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Dimensions of ethnic education : the Japanese in British Columbia, 1880-1940 Hutchinson, Harold Keith 1972

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c DIMENSIONS OF ETHNIC EDUCATION: THE JAPANESE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1880-1940 by HAROLD KEITH HUTCHINSON B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA O c t o b e r , 1972 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I ag r ee t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r ag ree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Depar tment o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Depar tment o f E d u c a t i o n The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada ABSTRACT The r o l e of education i n the a s s i m i l a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia's Japanese p o p u l a t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t . In the f o l l o w i n g pages an attempt has been made t o d e s c r i b e and t o assess t h i s r o l e . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n , however, i s dependent upon the concept a p p l i e d t o the term a s s i m i l a t i o n . For the purpose of t h i s study, a s s i m i l a t i o n was e i t h e r s t r u c t u r a l or b e h a v i o r a l i n nature. What t h i s t h e s i s demonstrates i s t h a t the p u b l i c s c h o o l was t o a l a r g e extent r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the b e h a v i o r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n of the second g e n e r a t i o n Japanese. Moreover, the study shows t h a t the f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n Japanese w i l l i n g l y promoted the u t i l i z a t i o n of the p u b l i c s c h o o l system by t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The I s s e i were only too s u c c e s s f u l i n t h i s t a s k f o r i n e v i t a b l y the N i s e i , once they accepted the values advanced by the p u b l i c s c h o o l s , d i s c a r d e d many of the customs, manners and t r a d i t i o n s of t h e i r p arents. Because a study which i n v o l v e s only the p u b l i c s c h o o l system would pr o v i d e too l i m i t e d a scope, c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n was g i v e n t o churches and Japanese i n s t i t u t i o n s . For i n s t a n c e , the C h r i s t i a n church was the f i r s t major agency t o e s t a b l i s h a rapport with B r i t i s h Columbia's Japanese community. In time, the churches set up w e l l o r g a n i z e d programs t o p r o v i d e v a r i o u s forms of education t o both f i r s t and second g e n e r a t i o n Japanese. On the other hand, an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of Japanese i n s t i t u t i o n s r e v e a l s t h a t many of them o r i g i n a l l y s e r v e d t o separate the Japanese from the g r e a t e r community. As the years passed the r o l e s of these i n s t i t u t i o n s changed, an occurence most apparent with the Vancouver Japanese Language Sc h o o l . T h i s s c h o o l e v e n t u a l l y became one of the primary a c c u l t u r a t i n g agents i n the Japanese community. Th e r e f o r e , what t h i s t h e s i s r e v e a l s i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c u l t u r a t i o n and s e l e c t e d ( i n s t i t u t i o n a l ) e d u c a t i o n a l f a c t o r s . I t a l s o examines the i n t e r a c t i o n of churches, Japanese i n s t i t u t i o n s and the p u b l i c s c h o o l . Churches and Japanese i n s t i t u t i o n s ran programs which o r i g i n a l l y s u b s t i t u t e d f o r p u b l i c education. L a t e r , t h i s r o l e changed t o a complemen-t a r y one. The t h e s i s concludes t h a t churches, Japanese i n s t i t u t i o n s and p u b l i c s c h o o l s were, t o v a r y i n g degrees, r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the a c c u l t u r a t i o n of the Japanese i n B r i t i s h Columbia. TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER I ORIENTAL IMMIGRATION. 6 I I ROLE OF THE CHURCHES 2 5 I I I JAPANESE INSTITUTIONS 45 IV THE PUBLIC SCHOOL 78 V THE TURMOIL OF THE 1930'S 1 3 0 BIBLIOGRAPHY 163 APPENDICES 183 i v ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish t o thank my F a c u l t y A d v i s e r , Jorgen D a h l i e , f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e i n the w r i t i n g of t h i s t h e s i s . I sho u l d a l s o l i k e to extend my g r a t i t u d e to John Calam and N e i l S u t h e r l a n d f o r t h e i r h e l p f u l s u g g e s t i o n s . INTRODUCTION In the past decade i n c r e a s i n g p u b l i c acceptance of the c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y of Canadian S o c i e t y has r e f l e c t e d i t s e l f i n growing concern over the problems of e t h n i c and other m i n o r i t y groups. The p a r t p l a y e d by these groups i n our h i s t o r i c a l development, however, has not always been c l e a r l y e v i d e n t . There are perhaps t h r e e main reasons f o r t h i s s t a t e of a f f a i r s . F i r s t , recent i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of e t h n i c and m i n o r i t y groups have tended t o converge on a few s e l e c t areas such as the French Canadian and n a t i v e Indian segments of the Canadian p o p u l a t i o n . Although one cannot deny the value of such work, i t i s nonethe-l e s s obvious t h a t other groups have been somewhat n e g l e c t e d . Second, h i s t o r i a n s have s t u d i e d e t h n i c communities by examining 1 t h e i r r e l a t i o n s with the o u t s i d e world. They-should a l s o have i n c l u d e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of the s o c i a l f o r c e s o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n m i n o r i t y groups. F i n a l l y , the study of e t h n i c groups has con-c e n t r a t e d on p o l i t i c a l and economic matters. While these 1 Frank G. V a l l e e , M i l d r e d Schwartz and Frank D a r k n e l l , " E t h n i c A s s i m i l a t i o n and D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and Canada," Canadian  J o u r n a l of Economics and P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e, XXIII, No. 4 (November, 1957), p. 540. Timothy Smith suggests other s h o r t -comings of some e t h n i c s t u d i e s i n " R e l i g i o u s Denominations as E t h n i c Communities: A R e g i o n a l Case Study," Church H i s t o r y , XXV, No. 2 (June, 1966), p. 267. -2-undoubtedly are c e n t r a l i s s u e s , p u r s u i n g them has been at the c o s t of r e l e g a t i n g t h e i r s o c i a l h i s t o r y t o an i n s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i o n and t h e i r education h i s t o r y t o a minor r o l e . Such accounts l e a v e incomplete the h i s t o r i c a l background e s s e n t i a l f o r the understanding of any e t h n i c group."'" These t h r e e con-d i t i o n s are c e r t a i n l y a p p l i c a b l e t o accounts d e a l i n g with the 2 Japanese i n B r i t i s h Columbia. While t h i s study of the Japanese as an e t h n i c group has as i t s c e n t r a l theme the concept of a s s i m i l a t i o n , i t a l s o d i s c u s s e s the r e l a t e d i s s u e of immigration. In c o n s i d e r i n g immigration the t h e s i s analyzes o l d country c o n d i t i o n s which l e d t o e m i g r a t i o n and thus t r i e s t o r e c o n s t r u c t a p i c t u r e of the " t y p i c a l " Japanese immigrant. T h i s i n i t i a l p a r t of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n a l s o examines the r e a c t i o n s of the host community t o Japanese immigration. These two dimensions pro-v i d e the context i n which the main theme i s s t u d i e d . U n l i k e t h a t of immigration, one cannot as r e a d i l y d e f i n e the concept of a s s i m i l a t i o n . For the purposes of t h i s t h e s i s , however, M i l t o n Gordon's w r i t i n g s p r o v i d e the most 1 Rudolph J . V e c o l i i n " E t h n i c i t y : A Neglected Dimension i n American H i s t o r y , " American S t u d i e s i n Scandanavia, 4 (Summer, 1970), pp. 10-18, p o i n t s out the f a u l t s of too narrow an approach i n e t h n i c s t u d i e s . 2 For i n s t a n c e , see C h a r l e s H. Young, Helen R. Reid and W. A. C a r r o t h e r s , The Japanese Canadians (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1938). -3-1 u s e f u l framework. Gordon maintains t h a t a s s i m i l a t i o n can be e i t h e r s t r u c t u r a l or b e h a v i o r a l . By s t r u c t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n he means "the entrance of the immigrants and t h e i r descendants i n t o the s o c i a l c l i q u e s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s . . . and g e n e r a l c i v i c l i f e of the r e c e i v i n g s o c i e t y . " On the other hand, by b e h a v i o r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n he r e f e r s t o immigrants absorbing "the c u l t u r a l b ehavior p a t t e r n s of the 'host' s o c i e t y . " The s p e c i a l term f o r t h i s l a t t e r c o n d i t i o n i s a c c u l t u r a t i o n . T h i s t h e s i s f o cuses on a c c u l t u r a t i o n i n c l u d i n g the concept of Anglo-con-f o r m i t y by which Gordon means the immigrants' acceptance of E n g l i s h i n s t i t u t i o n s and s o c i a l p a t t e r n s . To what extent the Japanese coming t o Canada a c t u a l l y accepted western norms i s t h e r e f o r e a main concern of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . In the Japanese community i n B r i t i s h Columbia formal e f f o r t s at education were the most important i n d i c e s of a c c u l t u r a t i o n . For the purposes of t h i s t h e s i s , the term "education" w i l l be c o n f i n e d t o the work of t h r e e k i n d s of i n s t i t u t i o n s which t r i e d t o help the Japanese a s s i m i l a t e i n t o the host community: C h r i s t i a n churches, Japanese o r g a n i z a t i o n s and the p u b l i c s c h o o l s . Each of these i n s t i t u t i o n s p l a y e d an important p a r t i n the education of B r i t i s h Columbia's Japanese. 1 The f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i s taken from M i l t o n M. Gordon, " A s s i m i l a t i o n i n America: Theory and R e a l i t y , " The Shaping of  Twentieth-Century America, eds. R i c h a r d H. Abrams and Lawrence W. Levine (Boston: L i t t l e Brown and Company, 1965), pp. 313-314. -4-The churches met with mixed success i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o a c c u l t u r a t e the f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n Japanese. However, they e v e n t u a l l y made s u b s t a n t i a l headway i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s with the second g e n e r a t i o n Japanese. Although at f i r s t glance Japanese i n s t i t u t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the Japanese language s c h o o l s , appeared t o hi n d e r a c c u l t u r a t i o n , one can i n f a c t show t h a t the r e v e r s e was o f t e n the case. Probably the most important a c c u l t u r a t i n g agent of the t h r e e was the p u b l i c s c h o o l system. B r i t i s h Columbia p u b l i c s c h o o l s s u c c e s s f u l l y imparted Canadian val u e s t o Japanese c h i l d r e n , a s i t u a t i o n which had important consequences i n the Japanese community. While each of these t h r e e a c c u l t u r a t i n g agents p l a y e d an important p a r t i n the process, the p u b l i c s c h o o l was the f o c a l p o i n t . The Japanese may o f t e n have l i v e d i n g h e t t o - l i k e s i t u a t i o n s , s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n with the r e s t of the community may have been unpopular, and economic i n t e r c o u r s e may have been discouraged, but the one p l a c e where Japanese and O c c i -d e n t a l s came f a c e t o f a c e was i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s . The p u b l i c s c h o o l was the common denominator or c e n t r a l element i n Japanese education. How then do churches and Japanese i n s t i t u t i o n s f i t i n t o the g e n e r a l schema? C e r t a i n l y , t h e i r r o l e s may be examined i n i s o l a t i o n but a more complete p i c t u r e can be drawn by showing t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the p u b l i c s c h o o l s . -5-I n i t i a l l y churches and Japanese i n s t i t u t i o n s p r o v i d e d educa-t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s which s u b s t i t u t e d f o r the p u b l i c s c h o o l system. In time, t h e i r r o l e changed t o a complementary one. T h e r e f o r e , what t h i s t h e s i s r e v e a l s i s t h a t the Japanese u t i l i z e d e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f f e r e d by churches, Japanese i n s t i t u t i o n s and the p u b l i c s c h o o l s . Taken t o g e t h e r , the t h r e e were l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the a c c u l t u r a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia's Japanese p o p u l a t i o n . CHAPTER I ORIENTAL IMMIGRATION A study of the Japanese i n B r i t i s h Columbia may j u s t i f i a b l y begin with an examination of Chinese immigration f o r , as i t t u r n e d out, the Chinese i n Canada bequeathed a le g a c y of animosity which the Japanese u n w i l l i n g l y i n h e r i t e d . O r i g i n a l l y welcomed as an i n e x p e n s i v e source of l a b o u r , the Chinese soon came to be the t a r g e t s of the white man's con-tempt."^" By 1879 3 a n t i - C h i n e s e f e e l i n g was so i n t e n s e t h a t Noah Shakespeare c i r c u l a t e d a p e t i t i o n demanding a r e s t r i c t i o n on Chinese immigration, a h a l t t o Chinese r a i l r o a d l a b o u r , and the 2 immediate r e i n s t i t u t i o n of a Chinese head-tax. Shakespeare 1 Margaret A. Ormsby, B r i t i s h Columbia: A H i s t o r y (Toronto: Macmillan Company, 1 9 5 8 ) , pp. 2 8 3 , 3 0 0 . For d e s c r i p t i o n s of e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia and i t s s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s see J . Despard Pemberton, F a c t s and F i g u r e s R e l a t i n g to Van-couver I s l a n d and B.C. (London: Longman, Green Longman, and Roberts, i 8 6 0 ) ; Alexander Begg, H i s t o r y of B.C.: From I t s  E a r l i e s t D i s c o v e r y to the Present Time (Toronto: W i l l i a m B r i g g s , 1 8 9 4 ) ; and A r t h u r Anstey, The Romance of B.C. (Toronto: W. J . Gage and Company, 1 9 2 7 ) -A l s o , i t should be noted t h a t B.C. Indians shared the white man's contempt f o r the Chinese. See Hubert Howe B a n c r o f t , The Works of Hubert Howe B a n c r o f t : H i s t o r y of B.C.: 1 7 9 2 - 1 8 8 7 San F r a n c i s c o : The H i s t o r y Company, I 8 8 7 ) , XXXII, p. 4 9 . 2 Canada, Parliament, House of Commons, J o u r n a l s ( 1 8 7 9 ) , P' 1 8 . ( H e r e i n a f t e r c i t e d as, Canada, J o u r n a l s . ) p r e s e n t e d h i s p e t i t i o n t o the S e l e c t Committee on Chinese Labour and Immigration which i s s u e d a Report i n 1879• Basing much of i t s i n f o r m a t i o n on C a l i f o r n i a Senate h e a r i n g s , the Committee tendered a damning account of the Chinese."'" The Committee s t a t e d t h a t the presence of O r i e n t a l s had a very poor e f f e c t on the moral c h a r a c t e r of white c h i l d r e n s i n c e "the Chinese took advantage of young boys" and s i n c e most 2 Chinese women were p r o s t i t u t e s of lower c l a s s o r i g i n . More-over, the Committee a t t a c k e d the Chinese f o r t h e i r h a b i t of t h i e v e r y , use of opium, g e n e r a l l a c k of c l e a n l i n e s s and want of 3 C h r i s t i a n v i r t u e . Some of the testimony b e f o r e the Committee was p a r t i c u l a r l y v i c i o u s ; most of i t was completely unsubstan-t i a t e d . For i n s t a n c e , Dr. T. R. M c l n n i s , the Mayor and P o l i c e M a g i s t r a t e of New Westminster, t e s t i f i e d about the Chinese motive f o r i m p o r t i n g women. He s t a t e d t h a t t h e i r immigration was f o r the purpose of p r o s t i t u t i o n , " j u s t as people [would] 4 import lower animals." When questioned about the number of Chinese appearing b e f o r e h i s c o u r t , Dr. Mc l n n i s c o u l d supply 1 For comparison with the U n i t e d S t a t e s , see Paul H. Clements, "Canada and the Chinese: A Comparison with the U n i t e d S t a t e s , " The Annals of the American Academy of P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l  S c i e n c e , XLV, No. 134 (January, 1913), pp. 99-130. 2 Canada, J o u r n a l s (1879), pp. 5, 14. 3 I b i d . , pp. 7, 10, 15. 4 I b i d . , p. 17. -8-n e i t h e r the number of cases nor the number of convictions."'' Even though testimony b e f o r e the Committee o f t e n c o n f l i c t e d , t h e r e appeared t o be unanimity on some p o i n t s : the Chinese l a c k e d necessary moral v i r t u e s ; the Chinese c o u l d never 2 a s s i m i l a t e i n t o white s o c i e t y ; and the Chinese prevented 3 d e s i r a b l e immigration by t a k i n g employment away from whites. Needless t o say, the Committee's f i n d i n g s were somewhat d i f f e r e n t from the account given by the Honourable H. L. Langevin, F e d e r a l M i n i s t e r of P u b l i c Works, who, i n 1872 had r e p o r t e d the Chinese t o be an " i n d u s t r i o u s , c l e a n and l a b o r i o u s community." Only i n two i n s t a n c e s d i d the Committee examine the presence of the Japanese i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Some of the i n v e s t i g a t o r s wished to know whether Japanese women were as "debauched" as were Chinese females.^ None of the m u l t i t u d e 1 Canada, J o u r n a l s (1879), pp. 16-17-2 E a r l i e r evidence t h a t the Chinese were c o n s i d e r e d t o be a race apart i s i n The F i r s t Report of the R e g i s t r a r of B i r t h s , Deaths and Marriages f o r the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia: 1872-73 ( V i c t o r i a : Government P r i n t e r , 1874),' P« 6. The Report s t a t e s t h a t the "Marriage A c t " d i d not apply to the Chinese and, a c c o r d i n g l y , o f f i c i a l s should not enter Chinese marriages i n the r e g i s t r y . 3 Canada, J o u r n a l s (1879), PP» 20, 53. 4 Canada, Department of P u b l i c Works, B r i t i s h Columbia: Report of the Honourable H. L. Langevin (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1872, p. 23. 5 Canada, J o u r n a l s , (1879), p. 27. -9-of witnesses c o u l d supply an answer. A l s o , the Committee made a b r i e f note t h a t , i n some cases, Japanese "chain gangs" had supplanted Chinese crews working on r a i l r o a d construction."'" Thus testimony at the h e a r i n g s brought l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o the Japanese. Of course, t h i s i n i t s e l f was not very s u r p r i s i n g as 2 t h e r e were simply too few Japanese to a t t r a c t much n o t i c e . For the time b e i n g , the Chinese appeared t o be the p r i n c i p a l t h r e a t t o the w e l f a r e of the p r o v i n c e . By 1881, B r i t i s h Columbia's p o p u l a t i o n had reached 3 49,459, of which 4,350 were Chinese. The l a t t e r f i g u r e caused alarm and soon prompted a f e d e r a l government i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The Report of the Royal Commission on Chinese Immigration i n 1885 p r e s e n t e d the Chinese i n a more f a v o u r a b l e way than had the Committee i n 1879• The Commission seemed to conclude t h a t 4 the Chinese had simply o v e r - s t a y e d t h e i r u s e f u l n e s s . At the same time, the Commission c a u t i o n e d a g a i n s t unfounded accusa-t i o n s and pleaded f o r a more mature a t t i t u d e from whites. 1 Canada, J o u r n a l s (1879), P- 27. 2 Exact f i g u r e s are not a v a i l a b l e . 3 Canada, Census, P o p u l a t i o n (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , l 8 8 l ) , I, p. 298. 4 Canada, Royal Commission on Chinese Immigration, Report (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , I885), p. xxv. ( H e r e i n a f t e r c i t e d as Canada, Report [1885]). -10-I t s t a t e d : "[The Chinese] are not measured by t h a t c h a r i t a b l e r u l e which j u s t i c e no l e s s than humanity l e a d s us t o apply t o a l l other men.""'" Des p i t e the admonitions of the Royal Commission, a n t i -O r i e n t a l f e e l i n g d i d not abate. J u s t the opp o s i t e proved t o be the case. In 1885, Simeon Duck, M.L.A. f o r V i c t o r i a C i t y , rose i n the L e g i s l a t u r e t o denounce the Chinese because they had a "system of s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s which encourage[d] crime amongst themselves, and which prevent[ed] the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of 2 j u s t i c e . " The f o l l o w i n g year, the Lieutenant-Governor r a i s e d the q u e s t i o n of Chinese immigration i n h i s speech from the 3 throne. T h e r e a f t e r , the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly witnessed numerous e f f o r t s t o exclude the Chinese from r a i l r o a d c o n s t r u c -txon and c o a l mining, 1 Canada, Report (1885), P- 14- For an i n t e r e s t i n g account of the Chinese d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d see, R. E. Wynne, "Reaction t o t h Chinese i n the P a c i f i c Northwest and B r i t i s h Columbia: 1850-1900 (unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, I964) An e x c e l l e n t b i b l i o g r a p h y of newspaper sources can be found i n Marcus Lee Hansen, The M i n g l i n g of the Canadian and American  Peoples (Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1940), I, pp. 205, 237. 2 B.C., J o u r n a l s (I885), P- 46. 3 B.C., J o u r n a l s (1886), p. 2. The f i r s t attempt by the L e g i s l a t u r e t o p r o h i b i t Chinese immigration was i n 1884. See B r i t i s h Columbia, S t a t u t e s of the Provinc e of B r i t i s h Columbia (I884), c. 3- ( H e r e i n a f t e r c i t e d as, B.C., S t a t u t e s . ) 4 B.C., J o u r n a l s (1887), P P - 62-63; (1891), p. 25; (1892), P- 99--11-t o p r o h i b i t Chinese labour on p u b l i c c o n t r a c t s , to i n c r e a s e 3 the Chinese p o l l - t a x and to permanently exclude a l l Chinese 4 immigration. The L e g i s l a t u r e deemed the l a t t e r t o be c r u c i a l as, by 1 8 9 1 , the Chinese p o p u l a t i o n had r i s e n t o 8 , 9 1 0 . ^ F i n a l l y , i n 1 8 9 1 John C. Brown, M.L.A. f o r New Westminster C i t y , asked the L e g i s l a t u r e t o i n c l u d e the Japanese i n a motion which d e a l t p r i m a r i l y w i t h the Chinese. Apparently the L e g i s l a t u r e d i d not share Brown's concern over the Japanese f o r they r e j e c t e d the amendment.^ In the years to come, the 1 B.C., J o u r n a l s (1888), pp. l x x v - l x x x v i ; (I89O), p. 68; (1892), pp 18, 37- A l s o , see B.C., S t a t u t e s (1890), c. 33-O s t e n s i b l y , the reason f o r t h i s was t h a t the Chinese were ig n o r a n t of and c a r e l e s s i n mining s a f e t y procedures. 2 B.C., J o u r n a l s (I89O), p. 67. 3 B.C., J o u r n a l s ( 1 8 9 1 ) , p. 5 0 ; ( 1 8 9 3 ) , P- 26; ( 1 8 9 4 ) , P- 10; (1895), P- 5 5 . 4 B.C., S t a t u t e s (I885), c. 2. These were c e r t a i n l y not the only p i e c e s of l e g i s l a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the Chinese. The L e g i s -l a t u r e p r o h i b i t e d the Chinese from v o t i n g and from a c q u i r i n g Crown la n d s . See B.C., S t a t u t e s (1875), c. 2. 5 Canada, Census, P o p u l a t i o n ( I 8 9 I ) , I I I , p. 391. A l s o , see B r i t i s h Columbia, L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, S e s s i o n a l Papers ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 8 8 3 - 8 4 ) , pp. 230 - 3 3 - (Papers r e -l a t i n g t o Chinese que s t i o n , p r i n t e d f o r the i n f o r m a t i o n of the S e l e c t Committee on Chinese Immigration). (B.C., S e s s i o n a l  Papers are h e r e i n a f t e r c i t e d as, B.C., S.P.) 6 B.C., J o u r n a l s ( I 8 9 I ) , p- 51« Only o c c a s i o n a l l y d i d some-one defend the Chinese and then only to p o i n t out t h a t they were a t h r e a t t o "the i n f e r i o r type of white man." I f the Chinese was an a s s e t i t was s o l e l y because he s u p p l i e d cheap labour f o r the p r o v i n c e ' s economic development. T h i s view i s i n , W. G. H. E l l i s o n , The S e t t l e r s of Vancouver I s l a n d : A S t o r y  f o r Immigrants (London: A r t h u r C h i l v e r , 1907), pp. 8 2 - 8 5 . -12-Japanese would d i s c o v e r t h a t most of the charges which had been l e v e l l e d at the Chinese would be extended t o them. I t was r a t h e r unusual t h a t someone r e c o g n i z e d a Japanese menace as e a r l y as 1891 because B r i t i s h Columbia, u n l i k e C a l i f o r n i a , had not r e c e i v e d many Japanese immigrants. The f i r s t documented account of a Japanese s e t t i n g f o o t i n the p r o v i n c e was i n 1877 when Manzo Nagano, a s a i l o r , landed at New Westminster. Nagano borrowed a boat and, with an I t a l i a n companion, began f i s h i n g on the F r a s e r R i v e r . Other Japanese, these from the U n i t e d S t a t e s and perhaps at Nagano's prompting, soon came t o f i s h . At f i r s t , the r e a c t i o n of the l o c a l white p o p u l a t i o n was one of c u r i o s i t y . The l i t e r a t u r e of the times i l l u s t r a t e d p r e v a i l i n g a t t i t u d e s c o n c e r n i n g the Japanese. Alexander C a u f i e l d Anderson advanced a theory l i n k i n g Coast Indian t r i b e s with the Japanese. He b e l i e v e d t h a t p h y s i c a l resemblances and s i m i l a r customs p r o v i d e d l i v i n g evidence t h a t Coast Indians o r i g i n a t e d from the K u r i l e I s l a n d s . For h i s a n a l y s i s , Anderson r e l i e d on v a r i o u s n i n e t e e n t h century accounts of Japanese "junks" b e i n g swept o f f course and wrecked on the 1 C h a r l e s H. Young, Helen R. R e i d and W. A. C a r r o t h e r s , The Japanese Canadians (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1938), p. 7. A l s o see Chien T i e n Fang, O r i e n t a l Immigration  i n Canada (Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1931), p. 106. North American c o a s t . Anderson's h y p o t h e s i s l a s t e d w e l l i n t o the t w e n t i e t h century. In 1916, one w r i t e r e x p l a i n e d t h a t "a Haida and a Japanese dressed i n European c l o t h e s were p r a c t i -2 c a l l y i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e . " He e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e r e were 3 c e r t a i n language resemblances between the two r a c e s . Marius Barbeau l a t e r c o r r o b o r a t e d these t h e o r i e s by p r o p o s i n g t h a t Mongolian peoples, i n c l u d i n g the Japanese, at 4 some time had migrated to America. Barbeau's t h e o r y was apparent i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of a West Coast I n d i a n c h i e f : . . : . he was d i s t i n c t l y Mongolian. He was t h i c k and squatty. I thought of Buddha, a f t e r he had gone -- a Buddha t h a t had journeyed a l l the way from Manchuria.^ Yet, apart from the many t h e o r i e s , Alexander R a t t r a y when w r i t i n g about B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1862 c a u t i o n e d a g a i n s t any con t a c t with Japan. In p a r t i c u l a r , he p o i n t e d out "the 1 Alexander C a u f i e l d Anderson, The Dominion at the West ( V i c t o r i a : Government P r i n t e r , 1872), p. 100. Anderson does not s p e c i f y h i s sources. 2 C.F.G. Galloway, The C a l l of t h e West (London: T. F i s h e r Unwin, 1916), p. 17-3 I b i d . , p. 17. 4 Marius Barbeau, " A s i a t i c M i g r a t i o n s Into America," The  Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review, XVIII, No. 4(December, 1932), p. 403. 5 I b i d . , p. 406. Barbeau e x p l a i n e d t h a t language d i f f e r e n c e s were due t o a r e l a t i v e l y quick change d u r i n g the l a s t few g e n e r a t i o n s . See I b i d . , p. 413* -14-j e a l o u s y and p e c u l i a r i t i e s of i t s people." R a t t r a y ' s d i r e warnings c o n s t a n t l y a l l u d e d t o the dangers of a m u l t i t u d e of di s e a s e s which, be b e l i e v e d , found t h e i r o r i g i n s i n the 2 O r i e n t . At any r a t e , the 1 8 9 0 ' s saw a r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n the number of Japanese immigrants w i t h approximately 1 , 0 0 0 3 Japanese e n t e r i n g the p r o v i n c e between 1 8 8 4 and I 8 9 6 . By 4 1 9 0 1 , they numbered 4 , 5 1 5 - There were s e v e r a l reasons f o r the l a r g e i n f l u x of Japanese immigrants. In the f i r s t i n s t a n c e , the success of Chinese e x c l u s i o n c r e a t e d a vacuum f o r labour which needed t o be f i l l e d . ^ S i nce B r i t i s h Columbia possessed 1 Alexander R a t t r a y , Vancouver I s l a n d and B r i t i s h Columbia (London: Smith, E l d e r and Company, 1862), p. 150. 2 I b i d . , chapter 9, passim. 3 Ken Adachi, A H i s t o r y of the Japanese Canadians i n B r i t i s h  Columbia: 1877-1958 (n.p.: H i s t o r y Committee of N a t i o n a l Japanese Canadian C i t i z e n s A s s o c i a t i o n , 1958), p. 1. 4 Canada, Census, P o p u l a t i o n (1901), I, p. 416. Howay c h a l -lenged the accuracy of t h i s f i g u r e . See F. W. Howay, B r i t i s h  Columbia: From the E a r l i e s t Times t o the Present (Vancouver: S. J . C l a r k e P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1914), I I , p. 575. 5 James F r a n c i s Abbot, Japanese Expansion and American  P o l i c i e s (New York: Macmillan Company,- 1916), p. 145. The c l a i m t h a t the Japanese s e t t l e d i n B.C. onl y because they l a c k e d the f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s t o t r a v e l t o other p a r t s of Canada was a weak one. Although i t was f a i r l y c e r t a i n t h a t the Japanese possessed l i t t l e c a p i t a l , economic o p p o r t u n i t y s t i l l l a y i n B.C. I t would be d i f f i c u l t t o imagine many Japanese who wished t o t r y , f o r i n s t a n c e , wheat farming i n Saskatchewan. See P h i l i p A l v i n M o r r i s , " C o n d i t i o n i n g F a c t o r s Molding P u b l i c Opinion i n B r i t i s h Columbia H o s t i l e t o Japanese Immigration i n t o Canada" (unpublished M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon, 1963), p. 77--15-c o u n t l e s s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r f i s h i n g , farming, lumbering and s m a l l b u s i n e s s e s , the l u r e of the p r o v i n c e was " e s s e n t i a l l y an economic phenomenon."^ The s i t u a t i o n i n Japan was an e q u a l l y important f a c t o r . The M e i j i R e s t o r a t i o n ousted the Shogun from power and allowed a surge of both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t i n w e s t e r n i z a t i o n . But t h i s a l t e r e d few of the t r a d i t i o n a l concepts which the f e u d a l system, f o r c e n t u r i e s , had i n g r a i n e d i n t o the Japanese people. Although the Emperor a b o l i s h e d the f e u d a l h i e r a r c h y , c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n s remained deeply rooted. Obedience t o a u t h o r i t y and acceptance of s o c i a l p o s i t i o n p r e v a i l e d d e s p i t e 2 an i n f u s i o n of western i d e a s . The Japanese f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e , as d i d i t s e x t e n s i o n , the h i e r a r c h i a l s o c i e t y , c o n t i n u e d t o be the dominant s o c i a l p a t t e r n . L i f e was d i f f i c u l t f o r the aver-age Japanese s i n c e the s t r u g g l e f o r s u r v i v a l consumed most of h i s time. I t was extremely l i k e l y t h a t under these circum-stances only educated Japanese were aware of the p o t e n t i a l t o 1 Henry P r a t t F a i r c h i l d , Immigration (New York: Macmillan Company, 1914), p. 145- One Japanese w r i t e r f e l t t h a t B.C. was a t t r a c t i v e because " i t was too remote from the A t l a n t i c Coast to be over-run by the low standard of l i v i n g of groups a r r i v i n g i n Canada." See George Yamashita, "A H i s t o r y of the Occupations of the Japanese i n B r i t i s h Columbia" (unpublished B.A. g r a d u a t i n g essay, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1942), p. 3- For more g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n see Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p Branch, Department of the S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e , The Canadian  Family Tree (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1967), p. 195. 2 Hugh Barton, Japan's Modern Century (New York: Ronald Press Company, 1955), p. 174--16-be gained ac r o s s the seas. T h e r e f o r e , at l e a s t i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the f i r s t Japanese immigrants were reasonably w e l l educated p r o f e s s i o n a l people."'" Yet, by the l880's t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l r o a d s had pushed through the American West. Not only d i d the r a i l r o a d s r e q u i r e thousands of l a b o u r e r s but they a l s o needed farmers t o produce f o o d s t u f f s t o supply these men. 2 As a r e s u l t , American immigration companies began t o s o l i c i t l a b o u r i n Japan. Many l a n d l e s s Japanese farmers, f a c i n g ever i n c r e a s i n g l a n d v a l u e s , r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e r e was l i t t l e chance of a c q u i r i n g enough c a p i t a l t o purchase t h e i r own farms. Moreover, the r a p i d l y i n d u s t r i a l i z i n g c i t i e s d i d not h o l d much promise f o r the sur-p l u s Japanese a g r i c u l t u r a l p o p u l a t i o n . Given such l i m i t e d o p p o r t u n i t y f o r advancement at home, the Japanese found 3 American o f f e r s of ready employment t o be .very l u c r a t i v e . 1 E. Manchester Boddy, Japanese i n America (Los Angeles: Revel Company, 1922),pp. 9-15- E s s e n t i a l l y , t h i s p o s i t i o n does not d i f f e r from the one d e s c r i b e d by John Modell i n " T r a d i t i o n and Opportunity: The Japanese i n America," P a c i f i c H i s t o r i c a l  Review, XL, No. 2 (May, 1971), pp. 164-165^ 2 Boddy, Japanese i n America, p. 28. 3 I. Iyenga and Kenoski Sato, Japan and the C a l i f o r n i a Problem (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1921), p. 54* A l s o , s e e Yamato I c h i h a s h i , Japanese i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s ( S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1932), p. 87. I c h i h a s h i p o i n t e d out t h a t a few Japanese may have wished t o emigrate because of the c o n s c r i p -t i o n exemption granted to people l e a v i n g the country. For a very s h o r t a r t i c l e summarizing t h i s s e c t i o n , see Gene W e l t f i s h , "American Racism: Japan's Secret Weapon," Far E a s t e r n Survey, XIV, No. 17 (August, 1945), PP- 233-237--17-However, the case of the Japanese who immigrated to B r i t i s h Columbia may have been somewhat d i f f e r e n t because of the l e s s e r i n f l u e n c e of immigration companies. The m a j o r i t y of Canadian Japanese were l i k e l y farmers and fishermen from Wakayama P r e f e c t u r e and from Sanyodo on Honshu and from Saikado on Kyushu."'" Lyman suggested t h a t they were p r i n c i p a l l y from the v i l l a g e of Mio i n Wakayama P r e f e c t u r e . On the other hand, he stat.ed t h a t American Japanese came from the poorer areas of 2 southern Honshu and Northern Kyushu. Regardless, i t i s c e r t a i n t h a t the immigrants d i d not come from "the lowest economic s t r a t a i r i Japanese s o c i e t y , " as seme w r i t e r s have 3 suggested; nor were the immigrants from the " c o o l i e c l a s s . " 1 Howard H. Sugimoto, "The Vancouver R i o t s and Canadian Diplomacy" (unpublished M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, 1966), p. 21. A l s o , s e e Theodore H. Boggs, "The O r i e n t a l on the P a c i f i c Coast," Queen's Q u a r t e r l y , XXXIII, No. 3(February, 1926), p. 316 and J e r i m i a h W. Jenks and W. J e t t Lauck, The Immigration  Problem (New York: Funk and Wagnalls Company, 1926), p. 240. 2 S t a n f o r d Lyman, "The O r i e n t a l i n North America," C.B.U. r a d i o broadcast (February 21, 1962). F u r t h e r evidence i s i n Rigenda Sumida, "The Japanese i n B r i t i s h Columbia" (unpublished M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1935), P- 55. A more recent work i n v o l v i n g the examination of Japanese immigra-t i o n r e c o r d s confirms t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . See W i l l i a m Peterson, Japanese Americans (New York: Random House, 1971), p. 12. 3 Morris,, " C o n d i t i o n i n g F a c t o r s Molding P u b l i c Opinion," p. 21. In 1907, Tatsuya Kato, a correspondent f o r the Japanese Trade  J o u r n a l of Tokio, s t a t e d t h a t Japanese immigrants were unedu-cated, lower c l a s s and n o t h i n g more than a group of "adventurers. '? See "Deprecates the C l a s s of Japanese Coming," V i c t o r i a C o l o n i s t , August 8, 1907, p. 6. For a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n c o n s u l t Canada, Royal Commission on Chinese and Japanese Immigration, Report (Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r , 1902), p. 331. ( H e r e i n a f t e r c i t e d as Report [1902].) (Cont'd) -18-Rather, the Japanese came from the lower middle c l a s s . T h i s was probable f o r two reasons. F i r s t , the Japanese government showed p r i d e i n the type of immigrant i t p e r m i t t e d t o l e a v e the country. To allow u n d e s i r a b l e emigration would have c a s t the Japanese n a t i o n i n a very unfavourable l i g h t and brought shame t o the Emperor. Second, the poorest c l a s s e s of Japanese s o c i e t y were unable to f i n a n c e t h e i r passages and l i k e l y d i d not have easy access t o immigration i n f o r m a t i o n . I t was only i n the l e s s populated r u r a l and c o a s t a l s e t t l e m e n t s that> people achieved the l e v e l of p r o s p e r i t y which made emi g r a t i o n p o s s i b l e . Almost n i n e t y - f o u r per cent of Japanese immigrants t o Canada had completed elementary s c h o o l while a c o n s i d e r a b l e I t was p o s s i b l e t h a t some of the "Eta", the lowest c l a s s i n Japanese s o c i e t y , found t h e i r way t o B.C. from C a l i f o r n i a and Hawaii. However, t h e i r numbers were s m a l l . Consult W i n n i f r e d Raushenbush, " T h e i r P l a c e i n the Sun," The Survey, LVI, No. 3 (May, 1926), p. 143 an& Isao H o r i n o u c h i , E d u c a t i o n a l  Values and Preadaption i n the A c c u l t u r a t i o n of Japanese  Americans (Sacramento: Sacramento A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y , 1967), p. 15-1 Sugimoto, "The Vancouver R i o t s , " pp. 21-23- One might suppose t h a t much of the c o n f u s i o n about Japanese immigration c o u l d be c l e a r e d by i n v e s t i g a t i o n of Japanese immigration r e c o r d s . See Methods of Compiling Emigration and Immigration  S t a t i s t i c s (Geneva: I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour O f f i c e , 1922), p. 26. However, Japanese records are incomplete and n o t o r i o u s l y i n a c c u r a t e . See Peterson, Japanese Americans, pp. 15-18. -19-number had spent time i n h i g h e r s c h o o l s . Although seventy-f o u r per cent c o u l d n e i t h e r read, w r i t e nor understand E n g l i s h , n i n e t y - e i g h t per cent of the immigrants were l i t e r a t e i n t h e i r 2 , n a t i v e language. ( T h i s l a t t e r s t a t i s t i c i s i n t e r e s t i n g when i t i s r e a l i z e d t h a t almost t e n per cent of B r i t i s h Columbia's 3 p o p u l a t i o n was i l l i t e r a t e i n 1911.) Perhaps Japanese l i t e r a c y was somewhat exaggerated but the f i g u r e g i v e n was nonetheless p l a u s i b l e s i n c e the Japanese e d u c a t i o n a l system was reasonably w e l l developed by 1900. The "Imperial R e s c r i p t on Education" ( I 8 9 O ) had s t r e s s e d the great value of s c h o o l i n g , making i t c l e a r t h a t education was a n e c e s s i t y f o r a l l Japanese. Undoubtedly, Japanese immigrants t o B.C. knew of 4 the advantages a c c r u i n g from e d u c a t i o n a l endeavour. 1 The Japanese C o n t r i b u t i o n t o Canada (Vancouver: Canadian Japanese A s s o c i a t i o n , 1940), p. 28. T h i s , more or l e s s , corresponds t o Japanese f i g u r e s i n C a l i f o r n i a . See Edward K. Strong, The Second Generation Japanese Problem ( S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1934), pp. I 8 5 - I 8 7 . 2 Sumida, "The Japanese i n B r i t i s h Columbia," p. 66. A l s o , see L o u i s Hamilton, " F o r e i g n e r s i n the Canadian West," Dalhousie Review, XVII, No. 4 (January, 1938), p. 450. 3 Canada, Census (1911), P o p u l a t i o n , I I , p. 462. 