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The Canadian response to the Irish famine emigration of 1847 Harvey, Leslie Anne 1973

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THE CANADIAN RESPONSE TO THE IRISH FAMINE EMIGRATION OF 1847 by LESLIE ANNE HARVEY B.A. (Hon.), U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a , 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of H i s t o r j r We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1973 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of /-/•t^tar The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada ABSTRACT In 1847, 215,00 I r i s h f l e d t h e i r f a m i n e - s t r i c k e n and diseased homeland, and of t h i s number, some 90,000 headed f o r the shores o f Canada. I t was both the l a r g e s t and most diseased and d e s t i t u t e emigration t h a t Canada had ever r e c e i v e d , and i t caught the colony almost t o t a l l y by s u r p r i s e . Many Canadians had been a b l e t o f o l l o w the course of t h e potato b l i g h t and famine i n I r e l a n d , but very few appeared t o have considered t h e i r impact on the emigration t o Canada. They had the as s u r -ances ox those best informed about the c o n d i t i o n of I r e l a n d j the I m p e r i a l Government, that, no e x t r a o r d i n a r y measures would be needed; why should t h e i r . w o r d be doubted? In t he f i r s t weeks of t h e Immigration season, Canadians discovered t h a t the I m p e r i a l a u t h o r i t i e s were wrong; the colony found i t s e l f f o r c e d to d e a l w i t h an abnormal immigration -with o n l y the meagre st p r e p a r a t i o n s , Canadian emigration o f f i c i a l s spent the r e s t of t h e sea-son attempting t o recover from the shock o f those f i r s t weeks; a l l they could do was attempt to. r e l i e v e t h e s u f f e r i n g s of t h e immigrants t o the best of t h e i r a b i l i t y . Stop-gap r e l i e f measures were a u t h o r i z e d by the Canadian Government f o r as long as d i s t r e s s and disease were preva-l e n t ; p r i v a t e c h a r i t a b l e i n s t i t u t i o n s stepped i n t o p r o v i d s h e l t e r and care f o r t he h e l p l e s s among the immigrants. In the end, the colony'succeeded, d e s p i t e i t s f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , both i n enab l i n g the I r i s h t o r e g a i n t h e i r h e a l t h and i n making them producing members o f t h e community, something which few Canadians, at the height o f the c r i s i s , f e l t would be p o s s i b l e . This s u c c e s s f u l 'absorption' of the immigrants, however, had been accom-p l i s h e d o n l y w i t h d i f f i c u l t y and at great c o s t . This t h e s i s examines the Canadian response, and p a r t i c u l a r l y t h a t of the v a r i o u s l e v e l s of government, to the immi-g r a t i o n c r i s i s which i t faced i n 1847 and the s t r a i n s which t h i s c r i s i s placed upon the r e l a t i o n s of the I m p e r i a l and C o l o n i a l governments. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface: i x I n t r o d u c t i o n : 1 I : Famine and F l i g h t 14 I I : Canada - The Prelude 50 I I I : Canada - The Deluge 72 IV: Aftermath and Conclusions 145 B i b l i o g r a p h y : 139 V TABLES 1. Table Showing the Number of C l e r g y , M e d i c a l 93 Men, H o s p i t a l Attendants and others who con-t r a c t e d Fever and d i e d d u r i n g the season, i n attendance upon S i c k Emigrants at Grosse I s l e . B r i t i s h American J o u r n a l of M e d i c a l and  P h y s i c a l S c i e n c e s , V o l . I l l , No. 11 (March, 1843}, p. 285. 2 . O f f i c i a l Report o f B u r i a l s i n Montreal from 119 June 5 t o August 7, 1847. La Minerve. August 19, 1847. 3 . A comparison of Canada's Emigration Expen- 149 d i t u r e s w i t h t h a t of the Emigration Commit-te e appointed by the L e g i s l a t u r e of New York. Papers r e l a t i v e to e m i g r a t i o n , H.C, I848 ( 9 3 2 ) , V o l . XLVII, p. 7. E x t r a c t of a Report of the Committee of the Executive C o u n c i l on Matters o f S t a t e , December 3, 1847. 4. The Manner of .the d i s p o s a l of emigrants 152 a r r i v i n g at Toronto during the 1847 season. Papers r e l a t i v e t o e m i g r a t i o n , H.C, 1848 T 9 3 2 ) , V o l . XLVII, p. 2 2 . Enclosure i n E l g i n t o Grey, February 19, 184C 5. D i s t r i b u t i o n of emigrants who a r r i v e d i n the 155 Province o f Canada during the year 1847 as near as can be a s c e r t a i n e d . -Papers r e l a t i v e t o e m i g r a t i o n , H.C, 184-8 T964J, V o l . X L V I I , p. 2 5 . A.C Buchanan Annual Report, March 31, 1$48. 6 . Return o f the number of Admissions i n t o 157 H o s p i t a l , Discharges and Deaths of Emi-grants who a r r i v e d i n Canada during t h e season o f 18*47. Papers r e l a t i v e t o e m i g r a t i o n , H.C, 1848 (964), V o l . X L V I I , p. . 2 3 . A.C. Buchanan Annual Report, March 31, 1848. v i TABLES 7 . Return o f the Number of Emigrants Em- 159 barked, w i t h the Number o f B i r t h s and Deaths dur i n g the Voyage and i n Quar-a n t i n e , the T o t a l Number landed i n the Colony, d i s t i n g u i s h i n g Males from Fe-males and Adults from C h i l d r e n . Papers r e l a t i v e t o em i g r a t i o n . H.C., 1848 ( 9 6 4 ) , V o l . X L V I I , p. 2 1 . A.C.Buchanan Annual Report, March 31, 1843. 3. Return of the Trades or C a l l i n g of the 160 Emigrants who landed at the Ports of Quebec and Montreal during the Year 1347. Papers r e l a t i v e t o emigration , H.C., I 8 4 8 (964), V o l . XLVII, p. 2 4 . A.C. Buchanan Annual Report, March 3 1 , 1343. 9 . The t o t a l expenditures f o r emigration I 6 9 purposes to March 1 , I 8 4 8 . Papers r e l a t i v e t o em i g r a t i o n , H.C., 1843 T 9 6 4 ) , V o l . XLVII, pp. 1 8 - 9 . A.C. Buchanan Annual Report, March 3 1 , I 8 4 8 . v i i ILLUSTRATIONS 1. I r e l a n d i n I 8 4 8 19 2. Quarantine Wharf, Grosse I s l e 51 3. Quarantine S t a t i o n and B u i l d i n g s , 51 Grosse I s l e 4» Roman C a t h o l i c Church and Presby- 52 t e r y , Grosse I s l e 5 . Old Cemetery, Grosse I s l e , where the 52 V i c t i m s o f 1847 Are B u r i e d 6 . Quebec C i t y i n 1845 83 7 . M o n t r e a l i n 1839 86 8 . Toronto i n 1834 91 ' 9 . The Province of Canada and I t s Water- 96 ways about. 1848 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . I would l i k e to thank Dr. J , Winter and Dr. M..M. Tolmie who f i r s t suggested t h i s t o p i c to me. I am very-g r a t e f u l f o r the p a t i e n t and h e l p f u l a s s i s t a n c e which my t h e s i s s u p e r v i s o r , Dr. R.V. Kubicek, has o f f e r e d . i x PREFACE I f e a r t h a t i n the course o f my t h e s i s I have l e f t many questions unanswered. I have not described the nature of the immigration i n any more d e t a i l than was necessary f o r the understanding of the problems which i t posed f o r the Canadian community, and thus, the immigrants f i g u r e as l i t t l e more than d i s t r e s s e d and diseased s t a t i s t i c s . I t was not my i n t e n t i o n t o d e s c r i b e the process o f a s s i m i l a t i o n of these immigrants, f o r such a study would r e q u i r e much more time and f a r g r e a t e r resources than I had at my d i s p o s a l . The immigrants themselves are perhaps the most d i f f i c u l t aspect o f the study of the a s s i m i l a t i o n process to r e s e a r c h , f o r they appear to have l e f t very few records; only by choosing one community and spending a great deal of time t h e r e , ra n s a c k i n g i t s v a r i o u s a r c h i v e s , cari. one attempt a proper study of the a c c u l t u r a t i o n of a group of I r i s h immigrants. A l s o , f o r such a study one must be able t o develop an i n t i m a t e knowledge of the immigrants' host community (something again which i s very d i f f i c u l t to achieve without spending a great d e a l of time i n the community I t s e l f ) - . What I have done i s to l a y t h e ground work f o r such a study, f o r I have brought the immigrants to Canada and, I t h i n k , demonstrated the immediate problems which they posed f o r the Canadian community, as w e l l as the Canadian responses t o and s o l u t i o n s f o r these problems,. The next step i n the study of the I r i s h Famine Immigrants (which I hope to be able to under-take) would be a d e t a i l e d examination o f t h e i r a s s i m i -l a t i o n i n one Canadian community (perhaps u s i n g Oscar Handlin's Boston's Immigrants as a model) over a p e r i o d of t h i r t y to f o r t y y ears. INTRODUCTION 1 Between March and September of 1847, more than 95,000 Irishmen l e f t t h e i r blighted and diseased homeland f o r the shores of Canada; t h i s represented nearly three times the number of immigrants which Canada had received during the course of any previous year,-*- But the magnitude was not the only unprecedented aspect of the immigration; the I r i s h immigrants of 1047 were by f a r the most d e s t i t u t e and diseased population which Canada had eyer seen. Typhus and dysentery; had accompanied the I r i s h Famine immigrants to Canada; by the end of the year, at l e a s t 20,000 I r i s h had died i n Canada, while another 17,000 souls had never reached her shores, perishing during the crossing.^Very few of the immigrants who survived the ordeals o f the crossing and the quarantine had any resources or s k i l l s to f a l l back upon, and those who did u s u a l l y passed on to the United States. This meant that Canada had not only to pay f o r the care of those who had f a l l e n s i c k , but also had to provide some form of r e l i e f f o r the d e s t i t u t e . Unfortunately, t h i 3 d i s a s t e r had struck a Canada which was unprepared to cope with such a large diseased and d e s t i t u t e immigration. In order to better understand the problems which t h i s immigra-t i o n o f 1347 presented to Canada, as w e l l as the Canadian co l o n i s t s * e f f o r t s to deal with these problems, i t i s necessary f i r s t to examine b r i e f l y the nature of the society o f pre-famine Ireland, the e a r l y movement of the I r i s h i n t o Canada (1815-44) and Canada's a b i l i t y to absorb them. 2 With the help of t h i s study (as w e l l as the benefits of hindsight} the reader w i l l be able to follow the develop-ment of a course of action, or inaction, on the parts of the Canadian, English and Irish peoples which was to climax in the disaster of 1847. For pre-famine Ireland, the crucial factor at the root of most of i t s p o l i t i c a l and social i l l s was the fact that a high proportion of i t s rapidly increasing population lived below the subsistence l e v e l . Between 17&5 and 1&45, Ireland's population had Increased by four million at home and had contributed another 1 , 7 5 0 , 0 0 0 souls to the populations of England and North America.3 Ireland's population growth during this period had managed to keep pace with that of England, which was then undergoing an unprecedented indus-t r i a l expansion, a process unknown to Ireland.^ What en-couraged population growth in Ireland was not an expanding economy, but rather the apparent ease with which an Irish peasant could eke out an existence r Early marriage had long been a tradition among the sons of the Irish peasants, but u n t i l the early nineteenth century this tendency had been held in check by the d i f f i c u l t i e s of securing a holding.5 However, the switch from pasture to arable farming and the improvements of waste land during the years of the Napoleon-i c Wars had removed this last check. The break-up of the large estates into smaller and smaller units, as the land-lords attempted to make a quick pr o f i t , and the nearly 3 t o t a l r e l i a n c e upon the potato as the sole source of food, enabled the I r i s h to e s t a b l i s h and support t h e i r f a m i l i e s with a minimum of e f f o r t and with l i t t l e check upon t h e i r numbers„^ In 10*15, with the return of peace, the B r i t i s h Govern-ment could once again d i r e c t i t s undivided attention to the problems which i t faced at home, and the condition of Ireland was one of i t s major concerns. At t h i s time, the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e was experimenting with emigration schemes to a i d those who had been l e f t without work with the end of the Napoleonic Wars, but no emigration scheme could e f f e c t i v e l y r e l i e v e the distressed state o f England unless It also dealt with that of Ireland. I f the government s i n -c erely desired to r a i s e the B r i t i s h standard of l i v i n g , i t would have to tackle the problem of over-population at i t s source — Ireland. I f i t d i d not, the government would f i n d that each unemployed Englishman sent to the New World had bean replaced by at l e a s t two d e s t i t u t e Irishmen who had crossed the I r i s h Sea to Liverpool.7 During the next two and one-half decades, the B r i t i s h Government appointed various select committees to i n v e s t i -gate the condition of Ireland and to o f f e r solutions to i t s problems; the consensus of opinion of these committees was that emigration was the only answer. In 16*22, Robert Peel, then Secretary f o r Ireland i n the Home O f f i c e , voiced the opinion that emigration was "'one of the Remedies for 4 I r i s h Misery* n; another vote of money f o r the employment of the poor was simply w t a n i n v i t a t i o n to be Poor and D i s t r e s s e d . * T h e Select Committees on Emigration of 1826 and 1827 agreed with Peel; according to the Bishop of Limerick, a member of the 1827 committee, emigration pro-vided an instantaneous r e l i e f , f o r 'the su f f e r e r s are at once taken away: and, be i t observed, from a country where they are a nuisance and a pest, to a country where they w i l l be a benefit and a blessing19 The bishop then went on to o f f e r a summary of what was to be a major point of discussion concerning the problems of Ireland and t h e i r only possible solution — emigration. •The question of emigration from Ireland i s decided by the population i t s e l f , and that which remains f o r the Legislature to decide i s whether i t s h a l l be turned to the improve-ment of the B r i t i s h North- American colonies, or whether i t s h a l l be suffered and encouraged to take that which w i l l be and i s i t s i n e v i t -able course, to deluge Great B r i t a i n with poverty and wretchedness and gradually but c e r t a i n l y equalize .the state of the English and I r i s h peasants,10 However, the English L e g i s l a t u r e , despite the great v a r i e t y of emigration schemes which were placed before i t , was unable, or rather unwilling, to reach any such d e c i s i o n . One of the chief proponents of emigration as the sol u t i o n to I r i s h d i s t r e s s was Robert Wilmot Horton, Under-Secretary f o r War and the Colonies, 1822-30. He had adopted a modified version of Malthus' doctrine, i n which population could be redundant where employment 5 r a t h e r t h a n s u b s i s t e n c e w a s c o n c e r n e d ; h e o f f e r e d a s a s o l u t i o n t o t h i s p r o b l e m t h e r e m o v a l o f t h e e x c e s s p o p -u l a t i o n t o p a r t s o f t h e e m p i r e w h e r e e m p l o y m e n t w a s m o r e r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . W h a t h e w a s a d v o c a t i n g w a s a f o r m o f a s s i s t e d e m i g r a t i o n , a n d o n e w h i c h p l a c e d a n e m p h a s i s u p o n t h e r e p a y m e n t o f t h e f u n d s a d v a n c e d t o t h e e m i g r a n t s . B e t w e e n 1&23 a n d 1 3 2 7 , h e w a s a b l e t o c a r r y o u t some e x -p e r i m e n t s I n t h i s a r e a , a n d t h e b a s i c p r e m i s e o f h i s e x p e r i m e n t a l s c h e m e s w a s p e r h a p s b e s t s t a t e d b y H e n r y G o u l b o u r n , t h e n C h i e f S e c r e t a r y f o r I r e l a n d . ' G o v e r n m e n t , d e s i r o u s o f a l l e v i a t i n g t h e i n c o n -v e n i e n c e s o f e x c e s s p o p u l a t i o n i n I r e l a n d , a n d a t t h e same t i m e g i v i n g t h e P r o v i n c e o f C a n a d a a n a c c e s s t o E m i g r a n t s c a p a b l e o f i m p r o v i n g t h e a d v a n t a g e s a f f o r d e d b y t h o s e C o l o n i e s t o a c t i v e a n d i n d u s t r i o u s m e n , h a s t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e e x p e d i e n t o f p r o v i d i n g f o r t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a n d l o c a t i n g o f a c e r t a i n n u m b e r o f s e t t l e r s o n a s y s t e m w h i c h w i l l b e s t I n s u r e t h e i r i m m e d i a t e c o m f o r t a n d f u t u r e p r o s p e r i t y . ' I I I n a p i t e o f t h e a p p a r e n t s u c c e s s o f H o r t o n ' s e f f o r t s a n d t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e s e l e c t c o m m i t t e e s , s t a t e -a s s i s t e d e m i g r a t i o n n e v e r w e n t b e y o n d t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s t a g s » T h e r e w e r e o b j e c t i o n s t o t h e e x p e n s e o f H o r t o n ' s p l a n a „ I f e m i g r a t i o n w a s t o b e o f - a n y u s e t o G r e a t B r i t a i n , i t w o u l d h a v e t o b e t a k e n o n a s c a l e t h a t w a s s o e n o r m o u s t h a t t h e c o s t , w o u l d b e p r o h i b i t i v e . - ^ i n 1 3 3 2 , V i s c o u n t G o d e r i c h , t h e n h e a d o f t h e C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , s p o k e f o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e l i t e r a t e B r i t i s h n a t i o n w h e n h e s t a t e d t h a t h e d i d n o t t h i n k 6 'the necessity would a r i s e f o r the Govern-ment going out of i t s way to a f f o r d pecun-i a r y assistance to those persons disposed to emigration, as the number of voluntary emi-grants to Canada had considerably increased within the l a s t year, and he was happy to say that t h e i r settlement had been attended with most b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s , both as regarded them-selves and the country which they had adopted.'13 The 1830's saw the development, under the d i r e c t i o n of Edward Gibbon Wakefield, of another school of thought regarding emigration. Wakefield was an advocate of system-a t i c c o l o n i s a t i o n ; he proposed to remove B r i t a i n ' s excess population using a plan which would pay f o r i t s e l f . His plan envisioned the sale of c o l o n i a l lands at a p r i c e so f i x e d as to keep the a v a i l a b l e land , c a p i t a l and labour i n the proper proportions. Horton'is schemes, according to Wakefield, were merely imperfect theories f o r s h o v e l l i n g out paupers from Great B r i t a i n to her colonies, and he p a r t i c u l a r l y objected to the system of land grants which permitted these paupers to become landholders.^A- Wake-f i e l d ^ emigrants, upon a r r i v a l i n Canada, would enter the labour force to meet the increased demands of the extended settlement and to replace the workers who had acquired s u f f i c i e n t money and experience to e n t i t l e thera to become the purchasers of the land.^5' The land i t s e l f waa to be sold at a reasonable p r i c e , as i t was i n the United States, with the proceeds of the sale going to provide f o r the conveyance of more emigrants to the 7 colonies. Wakefield won many important supporters for his system, men such as Henry George Grey (Viscount How-ic k ) , Lord Durham and Charles Buller, and some of his ideas were employed in the colonization of Australia and New Zealand. However, as far as the British North American colonies were concerned, his suggestions were o f f i c i a l l y ignored. During the period of 1315-45» emigration came to be recognized as the most immediate and simplest solution for the r e l i e f of" Ireland. However, the government, anxious to avoid state interference and any unnecessary expense, re-mained content to do l i t t l e more than make information regarding the colonies available to prospective emigrants and watch over the process of emigration to ensure that there were no flagrant violations of the few laws regulat-ing the emigration t r a f f i c . While the legislators of England debated the merits and demerits of assisted emigration schemes, thousands of voluntary emigrants annually found their way to Canadian shores. Between 1825 and 1346, 626,628 emigrants landed at Canadian ports, with the peak year of 1831 wit-nessing the a r r i v a l of more than 34,000 new colonists (the result of a cholera epidemic and famine in Ireland).16 this minor disaster had done much to loosen the Irish peasants 1 t i e s to his homeland; the choice, for many had been emigrate or starve. 8 But even e m i g r a t i o n o f t e n d i d not b r i n g the hoped f o r r e l i e f ; t h o s e who pawned t h e i r l a s t p o s s e s s i o n s f o r t h e p r i c e o f the passage t o t h e New World were not always welcomed by t h e i r new homelands. Of the immigrants who reached Canada between 1815 and 1832, about o n e - h a l f were s m a l l farmers w i t h some means o f t h e i r own and one-eighth were a r t i s a n s o f v a r y i n g s k i l l s . ^ The remaining t h r e e -e i g h t h s were l a b o u r e r s and s e r v a n t s , t w o - t h i r d s o f whom were Roman C a t h o l i c s , ^ Although t h e r e was some v a r i a t i o n i n t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e l a b o u r e r s , most were d e s t i t u t e by Canadian s t a n d a r d s , and became, a t some time,.a charge upon t h e p u b l i c c h a r i t i e s e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h e i r m a i n t a i n -19 enance, 7 Of the immigrants l a n d i n g a t Quebec between 1815 and 1832, o n l y one-tenth t o o n e - t h i r d planned, o r had no c h o i c e 19' but t o remain i n Canada. The cream o f t h e new a r r i v a l s passed on to t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , where c o n d i t i o n s f o r s e t t l e m e n t were f a r b e t t e r . Many o f the smal l farmers o f I r e l a n d had f r i e n d s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , but t h e r e were a l s o o t h e r f a c t o r s which a t t r a c t e d them. Land south o f the b o r d e r was much more r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e i n r e a s o n a b l y 3 i z e d l o t s and at good p r i c e s . In Canada, t h e l a n d had been t h o u g h t l e s s l y a l i e n a t e d ; the I m p e r i a l Government had seen Canada as a l a n d o f peasant p r o p r i e t o r s , but t h e i n d i s -c r i m i n a t e p o l i c y o f f r e e l a n d g r a n t s , i n t e r -9 spersed with various reserves, scattered s e t t l e -ment over too wide an area which prevented mu-t u a l assistance, imposed crushing burdens on a l l , and threw large t r a c t s of lands into the hands of the s p e c u l a t o r s . 2 0 For those who attempted to stay i n Canada, there were many add i t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s to be overcome before the land even became t h e i r own property. Inaccurate surveying l e d to needless uncertainty, endless d i f f i c u l t i e s over land t i t l e s , and perhaps even the l o s s of the land; the system abounded with needless delay and d i f f i c u l t i e s which har-assed and exasperated applicants.21. Wakefield and h i s followers had understood these problems and had attempted to o f f e r suggestions which would h a l t the process of re-emigration. The Durham Report, under the d i r e c t i o n of Lord Durham and Charles B u l l e r , devoted considerable attention to the subject of emigration to and the co l o n i z a t i o n of B r i t i s h North America. The authors of the report objected to the emigration which was then taking place — "'without forethought, prepara-t i o n method or system of any kind.»" 2 2 But the report did more than just c r i t i c i s e the present system of emigra-t i o n and co l o n i z a t i o n , i t also offered a number of sugges-t i o n s f o r the reform of the system. However, the only government a c t i o n that resulted from t h e i r suggestions wa3 the formation of the C o l o n i a l Land and Emigration Commission 2^ f whose sole functions were to dispense 10 information about the colonies to a l l prospective emi-grants and to provide some supervision of the emigrant t r a f f i c . The creation of the C.L.E.C. had v i r t u a l l y no impact upon the course and nature of the emigration to Canada. The damage had been done; only those who could not a f f o r d to emigrate to the United States remained i n Canada. From I S 3 6 , the emigration reports commented upon the i n c r s a s -number of u n s k i l l e d labourers among the emigrants, and by I84O, there was l i t t l e doubt that they were the predominant c l a s s . 2 4 The Canadian emigration agents began annually to make complaints s i m i l a r to that made by the Chief Emi-grant Agent of Canada, A.C. Buchanan, i n 1841. 11 quite coincide i n the opinion expressed by Mr e Hawks that we receive i n Canada quite too large a proportion of mere labourers, that i s persona who can only use the spade and pick-axe ., Unless when some extensive public work i s i n operation, there i s much l e s s demand for persons of t h i s class i n the province than people at home are generally aware o f . t 2 5 What these reports f a i l e d to point out, however, was that Canada was w a poor man's c o u n t r y * " ^ There were always complaints as the u n s k i l l e d immigrants crowded the streets of Quebec -and Montreal i n the early months of the season, but by the end of the year, very few remained without j o b 3 « 2 7 For those w i l l i n g to work, there were the govern-ment settlements, the canals,the roads and the older s e t t l e r s a l l r e q u i r i n g cheap labour. It was only when the 1 1 public works were f i n i s h e d that d i s t r e s s among the immi-grants became a problem. Such was the case i n 18"42-43 > when the government emigration agencies were forced to close i n August, t h e i r funds exhausted. Scores of I r i s h immigrants had been attracted to Canada by the reports of the unlimited jobs a v a i l a b l e there, but when they reached Canada, they found that they had a r r i v e d too l a t e They were l e f t to f u r t h e r swell the ranks of the destitut I t was against t h i s background that the Great Famine struck Ireland i n the f a l l of 16*45. 12 FOOTNOTES ^R.D. Edwards and T.D. W i l l i a m s , eds., The Great  Famine: S t u d i e s i n I r i s h H i s t o r y 1346-52 (Dublin: Browne and Nolan, 1956), p. 388. 2Q, Macdonagh, A P a t t e r n of Government Growth  1800-60. The Passenger Acts and T h e i r Enforcement ."{London: MaGibbon and Kee, 1961), pp. 183-4. 3K.H. Connell, The Pop u l a t i o n o f I r e l a n d 1750-1845 (Oxford: Clarendon P r e s s , 1950), p. 239. "~ •^Edwards and W i l l i a m s , The Great Famine, p. 4. 5Connell, The Popu l a t i o n of I r e l a n d , pp. 241-4. 6 I b i d . t p. 242-4. 7w. A. C a r r o t h e r s , Emigration from t h e B r i t i s h I s l e s  w i t h S p e c i a l Reference t o the Development of the Overseas  Dominions (London: P.S. K i n g , 1929), p. 45. ^ C i t e d i n Helen Cowan, B r i t i s h Emigration t o B r i t i s h  North America. The F i r s t One Hundred Years, r e v i s e d and enlarged ed. (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1961), pp, 65-69 ^Cifced i n S.C. Johnson, A H i s t o r y of Emigration  from the Unit e d Kingdom t o North America 1763-1912 (London: Frank Cass, 1966), p. 17. - L U C i t e d i n Johnson, A H i s t o r y o f Em i g r a t i o n , p. 13. I n c i t e d i n Cowan, B r i t i s h E m i g r a t i o n , p. 69. l^Cowan, B r i t i s h E m i g r a t i o n , p. 97. 13cited i n C a r r o t h e r s , Emigration from the 3 r i t i s h  I s l e s , p. 57. l^Cowan, B r i t i s h E m i g r a t i o n , p. 95. 1 5 p 9 t e r Burroughs, ed., The C o l o n i a l Reformers and Canada, 1830-49. S e l e c t i o n s from the Documents and P u b l i -c a t i o n s o f the Times (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, " T969), p. 344. 13 1 GCarrothers, Emigration from the British Isles, p. 143. l7w»F. Adams, Ireland and the Irish Emigration to the Mew World from 1815 to the Famine (New York: Russell and Russell, 1967), p. 192. l d I b i d . , p. 192. 19johnson, A History of Emigration, p. 159. Adams, Ireland and the Irish Emigration, pp. 197-8. 20Norman Macdonald, Canada, 1763-1841. Immigration  and Settlement. The Administration of the Imperial Land  Regulations (New York, London and Toronto: Longmans, 1939), P. 512. 2 1 I b i d . , pp. 518-9. 2 2 C i t e d in Adams, Ireland and the Irish Emigration, pp. 320-1, ^Hereafter cited as C.L.E.C. 24Adams, Ireland and the Irish Emigration, pp. .218-9. 2 5 c i t e d in Adams, Ireland and the Irish Emigration. p. 219. 2^Cowan, British Emigration, p. 188. 27ibid., pp. 188-9. 2$Adams, Ireland and the Irish Emigration, pp. 224-6. FAMINE AND FLIGHT 14 In the autumn of 1845, the potato b l i g h t made a re-appearance i n Ireland. There had been warnings of i t s approach — i n 1844, the b l i g h t had h i t the American potato crop. The I r i s h had ignored t h i s warning, however, f o r t h e i r harvest of that year had been healthy and plen-t i f u l . 1 The harvest of 1845 promised to be even greater, when suddenly, within one month (and, i n some cases within one week), the blight took i t s t o l l . A.M. S u l l i v a n wrote:-• I , myself saw whole t r a c t s of potato growth change i n one night from smiling luxuriance to a s h r i v e l l e d and blackened waste.' 2 The f a i l u r e , however, had only been a p a r t i a l one; only c e r t a i n d i s t r i c t s had been aff e c t e d . There was no great alarm, f o r Ireland had witnessed many such p a r t i a l f a i l u r e s before, and the healthy portion of the crop was expected to y i e l d an average r e s u l t (so profuse had been the expected crop of that year). It was not u n t i l winter had set i n that the I r i s h made an alarming discovery; the tubers set aside i n the store-houses and p i t s - f o r the seed crop had r o t t e d . The fungus, which was the cause of the b l i g h t , could and had remained i n a c t i v e f o r a considerable period a f t e r i t had f i r s t en-tered the potatoes.3 Farmers immediately attempted to employ every means av a i l a b l e to them to replenish t h e i r seed stores so as to obtain the la r g e s t possible return from the next harvest. Already signs of d i s t r e s s were appearing; farmers flocked to banks, pawn o f f i c e s and l o c a l 15 money-lenders i n an attempt to nbeg and borrow on any terms the means whereby to crop the land once more 0 "4 The I r i s h population i n 1 8 4 5 stood at approximately nine m i l l i o n 5 and the majority l i v e d l i t t l e more than a hand-to-mouth existence. The I r i s h nation was t o t a l l y dependent upon the hazards of one crop, the potato, des-t i t u t e of any manufacturing i n d u s t r i e s and u t t e r l y without reserves or resources to f a l l back upon.^ Ireland*s a g r i -c u l t u r a l system, as a re s u l t of over-population and the development of t he potato d i e t , had been reduced to a chaotic state. Approximately eighty percent of the pop-u l a t i o n were c o t t i e r s — landless peasants who rented the U3e of a small patch of land on which they attempted to grow enough potatoes to keep them a l i v e from year to year.7 The a b i l i t y of the potato to provide an abundance of food from a f r a c t i o n of the land needed to provide a s i m i l a r subsistence grain crop further contributed to the degeneration of the I r i s h a g r i c u l t u r a l l i f e . The land had been sub-divided and sub-let to such an extent that the landlord would often have no idea of the number of his tenants. The resultant standard of l i v i n g was i n c r e d i b l y low, and t h i s , plus the oppressiveness of the English or Anglo-Irish (often absentee) landlords' economic e x p l o i t a -t i o n of t h e peasants, exerted considerable influence upon the shaping of the character of the I r i s h peasant. The I r i s h c o t t i e r s were subjected to a system of 16 rack rents which p i t t e d one against another as they bid f o r the use of a small plo t of land on which they hoped to eke out an existence — with over-population, landlords were always assured of a waiting l i s t of peasants w i l l i n g to pay an exorbitant p r i c e f o r a small patch of land. Another of the e v i l s of t h i s system saw the landlords demanding increased rents f o r any improvements the c o t t i e r might make on h i s land; those who could not meet these demands were evi c t e d . No security of tenure existed, except i n U l s t e r , and the landlords thus owed no contractual obligations to t h e i r tenants. The poor c o t t i e r remained at the bottom of the s o c i a l hierarchy with v i r t u a l l y no r i g h t s of h i s own. With the threat of even greater rents hanging over t h e i r heads, the peasants were offered l i t t l e motivation to improve t h e i r l o t s -- the concept of progress through self-improvement had l o s t i t s meaning f o r them. They had become reconciled to t h e i r s i t u a t i o n , remaining r e l a t i v e l y d o c i l e as long as they could scrape out a meagre existence on t h e i r small plot of land. With only l i m i t e d access to educational f a c i l i t i e s , few could read or write. These were to be the famine emigrants who would invade Canada by the tens of thousands i n l o % 7 . The b l i g h t of l a t e 1845, however, d i d not greatly a f f e c t the emigration of that year, f o r i t had struck just as the emigration season was c l o s i n g . There were some danger 17 s i g n a l s , however; at the end of the season there was a marked increase i n emigrant mortality and great d i f f i c u l t y was encountered i n providing provisions f o r the I r i s h vessels. A.C. Buchanan stated that there had been an i n -crease of twenty-six percent i n the numbers of emigrants a r r i v i n g at Quebec during the season of 1#45«9 An. increase i n the mortality rate was also noted, despite the f a c t that the passage time f o r the season had been shorter than i n previous y e a r s . ^ Fevers and small pox had taken t h e i r t o l l both during the voyage and at the emigrant h o s p i t a l s within the colony. The cost of providing f o r the d e s t i t u t e among the 2 5 , 3 7 5 a r r i v a l s had also increased by some two thousand pounds»H Buchanan sounded another warning note when he pointed out that the great bulk of the I r i s h immigrants consisted of a g r i c u l t u r a l labourers, many of whom had no resources with which to support themselves upon t h e i r a r r i v a l i n Canada.-*-2 However, the character of the immi-gration waa s t i l l very s i m i l a r to that of the past two years, the only change being the l a r g e r numbers of I r i s h . The reports of the increased mortality rates among the I r i s h emigrants d i d alarm one body; the C.L.E.C. became so apprehensive that i t contemplated r e v i s i n g the passenger l e g i s l a t i o n , but they received no parliamentary support f o r t h e i r suggestions. The B r i t i s h government had adopted a wait-and-see a t t i t u d e with regard to Ireland; i t f e l t that the s i t u a t i o n had probably been greatly 18 exaggerated. The Government, and the Treasury i n p a r t i c u -l a r , wished t o a v o i d any unnecessary expenditures. At a l l c o s t s , they must not demoralize the people by i n s t i t u t i n g pauper d o l e s , nor must they i n t e r f e r e w i t h the l a b o u r •market — such a c t i o n s were, as Lord John R u s s e l l pointed out, " ' u t t e r l y opposed t o the teachings o f Adam Smith.'"13 Thus everyone s a t back and waited t o see what would happen t o the potato harvest o f 1846. D i s a s t e r s t r u c k ; the potato f a i l u r e o f J u l y and August wa3 t o t a l and u n i v e r s a l . Those farmers who had staked a l l t h e i r possessions upon t h i s harvest were r u i n e d — a l l had been l o s t . The f u t u r e had looked promising up u n t i l the c l o s e of J u l y , when, almost o v e r n i g h t , t h e b l i g h t s t r u c k ; no p o r t i o n o f the crop escaped. The r e a c t i o n o f the I r i s h was one of "blank, s t o l i d dismay, a s o r t o f stupor f e l l upon the people c o n t r a s t i n g remarkably w i t h the f i e r c e energy put f o r t h a year before."14 The potato b l i g h t of 1846-47 brought about the t o t a l d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e I r i s h a g r i c u l t u r a l system; the peasants' means o f e x i s t e n c e had been p r a c t i c a l l y wiped out f o r two consecutive years* Not o n l y did: the peasants no l o n g e r have any food, they a l s o had no l a n d . With the complete d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e i r c r o p , the c o t t i e r s had no means t o pay t h e i r r e n t , and many o f the l a n d l o r d s took advantage of t h e i r t e n ants' d i s t r e s s and drove them from t h e l a n d . The c o t t i e r ' s p o s i t i o n had been completely undermined. t—1 vO 20 I r e l a n d n o l o n g e r o f f e r e d a n y h o p e f o r t h e f u t u r e f o r t h e m , a n d t h e p e a s a n t w a s q u i c k l y f a c e d w i t h a c h o i c e : -h e c o u l d s t a y i n I r e l a n d , w h e r e h e w o u l d p r o b a b l y s t a r v e t o d e a t h , o r h e c o u l d a t t e m p t t o e s c a p e f r o m I r e l a n d a s q u i c k l y a s p o s s i b l e . T h i s o b v i o u s l y r e p r e s e n t e d l i t t l e c h o i c e a t a l l , a n d t h u s , t h e m a j o r i t y o f I r i s h m e n w e r e n o t l e a v i n g t h e i r h o m e l a n d w i l l i n g l y . T h e i r f l i g h t w a s n o t a p l a n n e d o n e — t h e y w e r e f l y i n g f r o m d e a t h , " s e e k i n g a d o o r t h a t w o u l d o p e n a n d g i v e t h e m a c c e s s t o h o p e , " 1 5 I t a p p e a r e d a s i f t h e f i r s t f a i l u r e o f I846 m i g h t p r o d u c e a s u p e r i o r t y p e o f e m i g r a t i o n . M a n y o f t h e f i r s t t o a b a n d o n I r e l a n d w e r e t h e s m a l l i n d e p e n d e n t f a r m e r s w i t h some c a p i t a l — men who h a d l o n g b e e n d e b a t i n g w h e -t h e r o r n o t t o t a k e t h e f i n a l s t e p a n d e m i g r a t e . 1 ^ T h e b l i g h t n o w c o n v i n c e d t h e m t h a t t h e i r o n l y c h a n c e f o r s u c c e s s l a y w i t h e m i g r a t i o n . T h r o u g h o u t A p r i l a n d M a y , t h e s t r e e t s o f W e s t p o r t , C o u n t y M a y o , a n d D u b l i n w e r e t h r o n g e d w i t h " ' c o m f o r t a b l e f a r m e r s , n o t t h e d e s t i t u t e ' " 1 7 , o n t h e i r w a y t o t h e New W o r l d . B y m i d - A u g u s t , h o w e v e r , t h e s i t u a t i o n h a d c h a n g e d . I t w a s e v i d e n t b y t h i s t i m e t h a t t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e p o t a t o c r o p h a d b e e n c o m p l e t e , a n d t h e p o r t s , b o t h i n E n g l a n d a n d I r e l a n d , w e r e f i l l e d w i t h e m i g r a n t s o f t h e p o o r e s t c l a s s . T h e h e a d l o n g f l i g h t f r o m I r e l a n d h a d b e g u n . F o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n I r i s h h i s t o r y , t h e r e w a s a h e a v y a u t u m n e x o d u s — t h e b l i g h t h a d a l t e r e d t h e p a t t e r n o f I r i s h e m i g r a t i o n . ! ^ T h e C a n a d i a n E m i g r a t i o n o f f i c i a l s 21 rioted the change; Buchanan remarked t h a t by l a t e June the great majority of the emigrants a r r i v i n g at Quebec were I r i s h of l i m i t e d means.19 I t was among these poor and enfeebled souls that typhus made i t s f i r s t appearance. The a r r i v a l of the El i z a b e t h and Sarah i n l a t e August was to provide Canadians with, unbeknownst to them, a for e t a s t e of the disastrous season of 1#47. Dr. George W. Douglas, the Medical Superintendent at the Grosse I s l e Quarantine Station, provided a graphic description of t h i s emigrant wessel i n a l e t t e r to Buchanan. 