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A lysimeter study of domestic waste water renovation by forest soil filtration Khor, Chin Choon 1973

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c A LYSIMETER STUDY OF DOMESTIC WASTE WATER RENOVATION BY FOREST SOIL FILTRATION BY CHIN CHOON KHOR B. Sc., National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan, 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in the Department of SOIL SCIENCE We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1973 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date ABSTRACT Laboratory lysimeters were used to investigate the be haviour, over time, of a humid west coast forest soil under intermittent primary municipal waste water irrigation. Mineral soil packed to a depth of 69 cm and to a uniform density of 3 about 0.9 gm per cnr was covered with a forest floor 9 cm thick. Sintered glass bead tensiometers were used to gauge the water potential distributions in the soil lysimeters. Irrigation and drainage systems were designed to maintain constant rates of waste water application and facilitate measurement of drainage rates. Two groups of soil lysimeters each with triplicate sam ples, were loaded with waste water at the rates of 0,23 cm per 3 3 day ( 37 cnr per day ) and 0.^7 cm per day ( 75 cnr per day ) for a period of 9 months. The soil lysimeters were incubated at a temperature of about 15^5 degrees Centigrade. The total amounts of nitrogen added to both groups of soil lysimeters were 223.7 gm and 4-36.9 gm or equivalent to l.k % and 2.7 % of the total nitrogen of the original soil, respectively. Renova tions of wastewater in terms of nitrogen were 75 % and 4-3 % with respect to the two groups of soil lysimeters. Renovations in terms of phosphorus were more than 99 % in both groups of soil lysimeters. Retention of nutrients by the soil was in creased with time under favourable aerobic cnnditions. Uptake of nutrients by vegetation in the field would minimize leaching losses. Results from this experiment indicated no significant changes in the physical and chemical behaviour of the soils. Proper design of the waste water irrigation system in terms of iii loading would maximize the efficiency of renovation without deteriorating the behaviour of the soils. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT ii LIST OF TABLES' .... vi LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS viiACKNOWLEDGEMENT x INTRODUCTION • 1 RESEARCH METHOD AND MATERIALS 7 Materials and SamplingLysimeter Cylinder Apparatus & Preparation and Packing of Soil Sample 10 Incubation of the Soil 1Wastewater Application and Drainage Water .... 13 Sampling 1Soil Physical Analyses 13 A. Hydraulic Conductivity 12 B. Water Retention Characteristics 14 C. Bulk Density 16 Water and Soil Chemical Analyses ............. 17 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 13 Water Balance 18" Nutrient Concentrations in Water 20 Nitrogen Balance i 22 Carbon Balance 24 Phosphorus Removal 9 Physical Properties of the Soil System 31 Water Retention Properties 3V Page Saturated Hydraulic Conductivities ......... 31 Physical Changes Occuring During Incubation 3 5 CONCLUSIONS 40 IJ ITillR A 1 U R.1L CXI ED o»oo*»o**e**o*«eoooooe«*«oo**a«* A* 3 APPENDIX 9 V i LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. Concentrations and Amount of N in Wastewater Applied to Lysimeters 1, 2, and 3 50 2A. Concentrations and Amount of N in Drainage Water from Lysimeter 1 51 2B. Concentrations and Amount of N in Drainage Water from Lysimeter 2 52 2C. Concentrations and Amount of N in Drainage Water from Lysimeter 3 53 3. Concentrations and Amount of N in Wastewater Applied to Lysimeters 4* 5, and 6 54 4A. Concentrations and Amount of N in Drainage Water from Lysimeter 4 55 4B. Concentrations and Amount of N in Drainage Water from Lysimeter 5 56 4C. Concentrations and Amount of N in Drainage Water from Lysimeter 6 57 5. Concentrations and Amount of total Soluble P in Wastewater and Drainage Water in Lysimeters 1, 2, and 3 » 53 6. Concentrations and Amount of total Soluble P in Wastewater and Drainage Water in Lysimeters 4, 5, and 6 59 7. Chemical and Physical Properties of the Original Soil and the Treated Soil in Lysimeter 3 60 vii Table Page 8. Chemical and Physical Properties of both the Original and Treated Soils in Lysime-ter 4 61 9. Matric Potential vs Volumetric Water Content in Lysimeter 1 62 10. Matric Potential vs Volumetric Water Content in Lysimeter 6 3 11. Matric Potential vs Volumetric Water Content of the Original Soil 64 12. Saturated Hydraulic Concductivity of Both the Original and Treated Soils 65 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page 1. Porous Plate Assembly 9 2. Irrigation System 11 3. Measurement of Energy Status in the Lysimeter During Incubation 12 4. Steady-state Method of Measuring Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity 15 5. Partial Water Balances for Lysimeters 1, 2 3. and 4, 5, 6 19 6. Concentrations of N in Wastewater and Drainage Water 21 7. Total Nitrogen Balances for Lysimeters 1, 2, 3 and 4, 5, 6 . 23 ct. Distribution of Total Nitrogen in the Soil Profile . 25 9. Distribution of Total Carbon in the Soil . Profile 27 10. Concentrations of P in Wastewater and Drainage Water 30 11. Water Retention Curve of the Original Soil 32 12. Water Retention Curve of Lysimeter 1 ... 33 13. Water Retention Curve of Lysimeter 6 ... 34 14. Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity ....... 36 15. Changes of Total Water Potential with Time and Depth for the Forest Soil During Incu bation in Lysimeter 1 3$ ix Figure Page 16. Changes of Total Water Potential with Time and Depth for the Forest Soil During Incu bation in Lysimeter 4 39 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The writer is indebted to Dr. Jan de Vries for his support, suggestions and criticisms during the course of the research and preparation of this manuscript. The writer is also deeply indebted to Dr. T. M. Ballard for his assistance and advice during the progress of this study. Special thanks are also extended to Dr. C. A. Rowles and Dr. T. A. Black for their kind assistance. The financial support from the Department of the Environment, Canada is also gratefully acknowledged. INTRODUCTION The practice of releasing wastewater from domestic, in dustrial and agricultural sources to receiving waters has con tributed significantly to water quality problems. These pro blems have drawn not only the attention of the public, but also that of the government which considers water pollution as one of the top environmental quality problems. The various methods that are used to cope with this problem involve the reduction of chemical and biological materials, contained in the waste, to environmentally tolerable levels. Chemical, biological and physical means of treatment, separately or in combination, are generally used to remove nutrients, dissolved minerals and organic matter from wastewater. Three processes of conventional treatments of wastewater with different degrees of purification are currently in prac tice. They are primary, secondary and tertiary treatments. Primary treatment includes such methods as screening, skimming, sedimentation and lagooning to remove part of the coarse, floatable and suspended solids from the wastewater. Secondary treatment is employed to further remove most of the remaining solids from the primary treated wastewater. Several methods in use involve filtration, activated sludge and aerated stabiliza tion basins. Nutrient removal in these processes is limited. The tertiary treatment is, therefore, an advanced step of the secondary treatment and is designed to remove nutrients and dissolved minerals from the treated water. The methods usually employed are photosynthetic stabilization, chemical precipita-2 tion, ion exchange, distillation, electrodialysis, freezing, reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration. Wastewater filtration with field soils represents a com bination of chemical, biological and physical methods for the treatment of wastewater. It is therefore considered as a pro cess of tertiary treatment due to the effectiveness in removal of nutrients and dissolved minerals from the wastewater. Waste water for land irrigation should receive primary or secondary treatment and should be free of any toxic chemicals before being applied to the land. Large amounts of heavy metals such as Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd and Cr are hazardous to biotic systems and should be removed from the wastewater, prior to application to land, by some means of chemical, biological or physical treatment. Using soil for wastewater filtration has been a common prac tice for centuries. It has been used by farmers to maintain and increase soil fertility in many places of the world. Scoble (1905) reported a successful land treatment sewage system in Great Britain. Wastewater from