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Effect of heat treatment on some nutrient characteristics of rapeseed meal Sadiq, Mohammad 1973

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THE E F F E C T OF HEAT TREATMENT ON SOME N U T R I E N T C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S OF R A P E S E E D MEAL BY MOHAMMAD SAD IQ B.V. S c . , B. S c . ( A . H . ) , P U N J A B U N I V E R S I T Y , L A H O R E , P A K I S T A N , 1 9 6 6 M . S c . ( H O N S . ) , W. PAK. A G R I C U L T U R A L U N I V E R S I T Y , L Y A L L P U R , P A K I S T A N , 1 9 6 8 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T OF THE R E Q U I R E M E N T S FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF S C I E N C E i N THE D E P A R T M E N T OF P O U L T R Y S C I E N C E WE A C C E P T T H I S T H E S I S AS CONFORMING TO THE R E Q U I R E D STANDARD THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A MARCH, 1 9 7 3 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission fo r extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date A B S T R A C T THE E F F E C T OF HEAT T R E A T M E N T ON THE P R O T E I N Q U A L I T Y AND THE M E T A B O L I Z A B L E E N E R G Y V A L U E OF R A P E S E E D MEAL WAS I N V E S T I G A T E D . D I F F E R E N T R A P E S E E D MEAL S A M P L E S WERE A U T O C L A V E D AT 1 2 1 ° C FOR D I F F E R E N T T I M E S . A S I G N I F I C A N T R E D U C T I O N (P < 0 . 0 5 ) IN THE J_N V ITRQ P R O T E I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y R E S U L T E D FROM THE A U T O C L A V I N G T R E A T M E N T . F U R T H E R R E D U C T I O N IN P R O T E I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y OCCURRED WHEN S A M P L E S WERE A U T O C L A V E D WITH G L U C O S E . POOR GROWTH AND F E E D E F F I C I E N C Y IN T H E C H I C K S WERE O B S E R V E D DUE TO F E E D I N G OF A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D MEAL R A T I O N . L Y S I N E S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N OF A U T O C L A V E D AND U N A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D MEAL IMPROVED GROWTH AND F E E D E F F I C I E N C Y . MAXIMUM GROWTH ON THE CONTROL R A T I O N WAS O B T A I N E D WITH 0 . 1 6 $ L Y S I N E S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N WHEREAS 0 . 2 4 $ M A X I M I Z E D T HE GROWTH OF C H I C K S ON A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D M E A L . NO S I G N I F I C A N T E F F E C T WAS O B S E R V E D ON L I V E R WEIGHT E X P R E S S E D AS P E R C E N T A G E OF BODY WEIGHT, HOWEVER, P A N C R E A S WEIGHT WAS S I G N I F I C A N T L Y G R E A T E R ( P - = 0 . 0 5 ) IN B I R D S R E C E I V I N G A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D MEAL THAN T HE C O N T R O L S . T H E R E WAS NO S I G N I F I C A N T D I F F E R E N C E IN M E T A B O L I Z A B L E E N E R G Y V A L U E OF A U T O C L A V E D AND U N A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D M E A L S . ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I WISH TO THANK P R O F E S S O R B. E . MARCH, D E P A R T M E N T OF P O U L T R Y S C I E N C E , T H E U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A , FOR S U G G E S T I N G T H E PROBLEM, S U P E R V I S I N G T H E WORK, I N T E R E S T AND C O N S T R U C T I V E C R I T I C I S M THROUGHOUT T H I S S T U D Y . S I N C E R E A P P R E C I A T I O N IS A L S O E X T E N D E D TO P R O F E S S O R J . B I E L Y AND DR. D. B. BRAGG, D E P A R T M E N T OF P O U L T R Y S C I E N C E FOR T H E I R E N T H U S I A S M AND E N C O U R A G E M E N T . MAY I A L S O E X P R E S S MY A P P R E C I A T I O N TO THE OTHER MEMBERS OF MY T H E S I S C O M M I T T E E : DR. W. D. K l T T S , CHAIRMAN, D E P A R T M E N T OF P O U L T R Y S C I E N C E , DR. C. R. K R I S H N A M U R T I , D E P A R T M E N T OF ANIMAL S C I E N C E AND DR. S. N A K A I , D E P A R T M E N T • O F FOOD S C I E N C E . T A B L E OF C O N T E N T S PAGE A CKNOWLEDGEMENT I I L I S T OF T A B D E S i v L I S T OF F I G U R E S v i L I S T OF A P P E N D I X T A B L E S v i i I N T R O D U C T I O N 1 R E V I E W OF L I T E R A T U R E 4 I . P E P S I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y ':-4 I I . E F F E C T OF HEAT ( A U T O C L A V I NG ) 6 I I I . M E T A B O L i Z A B L E E N E R G Y 11 M A T E R I A L S AND METHODS 13 I . P E P S I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y 13 I I . C H I C K GROWTH S T U D Y 14 I I I . M E T A B O L i Z A B L E E N E R G Y 16 R E S U L T S 19 E X P E R I M E N T I . P E P S I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y '1.9 E X P E R I M E N T I I . GROWTH S T U D I E S 2 4 L I V E R AND PA N C R E A S WEIGHTS 2 7 E X P E R I M E N T I I I . M E T A B O L I Z A B L E E N E R G Y 32 M O R T A L I T Y 32 D I S C U S S I O N 3 5 SUMMARY 4 0 R E F E R E N C E S 4 2 A P P E N D I X 47 L I S T OF T A B L E S T A B L E P A G E 1 . C O M P O S I T I O N OF E X P E R I MENTAL- I D iRE>TS . 15 2 . C O M P O S I T I O N OF B A S A L D I E T 17 3 . E F F E C T OF D U R A T I O N OF A U T O C L A V I N G ON P R O T E I N D I G E S T I B I -L I T Y OF R A P E S E E D MEAL ( L A B O R A T O R Y P R E P A R A T I O N E X P E R I M E N T I , PART A) 2 0 4 . I N F L U E N C E OF A U T O C L A V I N G WITH AND WITHOUT G L U C O S E ON P R O T E I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y OF R A P E S E E D M E A L S ( E X P E R I M E N T I , PART B) 21 5 . I N F L U E N C E OF A U T O C L A V I N G WITH AND WITHOUT G L U C O S E ON P R O T E I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y OF R A P E S E E D M E A L S ( E X P E R I M E N T I, PART B) 22 6 . E F F E C T OF A U T O C L A V I N G ON P R O T E I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y OF A C O M P O S I T E S A M P L E OF COMMERCIAL R A P E S E E D MEAL ( E X P E R I M E N T I , PART C ) 2 3 7 . A V E R A G E W E I G H T G A I N AND F E E D E F F I C I E N C Y OF C H I C K S FED A C O M P O S I T E S A M P L E OF COMMERCIAL R A P E S E E D M E A L S S U P P L Y I N G 4 $ P R O T E I N IN A^IWHEAT-BASED R A T I O N OF 1 5 $ . P R O T E I N ( E X P E R I M E N T I I ) 2 5 8 . A V E R A G E W E I G H T G A I N OF C H I C K S FED A C O M P O S I T E S A M P L E OF C O M M E R C I A L R A P E S E E D M E A L S ( C O N T R O L AND A U T O C L A V E D ) FOR A FOUR-WEEK P E R I O D ( E X P E R I M E N T l l ) 2 6 9 . A V E R A G E F E E D E F F I C I E N C Y OF C H I C K S FED A C O M P O S I T E S A M P L E OF C O M M E R C I A L R A P E S E E D M E A L S ( C O N T R O L AND A U T O C L A V E D ) FOR A FOUR-WEEK P E R I O D ( E X P E R I M E N T l l ) 2 9 1 0 . A V E R A G E L I V E R AND P A N C R E A S WEIGHTS OF C H I C K S FED A C O M P O S I T E S A M P L E OF COMMERCIAL R A P E S E E D M E A L S S U P P L Y I N G 4 $ P R O T E I N IN A W H E A T - B A S E D R A T I O N OF 1 5 $ P R O T E I N ( E X P E R I MENT I I ) 3 0 1 1 . A V E R A G E L I V E R WEIGHTS OF C H I C K S FED A C O M P O S I T E S A M P L E OF COMMERCIAL R A P E S E E D M E A L S S U P P L Y I N G 4 $ P R O T E I N IN A W H E A T - B A S E D R A T I O N OF 1 5 . 0 $ P R O T E I N ( E X P E R I M E N T l l ) . . 31 i v T A B L E P A G E 1 2 . A V E R A G E P A N C R E A S WEIGHTS OF C H I C K S FED A C O M P O S I T E S A M P L E OF C O M M E R C I A L R A P E S E E D M E A L S S U P P L Y I N G 4% P R O T E I N IN A W H E A T - B A S E D R A T I O N OF 1 5 . 0 $ P R O T E I N !(:EXPER I ME NT l l ) 3 3 1 3 . T H E M E T A B O L I Z A B L E E N E R G Y OF U N A U T O C L A V E D AND A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D M E A L S WITH THREE-WEEK OLD C H I C K S ( E X P E R I M E N T I I I ) 3 4 v L I S T OF F I G U R E S F I G U R E PAGE 1 . E F F E C T OF S U P P L E M E N T A L L Y S I N E ON BODY W E I G H T G A I N OF C H I C K S FED A U T O C L A V E D AND U N A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D M E A L S D U R I N G FOUR-WEEK P E R I O D 28 VI L I S T OF A P P E N D I X T A B L E S T A B L E PAGE 1 ( A ) . A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E FOR T H E P R O T E I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y OF R A P E S E E D MEAL ( L A B O R A T O R Y P R E P A R A T I O N , E X P E R I M E N T I , PART A ) 4 8 2 ( A ) . A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E FOR T H E P R O T E I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y OF R A P E S E E D M E A L S A U T O C L A V E D WITH AND WITHOUT G L U C O S E ( E X P E R I M E N T I,- PART B) 4 9 3 ( A ) . A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E FOR THE P R O T E I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y OF A C O M P O S I T E S A M P L E OF C O M M E R C I A L R A P E S E E D MEAL ( E X P E R I M E N T I, PART C ) 5 0 4 ( A ) . A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E FOR W E I G H T G A I N OF C H I C K S FED A C O M B O S I T E S A M P L E OF COMMERCIAL R A P E S E E D M E A L S S U P P L Y I N G 4 $ P R O T E I N IN A W H E A T - B A S E D R A T I O N OF 1 5 . 0 $ P R O T E I N ( E X P E R I M E N T l l ) 51 5 ( A ) . A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E FOR F E E D E F F I C I E N C Y OF C H I C K S FED A C O M P O S I T E S A M P L E OF COMMERCIAL R A P E S E E D M E A L S S U P P L Y I N G 4 $ P R O T E I N IN A W H E A T - B A S E D R A T I O N OF 1 5 . 0 $ P R O T E I N ( E X P E R I M E N T l l ) 52 6 ( A ) . A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E FOR W E I G H T G A I N OF C H I C K S F E D A C O M P O S I T E S A M P L E OF C O M M E R C I A L R A P E S E E D M E A L S ( C O N T R O L AND A U T O C L A V E D ) FOR A FOUR-WEEK P E R I O D ( E X P E R I MENT I I ) 5 3 7 ( A ) . A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E FOR F E E D E F F I C I E N C Y OF C H I C K S F E D A C O M P O S I T E S A M P L E OF COMMERCIAL R A P E S E E D M E A L S ( C O N T R O L AND A U T O C L A V E D ) FOR A FOUR-WEEK P E R I O D ( E X P E R I M E N T I I ) 5 4 8 ( A ) . A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E FOR L I V E R WEIGHTS OF C H I C K S FED A C O M P O S I T E S A M P L E OF C O M M E R C I A L R A P E S E E D M E A L S S U P P L Y I N G 4 $ P R O T E I N IN A W H E A T - B A S E D R A T I O N OF 1 5 . 0 $ P R O T E I N ( E X P E R I M E N T l l ) 5 5 9 ( A ) . A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E FOR P A N C R E A S WEIGHTS OF C H I C K S FED A C O M P O S I T E S A M P L E OF C O M M E R C I A L R A P E S E E D M E A L S S U P P L Y I N G 4 $ P R O T E I N IN A W H E A T - B A S E D R A T I O N OF 1 5 . 0 $ P R O T E I N ( E X P E R I M E N T l l ) 56 v I I T A B L E PAGE 1 0 ( A ) . A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E FOR L I V E R WEIGHTS OF C H I C K S FED A C O M P O S I T E S A M P L E OF C O M M E R C I A L R A P E S E E D M E A L S S U P P L Y I N G 4$ P R O T E I N IN A W H E A T - B A S E D R A T I O N OF 1 5 . 0 $ P R O T E I N ( E X P E R I M E N T l l ) 5 7 1 1 ( A ) . A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E FOR P A N C R E A S WEIGHTS OF C H I C K S F E D A C O M P O S I T E S A M P L E OF COMMERCIAL R A P E S E E D M E A L S S U P P L Y I N G 4 $ P R O T E I N IN A W H E A T - B A S E D R A T I O N OF 1 5 . 