20 Never had he seen passengers In a more wretched state o f f i l t h and disease. Twenty emigrants had died during the voyage (which had l a s t e d seventy-two days} 2!; there were twenty-s i x cases of fever upon i t s a r r i v a l , and by the time the emigrants had landed, the t o t a l to be admitted to h o s p i t a l had r i s e n to f i f t y . Douglas l i s t e d the causes o f the disease by order of t h e i r importance:- (1) a want of cleanliness and an inattention to v e n t i l a t i o n ; (2) an i n s u f f i c i e n c y of food and water, and that of an unwholesome character; and (3) overcrowding. Douglas was not the only person i n the colony who had taken nota of the ap p a l l i n g condition of the vessel; the a r r i v a l o f the Elizabeth and Sarah had also caused a con-siderable outcry i n the Canadian newspapers. 2 2 i n an a r t i c l e i n the Montreal Herald 23 one w r i t e r stated that he hoped a l l possible measures would be taken to punish 22 the g u i l t y p a r t i e s . 2 4 He wrote that such gross fraud and wickedness can be perpetrated, that I r i s h ship-brokers can enrich themselves by such inhuman, such mur-derous p r a c t i c e s , should be a disgrace to the Government which allowed i t . 2 5 It was true, however, that the Elizabeth and Sarah was an exception i n the I 8 4 6 season, and even the Montreal Tran- s c r i p t and the Herald took t h i s into account. But her a r r i v -a l did point out what could occur as increasing numbers of I r i s h attempted to f l e e from t h e i r now famine-stricken and diseased homeland. By the t h i r t i e t h of October, Buchanan considered the season closed.. I t was one which had witnessed the largest number of a r r i v a l s since 1832, with 32,753 emigrants {an increase again o f twenty-nine percent over the 1845 season) reaching Canada's s h o r e s . 2 0 The great majority of these immigrants were I r i s h who had s a i l e d d i r e c t l y from Iri3h ports. 27 Many, as stated e a r l i e r , had l e f t t h e i r homes l a t e In the season, f e a r i n g , Buchanan noted, that i f they delayed f o r one more season, they would exhaust t h e i r re-maining funds and f i n d themselves tr^ped i n Ireland.28 j n many cases these emigrants were e n t i r e l y dependent upon the ship's s t o r e s , stores designed simply to complement the emigrant's own provisions. It was among these emigrants t h a t sickness and d i s t r e s s prevailed, f o r many landed q u i t e d e s t i t u t e and required assistance to be able to pro-23 ceed to t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n s . 2 9 Again there had been an alarming increase i n the numbers of s i c k and dead, both during the emigrants'' passage and upon t h e i r a r r i v a l i n the colony»30 The deaths stood at two hundred and seventy-two, an increase, Buchanan pointed out, of one hundred percent over the previous season.31 The t o t a l expenditure on immigrant r e l i e f was more than ten thousand pounds, another increase of twenty percent;32 the balance of the fund stood at l i t t l e more than two thousand pounds, and Buchanan stated that t h i s would soon be " e n t i r e l y absorbed by the expense of supporting emigrant patients admitted into the Quebec hospitals. " 3 3 Both Buchanan and Hawke, the Chief Emigrant Agent f o r Upper Canada, appeared to paint a bleak p i c t u r e f o r the season of 1847. They agreed that i f the extensive d i s t r e s s i n the United Kingdom, and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Ireland, con-t i n u e d i n 1847, then Canada would be threatened "with an emigration i n the ensuing season such as the province "has not yet seen equalled i n d e s t i t u t i o n . "34 Their depart-ments, they feared, would be faced with increased demands f o r assistance and r e l i e f , demands which could not be met unless tha Imperial Government provided them with much g r e a t e r resources than i t had previously.3 5 Many emigrants, Hawke pointed out , r e a l i z e d t h a t i f t h e y could somehow o b t a i n the necessary funds to reach Canada they would then be a s s i s t e d i n reaching t h e i r f r i e n d s . He c i t e d , as 24 p r o o f , a l e t t e r w h i c h he had r e c e n t l y seen a d d r e s s e d t o p e r s o n s i n I r e l a n d • 'The Government o f Canada i s good t o t h e p o o r , and w i l l pay t h e i r passage t o t h e c o u n t r y fgidel, and g i v e them o a t m e a l and br e a d t o eat on t h e r o a d , so you may a l l come i f you can pay y o u r passage t o Quebec. '36 Buchanan went so f a r as t o suggest t h a t p e r h a p s t h e I m p e r i a l Funds s e t a s i d e f o r t h e r e l i e f o f d e s t i t u t e e m i g r a n t s might be r e d i r e c t e d " t o promote t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e pauper p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d Kingdom"37 # i n h i s o p i n i o n , t h e Government's p r e s e n t s y s t e m , w i t h r e g a r d t o e m i g r a t i o n , p e r m i t t e d , and perhaps even e n c o u r a g e d , t h e e m i g r a t i o n f r o m t h e M o t h e r C o u n t r y o f a c l a s s whose p r i v a t e means were o n l y s u f f i c i e n t t o get them as f a r as t h e New World.3 ^ As l o n g as t h i s system was m a i n t a i n e d , t h e number o f d e s t i t u t e p e r s o n s e m i g r a t i n g would c o n t i n u e t o i n c r e a s e , and u n l e s s t h e I m p e r i a l Government was p r e p a r e d t o i n c r e a s e i t s g r a n t s t o t h e c o l o n i e s f o r e m i g r a n t r e l i e f , Buchanan s t a t e d , t h e r e s u l t s c o u l d o n l y be e x c e e d i n g l y h a r m f u l . He p a i n t e d a v e r y g r i m p i c t u r e o f t h e c o l o n i a l scene s h o u l d t h e r e o c c u r any r e l a x a t i o n o f t h e m a c h i n e r y f o r t h e s u p e r -v i s i o n o f e m i g r a t i o n o r any i n a b i l i t y on t h e p a r t o f h i s department t o m a i n t a i n i t s programme o f a s s i s t a n c e : - t h e d e s t i t u t e l a b o u r e r s , w i t h t h e i r f a m i l i e s , Would a c c u m u l a t e i n t h e towns and v i l a a g e s o f t h e p r o v i n c e , where d i s t r e s s and d i s e a s e would l e a d t o c r i m e and t o a h o s t i l e f e e l i n g on t h e p a r t o f t h e n a t i v e Canadians.39 25 However, neither Hawke nor Buchanan closed their reports on a dismal note. Both stated that there was l i t t l e or no distress among the season's arrivals; employment opportunities were excellent and provisions were p l e n t i f u l . ^ Extensive public works projects were then under way, pro-viding many employment opportunities for the unskilled Irish labourers. Hawke even declared that he did not apprehend any d i f f i c u l t y finding work for an even greater number next year i f the means to scatter them are placed at the disposal of the agents. The province can maintain in comfort almost any number of labourers, provided they can be transported to the places where they are needed.4± It was this promising note, rather than the earlier predictions of doom, that the Imperial colonial o f f i c i a l s seized upon in late 1846. Both Lord Grey, who had just recently become the Secretary of State responsible for the Colonies, and Parliament were told that despite the i n -creased number of immigrants, neither the Canadian colonies nor the immigrants had experienced any distress,42 There Had been no lack of employment, and , on the whole, most of the immigrants had had sufficient means to enable them to support themselves u n t i l they were able to find a job.43 It seemed as i f neither the Imperial Government nor the Canadian authorities, perhaps because of the abundance of jobs available during the 1846 season, had learned any lesson from the condition of late season departures from Ireland; their lack of preparation for what was to be 26 known as the "Black ' 4 7 " 4 4 certainly must leave one with that impression. As mentioned earlier, there.had been a change of govern-ment in the midst of the emigration season of I 8 4 6 . Earl Grey had replaced Gladstone at the Colonial Office, and many of the people interested in colonial a f f a i r s looked forward to his tenure with great expectations because of his long association with such Colonial Reformers as Dur-ham and Buller. He was not, however, the type of man best suited to cope with the problems which the Irish situation presented to emigration and to the colonies. He spent his time looking for a master-stroke which would solve the problems of Ireland and, at the same time, prove beneficial for the development of the colonies "by the simple trans-lation of hundreds of thousands from one side of the Atlantic to the other."45 While he was dreaming his great dreams, the practical measures, such as the revision of the passenger legislation, which might have restored some order to the chaotic state to which the machinery for the supervision of emigration had been reduced by the ever Increasing outpouring of Irishmen were neglected. This snachinery had last been altered i n I842. It consisted of a consolidated Passenger Act (1842) which:-(1) limited, in relation to the ship's capacity, the num-ber of passengers which could be carried; (2) insisted upon a minimum of provisions to be available to the emi-27 grants; (3) made an attempt t o ensure at l e a s t t o l e r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s between decks; and (4) t r i e d t o o f f e r some p r o t e c t i o n f o r the emigrants w i t h regard t o the f o r m u l a t i o n o f contracts.46 The l o c a l s u p e r v i s i o n o f the Act was i n the hands o f a very s m a l l corps of executive o f f i c e r s , o f t e n h a l f - p a y n a v a l men, who were s t a t i o n e d i n the major p o r t s o f England, I r e l a n d and B r i t i s h North America, Above them was the C.L.E.G., a board c o n s i s t i n g o f t h r e e men, who, i n t u r n , was r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e C o l o n i a l O f f i c e and E a r l Grey. I t was the t a s k o f the Commissioners and t h e i r subordinates t o see t h a t the emigrants were a s s i s t e d and p r o t e c t e d , w h i l e ensuring t h a t the p r i n c i p l e s o f l a i s 3 e z - f a i r e were not subverted. At a l l c o s t s t h e r e must be no i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h the outward f l o w o f emigrants; i t was t h e i r aim t o keep the f a r e s w i t h i n the reach of a l l p o t e n t i a l emigrants.^7 Thus the requirements of the poorest emigrants, as w e l l as the c a p a c i t y o f t h e i r own a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i t was f e l t , should always form the l i m i t s o f t h e i r r e g u l a t i o n s . Up u n t i l the season of 16*46, the Commission's machin-ery had f u n c t i o n e d q u i t e e f f e c t i v e l y — as l o n g as the numbers emigrating were q u i t e s m a l l , i t was p o s s i b l e f o r the n a v a l o f f i c e r s t o perform t h e i r f u n c t i o n s . I t became e v i d e n t , however, towards the end o f 18*46, t h a t , as the numbers attempting t o escape from I r e l a n d i n c r e a s e d d a i l y , t h e s t r u c t u r e began t o weaken. There was, as was s t a t e d e a r l i e r , 28 an alarming increase i n the numbers of sick and dead; a l s o , an increasing number of vessels were s a i l i n g d i r e c t l y from the smaller I r i s h ports where no supervisory personnel existed. The Commissioners themselves were aware that signs of weakness d i d e x i s t , and they discussed them i n t h e i r Seventh General Report.48 They were not "insensible to the dangers and d e f i c i e n c i e s that must attend so vast an emigration of the humblest persons"49, but, even a f t e r every allowable degree of regulation had been a f f e c t e d , poverty would s t i l l i n e v i t a b l y have i t s i l l s . The only r e s u l t of pushing t h e i r regulations to immoderate length, they f e l t , would be that the poor, instead of being c a r r i e d across the sea i n better circumstances, would be detained against t h e i r w i l l i n a country which could no longer provide them with the means of existence. There must be no interference with the flow of emigration; the machinery which the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e had developed was the best possible one a v a i l a b l e . The past season had been an exceptional one, a3 the 1847 season might also prove to be, but t h i s would not i n v a l i d a t e the observations of the past ten seasons. The Commissioners had, however, attempted to respond to the problems presented by the I r i s h s i t u a t i o n . They were not a3 f i r m l y convinced, a s - t h e i r Seventh Report would imply, that they had a l l that was needed to over-see the process of emigration. As i t became evident that the d i s t r e s s i n Ireland would continue f o r another season. 2 9 the C.L.E.C attempted to prepare for what was certain to be a greater emigration than Great Britain had ever pre-viously witnessed. The grant to Canada for the r e l i e f of destitute emigrants was increased to ten thousand pounds,50 although i t was not expected that the whole sum would be needed. They also increased their inspection staff by appointing six temporary officers to the Irish ports; th i s was really l i t t l e more than a stop-gap measure because they could not possibly provide an inspection staff at every port — they simply did not have the funds.51 The most comprehensive step they proposed to take was, the enactment of a new and more extensive Passenger Act. Their b i l l was rejected by the government and for the rea-sons which they themselves had stated in their Seventh General Report — no unnecessary obstacles were to be placed in the path of the Irish exodus.52 A much watered-down version of their b i l l was eventually passed in July of .1847, but i t was to have l i t t l e effect upon the 1847 season.53 Throughout the autumn and winter of 1846-47, condi-tions In Ireland continued to worsen. The majority of the population was without any means of support, and to make matters worse, typhus made i t s appearance among Ireland's enfeebled inhabitants. Famine and fever had a firm grip upon the land. Ireland's work-houses were soon f i l l e d , and many thousands of poor had to be turned away from 30 t h e i r doors,, R e l i e f works were begun i n the autumn of 1&46, but by t h i s time most of the poor were f a r too weak to work. Ireland presented a very grim picture to any v i s i t o r ; men, women and childre n l a y dead and dying along the roads and i n the f i e l d 3 . A l l who could, made t h e i r way to I r i s h and English ports, s e l l i n g a l l t h e i r possessions i n an attempt to obtain some means to escape the death-trap which t h e i r homeland had become. For the f i r s t time, the emigration continued through-out the winter; at l e a s t 30,000 I r i s h l e f t f o r the Unitsd States.54 The emigrants were mainly small c o t t i e r s who could a f f o r d no delay; they had just enough funds l e f t to get them to America. So great were the numbers attempting to escape that the shipping trade could not, at f i r s t , cope with the great exodus.55 Fever also broke out among the emigrants. The helplessness and d e s t i t u t i o n of the winter I r i s h a r r i v a l s greatly angered and shocked the Americana; they f e l t that Great B r i t a i n was using them as a refuse dump. The American Congress responded to the c r i s i s immediately -- i t passed two s t r i c t passenger acts which e f f e c t i v e l y reduced the number of passengers per ton by one-third, and, as a r e s u l t , the passage price to the United States rose accordingly.5 6 Boston had been the c i t y hardest h i t by the large emigration, and here the state assembly rushed through a b i l l r e-qui r i n g a l l masters to enter bonds of one thousand d o l l a r s indemnifying the state against a l l ex-penses incurred on the head of any passenger.57 31 This Act was eventually declared unconstitutional,5 $ but by that time the damage had been done as f a r as Canada was concerned. The e f f e c t of the American l e g i s l a t i o n was to turn the most dest i t u t e and s i c k l y portion of the famine emigration to the north. While hundreds of thousands of Irishmen were preparing to f l e e from t h e i r homeland, the concerned I r i s h landlords and the B r i t i s h Government were s t i l l attempting to f i n d a s o l u t i o n f o r the problems of Ireland. Public works and r e l i e f programmes could temporarily a l l e v i a t e some of Ireland's d i s t r e s s , but they did not s t r i k e at the root of the I r i s h problem — over-population. As i n the past, i t was decided that systematic emigration, the removal of Ireland's surplus population, offered the only possible s o l u t i o n . The E a r l of Clanricarde, an I r i s h peer, wrote to R u s s e l l , then Prime M i n i s t e r , that 'nothing can e f f e c t u a l l y and immediately save the country without an extensive emigration. And I have not met i n Town, or i n the Country, a r e f l e c t i n g man who does not entertain more or leas the same opinion. ' 5 9 R u s s e l l , himself, agreed that emigration offered the only hope f o r the future f o r Ireland, but i n a l e t t e r to the Viceroy of Ireland, Lord Bessborough, he pointed out that considerable planning was necessary i f the government was to e f f e c t any r e a l solution through emigration. 0^ Emigration i s now i n the hands of Lord Grey. Those who are eager f o r emigration on a large scale should r e c o l l e c t that the colonies 32 cannot be prepared at once to receive large masses of helpless beings, and there i s no use i n sending them from starving at Skiber-een to starve at Montreal.°1 Grey, i n December of 16%6, was working on emigration schemes to help a l l e v i a t e Ireland's d i s t r e s s ; he hoped to be able to do a l l that was possible to encourage and a s s i s t the natural flow of e m i g r a t i o n . 0 2 He made three recommendations to the C.L.E.C. with t h i s end i n mind. F i r s t , the C.L.E.C. should be prepared to undertake "the whole charge and r i s k of carrying out emigrants f o r whose conveyance a c e r t a i n sum per head should be paid to them? e i t h e r by the emigrant's landlord or by h i s parish. It wotild be up to the C.L.E.C. to ensure that the emigrants were "of proper d e s c r i p t i o n " 6 4 a His second recommendation concerned the colonies, which, he stated, must make arrange-ments f o r the reception and d i s t r i b u t i o n of the emigrants; the Imperial Grant and the Immigrant Tax65 would provide more than adequate funds to carry out such p r o j e c t s , 6 6 Canada, he stated, could e a s i l y absorb an emigration of one hundred thousand people,67 In h i s f i n a l recommendation, Grey proposed a more systematic colonization scheme which envisioned the pre-P Oration of v i l l a g e s f o r the reception of emigrants by the Canadian Land Companies.6$ The groups of emigrants who were to s e t t l e the v i l l a g e s would be accompanied by a clergyman chosen to oversee the operation. Native i n -33 habitants would be encouraged to j o i n the settlement, where they would labour alongside the immigrants, opening up roads and c l e a r i n g and c u l t i v a t i n g the surrounding land. Each man's work would be evaluated, and he would be paid one-half of his salary; the other h a l f would be saved and placed at h i s disposal l a t e r to help him sur-vive the winter. After the f i r s t winter, the immigrants would be expected to pay rent f o r t h e i r homes and, when they had the means, they could purchase a freehold. Grey f e l t that h i s scheme would not be very c o s t l y , and i t would avoid "the premature elevation from labourer to landowner"0*?, The Land Company's gains would a r i s e from the increased land values surrounding the v i l l a g e s and new roads. Grey f e l t that his scheme was just what was needed to f u r t h e r the emigration from Ireland while not harming the Canadian colonies. Unfortunately f o r Grey, few others agreed with him. T.F. E l l i o t , a member of the C.L.E.C, wrote that the Government already offered the best service that i t could — i t repressed the frauds against the poor emigrants before they s a i l e d , prevented any abuses on board the ships, and kept " c l e a r and sound the channels i n which Emigration flows, without undertaking the conduct of the stream."70 Any government interference might interrupt the immense extent to which emigration was already b e n e f i c i a l l y pro-ceeding, f o r i t might bring about the p a r a l y s i s of i n -34 d i v i d u a l e f f o r t as well as r e s u l t i n higher passage prices.71 Government assistance might also encourage the l e a s t i n -dustrious and the i n f i r m , rather than the strong and the hard-working, to l e a v e . ? 2 In any event, no good could r e s u l t from any such steps taken on the part of the Govern-ment. Benjamin Hawes, another C.L.E.C. member, agreed with E l l i o t ' s assessment.73 Cost was a very important consid-eration i n any emigration scheme, and Hawes f e l t that Grey had considerably underestimated the cost of h i s plan. In the end, Hawes expressed the opinion that Grey's scheme would probably cause more d i s t r e s s than i t would a l l e v i a t e . The f i n a l blow to Grey's plan came with the extremely unfavourable reaction of the colonies themselves. The Land Companies had e a r l i e r attempted to achieve success with plans vary s i m i l a r to that suggested by Grey, and, c o l o n i a l o f f i c i a l s pointed out,74 had met with f a i l u r e each time. Grey, however, had not been convinced by these counter-arguments, but he was forced to admit that unless he had some o support i n the col'nies, he would be forced to abandon his scheme,75 When t h i s was done, the B r i t i s h Government and the Canadian colonies were about to face the 1847 season on approximately the same basis as they had dealt with the seasons of the past; the only difference was that the B r i t i s h Parliament had voted the sum of ten thousand 3 5 pounds f o r the r e l i e f of the sick emigrants and f o r the forwarding of the d e s t i t u t e to places where employment could be found , 7 6 I t soon became evident that the p o l i c y of supervision and information was t o t a l l y inadequate. Never before had the ports of the United Kingdom witnessed the f l i g h t of such a large number of s i c k l y and impoverished, people. I t was no longer an organized movement of people, but rather a panic-ridden and h y s t e r i c a l attempt to escape from death. By February and March of 1 8 4 7 , the roads to both the English and I r i s h ports were jammed with emigrants. Many of the I r i s h were so desperate that more than 8 5 , 0 0 0 of them s a i l e d d i r e c t l y from the I r i s h ports of southern and western Ireland, 7 7 This movement should not have caught the B r i t i s h Government by surprise, f o r they had been warned as early as December of I 8 4 6 , that a great number of people were planning to abandon t h e i r homes once spring a r r i v e d * Commissariat Clerk Hughes at the Skibereen Reserve Depot wrotet-sone thing i s c e r t a i n , the whole face of the Country Is waste and the people, those that can, are preparing, as soon as the Spring opens, to emigrate to America. ' 7 8 The heavy winter exodus to the United States should also have provided some foretaste of what might be expected once the emigration season to Canada ' o f f i c i a l l y ' opened. The matter was also brought to the attention of the 36 Government i n early March by Mr. Vesey, the Member of Parliament f o r Queen's County.79 He wished to point out to the Government that large bodies of Irishmen were plan-ning to emigrate to Canada. He feared that many of these par t i e s would only be able to get together s u f f i c i e n t to carry them across the A t l a n t i c , and the consequence might be that they would be landed at the quay at Quebec without the means of procur-ing bread, or the means to pass to the upper parts of Canada.80 He then enquired as to what plans-had been made to meet just such a problem. The answer to h i s enquiry was supplied by Benjamin Hawes, who pointed out that there was a fund, a l b e i t a small one, a v a i l a b l e f o r the r e l i e f of the sick and d e s t i t u t e a r r i v a l s , but he did not believe that i t could be used to forward emigrants to t h e i r destination.^1 A l l emigrants should be able to provide t h e i r own means; they had been warned that i t was necessary.^2 With the imperial o f f i c i a l s convinced that no extra-ordinary measures were needed to cope with the upcoming season, the C o l o n i a l Government had l i t t l e choice but to adopt the same stance. Presumably the Imperial Government was i n the best p o s i t i o n to o f f e r judgment concerning the nature and extent of the emigration of 1847, and i f they stated that the existent machinery regulations were the best a v a i l a b l e , the c o l o n i a l a u t h o r i t i e s had to agree. Emigration and immigration p o l i c y was i n the hands of the Imperial Government; i t set the pattern f o r dealing with 37 the famine emigration of 1847. Even i f the colonial author-i t i e s had disagreed (and only one did )33 with the assess-ment offered by the imperial o f f i c i a l s , they were not in any position to alter the imperial emigration policy. While the British Government offered reassurances that the situation was well under control, the Irish con-tinued to flee from the homes in ever-increasing numbers. Death and suffering were clearly vi s i b l e to a l l in Ireland. As stated earlier, the poorest cottiers were the f i r s t to leave Ireland; their resources were so meagre that any delay on their part would exhaust t h e i r funds and leave them trapped in Ireland. The small-holders, those with land valued at less than four pounds,^ **ere the next to fl e e . In southern and western Ireland, thousands of farms were put up f o r sale as these small farmers attempted to secure the funds needed to escape from Ireland,^5 Theirs was not a planned emigration; a l l they wanted was to escape from Ireland. No place could be as bad as Ireland then was?6As the season progressed, the cottiers contin-ued to swell the ranks of the emigrants; funds secured from the sala o f grain, which were normally destined for the payment of rent, were kept back and when enough money had been saved to pay for the price of a passage (the destination was not important), the cottiers abandoned^ their holdings,^7 3 3 It was the small-holders and c o t t i e r s who could be seen crowded into the ports of S l i g o , Dublin and Waterford awaiting passage across the A t l a n t i c , while those more desperate were s a i l i n g from such smaller harbours as Baltimore, B a l l i n a , Westport, Tralee and K i l l a l a . 3 3 i n these ports, and even i n the great ports, i t soon proved impossible to enforce the Passenger Act. In a report from the C.L.E.G.,39 the commissioners declared that the f i r s t commencement of the emigration to Can-ada from h i s st a t i o n Lieutenant Hodder,fjjiv-erpooll » was such as to leave the o f f i c e r s not a sing l e moment to spare from the prac-t i c a l duties at the port.90 The C.L.E.C. was forced to provide another lieutenant to a s s i s t Hodder and they f e l t that they might also have to provide f u r t h e r aid i n the near future. However, the only other step taken was the publication of a c i r c u l a r concerning the rights of passengers i n cases where a ship was unduly detained, "or obliged, from any cause to put back i n t o port a f t e r the commencement of the voyage."91 The report concluded with a restatement of the o f f i c i a l p o l i c y concerning emigration inspection. So long as the people have the funds to pay f o r t h e i r passage, and there are ships ready f o r t h e i r conveyance, i t i s of course essen-t i a l that neither there should be any stoppage of o f f i c i a l inspection, nor yet, on the other hand, any motive to s l u r over that inspection, which i s so important to the welfare and safe-ty of the emigrants.92 It was soon to become evident that the existent 39 machinery f o r the supervision of emigration could no longer f u l f i l l t h i s function. Fever was breaking out i n ships a f t e r they cleared port; the handful of Inspectors at Liverpool simply could not properly deal with what at one point was three thousand emigrants i n one day.93 Even the C.L.E.C. was forced to admit that there appeared to be "an extraordinary amount of emigration " 9 4 , but i t then pointed out that some l i m i t a t i o n s might a r i s e out of the d i f f i c u l t i e s which would surely accompany the spread of fever and the gradual increase i n the passage p r i c e , as the demand f o r steerage increased.9 5 Unfortun-a t e l y , these f a c t o r s did not provide any check to the movement of I r i s h emigrants. For the f i r s t quarter of 1 8 4 7 , some f o r t y thousand people had f l e d from Ireland, as compared with f i f t e e n thousand i n the same period f o r 1 8 4 6 . 9 6 While the numbers escaping from Ireland continued to increase, the B r i t i s h Government was attempting to assess the probable impact of the measures adopted by the American Congress and State Assemblies of New York and Massachusetts on the emigration to Canada. Grey declared 97 that he f e l t that i t was the German rather than the B r i t i s h emigrants who the Americans were attempting to exclude. He had suggested to the Governor-General of Canada, the E a r l of E l g i n , that perhaps Canada should adopt s i m i l a r measures to exclude the Germans as w e l l , but no action 40 was taken on t h i s suggestion. Canada had nothing t o f e a r from the I r i s h who would soon be a r r i v i n g i n her p o r t s . In a few short weeks, Canadians would soon d i s c o v e r j u s t how i n c o r r e c t Grey's assessment o f the s i t u a t i o n had been. The I r i s h were f l e e i n g from I r e l a n d i n anything t h a t would f l o a t ; passenger brokers jammed emigrants i n t o every a v a i l a b l e space. Most s h i p s were overcrowded, and few c a r r i e d the l e g a l quota o f p r o v i s i o n s and w a t e r . ^ The I r i s h peasants were t o t a l l y ignorant concerning the l e n g t h of t h e voyage, and i n t h e i r haste t o escape from the famine, were o f t e n unprepared f o r i t . Robert Whyte, a cab i n passenger on an emigrant s h i p from I r e l a n d , r e p o r t e d t h a t the l a n d l o r d - a s s i s t e d emigrants on board knew nothing of Canada and had no means of l i v e l i h o o d o t h e r than the l a b our o f the f a t h e r . 9 9 A l l they knew was t h a t they were t o l a n d at Quebec ( i n onl y t h r e e weeks t i m e ) ^ ^ , from whence they would journey u p - c o u n t r y F e w . h a d taken any p r o v i s i o n s w i t h them — many had no resources w i t h which t o purchase them, w h i l e many othe r s had heard t h a t t h e ship's s t o r e s would supply a l l t h at was 10 ? needed. ~ As s t a t e d e a r l i e r , these s t o r e s had been i n -tended t o serve as a supplement t o the emigrant's own p r o v i s i o n s , and t h u s , when the s h i p ' s master was honest and c a r r i e d the quota r e q u i r e d , i t s t i l l amounted to l i t t l e more than a s u b s i s t e n c e d i e t . Thus, i f the emigrant man-aged t o avoid the f e v e r , t h e r e s t i l l remained a s t i f f 41 b a t t l e t o be fought against st a r v a t i o n . One I r i s h landlord, Stephen de Vere, journeyed to Canada i n steerage with some of his tenants, and he addressed a l e t t e r to T.F. E l l i o t , d e s c r i b i n g the horrors of the passage. No account can match his i n describing the a p p a l l i n g conditions and t e r r i b l e s u f f e r i n g s which the emigrants had to endure. De Vere r e a l i z e d that the d e s t i t u t i o n and disease then p r e v a i l i n g i n Ireland accounted, to a c e r t a i n extent, f o r "the f e a r f u l state of disease and d e b i l i t y i n which the I r i s h Emigrants have reached Canada"!^, but he also pointed out that the dreadful condition of the I r i s h emigrants had been much aggravated "by the neglect of c l e a n l i n e s s , v e n t i l -a t i o n , and a generally good state of s o c i a l economy during the paasage»"105 The present passenger l e g i s l a t i o n d i d not f u l f i l l i t s function; i t d i d not protect the emigrants. Before the Emigrant has been a week at sea he i s an a l t e r e d man. How can i t be otherwise? Hundreds of poor people, men, women, and c h i l -dren; of a l l years from the d r i v e l l i n g i d i o t of 90 t o the babe just born; huddled together without l i g h t , without a i r ; wallowing i n f i l t h and breathing a f o e t i d atmosphere; s i c k i n body; d i s p i r i t e d in h e a r t ; — the fevered Pat-i e n t s l y i n g between the Sound, i n sleeping places so narrow as almost to "deny them the power of i n d u l g i n g by a change of p o s i t i o n the nat-u r a l restlessness of the disease;.by t h e i r agonized ravings disturbing those around,& p r e -d i s p o s i n g them through the E f f e c t s o f the i m a g i n a t i o n , to imbibe the contagion; l i v i n g without food or medicine except as Administered by the hand of Casual charity; dying without the voice of S p i r i t u a l Consolation; and buried i n the deep — without the r i t e s of the Church. 42 The food i s generally i l l selected and seldom s u f f i c i e n t l y cooked i n consequence of the i n -s u f f i c i e n c y and bad construction of the cook-ing places. The supply of water hardly enough fo r cooking and drinking does not allow Wash-ing. In many Ships the f i l t h y beds teeming with a l l abominations are never required to be brought on Deck and a i r e d ; — the narrow space between the Sleeping berths & the p i l e s of Boxe3 i s never washed or scraped; but breathes up a damp and f o e t i d stench, u n t i l the day before a r r i v a l at Quarantine when a l l hands are required to "Scrub Up", and put on a f a i r face f o r the Doctor and Government In-spector. No moral r e s t r a i n t i s attempted, — the voice of prayer i s never heard; — drunkeneas and i t 3 consequent t r a i n of r u f f i a n l y debase-ment Vis not discouraged, because i t i s p r o f i t -able to the Captain who t r a f f i c s i n the Grog. 1 0° The food and water provided on t h i s ship had been of the worst q u a l i t y and yet, de Vere pointed out, "the case of t h i s ship was not one of peculiar misconduct,"107 The worst consequences of what de Vere described as " t h i s atrocious System of neglect and i l l usage"10# were not only disease and death, but also "the u t t e r demoralis-ation of the Passengers, both Male and Female, by the f i l t h , debasement, and the disease of 2 or 3 months so passed The Emigrant enfeebled i n body and degraded in mind even though he should have the physical power has not the heart, has not the w i l l t o exert himself. •— He has l o s t his seXT respect, h i s e l a s t i c i t y of S p i r i t — he no longer stands erect — he throws himself l i s t l e s s l y upon the d a i l y dole of Govern-ment and In order to earn i t c a r e l e s s l y l i e s f o r weeks upon the contaminated straw of a Fever Lazaretto.HO Many emigrants were to discover, too l a t e , that they 43 h a d e x c h a n g e d a p r o b a b l e g r a v e i n t h e i r h o m e l a n d f o r o n e a t s e a 5 some t h i r t y t h o u s a n d I r i s h m e n i n 1 8 4 7 w e r e n o t t o s u r v i v e t h e h o r r o r s o f t h e c r o s s i n g . m T h o s e t h a t d i d a r r i v e d i n s u c h a n e n f e e b l e d s t a t e t h a t t h e i r o n l y h o p e f o r s u r v i v a l r e s t e d u p o n t h e c h a r i t y o f t h e i r n e w f e l l o w - c o u n t r y m e n . T h i s w a s t h e c r i s i s w h i c h w a s t o b u r s t u p o n C a n a d a i n M a y , 1 8 4 7 . 44 FOOTNOTES Ij.A. Jordan, The Grosse Isle Tragedy and the  Monument to the Irish Fever Victims of 1847 (Quebec: Telegraph Printing Company, 1909), p.22. 2Cited in Jordan, The Grosse Isle Tragedy, p. 2 2 . ^Cecil Woodham-Smith, The Great Hunger: Ireland 1845-49 (London: Hamish Hamilton, 1962), pp. 94-102. ordan, The Grosse Isle Tragedy, p. 2 3 . 5woodham-Smith, The Great Hunger, p. 412. °Jordan, The Grosse Isle Tragedy, p. 2 2 . 70. Handlin, Boston's Immigrants. A Study in Accul- turation (New York: Atheneum, 1969), pp. 39-40. °Co.nnell, The Population of Ireland, p. 249. ^Great Britain, General Reports from the Colonial  Land and Emigration Commissioners, H.C, 1846 (706), Vol. 'XXIV, p. 14. 1 0 I b i d , , p. 14. n I b i d . t - p. 14. 1 2 I b i d . , p. 14. •^Cited in Jordan, The Grosse Isle Tragedy, p. 24. .-^Jordan, The Grosse Isle Tragedy, p. 2 3 . I5v/„V. Shannon, The American Irish (New York: Macmillan, 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 2 6 . l oWoodham-Smith t The Great Hunger, p. 214. 1 7 I b i d . , p. 2 1 4 . 1 ^ I b i d . , p. 2 1 5 . 1°-Great Britain, Papers relative to emigration to the British colonies in North America, H.C, 1847 (771). Vol, XXXIX, p. 2 4 . A.C. Buchanan Annual ReportDecember 24, I 8 4 6 . 2 0 c i t e d in Papers relative to emigration, H.C, 45 1847 (771), Vol.XXXIX, p. 27. Dr. G.VJ. Douglas to A.C. Buchanan, August 2 0 , I 8 4 6 . 2-*-The average length of the passage, according to the Colonization Circular Ho. 7 issued by the C.L.E.C. in March, 1847 , was forty-six days, 2 2Montreal Transcript, August 29, I 8 4 6 . 2 3 C i t e d in Montreal Transcript, August 29, I 8 4 6 . 2 % 0 n t r e a l Transcript, August 29, I 8 4 6 . 2 5 l b i d , s August 2 9 , 1846. 2 oPapers relative to emigration, H.C, 1847 (771), Vol. XXXIX, p. 7. A.C. Buchanan Annual Report, December 2 4 , I846. 2 7 I b i d . , p. 8". 2 g I b i d . , p. 2 8 . 2 9 I b i d . , p. 28. 3°Ibid.,- p. 8 , 3 l i b i d . , p. 8 . 32;ibid. „ p. 1 2 . 3 3 l b i d . t p. 15. 3 4 b i d . , p. 15. 3 5 l b i d . , p. 15. 3°Cited In Papers relative to emigration, H.C, 1847 (771), Vol,XXXIX, p. 2 9 . A.B. Hawke to A.C Buchanan, November 24, I 8 4 6 . '^Papers relative to emigration, H.C, 1847 (771), Vol.XXXIX", p. 15. A.C. Buchanan Annual Report, December 24, 1846. 3 g I b i d . t p. 15. 3 9 i b i d . , p. 15. ^°Ibid., p. 15-6. 46 ^Papers relative to emigration, H.C., 1847 (771), Vol. XXXIX, p. 2 9 . A.B. Hawke to A.C. Buchanan, November 2 1 8 4 6 . 42pap6rs relative to emigration, H.C., 1847 (771), Vol. XXXlX, p. 15. A.C. Buchanan Annual Report, December 2 1 3 4 6 . 