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Questioning of communism : a study of conflict in Czechoslovakia in 1968 Cicvak, Elias 1973

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THE QUESTIONING OF COMMUNISM (A STUDY OF CONFLICT IN.CZECHOSLOVAKIA IN 1968) by ELIAS CICVAK M.A. University of Bratislava, 1962 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of P o l i t i c a l Science We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1973 i In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirement for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publica-tion of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of P o l i t i c a l Science The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada i i ABSTRACT The purpose of this thesis is to study the conflict in Czecho-slovakia in 1968 which developed through different stages of the questioning of Communism since the Communist takeover in 1948. The term "Questioning of Communism" refers to the examina-tion of the basic principles and practices of Communism on which the Communist Party operates. The principles of Communism include such principles as "democratic centralism", the leading role of the Communist Party, the monopoly of power, the "nationality question", centralized planning, p o l i t i c a l bureaucracy in the society, etc. This study deals with the two areas of conflict:outside the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, and inside the party. Outside the party, conflict erupted between the social groups (such as the economists, the Slovaks, the students, the intellectuals and the non-Communist p o l i t i c a l parties) and the party. Conflict within the party erupted between the conservatives and the liberals and resulted in the change in the leadership in the party in 1968. This thesis concentrates mostly on the causes of conflict and i t s roots prior to 1968, and on the accommodation of conflict by the Communist Party in 1968. Prior to 1968, conflict was not accommodated by the party. Rather, the participants in conflict were suppressed by the Communist Party. i i i An analysis of conflict i n Czechoslovakia i n 1968 confirms that Czechoslovakia does not conform to the pattern of violent conflict i n Communist states illustrated by the experience of East Germany, Poland and Hungary. A new pattern of accommodation of conflict by the Communist Party introduced in Czechoslovakia in 1968 was due to the l i b e r a l democratic policies of the Commu-nist Party leadership under Alexander Dubcek. However, despite the successful domestic policies of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, Czechoslovakia did not succeed in her democratic experiment because she neglected her foreign policy with the Soviet Union. iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION 1 I. CONFLICT IN A COMMUNIST STATE AND ITS SPECIFIC ASPECTS 6 II. PECULIARITIES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNIST CZECHO-SLOVAKIA AND ITS PARTY SYSTEM 12 III. ROOTS OF CONFLICT IN 1968. THE QUESTIONING OF COMMU-NISM BOTH OUTSIDE AND INSIDE THE PARTY 20 THE QUESTIONING OF COMMUNISM OUTSIDE THE PARTY. The Basis for Conflict 22 The Economists . 24 The Slovaks . 32 The Intellectuals 41 The Students and Youth 48 The P o l i t i c a l Parties and Other Groups of P o l i t i c a l Opposition 53 . IV. CONFLICT WITHIN THE COMMUNIST PARTY 64 The Conflict Over Changing the Leadership . . . 75 Democratization and Conflict . . . 80 Democratic Centralism 84 The Monopoly Power 86 The Possibility of Opposition to the Party . . . 88 V. EVALUATION OF THE CONFLICT IN CZECHOSLOVAKIA IN 1968 93 V TABLE OF CONTENTS VI. WHY DID CZECHOSLOVAKIA NOT SUCCEED IN HER EXPERIMENT 98 CONCLUSION • 102 APPENDICES 105 FOOTNOTES 129 136 BIBLIOGRAPHY ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would l i k e to express my deepest appreciation to Professor Paul Marantz, the supervisor of this thesis, for his assistance, guidance and criticism of this study. I also thank Professors Frank Langdon and Richard Simeon for their part in helping me prepare this study. Any errors or omissions, however, are the respon-s i b i l i t y of this writer. This thesis i s dedicated to those 160,000 Czechoslovak citizens who love their country but, i n protest to the Soviet occupation of Czechoslovakia, l e f t i t , as this writer did. In the past the masses were not satisfied with the Party's policies.... Obviously, the Party cannot replace the masses; so i t must change the policies. Alexander Dubcek (From a speech to the Czecho-slovak people, July 18, 1968) INTRODUCTION In general, a conflict in a Communist society can be studied on the basis of the assumption that the leading Communist Party always tries to suppress those who are in conflict with i t . Oppo-nents are regarded as anti-Communists, opposing the Communist ideology and party's policies. They are considered to be the "ene-mies of the Communist establishment." The party i s always anxious to eliminate such "unfriendly elements" from the p o l i t i c a l process. The party never tries to meet the demands of those i n opposition or to make some concessions to them. Otherwise, the party would neg-lect i t s leading role prescribed to i t by Marxism - Leninism with a l l i t s dogmas and principles on which the party operates i n a Communist state. Not that the Communist Party i s unable to accommo-date an internal conflict. It only willingly prefers suppression of the participants i n conflict and, by doing so, makes i t s Commu-nist policies sound rather r i g i d . The case of Czechoslovakia i n 1968, however, is an exception to this rule. The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia was seemingly willing to understand the social problems of Czechoslovakia and did attempt that complicated task by permitting widespread differences to be argued out within the party. Those in opposition to the party were not to be suppressed; rather, conflict between them and the party was to be regulated by satisfying their demands. Such a regulation by the party may be regarded as unprecedented i n the history of Communist movements. The Communist Party of Czecho-2 Slovakia was, in 1968, operating on democratic principles. Czecho-slovakia remained a one-party state but, within that one party, dissent, questioning and debate flourished. The introduction of democratic principles was possible only because of the new leadership and i t s intention to democratize the policies of the party. During the f i r s t eight months of 1968, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia accomplished a great deal towards the democrati-zation of Czechoslovakia. A completely new approach to the solution of social problems was needed in the policies of the Communist Party. This required a basic change in the structure of the party to f i t i t s role i n democratized Czechoslovakia. The party faced many conflicts both outside and inside i t s structure. It had to solve existing conflicts f i r s t , and, consequently, to eliminate causes of any further conflicts. The main point w i l l be, therefore, to see what were the causes of the existing conflicts and how they were accommodated by the party. This thesis i s divided into six chapters. The f i r s t chapter w i l l deal with some specific aspects of conflict i n a Communist state which di f f e r from the conflict in Western democracies. Conflict i n a Communist state is known to have always taken a violent form once i t developed into a widespread p o l i t i c a l mobiliza-tion. Such, a violent conflict erupted in Poland, East Germany and Hungary. It w i l l be, therefore, necessary to make an analysis of how Czechoslovakia f i t s this pattern. 3 In essence, Czechoslovakia i s unique i n i t s development as a Communist state and in the formation of i t s party system. Although the Czechoslovak party system i s similar to those in Bulgaria, East Germany and Poland i n terms of having i n existence some other non-Communist parties, i t i s not similar to them i n terms of creating new p o l i t i c a l parties. In contrast with Czechoslovakia, other Commu-nist states did not allow non-Communist p o l i t i c a l parties to be cre-ated after the Communist takeover. In this sense, Czechoslovakia i s unique. This peculiarity w i l l be analyzed i n Chapter II. It w i l l help us better understand dissent among the population and the causes of conflict i n Czechoslovakia. This study w i l l deal with the two areas of c o n f l i c t r f i r s t , outside the Communist Party, and, second, within the Communist Party i t s e l f . Chapter III w i l l cover the study of conflict outside the Commu-nist Party, namely, con f l i c t between the social groups and the party. The social groups w i l l include the economists, the nationality groups (the Slovaks), the intellectuals, the students and youth, the groups within the non-Communist p o l i t i c a l parties as well as other p o l i t i c a l groups (e.g. the Club of Committed non-Party Members, the Club 231, the Organization of Human Rights, etc.) The social groups, while in conflict with the party, questioned some of the basic principles of Communism elaborated by Marx and Lenin. The economists, for instance, questioned centralized planning as well as the party monopoly i n the economy. They demanded not only 4 a free enterprise system and market economy, but also p o l i t i c a l debureaucratization. The Slovaks questioned Lenin's position on the "nationality question" by demanding federalization. The i n -tellectuals demanded the right of free speech, and, at the same time, questioned the Communist monopoly over the ideology of the country. The students demanded basic human rights, and, at the same time, refused to serve the party as a "transmission belt" of i t s ideology. P o l i t i c a l parties and other p o l i t i c a l groups questioned the monopoly power of the party and made their requests' i-to be independent and equal partners to the Communist Party. Conflict within the Communist Party i t s e l f had arisen between the l i b e r a l s and the conservatives. It resulted in questioning of such basic principles of Communism as democratic centralism, the monopoly of power, the unity of party and state and the p o l i t i c a l bureaucracy i n the society, which w i l l be analyzed i n Chapter IV. After having analyzed the conflict and i t s causes both outside and inside the party, the peculiarity of conflict in Czechoslovakia in 1968 w i l l be explained i n Chapter V. The conflict took a non-violent form, which does not f i t the pattern of existence of a con-f l i c t i n a Communist state known to be accompanied by Violence. How the Communist Party undertook the regulation of c o n f l i c t and res-ponded to pressure from the population to deal with the needs and demands of the society w i l l be emphasized. Even though the process of democratization in Czechoslovakia proved to be successful under the leadership of Alexander Dubcek, Czechoslovakia failed i n her questioning of Communism. Some of the reasons why Czechoslovakia did not succeed in her questioning of Communism, w i l l be presented i n Chapter VI. The essential point of the thesis, however, w i l l be the con-firmation of the fact that even a Communist state i s capable of sat isfying the needs of i t s citizens, while having a new, democratic, "human face." I. CONFLICT IN A COMMUNIST STATE AND ITS SPECIFIC ASPECTS It would be misleading to assume that the conflict of 1968 i n Czechoslovakia erupted overnight. On the contrary, i t had i t s roots i n the Communist Party's p o l i t i c a l rule since i t s takeover i n February, 1948. For this reason, i t i s necessary to point out some specific aspects of conflict which l i e i n the Communist es-tablishment i t s e l f . In terms of Marxism - Leninism, one should not speak of conflict i n a Communist state since Communism i s supposed to be free of conflict. Marxist ideologues argue that the real cause of conflict disappeared along with the cap i t a l i s t mode of pro-duction. In a Communist state, the means of production are owned by the state, and, therefore, no exploitation by the owner of the means of production should take place. As a result, there should be no oppressors and no oppressed. On this basis, i t i s asserted that there are no conditions for conflict to arise. Naturally, Marxists have in mind "friendly" classes without any form of h o s t i l i t y between them. Orthodox Communist ideologists refuse to accept the view of different social groups in a Commu-nist society which make demands upon the party and, from time to time, find themselves i n conflict with the party. As Ralph Dahren-dorf, a theoretician on conflict and classes, correctly points out " a l l l i f e i s conflict, because i t i s change. Everything i s change.' 7 Thus the basis for conflict i s to be found in social relations among people rather than among the classes, even i f one deals with a Communist state. The misinterpretation of the nature of conflict by Commu-nist regimes stimulates conflict rather than solves i t . Conflict then usually takes a more violent form and i t s participants are suppressed as "bourgeois elements", "enemies of the people", "traitors", "imperialist agents", etc. There has been absolutely no effort on the part of a Communist Party that represents and executes Marxist - Leninist ideas in the l i f e of the society to have conflict regulated and accommodated. That i s why most of the Communist countries have experienced more open and violent .; conflicts than Western democratic societies. Because they re-press dissent, opposition cannot take place within normal channels, or be relieved by negotiation and compromise. As a result 5 conflict builds up and festers, resulting, eventually, i n a violent explo-sion. As conflict i n a Communist society gradually grows, and i t s participants are suppressed, i t also becomes a chronic movement that erupts into a widespread p o l i t i c a l mobilization of the masses against their p o l i t i c a l leadership (e.g. East Germany, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia). In a democratic society, "there i s a chance for the sub-jected class to take over government or to penetrate into the gov-erning e l i t e to make i t s claims h e a r d . T h i s i s what Dahrendorf 8 calls the "ideal pattern of democracy." Here conflict does not have to be violent at a l l . In a Communist state, the basis for the accommodation of con-f l i c t i s far from being democratic, since the dominant Communist Party does not allow public opposition or the questioning of i t s ideology. If this i s the case, then conflict takes a violent form. This was the case of East Germany, Poland and Hungary. Why did conflict have to take a violent form? It i s because the Communist Party.does not try to have conflict accommodated by satisfying the demands of i t s citizens. On the contrary, the party chooses their suppression. Consequently, when the suppressed groups come into conflict with the p o l i t i c a l bureaucracy, they prefer a violent form of conflict. The Communist Party does not put any effort into i t s policies to have conflict diminished and i t s causes removed. Instead the party prefers the more authoritarian approach of liquidating p a r t i c i -pants i n co n f l i c t by the moral or physical punishment of the groups making demands on the party. In fact, conflict in a Communist state can never be suppressed^ since the causes of conflict are "memorized" by the suppressed groups. Conflict, so to say, "passes through", and when a new oppoturnity arises, i t takes a new form. But i t s basis and roots l i e i n those unsatisfied demands of the previous conf l i c t . This can be i l l u s -trated, for instance, by the conflict between the Czechs and the Slovaks or between the economists and the party leaders. In both i n -9 stances, as i t w i l l be analyzed in the Chapter III, conflict was never resolved. In the case of the Slovak nationality question, for instance, conflict dates back to 1919. However, i t tragically c l i -maxed i n Communist Czechoslovakia i n 1954, when some of the Slovak so-called "bourgeois nationalists" were sentenced to death.^ De-spite the tragedy, the conflict climaxed again in 1967 - 68. It was the same nationality conflict passing through the different stages of i t s development. Conflict never ceased to exist u n t i l the Slovaks were separated i n .January,1969 to form the Slovak Socialist Republic in a federalized Czechoslovakia. However, solving the nationality conflict can be attributed to the l i b e r a l Dubcek p o l i t i c a l system and not to the pre-1968 r i g i d and orthodox Communist Party ideolo-gists. Since the Communist Party i s not willing to satisfy the de-mands of different social groups or to diminish the sources of con-f l i c t , we come to the conclusion that conflict always exists i n a Communist state. It i s a "protracted conf l i c t " within a Communist state, as Strausz - Hupe calls i t . ^ Its roots are to be found i n Communism that i t s e l f has been a s o i l for conflict among the so-c i a l groups and the authoritarian party which has been too r i g i d to be able to adopt i t s e l f to any conflict. Conflict in a Communist society must be seen differently from that in Western democracies. Conflict i n a Communist state has certain aspects which Western democracies lack. It i s the bas-i c deprivation of the democratic rights of the people. A society 10 which has been reluctant to allow people to exercise their basic human rights can expect dissent among people and extreme conflict to arise.with more probability than can a democratic society. However, i f the people of a Communist state have experienced a long democratic tradition, as in Czechoslovakia from 1919 to 1948, then they are unlikely to passively accept the removal of demo-cratic rights. They are more l i k e l y both to try to modify the harshness of the regime and to openly rebel against i t s restrictions. Hence the very widespread mobilization of the Czechoslovak population in support of democratic reforms i n 1968. No social group in a f u l l y democratic society lacks any of the basic human rights. Conflict that may arise from i t s demands, conse-quently, cannot be of the same degree of importance, or even danger, to the establishment as i t can be within a Communist society. Where dissent is tolerated, opposition does not threaten the basic char-acter of the regime and therefore need not be stamped out. Almost by definition, however, opposition i n an authoritarian regime leads to a fundamental questioning of the whole regime. The regime, in turn, reacts to this threat by repression. The conflict escalates into a p o l i t i c a l struggle against the p o l i t i c a l bureaucracy and the Commu-nist establishment. When i n conflict with the party, social groups within a Commu-nist society always combine their specific demands with the question-ing of the party which has deprived them of their basic democratic rights (e.g. c i v i l rights, free enterprise, etc.). 11 In conclusion, we can say that conflict in a Communist society can never be resolved unless the Communist Party i s willin g to share the power with the population. It always reflects the basic relation-ship between the mass of the population and the dominant party i n power. As long as the dominant Communist Party w i l l not l e t the masses of the population share power, the Communist Party can expect to be i n conflict. It i s r i g i d i t y of the system i t s e l f that "suppresses the i n -cidence of conflict and exerts pressure towards the emergence of rad-i c a l cleavages."'' It i s the Communist Party that w i l l i n g l y neglects the functioning of the social forces in the society. It i s a weakness of the one-party system which does not permit any p o l i t i c a l opposition in democratic terms, and, therefore, conflict not only always exists, but i s l i k e l y to be strengthened and to take a violent form. After the analysis of conflict, i n Chapter V, we w i l l evaluate the conflict i n Czechoslovakia i n particular, and we w i l l see how Czechoslovakia f i t s this pattern of existence of violent conflict i n a Communist state. Although Czechoslovakia i s not a pure example of a one-party system, such as the Soviet Union where only the Communist Party exists, i t has some sim i l a r i t i e s as well as differences with Communist countries. It w i l l be necessary, therefore, to analyze the development of Commu-nist Czechoslovakia and i t s peculiar party system before we proceed to the analysis of conflict i t s e l f and to the causes of the conflict which have their roots i n the development of the Communist state. 12 II. PECULIARITIES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNIST  CZECHOSLOVAKIA AND ITS PARTY SYSTEM The development of Communist Czechoslovakia and her party system i s very unusual. It differs from the Soviet Union i n the sense that there are four other non-Communist parties i n Czechon Slovakia. In the Soviet Union, the only p o l i t i c a l party i s the Communist Party. Czechoslovakia differs from other Communist countries as well. This difference i s not that non-Communist par-ties remain, since this i s also true i n Bulgaria (one non-Commu-nist party remained), East Germany (2), and Poland (3). (Albania, Rumania and Yugoslavia have none). The difference, instead, l i e s in the creation of the regime. Czechoslovakia i s the only East European Communist regime where the non-Communist parties were created by the Communist Party after the Communist takeover. In order to understand this uniqueness, one has to take a look at the p o l i t i c a l development of the country. Czechoslovakia had a strong democratic tradition prior to the Communist takeover in February 1948. People enjoyed a l l the basic democratic rights such as free speech, free elections, free press, etc. There was no restriction^imposed on the right of free enter-prise or on the ac t i v i t i e s of the non-Communist p o l i t i c a l parties. There had been i n existence the Republican (Agrarian) Party, the Social Democratic (Labour) Party, the Czechoslovak National (Social-ist ) Party, the Czechoslovak Populist (Catholic) Party, the National Union Party, the Christian Socialist and Nationalist Parties, the 13 factions of the German Parties, three major factions of the Polish Parties, the Hlinka's Party and the People's Party i n Slovakia and three Ukrainian parties i n Eastern Slovakia.** The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia was one of the best or-ganized p o l i t i c a l parties. Its post-war popularity was due to i t s condemnation of the leaders of the previous Czechoslovak government and of their responsibility for Czechoslovakia's f a l l to Hitler. The majority of the Czechoslovak population shared this attitude with the Communist Party and supported i t i n i t s p o l i t i c a l struggle with the other p o l i t i c a l parties. That i s why the Communist Party polled 38 percent of the popular vote in the free elections held i n 1946.9 The Party leader, Klement Gottwald, accepted the premiership, and, having in mind the strong democratic tradition i n Czechoslovakia and fearing the loss of the support i t already had, announced Czecho-slovakia's "special road to Socialism." The Communist Party was careful enough to encourage the masses as when Gottwald publicly de-clared on behalf of the party that "the dictatorship of the prole-tariat and of the Soviets i s not the only road to Socialism."-^ The "special road to Socialism" was to be based on democratic principles. In the p o l i t i c a l l i f e of the country, this meant that the other p o l i t i c a l parties were to remain in existence. After the Commu-nist takeover on February 28, 1948, Czechoslovak citizens expected some of the most popular p o l i t i c a l parties to be allowed to continue in existence. The Czechoslovak National Socialist Party was con-sidered as the one that could survive, since i t grouped the strongest 14 nationalistic elements. However, the Communist Party feared the nationalistic elements i n the party, revised the party and formed a new Czechoslovak Socialist Party which was a completely new po-l i t i c a l party.H The only p o l i t i c a l party which was part i a l l y retained was the Czechoslovak Populist Party. However, i t s national character was restricted to the Czech lands only since i n Slovakia the Pop-u l i s t Party was considered to be a strong collaborator with Hlinka's Party. The latter was the Slovak ruling party at the time of the independent Slovak state during the World War II, and was considered to be strong, a c l e r i c a l pro-Hitler party. Since both of the existing p o l i t i c a l parties i n Slovakia did not f i t well into the Communist organization of Czechoslovakia, the Communist Party established two completely new p o l i t i c a l parties, the Slovak Freedom Party and the Slovak Revival Party. This was done by the Communist Party mainly i n order to create the impression of "people's democracy."13 Despite the fact that a l l the other p o l i t i -cal parties — t h e main anti-Communist forces in Czechoslovakia —-were abolished, the Communist Party was s t i l l i n a struggle for pow-er as strong anti-Communist sentiments increased.14 For this reason the newly created p o l i t i c a l parties were man-aged by the Communists. The population opposed the Communist policy of manipulating and directing the p o l i t i c a l parties which, i t was thought, would stay i n competition and opposition to the Communist Party. It soon became clear that the intended "people's democracy" 15 was nothing else but deception by the Communist Party. The party made a serious effort to abandon promised democratic principles on which to build post-war Czechoslovakia. This intention of the Commu-nist Party has been clearly revealed i n the o f f i c i a l publication of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, the History of the Communist  Party of Czechoslovakia.