domestic sources combined with trade refuse was treated by screening and filtration through about 6 feet of light loamy soil overlying a porous sandy subsoil at an average application rate of 23,300 gal per acre per year ( 2.65 cm per day ). The drainage water from the cropped soil attained over 90 fo purification in terms of chemical, physical and biological qualities. The use of soil for disposal of wastewater from various in dustries such as canneries, pulp mills, dairies etc. in the United States since 1930 was reported by Schraufnage (1962). iS^ Schraufnage reported that pea and corn wastes were applied to 3 land through a ridge-and-furrow irrigation system at a rate of 49,000 gal per day per acre ( 5.57 cm per day ) or 238 lb BOD per day per acre ( 266.6 kg BOD per day per ha ) in 1934 at Hampton, U.S.A. No odor was noted. He also reported that municipal waste was disposed of on a deep silt loam underlain by sand at an average rate of 37,000 gal per day per acre ( 4.21 cm per day ) with a BOD of about 8 lb per acre ( 9.0 kg per ha ) in 1959 at Wisconsin, U. S. A. No odor and overflow were re ported. Scott (1962) reported a successful use of cheese whey as a fertilizer and soil conditioner in tests carried out in Wiscon sin in 1959. Cheese whey was applied to the sandy soils at a rate of 5,000 - 70,000 lb per day per acre ( 56IO - 73,540 kg per ha ) over a 30-day period. Return yield of oat crop was reported to be 32 bu per acre, despite some vegetation losses on heavy wastewater loaded areas. Spray irrigation of spent sulfite liquor on land at a maxi mum rate of 320,000 gal per day ( 36.4 cm per day ) was also reported by Scott. Well tests indicated no trace of liquor in the ground water. The operation cost of the disposal system was estimated to be $1.39 per ton as compared to $4.17 per ton of pulp produced. The economics of land disposal of sludge for soil improve ment were statistically evaluated by Thomas and Bendixon (1969). They reported that disposal of sludge on land could reduce the the costs by about 29 %, They indicated the cost of making top-soil with sludge was $1,600 per acre ( $4,000 per ha ), while the comparable cost of improvement with natural topsoil would 4 have been $4,500 per acre ( $11,000 per hectare ). Robeck and his colleages (1964), on the basis of tests using 50 lysimeters, suggested that soil system in order to be suitable for wastewater treatment must have a low enough per meability and some adsorptive capacity to allow the suspended and dissolved organic matter to be retained. They pointed out that a soil which has 0.5 - 1.0 % organic matter and effective aggregate size of about 0.3 - 0.1 mm and an application rate from 4"- 10 cm per day can help reduce 90 - 95 fo of ABS ( Alkyl benzene sulfonate ) and COD ( Chemical oxygen demand ) and also help prevent groundwater contamination from wastewater irriga tion. A number of other authors have studied the efficiency of filtration systems in terms of design and operation procedures ( Thomas, Warren, and Thomas, 19665 Parizek, 196?; Law, Thomas and Myers, 1970; Laak, 1970J Robeck, Bendixen, Schwartz and Woodward, 1964; de Vries, 1972 ). Research on the application of wastewater to forested soil by spray irrigation was carried out at the Pennsylvania State University and New Jersey, U.S.A. ( Kardos, 1966; Pennypacker, Sopper and Kardos, 1967; Sopper, 1971; Mather, 1953 ). In Penn sylvania, hardwood and red pine forest soils of silt loam to silty clay loam texture were subjected to an intermittent application rate of 0.64 cm per hour for a total of 2.5 to 5«0 cm per week. The research was carried out from April to November in 1968 after six years of operation. Renovation of MBAS ( detergent residue ) in the hardwood plot under a loading of 2.5 cm per week v/as as high as 70 - 80 % in the upper 120 cm of soil, as compared to 71 - 86 % 5 with the red pine. Phosphorus removal ranged from 98" - 99 % at the 60 cm soil depth in the hardwood plot and 93 - 97 % in the red pine plot. Nitrate nitrogen removal decreased from 68 - &2 % in the first year to 27 - 70 % six year later. Removals of organic nitrogen were 99 % to 90 % with respect to hardwood and red pine plots. Different degrees of successful removal of other dissolved minerals such as Cl, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Mn and B by soils were also noted. Groundwater recharge amounted to an average of 15.0 thousand cubic metres per hectare or equivalent to 90 % of the wastewater applied at the 5 cm per week rate. Tree growth increased rapidly. No contamination of groundwater or adverse effect on soils was reported. Results of all research showed that the use of soil for wastewater renovation was one of the simplest and most effective methods of wastewater treatment. However, the soil properties and operation procedure are the main factors that determine the suitability and efficiency of the filtration systems. Since soil filtration of wastewater can be considered as an example of a tertiary treatment process that can be broadly and easily applied in the field, the concept of using forest soil for wastewater reclamation was obvious ( Kardos, 1966 ). Forest soils, unlike crop land or grass land, are often covered with a layer of a carbonaceous forest floor of varying thickness that can serve as an energy source for the activity of microorganisms ( Kardos, 1966; Allison, 1966 ). The relatively high C:N ratio of the forest floor would contribute to the biological immobili zation of added inorganic nitrogen to the organic form ( Allison 1966 ). In addition, the high acidity of the mineral soil might contribute to adsorption of ammonium ions, and to high retentivity of phosphate because of the presence of iron and aluminium oxides and hydroxides ( Hemwall, 1957; Parizek, 1967 ). Muni cipal wastes originate mainly from domestic sources and may contain such chemicals as detergents, N, Ca, Mg, Na, P and CI. Application of wastewater to the land will retain such nutrients for vegetation growth. The principal problem may be the possi ble contamination of groundwater with soluble nitrate nitrogen as is reported by some authors ( Pennypacker, Sopper and Kardos 1967 ). A study plan was devised, using soil lysimeters in the green house, to characterize the behaviour, over time, of a West Coast forest soil in response to loading with a primary domestic sewage effluent. This study focusses on the 1) nitrogen and phosphorus retention by a forest soil, 2) changes of physical behaviour of soil, 4) optimization of wastewater loading, and 5) suitability and possible problems in field operation. 7 The general objectives of this research were to investi gate 1) the effects resulting from contact between wastewater, bearing nitrogen and phosphorus, and a forest soil, 2) the soils capacity to retain nitrogen and phosphorus, and 3) the means of balancing the amount of addition to soil against the amount of storage while at the same time minimizing leaching loss. This was done by passing wastewater througn soil lysimeters. In response to filtration, physical, chemical and biological changes were expected to take place in the soil. Therefore, a research project was devised to determine water and nitrogen balances for the lysimeters as well as to study physical, chemical and bio logical changes. RESEARCH.METHODS AND MATERIALS Materials and Sampling The soil sampling site was located at Loon Lake, University of British Columbia Research Forest, Haney, B. C, at an alti tude of about 400 metres. The vegetation consisted of a com bination of western red cedar ( Thuja plicata Donn ) and western hemlock ( Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. ). The podzolic soil showed well-developed L, F, H, Ae and Bf horizons in the top 60 cm. Undisturbed cores were taken from the forest floor with the same diameter as the inside diameter of the lysimeters. The L, F and H layers of the forest floor were about 2.5, 1.5 and 5.0 cm thick respectively. Mineral soil of loam texture from the A and B horizons was sampled to a depth of about 45 cm. Un-chlorinated wastewater was collected from the primary municipal wastewater treatment plant, West Vancouver, B. C, and stored at 8" a temperature of two degrees Centigrade. Each supply lasted for a period of about 20 days. Lysimeter Cylinder Apparatus Six transparent acrylic plastic cylinders of diameter 14 cm and length 8*0 cm were employed. In order to gauge the energy status ( matric potential ) of the soil water in the lysimeter, four tensiometer holes were drilled at 20 cm inter vals. Sintered glass bead tensiometers were about 5 cm long and 5 mm in diameter and had air intrusion values of about 200 cm of water. The tensiometers were connected to mercury mano--meters. Drainage was facilitated through the installation of a porous plate at the bottom of each lysimeter ( Fig. 1 ). The porous plate consisted of a one-cm thick layer of unconso lidated silicon carbide ( 25 micron