4 3 i b i d . , pp. 1 5 - 6 . 44jordan, The Grosse Isle Tragedy, p. 2 6 . 45j.iacdonagh, Pattern of Government Growth, p. 173. ^ 0 . Macdonagh, "The regulation of the emigrant t r a f f i c in the United Kingdom, 1842-55," Irish Historical  Studies, Vol. IX (1954-55), p. I 6 5 . . ^Fares to Canada varied from £ 2 10s to £ 3 5s., depending on the point of departure, according to the Colonisation Circular No. 7 issued by the C.L.E.C.. in March, 1847. i d ''Great Britain, General Reports from the Colonial Land and Emigration Commissioners, H.C., 1847 (809), Vol. XXXIII, pp. 16-7. 4 9 I b i d , , p. 3 . 5°Papers relative to emigration, H .C., 1347 (771), Vol, XXXIx., p. 11. Copy of a Desoatch from Lord Grey to Lord Elgin, April 1, 1347. • r**i -'Macdonagh, Pattern of Government Growth, p. 176. 5 2Ibid. t p. 1 7 6 . 5 3 I b i d , , p. 176. 54woodham-Smith, The Great Hunger, p. 215. 5 5 I b i d . f p. 215. 56Ibid,, p, 2 1 5 . The price of a passage to the United States rose to seven pounds. 5?Edwards and Williams, eds., The Great Famine, p. 3 7 9 . 47 ^Edwards and Williams, eds., The Great Famine, p. 379. ited in Edv*ards and Williams, eds., The Great  Famineg p. 320. 60 G.p . Gooch, ed., The Later Correspondence of  Lord John Russell J840-78 (London: Longmans, 1925), Vol. I, p. 168. 6 l I b i d . , p. 1 6 8 . 6 " 2 s i r A.J. Doughty, ed., The Elgin-Grey Papers  1846-52 (Ottawa: King's Printer, 1937) , Vol. I l l , p. 1086. Lord Grey Memorandum on Emigration, December 1 5 , I 8 4 6 . 6 3 l b i d . , p. 1086. 6 4 i b.id.. p. 1 0 8 7 . °5A tax of five shillings was levied on a l l adult immigrants (fourteen and over, those between one and fourteen years of age paid half that amount); this tax was incorporated into the price of the passage and paid to the colonial o f f i c i a l s by the ship's master upon ar r i v a l in the colony. 6oDoUghty, ed., Elgin-Grey Papers, Vol. I l l , p. I G 8 7 . 6"7j,bid., p. 1087. ^Doughty, ed., Elgin-Grey Papers, Vol. I l l , p. 1099. Memorandum in Lord Grey's handwriting, 21/4/11, Scheme of Settlements in Villages. 6 9 I b i d , , p. 1099. 7°Doughty, ed., Elgin-Grey Papers, Vol. I l l , p. 1^97-Memorandum, T.F.. E l l i o t to L. Lansdowne, 23 January 1^47• 7 1Ibld., p. 1096. 7 2 I k i c L » PP- 1096-97. 73Doughty, ed.. Elain-Grey Papers, Vol. I l l , p. 1097. Emigration, B, Hawes to Lord Grey, December 18, I 8 4 6 . 74Doughty, ed., Elgin-Grey Papers, Vol. I l l , p. 1111. Memorandum oh Villages, T . F . E l l i o t , January 2 3 , 1847. 48 "^Doughty, ed., Elgin-Grey Papers„ Vol. I, pp.'10-11, Grey to Elgin, February 2, 1847. 7 6Papers relative to emigration, H.C, 1347 (771), Vol. XXXIX ' p. I I . Copy of a Despatch from Grey to Elgin, April 1, 1847. 77Woodham-Smith, The Great Hunger, p. 216. 78 Doughty, ed., Elgin-Grey Papers, Vol. I l l , p. 1093. Extract of a Letter from Commissariat Clerk Hughes, Skibereen Reserve Depot, December 18, I846. 7 9H ansard's Parliamentary Debates, 3d series, Vol. x c , pp. 1241-42. 8 o I b i d . , p. 1241-42. g l I b i d . , p. 1242. 8 2 I b i d . , p. 1242. 33Dr„ G.W. Douglas. 3 4 S •H. Gousens, "The Regional Pattern of Emigration during the Great-Irish Famine, 1846-51," The Institute of  British Geographers - Transactions and Papers i 9 6 0 , No. 28 11959-60), p, 130. ^Edwards and Williams, eds., The Great Famine, 320, 86 Ibid,,, p. 321 . 37oousen.3, "The Regional Pattern of Emigration," Institute of British geographers, p. 131. ^Woodham-Smith, The Great Hunger, p. 216. 89papers relative to emigration. • H.C.1347-8 (50), Vol. XLVlT, p. 167. Reports from the Colonial Land and Emigration Cmraissioners, E l l i o t and Rogers to Stephens, April 19, 1847. 9°Ibid., p. 167. ^Papers relative to emigration, H.C, 1847-8 ( 5 0 ) , Vol. XLVIl, pp. 172-3. Reports of the Colonial Land and Emigration Commissioners, E l l i o t , Rogers and Wood to Stephens, June 2, 1847. 49 9 2Papers r e l a t i v e to emigration. H.C., 1847-8 ( 5 0 ) , V o l . X LVII, p. 167. Reports from the C o l o n i a l Land and Emigration Commissioners, E l l i o t and Rogers t o Stephens, A p r i l 19, 1847. 9 3 I b i d . , p. 167. 94papers r e l a t i v e t o emigration, H.C, 1847-8 ( 5 0 ) , V o l . XLVII, p. 168. Reports from t he C o l o n i a l Land and Emigration Commissioners, E l l i o t Rogers and Wood to Stephens, A p r i l 19, 1847. 9 5 l b i d . , p. 168. 176-7. 96Macdonagh, P a t t e r n of Government Growth, pp. 97Han3ard's Parliamentary Debates, 3d s e r i e s , Vol. XC, pp. 1330-31. 176-7. '°Macdonagh, P a t t e r n of Government Growth, pp. 99Robert Whyte, The Ocean Plague: o r , a Voyage t o ^ Quebec i n an I r i s h Emigrant V e s s e l (Boston: Coolidge and Wiley, 1848), p. 2 9 . 1 0 0 I b i d . , p. 2 9 . 1 0 1 I b i d . , p. 29 1 0 2 I b i d . , pp. 2 5 - 9 . l°3Doughty, ed., Elgin-Grey Papers, V o l . I l l , pp. 1341-47. Stephen de Vere to T.F. E l l i o t , November 30, 1347« 1 0 4 I b i d . , P. 1341. i 0 5 l b i d . , P. 1341. 1 0 6 I b i d . , PP . 1341-42. 1 0 7 I b i d . , P. 1342. 10*Ibid., P. 1343. 1 0 9 I b i d . , ?• 1343. H°Ibid., p. 1343-UlEdwards and W i l l i a m s P. 371. CANADA - THE PRELUDE 50 The Canadian immigration season of 1847 opened on May 9 t h » with the a r r i v a l at Grosse I s l e of the bark Syria from L i v e r p o o l . Grosse I s l e i s located t h i r t y miles below Quebec C i t y , i n the St. Lawrence — a rocky and well-wooded i s l a n d some three miles long and, at i t s widest point, one mile across. I t was here, i n 1832, that Canada had established her f i r s t quarantine s t a t i o n to care f o r the victims of a cholera epidemic: among the season's I r i s h and English immigrants.1 By 1847, a stop f o r a medical inspection at the quarantine s t a t i o n f o r a l l vessels carrying passengers had become mandatory; any ships with sickness on board were then detained and the s i c k were taken to the station's h o s p i t a l . Dr. George Douglas had, i n 1847, been the medical superintendent f o r the past ten years, and he was as s i s t e d by a s t a f f of three:-* one steward, one orderly and one nurse. 2 ^ n e S y r i a wa3 to provide but a preview of the horrors which the season of 1847 was to bring to Canada. She was f i l l e d with I r i s h emigrants who had crossed to L i v e r p o o l to secure t h e i r passage; a l l of the emigrants were "wretched and poor"3 0 The ship had l e f t Liverpool on March 2 4 t n , and shortly a f t e r her departure, fever and dysentery broke out among her already weakened 'cargo'. During the passage, which lasted f o r t y - s i x days, there were nine deaths among her 241 passengers, while another immigrant died upon a r r i v a l at Grosse I s l e . 5 There were also eighty-four cases of fever, and Douglas f e l t that 51 Quarantine Wharf, Grosse I s l e Quarantine S t a t i o n and B u i l d i n g s , Grosse I s l e 52 Old Cenetery, Grosse I s l e , Where V i c t i m s of 1847 Are Buried 53 another twenty t o twenty-four would a l s o have t o be ad-m i t t e d t o h o s p i t a l before the S y r i a * s quarantine p e r i o d e x p i r e d . 0 The f i r s t s h i p o f the season had provided more than e i g h t y p a t i e n t s f o r Douglas' h o s p i t a l at Grosse I s l e , a h o s p i t a l which could accommodate, at the most, no more than two hundred p a t i e n t s . 7 Already doubts were a r i s i n g i n Douglas' mind concerning h i s a b i l i t y t o cope w i t h the immigration which was l i k e l y to f o l l o w i n the wake o f t h e S y r i a , and he expressed these doubts t o the government.^ He pointed out t h a t he had r e l i a b l e i n f o r -mation t h a t at l e a s t 10,600 emigrants had l e f t the p o r t s o f Great B r i t a i n s i n c e A p r i l 19 t n, and the g r e a t e r pro-p o r t i o n o f these emigrants had been I r i s h . "Judging from the specimens j u s t a r r i v e d " , he c o r r e c t l y p r e d i c t e d t h a t great numbers would have t o be admitted t o h o s p i t a l . He needed permission t o e r e c t a new shed t o provide a d d i t i o n a l h o s p i t a l accommodations; the Executive Government granted h i s request on Hay 19***1.0, Douglas* worst f e a r s were soon r e a l i z e d ; by May 21 s t another seven ships had a r r i v e d , a l l c a r r y i n g s i c k n e s s and death w i t h i n t h e i r h o l d s . ^ Douglas t o l d l l o f the "unprecedented i l l n e s s and d i s t r e s s among the newly a r r i v e d immigrants"; the s i t u a t i o n was f a r worse than any-t h i n g he had ever witnessed. A l l v e s s e l s c a r r y i n g I r i s h emigrants, and e s p e c i a l l y those which s a i l e d from L i v e r -p o o l and Cork, had l o s t many of t h e i r passengers t o f e v e r 54 and dysentery d u r i n g the passage. Of the ships* 2778 passengers, 175 had die d d u r i n g the c r o s s i n g o r upon a r r i v a l at Grosse I s l e , and another 341 were s i c k . By May 2 4 ^ , t h e r e were seventeen v e s s e l s anchored o f f Grosse I s l e ; these s h i p s had l e f t w i t h 5607 emigrants, but by the time o f t h e i r a r r i v a l t h e i r numbers had been 12 diminished by some two hundred and s i x t y deaths. More than seven hundred emigrants had been t r e a t e d at the over-crowded Grosse I s l e h o s p i t a l , w h i l e many more were f o r c e d t o remain on board s h i p a w a i t i n g vacancies i n t h e shed3 on shore before they could be treated.^3 Douglas s t a t e d f l a t l y t h a t he was "unable t o cope w i t h the present a r r i -v a l s " ! ^ ; f u r t h e r a s s i s t a n c e was necessary. The Canadian newspapers were f o l l o w i n g the events at Grosse I s l e very c l o s e l y . The Montreal T r a n s c r i p t p r i n t e d i t s f i r s t d e s c r i p t i o n o f the scene at the Quarantine S t a t i o n on May 25*"*1. The paper had r e c e i v e d two l e t t e r s from t h e i r Quebec correspondent which, i t f e l t , were c a l c u l a t e d t o e x c i t e s e r i o u s apprehension and demand the most a c t i v e measures on the part o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s t o prevent the d i sease thus conveyed t o our shores from spreading among the p o p u l a t i o n . By May'21-st j t h e r e had been n e a r l y t h r e e thousand emigrants at Grosse I s l e , and "not a s i n g l e one had yet reached Quebec." The h o s p i t a l was n e a r l y f u l l , and the T r a n s c r i p t wondered where the quarantine o f f i c i a l s would f i n d room f o r the h e a l t h y . The paper f e a r e d , w i t h good reason, t h a t 55 the present s i t u a t i o n was "but a mere foreshadowing of what we-may expect hereafter." While not wishing to create any unnecessary alarm, the edit o r f e l t that i t was his 'duty' to draw attention to the prospect which seemed to await the province. By May 24"^, the s i t u a t i o n had worsened; the Transcript of May. 27^° reported that every building was crowded with the sic k , most of whom were without beds; the dead were buried without c o f f i n s . Not s a t i s f i e d with mere reports of the sufferings at Grosse I s l e , the Transcript queried the cause of the di s a s t e r . The Government agents can hardly, with the ample notice they have had, have been so culpably n e g l e c t f u l of t h e i r duty as our correspondent's l e t t e r reports — although that the actual amount of sickness has gone beyond t h e i r calculations,, and perhaps led to temporary inconveniences, i s by no means u n l i k e l y , The authorities should have r e a l i z e d that t h i s season's immigration would contain much sickness, and they should, therefore, "have been prepared f o r any emergency." "Why," asks the Transcript t "were not the a u t h o r i t i e s s u f f i c i e n t -l y prepared?" But one might also ask why the Transcript, as well as the other major Canadian newspapers, had not e a r l i e r demanded some action on the Government's part. The papers were well-informed concerning the conditions i n Ireland and the winter exodus to the United States, but they too had not considered t h e i r probable impact upon 56 Canada. Some answers to the Transcript's query have a l -ready been suggested,15 but to understand the s i t u a t i o n more f u l l y , i t i s necessary f i r s t to examine the Canadian scene on the eve of the Famine Emigration; second, to provide some understanding of Canada's awareness of the events then taking place i n Ireland; and f i n a l l y , to discover what preparations, i f any, were made f o r the immigration season of 1847. The second h a l f of the l840*s was not to be a happy time f o r the United Province of Canada; i t was to f e e l the impact of the I r i s h b l i g h t and famine i n more than one way. The ' f o r t i e s had started well f o r Canada, and the second h a l f of the decade seemed to promise continued economic growth i n the areas of a g r i c u l t u r e and lumbering, the basic staples on which the St. Lawrence trading system, centred i n Montreal, based i t s wealth. As part of the B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l system, the Canadians enjoyed a protected pos i t i o n within t h i s l a r g e r economic and p o l i t i c a l u n i t . By the Canada Corn Act of 1843, both Canadian wheat and f l o u r were c a r r i e d into England with only a nominal duty, i n contrast to foreign grains which faced a much heavier Imposition.1° This Act, with the assistance of complemen-tary P r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n of the preceding year, stim-ulated, to a c e r t a i n extent, the St. Lawrence trade not only i n Canadian grain staples, but also i n f l o u r ground i n the province from American wheat. A considerable amount 57 of c a p i t a l , as a r e s u l t of t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n , was invested i n m i l l s to grind the American wheat f o r the B r i t i s h mar-ket. 1? The economic future f o r Canada appeared very bright i n 1 8 4 5 . However, there were threats to continued prosperity appearing on the Canadian horizon i n 1845, "the height of the good times"!^. The f i r s t threat came from the United States which, i n 1845-46, passed the Drawback Laws; these laws remitted duties on goods destined f o r Canada that were imported through the United States and on Cana-dian exports which were sent overseas v i a the States.19 Canada responded i n a s i m i l a r fashion i n I 8 4 6 , repealing the duty on American wheat brought into the province f o r re-export. Competition between the American canal system and the St. Lawrence trading network had reached a new height; the need f o r a good canal system l i n k i n g the Great Lakes with Montreal and the A t l a n t i c seemed more urgent than ever. The Canadian business community, there-f o r e , were doing everything possible to develop a system which would bring t h e i r inland commodities to the ocean ports with the greatest speed and the l e a s t d i f f i c u l t y . 2 ^ But the greatest threat to Canadian prosperity was to come from across the A t l a n t i c . The disastrous I r i s h Famine had provided the opponents of the c o l o n i a l pro-t e c t i v e system of trade, the free traders, with just the s i t u a t i o n they needed to destroy t h i s system of imperial 58 preference, Ireland required massive quantities of cheap food, and Robert Peel , then Prime M i n i s t e r , declared that the only remedy was 'the removal of a l l impediments to the im-ports of a l l kinds of human food — that i s , the t o t a l and absolute repeal f o r ever of a l l duties on a l l a r t i c l e s of subsistence.' 2^ The repeal of the Corn Laws meant the end of a l l prefer-ences f o r Canadian breadstuffs and any benefits gained under the Canada Corn Act. The destruction of imperial system of preferences was to occur i n stages — prefer-ences under the Canada Corn Act d i d not wholly disappear u n t i l 1849, while the timber preferences were reduced i n two stages, one i n 1847 and one i n 1348, 2 2 The St. Lawrence t r a d i n g network, already faced with increased American competition, was now threatened f u r t h e r by the loss of one- of i t s most important advantages over i t s r i v a l . To make matters even worse, Canada was also struck by a depression shortly a f t e r t h e i r protected market had been l o s t , and J iconsequently, the change i n commercial p o l i c y was regarded by the-raajority of the c o l o n i s t s as the p r i n c i p l e or even the sole cause of d i s t r e s s . n 2 3 Lord Grey perhaps best summarized the f e e l i n g s of many Canadian merchants. «ALmo3t before these arrangements were f u l l y completed [the construction of f l o u r m i l l s i n response to the Canada Com Act3 , and the newly b u i l t m i l l s f a i r l y at work, the Act of I 8 4 6 swept away the advantages conferred up-on Canada i n respect to the corn trade with 59 t h i s country, and brought upon the Province a f r i g h t f u l amount of l o s s to the i n d i v i d u a l and a great derangement of the c o l o n i a l f i n a n c e s . , 2 4 It soon became evident that Canada could not, at t h i s time, compete with i t s American neighbour. The massive investment i n the canals had not paid o f f i n the manner which Canadians had expected, and had resulted i n a heavy burden of debt f o r the Government. Coupled with the large debt was a growing uncertainty and gloom concerning the economic future of the Province, and a considerable d i s -l o c a t i o n of Canadian trade. The St. Lawrence tr a d i n g community's stranglehold over Canadian commerce had been broken once and f o r a l l , and f o r a short period, i t was to s u f f e r rather severe economic hardships.26 gy the winter of 1847-48, Canada's staples' trade had been caught i n a severe depression; i n 1847, f o r t y - f i v e m i l l i o n feet of lumber had been cut to meet a demand of only nineteen m i l l i o n f e e t , while the wheat and f l o u r exports f e l l from 3 , 8 8 3 , 0 0 0 bushels i n 1847 to 2,248 ,000 i n 1848 .27 Montreal and the eastern townships were perhaps the hardest h i t , as the depression affected farmers, m i l l -owners, forwarders and merchants a l i k e . 2 ^ Many who had invested heavily i n the f l o u r trade were, by 1848, ruined,2 9 Much private property became unsaleable and i t was nearly impossible to r a i s e any money on c r e d i t within the Province.3 0 Many Canadians, as they watched the United States t h r i v e on free trade, f e l t that they had 60 been robbed of their prosperity by the Imperial Govern-ment, Elgin, in a communique to the Colonial Office, stated that i t appeared as i f the Imperial Government wished 'to make Canada feel more bit t e r l y how much kinder England i s to children who desert her than to those who remain faithful,'31 The economy was not to provide the only problem for Canada in 1847; another grievance against the Imperial Government was soon to dominate the Canadian scene — that of the Irish Famine Emigrants, Canadians had been able to follow the progress of the Irish Famine through their various newspapers. As often as once a week such papers as the Montreal Transcript, La Minerve, the Toronto Globe and the Quebec Morning Chronicle, would carry vivid descrip-tions of the sufferings of the Irish nation. But Canada did not need to rely upon second hand accounts of the situation in Ireland; she had already seen (although few seemed to realize i t ) , in the late arrivals of the I 8 4 6 emigration season, the depths to which the major-i t y of t h e I r i 3 h population had been reduced. In a let t e r to the editor of the Transcript in January of 1 8 4 7 , "An Irishman" described the lot to which some of his fellow-countrymen had been reduced,32 in Montreal, he pointed out, numbers of Irish families had been reduced t o a state of destitution because they could find no employment. Not a l l of the emigrants of the I 8 4 6 season 61 had fared as well as Buchanan's report on the season indicated o I t was not the l o t of the I r i s h i n Canada which cap-tured the attention of the Canadian populace, but rather that of the I r i s h nation i t s e l f . In Quebec C i t y , Montreal and Toronto, public meetings were held to r a i s e funds to a s s i s t the starving I r i s h . The Catholic congregation of St, Patrick's Church, Quebec, was the f i r s t to act; i t formed a committee which was to appoint c o l l e c t o r s and to co-operate with the other c i t i z e n s of Quebec, should they decide to attempt a s i m i l a r project . 3 3 /The funds r a i s e d would be sent to the Catholic and Protestant Archbishops o f Dublin,3 4 While events were getting o f f the ground i n Quebec, a public meeting was c a l l e d i n Montreal f o r February B^h, "to adopt measures f o r contributing toward the r e l i e f of the famishing population of I r e -land. " 35 The meeting was c a l l e d by some of the leading Irishmen o f Montreal:- Hon, D. Daly (member of the Execu-t i v e Council and the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly), Francis Hincks (a prominent of the reform party i n Upper Canada), L.T. Drummond (a member of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly and a reformer),, W.C. Meredith Q.C., E, Meredith ( P r i n c i p a l of M c G i l l College), to name but a few.36 A subscription l i s t was started and the f i r s t donations were received from Lord E l g i n and Lord Cathcart (Commander of the armed forces i n Canada), Those at the meeting declared that i t was the duty of a l l Irishmen-to- come- forward, i n an. 62 attempt to a l l e v i a t e the I r i s h d i s t r e s s , and to t h i s end a subscription l i s t was started. The funds c o l l e c t e d f o r t h i s United I r i s h and Scot t i s h R e l i e f Fund were to be forwarded to the General Central R e l i e f Committee i n Dublin. Donations were soon pouring i n , and by February 2 3 r < * , t n a t o t a l waa more than two thousand pounds.37 A s i m i l a r public meeting was held i n Quebec C i t y on February 1 2 t n ; according to the Quebec Mercury, i t was the largest public meeting which the c i t y had ever seen.33 The leading members of the Quebec community were there — the Catholic Bishop of Quebec, the Protestant Bishop of Montreal, Rev. P. McMahon of St. Patrick's Church, Hon. R.E. Caron, former mayor of Quebec, Captain R.I. Alleyn R.N. and Mr. A.C. Buchanan. As evidenced by the Rev* Mr, McMahon's attendance, the e a r l i e r St. Patrick's movement was incorporated into the greater Quebec organization. Here again i t was resolved to c o l l e c t funds to a i d the su f f e r e r s i n both Ireland and Scotland, with three-fourths of the funds going to the former and the remaining one-fourth to the l a t t e r , through the agencies of the Catholic and Protestant Archbishops of Dublin. Rather than e s t a b l i s h i n g a subscription l i s t , several c o l l e c t o r s were appointed f o r various areas of the c i t y . 3 9 While great concern was being-shown f o r the d i s t r e s s of the I r i s h nation, few people appeared to be giving any thought as to how the continued I r i s h d i s t r e s s might a f f e c t 63 the upcoming season's emigration to Canada. One of the few men to worry about the approach of the 1847 season was Dr. Douglas; he voiced h i s concern i n a l e t t e r to the Executive Council.40 He asked the Governor-General to ensure that the necessary steps would be taken f o r the ensuing season's emigrants, many of whom, he feared, would be su f f e r i n g from fever and dysentery. He compared the previous year's experience with that of 1831, when there had been a p a r t i a l f a i l u r e of the potato crop, and consequently much sickness and many deaths among the 31,422 a r r i v a l s . Last year's sick and dead, he declared, had f a r outnumbered those of any previous year; the t o t a l s had, i n fact,:been double the average of former years. With continued d i s t r e s s i n Ireland, the emigration s i t u a t i o n could only deteriorate, e s p e c i a l l y i f the United States succeeded i n i t s e f f o r t s to r e s t r i c t the emigration of paupers to i t s shores. Douglas then presented a r e -quest f o r three thousand pounds to cover the expense of preparing f o r the upcoming season. He d i d not get h i s three thousand pounds, but instead received three hundred pounds, plus the permission to hir e a sailboat and the steamer St.. George, to ply the route between Quebec and Gross Isle.41 Toronto c i t i z e n s also demonstrated t h e i r concern w i t h the p l i g h t of the I r i s h people. On February 25^h } a public meeting, s i m i l a r to those held i n both Quebec and Montreal, was held under the auspice3 of the l o c a l St. Patrick's Society, Hon. Robert Baldwin, M.P.P. and 64 Hon, George Duggan, M.P.P., Presidents,^- 2 Here a commit-tee f o r the r e l i e f of d i s t r e s s i n Ireland was appointed to c o l l e c t funds and provide information concerning the condition of Ireland.^ 3 As t a l e s of the horrors which had become d a i l y occurrences i n Ireland continued to f i l l the Canadian newspapers, more Canadians became concerned about the impact which the events i n Ireland would have upon the upcoming emigration season. E a r l y i n March, the c i t i z e n s of Quebec f e l t compelled to address a p e t i t i o n to Lord Grey.^-4 i n t h e i r address they expressed t h e i r concern about the increasing numbers of I r i s h who each year sought to make Canada t h e i r new home. The continued d i s t r e s s i n Ireland would mean yet another increase i n the numbers of poor I r i s h reaching Canada's shores. The immigrants would not only be i l l - e q u i p p e d to cope with the harsh Canadian winter, but also would, no doubt, bring fever with them. Surely the Canadian Government should take some action to protect i t s own c i t i z e n s from diseased and de s t i t u t e immigrants. Canadian a u t h o r i t i e s did not agree with the c i t i z e n s of Quebec; the emigration o f f i c i a l s , upon whom the Govern-ment r e l i e d f o r t h e i r information, f e l t t h at Canada would be able to cope adequately with whatever the next season might bring. Both the Toronto Globe of March 2 4 ^ and the Montreal Transcript of A p r i l 1 3 ^ supported t h i s i n t e r -p retation. These papers agreed with the report presented by the Hon. R.B. S u l l i v a n (a p o l i t i c i a n of the reform party) to the Mechanic's I n s t i t u t e of Toronto on March 14 t h. In Sullivan's speech, he pointed out that i f done  properly^5, the whole of the surplus population of B r i t a i n could be advantageously s e t t l e d on the lands of Canada.46 Here was a so l u t i o n to the I r i s h problem, but unfortunately Mr. S u l l i v a n f a i l e d to point out that the I r i s h emigration (and e s p e c i a l l y that of 1847) was r a r e l y 'done properly'. This 'solution' did not quiet everyone's f e a r s , how-ever, and "An Irishman", i n a l e t t e r to the editor of the Montreal Transcript of A p r i l 2 2 n d . voiced the concern which many Canadians were beginning to experience. Every-one knew that the season's immigration would probably be the larges t which Canada had ever seen and he wondered what measures, i f any, the Government had taken to prepare to meet the d i s t r e s s which must accompany such an emigration. The e d i t o r , i n h i s reply, f e l t that the Government was aware of the s i t u a t i o n , but he did not, however, know of any actions taken by them to meet the emergency. Unless the eiaigrant. had some resources or f r i e n d s to support him, he would merely be exchanging starvation at home f o r the same fate on the shores of the New World. I f the Government did not o f f e r some scheme of assistance, then obviously the "burden of support must f a l l upon the wealthy of the community." Everyone r e a l i z e d that i t was 66 dangerous to o f f e r indiscriminate a i d , but "a man cannot be made any worse f o r having employment presented to h i s hand when i n a state of d e s t i t u t i o n . " He hoped, i n vain, that the Government would look to both the problem of providing f o r the season's expected large immigration and the subject of the increasing immigration. By mid-April, the Canadian newspapers began to carry accounts of the massive f l i g h t of the I r i s h from t h e i r homeland. Various community organizations began to take steps which would enable them to cope with the s i t u a t i o n . The Toronto Globe of A p r i l 2 8 t h described the meeting of one such organization, the General Committee of the Emi-grant Settlement Society. Their objective was •to put the emigrants, upon a r r i v a l i n the c i t y i n a way of procuring steady employment, without delay, at a f a i r yearly wage, and of s e t t l i n g themselves i n the i n t e r i o r of the country, and f o r such purposes, to organize a Committee and to open up an o f f i c e i n Tor-onto, where emigrants of every c l a s s may, upon a r r i v a l , receive accurate and useful i n -formation to guide them i n making the most b e n e f i c i a l arrangements f o r t h e i r speedy settlement i n the surrounding country, according to t h e i r respective conditions and avocations.' The Committee i n v i t e d the co-operation of the entir e community, f o r they intended to aid i t as well as the immigrants by placing labourers in touch with anyone who required t h e i r s e r v i c e s . The operation was to be financed by subscription. "Many of the c i t i z e n s of Montreal were also worrying 67 about t h e impact o f a l a r g e immigration, e s p e c i a l l y a d e s t i t u t e one, upon t h e i r own community. The M o n t r e a l  Gazette o f A p r i l 19th47 f e a r e d t h a t Canada would be "inundated w i t h an enormous crowd o f poor and d e s t i t u t e emigrants", and demanded t h a t some l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i o n be t a k e n . I t would be M o n t r e a l , r a t h e r t h a n Quebec, which would be t h e h a r d e s t h i t by the immigration; Quebec was but a s t q p p i n g - o f f p o i n t , w h i l e M o n t r e a l l a y at t h e c e n t r e o f the immigrants" r o u t e t o t h e i n t e r i o r . The Gazette* 3 o b s e r v a t i o n s were t o be s u b s t a n t i a t e d i n a l l too s h o r t a t i m e . The C o r p o r a t i o n o f M o n t r e a l appeared t o share t h e G a z e t t e * 3 concern; at a C o r p o r a t i o n meeting on A p r i l 2 9 t n , t h e Mayor d e c l a r e d t h a t i t was f n e c e s s a r y t o t a k e some measures t o prevent the crowding o f emigrants i n t o the c i t y upon the a r r i v a l o f s h i p s from England, who might be the cause o f d i s s e m i n a t i n g s i c k n e s s , i f some p l a c e i s not p r o v i d e d f o r t h e i r r e c e p t i o n out-s i d e the city.»^ s He i n t e n d e d t o correspond w i t h t h e Government on t h e s u b j e c t , but no c o n c r e t e s t e p s r e s u l t e d from h i s c o r r e s -pondence. A meeting o f M o n t r e a l c i t i z e n s was a l s o c a l l e d , under t h e a u s p i c e s o f t h e M o n t r e a l E m i g r a t i o n Committee. H e l d on May 1 0 " n , t h e meeting was t o c o n s i d e r what st e p s s h o u l d be taken f o r t h e upcoming season, but i t was so p o o r l y attended t h a t i t was q u i c k l y adjourned.^9 Thus the Canadian c o l o n y prepared t o f a c e a most 68 extraordinary immigration season with l i t t l e more than the usual precautionary measures. Despite what Elgin described as the prevalent feeling of alarm lest the immigration "should be excessive this season and lest disease should follow in i t s train"50 } l i t t l e had been done to cope with the consequences of such a situation,. Both the colonial and imperial o f f i c i a l s had decided that Canada could easily accommodate another large influx of immigrants without the necessity of any extraordinary-measures. Their word had been accepted, despite the grow-ing uneasiness of some people at the local levels, Canada was to meet the largest, most destitute and most diseased immigration season she had ever witnessed with a quaran-tine station that could accommodate a mere two hundred patients and another Marine and Emigrant Hospital, at Quebec, which had room for three hundred sick51. These accommodations were to prove inadequate before the f i r s t month of the season was over, and the colony then had to fight an uphill battle in i t s attempts to deal with the Irish immigration of 1847. 69 FOOTNOTES H/oodham-Smith, The Great Hunger, p. 218. 2Terry Coleman, Passage to America. A History of  eraigrants from Great Britain to America in the mid-nine- t e e n t h century (London: Hutchinson, 1972), pp. 137-8. ^Appendix to the Sixth Volume of the Journals of  the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada (Montreal: Rollo Campbell, 1847), Appendix 1, Quarantine Station at Grosse Isle and Emigrant Sheds at Quebec -Correspondence and other Documents relative to the man-agement of the Quarantine Station at Grosse Isle, and to the erection of Emigrant Sheds Within the City of Quebec, Douglas to Daly, May 1 7 , 1847. 4 I b i d . , May 17, 1847 5Ibid», May 1 7 , 1847. 6Ibid,« May 17, 1847. 7 I b i d . , May 17, 1847. Slbid., May 17, 1847. 9lbid., Extract from a Report of the Committee of the Executive Council, May 19, 1847. 1 0 I b i d . , Douglas to Daly, May 21, 1847. Hgapers relative to emigration, H.C, 1847-8 ( 5 0 ) , Vol. XLVII, p. 1. Douglas to Daly, May 24, 1847. 3-2Ibid„, p. 1. -•^JLOld. , p. 1 . ^ I b i d . , p. 1. I5See above, chapter I I , pp. 36-40. l^G.N. Tucker, The Canadian Commercial Revolution  1845"51 (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1964), p. 152. l^J.M.S. Careless, The Union of the Canadas. The  Growth of Canadian Institutions 1841-57 (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1967), p. 105 . 18 Ibid., p. 103. 70 ^ c a r e l e s s , The Union of the Canadas, p. 108. 2 0 I b i d . , p. 105. 2Icited i n Woodham-Smith, The Great Hunger, p. 50. 2 2 C a r e l e s s , The Union of the Canadas, p. 109. 23Tucker, Commercial Revolution, p. 152. 2Z<-Cited i n M.F. Davin, The Irishman in Canada (Toronto: Maclear, 1877), p. 5471 2 5 c a r e l e s s , The Union of the Canadas. p. 114. 2 oTucker, Commercial Revolution, p. 152V 27 Gareless, The Union of the Canadas, p. 122. 2 g I b i d . , p. 122. 2 9Ibid.» p. 122. 3°Flood, I r i shman, p. 547. 3 I c i t e d i n Flood, Irishman, p. 548. 3Montreal Transcript, January 21, 1847. 3 3 j o r d a n , The Grosse I s l e Tragedy, p. 72. 34lbid», p. 72. 35Montreal Transcript, February 4, 1847. 3 6Ibid (,, February 4, 1847. 37Hontreal Tr a n s c r i p t, February 23, 1847. 38cited i n the Montreal Transcript, February 18, 1847. 3 9 f r / the end of March the sum c o l l e c t e d had reached $16,000, with $3600 from St. Peter's Ward, $2200 from St. Lewis' Ward, $1600 each from both Palace and St. Roch's Wards, and .$1200 from Champlain Ward. Jordan, The Grosse  l 3 l e Tragedy, p. 74. ^Appendix to Sixth Volume of Journals, Appendix L 9 Douglas to Daly, February 19, 1S47. 71 pendix to S i x t h Volume of J o u r n a l s , Appendix L, E x t r a c t from a Report o f a Committee of the Executive C o u n c i l on Matters of S t a t e , March 8, 1847. 4 2 T o r o n t o Globe, February 25 , 1847. ^ T o r o n t o . Globe, March 3, 1847. 44 c i t e d i n Woodham-Smith, The Great Hunger, pp. 218-9. ^Emphasis my own. 4 % o n t r e a l T r a n s c r i p t , A p r i l 13, 1847. ^ C i t e d i n Woodham-Smith, The Great Hunger, p. 219. ^ M o n t r e a l T r a n s c r i p t , May 1, 1847. 49Woodham-Smith, The Great Hunger, p. 219. -^Doughty, ed., Elgin-Grey Papers, V o l . I , p. 35. E l g i n t o Grey, May 7, 1847. • 5lAppendi'x to S i x t h . Volume of J o u r n a l s , Appendix R, Correspondence and Other Documents r e s p e c t i n g the e r e c t i o n of b u i l d i n g s f o r the r e c e p t i o n of s i c k emigrants at Quebec, Joseph Morin to Daly, June 2, 1847. CANADA - THE DELUGE By the end of the f i r s t month of the 1847 Immigration season, the Canadian quarantine system was on the verge of t o t a l collapse, and only the unceasing efforts of Dr. Douglas and his small staff kept i t going. Shortly after the commencement of the season, Douglas was forced to t e l l the Government! that i t was no longer possible to enforce the le t t e r of the quarantine law which required the landing at Grosse Isle of a l l passengers from the fever ships — to do so would require sheds which could accommodate from twelve to fifteen thousand emigrants. As i t was, he did not even have enough shelter for the sick; he would have to convert the present passenger sheds into a temporary hospital in order to accommodate the ever-increasing numbers of sick. The problem was that he had "never contemplated the possibility of every vessel arriv-ing with fever", as they now did. More staff was needed. Douglas' request for additional staff was granted, but he wa3 told that the quarantine law would have to be enforced. 2 Here the Government had accepted Buchanan's recommendation3 that a large supply of tents be procured from the Ordinance Department to house the healthy for their compulsory ten days in quarantine, while the re-maining shed3 were converted into hospitals for the sick. Douglas objected;^ a l l available space was needed for the sick and convalescents. There were now t h i r t y vessels in quarantine, containing approximately thirteen thousand 73 passengers and from this number, there were 856 cases of fever and dysentery on shore and another 470 s t i l l on board ship.5 The mortality rate on the island was seventy deaths per week, while "twice that number were brought ashore for b u r i a l " . 0 The only thing which the . landing of a l l passengers would accomplish would be an increase in the mortality rate; they would be landing "poor emaciated wretches, . . . weakened by long fasting and privation, on rocks, without covering, and destitute as many are of everything but the rags that cover them".7 At least on the ships they would have some shelter. By this point, i t had become obvious to a l l those who were involved with the immigration machinery that unless steps were taken immediately to deal with this extraordinary situation, disaster would strike. On June 2 B < l j three doctors, J. Painchaud of Quebec and G. Campbell and M'Donnell of Montreal, were appointed by the Executive Council to form a Medical Commission.^ They were asked to enquire into the present state of emigration and recommend action. 