^ However, the party did not hesitate to c a l l the new p o l i t i c a l parties the National Front. This move was intended to give an im-pression that the National Front was established by the w i l l of the people, and, consequently, i t was also expected to support the gov-erning Communist Party. In order to give i t more a national character, the National Front united some other mass organizations, such as trade unions, women's leagues, youth organizations, etc. I have to underline the fact that the creation of the new po-l i t i c a l parties by the Communist Party does not mean that the party lacked p o l i t i c a l opposition or that i t created these parties out of a desire for p o l i t i c a l conflict. In creating p o l i t i c a l parties, the Communist Party sought only i t s a l l i e s . It sounds paradoxical and i l l o g i c a l for any party to do so, byt the experience of the Czechoslovak "people's democracy" supports this analysis. In the manual, History of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, the party ideologists explain this course of action by the party i n terms of establishing strong foundation for the party, which would 16 require "creating a l l i e s rather than p o l i t i c a l opponents." The p o l i t i c a l parties have been formal, with no p o l i t i c a l program different from that of the Communist Party. The "special road to Socialism", therefore, was characterized only by the ex-istence of the parties. The newly-created parties were simply window-dressing designed to give an i l l u s i o n of a multi-party system i n order for the regime to fo r e s t a l l opposition. In fact, the Communist party had total control. The Czechoslovak "special road to Socialism" "was not at least distinctive from a common Leninist path taken by the Soviet Union after the October Revolu-t i o n . " 1 7 The other parties did not properly represent the masses. The population could not make i t s demands on the ruling Communist Party through their representation in the p o l i t i c a l parties. It follows f i r s t , that the p o l i t i c a l parties did not constitute a p o l i t i c a l opposition to the Communist Party. Second, they could not compete with the Communist Party either in national elections or internally. This practice in the Czechoslovak party system, therefore, does not make the party system democratic. "What makes any party undemocratic", Leon Epstein argues, " i s what keeps i t from having internal competition open to the elector--1 Q ate or from otherwise operating as a democratic party." This ap-plies to any party whether one is talking about a "people's democ-racy" or a Western democracy. This, in essence, makes the difference between a democratic and undemocratic party i n both Western democ-racies and in a Communist state. 17 P o l i t i c a l democracy requires competition "to give the voters a c h o i c e . A s a result, the Communist party system in Czechoslovakia cannot be considered to be domocratic for none of the candidates of a non-Communist party can get nominated unless they are approved by the Communist Party. Although the right to nominate has been permitted by the Czechoslovak Constitution, i n practice, i t has not been exer-cised. An i l l u s t r a t i o n of how the Constitution i s disregarded i s the 1972 case when a group of Czechoslovak citizens were sentenced to p r i s -on for up to six years for distributing a pamhlet in which they re-minded the voters of their Constitutional rights before the national elections.20 Among a l l the p o l i t i c a l parties i n the Czechoslovak party sys-tem, the Communist Party has a dominant position secured by elections in twhich a l l the candidates are nominated by the Communist Party. Only a very small percentage of the candidates from other p o l i t i c a l parties have been allowed by the Communist Party to run for some unimportant positions, where the party tries to give impression of making democ-ratic p o l i t i c s . As a result, non-Communist parties do not share power with the Communist Party and they do not function as a p o l i t i c a l opposition. The p o l i t i c a l dominance of the Communist Party i s clear and i n no doubt. It has i t s own armed p o l i t i c a l m i l i t i a , and i t controls a l l important positions at a l l levels of the economy, governmental bu-reaucracy, police, courts, culture, education, etc. As seen from our analysis, the development of the Czechoslovak party system i s unusual and completely different from both the Soviet 18 Union and the other Communist countries where no new non-Communist parties were created after the Communist takeover. There has been no effort made among the Czechoslovak Communist Party ideologists to have the non-Communist parties abolished or to permit their broader functioning. On the contrary, some efforts had been made to rename the one-party system a "hegemonic party system" as proposed by Jerzy J. Wiatr i n neighbouring Poland. Such a party system would give the impression that the non-Communist parties play an independent role i n p o l i t i c a l opposition,22 since "they are not Marxist parties but they are independent parties of so c i a l i s t democ-racy." 2 3 In conclusion we can say that i n forming the Communist gov-ernment in Czechoslovakia after the coup d'etat i n February 1948, the Communist Party created p o l i t i c a l parties for two reasons:first, i t was forced by the social conditions i n Czechoslovakia to establish a p o l i t i c a l structure of "people's democracy" because of the strong democratic tradition i n the country. Second, by doing so, the party tried to get wider mass support for i t s policies. In creating new p o l i t i c a l parties by the Communist Party, Czechoslovakia i s unique from a l l other Communist countries where none of the non-Communist parties were newly created after the Commu-nist takeover. However, i n the Czechoslovak "people's democracy", the party system has not been democratic, since the Communist Party does not permit electoral competition. At this point, the Czechoslovak party 19 system i s similar to a l l the "one-party systems" in the rest of the "people's democracies." The Communist Party did not intend to face p o l i t i c a l oppo-sit i o n by creating p o l i t i c a l parties. The party managed the other p o l i t i c a l parties to the extent that they became "transmission, belts" of the party's policies rather than true representatives of the population which had been deprived of i t s basic rights. The population seeking i t s representation in the non-Communist parties lost i t s confidence in these parties. By early 1968, the poor relationship between the membership and the leaders of the parties led to a direct confrontation between them which was growing into a serious p o l i t i c a l conflict. As a result, this confrontation was transmitted into the p o l i t i c a l conflict between the parties and the Communist Party. This conflict w i l l be analyzed in the following chapter which also deals with the p o l i t i c a l parties. 20 III. ROOTS OF CONFLICT IN 1968  THE QUESTIONING OF COMMUNISM BOTH OUTSIDE AND INSIDE THE PARTY Social conflict in Czechoslovakia i n 1968 must be studied i n two different areasrfirst, outside the Communist Party, and, second, inside the party. Conflict outside the party was always related to the party, i t s policies, ideology and tactics. Conflict i t s e l f .did not mean just the existence of a poor re-lationship between some of the social groups concerned and the party. It also signified a questioning of the basic principles of Communist ideology. Many of the demands were incompatible with the Communist policies and the ideology of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia during the twenty years of i t s p o l i t i c a l rule since 1948. Many of the demands meant the encroachement on and the questioning of the basic principles of Leninism (such as the nationality question that i s not supposed to exist). Also the party monopoly and i t s absolute power was being questioned during 1968. For instance, the questioning of the centralized economic policies of the party was to' result i n greater economic freedom leading to a market economy. Some other social groups called for the right of association (e.g. Sokol, the Boy Scouts, the Club of Committed non-Party Members, Club 231, the Organization of Human Rights, and many others). Other groups demanded an end to restrictions on their a c t i v i t y . These groups include, for instance, students, the youth organizations 21 (CSM), women's organizations, professional groups, social scien-t i s t s , and economists. The intellectuals, who were among the strongest of a l l of the social groups, demanded the abolishion of censorship. Calling for basic democratic rights, the social groups ques-tioned Communist Party domination as well as some of the basic prin-ciples of Leninism. In general, the social groups outside the party expressed their unanimous distrust for orthodox Communist Party p o l i -cies, i t s ideology, and i t s role i n the society. On the other hand, as w i l l be seen from our analysis, the Commu-nist Party i t s e l f questioned i t s own ideology, i t s structure and the monopoly of power in Czechoslovakia. The conditions of social l i f e and the level of the social de-velopment in Czechoslovakia, required new leaders i n the party. Com-pletely different ideologists were needed to understand those social demands and to meet them. Not only were the demands being, met under Dubcek i n 1968, but the leadership i t s e l f had tried to take a new, and unprecedented course of action i n the party. Not only did the new, l i b e r a l party leaders find themselves i n conflict with the conservative, leaders, but they, too, started questioning basic principles of Communism, such as democratic centralism, the p o l i t i c a l bureaucratization of the so-ciety, the unity of party and state, the National Front and the possi-b i l i t y of the p o l i t i c a l opposition, the nationality question, and so-c i a l i s t internationalism. We w i l l now proceed to an analysis of the questioning of some of the basic principles of Communism and the causes of conflict be-tween the social groups and the party- (The Questioning of Commu-nism and the conflict within the party w i l l be analyzed i n the chapter following the social groups). THE QUESTIONING OF COMMUNISM OUTSIDE THE PARTY  The Basis For Conflict There are two main sources of conflict characteristic of a l l of the social groups which w i l l be analyzed i n this chapter. The f i r s t source of conflict i s the deprivation of the popu-lation of i t s democratic rights after the Communist takeover i n February 1948. The second source of conflict i s the social conditions cre-ated by the nationalization of property without any reimbursement. The f i r s t source of conflict was the basis on which the de-mands of the social groups were b u i l t . For instance, the students, in addition to their demands for freedom of academic grounds, also claimed their basic human rights of speech and association. A restriction by the party to exercise the basic human rights stimulated the strength of conflict of a l l of the groups. Thus, the main root of social conflict in 1968 l i e s i n the basis of the Commu-nist establishment i t s e l f and i t s use of coercion against i t s c i t i -zens, and in the deprivation of citizens of their fundamental rights 23 If people, for instance, are not permitted to associate, they cannot make any demonstration to draw public attention or to exert pressure on the party.25 This makes the social groups in Czechoslovakia different from the social groups in a Western democracy. This helps us to explain why the social groups in the Communist states more often come into conflict with the party than their Western counterparts. In a Communist state, there i s no longer a presumption i n favor of right and against -coercion. Rather there is a discretionary author-ization of the agencies of the state to act as they see f i t . As Professor Neumann correctly observes, "there i s no activization of p o l i t i c a l freedom and no encouragement of mass participation i n pol-i t i c s as i t i s i n a democratic society." 2 7 Once ideas and opinions are decided upon by the party, they are no longer a subject for dis-cussion. With a l l the consequences expected, the main aim of the social groups outside the party was to get involved in p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i -pation in the country. And in order to achieve this aim, they openly claimed their basic human rights f i r s t . Second, the nationalization of property without any reimbursement of not only the "bourgeois elements", but also of the small business-men, of the middle class people as well as the farmers i n the country, was another source of conflict in 1968. They called for more free en-terprise in Czechoslovakia. With nationalization, a l l the rights of the free enterprise and 24 market economy were abolished. This caused the stagnation of the Czechoslovak economy. Forced and unprofitable international social-i s t "cooperation" was another main target of a l l the social groups and not only of the economists. The social conditions of l i f e were heavily affected by the economy of the country. In order to improve social conditions, the economic conditions f i r s t had to be improved. Both the basic human rights and the economic changes were very strongly reflected in the social groups' demands on the party. How strong they were and how they were accommodated by the party w i l l be seen from the following analysis of the social groups i n their re-lationship to the party. The groups w i l l include the economists, the nationalist groups (the Slovaks), the intellectuals, the students and the youth, the p o l i t i c a l parties and other p o l i t i c a l groups, such as the Club of Committed non-Party Members, Club 231, the Organization of Human Rights, the Organization of the Social Democrats, etc. The Economists The economists did not become one of the most in f l u e n t i a l social groups overnight. After the Communist takeover, the Czechoslovak economy was nation-alized and i t became one hundred percent state owned. No mixed economy, lik e that in East Germany, Poland or Hungary, was allowed. The Communist Party adopted the Marxist - Leninist principle of centralized planning 25 with a l l i t s defects which became remarkable during the next decade. The Western embargo on trade with Communist Czechoslovakia, the Korean War and the tension i n Berlin combined to stop almost en-t i r e l y foreign trade with the West. Instead, Czechoslovakia was to industrialize Eastern Europe, the Soviet Union and China. Thus was born the "iron and steel con-cept" of the Czechoslovak economy, the basis of the f i r s t and sec-ond Five Year Plans. The building up and further development of heavy industry was stressed. It became the basic tenet of the Stalin-i s t model of constructing Socialism. The weakness of centralized planning and of the Five Year Plans began to be apparent toward the end of the 1950s. Overemphasis on industrialization liquidated crafts and private services and crippled trade. Shortages of consumer goods weakened workers's incentives. Wages were to a large extent equalized. Technological progress was i n decline. The Communist vision of Czechoslovakia as the industrial tutor to the East collapsed i n 1961, when China, seemingly a "bottomless market" that would forever import Czechoslovak machinery, cancelled a l l orders. This situation resulted from the Czechoslovak friendship with the Soviet Union, a friendship regarded by China as incompatible with her negative views of the Soviet domination i n the Communist bloc. Machinery had to be sold to the Soviet Union at a great loss. Bil l i o n s of crowns' worth, in fact, had to be written off. For the f i r s t time since 1948 the Czechoslovak economy suffered remarkably 26 for the sake of the Communist ideology of the party. D i f f i c u l t i e s became especially apparent i n 1963 when Czecho-slovakia was the only s o c i a l i s t country to experience a decrease in national income. The Third Five Year Plan was never carried out. Technological obsolescence made i t very d i f f i c u l t for Czechoslovak products to compete in world markets. Stocks of unsalable goods began to grow. Total industrial production in 1963 was 0.4% lower than i n 1962, while fixed capital investment declined by 11.4%.2^ rThe main problems lay i n the r i g i d i t y of centralized planning and overemphasis on the priority of heavy industry at the expense of consumer goods. It was f e l t that the range od production was too wide and many plants too small and outdated to compete successfully in modern conditions. Yet, Czechoslovakia was forced in the COMECON to expand her production of heavy industry at the expense of the standards of Czechoslovak technology. 3^ The national and international economic d i f f i c u l t i e s caused a wide wave of criticism of the Communist Party by both the profession-a l economists and general public. The economy became a subject for daily discussions. The Communist understanding of the economy of Socialism with the concepts which Marx applied to c a p i t a l i s t economy 31 was strongly c r i t i c i z e d . It was "rule of opinion over r e a l i t y . " The Stalinist dogma of the planned economy was questioned for the f i r s t time i n a series of c r i t i c a l articles by Eugen Loebl, pub-lished i n Kulturny zivot. The centralized planning was said to be riot the only possible form of direction. In general, there were two 27 different views in the criticism of SocialismrFirst, there was the view that laws objectively determined things, i.e. that laws were not a direct reflection of phenomena but rather determined a l l phenomena. Second, there was the view that Socialism offered human beings the pos s i b i l i t y of changing things. In this case, the task was to achieve optimal production. Adherents of the f i r s t view believed that since laws determined economic facts, s o c i a l i s t society must be a planned society. Stalin made planning i t s e l f a "law" of Socialism. Loebl maintained that even Marx himself had asserted that his laws of capitalist society (e.g. the law of accumulation) were subject to modification by varied circumstances, and, thus, in Czechoslovakia, a dialectic understanding of Marx rather than Stalinist dogmas should be adopted. The dogmatic and outdated concept considered labor as the major factor i n productivity, whereas the role of the machines and s c i e n t i f i c knowledge was not recognized. This led to b i l l i o n s of crowns worth of expenditure without any significant results i n industrial pro-duction. What Czechoslovakia needed most was the high level of tech-nology and good organization of enterprises. The progressive weekly, Hospodarske noviny, and the Czechoslovak Society for the Propagation of P o l i t i c a l and Scient i f i c Knowledge spon-sored a conference i n Prague on economic problems.-5 At the Conference a leading economist, Selucky, attributed some of the economic d i f f i -culties directly to the gaps in Marxism. For instance, he said that 28 the Marxist theory of value does not provide a basis for a policy of foreign currency and foreign exchange relations. For reasons connected with this, no price system with a j u s t i f i e d economic relationship had been set up i n Czechoslovakia...Law of supply and demand must be decisive for the structure of the consumer i n -dustries and that, in the long run, i t should be de-cisive for the structure of the whole economy.33 Selucky in fact introduced the principle which was to provide the basis for the reform of the Czechoslovak economy. The Czechoslovak economists came into an open conflict with the party which was to be responsible for a l l the centralization of power over the economy. Economic failure was directly attributed to the party which, i n turn, was inevitably publicly pressed to im-prove both the management and efficiency of the Czechoslovak economy. On September 14, 1964, the party presidium and the government approved basic principles drawn up by the "working group of experts" led by economist Ota Sik, of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences. Consequently, the Communist daily Rude pravo published the recom-mended principles for economic reform and the introduction of a new system of management and planning. The "Principles"explained that most experts agreed that a permanent solution to such objective problems in the economy as unsatisfactory industrial structure, insufficient resources for i n -creasing labor productivity, i n a b i l i t y to satisfy the purchasing capacity of the population, d i f f i c u l t i e s with foreign trade...was handicaped by serious defects in planning management and incentives to production. What i s needed, therefore, i s a revaluation of the soci a l i s t system of the planned economy and an effort towards the improvement of planned management prin-ciples. 34 The proposed new economic model was to be based on economic cost accounting in relation between enterprises. Material incentives, 29 wages, and salaries should become more directly related to the eco-nomic success of the enterprises, the efficiency of their operation, and the quality and usefulness of their products. The goal was to use economic instruments to adjust output more closely to the ex-panding demand. The party explained that the economic reforms were to intro-duce a second (intensive) stage i n the economic development of Czecho-slovakia. The prior,stage had been one of extensive development aimed at rapidly expanding the industrial potential of the country. The ex-isting system of management, however, had become outdated. Economist Ota Sik argued that the economic problems were the result of applying the old methods of the extensive stage of develop-ment to the intensive one.3-* Korda, for instance, argued that Czechoslovakia was already an intensively industri-alized country prior to World War II and that the centrally controlled economic management system im-posed by the Communist Party had i n fact been un-necessary and harmful, and i t had caused chronic dislocation i n the Czechoslovak economy. 3 ^ The new system, therefore, should be based on a rational calcu-lation of the p r o f i t a b i l i t y of investment projects and on measures to stimulate workers' interests in production. Prices should be de-termined by supply and demand. This was intended to t i e the enter-prise to the market. Thus the ultimate criterion should be p r o f i t -a b i l i t y based on such parameters as prices, wages, and interest rates. This would demand more free competition, which could be accomplished only by having experts i n the major economic positions. As a result, 30 such an enterprise would eliminate the party's direct control of the economy. This was the main reason why the new economic model was not f u l l y accepted by Novotny's party. Party's conservatism was f u l l y employed i n the operating of the new model which was put into force on January 1, 1967. The party was forced to accept the model because of a sharp decrease of the economy and the standard of l i v i n g of the Czechoslovak people. However, i t was a half-hearted compromise with the party. The party continued to view the economic reform with great suspicion. Antonin Novotny, the F.irst Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, speaking to the Party Central Committee Plenum in March, 1967, put i t this way:"As long as economic measures are not i n harmony with our p o l i t i c a l aims (total control of the economy) and our p o l i t i c a l program (orientation on the COMECON cooperation), these measures cannot be accepted by us, no matter how effective they may be." 3 7 Thus, no matter how great the d i f f i c u l t i e s , the party's p o l i t i c a l gain was to be achieved at the expense of the Czechoslovak economy and the standard of l i v i n g of the Czechoslovak people. The party's conservative policies which put great obstacles i n the Czechoslovak economy were strongly c r i t i c i z e d . Economist Ota Sik was one of the most outspoken c r i t i c s exerting pressure on the party not to stand i n the way of implementing a new model of the Czecho-slovak economy. Novotny's position to the economic reforms was one of the main causes of the f a l l of the old conservative party leadership in 1968. 