4 The f o l l o w i n g works d e s c r i b e the development of Japanese education: Hugh L. K e e n l e y s i d e and A. F. Thomas, H i s t o r y of  Japanese Education and Present E d u c a t i o n a l System (Tokyo: Hokuseido Press, 1937); Mamoru Oshiba, Four A r t i c l e s on  Japanese Education (Tokio: Hemiji I n s t i t u t e of Technology, 1963); Herbert P a s s i n , S o c i e t y and Education i n Japan (New York: Teachers C o l l e g e Press, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1965)• - 2 0 -Between J u l y 1 , 1896 and June 3 0 , 1 9 0 1 , almost 1 4 , 0 0 0 1 Japanese en t e r e d B r i t i s h Columbia. Undoubtedly, the m a j o r i t y of these were merely p a s s i n g through on t h e i r way t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s . However, a s i g n i f i c a n t number deci d e d t o remain i n the p r o v i n c e f o r , by 1 9 0 1 , B r i t i s h Columbia's Japanese p o p u l a t i o n 2 had r i s e n t o 4 ,515* The people of the p r o v i n c e were not always aware t h a t most of the Japanese were i n t r a n s i t . The thought of 3 b e i n g inundated by "wily l i t t l e y e l l o w men" t e r r i f i e d them. Even when i t became known t h a t the g r e a t e r p a r t of the Japanese i n f l u x t r a v e l l e d south, some people expressed the view t h a t most of the Japanese would end up back i n Canada a f t e r b e i n g t u r n e d away by American o f f i c i a l s . ^ The s i t u a t i o n f u r t h e r 1 Canada, Report ( 1 9 0 2 ) , p. 327- F u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n con-c e r n i n g Japanese immigration i s i n the Second Annual Report of  Immigration Agents i n B r i t i s h Columbia: I 8 8 4 as found i n the B.C., SJ?. ( 1 8 8 5 ) , P- 3 0 3 . A l s o , see B.C., S^P. (1899) p. 1382 (Papers r e s p e c t i n g the number of Chinese and Japanese landed i n the P r o v i n c e from f o r e i g n p a r t s d u r i n g the years 1897 and I898); ( 1 9 0 1 ) , p. 529 (Return of correspondence r e l a t i n g t o f r a u d u l e n t n a t u r a l i z a t i o n of Japanese); ( 1 9 0 9 ) , p. G35 (Papers r e l a t i n g t o Chapter 23 of the A c t s of 1 9 0 8 , b e i n g "An Act t o Regulate Immi-g r a t i o n i n t o B r i t i s h Columbia"). 2 Canada, Census, P o p u l a t i o n ( 1 9 0 1 ) , I, p. 327 . 3 F. W". Howay, B.C.: The Making of a P r o v i n c e (Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1 9 2 8 ) , p. 2 6 5 . 4 "The Japanese I n f l u x , " Vancouver P r o v i n c e , A p r i l 2 0 , 1 9 0 0 , p. 8 . In 1911 , t h e r e were 8 , 4 2 5 Japanese i n Canada. In 1 9 3 1 , only 4,817. of these s t i l l r e s i d e d i n the country. Even ac c o u n t i n g f o r a s u b s t a n t i a l number of deaths, many of the Japanese must have t r a v e l l e d t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s or r e t u r n e d to Japan. See, Canada, Census, P o p u l a t i o n ( 1 9 1 3 ) , I, p. 215 . -21-worsened when U n i t e d S t a t e s Immigration O f f i c e r Joseph Healy p r e d i c t e d t h a t b e f o r e the end of 1900 a f u r t h e r 25,000 Japanese 1 would seek e n t r y i n t o B.C. Continued Japanese immigration appeared t o be a t h r e a t 2 t o B r i t i s h i n s t i t u t i o n s and i d e a l s . Many people b e l i e v e d t h a t 3 Japan might pose a g r e a t e r t h r e a t than had China. A f t e r a l l , Japan i n a very few years had made great gains i n adapting t o 4 western i d e a s and technology. F o r e i g n powers had not been able t o subjugate Japan as they had China. I n s t e a d the Japanese had a r e c o r d of twenty c e n t u r i e s of "independence" and " i n d i v i d u a l i t y . " D e s p i t e many modern changes, Japan and her people remained very much t h e i r o l d s e l v e s . ^ T h i s type of immigrant alarmed the people of B r i t i s h Columbia. Consequently, 1 "May Cause T r o u b l e , " P r o v i n c e , A p r i l 24, 1900, p. 8. I t may have been the case t h a t the t h r e a t of more Japanese immigration r a t h e r than the a c t u a l numbers of Japanese i n the pr o v i n c e which aroused concern. 2 A. H. F. L e f r o y , " B r i t i s h Hopes and B r i t i s h Dangers," Canadian Magazine, I, No. 3 (May, 1893), pp. 177-79. 3 P r e v i o u s l y , the "yellow p e r i l " was r e l a t e d t o China. See, C. R e g i n a l d Enock, The Great P a c i f i c Coast (London; Grant R i c h a r d s , 1909), p. 342. 4 C h a r l e s T. Long, "The P o l i t i c s of Japan," Canadian Magazine, IV, No. 5 (March, 1895), P- 407 and E. W. MacBride, "The V a r i o u s Races of Man," M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y Magazine, V, No. 2 (May, 1906), pp. 294-319. 5 K. T. Takahashi, "A Japanese View of Japan," Canadian  Magazine, I I I , No. 2 (June, 1894), P« H I -\ - 2 2 -between I 8 9 6 and 1908 the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly passed a s e r i e s of a c t s designed t o p l a c e r e s t r i c t i o n s on the Japanese i n the p r o v i n c e and t o p r o h i b i t f u r t h e r Japanese immigration. T y p i c a l of the l e g i s l a t i o n was "An Act t o Regulate Immigration Into B r i t i s h Columbia ( 1900)" . The crux of the "Act", l y i n g i n paragraph t h r e e , r e q u i r e d each immigrant to complete a form i n e i t h e r E n g l i s h or i n a European language. F a i l u r e t o comply meant r e f u s a l of entry."'" As p a r t of i t s p o l i c y , the p r o v i n c i a l government h i r e d two immigration o f f i c e r s i n 1900. The o f f i c e r f o r Vancouver I s l a n d r e f u s e d e ntry t o approximately t h r e e out of every f i v e Japanese immigrants he i n t e r c e p t e d . The Mainland o f f i c e r , however, v i o l a t e d the s p i r i t of the "Act" and a p p l i e d the t e s t t o a l l immigrants. Yet, as strenuous as were the e f f o r t s of the two o f f i c i a l s , i t was d o u b t f u l whether they managed t o i n t e r c e p t the m a j o r i t y of Japanese immigrants. During the f i s h i n g season, i t proved v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e to prevent 2 Japanese from s l i p p i n g i n t o the p r o v i n c e by s m a l l boat. Needless t o say, the Dominion government d i s a l l o w e d the "Act" of 1900 s i n c e i t v i o l a t e d S e c t i o n 93 of the B r i t i s h North 1 B.C. S t a t u t e s (1900), c. 11. 2 B.C., S.P. (1902), pp. 853-857 (Reports of the Immigration O f f i c e r s f o r the I s l a n d D i s t r i c t s and f o r the Mainland D i s t r i c t ) . -23-America A c t . However, t h i s d i d not deter the L e g i s l a t u r e . With a few simple amendments, i t passed s i m i l a r l e g i s l a t i o n i n 1902, 1903, 1904, 1905, 1907 and 1908. 1 In each case, the c o u r t s r u l e d the l e g i s l a t i o n t o be " u l t r a v i r e s " . Thus, i t became apparent t h a t the p r o v i n c e c o u l d not c o n t r o l Japanese immigration without the c o - o p e r a t i o n of the Dominion govern-2 ment. The l a t t e r was r e l u c t a n t t o do t h i s because of p r e s s u r e from the B r i t i s h government which c o n s i d e r e d Japan t o be a 3 v a l u a b l e a l l y . However, the matter became f u r t h e r complicated when the V i c t o r i a Trades and Labour C o u n c i l demanded t h a t the P r o v i n c i a l government adopt and enforce r e s t r i c t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n which was f r e e from the l o o p h o l e s c o n t a i n e d i n p r e v i o u s measures t o 4 thwart Japanese immigration. In t u r n , the P r o v i n c i a l 1 B.C., S t a t u t e s (1902), c. 34; (1903), c. 12; (1904), c. 26; (1905), c. 28; (1907), p. 21A; and (1908), c. 23. 2 " B i l l s Not Allowed," P r o v i n c e , A p r i l 24, 1900, p. 1. 3 Canada, Parliament, S e s s i o n a l Papers (Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r , 1899 )5 PP- 24-25 (Documents R e l a t i n g t o the Recent Disallowance of C e r t a i n S t a t u t e s Passed by the L e g i s l a t u r e of B.C.). A l s o , see B.C., J o u r n a l s (1899), pp- 11-12. For an i n t e r e s t i n g account of the m i l i t a r y a l l i a n c e between Japan and Great B r i t a i n see, Edward A. Wicher, "Japan i n Time of War," Canadian Magazine, XXIII, No. 4 (August, 1904), p- 304- A d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n can be found i n Raymond L e s l i e B u e l l , " B r i t i s h B a r r i e r s A g a i n s t the Japanese," Current H i s t o r y , XX, No. 6 (September, 1924), P- 962 and i n Treatment of the Japanese by Other C o u n t r i e s , 1924, World Peace F e d e r a t i o n Pamphlet, XVII, No. 2, p. 332. 4 " O r i e n t a l P o p u l a t i o n , " P r o v i n c e , March 17, 1900, p. 4--24-L e g i s l a t u r e c ontinued to p r e s s u r e the Dominion government to b r i n g i t t o the I m p e r i a l government's a t t e n t i o n t h a t f u r t h e r Japanese immigration would damage B r i t i s h r a c i a l purity."'" The L e g i s l a t u r e urged c a u t i o n when d e a l i n g with Japan and hoped t h a t the I m p e r i a l government would l e a v e immigration matters t o Canadian o f f i c i a l s . ^ In 1902, the Japanese government on the p r e t e x t of promoting i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s v o l u n t a r i l y took steps t o 3 decrease immigration. Canada welcomed t h i s a c t i o n , s t a t i n g t h a t i t would e l i m i n a t e " a l l causes of f r i c t i o n and i r r i t a t i o n " 4 between the two c o u n t r i e s . For the time b e i n g diplomacy appeared to have p r o v i d e d a s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n t o the prob-lem of the Japanese.^ 1 B.C., J o u r n a l s (1902), p. 14-2 B.C., J o u r n a l s (1897), p. 136; ( I 9 0 0 ) , p . 79; (1912), p. 48. 3 L a t e r , the Japanese government was accused of p l o t t i n g t o subdue Western Canada through waves of s u b s i d i z e d immigration. See, Tom Maclnnes, O r i e n t a l Occupation of B r i t i s h Columbia (Vancouver: Sun P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1927), p. 21. 4 Canada, Report (1902), p. 399. 5 Perhaps much of the problem concerning immigration stemmed from the f a c t t h a t the Japanese government d i d not c o n s i d e r f o r -mer r e s i d e n t s of Canada, f a m i l y members, merchants, students and t o u r i s t s t o be immigrants. However, Canadian o f f i c i a l s seemed t o have taken an o p p o s i t e view. See, Robert Joseph Gowen, "Cana-da's R e l a t i o n s with Japan: 1895-1922: Problems of Immigration and Trade" (unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago, 1966), p. 77. For a comparison with the U n i t e d S t a t e s , see James A. Scherer, The Japanese C r i s i s (New York: F r e d e r i c k A. Stokes Company, 1916). See Appendix I f o r f i g u r e s on l a t e r Japanese immigration. CHAPTER I I ROLE OF THE CHURCHES The C h r i s t i a n churches took an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n a f f a i r s r e l a t i n g t o immigration. G e n e r a l l y speaking, the churches f e l t a " s e r i o u s o b l i g a t i o n " t o do something f o r the " f o r e i g n elements" i n Canadian s o c i e t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y the Oriental."'" At the very l e a s t , i t was a b l e s s i n g t h a t the O r i e n t a l s i n Canada were f i n a l l y away from the "deadening atmosphere of heathenism," an i n f l u e n c e so p e r v a s i v e t h a t m i n i s t e r s working with O r i e n t a l s commonly n o t i c e d the "oppres-2 s i o n of Satan" s t i l l at work. For a time, the churches viewed O r i e n t a l immigration as a grave t h r e a t t o the C h r i s t i a n way of l i f e . The S o c i e t y f o r the Propagation of the Gospel i n F o r e i g n P a r t s b e l i e v e d t h a t : "The y e l l o w p e r i l [ c o u l d ] alone be stayed 3 i f the y e l l o w races become C h r i s t i a n , " w h ile the Toronto Women's M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y expressed t h i s o p i n i o n : 1 L. Norman Tucker, Western Canada (Toronto: Musson Book Company, 1907), p. 7. 2 Edgar Rogers, Canada's G r e a t e s t Need (London: S o c i e t y f o r the Propagation of the Gospel i n F o r e i g n P a r t s , 1913), P- 152. 3 I b i d . -26-While the t i d e of immigration sweeps over the l a n d i t must be met by earnest e f f o r t s , i t s course d i r e c t e d , the i m p u r i t i e s and wreckage of c e n t u r i e s of s u p e r s t i t i o n and e r r o r removed, l e s t at the f l o o d i t cover with loathsome i n f e c t i o n and impregnate the po i s o n of e v i l customs and degraded h a b i t s . ^ However, the f i r s t s e r i o u s attempts to e v a n g e l i z e the Japanese came from n e i t h e r of these o r g a n i z a t i o n s but from Japanese C h r i s t i a n s who had r e c e i v e d t r a i n i n g i n Japan. Although the i n i t i a l work of the C h r i s t i a n churches i n v o l v e d an i n t e r d e n o m i n a t i o n a l e f f o r t , the Methodist Church was par-t i c u l a r l y a c t i v e . In p a r t , t h i s was l i k e l y due to the e f f o r t s of Reverend George Cochran and Dr. D. MacDonald who, as r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e s of the Methodist Church of Canada, had opened two 2 e a r l y m i s s i o n s i n Japan. Obviously, t h e i r work p a i d d i v i d e n d s because i n the l a t e l880's Japanese Methodists formed a C h r i s t i a n Endeavour S o c i e t y at Vancouver to b e t t e r f a c i l i t a t e C h r i s t i a n work throughout the lower Mainland. Soon a f t e r , Reverend Yoshioka, a Methodist e v a n g e l i s t from S e a t t l e , v i s i t e d Vancouver and, i n 18°2, the Japanese C h r i s t i a n Endeavour S o c i e t y of S e a t t l e sent Reverend Matsutaro t o work with the Japanese on the Steveston R i v e r . L a t e r , he was i n s t r u m e n t a l 1 M. M. C. L a v e l l , O r i e n t a l M i s s i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia (Toronto: Toronto Women's M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y , ca. 1909), p. 4« 2 George Takakazu Tamaki, "Canada and Japan: An H i s t o r i c a l A n a l y s i s of the Immigration, Trade, and D i p l o m a t i c R e l a t i o n s to the Exchange of P l e n i p o t e n t i a r i e s i n 1929" (B.A. Graduating Essay, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1938), p. 3* A l s o , see I. M. Tokugawa, "Japan," B.C. Teacher, X, No. 10 (June, 1931). -27-i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the Japanese h o s p i t a l at Steveston but u n f o r -t u n a t e l y t u b e r c u l o s i s f o r c e d a premature h a l t t o h i s good work. When Matsutaro l e f t the p r o v i n c e i n 1895 Japanese v o l u n t e e r s were co n d u c t i n g Sunday s e r v i c e s and t e a c h i n g at an E n g l i s h n i g h t s c h o o l i n Vancouver.^ Reco g n i z i n g the need f o r a Japanese m i n i s t e r , an i n f l u e n t i a l Japanese Methodist c o n t a c t e d the Reverend Goro Kaburagai who was then s t u d y i n g i n Ohio. Kaburagai assumed the Vancouver p a s t o r s h i p but soon found i t too d i f f i c u l t t o work without formal church a f f i l i a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g l y , he con-s u l t e d with a l o c a l Methodist m i n i s t e r who c o n t a c t e d the General Board of Governors f o r a s s i s t a n c e . T h e i r r e p l y was f a v o u r a b l e and a i d was q u i c k l y forthcoming. Under the auspices of the Methodist Church, Kaburagai soon managed to c o - o r d i n a t e m i s s i o n s at Vancouver, V i c t o r i a , Cumberland and Steveston. In 1901, he began an elementary s c h o o l which taught a l l i t s s u b j e c t s i n E n g l i s h and which was, i n essence, 2 an i n t e r m e d i a t e step t o the p u b l i c s c h o o l . The Toronto Women's M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y sponsored much 1 "Powell S t r e e t U n i t e d Church H i s t o r y , " New Canadian, May 27, 1939, p. 12 and Tadashi M i t s u i , "The M i n i s t r y of the U n i t e d Church of Canada Amongst Japanese Canadians i n B r i t i s h Columbia: 1892-1949" (unpublished Master of Theology t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964), p. 10. 2 "Powell S t r e e t U n i t e d Church H i s t o r y , " New Canadian, May 27, 1939, p. 12 and Tadashi, " M i n i s t r y of the U n i t e d Church," p. 58. -28-of t h i s e a r l y work among the Japanese. In 1908, the S o c i e t y secured a boardinghouse as the headquarters of the V i c t o r i a Japanese M i s s i o n . Immediately t h e r e a f t e r the M i s s i o n began sending workers t o v i s i t Japanese women i n t h e i r homes. More-over, the S o c i e t y r e c o g n i z e d the need f o r i n d i v i d u a l i z e d a t t e n t i o n i n the Japanese community and dele g a t e d a c e r t a i n Miss P r e s t o n t o act as " r e s i d e n t m i s s i o n a r y " . By 1908, the S o c i e t y had e s t a b l i s h e d o p e r a t i o n s i n Steveston where i t s membership t o t a l e d 149 Japanese women. Between 1907 and 1925? f i v e d i f f e r e n t Japanese Methodist m i n i s t e r s worked i n the Japanese community. During t h i s p e r i o d the Methodists launched a b u i l d i n g program f o r e d u c a t i o n a l , s o c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , a l a r g e pro-2 p o r t i o n of the cost b e i n g borne by the Japanese congregations. Thus, the Methodist Church from the e a r l i e s t stages of i t s m i s s i o n a r y work encouraged the Japanese t o c o n s t r u c t t h e i r own f a c i l i t i e s and, when p o s s i b l e , t o s t a f f them with Japanese m i n i s t e r s and a s s i s t a n t s . On the whole, the Methodists were q u i t e sympathetic t o Japanese needs, both s p i r i t u a l and 1 L a v e l l , O r i e n t a l M i s s i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, pp. 8-15. The Reverend J . E. S t a r r began the S o c i e t y ' s work i n V i c t o r i a i n 1887. T h i s i n v o l v e d the establishment of the "Chinese Res-cue Home", a venture designed t o save g i r l s from the e v i l s of p r o s t i t u t i o n . In 1908, the S o c i e t y founded a g i r l s ' home which i n c l u d e d a k i n d e r g a r t e n and a n i g h t school f o r Chinese boys. 2"Powell S t r e e t U n i t e d Church H i s t o r y , " New Canadian, May 27, 1939, P. 12. -29-m a t e r i a l . The Methodists viewed the Japanese as e x c e l l e n t c i t i z e n s who, through t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n C h r i s t i a n a f f a i r s , were w e l l on t h e i r way to becoming u s e f u l members of society."^ One Methodist put i t t h i s way: Apart, however, from any d i p l o m a t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , the Japanese by t h e i r f a i t h f u l n e s s , t h e i r energy, t h e i r aptness, and t h e i r u n f a i l i n g c o u r t e s y , have disarmed h o s t i l i t y . When the C o n g r e g a t i o n a l , P r e s b y t e r i a n and Methodist Churches u n i t e d i n 1925, the Reverend K. Shimizu assumed church l e a d e r s h i p i n the Japanese community. Under h i s guidance the U n i t e d Church's e f f o r t s at p r o s e l y t i z i n g met with great success as by 1931 t h e r e were 4,789 Japanese who claime d church a f f i l i a -3 t i o n . Of these, only 1,924 had been born i n Japan. For the most p a r t , the programs i n s t i t u t e d were not much d i f f e r e n t from those f o r non-Japanese groups. In many i n s t a n c e s , Japanese Church members p a r t i c i p a t e d with groups from non-Japanese congregations. Sometimes, the Japanese were members of congre-g a t i o n s which were not predominantly Japanese — a common occurrence at the F a i r v i e w and Crosby U n i t e d Churches. In the l a t t e r case, Japanese rose t o prominent p o s i t i o n s i n v a r i o u s 1 Margaret Eddie Henderson, "The Japanese i n B r i t i s h Colum-b i a , " The Westminster, IX, No. 4 (October, 1906), pp. 222-223-2 I b i d . 3 Canada, Census (1931), P o p u l a t i o n , I , pp. 388-389, 884-887, 936-939--30-church organizations."*" The U n i t e d Church's concern f o r education was evident i n the Powell S t r e e t Night School which o f f e r e d E n g l i s h courses t o a d u l t Japanese f o u r times a week. By the 1920's, Japanese U.B.C. graduates s t a f f e d t h i s s c h o o l . Although i t cannot be denied t h a t the sc h o o l took a d e c i d e d l y r e l i g i o u s approach i n i t s c l a s s e s , i t was nonetheless t r u e t h a t the E n g l i s h program was an e x c e l l e n t means of a c c u l t u r a t i o n f o r Japanese l a b o u r e r s and housewives (who formed the m a j o r i t y of s t u d e n t s ) . In some cases, Japanese teen-agers used the c l a s s e s t o prepare f o r entrance i n t o the p u b l i c s c h o o l s . O r i g i n a l l y begun by the Method i s t s i n 1912, the s c h o o l ' s E n g l i s h program enjoyed success u n t i l 1933 when d e c l i n i n g attendance brought about i t s 2 d i s c o n t i n u a n c e . Because the U n i t e d Church's programs emphasized youth, the church operated k i n d e r g a r t e n s at Vancouver, M i s s i o n C i t y , Ruskin, Haney, Hammond, Whonnock, New Westminster and Steveston. Although the primary f u n c t i o n of the k i n d e r g a r t e n was r e l i g i o u s i n d o c t r i n a t i o n , i t f u l f i l l e d another e q u a l l y important r o l e as an agent of a c c u l t u r a t i o n t o b e t t e r equip Japanese c h i l d r e n f o r e n try i n t o p u b l i c elementary 1 " N i s e i E l e c t Crosby Y.P. Prexy," New Canadian, June 15, 1939, p. 1. 2 The Japanese C o n t r i b u t i o n To Canada, p. 28. -31-schools."'" I t was evident t h a t the k i n d e r g a r t e n s , i n t h i s dual r o l e , reached a c o n s i d e r a b l e number of Japanese c h i l d r e n . In 1939, U n i t e d Church k i n d e r g a r t e n s graduated t h i r t y - e i g h t Japanese c h i l d r e n at the Powell U n i t e d Church and n i n e t e e n at 2 the F a i r v i e w U n i t e d Church. By 1941, the number of graduates f o r the year from these two k i n d e r g a r t e n s had r i s e n t o f i f t y -one. Among the s t a f f at the Powell U n i t e d k i n d e r g a r t e n was F r a n c i s Takimoto, a graduate of the Vancouver Normal School. Takimoto, along with the other Powell s t a f f members, attended r e g u l a r workshop s e s s i o n s designed t o improve c u r r i c u l a and 3 t e a c h i n g t echniques. Most Japanese g i r l s i n the U n i t e d Church belonged to the very a c t i v e C.G.I.T. w h i l e o l d e r Japanese youth formed groups l i k e the Steveston and the Powell U n i t e d Young People's S o c i e t i e s . The l a t t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n even undertook t o p u b l i s h a newspaper, The Young People, the aim of which was to promote 1 "Quaint Japanese P u p i l s Overflow Steveston S c h o o l , " P r o v i n c e , February 9, 1930, p. 10. A l s o , see A Few F a c t s About Japanese  School C h i l d r e n i n Canada (Vancouver: Canadian Japanese A s s o c i a -t i o n , 1927), P- 8. 2 "Tots Given Diplomas At K i n d e r g a r t e n Graduation E x e r c i s e s , " New Canadian, J u l y 1, 1939, p. 1 and "On The Newsfront," New  Canadian, December 1, 1939, P' 1. 3 " C i t y K i n d e r g a r t e n s Confer Diplomas On N i s e i C h i l d r e n , " New Canadian, June 19, 1941, P' 4, "Sunday School Teachers Hold Meet," New Canadian, March 28, 1941, P- 4. 4 " B l u e b i r d Reunion," New Canadian, A p r i l 1, 1939, p. A' understanding between Japanese and whites. Japanese C h r i s t i a n youth groups gave evidence of t h e i r i d e a l i s m at the annual Young People's C h r i s t i a n Conference i n 1938 when they proclaimed t h a t they sought to strengthen Japanese C h r i s t i a n o r g a n i z a t i o n , develop C h r i s t i a n l e a d e r s h i p , " u n i t e s p i r i t u a l f o r c e s " and pro-2 mote "deeper C h r i s t - l i k e l i v i n g " . Undoubtedly, much of the U n i t e d Church's success stemmed from two f a c t o r s . F i r s t , Dr. S. S. Osterhout, the Superin-tendent of O r i e n t a l M i s s i o n s f o r the U n i t e d Church, proved to be a capable a d m i n i s t r a t o r i n h i s e f f o r t s t o l e a d the Japanese away from the "doubt and u n c e r t a i n t y of t h e i r a n c i e n t super-s t i t i o n s and i n t o the c l e a r e r l i g h t and assurance of the 3 C h r i s t i a n f a i t h . " Indeed, Osterhout developed a l o n g - l a s t i n g r apport with the Japanese community. When he r e t i r e d i n 1939, the Canadian Japanese A s s o c i a t i o n p r e s e n t e d him with an award f o r h i s " u n t i r i n g e f f o r t s i n e l e v a t i n g the e d u c a t i o n a l standards of the Japanese community, i n combatting r a c i a l p r e j u d i c e , i n p r o t e c t i n g the r i g h t s of a m i n o r i t y and i n 4 promoting f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s between Canada and Japan." 1 "Powell Young People's S o c i e t y , " New Canadian, May 27, 1939, p. 3 and "Steveston Y.P.S.," New Canadian, May 27,1939, p. 3. 2 "Y.P.C.C. Great Success," New Canadian, November 24, 1938, p. 4. 3 S. S. Osterhout, O r i e n t a l s i n Canada (Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1929), P- 167. 4 "Community J o i n s i n T r i b u t e to Dr. Osterhout," New Canadian, October 6, 1939, p. 1. -33-The Japanese Consulate a l s o sent a note of thanks to Osterhout f o r h i s i n v a l u a b l e s e r v i c e . For h i s p a r t , Osterhout continued t o p r a i s e the Japanese: "They are more r e s p o n s i b l e , w i l l i n g and f a i t h f u l i n t h e i r service.""'" Even a f t e r h i s r e t i r e m e n t , 2 Osterhout remained a c t i v e i n Japanese community a f f a i r s . Second, able l e a d e r s h i p and p l e n t i f u l v o l u n t e e r help i n the Japanese community p r o v i d e d the U n i t e d Church with capable o r g a n i z e r s . An e x c e l l e n t example of t h i s was Reverend Kosaburo Shimizu who became m i n i s t e r of the Powell U n i t e d Church i n 1925• A graduate from the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia who l a t e r s t u d i e d at Columbia U n i v e r s i t y under John 3 Dewey, Shimizu proved to be more than equal t o h i s t a s k s . He was l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the continuance of the a d u l t Japanese n i g h t s c h o o l at the Powell U n i t e d Church. By the l a t e 1930's the s c h o o l o f f e r e d such d i v e r s e courses as photography, p a t t e r n design, Japanese e t i q u e t t e and Japanese l i t e r a t u r e 4 a p p r e c i a t i o n . But Shimizu was not the only Japanese who was a t t r a c t e d t o the U n i t e d Church m i n i s t r y . In 1935, Takashi 1 New Canadian, October 6, 1939 3 p. 1. 2 "Dr. S. S. Osterhout at Powell Church," New Canadian, June 26, 1941, P- 1. 3 "Study, S e r v i c e M i n i s t e r ' s Creed," New Canadian, December 22, 1939, P. 11. 4 " I n t e r e s t Groups Rouse Enthusiasm," New Canadian, J u l y 31, 1940, p. 5--34-Komiyama, r e c e n t l y graduated from the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia and a former p r e s i d e n t of the Powell Y.P.S., became the f i r s t N i s e i t o enter Union College."'" Although e a r l y C h r i s t i a n attempts t o a c c u l t u r a t e the Japanese i n v o l v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r - c h u r c h c o l l a b o r a t i o n , the Church of England d i d undertake a program of i t s own. As e a r l y as 1894? the Reverend F. Stephenson had v i s i t e d Japanese s e t t l e -2 ments near F o r t Simpson. By the t u r n of the century the Church, i n an endeavour t o c o n s o l i d a t e i t s t a s k s , opened the S t . James and F a i r v i e w M i s s i o n s i n Vancouver. The Diocesan Board of the Women's A u x i l l i a r y c o n t r o l l e d the l a t t e r venture. By 1909, when g r e a t e r numbers of Japanese women and c h i l d r e n began to a r r i v e , the A n g l i c a n s found i t necessary t o open an a d d i t i o n -a l Vancouver m i s s i o n and to e s t a b l i s h f a c i l i t i e s i n Sapperton. However, because Bishop John Dart of New Westminster was slow to r e a l i z e the o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o be had i n the Japanese community, 3 A n g l i c a n m i s s i o n s achieved a r a t h e r poor beginning. G e n e r a l l y , the Church of England's m i s s i o n s o f f e r e d s e r v i c e s designed t o accustom the Japanese t o Canadian l i f e . 1 "Takashi Komiyama Enters M i n i s t r y , " New Canadian, September 15, 1939, p. 5. 2 Rogers, Canada's G r e a t e s t Need, p. 316. 3 Timothy M. Nakayama, "Anglican M i s s i o n s t o the Japanese i n Canada," J o u r n a l of the Canadian Church H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , V I I I , No. 2 (June, 1966), pp. 26-27-P r o s p e c t i v e members c o u l d s e l e c t from a wide v a r i e t y of programs i n c l u d i n g sewing c l a s s e s , r e a d i n g l e s s o n s , day k i n d e r g a r t e n s , and r e g u l a r s c h o o l c l a s s e s . To promote success, the Church showed a w i l l i n g n e s s t o accept Japanese as m i n i s t e r s and c a t e -chists."*" However, i n i t i a l r e s u l t s were somewhat u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . The Reverend Norman Tucker pr e s e n t e d a r a t h e r dismal account when, i n 1907, he r e p o r t e d t h a t o n l y 100 Japanese were a c t i v e l y engaged i n Church a c t i v i t i e s ; n i n e t y of these were i n the New 2 Westminster d i o c e s e . Yet, by 1909 the Church was b e g i n n i n g to achieve b e t t e r r e s u l t s as f o u r t e e n Japanese were b a p t i s e d and 3 another seven were confirmed. In 1931 Church membership had grown t o i n c l u d e 1,240 Japanese, of which 547 were born i n , 4 Japan. By the 1930 Ts the Church had developed a f a i r l y w e l l o r g a n i z e d program f o r the Japanese. L i k e the U n i t e d Church, the Church of England s t r u c t u r e d many of i t s a c t i v i t i e s around Japanese youth. P a r t i c u l a r l y popular were the Japanese A n g l i c a n Young People's groups which r e g u l a r l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n 1 Nakayama, "Anglican M i s s i o n s t o the Japanese i n Canada," p. 28. 2 Tucker, Western Canada, pp. 8l,89. 3 Rogers, Canada's G r e a t e s t Need, p. 329- A l s o , see P h i l i p C a r r i n g t o n , The A n g l i c a n Church In Canada (London: C o l l i n C l e a r Type P r e s s , 1963), p. 249. 4 Canada, Census (1931), P o p u l a t i o n , I, pp. 388-389, 884-887, 936-939. -36-a v a r i e t y of s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . A l s o , the Church e s t a b l i s h e d k i n d e r g a r t e n s which e v e n t u a l l y reached a c o n s i d e r a b l e number of Japanese c h i l d r e n . In 1939, the Marpole A n g l i c a n Church awarded k i n d e r g a r t e n diplomas t o e i g h t Japanese c h i l d r e n , the Holy Cross Church t o seventeen, the Church of the Ascension t o t w e n t y - f i v e , 2 and the Broadway A n g l i c a n Church t o seven. Two years l a t e r , the A n g l i c a n Ascension Nursery School awarded diplomas while the K i n d e r g a r t e n granted f o u r t e e n c e r t i f i c a t e s . The Marpole Church pr e s e n t e d seven k i n d e r g a r t e n diplomas and the Holy Cross 3 Church gave n i n e . Sometimes, N i s e i s s t a f f e d the k i n d e r g a r t e n s . Aya Suzuki, a graduate of the Toronto K i n d e r g a r t e n Normal School, taught at the Broadway A n g l i c a n K i n d e r g a r t e n while t h r e e other 4 N i s e i s a c t e d as t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t s at the Ascension School. The r o l e of the Roman C a t h o l i c Church i n the a c c u l t u r a t i o n 1 For examples see the f o l l o w i n g a r t i c l e s i n the New Canadian: " G i r l s Awarded S e r v i c e Badges," June 15, 1939, p. 3; "Anglican Y.P.'s A s s o c i a t i o n , " September 8, 1939, p. 5; "To Hold New Year Informal at F u j i , " December 29, 1938, p. 4-2 "Tots Given Diplomas at Ki n d e r g a r t e n Graduation E x e r c i s e s , " New Canadian, J u l y 1, 1939, P- 1. 3 " C i t y K i n d e r g a r t e n s Confer Diplomas on N i s e i C h i l d r e n , " New Canadian, June 19, 1941, P* 4* 4 "Tots given Diplomas at Ki n d e r g a r t e n Graduation E x e r c i s e s , " New Canadian, J u l y 1, 1939, P' 1' The A n g l i c a n Church ran another k i n d e r g a r t e n i n P r i n c e Rupert. See H. Walsh, ed., Stewards of A Goodly H e r i t a g e (Toronto: J o i n t Committee on Summer Schools and I n s t i t u t e s of the Church of England i n Canada, 1934), P- 65-of the Japanese was minor when compared with the work of the U n i t e d and A n g l i c a n Churches. Indeed, by 1931 t h e r e were only 208 Japanese Roman C a t h o l i c s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Of these, 104 had been born i n Japan."*" Perhaps, the poor performance of the C a t h o l i c Church was due t o i t s f a i l u r e t o procure a Japanese-speaking p r i e s t . I t was not u n t i l 1941 t h a t the Vancouver Japanese C a t h o l i c M i s s i o n welcomed Father P e t e r Katsuno, B r i t i s h Columbia's f i r s t Japanese p r i e s t . Upon h i s a r r i v a l , Father Katsuno immediately took up h i s d u t i e s at St. 2 P a u l s ' s C a t h o l i c Japanese Church. Yet i t would be f o o l i s h t o t h i n k t h a t the C a t h o l i c Church f a i l e d t o achieve any degree of success i n the Japanese community. The C a t h o l i c Night School on Cordova S t r e e t i n Vancouver, although p o o r l y equipped and u n d e r s t a f f e d , managed to o f f e r E n g l i s h c l a s s e s t o Japanese 3 immigrants. As w e l l , the C a t h o l i c Japanese Youth A s s o c i a t i o n enjoyed a f a i r amount of success w h i l e , i n 1941, the C a t h o l i c K i n d e r g a r t e n presented diplomas to twenty-one Japanese c h i l d r e n 1 Canada, Census, P o p u l a t i o n (1931), I, PP- 388-389, 884-887, 936-939. 2 " C a t h o l i c M i s s i o n Welcomes Father Katsuno, F i r s t Japanese P r i e s t , " New Canadian, J u l y 4, 1941, P« 4« 3 "Doctor i s N i s e i I s s e i B r i d g e , " New Canadian, March 15, 1939, P- 3. 4 "Rupert Fetes R e t i r i n g School Teacher," The New Canadian, December 18, 1941, p. 7; "Father Benedict Presents C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n Diplomas," New Canadian, J u l y 4, 1941, p. 4« -38-A l l t o l d , the C a t h o l i c Church measured i t s g r e a t e s t , yet humble, successes among the Japanese i n Steveston and Vancouver.^ Work done by churches other than the U n i t e d ( i n c l u d i n g P r e s b y t e r i a n and M e t h o d i s t ) , A n g l i c a n and Roman C a t h o l i c Churches was i n s i g n i f i c a n t . P o s s i b l y , the only e x c e p t i o n l a y with the Japanese Foursquare Church i n Vancouver. T h i s Church 2 r e c e i v e d an E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g Japanese m i n i s t e r sometime i n 1939• At any r a t e , i n 1931 only 449 Japanese p r o f e s s e d adherence or a f f i l i a t i o n t o a C h r i s t i a n f a i t h other than t h a t of the United, 3 A n g l i c a n and Roman C a t h o l i c Churches. Quite n a t u r a l l y , the Buddhist Church was i n f l u e n t i a l i n 4 the Japanese community. E s t a b l i s h e d i n 1904, the Hompa 1 "Kimono-Clad N i s e i s A t t e n d E u c h a r i s t , " New Canadian, June 19, 1940, p. 3. 2 "Preacher From Japan to Take Up L o c a l Foursquare P a s t o r a t e , " New Canadian, December 22, 1939, P« H - A l s o , s e e " N i s e i News From Far F l u n g Corners i n B.C.," New Canadian, March 8, 1940, p. 6. 3 Canada, Census, P o p u l a t i o n (1931), I, pp. 388-389, 844-887, 936-939. 4 T h i s study does not i n c l u d e Shinto as a v i a b l e f o r c e i n the Japanese community because i t i s d o u b t f u l whether Shinto r e a l l y took h o l d i n North America. One. source e x p l a i n s t h a t Shinto was completely out of p l a c e i n Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s s i n c e i t was a r e l i g i o n so c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with t r a d i t i o n s and customs as they were i n Japan. Buddhism, on the other hand, was adaptable and was able to take r o o t s i n North America. See A r n o l d and C a r o l i n e Rose, America D i v i d e d (New York: A l f r e d A. Knopf, 1953), p. 229. F i g u r e s f o r 1911 show 1,277 people ad-h e r i n g to S h i n t o . By 1931 the number had dropped t o 408. See Canada, Census (1911), P o p u l a t i o n , I I , p. 2 and Census (1931), P o p u l a t i o n , I, p. 796. -39-Buddhist Church with i t s s t a f f of Japanese born p r i e s t s had b u i l t f i v e m i s s i o n s and s i x branch churches i n B r i t i s h Columbia 1 by 1935- In 1931, Buddhist adherents nominally stood at 14,707 2 although a c t u a l church membership numbered only 1,500. To a l a r g e extent, the Japanese Buddhist Church designed i t s programs along the l i n e s of those of the C h r i s t i a n churches. I t p r o v i d e d c o m p e t i t i o n f o r the Women's M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y by o f f e r i n g both n i g h t and Sunday s c h o o l c l a s s e s . Buddhist compe-t i t i o n was so e f f e c t i v e t h a t the A n g l i c a n Church began Saturday afternoon church a c t i v i t i e s i n an e f f o r t t o draw away some of the Japanese from Buddhist s e r v i c e s . The A n g l i c a n s even r e s o r t e d t o o f f e r i n g p r i z e s f o r e x c e l l e n c e i n church p a r t i c i p a -3 t i o n . However, t h e r e i s no evidence to suggest t h a t b i t t e r r i v a l r i e s between Japanese Buddhist and Japanese C h r i s t i a n s s i m i l a r to s i t u a t i o n s i n C a l i f o r n i a and Hawaii ever developed. 4 Yet, d e s p i t e the e f f o r t s of the C h r i s t i a n churches; the Buddhists proved to be capable o r g a n i z e r s . L i k e the C h r i s t i a n s , the Buddhists p l a c e d an emphasis on youth a c t i v i t i e s . Founded 1 "Hompa Holds 35th A n n i v e r s a r y , " New Canadian, October 6, 1939, p. 1. 2 Adachi, H i s t o r y of the Japanese Canadians, p. 13. 3 L a v e l l , O r i e n t a l M i s s i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, pp. 15-16. 4 Jacobus ten Brock, Edward N. Barnhart and F l o y d W. Matson, P r e j u d i c e , War and the C o n s t i t u t i o n (Los Angeles, U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P ress, 1954), p. 277. -40-i n 1925, the Canada Young Buddhist League e s t a b l i s h e d a system of Sunday s c h o o l s under the d i r e c t i o n of the Buddhist Sunday School A s s o c i a t i o n . By 1939, these schools e n r o l l e d about 1,200 students and 110 t e a c h e r s , the v a s t m a j o r i t y of which were i n B r i t i s h Columbia."'" To f a c i l i t a t e the s t a f f i n g of the scho o l s and to ensure the maintenance of standards, the Japanese formed the Canadian Buddhist Sunday School Teachers' 2 F e d e r a t i o n . T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n sought t o encourage g r e a t e r 3 c o n t a c t and c l o s e r t i e s w i t h i n the Buddhist community. In 1939, under the auspices of the F e d e r a t i o n , Buddhist students began p u b l i s h i n g t h e i r own newspaper. In c o n j u n c t i o n with the F e d e r a t i o n , the Hompa Buddhist Church i n s t i t u t e d a teacher t r a i n i n g course which e n r o l l e d about f i f t y p r o s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r s . L a s t i n g f o r twenty-one weeks, the s y l l a b u s of study i n c l u d e d both c u r r i c u l u m c o n s t r u c t i o n and t e a c h i n g methods. When t e a c h e r s completed t h e i r courses the Buddhist Church awarded diplomas c e r t i f y i n g the candidates as 1 "Canada Young Buddhist League," New Canadian, May 27, 1939, p. 3. 2 "Buddhist Teachers Hold Meeting," New Canadian, A p r i l 1, 1939, p. 1. Undoubtedly, the Buddhists wished to a v o i d any c r i t i c i s m s of t h e i r s c h o o l s . For i n s t a n c e , see "Japanese Women T r a n s p l a n t e d t o Vancouver," P r o v i n c e , January 26, 1910, p. 7. 3 " N i s h i z a k i E l e c t e d Buddhist Teachers F e d e r a t i o n Prexy," New Canadian, March 7, 1941, P- 4--41-1 f u l l y a c c r e d i t e d Buddhist t e a c h e r s . The F e d e r a t i o n was a l s o keenly i n t e r e s t e d i n p r o c u r i n g E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n s of s c r i p t u r e f o r the sc h o o l s so t h a t students would not have t o s t r u g g l e with 2 Japanese t e x t s . The Buddhists found t h a t t h e i r programs achieved a c o n s i d e r a b l e measure of success. In June, 1939, the F a i r v i e w Buddhist Church K i n d e r g a r t e n graduated nine students while the 3 Hompa K i n d e r g a r t e n passed twenty-three c h i l d r e n . However, by 1941, the number of graduates from these two Churches had 4 dropped t o twenty-four. S u r p r i s i n g l y , both Buddhist schools were under the d i r e c t i o n of Mrs. A. E. LeWarne who had worked i n v a r i o u s Buddhist church s c h o o l s s i n c e 1930.^ Another s u c c e s s f u l segment of Buddhist Church o r g a n i z a -t i o n was the B r i t i s h Columbia Buddhist Young People's A s s o c i a t i o n , or B u s s e i . T h i s group met an n u a l l y t o d i s c u s s 1 "Teachers Course I n s t i t u t e d At Hompa Temple," New Canadian, December 7, 1939, p. 5-2 " N i s h i z a k i E l e c t e d Buddhist Teachers F e d e r a t i o n Prexy," New Canadian, March 7, 1941, P« 4« 3 "Tots Given Diplomas at Kin d e r g a r t e n Graduation E x e r c i s e s , " New Canadian, J u l y 1, 1939, p. 1. 