9 As the Commission prepared to investigate the con-ditions at Quebec City and Grosse Isle, the Government received two reports, one from Captain Boxer R.N., Captain of the Port of Quebec, and the other from Robert Christie, an Independent member of the Legislative Assembly. Boxer pointed out 10 that most of the immigrants detained on the 74 s h i p s were s u f f e r i n g "great p r i v a t i o n from want o f f o o d " ; Buchanan a c t e d immediately upon r e c e i p t o f t h i s r e p o r t , sending p r o v i s i o n s which were t o be p r o v i d e d a t purchase p r i c e t o t h o s e who c o u l d pay and g r a t u i t o u s l y t o t h o s e who were g e n u i n e l y d e s t i t u t e ^ ! . The Government a l s o a c t e d upon s e v e r a l o t h e r o f Boxer's recommendations:- (1) the e r e c t i o n o f h o s p i t a l sheds t o accommodate another two thousand emigrants; (2) an i n c r e a s e i n t h e m e d i c a l s t a f f and a t t e n d a n t s ; (3) the a c q u i s i t i o n o f enough comforts (beds, b l a n k e t s ) f o r a l l p a t i e n t s ; and (4) the h i r i n g o f a small steamboat, under Douglas' charge, f o r t h e r e -moval o f t h e s i c k t o t h e h o s p i t a l . ^ 2 The Government a l s o r e s c i n d e d t h e i r o r d e r c o n c e r n i n g t h e l a n d i n g o f a l l emigrants at the Quarantine S t a t i o n ; i n s t e a d , a q u a r a n t i n e p e r i o d o f f i f t e e n days on board s h i p was a c c e p t a b l e i n p l a c e o f one.of t e n days on shore,^3 C h r i s t i e was more concerned w i t h t h e Government's " g e n e r a l i n e p t i t u d e " ! ^ i n i t s h a n d l i n g o f t h e c r i s i s . He was prepared t o prove by an e n q u i r y i n P a r l i a m e n t , i f n e c e s s a r y , t h a t the proper and s e a s o n a l p r e c a u t i o n s which were r e q u i r e d , and which, c o n s i s t e n t w i t h our pre-knowledge o f the un-u s u a l E m i g r a t i o n t h a t undoubtedly would t a k e p l a c e , were i n e x c u s a b l y n e g l e c t e d . ^ 5 The r e s u l t , C h r i s t i e c o n t i n u e d , was t h a t "expenses were p r o d i g i o u s l y i n c r e a s e d " as were th e " d i s c o m f o r t s and s u f f e r i n g s " o f t h e s i c k and immigrants g e n e r a l l y , and t h e dangers t o which. Quebec,, Montreal, and. other. c i t i e 3 75 a n d t o w n s e x p o s e d . l ° B u t o n e m i g h t a s k w h y , t h e r e f o r e , M r . C h r i s t i e h a d n o t s p o k e n o u t s o o n e r , b e f o r e t h e s i t -u a t i o n h a d d e t e r i o r a t e d t o s u c h a c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n t . T h e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s a t G r o s s e I s l e a n d o n b o a r d t h e s h i p s i n q u a r a n t i n e p r o v i d e a n u n e n d i n g t a l e o f h o r r o r . T h e b a s i c p r o b l e m , w h i c h h a d r e s u l t e d i n i n c r e a s e d s u f f e r i n g a m o n g t h e e m i g r a n t s d u r i n g t h e q u a r -a n t i n e p e r i o d , w a s t h e i n a d e q u a c y o f b o t h a c c o m m o d a t i o n s a n d m e d i c a l a i d . 1 7 C a n a d a s i m p l y d i d n o t h a v e t h e f a c i l i -t i e s n e e d e d t o c o p e w i t h a n i m m i g r a t i o n o f t h o u s a n d s o f d i s e a s e d , e m a c i a t e d a n d s p e c t r e - l i k e w r e t c h e s . I f to C a n a d a w e r e p r o p e r l y ' m e e t t h e i m m i g r a t i o n o f 1 8 4 7 , s h e w o u l d h a v e r e q u i r e d a n e n t i r e l y n e w q u a r a n t i n e e s t a b l i s h -m e n t , s i t u a t e d o n a l a r g e r p i e c e o f g r o u n d ; s u c h a move w a s , f o r f i n a n c i a l r e a s o n s , n e v e r c o n s i d e r e d . I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t o n l y o n e o t h e r m a n , b e s i d e s D o u g l a s , h a d " a n t i c i p a t e d a v e r y c o n s i d e r a b l e i n c r e a s e i n t h e s i c k -n e s s a m o n g E m i g r a n t s t h i s s e a s o n " ! ^ , b u t h e h a d n o t made a n y o f f i c i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t o t h e G o v e r n m e n t b e c a u s e " i t w a s a s u b j e c t t h a t d i d n o t come w i t h i n t h e c o n t r o l o f , . . h i s d e p a r t m e n t " 1 9 — t h a t man w a s A . C . B u c h a n a n . H e h a d f e l t t h a t t h e e x i s t e n t m a c h i n e r y w o u l d p r o v e a d e q u a t e ; a l l t h a t w a s n e e d e d w a s a n i n c r e a s e i n t h e 20 n u m b e r s o f t h e m e d i c a l s t a f f . T h a t i n c r e a s e p r o v e d v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o s e c u r e — w h i l e m a n y d o c t o r s a n d m e d i c a l s t u d e n t s - s t e p p e d - - f o r w a r d , a n d , w i l l i n g l y v o l u n t e e r e d t h e i r s 76 vices (for a small fee) , Douglas had great d i f f i c u l t y -procuring nurses to provide the constant attendance which was necessary i n the sheds and nearly three hundred tents (not even the I r i s h would volunteer to tend t h e i r s i c k ) . 2 A l l Douglas could do was to attempt to make the best of a very d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n . Upon a r r i v a l at Grosse I s l e , each vessel received a medical inspection which, according to Stephen de Vere, was s l i g h t and hasty, — hardly any questions were asked, — but as the Doctor Walked down the f i l e on Deck, he selected those f o r Hos-p i t a l who did not look well, and a f t e r a very s l i g h t examination ordered them on shore. The i l l e f f e c t of t h i s was two f o l d . Some were detained In danger who were not i l l ; and many were a c t u a l l y allowed to proceed who were i n f e v e r . 2 2 Once on shore, the sick were crowded into every avai l a b l e space, while .many more were l e f t to s u f f e r i n the f i l t h y holds of the ships. There was a great d i s p a r i t y between conditions •— those i n the h o s p i t a l and the new sheds were as well looked a f t e r as was possible, but i n the old shed3 and tents most patients suffered severely from n e g l e c t , 2 3 Bishop Mountain, the Protestant Bishop of Quebec, deacri-bed. conditions i n one of the tent s . Bedleas persons i n tents; saw two l y i n g on wet ground i n the r a i n , one a woman very i l l „ • , > ,. on a bed of rank wet weeds. Bundle of rags l y i n g on f l o o r of tent; orphan covered up within, dying, and covered with vermin from head to foot, unowned and no connection to be traced, . , , Inmates of one tent, three widows and one widower, with the rem-nants of t h e i r family, a l l bereft of partners 77 on the passage . . . . Three orphans i n one l i t t l e bed i n the comer of the tent f u l l of baggage and boxes, one of the three dead, l y -ing by his sick s i s t e r . 2 4 I f the conditions were bad f o r many of the sick on shore, they were even worse f o r those forced to remain on board ship, where the mortality rate was twice as great as i t was on shore. 25 At le a s t on shore there was some medical . attendance and a good supply of food; on the ships, the sick were perhaps v i s i t e d once every f i v e days and often went without food. 2° In many cases, the conditions on the ships were made even worse by the lack of concern on the part of the ship's master; the vessels were i n a f i l t h y s t ate, with both the sick and the well kept crowded t o -gether below deck. 2 7 Douglas' e a r l i e r assessment of the conditions on board ship had proved i n c o r r e c t , but he simply d i d not have room f o r any more immigrants on the i s l a n d . Every a v a i l a b l e space was already crowded with the sick and dying; here again, he could only make the best of a dreadful s i t u a t i o n and attempt to ensure that the immigrants l e f t on the ships received as much attention as p o s s i b l e . Conditions at the station were so bad that Joseph Signal, Catholic Archbishop of Quebec f e l t compelled to address a l e t t e r to the hierarchy of Ireland, 'The voice of r e l i g i o n and humanity imposes on me the sacred and imperative duty of exposing to Your Lordship the dismal fate 78 that awaits thousands of the unfortunate c h i l -dren of Ireland who come to seek i n Canada an asylum from the countless e v i l s a f f e c t i n g them i n t h e i r native land,' 29 Crowded into ships, many of the emigrants, "weakened beforehand by misery and starvation, have contracted f a t a l d i s e a s e s " ^ , which were impossible to escape given the wretched conditions i n which they were forced to e x i s t . Unfortunately the conditions did not improve once the emigrants reached Canada; many were crowded into sheds, while others were forced to remain on the ships because of want of accommodation, "spreading the contagion among the healthy passengers who were con-fine d i n the vessels"31 # Sickness and death were not confined to Grosse I s l e alone:-'many of the unfortunate emigrants, who es-cape from Grosse I s l e i n good health, pay t r i b u t e to the p r e v a i l i n g disease e i t h e r at Quebec or Montreal, and overcrowd the hos-p i t a l s of these two c i t i e s , ' 3 2 Sven those who managed to escape the disease altogether were " f a r from r e a l i z i n g , on t h e i r a r r i v a l here, the ardent hopes they so fondly cherished of meeting with unspeakable comfort and prosperity on the banks of the St. Lawrence."33 ? I submit these f a c t s to your consideration that Your Lordship may use every endeavour to dissuade your diocesans from emigrating i n such numbers to Canada, where they w i l l but too often meet with eith e r a premature death or a fate not l e s s deplorable than the heartrending condition under which they groan 79 i n t h e i r unhappy country,.Your L o r d s h i p w i l l t h u s open t h e i r eyes t o t h e i r t r u e i n t e r e s t s and prevent t h e honest, r e l i g i o u s and c o n f i d -i n g I r i s h peasantry from becoming t h e v i c t i m s o f s p e c u l a t i o n , and f a l l i n g i n t o i r r e t r i e v -a b l e e r r o r s and i r r e p a r a b l e c a l a m i t i e s , ' 3 4 But the numbers o f I r i s h e m i g r a t i n g c o n t i n u e d t o mount. Grey, i n response t o t h e Bishop's l e t t e r , 3 5 d e c l a r e d t h a t he had a n t i c i p a t e d the d e p l o r a b l e s u f f e r i n g s which were b e i n g e x p e r i e n c e d t h i s season, but l i t t l e c o u l d be done t o a l l e v i a t e them. Because o f t h e s u f f e r -i n g s which the I r i s h people had endured d u r i n g the past w i n t e r , t h e s h i p 3 , though " w e l l p r o v i d e d as emigrants s h i p s u s u a l l y were"36 > were a hot bed o f f e v e r . Cana-d i a n o f f i c i a l s were t a k i n g every measure p o s s i b l e t o a l l e v i a t e the d i s t r e s s o f t h e I r i s h emigrants, 'He f i r m l y b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e s u f f e r i n g s o f t h e emigrants arose e n t i r e l y from t h e d i s t r e s s which had e x i s t e d i n I r e l a n d , and t h a t n o t h i n g had o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e present y e a r which need tend t o check o r d i s c o u r a g e emigrants from p r o c e e d i n g t o Canada i n f u t u r e years.'37 H i s answer a p p a r e n t l y s a t i s f i e d t h e House, The men connected w i t h t h e q u a r a n t i n e s t a t i o n at Grosse I s l e would not have a l l o w e d t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y t o escape so e a s i l y . While a l l o f f i c i a l s a t the s t a t i o n p r a i s e d the unceasing e f f o r t s o f Dr, Douglas, they were not as k i n d i n t h e i r remarks c o n c e r n i n g the B r i t i s h Government, Dr, Joseph M o r r i n , one o f t h e Commissioners o f t h e Quebec Marine and Emigrant H o s p i t a l , s t a t e d t h a t t h e i n c r e a s e d s i c k n e s s among t h i s season's immigrants 80 c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e i n s u f f i c i e n t care on the p a r t on t h e I m p e r i a l a u t h o r i t i e s " i n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f emigrants f i t t o undertake t h e voyage"38 and a l s o i n the overcrowding o f t h e v e s s e l s and the i n s u f f i c i e n c y o f f o o d . The Reverend Mr. O ' R e i l l y , one o f t h e Roman C a t h o l i c p r i e s t s who served a t Grosse I s l e , supported Dr. M o r r i n ' s testimony.39 i t d i d not matter how much money was spent on p r o v i d i n g f a c i l i t i e s and care f o r t h e emigrants, t h e s i t u a t i o n c o u l d not improve as l o n g as the I r i s h c o n t i n -ued t o be sent from B r i t a i n "crammed up by the hundreds i n t he h o l d o f t h e s h i p , without f o o d , a i r o r t h e neces-_~ s a r y means o f p r o c u r i n g c l e a n l i n e s s . " 4 0 The Canadian Government's r e l u c t a n c e t o p r o v i d e t h e nec e s s a r y accommodations and t o a u t h o r i z e t h e l a r g e ex-p e n d i t u r e s r e q u i r e d t o d e a l w i t h the c r i s i s a l s o came i n f o r some c r i t i c i s m . 4 1 But t h e problem was t h a t d e s p i t e the o r d e r s i s s u e d by the v a r i o u s a u t h o r i t i e s , 4 2 the Canadian im m i g r a t i o n e s t a b l i s h m e n t had not t h e f a c i l i t i e s n o r the manpower t o cope wi t h the unprecedented emigra-t i o n o f t h a t year; t h e y c o u l d not p o s s i b l y c a t c h up w i t h t h e requi r e m e n t s which t h e co n t i n u e d i n f l u x o f immigrants demanded. The r e p o r t o f the M e d i c a l Commission sent t o i n v e s t i g a t e the c o n d i t i o n s at Grosse I s l e c o u l d o n l y recommend an i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f t h e s t a f f and the e r e c t i o n o f more sheds.43 They saw no s o l u t i o n t o 8 1 to the problem as long as ships continued to leave the fever-ridden ports of Britain,44 By the time Canadian o f f i c i a l s had awakened to the true nature and scope of the emigration, i t was too l a t e to do anything more than It -attempt to deal with'on a day-to-day basi3. It was soon obvious that the d i s a s t e r could not be confined to Grosse I s l e alone, f o r , as Douglas explained to Buchanan,45 G f the more than four to f i v e thousand Immigrants who had passed through the s t a t i o n during the past week, at le a s t two thousand would f a l l s i c k somewhere "before three weeks are over."4° Both Montreal and Quebec, he suggested, should have accommodations f o r at l e a s t two thousand s i c k . Of the immigrants themselves, he exclaimed:-a l l the Cork and Liverpool emigrants are h a l f dead from starvation and want before embarking, and at le a s t bowel complaint, which i s sure to come with change of food, f i n i s h i n g them without a struggle, I never 3aw people so i n d i f f e r e n t to i i f e , they would continue i n the same berth with a dead person u n t i l the seamen or captain dragged out the corpse with boat-hooks, . • . Good God, what e v i l s w i l l b e f a l l the c i t y wherever t h e y i a l i g h t 1 Hot weather w i l l Increase the evil.47 As Douglas' l e t t e r reveals, the problems of the crossing, as f a r as the emigrants were concerned, had not ended with t h e i r a r r i v a l at Grosse I s l e ; t r a v e l within the province was to prove equally as hazardous. To get to the i n t e r i o r from Quebec, Montreal or Kingston, the immigrants were faced with a journey of up to f i v e or 32 s i x days i n e i t h e r "small incommodius and i l l - v e n t i l a t e d steamers"48 o r open barges. As i t was, the numbers wanting passage to the i n t e r i o r were so great that there simply were not enough vessels to s a t i s f y the demand. Thus the immigrants were forced to wait f o r transportation e i t h e r i n the s i c k l y atmosphere of the sheds ( i f they were with-out resources} or i n the cheap boarding houses of the c i t i e s (perhaps exhausting t h e i r remaining funds). I f they had not yet taken s i c k , here was another chance f o r the fever to catch up with them. Once on board t h e i r steamer or barge, there was l i t t l e improvement i n the conditions; sick and healthy were packed together so t i g h t l y that there was l i t t l e space to s i t , l e t alone l i e down. In the s u l t r y weather of t h e Canadian summer these vessels became the breeding ground f o r disease. In almost every boat were c l e a r l y marked cases of ac t u a l fever, i n some were deaths, •— the dead and the l i v i n g were huddled together — some-times the crowds were stowed i n open barges, and towed a f t e r the Steamer, standing l i k e Pigs upon the Deck of a Cork and B r i s t o l Packet. , . . I t i s the unhesitating opinion of Every man I have spoken to, including Government o f f i -cers and medical men that a large proportion of the Fever throughout the Country has act-u a l l y been generated i n the River Steamers. Douglas had had ample cause to c a l l upon Buchanan to "give the a u t h o r i t i e s of Quebec and Montreal f a i r warn-ing " 5 0 0 f -what was about to h i t them. Quebec a u t h o r i t i e s c e r t a i n l y attempted to respond to Douglas* warning. On June 1 2 ^ , the C i t y Council 84 addressed a p e t i t i o n t o the Government,51 c a l l i n g upon them t o e r e c t a temporary h o s p i t a l a t P o i n t e L e v i , a c r o s s t h e r i v e r from the o l d c i t y , f o r t h e r e c e p t i o n o f s i c k immigrants; t h e present f a c i l i t i e s at both Grosse I s l e and Quebec's Marine and Emigrant H o s p i t a l were a l r e a d y o v e r - t a x e d . U n l e s s such a measure was adopted, the C i t y C o u n c i l f e a r e d a f u r t h e r l o s s o f immigrant l i f e and the exposure o f t h e h e a l t h o f t h e c i t y i t s e l f t o g r e a t dan-ger, Quebec a u t h o r i t i e s d i d not r e s t r i c t t h e i r a c t i o n s s o l e l y t o p e t i t i o n i n g t h e Government; p r a c t i c a l measures were a l s o adopted. By June l l ^ h ^ Quebec (a community o f more than 35,000)52 had e s t a b l i s h e d a Board o f Health,53 a s t e p f i r 3 t a u t h o r i z e d by the E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l on June 1 s t 54* Any c i t y o r town which might be c a l l e d upon t o " f u r n i s h p r o v i s i o n s , medicine and m e d i c a l attendance t o d e s t i t u t e and s i c k emigrants"55 9 was e n t i t l e d t o do so at Government expense, p r o v i d e d they met c e r t a i n r e q u i r e m e n t s . F i r s t , t h e c i t i e s and towns were t o p r o -v i d e a h o s p i t a l o r sheds and t o appoint a Board o f H e a l t h , which was "to draw up sanatory £sic~[ r e g u l a t i o n s t o be observed by the Emigrants r e c e i v i n g p r o v i s i o n s and med-i c a l aid,"5o Second, the Boards were t o be a u t h o r i z e d t o c o n t r a c t f o r s u p p l i e s o f meats and breads57 i n such q u a n t i t i e s as the number o f emigrants r e q u i r e d . T h i r d , 8 5 . i n each of these c i t i e s and towns, an attendant physician was to be appointed to care f o r the hospital's s i c k . F i n a l l y , a weekly return of the numbers r e l i e v e d was to be made i n each centre and forwarded to the P r o v i n c i a l Secretary.58 Unfortunately there was a considerable gap between the Government's well-organized plan and the actual ; func-t i o n s performed and the successes achieved by the various boards. Quebec's board had a d i f f i c u l t time securing the funds i t needed to begin i t s operation, but eventually they were able to obtain the sum of two hundred and f i f t y pounds from t h e i r own C i t y Council, which was to be re-imbursed should the Government provide any funds.59 But i n s p i t e of t h e i r e f f o r t s , as well as those of the l o c a l municipal government and the Medical Commissioners, "scenes of want and wretchedness"°0 W e r e becoming ordinary sights In the streets of Quebec's Lower Town. Montreal, a c i t y of some 44,000,°! soon found i t s e l f faced -with a s i t u a t i o n much- wor3e than that i n Quebec; i t was destined to be the Canadian community which suffered the most as a r e s u l t of the immigration of 1847. As the "nodal point of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n " 0 2 and the commercial heart of Canada, i t became the destination of a good number of immigrants. Many other immigrants were forced to.-'.stop there; i t was the f i r s t Canadian community which they a c t u a l l y entered a f t e r t h e i r long ordeal i n q u a r a n t i n e 0 3 87 and many were e i t h e r too weak, too i l l or j u s t too des-t i t u t e t o co n t i n u e . Many Montrealers had r e a l i z e d t h a t l a r g e numbers of immigrants would probably congregate w i t h i n t h e i r c i t y , and t h e y too had addressed themselves t o the Government on t h i s s u b j e c t . In l a t e May, the Mon-t r e a l E migration Committee wrote to the Governor-General ex p r e s s i n g the f e a r t h a t disease "soon w i l l be among us t o c a r r y death i n t o t he bosoms o f our f a m i l y without p r e c u t i o n a r y measures are t i m e l y r e s o r t e d t o , t o prevent the e v i l . " ° 4 The only measures taken, however were:-(1) the s e c u r i n g of a wharf f o r the l a n d i n g o f the immi-gr a n t s ; (2) the e r e c t i o n o f a temporary shed at the wharf t o provide s h e l t e r f o r the immigrants u n t i l they c o u l d be moved t o the sheds then being erected at P o i n t e S t . C h a r l e s ; and (3) the e r e c t i o n of another two sheds t o house one hundred p a t i e n t s of each sex. 0? Again i t was too l i t t l e , too l a t e . By June 1 s t , steamer-loads o f s i c k and dying immigrants were l a n d i n g at the Montreal wharves, which were s i t u a t e d i n one of the densely populated regi o n s of t h e c i t y ; the worst f e a r s of the i n h a b i t a n t s o f Montreal were about t o be r e a l i s e d , In an attempt t o cope with the c r i s i s which had been presented t o them (a l r e a d y s i x thousand immigrants w e r e crowding the s t r e e t s and wharves o f t h e c i t y ) , the C i t y Council formed a Board of Health on June 5 t h . 6 7 By S3 June 12 t n, i t was f u l l y organized; i t began with a flour-ish, authorizing the inspection of the boarding and lodging houses in which many of the immigrants congregated.63 The Board was to close those houses which presented a threat to the public health of the city„69 Additional hospital f a c i l i t i e s were also recommended,as was the pro-hibition of the landing of immigrants in the heart of the city — the immigrants should be landed at Windmill Point, outside the city, just above the Lachine Canal. 7 0'Unfor-tunately no action was taken on any of these suggestions 7^ .— the Board had no funds with which they could enact their recommendations. The Montreal Transcript of June 1 5 ^ best described the situation when i t declared that i t seemed as i f no person had been appointed to see to the needs.of-the pauper immigrants "notwithstanding a l l the talk and Committee meetings." As the season progressed and the conditions at Grosse Isle worsened, Montreal found i t s e l f burdened with greater numbers of sick and destitute immigrants. Montreal's Board of Health was supposed to have the authority to ex-clude froia the city any immigrants that had a contagious disease, but, i n fact,they could not do this because they could not prevent the immigrants from disembarking at the Montreal wharves. 7 2 Thus, given the l i t t l e time which the Board had to prepare ( even a3 they organized "the wharves of Montreal were f i l l e d with thousands of unfortunate m and enfeebled beingstf73) and with the lack of shelter (only three sheds and two small hospitals which were controlled not by the Board but by Montreal's Emigration Agent, Mr. Yarwood), there was nothing the Board could do to prevent the spread of sickness within the c i t y . Immi-grants who could not find shelter in the sheds provided by the c i t y , sought refuge in the city's public housing, taking the fever with them. By late June, the death t o l l among immigrants for one week had risen to i t s peak of nearly two hundred and fifty.74 The conditions in the Montreal sheds and hospitals were quickly reduced to a deplorable state. The sheds, "a r e l i c of the cholera epidemic of 1332"75 were located in the heart of Montreal, near the Wellington Bridge. Immigrants were arriving at a much faster rate than o f f i c i a l s could possibly deal with and the sheds soon were overcrowded. It was impossible to keep the sheds clean; the aick lay side by side with the dying and dead. Volunteer nurses found hundreds of the sick crouched upon f i l t h y straw mattresses, writhing in the agony of death, numerous children weeping in the arms of their dead mothers, many woman, themselves stricken, seeking for a beloved husband amid a doleful chaos of suffering and e v i l odours.76 The sheds and hospitals were always understaffed, both as a result of the continued influx of immigrants and of the collapse of many of the attendants as they them-90 selves contracted the fever. Thus, those i n charge had to spend much of t h e i r time writing to the Executive Govern-ment , requesting funds so that they might he able to continue to provide f o r and a s s i s t the poor immigrants.77 On June 24 t h, the Corporation of Montreal f e l t obliged to make a presentation to the Governor-General,78 point-ing out that t h e i r tax-payers were "already labouring under a heavy burden"79, and could not be expected to meet the a d d i t i o n a l c a l l upon the c i t y caused by the i n -f l u x of s i c k l y immigrants from Europe. By June 29 t^ J there were t h i r t e e n hundred patients i n Montreal's sheds, while the General Hospital and Infirmary were "crowded to repletion with fever cases from among the people of the city".80 i t was impossible to keep the immigrants i s o l a t e d from the rest of the c i t y , but t h i s was p a r t l y the f a u l t of the c i t i z e n s them-selves. The sheds, as stated e a r l i e r , were located i n the heart of the c i t y , and many Montreal c i t i z e n s spent t h e i r Sunday afternoons outside the sheds "pour v o i r e ce qui s'y passe-et pour s a t i s f a i r e une bien coupable c u r i o s -i t e . " ^ l There also were always those people w i l l i n g to trade with the immigrants, no matter what the danger. Despite the fa c t that 'ship's fever' or typhus, was a •well-known disease, Canadian a u t h o r i t i e s were slow to warn c i t i z e n s of the nature of the disease which had accompanied the immigrants, and, more important, of the Toronto was incorporated as a city in 1834. 9 2 ways to avoid contracting i t . Not u n t i l l a t e July were reports c a r r i e d i n the various Canadian papers describ-ing the disease.^ 2 Although doctors did not yet under-stand the true cause of the disease, they did know how to prevent i t s dissemination. Canadians were advised that only by avoiding a l l contact with the immigrants could they be sure of escaping the fever. That the disease was a highly i n f e c t i o u s one could not be doubted, e s p e c i a l l y when one discovers the fate of those who worked with the immigrants. Among those who served at Grosse Isle:, .few escaped the fever.^3 At Quebec, of the nine p r i e s t s who attended the s i c k , s i x contracted typhus and one died.^4 i n Montreal the numbers of sick and dead p r i e s t s was even higher; of the f i f t y - s i x who served i n the sheds, nineteen caught typhus and nine of them died.^5 The medical profession also l o s t several of i t s members to the disease; the Executive Council received several re-quests f o r g r a t u i t i e s from the widows of attendants and doctors who had served i n the immigrant sheds and at the h o s p i t a l s , and had l o s t t h e i r l i v e s In doing so. ^5* The Canadian community best able to cope with the Immigration of 1847 was Toronto, f o r i t already had a Board of Health i n e x i s t e n c e 0 0 , and being situated much fa r t h e r inland, i t had had more time to prepare, once-the nature of the immigration had been ascertained. Toronto, with a population of 20,000,87 had commenced 93 Table 1 Table Showing the Number of C l e r g y , M e d i c a l Men, H o s p i t a l Attendants, and others who contracted Fever and died during the season, i n attendance upon S i c k Emi-grants at Grosse I s l e . '•a s> CO o H- Ct H* CD O JD iV P. H O u> 1 42 19 4 Clergymen of the Church of ......... 17 7 2 England 26 22 4 29 21 3 Nurses, o r d e r l i e s and cooks 186 76 22 10 8 3 C a r t e r s employed t o remove the 6 5 2 — 15 3 Mr. Ray, s u t t l e r — 4 1 Br a d f o r d . 1 1 — 1 1 — 2 1 — to examine baggage 94 i t s p r e p a r a t i o n s i n niid May, a t which time Toronto's mayor (W.H. Boulton) q u e s t i o n e d the E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l , at t h e Board of H e a l t h ' s r e q u e s t , c o n c e r n i n g the st e p s which t h e Government planned t o take w i t h r e g a r d t o the season's i m m i g r a t i o n . Something had t o be done t o prevent t h e burden o f m a i n t a i n i n g the l a r g e immigration of paupers expected t h a t season "from f a l l i n g on t h a t C i t y and o t h e r c i t i e s where they [the immigrants] may s t o p i n t h e i r p r o -g r e s s . " 8 ^ As a l r e a d y s t a t e d , the Government was e v e n t u a l l y f o r c e d t o agree w i t h t h i s statement. Meanwhile, v a r i o u s c i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s were meeting i n an attempt t o prepare themselves f o r t h e expected i n -f l u x o f d e s t i t u t e and s i c k I r i s h . On June 12^h, the T r u s -t e e s o f t h e Toronto General H o s p i t a l met wi t h t h e Board o f H e a l t h t o c o n s i d e r the means which t h e y s h o u l d adopt t o care f o r the typhus immigrants who were f i n d i n g t h e i r way t o the c i t y . 9 0 The Board o f H e a l t h a c t e d q u i c k l y ; on June 1 9 t n a code o f s a n i t a r y r e g u l a t i o n s was issued.91 The c i t y had d e c i d e d t h a t the best way t o f a c e the prob-lem which the d e s t i t u t e immigrants p r e s e n t e d t o them was t o move them past Toronto as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e . T h e r e f o r e , the Board d e c l a r e d t h a t a l l immigrants were t o be l a n d e d a t one wharf, "under p e n a l t y o f the law"92 and " o n l y t h o s e immigrants w i t h f r i e n d s o r neighbours c o u l d remain i n t h e c i t y " 9 3 ; a l l o t h e r s were t o be d i s p e r s e d as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e . Any o t h e r immigrant found i n the 95 c i t y would be a r r e s t e d as a " p u b l i c charge"94 6 Such a d e c i s i o n no doubt g r e a t l y reduced the mor-t a l i t y r a t e among both the immigrants who were permitted to remain i n Toronto and Toronto's c i t i z e n s themselves. Toronto c e r t a i n l y d i d not witness the same amount o f s u f f e r i n g as d i d M o n t r e a l , nor was i t s m o r t a l i t y r a t e as great as t h a t of Kingston.95 However, Toronto d i d s t i l l see i t s share o f d e s t i t u t e and f e v e r - r i d d e n I r i s h immi-g r a n t s . By June 2 3 r d , some 7200 immigrants had al r e a d y found t h e i r way t o the c i t y , w h i l e Toronto's h o s p i t a l had more than one hundred f e v e r p a t i e n t s i n i t s wards.96 Responding t o t h i s s i t u a t i o n , the Board o f Health, recom-3Tiended97 the e r e c t i o n of two sheds on t h e h o s p i t a l l o t t o house the immigrants. A l l those i n v o l v e d w i t h the immigration machinery r e a l i z e d t h a t the s i t u a t i o n would get worse before t h e r e was any sign o f improvement. Toronto besieged the Exe c u t i v e C o u n c i l w i t h requests f o r funds and the a u t h o r i t y t o erect sheds according t o the demands which faced i t . 9 8 Despite the f i n a n c i a l burdens imposed upon the c i t y , i t was able t o cope q u i t e adequately w i t h the problems dumped on i t s doorstep. On J u l y lT^* 1* o f the s i x t e e n t o seventeen thousand immigrants who had a r r i v e d at Toronto's wharf, only 238 f e v e r p a t i e n t s remained,99 but i t i s probable t h a t Toronto was simply passing i t s d e s t i t u t e on to s m a l l e r communities even more i l l - e q u i p p e d t o deal w i t h the s i t u a t i o n . 97 I t was easy t o f o l l o w the progress o f the immigrants through the Canadian i n t e r i o r ; I'/herever the immigrants touched upon the Canadian s o i l , f e v e r f o l l o w e d , as d i d requests f o r funds and the a u t h o r i t y t o e s t a b l i s h l o c a l boards o f h e a l t h . By the beginning o f August, t h e Execu-t i v e C o u n c i l had r e c e i v e d such requests from n e a r l y every community s i t u a t e d along the S t . Lawrence, Lake Ontario and Lake E r i e . L e t t e r s had been r e c e i v e d from Hamilton, K i n g s t o n , Bytown, B r a n t f o r d , C o r n w a l l , W i l l i a m s b u r g , R i v e r T rent, P r e s c o t t and P i c t o n . ^ 0 0 I t seemed as i f no centre was t o escape the impact o f t h e Famine immigrants. In Our Forest Home, Eleanor Dunlop wrote from her settlement near Peterborough t h a t 'the typhus f e v e r and dysentery have reached even t h i s remote p l a c e . Wherever those wretched immigrants came they brought w i t h them sic k n e s s and death. Some members of the board of h e a l t h have a l r e a d y f a l l e n under i t s malignant i n -f l u e n c e . • 1 0 1 Letter3 a l s o came In from Lachine, S t . John's, Guelph, Sandwich, Amherstburgh, S t u a r t s v i l l e , Newmarket, London, New C a r l i s l e , Dundee, M a t i l d a , Port Hope, S t . C a t h e r i n e ' s , O r i l l i a , B a r r i e , O a k v i l l e , Simcoe, Woodstock, Queenstown, and Niagara.102 A l l wanted one t h i n g , funds t o provide f o r t he maintainenance of t h e d e s t i t u t e and s i c k immigrants who were l a n d i n g i n t h e i r communities; not a l l had t h e i r requests granted. Fever had made i t s appearance i n Bytown, a to;vn of l e s s than ei g h t thousand,-^ 3 i n e a r l y June, and by J u l y 17^^ there were more than one thousand cases 98 of fever and two hundred deaths.104 Kingston, a recently-incorporated c i t y of some eight thousand,105 also received a large number of immigrant sick — 4326 were admitted to h o s p i t a l during the season and there were fourteen hundred deaths.106 Kingston also provided r e l i e f f o r more than twelve thousand immigrants i n one short two week period.107 By June 2 5 t n , between nine and ten thousand had been sent fu r t h e r west from that community.108 It was not s u r p r i s i n g , therefore, that few Canadians, e s p e c i a l l y as they watched the ship's fever spread to each community v i s i t e d by the immigrants, were prepared to welcome the I r i s h into t h e i r midst. While nearly every-one sympathized with the pli g h t of the poor I r i s h , no one wanted them cared f o r i n t h e i r neighbourhood. In Quebec, the Inhabitant's of St. Roch's ward presented a p e t i t i o n to t h e i r C i t y Council , 1 0 9 protesting against the erection of temporary sheds f o r the reception of sick immigrants on the s i t e of the Marine and Emigrant Hos-p i t a l , which was located i n the midst of t h e i r ward. They declared t h a t while they sympathized with the p l i g h t of t h e i r unfortunate brethren, they held grave fears f o r the health of the c i t y i f a "receptacle f o r the s i c k " was to be established i n the heart of such a densely pop-ulated area. I f the seeds of disease escaped, they would spread r a p i d l y from ward to ward, threatening" the ex-tensive shipyards which also bordered upon t h i s area. The 9 9 c i t i z e n s a l s o asked t h a t the B u r i a l Ground be moved, f o r they saw i t as a t h r e a t t o t h e i r supply o f d r i n k i n g water which was drained from a nearby f i e l d . I g n o r i n g the pleas o f the i n h a b i t a n t s of S t . Roch and a c t i n g upon the r e p o r t s from i t s v a r i o u s e x p e r t s , the Executive C o u n c i l decided t h a t the best p o s s i b l e measures had been taken,HO However, the Government d i d not wish to a l i e n a t e the c i t y and t h e r e f o r e , they suggested t h a t i f the C i t y C o u n c i l , d e s p i t e t h e i r assurances, s t i l l o b j ected t o the s i t e of the sheds, then the Government would place the funds at the d i s p o s a l of the C o u n c i l and they could erect t h e sheds on a s i t e o f t h e i r own c h o i c e . m T h i s suggestion q u i c k l y brought a p e t i t i o n from the f r e e h o l d e r s and i n h a b i t a n t s o f the P a r i s h o f S t , Joseph de l a P o i n t e L e v i {the a l t e r n a t e s i t e suggested f o r the e r e c t i o n of the s h e d s ) . H 2 The p e t i t i o n e r s d e c l a r e d that i t i s with the greatest alarm and t e r r o r t h a t your P e t i t i o n e r s have l e a r n e d from the p u b l i c papers, t h a t i t i s proposed t o e r e c t i n the P a r i s h a f o r e s a i d , H o s p i t a l s and o t h e r b u i l d i n g s f o r t h e r e c e p t i o n and treatment of Emigrants attacked by contagious p e s t i -l e n t i a l d i s e a s e s , and t h a t t h e y view w i t h the greatest uneasiness the b r i n g i n g of diseases o f a contagious nature i n t o a t h i c k -l y peopled neighbourhood,; and are s i n c e r e l y o f the o p i n i o n t h a t i t i s t h e i r duty t o de-c l a r e t o Your E x c e l l e n c y , t h a t they should h o l d themselves wanting i n t h e i r duty t o t h e i r f a m i l i e s , to themselves, and t o the i n h a b i t a n t s o f the neighbouring p a r i s h e s , i f they w i l l i n g -l y allowed the establishment among them and among a dense p o p u l a t i o n , o f r e c p t a c l e s f o r the s i c k , which would thus become a focus o f i n f e c t i o n whence contagious diseases might 100 spread r a p i d l y from p a r i s h to p a r i s h , and thence perhaps throughout the r e s t o f the country.H3 One o f t h e i r suggestions was the extension of the f a c i l i -t i e s at Grosse I s l e ; any s i t e , but the one i n t h e i r midst, was acceptable to them. The p e t i t i o n c a r r i e d 442 s i g n a -t u r e s ; a l l but a very few were French and 340 o f the p e t i t i o n e r s were i l l i t e r a t e , making t h e i r mark w i t h an . «X' . The c i t i z e n s o f Montreal'were a l s o awakening t o the danger represented by the f e v e r sheds i n t h e i r midst. While most o f f i c i a l sources d e c l a r e d t h a t the h e a l t h of the c i t y was q u i t e good,H^ many people were growing uneasy about the i n c r e a s i n g number of immigrants, both s i c k and h e a l t h y , roaming Montreal's s t r e e t s . The master of the steamer the John Munn was v i l i f i e d i n Montreal newspapers, when he dared t o l a n d h i s immigrant passengers i n the heart of the c i t y " i n defiance o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n and the orders of the a u t h o r i t i e s , " H 5 C i t i z e n s o f M o n t r e a l , under the d i r e c t i o n of the Montreal Emigration Committee (headed by Adam F e r r i e ) , demanded t h e removal of the sheds to some location., such as B o u c h e r v i l l e I s l a n d , below t h e c i t y , x I t was the Committee's o p i n i o n t h a t the present s i t e presented too much of a t h r e a t t o the p u b l i c h e a l t h of t h e c i t y — i t was too e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e t o Montreal i n h a b i t a n t s , T h e Committee's suggestion was very pop-u l a r w i t h much of the Montreal community, e s p e c i a l l y as 101 the numbers of the s i c k at the sheds continued t o rise.H® The T r a n s c r i p t o f J u l y lO^* 1 pointed out t h a t the i n t e r e s t s of the c i t y were beginning t o s u f f e r s e r i o u s l y from the alarm which had been e x c i t e d by the d i s t r e s s of t h i s season's Immigration; t h e r e were f a r fewer American t o u r -i s t s t h i s summer than p r e v i o u s l y . Something had t o be done t o reduce the numbers of s i c k i n M o n t r e a l . The suggestion of the Montreal Emigration Committee was r e f e r r e d t o Montreal's Immigration Commission-!! 