31 In contrast, the Dubcek leadership was committed to serious pursuit of the reform question. The economists came into conflict with the new leadership as they did with Novotny's regime. However, the conflict did not last for a long time since the i n f l u e n t i a l l i b e r a l o f f i c i a l s already within the party and those who were newly recruited did not intend to put further barriers before the new economic model. In addition to the principles embodied in the model in 1964, the new party leadership was willing to advance them by abolishing the p o l i t i c a l bureaucracy in the economy. This would mean that a l l the important economic po-sitions would be f i l l e d by experts and not by party bureaucrats, as was the case prior to 1968. Decentralization followed and there were the steps toward the introduction of a market economy rather than maintaining the old and ineffective centralized planning. In the Action Program of April 5, 1968, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia went completely over to the new more radical economic model. In June, 1968, Dubcek came out in favour of workers' councils as the best way to give the workers direct participation i n the management of the enterprises. 3^ It meant a complete'decentralization of the system. Almost overnight, the f i r s t workers' councils started functioning i n the Ostrava-Karvina Mines and their number grew rapidly a l l over the country.^ We can conclude that an open conflict between the economists and the party caused the f a l l of the conservative Communist Party leadership led by Novotny prior to 1968. The new model was f u l l y 32 accepted, implemented and further developed under Dubcek's leader-ship. It meant smoothing out the conflict since the party was w i l l -ing to meet the demands of the economists after the takeover the leadership by Alexander Dubcek. The questioning of outdated and conservative centralized planning and of bureaucratic party rule was very successful. The economists proved they had been a strong group, and a successful one i n their struggle against the p o l i t i c a l bureaucracy and i n questioning one of the basic principles of Commu-nism - centralized planning. The Slovaks The Slovaks were another cause of the f a l l of Novotny's regime. There are three factors to be considered i n the so-called "Slo-vak question":the p o l i t i c a l , the economic, and the so c i a l . In the p o l i t i c a l area of conflict, the Slovaks exerted pressure on the party to have their national rights recognized. In their strug-gle with Prague, the Slovaks had sought complete independence from Prague. The efforts of the Slovaks to create an independent Communist Slovakia have their roots in World War II. The Slovak Communist Party which was struggling for the i n -dependence of Slovakia was created as an i l l e g a l organization i n the Slovak state during 1939-45. The Slovak state was an a l l y of Hi t l e r , and the aim of the Slovak Communist Party was a Slovak Soviet Social-i s t Republic. This was to be achieved through the Slovak National 33 Uprising i n August 1944. Since the problem of future Czechoslovakia had already been worked out with the Benes government in exile,. Mos-cow became suspicious of the local nationalistic movement and did not support the Uprising.41 In 1943, the Slovak National Council (SNC) was created. Its purpose was to organize the Slovak uprising against the Germans. When the SNC came out from i t s underground existence i n 1944, i t exercised the entire legislative, governmental and executive power in Slovakia. Both Moscow and the Benes government were forced to rec-ognize the fact that Slovakia had a governing body which insisted on acting as i t s spokesman in any future Czechoslovak government.42 The o f f i c i a l government program (The Kosice Program), proclaimed upon the Benes government's return to Czechoslovakia i n A p r i l 1945, pledged f u l l equality as the basis of Czech - Slovak relations and recognized the SNC as the sole source of governmental power i n Slovakia. After the May 1946 elections, however, the Czech Communists argued that the problem of Slovak nationalism was a socio-economic one; given so c i a l i s t development (i.e. an improvement i n the economic position of Slovakia and social organization), the nationalistic demands for: p o l i t -i c a l independence, and with them the entire problem, would disappear. The new Slovak Board of Commissioners was created and was made responsible to the central government Cabinet in Prague i n addition to the SNC presidium. The relative positions of the governmental organs were settled by the Constitution of May 1948.43 This was a strongly centralist document which l e f t the Slovak organs with l i t t l e but formal powers. 34 Under the Constitution, a three-fifths majority of the Assembly was required for any amendment to the Constitution especially affecting the status of Slovakia. As more than three-fifths of the members were Czechs, Slovak opposition alone would not be sufficient to prevent the Czechs from amending the Slovak status i n any way they wished.^ As a result of such formal provisions, the SNC meetings became less frequent and legislation was replaced by administrative decrees from Prague. After the absorption of the Communist Party of Slovakia into the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia in July, 1948, the Communist Party of Slovakia was no longer independent.^ Shortly thereafter the purges of the so-called Slovak "bourgeois nationalists" began. It affected those Slovak leaders who "might represent a threat to this renewed subordination."^^ In 1960 a new Socialist Constitution significantly reduced Slovak powers. Socialism was said to be victorious i n Czechoslovakia, and no significant powers were required from the Slovak national or-gans. With the 1960 Constitution the Slovak Board of Commissioners was abolished. The Constitution further stipulated that the SNC may legislate only when authorized to do so by the Czechoslovak National Assembly. The Assembly, nonetheless, retained i t s veto right. As Jozef Lenart, then a Slovak Communist Party secretary admitted, "many people saw i n the 1960 changes a liquidation of the Slovak national organs" along with the rights of the Slovak people.4 7 In the p o l i t i c a l conflict between the Slovaks and the centralized power in Prague, the Slovaks presented three major demands:firstly, 35 they demanded rehabilitation of the so-called "bourgeois nationalists"; secondly, they demanded the complete revaluation of Slovak modern his-tory, particularly the Slovak National Uprising;thirdly, they demanded the transformation of the state into a federation on the basis of Slo-vak p o l i t i c a l independence from the Czechs. The f i r s t two demands can hardly be dealt with separately. The Slovak "bourgeois nationalists" were sentenced (the leader, Slansky, was hanged) for being accused of subversion in the Slovak National Uprising, which was not adequately appreciated either by the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia in Prague or by Moscow. The Uprising was said to be leading to the separation of Slovakia, and, as such, i t was to be treated as a betrayal of Communist Party ideology. It was not u n t i l August, 1963, that the Supreme Court of Czechoslovakia acquitted of a l l charges those who had been accused of "bourgeois nationalism." At the end of August 1963, an editorial by Gustav Husak i n the progressive Slovak literary weekly, Kulturny zivot, praised the Uprising as the effort of a whole people for liberation and the restoration of the Czechoslovak Republic. Another writer even compared the Uprising to the 48 founding of the Czechoslovak Republic i n 1919. Rehabilitation of the "bourgeois nationalists" was mainly the re-sult of the Slovak intellectuals. They started campaining for completion of rehabilitation as soon as possible. The Communist Party of Czecho-slovakia was strongly c r i t i c i z e d for delaying de-Stalinization in Czecho-slovakia. Another factor that sped up the rehabilitation was the forthcoming 36 twentieth anniversary of the Slovak National Uprising. In both i n -stances, the party was aware of being slow i n correcting p o l i t i c a l deformations from the early f i f t i e s . The Communist Party of Czecho-slovakia was "ready" for rehabilitation especially after the Slovaks invited Nikita Khrushchev to v i s i t Slovakia as a special guest at the twentieth anniversary of the Slovak National Uprising. The major principle gained by this campaign was recognition of the fact that the Uprising had been a Slovak undertaking planned and executed by Slovaks, not by Moscow or by Czech (or even Slovak) emigres i n Moscow.^9 The Slovaks achieved recognition of the fact that the Uprising had been the work not merely of the Slovak Commu-nists but of non-Communist Slovaks as well. This j u s t i f i e d their policy of coalition with the Slovak democrats.50 Thus, the Communist Party of Slovakia could with pride admit to nationalism without the "bourgeois" label. Thirdly, the Slovaks' demands for federalization were j u s t i f i e d , especially with the regard to the neglected development of the Slovak economy. The growth of production was slow. Wages and salaries of Slo-vak workers were far below the level of their Czech counterparts. The Slovak organs had no power and p o l i t i c a l judgements i n Prague rather than economic necessity underlay major economic decisions. As a result, thousands of the Slovak workers migrated to the Czech lands, which, i n turn, only created further economic backwardness and social d i f f i -culties. Federation was regarded as the only acceptable solution for the 37 equalization of the rights of Slovaks. After June, 1963, the Slovaks made their claims for the independence of Slovakia on many occasions. Nevertheless, i t must be emphasized that the Slovaks wanted reform rather than secession. News about "Slovak nationalism" reached even Moscow. In June, 1966, Brezhnev visited Bratislava, capital of Slo-vakia, to give his personal warnings of danger of the Slovak "nation-alism." Because Moscow relied on Novotny's reports, i t understood l i t t l e of Slovakia's position. Slovak oppostion to Prague was directed against Novotny who personally strongly opposed the Slovaks. He refused to proceed with the rehabilitation of the Slovak "bourgeois nationalists" mainly be-cause he himself was involved in arranging the p o l i t i c a l t r i a l . He also saw federalization as "neo-bourgeois nationalism." An important event i n the emergence of the idea of federal-ization occurred i n 1965, when a national federalization and p o l i t i -cal freedom was openly demanded. At the time, the Slovaks were for-bidden^ by the party to commemorate the Hundred and F i f t i e t h Anniver-sary of the birth of Ludovit Stur, the representative of the Slovak nation i n the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the great reformer i n the struggle for the rights of Slovak people. Stur was regarded as anti-Marxist since his movement opposed the 1848 Hungarian revolution. This opposition had, i n fact, been based upon the strong anti-Magyar sentiment of the Slovaks, who looked upon the Magyars as the great obstacle to their freedom as a nation. Stur had been condemned by Marx himself for this movement. Any 38 remembrance of Stur, therefore, was not permitted by the party. As a result, a wide national discussion about national freedom had been started by the progressive journals such as Kulturny z i v o t ^ l and Praca 5 2 Marx's condemnation of Stur was an obstacle to any return to Stur's national concept of the foundation of s o c i a l i s t l i f e . The con-demnation was dismissed by Gustav Husak who argued that "Marx had not been sympathetic to the smaller nationalities of the Habsburg empire. Marx was willing to see the Slavs and the Slovaks assimilated into a multinational empire. He wanted them to surrender their 'national freedom' for ' p o l i t i c a l freedom'." 5 3 A nationwide discussion followed. Some openly demanded "national federation" and some wanted p o l i t i c a l freedom.5^ The idea of federation was attracting a good deal of attention at the November 10-12, 1965, session of the Czechoslovak National Assembly, and, i t must be stressed, was condemned by i t s president as a manifestation of "narrow national— • ism." 5 5 The Slovak Communist Party Institute of History i n March 1967 organized a discussion on Czech-Slovak relations to debate this issue. It was argued that " p o l i t i c a l decentralism is sound and good idea, that the 'centralist mania' in p o l i t i c s means underestimation of the crea-tive potential and the advantages for the whole state." 5^ Similar ideas were pressed by historian Gosiorovsky, who praised the pre-Republic Pittsburg Agreement, and especially i t s proposition for a "Czech-Slovak federation with two parliaments." 5 7 The p o l i t i c a l conflict between the Slovaks and the centrist party 39 dogmatism had been f e l t in i t s social consequences:Prague failed to refer to the nations as equal. There was always a tendency to use adjective Czech without heeding the Slovaks. For example, one would hear or read of "Czech" film, the "Czech-German Games", "Czech money." World famous Slovak artists were called "Czech" artists in propaganda for abroad. In a l l the national institutions only the Czechs were employed. According to the reliable sources in the Czechoslovak gov-ernment, the Czechoslovak foreign service, for instance, had employed as many as 96 percent Czechs prior to 1968. The CPC daily Rude pravo received thousands of complaints that Slovak culture was neglected, that Slovak subjects were not given enough attention in the country.5** In response to such complaints, the party demanded a campaign to overcome " l i t t l e things." 5^ The culmination of the conflict between the Slovaks and the party leaders occurred on the occasion of the Hundredth anniversary of the founding of Matica slovenska, an organization designated to educate and enlighten the Slovak people, their language and tradition. The President and the F i r s t Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslo-vakia directly affronted the Slovak nation by refusing to accept an album of Slovak manuscripts personally dedicated to him. The album was returned with a postal rejection s l i p , signed i n President's own hand, "Sent back, addressee does not wish to receive."60 Slovak opposition to Novotny became c r i t i c a l i n September, 1967, at the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia Plenum, when Novotny again rejected Slovak economic and social demands, and 40 labelled Dubcek (the Fir s t Secretary of the Communist Party of Slo-vakia at the time) the prime exponent of "neo-bourgeois nationalism." This course of action was a very familiar tool of Novotny's maneu-vering i n reaction to Slovak national rights. Shortly thereafter, the Slovak Communist Party i n Trencin for-warded an o f f i c i a l petition to Dubcek in his capacity of Fi r s t Sec-retary of the Slovak Communist Party, demanding Novotny's dismissal because of his open and direct discrimination against the Slovaks. Thus, the Slovaks were one of the causes of the f a l l of Novotny. With his resignation from the post of the President of Czechoslovakia on March 22, 1968, the new l i b e r a l attitudes of Dubcek to the Slovaks problems were different from those of his predecessor in the party. Under Josef Smrkovsky, the new Chairman of the National Assembly, the Czechoslovak Parliament set up a study Committee on the question of federalization. On June 24-28, the Plenum of the National Assembly passed the constitutional law to make preparations for federalization. On October 27, 1968, the law establishing federalization was passed i n the Assembly. Finally, on December 18-21, laws were passed establishing new relations between the Czechs and the Slovaks. Feder-alization came into existence on January 1, 1969. Czechoslovakia was divided into two republics, the Slovak Socialist Republic and the Czech Socialist Republic, under the auspices of the common federal government. New ministries were formed, and the Slovak National Council was granted a f u l l constitutional and legislative powers. To conclude, the Slovaks' struggle for their p o l i t i c a l , economic 41 and social independence resulted i n federation between the two nations. The Slovaks posed a serious problem to Leninism and the party i n their conflict with the centralized party bureaucracy. They questioned the "nationality question", which Leninism links only to the existence of bourgeoisie,^ and which Stalinism regarded as a gradually diminishing phenomenon.62 The Slovaks were not only able to achieve the rehabilitation of the "bourgeois nationalists" and to restore the pride of their Slovak National Uprising against Hitler, but they also achieved their long h i s t o r i c a l aim - federalization and an independent republic. This was possible only because of the new attitudes to the nationality question held by the l i b e r a l Communist Party under Dubcek in 1968, when con f l i c t culminated and demands of the Slovaks were met. The Intellectuals This group includes a l l professional a r t i s t s , authors and writers in the communications media. This group was very c r i t i c a l of the party ideology and the conflict between the two was continuous. However, i t would be misleading to argue that the intellectuals became the strong anti-party spokesmen of the Czechoslovak people right after the coup d'e'tat. On the contrary, they were the ones who had been recruited to the staff of the new party government during the f i r s t decade of Commu-nist rule. Their disillusionment with the party ideology, i t s economic and p o l i t i c a l policies came to the party's attention especially after 42 Stalin's death, during the Second Congress of the Czechoslovak Writers' Union in 1956. The p o l i t i c a l t r i a l s of innocent people was the main reason for the intellectuals' disillusionment with the party. The i n t e l -lectuals not only accused the party of conducting suchitrials but they also attacked the party's policies of not allowing them to write about the purges. The party's strong censorship of the press caused the conflict between the intellectuals and the Communist Party. The intellectuals' main grievances lay in their limited rights of expression and their lack of freedom of speech. Consequently, they were prevented from making open demands on the party. The i n -tellectuals were dissatisfied with such party practices as the slow de-Stalinization, unsatisfactory revaluation of the Slovak National Uprising, and, especially, with the rehabilitation of p o l i t i c a l prison-ers in general and of the Slovak "bourgeois nationalists" i n par-t i c u l a r . None of this criticism of the party malpractices could appear in the press. Therefore, the intellectuals used their Writers' Union as a platform for their attack on the party. Especially after the revelation of the Stalin's "cult of personality" i n 1956, the i n t e l -lectuals no longer considered themselves to be the servants of the party. A serious attack on the party took place at the Third Congress of the Writers' Union in 1963. This attack resulted in a wide range of reprisals against the intellectuals. At the December Central Committee 43 of the party Plenum, the party worked out a policy statement on the press and published i t i n the party organs in A p r i l , 1964.6^ It was a cr i t i c i s m rather than appraisal. Such outspoken progressive journals as Kulturny zivot, Kulturni tvorba, and Liter ami noviny were affected by the imposition of stronger censorship. They were read by the most of the people and had the greatest influence of a l l the Czechoslovak publications. The journals questioned the party's ideology, especially i n their weekly editorials. Literarni noviny, for instance, published an interview with a Hungarian Marxist philosopher Georgy Lukacs who is considered to be a revisionist and whose views were rejected by the Hungarian Communists.6^ The journals responded sharply on the party's measures. Kulturny zivot, for instance, answered straightforwardly: Nothing would have been more convenient but also more irresponsible and immoral than to accept the critique with penitence and especially accept i t formally as i t used to be done in similar cases i n the past (when) sectarian methods prevailed i n the management of the cultural front.65 Invoking Khrushchev, the editors concluded that they had become accustomed to " c r i t i c i z i n g and c r i t i c i z i n g sharply, and we have no intention of burning two candles...we prefer to burn our fingers by dealing with serious ideological problems." It was clear that the target of the intellectuals was not a party leader but the Communist Party as such. Eugen Loebl, for instance, put i t i n the Kulturny zivot:"There should not be the tendency of placing the blame on the individual, be i t the Pope or Stalin."66 44 As expected, the party prevented the publication of the Kulturny zivot, the Literarni noviny, Tvar, and the Knizni kultura. From 1965 on, the journals were closed many times and their publi-cation was resumed again because of popular protests and criticism on the part of the party. Such party journals as Zivot strany, the Rude pravo and the Pravda sharply attacked the l i b e r a l articles i n many of the journals.^ 7 Conflict between the intellectuals and the party intensified when, at the Thirteenth Party Congress in June 1966, Novotny an-nounced that there would be a law on censorship.^ The law was ap-proved by the National Assembly in October, at the time of the Cen-t r a l Committee Plenum. Novotny's well known hard-line speech to the Plenum flourished with criticism of the "bias in the entire cultural sphere and par-t i c u l a r l y i n the cultural periodicals and in cultural journals i n general." He charged them with the inconsistency", "narrow-mindness", "underestimation of the ideological struggle", and disregard of 69 "frank c r i t i c a l warnings." The law on censorship became effective on January 1, 1967.7^ It placed the press under the control of the Ministry of Education and Culture (instead of the Ministry of Interior) and established a Central Administration for Publications, whose functions was, in effect, censorship. Furthemore, the directives given to the o f f i c i a l s of the new administration went beyond even the provisions of the Press Law i t s e l f . 7 1 This restricted even more the degree of freedom enjoyed 45 and u t i l i z e d by the writers since 1963, and provoked a revolt at the Fourth Writers' Congress in June 1967. At the Congress, the writers protested the censorship. The letter of Alexander Solzhenitsyn protesting censorship and persecusion of progressive writers was read. This was considered outrageous by the party bureaucrats present; they l e f t the meeting h a l l i n protest! The walkout inspired further discussions by such prominent writers as Ivan Klima, Milan Kundera, and Ludvik Vaculik. (The l a t t e r , i n 1968, was the author of the famous "Two Thousand Words to the Czechoslovak People" published on June 27, 1968, i n which he called for an armed struggle against Communism. ^ ) The Congress morally rejected the regime, especially after an incident with the party about the Arab-Israeli war. After the estab-lishment of the I s r a e l i state, Czechoslovakia supported i t . However, after the Arab threat against Israel, the Czechoslovak government took a pro-Arab stand. This p o l i t i c a l dualism was strongly rejected by the intellectuals and they attacked the party for i t . Many intellectuals drew analogies between the small state of Israel and the small state of Czechoslovakia. Both, i n different times i n history, were fighting for their very survival. For this reason, contrary to the party, the intellectuals took a pro-Israeli stand. Despite the warnings of the party's chief ideologist, the Con-gress passed a resolution against censorship, interference by the 73 party and i t s malicious policies both domestic and foreign. The resolution was published i n the Literarni noviny on July 8, 1967. 46 The party leadership reacted to the Writers' Congress with a furious counterattack. In September, 1967, the Central Committee of the Communist Party met. Novotny accused the Writers' Congress of having prearranged i t s position in Paris and Bonn. As a result, Klima, Liehm and Ludvik Vaculik were expelled from the party. In addition, the party changed the entire editorial board of the Literarni noviny, and named Novotny's nominees to the board. As a result of Novotny's policies, the journal was boycotted by almost a l l i t s readers and i t s circulation dropped by the three-fourths. Conflict between the party and the intellectuals had gradually intensified, especially after Dubcek succeeded Novotny as the F i r s t Secreatry of the CPC on January 6, 1968. Although censorship had not been abolished u n t i l June 24, 1968, i t did not function properly. The great stream of opposition was impossible to stop. The party was c r i t i -cized more and more from a l l sides. The mass media became a good plat-form for a mass r e l i e f . The Literarni noviny (The Literary News) was reestablished as Literarni l i s t y (The Literary Pages). Circulation of d a i l i e s and week-l i e s rose astronomically, checked only by the lack of newsprint and the capacity of the printing presses. The communication media ended their discussions with the "one statesman (Novotny) policy" and started writ-ing about the whole body of the party and government. The media were the main vehicle of the democratization. Moving further than merely c r i t i -cizing the party, they published the "Two Thousand Words to the Czecho-slovak People", calling for an open armed struggle against Communism, i t s 47 evils and i l l s . The intellectuals called for a democratic society with no authoritarian rule, and for a return to the Czechoslovak democratic tradition.74 The c a l l for an open armed struggle of the population caused the Czechoslovak government and the Central Committee of the CPC to protest. Although both of them denounced the idea as being dangerous, no prosecution followed. Many journals defended their views.