4 " C i t y K i n d e r g a r t e n s Confer Diplomas on N i s e i C h i l d r e n , " New Canadian, June 19, 1941, P- 4« 5 "Honour Buddhist K i n d e r g a r t e n Teacher," New Canadian, June 26, 1941, P« 2. F u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n concerning Mrs.LeWarne i s not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . -42-t o p i c s of common i n t e r e s t t o young Canadian Buddhists."'" In 1939, the A s s o c i a t i o n was f u l l y aware of the growing d i f f i c u l -t i e s f a c i n g the Japanese and i s s u e d a p o l i c y statement express-i n g "the n e c e s s i t y of a l l N i s e i t o pledge unswerving l o y a l t y t o Canada . . . and the need of the N i s e i t o show the Canadian people t h a t they are q u a l i f i e d as t r u e Canadians i n every 2 r e s p e c t . " The A s s o c i a t i o n a l s o s t r e s s e d the g r e a t need to e x p l a i n Buddhism t o a l l N i s e i . In p a r t , the A s s o c i a t i o n thought t h a t t h i s c o u l d be accomplished i f E n g l i s h v e r s i o n s of Buddhist s c r i p t u r e were to be secured and i f E n g l i s h was the language 3 employed i n Sunday s e r v i c e s . Two years l a t e r and j u s t months be f o r e the Japanese f a c e d internment, the Young Buddhists i s s u e d another statement u r g i n g a l l N i s e i t o conduct themselves "very c a r e f u l l y i n p u b l i c p l a c e s " so as not to arouse anti-Japanese sentiment. At the same time, the A s s o c i a t i o n r e i t e r a t e d i t s p o l i c y of t r a i n i n g r e s p e c t a b l e l e a d e r s f o r the Japanese communi-t y and of f o s t e r i n g b e t t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with white members of the community.^ 1 "Bussei Confab Set For 26th," New Canadian, February 15, 1939, p. 4. 2 "Bussei Confab S t r e s s e s L o y a l t y , " New Canadian, November 24, 1939, p. 4. 3 I b i d . 4 "Jobs, Morals, Marriage S t u d i e d at Bussei Conference," New Canadian, October 31, 1941, p. 3--43-Thus i t was t h a t , d e s p i t e the e f f o r t s of the C h r i s t i a n churches, the m a j o r i t y of Japanese remained Buddhist. Yet, by the 1930's most Japanese Buddhist a f f i l i a t i o n s were only nominal. Undoubtedly many N i s e i came to r e j e c t Buddhism because i t was "too u n r e a l " . ^ Simply put, N i s e i s had d i f f i c u l t y understanding Buddhism because i t ran counter to western thought and i d e a s . A l s o , O c c i d e n t a l s saw Buddhism as f u r t h e r evidence of the Japanese f a i l u r e t o accept Canadian ways. Thus Buddhism i n -c r e a s i n g l y became a l i a b i l i t y as i t i n c r e a s e d the chances of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n from the white community.^ By 1931, between t h i r t y and f o r t y percent of a l l B r i t i s h Columbia Japanese p r o f e s s e d some form of C h r i s t i a n f a i t h . Although Buddhism co n t i n u e d to be a dominant f a c t o r among the Japanese o n l y f i f t e e n percent of Japanese c h i l d r e n attended Buddhist Sunday s c h o o l s ( i n 1940) w h i l e s i x t y - f i v e percent en-r o l l e d at C h r i s t i a n ones. T h e r e f o r e , i n some cases Japanese parents although not a f f i l i a t e d with a C h r i s t i a n church allowed 3 t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o a t t e n d C h r i s t i a n s e r v i c e s . 1 "The Japanese Language S c h o o l , " New Canadian, January 17, 1941, p. 5. 2 Mavis Yuasa, "We Must Lose To Win," B.C. Teacher, XIX, No. 6 (February, 1940), p. 306. A l s o see L o u i s e Campbell, "An H i s t o r i c a l Sketch of the Economic and S o c i a l C o n d i t i o n s and of the L e g i s l a t i o n A f f e c t i n g O r i e n t a l Immigration i n C a l i f o r n i a and B r i t i s h Columbia (unpublished B.A. g r a d u a t i n g essay, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1922), p. 70 and David Graham, A r t h u r Yesaki and Ronald Yuen, "An I n v e s t i g a t i o n of the Japanese Presence i n Vancouver," (unpublished Bachelor of A r c h i t e c t u r e g r a d u a t i n g essay, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970), p. 12. 3 The Japanese C o n t r i b u t i o n to Canada, pp. 30-31. -44-At t h i s p o i n t i t i s evident t h a t the Buddhist Church both h i n d e r e d and a s s i s t e d Japanese a c c u l t u r a t i o n . Such a dichotomy, however, was not apparent i n the r o l e of the C h r i s t i a n churches. I f co n v e r s i o n t o C h r i s t i a n i t y was one ac c e p t a b l e i n -d i c a t o r of a c c u l t u r a t i o n , then the C h r i s t i a n churches achieved remarkable r e s u l t s . Some c r i t i c s have suggested t h a t much of the churches 1 e a r l y success i n ed u c a t i n g Japanese immigrants was because the Japanese v a l u e d the mi s s i o n s not so much f o r 1 r e l i g i o n as they d i d f o r good s c h o o l i n g at in e x p e n s i v e r a t e s . Supposing t h i s t o have been the case, the r e s u l t was s t i l l a c c u l t u r a t i o n . I t was i r o n i c t h a t the p u b l i c never f u l l y recog-n i z e d the e f f o r t s of the C h r i s t i a n churches t o a c c u l t u r a t e the Japanese. Indeed, unkind comments concerning the churches' r o l e i n a c c u l t u r a t i o n were common: The Churches have never had any other d e f i n i t e p o l i c y towards the new-Canadian than t o preach the Gospel, but t h i s has not proved very e f f e c t i v e because of the com-p l e x i t y of the s i t u a t i o n . Moreover, d e s p i t e the earnest attempts by many Japanese t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n C h r i s t i a n church a c t i v i t i e s , some observers s t i l l m aintained t h a t the Japanese were heathen at heart and, 3 t h e r e f o r e , i n c a p a b l e of redemption. 1 Jenks and Lauck, The Immigration Problem, p. 2 51-2 George Elmore Reaman, " C a n a d i a n i z a t i o n of the F o r e i g n Born," Canadian Magazine, LIX, No. 5 (October, 1922), p. 445» 3 C h a r l e s L u g r i n Shaw, "Canada's O r i e n t a l Problem," Canadian  Magazine, X L I I I , No. 6 (October, 1924), p. 336. CHAPTER I I I JAPANESE INSTITUTIONS For most immigrants, i n c l u d i n g the Japanese, t h e r e was a p e r i o d of adjustment to Canadian l i f e d u r i n g which time the immigrants formed numerous a s s o c i a t i o n s whose purpose i t was to l e s s e n c o n f l i c t with the g e n e r a l community and to pro-v i d e a community s t r u c t u r e : When a new Canadian i s set down i n a f o r e i g n s o c i e t y h i s most important i n c l i n a t i o n i s t o contact someone from the same n a t i v e country who both l i t e r a l l y and f i g u r a t i v e l y , 'speaks the same language'. I t i s f o r t h i s main purpose t h a t many small m i n o r i t y agencies are cr e a t e d : t o p r o v i d e a home away from home f o r i t s r a c i a l group. Thus i t was t h a t the Japanese, l i k e other immigrant groups, e s t a b l i s h e d a v a r i e t y of s p e c i a l i z e d i n s t i t u t i o n s . G e n e r a l l y , these i n c l u d e d f i v e c a t e g o r i e s : t r a d e or b u s i n e s s , p r e f e c t u r a l , e d u c a t i o n a l , c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l . However, North American Japanese communities had no s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s s i m i l a r to those 1 David F. Bowers, "The Problem of S o c i a l and C u l t u r a l Impact," F o r e i g n I n f l u e n c e s i n American L i f e , ed. David F. Bowers (New York: Peter Smith, 1952), p. 14-2 E. T. R a s h l e i g h , " A s s i m i l a t i o n of R a c i a l M i n o r i t i e s with P a r t i c u l a r Reference to Canada" (unpublished B.A. Graduating Essay, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1942), p. 97« found among the Chinese. The number of a s s o c i a t i o n s , c l u b s and s o c i e t i e s was t r u l y remarkable as by 1934 t h e r e were 230 s e c u l a r and r e l i g i o u s Japanese o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h 2 Columbia. In some cases, where e x i s t i n g non-Japanese o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o u l d meet Japanese needs, the Japanese chose to j o i n p r i m a r i l y white i n t e r e s t groups, a s i t u a t i o n p a r t i c u -3 l a r l y t r u e i n a g r i c u l t u r e . Of paramount importance to the Japanese were t h e i r 1 S t a n f o r d M. Lyman, "Contrasts i n the Community Organiza-t i o n of Chinese and Japanese i n North America," Canadian Review  of S o c i o l o g y and Anthropology, V, No. 2 (May, 1968), p. 54« 2 Adachi, H i s t o r y of the Japanese Canadians, p. 13. 3 George Yamashita, "A H i s t o r y of the Occupations of the Japanese i n B r i t i s h Columbia" (unpublished B.A. Graduating Essay, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1942), pp. 34, 44, 77« Although i t would be d i f f i c u l t t o supply a complete l i s t of Japanese a s s o c i a t i o n s , the f o l l o w i n g i s a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample of o r g a n i z a t i o n s found i n most Japanese communities. Evidence f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n s can be found i n the c i t e d i s s u e s of the New Canadian: Steveston Students' Club, see "Steveston S t a t i c , " September 29, 1939, p. 7; Japanese Welfare A s s o c i a t i o n , see "Welfare A s s o c i a t i o n P rovides Needed S o c i a l S e r v i c e s to Community," October 27, 1939, p. 3; K i t s i l a n o Koyukai, see "Town T o p i c s , " November 10, 1939, p. 4; Surrey Japanese G i r l s ' Club and Summerland N i s e i Club, see " N i s e i News From Here And There In B.C.," November 10, 1939, p. 4; Nippon Young People's A s s o c i a t i o n , see " N i s e i News From Here And There In B.C.," November 10, 1939, P« 6; Langley Japanese Language School Parents' A s s o c i a t i o n , see " N i s e i News From Here And There In B.C.," March 15, 1940, p. 6; Vancouver Japanese Language School I j i k a i (School Maintenance A s s o c i a t i o n ) , see "C.L.U. Has Record of S e r v i c e , " September 15, 1939, p. 3; Japanese Students' Club, see " F i f t e e n High School Orators t o Compete i n J.S.C. C o n t e s t , " March 1, 1939, p. 1 -47-w e l f a r e a s s o c i a t i o n s . One of the e a r l i e s t was the Japanese Red Cross A u x i l i a r y of Vancouver founded i n 1908."'" Another o r g a n i z a t i o n , the Japanese Fishermen's S o c i e t y , maintained a h o s p i t a l and p r o v i d e d support f o r a six-room s c h o o l house at 2 Steveston. However, the Japanese Welfare A s s o c i a t i o n which was an a f f i l i a t e of the Vancouver Welfare F e d e r a t i o n co-3 o r d i n a t e d most major Japanese s o c i a l s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s . C e r t a i n l y , the e x i s t e n c e of a l a r g e number of Japanese c h a r i -t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s h e l p e d to d i s p e l the myth t h a t the Japanese 4 were o f t e n burdens on community supported w e l f a r e agencies. One of the most n o t a b l e Japanese o r g a n i z a t i o n s was the Canadian Japanese A s s o c i a t i o n founded i n 1897.^ R e l a t i v e l y few N i s e i belonged to the A s s o c i a t i o n , a s i t u a t i o n which n o t i c e a b l y d i s t u r b e d many I s s e i . Whites sometimes accused the A s s o c i a t i o n 1 Henderson, "The Japanese i n B r i t i s h Columbia," p. 8. 2 Tolmie, J . Ross, "The O r i e n t a l s i n B.C." (unpublished B.A. Graduating Essay, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1929), p. 122. 3 "Welfare Ass'n P r o v i d e s Needed S o c i a l S e r v i c e s t o Communi-t y , " New Canadian, October 27, 1939, p. 3. In 1938, the Asso-c i a t i o n c o l l e c t e d $1,500,eighty percent of which went to the Japanese M e d i c a l C l i n i c . See "Welfare Group Plans D r i v e , " New Canadian, September 22, 1939, p. 1. 4 The myth can be found i n Woodsworth, Strangers W i t h i n Our  Gates, p. 227. 5 Young, The Japanese Canadians, p. 111. 6 "Canadian Japanese A s s o c i a t i o n D r i v e , " New Canadian, February 1, 1939, p. 8. A l s o , see " N i s e i J o i n I s s e i C.J.A.," New Canadian, February 1, 1939, p. 1. Although few N i s e i were -48-of c a u s i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s between O r i e n t a l s and O c c i d e n t a l s : I l l - f e e l i n g toward the Japanese has not been l e s s e n e d by the propaganda c a r r i e d on by the Canadian Japanese A s s o c i a t i o n , which i n c l u d e s 90 per cent of the Japanese i n the country.^ T y p i c a l of the "propaganda" was a Canadian Japanese A s s o c i a t i o n pamphlet e n t i t l e d , "What the Japanese i n B r i t i s h Columbia Ask." As i t t u r n e d out, the pamphlet was an argument f o r v o t i n g r i g h t s f o r the Japanese who payed taxes, owned l a n d and r e c e i v e d 2 n a t u r a l i z a t i o n but c o u l d not vote. I f some of the a t t a c k s on the A s s o c i a t i o n were s p u r i o u s , a few c o n t a i n e d shreds of t r u t h . Most damaging was the f a c t t h a t the A s s o c i a t i o n maintained "pronounced n a t i o n a l i s t i c " t i e s w ith the Japanese Consulate. An o r g a n i z a t i o n composed of young I s s e i , the Camp and M i l l Workers' Union, d i r e c t l y c h a l l e n g e d t h i s p o l i c y because i t promoted s e p a r a t i o n r a t h e r than co-opera-t i o n with the white community. The Union b e l i e v e d t h a t i t was t h e i r duty t o promote a c c u l t u r a t i o n ; p r e j u d i c e c o u l d only be a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d with the A s s o c i a t i o n , i t n e v e r t h e l e s s sought t o improve r e l a t i o n s with the second g e n e r a t i o n . For i n s t a n c e , the A s s o c i a t i o n began a s c h o l a r s h i p program t o send N i s e i s to U.B.C. See Tolmie,"The O r i e n t a l s i n B.C.," p. 182. 1 Lukin Johnston, " B r i t i s h Columbia's O r i e n t a l Problem," U n i t e d Empire, X I I I , No. 8 (August, 1922), p. 571. Whites a l s o f o r g o t t h a t the A s s o c i a t i o n had p r o v i d e d f a c i l i t i e s f o r E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n as e a r l y as 1909. See Young, The Japanese  Canadians, p. 111. 2 Johnston, " B r i t i s h Columbia's O r i e n t a l Problem," p. 572. Only a p a r t i a l t e x t of the pamphlet i s given. -49-overcome through i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o the g e n e r a l white community."'" The Union's condemnation of the A s s o c i a t i o n , however, was somewhat harsh. Undoubtedly, the Union confused "pronounced n a t i o n a l i s t i c " t i e s with c u l t u r a l l i n k s . Another o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h i s one with s o l i d N i s e i support, was the Japanese Canadian C i t i z e n s League formed i n 1936. 2 Seeking t o draw i t s s t r e n g t h from an a l l N i s e i membership, the League attempted t o " i n t e r p r e t the aims and a s p i r a t i o n s " of a l l Japanese youth. The League t r i e d t o p r o v i d e f o r the s o c i a l requirements of the N i s e i s w h i l e , at the same time, f o s t e r i n g l e a d e r s h i p i n the Japanese community. C h i e f among i t s i n t e r e s t s were e f f o r t s t o d i s c u s s and propose remedies f o r the problems 3 f a c i n g second g e n e r a t i o n Japanese i n Canada. Indeed, the League's p o l i c i e s were d i s t i n c t l y Canadian. Each year the League sponsored an o r a t o r i c a l c o n t e s t i n E n g l i s h f o r N i s e i c h i l d r e n . The winners' speeches o f t e n r e f l e c t e d s t r o n g Canadian sentiment: We N i s e i s are Canadian born and know no homeland except Canada; we have been educated and t r a i n e d i n her honourable i n s t i t u t i o n s ; our m e n t a l i t y and our customs are p r a c t i c a l l y wholly Canadian; and we re g a r d Canada 1 Adachi, H i s t o r y of the Japanese Canadians, p. 14-2 The League was c o n s t a n t l y t r y i n g t o enlarge i t s membership. See "Out of Town News," New Canadian, February 15, 1939, p. 5-3 Adachi, H i s t o r y of the Japanese Canadians, p. 14. -50-as the l a n d of our d e s t i n y , the l a n d of our u l t i m a t e economic and s o c i a l s e c u r i t y , the country to which we d e d i c a t e our s e r v i c e s . ^ Our f u t u r e , our d e s t i n y l i e s r i g h t here i n Canada. I t i s our task by means of i n t e g r i t y , s i n c e r i t y and l o y a l t [ s i c j t o earn the r i g h t t o share e q u a l l y with the Canadian people. The League sought to e s t a b l i s h t i e s with the O c c i d e n t a l community whenever p o s s i b l e . For i n s t a n c e , i t was common f o r 3 p u b l i c s c h o o l o f f i c i a l s t o judge i t s o r a t o r i c a l c o n t e s t s . A l s o , t h e League extended honorary memberships t o prominent educators i n c l u d i n g Dr. Norman F. Black, Henry F. Angus and 4 P r o f e s s o r E. S. F a r r . The League's concern f o r education l e d i t t o make numerous donations to p u b l i c s c h o o l s . ^ On one o c c a s i o n , the V i c t o r i a Chapter p r e s e n t e d a s i l v e r cup to The V i c t o r i a School Board f o r use at o r a t o r i c a l meets.^ 1 "Co-operation With Canadian Youth," New Canadian, December 1, 1939, p. 3-2 "The N i s e i Task," New Canadian, November 24, 1939, p. 3. A l s o , see " O r a t o r i c a l Meet," New Canadian, November 24, 1938, p. 2. 3 "3 I s l a n d Orators i n J.C.C.L. F i n a l s , " New Canadian, November 3, 1939, p. 3. 4 " I s l a n d Conference In May," New Canadian, A p r i l 1, 1939, p. 1; "Dr. Norman F. Blac k , " New Canadian, November 15, 1940, p. 1; " N i s e i s Need Tol e r a n c e — People of Canada W i l l Be F a i r -- N o r r i s , " New Canadian, November 15, 1940, p. 3-5 For example, see "Chemainus J.C.C.L. Donates Royal P o r t r a i t s To Chemainus Elementary School," New Canadian, June 5, 1939, p. 7 6 " V i c t o r i a J.C.C.L. Presents Trophy To School Board," New  Canadian, October 6, 1939, p. 1. -51-Although the League was a N i s e i o r g a n i z a t i o n and, as such, was c o n s t a n t l y s t r i v i n g t o i n c l u d e more second g e n e r a t i o n Japanese i n i t s programs, i t s members d i d not e n t i r e l y r e j e c t t h e i r Japanese h e r i t a g e . In 1939, the League opened a l i b r a r y of "Japanese h i s t o r y , a r t , l i t e r a t u r e , music and p h i l o s o p h y . " However, t h i s was one of the few o c c a s i o n s on which the League a c t i v e l y promoted Japanese c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s . Probably, the approach of war with Japan served t o convince the League to be wary of programs encouraging the r e t e n t i o n of Japanese c u l t u r e . I nstead, the League r e a f f i r m e d i t s p o s i t i o n of l o y a l t y t o Canada and t h i n g s Canadian. In a telegram t o Prime M i n i s t e r W. L. Mackenzie King, the League s t a t e d : In t h i s hour of n a t i o n a l need, the Japanese C i t i z e n s League u n i t e s with our f e l l o w c i t i z e n s i n p l e d g i n g our deepest l o y a l t y and devotion t o our country and the B r i t i s h Empire. Thus i t was t h a t a s s o c i a t i o n s , c l u b s and s o c i e t i e s f u l f i l l e d a u s e f u l f u n c t i o n i n the Japanese community. However, at the same time, they were a source of concern to the Japanese s i n c e g r e a t e r involvement i n Japanese o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y might have l e d to i n c r e a s i n g i s o l a t i o n from the g e n e r a l communi-t y . Some Japanese f e a r e d t h a t N i s e i s o c i a l c l u b s h i n d e r e d 1 " N i s e i L i b r a r y , " New Canadian, August 1, 1939, p. 2. 2 "J.C.C.L. Pledges L o y a l t y and Devotion to Canada i n Wire," New Canadian, September 8, 1939* p. 1. A l s o , s e e " L o y a l t y Pledge Recognized by Prime M i n i s t e r , " New Canadian, September 15, 1939, p. 1. -52-a c c u l t u r a t i o n because they monopolized too much l e i s u r e time and, t h e r e f o r e , r a i s e d b a r r i e r s to b e t t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with whites."*" Although race p r e j u d i c e had r e s u l t e d i n a p r o l i f e r a -t i o n of Japanese o r g a n i z a t i o n s , the N i s e i f e l t t h a t t h e i r c l u b s no l o n g e r performed t h e i r o r i g i n a l f u n c t i o n s . I t was time to break away those t h i n g s which impeded a c c u l t u r a t i o n . One N i s e i d i s g u s t e d l y commented: " . . . we s i t back i n our l i t t l e c i r c l e , our l i t t l e c l u b , and i n d u l g e i n s e n t i m e n t a l 2 c h i l d i s h dreams with our companions i n misery." The n o t i c e a b l e l a c k of communication and c e n t r a l i z a t i o n among Japanese groups was another s e r i o u s problem. Of course, t h i s u s u a l l y l e d t o d u p l i c i t y and, on some o c c a s i o n s , caused 3 r i v a l r i e s between the I s s e i and N i s e i . The N i s e i i n c r e a s i n g l y became aware of the l a c k of o r g a n i z a t i o n i n what, to outward appearances, was a h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d community. In p a r t , they f e l t t h a t t h i s would e v e n t u a l l y have a d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t on Japanese youth: In an area so s o c i a l l y d i s o r g a n i z e d as the t y p i c a l Japanese community, the i n c e n t i v e , the example and 1 "The Dangers of Club A c t i v i t y , " New Canadian, March 1, 1939, p. 2. One of the f i r s t charges a g a i n s t the Japanese was t h a t they were c l a n n i s h . See Henry Herbert Stevens, The O r i e n t a l  Problem, D e a l i n g With Canada As A f f e c t e d By The Immigration Of  Japanese, Hindu and Chinese (Vancouver, 191_) , p. 5-2 "Let's Grow Up," New Canadian, A p r i l 12, 1940, p. 2. 3 "Students P r e f e r D o c i l e Wives," New Canadian, March 1, 1940, p. 2. - 5 3 -the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r delinquency and immoral behavior are a l l e v e r - p r e s e n t . ^ N a t u r a l l y , the search f o r a remedy was no easy task f o r two reasons: f i r s t , the N i s e i s f e l t t h a t t h e r e was a l a c k of second g e n e r a t i o n l e a d e r s h i p ; and second, the smug a t t i t u d e adopted by many N i s e i l e d t o d i s s e n s i o n w i t h i n the whole Japanese community. Two more types of o r g a n i z a t i o n s which undeniably l e d to the a c c u l t u r a t i o n of the Japanese were the E n g l i s h n i g h t s c h o o l s and commercial i n s t i t u t i o n s . Often Japanese found i t d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n employment because t h e i r comprehension of the E n g l i s h language was so poor. To r e c t i f y t h i s , the Japanese d i d one of s e v e r a l t h i n g s . Sometimes women exchanged t h e i r a r t i s t i c handiwork f o r language l e s s o n s from O c c i d e n t a l women: Of course such arrangements [were] u s u a l l y temporary, f o r the Japanese women [ l e a r n e d ] very q u i c k l y and they soon a p p l [ i e d ] t h e i r newly a c q u i r e d knowledge i n the management of t h e i r homes. On the other hand, young Japanese males o f t e n became houseboys i n Canadian f a m i l i e s so t h a t they might b e t t e r l e a r n Canadian 1 "Random Comments On Education," New Canadian, August 22, 1941, p« 9' Some N i s e i proposed t h a t Japanese youth s h o u l d look t o groups l i k e the Y.M.C.A. and the Boy Scouts f o r guidance. 2 I b i d . 3 Henderson, "The Japanese i n B r i t i s h Columbia," p. 11. -54-ways and customs.^ However, the need f o r a more o r g a n i z e d method of l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h was apparent s i n c e church and p u b l i s c h o o l s d i d not always have adequate f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e . Thus, the Japanese opened t h e i r own E n g l i s h language n i g h t s c h o o l s . Perhaps, the most r e s p e c t e d of these were the two s c h o o l s operated by C h i t o s e Uchida, the f i r s t Japanese graduat from the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. A f t e r a t t e n d i n g the Vancouver Normal School and then f a i l i n g t o f i n d a t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n , Uchida taught i n A l b e r t a . Upon r e t u r n i n g t o Vancouver, she taught at v a r i o u s n i g h t s c h o o l s b e f o r e opening her own i n 1931• By 193 8, her s c h o o l s e n r o l l e d s i x t y students Because Uchida charged o n l y a nominal f e e she d i d not b e n e f i t f i n a n c i a l l y from her undertaking. Rather, the " d e s i r e t o teac _ 2 [wasj paramount among her wishes." Because i t was not always the case t h a t the p u b l i c s c h o o l s o f f e r e d u s e f u l v o c a t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n f o r g i r l s , Japa-nese women o f t e n found i t extremely d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d 1 Rigenda Sumida began h i s l i f e i n Canada as a houseboy. See Sumida, "The Japanese i n B.C.," p. 119* 2 "Canadians From Japan Study E n g l i s h Here," P r o v i n c e , December 3, 1938, Magazine s e c t i o n , p. 2. A l s o , see " N i s e i Has E n g l i s h Night School For I s s e i s , " New Canadian, November 1, 1940, p. 3« The Japanese maintained a s t r o n g i n t e r e s t i n n i g h t s c h o o l c l a s s e s r i g h t up to the war. See "Ocean F a l l s Night School Convention S t r e s s e s Need For A d u l t Education," New Canadian, November 1, 1940. -55-employment a f t e r g r a d u a t i n g from h i g h school."^ Thus i t was t h a t N i s e i g i r l s came more and more to r e l y on p r i v a t e Japanese commercial s c h o o l s f o r v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . One of the more s u c c e s s f u l establishments was the Vancouver G i r l s ' C o l l e g e of P r a c t i c a l A r t s on Alexander S t r e e t . Mrs. Shinobu, the C o l l e g e ' s P r i n c i p a l , l i k e d t o t h i n k of her s c h o o l as some-t h i n g more than a mere t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n : Not the mere t e a c h i n g of p r a c t i c a l a r t s but r a t h e r the moulding of the g i r l s ' c h a r a c t e r s f i r s t , then i n s t r u c t i o n a long p r a c t i c a l l i n e s i s the aim of t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n . Nonetheless, the s c h o o l o f f e r e d t h r e e very p r a c t i c a l courses, a l l of which r e q u i r e d at l e a s t an elementary education f o r admission. C l a s s e s were conducted between nine and f o u r o'clock d u r i n g the day, f i v e days a week. The c u r r i c u l u m i n c l u d e d dressmaking, embroidery, f l o w e r making and a r r a n g i n g , deportment and cooking. Upon completion of a course, the s c h o o l granted diplomas which were r e c o g n i z e d by the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Labour. The s c h o o l ' s p o p u l a r i t y might be judged by the f a c t t h a t many students came from such remote communities 3 as Salmon Arm, Summerland, P r i n c e Rupert and Sunbury. 1 " N i s e i G i r l s Seek True V o c a t i o n s , " New Canadian, February 16, 1940, p. 3. 2 " N i s e i G i r l s ' C o l l e g e A f f o r d s Unique T r a i n i n g , " New Canadian, May 1, 1939, P- 6. Mrs. Shinobu a l s o taught an i n f o r m a l course on Japanese e t i q u e t t e and l i t e r a t u r e a p p r e c i a t i o n at the Powell U n i t e d n i g h t s c h o o l . See " I n t e r e s t Groups Rouse Enthusiasm," New Canadian, J u l y 31, 1940, p. 5« 3 I b i d . Other s u c c e s s f u l e n t e r p r i s e s i n c l u d e d the Academy of Domestic A r t s , the A n t o i n e t t e Y o s a i Gakuen, the Women's Sewing School and the M a r i e t t a School of Costume Design (with a branch i n S t e v e s t o n ) . None of these s c h o o l s o f f e r e d evening c l a s s e s except the Women's Sewing School. G e n e r a l l y , these i n s t i t u -t i o n s o f f e r e d programs designed t o i n t r o d u c e N i s e i g i r l s t o v a r i o u s aspects of garment making and thus t r a i n e d them f o r employment i n the c l o t h i n g industry."*" There i s no evidence t o prove t h a t the p r o v i n c i a l government o b j e c t e d t o Japanese commercial s c h o o l s as i t d i s -approved of Japanese language s c h o o l s . However, one might suspect t h a t the government was c l o s e l y watching the sch o o l s f o r p o s s i b l e i n f r i n g e m e n t of p r o v i n c i a l r e g u l a t i o n s . ^ In 1940, the L e g i s l a t u r e passed a motion which gave the govern-ment power t o c a n c e l s c h o o l l i c e n s e s f o r the c o n t r a v e n t i o n of 3 e x i s t i n g s t a t u t e s . The f o l l o w i n g year, the government gained the a u t h o r i t y t o r e g u l a t e t e x t s , t e a c h e r s and the means of 4 i n s t r u c t i o n i n a l l "trade s c h o o l s . " I t might be surmised 1 See the f o l l o w i n g a r t i c l e s i n the New Canadian; "Sewing School Marks A n n i v e r s a r y , " March 1, 1940, p. 5; "Designing — An A r t and P r o f e s s i o n , " August 7, 1940, p. 6; " M a r i e t t a School of Costume Design" and "Women's Sewing School on East H a s t i n g s , " August 21, 1940, p. 4. 2 See B.C., S t a t u t e s (1939), c. 54-3 B.C., S t a t u t e s (1940), c. 24. 4 B.C., S t a t u t e s (1941-1942), p. 46. - 5 7 -t h a t t h i s l a t t e r a c t i o n was d i r e c t e d towards the Japanese. Perhaps the s i n g l e most important Japanese i n s t i t u t i o n was the language s c h o o l . Although C h r i s t i a n churches made con c e r t e d e f f o r t s t o a c c u l t u r a t e them, most of the Japanese c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r r e s i d e n c e i n Canada to be temporary as they someday hoped to r e t u r n t o Japan. Thus, i t was important t h a t Japanese c h i l d r e n r e t a i n the language and customs of the o l d country s i n c e t h e i r parents d i d "not wish t h e i r sons and daughters to grow i g n o r a n t of i t s great h i s t o r y or d i s l o y a l t o i t s t r a d i t i o n s . " " ^ I f Japanese parents c o u l d not a f f o r d t o send t h e i r c h i l d r e n to Japan f o r an education, and the m a j o r i t y c o u l d not, other methods of p r o v i d i n g a Japanese education 2 needed to be found. A c c o r d i n g l y , the Japanese communities i n B r i t i s h Columbia e s t a b l i s h e d language s c h o o l s , the f i r s t of which was the K y o r i t s u Language School founded at Vancouver i n 3 1 9 0 6 . By 1 9 0 9 , t h i s s c h o o l ' s enrollment had grown t o 1 Henderson, "The Japanese i n B r i t i s h Columbia," p. 1 1 . 2 No exact f i g u r e s are a v a i l a b l e f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. One source c l a i m s t h a t between 1 9 1 0 and 1 9 3 0 about o n e - t h i r d of American Japanese c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d some education i n Japan. T h i s estimate seems somewhat high. See Dorothy Swaine Thomas, "The Japanese Americans," Understanding M i n o r i t y Groups, ed. Joseph B. G i t t l e r (New York: John W i l e y and Sons, 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 1 0 8 . 3 Tsutae Sato, H i s t o r y of the Vancouver Japanese Language  School ( p r i n t e d i n Japan, 1 9 5 4 ) , P» !• A l s o , s e e Report of the  Survey of the Second Generation Japanese In B r i t i s h Columbia (Vancouver: Canadian Japanese A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 3 5 ) , P' 1 5 ' In C a l i f o r n i a a C h r i s t i a n m i n i s t e r e s t a b l i s h e d the f i r s t Japanese language s c h o o l i n I896. See The Case f o r the N i s e i e i g h t y - f i v e p u p i l s . Other Vancouver language s c h o o l s were at 2 F a i r v i e w , Marpole and K i t s i l a n o and l a t e r , i n the East-end. Outside Vancouver, t h e r e were language s c h o o l s at Steveston, i n the F r a s e r and Okanagan V a l l e y s , on Vancouver 3 I s l a n d and i n many no r t h e r n c o a s t a l s e t t l e m e n t s . By 192 3, the sc h o o l s e n r o l l e d 797 Japanese students while by 1927 t h i s had 4 r i s e n t o 3,752. The Vancouver Language School had t h i r t y ( S a l t Lake C i t y : Japanese American C i t i z e n s ' League, 1954), P- 22. 1 L a v e l l , O r i e n t a l M i s s i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, p. 16. 2 Evidence f o r these s c h o o l s appeared i n the f o l l o w i n g a r t i c l e s i n the New Canadian: " N i s e i s Take Part i n School Bazaar," November 3, 1939, p. 4; "Town T o p i c s , " November 10, 1939, p» 4; " P a t r i o t i c S e r v i c e s Now Winding Up," November 15, 1940, p. 1; " F a i r v i e w School Marks A n n i v e r s a r y , " September 25, 1940, p. 1. 3 There were Japanese s c h o o l s at: Steveston, Hammond, Ocean F a l l s , Sunbury, Chemainus, Summerland, Woodfibre, Langley, Nanaimo, M i s s i o n , Surrey, A l b e r n i , Coombs, Duncan, Rutland, P r i n c e Rupert and V i c t o r i a . Evidence f o r these s c h o o l s appeared i n the f o l l o w i n g a r t i c l e s of the New Canadian: "Advertisement," May 27, 1939, p. 4; " S h i c h i r o Suzuki, former Ocean F a l l s Japanese Language School P r i n c i p a l now r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o r Kokusai Bunkai S h i n k o k a i , " August 1, 1939, p. 1; "Language School Confab i n Chemainus," November 3, 1939, p. 4; "Guest Speaker at Sunbury S c h o o l , " June 6, 1939, p. 4; "Summerland S a l l i e s , " J u l y 1, 1939, P- 4; " N i s e i News From Here And There In B.C.," October 20, 1939, P- 7; " N i s e i News From Here And There In B.C.," March 15, 1940, p. 5; "Woodfibre Scene of Teachers Confab," A p r i l 24, 1940, p. 1; "Language Schools Seek Government Approval," March 7, 1941, p. I j " N i s e i News From Here and There i n B.C.," December 15, 1939, p. 6; " V i c t o r i a School Honors Teachers," October 31, 1941, p. 7. 4 "Language Schools Are E s s e n t i a l , " New Canadian, May 27, 1939, P' 4« In 1939, t h e r e were f o r t y - s e v e n Japanese language s c h o o l s throughout Canada, the m a j o r i t y of which were i n B r i t i s h Columbia. -59-t e a c h e r s and 1,000 p u p i l s i n 1939• By t h a t same year the A s s o c i a t i o n of Japanese Language School Graduates i n B r i t i s h Columbia, a group which o f t e n sought t i e s with p u b l i c s c h o o l 2 o f f i c i a l s , had over 1,000 members on i t s r o l e s . Expansion of the Japanese language s c h o o l s and t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s c o ntinued u n t i l the b e g i n n i n g of the war, although i n some i n s t a n c e s language c l a s s e s were h e l d i n p u b l i c s c h o o l a f t e r r e g u l a r hours. T h i s happened at Steveston, Ocean F a l l s and M i s s i o n 3 a f t e r s c h o o l board p e r m i s s i o n had been obtained. The accomplishments of the Vancouver Language School were p a r t i c u l a r l y noteworthy. In 1939, the s c h o o l awarded e i g h t year diplomas t o s e v e n t y - e i g h t students; n i n e t y - t h r e e graduated from the s c h o o l d i v i s i o n ( r e q u i r i n g s i x years of s t u d y ) ; and seventeen r e c e i v e d c e r t i f i c a t e s s i g n i f y i n g a l a n -guage standar d e q u i v a l e n t to t h a t of the Middle School i n Japan 1 "Language Schools Are E s s e n t i a l , " New Canadian, May 27, 1939, p. 4. 2 "School S p i r i t Moves Gakuyukai," New Canadian, May 27, 1939, p. 4 and " K i t s i l a n o Donates to Henry Hudson School," New Canadian, November 22, 1940, p. 1. A l s o , s e e "Strathcona P r i n c i p a l Urges N i s e i L o y a l t y , " New Canadian, December 6, 1940, p. 1. 3 See the f o l l o w i n g newspaper accounts: "Gakuen C e l e b r a t e s Triumph of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , " New Canadian, September 15, 1939, p. 7; "Japanese to Open Part-Time C l a s s e s i n Native Tongue," Pr o v i n c e , February 11, 1926, p. 14; and "Big P a r t i n B.C.'s School L i f e i s Played by Japanese Group," P r o v i n c e , December 27, 1937, p. 2. -60-(or comparable to j u n i o r h i g h school)."*" The f o l l o w i n g year, the s c h o o l awarded 194 diplomas and c e r t i f i c a t e s w h i l e , at the 2 same time, g r a n t i n g s e v e n t y - e i g h t s c h o l a s t i c awards. Perhaps the most remarkable achievement of the Vancouver Japanese Language School was b e f o r e 1920. Because so many young Japanese c h i l d r e n were so i l l - e q u i p p e d t o d i r e c t l y enter the p u b l i c s c h o o l system, the language s c h o o l o f f e r e d a com-p l e t e education i n the primary grades. Although Japanese was the language of i n s t r u c t i o n the s c h o o l o f f e r e d E n g l i s h as a second language. A f t e r the F i r s t World War more Japanese c h i l d r e n began e n r o l l i n g i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s . In 1920, the sc h o o l dropped most of i t s Japanese course content and concen-t r a t e d on i n s t r u c t i o n i n the Japanese language. For the time being, the s c h o o l decided t o r e t a i n E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n so t h a t the p u p i l s might b e t t e r a d j u s t t o the p u b l i c s c h o o l system. D e s p i t e some p a r e n t a l o b j e c t i o n s , the P r i n c i p a l of the s c h o o l recommended t h a t language c l a s s e s be h e l d a f t e r r e g u l a r s c h o o l hours. Thus the r o l e of the language s c h o o l changed from one which s u b s t i t u t e d f o r p u b l i c s c h o o l education t o one which 1 "Graduates Win Diplomas," New Canadian, A p r i l 1, 1939? p. 5-2 "Eighty-two Graduates Win Diplomas," New Canadian, March 29, 1940, p. 3. For 1941, see "Gakuyukai Greets 1941 Grad Crop," New Canadian, A p r i l 11, 1941, P» 5« -61-suppiemented i t . Only on a couple of o c c a s i o n s d i d Japanese language s c h o o l s r e c e i v e any p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n b e f o r e 1940. During the 1907 Vancouver r i o t s a mob of whites t r i e d u n s u c c e s s f u l l y t o 2 burn down the Vancouver Japanese Language School. I t i s un-c l e a r whether the s c h o o l was an o b j e c t of s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n d u r i n g the d i s t u r b a n c e s or whether i t was a t t a c k e d j u s t l i k e other Japanese p r o p e r t y . In 192 6 the a r r i v a l of f o u r Japanese immigrants who supposedly were to i n s t r u c t at language schools caused a p u b l i c f u r o r . Dr. MacLean, the M i n i s t e r of Education, while i n v e s t i g a t i n g the s i t u a t i o n d i s c o v e r e d t h a t o n l y one of the f o u r immigrants was a t e a c h e r and t h a t the Japanese govern-ment had no " o f f i c i a l i n t e r e s t " i n the matter. L i k e l y , p u b l i c f e a r s t h a t Japanese language s c h o o l s might supplant the p u b l i c 3 s c h o o l s were completely unwarranted. 1 Most of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s from Grace Yoshihara, "The Japanese Immigrants i n B r i t i s h Columbia: A Dual Experience, 1912-19 66" ( U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, u n p u b l i s h e d under-graduate paper, 1972). A t y p e s c r i p t copy of her f i n d i n g s i s wi t h Dr. Jorgen D a h l i e of the F a c u l t y of Education, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. A l s o , s e e Graham, "An I n v e s t i g a t i o n of the Japanese Presence i n Vancouver," p. 11 and M i t s u i , "The M i n i s t r y of the U n i t e d Church," p. 102. 2 "Chinese Buy Revolvers For Defence i n Case of R i o t s , " P r o v i n c e , September 9, 1907 , p. 1. A l s o , s e e Sugimoto, "The Vancouver R i o t s , " p. 135-3 See the f o l l o w i n g newspaper a r t i c l e s : "Watch School f o r Japanese," P r o v i n c e , February 10, 1926, p. 1; "Teachers From Japan To Be Watched C l o s e l y Says Hon. Dr. Maclean," C o l o n i s t , February 11, 1926, p. 5; "Japan Consulate Brands Teacher Story -62-By 1940, the concept of f o r e i g n language s c h o o l s had come under mounting c r i t i c i s m f o r h i n d e r i n g a c c u l t u r a t i o n . " ^ At f i r s t , the Japanese seemed unsure as t o how to count e r a c t the charge. One suggestion was to i n v i t e Canadian p u b l i c s c h o o l t e a c h e r s to v i s i t the Vancouver Language School so t h a t they might witness f o r themselves the s c h o o l ' s work. At the same time, s e v e r a l Japanese spokesmen encouraged the Japanese Language School A s s o c i a t i o n t o "make a conscious attempt to put a s i d e t h e i r h a b i t u a l r e s e r v e and to go half-way to i r o n 2 out d i f f i c u l t i e s . " Soon a f t e r , 100 Japanese language s c h o o l t e a c h e r s met to d i s c u s s p o s s i b l e means of surmounting growing 3 c r i t i c i s m . However, i t was not u n t i l November, 1940 t h a t concrete a c t i o n was proposed at another t e a c h e r s ' meeting at the Alexander S t r e e t School. The meeting's agenda c e n t e r e d on an a f f i r m a t i o n of l o y a l t y to Canada and a proposed i n v e s t i g a t i o n As Myth", C o l o n i s t , February 14, 1926, p. 1; and "Japanese Must L i v e Up To B.C. School Standard," Times, February 10, 1926, p. 1. 