0^ e s t a b l i s h e d by the Executive C o u n c i l on J u l y 7th o120 The Immigration Commission, d e s p i t e F e r r i e ' s presence, r e j e c t e d the Emigration Committee's proposal.1^1 T h e i r r e j e c t i o n of t h e B o u c h e r v i l l e s i t e and t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o erect a d d i t i o n a l sheds at Windmill P o i n t and P o i n t e S t . C h a r l e s caused c o n s i d e r a b l e protest»1 2 2 P u b l i c meet-ings were held and angry l e t t e r s were exchanged i n the Mon-t r e a l newspapers, but the Commissioners would not reverse t h e i r d e c i s i o n . I f the s i t e were moved t o the I s l a n d , the Commissioners f e a r e d t h a t i t would become another Grosse I s l e } the present l o c a t i o n was the best one a v a i l -s'5/ a b l e , X f Whether o r not t h i s was t r u e i s d i f f i c u l t t o a s c e r t a i n , but an important c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the r e f u s a l t o accede to the c i t i z e n s ' demands was the f a c t t h a t preparations were al r e a d y underway at the Pointe..St. Charles l o c a t i o n . La Minerve described the d e c i s i o n as 102 one of an a d m i n i s t r a t i o n which had decided "to oppose a l l popular measures and a l l arrangements recommended by the majority"125; however, i t d i d not f i n d t h i s a s ton-i s h i n g on "the part of a cabinet which governs w i t h two t o t h r e e v o i c e s and which must f e a r the majority."126 The question was c a r r i e d t o the chambers of t h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , but they t o o , i n t he end, supported the d e c i s i o n of t h e Montreal Immigration Commission.126* Those who objected t o the P o i n t e S t . Charles l o c a t i o n were t o l d that i t was too l a t e to move the l a r g e numbers of s i c k then being cared f o r and that as lon g as the c i t i -zens avoided any contact w i t h t he immigrants there was l i t t l e danger t o t h e i r h e a l t h . l ^ ? But the c i t i z e n s o f Mont.re were not convinced; a p u b l i c meeting, c h a i r e d by Adam F e r r i e was h e l d and the c i t i z e n s decided t o appeal d i r e c t l y t o the Governor-General.128 j n t h e i r o p i n i o n , the Montreal immigration Commission had o f f e r e d a "wanton i n s u l t " t o them by i g n o r i n g t h e i r r e q u e s t s . E l g i n , on t h e advice of t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l , who.were i n t u r n supported by t h e i r e x p e r t s , the Immigration and M e d i c a l Commissions, a l s o ignored Montreal's demands. The t r a n s f e r of the istmigrants t o the sheds at Pointe' S t . C h a r l e s was e v e n t u a l l y c a r r i e d out i n e a r l y August, but t h i s d i d not b r i n g an end t o t h e complaints from Montreal residents.130 The mood i n Montreal was not a happy one, but no v i o l e n t demonstrations took p l a c e ; expressions o f d i s c o n t e n t 103 were l i m i t e d t o e d i t o r i a l s and l e t t e r s to the editor,131 Toronto was never faced with the d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t Montreal and Quebec were; from the s t a r t , the c i t y made sure t h a t the immigrants were kept well-segregated from the c i t y ' s n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n . Despite the f a c t t h a t the s i t u a t i o n was w e l l under c o n t r o l i n Toronto, the c i t y s t i l l f e l t i t necessary t o object t o the c o n d i t i o n i n which the immigrants a r r i v e d on i t s wharves, M o n t r e a l , declared the Toronto Globel32 ) wa3 merely dumping i t s r e f u s e i n t o Toronto's l a p ; the paper d i d not r e a l i z e t h a t the immigrants forwarded on to them represented the best of the I r i s h who had made i t t o M o n t r e a l , The r e a l r e f u s e of the season's immigration were s t i l l i n the sheds and h o s p i t a l s of both Grosse I s l e and M o n t r e a l , However, the Canadian community d i d open i t s heart to one group among the immigrants; t he p l i g h t of the I r i s h orphans, and, t o a c e r t a i n extent, the widows as w e l l , captured the a t t e n t i o n of many of Canada's c h a r i t -able o r g a n i s a t i o n s . E a r l y i n the season the Government's c o n s i d e r a t i o n had been d i r e c t e d to the one hundred and f i f t y I r i s h c h i l d r e n who had l o s t t h e i r parents by the time they had reached Montreal,133 Arrangements were being made by the Government t o provide s h e l t e r and care f o r the orphans, when v a r i o u s p r i v a t e c h a r i t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s stepped i n and o f f e r e d t o take c o n t r o l of the s i t u a t i o n i n r e t u r n f o r some f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . 104 In M o n t r e a l , Bishop Bourget, through t h e o f f i c e s of h i s s e c r e t a r y Father Cazeau, the Grey Nuns and the Montreal P r o t e s t a n t Orphan Asylum a l l o f f e r e d t h e i r s e r v i c e s t o the Government and had t h e i r o f f e r s accepted.135 The Montreal Ladies* Benevolent I n s t i t u t i o n a l s o j o i n e d i n , but t h e i r frame o f reference was s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of the o t h e r groups. 136 While the E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l agreed t h a t immigrant $ orphans should c e r t a i n l y be cared f o r at the Government *s expense, at l e a s t u n t i l s u i t a b l e s i t u a t i o n s could be found f o r them i n r u r a l p a r i s h e s , they d i d not f e e l the same r e s p o n s i b i l i t y towards the widows whom the Benevolent I n s t i t u t i o n a l s o wished to a s s i s t » 1 3 7 This a t t i t u d e d i d not daunt the Benevolent L a d i e s ' I n s t i t u t i o n nor the women d i r e c t o r s of the P r o t e s t a n t Orphan Asylum, who a l s o provided s h e l t e r f o r widows.138 Both o r g a n i z a t i o n s used t h e funds granted t o them by the Government t o provide f o r t h e orphans and r e l i e d upon p r i v a t e donations t o a f f o r d temporary r e l i e f t o those widows i n need. Once the widows, and o l d e r c h i l d r e n as w e l l , were a b l e t o work, places of employment were pro-vided f o r them. An o r g a n i z a t i o n s i m i l a r t o those i n Montreal was e s t a b l i s h e d i n Toronto, under the d i r e c t i o n of W i l l i a m A l l e n , a prominent Toronto businessman .139 The A s s o c i a t i o n r e c e i v e d a grant of one hundred pounds from t h e Executive C o u n c i l and undertook to r a i s e t h a t same amount from 105 p r i v a t e donations.^® On August 2 1 s t , an appeal f o r funds vras made i n the pages of the Toronto Globe; i t was t o be a very s u c c e s s f u l appeal. At the same time the nature and aims of the o r g a n i z a t i o n were set f o r t h . For t h e t h i r t y widows then under i t s care, the a s s o c i a t i o n hoped to provide temporary food and s h e l t e r u n t i l employment could be found f o r them; w h i l e f o r t h e one hundred and f o r t y orphans, i t was hoped t h a t new homes could be found among the c i t i z e n s o f Toronto and t h e neighbouring commun-i t i e s , I n s t i t u t i o n s designed t o provide a s s i s t a n c e t o d e s t i t u t e widows and orphans a l s o appeared i n such s m a l l e r communities as Peterborough and K i n g s t o n , although the Government knew nothing about them u n t i l very l a t e i n the season when t h e y a p p l i e d f o r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . The o r g a n i z a t i o n s were a l l h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l i n f i n d -i n g new homes f o r t h e i r charges. At one p o i n t , i n M o n t r e a l , t h e r e were not enough h e a l t h y c h i l d r e n t o meet t h e demand.~ In Quebec alone, through the o f f i c e s o f the Roman C a t h o l i c Church, p l a c e s were found f o r more than e i g h t hundred orphans by the time t h e immigration season closed.143 There was no h e s i t a t i o n on the Government's part i n pro-v i d i n g a i d f o r those who c o u l d , because o f age o r sex, ba expected t o manage on t h e i r own. But as the scenes o f d e s t i t u t i o n and s u f f e r i n g became commonplace i n Canadian communities, people became l e s s concerned about r e f u s i n g a i d t o anyone who was i n any way 106 employable. A l e t t e r from the T r a n s c r i p t * s Quebec correspondent captured the mood of many o f Quebec's and Monteal's i n h a b i t a n t s . 1 ^ He s t a t e d t h a t the s i t u a t i o n of t h e d e s t i t u t e I r i s h immigrant i n Canada now demanded that t h e donations of c h a r i t y t o the I r i s h R e l i e f Fund be spent i n Canada, "to r e l i e v e the v i c t i m s of the Famine seen dragging along t h e i r enfeebled frames through the s t r e e t s of our c i t i e s . " On June 2 2 n d , the balance of the United Fund was a p p l i e d t o t h i s end. l i f5 Some Quebec c i t i z e n s o b v i o u s l y agreed with the T r a n s c r i p t correspon-dent, f o r on June 2 3 r d they h e l d a p u b l i c meeting (which was not as we l l - a t t e n d e d as the o r g a n i z e r s had hoped) "to t ake i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the c o n d i t i o n o f the Emigrants" and to discus s the adoption of measures f o r the emigrant's a s s i s t a n c e and p r o t e c t i o n . The c i t i z e n s planned t o work through the o f f i c e s of the Quebec Emigration S o c i e t y (founded i n 1819), which was to s o l i c i t funds from among the i n h a b i t a n t s o f Quebec. 1^ 7 One o f the speakers, a Mr. J.B. F o r s y t h , s t a t e d t h a t t h i s was a golden o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s t o step i n and a i d the Government i n i t s e f f o r t s t o deal w i t h the unprecedented s i c k n e s s and d e s t i t u t i o n among the season's immigrants. ^ The S o c i e t y , p r e s i d e d over by Quebec's mayor, G. O ' K i l l S t u a r t , was t o examine the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the quarantine system and a s s i s t the d i s t r e s s e d immigrants. I t was a l s o t o p e t i t i o n , the l e g i s l a t u r e , demanding an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o 107 the s t a t e of immigration. However, no r e p o r t s were issued on behalf of the S o c i e t y and thus i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o assess the. •" e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e i r proposed a c t i o n s . A s i m i l a r meeting was h e l d i n Toronto, again not too numerously attended B"^ 9 I t s o r g a n i z e r s had hoped to e s t a b l i s h an asylum f o r convalescent immigrants, but again t h e r e i s no evidence t h a t they were able t o e f f e c t t h e i r p l a a . P r a c t i c a l measures d i d not occupy a l l the time of the Canadian communities; they a l s o found time t o v o i c e t h e i r o b j e c t i o n s concerning the nature of the season's Immigration t o both t h e i r own and the i m p e r i a l governments. The C o r p o r a t i o n of Montreal complained d i r e c t l y to the Queen. On June 23 r <* a p e t i t i o n was addressed t o Her Majesty by John E. M i l l s , Mayor of M o n t r e a l , p o i n t i n g out t h a t w h i l e Canadians had always welcomed "a wholesome immigration" o f men w i l l i n g and able t o work, an immigration of "paupers unused to l a b o u r , of mendicants w i t h l a r g e f a m i l i e s , averse from every i n d u s t r i a l p u r s u i t , of whole cargoes o f human beings i n a s t a t e o f d e s t i t u t i o n , and every s t a t e o f disease •— must and do prove a grievous burthen t o the colony," The C i t y of M o n t r e a l , d e s p i t e suggestions t o the contrary,151 had done e v e r y t h i n g p o s s i b l e t o provide f o r the wants of the immigrants stopping i n t h e i r c i t y , but the numbers had been so great t h a t the resources of the c i t y were q u i c k l y exhausted. The community, i n a very short space of t i m e , had been f o r c e d t o provide f o r 103 more than f i v e hundred orphaned immigrant c h i l d r e n a l o n e . Unless some a c t i o n was taken by the I m p e r i a l a u t h o r i t i e s , the p e t i t i o n e r s foresaw great s u f f e r i n g and m o r t a l i t y p r e v a i l i n g i n the c i t i e s i n which the immigrants con-gregated d u r i n g the long and severe w i n t e r . With food both scarce and very expensive, hundreds would p e r i s h . Only a s s i s t a n c e from the I m p e r i a l Government c o u l d pre-vent such a c a l a m i t y , because the c o l o n i e s , u n l i k e t h e i r neighbours t o the south, could not " r e j e c t the s t a r v i n g s h i p l o a d s . " The Toronto Globe of August 4 t h and 7 t h t o l d the i m p e r i a l a u t h o r i t i e s t h a t they had "much to answer f o r , i n not watching over these d e s t i t u t e and h e l p l e s s ones, and seeing that they were f i t f o r the voyage, and had the r e q u i s i t e accommodations provided f o r them."1^2 Anger and f r u s t r a t i o n w i t h t h e problem which had been dumped i n Canada's l a p by the Home Government e v e n t u a l l y permeated even Canadian governmental c i r c l e s . E a r l y i n May, before the f i r s t boats had a r r i v e d , E l g i n had described-the prevalent f e e l i n g i n Canada as one of alarm concerning the expected immigration.153 As we have seen, t h i s f e e l i n g was w e l l - j u s t i f i e d , and the Executive C o u n c i l , w i t h E l g i n at i t s head, soon found i t s e l f bombarded with requests f o r t he a u t h o r i t y and the f i n a n c i a l support t o c a r r y out r e l i e f measures. Canada's government d u r i n g 109 the p e r i o d of c r i s i s was i n the hands of the T o r i e s , under Henry Sherwood; they had a m a j o r i t y of no more than two, and hence t h e i r p o s i t i o n was not a stro n g one* The Baldwin-Lafontaine reform c o a l i t i o n , i n o p p o s i t i o n , could see t h a t the Government was on I t s l a s t l e g s and had decided t o s i t and back and wait f o r i t t o f a l l i n the e l e c t i o n t h a t a l l knew must come very s h o r t l y . The op p o s i -t i o n ' s p o s i t i o n was f u r t h e r strengthened by the stance adopted by Canada's new Governor-General, Lord E l g i n . E l g i n and h i s s u p e r i o r at the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , Lord Grey, were both f i r m l y committed t o a p o l i c y o f r e s p o n s i b l e government f o r t h e colonies."Government was t o r e s t on whatever p a r t y c o n t r o l l e d parliament, and change only when th a t c o n t r o l i t s e l f changed."154 I t was under these circumstances, a weak government which had l i t t l e of the people's confidence, and an o p p o s i t i o n which was w a i t i n g f o r the next e l e c t i o n , t h a t Canada had t o cope w i t h the l a r g e s t and most d e s t i t u t e and s i c k l y immigration t h a t she had ever witnessed„ The Government had no u n i f i e d plan whan the immigrants f i r s t h i t Canada's shores, but as the magnitude of the immigrants' d i s t r e s s became i n c r e a s i n g l y apparent, the E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l , as has been noted, a u t h o r i s e d the establishment of l o c a l boards of h e a l t h t o provide some form o f r e l i e f t o the d e s t i t u t e I r i s h who had reached Canada. This move was n e c e s s i t a t e d by the f a c t t h a t the Canadian communities 110 had no l o c a l r a t e s o f t h e i r own which could be used to support t h i s i n f l u x of paupers,155 To f u r t h e r complicate the s i t u a t i o n , the f i n a n c i a l resources a v a i l a b l e t o the executive branch of the Government were very l i m i t e d , The e x t e n s i v e p u b l i c works p r o j e c t s o f the e a r l y ' f o r t i e s had s e v e r e l y s t r a i n e d the Province's r e s o u r c e s , and w i t h the Province now f a c i n g a commercial depression as w e l l , s u f f i c i e n t funds t o meet the c r i s i s were very hard t o obtain.15°From t n e e n c j 0f jyjay t o w e n past the c l o s e of the season, the Executive C o u n c i l was to spend much of i t s time c o n s i d e r i n g requests f o r funds t o provide medi-c a l a i d , r e l i e f and s h e l t e r f o r the immigrants, and search-i n g f o r p r i v a t e d c h a r i t a b l e o r g a n i s a t i o n s t o help i n the maintainenance of the many orphans t h r u s t upon Canadian communities.157 Not a l l Canadians were s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e steps taken by the E x e c u t i v e . I t was attacked i n the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, On June l 6 t n , Mr. T.C. Alywin (a member of the Reform c o a l i t i o n from Quebec C i t y ) demanded that a l l papers r e l a t e d t o the management of Grosse I s l e be placed before the House, i n order t h a t complaints concerning the con-d i t i o n s t h e r e might be answered knowledgeably,158 request was granted on June 21 s t,159 H i s motion was a l s o used as an o p p o r t u n i t y t o c r i t i c i s e the Government's h a n d l i n g of t h e c r i s i s ; Dr. Nelson (Alywin's c o l l e a g u e from R i c h e l i e u ) accused the Government of responding I l l much too slowly, while Mr, Chabot {the other reform mem-ber from Quebec) "condemned the apathy of the Govern-ment ".160 Members of the Government responded by sta t i n g that there was f a r more misery than they could possibly hope to deal with; the f a u l t was not t h e i r s , but rested rather with those across the sea who sent out such enfee-bled creatures,161 There was some j u s t i f i c a t i o n in t h i s argument, but none i n that of Mr, Gayley ( the represen-t a t i v e from Huron), who accused the Canadians of standing by "with t h e i r hands i n t h e i r pockets"l62 waiting f o r the Government to act, rather than stepping forward themselves. The subject of immigration continued to crop up i n the Assembly, although no p o s i t i v e actions were taken. In response to a speech made by Dr. Nelson, in which he had c a l l e d attention "to the alarming state of the emigrants at the sheds and the danger thereby incurred to the health of the c i t y [Montreal] " 1 6 3 , the S o l i c i t o r -General , J.H. Cameron, moved that the Assembly make an address to the Queen "on the subject of the present system of emigration."164 This addressl65 } dated June 25^h described the apprehensions which the colony had entertained from the unprecedented i n f l u x of immigrants " i n a state of d e s t i t u t i o n , starvation and disease tin-p a r a l l e l ed i n the h i s t o r y of the province." The prepar-ations which the colony had made on the advice of the imperial a u t h o r i t i e s had proven t o t a l l y inadequate; 1 1 2 t h e i r quarantine system had c o l l a p s e d and, as a r e s u l t , f e v e r was making an appearance throughout the colony. While Canada was always prepared t o welcome immigrants, they f e l t that the present immigration was c a l c u l a t e d t o produce a most i n j u r i o u s e f f e c t on t h e i r p r o s p e r i t y and they asked t h a t the emigration which was then underway not be allowed t o continue under the present c o n d i t i o n s . How-, ever, no suggestions were o f f e r e d as t o how the I m p e r i a l Government might a l t e r the nature of the emigration i n mid-stream; that was t h e i r problem. A t t e n t i o n was a l s o d i r e c t e d t o the l a r g e expenditures which the d i s t r e s s e d c o n d i t i o n of the emigration had n e c e s s i t a t e d ; t h e Assembly s t a t e d t h a t they hoped t h a t these expenses would be met from I m p e r i a l funds, thus beginning a debate which was t o continue f o r almost a y e a r . Both the E x e c u t i v e and L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l s l e n t t h e i r v o i c e s to that o f the Assembly, and the t e x t s of t h e i r addresses-*- 0 0 w e r e , f o r the most p a r t , s i m i l a r t o t h a t of t h e Assembly, The L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l ' s address, however, a l s o contained a v e i l e d t h r e a t ; the C o u n c i l hoped th a t i t would be able t o a v o i d the n e c e s s i t y of adopting any l e g a l p r o v i s i o n s , s i m i l a r t o those adopted by the U n i t e d S t a t e s , f o r the p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e i r inhab-t a n t s , ! 0 ' ' I f the Mother Country wished to prevent such an occurrence, she must take steps t o p r o t e c t her colony from the type of emigration which was then underway. The Colony was c e r t a i n l y not i n any p o s i t i o n to bear 113 the burden which was being t h r u s t upon i t . By e a r l y J u l y , t h e r e were very few c o l o n i a l o f f i -c i a l s who d i d not f e e l t h a t the I m p e r i a l Government should provide the funds f o r t h e maintainenance o f the d e s t i t u t e and s i c k immigrants who had found t h e i r way to Canada's shores. E l g i n , i n a p r i v a t e l e t t e r t o Grey,l°^ assessed the mood o f the colony. E l g i n h i m s e l f described the immigration as "a f r i g h t f u l scourge". Thousands upon thousands o f poor wretches are coming here, incapable of work, and s c a t t e r i n g the seeds of disease and death. As f o r t he impact of the immigration on the colony i t -s e l f : -C o nsiderable panic e x i s t s among the i n h a b i -t a n t s . P o l i t i c a l motives c o n t r i b u t e t o s w e l l the amount o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n produced by t h i s s t a t e of t h i n g s . The o p p o s i t i o n make the want of adequate p r o v i s i o n s t o meet t h i s overwhelm-i n g c a l a m i t y i n the shape o f h o s p i t a l s , e t c . a matter of charge a g a i n s t the P r o v i n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . That s e c t i o n of the French who d i s l i k e B r i t i s h Immigration at a l l times f i n d , as might be expected, i n the circumstances of t h i s year, a theme f o r copious declamations. Persons who c h e r i s h r e p u b l i c a n sympathies as-c r i b e these e v i l s t o our dependent p o s i t i o n as as colony. 'The s t a t e s of the Union' they say, 'can take care of themselves, and ave r t the scourge from t h e i r shores, but we are the v i c -tims on whom inhuman I r i s h l a n d l o r d s , e t c . can charge the consequences of t h e i r n e g l e c t and r a p a c i t y . ' I t was the o p i n i o n of the m a j o r i t y of the Canadians, E l g i n t o l d Grey, t h a t "Great B r i t a i n must make good to the Province the expense e n t a i l e d upon i t by t h i s v i s i t a t i o n . * At.Montreal a l o n e , t he expenses i n c u r r e d 114 by J u l y 1 2 t h were already more than twelve thousand p o u n d s . ^ 9 E l g i n asked Grey to understand'the d i f f i c u l t i e s of h i s p o s i t i o n ; t o t h i s p o i n t , E l g i n r i g h t l y pointed out, the colony had shown a good d e a l of "forebearance and good f e e l i n g " , but t h i s was s l o w l y beginning t o wear t h i n . The aspect of a f f a i r s i s becoming more and more alarming. The panic which p r e v a i l s i n Montreal and Quebec i s beginning t o manifest i t s e l f i n the Upper P r o v i n c e , and farmers are u n w i l l i n g t o h i r e even the h e a l t h y immigrants because i t appears that s i n c e the warm weather set i n typhus has broken out i n many cases among those who were taken Into s e r v i c e at the commencement of the season as being per-f e c t l y f r e e from d i s e a s e . The Home Government must do e v e r y t h i n g w i t h i n i t s power to prevent the current type of emigration from c o n t i n -u i n g . Grey's r e p l y ! ? 0 o f f e r e d very few assurances; he was •grieved' t o l e a r n of the d i s t r e s s e d and diseased s t a t e of t h e immigrants, but t h e r e were no o f f e r s o f i m p e r i a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . He addressed E l g i n : -You w i l l I am sure do what i s necessary and not more, the r e l i e f r e a l l y r e q u i r e d must of course TTe' given but I am sure the experience we have had i n I r e l a n d w i l l without my p r e s s i n g i t upon you s u f f i c i e n t l y prove to you the a b s o l u t e n e c e s s i t y o f g i v i n g i t i n such a form as not t o be accepted by those who can dispense w i t h i t — f o r the able-bodied food f o r wh. they shd be compelled to work i s what alone sh 1 1 be g i v e n — as t o the s i c k and i n f i r m t h e r e i s l e s s danger o f abuse, but i t must never be f o r g o t t h a t i t i s the nature of these people to endeavour by every imaginable a r t t o throw themselves f o r support upon others. Grey's remarks demonstrate very c l e a r l y h i s i n a b i l i t y 115 t o understand the problems presented t o the colony'by the I r i s h Immigration* He d i d not know, as the c o l o n i a l o f f i c i a l s d i d , how few of the I r i s h immigrants were a b l e -bodied enough to support themselves when they f i r s t reached the colony, Canadian o f f i c i a l s were as c a r e f u l as p o s s i b l e when p r o v i d i n g a s s i s t a n c e , both medical and 171 f i n a n c i a l , to the immigrants, but i n the midst of such great s u f f e r i n g the "nature of these people" was soon f o r g o t t e n by most Canadians, Throughout J u l y , the newspaper columns were f u l l of t a l e s of the s u f f e r i n g s of t h e I r i s h and of th e frauds committed a g a i n s t t h e m , G o v e r n m e n t a c t i o n s were de-bated i n t h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l ; steps taken, or not take n , were c r i t i c i z e d , and then defended, but again no p r a c t i c a l suggestions emerged from a l l these debates, La Minerve, on J u l y i f t n , was already worrying about the f a t e of the immigrants once w i n t e r a r r i v e d ; there not enough jobs f o r Canada's own lab o u r e r s et on nous envoie un emigration de 60 a 80,000 i n d i v i d u s mourants de fa i m , et denues de t o u t , meme des moyens de gagner l e u r v i e , quand meme i l s e r a i t p o s s i b l e de l e u r procurer de l'em-p l o i e ou des t e r r e s a c u l t i v e r . T h i s statement represented a c o n s i d e r a b l e exaggeration on t h e paper's p a r t , f o r although employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s were scarce I n the l a r g e r towns, there was always a demand f o r cheap farm l a b o u r i n Canada, However, as E l g i n pointed 116 out,174 most farmers would not h i r e the I r i s h ; t hey could not over come " t h e i r dread of i n f e c t i o n and they even l e f t work unexecuted, r a t h e r than admit i n t o t h e i r f a m i l y l a bour which had r e c e n t l y a r r i v e d " 1 7 5 . But even i f the farmers had been w i l l i n g t o h i r e the I r i s h , the m a j o r i t y of the immigrants, a f t e r t h e i r arduous journey, had n e i t h e r t h e s t r e n g t h , the s k i l l nor t h e resources to support themselves. They were, f o r a t i m e , completely at the mercy of the Canadians' good w i l l and g e n e r o s i t y , which was t o serve them w e l l . On J u l y 2 9 ^ , the L e g i s -l a t i v e Assembly was p r o r o g u e d , ! ^ and the E x e c u t i v e Coun-c i l was l e f t t o d e a l w i t h the immigration on n e a r l y the same b a s i s as I t had begun the season; the onl y change was a vote of twenty thousand pounds from t h e L e g i s l a -t i v e A s sembly,!^ a sura 'which would j u s t meet the ex-penses i n c u r r e d by Montreal t o t h a t date. By August, c o n d i t i o n s seemed to have improved some-what. With the exception of M o n t r e a l , the f e v e r had been con f i n e d to the Immigrant sheds; even i n M o n t r e a l , only c e r t a i n suburbs were a f f e c t e d by the d i s e a s e , but t h i s d i d not prevent the c i r c u l a t i o n of many w i l d rumours concerning- the s t a t e o f Montreal's p u b l i c h e a l t h . The T r a n c r i p t of August lO^h complained about the rumours which d e s c r i b e d Montreal as "a pest-house" i n which at l e a s t one-half of the p o p u l a t i o n was d y i n g ; trade s u f f e r e d q u i t e badly because of such s t o r i e s . The T r a n s c r i p t pointed 117 out t h a t the number of deaths was d e c l i n i n g . Even as immigrants continued t o a r r i v e at Grosse I s l e , thoughts i n the colony were being turned to the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f ways t o prevent a r e p e t i t i o n of the past season's d i s a s t e r s . In the August 1 0 t n and 11^ e d i t i o n s of the Quebec Morning C h r o n i c l e , "P.A." o f f e r e d h i s suggestions. Deploring the c o n d i t i o n s under which t h e I r i s h had been shipped t o Canada, he pointed out (with good reason) t h a t i f these c o n d i t i o n s were improved, and here he o f f e r e d a number of p r a c t i c a l suggestions such as the establishment o f f u r t h e r i n s p e c t i o n f a c i l i t i e s i n Great B r i t a i n and the appointment of doctors t o a l l v e s s e l s c a r r y i n g more than f i f t y passengers, then a good deal of the s i c k n e s s would be avoided. With regard to the r e c e p t i o n of he a l t h y immigrants, t h e r e should be a separate l o c a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d f o r them near Grosse I s l e and a scheme should be devised f o r q u i c k l y forwarding any Immigrants who wished t o work on p u b l i c works p r o j e c t s to the area, where t h e i r labour was r e q u i r e d . I f such steps were taken, the colony need have no f e a r s about a r e p e t i -t i o n o f the events of 1547. F u r t h e r c r i t i c i s m of both the Home and C o l o n i a l Governments* h a n d l i n g of the c r i s i s a l s o made i t s appear-ance i n Canadian papers d u r i n g the month o f August. The Toronto Globe of August 7 t n f e l t t h a t the Home Government deserved much blame f o r not t a k i n g the necessary measures 118 t o prevent many of the emigrants from l e a v i n g " u n t i l they were i n a f i t s t a t e f o r encountering the voyage", and " i n p r o v i d i n g proper sea s u p p l i e s f o r the poorer s o r t . " The paper f a i l e d t o point out, however, what a r a d i c a l change which such a c t i o n s would have e n t a i l e d ; i t would have i n v o l v e d s u b v e r t i n g a l l the p r i n c i p l e s upon which the Whig p o l i t i c a l philosophy was based. The I r i s h Famine, much t o the misfortune of the I r i s h n a t i o n , had occurred at the height o f l a i s s e z - f a i r e p o l i t i c s 0 Montreal's Board of H e a l t h , i n i t s r e p o r t of August 12 t n,178 launched a f a r more s c a t h i n g a t t a c k on both the I m p e r i a l and C o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s . G o l o n i a l i n a c t i o n came i n f o r heavy c r i t i c i s m . Not only had the C o l o n i a l Government waited u n t i l J u l y l 3 * * , by which time disease and d e s t i t u t i o n were r i f e i n Mont r e a l , before a p p o i n t i n g l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o deal w i t h the c r i s i s , but a l s o i t then proceeded t o e s t a b l i s h two separate bodies, who adopted opposing stances concerning the measures best s u i t e d to deal w i t h the c r i s i s . T h i s was done "dans un temp ou l e s c i r c o n s t a n c e s demandent imperieusement .1'action prompt, energique, et d e c i s i v e d'un s e u l homme." As a r e s u l t ; -on a v i r t u e l l e m e n t c o n v e r t ! de s a n g - f r o i d et avec d e l i b e r a t i o n une c i t e populeuse, l a metro-pole d'un pays etendu, en une s t a t i o n de quar-a n t i n e par l a det e n t i o n dans ses l i m i t e s de m i l l i e r s d ' i n d i v i d u s malades et i n f e c t e s de maladies contagieuses a q u i l'on permet d'etre en l i b r e communication avec l e s c i t o y e n s et 119 de p o r t e r l e u r exhalaisons contagieuses dans chaque maison. The Board a l s o questioned the r i g h t of t h e I m p e r i a l Government t o throw i t s s u r p l u s p o p u l a t i o n o f poor on to the shores of another country, even when the country was i t s own colony. In very a c c u r a t e l y a s s e s s i n g i t s own p o s i t i o n , the Board f e l t t h a t t h e i r recommendations had been ignored and t h a t i t had had no powers, o r resources t o e f f e c t any changes i n the s t a t e of Montreal's p u b l i c h e a l t h . They had asked the Government t o d i s s o l v e the Board, but had been r e f u s e d . A l l t h a t was l e f t t o them was to i s s u e the l a t e s t s t a t i s t i c s concerning the s t a t e o f Montreal's p u b l i c h e a l t h , which showed a marked i n -crease i n the number of f e v e r v i c t i m s among Montreal's . J 4 . ' 179 r e s i d e n t s . Table 2 O f f i c i a l Report of B u r i a l s i n M o n t r e a l from June 5 to August 7, 1847. Residents of Montreal ' 924 Emigrants bu r i e d i n the c i t y cemetary 444 Emigrants who died i n c i t y and were b u r i e d at the sheds 362 806 June 29 to August 10 - deaths i n c i t y 1730 Emigrant deaths i n the sheds 1510 T o t a l deaths i n 9 weeks 3240 I 8 4 6 Emigrant deaths 491 Increase In 1347 28T6" 9 weeks - cases of f e v e r among r e s i d e n t s 309 I 8 4 6 d i t t o 63 D i f f e r e n c e ' _ 7 4 5 120 A Montreal Grand J u r y f e l t t h a t Montreal's increased crime r a t e could be a t t r i b u t e d i n part t o the l a r g e num-bers of d e s t i t u t e Immigrants which crowded the s t r e e t s 0 A suggested s o l u t i o n , popular w i t h a l l Montreal c i t i z e n s but those w i t h the power to e f f e c t the change, was the removal of the immigrant sheds t o a spot w e l l below the c i t y . 1 8 1 One p r i v a t e c i t i z e n , Dr. W i l l i a m Oscar Dunn, from Coteau-du~Lac, was so angered by the nature of the season's immigration t h a t he addressed a pamphlet t o the Prime M i n i s t e r , Lord John R u s s e l l , on th e s u b j e c t . T h i s season's immigration had witnessed "the most g l a r i n g acts of i n j u s t i c e , both t o the poor, deluded, s u f f e r i n g immi-gr a n t s , as w e l l as t o the i n d u s t r i o u s and benevolent i n h a b i t a n t s of t h i s province«"183 He had f r e q u e n t l y v i s i t e d Montreal's sheds, where he had seen n e a r l y two thousand a d u l t s i n d i f f e r e n t stages of disease and whose numbers were reduced by some twenty t o f o r t y each d a y . M o n t r e a l a l s o had two to t h r e e hundred orphans l e f t i n i t s charge, some o n l y twenty days o l d ; under the care o f Bishop Bourget, they were g r a d u a l l y being foimd homes among the French Canadian f a m i l i e s of the surrounding area.^^^ I t was obvious, Dunn s t a t e d , t h a t something was r a d i c a l l y wrong with the emigration system; t h i s \*ra.s not the work of Providence, but that of degenerate men.!^6 The f a u l t 121 could be t r a c e d t o the r a p a c i t y of the I r i s h l a n d l o r d s ; the B r i t i s h Government long ago should have f o r c e d these men t o do t h e i r duty "as men and C h r i s t i a n s " - ^ ? . Here was a man who t r u l y understood the nature o f I r e l a n d ' s t r o u b l e s . In I r e l a n d , one had two sh a r p l y d i v i d e d w o r l d s , t h a t of the s t a r v i n g I r i s h peasant, reduced t o i d l e n e s s and i n a c t i v i t y , and that o f the bl o a t e d I r i s h a r i s t o c r a -c y . 1 ^ Would t h i s gloomy and dark s t a t e o f a f f a i r s ever have taken p l a c e , i f the r i c h and i n -f l u e n t i a l had been moving i n t h e i r proper sphere of a c t i o n ; i f they had had a proper regard f o r the we l f a r e and happiness o f t h e i r fellow-man; i f they had been actuated by the d i v i n e p r i n c i p l e o f philosophy and the em-ployment o f part of t h e i r super-abundance of wealth f o r the b e n e f i t s o f t h e i r f e l l o w -man; i f they had formed an Emigration A s s o c i a t i o n on a l a r g e , l i b e r a l and e f f i c i e n t s c a l e , g i v i n g a healt h y tone t o s o c i e t y , by the r e d u c t i o n of the numbers of l a b o u r e r s and t h e consequent i n c r e a s e i n the p r i c e of labour to such a (pitch i t would enable a man to support h i s f a m i l y w i t h some degree of comfort.1°9 But these developments had not taken place and conse-quently Canada was f o r c e d t o s u f f e r . Emigrants are now thrown by the tens o f thousands upon our shores, spreading d i s e a s e and sorrow, and death among the unoffe n d i n g i n h a b i t a n t s of t h i s P r o v i n c e , who are d a i l y t r e a d i n g the path of v i r t u e and the path of duty, by f a i t h f u l l y f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e occupations.190 S e v e r a l of Canada's l e a d i n g c i t i z e n s had a l r e a d y s a c r i -f i c e d t h e i r l i v e s i n t h e i r attempts t o a s s i s t t h e i r s u f f e r i n g f e l l o w human beings, a s a c r i f i c e made by very 122 few of the I r i s h l a n d l o r d s , J X The B r i t i s h Government must use the powers at i t s d i s p o s a l "to work a r a d i c a l cure f o r I r e l a n d " ^ 0 2 a n ( j p u t an end t o t h i s f a t a l e m i g r a t i o n . At the l o c a l l e v e l , appeals f o r p u b l i c c h a r i t y and denunciations o f the B r i t i s h Government s t i l l occupied the pages of the l o c a l newspapers. The T r a n s c r i p t of August 2 8 t n d e c l a r e d t h a t too s trong language can s c a r c e l y be found t o express the sentiments of the people o f t h i s country towards those persons at home who; have had the superintendence of emigration committed t o t h e i r charge, o r towards those, however e x a l t e d they may be, who have thus r u t h l e s s l y f o r c e d upon the shores of Canada, thousands of t h e i r f e l l o w c r e a t u r e s , o n l y f i t f o r the h o s p i t a l i n the Mother Country, whence they have been shipped away f o r America, as a band of o u t c a s t s , none c a r i n g , o r at l e a s t seeming to c a r e , f o r t h e i r comfort o r even t h e i r l i v e s , or the l i v e s o f those among whom they have been sent, w i t h seeds of p e s t i l e n c e among them, s c a t t e r i n g disease and death wherever they have planted t h e i r f o o t s t e p s . There was a l s o a growing concern f o r the immigrants' p l i g h t once w i n t e r s t r u c k . "What are they t o do when w i n t e r approaches, God only knows — thousands o f the poor wretches must p e r i s h , " ^ 9 3 Quebec's Board of H e a l t h voiced a s i m i l a r f e a r : -these persons (the sick]] i t i s f e a r e d w i l l be thrown upon the i n h a b i t a n t s of Quebec i n great numbers, and a p p a l l i n g w i l l be the s u f f e r i n g both t o themselves and the Quebec p u b l i c , i f t i m e l y and e f f i c i e n t measures be not taken t o meet the emergency.194 La Minerva o f September 9 t n expressed much the same con 123 c e r n , a s k i n g i f Montreal was ready t o care f o r the immigrants who would be l e f t at the doorstep once the Grosse I s l e Quarantine S t a t i o n c l o s e d f o r t h e w i n t e r . " A l o r s , quel sera l e s o r t des c i t o y e n s durant l ' h i v e r entoures d'une p o p u l a t i o n sans pains et sans abris?"195 One o r g a n i z a t i o n , however, d i d more than j u s t express i t s f e a r s ; a Grand J u r y at the Mayor's Cour t , Toronto, o f f e r e d , i n i t s presentiments, some suggestions on the very t o p i c a l subject o f i m m i g r a t i o n . C e r t a i n t h a t t h e r e would be "great numbers of poor, without means of support throughout the coming w i n t e r " , and convinced t h a t i t would be a great i n j u s t i c e to charge t h e i r support on the C i t y or the P r o v i n c e , the Jury suggested a p l a n of r e l i e f which was to be paid f o r by the I m p e r i a l Gov-ernment. Funds should be placed at the d i s p o s a l o f the v a r i o u s c i t i e s and towns f o r the employment and support of the i n d i g e n t immigrants. A p u b l i c meeting h e l d i n Toronto i n l a t e September, recommended the b u i l d i n g o f a House of Industry f o r the employment of any d i s t r e s s e d immigrant3,19? But no a c t i o n was taken on t h i s recommen-d a t i o n , f o r the Executive C o u n c i l , i n response t o a s i m i -l a r request from M o n t r e a l , had refused t o supply the funds f o r the establishment of such I n s t i t u t i o n s . 