0 $ P R O T E I N ( E X P E R I M E N T l l ) 5 8 1 2 ( A ) . A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E FOR THE M E T A B O L I Z A B L E E N E R G Y V A L U E S OF U N A U T O C L A V E D AND A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D M E A L S ( E X P E R I M E N T I I I ) 5 9 V I I I INTRODUCTION AS THE D I S C R E P A N C Y B E T W E E N T H E WORLD'S S U P P L Y OF P R O T E I N AND GROWTH OF THE G L O B A L P O P U L A T I O N C O N T I N U E S TO WIDEN, THE D I S C O V E R Y OF WAYS AND MEANS OF F I L L I N G T H I S GAP HAS BECOME A MATTER OF THE UTMOST URGENCY. IN ORDER TO M E E T T H I S DEMAND, T H E IMMEDIATE E X P A N S I O N OF ANIMAL P R O D U C T I O N , U S I N G THE MOST E C O N O M I C A L METHODS IS E S S E N T I A L , THE RATE AT WHICH P O U L T R Y PRODUCTS CAN BE PRODUCED, P R O V I D E S AN E X C E L L E N T MEANS OF M E E T I N G A L A R G E PART OF T H E WORLD P R O T E I N REQUIRE:-; M ENTS. B I R D S ARE C A P A B L E OF E F F I C I E N T L Y U T I L I Z I N G P L A N T P R O T E I N S IN THE P R O D U C T I O N OF HIGH Q U A L I T Y P R O T E I N S , I . E . - MEAT AND E G G S . P O U L T R Y MEAT IS LOW IN F A T AND EGGS ARE A " P E R F E C T " HUMAN FOOD. R A P E S E E D IS A GOOD S O U R C E OF P L A N T P R O T E I N THAT CAN BE PRODUCED UNDER C L I M A T I C C O N D I T I O N S U N F A V O U R A B L E TO S O Y B E A N P R O D U C T I O N . |T IS CANADA'S MOST V A L U A B L E O I L S E E D CROP AND IS R E F E R R E D TO, BY SOME O B S E R V E R S , T H E COUNTRY'S C I N D E R E L L A CROP. TWO IMPORTANT PRODUCTS OF R A P E S E E D ARE O I L AND M E A L . THE O I L IS THE PRIMARY PRODUCT ( 3 8 - 4 4 $ OF T H E S E E D ) AND IS USED AS AN E D I B L E O I L AND FOR I N D U S T R I A L P U R P O S E S ( W E T T E R , 1 9 6 5 ) . THE MEAL, A B Y - P R O D U C T OF O I L E X T R A C T I O N , IS A GOOD S O U R C E OF P R O T E I N C O N T A I N I N G A P P R O X I M A T E L Y 3 6 $ P R O T E I N (N X 6 . 2 5 ) ( C L A N D I NI N _ET _AL . , 1 9 7 2 ) AND IS S U I T A B L E FOR L I V E S T O C K AND P O U L T R Y F E E D I N G . A L T H O U G H I T S USE IN R A T I O N S HAS I N C R E A S E D , THE PRODUCT HAS NOT B E E N C O M P L E T E L Y A C C E P T E D BY T H E F E E D I N D U S T R Y . THE P R E S E N C E OF T O X I C COMPOUNDS AND THE H I G H F I B E R C O N T E N T 1 ARE AMONG T H E F A C T O R S L I M I T I N G I T S U S E . R A P E S E E D MEAL C O N T A I N S C H E M I C A L COMPOUNDS C A L L E D G L U C O S I N O L A T E S , WHICH, UPON H Y D R O L Y S I S BY AN E N Z Y M E , M Y R O S I N A S E , NORMALLY P R E S E N T IN U N H E A T E D S E E D , Y I E L D G O I T R O G E N I C S U B S T A N C E S V I Z . I S O T H I O C Y N A T E S AND O X A Z O L I D I NETH I ONE ( A s TWOOD _ET _AL ., 1 9 4 9 ; C A R R O L L , 1 9 4 9 ; WETTER, 1 9 6 5 ) . WHEN T H I S MEAL IS FED TO A N I M A L S AS T H E MAIN S O U R C E OF P R O T E I N , I T C A U S E S T H Y R O I D E N L A R G E M E N T ("TURNER, 1 9 4 6 ; B L A K E L Y AND ANDERSON, 1 9 4 8 ; KL A i N _ET _AJ_ ., 1 9 5 6 ; C L A N D I N I N AND B A Y L Y , 1 9 6 0 ; MATSUMOTO _ET .AL. ., 1 9 6 8 ) AND D E P R E S S E S GROWTH RATE ( W I T Z _E_T AJ_ . , 1 9 5 0 ; KR A TZ E R _ET _AL . , 1 9 5 4 ; CLAND I N I N _ET _AL . , 1 9 6 6 ) . MOST P R O T E I N F E E D S T U F F S USED AS S U P P L E M E N T A R Y S O U R C E S OF E S S E N T I A L AMINO A C I D S IN P O U L T R Y D I E T S HAVE UNDERGONE SOME P R O C E S S I N G P R I O R TO U S E . P L A N T S O U R C E S OF P R O T E I N U S U A L L Y UNDERGO O I L E X T R A C T I O N AND HEAT T R E A T M E N T FOR D E S T R U C T I O N OF T O X I C COMPOUNDS ( S C O T T E T A L . , 1 9 6 9 ) . T H I S I N D U S T R I A L P R O C E S S I N G C A U S E S CHANGES IN THE V A R I O U S NATURAL P R O P E R T I E S OF THE PRODUCT. THE CHANGES MAY BE E I T H E R B E N E F I C I A L OR HARMFUL. T H E S T R O N G E R AND LONGER T H E P R O C E S S I N G A C T I O N , THE G R E A T E R WILL BE T H E C H A N G E S . THERMAL P R O C E S S E S ARE AMONG T H E IMPORTANT F A C T O R S I N F L U E N C I N G T H E Q U A L I T Y OF THE P R O D U C T S . U N L E S S P R O P E R L Y A P P L I E D , T H E S E P R O C E S S I N G C O N D I T I O N S MAY DAMAGE P R O T E I N Q U A L I T Y . FOR S E V E R A L R E A S O N S , G L U C O S I N O L A T E S ARE OF P A R T I C U L A R I N T E R E S T IN T HE P R O C E S S I N G OF R A P E S E E D M E A L S . I T IS IMPORTANT T O P R E V E N T T H E F O R M A T I O N OF U N D E S I R A B L E P R O D U C T S , O X A Z O L I D I N E T H I ONE AND I S O T H I O C Y N A T E S FROM G L U C O S I N O L A T E S AND T H I S O B J E C T IS A C H I E V E D BY H E A T I N G TO D E S T R O Y M Y R O S I N A S E , THE ENZYME R E S P O N S I B L E FOR H Y D R O L Y S I S . P R O C E S S I N G AND A U T O C L A V I N G ARE I N E V I T A B L Y A C C O M P A N I E D BY CHANGES WHICH ARE F R E Q U E N T L Y D E T R I M E N T A L TO P R O T E I N , THE MOST V A L U A B L E COMPONENTS OF THE M E A L . CARE MUST BE T A K E N THAT THE T E M P E R A T U R E S USED IN T H E P R O C E S S I N G DO NOT R E S U L T IN THE C O M P L E X I N G OF P R O T E I N M O L E C U L E S TO 0O7HER COMPOUNDS WITH E V E N T U A L R E D U C T I O N IN T H E N U T R I T I O N A L A V A I L A B I L I T Y OF AMINO A C I D S , E S P E C I A L L Y L Y S I N E . S E V E R A L T Y P E S OF P R O T E I N ARE S U S C E P T I B L E TO HEAT I N J U R Y AT V A R Y I N G D E G R E E S OF T E M P E R A T U R E AND T I M E OF E X P O S U R E . THERE ARE I N D I C A T I O N S THAT THE MECHANISM IS R E L A T E D IN SOME WAY TO I N T E R A C T I O N S OF AMINO A C I D S WITH N O N - P R O T E I N COMPOUNDS (CH I CK _ET _AL . , 1 9 3 5 ) . A NON-E NZ YMAT I C BROWNING R E A C T I O N , AS A P O S S I B L E C A U S E OF H E A T I N J U R Y , WAS F I R S T D E S C R I B E D BY M A I L L A R D IN 1 9 1 2 . T H I S R E A C T I O N IS AN I N T E R A C T I O N BETWEEN AMINO A C I D S AND R E D U C I N G SUGARS UNDER T H E I N F L U E N C E OF M O I S T H E A T . T H E P R E S E N T S T U D Y WAS D E S I G N E D TO D E T E R M I N E THE E F F E C T OF HEAT T R E A T M E N T ON SOME N U T R I E N T C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S OF R A P E S E E D M E A L . R E V I E W OF L I T E R A T U R E I . P E P S I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y D I G E S T I B I L I T Y OF P R O T E I N IS ONE OF THE D E T E R M I N I N G F A C T O R S IN THE N U T R I T I O N A L V A L U E OF F E E D S T U F F S . A LMQ U I S T _ET AJ_ . ( 1 9 3 5 ) R E P O R T E D THAT I N V ITRO T E S T S FOR I N D I G E S T I B L E ANIMAL P R O T E I N GAVE R E S U L T S WHICH AGREED C L O S E L Y WITH B I O L O G I C A L T E S T S . |N OTHER WORDS, A R T I F I C I A L AND NATURAL D I G E S T I O N OF P R O T E I N Y I E L D E D C O M P A R A B L E R E S U L T S WHEN T H E L A T T E R WAS COMPUTED ON THE B A S I S OF T H E P E P S I N - I N S O L U B L E N I T R O G E N IN T HE F A E C E S . A LMQ U I S T _ET _AL . ASSUMED, T H E R E F O R E , THAT THE P O R T I O N OF THE ANIMAL P R O T E I N C O N C E N T R A T E NOT D I S S O L V E D BY PROLONGED T R E A T M E N T WITH P E B S I N AT OPTIMUM C O N D I T I O N S FOR T H I S ENZYME WAS OF N E G L I G I B L E N U T R I T I V E V A L U E . W H I L E S T U D Y I N G F E E D S T U F F Q U A L I T Y , G E H R T _ E T _ A L . ( 1 9 5 5 ) OF T H E MOORMAN M A N U F A C T U R I N G COMPANY D E V E L O P E D A P E P S I N - D I G E S T I O N PROCEDURE FOR D E T E R M I N I N G T H E R E L A T I V E D I G E S T I B I L I T Y OF F E E D S T U F F S OF ANIMAL O R I G I N . A L T H O U G H THE METHOD D E S C R I B E D DID NOT D U P L I C A T E E X A C T L Y THE D I G E S T I V E P R O C E S S E S , AS T H E Y OCCURRED IN THE ANIMAL BODY, THE METHOD PROVED TO BE MOST V A L U A B L E IN D E T E R M I N I N G THE P E R C E N T A G E OF U N D E S I R A B L E C O N S T I T U E N T S IN COMMERCIAL MEAT S C R A P . H E A T IN E X C E S S OF THAT R E Q U I R E D FOR P R O D U C T I O N OF A S T E R I L E AND S T A B L E PRODUCT OR O V E R - H E A T I N G D U R I N G T H E G R I N D I N G O P E R A T I O N M I G H T REDUCE T H E N U T R I T I V E V A L U E OF THE PRODUCT, TWO YEARS L A T E R THE SAME GROUP OF WORKERS C O N C L U D E D THAT D E T E R M I N A T I O N OF P E P S I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y HAD B E E N OF P R A C T I C A L V A L U E IN THE E S T I M A T I O N OF ANIMAL P R O T E I N (GE H R T _ET _AL . , 1 9 5 7 ) . T H E Y RECOMMENDED THAT IN MANY 5 C A S E S T H E 1 6 - H O U R - D I G E S T I O N WOULD BE AN AD V A N T A G E IN S C H E D U L I N G T H E A N A L Y S I S T I M E , A L T H O U G H A LONGER ( 4 0 HOUR) I N C U B A T I O N P E R I O D WOULD ALLOW FOR MORE C O M P L E T E D I G E S T I O N OF B O R D E R L I N E P R O D U C T S . THEY A L S O R E P O R T E D THAT P E P S I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y OF ANIMAL P R O T E I N F E E D S T U F F S WAS NOT A C O M P L E T E MEASURE OF N U T R I T I O N A L V A L U E S I N C E I T DID NOT D E T E R M I N E T H E I N H E R E N T Q U A L I T Y ( A M I N O A C I D P A T T E R N ) OF THE D I G E S T I B L E P R O T E I N . WORKING AS A R E F E R E E ON AN O F F I C I A L A. 0. A . C. C O L L A B O R A T I V E S T U D Y ON T H E S U B J E C T OF D I G E S T I B I L I T Y OF P R O T E I N E L M S L I E ( 1 9 5 8 ) R E P O R T E D C H E M I C A L METHODS FOR THE D E T E R M I N A T I O N OF D I G E S T I B I L I T Y OF ANIMAL P R O T E I N F E E D S T U F F S . L I M I T E D AMOUNT OF IN V I V O DATA WITH RATS AS THE T E S T ANIMAL I N D I C A T E D THAT T H E P E R C E N T A G E OF D I G E S T I B L E P R O T E I N FROM F E A T H E R MEAL AS MEASURED BY THE P E P S I N - D I G E S T I ON METHOD WAS C L O S E TO THE T R U E B I O L O G I C A L V A L U E . E L M S L I E ' s PROCEDURE B R I E F L Y I N V O L V E D D E F A T T I N G A ONE GRAM S A M P L E AND D I G E S T I N G I T WITH 1 5 0 ML OF A S O L U T I O N C O N T A I N I N G 0.2% P E P S I N ( 1 : 1 0 , 0 0 0 ) IN 0 . 0 7 5 N HCL AT 4 5 ° C FOR 1 6 HOURS UNDER C O N S T A N T A G I T A T I O N . AT THE END OF D I G E S T I O N P E R I O D , T H E I N S O L U B L E R E S I D U E WAS S I M P L Y F I L T E R E D WITH F I L T E R A I D AND A N A L Y Z E D FOR P R O T E I N . E L M S L I E ' S R E S U L T S ( E L M S L I E , 1 9 5 9 ) A P P E A R E D TO CONFIRM T H E WORK OF GEHRT _ET _AL. ( 1 9 5 7 ) AND I N D I C A T E D THAT T H E A C C U R A C Y AND R E P R O D U C I B I L I T Y OF THE METHOD SHOULD BE A C C E P T A B L E TO F E E D L A B O R A T O R I E S FOR D E T E R M I N I N G T H E I N D I G E S T I B L E M A T E R I A L IN ANIMAL P R O T E I N S T U F F S . R E S U L T S OF A C O L L A B O R A T I V E S T U D Y R E P O R T E D BY E L M S L I E ( 1 9 6 0 ) WERE IN GOOD A G R E E M E N T WITH T H E WORK R E P O R T E D E A R L I E R BY E L M S L I E ( 1 9 5 8 ) . |T WAS RECOMMENDED THAT T HE METHOD FOR D E T E R M I N I N G D I G E S T I B I L I T Y OF ANIMAL P R O T E I N BY U S I N G P E P S I N BE ADOPTED AS O F F I C I A L . C U R R E N T L Y P E P S I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y IS A STANDARD T E C H N I Q U E ( A . 