1 E a r l i e r , the Vancouver P r o v i n c e had come out i n p a r t i a l support of Japanese language s c h o o l s . However, the newspaper d i d not r e l i s h the i d e a of a l l Japanese c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g t o speak Japanese. See "Would Teach Japanese of B.C. T h e i r Own Language," P r o v i n c e , January 18, 1930, p. 24• 2 "Co-operation," New Canadian, May 8, 1940, p. 2. A l s o , s e e K a t i e T h i e s s e n , "Subjects -- But Not C i t i z e n s , " B.C. Teacher, XV, No. 10 (June, 1936), p. 14 and B.C.,Report of the P u b l i c  Schools (1928-29), P- R12. 3 "Woodfibre Scene of Teachers' Confab," New Canadian, A p r i l 24, 1940, p. 1. -63-of s c h o o l curriculum."'" The Japanese t e a c h e r s and t r u s t e e s , r e p r e s e n t i n g t w e n t y - f i v e s c h o o l s , were "unanimous i n up h o l d i n g the s t r i c t e s t adherence to the program of study, designed t o 2 i n c u l c a t e t r u e Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p i n the p u p i l s . " The cur-r i c u l u m i n the elementary grades was to c o n t a i n o n l y r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g , speaking and composition as time l i m i t a t i o n s p e r m i t t e d l i t t l e e l s e . A l s o , the delegates agreed to procure more s u i t a b l e t e x t s which were " i n l i n e with the l i f e and i n t e r e s t s 3 of the p u p i l s themselves and the Canadian scene." The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s s t a t e d t h a t the s c h o o l s were to re-emphasize Canadianism with a view to c r e a t i n g good c i t i z e n s . The Japanese concurred t h a t the p u b l i c s c h o o l was the l e a d i n g e d u c a t i o n a l f o r c e i n the community as i t promoted c i t i z e n s h i p f o r a l l c h i l d r e n . The consensus was t h a t the language s c h o o l s were duty bound t o promote b e t t e r understanding and co-opera-t i o n with groups concerned with education and, above a l l , with 4 the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . In a c o n c l u d i n g note, the delegates 1 "Japanese School T r u s t e e s To D i s c u s s L o y a l t y Stand," New  Canadian, November 15, 1940, P« !• 2 "Schools Uphold L o y a l t y to Canada," New Canadian, November 29, 1940, p. 1. 3 I b i d . 4 T h i s was o f t e n the case. See, f o r example, " N i s e i Give Union Jack t o Marpole S c h o o l , " New Canadian, June 12, 1941, -64-r e a f f i r m e d the u s e f u l n e s s of the language s c h o o l s . They were s t i l l v a l u a b l e as they undeniably c o n t r i b u t e d t o the i n t e l l e c -t u a l development of the c h i l d and, thus, helped to mold b e t t e r and s t r o n g e r character."*" The meeting of t e a c h e r s and t r u s t e e s was h e l d on the eve of an important p r o v i n c i a l government d e c i s i o n concerning language s c h o o l s . G. M. Weir, M i n i s t e r of Education, i n t r o -duced an amendment to the "School A c t " which gave the Department of Education the power to c l o s e language s c h o o l s where i n s t r u c t i o n was not s a t i s f a c t o r y . Moreover, s c h o o l s c o u l d only remain open with government p e r m i s s i o n . Needless to say, the Japanese f u l l y r e a l i z e d the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s impending l e g i s l a t i o n . ^ While the House debated the m e r i t s of the proposed amendment, the Japanese E d u c a t i o n a l S o c i e t y i s s u e d a p o l i c y statement which a f f i r m e d the primacy of the p u b l i c s c h o o l over the p r i v a t e s c h o o l and which s t i p u l a t e d t h a t Canadianism was of c e n t r a l importance i n a l l Japanese language s c h o o l s . S t i l l c ontending t h a t language s c h o o l s were e s s e n t i a l t o the w e l l -b e i n g of the Japanese community, the S o c i e t y warned t h a t i t was " a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l t h a t no cause be given t o j u s t i f y 1 "Schools Uphold L o y a l t y To Canada," New Canadian, November 29, P. 1. 2 "Important L e g i s l a t i o n Due," New Canadian, November 29, 1940, p. 1. -65-the government s t e p p i n g i n to impose a r i g o r o u s and d i c t a t o r i a l s u p e r v i s i o n of the s c h o o l s . " Japanese community p r e s s u r e was to ensure a b s o l u t e conformity t o government regulations."*" When i n January, 1941? Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l began a lengthy debate over the presence of Japanese language s c h o o l s and recommended t h e i r a b o l i t i o n , the B r i t i s h Columbia Japanese Language A s s o c i a t i o n was quick to submit an explana-t o r y r e p o r t . The b r i e f denied the support of Japanese government fu n d i n g f o r the s c h o o l s s i n c e t u i t i o n f e e s covered a l l expenses. The use of ( f o r e i g n ) Japanese t e x t s was simply due to the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of o b t a i n i n g them l o c a l l y w h i le the c u r r i c u l a of the s c h o o l s d i f f e r e d v a s t l y from any course of s t u d i e s used i n Japan. Moreover, the A s s o c i a t i o n s t r e s s e d t h a t the Japanese found the s c h o o l s e s s e n t i a l f o r employment, 2 f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s and good c i t i z e n s h i p . 1 " L o y a l t y and Language," New Canadian, November 29, 1940, p. 2. A l s o , s e e " P a t r i o t i c S e r v i c e s Now Winding Up," New  Canadian, November 15, 1940, p. 1. 2 N o t i c e from Vancouver C i t y C l e r k t o Mayor J . W. C o r n e t t , Vancouver, January 14, 1941• The n o t i c e and the l e t t e r may be found i n the Vancouver C i t y A r c h i v e s . A l s o , see L e t t e r from Tsutae Sato t o Mayor J . W. C o r n e t t , Vancouver, January 16, 1941* A d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s i n the f o l l o w i n g news-paper a r t i c l e s : "School O f f i c i a l s Present Case To Mayor," New Canadian, January 17, 1941, p- 1; " C i t y C o u n c i l To Ask F e d e r a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n of Japanese Schools," Vancouver News-Heral d, January 14, 1941, P« 4; "Day i n a Japanese Language School i n Vancouver," Vancouver Sun, January 15, 1941, P- 26. "Alderman W i l s o n Demands I n v e s t i g a t i o n of Japanese Schools," P r o v i n c e , January 14, 1941, P» 5« -66-S h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r , t o counter charges by Vancouver Alderman H a l f o r d W ilson t h a t the Vancouver Japanese Language School h i n d e r e d a c c u l t u r a t i o n , t h r e e B r i t i s h Columbia Japanese Language A s s o c i a t i o n o f f i c i a l s appeared b e f o r e a s p e c i a l com-mi t t e e of C i t y C o u n c i l . The committee, composed of Aldermen Wilso n , Jones and Buscome and Mayor Co r n e t t , was t o i n v e s t i g a t e matters r e l a t i n g t o the Japanese Language School. The Japanese r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s s t a t e d t h a t t h e i r s c h o o l ' s textbooks were not t i n g e d with Japanese m i l i t a r i s m . N e i t h e r were they " i n i m i c a l t o Canadian thought and i d e a l s " s i n c e s c h o o l o f f i c i a l s d e l e t e d o b j e c t i o n a b l e p o r t i o n s b e f o r e the books were used. E f f o r t s t o p r i n t Canadian Japanese textbooks, as e a r l y as 1924, had f a i l e d because of a s c a r c i t y of funds. Because a l l the s c h o o l s were funded l o c a l l y l i t t l e money was l e f t f o r proper p r i n t i n g . Mr. T. Sato, the head of the Japanese group, added t h a t although attendance at language s c h o o l s was not compulsory, approximate-l y seventy percent of a l l s c h o o l age Japanese c h i l d r e n p a r t i c i p a t e d . Contrary to popular o p i n i o n , Sato d e c l a r e d , t h e r e was no medical evidence to show a r e l a t i o n s h i p between attendance and d e c l i n i n g h e a l t h i n Japanese children."*" 1 Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l , Minutes of the Meetings of Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l , Meeting of January 24, 1941- A l s o , c o n s u l t "Report of the S p e c i a l Committee re Japanese R e g i s t r a t i o n and Japanese Residents of the C i t y of Vancouver" (unpublished, Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l , January 24, 1941). For a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n , see " C i t y ' O r i e n t a l ' School Books Carr y Japanese War P i c t u r e s , " Sun, -67-Before the P r o v i n c i a l government c o u l d b r i n g i n i t s amendment t o the "School A c t , " the Japanese Language School A s s o c i a t i o n c o n t a c t e d A. J . W i l l i s , the Superintendent of Education. By f i l i n g a l l d e t a i l s c o n cerning p u p i l s and c u r r i -c u l a i n V i c t o r i a , the A s s o c i a t i o n made formal a p p l i c a t i o n t o conduct the Vancouver Japanese Language School. The A s s o c i a -t i o n even expressed i t s d e s i r e t o co-operate i n the r e g i s t r a -t i o n of p u p i l s by o f f e r i n g t o t r a n s l a t e any government forms i n t o Japanese. However, the Department r e p l y was h e l d u n t i l the Honourable G. M. Weir c o u l d r e t u r n from Ottawa. The A s s o c i a t i o n then approached p u b l i c s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s and the Department of Education t o seek t h e i r a i d i n p r i n t i n g new textbooks, a move unanimously approved i n a pr e v i o u s meeting of Japanese s c h o o l t e a c h e r s . The A s s o c i a t i o n proposed an e d i t o r i a l s t a f f of s i x members, one of which was to be a N i s e i . Funds t o t a l l i n g 5,000 d o l l a r s t o pay f o r re s e a r c h , c o m p i l a t i o n and t r a n s l a t i o n were t o be sought from January 25, 1941, p. 10 and "Japs Admit School Texts 'Not S u i t a b l e ' " , Sun, January 24, 1941, p. 15* "Plead School Issue Before C o u n c i l Committee," New Canadian, January 24, 1941, P« 1« C r i t i c s of the Japanese s c h o o l s c o n v e n i e n t l y f o r -got t h a t American textbooks were commonly employed i n Canadian p u b l i c s c h o o l s . See E d i t o r , "Foreign Textbooks i n Canadian Schools," Maclean's X L I I I , No. 13 ( J u l y 1, 1930), p. 4. 1 "School O f f i c i a l s Present Case t o Mayor," New Canadian, January 17, 1941, pp. 1, 4--68-p a r e n t a l and g e n e r a l p u b l i c donations."'" F o l l o w i n g the passage of the amendment t o the "School A c t " i n the House, the Superintendent of Education complimented the Japanese on t h e i r prompt a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r language s c h o o l permits. The Department of Education had r e c e i v e d twenty-two a p p l i c a t i o n s as of March, 1941• The Superintendent s t a t e d t h a t , although the Department had not r e f u s e d an a p p l i c a t i o n , a few were b e i n g delayed pending i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of complaints concerning the h e a l t h of Japanese c h i l d r e n . Department e n q u i r i e s t o l o c a l s c h o o l boards r e v e a l e d t h a t A l b e r n i , Coombs, Duncan and Rutland o b j e c t e d to l o c a l Japanese c h i l d r e n r e -c e i v i n g language s c h o o l t r a i n i n g . C h i e f l y , these o b j e c t i o n s showed concern f o r p o s s i b l e d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s on the h e a l t h 2 of the c h i l d r e n . S h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r , H a l f o r d Wilson who was a staunch 3 supporter of the Native Sons of B.C. charged o f f i c i a l s of the Vancouver Japanese Language School with r e f u s i n g t o produce 1 "Schools Plan New T e x t s , " New Canadian, January 31, 1941, p . l . 2 "Language Schools Seek Government App r o v a l , " New Canadian, March 7, 1941. P« 1. There were only a few s e r i o u s i n c i d e n t s i n v o l v i n g the language s c h o o l s d u r i n g t h i s time. For i n s t a n c e , a group of j u v e n i l e s p a i n t e d swastikas on the w a l l s of the Vancouver Japanese Language School. See "Swastikas On W a l l of B.C. Nippon S c h o o l , " P r o v i n c e , A p r i l 11, 1941- p. 11. 3 "Address to General J.C.C.L. S e s s i o n , " New Canadian, Novem-ber 24, 1938, p. 2. -69-textbooks f o r C i t y C o u n c i l i n s p e c t i o n . School o f f i c i a l s p o i n t i n g out t h a t the textbooks i n q u e s t i o n were somewhat d i f f e r e n t from the ones c u r r e n t l y i n use, o f f e r e d to search f o r o r i g i n a l c o p i e s . At a subsequent meeting of C i t y C o u n c i l , Dr. H a r o l d White, D i r e c t o r of School H e a l t h S e r v i c e s r e p o r t e d : D a i l y o b s e r v a t i o n of these c h i l d r e n f o r many years had convinced h e a l t h workers t h a t i n g e n e r a l they are s u f f e r i n g from the o v e r - s t r a i n shown by the appearance of f a t i g u e and by i r r i t a b l e a c t i o n of the h e a r t . Of course, the Japanese suspected t h a t something e l s e b e s i d e s medical c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n s p i r e d White's r a t h e r shallow com-ments. But even when t a k i n g White's r e p o r t at f a c e v a l u e , some Japanese were of the o p i n i o n t h a t the " s t r a i n was worth the b e n e f i t s " f o r the s t r a i n "of burden was an i n e v i t a b l e p a r t of an immigrant's e f f o r t to a s s i m i l a t e . " At any r a t e , Japanese s c h o o l o f f i c i a l s soon began to welcome advic e from p u b l i c s c h o o l h e a l t h o f f i c i a l s on how t o l e s s e n p o s s i b l e 3 h e a l t h hazards. In May, 1941, Mr. Sato again appeared b e f o r e a committee of Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l . He assured t h a t Japanese 1 "Health O f f i c e r Reports O v e r - S t r a i n , " New Canadian, A p r i l 18, 1941, P- 1. 2 I b i d . , and "Japanese Language Schools Termed Detriment To H e a l t h , " P r o v i n c e , A p r i l , 16, 1941, P« 13-3 "The S t r a i n of Language Sc h o o l s , " New Canadian, A p r i l 18, 1941, p. 4--70-textbooks omitted " o b j e c t i o n a b l e f e a t u r e s " and proposed r e g u l a r medical and d e n t a l i n s p e c t i o n of Japanese p u p i l s . A Dr. Uchida who had accompanied Sato admitted t h a t i n some i n s t a n c e s Japanese c h i l d r e n s u f f e r e d from s t r a i n but, he s t a t e d , i n ex-treme cases he a d v i s e d them not t o a t t e n d the language school."*" In l a t e May of 1941, the C i t y C o u n c i l committee brought forward f i v e recommendations c o n c e r n i n g the Vancouver Japanese Language School. These were: the appointment of a -school t r u s t e e s e l e c t e d by the School Board to a s s i s t the Japanese Language School A s s o c i a t i o n ; a P r o v i n c i a l Department of H e a l t h i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the e f f e c t s of language s c h o o l attendance on h e a l t h ; Department of Education approval of t e x t s to ensure t h a t s u b j e c t matter was of i n t e r e s t t o a l l Canadians; the i n t r o d u c t i o n of completely new t e x t s as r a p i d l y as p o s s i b l e ; and the appointment of N i s e i r a t h e r than n a t i v e born Japanese t o s t a f f p o s i t i o n s . In p a r t , the recommendations were based on s e v e r a l Japanese submissions.^ The committee's suggestions seemed q u i t e reasonable to the Japanese but H a l f o r d W i l s o n , i n renewed v e r b a l onslaughts, demonstrated h i s complete d i s a p p r o v a l . However, C i t y C o u n c i l 1 "Aldermen D i s c u s s H e a l t h , Textbooks," New Canadian, May 2, 1941, P. 1. 2 "School Report T r e a t s Teachers, Texts, H e a l t h , " New  Canadian, May, 28, 1941, P* !• -71-was b e g i n n i n g t o weary of Wilson's t i r a d e s . Alderman John Bennett became so annoyed w i t h Wilson's w i l d a c c u s a t i o n s t h a t he h e a t e d l y t o l d Wilson: C i t y C o u n c i l w i l l support l e g i t i m a t e t h i n g s , but not the k i n d of p o l i t i c a l propaganda you keep s h o o t i n g o f f here.^ The c o n t r o v e r s y surrounding the language s c h o o l s brought about a c u r i o u s r e a c t i o n i n the Japanese community. For the most p a r t , former graduates defended the i n s t i t u t i o n s but some Japanese v o i c e d d i s a p p r o v a l of the s c h o o l s . Undoubtedly, t h i s was an attempt by only a few Japanese t o d i s a s s o c i a t e them-s e l v e s from an i n s t i t u t i o n which the p u b l i c c o n s i d e r e d t o be un-Canadian; a charge never proven. One student commented: G l a n c i n g back over my adolescent y e a r s , which I so r e l u c t a n t l y spent -- an hour or two, t h a t i s — i n t r a c i n g the i n t r i c a t e c h a r a c t e r s , i n mouthing p a r r o t - l i k e , the sounds which were emitted from the l i p s of the i n s t r u c t o r . I t h i n k how f u t i l e , how wasted were the t e a c h e r ' s e f f o r t s as f a r as I am concerned. For n o t h i n g very much remains but a ' c o n d i t i o n e d ' a l l e r g y t o the study of Japanese language, which p e r s i s t s t o t h i s day . . . . L e a r n i n g l i t t l e and c a r i n g l e s s , the former student claimed t h a t d i s o r d e r and d i s r e s p e c t f o r the t e a c h e r s had been common 1 "Wilson Charged With P o l i t i c a l Propaganda," New Canadian, August 15, 1941, P« 4- C i t y C o u n c i l c o u l d not r e a l l y be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as anti-Japanese. With the e x c e p t i o n of H a l f o r d W i l s o n , C o u n c i l members i n c l u d i n g Mayors Corn e t t and T e l f o r d were g e n e r a l l y on good terms with the Japanese community. See " N i s e i s , R i s e t o Challenge.' Says Mayor," New Canadian, October 25, 1940, p. 1. 2 "Schools Uphold L o y a l t y t o Canada," New Canadian, January 17, 1941, p. 5--72-o c c u r r e n c e s . A l l i n a l l , the study of Japanese proved to be "remote and c o n f u s i n g . " Indeed, "the e x p l o i t s of o l d heroes . . . were as i n t e l l i g i b l e . . . as French would be to an Eskimo." The student concluded t h a t : " I f we have b u i l t up a s t r o n g p r e j u d i c e of d i s l i k e f o r what we c o u l d not comprehend, then the f a u l t i s not e n t i r e l y and wholly ours. ""*" Throughout the f u r o r , the Japanese newspaper, the New Canadian, v a c i l l a t e d between s u p p o r t i n g the s c h o o l s and d i s a p p r o v i n g of them. In one a r t i c l e , the New Canadian d e c l a r e d t h a t i t was no l o n g e r an i s s u e whether the Vancouver Japanese Language School was a "hot-bed" of Mikadoism: I t [was] now a foregone c o n c l u s i o n among s o c i o l o g i s t s t h a t the s c h o o l s p r o v i d e only fundamental knowledge of rea d i n g , w r i t i n g and composition i n the Japanese language and the c h i e f medium of e x p r e s s i o n of the Canadian-born Japanese [was] the E n g l i s h language.„ 2 The e d i t o r conceded t h a t double s c h o o l i n g might have had some e f f e c t on the h e a l t h of Japanese c h i l d r e n . Moreover, the paper d e c l a r e d t h a t the o r i g i n a l purpose of the language s c h o o l was no longer v a l i d . No l o n g e r was i t the case t h a t Canadian Japanese needed the language s c h o o l s t o o b t a i n employment. A common language between the I s s e i and N i s e i c o u l d not b r i n g 1 "Schools Uphold L o y a l t y t o Canada," New Canadian, January 17, 1941, P- 5-2 " Language Schools," New Canadian," A p r i l 1, 1939, P- 2. -73-t o an end the "deep-rooted i d e o l o g i c a l and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s " between the f i r s t and second g e n e r a t i o n s . The r o l e of the language s c h o o l o b v i o u s l y r e q u i r e d r e d e f i n i t i o n . The New Canadian proposed a n o v e l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n which was somewhat h e r e t i c a l to the I s s e i : One s o l u t i o n l i e s i n the c r e a t i o n of a s p e c i a l i z e d academy, open only t o the g i f t e d , r e g a r d l e s s of race, and a f f o r d i n g the key to the v a s t c u l t u r a l and a r t i s t i c storehouse of Japan. Of course, o p p o s i t i o n t o t h i s s uggestion was q u i c k l y forthcoming. Some Japanese d e c l a r e d t h a t employment s t i l l depended on the a c q u i s i t i o n of the Japanese language. But other Japanese c r i t i c i z e d the p r o p o s a l from a d i f f e r e n t p o i n t of view. And i t was t h i s c r i t i c i s m , the work of a few Japanese, which gave anti-Japanese a g i t a t o r s more m a t e r i a l f o r t h e i r hate campaign. One Japanese wrote: An open language s c h o o l might work i f the f e l l o w Canadians of other races understood the Japanese language. But even so, can he rec o g n i z e and comprehend the r e a l s o u l of Japan, and of the Japanese people, the Japanese way of l o o k i n g at t h i n g s ; a l l of which i s a b s o l u t e l y necessary to a c q u i r e the c u l t u r a l background and knowledge of Japan? D e f i n i t e l y not. But N i s e i s who have a s t r o n g r a c i a l t i e with Japan can.' The a c q u i s i t i o n of the c u l t u r a l and a r t i s t i c background of Japan would come hand i n hand with the understanding of the t r u e s o u l of Japan . . . . 1 "Language Schools," New Canadian, A p r i l 1, 1939, p. 2. A few non-Japanese students attended the Vancouver Japanese Language School i n the 1930's. See Yoshihara's manuscript. 2 " L e t t e r s t o the E d i t o r , " New Canadian, May 15, 1939, p. 2. -74-Thus, the w r i t e r h e l d the Japanese t o be d i s t i n c t as a race. Whites, he claimed, c o u l d never r e a l l y understand the Japanese. By m a i n t a i n i n g t h a t the b a s i s f o r understanding Japan was r a c i a l , the w r i t e r r e i t e r a t e d the stand taken by Japanese pro-t a g o n i s t s . The l a c k of a c c u l t u r a t i o n evidenced here was by f a r the e x c e p t i o n and h a r d l y the r u l e . In 1940, the M i n i s t e r of Education moved to b r i n g a l l language s c h o o l s under d i r e c t s u p e r v i s i o n and thus a v o i d any 1 p u b l i c c r i t i c i s m . However, i t was not u n t i l December, 1941 t h a t the Department of Education assumed f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the s c h o o l s i n a move "designed to guard a g a i n s t p o s s i b l e s u b v e r s i v e t e a c h i n g . . . . I t p r o v i d e s f o r i n s p e c t i o n of the s c h o o l s by o f f i c e r s of the department and s u p e r v i s i o n of the 2 c u r r i c u l u m . " A few days l a t e r , the government dec i d e d t o c l o s e down the Japanese language s c h o o l s , an a c t i o n which sent shock through the whole Japanese community except, perhaps, f o r 3 the very young N i s e i who c e l e b r a t e d the h o l i d a y . I t was 1 K e e n l e y s i d e , S p e c i a l Committee On O r i e n t a l s In B.C., p. 15. 2 "Education Department Gets C o n t r o l Over Language Schools," New Canadian, December 8, 1941, P» 5« 3 See the f o l l o w i n g newspaper accounts: "R.C.M.P. C l o s e A l l Japanese Schools and Newspapers i n P r o v i n c e , " P r o v i n c e , Decem-ber 8, 1941, P- 6; "B.C. Japanese Schools Banned," P r o v i n c e , December 10, 1941, P- 30; "Japanese Schools To C l o s e In B.C.," C o l o n i s t , December 11, 1941, P- 2; "Loss of Language Papers Severe Blow But Ki d s R e j o i c e In School C l o s u r e , " New Canadian, December 12, 1941, p. 5» -75-r a t h e r i r o n i c t h a t a few weeks b e f o r e the c l o s u r e the Japanese language s c h o o l s had begun a campaign to r a i s e funds f o r the purchase of war savings stamps.^ For s e v e r a l Japanese t e a c h e r s , now without means of a l i v e l i h o o d , the s i t u a t i o n became par-t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t . Yet, on the whole, the Japanese accepted the government's d e c i s i o n r a t h e r f a t a l i s t i c a l l y . The New 2 Canadian c o u l d only make the t e r s e comment: "War i s grim." The Japanese r e a l i z e d t h a t the prospect f o r reopening the s c h o o l s was s l i g h t as, "The longer the war drag[ged] on, the f a i n t e r w i l l be the chances f o r a wholesale r e v i v a l of the 3 s c h o o l s . " Even though the government had c l o s e d the language s c h o o l s i t had never been proven t h a t they were un-Canadian or, f o r t h a t matter, d i r e c t l y h i n d e r e d a c c u l t u r a t i o n . Rather, j u s t the o p p o s i t e came to l i g h t . One man was l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the e x c e l l e n t records of the language s c h o o l s . T h i s was Tsutae Sato, P r i n c i p a l df the Vancouver Japanese Language School. He was a t i r e l e s s worker whose numerous t o u r s and guest appearances at language s c h o o l s throughout the p r o v i n c e 1 "Japanese C h i l d r e n Buy War Savings Stamps," New Canadian, November 21, 1941, p. 1. 2 "Loss of Language Papers Severe Blow But Kids R e j o i c e In School C l o s u r e , " New Canadian, December 12, 1941, p. 5« 3 "Marginal Notes," New Canadian, December 20, 1941, P« 3. -76-ensured t h a t unanimity and o r g a n i z a t i o n would always be p r e s e n t . ^ But more i m p o r t a n t l y , Sato made i t c l e a r t h a t the Vancouver School was an agent of a c c u l t u r a t i o n which s t r o v e t o i n c u l c a t e Canadian customs and i d e a l s : Sometimes I am accused of t e a c h i n g my students t h i n g s t h a t are i n i m i c a l t o Canadian thoughts and i d e a l s . I always s t r i v e f o r one g o a l t h a t the N i s e i might become a good Canadian C i t i z e n , t h a t h i s c i t i z e n s h i p w i l l be a broad and t o l e r a n t one, one t h a t has a breadth of v i s i o n , a c e r t a i n cosmopolitanism. T h i s remarkable man's i n t e r e s t s extended beyond the sphere of the Vancouver Japanese Language School to i n c l u d e a concern f o r the community at l a r g e . In 1941, with the endorse-ment of the U n i v e r s i t y Board of Governors, he e s t a b l i s h e d a l o a n fund f o r needy u n i v e r s i t y students r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r race. Sato d i d t h i s as " i t was h i s wish t o a s s i s t needy students i n view of h i s l o n g years of experience as an educa-t i o n a l i s t , and as an e x p r e s s i o n of g r a t i t u d e f o r the p r i v i l e g e s 3 of e n j o y i n g the b e n e f i t s of Canadian democratic i n s t i t u t i o n s . " 1 "Lecture Tour Huge Success," New Canadian, December 29, p. 4- A l s o , s e e "Language School Confab i n Chemainus," New  Canadian, November 3, 1939, P« 4« 2 "Cosmopolitanism Teacher's Creed," New Canadian, A p r i l 15, 1939, p. 3* A l s o , see Jorgen D a h l i e , "Some Aspects of the Education of M i n o r i t i e s : The Japanese i n B.C., Lost Opportuni-t y ? " B.C. S t u d i e s , No. 8 (Winter, 1970-71), p. 7. 3 "U.B.C. Accepts Loan Fund From P r i n c i p a l T. Sato," New Canadian, February 7, 1941, P* !• - 7 7 -Th e esteem with which the Japanese community h e l d Sato was r e f l e c t e d by t h i s comment i n the New Canadian: Years of t e a c h i n g have gi v e n Mr. Sato the o p p o r t u n i t y t o i d e n t i f y h i m s e l f i n t i m a t e l y and c o n s t r u c t i v e l y i n the f u t u r e of w e l l over a thousand N i s e i graduates, and through them, i n the e n t i r e second g e n e r a t i o n . K i n d l y , p a t i e n t , understanding, and i n l o v e with h i s work, the P r i n c i p a l has been admirably f i t t e d f o r the u n i q u e l y d i f f i c u l t t a s k of not merely t e a c h i n g , but r a t h e r of g u i d i n g a g e n e r a t i o n of growing boys and g i r l s through the t o r t u o u s maze t h a t always accompanies the adjustment of a f o r e i g n t o a n a t i v e c u l t u r e . , 1 " P r i n c i p a l T. Sato," New Canadian, J u l y 11, 1941, p. 2. A l s o , s e e "Japanese School Heads Honored At Banguet," New  Canadian, September 15, 1939, P- !• CHAPTER IV THE PUBLIC SCHOOL While churches and Japanese i n s t i t u t i o n s were v i t a l f a c t o r s i n the a c c u l t u r a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia's Japanese, an e q u a l l y i f not more important r o l e i n a c c u l t u r a t i o n belonged to t h a t of the p u b l i c s c h o o l . I n i t i a l l y , the p u b l i c d i d not p r o t e s t a g a i n s t the presence of O r i e n t a l s i n the s c h o o l system. Indeed, i t was l i k e l y t h a t t h e r e were too few O r i e n t a l students t o a t t r a c t much a t t e n t i o n . T h i s i s not t o say t h a t the O r i e n t a l presence had l i t t l e e f f e c t on the p u b l i c s c h o o l s . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , the "Report of the P r i n c i p a l f o r the Nanaimo Boys' P u b l i c S c h o o l " i n 1888 p o i n t e d out t h a t e f f o r t s to exclude the Chinese from the mines at Nanaimo had c r e a t e d a s e r i o u s l a b o r shortage. A l a r g e number of youths, ten t o f o u r t e e n y e ars of age, having been induced by o f f e r s of immediate employment dropped out of the Nanaimo School."*" I t was not u n t i l I898 t h a t an O r i e n t a l became prominent i n a B r i t i s h Columbia p u b l i c s c h o o l . In t h a t year, Yeen Mun 1 B.C., Seventeenth Annual Report of the P u b l i c Schools In  The P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia; 1887-1888 ( V i c t o r i a : Govern-ment P r i n t e r , 1888), p. 199 ( H e r e i n a f t e r c i t e d as B.C., Report  of the P u b l i c Schools.) -79-i n the n i n t h d i v i s i o n at the Vancouver East School was the winner of the P u n c t u a l i t y and R e g u l a r i t y Award. Mee Yung, a school-mate, captured the P r o f i c i e n c y Award. In the same year, Tom Ah Sue i n the f i r s t d i v i s i o n at the New Westminster 2 Boys' School r e c e i v e d the Deportment Award. In 1902, Peter Hing passed the midsummer hig h s c h o o l entrance examination and 3 l a t e r graduated from the V i c t o r i a Boys' C e n t r a l School. Although exact f i g u r e s were not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e , approximate-l y twelve Chinese s u c c e s s f u l l y e n t e r e d high s c h o o l and at l e a s t 4 f o u r graduated b e f o r e 1910. The f i r s t Japanese student to r e c e i v e o f f i c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n f o r s c h o l a s t i c endeavour was Tsnuezo Tanaka, 1 B.C., Report of the P u b l i c Schools (1896-97), Appendix B, p. x c v i i . 2 I b i d . , Appendix B, p. xxxix. 3 Report of the P u b l i c Schools (1901-02), Appendix B, p. x c v i i ; (1903-04), Appendix A, p. x c i x . In f a c t , many Chinese were f a i r l y s u c c e s s f u l at s c h o o l . In 1903, Edna E. Chew and Valma C. Chew from the Vancouver Dawson School and F l o y I. Fooshee from the Vancouver Strathcona School passed t h e i r h i g h s c h o o l entrance exams. Edna Chew l a t e r graduated from the Vancouver Centre High School i n 1905. See B.C., Report of the  P u b l i c Schools (1902-03), Appendix B, pp. c i , c i i ; (1904-05), Appendix A, p. c i v . 4 R e l i a b l e f i g u r e s are not given f o r two reasons: f i r s t l y , even a c u r s o r y examination of the B.C., Reports of the P u b l i c  Schools (1893^1909) shows them to be i n a c c u r a t e and incomplete; and, secondly, the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Chinese names proves to be d i f f i c u l t without c o r r o b o r a t i v e data. -80-a Cumberland r e s i d e n t , who passed h i s midsummer examinations i n 1903.^ S h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r , Japanese names r e g u l a r l y began to appear i n o f f i c i a l r o l e s . H a t t i e Uchida, H i s a s h i Hata, and Hozo Taka from the Strathcona School passed t h e i r h i g h s c h o o l 2 entrance exams i n 1905 and became the f i r s t Japanese to graduate from the Strathcona School. The f o l l o w i n g year, K a t s u j i Oya, a l s o from the Strathcona School, passed h i s h i g h 3 s c h o o l entrance exams. A l l t o l d , s i x Japanese en t e r e d high s c h o o l while t h r e e graduated b e f o r e 1909. Except f o r one student, the Japanese concerned attended e i t h e r Vancouver or 4 Sapperton s c h o o l s . At t h i s p o i n t , the presence of the Japanese i n the s c h o o l s began to arouse.some concern. Although t h e r e was l i t t l e chance of an immediate i n f l u x of Japanese students, James H. Hawthornthwaite, Member of the L e g i s l a t u r e f o r Nanaimo, proposed the establishment of a separate s c h o o l 1 B.C., Report of the P u b l i c Schools (1902-03), Appendix B, p. c. 2 B.C., Report of the P u b l i c Schools (1904-05), Appendix A, pp. c v i i , c x i ; "Dear O l d Golden Rule Days....," New Canadian, February 21, 1941, p. 1. 3 B.C., Report of the P u b l i c Schools (1905-06), Appendix A, p. ex. 4 See f o o t n o t e s , 1-3• In 1907, O r i e n t a l students i n Van-couver s c h o o l s numbered no more than 150. See " O r i e n t a l s In C i t y Schools Do Not Exceed 150," P r o v i n c e , September 13, 1907, p. 1. -81-system f o r O r i e n t a l s . He claimed t h a t f o r c e d a s s o c i a t i o n with O r i e n t a l c h i l d r e n had a poor e f f e c t on white c h i l d r e n . Hawthornthwaite warned t h a t , i f the government d i d not soon take a c t i o n , the p u b l i c would of n e c e s s i t y take matters i n t o i t s own hands.^ The M i n i s t e r of Education d i d not r e a l l y oppose the p l a n but he d i d remind the L e g i s l a t u r e t h a t , i f i t amended the "School A c t " to e s t a b l i s h separate s c h o o l s , the Dominion government was l i k e l y t o i n t e r c e d e . However, under e x i s t i n g s t a t u t e s l o c a l s c h o o l boards possessed the a u t h o r i t y 2 to o r g a n i z e separate systems i f they so wished. 1 "Asks For Separate Schools For The O r i e n t a l s , " P r o v i n c e , February 9 , 1 9 1 0 , p. 8. 2 "Separate School P r o p o s a l Doomed," P r o v i n c e , February 2 1 , 1910, p. 1 . In 1 9 0 1 , the V i c t o r i a Trades and Labour C o u n c i l asked f o r segregated s c h o o l s f o r the Chinese but the sc h o o l board d e c l i n e d the request s i n c e t h e r e were on l y twenty Chinese students. Moreover, the board f e l t t h a t such a c t i o n might s e t a dangerous precedent. See B.C., Report of the P u b l i c Schools ( 1 9 0 1 - 0 2 ) , p. A 5 8 . However, i n 1 9 0 7 the V i c -t o r i a School Board attempted t o segregate the Chinese. See " V i c t o r i a t o Have E x c l u s i o n League," P r o v i n c e , September 5 , 1 9 0 7 , p. 1 2 . There was a separate Chinese s c h o o l at Rock Bay but i t c l o s e d i n 1 9 1 6 because the d e c r e a s i n g number of Chinese students no lon g e r j u s t i f i e d a separate t e a c h e r . See B.C., Report of the P u b l i c Schools ( 1 9 1 5-16), p. A 4 3 . In 1922, the V i c t o r i a School Board segregated Chinese c h i l d r e n i n the North Ward School. Thereupon, the Chinese withdrew t h e i r c h i l d r e n from the s c h o o l c l a i m i n g t h a t the measure was d i s c r i m i n a t o r y . Board o f f i c i a l s e x p l a i n e d t h a t the move was necessary because " p u p i l s of f o r e i g n e x t r a c t i o n with a d e f e c t i v e knowledge of E n g l i s h were r e t a r d i n g the progress of other p u p i l s . " A year l a t e r , the Chinese and the Board reached a compromise: Chinese with an adequate knowledge of E n g l i s h would remain i n r e g u l a r c l a s s e s ; other Chinese would remain segregated u n t i l such time as t h e i r c o n t r o l of the language improved. See B.C., Report of the P u b l i c Schools ( 1 9 2 2 - 2 3 ) , pp. F44 - 4 5 ; ( 1 9 2 3 - 2 4 ) , p. T67-- 8 2 -Although no s c h o o l board ever e x e r c i s e d i t s o p t i o n to maintain a separate s c h o o l , some sc h o o l s p l a c e d Japanese c h i l d r e n i n segregated c l a s s e s and, i n a few i n s t a n c e s , attempted to prevent Japanese students from registering."'" On March 2 6, 1919, a t e a c h e r from the Vancouver Japanese Language School l e d f o r t y Japanese c h i l d r e n t o the Strathcona School where he t r i e d to r e g i s t e r them. I t was not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t s c h o o l o f f i c i a l s d e c l i n e d t o do so s i n c e the unexpected a r r i v a l of such a l a r g e number of f o r e i g n students would have 2 taxed s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s . Another i n c i d e n t took p l a c e i n January, 1925. The Marpole School Board segregated O r i e n t a l s , i n c l u d i n g Japanese, i n a measure to overcome language d i f f i -c u l t i e s . ^  G e n e r a l l y speaking, p u b l i c i n t e r e s t over the Japanese i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s d i d not amount to much u n t i l 1925, the year the B r i t i s h Columbia Bureau of P u b l i c I nformation r e l e a s e d An i n t e r e s t i n g account of the attempt t o segregate the Chinese i s i n Boggs, "The O r i e n t a l on the P a c i f i c Coast," p. 321. 1 For a comparison w i t h the Japanese i n C a l i f o r n i a s c h o o l s , see W i l l i a m D. Stephens, " C a l i f o r n i a and the O r i e n t a l , " P a c i f i c  Review, I, No. 3 (December, 1920), p. 354 and Raymond L e s l i e B u e l l , "The Development of the Anti-Japanese A g i t a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , " P o l i t i c a l S cience Q u a r t e r l y , XXXVII, No. 4 (December, 1922), pp. 620-632. 2 M i t s u i , "The M i n i s t r y of the U n i t e d Church," p. 120. 3 I b i d . , p. 132. -83-i n f o r m a t i o n which claimed t h a t the Japanese School p o p u l a t i o n had i n c r e a s e d by s e v e n t y - f o u r percent i n t h r e e years. During the same p e r i o d , the number of white c h i l d r e n had i n c r e a s e d by o n l y s i x percent. The Bureau added the f o l l o w i n g statement: There i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t the great m a j o r i t y of these are not c h i l d r e n i n the sense i n which the world a p p l i e s to most immigrant r a c e s , but are p o t e n t i a l competitors i n i n d u s t r y from the moment of a r r i v a l . ^ In the same year, the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education began p u b l i s h i n g l i s t s of c h i l d r e n having f o r e i g n 2 p a r e n t s . In 1925-1926, t h e r e were 2,477 Japanese students out of a t o t a l s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n of 101,688. By 1927-1928, the number of Japanese students had climbed t o 3,273. The Japanese t o t a l c o n t i n u e d to grow u n t i l i t peaked at 5,573 i n 1937-38 but from here on i t showed a c o n t i n u a l decrease. What many c r i t i c s f a i l e d t o p o i n t out was t h a t between 1934-1941 the Japanese s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n remained f a i r l y constant. There were y e a r l y f l u c t u a t i o n s but the r a p i d enrollment g a i n evident i n the l a t e 1920's and e a r l y 1930's was an event of 3 the past. 1 B.C., B r i t i s h Columbia P u b l i c S e r v i c e B u l l e t i n ( V i c t o r i a : Bureau of P u b l i c Information, 1925), I I , No. 4, p. 64. 2 B.C., Report of the P u b l i c Schools (1925-26), p. R9. There was l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the number of Japanese c h i l -dren who were born i n Japan and who attended p u b l i c s c h o o l s . As l a t e as 1940, eleven elementary and two h i g h s c h o o l students who had been born i n Japan e n r o l l e d f o r the f i r s t time i n Van-couver s c h o o l s . See Report of the P u b l i c Schools (1940-41), pp. D64-65. 3 See Appendix I I . -84-Enrollment f i g u r e s f o r the Japanese showed t h a t i n 1926 t h e r e were 1,244 Japanese i n c i t y s c h o o l s , 951 i n muni-c i p a l s c h o o l s and 282 i n r u r a l s c h o o l s . T h e r e a f t e r , s t a t i s -t i c a l data became more d e t a i l e d but f a i l e d to c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e between r u r a l and urban students. Nonetheless, i t was evident t h a t u n t i l 1933 t h e r e was a balance between r u r a l and c i t y students. However, i n 1933 elementary schools i n r u r a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s showed a c o n s i d e r a b l e decrease i n Japanese c h i l d r e n . By 1941, Japanese enrollment i n r u r a l elementary s c h o o l s had dropped twenty-four percent from the 1932 l e v e l . On the other hand, c i t y enrollments decreased but at a r a t e below t h a t of the r u r a l municipalities."'" Japanese s c h o o l attendance was u s u a l l y h i g h e r i n urban r a t h e r than i n r u r a l d i s t r i c t s s i n c e prolonged attendance at the l a t t e r o f t e n i n v o l v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e economic s a c r i f i c e . ^ Many c i t i z e n s began to view i n c r e a s i n g Japanese s c h o o l enrollment with alarm when, i n 1927, the p r o v i n c i a l government warned of a p o s s i b l e menace posed by Japanese s c h o o l 1 See Appendix I I I . By f a r , the g r e a t e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n of Japanese s c h o o l c h i l d r e n was i n Vancouver. Comparative f i g u r e s f o r 1937 showed 792 Japanese p u p i l s i n Richmond, 350 i n Steves-t o n , 300 i n M i s s i o n , 400 i n Maple Ridge and 2,199 i n Vancouver. See "Big P a r t In B.C.'s School L i f e I s P l a y e d By Japanese Group," P r o v i n c e , December 27, 1937, p. 2. 