particle size ) which pro-vidid good hydraulic contact between the soil and the drainage system. The porous plate facilitated the maintenance of ae robic conditions in the soil by maintaining the soil water tension at or above the soil air intrusion value. V/ater from the soil was collected through the drainage system at a tension of 60 cm of water. The irrigation system was installed at the top of the ly simeter, 6 cm above the forest floor. Polyethylene pressure tubing ( 1 cm in diameter ) with small holes was used so that water could drip from the tubing onto the forest floor. The rate of flow maintained at 0.35 cm per hour by adjusting the head ( wastewater surface level ) to the appropriate value. The irrigation system was flushed with clean water once a week 9 RUBBER GASKET NYLON SCREENING HOLES; OUTLET TUBE SUPPORTING PLATE SPACE FOR SAND AND SILICONE CARBIDE SUPPORTING PLATE R ESERVOIR Fig. 1. Porous Plate Assembly 10 to maintain a constant flow rate ( Figure 2 ). Preparation and Packing of Soil Sample Sieving of the mineral soil with a 6 mm sieve resulted in the removal of about 47.1 % ( weight basis ) of coarse fragments from the soil. Thorough mixing of the soil produced a uniform soil ready for packing in the lysimeters. To pack the soil in the lysimeter, a measured amount of soil of known volume ( one pint ) was poured into the cylinder and compressed uniformly with a wooden packer. Then the soil surface was loosened with a steel bristle brush in order to ensure good continuity be tween adjacent layers. Soil depth was measured after every ten increments in order to obtain a measure of packing uniformity. The final volume and weight of the soil were recorded. The bulk densities of the lysimeter soils varied between 0.86 and 0.90 gm per cnr*. Incubation of the Soil The experiment was carried out in the greenhouse from Sep tember 1971 until June 1972. In order to minimize temperature variations and to simulate the environmental conditions at the sampling site, temperature of the soil at depths greater than 40.0 cm was maintained at 15.5 degrees Centigrade by placing the lysimeter in an insulated air bath. During the summer, a fan drawing in outside air was also employed to maintain a favour able temperature in the greenhouse. The surface of the soil was shaded to prevent direct contact with sunlight in order to minimize water loss from the forest floor by evaporation. A sketch of a lysimeter system during incubation is shown in Fig. 3. 11 POLYETHYLENE PRESSURE TUBING IRRIGATION HOLE SUPPORTING FRAME Fig. 2. Irrigation System 12 LITTER LAYER BOUNDARY MINERAL SOIL WATER MERCURY Fig. 3. Measurement of Water Energy Status in the Lysimeter During Incubation. 13 Wastewater Application and Drainage Water Sampling The total number of six lysimeters was divided into two groups of three. Wastewater was applied at a rate of 37 cm^ per day ( 0.23 cm per day ) to lysimeters 1 to 3, and at a rate of 75 cm.3 per day ( 0.47 cm per day ) to lysimeters 4 to 6. 50 to 100 cm.3 of tap water was added at the end of each week. The application flow rate of water was maintained at 0.35 cm per hour.. The total amounts of nitrogen applied to the two sets of lysimeters were equivalent to 123 lb N per acre per year ( 143*4 kg N per hectare per year ) and 250 lb N per acre per year ( 230 kg N per hectare per year ) respectively at wastewater nitrogen concentrations varying between 14 ppm and 33 ppm. The total amounts of P applied to the same were equivalent to 27 lb P per acre per year ( 30.2 kg P per hectare per year ) and 53 lb N per acre per year ( 59.4 kg P per hectare per year ) at concentra tions between 4.0 and 3.7 ppm. The volume of drainage water released by the soil lysime ters was measured daily. Water potentials inside the soil lysi meters were also recorded before each wastewater application. Drainage water sample of sufficient quantity to allow analyses for BOD, nitrogen and phosphorus was collected and stored at a temperature of two degrees Centigrade. Soil Physical Analyses Physical properties of both mineral soil and the organic layer were measured to indicate changes due to effluent loading for the one year period. A. Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity 14 Hydraulic conductivity is a measure of the ability of a soil to conduct water. It is the flux per unit hydraulic po tential gradient and from Darcy's law can be written as K = ( Q/At ) / ( h/L ) = v / ( h/L ) where v is the water flow rate ( cm sec~^ ), Q the volume of flow ( cm^ ) that passes across the soil cross sectional area A ( cm2 ) in time t ( sec ), K is the hydraulic conducitivity ( cm sec~l ), and h is the hydraulic head ( cm ) across a length of flow L ( cm ). A steady-state method was employed to measure the saturated hydraulic conductivity in situ ( Fig. 4 ). K was determined by measuring the volume of flow through the soil during a known time interval and hydraulic gradient. The tensiometers were used to measure the hydraulic head drops across the soil layers. In order to minimize air entrapment, the soil was saturated gra dually from the bottom up by slowly increasing the elevation of the lysimeter outflow unit, which was connected to a water supply for a period of about 15 hours. Subsequently, steady state was established and maintained by providing constant water levels over the soil surface and at the outlet. B. Water Retention Characteristics The measurement of:soil water content in conjunction with matric potential yields information about soil water retention characteristics and pore size distribution. Under certain con ditions, filter failure of the soil after prolonged periods of loading with wastewater has been found to occur due to the change in biological, chemical and physical conditions inside the soil. 15 CONSTANT WATER LEVEL-FOREST FLOOR BOUNDARY MINERAL SOIL' TENSIOMETERS^ OUTFLOW IL, DRAJNAGE SYSTEM -T,-f 5cm I - iiniiiiimiiiimiiiiiiin n PIEZOMETERS Fig. 4. Steady-State Method of Measuring Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity. 16 Previous research indicated filter failure occurred at low tem perature under aerobic condition or in higher water content under anaerobic conditions ( de Vries, 1972 ). Therefore a technique was employed that allows the simultaneous in situ measurement of the relative soil water content and the corres ponding soil water matric potential during drainage after the soil has been saturated ( Watson and Whisler, 1968; de Vries, 1969 ). Water retention curves were obtained by plotting the relative water content, expressed as accumulated outflow, as a function of matric potential. Relative water contents were measured with a gamma radiation attenuation method, and corres ponding matric potentials were measured with tensiometer-pres-sure transducer systems ( Chow and de Vries, 1972 ). C. Bulk Density The bulk density of the soil was computed before and after treatment with wastewater. Bulk density of the original soil was determined by placing a known weight of moist soil of known water content in the lysimeter and by measuring the volume. This value represented the average bulk density throughout the soil in the lysimeter. The bulk density of the treated soil was determined by the clod-method at 5-cm intervals ( Black, Evans, White, Ensminger and Clark, 1965 ). This measurement allowed calculation of the porosity of the soil, assuming a particle density of 2.65 gm cm~3. Water and Soil Chemical Analyses Chemical properties, of both wastewater and drainage water were determined periodically in terms of total Kjeldhal N, ni trate N, ammonium N, total P and BOD, while chemical properties 17 of both original and treated soils were determined in terms of total Kjeldahl N, nitrate N, and ammonium N. These analyses were carried out to determine the effectiveness of the filtra tion system and the dynamics of nitrogen and phosphorus re tention. The BOD, which is an indicator of the biodegradable or ganic matter content of water, was measured periodically by a manometric method ( Tool, 19&7 ). Organic nitrogen of both influent and effluent was determined by the macro-Kjeldahl me thod while the total Kjeldahl nitrogen method was employed to determine ammonia plus organic nitrogen ( Standard Methods, 1962 ). Nitrate nitrogen was measured by the specific ion electrode ^ , and total water-soluble phosphorus by the molyb denum blue method ( Black,'Evans,White, Ensminger and Clark, 1965 ). Organic and ammonia nitrogen of both the original and treated soils were determined by the micro-Kjeldahl method ( Black, Evans, White, Ensminger and Clark, 1965 ). Ammonia nitrogen was measured by micro-diffusion followed by colori-metry, and nitrate nitrogen by the chromotropic acid method ( West and Ramachandran, 1966 ). A glass electrode was used to measure the pH of the soil suspension with a water : soil ratio of 1 : 1. Total carbon was measured by the Leco instrument. All analyses were done in duplicate. 