0. A. C. 1 9 7 0 ) USED FOR E S T I M A T I N G P R O T E I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y FROM F E E D S T U F F S _I_N V I TRO . I I . E F F E C T OF H E A T ( A U T O C L A V I N G ) V E G E T A B L E P R O T E I N M E A L S ARE O B T A I N E D A F T E R E X T R A C T I O N OF O I L FROM T H E S E E D , A P R O C E S S G E N E R A L L Y I N V O L V I N G A H E A T T R E A T M E N T . H E A T P A R T I A L L Y D E N A T U R E S T H E P R O T E I N AND RENDERS I T MORE R E A D I L Y A S S I M I L A B L E BY A N I M A L S S I N C E A L A R G E S U R F A C E A R E A IS E X P O S E D FOR E N Z Y M A T I C A C T I O N (YOUNGS _ET .AL., 1 9 7 2 ) . E X C E S S OR PROLONGED H E A T I N G , HOWEVER, R E S U L T S IN E X T E N S I V E D E N A T U R A T I O N OF P R O T E I N AND T H E DAMAGING E F F E C T OF HEAT ON AMINO A C I D S HAS B E E N R E P O R T E D IN THE P R O C E S S I N G OF OTHER O I L S E E D S I N C L U D I N G S O Y B E A N ( R I ES E N _ET _AL . , 1 9 4 7 ; E V A N S AND B U T T S , 1 9 4 8 ) , SUNFLOWER ( C L A N D I N I N AND R O B B L E E , 1 9 5 0 ; A L E X A N D E R AND H I L L , 1 9 5 2 ; RENNER _ET _AL . , 1 9 5 3 ) , C O T T O N S E E D (C ON K E R TON _ET _AL . , 1 9 5 7 ) , P E A N U T S ( B E N S A B A T _ET _AL., 1 9 5 8 ) , MUSTARD S E E D (MCGHEE _ET .AL., 1 9 6 4 ) AND R A P E S E E D MEAL ( C L A N D I N I N AND T A J C N A R , 1 9 6 1 ) . SOME DAMAGE OR D E S T R U C T I O N OF L Y S I N E , WHEN R A P E S E E D IS E X P O S E D TO H I G H T E M P E R A T U R E M I G H T BE E X P E C T E D IN VIEW OF THE L O S S OF L Y S I N E WHICH H A S 3 B E E N SHOWN TO R E S U L T FROM PROLONGED H E A T I N G OF OTHER O I L S E E D S . M C C O L L U M AND D A V I S ( 1 9 1 5 ) R E P O R T E D A L O S S OF N U T R I T I V E V A L U E IN C A S E I N A U T O C L A V E D FOR ONE HOUR AT 1 5 L B . P R E S S U R E AND SHOWED THAT T H I S L O S S WAS DUE TO CHANGES IN T H E P R O T E I N F R A C T I O N . E V A N S AND B U T T S ( 1 9 4 8 ) FOUND THAT FOUR HOURS A U T O C L A V I N G OF A COMMERCIAL S O L V E N T E X T R A C T E D S O Y B E A N MEAL R E S U L T E D IN A L O S S OF 4 3 $ OF THE L Y S I N E WHEN MEASURED BY A C I D H Y D R O L Y S I S AND 6 1 $ WHEN ENZYME H Y D R O L Y S I S WAS E M P L O Y E D . C L A N D I N I N AND R O B B L E E ( 1 9 5 0 ) S T U D I E D T H E V A R I A B I L I T Y IN F E E D I N G Q U A L I T Y OF SUNFLOWER O I L MEAL AND THE S I G N I F I C A N C E OF P R O C E S S I N G T E M P E R A T U R E S IN R E L A T I O N TO THE N U T R I T I V E V A L U E OF T H E R E S U L T A N T M E A L S . R E S U L T S OF THE S T U D Y S U G G E S T E D THAT T H E G R E A T E R V A R I A B I L I T Y NOTED IN THE N U T R I T I V E V A L U E OF D I F F E R E N T S A M P L E S OF C O M M E R C I A L MEALS WAS C A U S E D BY E X C E S S I V E P R O C E S S I N G T E M P E R A T U R E S , A U T O C L A V I N G AT 1 5 L B . P R E S S U R E AND DRY H E A T I N G AT 1 2 1 ° C D E S T R O Y E D A L A R G E P O R T I O N OF THE L Y S I N E IN THE SUNFLOWER O I L MEAL ( A L E X A N D E R AND H I L L , 1 9 5 2 ) . T H E S E F I N D I N G S S U P P O R T E D T H E C O N C L U S I O N THAT D E S T R U C T I O N OF L Y S I N E D U R I N G P R O C E S S I N G WAS P R O B A B L Y THE MAIN REASON FOR THE POOR N U T R I T I O N A L V A L U E OF C H I C K D I E T S C O N T A I N I N G COMMERCIAL E X P E L L E R -P R O C E S S E D SUNFLOWER O I L M E A L . H I GH P R O C E S S I N G T E M P E R A T U R E WAS A L S O R E P O R T E D TO A D V E R S E L Y A F F E C T T H E N U T R I T I V E V A L U E OF SUNFLOWER O I L MEAL FOR C H I C K S (MORR I SON _E_T _AL . , 1 9 5 3 ) . H A L E N Y AND G U G G E N H E I M ( 1 9 5 3 ) D E M O N S T R A T E D THAT A U T O C L A V I N G OF G L U T E N IN THE P R E S E N C E OF G L U C O S E R E S U L T S IN A C O N S I D E R A B L E I M P A I R M E N T OF I T S N U T R I T I V E V A L U E . T H I S E F F E C T S E E M E D TO BE DUE TO A D I M I N I S H E D E N Z Y M A T I C L I B E R A T I O N OF THE C O N S T I T U E N T E S S E N T I A L AMINO A C I D S AND THUS TO A D E C R E A S E IN THE A V A I L A B I L I T Y OF T H E S E AMINO A C I D S . A R G I N I N E AND L Y S I N E A P P E A R E D TO BE THE AMINO A C I D S MOST S E V E R E L Y A F F E C T E D . THE L O S S AMOUNTED TO 8 3 $ FOR A R G I N I N E AND TO 5 0 $ FOR L Y S I N E . THE AUTHORS F U R T H E R R E P O R T E D THAT A U T O C L A V I N G G L U T E N WITH G L U C O S E REDUCED I T S D I G E S T I B I L I T Y AS WELL AS IT S B I O L O G I C A L V A L U E FOR R A T S . S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N OF T H E C O M P L E X WITH L Y S I N E OR WITH L Y S I N E AND A R G I N I N E , R E S T O R E D T H E B I O L O G I C A L V A L U E TO THAT OF G L U T E N H E A T E D WITHOUT G L U C O S E . RENNER _ET _AL. ( 1 9 5 3 ) R E P O R T E D THAT A U T O C L A V I N G A COMMERCIAL S A M P L E OF SUNFLOWER S E E D MEAL FOR FOUR HOURS AT 1 5 L B . S T E A M P R E S S U R E R E S U L T E D IN A D E C R E A S E OF 4 0 $ IN L Y S I N E , 2 7 $ IN A R G I N I N E AND 2 1 $ IN T R Y P T O P H A N AS D E T E R M I N E D A F T E R A C I D H Y D R O L Y S I S . T H E S E AUTHORS R E P O R T E D THAT AN I N C R E A S E FROM 9 3 TO 1 1 6 C IN T HE C O N D I T I O N E R D U R I N G COMMERCIAL P R O C E S S I N G OF SUNFLOWER S E E D R E S U L T E D IN A D E C R E A S E OF 1 5 $ IN THE L Y S I N E C O N T E N T OF T H E M E A L , C O N K E R T O N _ET _AL . ( 1 9 5 7 ) C O N C L U D E D FROM A S T U D Y WITH C O T T O N S E E D MEAL THAT A L A R G E P O R T I O N OF THE L Y S I N E P R E S E N T IN T H E MEAL, AS WELL AS A P O R T I O N OF T H E A R G I N I N E WAS D E S T R O Y E D BY A U T O C L A V I N G FOR TWO HOURS. GRAY _ET _AL. ( 1 9 5 7 ) R E P O R T E D THAT A U T O C L A V I N G R A P E S E E D AT 1 5 L B . P R E S S U R E D E S T R O Y E D A C O N S I D E R A B L E P R O P O R T I O N OF THE L Y S I N E C O N T E N T , THE A U T O C L A V I N G A F F E C T E D T R Y P T O P H A N AND T Y R O S I N E ONLY S L I G H T L Y AND AN I N D I R E C T E V I D E N C E WAS O B T A I N E D THAT OTHER E S S E N T I A L AMINO A C I D S WERE A L S O R E L A T I V E L Y S T A B L E TO HEAT T R E A T M E N T . A C H I C K GROWTH T E S T A L S O S U P P O R T E D T H E M I C R 0 - B I O L O G I C A L E V I D E N C E FOR THE D E S T R U C T I O N OF L Y S I N E BY A U T O C L A V I N G . GROWTH S T U D I E S , HOWEVER, SHOWED THAT A U T O C L A V I N G IMPROVED THE N U T R I T I O N A L V A L U E OF A R G E N T I N E R A P E S E E D I N D E P E N D E N T L Y OF T H E A D V E R S E E F F E C T OF SUCH H E A T I N G ON T H E L Y S I N E C O N T E N T OF THE S E E D . U S I N G A N A L Y S I S FOR THE E P S I L O N AMINO GROUP OF L Y S I N E AS AN INDEX OF P R O T E I N DAMAGE BE NS A B A T _ET _AL . ( 1 9 5 8 ) FOUND THAT P E A N U T C O T Y L E D O N S S U B J E C T E D TO THE T E M P E R A T U R E S ( 2 4 8 - 2 5 0 ° F ) FOR THE TWO HOUR P E R I O D OF T I M E SHOWED T H E D E C R E A S E IN T H E V A L U E FOR L Y S I N E . THE V A L U E D E C R E A S E D FROM 3 . 4 G L Y S I N E / 1 6 G N FOR U N T R E A T E D C O T Y L E D O N S TO 1 . 9 G / 1 6 G N A F T E R A TWO HOUR C O O K I N G O P E R A T I O N . HOWEVER, THE V A L U E D E C R E A S E D TO ONLY 2 . 8 GRAMS OF L Y S I N E / 1 6 GRAMS OF N I T R O G E N IN THE MEAL WHEN THE C O O K I N G WAS AT A LOWER T E M P E R A T U R E ( 2 3 2 - 2 3 4 ° F ) AND L I M I T E D TO ONE HOUR. CL A N D I N I N _ET .AL . (1 9 5 9 ) R E P O R T E D THAT THE USE OF HIGH P R O C E S S I N G T E M P E R A T U R E S D U R I N G E X P E L L E R E X T R A C T I O N OF R A P E S E E D A D V E R S E L Y A F F E C T E D T H E N U T R I T I V E V A L U E OF R A P E S E E D MEAL FOR P O U L T R Y . THE MAIN E F F E C T OF E X C E S S I V E HEAT T R E A T M E N T A P P E A R E D TO BE A R E D U C T I O N IN THE L Y S I N E C O N T E N T OP THE M E A L . B L A I Z O T ( 1 9 5 9 ) C O N C L U D E D THAT THE H I G H E R T H E T E M P E R A T U R E USED D U R I N G P R O C E S S I N G AND E S P E C I A L L Y D U R I N G C O O K I N G , THE LOWER WAS THE N U T R I T I O N A L V A L U E OF THE MEAL AND A S C R I B E D THE LOWER N U T R I T I O N A L V A L U E OF THE MEAL DUE TO A D E C R E A S E IN A V A I L A B L E L Y S I N E , C L A N D I N I N AND T A J C N A R ( 1 9 6 1 ) O B S E R V E D THAT T H E R E WAS A N E G A T I V E C O R R E L A T I O N B E T W E E N T H E L Y S I N E C O N T E N T OF THE MEAL AND THE T E M P E R A T U R E AT WHICH I T WAS P R O C E S S E D . T H E Y D E T E R M I N E D THE L Y S I N E C O N T E N T OF A NUMBER OF E X P E L L E R - P R O C E S S E D R A P E S E E D M E A L S FOR WHICH THE P R O C E S S I N G T E M P E R A T U R E S WERE R E C O R D E D . A D E C R E A S E IN T H E T E M P E R A T U R E OF T H E COOKER AND C O N D I T I O N E R R E S U L T E D IN AN A P P A R E N T L Y S M A L L E R R E D U C T I O N IN THE L Y S I N E C O N T E N T OF T H E MEAL AND I T WAS C O N C L U D E D THAT T H E R E WAS A D I R E C T R E L A T I O N S H I P BETWEEN THE O I L C O N T E N T OF T H E MEAL AND THE L Y S I N E C O N T E N T . T H I S WAS B E L I E V E D TO BE D I R E C T L Y A S S O C I A T E D WITH THE F A C T THAT A H I G H E R E X P E L L E R T E M P E R A T U R E R E S U L T E D IN A LOWER O I L C O N T E N T IN THE M E A L . WHEN MUSTARD S E E D S WERE H E A T E D TO REMOVE E S S E N T I A L O I L S , A L O S S IN T H E B A S I C AMINO A C I D S , L Y S I N E , A R G I N I N E AND H I S T I D I N E WAS O B S E R V E D ( M U S T A K A S _ET _AL ., 1 9 6 2 ) . T H I S L O S S WAS A T T R I B U T E D P R I M A R I L Y TO A R E A C T I O N WITH R E D U C I N G SUGARS IN THE P R O T E I N M E A L . MUSTAKAS E T AL . C O N C L U D E D THAT T H E BROWNING R E A C T I O N P R E S E N T E D A G R E A T E R P R O B L E M IN THE P R O C E S S I N G OF O I L S E E D S C O N T A I N I N G G L U C O S I N O L A T E S WHICH R E L E A S E R E D U C I N G SUGAR UPON E N Z Y M A T I C H Y D R O L Y S I S THAN IN T H E P R O C E S S I N G O I L S E E D S F R E E OF T H E S E COMPOUNDS. MCGHEE _ET _AL. ( 1 9 6 4 ) FOUND THAT T H E B A S I C AMINO A C I D S WERE THE MOST S E V E R E L Y A F F E C T E D D U R I N G P R O C E S S I N G , THE DAMAGE WAS B E L I E V E D TO R E S U L T BOTH FROM A C O N D E N S A T I O N WITH OTHER AMINO A C I D S IN THE P R O T E I N C H A I N AND FROM A R E A C T I O N WITH N O N - P R O T E I N C O N S T I T U E N T S , P A R T I C U L A R I L Y C A R B O H Y D R A T E S . THE F I R S T OF T H E S E R E A C T I O N S IS R E V E R S I B L E BY A C I D H Y D R O L Y S I S , WHEREAS T H E S E C O N D IS B E L I E V E D TO BE I R R E V E R S I B L E . PROLONGED H E A T I N G REDUCED THE L Y S I N E C O N T E N T BY 6 4 $ , A R G I N I N E BY 3 0 $ AND H I S T I D I N E BY 1 5 $ . |N S T U D I E S TO A S S E S S T H E N U T R I T I O N A L V A L U E OF T H E P R O T E I N OF R A P E S E E D MEAL T R E A T E D BY A U T O C L A V I N G OR BY S T E A M S T R I P P I N G B E L L AND B E L Z I L E ( 1 9 6 5 ) O B S E R V E D A GRADUAL D E T E R I O R A T I O N IN P R O T E I N Q U A L I T Y AS THE T I M E OF S T E A M - T R E A T M E N T WAS E X T E N D E D . M E A L S THAT WERE A U T O C L A V E D FOR TWO HOURS AT 1.2 K G / C M D I D NOT S U P P O R T GROWTH WHEN USED AS THE ONLY P R O T E I N S O U R C E IN AN O T H E R W I S E A D E Q U A T E D I E T . C L A N D I N I N ( 1 9 6 5 ) R E P O R T E D THAT C H I C K S R E C E I V I N G R A T I O N S S U P P L E M E N T E D WITH R A P E S E E D MEAL WEIGHED 2 2 2 GRAMS WHILE TH O S E R E C E I V I N G R A P E S E E D MEAL P L U S 0 . 