1 9 ^ The Govern-ment was not j u s t i f i e d i n p r o v i d i n g at p u b l i c expense, f o r the continued maintainenance and support of those, who, having been kept d u r i n g s i c k n e s s and convalescence at p u b l i c expense, have been d i s -124 charged from H o s p i t a l i n a c o n d i t i o n equal w i t h the other poor, t o earn t h e i r l i v e l i -hood by t h e i r own exertions.^99 Some d i s t r e s s would undoubtedly r e s u l t , but the r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y of a l l e v i a t i n g i t must r e s t w i t h the v a r i o u s communities i n which the immigrants congregated,.200 The Government was prepared t o o f f e r a s s i s t a n c e only t o those s t i l l r e q u i r i n g care at the sheds, and even here, those able t o work would be r e q u i r e d t o spend part of t h e i r day at a s p e c i a l shed e i t h e r p i c k i n g oakum or engaged i n some other e q u a l l y u s e f u l occupation, 2 1^- P u b l i c c h a r i t y was l e f t t o and d i d a l l e v i a t e the d i s t r e s s of those a b l e -bodied immigrants unable to f i n d work. By l a t e September, plans were being made f o r the c l o s u r e of most of Canada's Immigration f a c i l i t i e s . I t had been decided t h a t the convalescents and s i c k l e f t at Grosse I s l e at the c l o s u r e of the n a v i g a t i o n season would be removed to the sheds at Quebec and M o n t r e a l , which were a l r e a d y s u i t a b l e as w i n t e r q u a r t e r s . 2 0 2 In mid-September, A.B. Hawke inade a t o u r of the P r o v i n c e , v i s i t i n g t he v a r i o u s boards o f h e a l t h , and he recommended the c l o s u r e of those where the numbers of immigrants were not s u f f i -c i e n t t o warrant the exi s t e n c e of w i n t e r accommodations. 2 0 3 He found t h a t the s e r v i c e s o f twenty-one o f the twenty-eight l o c a l boards could be dispensed w i t h ; w i n t e r quar-t e r s would have t o be f u r n i s h e d i n K i n g s t o n , M o n t r e a l , Toronto and Quebec, w i t h t h e s i c k l e f t i n other communities 125 being t r a n s f e r r e d to one o f these l o c a t i o n s „ ~ 0 4 Even at the c l o s e of the season, the past year's iinraigration continued t o be a much dis c u s s e d s u b j e c t . The Grand J u r i e s of s i x Canadian d i s t r i c t s 2 1 ^ q u i t e spontaneously took i t upon themselves t o d i s c u s s the 20ft t o p i c i n t h e i r v a r i o u s presentiments. The judge t o whom the r e p o r t s were o f f e r e d s t a t e d t h a t "these remon-s t r a n c e s . . . may be looked upon as exp r e s s i n g very gener-a l l y the sentiments and f e e l i n g s of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e d i s t r i c t s . " 2 0 ? A l l the j u r i e s deplored the d e s t i t u t e and diseased s t a t e i n which the emigrants had a r r i v e d and the l o s s e s , both human and f i n a n c i a l , which the emigration had e n t a i l e d . 2 0 8 A wholesome, w e l l - d i r e c t e d and w e l l -organized emigration was always welcome, but unfortunate-l y l a s t season's had been f a r from t h i s . The P r i n c e Ed~ ward and Niagara J u r i e s both f e l t t h a t the B r i t i s h Govern-ment had simply permitted yet another I n j u r y t o an already s t r i c k e n colony. 2 ( -*9 The Grand J u r y , aware of t h e great i n j u r y the commercial i n t e r e s t s of t h i s province have s u s t a i n e d i n consequence of the p o l i c y the B r i t i s h Government has l a t e l y deemed i t pru-dent to pursue by the d e p r i v a t i o n o f those advantages which as c o l o n i s t s we possessed i n the B r i t i s h market, cannot but express t h e i r r e g r e t t h a t so great an a d d i t i o n a l i n -j u r y should have been i n f l i c t e d upon the people of Canada as the unchecked t r a n s l a -t i o n to t h i s province o f thousands o f the pauper p o p u l a t i o n of the mother-country, many of whom, on t h e i r embarkation, e x h i -b i t e d symptoms of t h a t f a t a l disease which 126 has swept away such vast numbers, not of the emigrants alone, but a l s o of the s e t t l e d i n -h a b i t a n t s of t h i s p r o v i n c e , 2 1 0 A l l but one Grand J u r y , t h a t of Newcastle D i s t r i c t , ex-pressed t h e i r loud d i s a p p r o v a l of the a c t i o n s of the I r i s h l a n d l o r d s ; the Grand J u r y of the Midland D i s t r i c t x«/as at a l o s s to f i n d language s u f f i c i e n t l y strong t o express i t s deprecation o f the moral t u r p i -tude of the l e a d i n g men and l a n d l o r d s who have ad v i s e d , encouraged and a s s i s t e d t o leave t h e i r n a t i v e l a n d , . , such a l a r g e body o f d e s t i t u t e countrymen, many o f them too o l d t o work f o r t h e i r l i v i n g , others exhausted by famine and s i c k n e s s , and some o f them even b l i n d and c r i p p l e d , who congregated i n t o dense masses on board s h i p , w i t h o u t wholesome food o r f r e s h a i r , have generated such contagious diseases as u s u a l l y accompany such c o m p l i c a t i o n s of misery, and without any reference t o the e v i l consequences r e s u l t i n g t o the i n h a b i t a n t s of t h i s p r o v i n c e , 2 ! ! S e v e r a l of the J u r i e s suggested p u b l i c works pro-j e c t s , such as the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a road from Kingston to t he Ottawa R i v e r , by which the immigrants could support themselves, r a t h e r t h a t having t o r e l y upon government r e l i e f or p r i v a t e c h a r i t y , 2 ! 2 But no c o n s i d -e r a t i o n was given to t h i s suggestion; the funds a v a i l -able f o r such p r o j e c t s had already been exhausted. Thoughts of the upcoming w i n t e r and the f a t e of the immigrants was a l s o a t o p i c f o r d i s c u s s i o n . Did t h i s grand j u r y c onsider t h a t w i t h the approach of w i n t e r a l l d i f f i c u l t i e s would disappear, they would fo r b e a r b r i n g i n g t h e i r o p i n i o n s forward on the o c c a s i o n , but they f e e l t h a t a f t e r the summer p e s t i l e n c e 127 has passed away i t has l e f t i n the province tens of thousands of s i c k l y and unacclimated persons t o endure the b i t t e r n e s s of a Cana-dian w i n t e r ; and unless the people o f the province are taxed beyond t h e i r means, many of these unfortunate c r e a t u r e s must p e r i s h f o r want, t o a l l o f which they xrould submit without a murmur d i d the cause of t h i s a f f l i c t i o n o r i g i n a t e i n the colony; but i t i s evident beyond a doubt t h a t the misery which the people o f t h i s province have en-dured ha3 been brought upon them f o r the r e l i e f of the l a n d l o r d s at homeland i f the l a n d l o r d s are the p a r t i e s r e l i e v e d , then upon them should f a l l the burden o f meeting the present e x i g e n c i e s and want.^13 There appeared to be no doubt i n the minds of the v a r i o u s members of the j u r i e s that i t was the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the I m p e r i a l Government to pay f o r the c o s t s of the season's d i s a s t r o u s immigration; i t was a l s o the respon-s i b i l i t y of both the C o l o n i a l and I m p e r i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o take any measures necessary to prevent a r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e events of the past season. 2-^ By October 28*-^ -, the l a s t of the f e v e r p a t i e n t s had been removed from Grosse I s l e and sent t o the h o s p i t a l at Montreal,, and on October 3 0 T N the quarantine s t a t i o n was closed.' 4- -•' The immigration season of 1847 had f i n a l l y drawn to a c l o s e ; the colony could now s i t back and attempt t o assess the c o s t s i n c u r r e d and the damage done by the c a l a m i t i o u s and unprecedented season, as w e l l as consider the measures necessary t o prevent a r e p e t i t i o n of the d i s a s t e r s o f 1847. But Canada, much to her h o r r o r , soon discovered t h a t she had not yet seen her l a s t emigrant s h i p ; during. 128 the f i r s t week of November the l a s t two s h i p s of the season, the Lord Ashburton and the Richard Watson, a r r i v e d at Quebec, the Quarantine S t a t i o n now being c l o s e d . Both ships contained tenants from Lord Palmerston's e s t a t e s , 169 on the Richard Watson and 174 of the 431 passengers on the Lord Ashburton, who had been a s s i s t e d by P a l a e r -ston's agents i n t h e i r f l i g h t from Ireland,216 During the year, I r i s h l a n d l o r d s had a s s i s t e d more than s i x thousand o f . t h e i r tenants (who otherwise could not have l e f t ) to reach Canada, by paying f o r t h e i r passage and p r o v i d i n g p r o v i s i o n s f o r the journey,217 In 1847, many of the l a n d l o r d s , whose es t a t e s were over-populated, began t o use a s s i s t e d emigration as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o e v i c t i o n , as they attempted to r i d t h e i r e s t a t e s of l a r g e numbers of d e s t i t u t e t e n a n t s . A s s i s t e d emigration, i n the long run, was the most b e n e f i c i a l process, f i n a n c i a l l y , f o r the l a n d l o r d ; the cost of emigrating a pauper was g e n e r a l l y about h a l f the cost of m a i n t a i n i n g him i n the work-house f o r one year, and once the ship had s a i l e d the d e s t i t u t e were e f f e c t u a l l y got r i d o f , f o r thev could only r e t u r n w i t h immense d i f f i c u l t y , 2 1 3 There was no r e g u l a t i o n of the l a n d l o r d a s s i s t e d emigration but l a n d l o r d s wishing t o send immigrants t o Canada were t o l d by the C.L.E.C. t h a t funds should be provided f o r the immigrants on t h e i r a r r i v a l i n the colony.2-*-9 An apparatus f o r forwarding l a n d i n g money to the colony was e s t a b l i s h e d by the C.L.E.C, but i t was never used. 129 The a r r i v a l o f Palmerston's tenants, a l l d e s t i t u t e , and many very s i c k l y (the Ashburton had l o s t s i x t y - e i g h t emigrants d u r i n g the c r o s s i n g } 2 2 1 , caused c o n s i d e r a b l e outrage i n the colony. The l a n d i n g of d e s t i t u t e a s s i s t e d emigrants had, throughout the y e a r , evoked c r i t i c a l com-ment from Canadians, and the debarkation o f the a s s i s t e d tenants of one of the I m p e r i a l Government's own m i n i s t e r s , a f t e r the end of the season, was the l a s t straw. I m p e r i a l a u t h o r i t i e s and the I r i s h l a n d l o r d s were roundly attacked from a l l s i d e s . The Gazette du Quebec wrote "par t r o p mai!, Le procede est un d i s g r a c e pour l e s a u t o r i t e s i m p e r i a l e s , a f f l i g e a n t pour 1'humanite et ruineux pour l a c o l o n i e , dont un s i grand nombre d'habitants l e s p l u s char-i t a b l e s et l e s plus r e s p e c t a b l e s o n t j s e r i par s u i t e de l e u r contact avec l e s emigres, et ou chaque j o u r de nouveau cas d ' i n f e c t i o n se decouvrent dans d i f f e r e n t e s p a r t i e s de l a p r o v i n c e , ' 2 2 2 Another Quebec newspaper d e c l a r e d 'that the e x p a t r i a t i o n of the p o v e r t y - s t r i c k e n of Great B r i t a i n has been systematized and most z e a l o u s l y c a r r i e d out i s beyond d i s p u t e ; and that mercenary motives alone have d i c t a t e d t h e i r t r a n s m i s s i o n h i t h e r i s e q u a l l y c e r t a i n . In support o f our a s s e r t i o n s we have o n l y t o r e f e r t o the Lord Ashburton, a v e s s e l which s a i l e d from L i v e r p o o l on the 13 t n of Septem-ber with' passengers. But we have yet a more s t r i k i n g j and a more melancholy, proof t o r e c o r d ; - - i t i s t h a t of the R i c h a r d Watson, from Sl.igo, w i t h 169 passengers, which ( a f t e r a q u i c k run) a r r i v e d here on Sunday l a s t . Vie must premise our sad n a r r a t i v e by s t a t i n g t h a t these poor c r e a t u r e s were the tenants o f Lord Palmerston, and sent out by'his agent, Mr. Smith* The tenants already sent out t h i s year from t h i s nobleman's e s t a t e had almost become a by-word f o r wretchedness. Of these passengers,. 130 about one f o u r t h were males, t he remainder women and c h i l d r e n ; and we have been assured by a gentleman who saw them when they a r r i v e d i n port t h a t a more d e s t i t u t e and h e l p l e s s set have not come out t h i s year. Who i s to succour the paupers thrown among us? Can i t be supposed that our f e l l o w c o l o n i s t s w i l l submit t o t h i s wholesale and i n i q u i t o u s t r a n s f e r of an o b l i g a t i o n , only to be met i n the shape of a t a x — v o l u n t a r y o r o t h e r -wise as circumstances may determine. No. And t h i s monosyllable must be expressive.' 2 2-> Adam F e r r i e (a member of t h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l and Chairman o f Montreal's Emigration S o c i e t y ) , was so angered by the e m i g r a t i o n , and e s p e c i a l l y t h a t o f the a s s i s t e d v a r i e t y , which he had witnessed during the past season that he addressed a l e t t e r , a l s o p u b l i s h e d i n pam-phl e t form, t o the C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , L o r d Grey, on t h i s subject „2?'^ While d e c l a r i n g t h a t i t was not h i s I n t e n t i o n to impugn the motives of those landed pro-p r i e t o r s o f the Mother Country, who have sought, through the great stream o f emi-g r a t i o n , t o r i d themselves of the burden of a worn out and u n p r o f i t a b l e p o p u l a t i o n , wholly d e s t i t u t e of t h a t mental and phys-i c a l e x e r t i o n i n d i s p e n s a b l e t o u s e f u l l a b o u r and the success of honest i n d u s t r y 2 2 ^ , he then proceeded t o do j u s t t h a t . When emigrants were questioned concerning t h e i r reasons f o r e m i g r a t i n g i n such a d e b i l i t a t e d and d e s t i t u t e s t a t e , they s a i d that "'they were s t a r v i n g at home, and were induced t o t h a t step by being promised many advantages, which they had 131 never r e a l i z e d . ' " ^° For example, Palmerston Ts tenants had been promised c l o t h i n g and a good sum of money (from two t o . f i v e pounds) upon a r r i v a l i n Canada; these promises were never f u l f i l l e d . 2 2 7 F e r r i e a l s o described the s u f f e r i n g s which the emigrants had endured d u r i n g the passage:- v e s s e l s were crowded w i t h twice the number of passengers they were a u t h o r i z e d by law to c a r r y ; p r o v i s i o n s were e i t h e r s p o i l e d or i n s u f f i c i e n t t o meet the needs of the emigrants.^*" 0 F e r r i e f e l t compelled t o express h i s deep r e g r e t that men pretending to be C h r i s t i a n s , and es-p e c i a l l y the B r i t i s h , could be g u i l t y of such b a r b a r i t y , e v i d e n t l y f o r the p a l t r y purpose of f r e e i n g themselves from the n a t u r a l and j u s t burden of a s s i s t a n c e to support and provide f o r t h e i r own poor„ 2 2 Q Canada, F e r r i e pointed out, w h i l e always ready t o wel-come emigrants, must " p r o t e s t against the i n t r o d u c t i o n of such hordes of beggars and vagrants as have been so unceremoniously t h r u s t upon t h i s young and t h i n l y popu-l a t e d l a n d . " 2 ^ 0 i t was t o be hoped that the Government w i l l w i s e l y p r o f i t by the sad consequences which have r e s u l t e d from the I n j u d i c i o u s and a r b i t r a r y measures pursued by the Landed P r o p r i e t o r s and t h e i r mercenary agents; and t h a t they w i l l a v a i l themselves of those f a c i l i t i e s which may be o f f e r e d by the people of Canada . . . t o secure more humane, l i b e r a l and b e n e f i c i a l p l a n n i n g of 1 3 2 emigration than h i t h e r t o attempted. 231 Palmerston's agents, i n r e p l y i n g t o F e r r i e ' s charges, 232 d e s c r i b e d many o f h i s statements as " p u e r i l e and absurd", presented i n a " c a r e l e s s and f l i p p a n t manner". The agents, K i n c a i d and Stewart, f e l t t h a t F e r r i e had been deceived by the emigrants who had, no doubt, given "exaggerated statements of t h e i r d e s t i t u t i o n and poverty . . . i n orde r to c a l l f o r t h the sympathy and l i b e r a l i t y of t h e i r new f r i e n d s " , a r a t h e r lame ex p l a n a t i o n when one consi d e r s the d e s c r i p t i o n of the immigrants. Ho promises of c l o t h i n g o r money had been made t o the emigrants; adequate p r o v i s i o n s , exceeding the amount r e q u i r e d by lav;, had been provided. 233 I t was a l s o pointed out t h a t the tenants themselves had requested a s s i s t a n c e t o enable them t o emigrate, and they had been f o r c e d t o t u r n down many re q u e s t s , so great was the d e s i r e t o escape from I r e l a n d . (But then who would not want t o emigrate when faced w i t h the l o s s of one's home, s t a r v a t i o n and f e v e r . ) Elsewhere, K i n c a i d and Stewart o f f e r e d a l e s s f l a t t e r i n g p o r t r a i t of those they had assisted« ' I t i s unnecessary t o say that a l l persons were of the poorest c l a s s o f farmer, very l i t t l e b e t t e r than paupers. I f the y had been able t o r e t a i n t h e i r s m a l l farms and maintain themselves and t h e i r f a m i l i e s at home they would not have entreated your L o r d s h i p (Palmerston] t o send them to a strange country, nor i s i t probable that your L o r d s h i p would have i n c u r r e d so great an expense f o r the purpose of removing from your estate a l a r g e body of t e n a n t r y solvent and able t o pay t h e i r rent„' 234 133 FOOTNOTES •^Appendix to S i x t h Volume o f J o u r n a l s . Appendix L, Douglas t o Daly, May 21, 1847. o * I b i d . , E x t r a c t from a Report of the Committee of the Executive C o u n c i l , May 24, 1847. .3lbid., Memorandum of A.C. Buchanan, May 21, 1847. ^ I b i d . , Douglas t o Daly, May 2 5 , 1847. 5 l b i d . , Douglas t o Daly, May 29 , 1847. 6 I b i d . , May 29, 1847. 7 I b i d . , May 2 9 , 1847. ^ I b i d . , Buchanan t o Campbell, May 2 9 , 1847.' 9 I b i d . , Daly t o Painchaud, June 2, 1847. 1 0 I b i d . , Boxer t o Daly, June. 1, 1847. H I b i d . 5, Buchanan t o Campbell, May 31, 1847. 1 2 IMd*"f Boxer t o Daly, June 1, 1847. 1 3 I b i d . , E x t r a c t from a Report o f the Committee of the E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l , June 1, .1847. 1 / ^ l b i d . , C h r i s t i e to Daly, May 31, 1847. 1 5Il2M-t M a Y 31, 1847. lDIi?.M'» M a v 31, 1847. C h r i s t i e d i d get h i s requesto 17Appendix t o S i x t h Volume of J o u r n a l s . Appendix RRR,Quarantine S t a t i o n at Grosse I s l e - Report of the S p e c i a l Committee appointed t o i n q u i r e i n t o the Manage-ment of t h e Quarantine S t a t i o n at Grosse I s l e , Minutes of Evidence, Dr. G.W. Douglas, J u l y 18, 1847. J I M 4 «» Minutes of Evidence, A.C. Buchanan, J u l y 21, 1847" - ^ I b i d . , Minutes of Evidence, A.C. Buchanan, J u l y 21, I 8 4 7 . . 134 .Appendix t o S i x t h Volume o f J o u r n a l s , Appendix, RRR, Minutes of Evidence, A.C. Buchanan, J u l y 21, 1847• b i d . , Minutes of Evidence, G.M. Douglas, J u l y 18, 1847. 22Doughty, ed., Elg i n - G r e y Papers, V o l . I l l , p. 13/^4. Stephen de Vere t o T.F. E l l i o t , November 30, 1847. 23Appendix to S i x t h Volume of J o u r n a l s , Appendix RRR, Minutes o f Evidence, Rev. Mr. Moylan, J u l y 13, 1847. 2 4 A .V/. Mountain, A Memoir o f George Jehosophat  Mountain, P.P., D.C.L., Late Bishop of Quebec (Montrea1 : John L o v e l l , 1866), p. 260. " 25Append.ix t o S i x t h Volume of J o u r n a l s , Appendix RRR, Minutes of Evidence, Rev. Mr. Moylan, J u l y 13, 1847-2 o I b i d . , Minutes of Evidence, G.M-. Douglas, J u l y 18, 1847. A„,. Minutes of Evidence, Rev. Mr, Moylan, J u l y 13 , IS47. 54-5. 28 G i t e d i n Jordan, The Grosse I s l e Tragedy, pp, '" 9 I b i d -, p. 54. 3°Ibid., p. 54. 3 1 I b i c L , p. 54. * * X \J it. ci & y p o 5 5 • 33ibld., p. 55. 34Ibid., p. 55. 35Hansard's Parliamentary Debates, 3d s e r i e s , V o l XCIV, pp ,151-2. 3°Ibid., p. 181. 37lbJLd., p. 182. '38Appendix t o S i x t h Volume of J o u r n a l s , Appendix RRR, Minutes of Evidence, Dr. J . Morin, J u l y 17, 1347. 135 3 9 A E P _ endix to S i x t h Volume of J o u r n a l s , Appendix RRR, Minutes of Evidence, Rev. Mr. O ' R e i l l y , J u l y 23 , 1347. ^ Q I b i d . , Minutes of Evidence, Rev. Mr. O ' R e i l l y , J u l y 23, 1847. ^ i l b i d . , Minutes o f Evidence, Rev. Mr. O ' R e i l l y , J u l y 23 , T847 .and Captain R.N. Boxer, J u l y 20, 1847. t f , cAppendix t o S i x t h Volume of J o u r n a l s , Appendix L, Campbell and M'Donnell t o Daly, June 4 , 1847 and Campbell and M'Donnell to Douglas, June 5, 1847. 4 3 i b l d . , Campbell and M'Donnell to Daly, June 4 , 1847. ^ I b i d . , Campbell and M'Donnell t o Daly, June 4 , 1847. 45papers r e l a t i v e t o emigration. H.O., 1847-8 ( 5 0 ) , V o l . X L V I I , p. 5» Douglas t o Buchanan, June 9 ? 1347. 4 6 I b i d . , p. 5 . ' ^ I b i d . , p. 5. ^Doughty, ed., Elgin-Grey Papers, V o l . I l l , p. 1345? Stephen tie Vere t o T.F. E l l i o t , November 30, 1347. 4 9 l , b J 4 » * p. 1345. 5°Papers r e l a t i v e t o emigration, H.C, 1847-3 ( 5 0 ) , V o l . XLVlT/'p• 5 . Douglas t o Buchanan, June 9 , 1347. -^Appendix t o S i x t h Volume of J o u r n a l s , Appendix R, Emigrant Sheds and H o s p i t a l at Quebec - Correspondence and other Documents r e s p e c t i n g the e r e c t i o n of b u i l d i n g s f o r the r e c e p t i o n of the s i c k emigrants, P e t i t i o n o f the Mayor and C o u n c i l of the C i t y of Quebec t o the E a r l o f E l g i n , june 12 , 134?. 5 2 C a r e l e s s , The Union of t h e Canadas, p. 21. -^The Morning C h r o n i c l e (Quebec), June 11, 1847. ^Canada, S t a t e Books, Volume F, June 1, 1347, pp. 600-01, 5^1bid., pp. 600-01. 136 5 6Canada, State Books, Volume F, June 1, 1847, p. 601. 5 7 I b i d . t P. 601. 5 ^ I b i d . s p. 601. 5 QThe Morning C h r o n i c l e (Quebec), June 11, 1847. °%ontreal T r a n c r i p t , June 15, 1847. 6lcoleman, Passage t o America, p. 149. 62G.R.C. Keep, "The I r i s h M i g r a t i o n t o Montreal 1847-67" (Unpublished M.A. t h e s i s : M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1948), p. 46. ^ M o s t immigrants saw on l y the wharves of Quebec C i t y . 64Tucker, Commercial R e v o l u t i o n , p. 119. 65Appendix t o S i x t h Volume of J o u r n a l s , Appendix L, Memorandum"of A.C Buchanan, May 21, 1847. ^ M o n t r e a l T r a n s c r i p t . June 12, 1847. 6 y r b j L d . , June 12, 1847. 6 g I b i d . , June 12, 1847. 6 9 l b i d . , June 12, 1847. 70woodham-Smith, The Great Hunger, p. 232. 71?he only p o s i t i v e step taken here was by the Harbour Commission, which i n l a t e June forbade the steamers to l a n d t h e i r passengers i n the heart of t h e c i t y , but only a f t e r many deaths had occurred on t h e wharves. Woodham-Smith, The Great Hunger, p. 233. ? 2 L a Minerve ( M o n t r e a l ) , August 19, 1847. 73IM1»» August 19, 1847. 7 4Jordan, The Grosse I s l e Tragedy, p. 128, Woodham-Smith, The Great Hunger, p. 233, 7*, 137 '°Rev. P . W . Browne,"An Aftermath of '47," I r i s h Monthly, V o l . L X I I (October, 1934), p. 618. 77canada, State Books, Vols. F and G, passim. ? % o n t r e a l Transcript, June 24, 1847. 7 9 i b i d . t June 24, 1347. 30lbid., June 2 9 , 1847. ^ L a Minerve (Montreal), June 28, 1847. 3 2 | v t o n t r e a l Transcript, June 21 and 24, 1847 and La Minerve, July 26, 1847. 33see Table 1. & i%tev. J.B. O'Reilly, "The I r i s h Famine and the A t l a n t i c Migration to Canada," I r i s h E c c l e s i a s t i c a l Record, V o l . LXIX (October, 1947), p. 878. 35;ibid., p. 878. 35 vCanada, State Books, V o l . G, passim. 3 6 T h e Board was f i r s t established to deal with the cholera epidemic of 1832. ^7(]ov/an, B r i t i s h Emigration, p. 185. 38canada, State Books, V o l . F, May 25, 1347, p. 577. 3 9 j b i d . , p. 577. 9°Rev. J.A. Gallagher, "The I r i s h Emigration of 1847 and i t s Canadian consequences," The Canadian Gatholic  H i s t o r i c a l Association Report 1935-36 (1934-38), p. 53. 9 1 l b l d . , P. 53. ^ 2 I b i d . , P« 53. 9 3 i b i d . , p. 53. 9 4 i b i d . , P. 53. 95Ibid., p. 53. 96Toronto Globe, June 2 3 , 1847. 138. ^ G a l l a g h e r , "The I r i s h E m i g r a t i o n , " I r i s h E c c l e s i - a s t i c a l Record, p. 53. °8canada, St a t e Books, V o l . G, passim. 99Toronto Globe, J u l y 17, 1847. l ^ C a n a d a , State Books, V o l . G, passim. 1 0 1 cited i n Tucker, Commercial R e v o l u t i o n , pp. 119-20. 102 C anada, S t a t e Books, V o l . G, passim. 103cowan, B r i t i s h E m i g ration, p. 185. 104Gallagher, "The I r i s h E migration," I r i s h E c c l e s i - a s t i c a l Record, p. 52. 105cowan, B r i t i s h E m i g r a t i o n , p. I 8 5 . l°6Gallagher, "The I r i s h E m i g r a t i o n , " I r i s h E c c l e s i - a s t i c a l Record, pp. 52-3. 107lb.id., pp. 52-3. 1 0 8 T h e y L O r n i n g C h r o n i c l e (Quebec), June 25 , 1847. 109Appendix t o S i x t h Volume of J o u r n a l s , Appendix R, I n h a b i t a n t s of S t . Roeh's Ward t o the Mayor and C o u n c i l of Quebec, June 10, 1847. l l Q l b i d . , E x t r a c t from a Report o f the Committee of the Executive C o u n c i l , June 15, 1847. H I I b i d . , June 15, 1847. I I 2 l b i d . , Humble P e t i t i o n of the undersigned f r e e -h o l d e r s and i n h a b i t a n t s of the P a r i s h of S t . Joseph de l a Pointe L e v i , In the County of Dorchester, i n the D i s t r i c t of Quebec t o the E a r l of E l g i n , June 15 , 1847. l 1 3 I b x _ d , , June 15, 1847. 114Hontreal T r a n s c r i p t , J u l y 1, 1847 and La Minerve, June 28 a n c T J u l y 4 , 1847. H^ M o n t r e a l Transcript,, J u l y 8, 1847. 116Ibid., J u l y 8 , 1847. 139 ^ M o n t r e a l T r a n s c r i p t , J u l y 10, 1847. H 8 i b i d . , J u l y 10, 1847. H9The Commission members were John H i l l s , Mayor of M o n t r e a l , Adam F e r r i e , a member of t h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l and chairman of the Mo n t r e a l Emigration Committee, John D o u g a l l , the e d i t o r of the Montreal Witness, John Tobin and John Ryan. 12°Canada, St a t e Books, V o l . G, J u l y 7, 1847, pp. 86-7.. 1 2 l L a Minerve, J u l y 15, 1847. 1 2 2 i b i d . t J u l y 15, 1847. 1 2 3 M o n t r e a l T r a n s c r i p t , J u l y 15 and 20, 1847. 1 2 4 l b i d . , J u l y 20, 1847. 1 2 ^ L a Minerve, J u l y 15, 1847. 126ibid., J u l y 15, 1847. 126»Xbi,d., J u l y 22, 1847. 127lbid., J u l y 22, 1847. 1 2 8 M o n t r e a l T r a n s c r i p t , J u l y 17, 1847. 1 2 9 i b i d . , August 3, 1847. 1 3 0 i b i d . , August 31, 1847. x-'-Montreal T r a n s c r i p t , August 31, 1847 and La  Minerve, August 5, 1847. 132-roronto Globe, J u l y 28, 1847. 1 3 3 c a n a d a , S t a t e Book3, V o l . F, June 21, 1847, p. 647. 1341bid., V o l . G, J u l y 12, 1847, pp. 111-13. 135ibid., pp. 111-13. 1 3 6 j b i d . , August 4, 1847, pp. 218-19. 140 !37canada sState Books, V o l . G, August 4, p. 219» 138rbid., September 8, 1847, PP. 370-71. 1 3 9 i b i d . t August 11, 1847, pp. 2 3 8 - 9 . U 0 I b i d . , P. 2 3 9 . 1 / f l I b i d . , V o l . G, November 3, 1347, pp. 560-62 and V o l . H, A p r i l 1, L843, p. 342. 142ibid. } V o l . G, October 29, 1847, pp. 550-51. 143o TReiIly, "The I r i s h Famine," I r i s h E c c l e s i a s t i c a l  Record, p. 377. I44Montreal Transcript, June 15, 1847. 145lbid., June 22, 1847. 146The Morning Chronicle, June 23, 1347. 1 Z f 7 l b i d . 1 June 2 3 , 1847. 1 ^ 8 I b i d . , June 2 3 , 1847. ^ T o r o n t o . G l o b e , July 17, 1847. •^O-papers r e l a t i v e to emigration, H.C, 1847-8 (50), Vol , XLVII, p. 8. John E. M i l l s , Mayor of Montreal to Her Majesty the Queen, June 2 3 , 1347. 151see below, p. 111. ^ T o r o n t o Globe, August 4, 1847. 153Doughty, ed., Elgin-Grey Papers, V o l . I, p. 35. E l g i n to Grey', May 7, 1347. !54careless, The Union of the Canadas, p. 1 1 5 . !55Tucker, Commercial Revolution, p. 120. 1- ,°Careless, The Union of the Canadas, p. 114. 1 5 7Cauada, State Books, V o l . G, July 12, 1347, pp „ 111-13» ^-^Montreal T r a n s c r i p t. June 17, 1847. 141 l ^ A p p e n c l i x t o S i x t h Volume of J o u r n a l s . Appendix I J © 1 6 Q M o n t r e a l T r a n s c r i p t , June 17, 1347. 1 6 l I b i d . , June 17, 1847. 1 6 2 I b i d . , June 17, 1847. l 6 3 I b i d . , June 26, 1847. I64ibid., June 26, 1847. l o ^ P a p e r s ' . r e l a t i v e to emigration, H.C, 1847-8.(50), V o l . XLVII, p. 7. A l l a n N. Mac Nab, Speaker of the L e g i s -l a t i v e Assembly, to the Queen's Most E x c e l l e n t Majesty, June 25 , 1847. 166canada, S t a t e Books, V o l . G, June 26, 1847, pp. 27-8 and Papers r e l a t i v e t o emigration. H.C, 1847-8 ( 50 ) , V o l XLVT1, p. 10. Peter M c G i l l , Speaker of the L e g i s -l a t i v e C o u n c i l , t o the Queen's Most E x c e l l e n t M a j e s t y , J u l y 6, 1847. 1 6 7 p a p e r s r e l a t i v e to emigration, H.C, 1847-8 (50), V o l . XLVII, p.. 10. - L O ODoughty, ed., Elgin-Grey Papers, V o l . I , pp. 58-9. E l g i n to Grey, J u l y 13, '1847. l 6 9T.he Morning C h r o n i c l e , J u l y 12, 1847. x / u I ) o u g h t y , ed., Elgin-Grey Papers, V o l . I , p. 62. Grey t o E l g i n , August 3, 1847. -'-'^Canada, State Books, V o l . G, passim. 1 7 2 M o n t r e a l T r a n s c r i p t , J u l y 22 , 1847. 1 7 3 i b i d . . J u l y 22 , i847. 1 ^Doughty, ed., Elgin-Grey Papers, V o l . I , p., 59. E l g i n to Grey, J u l y 13, 1847. 1 7 5 I b i d . , p. 59. l ^ l o n t r e a l T r a n s c r i p t , J u l y 29 , 1847. •^Canada, State Books, V o l . G, August 20, 1847, p. 302, ~ 142 1 7 8 L a M i n e r v e , August 19, 1847. 1 7 9 S e e T a b l e 2. l 8 o L a M i n e r v e , August 19, 1847. 1 ^ 1 I b i d . , August 19, 1847. l 8 2 A C i t i z e n ( O s c a r Dunn), Thoughts on E m i g r a t i o n  E d u c a t i o n , e t c . , I n a L e t t e r a d d r e s s e d t o t h e Rt. Hon. L o r d John R u s s e l l , Prime M i n i s t e r o f En g l a n d ( M o n t r e a l : J." B e c k e t t , 1847). ' ~~ I 8 3 i b i d . , pp. 5 - 6 . 1 8 4 l b i _ d L , p. 16. 1 ^ 5 I b i d . , pp. 6-7. 1 8 6 I b i d , , p. 7. l-37lbid., p. 9. l 8 8 I b M - i P. 13. l S 9 i b i d . , p. 13. 1 9 0 i b i d . , p. 14. x L'2l^Lpp. 13-14. 1 9 2 I b i d , p. 24 . ! 9 ^ T o n t r e a l T r a n s c r i p t . August 28, 1847. 194The M o r n i n g C h r o n i c l e , August 12, 1847. 19?La M i n e r v e , September 9 , 1847. 196'Toronto G l o b e , September 4, 1847. . 1 9 7 l b i d . , September 22, 1847. 1 9 8 C a n a d a , State Books, Volume H, December 20, 1847, pp. 74-6„ 1 9 9 I l ! l d o , p. 7 5 . 2 Q 0 I b i d . , p. 75* 2°llbid., p. 75 . 143 20 2Papers r e l a t i v e to emigration. H.C, 1847-8 (50), V o l . XLVII, p. 20. Report of A.B. Hawke, October 16, 1847. 2 0 3 I b i d . , p. 20. 2°4lbid., p. 20. 2°5p.rince Edward, Niagara, Midland, Newcastle, Colborne and V i c t o r i a . 206papers r e l a t i v e to emigration, H.C., 1347-8 (50), V o l . XLVII, pp. 21 - 3 . Enclosures i n E l g i n to Grey, October 27, 1847-and Papers r e l a t i v e to emigration. H.C, I848 (932) , V o l . XLVII, pp, 7-11. Enclosures In E l g i n to Grey, December 8, I 847 . 2°7Papers r e l a t i v e to emigration, H.C, I848 ( 9 3 2 ) , V o l . XLVII, p. 7, E l g i n to Grey, December 8, 1847. 2 0 8 P a p e r 3 r e l a t i v e to emigration. H.C, I847-8 (50), V o l . XLVII, pp„ 21 -3 , and Papers r e l a t i v e to emigration. 1848 ( 932) , V o l . XLVII, pp". 7-11. ' 2°9papers r e l a t i v e to emigration. H.C, 1847-3 (50), V o l . XLVII, p. 23 and Papers r e l a t i v e to emigration. 1848 (932 ) , v o l . X L V I I , - P . i c : : :  2 1 0 P a p e r s r e l a t i v e to emigration. H.C, 1843 (932) , V o l . XLVII,"p. T o : : 2 1 i p a p e r 3 r e l a t i v e to emigration, H.C, 1847-8 (50). Vo l , X L V I l T p . ^ : 2 1 2 I b i d . , p. 2 3 . 2 1 3 p a p e r s r e i a t i v e to emigration, H.C, 1848 (932) , v o i . x L v n T ^ m : 2 1 ^ I b i d . , p. 9 . ^^Montreal Transcript, October 23, 1847. <i"-0Paper3 r e l a t i v e to emigration, H.C, I848 (964) , V o l . XLVII " p. 31. A . C Buchanan Annual Report, March 31. 1843. ' 2!''rbid«, pp. 23-4. 2 1%oodham-Smith, The Great Hunger, p. 228. 144 2 1 9Woodham-Smith, The Great Hunger, p . 228. 2 2 0 l b j d . , P. 223. 221papers r e l a t i v e t o emig r a t i o n , H.G., 1848 (964), V o l . XLVII, p. 31. A.C. Buchanan Annual Report, March 31, 1343. ' " ^ C i t e d In La Minerve, November 4, 1847. 2 2 3 c i t e d i n Doughty, ed., Elgin-Grey Papers, V o l . I , p p . 81-2. E l g i n t o Grey, November 12, 1847. 2 2^Adam F e r r i e , L e t t e r t o the Rt. Hon. E a r l Grey, one of Her Majesty's Most Hon. P r i v y C o u n c i l , and Secretary of State f o r C o l o n i a l A f f a i r s ; Embracing a Statement of  Facts i n R e l a t i o n t o Emigration t o Canada d u r i n g the summer  of 1847 (Montreal: the o f f i c e s of The P i l o t . 1847). 2 2 5 l b i d . , p. 5. 2 2 6 I b i d . } p. 7. 2 2 7 l b i d , , p. 7. 2 2 8 I b i d . , pp . 8-9. 2 2 9 I b i d . , p. 9. 23°ibid., p. 12. 2 3 1 i b i d . , p« 16. ^3'-Papers r e l a t i v e t o emigration, H.C, I848 (932), V o l . XLVII""~PP» 38-40. J . K i n c a i d to E a r l Grey, March 1, .1348. 2 3 3 l b i d , , p. 39. 234Cited i n Woodham-Smith, The Great Hunger, p. 230. AFTERMATH AMD CONCLUSIONS 145 Despite the c l o s u r e of n a v i g a t i o n , c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n the colony were not yet back to normal. On November j 2 n d , the mayor of Quebec t o l d the Executive C o u n c i l t h a t a l l the beds at the Marine and Emigrant H o s p i t a l were f i l l e d and would probably remain so throughout the w i n t e r . x Requests f o r funds t o meet the expenses of the boards of h e a l t h were s t i l l being r e c e i v e d . 2 E l g i n wrote on November 1 8 t h : -f e v e r cases among the l e a d i n g persons i n the community h e r e ' s t i l l continue t o e x c i t e much comment and alarm. This day the Mayor of Mon-t r e a l (J.E. M i l l s ) d i e d , a very estimable man who d i d much f o r the emigrants — and to whose frimness and p h i l a n t h r o p y we c h i e f l y owe i t t h a t the Immigrant Sheds were not t o s s e d i n t o the r i v e r by the people of the town duri n g the summer.3 He has f a l l e n a v i c t i m to h i s z e a l on b e h a l f of the ( s e 3 poor plague s t r i c k e n s t r a n g e r s , having d i e d of s h i p f e v e r caught at the shedo^ E l g i n a l s o i n c l u d e d i n h i s l e t t e r t o Grey an e x t r a c t from a Hamilton paper, concerning the season's immigration, The paper was angered by Hawke's d e c i s i o n t o c l o s e i t s sheds and h o s p i t a l , t r a n s f e r r i n g a l l the p a t i e n t s t h a t could ba Moved t o Toronto. 'The determination of the Emigrant Department •not too a f f o r d any f a r t h e r jsicT} r e l i e f to the poor and s i c k l y emigrants, w i l l bear p a r t i c u l a r l y hard on t h i s c i t y f_of n e a r l y ten thousand] 5 f 'which seems to have been made a s o r t o f r a l l y i n g point f o r those who cannot get employment i n t h i s s e c t i o n of the country. Some id e a may be 146 formed of the e v i l which e x i s t s , when we s t a t e , on the a u t h o r i t y of the Health O f f i c e r , t h a t t h e r e are one thousand persons s i c k and d e s t i -t u t e w i t h i n the l i m i t s of the C i t y ! Many of these wretched beings are huddled together i n damp c e l l a r s without food or clothing'. Disease w i l l s u r e l y r e s u l t from t h i s lamentable s t a t e of the poor emigrants, — contagion w i l l spread, and the w e a l t h i e s t and h e a l t h i e s t w i l l have t o take h i s chance w i t h the poor and weakly. This i s not a l l o f the e v i l . Every day t h e poor emi-grants are seen coming i n t o the c i t y t o seek t h a t s h e l t e r f o r t h e w i n t e r which they cannot f i n d i n the country.'" The I m p e r i a l Government d i d not escape c r i t i c i s m . •This i s a s t a t e of matters which the people of t h i s c i t y should s t r o n g l y p r o t e s t a g a i n s t . The inhumanity and h e a r t l e s s n e s s of p a r t i e s i n the mother country, have been the cause of overwhelming us w i t h disease and poverty. The I m p e r i a l Government has not done i t s duty towards ua. There was no a t t e n t i o n p a i d to the number and h e a l t h of the emigrants. I t seemed the only object was t o get r i d of the poor, t h a t they might not be a drag on the r i c h . They are bound t h e r e f o r e t o r e l i e v e us from the pecuniary i n f l i c t i o n — the penalty of disease we unhappily must bear.'? Many Canadians were a l s o now t u r n i n g t h e i r a t t e n -t i o n to the magnitude and nature of the past season's immigration. One of the e a r l i e s t and most accurate assessments of the season was o f f e r e d by A.B. Hawke. According to h i s estimates, at l e a s t 92,000 emigrants had entered Canada duri n g the past year, of which some 18,990 were merely passing through on t h e i r way t o the United S t a t e s . ? Of those who had remained i n Canada, the m a j o r i t y had proceeded t o Canada West. He a s s e r t e d , r a t h e r o p t o m i s t i c a l l y , t h a t f i f t y thousand o f the immigrants had s e t t l e d and found employment i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f 147 Canada, w h i l e death had claimed 15,046 and si c k n e s s another 5136» The remaining seven thousand could be found "hanging loose upon s o c i e t y , e s p e c i a l l y about the towns"!