1) Orion Research Incorporated, nitrate ion electrode model 92-07. 18 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The application of waste water to the soil lysimeters was carried out continuously for a period of 36 weeks. The data were obtained in terms of physical and chemical properties during and after termination of the experiment. Lysimeters 3 and 4 were used for chemical analyses, while lysimeters 1, 2 and 5, 6 were employed to determine the physical properties. All data were expressed on a 7-day basis. This was done by dividing the collected volume of drainage water by the number of days over which this volume was collected, and multiplying the result by seven. All other chemical input and output data were expressed on the same seven day basis. Water Balance During the 36 weeks, the two groups of soil lysimeters re ceived average volumes of 3.6 and 16.3 litres of waste water respectively plus an additional volume of 2.2 litres of tap water. The volume of the drainage water indicated that for these two groups about 34.1 % and 20.4 %, respectively, of the total input of liquid was stored or evaporated to the atmosphere. Figure 5 shows the water balance of lysimeters 1, 2, 3 and 4, 5, 6 starting from September 23, 1971, to June 23, 1972. At the beginning, the application of wastewater to the soil lysimeters was not the same, but slightly higher in lysimeters 1, 2, 3 than in lysimeters 4, 5, 6. Wastewater was regularly added to the soil lysimeters six days a week, while fresh water was usual ly added at the last day of a week. If a certain amount of waste water was not applied to the lysimeters within a scheduled time 19 40CV 200 CO <u Q I t>-QZ a, o 0 0---0 INPUT OUTPUT O—O WASTEWATER PLUS TAP O O LYSIMETER £ (£) LYSIMETER 4 WATER •O--0 WASTE WATER o fe o o > 600 400i-1 , • • LYSIMETER • (_J 2 . . A & LYSIMETER o A 3 0---Q 5 6 200-.1 0 0 56 23 20 16 19 13 9 9 7 14 7 19 12 11 12 12 15 DAYS NOV DEC DEG JAN FEB FEB FEB MAR MAR MAR APR APR MAY MAY MAY JUN JUN 17 10 30 15 3 16 25 5. 12 26 2 21 3 14 26 7 22 Fig. 5. Partial Water Balances for Lysimeters 1,2,3 (top) and 4,5,6 (bottom). 20 period, it was added as soon as possible thereafter. This is the reason the amount of wastewater applied expressed on a 7-day basis in both Figures 5 and 6 is not uniform. The volume of drainage water in the l6-day period ( January 1$ ) in both Figures 5 and 6 exceeded that of the irrigation water in both soils. This was attributed to the flow from the previous period when the outlet system was closed for a short period of time. Nutrient Concentrations in Waters Nutrient concentrations in both wastewater and drainage water were measured periodically in terms of nitrogen, phospho rus and BOD. Figure 6 shows that the concentrations of nitrogen in the drainage water from both groups of soil lysimeters in creased with time. The concentration of nitrogen in the drainage water from lysimeters 4, 5 and 6 was about twice than that of the lysimeters 1, 2 and 3« The data of Fig. 6 indicate that the con centration of nitrogen in the drainage water from lysimeters 4, 5 and 6 increased to values higher than that of the wastewater after 23 weeks of loading ( January 15 ). This suggests that all of the nitrogen applied was being leached from the soil. However, soil analyses for nitrogen concentration carried out on both groups of lysimeters did not indicate significant changes in the soil nitrogen content during the application period as shown in Figure It is interesting to note that despite a decrease in the nitrogen concentration of the influent wastewater during the application period, the concentration of the drainage water con tinued to increase after 23 weeks of treatment. Concentrations of total phosphorus of both wastewater and drainage water are shown in Figure 11. The data of Figure 11 in-21 O N CONC. OF WASTEWATER O N CONC. OF DRAINAGE WATER 1 £ N C0NC. OF DRAINAGE WATER 4 o L_l—I 1—I 1—i—i—i i | i i i . i i i 56 23 20 16 19 13 9 9 7 14 7 19 12 11 12 12 15 DAYS NOV DEC DEC JAN FEB FEB FEB MAR MAR MAR APR APR MAY MAY MAY JUN JUN 17 10 30 15 3 16 25 5 12 26 2 21 3 14 26 7 22 Fig. 6. Concentrations of N in Wastewater and Drainage Water 22 dicate that the concentration of phosphorus in wastewater varied between 4 ppm and $.7 ppm with an average concentration of 6.0 ppm. A sharp drop of the concentration in wastewater after 25 weeks of application occurred in conjunction with a drop of the nitrogen content mainly due to the low nutrient concentrations of the wastewater from the treatment plant. The concentration of the drainage water was very low, within the lowest limit of detection, indicating a high retention of added phosphorus by the soil. Nitrogen Balance The final calculation showed that the total inputs of ni trogen for the two groups of lysimeters were 223.7 mg and 436.9 mg, or equivalent to 1.4 °h and 2.7 % of the total amount of ni trogen present in the original soils ( the experimental error was 5 % ). Data on the nitrogen balance showed that lysimeters 4, 5 and 6 attained an effluent renovation of 43 % in terms of nitrogen as compared to 75 % for lysimeters 1, 2, and 3« Fig. 7 indicates the rate of total nitrogen output from both soil ly simeters increased with time.. This increase in nitrogen output from lysimeters 4, 5, and 6 was initially three times higher than that of lysimeters 1, 2, and 3 and the difference increased to five times after 25 weeks ( March 2 6 ) of wastewater appli cation. Figure 7 shows that the increase of the total nitrogen output of lysimeters 4, 5, and 6 exceeded that of input after 25 weeks ( March 26 ) of application. This indicates that the high nitrogen loading exceeded the soil's capability for biolo gical immobilization, so the added nitrogen and some of the re tained nitrogen were biologically converted to nitrate which in 23 9r 6 ho.. CO >H •< Q I !>-Pi W OH C5 3r-OL o INPUT OUTPUT OF NITROGEN O—OTOTAL NITROGEN© O LYSIMETER 1 6 6 LYSIMETER 4 56 23 20 16 19 13 9 9 7 14 7 19 12 11 12 12 15 NOV DEC DEC JAN FEB FEB FEB MAR MAR MAR APR APR MAY MAY MAY JUN JUN 17 10 30 15 3 16 25 5 12 26 2 21 3 14 26 7 22 Fig. 7. Total Nitrogen Balances for Lysimeters 1,2,3 (top) and 4,5,6 (bottom). 24 turn was leached from the soil ( Tables 3 and 4 )• In addition, the residence time of the wastewater in the soil was relatively short. Daily recorded data of wastewater input and effluent output show that about 30 to 90 % of the input water was drained from the soil within 24 hours. Winsor and Pollard (1956) in one of their experiments found a maximum nitrogen immobilization of 56 % after 2 days of incubation at 23.5 degrees Centigrade and 80 % moisture equivalent when 100 ml of solution containing 15 mg of inorganic nitrogen ( C:N = 5 : 1 ) was added to a market-garden soil ( C:N = 9.5 : 1 ). Under field conditions, nitrogen immobilization could be enhanced by increasing the contact time between wastewater and soil. Removal of water from the soil by forest vegetation, resulting in lower antecedent soil water con tents, would contribute to the desired increase in contact time. This could also be done by reducing the application rate of wastewater to the soil. The total nitrogen output of lysimeters 1, 2, and 3 was 56.5 mg, well below that of the total input 223.7 mg ( Tables 1 and 2 ). This suggested the residence time of wastewater in the soil was more favourable for biological immo bilization for lysimeters 1, 2, and 3 than for lysimeters 4, 5, and 6. Carbon Balance Total soil carbon was determined before and after treatment of wastewater with the soils. This organic matter served as the main energy source for the heterotrophic organisms in the con version of inorganic nitrogen to organic form in the soil. The importance of C:N ratio for the immobilization of nitrogen was demonstrated by Allison (1966) and Winsor and Pollard (1956). 0 0.2 0.4 TOTAL NITROGEN CONCENTRATION, % 0.6 0.8" 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 hi il III) 1 I:' 1 1 : i .. 