5 $ L . - L Y S I N E WEIGHED 3 5 2 GRAMS AT FOUR WEEKS OF A G E . IN T H E P R O T E I N E V A L U A T I O N OF MEAL AND F E E D U N D E R G O I N G THERMAL P R O C E S S I N G , THE D E T E R M I N A T I O N OF F R E E E P S I L O N AMINO GROUP OF L Y S I N E P L A Y S AN IMPORTANT ROLE (RUTKOWSKI _ET _AL . , 1 9 6 6 ) . T H I S E S T I M A T E S THE A V A I L A B L E L Y S I N E AND I N D I C A T E S THE E X T E N T OF THE THERMAL P R O C E S S I N G E F F E C T . O L S E N ( 1 9 6 7 ) S T U D I E D THE E F F E C T OF HEAT T R E A T M E N T OF WHEAT GERM MEAL ON THE Q U A L I T Y AND B I O L O G I C A L A V A I L A B I L I T Y OF THE P R O T E I N F R A C T I O N . R E S U L T S SHOWED THAT L Y S I N E AND A R G I N I N E WERE D E C R E A S E D BY A L L T R E A T M E N T S AND THAT THE G R E A T E S T L O S S WAS OF L Y S I N E IN S A M P L E S WHICH HAD B E E N A U T O C L A V E D FOR 4 5 AND 9 0 M I N U T E S . BOTH T H E D I G E S T I B I L I T Y OF P R O T E I N AND THE A B S O R P T I O N OF AMINO A C I D S BY THE RAT WERE D E C R E A S E D BY A U T O C L A V I N G . D E C R E A S E D AMINO A C I D A V A I L A B I L I T Y AND P R O T E I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y WE'RE R E F L E C T E D IN LOWER WEIGHT PGA INS AND A R E D U C T I O N IN T H E P R O T E I N E F F I C I E N C Y R A T I O . S C O T T _ET _AL. ( 1 9 6 9 ) M E N T I O N E D THAT L Y S I N E AND M E T H I O N I N E S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N M A R K E D L Y I M P R O V E D T H E N U T R I T I O N A L V A L U E OF D I E T S C O N T A I N I N G S O Y B E A N M E A L T H A T HAD B E E N D E L I B E R A T E L Y O V E R - H E A T E D . T H E S E W O R K E R S A L S O S T A T E D T H A T C O T T O N S E E D M E A L P R O C E S S I N G U S U A L L Y I N V O L V E D H E A T T R E A T M E N T A P P L I E D E I T H E R I N T E N T I O N A L L Y OR AS A R E S U L T OF T H E P R O C E S S U S E D F O R O I L E X T R A C T I O N . M l L D H E A T I N G H E L P E D C O N S I D E R A B L Y I N R E D U C I N G T H E F R E E G O S S Y P O L C O N T E N T OF C O T T O N S E E D M E A L , W H I L E W I T H E X C E S S I V E H E A T I N G G O S S Y P O L M I G H T R E A C T W I T H T H E E P S I L O N A M I N O G R O U P OF L Y S I N E . R U T K O W S K I ( 1 9 7 0 ) O B S E R V E D A 1 6 . 9 $ L O S S IN L Y S I N E WHEN R A P E S E E D M E A L WAS H E A T E D F O R ONE HOUR AT 1 3 5 ° C AS C O M P A R E D TO 0 $ , 2 . 7 $ , AND 8 . 2 $ L O S S WHEN T H E M E A L WAS E X T R A C T E D BY L A B O R A T O R Y C O L D S O X H L E T , I N D U S T R I A L C O N T I N U O U S AND I N D U S T R I A L B A T C H S Y S T E M S R E S P E C T I V E L Y . I I I . M E T A B O L I Z A B L E E N E R G Y H E A T I N G CAN A L S O BE B E N E F I C I A L TO THE N U T R I T I V E V A L U E OF SOME F E E D I N G R E D I E N T S . RENNER AND H L L L ( 1 9 6 0 ) A P P L I E D T H E M E T A B 0 L I Z A B L E E N E R G Y METHOD TO THE Q U A N T I T A T I V E E V A L U A T I O N OF T H E E F F E C T S OF HEAT ON S O Y B E A N AND E X T R A C T E D S O Y B E A N F L A K E S AS A MEASURE OF O V E R A L L N U T R I E N T U T I L I Z A T I O N . T H E Y SHOWED THAT THE D E G R E E OF HEAT T R E A T M E N T WHICH M A X I M I Z E D T H E M E T A B O L I Z A B L E E N E R G Y A L S O M A X I M I Z E D T HE RATE OF GROWTH IN C H I C K S . T HE C O N D I T I O N S T H E Y USED WERE 1 0 7 ° C FOR 1 0 - 6 0 M I N U T E S FOR E X T R A C T E D F L A K E S AND 1 0 M I N U T E S AT 1 0 7 ° C FOR GROUND S O Y B E A N S . H I L L AND RENNER ( 1 9 6 3 ) S T U D I E D T HE E F F E C T OF GRADED L E V E L OF H E A T T R E A T M E N T ON GROUND S O Y B E A N S AND E X T R A C T E D D E H U L L E D S O Y B E A N F L A K E S ( A U T O C L A V E D 1 0 , 4 0 , 6 0 M I N . AT 1 0 7 ° C OR 1 2 0 M I N . AT 1 2 0 ° C ) ON O V E R A L L N U T R I E N T U T I L I Z A T I O N BY A D U L T HENS. T H E I R C R I T E R I A WERE M E T A B O L I Z A B L E E N E R G Y AND F A T A B S O R B A B I L I T Y . THE M E T A B O L I Z A B L E E N E R G Y V A L U E OF THE U N H E A T E D M A T E R I A L S WAS S I G N I F I C A N T L Y LOWER THAN THAT OF THE O P T I M A L L Y H E A T E D S O Y B E A N S A M P L E S . PROLONGED H E A T I N G REDUCED THE E N E R G Y OF E X T R A C T E D F L A K E S , BUT HAD L I T T L E OR NO D E L E T E R I O U S E F F E C T ON T H E E N E R G Y V A L U E OF GROUND S O Y B E A N S . THE M E T A B O L I Z A B L E E N E R G Y V A L U E OF THE O P T I M A L L Y H E A T E D S O Y B E A N S AND E X T R A C T E D F L A K E S FOR HENS WERE IN C L O S E A G R E E M E N T WITH TH O S E R E P O R T E D FOR C H I C K S . A B S O R B A B I L I T Y OF D I E T A R Y F A T WAS I M P A I R E D BY UNHE ATED. E X T R A C T E D F L A K E S AND T H I S E F F E C T WAS A B O L I S H E D BY HEAT T R E A T M E N T . N E S H E I M AND G A R L I C K ( 1 9 6 6 ) FED H E A T E D ( 1 0 7 ° C FOR 3 0 M I N . ) AND UNHEATED S O Y B E A N MEAL TO L A Y E R S FOR A P E R I O D OF 9 7 D A Y S . THE M E T A B O L I Z A B L E E N E R G Y V A L U E OF T H E D I E T C O N T A I N I N G RAW S O Y B E A N MEAL REMAINED C O N S T A N T THROUGHOUT T H E E X P E R I M E N T A L P E R I O D , A V E R A G I N G S L I G H T L Y OVER 3 K C A L / G OF D I E T . THE D I E T C O N T A I N I N G H E A T E D MEALS WAS H I G H E R IN M E T A B O L I Z A B L E E N E R G Y V A L U E IN E V E R Y C A S E , RANGING FROM 3.2 TO 3.4 K C A L / G OF D I E T . T H E R E WAS NO E V I D E N C E OF A CHANGE IN THE M E T A B O L I Z A B L E E N E R G Y V A L U E OF THE D I E T WITH T I M E . E L - L A K A N Y _ET _AL. ( 1 9 6 9 ) S T U D I E D T H E E F F E C T S OF D I F F E R E N T T R E A T M E N T S ON T H E N U T R I T I V E Q U A L I T Y OF FOUR S A M P L E S OF WHEAT. M E T A B O L i Z A B L E E N E R G Y V A L U E OF T H E V A R I O U S S A M P L E S OF WHEAT WERE D E T E R M I N E D U S I N G C H I C K S , 2 - 3 WEEKS OLD. A U T O C L A V I N G WHEAT FOR 6 0 M I N U T E S AT 1 5 L B . P R E S S U R E I N C R E A S E D M E T A B O L I Z A B L E E N E R G Y OVER T H E U N T R E A T E D WHEAT. PROLONGED H E A T I N G , HOWEVER, ( A U T O C L A V I N G FOR 9 0 MIN. AND 1 2 0 M I N . AT 1 5 LB, P R E S S U R E ) REDUCED THE M E T A B O L 1 Z A B L E E N E R G Y V A L U E OF T H E WHEAT. M A T E R I A L S AND METHODS I . P E P S I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y TO D E T E R M I N E T H E E F F E C T OF A U T O C L A V I N G ON T H E P R O T E I N Q U A L I T Y OF R A P E S E E D MEAL, T H R E E E X P E R I M E N T S WERE C A R R I E D OUT IN V ITRO U S I N G T H E P E P S I N - D I G E S T I O N METHOD. A. R A P E S E E D MEAL WAS P R E P A R E D IN T H E L A B O R A T O R Y FROM R A P E S E E D ( O R I G I N UNKNOWN) BY G R I N D I N G T H E S E E D AND S U B S E Q U E N T L Y E X T R A C T I N G THE O I L WITH H E X A N E ( 4 ML TO 1 G GROUND S E E D ) . THE R E S U L T I N G MEAL C O N T A I N E D FOUR P E R C E N T F A T ON DRY B A S I S ( V A C U U M D R I E D FOR FOUR HOURS AT 8 0 ° C ) , AS D E T E R M I N E D BY THE A. 0. A. C . PROCEDURE ( 1 9 7 0 ) . MEAL S A M P L E S WERE A U T O C L A V E D WITH AN EQUAL WEIGHT OF WATER FOR 0 . 5 , 1.0, AND 1.5 HOURS AT 6.81 KG P R E S S U R E AT 1 2 1 ° C . AN U N A U T O C L A V E D S A M P L E S E R V E D AS THE C O N T R O L . U S I N G 0 . 0 1 $ P E P S I N C O N C E N T R A T I O N ( A C T I V I T Y 1 : 2 0 , 0 0 0 ) T H E P E P S I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y OF A U T O C L A V E D AND CONTROL MEAL S A M P L E S WE'RE D E T E R M I N E D BY T H E A. 0. A. C. PROCEDURE ( 1 9 7 0 ) . B. FOR P E P S I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y , T H R E E COMMERCIAL R A P E S E E D M E A L S : OTTAWA R A P E S E E D MEAL NO. 1, A L B E R T A R A P E S E E D AND R A P E S E E D MEAL ( L A B O R A T O R Y P.REPARATION) S A M P L E S WERE A U T O C L A V E D FOR ONE HOUR AT 6.81 KG P R E S S U R E . T H E S E M E A L S WERE A L S O A U T O C L A V E D WITH G L U C O S E ( 0 . 2 5 G G L U C O S E / G R A P E S E E D S A M P L E ) AT 6.81 KG P R E S S U R E AT 1 2 1 ° C. U S I N G 0 . 0 2 $ P E P S I N C O N C E N T R A T I O N ( A C T I V I T Y 1 : 2 0 , 0 0 0 ) , P R O T E I N N U T R I T I O N A L B I O C H E M I C A L C O R P O R A T I O N , C L E V E L A N D , OHIO, U . S . A . 1 3 14 D I G E S T I B I L I T Y WAS D E T E R M I N E D BY THE METHOD M E N T I O N E D IN PART A. C . IN ORDER TO G E T A UNIFORM AND R E P R E S E N T A T I V E S A M P L E OF R A P E S E E D MEAL, T H R E E COMMERCIAL R A P E S E E D MEALS ( A L B E R T A , SASKATCHEWAN AND M A N I T O B A ) WERE MI X E D IN 1:1:1 R A T I O . T H E R E S U L T I N G MEAL WAS A U T O C L A V E D FOR ONE HOUR AT 6.81 KG P R E S S U R E ( 1 2 1 ° C ) . TO D E T E R M I N E THE E F F E C T OF P E P S I N C O N C E N T R A T I O N , TWO C O N C E N T R A T I O N L E V E L S , 0.01 AND 0 . 0 0 2 $ WERE USED FOR P E P S I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y . I I . C H I C K GROWTH S T U D Y A U T O C L A V E D AND U N A U T O C L A V E D C O M P O S I T E S A M P L E S OF COMMERCIAL R A P E S E E D M E A L S ( A L B E R T A , S A S K A T C H E W A N AND M A N I T O B A , 1 : 1 : 1 ) FOR WHICH THE P E P S I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y WAS D E T E R M I N E D _I_N V I TRO ( P A R T C ) WERE E A C H ADDED TO A C H I C K D I E T TO S U P P L Y 4 $ S U P P L E M E N T A R Y P R O T E I N IN A 1 5 $ P R O T E I N R A T I O N . T H E S E C O N S T I T U T E D TWO B A S A L D I E T S AND E A C H B A S A L D I E T WAS S U P P L E M E N T E D WITH 0 $ , 0 . 0 8 $ , 0 . 1 6 $ , 0 . 2 4 $ , AND 0 . 3 2 $ OF L Y S I N E AS A FORM OF L - L Y S I N E HCL AT THE E X P E N S E OF AN EQUAL WEIGHT OF S T A R C H . THE C O M P O S I T I O N OF E X P E R I M E N T A L D I E T S IS SHOWN IN T A B L E I. WHITE LEGHORN MALE C H I C K S ( O N E DAY OF A G E ) WERE FED A COMMERCIAL C H I C K S T A R T E R R A T I O N FOR ONE WEEK. A T S E V E N DAYS OF AGE, 5 4 0 C H I C K S WERE WEIGHED AND RANDOMLY D I S T R I B U T E D INTO 3 0 COMPARTMENTS OF E L E C T R I C A L L Y - H E A T E D B A T T E R Y BROODERS. E A C H D I E T WAS FED TO T R I P L I C A T E L O T S OF 1 8 C H I C K S FOR A P E R I O D OF FOUR WEEKS. F E E D AND WATER WERE P R O V I D E D AD L I B I T U M D U R I N G THE T E S T P E R I O D . A W EEKLY RECORD WAS K E P T OF BODY WEIGHT AND F E E D C O N S U M P T I O N . A T THE C O M P L E T I O N OF THE E X P E R I M E N T ( 3 3 D A Y S ) , C H I C K S FED THE B A S A L D I E T S AND D I E T S S U P P L E M E N T E D WITH 0 . 1 6 AND 0 ^ 3 2 $ L Y S I N E WERE K I L L E D . THE L I V E R AND P A N C R E A S WERE T A B L E 1. C O M P O S I T I O N OF E X P E R I M E N T A L D I E T S I N G R E D I E N T S ( $ ) R-1 R-2 R-3 R-4 R-5 R-6 R-7 R-8 R-9 R-10 U N A U T O C L A V E D RSM 11 .2 11 .2 11 .2 1 1 .2 11 .2 - - -A U T O C L A V E D RSM 11 .2 11 .2 11 .2 11 .2 11 . 2 WHEAT ( 1 3 . 5 $ P R O T E I N ) 8 2 . 3 8 2 . 3 8 2 . 3 8 2 . 3 8 2 . 3 8 2 . 3 8 2 . 3 8 2 . 3 8 2 . 3 8 2 . 3 BONE MEAL 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 L 1 M E S T O N E 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I O D I Z E D S A L T 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 . 5 0 . 5 0 . 5 0 . 5 0 . 5 0. 5 S O Y B E A N O I L ^ V1T.-M1N. PREM1X 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 . 5 0 . 5 0 . 5 0.5 0. 5 C O R N S T A R C H 0.5 0.5 0 . 3 9 8 0 . 3 9 8 0 . 2 9 6 0 . 2 9 6 0 . 1 9 4 0.1 9 4 0 . 0 9 0. 0 9 L - L Y S I N E HCL ( 9 8 $ ) 0 . 1 0 2 0 . 1 0 2 0 . 2 0 4 0 . 2 0 4 0 . 3 0 6 0 . 3 0 6 0.41 0. 41 C A L C U L A T E D A N A L Y S I S CRUDE P R O T E I N ( $ ) 1 5 . 0 CA ( $ ) 1 .01 T O T A L PHOSPHORUS ( $ ) 0 . 6 6 L Y S I N E ( $ ) 0 . 5 0 0 . 5 0 0 . 5 8 0 . 5 8 0 . 6 6 0 . 6 6 0 . 7 4 0 . 7 4 0 . 8 2 0 . 8 2 V I T A M I N AND M I N E R A L P R E M I X S U P P L I E D / K G OF D I E T : MANGANESE S U L P H A T E M E N A D I O N E R l B O F L A V I N C A L C I U M P A N T O T H E N A T E F O L A C I N P Y R I D O X I N E HCL B I O T I N C H O L I N E C H L O R I D E 0 . 1 3 2 0 . 4 8 4 3 . 9 6 9.24 0 . 5 5 2 . 8 6 0 . 0 8 8 MG 1 .32 G G MG MG MG MG MG V I T A M I N E V I T A M I N A V I T A M I N D, V I T A M I N B AMPROLIUM' Z I N C B A C I T R A C I N O L E A N D O M Y C I N C O R N S T A R C H 1 2 1 8 IU 4 4 2 0 IU 4 4 0 I C U 1 3 UG 1 2 . 4 8 MG 2 7 MG 1 1 MG 1 . 