^ The old "intellectuals vs. party" conflict was gradually diminish-ing. Dubcek1s desire to take a democratic course i n society, to re-establish democratic rights and to build "Socialism with a human face", responded to many of the arguments made by the intellectuals. However, the intellectuals' old r i v a l Novotny was s t i l l President of Czechoslovakia. They could not forgive him for his repression of the media. Many of the journals, therefore, published an open le t t e r , i n which they asked him in the name of the Czechoslovak people, to resign. He did so on March 22, 1968. 7 6 In sum, the intellectuals posed a serious problem to the party. They questioned i t s very foundation, i t s ideology and i t s policies. They mobilized the Czechoslovak population by exerting pressure on the party to reestablish the basic democratic rights, to improve better management of the economy and to again become the society which would be appreciated not only by Europe, but also by the world, as i t had been twenty years earlier. The intellectuals had been successful i n their conflict with the party. Censorship was abolished and their demands had been met. 48 The Students and Youth Students and youth in general were another very strong social group that exerted i t s pressure on Novotny's regime from outside the party. It may be said that the students i n particular shared the success of other groups in helping to undermine the conservative pre-1968 p o l i t i c a l bureaucracy. There are two main points to be made from the analysis of this group in i t s relation to the party. F i r s t , the students demanded an end to the discrimination which they considered a limitation of basic human rights. Second, there was a demand for the reorganization of the Czechoslovak Youth League (CSM), which was considered to be a "trans-mission belt" of the party ideology rather than a platform for the express of ideas. The students' and the youth's conflict with the party is an old one. The impulse for i t s existence came from the party. After the coup d'etat, i t adopted the principle that only the sons and daughters of the working class would be allowed to study. ..- Thousand of young people had been affected by this senseless rule. Those who had already started their study were expelled. Only the lucky ones who made an appeal to the President of Czechoslovakia were granted permission to study. This was the case of this writer. On the other hand, the party forced a l l the young people to join the Czechoslovak Youth League (CSM), which became a "transmission belt" 77 of the party o f f i c i a l ideology. The CSM was forced to adopt principles of the party line and was 49 to be committed to the party.'° As early as : 1964, the students accused the CSM of formalism, because of the tacit rule making admission to an institute of higher education dependent on joining the League and obtaining the backing of the local CSM organization. The Communist daily, Rude pravo, published some of the criticisms of such malpractice and rejected the idea that "anyone who does not 79 share the Marxist world view i s unsuitable for studying." Student unrest grew. Students, and those who had been denied entry to higher education, were becoming a p o l i t i c a l segment of so-ciety a fact that created d i f f i c u l t i e s in their relationship with the party.8° The relationship was becoming c o n f l i c t f u l rather than the cooperative one i t supposed to be. This was apparent after the Conference of the university students in Prague in December, 1965. J i r i Mueller, a student at the Prague Faculty of Mechanical Engeen-i r i n g , demanded the complete reorganization of the CSM along rep-resentative and federative lines. "The reorganized youth organ", he said, "should function as a p o l i t i c a l l y active pressure group in so-ciety at large."81 The party reacted to Mueller's criticism by expelling him from the university and drafting him into the army. Mueller's radical views were supported by the majority of the young people and were widely discussed i n the Student, Literarni noviny and Smena. The discussion preceeded the June, 1967, CSM Congress in Prague. At the Slovak CSM Congress , even Dubcek himself accepted the idea that "greater atten-82 tion should be given to various groups within the society." 50 However, at the 5-9 June, 1967, CSM Congress i n Prague, none of the radical students were permitted to give speeches. The delegates to the Congress were hand-picked, and discussion about the Mueller i s -sue had been prevented. Nevertheless, criticism of the CSM and the par-ty "hard-handed rule" continued. Conflict between the students and the party was strengthened by the events of October 30, 1967, when more than two thousand student residents of the Prague technical College Strahov went to the streets in protest against the poor conditions in their hostel. They were beaten and tear-gassed by the police. On November 8, the traditional a c t i v i s t students of the Charles University Faculty of Philosophy held a five-hour meeting to protest the police brutality. This meeting passed a resolution which was sent to the Minister of Education and the Minister of Interior. In addition, the resolution was sent to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia and the Central Committee of the CSM. The students de-manded : immunity of the academic grounds, identification and the punish-ment of the policemen responsible for the beatings, number tags for the policemen to make them easily identifiable, prohibition of the use of chemical gas against citizens, a National Assembly hearings on the Strahov events, publication of the investigation results, accurate and extensive press reporting of the events.^ 3 The students' resolution demanded completion of the investigation by 30 November. Another students' meeting was to take place on November 17, on the occasion of the International Student Day.^^ The mass demon-51 stration scheduled on the Student Day was banned by the party. The students were angered by such an action of the party, and drew a paral l e l between Hitler who closed a l l Czech universities, and the Communist Party which forbade the commemoration of such a h i s t o r i c a l event. The angered students asked the government, the party and a l l the univeristy o f f i c i a l s to attend their further meeting on November 20. The meeting took place, and, since the party did not seem to respond to the students demands, the students set a deadline for the completion of the Strahov incident investigation no later than by December 15. Fearing further student action, the party published the results of the investigation i n i t s daily Rude pravo on December 15, 1967. Most of the students' demands were not granted. However, the Government's report did find the police guilty of "unduly harsh measures." The min-ister of Interior was instructed to look into the shortcomings un-covered by the investigation. Persons responsible for the conditions in the hostel were punished, although there were to be no criminal proceedings in connection with the demonstration.^5 The damage to the party caused by the students a f f a i r s was almost immediate. Three weeks later Novotny was struggling for his secretary-ship in the party. Dubcek's election was seen by the students as a commitment by the party leaders to greater freedom i n the universities. The students en-o thusiastically went into the reform movement. Their support of Cestmir Cisar as a new presidential candidate i s a well known example of their involvement. 52 Universities established independent student councils. At the CC of the CSM, the structure of the League was undergoing a reform. On March 21, the chairman of the CSM, Miroslav Zavadil, resigned. New p o l i t i c a l activism found i t s most coherent expression i n the Student, published by Prague students and edited by Ivan Svitak. Its pages con-tained some of the most searching discussions concerning democratization and by far the most radical demands. Also Mlada fronta and Smena, the dailies of the CSM, became outspoken propagators of a democratic society. The youth support of Dubcek was" the most remarkable during the time, i n 1968, when the country had i t s hour of t r i a l . They faced Russian tanks unarmed. Although their efforts to save democracy not only for them-selves but also for the country already bore the marks of f u t i l i t y (.e.g., the self-immolation of Jan Palach), their activism was heroic and unprece-dented. In conclusion, youth, and students i n particular, very seriously questioned the basic principle of Marxism in the party. They questioned the structure of the p o l i t i c a l organization (CSM) and i t s role as a "transmission belt" of the party ideology. Their aim, however, was a different interpretation of Marxism rather than the destruction of Social-ism. The youth movement achieved i t s aim (admission to advanced edu-cation for the restricted strata of population) in the conflict with the party. Furthemore, the Youth League ceased to be a "transmission belt" of the party ideology, and, especially during 1968, both the struc-ture and the policies of the League underwent drastic changes. The League 53 began to be a platform for exercising the rights of the youth and students. In 1968, the League was an a l l y of the party, spreading i t s l i b e r a l ideas among the young people a l l over the country. However, i t would never again voluntarily become a platform for ideas which would be in basic contradiction to the healthy conscious-ness of the Czechoslovak youth. The P o l i t i c a l Parties and Other Groups  of P o l i t i c a l Opposition P o l i t i c a l parties came into an open conflict with the Communist Party as early as 1963. The non-Communist parties were considered to be mere puppets and the servant of the Communist Party. Since 1963, how-ever, there was a sign of the struggle within the parties for greater independence from the Communist Party. The main target of the parties and other p o l i t i c a l groups, therefore, was opposition to the leading role of the Communist Party and demands for freedom of expression and greater representation of dissenting opinions i n the Czechoslovak gov-ernment. It was f e l t that the National Front, which consisted of the four other p o l i t i c a l parties, did not provide such a platform. Its function was considered to be too formal and too vague. Many theo-reticians f e l t that the National Front existed only for the sake of the "people's democracy" l a b e l . ^ In fact, the National Front was no platform at a l l for expressing people's opinions. Julius Strinka was among the f i r s t and the most important theo-reticians to make such criticism publicly. In his a r t i c l e "Two Concepts 54 of the Dialectics of Socialism", published in the journal Otazky  Marxistickej Filozofie (.The Questions of the Marxist Philosophy), Strinka publicly called for an "institutionalized criticism of the party or i t s opposition."^ 7 Dissatisfaction with the non-Communist parties which did not perform their function the way they were supposed to provoked further criticism on the part of the Communist Party. For instance, i n his provocative a r t i c l e "Some Problems of Socialist Democracy From the Viewpoint of the Citizen's Position i n Our Society", Michal Lakatos argued that criticism, in his words the "clash of opinions", provided no the motor force i n society, the "dynamics of progress." He argued that "there i s always a clash between the rulers and the ruled since the former, in their effort to find harmony, in fact resort to mani-pulation, greater control and strong d i s c i p l i n e . " ^ P o l i t i c a l parties also expressed their views publicly. An o f f i c i a l spokesman for the non-Communist parties, Svobodne slovo (The Free Word) openly demanded free elections. The paper put i t this way:"The repre-sentative p o l i t i c a l bodies must be truly representative, based upon free elections, so that a l l the different and varying strata of groups i n society might be truly represented."^ It was f e l t that the leaders of the non-Communist parties were corrupted by the Communist Party, and, therefore, were not interested in representing the opinions of their members. The leaders were sus-pected of being Communist themselves since they wi l l i n g l y obeyed the orders of the Communist Party. 55 Elections to the non-Communist parties had been a puzzle. There had been no campaign made for joining the parties. Agendas of their Plenums were never publicly discussed and the news about them never appeared on the front page. The membership basis had been kept secret and i t i s said to have had a ceiling. It was argued that the p o l i t i c a l parties should also be "the real carrier of p o l i t i c s and not merely a formal representative."91 " P o l i t i c a l institutions should be developed i n such a way as to give a free scope to the i n i t i a t i v e of the masses. " ^ Conflict between the non-Communist parties and the Communist Party was strengthened by 1967. Even the Ministry of Defence weekly Obrana lidu published a strong criticism of the Communist Party. "As long as the (Communist) Party refuses to admit any possible discrep^-ancy between i t s interests and those of various strata of society," the artic l e argued, " i t should expect some dissatisfaction among the population. Public opinion should be heard, accepted and respected."^3 (Emphasis added). Most of the criticism argued that the question of the p o l i t i c a l opposition should not be only the business of p o l i t i c a l parties. Since the issue was related to a whole society, sociologists assumed leader-ship in the discussions. The sociologist, Miroslav Jodl, went as far as to say that among a l l the nations of the Soviet bloc, we are probably the most democratic, a nation with the strongest tradition of local autonomy, a nation, which has known and appreciates f u l l y the freedom of the press, the freedom of expression and asso-56 ciation...whose concept of democracy has always been connected with the social and so c i a l i s t con-cept. 94 Conflict reached i t s climax during the Fourth Czechoslovak Writers' Congress i n June, 1967, when Ludvik Vaculik, in his speech to the Congress, clearly and directly attacked the leading role of the party as written into the Czechoslovak Constitution of 1960, calling this totalitarianism.95 He c r i t i c i z e d the party for i t s i n -capability, for i t s unwillingness to l i s t e n to the people, and for the post-war failure. "Not one human question has been solved i n the course of last twenty years", Vaculik argued, and proposed that the Constitution be changed to make the power of the Communist Party and and the rights of citizens equal.^6 Nothing had changed prior to 1968, except for the fact that Vaculik was expelled from the party. Revitalization of the non-Commu-nist parties folowed the "Prague Spring." The Czechoslovak People's Party, the Czechoslovak Socialist Party, and the Slovak Freedom Party forced their leaders to resign. New leadership was elected mostly be-cause of the collaboration of the former leaders with the Communist Party. The membership basis was strengthened, and the ceiling for the number of members of each party was considered to be invalid. The membership rapidly increased, for instance, i n the Czechoslovak People's Party from 21,000 in March, 1968 to 82,000 in June, 1968. 9 7 Journals such as Obroda, Zitrek, and Ahoj which were operating before the Communist takeover in 1948 resumed their publication. The press became more active and placed the parties i n direct opposition 57 to many views of the Communist Party. The former Social Democrats within the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia made an attempt to re-constitute a Social Democratic p o l i t i c a l organization separate and distinct from the Communist Party. The Social Democratic organiza-tions sprang up over the country almost overnight. It was alarming when Frantisek Kriegel, a chairman of the National Assembly at the time, argued that "the Communist Party had the power but the Social Democrats had the popularity."98 However, conflict with the Social Democrats was accommodated within the Communist Party by offering the most outspoken members the highest posts i n the state and the Commu-nist party bureaucracy. There i s no precise s t a t i s t i c a l evidence publicly known that might reveal the membership of the non-Communist p o l i t i c a l parties as compared to that of the Communist Party (1,800,000 members at the time of the invasion). However, their popularity was rapidly growing among the population. The same may be said about the Communist Party. (As many as 300,000 new members joined the Communist Party during the f i r s t eight months of 1968.) Thus, popularity of the Communist Party increased due to i t s effort to introduce democracy i n Czechoslovakia. The non-Communist p o l i t i c a l parties' strength had also been supported by other social groups, which were strongly determined to join a p o l i -t i c a l opposition. Among the most committed groups which were bearing a l l the marks of embryo p o l i t i c a l parties was the Club of Committed non-Party Mem-bers (Klub angazovanych nestranniku - KAN).It was a grouping of non-par-58 ty people for the express purpose of engaging in p o l i t i c a l ac-t i v i t y . For instance, they intended to nominate their candidates in the next elections and to secure representation at a l l levels of government. The KAN was formed in A p r i l , 1968, and o f f i c i a l l y applied to the Prague Municipal Committee for registration so that i t could legally perform i t s p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s . The aim of the group's candidates was to present a real challenge to the Commu-nist Party by obtaining positions of equality with the Communist Party members in their professional and p o l i t i c a l careers. Another group, and, i t must be stressed, the strongest among a l l of them, was that of K-231 (Club 231). It was formed at the end of March, 1968, with the objective of accomplishing the r e h a b i l i -tation of a l l those who stood t r i a l under the notorious Law 231 and were sentenced during the purges in the early 1950s. The K-231 consisted of those imprisoned for having p a r t i c i -pated in the resistance movement i n 1939-45 or for having served in the Czech or Slovak army under the leadership of the Western a l l i e s . Others were sentenced for being " T i t o i s t s . " Within two months of i t s founding, the Club had 30,000 members. Its membership was expected to soar to an estimated 132,000." The K-231 may be said to have achieved a real success. On June 26, 1968, the National Assembly passed the law on the rehabilitation of p o l i t i c a l prisoners. However, i t can be argued that a share of this success may also be attributed to the wide public. The third p o l i t i c a l group to demand legal recognition was the 59 League for Human Rights. There are no st a t i s t i c s available as to the strength of the group. However, i t s a c t i v i t i e s indicated that i t s function was to demand basic human rights. Thus, i t was ex-pected, the League would be joined by thousands of people. The League very openly exerted pressure on the party to pass the law guaranteeing freedom of association. The party promised to comply. By the middle of June, 1968, there had been as many as seventy different social groups requesting" registration with the Ministry of Interior. A l l of them intended to join p o l i t i c a l opposition against the Communist Party. For this reason only the League for Human Rights was granted such a permission. The party considered the situation very carefully since i t feared that growing dissent among the population would endanger not only i t s leading role i n the society, but i t s very existence as well. However, granting an immediate permission to the League for Human Rights indicated the party's very sincere intention to keep i t s promise to take a new p o l i t i c a l course based on the prin-ciples of real democracy. To conclude, we can argue, that there had been strong pressure from the p o l i t i c a l parties and other p o l i t i c a l groups against the Commu-nist Party. They demanded real representation of the non-Communist popu-lation in the Czechoslovak government. Their membership basis was rap-i d l y growing and was supported by the wide mass of the population. Dis-sent among the population was growing during 1968. There had been as many as seventy different p o l i t i c a l groups which may be said to be embryo 60 p o l i t i c a l parties. The Communist Party carefully observed their programs and structure, and slowly considered their legacy. The party feared their strength might endanger i t s leading role in society and i t s very existence. Although i t had decided to pursue a more l i b e r a l and democratic course i t s t i l l intended the Communist Party to have a leading role. There i s no doubt that the strong p o l i t i c a l opposition of the parties and other p o l i t i c a l groups sped up the f a l l of the conser-vative party and i t s dogmatic ideology. They helped the l i b e r a l s take power in the party. For this reason the party did not r e s t r i c t their a c t i v i t i e s i n 1968 and allowed the creation (in fact, i f not by law) of other p o l i t i c a l groups. What might have happened after a year or a couple of years had there been no invasion, one can only speculate. The p o l i t i c a l opposition of a l l the groups outside the Communist Party, no doubt, was the main cause of the f a l l of the conservative Novotny's regime i n 1968. It was these social groups which exerted the strongest pressure on the party to have i t s policies changed. The e-conomists, the Slovaks, the students and the youth, the intellectuals, the p o l i t i c a l parties and those seventy different groups engaged i n the p o l i t i c a l opposition, had been the main stream of force against Novotny's regime. It was pressure that the party could not r e s i s t . In essence, i t was the economic, social and cultural conditions of Czecho-slovakia that required improvement without delay. The conditions created conflict between those who had been the only spokesmen of behalf of the national economy, education, and cui-61 ture, and the party. It was not a conflict that could have been overcome overnight. It required basic changes i n the society.The essence of the party structure would have to be changed.lt was a conflict which questioned the capability and ideology of the party at large. The economists, for instance, questioned the senseless and centralized unprofitable planning and proposed free competition, a market economy, and adaptability of prices. This would essentially improve conditions for the growth of the Czecho-slovak economy, and, consequently, a growth in the standard of li v i n g . The Slovaks posed a serious problem for the party. On one hand, they questioned i t s theoretical socialist "equality" in propaganda purposes, and, on the other hand, they opposed subordination to the party and i t s strong centralized rule. The intellectuals in their conflict with the party questioned a very basic principle of Communism, namely freedom for society as a whole, and demanded instead freedom for individuals and removal of the restrictions imposed on the basic human rights. The students and the youth questioned the party's interference with "free" education and the privilege of the working class in the sphere of higher learning. Youth in particular protested being a "trans-mission belt" of the party ideology and demanded reorganization of i t s League (CSM) as the platform for the expression of i t s ideas and ac-t i v i t i e s . Finally, the non-Communist parties questioned a very basic prin-62 ciple of the Communist Constitution - the existence of the National Front and their forced subordination to the Communist Party i n that Front. They demanded a real representation of the Czechoslovak non-Communist population i n the government, and even free elections. They questioned a very basic principle of Marxism-Leninism - the leading role of the Communist Party in Czechoslovakia. New p o l i t i c a l organizations were created in 1968 which gave the people an opportunity to mobilize their support for Dubcek, to express their views and their ideas about the state they lived i n . It must be stressed that a l l the social groups had been very successful in exerting their pressure on the Communist Party. The New Economic Model was accepted and even further elaborated. The law giving le g a l i t y and acceptance of the federalization of Czechoslovakia was passed by the National Assembly. Censorship was abolished and freedom of expression reintroduced. Thousands of innocent p o l i t i c a l prisoners were rehabilitated. The youth organizations were reorganized and no restrictions were imposed on education or the students. The ac t i v i t i e s of the p o l i t i c a l parties and the newly established p o l i t i c a l groups (e.g. KAN, K-231, etc.) with an anti-Communist program were allowed, although s t i l l carefully observed. Social groups outside the Communist Party were the main stream for the anti-conservative party movement. No other groups outside the party had any significant influence on the events i n Czechoslovakia during the period of 1967-68. It was mainly the social groups analyzed above which caused the f a l l , i n 1968, of the old outlived, conservative 63 and dogmatic Novotny's regime. However, the social groups outside the party had been only one important force to have caused drastic changes in the Czechoslovak po-l i t i c a l system. The other important force that hurried the reintroduction of democracy was the party i t s e l f , especially the liberals within the party and the outcome of their struggle with the conservatives. 