2 Report of the Survey of the Second Generation Japanese i n  B r i t i s h Columbia (Vancouver: Canadian Japanese A s s o c i a t i o n , 1935), P- 11• For 1929 enrollment f i g u r e s on the number of O r i e n t a l students i n Vancouver I s l a n d r u r a l d i s t r i c t s c h o o l s , see B.C., J o u r n a l s (1929), pp. 73-74-c h i l d r e n . The f o l l o w i n g year, Theodore Davie, M.L.A. f o r V i c t o r i a C i t y , e x p l a i n e d t o the L e g i s l a t u r e t h a t t h e r e were 4,000 Japanese s c h o o l c h i l d r e n i n the p r o v i n c e — a f i g u r e which he i n f l a t e d . Davie a l l u d e d t o the Japanese b i r t h r a t e which, he claimed, was two and one-half times as great as the white b i r t h r a t e . A c c o r d i n g l y , he put forward a motion t o r e -p a t r i a t e the Japanese so t h a t t h e i r numbers i n B r i t i s h Columbia 2 would not exceed the number of Canadians i n Japan. Of course, i t was easy f o r a l a r m i s t s l i k e Davie t o form a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the hig h Japanese b i r t h r a t e and a l a r g e number of Japanese s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . Another such a l a r m i s t was Vancouver Alderman H a l f o r d W ilson who charged t h a t by 1968 o n e - t h i r d of Vancouver's p o p u l a t i o n would be Japanese. In view of the a l l e g e d " f a c t " t h a t the Japanese d i d not pay t h e i r f a i r share of s c h o o l c o s t s , the problem was p a r t i c u l a r l y s e r i o u s . W i lson prompted Vancouver c i t i z e n s t o demand immediate a c t i o n from the p r o v i n c i a l government and, at the same time, urged C i t y C o u n c i l t o r e s t r i c t Japanese t r a d e l i c e n s e s , a move which i m p e l l e d the New Canadian t o s t a t e : 1 B.C., Report On O r i e n t a l A c t i v i t i e s W i t h i n The Pr o v i n c e ( V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1927), P» 9. A l s o , see C h a r l e s E. Hope, " B r i t i s h Columbia's R a c i a l Problem," (P a r t I I ) , Maclean's, X L I I I , No. 4 (February 15, 1930), p. 4-2 B. C , J o u r n a l s (1928), pp. 176-177. -86-Apparently h i s only method of ens u r i n g t h a t O r i e n t a l parents pay more s c h o o l taxes i s to campaign f o r the r i g h t t o rob them of t h e i r l e g i t i m a t e r i g h t s t o earn a l i v i n g . ^ A p p a r e n t l y , Wilson d i d not care t o n o t i c e the d e c l i n i n g Japanese b i r t h r a t e which i n d i c a t e d an eventual decrease i n the Japanese s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s o v e r s i g h t brought the f o l l o w i n g comment from the Japanese: . . . s i n c e c h i l d r e n as a r u l e do not begin s c h o o l im-mediately a f t e r b i r t h , t h i s d e c l i n e i s not immediately n o t i c e a b l e i n f i g u r e s f o r sc h o o l r e g i s t r a t i o n . I t was d i f f i c u l t t o determine how Wilson a r r i v e d at h i s p r e d i c t i o n f o r 1968. L i k e l y , he took recent i n c r e a s e s i n Japanese s c h o o l e n r o l l m e n t s , converted them t o percentage i n -crea s e s and then compounded the percentages. The New Canadian expressed t h i s view i n the f o l l o w i n g comment: . . . he undoubtedly i s t r y i n g t o apply the laws of compound i n t e r e s t he l e a r n t i n h i s younger days as a bank c l e r k . Even then he cannot c l a i m the d o u b t f u l d i s t i n c t i o n of b e i n g the f i r s t man t o put f o r t h h i s theory t h a t human beings i n c r e a s e by g e o m e t r i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n . The o p i n i o n s of Davie and Wilson showed t h a t they h e l d the common view about Japanese f e c u n d i t y . G e n e r a l l y , people b e l i e v e d t h a t " i n f e r i o r " immigrants l i k e the Japanese posed a 1 "Alderman Wilson And His O r i e n t a l Menace," New Canadian, February 2, 1940, p. \. 2 I b i d . 3 I b i d . -87-t h r e a t to the n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n because " l o w e r - c l a s s r a c e s " c o u l d r e p l e n i s h t h e i r numbers at an alarming r a t e : The n a t i v e - b o r n p o p u l a t i o n , i n the s t r u g g l e t o keep up appearances i n the f a c e of i n c r e a s i n g c o m p e t i t i o n , f a i l s t o propagate i t s e l f , commits race s u i c i d e , i n s h o r t , whereas the immigration p o p u l a t i o n , being i n -f e r i o r , and having no appearances to keep up, propagates i t s e l f l i k e the f i s h of the sea.^ One w r i t e r f e l t t h a t the problem became even more s e r i o u s when one c o n s i d e r e d the r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l Anglo-Saxon 2 p o p u l a t i o n and the n a t u r a l f e c u n d i t y of a l l O r i e n t a l s . And of course, the A s i a t i c E x c l u s i o n League of Canada i n 1921 d i r e l y p r e d i c t e d t h a t , by 1928, Japanese b i r t h s would out-number those of a l l the white p o p u l a t i o n and t h a t B r i t i s h 3 Columbia would soon become a Japanese p r o v i n c e . Opponents of the Japanese so d i s t o r t e d many of the s t a t i s t i c s c o n cerning Japanese b i r t h s as to render them v i r -4 t u a l l y u s e l e s s f o r g a i n i n g accurate i n f o r m a t i o n . One c r i t i c 1 W. S. Wallace, "The Canadian Immigration P o l i c y , " Canadian  Magazine, XXX, No. 4 (February, 1908), p. 360. 2 Theodore H. Boggs, " O r i e n t a l P e n e t r a t i o n and B.C.," I n t e r -n a t i o n a l Forum Review, I, No. 3 ( J u l y , 1926), p. 15- A l s o , s e e Boggs, "The O r i e n t a l On The P a c i f i c Coast," p. 318. 3 The League (Vancouver: A l l i e d P r i n t i n g , 1921), p. 1. 4 For i n s t a n c e , the P r o v i n c i a l government pu r p o r t e d the 1929 Japanese b i r t h r a t e as 40 per 1,000. A c t u a l l y , the c o r r e c t f i g u r e was 37-5 per 1,000. T h i s e r r o r was p o i n t e d out i n Tolmie, "The O r i e n t a l s i n B.C." p. 48. -88-p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e r e were twenty Japanese b i r t h s r e g i s t e r e d i n 1910 while i n 1920-1921 t h e r e were 803 r e g i s t e r e d . That, s a i d the c r i t i c , was an i n c r e a s e of 3,915 percent i n Japanese b i r t h s i n only t en years.' Another Japanese opponent, a f t e r h i n t i n g t h a t the Japanese were c o n c e a l i n g the a c t u a l number of b i r t h s , s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e were 1,485 Japanese b i r t h s r e g i s t e r e d i n 1928. In f a c t , t h i s was t r u e . However, he f a i l e d t o mention t h a t t h e r e were only 771 Japanese who were a c t u a l l y born a l i v e and r e g i s t e r e d i n t h a t same year. The pr e v i o u s f i g u r e , 1,485, i n c l u d e d s t i l l b i r t h s and some b i r t h s 2 not r e g i s t e r e d i n p r e v i o u s years. Sometimes, anti-Japanese p r o t a g o n i s t s simply omitted s t a t i s t i c a l evidence when d e s c r i b i n g the Japanese b i r t h r a t e . One such p r o t a g o n i s t , i n t r u e p o e t i c f a s h i o n , p o r t r a y e d the Japanese b i r t h r a t e as f o l l o w s : 1 C h a r l e s L u g r i n Shaw, "Canada's O r i e n t a l Problem," Canadian  Magazine, L X I I I , No. 6 (October, 1924), p. 337-2 C h a r l e s E. Hope, " B r i t i s h Columbia's R a c i a l Problems" (Pa r t I ) , Maclean's, X L I I I , No. 3 (February 1, 1930), p. 4. A l s o see, Appendix IV. Hope presented no evidence t o support h i s charge. A v a i l a b l e evidence suggested t h a t the Japanese d i d not co n c e a l the t r u e number of b i r t h s by not r e g i s t e r i n g them. In f a c t , P r o v i n c i a l government o f f i c i a l s i n 1941 d i s -covered f r a u d u l e n t b i r t h r e g i s t r a t i o n s were being made. R.C.M.P. and Canadian Immigration o f f i c i a l s proved t h i s t o be the case. However, the a c t u a l number of f a l s e r e g i s t r a t i o n s was q u i t e s m a l l . See, B.C., S e v e n t i e t h Report of V i t a l  S t a t i s t i c s : 1941 ( V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1942), p. G45« ( H e r e i n a f t e r c i t e d as B.C., V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s . ) -89-The l i t t l e c l o u d of twenty or t h i r t y years ago, no b i g g e r than a man's hand, has been c o n s t a n t l y growing and i s g r a d u a l l y darkening the heavens. How l o n g w i l l i t be b e f o r e the storm b u r s t s ? ^ A c t u a l l y , the r e g i s t r a t i o n of Japanese b i r t h s was q u i t e l e g i t i m a t e even though t h e r e was a c o n s i d e r a b l e number of l a t e r e g i s t r a t i o n s . In September, 1928, H. B. French, the Deputy R e g i s t r a r of B i r t h s , Marriages and Deaths d e c l a r e d t h a t the Japanese over the years had r e g i s t e r e d b i r t h s i n the same pro-2 p o r t i o n as had whites. Much of the c o n f u s i o n can be a t t r i b u t e d t o the P r o v i n c i a l government's r a t h e r haphazard methods i n 3 c o l l e c t i n g r e l i a b l e b i r t h s t a t i s t i c s . Often i t was the case t h a t Japanese nurses or midwives were the only medical s t a f f i n attendance at Japanese b i r t h s . I t was not u n t i l 1929 t h a t the government made a p o i n t of s u p p l y i n g b i r t h r e g i s t r a t i o n forms t o these people.^ Some i n v e s t i g a t o r s attempted to e x p l a i n the high Japanese b i r t h r a t e . As a whole, the Japanese were c o n s i d e r e d t o be a fecund race f o r f o u r reasons: f i r s t l y , a h i g h b i r t h r a t e was common i n p e r i o d s of r a p i d i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n ; secondly, b i r t h s were more common among the lower c l a s s e s ; t h i r d l y , l a r g e 1 Hope, " B r i t i s h Columbia's R a c i a l Problem," (Part I ) , p. 4« 2 Tolmie, "The O r i e n t a l s i n B.C.," p. 40. 3 B.C., J o u r n a l s (1923), p. 94. 4 B.C., V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s (1929), P S108. -90-f a m i l i e s were an economic ass e t ; and f o u r t h l y , Japanese women were i n the prime of t h e i r c h i l d b e a r i n g years."*" Most observers completely i g n o r e d the f a c t t h a t the Japanese t r a d i t i o n a l l y con-2 s i d e r e d i t a moral o b l i g a t i o n t o beget c h i l d r e n . One defender of the Japanese went so f a r as t o suggest t h a t t h e r e was no exact data t o prove t h a t A s i a t i c b i r t h r a t e s were any hi g h e r than t h a t of Europeans. The crude b i r t h r a t e may have been h i g h e r but when one took i n t o account the number of Japanese women of c h i l d - b e a r i n g age, the s i t u a t i o n e x p l a i n e d i t s e l f . He contended t h a t , i n f a c t , i f the l a t t e r method determined b i r t h r a t e s , then Great B r i t a i n ' s r a t e was hi g h e r 3 than t h a t of I n d i a . Some c r i t i c s d i s a g r e e d when i t was suggested t h a t a high b i r t h r a t e was a phenomenon p e c u l i a r t o f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n immigrants. T h i s argument h e l d t h a t d e c l i n i n g b i r t h s would be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the second and succeeding g e n e r a t i o n s . One observer s t a t e d : I t may be shown t h a t , up t o the present, the b i r t h r a t e of the average f o r e i g n race i n Canada has i n c r e a s e d 1 C. J . Woodsworth, Canada and the O r i e n t (Toronto: Macmillan Company, 1941), p. 126. A l s o , see Boggs, "The O r i e n t a l On The P a c i f i c Coast," p. 319. 2 Sumida, "The Japanese i n B r i t i s h Columbia," p. 84-3 A. M. Carr-Saunders, The P o p u l a t i o n Problem (Oxford U n i v e r -s i t y P r e s s , 1922), pp. 255-256. -91-r a t h e r than dim i n i s h e d with l e n g t h of f a m i l y r e s i d e n c e , which i m p l i e s t h a t c e r t a i n l y the second g e n e r a t i o n , and i n some cases the t h i r d , reproduce more r a p i d l y than the o r i g i n a l immigrants.^ At any r a t e , i n an accurate a n a l y s i s of the Japanese b i r t h r a t e one must keep i n mind t h a t an excess of b i r t h s over deaths was not alone i n d i c a t i v e of the n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e of the Japanese p o p u l a t i o n . There had to be a minimum number of b i r t h s t o ensure the continuance of the p o p u l a t i o n . Because of the i n i t i a l s c a r c i t y of Japanese females i n the p r o v i n c e a f a i r l y h i g h b i r t h r a t e was necessary to m a i ntain p o p u l a t i o n i n 2 view of the i n c r e a s i n g number of s i n g l e male deaths. Moreover, the h i g h i n f a n t m o r t a l i t y r a t e and the l a r g e number of s t i l l b i r t h s among the Japanese i n d i c a t e d t h a t the Japanese popula-3 was not i n c r e a s i n g at the r a t e which the p u b l i c b e l i e v e d . Furthermore, much of the c o n t r o v e r s y concerning b i r t h r a t e s was due to the f a c t t h a t u n t i l 1907 t h e r e were very few 1 W. B. Hurd, "Is There A Canadian Race?" Queen's Q u a r t e r l y , XXV, No. 5 (October, 1928), p. 624- Hurd based h i s a n a l y s i s on 1926 f i g u r e s f o r the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s . These were p r i m a r i -l y concerned w i t h U k r a i n i a n s , A u s t r i a n s and Roumanians. 2 Tolmie, "The O r i e n t a l s In B.C.," p. 36. 3 In p a r t these can be a t t r i b u t e d to the l a c k of p r e n a t a l and p o s t n a t a l h e a l t h care f a c i l i t i e s i n the Japanese communi-t y . I t was not u n t i l May, 1939, t h a t a p r e n a t a l u n i t at the Japanese H o s p i t a l C l i n i c was opened. See, "Welfare Ass'n Pro v i d e s Needed S o c i a l S e r v i c e s To Community," New Canadian, October 27, 1939, p. 3--92-Japanese females i n B r i t i s h Columbia. S t a t i s t i c a l evidence bore t h i s out. In 1902 t h e r e were onl y two Japanese b i r t h s r e g i s t e r e d and, i n 1910, only t h i r t y - e i g h t . But by 1922, a f t e r a c o n s i d e r a b l e number of Japanese women had s e t t l e d i n 2 the p r o v i n c e , the b i r t h f i g u r e stood at 745- A f t e r these women passed t h e i r c h i l d - b e a r i n g y e a r s , the b i r t h r a t e r a p i d l y d e c l i n e d . In 1931 t h e r e were 22,205 Japanese i n the pr o v i n c e while i n 1938 t h e r e were onl y 22,075 Japanese. During t h i s same p e r i o d , the number of N i s e i had only r i s e n from 11,081 t o 3 13,143« The New Canadian analyzed the d e c l i n i n g Japanese b i r t h r a t e and made the f o l l o w i n g comment: The p a s s i n g of years has a l r e a d y brought with i t an evident d e c l i n e i n the number of b i r t h s of Japanese c h i l d r e n each year, a d e c l i n e t h a t i s not and w i l l not, f o r s o c i o l o g i c a l 1 For an American o p i n i o n , see M a r j o r i e R. Stearns, "The Settlement of the Japanese i n Oregon," Oregon H i s t o r i c a l  Q u a r t e r l y , XXXIX, No. 3 (September, 1938), pp. 263-264. 2 B.C., J o u r n a l s (1923), p. 94« A l s o , see Appendix IV. W a s h i j i Oya, the f i r s t Japanese woman i n B.C., landed at Vancouver i n 1887. See Adachi, H i s t o r y of the Japanese  Canadians, p. 5« The f i r s t Japanese born i n B.C. was Hatsuye Uchida i n I89I. See "In Days of Yore," New Canadian, May 27, 1939, p. 8. Many of the Japanese women were " p i c t u r e - b r i d e s " who had never seen t h e i r husbands b e f o r e t h e i r marriage. See Tien-Fang, O r i e n t a l Immigration, p. 131 and "No Marriage By Photo," C o l o n i s t , March 24, 1908, p. 7. A r c h i e W i l l s has done a more recent account although i t i s q u i t e i n a c c u r a t e and em o t i o n a l l y f l a v o u r e d . C o n s u l t "The P i c t u r e B r i d e , " C o l o n i s t , November 15, 1970, pp. 4-5. 3 "Japanese i n B.C. Drop i n Number," New Canadian, February 1, 1939, p. 1 and "More Than A Tenth of the Pro v i n c e I s O r i e n t a l , " P r o v i n c e , September 1, 1934, p. 3« -93-reasons, be compensated f o r by t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n b i r t h s . ^ Thus, l i k e so many of the c o n t r o v e r s i e s surrounding the Japanese, the quest i o n of b i r t h r a t e proved to be a mix-t u r e of f a c t and f a l l a c y . Henry Angus e x p l a i n e d the s i t u a t i o n i n t h i s manner: Subconsciously we are a l l M a l t h u s i a n at h e a r t . The s i t u a t i o n seemed a nightmare; Malthusianism with i t s g e o m e t r i c a l r a t i o r e i n f o r c e d by immigration, and with i t s tempo a c c e l e r a t e d by the hig h b i r t h r a t e of an immigrant group, i n a l a n d of p l e n t y . Although c o n s t a n t l y i n c r e a s i n g Japanese s c h o o l enrollments d i s t r e s s e d the g e n e r a l p u b l i c , the a c t u a l i n f l u -ence of Japanese c h i l d r e n i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l system remained obscure. However, many questions p e r t a i n i n g t o Japanese s c h o o l c h i l d r e n were answered by the Putman-Weir Survey (192 5) which l a r g e l y d e a l t w i t h matters of c u r r i c u l a , t e s t i n g , f i n a n c i n g and h e a l t h . Even though the Survey d i d not i n t e n d t o d i r e c t l y d e a l with Japanese s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , the o v e r a l l study i n c l u d e d a separate r e p o r t on the Japanese. In p a r t i c u l a r , t h i s r e p o r t under the d i r e c t o r s h i p of Dr. Peter S a n d i f o r d attempted to measure the mental c a p a b i l i t i e s of Japanese and Chinese students i n Vancouver p u b l i c s c h o o l s . The Japanese m e r i t e d 1 "Alderman W i l s o n And H i s O r i e n t a l Menace," New Canadian, February 2, 1940, p. 4. 2 H. F. Angus, "A C o n t r i b u t i o n To I n t e r n a t i o n a l I l l - W i l l , " D a lhousie Review, X I I I , No. 1 ( A p r i l , 1933), p. 29--94-a separate examination because i t ". . . was f e l t t h a t the t e s t s i n v o l v i n g a use of the E n g l i s h language would not be f a i r t o them." A c c o r d i n g l y , S a n d i f o r d and h i s s t a f f s et out to t e s t 500 Japanese c h i l d r e n but time l i m i t a t i o n s e v e n t u a l l y reduced the study sample t o 150 students."*" When t e s t r e s u l t s showed the Japanese t o be f a r s u p e r i o r t o white c h i l d r e n S a n d i f o r d was not i n the l e a s t s u r p r i s e d as he had f u l l y expected t h i s t o be the case. He a t t r i b u t e d Japanese success t o s e l e c t i o n i n immigration. The " c l e v e r , " " r e s o u r c e f u l " and "courageous" people were the ones who immigrated; the " d u l l a r d s and l e s s e n t e r p r i s i n g [were] l e f t behind." S a n d i f o r d ' s v i n d i c a t i o n f o r t h i s t heory r e s t e d on two r a t h e r dubious p o i n t s concerning immigration i n other c o u n t r i e s . F i r s t l y , he claimed t h a t Great B r i t a i n owed "her eminent p o s i t i o n i n the world t o the f a c t t h a t o n l y the st u r d y c o u l d secure a f o o t i n g on her shores." Secondly, S a n d i f o r d s t a t e d t h a t American Army t e s t s proved t h a t o n l y persons of hi g h e r i n t e l l i g e n c e had o r i g i n a l l y been able t o conquer the 2 Rocky Mountain b a r r i e r t o the P a c i f i c Coast. With only t h i s as evidence, we might r i g h t l y q u e s t i o n S a n d i f o r d ' s sweeping c o n c l u s i o n . 1 J . H. Putman and Weir, G.M., Survey of the School System ( V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1925), P- 506. 2 I b i d . , p. 508. -95-S a n d i f o r d a l s o f e l t t h a t Japanese parents sent o n l y the more i n t e l l i g e n t c h i l d r e n t o s c h o o l -- a h i g h e r percentage of i n t e l l i g e n t c h i l d r e n than the white community sent. Thus the problem was one which concerned an " i n d u s t r i o u s , c l e v e r and f r u g a l a l i e n group" whose mental c a p a b i l i t i e s p e r m i t t e d them t o compete more than adequately with the white community. The Japanese were "probably the most i n t e l l i g e n t of a l l r a c i a l 1 groups which made up the t o t a l Canadian p o p u l a t i o n . " The f o l l o w i n g year S a n d i f o r d e n l a r g e d the f i r s t study sample from 150 to 276 Japanese c h i l d r e n . He assumed the base score (of 100) to be the white median. Whereas p r e v i o u s t e s t -i n g showed the Japanese a c h i e v i n g a median score of 113, 2 a d d i t i o n a l data r a i s e d the median score to 114.2. F i v e - s i x t h s of Japanese males exceeded a score which on l y one-half of white male c h i l d r e n surpassed. T h i s time, S a n d i f o r d h e l d the r e s u l t s t o be d i s t o r t e d . A c c o r d i n g t o some commonly employed methods of t e s t i n g a n a l y s i s , Japanese s c o r e s should have been much 1 Putman and Weir, Survey, p. 509- I t might w e l l be the case t h a t S a n d i f o r d ' s study was c o p i e d a f t e r M. L. D a r s i e , P r e l i m i n a r y Report on the Mental C a p a c i t y of Japanese School  C h i l d r e n i n C a l i f o r n i a (San F r a n s i s c o : Japanese A s s o c i a t i o n of America, 1923). The f i n a l r e s u l t s can be seen i n Marvin L. D a r s i e , "The Mental C a p a c i t y of American-Born Japanese C h i l -dren," Comparative Psychology Monographs, I I I , No. 15 (January, 1926), pp. l-89« For a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n , c o n s u l t T. Fukada, "Some Data On The I n t e l l i g e n c e of Japanese C h i l d r e n , " American  J o u r n a l of Psychology, XXXIV, No. 4 (October, 1923), pp. 599-601. 2 Peter S a n d i f o r d and Ruby K e r r , " I n t e l l i g e n c e of Chinese and Japanese C h i l d r e n , " J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, XVII, No. 2 (September, 1926), p. 363--96-lower. However, i f t h i s was a c t u a l l y the case, the t e s t e r s were at a l o s s t o d i s c o v e r the method f o r making an ac c u r a t e readjustment i n t h e i r data a n a l y s i s . T h i s a s i d e , S a n d i f o r d s t i l l m aintained t h a t , although Japanese scores were hi g h , t h i s was t o be expected s i n c e Japanese immigrants were undoubtedly a s e l e c t group and, t h e r e f o r e , not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of Japanese i 1 xn g e n e r a l . D e s p i t e S a n d i f o r d ' s c l a i m s t h a t h i g h Japanese scores were due t o a s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s , the t e s t e r s viewed t h e i r r e -s u l t s with some alarm. In an e f f o r t t o check the f i n d i n g s Ruby K e r r , S a n d i f o r d ' s a s s i s t a n t , conducted t e s t s on 419 white c h i l d r e n . She used the same t e s t s as i n the p r e v i o u s study. T h i s examination, completed i n 1927, excluded Chinese and Japanese c h i l d r e n . K e r r ' s r e s u l t s were much d i f f e r e n t from p r e v i o u s f i n d i n g s . White c h i l d r e n achieved a median scor e of 113, l e a v i n g them on l y 1.2 p o i n t s behind the Japanese but almost s i x p o i n t s above the Chinese. Of course, because t h i s p a r t i c u l a r survey excluded O r i e n t a l s a comparison of scores between the f i r s t and second t e s t s was the b a s i s f o r K e r r ' s 2 assessment. On the f o u n d a t i o n of t h i s i m p o s s i b l e comparison, 1 S a n d i f o r d and Kerr, J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, XVII, No. 2 (September, 1926), pp. 365-366. A l s o , see Peter S a n d i f o r d , "The T a l e n t e d C h i l d , " B.C. Teacher, V I I , No. 2 (October, 1927), p. 29-2 Peter S a n d i f o r d , "The I n h e r i t a n c e Of T a l e n t Among Canadians," Queen's Q u a r t e r l y , XXXV, No. 1 (August, 1927), p. 17. - 9 7 -Kerr b e l i e v e d t h a t the Japanese were p o o r l y s u i t e d t o Canadian c o n d i t i o n s . She concluded: P e r s o n a l l y , I am i n c l i n e d t o b e l i e v e t h a t the c l i m a t e of Canada, with the exce p t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia, w i l l prove too severe f o r most A s i a t i c immigrants.^ I t was obvious t o J . E. Brown, P r i n c i p a l of the Vancouver Strathcona School t h a t S a n d i f o r d ' s t e s t i n g l a c k e d much v a l i d i t y . Prompted by S a n d i f o r d ' s s p u r i o u s c o n c l u s i o n s , Brown a d m i n i s t e r e d a s e r i e s of i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s t o both Japanese and white p u p i l s i n 1 9 2 7 - He excluded students whose mastery of the E n g l i s h language was l i a b l e t o s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t t e s t r e s u l t s . Brown's f i n d i n g s showed S a n d i f o r d ' s c o n c l u s i o n s to be unfounded. While f i n d i n g the Japanese t o be i n f e r i o r t o white c h i l d r e n i n s u b j e c t s r e q u i r i n g a sound knowledge of the E n g l i s h language, he d i s c o v e r e d t h a t the Japanese were s u p e r i o r i n mechanical and mathematical a b i l i t y . Thus, Japanese c h i l -dren proved t o be n e i t h e r i n f e r i o r nor s u p e r i o r i n ge n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e . I t was apparent t h a t Japanese c h i l d r e n were f r e q u e n t l y handicapped i n t h e i r o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o a c q u i r e the E n g l i s h language. Brown a t t r i b u t e d t h i s t o t h r e e f a c t o r s : attendance at Japanese language s c h o o l s , the use of the Japanese language i n the home and the l a c k of s i m i l a r i t y between the Japanese and E n g l i s h f o r m S of e x p r e s s i o n . 2 1 S a n d i f o r d , " I n h e r i t a n c e of T a l e n t Among Canadians," p. 1 9 . 2 J . E. Brown, "Japanese School C h i l d r e n , " B.C. Teacher, V I I , -98-Brown a l s o reviewed a t h l e t i c and deportment performances among the Japanese i n order t o ga i n a wider p e r s p e c t i v e . Although no o b j e c t i v e data was a v a i l a b l e on the former. Brown o f f e r e d a s u b j e c t i v e comment: "The Japanese boys [were] more e n t h u s i a s t i c and e n e r g e t i c on the p l a y f i e l d than [were] the white boys." Concerning deportment, the Japanese with o n l y a few exceptions o b t a i n e d "A" ratings."'" Thus, a c c o r d i n g t o Brown, the Japanese possessed n e i t h e r i n f e r i o r or s u p e r i o r i n t e l l i g e n c e . But many Japanese parents came t o b e l i e v e otherwise and more or l e s s accepted S a n d i f o r d ' s o r i g i n a l c l a i m s . The common b e l i e f i n the Japanese community h e l d Japanese students t o be "as a whole . . . more 2 p r o f i c i e n t i n t h e i r s t u d i e s than any other r a c e . " A p r i v a t e study completed i n 1939 showed t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o "rank above the average i n s c h o l a s t i c a b i l i t y . " The reason f o r t h i s , the Japanese maintained, was due to s e l e c t immigration s i n c e , . . . the m a j o r i t y of Japanese immigrants i n B.C. [were] of a s e l e c t group and consequently the i n t e l l i g e n c e q uotient of t h e i r c h i l d r e n [was] above normal f o r a l l s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . No. 10 (June, 1928), pp. 8-10. The t e x t of t h i s a r t i c l e i s p r a c t i c a l l y the same as A Few F a c t s About Japanese School  C h i l d r e n (Vancouver: Canadian Japanese A s s o c i a t i o n , 1927). 1 I b i d . , p. 11. 2 "Contacts A f t e r Graduation," New Canadian, May 27, 1939, p. 13-3 " N i s e i I.Q. Higher S t a t e s S c h o l a r , " New Canadian, March 15, 1939, p. 1. T h i s study was p a r t of the r e s e a r c h conducted by K a r l Gross, a Ph. D. candidate at the U n i v e r s i t y of Ohio. -99-The Putman-Weir Survey a l s o reviewed d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with s c h o o l f i n a n c i n g , a problem which sc h o o l i n -s p e c t o r s had been p o i n t i n g out f o r years."*" Putman and Weir d i s c o v e r e d t h a t the g e n e r a l p u b l i c throughout the pr o v i n c e was concerned about school t a x a t i o n . In many i n s t a n c e s , l o c a l s c h o o l tax assessments were unduly high; i n other cases, they were r i d i c u l o u s l y low. A f t e r examining m i l l r a t e s i n the pr o v i n c e , the Survey found evidence of i n c o n s i s t e n t assessment of p r o p e r t y . Thus, the Survey u n w i t t i n g l y exonerated the Steveston Japanese from a charge f r e q u e n t l y l e v e l l e d at them, namely, t h a t they purposely evaded sc h o o l t a x a t i o n . F i r s t , i t was common p r a c t i c e f o r p r o p e r t y to go untaxed, thereby c o n t r i b u t i n g n o t h i n g t o sch o o l revenues. And, secondly, the sc h o o l m i l l r a t e i n Richmond was onl y 4.25 as opposed, f o r i n -2 stance, t o 21.74 i n South Vancouver. The white r e s i d e n t s of Richmond were c e r t a i n l y not burdened by the Japanese presence. At any r a t e , the p r o v i n c i a l government had r a r e l y been able t o supply accurate i n f o r m a t i o n d e t a i l i n g the exact amounts which Japanese p r o p e r t y owners were supposed t o be c o n t r i b u t i n g 3 towards the s c h o o l s . 1 For i n s t a n c e , see B.C., Report of the P u b l i c Schools (1903-04), p. A64 and (1912-1913), P- A47-2 Putman and Weir, Survey, p. 277. 3 B.C., J o u r n a l s (1916), p. 25-- 1 0 0 -However, sc h o o l problems had plagued the Richmond School D i s t r i c t f o r some time. The Steveston P u b l i c School e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1894 l a b o u r e d under p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t conditions."^ The Department of Education r e c o g n i z e d the q u a l i t y of i n s t r u c t i o n t o be sub-standard but i t was not u n t i l 2 1 9 1 5 t h a t the sc h o o l r e c e i v e d adequate r e p o r t s from i n s p e c t o r s . By 1 9 2 0 , when the Japanese p o p u l a t i o n at Steveston numbered 3 about 2 , 0 0 0 , i t was rumoured t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n at the p u b l i c 4 s c h o o l was i n Japanese. However, t h e r e i s no evidence t o sub-s t a n t i a t e t h i s c l a i m . In 1 9 2 5 , the Richmond School Board r a i s e d some o b j e c t i o n when over 3 0 0 Japanese c h i l d r e n began r e g i s t e r i n g f o r c l a s s e s at Steveston. The Board contended t h a t very few Japanese p a i d s c h o o l taxes s i n c e they o f t e n r e n t e d d w e l l i n g s from the c a n n e r i e s or l i v e d i n boarding houses.^ Thereupon, the Japanese Fishermen's Benevolent S o c i e t y v o l u n t a r i l y agreed 1 B.C., Report of the P u b l i c Schools ( 1 8 9 4 - 9 5 ) , P- 2 8 7 . 2 B.C., Report of the P u b l i c Schools ( 1 9 0 3 - 0 4 ) , p. A 3 6 and ( 1 9 1 5-16), p. A 2 9 . 3 Adachi, H i s t o r y of the Japanese Canadians, p. 7« 4 E. E. B r a i t h w a i t e , "Canada and the O r i e n t , " Canadian  Magazine, LX, No. 1 (November, 1 9 2 2 ) , p. 1 5 . 5 M i t s u i , "The M i n i s t r y of the U n i t e d Church," p. 1 3 3 - A r c h i e B e l l , Sunset Canada (Boston: C o l o n i a l P ress, 1 9 1 8 ) , p. 1 2 0 . The Board a l s o made plans t o bus white c h i l d r e n t o the Steveston s c h o o l t o r e c t i f y the r a c i a l imbalance. See "Steves-School Needs White P u p i l s , " P r o v i n c e , September, 192 5 , P» 2 0 . -101-t o pay f i v e d o l l a r s a c h i l d per year t o the School Board. Three years l a t e r , the S o c i e t y with the p e r m i s s i o n of the M i n i s t e r of Education o f f e r e d t o r a i s e 20,000 d o l l a r s f o r new s c h o o l c o n s t r u c t i o n . ^ D e s p i t e the good i n t e n t i o n s of the s o c i e t y , c r i t i c i s m s of the Japanese c o n t i n u e d t o mount. In p a r t , t h i s was due t o the presence of s e v e r a l Japanese students who, though they l i v e d o u t s i d e the m u n i c i p a l boundary, s t i l l attended s c h o o l i n Steveston. Because the Steveston s c h o o l was the c l o s e s t , the Richmond D i s t r i c t was l e g a l l y o b l i g a t e d t o supply these c h i l d r e n with an education even 2 though t h e i r parents p a i d no s c h o o l t a x e s . Furthermore, from a l l i n d i c a t i o n s r e c e i v e d from the Japanese Language School Boar Richmond r e s i d e n t s were f o r e t o l d of a r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n 3 Japanese s c h o o l enrollment. In 1934 the Richmond School Board and the Japanese met t o d i s c u s s the impending c r i s i s i n s c h o o l f i n a n c i n g . The f i v e d o l l a r l e v y from the S o c i e t y d i d not n e a r l y cover c o s t s which 1 " M i n i s t e r V i s i t s Japanese S c h o o l s , " P r o v i n c e , December 18, 1929, p. 28. A l s o , see "Nippon School Has Novel Angles," C o l o n i s t , December 20, 1929, p. 3 and " C i t y and D i s t r i c t , " C o l o n i s t , December 8, 1929, P- 6. 2 Hope, " B r i t i s h Columbia's R a c i a l Problem," (Part I I ) , p. 45 The Japanese attended s c h o o l i n f i v e or s i x d i f f e r e n t b u i l d i n g s S e g r e g a t i o n was common but o f t e n necessary because of language d i f f i c u l t i e s . See "Quaint Japanese P u p i l s Overflow Steveston S c h o o l , " P r o v i n c e , February 9, 1930, p. 10. 3 Hope, " B r i t i s h Columbia's R a c i a l Problem" (Part I I ) , p. 45. -102-averaged f i f t y d o l l a r s a c h i l d . The Japanese, while comprising f o r t y percent (or 629 students) of the s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n , p a i d o n l y t e n percent of t h e i r s c h o o l c o s t s . ( T h i s i n c l u d e d the f i v e d o l l a r l e v y and s c h o o l taxes where a p p l i c a b l e . ) Moreover, the Benevolent S o c i e t y was having d i f f i c u l t y c o l l e c t i n g the donations from Japanese parents who, a f t e r a l l , were not o b l i g a t e d t o make t h e i r payments. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the meeting f a i l e d t o r e s o l v e the tax d i f f i c u l t i e s and, at the same time, s e r v e d t o convince Richmond r e s i d e n t s t h a t the Japanese were evading t h e i r f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . ' ' " Four years l a t e r the Board, denouncing the Japanese f o r only paying o n e - s i x t h of t h e i r share of s c h o o l c o s t s , c h a l l e n g e d the r i g h t of the Japanese t o use s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s . A r t h u r L a i n g , Chairman of the Board, suggested a l e v y of t h i r t y d o l l a r s be p l a c e d on each Japanese c h i l d . He a l s o p o i n t e d out t h a t the Japanese had c o n t r i b u t e d 20,000 d o l l a r s towards s c h o o l c o n s t r u c t i o n , thereby e n t i t l i n g them t o take 2 advantage of s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s . However, L a i n g d i d not attmept to r e f u t e charges t h a t Japanese students spread f o r e i g n i d e a s among white s c h o o l c h i l d r e n ; nor d i d he o f f e r any evidence t o 1 "School Tax On Japanese W i l l Be Considered," P r o v i n c e , December 18, 1934, P- 2. 2 The Japanese a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d t o s c h o o l c o n s t r u c t i o n on Ganges I s l a n d i n 1940. See "Weir Opens New Ganges School: N i s e i Confirmed," New Canadian, August 12, 1940, p. 7--103-support the charges.''' Yet, the quest i o n of s c h o o l f i n a n c i n g was j u s t one o b s t a c l e f a c i n g the Japanese. Another argument a g a i n s t the presence of the Japanese i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s was the quest i o n of d i s e a s e . I t would not be an exaggeration t o s t a t e t h a t the p u b l i c b e l i e v e d the Japanese t o be c a r r i e r s of every type of 2 d i s e a s e imaginable. In p a r t , t h i s i d e a stemmed from s t a t e -ments made b e f o r e l a r g e s c a l e Japanese immigration o c c u r r e d . In 1885, Simeon Duck, M.L.A. f o r V i c t o r i a C i t y d e s c r i b e d a l l 3 O r i e n t a l s as "leprous i n b l o o d and unclean i n h a b i t s . " He added t h a t they were contaminated "with contagious d i s e a s e s , p e c u l i a r t o t h i s people, which they have a l r e a d y i n t r o d u c e d to an alarming extent upon t h i s Continent and a g a i n s t which 4 we have a r i g h t t o defend o u r s e l v e s and our c h i l d r e n . " Four years l a t e r , the House moved t h a t e f f o r t s s h o u l d be made t o "represent t o the Dominion Government the great n e c e s s i t y which e x i s t s of t a k i n g steps at an e a r l y date t o e s t a b l i s h 1 " D e l t a Nippons Escape L e v i e s , " P r o v i n c e , January 13, 1938, p. 12. 2 R a t t r a y , Vancouver I s l a n d and B r i t i s h Columbia, Ch. 9, passim. T h i s i d e a p e r s i s t e d u n t i l the 1950's. See, f o r example, F r e d H. Goodchild, B.C.: I t s H i s t o r y , People and  In d u s t r y (London: George A l l e n and Unwin L t d . , 1951), P« 180. 3 B.C., J o u r n a l s (I885), P- 29-4 I b i d . -104-quarantine s t a t i o n s at New Westminster, Vancouver, and Nanaimo." In 1893j Mr. Thomas K e i t h , Member of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly f o r Nanaimo, moved t h a t because of small-pox, "a loathsome d i s e a s e , " and "Whereas t h e r e [was] a gre a t danger t h a t A s i a t i c c h o l e r a may at any time be i n t r o d u c e d from China or Japan," a l l passengers and goods from the O r i e n t should be 2 thoroughly i n s p e c t e d at t h e i r p o i n t s of departure. In 1897? Mr. Walkem spread f u r t h e r alarm when he p o i n t e d out t h a t " s m a l l -pox, c h o l e r a , plague and other i n f e c t i o u s d i s e a s e s had t h e i r 3 home i n the O r i e n t . " He proposed t h a t a l l O r i e n t a l s be im-mediately quarantined upon t h e i r a r r i v a l and t h a t a l l O r i e n t a l luggage be d i s i n f e c t e d at the time of embarkation. Undoubtedly, the small-pox epidemics i n Vancouver and V i c t o r i a i n 1892 4 prompted Walkem's a c t i o n s . P r a c t i c a l l y , a l l the a c c u s a t i o n s r e p o r t i n g the Japanese 1 B.C., J o u r n a l s (I889), P- 30. 2 B.C., J o u r n a l s (1893), P- 54. A l s o , s e e B.C., S.P. (1893), p. 275 (Papers — In r e l a t i o n t o r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s made to the Dominion Government r e s p e c t i n g Quarantine M a t t e r s ) . 3 B.C., J o u r n a l s (1897), PP• 140-141. A l s o see, E. R. G o s n e l l , " B r i t i s h Columbia And B r i t i s h I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e l a t i o n s , " The Annals of the American Academy of P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l  S c i e n c e , XLV, No. 134 (January, 1913), p- 12. 4 I b i d . As l a t e as 193 6, the P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y t o l d the House t h a t the i n c i d e n c e of s y p h i l l i s and gonorrhea was high e r among the Japanese than among whites. See B.C., J o u r n a l s (1936), pp. 33-34--105-t o be c a r r i e r s of disease proved t o be f a l s e . For example, i n 1921 the Henry Hudson School P.T.A. had charged t h a t Japanese p u p i l s were i n f e c t e d with s k i n d i s e a s e s and, a c c o r d i n g l y , de-manded the e x c l u s i o n of Japanese c h i l d r e n from the s c h o o l . When i n v e s t i g a t i o n s by the Vancouver School Board and the Japanese Consul proved the a c c u s a t i o n s t o be u n s u b s t a n t i a t e d , the P.T.A. dropped the charges."*" However, t h e r e was some evidence t o suggest t h a t the Japanese, i n f a c t , were o v e r l y s u s c e p t i b l e t o t u b e r c u l o s i s . Even the New Canadian admitted t h a t the t u b e r c u l o s i s r a t e among 2 the Japanese was abnormally high. In 1923 alone, t h e r e were twenty-three Japanese deaths a t t r i b u t e d t o t h i s d i s e a s e . The Japanese r a t e of i n f e c t i o n f o r t h a t same year was 1.63 per 3 1,000 as compared t o .63 per 1,000 i n the white community. Throughout the 1930's the number of Japanese deaths from t u b e r -c u l o s i s averaged t h i r t y - o n e a y e a r . 4 The l a c k of adequate h e a l t h care f a c i l i t i e s and t r a i n e d personnel i n the Japanese 1 Sumida, "The Japanese i n B r i t i s h Columbia," p. 509- Tsutae Sato makes r e f e r e n c e t o the s i t u a t i o n at the Henry Hudson School i n H i s t o r y of the Japanese Language School and E d u c a t i o n a l  S o c i e t y : 1923-1942 ( P r i n t e d i n Japan, n.d.), chapter 4, p a r t 3-2 "Weekly W h i r l i g i g , " New Canadian, September 25, 1940, p. 1. 3 B.C., Twenty-eighth Report of the P r o v i n c i a l Board of  Hea l t h , 1923 ( V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1923), p. Q58. ( H e r e i n a f t e r c i t e d as B.C., Board of Health.) A l s o see B.C., B.C., Board of Hea l t h (1926), p. K 1 5 . 