1 0 2 7 G REMOVED FROM T H E S E B I R D S AND WEIGHED. THE DATA WERE S U B J E C T E D TO A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E ( S N E D E C O R , 1956) AND M U L T I P L E RANGE T E S T OF DUNCAN'S (1955). I I I . M E T A B O L I Z A B L E E N E R G Y THE M E T A B O L I Z A B L E E N E R G Y V A L U E OF C O M P O S I T E S A M P L E S A U T O C L A V E D AND U N A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D M E A L S , ( u S E D FOR P E P S I N D I G E S T I O N E X P . NO. 1 PART C AND GROWTH S T U D I E S E X P . NO. l l ) WAS D E T E R M I N E D U S I N G T H R E E - W E E K OLD WHITE LEGHORN C O C K E R E L S . T H E Y WERE M A I N T A I N E D IN E L E C T R I C A L L Y H E A T E D , T H E R M O S T A T I C A L L Y C O N T R O L L E D B A T T E R Y , WITH R A I S E D WIRE S C R E E N F L O O R S , IN A T E M P E R A T U R E C O N T R O L L E D L A B O R A T O R Y . THE C H I C K S WERE FED A P R A C T I C A L S T A R T I N G D I E T (M. E. B A S A L , T A B L E NO . 2) FOR ONE WEEK TO AC C U S T O M THEM TO T H E D I E T U N T I L T H E Y WERE FED THE T E S T D I E T S . E X P E R I M E N T A L D I E T S WERE FO R M U L A T E D BY A D D I N G T H E T E S T I N G R E D I E N T S ( A U T O C L A V E D AND U N A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D M E A L ) AT THE E X P E N S E OF A P O R T I O N OF THE T O T A L B A S A L D I E T . THE T E S T D I E T S C O N T A I N E D 25$ OF THE R E S P E C T I V E R A P E S E E D MEALS AND 75$ OF T H E M. E. B A S A L D I E T . E A C H D I E T WAS F E D TO T R I P L I C A T E L O T S OF F I V E C H I C K S . F E E D WAS WITHDRAWN FROM THE C H I C K S O V E R N I G H T P R I O R TO P L A C I N G THEM ON E X P E R I M E N T AND A G A I N AT THE C O N C L U S I O N OF THE T H R E E - D A Y P E R I O D . F E E D I N T A K E WAS MEASURED AND T H E E X C R E T A WERE C O L L E C T E D OVER T HE F O L L O W I N G T H R E E - D A Y P E R I O D . F A E C E S WERE L Y O P H I L I Z E D AND GROUND FOR A N A L Y S I S . H E A T OF COMBUST i . Q N n o F F E E D AND E X C R E T A WAS D E T E R M I N E D BY THE USE OF OX Y G E N BOMB C A L O R I M E T E R . THE N I T R O G E N C O N T E N T S O F F E E D AND E X C R E T A WERE D E T E R M I N E D BY THE M A C R 0 - K J E L D A H L T E C H N I Q U E D E S C R I B E D BY T H E A . 0. A . C . (1970). THE M. E . V A L U E S OF T H E D I E T S WERE C O R R E C T E D FOR T A B L E 2 . — C O M P O S I T I O N OF B A S A L D I E T 1 NGRED1E NTS {%) GROUND WHEAT 29.2 CORN 37.8 S O Y B E A N MEAL 15.0 H E R R I N G MEAL 10.0 D R I E D D I S T I L L E R S S O L U B L E S 3.0 D E H Y D R A T E D C E R E A L GRASS 2 .0 BONE MEAL 1 .5 LILMESTONE 1 .0 I O D I Z E D S A L T 0.5 ^ S U P P L E M E N T TO S U P P L Y / K G OF D I E T : MANGANESE S U L P H A T E 0.242 G V1TAM1N A 4420 IU V 1 TAM1N D^ 440 I C U R l B O F L A V 1 N 3.96 MG MENAD1 ONE 9.9 MG AMPROL1UM 12.48 MG T H E N I T R O G E N R E T E N T I O N O F T H E B I R D S A S S U G G E S T E D B Y H l L L AND A N D E R S O N (1958). R E S U L T S E X P E R I M E N T I . P E P S I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y A . T H E DATA FOR P R O T E I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y OF R A P E S E E D MEAL ( L A B O R A T O R Y P R E P A R A T I O N ) S U B J E C T E D TO HEAT T R E A T M E N T FOR D I F F E R E N T T I M E S ARE SUMMARIZED IN T A B L E 3 . A U T O C L A V I N G S I G N I F I C A N T L Y REDUCED T H E P R O T E I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y OF R A P E S E E D MEAL ( P < 0 . 0 5 ) COMPARED TO T H E CONTROL M E A L . THERE WAS, HOWEVER, NO S T A T I S T I C A L L Y S I G N I F I C A N T D I F F E R E N C E IN THE P R O T E I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y OF M E A L S A U T O C L A V E D FOR 0 . 5 , 1.0, AND 1.5 HOURS. B. T H E E F F E C T OF A U T O C L A V I N G WITH AND WITHOUT A D D I T I O N OF G L U C O S E ON THE P R O T E I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y OF R A P E S E E D MEALS IS SUMMARIZED IN T A B L E 4 . P R O T E I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y WAS S I G N I F I C A N T L Y REDUCED IN A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D M E A L S , BOTH WITH AND WITHOUT G L U C O S E , AS COMPARED TO T H E U N A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D M E A L S S A M P L E S . A U T O C L A V I N G OF R A P E S E E D MEAL WITH G L U C O S E F U R T H E R REDUCED P R O T E I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y (P < 0.05) COMPARED TO THE A U T O C L A V E D S A M P L E S WITHOUT G L U C O S E . R A P E S E E D MEAL ( L A B O R A T O R Y P R E P A R A T I O N ) WAS S I G N I F I C A N T L Y LOWER (P < 0 .05 ) IN P R O T E I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y FROM THE OTHER TWO R A P E S E E D M E A L S U S E D . THE A V E R A G E V A L U E S FOR P R O T E I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y OF THE R A P E S E E D M E A L S UNDER T H E D I F F E R E N T T R E A T M E N T S ARE P R E S E N T E D IN T A B L E 5 . C. THE E F F E C T OF A U T O C L A V I N G ON P R O T E I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y OF A C O M P O S I T E S A M P L E OF T H R E E COMMERCIAL R A P E S E E D M E A L S IS SHOWN IN T A B L E 6 . A s WAS T H E C A S E IN P A R T S A AND B A B O V E , T H E P R O T E I N 1 9 T A B L E 3 . - - E F F E C T OF D U R A T I O N OF A U T O C L A V I N G ON P R O T E I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y OF R A P E S E E D MEAL ( L A B O R A T O R Y P R E P A R A T I O N E X P E R i M E N T I , PART A ) T R E A T M E N T P R O T E I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y 1. C O N T R O L 8 3 . 9 7 A 6 8 . 2 8 B 2 . A U T O C L A V E D FOR 0 . 5 HOUR 3. A U T O C L A V E D FOR 1 .0 HOUR 6 8 . 7 0 8 6 7 . 1 2 8 4. A U T O C L A V E D FOR 1 .5 HOUR T H E S T A T I S T I C A L A N A L Y S I S OF T H E DATA IN T H I S T A B L E IS SHOWN IN T A B L E 1 ( A ) IN T H E A P P E N D I X . MEAN V A L U E S NOT H A V I N G T H E SAME S U P E R S C R I P T ARE S I G N I F I C A N T L Y D I F F E R E N T (P " = 0 . 0 5 ) . 21 T A B L E 4 . - - I N F L U E N C E OF A U T O C L A V I N G WITH AND WITHOUT G L U C O S E ON P R O T E I N •I D I G E S T I B I L I T Y OF R A P E S E E D M E A L S ( E X P E R I M E N T I , PART B) T R E A T M E N T P R O T E 1 N 2 D 1 G E S T 1 B 1 L 1 T Y 1 . C O N T R O L 2 . A U T O C L A V E D FOR 1 HOUR 3 . A U T O C L A V E D FOR 1 HOUR WITH G L U C O S E 8 5 . 4 0 A 7 6 . 8 6 B 7 4 . 7 7 ° M E A L S P R O T E 1 N 2 D 1 G E S T 1 B 1 L 1 T Y A L B E R T A R A P E S E E D MEAL OTTAWA R A P E S E E D MEAL NO. 1 R A P E S E E D MEAL ( L A B O R A T O R Y P R E P A R A T I O N ) 8 1 . 7 7 A 8 0 . 4 7 A 7 4 . 8 0 8 THE S T A T I S T I C A L A N A L Y S I S OF THE DATA IN T H I S T A B L E IS SHOWN IN T A B L E 2 ( A ) IN THE A P P E N D I X . i MEAN V A L U E S NOT H A V I N G THE SAME S U P E R S C R I P T ARE S I G N I F I C A N T L Y D I F F E R E N T (P <= 0 . 0 5 ) . T A B L E 5 . — I N F L U E NC E OF A U T O C L A V I N G WITH AND WITHOUT G L U C O S E ON P R O T E I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y OF R A P E S E E D MEALS ( E X P E R I M E N T I , PART B) T Y P E OF MEAL T R E A T M E N T S P R O T E 1 N D 1 GEST1 B1 L 1 T Y (*) 1 . C O N T R O L 84.92 OTTAWA R A P E S E E D 2. A U T O C L A V E D FOR 1 HOUR 79.03 MEAL N o . 1 3. A U T O C L A V E D FOR 1 HOUR 77.46 WITH G L U C O S E 1 . CONTROL 88.75 A L B E R T A R A P E S E E D 2. A U T O C L A V E D FOR 1 HOUR 79.45 MEAL 3. A U T O C L A V E D FOR 1 HOUR 77.1 WITH G L U C O S E R A P E S E E D MEAL 1 . CONTROL 82.54 ( L A B O R A T O R Y 2 . A U T O C L A V E D FOR 1 HOUR 72.09 P R E P A R A T 1 ON) 3. A U T O C L A V E D FOR 1 HOUR 69.77 WITH G L U C O S E 2 3 T A B L E 6 . - - E F F E C T OF A U T O C L A V I N G ON P R O T E I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y OF A C O M P O S I T E S A M P L E OF COMMERCIAL R A R E S E E D MEAL ( E X P E R I M E N T I , PART C ) P R O T E I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y ( $ ) T R E A T M E N T 0 . 0 1 $ P E P S I N 0 . 0 0 2 $ P E P S I N 1. C O N T R O L 8 5 . 4 0 A 8 4 . 8 3 A 2. A U T O C L A V E D FOR 1 HOUR AT 6. 81'/KG :'P.RESS'URE 7 4 . 7 5 B 7 2 . 8 1 B THE S T A T I S T I C A L A N A L Y S I S OF T H E DATA IN T H I S T A B L E IS SHOWN IN T A B L E 3 ( A ) IN THE A P P E N D I X . MEAN V A L U E S NOT H A V I N G THE SAME S U P E R S C R I P T ARE S I G N I F I C A N T L Y D I F F E R E N T ( P < 0 . 0 5 ) . D I G E S T I B I L I T Y WAS S I G N I F I C A N T L Y LOWER ( P -=0.05) IN A U T O C L A V E D MEAL COMPARED WITH CONTROL MEAL AT BOTH C O N C E N T R A T I O N S OF P E P S I N U S E D . E X P E R I M E N T I I . GROWTH S T U D I E S W E I G H T G A I N AND F E E D E F F I C I E N C Y OF C H I C K S FED U N A U T O C L A V E D AND A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D MEAL B A S E D R A T I O N S WITH GRADED L E V E L S OF L Y S I N E S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N ARE P R E S E N T E D IN T A B L E 7. WEIGHT G A I N OF C H I C K S AND THE E F F I C I E N C Y OF F E E D C O N V E R S I O N WERE S I G N I F I C A N T L Y LOWER (P < 0 . 0 5 ) WITH T H E A U T O C L A V E D MEAL THAN WITH THE CONTROL M E A L . L Y S I N E S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N R E S U L T E D IN B E T T E R A V E R A G E GROWTH AND F E E D E F F I C I E N C Y FOR R A P E S E E D MEAL T R E A T M E N T S COMPARED TO NO L Y S I N E S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N . A D D I T I O N OF L Y S I N E BEYOND 0 . 1 6 $ F A I L E D TO IMPROVE « WEIGHT G A I N . F E E D E F F I C I E N C Y WAS NOT IMPROVED ABOVE 0 . 2 4 $ L Y S I N E S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N ( T A B L E 7 ) . A V E R A G E WEIGHT G A I N OF C H I C K S FOR U N A U T O C L A V E D AND A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D MEAL R A T I O N S S U P P L E M E N T E D WITH GRADED L E V E L S OF L Y S I N E OVER A FOUR-WEEK P E R I O D IS P R E S E N T E D IN T A B L E 8. AT E A C H L E V E L OF L Y S I N E S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N WEIGHT G A I N OF THE C H I C K FED U N A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D MEAL WAS S U P E R I O R TO THAT OF THE C H I C K S FED A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D M E A L . |N C A S E OF THE C H I C K S FED U N A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D MEAL, MAXIMUM GROWTH WAS O B S E R V E D WITH 0 . 1 6 $ L Y S I N E S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N AND A D D I T I O N A L L Y S I N E D I D NOT R E S U L T IN S I G N I F I C A N T IMPROVEMENT OF GROWTH. A L L L E V E L S OF L Y S I N E S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N IMPROVED T H E WEIGHT G A I N OF T H E C H I C K S FED A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D MEAL AND THE MAXIMUM GROWTH WAS O B T A I N E D WITH 0.24$ L Y S I N E S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N . A P L O T OF BODY WEIGHT G A I N A G A I N S T S U P P L E M E N T A R Y L Y S I N E L E V E L S OF C H I C K S FED U N A U T O C L A V E D AND A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D MEALS IS SHOWN IN T A B L E 7 . - - A V E R A G E WEIGHT G A I N AND F E E D E F F I C I E N C Y OF C H I C K S FED A C O M P O S I T E S A M P L E OF COMMERCIAL R A P E S E E D M E A L S S U P P L Y I N G 4$ P R O T E I N IN A W HEAT-BASED R A T I O N OF 15$ P R O T E I N ( E X P E R I M E N T l l ) T R E A T M E N T GA I N/B1RD^ 2 F E E D E F F I C I E N C Y (<0 ( G / F ) C O N T R O L 198 .9 A 0 . 