*-*. But Hawke then c o n t r a d i c t e d h i s glowing r e c o r d w i t h a devas-t a t i n g d e s c r i p t i o n of the season's immigrants. Seventy-f i v e percent of the emigrants ( f i f t y percent would have been more accurate but then one must remember tha t almost t h i r t y thousand of the h e a l t h i e s t immigrants d i d not stop i n Canada) had been diseased i n body and of the lowest c l a s s of u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r e r , H Few upon a r r i v a l were f i t enough f o r farm l a b o u r , and even when they were, most farmers were a f r a i d t o employ them. Throughout Canada "an immigrant with a shaven head . . . [wasj[ an object o f t e r r o r . " 1 2 Also i n c l u d e d among th e immigrants were a good number of aged and i n f i r m who would never be able t o support themselves. Widows w i t h l a r g e f a m i l i e s were a l s o a problem; i n t h r e e towns which had alr e a d y provided t h e i r r e t u r n s , there were 108 widows w i t h 321 c h i l d r e n , and fo r t y - o n e of these had been widowed i n I r e l a n d and sent out by t h e i r l a n d l o r d s . 1 ^ This immigra-t i o n had brought nothing but t r o u b l e to the colony; the immigrants had been " d i r t y i n h a b i t s and unreasonable i n t h e i r e xpectations as t o wages"14 and had shown' " l i t t l e ambition or d e s i r e t o adapt themselves to t h e i r new surroundings. " 1 5 T h i s i s a r a t h e r harsh judgment of the I r i s h who o b v i o u s l y were expected t o be able t o ad-j u s t immediately t o t h e i r new surroundings d e s p i t e t h e i r l o n g o r d e a l and s u f f e r i n g s , Kawke concluded h i s r e p o r t by s t a t i n g t h a t i t had been f o r t u n a t e f o r Canada t h a t many of the immigrants had had f r i e n d s or r e l a t i v e s who had been ab l e to support them; the burden could have been much g r e a t e r . The Executive C o u n c i l a l s o o f f e r e d i t s o p i n i o n s concerning the past season's immigration. Repeating what was the general consensus of o p i n i o n among Canadians concerning Immigration, the C o u n c i l reassured the I m p e r i a l Government th a t a well-conducted e m i g r a t i o n , c o n s i s t i n g o f s e t t l e r s w i t h adequate resources t o e s t a b l i s h them-s e l v e s upon the l a n d and h e a l t h y , vigorous l a b o u r e r s , was recognized as a b e n e f i c i a l a d d i t i o n t o the colony, but u n f o r t u n a t e l y few o f l a s t season's a r r i v a l s had met these q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f the more than 84,000 emigrants which they estimated had reached Canada, approximately s i x -sevenths were I r i s h , many of whom were d e c r e p i t , maimed, lame, the subjects o f chronic d i s e a s e , widows w i t h l a r g e f a m i l i e s of tender age, and others who, from i n f i r m i t y o r con-firraed h a b i t s , \vere incapable of m a i n t a i n i n g themselves at home by t h e i r own labour,17 These emigrants had, f o r the most p a r t , been sent to Canada, e i t h e r by t h e i r p a r i s h or t h e i r l a n d l o r d . More than f i f t e e n thousand of the poor I r i s h had d i e d d u r i n g the c r o s s i n g or upon a r r i v a l , and another t h i r t y thousand had r e q u i r e d medical a t t e n t i o n ; n e a r l y f o r t y 149 thousand emigrants had r e c e i v e d some form of r e l i e f at one time or another.1$ The C o u n c i l was at a l o s s to d i s c o v e r what advantage the province c o u l d o b t a i n from t h e year's immigration:- i t had (1) caused the l o s s o f numbers of the c o l o n i e s 1 most estimable c i t i z e n s ; (2) d i v e r t e d from the province most of the usual summer American t r a v e l l e r s ; (3) e x e r c i s e d a most depressing i n f l u e n c e upon the trade and commerce of the colony's p r i n c i p l e c i t i e s ; and (4) l e d t o the utmost alarm and apprehension throughout the p r o v i n c e . ± Q Canada's experience over the past season was c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h a t o f New York, which had been able t o adopt s t r i n g e n t measures concerning the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of i n d i g e n t emigrants t o t h e i r p o r t . 2 0 Measures, s i m i l a r Table 3 A Comparison of Canada's Emigration Expenditures w i t h t h a t of the Emigration Committee appointed by the L e g i s l a t u r e of New York In the Province of Canada For the e n t i r e season - deaths 9572 For the e n t i r e season - s i c k 27,163 At an expense of { 106,001 15s 3d In the St a t e of New York From May 5 to September 30 - deaths 703 From May 5 to September 30 - s i c k 676I At an Expenditure of ne a r l y £23,000 currency 150 to those which had protected the United States (but not as s t r i n g e n t ) , were suggested, hoping that they would be able t o prevent a recurrence of the past season's miser-i e s . 2 1 The r e p o r t of the Montreal E m i g r a t i o n Committee f o l l o w e d q u i c k l y on the heels of th a t o f the Executive C o u n c i l . 2 2 In no p e r i o d s i n c e the Conquest had Canada witnessed "such f e a r f u l scenes of d e s t i t u t i o n and s u f f e r -i n g " as she had d u r i n g the past year. From Grosse I s l e , the great c h a r n e l p i t of v i c t i m i z e d humanity, up to Port S a r n i a and a l l along the borders of our magnificent r i v e r ; upon the shores o f Lake Ontario and Lake E r i e — w h e r e v e r the t i d e of emigration has extended, are t o be found the f i n a l r e s t i n g places o f the sons and daughters of E r i n ; one unbroken chain o f graves where repose f a t h e r s and mothers, s i s t e r s and brothers i n one commingled heap without a t e a r bedewing the s o i l o r the stone marking the spot* The Committee went on t o d e s c r i b e t h e i r e f f o r t s of t h e past season, the attempts t o a s s i s t the l a t e Mr. .Tar-wood (another typhus v i c t i m ) , the Government Emigrant Agent, r e l i e v e the s u f f e r i n g and want which at times were almost beyond r e l i e f . In J u l y , when the f e v e r was at i t s worst, they had taken c o n t r o l of the sheds, but t h e i r funds had soon been exhausted. They had a l s o provided a s s i s t a n c e t o those emigrants able to work by forwarding them t o works along the l i n e of the S t . Lawrence and A t l a n t i c r a i l w a y . They had a l s o forwarded many d e s t i t u t e 151 emigrants t o the United S t a t e s i n order to prevent them from becoming a f u r t h e r burden upon the Canadian commun-i t y . The I r i s h l a n d l o r d s and t h e i r agents were soundly c r i t i c i z e d f o r the c o n d i t i o n and manner i n which they sent out t h e i r t e n a n t s , Canada had no use f o r "a re f u s e oi* work-house p o p u l a t i o n " , nor was i t s s o c i e t y s t r u c t u r e d to support such a p o p u l a t i o n ; the Committee p r o t e s t e d " i n the name of a l l t h a t i s j u s t and r i g h t a g a i n s t being flooded w i t h indolence combined w i t h pauperism," I t was obvious t h a t the I m p e r i a l Government must i n s t i t u t e s t r i c t e r standards r e g a r d i n g the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of emi-g r a n t s , W i l l i a m Hedge, the Se c r e t a r y of the Committee, took I t upon hi m s e l f t o address a l e t t e r to t h e e d i t o r of the Montreal T r a n s c r i p t . 2 ^ j n h i s l e t t e r he pointed out t h a t Canada had not yet absorbed a l l o f the immigrants o f the past season, and u n t i l she had done so, no inc r e a s e i n Immigration was needed; the i n f l u x of immigrants d u r i n g the past year had exceeded t he demand f o r labour by thr e e t i m e s . Here Hedge c o n s i d e r a b l y exaggerated the unemployment s i t u a t i o n i n the colony; as s t a t e d e a r l i e r , t here was always a good demand f o r cheap farm l a b o u r i n the colony, and once the farmers overcame t h e i r f e a r of the immigrants many e a s i l y found jobs i n v a r i o u s Canadian communities. I t was only i n the eastern townships where 1 5 2 the employment s i t u a t i o n was rather bleak, because of the stagnation of trade, that there were any large numbers of d e s t i t u t e I r i s h , Hedge quite r i g h t l y concluded however that the majority of the past season's immigrants had not been drawn to Canada by jobs but were forced upon us, to r i d a famine-stric k e n land of a surplus; or of such as she could not, or f e l t u nwilling to support; and besides thus flooding a new country ( r e l a t i v e -l y speaking) with such immense masses, a large proportion of which are q u a l i f i e d merely to act as drains upon society, operated i n -j u r i e s i n many ways. About the same time, a public meeting was held i n Toronto to consider the steps that should be taken to prevent a recurrence of the disasters of the past season. 2 It was pointed out at the meeting that to February 1 s t , 38,560 immigrants had been received i n the c i t y ; t h i s number had been disposed of i n a v a r i e t y of ways.25 Table 4 The manner of the disposal of enigrants a r r i v i n g at Toronto during the 1847 season. Arrived 38,560 To Niagara, Hamilton and other places via the water routes 26,700 To various parts of the country by land 8,950 1 , 1 2 4 Di? id in the emigrant ho s p i t a l and i n lodgings i n the town In In Hospital s t i l l the convalscent home 413 210 In the emigrant sheds 293 In the widows and orphans as^rlum 89 In lodginp;s i n the c i t y 731 38,560 153 Of t h i s t o t a l , 4 3 5 5 had a t some time been admitted to h o s p i t a l , and 863 had d i e d t h e r e . 2 6 The Widows 1 and Orphans' Asylum had found places f o r 334 of t h e i r charges e i t h e r i n or near the c i t y e 2 ^ Those at the meeting f e l t t h a t Toronto had borne a heavy p o r t i o n of t h e burden of l a s t season's immigration and were determined t o prevent a recurrence of t h i s s i t u a t i o n . They c a l l e d on the I m p e r i a l Government f o r r e g u l a t i o n s which would o f f e r the emigrants some p r o t e c t i o n during t h e i r passage and "would guard against the i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l a n d i n g i n Canada, of poor, h e l p l e s s , unfortunate beings, who ought not t o be allowed, i n t h e i r s i c k , f r a i l , impoverished c o n d i t i o n , to leave t h e i r own country."23 Toronto had seen too many deaths and too many beggars f i l l e d i t s s t r e e t s as a r e s u l t of the past season's i m m i g r a t i o n . 2 9 Those at the meeting asked:-Was i t r i g h t that t h i s young country should be made the asylum of the s i c k and d e s t i t u t e i n the mother country; that the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of t h e I r i s h landovvners should be t r a n s f e r r e d t o Canada?30 Of course nott I t was decided that the meeting would present an address t o the Governor-General, who was t o forward i t to the proper I m p e r i a l o f f i c i a l s , as w e l l as one to t h e L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, r e q u e s t i n g t h a t the r e s p o n s i b l e o f f i c i a l s adopt the necessary pre v e n t i v e '-1 measures.-I t was not u n t i l l a t e March, when.the 184$ season 154 was n e a r l y upon the colony, that the o f f i c i a l s t a t i s t i c s f o r t he past season were known .3 2 Buchanan, i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the c h a r a c t e r of the immigration, supported the e a r l i e r statements of h i s f e l l o w c i t i z e n s . The nature o f the immigration had been exceedingly unfavourable; the I r i s h immigrants had been of t h e lov/est c l a s s . Apart from the e f f e c t s o f d i s e a s e , t h e mass of the I r i s h emigrants, s u f f e r i n g from l o n g p r i v a -t i o n s , showed i n every f e a t u r e a great reduc-t i o n i n p h y s i c a l standards, w h i l e i t s moral c h a r a c t e r evinced more p l a i n l y than under former o r d i n a r y circumstances the general ab-sence of i n d u s t r i a l education and an extreme want of such a c o u n t e r a c t i n g f o r c e t o oppose the n a t i v e tendency towards s l o t h and apathy.33 As f a r as the numerical a n a l y s i s was concerned, Buchanan's f i g u r e s s u b s t a n t i a t e d , i n a l l but the numbers proceeding t o the United S t a t e s , those o f f e r e d e a r l i e r by Hawke.34 From among those who chose t o , or were f o r c e d t o , remain i n Canada., the m a j o r i t y chose Canada West as t h e i r d e s t i n -a t i o n as soon as they were healthy enough t o t r a v e l . 3 5 A v a r i e t y of explanations can be o f f e r e d f o r t h i s phenomenon* F i r s t , as s t a t e d e a r l i e r , i n t h e l a r g e r eastern townships, there were few jobs open f o r u n s k i l l e d workers } and t h e I r i s h faced s t i f f c ompetition from the French Canadians f o r the few jobs t h a t were a v a i l a b l e . The I r i s h a l s o would have found i t even more d i f f i c u l t t o f i t i n t o the one s e c t o r where work was a v i l a b l e , the small French Canadian a g r i c u l t u r a l communities. Not 155 Table 5 D i s t r i b u t i o n of emigrants who a r r i v e d . i n the Province of Canada duri n g the year 1847 as near as can be a s c e r t a i n e d . Number of Emigrants from the United Kingdom, 8 9 , 4 5 4 v i a the r i v e r S t . Lawrence Number a r r i v e d i n Western Canada, v i a the 5,580 United S t a t e s 9 5 , 0 3 4 Deduct m o r t a l i t y to March 1 , 4 , 2 3 4 Canada East Deduct m o r t a l i t y t o March 1 , . 3 ,911 8,154 Canada West 86,880 Numbers proceeded to the United 1 5 , 0 0 0 S t a t e s v i a S t . John's Numbers proceeded to the United 1 5 , 0 0 0 30<QQ0 S t a t e s from Canada West . 56,880 Estimated number remaining i n the d i s t r i c t s of Quebec and Mon-t r e a l and i n the eastern townships 3 ,700 Number s e t t l e d at Bytown and at var-ious places on the Ottawa and Rideau 6,930 At Kingston and Bay of Quinte, and i n the H a s t i n g s , P r i n c e Edward and Midland d i s t r i c t s 5 , 850 At Coburg, Port Hope, Windsor, Whitby and D a r l i n g t o n , and i n the Colborne and Newcastle d i s t r i c t s 7 ,123 At Toronto and i n the Home and Simcoe d i s t r i c t s 16,318 At Port C r e d i t , O a k v i l l e , and Hamilton, and the W e l l i n g t o n and Gore d i s t r i c t s 1 2 , 6 3 9 In London, Western, and Huron d i s t r i c t s 4 , 3 2 0 56 ,880 156 o n l y was the a g r i c u l t u r a l system t o t a l l y a l i e n to the Irish,3 . 6 D U t a l s o they o b v i o u s l y could not speak French, The I r i s h immigrants were faced w i t h enough d i f f i c u l t i e s without t r y i n g t o begin a new l i f e i n a community where they could not communicate w i t h t h e i r neighbours. As i t was, the Immigrants who remained i n Canada East s e t t l e d i n mainly E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g areas,3 7 Canada West o f f e r e d both b e t t e r employment opportunites and a s l i g h t l y l e s s a l i e n s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e f o r the I r i s h , and as Hawke had pointed out, many of the I r i s h had f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s l o c a t e d here,-^ Canada East d i d , however, witness j u s t as much s u f f e r i n g as d i d her western c o u n t e r p a r t , with-Montreal r e c e i v i n g a t l e a s t t h r e e times the number of s i c k as any one other community, and spending more on the r e l i e f and care of the s i c k than both Toronto-and Quebec combined.39 One e x p l a n a t i o n of Montreal's p l i g h t has already been o f f e r e d ; i t was the f i r s t c e n t r a l stopping o f f point on the route t o the I n t e r i o r and, u n l i k e Toronto, the immi-g r a n t s were not r e f u s e d entry to the c i t y . In f a c t , the immigrants were allowed too much freedom, as those i n charge of the c i t y ' s p u b l i c h e a l t h had not the .powers or the resources t o keep the immigrants i s o l a t e d from the r e s t of the community. One of t h e major problems was t h a t the immigrants had descended upon the unsuspecting c i t i -sens w i t h very l i t t l e r e a l warning (although they were 157 Table 6 Return of the Number of Admissions i n t o H o s p i t a l , Discharges and Deaths of Emigrants who a r r i v e d i n Canada during the Season of 1347 Adm 1 Dis' D3 Quarantine H o s p i t a l . . . . Marine and Emigrant H o s p i t a l , P o i n t S t . Charles H o s p i t a l , M o n t r e a l , t o January 1, 1843 Board of H e a l t h , S t . John's Board of H e a l t h , Lachine.... Emigrant H o s p i t a l , Toronto, to February 2, 1348...... The s e v e r a l Boards of Health e s t a b l i s h e d i n Western Canada. O 9 O O 8,691 3,313 13,189 172 342 4,355 12,478 5,302 2,531 9 , 7 3 4 101 212 2 ,369 9 , 4 3 0 3 ,389 712 3 ,350 71 130 363 3 ,048 70 125 623 T o t a l : 42,540 30,179 LI,543 313 •"•Admitted 2Discharged 3Deaths 4Remaining 158 certainly aware of the events taking place in Ireland), and the authorities were forced to house the sick in the dreadful old sheds in the heart of the c i t y u n t i l other more suitable accommodations were ready. Isolation was impossible in the early portion of the season, and thus typhus spread rapidly among those inhabitants who had had some contact with the immigrants. Montreal and Quebec, again unlike Toronto, were also faced with at least two authorities in charge of their Immigration policy, and with one responsible to the citizens and the other to the Executive Government, there was often much debate at a time when quick decisions and actions were required. Among the immigrants, the numbers of men, women and children were almost equal.^° Of the more than 35,000 adult male immigrants who had set s a i l for Canada, only 1191 had any s k i l l or trade, the remainder were farmers and agricultural and common labourers.^ It must be kept in mind also that probably about one-half of the men, the most skilled and the wealthiest, had proceeded on to the United States.^ 2 The cost of the 1847 immigration, both financially and In terms of human l i v e s , had been great. Very few communities had escaped the ravages of the ship fever; the immigrant mortality rate had greatly increased.^"3 The mortality rate among the Irish emigrants had been 10„49 % (from Liverpool i t was 15.39$ and from Cork, 18.73%) as compared with a rate of 1.26$ for the German 159 Table 7 Return of the Number of Emigrants Embarked, w i t h the Number of B i r t h s and Deaths during the Voyage and i n Quarantine, the T o t a l Number landed i n the Colony, d i s t i n g u i s h -i n g Males from Females and Adult s from C h i l d r e n Numbers Embarked Adults C h i l d r e n 1-14 I n f a n t s M F M F 35,827 27,728 14,894 13,897 5,607 Deaths on Passage Adu l t s C h i l d r e n 1-14 I n f a n t s M F K F 1 ,329 914 1,223 1,069. 747 Deaths i n Quarantine Adu l t s C h i l d r e n 1-14 I n f a n t s M n r M F 1,383 948 453 439 161 Landed i n the Colony A d u l t s C h i l d r e n 1-14 I n f a n t s M F M F 33,110 25,866 13,218 12,389 1,871 T o t a l Males - 4 6 , 3 2 8 T o t a l Females - 3 8 , 2 5 5 160 Table 8 Return of the Trades or G a l l i n g of the Emigrants who a r r i v e d at the Po r t s of Quebec and Montreal dur i n g the Year 1847 Bakers 30 B r i c k l a y e r s and Masons.. 80 Blacksmiths and Whitesmiths........ 133 Bookbinders 8 Blockmakers 3 B r a z i e r s . 6 Cabinet-makers. 5 Carpenters and J o i n e r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 Cartraakers and Wheelwrights 23 C u r r i e r s 3 Dyers. 3 Engineers 4 Gardeners... 19 M i l l e r s and M i l l w r i g h t s 28 T-ioui.doi**sM » • * • ( • • • • • • • • • *<? A-P a i n t e r s , 1 3 P l a s t e r e r s 1 P r i n t e r s „ 4 Q Uci.r* .L*yin © n * * « * * « * « * t > « * 4 t » 9 * 0 < » * « » « « # < > « 17 Ropenakers. * 8 Sawye rs„« . „ 7 Sail.-makers. 1 S t o n e c u t t e r s , 9 T a i l o r s ..» 142 Xctrin, oi. 5 »i» 12 Male Servants 6 Fannera and A g r i c u l t u r a l Labourers. 11,397 Common Labourers................... 23 ,239 Boot and Shoemakers................ 176 3 5,827 Death of wale a d u l t s at quarantine...........1,388 Death of iaale a d u l t s .at 161 e m i g r a n t s T h e r e had a l s o been a marked i n c r e a s e i n the numbers of s i c k and dead at Grosse I s l e . ^ 5 However, Buchanan d i d not end h i s r e p o r t on a p e s s i -m i s t i c note, f o r at the time of h i s w r i t i n g , c e r t a i n s i g n s of improvement had been noted. The r e p o r t s which he had r e c e i v e d from h i s v a r i o u s agents i n d i c a t e d that although there remained i n the l a r g e towns and ports of l a n d i n g , some f a m i l i e s whose continued d e s t i t u t i o n i s u n r e l i e v e d , the r e a l l y i n d u s t r i o u s a r e , t o a great e x t e n t , earning ample subsistence.^6 The testimony of the newspapers supported Buchanan's a s s e r t i o n s ; there were i s o l a t e d r e p o r t s o f d e s t i t u t i o n , but by the new year l i t t l e was heard concerning the p l i g h t of the immigrants. Once the Canadians had overcome t h e i r f e a r of the immigrants as a source of i n f e c t i o n , they were more than w i l l i n g t o put them t o work. In the meantime, i n both u n o f f i c i a l and o f f i c i a l c i r c l e s , the problem of meeting the expenses occasioned by the season's immigration had been and continued t o be a much dis c u s s e d t o p i c . E l g i n thoroughly understood the Province's problems i n t h i s a r e a , and as e a r l y as August, he had attempted t o e x p l a i n the s i t u a t i o n t o Grey.**"? The funds a v a i l a b l e t o the P r o v i n c e , t h e proceeds from the Immigrant Tax and the I m p e r i a l Government's grant of ten thousand pounds, had been absorbed by the expenditures of only one fa c e t of the immigrant r e l i e f programme. Canada, i n her attempt t o prevent too many immigrants 162 from congregating w i t h i n her c i t i e s , had provided f r e e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o the i n t e r i o r f o r t h e d e s t i t u t e ; funds s t i l l had t o be found t o meet the cost of care f o r the s i c k and the maintainenance of t h e quarantine e s t a b l i s h -ment and the sheds set up throughout the country, Canada, as a colony, had been debarred from t a k i n g any a c t i o n t o prevent t h i s i n u n d a t i o n o f s i c k and d e s t i t u t e I r i s h , Here E l g i n chose to ignore the f a c t t h a t few Canadians had shown any concern about the upcoming season u n t i l i t was f a r too l a t e t o take any e f f e c t i v e a c t i o n . By the time Canadians had r e a l i z e d what was happening, the o n l y p o s s i b l e a c t i o n t h a t they could have taken to stop the i n f l u x o f I r i s h was t o blockade the S t . Lawrence. S t i l l , E l g i n was j u s t i f i e d i n demanding some compensation f o r Canada; i f anyone had t o be u l t i m a t e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the d i s a s t e r s of 1847, i t was the B r i t i s h Government. E l g i n c a r e f u l l y pointed o u t ^ t h a t Grey's d i c t a t e s had been f o l l o w e d ; r e l i e f had been provided w i t h "the utmost c a u t i o n and economy", but the numbers had been so great and the p e s t i l e n c e so widespread t h a t the funds at the provinces d i s p o s a l would not s u f f i c e t o meet the necessary expenditures. Despite a l l the e f f o r t s made by the c o l o n i s t s , the disease had spread t o the i n t e r i o r ; the colony had become one vast poor-house.Private c h a r i t y was almost exhausted, and t h e r e were no l o c a l r a t e s t o 163 f a l l back upon 0 Who was t o bear the expense? E l g i n agreed that i f the colony were t o gain some advantage from the immigration, then i t should pay, but, he c o n c l u -ded, i t was h i g h l y d o u b t f u l that any advantage ( E l g i n should have added immediate) could be gained from t h i s season's numbers, e s p e c i a l l y v/hen most of those who s t i l l have t h e i r h e a l t h and some resources were simply passing through the colony on t h e i r way t o the United S t a t e s . ^ - 0 F i v e days l a t e r , the Executive C o u n c i l pointed out t o E l g i n t h a t d e s p i t e the grant which they had r e c e i v e d from the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly , the warrants f o r expenses already exceeded the sums on hand by s i x thousand pounds and requests f o r warrants continued t o be r e c e i v e d d a i l y from the v a r i o u s boards of health.5 0 j n a n attempt t o cut down t h e i r expenditures and t o e s t a b l i s h a uniform r a t e of expenses, an agent was appointed to supervise the a f f a i r s of the b o a r d s . T h e agent, appointed at the suggestion of A.B. Hawke, v/as "to v i s i t the v a r i o u s boards and examine the s t a t e of the Accounts, the mode of man-agement and. r e p o r t back as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e . " 5 2 The p r e v a i l i n g d e s t i t u t i o n v/as so gr e a t , however, that the agent was unable to reduce the r a t e o r extent of t h e expenditures.53 While the Canadian communities were making t h e i r p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r t he coming w i n t e r , the Government, through the o f f i c e of t h e Governor-General, continued i t s 164 e f f o r t s t o secure funds from the I m p e r i a l Government to pay f o r the season's immigration. On September 1 4 t h , E l g i n again wrote t o G r e y ^ , d e s c r i b i n g the colony's f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n . The P r o v i n c i a l Exchequer was i n "a d e p l o r a b l e c o n d i t i o n " ; " a l l the money which the banks w i l l advance has been borrowed", but the balance on hand s t i l l remained at zero. Warrants t o meet the immigration ex-penses had exhausted the funds intended t o meet the i n t e r -est on t h e I m p e r i a l Loan, which was due i n January. E l g i n s t a t e d t h a t unless some measures were taken immediately, "the guarantee of t h e I m p e r i a l Government w i l l be c a l l e d a c t i v e l y i n t o p l a y . " This pl e a secured an a d d i t i o n a l twenty thousand pounds from the Impe r i a l Treasury,55 but the Executive C o u n c i l q u i c k l y pointed out that t h i s sura was i n s u f f i c i e n t , f o r at the end of September, the P r o v i n c i a l debt was more than t h i r t y - f i v e thousand pounds. This debt had been met w i t h an advance of t h i r t y - f i v e thousand pounds from a Montreal Bank.5? But s h o r t l y a f t e r t h i s c r i s i s had been met, the C o u n c i l r e c e i v e d rquests f o r another eleven thousand pounds t o d e f r a y "the most p r e s s i n g c l a i m s " among the immigration expenses; more requests f o r funds were c e r t a i n l y expected.^^ The •P'rovlncial Surplus had been t o t a l l y exhausted; what the C o u n c i l wanted was a c r e d i t of f o r t y to f i f t y thousand pounds wi t h the Bank of England "which might be made a p p l i c a b l e t o the payment of her Semi-Annual Dividends 165 there, while She [CanadaJ disburses the equivalent within the Province to sustain this helpless Emigration."59 Grey f e l t that this request was highly unreasonable; the colony would eventually benefit from the immigration (although he did not specify when or how) and should, An therefore, pay i t s f a i r share of the expenses, The debate was obviously not yet settled; i t was, in fact, not to be settled u n t i l April of 1848, In Novem-ber of 18/^ 7, William Cayley, the Inspector General of Accounts, wrote that the expenses for the season stood at £lOO ,565 2s 7 d , from which the Province could deduct £ 5 7 , 2 5 7 4s 3d which i t had received from the immigrant tax and imperial funds,61 The demand of various communi-ties for funds to meet immigration expenses continued to be "heavy and pressing" and the provincial chest was in "no position to answer these calls" j 6 2 further imperial assistance was necessary. This letter did, in January, bring an advance "in aid of expenses incurred by the Canadian Government for the r e l i e f of distressed emigrants. But the Imperial Government s t i l l had not admitted that i t should or would bear the whole cost of the season; i t was content to continue to offer stop-gap measures to meet the various Canadian financial crises, stepping in each time the Canadians ran out of funds, Canadian o f f i c i a l s continued to press their case with the Imperial o f f i c i a l s . The Executive Council pointed out to L'ord Grey that 166 the l i m i t e d reserves of t h e colony make i t imposs i b l e t o - p r o v i d e f o r both s e r v i c e s Qthe payment of i n t e r e s t on i t s I m p e r i a l Loan and emigration expenses^ and the u n i -v e r s a l depression of the money market has rendered i t e q u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o i s s u e debentures."4 The stop-gap i m p e r i a l advances had not solved the colony's f i n a n c i a l problems; each week brought new demands upon 65 the P r o v i n c e ' s l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s . The colony was simply hot prepared t o admit t h a t the I m p e r i a l Government had any r i g h t t o ask the colony t o bear any p o r t i o n of the season's immigration expenses. Apart from t h e question o f si c k n e s s and conta-gious f e v e r , a d e s t i t u t e p o p u l a t i o n , too enfee-b l e d t o gain i t s l i v e l i h o o d by l a b o u r , i s a se r i o u s burden upon the i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h i s province; but when, i n a d d i t i o n to these d i s a b i l -i t i e s the emigration has been found t o embrace i d i o t s and c r i p p l e s , widows and orphan c h i l -dren, we know not i n what terms a demand can be made on the province f o r pecuniary a i d , or by' what arguments such a demand can be j u s t i f i e d . ° But Grey was not yet convinced; he wrote to E l g i n : -I cannot agree w i t h you as t o i t s being reasonable f o r Canada t o expect that the whole cost of t h e emigration of the present year should be defrayed by t h i s country.°7 Grey s t i l l i n s i s t e d t h a t Canada would b e n e f i t economically from t h e past season's i n f l u x ; he d i d o f f e r , however, 68 t o bear h a l f of t h e burden. C o l o n i a l o f f i c i a l s were not prepared t o agree t o t h i s arrangement. In March 16*43, F. Hincks, now the Inspector General, submitted another statement of t h e immigration accounts, which showed an outs t a n d i n g 167 balance of £$2,924 14s. 8d.^9 He a l s o s t a t e d , i n a more moderate tone than had h i s predecessor, t h a t v/ h i l e , t h e r e f o r e , h i s E x c e l l e n c y ' s a d v i s o r s are prepared, i n r e s p e c t f u l compliance w i t h the e x p e c t a t i o n s of Her M a j e s t y 5 s Government, to c o n t r i b u t e , t o the utmost extent of the a v a i l a b l e f i n a n c i a l resources of the p r o v i n c e , to the e x t r a o r d i n a r y expenses of the emigration l a s t year, i t i s hoped by them t h a t the c o n t r i -b u t i o n w i l l not be i n s i s t e d upon.' 0 E l g i n continued to back the c o l o n i a l p o s i t i o n . On March 2 n d ? he wrote p r i v a t e l y t o Grey?! t h a t he considered the l i n e o f argument which you adopt . . . i n favour of s a d d l i n g the Province with a p o r t i o n of t h i s o u t l a y , a dangerous one i n the present temper of men's minds. The question being asked by most Canadians was:-•Do we l o v e her [ B r i t a i n ] enough, i s her connexion s u f f i c i e n t l y v a l u a b l e t o us t o r e f u s e t o c l a s p the hand which i s s t r e t c h e d . out toward us by a great neighbour and k i n -dred n a t i o n , w i t h whose p r o s p e r i t y and r a p i d advance as c o n t r a s t e d w i t h our comparatively slow progress we are c o n s t a n t l y taunted by B r i t i s h St at e smen.' The s i t u a t i o n w i t h regard to immigration, t h e r e f o r e , must o b v i o u s l y handled w i t h the greatest c a u t i o n , but E l g i n • f e l t i t was very u n l i k e l y t h a t the c o l o n i s t s could be persuaded to "pay h e a v i l y something they regard as a grievous c a l a m i t y e n t a i l e d upon them as a consequence of t h e i r dependent p o s i t i o n " , e s p e c i a l l y i f the I m p e r i a l a u t h o r i t i e s threatened t o r e j e c t any l e g i s l a t i v e measures adopted b y the colony t o prevent a recurrence of the d i s a s t e r s s u f f e r e d d u r i n g the past season,72 Grey's 16s suggestions, E l g i n d e c l a r e d , were r e c e i v e d with sus-p i c i o n i n the colony; he was seen as the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of "the i n t e r e s t s of an over-peopled m e t r o p o l i s — o r , what i s s t i l l worse, of the I r i s h l a n d l o r d s . " E l g i n o f f e r e d some f i n a l a d v i c e . My own o p i n i o n i s , t h a t the B r i t i s h North Amer-i c a n C o l o n i e s should be l e f t as much as p o s s i b l e t o themselves to take the measures f o r the pre-v e n t i o n of a diseased Immigration, and f o r meet-i n g the expenses of the s e r v i c e . I f , under the i n f l u e n c e of the temporary excitement, they were at any time t o subject Immigration t o improper r e s t r i c t i o n s , t h e i n j u r y which v a r i o u s P r o v i n -c i a l i n t e r e s t s would thereby s u s t a i n would ensure a prompt r e t u r n t o a more j u d i c i o u s and l i b e r a l P o l i c y . E l g i n ' s o p i n i o n c a r r i e d t h e day. With the r e c e i p t of both Hinck's and E l g i n ' s s t a t e -ments, the I m p e r i a l a u t h o r i t i e s f i n a l l y r e l e n t e d . On A p r i l 14'fcl:1, 1848, Grey wrote 73 t h a t the Home Government was prepared to recommend the payment of a l l expenses i n c u r r e d , but t h e r e was one c o n d i t i o n attached. From t h i s p o i n t on, Canada must undertake the f u l l respon-s i b i l i t y o f meeting a l l f u t u r e immigration expenses, and i n order t o complete t h i s arrangement, the I m p e r i a l Government would hand over to the Canadian Government the e n t i r e management of the immigration s e r v i c e . In e a r l y May, the Province agreed to the terms set By Grey. 7^ The f i n a l expenses f o r the season, to be met by the I m p e r i a l Government, were f167,226 2s 8d. 75 169 Table 9 The t o t a l expenditures f o r emigration purposes t o March 1, 1848 £ s d The Quarantine Establishment..... 34,950 3 6 The medical r e l i e f of the s i c k 83,591 18 0 The support and i n l a n d t r a n s p o r t o f . . . . 48,684 1 2 the d e s t i t u t e £ 1 6 7 , 2 2 6 .2 8 CL, Disbursement of expenses at the Quarantine Establish-ment : -H o s p i t a l b u i l d i n g s e r e c t e d , i n c l u d i n g a l s o accommodations f o r the healthy emigrants detained........ 10,682 19 11 H o s p i t a l expenses, i n c l u d i n g f u r n i t u r e , pay of p h y s i c i a n s and a p o t h e c a r i e s , and attendants of a l l ranks, medi-c i n e s , medical comforts, s u p p l i e s , and n e c e s s a r i e s f o r the s i c k and convalescent. 21,019 14 3 P r o v i s i o n s s u p p l i e d t o the d e s t i t u t e h e a l t h y emigrants i n d e t e n t i o n . . . . 3,117 9 4 The expenses attendant on the appoint-ment of a medical commission 130 0 0 £34,950 3 6 Disbursement of expenses f o r the medical r e l i e f of the s i c k : -B u i l d i n g s erected as h o s p i t a l s and t h e i r dependencies at Quebec and M o n t r e a l , and at Kingston and Toronto and other places at which Boards of Health were r e -cognised 20,467 16 3 The f u r n i t u r e r e q u i r e d f o r t h e i r com-o l e t i o n f o r the purposes intended. 8,321 14 0 S u b t o t a l £28,739 10 8 170 Table 9 Disbursement of expenses f o r the medical r e l i e f of the s i c k ( c o n t ' d ) : - c a r r i e d forward 28 ,789 10 8 The s a l a r i e s p a i d to the p h y s i c i a n s and a p o t h e c a r i e s . . . . . . 1 1 , 9 5 4 19 0 The attendant's pay, i n c l u d i n g t h a t of stewards, nurses, o r d e r l i e s and servants 9«339 6 6 S u b t o t a l of fees.... .£21,294 5 6 The medicines employed. 1 ,640 17 2 The medical comforts, i n c l u d i n g s p i r i t s and g r o c e r i e s 9 , 213 8 5 P r o v i s i o n s and s u p p l i e s . . . . 1 0 . 4 2 5 14 2 S u b t o t a l of s u p p l i e s £21,279 19 9 The expenses of b u r i a l 3 ,526 0 8 The expenses of the c l e r g y , Pro-t e s t a n t and Roman C a t h o l i c who c o n s t i t u t e d missions at Grosse I s l e , i n c l u d i n g t h e i r t r a v e l l i n g expenses and maintainenance 1 ,270 15 10 The care and support of t h e d e s t i t u t e orphans taken charge of by the c l e r g y , pending t h e i r adoption by p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s 2 ,458 2 8 The balance of expenditure i s made up of suras disbursed under the heads not enumerated above, such as expenses of wrecked emigrants. Removal of h o s p i t a l s and p a t i e n t s at the c l o s e of the season. Medi-c a l commissions, and f o r a r t i c l e s not c l a s s i f i e d , as m i l k , i c e , st raw, f u e l , et c 4 ,973 2 11 £83 ,591 18 0 Disbursement of expenses f o r i n l a n d t r a n s p o r t and support of emigrants:-P r o v i s i o n s 5,708 5 2 ?: L G d X C 3. X cL.J_ C l#**i» o » « : . • » # * * • • » • • * * * * * * * * * * 2^325 9 7 B u i l d i n g s 946 1 1 1 A t £ c x o ^>« » * » « « * * o 0 0 « • » • * « * * o « » » » e * » o * « 3 i X 3 £ 4 8 , 6 8 4 1 2 171 Table 9 Disbursement of expenses f o r i n l a n d t r a n s p o r t and support of emigrants, d i s t i n g u i s h e d accord-i n g to the place of disbursement:- £ s d Grosse" I s l e 9,121 14 .8 Port S t . F r a n c i s . 69 10 5 M o n t r e a l . 15,364 12 5 Bytown . 1,677 15 11 K i n g s t o n . . 9,409 4 3 Co burg and Port Hope 1,114 5 2 Toronto....... 3,468 -5 0 Hamilton 3 .069 5 0 f 43,684 1 2 172 I n the middle of the debate over the f i n a n c e s , a Canadian e l e c t i o n had been c a l l e d and d u r i n g the next two months of the campaign immigration news almost disappeared from the Canadian papers.' The e l e c t i o n , h e l d i n January, witnessed the triumph of the reform p a r t i e s i n both Upper and Lower Canada; when the r e s u l t s were known, the number of Government supporters had been reduced t o t w e n t y - f i v e , w h i l e the reform o p p o s i t i o n "had swe l l e d t o f i f t y - s i x . " 7 7 E l g i n , f a i t h f u l t o h i s b e l i e f i n r e s p o n s i b l e government, had not i n v o l v e d h i m s e l f i n the f r a y . The r e s u l t s of the e l e c t i o n had not been decided by any one i s s u e , but mainly "by the s t a t e of the times and the d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the e x i s t i n g government."7$ The stagn a t i o n o f commerce, w i t h t h e seeming c o l l a p s e o f the S t , Lawrence t r a d i n g network, and the f e a r s f o r Canada's economic f u t u r e aroused by the triumph of f r e e t r a d e i n Great B r i t a i n , a l s o played an important p a r t i n the defeat of the Government. In c o n t r a s t , the immigration of the past season had played l i t t l e p a r t i n the Govern-ment 's c o l l a p s e , d e s p i t e E l g i n ' s statement t h a t many of t h e candidates i n t h e i r addresses t o the P r o v i n c i a l c o n s t i t u e n c i e s advert t o Immigration as a grave matter on which l e g i s -l a t i o n i s c a l l e d f o r . 