v a l u a b l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g the b e n e f i t s and the c o s t s such a p o l i c y has had, and may suggest de-s i r a b l e d i r e c t i o n s f o r changes i n the p o l i c i e s . 0 The only disadvantage which the suggestions made i n t h i s s e c t i o n are l i k e l y t o have i s t h a t the parks p l a n n i n g process w i l l seem more i n e f f e c t i v e and slower to a c t , because of the n e c e s s i t y of c a r e f u l e v a l u a t i o n and i n c l u s i o n o f c i t i z e n i n p u t s i n t o the decision-making p r o c e s s . A g a i n s t the c o s t s of seemingly i n e f f i c i e n t p o l i c y formu-l a t i o n , however, must be measured the b e n e f i t s o f the i n c r e a s e d p o l i t i c a l potency f e l t by c i t i z e n s and the i n -c r e a s e d support f o r government p o l i c i e s which are l i k e l y to r e s u l t from meaningful c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the d e c i s i o n s . As l o n g as c i t i z e n s accept t h a t d e c i s i o n s have been reached through a l e g i t i m a t e p r o c e s s , they w i l l a c c ept the i m p l i -c a t i o n s of those d e c i s i o n s , even though t h e i r own o b j e c t i v e s may not be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the p o l i c y embodies i n the d e c i s i o n s . Concensus i s p o s s i b l e w i t h r e s p e c t to the process o f decision-making, even though i t may not be p o s s i b l e with r e s p e c t to the r e s u l t s of the p r o c e s s . REFERENCES A l b e r t a . 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New York: The Free Press of Glencoe. MacDonald, D.G., 1970. "Outdoor Recrea t i o n on Galiano I s l a n d : Factors Which Influence P a r t i c i p a t i o n . " Unpublished M.Sc. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. MacGregor, James G., 1972. A H i s t o r y of A l b e r t a . Edmonton: H u r t i g P u b l i s h e r s . Munn, W.D., Parks Geographer, A l b e r t a Department of Lands and F o r e s t s , February 23, 1973. Personal I n t e r v i e w . Olson, Mancur J r . , 1965. The Logic of C o l l e c t i v e A c t i o n . Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P ress. 136 O n t a r i o . Committee on Government P r o d u c t i v i t y , 1972. C i t i z e n Involvement. Toronto: Queen's P r i n t e r . O'Riordan, T., 1971. P e r s p e c t i v e s on Resource Management. London: P i o n L i m i t e d . Ostrom, V. and Ostrom, E. , 1971. '-'Public Choice: A D i f f e r e n t Approach to the Study of P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . " P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Review. Volume XXXI, Number 2. Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission, 1962. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Outdoor Recreation: Factors a f f e c t i n g  Demand Among American A d u l t s . Study Report 20. Washington, D.C.: Outdoor Recreat i o n Resources Review Commission. Owens, G.P., 1965. "Factors A f f e c t i n g Demand f o r Outdoor Recr e a t i o n . " Unpublished Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , Ohio State U n i v e r s i t y . Peace-Athabasca D e l t a P r o j e c t Group, 1972. The Peace- Athabasca D e l t a : A Canadian Resource. Summary Report. Edmonton: Peace-Athabasca D e l t a P r o j e c t . Peace R i v e r Regional P l a n n i n g Commission, 1971. C e n t r a l P l a c e s i n the Peace R i v e r Region of A l b e r t a . Grande P r a i r i e : Peace R i v e r Regional P l a n n i n g Commission. Peace