3 3 A A U T O C L A V E D 181 .2 B 0 . 3 2 B L Y S I N E S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N 134 .33 A 0 .28 A 0 . 3 2 B 0.08 187.0 8 0.16 209.0 C 0.34° 0.24 214.83° 0.35° 0.35° 0.32 205 .16 C THE S T A T I S T I C A L A N A L Y S I S OF THE DATA IN T H I S T A B L E ARE SHOWN IN T A B L E S 4 ( A ) AND 5 ( A ) IN T H E A P P E N D I X . MEAN V A L U E S NOT H A V I N G THE SAME S U P E R S C R I P T ARE S I G N I F I C A N T L Y D I F F E R E N T (;P. «= 0.05) . T A B L E 8 . - - A V E R A G E WEIGHT G A I N OF C H I C K S F E D A C O M P O S I T E S A M P L E OF COMMERCIAL R A P E S E E D M E A L S ( C O N T R O L AND A U T O C L A V E D ) FOR A FOUR-WEEK PER IOD ( E X P E R I M E N T I I ) L Y S 1 N E S U P P L E M E N T A T 1 ON i%) 2 C O N T R O L RSM R A T I O N ( G ) 2 A U T O C L A V E D RSM R A T I O N (<0 0 . 0 8 0 . 1 6 0 . 2 4 0 . 3 2 1 4 4 . 7 B 1 9 5 . 0 C D 2 2 0 . 0 E 2 2 0 . 7 E 2 1 4 . 3 D E 1 2 4 . 2 A 1 7 9 . 0 ° 1 9 8 . 0 ° D 2 0 9 . 0 D E 1 9 6 . 0 ° ° T HE S T A T I S T I C A L A N A L Y S I S OF THE DATA IN T H I S T A B L E IS SHOWN IN T A B L E 6 ( A ) IN T H E A P P E N D I X . MEAN V A L U E S NOT H A V I N G T H E SAMPE S U P E R S C R I P T ARE S I G N I F I C A N T L Y D I F F E R E N T (P <= 0. 0 5 ) . F I G U R E 1. F E E D E F F I C I E N C Y WAS IMPROVED WITH L Y S I N E S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N IN BOTH CONTROL AND A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D MEAL R A T I O N S ( T A B L E 9 ) . |N C O N T R O L MEAL R A T I O N 0 . 1 6 , 0 . 2 4 , 0 . 3 2 $ L Y S I N E S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N D I D NOT D I F F E R S I G N I F I C A N T L Y ( P < = 0 . 0 5 ) AND IN THE C A S E OF A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D MEAL 0 . 2 4 AND 0 . 3 2 $ L Y S I N E S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N GAVE THE B E S T R E S U L T AND D I D NOT D I F F E R S I G N I F I C A N T L Y . L I V E R AND P A N C R E A S W E I G H T S NO S I G N I F I C A N T D I F F E R E N C E WAS O B S E R V E D IN L I V E R WEIGHT ( E X P R E S S E D AS P E R C E N T A G E OF BODY W E I G H T ) BY F E E D I N G E I T H E R U N A U T O C L A V E D OR A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D MEAL ( T A B L E 1 0 ) . I R R E S P E C T I V E OF T R E A T M E N T S , 0 . 1 6 $ L Y S I N E S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N S I G N I F I C A N T L Y ( P < 0 . 0 5 ) D E C R E A S E D P E R C E N T L I V E R WEIGHT COMPARED TO 0 $ AND 0 . 3 2 $ L Y S I N E S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N . ON THE OTHER HAND, NO S I G N I F I C A N T E F F E C T WAS O B T A I N E D ON P E R C E N T L I V E R WEIGHT WITH 0 . 3 2 $ L Y S I N E S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N , COMPARED TO 0 $ S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N ( T A B L E 1 0 ) : T H E R E WAS NO S I G N I F I C A N T D I F F E R E N C E IN P E R C E N T L I V E R WEIGHT WITH 0, © . 1 6 $ , AND 0 . 3 2 $ L Y S I N E S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N UPON F E E D I N G E I T H E R CONTROL OR A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D MEAL R A T I O N S ( T A B L E 1 1 ) . P A N C R E A S WEIGHT, E X P R E S S E D AS P E R C E N T OF BODY WEIGHT, WAS S I G N I F I C A N T L Y H I G H E R ( P < 0 . 0 5 ) IN C H I C K S F E D A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D MEAL AS COMPARED TO THOSE FED U N A U T O C L A V E D MEAL ( T A B L E 1 0 ) . R E G A R D L E S S OF T R E A T M E N T S , L Y S I N E S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N AT BOTH L E V E L S ( 0 . 1 6 AND 0 . 3 2 $ ) D E C R E A S E D THE P A N C R E A S WEIGHT ( $ BODY W E I G H T ) S I G N I F I C A N T L Y COMPARED TO 0 $ S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N ( T A B L E 1 0 ) . IN C O NTROL R A P E S E E D MEAL R A T I O N P E R C E N T P A N C R E A S WEIGHT WAS 240 220 .200 < I-X C3 - ' 180h u >-Q O m 160 140 120 0 U N A U T O C L A V E D RSM A U T O C L A V E D - R S M 100 J L 0.08 0.16 0.24 S U P P L E M E N T A R Y L Y S I N E ' (%) 0.32 F I G . 1. E F F E C T . O F S U P P L E M E N T A L L Y S I N E ON BODY WEIGHT G A I N OF C H I C K S FED A U T O C L A V E D AND U N A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D MEALS D U R I N G • FOUR-WEEK. PER I OD . . T A B L E 9 . - - A V E R A G E F E E D E F F I C I E N C Y OF C H I C K S FED A C O M P O S I T E S A M P L E OF COMMERCIAL R A P E S E E D M E A L S ( C O N T R O L AND A U T O C L A V E D ) FOR A FOUR-WEEK P E R i O D ( E X P E R i M E N T I I ) L Y S 1 N E S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N 2 C O N T R O L RSM 2 A U T O C L A V E D RSM 0 . 2 9 B 0 . 2 6 A 0 . 0 8 0 . 3 2 C 0 . 3 4 D E 0 . 3 3 C D 0 . 1 6 0 . 2 4 0 . 3 5 E 0 . 3 5 E 0 . 3 2 0 . 3 5 E 0 . 3 5 E 1 T H E S T A T I S T I C A L A N A L Y S I S OF T H E DATA IN T H I S T A B L E IS SHOWN IN T A B L E 7 ( A ) IN T H E A P P E N D I X . ^MEAN V A L U E S NOT H A V I N G THE SAME S U P E R S C R I P T ARE S I G N I F I C A N T L Y D I F F E R E N T ( P < 0 . 0 5 ) . T A B L E 1 0 .--AVERAGE L I V E R AND PANCREAS WEIGHTS OF C H I C K S FED A C O M P O S I T E S A M P L E OF COMMERCIAL R A P E S E E D M E A L S S U P P L Y I N G 4$ P R O T E I N IN A WHEAT-BASED R A T I O N OF 15.0$ P R O T E I N ( E X P E R I M E N T l l ) ^ T R E A T M E N T BODY WT. ( G ) L I V E R WT. ( G ) L I V E R WT. A S ^ % OF BODY WT. P A N C R E A S WT. ( G ) P A NCREAS WT. A.S % OF BODY WT. CONTROL A U T O C L A V E D 307 285 9.32 8.50 3.1 6 A 3 . 0 9 A 1 .24 1 .21 0 . 4 1 A 0 . 4 3 B L Y S I N E L E V E L ADOED (%) 0.16 0.32 235 328 325 7.29 9.48 9.96 3.1 2 .9 3.1i 1 .04 1 .29 1 .34 0.45 0 .40 E 0.42 E THE S T A T I S T I C A L A N A L Y S I S OF THE DATA IN T H I S T A B L E ARE SHOWN IN T A B L E S 8 ( A ) AND 9 ( A ) IN T H E A P P E N D I X . I MEAN V A L U E S NOT H A V I N G T HE SAMEL S U P E R S C R I P T ARE S I G N I F I C A N T L Y D I F F E R E N T (:P " ^ 0 . 0 5 ) . T A B L E 1 1 . - - A V E R A G E L I V E R WEIGHTS OF C H I C K S FED A C O M P O S I T E S A M P L E OF COMMERCIAL R A P E S E E D MEALS S U P P L Y I N G 4$ P R O T E I N IN A WHEAT-BASED R A T I O N OF 15.0$ P R O T E I N ( E X P E R I M E N T l l ) ^ L Y S 1 N E CONTROL MEAL A U T O C L A V E D MEAL S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N ($) BODY WT. ( G ) A v . L I V E R ( G ) WT. I L I V E R WT % OF BODY . AS WT. BODY WT. ( G ) A v . L I V E R WT. ( G ) : L I V E R WT. AS t OF BODY WT. 0.16 0.32 247 340 334 7.81 9.89 10.27 3.17 2.92 3.08 223 316 316 6.77 9.08 9.66 3.03 2.86 3.07 THE S T A T I S T I C A L A N A L Y S I S OF THE DATA IN T H I S T A B L E IS SHOWN IN T A B L E 10(A) 1 N T H E APPEND 1 X. S I G N I F I C A N T L Y LOWER WITH 0.16$ L Y S I N E S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N ( T A B L E 12). |N A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D MEAL R A T I O N THE P A N C R E A S WEIGHT WITH 0.16$ L Y S I N E S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N WAS S I G N I F I C A N T L Y S M A L L E R THAN 0$ S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N BUT D I D NOT D I F F E R FROM 0.32$ ( T A B L E 12) . E X P E R I M E N T I I I . M E T A B O L I Z A B L E E N E R G Y THE M E T A B O L I Z A B L E E N E R G Y V A L U E S OF U N A U T O C L A V E D AND A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D M E A L S T E S T E D WITH T H R E E - W E E K OLD MALE C H I C K S ARE P R E S E N T E D IN T A B L E 13. THE V A L U E S WERE 1756 AND 1859 K C A L / K G FOR CONTROL AND A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D M E A L S R E S P E C T I V E L Y . T H ERE WAS NO S T A T I S T I C A L L Y S I G N I F I C A N T D I F F E R E N C E (P «= 0 .05) IN M E T A B 0 L I Z A B L E E N E R G Y . HOWEVER, T H E R E WAS A S L I G H T IMPROVEMENT DUE TO A U T O C L A V I N G . MORTAL I T Y THERE WAS NO M O R T A L I T Y THROUGHOUT T H E E X P E R I M E N T A L P E R I O D . T A B L E 1 2 . - - A V E R A G E PANCREAS WEIGHTS OF C H I C K S FED A C O M P O S I T E S A M P L E OF COMMERCIAL R A P E S E E D M E A L S S U P P L Y I N G 4 $ P R O T E I N IN A WHEAT-BASED R A T I O N OF 1 5 . 0 $ P R O T E I N ( E X P E R I M E N T I I ) ^  CONTROL MEAL A U T O C L A V E D MEAL L Y S 1 N E S U P P L E M E N T A T 1 ON ( $ ) BODY WE IGHT ( G ) A V E R A G E PANCREAS WEIGHT ( G ) PANCREAS WEIGHT^ AS fo OF BODY WEIGHT BOD Y W E I G H T ( G ) A V E R A G E P A N C R E A S WEIGHT ( G ) P A N C R E A S W E I G H T ^ AS fo OF BODY W E I G H T 0 . 1 6 0 . 3 2 2 4 7 3 4 0 3 3 4 1 .06 1 .32 1 .34 0 . 4 3 B C 0 . 3 9 A 0 . 4 1 A B 2 2 3 3 1 6 3 1 6 1 .02 1 .26 1 .'35 0 . 4 6 C 0 . 4 1 A B 0 . 4 4 B C 1_ T H E S T A T I S T I C A L A N A L Y S I S OF THE DATA 1 N T H I S T A B L E IS SHOWN IN T A B L E 1 1 ( A ) IN THE A P P E ND 1 X. MEAN V A L U E S NOT HAVING THE SAME S U P E R S C R I P T ARE S I G N I F I C A N T L Y D I F F E R E N T ( P < 0 . 0 5 ) . T A B L E 1 3 . - - T H E M E T A B O L I Z A B L E E N E R G Y OF U N A U T O C L A V E D AND A U T O C L A ^ E D R A P E S E E D M E A L S WITH T H R E E - W E E K - O L D C H I C K S ( E X P E R I M E N T I I I ) 2 T R E A T M E N T M E T A B O L i Z A B L E E N E R G Y K C A L / K G U N A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D MEAL 1 7 5 6 A A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D MEAL 1 8 5 9 A ^ T H E S T A T I S T I C A L A N A L Y S I S OF THE DATA 1N T H I S T A B L E IS SHOWN IN T A B L E 1 2 ( A ) IN THE A P P E N D I X • 2 MEAN V A L U E S H A V I N G T H E SAME S U P E R S C R 1 P T ARE NOT S I G N I F I C A N T L Y D 1 F F E R E N T ( P «= 0.05).: D I S C U S S I O N I N V I T R O P E P S I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y S T U D I E S WERE CONDUCTED TO D E T E R M I N E THE E F F E C T OF A U T O C L A V I N G ON THE P R O T E I N Q U A L I T Y OF D I F F E R E N T R A P E S E E D M E A L S . P R O T E I N Q U A L I T Y OF H E X A N E - E X T R A C T E D R A P E S E E D MEAL ( L A B O R A T O R Y P R E P A R A T I O N ) WAS S I G N I F I C A N T L Y REDUCED BY A U T O C L A V I N G FOR 0 . 5 , 1.0, AND 1.5 HOURS, I N D I C A T I N G THAT THE DAMAGING E F F E C T OF HEAT IS TO RENDER SOME OF THE P R O T E I N I N D I G E S T I B L E TO P E P S I N . THE R E S U L T S A G R E E WITH THOSE OF G E H R T _ E T _ A L . (1955) WHO FOUND AN I N C R E A S E IN P E P S I N- I NO I G E S T I B L E M A T T E R IN O V E R H E A T E D F I S H M E A L . T H R E E OTHER R A P E S E E D MEALS (OTTAWA NO. 1, A L B E R T A AND R A P E S E E D MEAL ( L A B O R A T O R Y P R E P A R A T I O N ) WERE S I M I L A R I L Y A F F E C T E D BY A U T O C L A V I N G . THE A D D I T I O N OF G L U C O S E TO T H E R A P E S E E D MEALS R E S U L T E D IN A F U R T H E R D E C R E A S E IN P R O T E I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y UPON A U T O C L A V I N G (P <=0.05). I T S E E M S R E A S O N A B L E , ON T H E B A S I S OF THE WORK OF M A I L L A R D (1912) AND RUTKOWSKI (1970), THAT I N C R E A S I N G C O N C E N T R A T I O N S OF F R E E R E D U C I N G SUGARS IN T H E MEAL D E C R E A S E D THE P R O T E I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y UPON H E A T - T R E A T M E N T DUE TO AN I N T E R A C T I O N BETWEEN AMINO A C I D S AND R E D U C I N G S U G A R S , I . E . NON-ENZYMAT1C BROWNING R E A C T I O N . THE D E T E R M I N A T I O N OF THE E F F E C T OF A U T O C L A V I N G ON P R O T E I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y OF R A P E S E E D M E A L S WAS I N D E P E N D E N T OF P E P S I N C O N C E N T R A T I O N . I T I S , T H E R E F O R E , C O N C L U D E D THAT THE USE OF D I F F E R E N T P E P S I N C O N C E N T R A T I O N S IN T H I S STUD^Y D I D NOT A F F E C T T H E O V E R A L L P A T T E R N 0 6 T H E R E S U L T S . 