4 See Appendix IV. -106-community was very l i k e l y a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r i n the preva-l e n c e of the d i s e a s e . In 1916, only one out of the f i f t y t u b e r c u l o s i s p a t i e n t s at the Vancouver General H o s p i t a l was Japanese. ^  Although s a n i t a r y f a c i l i t i e s among the g e n e r a l p u b l i c were o f t e n inadequate, the l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s of most immigrant groups were thought to produce s i t u a t i o n s conducive to the spr e a d i n g of d i s e a s e . ^ Of course, the p u b l i c b e l i e v e d t h a t because the c h i l d r e n of immigrants were easy prey t o a host of i l l n e s s e s , a l l s c h o o l c h i l d r e n s t o o d a chance of i n f e c t i o n . One p r o v i n c i a l h e a l t h o f f i c i a l commented: The odour of these p l a c e s i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , and so heavy and p e n e t r a t i n g t h a t i t can r e a d i l y be d e t e c t e d upon the c h i l d r e n i n s c h o o l . ^ C e r t a i n l y , s c h o o l s were not the h e a l t h i e s t p l a c e s and sch o o l o f f i c i a l s p l a c e d the e r a d i c a t i o n of common i l l n e s s e s at 4 the top of t h e i r l i s t of p r i o r i t i e s . Nonetheless, h e a l t h i n -formation permeated i t s way throughout the g e n e r a l p u b l i c and 1 W. G. Smith, A Study i n Canadian Immigration (Toronto: Ryer-son P ress, 1920), p. 171. 2 B.C., Board of H e a l t h (1896) pp. 677-728. A l s o , see B.C., S.P. (1897), p. 677. 3 B.C., S.P. (1912), p. M79- ( F i r s t Annual Report on the  M e d i c a l I n s p e c t i o n of P u b l i c Schools, 1911.) 4 B.C., Report of the P u b l i c Schools (1912-1913), p. A55; (1913-14), P. A63-64. -107-c o n d i t i o n s s l o w l y improved. The Japanese had l o n g been conscious of the need f o r proper h e a l t h care f a c i l i t i e s and adequate s a n i t a r y c o n d i t i o n s . The h o s p i t a l e s t a b l i s h e d by the Japanese Fishermen's Benevolent S o c i e t y always met govern-ment standards f o r h e a l t h care."'' L i k e w i s e , the Japanese d i d t h e i r best t o e r a d i c a t e sources of disease: A c l e a r understanding of the common laws of s a n i t a r y hygiene along u n s e l f i s h l i n e s i s much needed by the ge n e r a l p u b l i c and the r e s u l t s of such knowledge would be of i n -estimable value . . . . The value of good d r i n k i n g water has been s t r i k i n g l y i l l u s t r a t e d by the f a c t t h a t at Steves-ton t h i s year t h e r e have only been two cases of t y p h o i d f e v e r . O c c a s i o n a l l y , a s c h o o l o f f i c i a l charged t h a t the Japanese were unco-operative i n sch o o l h e a l t h problems although most s c h o o l o f f i c i a l s denied t h a t the Japanese e i t h e r h i n d e r e d 3 or d e f i e d h e a l t h r e g u l a t i o n s . In 1937, T. J . Ross, a R i c h -mond school t r u s t e e , c l a i m e d t h a t Japanese parents r e f u s e d to 4 permit s c h o o l nurses t o examine t h e i r c h i l d r e n . A r t La i n g , Chairman of the Board, promised an immediate i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the matter which was l i k e l y a misunderstanding due to language 1 B.C., Board of H e a l t h (1917), p. 5-2 B.C., Board of H e a l t h (1913), P- F10. 3 "Big P a r t In B.C.'s School L i f e i s Played By Japanese Group," P r o v i n c e , December f\ 1937, p. 16. 4 "Richmond Japanese Spurn School Nurse," P r o v i n c e , December 15, 1937, p. 2. -108-d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered by Japanese p a r e n t s . Such d i f f i c u l -t i e s , however, were not new. In Vancouver, Tsutae Sato, the P r i n c i p a l of the Japanese Language School, had f o r years a c t e d as an i n t e r p r e t e r f o r h e a l t h o f f i c i a l s so t h a t Japanese parents would know e x a c t l y what was r e q u i r e d of them along with an a p p r o p r i a t e e x p l a n a t i o n . As i t t u r n e d out, Sato's arrangement was more than s a t i s f a c t o r y i n Vancouver as t h e r e i s l i t t l e evidence to suggest t h a t s c h o o l h e a l t h a u t h o r i t i e s f e l t t h a t the Japanese were circumventing h e a l t h regulations."^ I t was f a i r l y obvious t h a t the p r o v i n c i a l government and, f o r t h a t matter, most of the p u b l i c harbored anti-Japanese sentiments. A c c o r d i n g l y , one might expect to f i n d a p a r a l l e l a t t i t u d e among p u b l i c s c h o o l t e a c h e r s . However, t h i s may not always have been the case. J . B. Bennett, an e a r l y t e a c h e r at the Cumberland School was not p a r t i c u l a r l y r e c e p t i v e to O r i e n t a students. Indeed, he was q u i t e happy t h a t t h e r e were "very few 2 Chinese or Japanese on the r o l l . " Yet, evidence suggests t h a t o n l y a m i n o r i t y of t e a c h e r s shared Bennett's a t t i t u d e . Perhaps more t y p i c a l of t e a c h e r s ' f e e l i n g s was the view expressed by J . E. Brown, P r i n c i p a l of the Vancouver Strathcona School which i n 1928, e n r o l l e d 550 Japanese students. Brown found the 1 Brown, "Japanese School C h i l d r e n , " p. 11. 2 J . B. Bennett, "Some R e c o l l e c t i o n s of Teaching i n the Comox D i s t r i c t , " B.C. Teacher, VI, No. 4 (December, 1926), p. 25, -109-Japanese t o be e x c e l l e n t p u p i l s who, w h i l e not without t h e i r f a u l t s , compared f a v o u r a b l y with t h e i r white s c h o o l mates."*" A q u e s t i o n n a i r e sent t o the p r i n c i p a l s of Vancouver sc h o o l s i n 1930 s o l i c i t e d s t a f f o p i n i o n c o n c e r n i n g the presence of Japanese s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . The response was . . . unanimous to the e f f e c t t h a t a f t e r t e a c h i n g hundreds of Japanese c h i l d r e n , s i n c e s c h o o l s were f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d i n Vancouver, the p r i n c i p a l s and the t e a c h e r s were d e c i d e d l y of the o p i n i o n t h a t these c h i l d r e n were not a detriment. As a matter of f a c t every teacher who has had t o do with i s outspoken i n p r a i s e of t h e i r s u p e r i o r i t y as p u p i l s t o other c h i l d r e n [ s i c j . They are no t r o u b l e , they are e a s i l y taught, they are i n d u s t r i o u s and honourable, they are f r e e from o b j e c t i o n a b l e h a b i t s , they are i n s h o r t i d e a l p u p i l s . Although t h i s assessment tended towards hyperbole, i t was nonetheless apparent t h a t many t e a c h e r s welcomed the presence of Japanese s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . While p r e j u d i c e e x i s t e d i n the g e n e r a l community a g a i n s t the Japanese, t e a c h e r s were not i n -c l i n e d t o d i s c r i m i n a t e a g a i n s t Japanese c h i l d r e n s i n c e they 3 seemed t o be i d e a l p u p i l s . A l a t e r survey among t e a c h e r s at B r i t a n n i a , K i n g George, Vancouver T e c h n i c a l and Grandview h i g h and at Templeton j u n i o r 1 Brown, "Japanese School C h i l d r e n , " pp. 8-11. 2 A r t h u r P. W o o l l a c o t t , " O r i e n t a l Born Canadians," Canadian  Forum, XI, No. 122 (November, 1930), p. 52. Apparently, the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was sent to most Vancouver s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s . S u b j e c t i v e i n nature, i t r e q u i r e d g e n e r a l o p i n i o n s r e g a r d i n g the d e s i r a b i l i t y of Japanese students. The number of respon-dents, w h i l e unknown, was l i k e l y h i g h. 3 F u r t h e r evidence can be found i n "Parents, Teachers D i s c u s s P u p i l s , " New Canadian, June 15, 1939, P« !• -110-h i g h s c h o o l r e p r e s e n t e d N i s e i students as " s t u d i o u s , " " w e l l -behaved," "hard-working," " r e s p e c t f u l " and obedient." However, the t e a c h e r s at the same time c r i t i c i s e d the N i s e i f o r t h e i r l a c k of i n i t i a t i v e , t h e i r emotional r e s e r v e and f o r "aping . . . the d e f e c t s of t h e i r Canadian f r i e n d s . " Probably, much of t h i s c r i t i c i s m would have been b e t t e r d i r e c t e d t o the Japanese f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e i n which r e s e r v e and conformity were necessary elements of the Japanese i d e a l s of reverence, f i l i a l p i e t y and "gentleness of s p i r i t . " ^ Many t e a c h e r s were a l s o concerned about the problem of Japanese dual n a t i o n a l i t y . The Japanese government c o n s i d e r e d a c h i l d , r e g a r d l e s s of h i s p l a c e of b i r t h , t o be a Japanese n a t i o n a l i f h i s n a t u r a l f a t h e r was Japanese. T h i s obvious con-f l i c t of i n t e r e s t s proved t o be a source of a n x i e t y t o many te a c h e r s f o r whom the thought of ed u c a t i n g f o r e i g n n a t i o n a l s 2 was not very p a l a t a b l e . I t was not u n t i l the l a t e 1930's t h a t the B.C. Teacher, the o f f i c i a l organ of the B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n , 1 "What Do I s s e i s and Canadian Teachers Think of N i s e i Moral Standards?" New Canadian, A p r i l 12, 1940, p. 3. 2 Johnston, "The Case of the O r i e n t a l i n B.C.", p. 318. In one case, a Vancouver t e a c h e r took s t r o n g e x c e p t i o n t o the Japanese i f not to Japanese s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . R o l f e N. F o r s y t h drowned i n S e a t t l e harbour a f t e r p l a n t i n g 369 s t i c k s of dynamite t o the h u l l of the Japanese v e s s e l , the Hiye Maru. See " J a i l e d C i t y Man Bares Bombing P l o t ; D i v e r s F i n d 3 69 S t i c k s of Dynamite," P r o v i n c e , January 21, 1938, p. 1. - I l l -began t o v o i c e s t r o n g o p p o s i t i o n t o the u n f a i r treatment of the Japanese. W r i t i n g i n the B.C. Teacher, K a t i e T h i e s s e n c a u t i o n e d a g a i n s t government l e g i s l a t i o n which would t r y to s o l v e the Japanese problem. Although the f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n had been s u b j e c t e d to "hardship and misunderstanding," some-times l e g a l l y enforced, T h i e s s e n urged t e a c h e r s t o '!.study the e f f e c t s which these l e g a l r e s t r i c t i o n s [had] upon the genera-t i o n s of boys and g i r l s i n our s c h o o l s , whose permanent home w i l l almost i n v a r i a b l y be the l a n d of t h e i r b i r t h . ""^  In 1938 the e d i t o r of the B.C. Teacher f i n a l l y v o i c e d an o p i n i o n on the s u b j e c t . O p t i m i s t i c a l l y d e s c r i b i n g t e a c h e r s as "conspicu-o u s l y f r e e from p r e j u d i c e s , " he wrote: We know, by experience and by the e x e r c i s e of common sense, t h a t l i k e a b l e and u n l i k e a b l e , c l e v e r and s t u p i d people, e f f i c i e n t and i n e f f i c i e n t people, are to be found among the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of any race. I t i s s i l l y t o admire or to d i s l i k e f o l k i n wholesale l o t s . I t i s p r o f o u n d l y dangerous t o Canadian s o c i e t y at l a r g e and t o the Canada of the f u t u r e i f Canadians of whatever r a c i a l o r i g i n are t r e a t e d as p a r i a h s . T h i s , however, was only the o p i n i o n of the e d i t o r and d i d not r e f l e c t an o f f i c i a l s t a n d by the B.C.T.F. nor, f o r t h a t matter, by the B.C. Teacher. Even by 1940, when the s i t u a t i o n appeared t o be "worsening r a t h e r than b e t t e r i n g , " the B.C.T.F. 1 K a t i e T h i e s s e n , "Subjects -- But Not C i t i z e n s , " B.C. Teacher, XV, No. 10 (June, 1936), p. 14-2 E d i t o r , " I s n ' t I t About Time We Spoke Up?", B.C. Teacher, XVIII, No. 2 (October, 1938), p. 49--112-had not- yet " p u b l i c l y or o f f i c i a l l y committed i t s e l f t o any g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e or p o l i c y " r e g a r d i n g the Japanese. The best the e d i t o r of the B.C. Teacher c o u l d p r o f e r was t h a t d i s -c r i m i n a t i o n no l o n g e r h e l d any r a t i o n a l e . For once, " e t h i c s , p o l i t i c a l expedience and s e l f - i n t e r e s t " agreed."*" By October, 1940, the B.C. Teacher f i n a l l y s tood f i r m l y behind the Japanese. The magazine at l a s t denounced those people who, f o r reasons of r a c i a l p r e j u d i c e , had s l a n d e r e d the Japanese. Moreover, the magazine d e c l a r e d t h a t i t was the t e a c h e r ' s duty to i n h i b i t p r e j u d i c e s i n c e "teachers have had s p e c i a l o p p o r t u n i t y to become acquainted with young Japanese at f i r s t hand." Teachers would have to do t h i s U n less, of course, they admire and p r e f e r t o emulate the example of the P r i e s t and the L e v i t e , who very w e l l knew t h a t the best way to keep out of t r o u b l e i s t o see l i t t l e , t o say n o t h i n g and t o 'pass by on the other s i d e . ' Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , the B.C. Teacher n e g l e c t e d to draw a p a r a l l e t o the B.C.T.F. which, of course, f o r many years had assumed the r o l e s of the P r i e s t and the L e v i t e . Of course, the e v i -dence p r e s e n t e d here i s much too l i m i t e d t o c o n c l u s i v e l y s t a t e t h a t t e a c h e r s (on the whole) s i d e d w i t h the Japanese. However the absence of c o n t r a r y i n f o r m a t i o n i n t i m a t e s t h a t t e a c h e r s , 1 " E d i t o r i a l , " B.C. Teacher, XIX, No. 7 (March, 1940), pp. 327-328. 2 E d i t o r , "The Stranger W i t h i n Our Gates," B.C. Teacher, XX, No. 2 (October, 1940), p. 55* A l s o , see E d i t o r , " R a c i a l In-t o l e r a n c e , " B.C. Teacher, XX, No. 6 (February, 1941), p. 254--113-at the very l e a s t , were n e u t r a l i n the debate or, at the very most, were g e n e r a l l y i n favour of the Japanese. A l s o , i t appears t h a t , f o r the most p a r t , Japanese c h i l d r e n enjoyed amicable r e l a t i o n s h i p s with t h e i r white s c h o o l mates. Many s c h o o l o f f i c i a l s c o ncurred with t h i s statement. I t must not be assumed t h a t these O r i e n t a l youngsters are i n anyway a detriment i n the s c h o o l s ; they are exemplary p u p i l s f o r the most p a r t and quick to l e a r n -- q u i t e equal to white c h i l d r e n i n i n t e l l i g e n c e — mix w e l l with other c h i l d r e n , are c l e a n , t i d y , and as a r u l e are models of behavior. One s t i r r i n g account of Japanese-Occidental f r i e n d s h i p i n v o l v e d the case of Satoru Omori, a Woodfibre h i g h s c h o o l student who drowned d e s p i t e the e f f o r t s of a l o c a l t e a c h e r to r e v i v e him. Sympathetic s c h o o l o f f i c i a l s d i s m i s s e d students e a r l y so t h a t they c o u l d a t t e n d the l a d ' s f u n e r a l . Moreover, two of the p a l l 2 b e a r e r s were white high s c h o o l students. Teachers were u s u a l l y c o n f i d e n t t h a t , i f t h e r e was p r e j u d i c e among white c h i l d r e n , the s c h o o l would be the means 3 of overcoming i t . However, t h e r e were a few i s o l a t e d 1 Lukin Johnston, " B r i t i s h Columbia's O r i e n t a l Problem," U n i t e d Empire, X I I I , No. 8 (August, 1922), p. 575- A c t u a l l y , Johnston was q u i t e c r i t i c a l of the O r i e n t a l presence i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s . He was taken aback by the account of Y i p Sang, a Vancouver Chinese who r e p o r t e d l y had f o u r wives and twenty-seven school-age c h i l d r e n . 2 "Woodfibre Lad Looses L i f e While F i s h i n g , " New Canadian, September 29, 1939, p. 6. 3 Hope, " B r i t i s h Columbia's R a c i a l Problem"' (P a r t I I ) , p. 45* - 1 1 4 -i n c i d e n t s of c o n f l i c t between white and Japanese students. There was even some evidence to suggest t h a t white par e n t s , on a few o c c a s i o n s , urged t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o o s t r a c i z e Japanese 2 students. By t h e i r own admission, the Japanese were sometxmes r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a r o u s i n g the animosity of white c h i l d r e n . One Japanese wrote: Some Japanese students c a r r y on most of t h e i r c o n v e r s a t i o n s amongst themselves i n Japanese, and, i n a d d i t i o n t o t h a t , some even b r i n g and read openly, Japanese books at E n g l i s h c l a s s . Perhaps, the l a c k of ove r t animosity from t e a c h e r s , s c h o o l o f f i c i a l s and white c h i l d r e n can, i n p a r t , be a t t r i b u t e d t o the f a c t t h a t Japanese c h i l d r e n were a s s e t s i n any s c h o o l . They o f t e n e x c e l l e d at p u b l i c s c h o o l , f r e q u e n t l y winning awards 4 f o r academic endeavour, s c h o o l s e r v i c e and s p o r t s a c t i v i t y . In 1 9 3 9 - f i f t y N i s e i students were recommended f o r h i g h s c h o o l m a t r i c u l a t i o n w h ile a t o t a l of s i x t y e v e n t u a l l y o b t a i n e d 1 J . R. Sanderson, "Dr. Sanderson and our Japanese Communi-t i e s , " B.C. Teacher, XVIII, No. 4 (December, 1 9 3 8 ) , p. 1 9 5 -For an account of r a c i a l p r e j u d i c e i n c h i l d r e n , see E l s e F r e n k e l -Brunswick, "A Study of P r e j u d i c e i n C h i l d r e n , " Human R e l a t i o n s , I, No. 3 (March, 1 9 4 8 ) , pp. 2 9 5 - 3 0 4 -2 T h i e s s e n , "Subjects -- But Not C i t i z e n s , " p. 14-3 "Our Voyage to Enfranchisement," T a i r i k u Nippo, August 2 7 , 1 9 3 8 , p. 1 . A l s o , s e e Yoshihara's manuscript and Sumida, "The Japanese i n B r i t i s h Columbia," p. 4 3 9 -4 " N i s e i s Receive School Awards," New Canadian, June 1 5 , 1 9 3 9 , p. 5 . A l s o , see B.C., Report of the P u b l i c Schools ( 1 9 2 4 - 2 5 ) , p. M118; ( 1 9 3 3 - 3 4 ) ; p. N.25; ( 1 9 3 4 - 3 5 ) , P . S 2 7 ; ( 1 9 3 6 - 3 7 ) , P-1 2 9 and ( 1 9 3 8 - 3 9 ) , p. H 3 1 . -115-1 m a t r i c u l a t i o n s t a n d i n g . In the f o l l o w i n g year, over 100 Japanese s u c c e s s f u l l y completed j u n i o r m a t r i c u l a t i o n r e q u i r e -2 ments. At the same time, s c h o o l o f f i c i a l s recommended s i x t y -3 f i v e N i s e i s f o r h i g h s c h o o l m a t r i c u l a t i o n . By the 1930's a g r e a t e r percentage of Japanese students out of those students a t t e n d i n g elementary, h i g h and commercial s c h o o l s graduated 4 than d i d t h e i r white c o u n t e r p a r t s . The N i s e i s were a l s o very a c t i v e i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . For i n s t a n c e , a l a r g e l y Japanese c h o i r captured the Stevens S h i e l d at the B r i t i s h Columbia Music F e s t i v a l i n 1930. Noting the d i v e r s e e t h n i c composition of the c h o i r , the a d j u d i c a t o r p r a i s e d the c h i l d r e n f o r t h e i r c o - o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t s . ~* In 1939, the Toronto Conservatory of Music presented 1 " C o n g r a t u l a t i o n s , " New Canadian, J u l y 1, 1939, p. 2 and "Matric Students Win Success," New Canadian, August 1, 1939, p. 6. 2 " S u c c e s s f u l N i s e i M a t r i c u l a n t s Announced," New Canadian, J u l y 24, 1940, p. 1. E i g h t y - t h r e e Japanese o b t a i n e d t h e i r j u n i o r m a t r i c u l a t i o n i n Vancouver at the B r i t a n n i a , K i n g Edward, Vancouver T e c h n i c a l , Grandview Commerce and Magee hig h s c h o o l s . One student r e c e i v e d i t by correspondence while l i v i n g i n Tokyo. 3 "School S l a n t s , " New Canadian, J u l y 1, 1940, p. 20. 4 Report of the Survey of the Second Generation Japanese, p. 13- These f i g u r e s might be m i s l e a d i n g . C e r t a i n l y , not a l l Japanese students were a c a d e m i c a l l y o r i e n t e d . As e a r l y as 1915, Japanese students attended King Edward High School f o r v o c a t i o n -a l t r a i n i n g i n e l e c t r i c i t y and wood and metal working. See B.C., Report of the P u b l i c Schools (1915-16), p. A72. 5 W o o l l a c o t t , " O r i e n t a l Born Canadians," p. 53• -116-f i f t y N i s e i s with diplomas w h i l e i n 1940 the Conservatory awarded another f i f t y N i s e i s with s i m i l a r honours."*" Besides t h e i r a v i d i n t e r e s t i n music, Japanese students p a r t i c i p a t e d i n student r a d i o b r o a d c a s t s , b a s k e t b a l l , rugby, t e n n i s , debating, r e c i t a l s , s e r v i c e c l u b s and s c h o o l money r a i s i n g p r o j e c t s . Although the N i s e i showed z e a l i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , the I s s e i o f t e n f e l t t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n were not r e a l i z i n g the f u l l b e n e f i t s of s c h o o l pro-grams. One Japanese put i t t h i s way: Those i n s c h o o l should take f u l l b e n e f i t of t h e i r o p p o r t u n i t i e s . How can t h i s best be e f f e c t e d ? By mere study? No.' N i s e i on the whole have made the mistake of n e g l e c t i n g many d u t i e s which s c h o o l and e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t y e n t a i l s — a c t i v i t y along p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l s e r -v i c e and a t h l e t i c l i n e s . E s p e c i a l l y i n a c t i v e are the g i r l s . Let us remedy t h i s u n f l a t t e r i n g c o n d i t i o n . Let us j o i n i n on a year of unprecedented a c t i v i t y on our p a r t so t h a t on g r a d u a t i o n we w i l l be b e t t e r prepared to stand shoulder t o shoulder w i t h our f e l l o w - c i t i z e n s . . . . 1 " F i f t y N i s e i s Awarded Music C e r t i f i c a t e s At P r e s e n t a t i o n , " New Canadian, October 13, 1939, P- 1 and "Many N i s e i pass Toronto Music T e s t s , " New Canadian, J u l y 1, 1940, p. 7* 2 " N i s e i A c t i v e i n Our S c h o o l s , " New Canadian, March 1, 1939, p. 4; " N i s e i s i n Radio Broadcast," New Canadian, December 7, 1939, p. 1; and " N i s e i Take P a r t i n School Bazaar," New Cana-dian, November 3, 1939, p. 4. 3 "High School H i g h l i g h t s , " New Canadian, October 6, 1939, p. 4« Undoubtedly, " p o l i t i c a l " r e f e r s to student c o u n c i l work. I t was a p a r t i c u l a r honour among the N i s e i to be e l e c t e d t o student governing bodies and to p a r t i c i p a t e i n c i v i c a f f a i r s . One Japanese student r e c e i v e d a p a r t i c u l a r honour. Yutaka -117-Many p u b l i c s c h o o l t e a c h e r s v o i c e d the same o p i n i o n by p o i n t i n g out t h a t the "average N i s e i [ d i d ] not p a r t i c i p a t e i n as many a c t i v i t i e s as they should.""^ What r e s u l t e d , t h e r e f o r e , was a campaign t o encourage the N i s e i t o j o i n as many s c h o o l a c t i v i -t i e s as was p o s s i b l e . One remark was p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g : There are committees of a l l d e s c r i p t i o n s where a person's e x e c u t i v e a b i l i t i e s may be developed, debate s o c i e t i e s where o r a t o r i c a l and f o r e n s i c experience may be gained; numerous l i b r a r y , s c i e n c e a r t s , modern language, and hobby c l u b s g i v e p l a y t o one's knowledge or t a l e n t s ; s t i l l more r e c r e a t i o n a l c l u b s which a f f o r d r e l a x a t i o n and enjoyment; and l a s t l y s p o r t s which, i n a d d i t i o n t o i t s d e f i n i t e p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l v a l u e , tempts the i n d i v i d u a l with the l u r e of fame and g l o r y . Obviously, the I s s e i managed to impart a r e s p e c t f o r 3 education t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n . L i k e t h e i r p a r e n t s , the N i s e i s a p p r e c i a t e d and honored the work done by s c h o o l t e a c h e r s . One g i r l expressed her o p i n i o n t h i s way: Next t o the l o v e of our parents i s the l o v e of our t e a c h e r s . Great indeed are the d i f f i c u l t i e s e xperienced by our t e a c h e r s while they are e d u c a t i n g us. But we sometimes Kobayashi, a Richmond h i g h s c h o o l student, was chosen as one of seventeen students t o a t t e n d the Coronation of George VI. See " E l i z a b e t h Yamashita I n s t a l l e d As Student Prexy," New  Canadian, September 29, 1939, P« 5 and B.C., Report of the  P u b l i c Schools (1936-37), p. 1131. 1 "High School H i g h l i g h t s , " New Canadian, October 6, 1939, p. 4. 2 I b i d . T h i s p o i n t i s r e i t e r a t e d i n "High School H i g h l i g h t s , " New Canadian, October 13, 1939, p. 4. 3 " N i s e i E d u c a t i o n , " New Canadian, August 21, 1940, p. 4--118-f o r g e t t h e i r kindness and t u r n our backs on t h e i r i n s t r u c -t i o n . In s p i t e of t h i s , with unchanged l o v e and t e a r s they continue to teach us.^ The N i s e i s a l s o r e a l i z e d t h a t the s c h o o l was the best p o s s i b l e 2 p l a c e f o r a c c u l t u r a t i o n . They f e l t t h a t c o n t a c t with c h i l d r e n 3 of other races was h e a l t h y and s h o u l d be encouraged. Yet, i f the s c h o o l s were a v e h i c l e f o r a c c u l t u r a t i o n , they a l s o brought t o l i g h t some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s f a c i n g the Japanese. Hide Hyodo made an e x c e l l e n t a n a l y s i s of the o v e r a l l s i t u a t i o n . She p o i n t e d out t h a t Japanese and white c h i l d r e n enjoyed amicable r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i l e at s c h o o l but t h a t s o c i a l i n t e r -course a b r u p t l y ended a f t e r g r a d u a t i o n . The s c h o o l simply 4 f a i l e d t o r e f l e c t g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n s i n the g r e a t e r community. Hyodo's p o i n t was w e l l taken. The p u b l i c s c h o o l was remarkably s u c c e s s f u l i n a c c u l t u r a t i n g the N i s e i but i t a l s o brought d i s -t r e s s and f r u s t r a t i o n . The s c h o o l s taught democracy and e q u a l i t y , p r i n c i p l e s which the Japanese q u i c k l y l e a r n e d d i d not always extend beyond the bounds of the classroom. One N i s e i g i r l observed b i t t e r l y : In the s c hools of B r i t i s h Columbia c h i l d r e n of every race are molded i n t o Canadian p a t t e r n [ s i c j ; each becomes 1 " P r i z e Winning Speech," New Canadian, August 21, 1940, p. 4-2 "Magee Medley," New Canadian, June 15, 1939, P« 5. 3 Yuasa, "We Must Lose To Win," p. 305-4 "Contacts A f t e r Graduation," New Canadian, May 27, 1939, p. 13. -119-a Canadian p a t r i o t . . . and the hands t h a t shape the process . . . are s u r e l y guided t o put our democratic i d e a l s i n t o p r a c t i c e . But c h i l d r e n soon l e a r n t h a t these p r i n c i p l e s are too commonly f o r g o t t e n i n l i f e a f t e r s c h o o l . Soon they l e a r n t h a t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and i n e q u a l i t y . . . e x i s t i n many powerful forms. They have cause t o look with b i t t e r n e s s upon the s t a t e . . . i n e v i t a b l y t h e i r b e l i e f i n Canadian i d e a l s i s shaken.^ The e d i t o r of the B.C. Teacher agreed with the young N i s e i t h a t i t was u n j u s t t o t r e a t Japanese c h i l d r e n w i t h f a i r n e s s d u r i n g t h e i r s c h o o l l i v e s and then t o "break t h e i r h e a r t s , p a r a l y z e t h e i r normal human hopes and ambitions by v a r y i n g degrees of s o c i a l o s t r a c i s m and by the c u r t a i l m e n t of 2 p o l i t i c a l r i g h t s . " S. I c h i y e Hayakawa, perhaps the most a r t i c u l a t e of a l l Japanese spokesmen, o f f e r e d h i s thoughts on the s i t u a t i o n . He claimed t h a t Japanese c h i l d r e n e a g e r l y accepted the " p a t r i o t i c and i d e a l i s t i c sentiments of [ t h e i r ] Canadian t e a c h e r s . " Teachers e x p l a i n e d t o the c h i l d r e n the i d e a l s of democracy and i t was the t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n t h a t the N i s e i c o u l d thank f o r a p o s i t i o n which bordered on the s c h i z o p h r e n i c : . . . the Japanese-Canadian has t o a great extent h i s Canadian s c h o o l - t e a c h e r s and p r o f e s s o r s t o thank f o r h i s present admirable a t t i t u d e . I t i s they who, f o r b e t t e r or worse, i n c u l c a t e such p o l i t i c a l i d e a s i n t o him and i t i s a l s o they who have encouraged him to persevere i n 1 "Loyal Canadians," New Canadian, June 5, 1940, p. 2, 2 E d i t o r , " C a n a d i a n i z a t i o n , " B.C. Teacher, XX, No. 10 (June, 1 9 4 D , P. 445--120-those i d e a l s . (For a l l t h a t i s s a i d a g a i n s t the t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n , the s c h o o l - t e a c h e r s are the ones who do the r e a l work i n the matter of s p r e a d i n g and p e r p e t u a t i n g the i d e a l s of s o c i e t y among i t s members). Consequently, when-ever p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s b r i n g misery to the young Japanese Canadian by p o i n t i n g him out as the l i t t l e y e l l o w r a t t h a t i s gnawing out the v i t a l s of p r o v i n c i a l p r o s p e r i t y , i t i s the t e a c h e r who r e a s s u r e s him and comforts him, and t e l l s him t h a t democracy i s democracy, or w i l l be.^ D e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t the s c h o o l taught one t h i n g while s o c i e t y d i d another, the N i s e i n e v e r t h e l e s s maintained a sur-p r i s i n g l y a l t r u i s t i c view of education. L i k e t h e i r parents, the N i s e i c o n s i d e r e d education t o be more than simple v o c a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n ; education was v a l u a b l e i n i t s e l f : True education teaches us t o reach our own c o n c l u s i o n s by t h i n k i n g c r i t i c a l l y and independently and make [ s i c j our own d e c i s i o n s of r i g h t and wrong, of good and e v i l on the b a s i s of r e a l knowledge . . . True education which appeals t o reason seeks t r u t h . . . . One N i s e i g i r l s t e a d f a s t l y r e f u s e d t o admit defeat and hoped t h a t c o n d i t i o n s would improve some day. She committed her thoughts t o poetry: Your b r a i n , your deep mind was so designed t o mold our hopes and dreams, to make our name our p l a c e , s e c u r e r f o r t h i s round and f o r the coming ones.'^ One can a t t r i b u t e the N i s e i ' s keenness f o r education 1 S. I c h i y e Hayakawa, "The Japanese Canadian: An Experiment In C i t i z e n s h i p , " Dalhousie Review, XVI, No. 1 ( A p r i l , 1 9 3 0 ) , p 2 "Voice of A N i s e i , " New Canadian, November, 1940, p. 6. 3 Miyo Ishawata, "The N i s e i Canadian," B.C. Teacher, XX, No 3 (November, 1940), p. 6. -121-to the a t t i t u d e taken by the I s s e i . As a r u l e , Japanese parents h e l d education i n very h i g h esteem, perhaps because they r e a l i z e d t h a t education was a means of a c h i e v i n g a h i g h e r s t a t u s than had been a t t a i n e d i n Japan. A l r e a d y f a m i l i a r w ith the b e n e f i t s of education from experiences i n Japan, they r e a l i z e d t h a t modern education aimed at s p e c i a l i z a t i o n but nonetheless f e l t t h a t education had a f a r g r e a t e r r o l e , "the 2 t r a i n i n g of the mind t o meet s i t u a t i o n s i n l i f e . " One observer s t a t e d : The Japanese mothers are p a r t i c u l a r l y impressed with the importance of e d u c a t i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n , and they deny themselves much to have them p r o p e r l y equipped f o r s c h o o l , and i t i s o n l y j u s t t o add t h a t the Japanese c h i l d r e n i n Canadian s c h o o l s , by the i n t e l l i g e n t grasp of t h e i r s t u d i e s and t h e i r courteous demeanour, do t h e i r mothers i n f i n i t e c r e d i t . Moreover, the Japanese showed gr e a t r e s p e c t towards p u b l i c s c h o o l t e a c h e r s , o f t e n honouring p a r t i c u l a r educators f o r t h e i r s e r v i c e t o the Japanese community. Such was the case w i t h Dr. Norman F. Black, e d i t o r of the B.C. Teacher, whom 4 the Japanese r e c o g n i z e d as a "staunch and l o y a l f r i e n d . " 1 M o d e l l , " T r a d i t i o n and Opportunity," p. 178. 2 "Parents L e c t u r e i n P l a c e of P r o f s , " New Canadian, November 29. 1940, p. 3« A l s o , see Harry L. K i t a n o , Japanese Americans: The E v o l u t i o n of a S u b c u l t u r e (Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1969), p. 23. 3 Henderson, "The Japanese i n B r i t i s h Columbia," p. 11. 4 " L e t t e r s t o the E d i t o r , " New Canadian, A p r i l 5, 1940, p. 2 and "Rupert Fetes R e t i r i n g School Teacher," New Canadian, Decem-ber 18, 1941, p. 7--122-On the other hand, t e a c h e r s honoured by the Japanese r e c o g n i z e d the v a l u a b l e r o l e p l a y e d by Japanese parents. Mr. J . F i t c h e t t , a t e a c h e r at the Sea I s l a n d School, p a i d t r i b u t e to the I s s e i i n a banquet speech: The Japanese Canadian p u p i l s behave very e x c e l l e n t l y at s c h o o l , and t h i s can w e l l be a t t r i b u t e d t o the conduct at home and t o the f a c t t h a t parents take a sound i n t e r -est i n t h e i r c h i l d ' s e d u c a t i o n . ^ Co-operation between Japanese parents and p u b l i c s c h o o l t e a c h e r s was q u i t e common as both p a r t i e s f r e q u e n t l y 2 met t o d i s c u s s problems p e c u l i a r t o Japanese s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . Many I s s e i s a l r e a d y belonged t o the B o s h i k a i ( o r Japanese Language School A s s o c i a t i o n ) and now were urged by the N i s e i t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n P.T.A. a c t i v i t i e s . Here was "an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the I s s e i s not onl y t o take p a r t i n the shaping of the des-t i n y of t h e i r c h i l d r e n , but a l s o t o f u r n i s h s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s 3 with other people i n the community." The Japanese b e l i e v e d t h a t these p a r l e y s with p u b l i c s c h o o l t e a c h e r s were of great importance: T h i s mutual exchange of id e a s between O c c i d e n t a l t e a c h e r s and Japanese parents i s a most v a l u e d one. Through h e a r i n g 1 " T r i b u t e P a i d to Japanese P u p i l s , " New Canadian, September 1, 1939, p. 1. 2 "School Heads Address F a i r v i e w P.T.A.," New Canadian, May 9, 1941, p. 5. 3 "High School Observes P.T.A. Week," New Canadian, October 20, 1939, p. 4. -123-the views of the t e a c h e r s , the parents can a p p r e c i a t e more f u l l y the changes to which t h e i r c h i l d r e n must a d j u s t them-s e l v e s i n Canadian s c h o o l s . ^ Japanese parents l i s t e n e d i n t e n t l y t o the t e a c h e r s e x p l a i n the areas of d i f f i c u l t y which the N i s e i encountered. Of course, many t e a c h e r s had the impression t h a t b i l i n g u a l i s m was the most s e r i o u s problem because i t h i n d e r e d the a c q u i s i t i o n of E n g l i s h and s e p a r a t e d the N i s e i from t h e i r white s c h o o l chums. A l s o , s c h o o l o f f i c i a l s c a u t i o n e d parents a g a i n s t removing t h e i r c h i l d r e n from schools b e f o r e the end of term; a p r a c t i c e which many I s s e i saw as a f i n a n c i a l n e c e s s i t y . But the I s s e i d i d more than j*ust act as p a s s i v e r e c e p t o r s i n these meetings with p u b l i c s c h o o l o f f i c i a l s . They promoted a c o n t i n u i n g d i a l o g u e by p o i n t -i n g out a c e n t r a l weakness of the s c h o o l system. The I s s e i pleaded f o r the s c h o o l s to more c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r the Japanese f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n and c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e when d e a l i n g with Japanese c h i l d r e n . Undoubtedly, t h i s l e d t o a much f i n e r under-2 s t a n d i n g of Japanese p u p i l s and t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r problems. Besides making t h e i r presence f e l t i n elementary and h i g h s c h o o l s , the Japanese achieved a remarkable r e c o r d at the 1 "Parents and Teachers," New Canadian, June 19, 1940, p. 2. 2 "Parents, Teachers D i s c u s s P u p i l s , " New Canadian, June 15, 1939? P- 1. A l s o , see T h i e s s e n , "Subj*ects -- But Not C i t i z e n s , " p. 15. One w r i t e r suggests t h a t the N i s e i " a s s e r t e d more con-f i d e n c e i n education as a means to s u c c e s s " than d i d the I s s e i . The evidence p r e s e n t e d here throws some doubt on t h i s statement. See D a h l i e , "Some Aspects of the Education of M i n o r i t i e s , " p. 9--124-U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. L i k e l y , t h e r e were few pro-t e s t s a g a i n s t the attendance of Japanese at the u n i v e r s i t y . C h a r l e s E. Hope who opposed, e n r o l l i n g O r i e n t a l s i n elementary and h i g h s c h o o l s welcomed the Japanese at the u n i v e r s i t y because they would help Canada and Japan "to know each other better.""*" The f i r s t Japanese t o graduate from the u n i v e r s i t y 2 was C h i t o s e Uchida who r e c e i v e d her degree i n 1916. Between t h a t year and 1941, seventy-three Japanese i n c l u d i n g t en women graduated i n a r t s , commerce, e n g i n e e r i n g and a g r i c u l t u r e ; 3 twenty of these graduates h e l d more than one degree. Gradu-ates found employment i n d e n t i s t r y , t e a c h i n g , j o u r n a l i s m , s e c r e t a r i a l work, a g r i c u l t u r e , ( g e n e r a l ) b u s i n e s s , insurance and the m i n i s t r y . ^ In 1941, t h i r t y - t h r e e of f o r t y - e i g h t graduates s t i l l r e s i d i n g i n Canada l i v e d i n Vancouver while 1 Hope, " B r i t i s h Columbia's R a c i a l Problem," (Part I I ) , p. 49-2 " F i r s t D i r e c t o r y On Japanese Grads To Appear S h o r t l y , " New  Canadian, November 24, 1939, p. 1. 3 "U.B.C. Grad B u l l e t i n Now Off the P r e s s , " New Canadian, August 8, 1941, P' !• For an exact enumeration of Japanese graduates and undergraduates and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e f i e l d s f o r 1939 and 1940 see " N i s e i Grads Awarded Degrees," New Canadian, May 15, 1930, p. 1 and "Seven N i s e i s Win U.B.C. Degrees," New Canadian, May 8, 1940, p. 1. A check of the U.B.C. yearbook, The Totem, between 1916 and 1941 s u b s t a n t i a t e s much of the i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n here. See The Totem (Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1916-1941). 4 " F i r s t D i r e c t o r y On Japanese Grads To Appear S h o r t l y , " New Canadian, November 24, 1939, P« !• -125-twenty-one of the remainder had r e t u r n e d t o Japan or were i n Manchukuo, a Japanese protectorate."*" T h i s l a t t e r f i g u r e aroused the s u s p i c i o n t h a t many N i s e i were s t u d y i n g at the u n i v e r s i t y 2 with a view t o making t h e i r l i v e l x h o o d i n Japan. However, a survey i n d i c a t e d t h a t most N i s e i t r a v e l l e d t o Japan f o r ex-3 tended study r a t h e r than f o r employment purposes. N i s e i were u n l i k e l y t o take up permanent r e s i d e n c e i n Japan because of the d i f f i c u l t y i n c u l t u r a l and economic adjustment. Moreover, some of the Japanese who d i d go t o Japan had been born t h e r e and had 4 o n l y come to B r i t i s h Columbia t o a t t e n d the u n i v e r s i t y . In the l a t e 1930's the average Japanese u n i v e r s i t y enrollment was approximately f i f t y s t u d e n t s . ^ To a s s i s t the 1 "U.B.C. Grad B u l l e t i n Now Off The P r e s s , " New Canadian, August 8, 1941, P« 1. 2 "A Higher Education For N i s e i — Hopeless," New Canadian, January 5, 1940, p. 2. 3 "The N i s e i In Japan," New Canadian, March 15, 1940, p. 3. 4 "Just The Same We Go To C o l l e g e , " New Canadian, May 14, 1941, p. 2. I t might be contended t h a t the s u r p r i s i n g l y h i g h number of Japanese u n i v e r s i t y students r e s u l t e d not from p u b l i c s c h o o l i n g i n B.C. but from the f a c t t h a t many N i s e i r e c e i v e d some s c h o o l i n g i n Japan and c o n t i n u e d i t here. T h i s p o s i t i o n i s c h a l l e n g e d i n Dorothy Swaine Thomas, The Salvage (Los Angeles: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P ress, 1952). 5 A c t u a l enrollments f o r 1938, 1939 and 1940 were 50, 60 and 50 r e s p e c t i v e l y . See, " F i f t y at U n i v e r s i t y , " New Canadian, November 24, 1938, p. 4; "Past-Present-and-Future," New Canadian, September 22, 1939, p. 1; "On The Newsfront," New Canadian, Sep-tember 11, 1940, p. 1 -126-growing numbers of Japanese on campus, the Japanese Students' Club was formed i n 1932. The Club sought t o promote p r i d e i n s c h o l a r s h i p among i t s students and to develop b e t t e r under-s t a n d i n g between the N i s e i and the g r e a t e r community. The Club's program i n c l u d e d the sponsorship of an annual high s c h o o l o r a t o r i c a l c o n t e s t , a y e a r l y parent-student meeting where both E n g l i s h and Japanese were spoken, and a v a r i e t y of s o c i a l and a t h l e t i c events."