64 IV. CONFLICT WITHIN THE COMMUNIST PARTY Conflict within the party i t s e l f was not new. Its roots lay in the history of the party after the Communist takeover of Czecho-slovakia i n 1948. Conflict, i n fact, had always existed and was gra-dually growing u n t i l i t caused a wide public mobilization of the Czechoslovak population in 1967. Conflict within the party i s very peculiar in the sense that i t never caused a questioning of Communism during the past twenty years of the existence of the Communist state as openly as i t did in 1968. Such basic principles of Marxism-Leninism as democratic centralism, the unity of party and state, the leading role of the party, were questioned by the high party o f f i c i a l s themselves. They came to such a questioning after a long disillusionment, many mal-practices, and the overhelming concentration of power by the party which resulted i n the greatest popular dissent Czechoslovakia has ever experienced. There are three factors in the conflict within the party which must be analyzed to understand the questioning of the basic principles of Communism and Novotny's f a l l . The f i r s t factor involves the p o l i t i c a l t r i a l s i n the early 1950s. The second factor i s the "Socialist " Constitution of 1960. The third factor i s growing dissent among Novotny's most loyal associates. The f i r s t factor gives us a p o l i t i c a l background for understand-ing the inner conflict. 65 The f i r s t p o l i t i c a l t r i a l s were arranged as early as 1949 and continued u n t i l the end of 1954. The purpose of the t r i a l s was to strengthen the Communist Party, and, more importantly, to evoke fear among the population and to give the party an unchallenged position in society. The most notorious p o l i t i c a l t r i a l s took place in November, 1951, when Rudolf Slansky, the Secretary General of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia was arrested. Subsequently, on December 6, 1951, he was removed from the presidium of the party. On the same day, Novotny replaced Slansky in the presidium. He put himself at the disposal of Stalin's and Beria's experts who came to Prague to supervize the purges. Slansky's t r i a l took place i n No-vember, 1952. The t r i a l ' s target was labeled the "anti-state conspi-r a t o r i a l centre", and consisted of many influential members of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia. These stood t r i a l with Slansky. A l l of them were Communists. They were described as the "Trotskyist-Titoist, bourg e.oi's -nationalist traitors and enemies of the Republic and Social-ism."! (Among them was also Vlado Clementis, the Foreign Trade Minister u n t i l March, 1950.) Eleven of the alleged leaders of the conspiracy were sentenced to death. They were a l l Jewish, which was the cause for a p o l i t i c a l wave of antisemitism and hatred. Another notorious p o l i t i c a l t r i a l took place on A p r i l 21-24, 1954, with the Slovak "bourgeois nationalists", among whom had been the leaders of the i l l e g a l Communist Party of Slovakia during the World War II, Gus-66 tav Husak, Laco Novomesky and other Slovak Communists. The charges of the t r i a l were the same;they included contacts with dementis and Slansky. Husad received a l i f e sentence, the other incurred terms of imprisonment. It must be stressed that no crime was committed by the ac-cused. This was later confirmed by the Czechoslovak Supreme Court i n the "Rehabilitation Statement" made on May 24, 1963, i n the Eugen Loebl case. Loebl was the Deputy Foreign Trade Minister at the time, one of the accused with Slansky.? Novotny1s role i n the t r i a l s i s very evident from the statement of Karel Bacilek, the Minister of the State Security which was estab-lished by the Stalin's security "experts" for the purpose of arranging the p o l i t i c a l t r i a l s in May, 1950. Bacilek wrote about the t r i a l s i n the Communist Party daily Rude pravo on December 18, 1952: Without the great assistance of Comrades (Klement) Gottwald (the President of Czechoslovakia during the period of 1948-53) , Zapotocky (President of Czechoslo-vakia during the period of 1953-57), Dolansky, Kopecky (both.of them high party o f f i c i a l s ) , and most of a l l , Comrade (Antonin) Novotny (emphasis added) (later par-ty F i r s t Secretary and President of Czechoslovakia)... we would not have succeeded i n clari f y i n g i n such a short time many well camouflaged problems or i n se-curing a successful outcome of the investigation.3 Further, even more valid evidence of Novotny's involvement i n the t r i a l s can be found in the o f f i c i a l History of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (Dejiny Komunistickej strany Ceskoslovenska), published i n Bratislava i n 1961. On p. 534 the report wrote concerning Novotny: His r i c h revolutionary experience meant a considerable contribution to the party leadership. The Prague d i s t r i c t 67 organization - the biggest one in the Republic -was among those, which combated the anti-party a c t i v i t i e s of Slanskymost successfully. Novotny was known to have refused many proposals for p o l i -t i c a l rehabilitation of the p o l i t i c a l victims in the t r i a l s , not only of those who were already dead, but also of those who were s t i l l alive. Evidence of Novotny's arrogant behaviour in connection with the p o l i t i c a l t r i a l s and his refusal to proceed with the rehabili-tation i s found i n the Husak's personal account of the latter's eleven years imprisonment. His long series of articles was pub-lished by the Predvoj i n the f i r s t months of 1968. "Many times," Husak argued, "Novotny v i s i t e d the prison i n person and talked to me. Upon my insistance on freeing me for I committed no crime, Novotny just laughed, said nothing, and l e f t , s t i l l laughing. After his release from prison in 1963, Husak fought for the rehabilitation of a l l the innocent p o l i t i c a l prisoners. With others, he raised the question of p o l i t i c a l t r i a l s . Discussions were nation-wide and become the topic of the day. It was important for the Czechoslovak people to talk about the p o l i t i c a l t r i a l s because there were s t i l l many o f f i c i a l s in the Cen-t r a l Committee of the Communist party of Czechoslovakia who had ar-ranged the p o l i t i c a l t r i a l s of the 1950s. The Slovak Communist party ousted those implicated i n staging the t r i a l s well before the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia. By 1963 there were no high party o f f i c i a l s from the f i f t i e s l e f t i n the Commu-68 nist Party of Slovakia, whereas in the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, there were s t i l l as many as seven i n 1967. (See Appendix.) This i s also the reason why the Slovak "bourgeois nationalists" i n Slovakia exerted a nationwide pressure on Novotny. Novotny's manner of dealing with the problem of rehabilitation contributed to his f a l l . The f i r s t report on the p o l i t i c a l t r i a l s and the proposal for rehabilitation was produced in 1957. The members 6 t the Committee who studied the problem included such people as Dubcek, Lenart, Prchlik, Graca and others, a l l of whom were leading liberals i n 1968. Novotny described the report as "irresponsible" and "unsatis-factory." 5 Five years later, another Committee was appointed with the same agenda. The findings of the Committee were again disregarded by No-votny. J i r i Hendrych, responsible for ideology i n the party's Central Committee, regarded them as a "provocation." S t i l l another report was drafted which was read to the Central Committee in early A p r i l , 1963. Again there was no result. By 1963, however, some but not a l l of the p o l i t i c a l prisoners were rehabilitated. The rehabilitation was incomplete even in the cases such as that of Slansky which were considered complete. Depsite the fact that the Czechoslovak Supreme Court quashed the sentence against Slansky, Novotny maintained that Slansky should remain excluded from the party. Similarly, thousands of other s t i l l l i v i n g Communists were refused 69 readmission to the party. Such show "rehabilitation" caused not only confusion i n the party, but also an open conflict and direct con-frontation among various members at a l l levels of the party. The second factor of conflict within the party has been at-tributted to the Czechoslovak Constitution of 1960. The Constitution of 1960 was "Socialist." It stressed the lead-ing role of the party. This emphasis was absent in the f i r s t "demo-cra t i c " Constitution. It meant affirmation of and legitimacy for the party's conservative policies. The Constitution stressed the ideolo-gic a l dominance of the party; i t said l i t t l e to guarantee Czechoslovak citizens their human rights. The declaration that "Socialism was vict o r -ious i n Czechoslovakia" was followed by another announcement that Czech-oslovakia already was on her way to Communism. She was to be the f i r s t country among the "people's democracies" to reach such a level of Commu-nist development. The new "Socialist" Constitution thus replaced the former pa r l i a -mentary-democratic one. The "Socialist" Constitution completely resem-bled the Soviet model. For instance, the Soviet declaration of the com-pletion of the stage of Socialism had been announced just a year before, in 1959. Such dogmatically blind, mechanical following of the deeds of the Soviet Union confirmed Novotny's complete loyalty to "big brother." Without analyzing the real conditions of Czechoslovak society, Novotny confirmed his dogmatic centralist methods, and shortly afterwards raised a wave of protest from many liberally-minded members of the party. Novotny reacted to such protest in Rude pravo of A p r i l 17, 1962, when he 70 said that the Constitution was to "cleanse our state of various marks of b i r t h " of the past. Among the "marks of birth." were cited the " l i b -eral pseudo-democratic principles of the division of power." The division of power had been sharply c r i t i c i z e d . The actual concentration of power had been in the hands of Novotny when, in 1957, he was elected President of the Czechoslovak Republic i n addition to his post of the Fi r s t Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslo-vakia. The party apparatus was making countless organizational, admin-istrative and economic decisions "unanimously", anonymously and i n -expertly. This resulted i n the universal irresponsibility, anonymity and p o l i t i c a l s t e r i l i t y of the party. "It was an old style and method, that had to be fundamentally changed."^ However, Novotny's " s o c i a l i s t " aspect deriving from the Consti-tution went even further. The year 1960 was to be a departure point in "Novotny's era." It was to be the decade of "slogans policy." The year i s known for Novotny's three main p o l i t i c a l slogans:the f i r s t slogan - "By 1970, the development of agriculture w i l l reach the level of industry; The second slogan - "By 1970, the standard of l i v i n g of the countryside w i l l reach that of the cities;! 1 The third slogan - "By 1970, there w i l l be one apartment for every family." Those familiar with the problems of agriculture that followed a l l the Soviet models i n farming realized that Novotny's declaration was pure nonsense. Not only farming, but also Czechoslovak industry was i n trouble. 71 The standard of l i v i n g i n the countryside was not only low, i t was decreasing even further. The youth were leaving the countryside and moving into the c i t i e s , thereby making i t even harder to achieve another Novotny's goal - solving the apartment problem. The number who had to wait ten and even fifteen years for an apartment was actu-a l l y growing. The party just forgot the "population explosion" in the c i t i e s . It had refused to rely on the expertise of economists or demographers. The strong criticism of Novotny by many of the party o f f i c i a l s was, of course, never made public. However, the party answered c r i t i -cisms i n the Rude pravo. On February 19, 1963, the Rude pravo ac-cepted criticisms of the party by denouncing them: "The criticism that 'today's d i f f i c u l t i e s are only because of the Communists', are cries of anti-Communists."7 Any kond of criticism of the party policies had been labeled ."anti-Communism", "neo-bourgeois nationalism", "giving up the struggle against the class enemy", etc., which only confirmed Novotny's dog-matism, conservatism and backwardness in understanding the re a l i t y of the l i f e of an everyday citi z e n . As 1970 was approaching, criticism of the party became even strong-er. Politicians turned to more effective means of communication with Novotny. In Kulturny zivot, for instance, one writer openly questioned the right of Czechoslovakia to name i t s e l f a "Socialist Republic", point-o ing out many deficiencies of the party. One of the most outspoken Communists was, no doubt, Ludvik Vaculik, 72 a member of an all-Communist family. He denounced the Socialist Con-stitution of 1960 and the leading role of the party written into i t 9 by calling i t totalitarianism. By giving the party i t s leading role, the Constitution, i n fact, created a dynasty of power. The party d i -rected the government and the citizen, had no voice i n or rights with regard to the party. Many advisory Committees to the party's Central Committee were created to give Novotny a detailed and convincing evidence that unity of state and party was p i t i f u l . The concrete pro-posals of lawyers, hostorians, economists and sociologists i n the form of worked out memoranda were turned down by Novotny, who found i n them elements of "bourgeois nationalism", "revisionism", and "intellectual radicalism." In 1966, after lengthy discussions, new proposals were put for-ward. It was intended that they might lead to the separation of the party and government, and consequently, to the end of Novotny's rule. However, not u n t i l the end of 1967 did the strong pressure within the party force Novotny to resign. In sum, the "Socialist" Constitution along with the Novotny's senseless slogans, raised the wide wave of criticism from among the l i b e r a l party members. By questioning his dynastic power and his rule in the country, they gradually found themselves in an open conflict with Novotny and the clique of his loyal colleagues. . The third factor of conflict within the party may be attributed to the Novotny's supporters, who,.when the c r i s i s reached i t s climax, simply departed from him. 73 Relations between Novotny and his loyal colleagues were slowly but steadily worsening. He controlled a l l the key appointments. The "cadre policy" l i s t for the appointment of a l l the party o f f i c i a l s was recommended and approved by him. This l i s t included members of both the party and the state. Party discipline gradually became a fetish. Labels for opposing opinions were at hand - revisionism, bourgeois nationalism, radicalism, opportunism, or anti-Communism.1^ The power of the party lay i n the Presidium, and i t s ten members were a l l Novotny's hand-picked men. However, his quarrel ... with people loyal to him seriously started i n 1959, when the Min-ister of Interior Rudolf Barak (from 1954 to 1962) attacked No-votny's overhelming rule i n the party and the state, and advocated a division of the party and state functions. It was the same Barak who was the head of the f i r s t Commission of Inquiry into the p o l i - ' t i c a l t r i a l s . It was well known, that Barak complained about No-votny to Khrushchev, mentioning d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the society and No-votny's responsibility for them. The confidential letter also con-tained information about some members in the Czechoslovak presidium who were known to have taken part i n the arrangement and proceedings of the p o l i t i c a l t r i a l s i n Czechoslovakia i n the 1950s. Unexpectedly, Khrushchev sent Barak's letter to Novotny. In 1962, Barak was arrested and sentenced to fifteen years i n prison. It was known that Khrushchev had friendly relations with Novotny. In 1964, thay vacationed together i n a Slovak spa and, when Khrushchev 74 for "health reasons" "resigned", Novotny sent a letter to Brezhnev in which he expressed his regrets to the Soviet Union for having lost such a good chairman. Brezhnev did not forgive Novotny for this when the latter was fighting for his p o l i t i c a l survival. He came to Czecho-slovakia on Novotny's personal invitation and without the knowledge of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia on December 8, 1967. When Brezhnev saw that there was strong opposition to Novotny in the Central Committee, he did not interfere and l e f t with words:"Eto vashe dyelo" (This i s your business.)^ However, "brotherly" international relations between the leaders do not reveal the truth of Novotny's position i n the party to the ex-tent that internal relations do. Internal relations reveal a great deal about the concept of Novotny's "inner c i r c l e " and his tactics to keep the people i n the " c i r c l e " loyal to him. It was not revealed u n t i l after the renewed t r i a l of Barak's at the Supreme Court i n Prague in 1968, when this writer also took part in the Court's proceedings. The former Minister of Interior, Rudolf Barak, revealed clearly and openly that Novotny used bribery i n the form of a blue envelope con-taining as much as twenty thousand crowns a month, to pay his closest friends i n the presidium. These funds came from the public purse, of course. (By way of comparison, an average Czechoslovak citizen makes 1,500 crowns a month.) The case i t s e l f revealed not only the relationship between Novotny and his "loyal" "inner c i r c l e " of high party o f f i c i a l s , but revealed also, as the then newly appointed Chairman of the Czechoslovak Supreme 75 Court said to this writer, "the secrets of Novotny's p o l i t i c a l machin-ery and his reign of this highly developed nation. It is rather a t r i a l of Novotny's p o l i t i c a l system." Although, figurativelly speaking, Novotny's system did not plead guilty, i n 1968, i t was forced to accept i t s defeat. To conclude, the three factors of conflict within the party sped up the decay of the Novotny's conservative p o l i t i c a l bureaucracy and his dogmatism:first, p o l i t i c a l t r i a l s i n which Novotny participated; second, criticism of the "Socialist" Constitution of 1960 and leading role of the party written into i t , and, third, growing dissent among Novotny's most loyal associates. The conflict within the party i t s e l f caused the party to question i t s own structure, ideology and i t s p o l i -cies f u l l of empty phrases. The Conflict Over Changing the Leadership A l l three factors analyzed above no doubt sped up the p o l i t i c a l process in Czechoslovakia in 1968. The liberals exerted more and more pressure on the conservatives. This pressure was strengthened by the social groups outside the party as well as by the population which was involved i n the conflict either through the p o l i t i c a l discussions at the organized meetings or through the progressive mass media. The incapability of the Communist Party to face the problems i n the country caused i t s failure at the end of 1967. The conflict between the reformers and the conservatives revolved mostly around the state of the 76 economy and the leading role of the party. The conservatives con-tinued to defend the retention of the party's monopoly of power. The reformers argued that the party was out of touch with the people, and that, therefore, i t had lost i t s claim to this role. The dis-cussions at the October 30-31 Central Committee meeting, however, did not resolve the issue of the separation of party and state. Novotny with some of his "inner c i r c l e " colleagues l e f t for Moscow to take part in the o f f i c i a l celebration of the f i f t i e t h anniversary of the October revolution. After his return, he found opposition to himself even from his loyal colleagues i n the presidium. The conflict between the conservatives and the liberals climaxed on December 8. Leonid Brezhnev arrived i n Prague, apparently to exert himself on Novotny's behalf since no one in the Central Committee had any knowledge about his invitation. However, there was no sign of im-minent Soviet intervention. Brezhnev considered the opposition to No-votny in the Central Committee as purely a Czechoslovak domestic a f f a i r . He did not interfere and l e f t the next morning. The p o l i t i c a l c r i s i s nonetheless continued and reached a peak on December 19-21. Novotny's Fi r s t Party Secretaryship was at stake. There had been very strong pres-sure , this time on the part of the conservatives, not to stay i n the way of division of the party and state. The opposition to Novotny crystalized around Dubcek, a member of the presidium and the F i r s t Secretary of the Communist Party of Slovakia. Out of ten members of the presidium (including Novotny), four opposed Novotny. However, no agreement was reached at the time and the members 77 of the presidium and the Central Committee broke off their meetings u n t i l January 2, 1968. At that time, Novotny found a new opponent i n J i r i Hendrych, who was responsible for ideology in the party and who was considered the most loyal friend of Novotny in the presidium. They had known each other for a very long time. Both spent the war i n the German concen-tration camp in Mauthausen for their i l l e g a l Communist a c t i v i t i e s . Both became secretaries of the Central Committee i n 1952 and had been together in the party hierarchy ever since. Hendrych, however, realized that there was no other way for the conservatives to keep power any longer. His turn against Novotny, therefore, was i n order to save his own p o l i t i c a l career. However, even when the deadlock was broken by Hendrych's opposition to Novotny, the latter s t i l l tried to save his First Secretaryship by accus-ing Hendrych of collaboration with the West, with anti-Communism, e t c . 1 2 Novotny tried to make out of Hendrych the last scapegoat to save his post. In order to resolve the issue of how the functions of the Fi r s t Secretary of the party and of the President of Czechoslovakia should be divided, the Consultative Committee was formed. After a long discussion, the Committee announced at the end of January 4th, that the issue had been resolved and that Novotny had been defeated. However, Novotny r e - J jected as a replacement such candidates as Smrkovsky or Sik because of their strong opposition to him. On the other hand, the Committee re-jected such candidates as Lenart (the Premier) or Vaculik for their known collaboration with Novotny. The next morning Novotny presented to the presidium and the Consul-78 tative Committee his proposal that he be released from the office of F i r s t Secretary and that Alexander Dubcek be elected i n his place. No. one protested and Dubcek was unanimously elected. He was a com-promise^ reached among the members of the presidium. At this point i t must be stressed that no "power struggle" took place between Dubcek and Novotny since Dubcek's candidacy was present-ed by Novotny himself. This kind of leadership change thus differs from a l l other previous takeovers i n which a "power struggle" between two o f f i c i a l s was involved. In Czechoslovakia i n 1968, the predecessor chose his successor. This fact cannot be attributed to the "power struggle" between Novotny and Dubcek. Although Novotny was struggling for his post, there was no one who was personally anxious to become Novotny's successor. In fact, i t was majority of the presidium members who were i n the strug-gle with Novotny. There was a struggle between the new and the old, the struggle between the conservatives and the l i b e r a l s . As a result, Dubcek emerged as an embodiment of the new, democratic movement, and not as the one who was anxious to become Novotny's successor. Another significant point in the replacement i s the manner i n which Novotny was replaced. When Dubcek assumed his post of the First Secretary and Novotny was o f f i c i a l l y deposed, the latter was not ordered to be ar-rested as might be expected. Novotny s t i l l remained the President of Czechoslovakia. The Central Committee even thanked him for the "outstand-ing success that the party achieved in the country and i n the internation-a l Communist movement, a l l of which were connected with his personality. For the f i r s t time in forty years, the leadership of the Communist 79 Party of Czechoslovakia was changed without any physical consequences to the predecessor and after a discussion lasting several months in which a l l democratic rules had been preserved. 