35 F E E D I N G OF A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D MEAL S I G N I F I C A N T L Y D E P R E S S E D THE GROWTH RATE OF C H I C K S COMPARED TO THE C O N T R O L . S I M I L A R R E S U L T S WERE R E P O R T E D BY G R A Y _ E T _ A L . (1957) AND C L A N D I N I N (1965), WHO R E P O R T E D D E P R E S S I O N IN GROWTH RATE BY F E E D I N G A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D M E A L S . THE POORER GROWTH O B T A I N E D WITH THE F E E D I N G OF A U T O C L A V E D MEAL WAS P R O B A B L Y DUE TO A D V E R S E E F F E C T OF A U T O C L A V I N G ON THE P R O T E I N C O N T E N T OF THE MEAL . R S I G N I F I C A N T IMPROVEMENT IN WEIGHT G A I N OCCURRED WITH BOTH CONTROL AND A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D MEAL D I E T S WHEN A D D I T I O N A L L Y S I N E WAS P R O V I D E D . MAXIMUM GROWTH WAS O B S E R V E D WITH 0.16$ L Y S I N E S U P P L E -M E N T A T I O N IN THE D I E T OF U N A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D M E A L . HOWEVER, I N C R E A S I N G S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N TO 0.24$ D I D NOT IMPROVE GROWTH F U R T H E R , AND T HE H I G H E S T L E V E L OF L Y S I N E S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N (0.32$) D E P R E S S E D iii HE GROWTH. WITH THE A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D MEAL MAXIMUM GROWTH WAS O B T A I N E D WITH 0.24$ L Y S I N E S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N , BUT D E P R E S S I O N IN GROWTH OCCURRED WITH 0.32$ S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N . THE D I F F E R E N C E BETWEEN T HE TWO T R E A T M E N T S IN MAXIMAL GROWTH R E S P O N S E TO L Y S I N E S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N S U P P O R T S T HE I D E A THAT A U T O C L A V I N G D E S T R O Y S L Y S I N E IN R A P E S E E D MEAL OR RENDERS I T B I O L O G I C A L L Y U N A V A I L A B L E . T H I S R E S U L T IS A G R E E A B L E WITH T H E IN V I T R O S T U D Y AND A L S O WITH T H E R E S U L T S OF R E S E A R C H BY EV A N S AND B U T T S (1948), C L A N D I N I N AND R O B B L E E (1950), A L E X A N D E R AND H I L L (1952), RENNER E T A L . (1953), C L A N D I N I N .ET _AL . (1959), AND M US T A K AS _ET _AL . (1 962) WHO R E P O R T E D A L O S S OF L Y S I N E DUE TO HEAT T R E A T M E N T OF D I F F E R E N T V E G E T A B L E P R O T E I N S . GRAY _E_T _AL. (1957), HOWEVER, R E P O R T E D THAT F E E D I N G A U T O C L A V E D RAW R A P E S E E D MEAL TO C H I C K S IMPROVED THE GROWTH RATE COMPARED TO THE CONTROL, E V E N THOUGH T H E R E WAS A S I G N I F I C A N T D E C R E A S E IN L Y S I N E C O N T E N T OF THE A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D M E A L . ARNOLD E T A L . ( 1 9 7 1 ) AND S 1 MOV I C _ET _AL . ( 1 9 7 2 ) R E P O R T E D THAT A HEAT T R E A T M E N T M A R K E D L Y ENHANCED THE F E E D I N G V A L U E OF F U L L - F A T S O Y B E A N . S I M I L A R L Y WOODLY _ET _AL. ( 1 9 7 2 ) SHOWED A MARKED IMPROVEMENT IN T H E N U T R I T I V E V A L U E OF F U L L - F A T R A P E S E E D BY HEAT T R E A T M E N T S . T H E C O N T R A D I C T I O N S MAY BE DUE TO THE USE OF F U L L - F A T S E E D RATHER THAN E X T R A C T E D S E E D AS WAS DONE IN T H I S S T U D Y . T H I S S T U D Y I N D I C A T E S T H A T T H E L Y S I N E SHOULD BE S U P P L E M E N T E D TO A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D M E A L S , AS A L S O R E P O R T E D BY K R A T Z E R _ET _AL . ( 1 9 5 4 ) AND KLA I N _ET _AL . ( 1 9 5 6 ) . H E AT T R E A T M E N T OF R A P E S E E D MEAL HAD NO S I G N I F I C A N T E F F E C T ON T H E L I V E R WEIGHT E X P R E S S E D AS A P E R C E N T OF BODY WEIGHT. T H I S IS S I M I L A R TO T H E R E S U L T S OF BOWLAND _ET _AL. ( 1 9 6 3 ) WHO F E D R A P E S E E D MEAL TO 12-WEEK-OLD RATS AND TWO-HUNDRED-BOUND P I G S AND D I D NOT F I N D ANY S I G N I F I C A N T D I F F E R E N C E IN THE P E R C E N T A G E L I V E R WEIGHT. CARD IN E T A L . ( 1 9 6 8 ) FOUND NO S I G N I F I C A N T D I F F E R E N C E IN L I V E R WEIGHT OF L A Y I N G HENS WHEN P R E - P R E S S S O L V E N T - E X T R A C T E D AND D I R E C T S O L V E N T - E X T R A C T E D R A P E S E E D MEALS WERE I N C O R P O R A T E D AT L E V E L S OF 0, 4, 8, AND 1 2 $ IN T H E D I E T OF L A Y I N G H E N S . AKINWANDE ( 1 9 7 0 ) S I M I L A R I L Y FOUND THAT LOW AND H I G H E N E R G Y R A T I O N S C O N T A I N I N G R A P E S E E D MEAL HAD NO E F F E C T ON L I V E R WEIGHT E X P R E S S E D AS A P E R C E N T A G E OF BODY WEIGHT. OL I V E R _ET _AL . ( 1 9 7 1 ) , HOWEVER, R E P O R T E D G R E A T E R L I V E R WEIGHTS IN RATS R E C E I V I N G R A P E S E E D H I G H IN G L U C O S I N O L A T E S THAN IN RATS R E C E I V I N G R A P E S E E D MEAL LOW IN G L U C O S I N O L A T E S . T H E R E MAY BE A D I F F E R E N C E IN THE R E S P O N S E OF C H I C K S AND RATS TO G L U C O S I N O L A T E S . MANY OF THE M E T A B O L I C F U N C T I O N S I N V O L V I N G T H E L I V E R CAN BE A C C E N T U A T E D OR D E P R E S S E D BY THE D I E T A R Y CHANGES I N D I C A T I N G THE L A B I L E NATURE OF T H E L I V E R . A L T E R A T I O N IN F E E D C O N S U M P T I O N , CHANGES IN THE ORGAN S I Z E AND C O M P O S I T I O N AND CHANGES IN ENZYME A C T I V I T I E S HAVE B E E N O B S E R V E D IN A N I M A L S S U B J E C T E D TO D I E T A R Y CHANGES ( R A S T A G N O AND F E A T H E R S T O N , 1 9 7 0 ) . BARBER E J _AL. ( 1 9 6 1 ) HAVE NOTED THAT L I V E R WEIGHT OF P I G S MAY BE I N F L U E N C E D BY D I E T AND L I V E R MAY UNDERGO V A R I A B L E D E G R E E S OF C O M P E N S A T O R Y H Y P E R T R O P H Y TO OVERCOME N U T R I T I O N A L S T R E S S . T O X I N SUCH AS O C H R A T O X I N , PRODUCED IN F E E D S T U F F S , I N C R E A S E D THE R E L A T I V E WEIGHT OF L I V E R S I G N I F I C A N T L Y (P " ^ O . O S ) IN THE MALE C H I C K S WHEN ADDED IN COMMERCIAL D I E T OF C H I C K S ( T U C K E R AND H A M I L T O N , 1 9 7 1 ) . |N T H I S S T U D Y L I V E R WEIGHT AS A P E R C E N T OF BODY WEIGHT WAS D E T E R M I N E D AS A GROSS MEASURE OF P O S S I B L E A B S O R B A B L E H E A T - S E N S I T I VE T O X I C COMPOUNDS IN R A P E S E E D MEAL WHICH M I G H T C A U S E A D I S P R O P O R T I O N A T E I N C R E A S E IN L I V E R S I Z E . T HE R E S U L T S IN T H I S S T U D Y I N D I C A T E NO SUCH E F F E C T ON THE L I V E R OF R A P E S E E D M E A L - F E D C H I C K S . T H E P A N C R E A S WEIGHT WAS D E T E R M I N E D AS A P E R C E N T A G E OF BODY WEIGHT TO G I V E AN I N D I C A T I O N OF THE P O S S I B L E P R E S E N C E OF " A N T I T R Y P S I N F A C T O R " IN R A P E S E E D M E A L . S U C H A F A C T O R HAS B E E N R E P O R T E D IN RAW S O Y B E A N MEAL BY C HE R N 1 C K _ET _AL . ( 1 9 4 8 ) , S C O T T _ET _AL. ( 1 9 6 9 ) AND S C H A I B L E ( 1 9 7 0 ) TO C A U S E AN I N C R E A S E IN THE P A N C R E A S S I Z E , R E L A T I VE TO BODY S I Z E . T HE R E S U L T S OF T H I S S T U D Y SHOWED THAT THE P A N C R E A S WEIGHT AS A P E R C E N T A G E OF BODY WEIGHT WAS S I G N I F I C A N T L Y H I G H E R IN THE C H I C K S R E C E I V I N G THE A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D MEAL THAN IN THE C O N T R O L . T H I S D I F F E R E N C E MAY BE DUE TO THE F A S T E R GROWTH OF T H E CONTROL B I R D S WHICH M I G H T BE R E F L E C T E D IN A R E L A T I V E L Y F A S T E R I N C R E A S E IN W EIGHT IN S K E L E T A L M U S C L E S AND BONES THAN IN I N T E R N A L ORGANS SUCH AS T H E P A N C R E A S . T H I S E X P L A N A T I O N MAY A L S O A C C O U N T FOR T H E S M A L L E R L I V E R P E R C E N T A G E WEIGHT IN THE B I R D S R E C E I V I N G 0 . 1 6 $ S U P P L E M E N T A R Y L Y S I N E AS COMPARED TO T H O S E R E C E I V I N G 0 AND 0 . 3 2 $ S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N . ( T A B L E 1 0 ) . ON T H E B A S I S OF THE R E S U L T S O B T A I N E D IN T H I S S T U D Y T H E R E DOES NOT A P P E A R TO BE A " A N T I T R Y P S I N FACTOR 1' IN R A P E S E E D M E A L . THE M E T A B O L I Z A B L E E N E R G Y I N C R E A S E D N O N - S I G N I F I C A N T L Y IN THE A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D M E A L S . V A R I O U S OTHER AUTHORS ( H L L L AND RENNER, 1 9 6 3 , N E S H E I M AND G A R L I C K , 1 9 6 6 , E L - L A K A N Y E T A L . 1 9 6 9 ) HAVE R E P O R T E D AN IMPROVEMENT DUE TO H E A T I N G IN THE M E T A B O L I Z A B L E E N E R G Y OF S U C H F E E D S T U F F S AS S O Y B E A N MEAL AND WHEAT. THE F A I L U R E TO O B T A I N A S I G N I F I C A N T IMPROVEMENT IN M E T A B O L I Z A B L E E N E R G Y BY A U T O C L A V I N G IN T H I S S T U D Y MAY BE DUE TO A C O N C O M I T A N T I N C R E A S E IN D I G E S T I B I L I T Y OF SOME N U T R I E N T S AND D E C R E A S E IN D I G E S T I B I L I T Y OF OTHERS S U C H AS P R O T E I N , A C O N T R I B U T I N G F A C T O R FOR M E T A B O L I Z A B L E E N E R G Y . SUMMARY THE S T U D Y WAS C A R R I E D OUT TO D E T E R M I N E T H E E F F E C T OF HEAT T R E A T M E N T ON T H E P R O T E I N Q U A L I T Y AND M E T A B O L I Z A B L E E N E R G Y V A L U E OF R A P E S E E D M E A L . P R O T E I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y IN V I T R O , C H I C K GROWTH AND M E T A B O L I Z A B L E E N E R G Y IN V I V O WERE USED AS C R I T E R I A . V A R I O U S S A M P L E S OF R A P E S E E D M E A L S WERE A U T O C L A V E D AT 6.81 KG P R E S S U R E ( 1 2 1 ° C) FOR D I F F E R E N T P E R I O D S AND P E P S I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y OF T H E R E S U L T I N G MEALS WAS D E T E R M I N E D . A S I G N I F I C A N T ( P < 0 . 0 5 ) R E D U C T I O N IN P R O T E I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y WAS O B S E R V E D UPON A U T O C L A V I N G . A U T O C L A V I N G OF R A P E S E E D MEAL WITH G L U C O S E F U R T H E R REDUCED P R O T E I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y ( P < 0 . 0 5 ) COMPARED TO T H E A U T O C L A V E D MEAL WITHOUT G L U C O S E . THE S I G N I F I C A N T R E D U C T I O N IN P R O T E I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y OF A U T O C L A V E D M E A L S I N D I C A T E S A DAMAGE IN P R O T E I N BY H E A T I N G . THE A D V E R S E E F F E C T OF A U T O C L A V I N G OF R A P E S E E D MEAL IS O B S E R V E D WITH D I F F E R E N T C O N C E N T R A T I O N S OF P E P S I N USED IN T H E IN V I T R O T E S T . F E E D I N G A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D MEAL TO C H I C K S C A U S E D POOR GROWTH AND F E E D E F F I C I E N C Y AS COMPARED TO THE F E E D I N G OF U N A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D M E A L . IN BOTH R A T I O N S , A U T O C L A V E D AND U N A U T O C L A V E D , L Y S I N E S U P P L E -M E N T A T I O N IMPROVED THE GROWTH RATE AND F E E D E F F I C I E N C Y . MAXIMUM C H I C K GROWTH WAS O B T A I N E D WITH 0 . 1 6 $ L Y S I N E S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N TO THE UN-A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D MEAL C O N T A I N I N G D I E T , WHEREAS AN A D D I T I O N OF 4 0 0 . 2 4 $ L Y S I N E M A X I M I Z E D T HE GROWTH OF C H I C K S R E C E I V I N G A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D M E A L . HEAT T R E A T M E N T E V I D E N T L Y R E S U L T E D IN L O S S OF L Y S I N E . L I V E R WEIGHT E X P R E S S E D AS A P E R C E N T OF BODY WEIGHT DID NOT D I F F E R S I G N I F I C A N T L Y ( P < 0 . 