R i v e r Regional P l a n n i n g Commission, 1972a. People : of 'the Peace: Their Goals and' Ob j e c t i v e s . Grande P r a i r i e : Peace R i v e r Regional Planning Commission. Peace R i v e r Regional P l a n n i n g Commission, 1972b. Unpublished Data from Outdoor Recreation Survey. Peace R i v e r Regional P l a n n i n g Commission, 1973• An Economic Base Study of the Peace R i v e r Region of  A l b e r t a . Grande P r a i r i e : Peace R i v e r Regional P l a n n i n g Commission. Pressman, J e f f r e y L., 1970. "Decision-Making and P u b l i c P o l i c y : The P e r i l s and P o s s i b i l i t i e s of Fragmentation," Elements of Outdoor Recreat i o n P l a n n i n g . E d i t e d by B.L. D r i v e r . .Ann Arbor: The U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan. Robinson, I r a M.f 1970. "The Peace R i v e r Region." Regional ' and Resource Planning i n Canada. E d i t e d by R.R. Krueger, P.O. Sargent, A. de Vos, N. Pearson. Toronto: H o l t , R i n e h a r t , and Winston of Canada L i m i t e d . 13? Ross, C h a r l e s R., 1970. " P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n and D e c i s i o n -Making." Urban P l a n n i n g i n T r a n s i t i o n . E d i t e d by E r n e s t E r b e r . New York: Grossman P u b l i s h e r s . S c h o e f f l e r , S., 1955• The F a i l u r e o f Economics. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . S e w e l l , W.R. D e r r i c k , 1971. "Environmental P e r c e p t i o n s and A t t i t u d e s of Engineers and P u b l i c H e a l t h O f f i c i a l s . " Environment and B e h a v i o r . Volume I I I . Sharkansky, I . , 1972. P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n : P o l i c y - Making i n Government A g e n c i e s . Second E d i t i o n . Chicago: Markham P u b l i s h i n g Company. Simon, Herbert A., 1957. Models of Man. Second E d i t i o n . New York: John Wiley and Sons I n c o r p o r a t e d . Simon, Herbert A., 1965. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Behavior. Second E d i t i o n . New York: The Free Press of Glencoe. S t a r r s , C a t h e r i n e and Stewart, G a i l , 1972. "Gone Today and Here Tomorrow: Issues Surrounding the Future of C i t i z e n Involvement." Toronto: Queen's P r i n t e r . Thayer, F r e d e r i c k C., 1972. " P a r t i c i p a t i o n and L i b e r a l Democratic Government." Toronto: Queen's P r i n t e r . The C o n s e r v a t i o n Foundation, 1972. N a t i o n a l Parks f o r the  F u t u r e . Washington, D.C.i The C o n s e r v a t i o n Foundation. T h o r s e l l , J.W., 1971. "Wilderness R e c r e a t i o n U s e r s — T h e i r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , M o t i v a t i o n s and Opinions: A Study of Three B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Parks." Unpublished Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. T o f f l e r , A l v i n , 1970. Future Shock. New York: Random House I n c o r p o r a t e d . T r a v e l A l b e r t a , 1972. A l b e r t a V i s i t o r s Guide 1972. Edmonton: Department of I n d u s t r y and Commerce, P r o v i n c e of A l b e r t a . U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , 1969* A t l a s of A l b e r t a . Edmonton: U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a P r e s s . White, G.F., 1966. "Formation and. Role of P u b l i c A t t i t u d e s . " Environmental Q u a l i t y i n a Growing Economy. E d i t e d by Henry J a r r e t t . B a l t i m o r e : Johns Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . APPENDIX I PEACE RIVER REGIONAL PLANNING