1 i • r N CONCENTRATION OF THE ORIGINAL SOIL N CONCENTRATION OF LYSIMETER 3 AT END OF APPLICATION '» 4 11 Fig. 8. Distribution of Total Nitrogen in the Soil Profile 26 Allison observed that the maximum nitrogen immobilization and minimum carbon dioxide production was reached at about 19 to 21 days of incubation when wheat straw and sodium nitrate had been added to a sandy loam. Immediately after the peak, nitrogen mineralization became dominant and carbon dioxide production closely paralleled nitrogen immobilization. This result was comparable with that of Winsor and Pollard, who found that the nitrogen immobilization peak was at two days instead of 20 days. In the conclusion of his review, Allison (1966) pointed out that this difference in maximum nitrogen immobilization is related to the ease of decomposition of organic materials. The decomposi tion of organic matter was dependent upon its composition. Lig nin, oils, fats and resins are resistant to decompostion, while cellulose, starches, sugars, proteins, amono acids, amides, al cohols and aldehydes etc. are readily decomposable. Since sugar is easily decomposable and thus available to microorganisms, a rapid maximum nitrogen immobilization is expected due to the high carbon and energy supply. On the other hand, wheat straw contains lignin and hemicellulose matter that are more resistant to decomposition, so a longer time is needed for the same maxi mum nitrogen immobilization ( Allison, 1966; Buckman and Brady, I960 ). In the present experiment, the overall treatment process did not result in any apparent changes in nitrogen and carbon contents of both forest floor and mineral soil ( Figures 8 and 9 ) As can be seen from Table 8, the C:N ratios at the end of the treatment period vary between 25 to 31 and 24 to 35 in the forest floors and 25 to 31 and 22 to 24 in the mineral soils in lysime ters 3 and 4 respectively. The C:N ratios of the original soil 27 varied from 29 to 33 in the forest floor and was 24 in the minerel soils. This apparent absence of change in the C:N ra tios in response to treatment is probably due to the fact that the C:N ratios of both the original soils and added wastewater were not high enough to favor a significant change in biologi cal immobilization. Winsor and Pollard (1956) found that in the glasshouse and market-garden soils, the ratio of carbon added to nitrogen immobilized by microorganisms was 8.3 to 10.8 i.e. 8.3 to 10.8 parts of added carbon are necessary to immobi lize one part of nitrogen. Of course, the contact time between wastewater and soil is of prime importance in the process of immobilization as discussed before. In the present study of forest soil, the C:N ratio of the original mineral soil was 24, and the C:N ratio of the treated soil was similar to that of the original soil in spite of waste water application. The C:N ratio of added wastewater was about 2.5 : 1 based on average concentrations of a BOD of 110 ppm and total nitrogen 26 ppm. It is also important to note that immo bilization and mineralization occur together in the soil ( Alli son, I966 ). Since the total amounts of nitrogen added to the two gruops of soils were only 1.4 % and 2.7 % of the original soil nitrogen as compared to about 5 % experimental error in the analyses, apparent changes in nitrogen content, based on soil analysis be fore and after treatment, are not likely to be significant. Since the soil was highly aerobic, conditions promoted the oxi dation of nitrogen to the nitrate form which was readily subject to leaching. The analyses of drainage water showed that almost TOTAL CARBON CONCENTRATION, % 15 30 45 54 T I TT C CONCENTRATION OF THE ORIGINAL SOIL C CONCENTRATION OF LYSIMETER 3 AT END OF APPLICATION » 4 » L i I Fig. 9. Dirtribution of Total Carbon in the Soil Profile 29 all of the nitrogen coming from the soil was in nitrate form ( Table 1. ). Phosphorus Removal Satisfactory retention of phosphorus in the forest soil ( Table 4 ) was probably associated with relatively high amounts of reactive iron and aluminium oxides and hydroxides. Data of total water soluble phosphorus input and output showed that the retention of added phosphorus was more than 99 % in both soils. Sopper (1971) found that the renovations of phosphorus in a hardwood plot subject to respective application rates of 2.5 cm and 10 cm per week were 99.9 % and 99.3 %> while in a red pine plot they were 97.0 and 98.7 % with respect to weekly application rates of 2.5 and 5.0 cm. Both soil depths ( silt loam to silty clay loam ) were reported as 60 cm and average phosphorus con centration of wastewater was 8.5 mg/l over a period of six months. Hemwall (1957) reported that fixation of phosphorus mainly occurred as a result of chemical precipitation and physico-chemical sorption rather than by microbiological retention. Cole and Jackson (1950) studied the solubility equilibrium constants of dihydroxy aluminium dihydrogen phosphate , A1(0H)2 ^PO/,. ~ variscite crystal species, and dihydroxy iron dihydrogen phos phate, Fe(0H)2 H2P0^ - strengite crystal species, and found that they related the equilibrium concentration of phosphorus in the soil solution directly to the aluminium and iron activity of the soil. However, phosphorus is fixed either by precipitation or sorption by aluminium and iron oxides and hydroxides under acid conditions to form A1(H20)3 (0H)2 HgPO^ or Fe(H20)3 (0H)2 H2P0^ ( Hemwall, 1957; Russell, 196l; Tisdale and Nelson, 1966 ). 30 8 7 0 Q o •a o 9 o 1 I L I I I O CONC. OF P IN WASTEWATER O P IN DRAINAGE WATER 1 2 • 6 rj 0 g d 3 4 5 6 O b-o' 6 J L 56 23 20 16 19 13 9 9 7_ 14 7 19 12 11 12 12 15 DAYS NOV DEC DEC JAN FEB FEB FEB MAR MAR MAR APR APR MAY MAY MA Y JUN JUN 17 10 30 15 3 16 2 5 5 12 26 2 21 3 14 26 7 22 Fig. 10. Concentrations of P in Wastewater and Drainage Water / Physical Properties of the Soil System Water Retention Properties Physical properties of the soil are among the important fac tors in determining the long term suitability of the soil system for wastewater renovation. The results of this research show that the physical behaviour of the soil did not change signifi-cantly with time, depending on degree of loading . Figures 11 and 12 show that the water retention characteristics of lysime ter 1 were not changed as compared to the original soil, except in the forest floor where the aeration porosity was relatively reduced. This reduction in aeration porosity of the forest floor was probably due to settling and deposition of organic matter although Figures 8 and 9 did not show significant changes of nitrogen and carbon in lysimeter 1 after wastewater treatment. In the case of lysimeter 6 ( Figure 13 ), the relative total amount of water released by the mineral soil as the matric po tential was decreased from 0 to -60 cm of water was higher than that of the original soil, indicating a higher aeration porosity. No specific data were available to account for this result, al though the bulk densities of both the original and treated soils in lysimeter 4 ( subject to same loadings as in lysimeter 6 ) were not changed ( Table 8 ). In the forest floor of lysimeter 6, the aeration porosity was relatively lower than that of ly simeter 1 and the original soil. The possible reason may be a higher deposition of organic matter in lysimeter 6. Saturated Hydraulic Conductivities Saturated conductivity of the soil was measured to determine 32 G-0----0 FOREST FLOOR Q—Q AT 1.2 CM SOIL DEPTH Q Q AT 10.2 CM SOIL DEPTH AT 19.2 CM SOIL DEPTH * THE TOTAL POROSITY OF THE MINERAL SOIL IS 67 % 6> 90 75 -60 - 45 -30 MATRIC POTENTIAL, CM OF WATER 15 0 Fig. 11. Water Retention Curve of the Original Soil. 33 O-Q--G €1 Q-—O P G AT 6.7 CM SOIL DEPTH AT 25.9 CM SOIL DEPTH • AT 45.9 CM SOIL DEPTH AT 65.9 CM SOIL DEPTH TOTAL POROSITY G - .32 — . 28 . 24 o .20 w fe o .16 &" o fe E-i ^) O .12 Q w :=> .08 g ,04 0 -90 -75 - 60 -45 "30 -15 MATRIC POTENTIAL, CM OF WATER 0 Fig. 12. Water Retention Curve of Lysimeter 1. 34 O—-O AT 8.5 CM OF SOIL DEPTH -90 -75 -60 -45 -30 -15 0 MATRIC POTENTIAL, CM OF WATER Fig. 13. Water Retention Curve of Lysimeter 6 35 the effect of wastewater treatment on the soil's ability to transmit water. Figure 14 indicates that the hydraulic con ductivities of both soils ( lysimeters 1 and 6 ) were lower than that of the original soil. This result is difficult to explain in view of the fact that the aeration porosity of the mineral soil in lysimeter 6 was higher than that of the original soil ( Figures 11 and 13 ). This might be due to introduction of by-products from microorganisms that might interfere with water movement. McCalla (1950) found that when sucrose was added to soil, the percolation rate dropped rapidly, but when the soil was kept in a refrigerator, the percolation rate did not change. This indicated that the percolation rate had a close relationship with the activity of microorganism. Lysi meters 2 and 5 received the same conditions of treatment with wastewater as lysimeters 1 and 6, but were subjected to a resting and drying of about a month. Results of measurement show that the saturated conductivities of both soil were higher than that of the original soil. The biological activity may have been responsible for the increase of the conductivities. Since it is likely that the suspended solids in the waste water, including organic matter, were filtered out by the forest floor, the activity of microorganisms in the forest floor pro bably was very high. This can be seen from the water retention and hydraulic conductivity characteristics where the aeration porosity of the treated forest floor is much lower than that of the original sample. Physical Changes Occuring During Incubation Physical changes in the soil profile during incubation were 0 0 10 20 30 a: M Q ^ 40 o 50 p-gi-aJ? I u B I SATURATED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY, CM PER DAY 300 600 900 10 4 105 K OF THE ORIGINAL SOIL K OF LYSIMETER 1 » 2 tt tt 5 6 60 70 L Fig. 14. Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity of The Soils 37 evaluated during wastewater application. Figures 15 and 16 show that both the matric and total potentials decrease with depth. This implies a downward movement of water in the soil profile. The top 20 cm of lysimeter 1 ( d^/dZ = 3.4 ) had a steeper po tential gradient than that below 20 cm indicating a lower con ductivity across the 0 to 20 cm depth interval, assuming a cons tant flux with depth ( Darcy's Law ). A transmission zone existed in the depth intervals from 24 cm to 44 cm. The water content and matric potential were approximately constant across the zone and the only driving force was the gravitational poten tial gradient. The total potential gradient was unity, and the hydraulic conductivity was equal to the flux. Calculations based on Darcy's Law in Figures 15 and 16 show that the unsaturated conductivities within this zone in lysimeters 1 and 4 are 0.16 cm per day and 0.27 cm per day at matric potentials -50 and -40 cm of water respectively. WATER POTENTIAL, CM OF WATER -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Fig. 15. Changes of Total Water Potential with Time and Depth for the Forest Soil During Incubation in Lysimeter 1. WATER POTENTIAL, CM OF WATER -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Fig. 16. Changes of Total Water Potential with Time and Depth for the Forest Floor During Incubation in Lysimeter 4» 40 CONCLUSION It is of scientific and practical importance to charac terise the nature of the forest soil with respect to chemical, physical and possible biological changes. Results of this re search suggest that a large scale field operation is feasible. Most of the nutrients lost by leaching in this experiment can be taken up by trees in the field. It has been reported that a coniferous forest has a maximum annual uptake of 50 - 60 kg N per hectare ( 45 - 54 lb N per acre ) and 6 - 12 kg P per hec tare ( 5 - 11 lb P per acre ) ( Cole, Gessel and Dice, 196? ). The total N and P applied to both groups of soil lysimeters in our study were 143 - 280 kg N per hectare ( 128 - 250 lb N per acre ) and 30 - 59 kg P per hectare ( 27 - 53 lb P per acre ). This indicated the total available nutrients applied exceeded the maximum demand of forest trees. For field operation, a smaller wastewater application rate is suggested than that used in the present experiment in order to increase soil wastewater contact time, reduce leaching loss and maximize nitrogen uptake by forest trees. Therefore, care should be exercised in loading, both in terms of quantity and duration. A project that can be looked upon as a follow-up of this study will be carried out in the University of British Columbia Research Forest in Haney, B. C. Brief conclusions are therefore drawn from the results re ported herein'with regard to disposal of wastewater on the forest soil: 1. About 73 % of the total wastewater applied was leached from 41 the soil, suggesting that a large quantity of water could be recharged as ground water or taken up by vegetation under field conditions. Satisfactory renovation of wastewater with respect to phos phorus and nitrogen was achieved .at an application rate of 0.23 cm per day during the period September, 1971, to June, 1972. Nitrogen concentration of drainage water increased .with time in'both groups of lysimeters. The output of total nitrogen from lysimeters . 4, 5» 6 (with •• application rate of 0".46 cm per day ) exceeded that of input after 25 weeks of loading indicating low degree of biological immobilization* Nitrogen balance data showed that renovation of the waste water with respect to nitrogen in lysimeters 1, 2, and 3 ( with application rate of 0.23 cm per day ) attained a value as high as 75 %, but renovation in lysimeters 4, 5, and 6 was only 43 %• The renovation would be higher under vegetation growth. The C:N ratios were quite constant in both groups of soils, probably due to the balanced immobilization and mineraliza tion of nitrogen. The low C:N ratio of organic matter added, as compared to the original soil, and ease of organic decom position in the forest floor were important factor for this constancy. Renovation of the wastewater with respect to phosphorus by the forest soil was as high as 99.4 % and 99-0 % in lysime ters 3 and 4 due to the high contents of reactive aluminium and iron oxides and their hydroxides in the acid mineral soil. 8. Renovation of the wastewater with respect to BOD ( bioche mical oxygen demand ) was 100 % in both groups of soils. 9. The physical properties of the soils were not greatly al tered by a prolonged period of wastewater applications, except in the forest floor where aeration porosity was re duced. 10. It is suggested that further research might be carried out on biological effects of alternate wetting and drying, where wastewater is applied to the forest soil. In addition, re tention of other nutrients from wastewater in forest soil should be evaluated. 11. Further research on contamination of soil with heavy metals from wastewater disposal should also be carried out. 43 LITERATURE CITED Alexander, N., 196$. Introduction to Soil Microbiology. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., U. S. A. Allison, F. E., 1966. The Fate of Nitrogen Applied to Soils. Advan. Agron., 18 : 219 - 259. Bartholomen, W. V., and Francis, E. C, 1965. Soil Nitrogen. Amer. Soc. of Agron., Inc. Publ., Madison, U. S. A. Brady, N. C, and Buckman, H. 0., 19&9. The Nature and Proper ties of Soils. The Macmillan Company, N. Y., U. S. A. Black, C. A.; Evans, D. D.; White, J. L.; Ensminger, L. E., and Clark, F. E., 1965. Methods of Soil Analysis. Amer. Soc. of Agron., U. S. A. Bhaumik, H. D., and Clark, F. E., 1948. Soil Moisture Tension and Microbial Activity. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc, 12 t 234 - 238. Chapman, H. D., and Pratt, P. E., 1961. Methods of Analysis for Soils, Plants and Waters. Univ. of California, U. S. A. Cole, C. V., and Jackson, M. L., 1950. Solubility Equilibrium Constant of Dihydroxy Aluminum Dihydrogen Phosphate Rela ting to a Mechanism of Phosphate Fixation in Soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc, 15 : 84 - 89. Chow, T. L., and J. de Vries, 1972. Dynamic Measurement of Hydrologic Properties of a Layered Soil during Drainage and Evaporation, followed by Wetting. Proc. of the 2nd Sympo sium on Foundamentals of Transport Phenomena in Porous Me dia. Aug. 7 - 11, 1972 : 443 - 460.' 44 Cole, D. W.; Gessel, S. P., and Dice, S. F., 1967. Dis tribution and Cycling of N, P, K and Ca in a Second-Growth Douglas-Fir Eco-System. In Symposium on Primary Productivity.and Mineral Cycling in Natural Ecosystems. University Maine Press, Orono, Maine, 197 - 232. de Vries, J., 1969. In Situ Determination of Physical Properties of the Surface Layer of Field Soils. Soil -Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc, 33 : 349 - 353. . 1972. Soil Filtration of Wastewater Effluent and the Mechanism of Pore Clogging. Jour. Water Poll. Control Fed., 44 : 565 - 573. Dinauer, R. C, 1967. Irrigation of Agricultural Lands. Amer. Soc. of Agron., Madison, Wisconsin, U. S. A. Gardner, W. R., 1972. Physico-Chemical and Microbial Reaction Effects on Transport in Porous Media. Pro ceedings of the Second Symposium on Fundamentals of Transport Phenomena in Porous Media, Vol. 1, Univ. of Guelph, Ontario, Canada. Hemwall, J. B., 1967. The Fixation of Phosphorus by Soils. Advan. Agron., 9 : 95 - 121. Heywood, R. T.; Trevor, S., and Webber, L. R., 1969. Cannery Waste Disposal on Land. Canad. Jour. Soil Sci., 49 : 211 - 213. Herbert, C. P., and Schroepfer, G. J., 1968. Travel of Nitrogen in Soils. Jour. Water Poll. Control Fed., 40 : 30 - 43. 45 Jackson, M. L., i960. Soil Chemical Analysis. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, U. S. A. Johnson, V/. K., and Schroepfer, G. J., I964. Nitrogen Removal by Nitrification and Denitrification. Jour. Water Poll. Control Fed., 36 : 1015 - IO36. Kardos, L. T., 1966. Waste Water Renovation by the Land -A Living Filter. Amer. Assoc. Advan. Sci., Washington D. C, U. S. A. Laak, R., 1970. Influence of Domestic Wastewater Pre-treatment on Soil Clogging. Jour. Water Poll. Control Fed., 42 : 14^9 - 1500. Law, J. P.; Thomas, R. E., and Myers, L. H., 1970. Cannery Wastewater Treatment by High-Rate Spray on Grassland. Jour. Water Poll. Control Fed., 42 : 1621 - I63I. Mather, J. R., 1953. The Disposal of Industrial Effluent by Woods Irrigation. Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union. 34 : 227. McCalla, T. M., 1951. Studies on the Effect of Microorga nisms on the Rate of Percolation of Water Through Soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc, 15 : 182 - 186. McNeal, B. L., 1968. Prediction of the Effect of Mixed Salt Solutions on Hydraulic Conductivity. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc, 31 : 190 - 193. McLaren, A. D., and Peterson, G. H., 1967. Soil Bio chemistry. Marcel Dekker, Inc., N. Y., U. S. A. 46 Miller, R. D., and Johnson, D. D., 1964. The Effect of Soil Moisture Tension on Evolution, Nitrification and Nitrogen Mineralization. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 28 : 644 - 647. Parizek, R. R. ; Kardos, L. T. ; Sopper, V/. E. ; Myers, E. A.; Davis, D. E.; Farrell, M. A., and Nesbitt, J. B., 1967. Waste Water Renovation and Conservation. The Penn. State University Studies No. 23. Penn. State Univ. Park, Penn., U. S. A. Pennypacker, S. P.; Sopper, W. E., and Kardos, L. T., 1967. Renovation of Wastewater Through Irrigation of Forest Land. Jour. Water Poll. Control Fed., 39 : 285 - 296. Reichman, G. A., 1966. Effects of Soil Moisture on Ammonification and Nitrification of two Northern Plain Soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc, 30 : 363 - 366. Robeck, G. G.; Bendixen, T. W.; Schwartz, W. A., and Wood ward, R. L., I964. Factors Influencing the Design and Operation of Soil System for Waste Treatment. Jour. Water Poll. Control Fed., 36 ; 971 - 983. Russell, E. W., 196l. Soil Conditions and Plant Growth. John V/iley & Sons Inc., N. Y., U. S. A. Sabey, B. R., 1969. Influence of Soil Moisture Tension on Nitrate Accumulation in Soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc, 33 : 263 - 266. Schraufnagel, F. H., 1962. Ridge-and-Furrow Irrigation for Industrial Waste Disposal. Jour. Water Poll. Control Fed., 34 : 1117 - 1132. 47 Scoble, Herbert T., 1905. Land Treatment of Sewage. St. Bride's Press Ltd., London, U. K. Soper, W. E., 1971. Disposal of Municipal Wastewater Through Forest Irrigation. Environ. Pollution, 1 : 263 - 284. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water, Sewage and Industrial Waste, I962. 12 nd. ed., Amer. Publ. Health Assn., U. S. A. Thomas, R. E.; Warren, A. S., and Thomas, W. B., 1966. Soil Chemical Changes and Infiltration Rate Reduction under Sewage Spraying. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc, 30 1 641 - 646. Thomas, R. E., and Bendixen, T. W., 1969. Degradation of Wastewater Organics in Soil. Jour. Water Poll. Control Fed., 41 : 808 - 813. Tisdale, S. L., and Nelson, W. L., 1966. Soil Fertility and Fertilizer. The Macmillan Company, N. Y., U. S. A. Tool, H. R., 1967. Manometric Measurements of the Biolo gical Oxygen Demand. Water and Sewage Works, 114 : 211. Watson, K. K., and Whisler, F. D., 1968. System Dependence of the Water Content-Pressure Head Relationship. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc, 32 : 121 - 123. West, P. W., and Ramachandran, T. P., 1966. Spectrophoto metry Determination of Nitrate Using Chromotropic Acid. Analytica Chimica Acta, 35 : 317 - 324. Williams, P. J., 1967. Replacement of Water by Air in Soil Pores. Engineer. 223 : 293 - 298. 48 Winsor, G. W., and Pollard, A. G., 1956. Carbon-Nitrogen Relationships in Soil. Jour. Sci. Food Agric, 7, February, U. S. A. 41 APPENDIX 50 Table 1. Concentrations Applied to Lys Periods Days crn^ Cm^ per 7-day Sep 23-Nov 17 56 1633 204.1 Nov 13-Dec 10 23 630 191.7 Dec 11-Dec 30 20 597 210.0 Dec 31-Jan 15 16 516 225.8 Jan 16-Feb 3 19 599 220.7 Feb 4-Feb 16 13 450 242.3 Feb 17-Feb 25 9 300 233.3 Feb 26-Mar 5 9 298 231.8 Mar 6-Mar 12 7 260 262.0 Mar 13-Mar 26 14 522 261.0 Mar 27-Apr 2 7 224 224.0 Apr 3-Apr 21 19 557 205.2 Apr 22-May 3 12 372 217.0 May 4-May 14 11 371 236.1 May. 15-May 26 12 408 233.0 May 27-Jun 7 12 372 217.0 Jun 8-Jun 22 15 450 210.0 Total 274 856I and Amount of N in Wastewater meters 1, 2, and 3« NO3-N N N N Water Water mg/ cm3/ ppm ppm mg 7-day cm> 7-day 1.5 29.3 47.87 5.98 77 9.6 1.6 26.9 16.95 5.16 200 60.9 1.0 32.8 19.7 6.90 200 70.0 1.0 33-4 17.26 7.55 100 43.8 0.5 30.2 18.11 6.67 300 110.5 0.3 26.4 11.89 6.40 0 0 0.3 29.7 8.91 6.93 200 155.6 1.1 30.8 9.18 7.14 100 77.8 0.6 26.2 6.86 6.86 100 100.0 0.6 14.6 7.61 3.81 200 100.0 0.6 14.3 3.20 3.20 50 50.0 0.6 17.3 9.62 3.54 100 36.8 1.0 18.2 6.76 3.94 100 58.3 1.2 20.5 7.61 4.34 100 63.6 0.7 21.0 8.58 5.00 50 29.2 0.5 28.8 10.73 6.26 200 116.7 0.4 28.6 12.88 6.01 100 46.7 223.72 2177 51 Table 2A. Concentrations and Amount of N in Drainage Water from Lysimeter 1. Periods Days Sep 23-•Nov 18 56 Nov 19-•Dec 11 23 Dec 12-•Dec 31 20 Jan 1-•Jan 16 16 Jan 17-•Feb 4 19 Feb 5-•Feb 17 13 Feb 18-•Feb 26 9 Feb 27-•Mar 6 9 Mar 7-•Mar 13 7 Mar 14-•Mar 27 14 Mar 28-•Apr 3 7 Apr 4-•Apr 22 19 Apr 23-•May 4 12 May 5-•May 15 11 May 16-•May 27 12 May 28-•Jun 8 12 Jun 9-•Jun 23 15 cm3 om-* NO3-N per 7-day ppm 1100.0 137.5 2.0 544.0 165.8 2.7 341.5 119.8 4.0 729.6 319.0 5.4 571.3 211.5 6.8 343.2 184.8 8.0 421.6 328.0 10.8 324.0 252.0 12.0 261.1 261.1 12.8 451.3 225.7 13.5 207.6 207.6 12.0 351.7 129.6 12.8 311.0 181.4 13.7 262.1 166.2 17.8 253-3 147.8 19.2 N N N mg/ ppm mg 7-day .2.0 2.20 0.28 2.8 1.50 0.46 4.1 1.39 0.49 5.5 4.02 1.76 7.0 3.99 1.48 8.8 3.05 I.64 11.2 4.73 3.67 12.9 4.18 3.25 13.3 3.48 3.48 14.4 6.51 3.26 12.6 2.61 2.61 13.2 4.64 1.72 14.2 4.41 2.57 I8.4 4.80 3.05 19.3 5.01 2.92 Total 247 6473.3 1 56.52 52 Table 2B. Concentrations and Amount of N in Drainage Water from Lysimeter 2. Periods Days Sep 23-•Nov 18 56 Nov 19-•Dec 11 23 Dec 12-•Dec 31 20 Jan 1-•Jan 16 16 Jan 17-•Feb 4 19 Feb 5-•Feb 17 13 Feb 18-•Feb 26 9 Feb 27-•Mar 6 9 Mar 7-•Mar 13 7 Mar 14-•Mar 27 14 Mar 28-•Apr 3 7 Apr 4-•Apr 22 19 Apr 23-•May 4 12 May 5-•May 15 11 May 16-•May 27 12 May 28-•Jun 8 12 Jun 9-•Jun 23 15 Total 274 cm-* cm3 NO3-N per 7-day ppm 1134.0 142.0 3.2 575.5 175.0 3.5 374.5 130.8 4.3 717.5 313.2 4.7 543.2 202.4 4.7 307.4 165.8 4.8 464.6 36O.8 7.0 313.7 244.0 7.6 251.3 251.3 7.0 431.5 215.8 8.4 191.6 191.6 7.8 370.3 136.2 7.3 315.1 I83.8 8.5 250.5 159.0 14.2 231.7 135.0 14.9 241.5 140.8 13.0 403.2 188.0 13.0 7132.4 N N N mg/ ppm mg 7-day 3.4 3.86 'O.36 3.7 2.14 0.65 4.4 1.64 0.57 5.3 3.80 1.66 5.2 2.84 1.04 5.7 1.76 0.95 7.3 3.40 2.64 8.2 2.57 2.00 8.2 2.06 2.06 8.8 3.82 1.91 8.0 1.53 1.53 7.8 2.86 1.06 8.8 2.76 1.62 14.6 3.73 2.37 15.2 3.53 2.06 13.5 3.26 1.91 13.0 5.21 2.43 50.77 53 .Table 2C. Concentrations and Amount of N in Drainage Water from Lysimeter 3« Periods Days crn-^ Sep 23-Nov 18 56 1165.0 Nov 19-Dec 11 23 551.0 Dec 12-Dec 31 20 342.0 Jan 1-Jan 16 16 688.7 Jan 17-Feb 4 19 550.6 Feb 5-Feb 17 13 344.8 Feb 18-Feb 26 9 415.6 Feb 27-Mar 6 9 329.5 Mar 7-Mar 13 7 259.3 Mar 14-Mar 27 14 475.9 Mar 28-Apr 3 7 221.7 Apr 14-Apr 22 19 369.5 Apr 23-May 4 12 259.7 May 5-May 15 11 247.0 May 16-May 27 12 236.3 May 28-Jun 8 12 226.0 Jun 9-Jun 23 15 397.9 Total 274 7080.5 cm^ N0-.-N N N N per j mg/ 7-day ppm ppm mg 7-day 145.6 2.5 2.50 2.91 O.36 167.7 2.2 2.23 1.23 0.37 119.7 3.6 3.60 1.23 0.43 301.3 4.9 4.94 3.40 1.48 202.8 4.0 4.70 2.59 0.95 185.7 5.5 5.94 2.05 1.10 323.2 8.0 8.40 3.49 2.71 256.3 8.0 8.62 2.84 2.21 259.3 8.0 8.52 2.21 2.21 238.0 9.0 9.79 4.66 2.33 221.7 8.1 8.93 1.98 1.98 136.1 8.5 9.17 3.39 1.25 151.5 11.0 11.63 3.02 1.76 157.2 17.1 17.85 4.41 2.81 137.8 17.9 18.70 4.42 2.58 131.8 16.5 17.30 3.91 2.28 185.7 17.5 17.89 7.12 3.32 54.86 54 Table 3» Concentrations and Amount of N in Wastewater Applied to Lysimeters 4, 5, and 6. Periods Days cm3 cm^ per 7-day Sep 23-Nov 17 56 2842 355.3 Nov 18-Dec 10 23 1275 388.0 Dec 11-Dec 30 20 1200 420.0 Dec 31-Jan 15 16 1050 459.4 Jan 16-Feb 3 19 1200 442.1 Feb 4-Feb 16 13 900 484.6 Feb 17-Feb 25 9 600 466.7 Feb 26-Mar 5 9 600 466.7 Mar 6-Mar 12 7 525 525.0 Mar 13-Mar 26 14 1050 525.0 Mar 27-Apr 2 7 450 450.0 Apr 3-Apr 21 19 1125 414.5 Apr 22-May 3 12 750 437.5 May 4-May 14 11 750 477.3 May 15-May 26 12 825 481.2 May 27-Jun 7 12 750 437.5 Jun 8-Jun 22 15 900 420.0 NO^-N N N N Water Water :> mg/ cm3/ ppm ppm mg 7-day cm-3 7-day 1.5 29.3 83.27 10.44 95 11.9 1.6 26.9 34.29 10.44 200 60.9 1.0 32.8 39.60 13.86 200 70.0 1.0 33.4 34.65 15.16 100 43.8 0.5 30.2 36.27 13.36 300 110.5 0.3 26.4 23.76 12.79 0 0 0.3 29.7 17.82 13.86 200 155.6 1.1 30.3 18.48 14.37 100 77.8 0.6 26.2 13.74 13.74 100 100.0 0.6 14.6 15.31 7.66 200 100.0 0.6 14.3 6.44 6.44 50 50.0 0.6 17.3 19.29 7.11 100 36.8 1.0 18.2 13.63 7.95 100 58.3 1.2 20.5 15.40 9.80 100 63.6 0.7 21.0 17.36 10.13 50 29.2 0.5 28.8 21.60 12.60 200 116.7 0.4 28.6 25.97 12.12 100 46.7 Total 274 16792 436.88 2195 55 Table 4A. Concentrations and Amount of N in Drainage Water from Lysimeter 4. Periods Days cm^ cm3 NO.