0 5 ) BETWEEN THE TWO T R E A T M E N T S ( A U T O C L A V E D AND U N A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D MEALS ) , BUT P E R C E N T P A N C R E A S WEIGHT WAS S I G N I F I C A N T L Y ( P < 0 . 0 5 ) G R E A T E R IN THE B I R D S R E C E I V I N G A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D MEAL THAN IN C O N T R O L . THERE WAS NO S I G N I F I C A N T D I F F E R E N C E IN M E T A B O L I Z A B L E E N E R G Y V A L U E OF A U T O C L A V E D AND U N A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D M E A L S . R E F E R E N C E S AKINWANDE, A. I . , 1 9 7 0 . I N F L U E N C E OF D I E T A R Y E N E R G Y ON THE U T I L I Z A T I O N OF R A P E S E E D MEAL BY L A Y I N G HENS. M. S c . T H E S I S , U N I V E R S I T Y OF M A N i T O B A . A L E X A N D E R , J . C . AND D. C . H I L L , 1 9 5 2 . THE E F F E C T OF HEAT ON T H E L Y S I N E AND M E T H I O N I N E IN SUNFLOWER S E E D O I L M E A L . J . N U T R I T I O N . 4 8 : 1 4 9 - 1 5 9 . A L M Q U I S T , H. J . , E . L . R. S T O K S T A D AND E . R. HALBROOK, 1 9 3 5 . S U P P L E M E N T A R Y V A L U E S OF ANIMAL P R O T E I N C O N C E N T R A T E S IN C H I C K R A T I O N S . J . N U T R I T I O N . 1 0 : 1 9 3 - 2 1 1 . ARNOLD, J . B., J . D. SUMMER AND W. K. B I L A N S K I , 1 9 7 1 . N U T R I T I O N A L V A L U E OF HEAT T R E A T E D WHOLE S O Y B E A N S . C A N . J . A N I M . S c I . 5 1 : 5 7 - 6 5 . ASTWOOD, E . B., M. A. G R E E R AND M. G. E T T L I N G E R , 1 9 4 9 . L - 5 - V I N Y L -2 - T H I O X A Z O L I DONE, AN A N T I T H Y R O I D COMPOUND FROM YELLOW T U R N I P AND FROM B R A S S I C A S E E D S . J . B I O L . CHEM. 1 8 1 : 1 2 1 - 1 3 0 . B A R L I E R , R. S . , J . P. BOWLAND, R. BRAUDE, K. G. M I T C H E L L AND J . W. G. PORTER, 1 9 6 1 . C O P P E R S U L P H A T E AND C O P P E R S U L P H I T E ( C U S ) AS S U P P L E M E N T S FOR GROWING P I G S . B R I T . J . N U T R I T I O N . 1 5 : 1 8 9 - 1 9 7 . B E L L , J . M. AND R. T. B E L Z I L E , 1 9 6 5 . R A P E S E E D MEAL FOR L I V E S T O C K AND P O U L T R Y - A R E V I E W . CANADA D E P T . A G R I C U L T U R E , OTTAWA, P P . 4 5 - 6 1 . B E N S A B A T , L . V. L . FRAMPTON, L . E . A L L E N AND R. A. H I L L , 1 9 5 8 . E F F E C T OF P R O C E S S I N G ON THE E P S I L O N - A M I N O GROUPS OF L Y S I N E IN P E A N U T P R O T E I N S . J . A G R I . FOOD CHEM. 6 : 7 7 8 . B L A I Z O T , P. AND P O L I A K O F F , J . , 1 9 5 9 . A L E A G I N E U X V. 1 4 , p . 3 9 . B L A K E L Y , R. M. AND R. W. ANDERSON, 1 9 4 8 . S T U D I E S WITH R A P E S E E D O I L CAKE M E A L . I . T H E E F F E C T OF V A R I O U S L E V E L S OF R A P E S E E D O I L CAKE MEAL IN THE D I E T ON THE WEIGHT OF THE T H Y R O I D GLANDS OF T U R K E Y P O U L T S . S c i . A G R I . 2 8 : 3 9 3 - 3 9 7 . BOWLAND, J . P., S . Z I V K O V I C AND J . G. MANNS, 1 9 6 3 . S O L V E N T - E X T R A C T E D I; R A P E S E E D O I L MEAL AS A P R O T E I N SOURCE FOR P I G S AND R A T S . I V . L I V E R WEIGHTS AND V I T . A S T O R A G E IN L I V E R . C A N . J . A N I M . S C I . 4 3 : 2 7 9 - 2 8 4 . 4 2 C A R D I N , D. W., J . E . MARR, R. A. ZIMMERMAN AND D. E . S N E T S I N G E R , 1 9 6 8 . THE USE OF R A P E S E E D O I L MEAL IN COMMERCIAL L A Y E R D I E T S . P O U L T R Y S c . 4 7 : 1 6 5 9 - 1 6 6 0 . C A R R O L L , K. K., 1 9 4 9 . I S O L A T I O N OF AN A N T I - T H Y R O I D COMPOUND FROM R A P E S E E D ( B R A S S I C A N A P U S ) . PROC. S O C . E X P . B I O L . MED. 7 1 : 6 2 2 - 6 2 4 . C H E R N I C K , S . S . , S . L E P K O V S K Y AND J . L . C H A I K O F F , 1 9 4 8 . A D I E T A R Y F A C T O R R E G U L A T I N G THE ENZYME C O N T E N T OF T H E P A N C R E A S . 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R A P E S E E D MEAL FOR L I V E S T O C K AND P O U L T R Y - - A R E V I E W . CANADA D E P T . OF A G R I C U L T U R E , OTTAWA. W I T Z , W. M., M. M. C A R P E N T E R AND J . W. HAYWARD, 1 9 5 0 . N U T R I T I O N A L S T U D I E S WITH R A P E S E E D M E A L . P O U L T R Y S C I . 2 9 : 7 8 6 . WOODLY, A . , J . D. SUMMERS AND W. K. B I L A N S K I , 1 9 7 2 . E F F E C T S OF HEAT T R E A T M E N T ON THE N U T R I T I O N A L V A L U E OF WHOLE R A P E S E E D FOR P O U L T R Y . C A N . J . A N I M . S C I . 5 2 : 1 8 9 - 1 9 4 . Y O U N G S , C C . G., L . R. W E T T E R AND G. S. B O U L T E R , 1 9 7 2 . C A N A D I A N R A P E S E E D MEAL IN P O U L T R Y AND ANIMAL F E E D I N G . R A P E S E E D A S S O C I A T I O N OF CANADA, P U B L I C A T I O N NO. 1 6 . A P P E N D I X T A B L E 1 ( A ) . — A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E FOR T H E P R O T E I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y OF R A P E S E E D MEAL ( L A B O R A T O R Y P R E P A R A T I O N , E X P E R I M E N T I , PART A) S O U R C E OF V A R I A N C E D . F. S.S • M.S . F. T R E A T M E N T 3 3 8 3 . 6 5 1 2 7 . 8 8 1 4 3 . 6 7 * ERROR 4 3. 5 9 0 . 8 9 T O T A L 7 3 8 7 . 2 4 ^ S I G N I F I C A N T AT ( P < 0 . 0 5 ) . T A B L E 2 ( A ) . - - A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E FOR THE; P R O T E I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y OF R A P E S E E D M E A L S A U T O C L A V E D WITH AND WITHOUT G L U C O S E ( E X P E R I M E N T I , PART B) S O U R C E OF V A R I A N C E D . F . S. S. M. ,S. F. T R E A T M E N T 2 3 8 0 . 5 5 2 8 1 9 0 . . 2 7 6 4 7 3 . 3 0 1 6 * R A P E S E E D M E A L S 2 1 6 4 . 6 7 1 1 82. . 3 3 5 5 3 1 . 7 1 8 7 * ERROR 1 3 3 3 . 7 4 6 3 2, . 5 9 5 8 T O T A L 1 7 5 7 8 . 9 7 0 2 * S I G N I F I C A N T AT ( P < 0 . 0 5 ) . T A B L E 3 ( A ) . - - A N A L Y S i s OF V A R I A N C E FOR T H E P R O T E I N D I G E S T I B I L I T Y OF A C O M P O S I T E S A M P L E OF COMMERCIAL R A P E S E E D MEAL ( E X P E R I M E N T I, PART C ) 0 . 0 1 $ P E P S I N S O U R C E OF V A R I A N C E D . F . S . S . M.S. F. T R E A T M E N T 1 1 1 3 . 2 1 1 1 3 . 2 1 1 1 3 2 1 . 0 * ERROR 2 0 . 0 2 0.01 T O T A L 3 1 1 3 . 2 3 0 . 0 0 2 $ P E P S i N S O U R C E OF V A R I A N C E D . F . S . S . M.S. F . T R E A T M E N T 1 1 3 4 . 9 1 1 3 4 . 9 1 4 0 8 . 8 1 * ERROR 2 0 . 6 6 0 . 3 3 1 T O T A L 3 1 3 5 . 5 7 * S I G N I F I C A N T AT ( P *= 0 . 0 5 ) . T A B L E 4 ( A ) . - - A N A L Y S i s OF V A R I A N C E FOR WEIGHT G A I N OF C H I C K S FED A C O M P O S I T E S A M P L E OF COMMERCIAL R A P E S E E D M E A L S S U P P L Y I N G 4 $ P R O T E I N IN A W H E A T - B A S E D R A T I O N OF 1 5 . 0 $ P R O T E I N ( E X P E R I M E N T l l ) S O U R C E OF V A R I A N C E D . F . S . S . M . S . F. T R E A T M E N T 1 2 , 3 5 8 . 5 3 2 , 3 5 8 . 5 3 2 0 . 1 5 * L Y S I N E S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N 4 2 5 , 8 9 2 . 8 7 6 , 4 7 3 . 2 1 5 5 . 3 2 * T R E A T M E N T X L Y S I N E S U P P L E M E NTAT1 ON 4 1 0 0 . 4 7 2 5 . 1 1 0 . 2 1 ERROR 2 0 2 , 3 4 0 . 0 1 1 7 . 0 T O T A L 2 9 3 0 , 6 9 1 . 8 7 * S l G N I F I C A N T A T (P < 0 . 0 5 ) . T A B L E 5 ( A ) . — A N A L Y S i s OF V A R I A N C E FOR F E E D E F F I C I E N C Y OF C H I C K S FED A C O M P O S I T E S A M P L E OF COMMERCIAL R A P E S E E D MEALS S U P P L Y I N G 4 $ P R O T E I N IN A W H E A T - B A S E D R A T I O N OF 1 5 . 0 $ P R O T E I N ( E X P E R I M E N T l l ) S O U R C E OF V A R I A N C E D . F . S . S . M.S. F . T R E A T M E N T 1 0 . 0 0 0 9 0 . 0 0 0 9 1 1 . 2 5 * L Y S I N E S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N 4 0 . 0 1 9 3 0 . 0 0 4 8 6 0 . 0 * T R E A T M E N T X L Y S I N E S U P P L E M E N T A T 1 ON 4 0 . 0 0 0 3 0 . 0 0 0 0 7 5 0 . 9 3 7 5 ERROR 2 0 0 . 0 0 1 6 0 . 0 0 0 0 8 T O T A L 2 9 0 . 0 2 2 1 * S l G N I F I C A N T A T (P - = 0 . 0 5 ) . T A B L E 6 ( A ) . — A N A L Y S i s OF V A R I A N C E FOR WEIGHT G A I N OF C H I C K S FED A C O M P O S I T E S A M P L E OF COMMERCIAL R A P E S E E D M E A L S ( C O N T R O L AND A U T O C L A V E D ) FOR A FOUR-WEEK P E R I O D ( E X P E R I M E N T l l ) S O U R C E OF V A R I A N C E D . F . S . S . M.S. F . T R E A T M E N T 9 2 8 , 3 5 1 . 8 7 3 , 1 5 0 . 2 0 2 6 . 9 2 * ERROR 2 0 2 , 3 4 0 . 0 1 1 7 . 0 T O T A L 2 9 3 0 , 6 9 1 . 8 7 *S1GN1 F1 C A N T AT (P < 0 . 0 5 ) . T A B L E 7 ( A ) . A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E FOR F E E D E F F I C I E N C Y OF C H E C K S FED A C O M P O S I T E S A M P L E OF COMMERCIAL R A P E S E E D M E A L S ( C O N T R O L AND A U T O C L A V E D ) FOR A FOUR-WEEK P E R I O D ( E X P E R I M E N T l l ) S O U R C E OF V A R I A N C E D . F . S . S . M.S. F . T R E A T M E N T 9 0 . 0 2 0 5 0 . 0 0 2 2 2 7 . 5 0 * ERROR 2 0 0 . 0 0 1 6 0 . 0 0 0 0 8 T O T A L 2 9 0 . 0 2 2 1 • S I G N I F I C A N T AT ( P - = 0 . 0 5 ) . T A B L E 8 ( A ) . - - A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E FOR L I V E R WEIGHTS OF C H I C K S FED A C O M P O S I T E S A M P L E OF COMMERCIAL R A P E S E E D M E A L S S U P P L Y I N G 4 $ P R O T E I N IN A W HEAT-BASED R A T I O N OF 1 5 . 0 $ P R O T E I N ( E X P E R I M E N T l l ) S O U R C E OF V A R I A N C E D . F . S . S . M.S. F. T R E A T M E N T 1 0 . 0 2 2 2 0 . 0 2 2 2 1 . 7 4 0 8 L Y S I N E S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N 2 0 . 1 5 2 9 0 . 0 7 6 4 6 . 0 1 5 7 * ERROR 14 0 . . 1 7 8 0 0 . 0 1 2 7 T O T A L 17 0 . 3531 _ * S l G N I F I C A N T A T ,{'P < 0 . 0 5 ) . T A B L E 9 ( A ) . — A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E FOR P A N C R E A S WEIGHTS OF C H I C K S F E D A C O M P O S I T E S A M P L E OF COMMERCIAL R A P E S E E D M E A L S S U P P L Y I N G 4 $ P R O T E I N IN A W H E A T - B A S E D R A T I O N OF 1 5 . 0 $ P R O T E I N ( E X P E R I M E N T l l ) S O U R C E OF V A R I A N C E D . F . S • S. M.S. F . T R E A T M E N T 1 0 . 0 0 2 6 0 . 0 0 2 6 6 . 5 * L Y S I N E S U P P L E M E N T A T I O N 2 0 . 0 0 7 2 0 . 0 0 3 6 9 . 0 * ERROR 14 0 . 0 0 6 0 . 0 0 0 4 T O T A L 17 0 . 0 1 5 8 * S l G N I F I C A N T A T (P «= 0 . 0 5 ) . 5 7 T A B L E 1 0 ( A ) . — A N A L Y S i s OF V A R I A N C E FOR L I V E R WEIGHTS OF C H I C K S F E D A C O M P O S I T E S A M P L E OF COMMERCIAL R A P E S E E D M E A L S S U P P L Y I N G 4 $ P R O T E I N IN A W H E A T - B A S E D R A T I O N OF 1 5 . 0 $ P R O T E I N ( E X P E R I M E N T l l ) S O U R C E OF V A R I A N C E D . F . S . S . M.S. F . T R E A T M E N T ERROR T O T A L 5 12 17 0 . 1 8 7 6 0 . 1 6 5 5 0 . 3 5 3 1 0 . 0 3 7 5 0 . 0 1 3 7 2 . 7 3 7 2 T A B L E 1 1 ( A ) . - - A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E FOR P A N C R E A S WEIGHTS OF C H I C K S FED A C O M P O S I T E S A M P L E OF COMMERCIAL R A P E S E E D M E A L S S U P P L Y I N G 4 $ P R O T E I N IN A W H E A T - B A S E D R A T I O N OF 1 5 . 0 $ P R O T E I N ( E X P E R I M E N T LL) S O U R C E OF V A R I A N C E D . F . S . S . M.S. F . T R E A T M E N T 5 0 . 0 1 0 2 0 . 0 0 2 5 . 0 * ERROR 12 0 . 0 0 5 6 0 . 0 0 0 4 - - — T O T A L 1 7 0 . 0 1 5 8 • S I G N I F I C A N T AT ( P < 0 . 0 5 ) . T A B L E 1 2 ( A ) . — A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E FOR T H E M E T A B O L I Z A B L E E N E R G Y V A L U E S OF U N A U T O C L A V E D AND A U T O C L A V E D R A P E S E E D M E A L S ( E X P E R I M E N T I I I ) S O U R C E OF V A R I A N C E D . F . S . S . M.S. F. T R E A T M E N T ERROR 1 4 1 6 , 0 5 1 . 2 1 , 7 2 0 . 82 10 1 6 , 0 5 1 . 1 5 , 4 3 0 . CM CM CD O 2 . 9 5 6 1 T O T A L 5 3 7 , 7 7 1 . 9 2 

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