7 9 The candidates r e f e r r e d t o were members of both p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , No Canadian p o l i t i c i a n seemed t o f e e l t h a t Canada had been adequately served by her e x i s t i n g 173 immigration l e g i s l a t i o n ; the o n l y disagreement occurred i n the d i s c u s s i o n of the measures t o be adopted. Once the e l e c t i o n had been decided, preparations f o r the upcoming season again became a major t o p i c f o r d i s c u s s i o n . Two Montreal newspapers, La Minerve and the T r a n s c r i p t took i t upon themselves t o o f f e r suggestions concerning the steps necessary t o prevent another d i s a s -80 t r o u s immigration. Both made the point t h a t i t was not immigration which the colony was complaining about, but r a t h e r p a u p e r i z a t i o n — the abuse of the system of emi-g r a t i o n which saw the colony used as the poor-house f o r the short-comings of another country. Now, s a i d La Minerve. was the time "to look f o r the means to p r o t e c t ourselves ag a i n s t the d i s a s t r o u s e f f e c t s of an i l l - c o n s i d e r e d and m i s - d i r e c t e d e m i g r a t i o n . " However, both the T r a n s c r i p t and La Minerve r e a l i z e d t h a t the s o l u t i o n d i d not r e s t with the colony alone; the I m p e r i a l Government must take the i n i t i a t i v e . The I m p e r i a l a u t h o r i t i e s had taken an i n i t i a t i v e of s o r t s . As e a r l y as November, Grey had advised E l g i n to recommend to t h e P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e that i t pass Laws making i t i n the i n t e r e s t s o f the shipowners and brokers t o b r i n g out passen-gers i n good h e a l t h by doubling the t a x on a l l s h i p s f o r c e d by s i c k n e s s t o be put i n quarantine, and i n c r e a s i n g i t s t i l l more i f the quarantine i s prolonged,^1 I f the province acted upon t h i s suggestion and a l s o Im-174 posed an e x t r a charge upon emigrants (the o l d , women and c h i l d r e n ) who would have t o r e l y upon p u b l i c r e l i e f f o r t h e i r support, Grey f e l t t h a t the Province would have l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y meeting the burden imposed upon i t by i m m i g r a t i o n , ^ 2 Grey r e i t e r a t e d h i s suggestions i n two l a t e r communications.33 He hoped t h a t E l g i n would be able t o persuade P r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s t o f o l l o w these suggestions and pass a P r o v i n c i a l Act e f f e c t u a l f o r checking the abuses and yet not so r i g o r o u s as t o c r e a t e a remonstrance^here which would compel me t o d i s a l l o w i t . ^ E l g i n had taken note of Grey's recommendations, but no a c t i o n could be taken u n t i l the Assembly met again a f t e r the e l e c t i o n s . The defeat of the Government had complicated the s i t u a t i o n somewhat; on January 22 , E l g i n wrote t h a t the change of Government occurred at an inconvenient moment "inasmuch as i t d e f e r s l e g i s l a -t i o n , and, what i s worse, precludes me from o f f e r i n g any assurances as t o what may be the sentiment of the l o c a l Government upon I t . " ^ 5 However, on February 5^ he wrote more h o p e f u l l y ; he f e l t a b i l l on emigration which em-bodied the p r i n c i p l e s which Grey had suggested, could be passed before a new M i n i s t r y was formed,^ 6 A measure of t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n was so l o u d l y c a l l e d f o r by the Province "that the dominant Pa r t y w i l l h a r d l y , . , . venture t o o b s t r u c t i t s progress through t h e L e g i s l a -175 t u r e . ' ^ 7 E l g i n ' s assessment of the s i t u a t i o n again proved to be c o r r e c t . The Assembly met on February 2 5 t * 1 and e l e c t e d A.N. M o r i n , a member of t h e Reform P a r t y , speaker i n s t e a d of t h e Government's c h o i c e , A.N. McNab.^S i t w a s obvious t h a t Sherwood could not h o l d on t o the r e i g n s of govern-ment f o r very much l o n g e r . There were, however, some measures which r e q u i r e d immediate a t t e n t i o n (one of which was i m m i g r a t i o n ) , and the Government decided t o attempt t o o b t a i n t h e i r passage. On February 2 9 ^ , the Attorney-General f o r Canada E a s t , W i l l i a m Badgley, moved t h a t the House r e s o l v e i t s e l f i n t o a Committee of the Whole, to consider amendments t o the e x i s t i n g Indigent Emigrants Act. The Government was pressed f o r time because they wished t o have t h e i r amendments passed i n time to make the March 3 r t* s a i l i n g of the steamer t o Great B r i t a i n . ^ 9 I f t h e r e were any f u r t h e r delay, t h e B i l l would a r r i v e too l a t e to a f f e c t the f i r s t s a i l i n g s o f t h a t season. The Government's r e s o l u t i o n s , meeting w i t h l i t t l e o pposi-t i o n , ^ were h u r r i e d through the House and r e c e i v e d t h e i r f i n a l approval on March 1 s t . The p r i n c i p a l changes em-bodied i n the B i l l were:- (1) an increase i n both the amount of the immigrant t a x (from f i v e t o ten s h i l l i n g s ) and those r e q u i r e d t o pay i t ( a l l passengers i r r e s p e c -t i v e of age); (2) a graduated duty charged on each ship f o r c e d t o stop i n quarantine, which i n c r e a s e d according 176-to t h e l e n g t h of time spent i n quarantine; '(3) a doubling or t r e b l i n g of the immigrant t a x on ships a r r i v i n g a f t e r the 10 t n of September and the 1 s t of October r e s p e c t i v e l y ; and ( 4 ) a bond of twenty pounds t o be paid by the master of the s h i p f o r any of h i s passengers l i k e l y to become a p u b l i c charge (the master could s u b s t i t u t e an a d d i t i o n a l payment of f o r t y s h i l l i n g s on each emigrant f o r the bond.)^ x Grey, upon r e c e i p t of the B i l l , wrote p r i v a t e l y t o E l g i n t h a t the I m p e r i a l Government had "no thoughts of d i s a l l o w i n g i t , not at l e a s t w h i l s t t h i s season's emigra-t i o n i s proceeding, " 9 2 However, he d i d t h i n k t h a t the taxes and f i n e s which the colony proposed t o l e v y were "very high"93„ As s t a t e d e a r l i e r , the I m p e r i a l Government e v e n t u a l l y decided t o permit the colony t o e x e r c i s e f u l l c o n t r o l over i t s immigration laws and machinery i n order to r e l i e v e the I m p e r i a l Government from any f u r t h e r f i n a n -c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r the programme, Canada had achieved a f u l l y r e s p o n s i b l e p o s i t i o n i n the f i e l d of immigration. The r e v i s e d Emigrant Act was not the only step taken by the Canadian Government i n the f i e l d of immigration. On March 31 s t and A p r i l 2 2 n < * , the Executive C o u n c i l , now c o n t r o l l e d by the Baldwin-Lafontaine c o a l i t i o n , i s s u e d orders f o r the r e o r g a n i s a t i o n of the quarantine s t a t i o n . ^ 2 The establishment was enlarged, both p h y s i c a l l y and i n the numbers of i t s s t a f f , and placed under the c o n t r o l of the m i l i t a r y (who were t o e s t a b l i s h a post on the i s l a n d ) . 177 On the 1 2 t h of A p r i l , f u r t h e r orders were is s u e d by the C o u n c i l f o r the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the system of i n l a n d t ran sport at i o n . 93 ! A government-owned steamboat was placed at the d i s p o s a l of the Emigrant Agent at Quebec, to main-t a i n s e r v i c e between Grosse I s l e and Quebec. The Govern-ment was a l s o t o secure the s e r v i c e s of two v e s s e l s f o r the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of immigrants to v a r i o u s centres along Canada's waterways. A s s i s t a n c e was t o be provided to the Immigrants who had not the means to reach t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n , but agents were "to use the utmost d i l i g e n c e and care i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between the r e a l l y d e s t i t u t e Emigrants and those not i n f a c t r e q u i r i n g a s s i s t a n c e . " 9 4 The colony was now ready to face the next season. Canada had su r v i v e d the 1847 season, and f o r t u n a t e l y she was not witness another s i m i l a r to i t , The numbers which reached Canada's shores d u r i n g 184$ were much sm a l l e r ; many emigrant ships had a l t e r e d t h e i r course i n mid-A t l a n t i c upon l e a r n i n g of Canada's new l e g i s l a t i o n , and s h i p p i n g brokers refused to accept any emigrants t h a t appeared as i f they might become p u b l i c charges.9 5 Only 28 , 0 0 0 emigrants reached Canada i n 1$48 and they were much h e a l t h i e r than were the emigrants of 1$47, although many were s t i l l very poor.96 ^he t o t a l number of deaths i n the Province f r o t h e e n t i r e season was only one hundred and f i f t y , w h i l e the sum expended on r e l i e f , £12 , 5 0 0 , was f u l l y covered by the proceeds from the Immigrant Tax, ^ 7 178 Canada's r e v i s e d l e g i s l a t i o n had o b v i o u s l y f u l f i l l e d i t s purpose extremely e f f e c t i v e l y „ 9 8 The immigrants of 1847, the l a r g e s t number which the colony of Canada had r e c e i v e d i n her b r i e f h i s t o r y , a r r i v e d at what most Canadians f e l t was a most inopportune t i m e . I t appeared t o many Canadians t h a t the economic foundations of t h e i r country were on the verge of c o l l a p s e . The adop-t i o n o f a p o l i c y o f f r e e t r a d e on the part of the I m p e r i a l Government had d e a l t the colony's economy a very hard blow; many c o l o n i s t s f e l t t h a t the I m p e r i a l Government had deserted and betrayed her colony, f o r Canada's s t a p l e s trade was not immediately able t o meet the c o m p e t i t i v e challenge which f r e e t r a d e posed. The I m p e r i a l Government soon found i t s e l f blamed f o r Canada's economic t r o u b l e s . The f a u l t , however, d i d not r e s t s o l e l y w i t h B r i t a i n , although very few Canadians could be expected t o ? o r d i d r e a l i z e t h i s . The economic depression which was then a f f e c t i n g Canada was part of a world-wide c y c l i c depression;99 Canada was not alone i n her s u f f e r i n g s , but t h i s meant l i t t l e to the colony, concerned as she was w i t h her own p a r t i c u l a r problems. S t i l l , Canada's economic c o n d i t i o n had been made j u s t that much worse by the change i n I m p e r i a l p o l i c y . x 0 ( j Canada's r e l a t i o n s w i t h Great B r i t a i n o b v i o u s l y under-went very l i t t l e improvement wi t h the f i r s t a r r i v a l s of of the immigration season of 18475 here was but another .179 cross f o r the colony to bear. Not only was the magnitude of the immigration unprecedented, but also never before had the Immigrants been so diseased and d e s t i t u t e . The a r r i v a l of these large numbers of enfeebled and desti t u t e wretches placed a further s t r a i n upon both the colony's economy and her r e l a t i o n s with B r i t a i n , During 1847, a l l Canada's available resources went to provide f o r the care and support of Canada's new ' c i t i z e n s ' . The Government had been forced to stop work on certa i n public works projects which were quite advanced because the funds were needed to meet immigration e x p e n s e s . T h e colony had found i t s e l f c a l l e d upon to support a population which i t had not asked f o r and did not want. Yet, despite the complaints made to the Imperial a u t h o r i t i e s j the colony was eventually able to absorb most of the Immigration of the 1847 season. C o l o n i a l o f f i c i a l s at the l o c a l l e v e l s , with at times l i t t l e more than promises of f i n a n c i a l support from t h e i r government, had been able to e s t a b l i s h r e l i e f organizations adequate enough to prevent the disease and su f f e r i n g from getting completely out of hand, With the grumbling support of t h e i r fellow c i t i z e n s , they were able to provide s u f f i -cient assistance, both medical and f i n a n c i a l , to get the I r i s h back on t h e i r feet again and able to support them-selves,, They chose to ignore, at the height of the c r i s i s , the commands from above ordering that, no assistance be 180 a f f o r d e d t o those able to work, and were thus able t o prevent too many d e s t i t u t e but 'able-bodied' I r i s h from c o l l e c t i n g i n the l a r g e r centres by forwarding them to the d e s t i n a t i o n o f t h e i r c h o i ce. Assistance was not l i m i t e d to government agencies; many p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s a l s o stepped i n t o provide a i d t o those recognized by a l l as the h e l p l e s s — orphans and widows. In the end, the colony was able to absorb n e a r l y a l l o f the immigrants who had chosen t o remain i n Canada; the economy had proved stronger (with the eventual r e c e i p t o f the I m p e r i a l funds) than Canadians had b e l i e v e d i t was. I n f a c t , t h e r e was a labour ^shortage i n Canada throughout 1847, and once the v a r i o u s employers, both i n towns and on the farms, overcame t h e i r f e a r of i n f e c t i o n , jobs xvere r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o the I r i s h . The immigrants who, a short time ago, had been judged "as d r a i n s upon s o c i e t y " - ^ 0 2 were soon producing members of Canadian s o c i e t y . The Canadians had attempted, with much compassion, to a l l e v i a t e the s u f f e r i n g s of the I r i s h , f o r they r e a l i z e d t h a t the immigrants could not be blamed f o r the d i s a s t e r s o f 1847? i f anyone was at f a u l t i t was, Canadians decided, the I r i s h l a n d l o r d s and the B r i t i s h Government. For t h i s reason Canadian o f f i c i a l s and c i t i z e n s both demanded that the I m p e r i a l a u t h o r i t i e s pay the e n t i r e cost of the season's immigration. Canada, as a colony, had had no c o n t r o l over i t s own immigration p o l i c y ; i t was i n the 131 hands of the I m p e r i a l Government. The mishandling of the I r i s h Famine Emigration by them had r e s u l t e d i n huge r e l i e f expenditures i n Canada, and i t was only r i g h t , i n the c o l o n i s t s ' eyes, t h a t the B r i t i s h pay the c o s t s which t h e i r mistakes had i n c u r r e d . However the colony had some d i f f i c u l t y i n persuading the I m p e r i a l a u t h o r i t i e s t o accept t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the I m p e r i a l r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y ; much of the colony's u l t i m a t e success i n t h i s matter must be a t t r i b u t e d t o Governor-General E l g i n , who p e r s i s t e n t l y and admirably supported and argued the colony's case f o r n e a r l y a year. The I r i s h Famine Emigration had provided the colony v/ith a v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t i n t o i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p with the I m p e r i a l G o v e r n m e n t a s well, as i t s own a b i l i t y to cope v/ith a c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n . In 1847, Canada had run up agai n s t a B r i t i s h Government which was attempting t o solve i t s I r i s h problem almost at the expense of one of i t s c o l o n i e s . In an area o f great importance t o a young colony, t h a t of immigration, Canadians suddenly r e a l i z e d t h a t they e x e r c i s e d no c o n t r o l and, at a time of what they b e l i e v e d t o be, and was t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , economic depr e s s i o n , here were the a u t h o r i t i e s who were supposed t o have t h e i r best i n t e r e s t s at heart r e l i e v i n g d i s t r e s s at home by sending i t t o the colony under o f t e n the most inhuman c o n d i t i o n s . Canada's p o s i t i o n as a colony was, under these circumstances, questioned and the r e s u l t a n t debate became more f i e r c e as the I m p e r i a l a u t h o r i t i e s continued t o deny t h a t they had any but the most minor r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o the colony under the circumstances. F o r t u n a t e l y f o r both Canada and B r i t a i n , the highest I m p e r i a l o f f i c i a l i n Canada, Lord E l g i n , recognized the j u s t i c e o f the Canadian claims and was e v e n t u a l l y able t o persuade B r i t a i n t o recognize i t as w e l l . With E l g i n ' s h e l p , Canada was a b l e to take an important step along the road t o self-government. The colony gained complete c o n t r o l over her own immigration p o l i c y , and once i n c o n t r o l , she took immediate steps t o ensure t h a t the d i s a s t e r s of 1847 would not be repeated. Canada had been a b l e , i n the end, t o make the best of a very bad s i t u a t i o n . At the height o f t h e c r i s i s , she had done ev e r y t h i n g w i t h i n her power t o r e l i e v e the d i s -t r e s s and s u f f e r i n g s of the I r i s h immigrants, and had been a b l e , although at great cost both t o the colony and t o the immigrants themselves, t o r e s t o r e them to a s t a t e which would a l l o w them t o become producing members o f society,, Given the p o l i t i c a l philosophy o f t h e time and the c o n d i t i o n of I r e l a n d , the d i s a s t e r s o f 1847 had been unavoidable, but at l e a s t Canada had l e a r n e d from her experiences. The Famine Emigration o f 1847 had provided a l e s s o n that was not q u i c k l y f o r g o t t e n . 183 FOOTNOTES -^Canada, S t a t e Books, V o l . G, November 17, 1847, pp. 603-04. 2 I b i d . , November 24, 1847, p. 630 and November 26, 1347, p. 642 and p. 651. ^This was a s l i g h t exaggeration on E l g i n ' s p a r t . ^Doughty, ed., Elgin-Grey Papers. V o l . I, pp. 79-80. E l g i n t o Grey, November 18, 1847. 5cowan, B r i t i s h E m i g r a t i o n , p. I 8 5 . ^ C i t e d i n Doughty, ed., Elgin-Grey Papers, Vol.. I , p. 33. E l g i n to Grey,' November 1 2 , 1847. ? C i t e d In Doughty, ed., Elgin-Grey Papers, V o l . I, p. 33. E l g i n to Grey, November 12, 1847. ^Papers r e l a t i v e t o emigration, H.C, 1847-8 (50), V o l . XLVII, "pT~20. Report o f A'.B. Hawke, October 16, 1847. 9when the f i n a l r e t u r n s were i n , Hawke's e s t i m a t i o n o f the numbers proceeding t o the United S t a t e s proved to be much too s m a l l . See below, p. •^Papers r e l a t i v e t o emigr a t i o n , H.C, 1847-8 (50) , V o l . XLVII, p. 20. Report o f A.B. Hav/ke, October 16, I847. 1 "i — ^ I b i d , , p. 19. Report of A.B. Hawke, September 20, 1847. •'-"-Doughty, ed., El g i n - G r e y Papers, V o l , I , p. 1 0 3 . E l g i n to Grey, December 2 4 , 1847. l?Papers r e l a t i v e t o emigration, H.C, 1847-8 (50), V o i , XLVrrpp. 20. Report o f A.B. Hawke, October 16, 1847. 3 - ^ 1 bid., p. 20. 1 5 I b i d . , p. 20. •^Papers r e l a t i v e t o emigr a t i o n , H.C, 1$48 (932), V o l XLVII, pp. 3-7. E x t r a c t of a Report o f the Committee of the Executive C o u n c i l on Matters o f S t a t e , December 8,• 1847. 184 1 7 P a p e r s r e l a t i v e t o emig r a t i o n . H.C, I848 (932) , • V o l . XLVIT, p. 4 . E x t r a c t of a Report of the Coramittee of the E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l on H a t t e r s of S t a t e , December 8 , 1847. 1 8 I b i d . , p. 5. ^ I b i d . , p. 7. 2 0 S e e Table 3. The p r a c t i c a l suggestions were:- (1) an a d d i t i o n to the emigrant t a x to be paid by the s h i p ; (2) increased accommodations f o r emigrants, one passenger f o r every fourteen f e e t of deck; (3) no more than two t i e r s of berths of s i x f e e t i n leng t h by eighteen inches i n width; and (4) the compelling of each v e s s e l c a r r y i n g more than one hundred passengers t o be provided w i t h a medical a t t e n dant. Papers r e l a t i v e to em i g r a t i o n , H.C, 1848 (932) , V o l . XTVII, p. 7 . E x t r a c t of a Report o f the Committee of t h e Executive C o u n c i l on Matters o f S t a t e , December 8 , 1847. ^ M o n t r e a l T r a n s c r i p t , January 2 2 , I 848 . 2 3 l b i d . , January 29 , I 8 4 8 . 2^Toronto Globe, February 2 , I 8 4 8 . The meeting was held on February 1 , 1848. 25see Table 4. --^Papers r e l a t i v e to em i g r a t i o n , H.C, I848 (932) , V o l . XLVII, p. 22 . Enclosure i n E l g i n t o Grey, February 19 I 8 4 8 . . 2 7 X b i d . , p. 22 . 2 8 T o r o n t o Globe, February 2 , 184S. 2 9Ibid», February 2 , 1848. 3 0 I b i d . , February 2 , I 8 4 8 . 3 1Papers r e l a t i v e t o em i g r a t i o n , H.C, I848 (932) , V o l . XLVIT7 op. 2 1 - 2 . Enclosure i n E l g i n to Grev, February 1848. 135 3 2papers r e l a t i v e t o emigration,, H.C, I848 ( 9 6 4 ) , V o l . X L V I l , pp. 12-31. A.C Buchanan Annual Report, March 1, 1348. •" 3 3 I b i d . , p. 16. 34see Table 5 . 35see Table 5 . •^^sdwards and W i l l i a m s , eds., The Great Famine, pp. 4 - 6 . 37see Table 5 . 38papers r e l a t i v e to emigr a t i o n , H.C, 1847-3 ( 5 0 ) , V o l . XLVIT; p. 21, Report of A.B. Hawke, October 16, 1347, 3 9 S e e Tables 6 and 9. >°See Table 7. 4 l S e e Table 3„ ;+2See Table 5 . ^ P a p e r s r e l a t i v e to emigration, H.C, I 8 4 8 ( 9 6 4 ) , V o l , XLVI 'IT P . 15. Annual Report of A.C Buchanan, March 1, 1343, ^ I b i d . , p. 15. 4 5 Iild»» P- 15. ^ I b i d . , p. 19. ''•^Doughty, ed., Elgin-Grey Papers, V o l . I, pp, 63-4» E l g i n to Grey, August 13, 1847. ^ I b i d . » pp. 64-5. E l g i n t o Grey, August 13, 1847, ^9Keep, "The I r i s h M i g r a t i o n , " pp. 39-40. 5°Canada, St a t e Books, Volume G, August 20, 1847, pp. 302-03, ^ i T b i d . , August 2 3 , 1847, pp. 310-12. 52-xbid., August 2 3 , 1347, p. 311. 186 ^Canada, State Books. Vols. G and H, passim. •54Doughty, ed., Elgin-Grey Papers, Vol. I, p. 69. Elgin to Grey, September 14, 1847. ^Papers relative to emigration. H.C, 1847-8 (50), Vol. XLVII, p. 1 3 . Grey to Elgin, October 4, 1847. ^Canada, state Books,Volume G, October 4, 1847. pp. 478-79. : ' 57lbid. t P. 480. 58ibid., p. 480. 59papers relative to emigration. H.C, 1847-8 ( 50), Vol, XLVII, p. 18. Grey to Elgin, November 3, 1847. 6 Q I b i d . , p. 18, 6 1Papers relative to emigration. H.C, I848 (932), Vol. XLVIT, p. 2. Enclosure in Elgin to Grey, November 20. 1847. 6 2 I b i d . , p. 2. 63pa,pers relative to emigration. H.C, I848 (932), Vol. XLVII, p. 3. Grey to Elgin, January 6, I848. 64papers relative to emigration. H.C, 1848 (932), Vol. XLVII, p. 12, Elgin to Grey, December 8, 1847. 6 5 i b i d . , p„ 12. 6 6 I b i d . , p. 12. 67ooughty, ed, Elgin-Grey Papers. Vol. I, p. 116. Grey to Elgin, January 28, 1848; s&Zk±£>> P. 116. 69?apers relative to emigration, H.C, I848 (932), Vol. XLV1T7 p. 31. Enclosure in Elgin to Grey, March 17, 1848, . 7°Ibid., p. 31. 7lDoughty, ed., Elgin-Grey Papers. Vol. I, pp. 128-9, Elgin to Grey, March 2, I 8 4 8 . 187 ? 2 S e e below, p.. 174. 73p apers r e l a t i v e t o emigration. H.C., 1848 ( 9 3 2 ) , V o l . XLVII, p. 34. Grey t o E l g i n , A p r i l . 1 4 , 1848. ^ P a p e r s r e l a t i v e to e m i g r a t i o n , H.C, I848 ( 9 6 4 ) , V o l . X L V I I , pp. 3 2 - 3 ..Enclosure i n E l g i n t o Grey, May 3 , I 8 4 8 . ' ;Papers r e l a t i v e t o e m i g r a t i o n , H.C, 1848 ( 9 6 4 ) , V o l X LVII, p. 19. Annual Report of A.C. Buchanan, March.31, 1843. 7 6 j . Monet, The Last Cannon Shot, A Study of French  Canadian N a t i o n a l i s m 1837-50 (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1969), p. 263. 77p.G. C o r n e l l , The alignment of p o l i t i c a l groups  i n Canada, I 8 4 I - 6 7 (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1962), p. 100. 7 8 C a r e l e s s , The Union of the Canadas, p. 113. ^Doughty, ed., Elg i n - G r e y Papers, V o l . I , p„ 103. E l g i n t o Grey, December 24, 1847. 8 % l o n t r e a l T r a n s c r i p t ^ F e b r u a r y 3 , 1843 and La Minerve, February 7, IS48T •Doughty, ed., Elgin-Grey Papers, V o l . I , p. 79. Grey t o E l g i n , November 18, 1847. 8 2 I b i d , , p. 79. 83Doughty, ed., Elgin-Grey Papers, V o l . I , p. 103. Grey t o E l g i n , December 3 , 1847 and V o l . IV, pp. 1318-23. Grey t o E l g i n , December 1, 1847. 84Doughty, ed., Elgin-Grey Papers, V o l . I , p. 103. Grey t o E l g i n , December 3 , 1847. fir "-'Doughty, ed., Elgin-Grey Papers, V o l . I , p. 119. E l g i n t o Grey, January "22, 1848. ' ^Doughty, ed., E l g i n - G r e y Papers, V o l . I , p. 122. E l g i n to Grey, February 5, 1848. u ' I b i d ^ , p. 122. 188 0 5 C a r e l e s s , The Union of the Canadas, p. 119. ^%'lo.ntreal T r a n s c r i p t , March 6 , 1348. 90.1 b i d . , March 6 , 1848. 93-ibid., March 21, 1348. 9 2Doughty, ed., Elg i n - G r e y Papers, V o l . I , p. 132. Grey t o E l g i n , A p r i l 7, 1848. 9 3 I b i d . , p. 1 3 3 . 92 fCanada, State Books, Volume H, March 31, 1843, pp. 3 54-6 and A p r i l 22, 1848, pp. 3 9 2 - 4 . 9 3 " i b i d . , A p r i l 12, 1343, pp. 370-2. 94 i b i d . , A p r i l 12, 1343, p. 3 7 2 . 95Edwards and W i l l i a m s , eds.. The Great Famine, p. 3 7 5 . 9 6 l b i r i , , p. 374. 97ibid,, p. 3 7 4 . 93por the f i r s t time i n the h i s t o r y of the emigrant t r a f f i c , i t cost more t o t r a v e l by streeage t o Canada than to the United. S t a t e s . Edwards and W i l l i a m s , eds., The Great Famine, p. 485, n. 18. 99Tucker, Commercial R e v o l u t i o n , p. 158. l O O l b i d . , pp. 1 5 8 - 9 . l°lDoughty, edo, Elgin-Grey Papers, V o l . I , p. 102. E l g i n to Grey, December 9 , 1847. 1 0 2 M o n t r e a l T r a n s c r i p t , January 28, 1 8 4 8 . BIBLIOGRAPHY 139 GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS 1. Canada Appendix to t h e S i x t h Volume of the J o u r n a l s of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly of the Province o f Canada, Montreal: R o l l o Campbell, 1847. IN Canada. S t a t e Books. V o l s . F, G, H. Q s A ^ U ^ ^ ^ * ^ J o u r n a l s of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly of Canada. V o l . V I I . M o n t r e a l ! R o l l o Campbell, 1848. 2« Great B r i t a i n Great B r i t a i n . General Reports from the C o l o n i a l Land and  Emigration Commissioners. H.C. 1846 (706), V o l . XXIV. . General Reports from the C o l o n i a l Land and Emigration Commissioners. H.C. 1847 (809), V o l . XXXIII. mi_ . General Reports fronythe C o l o n i a l Land and Emigration Commissioners. H.C. 1848 (961), V o l . XXVI. Hansard's Parliamentary Debates. 3d s e r i e s . Great B r i t a i n , Papers r e l a t i v e to emigration t o the B r i t i s h c o l o n i e s in"North America. K.C. 1847 (771). V o l . XXXIX. . Papers r e l a t i v e t o emigration to the B r i t i s h " c o lonies'"in North America. H.C. 1847-8 (50), V o l . XLVII. . „ Papers r e l a t i v e t o emigra t i o n to the B r i t i s h cl^IoHIeT-'in^orth America, H.C. 1&48 (932). V o l . XLVII. _ , Papers r e l a t i v e t o emigration to the B r i t i s h c o l o n i e s ^ i n " N o r t h America* H.C. 1848 (964). V o l . XLVII. , F i r s t Report from, t h e l o r d s s e l e c t committee on c o l o n i z a t i o n from I r e l a n d . H.C. 1847-8 ( 4 1 5 ) , V o l . X V T I 7 190 NEWSPAPERS The Globe (Toronto). La Minerve, J o u r n a l P o l i t i q u e , L i t e r a i r e , A g r i c o l e , Commer- c i a l and D'Annonces. (Mo n t r e a l ) . : Montreal T r a n s c r i p t and Commercial A d v e r t i s e r . The Morning C h r o n i c l e (Quebec). PUBLISHED MEMOIRS, DOCUMENTS AND CORRESPONDENCE. A C i t i z e n (Oscar Dunn). Thoughts on Em i g r a t i o n , Education,  e t c . , In a L e t t e r addressed to the Rt. Hon. Lord John R u s s e l l , Prime M i n i s t e r of England. Montreal: J . Becket iwr. 1 — . Doughty, S i r Arthur J . , ed. The Elgin-Grey Papers 1846-52. Ottawa: King's Printer', T937, 4 v o l s . F e r r i e , Adam, L e t t e r t o the Rt. Hon. E a r l Grey, one o f Her ^ a j e s t y ' s Most Hon. P r i v y C o u n c i l , and Secr e t a r y of "State f o r C o l o n i a l A f f a i r s " ' Embracing a Statement of Tacts"""in "Relation t o Emigration t o Canada during the summer of"T8"47. Montreal": the o f f i c e s of The P i l o t , 1847". : : Gooch, G.P., ed 0 The L a t e r Correspondence o f Lord John R u s s e l l 1840-78. London: Longmans, 1925, 2 v o l s . Mountain, Armine W. A Memoir of George Jehosophat Mountain, D.D,D,»C »L.Late Bishop of Quebec. Montreal: John . L o v e l l , Xo66". ' Walrond, Theodore, ed. L e t t e r s and J o u r n a l s of James Bruce, Eighth Earl of E l g i n , London: John Murray. 1872. Wilson, John* "The C r u e l Years: R e c o l l e c t i o n s of the I r i s h Emigration o f 1847." Douglas L i b r a r y Notes, V o l . X I I (autumn, 1 9 6 3 ) , pp. 4-8. ~ 191 OTHER CONTEMPORARY PRINTED SOURCES 1. Books Davin, N i c h o l a s F l o o d . The Irishman i n Canada. Toronto: M a c l e a r , 1877. Grey, E a r l . The C o l o n i a l P o l i c y of L. John R u s s e l l ' s Ad- m i n i s t r a t i o n . London: Rich a r d Bentley, 1853, 2 . v o l s . Maguire, John F. The I r i s h i n America. New York: D. and J . Sa d l e r , 1868. Whyte, Robert. The Ocean Plague: o r , A Voyage t o Quebec  i n an I r i s h Emigrant V e s s e l . Boston:.Coolidge and Wiley, 1848T" 2 , Pamphlets, Anonymous. I r i s h Emigration to Canada. Pamphlet Addressed to F i r s t Lord of Treasury, Hon. Lord John R u s s e l l . County S l i g o , 23 March 1847. C o l o n i a l Land and Emigration Commissioners. C o l o n i z a t i o n C i r c u l a r No. 7. March, 1847. L i n t o n , John J.E. Remarks f o r Emigrants. London: Marchant Singer, 1847. Macdougall, P.L. Emigration; i t s advantages to Great B r i t a i n and Her C o l o n i e s . "London: T.W. Boone, 1848. S t . Leger Alcock, Major T. Obsevations on the Poor R e l i e f B i l l f o r I r e l a n d , and i t s bearing on the important sub.jccT of 'Emigration. London: James Ridgeway, 1847. Widder, Fred. Information f o r Intending Emigrants of a l l classes t o Upper Canada. Toronto: Scobie and B a l f o u r , 18507 3 * P e r i o d i c a l s Anonymous. "Measures f o r I r e l a n d ( d e a l i n g with the Famine and r e l i e f measures)." Dublin U n i v e r s i t y Magazine, Vol., XXIX (January-June, 1847), PP. 656-74. 192 B r i t i s h American Journal of Medical and Phvsical Science. V o l . . I l l , 1847-48. Trevelyan, C E . "The I r i s h C r i s i s . " The Edinburgh Review, Vo l . LXXXVII (January-April, 1848), pp. 229-320. SECONDARY SOURCES 1. Books Adams, W.F. Ireland and I r i s h Emigration to the New World  from 1815 to the Famine. New York: Russell and Rus s e l l , Bodelsen, C A . Studies i n Mid-Victorian Imperialism. Oslo: Scandinavian University Books, i 9 6 0 . Burroughs, Peter, ed. The C o l o n i a l Reformers and Canada,  1830-49« Selections from Documents and Publications  of the Times. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1969. Careless, J.M.S. The Union of the'Canadas. The Growth of  Canadian I n s t i t u t i o n s 1841-57. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1967. ' Carrothers, W.A. Emigration from the B r i t i s h I s l e s with Special Reference to the Development of the Overseas Dominions. London: P.S. King, 1929. C e l l , John W» B r i t i s h Administration i h the Mid-Nineteenth Century: The Po l i c y Making Process. New Haven and Lon-Hon: Yale University Press, 1970. Coleman, Terry. Passage to America. A History of emigrants  from Great B r i t a i n to America i n the mid-nineteenth century."London: Hutchinson, 1972. Connell, K.H. The Population of Ireland 1750-1845* Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1950. . Cooper, John I. Montreal, the Story of Three Hundred Years. Montreal: L'Imprimerie de Lamirande, 1942. Co r n e l l , Paul G. The alignment of p o l i t i c a l groups i n Canada, 1341-67. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, I W 7 ~ Cowan, Helen I. B r i t i s h Emigration to B r i t i s h North America. The F i r s t One"Hundred Years, revised and enlarged ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1961. Edwards, R.D. and Williams, T.D., eds. The Great Famine: 193 Studies i n I r i s h H i s t o r y 1846 - 5 2 . Dublin: Browne and Nolan, 1956o G u i l l e t , E.G. Toronto from Trading. Post t o Great C i t y . Toronto: Ontario P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1934. H a n d l i n , 0. Boston's Immigrants. A Study i n A c c u l t u r a t i o n . New York": Atheneum, 1969. Hitchen's, Fred H. The C o l o n i a l Land and Emigration Commis- • s i o n . P h i l a d e l p h i a : U n i v e r s i t y of Pennsylvania P r e s s , T93T, J e n k i n s , Kathleen. M o n t r e a l . I s l a n d C i t y o f t h e S t . Latf- rence. Garden C i t y , N.Y.: Doubleday, 1966. John.son, S .C . A H i s t o r y of Emigration from the U n i t e d  Kingdom to North America 17o3-1912. London: Frank Cass, 1966. Jordan, J.A. The Grosse I s l e Tragedy and the Monument to the I r i s h Fever V i c t i m s of 1847. Quebec: Telegraph P r i n t i n g Company, 1909. K e s t e r t o n , W.H. A H i s t o r y of J o u r n a l i s m i n Canada. Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1967, Macdonagh, O l i v e r . A P a t t e r n o f Government Growth 1800-60. The Passenger Acts and T h e i r Enforcement. London: MaGIbbon and Kee, I96TT Macdonald, Norman. Canada, 1763-1841. Immigration and Settlement. The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e I m p e r i a l Land .Regulations, New York, London, and Toronto: Longmans, 1939. " • • " _ . Canada: Immigration and C o l o n i z a t i o n " ~ ~ T E 4 : 1 7 T 9 T J 3 . Aberdeen: Aberdeen U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 19o6. Mon e t , J a c ques. The Last Cannon Shot, a Study of French Canadian N a t i o n a l i s m 1837-50. Toronto:. U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1969. Roberts, L e s l i e . M o n t r e a l , From M i s s i o n Colony to World C i t y . Toronto: Macmillan, 1969. Shannon, W i l l i a m V, The American I r i s h . New York: M a c m i l l a n , 1963, : ; Tucker, G.M. The Canadian Commercial R e v o l u t i o n 1845-51.-Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1964. 194 Wade, Mason,, The French Canadians 1760-1945. Toronto: M a c m i l l a n , 19 55. Woodham-Smith, C e c i l . The Great Hunger: I r e l a n d 1845-49. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1962. 2. P e r i o d i c a l s Browne, Rev. P.W. "An aftermath o f f 4 7 . " I r i s h Monthly, V o l . L X I I (October, 1934), PP. 613-21. Cooper, John I . " I r i s h Immigration and the Canadian Church before the middle of the nineteenth century." The  J o u r n a l of the Canadian Church H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , V o l . I I (May, 1955) pp. 1-20. Cousens, S.H. "The Regional P a t t e r n of Emigration during the Great I r i s h Famine, 1846-51." The I n s t i t u t e of  of B r i t i s h Geographers - Transactions and Papers 1960<, No. 28 (1959-60), pp. 119-34. • ~ Duncan, Kenneth, " I r i s h Famine Immigration and the S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e o f Canada. West." The Canadian Review of  Sociology and Anthropology, V o l . I I (February, 1965), pp. 19-40. -Gallagher,, Rev. J.A. "The I r i s h Emigration o f 1347 and i t s Canadian consequences." The Canadian C a t h o l i c H i s t o r i - c a l A s s o c i a t i o n Report 1935-36,(1934-381 pp. 43-56. Keep, G.R.G. "The I r i s h adjustment i n M o n t r e a l . " Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review, V o l . XXXI (March, 1950), pp. 39-46.^ . "The I r i s h Congregations i n Montr e a l . " I r i s h S c c I e i T a s tical Record (December, 1950), pp. 501-08"^ Macdonagh, O l i v e r . "The I r i s h C a t h o l i c C l e r g y and Emigration duri n g the Great Famine." I r i s h H i s t o r i c a l S t u d i e s , V o l . V (1946-47). pp. 237-302, . "Emigration and the S t a t e 1333-55. An essay ItT a d m i n i s t r a t i v e h i s t o r y . " Transactions of the Royal H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , F i f t h s e r i e s , V o l . V (1955), pp, 133-59. . "The r e g u l a t i o n of the emigrant t r a f f i c i n the United Kingdom, 1842-55,'r I r i s h H i s t o r i c a l S t u d i e s , V o l . - I X (1954-55), pp. 162-89, ~ 195 M i l l s , G.H.3. "Lord E l g i n and the Montreal Press." Back- woods Magazine. V o l . CCLXXXVI (September, 1959), op. 236-46T Morehouse, F. "The I r i s h M i g r a t i o n of the ' F o r t i e s . " American H i s t o r i c a l Review, V o l . XXXIII ( A p r i l , 1928), pp. 579-92. O ' R e i l l y , Rev. J.B. "The I r i s h Famine and the A t l a n t i c M i g r a t i o n to Canada." I r i s h E c c l e s i a s t i c a l Record'. V o l . LXIX (October, 1947), pp. 870-82. [ Sheehy, Rev. Brother Memorian. "The I r i s h i n Quebec." The  Canadian C a t h o l i c H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n 1943-44-(1943-45), pp. 35-47. : S t o c k l e y , W.F.P. "The I r i s h dead by the S t . Lawrence." The  Capuchin Annual (1935), pp. 234-37. Tucker, G. "The I r i s h Famine Immigrants t o Canada, 1347." American H i s t o r i c a l Review, V o l . XXXVI ( A p r i l , 1931), PP. 533-49. 3• Works of Reference Fee, Norman, Catalogue o f Pamphlets, J o u r n a l s and Reports  i n the P u b l i c A r c h i ves of Canada, 1611-1867. 2d ed. Ottawa : King's P r i n t e r , 1916. P a r k e r , David. A Guide to the Documents i n the Manuscripts Room at the P u b l i c Archives of Canada. Ottawa: King's F r i n t e r , 1914. Rose, G. Maclean, ed. A Cyclopedia o f Canadian Biography:  Being C h i e f l y the men of the time, Toronto: Rose P u b l i s h i n g , 1886, Rose, J.H,, Newton, A.P. and Benians, E.A., eds. The Cam-bridge H i s t o r y of the B r i t i s h Empire, V o l . I I : The Growth of the New Empire 1783-1870. Cambridge: Cambridge T i n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961. Wallace, W.S., ed. D i c t i o n a r y of Canadian Biography. 2d ed, r e v i s e d and enlarged, Toronto: Macmillan, 1945. 196 4, Maps DeVolpi, Charles P., ed. Quebec Recueil •Iconographique. Grayures historique et illustrations relatives a "la "ville de Quebec ^  Province de Quebec, Canada 1608-1875,* trans, J . Bazin. Toronto: Longman, 1971. DeVolpi, Charles P. and Winkworth, P.S., eds. Montreal  Recueil Iconographique, Gravures historiques et  illustrations relatives a l a v i l l e de Montreal,  Province de Quebec, Canada 1535-1885, V o l . l l Montreal: Dev-Sco, 1963. West, Bruce. Toronto. Toronto: Doubleday, 1967. 5. Theses Keep, G.R.C. "The I r i s h M i g r a t i o n t o Montreal 1847-67." • Unpublished M.A. t h e s i s : M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1943. Lyne, D a n i e l Coleman. "The I r i s h i n the Province of Canada i n the decade l e a d i n g t o Confederation." Unpublished M.A. t h e s i s : M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , I960. 

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