-N N N N per j mg/ 7-day ppm ppm mg 7-day Sep 24-Nov 18 56 2272.0 284.0 5.6 5.6 12.72 1.59 Nov 19-Dec 11 23 1251.9 381.0 5.7 5.9 7.40 2.25 Dec 12-Dec 31 20 370.0 304.5 7.3 8.0 6.95 2.43 Jan 1-Jan 16 16 1270.1 555.7 3.3 8.6 10.96 4.79 Jan 17-Feb 4 19 1027.2 373.4 7.5 8.1 8.36 3.08 Feb 5-Feb 17 13 794.9 428.0 9.3 9.9 7.35 4.23 Feb 18-Feb 26 9 714.5 555.7 14.0 14.4 10.28 8.00 Feb 27-Mar 6 9 639.9 497.7 17.9 18.1 11.58 9.01 Mar 7-Mar 13 7 540.0 540.0 20.0 20.4 11.02 11.02 Mar 14-Mar 27 14 963.9 484.5 23.0 23.4 22.72 11.36 Mar 28-Apr 3 7 431.7 431.7 23.7 24.0 10.33 10.33 Apr 4-Apr 22 19 894.7 329.6 26.0 26.5 23.69 8.73 Apr 23-May 4 12 684.4 399.2 27.5 27.3 19.04 11.11 May 5-May 15 11 643.0 409.2 29.2 29.7 19.12 12.17 May 16-May 27 12 632.3 368.8 31.9 32.2 20.33 11.86 May 28-Jun 8 12 567.2 330.9 31.7 32.0 18.17 10.60 Jun 9-Jun 23 15 919.6 429.1 31.2 31.3 28.77 13.43 Total 274 15122.3 249.34 56 Table 4B. Concentrations and Amount of N in Drainage Water from Lysimeter 5. Periods Days cm-^ • 3 cnr N0o-N N N N per mg/ 7-day ppm ppm mg 7-day Sep 23-Nov 18 56 2269.0 287.0 7.7 7.7 17.68 2.21 Nov 19-Dec 11 23 1309.5 397.0 7.8 7.8 10.26 3.13 Dec 12-Dec 31 20 871.5 305.8 9.3 9.3 8.12 2.85 Jan 1-Jan 16 16 1374.5 593.0 3.5 9.0 12.42 5.42 Jan 17-Feb 4 19 1065.3 393.5 9.1 9.4 9.97 3.67 Feb 5-Feb 17 13 780.6 420.2 10.6 11.2 8.62 4.64 Feb 18-Feb 26 9 773.6 603.O 14.6 14.9 11.54 8.95 Feb 27-Mar 6 9 673.5 525.0 18.3 18.9 12.74 9.90 Mar 7-Mar 13 7 483.7 483.7 19.7 20.2 9.72 9.72 Mar 14-Mar 27 14 974.8 487.4 22.2 22.6 22.14 11.07 Mar 28-Apr 3 7 421.3 421.3 21.1 21.5 9.08 9.08 Apr 4-Apr 22 19 880.5 324.5 21.7 22.2 19.53 7.18 Apr 23-May 4 12 719.6 420.0 22.9 23.2 16.72 9.75 May 5-May 15 11 635.1 404.0 26.9 27.2 17.30 11.00 May 16-May 27 12 594.7 347.0 29.7 30.0 17.85 10.40 May 28-Jun 8 12 571.2 334.0 30.3 30.7 17.47 10.20 Jun 9-Jun 23 15 846.9 395.0 29.4 29.3 25.30 11.82 Total 274 15245.3 246.48 57 Table 4C Concentrations and Amount of N in Drainage Water from Lysimeter 6. Periods Days Sep 23-•Nov 18 56 Nov 19-•Dec 11 23 Dec 12-•Dec 31 20 Jan 1-•Jan 16 16 Jan 17-•Feb 4 19 Feb 5-•Feb 17 13 Feb 18-•Feb 26 9 Feb 27-•Mar 6 9 Mar 7-•Mar 13 7 Mar 14-•Mar 27 14 Mar 28-•Apr 3 7 Apr 4-•Apr 22 19 Apr 23-•May 4 12 May 5-•May 15 11 May 16-•May 27 12 May 28-•Jun 8 12 Jun 9-•Jun 23 15 cm-* Cm3 NO^-N per 7-day ppm 2270.0 287.0 9.0 1248.5 379.0 8.7 865.0 303.0 9.9 1283.9 561.5 10.4 1106.1 407.0 8.7 861.9 464.5 11.2 702.5 547.0 15.0 669.5 522.0 19.0 512.6 512.6 20.3 963.2 481.6 22.9 416.5 416.5 21.8 866.1 313.0 21.2 719.8 420.0 23.4 655.6 417.0 26.9 583.6 341.0 30.2 N N N mg/ ppm mg 7-day 9.0 20.42 2.55 8.7 10.94 3.31 9.9 8.54 2.98 10.9 13.99 6.12 9.2 10.86 4.00 11.8 10.17 5.47 15.2 10.72 8.32 19.2 12.94 10.70 21.0 10.75 10.75 23.2 22.36 11.18 22.1 9.19 9.19 21.5 I8.63 6.83 23.7 17.13 9.96 27.4 17.96 11.40 30.4 17.86 10.42 Total 247 13723.8 212.46 53 Table 5. Concentrations and Amount of Total Soluble P in Wastewater and Drainage Water in Lysimeters 1, 2, and 3. Time Wastewater Drainage Water days P ppm P mg P mg/ 7-day P ppm P mg 7-P mg/ •day 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 56 6.0 9.80 1.22 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 23 5.6 3.53 1.07 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 4.5 2.69 0.94 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 16 5.0 2.58 1.13 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 19 7.2 4.31 1.60 0 0.3 0 0 0.16 0 0 0.06 0 13 6.4 2.84 1.53 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 7.6 2.28 1.77 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 8.7 2.59 2.02 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 8.2 2.15 2.15 0.3 0.7 0.3 0.08 0.18 0.08 0.08 0.18 0.08 14 4.7 2.45 1.23 0 0 0.4 0 0 0.19 0 0 0.10 7 4.0 0.90 0.90 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 19 4.0 2.22 0.82 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 4.7 1.75 1.02 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 4.7 1.74 1.11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 4.5 1.83 1.07 0.4 0.4 0 0.10 0.09 0 0.06 0.05 0 12 4.0 1.49 0.87 - 0 0 - 0 0 - 0 0 15 4.0 1.80 0.84 _ 0 0 _ 0 0 — 0 0 274 46.95 0.18 0.43 0.27 ( Total ) 59 Table 6. Concentrations and Amount of Total Soluble P in Wastewater and Drainage Water in Lysimeters 4, 5, and 6. Time V/astewater Drainage Water days P ppm P mg P mg/ 7-day P ppm P mg 7-P mg/ -day 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 56 6.0 17.20 2.15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 23 5.6 7.10 2.17 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 4.5 5.40 1.89 0 0.6 0 0 0.52 0 0 0.18 0 16 5.0 5.25 2.30 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 19 7.2 8.64 2.45 0.3 0 0 0.31 0 0 0.11 0 0 13 6.4 5.76 3.10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 7.6 4.56 3.55 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 8.7 5.22 4.06 0 0 0.8 0 0 0.54 0 0 0.42 7 8.2 4.31 4.31 0.8 0.4 0.4 0.43 0.19 0.21 0.43 0.19 0.21 14 4.7 4.94 2.47 0 0 0.8 0 0 0.77 0 0 0.39 7 4.0 1.80 1.80 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 19 4.0 4.50 1.66 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 4.7 3.53 2.06 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 4.7 3.53 2.25 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 4.5 3.71 2.17 0.4 0 0.4 0.25 0 0.23 0.15 0 0.14 12 4.0 3.00 1.75 0 0 - 0 0 - 0 0 -15 4.0 3.60 1.68 0 0 0 0 0 0 _ 274 92.05 0.99 1.51 1.52 ( Total ) 60 Table 7. Chemical and Physical Properties of the Original Soil and the Treated Soil in Lysimeter 3* Soil Total Total Water Bulk Depth Kjeldhal NH.-N C C:N pH Content Density N * N ppm % % gm/gm gm/cm^ cm u/o 0 -3.5 1.53 296.2 1.53 43.72 28.56 - 3.31 -3.5- 5 1.89 602.2 1.90 47.50 25.00 - 3.32 -5 - 8 1.66 676.3 1.66 53.50 32.23 - 4.13 -3-9 1.40 431.7 1.41 43.70 30.99 - 4.07 -9 -14 0.14 24.9 0.14 3.90 27.86 4.04 0.34 0.81 14 -19 0.14 3.3 0.14 3.61 25.79 4.03 0.44 0.84 19 -24 0.14 3.4 0.14 3.52 25.14 4.06 0.44 0.86 24 -29 0.13 2.7 0.13 3.42 26.31 4.25 0.44 0.88 29 -34 0.10 1.2 0.11 3.40 30.90 4.44 0.44 0.90 34 -39 0.12 1.4 0.12 3.52 29.33 4.57 0.45 0.88 39 -44 0.12 1.6 0.12 3.27 27.25 4.60 0.45 0.88 44 -49 0.12 1.4 0.12 3.41 28.42 4.72 O.46 0.87 49 -54 0.13 1.2 0.13 3.46 26.62 4.63 O.46 0.89 54 -59 0.13 1.2 0.13 3.22 24.77 4.64 O.46 0.88 59 -64 0.12 1.2 0.13 3.23 24.35 4.65 0.45 0.83 64 -69 0.13 8.7 0.13 3.51 27.00 4.65 O.46 0.82 69 -71 0.13 16.6 0.13 3.51 27.00 4.65 - -Original Soil L ( 0 -2.2)1.38 - 1.33 45.89 33.33 - - -F (2.2-4.2)1.51 - 1.51 44.35 29.45 - - -H (4.2-9. 0)1.56 - 1.56 44.44 23.56 - - -Soil Layer 0.15 0.15 3.46 23.72 4.65 0.45 0.88 61 Table 8. Chemical and Physical Properties of the Original Soil and the Treated Soil in Lysimeter 4. Soil Total Total Water Bulk Depth Kjeldhal NH.-N C C:N pH Content Density N N cm % ppm % % gm/gm gm/cm 0-3 1.38 128.6 1.38 43.10 34.86 - 2.92 -3-7 1.76 481.3 1.77 48.20 27.23 - 2.93 -7 - 9.5 1.37 408.7 1.38 32.89 23.83 - 3.73 -9-5-14.5 0.15 17.7 0.15 3.47 23.13 4.51 0.47 0.85 14.5-19.5 0.14 16.2 0.16 3.42 21.97 4.03 0.49 0.84 19.5-24.5 0.14 13.3 0.14 3.33 23.78 4.09 0.49 0.86 24.5-29.5 0.14 13.0 0.13 3.19 23.78 4.13 0.49 0.85 29.5-34.5 0.14 13.1 0.14 3.33 23.78 4.16 0.49 0.85 34.5-39.5 0.13 20.1 0.13 3.14 23.58 4.07 0.50 O.85 39.5-44.5 0.12 37.9 0.13 3.04 23.38 4.17 0.50 0.85 44.5-49.5 0.13 39.8 0.14 3.23 22.33 4.40 0.50 0.91 49.5-54.5 0.15 45.1 0.15 3.19 21.27 4.58 0.49 0.88 54.5-59.5 0.14 45.3 0.14 3.14 22.52 4.59 0.50 0.86 59.5-64.5 0.13 45.9 0.13 3.09 23.77 4.58 0.52 0.84 64.5-69.5 0.14 43.8; 0.14 3.12 22.82 4.64 0.52 0.81 69.5-72.0 0.14 41.0 0.14 3.28 21.87 - 0.52 0.74 Original Soil Soil Layer 0.15 - 0.15 3.46 23.72 4.65 0.45 0.86 3 62 Table 9. Matric Potential vs. Volumetric Water Content in Lysimeter 1. Parameters Soil Depth\ cm Matric Potential cm of water Volumetric Water Content cm^ per cm3 6.7 14.5 30.5 34.2 59.9 0.140 0.266 0.302 0.328 25.9 35.9 56.4 57.9 69.1 0.029 0.143 0.175 0.145 45.9 43.8 45.4 52.2 66.8 0.039 0.058 0.068 0.132 65.9 25.6 52.3 79.3 92.7 0.050 0.116 0.142 0.198 63 Table 10. Matric Potential vs. Volumetric Water Content in Lysimeter 6. V Parameters Soil \ Depth \ cm \ Matric Potential cm of water Volumetric Water Content cm-^ per cm-^ 8.5 5.3 3.0 11.3 13.7 15.4 19.5 33.6 0.021 0.031 0.062 0.136 0.142 0.153 0.233 27.5 20.4 - 33.0 • 37.2 45.5 48.7 51.3 55.4 0.035 0.112 0.136 0.204 0.238 0.306 0.302 47.5 36.0 43.0 46.5 50.3 51.8 54.2 58.8 0.045 0.070 0.101 0.118 0.128 0.231 0.225 67.5 30.9 33.1 33.4 45.0 57.6 77.1 83.O 0.093 0.134 0.155 0.153 0.299 0.291 0.341 64 Table 11. Matric Potential vs. Volumetric Water Content of 1) the Original Soil. \ Parameters Soil \ Depth \ cm \ Matric Potential cm of water Volumetric Water Content crn^ per cm^ 1.2' 26.9 35.9 46.9 51.3 65.4 77.3 86.0 0.002 0.056 0.099 0.125 0.144 0.176 0.160 10.2 19.8 35.1 46.3 69.2 81.5 84.4 91.6 0.002 0.048 0.080 0.142 0.157 0.151 0.168 19.2 11.5 17.7 51.7 64.8 78.9 83.7 113.3 0.014 0.017 0.161 0.189 0.216 0.209 0.221 2) F. F. 10.0 0.383 20.0 0.645 30.0 0.710 45.0 0.745 60.0 0.755 1) . Bulk density = 0.82 gm per cm , water content = 0.44 gm per gm. 2) . Forest floor: Matric potential vs gravimetric water content. 65 Table 12. Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity of Both the Original and Treated Soils. \Lysimeters Soil-Nv Depth X Cm Treated 1 Treated 2 Treated 5 Treated 6 Original Soil 0-9 - 63750.9 11962.9 - -9-29 102.2 302.9 902.4 129.6 184.3 29-49 78.1 266.4 544.5 92.8 157.7 49 - 69 123.0 274.3 958.6 105.6 285.3 Notes : 1) Both lysimeters 1 and 6 were measured in May, 1972. 2) Both lysimeters 2 and 5 were measured in June, 1972, after subject to period of drying. 3) The original soil was lysimeter 2 which was measured in August, 1971. 4) The unit of conductivity is cm per day. 

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