1 5 Also, for the f i r s t time, there was the leader of the Communist Party elected by the f u l l Central Committee of one hundred members, not by fourteen hand-picked men of the Communist Party Presidium. The manner in which the replacement took place in Czechoslovakia was democratic. It was a sign of a very strong democratic movement in Czechoslovakia. It bore a l l the marks of democracy. It proves the fact that the new l i b e r a l leadership in the Communist Party seriously i n -tended to have democracy reintroduced to Czechoslovakia. The change i n the leadership was a culmination of the conflict xsrithin the party. It was not just a change of names. It was also a change of programs. The questioning of Novotny's rule also involved a questioning of the party methods and i t s rule i n the society. Voting for Dubcek, therefore, meant voting for a new democratic program. To sum up, the culmination of conflict within the party over changing the leadership in the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia i n 1968 had two particulars:First, there was no "power struggle" involved between the predecessor and his successor as i t i s known from the Commu-nist experience in Czechoslovakia or elsewhere. Dubcek was a compromise choice. He presented a victory of the democratic movement over the old party conservatism. With Dubcek's coming to power, a new democratic sys-tem in the party was introduced. Second, the manner in which the replacement of Novotny took place 80 confirmed the serious intention of reintroducing democracy to Czecho-slovakia and the preservation of democratic principles such as p o l i -t i c a l opposition, free election, etc. Voting for Dubcek on January 5, 1968, therefore, was not voting for just "another" p o l i t i c i a n . It was voting for a new democratic process i n Czechoslovakia. Democratization and Conflict The change in the leadership i n the early days .of January 1968 did not mean that the long existing conflict with the party diminished or even disappeared. Conservative forces of the party bureaucracy were s t i l l i n the party, at a l l i t s levels, regions, d i s t r i c t s and local party and gov-ernmental organs. Conflict seemed to be growing and the conservatives started opposing the new democratic measures and reforms in the society. Their p o l i t i c a l as well as personal existence had been threatened. It was even hard to believe that thousands of the apparatchiki would have to leave a comfortable way of l i f e and would have to start looking for other c i v i l employment for which they mostly had not been trained at a l l . The new directives from the Dubcek leadership were expected both with fear and hope - the fear of the conservatives and the hope of those who preferred l i f e in Czechoslovakia to be based on democratic principles. How had the democratic principles been appreciated by the Dubcek leadership i t s e l f ? What kind of changes did the Central Committee of the 81 party undergo? It w i l l be very helpful for this purpose to take a look at the composition of the leading members both of the Central Committee of the Communist party of Czechoslovakia and the Central Committee of the Communist party of Slovakia. The Tables (See Appendix) which were worked out for this purpose, reveal many l i b e r a l elements i n both Cen-t r a l Committees. The Tables reveal the education of the high party o f f i c i a l s and thus their competency in their f i e l d . Also the age cate-gory w i l l be helpful in making a comparison between the older members, who can be considered as "cadres" in the party hierarchy, and the new-comers, who are, rather, experts i n the society. There had been three basic changes:First, the change in the Cen-t r a l Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia was more com-plete than in Slovakia during the same time between 1967 and 1968. In Prague, out of 18 leading party o f f i c i a l s , 11 had. been ousted and as many as 13 were newly elected. (In 1970, out of 20 from 1968 16 were ousted.) Second, the Slovak democratization process seems to be minimal in comparison with that i n Prague. Out of 13 leading members of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Slovakia, only one (!) was ousted. However, the Central Committee had been stengthened by seven newly elected members during the same 1967-68 period. Third, there, i s a trend toward "professionalizing" the two Central Committees. More experts came to serve the party than ever be-fore. The number of the university educated members i n both Central 82 Committees increased i n Prague from 8 to 10, and in Bratislava, the capital of Slovakia, from 7 to 10. (For a comparison of the develop-ment of the trend: In 1970, the number of university educated lead-ing members decreased i n Prague from 10 i n 1968 to 6. In Bratislava, this decrease was even sharper and went as low as to 5 out of 10 in 1968.) A l l three trends reveal that the democratization process was more profound i n Prague than i n Bratislava in 1968. It would be mis-leading, however, to assume that the Slovaks had been less democrat-ically-minded than Czechs. On the contrary, the process of democrat-ization started i n Slovakia as early as 1963, when a l l of the lead-ing members of the Central Committee who participated i n arranging po-l i t i c a l t r i a l s or otherwise were associated with them, were ousted. While there s t i l l had been as many as seven leading members from the f i f t i e s in Prague, there was none in Bratislava. By 1970 a l l three trends took a different path. The level of the educational structure decreased i n both Central Committees. Most of the li b e r a l s , who did not identify themselves with the conservative policies after 1968, were ousted from their p o l i t i c a l scene. The p o l i t i c a l struc-ture of the party after 1968 resembled rather that of pre-1968. Another trend may be observed during 1968, which the composition of the leading members of the Central Committees (i.e. the Tables) does not reveal. It is the relation between the liberals and the conser-vatives. The latter were s t i l l allowed to remain i n the party to have their contradicting views heard. The same applies to a l l the lower party 83 o f f i c i a l s . In his speech to the Central Committee, Josef Spacek, the l i b e r a l , suggested that a Marxist journal would be the best plat-form for conflicting or dissenting views for a l l of the party mem-1 6 bers. The party leadership expected and was prepared to compete with a l l kind of views, including non-Communist Marxist or non-Marxist views. 1 7 Thus the party did not eliminate conflict. It was prepared to face the opposition. It was one of the most democratic principles on which the party was to operate. In addition to the democratic principle of free opposition, another democratic principle i n the form of the free elections of the President of Czechoslovakia was reintroduced on March 30, 1968. The secret ballot was used for the f i r s t time since the Communist takeover i n 1948. 1 8 The vote was 282 for Svoboda, whereas seven mem-bers of the National Assembly opposed him. The case of Josef Smrk-ovsky > :, the new chairman of the National Assembly, was even sharper. Out of 256 votes, as many as 68 opposed him and did not identify themselves with his candidacy. This broke down the pattern of unified and "unanimous" voting in a Communist state. By prefering democratic principles and not i t s coercive power, the party in fact questioned the principles on which i t s structure was based. Such principles of Communism included, for instance, demo-cratic centralism, the monopoly of poxver and the p o l i t i c a l bureaucra-cy i n the society, and the possi b i l i t y of the p o l i t i c a l opposition. 84 Democratic Centralism The Dubcek leadership intended to change the party i t s e l f , i t s modus operandi, i t s structure and composition. The party possessed too much power, was too centralized, and was losing contact with society. Novotny's leadership too narrowly accepted Lenin's understanding of the concentration of power known under the term of "democratic centralism." This term means that ideas originate at the top of the party. The lower levels would become familiar with them in the form of directives, and, i f permitted, which was not the case, they should propose changes or make their criticism to the party policies. What Lenin understood under the term of "democratic centralism" was "centralization of power and a very s t r i c t discipline of the pro-letariat which would speed up victory of the proletariat over bour-geoisie. Thus, what Lenin had in mind was revolutionary conditions, the struggle with the class enemy, and not the conditions under which there are no "exploiters", i.e. bourgeoisie. Lenin stressed centralization of power "under the concrete con-ditions of the society." However, forty four years after Lenin's death, the conditions under which the Communist party operated i n Czechoslo-vakia, in fact, differed to a great extent from those under which Lenin took power in Russia during the October revolution. Contemporary Communist ideologists li k e the Czechoslovak, Stanislav Jagerman, overlooked Lenin's stress on the "different conditions under which the party is to operate." Jagerman understands the essence of "democratic centralism" i n terms of "the most severe discipline of the party members", which, of course, does not leave much room for creative 85 activity, criticism, or even the opposition to the leaders at the top. In Czechoslovakia i n 1968, proposals about the app l i c a b i l i t y of the Leninist concept of the party and i t s adjustment to the concept of "democratic centralism" to permit intra-party democracy were raised. This was news to the conservative world Communist ideologists. It i n -cluded permission of greater genuine participation of the lower organs in party decisions. The masses of party members were to be granted greater power vis-a-vis the apparat or presidium not only through the publication of opposing'views, but also through their elected organs within the party. Elections, therefore, would have to be democratic, including secret balloting, and rotation of function. 2 2 This was f u l l y reflected i n the new Party Statutes which sought to provide a new democratic and human framework for party a c t i v i t i e s , thereby placing the emphasis more on the rights of party members and their participation than duties and s t r i c t discipline as had been the case i n previous Statutes. 2 3 The new democratic approach to the a c t i v i t i e s of the party would guarantee the members of the party the right to resign, the right of a member to be present at a l l proceedings against him, ac c e s s i b i l i t y of information (to both party members and the public), limitation of term of office and offices to be held simultaneously, secret balloting, greater authority for the elected organs, and greater independence of basic party units. In sum, by giving such democratic rights to members of the lower levels of the party, the party accepted the fact that the opposition 86 within the party would be increasing. The party intended to change i t s whole structure and i t s ideol-ogy. It directly questioned the very essence of Communist ideology i n practice, and very seriously intended to give the term "democratic cen-tralism" i t s real democratic meaning. The Monopoly Power The party's intention to democratize Czechoslovak society i s demonstrated even more dramatically by the separation of the top party and governmental functions at the January Plenum. This separation of power was to take place throughout the p o l i t i c a l structure. As the Action Program of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia stated, the party was not the instrument of the proletariat, and, there-fore, i t had no authority for i t s "direct management, especially of the government or elected o r g a n s . A s Dubcek stated i t , checks and bal-ances providing mutual control should be reintroduced as a safeguard against monopolization of power.25 In real l i f e , this would result in getting r i d of the party bu-reaucracy at a l l levels of the national economy. Experts would be re-quired at the non-party positions. This was, prior to 1968, an ex-clusive privilege of the Communist Party. The party had complete con-t r o l over a l l the levels of economy, culture, education and the society as a whole. As a result, ideological c r i t e r i a had usually been consid-ered f i r s t and only later did economic ones follow. Such party rule of the society resulted i n i r r a t i o n a l policies such as for instance, the 87 refusal of profitable cooperation with West Germany in 1956, with Austria i n 1967, and with many other Western countries interested i n the capabilities of the Czechoslovak people. Separation of the party and state would give both of them greater independence in confrontations with each other and i n ex-changing their views. It would also give each a greater chance to i n i t i a t e independent act i v i t i e s and to resist one another's pressure. It would enable both of them to respect each other, to avoid conflict, and to better regulate conflict when i t did arise. De-bureaucratization of Czechoslovakia was successful and was expected to take place at a l l levels of the national economy. Giving the society greater independence, the party could also expect more opposition and conflicts with different social groups than before. It also might expect a direct threat to i t s very exist-ence. Thus, democratization might result in a questioning of the ex-istence of the party by the society, and not only of some of i t s Marxist principles as has been analyzed above. This possible threat to the party's existence had been carefully considered by both the party and the society. On one hand, the party did not try to suppress those who opposed i t s policies, and, on the other hand, most people respected the party's responsibility for democratization and the social change i n Czecho-slovakia. It w i l l be helpful, therefore, to have an analysis of Czecho-slovakia's views on i t s Communist Party and i t s opposition to the party during 1968, and also to offer some predictions for the future. 88 The Possibility of Opposition to the Party For the f i r s t time since the Communist takeover, a survey of opposition to the party was made in Czechoslovakia in 1968. This survey reflected the views of a representative sample of a l l groups of the country. Freedom of expression was secured, since censorship was abolished and since there was no sign of fear of persecution of any kind among the population. Some may argue that Socialism i n Czechoslovakia i n 1968 was endangered by the democratization. Here, of course, we do not have in mind the Russian fear but rather that of other scholars interested in the Czechoslovak a f f a i r s . A result of the survey, therefore, may sound surprising. We may argue that Socialism i n Czechoslovakia had not been en-dangered at a l l . The basis for this statement may be found in our survey. (See Appendix.) A majority of the population (87 percent) strongly rejected such a poss i b i l i t y . (See Table 1.) There had been absolutely no danger of antisocialist tendencies. Furthemore, eighty two percent of the rep-resented people were not of the opinion that Capitalism was to be the road on which to go i n a "new" Czechoslovakia after 1968. (Table 2.) Rather, the opposite i s true. The Czechoslovak people preferred a con-tinuation of s o c i a l i s t development (89 percent), and only a fraction, five percent desired a return to Capitalism. The strong desire for a continuation of s o c i a l i s t development can be explained i n terms of having more security i n employment and experiencing free education, 89 free medical care, free vacation and the two year allowance paid to mothers after giving birth to a child. A l l the advantages were not offered by the previous p o l i t i c a l system that prior to 1948. Moreover, what i s even more surprising, those who accepted Socialism as the only way of social l i f e i n Czechoslovakia even wished to remain f a i t h -f u l to Marxism-Leninism (65.4 percent) (Table 4). Of course, Marxism-Leninism can have different variations such as that of "Socialism with a human face", which represented the pre-servation of a l l the principles of democratic rights. However, people expressed some concern about a "new" democratic system (18.3 percent), especially after having experienced a period of p o l i t i c a l t r i a l s and the arrest of innocent people in the 1950s. There was some doubt that the Communist Party would be capable, or, to say i t more precisely, would be allowed, to make i t s policy demo-cratic. People expressed some reservations about the party getting r i d of a l l that dogmatism which had i t s roots i n forty years of Commu-nist existence in Czechoslovakia and in copying blindly a l l the sense-less bureaucratic manners of the Russians and their slogans. The Soviets, in fact, have never known real democracy and they never have been able to understand i t s high value, the s p i r i t which i t can offer to the peo-ple. The Czechoslovak Communists, sorry to say, also f e l t the way their Russian brothers do. Despite the fact that Marxism-Leninism was the source for twist-ing democracy of individuals, only 1.4 percent did not wish to remain fa i t h f u l to i t . However, those who desired to remain f a i t h f u l to Marx-90 ism-Leninism, also expressed their wish to have their individual's freedoms broadened (Table 5) without the interference of any other country opposed to such freedoms (Table 6). The new domecratic p o l i t i c a l system in Czechoslovakia was to give a pos s i b i l i t y of democratic expression of several wants and desires of different groups and levels of the Czechoslovak people. As many as ninety one percent of the people agreed to the imple-mentation of this promise, which was given them by the democratic Communist Party i n i t s Action Program of April 5, 1968 (Table 7). Given a new perspective, people also sought new concepts of p o l i t i c s which would enable them to f u l f i l l their desires. People were convinced that more than just one p o l i t i c a l concept, or pro-posal, of the party should exist in Czechoslovak p o l i t i c s . The more people understood p o l i t i c s (because of higher education), the greater (94 percent was their desire for a multiplicity of p o l i t i c a l concepts and proposals of individual parties and groups (Table 8)...-Respondents f e l t that the formulation of the p o l i t i c a l line should be the responsibility of the more democratic bodies such as the National Front, the National Assembly (the Parliament), or even public opinion - through the press, radio and television. This would prevent the concentration of power by any party, be i t Communist or non-Communist (Table 9). This meant that democracy was not to be pre-served by having only the Communist Party with i t s leading role at-tributed to i t i n Czechoslovakia (Table 10). Non-Communist parties would have to be given more independence than before. As many as 81 percent of the population demanded independence for non-Communist par-91 ties (Table 11). It i s , however, very d i f f i c u l t to speculate how the conflict between the non-Communist parties and the Communist Party would be accommodated by the party. There could be only two p o s s i b i l i t i e s : F i r s t , either the non-Communist parties would be allowed by the Communist Party to function independently from the party, or, second, the Communist Party would return after a short (or longer) period of time to i t s former policies of exercising i t s t o t a l i t a r i a n power. Otherwise, i t would have lost i t s leading role i n Czechoslovakia. Some of the Communist Party o f f i c i a l s , however, were more opti-mistic and supported the idea that the party could successfully com-pete with other p o l i t i c a l parties.^6 ^he party was supported by the population to a greater degree than the anti-party movement. For i n -stance, 300,000 new members had joined the Communist Party during f i r s t seven months of 1968. Although the Communist Party was supported by the population, the people did not wish to have been directed by the party lik e puppets on a string. The equalization of the parties was sought i n elections which would f u l f i l l the democratic meaning of the independence of non-Communist parties (Table 12). However, despite the demands for inde-pendence of the parties, the survey revealed that a majority (43 per-cent) would continue to support the Communist Party (Table 13). As to trust i n the Communist Party i n general, as many as 51% trusted i t , while only 16% of the population expressed distrust. The survey also revealed that people were turning away from po-92 l i t i c s , when more than one third of them expressed their wish to stay neutral (Table 14). (For a comparison:distrust of the Commu-nist Party before January 1968 was 48% [Table 15] .) Trust in the Communist Party i n 1968 derived from the party's new democratic policies which resulted i n the remarkable demo-cratization of p o l i t i c a l l i f e . Democratization was embodied in Dubcek's personality. As many as 85% of the population trusted him completely (Table 16). Luck of trust arising out- of the opinion that the leadership of the Commu-nist Party of Czechoslovakia gives i n to the antisocialist forces was as low as 0.8 percent (Table 17). In sum, the. great majority of the Czechoslovak population was for Socialism. Even i f i t was to be Marxist Socialism, i t had to be democratic. It had to be "Socialism with a human face." The plu r a l i t y of the system was to be assured in a system of elections by secret ballot of freely nominated candidates from independent p o l i t i c a l par-ties. The Communist Party would remain in power, but not as an un-challenged p o l i t i c a l hegemony. Its complete control over society would have been destroyed. However, the party became a vehicle for the f u l -fillment of the democratic desires of the Czechoslovak population. Thus, no revisionism of Marxism (not Leninism!) took place i n Czecho-slovakia i n 1968. But the Soviet understanding of Lenin's principle of the monopoly of power, which was unsuited to Czechoslovakia's d i f f e r -ent conditions, had been completely rejected both by the party and by the society as a whole. > 93 V. EVALUATION OF THE CONFLICT IN CZECHOSLOVAKIA IN 1968 The pressure of the economists, the Slovaks and the i n t e l l e c -tuals, the students and the youth, the p o l i t i c a l parties and other p o l i t i c a l groups as well as the pressure from within the party i t -self, forced the Communist Party to regulate conflict rather than to suppress those in opposition to the party. In order to respect the demands of the population, the party had to change i t s means of communication with people so that consensus among them could be achieved. No suppression was to take place after 1968. Although some believe that no Communist Party ever respected the demands and desires of the people, this did not seem to be the case in Czechoslovakia in 1968. Two trends sped up the process leading towards the democrati-zation of Czechoslovakia. The f i r s t trend was the economic decay of the country, and the second was the strong demand of the population for democratic rights deriving from the democratic p o l i t i c a l culture of Czechoslovakia's tradition. The new process leading towards the democratization of the coun-try, however, required new leaders i n the party and their understand-ing of both economic and social problems of the country. The new leadership under Alexander Dubcek was not involved in any of the p o l i t i c a l crimes of the 1950s, and was identified with those who suffered and demanded the elimination of negative phenomena i n the policies of the party. Dubcek appointed new experts to the Central Com-94 mittee, who understood Czechoslovak problems, the composition of society, i t s needs, wants and desires. Their advice for the new par-ty policies reflected Czechoslovakia's l i f e of the late sixties. It reflected the resistance of the people to the pressure of the party monopoly in the Czechoslovak economy. The leadership respected the fact that the national economy could not be run by ideological slogans and some flourishing speeches. They could not change the society, and they would not put away the causes of the shortcomings' in the economy and the society at large. A freedom of enterprise was being granted which, in the long run, would place Czechoslovakia among