COMMISSION OUTDOOR RECREATION QUESTIONNAIRE 138 139 FART I : GENERAL 1. AGE: 0- 4 5- S_ 10-14 15-19" 20-24" 2. SEX: 3. MARITAL STATUS: Male 25-34, 35-44 45-5^1 55-64 65-691 70 and over_ Female S i n g l e M a r r i e d D i v o r c e d Separated_ Widowed 4. HOUSEHOLD INCOME: 0- 1000 1- 3000" 3- 6000" 6- 9000" 9-12000" 12-15000" over 15000" 5. LENGTH OF RESIDENCE IN THE REGION: under 1 year 1- 3 years] 4- 6 years_ 7- 9 years_ 10-15 years] 16-25 years_ 26-40 years] 41-65 years " l i f e " 6. PREVIOUS FLACE OF RESIDENCE OUTSIDE REGION: 7. EDUCATION: number of years completed Elementary J u n i o r High S e n i o r High U n i v e r s i t y V o c a t i o n a l 140 8. WORK ACTIVITY: Student Housewife A g r i c u l t u r e F o r e s t r y F i s h i n g and T r a p p i n g Mines, Q u a r r i e s , O i l Wells Manufacturing I n d u s t r i e s C o n s t r u c t i o n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , Communication Other U t i l i t i e s Trade Finance, Insurance, Real E s t a t e Community B u s i n e s s - P e r s o n a l S e r v i c e I n d u s t r i e s P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and Defence Unemployed and s e e k i n g work R e t i r e d or Dropped Out 9. NUMBER OF DEPENDENTS: • age group male 0- 4 5- 9 10-14 _ _ _ _ _ _ 15-19 20-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-69 70 and over 10. VEHICLES AVAILABLE FOR RECREATION: Snowmobiles M o t o r c y c l e s Trucks Cars Campers T r a i l e r ( i n c l u d i n g t e n t t r a i l e r s ) 4 V/heel D r i v e v e h i c l e s A l l - T e r r a i n v e h i c l e s A i r c r a f t B i c y c l e s Boats Canoes Other (please s p e c i f y ) 141 PART l i s BEHAVIORAL AND ATTITUDINAL 1. Below i s a l i s t o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . In column A, p l a c e a check beside those a c t i v i t i e s you take p a r t i n . In column B, p l a c e a check beside those which you would l i k e t o take p a r t i n . In column C, note the reason t h a t you do not take p a r t i n each a c t i v i t y checked i n column B but not i n column A. A l i s t o f suggested reasons i s p r o v i d e d . do would reason f o r non-p a r t i c i p a t e l i k e to . p a r t i c i p a t i o n Hunting F i s h i n g . P i c n i c k i n g .  W a t e r s k i i n g Scuba or s k i n d i v i n g M o torboating . • Canoeing S a i l i n g Swimming Do w n h i l l s k i i n g C r o s s - c o u n t r y s k i i n g Snowshoeing S i g h t s e e i n g R e c r e a t i o n a l d r i v i n g B i c y c l i n g M o t o r c y c l i n g Snowmobiling H i k i n g Tent camping •  T r a i l e r camping Viewing, photographing p l a n t l i f e V iewing, photographing w i l d l i f e Horseback r i d i n g Toboganning or s l e d d i n g V i s i t i n g h i s t o r i c areas G o l f i n g C o l l e c t i n g a r t i f a c t s , rocks • Accommodations c o t t a g i n g p r i v a t e home r e n t a l t e n t camping t r a i l e r camping 142 What c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are most p r e f e r r e d by you i n your c h o i c e o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n areas? yes no (a) n a t u r a l , h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e s w i l d or n a t u r a l s t a t e lakes beaches streams or r i v e r s t r e e and grass cover o u t s t a n d i n g n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s ( w a t e r f a l l s , mountains, e t c ) h i s t o r i c a l or c u l t u r a l s i t e s (b) man-made res o u r c e s water, t o i l e t s , e l e c t r i c i t y , showers s t o r e s concessions r e n t a l accommodations boat docks, ramps telephone s k i f a c i l i t i e s (c) l o c a t i o n and access rank i n order of p r e f e r e n c e : h i g h grade roads low grade roads p a r t i a l access by auto no access by auto p r e f e r r e d d i s t a n c e from s e t t l e m e n t ( m i l e s ) maximum t r a v e l time from home: f o r day outings h r s . f o r weekends h r s . f o r v a c a t i o n h r s . 