*" In 1937, the Club sent two delegates t o the T h i r d N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y Students' Confer-ence at Winnipeg. I t a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h r e e Japan-America 2 Students' Conferences h e l d i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . In February, 1941, the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia suspended the C h a r t e r of the Japanese Students' Club> a move which prompted Japanese f e a r s of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . However, i t seemed t h a t the Club had f a i l e d t o make i t s a c t i v i t y r e p o r t s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e to the student's s o c i e t y . W i t h i n a few days the u n i v e r s i t y r e i n s t a t e d the Club a f t e r i t promised t o pro-3 duce a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n which the student s o c i e t y r e q u i r e d . Indeed, t h i s one i n c i d e n t was the onl y blemish on the Club's r e c o r d . L. S. K l i n k , P r e s i d e n t of the U n i v e r s i t y , found 1 "Student Club t o Confer with Parents," New Canadian, November 14, 1941, P- 2. 2 " F i f t y At U n i v e r s i t y , " New Canadian, November 24, 1938, p. 4. 3 "Student Club Wins O f f i c i a l A p proval," New Canadian, February 7, 1941, P- 3--127-t h a t the Club's students performed w e l l a c a d e m i c a l l y and were becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y i n v o l v e d i n campus a c t i v i t i e s . " * " In 1936, Japanese graduates formed the U.B.C. Japanese Alumni A s s o c i a t i o n and chose C h i t o s e Uchida as t h e i r f i r s t v i c e - p r e s i d e n t . A l s o on the e x e c u t i v e were Reverend K. Shimizu and Dr. Edward Banno. P r i o r t o the war, the A s s o c i a t i o n became f a i r l y a c t i v e i n alumni a f f a i r s . For i n s t a n c e , the A s s o c i a t i o n c o l l e c t e d funds f o r the u n i v e r s i t y l i b r a r y , a gesture which was r e c o g n i z e d by both the l i b r a r i a n and the Board of Governors. I t a l s o maintained c o n t a c t with Japanese who had l e f t the 2 p r o v i n c e . The p u b l i c g r a d u a l l y came t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t the l e a d e r s of the Japanese would, i n the f u t u r e , come from among N i s e i u n i v e r s i t y graduates. A r t h u r W o o l l a c o t t s t a t e d : Leadership i n t h e i r communities n a t u r a l l y f e l l i n t o t h e i r hands, and they were those i n a p o s i t i o n t o repay the country of t h e i r b i r t h by a community s e r v i c e t h a t w i l l be of great value i n the f u t u r e . Having a c q u i r e d western l e a r n i n g and an understanding of western l i f e , they are i n a p o s i t i o n t o i n t e r p r e t the European, the American, and 1 " N i s e i U n i v e r s i t y Students," New Canadian, May 27, 1939, p. 6. For i n s t a n c e , seven Japanese were e n r o l l e d i n the O f f i c e r s T r a i n i n g Corps. See "Many Cadets T a c k l e F i r s t M i l i -t a r y Exam," New Canadian, December 18, 1941, p. 1. For academic success,see "How Japanese Student Won Highest U.B.C. Award," P r o v i n c e , May 6, 1937, P« 1. 2 See the f o l l o w i n g i s s u e s of the New Canadian: " E d i t o r i a l , " December 29, 1938, p. 3; " D e n t i s t F i g h t s For N i s e i Cause," J u l y 15, 1939, p. 3; and "U.B.C. Alumni Meet," March 15, 1939, -128-the Canadian to t h e i r l e s s informed countrymen.^ The N i s e i who had attended U.B.C. were a l s o very much aware of t h e i r f a v o r e d r o l e i n the community. They saw themselves as l e a d e r s of an oppressed m i n o r i t y group. The f o l l o w i n g comment, although somewhat g l i b , was a f a i r l y a c c urate d e s c r i p t i o n of N i s e i sentiment: The U n i v e r s i t y i s a p l a c e where not only l e a r n i n g but almost e v e r y t h i n g i s d i s s i p a t e d i n moderation. Of course, one must expect to make exceptions f o r the p e r v e r t e d few who s p e c i a l i z e i n excess a b s o r p t i o n of book-knowledge or of s o c i a l p l e a s u r e s or a t h l e t i c g l o r y . N i s e i U n i v e r s i t y men of today, whatever t h e i r other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may be, are p r i s o n e r s of an oppressed m i n o r i t y group. I t i s t o them t h a t the community i n -v a r i a b l y l o o k s f o r l e a d e r s h i p i n making new adventures i n u n t r i e d f i e l d s . Yet, not a l l Japanese saw the u n i v e r s i t y t h i s way. Some even questioned the u s e f u l n e s s of o b t a i n i n g a u n i v e r s i t y e ducation as i t became more and more obvious t h a t Japanese graduates experienced great d i f f i c u l t y o b t a i n i n g p o s i t i o n s f o r which they had been t r a i n e d . However, t h i s f e e l i n g was not a p r e v a l e n t one. R e a l i z i n g t h a t a u n i v e r s i t y education was not n e c e s s a r i l y a key t o v o c a t i o n a l success, the Japanese showed a marvellous i n s i g h t i n t o the value of h i g h e r l e a r n i n g . U n i v e r s i t y education was f o r them a "step i n o b t a i n i n g a proper 1 W o o l l a c o t t , " O r i e n t a l Born Canadians," p. 54« 2 " N i s e i Students And V a r s i t y L i f e , " New Canadian, September 15, 1939, p. 4-background, an i n t e l l e c t u a l pe m e r i t s which c o u l d prove of i n l e s s o n s which are ours when we l e s s o n s of experience. "^ r s p e c t i v e f o r the r e c o g n i t i o n c a l c u l a b l e value t o the g r e a t s h a l l go out i n t o l i f e — the 1 "A Higher Education For N i s e i -January 5, 1940, p. 2. - Hopeless?" New Canadian 0 CHAPTER V THE TURMOIL OF THE 1930 'S. The 1930's unleashed a resurgence of anti-Japanese a g i t a t i o n as o r g a n i z a t i o n s l i k e the White Canada A s s o c i a t i o n and the N a t i v e Sons of B.C. sought to r a l l y p u b l i c o p i n i o n a g a i n s t the Japanese."^ The New Westminster Canadian Legion and the New Westminster P r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n made v i c i o u s a t t a c k s on the Japanese, a c c u s i n g them of s q u a l i d 2 l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s and of s c h o o l tax evasion. At the same time, a f l o o d of anti-Japanese l i t e r a t u r e h i t the market. F. L e i g h t o n Thomas's The Octopus of the East and I t s Menace 3 t o Canada was f a i r l y t y p i c a l of the hate l i t e r a t u r e . 1 M o r r i s , " C o n d i t i o n i n g F a c t o r s Molding P u b l i c Opinion In B r i t i s h Columbia," p. 16. A l s o , see Adachi, H i s t o r y of the  Japanese Canadians, p. 9« Other l i t e r a t u r e , w h i le not d e a l -i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y with the Japanese, probably c o n t r i b u t e d t o anti-Japanese sentiment. For i n s t a n c e , see W. B. Hurd, "De c l i n e of the Anglo-Saxon Canadian," Maclean's,L, No. 17 (September 1, 1937), PP- 13, 45. 2 "Assigns Japanese In B.C.," P r o v i n c e , June 16, 1937, p. 7 and "Legion P r o t e s t s O r i e n t a l s i n B.C.," P r o v i n c e , December 8, 1939, p. 7. 3 F. Leighton Thomas, The Octopus of the East and I t s Menace  t o Canada (Vancouver: A. H. Timmins, 1932). A l s o , see Are You  An Accomplice i n T h i s Crime? (Vancouver: Canadian League For Peace And Democracy, n.d.) and Are You In Favour of T h i s ? (Vancouver: The M e d i c a l A i d For China Committee, n.d.). -131-Much of the anti-Japanese sentiment was a t t r i b u t a b l e to the r i v a l r y between the l o c a l Chinese and Japanese communi-ties."'" Chinese spokesmen warned t h a t the Japanese had "provided themselves with powerful armaments" and were now a 2 power t o be f e a r e d . Of course, the Chinese along with pro-Chinese groups such as the F r i e n d s of the Chinese People p o i n t e d t o the s i t u a t i o n i n Manchukuo as an example of Japanese 3 t r e a c h e r y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the l o c a l Japanese found i t extreme-l y d i f f i c u l t t o d i s a s s o c i a t e themselves from the a c t i o n s of the Japanese government. C r i t i c s were quick to draw a t t e n t i o n t o the f a c t t h a t B r i t i s h Columbia Japanese had f o r years maintained 4 c l o s e t i e s with the Japanese Consulate. The Japanese d i s t r i -buted pamphlets throughout the p r o v i n c e "to meet u n f a i r and untrue propaganda, and i n an e f f o r t t o c l e a r away misunderstand-i n g s which may have a r i s e n , so t h a t the people of Canada may f e e l t h a t t h e r e i s no reason why the mutual t r u s t and f r i e n d s h i p 1 C. J . Woodsworth, Canada and the O r i e n t , p. 202 and "What We Are Reading," B.C. Teacher, XVII, No. 7 (March, 1938), p. 359. 2 Angus, "A C o n t r i b u t i o n t o I n t e r n a t i o n a l I l l - W i l l , " p. 27. A l s o , see "Current Events -- China Today," B.C. Teacher, VI, No. 7 (March, 1927), pp. 39-42. 3 "Weekly W h i r l i g i g , " New Canadian, March 14, 1941, p. 4« 4 For examples, see "J.S.C. Parent-Student Meet at Nippon Club," New Canadian, January 19, 1940, p. 5; "Strathcona Old Boys to Hold Reunion," New Canadian, January 17, 1941, p. 1. -132-. s h o u l d not f l o u r i s h and grow throughout the years t o come.""'" However, i t i s d o u b t f u l whether t h i s type of m a t e r i a l g r e a t l y a i d e d the Japanese cause. By the 1930's the N i s e i were e x p e r i e n c i n g problems i n o b t a i n i n g s u i t a b l e employment. At f i r s t g l ance, t h i s would not appear t o have been the case s i n c e i n 1893 the number of Japanese occupations ( i n B r i t i s h Columbia) was o n l y s i x but 2 by 1933 had r i s e n t o s i x t y . Although the i n c r e a s e i n the number of occupations was s i g n i f i c a n t i t was undoubtedly due t o the simple f a c t t h a t by 1933 t h e r e were many more Japanese i n the p r o v i n c e . As e a r l y as 1897? the L e g i s l a t u r e attempted 3 t o r e s t r i c t Japanese c h o i c e s of employment. In t h i s and i n subsequent a c t i o n the government claimed t h a t i t d i d not seek t o r e s t r i c t the Japanese from a l l t r a d e s but wished merely to prevent them from monopolizing c e r t a i n segments of the economy.' Supposedly, the government " s c r u p u l o u s l y a b s t a i n e d from any i n t e r f e r e n c e with the employment of Japanese by p r i v a t e . . . companies, and has not sought t o put any r e s t r i c t i o n s on t h e i r 1 Sino-Japanese C o n f l i c t E l u c i d a t e d (Vancouver: Canadian Japanese A s s o c i a t i o n , ; 1 9 3 7 ) • A l s o , see Common Sense and the  Japanese Emergency (Japan: Osaka M a i n i c h i , 1937)• 2 Adachi, H i s t o r y of the Japanese Canadians, p. 6. 3 B.C., J o u r n a l s (1897)? p. 51. 4 For example, see B.C., J o u r n a l s (I898), p. 149. - 1 3 3 -engaging i n any o r d i n a r y o c c u p a t i o n or busi n e s s . . . ." More l i k e l y , the r e a l reason was t h a t the Dominion government would step i n i f the work of the L e g i s l a t u r e became too d i s -. . . 2 c r i m i n a t o r y . Even though c o n v i n c i n g arguments had shown the Japanese t o be l i t t l e t h r e a t t o the economy, the p r o v i n c i a l government 3 never ceased i t s attempts t o r e s t r i c t Japanese occupations. The 1 9 2 0 ' s and 1 9 3 0 ' s saw the L e g i s l a t u r e renew i t s a n t i -Japanese immigration, t o p r o h i b i t the purchase of timber, m i n e r a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d s , and to prevent p r o p r i e t a r y 4 i n t e r e s t s i n f i s h i n g e n t e r p r i s e s . Moreover, the government 1 B.C., S e s s i o n a l Papers ( 1 9 0 0 ) , pp. 4 9 8 - 4 9 9 (Return t o an Address t o H i s Honour the Lieutenant-Governor, a s k i n g him to be l a i d b e f o r e the House a l l correspondence, memorials and documents between the Dominion Government and the P r o v i n c i a l Government, r e l a t i v e t o the di s a l l o w a n c e by the Dominion Government of the "Labour R e g u l a t i o n Act, l 8 9 8 , " o r l e g i s l a -t i o n of a s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r s i n c e the Return presented t o the House on the 1 8 t h January, 1 8 9 9 ) . 2 B.C., S e s s i o n a l Papers ( 1 8 9 9 ) , pp. 7 1 1 - 7 1 2 (Return t o an Address t o H i s Honour the Lieutenant-Governor, p r a y i n g him to cause t o be l a i d b e f o r e the House co p i e s of a l l correspondence between the Dominion Government and the P r o v i n c i a l Government, t o u c h i n g the p r o t e s t made by the Emperor of Japan t o the Im-p e r i a l Government, c a l l i n g i n q u e s t i o n the "Labour R e g u l a t i o n A c t , I898," or l e g i s l a t i o n of a s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r concerning Japanese s u b j e c t s ) . 3 A. S. W h i t e l y , "The O r i e n t a l i n B r i t i s h Columbia," Canadian Forum, IX, No. 1 0 6 ( J u l y , 1 9 2 9 ) , p. 3 4 2 . 4 B.C. J o u r n a l s ( 1 9 2 2 ) , pp. 6 0 , 1 3 7 - The V i c t o r i a D a i l y  C o l o n i s t ( i n 1 9 0 8 ) stood a g a i n s t e f f o r t s t o p r o h i b i t the Japanese from a c q u i r i n g l a n d . See "Japanese As Farmers," C o l o n i s t , June 1 2 , 1 9 0 8 , p. 4« -134-sought to p r o h i b i t a l l Japanese employment i n i n d u s t r i e s r e l a t e d t o these fields."*" In 1924? v a r i o u s government members sent l e t t e r s t o l a r g e employers, i n c l u d i n g the r a i l r o a d s , u r g i n g them to g r a d u a l l y e l i m i n a t e Japanese labour. The l e t t e r s may have had some e f f e c t at l e a s t with the r a i l r o a d s as by November, 1924? the number of O r i e n t a l l a b o u r e r s had 2 dropped twenty percent from the 1922 l e v e l . At the same time, the L e g i s l a t u r e even t r i e d t o l i m i t Japanese commercial e n t e r -3 p r i s e s . Yet, i t had the a u d a c i t y t o go on r e c o r d as b e i n g opposed to the " i n t r o d u c t i o n of r e s o l u t i o n s which . . . are 4 c a l c u l a t e d t o s t i r up r e l i g i o u s and r a c i a l d i s s e n s i o n . " D e s p i t e government r e s t r i c t i o n s , the Japanese found t h e i r way i n t o a v a r i e t y of j o b s . Because so many Japanese had been fishermen i n Japan i t was n a t u r a l t h a t they should have sought t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d i n B r i t i s h Columbia's f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y . ^ For a very s h o r t time, t h r e e months t o be exact, the Trades and Labour C o u n c i l of Vancouver r e c o g n i z e d a 1 B.C., J o u r n a l s (1937), P- 19; (1938), pp. 71, 119-2 B.C., J o u r n a l s (1924), p. 45. 3 B.C., J o u r n a l s (1924), p. 158. 4 B.C., J o u r n a l s (1925), p. 66. 5 Tien-Fang, O r i e n t a l Immigration i n Canada, p. 110; Canada, Report (1902), p. 390 fishermen's union comprised of Indians and Japanese."*" However, t h i s somewhat shaky a l l i a n c e crumbled when the (white) F i s h e r -men's Union charged the Japanese with i l l e g a l l y o b t a i n i n g f i s h i n g l i c e n s e s and demanded the use of government t r o o p s t o 2 ensure the enforcement of r e g u l a t i o n s . I t a l s o o c c u r r e d t o some fishermen t h a t the Japanese were t r y i n g t o i n f i l t r a t e the 3 i n d u s t r y and, thus, would one day c o n t r o l i t . Subsequently, the p o l i c e a r r e s t e d s i x Japanese but the ensuing t r i a l d i d not r e s u l t i n one c o n v i c t i o n . Even though the court a c q u i t t e d the defendants, the p u b l i c remained convinced t h a t the Japanese fishermen (and f o r t h a t matter, most Japanese) were g e n e r a l l y a dishonest l o t . ^ The r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t the Japanese i n the f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y c o n t i n u e d i n t o the 1920's and 1930's. One w r i t e r s t a t e d : 1 " O r i e n t a l P o p u l a t i o n , " P r o v i n c e , March 17, 1900, p. 4-T h i s was r a t h e r an u n l i k e l y a l l i a n c e c o n s i d e r i n g the I n d i a n a t t i t u d e towards the Japanese. See B a n c r o f t , The Works of  Hubert Howe B a n c r o f t . H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia: 1792-1887, p. 49; F r a n c i s E. H e r r i n g , Among the People of B r i t i s h Colum-b i a (London: T. F i s h e r Unwin, 1903), p. 283; Canada, Report (1902), p. 347. 2 Hope, " B r i t i s h Columbia's R a c i a l Problem" (Part I ) , p. 63-3 B.C., S.P. (1901), pp. 529-534- (Return of Correspondence r e l a t i n g t o f r a u d u l e n t n a t u r a l i z a t i o n of Japanese.) 4 "Do Japanese Make Good C i t i z e n s ? " P r o v i n c e , December 11, 1908, p. 7- N a t u r a l i z a t i o n s t a t i s t i c s seem t o bear t h i s out. See F a c t s About Japanese i n Canada And Other M i s c e l l a n e o u s  I n f o r m a t i o n (Ottawa: Consulate-General of Japan, 1922), p. 6. -136-The clumsy, i n e f f i c i e n t y e l l o w men who came t w e n t y - f i v e y ears ago l e a r n e d how t o handle the boats, taught t h e i r wives, and l a t e r became n a t u r a l i z e d when Canadian labou r stormed and p r o t e s t e d a g a i n s t f i s h i n g l i c e n s e s f o r O r i e n t a l s . ^ The w r i t e r f a i l e d t o e x p l a i n j u s t how the Japanese c o u l d have been so "clumsy" and y e t so s u c c e s s f u l as by 1925 they com-p r i s e d almost f i f t e e n percent of B r i t i s h Columbia's f i s h i n g l a b o u r . The Japanese a l s o sought employment i n the lumber i n d u s t r y and i t s r e l a t e d f i e l d s . Before the Japanese, Indians and Chinese had s u p p l i e d the bulk of n o n - s k i l l e d l a b o u r . In no time the Japanese e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r own b u s i n e s s e s and soon h e l d a v i r t u a l monopoly on s h i n g l e m i l l s and cordwood produc-3 t i o n . Undoubtedly, the labour shortage d u r i n g the F i r s t World 1 John Nelson, "Canada's O r i e n t a l Problem," Current H i s t o r y , XV, No. 3 (December, 1921), p. 465. 2 B.C., J o u r n a l s (1926-27), pp. 14-15» T h i s was an i n c r e a s e from about e i g h t percent of the f i s h i n g f o r c e i n 1919. For a resume of the e f f o r t s t o expel the Japanese from the f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y see Hozumi Yonemura, "Japanese Fishermen i n B r i t i s h Columbia and B r i t i s h F a i r P l a y , " Canadian Forum, X, No. 118 ( J u l y , 1930), p. 357. A d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on the number of Japanese i n the f i s h i n g l a b o r f o r c e may be o b t a i n e d from the Annual Reports of the Department of Labour as found i n the B.C., S e s s i o n a l Papers (1920-1940). However, these only show Japanese "employees" i n s e l e c t e d i n d u s t r i e s , and do not l i s t s e l f-employed Japanese. Furthermore, the Reports o f t e n deal with the Japanese a c c o r d i n g t o b i r t h p l a c e and thereby sometimes exclude N i s e i l abour. As such, t h i s m a t e r i a l i s v a l u a b l e as an i n d i c a t o r but by no means does i t supply a c c u r a t e data. 3 Canada, Report (1902), pp. 361-370; B.C., J o u r n a l s (1925) p. 178. -137-War enabled many Japanese t o o b t a i n work i n the lumber i n d u s -t r y . By 1918, the Japanese comprised t h i r t e e n percent of the i n d u s t r y ' s l a b o u r f o r c e but by 1925 t h i s had dropped t o seven percent. T h i s decrease may be a t t r i b u t e d t o the p r o v i n c i a l government's c o n t i n u i n g e f f o r t s t o e l i m i n a t e a l l O r i e n t a l l a b o u r from l o g g i n g operations."*" Although the Japanese engaged i n a l l phases of mining a c t i v i t y t h e i r numbers were never very l a r g e . By 1902, not 2 more than 300 Japanese found employment i n the mining i n d u s t r y . Of course, the p r o v i n c i a l government took steps t o ensure the e x c l u s i o n of the Japanese from mining o p e r a t i o n s because the "ignorance, c a r e l e s s n e s s , or n e g l i g e n c e " of the Japanese 3 endangered the l i v e s of white miners. When the government f a i l e d t o completely exclude Japanese l a b o u r , white miners began a t e r r o r campaign t o f o r c e O r i e n t a l s out. In one i n s t a n c e , 300 white miners " e s c o r t e d " s e v e n t y - f i v e Japanese from the town of A t l i n and made i t p e r f e c t l y c l e a r t h a t the Japanese had 1 B.C., J o u r n a l s (1926-27)? PP- 14-15- One source claimed t h e r e were 4?629 Japanese i n the lumber i n d u s t r y by 1918. See George Yamashita, "A H i s t o r y of the Occupations of the Japanese i n B r i t i s h Columbia" (unpublished B.A. Essay, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1942), pp. 27-28. However, a more accurate f i g u r e (1,565) i s s u p p l i e d i n Young, The Japanese Canadians, p. 48. 2 Canada, Report (1902), p. 372. Al s o , s e e B.C., J o u r n a l s (1902), p. 43; (1903), pp. 14, 35; (1905), p. 14-3 B.C., S t a t u t e s (1905), c. 26. -138-b e t t e r not return."** During World War One the Japanese formed approximately twe n t y - s i x percent of a l l c o a l mining labour. Yet, by 1922 t h i s had dropped t o eighteen percent. Three years l a t e r , by which time the Japanese accounted f o r only 1.18 percent of a l l mine lab o u r , they were p r a c t i c a l l y excluded from the metal 2 mining i n d u s t r y . The 1930's saw even fewer Japanese miners as depressed markets and d e c l i n i n g mining e x p l o r a t i o n caused 3 l a r g e s c a l e unemployment. With the c l o s u r e of the Sidney I n l e t Copper Mine i n 1939 almost a l l the Japanese engaged i n 4 mining were at B r i t a n n i a Beach. Many Japanese t u r n e d t o a g r i c u l t u r e because r e s t r i c t i o n s i n o ther f i e l d s "made i t d i f f i c u l t t o secure a p o s i t i o n with any degree of s e c u r i t y . B y 1900, t h e r e were Japanese farms at Richmond, Steveston, and i n the F r a s e r and Okanagan V a l l e y s . 1 "Japanese Miners Leave A t l i n Camp," V i c t o r i a Times, Septem-ber 21, 1907, p. 1. 2 B.C., J o u r n a l s (1923), p. 139; (1925), P- 178; (1926-27), pp. 14-15. 3 "Few N i s e i s Employed i n Mining," New Canadian, May 27, 1939, p- 2. A l s o , s e e B.C., J o u r n a l s (1933), P- 99. 4 "Weekly W h i r l i g i g , " New Canadian, November 3, 1939, p. 1. 5 Adachi, H i s t o r y of Japanese Canadians, p. 6. 6 Yamashita, "Occupations of the Japanese," p. 290; Sumida, "The Japanese i n B r i t i s h Columbia," p. 290. -139-By 1921, t h e r e were 421 Japanese farm o p e r a t o r s i n the province,"^ a s i t u a t i o n which caused some people t o accuse the 2 Japanese of "over-running i n t e n s i v e a g r i c u l t u r e . " As i s now e v i d e n t , employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the Japanese were not always p l e n t i f u l . A Japanese c o u l d not be-come a Member of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly or a s c h o o l t r u s t e e ; he c o u l d not be employed by a m u n i c i p a l i t y or by a government c o n t r a c t o r ; he c o u l d not work on crown timber l a n d or o b t a i n 3 a l i c e n s e f o r hand l o g g i n g . L i k e w i s e , the Japanese were 4 p r o h i b i t e d from law, pharmacy and e n g i n e e r i n g . Indeed, i t appeared to the Japanese t h a t the o n l y f i e l d h o l d i n g any promise was b u s i n e s s . 1 Canada, Census (1921), A g r i c u l t u r e , V, p. 64. 2 M o r r i s , " P u b l i c O p inion," p. 26. For one such success s t o r y see John Nelson, "How I Found In Canada My Land Of Op p o r t u n i t y , " Macleans's, XXXVII, No. 2 (January 15, 1925), pp. 37-38. 3 "Expansion Eastward S o l u t i o n t o N i s e i V o c a t i o n a l Problem," New Canadian, March 8, 1940, p. 1. 4 "A Higher Education For N i s e i -- Hopless?", New Canadian, January 5, 1940, p. 2. The Japanese c o u l d become d e n t i s t s or doctors although i n the l a t t e r case they c o u l d not take t h e i r i n t e r n s h i p s i n B.C. h o s p i t a l s . In 1927, t h e r e were f i v e Japanese d e n t i s t s and two p h y s i c i a n s . See B.C., Report on  O r i e n t a l A c t i v i t i e s W i t h i n The P r o v i n c e ( V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1927), Appendix. 5 An examination of the Japanese D i r e c t o r y (Vancouver: Taiyo P r i n t i n g , 1939), shows the Japanese to be i n a v a r i e t y of b u s i n e s s ventures. A copy of t h i s i s i n the Vancouver C i t y A r c h i v e s . -140-I f p r o f e s s i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y was d i f f i c u l t f o r Japanese men i t was almost i m p o s s i b l e f o r Japanese women. Perhaps the only p r o f e s s i o n a l f i e l d open t o N i s e i g i r l s was n u r s i n g but even the Vancouver General H o s p i t a l d i s c r i m i n a t e d as i t segre-gated Japanese l i v i n g q u a r t e r s from the r e s t of the student r o o m s / Nursing, w h i l e p r o v i d i n g Japanese g i r l s w i t h a h i g h l y r e s p e c t e d c a r e e r , a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d measureably t o the r i s e of 2 h e a l t h standards i n the Japanese community. Although t h e r e were no l e g a l r e s t r i c t i o n s p r o h i b i t i n g 3 the Japanese from becoming t e a c h e r s , only one Japanese, Hide Hyodo who taught at the Lord Byng Elementary School i n R i c h -4 mond, found a p o s i t i o n i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s . Hyodo was very a c t i v e i n the B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n and re p r e -sented t h a t group at the 1937 Convention of the World 1 I o b t a i n e d t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n from a (white) nurse who took her t r a i n i n g at the Vancouver General H o s p i t a l i n 1940. For accounts of Japanese student nurses see "People and Things," New Canadian, September 15, 1939, P- 5; "On The Newsfront," New Canadian, October 11, 1940, p. 1. 2 "Welfare A s s o c i a t i o n P r o v i d e s Needed S o c i a l S e r v i c e s t o Community," New Canadian, October 2 7 , 1939, p. 3j "Nursing Honours," New Canadian, May 9, 1941, P- 1» 3 Up to 1916, two Chinese g i r l s had graduated from the Vancouver Normal School. See, B.C., Report of the P u b l i c  Schools (1909-1910), Appendix A, p. c l i i ; (1915-1916), p. A93« In 1926, t h e r e were only seventy f o r e i g n born t e a c h e r s ( e x c l u d i n g those from B r i t a i n and the U.S.) out of a t e a c h i n g f o r c e of 2,733* See Putnam and Weir, Survey, p. 179-4 B.C., Report of the P u b l i c Schools (1926-27), p. M57. -141-F e d e r a t i o n of E d u c a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n s . Hyodo was a l s o a prominent member of the Japanese community as she r e g u l a r l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the Japanese Canadian C i t i z e n s ' League, o r -ga n i z e d Young People's C h r i s t i a n Conferences and c o n t r i b u t e d 2 t o the New Canadian. However, Hyodo's p r o f e s s i o n a l success was most c e r t a i n l y 3 an e x c e p t i o n . F o l l o w i n g h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n , r e g u l a r em-ployment became a s e r i o u s problem f o r many N i s e i . A b i l i t y and z e a l seemed t o count f o r l i t t l e when i t came t o s e c u r i n g 4 employment. Some N i s e i f e l t t h a t as many c a r e e r s were c l o s e d t o them t h e i r o n l y hope l a y i n the Japanese community i t s e l f : ^ When we complete high s c h o o l and seek t o enter more f u l l y i n t o the l i f e of the white community by [ e n t e r i n g ] v a r i o u s occupations, we are made to f e e l keenly t h e i r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s . . . T h i s tends t o keep us t o o u r s e l v e s . . . Doors i n t o the Western p r o f e s s i o n a l , s o c i a l 1 "A T r i p t o Japan," B.C. Teacher, XVIII, No. 4 (December, 1937), p- 185- Hyodo had been a member of the B.C.T.F. s i n c e 1929. See "Supplementary L i s t of Membership, 1929-30," B.C. Teacher, IX, No. 9 (May, 1930), p. 40. 2 "J.C.C.L.," New Canadian, November 24, 1938, p. 1; "Y.P.C.C. Great Success," New Canadian, November 24, 1938, p. 4-3 T h i s i s not to suggest t h a t Hyodo was the onl y Japanese q u a l i f i e d t o t e a c h i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s . In 1921, Annie Kiku Nakabayashi graduated from the Vancouver Normal School. See B.C., Report of the P u b l i c Schools (1920-1921), p. F100. 4 " C o n g r a t u l a t i o n s , " New Canadian, J u l y 1, 1939, p. 2. 5 "Contacts A f t e r Graduation," New Canadian, May 27, 1939, p. 13. -142-p o l i t i c a l and economic l i f e are c l o s e d i n our f a c e s because of our c o l o r . Of course, the N i s e i r e a l i z e d t h a t the economic ha r d s h i p s brought on by the d e p r e s s i o n made t h e i r predicament f a r more d i f f i c u l t . ^ As the war approached, the Japanese found i t even more form i d a b l e to o b t a i n p o s i t i o n s . N a t u r a l l y , some Japanese questioned the value of education and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g when t h e r e were few chances to e x e r c i s e what had been l e a r n e d i n s c h o o l : The u s u a l c r y i s t h a t t h e r e i s not o p p o r t u n i t y , and yet without a knowledge of some t r a d e or p r o f e s s i o n , oppor-t u n i t i e s would be of l i t t l e v a l u e . I t i s a l s o t r u e . . . t h a t s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g would be of l i t t l e value u n l e s s t h e r e i s a chance of p u t t i n g i t i n t o p r a c t i c e . ^ Regardless of the l a c k of o p p o r t u n i t y , N i s e i s s t i l l attended u n i v e r s i t y i n the hope t h a t they, i n time, would be able to 4 enter t h e i r chosen occupation. And i f t h i s day never came, education was nonetheless important: . . . t h e r e can be no q u e s t i o n as to the c u l t u r a l b e n e f i t s of h i g h e r education. Not o n l y t h a t but b e n e f i t s which may 1 Yuasa, "We Must Lose to Win," p. 305. 2 Thomas K. Shoyama, "The Economic Outlook of the Second Generation Japanese Canadians," B.C. Teacher, XVIII, No. 2 (October, 1928), pp. 72-74. 3 " N i s e i s Who Seek Opportunity In The East Need T r a i n i n g , " New Canadian, January 1, 1940, p. 3. 4 "Just The Same We Go To C o l l e g e , " New Canadian, May 14, 1941, p. 2. -143-be termed p s y c h o l o g i c a l are reaped. C o n s t r u c t i v e a t t i t u d e s of mind, h a b i t s of r a t i o n a l thought, s e l f - r e l i a n c e and i n -d i v i d u a l i t y , a l l these are developed through the medium of education. The more p e s s i m i s t i c Japanese, both I s s e i and N i s e i , b e l i e v e d t h a t education should be a secondary concern. Emphasis should be p l a c e d on s m a l l b u s i n e s s and a g r i c u l t u r e , the two areas where the Japanese had a l r e a d y e x h i b i t e d con-s i d e r a b l e success, and where a h i g h degree of formal t r a i n i n g . 2 was not necessary. One of the main c o n t r o v e r s i e s surrounding the Japanese i n the 1930's concerned t h e i r r i g h t t o vote. The l a r g e r ques-t i o n , of course, i n v o l v e d the immigrants" r i g h t t o e n f r a n c h i s e -ment. G r a n t i n g the vote t o immigrants whose "mental attainments and p h y s i c a l courage count[ed] f o r naught" seemed t o pose a 3 s e r i o u s t h r e a t t o s o c i e t y . Because Canadians simply assumed t h a t t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n s were s u p e r i o r t o those of other lands the "block v o t e " of a l a r g e immigrant group supposedly 4 t h r e a t e n e d the very f a b r i c of Canadian s o c i e t y . 1 " A f t e r Graduation, What?" New Canadian, May 15, 1939, p.2. 2 " I s s e i s Confer On Occupations For N i s e i s , " New Canadian, October 13, 1939, p. 1. 3 Andrew Macphail, "The Immigrant," U n i v e r s i t y Magazine, XIX, No. 2 ( A p r i l , 1920), p. I36. 4 W. A. C a r r o t h e r s , "The Immigration Problem i n Canada," Queen's Q u a r t e r l y , XXXVI, No. 3 (Summer, 1929), p. 523- A l s o , see J.R. Conn, "Immigration," Queen's Q u a r t e r l y , V I I I , No. 2 (October, 1900), p. 123- The same o p i n i o n p r e v a i l e d i n the -144-The f i r s t Japanese t o f i g h t f o r the f r a n c h i s e was Tommey Homma, a n a t u r a l i z e d c i t i z e n who a p p l i e d f o r placement on the v o t e r s ' l i s t i n 1893 ."^  Needless t o say, Homma was tur n e d down. What then began was a s e r i e s of l e g a l procedures, 2 a l l of which ended i n f a i l u r e . F i n a l l y , i n 1896, the B r i t i s h Columbia L e g i s l a t u r e o f f i c i a l l y p r o h i b i t e d the Japanese from 3 votxng. The enfranchisement of the Japanese became a major p o l i t i c a l i s s u e i n B r i t i s h Columbia d u r i n g the 1930's. The L i b e r a l P a r t y soon claimed t h a t a vote f o r the C.C.F. was, i n f a c t , a vote f o r O r i e n t a l enfranchisement. Thus, the L i b e r a l s U n i t e d S t a t e s and can be found i n Madison Grant, The P a s s i n g  of the Great Race (New York: C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1926), p. 218. 1 "Tommey Homma," New Canadian, March 1, 1939, p. 3« Homma was again r e f u s e d i n 1900. See "Japanese W i l l F i g h t In The Canadian Courts f o r R e g i s t r a t i o n As V o t e r s , " P r o v i n c e , October 27, 1900, p. 10. 2 The l e g a l problems of enfranchisement and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , the e x t e n s i o n of the f r a n c h i s e t o the Japanese are d i s c u s s e d i n H. F. Angus, "Canadian Immigration: The Law and i t s Adminis-t r a t i o n , " and i n Gordon Lindsay and D. R. Michner, "The Legal Status of A l i e n s Resident i n Canada," both i n The Legal Status  of A l i e n s Resident i n P a c i f i c C o u n t r i e s , ed. Norman Mackenzie (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1937). A l s o , see B.C., S e s s i o n a l Papers (1903), p. 3 (Return t o an Order of the House f o r a Return of a copy of the Judgment d e l i v e r e d by the P r i v y C o u n c i l In Re Tommey Homma). 3 B.C., S t a t u t e s ( I 8 9 6 ) , c. 38 and B.C., Revised S t a t u t e s (1903-04), c. 17. Also,see B.C., J o u r n a l s (1901), p. 41. In 1913, the P r o v i n c i a l government forbade the Japanese from making a p p l i c a t i o n s t o be p l a c e d on the v o t e r s ' l i s t . See B.C., S t a t u t e s (1913), c. 20. -145-openly p l a y e d on a n t i - O r i e n t a l sentiment f o r votes. S u r p r i s -i n g l y , the success of t h i s p o l i c y was q u e s t i o n a b l e . Of s i x L i b e r a l s who a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n an anti-Japanese campaign 1 d u r i n g one e l e c t i o n , only t h r e e were e l e c t e d . A few Japanese war veterans o b t a i n e d the f r a n c h i s e i n 1931 when by a n i n e t e e n t o eighteen margin the L e g i s l a t u r e 2 amended the " P r o v i n c i a l E l e c t i o n s A c t . " T h i s minor triumph was l a r g e l y due t o the l o b b y i n g of two groups. F i r s t l y , the Camp and M i l l Workers' Union persuaded the Trades and Labour Congress of Canada to endorse a request f o r equal r i g h t s and f u l l c i t i z e n s h i p t o a l l Canadian born Japanese. Secondly, the Canadian Legion f e l t i t u n j u s t t h a t Japanese war v e t e r a n s , f o r t y - f i v e of which formed Branch Nine i n Vancouver, c o u l d not e x e r c i s e the r i g h t s f o r which they had once fought. B r i g a d i e r F o s t e r , the Vancouver C h i e f of P o l i c e , was q u i t e i n s t r u m e n t a l 4 i n the Legion's s u c c e s s f u l lobby. 1 Henry F. Angus, " L i b e r a l i s m Stoops To Conquer," Canadian  Forum, XV, No. 3 (December, 1935), pp. 389-390. For a d d i t i o n a l e a r l y background see B.C., J o u r n a l s (1923), p. 106. 2 B.C., J o u r n a l s (1931), P« 151; B.C., S t a t u t e s (1931), c. 21. 3 Ken Adachi, A H i s t o r y of the Japanese Canadians, p. 10. 4 "C.L.U. Has Record Of S e r v i c e , " New Canadian, September 15, 1939, p. 3; "Japanese Veterans V o l u n t e e r For Home Defence," New  Canadian, A p r i l 15, 1939, p. 1. During World War One about 197 Japanese e n l i s t e d i n the Canadian Armed Fo r c e s . Of these, 131 were wounded and 54 were k i l l e d . See E. E. B r a i t h w a i t e , "Canada and the O r i e n t , " Canadian Magazine, LX, No. 1 (November 1922), p. 15. -146-I t was r e l a t i v e l y easy t o c o n s t r u c t a p l a u s i b l e argument a g a i n s t extending the f r a n c h i s e t o the I s s e i . T h e r e t e n t i o n of o l d country customs and language seemed t o be an adequate v i n d i c a t i o n f o r most people. But the p u b l i c (and most p o l i t i c i a n s ) i g n o r e d the f a c t t h a t w h ile the Japanese c o u l d not vote f o r s c h o o l o f f i c i a l s they were nonetheless o b l i g e d t o c o n t r i b u t e taxes towards e d u c a t i o n a l c o s t s . Thus, the I s s e i had n e i t h e r c o n t r o l over the f o r m u l a t i o n of educa-t i o n a l p o l i c y nor over the a p p r o p r i a t i o n of s c h o o l funding. Now even i f i t was p l a u s i b l e t o c o n t r i v e grounds f o r r e s t r i c t i n g the enfranchisement of the I s s e i , i t was almost i m p o s s i b l e t o do the same with the N i s e i . They had been born i n Canada and had been educated i n Canadian s c h o o l s and u n i v e r -2 s i t i e s . As such, the N i s e i were Canadian c i t i z e n s and d e s e r v i n g of f u l l p o l i t i c a l r i g h t s . Percy Sabin of the P a c i f i c Coast Fishermen's Union r e c o g n i z e d the i n j u s t i c e of t h i s s i t u a -t i o n and advocated v o t i n g r i g h t s f o r Canadian born Japanese (although he was not i n f a v o r of extending the f r a n c h i s e t o the I s s e i ) . A l s o , C o l i n Cameron and H a r o l d Winch of the C.C.F. 1 F. W. Howay, B.C. And The U n i t e d S t a t e s (Toronto: Ryerson P r e s s , 1942), p. 404. 2 Henry F. Angus, "The Kyoto Conference On P a c i f i c R e l a t i o n s , " B.C. Teacher, IX, No. 6 (February, 1930), p. 25. Also, see " F u l l C i t i z e n s h i p For The Canadian Born," New Canadian, September 4, 1940, p. 3. 3 "Weekly W h i r l i g i g , " New Canadian, A p r i l 15, 1939, p. 1. -147-c o n t i n u e d t o pr e s s f o r f u l l N i s e i rights."^ Of course, the out-break of war ended any p o s s i b i l i t y of extending the f r a n c h i s e and a l s o convinced many N i s e i t h a t i f they were prepared t o f i g h t f o r democracy they then should be allowed t o p a r t i c i p a t e 2 i n i t . Some N i s e i found themselves t o r n between t o t a l l o y a l t y and simple p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the war e f f o r t f o r i t was d i f f i c u l t t o j u s t i f y e n l i s t m e n t when the N i s e i , even a f t e r spending years i n Canadian s c h o o l s , possessed few of the r i g h t s of the average 3 Canadian. The 1930's a l s o saw many w i l d a c c u s a t i o n s h u r l e d a g a i n s t the Japanese. In one i n s t a n c e , Major Lenox Macfarlene charged the Japanese with f o r c i b l y occupying Galiano I s l a n d and urged immediate government a c t i o n t o p r o t e c t the l o c a l r e s i d e n t s . As i t t u r n e d out, Macfarlene's i n d i c t m e n t was completely f a l s e . In f a c t , the Japanese on the i s l a n d had, f o r yea r s , enjoyed 4 amicable r e l a t i o n s with the r e s t of the r e s i d e n t s . Perhaps the most s e n s a t i o n a l c l a i m i n v o l v e d the Vancouver News-Herald charge t h a t c e r t a i n Japanese were 1 B.C. J o u r n a l s (1935), P- 124-2 "No Vote For O r i e n t a l s Even I f They Serve In Army Says B.C. L e g i s l a t u r e , " New Canadian, December 6, 1940, p. 1. 3 " N i s e i And War," New Canadian, September 15, 1939, p. 2. 4 "Galiano Charges Wholly F a l s e , " New Canadian, December 15, 1939, p. 1. -Ir-r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c i r c u l a t i o n of indecent l i t e r a t u r e i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s . Assisted, by the Japanese Canadian C i t i z e n ' s League and by the Japanese Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n , the Vancouver C i t y P o l i c e Department launched an i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Three weeks l a t e r , the Japanese and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , a Japanese Steveston r e s i d e n t were completely exonerated from any wrong-doing. At the same time, the p o l i c e o b t a i n e d evidence t o prove c o n c l u -s i v e l y t h a t the g u i l t y p a r t y was a group of white juveniles.""" In 1939 3 Vancouver C i t y Alderman H a l f o r d W ilson warned of a b u s i n e s s takeover by Japanese merchants. Obviously under 2 the i n f l u e n c e of outmoded economic arguments, he urged C i t y C o u n c i l t o seek power t o d i s c r i m i n a t e a g a i n s t the i s s u a n c e of t r a d e l i c e n s e s t o Japanese businessmen. Although W i l s o n r e c e i v e d only the support of Alderman Harry DeGraves i n C o u n c i l , he managed t o convince J . Howard F o r e s t e r , M.L.A. f o r B u r r a r d , t o i n t r o d u c e l e g i s l a t i o n i n the House. However, by t h i s time 3 the L e g i s l a t u r e was showing s i g n s of r e s t r a i n t and the House 1 " O f f i c i a l s Probe News-Herald Charge," New Canadian, March 1, 1940, p. 1; "On The Newsfront," New Canadian, March 22, 1940, p. 1. 