the most developed and appreciated nations in the world. This was to be achieved through the liberalization. The policies of the new leadership changed. The leadership's approach to the problems of Czechoslovakia was democratic. Its policies were based on democratic principles such as free elections, recognition of the right of association, abolishing censorship, appreciation of the rights of the Slovaks and approving federalization of the country, etc. The party's approach towards the democratization of Czechoslovakia was based on a tradition of a strong democratic p o l i t i c a l culture i n Czecho-slovakia which would eventually triumph over a non-democratic p o l i t i c a l regime. The party was prepared to solve conflict between the different social groups and the party. The roots of conflict were deep in the bas-i c relationship between them. The party, however, did not prefer con-f l i c t to be accommodated by suppression of those who were in i t s oppo-sit i o n . On the contrary, i n 1968, the party was willing to satisfy 95 the demands of the social groups. Although the previous causes of conflict seemed to have ceased to exist, oppositon to the party was growing, especially on the part of the newly organized p o l i t i c a l groups and p o l i t i c a l parties. However as seen from our analysis, the majority of the population f u l l y sup-ported Dubcek's leadership. This fact can be explained, f i r s t , by Dub-cek' s realization of the existence of national problems, and, second, by the leadership's identification with the aims of the majority and by meeting their demands. Thus, no suppression of participants i n conflict took place i n Czechoslovakia in 1968. The Communist Party regulated conflict, which has been a very rare case i n the history of conflict applicable to a Communist state. That is why conflict i n 1968 was working smoothly and, what is the most important, did not take a violent form. In this sense, Czechoslovakia of 1968 did not f i t the pattern of a violent conflict in a Communist state as were the cases of Poland, East Germany or Hun-gary. As Lewis Coser argues in his study Functions of Social Conflict, conflict does not necessarily need to destroy a society. He i s of the view that conflict may even work to reach a consensus among the people. This consensus was achieved in Czechoslovakia by smoothing out the ten-sion betwen those in oppositon to the party and the party, which re-presented the whole society. However, Czechoslovakia's case contains some irony. No violence took place i n Czechoslovakia because the leadership had been strongly 96 supported by the population. On the other hand, the population sup-ported the leadership because the leadership tried to make i t s po-l i c i e s democratic. It must be stressed that the Communist Party was not weakened. The opposite is true. As many as 300,000 new members joined the party just during the f i r s t seven months of 1968. Thus, by regulating confl i c t , the leadrship helped to achieve integration at the point of i t s further development, working at the same time against the structure of the party without intending to weaken i t . In no case did conflict i n Czechoslovakia i n 1968 imply the destruction of Socialism. Rather, restructuring was the aim. A new, integrated society was to be developed, since the Communist Party proved to be successful i n accommodating conflict by smoothing out the tension between the party and the opposition by meeting i t s de-mands and by making the p o l i t i c a l system more democratic with the preservation of the basic principles of "Socialism with a human face." In sum, the party was capable of accommodating conflict for the reason that i t undertook a new course i n i t s ideology. The party was less r i g i d than prior to 1968 and, although i t was s t i l l the Commu-nist Party, did not resemble i t s previous structure and policy. It was willing to change i t s e l f by questioning the basic principles of Commu-nism (Lenin's), such as democratic centralism, and the monopoly of pow-er with i t s p o l i t i c a l bureaucracy in the society. The party was under-going i t s own restructuring and was laying down a new democratic basis 97 on which to operate. At this point, the Communist Party of Czechoslo-vakia differed from a l l other Communist Parties, which do not consider i t necessary to undergo the same changes i n both their own structure and the society they rule in. That i s why the conflict i n Czechoslovakia in 1968 was not accompanied by violence as was the case i n Poland, East Germany and Hungary. Why then did Czechoslovakia's experience in regulation of conflict not prove to be successful? What caused Czechoslovakia to f a i l i n her democratic experiment? 98 VI. WHY DID CZECHOSLOVAKIA NOT SUCCEED IN HER EXPERIMENT? Two factors have to be taken into considerations:First, Czecho-slovakia's domestic policy, and, second, her foreign policy with the Soviet Union. In her domestic policy, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia was able to accommodate conflict by regulating i t smoothly without violence. It must be stressed that in making her domestic policy, the Czechoslovak Communist Party was very successful. The problem was her foreign policy with the Soviet Union. The Czechoslovak conflict of 1968 was leading to social change in the form of restructuring the p o l i t i c a l system, a situation which evoked suspicion i n the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union relied and to a great extent depended on Czechoslovakia which has been a strong part-ner in the Communist bloc. The 1968 democratization, however, questioned the Soviet domination over smaller countries. The unity of the bloc, i n fact, had been threatened. By improving i t s own domestic policy, the Czechoslovak Communist Party, at the same time, created an international conflict with the Soviet Union. Czechoslovakia refused to participate at the Conference of the Warsaw Pact countries twice during 1968, and intended not to par-ticipate i n the future to demonstrate that she was not an obedient colony of the Soviet superpower..Having this in mind, the Czechoslovak leaders did not seem to be greatly concerned what the consequences might be of such 99 a "policy of resistance" to the Soviet Union. As expected, the Soviet Union tried to get Czechoslovakia back at the pre-1968 level at the Conferences i n Dresden, Warsaw, Sofia, Moscow, Bratislava, and Cierna nad Tisou. Not only did Czechoslovakia refused to participate at the Conferences (except i n Bratislava and Cierna nad Tisou for the c i t i e s are the part of the Czechoslovak ter-ritory) , which in Czechoslovakia were called "a brotherly invitation on the carpet", but she also refused to stop the p o l i t i c a l mobilization in the country. There are many explanations and reasons why the Soviet Union chose an armed suppression of Czechoslovakia. The f i r s t reason involved the economic and strategic importance of Czechoslovakia. Czechoslovakia has been considered by some experts as having great military potential for the Soviet Union i n the case of war. 2 8 Second, the Soviet Union feared that by allowing Czechoslovakia her "Socialism with a human face", the democratization process would spread to the other East European countries which would try to undergo the same p o l i t i c a l changes. Third, the possible Czechoslovak success might be considered to be crucial not only for Soviet dominance i n Europe, but also for i t s influence on the world Communist movement. Another indirect and fourth aspect of Czechoslovakia's failure may be found in the weakness of the Dubcek's democratic system i t s e l f . Within Dubcek's leadership there were s t i l l strong conservative factions 100 which collaborated secretly with the Soviet Union. Dubcek was mod-erate and l i b e r a l and let conservative factions function within his l i b e r a l leadership rather than remove them from the new p o l i t i c a l system. Finally, and this is the most important factor i n Czechoslovakia's failure , the Soviet Union intervened only to preserve i t s own self-interests. What is called the "Socialist internationalism" i s nothing more, and nothing less, than the preservation of Russian s e l f - i n t e r -ests. •  Preserving the Russian style of "internationalism" may be con-sidered as synonymous with preserving the old colonial order. The absence of a more s k i l l f u l policy toward the Soviet Union may be considered as a sign of p o l i t i c a l naivete on the part of the Czechoslovak leaders and of their irresponsibility to the Czechoslovak people. Although i t is painful, i t must be said that Dubcek did not possess as great p o l i t i c a l wisdom on the international scene as he did on the domestic. He must have known that i t was a pride of the Soviet ideol-ogists to apply "peaceful coexistence" only i n relation to states with contrasting p o l i t i c a l systems.^9 This fact had been very clear i n the case of Hungary or any other cases where resistance to the Soviet Union was painfully punished. on The Brezhnev doctrine of "limited sovereignty"-'" f u l l y j u s t i f i e s the existence of the Russian nationalism and i t s "russification" at the expense of any other nation. According to the doctrine, no country of the Communist bloc i s considered to be sovereign. No country i n the bloc is to be preserved by i t s own nation only. Soviet Russia has strongly 101 determined her "right" to intervene within the Communist bloc any time she wishes. Therefore, Dubcek's statement that he was "surprised" by the Russian intervention of Czechoslovakia,31 makes him, as a Communist leader, p o l i t i c a l l y naive, and very suspect. This is the case de-spite the fact that he was a democratic leader. 102 CONCLUSION Conflict i n a Communist state i s "protracted"; i t s roots l i e in Communism i t s e l f . People are deprived of their basic human rights and are not allowed to participate i n decision-making or to share power. As a result, the party i s often c r i t i c i z e d . This c r i t i c i s m takes the form of a direct questioning of Communism and of the prin-ciples on which the Communist Party operates. The Communist Party rarely tries to satisfy the demands of the population arising from the conflict. It rather chooses the form of suppression of participants in conflict. This pattern i s typical to almost a l l the Communist states. Communist development of Czechoslovakia was unique i n the sense that the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia created four other non-Communist p o l i t i c a l parties to create the impression that i t wished to operate on the democratic principles of government after the Communist takeover in 1948. However, the parties were not competitive and the population was not properly represented by the parties. Their corruption with the Communist Party was one of the causes of conflict i n 1968 when the population openly demanded i t s basic human rights. The questioning of Communism, which erupted into p o l i t i c a l con-f l i c t in 1968, took the form of a p o l i t i c a l struggle against the par-ty in the two areas:outside the party and inside the party. Conflict outside the party involved the social groups i n their relation to the party. These groups included the economists, the Slovaks, the intellectuals, the students and the youth, the p o l i t i c a l parties 103 an other p o l i t i c a l groups, such as KAN, K-231, the Organization of Human Rights, etc. They questioned such basic principles of Communism as centralized planning, the "nationality question", the party's dogma-tism and i t s leading role i n the society, independence of the p o l i t i -cal parties and their equality to the Communist Party. Conflict within the party involved the liberals and the conser-vatives. By taking over the power in the leadership, the liberals intro-duced democratic principles on which the Communist larty was to operate. The principles included free elections, the right of free speech and the p o s s i b i l i t y of the p o l i t i c a l opposition. The new party leadership under Alexander Dubcek not only met the demands of the social groups but also i t s e l f questioned such principles of Communism as democratic centralism, the monopoly of power and the p o l i t i c a l bureaucratization of Czechoslovakia. In 1968, Dubcek's leadership approved the new economic model i n Czechoslovakia, approved the federalization of the country by creating the Slovak Socialist Republic, completed rehabilitation of the p o l i t i c a l prisoners of the 1950s, abolished censorship, banned discrimination against students and granted them the right of association, allowed po-l i t i c a l parties to be more independent, and separated the party and state. The party proceeded with the p o l i t i c a l debureaucratization of Czechoslovakia and lay down the basic democratic principles on which a new, restructured Czechoslovakia was to be b u i l t . A new, democratic system was introduced in Czechoslovakia- It was an inevitable result of an effort of the party to stop any further decay 104 of the economy and to meet the demands of the people for the demo-cratic rights they exercised prior to the Communist takeover i n 1948. Czechoslovakia did not f i t the pattern of existence of violent conflict i n a Communist state, as was the case of Poland, East Germany and Hungary. This was due to the capabilities of Dubcek1s leadership and i t s willingness to regulate the conflict rather than suppress i t s participants. Those i n opposition were not punished.. The Communist Party was supported by the population for i t s democratic policies, and the population, i n turn, was granted demo-cratic rights such as freedom of speech, press and enterprise. Despite the successful regulation of conflict in 1968, Czecho-slovakia did not succeed i n her domestic experiment. The armed inter-vention of the Soviet Union i n August 1968 was the result of her pol-icy of self-interest and of her domination i n the Communist bloc. Czechoslovakia's failure may also be attributed to Dubcek's weakness in perceiving Czechoslovakia's foreign policy i n general and the Soviet Union's foreign policy in particular. 105 APPENDICES Page A Chronology of Events in Czechoslovakia . . . 106 Leading Members of Both the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia and the Communist Party of Slovakia 112-119 Tables of the Survey of Opposition to the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia in 1968 . . .120-128 Reference Footnotes 129-135 Bibliography . 136-142 106 A Chronology of Events 1948 February 28 - The Communist takeover i n Czechoslovakia 1952 P o l i t i c a l t r i a l s of Rudolf Slansky and others 1953 Novotny came to power; Stalinist "iron and ste e l " concept of centrally directed extensive economic development f u l l y adopted 1954 The Slovak "bourgeois nationalists" sentenced to long prison terms 1960 The "Socialist" Constitution adopted. The Czechoslovak Re-public renamed the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic 1963 Some of the p o l i t i c a l prisoners of the f i f t i e s were reha-b i l i t a t e d . Ota Sik's proposals for economic reform:"intensive development" 107 1966 The 13th Congress of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia adopted Sik's reform Summer 1967 Novotny increased Slovak-Czech tension on his v i s i t to Slovakia June 27-29 September Open conflict between the intellectuals and the party leadership climaxed at the 4th Con-gress of the Writers' Union. The writers c r i t i -cize both domestic and foreign policy of the party CC of the CPC met and expelled from the party such intellectuals as Vaculik, Klima, Liehm and others October Open conflict between the students and the party. For the f i r s t time, the students were beaten by the police October 30 Plenum of the CC CPC c r i t i c i z e s openly Novotny December 8 Brezhnev arrived i n Prague to exert pressure on Novotny's behalf. CC turned against Novotny and the conservatives 108 1968 January 4 Novotny was attacked in the Central Committee and forced to resign as First Secretary of the CPC January 5 Dubcek elected First Secretary of the CPC; for the f i r s t time, leader elected by the f u l l Cen-t r a l Committee of 100, not by 14-man presidium January 21 Josef Smrkovsky, member of the CC CPC i n a speech gave a support for increased freedom of speech and of a press February 27 News of General Sejna broke. He was linked to an alleged plot to keep Novotny i n power March 5 March 22 March 23 Fi r s t steps toward a relaxation of censorship. Revelations about the t r i a l s and p o l i t i c a l crimes in the 1950s Novotny i s forced ro resign as head of state Dresden Conference of five Warsaw Pact states March 28 General Svoboda elected President of Czechoslo-vakia despite popular c a l l for Cestmir Cisar A p r i l 3 Government promises investigation of the death of former Foreign Minister Jan Masaryk, said to have been murdered by Stalin's agents at the time of the Communist putch on February 28, 1948 109 A p r i l 4 Apri l 5 May 5 May 8 May 10 May 17 May 22 May 30 June 1 Oldrich Cernik appointed Prime Minister. New Cabinet formed Action Program of the CPC published. Extensive c i v i l rights and reforms promised. Dubcek*s fa-mous speech to the nation i n which he called for "Socialism with a human face" Soviet presidium meets i n Moscow - Dubcek, Cernik and others present , Conference of East German, Polish, Hungarian and Bulgarian Party leaders i n Moscow Soviet military maneuvers commence in Poland near the Czechoslovak border Alexei Kosygin, Premier of the Soviet Union and Marshal Andrei Grechko, Minister of Defence and former commander of the Warsaw Pact armed forces, v i s i t Prague. Czechoslovakia agrees to Warsaw Pact maneuvers on Czechoslovak territory Tito praises Czechoslovakia's reforms CC CPC meeting - Dubcek announces Extraordinary Congress of the party on September. Antonin Novotny ousted from the party Soviet troops enter Slovakia for maneuvers 110 June 19-30 Warsaw Pact armies engage in maneuvers, com-manded by Marshal Yakubovsky Mid-June District party Conferences meet a l l over Czecho-slovakia to adopt new democratic measures i n their policies June 26 National Assembly meets. The censorship abolished 27 The "Two Thousand Words" published 28 Presidium condemns "Two Thousand Words" as counter-revolutionary (only subsequently to reverse this position) July 9 Prague denies necessity of convening a Warsaw Pact summit meeting because of i t s reforms July 10 Concern voiced about the stay of Russian troops in Czechoslovakia after the end of the Warsaw Pact maneuvers . 17 Letter of the Warsaw Pact members c r i t i c i z i n g Czecho-slovakia's reforms published 19 CC meeting. Dubcek reassures people of his faith in a just Socialism and i n reforms 29-31 Talks between the Czechoslovak leadership with mem-bers of the Soviet politburo at Cierna nad Tisou I l l August 3 Bratislava meeting of the Warsaw Pact states. Soviet troops withdrawn. Tito v i s i t s Czechoslo-vakia and is warmly welcomed 10 Soviets resume maneuvers i n the Ukraine, along the Czechoslovak border 11 East German leader Walter Ulbricht i s given a cool reception i n Karlovy Vary 14 Soviet press violently attacks Czechoslovak reforms 15 Nicolae Ceaucescu, head of Rumania, i s given a hearthy welcome i n Prague 20 Soviet and Warsaw Pact forces cross the Czechoslovak borders about 11 P. M. after a secret meeting of the Soviet leaders 21 Dubcek and other top politicians arrested by the Soviet army. The Central Committee and the Czecho-slovak government strongly openly protested the Soviet armed intervention 22 Foureenth, Extraordinary Congress of the CPC meets cladestinely i n Vysocany factory, outside Prague 23 President Svoboda arrives i n Moscow with his Cabinet 24 Dubcek and other top politicians released and allowed to participate in Moscow negotiations Leading Members of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, 1967 Name Born Nation a l i t y - Edu-cation Period Jojned Date Became Entered Position Held Member CC Pres.,Seer. Oldrich Cernik 1923 C a Ub 1945 1958 1956 Vice-Premier & Chmn.of. State Planning Commission Michal Chudik 1914 S E 1944 1958 1964 Chmn. SNC & Vice-Chmn or National Assembly Jaromir Dolansky 1895 C U 1921 1921 1938 rthmn. CPC Committee,for rrpblems of Standard of iirst^Secretary of CPS Alexander Dubcek 1921 S s 1939 1958 1963 J i r i Hendrych 1913 C s 1922 1946 1951 Chmn,,Ideol.Cttee,CPC Antonin Kapek 1922 C s 1945 1954 • 1962 Gen.Mgr.CKD Factory,Prague Drahomir Kolder 1925 C s 1945 1958 1962 Chmn.Econ.Cttee,CPC Vladimir Koucky 1920 C u 1922 1944 1958 Sec.CPC,Chmn.Legal Cmn. Bohuslav Lastovicka 1905 c E 1926 1958 1964 Chmn. of Nat!l Assembly Jozef Lenart 1923 S s 1944 1958 1962 Prime Minister Antonin Novotny 1904 c E 1921 1946 1951 1 president of Czechoslov., fir s t Secretary or CPC Miroslav Patyrik 1912 c E 1927 1949 1966 Chmn. ROH (Trade Unions) Frantisek Pecha 1913 c E 1932 1954 1966 F i r s t Sec.East Bohem.Reg. Michal Sabolcik 1924 S U 1945 1962 1963 CPS, Economic. Expert Stefan Sadovsky 1924 s U 1948 1966 1966 3ec.CPS^Chmii.,,West Slovak Region Nat^T Committee Otakar Simunek 1908 c U 1932 1954 1 9 5 4 liiiIti^S rExitmc£fgWcoN Lubomir Strougal 1924 c U 1948 1958 1959 Agricult.Cttee of CPC Martin Vaculik 1922 c U 1945 1962 1963 Sec.CPC,Prague Municip.Ctee aC=Czech, S=Slovak, R=Ruthenian bU=University education, S =Secondary, E=Elementary M I—1 io Leading Members of the Communist Party of Slovakia, 1967 Name Born Nation-a l i t y Edu-cation Period Joined CP _ Date. Became J Member \ intered Jres. , secret. P o s i t i o n Held Frantisek Barbirek 1927 S U 1948 1958 1963 Chmn.Slovak Planning Com-mission V a s i l B i l a k 1918 R S 1945 1955 1962 Sec.,Ideol., CPS Koloman Boda 1926 S u 1945 1958 1966 Commissioner of A g r i c u l t . Michal Chudik 1914 S E 1944 1950 1957 Chairman of SNC Vojtech Daubner 1913 S E 1944 1950 1955 Chmn.Slovak Trade Union Council Alexander Dubcek 1921 S S 1939 1953 1958 F i r s t Secretary of CPS Herbert Durkovic 1928 S u 1945 1958 1966 Member,Ec.Ctee,CPC Frantisek Dvorsky 1922 S u 1945 1955 1958 FjrgJgSec.E.Slovak Region Miroslav Hruskovic 1925 S u 1945 1955 1963 Vice-Chmn of CPS Tech.Cmn Jan Janik 1924 S S 1945 1953 1964 A g r i c u l t . C t e e of CPS J u l i u s Loerincz 1910 H S 1939 1953 1964 Chmn. "CzemadokV (.Hungarian C u l t u r a l OrganizationJ Michal Sabolcik 1924 S u 1948 1958 1962 CPS Econ. Expert Jozef Zrak 1933 S u 1948 1962 1966 MnfSiiis'ESgacin^!1^ * Czemadok i s a Hungarian C u l t u r a l Organization i n Czechoslovakia. Leading Members of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, May, 1968 Name Born Nation- Edu- Eeriod Jojjjed T> Date-Became I Megber J entered ?resxg. , secret. Position Held a l i t y cation Frantisek Barbirek 1927 S U 1948 1958CPS 1968 Acting Chmn of SNC Vasil Bilak 1918 R S 1945 1954 1968 First Sec. of CPS Oldrich Cernik 1921 C U 1945 1958 1956 Premier Cestmir Cisar 1920 C U 1945 1954 1958 Sec. for Educ.& Culture Alexander Dubcek 1921 S S 1939 1958 1963 Fir s t Sec. of CPS Alois Indra 1921 C S 1945 1958 1968 Minister of Transport Antonin Kapek 1932 C E 1945 1954 1962 Manager CKD Factory Drahomir Kolder 1926 C S 1945 1958 1962 Sec.CPC,Chmn.Ec.Ctee Frantisek Kriegel 1918 C U 1939 1966 1968 Chmn.NF,Chmn.Foreign Ctee Jozef Lenart 1923 S u 1945 1950CPS 1962- Former Prime Minister Zdenek Mlynar 1930 C u 1950 1968 1968 Head Ctee for New Ec.Model Jan P i l l e r 1922 C E 1945 1958 1968 Dep.Min.,Heavy Engeeniring Emil Rigo 1926 S s 1946 1966 1968 Chmn CPS org.,E.Slov.Factory Stefan Sadovsky 1924 S u 1948 1966 1966 Chmn.Agricult.Ctee,CPC Vaclav Slavik 1920 C u 1945 1958 1961 Dir.CPC Instit. of Pol.sci. Josef Smrkovsky 1911 C E 1933 1945 1968 Chairman of Nat'l Assembly Josef Spacek 1927 C s 1946 1966 1968 S.Moravian Reg., Sec.CPC Oldrich Svestka 1922 C u 1945 1962 1968 Editor-in-Chief,Rude pravo Martin Vaculik 1922 C u 1945 1962 1963 Secretary of the CPC Oldrich Volenik 1919 C E 1945 1962 1968 N.Moravian CPC Reg.,Sec. 4> Leading Members of the Communist Party of Slovakia, May, 1968 Name Born Nation-al i t y Edu-cation Period Joined „ Date, Became ] Member | inter* ^resic secret i f , Position Held Frantisek Barbirek 1927 S U 1948 1958 1963 Acting Cairman of SNC Vasil Bilak 1918 R S 1945 1955 1962 F i r s t Secretary of CPS Koloman Boda 1926 S U 1945 1958 1966 Commissioner for Agricult. Vojtech Daubner 1913 S E 1944 1950 1955 ghmiK Slovak Trade Union Herbert Durkovic 1928 S U 1945 1958 1966 Member CPS Econ. Committee Frantisek Dvorsky 1922 S U 1945 1955 1958 F i r s t Sec.W.Slovak Reg.CPS Samuel Faltan Miroslav Hruskovic 1920 1925 S S u u 1945 1945 1968 1955 1968 1963 Sec. of. Czechosl.