3. L i s t the f i v e s p e c i f i c p l a c e s you went d u r i n g the past year f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n which you enjoyed most, and the d u r a t i o n of your s t a y a t each p l a c e . p l a c e l e n g t h of v i s i t 4. What s p e c i f i c a r e a ( s ) i n the r e g i o n would you l i k e t o see r e s e r v e d or developed f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l use? APPENDIX I I GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS PEACE RIVER REGION, 1972. 143 1 4 4 TABLE I AGE OF RESPONDENTS PEACE RIVER REGION, 1972 Age Category Number o f Per cent o f Respondents Respondents 10 -14 142 22 . 1 15-19 72 11.2 20 -24 39 6.0 25-34 154 23.9 35-44 100 15.5 45-54 69 10.7 55 -64 44 6 . 8 65-69 15 2.3 70 p l u s 8 1.2 no response 2 0.3 6 4 5 100.0 TABLE I I SEX OF RESPONDENTS PEACE RIVER REGION, 1972 Sex Number of Per cent o f Respondents Respondents Ma l e 330 51.2 Female 313 4 8 . 5 no response 2 0.3 6 4 5 100.0. 145 TABLE I I I MARITAL STATUS OF RESPONDENTS PEACE RIVER REGION, 1972 M a r i t a l Status Number of Respondents Per cent of Respondents s i n g l e 235 36.4 married 382 59.2 divorced 4 0.6 separated 6 0.9 widowed 12 1.9 no response 6 0.9 645 100.0 TABLE IV ANNUAL INCOME OF RESPONDENTS PEACE RIVER REGION, 1972 Income Category Number of Per cent of Respondents Respondents 0- 1000 19 4.5 1- 3000 68 10.5 3- 6000 127 19.7 6- 9000 133 20,6 9-12000 104 16.2 12-15000 45 7.0 15000 plus 57 8.8 no response 82 12.7 645 100.0 146 TABLE V RESPONDENTS' LENGTH OF RESIDENCE IN PEACE RIVER REGION, 1972 Number of-Years Number of Per cent of Respondents Respondents under 1 43 6.7 1- 3 68 10.5 4- 6 43 6.7 7- 9 37 5.7 10-15 63 9.8 16-25 41 6.4 26-40 45 7.0 41-65 38 5.9 l i f e 265 41.1 no response 2 0.3 645 100.0 TABLE'VI EDUCATION OF RESPONDENTS PEACE RIVER REGION, 1972 Education Number of Respondents Per cent of Respondents p a r t i a l elementary complete elementary p a r t i a l j u n i o r high complete j u n i o r high p a r t i a l s e n i o r high complete s e n i o r high p a r t i a l u n i v e r s i t y complete uni v e r s i t y -p a r t i a l v o c a t i o n a l complete v o c a t i o n a l no response 60 9.3 57 8.8 99 15.3 94 14.6 92 14.3 132 20.5 17 2.6 35 5.4 12 1.9 34 5.3 13 2.0 645 100.0 147 TABLE VII -OCCUPATION.. OF...RESPONDENTS PEACE RIVER REGION, 1972 Occupation Number of Per cent o f Respondents Respondents student 203 3 1 . 5 housewife 166 25.7 a g r i c u l t u r e 65 1 0 . 1 f o r e s t r y 7 1.1 f i s h i n g , t r a p p i n g 1 0 . 2 mines, q u a r r i e s , o i l w e l l s 16 2 . 5 manufacturing i n d u s t r i e s 4 0 . 6 c o n s t r u c t i o n 29 4 . 5 t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , communication 16 2 . 5 other u t i l i t i e s 9 1 . 4 trade 7 1 . 1 f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , r e a l e s t a t e 1 1 1.7 community b u s i n e s s , p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e 59 9 . 1 p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , defence 20 3 . 1 unemployed 5 0.8 r e t i r e d or dropped out 22 3 . 4 no response __ 0.8 ' 6 4 5 1 0 0 . 0 

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