2 For some of these see W. G. Smith, Canadian Immigration, p. 174; C h a r l e s L u g r i n Shaw, "Canada's O r i e n t a l Problem,"p. 334-For counter-arguments see H. F. Angus, "A C o n t r i b u t i o n To I n t e r -n a t i o n a l I l l - W i l l , " Dalhousie Review, X I I I , No. 1 ( A p r i l , 1 9 3 3 ) , p. 29-3 B. C. J o u r n a l s (1938), p. 119; (1940), p. 23--149-P r i v a t e B i l l Committee q u i c k l y r e j e c t e d DeGraves' b i l l . A year l a t e r , and again with l i t t l e success, W i l s o n attempted t o con-2 v i n c e C o u n c i l of the Japanese b u s i n e s s danger. Thwarted i n h i s moves t o r e s t r i c t b u s i n e s s l i c e n s e s , W i l s o n asked C o u n c i l t o pass zoning r e g u l a t i o n s s e g r e g a t i n g r e s i d e n t i a l areas because the presence of O r i e n t a l s i n some Vancouver D i s t r i c t s had supposedly d r a s t i c a l l y reduced l a n d v a l u e s . C o u n c i l demurred; f o r the time 3 being, W i l s o n seemed to have spent h i s i n v e c t i v e n e s s . N a t u r a l l y , a c t s a g a i n s t the Japanese became more frequent as anti-Japanese a g i t a t o r s l i k e W i lson p e r s i s t e d i n t h e i r cam-paign of hate. In May, 1939, the H o t e l Vancouver under the p r e t e x t of mounting " p u b l i c p r e s s u r e " d i s m i s s e d t h i r t e e n Japanese 4 b e l l b o y s . Four months l a t e r , the Vancouver Club f i r e d i t s seven 1 W i l s o n a c t u a l l y made two such attempts i n 1939; one i n Sep-tember, another i n December. See " C i t y t o Seek D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Powers In Trade L i c e n s e I s s u e , " New Canadian, September 29, 1939, p. 3; "Wilson Urges New A n t i - O r i e n t a l D i s c r i m i n a t i o n , " New  Canadian, December 15, 1939, p. 1. 2 " O r i e n t a l Trade R i g h t s Threatened i n New W i l s o n D r i v e , " New  Canadian, January 19, 1940, p. 1. A l s o , see " C o u n c i l Approves W i l s o n R e s o l u t i o n , " P r o v i n c e , September 25, 1940, p. 9-3 " O r i e n t a l Ghetto Plan C o l l a p s e s , " New Canadian, February 14, 1941, P> 1; " C o u n c i l To Seek Segregation Of O r i e n t a l Homes," New Canadian, February 7, 1941, P« 1' For a b e t t e r understand-i n g of p u b l i c o p i n i o n d u r i n g the 1920's and 1930's see Theodore H. Boggs, " O r i e n t a l P e n e t r a t i o n and B.C.," p. 14; Theodore H. Boggs, " O r i e n t a l Immigration From The Canadian Standpoint," P a c i f i c Review, I, No. 1 (December, 1920), p. 416; " I t I s For B.C. To Decide," P r o v i n c e , A p r i l 7, 1937, p. 14. 4 "13 B e l l b o y s Discharged From H o t e l Vancouver," New Canadian, May 15, 1939, PP. 1-2. -150-Japanese employees."'" On Hallowe'en n i g h t , 1939, over 300 youths surged through the Powell S t r e e t area and a t t a c k e d 2 Japanese b u s i n e s s e s . S u r p r i s i n g l y , Japanese c h i l d r e n i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s escaped the c r i t i c i s m l e v e l l e d at the Japanese i n g e n e r a l . In f a c t , H. G. T. Pe r r y , M i n i s t e r of Education, appealed f o r f a i r n e s s and c a u t i o n e d a g a i n s t any type of d i s -c r i m i n a t i o n i n the s c h o o l s . In response t o one w o r r i e d woman's l e t t e r , P e r r y s t a t e d : While I can r e a d i l y understand your f e e l i n g towards the Japanese, yet we must be c a r e f u l not t o be u n f a i r , even to t he c h i l d r e n of our enemies.^ Perry a l s o began an i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o determine j u s t what e f f e c t the presence of Japanese s c h o o l c h i l d r e n was having i n the sc h o o l s . Perhaps, the Japanese community deserves much of the c r e d i t i n p r e v e n t i n g i l l - f e e l i n g from t u r n i n g i n t o widespread v i o l e n c e . The Japanese u s u a l l y urged calm and r e s t r a i n t i n the f a c e of c o n t i n u i n g anti-Japanese propaganda: 1 "Past-Present-And-Future," New Canadian, September 29, 1939, p. 1. 2 "Hallowe'en Mob Causes Heavy P r o p e r t y Damage," New Canadian, November 3, 1939, p. 1. 3 "Education Department To Consider P o l i c y For Japanese P u p i l s , " New Canadian, December 20, 1941, p- 1. 4 "Japanese C h i l d r e n Problem For Schools," P r o v i n c e , December 18, 1941, P- 28. -151-True we have passed through a year of unprecedented a n t i - O r i e n t a l f e e l i n g ; and the new year promises no abatement. But we must f a c e t h i s new year courageously and without f e a r . We must s t r i v e t o a m e l i o r a t e those c o n d i t i o n s which we are c a l l e d upon t o f a c e . ^ Moreover, the Japanese r e a l i z e d t h a t o n l y a few d e d i c a t e d a g i t a t o r s were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r most of the t r o u b l e : These are indeed d i f f i c u l t days but we must remember t h a t t h e r e are many f a i r - m i n d e d Canadians who s t r e n u o u s l y oppose d r a s t i c or u n j u s t treatment of c i t i z e n s i n t h e i r midst. The Japanese scorned a g i t a t o r s l i k e W i lson who, without adequate evidence,made the most preposterous s l a n d e r s . The New Canadian r e f l e c t e d t h i s d i s d a i n : What Mr. W i l s o n proposes i s a d d i t i o n a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t o cure problems t h a t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n had c r e a t e d . One i s reminded of a n c i e n t d o c t o r s who used t o cure anaemic p a t i e n t s by b l o o d - l e t t i n g . ^ Undeniably, p u b l i c o p i n i o n was u n f a v o r a b l e towards the Japanese but i f the p u b l i c d i d not accept the Japanese i t was at l e a s t t o l e r a n t . In many cases, Japanese r e l a t i o n s with the white community r e f l e c t e d more than t o l e r a n c e ; they were outwardly 1 " E d i t o r i a l , " New Canadian, December 29, 1938, p. 2. 2 "Contacts A f t e r Graduation," New Canadian, May 27, 1939, p. 13. A l s o see "Let's Grow Up," New Canadian, A p r i l 12, 1940, p. 2. T h i s p o i n t of view can a l s o be found i n Robert E. Park, "A Race R e l a t i o n s Survey," J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d S o c i o l o g y , V I I I , No. 4 ( M a r c h - A p r i l , 1924), P- 204-3 "Alderman Wilson's O r i e n t a l Menace," New Canadian, February 9, 1940, p. 4. -152-amicable. The 1930' s a l s o meant, d i f f i c u l t times f o r the Japanese f a m i l y . But t o understand the f a m i l y problems of the pre-war years i t i s necessary t o examine t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e , the b a s i s of which l i e s i n the s i x t e e n t h century. I t was at t h i s time t h a t a l l powerful f e u d a l l o r d s who wished to c o n s o l i d a t e t h e i r power e s t a b l i s h e d s e t s of r u l e s which, they hoped, would endure r e g a r d l e s s of the p e r s o n a l weaknesses of a r u l e r . The law s e t out a s t r i c t c l a s s s o c i e t y i n which the r u l i n g e l i t e p r e s c r i b e d e v e r y t h i n g from dress t o e t i q u e t t e . Since d e v i a t i o n from norms o f t e n meant death, the p r i c e of s u r -v i v a l became conformity. S t r e n g t h of c h a r a c t e r l a y i n adherence to t r a d i t i o n , not i n r e b e l l i o n . What developed, t h e r e f o r e , was a s o c i e t y where everyone and e v e r y t h i n g h e l d an ordered p o s i t i o n . Codes of behavior s t i p u l a t e d how one a c t e d i n the presence of other people because " c o r r e c t " conduct was e s s e n t i a l f o r the 2 maintenance of " f a c e " and " s e l f - e s t e e m . " 1 For examples, see " C i t y ' s Japanese Pay Homage to B r i t a i n ' s K ing and Queen," P r o v i n c e , August 12, 1937, P« 4 and "N.W. Appre-c i a t e s Japanese Cooperation i n Royal Welcome," New Canadian, June 1, 1939, P« 6. A l s o , see E d i t h Fowke, They Made Democracy  Work (Toronto: Garden C i t y P r e s s , 1951), P> 2 and Laura E. Jamieson, "Where White and Brown Men Meet," Canadian Forum, XXI, No. 246 ( J u l y , 1941), PP- 146-148. 2 Douglas G. Haring, "Japanese N a t i o n a l Character: C u l t u r a l Anthropology, P s y c h o a n a l y s i s , And H i s t o r y , " Y a l e Review, XLII, No. 3 (March, 1953), PP- 378, 381-383. -153-Each Japanese f a m i l y had a p a r t i c u l a r p l a c e i n the s o c i a l order; each person w i t h i n a f a m i l y had a s t a t u s which was not u n l i k e h i s p o s i t i o n i n s o c i e t y . A c c o r d i n g l y , the pre -c i s e r u l e s governing behavior i n s o c i e t y were a l s o present i n the home. A l l f a m i l y members by l e n d i n g obedience and deference to the f a t h e r evidenced t h e i r reverence f o r the Emperor, the surro g a t e of a l l f a t h e r s . A l t h o u g h the M e i j i R e s t o r a t i o n o f f i c i a l l y a b o l i s h e d the f e u d a l s t r u c t u r e of Japanese s o c i e t y , 2 the Japanese f a m i l y u n i t remained very much i n t a c t . At the same time, the R e s t o r a t i o n promoted e d u c a t i o n a l a b i l i t y as a s t a t u s symbol and as a means to m a t e r i a l success. Thus, the Japanese immigrants t o B r i t i s h Columbia brought with them a t r a d i t i o n a l c onceptual model of the (Japanese) f a m i l y and an 3 awareness of the b e n e f i t s of e d u c a t i o n a l endeavour. I n i t i a l l y , t h e r e were s e v e r a l f o r c e s a c t i n g on the Japanese f a m i l y i n B r i t i s h Columbia: a new l e g a l system, 1 Haring, "Japanese N a t i o n a l Character: C u l t u r a l Anthropology, P s y c h o a n a l y s i s , And H i s t o r y , " p. 57- A l s o , see Frances Jerome Woods, C u l t u r a l Values of American E t h n i c Groups (New York: Harper and B r o t h e r s , 1956), pp. 166-167- However, the Japanese f a m i l y was not c o l l a t e r a l . See Minako Kurokawa, "The Japanese Family i n T r a d i t i o n and Change," The Canadian Family, ed. K. Ishwaran (Toronto: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston of Canada, 1971), P. 117. 2 Leonard Bloom, " F a m i l i a l Problems and the Japanese Removal," Research S t u d i e s , S t a t e C o l l e g e of Washington, XI, No. 1 (March, 1943), p. 21. 3 H o r i n o u c h i , E d u c a t i o n a l Values and Preadaption i n the A c c u l t u r a t i o n of Japanese Americans, pp. 11, 31--154-a d i f f e r e n t i n d u s t r i a l arrangement, the C h r i s t i a n churches and the p u b l i c s c h o o l s . These worked t o break down the t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e and, i n some i n s t a n c e s , brought about i t s r e o r g a n i z a t i o n on western l i n e s . Because of the myriad of s o c i a l f o r c e s o p e r a t i n g on the f a m i l y a c u r i o u s phenomenon o c c u r r e d which can be l i n k e d t o the u n i f o r m i t y demanded i n the Japanese s o c i a l order: second g e n e r a t i o n Japanese p e r s o n a l i t i e s tended t o be homogeneous. In Canada, t h r e e such types were obvious: the "c o n f o r m i s t " who shared p a r e n t a l v a l u e s and t r a d i t i o n s ; the " r e b e l l i o u s " who r e a c t e d a g a i n s t the o l d ways (without having any other c o n s i s t e n t form of b e h a v i o r ) ; and a t h i r d type which n e i t h e r r e j e c t e d one c u l t u r e nor the other but sought advantages i n both."'" Undoubtedly, the m a j o r i t y of N i s e i f i t i n t o the l a s t c ategory. The I s s e i w h i l e wanting t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o r e t a i n Japanese t r a d i t i o n s hoped t h a t they would become s u c c e s s f u l i n western s o c i e t y . At f i r s t , the I s s e i f a i l e d t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s successes i n adapting t o western s o c i e t y i n -e v i t a b l y meant a l i e n a t i o n from the o l d world c u l t u r e and 2 estrangement from the f a m i l y . The N i s e i soon found the ways of Japan t o be strange and i r r e l e v a n t , a c o n d i t i o n which was 1 W i l l i a m C. Smith, "Changing P e r s o n a l i t y T r a i t s i n Second-Generation O r i e n t a l s i n America," American J o u r n a l of S o c i o l o g y , XXXIII (May, 1928), pp. 927-29-2 S t a n f o r d Lyman, "The O r i e n t a l i n North America," C.B.C. r a d i o b roadcast, S e r i e s No. 7, February 28, 1972. - 1 5 5 -heightened by the Issei's f a i l u r e t o a c c u l t u r a t e . By the 1930's marriage had become a p o i n t of d i s a g r e e -ment between the N i s e i and the I s s e i . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , Japanese parents arranged the marriages of t h e i r c h i l d r e n through i n t e r -m e d i a r i e s (or Nakaudos). Thus, Japanese young people had l i t t l e , i f any v o i c e i n the c h o i c e of t h e i r spouses. Since the I s s e i 2 c o n s i d e r e d the western form of c o u r t i n g t o be immoral they n a t u r a l l y aimed t o perpetuate the o l d system i n B r i t i s h Columbia but the N i s e i s began to o b j e c t t o t h e i r p a r e n t s ' 3 i n t e r f e r e n c e . Young Japanese males b a l k e d at r i s i n g wedding c o s t s , a l a r g e p o r t i o n of which was the "yuinoh" or g i f t t o the b r i d e s ' i n - l a w s . ^ G r a d u a l l y , p r o s p e c t i v e b r i d e s and grooms began to make t h e i r own matrimonial arrangments, sometimes de-c i d i n g t o be m a r r i e d i n a C h r i s t i a n church ceremony. T h i s i s not to say t h a t the N i s e i no l o n g e r c o n s u l t e d t h e i r parents 1 Shoyo Terashima, " S c h i z o p h r e n i c Japanese Canadians and T h e i r S o c i o - C u l t u r a l Backgrounds," Canadian P s y c h i a t r i c A s s o c i a t i o n  J o u r n a l , I I I , No. 2 ( A p r i l , 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 5 9 . For an i n t e r e s t i n g account of young N i s e i s t o u r i n g Japan and t h e i r s t a r t l e d r e a c t i o n s see J . C. A r i g a , ed., F i r s t Tour of Japan (Vancouver: Nippon Kenkyu Sawakwai, 1 9 2 9 ) . 2 M i t s u i , "The M i n i s t r y of the U n i t e d Church," pp. 166 -167 . 3 For evidence of t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese weddings i n B r i t i s h Columbia, see "Chemainus C l a r i o n , " New Canadian, March 1 5 , 1 9 3 9 , p. 4 ; "The B r i d l e T r a i l , " New Canadian, November 2 1 , 1 9 4 1 , p. 4 -4 "Weekly W h i r l i g i g , " New Canadian, November 8 , 1 9 4 0 , p. 1; "Jobs, Morals, Matrimony S t u d i e d at B u s s e i Conference," New  Canadian, October 3 1 , 1 9 4 1 , p. 3 . -156-over marriage matters. However, i t i s to say t h a t the N i s e i o f t e n i g n o r e d p a r e n t a l objections."*" In an e f f o r t t o smooth matters between the f i r s t and second g e n e r a t i o n s , the League of the Young People's Buddhist A s s o c i a t i o n suggested t h a t a "compromose between arranged marriages and l o v e matches" be 2 worked out. However, no ready s o l u t i o n was forthcoming as both p a r t i e s remained i n t r a n s i g e n t , a s i t u a t i o n which l e d one young N i s e i t o s t a t e : I f he r e a l l y wants t o get m a r r i e d under the western system, a l l he need [ s i c j i s a g i r l , l o v e , a l i t t l e cash, and p l e n t y of guts.^ But marriage was only a symptom r a t h e r than a cause of the widening g u l f between f i r s t and second g e n e r a t i o n Japanese. G e n e r a l l y , the I s s e i f e l t t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s b ehavior was i l l - m a n n e r e d , d i s r e s p e c t f u l and d i s o b e d i e n t w h i l e , on the other hand, white Canadians saw these as s i g n s of " s o c i a b i l i t y and 4 s p i r i t e d n e s s . " Many N i s e i b e l i e v e d c o n f l i c t w i t h the I s s e i 1 Smith, "Changing P e r s o n a l i t y T r a i t s , " p. 938; "Matrimony Seems to be the Rage," New Canadian, A p r i l 4, 1941, P- 5. 2 Strong, The Second Generation Japanese Problem, pp. 242-244-A l s o , see "Bussei Confab S t r e s s e s L o y a l t y , " New Canadian, A p r i l 11, 1941, P. 1. 3 "Weekly W h i r l i g i g , " New Canadian, A p r i l 11, 1941, p. 1. 4 "Let's Grow Up," New Canadian, A p r i l 12, 1940, p. 2. The I s s e i l i k e l y exaggerated t h e i r complaints. C e r t a i n l y they im-p a r t e d a r e s p e c t f o r law and order i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Up to 1941, only s i x Japanese boys and f o u r g i r l s had s e r v e d time i n j u v e n i l e d e t e n t i o n homes. See the Annual Reports of the P r o v i n -c i a l I n d u s t r i a l School For Boys as found i n B r i t i s h Columbia, -157-t o be i n e v i t a b l e i f the former were t o pursue a c c u l t u r a t i o n . I t was t r u e t h a t the N i s e i may have sympathized with the pro-t e s t s of the I s s e i but the young Japanese c o u l d not l e t t h i s a f f e c t t h e i r d r i v e f o r a c c u l t u r a t i o n : At present the N i s e i are charged t h a t they l a c k moral f i b r e and s t r e n g t h , i n i t i a t i v e , and the t r a d i t i o n a l s p i r i t ; w h i l e the I s s e i group i s accused of b e i n g narrow-minded, too c o n s e r v a t i v e and s e l f - c e n t e r e d and u n w i l l i n g t o adapt i t s e l f t o new c o n d i t i o n s . I q u i t e understand the l o v e and devotion t h a t the I s s e i s have f o r t h e i r l a n d . I ask t h e i r i ndulgence i n t r y i n g t o understand, what t o some may seem a s a c r i l e g e , t h a t I have . . . the same a f f e c t i o n f o r Canada . . . . B r i e f l y , we share e x a c t l y the same f e e l i n g s of l o y a l t y and devotion t o the country where each of us was born.^ However, by now a r i f t had even developed among the N i s e i s . T h i s intracommunity s p l i t may have i n t e n s i f i e d Japanese a l i e n a t i o n from the l a r g e r s o c i e t y . ^ Years of p e r s e c u t i o n brought a great deal of b i t t e r n e s s t o some N i s e i s who f i n a l l y came to r e c o g n i z e t h a t they f i t i n t o n e i t h e r the white nor the S e s s i o n a l Papers (1916), p. N8; (1928), pp. 010-011; (1929), p. N8; (1931), PP. N8-N9; (1932), pp. K7-K9; (1933), p. 19-110. A l s o , s e e the Annual Reports of the P r o v i n c i a l I n d u s t r i a l Home  For G i r l s as found i n B r i t i s h Columbia, S e s s i o n a l Papers (1935), p. E10; (1939), P. V9; (1940), p. S9. 1 "Bushido S p i r i t I n s p i r e s N i s e i t o be L o y a l t o Canada," New  Canadian, October 13, 1939, p. 2. Also,see J . S. Woodsworth, "Canada's O r i e n t a l Immigrants," Canadian Forum, XVII, No. 202 (November, 1937), P- 269 and Mavis Yuasa, "We Must Lose t o Win," B.C. Teacher, XIV, No. 6 (February, 1940), p. 306. 2 Timothy L. Smith, "New Approaches t o the H i s t o r y of Immi-g r a t i o n i n Twentieth Century America," American H i s t o r i c a l  Review, LXXI, No. 4 ( J u l y , 1966), p. 1279--158-1 Japanese communities. Rather, they e x i s t e d " i n a s o r t of no-man's land""^ where a l i e n c u l t u r e s f e l l i n t o a w i l d p o t - p o u r r i . Thus, the N i s e i s ' untenable s i t u a t i o n e x i s t e d f o r two reasons: f i r s t l y , the I s s e i were o b v i o u s l y s u c c e s s f u l i n i m p l a n t i n g some of the o l d country v i r t u e s i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n ; and, secondly, the p u b l i c s c h o o l s and the C h r i s t i a n churches (as w e l l as the Japanese language s c h o o l s t o some extent) succeeded i n i m p a r t i n g 3 western norms to young Japanese. The main t h r u s t of t h i s study was to underscore the r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g between churches, Japanese i n s t i t u t i o n s and the p u b l i c s c h o o l s . Lawrence Cremin d e s c r i b e d t h i s k i n d of approach as one which i n c o r p o r a t e s the concept of " c o n f i g u r a -t i o n . " T h i s concept shows the r e l a t i v e d i s p o s i t i o n of the t h r e e a c c u l t u r a t i n g agents and demonstrates the complex p a t t e r n of t h e i r o v e r - a l l arrangement. The " c o n f i g u r a t i o n " concept does not r u l e out the p o s s i b i l i t y of e i t h e r the churches, Japanese i n s t i t u t i o n s or the p u b l i c s c h o o l s a c h i e v i n g c e n t r a l importance 1 "Reply to N i s e i , " New Canadian, October 20, 1939, p. 2. 2 Boggs, "The O r i e n t a l s on the P a c i f i c Coast," p. 321. 3 "Our Voyage t o Enfranchisement," T a i r i k u Nippo, August 27, 1938, p. 2. -159-i n the study. In t h i s t h e s i s the p u b l i c s c h o o l stands out as the primary a c c u l t u r a t i n g agent of the Japanese. T h i s stand d i s a g r e e s w i t h some c u r r e n t r e v i s i o n i s t h i s t o r y which d e n i g r a t e s the r o l e of the p u b l i c s c h o o l i n i t s r e l a t i o n s with immigrant c h i l d r e n . For i n s t a n c e , C o l i n Greer argues t h a t American s c h o o l s i n d e a l i n g with immigrant c h i l d r e n have " f a i l e d t o per-form a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r own as w e l l as the popular d e f i n i t i o n 2 of t h e i r r o l e . " A f t e r r e a d i n g a Jacob R i i s account of the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h century New York s c h o o l s one i s i n c l i n e d t o 3 agree with Greer. But Greer's wholesale condemnation simply does not apply t o the Japanese i n B r i t i s h Columbia. In the 1920's and the 1930's when Japanese s c h o o l c h i l d r e n were making c o n s i d e r a b l e impact on the B r i t i s h Columbia p u b l i c s c h o o l system, 1 T h i s m a t e r i a l i s from an address given by Lawrence Cremin to a graduate h i s t o r y seminar at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia on J u l y 28, 1972. 2 C o l i n Greer, "The Myth of the M e l t i n g Pot," Saturday Review, L I I , No 46 (November 15, 1969), p- 84. A l s o , see C o l i n Greer, The Great School Legend (New York: B a s i c Books, 1972). Other o p i n i o n s which more or l e s s support Greer's c o n t e n t i o n can be found i n Henry J . Perkinson, The Imperfect Panacea: American  F a i t h i n Education, 1865-1965 (New York: Random House, 1968) and i n M i c h a e l Novak, "White E t h n i c , " Harper's, 243, No. 1456 (September, 1971), pp. 44-50. 3 Fransesco Cordasco, ed., Jacob R i i s R e v i s i t e d : Poverty and  the Slum i n Another Era (New York: Doubleday and Company, I968), pp. 219-249-- 1 6 0 -Canadian educators were coming more and more to r e a l i z e t h a t immigrant c h i l d r e n had p a r t i c u l a r needs which r e q u i r e d s p e c i a l care."'" While f r a n k l y a d m i t t i n g t h a t the p u b l i c schools some-times t r e a t e d immigrant c h i l d r e n u n f a i r l y , educators a l s o c o n f e s s e d t h a t they o f t e n d i d not know the c o r r e c t methods f o r 2 i n s t r u c t i n g immigrant sc h o o l c h i l d r e n . Yet, at l e a s t one p o i n t i s very c l e a r : the p u b l i c s c h o o l s , d e s p i t e t h e i r numerous shortcomings, made a conscious e f f o r t t o help immigrant c h i l d r e n . Even though the p u b l i c schools never undertook t o implement widespread programs designed to a c c u l t u r a t e the Japanese, the f a c t does remain t h a t the p u b l i c s c h o o l s s u c c e s s f u l l y imparted 3 western norms to Japanese c h i l d r e n . C e r t a i n l y , the Japanese re s p e c t f o r education and t h e i r concern f o r t h e i r community 4 image f a c i l i t a t e d t h i s t a s k . 1 B.C., Report of the P u b l i c Schools ( 1923 - 2 4 ) , p. T 2 7 . A l s o , see L u c i l l e C u r t i s s , "How Canadians are T r a i n e d to Begin C i t i z e n s h i p i n Canada," Maclean's, XXXVII, No. 9 (May 1 , 1 9 2 4 ) , p. 7 2 . 2 B.C., Report of the P u b l i c Schools ( 1 9 2 5 - 2 6 ) , p. R6l; ( 1 9 2 9 - 1 9 3 0 ) , p. Q21; ( 1 9 3 8 - 3 9 ) , p. H75. 3 In f a c t , the Department of Education i n 1934 o f f e r e d a s p e c i a l n i g h t s c h o o l E n g l i s h course f o r a d u l t Japanese. See B.C., Report of the P u b l i c Schools ( 1 9 3 4 - 3 5 ) , P- S44- T h i s course was dropped i n 1937 but was r e o f f e r e d i n 1 9 4 0 . See ' B.C., Report of the P u b l i c Schools ( 1 9 3 7 - 3 8 ) , pp. J 4 1 - J 4 6 ; ( 1 9 4 0 - 4 1 ) , pp. D56-D61. 4 Leonard D i n n e r s t e i n , "A N e glected Aspect of Southern Jewish H i s t o r y , " American Jewish H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , LXI, No. 1 (September, 1 9 7 1 ) , P' 62 . D i n n e r s t e i n p o i n t s out the importance of a good community image to an e t h n i c group. -161-By no means does t h i s t h e s i s pretend t o i n c l u d e a l l the m a t e r i a l e s s e n t i a l f o r an understanding of Japanese education i n B r i t i s h Columbia. S e v e r a l areas remain open f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . As Bernard B a i l y n p o i n t s out i n Education i n the Forming of American S o c i e t y , i n f o r m a l educators such as the f a m i l y are worthy of study."*" Oscar Handlin suggests a d e c l i n e i n the 2 power of the European f a m i l y i n America. One might t h e r e f o r e ask t o what extent was t h i s t r u e f o r the Japanese f a m i l y i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Furthermore, how d i d the f a m i l y f i t i n t o the Japanese community and what was the l a t t e r " s r o l e i n i n f o r m a l 3 education? A d d i t i o n a l study may p o i n t out the d i f f e r e n c e between r u r a l and urban education and might draw r e l a t i o n s h i p s between I s s e i socio-economic backgrounds and N i s e i e d u c a t i o n a l achievement. And, of course, any f u r t h e r work on Japanese education i n B r i t i s h Columbia demands an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of Japanese language sources, p a r t i c u l a r l y newspaper r e c o r d s / 1 Bernard B a i l y n , Education i n the Forming of American S o c i e t y (New York: V i n t a g e Books, I960), pp. 16-17-2 Oscar H a n d l i n , The Uprooted (New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1 9 5 D , P- 227-3 The e t h n i c sense of community i s q u i t e important. See F r e d e r i c k C. Luebke's review of Jon Wefald, A V o i c e of P r o t e s t : Norwegians i n American P o l i t i c s , 1890-1917 ( N o r t h f i e l d , Minn.: Norwegian-American H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1971) i n the J o u r n a l  of American H i s t o r y , LIX, No. 1 (June, 1972), pp. 186-187-4 The n e g l e c t of the e t h n i c p r e s s as a source of m a t e r i a l s can have s e r i o u s consequences f o r the e t h n i c h i s t o r i a n . For i n s t a n c e , see V i c t o r Greene's review of Joseph A. Wytrwal, -162-A l s o , some effort- t o r e l a t e Japanese education t o O r i e n t a l e ducation and, i n t u r n , to immigrant education i n B r i t i s h Columbia would ensure the p r e s e r v a t i o n of the " c o n f i g u r a t i o n " approach t o the h i s t o r y of education."*" Poles i n American H i s t o r y and T r a d i t i o n ( D e t r o i t : Endurance Press, 19 69) i n the American H i s t o r i c a l Review, LXXV, No. 6 (October, 1970, 1970), pp. 1777-1778. For a r e p o r t on a more s u c c e s s f u l venture see Rowland B e r t h o f f 1 s review of F r e d e r i c k C. Luebke, Immigrants and P o l i t i c s : The Germans of Nebraska, 1880-1900 ( L i n c o l n : U n i v e r s i t y of Nebraska Press, 1969) i n the American H i s t o r i c a l Review, LXXV, No. 7 (December, 1970), pp. 2140-2141. 1 The f a i l u r e t o r e l a t e one e t h n i c group t o the c o l l e c t i v e immigrant experience can be a s e r i o u s p i t f a l l f o r the h i s t o r i a n . See V i c t o r Greene's review of George P r p i c , The C r o a t i a n Immi-g r a n t s i n America (New York: P h i l o s o p h i c a l L i b r a r y , 1971) i n the J o u r n a l of American H i s t o r y , LIX, No. 1 (June, 1972), pp. I78-179. BIBLIOGRAPHY Secondary Sources Abbot, James F r a n c i s . Japanese Expansion And American P o l i c i e s . New York: Macmillan Company, 1916. Adachi, Ken. A H i s t o r y of the Japanese Canadians i n B r i t i s h  Columbia: 1877-1958. 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Toronto: Garden C i t y Press C o - o p e r a t i v e , 1951« The Japanese C o n t r i b u t i o n To Canada: A summary of the r o l e  p l a y e d i n the development of the Canadian Commonwealth. Vancouver: Canadian Japanese A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 4 0 . The Japanese D i r e c t o r y . Vancouver: Taiyo P r i n t i n g Company, 1 9 3 9 . L a v e l l , M. M. C. O r i e n t a l M i s s i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Toronto: Toronto Women's M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y , ca. 1909* -178-The League. Vancouver: A l l i e d P r i n t i n g , 1921. Report of the Survey of the Second Generation Japanese i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Vancouver: Canadian Japanese A s s o c i a t i o n , 1935-Sino-Japanese C o n f l i c t E l u c i d a t e d . Vancouver: Canadian Japanese A s s o c i a t i o n , 1937' Stevens, Henry Herbert. The O r i e n t a l Problem, D e a l i n g With  Canada As A f f e c t e d By the Immigration Of Japanese, Hindu  and Chinese. Vancouver: n.p., n.d. Takahashi, K. T. The Anti-Japanese P e t i t i o n — Appeal i n pro-t e s t a g a i n s t A Threatened P e r s e c u t i o n . Montreal: Gazette P r i n t i n g Company, 1897• Treatment of the Japanese by Other C o u n t r i e s . World Peace F e d e r a t i o n Pamphlet. XVII, No. 2 (1924). Papers And Theses Campbell, L o u i s e . "An H i s t o r i c a l Sketch of the Economic and S o c i a l C o n d i t i o n s of the L e g i s l a t i o n A f f e c t i n g O r i e n t a l Immigration i n C a l i f o r n i a and B r i t i s h Columbia." Unpub-l i s h e d B.A. g r a d u a t i n g essay, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1922. Donley, W. G. "The O r i e n t a l A g r i c u l t u r a l i s t In B r i t i s h Colum-b i a . " Unpublished B.A. g r a d u a t i n g essay, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1928. Gowen, Robert Joseph. "Canada's R e l a t i o n s With Japan 1895-1922: Problems of Immigration and Trade.'.' Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago, 1966. Graham, David; Y e s a k i , Arthur; and Yuen, Ronald. "An I n v e s t i -g a t i o n of the Japanese Presence In Vancouver." Unpublished Bachelor of A r c h i t e c t u r e g r a d u a t i n g essay, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970. McLoughlin, Peter M a r t i n . "Japanese And The Labour Movement of B r i t i s h Columbia." Unpublished B.A. g r a d u a t i n g essay, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1951« - 1 7 9 -M i t s u i , T adashi. "The M i n i s t r y of The U n i t e d Church of Canada Amongst Japanese Canadians i n B r i t i s h Columbia: 1 8 9 2 - 1 9 4 9 • " Unpublished Master of Theology t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964* M o r r i s , P h i l i p A l v i n . " C o n d i t i o n i n g F a c t o r s Molding P u b l i c Opinion In B r i t i s h Columbia H o s t i l e t o Japanese Immigration Into Canada." Unpublished M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon, 1 9 6 3 . R a s h l e i g h , E. T. " A s s i m i l a t i o n Of R a c i a l M i n o r i t i e s With P a r t i c u l a r Reference To Canada." Unpublished B.A. g r a d u a t i n g essay, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 5 0 . Sugimoto, Howard H. "Japanese Immigration, The Vancouver R i o t s and Canadian Diplomacy." Unpublished M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, 1 9 6 6 . Sumida, Rigenda. "The Japanese In B r i t i s h Columbia." Unpub-l i s h e d M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1935« Tamaki, George. "Canada And Japan: An H i s t o r i c a l A n a l y s i s of the Immigration, Trade, and Di p l o m a t i c R e l a t i o n s t o the Exchange of P l e n i p o t e n t i a r i e s i n 1 9 2 9 . " Unpublished B.A. g r a d u a t i n g essay, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1938* Tolmie, J . Ross. "The O r i e n t a l s In B r i t i s h Columbia." Unpublished B.A. g r a d u a t i n g essay, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1929-Wynne, R. E. "Reaction To The Chinese In The P a c i f i c Northwest And B r i t i s h Columbia: 1 8 5 0 - 1 9 1 0 . " Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r -t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, 1964. Yamashita, George. "A H i s t o r y Of The Occupations Of The Japanese In B r i t i s h Columbia." Unpublished B.A. g r a d u a t i n g essay, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 4 2 . Y o s h i h a r a , Grace. "The Japanese Immigrant In B r i t i s h Columbia: A Dual Experience: 1 9 1 2 - 1 9 6 6 ." Unpublished undergraduate paper, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1972. -186-Newspapers New Canadian (Vancouver) T a i r i k u Nippo [ C o n t i n e n t a l D a i l y Times] Vancouver D a i l y P r o v i n c e Vancouver News-Herald Vancouver Sun Vancouver Weekly News-Advertiser V i c t o r i a D a i l y C o l o n i s t V i c t o r i a D a i l y Times Government Documents — Canada Canada, Annual Reports on Education i n Canada. 1921-1928. Canada, Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p Branch, Department of the Secre-t a r y of S t a t e . The Canadian Family Tree. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1967. Canada, Census. 1881, 1901, 1911, 1921, 1931. Canada, Department of Labour. Report of the Department of  Labour. Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r , 1908. Canada, Department of P u b l i c Works. B r i t i s h Columbia. Report  of the Hon. H. L. Langevin, C.B., M i n i s t e r of P u b l i c Works. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1872. Canada, Parliament, House of Commons. Debates. 1907. Canada, Parliament, House of Commons. J o u r n a l s . 1879• Canada, Parliament, House of Commons. S e s s i o n a l Papers. 1899, 1902, 1908. Canada, Royal Commission on Chinese Immigration. Report. Ottawa: S. E. Dawson, I 8 8 5 . - 1 8 1 -Canada, Royal Commission on Chinese and Japanese Immigration. Report. Ottawa: S. E. Dawson, 1 9 0 2 . Canada, The Canada Year Book. Ottawa: S. E. Dawson, 1 9 0 5 - 1 9 0 7 . K e e n l e y s i d e , H. L. S p e c i a l Committee on O r i e n t a l s i n Canada: Report and Recommendations. Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r , 1 9 4 0 . Government Documents — B r i t i s h Columbia B r i t i s h Columbia. Annual Reports of the P r o v i n c i a l Board of  Hea l t h . 1 8 9 4 - 1 9 4 1 . B r i t i s h Columbia. Annual Reports of the P u b l i c Schools i n the Pr o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia. 1 8 7 2 - 1 9 4 1 . B r i t i s h Columbia. Annual Reports of the V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s  Department. 1872-1941-B r i t i s h Columbia. B r i t i s h Columbia P u b l i c S e r v i c e B u l l e t i n . (Bureau of P u b l i c I n f o r m a t i o n , B u l l e t i n No. 7 [ 1 9 2 5 ] ) -B r i t i s h Columbia, L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly. J o u r n a l s . 1871-1941-B r i t i s h Columbia, L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly. S e s s i o n a l Papers. 1 8 8 4 - 1 9 4 1 . B r i t i s h Columbia. Report On O r i e n t a l A c t i v i t i e s W i t h i n The  Pr o v i n c e . V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1927-B r i t i s h Columbia. S t a t u t e s of the Pr o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia. 1875-1941-Putman, J . H. and Weir, G. H. Survey of the School System. V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1925-Vancouver C i t y A r c h i v e M a t e r i a l Sato, Tsutae. L e t t e r t o Mayor J . E. Corne t t (of Vancouver). January 16, 1941-Vancouver C i t y C l e r k . N o t i c e t o Mayor J . W. C o r n e t t . January 1 4 , 1941--182-Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l . "Report of the S p e c i a l Committee re . Japanese R e g i s t r a t i o n and Japanese Residents of the C i t y of Vancouver." Janauary 24, 1941« . Minutes of the Meetings of Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l . Meeting of January 24, 1941-APPENDICES - 1 8 4 -APPENDIX I JAPANESE IMMIGRATION: 1 9 0 6 - 1 9 2 5 Resided Year Males Females Children*- T o t a l i n B.i 1906-07 1 ,766 242 34 2 , 0 4 2 2 , 0 3 8 1907-08 6 ,945 566 90 7 , 6 0 1 7 ,589 1908-09 312 153 30 495 473 1909-10 104 134 33 271 250 1910-11 170 217 50 437 432 1911-12 322 3 62 81 765 763 1912-13 252 424 48 724 718 1913-14 354 447 55 856 844 1914-15 191 358 43 592 579 1 9 1 5 - 1 6 148 233 20 401 392 1 9 1 6 - 1 7 301 310 37 648 622 1917-18 459 370 54 883 852 1918-19 584 530 64 1,178 1,137 1919-20 280 589 42 711 686 1920-21 145 338 49 532 514 1921-22 140 300 31 471 452 1922-23 141 197 31 3 69 350 1923-24 I 8 4 233 31 448 422 1924-25 182 269 50 501 4 8 I Under 18 years of age, F i g u r e s found i n B.C., Report On O r i e n t a l A c t i v i t i e s W i t h i n  The P r o v i n c e ) V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1 9 2 7 ) , P« 7 and i n Canada, Year Book ( 1938) (Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r , 1 9 3 8 ) , p. 2 0 6 . -185-APPENDIX I I JAPANESE IN B.C. PUBLIC SCHOOLS: 1922-1941 Year Japanese T o t a l Enrollmei 1922-23 1,422 1923-24 1,725 1924-25 2,414 192 5-2 6-"- 2,477 101,688 1926-27 2,915 105,008 1927-28 3,273 108,179 1928-29 3,674 109,588 1929-30 4,014 111,017 1930-31 4,128 113,914 1931-32 4,702 115,919 1932-33 4,068 116,816 1933-34 5,176 115,792 1934-35 5,405 117,233 1935-36 5,363 116,722 1936-37 5,499 118,431 1937-38 5,577 120,360 1938-39 5,3 60 120,934 1939-40 5,441 120,459 1940-41 5,395 119,634 F i g u r e s f o r 1922-1924 are compiled from B.C.,Journals (1923), p. 102; (1925), p. 97. F i g u r e s f o r 1924-1925 are from B.C., Report On O r i e n t a l A c t i v i t i e s W i t h i n The P r o v i n c e ( V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1927), p. 7. The remaining f i g u r e s were com-p i l e d from B.C., Annual Reports of the P u b l i c Schools of  B r i t i s h Columbia (1925-1941). -"- An a l t e r n a t i v e f i g u r e of 2,414 i s gi v e n i n B.C., J o u r n a l s (1925), P. 97. -186-APPENDIX I I I DISTRIBUTION OF JAPANESE IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS: 1927-1941 J u n i o r Elementary High High C i t y i n R u r a l Rura Year* S u p e r i o r School School Elementary M u n i c i p a l i t i e s Elemenl 1927-28 _ 164 — 1,436 1,269 404 1928-29 - 297 - 1,646 1,282 449 1929-30 - 410 - 1,722 1,435 447 1930-31 - 415 - 1,754 1,506 453 1931-32 - 337 - 2,176 1,613 576 1932-33 - 509 - 1,2 61 1,660 638 1933-34 219 615 - 2,194 1,605 543 1934-35 208 607 - 2,259 1,654 587 1935-36 117 601 209 2,229 1, 604 603 1936-37 248- 665 269 2,143 1,569 605 1937-38 238 711 398 2,124 1,490 616 1938-39 106 717 478 1,974 1,474 611 1939-40 190 814 545 1,969 1,359 564 1940-41 I84 879 571 1,874 1,2 64 623 F i g u r e s are compiled from B.C., Annual Reports of the P u b l i c Schools  i n the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia (1925-1941). * In 192 5-2 6, the Department of Education showed 1,244 Japanese i n c i t y s c h o o l s , 951 i n m u n i c i p a l and 282 i n r u r a l s c h o o l s . C o n f l i c t -i n g data showing 771 Japanese i n m u n i c i p a l s c h o o l s and 247 i n r u r a l can be found i n B.C., J o u r n a l s (1925), p. 53. -187-APPENDIX IV JAPANESE BIRTHS Born A l i v e R e g i s t e r e d and R e g i s t e r e d Year B i r t h s i n t h a t 1900 _ 6* 1910 - 1 0 2 * 1918 - 473 1919 - 497 1920 - 6 6 2 * 1921 3 4 8 * * 7 0 6 * 1922 745 6 2 2 * 1923 889 595-1924 949 6 1 7 * 1925 1 ,104 687 1926 1 ,170 756 1927 1 ,354 715 1928 1 ,485 771 1929 1 ,587 780 1930 1 ,570 756 1931 1 ,342 784 1932 760 670 1933 668 606 1934 780 585 1935 643 516 1936 602 528 1937 571 486 1938 559 500 1939 489 441 1940 468 410 1941 738 495 S t i l l Deaths Under I l l e g i t i m a t e Born 1 Year of age - - -0 - -0 22 81 0 15 40 0 17 62 0 25 60 1 - 70 2 22 44 3 20 37 1 18 3 9 * 1 18 -3 15 40 0 10 36 4 11 32 2 10 3 4 * 1 10 26 0 6 30 5 6 25 2 11 22 3 9 15 4 5 5 * C o n f l i c t i n g data e x i s t s . ** For s i x months ending 1921. F i g u r e s compiled from B.C. Annual Reports of the P r o v i n c i a l Board  of H e a l t h (1922-1941) and from B.C., J o u r n a l s ( I 9 2 3 ) , p. 94;(l924), p. 104; (1925), P. 104. A l s o , see B.C., Report On O r i e n t a l A c t i v i t i e s W i t h i n The P r o v i n c e ( V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1927), p. 5; Canada, Census (1921), P o p u l a t i o n , I I , p. 291* - 1 8 8 -APPENDIX V JAPANESE DEATHS: 1921-1941 Year T o t a l Deaths Deaths from T u b e r c u l o s i s 1921 - 33 1922 - 23 1923 - 23 1924 155 24 1925 195 23 1926 161 28 1927 209 35 1928 192 27 1929 191 39 1930 169 26 1931 187 38 1932 156 32 1933 176 28 1934 182 41 1935 150 26 1936 142 25 1937 169 26 1938 139 19 1939 127 18 1940 147 31 1941 287 26 F i g u r e s are compiled from B.C., Annual Reports of the P r o v i n c i a l  Board of H e a l t h ( 1 9 2 1 - 1 9 4 1 ) . 

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