-Soviet Friendship League Vice-Chmn.CPS Tech.Comn. Robert Harencar 1931 S u 1958 1965 1968 S^lggak Head of Youth League Jan Janik 1924 S S 1945 1953 1964 Secretary of CC CPS Ondrej Klokoc 1912 S S 1931 1968 1968 Edifor Tin-Chief Pravda, Bratislava Julius Loerincz 1910 H S 1939 1953 1964 Chmn, Chemadok,Hung. Org. Viktor Pavlenda 1928 S u 1948 1968 1968 Econ, Sec. CC CPS' Michal Pecho 1913 S S 1946 1968 1968 Sec. CC CPS for Ideology Michal Sabolcik 1924 S u 1948 1958 1962 Secretary CC CPS Maria Sedlakova 1923 S S 1948 1962 1968 E d i t o r i a l Board, Pravda Anton Tazky 1924 S s 1945 1962 1968 Slov, Commissioner for Nat': Committees Jozef Zrak 1933 S u 1948 1962 1966 Eirst Sec. ,Bratislava CPS Committee Leading Members of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, November, 1969 Name Born Nation-a l i t y Edu-cation Eeriod Jo^pd z> Date. Became J Megger j intere ?resic secret [f, Position Held Frantisek Barbirek 1927 S U 1948 1958CPS 1968 Chmn, Slovak Planning Commission Vasil Bilak 1918 R S 1945 1954 1968 CP Sec. for I n t ' l Rel. Oldrich Cernik 1921 C U 1945 1958 1956 Federal Vice-Premier Peter Colotka 1925 S U 1947 1968 1969 Slovak Premier Evzen Erban 1924 C U 1945 1968 1968 Chmn. National Front Jan Fojtik 1928 C U 1948 1966 1969 Head, Czechosl. TV Gustav Husak 1913 S U 1933 1968 1969 Firs t Secretary CPC Alois Indra 1921 C S 1958 1958 1968 Sec.,Mass Organizations Josef Kempny 1921 C u 1945 1969 1968 Czech Prime Minister Antonin Kapek 1923 C S 1945 1954 1962 Fi r s t Sec. Prague CC Jozef Lenart 1923 S u 1945 1950CPS 1962 Prime Minister Frantisek Penc 1922 C s 1945 1962 1963 N.Bohemian Sec. CP Jan P i l l e r 1922 C E 1945 1958 1968 Chmn Trade Unions (ROH) Karel Polacek 1913 C E 1945 1954 1968 Chmn. Czech Trade Unions Stefan Sadovsky 1928 S U 1948 1966 1966 Firs t Secretary of CPS Lubomir Strougal 1924 C U 1948 1958 1959 Federal Premier Ludvik Svoboda 1895 C s 1948 1949 1949 Army, General, President Czechoslovakia.,Minister of Defence un t i l ±968 Leading Members of the Communist Party of Slovakia, November, 1969 Name Born Nation- Edu- Period Jojj,rjed T> Date Became Memger Entered EresiQ. Secret. , Position Held al i t y cation Ladislav Abraham 1923 S S 1946 1962 1969 Leading W.Slovak Reg.Sec. Vincent Cislak 1924 S U 1955 1969 1969 CPS Secretary Peter Colotka 1925 S U 1947 1966 1969 Premier, formerly Slovak Commissioner of Justice Vojtech Daubner 1913 S E 1944 1950 1955 Chmn.Slovak Trade Unions Council Jozef Elsik 1924 S s 1945 1968 1969 $ a c i o r y r t ^ o r 8-"Dimitrov" Bohuslav Graca 1926 S •u 1945 1968 1968 CPS Institute of History Michal Hanko 1919 S u 1945 1968 1969 Deputy Minister, Mining Jan Janik 1924 S s 1945 1953 1964 Commissioner for Agricult. Ondrej Klokoc 1912 S s 1931 1968 1968 $ r M 5 i a v £ h i e f ' P r a v d a Jan Koscelansky 1926 S s 1945 1966 1969 kttio-Sf M- E - s l o v a k Albert Kostal 1927 s u 1947 1968 Never Chmn.W.Slovak.Region National Committee Ladislav Novomesky 1905 S E 1933 am gn^Board Slovak Writers Viktor Pavlenda 1927 s u 1949 1968 1968 Econ.Sec.CC CPS,Professor Ludovit Pezlar 1929 s u 1948 1968 1969 CPS Sec,.for Education, Culture & Art Vladimir Pirosik 1926 s s JL945 1969 1969 Leading Sec-CPS in M.Slov. Stefan Sadovsky 1924 s u 1948 1966 1966 F i r s t Secretary CPS Eugen Turzo 1922 s E 1945 1955 1969 Sec.W.Slovak Reg.CPS Miroslav Valek 1927 s s 1962 1969 1969 Slovak Minister of Culture Jozef Zrak 1930 s U 1948 1962 1966 Slovak Deputy Premier * His membership was cancelled in 1954 when he was sentenced as a Slovak "bourgeois nationalist. Leading Members of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, January, 1970 Name Born Nation-al i t y Edu-cation Eeriod Jojrjed 12 Date Became Memger Entered Eresid. Secret. , Position Held Vasil Bilak 1918 R S 1945 1953 1963 Chmn,Slovak Planning Commission Peter Colotka 1925 S U 1947 1968 1969 Slovak Prime Minister Evzen Erban 1924 C u 1945 1968 1968 Chairman, Gederal NF Jan Fojtik 1928 C s 1948 1966 1969 Head Czechosl. TV Dalibor Hanes 1914 S u 1948 1970 1970 Deputy of Federal Assembly Vaclav Hula 1925 C u 1946 1969 1968 Deputy Min. for Finance Gustav Husak 1913 S u 1933 d m d m ) F i r s t Secretary of CPC Alois Indra 1921 C s 1945 1958 1968 ..• Sec. CPS for Mass Orgs. Antonin Kapek 1922 C s 1945 1954 1962 F i r s t Sec. Prague CC Josef Kempny 1920 C u 1945 1969 1969 Chmn. Ostrava Munic. Comm. Jozef Lenart 1922 S s 1945 1958 1970 F i r s t Secretary CPS Miroslav Moc 1929 C s 1949 No 1970 Editor-in-Chief Rude pravo Frantisek Penc 1922 c s 1945 1962 1963 Chmn. CPC Usti n/Labem Jan P i l l e r 1922 c E 1945 1958 1968 Chmn. Trade Union (ROH) Lubomir Strougal 1924 c u 1948 1958 1959 Federal Prime Minister Ludvik Svoboda 1895 c s 1948 1949 1949 President of the Republic * His membership was cancelled in 1954 when he was sentenced as "bourgeois nationalist." It was renewed in 1968. Leading Members of the Communist Party of Slovakia, January, 1970 Date Nation- Edu- Period Became Ln_w«.w- _ . ^ . „ , , Name Born - . . Joined Member Presid., Position Held al i t y cation CP CC 6 a ' ' v o * Ladislav Abraham 1923 S S 1946 1962 1968 Leading Seer.,W.Slov.Reg. Vincent Cislak 1924 S U 1955 1969 1968 District Sec.W.Slov. CP Peter Colotka 1925 S U 1947 1966 1969 Premier Vojtech Daubner 1913 S E 1944 1950 1955 Chmn. Slov.Trade Unions Jozef Elsik 1924 S S 1945 1968 1969 Deputy Min. of Mining Michal Hanko 1919 S u 1945 1968 1969 Chmn. "Dimitrov" Factory Jan Janik 1924 S S 1948 1955 1964 Agricult. Comn. CPC Ondrej Klokoc 1912 S S 1931 1968 1968 Editor-in-Chief Pravda Jozef Lenart 1922 S s 1944 1958 1970 First Secretary CPS Ladislav Novomesky 1905 S. E 1933 d f t t j am On.Board of Slovak Writers' Union Ludovit Pezlar 1929 S U 1948 1968 1969 CPS Sec. for Education Jan Pirc 1924 S E 1957 1966 1970 Lead.Sec.E. Slovak CPS Vladimir Pirosik 1926 S s 1945 1969 1969 Dead. Sec.CPS Central Slov. Stefan Sadovsky 1928 S u 1948 1966 1966 Slov.Deputy Prime Minister Bohus Travnicek 1929 S s 1948 1969 1970 Pfavaa7 E d i t o r ~ i n - C h i e f Eugen Turzo 1922 S E 1945 1955 1969 Sec. W.Slov.Reg.CPS Ctee Miroslav Valek 1927 S s 1962 1969 1969 Slovak Minister of Culture *Novomesky's membership was cancelled in 1954 when he was sentenced with the group of the Slovak "bourgeois nationalists". Rehabilitated in 1963. 120 The following survey of public opinion i n Czechoslovakia in 1968 was sponsored by the Czechoslovak Institute for Public Opinion. Twenty polls were taken between Ap r i l , 1968, and August, 1968, and covered the whole territory of the Czechoslovak Repub-l i c . More than 2,000 respondents were surveyed by 250 profession-a l p o l l takers. The respondents represented a sample of a l l the social groups of the Czechoslovak population over 18 years of age. The following Tables, however, represent only a fraction of the answers received by the Institute. Table 1 Question:From some countries we hear the opinion that Socialism was endangered here by international antisocialist forces and that Czechoslovakia was on the road toward Capitalism. Would you sa that: This i s true There xs some.true xn i t This i s not true D/Ka N/A percent^3 percent percent percent A l l subjects 1.2 6.8 87.4 4.6 Czech lands 1.0 6.8 88.9 3.3 Slovakia 1.6 6.8 83.9 7.7 a I n this and the following Tables, D/K=don't know, N/A=no answer hNumbers in a l l the Tables are expressed as percents. 121 Table 2 Question:Some people talk about the danger of antisocialist tendencies and express fear of a return to capitalism. Do you subscribe to this fear? '. . 1 1 Up to Over Education 'Member 'Nonmember ° p i n i o n s A 1 1 40 yrs 40 Lower Higher CP CP 1.Strongly do not subscribe 33 39 29 29 39 27 39 2.Do not subscribe 49 50 47 49 49 51 48 3.Sometimes yes, sometimes no 11 10 12 14 9 10 12 4.Subscribe. 5 - 9 6 2 9 3 5.Strongly subscribe 1 _ 2 1 1 3 1 6.N/A 1 1 1 1 - - -Table 3 Capitalism vs. Socialism Question:Are you for a return to capitalist development or for a continuation of socia l i s t development? 1. For a return to capitalist development 5 2. For a continuation of socialist development 89 3. Don't know 6 100 122 Table 4 Question:Do you want to remain fa i t h f u l to Marxism-Leninism and to the ideals of the construction of Socialism based on the needs of our own people and nation? 1. Agree 65.4 2. Agree, but I doubt i f this w i l l be possible 12.0 3. I have reservations 6.3. 4. Don't agree 1.4. 5. D/K, N/A 14.9 100.0 Table 5 Question:Do you desire to broaden the measures for individual's freedom? 1. Agree 86.2 2. Agree, but I doubt i f this w i l l be possible 8.6 3. I have reservations 1.5 4. I don't agree 0.0 5. N/A 3.7 100.0 123 Table 6 QuestioniDo you agree that i n order to crush grave disorder forces of another state should be used? 1. Agree 4 2. Perhaps, according to conditions 6 3. Don't agree 84 4. D/K, N/A 6 100 Table 7 Question:Do you agree that the new p o l i t i c a l system has to make possible in the formulation of p o l i t i c a l decisions free and democratic expression of several wants and desires of different groups and levels of people in the so c i a l i s t society? Nonmember Member CP CP B ?a t p g c f e c i a s a | i P t n c t org. of CPC I agree that i t should be so 91 87 85 I think i t correspondes to present-day rea l i t y 37 57 71 124 Table 8 Question:Do you agree with the opinion that " i n p o l i t i c s there must be one p o l i t i c a l line valid for a l l " , or should there exist, side by side, many concepts and proposals of individual parties and groups? /-. • • A n Education „ , „ , Opxnxons A l l Member Nonmember Lower Higher CP CP_ 1. For many concepts 81 79 94 68 86 2. For one p o l i t i c a l l i n e 17 20 4 31 13 3. N/A 2 1 2 1 1 Table 9 Question;If there should be only one p o l i t i c a l l i n e valid for a l l who should create and formulate i t ? The p o l i t i c a l line Education Member should be created by: _ „. , CP Nonmember _ Lower Hxgher ^ 1. National Assembly (Parliament) 18 17 19 19 18 2. The government 6 7 4 3 7 3. The National Front 25 24 27 30 24 4. Public opinion through the press,radio,TV 22 19 25 13 24 5. The Central Committee of the CPC 8 8 8 21 4 6. Other p o l i t i c a l parties 2 2 2 — 3 7. A l l working people 9 12 5 6 10 8. Others 1 2 1 2 1 9. N/A 9 9 9 6 9 100 100 100 100 100 125 Table 10 Question:Do you conceive domocracy as a so c i a l i s t demo-cracy only when the Communist Party has the leading role? Leading Secretaries Opinions Nonmember Member of the CP and dis-CP CP t r i c t org, of the CP Yes 11 61 97 Immaterial 6 14 1 No 83 25 2 Table 11 QuestionrDo you want the existing non-Communist parties to be really independent parties and equal partners to the Communist Party? Expression of wants A l l _ Education Member Nonmember r Lower Higher CP CP 1. Strongly wanting 40 35 48 23 45 2. Wanting 41 42 40 44 40 3. Sometimes yes, sometime no 11 15 6 17 10 4. Not wanting 5 5 5 11 3 5. Strongly not wanting 2 2 1 5 1 6. D/K, N/A 1 1 - - 1 100 100 100 100 100 126 Table 12 Question:In the past the elections were formal and the i n -fluence of voters on the selection of the candidates and the results of the elections was minimal. Which of the following p o s s i b i l i t i e s , i n your opinion, w i l l contribute most toward democratization of elections? Total Member Nonmember Education CP CP Lower Hogher l.Free choice of candi-dates without re-strictions 29 40 26 24 37 2.Real p o s s i b i l i t i e s and rights for functioning of non-Communist parties 22 12 25 23 20 3.Possibility of the crea-tion of new parties 7 3 9 7 8 4. Poss i b i l i t y of inde-pendent participation i n elections of voluntary organizations (ROH, CSM) 6 4 6 6 6 5.The real p o s s i b i l i t y of the use of the state media (press, radio,TV) by a l l the p o l i t i c a l parties 7 4 8 8 6 6.Insuring secrecy of elections 21 28 19 22 20 7.Other conditions 1 1 1 1 1 8. No need to change p r e -vious elections were democratic 3 5 3 5 1 9. D/K 4 3 3 4 1 100 100 100 100 100 Table 13 Question:To whom would you give your vote i f there was an elec-tion this month, based on the independent candidacy of a l l po-l i t i c a l parties? I would elect the following party: A l l Communists Non-Communists 1. Communist 43 90 28 2. Socialist 13 1 17 3. People's 9 2 12 4. Blank ballot 6 4 7 5. D/K 27 3 34 98 100 98 127 Table 14 Question;What degree of trust do you have in the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (June, 1968)? 1. Complete trust 11 51 2. Trust 40 3. No trust but not distrust 33 (Neutral) 4. Distrust 12 16 ' 5. Complete distrust 4 100 Table 15 Question:What was your degree of trust in the party before January, 1968? 1. Complete trust 6 23 2. Trust 17 3. No trust but not distrust 29 (Neutral 4. Distrust 28 48 5. Complete distrust 20 100 128 Table 16 Question:As you consider the development of recent p o l i -t i c a l events do you or don't you have trust i n the new leadership of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia led by Alexander Dubcek? Have Have trust Don t have D/K . wxtn some . ^ .... trust reservations trust N/A 85.0 12.6 l.o 1.4 82.5 15.1 1.1 1.3 91.7 7.2 0.3 0.8 Table 17 Question;What reason do you have for the lack of trust? 1. Inconsistency of the individual members of the leadership of the Communist Party of Czecho-slovakia i n f u l f i l l i n g the process of demo-cratization 2. Lack of trust motivated by the fact that today the leadership of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia works under abnormal con-ditions and i s subject to the pressure of foreign armies 3. Lack of trust because of the opinion that the leadership of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia gives in to the anti-socialist forces 4. D/K, N/A A l l subjects Czech lands Slovakia 61.3 22.7 0.8 15.2 100.0 129 F O O T N O T E S 1. Ralph Dahrendorf, Gesselschaft und Freiheit, Muenchen, R. Piper & Co., 1961, p. 235. 2. Ralph Dahrendorf, Class and Class Conflict i n Industrial Society, Stanford University Press, Stanford, C a l i f . , 1959, p. 308. 3. Ibid., p. 309. 4. Ibid., pp. 223-224. 5. Eugen Loebl, Stalinism i n Prague, Grove Press, Inc., New York, 1969, pp. 50-52. 6. Robert Strausz-Hupe, et a l . , Protracted Conflict,, Harper & Brothers, New York, 1959, p. 7. 7. Lewis A. Coser, Continuities in the Study of Social Conflict, The Free Press, New York, 1967, p. 29. 8. For the more detailed analysis of the Czechoslovak parties see Charles Hoch, The P o l i t i c a l Parties in Czechoslovakia, Orbis Publish-ing House, Prague, 1936. 9. Zbigniew K. Brzezinski, The Soviet Bloc:Unity and Conflict, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1967, p. 19. 10. Reported i n Winifred N. Hadsel, "Czechoslovakia's Road to Socialism" in Foreign Policy Reports, Vol. 22, February 25, 1947, p. 270. 11. Dejiny KSC (The History of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia), Prague, 1960, pp. 499-500. 12. During the World War II, Slovakia was declared the independent Slovak state. It signed a treaty with Hitler. 13. H. Gordon S k i l l i n g , "People's Democracy, the Proletarian Dictatorship and the Czechoslovak Path to Socialism" i n The American Slovak and  East European Review, Vol. 10, A p r i l , 1951, p. 103. 14. Dejiny KSC, Manual, Bratislava, 1959, p. 162. 15. Ibid. 16. Ibid. 17. S k i l l i n g , Op. c i t . 130 F O O T N O T E S 18. Leon D. Epstein, P o l i t i c a l Parties in Western Democracies, Praeger Publishers, New York, 1967, p. 47. 19. Ibid., p. 46. 20. According to the Czechoslovak Constitution, the voters have the right to cross out the name of any of the candidates and, instead, to write i n any other candidate they may have chosen. The case of the mentioned p o l i t i c a l t r i a l took place i n Prague before the national elections in the summer of 1972. 21. Jerzy J. Wiatr, "The Hegemonic Party System in Poland" i n J. J. Wiatr (ed.), Studies in the Polish P o l i t i c a l System, Wroclaw, Ossolineum, 1967. Also, an abstract may be found i n J. J. Wiatr, " P o l i t i c a l Par-t i e s , Interest Representation and Economic Development i n Poland" in APS Review, Vol. LXIV, December, 1970, No. 4, p. 1239. 22. Wiatr, APS Review, Ibid., p. 1241. 23. Wladyslaw Gomulka, On Our Party, Warsaw, 1968, p. 437. 24. Franz Neumann, The Democratic and the Authoritarian State, The Free Press, Glencoe, I l l i n o i s , 1957, p. 176. 25. Ghita Ionescu, The Break-Up of the Soviet Empire i n Eastern Europe, Harmodsworth, Penguin Books, 1965, pp. 150-57. 26. Neumann, Op. c i t . , p. 187. 27. Ibid., p. 190. 28. Hadley Cantril, Soviet Leaders and the Mastery Over Man, Rutgers University Press, New Brunnswick, N. J., 1960, p. 61. •29. J. F. Brown, The New Eastern Europe, P a l l Mall Press, 1966, p. 64. 30. Robert Rhodes James, The Czechoslovak Crisis 1968, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 1969, p. 2. Also see M. Kaser, COMECON - Integration  Problems of the Planned Economies, Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 1967. 31. Eugen Loebl, Kulturny zivot, September 28, 1963. 32. Hospodarske noviny, November 8, 1963. 33. Ibid., see discussion by Mr. Selucky. 34. Rude pravo, October 17, 1964. 131 F O O T N O T E S 35. Ota Sik, "A Contribution to the Analysis of the Czechoslovak Economic Development" in Politicka ekonomie, XI:I (1963), pp.1-33. 36. B. Korda, "Comments on J. Goldman's Study of the Rate of Growth", Planovane hospodarstvi, XIII:2 (1965),pp. 41-5. 37. Rude pravo, March 30, 1967, p. 1. 38. Ota Sik in Rude pravo, February 18, 22 and 23, Praca, February 25 and December 7, 1966. 39. Pravda, (Bratislava), June 4, 1968. 40. Pravda, (Bratislava), June 30, 1968. 41. Cited in Netik and Franko, "Communism in Slovakia", Radio Free  Europe, (1960), p. 85. 42. Edward Taborsky, "Slovakia Under Communist Rule", Journal of Cen- t r a l European Affairs, XIV (October, 1954), pp. 258-9, Taborsky, Communism in Czechoslovakia, Princeton, 1961, p. 332. 43. Karel Kaplan, Utvareni Generalni Linie, Praha, 1966, pp. 37-9. 44. Ibid. 45. Ibid., p. 103. 46. Loebl, Op. c i t . , pp. 50-52. 47. Jozef Lenart, "About Some Problems i n the Development of Slovakia in Socialist Czechoslovakia", Nova mysi, XII:7 (1960), p. 749. 48. Kulturny zivot, August 31, 1963. 49. Kulturny zivot, March 11 and April 8, 1966. 50. Rude pravo, May 4, 1965. 51. Rude pravo, October 8 and 29, 1965. 52. Rude pravo, October 24, 1965. 53. Praca, October 24, 1965. 54. Pravda (Bratislava), October 9 and 26, November 2, 9, and 16, 1966. 55. Radio Prague, November 11, 1965. 132 F O O T N O T E S 56. See "A Discussion About the Czech-Slovak Relations" in Historicky  casopis, XV:4 (1967), pp. 559-62. 57. Ibid., pp. 565-7. 58. Rude pravo, March 2, 1966. 59. Rude pravo, May 24, 1967. 60. Cited i n Colin Chapman, August 21st:the Rape of Czechoslovakia, Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincot, 1968, p. 11.. 61. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Communist Manifesto (Introduction by Leon Trotsky), New York, Pithinder Press, 1970. 62. Joseph Stalin, Marxism and the National Question, New York, 1942, p. 38. 63. Rude pravo,>April 3, 1964. 64. Literarni noviny, January 18, 1964. 65. Kulturny zivot, May 1, 1964. 66. Kulturny zivot, January 2, 1965. Also see February 12 and March 19, 1965. 67. See "Disquieting Trends" in ZivOt strany 1 (1966), pp. 16-17. Also see Rude pravo, December 1 and 23, 1965. 68. "On Topical Questions of Party Guidance of the Press and Other Mass Media of Ideological Activity", Zivot strany, 18 (1966), pp. 1-4. 69. Rude pravo, June 5, 1966. 70. Sbirka zakonu, No. 8, 1966. 71. The Chairman of the Writers' Union, Professor Goldstuecker, announced the rescindment of the directives and the abrogation of the Press Law on Radio Prague on February 21, 1968. 72. Literarni l i s t y and other da i l i e s , June 27, 1968. 73. Literarni noviny, July 8, 1967. 74. Literarni l i s t y , June 27, 1968. 75. Elias Cicvak, "A Word to the "Two Thousand Words" in Hlas ludu, June 28, 1968. 76. Smena, Rude pravo, March 23, 1968. 133 F O O T N O T E S 77. Ar t i c l e 75 of the Party "Statutes adopted by the Twelfth Party Congress of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, places the CSM under the direct control of the party. 78. Zakladni Organizace Strany (The Basic Organizations of the Party), Prague, 1953, epsecially pp. 10-15. 79. Rude pravo, January 8, 1964. 80. The party ideological monthly Zivot strany published an research observing that about one half of a l l of the university students and working people between seventeen and twenty four were p o l i -t i c a l l y non-committed or rather neutral. See No. 6, 1966. 81. See his speech in Student, No. 4, 1966. 82. Smena, May 19, 1967. 83. CTK, November 9, 1967. 84. The 17 November i s set to commemorate the day when the Germans closed a l l Czech universities during the Czech Protectorate occupied by Hitler. 85. Rude pravo, December 15, 1967. 86. For details see Chapter II. 87. Otazky Marxistickej Filozofie, 18:1 (1963), pp. 82-8. 88. Pravny obzor, 49:3 (1966), pp. 213-223. 89. Ibid. 90. Svobodne slovo, A p r i l 4, 1966. 91. Ibid. 92. Mlynar, World Marxist Review, 12 (1965), pp. 60-63. 93. Obrana lid u , February 25, 1967. 94. Literarni noviny, January 7, 1967. 95. IV. Sjezd Ceskoslovenskych Spisovatelu, Praha, 1968, pp. 141-151. 96. Ibid. 97. B. J. Wolfe, Czechoslovakia and the Absolute Monopoly of Bower, 134 F O O T N O T E S Praeger, New York, 1971, p. 202. 98. Svedectvi, Vol X., No. 38/1970, pp. 171-88. 99. Reporter, June 12, 1968. (Chapters IV-VI) 1. See a personal account of the t r i a l by Eugen Loebl, Stalinism  in Prague, Op. c i t . 2. Ibid., pp. 295-318. 3. For a f u l l account of the whole Central Committee involvement in the t r i a l , see the Rude pravo of December 18, 1952. 4. Predvoj (Bratislava), January - A p r i l , 1968. 5. Foreign Affairs, 43:1 (1964), p. 322. 6. Kulturni noviny, March 29, 1968. 7. Rude pravo, February 10, 1963. 8. Kulturny zivot, May 5, 1967. 9. See Discussions at the IV. Sjezd Ceskoslovenskych Spisovatelu, Prague, 1968, pp. 141-51. 10. Kulturni noviny, March 29, 1968. 11. Brezhnev's reaction to Novotny was confirmed by some reliable members of the CC CPC, who took parti i n i t s meeting at the time. 12. Stated accorning to reliable sources i n the CC CPC. 13. Josef Smrkovsky, My 1968, V:4 (1968), pp. 5-8. 14. Communique of the CC CPC, Rude pravo, January 7, 1968. 15. There was a rumor that General Sejna had made an unsuccessful attempt to alleged plot to keep Novotny in power. CTK, February 27, 1968. Before the news broke, General Sejna l e f t for USA with a suitcase containing secret strategic plans on the Warsaw Pact countries evaluated on b i l l i o n s of dollars. 16. Rude pravo, April 11, 1968. 135 F O O T N O T E S 17. From the discussion between Cestmir Cisar and this writer during the f i r s t half of Apr i l , 1968. 18. See Svedectvi, Vol. IX, Nos. 34-36 (Winter, 1969), pp. 361-94. 19. V. I. Lenin, Works, Prague, 1955, Vol. 31, p. 18. 20. V. I. Lenin, Works, Prague, 1968, Vol. 42, p. 427. 21. Stanislav Jagerman, Demokratisky centralismus bez l i c i t a c i , Prague, 1971, p. 20. 22. Rude pravo, April 11, 1968. 23. For draft of the Statutes see Rude pravo, August 10, 1968. 24. Alexander Dubcek, Rude pravo, Ap r i l 2, 1968. 25. Ibid. 26. See Rude pravo, June 6, 1968. 27. Lewis Coser, Functions of Social Conflict, The Free Press, New York, 1971. 28. J. K. Galbraith, "The Role of the Military Power" in National  P r i o r i t i e s (Military, Economics, and Social, Public Affairs Press, Washington, D. C , 1969, p. 121. 29. 0. Pavlov in Mezhdunarodnaya Zhizn, Moscow, (October, 1968). 30. See the a r t i c l e by Sergei Kovalev, which reflects the o f f i c i a l view of the Soviet Union, Pravda, Moscow, September 26, 1968. 31. Alexander Dubcek i s known to have said on August 21, 1968, that the Soviet intervention had been a surprise to him. 136 B I B L I O G R A P H Y Action Program of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, Prague, April 5, 1968. Aptheker Herbert, Czechoslovakia and Counter-Revolution:Why the  Socialist Countries Intervened, New York,. 1969. Aspaturian, V., The Soviet Union and the World Communist System, Stanford University, 1966. Brzezinski, Zbigniew K., The Soviet Bloc:Unity and Conflict, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1967. Buzek, Anthony, How the Communist Press Works, London, 1964. Cakajda et a l . , Integrace mezi zemedelstvim a prumyslem, Prague, 1967. Cantril, Hadley, Soviet Leaders and the Mastery Over Man, The Rutgers University Press, New Brunnswick, N. J., 1960. Chalupa, V., Rise and Development of a Totalitarian State, Leidon, H. E. Stenfert Kroese N. V., 1959. Chapman, Colin, August 21st, the Rape of Czechoslovakia, Philadephia, J. B. Lippincot, 1968. The Constitution of Czechoslovakia, Prague, 1920, 1948, 1960. Coser, Lewis A., Functions of Social Conflict, The Free Press, s< New York ,1971. Coser, Lewis A., Continuities in the Study of Social Conflict, The Free Press, New York, 1967. CSSR:The Road to Democratic Socialism, Facts on Events From January  to May 1968, Prague, 1968. The Czech Black Book, Prepared by the Institute of History of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, ed. by Robert L i t t e l , New York, Praeger, 1969. Czechoslovakia and the Brezhnev Doctrine, Prepared by the Subcommittee on National Security and International Operations of the Committee on the Government Operations, US Senate, Washington, D. C , 1969. Czerwinski, E. J. and Piekalkiewicz, Jaroslav (eds.), The Soviet Invasion of Czechoslovakia:Its Effects on Eastern Europe, Praeger, New York, 1972. 137 B I B L I O G R A P H Y Dahl, Robert A., Polyarchy, Yale University Press, 1971. Dahl, Robert A., P o l i t i c a l Opposition in Western Democracies, Yale University Press, 1966. Dahrendorf, Ralph, Class and Class Conflict i n Industrial Society, Stanford University Press, Stanford, C a l i f . , 1959. Dahrendorf, Ralph, Gesselschaft und Freiheit, R. Piper & Co., Muenchen, 1961. Dejiny Komunisticke strany Ceskoslovenska, Vols. I-III., Prague, 1961, 1965, 1967. Dubcek, Alexander, K otazkam obrodzovacieho procesu v KSC (On Questions Concerning the Regeneration Process in the Commu-nist Party of Czechoslovakia), Bratislava, 1968. 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